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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuttaka, a Collection of Discourses of Buddha. — By Justin Hartley Mooee, A.M., Columbia University, New York. In working upon a translation of the Ita-vuttaka, sometimes called the Logia-book of Buddha, it occurred to me that a study of the meters of the metrical portions might perhaps yield some- thing of value as regards both the age of the work and the authenticity of some of its doubtful passages. In this hope I was largely disappointed. But although no satisfactory clue as to the date of the work has been given by this metrical analysis, yet it is possible that further similar examination of other books of the Buddhist canon may permit us to assign to each its proper relative date. More definite and satisfactory results, however, were obtained, when it came to making a threefold comparison of the Pali meters with those of the Veda, the epics, and the later classi- cal forms. For comparison with the Vedic meters, I have made use of Arnold, Vedic Metre, Cambridge, 1905, and have employed such of his terminology as was needed; for the San- skrit meters I have relied on Hopkins' Great Epic of India, N. Y.,. 1901, pp. 191-362; and for Pali upon the articles of Oldenberg and Simon mentioned below. The text of the Ita-vuttaka which I have used is that of Windisch, published by the Pali Text Society of London in 1890, and in comparison with this I have collated the King of Siam's edition of the work in Siamese characters. The Iti- vuttaka is composed of one hundred and twelve sections, each of which consists of a poetical discourse or saying by Buddha (these poetical passages contain from four to thirty verses) and of a prose introduction. Three meters are used, sloka, tristubh, and jagatl. Of these I shall examine more particularly the first, the sloka, which is the most frequent and most important. The large Arabic num- bers used in citing various lines of the work refer to the various sections, and the small letters, a, b, c, etc., to the verses of these sections. Sloka. — There are in Pali, as in Sanskrit, two kinds of sloka- stanza: first, the sloka proper or distich, of four padas (the 318 .7. H. Moore, [1907. pada being octosyllabic), and second, the much less common mahapankti or tristich of six padas. As the same laws of caesura and rhythm apply to each, I include the two varieties in the metrical tables below. Feet. — Every distich stanza has a well-marked division or caesura at the end of the second pada, so that the stanza falls naturally into two halves. Each pada may be divided into two feet of four syllables each. As no metrical difference between the two halves of the stanza exists, there are really not eight different feet, but four. With regard to the six-line sloka, or mahapankti, the stanza is divided into three equal parts, mutually independent as to rhythm. The opening feet of the first, third and fifth padas may be called first feet. Syntactical union. — Although there be this metrical isolation of successive verse-couplets, there is very frequently a syntacti- cal union of each pada with the one following. In fact, we occasionally find two stanzas forming a single sentence. Caesura. — The cadence of the sloka naturally depends largely on the sense. It is invariable in the Iti-vuttaka that there be a strong caesura at the end of the second pada, and also caesuras, somewhat weaker, at the close of the first and third padas, but still strong enough to prevent the lines being run together. It is found, also, that when the second foot is of the form — there is usually a caesui-a within the pada itself, after the fifth syllable. Out of twenty-four instances there are but two excep- tions (51 i, 77 a). Hopkins notes the same rule in epic Sanskrit (op. cit., p. 221). Run-on verses. — In Sanskrit one pada is somtimes merged with the following in such a manner that the two are insepara- ble at the end of a line. This is usually the case when a long list of objects is cited, as noted by Hopkins, page 196, but in the Iti-vuttaka such a running together of lines never occurs. Hiatus and Rhyme. — Hiatus is found everywhere. This is partly due to the absence of the application of such rules of sandhi as are carried through in Sanskrit; it is partly owing to the structure of the Pali language, which is characterized by an avoidance of final consonants. Rhyme, which according to Hopkins (p. 200) is not uncommon in epic Sanskrit, is non- existent in the Iti-vuttaka. Alliteration is rare and is probably largely unconscious and accidental. A marked alliterative Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuttaka. 319 effect is found in § 90, an interesting jingle, where in the course of sixteen lines the word agga is used eleven times, with more than one meaning. At this particular point in our investigation of the sloka, before going into the varieties of feet, I wish to acknowledge in a more especial way my indebtedness to two articles in ZDMG., the first by Oldenberg, vol. 35, pp. 181-188, entitled Bemerkungen zur Theorie des Sloka, and the other by Simon, vol. 44, pp. 83-97, entitled Der Sloka in Pali. While both papers are very suggestive, the latter was especially valuable for my purpose, based as it is upon a quantitative analysis of the 725 verses of the Dhammapada, 2622 from the Thera-Theri- gatha, and '2430 chosen from the Jatakas. In analyzing the meters of the Iti-vuttaka I have followed Simon's method in all respects, except that I have treated the eighth syllable of each line as anceps, since Simon's tables themselves show an equal frequency of long and short syllables, and since this eighth has no effect on the character of the rhythm. Odd Padas. I append herewith an analytical table of the first and second feet of the odd padas ; in this table hypermetric feet are not included, but will be treated separately. The even padas will be tabulated and described later. Forms of First and Second Feet, or varieties of Odd Padas. +3 O o ■a 1st foot, a Or i i 3 r 3i 3 3 1 3i 3 3 3i •3 1 31 1 3 3i 3 1 3 .__ 4 3i 3 1 1 — — u — — v — — 43 75 59 1 ■ 3 12 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 2 1 1 85) 92 ]■ 245 68) o - o - o o o — — — 14 17 37 6 7 1 2 3 e 1 30) 17 J- 89 43) 1 1 1 1 I I e C 1 1 e e c 33 2 18 ! 1 25 ! 1 2 3 3 1 39) 22 [ 90 29) o o o o — o u - o o 33 13 22 3 1 1 3 395 1 1 1 1 1 2 84) 14 J- 74 26) -u u - - o o %j o u — U V u o ____ -- 7 - 3 1 6 1 2 2 41 27 7 15 4 509 320 J. H. Moore, [1907. Some little explanation is necessary before making comment on this table. Two consonants, as well as a niggahlta (Skt. anusvara) followed by a consonant, make a syllable heavy (Henry, Grammaire Palie, p. 3) o y r long by position. Wher- ever, in lines which at first glance appear hypermetric, a word containing an anaptyctic or svarabhaktic vowel occurs, this vowel is naturally disregarded in the analysis, and the line is treated as regular, e. g. ariya is analysed as a trochee. No catalectic lines occur, and hypercatalectic lines will be found treated in another section of this paper. An examination of the foregoing table of different combina- tions of syllables in the odd padas reveals many things of inter- est. There are sixteen possible combinations of the four sylla- bles of the first foot, and eight of the second foot. Although there be this large number of possible combinations, it will, nevertheless, be seen that there is a marked preference for cer- tain particular combinations of long and short syllables. Among the more marked of these peculiarities may be cited the follow- ing : — (a) If the fourth syllable is short, the fifth must usually be short also. In the Iti-v. and Jataka a short fifth is 16 times as common as a long, in the Thera-theri-gatha, 23 times, and in the Dhammapada, 40 times as common. (b) A succession of four iambs is very rare, there being no instances in Dhp., 3 in Iti-v., 4 in Thera-Th., and 6 in Jat. (c) Even three iambs are uncommon in proportion to the num- ber of lines, since there is only about 3$ of such succession in the, Iti-v., and only 4$ in the other works. (d) A succession of four trochees is very rare, there being none in Dhp. or Thera-Th., one in Iti-v., and two in Jat. A succession of three trochees is almost equally uncommon ; the Iti-v. and Thera-Th. have each one instance; the Dhp. has none; the Jat. eight. (e) It appears from the table, furthermore, that if the sixth and seventh syllables of a verse are either both long or both short, the fifth syllable is then usually of a different quantity. In this respect the four works stand in a regular sequence as regards the proportionate frequency of a different quantity in the fifth foot. In the Iti-v. the fifth syllable as a different quan- tity from the sixth and seventh, whether both of those syllables be long or whether they be short, is nine times as frequent ; in Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuttaka. 321 the other works the proportions are respectively Dhp. 8-1, Thera-Th. 7-1, Jat. 6-1. The Iti-v., therefore, has the strongest proneness thus to differentiate the fifth syllable, the Jfitaka the weakest. Bare Vipulas. — As to the vipulas, or second feet, we may first dismiss briefly the least common ones of the odd padas, viz., the third pseon or ionic a minore, w o - y , the second paeon or diiambus, u — <j y , and the ionic a maiore or third epitrite, — o y . In Sanskrit, for example, the first of these occurs sporadically in all parts of the Mahabharata, but is not found in the Ramayana. The same foot forms about 2$ of the second feet in the Iti-vuttaka. The next close u - <_. u does not often occur in the epic sloka, and in Pali it is very rare. The use of this vipula more than anything else separates and distin- guishes Pali meter from the anustubh of the Veda, and the meter of the later Rig-Veda, which Arnold calls the epic anustubh. In anustubh it is the most common foot, forming the ending of the first and second padas indifferently. Its use as a close to the first (or third) pada sinks in epic anustubh to one-half the frequency, and in Pali and epic Sanskrit its employment is sporadic. With reference to the next vipula, — o y , we find that in the Pali sloka it has an average occur- rence of one-half of a percent., about the same frequency in anustubh, is sporadic in the epic sloka, but in epic anustubh it forms 8$ of the second feet. The most common vipula. The most frequently used second foot in Pali is u - - y . It forms in the Iti-v., Dhp. and Thera-Th. about 80$,- in the Jat. about 70$ of the endings of the first pada. In the epic Sanskrit, it is also the prevalent ending, but in anustubh has but a frequency of one per cent. In all four Pali works this vipula is used oftenest with the first group of openings, or first feet, as shown in the table. The percentages of the use of this particular vipula with the first group are Iti-v. 40$, Dhp. 41$, Thera-Th. 40$, Jat. 36$. Other vipulas. — The next popular vipula is the form u, which most commonly follows a third epitrite u -, in the first foot. It is slightly more than half as common as u — y after this opening, in the Iti-v., and slightly less than half as common in Thera-Th. and Jat., but in the Dhp. only one-fifth as common. This vipula forms less than one per cent, of the 322 J. H. Moore, [1907. second feet in anustubh, about five per cent, in epic anustubh, but in epic sloka is fairly frequent. As to the vipula - <j o y , it is usually preceded by a diiambic or third epitritic opening u - <j - . The third epitrite is the more common. Opening feet. — With regard next to the first feet of the odd padas, there exists much greater freedom than in the second feet. As said before, there are sixteen variations, and it is noteworthy that at least one example of each is found in the comparatively small compass of the Iti-v. The foot u u <j u does not occur at all in the other works, and the varieties — u <j o and v u o - are not in the Dhp. The most common group of first feet in all four works is the first group, o - , - u , . Insignificant are differences in the four works as to which one of these is the favorite. Thus in Iti-v. and Thera-Th. the second epitrite, - u , is of slightly greater frequency, while in Dhp. and J&t. the third epitrite, " — , is a little in excess. The second group of opening feet, o - o - , oo — , <_> , differs from the former group in having the initial syllable short, and we notice that this difference has a marked effect on the fre- quency of the opening, as is shown by the figures in the table. This preference for a long first syllable is much stronger in Iti-v. than in the other three works. An interesting contrast m'ay be made here between the Pali sloka and the Vedic anustubh. In the latter the first syllable is anceps, whereas in Pali, on exam- ining all the sixteen varieties of openings, we find that a long first syllable is about twice as common as a short. The next two groups of opening feet agree in having a short fourth syllable, and it has already been said that when such is the case, the fifth is usually short also. Lanman, Sanskrit Header, p. 300, states that in the Sanskrit epic sloka, the syllables 2, 3 and 4 in odd padas may not have the form of an anapaest, u <j -, or a tribrach, w o o. In general this is true also in Pali, but it is not invariable, since there are 11 examples of o w y for the second, third and fourth syllables in the Iti-v., 13 in Dhp, 73 in Thera-Th., and 47 in Jat. Evex Padas. — Turning now from the odd to the even padas, we at once notice a remarkable difference in the character of the second foot, since it is here almost invariably of the form u-o y . In the Iti-v. among 519 feet, only eight have not this Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuttaka. 323 diiarabic close ; these eight verses are 15b, 18d, 20d, 20f, 73b, 75r, 85d, 105b. The number of hypermetric even padas is smaller than in odd padas, since there are 12 hypermetric verses in even padas in Iti-v. as compared with 24 in odd padas. These hypermetric lines will be treated later. The opening foot of the even padas is variable, although not so greatly as the opening foot of the odd padas. I subjoin an analysis of the varieties of third foot in the Iti-v. Table of third feet, or openings of even padas. Group I. — \J - - 110) - 100 v 210 u KJKJ - -- 61, - 23 \ 84 Group II. k, 51 I — u- w 53 1 v, 38 f 157 Kj KJ - v 15 J 294 Group III. - - u u 40 1 KJ — KJ KJ 10 y 59 I KJ KJKJKJ J ■ Kj \J KJ 9 j Group TV. •u- 41 ::: o \ 9 ,o- 1 j A comparison of this table with the similar one in Simon's analysis of the other three Pali works (p. 93), shows that the first group, in which all four feet agree in having a long third and fourth syllable, contains more than one-half the number of third feet in the Pali sloka. The first syllable is more than twice as often long as short. The second syllable is anceps, with a slight predominance of longs, the longs being propor- tionately more common in the Iti-v. than in the other three works. The second group differs from the first in having the last syllable short. There is a preference again here for a long first syllable ; the second is anceps, the long quantity being more numerous. When the third and fourth syllables are short, as in group three, the second syllable is then long ; there are but thirty- three exceptions to this rule in all of the four Pali works com- bined, a total of 6422 lines. Certain special rules as regards even padas may be discovered from the above table, as for example the absence of a succession 324 J. H. Moore, [1807. of four iambs in the Iti-v. There are, however, three instances of this succession of syllables in the Dhp. ; twelve in the Thera-Th. ; and twenty-one in the Jat. Three iambs in succes- sion are also rather uncommon ; of this there are nine instances in the Iti-v., twelve in the Dhp., forty-three in the Thera-Th., and seventy-one in the Jat. In the epic sloka (Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, page 300) sylla- bles 2, 3 and 4 of even padas cannot form a tribrach, u u u, an anapaest, u « -, or amphimacer, — o — . Such is not the case in Pali, since the Iti-v. has nine examples of the tribrach, the Dhp. four, Thera-Th. eleven, and Jat. nine ; of the anapaest there are five examples in Iti-v., five in Dhp., fourteen in Thera-Th., and seventeen in Jat. ; of the amphimacer there are four in Iti-v., ten in Dhp., forty-one in Thera-Th., and seventy- five in Jat. ■Hy perimetric Lines. — A number of the sloka lines in the Iti-v. are hypermetric. In itself this fact is not surprising, and the same phenomenon is found in Sanskrit. A good treat- ment of hypermetric verses in Sanskrit is found in Hopkins, o. c, pp. 252-261. None of the padas of the Iti-v. are cata- lectic, all of the hypermetric verses being, therefore, hypercata- lectic. While there is usually one extra syllable in lines of this kind, we find four sloka lines of ten and one of eleven sylla- bles. As stated before, even padas are less often hypermetric than odd padas ; of the former there are thirteen (18f, 281, 29 j, 291, 32f, 42h, 64h, 70h, 75b, 77f, 81f, 99d, 1121) and out of these thirteen, one line is found three times (32f, 64h, 70h) ; of the latter, the odd padas, there are twenty-four hypermetric lines (16c, 20i, 21i, 29i, 37a, 37g, 61i, 70e, 75e, 75m, 75o, 76y, 76a', 81a, 85a, 91a, 91c, 93k, 95i, 99k, 103i, 103s, 106i, lllg ; of these 20i and 21i are the same). There is one instance (27k) in a passage, probably an interpolation, of a hypermetric pada within a tristubh-jagati stanza. As stated above, a line is not treated as hypermetric where the extra syllable is due to an epenthetic vowel. For example, such a line as niccam araddhaviriyehi (78k) is scanned - o uuo-u I have not counted line 81a yassa sakkariyamanassa as hypermetric, since the second word is most likely a passive Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuitaka. 325 ppl. of sakkaroti, Sanskrit sat kr, where the vowel a in Pali is epenthetic. Similar vowels occur in the Avesta. Another derivative of kr is found in 103s, where the extra syllable is an epenthetic vowel. A few lines are hypermetric, as Windisch has indicated in his introduction, p. viii, because the designation for some particular virtue, perhaps, a word of two or more syllables, is contrasted with the term for the corresponding vice, of three or more syllables. Seven lines (29i, 18f, 29j, 32f, 64h, 70h, 103i) are hypermetric from this cause. Thus the line adayhamanetoa cetasa (29j) "with uninflamed mind," refers back to the line dayhamanena cetasa (28 j) "with inflamed mind," in the preceding section. The fact that a line is hypermetric does not necessarily impugn the genuineness of the line. We may take as examples of this the following padas — dukkham viharati tddiso (28 1) sukkham viharati tddiso (29 1) sukhumaditthivipassakam (81f) . In each of these the regular cadence o - y> o is present, the first foot having an extra syllable ; the sense of the passage in each case is clear, and the various. Mss. are practically identical in the readings of each. A case where a variant reading gives a normal meter is found in 106i ucchadanena nhapanena. This line would have the same sense ("by anointing and by bathing ") were we to follow the reading of the Ms. M, namely ucchadanena nhanena. Elision. — Two hypermetric lines have hiatus, and conse- quently the extra syllable may be avoided by supposing elision to have taken place ; these lines are appassuto apunnakaro (We) vimutto upadhisankhaye (112 1) Leaving aside now the above lines in which the extra syllable may be accounted for by anacrusis, elision, incorrect reading, or especially through contrast of one word in the hypermetric 326 J. II Moore, 11907. line with a word one syllable shorter in another stanza, we have to face the fact that there exist some hypermetric lines for which no explanation can be given. Such for example are the odd padas 20i, 27k, 37a, 37g, 61i, 75e, m, o, 76a', 81a, 85a, 91a, 93k, 95i, 99k, lllg, and the even padas 42h, 77f, 99d. Lines of ten syllables are 16c, 91c, both of which are odd padas ; one curious line of eleven syllables, an even pada, occurs at 75b, namely : na kapaniddhike na vanibbake. Tristubh and Jagati. — Of the 112 sections of the Iti- vuttaka mentioned in the openifig of this paper, 98 were in sloka verse. The remaining fourteen are with three exceptions either in tristubh or jagati. The three exceptions are probably later interpolations or corruptions of the text, and are written in a mixture of sloka, tristubh and jagati. These are touched upon below. A pleasing variety is sometimes produced in tristubh stanzas by the occasional introduction of a jagati verse. This occurs in 38f, 46d, 69c, 69e and 841, while a sporadic tristubh appears occasionally within a jagati stanza, as in 87c and 98c. Alternation of the two meters is found in one pas- sage, 47i-h, the first and third lines being in tristubh and the second and fourth in jagati. In the poetical portion of § 100 we find the first and fourth verses in jagati and the two inter- vening verses in tristubh. A metrical examination of 27i-p shows' that there is a rhyth- mical irregularity in the passage, as well as textual corruption, as indicated by faulty grammar. The stanza in question has seven lines, composed respectively in tristubh, jagati, hyper- metric sloka, jagati, tristubh, jagati, tristubh. As will be seen from the notes on this passage in my forthcoming transla- tion of the Iti-vuttaka, several lines are of very questionable gen- uineness, and for that reason none is included in the following statistics. Tristubh. — The commonest tristubh line in epic Sanskrit, as pointed out by Hopkins, p. 275, has the form y - y - y v y - u — y . There are twenty-nine lines of this kind in the Iti-v. The first and last syllables are anceps. No example of a long third syllable is found ; only two lines have a short fifth and only three a long seventh. The characteristic scheme of Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-mittaJea* U — u — — \J y) the tristubh verse in the Iti-v. is, therefore, u - <_>. The caesura is after the fourth or fifth syllables, slightly oftener after the former. Certain deviations from this norm occur, such as 38g of the form u — u — u ■ica (' — u — — u w u u 8-th u — — v yj u <_> OOO v/ — V U — KJ \j — U — — 34h " " " --u- o-- . The last of these lines is remarkable for its succession of six long syllables. In this particular case it is to be noted, however, that only the best Ms., M, reads * in the third and sixth syllables ; all the other Mss. have 1. Grammatically the long vowel is required. The two lines, 38h and 109b — tarn ve munim antimadehadharim yogakkhemam ayati patthayano, are irregular only in having the fourth syllable short. It is possible in Pali, when the caesura comes after a short syllable as in these two lines, for the syllable in question to receive metrical lengthening. Only one tristubh is hypercatalectic paripunnasekham apahanadhammam (46a) in which instance the first syllable may be taken as anacrusis, as the line is normal in other regards, although it may be noted that the second part has the rare form u u « - . The line yo cm satimd nipako jhayl (34g) may perhaps be treated best as a catalectic tristubh, with the irregular opening of a first paeon, - u u <j . Jagatl. — Turning next to the jagatij or line of twelve sylla- bles, we find that here, too, the Iti-v. follows a definite metrical scheme, which is represented '_' — v — — Kj \j — u — yj %r . Of this type there are twenty-nine. The third and fifth sylla- bles might be represented as common, but there is found a very strong preference for a short third and a long fifth. Twelve lines are different from this norm, or are hypermetric. Caesura. — The caesura in the jagatl as in the tristubh falls either after the fourth or fifth syllable, but the jagatl differs vol. xxviii. 22 328 J. II. Moore, [1907. from the tristubh in having a preference rather for the caesura to fall after the fifth syllable. It is possible also that in jagatl verse, as mentioned before in treating of the tristubh, a short syllable may receive metrical lengthening if followed by the caesura, as for example in the line tayo pana akusale nirdkare (87b). Other instances of a short syllable before a caesura, where the norm requires a long one, are found in lines 44c, 47e and 100a. Two hypercatalectic jagatis occur, of which the first, anupddisesd pana sampardyikd (44e), may be treated as a normal jagatl with anacrusis. The other line, however, nibbdnadhdtu anissitena tddind (44b), even though it has the regular opening and close of a jagatl' contains in the middle portion a superfluous long syllable. There is no hint of a Ms. corruption, and we have no help from variant readings. Cf. Hopkins, p. 287 and p. 468. Irregular jagatis. — Certain lines in jagatl passages are neither normal nor hypercatalectic, as for example, tesarn so attho paramo visvjjhati (98g) dtdpl bhikkhu nipako jhanaldbhi (47j). In both of these cases also we have no assistance from variant readings, and cannot, therefore, allege Ms. corruption as an explanation of the metrical difficulty. Textual corruption. — There do exist, however, two or three stanzas in the Iti-v. in which Ms. corruption is apparent. In these few cases, not only is one line irregular, but a longer suc- cession of bizarre metrical effects is found. . In 47f and g, for example, we find samdhito mudito vippasanno ca kdlena so sammd dhammarn parivimamsamano, or substituting the quantities for the words, we have \_r — \r — \J \J — — v — — *-» \j — Kr V U ■ These lines are metrically hopeless, and there is no help to be obtained from variant readings. Still other passages offering Vol. xxviii.] Metrical Analysis of the Pali Iti-vuttaka. 329 metrical difficulty are 38j-o, and 69. The fifth line of the first of these passages, viz. sokdvatinnam janatam apetasoko or giving its quantities u — — [uojou— u might be emended so as to read tarn instead of janatam, by which emendation the line would become a regular tristubh. The justification of this 'emendation is strengthened, perhaps, by the occurrence of the same word janatam three lines previ- ous. If the emendation be allowed, then, the first two lines are in jagatl, the last four in tristubh. In the second of these two passages, viz. 69, a-h, a cor- ruption of the text is certain. yassa rtigo ca doso ca avijjd ca virdjitd so-mam samuddam sagaham sarakkhasam umibhayam duttaram -accatdri sangdtigo maccujaho nirupadhi pahdsi dukkham apunabbhavdya atthangato so na samanam -eti amohayi maccurdjan- ti brumtti. The first two lines are in sloka, the third is a regular jagatl, the fourth is a tristubh with the rare opening - u o - , the fifth line is a regular jagatl, the sixth is a tristubh with the uncom- mon middle foot o <j o — , the seventh again a tristubh, and the last one a tristubh of the very strange form o — <_> o — u u — y . Conclusion. — Pending a comparative study of the meters of the different Pali works much more far reaching than has yet been made, nothing can be said regarding the relative age of stanzas of the Iti-v. written in sloka, tristubh, or jagatl. All three of these meters are much more free than the corre- sponding rhythms in classical Sanskrit, as is to be expected. The sloka has changed in a marked degree from the Vedic type, yet it has at the same time distinct differences from the epic sloka. It is impossible to say whether the Pali sloka is a direct outcome of Vedic imitation, and it is likewise impossible to postulate any connection or rapport with the later stages of 330 J. H. Moore, Metrical Analysis, etc. [1907. Sanskrit metrical development, as it might well be true that certain metrical preferences, for example, a long first syllable, are due to the idiosyncrasies of the language. A more positive result of our analysis is the discovery that the eleven and twelve-syllable meters show less variety than the sloka. Each has in Pali a well-fixed form, with fully as much regularity of syllabic quantities as has epic Sanskrit (cf. Hop- kins, p. 273-320), if indeed there is not even more. But this statement must not be. applied to Pali in general until many other works have been analysed. The fact that the Iti-v. employs jagatl as often as tristubh might seem to point to a. late date, but whether this equal occurrence of tristubh and jagati is the result of chance or intention, no one can say.