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I. M. Casanowicz 

United States National Museum 

An amulet for the protection of Daniel, son of Berakah, 
against evil spirits, sickness, the evil eye and magic. Manu- 
script written on vellum, measuring 14*^ by 6y 2 inches. From 
Tunis, North Africa. The amulet is a sort of palimpsest, written 
upon the erasures of what was likewise an amulet, to judge 
from the traces of the script and figures still discernible. But 
the present text also seems subsequently to have been used by, 
or intended for, another person, as the name of the present 
client and a few other words are written in a different hand 
from the rest of the writing on erased places. The larger part 
of the manuscript is fitted out with various devices and figures, 
scriptural passages and mystical names ; the invocation or con- 
juration proper, written in smaller script than the rest, occupies 
a comparatively small space at the bottom. 

On top ^JJODl nJMDl nJD for which see JAOS 36. 158. 
Underneath in the center, a square inscribed with JTiTN and PI1JT» 
each written in the regular and reversed order. On the sides 
of the square are four of the 72 three-lettered names of God, 
derived from Ex. 14. 19-21 (ib. p. 155). To the right of the 
square, 'Thou shalt not suffer a sorceress to live' (Ex. 22. 18) 
in six permutations; to the left, 22 (corresponding to the 
number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet?) three-lettered mysti- 
cal names, followed by Gen. 49. 18, 'I wait for thy help, O 
JHVH,' and the initials of the doxology, 'Blessed be the name 
of his glorious Kingdom for ever. ' 

The second division is marked off on each of the four corners 
by the words D'MIH D*DflDfl DriOfl DDpJN, for which see 
JAOS 36. 158. In the center, Psalm 67, written in form of the 
seven-branched candlestick (menorah), with the divine names 

* For a general survey of the collection of Jewish amulets in the National 
Museum see JAOS 36. 154 ff. 

44 7. M. Casanowicz 

H£>» ffiiT. flTlM. andMTN. each preceded by *?8, on the sides 
of the shaft. To both sides of the menorah, Ps. 90. 17-91. 5 
and Deut. 6. 4-9 intertwined, i. e., alternating word by word 
from either passage. On the left side is read underneath, 'And 
blue and purple and scarlet and fine linen and goats' hair' (Ex. 
25. 5), quoted on account of JOJHtf > which is written in larger 
letters than the rest and marked as an acrostic, namely of the 
angelic names, Uriel, Eafael, Gabriel, Michael and Nuriel, fol- 
lowed by the words, '0 living God, deliver!' Under the meno- 
rah is read, 'And all the people of the earth will see that thou 
art called by the name of JHVH and will fear thee' (Deut. 28. 
10), and under it, 'Thou Daniel, son of Berakah, mayest be 
blessed . . . and be preserved from all evil accidents.' 

The third division consists of a square which encloses other 
smaller squares and other figures, and is divided into two com- 
partments by the word m^HNN » an amalgamation of J7HK 
and T^K, one of the 72 three-lettered names of God. The 
square is surrounded by an inscription which begins at the 
top of the right side with a repetition of Deut. 28. 10; 'Thou 
Daniel, son of Berakah'; 'And JHVH will take away from thee 
all sickness, and he will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt, 
which thou knowest, upon thee, but will lay them upon all them 
that hate thee' (Deut. 7. 15) ; ♦p 1 ? (initials of Gen. 49. 18) ; 
YD'J'K CUT! ff?D PEM pit. Amen, enduring for ever). Within 
the square there are in the upper part three small squares. 
Those in the two corners are inscribed with HI IT » *yiH » f7Htt » 
and fTrD in various permutations. The middle one encloses 
a sort of rhomboid which again holds a small square. This triple 
figure contains the words, JWIH ffiJT ('0 JHVH help!'); 
ShQ *JiTV (doubtless erroneously for *]*?D'*. for which see 
JA08 36. 159) ; 2W TV ('Yah exalt!') ; mrP HI?. In the 
corners of the 'rhomboid,' D**7, N1N> VX> and around its sides 
the angelic names, Duriel, Gadiel, Berakiel and Akathriel, with 
JT above each. In the lower part there are on either side squares 
of three by thirteen lines each. The first and third oblong lines 
contain Ex. 15. 11, 'Who is like unto thee, JHVH, glorious 
in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders.' The middle line 
has a series of disconnected letters, probably intended to form 
in combination with the letters above and below 26 three-lettered 
mystical names corresponding to the numerical value of fTlfT . 


srn| , » H i. 


— ' ' ■ ■ — . 

r. tiros* 


I. Amulet on Vellum for the Protection of Daniel, 
Son of Berakah. Tunis, North Africa 

Two Jewish Amulets 45 

In the middle is an awkwardly drawn 'Shield of David,' 
inscribed, (jnrt f'K» fT^D n^H 1 ? potyl NW ]Q KflYlDK 
D'K JTJ ^n "7301 fpBOOl (' Salvation, or healing, from God of 
the world, 1 for the delivery from the evil eyes, and from magic, 
and from every evil disease. Amen. Selah.') In the angles 
3D. t3D. 31. and ♦"); between the angles, 2 X)-\D ND'D in 
changed positions. 

The invocation is again enclosed in an inscription. The first 
six words of the upper line seem to be deformations of foreign 
words; the next two are two of the 72 three-lettered names; 
the rest are amalgamations of Him with the 14 triads of the 
acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya ben Ha-Kanah (for which 
see JA08 36. 159, n. 13). 

The Invocation 

Nrftx Dip po»pn 3 wnp NONto pm D3o ncpm 1 
^13 *7tvpTS i 7an\i "»o»d dbo m3o mm 4 n3-i 

DT» JTK jnpp 0BO1 WD3 nPO 1 ? rf?ae> DEOl ^Kfil 2 

n"?jjB> deoi ^iriB^ mm \m& oeoi 5 Dunp 3'^ 

dboi 6t ?m33 lm 1 ?^ 

nop™ wmi iNfl-mi Vwn p inVarr tf?i rnnN 31:10 

13 ■wri'? 
pa pmfln fron woo (vty y»op K^mm ypm nana 4 
-inaoi ppnooi n»y?Di pe»3 prrnai win 1 ? jyrp-j 

oto ^aoi o»jn o^noi ,o ny? 
u -p my vat6o *3 f»v dbo nvjjnia wo "»oi o»jn 5 

DtT3 D'fllB»3 »J»0 ^301 "pWD niTlpO ^30 VnDIWTl 

Ksr»3 *o»y» nam nem ■notwri i^y-11 ,s mj3 n»did e 
D»orrftn -romi frf? imm k^k pe»3 pyno ^301 

Dtrn n33i ^'om ^KHDn "won Dtr3 v*m *?3 wyai 7 
o^on ddni mm ^3 m xro mi piDsa awim 

46 I. M. Casanowicz 

MTmsriN ntt innen rD-orri d'obtt nwat by 8 
dbo D^Qtrn n** niton took .na ^ mrr nnir piDflo 9 

"WOX ins BHJK 'D'D'D 'K'N'K Wlttl Win 

. na "iro rMioa D'enpn trip 10 


1 I pray of you, ye holy angels, 3 who stand before the great 
God, 4 JHVH, who is blessed, in the name of Michael, Nuriel, 
Sadkiel, Puel, Kadarniel, Shamshiel, 

2 Eafael. And in the name by which he was revealed to 
Moses on Sinai ; and in the name by which he cut the sea 
into twelve pieces 5 ; and in the name by which he gave the 
Torah to Israel ; and in the name by which he was revealed 
to Elijah on Carmel 6 ; and in the name 

3 by which he healed the water through Elisha 7 ; and in the 
name by which he rescued Daniel from the den of lions so 
that they did not destroy him 8 — so may you deliver and heal 
and shield and preserve Daniel, son 

4 of Berakah, the bearer of the amulet upon him, from the 
kinds of . . . 9 that flit about between heaven and earth; 
and from evil spirits; and from Liliths; and from injuri- 
ous spirits ; and from the terror of the night 10 ; and from 
evil diseases ; and from all evil plagues ; 

5 and from all kinds of visitations, in the name of YIJHK, 
'For he shall give his angels charge over thee.' 11 And ye 
may guard him against all sinister 12 accidents, and all kinds 
of magic, in the name of Ma'ni Shamiel 

6 So(u)sya, Banyah. 13 And may you deliver and preserve 
and loosen and free him from the evil eye and from all 
evil afflictions; but render him an object of favor and 
grace and compassion in your eyes 

7 and in the eyes of all who see him, in the name of Hanniel, 
Hasdiel, Rahamiel; and by the power of the name which 
issues from the verse, 'And Noah found favor in the 
eyes of JHVH.' And ye the angels, who are set 

8 over the treasures of heaven and blessing, may you open 
your treasures and sate and lavish abundance from your 
bounty in the name of the power of the name which issues 

Two Jewish Amulets 47 

9 from the verse, ' JHVH will open unto thee his good treas- 
ure, the heaven.' In the name of TG'S, T'SS. Amen, 
Amen, Amen, Selah, Selah, Selah. ANDS. JHVH. 
10 Most Holy. Our God JHVH. 15 BD. 


1 fc^DB? on account of the following J'DTJH here = God. Comp. for this 
meaning of heaven Jewish Enc. s. v., 6. 298, and James A. Montgomery, 
Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur, Philadelphia, 1913, 11. 2 (p. 170) ; 
18. 1 (p. 193). For the combination, 'God of the worlds' comp. Is. 
26. 4: D'dSu? 113? and yn Sd J131 in the Jewish liturgy. 

2 Cf. p")D Montgomery, op. cit., 7. 11 (p. 146) and glossary, s. v. 
s Cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 8. 14 (p. 154) and (in malam partem — 

<sacri>) 4. 1 (p. 132). 

4 Cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 7. 4 (p. 145). 

6 Corresponding to the Twelve Tribes, cf. Eashi to Ps. 136. 13; Ex. 
Midr. E. 24. 1, and Deut. Midr. E. 11. 9. 

fl l K. 18. 19. 

7 2 K. 2. 19. 

8 Dan. 6. 23. — The appeal by the manifestations of God's power and 
wondrous help in critical events through Israel's history is also found in 
the prayers recited on fast days and during the penitential seasons. Mont- 
gomery, op. cit. p. 64, quotes parallels from Babylonian and Egyptian 
magical practices. 

•J"Tlin unknown. Etymologically it might be explained to mean i lower 
ones,' from mn, but the context points to some kind of winged beings 
who traverse the spaces between heaven and earth. Wings, however, are 
also attributed to the Shedim and Lilin, cf. JAOS 36. 166, n. 46. 

10 Ps. 91. 5. Targ. ad loc. gives this passage (as the rest of the psalm) 
a demonistic meaning: K , S , S:i pSftn p^Dl xn^l . 

11 Ps. 91. 11a . -jnr is formed of the end letters of the four words. 

18 pWD nmpD. pD is doubtless = Dn po, from np,mp < accidents/ 
but 'K"D is difficult to explain. Can it be a formation from, 11X, 'cursed, 
pernicious, sinister'? 

13 Perhaps names of 'master magicians' or 'master conjurors,' like 
Abbahu, Joshua b. Perahya, Bar Mesosia, etc., in the incantation bowls, 
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. p. 24, 99, 112 f., etc. 

"See JAOS 36. 159. 

15 See JAOS 36. 158. 

Underneath the invocation is a small crudely drawn 'shield 
of David' inscribed with fTHT. ^WWON. and JTIiOlf . and a 
sort of tree or branch, placed upside down. The latter may 
represent the 'magic bough' depicted on one of the Nippur 

48 /. M. Casanoivicz 

bowls and referred to by Montgomery, op. cit. p. 55. — It may 
be remarked in general that this amulet contains many echoes 
of the Nippur incantation texts published by Professor Mont- 
gomery. To the cases noticed in the notes above may be added 
N*OB^ ]D }WV)1DN> found only on this amulet of the Museum 
collection and one of the stock ejaculations on the Nippur bowls. 
Another noticeable feature of this amulet is that the appeal in 
the invocation is not addressed to God, enumerating his names 
and then those of some angels, but to the 'holy angels' and 
reversing the order of the names, giving to those of the angels 
the precedence over those of JHVH. May not this amulet repre- 
sent one of the earlier stages of the transition from the pre- 
dominantly eclectic and syncretistic use of magic to the more 
pronouncedly Judaic form? 


The second amulet, likewise a sort of parchment palimpsest, 
measuring 13% by 8% inches, and coming from Tunis, has two 
invocations, which are separated by the candlestick formed of 
Psalm 67. Both have blanks for insertion of the name of the 
client or patient, and the one to the right lacks the usual con- 
clusion. The whole is framed by two lines of inscription. The 
outer one, beginning at the top on the left side, consists of 
forty-two repetitions of the name of ^NHfiD. prefixed with the 
forty-two acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya, while above is 
the quotation from Deut. 28. 10, closing with the names Ht^ 
and pfi^HJD • The latter is explained as = 2wa8eA<£os, ' co-brother ' 
or ' twin-brother, ' namely of Metatron. In Hag. 13 b Sandalfon 
is spoken of as taller than his fellow angels by a distance of 
500 years' journey, and when standing on earth reaching with 
his head the Hayyoth of the Merkabah-throne where he binds 
wreaths for his master. The inner inscription starts on the 
right side beneath the enclosure of the zigzag figure and is com- 
posed of Biblical passages, namely, Deut. 7. 15; Ps. 46. 12: 
' JHYH Sebaoth is with us, a high tower is the God of Jacob. 
Selah' ; Ps. 20. 10 : ' JHVH help the king, he may answer us on 
the day we call/ and the Aaronite blessing, Num. 6. 24-27, 
interspersed with the mystical words DilpJN » O/lDA » etc. 

The zigzag lines above and the parallel lines which enclose 
them contain Exod. 14. 19-21, the three verses which constitute 

Two Jewish Amulets 49 

the great 72-lettered name of God and from which the 72 three- 
lettered names of God are constructed: 'And the angel of God, 
that went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind 
them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and 
stood behind them. And it came between the camp of Egypt 
and the camp of Israel ; and there was the cloud and the dark- 
ness, yet gave it light by night ; and the one came not near the 
other all the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the 
sea ; and JHVH caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind 
all the night, and made the sea dry land and the waters were 
divided.' Further, Exod. 13. 21: 'And JHVH went before 
them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them by the way, and 
by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might 
go by day and by night'; Ps. 124. 8: 'Our help is in the name 
of JHYH who made heaven and earth/ and a repetition of 
the priestly blessing, Num. 6. 24-26. — Between the zigzag lines 
are the first fourteen (to correspond to the fourteen triads of 
the acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya ? ) three-lettered names of 
God derived from Exod. 14. 19-21, closing on the left side with 
ffiVO which by the at-bsh alphabet is = HliT • 

Below, in the middle, in two concentric circles are arranged 
the fourteen triads of the forty-two acrostics of the prayer of 
Nehunya with fTliT between each and fVliOSf H&5> JTliT at the 
end. To either side are squares. In the one to the right the 
upper three rows are filled out with HUT and its permutations, 
while the fourth row has JT » 1£DD . JlHf » and J1N1 ; the 
square to the left has nine three-lettered names out of ten 
derived from Gen. 46. 4: ^Jfl* 'DJN1 iTOHlfO *\Qy T)N '3JN 
Thy DJI 'I will go down with thee into Egypt and I will surely 
bring thee up again, ' which, according to Schwab, Vocabulaire, 
p. 61, are recited to avoid danger ; the empty eighth cell should 
have Vatf' The six last cells are inscribed with ♦Tt!' in six 
permutations. Under the square, fVlHHN > for which see JAOS 
36. 158. 

The Invocation to the Right 

:mw bmw ybx mrr dbo i 
vyijp nrrfio n£>N Mron 2 

4 JAOS 37 

50 I. M. Casanowicz 

DWKPB1 D'JTO VJfl 1 ? 2 r»MlD 4 

rrvop nth n? y*op on ania 5 

[vty nr rap Ntsnji yrp'i tfwm ronem 6 

m** V7roe> ovrr nr "in^o naa i 

TVTPW 3 pnV VTIB'DI ^Nfl") DN^OI 8 

o»jn o^n *?ao yrp's iobo 9 

mjni nwp mjmNo ^aoi doomi io 

fvsm pui -unn now ins ^aoi h 

mi laiai n^jnm nmm n^nai 12 

mnnm pnax pn ptroi run 13 

Dunn tro'oi dȴ~in D M Jrm 14 

iaoi n^nai ova ♦Vmi inoa 15 

D»p»fiN3i nrwroi D*naa craiB'n men -up ie 

onnaai nrttoai d»ojn31 niMsmoai 17 

twroi nnn nuMi nu^wi nwyoai is 

on ^an ty 6 oom nenfini o^ai 19 

oeoi epwxft njDJDi *od naa yatro 20 

•pn na ^a tyi nnn Tfrjn pnvvnNV 21 

jtun Y?jn n^n na ^a ^jn n'oroir -pjn 22 

•jnspsp y?jn ~pn no ^a tyi Tfrno na 23 

. pin ^a tyi nn»n ^a tyi nan Na^o 24 

rmoi '"♦'nop rmoi 9 naN rrnoi ppnoi pe^n 25 

pan pc ^a tyi "NtD^en N\yo irnoi "nap 26 

>«jy»j« jwi p»oc jnv one* u e>n tfm pmoc 27 

tfyi iynn tfn wnsn n^i ipnn n^jt 28 

lTDen n 1 ?! wrnwi n^i ie*jnn n 1 ?! i-rjnn 29 

i6 n'ono -on Dica yr p'j 30 

«... vj»y n'Nioa n^i ibwq n 1 ? v-o»n 31 


1 In the name of JHVH, the God of Israel, who dwelleth 

2 among the Cherubim, before whose awfulness the angels (or 
gods) fear, 

3 and the Ofanim (wheels) tremble, and all the princes 

Two Jewish Amulets 51 

4 of the Merkabah (chariot) 2 kneel down and prostrate them- 
selves before him — 

5 I write this amulet for the protection 

6 and healing and delivery of the bearer of this amulet upon 

7 By the power of the angel of this day, whose constellation 
is Leo, 

8 and his [ruling] angel is Eafael, and his servitor is Jupiter, 3 

9 the bearer of this amulet be guarded against all evil and 

10 enduring diseases, and against all severe and evil vicissi- 

11 and against any fear, terror, anguish, injury, and feebleness, 

12 and panic, and upsetting, and trembling, and depression of 
an evil 

13 spirit, and against Shedim, Lilin, morning demons, and mid- 
day demons, 4 

14 whether they be evil [demons] of the winds, the earth, or 
the waters, 5 

15 hidden or revealed, by day or by night ; and 

16 against any male Shed and female Shed who dwell in houses, 
and in courtyards, and in channels, 

17 and in bath-houses, and in pools, and in wells, and in brooks, 

18 and in springs, and in trees, and in the corners of the 
house, and in mire 

19 and dirt, and on the cross-roads. 6 — All of them 

20 I adjure by the power of Sanuy and Sansanuy and Saman- 
galuf, and in the name 

21 of Yu'ahassbirun, and thee Lilith and thy entire band, 

22 and thee Zumzamith and thy entire band, and thee Agrath, 

23 daughter of Mahlath, 7 and thy entire band, and thee Kaf- 
kapu'a, 8 

24 king of the Shedim, and his entire host, and all evil 

25 spirits, and injuring spirits. And against the spirit of 
. . ., 9 and the spirit of a slain man 10 ( ?), and the spirit 

26 of the grave, 11 and the spirit of . . . and of . . ., 12 and all 
the Shedim whose names 

27 are remembered or whose names are not remembered, 13 whose 
names I know or no man [knows] 14 — 

52 I. M. Casanowicz 

28 that ye shall not injure, and not frighten, and not disturb, 
and not 

29 terrorize, and not upset, and not destroy, and not harm 

30 the bearer of this amulet upon him in any member 
of his two hundred forty-eight 15 

31 members, neither in his head nor in his eyesight . . , 16 


1 The p (or 1) is often substituted" for the H in the name of God in 
later Jewish writings; cf. Jewish Enc. 9. 164. 

2 The mystical interpretation of the description of the chariot with its 
constituent parts, the wheels (ofanim), beasts (hayyoth), in Ezek. 1 and 
10, forms under the name of 'Ma'aseh Merkabah' a very important part 
of the secret lore in both the Talmud and the Kabbalah. 

3 On astrological elements in Jewish amulets see JAOS 36. 156. 

4 pTintt from "into , 'to cleanse, ' then 'to brighten' (as a result of 
cleansing); hence Targ. to Ps. 91. 6 renders D^inv by KVTB » 'the day 
being at noontime at its brightest.' Both , T ta l£3¥ (from fcO£3X 'morning') 
and ,ta 1iTD, for morning and midday demons, respectively, are found in 
Targ. to Cant. 4. 6; cf. also Berak. 2a and Yoma 59 a . 

5 Spirits who cause storms, earthquakes, and floods ; see Jewish Enc. 
4. 516. Cf. K1T1 KrU3, § y] r\ ,L ? ,L 7 in Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts, p. 78; 17. 3 (p. 190); 29. 7 (p. 218). 

6 On the abodes of demons see Jewish Enc. 4. 516. — Among the trees the 
palm tree seems to have been considered as a favorite rendezvous of 
spirits, Pes. lll a . So also are the cross-roads 'a resort of spirits'; Hecate 
is often found there, and in the Testament of Solomon . . . the demon 
Envy says, 'In the cross-ways also I have my services to render,' R. Camp- 
bell Thompson, Semitic Magic, its Origin and Development, p. 200, n. 4; 
cf. J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3 2 . 80, and Enc. Bibl. s. v. 'Medicine,' 
3. 3006. 

7 See JAOS 36. 167, n. 48. 

8 Elsewhere Ashmodai (Asmodeus) or Samael is named as prince of the 
demonic hosts. 

•nDK, whether derived from "1.3N, 'limb,' or from «"J3«, 'led,' it does 
not fit into the context. 

10 The immediately following "HSp nil would suggest the taking of ,l ?1Dp 
in the passive sense, the spirit of a murdered man who finds no rest and 
annoys people on earth, a belief widely spread. But perhaps it is more 
correct to take the word in the active sense, a murderous spirit, for which 
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 36. 2 (p. 238), 'p m3 KH^Ittp, 'murderess, daugh- 
ter of a murderess.' 

11 For the conception of graveyards as abode of spirits cf . Hag. 3b and 
Sanh. 65b. 

12 KD"Sty . . . K\yD which cannot in this connection be connected with 
D^D, 'intestines' and KD ,L ?tf, 'ruler.' 



mg J/ i* 8 ** --' =--V • 

J! ' - 
J , HE* 


: asto rrT« lO -»£^-r"? 3TOTO r 

— -.- — 
-»i ' < K try f i 

r g — .v-r- -*.- S a v* ova **<- -a 

-•"■ r J 

I? ! 


S - - - 

-ft" rar* •j&jj 

!? £ I— t:- ^ ;-», V 

- ■ y 

1 i & 


5t .•!-!— >^-ru / *^* 

• J: 

.% CCJ^s'^ ,nCJs..K h CCJl.^ JtC-w.WU wC-^-.**-, .TChJw. s'_ J^A ft. 

II. Double Amulet on Parchment with Blanks for Insertion 
of the Name of a Client. Tunis, North Africa 

Two Jewish Amulets 53 

13 What Montgomery terms 'blanket formulas,' so as not to omit any 
agency, ef. op. tit. 14. 6 (p. 183) ; 29. 9 (p. 218) ; etc. 
"Supply 'V> jnv. 

15 See JAOS 36. 165, n. 24. 

16 The scribe apparently broke off in the middle of his copy, which 
probably continued the enumeration of the other bodily parts which were 
to be protected from attack, closing with a prayer that the patient might 
find grace and favor in the eyes of God and men. 

The Invocation to the Left 

♦n"»n ♦rr , 7N mm -psro pin »m 1 

•nnjn nptr ]ytfr\ yysb ton 2 

o'tsmpn root? V»o nroion 3 

novno* mv?n» minnv o»*aum 4 

nxon^ nfrn'r- ntt'inno* nofrnjp 5 

rrmrfr rrrbnw mirnm rrninro* e 

j yd?) 'mrono* rfyinr* nyinnm 7 

•n^jn V?n D'&nnpn nrnoE> 8 

4 iro rDDioa iro "I'm inv miorx 9 

^irnio^ntr 10 

•inn pts^oi jnn py 'rro irrp'j 11 

prp»n owno 'raoi yn "Ton 'ttoi 12 

♦"Tinai ronjoi .todnoi n£OJoi is 

*»»! rrpm non*o n^i mw 14 

njura rrrvooi ona** nonnn 15 

mo 'TCbzsn rmws) Trawie nmooi ie 

nwonoi m nnm m'ryo'i ro^ pnonoi 17 

pmnoi ±> pajnoi n 1 ? nipisooi mm is 

nroi deo a 1 ? rasyoi ±> n^ittyi a 1 ? 19 

atoo yrp'? ^m mo^nt? ami x^ao 1 ? 20 

9 nnoi aopoi *±> nipwooi py nron e>ja 21 

ruoorrp ttftbyw oeo nsjoi nanoi 22 

mtroi nwp »yo ^oi "weep 'woop 23 

obo "n»rm n 1 ? roeoo ^rono D^ijosr 24 

"73 wjdi -pun mo *73t5n jn axon mn 25 

3»roi wr ouo ?n nito mi rrrons van 26 

54 I. M. Gasanowicz 

(«') frnm n aix) dvY?n wya did ^acri jrr M5foi 27 

wwi 7J\ya D'orr-to norfn jrf? narrN 1 ? 28 

■wnon ^n ^an* dbo vnvi ^a 29 

•awn ^NniN -ijn rf?D rnu jqn ^om so 

^wjrra ^anty ^aoo too tonaj 31 

.^crycr 32 


1 May it please thee, JHVH, my God and the God 

2 of my fathers, for thy sake and for the sake of thy great 

3 which is crowned with these holy 

4 and awful names 



7 / and for the sake 

8 of these thy holy names 'AGLA' 2 


10 That thou mayest guard and deliver 

11 the bearer of this amulet upon him from any evil eye and 
from an evil tongue, 5 

12 and from all evil speech, and from all evil sights, 

13 and from epilepsy, and from croup, and from a running 

14 and from the black sickness (melancholy, or melanaemia), 
and the white sickness (leukaemia), and the red sickness 
(jaundice), and the green sickness (biliousness, or Egyptian 

15 and from any torpor of the limbs (paralysis, or narcosis), 
and from a strange death, 

16 and a sudden death, 6 and from folly and confusion of the 

17 and from stupor of the heart, and from faintness, trembling, 
and shock, and from evil 

18 fancies and distress of the heart, and languor of the heart, 
and pressure 

19 of the heart, and . . . 7 of the heart, and sadness of the 
heart. In the name and by the power 

20 of LTBLA' WNHB mayest thou guard and protect the 
bearer of this amulet upon him from head- 

Two Jewish Amulets 55 

21 ache, and from eye-sore, and from distresses of the heart, 8 
and from Keteb and Meriri, 9 

22 and from pestilence and plague : in the name of SDNLBSH 

23 Kastiel Katsiel. And from any bond 10 and magic [that 

24 in the world, as it is written, 'Thou shalt not suffer a sor~ 
ceress to live, ni in 

25 the name of HYH. And may he find favor and good under- 
standing in thine eyes and in the eyes of all 

26 who see him, as it is written, 'And Noah found favor in the 
eyes of JHVH' 12 ; and is written, 

27 'And thou wilt find favor and good understanding in the 
eyes of God and man.' 13 And may he be an object 

28 of love, favor and grace and compassion in thine eyes and 
in the eyes 

29 of all who see him ; in the name of Ahabiel, Hanniel, Hasdiel, 

30 Kahamiel. Amen, enduring forever. Uriel, Rafael, 

31 Gabriel, Michael, Samkiel, 'Azriel, Sadkiel, 

32 Sha'ashiel. 


1 The names in lines 4 to 7 are composed of the fourteen three-lettered 
names scattered between the zigzag figure on top of the amulet, inter- 
linked each with HI IT • 

2 The initial letters of 'JIK dSi^S lim HUH , ' Thou art mighty for ever 
O Lord/ the first words of the second prayer of the ' Eighteen Benedic- 
tions ' (Shemoneh 'Esreh, or ' Amidah) ; also the acrostic of the first 
words of Gen. 49. 8-11 (Judah of v. 8, as the address, not being counted). 

3 Combined of the end letters of Ps. 91. 11. 

4 By ab-gd — 'S lrnStf HUT • 

5 In the Talmud the technical term for calumny or slander ; here prob- 
ably of casting an evil spell by some magical formula. 

G Cf . the petition, ' from sudden death, good Lord deliver us, ' in the 
Litany of the Common Prayer Book. 

7 T¥- The word is found in plural, Jnd. 2. 3, rendered by lxx avvox^s = 
nil* (?), by Targ. J-p ,, j?D = Dn2f , but is most probably to be amended after 
the parallels in Num. 33. 55 and Josh. 23. 13, into DTJi* , 'thorns.' 

8 Already mentioned in line 18. 

9 Both words, without copula, are found in Deut. 32. 24, English versions, 
'bitter destruction'; 3ttp alone, in parallel to 131 , occurs Is. 28. 2; Hos. 
13. 14; and Ps. 91. 6. In the last passage both Targ. and Rashi render 
both words by 'demon' (TO). In rabbinical literature (Pes. 111^, Num. 

56 /. M. Casanowicz 

R. 12. 3) 'D'p is depicted as a demon calf -headed with revolving goat's 
horn, an eye in the breast, and body covered with scales, hair, and eyes, 
who reigns from the seventeenth of Tammuz to the ninth of Ab (the 
season of national mourning). For a similar monster in Assyrian incan- 
tations see Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. 63 f . 

10 "Wp. It may mean a psychical or spiritual bond, i. e. the duress 
caused by a demon or sorcerer (cf. Luke 13. 16), which the juxtaposition of 
fpt^J would suggest; or it may refer to bewitchment by tying knots, 
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. ntrp, 7. 13 (p. 146), and *Hp\T ; 34. 10 (p. 231). 
On the wide-spread practice of sorcery by tying knots see Frazer, Golden 
Bough, l 2 . 392, 397; Thompson, op. cit. p. 168 ff. 

u Exod. 22. 18. 

12 Gen. 6. 8. 

13 Prov. 3. 4.