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THE DOHADA OR CRAVING OF PREGNANT WOMEN: 
A MOTIF OF HINDU FICTION 1 

Maukice Bloomfield 
Johns Hopkins University 

Hindu schematism allows nothing in nature or the mind, 
however unimportant or indecent it may seem to a sofisticated 
Western soul, to pass without formal statement and discussion. 
The two Sastras, Kamasastra, 'Rules of Love,' and the (so far) 
lost Steyasastra, 'Rules of Thieving,' are familiar examples of 
this Hindu habit. Lurid descriptions of the female body, 
inflammatory, and primarily intended to inflame, pass into liter- 
ature without the least sense of indecency or decadence. 2 In 
their Hindu treatment, these matters appear, in the end, natural 
or even exigent; to suppress them or disguise them would leave 
a blank, and cast shame upon him that thinketh evil. Similarly, 
dohada, that is, the fancy, craving, or whim of a pregnant 
woman, a trivial and intimate event in woman's life history, is 
not allowed to flit uncaught thru Hindu thot. On the contrary 
it is gripped firmly, and handled without gloves, pervading 
poetry and fiction all the way from Ceylon to Tibet. The notion 
is so persistent that it becomes, in time, a mere formula, or bit 
of embroidery. There is scarcely a description of spring-time 



1 The present article continues the encyclopedic treatment of Hindu 
Fiction, planned some years ago, and since then substantiated in a number 
of my own papers, and one by Dr. E. W. Burlingame. See Bloomfield, 
'On Eecurring Psychic Motifs in Hindu Fiction, and the Laugh and Cry 
Motif,' JAOS 36. 54-89; 'On the Art of Entering Another's Body, a 
Hindu Fiction Motif,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 
56. 1-43; 'The Fable of the Crow and the Palm-Tree, a Psychic Motif 
in Hindu Fiction,' AJP 40. 1-36. Preceded by, 'The Character and 
Adventures of Miiladeva,' Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 52. 616-50; and, 'On 
Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction,' Festschrift Ernst Windisch, 349- 
61. Burlingame 's paper is: 'The Act of Truth (Saccakiriya) : a Hindu 
Spell and its Employment as a Psychic Motif in Hindu Fiction': JBAS, 
July 1917, pp. 429-67. 

2 So, e. g., Dasakumara Carita (Bombay Sanskrit Series), Part 1, p. 
62; Vasavadatta, Gray's Translation, pp. 58, 61, 62, 86; Kathasaritsagara 
84. 6 ff.; Parsvanatha Caritra, 1. 216 ff.; Samaradityasamksepa 5. 167 ff. ; 
Divyavadana, p. 444. 

1 JAOS 40 



2 Maurice Bloomfield 

in which trees or plants do not manifest dohada before they 
blossom out; there is many a story in which an embryo child 
teases its mother with caprices of the most varied sorts. 

The treatment of dohada is both scientific and literary. As 
regards science, it figures prominently in medicine, in love books 
(Kamasastra), in psycho-fysics, and in filosofy. With these we 
are not directly concerned, except in so far as they put forth the 
idea that dohada is due to the presence of a second heart and a 
second will in the body of the mother; that the mother's crav- 
ings are, therefore, vicarious ; and that the prosperous develop- 
ment of the embryo depends upon the satisfaction of these 
cravings, in whatsoever manner they may manifest themselves. 
This aspect of dohada, as well as the derivation of the word 
from the idea of ' two-heartedness, ' has been treated conclusively 
enough by Liiders, Nachrichten der Gottingischen Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften, 1898, fascicle 1; Jolly, IF 10, 213 ff. ; 
Aufrecht, ZDMG 52. 763 ; Boehtlingk, ZDMG 55. 98 ; Ber. d. 
kgl. sachs. Ges. d. Wiss. 1901 ; Richard Schmidt, Beitrdge zur 
indischen Erotik, p. 392 ff. 

As a theme of literature dohada appears in two ways, both 
naive in their inception, and a priori quite dispensable. It must 
be admitted, however, that on the whole, they are worked out in 
a way that lacks neither beauty nor usefulness ; that is entirely 
free from grossness; and that, in the end, really adds both dis- 
tinctiveness and variety to Hindu literature. 

One of the ways is poetic, the other pragmatic. In poetry we 
have the exquisite notion that the sudden blossoming of trees in 
the spring is a kind of birth, preceded by a pregnancy fancy. 
The fulfilment of that fancy is thot to be the necessary prelimi- 
nary to the perfect event. The kadamba tree suddenly buds 
forth at the beginning of the rainy season, when the thunder 
ro U s — s ign that the kadamba craved to hear the thunder, before 
giving birth to its buds. The bakula (vakula) tree, before bear- 
ing blossoms, must be sprinkled with wine from the mouths of 
young women — that is its whim. Above all, the asoka tree must 
be touched by the foot of a maiden, or young woman, before it 
blossoms — again the whim of the pregnant plant, say, or imply, 
the Hindu poets. 3 

•As regards the asoka see Lala, Slta. Earn in ZDMG 58. 393. 



The Dohada 3 

In Parsvanatha Caritra 6. 796, 797, four trees are thus said 
to blossom in spring in consequence of having their several 
dohadas fulfilled. 

pusyanti taruntslistd yasmin* kuruvakadrumdh, 
vikasam ydnty asokds tu vadhupddaprahdratah. 
mrgdksisidhugandusdih pusyanti bakula api, 
campakds tu praphullanti sugandhajaladohaddih. 
'(Came spring) when the kuruvaka trees bloom, as they are 
embraced ' by young maids ; when the asoka trees burst into 
bloom, as they are struck by the feet of young women ; when the 
bakula trees bloom, if sprayed with wine from the mouths of 
gazelle-eyed maidens; when the campaka trees burst as they 
are sprinkled with perfumed water. ' The kuravaka or kuruvaka 
is said also to break into blossom when looked at by a beautiful 
woman, (pramadayd) dlokitdh kuravakdh kurute vikasam, gloss 
to Kumarasaihbhava 3. 26 (see Pet. Lex. under kuravaka) . 

In the more eufuistic descriptions, Vasavadatta 133 and 138, 
.figure only asoka and bakula; they are, as a matter of fact, 
mentioned most frequently: 'Came spring, that makes bakula 
trees horripilate from sprinkling with rum in mouthfuls by 
amorous maids, merry with drink; that has hundreds of asoka 
trees delighted by the slow stroke of the tremulous lotus feet, 
beautiful with anklets, of wanton damsels, enslaved by amorous 
delights.' And again, 'In spring, by its fresh shoots the aioka, 
because of its longing to be touched by a maiden's ankleted foot, 
red with the dye of new lac, seemed to have assumed that color. 
The bakula shone as if, thru sprinkling with mouthfuls from 
amorous girls' lotus lips, completely filled with sweet wine, it 
had assumed its (the wine's) color in its own flowers.' 5 

Rarely does a Hindu poet allude to the asoka tree without this 
thot; see, e. g., Malavikagnimitram, Act 3, stanzas 48 and 53 
(Bollensen's edition, 1879) ; Boehtlingk's Indische Spriiche, 
5691, 5693. In case of all of these trees there is the corollary 
idea that their fruit does not prosper, unless their cravings are 
satisfied; it is just as fit and proper to satisfy these cravings, 
as, in real life, it is imperative to satisfy the whim of the proto- 
typical pregnant woman : dohadam asyah puraya, 6 'satisfy her 

4 Sc, vasante. 

1 Compare Gray 's Translation of Vasavadatta, pp. 84, 85. 

"Malav. stanza 55. 



4 Maurice Bloomfield 

dohada,' is, as it were, a Hindu motto, because the foetus comes 
to grief if desire due to dohada is not granted, dohadasyapra- 
danena garbho dosam avdpnuyat (Yajfiavalkya 3. 79). 

The pragmatic aspect of dohada is what concerns Hindu fic- 
tion. It seems that Hindu women are affected by it to a degree 
unknown in the West, and that husbands are very conscious of 
its presence and of their duties, in the circumstances, towards 
their patient wives. Literary testimony is very abundant, but 
we have in addition direct testimony from a modern Hindu 
source. In an article entitled 'Doladuk (dohada),' Mr. "W. 
Goonetilleke, in The Orientalist 2. 81, describes the circum- 
stances somewhat as follows : Sinhalese as well as other Eastern 
women acquire, during the earlier period of pregnancy, a long- 
ing or craving after particular objects. It is the duty of the 
husband to provide these objects, lest the woman's health suffer. 
In 'former times' unchaste wives availed themselves of this for 
getting rid of their husbands for a time, so as to enjoy the com- 
pany of their paramours. All the young woman has to do is to 
express longing for some rare article of food, or a fruit out of 
season, and the deluded husband, as he is in duty bound, sets 
out to procure it. In the meantime the wife has her own way in 
the house; see the Nikini story, below, p. 22. 

This longing for particular objects is known among the Sin- 
halese as Doladuk = dohada. In decent Sinhalese, a woman is 
not said to be pregnant, but in the state of Doladuk, 'Dola- 
dukin innava.' Mr. Goonetilleke goes on to say that the object 
longed for is, for the most part, a lump of dry clay or earth, or 
broken pieces of new chatties. These substances have a kind of 
fragrance which is irresistibly inviting to pregnant women, as 
well as to patients suffering from the disease called Pandu 
(jaundice or anemia) . 7 In Raghuvahsa 3. 3, 5, 6, this matter is 
authenticated. The king of North Kosala there sniffs (our 
'kisses') the face of his beloved, that has the odor of earth {mrt- 
surabhi)* and thus learns that she is in dohada. 'Whatever she 
chose, that she saw brought in; for the desired object was not 
unattainable, even in heaven, by this king with the strung-bow. ' 



T Jaundiced clay-eaters are well known in the southern United States. 

8 The commentator Mallinatha says, garbhiwinam mrdbhdksanam loka~ 
prasiddham eva, 'it is universally understood that pregnant women eat 
earth. ' 



The Dohada 5 

As far as the writer knows, the craving for elay does not again 
appear in literature. 

The same dohada is employed constantly as a start motif 
which initiates a chain of unusual happenings, or as a progres- 
sive motif in the course of stories. Clearly, if the story requires 
something unusual to be done, if the smooth course of some 
one's life is to be disturbed; or, if the evenly righteous or proper 
character of some person needs to be turned into something 
wicked or convulsive; dohada, in its unbridled unexpectedness, 
can be readily called upon. When a lady expresses the desire 
to dine off the entrails of her husband, 9 or to drink the moon, 10 
the story gets a jolt, and after that is liable to move with some 
elan. Indeed, dohada runs the entire gamut from such fierce 
fancies clear to the opposite pole, e. g., the lamb-like desire to 
hear pious discourse from some great religious teacher, which 
occurs very frequently in fiction, tho it is perhaps not so likely 
in real life. 

As is true of many other fiction motives, dohada, because it 
occurs very frequently, tends to become mechanical in its use. 
Thus, in the course of the rebirths of the pair of souls of Guna- 
sena and Agnisarman in the Jaina text Samaradityasamksepa, 
the births are very regularly preceded by dohada: 2. 13, 361; 
3. 15; 4. 444; 5. 10; 6. 388. The motif is, in this regard, very 
much on a plane with another birth motif, namely, the dream, 
which heralds the birth of a noble son, a stock motif with which 
the Jainas in particular embroider the life histories of their 
saints and emperors, from Mahavira down. This trait is also 
constant in the Samaradityasamksepa. 11 

Dohada unconsciously assumes in the minds of the fictionists 
certain systematic aspects, which make it convenient to treat it 
under six rubrics: 

I. Dohada either directly injures the husband, or impels 
some act on his part which involves danger or contumely. 

II. Dohada prompts the husband to deeds of heroism, supe- 
rior skill, wisdom, or shrewdness. 



9 Pradyumnacaiya 's Samaradityasamksepa 2. 361. 

10 Parisistaparvan 8. 225 ff. 

11 See my volume, The Life and Stories of the Jaina Savior Pargva- 
natha, pp. 189 ff. 



6 Maurice Bloomfield 

III. Dohada takes the form of pious acts, or pious aspira- 
tions. 

IV. Dohada is used as an ornamental incident, not influenc- 
ing the main events of a story. 

V. Dohada is feigned by the woman, in order that she may 
accomplish some purpose, or satisfy some desire. 

VI. Dohada is obviated by tricking the woman into the belief 
that her desire is being fulfilled. 

I. Dohada either directly injures the husband, or impels some 
act on his part which involves danger or contumely. 

Suitably, the account of this motif, based, as it is, upon 
extravagance, begins with its most extreme manifestation, 
namely, when the dohada injures. Once more, the extremest 
injury, which is surely not retailed without a touch of irony, 
is to the person or character of the husband himself. It is 
remarkable that the woman herself is not directly injured ; nor 
is she, as a rule, driven by her whim into adventure. There is 
just one folklore story of this sort, told by Parker, Village Folk- 
Tales of Ceylon, vol. 2, pp. 388 ff., where the young wife of a 
prince is taken with dohada (doladuk) for a damba fruit, which 
her seven sisters-in-law refuse to give her. The princess climbs 
a damba tree, is there wooed by a leopard, and goes with him 
to his rock cave. The leopard is trapped by the princess's 
brothers in a covered pit and buried alive. The princess dies 
thru very grief at the loss of the leopard. 

In Thusa Jataka (338) the mother of the future parricide, 
Prince Ajatasattu, 12 when pregnant with him, conceives a 
chronic longing to drink blood from the right knee of her 
husband, King Bimbisara. The king learns from his astrologers 
that the prospective child will kill him, and seize his kingdom. 
'If my son,' says the king, 'should kill me and seize my king- 
dom, what is the harm of it!' He has his right knee opened 
with a sword, lets the blood fall into an open dish, and gives it 
to the queen to drink. But the queen, loathing the idea of the 
parricide's being born, endeavors to bring about a miscarriage. 
The king, hearing of it, calls her to him, and says, 'My dear, it 
is said, my son will slay me, and seize my kingdom. But I am 
not exempt from old age and death: suffer me to behold the 

13 See Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, pp. 14 ff. 



The Dohada 7 

face of my child!' In full time the queen gives birth to a son 
who is called Ajatasattu, because he had been his father 's enemy 
while still unborn. 13 Ajatasattu in due time slays his father. 

In Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 84, Queen Vasavi, who is about 
to bear her husband, King Bimbisara, a son, destined to kill that 
king, his father, is seized by the desire to eat flesh from the 
king's back. She tells the king, who consults the soothsayers. 
They decide that the desire is caused by the influence of a being 
which has entered into his wife 's womb. Some sagacious person 
advises him to have a cotton garment lined with raw meat, and 
to put it on, and then offer the meat to his wife. He does so, 
and offers Vasavi the meat; she thinks that it is the king's own 
flesh, and so eats it, whereby she is freed from her longing. 
Afterwards she longs for her husband's blood, the king has the 
veins opened in five of his limbs, and gives her the blood to 
drink, whereby she is freed from her longing. 

This event is alluded to, Kathakosa, p. 177," where the king, 
whom the Buddhists call Ajatasatru, is called Konika (Kunika). 
This king has his father Srenika thrown into prison, where he 
ultimately dies. One day Konika is eating, while Udaya, his 
son by his wife Padmavati, is sitting in his lap. The child's 
urine falls into the vessel of rice. Konika does not put him off 
his lap for fear of disturbing him, but eats the rice mixed with 
urine. Konika says to his mother who is sitting by: 'Mother, 
did anybody ever love his son so much?' His mother replies: 
'You monstrous criminal, listen! When I was pregnant with 
you, I had a longing to eat your father's flesh. The king satis- 
fied my longing. When you were born, I abandoned you in an 
enclosure of asoka-trees, saying that you were a villain. The 
king brought you back ; so you were called Asokacandra. Then 
a dog tore your finger. It became a whitlow. So he gave you 
the name of Konika. 15 When the swelling on your finger 
ripened, you suffered pain; your father held that finger in his 

13 It is very unlikely that this teleological interpretation of the name is 
correct; rather 'he whose enemies are not born, or do not exist'; i. e., 
'Unconquerable.' So Ajatasatru, an epithet of Indra in RV. Clearly the 
name is part reason for the story. 

14 The same episode in Nirayavaliya Sutta, edited by Warren in Trans- 
actions of the Amsterdam Academy, 1879. 

15 There is no evidence that Konika has this meaning. 



8 Maurice Bloomfield 

mouth, tho it was streaming with matter, so you did not cry. 
To this extent did he love you.' Konika, full of remorse, takes 
up an iron club, and goes off in person to break his father's 
chains. The guards say to Srenika: 'Konika is coming in a 
very impatient mood, with an iron club in his hand. ' The king, 
thinking that he would be put to death by some painful mode 
of execution, takes talaputa poison. When Konika arrives 
there, he finds King Srenika dead. 

In Samaradityasamksepa 2. 356 ff. the soul of the ascetic 
Agnisarman falls from heaven, and is conceived in the womb of 
Kusumavali, queen of King Sinha. In her dream she sees a 
serpent enter her womb, 16 go out again and bite the king, so that 
he falls from his throne. She does not communicate this inaus- 
picious omen to the king. Owing to that fault she gets to hate 
the king as her child keeps growing in her womb, and finally is 
taken with dohada to eat her husband's entrails. Because she 
ascribes this to the evil nature of the foetus, she decides to prac- 
tise abortion. But tho she takes many drugs, she does not suc- 
ceed in her detestable design, merely growing very lean from 
the drugs and her unsatisfied dohada. From a friend of the 
queen the king learns the whole story, consults his minister, and 
is advised to cut fake entrails from his body before the eyes of 
the queen. The minister tells the queen that he will satisfy her 
craving. She consents, and he cuts the entrails of a hare which 
are hidden in the king's clothes, apparently from out of his 
body, while the queen looks on. The minister next tells her to 
report the birth of her child to himself, and, when she does so, 
he tells her that the child is dangerous to the king and should 
therefore be brought up at a distance. Again she consents, and 
intrusts the child to a tire-woman, who, however, is intercepted 
by the king. He takes the child, contrives a secret birth-festival 
for him, names him Ananda, has him educated in every accom- 
plishment, and appoints him heir-apparent. 

It comes to pass that a forest bandit, Durmati by name, rises 
against the king, who then organizes an expedition against him. 

"In Vlraearita 23 (Indische Studien 14. 137) a pregnant woman sees 
a serpent, and, therefore, begets a serpent. In Parsvanatha Caritra 5. 125, 
Queen Varna, while pregnant, sees a serpent by her side (parsvatah) , 
therefore her son is named Parsva. See my Life and Stories of the Jama 
Savior Pargvanatha, p. 190. 



The Dohada 9 

The king is reminded of the perishableness of all things by the 
spectacle of a frog being devoured by a serpent, the serpent by 
an osprey, and the osprey by a boa constrictor. He decides to 
abandon the world, and makes preparations for his successor, 
Ananda. Ananda, on account of his evil nature, suspects his 
father of designs against his life, and attacks him. A battle 
ensues, which is, however, stopped by the king, who orders 
Ananda 's consecration as king. But Ananda, still suspicious, 
has his father thrown into prison. There Queen Kusumavali 
visits him, is converted, and turns nun. The king decides to 
die by starvation, but Ananda sends a palace eunuch, named 
Devasarma, to feed him by force. The king refuses to be inter- 
fered with in his pious career, and is slain by the sword of his 
own son. 

There is finally a single case in which dohada results not only 
in the husband's death, but also in the death of a second person, 
showing how insistent is this mode of treatment. In Suvanna- 
kakkatu Jataka (389) " the Bodhisat, born as a Brahman 
farmer, strikes up a friendship with a crab. Now in his eyes 
are seen the five graces and the three circles, very pure. A 
she-crow, conceiving dohada to eat his eyes, tells her mate to 
wait on a cobra, and to induce him to sting the Brahman to 
death, in order that he may pluck out the dead Brahman's eyes, 
and bring them to her. The cobra consents to the arrangement, 
bites the Brahman in the calf of his leg, and flees to his ant-hill. 
The crab seizes the crow by the neck ; the crow calls the cobra 
to his aid, and when he comes the crab clutches him as well. He 
makes the cobra suck the poison from the Brahman's wound, so 
that he is as well as before, and then crushes the heads of both 
crow and snake with his claws. 

At times dohada does not kill the unoffending husband, but 
merely endangers his life. Thus in Parsvanatha Caritra 3. 456 
ff., Prabhavaka, an adventurer who has taken service with a 
mean-spirited Thakkura, Sinha by name, is married by that 
Thakkura to a low-born wife. She conceives dohada for the 
flesh of the Thakkura 's pet peacock. 18 Prabhavaka satisfies it 



17 Cf. Benfey, Pancatantra, 1. 539. 

18 In Chavannes, Cinq Cent Contes et Apologues Chinois, nr. 20, the wife 
of a king falls sick, dreams that she sees a peacock, and that someone 
tells her that his flesh will cure her. This is, no doubt, dohada. Peacock's 
flesh makes young and long-lived in Jataka 159; cf. also Jataka 491. 



10 Maurice Bloomfield 

by giving her the flesh of a peacock equally good, and at the 
same time hides away the Thakkura 's pet. At meal-time the 
Thakkura misses his peacock, has the drum beaten, and offers 
800 dinars and exemption from punishment to the restorer of 
the peacock. Then the slave-wife reflects : 'What use have I for 
this man from a strange country? I will take the money, and 
get another husband. ' She touches the drum, and tells the king 
that she had craved the peacock's flesh, and that Prabhavaka, 
out of love for her, had slain him, tho she had tried to dissuade 
him. Prabhavaka, after having vainly sought protection by an 
ungrateful friend, and after appealing in vain to the mercy of 
the Thakkura himself, whom he had previously benefited in an 
important way, produces the peacock. Then, in disgust, he 
takes leave of treacherous wife, faithless friend, and ungrateful 
king. 

In another instance, Parsvanatha 7. 275 ff., Kathakosa pp. 42 
ff., a female endangers thru dohada her husband's life, but, in 
the end, herself saves him thru her devotion. A fond pair of 
parrots live upon a tree. The female, in dohada, requests the 
male to bring her a head of rice from a nearby field. The male 
remonstrates, because the field belongs to king Srikanta, and he 
will therefore lose his head. She taunts him for his cowardice. 
Thereupon he daily plucks a head of rice from the field, until 
the king notices the depredation, orders the keepers of the field 
to catch the parrot, and bring him to his presence. When this 
is done, the king raises his sword to cut off the head of the 
parrot. But the female covers him with her body, begs for his 
life, and explains that her husband has misbehaved at her bid- 
ding, when in dohada. The king taunts the male, telling him 
that he, who is famous in the world for wisdom, 19 had risked 
his life to satisfy the whim of a woman. The female retorts by 
narrating how the king himself, in a former birth, had taken 
the same risk of his life in behalf of his queen Sridevi. The king 
releases both parrots, and assigns to them daily rations of rice 
from that very field. The she-parrot, her dohada satisfied, lays 
two eggs. 



18 See my paper 'On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction,' Festschrift Ernst 
Windisch, p. 354 ff. 



The Dohada 11 

A close relative of the last story, Supatta Jataka (292), 20 
transfers the devotion, which primarily belongs to the husband, 
to an agent, but the chief traits are the same. The Bodhisat, 
born as king of the crows, named Supatta, has a queen Suphassa, 
and a chief captain Sumukha. Queen Suphassa, in dohada, fly- 
ing over the kitchen of king Brahmadatta in Benares, smells its 
savory food, longs for it, and tells her husband that she must 
die, unless she gets some of it. The crow king, perched pen- 
sively, is quizzed by Captain Sumukha, who no sooner hears 
what is the trouble than he proposes to fetch the food. The 
captain with eight champions flies to Benares and settles on the 
roof of the kitchen. There he issues the following order: 
'When the food is taken up, I'll make the man drop the dishes. 
Once that is done, there's an end of me. So four of you must 
fill your mouths with the rice, and four with the fish, and feed 
the royal pair with them ; and if they ask where I am, say I 'm 
coming. ' 

The cook, hanging his dishes on a balance-pole, goes off 
towards the king's rooms. As he passes thru the court the crow 
captain, with a signal to his followers, settles upon his chest, 
strikes him with extended claws, and with his beak, sharp as a 
spear-point; pecks the end of his nose, and with his two feet 
stops up his jaws. The king, happening to observe what the 
crow is doing, hails the carrier, 'Hullo, you, down with the 
dishes, and catch the crow!' He does so; the champions pick 
up the food and give it to their king and queen to eat. "When 
the cook brings the captain, and the latter is questioned by the 
king about his disrespectful and reckless conduct, he explains: 
'0 great king! Our king lives near Benares, and I am captain 
of his forces. His wife conceived a great longing for a taste 
of your food. Our king told me what she craved; at once I 
devoted my life, and now I have sent her the food.' King 
Brahmadatta is so pleased' with the captain 's devotion that he 
bestows upon him the white umbrella, and regularly sends of 
his own food to the royal crow pair. 

The chef-d'oeuvre of dohada stories, in which the uxorious 
husband both fails to satisfy his wife and in addition is con- 
tumeliously outwitted by superior intellect, is founded upon a 

20 See Folk-lore Journal, 3. 360. 



12 Maurice Bloomfield 

female crocodile's dohada for a beautiful monkey's heart. It 
occurs in two versions, both of which are distinguished by inven- 
tiveness and perfect Hindu setting. In their Buddhist form they 
figure as the Sunsumara Jataka (208), of which a briefer version 
is the Vanara Jataka (342) ; and the Vanarinda Jataka (57), of 
which a briefer version is the Kumbhila Jataka (224) . 21 In the 
Sunsumara the Bodhisat disports himself as a monkey on the 
shore of the Ganga. The female crocodile conceives a desire to eat 
his heart. Her mate entices the monkey, by promise of fresher 
and choicer fruit, to cross the Ganga, upon his back. The croco- 
dile drops the monkey in the middle of the river. On being asked 
the reason for this procedure the crocodile replies, with a touch 
of Buddhist cant, that he has not dealt honestly by the monkey, 
because he wishes, for above-mentioned reasons, to feed the 
monkey's heart to his wife. The monkey acknowledges the pro- 
priety of the crocodile's intentions: 'If only monkeys had their 
hearts in their bodies! This is not so, because their hearts 
would be torn to pieces by the branches of the trees upon which 
they are constantly jumping about.' The crocodile sceptically 
asks how the monkeys can live in this way, but the monkey con- 
vinces him by showing him the ripe fruits upon an udumbara 
(fig) tree, alleging that they are the monkeys' hearts. Saith 
the crocodile: 'If you will show me your heart I will not kill 
you!' 'Then take me there, and I will show it you, hanging 
down from the udumbara tree.' The crocodile complies, the 
monkey escapes, and recommends the crocodile to consider, as 
the permanent valuable fruit of his experience, that his, the 
crocodile's, body may be great, but not so his intelligence. But 
the monkey reflects for himself somewhat as follows: 

'Lightly I'd eat the lotus on the other side of the sea, 
Far better for me to eat the fruit of the homely fig-tree.' 
In the Vanarinda Jataka the monkey lives on the bank of a 
river, but is in the habit of foraging on a little island in the 
middle of that river. This island he reaches by first jumping 
upon a large rock between the bank and the island. Now the 
crocodile, sent by his pregnant wife, one evening lies in ambush 

21 Parallels to these stories are cited from the classical literatures of 
India by Andersen, Pali Header, p. 115; from folk-lore by Bloomfield, 
JAOS 36. 59, note. 



The Dohada 13 

upon the stone, awaiting the return of the monkey from the 
island to the shore of the mainland. The monkey, however, 
notices that the rock (with the crocodile upon it) looms larger 
than usual, whereas the water of the river is no lower than 
usual. "With exceeding artfulness he calls the rock three times 
(iho pdsdna), and as there is, of course, no answer, exclaims 
'Why, rock, do you not answer to-day?' (as tho the rock were 
in the habit of answering). The crocodile thinks that the rock 
must be in the habit of conversing with the monkey, and finally 
responds, 'What is it, monkey?' (kith iho vdnarinda) . 22 He 
then confesses that he is there to get the monkey's heart. The 
monkey expresses his willingness to be eaten. He tells the croc- 
odile to open his mouth to receive him, knowing that the eyes 
of a crocodile shut up when he opens his mouth. As soon as the 
crocodile has opened his mouth, the monkey jumps from the 
island upon his head, and thence to shore. 

In one instance dohada is not directed against the unoffending 
husband but manifests itself in a whim for ogrish things or 
ogrish food, which must, indeed, have been very disturbing to 
that husband. In Kathas. 9. 45 ff., and again in 30. 45 ff., 
Queen Mrgavati, the wife of King Sahasranika, being pregnant, 
feels a desire to bathe in a lake of blood. 23 Her husband, afraid 
of committing sin, has a lake made of liquid lac and other 
colored fluids, in which she plunges. Then a bird of the race of 
Garuda pounces upon her, thinking that she is raw flesh. He 
carries her off, and as fate will have it, leaves her alive on the 
mountain of the sunrise (udayaparvata) . Therefore, the gods 
give her son the name of Udayana. 

In yet another case the caprice of a queen costs a husband 
both wife and child, without, however, injuring his person. But 
out of the disruption of the family comes in time the birth of 
a famous Pratyekabuddha, named Karakandu. In Jacobi, Aus- 
gewahlte Erzahlungen in Mdhdrastrl, p. 34, line 25 ff., 24 King 

22 This, according to mj suggestion, JAOS 36. 58, is the 'Cave Call 
Motif,' or the .'Speaking Cave.' 

28 Bath of blood occurs also in Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 60, in a dif- 
ferent connection. 

"See also Warren, Nirayavaliya Sutta, in the Transactions of the 
Amsterdam Academy, 1879; Charpentier, PacceTcdbucldhageschiohten, pp. 
152 ff. 



14 Maurice Bloomfield 

Dahivahana reigns in Campa. His queen, Paumavai, is taken 
with dohada. 'How can I divert myself, riding thru the parks 
and groves on the most excellent back of an elefant, attired in 
the costume of the king, having the royal parasol held over me 
by the great king?' On the strength of this the royal pair 
mount the Elefant of Victory. It is then the beginning of the 
rainy season. When the elefant smells the odor of the fragrant 
earth he remembers the woods, and gallops out of the path. The 
people can not keep up with him. The two enter the woods. 
The king sees a fig-tree. He says to the queen : ' He will pass 
under that fig-tree ; then you are to take hold of a bough. ' She 
promises, but can not take hold. The king seizes the bough, and 
Paumavai is carried off alone into a desolate wood. Afterwards 
she brings forth, in a Jaina convent, a son, whom she exposes, 
and who, when he grows up, becomes the Pratyekabuddha, 
Karakandu. 

II. Dohada prompts the husband to deeds of heroism, supe- 
rior skill, wisdom, or shrewdness. 

In the first instance dohada jeopardizes the life of the hus- 
band, who is, however, saved by his own heroic prowess. In 
the long and interesting story of the present in Bhaddasala 
Jataka (465), repeated in Dhammapada Commentary 4. 3, 25 
Mallika, wife of the general Bandhula, is prompted by her 
dohada to bathe in the tank in Vesali City, where the proud 
families of the kings of the Licchavis get water for the ceremo- 
nial sprinkling, as well as drinking water. That tank is guarded 
strongly within and without; above it is spread an iron net; 
not even a bird can find room to get thru. But Bandhula goes 
there in a car with Mallika; puts the guards to flight; bursts 
thru the iron network ; and in the tank bathes his wife and gives 
her to drink of the water. Then the 500 kings of the Licchavis 
are angered, mount 500 chariots, and set out in pursuit. Mal- 
lika espies them, and tells her lord. 'Then tell me,' says Ban- 
dhula, 'when they all look like one chariot.' When they, all in 
line, look like one chariot, Mallika reports: 'My lord, I see, as 
it were, the head of one chariot. ' Bandhula gives her the reins, 
stands upright in the chariot, and speeds a shaft which cleaves 
the heads of all the 500 chariots, and passes right thru the 500 

25 A muddled version of this story also in Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 82. 



The Dohada 15 

kings in the place where the girdle is fastened and then buries 
itself in the earth. The kings, not perceiving that they are 
wounded, pursue still, shouting, 'Stop, holloa, stop.' Bandhula 
stops his chariot, and says, 'You are dead men and I cannot 
fight with the dead. ' 'What,' say they, ' dead, such as we are ? ' 
' Loose the girdle of the first man, ' says Bandhula. They loose 
his girdle, and that instant he falls dead. Then Bandhula says 
to them, ' You are all of you in the same condition ; go to your 
homes, and set in order what should be ordered, and give your 
directions to your wives and families, and then doff your armor. ' 
They do so and all of them give up the ghost. 26 

The next story, Chavaka Jataka (309), brings out the wisdom 
of the Bodhisat, who is established as a poor Pariah householder. 
His pregnant wife, taken with dohada for a mango fruit, says, 
' If I can have a mango, I shall live ; otherwise I shall die. ' The 
Bodhisat climbs by night a mango tree in the garden of the king 
of Benares, but, while he is engaged in this predatory act, the 
day begins to break. Afraid that he will be seized as a thief, 
he decides to wait till it is dark. Now the king of Benares at 
this time is being taught sacred texts by his chaplain. Coming 
into the garden he sits down on a high seat at the foot of the 
mango tree, and, placing his teacher on a lower seat, he has a 
lesson from him. The Bodhisat realizes that it is wicked of both 
of them to sit in this way — the teacher should sit higher than the 
pupil — and at the same time becomes conscious that he himself 
has fallen into the power of a woman, and has become a thief. 
He descends from the tree and preaches the Law to such purpose 
that the king places upon his neck the wreath of flowers with 
which he himself is adorned, and makes him Lord Protector of 
the city. 

A faint echo of this tale seems to resound from the folk-tale 



26 House in the Cambridge Translation of the Jatakas, vol. 4, p. 94, note 
2, remarks: 'This is a variation of a well-known incident. A headsman 
slices off a man's head so skilfully that the victim does not know it is 
done. The victim then takes a pinch of snuff, sneezes, and his head falls 
off. Another form is : Two men dispute, and one swings his sword round. 
They go on talking, and bye and bye the other gets up to depart, and falls 
in two parts.' Rouse gives no references. This motif, 'Shake yourself 
and you will find that you are dead, ' occurs in Norse narrative, and, imita- 
tively, in a volume of skits by Robert Burdette which I read long years 
ago. 



16 Maurice Bloomfield 

in Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. 1, pp. 362 ff. A 
pregnant woman eats greedily a cake while a crow looks on, 
without giving the crow even a bit. Afterwards the crow 
fetches a mango from the house of a Raksasa and eats it whole 
in front of the woman. Taken with dohada, the woman orders 
her husband to get her a mango. He goes to the house of the 
Raksasa and ascends the mango tree, but is discovered by the 
Raksasa. He tells the Raksasa his mission, and is allowed to 
pluck one fruit, on the condition that, if the woman bears a 
daughter, she shall be for the Raksasa. 27 A girl it is; the 
Raksasa takes her and calls her Wimall. The king hears of the 
girl (pictured as attractive) and comes to take her. The Rak- 
sasa is gone to eat human flesh; the king takes "Wimall, after 
leaving in her place an effigy formed out of rice flour. The 
Raksasa, returning, eats a great part of the flour figure. His 
mouth being choked with flour, he says, 'May a mouth be 
created on the top of my head.' When he says this, the mouth 
is created, and, the Raksasa 's head being split in two by it, he 
dies. 28 

In Dabbhapuppha Jataka (400) 29 a jackal husband, Mayavi, 
or 'Wily,' satisfies his wife's dohada by dint of congenital cun- 
ning. The wife craves to eat fresh rohita fish; the jackal 
promises it to her. Wrapping his feet in creepers he goes along 
the bank of the river. Two otters are quarreling over the divi- 
sion of a great rohita fish which they have captured by their 
united efforts. On observing him, they invite him to arbitrate 
their dispute. He does so, assigning the tail and head pieces to 
the two others, and taking the middle as the proper share of the 
arbiter. His wife admiringly gets what she craves. 

III. Dohada takes the form of pious acts, or pious aspira- 
tions. 

27 Of. for this kind of selection Neogi, Tales Sacred and Secular, p. 86 ff. 

28 This 'head splitting' again is a common motif of fiction; see, e. g., 
Kathas. 123. 170 ff.; Brhaddevata 4. 120: Jatakas 210, 358, 422, 497; 
Parsvanatha Caritra 2. 812. 

29 This story also in Dhammapada Commentary 12. 2a; Balston, Tibetan 
Tales, pp. 332 ff. The motif is 'Trick arbiter,' from the story of Putraka, 
Kathas. 3. 45 ff., to Parsvanatha 7. 147 ff. Cf. Brhatkathamafijari 2. 48; 
Jataka 186; Grimm, No. 197; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. 
1, pp. 96, 99, 322, 389; J. J. Meyer, Dasdkv/maracarita, p. 38. 



The Dohada 17 

In the preceding cases dohada manifests itself in cruelty or 
extravagance. In a considerable number of cases the fenomenon 
operates, as it were, at the opposite pole ; we have what may be 
called good dohada. This appears almost entirely in Buddhist 
and Jaina edificatory texts, particularly in the latter. It 
amounts to this, that the capricious lady is taken with the fancy 
to perform acts of piety, to bestow alms, or to revere some holy 
teacher or saint. 

Thus in Salibhadra Carita 2. 56 and 60 ft\, the mother of a 
certain merchant is taken with the whim to give (danadohada) . 
Then her son, noticing this, did as follows : 

dohadam sduhrdasresthah 30 sresthl vijndya 31 so 'nyadd, 
tvarayd purayamdsa srimatdm hi sprhd mahah 
sarvdnglndir daydddndih pdtraddnair gunottardih. 

In Dhammapada Commentary 5. 15 b and 6. 5 b32 a boy is con- 
ceived in the womb of the wife of a supporter of the Elder 
Sariputta; the expectant mother longs to entertain the monks, 
and so satisfies her longing. In the story of Nami, Jacobi, 
Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Hdhdrdstri, p. 41, line 25 ff., 
Mayanareha is taken with a pregnancy longing: 'May I rever- 
ence the Jinas and the Sages, and may I continuously hear the 
teachings of the titthayaras ! ' When this desire of hers was ful- 
filled her pregnancy went on without disturbance. Similarly 
in the Parsvanatha version of the same story, 6. 793, 797, and in 
the Kathakosa, p. 19. In Parisistaparvan 2. 61 ff., a merchant's 
pregnant wife, Dharini, is taken with a craving to reverence the 
gods and the teachers, because, adds the text, cravings come 
upon women during the development of their fruit. The mer- 
chant liberally fulfils her desires, as tho he himself were taken 
with the desire to spend for religious purposes. In Kathakosa 
p. 53, Queen Srutimatl has dohada to worship the gods in the 
holy place on the Astapada mountain ; and similarly in the same 
text, p. 64, Queen Jaya feels a desire to worship gods and holy 

30 Apparently the text intends a pun between dohadam and sauhrda , as 
tho dohada contained a suggestion of daurhrda 'evil-hearted.' This very 
etymology has been proposed. 

M Comm., matur danavaricham. 

"See Burlingame's Digest in his forthcoming Translation of this work, 
pp. 100, 101. 

2 JAOS 40 



18 Maurice Bloomfield 

men, and to give gifts to the poor and wretched. In Ralston, 
Tibetan Tales, p. 247, Brahmavati's dohada prompts her to have 
presents distributed at the gates of the city. And, once more, 
Samaradityasamksepa 2. 13, Queen Srikanta describes explicitly 
her dohada to her husband, King Purusadatta, to wit : 
jindrca patraddnam ca dinandthanukampanam 
sarvasattvdbhayam ceti mama ndtha manorathdh. 
Similarly the same text, 3. 15, 444. 

IV. Dohada is used as ornamental incident, without influenc- 
ing the main events of a story. 

It is quite in the line of experience that Hindu fiction should 
employ this motif merely as embroidery for a narrative which 
would otherwise be too dull or monotonous. Anyone who has 
tried to tell children fairy-tales on the spur of the moment 
knows how much reliance can be placed on vivid but really irrel- 
evant side issues, to keep the imagination in a glow. Hindu fic- 
tion is full of episode, which is, as a rule, repetition of snatches 
from other stories, and which relies in particular upon the large 
line of settled or tried motifs. Dohada does not escape this use, 
or misuse. But it may be observed that this phase of dohada 
is almost restricted to the Kathasaritsagara, primarily a secular 
text. Whereas the Jaina and Buddhist texts invariably point 
the theme in the direction of edification. 

Thus in Kathas. 22. 1 ft*., Vasavadatta, the wife of Yaugam- 
dharayana, is pregnant with a son, who is to be the future king 
of the Vidyadharas. She feels a longing for stories of great 
magicians, provided with incantations by means of spells, intro- 
duced appropriately in conversation. She dreams that singing 
Vidyadhara ladies wait upon her high up in the sky, and, when 
she wakes up, she desires to enjoy in reality the amusement of 
sporting in the air and looking down upon the earth. Yaugam- 
dharayana gratifies that longing of the Queen's by employing 
spells, machines, juggling, and such like contrivances. But once 
on a time there arises in her heart a desire to hear the glorious 
tales of the Vidyadharas; then Yaugamdharayana, being 
entreated by her, tells her the story of Jimutavahana, by which 
her dohada is stilled (stanza 258). 

Similarly in Kathas. 35. 109 ff., Queen Alamkaraprabha, wife 
of King Hemaprabha, becomes pregnant, and delights her 



The Dohada 19 

beloved by her face redolent of honey, with wildly rolling eyes, 
so that it resembles a pale lotus with bees hovering around it. 
Then she gives birth in due time t.o a son, whose noble lineage 
is proclaimed by the elevated longings of her pregnancy, as the 
sky gives birth to the orb of the day. Pregnant a second time, 
in a chariot of the shape of a beautiful lotus, constructed by the 
help of magic science, she roams about in the sky, since her preg- 
nant longings ' take that form. In Kathas. 34. 31 ff ., Queen 
Kalihgasena, pregnant, has the lotus of her face a little pale, 
having longing produced in her. 

Incidental or unimportant instances of dohada may be read 
also in Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. 3, pp. 84, 102, 
308. They are mere clap-trap. But even a Jaina text, Samara- 
dityasamksepa 5. 10, 6. 388 ff., lists mechanically a ease or two 
of dohada as incidents in the birth of a child, which do not in 
any way add to the real point of the story. 

V. Dohada is feigned by the woman, in order that she may 
accomplish some purpose or satisfy some desire. 

In a way which reminds us of the tricky use of the sacca- 
kiriya, 33 dohada is frequently feigned by a woman for her own 
purposes, either innocent or depraved. There are no less than 
five Jfitakas in which a queen, called Khema, dreams of a won- 
derful golden bird or deer whom she desires to hear preach the 
Law; in each case she feigns dohada, in order to spur on the 
efforts of her spouse to obtain the apparently unattainable. 

In Mahahansa Jataka (534) Queen Khema sees in a vivid dream 
golden hansa birds perch upon the royal throne, and preach 
the Law. Afraid that an ordinary request extended to her hus- 
band, King Samyama, will be pooh-poohed, because there are 
no golden hansa birds in this world, she feigns dohada. When 
the king tenderly inquires what she would have, saying he would 
soon fetch it, she says: 'Sire, I long to listen to the preaching 
of the Law by a golden hansa, while it sits upon the royal throne, 
with a white umbrella spread over it, and to pay homage to it 
with scented wreaths and such like marks of honor. If I should 
attain this, it is well, otherwise there is no life in me.' The king 
has a decoy lake constructed, and his forester in time catches 
the king of the golden Dhatarattha hahsas, which are wise and 

83 See Burlingame, JRAS July 1917, pp. 461 ff. 



20 Maurice Bloomfield 

learned. The hansa king is deserted by all the 90,000 golden 
members of his tribe, except the captain of his army, who refuses 
to leave him. Touched by his devotion, the fowler would release 
the captive birds, but they insist on being taken before the king. 
The hansa king preaches the Law to the royal pair; the queen 
is satisfied and enlightened; the birds are honored and pam- 
pered, and finally set at liberty. The Hansa Jataka (502) tells 
the same story in briefer form. 

The same idea is carried out in the Mora Jataka (159) and 
in the Mahamora Jataka (491), in connection with a golden pea- 
cock — with this difference, that the peacock is not snared until 
the longing queen, her consort, and the fowler are dead. Six 
kings reign and pass away ; six fowlers are unsuccessful ; but 
the seventh hunter, sent by the seventh king, ensnares him thru 
the lure of a pea-heri. In Mora Jataka the peacock is brought 
before the king, and converts him. In Mahamora Jataka the 
fowler recognizes the essential virtue of the peacock (Bodhisat), 
is instructed by him, and becomes a Paccekabuddha ; and there- 
after, owing to an Act of Truth made by him at the prompting 
of the peacock, thruout India all creatures are set free, and 
not one is left in bondage. 

Once more, the Eohantamiga Jataka (501) presents queen 
Khema dreaming of a gold-colored stag who discourses on the 
Law. Her husband has a hunter trap the golden-hued stag 
Rohanta, who is then abandoned by his 80,000 followers, but his 
brother Cittamiga and his sister Sutana. stand by him. The 
hunter comes up to spear Rohanta, but is touched by pity, and 
converted. At the request of Rohanta, he explains that he was 
commissioned by the king to snare him. Rohanta thinks it a 
bold and unselfish deed on the part of the hunter to set him free ; 
he therefore decides to win for him the honor the king promised 
him. He bids the hunter chafe his back with his hand, until it 
is filled with golden hairs. These he must show to the king and 
the queen ; he must tell them that they are hairs from the golden 
stag, and discourse to them in words dictated by the stag. The 
queen will then have her craving satisfied. The hunter lets go 
the three deer, wraps the hairs in a lotus leaf, and brings them 
to the king and the queen. They are converted by the verses 
which Rohanta has taught the hunter. Cf. also the Ruru Jataka 
(482), similar to all the preceding, but without the dohada trait. 



The Dohada 21 

In Vidhurapandita Jataka (545) a very sagacious man Vidh- 
ura Pandita arouses the admiration of the queen Vimala, wife 
of the Naga king Varuna; she longs to hear him discourse on 
the Law. She thinks to herself; 'If I tell the king that I long 
to hear him discourse on the Law, and ask him to bring him 
here, he will not bring him to me ; what if I were to pretend to 
be ill, and complain of a sick woman's longing?' To the solici- 
tous king she says, ' There is an affection in women ; it is called 
a longing, King ! Monarch of the Nagas, I desire Vidhura's 
heart brought here without guile.' The king replies, 'Thou 
longest for the moon 3 * or the sun or the wind ; the very sight of 
Vidhura is hard to get; who will be able to bring him here?' 
Then the royal pair's daughter, Irandati, entangles a Yakkha, 
named Punnaka, in the meshes of her charms, so that the king 
has a chance to promise him her hand, if he will bring Vidhura's 
heart. The Yakkha Punnaka visits the court of King Dhanan- 
jaya Koravya, where Vidhura Pandita shines as a great orna- 
ment ; he defeats the king at gambling, and claims the wise man. 
The wise man asks for three days delay to instruct his family. 
The Yakkha tries to kill him, but fails. The wise man asks him 
what he wants, and he tells him. He then wins over the Yakkha, 
yet goes to the court of the Naga king, where his serenity and 
wise teaching win every heart, and no harm comes to him. 

In one case, Nigrodha Jataka (445), the trick dohada is 
merely a feature of a broader scheme by which a woman feigns 
pregnancy. A merchant's wife, being barren, is treated dis- 
respectfully by her husband's family. She consults a good old 
nurse of hers as to the behavior of pregnant women, and, 
instructed by her, conceals the time of her courses, and shows 
a fancy for sour and strange tastes. She continues to feign 
pregnancy 35 until nine months have passed, when she expresses 
the wish to return home, and bring forth her child in her father's 
house. On the way she picks up a babe of the color of gold 
(the Bodhisat), abandoned under a banyan tree by a poor 
woman belonging to the train of a caravan. Without finishing 



84 Crying for the moon, or the hare in the moon, is a recurring motif. 
See ZDMG 65. 449; Jatakas 449, 454; Bhammapada Commentary 1. 2. 

M Fake pregnancy also in the story of the present, Mahapaduma Jataka 
(472), and, en passant, also in Telapatta Jataka (96; Fausbbll, 1. 397). 



22 Maurice Bloomfield 

her journey she returns to her husband, and the babe is acknowl- 
edged by the family. 

In Jiilg's Kalmukische Marchen, p. 31, the wife of the Khan 
Kun-snang desires to have her son, called Moonshine, become 
successor to the throne at the expense of Sunshine, the heir- 
apparent, son of a former defunct queen. She feigns what is 
obviously dohada to the point of death. When interrogated by 
the Khan she says: 'If I could eat the heart of either of the 
princes, no matter which one, fried in sesame oil, then I should 
find rest. But for you, Khan, it is difficult to proffer Sun- 
shine, and Moonshine, to blurt it out, has come out of my own 
womb, so that his heart would not pass my throat. There is, 
therefore, no expedient, except to die!' The uxorious Khan 
offers to sacrifice Sunshine, but Moonshine overhears. The two 
boys, devoted to one another, escape, and experience important 
adventures which land them in royalty; and, when they return 
in state to their father's residence, the wife of the Khan gets a 
fright at the sight of them, spits curdled blood, and dies. 

Perhaps the most ingenious and highly organized instance of 
trick dohada belongs to the folk-lore of Southern India. The 
story goes by the name 'The Nikini story,' or, 'The Deer and 
the girl and Nikini'; it is reported in Parker's Village Folk- 
Tales of Ceylon, vol. 1, pp. 284 ff. According to Goonetilleke, 
The Orientalist, 2. 82, the story is derived from a Sinhalese 
book of verse and goes by the name of Nikini Katava, 'The 
Nikini Story.' A girl is married to a rich Gamarala (village 
head) of another country, who finds a fawn in the jungle, and 
presents it to his wife as a companion, or sister. Dohada 36 
comes upon the woman, and the Gamarala asks the deer 'what 
she can eat for it. ' The deer replies : ' Our elder sister can eat 
the stars in the sky.' 37 The Gamarala searches for the corner 
of the sky where it joins the earth, until he grows old and dies. 
The girl next marries a king, and is again overtaken by dohada. 
The king asks 'what she can eat for it,' and the deer says, 
'Should you bring for our elder sister the sand which is at the 
bottom of the ocean, if she slept upon it, she would be well.' 
The king goes to the bottom of the sea to take the sand, is soaked 

86 Clearly feigned, because all the events of the story are tricks. 

87 Of. the note 34. 



The Dohada 23 

with the water, and dies. The woman marries a third man ; has 
dohada; the man asks the deer, 'what can she eat for it;' and 
the deer replies, 'Our elder sister must eat Nikini, else her life 
will be lost.' The husband starts in search of Nikini, and asks 
several persons, who engage him in hard work on the pretense 
of being able, by way of reward, to tell him where there is Nikini. 
But they end by saying, 'I don't know; go your way.' Finally 
he meets one man who is honest enough to reward his labor by 
telling him, ' That was not asked for thru want of Nikini. That 
was said thru wanting to cause you to be killed. Your wife has 
a paramour.' The man asks the cuckold what he will give him 
if he catches the paramour; he is promised a gem which has 
been in his family from generation to generation. Then they 
construct a cage called 'The cage of the God Sivalinga'; this 
they cover up with white cloth, and the man who had gone for 
Nikini is placed inside, covered by a cloth, and with a cudgel. 
They first perform some profitable pranks, by introducing the 
cage, as being the vehicle of a god, into several rich men 's houses 
and robbing them. Finally they bring the cage to the Nikini 
man's own house, where he finds his wife living with her para- 
mour. The supposed god comes out of the cage and beats the 
paramour to death. 

VI. Dohada is obviated by tricking the woman into the belief 
that her desire is being fulfilled. 

In Parisistaparvan 8. 225 ff. the wily minister Canakya plots 
to destroy King Nanda. Eemembering a profesy that he him- 
self would reign thru the medium of a nominal king, he searches 
for a person fit to play that part. While roaming about he 
arrives at the village where live the caretakers of the king's 
peacocks. 38 There he hears that the chief's daughter, pregnant, 
has a craving to drink the moon (candra). Canakya promises 
to satisfy her, on condition that the prospective child be handed 
over to him. The parents of the woman agree, afraid that she 
will miscarry if balked in her desire. Canakya causes a shed to 
be constructed, the thatch of which has an opening. In the 
night, when the moon shines thru the opening and is reflected 
in a bowl of milk placed below it, he orders her to drink the 



"King's pets: see Parsvanatha Caritra 3. 456; Samaradityasamksepa 
4. 344 ff. 



24 Maurice Bloomfield 

milk. As she drinks it, a man on the thatch gradually covers 
up the opening. The woman is satisfied that she has drunk the 
moon, and in due time gives birth to a boy who is called Can- 
dragupta, ' Moon-protected. ' S9 

The woman's craving is satisfied by the substitution of an 
ordinary peacock in place of the Thakkura's pet in the story 
told above, p. 9 f. The trick feature occurs in several other 
of the preceding stories. 40 

88 The reflection of the moon in water is present to the Hindu mind so 
insistently as almost to become proverbial. In Parisistaparvan 6. 25 ft. 
King Udayin mourns the death of his loving father ; he is reminded of him 
by every spot he was in the habit of frequenting; he sees him everywhere 
just as the image of the moon is seen in the water (multiplied by the play 
of its waves, cf. Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiohe, 4088). The reflection of the 
moon in the water is used trickily in the familiar fable of the elefants 
and the hares, Paficatantra 3. 1; Hitopadesa 3. 4; Kathas. 72. 29 ff; 
Brhatkathamafijari 16. 452 ff; cf. Benfey, Paneatantra, 1. 348 ff. In 
Balston, Tibetan Tales, p. 353 (from Kah-gyur), monkeys see the reflection 
of the moon in the well, decide to draw it out, form a monkey-bridge by 
entwining their tails, and finally tumble into the well (cf. Weber, Indische 
Streifen, 1. 246, note 3). Similar notions in Uncle Remus. For tricks and 
pranks due to reflected objects in general see the fable of the lion who 
is angered at his own reflection in a well, e. g., Purnabhadra 1. 7; Frere, 
Old Deccan Days, p. 156; Benfey, Paneatantra, 1. 181 (cf. W. Norman 
Brown, JAOS 39. 24) ; and for other matters, see Hertel, Das Paneatantra, 
p. 198 (fool sees own image reflected in ghee, takes it for robber, and 
smashes the pitcher) ; Balston, ibid., p. 165 (gem illusively reflected in the 
water); Benfey, Paneatantra, 1. 349 (fox shows wolf reflected moon 
instead of promised cheese). Also cf. fable of dog who loses his bone 
when he sees another reflected in the water. 

40 Additional Note. — The Divyavadana very frequently excels in describ- 
ing how the solieitous father in spe surrounds the prospective mother with 
tender care and precautions as to her diet. Thus, p. 2: apannasattvam 
ca tarn (sc. garbhinim) viditva upariprasadatalagatam ayantritam dhar- 
ayati site sitopakaranair usna usnopakarandir vaidyaprajnaptair aharair 
natitiktair natyamlair natilavanair natimadhurair natikatukair natikasayais 
tiktamlalavanamadhurakatukasayavivarjitair aharair harardhaharavibhusi- 
tagatnm Apsarasam iva nandanavanaviearimm mancan mancam ptthat 
pitham avatarantlm uparimam bhumim, na casya amanojnasabdasravanam 
yavad eva garbhasya paripakaya. On pp. 79, 167, and 441 the same text 
with adharimaih for uparimam; a fragment of it on p. 523. Dohada mani- 
fests itself in insatiable appetite, Divyavadana, p. 234.