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The Sanskrit passive-stem 
Its sign is accented yd, added to the root. Since the root was 
unaccented, its form was the weak one : bandh, badh-yd-te. The 
grammars, in long succession, state that, before added ya, the root 
undergoes changes: thus final r becomes ri; final i becomes i; 
and so on. 

These changes lose the aspect of irregularity, if we consider 
that the ya of the passive, like the ya or iya of the gerundive, is 
often dissyllabic, i-a, or (with the 'transition-semivowel' or 
'disjunctive semivowel') iMa. Thus kr-iya-te becomes kr-iya-te; 
ci-iya-te becomes ciyate. The a-roots (few in number, but of 
frequent occurrence) weaken to *: pa, ply ate. Thus after the 
powerful analogy of forms like piyate, ciyate, even roots in u 
show m ; sru, sruyate. 

To this it may be objected that 'the passive-sign is never 
resolved into ia in the Veda.' So "Whitney, Grammar, 771g: cf. 
Edgren, JA08 11, p. iv, Oct. 1878.— 'Is the passive ya ever 
resolved into iaV Clearly, in view of the forms like mriyate, 
hriyate, dhriyate, etc., it is no less a begging of the question to 
answer this question with 'never,' than it is to say that these 
forms prove that it is so resolved. 

Accordingly let us look at the Prakrits and Pali. (See 
Pischel's Prakrit Oram., § 535-; Geiger's Pali Gram., § 176.) 
Here are found corresponding forms in abundance which show 
the formative element ya as a true dissyllable : Prakrit, gamiodi, 
gaccMadi, suniadi, jdniadi, sumariadi; Pali, sodhiyati (sodh- 
yate), mdriyati, sariyati, and so on. 

The gerundive (it may be added) is simply a verbal adjective. 
Latin laudandus is properly 'laudable,' just as faciendus (and 
facilis no less so) is simply 'do-able.' The Sanskrit gerundives 
'formed with ya, tavya, and amy a,' are better treated all alike 
as secondary verbal adjectives in ya (in the Veda often i-a: see 
Edgren) or iya, from different primary verbal substantives : kar- 
ya (kar-ia) from kara; kartav-ya from kartu; karan-iya from 
karana. (Cf. Pischel, § 571; Geiger, § 199.) 

„ , TT . . Charles E. Lanman 

Harvard University