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A Loanword in Egyptian 

In Pap. Anast. IV, the text, which deals with the sufferings of 
the army-officer, contains a word, which seems not yet to have 
been recognized as a loanword. "We read (see Moller, Hierat. 
Lesestiicke, Heft 2, p. 41, line 2) : 

Brugsch, Worterbuch, translates 'er wird, als Knabe, herbeige- 
fiihrt, urn in die Caserne gesteckt zu werden.' That is, 
takapu = 'Kaserne, Soldaten-Hiitte. ' This is simply a guess 
from the context. 

Takapu is a loanword from Assyrian zaqapu 'to erect, put 
up,' Hebrew t|pf 'lift up, comfort.' In Assyrian zaqapu means 
also 'to plant'; kiru zaqpu, 'hortus'; zeru zaqpu, 'a planted 
field.' Takapu in Egyptian came to mean 'educational insti- 
tution, Pflanzschule, seminarium.' The root tip? is also con- 
tained in the word < =^ f 7 $' %,J K c ~=' (Anast. IV). 

Brugsch WB. 'Schule, in welcher die Pferde dressiert werden, 
Beitschule. Coptisch ANJHB, M AN£HBE, AN£HB, AN£HBE 

schola. ' 

H. F. Lutz 
University of Pennsylvania 

The Hebrew word for 'to sew' 

The following remark about the etymology of the Hebrew 
word 15n 'to sew' was suggested to me when I noticed an 
interesting airaf Aeyojacvov in Egyptian. In W. Spiegelberg, 
Hieratic Ostraca and Papyri found by J. E. Quibell in the 
Ramesseum, 1895-6, pi. XVII, No. 132, a small hieratic text is 
published, a note scribbled on a piece of limestone. It reads: 
'Let there be made ten ma-ti-pu-{i)ra-ti with their ten '-ga- 
na{?)-i{?)-ti.' On the reading of the latter extremely uncer- 

72 Brief Notes 

tain, word see below. The first of these two words, which by their 
vocalized spelling betray themselves as loanwords from the 
Old-Canaanitish tongue, invites, however, an easy etymology, 
especially on account of its determinative 'copper, metal,' 
namely from Hebrew IDJl . ' to sew. ' It seems, therefore, that 
we have here a word *matpart, or *metport, in Biblical Hebrew, 
i. e. * mSJIJ? or more probably PPSrip 'sewing instrument, 
needle.' If some object of leather belonged to each of these 
needles, we might guess that this object was a small leather case 
and that the needles were of larger size, perhaps for leather 
work, like shoemaker's punchers. So the etymology proposed 
has at least great probability, and we may ascribe to the Old- 
Canaanitish language the word matpart for the time soon after 
1300 B. C. This observation leads to a more important ques- 
tion, namely how the root "ISn. occurring only in Hebrew, is to 
be connected with other Semitic roots. The above example 
shows that the Canaanites possessed the singular word in its 
later form by about 1300 B. C. The Coptic tor(e)p 'to sew,' 
however, leads us in the right direction. This form is decidedly 
older than the later Hebrew form, although the latter already 
appears in the fragment discussed above. It is evidently acci- 
dental that trp has not yet been found in hieroglyphic form. 
Being clearly the earlier form of the word it must have pene- 
trated into Egyptian a couple of centuries before the nominal 
formation matport. In the other Semitic languages 'to sew, to 
mend' is N3~) (Arabic and Ethiopic) ; in the North Semitic 
languages (Hebrew, Phoenician, Syrian, Assyrian) this root has 
assumed the more specialized meaning 'to heal,' originally 'to 
sew up a wound. ' Evidently * £pi"l as preserved in Coptic torp 
and Kfll come from the same root. The Canaanitish language 
has developed a new triliteral verb from the relative * Kfl")J"l 
in which the reflexive prefix evidently expressed reciprocity, 
like English 'together,' since sewing generally requires two 
objects. That reflexive must have been very frequent ; possibly 
the causative-reflexive formation * NiD"tf"1N or * KfiinrT was one 
of the reasons why the reflexive t- was understood as a part of 
the root. 

H. F. Lutz 

University of Pennsylvania