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The Worship of Heaven and Earth by the Emperor of China. 
— By Henry Blodget, D.D., Bridgeport, Conn. 

This worship is invested with the deepest interest to the stu- 
dent of the ethnic religions. The antiquity of its observance, the 
magnificence of its altars, the exalted personages by whom it is 
performed, the imposing nature of its rites, not less than the con- 
troversies which for three hundred years have been waged among 
Christians in regard to it, combine to give this worship a very 
conspicuous place in the study of the religions of the ancient 
nations. 

The state worship of the earlier kings of Egypt, Greece, Rome, 
Phoenicia, Assyria, Babylon, India, no longer exists in real life. 
If we study it, we do so from books and from the monuments of 
antiquity. But here we have the ancient worship of China pre- 
served in a living form to the present time. Minor changes in 
place, form, circumstances, there may have been ; but the essential 
things remain unchanged. The worship by the Emperor, as now 
seen in Peking, expresses the mature judgment of Chinese schol- 
ars as to the ancient religion of China. This is the orthodox 
cult, according to the classic writers and the best traditions of the 
empire. 

The altar to Heaven, T'ien T'an, is located in the southern 
suburb of Peking, three miles from the palace of the emperor. 
The altar to Earth, Ti T'an, is in the northern suburb, about two 
miles from the palace. This location of the two altars is in accord- 
ance with the dual principle, yin and yang, which pervades the 
worship and Chinese philosophy in general. The south is the 
region of light and heat, the yang; while the north is the region 
of cold and darkness, the yin. Hence the altar to Heaven, which 
is also yang, must be on the south, and the altar to Earth, which 
is yin, must be on the north. It may be remarked in passing 
that the altar to the Sun is on the east side of the city, and the 
altar to the Moon on the west. Each of these four altars is sit- 
uated in a large park, planted with rows of locust, pine, and fir 
trees. 

The largest of these parks is that which surrounds the altar to 
Heaven. This contains some five hundred acres of ground, and 



Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 59 

is enclosed by a wall of brick fifteen feet high and above three 
miles in length, covered throughout with tiles. Within this park, 
■extending nearly the entire distance from north to south, is a 
second wall enclosing the sacred places, buildings and altars. 
Here, in the northern part of the enclosure, is an altar for prayer 
for bountiful harvests, which is crowned by a dome-shaped pavil- 
ion above one hundred feet in height, having three successive 
roofs covered with azure tiles, the two lower roofs extending out 
in widening circles around the dome, while the upper roof covers 
the dome and is surmounted by a large gilt ball. The whole is 
designed to represent the blue vault of heaven, and presents a 
very grand and beautiful appearance. The name of this edifice 
is Ch'i JVien Tien, Temple of Prayer for the Year, that is, for a 
year of abundant harvests. This altar and temple, however, are 
only mentioned by the way, as adjoining that to which attention 
is mainly directed. 

The open altar to Heaven has the greatest antiquity and im- 
portance. This is situated in the southern part of the enclosure 
mentioned above, and is separated from the temple in the north- 
ern part by a high wall. The altar to Heaven is built of white 
marble, and stands under the open sky. The structure is in three 
■concentric circular terraces, rising one above another, and each 
surrounded by a richly carved marble balustrade. The diameter 
of the lowest terrace is two hundred and ten feet, of the middle 
terrace one hundred and fifty feet, and of the uppermost terrace 
ninety feet. The last is a circular flat surface, about eighteen 
feet above the level of the ground. It is paved with white mar- 
ble slabs, which are so arranged as to form nine concentric circles 
around one circular stone in the center. Upon this stone the 
Emperor kneels when he worships. The innermost of these cir- 
cles has nine slabs, and the number of slabs in each receding cir- 
cle is a multiple of nine, the outermost having the square of nine, 
which is a favorite number in Chinese philosophy. 

The altar is round, as representing the circle of Heaven. It is 
built of white marble rather than of dark, because Heaven 
belongs to the light, or yang, principle in the dual philosophy. 
The ascent to the altar is by three flights of steps on the north, 
the east, the south, the west, each flight having nine steps. The 
first flight lands one on the first terrace, the second flight on 
the second terrace, the third flight on the third terrace, or top of 
the altar. 



60 H. Blodget, [1899. 

Besides the two walls already mentioned, there are two nearer 
walls surrounding the altar at some distance from each other, and 
having a grove of ancient cypress trees between them. Between- 
the third and fourth wall is a hall for the five hundred musicians, 
and a stable for the sacrificial victims. Within the fourth wall, 
that nearest the altar, is the Hall of Abstinence and Fasting, 
for the use of the Emperor during the night previous to his 
annual sacrifice ; also the small round building called the Temple 
of the Imperial Expanse, in which the tablet to Heaven and the 
tablets to the Imperial Ancestors are deposited when not in use ; 
two smaller temples containing the tablets for the secondary ob- 
jects of worship ; the Depository for the Sacred Utensils ; the 
Depository for the Sacrificial Vessels ; the House for Slaying the 
Victims; the Furnace for the Holocaust ; the poles for the lan- 
terns, and the other things necessary for the worship. 

Answering in all important respects to the altar of Heaven is 
the altar to Earth, on the north side of the city. The grounds of 
this park are square, and contain about three hundred acres, the 
whole being enclosed by a high wall two miles in length. The 
altar itself and the buildings erected upon it are second in mag- 
nificence only to the altar to Heaven and its buildings, even as the 
place which the worship of Earth holds in the national cult is 
second only to that of the worship of Heaven. 

The altar to Earth is square, while the altar to Heaven is 
round, the Earth being square and the Heaven round. The altar 
to Earth is made of dark-colored marble, since the earth belongs 
to the yin, or dark principle. It has two terraces instead of three. 
The lower terrace is one hundred and six feet square, the upper 
terrace, or top of the altar, is sixty feet square, and it is open to 
the sky, as is the altar to Heaven. This terrace is about twelve 
feet above the level of the earth. 

The top of the altar is paved with marble slabs quadrangular 
in form and laid in squares around a central square upon which 
the emperor kneels in worship. Each of these squares consists of 
successive multiples of eight, instead of nine as in the circles on 
the altar to Heaven. Balustrades of dark-colored marble sur- 
round both terraces. 

This altar is encompassed at the base by a stone-walled trench, 
six feet wide and eight feet deep. At the time of the sacrificing 
this trench is filled with water. There are four bridges across 
the trench, each opposite to, and connecting with, one of the four 



Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 61 

flights of steps at the cardinal points of the compass by which 
the altar is ascended. 

Like the Altar to Heaven, this altar also is separated from the 
street by four walls, which are covered with yellow tiles, as rep- 
resenting the color of the earth. Within the fourth wall, that 
nearest the altar, are the Hall of Abstinence and Fasting ; the 
small square building called the Temple of the Spirit (or Goddess) 
Imperial Earth, in which are deposited the tablet to the Earth 
and the tablets to the deceased Emperors of the present dynasty ; 
two smaller temples which contain the secondary tablets used in 
the worship of Earth ; the Depository for the Sacred Utensils ; 
the Depository for the Sacrificial Vessels ; the House for Slaying 
the Victims ; and the open iron urn for burning the offerings. 

What is to be noted in regard to these buildings is, that in 
their location and form they are arranged in accordance with the 
dual principle, yin and yang, as are the two altars themselves 
and all the rites of worship. The temple for depositing the 
tablet of Earth, and the buildings for the secondary tablets, are on 
the south side of the altar, facing the north, which is yin, while 
the corresponding temple and buildings at the Altar to Heaven 
are on the north of altar, and face the south, which is yang. The 
temple for the tablet of Earth is square, built upon a square 
elevation, and surrounded by a square wall, as for the worship of 
Earth ; while that for the tablet of Heaven is round, built upon a 
round elevation, as for Heaven. 

The entrance to the Altar to Earth is from the west, through a 
very imposing honorary portal, and over a fine paved causeway. 

The altars to the Sun and Moon, though secondary in rank, are 
constructed on the same general plan, and with constant regard 
to the dual principle. Similar are the altars to the Gods of the 
Land and Grain, to the Spirits of Heaven, to the Spirits of Earth, 
and to the Divine Husbandman, all of which are in the open air. 

Having described the grounds, buildings, and altars, it will be 
in order next to speak of the tablets, their position on the altars, 
and the offerings set before each. When the time of worship has 
come, these tablets are brought out from the temples in which 
they are kept, and with great reverence placed, each in its proper 
position, upon the altars. First of all the tablet to Heaven is 
placed upon a table, within a circular tent of blue satin, on the 
north part of the upper terrace of the Altar to Heaven. Thus 
the tablet will face the south, since it belongs to the yang princi- 
ple, and the emperor will prostrate himself towards the north. 



62 H. Blodget, [1899. 

Upon this tablet are inscribed in gilt six Chinese characters 
(M5c_fc^?^fi)> °f which the sound is Hwong Tien Shang Ti 
Chih Wei, and which signify, " The Throne of Sovereign Heaven, 
the Supreme Ruler." There is a double apposition in the inscription, 
Shang Ti, Supreme Ruler, being in apposition with Hwong Tien, 
Sovereign Heaven, so that "Supreme Ruler" is none other than 
" Sovereign Heaven." Thus it is understood by all native scholars. 
There may be some who would fain regard " Sovereign Heaven " 
as the dwelling place of Shang Ti, whom they somehow conceive 
to be distinct from and above Heaven, in fact as the true Lord. 
Such should be reminded that in the ancient classics and in 
Chinese dictionaries Tien, or Heaven, is always the equivalent of 
Shang Ti, Supreme Ruler, and that we may not depart from 
Chinese usage in rendering this inscription. 

Upon this same upper terrace of the altar, on the east and 
west, are placed, in tents of blue satin open toward the center of 
the altar, tablets of the deceased Emperors of the present dynasty. 
Each tablet stands in a finely carved and gilded case, resting on 
a pedestal of corresponding workmanship. These tablets are 
arranged according to their priority on the throne. The founder 
of the Manchu dynasty occupies the place of honor, which is the 
first place on the left of the tablet to Heaven. The second plaee, 
that at the right of the tablet to Heaven, is occupied by the 
second Emperor of the dynasty, and so on in the order of their 
succession to the throne. There are no other tablets on the upper 
terrace besides those which have been mentioned, — the tablet to 
Heaven and those to the Imperial Ancestors. 

It is to be observed that in this arrangement the tablets to the 
deceased Emperors are regarded as P'ei Wei (ISHS), that is, mated 
with, equal to, associates of, Shang Ti, or Tien (Heaven) in honor 
and worship. Similarly on the Altar to Earth these tablets are 
regarded as P'ei Wei, mated with, equal to, associates of, Earth 
in honor and worship. Of course it can not be intended that the 
Emperors at death have become equal in magnitude and dynamic 
forces to Heaven and Earth. The idea would rather be that they 
are exalted to this honor as being equal in virtue to Heaven and 
Earth, and as having lived throughout all the functions of their 
being in entire conformity to that universal law which pervades 
Heaven and Earth, that is to the law of nature. It may also 
include the idea that the Emperor is the vicegerent of Heaven 
and Earth in the sway he exercises, his authority over men. It is 



"Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 63 

said also of Confucius that his virtue was equal to Heaven and 
Earth, Teh p'ei Tien Ti (fjgf E5cJ4). 

The offerings which are set forth on this uppermost terrace of 
the round altar are in accordance with the idea of the equality of 
the tablets. Before the tablet to Heaven are placed the libation 
of wine, offerings of silk, the round blue jade stone as the symbol 
of Heaven, a young heifer, a sheep, a swine, and the various viands, 
twenty-eight in number, all arranged in suitable vessels and in 
proper order. The same offerings, including the heifer; and 
excepting only the jade, the sheep, and the swine, are placed 
before the tablets to the Imperial Ancestors on the east and west 
sides of the altar. 

On the second terrace, which is six feet lower, and encircles 
the uppermost terrace with its white marble-paved surface thirty 
feet wide, are placed, on the east fronting the west, the tablet to 
the Sun, and on the west facing the east, the tablet to the Moon, 
each enclosed in a blue satin tent, with offerings of the medium 
class, less in dignity than those on the upper terrace, arranged 
before them. 

Next to the tablet to the Sun on the same terrace, also on the 
east and facing the west, are tablets to the Seven Stars of Ursa 
Major, the Five Planets, the Twenty-eight Constellations, and to 
All the Stars of Heaven. These tablets are all placed in one satin 
tent, with offerings of the inferior class according to the ritual 
arranged before them. 

On the same terrace, on the west side and facing the east, next 
to the tablet to the Moon, are placed in one satin tent, four tablets, 
one each to the Clouds, Kain, Wind, and Thunder, with offerings 
of the same class set before them. 

Such are the tablets and such the order of their arrangement 
on the Altar to Heaven. On the Altar to Earth the tablets and 
their arrangement correspond, mutatis mutandis, to those just 
described. First of all on the upper terrace is placed the tablet 
to Earth, enclosed in a yellow satin tent, on the south side of the 
altar, the tablet facing the north, which belongs to the yin, or 
dark principle. Thus the emperor, entering the inner enclosure 
and ascending the altar from the north, will prostrate himself 
toward the south, the reverse of all which takes place at the 
Altar of Heaven. 

Upon this tablet are inscribed, in gilt, Chinese characters of 
which the sound is Hwong Ti Ch'i chih Wei (ik$$lWi £,"&.), and 



64 H. Blodget, [1899. 

which signify, " The Throne of the Imperial Earth Spirit (or 
Deity)." 

Along with this tablet are placed upon the same upper terrace, 
on the east and west sides of the altar, the tablets of the Imperial 
Ancestors of the present dynasty. These are arranged on either 
side of the tablet to Earth, in tents of yellow satin, each tablet 
enclosed in a carved and gilded case, the order being the same as 
on the Altar to Heaven. These tablets are the PeH Wei, that is, 
they are mated with, equal to, associates of, Imperial Earth in 
honor and worship. The tents are of yellow color, in order to 
correspond to the color of the Earth. 

Upon the second terrace, which is six feet below the upper, 
and extends out beyond the upper twenty-three feet on each side, 
are placed secondary tablets. On the east facing the west, in 
tents of yellow satin, are tablets to the Five Lofty Mountains, to 
the Two Mountains Ch'i YUn and Lung Yek, to the Three Hills 
of Perpetual Peace, and the tablet to the Pour Seas. On the 
west facing the east, in similar tents, are tablets to other Five 
Celebrated Mountains, to the Pillar of Heaven, to the Two 
Mountains of Splendid Fortune, and the tablet to the Four Great 
Rivers. All of these, it will be noticed, represent parts and 
powers of the Earth, as in the worship of Heaven the secondary 
tablets stand for parts and powers of Heaven. 

The offerings set forth on the uppermost terrace before the 
tablet to Earth are the same as those set forth before the tablet to 
Heaven excepting that the jade is yellow and square, as symbol- 
izing the Earth, instead of being blue and round, as symbolizing 
Heaven, and the offering of silk is yellow instead of blue. There 
are the same libations of wine, the young heifer, the various 
viands, some twenty-eight in number, all arranged in suitable 
vessels and in proper order. The offerings to the Imperial An- 
cestors are the same on both altars, and of the same class as those 
to Heaven and Earth. 

Before the tablets on the second terrace of the Altar to Earth 
are placed in order offerings of the second and third class accord- 
ing to the ritual. 

The time of the worship is also arranged according to the dual 
principle, yin and yang. The worship of Heaven comes at the 
winter solstice, because then the power of the yin, or dark princi- 
ple, has run its course and is exhausted, and the power of the yang^ 
or light principle, represented by Heaven, again begins to assert 



Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 65 

itself. The days begin to lengthen ; nature prepares herself once 
more for the glories of spring and summer. 

The worship of Earth comes at the summer solstice. Then the 
power of the yang, or light principle, is exhausted, and the 
power of the yin, or dark principle, represented by Earth, begins 
in turn to assert itself. The days begin to grow shorter. Forces 
have come into operation which in due time will bring autumn 
and winter. Such are the ideas underlying and controling the 
times of this worship. 

On the day previous to the winter solstice "the Emperor comes 
forth from his palace in great state, proceeding to the sacred 
grounds, part of the way in a chair, part in a chariot, attended 
by a large retinue composed of officers of every rank, military 
guards, musicians and others, to the number of nearly two thou- 
sand." Arriving at the place, he first burns incense and prostrates 
himself before the tablet to Heaven and the tablets to his Ances- 
tors. This is done in the little temple in which these tablets are 
deposited when not in use. Then he inspects the altar, and the 
various sacred buildings, implements, and sacrificial victims. 
This done he retires to the Hall of Abstinence and Fasting for 
the night. 

About two hours before sunrise he is summoned to engage in 
the worship. Arrayed in sacrificial robes of azure color, to repre- 
sent the color of the sky, he proceeds to the southern gateway of 
the enclosure containing the altar. There he remains standing 
outside the gate while the proper officers of the Sacrificial Court 
with great ceremony remove the tablets from the sacred build- 
ings in which they are deposited, and place them in due order 
upon the upper and second terraces of the altar. 

When the announcement is made that all is in readiness, the 
tablets and offerings being all arranged according to the ritual, 
the Emperor passes through the gate and proceeds to the altar to 
perform the worship. Everything is done according to the most 
elaborate and carefully prescribed rules, and under the direction 
of the Master of Ceremonies. Each position and motion of the 
Emperor, as well as of the imperial princes and high magistrates 
attendant upon him, also of the musicians and others engaged in 
the worship, even down to the soldiers and servants, is regulated 
by these rules. 

The service opens by peals of music. The Emperor in his 
robes of azure ascends the altar by the steps on the south, and 
vol. xx. 5 



66 II. Blodget, [1899. 

advances to his place at the center of the round altar in front of 
the tablet to Heaven, having on his right and left the tablets to 
his Ancestors. There he stands while the whole burnt offering is 
consumed in the furnace southeast of the altar. The "three 
kneelings and nine prostrations " — three prostrations with the 
head to the pavement at each kneeling — are now performed be- 
fore the tablet to Heaven and before each of the tablets to his 
Ancestors. The libations are poured out, the offerings are pre- 
sented, and -the written prayer. 

The whole scene is very impressive. The gray dawn, the pale 
light from the suspended lanterns, the absence of any images, the 
silence of the multitude in attendance, interrupted only by the 
swell of music, while the Emperor and, as it were, High Priest of 
four hundred millions of people, attended by princes, magistrates, 
soldiers, musicians, servants, here pays his annual worship to 
High Heaven and his Imperial Ancestors, and to all the Powers 
of Heaven. 

When the service is ended, the round azure jade, the symbol 
of Heaven, and all the tablets are returned in the same reverential 
manner, each to its proper temple and place. The written prayer, 
the rolls of silk, and all the offerings on both terraces, are 
removed and burnt, or otherwise disposed of ; the Emperor retires 
from the scene of worship, ascends his chariot, and returns to his 
palace. 

The worship on the Altar to Earth is very similar to that just 
described. On the day previous to the summer solstice the Em- 
peror comes forth from his palace in like magnificent state, with 
a like retinue, and proceeds to the Altar to Earth in the northern 
suburbs of the city. Arriving there, he first burns incense and 
prostrates himself before the tablet to Earth and to his An- 
cestors, in the small temple in which these tablets are deposited. 
After this he proceeds to inspect the altar and buildings, as in the 
worship at the Altar to Heaven, and then retires to the Hall of 
Abstinence and Fasting for the night. 

About two hours before sunrise the time is announced by the 
officer in attendance, and the Emperor, arrayed in his sacrificial 
robes, repairs to his place of waiting outside the north gate of 
the square wall nearest the altar. Here he remains while the 
tablets are removed with great ceremony from the sacred build- 
ings, and placed in order upon the upper and second terraces of 
the square altar. 



Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 67 

When all is in readiness, at a word given by the Master of 
Ceremonies, the Emperor ascends the altar and performs the 
worship, the time, attendants, music, and ritual, in all respects 
corresponding to that on the Altar to Heaven. His robes and 
the satin tents are yellow, as befits the color of the Earth. He 
ascends the altar from the north and worships toward the south. 
As on the Altar to Heaven,, so here, before the tablet to Earth 
and the tablets to his Ancestors he performs the " three kneeliugs 
and nine prostrations." The libations are poured out, the offer- 
ings are presented, and the written prayer. 

As in the worship of Heaven, so here in the worship of Earth, 
the high position of the chief worshipper, his princely attend- 
ance, his numerous cortege, the absence of any image, the grey 
dawn, the profound silence, interrupted only by the swelling 
strains of music, all conspire to render the service impressive in 
the highest degree. 

When the worship is ended, the square jade stone of yellow 
color which is the symbol of Earth, the tablet to Earth, and the 
tablets to deceased Ancestors, with the tablets to the various 
parts and powers of Earth, are all returned to their places for 
safe keeping in the adjacent temples, while the written prayer, 
the rolls of silk, and the other offerings are either burnt or other- 
wise disposed of. 

The Emperor retires from the scene in due form, ascends his 
chariot, and is escorted to the palace. 

Such in general outline is the worship of Heaven and Earth by 
the Emperor of China, performed annually in the suburbs of his 
capital. It will have been observed that the offerings and prostra- 
tions to Heaven and to Earth are essentially the same, even as the 
parks, altars, and buildings mutually correspond. If there is any 
difference in the honor paid to Earth and to Heaven, it is only in 
subordinate respects, and analogous to that paid to the father and 
the mother in ancestral worship. This analogy is expressed in 
the couplets " T'ien Ti, Fu Mu, (3c$|3C#) "Heaven and 
Earth, Father and Mother," which are in the mouth of every 
Chinese, and express what are to him objects of deepest rev- 
erence. 

This solstitial worship, as it is most ancient, so also is most 
sacred in the regard of the Chinese. No one but the Emperor or 
one of highest rank, delegated by him, is allowed to perform it. 
It occupies the first place in the Ritual as laid down in the Stat- 



68 S. Blodget, [1899. 

utes of the Empire, the Ta Ching JTuei THen (jfc^E'H'Jft.), and 
stands at the head of all the objects of worship laid down in the 
imperial cult. 

The Christian scholar will ask how this worship stands related 
to the worship of the true God, the Lord. Acknowledging its 
great antiquity, he will recognize the fact that it is invested with 
a high degree of reverence and solemnity ; that the religious 
feelings are deeply moved in performing its sacred rites ; that 
there is a certain elevation of mind, a grandeur and awe, which 
attaches to the worship of the vast Heaven and broad Earth, the 
sum total of all created things, performed as it is by the mon- 
arch of so many millions of human beings. He might grant also 
that, in the view of those who engage in this worship, there may 
be a certain force or energy immanent in, and inseparable from, 
Heaven and Earth, dual in its nature, and conceived of sometimes 
with greater, and at other times with less of intelligence and 
personality, able to produce all things, and adequate to the great- 
est operations and transformations in nature, instituting and 
maintaining the moral order of the world. Thus it will seem to 
him to be a system of pantheistic nature worship. 

But he will be unable to regard this worship of Heaven and 
Earth, or of Heaven only, as the worship of the true God, whom 
Christians adore, for the following reasons : 

First, the worship of the true God is the worship of the Creator 
of Heaven and Earth, not of Heaven and Earth. 

I think the challenge may safely be given to any student of the 
Chinese language to produce a single passage from the ancient 
classics of China in which T'ien, Heaven, or its equivalent 
Shang Ti, Supreme Ruler, is spoken of as the Creator of Heaven 
and Earth. 

Second, this worship of Heaven and Earth is pervaded by the 
dualism of Chinese philosophy, which is wholly foreign to the 
worship of the true God. 

In the description above given of this worship, attention was 
drawn only to what is external and phenomenal in the operation 
of this dual principle. As regards its internal forces and work- 
ings, the discussion is endless. A few sentences taken from the 
prize essay of Kung Hsien HS, written for the recent Parliament 
of Religions, will illustrate this. He writes, " The Absolute, or 
the Great Extreme (so these words 2"ai (Jhih, ^^, are trans- 
lated in dictionaries and by scholars) producing yin and yang 



Vol. xx.] Chinese Worship of Heaven and Earth. 69 

{|^§?B»)> *^ e ^ ua ^ principle? i 8 l aw producing forces. When yang 
and yin unite they produce water, fire, wood, metal, earth. 
When these five forces operate in harmony, the four seasons come 
to pass. The essences of the infinite, of yin and yang, and of 
the five elements combine, and the Heavenly becomes male, and 
the Earthly becomes female. When these powers act on each 
other all things are produced and reproduced and developed 
without end." 

Whatever the ideas of this writer may be, if indeed he had 
any distinct ideas, it is plain that the worship of Heaven and 
Earth, into which this dualism enters so largely, belongs to the 
ethnic religions, and can have no affiliation with the Christian 
doctrine of God. 

Third, the solstitial worship of Heaven and Earth is material- 
istic in its nature and tendency. 

Fourth, the worship of Heaven and Earth stands at the head 
of the Chinese Pantheon, and is inseparably bound up with the 
worship of numerous other beings and things. The Pantheon of 
China is large. It includes the various parts and powers of na- 
ture, the deceased emperors of every dynasty, deceased sages, 
heroes and warriors, distinguished statesmen, inventors of useful 
arts ; in general an under world made up of all the objects of 
worship in the three great religions of the land.