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Hebrew PKSflDPT. D^'OH.— By Dr. Frank R. Blake, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

The Semitic numeral ' five ' had originally the form qatil, as 
is shown by the feminine forms, Assyrian hamilti, Ethiopic 
tSftVp ; frami \stiX. ' In Hebrew the masculine of this numeral is 
tJ'On according to the regular representation of the form qatil 
in that language, 2 but the feminine and plural, instead of hav- 
ing the regular forms nt^'On*. D'JJ'On* (cf. pyi ' clinging,' 
T1\)yi< &pyV- occur in the forms fWon. OHP'OD- 

These forms are usually explained like D* 70J - plural of ^0,3 
(<*gamal) 'camel,' rfrj^- feminine of ^jj/ (< * i agul) 
'round,' where instead of a long vowel in the open pretonic 
syllable, we have the original short vowel preserved with doub- 
ling of the following consonant. 3 

The only other case in which an original i in a pretonic open 
syllable seems to be treated in this way, is the form O'finj 

1 The third stem consonant of the numeral is S 3 (cf. Haupt, Sumerische 
Familien-Oesetze, Leipzig, 1879, p. 20, f. n. 3). Antedental s in Assyrian 
becomes I (cf. Delitzsch, Assyrische Oram., Berlin, 1889, p. 119). In 
Ethiopic, i regularly becomes 6 (cf. Dillmann-Bezold, Oram. d. dthiop. 
ischen Sprache, Leipzig, 1899, § 19). Arabic .... t ^ hamsu" is synco- 
pated from a more original qatil form, viz., hamisu' 1 , just as Assyrian 
kabtu ' heavy,' the original i of which is preserved in the feminine Tcab- 
ittu (cf. Delitzsch, op. eit., p. 90), and Hebrew £"1^13 [<*fc«tfp] construct 
of flH3 [<C*katip] 'shoulder' (cf. Haupt, Hebraica, i, 228, n. 1 ; Gesen- 
ius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Oram., Oxford, 1898, §84, p. 238; Lagarde, liber- 
sieht, Gottingen, 1889, p. 72 ; also my article So-called Intransitive 
Verbal forms in Semitic, Part I. Hebrew, JAOS., vol. 24, p, 200). In 
Syriac > *Vi» hammes the doubling is secondary ; a short vowel in an 
open pretonic syllable, which would otherwise become Shewa, is often 
preserved in this way in Aramaic, cf. Zimmern, Vergl. Oram. d. Stem. 
Sprachen, Berlin, 1898, p. 43 ; Barth, Nominalbildung, Leipzig, 1889, p. 
44,5. 

2 Cf. Gesenius-Kautzsch, op. cit., p. 240, g. 

3 Cf. Stade, Lehrbuch d. Hebr. Oram., Leipzig, 1879, pp. 149, 67 bot.; 
Konig, Lehrgebaude, Leipzig, 1895, II. 1, p. 208 Lagarde, Ubersicht, 
p. 80. 



118 F. R. Blake, [1905. 

'descending,' II Kgs. vi. 9, which is regarded as the plural of a 
verbal adjective of the form qatil, viz., rH"U*> no other form of 
which, however, is found. The form D*finJ itself, moreover, 
is probably due to corruption of the text.' 

The forms HEfipn and D't^Otl are more probably to be 
explained as due to the analogical influence of HtSfttf and Q*${J>, 
the corresponding forms of the numeral ' six,' where the doub- 
ling is organic, resulting from the assimilation of an original d, 
viz., sissd <.*sid$d, sisstm <*sidsim (cf. Ethiopic lUZlVP ; 
sSdesttt 'six,' Arabic jj*4>L»/ sddisu 11 'sixth'). 2 

Such manifestations of the principle of analogy are very com- 
mon in numerals which stand consecutively in the regular 
numerical order. 3 The Indo-European words for 'seven' and 
' eight,' septm and okto, appear in Attic Greek as lura and oktw. 
In the Heraclean dialect, however, ' eight ' is oktw, the rough 
breathing being due to the influence of hrra. 1 In the Elian dia- 
lect the k of okto) has become ir, viz. , oWo), under the influence of 
the ir in hrra. 1 In Provencal, the mediaeval Romance dialect of 
the south of France, the name of the eighth month occurs not 
only as octobre, but also in the form octembre, following the 
analogy of the seventh month septembre." In High German, elf 
' eleven ' is modified from more original einlif after the anal- 
ogy of the following numeral zwelif, zwelf Numerous other 
instances might be cited in the domain of Indo-European speech. 

1 It should probably be amended to Q*j$3fT3 'hidden,' cf. Stade and 

Schwally, Critical Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Booh of Kings, p. 
205, 1. 38, in SBOT., edited by Professor Haupt. 

2 The second S is Si. Cf. Haupt, Sumerische Familien-Gesetze, loc. cit. 
In Syriac A-t< seth <^sitt <sidt ; in Arabic ^kmi sittw <^sidthu", with 
reciprocal assimilation of the d and th. 

3 Cf. Osthoff u. Brugmann, Morphologische Untersuchungen, Leipzig, 
1878, Th. 1, pp. 92-132. 

4 Cf. op. cit., p. 96. 

5 Cf. Meister, Die griechischen Dialekte, Gottingen, 1882, Bd. 2, p. 56. 

6 Cf. Korting, Lateinisch-romanisches Worterbuch, Paderborn, 1891, p'. 
525, no. 5714. The statement in Osthoff u. Brugmann, op. cit., p. 92, 
that this form is found in Old French, based on Diez, Etymologisches 
Worterbuch d. Romanischen Sprachen (cf. 5 Ausg., Bonn, 1887, Vorr., 
p. xix, top), is incorrect. 

7 Cf. Osthoff u. Brugmann, op. cit., p. 93. 



Hebrew TW£>T\, &WW- 119 

In Semitic itself there are similar analogical modifications in 
the Assyrian numerals. The three consonants of the numeral 
' six ' were in parent Semitic S-d-S, both s's being s 3 , as is shown by 
Hebrew £>£' (<.*sids), Arabic (j^L* sddisu 11 'sixth,' Ethiopic 
Jl.G'ft'P : sedSstH ' six '. In Assyrian, where all Ps appear as s, 
we should expect for ' six ' a word with initial s, but the equation 
VI=su-du- 1 shows that this numeral began with s, doubtless on 
account of dissimilation from the final consonant s : just as we 
have in Arabic (j**-»-«i samsu' 1 ' sun ' for *samsu n , both sibilants 
being originally s 3 , as is shown by Hebrew tffDtff • Syriac ) » '^ | >i 
simsd ; and in Ethiopic Wftfl'P ! salastti, ' three ' for *salastil, 
where both sibilants are originally «,, as is shown by Hebrew 
ItflW > Syriac ^^ teldth, Arabic \-J)k5 thaldthu".' 2 

This initial s of the Assyrian numeral ' six ' seems to have 
influenced both the following numerals ' seven ' and ' eight,' so 
that we have seba instead of seba, and samdnu instead of 
samdnu. 3 

In a similar way the forms nt^Dn and D'^PtT are to be 
explained as analogical modifications of the original forms, due 
to the influence of the following numeral &$ • The endings of 
the two numerals being identical in the masculine absolute and 
feminine construct, viz. : 

Masc. abs. {P'Ofl— #B> . 

" T 

Pern, const. TW12T}—TWp < 

it was quite natural for the other forms of ' five ' to follow the 
analogy of the corresponding forms of 'six,' the feminine abso- 
lute HJJ'On* and the plural 0*^011* becoming respectively 
n^'On and O't^'On after the pattern of 7WW and O'ttftJ' • 

t • ~: • • -: t * 

1 Cf. Delitzsch, Assyrisehe Oram., p. 204 ; Eng. ed., p. 206; Schrader, 
Die Assyrisch-babylonisclien Keilinschriften, ZDMGr. 26, p, 237. 
s Cf . Haupt, Sumerische Familien-Gesetze, loc. cit. 
3 Cf. Delitzsch, op. cit., loc. cit.