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ARTICLE III. 



THE MALAYAN WORDS IN ENGLISH. 

By CHARLES PAYSON GURLEY SCOTT. 



Presented to the Society, April, 1896. 



English etymologists hav many imperious calls upon their 
attention. Every language within the corners of the four winds 
hoists a signal as they sail by in their hurried circumnavigation, 
and it is no wonder if in their haste to reach home within the 
time set in their articles, they ar tempted to ignore many of these 
invitations to parley, or at most to cut the parley short, treating 
such outlying tongues merely as ports of call, to be seen and left 
within the waning of a winter's afternoon. 

Even if time wer given, it too often happens that the means 
of finding out these remoter facts and of forming therefrom a 
judgment, ar not at hand, and can not be reacht. 

And even if time and means ar granted, there is the difficulty 
to be overcome of learning, before the ship sails on, the details 
of many outlandish tongues, written often in outlandish charac- 
ters, and ill provided with the critical apparatus which is so 
abundant for the principal Aryan and Semitic tongues. 

Nevertheless, difficulties do not form a complete excuse ; and 
the English etymologists who ar compeld, by their very office, to 
touch many things which they can not hope to adorn, to enter 
many fields which they can not hope to conquer, may yet go some 
way forward, and make some spoil for their pains. And indeed 
they do sometimes make spoil, with other pains than their own. 

Of such an excursion, made along etymological lines, in a 
remote but large and important group of languages, this paper 
presents some results. 

It deals with the words which hav come into the English lan- 
guage from the East-Indian or Malayan Archipelago, the land 
of the orang-utan and the sapi-utan, of the babirusa and the 
banteng, of the bruang and the dugong, of the siamang, the 
kahau, and the wauwau, of the maleo and the cassowary, and of 
that once mythic bird called the manucodiata, 'the bird of 
heaven ' or paradise ; the home of the kris and the gong ; the 



94 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

land of the myriad isles, the sea of lucid waters and rainbows in 
the deep — a region, if we ar to believe the purpl tales of travelers, 
like that where 

" — the spicy breezes 
Blow soft o'er Ceylon's isle, 
[Where] every prospect pleases, 
And only man is vile." 

Indeed, in one version, it is the same region ; for in Heber's hymn, 
in one edition (1827), the breezes "Blow soft o'er Java's isle" 
(Julian, Diet, of hymnology, 1892, p. 399). 

More precisely, the paper deals with Malayan words in English; 
that is, with English words, or words which may be regarded 
as at least entitled to recognition in an English dictionary (if 
there is any longer any such thing as an English dictionary), 
that hav come, directly or indirectly, from Malayan sources. It 
is necessary to apply some tests, which will be indicated later, to 
determin what words shall be admitted under the name of English 
or of Malayan. In this paper I use " Malayan " in a general 
sense, linguistic and geographic, and confine " Malay " to the one 
language so cald, which, however, owing to its receptiv character, 
includes a great number of external " Malayan " words. It is 
hazardous to say of any " Malayan " word that it is original 
"Malay." 

In the first process, that of collection, I hav been rather liberal. 
The notion of a liberal collection must always be agreeable to 
the theological mind, and I am fortunate, reading this paper at 
the seat of a famous seminary of theology, in being thus able to 
secure at the outset a pleased attention from at least a part of 
my audience. I can only hope that when I hand up the plate 
and retire to my pew, the cheerful face of expectation will not 
be clouded by more than the usual gloom. 

I hav collected all the English, or nominally English, words I 
can find, which hav, or ar said to hav, or seem to hav, their 
origin in the Malay language or the Malayan group of languages. 
These English or nominally English words hav been gatherd out 
of general English literature, from books of exploration and 
travel, Hakluyt, Dampier, Hamilton, Forrest, Wallace, Bickmore, 
Forbes, Thomson, Bird, and others ; from translations of foreign 
books of travel, as Linschoten, and others included in the Hakluyt 
Society's series ; from works treating of the political and natural 
history of the Archipelago, as Marsden's History of Sumatra, 
Rafiles's History of Java, Crawfurd's History of the Indian 
Archipelago and his Descriptive dictionary of the Indian islands; 
from political reports, commercial lists, etc., and of course from 
the English dictionaries, the Malay-English dictionaries, and such 
works as that of Colonel Yule. A list of the works most used is 
given further on. 

To these English or nominally English words I hav annext other 
words or forms from other languages more or less involvd in the 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 95 

same history. All ar supported by quotations, many or few, all 
dated and verified. 

The words so collected I then undertook to etymologize, at 
the same time putting them into classes according to their ascer- 
taind or probable status with respect to the English, and to the 
Malayan or other Oriental languages. 

The English or nominally English words wer separated accord- 
ing to their actual standing in English, several tests, as of fre- 
quency of use, of acceptance in standard literature (I play that 
there is a standard literature), of independent use by divers 
authors, and of relativ interest, being applied to discriminate the 
words and lead to the final selection of the list which forms the 
main basis of this paper — namely, the English words, truly 
regarded as such, which hav their ultimate origin in the Malayan 
languages. 

As the number of such words is considerable, and as they form 
an important element in the English language, it is worth while 
to make the attempt to ascertain and make known their true 
history and their actual relations. 

And there is also a larger view. These words from the Far 
East which appear in English, appear also, most of them, in the 
other great languages of Europe, and ar a part of the universal 
vocabulary of civilization. 

On the Malayan side my investigations hav been wholly ety- 
mological. Every word in my lists I hav sought to find and to 
trace through all the Malay dictionaries at my disposal — Marsden 
(1812), Elout, translation of Marsden (1825), Roorda van Eysinga 
(1825), Crawfurd (1852), Pijnappel (1863), with Klinkert's Sup- 
plement (1869), Pavre (1875), Wall and Tuuk (1877-1884), Bad- 
ings (1884), Swettenham (1881, 1887), Klinkert (1893), Clifford 
and Swettenham (A 1894, B 1895, the rest to come), and other 
works cited in the quotations. [Of the above named works, Elout 
(1825) and Badings (1884) ar but seldom cited, being of little 
independent value.] Then I sought the same or related words 
in dictionaries of the related or adjacent languages, as Achinese 
(Arriens 1880, Bikkers 1882, Langen 1889), Lampong (Helfrich 
1891), Nias (Thompson and Weber 1887), Javanese (Roorda van 
Eysinga 1835, Groot and T. Roorda 1843, Favre 1870), Sundan- 
ese (Rigg 1862), Balinese (Eck 1876), Dayak (Hardeland 1859), 
Macassar (Matthes 1859), Bugis (Thomsen 1833), together with 
many minor glossaries and wordlists of the languages of the 
same and other parts of the Archipelago, including some regarded 
as ' dialects ' of the general Malay, and some allied only as mem- 
bers of the broad Polynesian group. 

The present paper is intended to contain only " nativ " 
Malayan words, that is, English words fairly entitled to be so 
regarded, which can be definitly traced to the Malay language 
as presented in Malay dictionaries, and can not be certainly traced 
further, outside of the Archipelago. The three tests ar (1) the 
word must be in English use, (2) it must be found in one or more 



96 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Malay dictionaries, (3) if not ultimately Malay, it must at least 
hav originated, so far as known, within the Malayan region. The 
words which answer these tests, with the proofs and illustrations 
as they stand in my manuscript, ar too numerous to be treated 
in this paper. I select those which ar of most importance or of 
most interest, and giv the full list at the end. 

The plan of the paper is as follows : The articles ar arranged 
in the alphabetic order of the English forms. Each article con- 
sists of several divisions, coming always in the same order : 

(1) The English form with a brief identifying definition, and 
with variant spellings, present or past, if any. In some cases, 
other European forms ar added. 

(2) The Malay form, in the Malay character, with translitera- 
tion ; and explanation of formation, if known. 

(3) Form in other Malayan languages, if any. 

(4) Citations from various Malay dictionaries, in chronologic 
order, showing the actual form and definition assigned. 

(5) Citations for other Malayan languages, if any ar concernd. 

(6) Citations from English works in chronologic order, show- 
ing the actual use of the word in English. 

All Malay words, that is, all words enterd as real or nominal 
Malay words in Malay dictionaries, ar given, in the first instance, 
in the Malay character (which is Arabic with a few additional 
letters distinguisht by three dots), and also in English trans- 
literation, according to the noble " Roman " system, to which I 
hav made the Dutch and French conform. It beats the Dutch 
and the French both. I note here that Dutch tj answers to 
English ch, the establisht infelicity for tsh, Malay in one letter 
-. cha. Favre uses for this the otherwise unused infelicity x. 

Dutch dj in like manner answers to English j, Malay »- jim. 

Dutch oe answers to English uor w, Malay ) wan. The rest is 
obvious. 

For more precision, all Malay words as above defined, ar, in 
the Roman transliteration, whether English, Dutch, or French, 
printed in upright spaced letters. 

Some of the Malayan languages, as Batak, Lampong, Javanese, 
Macassar, Bugis, and also the Tagala and Bisaya of the Philippine 
islands, hav peculiar alphabets of their own. The Sundanese 
appears sometimes in Javanese characters, sometimes, like the 
Achinese, in Malay. All ar also renderd, by Europeans, in the 
Roman character. I regret that it is impossible to reproduce 
these nativ characters here. They would greatly add to the unin- 
telligibility of my pages. I can giv only the Roman translitera- 
tion. For the original characters, where they exist in the passages 
I quote, I substitute three dots (. . .), which will probably satisfy 
nearly everybody. 

The dates put before the author's name and the title of the 
book, if not followd by a later date within curves after the title, 
mean that the quotation is taken from the identical edition of 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 97 

the prefixt date. If a later date follows, after the title, the quo- 
tation is from the later edition so dated. In some of the minor 
wordlists quoted, taken from periodicals, the date and paging ar 
of course those of the periodical. 

A date in my own text, within curves, following a Spanish, 
Portuguese, Italian, New Latin or English form in italics, is the 
date of the earliest quotation for that form, in Yule's collection 
of quotations, or in my own. It means only that the word is 
found at least as early as the date given. The actual first 
appearance of the word in the language mentiond, may hav been 
twenty, fifty, a hundred years earlier. Historical etymology 
without dates is mere babble. Any date, if true, is better than 
none. 

The quotations ar all first-hand, unless markt otherwise. Those 
taken from Yule's indispensable collection ar markt (Y.). Some 
are due to the Stanford dictionary (8. D.); a few to the New 
English dictionary (N. E. D.), and the Century dictionary (C. I).). 

In view of the near approach of the twentieth century, I hav 
modernized some of our sixteenth century spellings in order to 
make them worthy of the nineteenth before it is too late. In 
this I follow the advice of all English philologists ; who advise 
well. 

The following is a list of the principal works used in the prepa- 
ration of this paper. It is confined almost wholly to dictionaries 
and wordlists of the languages of the Malayan Archipelago, in my 
own library. A few English works of special value, as Yule's 
Anglo-Indian glossary and Wallace's and Forbes's travels, ar 
included in the list. The titles of other works used will appear 
in the quotations. 

The works ar listed in the alphabetic order of the authors' 
names. When cited, they ar preceded by the date as a constant 
part of the author-reference. The names of the works most 
often cited, ar in the quotations commonly reduced to date and 
author's name only, "1812 Marsden," "1875 Favre," etc., with 
the locus added. 

AERNOtTT,W., Een woordenlijstje der Tidoengsche taal [Borneo]. 
Amsterdam, 1885. Large 8vo. (In:....Deel I. 1885, p. 536-550, 
Amsterdam.) 

Archives pour servir d V'etude de Phistoire, des langiies, de la 
gbographie et de V ethnographie de VAsie orientale, r'edigkes par 
MM. G-ustave Schlegel et Henri Cordier. Ley den, 1 890 + . 8vo. 
See Schlegel. 

Arkiens, P., Maleisch-Hollandsch-Atjehsche woordenlijst. Am- 
sterdam, 1880. 8vo, 8 -f 94 p. 

Badings, A. H. L., Nieuw Hollandsch- Maleisch, Maleisch- 
Hollandsch woordenboek. Zoo gemakkelijk mogelijk ingericht 
ten dienste van Neder landers, welke zich in Indie wenschen te ves- 
tigen. 4th ed. Schoonhoven, 1884. 8vo, 394 p. 

vol. xvii. 7 



98 G. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

BaTAVIAASCH GENOOTSCHAP VAN KUNSTEN EN WETENSCHAPPEN. 

Verhandelingen : Deel XXIX., 1862 (see Rigg). Deel XLV., 
1 89 1 (see Helfrich). See also Tijdschrift, etc. 

Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch- 
Indie. Uitgegeven door het Koninklijk instituut voor de taal-, 
land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch- Indie, s' Gravenhage, 
1853 +. (Amst. 1856-65). 8vo. See Cambier and Kern (1890). 

Bulletin de la &oci'et'e academique indo-chinoise. 2 e serie, 
1882 +. See Blumentritt, 1884. 

Bikkers, Dr. A. J. W., Malay, Achinese, French and English 
vocabulary, alphabetically arranged under each of the four lan- 
guages. With a concise Malay grammar. London, 1882. 8vo, 

14 + 35 2 P- 
Bird, Isabella L., The Golden Chersonese and the way thither. 

London, 1883. 8vo, 16 + 379 p. 

Blumentritt, Ferdinand, Vocabulaire de locutions et de mots 
particuliers d Vespagnol des Philippines. ...traduit de Vallemand 
du XVI' jahresberichte der communal ober-realschule in Leit- 
meritz, par A. Hugot.... Paris, 1884. (Extrait n° 12 du Bul- 
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1882.) 8vo, 84 p. 

Beooke, James. See Mundy. 

Cambier, J. P. C, Rapport over Tidoreesch-Halmahera. Be- 
knopte woordenlijst van talen op Tidoreesch-Halmahera. 1873. 
(In Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch- 
Indie. Uitgegeven door het Kon. instituut voor de taal-, land- 
en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie. 3 e volgreeks VII., p. 
265, 266. 's Gravenhage, 1873. 

Clercq, F. S. A. de, Set Maleisch der Molukken. Lijst der 
meest voorkomende vreemde en van het gewone maleisch ver- 
schillende woorden, zooals die gebruikt worden in de residential 
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vens pantoens, prozastukken en gedichten. Batavia, 1876. Square 

8vo, 96 p. 

Clifford, Hugh, and Swettenham, Frank Athelstane, A 
dictionary of the Malay language: Malay-English. Part 1, the 
letter A. Taiping, Perak, 1894. 4to, 8+ 100 p. Part 2, the let- 
ter B. 1895, p. 101-308. 

Crawfurd, John, History of the Indian Archipelago, contain- 
ing an account of the manners, arts, languages, religions, institu- 
tions and commerce of its inhabitants. Edinburgh, 1820. 8vo, 
3 vols. 7 + 520 p., 536 p., 554 p. 

Crawfurd, John, A grammar and dictionary of the Malay 
language, with a preliminary dissertation. In two volumes. 
Vol. I. Grammar. Vol. II. Malay and English, and English 
and Malay dictionaries. London, 1852. 8vo, vol. 1:291+84 
p.; vol. 2 : 4 + 208 + 201 p. 

Crawfurd, John, A descriptive dictionary of the Indian 
islands and adjacent countries. London, 1856. 8vo. 1+459 p. 



"Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 99 

Cust, Robert N., A sketch of the modern languages of the East 
Indies. London, 1878. 8vo, 198 p. 

Da vie, L. Marcel, Dictionnaire 'etymologique des mots f ran pais 
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1876. 8vo, 16 + 272 + [2] p. [2d ed. in appendix to Littr6, Dic- 
tionnaire de la langue franpaise. Paris, 1877.] 

Dias, J., Lijst van Atjehsche woorden. (In : Tijdschrift voor 
Indische taal-, land- en volkenkunde. p. 141-161. Batavia, 1879. 
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Eck, R. van, Erste proeve van een Balineesch-Hollandsch 
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Eguilaz y Yanguas, D. Leopoldo de, Glosario etimdlogico de 
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24 + 59 1 P- 

Eijbergen, H. C. van, Korte woordenlijst van de taal der Aroe- 
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volkenkunde, deel XIV. p. 557-568.) 8vo. Batavia, 1864. 

Ekris, A. van, Woordenlijst van eenige dialecten der landtaal 
op de Ambon sche eilanden. Rotterdam, 1864-65. nmo. (In: 
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Elout, C. P. J., Dictionnaire malai, hollandais et franpais ; 
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Elout, C. P. J., Dictionnaire hollandais et malai, suivi d'un 
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Favee, P., Dictionnaire javanais-franpais. Vienna, 1870. 
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Favre, P., Dictionnaire malais-franpais. Vienna, 1875. 2 
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Favre, P., Grammaire de la langue malaise. Vienna, 1876. 
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Fokker, A. A., Malay phonetics. Leiden, 1895. 8vo, 99 p. 

Forbes, Henry O., A naturalist's wanderings in the Eastern 
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Grashuis, J. G., Dr. lloorda van Eysingd's algemeen Hbl- 
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Groot, A. D. Cornets de, Javaansche spraakkunst, uitgegeven 
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Helfrich, O. L. Proeve van een Lampongsch-HollandscTie 
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Marsden, William. The history of Sumatra. London, 1783 ; 
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Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 101 

Matthes, B. F., Makassaarsch-Hbllandsch woordenboek, met 
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sche plantennamen, en verklaring van een tot opheldering bijge- 
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8vo, [6] + 660 p. 

Roorda van Eysinga. See Grashuis. 

Schlegel, Gustav. Chinese loanwords in the Malay language. 
Leyden, 1890. 8vo, 15 p. (Extrait du vol. I., T'oung pao, Ar- 
chives pour servir d ("elude de Vhistoire, des langues, de la geo- 
graphic et de Vethnographie de I'Asie orientale....redigees par 
MM. G-ustave Schlegel et Henri Cordier.) 

Sekiiano, Don Rosalio, Diccionario de terminos comunes 
Tagalo- Castellano, sacado de graves autores. Manila, 1854. 1 2mo, 
154 P- 



102 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Swettenham, Frank A., Vocabulary of the English and 
Malay languages, with notes. Revised edition. [ist ed. 1881.] 
Vol.I. English-Malay. Singapore, 1886. 8vo, 27 + 200 + 81 p. 
Vol.11. Malay- English. London, 1887. 8vo, 15 + 130 p. 

Swettenham, Frank A. See Clifford, H. 

Tendeloo, H. J. E., Maleische verba en nomina verbalia. 
Leyden, 1895. 8vo, 7 + 177 p. 

Thomas, J. W., and Weber, E. A. Taylor, Niasch-Maleisch- 
Nederlandsch woordenboek. Batavia, 1887. Large 8 vo, 16+ 186 p. 

[Thomsen], A vocabulary of the English, Bugis, and Malay 
languages, containing about 2000 words. Singapore, 1833. 8vo, 
66 p. 

Tiedtke, K. W., Woordenlijst der Sampitsche en Katingansche 
taal. Batavia, 1872. 8vo, 94 p. 

Tijdschrift voor Indische taal-, land- en volkenkunde. TJitge- 
geven door het Bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en weten- 
schappen. Batavia, 1852+. 8vo. See Dias 1879, Eijbergen 

1864, RlEDEL i860, VORDERMAN 1889, WALLAND 1863. 

Tuuk, H. N., van der. See Wall, H. von de. 

Vorderman, A. Q., Bijdrage tot de kennis van het Billiton- 
Maleisc.h. Batavia, 1889. (In : Tijdschrift voor Indische taal-, 
land- en volkenkunde, deel XXXIV., 1889, p. 373-400.) 

Wall, H. von de, Lijst van eenige in 't Maleisch gebruikelijke 
woorden van Sanskrit-oorsprong, waarvan die afstamming in 
de Maleische woordenboeken van Boorda van Eijsinga (1825), 
Elout (Marsden, 1825), Boorda van Eijsinga (manuscript, 1847), 
Grawfurd (1852) en Pijnappel (1863) niet aangetoond is. (In : 
....Batavia, 1867.) 

Wall, H. von de, and Tuuk, H. N. van der, MaUisch-Neder- 
landsch woordenboek op last van het gouvernement van Neder- 
landsch-Indie samengesteld door wijlen H. von de Wall, en, met 
weglating van al het overtollige, uitgegeven door H. JV. van der 
Tuuk. Batavia, 1877-1884. Deel I, 1877, 10 + 504 p. Deel II, 
1880, 579 p. Deel III, 1884, 256 p. 

Wallace, Alfred Russel, The Malay Archipelago, the land of 
the orang-utan and the bird of paradise ; a narrative of travel, 
with studies of man and nature. London, 1869, 2 vols. cr. 8vo, 
24 + 478 p., and 5 24 p.; newed. 1 vol. extra cr. 8vo, 1890, 17 + 515 p. 

Walland, J., Het eiland Engano [including : Eene woorden- 
lijst van de taal, die op het noordelijk gedeelte van Engano 
gesproken wordt, p. 1 16-124]. Batavia, 1863, 8vo, 32 p. (In: 
Tijdschrift voor Indische taal-, land- en volkenkunde, deel XIV., 
p. 93 124. Batavia, 1863.) 

Walland, J., Het eiland, Engano. Batavia, 1863. 8vo, 10 p. 
In the same, p. 330-339. 

Weber, E. A. T. See Thomas. 

Yule, Henry, and Burnell, Arthur Coke. Hobson-Jobson : 
being a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 
and of kindred terms ; etymological, historical, geographical and 
discursive. London, 1886. 8vo, 48 + 870 p. 



"Vol. xvii.J The Malayan Words in English. 103 

Abada, a rhinoceros, a word frequent in the Hakluyt period ; 
also abado, and once abath. It is a transfer of Portuguese abada 
{a. 1598), Spanish abada {a. 1585), New Latin abada (1631). This 
is a mistaken form, arising probably by attraction of the vowel 
of the article la (la bada taken as V abada), of what was also 
used in the proper form bada, Portuguese bada (15 41), Spanish 
bada (161 1), Italian bada (c. 1606), (not noted in English or New 
Latin). See the quotations in Yule. Bada seemd to be feminin, 
and hence was by some thought to be " the female Vnicorne." 

The word is found in all the principal languages of the Malayan 
Archipelago. Bada is from Malay O^Ls bad ak, a rhinoceros. 
Achinese badak, bad&k, badu&h, Batak badah, Lampong badak, 
Javanese warak, Sundanese badak, Balinese warak, Dayak badak, 
Macassar bada, Bugis badak. The final (Ji k in Malay pronun- 
ciation is faint, and often silent. It does not appear in the 
Macassar form, from which, indeed, the Portuguese and Spanish 
bada may hav been derived. It is absent in the English render- 
ing of several Malay names of places, as in Ava, Malay i^jjl 
Awak, Batta beside Batak, Malay (Jp'lj Batak, Sulu, Soo- 
loo, Malay (3-|j— * Suluk. So Perak Jj-*J Perak, Dayak 

(Jj->!i> Dayak ar usually pronounced without the k. 

The pronunciation of the form abada must hav been, of course, 
a-ba'da. An erroneous accentuation a'ba-da may hav been in 
use also ; the form abath implies this. But the form abda, which 
if genuin, would prove the latter accentuation, is a mistake (see 
below). 

B a d a c . Rinoceros. 1 63 1 Haex, p . 4. 

0*>LS badak the rhinoceros. Tandok badak or chula ba- 
dak the rhinoceros horn. 181 2 Mabsden, p. 31. 

iJujLi badakh eenhoorn, rhinoceros. Badakh gadjah rhi- 
noceros met een hoorn. Badakh karbau rhinoceros met twee 
hoornen. 1825 Roobda van Eysinga, p. 36. 

Badak (J. warak). The rhinoceros. 1852 Ceawpued, p. 14. 

i^ob badak, neushoorn ; — gadjah, n. met een, — karbau n. 
met twee hoorns ; 1 i d a h — cochenille-cactus. (Bat. id. Jav. warak. 
Mak. bada.) 1863 Pijnappel, p. 27. 

0*>Li badak, le rhinoceros.. ..Jav. . . . wadak [read . . . warak]. 
Sund. . . . badak. Bat. . . . badak. Mak. . . . bada. Day. badak. 

1875 Favee, 2 : 164. 

(Jjt>U badak, neushoorn: tjcela b., het hoorn van den neus- 
hoorn: lid ah b. (neushoorntong), naam der cactusachtige gewassen, 
inz. van den cochenille-cactus.... 1877 Wall and Tutjk, i : 184. 

Badak ^_ji>U a rhinoceros. 1881 Swettenham (1887), 2:7. 



104 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

(Jji>U badak, rhinoceros, het neushoorndier ; b. g ad j ah, die een 
en b. kerbau, die twee neushorens heeft 1893 Klinkert, p. 80. 

B a d a k , rhinoceros ; Badak gadjah, eenhoornige rhinoceros ; 
Badak kerbau, tweehoornige rhinoceros ; Tjoela badak, hoorn 
van een rhinoceros ; Lidah badak, opuntia cochinillif era, een hees- 
ter, veel aangekweekt voor de cochenillecultuur. 1895 Mayer, p. 27. 

Badak, (^jioU . The rhinoceros. . . . 

1895 Clifford and Swettenham, p. 106. 

Badak neushoorn. 1879 Dias, Lijst van Atjehsehe woorden, p. 160. 
Badaq rhinoceros, badoe-Sh. 

1880 Arriens, Maleisch-Hollandsch-Atjehsche woordenlijst, p. 8. 

(j'^Ls badSk, neushoorn ; rhinoceros ; soemboeh — , de hoorn van 

den rhinoceros. 1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsehe taal, p. 26. 

Badak (00k Ab[oengsch], v. H.), rhinoceros. 

1891 Helfrich, Lampongsch-Holl. woordenlijst, p. 33. 
Warak, neushoorndier, renoceros. 1835 Roorda van Eysinga, 
Algemeen Javaansch en Nederduitsch woordenboek, p. 641. 
. . . [warak] N[goko et] K[rama], rhinoceros. 

1870 Favre, Dictionnaire javanaisfrancais, p. 290. 
Badak, the rhinoceros, Rhinoceros Sumatrensis.... 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 29. 
Warak rhinoceros. 1876 Eck, Balineesch-Holl. wrdbk., p. 149. 

Badak, d. Nashorn. 

1859 Hardeland, Dajackschdeutsches wdrterbuch. p. 24. 
Badak rhinoceros. 1885 Aernout, Woordenlijstje 

der Tidoengsche taal, p. 541. 
. . . Bddd, bep. b&daka. 't Mai. badakh rhinoceros. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandseh woordenboek, p. 173. 
Rhinoceros . . . badak badak. 

1833 [ThomsenJ, Vocab. of the Eng., Bugis and Malay lang., p. 20. 

The English use appears, as in the case of many other strange 
animals then first heard of in the far East, and the far West, in 
the voyages and histories composed or translated in the later 
decades of the sixteenth century. 

It is a very fertile country, with great stoare of prouisioun ; there are 
elephants in great number and abadas, which is a kind of beast so big 
as two great buls, and hath vppon his snowt a little home. 

1588 R. Parke, tr. Mendoza (orig. 1585), Historie of the great and 
mightie kingdom of China, etc. (Hakluyt soc, 1853), 2-.3ir. (Y.) 

We sent commodities to their king to barter for Amber-greese, and 
for the homes of Abath, whereof the Kinge onely hath the traffique in 
his hands. Now this Abath is a beast which hath one home only in 
her forehead, and is thought to be the female Vnicorne, and is highly 
esteemed of all the Moores in those parts as a most soveraigne remedie 
against poyson. 1592 Barker in Hakluyt (1807), 2 : 591. (Y.> 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 1 05 

The Abada, or Rhinoceros is not in India, but only in Bengala and 

Patane. 1598 tr. Linschoten, Discours of voyages into y easte & 

weste Indies, p. 88 (Y.) ; repr. Hakluyt soc. (1885), 2:8. 

Also in Bengala are found great numbers of the beasts which in 
Latine are called Rhinoeerotes, and of the Portingalles Abadas. 

1598 Id. p. 23 (Y.) ; repr. Hakluyt soc. (1885), 1 -.96. 

Camboia lyeth Southward from thence, a great and populous Coun- 
trie, full of Elephants and Abada's (this Beat t is the Rhinoceros). 

1613 Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 387. 

In Bengala are found great numbers of Abadas or Rhinoeerotes, 
whofe horn (growing up from his fnowt,)....is good againft poy'fon, 
and is much accounted of throughout all India. 1613 Id. p. 400. 

[This passage is quoted, with the unmarkt omission of some words 
(from "snowf' to" is good"), and with the reference "(1864) 2," in the 
N. E. D. : and the word Abadas is erroneously printed Abdas.] 

See other quotations in Yule and the Stanford dictionary ; and refer- 
ences in Pennant, Synopsis of quadrupeds, 1771, p. 75. 

Ailantus, a beautiful East Indian tree, Ailantus glandulosa, 
Desf., well known in European and American towns, where it is 
planted as a shade-tree. The name, which is also found as 
ailanto, is not commonly recognized as Malay, but that is its 
ultimate origin. It has been referd to the Chinese, to the 
Sanskrit, and to one of the languages of the Molucca islands ; 
and in all of these languages it has been said to mean ' tree of 
heaven.' The reference to the Molucca islands is correct ; but 
the final explanation lies in the Malay. 

Ailantus is also speld, erroneously, ailanthus. It is from the 
New Latin ailantus, as used by Desfontaines (1786) in the erro- 
neous form ailanthus, as the name of the genus. 

Ailanthus glandulosa, Desf. in Mem. Acad. Sc. Par. 1786 (1789), 265, 
t. 8. — China. 1893 Index Kewensis 1 :66. 

The Index Kewensis mentions three other species, A. excelsa, 
A. malabarica, A. moluccana. The first and third of these 
specific names ar especially appropriate to the name ailantus: 
for the name comes from the Molucca islands, and the tree 
grows high. 

The Molucca name does not appear, in the precise combination 
required, in the glossaries and wordlists accessible to me ; but 
the European reflex, and the meaning and locality assigned, make 
it clear that the original Molucca name from which Desfontaines, 
or the author on whom he depended, probably one of the Dutch 
naturalists, took the word, was *ai lanit, or *ai lanitol, which 
could be interpreted, literally, as ' tree of heaven,' tho the real 
meaning, as we shall see, is something different. Ai is the most 
common form, in the Molucca region, with numerous variants, 
aai, aya, ayo, aow, ow, and kai, kao, kau, etc., of the general 
Malay word for 'tree' or 'wood', namely yJ6 kayu. Zanit, 



106 0. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

lanitol, with laniol, ar Moluccan forms of the general Malay 
word for 'sky,' oi^l Ian git. The precise Malay combination 
c*J^ *jfe' *kayu langit, the ultimate original of *ai lanit, 
and so of the English ailantus, does not appear in the dictiona- 
ries ; but its existence is implied in the ' dialectal ' form mentiond, 
and is also indicated by the presence in French of langit as a 
synonym of ailante, ailantus. This langit must be a fragment of 
the full name *kayu langit. 

The name could be interpreted as ' tree of heaven,' if that is 
taken as 'tree of the heavens.' The exact meaning, if langit is 
to be taken in its most usual sense, is ' tree of the sky.' There 
is no Elysian poetry in this. It would merely imply a tree that 
rises high in the air, a very tall tree. And the nativ ailantus is 
said to grow very tall. But langit means also 'a canopy, an 
awning, a ceiling, a cover'; the reduplicated langit-langit 
also means 'a canopy'; and in view of the use of the ailantus 
as a shade-tree, it is probable that the name refers to that fact 
— that it means merely 'canopy-tree,' or, in substance, merely 
'shade-tree.' So that the sarcastic allusions to the unheavenly 
odor of the blossoms of the " tree of heaven " arise from an erro- 
neous etymology. There is no " tree of heaven." 

For the principal forms of kayu, see the quotations under 
Cajuputi in this paper. The Moluccan and other 'dialectal' 
forms of kayu hav in great part lost the initial consonant, be- 
coming ayo, aya, ai, aai, oai, etc. 

Ai hout, boom (T. R. H. W. K. P. Kr. Ht. N. A.). 

1864-65 A. Van Ekris, Woordenlijst....Ambonsehe eilanden, p. 69. 

Hout I Maba, Gotowassi aai | Boeli, Waijamli, Bitjoli oai | Ingli aai. 

1873 Cambier, Beknopte woordenlijst van 

talen op Tidoreesch-Halmahera, p. 1 (265). 

Sago-boom 1 Maba, Gotowassi pipe ayo | Boeli, Waijamli-Bitjoli 

poepie ayo | Ingli pipi aya. 1873 Cambier, Beknopte woordenlijst van 

talen op Tidoreesch-Halmahera, p. 1 (265). 
Hout, I Maleisch kai joe | Aroe-eilanden— Wokam kai, Oedjir kai | 
Keij-eilanden— Eli Ellat kaijoe, Oorspronk ai. 

1864 Eijbergen, Korte woordenlijst van de 

taal der Aroe- en Keij-eilanden, p. 5 (563). 

Kajoe kaoe. 1874 Jellesma, Woordenlijst van de taal 

der Alifoeren op het eiland Boeroe, p. 15. 
Some Buruese words.. ..tree, kaun. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wander- 
ings in the Eastern archipelago, p. 411. 

Wallace (Malay Archipelago, 1869, ed. 1890, App. p. 490) givs 
the equivalents of kayu, wood, in 33 languages, or rather 33 
localities, kayu in 4, Jcaju in 1, kalu in 2, kalun in 1, kaya in 1, 
kao in 3, kai in 1, ai or a'i in 9 (chiefly in and near Amboina), 
aow in 1, ow in 1, with other forms gagi, gah, goto, etc. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 107 

The word Ian git is found in nearly all the languages of the 
Malayan group: Malay \z*j£$ Ian git, Achinese langit, Batak 
langit, Lampong langik, langit, Javanese langit, Sundanese langit, 
Balinese langit, Dayak langit, Macassar langi, Bugis langi, Baree 
jangi, Sangi-Manganitu langih, Jilolo langit, langat, Tagala 
langit, Bisaya langit, Malagasi lanitra, the sky, the firmament. 
It is a general Polynesian word, Maori rangi, raki, Samoan lagi, 
Tahitian rai, Hawaiian lani, Tongan lagi, Rarotangan rangi, 
Marquesan aki, ani, etc. 'the sky, heaven.' See Tregear, Maori- 
Polynesian comparative dictionary, p. 392-394. 

Langit. Aerem & vifibiles cselos denotat. Item conuexitatem, 
concamerationem, teftudinem, quae alicui imponitur exprimit. 

1631 Haex, p. 23. 

i^Jt^l langit the sky, visible heavens, firmament. Btimi dan 
langit earth and sky.... 1812 Marsden, p. 296. 

o*J^ l&ngit de lucht, het uitfpanfel, de zigtbare hemel.... 

1825 EOORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 349. 

i^Jibl langit, uitspansel, heme!. (Bat. Day. id. Jav. id., 00k : wat 

boven drijf t. Mak. langi.) Lalangit en langit-langit, verhemelte 

van doek boven een vertrek, of van den mond. 1863 Pijnappel, p. 203. 

cyjiit langit, le ciel, le firmament.... Jav. et Sund. ... langit. 

Bat. . . . langit. Mak. et Bug. . . . langi. Day. langit, Tag. et Bis. . . . 

langit. 1875 Favre, 2:499. 

oi-ftjf langit, uitspansel boven iets, bv. boven een ledikant; hemel, 

hemelgewelf. 1884 Wall and Tutjk, 3:51. 

cyjyiiif langit, hemel, uitspansel. 

1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 234. 
Langik, heuvel, uitspansel ; lalangik, hemel van een bed ; langik- 
langik, verhemelte. Langit = langik. 

1 89 1 Helfrich, Lampongsch-Hollandseh woordenlijst, p. 83. 
Langngit, A. hemel, firmament, uitspansel, gehemelte.... 

1835 Eoorda van Eysinga, Javaansch 
en Nederduitsch woordenboek, p. 292. 
. . . [langit] N. K. le plus haut, l'etendue, le firmament, le ciel.... 

1870 Favre, Diet, javanais-francais, p. 336. 
Lang'it, the sky, the heavens. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 244. 
Langit, de hemel, het uitspansel, de lucht.... 

1876 R. van Eck, Balineesch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 164. 
Langit, batanglangit, Himmel, Himmelsgewdlbe....£aZaragtY, die 
Decke (eines Zimmers).... 

1859 Hardeland, Dajaekseh-deutsehes wdrterbuch, p. 294. 
. . . Idngi, bep. l&ngika, uitspansel, firmament, hemel. Boeg. Sund. 
Mai. Jav. idem.... 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandseh woordenboek, p. 474. 
Sky . . . langi langit. 

!833 [Thomsen], Vocab. of the Eng., Bugis, and Malay lang., p. 2. 



108 C. P. G. Scott, [189&. 

Jangi (T. K. N. langi), hemel, uitspansel. M. P. langit. 

1894 Kruyt, Woordenlijst van de Baree-taal [Celebes], p. 28. 
Hemels blaauw, langih biruh. 

i860 Riedel, Sangi-Manganitusch woordenlijst, p. 389. 
Hemel | Maba, Gotowassi langit | Boeli, Waijamli, Bitjoli langit \ 
Ingli langat. 1873 Cambiee, Beknopte woordenlijst van 

talen op Tidoreesch-Halmahera, p. 1 (265). 

The English use of ailantus or ailanthus began sixty years or 
more ago. 

Ailanthus. An immense tree, a native of the interior of Coromandel. 
1832 James Roxburgh, Flora Indica (1S74), p. 386. 
O'er me let a green Ailanthus grow.... the Tree of Heaven. 

1845 Hirst, Poems, 158. (N. E. D.> 
Ailantus . . . (ailanto, tree of heaven, Sanscrit.) A genus of trees of 
lofty growth from China and the East Indies : Order, Terebinthaeese. 

1847 Craig. 
Also in i860 Worcester, 1864 Webster, 1884 N. E. D. (where see 
other quotations), etc. 

Ailanthus glandulosus, Desf., called Tree of Heaven, — but whose 
blossoms, especially the staminate ones, are redolent of anything but 
" airs from heaven," — is much planted as a shade tree, especially in 
towns, and is inclined to spread from seed.. ..(Adv. from China.) 

1867 Gray, Manual of the botany of the 
northern United States (1889), p. 107. 

Amuck, frenzied, a homicidal frenzy: the most famous of 
Malayan words in English, best known in the phrase to run 
amuck. It was formerly speld also amock, and is now often 
speld amok, in more exact transliteration of the Malay. At one 
time the Spanish form amuco, Portuguese amouco, New Latin 
*amucus (plural *amuci, amuchi, amouchi), wer in some English 
use. The second syllable has also become detacht as an independ- 
ant word, muck. See below. 

The Malay word is i^ol amuk, amok (pronounced a'muk, 
a'mok, or a'mu, a'mo) ; Lampong amug, Javanese hamuk, 
Sundanese amuk, Dayak amok. It means ' furious, frenzied, rag- 
ing, attacking with blind frenzy'; as a noun, 'rage, homicidal 
frenzy, a course of indiscriminate murder'; as a verb, menga- 
muk, 'to run amuck,' 'to make amok' (Dutch amok maken, or 
amokken). 

Am6c. Est in vsu. Si quando quia non sanee mentis, vel omnino 
desperatus, in interitum se prsecipitat. Item significat opprimere, occi- 
dere, inuadere, oppugnare, &c. 1631 Haex, p. 2. 

iajo\ amuk , engaging furiously in battle ; attacking with desperate 
resolution ; rushing, in a state of frenzy, to the commission of indis- 
criminate murder ; running a-muck. It is applied to any animal in a 
state of vicious rage.... 1812 Marsden, p. 16. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 109 

Amuk (J). An a-muck ; to run a-muck ; to tilt, to run furiously and 
desperately at every one ; to make a furious onset or charge in combat. 

1852 Crawfubd, p. 5. 

Amok, woede, razernij, moord in arren moede ; Men gam ok, in 
razende woede alles overhoop loopen of steken (00k van dieren), een 
verwoeden aanval doen, amok maken, in woede moorden, enz. ; Peng- 
amok, de persoon die, of het dier, dat amok maakt ; het amok-maken, 
enz. 1895 Mayer, p. 13. 

Also 1825 ROORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 21 ; 1863 PlJNAPPEL, p. t3 ; 1869 

Klinkert, p. 13; 1875 Favre, i : 108 ; 1877 Wall and Tuuk, 1:105; 

1881 SWETTENHAM (1887) 2:3; 1894 CLIFFORD and SWETTENHAM, I : 47 ; 

1893 Klinkert, p. 42. 

'Amoeg, het in razernij rondloopen en zonder aanzien des persoons 
wonden. 1891 Helfrich, Lampongsch-Hollandsche woordenlijst, p. 72. 
Hamoek. A. moord ; verwoed blindlings moorden. Amok. Negoro 
Botowi harang kl&bbbn hamoek, te Batavia ontstaat zelden amok.... 

1835 Roorda van Eysinga, Javaansch 

en Nederduitsch woordenboek, p. 135. 

. . . [hamuk] N. K. furieux, un furieux, une attaque furieuse. . . . 

[ngamuK] attaquer avec fureur, attaquer avec courage ; courir avec 

fureur pour tuer tous ceux qui se presentent.... 

1870 Favre. Diet, javanais-francais, p. 51. 
Amuk, to fight furiously, to attack indiscriminately, to smash and 
destroy. Said of any animal unmanageable from rage.... 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda long., p. 13. 
Amok (zur Verstarkung oft ampur dahinter), wilthender, morder- 
ischer Anfall. Mamok, mamok mampur, wiithend anfallen.... 

1859 Hardeland, Dajacksch-deutsehes worterbuch, p. 8. 

The corresponding word in Malagasi, hamit (hamov), means 
'drunk'; a recognition of the fact which it took no Solomon to 
discover: " Luxuriosa res, vinum, et tumultuosa ebrietas" (Vul- 
gate, Prov. 20: 1); "strong drink is raging"; or, as in the revised 
version, " strong drink is a brawler." One who runs amuck is 
all these. The Malay version is mild. Amok is reserved for 
stronger occasions. In the Dutch presentation : 

'Ajer 'angawr 'itulah penjindir, dan 'arakh 'itulah penggangguw 

['water of grape, that (is a) mocker, and arrack, that (is a) brawler']. 

1821 'Elkit&b, 'ija 'Itu, sagala surat perdjandji'an 

lama dan baharuw tersalin kapada bahasa Ma- 

l&juw, Tjalsi [Chelsea], p. 754. 

The earliest mention of the word in European literature, so far 
as my quotations show, is in Spanish (c. 15 16), where it appears as 
amuco, and is understood to mean the frenzied person himself. 

There are some of them [the Javanese] who.. ..go out into the streets, 
and kill as many persons as they meet.. ..These are called -4.rn.MCo. 

c. 1516 Barbosa, tr. Hakluyt soc. (1866), p. 194. (N. E. D.) 



110 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

The corresponding Portuguese amouco is found : 

That all those which were able to bear arms should make themselves 
Amoucos, that is to say, men resolved either to dye, or vanquish. 

1663 Cogan, tr. Pinto's Travels, 1. 199. (N. E. D.) 

The Spanish or Portuguese form also appears as New Latin 
*amucus, plural *amuci, found speld amouki, amouchi. 

There are also certaine people called Amouchi, otherwise Chiavi, 
which.... going forth, kill every man they meete with, till some body 
(by killing them) make an end of their killing. 

1613 Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 425. 

Those that run these are called Amouki, and the doing of it Running 
a Muck. 1696 Ovington, A voyage to Suratt, p. 237. (Y. p. 15.) 

The word appears in the same sense, 'a frenzied man,' also in 
an English form, amock, amok. 

To run amock is to get drunk with opium.. ..to sally forth from the 
house, kill the person or persons supposed to have injured the Amock, 
and any other person that attempts to impede his passage. 

1772 Cook, Voyages (1790), 1 :288. (N. E. D.) 
At Batavia, if an officer take one of these amoks, or mohawks, as they 
have been called by an easy corruption, his reward is very considerable ; 
but if he kill them, nothing is added to his usual pay.... 

1798 S. H. Wilcocke, tr. Stavorinus, 
Voyage to the East Indies, 1 : 294. (Y.) 

The Malay word having no precise grammatic label as adjectiv 
or noun, came into general English with no definit grammatic 
status, in the phrase " to run amuck," where amuck, tho properly 
a predicate adjectiv, has been regarded also as an adverb, analo- 
gous to "to run atilt" "to turn aside" etc., and as a noun. See 
preceding quotations. 

Most commonly the word was divided, a muck, and taken as an 
adverbial phrase, with the preposition a, which was then some- 
times joind to a second syllable with a hyphen, to run a muck, or 
a-muck; as the adverbial phrase in to fall a sleep was written 
a-sleep, now asleep. Otherwise the word so divided was taken as a 
complementary accusativ, the article a with its noun muck — to 
run a muck, understood as 'to run a course of indiscriminate 
slaughter.' 

Like a raging Indian.... he runs a mueke (as they cal it there) stabbing 
every man he meets. 

1672 Marvell, Rehearsal transprosed, 1 159. (N. E. D.) 
And they (the Mohammedans) are hardly restrained from running 
a muck (which is to kill whoever they meet, till they be slain them- 
selves) especially if they have been at Hodge, a Pilgrimage to Mecca. 

1698 Fryer, A new account of East India and Persia, 
p. 91. (Y. p. 15. See other quots. in Y.) 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. Ill 

Macassar is the most celebrated place in the East for "running a 
muck." 1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 134. 

In fact he enjoyed the reputation of having run amok through every 
one of the Ten Commandments, which alone made him interesting. 

1896 Locker-Lampson, My confidences. (In 
The Athenmum, April 11, 1896, p. 470.) 

From "to run a muck," with muck regarded as a noun, came 
the separate use of muck in the sense of 'a course of frenzy.' 
Dryden is clear on this point. He "runs an Indian muck." 

Frontless and satire-proof, he scours the streets 
And runs an Indian Muck at all he meets. 

1687 Dryden, The hind and the panther, 1. 2477. 

It is not to be controverted that these desperate acts of indiscrimi- 
nate murder, called by us mucks, and by the natives mongamo 
[mengamok], do actually take place, and frequently too, in some 
parts of the east (in Java in particular). 

1784 Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra, p. 239. (Y.) 

They [the Javans] are little liable to those fits and starts of anger, or 
those sudden explosions of fury, which appear among northern nations. 
To this remark have been brought forward as exceptions, those acts of 
vengeance, proceeding from an irresistible phrenzy, called mucks, 
where the unhappy sufferer aims at indiscriminate destruction, till he 
himself is killed like a wild beast, whom it is impossible to take alive. 
It is a mistake, however, to attribute these acts of desperation to the 
Javans. 1817 Raffles, Hist, of Java, 1 :25o. 

The spirit of revenge, with an impatience of restraint, and a repug- 
nance to submit to insult, more or less felt by all the Indian islanders, 
give rise to those acts of desperate excess which are well known in 
Europe under the name of mucks.... A muck means generally an act 
of desperation, in which the individual or individuals devote their lives, 
with few or no chances of success, for the gratification of their revenge. 
....The most frequent mucks, by far, are those in which the desperado 
assails indiscriminately friend and foe. 

1820 Crawpurd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1:66-67. 

Amuck, or amok, is also found as a noun, ' a course of homi- 
cidal frenzy.' 

One morning, as we were sitting at breakfast, Mr. Carter's servant 
informed us that there was an "Amok" in the village— in other words, 
that a man was " running a muck." 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 134. 

Hence it is simply said — they made " amok." 1869 Id., p. 134. 

The tale of the restless dread and suspense which held the whole 
community, when some mutineer, with the desperate spirit of amok in 
him, was at large, and the exciting efforts to effect and to elude capture, 
was a chapter which demanded little from the narrator's art to engage 



112 C. P. G. Scott, [1886. 

my sympathies and my profound interest in this community, living its 
chequered life so far from the sympathies of the world. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 
in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 1 6. 

It appears that " the desperate spirit of amok " is utilized some- 
times as a social hint at a dance in Sumatra, much as a knife or 
a revolver at a dance in Kentucky. 

His [Master of the Ceremonies] office is both a delicate and a difficult 
one. He must himself be of good position in the community, and be 
more or less a general favourite;.... for the parents or the relatives of 
the higher-ranked of the dancers, feeling themselves insulted, have 
suddenly revenged themselves by amok — that mode of retribution which 
is to them the swiftest and most gratifying. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 
in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 148. 

Amok is also used as an English verb, 'to run amuck.' So 
Dutch amokken. 

The Magindinao Illanun lashed himself to desperation; nourishing 
his spear in one hand, and the other on the handle of his sword, he 
defied those collected about him: he danced his war-dance on the 
sand : his face became deadly pale : his wild eyes glared : he was ready 
to amok, to die, but not to die alone. 

1842 Brooke, Journal, in Mundy, Narrative of 

events in Borneo and Celebes (1848), 1:309. 

But hearing nothing for some time, we went out, and found there 

had been a false alarm, owing to a slave having run away, declaring he 

would "amok" because his master wanted to sell him. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 
134. [Three more instances, p. 134, 134, 135.] 

Babirusa, also speld babirussa, and, badly, babiroussa, and, 
worse, babyrousa, babyroussa, the so-cald "hog-deer" of the 
Malayan islands. New Latin babirussa, Sp. babiruza. 

The Malay name is jj*^ ^Ls babi riisa, meaning, not as 

usually translated, according'to the order of the words, " hog- 
deer" or "pig-deer," but, according to Malay syntax, "hog (like) 
deer," that is "deer-hog": ^b babl, hog, (j*^ rusa, deer. 

Babbi. Porcus. 1631 Haex, p. 4- 

jL? babl and yjU babi a hog, pig: pork. Babl utan the wild 

hog. Babi rasa an animal of the hog kind with peculiar tusks 

resembling horns, from whence it is named the hog-deer. (See Valen- 

tyn, vol. iii. plate, fig. C.) 1812 Marsden, p. 30. 

Babi-rusa. The hog deer; literally, "the deer hog," Babi-rusa 
alfurus. 1852 Crawfurd, p. 14. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 113 

gjlj babi, varken: — oetan, sus verrucosus, — tan ah, sus vitta- 

tus, — roesa, hertzwijn, sus babyrussa....(3a,v. id. tarn varken. Bat. 

id. Mak. Boeg. bawi. Daj. bawoi). 1863 Pijnappel, p. 26. 

_jU babi, cochon, pore... (j*<5) — babi rtisa, le sanglier ou 

cochon-cerf (sus babi russa). 1875 Favre, 2: 166. 

Also 1877 Wall and Tuuk, 1:178; 1893 Klinkert, p. 76; 1895 
Mayee, p. 27; 1895 Clifford and Swettenham, 2:103. Swettenham 
1881 gives only rusa babi (2:94). 

The word babi is in use throughout the Archipelago, in a 
great variety of forms : Malay ,5?*-? babi, Lampong baboi (C), 

Javanese and Sundanese babi, Balinese bahwi (C), Madurese babi 
(C), Biajuk bawoi (C), Dayak bawoi, Macassar bawi, Bugis 
oaioi (C), Buru fafu, Aru and Ke islands fawu, loawu, wqf, 
fef, Timor fahi (C), Tetu (Timor) fahi, Kaladi (Timor) pahi, 
Rotti baft (C), Tagal (Philippine islands) babuy, baboy, all 'pig.' 
The forms markt " C." ar in Crawfurd's History, 1820, 2 : 144. 

Babi, L. zwijn, varken. 1835 Rooeda van Eysinga, Javaansch 

en Nederduitsch woordenboek, p. 3. 
. . . [babi] N. cochon, pore. 

1870 Favre, Diet. Javanais-francais, p. 518. 
Babi, a pig, a hog, a swine. 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda Lang., p. 29. 
Bawoi, Schwein.... 

1859 Haedeland, Dajacksch-deutsches worterbuch, p. 60. 

Varken. Maleisch babi, Wokam fawoe, Oedjir/^/, Eli Ellat wawoe, 

Oorspronk waf. 1864 Eijbeegen, Korte woordenlijst van de 

taal der Aroe- en Keij-eilanden, p. 567. 
Babi, fafoe. 1874 Jellesma, Woordenlijst van de taal 

der Alifoeren op het eiland Boeroe, p. 3. 
Pig, Kaladi pahi, Tetu fahi [in Timor]. 

1866 Foebes, A naturalist's wanderings 
in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 494. 

JBabirusa appears in English use in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. 

The head of a Babiroussa ; it hath two long Tushes on the lower jaw, 
and on the upper two Horns [the canine teeth] that come out a little 
above the Teeth and turn up towards the Eyes. 

1673 Ray, Observ. made in a journey through 
part of the Low Countries, etc., p. 29. (S. D.) 

See other quotations (1696, 1774, 1790) in the Stanford diet- and 
N. E. D., and references in Pennant, Synop. quadrupeds, 1771, p. 73. 

The wild pig seems to be of a species peculiar to the island ; but a 
much more curious animal of this family is the Babirusa or Pig-deer, 
so named by the Malays from its long and slender legs, and curved 

VOL. XVII. 8 



114 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

tusks resembling horns. This extraordinary creature resembles a pig 
in general appearance, but it does not dig with its snout, as it feeds on 
fallen fruits. The tusks of the lower jaw are very long and sharp, but 
the upper ones instead of growing downwards in the usual way are 
completely reversed, growing upwards out of bony sockets through the 
skin on each side of the snout, curving backwards to near the eyes, and 
in old animals often reaching eight or ten inches in length. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), 
p. 211. (See also p. 213, 202, 299, 300.) 
. . . the region in the S. E. of the Bay of Kajeli, where alone in Buru 
the singular Hog-deer (the Babirusa), which is known elsewhere only 
in Celebes, was to be found.... This singular animal uses its curious 
upturned and hooked teeth, the natives told me, to hold to the bottom 
of ponds by, when hard pressed by hunters. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist s wanderings in 
the Eastern Archipelago, p. 407 (Buru). 

Balachan, blachan, also batachong, blachang, blachong, for- 
merly also balachaun, balachoung, ballichang, a fish condiment of 
a very pronounced nature, the same as the Javanese trassi (trasi). 

Malay .v^^j balachan, belachan, Achinese belachan, 

Sundanese balachang, also spread into various dialects of Borneo, 
and other islands. 

,y~»ikj balachan caviare; small fish, prawns or shrimps, pounded 
in a mortar, and preserved with spices. Balachan ikan caviare 
offish. Balachan udang kechil, caviare of shrimps. 

1812 Marsden, p. 44. 
.i&ilu belatjan, toespijs bestaande uit gezouten en dan ge- 
stampte en gedroogde vischjes of dergelijke, 't Jav. mal. trasi. 

1863 Pijnappel, p. 38. 

Klinkert is more emphatic : 

.w=»iLs belatjan, is geen toespijs, maar een dikke, bruine conserf 
van kleine vischen of garnalen, waarvan immer iets in de toespijzen, 
zooals kerrie, sambal, enz. gemengd wordt, om ze aangenaamer van 
smaak te maken. De stank er van is ondragelijk en het overmatig 
gebruik veroorzaakt verzwering van neus- en mond-holte. 

1869 Klinkert, p. 36. 
.k^-^o belaxan, du caviar, petits poisaons ou chevrettes seches au 
soleil," broyes dans un mortier et formant une conserve que Ton mele 
au carry, aux epicesetc, pour servir d'assaisonnementauriz. . . . Sund. 
. . . balaxang. 187S Favbe, 2 1302. 

Also 1825 Eoorda van Eysinga, p. 48 ; 1852 Crawfurd, p. 20 ; 1887 
Lm Hiong Seno, 1 :57 5 1893 Klinkert, p. 112; 1895 Mater, p. 42; 
1895 Clifford and Swbttenham, 2:189, 250. 



Vol. xvii.J The Malayan Words in English. 115 

^ysJ&J bSlatjan trassi, gezouten en fljn gestampte kleine garnalen, 
die met kerrie, sambal enz. worden vermengd. 

1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 37. 
Balachang, a superior variety of Delan or Trasi. It is of a yellowish 
colour and made of the choice of materials from which Delan is made. . . . 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda long., p. 34. 

Maleisch belatjan, Sarapitsch balatjan, Katingansch balatjan, ka- 

viaar (trassie). 1872 Tiedtke, Woorderdijst der Sam- 

pitsehe en Katingansche taal, p. 12. 

The composition is first described by Dampier : 

Balaehaun is a composition of a strong savour, yet a very delightsom 
dish to the natives of this country. To make it, they throw the mixture 
of shrimps and small fish into a sort of weak pickle, made with salt and 
water, and put it into a tight earthen vessel or jar. The pickle being 
thus weak, it keeps not the fish firm and hard, neither is it probably so 
designed, for the fish are never gutted. Therefore, in a short time they 
turn all to a mash in the vessel ; and when they have lain thus a good 
while, so that the fish is reduced to a pap, they then draw off the liquor 
into fresh jars, and preserve it for use. The masht fish that remains 
behind is called balaehaun, and the liquor poured off is called nuke- 
mum. The poor people eat the balaehaun with their rice. 'Tis rank 
scented, yet the taste is not altogether unpleasant, but rather savory, 
after one is a little used to it. The nuke-mum is of a pale brown colour, 
inclining to grey, and pretty clear. It is also very savory, and used as 
a good sauce for fowls, not only by the natives, but also by many Euro- 
peans, who esteem it equal with soy. 

1697-1700 Dampier, Voyages, 2:28. (1820 Craw- 
furd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1: 197.) 

There is one mode of preparing and using fish, of so peculiar a nature, 
but so universally in use, that it is worth a detailed description. This 
preparation, called by the Malays blachang, and by the Javanese trasi, 
is a mass composed of small fish, chiefly prawns, which has been fer- 
mented, and then dried in the sun. This fetid preparation, so nauseous 
to a stranger, is the universal sauce of the Indian islanders, more gen- 
eral than soy with the Japanese. No food is deemed palatable without 
it. 1820 Cr awpurd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1 : 197. 

Some fish, others manufacture balachan ; some trust to their net, 
others to their stakes : and at this season salt is in great demand. 

1842 Brooke, journal, in Mundy's Narrative 
of events in Borneo and Celebes (1848), 1 : 305. 

Then we had a slim repast of soda water and bananas . . . and the 
boatmen prepared an elaborate curry for themselves, with salt fish for 
its basis and for its tastiest condiment blachang — a Malay preparation 
much relished by European lovers of durian and decomposed cheese. 
It is made by trampling a mass of putrefying prawns and shrimps into 
a paste with bare feet. This is seasoned with salt. The smell is pene- 
trating and lingering. 1883 Bird, Golden Chersonese, p. 180. 

See other quotations, 1784 Marsden, Hist, of Sumatra (18 11), p. 57; 
1817 Raffles, Hist, of Java, 1:98; 1852 Crawfttrd, p. 195. 



1H3 O. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Banteng, also banting, the wild ox of Java, Borneo, and the 
Malay peninsula, Bos banteng. 

Malay *XXj banteng, banting, Javanese banteng, Sunda- 

nese banteng, Balinese banting, Dayak banting. The word is 
regarded as original in Javanese. 

*XJb banting wild koebeest. 1825 Roohda van Eysinga, p. 52. 

Banteng (Jav.). The wild bull and domestic kine of the same stock. 

1852 Crawfurd, p. 16. 
iXX> banting . . . III. het roode of lichtbruine runderras van de 

Padangsche bovenlanden, T. (Jav. banteng, en Daj. banting, wilde os, 
bos sundaicus). 1863 Pijnappel, p. 41. 

iXJb [banting] . . . II. naam eener soort van wild rund. 

^— ' 1 877 Wall and T0.UK, 1:266-7. 

jtXX) banteng, Jav. e. s. v. wild rund, zie seladang. 

(— 1893 Klinkert, p. 122. 

These ar the Javanese and other entries : 

Bantling, A. woudstier, wilde os. Banting tawan kanin, de gevangene 
wilde stier is gewond. 1835 Roorda van Eysinga, Javaansch 

Nederduitsch woordenboek, p. 9. 
. . . [banteng] N. K. boeuf sauvage. 

1870 Favre, Dictionnaire javanais-francais, p. 492. 
Banteng, the wild cattle, the wild bull. Found among the moun- 
tains, or in lonely forests in the Sunda districts. The bulls are hand- 
some animals, sleek and black, with noble horns ; the cows are inferior 
animals, and fawn-coloured. 1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang. , p. 40. 
Banteng H. van sampi. [See Sapi-utan.] 

1876 Eck, Balineesch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 195. 
Banting, eine Art sehr wildes auf Borneo lebendes Rindvieh. 

1859 Hardeland, Dajaeksch-deutsches worterbuch, p. 42. 

The banteng has his share in English mention : 

A wild ox is found in the forest of Java, the same which is found in 
the peninsula and Borneo, but which is wanting in Sumatra. This is 
the banteng of the Javanese and the Bos sondaicus of naturalists. The 
Dutch naturalists inform us that all attempts to tame it have been vain, 
as in the case of the buffalo of the American prairies. 

1856 Crawfurd, Descriptive diet, of the Indian islands, p. 172. 

The most striking proof of such a junction is, that the great Mam- 
malia of Java, the rhinoceros, the tiger, and the Banteng or wild ox, 
occur also in Siam and Burmah, and these would certainly not have 
been introduced by man. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 92. 

Not much less than the rhinoceros is the banting or Bos sundaicus, 
to be found in all the uninhabited districts between 2000 and 7000 feet 
of elevation. 1881 Encyc. Brit., 13:602, s. v. Java. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 117 

In, the forests on the southern slopes of the Malawar and the Wayang 
[Java], the banteng (Bos banteng) lived in considerable herds. The full- 
grown animal has a magnificent head of horns.... No more bellicose 
and dangerous inhabitant of the forest than a wounded bull need hunter 
care to encounter. 1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 

in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 116. 

See also Bickmore (1869), p. 72 ; and Riverside nat. hist. (1884-1888), 
5:321. 

Bohon upas, the poison-tree of the East Indies, of which 
fabulous stories wer told, and which thus became a favorit matter 
of allusion in literature and rhetoric. 

The name also appears as bohun upas and bon upas. The 
initial b is a blunder. The proper form would be *pohon or 
*puhun upas; Malay jj»*3jl (J** 8 ^* pohon or piihun upas, 
' tree of poison '. See further under Upas. 

Puhn upas, the poison-tree, arbor toxicaria Macassariensis, Thunb. 
[See full quot. under Upas.] 1812 Maesden, p. 24. 

iu*js«l oepas, I. vergiftig plantensap, plantaardig vergift: pohon 
— , vergiftboom, inzond. antiaris toxicaria en strychnos tieute, Beroe- 
pas. (Jav. — . Mai. «jbl ipoeh.) 1863 Pijnappel, p. 20. 

U**^3' lJ"* ?^ P^hon upas, arbre dont le sue est un poison [antiaris 
toxicaria et aussi strychnos tieute). 1875 Favee, 1:31. 

The following appears to be the first mention in English of the 
"Bohon upas": 

The following description of the Bohon Upas, or Poison Tree, which 
grows in the Island of Java, and renders it unwholesome by its noxious 
vapours, has been procured for the London Magazine, from Mr. Hey- 
dinger, who was employed to translate it from the original Dutch, by 
the author, Mr. Foersch, who, we are informed, is at present abroad, in 
the capacity of surgeon on board an English vessel.... 

'In the year 1774, I was stationed at Batavia, as a surgeon, in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company. During my residence there 
I received several different accounts of the Bohon-TJpas, and the violent 
effects of its poison.' [Etc., etc.] 

1783 London magazine, Dec, p. 512-517. (Y. p. 731.) 

From the fabulous narrativ thus introduced, the Bohon Upat 
and the simple Upas soon past into literary and oratorio allusion. 
See further under Upas. 

C'est au fond des sombres forSts de Pile de Java que la nature a cache 
lepohun upas, l'arbre le plus dangereux du regne vegetal, pour le poison 
mortel qu'il renferme, et plus celebre encore par les fables dont on l'a 
rendu le sujet. ... 1 808 (?) Annates des voyages, 1 : 69. (Y.) 



118 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Antiaris, Lesch. Antiar or Antschar, its Javanese name. Linn. 21, 
Or. 4, Nat. Or. Artocarpaceae. This is the far-famed Upas poison-tree 
of Java — the Boom [Boon f\ or Bon Upas of the Javanese. 

1840 Paxton, Botan. diet, ed. Hereman (1868), p. 40. 

The name is found used, by error, for the poison itself. 

While the juice of some ["of the Artocarpus tribe"] is nutritive, that 
of others is highly poisonous. Thus Antiaris toxicaria is the source 
of the famous poison called Bohun-Upas, or Upas-Antiar, by the Java- 
nese, and which is said to owe its properties to the presence of Strych- 
nia. 1855 Balfour, Manual of botany, p. 519. 

Emerson makes a characteristic use of the Bohon Upas ; and 
many other writers mention it. 

They [the English] stoutly carry into every nook and corner of the 
earth their turbulent sense ; leaving no lie uncontradicted, no preten- 
sion unexamined. They chew hasheesh ; cut themselves with poisoned 
creases ; swing their hammock in the boughs of the Bohon Upas ; 
taste every poison ; buy every secret. 

1856 Emerson, English traits, ch. 8. (Wks. 1876, p. 103.) 

Bruang, the Malayan bear, TTrsus or Helarctos malayanus, 
cald also the honey-bear and the sun-bear. 

The Malay name is c.o bruang, bruwang, b&ruwang; 

Achinese beruwang, Batak baruwang, Sundanese bruwang, baru- 
ang, Dayak bahuang, Sampit (Borneo) bahuang, Macassar baru- 
wang, Bugis baruang. According to Swettenham the word 
probably stands for *ber-riiang, from ber-, a verbal prefix, 
and ruang, a hole ; meaning " the animal which lives in a hol- 
low." Compare cave-bear. 

Bear(ursus) cljO bruang. 1812 Marsden (Eng.-Mal.), p. 389. 

[Not in the Malay-Eng. part.] 

cUvJ beroew&ng of broewang beer. 

^ ' 1825 ROORDA VAN ETSINOA, p. 45. 

Bruwang (J.). A bear, Ursus malayanus of Horsfleld. 

1852 Crawfurd, p. 31. 
c **J broewang, de Maleische beer. (Mak. id. Bat. een oude beer, 

die een ronden, witten kring om den snuit heeft ) 

1863 Pijnappel, p. 34. 
Bruang cl«s-J a bear. (Derived from ruang a hole. Ber-ruang, 

or bruang a hole-maker.) 1881 Swettenham (1887), 2:19. 

Also 1875 Favre, 2:291; 1877 Wall and Tuuk, 1:227; 1893KLINKERT, 
p. 102 ; 1895 Mater, p. 49 ; 1895 Clifford and Swettenham, 2:221, 273. 

cl.«J bSroewang, de zwarte honigbeer. 

^ ' 1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 33. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 119 

Baruang, Poison. The bear of Sumatra and Borneo. 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 42. 
Bruwang, a bear. Not known on Java, except as brought from 
Sumatra or Borneo as a rarity. Ursus Malayanus. 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 65. 
Bahuang, Bar. — Dengedengen bahuang, etwas taub (so taub als ein 
Bar) sein. 1 859 Hardeland, Dajacksch-deutsehes w&rterbuch, p. 30. 

Beroewang, Sampitsch bahoewang, Katingansch oenda, beer. 

1872 Tiedtke, Woordenlijst der Sampitsche 
en Katingansche taal, p. 11. 
Bear . . . buruang bruang. 

1833 [Thomsen], Vocab. Eng. Bugis and Malay lang., p. 20. 
See also Raffles, Hist, of Java (1817), 2 : App. 89. 

The English use of the name is recent. 

Here is also a small bear (bruangh) found elsewhere only in Borneo. 
1883 Eneye. Brit, 15 -.322, art. Malay Peninsula. 

The genus Helarctos, meaning Sun Bear, strictly embraces but one 
species, Helarctos malayanus. The Malayan Bear or Bruang, is con- 
fined to the Indo-Malayan sub-region, that is, to the Malayan peninsula 
and the neighboring islands, Borneo, Sumatra and Java. It is much 
smaller than the Himalayan bear, not exceeding four feet and a half 
in length. 1888 Riverside not. hist., 5:371. 

The Bruang has a smallish head and a short neck which is very 
strong, enabling it to tear up the great plantains .... When tamed it 
shows so much affection and has so many droll ways as to make it an 
amusing and prized pet. 1888 Id., 5 '.372. 

Bruh, a Malayan monkey, Macacus nemestrinus. Malay yy> 

bru, berii, also with the weak final -k, oY? bruk, bgruk, 

brok; Achinese Ojr? bSrok, Balinese brug, Sampit and Katingan 
beruk. 

O*? bruk and ._j bru a large species of monkey with a tail; an 

ape. 1812 Marsden, p. 39. 

OyJ burokh, eene apensoort gelijk aan een bairaan, met eenen 

rooden en kleinen ftaart. 1825 Roorda van Eysinga, p. 44. 

Bruk. Name of a species of ape. 1852 Crawfurd, p. 31. 

jo beru, bru, v. (JLj beruk. 1875 Favre, 2:291. 

Or? beruk, bruk, nom d'une espece de singe (magot, R. V.) 
(simius nemestrinus) (Pij.).... On trouve aussi ..j bru. 

1875 Favre, 2:292. 

Or? beroek, naam eener soort van apen— de zoogenaamde lam- 
pongsche aap; inuus nemestrinus.... 1877 Wall and Tuuk, 1:222. 



120 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Brok (j'»0 a large monkey with a short tail, often trained to gather 

cocoanuts and duriens. 1881 Swettenham (1887), 2:19. (See also 

1895 Clifford and Swettenham, 2:273.) 
■ Jj.o berok, naam van een groot soort Lampongsche aap. 

' 1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 33. 

B'roeg, ben. van eene thans onbekende aapsoort. 

1876 R. van Eck, Balineesch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 198. 

Maleisch broek, Sampitsch beroek, Katingansch beroek, zeker soort 

van aap. 1872 Tiedtke, Woordenlijst der Sam- 

pitsche en Katingansche taal, p. ir. 
See also Raffles, Hist, of Java (1817), 2 : App. 89. 

The bruh is not so well known in English as his brethren the 
kahau, the siamang, and the orang-utan. 

In length of tail M[acacus] nemestrinus and M. rhesus hold a median 
position. The former species, remarkable for the length of the legs 
and the thinness of the short tail, is of the two the more terrestrial. It 
is a native of the Malay Archipelago, and is the Bruh of the Malays. 
The coat is brownish washed with yellow, the hair on the crown longer, 
and forming a radiating tuft behind. M. rhesus is, on the other hand, 
a native of India.... The tail is proportionally longer, thicker, and 
does not have the pig-like twirl of that of the bruh. 

1884-88 Riverside not. hist., 5 : s 17. 

Cajuput, also cajeput, kajuput, kajeput, cajaput, an East Indian 
tree, and an oil derived from it (and other trees). 

Cajuput is more commonly, but less correctly, speld cajeput. 

Cajeput, pronounced in the dictionaries " kaj'e-put " or " kaj'e- 
piit," that is, cadzh'i-pwt, -p&t, is, like the Portuguese cajeput, a 
copy of the French cajeput, a bad form of cajuput. Cajuput or 
kajuput is an adapted form of cajuputi, which is also found : see 
Cajuputi. The j is the Dutch spelling of what is in English y, 
and in cajuputi, at least, it should be pronounced as y (that is, 
like j in hallelujah). Webster (1890) gives cajuput with an 
alternative pronunciation rendering j as y. 

(1) Cajeput or Cajeput tree. 

Kayu-putih. The cajeput myrtle, Melaleuca cajeputi. 

1852 Crawfued, p. 70. 

Prominent for their straight and shapely pillar-like stems stand out 
the Lakka (Myristica iners), the Rasamala (Liquidambar altingiana), and 
the white-stemmed Kajeput trees (Melaleuca leucadendron), all of them 
rising with imposing columns, without a branch often for 80 and some- 
times 100 feet. 1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 

in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 74. 

The road led over numerous small hills, from the top of which we 
got many pretty peeps of Haruka and Ceram, through Gum-tree — the 
famous Kajuput— forest and Kussu-grass fields. 1885 Id., p. 296. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 121 

(2) Cajeput oil, often reduced to cajeput. The Malay name 
is miniak kayu putih. But in Java kayu putih is used also 
as the name of the oil (Rigg). 

Cajeput, aD oil brought from the East Indies resembling that of carda- 
mons. 1797 Encyc. Brit. (8. D.), p. 186. 

The leaf of the smaller [Cayuputi trees], [affords] by distillation, the 
fragrant essential oil which has been used for medical purposes, some- 
times internally as a powerful sudorific, but more frequently externally 
as an useful embrocation, under the ignorant and corrupt denomination 
of Cajeput. 1820 Crawfurd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1 :5i3. 

The leaves of Melaleuca minor (Cajuputi of some), a native of the 
Moluccas, yield the volatile oil of Cajeput. It is a very liquid oil, of a 
grass-green colour, having a pungent camphoraceous odour, and capa- 
ble of dissolving caoutchouc. It is used medicinally as a stimulant and 
antispasmodic. 1855 Balfour, Manual of botany (3d ed.), p. 428. 

Doors all shut 
On hinges oil'd with cajeput. 

a. 1845 Hood, To Mr. Malthus (N. E. D.). 

Its [Kajeli] great items of export are fish. ...and the famous Kajuput 

oil, distilled by the natives from the leaves of the gum trees (Melaleuca 

Kajuputi) which form a large part of the vegetation of the shores of 

the Bay. 1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 

in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 391. 

Cajeput. The name of a fragrant essential oil produced especially in 

Celebes and the neighbouring island of Bouro.... The drug and tree 

were first described by Rumphius, who died 1693. (See Hanbury and 

Fliickiger, p. 247.) 1886 Yxtle and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, p. 109. 

Cajuputi, also cayuputi, kayupuli, an East Indian tree, Mela- 
leuca leucadendron, L. So in New Latin, cajuputi. Adanson 
used caju-puti as the generic name (1763, Fam. ii. 84); see Index 
Kewensis 1 1372. Cajuputi should be pronounced as it is speld, 
Romanly ca-yu-pu'ti, not "kaj-joo-pyoo'ty." Spanish cayaputi, 
Dutch kajoe-poeti. 

The Malay name is &2A ^ kayu putih. It means 'white 

tree' or 'white wood.' The bark is white, like the bark of the 
birch. The name appears also in other languages, Javanese and 
Sundanese kayu putih, Macassar kayu puti. In Bali kayu putih, 
'White Tree,' is the name of a village (1876 Eck, p. 80). 

...Kayu putih a species of tree which yields a medicinal oil, 
melaleuca-leucadendra, L. 1812 Marsden, p. 235. 

. . . Kajoe poetih, e. s. v. boom, uit welks bladeren de aetherische 
olie, minjak kajoe poetih, wordt getrokken. 

1893 Klinkert, p. 479. 

Also 1852 CRAWFURD, p. 70; 1863 PlJNAPPEL, p. 173 ; 1875 FAVRE, 

1 1231. 



122 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Kayu-putih, literally— white wood. The tree grows in the Moluccos ; 
and on Java, the words kayu-putih, as in Europe, mean the essential oil 
derived from the tree. It is the Cajeput of Europe. Melaleuca Cajeputi. 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 211. 
. . . Kdyoe poeti, soort van boom, Melaleuca Cajuputi, vooral bekend 
om zijn olie. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordehboek, p. 35. 

K a y u is the general Malay term for ' wood ' or ' tree ' : 

Cayou. Lignum. 1631 Haex, p. n. 

•jf kayu wood, timber; a tree; an idiomatic term used in count- 
ing certain substances.... 1812 Maesden, p. 251. 

Kayu (J). Wood, timber; a tree; an idiomatic term in the enu- 
meration of some objects, and equivalent to "a roll" or "piece" in 
English. 1852 Cbawfubd, p. 70. 

Also 1863 Pijnappel, p. 173; 1875 Favee, 1:231; 1880 Wall and 
Tuuk, 2:486 ; 1893 Klinkert, p. 479 ; 1895 Matee, p. 120 ; etc. 

The word is found throughout the Archipelago ; Achinese 
hayih, kayee, Batak hayu, Lampong kayu, Javanese, Sundanese, 
Balinese kayu, Dayak kayu, Macassar kayu, Bugis aju, Sangi- 
Manganitu kaluh, Bum kau, Aru kai, Kei kayu, etc. In many 
of the eastern isles, as in Bugis, it is found without the initial 
consonant, ayo, aya, ai, aai, aow, ow, etc. In the Moluccan form 
ai, it has emerged in English use as the unrecognized first element 
of the word ailantus. See Ailantus, where the decapitate Ma- 
layan forms ar given. The word also appears in the Philippine 
islands, Spanish cdhuy, Tagala and Bisaya kahong, and in Mada- 
gascar, Malagasi hazu (hazou), and throughout Polynesia, Fiji 
kau, Marquesan kaau, akau, Tongan akau, Tahitian raau, Maori 
rakau, etc. (See Tregear, Maori-Polynesian compar. diet., 1891, 
p. 387-8.) 

Kajoe hout kajih. 

1880 Arriens, Maleisch-Hollandsch-Atjehsehe woordenlijst, p. 45. 
of kajte, hout. 1889 Langen, Woorderiboek derAtjehsehe taal, p. 201. 
Kajoe, boom, hout.. ..[Many kinds of trees ar mentioned]. 

1891 Helfrich, Lampongseh-Hollandsche woordenlijst, p. 3-4. 
. . . [kayu] N. . . . [kajeng] K. bois, arbre.... 

1870 Favee, Diet, javanais-frangais, p. 163. 
Kayu, wood, timber: sometimes used for a tree in general. Kha 
appears to be wood in Burmese. [A fanciful etym. follows.] 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 211. 
Kaju, Holz, Baum . . . Kajuan, Geholz (Wald).... 

1859 Hardeland, Dajacksch-deutsches wdrterbuch, p. 204. 
. . . kdyoe, b. kayoewa, vnw. kayoengkoe, hout.... 

1869 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 35. 
Boomstam, m. kaluh. 

i860 Riedel, Sangi-Manganitusch woordenlijste, p. 381. 
Hout, o. kaluh. i860 Id., p. 389. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 123 

Malay JU*a pGtih is the ordinary word for 'white.' It is 
found in many languages. I omit quotations. 

In English use cajuputi, cayuputi, kayuputi all appear. 

A remarkable example of this is afforded in the Cayuputi trees (Mela- 
leuca leucadendron) of the Indian islands, which are gigantic myrtles. 
These trees are easily distinguished in the forest by the whiteness of 
their bark, which has some resemblance in structure and appearance 
to that of the birch. This white colour gives to the tree its commercial 
and vulgar name of Kayu-puti, which means literally " white wood." 
1820 Ceawfued, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1 1513. 
The far famed Kayu Putih. 

1842 Brooke, Journal, in Mundy, Narrative, etc. (1848), 1 :283. 

There was a little brush and trees along the beach, and hills inland 

covered with high grass and cajuputi trees — my dread and abhorrence. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 295. 

Next day we took a westward course through fields of tall Kussu 

grass dotted with Kayu-puti trees, and through swamps full of sago 

palms. 1885 Foebes, A naturalist's wartderings in 

the Eastern Archipelago, p. 394 (Buru). 

So cajuputi-oil, cayu-puti oil, kayu-puti oil. 

Cayu-puti oil. 

1820 Ceawfued, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 3 1413, 414. 

Rattans from Borneo, sandal-wood and bees'-wax from Flores and 

Timor, tripang from the Gulf of Carpentaria, cajuputi-oil from Bourn, 

wild nutmegs and mussoi-bark from New Guinea, are all to be found in 

the stores of the Chinese and Bugis merchants of Macassar. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 309. 
Kayu-puti oil. 

1869 Bickmore, Travels in the East Indian Archipelago, p. 249. 

Campong, also kampong, a Malayan village, a district or 
quarter of a city, an inclosure ; the source of the Anglo-Indian 
term Compound, which see. 

Malay JULYS' kampong, kampung, 'an inclosure, district, 

village,' (see quotations) ; also adjectiv, ' collected, assembled, 
inclosed'; with verb formativs, 'to assemble'; Batak tampung, 
Lampong kampung, Javanese kampong, Sundanese kampung, 
Dayak kampong, Macassar kampong, Tagal kampun, 'an inclos- 
ure,' etc. ; Malagasi kainbound, 'inclosed.' 

Campon. Coniunctio, vel conuentus. Hinc vicinise, & parua loca, 

camp on etiam appellantur. 1631 Haex, p. 11. 

ifl+S'k a m p o n g an inclosure, a place surrounded with a paling ; a 

fenced or fortified village ; a quarter, district, or suburb of a city ; a 
collection of buildings. . . . 1812 Maesden, p. 267. 



124 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 



f*+S 



kampong, eene buurt of menigte huizen, die alle door eenen 



algemeenen of ieder derzelve door eenen bijzonderen heining omgeven 
wordt. Eene wijk, buurt of kwartier in eene ftad. Een omheind ftuk 
land, eene befloten plaats, afheining; buurt, wijk.... 

1825 ROORDA VAN ETSINGA, p. 320. 

Also 1852 Crawfurd, p. 66 ; 1863 Pijnappel, p. 182 ; 1875 Favre, i : 
345 ; 1880 Wall and Tuuk, 2 : 543 ; 1881 Swettenham (1887), 2 :4s ; 1893 

KXJNKERT, p. 539. 

Kampoeng, I. erf, wijk, aanplant; II. vereeniging van gezinnen 
(soembaj). 1891 Helprich, Lampongsch-Hollandsche woordenlijst, p. 2. 
Kampung, a village ; is properly Malay.... 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 194. 

Hardeland does not giv a Dayak kampong, ' an inclosure,' but 
he givs the adjectiv kampeng 'closed', 'obstructed' (as a door, 
a river, and figurativly, the heart or mind), with numerous de- 
rivativs. 

Kampeng, versperrt fete.]. 

1859 Hardeland, Dajacksch-deutsches wdrterbuch, p. 222. 
. . . kampong, Mai. een kampong, een omheinde plaats. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 7. 

In Malagasi the word (kambound,) has only the original sense 
'collected', 'enclosed' (1896 Marre, p. 32). 

Campong, kampong is common in English books of Eastera 
travel. 

His campong was at Singi. 

1844 Brooke, Journal, in Mundy, Narrative, etc. (1848), 1 :37i. 

I obtained the use of a good-sized house in the Campong Sirani (or 
Christian village). 1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 256. 

Like all the cities and larger settlements in the Dutch possessions, 
Amboina is divided into a native kampong or quarter, a Chinese kam- 
pong, and a quarter where foreigners reside. 

1869 Bickmore, Travels in the East Indian Archipelago, p. 132. 

There are Malay campongs (villages) scattered over the island, made 
up of a few rude bamboo huts, and two or three clusters of fruit-trees. 

1875 Thomson, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China, p. 18 

All islands are liable to the linguistic difficulty of their littoral being 
occupied by a superior seafaring and commercial race, either continu- 
ously or in detached "campongs," while the interior and unexplored 
mountains become the refuge of shy and uncivilized indigenes. 

1878 Cust, Sketch of the mod. languages of the East Indies, p. 132. 

The great coco-groves are by no means solitary, for they contain the 
kampongs, or small raised villages of the Malays.... In the neighbor- 
hood of Malacca these kampongs are scattered through the perpetual 
twilight of the forest.... 

1883 Miss Bird, The, Golden Chersonese, p. 137. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 125 

[Kampong also on pp. 139, 140, 296, 319, etc.] 

In addition to the true natives of the town [Telok-betong in Suma- 
tra], there was a large campong of Chinese, a few Arabs, with a consid- 
erable fluctuating population of traders from Borneo and Celebes, and 
other islands of the Archipelago. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalists wanderings in the East- 
ern Archipelago, p. 126. (Kampong, p. 197.) 

Cassowary, a large bird related to the emu and the ostrich. 
This name came into English use early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and went through various spellings, cassawary (1673), 
cassawarway (161 1), cassawaraway (1630), cassiowary (1690), 
cassuary, also with a Latinized termination cassawaris (1705), 
■and sometimes cassoware (165 1), and (as a poetic truncation) 
cassotoar (1800 Southey); also in other languages, French casoar, 
Spanish casudres (1705 Stevens), casobar, casoar (1878 Domin- 
guez), casuel ("cassiowary, large bird of prey"! 1879 Meadows), 
Portuguese casuar (Michaelis), Italian casuario, Dutch casuaris, 
kasuaris, German cossebdres (1672 in Yule), kasuaris (1682 in 
Yule), casuar, kasuar (1848); Swedish and Danish kasuar, Rus- 
sian kazuarii, New Latin casoaris (1631 Bontius), casuarius. 

The word cassowary has been generally referd to a Malayan 
origin, but the statements have been more or less inexact. Bontius 
(1631) says the bird, which he calls emu, is " vulgo Casoaris," that 
is, as he implies, the nativ name in Ceram is casoaris. Other 
statements followd ; see forms and dates cited. From these ear- 
lier European mentions, the nativ name has been variously inferd 
and stated. 

Worcester (i860) givs Malay cassuwaris. "Webster" (1864) 
givs "Hindost. kassuwaris." Littre (1877) givs Malay cassuwa- 
ris. Skeat (1879) quotes Littre for kassuwaris. Yule (1886) givs 
Malay kasavdri or kasuari. The earlier forms cited as nominal 
English, Spanish, German, or Dutch, ar of course all intended to 
reflect the Malayan name. 

The correct European reflex would be casuwari, casuari, or 

kasuwari, kasuari. The Malay word is ,Jw*o kasuwari, less 

exactly transliterated kasuari. But it is worthy of note that 
no Malay dictionary records the word until the year 1863. No 
form kasuwari or one like it appears in Marsden (1812) or 
in Roorda van Eysinga (1825). Nor is kasuwari in Crawfurd 
(1852). The first entry of kasuwari in a Malay dictionary 
appears to be in Pijnappel (1863), where it is not given in alpha- 
betic place, but is mentiond as an earlier form of suwari 
(soewari). In Macassar the word is recorded, as kasuwari, in 
1859. 

_>L*« soewari, de casuaris (van een vorm kasoewari). 

1863 Pijnappel, p. 143. 



126 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Klinkert, in his Supplement to Pijnappel (1869), takes no notice 
of either form. 

The next dictionary entry, like Pijnappel's, is indirect, in the 
name pohon kasuari, 'cassowary tree' (1864-5 Van Ekris). See 
under Casuarina. Then there ar entries in 1875 Favre, 1880 
Wall and Tuuk, 1895 Mayer. 



is}y£ 



kasuwari, kasuari, le casoar (struthio casuarius). 

i<\\yM,S' p \^> xJliM ada-lah barang kasuari, il y avait des 

casoars (H. Ab. 74). [No cognate forms cited.] 1875 Favre, 1:382. 

J^ wjS- [chasoewari] of soewari, kasuaris (vogel). 
f 1880 Wall and Tr/UK, 2 : 78. 

sjImmj kasoewari, de casuaris. 1893 Klinkert, p. 522. 

Kasoewari, casuaris. 1895 Mayer, p. 126. 

. . . Tcasoewdri, bep. kasoewartya, Casuaris. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 66. 

Beside the name kasuwari, there is an other name suwari, 
first mentiond so far as the quotations show, by Crawfurd, 1852. 
This appears also in Pijnappel 1863 (soewari), in Favre 1875 

Suari), and Wall 1880 (soewari); and it is also recorded in 
acassar (1859), as sowari. 

The two forms kasuwari and suwari ar no doubt con- 
nected. Compare kaptlyu and puyu,aquail; lingking and 
kelingking, a fruit, the lichi. The office of the apparent 
prefix ka- is not clear. It does not seem to be the prefix ka- 
as used in connection with the suffix -an, to form certain verbal 
nouns or participles. 

Suwari appears in most of the dictionaries from Crawfurd 
(1852) down : 

Suwari. The cassawary or emeu, Struthio cassuarius. 

1852 Crawfurd, p. 178. 
Cassiowary , Suwari. 

1852 Crawfurd, Eng. and Malay diet., p. 25. 
e )t«-w soewari, de casuaris (van een vorm kasoewari). 
^?'^ 1863 Pijnappel, p. 143. 

^L** suari= ( ^J»*«5'kasuari. 1875 Favre, 2:640. 

i£<l«.*u soewari, z. chasoewari. 1880 Wall and Tutjk, 2:296. 

e st**u soewari, zie kasoewari. 

»' 1893 Klinkert, p. 406. [Not in 1895 Mayer.] 

. . . sowari, = kasoewari, casuaris. 

1859 MAtthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandseh woordertboek, p. 608. 

The bird is mentiond, under a name now current as emu, in the 
following passage : 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 127 

In Banda and other Hands, the bird called Emia or Erne, is admirable. 
It is foure foot high, somewhat resembling an Ostrich, but hauing three 
clawes on the feet, and the same exceeding strong : it hath two wings 
rather to helpe it running, then seruiceable for flight : the legges great 
and long. 1613 Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 430. 

The first English mention of the name cassowary appears to 
refer to a bird brought to England : 

St. James his Ginny Hens, the Cassawarway moreover. (Note by 
Coryat. An East Indian bird at St. James in the keeping of Mr. 
Walker, that will carry no coales, but eat them as whot you will.) 

161 1 Peacham, in Paneg. verses on Coryat's 
Crudities, sig. 1. 3 r° (1776). (S. D.) 
A Cassowaries or Emeus Egg. 

1673 J. Ray, Journ. Low Countr., p. 28. (S. D.) 
(See other quotations in S. D. and N. E. D.) 
The Cassawaris is about the bigness of a large Virginia Turkey. His 
head is the same as a Turkey's ; and he has a long stiff hairy Beard 
upon his Breast before, like a Turkey. 

1705 Funnel, in Dampier's Voyages, 4:266 (1729). (Y.) 
Cassawary, or Emeu, a large Fowl, with Feathers resembling Camels- 
Hair. 1708 and 1715 Kersey. 
Another large and extraordinary bird is the Cassowary, which inhab- 
its the island of Ceram only. It is a stout and strong bird, standing 
five or six feet high, and covered with long coarse black hair-like feath- 
ers. The head is ornamented with a large horny casque or helmet, and 
the bare skin of the neck is conspicuous with bright blue and red col- 
ours. The wings are quite absent, and are replaced by a group of horny 
black spines like blunt porcupine quills.... This bird is the helmeted 
cassowary (Casuarius galeatus) of naturalists, and was for a long time 
the only species known. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890) p. 305. 
See also 1774 Goldsmith, Hist, of the earth (1790), 5:6, p. 67, 73 
(Jodrell); 1856 Crawfurd, Descriptive diet., p. 84; 1869 Bickmore, 
Travels in the East Indian Archipelago, p. 150; 1889 Wallace, Dar- 
winism, p. 115. 

The unreflecting voracity of the bird appears in the quota- 
tion in which he eats coals " as whot as you will." In the 
" experience," or at least in the travels, of a warlike German, 
quoted by Yule (1644-165 9) he, the cassowary, swallowd 50 
bullets, of a size not stated. According to a popular rime, the 
cassowaries of Timbuctoo, which ar ignored by the leading 
ornithologists, make light of a still heavier diet : 

If I were a cassowary, 

Far away in Timbuctoo, 

I would eat a missionary, 

Hat and boots and hymn-book, too. 

a. 1880 Auctor incert., loc. non eit. 



128 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

Casuarina, an East Indian and Australian tree. 

It is an Anglicized form of New Latin casuarina (Linnaeus, 
Amoen. Acad., 1759, iv. 143, cited in Index Kewemis, 1893, 1: 
457 ; Adanson, Fam. ii. 481, 1763, cited 1. a), a genus of trees 
of which many species ar named. 

This appears to be based on a Malayan name associating the 
tree with the cassowary. In Van Ekris 1864 the Malay name 
pohon kasuari 'cassowary tree' is given as the synonym of 
several names of the tree in the Amboina region, — laweur, leweur, 
hueur, kweule, leahua. An other Malay name is «\! Sru or «\ 

ru (1893 Klinkert, p. 14). In Baree (central Celebes) the tree is 
named ogu. 

Laweur, zekere boom (pohon kasuari) (P.)— leweur (H. W. K.) — 
hueur (T. R.) — kweule (A.) — leahua (Kr.). 

1864-65 A. van Ekris, Woordenlijst....Ambonsche eilanden, p. 107. 
Ogu (T. ogu), casuarisboom. 

1894 Kruyt, Woordenlijst van de Baree-taal, p. 47. 

Casuarina, kas-u-a-rin'a, s. (from the supposed likeness of the branches 

to the plumes of the Cassowary). A genus of plants, constituting the 

type and only genus of the order Casuarinacese. 1847 Craig. 

The Cassuarinas [in Timur], especially, remind the observer of the 

Australian vegetation. 

1856 Crawftjrd, Diet, of the Indian islands, p. 433. 
Surrounding Elie House, near Colombo, in which I resided, were a 
number of tall casuarinas and India-rubber trees, whose branches 
almost touched the lattices of the window of the room in which I 
usually sat. These were the favorite resort of the tree-snakes, and in 
the early morning the numbers which clung to them were sometimes 
quite remarkable. 

1861 Tennent, Sketches of the not. hist, of Ceylon, p. 305. 
It was lovely in the white moonlight with the curving shadows of 
palms on the dewy grass, the grace of the drooping casuarinas, the 
shining water, and the long drift of surf. 

1883 Bird, The Golden Chersonese, p. 275. 

Cockatoo, an East Indian parrot. The word has had many 
forms in English, cockatoe, cokatoe, kokatu, kakatou, cockatooa, 
and corruptly cockatoon, cocadore, crockadore, jacatoo, etc. 
Other European forms ar French cacatohs, kakatoes, cacatois, 
Spanish cacatua, Portuguese cacatou, Dutch kakatoe, kaketoe, 
kakato, German kakadu, Swedish kakadu, cacatu, etc. 

The Malay word is .jcXj'kakattiwa, kakattia, J.jjCS'kaka- 

ttiwa, s-jcXi'kakatuha; Javanese kokoluwo, Achinese kaka- 

tuwa, Sundanese kakatmca ; in the Amboina region lakatua, or 
without the terminal syllables, laka, laki, laa, also with only the 
terminal syllables, reduplicated, tau-tau. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 129 

The name is imitativ of the parrot's utterance. This is indi- 
cated not only by the common belief (see the English quotations 
dated 1662, 1705, and 1884-8), but by the 'dialectal' forms, and 
by the existence of other similar imitativ names for parrots, as 

Malay — X_S keke, dL-X_A_5 k e k e k , Sunda ekek, a parroquet, 

Bugis chaholek, a cockatoo, Maori kaka, a parrot, kakapo, the 
owl-parrot. 

An other notion is that the bird derives its name from the Malay 
kakatuwa, 'a vise or grip'; but this is obviously a transfer 
from the name of the bird, in allusion to the grip of its claws 
or its beak. Compare crane, crow, cock, goose, English names of 
implements transferd from names of birds. 

Wall and Tuuk declare that kakatuwa, which they write 
also in a form corresponding to kakatuha, is a compound of 
kaka and tuna (tiiah), meaning, I suppose, 'old brother' or 
' deeply colord brother ' ! This is not convincing. 

IjjjCs kakatoewa een vogel van de papagaaijensoort. 

1825 ROORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 314. 

Kakatuwah. A cockatoo. 1852 Crawfued, p. 65. 

LxjCTkakatoea, kakatoe. 1863 Pijnappel, p. 179. 

yXXi kakatuwa, kakatua, le kakatoes, oiseau du genre perro- 
quet. . . . Sund. . . . kakatuwa. 1875 Favre, 1:302. 

S»JcXj I. kakatoeha en kakatoewa, of kakatoewa en kaka- 

tfflwa M — smst. van kaka en toe ha enz., — naam eener soort van 
grooten, witten papagaai, kakatoe, kaketoe. II. kakatoewa en 
kaka tcewah, batav., nijptang en kaketoe. — B. 

1880 Wall and Tuuk, 2:524. 
Kakafe tua....kakafetua. 

1887 Lim Hiong Seng, Manual of the Malay colloquial, p. 128, 149. 

Also 1881 SWETTENHAM (1887) 2:44; 1893 KXINKERT, p. 526; 1895 

Mayer, p. 120. 

The name appears in Sundanese kakatuwa, Achinese kakatuwa, 
kakaktua. In the Amboina islands it is lakatua, laka, laki, laa, 
and tautau. 

Kakatuwa, a cockatoo ; used as applied to parrots imported from 
countries beyond Java, as the parrots of the Moluccos. 

1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 187. 
\yX\S kakatoewa, een groote witte papagaai. 

1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 208, 
Laka, witte kakatoea (R. Kr.)— lakatua (T. H. W. K. P.)— tau f [=<ow- 
tau] (P.)—laki (A.)— laa (Ht.). 

1864-65 A. vanEkris, Woordenlijst....Ambon80he eilanden. p. 104. 

VOL. XVII. 9 



130 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

The cockatoo enterd English, according to the first quotation, 
with an evil reputation and a worse etymology. 

Sparrowes, Robbins, Herons, (white and beautifull) Cacatoes (Birds 
like Parrots, fierce, and indomitable : and may properly be so called 
from the Greeke Kanbv &>6v proceeding from an euill egge). 

1634 Sir T. Herbert, Travels, p. 212. (S. D., p. 254.) 

Some rarities of naturall things, but nothing extraordinary save the 
skin of a jaccall, a rarely colour'd jacatoo or prodigious parrot.... 

1654 Evelyn, Diary, July ir. (Y., p. 175.) 

An infinite number of Parrots, whereof there are several kinds.... 
Some are all white, or of a Pearl colour, having on their Crowns a tuft 
of Feathers of a Carnation red, and they are called Kahatou, from that 
word which in their chattering they pronounce very distinctly. 

1662 J. Da vies, tr. Mandelslo (1669), 1 :26. (S. D.) 

The Grockadore is a Bird of various Sizes, some being as big as a Hen, 
and others no bigger than a Pidgeon. They are in all Parts exactly of 
the shape of a Parrot. . . . When they fly wild up and down the Woods 
they will call Croekadore, Oroekadore; for which reason they go by 
that name. 1705 Funnel, in Dampier, Voyages, 4:265-6. (Y. p. 174.) 

See other quotations in Yule and S. D., 1638, 1698, 1719, 1750, 1775 ; 
also 1840 Brooke (1848), 1 : 53. 

Small white cockatoos were abundant, and their loud screams, con- 
spicuous white colour, and pretty yellow crests, rendered them a very 
important feature in the landscape. This [Lombock] is the most west- 
erly point on the globe where any of the family are to be found. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 119, 120. 

Cockatoos [in the Aru islands]. [Their habits described at length.] 

1869 Wallace, Id. (1890), p. 341-343. 

The true cockatoos belong to the genus Cacatua or Plictolophus. With 
two exceptions, the fifteen species are white.... They make very 
interesting pets, crying now "cockatoo," now "pretty cocky," or 
screaming with a voice far from musical. 

1884-88 Riverside nat. hist., 4 : 353-354. 

Compound, an inclosure, a yard. 

This is an Anglo-Indian sophistication of the Anglo-Indian 
campong, representing the Malay word £& 4 5'kampong, kam- 

pung, in early mention (1631 Haex) also written campon. 
The sophistication is like that which appears in godown, some- 
times, godon, for godong, gadong, a Malayan word which is 
excluded from this paper as being of Indian origin. The other 
proposed etymologies of compound (see Yule, p. 186-8) ar not 
tenable. For the Malay form, see under Campong, which is now 
establisht in English use. 

It is a curious coincidence that the Malay word which means 
literally 'brought together,' 'assembled,' has acquired an English 
form which assimilates it to a word which means 'put together.' 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 131 

There [at Pollicull near Madapollam] the Dutch have a Factory of a 
large Compounde, where they dye much blew cloth, having above 300 
jars set in the ground for that work ; also they make many of their 
best paintings there. 

1679 Fort St. George Consns. (on Tour), April 14. In 
Notes and extracts, Madras, 1871. (Y., p. 782.) 
The houses [at Madras] are usually surrounded by a field or compound, 
with a few trees or shrubs, but it is with incredible pains that flowers 
or fruit are raised. 

1 81 2 Maria Graham, Journal of a residence in India, p. 124. (Y.\ 
See other quotations (1696, 1772, 1781, 1788, etc.) in Yule, p. 186, 782. 
At the entrance to the Rajah's compound....! was startled by sud- 
denly coming on a tall pole with a fringed triangle near its summit. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 
in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 472-473. 

Coracora, a Malayan galley. Also kora-kora (1869 Wallace), 
corocoro (1774 Forrest) (= G. korrekorre 1659, in Yule); also (2) 
caracora (as New Latin, 1606, 1613), (3) caracore (1784), (4) 
caracole, caracolle (1622 Cocks, 1606 Middleton), and Jcarkollen 
(a mere Dutch spelling) (161 3 Purchas); (5) caracoa (from Span- 
ish caracoa). The most correct form is coracora, derived, through 
the Portuguese coracora, corocora, from the Malay p .^'kora- 
kora or .^y kora-kora, kura-kura, Macassar korra-korra, 
a kind of galley (see the quotations). 

....Kora-kora, a large rowing boat or praw used by the people of 
the eastern islands. (See plates in Forrest's Voyage to N. Guinea.) 

1812 Marsden, p. 273. 
Kura-kura. Name of a large kind of sailing vessel. 

1852 Crawpurd, p. 82. 
\«j koera.... II. koera-koera, soort van oorlogspraauwen in de 

Molukken. (Liever kora-kora. Port, earraea?) 

1863 PlJNAPPEL, p. 186. 

¥ »jj ou mieux \«5yi kura-kura et kora-kora, nom de certains 

prahus de guerre dans les iles Moluques. Ce mot vient prob. du Port. 
caraea, une caraque. Mak. . . . kora-kora. 1875 Favre, i :2g4. 

Also 1880 Wall and Tuuk, 2 :s6i ; 1893 Klinkert, p. 554. 

....1° kdra.... 2° k&rra-korra, bep. kdrra-korrdya, soort van vaar- 
tuigen, vroeger, vooral bij de honggi-togten in de Molukko's gebruikt. 
1859 Matthes, Makassaarseh-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 43. 

The origin of the Malay kora-kora or kura-kura has been 
variously stated. 

(1) In one view it is a transferd use of the Malay f ^Js kura- 
kura, also \y±S ku-kura, a tortoise. The allusion would be, 



132 C. P. G.Scott, [1896. 

one would suppose, either to the pace or to the shape ; but the 
vessel is described as a "barque a marche rapide" (see quotation 
1882 under Caracoa below), and nothing is said of its likeness in 
shape to a tortoise. It would seem more likely that the tortoise 
was named from the boat ; but the words appear to be independ- 
ent. The word for the tortoise is mentiond in all the dictionaries. 
(2) In an other view the Malay kora-kora, kura-kura, a 
vessel, is from the Arabic \y. 'iy'i qurqur, qorqur, kurkur, plural 
qaraqlr, karaklr, a large merchant vessel. 

\ysJZ qurqur, pi. qar&qtr, large long ship. 

' 1884 Steingass, Arabie-Eng. diet., p. 832. 

According to Arabic scholars, this Arabic term is not nativ, 
but was borrowd at an early date, from the Greek Keptcovpos (whence 
Lat. cercurus, cercyrus), a kind of vessel invented by the Cyprians. 
The Greek name itself is perhaps ultimately of Semitic origin 
(18.. Fraenkel, Fremdworter, p. 217; 1895 Lew y, Die sernitischen 
fremdworter im Griechischen, p. 152). The Arabic word, in the 
plural qaraqlr, is asserted, by most writers, to be the source of 
the Romance word, Spanish carraca, Italian caracca, French 
caraque, whence the English carrack, carrick of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries ; but this view is without warrant. 

In the absence of proof to the contrary, we may assume kora- 
kora to be nativ Malayan. 

I giv the English and other European quotations in the order 
of the five forms above discriminated. 

(1) Goracora, kora-kora, corocoro. 

A corocoro is a vessel generally fitted with outriggers, having a high 
arched stem and stern, like the points of a half moon.... The Dutch 
have fleets of them at Amboyna, which they employ as guardacostas. 
1774 Forrest, Voyage to New Guinea, 23. (Y. p. 122.) 

The boat was one of the kind called "Kora-kora,'''' quite open, very 
low, and about four tons burthen. It had outriggers of bamboo about 
five feet off each side, which supported a bamboo platform extending 
the whole length of the vessel. On the extreme outside of this sat the 
twenty rowers, while within was a convenient passage fore and aft. 
The middle portion of the boat was covered with a thatch-house, in 
which baggage and passengers are stowed ; the gunwale was not more 
than a foot above water, and from the great top and side weight, and 
general clumsiness, these boats are dangerous in heavy weather, and 
are not unfrequently lost. 

1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 266. 

I add two French statements : 

" The Malay kora-kora is a great row-boat ; still in use in the Moluc- 
cas. Many measure 100 feet long and 10 wide. Some have as many as 
90 rowers." 18 . . tr. Marre, Kata-Kata Malayou, 87. (Y.) 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 133 

Le sculpture des Jeorokoros malais . . . annonce autant d'intelligence 
que de gout. 18 .. Rienzi, Ocianie, 1:84. (Devic, p. 84.) 

(2) Caracora: 

. . . Nave conscensa, quatn lingua patria caracora nuncupant. Navi- 
gii genus est oblongum; et angustum, triremis instar, velis simul et 
remis impellitur. 1606 Jarric, Thesaurus, 1 : 192. (Y.) 

They exercife Sea-fights in their Caracora}, or Galeots, with great 
Dexteritie. 1613 Pdrchas, Pilgrimage, p. 453. 

(3) Caracore: 

Caracores are light vessels used by the natives of Borneo.. ..and by 
the Dutch as guarda costas in those latitudes. 

1794 Rigging and seamanship, 1:240. (N. E. D.) 

(4) Caracole, caracolle (Jearkolleri). 

The foremost of these Galleys or Caracolles recovered our Shippe, 
wherein was the King of Tarnata. 

1606 Last East-Indian voyage to Bantam and 
the Maluco islands, E 2. (Y. p. 122.) 
They haue [in Amboina] Gallies after their manner, formed like 
Dragons, which they row very fwiftly : they call them Karkollen. 

1613 Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 453. 
7 or 8 carecoles (or boates). 1622 R. Cocks, Diary (1883), 1 : 279. (S.D.) 

(5) Caracoa. 

Garacoa is a Spanish form, a modification of the Malay 
korakora. 

Caracoa, a fort of large Indian Boat. 

1706 Stevens, Spanish and Eng. diet. 
Les Phillipines nomment ces batimens earacoas. C'est vne esp£ce de 
petite galdre a rames et a voiles. 

1711 in Lettres idiftantes et curieuses (1780-83), 4 :27. (Y.) 
Caracoa (la). — Barque a marche rapide qui se construit principale- 
ment dans le Sud de l'archipel. 

1882 Blumentritt, Vocab. de Vespagnol des 
Phillippines, tr. Hugot (1884), p. 22. 

Yule enters caracoa as a nominal English word, but I hav 
found no true English examples. Caracoa occurs 17 times in 
one of the Hakluyt society's publications, an edition, publisht in 
1855, of "The last East-Indian voyage" (1606), but there is no 
telling whether caracoa occurs even once in the original (a quota- 
tion with caracolles is given above, from Yule). The editor 
indeed says that in editing the text, he has brutally mutilated 
the orthography, has starcht and bond the punctuation, and has 
destroyd the proper names, substituting other names out of his 
own head. His exact words ar : 



134 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

In editing the text, I have modernized the orthography and punctua- 
tion, and have restored the proper names to uniformity. 

1855 , The voyage of Sir Henry Middleton to Bantam and 

the Maluco islands (Hakluyt soc. 1855), Advertisement, p. viii. 

And in a note to his first mention of caracoa in the text, he 
says : 

The word occurs near twenty times, and is variously spelt, I have 
given it the Spanish form. 1855 Id., p. 34, note. 

Yet there is no statement in the preface or on the title-page 
that the text was intended for kindergarten use. 

Cuscus, an East Indian opossum. Sometimes Frenchified 
couscous ; Dutch coescoes, F. couscous, N. L. cuscus ; from Malay 

ijhSLuS k u s k u s (jwXwyS kuskus, in Amboina kusu, in Man- 
ado kuse, in Timor kui. 

[ujjCwji'fcMsfcits an animal of the opossum tribe ; didelphis orientalis. 
(See Valentyn, vol. iii., p. 272, and pi. fig. D.) 1812 Mabsden, p. 274. 

Kuskus. Name of a didelphine animal, Didelphis orientalis. 

1852 Crawfued, p. 83. 

( ujjC«S'k o e s k o e s , soort van buideldier, didelphys, in de Molukken. 

1863 Pijnappel, p. 178. 

,iAjC«*5'kuskus, nom d'un animal de la famille des marsupiaux 
(didelphe), dans les Moluques. 1875 Favhe, i :3S2. 

Koei. T[imor], een buideldier, coescoes. (A[mbon] koesoe ; Mfanado] 
koese.) 1876 Clerq, Set Maleisch der Molukken, p. 28. 

Cuscus was made familiar in English by Wallace and Forbes, 
but it is found earlier. 

Cuscus maculatus.... This species, which is named Coescoes at the 
Moluccas, according to Valentyn, varies much in its colouring. At 
Wagiou....the natives call it Schamscham. 

1839 Penny Cyclo., 14 :460a. 

The naked-tailed and strictly prehensile Couscous of the Moluccas. 

1839 !&•> 460b. 

Just as we had cleared away and packed up for the night, a strange 
beast was brought, which had been shot by the natives. It resembled 
in size, and in its white woolly covering, a small fat lamb, but had 
short legs, hand-like feet with large claws, and a long prehensile tail. It 
was a Cuscus (C. maculatus), one of the curious marsupial animals of 
the Papuan region. 1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 350. 

[Also mentiond on pp. 104, 223, 301 and 324.] 

The Marsupial species of Cuscus [italics in original] also, of which we 
have obtained three species, have interested us. They are very plenti- 



Vol. xvli.] The Malayan Words in English. 135 

ful, and at this season [May 21] the females all seem to have a little one 
in their pouch. One of these was a tiny creature about two inches long, 
quite hidden in its pouch, fixed by its lips formed into a simple round 
orifice to its mother's teat. They are much eaten by the natives, by 
whom they are caught in nooses set in the trees, or by artifice. In 
moonlight nights creeping stealthily to the foot of a tree where they 
have observed one sleeping, taking care not to lift their heads so that 
the light flash in their eyes, they imitate at short intervals its cry, by 
placing the fingers in the nose ; the Cuscus descends, and is fallen on by 
the watchers below. The python is their greatest enemy, and devours 
large numbers of them as they cling to the branches during the day in 
a semi-torpid condition. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings in the 
Eastern Archipelago, pp. 291, 292. [Amboina.] 

Dugong, a large sirenian of the Eastern seas, Halicore du- 
gong, also known in two other species, H. tabernaculi, of the Red 
Sea, and H. australis, of the Australian waters. It is allied to 
the American manatee. 

The form dugong follows the French and New Latin dugong 
of Cuvier, dugon of Buffon, a blunder for duyong. The Malay 

word is M)& duyong, duyung, £5^5^ duyong; Achinese 

duyun, Javanese duyung, Macassar ruyung, Bugis rujung, Am- 
boina rukun. In Bugis the name is applied to the dolphin. 

c«Ja(> duyong a very large sea-animal of the order of mammalia, 
vulgarly called the sea-cow, and by naturalists, the dugong (from the 
Malayan word), which has given occasion to the stories of mermaids in 
the tropical seas. 1812 Marsden, p. 138. 

cjj.O doejong een groot zeedier, gewoonlijk de zeekoe genaamd. 

Humba p6n ter-ked jut-lah me-liehat doejong jang amat 
befar doedokh di pantej, ik verfchrikte op het zien van eene zeer 
groote zeekoe, welke op het ftrand zat. 

l82S ROORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 165. 

D'uyung (J). The lamantin or dugong. 1852 Crawfurd, p. 45. 

Pj-s«i> doejoeng, eene soort van zeekoe, halicore. doejong. Ber- 

doejoeng-doejoeng, waggelen als eene zeekoe. (Jav. doejoeng, 

Mak. roejoeng. Boeg. roedjoeng.) 1863 Pijnappel, p. 113. 

«j«t> duyung, nom d'un animal marin (vache marine M. Pij.). Jav. 

. . . duyung. Mak. . . . ruyung et Bug. . . . rujung dauphin. 

1875 Favre, 1 :859. 
Also 1880 Wall and Tctjk, 2:126; 1893 Klinkert, p. 312; 1895 
Mayer, p. 90. 
L&loemba zeekoe. Doejoen zeevarken. 

1879 Dias, Lijst van Atjehsche woorden, p. 159. 
[These entries should be transposed, as to the Dutch words.] 



136 C. P. O. Scott, [1896. 

(Mjj.J doejoen, de zeekoe. 

1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 114. 
Halicone dajong [sic] doejong. 

1 89 1 Vorderman, Bijdrage tot de kennis 
van het Billiton-Maleiseh, p. 392. 

In Macassar it is ruyung, and its tears hav the property of call- 
ing the ladies' attention to one's merits : 

. . . roeyoeng, soort van dolfijn, Boegin roedjoeng, idem. De tranen 
van dezen visch opgevangen, en daaraan het vermogen toegeschreven, 
om het hart eener schoone aan zich te verbinden. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 453. 
Rukun, zekere visch (Ml. doejong) (T. R. Kr.) 

1864-65 A. van Ekhis, Woordenlijst 
. . . Ambonsehe eilanden, p. 336. 

In the first English mention of the animal which I hav noted, 
the name is not given : 

They haue no Kine, but a Fifh of like lineaments, which they take in 
their Nets. 1613 Purchas, Pilgrimage, p. 436. 

Pennant calls it the "Indian walrus" : 

Indian [Walrus]. Le Dugon de Buffon . . . W[alrus] with two fhort 
canine teeth, or tufks, placed in the upper jaw . . . [etc.] ... It is faid 
by one [traveller], that it goes upon land to feed on the green mofs, 
and that it is called in the Philippines, the Dugung.* [Note : *De Buffon 
xiii. 377, the note.] 1771 Pennant, Synopsis of quadrupeds, p. 338. 

It was probably aquatic, like the Dugong and Manatee. 

1845 C. Darwin, Journ. Beagle, ch. 5 : p. 82. (S. D., p. 339.) 

Dugong. The Halicore dugong of naturalists is an inhabitant of the 
shallow seas of the Archipelago, but it is not numerous, or at least is 
not often caught by the fishermen. It is the duyong of the Malays, 
which naturalists mistaking a 3 or y for a g, have corrupted into 
dugong. During my residence in Singapore, a few were taken in the 
neighboring shallow seas, and I can testify that the flesh of this her- 
bivorous mammif er is greatly superior to that of the green turtle. 

1856 Crawfurd, Descriptive diet, of the Indian islands, p. 125. 

Tennent mentions the dugong as frequenting the shores of 
Ceylon, and discourses pleasantly of the mermaid myths for 
which the dugong is supposed to be responsible. He quotes 
Megasthenes, Aelian, and Valentyn. 

Of this family, one of the most remarkable animals on the coast is 
the dugong, a phytophagous cetacean, numbers of which are attracted 
to the inlets, from the bay of Calpentyn to Adam's Bridge, by the still 
water, and the abundance of marine algse in these parts of the gulf. . . . 
1861 Tennent, Sketches of the nat. hist, of Cey- 
lon, p. 68. (See the whole account, p. 68-73.) 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 137 

The mermaid, of the genus Halicore, connects the inhabitants of the 
land and water. This Duyong, described as a creature seven or eight 
feet long, with a head like that of an elephant deprived of its proboscis, 
and the body and tail of a fish, frequents the Sumatran and Malayan 
shores, and its flesh is held in great estimation at the tables of sultans 
and rajahs. 1883 Bird, The Golden Chersonese, p. 9. 

Once the dugongs were very numerous. The early traveller, Leguat, 
tells of seeing schools of several hundred, grazing like sheep on the sea- 
weeds a few fathoms deep, in the Mascarine islands. The flesh is 
regarded as a special delicacy, and the Malay king claims, as royal prop- 
erty, all that are taken in his domains. The flesh of the young is com- 
pared to pork, beef, and veal ; but the old dugongs are tougher and not 
so highly prized. 1884-88 Riverside nat. hist., 5 :2ii. 

See also 1869 Bickmore, p. 244;' 1883 Encyc. Brit., 15:390; 1885 
Forbes, p. 313; 1886 Yule, p. 254. 

Durian, a rich East Indian fruit ; also the tree on which it 
grows, Durio zibethinus. Also speld durion, durien, durean, 
dorian, duroyen • Dutch doerian, French dourian, Italian duri- 
ano (c. 1440), Middle Latin durianus (c. 1440), N. L. durio(n) ; 
representing Malay ^,)& durian, literally 'thorny (fruit)' 
formd with the suffix -an, from ^y<> duri, a thorn, spine. The 

fruit has a thick rind set with short stout spines. It is in Achi- 
nese durian, dSriSn, Lampong deriyan, Javanese duren, Amboina 
torian, tolian, litren, tureno, torane. 

ij~>\i> durian a rich fruit much prized by the natives, but to which 
the European palate does not readily accommodate itself ; durio zibe- 
thinus, L. It takes its name from its prickly coat. (Vid. -\«v> duri). 

1812 Marsden, p. 132. 
^)ji> duri a thorn, spine, prickle.... ^Hhii duri-an a fruit (so 

called from its prickly coat), durio zibethinus, L. 1812 Marsden, p. 137. 
^_jjO doeriejan eene groote vrucht waarvan de pitten gegeten en 

door de inboorlingen voor zeer aangenaam gehouden worden, hebbende 
eenen onaangenamen geur, die voor vele Europeers onverdragelijk is. 

l82S EOORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 1 57. 

^jjO duri, epine, piquant, pointe.... Lr vJ)<> duri-an, nom d'un 
fruit ainsi nomme parce qu'il est herisse d'epines, le durian (durio 
zibethinus).... yZXSb — duri-an hantu, ^«!t> — duri-an daun, deux 
especes de dourian. Jav. . . . ri, epine, . . . duren, le dourian. Bat. . . . 
dun, epine. 11875 Favre, 1:864-5. 

. . . Dcerijan(gew. uitspraak derriyan), naam eener, voor velen, 
inz. Europeanen, walgelijke, doch door de ind. volken hooggeschatte 



138 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

vrucht — durio zibethinus; de boom; soorten: d. daoen; d. teng- 
gajoen; d. tembaga, met geel vleesch. 

1880 Wall and TtruK, 2: 122. 
Also 1852 Crawfurd, p. 43; 1863 Pijnappel, p. 112; 1 88 1 Swetten- 
ham (1887), 2:29 ; 1893 Klinkert, p. 299, 310; 1895 Mater, p. 91. 
Doerian, doerian. 1879 Dias, Lijst van Atjehsche woorden, p. 154. 

^>ji> d&ri&n, de doerianvrucht. 

1889 Lanqen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. no. 
DSrijan, doerian. 

1891 Helfrich, Lampongsch-Hollandsche woordenlyst, p. 59. 
. . . [dureri] (nom d'un fruit epineux) le dourian malais. 

1870 Favre, Diet, javanais-francais, p. 176. 
Doerin naam van de bekende doerian-vrucht. 

1876 E. van Eck, Balineesch-Hollandsch icoordenboek, p. 82. 
Turen, zekere boomvrucht (Ml. durian) (T. R. Kr. H. W.)— torian 
(K.) — tolian (P.) — tureno (Ht. N.) — torane (A.). 

1864-65 A. van Ekris, Woordenlijst.... 
Ambonsche eilanden, p. 128. 
See also Raffles, Hist, of Java (18 17), 2 : app. 100. 

The durian is mentiond by Italian writers as early as the mid- 
dle of the fifteenth century. See Yule. 

The English mentions begin in the latter end of the sixteenth 
century, and, as usual, in translations of Spanish and Dutch writ- 
ers. 

There is one that is called in the Malacca tongue durion, and is so 
good that I have heard it affirmed by manie that have gone about the 
worlde, that it doth exceede in savour all others that ever they had 
seene or tasted.... Some do say that have seene it that it seemeth 
to be that wherewith Adam did transgresse, being carried away by the 
singular savour. 

1588 Parke, tr. Mendoza, Historie of the great and mightie king- 
dom of China (etc.), (Hakluyt soc, 1853) 2 :3i8. (Y. p. 256.) 

See other quotations 1598, 1662, 1665, 1727, 1855, 1878, in Yule and 
S. D. 

The highest rank among the indigenous fruits, in the opinion of the 
natives, is given to the Durian (Durio Zibethinus), not at all excepting 
even the Mangustin, but most of strangers, from its peculiar and offen- 
sive odour, have at first a violent aversion to it. 

1820 Crawfcrd, Hist, of the Indian Archipelago, 1 :4i9. 

The Mangosteen, Lansat, Rambutan, Jack, Jambou, and Blimbing, 
are all abundant ; but most abundant and most esteemed is the Durian, 
a fruit about which very little is known in England, but which both by 
natives and Europeans in the Malay Archipelago is reckoned superior 
to all others. 1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 56. 

The Durian grows on a large and lofty forest tree, somewhat resem- 
bling an elm in its general character, but with a more smooth and 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 139 

scaly bark. The fruit is round or slightly oval, about the size of a large 
cocoanut, of a green colour, and covered all over with short stout 
spines, the bases of which touch each other, and are consequently 
somewhat hexagonal, while the points are very strong and sharp. It 
is so completely armed, that if the stalk is broken off it is a difficult 
matter to lift one from the ground. The outer rind is so thick and 
tough, that from whatever height it may fall it is never broken. 

1869 Id., p. 57. 

If I had to fix on two only, as representing the perfection of the two 
classes, I should certainly choose the Durian and the Orange as the 
king and queen of fruits. 1869 Id., p. 58. (Also p. 41, 107, 236.) 

From Muara-Rupit I proceeded to Surulangun, along a good road fol- 
lowing the Eawas river, under a continuous shade of tall Durian trees 
from thirty-five to forty feet high — a growth of ten years. The road 
was carpeted throughout its length with their flowers, which were 
dropping off in vast numbers. In the flowering time it was a most 
pleasant shady road ; but later in the season the chance of a fruit now 
and then descending on one's head would be less agreeable. 

1885 Forbes, A naturalist's wanderings 
in the Eastern Archipelago, p. 240. 

Mr. Wallace draws from the fall of the durian an uncomplacent 
moral : 

Poets and moralists, judging from our English trees and fruits, have 
thought that small fruits always grow on lofty trees, so that their fall 
should be harmless to man, while the large ones trailed on the ground. 
Two of the largest and heaviest fruits known, however, the Brazil-nut 
fruit (Bertholletia) and Durian, grow on lofty forest trees, from which 
they fall as soon as ripe, and often wound or kill the native inhabitants. 
From this we may learn two things : first, not to draw general conclu- 
sions from a very partial view of nature ; and secondly, that trees and 
fruits, no less than the varied productions of the animal kingdom, do 
not appear to be organized with exclusive reference to the use and con- 
venience of man. 1869 Wallace, Malay Archipelago (1890), p. 58. 

But perhaps the falling durian and Brazil-nut ar a crude effort 
of Nature, looking toward an extinction of savagery. If the 
savages would not dodge ! So ineffectiv ar the " intentions " of 
Nature. The weighted fruits of the tropics and the stones of the 
towers of Siloam continue to fall, upon the just and the unjust. 
When gravity dispenses justice, the just must dodge, or be 
crusht. 

Gecko, a sprightly lizard of interesting nature and domestic 
habits. Also speld gecco, gekko ; French gecko, German gecko, 
Dutch gekko. 

Malay (3^9 gekok (Favre), gekok (Pijnappel), gekko 
(Marsden 181 2, who says he has not found the Malayan orthog- 



140 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

raphy). The final (Jj k is faint, and is omitted in the European 
form, as it was in abada for bada, Malay 0<^Ls badak, and as 
it is in bruh from Malay bru for bruk, in Ava for Awak, in 
Hatta for Batak, and so on. See Abada and Bruh. 

The Malay {J^&S' gekok is one of several different Malay 
names for the same animal, all within a small area of variation, 
and all evidently of an imitativ nature, suggestiv of the creature's 
peculiar cry. The other forms ar keku, kekuh, keko, 
gaguh, gagoh, gago, goke, koke, toke, tak6, takek; 
in Lampong glgag, Katingan (Borneo) kek'e. 

Toke, tak6, takek, ar reflected in an occasional English 
form Tokay. From one of these forms, or from an Indian or 
other name of similar form because of imitativ nature, wer drawn 
two forms which appear in English use of the eighteenth century, 
c/iacco and jacco. 

«J3^ gaguh a large species of house-lizard which makes a very loud 
and peculiar noise; (also named keku, gekko, gago, goke, and 
toke). .. ._ 1812 Marsden, p. 286. 

Lizard . . . (great, noisy, house-) jJo gaguh. (It, or other species 
nearly like it, is also named kekuh, gekko, gago, goke, and 
toke, the Malayan orthography of which words has not occurred.) 

1812 Marsden, p. 483. 

-SlS^ gokej, (gekko) huishaagdis die een bijzonder geluid geef t. 

1825 ROOKDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 345- 

sjCS' gagoh, een groote huishaagdis, die om deszelfs geluid kejko, 
gekko, gago, gdkej en t6kej genoemd wordt. 1825 Id., p. 339. 

ijpCo gekok, bijname van de tokei, om het geluid dat zij maakt. 
**"" " 1863 Pijnappel, p. 202. 

(S_jOJf gekok, klanknaabootsend woord, door de Europeanen 
gebruikt om het beest aan te duiden, dat in 't Mal. en Jav. tekek 
heet. Een hagedis, die aldus roept. 1869 Klinkert, p. 219. 

iSJCo gekok, le gecko, petit lezard ainsi nomme par imitation de 
son cri. On le nomme aussien Mal. .-SjJ toke. 1875 Favre, i :402. 

The form goke is also well establisht. 

-Sli goke, koke, and toke [read 6 in each form] a species of 
lizard that haunts old buildings, and makes a loud and peculiar noise. 
(Vid. xio gaguh.) 1812 Marsden, p. 292. 

SLf gokej, (gekko) huishaagdis die een bijzonder geluid geef t. 

t? ■ 7 * 1825 EOORDA VAN EYSINGA, p. 345- 

Goke. A name for the tokay, or noisy lizard; v. Takeh [read 
Takek]. 1852 Crawfurd, p. 51. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 141 

_Sli' toke, goke, bat[aksch] (bal[ineesch] toeke, T.), groote hage- 

dis, gekko. (B.) 1877 Wall and Tuxjk, 1:425. 

-Slj^goke, z. toko [read toke]. 1884 Wall and TutrK, 3:40. 

The form keke appears in the Bornean dialect of Katingan : 

Maleisch tjitjak, Sampitsch tasakh, Katingansch MM, hagedis. 

1872 Tiedtke, Woordenlijst der Sampitsche 
en Katingansche taal, p. 27. 
Maleisch tjitjak, Sampitsch tasakh, Katingansch djonjoe MM, 
hagedis. 1872 Id., p. 29. 

In the Lampong language it is gSgag. 

Gegag, gekko. 1891 Helfhich, Proeve van een Lampongsch- 

Hollandsche woordenlijst, p. 16. 

An other name for this lizard, or some of its varieties is xsxasj. 
chichah or <lLsv_aj». chichak, or ^y^> chechak, Achi- 
nese chichak, Javanese che'chak, Balinese ch&ohe'k, Sundanese 
chakchak, Lampong kichak, probably also imitativ. There are 
similar Indian names. In Marathi chukchiik is the cry of the 
lizard (1847 Molesworth, p. 409). In quotations below (1864, 
1883), the Indian gecko says "chuck, chuck, chuck;" in an other 
(1861), "chic, chic, chit." 

The gecko became known first as a venomous and malicious 
creature. The later accounts make it a harmless, cheerful little 
reptil, with interesting habits, as the quotations show : 

Of all animals the gekko is the most notorious for its powers of mis- 
chief ; yet we are told by those who load it with that calumny, that it 
is very friendly to man ; and, though supplied with the most deadly 
virulence, is yet never known to bite. 

1774 Goldsmith, Hist, of the earth (1790), 7 : 142 (in Jodrell, 1820). 

Tennent givs an interesting account of the geckoes of Ceylon : 

The most familiar and attractive of the lizard class are the Geckoes, 
that frequent the sitting-rooms, and being furnished with pads to each 
toe, they are enabled to ascend perpendicular walls and adhere to glass 
and ceilings. Being nocturnal in their habits, the pupil of the eye, 
instead of being circular as in the diurnal species, is linear and vertical 
like that of the cat. As soon as evening arrives, the geckoes are to be 
seen in every house in keen and crafty pursuit of their prey ; emerging 
from the chinks and recesses where they conceal themselves during the 
day, to search for insects that then retire to settle for the night. In a 
boudoir where the ladies of my family spent their evenings, one of 
these familiar and amusing little creatures had its hiding-place behind 
a gilt picture frame. Punctually as the candles were lighted, it made 
its appearance on the wall to be fed with its accustomed crumbs ; and 



142 C. P. G. Scott, [1896. 

if neglected, it reiterated it[s] sharp, quick call of chic, chic, chit, till 
attended to. . . . 1861 Tennent, Sketches o/nat. hist, of Ceylon, p. 281-2. 
We saw several sorts of lizards, of which the only dangerous one was 
that called by the Egyptians Gecko. 

1792 Heeon, tr. Niebuhr, Travels through Arabia 
and other countries in the East, 2: 332. 

[That in the Arabic of Egypt this lizard is called Gecko is 
asserted only by Heron, not by Niebuhr ; and is apparently an 
error due to a misunderstanding of Forskal, Descript. Anima- 
lium, 1775, p. 13. Ed.] 

Oekko, n. A species of salamander. [With quot. from Goldsmith 

1774, above.] 1820 Jodrell, Philology on (sic) the English language. 

[Marked with a star, as a new entry. I find no 

earlier dictionary entry.] 

The Gecko occasionally utters a curious cry, which has been compared 

to that peculiar clucking sound employed by riders to stimulate their 

horses, and in some species the cry is very distinct, and said to 

resemble the word "Geck-o," the last syllable being given smartly and 

sharply. On account of this cry, the Geckos are variously called 

Spitters, Postilions and Glaquers. 

18 . . Wood, New illustrated not. hist., p. 504. 
(See also Riverside nat. hist. (1885), 3 1406.) 

This was one of those little house lizards called geckos, which have 
pellets at the end of their toes. They are not repulsive brutes like 
the garden lizard, and I am always on good terms with them. They 
have full liberty to make use of my house, for which they seem grate- 
ful, and say chuck, chuck, chuck. 

1883 Tribes on my frontier, p. 38. (Y. p. 280.) 

The form chacco apparently arose from some Indian reflection 
of the Malayan name, or from a confusion with the other name 
chichak (compare Sundanese chakchak). 

Chaccos, as Cuckoos, receive their Names from the Noise they make. 
They are much like Lizards but larger. 

1711 Locktee, An account of the trade in India, p. 84. (Y. p. 280.) 

Jacco, found but once, and then speld jackoa, appears to be 
an other phase of chacco. 

They have one dangerous little Animal called a Jackoa, in shape 
almost like a Lizard. It is very malicious . . . and wherever the Liquor 
lights on an Animal Body, it presently cankers the Flesh. 

1727 A. Hamilton, A new account of 
the East Indies, 2 -.131. (Y. p. 280.) 

Gingham, a cotton fabric woven of dyed yarn, in stripes, 
checks, and other figures. 



Vol. xvii.] The Malayan Words in English. 143 

The origin of this word has been much debated, and has 
remaind undetermind. It has been derived from Guingamp, a 
town in France where ginghams were alleged to be made ; from 
an unidentified North Indian gingham ; from a Tamil word, 
kindan • and from a Javanese word ginggang, to which no ety- 
mologic sense, or a wrong one, has been assigned. It has even 
been sought in Egypt ; and in the air. 

The word is Malayan ; it is found in Malay, Achinese, Lam- 
pong, Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, Macassar, in the precise 
sense of 'gingham.' Its etymologic meaning is 'striped.' It is 
probably original in Javanese. 

The European forms ar English gingham, ghingharn, French 
guingan (1770), guingamp, Sp. guinga, guingon, Port, guingao 
(1602), It. gingano (c. 1567), ghingano (18 . .),guingano (1796), 
also gingamo (from Eng.), Dutch gingarn (from Eng.), gingas, 
gingang, ginggang, Ger. Dan. Sw. gingang. 

It is in Malay «xi> ginggang, Achinese ginggang, Lam- 
pong ginggang, Javanese ginggang, Sundanese ginggang, Bali- 
nese yenggany, Dayak ginggang, genggang, Macassar ginggang, 
a striped or checkerd cotton fabric known to Europeans in the 
east as 'gingham.' As an adjectiv, the word means, both in Malay 
and in Javanese, where it seems to be original, 'striped.' The 
full expression is kain ginggang, 'striped cloth' (Grashuis). 

The Tamil "kindan, a kind of coarse cotton cloth striped or 
checquered " (quoted in Yule) can not be the source of the Euro- 
pean forms, nor, I think, of the Malayan forms. It must be an 
independent word, or a perversion of the Malayan term. 

KXjiS'ginggang, soort van stof, gingang. 1863 Pijnappel, p. 195. 

i\iS^g i n g g a n g , geruit hessen- of kielengoed. Op R[iouw] t j e 1 e 

doch ginggang wordt 00k verstaan. (Jav. id.) 

.. .. 1869 Klinkert, p. 212. 

«£*j'ginggang, nom d'une sorte d'etoffe, du guingamp. (Jav. et 

Sund. . . . ginggang. Mak. . . . ginggang.) 1875 Favre, i : 424. 

Gingas, gingan, o. eene oostersche stof, kain ginggang. 

.. .. 1878 Roorda van Eysinga, ed. Grashuis, p. 259. 

iXjiJr'ginggang, zekere gestreepte stoffe, ginggang. 

'— 1884 Wall and Tuuk, 3:18. 

Ginggang, plang, rayee, striped. 

1882 Bikkehs, Malay, Achinese, Fr. and Eng. vocab., p. 33. 

Ginggang, gestreept, b. n. (als stoff en). 1884 Badings, p. 264. 

«Xi5^ginggang, e. s. v. gestreepte stof, geruit of gestreept kielen- 
goed,=tjele. 1893 Klinkert, p. 579. 

tjele, e. s. v. geruit lijnwaad,= ginggang. 

1893 Klinkert, p. 281. 
Ginggang, geestreept, geruit, gestreepte stof. 1895 Mayer, p. 106. 



144 C. P. Q. Scott. [1896. 

The forms outside of Malay ar enterd as follows : 

ginggang, geruit goed. 

1889 Langen, Woordenboek der Atjehsche taal, p. 232. 
Qinggang, geruit goed. 1891 Helfbich, Lampongsch-H. w'lijst, p. 18. 
Ginggang, A. gestreept. 1835 Booed a van Eysinga, Jav. etc., p. 107. 
. . . [ginggang] N. K. s'ecarter ; chanceler. (aussi, nom d'une sorte de 
toile), guingamp. 1870 Favee, Diet, javanais-frangais, p. 486. 

"Qinggang, a sort of striped or checquered East Indian lijnwand." 

1876 Jansz, Jav. diet. (Tr. in Y.) 
Ginggang, Gingham, a variety of coloured cloth with pattern in 
stripes. 1862 Rigg, Diet, of the Sunda lang., p. 131. 

Ginggang ben. van eene kainstof. 

1876 B. VAN Eck, Balineesch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 190. 

Genggang, i. q. ginggang. [But ginggang has been accidentally 

omitted.] 1859 Hardeland, Dajachseh-deutsches wbrterbuch, p. 132. 

. . . ginggang, soort van gestreept, of 00k wel geruit Oost-Indisch 

lijnwaad, ginggang. Mai. en Jav. idem. 

1859 Matthes, Makassaarsch-Hollandsch woordenboek, p. 68. 

In the Spanish of the Philippine Islands it is guingon. 

Guingon (el). — Espece d'etoffe de coton, ordinairement bleue. 

1882 BUTMENTEITT, p. 38. 

European mentions of gingham begin about the middle of the 
sixteenth century. Italian, Portuguese and Dutch instances ar 
given by Yule. The English use begins with the seventeenth 
century. 

Captain Cock is of opinion that the ginghams both white and browne, 
which yow sent will prove a good commodity in the Kinge of Shashma- 
his cuntry, who is a Kinge of certaine of the most westermost ilandes 
of Japon . . . and hath conquered the islandes called the Leques. 

1615 Letter app. to Cock's Diary, 2 :272. (Y.) 
The trade of Fort St. David's consists in longcloths of different col- 
ours, sallamporees, morees, dimities, ginghams, and saccotoons. 

1781 Careaccioli, Life of Olive, i : 5. (Y.) 

Even the gingham waistcoats, which striped or plain have so long 

stood their ground, must, I hear, ultimately give way to the stronger 

kerseymere. 1793 Hugh Boyd, Indian Observer, 77. (Y.) 

Gingham. A kind of striped cotton cloth. 

1828 Webster, Amer. diet, of the Eng. lang. 

Such is the simple form in which the word appears, for the first 
time, in an English dictionary ; but now ginghams of all sorts 
constitute a part of the happiness of millions of English and 
American homes. Let me make the ginghams of a nation, and I 
care not who writes its songs. 

[For the rest of this article, see volume xviii.]