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Most of the leading works, in Tamil, on the esoteric doc- 
trines of Hinduism, are prefaced by some logical treatise, 
or, rather, by a statement of the method of reasoning which 
the author intends to pursue. These treatises are usually 
brief, and generally less comprehensive than those distinct 
works which profess to teach the whole system of Alavei 
(^sraoa/), or Hindu, dialectics. All these works are, how- 
ever, formed on the same general plan, and go over, more 
or less completely, the same ground. They embrace the 
principles of logical and metaphysical reasoning, weaving 
in many assumed theological and scientific dogmas, yet 
evincing that the Hindus have some correct apprehension 
of the true sources of ideas, and of the way in which the 
human mind usually reasons, when enlightened. 

The ostensible object of Alavei is, generally, to teach the 
methods of ascertaining truth ; yet these works are chiefly 
devoted, as a matter of fact, to the explanation of the terms 
employed and the methods pursued, by Hindu writers, in 
establishing and inculcating their peculiar religious doctrines. 

A brief analysis of one of these introductory treatises 
will give, perhaps, a better view of the whole subject than 
any general description could. I shall, therefore, give in 
this paper the substance of the Alavei which is prefixed to 
the Siva-Ondna'Poiharn. The author is regarded, by the 
Saivas of Southern India at least, as the highest authority 
in this department of sacred learning. The productions of 
this author must have been extant when the older of the 
mythological works were written, as is manifest from the 
manner in which the topics of which they treat, are brought 
in, or are alluded to, in those works. Hence they seem the 
more worthy of notice, and of preservation, spanning, as 
they do, the vast periods of Hindu literature, and still re- 
maining the authoritative text-books in the whole Saiva 
School, and especially among the philosophers of the South. 


The author commences this Alavei with the following re- 
mark. " In order to understand the three eternal entities, 
Deity, Soul, Matter, there is required, in addition to Revela- 
tion and Tradition, a knowledge of the principles of Alavei." 
Alavei is a pure Tamil term, meaning measure. It is here 
used to signify the measure, or rule, of judgment, and is a 
very appropriate term to express what is included under it. 

The author states that some writers hold to six distinct 
logical principles ; others, to ten ; and some, that there are 
even more than ten ; but that, in his view, all may be in- 
cluded in three. He then briefly presents the ten principles, 
as follows. 

1. Kddchi (siriL&l), or K&ndal (siremri—eo), Perception, in 
a large sense. 

2. Anumanam (^sp/Lo/iwLo), or Karuihal (s@p@>), Infer- 

3. Urei (e-auj), or Akamam {^sww), Revelation, including 
different classes of professedly divine books. 

4. Apdvam (^/uireuui), Negation, the denial of a thing, 
based on the known absence of some quality, or on the non- 
existence of some other thing; e. g. "when it is asserted, 
that asittu {<gj®pgi), matter, cannot proceed from sittu (®pgi), 
spirit, it is at once admitted." 

5. Porul (Ouff(5«ir), Implication ; e. g. " when it is said, 
that there is a village of cow-herds on the Ganges, it is 
readily understood, that the village is on the bank of the 
Ganges; again, when the body is spoken of as feeling or 
perceiving, as the body is mere matter, it is understood, that 
it is the soul, in the body, which feels and perceives." 

6. Oppu (§>uLf), Similitude; e. g. "when one, who has 
been told that the wild cow [bos gavseus] resembles the 
domestic cow, sees a wild cow in the jungle, he at once re- 
cognizes it from its resemblance to the domestic cow. Again, 
the same principle appears in simple comparison ; thus, Mdyei 
[original Elemental Matter] is to the five gross Elements, 
what clay is to the potter s vessel ; malam [the obscuring 
principle which eternally adheres to the soul's material en- 
velope] is to the soul, as the oxidated surface of a mass of 
copper is to the pure copper within ; and the operations of 
God are to the developed world,' as the sun's influences are 
to plants." 


7. Olivet (gifleij), Exception ; e. g. " in case of a theft com- 
mitted where there were but three persons present, if two 
of them prove that they were not guilty, then, by the rule 
of Exception, it is proved that the other person is the thief." 

8. Unmei (e-sarsoio), Truth, or Essential Property; e. g. 
" when it is stated, that a certain stone attracts iron, it is at 
once known to be a magnet ; when it is asserted, that the 
world was produced, is preserved, and wilt be destroyed, by 
some being, it is readily understood that that being is God." 

9. Eiihlkam (*g$&u>), Tradition; e. g. "when one hears it 
generally asserted, as what has been handed down from 
ancient times, that a devil resides in a certain tree, he ad- 
mits it." 

10. Iyalpu (^ujeoLf), Naturalness; e. g. "when a word has 
several meanings, the one is to be taken which most natu- 
rally agrees with the subject; thus, if a man on an elephant 
asks for a totti (QpmLiy.) [which means elephant-hook, door, 
town, sea-shore, etc.], you should of course give him the hook." 

Our author, having thus stated these ten principles, which 
he considers as embracing all that are more commonly held, 
proceeds immediately to present his own views of the sub- 
ject. He does not stop to tell us how he supposes that these 
ten are all included in the first three ; but he simply de- 
clares this as his opinion, and proceeds at once to the eluci- 
dation of the three. He makes many subdivisions, and 
presents the whole much in accordance with the custom of 
Hindu, writers, in a very disjointed order. I shall bring the 
related parts together, and endeavor to give, in all other re- 
spects, a truthful presentation of the subject. 

I. Kddchi, Perception. This is four-fold : intiriya-Mdchi 
(@)w$iftujB&nLL&i), perception by the organs of sense, that 
is, sensation ; mdnatha-Mdchi (iDnesrpssnL-S), perception by 
the mind, or simple perception ; vethanei-kddchi {Qeu^'iesrs. 
&itlL@), experimental perception, what one learns from ex- 
perience ; yoka-kddchi {QiuirsssntLQ), transcendental per- 
ception, or vision had by religious meditation. 

1. Sensation. This is explained to be a bare impression 
made upon the soul by some external object, through the 
medium of one of the five Elements, and by the agency of 
one of the five Perceptive Organs, or senses,' and of pirdna- 
vdyu, one of the Ten Vital Airs. 


The elementary medium employed in hearing, is ether; 
that of touch, is air ; that of sight, fire, which always in- 
cludes light ; that of taste, water ; and that of smell, earth. 

For a full explanation of these organs of the human sys- 
tem, and of others referred to in this paper, see the preced- 
ing article in this Journal. 

2. Simple. Perception. This is a clear apprehension of an 
object of sense which is presented in a sensation. For this 
the agency of the Intellectual Organic Faculties, as manam, 
etc, is necessary. 

There are three kinds of simple perception specified, viz : 

(1.) Miya-kddchi («gujdsrru,@), doubtful perception ; e. g. 
"when one sees a thing, but cannot tell whether it be a 
stump, a man, a cow, or an elk, this is a case of eiya- 

(2.) Tirivu-Mdchi (GHifle>\&&inl.@), mistaken perception ; 
e. g. " to mistake a rope for a snake, or the mother-of-pearl 
for silver, would be. an example of tirivu-hddchi." 

(3.) Saruvikatpa-Mekhi(&gi<$gpus&iril.9i), analytical per- 
ception. This consists of such an apprehension of an object 
as embraces its name, class, qualities, action or functions, 
and substance. These are the five categories of the South- 
ern Hindu philosophers. Every thing is supposed to be 
generically embraced in these five. 

The Niydya-Sdstiri, or doctors of the Niydya School of 
philosophy, hold to seven categories, viz: substance; quality; 
action or functions; community of properties, or that which 
is common ; difference or distinction ; relation ; and non- 
existence. Others, again, have adopted still different cate- 
gories. The class of five seems as philosophical, and com- 
prehensive, as any other. Substance, the last of the five, is 
considered as common to the other four. 

3. Experimental Perception. Respecting this our author 
remarks: "Rakam and the other Vittiyd-Tattuvam secure to 
the soul whatever pleasure or pain is experienced from ob- 
jects presented to the soul by means of the Perceptive Or- 
gans and the Intellectual Organic Faculties. This percep- 
tion, by experience, of the qualities of pleasure and pain, is 
also called suvethand-pirattiyadcham (»Q@j^(es)LSrr^iuLLfw). 

It is manifest, that this is considered as something in ad- 
vance of simple perception. It is had by means of a differ- 
ent and higher class of organic agents. This is laid down 


as a logical principle, for the purpose of facilitating the dis- 
cussion and establishment of the mystic doctrines of the 
Hindus respecting the soul's entanglement in its organism, 
and the mode of its deliverance. This, as well as the next 
particular mentioned, seems to indicate the real object of 
these logical treatises, which is to help to establish the pre- 
viously assumed dogmas of Hindu, religious philosophy. 

4. Transcendental Perception. This is described by our 
author as "that clear and distinct understanding which is 
free from doubt and mistake, and which does not depend 

upon [or has no regard to] the five categories This 

perfect apprehension of an object at once, without distin- 
guishing any of its properties, is obtained by divine illumin- 
ation." .... He who possesses this high power of percep- 
tion "has subdued the influence of his senses [so that they 
can no longer affect his mind] by means of the eight sitti* 
(&P0), ascetic observances, and has learned the proper 
form [or nature] of the Male and Female Energies of the 
Deity." Such an one understands " intuitively and simul- 
taneously all the circumstances of the time and place in 
which he lives, and all the things of this wide world." It 
is the indwelling God, in intimate union with the soul, who 
effects this perception — a power which entirely transcends 
the human understanding. Yet this is a power which every 

* These eight sitti, or miraculous gifts, which are obtained by several ascetic 
observances, are as follows. 

1. Animd (jt/eamwir), the power of reducing one's bulk to the size of an 

2. Makimd (LdSldh), the power to increase one's bulk inimitably. 

3. Laleuma (j°j)Gd@LDfT), the power to make oneself so light as not to feel 
the influence of gravity. 

i. KarimA (siflLDtr), the power to make oneself so heavy as not to be 
affected by any attracting force. 

5. Pirdtti (iSljriTptd), the power to obtain whatever one desires. 

6. Pir&k&miyam (olrnr&rrLoliLitii), the power of penetrating everywhere, 
without regard to natural obstacles. 

. 1. Isattuvam (FF&fiJgl@iJLD), the power to act as God, or to constrain every 
thing in obedience to one's will. 

8. Vasittuvam (sti&pjgieuw), the power to assume any form, and the 
proper functions of that form. 

Such are the fancied powers of the mature YoTci. They result from a 
union of soul with God, such a union that they cease to be two, while yet the 
individuality of the soul is not destroyed. 


human soul will ultimately attain, and which it will ever 
afterwards possess. 

II. Anumdnam, Inference. This is the principle or rule 
" by which some truth or fact is inferred from a given pre- 
mise, or from some manifest or admitted reason which has 
an inseparable connection with it." 

Our author, at the outset, makes a two-fold distinction of In- 
ference : 1. tan-porutt '-anumdnam (■sebrQuir^LLi—ggiiLDtresrui), 
inference for one's self, or inductive inference; 2. pirar- 
porutt' -anumdnam {iSipnQuir^iLi—^nwnearw), inference for 
the sake of others, or declarative inference. 

1. The first process consists in determining something 
from given premises. In these premises are contained six 
particulars, which must here be explained. They are three 
varieties of paksham (u<s^,w), and three varieties of ethu 


The paksham are these : 

(1.) Paksham, defined as the simple statement of a fact 
or truth. It is a proposition, more or less complex ; e. g. 
" there is fire on the mountain, because smoke is seen there." 
The term is sometimes used for a simple proposition ; thus, 
■ " there is fire on the mountain ; the world is a lie [i. e. delu- 
sive, transitory]." In this case, a paksham is equivalent to 
the conclusion in a syllogism. The same term is also used 
to signify the place of the fact in question ; as, in the exam- 
ple, "the mountain" would be the paksham. 

(2.) Sa-paksham (euaspu*). This is a specific statement 
of a known fact or truth — an illustrative example, which 
involves the reason, or principle, on which the simple pak- 
sham is based ; e. g. " there is always fire in the kitchen, 
when there is smoke ; again, whatever is made is false, or 
transitory [and hence, the world is called a lie], like an 
earthen vessel made by the potter." It is, essentially, one 
of the premises in a syllogism. The place of the fact given 
as an example is also called sa-paksham. Hence, in this 
example, " the kitchen " is the sa-paksham. 

(3.) Yi-paksham (eSu^ih). This is a negative proposi- 
tion, the reverse of sa-paksham; e.g. "that which is not 
made is truth [i. e. permanent, eternal], as, the three eternal 
entities, Deity, Soul, Matter ; again, where there is no water 
there can be no lotus-flower." Here, also, the term vi-pak- 
sham is limited to the locality: "where there is no water." 


The three ethu, or reasons, are these : 

(1.) lyalp'-ethu {gfrvueoQugi), a natural reason. Here the 
nature of the case is considered as the determinative reason ; 
e. g. "in the term md, mango, are involved both the exist- 
ence and the specification of a particular tree ; so, also, the 
terms Pathi, Pasu, Pdsam, Deity, Soul, Matter, at once show 
the reality of such existences." 

A different author states the former example thus: "when 
we say md [which means mango-tree, horse, beetle, etc.], it is 
naturally understood, from the connection in which the word 
is used, that it means mango-tree, and not horse, etc." 

(2.) Kdriya-ethu (siriBiuer^i), an effect showing a cause; 
e. g. " smoke shows the presence of fire ; again, since there 
can be no effect without a cause, the existence of the world 
proves the existence of a cause [God]." 

(3.) Anupalatti-eihu (^^lueo^sr^i)^ arguing from the 
want of any cause, to the non-existence of any effect ; e. g. 
" the absence of cold proves that there will be no dew." 

Our author remarks that "this principle is based on the fact 
that there can be no effect where there is no cause. Hence 
it follows, that, were there no God, there could be no world ; 
if there were no soul, there could be no body ; if there were 
no mdyei, there could be no material visible existences ; if 
there were no clay, there could be no earthen vessel." 

2. The second kind of Inference, pirar-porutt'-anumdnam, 
which I have denominated declarative inference, is for the 
instruction of others ; or, in the language of the author, " it 
presents the subject, by means of paksham and ethu, so that 
others may understand it." 

Here we have a further two-fold distinction of declarative 
inference : 

(1.) Annuvayam (^eorgguei/ujw), a direct, or positive state- 
ment of the argument, with the conclusion. This is exem- 
plified thus : " there is fire on the mountain, because there 
is smoke there ; for we always find fire in the kitchen when 
there is smoke." 

This statement is considered, by some authors, as embrac- 
ing the following five particulars. 

a. "Paksham, the simple proposition: there is fire on the 

b. "Ethu, the reason, presenting the natural connection 
of things on which the paksham is based ; e. g. when it is 


asked : how is it known, that there is fire on the mountain, 
it not having been seen ? the answer is : smoke is seen there, 
the natural effect of fire. This is hdriya-ethu. 

c. "Tittdntam (JslLLi—iTii.£th), proof by example [the same 

as sa-paksham mentioned above] ; e. g. where there is smoke 

is fire, as is always the case in the kitchen. 

"Upanayam (&.uieiuw), application of the ethu, reason, 

e simple proposition ; e. g. there is smoke seen on the 


e. " Ntkamanam (Sswesrw), the conclusion [or proposition 
proved] ; e. g. there is fire on the mountain, because there 
is smoke there. 

(2.) The second division of declarative inference, is called 
vethirekam (QeuglQrr&ui), an indirect, or negative statement 
of the argument, the reverse of annuvayam ; e.g. " there is 
no smoke where there is no fire ; there can be no blown or 
unblown lotus-flower where there is no water." 

The author next proceeds to state another, a four-fold, 
division of Inference, as follows. 

(1.) Mihu-anumdnam (<sTgu>/egiiu>iTG8ru>), reasoning from a 
natural cause. " This," he says, " is the inferring of a truth 
from some reason [or cause, ethu], which is naturally con- 
nected with it ; e. g. from smoke seen, the existence of fire 
is inferred." 

(2.) Pothu-anumdnam (Qu/^^spmnwii), reasoning from 
a common or customary connection of things ; e. g. " when 
one hears the sound of a horn, he may conclude that an 
elephant is approaching ; because it is customary for a man 
on an elephant to blow a horn as he approaches a towm" 

The sound of the horn is called sdthanam {eirpesrw), logical 
premise ; and the approach of the elephant is the sdttiyam 
(&rrp$iuw), logical conclusion. We have here a recognition 
of the essential parts of a syllogism. 

With regard to the term pothu, common, as used in this 
connection, the author remarks : " It is the same as sdmdni- 
yam (eaLDrretsfluJU}), that which is common to several classes, 
or to all the individuals in one class. Thus, a horn may be 
blown for other reasons than the approach of an elephant ; 
and hence, the inference may not in all cases be correct." 

(S.) Echcha-anumdnam (er^^^gULniresrili), reasoning from 
any phenomenon to its natural antecedent, or cause ; e. g. 


" from a flood in the river, it may be inferred that there has 
been rain in the mountains." 

Respecting echcha, the adjective form of echcham (ers=su>), 
lit. defect, remainder, the author says: "It is the same as 
Tcdriyam (smfiiuth), the common logical term for effect [or 
result]. The flood in the river may have been the result of 
the breaking away of a dam, or of the embankment of a 
tank. Hence, the inference may not always be correct." 

(4.) Muthahanumdnam (Qp^eo^^iwiresrih), reasoning from 
a cause to its common effect, or from an antecedent to its 
usual consequent ; e. g. " on seeing the pregnant cloud, it 
may be inferred that it will rain." 

"But," says the author, "muthal [lit. the first], like Mra- 
nam {sirjressnh), cause, denotes a usual cause or antecedent, 
and not what is universally and absolutely such. There- 
fore, the cloud may pass away without rain." 

Our author closes the section on Inference, by presenting 
the three following varieties. 

1. Purva-hd<hhi'anurndnain{y ) rrwsniL8^^u>fre^LD), infer- 
ence from some previous sensation or perception ; e. g. "one 
may, without seeing the flower, determine what it is by its 
smell." This involves previous knowledge obtained by 
perception, and, also, a present perception by the sense of 
smell. The inference is based on both, according to the 
view of the author, 

2. Karuthal-anumanam (s^^eo^i^uLDireurLo), inference in- 
volving reflection ; e. g. " one may form an opinion of what 
a man knows, from the words he uses." 

In Hindu learning, much depends on a proper understand- 
ing of technical terms ; which terms cannot be fully under- 
stood without some knowledge of the system to which they 
apply. Hence, when a man uses certain terms freely, the 
Hindu infers that he must understand something of his 
mystic system. 

3. Ureiyal* or Akama'anumdnam (fi-sajuj/rst), or ^Lsu>j>jgpi- 
iDiresru)), inference from revealed doctrines; e. g, "the S&sti- 
ram (&irav$jn}>) teach us what are the just results of kan- 
mam in this world. Hence, from one's experience, and 
from these teachings of Revelation, he may infer what his 
previous hanmam was [or what was his merit or demerit in 
a former birth]. And so, also, from his present conscious- 


ness of his merit and demerit, or his now accumulating kan- 
mam, he may infer what he is to expect in a future birth." 

III. Akama-piramdnam (^awuiSljruiiremrw), Eevelation, a 
source of knowledge, considered as a logical principle. 
" This," says our author, " applies to all subjects which lie 
beyond the reach of Perception and Inference ; e. g. the ex- 
istence of heaven and hell is proved by Eevelation, because 
it cannot be proved by Inference." 

The author makes a three-fold division of Akama-piramd- 
nam, having reference to three classes of sacred books, or 
Sdstiram, and to the prescribed courses of instruction in the 
same by a regular Guru. This would be a correct principle 
of reasoning, or a true source of knowledge, provided the 
divine authority of these books were first established. But 
this is never done, nor attempted. I have never met with 
an argument, in any Hindu writings, to prove the authen- 
ticity, or divine authority, of any book. There is an abund- 
ance of polemical works, in which different Schools contend 
earnestly for their respective dogmas. In most cases, how- 
ever, they all refer to the same ancient works, assuming 
their divine authority. 

The three divisions of Eevelation are as follows. 

1. Tantira-kaki (pikglB8%v). "This," says our author, "is 
the course of instruction embraced in the Tantiram (pis@ljru>), 
which is to be pursued with desire. By it, one is enabled 
to reconcile one part with another, and each with the whole, 
of a Sdstiram, and all the various Sdstiram together, which 
the pure and omniscient God has graciously given." 

The Tantiram are a portion of the Akamam. They treat 
of the mystic philosophy of the divine operations, especially 
as conducted, as they always are, through the agency of 
Satti, the Female Energy of Deity. The Tantiram are the 
appropriate books of the first two of the four stages of reli- 
gious life, called sarithei, history; and kirikei, work, operation. 

2. Mantira-kahi {iDm^lna%so). " This," says the author, 
" is a source of knowledge obtained by means of Mantira- 
sdstiram, works on the mantiram, mystic formulas. By the 
proper utterance of the mantiram, manam and the rest of 
the Intellectual Organic Faculties are subdued [or cease to 
affect the understanding of the soul], even while one con- 
tinues the worship of the common god [or idol] which he 
has been accustomed to worship." 


The mantiram are a sort of organized divinities, or divine 
emanations, which are capable of communicating the highest 
knowledge and power to those who have attained to a cor- 
rect understanding and proper use of them. Hence, they 
illuminate the soul — give it a sort of transcendental under- 
standing. They, therefore, become an important means of 
establishing the assumed doctrines. 

Mantira-hahi is confined chiefly to the third stage in the 
divine life of men, called yokam, meditation. 

3. Upathesa-halei (a.uO^*te). "This is a course of 
sacred learning which reveals the true nature of the eternal 

Upathesa-kahi, or divine instruction, belongs exclusively 
to gndnam, the last and highest stage in human progress. 
This course of instruction includes all those works which 
treat of gndnam, or divine wisdom, such as the Siva-Gndna- 
Potham, and others on the Ji&amam-doctrines. None but 
the highest Gurus can teach in this department. 

Hence, those who have attained to this stage, may be con- 
sidered as inspired ; and, of course, as having reached the 
highest source of knowledge. This explains the ground on 
which purely argumentative works, such as the Siva- Gndna- 
Potham, and the Siva-Pirakdsam, are claimed to be divine. 
It is the divine mind, dwelling in man, that has reasoned 
them out. 

In reference to reasoning in general, our author presents 
three particulars which are. involved in every process of 

1. Piramdthd (iSjriDirpir), the one who understands or 
thinks, the agent in reasoning. This is the soul, less or 
more enlightened, according to its progress in divine knowl- 

2. Piramdnam (LSsrwiresirw), lit. law, rule, the principle, or 
method, by which the soul reasons. 

3. Pirameyam (tSljrGu>tLiu>), the object sought, or that which 
is known by a course of reasoning, that which is contained 
in any logical conclusion. 

Two varieties of pirameyam are named, and illustrated. 

(1.) Tan-iyalpu-pirameyam (^esBiueOLiiSljrQwujih). "This,'' 
says the author, " is the distinguishing of the thing contem- 
plated, so as to mark its class, and its individual character 


in the class. We have an example of this in the ease where 
God, dwelling in man, is distinguished from the soul, and is 
represented as not possessing His gndna-rupam, form of 
wisdom, and as performing His five divine works by the 
cooperation of His Satti." 

"Again, when the term puli-md (i^eiflwn), sour mango, is 
used, the tree is at once distinguished from all other trees, 
as the olive, the margosa, etc., and, also, from other varie- 
ties of the mango, such as the te-md (Gpwir), etc." 

"Again, when swa-muttan (^euQp^dr), a soul still in the 
body, and yet prepared for final emancipation, at death, is 
attributed to any one, the term at once distinguishes that 
soul as freed from the influence of malam, and as distinct 
from all other souls." 

The term tan*iyalpu, lit. its own nature, seems, as used 
above, to refer to some specific or particular natural dis- 

(2.) Poth'4yalpU'piram$yam(Qur$uj40Lii£ljrQwuji}>). "This 
refers," says the author, "to the case where the class [or 
genus merely] is designated, without any indication as to 
the particular variety in the class, or as to any specific indi- 
vidual ; as, when Sivan is merely distinguished from the 
soul, without any reference to his gndna-rupam, or to his 
modes of operation. 

" Another example is furnished by the term md, mango, 
which marks merely the class. 

" Again, when the soul is designated as sivan (ffa/sar), the 
living one, it is merely distinguished from its malam, mate- 
rial habiliments, by which it is bound, as a living being, a 
soul, without any reference to other souls." 

The author closes his treatise by a bare enumeration of 
the four general classes of Fallacies, which he designates by 
the term Poli (QuirsS)), lit. counterfeit, irregularity. He con- 
siders them all fallacies in Anumdnam, or Inference. Hence 
his general designation is Anumdna-poli, 

1. Paksha-poli (u^uQuireSI), fallacies arising from the 
palcsham. There are four varieties of paksha-poli. 

2. "Eihu'poli (srgiuQurreSI}, fallacies arising from the ethu, 
reason, which supports the paksham. Here is a three-fold 
distinction, including twenty-one varieties. 


3. " Uvamei-poli (v-eusamuQuirefl), fallacies in analogy 
[or comparison]. This is otherwise denominated tittanta- 
poli, and sa-paksha-poli. There are eighteen varieties of 

4. "Tolvitt&nam (QprreoeSppireBrw), the same as vi-palcsha- 
tdnam (eSI u ^^ireariii), fallacious vi-paksham. There are two 
sub-divisions, called vi-paksha-poli, and veihireka-poli, fallacy 
in declarative inference, including twenty-two varieties. 

" These sixty-five varieties of_fallacy may be found in 
different works, under Paksham, Mhu, Titt&ntam, and Veihi- 

This is all that is said by the author respecting these fal- 
lacies. Such as he considered to be of any practical impor- 
tance, have been noticed above. 

It is manifest, from the method of reasoning here pre- 
sented, that the Hindus deny that the soul has the power of 
originating any ideas independent of its organism. This, 
so far as I have learned, is true of all their several Schools 
of philosophy. They make the soul more dependent on its 
organism than any of our modern philosophers. The soul, 
according to the assertion of the Hindus, not only needs the 
senses to introduce it to the external world, and to other 
minds, and thus to open the first avenue of thought ; but it 
must have its Antakaranam, its intellectual organs, and other 
Tattuvam, to connect it effectually with the senses, and to 
enable it to appropriate, as its own, what is introduced by 
the senses. When the soul has been carried forward into 
its finer organism — its "spiritual body," and has become 
associated with the indwelling God, it then has, indeed, a 
power of apprehension far transcending that of the senses. 
But this attainment is the result of its organic connections ; 
and hence this superior power of apprehension cannot be 
said to be independent of its organism. 

The method of reasoning contemplated by our author, 
and by the Hindu, dialecticians generally, is fully illustrated 
in the following treatise, and in one still longer, the Siva- 
Pirakdsam, which, it is expected, will appear in this Journal. 

In these treatises we have presented to us, by Hindus, their 
own application of their principles of reasoning, and, also, 
their own system of doctrines drawn out in form. Taken 
in connection, these treatises cover nearly the whole field 


of Hindu philosophy. In their polemical bearings, they 
give the views of the principal Schools which divide the 
two great classes of Hindus, the Saivas and the Vaishnavas. 
Thus they present to us distinctly the various phases of 
Hindu speculative doctrine, which are important to be 
known, but which oriental scholars have not yet been able 
fully to develop from the more brief, or fragmentary, treat- 
ises in the Sanskrit, hitherto brought to light. 


Questions supposed to arise in the Mind of the Disciple. 

Is the world eternal, or had it a beginning? Is it self- 
existent, uncreated, or was it produced [or caused]? If 
caused, was the cause merely such as Mlam, or hxnmam, or 
was it an intelligent cause ? If so, was that intelligent cause 
samus&ri (&Qpfirifl), a primogenitor, or was it a being who 
was liberated from Jcanmam, at the end of the several Jcat- 
pam? Or was it one who is eternally free from Jcanmam? 
If so, what is his nature ? Are there logical rules to prove 
the existence of that God? If so, what is the principal rule, 
Perception, Inference, or Analogy ? Or is Eevelation the 
principal rule ? 

When one has satisfied himself as to the efficient cause of 
the world [he inquires respecting its material cause] : 

Is the world from nothing, or is it a development from 
updthdnam (s-urr^irennii), a material cause? If so, was that 
material cause from nothing, or was it an existence proceed- 
ing from primordial atoms? Was Piramam (lSIjtu>u>) [Brahm] 
the sole cause ? Or was Mdyei the only cause ? Or was 
Mdyei, acted upon by the divine Satti, that material cause ? 

Note. — This last question involves the author's opinion on the 

Was the world formed of the materials of a previous 
world? Was it formed from original materials ["as cloth 
from yarn"] ? Is it a mere illusion [" as a rope mistaken for 
a snake"] ? Is it a form resulting from a combination of 
causes? Is it a transformation of Deity ["as curd from 
milk"] ? Or is it a simple expansion of Deity ["as the tent 
of cloth"]? 

When God formed the world, was the instrumental cause 
devoid of desire [or sexual passion], or was it with desire? 
Did that instrumental cause operate as a body, or as the 


Intiriyam, Perceptive Organs, etc. ? Or was it as the Anta- 
karanam, the Intellectual Organic Faculties? Was it by 
the agency of Vintu [the abstract Female Energy of Deity], 
or -was it by that of Satti [the organized Energy] ? If it was 
by Satti, was she the consort of Isuran, or did she coexist 
with him as an attribute [his essential power of produc- 
tion] ? Had she a material form, or was she purely spiritual ? 

Is the sivan (9eudr), soul [lit. life], which is the subject of 
attributes different from those of Isuran, an imaginary thing? 
Is it an embodied being? Is it the combination of the Inti- 
riyam ? Is it formed of the Antakaranam ? Is it the seat 
of understanding [or wisdom] ? Or is it something differ- 
ent from all these ? If it is thus different [which is the 
author's idea], is it matter, or spirit ? Is it Deity, or not 
Deity ? Is it an atom, or is it of medium size ? Is it con- 
fined to one body, or is it migratory ? Is the soul one, or 
is it manifold ? Is the soul of limited knowledge, or is it 
omniscient? Is the soul's enemy [that which compels it 
to suffer] merely the evil influence of the five Avattei [the 
organism which is essential to a conscious and intelligent 
existence] ? Is it the want, or ignorance, of gnanam, true 
wisdom, or is it some indefinable ignorance ? Is it dnava- 
malam ? [This last implied idea is that of the author.] If 
so, is this aTiava-malam something different from the soul? 
Is it common to all souls ? Is it [or does it operate] without 
a satti f Or does it possess a beautiful satti? Will the soul 
always be subject to the influence of malam, or will it attain 
to the region of liberation from malam ? 

To the student or disciple who thus inquires, the divine 
priest or teacher begins to show grace [or gradually to give 
instruction] ; and he here gives the Siva-Gn&na-Potham, 
which contains a Tamil translation of the twelve [doctrinal] 
suttiram ((^fi^jrw) of the Pdsa- Vimosanam [uirfeSQinn^eenhX 
a section of the Pavurava-Akamam (j^ireqrrtsu^&LDiii), which 
is one of the twenty-eight Akamam; accompanying this 
translation with a commentary, which presents the results 
of the author's examination of the Tiripaiharttam {fdiflupnir- 
00m), the three eternal entities [viz : Pathi, Pasu, Pdsam 
(u,©, u«, unfw), Deity, Soul, Matter; which three consti- 
tute the subject of this treatise]. 


Invocation of Pilliyar. 

The good will crown their heads with the two feet of the 
mischievous Pilliyar (tSsrrSfciruj/r/f), who was graciously pro- 
duced by Sivan who sits in the shade of the mountain, 
\Makd-Mlru\ and bends the mountain as his bow. Accord- 
ingly, I invoke the god who is free from passion and the in- 
fluence of the kunam; who is unchangeable ; who, in union 
with his Qndna-Satti, produces his two offspring, ichchei, 
desire, and kirikei, action ; and who stands, variously, in the 
forms of ichchei, gndnam, and kirikei. 

Note. — Pilliy&r is otherwise called Ganesa, or Kanesan {sQassr- 
^637"), and Ganpati, or Kanapathi (sesnruffi). He is the elder son 
of Sivan, and is distinguished by his elephant-head, which is sym- 
bolical of his character and office. The proboscis, coiled at the ex- 
tremity, combines, like the lingam, the two divine Energies. Hence 
his character as the god of action, and the propriety of invoking his 
assistance in any undertaking. 

Pilliyar is here called mischievous, because, by the power 
of Kiriyd-Satti, he removes the entanglements oipdsam, and 
is thus evil-minded towards pdsam. 

Sivan's sitting in the shade of the mountain, is interpreted 
to mean that he is ready to bestow favors on those who 
worship him. 

Note. — It was in this position that Sivan blessed, or instructed, 
the four Rishis : Sanakar, Sanantarar, San&tharar, and Sanathu- 
m&rar, sons of Brahma. He first rehearsed to them the doctrines 
of yokam; but, as they could not understand his words, he took the 
form and position of a Yoki, and thus taught them by example 
under a banyan tree, on the sacred mountain. 

The bending of the mountain as his bow, means that he will not 
bless [or rather will punish] those who do not worship him. 

Special Preface. 

As the glorious sun removes the great darkness from the 
expanded world, without which the eye could not see, so 
does the everywhere celebrated God operate. By His aid, 
the author, having seen God, and been delivered from the 
darkness of the eye [the soul], and having examined the 
soul in its cage [the body], sprung from kanmam, which 
subjects the soul to severe sufferings, has produced, without 


any defect, this celebrated Siva-Gndna-Potkam, which Nanti 
{ibH^I) first taught to the company of Eishis. The name of 
the author is Suvethavanan (&Qej£euetireisr), of Tiruvennei- 
Nallur (tStTjjQeuafa&ssriBevejiirir), which is surrounded by the 
river Pennei (Ouek'Sesr). He, because he has perceived and 
forsaken impurity, and embraced the truth, is called Mey- 
hmda-devan (Qwihsessn—Qgei/eisf), the Divine Seer of the 
Truth. He is distinguished for having crowned his head 
with the feet of those Eishis who have passed the powerful 
enemy, birth. 

This treatise was first taught by Sivan to Nanti [his chief 
attendant]. Then Nanti taught it to SanatJcumdran (&esrp- 
(gi&irjreisr) in a company of Eishis. 

The expression : the author, having seen God [i. e. having 
come to understand the nature and ways of God], is inter- 
preted to mean : having come to understand the way in 
which souls are affected by the five divine operations, which 
are through the agency of the several Satti of the five ope- 
rative gods. 

His being delivered from the darkness of the soul, means 
his being freed from the influence of his three malam, dna- 
vam, rndyei and kanmam. 

His having examined the soul in its cage, means his un- 
derstanding the nature and relations of the Tiripathdrttam. 

The expression : without any defect, refers to the three 
faults to which authors are liable, and which are specified 
by the authorities, viz : redundancy, deficiency, incongruity. 

Note. — Meykanda-devan, or Meykand&n, the author of this treat- 
ise, is represented to have lived in the third generation from Sanat- 
kumarar, who was the original author of the Akamam here trans- 
lated, and the immediate disciple of Nanti, or, as he is sometimes 
styled, Nantikesuran (iBib$Q&3rjretir), the god Nanti. Who this 
Nanti was, if a real person, and the precise time in which he lived, 
it is difficult, if not impossible, to determine. Nor can we determine 
the exact period between his epoch and that of Meykand&n. But 
the Akamam which contains the doctrinal treatise given in this 
work, may safely be ascribed to what I would term the Philosophical 
Period of Hinduism, the period between the Vedic and Puranic eras. 
These doctrines may be traced in the earlier works of the Puranic 
period, in the R&mayanam, the Bh&gavad-Gita, and the M&nava- 
Dharma-S&stra. They are so alluded to, and involved, in those works, 
as to evince that they were already systematized and established. 


We have the evidence of some Tamil works, that the Akamam-dioc- 
trines were received in the South of India before Brahmanism, by 
which I mean mythological Hinduism, obtained any prominent place 
there. From some statements in the Ramayanam, it would appear 
that they were adopted in the South before Rama's time. This 
would fix their date at more than a thousand years before the Chris- 
tian era, certainly as early as that of the Ramayanam. 

The Author's Apology. 

They who know themselves, and God whose servants 
they are, will not despise me, their servant. But those who 
know not themselves, are ignorant [of this high subject]. 
And as my reasoning does not accord with their mode of 
thinking, it is not understood by them. Therefore, I will 
not hear [regard] their strictures. 

To know one's self, is to understand that one is different 
from, or other than, his body. This is Attuma-Terisanam, 
the Vision of the Soul. But when one attains to Attuma- 
Terisanam, he will understand pdsam, and be freed from its 
influence. Therefore, this implies pdsa-terisanam, vision of 

To know him [Sivan] who has possession of man as his 
servant, is Siva-Terisanam, the Vision of Sivan. Therefore, 
the two attainments [Attuma-Terisanam and Siva-Terisanam, 
as predicated of the Gndni] imply that the Gndni, Wise 
Man, understands Pathi, Pasu and Pdsam. 

Since they [the wise] receive me as their servant, they will 
find no fault with this my work. They^who understand the 
Vedas [or Vetham (Qeu^w)], and the Akamam, will correct 
the faults, if there be any, and receive the work. 

But those who know not themselves, know not how they 
are entangled in pdsam, nor how they are to come to a 
knowledge of Sivan, in order to their deliverance there- 

Because this subject is not understood by those who are 
conversant only with worldly sciences, it will not accord 
with their views of things, or with their modes of thought. 
Therefore, the faults which they may charge upon my work, 
are no faults. I will not hear their complaints. 

Note.— We now come to the Suttiram, translated from the Ra- 
vurava- Akamam, which are explained, in their order, by the author's 
commentary annexed to the several Suttiram. The author employs 


two kinds of poetry. The Suttiram are given in one called Asi- 
riya-pA (^Qiflujuurr), and the commentary, in another called ven-pA 
(Ga/asiru/r). The first kind may have two or more lines in a stanza, 
and has always four feet in a line. The ven-pA has always four lines 
in the stanza. The first three lines have each four feet, and the fourth 
has three feet. There are thirty kinds of feet employed in Tamil 
poetry, arranged in four classes. 


On the Existence of Deity. 

Suttiram. — The world, which consists of three classes of 
beings,- designated by he, she, it, and which is subject to the 
three operations [viz: creation, preservation, destruction], 
will be dissolved in the same way in which it is developed 
and preserved, and will be re-developed from malam. The 
wise declare that Deity exists at the end of all things [i. e. 
is the unchangeable efficient cause of the world]. 

Urei.* — The malam here mentioned is Mdyei. 

The wise are those who understand the Vetham and the 

The world does not come into existence, continue, and 
end, of itself. 

It is here asserted, that Sivan, who is subject to no change, 
and who is free from malam, produces all things. The proofs 
of this are the following. 

1. Because the world exists in the three modes designa- 
ted by he, she, it, and is subject to the three operations. 

2. Because it is reproduced from malam, in the same way 
in which it was resolved into malam. 

3. Because souls, in the same way that a worm becomes 
a wasp, and the caterpillar a beetle, appear in bodies which 
are ever changing by birth and death, in subjection to their 

4. Because inert Mdyei is mere matter, and cannot assume 
form spontaneously. 

* This term urei (a-sroj) signifies meaning, and is used to indicate certain 
brief explanations given of a leading stanza which precedes in each case 
where it occurs. These brief explanations following each Suttiram, are sup- 
posed to be, like the Suttiram, translations from the Sanskrit. 


5. Because souls, on account of their being associated with 
malam, have not wisdom to take each its own body. 

6. Because these souls exist, each in its own body, and 
act in accordance with their own kanmam. 


1. It is objected, that the world is eternal, and that the 
appearance and disappearance of things are natural phe- 
nomena, arising simply as antecedents and consequents [or 
from the natural relations of things]. 

Will not the wise say, O fool, that the world undergoes 
real destruction and reproduction, since it is carried forward 
in its course by the processes of resolution and development? 
And will they not say, after examination, and perceiving, 
as they do, by their senses, the production of one thing from 
another, its preservation for a season, and its decay, that 
your doctrine is not true, but that there must be a Katta 
(<s jijgn), divine Producer, for the world ? 

The term puthdthi, the elements etc., here rendered world, 
includes all the developments from the five Elements up 
to Ndiham [the first of the iSiva-Tattuvam], and includes 
men, beasts, birds, worms, insects, etc., and the vegetable 
and mineral kingdoms. From the way in which the world 
is preserved, it appears that it could not eternally [of itself] 
have effected the operations of development, preservation 
and resolution. 

The world is preserved by the successive and continued 
resolution and development of things. In this world, which 
is a real effect [of a cause], the resolution is first in order, 
the development follows, and the preservation is the inter- 
mediate stage. 

The argument is analogical : as it may be perceived by 
the senses, that one thing, or being, is produced from an- 
other, is preserved for a season, and is then destroyed, it is 
hence inferred, that the doctrine involved in the objection, 
cannot be true, but that there must be a God for this world, 
as all the wise will say. 

The following stanza goes to show that what does not 
exist [eternally], has no development, etc.; and that that 
which does exist [eternally], has no development, etc., with- 
out an actor. There is no production [or development] 
except from [or consequent upon] destruction by resolution. 


2. That which is destroyed [the world], will be repro- 
duced by him who destroyed it, just as the words and ideas 
which one has acquired, having been resolved in the mind, 
will be developed [or brought forth], whenever desired [by 
the soul]. 

The world, being resolved into Mdyei, will, in the same 
way, be again developed from Mdyei. Therefore, since the 
world is not developed from Deity, but from Mdyei, Mdyei 
must be the material cause of the universe. 

In reference to the statement, that the processes of gradual 
destruction and reproduction of things, and the production 
of some things while others are being destroyed, are pro- 
cesses limited to things in this world, where these changes 
are witnessed, [it is asserted that] what is not here destroyed, 
will hereafter be destroyed [i. e. at the time of the Great 

This existence and development are predicable of all 
things. Hence, the author takes the position that Deity is 
the efficient cause, and Mdyei the material cause, of the uni- 
verse. The reason and proof of this will be given below. 

The next stanza teaches that what is in Mdyei may be de- 
veloped. When developed, it will be in subjection to kan- 
mam. He who develops will effect the development by 
the aid of his Satti. The soul will not be destroyed and 

3. In order to the development of a young plant, there 
must be a seed. If there were no seed, there would be no 
branches, etc. 

Is it asked, what is the vivifying tdrakam (^itjtsld), nutri- 
ment [or principle], for Mdyei? it is the Pard- Satti of God. 

What is the mode of one's existence? Each is in sub- 
jection to his own proper kanmam [or fated rule of action]. 
If this be not admitted, all is inexplicable. 

Note. — The meaning is, that souls take bodies, and proceed 
through their stages of existence, in accordance with the law, or 
operation, of kanma-malam. 

The body [in its changes] is like the worm which becomes 
a wasp. The [parent] wasp does not give to the worm, or 
caterpillar, life and form ; but while the reptile is alive, it 
transforms its body [into its own likeness]. So, the De- 


stroyer furnishes, and unites [with souls], the appropriate 

Deity, standing in union with Mdyei, as moisture in the 
plastic clay, operates [gives it its plastic nature, and devel- 
ops it into form]. 

Therefore, Mdyei is the material cause ; Satti the instru- 
mental cause ; and Deity the efficient cause. The following 
are illustrations of this. 

Mdyei is the material cause [in nature], just as clay is to 
the potter's vessel. Satti is the instrumental cause, just as 
the moulding-stick and wheel are to the potter. Deity, like 
the potter, is the active agent [or efficient cause]. The 
world [or universe], like the earthen pot, is the effect of 
these three [combined] causes. 

The proposition, that Mdyei is the material cause [in na- 
ture] is proved : (1.) By the argument which evinces the 
cause from the effect, the world being an effect. (2.) By 
analogy ; as the springing plant proves the preexistence of 
the seed. (3.) By negation ; as, if there be no seed, there 
will be no leaves, etc. 

It is next declared how Deity made the world ; that its 
operations are gracious ; that Deity has not the least profit 
in these operations ; and that it suffers no change in itself. 

4. Deity, like time, is not affected by any thing, at any 
time. As time is really without change [in its nature], 
except as it stands to observers, in the relations of past, 
present and future ; so Deity stands [or operates], without 
its own proper nature being lessened [or affected]. 

Standing in all souls equally, with due regard to their re- 
spective Jcanmam, Supreme Deity creates without creating, 
and preserves without preserving ; i. e. it destroys [re- 
solves] without destroying, and makes without making [or 
without creating, or originating]. These operations are 
like dreaming, where one understands his dream by means 
of his previous thoughts when awake. 

To explain, such a dream is not a new thing to the 
dreamer. While he dreams, it is not a lie [i. e. it is to him 
as a new reality] ; but when he wakes, it ceases to be a 
reality, he has no profit in it. So, while the world is pro- 
duced and continued [by successive developments], as an 
effect, it is not to Deity a new existence, nor is it either a 


lie [an illusion], or a reality, to it [i. e. all things are to 
Deity as one eternal, consentaneous whole] ; nor has it any 
profit in its operations [i. e. it has neither pleasure nor pain J. 
It is here meant, that Deity is neither mutable, nor immuta- 
ble [i. e. is not the subject of any emotions whatever]. 

The proposition that Deity, while carrying on its ope- 
rations, is destitute of emotion, is supported by the analogi- 
cal proof that it is as time, which has no desire, or emo- 
tion, respecting any thing which transpires. And the decla- 
ration that Deity, in its works, is without profit, and void of 
any change, as to pleasure, pain, etc., is supported by the 
analogy of one's dreaming. 

Next follows a proof that Deity is at the end of all 
things. The world, which is known by observation, has no 
existence except as the consequence or result of a previous 
destruction or resolution, which was not seen ; the destruc- 
tion is the first stage [in the order of nature]. 

5. The world, an existence developed by Deity, which 
[Deity], though not seen in anything, is proved, by its works 
of creation, to exist, is resolved into Mdyei, which, though 
not visible in any thing, yet is made manifest [or proved to 
exist] by its standing as the material cause of the universe. 

It is objected, if the world be thus resolved into Mdyei, 
that Mdyei, which is invisible, and is that into which all 
things are resolved, must be the source or origin [of all 
things], and that hence there is no need of Deity. In answer 
to this objection, I reply, that such a divine power as is here 
implied, cannot exist in Mdyei. But when the world is de- 
stroyed, will not this Mdyei, which is inert matter, and des- 
titute of any divine power, be destroyed with it ? No ; that 
is an imperishable substance. 

Mdyei is mere matter, and possesses no intrinsic power [of 
action, etc.]. It, therefore, moves [or acts] only as influenced 
by Deity in every particular. How long has it existed ? It 
has existed from eternity. 

In the foregoing five stanzas are exhibited, respecting 
Deity and Mdyei, the pakskam, doctrine maintained; the 
ethu, reasons [or the facts of the case] ; the tittdntam, proofs 
by example; the upanayam, logical arrangement of the 
facts ; and the nikamanam, conclusion drawn from the rea- 
sons given. 




The Relation of God to the World and to Souls. 

Suttiram. — God is the world that is designated by the 
terms he, she, it, which were mentioned before ; and [in this 
sense] He is apetham {gqQupih), not different [from the 
world]. But as the world is asittu, not spiritual [material], 
and God sittwrupam (8^^uii>), a spiritual form, therefore 
He is petham (QujSu>), different [from the world]. Being 
both petham and apetham, He is said to be pethdpetham. 
Therefore, in reference to the world, God [as a personal 
being in these several capacities] exists as apethan (^Qupear), 
pSthan (Gu^«ar)/and petfidpethan (QufinQupea). God exists 
as all the world, and yet as other than the world ; He is 
perfectly mingled with the world, filling the whole, and yet 
is without the least weariness of these things. At His com- 
mand souls are born and die, in accordance with their Jean* 
mam, good and bad deeds which they have before performed. 
Ukei. — God is the whole world ; He is other than the 
world ; He is closely united with the world, and fills every 
pore, and yet is not in the least entangled in it. While 
souls, by means of His Satti, experience births and deaths 
in accordance with their previous kanmam, He is eternally 
)ure, and is one on whom the nature of souls never comes 
i. e. he is never made the subject of their joys and sorrows 
n consequence of kanmam]. 


The first stanza teaches the nature of the union of God 
with souls. 

1. The body, which is constructed of bone, skin, muscles, 
tendons, etc., and which possesses organs formed from the 
Elements, is so intimately united with the soul, that the 
soul always responds when the name of the body is men- 
tioned. Such is the intimate connection of God with the 
soul ; yet God is not the soul, nor is the soul God. Some- 
times God appears as the soul, and at other times, as other 
than the soul. 

The proposition, that God exists in intimate union with 
the soul, and yet is other than the soul, has analogical proof 


in the union of soul and body, it having been before shown 
that the soul and body are different. 

The following stanza asserts, against the VetMntists, who 
maintain that God and the soul are not two, that they are 
two, and that without God the soul has no power of action. 

2. The Vetham teach that he who first existed alone, who 
is eternal, pure [or free from malamj, and who has no equals 
or superiors, is one. That one is God ; and thou who sayest 
that they [God and the soul] are one, art the soul. Thou 
art entangled in pdsam; and since thou art entangled in 
pdsam, this, by the rule of exception, evinces God to be 
free. If there be not a God distinct [from the soul], the 
soul would have no power of motion or action ; just as the 
simple letters would be mute, if there were no vowel a («sy). 

The proposition, that God and soul are intimately united, 
and that the soul has no power of action without God, finds 
analogical proof in the case of the vowel a and the simple 

The following stanza explains the union in which the 
soul and God cease to appear as two. 

3. As sound and the tune, so God and the world. As 
sound is to the tune, filling all its notes, so is God to the 
world, pervading all its forms. As neither tune nor notes 
can exist without a musician, so there must be three eternal 

As the fruit and its flavor, so God and the world. As 
the flavor pervades all parts of the fruit, so God pervades 
the world from the first. 

As the oil and the sesamum-seed, so God and the world. 
As the oil so exists in the seed that it can be separated, so 
God pervades the world, and yet is separable from it. 

The Satti of Deity perfectly fills and pervades the world, 
and is so intimately connected with it that they do not 
appear to be two ; and yet she is something different from 
the world. 

Therefore, the difficult Vetham, without asserting that 
they are one, do declare that they are attuvitham, not two 
[a unity in duality]. 

It is maintained, that, in reference to the union of God 
with the soul, or the world, attuvitham does not mean ekam 


(ersth), oneness, for the term elcam is used in the Vetham, and 
might be here used, if that were the strict idea. The mean- 
ing is, that God [and His Satti] exist in so close a union 
with the soul, etc., that they are not apprehended as two. 

The very existence of the person who asserts that the 
expression attuvitham means merely oneness, proves that he 
and God are not one. The expression does not mean that 
they are two ; but that they are so united as not to be [or 
appear to be] separate persons. 

The proposition, that God is thus intimately united with 
the universe, and actuates it, is established by the analogy 
of sound and tune. The proposition, that He stands from 
eternity in this intimate union with all things, is proved by 
the analogy of the fruit and its flavor. The proposition, 
that God is in such a sense one with the world, or the soul, 
and yet different from it, is argued from the analogy of the 
seed and the oil. 

The next stanza meets those who assert that attuvitham 
means oneness, and that Piramam (l9jtldu>) [Brahm] is every 
thing ; and confirms the foregoing position. 

4. God produces the world, and stands in so close a union 
with it, that He may be said to be the world [or to exist 
as the world], just as we speak of the whet-stone, which is 
composed of gold-wax and sand. Because God enters into 
my soul, when I stand freed from the influences of the 
senses, etc., I might speak of myself as the world. This 
entrance of God into the soul is not a new thing. The fact 
of God's close union with me from eternity becomes mani- 
fest [or is understood], when I become free from the control 
of the senses. 

Here, then, the proposition that God and the world stand 
as attuvitham, is proved by the analogy of the whet-stone, 
which is composed of both wax and sand. 

"Without the divine agency, neither merit nor demerit has 
any influence on the soul ; and when the soul is affected by 
either, it is only that which previously existed, that has any 
effect ; and when God produces any such effect, He does it 
without either desire or hatred. 

5. When a body comes into existence in accordance with 
previously existing kanmam, the soul to which that body 
belongs, will come and unite with it. 


But how is it that kanmam is found in connection with 
the soul, which is pure from eternity ? The soul is not pure 

Ji. e. free from kanmam] from eternity. Its previously per- 
brmed vinei (aS&ar), action [= kanmam], exists with it from 

Note. — The primordial state of the soul is that of a being which, 
though in itself essentially pure, is enshrouded in p&sam, and is thus 
rendered relatively impure. I have never met with any attempt to 
explain the assumed fact that the soul is thus originally enthralled. 

That which causes the existence of body is Jcanman; how 
then can kanmam exist without a body ; They [kanmam 
and body] exist from eternity in relation one to another, as 
the seed to the tree ; and, also, as the crop of grain to the 
food it furnishes, and to the seed it yields for another year. 

He [God], the giver of whatever is needed, is the cause 
of these entanglements in pdsam, and ultimately secures 
liberation from the same, 

God, in these operations, is like the field whioh yields its 
stores to those who cultivate it. The field that is sown with 
red paddy [has no intrinsic power to vary its products, and 
thus] does not yield grain differing from what was sown. 
So God, like the field, operates without desire or hatred 
[simply carries out the law of Jcanman, having no will or 
power to do otherwise]. 

But is he, who thus operates, unaffected by emotion or 
purpose? He is entirely unaffected. These operations trans- 
pire simply in his presence. The products of the field are 
produced, and are matured, while the field lies perfectly 
passionless ; so it is with the works of God, 

We have here the proposition, paksham, that God, with- 
out the emotion of desire, or of hatred, separates souls from 
bodies, and reunites them [with other bodies] ; the reason, 
ethu, which declares that this is done in accordance with 
kanmam; the analogy, sa-pdksham, wherein the divine ope- 
rations are compared to the field ; and the exception, vi-pak- 
sham, by which it is proved that there would be no operations 
[no effects produced], if there were no previous kanmam. 

The assertions, that souls can assume bodies for them- 
selves in accordance with the law of kanmam; that kanmam 
spontaneously attaches itself to bodies ; and, consequently, 


that no God is required, are, in the following stanza, denied ; 
and, on the contrary, it is maintained, that these several 
operations are the works of God. 

6. While souls are eating the fruit of their former kan- 
mam, a process which is called [pirdrattam (tSljnrjrppw), or] 
pirdratta-hanmam, they are unconsciously sowing for a future 
crop [to be gathered and eaten]. This process [of sowing] is 
called [dkdmiyam (^stntiiuw), or] dhdmiya-hanmam. These 
actors [souls], while thus sowing, come into [organic] union 
with the prospective kanmam [future crop] which they must 
eventually eat ; and by this means they will be compelled, 
just as the iron is drawn to the magnet, to gather what they 
have sown, and to eat it. This process [of reaping] is called 
[sagnchitham (g=^&^ui), or] sagnchiiha-kanmam. 

Now, if they do not experience all this through the agency 
of God, who is there that is able to understand and properly 
bring together all these things, [carrying souls] through all 
their various and respective yoni (CWsufl), matrices, in all 
their worlds [or places of existence] ? 

The next stanza teaches that the three malam, divavam, 
mdyei and kanmam, are eternal; that God is omniscient; 
that souls have limited understanding; and that Deity 
changes not. 

Note. — The three malam are, according to this School, coexistent 
with souls, each soul being enveloped in this complex ethereal exist- 
ence, just as the unblown flower is in its calix, or its archetype in 
its primordial undeveloped organism. Mdyei is primordial matter, 
that from which the body is developed. Anavam is original sin, or 
the source of moral darkness and suffering to souls. Inherent in 
Mayei, in all its modes of existence, anavam imparts its own charac- 
ter to the whole developed organism. Kanmam is that imperative 
power [or fate] which inheres in the organism of the soul, in all 
stages of its existence, prescribes its course, and meets out its deserts. 

7. Anava-, mdyd- and kanma-malam, are fetters to souls, 
coexisting with them, just as the husk does with paddy, and 
rust with copper, which are not new things, but are aborig- 
inal and coexistent. God actuates these malam [bringing 
out all that is required by kanmam], just as the sun's rays 
cause some flowers to open, and others to close. He does 
this for the purpose of removing dnava-malam. 


The propositions, that the soul is eternally entangled in 
these malam ; and that the three malam always coexist, are 
established by the analogies of the paddy with its husk, and 
the copper with its rust. 

The proposition, that God carries on, without change or 
emotion in Himself, the five operations, which are for the 
purpose of removing the malam, is proved by the analogy 
of the sun's influence on flowers. 

Souls are declared to have limited understanding, because 
they are from eternity entangled in malam; while God is 
asserted to be omniscient. 

God remains unchanged in all His operations [or unaffected 
by them], just as the sun does, while flowers open and shut 
in its presence. 

As the same solar ray varies in its influence [on flowers, 
etc.], so does God in His operations. His Sit-Satti (S/b&fits)), 
Illuminating Satti, assumes different forms, sometimes that 
of Ichchd-Satti, sometimes that of Qndnd-Satti, and some- 
times that of Kiriyd-Satti. In this way the Lord himself 
becomes the possessor of the powers of resolution, produc- 
tion and preservation, and thus appears as the subject of 
ichchei, gndnam, and kirikei. 

Note. — The idea is, that God in His essential nature, as the Great 
Male, or Father, of the universe, is subject to no change, in affection 
or otherwise. But, by His intimate union with His coexistent Satti, 
He becomes the apparent subject, as well as source, of emotions, and 
of all the properties of an operative being. 

The next stanza treats of the course of souls through 
births and deaths, and refutes the doctrine of those who say 
that souls have no understanding at death, and that they 
have no other body than their gross body of sense. 

8. As the mind, that understands the things which the 
soul sees, feels, and possesses, when awake, does, in sleep, 
forget them all, so the soul, at death, leaves its stula-sariram, 
gross body, composed of eyes, ears, etc., which was prepared 
for it in accordance with the demands of its before acquired 
hanmam, and with its sukkuma-sanram ((gaQjtn&iFjrih), vehic- 
ular body, adapted to its existence in heaven or hell, passes 
off through the air. The soul thus conditioned, passes as 
an atom [or invisible being] with its sukkuma-sariram, and, 
quicker than thought reaches its object, falls into the womb 
at conception. 


It is here implied, that sometimes the soul, because of its 
enormous sins, will lie as a stone, for a season, without fell- 
ing into any womb. 

At other times, the soul is so rapid in its transition from 
one body to another, that it will be re-invested without 
apparently leaving its former body, just as the span-worm 
does not entirely quit one position till it reaches the next. 
This further implies that certain intermediate steps [or 
births] may be omitted, so that it [the soul] may at once 
take a body fitted either for heaven or hell. 

As one, in a dreaming state, understands and acts differ- 
ently from what he does when awake, so the soul's under- 
standing will undergo a change in accordance with its suc- 
cessive bodies; but it is not destroyed while the body is 
changing. Thus the soul, with its sukkuma-sarlram, is ever 
prepared either for enjoyment in heaven, or for suffering in 
hell [as its kanmam may demand]. These points are estab- 
lished by the analogy of dreaming. 

There are three kinds of bodies, viz: ydthand-sariram 
(<urris<Gis)fi?jru>), body of agony, capable of suffering in hell 
[yet indestructible by pain] ; puihasdra-sariram (L^sftrjr- 
*/fj£o), subtile body, fitted for heaven [the world of minor 
gods, where the body is such as the gods have, over whom 
Indra rules] ; parundma-sarvram (u(^@)£off/fj^), changeable 
body, adapted to this world of kanmam [or probation]. 

Note. — The Tamil S&stiris speak of five sarlram. These are 
commonly denominated : stulam (eo&reOw), lingam (j^eSthsw), &t- 
tumam (^jy,/ggiu>u>), param'-dttumam (ujTLDtrpgiLDw^ and male 1 - 
attumam lu>eiTfigiu>u>). The stulam, and the lingam, which is the 
same as the sukkumam, coexist whenever the stulam exists at all. 
The others are higher successive developments, which the soul comes 
to enjoy as it advances in gn&nam, divine knowledge. 

The author next meets and refutes several heterodox 
notions, viz: that, respecting the two bodies, stulam and 
sukkumam, one is developed only as the other is destroyed ; 
that arivu, the understanding, perishes [with the body] ; 
that the yoni, matrices, do not change [or that there are not 
various forms for the same soul] ; that God exists as the 
soul, and that they [God and the soul] will eventually be- 
come one again ; and that souls are all one being [individu- 


alized by development, and all eventually to be resolved 
into the great fountain Soul]. 

In opposition to these several dogmas, the author shows 
that the understanding and the body will suffer change, in 
the way of new productions, and that the soul is subject to 
a diversity of births [or forms]. 

9. The case of the soul [at death], when it leaves its stula- 
tekam [=sstula-sariram], and, as one possessed of sukkuma- 
fekam, takes another gross body, is like the snake's passing 
out of its old skin [with its new skin] ; or like one in a 
dream, as before mentioned ; or like those who [through 
their high mystic attainments in sitti] leave their own 
bodies, and enter the bodies of others. The oneness of the 
atmosphere and the air in a pot, when the pot is broken, 
does not represent this case [i. e. the state of the soul at 
death ; for it is as distinct a being at death as before, being 
still organized and intelligent]. Nor does the case of a 
dancer, who represents different characters by simply chang- 
ing his dress, meet the case [i. e. the soul is not individual- 
ized merely by its organism ; but it is in itself an individual 

The similitude of the serpent's leaving his slough, is given 
in reference to those who say that one body is destroyed 
when another is developed ; that is, to such as maintain that 
there is no sukkuma-sarlram different from stulam, it is here 
proved, that there is [such a vehicular body], just as the 
snake has a new skin before it drops its old one. 

The import of the similitude of the dream is, that the soul 
[in its transition-stage] is just as if it were united with the 
sukkuma-tekam in a dream, when its understanding, which 
is connected with the stula-tekam, and which in the waking 
state sees, hears, tastes, smells and feels, is not destroyed. 

The similitude of a person's leaving his own body, and 
entering the body of another, meets the assertion of those 
who maintain that the yoni, matrices, of souls are not varied. 

The declaration, that the state of the transmigrating soul 
is not like that of the dancer referred to, is given as the 
refutation of the doctrine of those who assert that souls are 
one in essence. 

The showing that the similitude of the atmosphere and 
the air in a pot, does not represent the state of the soul at 
death, is given as a refutation of the doctrine of the Mayd- 
v&ihi (wn-iuireurrjg)) [a School of VetMntists]. 


The propositions, that the sukkuma-sariram is never de- 
stroyed ; that arivu, the understanding, does not perish in 
the process of transmigration ; and that the achchu (<sy<£<9?) 
[=yoni], matrices, are varied [to meet the demands of Jean- 
mam], are supported, respectively, by the analogies of the 
snake, the dream, and the soul of a devotee passing into the 
body of another. 

The all-pervading nature of God is next explained. God 
fills all space, •without being limited or confined by any 

10. If you assert that, according to the doctrine that God 
fills all those things which may be designated by the terms 
he, she, it, He is not one being, nor many, but both one and 
many, the truth is, that He exists as perfectly filling every 
place. He is not divided so as to occupy individual places, 
as an individual. None of these things designated by he, 
she, it, exist isolated [or entirely separate from God]. Just 
as the sun's light, while it spreads every where, is not con- 
fined [or entangled by any thing], so it is with God. If 
God and the universe be thus, how, it may be asked, do 
Sathasivan, who combines in himself the Male and Female 
Energies of Deity, and the other great gods, exist ? Sathd- 
sivan and the other gods, and also the universe, are the 
servants of Deity, and perform the work of servants in 
their respective places. 

The proposition, that God is not confined to any place, 
and does not exist as many things, but exists pervading all 
space, is argued from the analogy of the sun's light. 



Proof of the Existence of Soul. 

Suttiram. — Soul exists in a body formed, as a machine, 
from Mdyei, in its developments. That there is a soul, is 
evinced by the rule of exception, [by which it is asserted of 
every thing else] that this, that, etc., is not the soul. Be- 
cause, the soul says, this is my body, therefore, it exists as 
something other than the body ; just as one says : these are 
my things, therefore they are something different from me. 


Because the soul has a knowledge of the five Perceptive 
Organs [or understands by them], therefore, it is other than 
they. And because it understands its course through the 
Avattei [the organisms of life, intelligence, etc.], therefore, 
it exists as something different from them. During sleep, 
there is neither eating, nor other action ; therefore, the soul 
exists as something different from the body. Because the 
soul understands instruction given [any communication 
made to it], therefore, it must have existence. 

Note. — The foregoing argument from the condition of one in 
sleep, is based on the assumed truth that life and soul are essentially 
the same. Body is regarded, in any condition, as mere matter. 
Therefore, it is inferred, that, as life manifestly continues while the 
body sleeps, there must be soul distinct from body, 

TJbei. — The proposition, that soul exists, is here estab- 
lished by the illustrative examples given, viz : this and that 
are not the soul ; this is my body ; it [the soul] knows the 
Perceptive Organs, and the way through the Avattei; it un- 
derstands when a thing is made known ; when one is asleep, 
there is neither eating nor acting. 


The first stanza goes to show that the existence of the 
soul is proved by the rule of exception — that this or that 
is not the soul. In reference to the objection that Pathi, 
Pasu, Pdsam, have no existence as eternal entities, and that 
body itself has no understanding, it is here shown, that 
those three first things are realities, and that the body has 
no understanding, but that the soul has. 

1. That which stands inseparably connected with the five 
mystic symbols [a, u, m, Vintu, Natharn] ; that which says : 
I am not the Seven Tdthu (fgastsirgi), essential parts of the 
human body [viz : humors, blood, semen, brain and mar- 
row, skin, muscles, bones], nor the Organs of Action, nor 
the five Perceptive Organs — that which, having thus distin- 
guished itself from all these, still says of all things else : 
this, this, etc., is not I — that one thing which thus exists, 
distinguished from all these, is the soul [or, lit, is thyself]. 
Now, thou art in union with the Perceptive Organs etc. ; 
yet, just as the mirror, which reflects the objects near it, is 
not itself those objects, so the Perceptive Organs etc., which 


reflect or show thee to others, and which are mere inert 
effects from the material cause, Mdyei, and in which thou 
art developed, are not thyself. And though thou shouldest 
say : because I stand in the five Perceptive Organs, and 
know all things, therefore I am God, yet know that thou 
art not He who is exalted above the highest. 

Thou [the soul] art not God, nor Mdyei, nor the various 
organs of the body ; but thou art alone, an individual being, 
an eternal one. 

The material, bodily organs exhibit the pleasures and 
pains which the soul experiences in its progressive course, 
just as the mirror reflects the objects near it. 

As the mirror, without the sun's light, cannot show any 
thing to the observer, so the soul, in union with the Per- 
ceptive Organs etc., has no life [or manifestation], without 
the agency of God. 

Hence, there must be three eternal entities [Deity, Soul, 

The proposition, that the soul can have no animation 
when dissociated from God, is established by the analogy of 
the mirror, the adjacent object, and the sun's light; and by 
the rule of exception, according to which it is declared, that, 
when no object is presented before the mirror, and, also, 
when there is no light from the sun, then the mirror can 
reflect nothing. 

It is shown, in the next stanza, that the soul exists in the 
body. Some ask, whether the body itself has no under- 
standing, and whether utiarvu (a-emr/fa/) \j=^fS o/, arivu], 
the understanding itself, cannot know [or perceive] things. 
In answer to this, it is shown that neither body nor under- 
standing can have knowledge. 

2. According to universal custom in the world, one says 
of his own property : this is mine ; and of what is not his 
own : this is not mine ; which shows that man is something 
else than his property. Therefore, as thou [soul] art in the 
habit of saying of thy hands, thy feet, thy body, which are 
not essential parts [or properties] of thyself: they are mine; 
and of arivu, the understanding, which is not thine intrinsic- 
ally : it is mine ; so, since what one claims to be his own, is 
something different from himself, these organic properties, 
which thou claimest, are something other than thyself. 


It is customary to say, respecting any thing which is 
known : I thought so ; I did so ; I said so. Therefore, the 
possessor of arivu, understanding, must be something differ- 
ent from it. 

This common mode of expression [this is mine, etc.], is 
analogical proof that the soul is different from the body ; 
so that this whole argument for the soul's existence, is con- 
tained in the expression : my body. 

The existence of the soul is next proved from its knowl- 
edge of the Perceptive Organs. This is designed to meet 
those who say that there is no other soul than these five 

3. The Perceptive Organs differ from one another in their 
functions, one not apprehending the objects of another. 
These organs, called body, tongue, eyes, nose, and ears, may 
all convey the sensation of touch, which power they [the last 
four] have besides their own respective functions. If there 
is a being which can understand the objects of the five Per- 
ceptive Organs, which are indicated by the five mystic let- 
ters, viz : sound, tangibility, form, flavor, odor, thou [soul] 
art that one. Thou canst see, since thou art one who dis- 
tinguishest the objects of these several organs, that thou art 
not one of them. 

Note. — These five mystic letters are those of the panch&kkaram 
in its third stage of development. They are na-masi-v&-ya (kld@. 
&imu). See this Journal, Vol. JL p. 154. 

Because there is something which, after it has perceived 
and understood the objects of sense, and after those objects 
are removed, still exists reflecting on them, therefore, that 
something must be the soul, which differs from all those 
things. That it is so, inquire and know. 

This is established by stating the sdthanam, premises, and 
the sdttiyam, conclusion. 

The soul's existence is proved from its knowing the course 
of the Avattei. To those who assert that it is the pirdna- 
vdyu that exercises the functions of understanding, it is an- 
swered, that then there would be no understanding when 
the Avattei are resolved [or in a quiescent state]. 

4. While the pirdna-vdyu is carrying on the process of 
breathing, in the body respecting which it is said: thou 

[soulj art not it, and while the Perceptive Organs lie dor- 
mant [in sleep], the soul, passing to a position in which its 
active functions [or organs] are dormant, and from whence 
it passes out, with its vehicular body, will, in its dreams, 
carry on its sports, now riding on an elephant, now crown- 
ing it with flowers, and now performing various exploits, 
etc. ; and then, again, is at once restored to its own gross 
body. Hence it is plain, that thou who doest this, art not 
the pirdna-vdyu, nor the body. 

Respecting the existence of the soul at the time of sleep, 
when there is no action. Some say that the combination of 
the Elements produces intelligence, just as the mingling of 
turmeric and lime produces redness. And some assert that 
the bodily organs have intelligence. 

5. The body which, as some say, sees and understands all 
things, sees not, when that which causes it to see is dormant. 
In sleep, one lies merely breathing, neither eating nor act- 
ing; therefore, that which sees and understands [in that 
state] is the soul. But is it said, that arivu, the understand- 
ing, is produced by the combination of the five Elements ? 
Then arivu would never vary in its operations, and would 
never become dormant. Depending on the combination of 
the Elements, which is permanent [while the body lasts], it 
must always be the same. On the same principle [if arivu 
is a mere result of bodily organization — a mere phenomenon 
of organism], eating and drinking, being other phenomena 
of the body, should continue also, when the body sleeps. 

Though the organ of the eyes be perfect, and the object 
before it be illuminated, yet, if the attention be absorbed in 
another [a mental] object, the eyes see nothing. That arivu 
which apprehends the object of attention, must be some- 
thing else than the eye, or body. 

Here, the reasoning being from effect to cause, the argu- 
ment stands in the form of premise and conclusion. 

The sixth stanza meets certain objections respecting the 
conscious, thinking soul. There are some [the Sivdtiuvithi 
(SeuirpgieSlgl)] who say that one and the same being [God] 
exists as sw'-dttumam (9eurr^^]ww), the sentient, living soul* 
as param'-dttumam (ujrto/r.s^toto), the soul of the universe • 
and as Para-Piramarn (usui3jrww) [Brahm], Supreme Deity; 


and that, in these cases, there is no real change, other than 
what the atmosphere undergoes by being confined in ves- 
sels of different forms. This idea is here refuted. 

6. That which understands some things, which desires to 
know what may be known, which seeks for those who can 
teach these things, which is ignorant of some things, which 
forgets some things once known, which, though its active, 
auxiliary bodily organs, as the Avatiei, lie dormant in sleep, 
yet is itself still active, and understands as when awake — 
that something must be different from God who knows at 
once all things. That being which understands things as 
above mentioned, and is the servant of God, is the soul. 
All who know the truth, will testify to this. 

God is omniscient, and destitute of pleasure and pain. 
But the soul is of limited understanding, is capable of being 
instructed, is subject to the Avattei, and experiences pleasure 
and pain. Therefore, the dogma of the Sivdttuvithi, that 
the sentient soul and the soul of the universe are one, is 
here refuted. This is done by a statement of premises and 
conclusion, in which the cause is argued from the effect. 

The body, which is formed from Mdy&i, as a machine, ex- 
ists under different [forms and] names. Hence is inferred 
the existence of soul. But the doctrine that Sittu, Spirit 
[Deity], is itself changed into [or is developed as] the world, 
and exists also as sivan, life, is here denied. 

7. It may be known by inquiry, that all the Tattuvam 
from hahi [including five of the Vittiyd- Tattuvam] to piru- 
thuvi ^[the first of the Attuma- Tattuvam, hence including all 
the Attuma-Tattuvam, and all but two of the Viltiyd], are 
developed from, and are resolved into, Mdyei. The body, 
with the indwelling soul, is addressed as a person, just as 
we designate a lamp by the word light, when one has 
come to understand, through Sivan, Siva-gndnam, the wis- 
dom of Sivan, thus having become pure [or free from the 
darkness of malam], and then inquires into these things, he 
knows that his body is composed of all the Tattuvam from 
hahi to piruthuvi, and that he [his soul] is different from 
his body. 

The body is here compared to a lamp, on the ground 
that the lamp is constituted of the vessel, wick, and oil, 


The idea that the soul understands things through the 
instrumentality of the body, and yet has no understanding 
independent of God, is taught by the expression : when 
the soul has come to understand, through Sivan, Siva- 
gndnam, etc. 

It is here shown, that all from kalei to piruthuvi is mate- 
rial ; and that this is not the soul. 

The proposition, that the soul, operating in its several 
bodily organs, has understanding, is argued from the anal- 
ogy of the lamp. 


Respecting the Soul in its JRelations to the Antakaranam. 

Suttiram. — The soul is not one of the Antakaranam 
[manam, putti, akangk&ram, and sittam], but it is that which 
stands intimately united with them. The soul naturally 
exists [from eternity] in dnava-malam, just as pure copper 
does within its rusty exterior ; on this account, it is in itself 
destitute of understanding. The soul [when developed] 
enters into the five Avattei, and exists with them, just as a 
king with his prime minister and other attendants. 

Urei. — Having previously spoken of the external Tattu- 
vam, the author here treats of the utkaranam {s-LLssressrih), 
internal Tattuvam [= the Antakaranam]. 

When an earthly king, having made an excursion with 
his prime minister and other attendants, returns to his pal- 
ace, he appoints suitable persons to wait at all the outer 
gates, and stations a guard at the entrance of the inner 
courts, and then retires to his private apartments. Thus 
the soul, in the body, its pirdna-vdyu standing as a guard to 
its inner courts, enters into the five Avattei. 


It is first shown, that the soul is not one of the Antakara- 
nam. To such as assert that the Antakaranam have under- 
standing, it is here answered, that the soul understands, not 

1. Though the five Perceptive Organs apprehend their 
respective objects by means of the Antakaranam, yet no one 
of the Antakaranam is the same as any one of these organs. 


Manam and the others, which are developed in the body m 
accordance with the law of hanmam, perform their respect- 
ive functions as instruments of the soul, just as the Percept- 
ive Organs do theirs as instruments of the Antakaranam. 
This is like waves in the ocean. 

Here, the sea is the soul, the waves are the Antakaranam, 
and the wind is malam. As the waves rise according to the 
state of the wind, so the objects of sense come up in accord- 
ance with Icanmam. The soul, in one of the Antakaranam, 
and by the instrumentality of one of the Perceptive Organs, 
understands such objects. 

The proposition, that the soul understands by means of 
the Antakaranam, is established by the analogy of the sea 
and the waves. 

The fact that the soul is no one of the Antakaranam, 
though they perform their functions only as its instruments, 
is analogous to the fact that, though the Perceptive Organs 
have no power of perception except as instruments of the 
Antakaranam, yet no one of the Antakaranam is the same 
as any one of the Perceptive Organs. 

It is next shown, that the soul is intimately connected 
with the Antakaranam. The nature of the Antakaranam is 
pointed out, and the soul shown to be different from them. 

2. Sittam is the organ of [clear and determinative] thought. 
Akangkdram is the darkening organ, the foundation of self 
and pride ; it leads [the soul] to say [in view of its attain- 
ments] : " I, mine, none like me," etc. Putti is the organ of 
discrimination, that is, it discriminates and defines the ob- 
jects which come before the mind in accordance with kan- 
mam. Manam is the organ of attention, and presents objects 
[through the senses], but does not clearlv define them. That 
which stands in these several organs, and performs variously 
their respective functions, is the soul. By means of the dif- 
ferent Antakaranam, the soul presents various phases [or 
mental phenomena], just as the sun varies in its expression 
[as to heat and light], at rising, at noon, in the afternoon, 
and at setting. 

As a person tastes and points out the six flavors, while 
no one of them, e. g. bitterness, is conscious of its own taste ; 
so the soul, while the Antakaranam are unconscious of their 
respective natures, understands them all. 


The proposition, that the soul is something different from 
the Antakaranam, and that, when in union with them, it 
exhibits their respective phenomena [or performs their dif- 
ferent functions], is argued from the analogy of the sun, 
which is something different from the several parts of the 
day which it marks, and which presents different appear- 
ances and intensity in those different parts of the day. 

Note. — The Antakaranam are a sort of intermediate instrumental 
agents, standing between the soul and the senses. Through them, 
also, the soul, aided by divine illumination, is enabled to understand 
things in a truer light and in truer relations, than it is possible for 
the senses to present them. By the aid of manam, attention and 
simple perception are secured. By the aid of putti, the soul gets a 
distinct and definite idea of the object presented. Through the 
agency of akanffkdram, the soul is individualized, and is led to 
appropriate to itself its attainments, and thus exhibits selfishness and 
pride. Through the organ sittam, the soul carries on the processes 
of thought, inference, etc., and is thus enabled to soar into the intel- 
lectual regions. 

It is next shown, how the five mystic letters become the 
proper forms of the Antakaranam and of the soul. 

3. The letter a (^/) is the proper form of akanglcdram; 
u (e_) is the proper form of putti; m (w) is the proper form 
of manam; Vintu (eSihgi) is the proper form of sittam; 
N&iham (isrr^w), which is never dissociated from the other 
four symbols, is the proper form of the soul. If you exam- 
ine into these five symbols, you will see that they form the 
Piranava-sorupam (iSljressreijQ^iT^uua^ the proper form of 
Piranavam. The arivu, understanding, of the soul, when 
thus favorably combined with these five symbols, is like the 
high tides of the sea. 

When the soul, still in union with them, causes the Anta- 
karanam, and the letters, to speak out, Piranavam takes the 
form of Natham. Then the understanding of the soul is as 
the tides of the ocean [i. e. in its highest degree, like the 
high tides of the sea, which arise at the time of the conjunc- 
tion of the sun and moon]. 

When the Antakaranam and the letters cooperate per- 
fectly, the understanding of the soul is greatly diversified 
in its operations. 

VOL. IV. 10 


■This proposition is established by the analogy of the sea 
and its tides. 

Note. — Piranavam is a technical term, of deep mystic meaning. 
It is commonly used in all parts of India, wherever the higher doc- 
trines are understood. Prof.Wilson defines it to be " the mystical 
name of the Deity, or syllable Om." It has, however, a more extensive 
meaning. In the sense of Om, it symbolizes Para-Piramam, the 
first developed Male Deity; Athi- Satti, the Prime, or first developed, 
Satti; and Attumam, soul. But, as seen above, it is composed of, 
or embraces, the five mystic letters, and hence, as a name of Deity, 
it extends to the five superior developed gods, viz : Sathdsivan, Ma- 
yesuran, Ruttiran, Vishnu and Brahma. Tamil authors further teach 
that from this same Piranavam there arise eleven other particulars, 
beside these five letters, which are mystic developments of Deity, 
its Satti, etc., in the human body. But according to the more com- 
mon, and more correct, Tamil usage, Piranavam is to be under- 
stood as the complex symbol of the sacred five,_and an incarnation 
of the powers of thefive gods. Ongkaram, or Om, frequently has 
the same meaning. Om, however, often indicates the common Triad : 
Brahma, Vishnu and Sivan, whose respective indices are a, u, m, 
which are the constituents of Om (aum). 

Because these five letters are material, they cannot ope- 
rate except as instruments of the gods inherent in them. 
So, also, the Antakaranam, being material organs, though in 
close union with these letters, cannot act except as instru- 
ments of the soul occupying them. 

4. The gods, which have a connection with Piranavam, 
are innumerable [i. e. there may be innumerable develop- 
ments of the five operative gods, each of which five-fold 
classes may act through these organic symbols]. But the 
supreme divinity of Ndtham is Sathdsivan; that of Vintu 
is Mayesuran ; that of m is Ruttiran ; that of u is Vishnu ; 
and that of a is Brahmsi. As there is no profit [from Pira- 
navam] either to the whole Piranavam, or to the letters sev- 
erally, but the advantage is all his who understands them ; 
so there is no profit to the Antakaranam, either from the 
letters or their divinities, but it wholly accrues to the soul. 

This statement, that these letters are the proper forms of 
the Antakaranam, and that Sathdsivan, and the rest of the 
five, are the prime divinities of these letters, is the doctrine 
of the S&stiram. 


It is next taught, that the soul is naturally, and from 
eternity, obscured [without intelligence], on account of its 
connection with dnava-malam. Contrary to those who assert 
that the soul is pure [or unentangled in malam], but is ob- 
scured by the body, and, also, to those who say that puru- 
shan, the disembodied soul, is itself intelligent, it is here 
asserted, that it is not so ; and the proper state of the soul 
is given, and the nature of mdyei is explained. 

5. If the soul, which is something different from the body 
which is formed from mdyei, cannot see by means of the 
body which it holds as a lamp, then it has no means of 
knowing and experiencing any of the fruits^ of Jcanmam 
which appear in the various objects of sense. Anava-malam 
enshrouds the soul from eternity, just as wood conceals fire 
[latent heat] within it, so as not to be consumed by it. 

The proposition, that dnava-malam shrouds the under- 
standing of the soul, is argued from the analogy of the wood 
and the fire. 

Anava-malam is darkness ; and mdyei is a lamp. Until 
dnava-malam is removed, mdyd-lekam (unrtuirQ^siH), body 
formed from mdyei, is the lamp [of the soul] ; but when 
dnava-malam is dispersed by the sun of wisdom, it will 
cease to be a lamp. 

View of the soul, when it stands, as a king with his min- 
isters, in the Avattei. Here is presented that state of things 
which exists when dnava-malam obscures the understanding 
of the soul. 

Note. — In order to understand what follows, we must consider 
the soul as in the human body, commencing with its first stage of 
development there, and rising thence to a conscious and active exist- 
ence, in its organism. The states of the soul called Avattei, are here 
named, and imperfectly explained. For a more complete view of 
the Avattei, see the preceding article, pp. 19-25 of this volume. 

6. The soul in muldihdram (opedrrpirjnJi), the lowest condi- 
tion of the embodied soul, which is the Avattei called turiyd- 
thllham, has no connection with any of its bodily organs, or 
Tattuvam. In the turiya-avattei, in the region of the navel, 
it becomes united with pirdna-vdyu. Passing thence to the 
region of the heart, it comes into the Avattei called sulutti, 
where it forms a connection with sittam. Passing thence to 


the throat, it attains to the Avattei called soppanam, where it 
is always associated with twenty-five Tattuvam, viz: the 
five Eudimental Elements, sattam, etc. ; the Five Vital Airs, 
vasanam, etc. ; the Ten Vital Airs, pirdna-vdyu, etc. ; the four 
Antakaranam, manam, etc. ; and purushan [one of the Vit- 
tiyd- Tattuvam]. Proceeding thence to the forehead, to the 
Avattei called sdkkiram [between the eyebrows], it conies 
into the possession of the five Organs of Action, vdkku, etc. ; 
and the five Perceptive Organs. In this state, the soul has 
become a conscious and intelligent being. Yet it is wanting 
in several of the higher Tattuvam, viz : the five Siva-Tattu- 
vam; the six Vittiyd- Tattuvam not named above; and the 
five Elements. 

Respecting the Meldl-Avattei, the vision of the Avattei, and 
the transition of the soul to the Sutta- Avattei. 

7. The soul, which is thus possessed of the sdJcJcira-avattei, 
in the forehead, will, in the same place, also come into 
possession of the five Meldl-Avattei, beginning with sdkkiram, 
just as it came into possession of the Keldl- Avattei. In 
the same region, in the forehead, when the soul has come to 
understand the courses of these several organs, as it has 
[before] left one set and joined another, so it will quit the 
latter [the Meldl-Avattei], and take possession [of the Sutta- 

This is to be understood by the instruction of the Guru. 
The divine grace [in him] is our tdrakam, support [or source 
of true knowledge]. 


For the Further Explanation of the Nature of the Embodied 
Soul, the Way in which God actuates Souls, and the Proper 
Forms of the Three Malam, commonly called Kanman, MS- 
yei and Ana vam, are here presented. 

Suttikam. — As before stated, the five Perceptive Organs 
perceive nothing except as instruments of the soul, and yet 
while they [actuated by the soul] perceive the objects pre- 
sented to them, they have no knowledge of the soul. So 
souls, while they understand, whatever they know, by the 


Aral [or Arul-Satti] of the incomparable God, notwith- 
standing, have [in this process] no knowledge of God. This 
condition of the soul with God is like that of iron before 
the magnet [which is a passive and unconscious recipient of 
a foreign influence]. When the magnet attracts the iron, 
there is in the magnet neither change, nor want of change ; 
just so, when God attracts souls, there is in Him neither 
change nor want of change.- 

Ubei. — The fact that the Perceptive Organs have no 
knowledge of the soul, while in perceiving objects they are 
its instruments, and the consideration that it is because they 
are material that it is so, furnish analogical support for the 
proposition that the soul has no knowledge of God, while it 
understands things as it is acted upon by Him ; and, also, 
for the reason, which is that the soul can know nothing of 
itself, and that, like matter, it must be influenced by God. 


In the first stanza it is shown, that the Perceptive Organs 
have no power of perception except as instruments of the 
soul ; and, further, that the soul cannot apprehend any thing, 
nor be made to eat [experience] even one Jcanmam, without 
the aid of the Perceptive Organs. 

1. While the soul exists as the lord of the Perceptive 
Organs, causing them to operate, these organs are not con- 
scious that they are acting in obedience to the soul, nor that 
the soul is their lord. If the soul, while thus united with 
the Perceptive Organs, does not understand, then it cannot 
know any thing. If the soul, which is thus made intelli- 
gent, does not occupy the Perceptive Organs [as their lord], 
then the eyes cannot see, nor the ears hear, nor the other 
Perceptive Organs apprehend their appropriate objects. 

This is manifest from the fact that, when the soul exists 
in the forehead of an infant, and in certain of the Avattei, 
even the Perceptive Organs have no functional life. 

Here we have the proposition that the soul perceives by 
its union with the Perceptive Organs, and, also, the excep- 
tion which proves that, if the soul .understands not by the 
senses, then it has no understanding. 

It is next taught, that, according to the foregoing princi- 
ple [that the Perceptive Organs are actuated by the soul], 
souls themselves are actuated by God. 


2. Thou [who deniest this] hast forgotten the doctrine of 
the Vetham, that the world exists and moves on in the pres- 
ence of God, Himself being unmoved. Souls, which hold to 
God as their guide, who has said : I will make known things 
[or cause them to be known and felt], according to the kan- 
mam of souls, will see and understand the objects which 
come before them, in accordance with their respective Jean- 
mam. Consider that Sivan, who has the whole world as 
his form, the various yora'-moulds, matrices, as his members, 
and the Ichchd-, Gndnd-, and Kiriyd-Satti as his Antaka- 
ranam [or instrumental causes], is the God who actuates 
souls. Yet he never recognizes any of these instruments 

It is here shown, that the world does not appear to God 
[as a matter of importance], and that it cannot exist perma- 
nently, like a spiritual being, because it is material. 

Here is the proposition that the soul in the Perceptive 
Organs understands things as it is acted upon by God, and 
also the reason why it is so, in that the soul must know and 
experience things in accordance with the law of its kanmam 
[and this, it is maintained, none but God can understand 
and regulate]. 

Next is explained the sense in which God and the world 
exist as attuviiham; also, the manner in which souls are 
obscured by Tirotha-Satti (@Gjrrrpf'i$), the Concealing Satti, 
of God, and yet are not destroyed ; and, also, the sense in 
which tirotham (@Qjrirpu>), the work of concealment or ob- 
scuration, is called grace. 

3. As stars, which exist distinct from the sun, fade away 
at the approach of sunlight, so that they appear not ; so is 
it with souls, which are concealed by the TirStha- Satti of the 
God who seeks [in this process] their mutti, final deliver- 
ance. They are thus enabled to say : we have experienced 
the good and evil of all the objects of sense ; and, by this 
course of experience, they also become united as one with 
God [enveloped in His glory], who is sometimes seen and 
sometimes concealed. Inquire and know this. 

The proposition, that, if the soul eats the fruit of its kan- 
mam by the instrumentality of the Perceptive Organs, and 
under the operation of Tirotha-Satti, then her [Satti's] proper 
form will shine forth [as the garb of the soul], is supported 
by the analogy of the sun and the stars. 


The next stanza treats of the entanglement of the soul in 
pdsam, and its liberation from it ; and of the fact that tiro- 
tham is properly called arul, grace. 

4. Does God exercise no grace except in obscuring souls, 
and in causing them to eat their kanmam, the fruit of their 
own doings ? He exercises grace in balancing the kanmam 
[and thus cancelling them]. Are Tirotha-Satti and Arul-Satti 
two distinct Sattif Tirotha-Satti is Arul-Satti [i. e. they are 
dhTerent forms or developments of the same thing]. When 
was Arul-Satti produced to God ? She is coexistent with 
Deity. Arul-Satti never exists dissociated from God ; and 
God has never, from eternity, existed without Arul-Satti. 
As the sun, which disperses darkness by its own light, is to 
the natural eye, so is God to the vision of those who have 
passed from the influence of Tirotha-Satti, and embraced 
Arul-Satti as their deliverer. 

The proposition, that Sivan will reveal himself by the 
light of Arul, is supported by the analogy of the sun and its 
own light. 



Respecting the Distinctive Natures of Deity, which is sattu, truth, 
and of the World, which is asattu, untruth. 

Suttiram. — Every thing which can be known, is asattu 
(eSy&figi), untruth ; and whatever cannot be known, is suni- 
yam (@arf?ujii), a non-entity. Therefore, what is not inclu- 
ded in these two expressions, is Sivam, Deity, which is sattu, 
(epgi) truth. The established world declares this. 

Ukei.' — How is it, that all which may be known by arivu, 
the understanding, can be called a lie? It is so, on the 
ground that all such things are developed, exist for a while, 
and are destroyed. 

How is it, that what is not known is said to have no ex- 
istence ? It is the same as when we speak of a rope made 
of tortoise-hair, or of flowers in the air, or of a hare's horn. 


To such as think that they are sattu, which is Sivam, it is 
shown, that they are not that sattu. 


1. Hear thou who knowest not that an untruth is a lie. 
All those things which may be known by the understand- 
ing, and designated as this or that, are false. Dost thou 
[the soul] who art not that lie, and who hast seen the truth, 
inquire respecting the lie which thus exists ? If thou con- 
siderest the way in which letters written in water, perish as 
soon as written; if thou dost consider how the apparent 
realities which exist in a dream, vanish when one awakes ; 
and if thou hast noticed how the mirage, which is seen as 
water, disappears as one comes up to test it — then thou hast 
in these things an illustration of the manner in which all 
visible [or known] things are declared to be lies. 

The proposition, that the world is a lie, is supported by 
the analogies of the writing in water, the circumstances of 
a dream, and the mirage. 

What is not included in the two [the known and the un- 
known], is the divine sattu, truth. God cannot be compre- 
hended by the understanding of the soul, but is to be known 
by the help of Arul. 

2. What is the force of the expression, that God is neither 
that which may be proved and known, nor that which can- 
not be known ? If you mean by this, to ask, whether that 
being exists, or does not exist, he who has seen truth, has 
said, considerately, that he exists. But if you mean to say, 
that his existence may be proved and known by the soul's 
understanding, he would become [by this supposition] a 
lie, something different from himself [i. e. he would be mis- 
apprehended]. Therefore, as Si van is beyond the reach of 
thought and speech, Sivam must be that truth [or real entity] 
which cannot be known by the soul's unaided wisdom, but 
is to be known by the help of Arul. What is that Arul? 
It is the divine foot of Sivan. 

Note. — Arul is here used in the sense of Arul-Satti, the goddess 
of grace. She is the source of grace, or illumination, to souls. She 
shines graciously on all who approach the foot of Sivan, or humbly 
worship him. Hence, she is styled " the divine foot." 

The same subject is continued in the next stanza. 

3. All things which may be known [by human reason], 
will perish ; hence, they are called a lie. Therefore, that 
one thing which cannot be known, is Sivam, Deity. If this 


be so, then thou [the soul] who art qualified to know that 
one thing, and receive the benefit of it, art yet ignorant of 
it. Consequently, if thou thinkest it can be ascertained by 
reason, thine apprehension of it will make it a very different 
thing from what it really is. For he who has seen the truth 
[Deity], by the aid of the gracious look of Sat'Kuru (fptscs), 
the True Guru, will understand [Deity] by the grace [Arut] 
of Sivan. Therefore, when one gets a vision of Sivan, he 
will not see him standing alone, as something quite distinct 
[from the soul], but he will see him as inseparably con- 
nected [with himself]. 

The same subject continued. 

4. In meditating on Sivan [with a view to get a vision of 
him], whenever the disciple contemplates him under certain 
imagined forms, he will not discover his true form. When 
one meditates, saying [in his mind] : this meditation sur- 
passes [the prescribed] meditations, even that is one of the 
meditations. If one meditates, saying that there is nothing 
which he should picture to himself in his meditation [i. e. 
that there is nothing to be seen], his meditation will be 
fruitless — -all his fancied happiness in mutti, final liberation, 
will be vain. If one, in performing any meditation, is en- 
abled to say that that meditation [i. e. the object which he 
contemplates in it], is he [Sivan], it will be a proper medita- 
tion on him. Therefore, to meditate, through the Arul- 
[Satti] of Sivan, is the chief thing ; all else is vain. 

The same subject continued. 

5. Because Sivan stands as the arivu of the soul, he can- 
not appear as a distinct being to the apprehension [of the 
soul]. When he comes to be known thus [as connected with 
the soul], he will not be known by the soul's arivu. What 
is the reason that he cannot be thus known ? It is because 
he exists as the life of the soul [i. e. as its spiritual life and 
vision]. On the same principle on which the eye cannot 
see and point out the soul, which stands as the life of the 
eye, and gives it the power of vision, the soul cannot un- 
derstand Sivan, who has become the source of gn&nam, 
spiritual understanding, to the soul; nor can it discriminate 
and point out the evil which is prescribed for it. Hence it 

TOL. IV. 11 


is manifest, that the soul is made to understand by the help 
of Arul. 

The proposition, that Sivan stands not as a stranger [or 
one dissociated], but as the life of the soul, and causes it to 
understand, is supported by the analogy of the eye. 

The same subject continued. 

6. Since, therefore, Sivan does not stand out as one disso- 
ciated from the soul, he is not a being who can be seen and 
pointed out as this or that. If, then, he thus exists as some- 
thing not distinguishable from the soul, is it wrong to say 
that Sivan and the soul are one ? That is not the meaning, 
they are essentially distinct. Since there is an arivu capable 
of apprehending things, and saying : this is it, etc., there- 
fore, when it is said : one exists, he who says it, must also 
exist. Hence, that which discriminates, saying : this is it, 
etc., does not exist as two, to the apprehension of the soul. 
Who, then, is Sivan ? He who stands in the soul, and who 
possesses the arivu that knows all things, is Sivan. 

There are some who interpret the expression : who stands 
in the soul, etc., to mean that the soul, which understands 
by the arivu of Sivan, becomes also Sivam. But, as there 
is one who shows things, and one who sees ; so that which 
knows, is the soul, and he who makes known, is Sivan. 
Thou [soul] art not Sivan. It is only because thou art de- 
luded, by the circumstance that he does not appear entirely 
dissociated from thyself, that thou art led to say : I am that 



Continuation of the Subject respecting Pathi, Pasu and PSsam, 
Deity, Soul and Matter. 

Suttieam. — In the presence of Sivan, who is sattu, truth, 
all things are false [or as nothing]. Because the universe 
perishes, and becomes a lie, therefore, Sivan will not know 
[or regard] it. The world, being itself material and perish- 
able, knows nothing. There is an arivu, understanding, 
which can distinguish and understand both sattu, which is 
eternal, and asattu, which is not eternal. That [understand- 
ing] which is neither sattu, nor asattu, is the soul. 

Urei. — Hence, the soul may be styled sath'-asattu ( 
both truth and untruth. 

How does Isuran [=Sivan], God, manage the affairs of 
the world? As in jugglery, which is not for the exhibitor, 
but for the spectators, so he [Sivan] recognizes no profit in 
the universe, and is, therefore, said to know it not. 


It is here shown, that he who fancies himself to be Sivam, 
which is truth, is not that. 

1. So far as the soul does not exist as a stranger to Sivan 
[dissociated from him], they are not two distinct beings, but 
one. If all things are Sivam [i. e. mere developments from 
Deity], then there cannot exist the two distinctions, viz : a 
being to be known, and one to know. If thou sayest that 
Sivan himself, who exists inseparably united [with the soul], 
is the one who understands, by the help of asattu [= material 
organs], I answer, Sivan, standing distinct, could not see 
[or understand] asattu. For, the senseless asattu cannot 
exist in the presence of Sivan, just as darkness cannot stand 
before the sun [i. e. he is no more dependent on asattu, than 
the sun on darkness]. 

He who would know, must learn whatever he knows from 
a teacher [but, as implied, Sivan needs not to learn]. 

The proposition, that asattu cannot stand before sattu, 
Deity, is supported by the analogy of darkness before the 

The assertion, that asattu may have intelligence, is next 

2. As the mirage seems to the ignorant to be water, but 
proves to be a lie, when one approaches and examines it ; 
so, when there are none who, by the help of Arid, can un- 
derstand asattu, it will appear to be true and profitable. 
Because this asattu has no arivu, it can neither see nor un- 
derstand any thing. Therefore, examine and see that asattu 
has no intelligence. 

The propositions, that the world is a lie ; that it is void 
of intelligence ; that, until one comes to view it in the light 
of Arul, it will appear a truth, but, when seen by the help 
of Arul, will become a lie, are supported by the analogy of 
the mirage. 


The next stanza treats of the nature of the soul, in refer- 
ence to those who think that they are Sivam, which is sattu. 

3. The following is what Paramesuran (usrQi&&ire!ir), God, 
taught to [his Satti] Isupari (ir&urfi). That which under- 
stands sattu, which is spiritual, and asattu, which is corpo- 
real, is the soul. Now the soul is not sattu, which is 
spiritual, nor asattu, which is corporeal; nor is it the re- 
sult of the union of the spiritual and the corporeal. When 
undeveloped, it exists not like the spiritual ; and when de- 
veloped, it does not exist like the corporeal. But it exists 
united with both. How is the soul manifested ? It is mani- 
fested [or developed in union with sattu and asattu], just as 
the fragrance of the lotus exists, pervading the flower. By 
its union with sattu, it becomes [or appears as] sattu; and 
by its union with asattu, it becomes asattu. Therefore, the 
soul is styled sath'-asattu, both sattu and asattu. 

As there is no fragrance without the flower, so the soul 
cannot appear [or become manifest] alone. As the fragrance 
exists as the natural property of the flower, so the soul ex- 
ists as the natural property [or inhabitant] of the body. 

The proposition, that the soul cannot exist alone, is sup- 
ported by the analogy of the fragrance and the flower. 

The next stanza replies to those who ask how the soul 
can be sath'-asattu, and yet neither sattu nor asattu. 

4. When disease attacks one, he becomes deranged, but, 
by the application of appropriate medicine, his mind be- 
comes clear ; therefore, thou who possessest a changeful 
understanding, canst not be that sattu [unchanging Deity]. 
Then, is not the soul asattu [meaning, here, the soul's organ- 
ism] ? No, it is not asattu. For that asattu, without thee 
[soul], can neither know, nor experience, the proper fruits of 
thy good and evil deeds, which thou hast known by thine 
understanding, hast performed, and hast gathered [for future 
use]. Therefore, thou art neither sattu nor asattu, but sath'- 

One sometimes loses his reason by excessive hunger ; but 
on eating he regains his usual understanding. God is a 
being who possesses an unchangeable understanding ; and, 
since thou art one who possessest a changeful understand- 
ing, thou art not God. 


The same subject continued. 

5. Agngnanam^si^^neerui) [={unf^nesrii>) pdsa-gnanam, 
organic understanding, or the perceptive power of the Tat- 
tuvam] cannot be developed in possession of the gndnam 
of Sivan, who is sattu. Because this agngndnam is a lie, 
and is corporeal [an organism from mdyei], it cannot be a 
development from Sivam. But this pdsa-gndnam is devel- 
oped in possession of pasu-gndnam (u^^iresrui)^ the natural 
understanding of the soul. When does the pure under- 
standing of Sivan exist ? It exists from eternity, coexistent 
with Deity, like the cool sea, the water, and the salt. How 
long has pasu-gndnam existed ? This, also, is eternal, coe'ta- 
neous with the soul. 

This illustration may be thus given : the water is coe'ta- 
neous with the sea, and the salt with the water ; so, soul is 
coetaneous with Deity, and pdsam [the primordial envelope 
of the soul] is eternally coexistent with the soul. Here, 
the sea represents Deity ; the water, the soul ; and the salt, 

As salt cannot exist in the sea except in union with the 
water, so pdsa-gndnam has no connection with Siva-gndnam, 
except as it stands connected with pasu-gndnam. 

The proposition, that pdsam has no connection with Deity 
except as it comes in connection with the soul, is supported 
by the analogy of the sea, the water, and the salt. 



The Way in which Souls obtain Wisdom. 

Suttiram. — "When God, who operates within as thy life, 
comes as a Guru, and teaches thee that thou hast forgotten 
thy real nature, having been brought up with the hunters, 
the five Perceptive Organs, and explains [to thee] the three 
stages which thou hast performed in a previous birth, viz : 
sarithei, hirikei, and yokam, and causes gndnam to spring 
forth — when he comes in kindness to instruct thee, then 
thou [soul], having left thy former state of darkness, and 
escaped from tirotham, and, in the form of gndnam, passed 
into union with Arul, wilt exist forever in perfect union 
with God. 



God, as a Guru, gives instruction in tavam (&&">), ascetic 

1. Let those who have always performed the tavam, as- 
cetic duties [i. e. those who have regularly gone through the 
three stages] of sarithei, kirikei, and yokam, and who have 
enjoyed the three subordinate states of bliss [the three lower 
heavens], viz: sdlokam, sdmipam, and sdriipam, which are 
the rewards, respectively, of the three stages which they 
have passed through — let them utterly renounce whatever 
they have attained in those states of bliss ; and then shall 
they be born [on earth] in those desired conditions which 
their respective courses of penance deserve, and shall obtain 
Siva-gnanam. Such is the firm^decision of those who have 
studied the Vetham and the Akamam, after having duly 
examined the matter. 

The possession of the pleasures of the lower heavens, 
obtained by the performance of sacrifice and other ceremo- 
nies, is not mutti, final liberation and beatitude. Mutti is 
obtained, when the two vinei (^tgsS'Vesr), courses of good 
and evil acts, have been completed, and their fruits eaten. 

2. As with one who eats when he is hungry, and is for a 
short time satisfied, and then becomes hungry again, such is 
the case of one who, by the performance of ydkarn (^ujirsih), 
sacrifice and other ceremonies, imposed by kanmam, obtains 
the pleasures of sdlokam, etc. He must return to this world, 
where he may become possessed of the wisdom which he 
before barely approached, when he had dissipated his native 
ignorance by means of the penance he performed in former 
births. This is the point where the merit and demerit of 
his former deeds, which adhere to him, are balanced, so that 
they can be cancelled at once. Hence, one must secure lib- 
eration by first attaining to the stage of gndnam. 

Note. — The fourth and last stage of Hindu religious life is called 
gnanam. It is here that Siva-gnanam, divine wisdom, is attained. 
The soul is supposed to have reached, in some former birth, the bor- 
ders of this stage. Hence, after having ascended to some of the 
upper regions, to enjoy what it has earned, or to eat the fruit of its 
good deeds, it again returns to earth, where alone merit can be 
secured, to resume that course in which alone it can obtain true 


wisdom, and, at last, complete liberation from the bondage of the 
Tattuvam. The cancelling of the kanmam, the balancing of good 
and evil deeds, the eating of the fruit of the two vinei, and the like, 
involve the principle that all the demerit of evil deeds must be suf- 
fered, and all the merit of good deeds be enjoyed, and that, in 
accordance with this, one's course of life and action is determined by 
his previous course, which constitutes a part of the " eating the fruit 
of former acts." A specific evil is never cancelled by being counter- 
balanced by a greater good. The fruit of that evil must be eaten, 
and also that of the greater good. The two vinei, the two courses 
of action, must be run through. 

The next stanza shows how God instructs the three classes 
of souls, which are denominated Vigngndnakalar, Piralayd- 
kalar, and Sakalar. 

Note. — The Vigngndnakalar are those enlightened souls which 
remain under the influence of only Anava-malam. Such have risen 
above the influence of their senses, indeed of their whole material 
organism, which they still inhabit, and have satisfied the demands of 
kanmam, or have eaten the fruit of all their own proper acts. Only 
their original sin, or that source of evil which was always attached 
to the soul, called anava-malam, still adheres to them. 

The Piralayakalar are such as are still under the influence of two 
malam, anavam and kanmam. They have advanced far in the sys- 
tem ; and have risen above the influence of their senses and other 
organs. They have escaped from mayei, or maya-malam, the source 
of those organs. 

The Sakalar are souls which are still entangled in the three malam, 
anavam, mayei and kanmam. Yet these may have entered the proper 
way of life, and may, therefore, receive divine instruction. 

3. Whenever the Vigngndnakalar come to understand God 
who exists within, and gives intelligence to them, having 
arrived at the position which is suited to the removal of the 
obscuring power of pdsam, true wisdom will spontaneously 
spring up to them. To the Piralayakalar, which are yet en- 
tangled in anavam and kanmam, God Himself will come as 
Tlva-Kuru (Q^eii(g(^), the Divine Guru, and will stand within 
them, and instruct them. To the Sakalar, which are united 
with their three malam, anavam, mayei and kanmam, and 
which are destitute of true wisdom, God will come in the 
form of a mdnisha-kuru {u>treefl<s^s(g(i^), human Guru, and 
will establish them in sarithei, kirikei, and yokam, and will 
afterwards bring them into true wisdom [or establish them 
in the stage ©f gndnam]. 


The next teaches that no other books than the Vetham 
and Akamam, are true S&stiram. 

4. Souls understand nothing except as they are made to 
know ; for the deeds they have formerly done, will after- 
wards flow on and enshroud them [in ignorance]. But 
those who reject the irregular S&stiram as no S&stiram, and 
embrace and understand the Vetham and Akamam, as the 
true S&stiram! which were given by Sakandthan (gamirpm), 
the Universal Lord, who is full of grace, shall attain mutti, 
liberation, in the bodies they then possess. 

The fifth stanza teaches that the form of the Teva-Kuru is 
not. one developed from mdyei, like the human body, nor a 
mantira-teki (wm0jrQ^S), form constituted a divine abode by 
means of mantiram [like an idol]. 

5. Who could know Sivan existing in his own invisible, 
spiritual nature, were he not to reveal himself in his three 
forms ? God, thus known, is like the breast-milk which is 
as yet unsecreted [or apparently non-existent], and like the 
tears of those who wear jewels [young females], and like 
one's image which he sees reflected in the water. 

God appears in the form of gndnam, in the case of the 
Vigngndnakalar, just as the blood is developed [or trans- 
formed] into breast-milk. 

The case of tears [not as yet manifest in the eyes of those 
who wear jewels] which are called forth by love and beauty, 
illustrates the case when God, taking the form of gndnam, 
stands as the Teva-Kuru before the Piralaydkalar. 

The image in the water represents the case of God's com- 
ing to the Sakalar [as a Guru] in a divine body, formed like 
their own. 

The proposition, that one may see Sivan as an embodied 
being, though a spirit, is supported by the analogies of the 
breast-milk, the tears, and the image in the water. 

The next stanza refers to the excellency of the course of 
instruction in gndnam, and to the soul's entanglement and 

6. He who has seen the truth, having discriminated what 
is false, who regards the Perceptive Organs, which are false, 
transitory, and diverse in their functions, as something dif- 
ferent fromthe soul's own proper form [or permanent habili- 


ments], and who considers and understands the way in 
which the soul exhibits the several forms [or functions] of 
the Perceptive Organs, just as the padikam (u/£.«u>) [lit, 
crystal], prism, shows the five radical colors — he, being dis- 
tinct from these organs, will become a tevam (QpeuiO), god, a 
servant to Sivan who is truth. 

The soul does not operate through the Perceptive Organs, 
except in connection with Sivan. 

The doctrine, that the proper form of the soul is not that 
of the Perceptive Organs, and the reason of the difference, 
which is, that those organs are asattu, false and transitory, 
are set forth in the figure of the prism and the five colors. 

He who has seen that he is something different from these 
organs, will no longer exist as paswharanam (u&ajraxiru>), a 
mere soul, but will exist as tSiva-karanam (©a/arjensrii), one 
possessing the intelligence of Sivan ; and at death will be 
established at the divine foot. 

7. The soul, which has been hke a flood of water dammed 
up, having come to understand, by the proper means of 
knowing, the Perceptive Organs which have confined it, 
and escaping from them, will not be born again ; but, like 
the river which has broken through its embankments, and 
passed into the billowy ocean, it will become united with 
the sacred foot of the incorruptible Sivan. 

Were the river, which has passed into the ocean, again 
to return to its bed, it would be salt water • just so, were 
the liberated soul to be re-united with the Perceptive Or- 
gans, it would not be, as before, pasu-karanam, but Siva- 
karanam, one possessed of divine intelligence. 

The proposition, that the soul, freed from the Perceptive 
Organs, will be forever united with Sivan, is supported by 
the analogy of the river-water which has passed into the 

Explanation of the way in which souls unite with Sivan. 

8. If Sivan constitutes all forms [or organic beings], then 
there can be no other eternal being to be associated with 
him. If he exists dissociated from all forms, then he even 
ceases to be God, becoming now an inhabitant of one place, 
and then of another. Therefore, he is the all-pervading. 
Should we not, then, see God? The other members of the 

VOL. IV. 12 


body, unlike the eye which sees all forms, can see nothing ; 
so, it is not those who possess the eye of the mind, who can 
see [God], but those who have the eye of gndnam. As the 
eye has no power of vision when covered by a film, but, as 
soon as the film is removed, can see ; so, when he shows his 
sacred foot [when Arul-Satti shines], then it [the eye of gnd- 
nam] can see him. 

Though the malum, which adhered to the soul previous 
to one's instruction in gndnam, should again return, and 
cleave to it, still, since they were once removed by instruc- 
tion in gndnam, and were again united [with the soul], there 
is profit in it. 

9. Sivan, who, unperceived by thee, stands as life to the 
soul, and shows it favor, will make thee see that thou art 
not one of the Perceptive Organs, but something different. 
While he thus instructs [the soul], one does not leave the 
five Perceptive Organs, and become united with Sivan. 
Neither does one immediately leave these organs, on having 
eaten and exhausted his pirdratta-hanmam, stock of acquired 
merit and demerit. As moss, floating on water, when a 
stone is thrown in, will be separated [for a while], so dna- 
vam and Jcanmam will leave thee. Do thou, therefore, con- 
sider the way in which that which so darkens the soul, 
leaves and returns ; and be thou freed from it all by Sivan, 
who will never leave thee. When one becomes associated 
with the sacred Arul of Sivan, dnavam, mdyei and hanmam 
leave him ; but when he is removed from Arul, those malam 
return, and attach themselves to him. 

This position is supported by the analogy of the water 
and the moss. When a stone is thrown into a tank covered 
with moss, the moss is separated, but immediately comes 
together again on the waters becoming quiet. 



The Purification of the Soul, or the Manner in which the Soul 
is freed, by the Eye of Gndnam, from the Process of Eating 
the Fruits of Kanmam. 

Suttiram. — To stand and see, by the divine Arul, Sivan, 
who can be known neither by pasu-gndnam, the intellect of 


the soul, nor by pdsa-gndnam, the understanding had through 
the corporeal organs, is the desired position. Therefore, 
search, by the eye of wisdom, into the way in which God 
stands in thee. When one, thus searching for God, is lib- 
erated, saying that pdsam is like the devil-car [mirage] which 
moves so swiftly that one cannot ascend it, then Sivan will 
be as a cool shade to him who has wandered in the burning 
sun. [This will be experienced] when he has pronounced, as 
directed, the celebrated panchdkkaram, five-lettered formula. 


Since one cannot know himself except through Siva- 
gndnam, and since Sivan transcends the reach of thought 
and speech, so that he cannot be known except by the aid 
of his own gndnam [=Arul], therefore, one must first be- 
come pure [liberated], by a vision of Sivan, through Siva- 
gndnam, and then he can see himself also. 

1. When one examines the several parts of his organism, 
which he has hitherto considered to be himself, such as 
bones, nerves, pus, phlegm, etc., he cannot determine which 
of them he is. If one examines in a discriminating way, 
and yet neither sees Sivan by the aid of his Arul, nor knows 
himself, what thing can he know to be real or useful ? 

Hence, he will learn to say that this is vain and useless. 
Therefore, God transcends the reach of thought and speech. 

Since one, without the gndnam of Sivan, cannot properly 
understand any thing, either by pdsa-gndnam, or pasu-gnd- 
nam, perception, or reasoning, therefore, when the soul 
comes to understand by the aid of Siva-gndnam, it will exist 
in the form of gndnam, and be pure [or freed from its or- 
ganic entanglements]. 

2. The eye, which points out all things, cannot see itself, 
nor can it see the soul which enables it to see. And the 
soul, which enables the eye to see, cannot see itself, nor 
Sivan who stands showing things to the soul. He stands 
concealed, as a thief, while the soul is trying to see itself by 
its own powers. Therefore, examine into the way in which 
he thus exists in thee. 

When the soul becomes freed from its three malam, dna- 
vam, mdyei and kanmam, it will then exist in its own proper 


3. Will not Sivan, who is not subject to the three kunam, 

viz: rdsatham, tdmatham and sdttuvikam, nor to the three 

malam, who ever exists in his own imperishable form of 

happiness, and who is incomparably superior to all other 

beings — will not he come as the arivu, understanding, of the 

soul, which, wonderful to say, will never leave it, and, in a 

manner far transcending the rules of logic, reveal himself? 

He will thus reveal himself. Then the soul will be free 

from the control of all the Tattuvam. 

Some ask how it is that the soul, when it assumes Siva- 
Rupam, Sivan's Proper Form, can appear as Sivan, without 
becoming Sivam? Though the soul is developed in the 
form of truth [Deity] yet it does not possess either the wis- 
dom or the power of Deity. 

4. When thou comest to know that every thing which 
can be pointed out and known as this, etc., is a lie, then 
thou wilt immediately understand that whatever else now 
exists, is Sivam, which is truth. Thou who art designated 
by the expression : this is he, art not that Sivam, though 
thou art united with Siva*Rvpam, hast become pure, hast 
learned that asattu is asattu [material organism], and art 
freed from its influence. Therefore, become a servant [a 
tevarri] to Sivan, bear his likeness, and, by his Arul, stand 
free from asattu. This is what is meant by being freed from 
asattu [the entanglement of one's organism], and assuming 
one's proper form. 

When the soul comes into the possession of Siva-Rupam, 
and becomes a pure one, the [original] nature of the soul no 
longer exists. 

5. The way in which one renounces all visible things, 
saying :. not these, not those, and takes the form of Sivan 
who shows [these things] ; and one who searches out and 
knows God who pervades all worlds, and operates in the 
soul — the way in which, by the help of the good Guru, it [the 
soul] escapes from the three malam which have adhered to it 
from eternity — this way is like that of the snake-charmer, 
who, by the power of his meditation, assumes the form of 
karudan (sq^i—asr), and removes the poison from the bite of 
a snake. In this case, the disciple may consider that he 
himself is he [Sivan]. 


When the disciple attains Siva-Bupam, his malam lose 
their hold upon him. 

This proposition is illustrated by the statement that the 
poison of the snake-bite will be removed when the operator, 
by his meditations, has attained the form of karudan. 

Note. — Karudan is the eagle-form vehicle of Vishnu, and is con- 
sidered as the sovereign of the feathered race, and the destroyer of ser- 
pents. To assume, spiritually, the form of karudan, and thus be able 
to control the venom of serpents, is considered to be one of the most 
difficult attainments of the wonder-working mawfoVa-practitioners. 

Respecting the panchdkkaram. The soul takes the form 
of whatever it meditates on ; therefore, when, by the use of 
the panchdkkaram, it meditates on Sivam, it comes to pos- 
sess its form. 

6. When one understands the way in which the soul be- 
comes the servant of Sivan, by means of the panchdkkaram 
[how to worship Sivan in the use of the five mystic letters] ; 
when, by the same letters, he performs pusei (yao#) [pujd], 
in the region of the heart, to Sivan_who is within him ; 
when he performs, by those letters, Omam ($u>u>), burnt- 
offering, in muldthdram, the lower part of the abdomen; and 
when he obtains gndnam, and exists between the eyebrows — 
then the soul becomes Siva-gndna-sorupi (Seij(^rreBrQs=iT^i3), 
one embodied in the gndnam of Sivan, and there ever re- 
mains his servant. 

The proposition, that, when the soul comes thus to under- 
stand the nature of the panchdkkaram, the world which is 
destitute of gndnam, will cease to live [or will no longer 
affect the soul], is supported by tradition. 

Unless the soul gets such a view of Sivan as to enable it 
clearly to understand him, it will not become liberated. 

7. If one sees Sivan in himself, just as he may see the 
invisible Bdku {§)<nr(§) and Kethu (Qsgi) [eclipsing planets 
=the nodes] in the sun and moon when eclipsed, that Sivan 
will become the soul's eye; that is, when the soul sees 
Sivan, his Aral stands as the eye, and sees [enables the soul 
to see]. The way in which Sivan stands as if he were not 
different from the soul, and yet manifests himself, is like 
fire appearing from the wood in which it was latent. When 


the wood is rubbed, the fire, which was previously in it, 
Will appear ; so Sivan will appear to the soul, without being 
separated from it. When God is thus manifested, the soul 
will be [to Deity] like iron in the fire, when the common 
nature [or appearance] of the iron has departed, and it has 
assumed the form [appearance] of the fire. Then the soul 
is subject to God, just as the iron is to the fire in which it 
has been placed. If thou repeatest the panchdkJcaram, thou 
shalt be thus united with Sivan. Therefore, unceasingly 
pronounce the five letters. 

The proposition, that if one thus pronounces the five let- 
ters, he shall see Sivan, is supported by the analogy of Rdhu 
and Keihu, seen in the sun and moon. 

The proposition, that Deity exists in the soul, undistin- 
guishable, is supported by the analogy of the wood and the 

The proposition, that the soul may become united with 
Sivan, and exist in his likeness, is established by the analogy 
of the iron in the fire. 

If one offers the invisible [spiritual] pujd in the lotus- 
flower of his heart, he will be freed [from his bondage], and 
take the form of gndnam [be embodied in gndnam]. 

8. The hollow stalk to this flower of the heart is eight 
fingers' breadth [six inches] in length, rising from the navel, 
and is composed of thirty -one Tattuvam, viz : those from 
piruthuvi to mdyei. Mdyei is the receptacle of the flower. 
Sutta- Vittei [Buttiran, the first of the Siva- Tattuvam] is the 
flower, having eight letters as petals. The form for these is 
composed of the following kalei, viz : nivirti, pirathittei, and 
vittei. In the seed, at the top of this lotus-flower, are two 
Siva- Tattuvam, viz: Sathdsivan and Mdyesuran, who have, 
respectively, the forms of two kalei, namely, sdntian&sdntiyd- 
thithei. The part next above is the proper form of Ndtham; 
and in Ndtham is Vintu-Satti. Sivan, who is in the form of 
gndnam, remains firm in Vintu-Satti. Do thou, therefore, 
meditate on him thus situated within, and be united with 

As there is here given specific direction to perform inter- 
nal pusei, it is inferred, according to the rule of exception, 
that one may also perform external pusei, if desired. Hence, 
the two kinds of pusei are desirable. 


Note. — This fanciful representation of a portion of the human 
organism by the lotus-flower, springing from the navel, and blossom- 
ing in the heart and higher regions of the body, is very common in 
India, though variously exhibited. The terms here used, and the 
whole figure, will be readily understood, by reference to the Tattuva- 
Kattahi, the preceding article in this volume. 



Respecting the Way of removing the Three Malam, viz: 
Anavam, M&yei and Kanman. 

Suttiram. — Sivan exists in the soul, as if he were the 
soul itself; so the soul may exist, as it were, one with Sivan. 
Then it will see how it is, that all which it before called its 
own action, becomes Sivan's action. Then dnava-malam, 
mdyd-malam, and the irresistible Jcanmam which produces 
fruit to be eaten, will cease to be [or cease to exert any 
influence on the soul]. 

Ukei. — When the soul comes to be as one with Sivan, to 
walk in his ways, and to cease to say : I have done it, others 
have done it, etc., then Arul-Satti will be its support. 


While the common understanding of the soul continues 
to live [operate], it is never exempt from the influence of 
the malam ; and while it thus lives, the soul itself must live 
in the form of the several malam [or in their garb]. It is, 
therefore, necessary that the soul leave its native under- 
standing, and take the form of Sivan. 

1. Those who are prompted to say : I have done this to 
one, and he has done this to me, etc., are still in possession 
of their common native understanding, which is adapted to 
investigation. Therefore, when one comes to the position in 
which he ceases to say : I am chief, then Sivan will exist in 
that soul, as if he were the soul itself. Those who are each 
prepared to say: there is nothing which I can ascribe to my- 
self, but all things are the work of Sivan — all those who are 
thus under the influence of Siva-gndnam, Sivan will bring to 
his sacred foot ; and he will stand so united with each soul, 
that the common understanding of the soul will cease to 

exist, and he will claim that all the operations of the soul are 
his, and that whatever is done to the soul, is done to him. 

The Tcanmam will not continue to rise upon those who are 
prepared to say : even the Perceptive Organs are not ours, 
and: we are not our own, and : our own acts were performed 
by Sivan. 

2. Stand firm, and say : the Perceptive Organs are not 
myself; the going forth of these organs to the objects of 
Bense, is not my action ; I have no property in myself, I 
am the servant of Sivan. Do thou, also, say that Sivan is 
united with whatever body thou assumest; and that all 
which thou doest, is done by Sivan. He will then give thee 
the fruits of thy former deeds ; but those malam shall not 
afterwards rise upon thee. 

Sivan is not partial; there is no action but what he affects, 
and, through him, kanmam will cease to arise upon the soul. 

3. It is God's prerogative, to encourage and save those 
who resort to Him ; therefore, He will surely save such as 
come to Him ; and, while He will not save those who do 
not resort to Him, yet He bears no ill-will towards them. 
These servants who resort to Him, He will clothe in His own 
image ; but others who do not come to Him, He will cause 
to eat of their own doings. Therefore, those who faithfully 
examine into this matter, shall not be re- visited with their 
former kanmam. 

The sanchitham, process of gathering merit and demerit 
for future eating, will be stopped by the proper course in 
gndnam. Pirdrattam, the kanmam already accumulated, must 
be eaten. Akdmiyam, the sowing for a future crop of good 
and evil, will not take place with the Gndnis [those who 
have attained to the stage of gndnam]. 

4. If one weighs, and puts into a vessel, a certain quantity 
of asafoetida, and then removes exactly the same quantity by 
weight, the smell of it will still remain in the vessel ; such 
is pirdrattam, the lingering results, to be experienced, of the 
former deeds of the Ondni. These results attach themselves 
to the body which he inhabits. He cannot avoid these fruits 
of his own doings, he must eat them. Though this be so, 
yet the Ondni will not again be so entangled as to be sub- 


ject to any influence consequent on his present course, as he 
was before, when he received according to his former doings, 
and had a body adapted to such experience. For such a 
Gndni has come into the very form [or image] of Sivan, 
and, therefore, understands as one possessing Siva-karanam, 
the nature of Sivan. 

Men of wisdom will not be entangled in the objects of 
sense, nor infatuated by them. 

5. They who examine and understand Pathi, Pasu and 
Pdsam, and who think that there is no shade [no consola- 
tion for the soul] except the shade of the sacred foot of 
Sivan, though they take notice of the objects of sense, yet 
are not infatuated by them, nor disturbed in their spiritual 
heroism ; and they never leave that sacred foot. 

Note. — Such persons are above the world, unaffected by the 
circumstances around them. They are compared to Rishis, who, 
" though they sit in fire, yet have the power of resisting its influence, 
so that they are not burned by it." And, " like the horseman who 
drives his well-trained horse, they pass on undisturbed in their spir- 
itual heroism" — their high devotions. 

Mdyei and kanmam will have no influence over Ondnis. 

6. Those who can discriminate, and say : this is the na- 
ture of sattu, truth [Deity], and this, the nature of asattu, 
untruth [material things], and who do not estimate things 
by their native understanding, but by the wisdom of Sivan 
■ — they will no longer relish any thing proceeding from the 
influence of dnava-malam, they will cease to feel the influ- 
ence of mdyei [=bodily organs developed from mdyei~\, 
which will recede, just as darkness flees before the rising 
sun. They will be always united with Sivan, and ever exist 
in his form. 

As darkness cannot stand before the sun, and as the lamp 
shines not in its presence, so dnava-malam will disappear 
from the Gndni, and mdyei will cease to influence him. 

The proposition, that pdsam [= the three malam] will not 
affect one who stands in gndnam, is established by the anal- 
ogy of darkness fleeing before the sun. 

The proposition, that, when gndnam is withdrawn, then 
pdsam will rise in its influence, is confirmed by the analogy 
of darkness rising on the departure of the sun. 

VOL. IV. 13 




The Way in which the Soul unites with the Foot of Deity. 

Suttieam. — As the soul enables the eye, which has the 
power of sight, to see, so Sivan looks upon the soul, when 
it has escaped from the control of its body, and become pure, 
and shows himself to it. In this way he gives his sacred 
foot to the soul, so that it will never cease to love. 

Ueei. — As completely liberated souls, freed from the con- 
trol of sense, and standing in Arul as their support, see 
[God] ; so, if those who are still in the body, but have risen 
above the influence of the Perceptive Organs, take their 
stand in Arul, they will become free, living souls. Then 
they will know Sivan by experience, and become closely 
united with his sacred foot. 


The liberated soul and Sivan have the same form. Though 
they are inseparably united, yet the soul is the servant of 
Sivan ; and, in their union, they constitute attuvitham, unity 
in duality. 

1. The soul, which cannot apprehend all the five objects 
of sense at once, but perceives them as it comes in contact 
with them separately, can apprehend them at once by the 
help of Sivan, who stands, as it were, as the five Perceptive 
Organs. Therefore, that which apprehends the objects of 
sense one by one, is the soul. But Sivan sees and under- 
stands all things at once. 

The same subject continued. 

2. When the soul has become as one with Sivan, being 
united to his sacred foot, and understands as one [with him], 
it has pleasure ; and when it sees and understands their one- 
ness, which he [Sivan] shows, it has great pleasure. Then 
Sivan, who has become the gn&narn [=arivu], understand- 
ing, the gndihuru ((SJt^jtj), soul, and the Gneyam, Deity [or 
the seeing, the seer, and the thing seen], will show himself 
every where present, and in union with all souls. He will 
perceive the thoughts of all who think, by the eye of his 
Arul, with whom he is ever united. 


The next stanza explains the mode of Sivan's existence, 
in reply to those who ask, whether, if Sivan fills all space, 
every one should not see him. 

3. Though the sun should come and stand before the 
blind, yet they cannot see — it will be to them as the dark- 
ness of night. Just so Sivan stands unseen by those who 
are entangled in pdsarn, though he fills all space. To those 
who show themselves worthy, and love him, Sivan will give 
the eye of gndnam, and by it remove the snares of pdsam, 
just as the sun opens the lotus-flower, when it is in a state 
to be thus affected. 

How the malam are removed from the liberated soul. 

4. As the moon, by its beams, dispels the thick darkness, 
so Deity, which has been from eternity connected with the 
soul, will, by its grace, its Arul-Satti, remove dnavam, and 
the other malam. As the magnet attracts iron, and brings 
it under its control, so will Deity draw the soul, and bring 
it under its control. "While so operating, Deity will have 
neither action nor passion. 

In the state of bliss, no one of the three eternal entities 
will perish, but they will exist as before ; yet they will exist 
without action — quiescent. 

5. Did the soul perish [as an individual being] on taking 
Sivan's form, and becoming united with him, then there 
would be no eternal being to be associated with Deity. If 
it does not perish, but remains a dissociated being, then 
there will be no union with God. But the malam will cease 
to affect the soul ; and then the soul, like the union of salt 
with water, will become united with Sivan as his servant, 
and exist at his feet as one with him. 

The next stanza gives an explanation of the deliverance 
which is here attainable, and of that which is final. 

6. The intensity of the sun's light is lost on its entering 
a cloud ; but when it escapes from the cloud, the heat and 
light are everywhere felt again. Just so is it with the light 
of the soul's understanding : it is for a while obscured by 
the body which is formed from mdyei; but as it accom- 
plishes its pirdratta-hanmam, the eating of what it had pre- 
viously sown and gathered, it escapes from the malam, which 
had obscured- it, and which it was compelled to eat, and 
eventually shines forth in union with Sivan. 




How Sivan, who surpasses the Powers of Thought and Speech, 
may he thought of, seen, and worshipped. 

Suttiram.' — Do thou thus remove the three malam, which 
prevent thee from uniting with the glorious strong foot, 
which is like the red lotus. Having so removed the three 
malam, join those who are the freed ones of Si van, and, 
looking on the sacred bodies of those who have escaped 
from worldly delusion, and abound in love to Sivan, and 
also on Sivan's temples, as Sivan himself worship thou them. 


Gndnam cannot exist where the three malam are [or where 
they influence the soul] ; therefore, the malam must be 

1. Do thou shake off these three, viz : hanma-malam, 
which adheres to thee under the form of merit and demerit ; 
mdyd-malam, which [in the form of the Tattuvam] as piru- 
thuvi, etc., obscures the soul, and causes it to receive a lie 
for the truth [or to be deluded with worldly matters] ; and 
dnava-malam, which makes the soul satisfied with those 
things which should be regarded as false. The true Ondni 
cannot be in union with these three malam. 

The soul takes the character of its associates, just as any 
thing brought into contact with powdered saffron, takes its 

2. Those who are entangled in pdsam, and who are with- 
out Arul, will make those who associate with them forget 
the truth, and cause them to fall under the influence of ma- 
lam. But true Gndnis, who separate themselves, as far as 
possible, from such as are destitute of the beauty of gndnam, 
who associate with the devotees of Sivan, and who have the 
understanding of Siva-gndnam, will not experience farther 
accumulation of malam. 

Sivan shines in those who possess the divine form [the 
true Gndnis] ; therefore, they should be worshipped as Sivan. 


3. Sivan desires that all should know him, and gives his 
divine form to his pious ones, and graciously comes forth as 
the life of their souls, in order that they may understand 
every thing by him. Therefore, he reveals himself in his 
pious ones who know him, as ghee in curds. But in those 
who are entangled in pdsam, he remains unseen and unfelt, 
as ghee in milk. 

The principle on which the sacred temples may be wor- 

4. The Siva-Lingam is a mantira-murttam (wiblsljrQpiTppu?), 
visible form composed of mantiram. Therefore, will not 
Sivan, who exists in all visible forms, and yet is different 
from them, appear in that form [Siva-Lingam] as his sacred 
body, just as tire, which exists everywhere diffused in wood, 
as if it were not different from it, will, when the wood is 
rubbed, become visible ? He will thus appear to the Gtndni 
who stands in Sivan's form, and sees him. 

Eespecting the performance of pusei [worship] to Sivan. 

5. He is not the body, etc., which are things that are dis- 
tinguished and set aside, by saying : this is not he, that is 
not he; nor is he the soul, which is distinguished from the 
body, and other things, by the same process. But he exists 
in both equally, and causes them to operate. Therefore, all 
things are the property of Sivan. He pervades the Siva- 
Lingam, so as not to appear as any thing different from it. 
Therefore, love him [as seen in that form], and perform pusei 
to him. 

The Jcanmam will not lose their hold on any one, except 
by the worship of Sivan. 

6. When one does any thing, he cannot [while under the 
influence of Jcanmam] avoid saying : I have done this, or : 
others have done it. Therefore, unless that Jcanmam be 
removed, true gndnam will not mature. But when one ex- 
amines, by the help of the gndnam he has, in order to the 
removal of Jcanmam, and worships Sivan, then the light of 
Sivan will shine in him. Therefore, do thou, with desire, 
worship, looking upon the devotees of Sivan, and the Siva- 
Lingam, as one [as equally the forms of Sivan]. 


Thou shouldst worship, looking on Sivan, the Guru, and 
the Sdstiram, as one. 

7. When Sivan, who is he who exists as the life of all 
souls, shall embrace, in his mind, souls which are under the 
influence of but one malam [the Vigngndnakalar], while in 
his proper position in them, then they will experience no 
further births. When he shall look, with his sacred eyes, 
upon those which are under the influence of two malam [the 
Pirahydkalar], but in which Sivan has shone, then to them 
will there be no other birth. When Sivan comes as the 
divine Guru to the Sakahr, which are subject to the three 
malam, but in which the light of Sivan has shone, and when 
he embraces them in his sacred mind, and looks upon them 
with his sacred eyes, and instructs them in the sweet Sdsti- 
ram, then they will experience no other birth. 

The origin of this work. 

8. Sivan, through his chamberlain Nanti, revealed to our 
lord Sanatkumdran, in consequence of his high devotion, 
the Gndna-Nul ((^iresr^reo), System of Sacred Science [the 
jRavurava-Akamam] . Meykarvddn [a Guru of the third gener- 
ation from Sanatkumdran], who has embraced in his mind 
the twelve Sanskrit Suttiram of the Gndna-Nul; who wor- 
ships Sivan ; who distinguishes and renounces asattu as 
such, and who perceives sattu; — he translated these stanzas 
into Tamil. And now, that the inhabitants of the earth 
may understand these doctrines, they are here explained [in 
the commentary] in a logical form, by means of paksham, 
propositions ; ethu, reasons ; and tiruttdntam, proofs [or con- 

Siva-Qndna Potham is ended.