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200 Brief Notes 

An erroneous etymology of New Persian padsah, in relation to 
the pr. n. HaTi£ei6rp (Halt. 3. 61) 

Marquart (Phil. Sup. 10. 531) was the first to propose that the 
name of the Magian, the brother of Gaumata (Pseudo-Smerdis), 
as given by Herodotus in the form Patizeithes was not a proper 
name but an official title corrupted from the Anc. Pers. *pati- 
xsayaOiya and preserved in the familiar Mod. Pers. padsah. This 
theory has found place in later histories and commentaries to 
such an extent that it has become almost popularly accepted. 
My argument against this view is based on the phonetic difficulties 
involved, on the use of the term in the Middle Persian period, 
and on what I believe is the restoration of the usurper's real 
Magian title. 

It is doubtful if the hypothetical Anc. Pers. *patixsdya6iya 
would signify 'pro-king, viceroy, regent.' The chief ground 
for the existence of such a word with the meaning proposed is its 
apparent connection with Mod. Pers. sLi oU padsah 'king.' 
This seems to the writer phonetically impossible. The Anc. Pers. 
prefix patiy becomes in Mod. Pers. pa8, pa", never pad. Again, 
in the Greek transliteration of Anc. Pers. sounds xs becomes £ 
or <7, never £ except when medial, Meya/?v£os (baga 'god' + 
*buxsa fr. buj 'to free'), and in the combination h-xs, 4>apra£a- 
6p-q<s (farnah 'glory 4- xsa&a, 'kingdom'). The Anc. Pers. 
dental tenuis asp. does not become or r except before p, e. g. 
Mn-po-, MiOpo- < MiBra, but <x e. g. Scnw^s (Oata 'hundred' + 
aspa 'horse'), 'Apracrwpas (Arta, 'divine law' + Our a 'strong'). 
Furthermore such forms of the Magian 's name as non-fan^ 
(Chron. Alex. 339. 16) and IW£ov6>i?s (Dionysius of Miletus) 
seem to point to a Kosename, based on Av. paitizanta fr. zan, 
Anc. Pers. dan 'know.' TLnvtp&fhp may not be Greek at all 
(ttolv -f- £ov66<s), but the transliteration of the Iranian patizanta. 
The metathesis of n is seen in $apav8d-n)s < farnah 'glory' + 
data 'given.' For v < a, cf. "A/«ms < Av. hu 'well' + Anc. 
Pers. *mati, YAv. maiti 'thought' ; for 6 < t , cf . 4> < p in Moi- 
<£aT?/s < Anc. Pers. nidh 'month' + pata 'protected.' 

The New Pers. padisah, padsah was given originally to the 
monarch as a supreme title of honor and only later was extended 
to subordinate rulers. This would preclude any designation of 
power delegated from the king which Marquart would see in the 



Brief Notes 201 

prefix patiy. The prius of the Mod. Pers. compound is more 
probably to be found in the Anc. Pers. pa 'protect.' The nomen 
agentis pdtar 'protector' would appear in the Mod. Pers. as 
pad, cf. Bartholomae, Altiranisches Worterbuch, 887, Hiibsch- 
mann, Persische Studien, 35. The Mod. Pers. pddisdh < Anc. 
Pers. pdtar -j- xsdyaOiya, 'protector-king' would illustrate Iran- 
ian r changed into * as in New Pers. giriftah, Bal. gipta, cf. Av. 
ff»r»pta 'seized'; New Pers. x^ rs cf. Av. arzsa 'bear'; New 
Pers. dil, Bal. zirde, cf. Av. Z9r98aya 'heart'; New Pers. tis, cf. 
Av. tarsna 'thirst.' Cf. change of Skt. r to i in the Indian 
dialects, Skt. krta, Prak. kita; Skt. ghrta, Bang, ghi, Sindhi 
gihu, Anglo-Indian ghee, cf . Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology, 71. 

Herodotus (3. 61) states that Cambyses had left Patizeithes 
t&v oIkLuiv fieXeSuivov. If this is not a title but his real name as 
Hdt. implies, we find his Magian designation in Oropastes 
(Justin. 1. 9.). This reverses the now generally accepted theory 
which would find in the latter the proper name and in the former 
the title. The derivation of Oropastes is clear — prius Anc. Pers. 
aura 'lord, ' posterius upastd ' aid. ' Just as his brother Gaumata 
(nomen proprium as given in the Behistan Inscription) bore the 
Magian appellation ^evSaSdrrj^ according to Ctesias, Pers. 10, 
which is the YAv. spent ddata, 'created by the Holy,' so we can 
believe that in *auraupasta 'possessing the help of the Lord' we 
restore the Magian title of Patizeithes. 

-it j ..,,. „ . H. C. Tolman 

Vanderbilt University 



A possible Sumerian original of the name Nimrod 
According to the tradition recorded in the genealogical tablet, 
Gen. 10. 8 ff., Nimrod, son of Cush, founded the empire of Baby- 
lonia. This Nimrod is mentioned in v. 8, as having been 'the 
first great warrior in the land' (this seems to be the meaning of 
the words : p*Q "13J HIT?*? *7fTr), and in v. 9 it is stated that 
Nimrod was a 'great warrior hunter before Jahve,' i. e., so great 
as to attract the attention of Jahve ('Jfi 1 ? TV -QJ n'H N1i7 
niiT), a tradition which does not appear to have any connection 
with the rest of the text. For this reason some scholars have con- 
cluded that verse 9 is a gloss (Procksch, Die Genesis, 1912, p. 74) .