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Proceedings at New Haven, October, 18*10. lxxxv 

Proceedings at New Haven, October 20th and 21st, 1870. 

The Society assembled, as notified, at New Haven, on Thurs- 
day, Oct. 20th, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the President in the 
chair. The minutes of the annual meeting in May last were read 
by the Recording Secretary. The Committee of Arrangements 
communicated an invitation from Mr. Van Name, Librarian of 
Yale College, to a social gathering at his house in the evening ; 
which was, upon motion, accepted with thanks. 

From the Directors, notice was given that the next meeting 
would be held in Boston, on the 17th of May, 1871, and that Rev. 
Dr. Anderson, with the Recording and Corresponding Secretaries, 
was appointed a Committee of Arrangements for it. Also the 
names of the following gentlemen were reported, with the recom- 
mendation that they be elected as Corporate Members : — 

Rev. John Anderson, of Waterbury, Conn. 
Prof. John Avery, of Grinnell, Iowa. 
Prof. George F. Comfort, of New York. 
Mr. Alexander Meyrowitz, do. 

Mr. Frederick Stengel, do. 

Mr. Edward C. Taintor, of China. 

The recommendation was adopted, and the gentlemen elected. 

The Corresponding Secretary read extracts from the correspon- 
dence of the half-year. In presenting notes of excuse from seve- 
ral gentlemen, variously prevented from being present at the meet- 
ing, he also took occasion to refer to the unwonted absence of 
Prof. Salisbury, who had recently gone to spend the winter, and 
perhaps a longer time, in Europe. It was added, as a fact inter- 
esting and important to all students in this department in Amer- 
ica, that Prof. Salisbury had, before leaving, presented to the 
library of Yale College in New Haven his whole collection of Ori- 
ental and philological books and manuscripts, comprising several 
thousand volumes, many of them of great cost and value, and had 
made liberal provision for completing the collection by further 
purchase. So large and generous a gift had rarely been made to 
an American library, or so rich a body of material for study in 
this department been thrown open at once to the public. 

A letter from Rev. James Summers, dated London, August 5th, 
1870, speaks of a magazine for Chinese and Japanese literature, 
which he was about commencing to publish in London, and ex- 
presses the hope that both encouragement and assistance may be 
obtained for it from America, whose interest in the affairs of that 
part of the world is so great, and which has done so much, by lit- 
erature and diplomacy, to open it to the knowledge of the West. 
Mr. Summers is cataloguing the Chinese and Tibetan treasures of 
the India Office library in London, brought forth to light by the 


lxxxvi American Oriental Society: 

energy of the late librarian, Prof. Fitz-Edward Hall. The first 
two numbers of the magazine referred to, the " Phosnix," more 
recently received, were exhibited to the members present and ex- 
amined by them. 

Letters from Rev. Mr. Ward, of New York, announce a dona- 
tion made through him to the Society's collections, by the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund Society of London, of a set of the full-size 
photographs of the impressions in soft paper taken from the Moa- 
fcite inscription-stone of King Mesha, and of plaster casts of a 
number of the smaller fragments of the stone, colored in close imi- 
tation of the original. The photographs and casts were shown 
and described by Mr. Ward, who was present ; besides clearing 
up one and another point, of greater or less consequence, in the 
reading, they proved in a striking manner the faithfulness and skill 
with which M. Ganneau's first copies of the inscription had been 

Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Newtonville, Mass., sent a copy of an en- 
graving, just made, of a Japanese " symbolical seal, or armorial 
bearing, whose lines are legally established symbols, to be inter- 
preted, like those of our heraldic escutcheons, according to fixed 
rules, guarded from infringement by severe laws." 

Prof. Weber, of Berlin, under date of Sept. 29th, 1870, writes 
of the then approaching celebration (Oct. 2d) of the 25-year anni- 
versary of the German Oriental Society, and of the medal which 
was to be presented, struck in gold, to the first four managers of 
the Society's affairs, Professors Brockhaus, Fleischer, Pott, and 
Rodiger (of whom three are Honorary Members of our own Soci- 
ety). A copy of the medal in bronze was shown to the members 
present ; the obverse represents " a powerful male figure, as em- 
blem of the ancient Orient, resting upon a lion under a palm-tree, 
and raising himself as if awaking. His face, unveiled by a Genius, 
he turns toward the light, with which German science, as a Ger- 
mania crowned with oak-leaves, approaches him." The following 
distich gives the simple meaning of the symbol : 

Licht und lebendiges Wort kam einst den Deutschen vom Aufgang ; 
Dankend erstatten sie heut', was sie empfangen, zuriick. 

Prof. Weber is occupied with a (transliterated) edition of the 
Taittiriya-Sanhita, of which a considerable part is ready for the 

Dr. John Muir, under date of Edinburgh, June 1st, 1870, writes : 

"The fifth volume of my Original Sanskrit Texts ["Contributions to a knowl- 
edge of the cosmogony, mythology, religious ideas, life and manners of the Indians 
in the Vedic Age "] is ready, and may, I hope, reach you about the time this let- 
ter does. 

" Miiller is reprinting his Sanskrit grammar, and printing his lectures preliminary 
to the study of the science of religions, in successive numbers of Fraser's Maga- 
zine. He says his second volume of the translation of the Rig- Veda will be on 
the same plan as the first — much annotation, and few whole hymns translated : 
when it is to come out, I do not know. Aufrecht hopes to begin to print his glos- 
sary to the Rig- Veda in August or September. Monier "Williams has advanced as 
far as the letter r with his Sanskrit-English dictionary." 

Proceedings at New Haven, October, 1 870. lxxxvii 

Communications were then presented, as follows: 

1. On the Karen Inscription-plate, by Rev. Alonzo Bunker, Mis- 
sionary of the A. B. M. TJ. in Farther India. 

Mr. Bunker describes his visit, in company with Rev. Mr. Vinton, to the village 
of Kai pho-gyee, chief of "Western Karenee, on the Salwen river, twelve days' 
journey east from Toungoo. One of the main objects of his expedition was to 
obtain a sight, and if possible a copy, of the celebrated Plate (see these Proceedings 
for Oct.. 1 866, p. xii., and for May, 1870, pp. lxxv-vi). This, however, he found 
it very difficult to accomplish, as the possession of the Plate is the chief's main 
title to authority and source of revenue, and the article is kept as sacred, and in- 
vested with great mystery and formidable power. A few days of careful diplo- 
macy, however, secured the consent of the chief and head-men to its being exam- 
ined and even copied, although the taking of an impression in wax, for which pre- 
paration had been made, was forbidden. Mr. Bunker encloses his original copy, 
which it is proposed to reproduce in lithograph in the forthcoming Part of the So- 
ciety's Journal. The chief denied having any ivory plates, but there is no doubt 
that he possesses such, and Mr. Bunker hopes on a future visit to obtain sight of 

2. On the Talmud, by Dr. Alexander Meyrowitz, of New York. 

Dr. Meyrowitz gave a brief statement of the principal facts in the history of 
the Talmud, and described its character, reading by way of illustration a number 
of passages, in translation. 

3. On Greek Pronunciation, by Prof. Lewis R. Packard, of 
New Haven. 

There are three principal theories of Greek pronunciation: that we should pro- 
nounce the language as the ancients did, or each nation according to the rules of 
its own language, or as the modern Greeks do. 

The main objection to the first is that it is practically impossible to discover 
what the sounds of the language at any given period in antiquity were, with cer- 
tainty and precision. In attempting to do so, we must rely chiefly on written 
testimony, which cannot accurately convey an idea of sound. 

The objections to the second system are that it produces confusion and variety 
where uniformity is desirable, that it applies modern sounds to an ancient language 
in disregard of the effects of time and of difference of race upon sounds, and, for 
the speakers of English, that it forces upon Greek the laws of a language abnor- 
mally irregular in its pronunciation. It also increases the difficulty of teaching the 
principles of etymology, and deprives the student of the benefit of learning a pro- 
nunciation different from that of his own language and having in itself a historical 
and scientific value. 

For the third system there are no valid arguments to be urged. The fact that 
the modern Greeks give a certain sound to a given character by no means proves 
that the ancient Greeks did the same, or that modern scholars need do so. The 
increased facility of communicating with the modern Greeks is of no weight as an 
argument, because there is so little occasion for such communication, and because 
so much besides the pronunciation must be learned to make it possible. When we 
examine the particular features of this pronunciation, we find no early authority 
for it, and no support in the structure of the language. The modern sound of r/, 
for instance, as ee, has no early evidence for itself, and the facts of the language 
testify against it. 

When then we wish to decide how we should pronounce the language, we 
should consider first the use we make of it. We use it purely for scientific and 
educational purposes. Hence we should settle upon a system upon scientific 
grounds alone, not laying too much stress upon an exact determination of precisely 
how the ancient Greeks at any given time pronounced their words. Such a sys- 
tem could be settled with substantial agreement by philological scholars. It would 
give to the vowels the Italian sounds, distinguishing quantity by the time used in 
utterance. In the diphthongs it would give effect to each of the two elements, 
combining them as nearly as possible into one sound. It would give to the conso- 

lxxxviii American Oriental Society: 

nants the sounds which the corresponding characters in English have, regarding <j> 
as the equivalent of /, i? of th surd. Only % would have the sound of the German 
ch. This system would be less objectionable and more useful in a scientific and 
educational point of view than any other. 

A brief discussion followed the reading of this paper, after 
which the Society adjourned for the day, and the remaining com- 
munications were presented at the session of Friday forenoon. 

4. Thirteen inedited Letters from Sir William Jones to Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Charles Wilkins, communicated by Prof. Fitz- 
Edward Hall, D. C. L. ; presented by the Corresponding Secretary. 

Dr. Hall's introductory note accompanying these letters is as follows : 

"The venerated memory of Sir William Jones must abundantly suffice to justify 
the publication of the following letters; and I have only to say, by way of intro- 
ducing tliem, that I am indebted, for the favor of being allowed to make them 
public, to Charles H. Moore, Esq., who possesses the originals." 

The letters range in date from Jan. 6, 1784, to Jan. 14, 1793, and are interest- 
ing as illustrating the progress of the writer's plans of study and their accomplish- 
ment, and casting additional light upon the small beginnings of a department of 
learning which lias now assumed great and unlooked-for importance. A few sen- 
tences are extracted here. 

". . . . Happy should I be to follow you in the same track [of Hindu learning]; 
but life is too short and my necessary business too long for me to think at my age 
of acquiring a new language. All my hopes, therefore, of being acquainted with 
the poetry, philosophy, and arts of the Hindus, are grounded on the expectation of 
living to see the fruits of your learned labors." (April 24th, 1784.) 

" .... I have just received from Benares a S'hanscrit book, which puzzled me at 
first, and will, I hope, continue to puzzle, until it enlightens me. It is called .... 
the Dkerm Shdstr Menu Smrety. A version of this curious work is promised, 
and, when it comes, I will set about learning the original, if I can procure assist- 
ance from a good Pendit." (March 1st, 1785.) 

" .... I have found a pleasant old man of the medical caste, who teaches me 
all he knows of the Grammar, and I hope to read the Hit Upades, or some other 
story-book, with him. My great object is the Dherme S'astra, to which I shall 
arrive by degrees." (Sept. 17th, 1785.) 

" . . . . You are the first European that ever understood Sanscrit, and will, pos- 
sibly, be the last." (Oct. 6th, 1787.) 

"I devoured, my dear Sir, your Bhagavad- Gitd, and have made as hearty a meal 
of your HiUpadesa, for which I thank you most sincerely. The ships of this_ sea- 
son will carry home seven hundred copies of our first volume of Transactions; 
and the second will be ready, I hope, next year : but unless the impression should 
be sold in London, Harington & Morris (who print the book at their hazard) will 
be losers, and we must dissolve the Society. You have already done us capital 
service, and will continue to serve us by spreading over Europe your discoveries in 
Indian literature. You have the honor of being the first European in the world, 
and the only man, probably, that ever saw Europe, who possessed a knowledge of 
Sanscrit." (Feb. 27th, 1789.) 

'• I am so busy at this season, that I have only time to request your acceptance 
of a little Sanscrit poem, which Morris has printed, and which you are the only 
man in Europe who can read and understand." (Jan. 14th, 1793.) 

5. On two Inscriptions in Sanskrit characters from Buddhist 
temples in China, by Mr. E. C. Taintor, of the Chinese Foreign 
Customs Service. 

Mr. Taintor exhibited to the meeting an inscription, in mixed Chinese and Sans- 
krit characters, covering eight sheets, and explained that it was an impression 
taken from the faces of an octagonal marble column in the Hwa Yen T'an, a tem- 

Proceedings at JVew Haven, October, 1870. lxxxix 

pie in the Chinese city (the southern section) of Peking, and that the inscription 
was first brought to light by Rev. Joseph Edkins, of the London Missionary Soci- 
ety. The date of its erection. A. D. 1491, is given in the last line of the eighth 
sheet. The first face of the column bears an inscription, in Chinese only, com- 
memorating the rebuilding or repairing of the temple, and detailing the circum- 
stances attending it, in the style usual in monumental records of this character, 
which are to be met with very commonly in temples in all parts of China. The 
second to the seventh faces, inclusive, contain Sanskrit characters, written after 
the Chinese style in vertical columns, and forming an inscription as yet untransla- 
ted. The eighth face comprises both ' Sanskrit and Chinese text. Considerable 
portions of the characters on several of the faces of the column, as given in the 
copied sheets, are nearly obliterated or quite indistinct, but can probably be res- 
tored on a careful examination of the original. 

But one other inscription of this character, containing Sanskrit text, has, so far 
as I am aware, been observed in China. This was found by me in February, 1867, 
at the city of Ichow, which lies about seventy miles southwest of Peking, at the 
entrance to the beautiful valley in which are situated the Si Ling, or Western 
Tombs, the burial places of three of the seven deceased emperors of the present 

Outside the western gate of Ichow stands a neat little three storied pagoda ; 
the temple attached is called Pai T'a Sz, or the ■ White Pagoda Temple.' In front 
of the pagoda stand two octagonal white marble pillars, about a foot in diameter 
and six feet high. The westerly one bears only Chinese characters, and, in conse- 
quence of the soft and perishable nature of the stone, they are either obliterated 
or very indistinct. Seven of the eight sides are covered with characters, evidently 
used phonetically, without regard to their meaning. No date or emperor's name 
could be found. A block of marble, with sculptured figures, originally the capital 
of the pillar, lies a few feet from it. The easterly pillar is in better preservation. 
The S. face has eight columns of Chinese characters. On the S. E. face are one 
column of Sanskrit and two of Chinese characters; on the E. face two Sanskrit 
and two Chinese; on the N. E. face three columns of Chinese, representing pho- 
netically Sanskrit;?) sounds; on the N. face, four columns of the same character; 
on the N. W. face three columns, and W. face three and one-half columns of Chi- 
nese, all evidently used phonetically. The S. W. face, the most important of all, 
as giving the date of erection, has four and one-half columns of Chinese, from 
which we learn that the column was placed in position on the fifteenth day of the 
eighth month of the fifth year of Siien Ho, of the Sung dynast}', corresponding to 
1 IZo -A-. L). 

As my own limited time prevented my copying the inscription (which was of 
about the same length as the one from Peking), I endeavored by the offer of a re- 
ward to induce some native to make a copy during my absence at the Tombs ; but 
regretted to find on my return the following day that no one had ventured to un- 
dertake the task, on account of the great difficulty of making out many of the 

Prof. Whitney remarked that the Sanskrit characters were in an older form of 
Deyanagari, quite different from that now in use, and that the hasty examination 
which he had yet been able to give to the inscription had not enabled him to 
make out any part of it, save the common Buddhist formula at the end, om mani 
padma hum. 

6. On the System of Duplication in consonant groups, as taught 
by the ancient Hindu grammarians, by Prof. W. D. Whitney, of 
New Haven. 

Our means of knowledge of the pronunciation of the ancient Sanskrit are its 
pronunciation by the modern Hindus, the teachings of the old Hindu writers on 
grammar, the euphonic laws of the language, and the comparison of the spoken 
alphabets of other related languages. Each of these, in its order, checks and cor- 
rects the others, and their combined effect is to give us a confident and satisfac- 
tory understanding of the phonetic form of the language — excepting, of course, 
that tone and coloring which no description can impart. The second source is 
worth more in India than elsewhere, since the ancient Hindu phonetists were 

xc American Oriental Society : 

gifted with rare powers of observation and analysis, and carried the science of 
phonology further than it has been carried by any but the latest generation even 
of European scholars. Their results are laid down especially in the Praticakhyas, 
and constitute one main department of the interest attaching to that little body of 
works. But the characteristic defects of the Hindu character appear also in their 
phonetic science — their tendency to over-refinement of analysis, and to the setting 
up of arbitrary and artificial rules in place of simple natural laws, determined by 
pure observation. A striking example of this is their system of duplication in 
consonant groups ; this forms a feature in all the Praticakhyas, and is found even 
in Panini's great grammatical text-book, which has been the rule of correct Sans- 
krit speech for probably more than two thousand years. The system involves two 
chief rules : 1, that the first consonant in a group of two or more is to be pronoun- 
ced double after a vowel; thus, pra after d is dppra. abda is abbda, asya is assya, 
and so on ; 2, that an r thus situated is not doubled, but the consonant following 
is so treated instead, as in arktca for arka, urgg vdi for urg vdi, urggbhyas for urg- 
bhyas, and so on. In case the letter to be doubled is an aspirate mute, the corres- 
ponding non-aspirate is substituted for it in duplication: thus, addhvara from adh- 
vara, dirggha from dirgha. To these rules there are certain extensions and restric- 
tions, of minor importance, and variously given by the different authorities. They 
are combined, also, with a number of other insertions and modifications, which not 
infrequently produce very intricate and formidable results : turning fern, for exam- 
ple, into tthsppm, and so on. In the case of some of these insertions and changes, 
we can seem to see the physical processes whose undue appreciation or gross ex- 
aggeration are their foundation : but the physical ground of the system of dupli- 
cation itself no one yet has succeeded in tracing out and setting forth. 

7. On Westphal's new Greek grammar, by Prof. J. Hadley, of 
New Haven. 

Prof. Hadley referred briefly to the series of works on Greek rhythm, metre, 
and music, by which "Westphal has gained a high, and, on the whole, a deserved 
reputation. Since Hermann and Boeckh, no scholar has done so much for the pro- 
gress of these studies. His merits are undeniably great, though marred by some 
faults — by haste, self-assertion, want of ingenuousness, and intemperance in con- 
troversy. In 1869, Westphal appeared in a new field, with a Philosophisch-his- 
torische Grammatik der deutschen Sprache. Here he gives, in general, the results 
arrived at by Bopp, Grimm, and their successors; but lays much stress on a the- 
ory of the origin of inflections, in which he differs from nearly all comparative 
philologists. He holds that most inflections were, at the outset, not words, previ- 
ously separate, which losing their own accent became appendages of other words, 
but mere sounds, without independent existence, and without significance, until by 
the users of language they were employed as inflections. In his Greek Grammar, 
just published, the same theory is adhered 10; though much less prominence is 
given to it. The author at first intended only to write a Greek Syntax, in which 
the syntactical categories of Hermann should at length be superseded by more 
appropriate norms, derived partly from comparison of other Indo-European lan- 
guages, and partly from an intelligent examination of the Greek literature. But he 
was led to include the etymology, as without it his treatment of the syntax would 
often be unintelligible. Though subordinate in the plan of his work, it is treated 
on a large scale, receiving 447 pages, without including the verb, which will prob- 
ably require as many pages more. 

This great length may be partly the result of hasty composition, which shows 
itself in other ways. Thus, on p. xvii., the verb oku is spoken of as if it were a 
contraction of oinoa (instead of olniu). On p. 58, the noun arixoc — a masculine 
of the second decl. — is set down as having its genitive in mig. On p. 11, T<<fo is 
given as the future of iwtm, whereas the classic writers have iwTr/ffw, and rvfa 
does not appear until some five centuries after the Christian era. Still worse is it 
with ku&, ou p. 24, which does not occur until late in the middle ages, which Pas- 
sow describes as unused, and Liddell and Scott omit altogether. On p. 55, a form 
reeio (= aov) is mentioned and explained at length : under pronouns, it re-appears, 
in connection with reolo, pp. 377-8, where special attention is called to the latter 
form ; — all this without an intimation that reolo is confined to one line (twice re- 

Proceedings at New Haven, October, 1 870. xci 

peated) in Homer, and that tscio is a mere conjectural variation for reolo in that 

Oases of self-contradiction were also pointed out. Thus on p. 30, the author ex- 
plains (paeivoc as being for <t>aevio<;; on p. 10, he explains it as being for (paeovoc;: 
while on p. 201, he pointedly rejects the second explanation and returns to the 
first. The two derivations proposed for r/Xwc — the one formerly received from a 
root svar, 'to shine,' and the one suggested by G. Curtius from ws, 'to burn' — are 
both found here, the first on p. 180, the second on p. 198, each without reference 
to the other. 

Several points in the Lautlehre were made subjects of special criticism : partic- 
ularly, the failure to recognize the true difference between sonants and surds, as 
consisting not in softness or hardness, but in the presence or absence of tone. So, 
the sounding of y before /i as ng ; the assertion that Doric yvdov was an earlier 
form of f/TSov; the assumption that the Homeric mat in the dative plural was 
made from at. by doubling the a; the statement that the Greek had no objection to 
a final A, supported only by the form 1/1 (= ti%o() in a late epic poet ; etc. 

Among other cases of venturous etymologising, was mentioned Westphal's sug- 
gestion that the Indo-European numeral ' four ' contained the word ' three ' under 
the form tvar, with a prefix to express unity, which prefix had from the outset 
three forms pa, ka, to. That the first speakers of the Indo-European, while agreed 
on the five sounds in atvar, and agreed that a surd mute must precede them, were 
hopelessly divided into three parties on the question which surd mute should' be 
taken, and that this division was propagated to the first speakers of the Graeco- 
Latin, and down to the first speakers of the Greek itself — is a strange hypothesis, 
and an unnecessary one, as a primitive k might by explicable euphonic processes 
pass into ayorat 

Finally, it was remarked that Westphal deserves credit for his attempt to treat 
the Greek grammar in the light of comparative philology. The difficulty of the 
attempt might be admitted as an excuse for many imperfections. The work would 
certainly be useful in overcoming the prejudice, still strong in Germany, against 
any application of comparative philology to Greek or Latin grammar. 

8. On two recently discovered Greek monuments, by Pres't 
Woolsey, of New Haven. 

Pres't Woolsey showed to the Society a photograph of a beautiful monument 
found at Athens several years ago, and rendered more interesting by a more re- 
cent discovery. The monument presents to us the figure of a young horseman 
over a fallen foe, and the inscription on the base is this: "Dexilaus, son of Lysa- 
nias, of Thorikus, was born when Teisander was archon, died when Eubulides was 
archon, in Corinth, one of the five horsemen." The dates are, of his birth, 414 
B. C. (the archon being called Peisander by Diod. Sic. xiii. 1), and of his death, 
394 B. C, when the great battle in the territory of Corinth and near the city took 
place, described in Xenophon's Hellenica, iv. 2. 9-23, which is assigned to the year 
of Eubulides by Diod. Sic, xiv. 85-86. In the inscription there is nothing deserv- 
ing notice except — 1, that Teisander is either a mistake of the lapidary for Pei- 
sander, or else an early instance of Tm for Tt, common enough afterwards, espe- 
cially on marbles of Asia Minor, in words from the root Ti; 2, that one of "the 
five horsemen " naturally seems to mean one of the five who died in that " great 
battle," as it was called by Demosthenes. 

Another inscription lately found (in March last), and published from the copy of 
Mr. Robert P. Keep, our consul at Peira?us, in the Yale Courant of April 30 last, 
records that 

" These horsemen died in Corinth : 
Melesias, Onetorides, Lysitheus, Pandias, Nicomaehus, 
Theangelus, Phanes, DemocleSs, Dexilaus, Ecdelus; 
In Coronea, Neocleides." 

Mr. Keep's copy gives Edelus, but there can have been no such name. 

This inscription, on the cap or frieze of a monument of Pentelic marble, occurs 
on the way taken by Pausanias from the city to the Academy (Attica 29. 2, which 
Mr. Keep cites ). He says " those who fell around (or near) Corinth lie here." 

xcii American Oriental Society : 

This inscription, it will be perceived, names ten horsemen who died in Corinth, one 
of whom is Dexilaus, and the other inscription says that he belonged to " the five 
horsemen." What then can this expression in the first inscription, " the five 
horsemen," mean? 

9. On Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, by Prof. W. D. 
Whitney, of New Haven. 

After excusing the incompleteness and want of elaboration of his criticism of 
Mr. Cox's work, Prof. Whitney began with referring to the new era made in the 
study of classic mythology, as of classical language, by the wider Indo-European 
studies. The foundation of both is the same: the formation of certain religious 
views and mythical conceptions, as of certain ideas and expressions, in the period 
of Indo-European unity, and their transmission down to historical times. To find 
the traceable relics of these, is to make the nearest possible approach to the be- 
ginnings of religious thought in our branch of the human race. The comparison 
of Greek and Hindu mythology began as soon as the Veda was opened to study, 
and has ever since yielded more and more fruit. Max Muller has lately done the 
service of setting it forth in an attractive manner ; and has also given such prom- 
inence to the elements of the sun and the dawn in the earliest mythology as 
almost to put a new aspect upon the whole subject of mythologic interpretation. 
His. views are very attractive and plausible, as well as novel, but their soundness 
is yet to be established by careful criticism. To such criticism they are not sub- 
jected by Mr. Cox, who is. rather, their implicit acceptor and their enthusiastic 
advocate, and who carries them to an extreme which even their originator, per- 
haps, would fail to approve. Mr. Cox's work (in two stout 8vo volumes, London, 
1870; is eloquent and graceful, but wanting in scientific tone, as in soberness and co- 
herence of reasoning; it is somewhat diffuse and repetitious; the author is so 
dominated by his theory as to be made often partial in his judgments, loose in his 
interpretations, and uncritical in his etymologies. 

The main features of the solar interpretation — which Mr. Cox applies to the 
story of the Odyssey as well as of the Iliad, to the Nibelungen-Lied, the legends 
of Arthur and Charlemagne, the nursery-tales of Boots and Jack the giant-killer, 
and so on — were stated, and illustrated by extracts and comments. 

No farther communications being offered, the Society adjourned, 
to meet again in Boston on the seventeenth of May next.