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ARTICLE IX. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 



SGAU AND PWO KAREN DIALECTS. 



Rev. NATHAN BROWN, 



MISSIONARY OF THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION IN ASAM. 



(Read October 13, 1852.) 



41 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY. 



The words in this vocabulary have been romanized from 
lists furnished by Eev. Messrs. Abbott and Van Meter, of 
Arrakan.* An inspection of the accompanying table will 
show that the Karen belongs to the family of Tatar lan- 
guages, and that it is very similar to several dialects of the 
Sagas and other.hill-tribes of Asam. 

The vowels used in this vocabulary have their usual clas- 
sical sounds : u is the French u, and u denotes a peculiar 
sound, somewhat resembling the French eu, or u in cur. 
The italics sh and th are sounded as in English ; gh is gut- 
tural ; n is a nasal, nearly like ng. 

There are six tones in Karen, which, in the native system 
of writing, are distinguished by various characters added to 
the inflected syllables. For want of more appropriate signs, 
I have here used the marks of punctuation to denote the 
tones, viz : a hyphen for the monotone, a comma for the 
falling infleetion, the same inverted for the circumflex, a 
period for the short abrupt termination, and an inverted 
period for the high abrupt termination ; while the natural 
tone is left without any specific mark. 

* In a letter accompanying this paper, Mr. Brown says : " I now enclose for 
you a vocabulary of the Karen language, which I have had much difficulty in 
obtaining — all the missionaries having hitherto had an idea that the expression 
of that language in Roman characters was impossible. Mr. Van Meter, how- 
ever, has at length assisted me in changing the native character to the Roman, 
and has furnished roe with the Pwo dialect, in addition to the Sgau Karen 
furnished by Mr. Abbott. I believe this vocabulary will be found to be very 
correct, as it has been forwarded to Mr. Van Meter, a second time, for revision, 
since the transferring of it to the Roman character. For the purposes of a 
comparative vocabulary, I at first thought it would be unnecessary to notice 
the tones ; but Mr. Van Meter informs me that they must be represented by 
distinguishing marks, in order to exhibit the language with propriety. The 
marks of punctuation are not, of course, so appropriate as others which might 
be invented ; but they will answer in the room of better." — Comm. of Publ. 



320 



The -word me, in Sgau Karen, with the variations of mean- 
ing produced by the inflections, will show the importance of 
properly distinguishing the tones : 



1. me 


natural tone, 


a tooth. 


2. me- 


monotone, 


blackish. 


3. me, 


falling tone, 


a sail. 


i. me' 


circumflex, 


a cutaneous disease. 


5. me. 

6. me' 


abrupt, 

abrupt and high, 


an eye. 
sand. 


English. 
Sky 
Sun 


Sgau Karen. 
mu ka p6 16 
mii. 


Pico Karen. 
mii ph6. phare, 
mii 


Moon 


la 


la 


Star 


tsha' 


sW 


Light 
Darkness 


ta ka. po 
taki 


tshii' phare- 
tshii' khr 


Day 


mii tsha 


mii tsha 


Night 


mii na 


mii na 


God 

Eeligion 

Soul 


ka tsa yua 
alii ala 
thk- 


ka ts4 yua- 
alu ala 
Ga- 


Lightning 
Thunder 


lo 

lo tho' 


lore wai' adi" 
lore ffhwen- 


Air, wind 
Earth 


ka li 
hok6 


li- 

gore Iflio' 


Fire 


m6'u 


me' 


Water 


thi 


thi, 


Cloud 


ta, ii' 


tshii fire- 


Smoke 


khu' 


me' khu' 


Ashes 


pha tsha 


tshii p6* kid 


Eiver 


thi klo 


thi H6- 


Mountain 


ka tsu 


kh6' low 


Eoad 


kle 


phure tha* 


Gold 


thu 


thore' 


Silver 


tse 


tsh6- 


Iron 


tha- 


tha- 


Stone 


lii 


lore 


Man 
Woman 


p6 khw& 
p6 mix 


psAa' 
pa mii' 


Father 
Mother 


pa, 

mo, 


pha, 
mo 



821 



English. 

Son 

Daughter 
Brother (elder) 

" (younger) 
Sister (elder) 

" (younger) 
Boy 
Girl 
Name 
Horse 
Cow (bos) 
Buffalo 
Elephant 
Tiger 
Monkey 
Goat 
Hog 
Dog 
Cat 
Mouse 
Bird 
Hen 
Crow 
Snake 
Fish 

Butterfly 
Fly 

Musquito 
Ant 
Head 
Hair 
Eye 
Ear 
Nose 
Mouth 
Tooth 
Back 
Belly 
Hand 
Fm,er 
Foot 
Skin 
Bone 
Blood 



Sgau Karen. 
pho khw4 
pho mii 
do phii we 
phii khwa 
do phii we 
phii' mil' 
pho khw4 
pho mii 
m6 

ka the' 
go pi ; am6 
pan4, 
ka tsho 
bo thk 6 
ta aii 
me te le 
th6 
thwi' 

tha 1 mi yo- 
yiipo 
th6' 

tso mo pg4 
tso ghk pg4 
gu 

ny4< _ 
thk' pi no' li 
thk bii 14 
pa cho ; ta ghk 

ta, 

kho' 
kho tk& 
me. 
na 

n4 ts4 - 
th4 kh6 
me 



u 

tshii 

tshii mii 

kho 

phi- 

ghi 

thwi 



Pwo Karen. 
ph6' khw4, 
pho' mii' 
thiin, wei 
thiin, phii 
thun, mii' wei 
thun, mii' phii 
pho' khw4, 
ph6' mii' 
men- 
th\' 

tshii' men' 
pana 
ka tsli4re, 
bo' 

tshii ii* 
bhe< 
th6- 
thwi' 
mi nyo- 

yo. 

tho' 

ts4w, mo pg4- 

wgu 
y4' 

thk' nkn' yi\ 
du 14, 
tshii' ph6' 
thiin, 
kho' 
kho' tha.' 
me. 
na 
n4, 
n6- 
thwk, 
klow, 

wgu phiin- 
tshu' 

tshu' non- 
khan' 
phi- 
ghwi 
tshii thwi 



822 



English. 
Horn 
Tail 

Egg 

Wing 

Feathers 

Tree 

Root 

Leaf 

Flower 

Fruit 

Plantain 

Rice 

Salt 

Milk 

Oil 

Cloth 

Knife 

Sword 

Spear 

Bow 

Arrow 

House 

Door 

Village 

Boat 

I 

Thou 

He, she, it 

We 

Ye 

They 

Mine 

Thine 

His 

Ours 

Yours 

Theirs 

Who? 

Which ? 

What? 

This 

That 

Other 



Sgau Karen. 


Pwo Karen. 


kiinu 


ubn- 


me 


me 


di< 


di' 


di- 


di- 


to atshu 


t6 di* 


the 1 


then 1 


gi 


wi 


la' 


la' 


pho 


pho, 


ta thk 1 


thk' 


thakwi 


thk' klii' athk' 


bu 


wu- tsha' 


i thk 


thi, la' 


nli thi 


nu thi' 


thb 


thb 1 


ya' 


shkn, 


do 


ffhe. 


na 


na- 


bo 


phara- 


khli' 


khli' 


t 


phla 
yen 


tre ana ho 


tran, 


tha wo 


ta wiira, 


Hi 


Mi, 


ya- 


jk- 


na- 


na- 


awe 


awe 


pawe 


pawe 


thuwe 


th\i we 


awe the 1 


awe the 1 


ya ta, 


ja tshii' 


nta 


ntshii' 


ata 


atshti' 


pa ta 


pa tshii' 


tha we the ata 


nthi atshu' 


awe the ata 


awe thi atshu' 


mta- taga- le' 


me pa- laga- lai' 


mnii- tami- le' 


me no' lamiw- lai' 


mnu- le' 


me no' lai' 


ai- 


ay6- 


an6' 


ano' 


aga- 


agu, ga- 



323 



English. 


Sgau Karen. 


Pwo Karen. 


Anything 


ta tami mi 


lamin-min- 


Such 


di a ne 


be, i' be, 6' 


Somebody 


mta tog& 


psha lag4 ga 


All 


kelu 


to« a lu. 


One 


ta, or tu, 


ka du- 


Two 


khi 


ni, 


Three 


thu 


thun, 


Four 


lwi, 


H, 


Five 


y e » 


yei 


Six 


ghu 


ffhu, 


Seven 


nwi 


nwi 


Eight 


ghb- 


ghi>- 


Nine 


khwi 


khwi, 


Ten 


to tshi 


ka tshi, 


Eleven 


to tshi tft, 


ka tshi, ka di 


Twelve 


ta tshi khi 


ka tshi, ni, 


Thirteen 


to tshi thu 


ka tshi, thun, 


Fourteen 


ta tshi lwi, 


ka tshi, li, 


Twenty 


khi tshi 


ni, tshi, 


Thirty 


thu tshi 


thun, tshi, 


Forty 


lwi, tshi 


li, tshi, 


Fifty 


ye, tshi 


yai tshi, 


Hundred 


ta ka y& 


ka ya- 


Thousand 


ta ka thd 


ka thon' 


East 


mu, tho' 


mii thaw' 


West 


mii, nii. 


mii nil. 


North 


ka li thi 


li-khi, 


South 


ka li ts6 


li-thi- 


Eight 


tsii twe 


tshii' tw6' 


Left 


tsiits6 


tshii' ts6' 


Far 


y e 


yem- 


Near 


bu- 


bu- 


High 


tho 


to, 


Low 




phii' 


Much 


a ma 


a' 


Little 


to aba 


katshi* 


Great 


d6 


d6' 


Small 


p6 


ph6' 


Long 


to 


to, 


Short 


phu' 


phii' 


Broad 


p41e 
i 


lai 


Narrow 


ei»' 


Round 


phia 
16-16- 


phlo»- 


Straight 


Iom- 



324 



English 


Sgau Karen. 


Puso Karen. 


Crooked 


k§' 


ke»' 


Old 


loli 


li- 


New 


tho 


thkn' 


Eipe 


mi 


mitt- 


Raw- 


th\ ka tsho 


then- tse. 


Sweet 


tsu 


tsttm- 


Sour 


tsi' 


tsein, 


Bitter 


ka« 


ka' 


Hot 


k6, 


kh6 


Cold 


go- 


ffhon 


Good 


g e 


ge- 


Bad 


to ge ba' 


ttn- 


Handsome 


aghi ala 


aghi 1 ala- 


Ugly 




tire- 


Fat 


bo 


boji' 


Lean 


ghe 


#Aw6' 


Thick 




dttn- 


Thin 


bu- 


bun- 


Heavy 


^M 


ghxm- 


Light 


Pgi 


ghvii i 


Hard 


k6 


no»- 


Soft 


ngu 


phu. 


Sharp 


e 


eirc' 


Dull 


to eba' 


li. 


White 


wa 


bwa- 


Black 


thu 


ftilti, 


Blue 


tola 


la, 


Green 




y 6 . 


Red 


go 


gho- 


Yellow 


bo 


ban 


To be 


6' 


o' 


Do 


ma- 


ma- 


Live 


ma 


in tt» 


Die 


thi 


tti, 


Eat 


0' 


o» 


Drink 





0- 


Sleep 


mi 


mi, 


Wake 


phii the no 


mi, no»' tho»' 


Laugh 


ni 


ni 


Weep 


ho' 


gon' 


Speak 


kat6 


klein. 


Hear 


nahu 


na gOw, 


Know 


the ny& 


<A6'y&, 



325 



English. 


Bgau Karen. 


Pwo Karen. 


Sing 


thkvn 


thk wi' 


Dance 


ge kali 


gei' thuw' li. 


Stand 


thsu thu 


tshtiw, thun' 


Sit 


tshe no 


tshun, no«- 


Walk 


ha 


ga. pha- 


Run 


ffhe 


tseim' ta leiw 


Fall 


lote 


km- thi. pha 


Want 


thk- kwi 


ba' athk- 


Have 


6 


0' 


Seek 


khlii 


on' ghk. 


Get 


ne 


on' ma-ne 


Give 


he lo 


ph6' low, 


Take 


ha n6 


ma-ne 


Bring 


he tsh6. 


gei, tsh6. 


Cany 


te tsh6. 


tsh6. 


Lift up 


tfi to 


tshaw' thora' 


Put down 


palo 


o' ke' Ion 


Break 


ka 


kha 


Cut 




phi. 


Tear 


nya 


shara, ya. 


Bite 


e 


eim' 


Pull 


thu- 


thu- 


Push 


thii 1 


/Air 


Strike 


do 


do' 


Kill 


ma thi 


mk-thi, 


Bury 


kulo 


bura-lora- 


Burn 


tshu 


kh6 g6. 


Love 


e' 


ei' 


Hate 


thk 1 he 


thk- gem, 


Fear 


pli 


thk- mei' 


Be angry- 


thk- tho' 


thk- tho»' 


Quarrel 


tho' 


em' 16. a,thk- 


Steal 


hii 


on' gu. 


Buy 


pge 


ffhwe- 


Sell 


tsa 


on' tskn, 


Work 


ma 


ma- 


Play 


16 


16.kw6- 


I go 


tsa le- 


yale- 


Thou goest 


nle- 


nle- 


He goes 


ale- 


awe dale- 


We go 


pawe le- 


paw6 da 16- 


Ye go 


thiiwe le- 


nthi 16- 


They go 


awe thi la- 


awe thi le- 


I went 


tea le-li 


ya le- li 


VOL. IV. 


42 





326 



English. 


Sgau Karen. 


Pwo Karen. 


I will go 


tsa ka le- 


ya ka 16- 


I go not 


tsa ta le-ba' 


ya la le-M' 


I wish to go 


ta, mo' le- ha' ya thk- 


tshii' m6 le-ba'ya thk- 


I can go 


tsa le-the' 


ya le-<M' 


Go thou 


le- na- 


le-na- 


Go not 


le- to ge- 


le-la ge- 


Come here 


he tshu i- 


gei, tho» yo- 


Be silent 


6' bgo' 


o' ka tshii' 


Look! 


kwa, 


y6 tshii' 


Do you see ? 


nthi' ha 


nda' ha 


Give me 


he lo ya 


phe' Ion, ya- 


Give him 


he lo o 


phe' Ion, ii- 


Do as I do 


ma-dr ya ma,-ath6' 


ma-bo ya ma-a<A6- 


Of 


a 


a 


Wing of bi.'d 


tho adi- 


th6 adi- 


To 


tshu 


lii or thorc 


From 


lu 


lu 


By 




la 


With 


di- 


lu or di- 


In 


lu — pu 


lu — phu» 


On 


lu — pho kho' 


lu — alo» 


Above 


lu — pho kho' 


lu — pharc kh6' 


Below 


lii — pho la. 


lii — phan la. 


Between 


lu — M tstt 


lii — bu- tsuM, 


Within 


lu — pu 


lii — phura 


Without 


lu — kh6 


lii — akhow, 


And 


do- 


do- 


Or 




mwoi ge- 


Yes 


me, 


mwoi 6 


No 


ta me, ba' 


la mwoi ba' 


Why? 


ba' ma nii le' 


ba' no' lei' 


How? 


di- le' 


be, thi 1 lei' 


How much ? 


tshi - a le' 


tshi- a' lei' 


Thus 


di- i 


be, y6- 


Here 


liii- 


tho» yo- 


There 


lune' 


thon no 


Where? 


6' lu le' 


o' kho, lei 


Now 


khe kani-i- 


bo nara y6- 


Then 




thora no ato 


When? 


le' 


tsi- yi- lei' 


To-day 


ma tsa-tani-i- 


ka ni-y6- 


Yesterday 


mii, ha toni- 


la mii ga' 


To-morrow 


khe go- 


kh6 go-kh6. 



TABLE SHOWING THE AFFINITIES OF SEVERAL 



A, a, e, e, i, o, 6, u, ii, vl, pronounced as in America, father, men, they,- poHce 

















Sgau 


Pwo 


Ban/era 


Hatigoria 


Khari 


M 




Tibetan, 


JBhotia. 


Limbu. 


Murmi. 


Milchan. 


Thebarskad. 


Karen. 


Karen. 


Naga. 


Naga. 


Naga. 


Ni 


Father 


pha 


apha 


amba 


aba 


baba 


apa 


pa 


pha 


apa, 


upa 


taba 


°I 


Mother 


ama 


ama 


am6 


ami 


amma. 


amma. 


mo 


mo 


ami 


ucha 


tti 


01 


House 


khyim 


chim 


him 


dbim 


kim 


kium 


hi 


yera 


ham 


ki 


aki 


n< 


Name 


ming 


ming 


ko ming 


min 


na mang 


1 min 


me 


men 


man 


ta ming 


achuf 


n 


I 


na 


nga 


inga 


nga 


ang,gu 


gi , 


ya 


ya 


ku 


nyi 


ni 


h( 


Thou 


khyodj 


khyedj 


khe ne 


ait 


kat 


ngan 


na 


na 


nang 


na 


nang 


n; 


Eye 


mig 


mik 


mih 


mih 


mik 


mi 


mo 


me. 


mit 


ta nyak 


tenik 


n 


Tooth 


so 


so 


ha 


swa 


ga, s6a 


soa 


me. 


Ihwa, 


va 


tabu 


ta pha 


Pi 


Dog 


khyi 


khyi 


kochu 


na gi 


kui 


khui 


thwi 


thwi 


hi 


azz 


ai 


k 


Bird 


hyu 


chya 


wa 




Pi 


Pi 


tho 


tho 





azo 


o zah 





Snake 


brul 


beu 


osekj 


pu kuri 


sabas* 


brul 


gu 


wgu 


pu 


purr 


ahu 


P 


Fish 


nya 


nga 


nga 


nya 


machas* 


machas* 


nya 


y a 


nya 


angu 


angha 


n 


Sun 


nyi ma 


nyi ma 


nam 


dini 


yuni 


nima 


mii 


mu 


ranghanjannii 


suhihj 


■« 


Moon 


lava 


da wa 


Ihaba 


lani 


gal sangj gal sangj 


:ia 


la 


let hi 


yita 


le ta 


le 


Fire 


ma 


me 


me 


mi 


mi 


mi 


meu 


me 


vanj 


mi 


ma tsii 


a 


"Water 


chu 


chu 


choa 


kim 


ti 


chu 


thi 


thi 


ti 


tsii 


atsii 


si 


Two 


nyis 


nyi 


nyet shi 


ngi 


nish 


nishi 


khi 


ni 


anyi 


anna 


anna 


il 


Three 


sum 


sum 


sum shi 


som 


sum 


sum 


thxL 


thun 


azam 


asam 


lemj 


le 


Four 


zhi 


zi 


lishi 


bli 


pu 


Pi 


Iwi 


li 


ali 


pazz 


pha li 


P 


Five 


hna 


nga 


nashi 


nga 


nga 


ngai 


ye 


yei 


aga 


pungu 


pha nga 


n. 


Locality. 


Tibet. 


Bhutan. 


Near Darjiling. 


Kemaon. 


Kemaon. 


Burmah. 


Near Sibsagor. 


Near Jorki 



* From the Sanskrit. 



f Shyan, 



RAL LANGUAGES OP TATAR ORIGIN. 



/■,- police, nor, note, bwll, fwt, flewr ; n nasal ; th as in think. 



iri 


Mulung 


















ga. 


Naga. 


Manipuri. 


Bur-man. 


Singpho. 


Miri. 


Mikir. 


Garo. 


Kachari. 


Dhimal. 


bk 


opa 


ipa 


apha 


\va 


baba 


apo 


aphi 


apha 


aba 




onu 


ima 


ami 


nu 


nana 


aio 


ama 


aya 


amma 


i 


nokj 


yim 


eing 


ntaj 


ekum 


hem 


nakj 


naj 


sk% 


;hut 


mm 


ining 


ami 


ming 


amin 


men 


bi mung 


mung 


ming 




helamj 


ao 


nga 


ngai 


ngo 


ne 


anga 


ang 


ka 


sag 


nang 


nang 


nen 


nang 


non& 


n&ng 


n&a 


nang 


na 


nik 


mik 


mit 


myet si 


mi 


amik 


amek 


muk ran 


mig an 


mi 


phi 


pha 


ya 


thwk 


wa 


ipang 


a cho 


wa gom 


hathai 


si tongj 




kui 


hwi 


khwe 


gui 


iki 


hi 


a chak 


choi ma 


khia 


zkh 


oha 


u chek 


nghetf 


WU 


patangj 


wo 


da 6 


da u 


jiha 


lii 


pu 


lilt 


myue 


lapu 


tabu 


phurul 


chi po 


jibo 


pu nhi 


igha 


nyale 


nga 


nga 


nga 


ongo 


ok 


natok 


nga 


haya 


hihj 


wan ghef nu mit 


no 


jan* 


doanye 


ar ni 


sal* 


san* 


bela* 


ta 


le 


tha 


la 


sita 


po lo 


chok lo 


J* 


ni khalar ta li 


a tsii 


ah 


mae 


mi 


wan 


umme 


me 


walj 


watj 


me» 


3ii 


si 


i sing 


y6 . 


ntsin 


assi ' 


langj 


chi 


doi 


chi 


tna 


ih 


a ni 


rhit 


nkhong 


ngoie 


hi ni 


gini 


ngi 


nge 


**. 


lemj 


a hum 


thong 


ma sum 


aum 


ka tham 


gi tham 


tham 


sum 


ia li 


pi li 


ma ri 


16 


ma li 


a pi 


phi li 


bri 


bre 


pu 


1a nga 


nga 


ma nga 


nga 


manga 


ii ngo 


phong 


bonga 


bi 


nga 


iVear Jorhat. 


Manipur. 


JBurmah. 


Asam. 


Asam. 


Asam. 


Garo Hills. 


Kachar. 


Koch Behar. 



\ Derivation untnown.