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Sanskrit jana, Avestan zana. — By Arthur F. J. Kemt, A. M., 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

The occurrence of the Sanskrit word jana. in Avestan has not 
been noted, I believe, although it is found in Old Persian. But 
the Avestan equivalent of this word exists, as I hope to show. 

In Yasht xix. 43 occurs the passage : Yd janat SnaviSkdm 
yim srvd-zanvm .... The reading srvo-zana here given is that 
of Geldner's edition, and is supported by all the better manu- 
scripts. The common text, as found in Westergaard and fol- 
lowed by most translators, differs from Geldner's in having srvd- 
jamm instead of srvo-zanwn. Srvo-jandm is explained as com- 
posed of srvo (from srva) Latin cornu, Greek xepas, 'horn or 
nail,' and jana, a derivative from \/jan ' to smite.' The meaning 
then given is either 'killing the kine' (de Ilarlez, Geiger) or 
'striking with the claws or nails' (Spiegel, Justi, Darmesteter). 
Neither of these renderings is acceptable, since they are based on 
the reading of inferior manuscripts. As already stated, all the 
better manuscripts have zamm, not jansm. 

Bartholomae ( Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, i. 243 f.) 
rightly follows Geldner's correct reading, but he etymologizes 
zana through the Latin gena ' cheek,' and renders ' mit hornernen 
Backen." It seems to be simpler, however, to connect zana here 
with Sanskrit 's/jan, Greek ytv-, Latin gen-, in which case srvo- 
zandm would mean 'belonging to the horned race.' Zana is 
thus to be identified with Sanskrit jana (cf. Petersburg Worter- 
buch, s. v., see especially panca-jana). Iranian zana = Sanskrit 
jana occurs also in the ancient Persian inscriptions, in which we 
find vispa-zana, 'consisting of all the races,' and paru-zana, 
' consisting of many races.' Furthermore, it is to be noticed that 
almost all the sculptured monsters on the walls of the palace at 
Persepolis (see Stolze, Persepolis, i. 4) have a horn on their fore- 
heads, so that the epithet srvo-zana, when applied to them, is lit- 
erally true. Apparently SnaviSka was conceived as such a horned 
Ahrimanian monster. 



1 Previously, however, he had translated, ' die Horner (der Binder) 
abschlagend ' (see Handbuch der altiran. Dialekte, 240).