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TWO JEWISH AMULETS IN THE UNITED STATES
I. M. Casanowicz
United States National Museum
An amulet for the protection of Daniel, son of Berakah,
against evil spirits, sickness, the evil eye and magic. Manu-
script written on vellum, measuring 14*^ by 6y 2 inches. From
Tunis, North Africa. The amulet is a sort of palimpsest, written
upon the erasures of what was likewise an amulet, to judge
from the traces of the script and figures still discernible. But
the present text also seems subsequently to have been used by,
or intended for, another person, as the name of the present
client and a few other words are written in a different hand
from the rest of the writing on erased places. The larger part
of the manuscript is fitted out with various devices and figures,
scriptural passages and mystical names ; the invocation or con-
juration proper, written in smaller script than the rest, occupies
a comparatively small space at the bottom.
On top ^JJODl nJMDl nJD for which see JAOS 36. 158.
Underneath in the center, a square inscribed with JTiTN and PI1JT»
each written in the regular and reversed order. On the sides
of the square are four of the 72 three-lettered names of God,
derived from Ex. 14. 19-21 (ib. p. 155). To the right of the
square, 'Thou shalt not suffer a sorceress to live' (Ex. 22. 18)
in six permutations; to the left, 22 (corresponding to the
number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet?) three-lettered mysti-
cal names, followed by Gen. 49. 18, 'I wait for thy help, O
JHVH,' and the initials of the doxology, 'Blessed be the name
of his glorious Kingdom for ever. '
The second division is marked off on each of the four corners
by the words D'MIH D*DflDfl DriOfl DDpJN, for which see
JAOS 36. 158. In the center, Psalm 67, written in form of the
seven-branched candlestick (menorah), with the divine names
* For a general survey of the collection of Jewish amulets in the National
Museum see JAOS 36. 154 ff.
44 7. M. Casanowicz
H£>» ffiiT. flTlM. andMTN. each preceded by *?8, on the sides
of the shaft. To both sides of the menorah, Ps. 90. 17-91. 5
and Deut. 6. 4-9 intertwined, i. e., alternating word by word
from either passage. On the left side is read underneath, 'And
blue and purple and scarlet and fine linen and goats' hair' (Ex.
25. 5), quoted on account of JOJHtf > which is written in larger
letters than the rest and marked as an acrostic, namely of the
angelic names, Uriel, Eafael, Gabriel, Michael and Nuriel, fol-
lowed by the words, '0 living God, deliver!' Under the meno-
rah is read, 'And all the people of the earth will see that thou
art called by the name of JHVH and will fear thee' (Deut. 28.
10), and under it, 'Thou Daniel, son of Berakah, mayest be
blessed . . . and be preserved from all evil accidents.'
The third division consists of a square which encloses other
smaller squares and other figures, and is divided into two com-
partments by the word m^HNN » an amalgamation of J7HK
and T^K, one of the 72 three-lettered names of God. The
square is surrounded by an inscription which begins at the
top of the right side with a repetition of Deut. 28. 10; 'Thou
Daniel, son of Berakah'; 'And JHVH will take away from thee
all sickness, and he will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt,
which thou knowest, upon thee, but will lay them upon all them
that hate thee' (Deut. 7. 15) ; ♦p 1 ? (initials of Gen. 49. 18) ;
YD'J'K CUT! ff?D PEM pit. Amen, enduring for ever). Within
the square there are in the upper part three small squares.
Those in the two corners are inscribed with HI IT » *yiH » f7Htt »
and fTrD in various permutations. The middle one encloses
a sort of rhomboid which again holds a small square. This triple
figure contains the words, JWIH ffiJT ('0 JHVH help!');
ShQ *JiTV (doubtless erroneously for *]*?D'*. for which see
JA08 36. 159) ; 2W TV ('Yah exalt!') ; mrP HI?. In the
corners of the 'rhomboid,' D**7, N1N> VX> and around its sides
the angelic names, Duriel, Gadiel, Berakiel and Akathriel, with
JT above each. In the lower part there are on either side squares
of three by thirteen lines each. The first and third oblong lines
contain Ex. 15. 11, 'Who is like unto thee, JHVH, glorious
in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders.' The middle line
has a series of disconnected letters, probably intended to form
in combination with the letters above and below 26 three-lettered
mystical names corresponding to the numerical value of fTlfT .
srn| , » H i.
— ' ' ■ ■ — .
I. Amulet on Vellum for the Protection of Daniel,
Son of Berakah. Tunis, North Africa
Two Jewish Amulets 45
In the middle is an awkwardly drawn 'Shield of David,'
inscribed, (jnrt f'K» fT^D n^H 1 ? potyl NW ]Q KflYlDK
D'K JTJ ^n "7301 fpBOOl (' Salvation, or healing, from God of
the world, 1 for the delivery from the evil eyes, and from magic,
and from every evil disease. Amen. Selah.') In the angles
3D. t3D. 31. and ♦"); between the angles, 2 X)-\D ND'D in
The invocation is again enclosed in an inscription. The first
six words of the upper line seem to be deformations of foreign
words; the next two are two of the 72 three-lettered names;
the rest are amalgamations of Him with the 14 triads of the
acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya ben Ha-Kanah (for which
see JA08 36. 159, n. 13).
Nrftx Dip po»pn 3 wnp NONto pm D3o ncpm 1
^13 *7tvpTS i 7an\i "»o»d dbo m3o mm 4 n3-i
DT» JTK jnpp 0BO1 WD3 nPO 1 ? rf?ae> DEOl ^Kfil 2
n"?jjB> deoi ^iriB^ mm \m& oeoi 5 Dunp 3'^
dboi 6t ?m33 lm 1 ?^
nop™ wmi iNfl-mi Vwn p inVarr tf?i rnnN 31:10
pa pmfln fron woo (vty y»op K^mm ypm nana 4
-inaoi ppnooi n»y?Di pe»3 prrnai win 1 ? jyrp-j
oto ^aoi o»jn o^noi ,o ny?
u -p my vat6o *3 f»v dbo nvjjnia wo "»oi o»jn 5
DtT3 D'fllB»3 »J»0 ^301 "pWD niTlpO ^30 VnDIWTl
Ksr»3 *o»y» nam nem ■notwri i^y-11 ,s mj3 n»did e
D»orrftn -romi frf? imm k^k pe»3 pyno ^301
Dtrn n33i ^'om ^KHDn "won Dtr3 v*m *?3 wyai 7
o^on ddni mm ^3 m xro mi piDsa awim
46 I. M. Casanowicz
MTmsriN ntt innen rD-orri d'obtt nwat by 8
dbo D^Qtrn n** niton took .na ^ mrr nnir piDflo 9
"WOX ins BHJK 'D'D'D 'K'N'K Wlttl Win
. na "iro rMioa D'enpn trip 10
1 I pray of you, ye holy angels, 3 who stand before the great
God, 4 JHVH, who is blessed, in the name of Michael, Nuriel,
Sadkiel, Puel, Kadarniel, Shamshiel,
2 Eafael. And in the name by which he was revealed to
Moses on Sinai ; and in the name by which he cut the sea
into twelve pieces 5 ; and in the name by which he gave the
Torah to Israel ; and in the name by which he was revealed
to Elijah on Carmel 6 ; and in the name
3 by which he healed the water through Elisha 7 ; and in the
name by which he rescued Daniel from the den of lions so
that they did not destroy him 8 — so may you deliver and heal
and shield and preserve Daniel, son
4 of Berakah, the bearer of the amulet upon him, from the
kinds of . . . 9 that flit about between heaven and earth;
and from evil spirits; and from Liliths; and from injuri-
ous spirits ; and from the terror of the night 10 ; and from
evil diseases ; and from all evil plagues ;
5 and from all kinds of visitations, in the name of YIJHK,
'For he shall give his angels charge over thee.' 11 And ye
may guard him against all sinister 12 accidents, and all kinds
of magic, in the name of Ma'ni Shamiel
6 So(u)sya, Banyah. 13 And may you deliver and preserve
and loosen and free him from the evil eye and from all
evil afflictions; but render him an object of favor and
grace and compassion in your eyes
7 and in the eyes of all who see him, in the name of Hanniel,
Hasdiel, Rahamiel; and by the power of the name which
issues from the verse, 'And Noah found favor in the
eyes of JHVH.' And ye the angels, who are set
8 over the treasures of heaven and blessing, may you open
your treasures and sate and lavish abundance from your
bounty in the name of the power of the name which issues
Two Jewish Amulets 47
9 from the verse, ' JHVH will open unto thee his good treas-
ure, the heaven.' In the name of TG'S, T'SS. Amen,
Amen, Amen, Selah, Selah, Selah. ANDS. JHVH.
10 Most Holy. Our God JHVH. 15 BD.
1 fc^DB? on account of the following J'DTJH here = God. Comp. for this
meaning of heaven Jewish Enc. s. v., 6. 298, and James A. Montgomery,
Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur, Philadelphia, 1913, 11. 2 (p. 170) ;
18. 1 (p. 193). For the combination, 'God of the worlds' comp. Is.
26. 4: D'dSu? 113? and yn Sd J131 in the Jewish liturgy.
2 Cf. p")D Montgomery, op. cit., 7. 11 (p. 146) and glossary, s. v.
s Cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 8. 14 (p. 154) and (in malam partem —
<sacri>) 4. 1 (p. 132).
4 Cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 7. 4 (p. 145).
6 Corresponding to the Twelve Tribes, cf. Eashi to Ps. 136. 13; Ex.
Midr. E. 24. 1, and Deut. Midr. E. 11. 9.
fl l K. 18. 19.
7 2 K. 2. 19.
8 Dan. 6. 23. — The appeal by the manifestations of God's power and
wondrous help in critical events through Israel's history is also found in
the prayers recited on fast days and during the penitential seasons. Mont-
gomery, op. cit. p. 64, quotes parallels from Babylonian and Egyptian
•J"Tlin unknown. Etymologically it might be explained to mean i lower
ones,' from mn, but the context points to some kind of winged beings
who traverse the spaces between heaven and earth. Wings, however, are
also attributed to the Shedim and Lilin, cf. JAOS 36. 166, n. 46.
10 Ps. 91. 5. Targ. ad loc. gives this passage (as the rest of the psalm)
a demonistic meaning: K , S , S:i pSftn p^Dl xn^l .
11 Ps. 91. 11a . -jnr is formed of the end letters of the four words.
18 pWD nmpD. pD is doubtless = Dn po, from np,mp < accidents/
but 'K"D is difficult to explain. Can it be a formation from, 11X, 'cursed,
13 Perhaps names of 'master magicians' or 'master conjurors,' like
Abbahu, Joshua b. Perahya, Bar Mesosia, etc., in the incantation bowls,
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. p. 24, 99, 112 f., etc.
"See JAOS 36. 159.
15 See JAOS 36. 158.
Underneath the invocation is a small crudely drawn 'shield
of David' inscribed with fTHT. ^WWON. and JTIiOlf . and a
sort of tree or branch, placed upside down. The latter may
represent the 'magic bough' depicted on one of the Nippur
48 /. M. Casanoivicz
bowls and referred to by Montgomery, op. cit. p. 55. — It may
be remarked in general that this amulet contains many echoes
of the Nippur incantation texts published by Professor Mont-
gomery. To the cases noticed in the notes above may be added
N*OB^ ]D }WV)1DN> found only on this amulet of the Museum
collection and one of the stock ejaculations on the Nippur bowls.
Another noticeable feature of this amulet is that the appeal in
the invocation is not addressed to God, enumerating his names
and then those of some angels, but to the 'holy angels' and
reversing the order of the names, giving to those of the angels
the precedence over those of JHVH. May not this amulet repre-
sent one of the earlier stages of the transition from the pre-
dominantly eclectic and syncretistic use of magic to the more
pronouncedly Judaic form?
The second amulet, likewise a sort of parchment palimpsest,
measuring 13% by 8% inches, and coming from Tunis, has two
invocations, which are separated by the candlestick formed of
Psalm 67. Both have blanks for insertion of the name of the
client or patient, and the one to the right lacks the usual con-
clusion. The whole is framed by two lines of inscription. The
outer one, beginning at the top on the left side, consists of
forty-two repetitions of the name of ^NHfiD. prefixed with the
forty-two acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya, while above is
the quotation from Deut. 28. 10, closing with the names Ht^
and pfi^HJD • The latter is explained as = 2wa8eA<£os, ' co-brother '
or ' twin-brother, ' namely of Metatron. In Hag. 13 b Sandalfon
is spoken of as taller than his fellow angels by a distance of
500 years' journey, and when standing on earth reaching with
his head the Hayyoth of the Merkabah-throne where he binds
wreaths for his master. The inner inscription starts on the
right side beneath the enclosure of the zigzag figure and is com-
posed of Biblical passages, namely, Deut. 7. 15; Ps. 46. 12:
' JHYH Sebaoth is with us, a high tower is the God of Jacob.
Selah' ; Ps. 20. 10 : ' JHVH help the king, he may answer us on
the day we call/ and the Aaronite blessing, Num. 6. 24-27,
interspersed with the mystical words DilpJN » O/lDA » etc.
The zigzag lines above and the parallel lines which enclose
them contain Exod. 14. 19-21, the three verses which constitute
Two Jewish Amulets 49
the great 72-lettered name of God and from which the 72 three-
lettered names of God are constructed: 'And the angel of God,
that went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind
them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and
stood behind them. And it came between the camp of Egypt
and the camp of Israel ; and there was the cloud and the dark-
ness, yet gave it light by night ; and the one came not near the
other all the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the
sea ; and JHVH caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind
all the night, and made the sea dry land and the waters were
divided.' Further, Exod. 13. 21: 'And JHVH went before
them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them by the way, and
by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might
go by day and by night'; Ps. 124. 8: 'Our help is in the name
of JHYH who made heaven and earth/ and a repetition of
the priestly blessing, Num. 6. 24-26. — Between the zigzag lines
are the first fourteen (to correspond to the fourteen triads of
the acrostics of the prayer of Nehunya ? ) three-lettered names of
God derived from Exod. 14. 19-21, closing on the left side with
ffiVO which by the at-bsh alphabet is = HliT •
Below, in the middle, in two concentric circles are arranged
the fourteen triads of the forty-two acrostics of the prayer of
Nehunya with fTliT between each and fVliOSf H&5> JTliT at the
end. To either side are squares. In the one to the right the
upper three rows are filled out with HUT and its permutations,
while the fourth row has JT » 1£DD . JlHf » and J1N1 ; the
square to the left has nine three-lettered names out of ten
derived from Gen. 46. 4: ^Jfl* 'DJN1 iTOHlfO *\Qy T)N '3JN
Thy DJI 'I will go down with thee into Egypt and I will surely
bring thee up again, ' which, according to Schwab, Vocabulaire,
p. 61, are recited to avoid danger ; the empty eighth cell should
have Vatf' The six last cells are inscribed with ♦Tt!' in six
permutations. Under the square, fVlHHN > for which see JAOS
The Invocation to the Right
:mw bmw ybx mrr dbo i
vyijp nrrfio n£>N Mron 2
4 JAOS 37
50 I. M. Casanowicz
DWKPB1 D'JTO VJfl 1 ? 2 r»MlD 4
rrvop nth n? y*op on ania 5
[vty nr rap Ntsnji yrp'i tfwm ronem 6
m** V7roe> ovrr nr "in^o naa i
TVTPW 3 pnV VTIB'DI ^Nfl") DN^OI 8
o»jn o^n *?ao yrp's iobo 9
mjni nwp mjmNo ^aoi doomi io
fvsm pui -unn now ins ^aoi h
mi laiai n^jnm nmm n^nai 12
mnnm pnax pn ptroi run 13
Dunn tro'oi d»¥~in D M Jrm 14
iaoi n^nai ova ♦Vmi inoa 15
D»p»fiN3i nrwroi D*naa craiB'n men -up ie
onnaai nrttoai d»ojn31 niMsmoai 17
twroi nnn nuMi nu^wi nwyoai is
on ^an ty 6 oom nenfini o^ai 19
oeoi epwxft njDJDi *od naa yatro 20
•pn na ^a tyi nnn Tfrjn pnvvnNV 21
jtun Y?jn n^n na ^a ^jn n'oroir -pjn 22
•jnspsp y?jn ~pn no ^a tyi Tfrno na 23
. pin ^a tyi nn»n ^a tyi nan Na^o 24
rmoi '"♦'nop rmoi 9 naN rrnoi ppnoi pe^n 25
pan pc ^a tyi "NtD^en N\yo irnoi "nap 26
>«jy»j« jwi p»oc jnv one* u e>n tfm pmoc 27
tfyi iynn tfn wnsn n^i ipnn n^jt 28
lTDen n 1 ?! wrnwi n^i ie*jnn n 1 ?! i-rjnn 29
i6 n'ono -on Dica yr p'j 30
«... vj»y n'Nioa n^i ibwq n 1 ? v-o»n 31
1 In the name of JHVH, the God of Israel, who dwelleth
2 among the Cherubim, before whose awfulness the angels (or
3 and the Ofanim (wheels) tremble, and all the princes
Two Jewish Amulets 51
4 of the Merkabah (chariot) 2 kneel down and prostrate them-
selves before him —
5 I write this amulet for the protection
6 and healing and delivery of the bearer of this amulet upon
7 By the power of the angel of this day, whose constellation
8 and his [ruling] angel is Eafael, and his servitor is Jupiter, 3
9 the bearer of this amulet be guarded against all evil and
10 enduring diseases, and against all severe and evil vicissi-
11 and against any fear, terror, anguish, injury, and feebleness,
12 and panic, and upsetting, and trembling, and depression of
13 spirit, and against Shedim, Lilin, morning demons, and mid-
day demons, 4
14 whether they be evil [demons] of the winds, the earth, or
the waters, 5
15 hidden or revealed, by day or by night ; and
16 against any male Shed and female Shed who dwell in houses,
and in courtyards, and in channels,
17 and in bath-houses, and in pools, and in wells, and in brooks,
18 and in springs, and in trees, and in the corners of the
house, and in mire
19 and dirt, and on the cross-roads. 6 — All of them
20 I adjure by the power of Sanuy and Sansanuy and Saman-
galuf, and in the name
21 of Yu'ahassbirun, and thee Lilith and thy entire band,
22 and thee Zumzamith and thy entire band, and thee Agrath,
23 daughter of Mahlath, 7 and thy entire band, and thee Kaf-
24 king of the Shedim, and his entire host, and all evil
25 spirits, and injuring spirits. And against the spirit of
. . ., 9 and the spirit of a slain man 10 ( ?), and the spirit
26 of the grave, 11 and the spirit of . . . and of . . ., 12 and all
the Shedim whose names
27 are remembered or whose names are not remembered, 13 whose
names I know or no man [knows] 14 —
52 I. M. Casanowicz
28 that ye shall not injure, and not frighten, and not disturb,
29 terrorize, and not upset, and not destroy, and not harm
30 the bearer of this amulet upon him in any member
of his two hundred forty-eight 15
31 members, neither in his head nor in his eyesight . . , 16
1 The p (or 1) is often substituted" for the H in the name of God in
later Jewish writings; cf. Jewish Enc. 9. 164.
2 The mystical interpretation of the description of the chariot with its
constituent parts, the wheels (ofanim), beasts (hayyoth), in Ezek. 1 and
10, forms under the name of 'Ma'aseh Merkabah' a very important part
of the secret lore in both the Talmud and the Kabbalah.
3 On astrological elements in Jewish amulets see JAOS 36. 156.
4 pTintt from "into , 'to cleanse, ' then 'to brighten' (as a result of
cleansing); hence Targ. to Ps. 91. 6 renders D^inv by KVTB » 'the day
being at noontime at its brightest.' Both , T ta l£3¥ (from fcO£3X 'morning')
and ,ta 1iTD, for morning and midday demons, respectively, are found in
Targ. to Cant. 4. 6; cf. also Berak. 2a and Yoma 59 a .
5 Spirits who cause storms, earthquakes, and floods ; see Jewish Enc.
4. 516. Cf. K1T1 KrU3, § y] r\ ,L ? ,L 7 in Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation
Texts, p. 78; 17. 3 (p. 190); 29. 7 (p. 218).
6 On the abodes of demons see Jewish Enc. 4. 516. — Among the trees the
palm tree seems to have been considered as a favorite rendezvous of
spirits, Pes. lll a . So also are the cross-roads 'a resort of spirits'; Hecate
is often found there, and in the Testament of Solomon . . . the demon
Envy says, 'In the cross-ways also I have my services to render,' R. Camp-
bell Thompson, Semitic Magic, its Origin and Development, p. 200, n. 4;
cf. J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3 2 . 80, and Enc. Bibl. s. v. 'Medicine,'
7 See JAOS 36. 167, n. 48.
8 Elsewhere Ashmodai (Asmodeus) or Samael is named as prince of the
•nDK, whether derived from "1.3N, 'limb,' or from «"J3«, 'led,' it does
not fit into the context.
10 The immediately following "HSp nil would suggest the taking of ,l ?1Dp
in the passive sense, the spirit of a murdered man who finds no rest and
annoys people on earth, a belief widely spread. But perhaps it is more
correct to take the word in the active sense, a murderous spirit, for which
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. 36. 2 (p. 238), 'p m3 KH^Ittp, 'murderess, daugh-
ter of a murderess.'
11 For the conception of graveyards as abode of spirits cf . Hag. 3b and
12 KD"Sty . . . K\yD which cannot in this connection be connected with
D^D, 'intestines' and KD ,L ?tf, 'ruler.'
mg J/ i* 8 ** --' =--V •
J! ' -
J , HE*
: asto rrT« lO -»£^-r"? 3TOTO r
— -.- —
-»i ' < K try f i
r g — .v-r- -*.- S a v* ova **<- -a
-•"■ r J
S - - -
-ft" rar* •j&jj
!? £ I— t:- ^ ;-», V
- ■ y
1 i &
5t .•!-!— >^-ru / *^*
.% CCJ^s'^ ,nCJs..K h CCJl.^ JtC-w.WU wC-^-.**-, .TChJw. s'_ J^A ft.
II. Double Amulet on Parchment with Blanks for Insertion
of the Name of a Client. Tunis, North Africa
Two Jewish Amulets 53
13 What Montgomery terms 'blanket formulas,' so as not to omit any
agency, ef. op. tit. 14. 6 (p. 183) ; 29. 9 (p. 218) ; etc.
"Supply 'V> jnv.
15 See JAOS 36. 165, n. 24.
16 The scribe apparently broke off in the middle of his copy, which
probably continued the enumeration of the other bodily parts which were
to be protected from attack, closing with a prayer that the patient might
find grace and favor in the eyes of God and men.
The Invocation to the Left
♦n"»n ♦rr , 7N mm -psro pin »m 1
•nnjn nptr ]ytfr\ yysb ton 2
o'tsmpn root? V»o nroion 3
novno* mv?n» minnv o»*aum 4
nxon^ nfrn'r- ntt'inno* nofrnjp 5
rrmrfr rrrbnw mirnm rrninro* e
j yd?) 'mrono* rfyinr* nyinnm 7
•n^jn V?n D'&nnpn nrnoE> 8
4 iro rDDioa iro "I'm inv miorx 9
•inn pts^oi jnn py 'rro irrp'j 11
prp»n owno 'raoi yn "Ton 'ttoi 12
♦"Tinai ronjoi .todnoi n£OJoi is
*»»! rrpm non*o n^i mw 14
njura rrrvooi ona** nonnn 15
mo 'TCbzsn rmws) Trawie nmooi ie
nwonoi m nnm m'ryo'i ro^ pnonoi 17
pmnoi ±> pajnoi n 1 ? nipisooi mm is
nroi deo a 1 ? rasyoi ±> n^ittyi a 1 ? 19
atoo yrp'? ^m mo^nt? ami x^ao 1 ? 20
9 nnoi aopoi *±> nipwooi py nron e>ja 21
ruoorrp ttftbyw oeo nsjoi nanoi 22
mtroi nwp »yo ^oi "weep 'woop 23
obo "n»rm n 1 ? roeoo ^rono D^ijosr 24
"73 wjdi -pun mo *73t5n jn axon mn 25
3»roi wr ouo ?n nito mi rrrons van 26
54 I. M. Gasanowicz
(«') frnm n aix) dvY?n wya did ^acri jrr M5foi 27
wwi 7J\ya D'orr-to norfn jrf? narrN 1 ? 28
■wnon ^n ^an* dbo vnvi ^a 29
•awn ^NniN -ijn rf?D rnu jqn ^om so
^wjrra ^anty ^aoo too tonaj 31
1 May it please thee, JHVH, my God and the God
2 of my fathers, for thy sake and for the sake of thy great
3 which is crowned with these holy
4 and awful names
7 / and for the sake
8 of these thy holy names 'AGLA' 2
9 AZBUGAH YUHK KLK 3 KUZU BMUKSZ KUZU. 4
10 That thou mayest guard and deliver
11 the bearer of this amulet upon him from any evil eye and
from an evil tongue, 5
12 and from all evil speech, and from all evil sights,
13 and from epilepsy, and from croup, and from a running
14 and from the black sickness (melancholy, or melanaemia),
and the white sickness (leukaemia), and the red sickness
(jaundice), and the green sickness (biliousness, or Egyptian
15 and from any torpor of the limbs (paralysis, or narcosis),
and from a strange death,
16 and a sudden death, 6 and from folly and confusion of the
17 and from stupor of the heart, and from faintness, trembling,
and shock, and from evil
18 fancies and distress of the heart, and languor of the heart,
19 of the heart, and . . . 7 of the heart, and sadness of the
heart. In the name and by the power
20 of LTBLA' WNHB mayest thou guard and protect the
bearer of this amulet upon him from head-
Two Jewish Amulets 55
21 ache, and from eye-sore, and from distresses of the heart, 8
and from Keteb and Meriri, 9
22 and from pestilence and plague : in the name of SDNLBSH
23 Kastiel Katsiel. And from any bond 10 and magic [that
24 in the world, as it is written, 'Thou shalt not suffer a sor~
ceress to live, ni in
25 the name of HYH. And may he find favor and good under-
standing in thine eyes and in the eyes of all
26 who see him, as it is written, 'And Noah found favor in the
eyes of JHVH' 12 ; and is written,
27 'And thou wilt find favor and good understanding in the
eyes of God and man.' 13 And may he be an object
28 of love, favor and grace and compassion in thine eyes and
in the eyes
29 of all who see him ; in the name of Ahabiel, Hanniel, Hasdiel,
30 Kahamiel. Amen, enduring forever. Uriel, Rafael,
31 Gabriel, Michael, Samkiel, 'Azriel, Sadkiel,
1 The names in lines 4 to 7 are composed of the fourteen three-lettered
names scattered between the zigzag figure on top of the amulet, inter-
linked each with HI IT •
2 The initial letters of 'JIK dSi^S lim HUH , ' Thou art mighty for ever
O Lord/ the first words of the second prayer of the ' Eighteen Benedic-
tions ' (Shemoneh 'Esreh, or ' Amidah) ; also the acrostic of the first
words of Gen. 49. 8-11 (Judah of v. 8, as the address, not being counted).
3 Combined of the end letters of Ps. 91. 11.
4 By ab-gd — 'S lrnStf HUT •
5 In the Talmud the technical term for calumny or slander ; here prob-
ably of casting an evil spell by some magical formula.
G Cf . the petition, ' from sudden death, good Lord deliver us, ' in the
Litany of the Common Prayer Book.
7 T¥- The word is found in plural, Jnd. 2. 3, rendered by lxx avvox^s =
nil* (?), by Targ. J-p ,, j?D = Dn2f , but is most probably to be amended after
the parallels in Num. 33. 55 and Josh. 23. 13, into DTJi* , 'thorns.'
8 Already mentioned in line 18.
9 Both words, without copula, are found in Deut. 32. 24, English versions,
'bitter destruction'; 3ttp alone, in parallel to 131 , occurs Is. 28. 2; Hos.
13. 14; and Ps. 91. 6. In the last passage both Targ. and Rashi render
both words by 'demon' (TO). In rabbinical literature (Pes. 111^, Num.
56 /. M. Casanowicz
R. 12. 3) 'D'p is depicted as a demon calf -headed with revolving goat's
horn, an eye in the breast, and body covered with scales, hair, and eyes,
who reigns from the seventeenth of Tammuz to the ninth of Ab (the
season of national mourning). For a similar monster in Assyrian incan-
tations see Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. 63 f .
10 "Wp. It may mean a psychical or spiritual bond, i. e. the duress
caused by a demon or sorcerer (cf. Luke 13. 16), which the juxtaposition of
fpt^J would suggest; or it may refer to bewitchment by tying knots,
cf. Montgomery, op. cit. ntrp, 7. 13 (p. 146), and *Hp\T ; 34. 10 (p. 231).
On the wide-spread practice of sorcery by tying knots see Frazer, Golden
Bough, l 2 . 392, 397; Thompson, op. cit. p. 168 ff.
u Exod. 22. 18.
12 Gen. 6. 8.
13 Prov. 3. 4.