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lexicographical Notes from the Mahabharata. — By Edward 
Washburn Hopkins, Professor in Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 



'? 



Under the title Epic Diction a paper was presented at the 
meeting of the Society in Hartford, April 1898, in two parts. 
The first part, dealing with epic phraseology and parallel pas- 
sages found in the two epics, is published in full in the American 
Journal of Philology, vol. xix. The second part, containing 
lexicographical notes, is given here. 1 

I. These words or meanings are found in the Petersburg lexi- 
con, but they are not cited from the literature (starred in pw.). 
They occur in the Mahabharata as follows : 

trsnaksaya, xii. 174. 46 and 177. 51 : 

yac ca kdmasukharh loke yac ca divyarh mahat sukham 
trsndksayasukhasydi He nd , rhatah sodapim kaldm. 

For the last pada compare M. ii. 86. 
durodara, PW. 3), pw. 4), stake at play, ii. 60. 8 : 

santi me manayap cai '«« dhanani subahuni ca 
jayasvdi ''nam durodaram. 

manu, 3) a, fern., i. 65. 45. 

gukta. = pari puddha, xii. 71. 10; C. 2724 reads pulka: bali- 
sasthena puktena. N. says cukta = puddha (but puktarh putamla- 
nisthura, iti Medinl). Compare sadbhagaparipuddham ca krser 
bhagam updrjitam, xiii. 112. 19. 

I may add that kalahapriya, which as an epithet of Narada is 
referred in the Petersburg lexicon only to "CKDr. for Mbh.," is 
found in ix. 54. 20 ; and that Andhraka, though in P W., is marked 
in pw. as 'unbelegt.' But it occurs, apart from the compound 
Mahandhraka, in xii. 207. 42 : 

daksinapathajanmanah sarve naravard , ndhrakdh 
guhah pulinddh pabardp cucukd madrakaih saha. 

1 Of the other papers presented by Professor Hopkins (see Journal 
xix. 2, p. 168), that on "The Village Community in Ancient India" is 
published in the Political Science Quarterly, Dec. 1898 (see below, p. 22, 
n. 1) ; "Guilds in Ancient India," in The Yale Review, May and August, 
1898 ; and "How gods are made in India," in The New World, Mar. 1899. 



"Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahabharata. 19 

These are the wicked people of the South. In the next verse are 
mentioned those of the North : Yfiunas, Kambojas, Gandharas, 
Kiratas, Barbaras. It is significant of the relation between the 
early and late epic that we have mentioned here the Southern 
Madrakas, with no mention at all of the Northern Madrakas, who 
in the battle-epic are the chief of sinners and live in the Punjab 
west of the Sutlej and Ravi, viii. 44. 17. In the verse quoted C. 
7559 reads daksindpathagdminyah and cibcukd{h). 

2. The following compound words I believe are not in the 
Petersburg lexicon. Where similar compounds are given in the 
lexicon I have sometimes cited them as parallels. 

anukarsaka, varta°, xii. 76. 7. 

uparajan, xii. 80. 32 : upardje'va rdjardhim jndtir na sahate 
sadd. 

gopana, vii. 73. 42 (omitted in C.) : gopanesu vighnadah are 
criminals. The first means a place where cows drink. The sec- 
ond (like garada and such compounds in PW.) is also omitted 
from the lexicon. 

dviradaroha, viii. 20. 9 (compare acvdroha and such com- 
pounds in PW.). As a reference to apvaroha from the Mbh., and 
to haydroha, may be useful, they will be found viii. 28. 19-22. 

-patakin and °ka in bahupatakinah, vii. 193. 12 ; (like cited 
abhi°) atipatdkah, viii. 59. 67; calatpatdka also occurs, but my 
reference is lost. 

patisthana, xii. 133. 17 : striyd mosah patisthdnam dasyusv 
etad vigarhitam. This compound is taken by N. in the pregnant 
sense of (oppressive misrule in village) lordship. 

pancaratravid, xii. 336. 25. 

panisparga, xiii. 93. 72 (compare pddasparpa) : abhigamya 
yathdnydyam panisparpam atha ' carat. This may perhaps be a 
' hand-shake,' which appears to be intended in Jcarena kararh, 
grhya muditah, iii. 262. 25. But in iii. 37. 2, panina parisam- 
sprpan is merely 'stroke,' as perhaps here also. It may be 
observed, however, that karagrahana (in distinction from pdni- 
graha, marriage) is a fighting term, ii. 23. 11. To 'give the 
hand' is the sign of a pledge or promise, as in iii. 238. 24, tatah 
prahasitah sarve te 'nyonyasya talan daduh. So R. (Gorr.) iv. 
34. 22-23, panisangrahana. When the former expression is 
used of an insult it refers, as in ix. 32. 44, to mock applause 
by clapping the hands, though genuine applause is also expressed 



20 E. W. Hopkins, [1899. 

by the same means, as in ix. 56. 44, talacabddih. PW. cites 
Hariv. 15741, where 'giving the palm' with laughter is as in the 
case cited above. In R. iv. 4. 14, hastam pidaydm dsa panind 
is a genuine hand-shake, to seal a promise. I may add that bow- 
ing with the head is as common in obeisance and entreaty, as is 
the body-bow which accompanies the anjali. Compare viii. 32. 
4, tat tv am pray ace '■ham pirasd vinayena ca ; and R. ii. 113. 24, 
pirasd tva , bhiyace. The superior is spoken of as grhann anja- 
limdldh before a crowd of courtiers, iii. 252. 49. 

pretaraj (pretaraja is cited), viii. 14. 17: antakale yathd 
hruddhah . . . . pretardt. In R. vi. 58. 21, pretarddvisayarh gatah. 

vadhyadhana, xii. 96. 6 : na tu vadhyadhanam tisthet. I 
cite this mainly for the phrase, as Professor Bflhler has said {Ep. 
Ind. ii. 256) that an executed criminal's goods would be confis- 
cated. I think he is right, though this rule stands to the contrary 
{tisthet, like the use of stha in M. viii. 33-34). The sentence 
seems to mean that the booty of an executed criminal (a thief, 
N.) should not be kept by the king. The context seems to show 
that it ought to be given to the priests. But this, like the pre- 
ceding rule, which enjoins a year's respite for a girl captured in 
war, probably represents a theory rather than a fact. 

vighnada, see gopana, above. 

viprasva (like deva°, brahma ), (theft of) priestly posses- 
sions, in a pregnant sense. As the passage is not compared in 
Professor Bflhler's synopsis (nor did I notice it in reviewing his 
Manu in this Journal), and as the following verses contain a few 
unusual words also, I cite the parallel and the group of words 
together : 

xii. 165. 34 ff. (like M. xi. 55) : 

surapanam brahmahatyd gurutalpam athd ''pi vd 
anirdepydni manyante prdndntam iti dhdrand 

35 : suvarnaharanam stdinyam viprasvam ce Hi pdtakam 
viharan madyapdndc ca agamydgamanad api 

36 : patitdih samprayogdc ca brdhmaniyonitas tathd 
acirena mahdrdja patito vdi bhavaty uta. 

Then follows M. xi. 181. Thereafter occur: avyasanl bhavet 
(38) ; dusayitd (in PW. only from Puran.) tasydh (43); avagarhya 
and avagarhyeta (43, 45 ; in PW. from R.); pratisthdm nadhi- 
gacchati (i. e. after death, pretatvdn na mvcyate, 44) ; strydkdrdm 
(v. 1. dhdrd) pratimdm lingya (in PW., 49); brahmahd savanl 



Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahdbharata. 21 

bhavet (= trisavanasndyl, 54);' brahmacari ksitlpayah (55). I 
do not understand vlryam (= hiranyam N.) in 39 : annam 
vlryam grhltavyam pretakarmany apatite. In xii. 96. 22, protri- 
yasva, not cited, is a parallel to viprasva. 

gastrajna, xii. 107. 21 (like dharmajna, etc.): curah pastra- 
jnah pdstrapdragdh, rather an interesting anticipation of the 
Lions of the Punjab and their " Sword and Book." 

sannyasaphalika, sic, xii. 321. 4 : sannydsaphalikah kaccid 
babhuva nrpatih purd Mdithilo Janaho nama Dharmadhvaja iti 
prutah. Dharmadhvaja should be added in PW. s. v. 2) to the 
Puranic reference. N. defines the first word as sannydphalam 
samyagdarpanam tad asyd 'sti Hi. Under as with sam + ni 
might be added from vs. 2 : samnyasyate yatha Hma ''yam 
vyaktasya Hma, yatha ca yat. 

3. The following words are cited in the Petersburg lexicon 
from the Ramayana, while no reference is given to the other 
epic. In comparing the two epics a double reference is often 
important. Hence I give here passages from the Mbh. where 
each word occurs. The list of course is not complete : agranlr, 
nrndm, ix. 61. 37; ankita, parthanamahkitah parah, ix. 24. 60 ; 
angada 3), vi. 114. 18 ; vii. 41. 16 ; angulitra, viii. 58. 22. etc. ; 
angulitrana, vii. 41. 16 ; atavi, xiii. 6.6. 35 ; adhivasa, ' home,' vii. 
38. 10 ; xii. 36. 19 (to adhivasa, ' having incense,' may be added 
vii. 82. 10, aplutah sa , dhivasenajalena); andyaka, of king, xiii. 
61. 32 ; anavrsti, ix. 48. 36; anukulata, pudre, x. 3. 19; anvaya, 
tad°, vii. 26. 20; aparddhin, xii. 71. 10 ; abhitah2),abhito ratham, 
iv. 64. 33 ; abhildsuka, yuddha°, viii. 87. 95 (R. abhildsaka)-; 
aldtacakra (cited from R. and Hariv.), viii. 81. 40; vi. 59. 22; 
akarnaprahita, often, e. g. ix. 28. 5 ; dkranti, xii. 97. 8 ; is +prati, 
'receive,' xiii. 93. 43 ; isvaslram (akarot), xii. 2. 18 (also add to 
the meaning 'science of arms' in pw., ix. 6. 14, dapangam yap 
catuspddam isvastram veda) ; udaradhl, i. 183. 10; with R.'s 
sainyakaksa compare sendkaksa, viii. 55. 28 ; kankata, vii. 187. 
47 ; kalahapriya 1), of Qakuni, x i_ jg. 24 (of Narada, see above, § 1) ; 
kdpurusa 1), vii. 22. 2; kuthdra 1), battle-axe of Paracu-Rama, 
xii. 49. 34 (cited from Mbh. only as 'name of a snake'); gad + 
ni with double accusative, viii. 83. 29; triydma 1), vii. 184. 14, 
triydmd rajarii ; nrpdtmaja occurs in Mbh., but my reference is 

1 For savani (bhavet) C. reads sa munir. The former word is not in 
the lexicon. 



22 E. W. Hopkins, [1899. 

lost; bahuvarsika, iii. 310. 6; vi. 64. 10 (C. omits); vac 2), = 
nind (cited from R. and Hariv.), xii. 132. 6, kas tarn va vaktum 
arhati (N. ninditum); vikrta 2) b, or vikrita 2), nom. prop., xii. 
335. 36 = 12686 has vikrita ; samudranta, adj. of earth, xiii. 62. 
66 : dadati yah samudrantaih prthivim, in vii. 198. 55 (cit. pw.), 
a noun. 

4. Notes on various words, chiefly epic, found in the Peters- 
burg lexicon. When a simple reference is given it is to the 
Mahabharata. 

agrahara. This word is cited once, from the Nala. It is 
significant of a certain stage of social conditions, and its rare 
occurrences are important, as I have pointed out in my paper on 
Land-tenure in Ancient India. 1 Here I will simply speak of the 
three passages where the word occurs in the Mahabharata, ignor- 
ing the earlier ' gifts of a field,' ksetra, and ' gifts of a village,' 
grama. The agrahara is technically an estate, usually a whole 
village, given to one or more Brahmans. The original significa- 
tion of agra is the (taking of) the top or pick of a heap of grain, 
and conversely the gift of it, as in Paras, ii. 9. 1 1 ; then the gift 
of good things in general, and finally the gift of land. These 
gifts of land begin to appear in the Sutra period, and are men- 
tioned in Brahmanical as well as Buddhistic Sutras. In the epic 
nothing is commoner than gifts of land, fields, villages, towns, or 
" the whole earth." The earliest allusion to a formal agrahara 
may possibly be found, as Professor Btihler has suggested, at 
Baudh. i. 5. 9. 8 ; but this case is very doubtful, as even the law- 
book of Yajnavalkya, which speaks of copper-plate grants, does 
not yet employ the word agrahara. The epic perhaps refers to 
agraharas when it speaks of a queen's mahadanani, a technical 
term which seems to occur thus for the first time in xv. 17. 17. 
The full expression, gramagrahara, occurs, so far as I know, but 
once in the epic, xv. 14. 14. The form agrahara occurs in iii. 68. 
3-4 in a king's promise to give " one thousand cows, and agra- 
haras, a town, grama, equal to a city." The king fulfills his 

1 This paper was presented to the Society under the title "Village 
Communities," and is published in the Political Science Quarterly of 
Columbia University, N. Y., Dec. 1898, under the title "Land-tenure 
in Ancient India." The paper reviews the conditions of land-ownership 
in ancient times and criticises Mr. Baden-Powell's views as expressed in 
his recent work, The Indian Village Community. 



Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahabharata. 23 

promise by the gift of " cows, with a town and wealth," ib. 69. 27. 
It may well be that in one other passage we have to understand, 
as the commentator asserts, a mere gift of food to priests at the 
end of a sacrifice, when a queen gives the agrahara mentioned at 
iii. 233. 45 : tan sarvan agraharena brahmanan vedavadinah 
Yathdrham pujayami sma pdnacchadanabhojandih (loquitur 
Krishna). It will be noticed that only food and clothes, but not 
jewels and cows (the usual accompaniment of the greater gift), 
are here mentioned besides the agrahara. Another passage, xiii. 
63. 22, gives to the Brahman "guest of all" the epithet prasrtd- 
grabhuk, which means a guest who gets the pick of the pile 
offered in the outstretched hand, a term of the Brahmanas as 
well. When a real agrahara is meant, the kind of village or 
town, for the words are often interchangeable, is a matter of 
importance in the eyes of the recipient, as " the village which has 
only one well" causes the Brahman who lives there to become a 
Qudra. 1 Instead of this term agrahara the usual expression is 
bhiimiddna, medinibhdga, or simply nagara and grama, more 
particularly vdipyagrama and gramavara, that is to say grama 
bahugokidah as they are called in iii. 310. 2. Such gifts, when 
on a large scale, are said to be veritable sacrifices, and hence they 
are called bhumisattra, a word which occurs, I believe, but once, 
though synonyms are found. 2 

ati£ita. The a^'-compounds in the epic deserve perhaps no 
special mention here, and I will only add to cit. in pw. atyartham 
akarod raudram . . atyamarsanah, xi. 18. 28; but atipita earns 
an entry, less perhaps for the later (pw.) parallels and that in 
Pan. (PW., in another sense), than on account of the passage in 
which it occurs. In Eajasiiya, p. 87 ff., Prof. Weber has drawn 
rather important historical conclusions from the circumstance that 
in the Taitt. Br. the time to begin a march is set as in the pipira 
month, which, he says, " does not agree with the Indian climate," 

1 Mbh. xii. 165. 37, udapdnodake grdme ; xiii. 91. 23, udapdnaplave 
grdine (ekakupe, N.) ; Baudh. ii. 3. 6. 31. 

8 xiii. 62. 81-82 (cited in PW.). In xv. 14. 16 ff. ddnayajna and ddna 
mahdkratu are parts of a genuine sacrifice. In general compare xiii. 
62. 2-4 : ati ddndni sarvdni prthividanam ucyate . . na bhumiddndd 
astl 'ha param kirh cit. I have spoken of the lack of all epic mention 
of land-grants (inscribed deeds of land) in reviewing Dahlmann, A. J. 
Phil. xix. 1. The inscriptional grdmamarydda, or charter, is also 
unknown to the epic. 



24 K W. Hopkins, [1899 

nor with the epic. But the epic not only enjoins a spring march 
but recognizes that it may last into the rainy season, thus covering 
the time which, as Prof. Weber thinks, indicates a cis-Indic climate 
in the Brahmana. Nor is the close of the rains especially recom- 
mended; it is only an alternate season, both in M. vii. 182 and in 
Mbh. xii. 100. 10ff.: 

caitryam vd mdrgapirsyam va senayogah prapasyate 
palcvasasyd hi prthivl bhavaty ambumati tadd 
ndi 'va Hipito na 'tyusnah 1 kalo bhavati . . . . 
ib. 25, padatindgabahula pravrtkdle prapasyate. 

Here early spring is also recommended as a time to set 
out on a march, and an army of foot-soldiers and elephants is 
recommended " in the first rains," which corresponds to the 
jaghanye ndidaghe or " close of the hot season," which has 
offended Prof. Weber in the Brahmana account. A similar 
verse is cited in the Jatakas, Nidanakatha (p. 121 of Rhys 
David's translation): "And on the full-moon day of March 
Udayin thought : ' The cold season is past ; the spring has come ; 
men raise their crops and set out on their journeys.' " Then 
follows the verse: "Red are the trees with blossoms; 'tis not 
too hot; 'tis not too cold," etc. 

adaivam. The citation given, adaivam ddivatam kuryuh, 
will be found at xiii. 33. 17. 

advara. The following passages may be added to those cited 
s. dvara: ii. 21. §3 ; iv. 23. 18 ; x. 8. 10. I omit other a-priva- 
tive words except, as a rare word used here in a concrete sense, 
akutsa, a blameless act, xiii. 135. 9 ; and atathya, in tathyan va 
'py atha va "* tathyan (gundn dhuh; compare PW. s. tathya), xii. 
41. 2 ; atathya is cited only from Hit. (pw.). 

adhikara, cited from Manu ; add xii. 297. 25. 

anapatyata, cited from Qak. ; add i. 100. 67 = 4031, v. 1. 

anuyoga. The meaning (cited only from Nyayas.) in pw., 
" riige," is found iii. 192. 56 : na 'nuyoga brahmandndm bhavanti 
vdcd rajan manasa karmand va. In the case cited in PW., xiii. 
93. 82, anuyogo me na kartavyah, the meaning is simply ' ques- 
tion.' 

abhupu (su). It is perhaps worth mentioning that this Vedic 
word in the meaning of ' rein ' is current in the epic, e. g. viii. 32. 
6 and 19. Both B. and C. have abhisu, sic. In the last passage 
cited, abhisugraha. 

1 This word is cited in PW. only from Manu. 



Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahdbharata. 25 

abhyadhika. In further illustration of the meaning the fol- 
lowing passages may be added : vii. 10. 47, yasminn abhyadhika 
vire guna sarve dhananjaydt, " who has all virtues more (better) 
than (has) Arjuna"; and viii. 83. 31, sarvebhya eva ''bhyadhiko 
raso 'yam, " best of all." 

abhyasuyaka, cited from Bhag. ; add xii. 24. 19. 

ayoguda, cited from Manu ; add as weapon in battle, vii. 30. 
16 ; 178. 23, etc., a frequent word. I may add that cakra and 
ardhacandra are also common missiles, by no means peculiar to 
gods. 

avani is a house or homestead, iii. 310. 6 (pw. as "platz"). 

avaskanda as 'attack' is cited from later works; add x. 3. 
27 : avaskandam karisyami pibirasya . . . tan avaskandya pibire. 
The verb is cited from R. 

ahnaya, sic, B. vii. 73. 29 (as well as iii. 35. 10, cited as 
ahnaya in PW.). 

acarana is practicing, not performing, in v. 39. 40, trivarga". 

atreyl. N. always explains as pregnant, but Medh. to M. gives 
the grammarian's alternative : atreyim striyam Atrigotrajatam ; 
v. PW. s. v. 3) b. 

ucchitti, cited from earlier and later works, is found in xii. 12. 
36 : brahmanasya no J cchittir vidyate. 

udagra means 'active,' opposed to nirudyama, in udagra- 
manas, ix. 5. 49. 

upakurvanaka, cited from a Purana scholiast, occurs at the 
end of the first chapter of Vyasa's Smrti. 

upanisad. M. vi. 29 should be added to references. 

upasarjana, 'means of injury,' as in upasarga 2), and sarj + 
upa 6), in xii. 103. 41. 

upaspar<;ana in xiii. 65. 1 3 4s not very clear : upasparpanasad- 
bhagarh labhate. N. says it is dana, but it is probably the (vir- 
tue of) ablution, the usual sense with pregnant force. 

usnapa. PW. gives only usmapa, and pw. marks usnapa as 
' fehlerhaft.' At xii. 36. 9 N. at any rate read usnapa, as may 
be seen in his etymology : usnapo bhavet, suram evo , snam krtva 
pibet iti kecit. B. has usnapa. 

una, for construction add ix. 5. 50, une dviyojane gatvd. 

ekacchatra, cited from Purana, and Spruch 1358, occurs in 
xii. 321. 134: ya imam prthivim krtsndm ekacchatrdm pra$asti 
ha, eka eva, sa vai raja. 

og/havatl, the Sarasvati, ix. 38. 27 ; xii. 50. 7. 



26 E. W. Hopkins, [1899. 

Auddalaki, add ix. 38. 22-24 (uttare kosalabhdge). 

kakuda, add xii. 88. 30 : kakudam sarvabhutdndm dhana- 
sthah. 

kahkana, a* the only loc. cit. for Mbh., iii. 271. 22, B. has 
kinkinl. 

kirhkara, add ix. 32. 50 : tarn udyatagadarh viram menire . . 
vdivasvatam iva kruddharh kimkarodyatapdninam, and com- 
pare kithkarapanin. 

kutlcaka. The citation given without a reference in PW. 
App. vol. v, will be found at xiii. 141. 89 (Nil.). 

kundadhara is clearly jaladhara, a cloud or cloud-demon, in 
xii. 272. 2. 

kfta, a well. I venture to think that this is the meaning of 
the word in RV". ii. 35. 5, kfta iv6 , pa hi prasasre apsii, and that 
the same word is found in the epic. In PW. the word is defined 
as 'Abgrund or gurges,' in pw. as 'Spalt,' but the context points 
a water-holder of some kind. In the epic, when the audakani l 
are described the krtdh are differentiated from the ' tanks ' of 
ancient and modern India : taddgdndm ca vaksydmi krtdndm cd 
'pi ye gundh, xiii. 58. 4. After the general remark that sarvadd- 
ndir gurutaram pdnlyam (instrumental with comparative is not 
so common in Mbh. as in R.) the writer of this chapter discusses 
the ' tanks,' and paraphrases krtd with khdta jaldcraya. He in 
whose taddga thirsty animals and men drink receives the fruit of 
sacrifice ; he in whose khdta cows and good men drink, would 
save his whole family (vss. 16-17). On account of cd 'pi it is 
impossible to take krtdndm as a participle here unless it is dif- 
ferentiated from taddga, as in RV. vii. 49. 2 khanitrima is 
differentiated from svayamjd; but the taddgam sukrtam and 
kurvita of this very chapter show that there is no such differentia- 
tion. The names in different sections are so various (compare ib. 
65. 3, kupdnp ca vdpiQ ca taddgdni ca . . khdnayet) that krtd 
may well be accidentally kept in one passage. Such epic preser- 
vation is seen elsewhere, as in abhipu, kauldla, etc. 

krsnajiraka, 'masc.' In pw. as Nigella indica. According 
to N., on xiii. 91. 40, neuter, and identical with krsndjdjl. 

Krsnatreya, cited first from Hariv., and as physician in 
Caraka* Add xii. 210. 21, where it is said that he cikitsitam 
veda. 



1 This word is a noun in xiii. 58. 3, and should be defined as taddgddi. 
The form tat&ka is found in Earn. Bomb, edition. 



Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahdbharata. 21 

kaulala = kulala, 'p°tt er j' N. to vii. 142. 62, yathd cakram 
tu kauldlah. 

kratna 8). Galava, Babhravyagotra, Pancala, the grammarian, 
through the especial grace of the deity (who is kramdksaravibha- 
gavit), and being instructed in the method of Varna (deva), became 
the first shining light as a Arama-specialist, xii. 343. 100-104. In 
vs. 105 appears Kandarika (in PW. only for Hariv.). The words 
babhdu prathamam may mean that Galava invented the krama 
method of reading, but the reference to Varna would seem to 
show that he did not get his wisdom directly from Vishnu. 

ksaya is an ordinary house, as well as that of gods ; thus in 
xii. 168. 32, the house of a robber. To ksaya, 'destruction,' add 
kopa°, ruin of exchequer, xii. 321. 144. 

khallna. Nowhere does this word in the epic seem to mean 
a bit, but only a bridle. There is here no parallel to the later 
khallnam mukhe praksipya ; nor is there, as in the Phaedrus, 
any mention of bitting the horses of passion, a continuation of 
the metaphor almost inevitable, were bits in use. No word in 
fact is used that suggests a bit. Like the reins, rapmi, the 
khallna is golden and is distinguished from the yoktra or yuga- 
carrnani. The gender of the word is uncertain, neuter in vi. 54. 
59, masculine in vii. 202. 15. 1 In the latter passage the khallndh 
of four horses are represented allegorically by the upavedah; the 
(double) pragraha by sdvitrl and gdyatrl. No word like the 
later kavi, adhana, mukhayuntrana is to be found in the epic, 
which seems to represent an interval between the headstall-bridle 
I have elsewhere described from the sculptures of the north 
torana at Sauchi," and the post-epic mouth-bit. The former is 
evidently intended in Cat. Br. vi. 3. 1. 26-27, where the bridle 
that "lies around the mouth" is spoken of (abhidhdnt). The 
allegorical car of viii. 34. 30 has rapmayah as counterpart of the 
khallna and pragraha of the one mentioned above. Again, in 
viii. 24. 64, the only word to represent the bridle is khallna, 
where ridden horses are " deprived of breast-coverings, tail-bands, 
ornaments, trappings, plumes, blankets, and khallnas." Though 
the evidence is negative it is strong, and I think that khallna in 
the epic means the bridle with a restraining band (perhaps spiked) 
behind the jaw, like those in the oldest sculptures. 

khatapurva, in na khdtapurvam kurvlta (dhanam), xiii. 61. 
25, is technical enough to deserve a special entry : " (A king) 



1 Starred as such in pw. » JAOS. xix. 2, p. 31. 



28 M W. Hopkins, [1899. 

should not make (money by a tax collected on crops raised by 
people who in time of drought have been obliged to dig) wells, 
before (they can get a supply of water)." 

gam with the dative, 3) c), is generally supposed to be syn- 
tactically the same with the accusative in epic Sanskrt. But the 
latter means ' get to,' ' arrive at,' while the former means ' start 
toward,' and answers not to the ace. alone but to prati with ace. 
Thus vi. 64. 82, jagmuh svapibirarh prati, and 86, praydtdh 
pibirdya. So with other verbs of this sort. The goal aimed at 
is, moreover, almost always a resting place or abiding place. 
Examples : gamisydmi grhdya does not mean " I will arrive at " 
but "I will start for home," as is shown by the context, viii. 32. 
51. So pray ay du pibirdya, jagmuh svapibirdya, "started for 
the camp," viii. 95. 11 ; 96. 52 ; so too vraja pibirdya, dudruve 
pibirdya, viii. 94. 23 ; 95. 5 ; but the accusative pibiram gatva in 
96. 7 means " after he had got to the camp." Compare also vi. 
109. 7, abhyavartanta yuddhaya, "turned themselves to (the) 
fight," or, clear purpose (infinitive), vadhaya nispetuh, "came 
out to kill." A good instance of the purely local 'toward' mean- 
ing is found in iii. 113. 5, parydvavrte 'pramdya, " turned himself 
back toward the hermitage." So it is said, ib. 7, bhavato 'pram- 
dya gacchdva yavan na pita mamdi Hi, "let's start for your 
asylum before father comes." In R. also we have gaccha antah- 
purdya, 'start back for,' and patruvadhdya, R. vi. 44. 15. The 
purpose, like the movement, is expressed with dative or prati as in 
(Mbh.) vi. 48. 90: gaddrh jagraha Bhlsrnasya nidhanam prati. 
The difference is of course often imperceptible, for it is not 
always easy to say whether the poet means 'start for' or 'get to,' 
but when there is opportunity to see it the distinction is clear. 
With some verbs the exact action is never plain. Thus tan 
prahinon mrtyulokdya, vi. 54. 82, is not equal but parallel to 
the colloquial agamayad yarnasadanam. In ' casting toward,' 
however, the dative is used rightly, arjundya prajighdya bhallan, 
vi. 59. 110. The fact that when attainment is clearly intended 
the ace. and not the dat. is used seems to strengthen the view 
that there is still a difference of meaning. So in the case cited 
above, the soldiers " made a great noise as they were going 
toward the camp," pibirdya ; but elsewhere, " they went to bed 
after they had got to the camp," nyavipanta gatva pibiram, vi. 
96. 80. 

gunabhaj, cited only (pw.) from Cangadhara, Spruch 7669 ; 
add x. 3. 18 : samddhatte gunabhag gunam. 



"Vol. xx.] Lexicographical Notes from the Mahdbhdrata. 29 

grnjanaka, in the passage cited, in PW., is explained by the 
scholiast not as a vegetable, but as the flesh of a wounded poi- 
soned animal ; that is, as identical with grnjana. 

carma-vat, see bana-vat. 

coksa or cauksa, also in B. i. 214. 2 (v. 1. bhaiksa), a word 
of the later epic period. 

jayagabda, ascribed to post-epic literature; add ix. 6. 22, 
jayapabddnp ca cakrire. As the compounds are somewhat 
irregularly entered, tdla° and pdda° as special words, tala° from 
Hariv., jyd° from Oak., I add vii. 16. 36, talapabdam mahat 
hrtva / vii. 38. 19, jydpabdah pupruve tasya talapabdag, ca 
darunah; ib. 12, bdnapabda (ib. 13, jydtalatrasvana) ; ix. 9. 
14-15, khurapabda and "svana, 

jihvagra, cited from Vedic and classical literature ; add xii. 
206. 16. 

tala 3) f. tala. The proposed reading (PW.) is a Gauda vari- 
ant, according to N. 

turarftga, rare metrical variant ; add to cit., viii. 27. 37. 

tailapayika, sic ; contained in some MSS. of Medh.'s text, M. 
xii. 63 : tailam vdi tdilapdyikah. 

trika 5) b), cited from Hariv.; add bhagnaprsthatrikdn, vdra- 
nan, vi. 62. 51. 

tritaya, cited from xiii ; add ix. 64. 21 : tritayam sevitam sar- 
vam. 

trigulapanin, vii. 202. 42. Cited in PW. are ° varapanin, 
°hasta. 

darvihomin. To Nir. i. 14 add Jaim. Br., apvinau darvihom- 
inau. 

digo gacchati, cited only for persons, means 'is dispersed, 
is lost,' e. g. ix. 4. 42, bhinne hi bhdjane tata dipo gacchati 
tadgatam, "when the dish is broken the contents is lost." 
Under the 'seven' dipah should first be cited RV. ix. 114. 3. 

dharmahantar, with one epic reference ; I add xii. 32. 8 for 
Professor Holtzmann (honos auribus sit), as it is the Kurus who 
are here called dharmahantdrah. 

pa^uyajin, cited only from Mait. S. in pw.; add ix. 50. 31, 
lokah papuydjinam. 

pratislma, cited from Divyavad. in final App. pw. ; add xiv. 
4. 16 : tatas tan ajayat sarvan prdtisimdn narddhipdn. C. has 
pratyamitrdn. 

bana-vat. The adverb I believe is not cited. It occurs xiii. 
93. 47, trsna vidhyati bdnavat. I add here another reference to 



30 E. W. Hopkins, Lexicographical Notes, [1899. 

the adverb carmavat (besides the one cited from the Upanisad), 
viz. xii. 110. 26 : ya imdn sdkalan lokdnp carmavat parivestayet. 

brahmanacandala. As some of the compounds are not 
referred to Mbh., I cite the whole of xii. 76. 6 : dhvdyakd deva- 
laka ndksatrd grdmaydjakah Eie brahmanacandala mahdpathika- 
pancamah. 

mahajanah, plural, xii. 321. 143 ; earliest case? 

mahadana, technical, cited from post-epic literature ; add xv. 
17. 17. 

tnitravatsala, cited only from Mudrar. ; add ix. 6. 24. 

rathagakti. In pw. " wohl der Fahnenstock." But in ix. 16. 
42 (cited), and in ix. 10. 38 ff. and xii. 4. 18, it is a sharp-pointed 
polished missile, with a golden handle (like other spears), and is 
regularly employed to kill people with, while it is not spoken of 
as holding a banner. It is probably a heavy spear. 

a-craddadhana dharmasya te nacyanti na sarhcayah, 
iii. 207. 47, is cited as from " Brahmadharraa " in Spruch 3317. 
The first half of this Spruch is 46 b of loc. cit. above. The next 
half-verse, 47 b, contains one of the frequent epic Vedicisms, 
mahd drtir ivd ''dhmatah papo bhavati nityadd, which shows 
that Bergaigne's interpretation of RV. vii. 89. 2 is also native, as 
does the parallel in xii. 95. 20-22. 

sattra 3), pw. 4), as dambha or vastra ; add xii. 321. 71 and 
184, where the bhiksafl is satra (sic) praticchanna (— kapata- 
sannyasini or vesdntarena guptd, N.). 

sampurna as 'all'; add x. 1. 25, and note that in this verse 
anpuka has the meaning of embroidered vastra or ' cloth of gold * 
(cited from drama and Spruch 7813 from Kalpataru) : grahanak- 
satratdrdbhih sampurndbhir alamkrtam, Nabho 'npukam ivd 
''bhdti. 

sudugcara, cited from M. ; add Mbh. ix. 48. 4, of niyama. 

snigdhatva, cited once from Mbh. as Spruch, but with v. 1. 
Add the passage ix. 35. 90 : snigdhatvad osadhmam ca bhumep 
ca . . . jdnanti siddhdh . . nastdm api saraseatlm. This is at the 
village TJdapana, where the river utterly disappears (as usually 
explained, because she is afraid of the Abhiras and QiUlras), but 
here she apparently leaves a trace above ground in the verdure 
over her supposed course ; probably indicated by a green belt in 
the desert.