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200 Brief Notes
An erroneous etymology of New Persian padsah, in relation to
the pr. n. HaTi£ei6rp (Halt. 3. 61)
Marquart (Phil. Sup. 10. 531) was the first to propose that the
name of the Magian, the brother of Gaumata (Pseudo-Smerdis),
as given by Herodotus in the form Patizeithes was not a proper
name but an official title corrupted from the Anc. Pers. *pati-
xsayaOiya and preserved in the familiar Mod. Pers. padsah. This
theory has found place in later histories and commentaries to
such an extent that it has become almost popularly accepted.
My argument against this view is based on the phonetic difficulties
involved, on the use of the term in the Middle Persian period,
and on what I believe is the restoration of the usurper's real
It is doubtful if the hypothetical Anc. Pers. *patixsdya6iya
would signify 'pro-king, viceroy, regent.' The chief ground
for the existence of such a word with the meaning proposed is its
apparent connection with Mod. Pers. sLi oU padsah 'king.'
This seems to the writer phonetically impossible. The Anc. Pers.
prefix patiy becomes in Mod. Pers. pa8, pa", never pad. Again,
in the Greek transliteration of Anc. Pers. sounds xs becomes £
or <7, never £ except when medial, Meya/?v£os (baga 'god' +
*buxsa fr. buj 'to free'), and in the combination h-xs, 4>apra£a-
6p-q<s (farnah 'glory 4- xsa&a, 'kingdom'). The Anc. Pers.
dental tenuis asp. does not become or r except before p, e. g.
Mn-po-, MiOpo- < MiBra, but <x e. g. Scnw^s (Oata 'hundred' +
aspa 'horse'), 'Apracrwpas (Arta, 'divine law' + Our a 'strong').
Furthermore such forms of the Magian 's name as non-fan^
(Chron. Alex. 339. 16) and IW£ov6>i?s (Dionysius of Miletus)
seem to point to a Kosename, based on Av. paitizanta fr. zan,
Anc. Pers. dan 'know.' TLnvtp&fhp may not be Greek at all
(ttolv -f- £ov66<s), but the transliteration of the Iranian patizanta.
The metathesis of n is seen in $apav8d-n)s < farnah 'glory' +
data 'given.' For v < a, cf. "A/«ms < Av. hu 'well' + Anc.
Pers. *mati, YAv. maiti 'thought' ; for 6 < t , cf . 4> < p in Moi-
<£aT?/s < Anc. Pers. nidh 'month' + pata 'protected.'
The New Pers. padisah, padsah was given originally to the
monarch as a supreme title of honor and only later was extended
to subordinate rulers. This would preclude any designation of
power delegated from the king which Marquart would see in the
Brief Notes 201
prefix patiy. The prius of the Mod. Pers. compound is more
probably to be found in the Anc. Pers. pa 'protect.' The nomen
agentis pdtar 'protector' would appear in the Mod. Pers. as
pad, cf. Bartholomae, Altiranisches Worterbuch, 887, Hiibsch-
mann, Persische Studien, 35. The Mod. Pers. pddisdh < Anc.
Pers. pdtar -j- xsdyaOiya, 'protector-king' would illustrate Iran-
ian r changed into * as in New Pers. giriftah, Bal. gipta, cf. Av.
ff»r»pta 'seized'; New Pers. x^ rs cf. Av. arzsa 'bear'; New
Pers. dil, Bal. zirde, cf. Av. Z9r98aya 'heart'; New Pers. tis, cf.
Av. tarsna 'thirst.' Cf. change of Skt. r to i in the Indian
dialects, Skt. krta, Prak. kita; Skt. ghrta, Bang, ghi, Sindhi
gihu, Anglo-Indian ghee, cf . Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology, 71.
Herodotus (3. 61) states that Cambyses had left Patizeithes
t&v oIkLuiv fieXeSuivov. If this is not a title but his real name as
Hdt. implies, we find his Magian designation in Oropastes
(Justin. 1. 9.). This reverses the now generally accepted theory
which would find in the latter the proper name and in the former
the title. The derivation of Oropastes is clear — prius Anc. Pers.
aura 'lord, ' posterius upastd ' aid. ' Just as his brother Gaumata
(nomen proprium as given in the Behistan Inscription) bore the
Magian appellation ^evSaSdrrj^ according to Ctesias, Pers. 10,
which is the YAv. spent ddata, 'created by the Holy,' so we can
believe that in *auraupasta 'possessing the help of the Lord' we
restore the Magian title of Patizeithes.
-it j ..,,. „ . H. C. Tolman
A possible Sumerian original of the name Nimrod
According to the tradition recorded in the genealogical tablet,
Gen. 10. 8 ff., Nimrod, son of Cush, founded the empire of Baby-
lonia. This Nimrod is mentioned in v. 8, as having been 'the
first great warrior in the land' (this seems to be the meaning of
the words : p*Q "13J HIT?*? *7fTr), and in v. 9 it is stated that
Nimrod was a 'great warrior hunter before Jahve,' i. e., so great
as to attract the attention of Jahve ('Jfi 1 ? TV -QJ n'H N1i7
niiT), a tradition which does not appear to have any connection
with the rest of the text. For this reason some scholars have con-
cluded that verse 9 is a gloss (Procksch, Die Genesis, 1912, p. 74) .