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100 Edwin W. Fay
tdm (se. Pusdnam, again!) . . . | srprdbhojasaih visnurh nd stusa adise
eum ut Vishnum adipicibum <habentem> laudo invocando.
But for adise (invocando) we must-supply a subject like us or
you (the worshippers), which yields the meaning ut invocemus
(invocetis) ; cf. 1. 52. 8, ddharayo divy a suryam drse = posuisti
in caelo solem videndo i. e. ut videremus (ut homines viderent) .
Also see excellent examples for subjectless infinitives in Monro's
Homeric Grammar, § 231. It were possible, but harsher, to
render adise by the imperative, invocate. Or stusa adise = I
(re) commend to (be) invoke(d).
11. The evidence for a -\- dis = inclamare has been submitted.
The definition recognizes derivation from the root deik 1 . I
doubt not that Professor Edgerton admits the propriety of try-
ing, so far as may be, to utilize IE. derivation and etymology
in the effort to fix the definition of Vedic words. To know the
approximately original meaning of a word certainly helps in
fixing the sense of its further ramifications, as in the case of
distya (with homage) § 3.
12. In conclusion I suggest that the two Pusan stanzas I have
interpreted seem to constitute a sectarian recommendation of
Pusan as the equal or superior of other gods. It is because of
this sectarian quality that karambhdd cannot be a jeer (adis),
but must be a word of praise (adis) , see § 9.
COUNTER-REJOINDER TO PROFESSOR PAY
University of Pennsylvania
Professor Fay (§3) seems to miss the point of the story of
the 'mental salutation,' which appears to me to prove absolutely
that, to the feeling of its author, no sage would bless a king with-
out first receiving a salutation. There was no 'assumed glum
silence' — except perhaps to an ignorant bystander who lackt the
sage's omniscience; certainly the sage, if he had assumed a glum
silence (that is, lack of salutation), would not hav blest the king.
That is the whole point of the story. The silence was only tech-
Counter-Be joinder 101
nical, not real, because (as the sage afterwards observs), 'mind
is superior,' and a mental salutation is fully as efficacious as a
For the rest, I hav little to say in further reply except on
one point. In discussing 6. 56. 1, Professor Pay objects to my
taking karambhdd as a scornful epithet because Pusan's regular
food was karambhd, and because Indra also eats cakes and soma
which ar karambhin, 'mixt with karambhd.' Now, I did not
mean to say that the worshipers of Pusan considerd his eating
of karambhd a matter worthy of scorn. Of course they did not.
But that would not prevent other people from holding that
opinion; and it is quite possible that Pusan's worshipers might
allude to the opinions of these blasfemers for the purpose of
protesting against them, just as the Indra hymn 2. 12 alludes in
vs 5 to atheists who deny the existence of Indra.
It is a wel-known fact, which does not by any means depend
on the word karambhd alone, that Pusan occupies a peculiar
position in the Vedic pantheon. He is a sort of 'hayseed' deity ;
a god of shepherds, and distinctly different from the general
run of the gods. So, for instance, he has no share in the soma ;
he prefers milk and gruel (karambhd). That he should for this
reason be more or less laught at by som of the more 'cultivated'
and warlike followers of Indra seems quite conceivable, and by
no means out of keeping with any known fact of Vedic filology.
Now as to Indra and karambhd. From 6. 57. 2 it is suffi-
ciently clear that karambhd is no normal food for Indra; here
Indra and Pusan ar specifically contrasted on the ground that
Indra consumes soma, and Pusan karambhd. That the soma
should sometimes be mixt with karambhd — and this is, as Pro-
fessor Fay himself notes, all that karambhin means — is not at
all surprizing, and does not in the least support Professor Fay's
contention. Soma was mixt with all sorts of things, notably
with milk. Would a drinker of milk-punch be spoken of as
living on a dairy diet? Similarly cakes for Indra ar karam-
bhin — in this case presumably 'made of (that is containing)
karambhd.' The most elegant cuisines use dairy and farm
products constantly. But it is another matter to liv on plain
rustic fare exclusivly. In spite of Dr. Johnson, I venture to
guess that English epicures did in his day, and do today, eat
102 Franklin Edgerton
various confections of oats, and find them very palatable. His
jibe was at oat-karambha as a staple of diet. The Scottish
Pusan drank no soma, and apparently livd mainly or exclusivly
on karambha. So he was distinctly contrasted with Indra (6.
57. 2) and apparently met with som ridicule (6. 56. 1). Indra
could not possibly be cald anything like karambhdd; and the
fact that his 'sporty' food and drink might contain karambha
As to lenti (Fay, p. 94f.), I take it as a causativ formation
from It; and so, I judge, does Lanman.