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Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. — By Eichabd Gott- 
HEiL, Professor in Columbia University, New York, N. Y". 

The title of this paper is, perhaps, badly chosen. I should 
have said " Extracts from a Syriac Materia Medica." But to a 
people so backward in the physical sciences as are they who copy 
and use such works as this, the difference between folk-medicine 
and true medicine is not very apparent. Where the names Hip- 
pocrates and Galen are still highly prized, such ignorance can not 
excite wonder. And the name of Galen was what first caught my 
eye when I looked over the pages of the Syriac manuscript. 
That Galen had been translated into Syriac — at least in part — 
we have known since the publication of Wright's Catalogne of 
Syriac MSS. in the British Museum. In that library there are 
two palimpsests of the eleventh century,' and portions of two man- 
uscripts of the seventh and eighth centuries." Specimens of these 
latter two have been published by Sachau^ and by Merx.* Galen 
is cited by the lexicographers Bar Ali and Bar Bahlul.^ The 
value of the Syriac translation in connection with the Arabic 
and Hebrew renderings is well known." Sufficient material is at 
hand for an edition of portions of the Arabic Galen. It is a 
wonder that no one, as yet, has undertaken this work.' 



' Vol. i. p. 159 ; ii. p. 1030. 

5 Vol. iii. p. 1187. 

' Sachau, Inedita Syriaca, pp. 78-96 {tex'"'! 'laTpmrj, and T^epl avaTo/xiKiJv 
kyxsip'lt'soiv). 

* ZDMG. xxxix. 337 f . {irepl Kpaaeav re koI Swafieov tciv dn2,C)v ^ap/iaKoyv). 

'See Bar Bahlul, ed. Duval, col. 37, 13, etc., etc., and Berthelot, La 
Chimie au Moyen Age, ii. 131. Cf. Bar Hebraei Chronicon (edd. Bruns 
and Kirsch), p. 6 below ; Das Bueh von der Erhenntniss der Wahrheit, 
ed. C. -Kayser, pp. 32, 2 ; 137, 2 ; Low, Aramaische Pflanzennamen, p. 
18. I know nothing further about the quotation from Galen in my 
article on Dawidh bar Paulos, PAOS. May, 1891 (=JAOS. xv.) p. cxviii. 

« For the Arabic, see Klamroth ZDMG. xl. 639 ; for the Hebrew, 
Steinschneider, Die Hebraeischen Uehersetzungendes Mittelalters, §415; 
Monatschr. f. Cfesch. u. Wiss. d. Judenthums, xxxviii. 177, 866. 

' Cf. Wetzstein, ZDMG. i. 303, and Lagarde's plaint, Mittheilungen, i. 
149. (I have not seen Iwan von MuUer, Ueber Qalens Werh vom wis- 
sensehaftlichen Beweis, Munich, 1895 ; cf. O. B. ix. No. 5894). 



Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. 187 

The manuscript from -which I have the following pages bears 
the superscription,'^*>-'^ii>Ji wsZ^aioli. \.L^ l^-ai. Ij-kic ).kJ^ iL^i. Vi. 

I^nle )^nw\»3 >Jon1 «N ^ _<|.jb£i^9 ] ilV;) |.1NiVim i-stt . J -^as for 
some time nonplussed as regards the work to which this might 
refer. That it really is based on Galen, I could have no doubt.' 

I am certain, now, that l-«li»'l hViVim = ^apfiaKa Kara tottovs ; and 
that the work of Galen which the writer has in view in his -Kepi 
<7vvO€cr€<i)'S <f>apiJi,dK<i)v Twv Kara tottovs fii/3\m i. (ed. Kuhn, vol. xii.), 
which in the oriental translations usually went with the tS>v Kara, 
yh/rj C (ed. Kuhn, vol. xiii.)." I have not tried any further identi- 
fication. But I believe that we have here one of those many 
compendia which were current in the East. 

A general desoiption of MS. Syriaque, 325 of the collection 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, has been given by M. 
J.-B. Chabot.^ The following colophon to the first half of the 
manuscript is found on fol. 66a : 

r^c-fSe ^jViN , nig] si_.£m]? .{jleZo —tl^Zo \\le }X>oZo ■ ""^ ^i -^ 

-—o p ^ V e )-.cjo {..kl..- ^jJi»oi ).ia^.^ -, -,n^ ji-A-o >aj».*.o ,__.» ._ci>._s 
l2a% i.i:iwitE g iVi *' ?3»iJj )a_^k. }J? ^^m . ) ■■°i'^- Ij—as j_£i_ii>o Q-^ 
i-.=rJ= r— io ^cl^-clI^ j-lioa-.? U=^^ "M^i* jl) . ^mooQ^ ZoU^ V^iio 



1 Cf . with the expressions used here the Syriac translation of the n-ept 
Kpdaeuv published by Merx (ZDMG. xxxix. 261). 

» See Klamroth, I. c. p. 630, and the description cited there from Ibn 
Abi Useibia. Cf . also Steinschneider, I. c. p. fi5S. 

" Journal Asiatique, Neuvieme Serie, Tome viii. p. 372. 



188 B. Gottheil, [1899. 

From this we see that the manuscript was written by Joseph 
Azaria, son of John Odii in Tell-Kefe, a teacher in the Catholic 
school of that place. He finished his work on the first day of the 
month Haziran, in the year 1888. We have no information as 
regards the original compiler or the translator. 

The manuscript is not difficult to read, and is full of marginal 
notes in Arabic. I have translated as best I could. Any changes 
which I have suggested have been recorded in the notes.' Where 
I was unable to translate, I have left a blank space. I hope, at 
some future time, to publish the rest of the manuscript. 

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1 The marginal glosses of the MS. are indicated by Gl. 
^ I have numbered the sections to facilitate reference. 



Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. 189 

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Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk- Medicine. 191 

■> U^ ^OVS '-a\s1 )j-kli^ ■> Ig, 

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192 E. Gottheil, [1899. 

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.^Joi:., jiiili^.j 27. 

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Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. 1 93 

.jjia^, iaiLJ.:^.> 28. 

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VOL. XX. 13 



194 H. Gottheil, [1899. 

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Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine, 195 

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196 B. Gottheil, [1899. 

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Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac t oik-Medicine. 197 

aj] t^Of^o ]^,ia.u£ ^1 ^(_^o ^£o> ) i ■•,• m Pr— ^ ^1 • ai Vng^ iS^M 
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^ ^^«^Q^ ]a__DO (fol. 8a) iV^-^ w^nN t' | niN ^o palofo )..>iJ« ]»oo 

TRANSLATIOX. 

[§ 1] Medicine for a running sore of the head which spreads. 

Put chicorium endivia, ten drams, grains of opium five drams, 
anisum,' five drams, anethum foeniculum,' two drams and a half, 
in strong vinegar' two parts and water one part. Leave them for 
one day and for one night ; then boil and filter. Take sugar ; 
put in medicinal water until the whole is more consistent than 
honey. Every evening, when he goes to sleep, let the sick man 
eat of it about one dram. It will be found useful. 

[§ 2] For ulcers' and insects on the head. 

Beat up grains of Sagira,' knead with sheep's oil, and smear. 

[§ 3] That pedicules shall not appear on the head. 

Beat up raisins" in myrtle-oil, and smear. Or, wash' thy head 
with water and salt. 

' Read ^ohujI . 

2 Gloss. ^M». i. e. ^Lj)'; ; cf. WZKM. xii. 85. 

s GL Va , i. e. Jk^ . 

* A guess ; reading Irf*. (cf . Izj^** P. S. col. 1359) : Ms. l?|-»» . 

* Ms. li-»~^ > Gri. SjjS' . Ought we to read ]t-^»io (Low, Aramaische 
Pflanzennamen, p. 272)? 

* Gl. ,_*AA*»/ , i. e. >_>jov . ' Gl. Vii^] , i. e. Ju«»cl . 



198 a. Qottheil, [1899. 

[§ 4] For ulcers on the head. 

Burn grain, knead it with the yolk' of egg, and smear. 

[§ 5] For ulcers from which flows yellow fluid. 

Take some pieces of old' shoe-leather, used by tailors ; bum 
them and beat them up like stibium. Throw the whole into tar, 
and smear. 

[§ 6] For an ulcer on the head. 

Scrape the root of . . . .' Place it in the sun that it become 
dry. Beat it up and put it in olive-oil ; boil, and smear. 

[§ 7] For the head ; quickly.* 

Burn stalks of plants ; break up until they are like dust. Throw 
in olive-oil; boil, and smear on the head. Then sprinkle vinegar 
on the head. Or, take soap^ made in Rakka (?), and foenicu- 
lum ;" pulverize and mix with old sheep's oil. Put it out under 
the stars for three nights, commencing on a Wednesday.' Then 
spread it on the head. 

[§ 8] For ulcers and scabs which appear on the head. 

Beat up incense, dustbrand' and . . . ." flesh in equal parts. 
Mix in olive-oil, and spread on the scab." Then slightly warm 
an egg over the fire and smear it on above the medicament. Or, 
put human blood upon the scab. Or, beat up caper leaves and 
put in vinegar. Beware of this medicament, lest it do an injury. 
Or, beat up peanut root, roll in honey and smear. 

Further, for a scab which appears on the head or on other parts 
of the body. Heat dry rose-thorns, dove's breasts, and sheep's 
fat over the fire, and smear. Or, knead soot from the pot in vine- 
gar, and smear. Another (recipe) for a scab on the head. Beat 
up chickpeas," nuts, and garlic, and put that (on the wound). 

^Gl. ^jeLo. ^Gl. sU-o. 

3 1 do not understand these words. Ms. ?ow 1^1*? 'r°J • Above l^^oJ 
Arabic xjLaj ; 1 suggest \fn^ . 

* I suppose that this means, a prescription which can be quickly put 
lip. 

° Gl. jjjjLo. The translation of >»_e? is a guess ; Gl. («AXii. " of 

Aleppo." 
sRead ijia^ . 

' Perhaps this means, "three nights, each of which is a Wednesday." 
s See Bar AU in P.S. col. 3385 ; Gl. Lo . 
9 Ms. IVZoZ? Perhaps U»oZ . i» Gl. sMv*-. 

■iGi.^y=»j;.j. 



Vol. XX.] Contributions to Si/riac Folk- Medicine. 199 

[§ 9] For eye troubles. 

Mix together fennel water, thirty drams, and hydromel, ten 
drams. Burn on a slight fire until half remains. Then take it 
off the fire and keep it in a glass vessel. Bind it on the eyes 
while the stomach is empty. 

[§ ] 0] For eye-lashes which grow over the eyes. 

Smoke the skin of a serpent under the eyes. Or, paint [the 
eyes with] the gall of a stork and the gall of a carp. Or, paint 
[the eyes] with the gall of an eagle ; [then] they will not grow 
over. 

[§11] For an eye which is awake and will not sleep. 

Boil leaves of savory in wine and vinegar, and put on. Or, 
beat up cyminum and mix with the white of an egg. Put this 
on a piece of paper and put it on the eyes, outside. 

[§ 12] For eyes on which there is flesh. 

Beat up eggs with their yolk ; spread this on a piece of paper, 
and put it on the eyes, outside. Or, knead cucumber in new 
wine, and paint. 

[§ 13] For hairs which grow in the eyes. 

Take out the hairs from the eye, and spread over the spot the 
blood of bugs, or the blood of dog's lice. Or, mix the gall of an 
owl equally with a little ....,' and apply it to the spot whence 
thou hast plucked out the hair. 

[§ 14] For eyes from which the eyebrows have fallen out. 

Beat up dry hare's dung ; purify(?)' and sift it, and apply. 

[15] To preserve the eyes from [being affected by] snow and 
cold. 

Boil clean wheat straw in water. Purify water' and cast it upon 
the eyes many times. Or, bum wheat, purify(?) and sift it, and 
apply. Or, beat up garlic and press out the juice.* 

[§ 16] For eyes in which dust remains. 

Break up the husks of sweet pomegranates ; lay them in water 
for one day. Then pass the water through a clean cotton rag, 
and lave the eyes with it six times. After this [lave them] with 
the juice of the hyoscyamus. 

[§ 17] For the sickness of dry eyes; for eyes which are sick 
and smart. 

' Ms. 7 , 1 ■*• . Perhaps yjujui , coriander-seed. 

^ Ms. "^o-aJo . I suggest ■ °" ■^''^ . 

' Does this refer to the water spoken of immediately before? 

^ But this would be jai-liB. Ms. ioiaia. P.S. col. 3033 aioie? 



200 H. Qottheil, [1899. 

Knead the excrement of salamander' in water and old olive-oil 
which is of the consistency of honey, and smear. Or, apply 
she-ass's milk while it is still warm. Or, apply bitch's milk. 

[§ 1 8] For eyes that smart. 

Boil raisins in vinegar and wine ; smear the outside of the eyes. 
Or, break up the inside of nuts and cinnamon. Knead this in 
wine, and apply. Or, break up foxes' testicles, boil in water, 
filter, and apply. 

[§ 19] For children's eyes which are sick and do not open. 

Beat up black earth and honey, and apply. 

[§ 20] For red eyes. 

Boil well grains of sweet and of sour pomegranates until they 
are of the consistency of honey, and smear. 

[§21] For a wound or festering" of the eyes. 

Inject into them dove's blood or female chicken's blood. Or, 
inject into the eyes the heated white of eggs. 

[§ 22] For running eyes. 

Smear [over them] the juice of acid pomegranates. Or, smear 
every day the blood of white doves. Or, smear the juice of black 
prunes.' Or, beat up asparagus seed and the inside of fried len- 
tils ; mix with wine and apply. Or, boil well red prunes and 
mix with a little vinegar; [with this] wash your face. Or, roast' 
anethum foeniculum and pour it over thy head for seven days. 
Or, apply the juice of ammi.^ [This remedy] is well-tried and 
certain. 

[§ 23] For . . . .' of the eyes. 

. . . .' Take leaves of xauthoxylon -^ masticate them and put 
them on the eyes. 

[§ 24] For eye-ache. 

' Bar Bahlul (ed. Duval) col. 1681. 

* Literally ' fluxion.' 

3 Bead lioiso] . Gl. t>y*u ; Ms. U*aa. * Read ^aii.^ ; Ms. >ea2i>.»-. 
5Eead}-a-J. Gl. j^^^Lj ; Ms. U" . « l-ooT ? 

' Ms. >ca^kA , which makes no sense here, even if it stand for >ca \ « >> 
(Low, p. 133). 

* Ms. I'-j'^" I suggest iji»s (jj-ftli). See Duval, Notes de Lexico- 

graphie Syriague et Ardbe (Extrait du Journal Asiatique), Paris, 1893, 
p. 38. 



Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. 201 

Apply olive-oil and . . . .' of oil. Or, dip a piece of olivfe-wood 
into the yolk of an egg and apply it to the eyes. 

[§ 25] For severe diseases of the eye. 

Mix grains of . . . .,^ cucumber, and salt in woman's milk, and 
put this on the eyes. Or, dessicate swallow's flesh and mix with 
sarcocolla, and apply. The patient must not drink wine. He 
shall use for them an astringent,' by means of sponges which 
they immerse in warm water. Then let blood. 

[§ 26] For a swelling and air* in the eyes. 

Beat up portulacca ; squeeze out its juice ; mix in barley-corn, 
unripe figs, and the white of eggs. Smear this on the outside. 
Or, beat up gall-nuts, terminale chebula, the husks of sweet and 
sour pomegranates, sumach,' and black prunes. Boil them 
equally ; filter the juice, smear and rub. This is also good for tears. 

[§ 27] For yellow of the eyes. 

Beat up husks of pomegranates, and mix with olive-oil. With 
this besmear the portions adjacent to the eyes. Or, let the pa- 
tient drink cow's milk while it is warm. It will remove from 
him the yellow and livid color. 

[§ 28] For poor eye-sight." 

Cast narcissus water on the eyes. Or, smear the blood of foxes, 
which is also good for ....;' or the blood which flows from the 
liver of the buck. Or, smear the blood of . . . ." ravens, while it 
is warm. Or, roast a buck's liver ; smear on the gall " which comes 
out of the liver while it is warm, and give [the patient] the liver 
to eat. Or, smear fish's blood. Or, cook a buck's liver in a pot, 
and let them [that are aflSicted] receive on their eyes the steam 
which comes from the water. Or, apply human dung. Or, mix 
seeds of garlic and urine'" of little boys, and smear. Or, beat up 
green gourds, squeeze them, and put in his nostrils. Or, mix the 
juice of fresh cheese with the urine of young boys, and smear. 
Or, roast unripe grapes," drain off the water, and apply. Or, mix 
the gall of goats with honey of the comb, and smear. 



' Ms. U-t-^ ? ^ Ms. |3oZ ? 3 j^aj ? My translation is a simple guess. 

*• Ms. I-Mov 5 Read jjiioaffl. Ms. ijaiaa. 

* Literally " darkness of the eyes." '' Ms. ]«) ? 

8 Ms. Jioos? as in note 3, p. 200; I hesitate to suggest ]^~-\ . 

' Gl. i_g<n~. . Cf. Bar Bahliil, and P.S. col. 3506, s. v. J-^liooijauo . 

'" Read U^Zo . Ms. }-klio . "Ms. jy-"^ = Ijaos ? 



202 JR. Gottheil, [1899. 

[§ 29] For blindness of the eyes. 

Take a young swallow. Pluck out its eyes ; bind some sign 
upon it. Leave it in its nest for three days. Then its mother 
will come ; and, seeing that it is blind, will go and bring a certain 
root, and place it upon the bird's eyes, which will then open. If 
thou art able to get at that root, or that piece of it [which the 
mother-bird used], take good care of it. Cut ofE the head of the 
young swallow ; bum it well, smear him that does not see, so that 
he see [again]. 

[§ 30] For one whose sight is poor. 

Burn frogs' legs," beat them up, knead with bitter almonds, and 
apply. Or, burn the heads of some young pigeons ; beat them up, 
mix them with honey, and apply. Or, liquefy the fat of fishes, 
mix with honey, and apply. Or, burn an ass's hoof, dip it in ass's 
milk, and apply. It will help much. Or, apply the fat of the 
swan" and mare's milk. Or, apply the gall of a swan. Or, beat 
up a cucumber, moisten it with the yolk of an egg, and put this 
on the eyes. Or, put the juice of sweet pomegranates in a glass 
of licorice.' Place this in the sun until it becomes as consistent 
as honey. Mix with this, in equal quantities, menstrual fluid. 
When asleep apply, and it will give much relief. 

[§ 31] For one who can not see at night. 

Apply the marrow of a mule's thigh-bone. Or, take out the 
liver of a mare, roast it on a fire, beat it up. Throw on this the 
oil of one musk which has been preserved,' and apply. 

[§ 32] For eyes upon which either sweet or black water has 
fallen. 

Smear the gall of a vulture and honey. Or, take a green frog, 
kill it. Take of its blood, and smear where the sickness is greatest. 

[§ 33] For whiteness in the eyes. 

Smear the gall of a turbot.' Or, smear the eggs of a white" 
raven. Or, beat up sea-naptha, dust of grape kernels, and egg 



• Read U-JW lie-f^- G\. v^^JuLa. ^t . ' Gl- -^' • 

< Gl. ] 't^^^ = ■KiTT&cijia'kTOi of Dioscorides, P.S. 2038. (jiovftta). For the 
Arabic LjOjjo see Dozy, SuppUment, ii. 635. For jJ-o? I would read 
|_Q_J?, P.S. col. 930; for -^-,io read ^yio "prepare." The sentence 

might then be translated, " Throw upon this one danik of musk-oil ; 
prepare it, and apply." 

' Gl. i^yJ^ . ' t=^^ ? Gl- LNi*j' • 



Vol. XX.] Contributions to Syriac Folk-Medicine. 203 

shells, and apply. Or, beat up rue' seed, put it in unwashed' 
wool; throw this into asses' milk, and bind it upon the eyes. 
Or, throw safron into asses' milk, and smear. Or, apply the gall 
of a locust. Or, reduce Egyptian date-wine, . . . .' wine, bitter 
almonds, cat's gall, lizard's* tongue, all in equal parts, to a 
powder, and eat. 

[§ 34] For blood which issues from the nose. 

Smear figs with honey and put this between the eyes. Or, 
reduce incense, sulphur, and glass ; knead in vinegar and apply 
on the face and on the temples. Or, knead red dust in vinegar, 
and apply to the face while [the patient] sleeps on his side. 
Sprinkle, in the meantime, a little very cold water on his body." 
This is a good and well-tried [remedy]. 

[§ 35] For noses which are fetid. 

Pound almonds with the juice of vetch,' with which rub and 
then put on.' 

[§ 36] For ear-ache. 

First, for . . . .' which grows in the ears. Burn the root of the 
reed ; beat it up and apply. It will disappear. 

[§ 37] For ears which are insensible and deaf. 

Mix swine's grease' unsalted, turtle-grease, oil of bitter nuts. 
Prepare juov/wa," heat it, and sprinkle over them. Or, mix up 
goat's grease and put it on them. 

[§ 38] For ears which sing. 

Boil olive-oil and goat's gall, and throw this on them while it 
is still hot. Or, heat oil of bitter almonds and grease of a black 
chicken, and sprinkle it over them. Or, cook gall-nuts in vinegar 
and old wine, and put it on them. Or, heat garlic in olive-oil, 
and put it on them. Or, sprinkle them with swine's-gall. Or, let 
[the patient] eat copiously onions. This will help him. 

' Gl. Jocya.. C£. WZKM. xiii. 10. "> Gl. Ju«X ikj . 

'" Ms. i-al. Read ,-iiJ , i. e. jouo ^•^- *'°^- ^^67. Ms. ^.i+£i= V^ 
Is this a nisbah of &£w£ '' 

» Ms. l^Jo . Read |lio , P.S. col. 1070, J«j . Gl. has a word which 
may perhaps be Jjjj . ll'o is also possible. 

= aiSiN^ V ' Gl. 'ijMiJS'. ' Literally " cause to drip." 

* Ms. 1 11 n , ' a reed.' Does this refer to a growth in the ear? 

' Gl. iU^ . w See note 4, p. 203. 



204 H. Gottheil, [1899. 

[§ 39] For the smell of ears which buzz. 

Press sweet pomegranates and rhubarb, and mix in old wine, 
oil of sesame' and woman's milk, and put on. Or, mix lye' and 
myrrh and oil of myrrh, and put it on them. 

[§ 40] For the ears of children from which issue blood and pus. 

Beat up spice and a little salt ; mix in woman's milk, and 
sprinkle. Or, heat vinegar and honey, and put on. Or, boil gall- 
nuts and lettuce in vinegar, and bind this on the ears. 

[§ 41] For ears which have worms. 

[Mix'] blood, water, and ox-flesh, and put this on them. Or, 
heat sharp garlic in boys' urine, and sprinkle this on them. Or, 
beat up sumach,* goats' milk, pomegranate shells, and gall-nuts ; 
mix this in honey, heat, and sprinkle it on them. Or, pi'ess out 
flesh from the loins' of a half-roasted bull with salt, and put on. 
Or, mix the oil of bitter almonds with vinegar and throw on. 
Or, mix oil and vinegar and put this on them. Or, throw on 
them juice of absinth and old oil, while [the patient] is lying 
down. They will go out. 

[§ 42] For the clotting' of blood which comes from the ears. 

Throw aloes and prepared cucumber in vinegar, and put on. 
Or, boil rock alum' in vinegar and honey, and put on. Or, cook 
the juice of pomegranates in vinegar, and put on. Or, put on the 
juice of leek' and vinegar. Or, boil the juice of the bramble, and 
gall-nuts. Strain, and throw this on them. 

[§ 43] For ears from which pus' flows. 

Boil what is called " Egyptian medicine," honey, one pound, 
rust", three parts, and vinegar, three parts. Then throw in 
vinegar ; at the end, take it off the fire, and put in rust. Use it 
properly with every boil. Smear the ears [with it] by means of 
pieces of wick. Apply this for old ailments of the ear. Or, heat 
she-asses' milk, woman's milk, and honey, and apply. Wash the 
ears with hydromel and beet-water ; cook lentils in water. 
While he sleeps, let it remain in his mouth. 

' Gl. _ jjLw . ' Gl. JoLi-i ? ' The verb is wanting ; u^ol-i. ? 

* Read Ijiieaju ; of. note 5, p. 201. ° Gl. JS. 

« Ms. UlS>s . I have guessed at the meaning. 

' Read ULxfu, ; of. Berthelot, La Chirnie au Moyen Age, 11. 10 ; Duval, 
Notes de Lexicoffraphie Syriaque et Arabe, p. 30. 

8 Gl. :>]S. ' Gl. ^^J-A/^ . '» Gl. ^Ls^j\ . Of. Duval, I. c. p. 16. 



Vol. XX,] Contributions to Syriae Folk-Medicine. 205 

[§ 44] For winds in the throat. 

Cook in water leaves of the castor plant, black figs, and len- 
tils. While [the patient] sleeps, let him keep it in his mouth. 
Or, let him gargle with she-ass's milk and goat's milk. Or, let 
him gargle with vinegar and oil of roses. Or, beat up strong 
onions, throw them into wine, and press them well. Let him 
wash with this the fleshy part' of the throat. Then put these 
onions on the throat. Or, beat up the root of birthwart ;^ spread 
it on his neck by means of a rod. Or, beat up dung' of a white 
dog, and spread it on. Or, knead them in honey, and let him 
gargle in his mouth. Or, take a crab, dry it, beat it up, mix 
with cold water, and let him gargle. Or, cook cotton seeds, 
pepper, dates, figs, dried roses, cummin and lentils in water. 
Keep this in thy mouth, whilst sleeping on thy side. Or, let 
him take in his mouth the juice of sweet pomegranates, while 
sleeping on his side.