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Brief Notes 201 

prefix patiy. The prius of the Mod. Pers. compound is more 
probably to be found in the Anc. Pers. pa 'protect.' The nomen 
agentis pdtar 'protector' would appear in the Mod. Pers. as 
pad, cf. Bartholomae, Altiranisches Worterbuch, 887, Hiibsch- 
mann, Persische Studien, 35. The Mod. Pers. pddisdh < Anc. 
Pers. pdtar -j- xsdyaOiya, 'protector-king' would illustrate Iran- 
ian r changed into * as in New Pers. giriftah, Bal. gipta, cf. Av. 
ff»r»pta 'seized'; New Pers. x^ rs cf. Av. arzsa 'bear'; New 
Pers. dil, Bal. zirde, cf. Av. Z9r98aya 'heart'; New Pers. tis, cf. 
Av. tarsna 'thirst.' Cf. change of Skt. r to i in the Indian 
dialects, Skt. krta, Prak. kita; Skt. ghrta, Bang, ghi, Sindhi 
gihu, Anglo-Indian ghee, cf . Gray, Indo-Iranian Phonology, 71. 

Herodotus (3. 61) states that Cambyses had left Patizeithes 
t&v oIkLuiv fieXeSuivov. If this is not a title but his real name as 
Hdt. implies, we find his Magian designation in Oropastes 
(Justin. 1. 9.). This reverses the now generally accepted theory 
which would find in the latter the proper name and in the former 
the title. The derivation of Oropastes is clear — prius Anc. Pers. 
aura 'lord, ' posterius upastd ' aid. ' Just as his brother Gaumata 
(nomen proprium as given in the Behistan Inscription) bore the 
Magian appellation ^evSaSdrrj^ according to Ctesias, Pers. 10, 
which is the YAv. spent ddata, 'created by the Holy,' so we can 
believe that in *auraupasta 'possessing the help of the Lord' we 
restore the Magian title of Patizeithes. 

-it j ..,,. „ . H. C. Tolman 

Vanderbilt University 



A possible Sumerian original of the name Nimrod 
According to the tradition recorded in the genealogical tablet, 
Gen. 10. 8 ff., Nimrod, son of Cush, founded the empire of Baby- 
lonia. This Nimrod is mentioned in v. 8, as having been 'the 
first great warrior in the land' (this seems to be the meaning of 
the words : p*Q "13J HIT?*? *7fTr), and in v. 9 it is stated that 
Nimrod was a 'great warrior hunter before Jahve,' i. e., so great 
as to attract the attention of Jahve ('Jfi 1 ? TV -QJ n'H N1i7 
niiT), a tradition which does not appear to have any connection 
with the rest of the text. For this reason some scholars have con- 
cluded that verse 9 is a gloss (Procksch, Die Genesis, 1912, p. 74) . 



202 Brief Notes 

Admitting that v. 9 may be an interpolation, there must have 
been some reason in the mind of the glossator for the assertion 
that Nimrod was a hunter of distinction. One's first instinct 
would be to seek the cause of such a tradition, but, unfortunately, 
the Biblical Nimrod has not been successfully identified with any 
Babylonian hero and especially with no one who was specifically 
devoted to the chase. 

Thus, the name Nimrod has of recent years been subjected to 
the following analyses : Nimrod = Nin-Murda, Maynard, AJ8L 
34, p. 30, cf. Clay, Miscellaneous Inscriptions, 1916, pp. 93 ff. ; 
Nam-urta = the god Ninib (Procksch, op. cit., p. 74) ; Nimrod = 
Namir-udda, a supposed epithet of the god Ninib, Jeremias, 
Light on the Old Testament from the East, 1, p. 290. Here 
should be noted also Hommel 's derivation : Nimrod = Namra- 
uddu, PSBA 15 (1893), pp. 291 ff., 'shining light,' a view 
opposed by Jensen, Kosmologie, pp. 104 ff. ; etc. 1 

Dr. Emil Kraeling has suggested that Nimrod was an Amorite 
who came to Babylonia from southern Arabia {Aram and Israel, 
1918, pp. 13 ff.). More recently, in the Assyrian Seminar of 
Columbia University, Dr. Kraeling is now inclined to connect 
Nimrod historically with Lugal-Banda, a mythological king men- 
tioned in Poebel, Historical Texts, 1914, whose seat was at the 
city Marad, now known to be the modern Wanna Sedoum, west 
of Nippur on the Euphrates (Clay, Misc. Inscr., notes to No. 10, 
and Delitzsch, Parodies, p. 220). Following Delitzsch (Sum. 
Glossar, p. 206), who derives the name Nimrod from a supposed 
nu-Marad ' man of Marad, ' Kraeling suggests rather en-Marad = 
Lugal-Marad (en = lugal, 'king'), whom he identifies with 
Lugal-Marrada = d Mas, Br. 12536; viz., d Mas = Ninib, Clay, 
Amurru, 1909, pp. 126 ff. Hence Nimrod = Ninib ( ?) . 

The king Lugal-Banda, however, was not noted as a hunter. 
The only two great Babylonian heroes distinguished in the chase 
were Dumuzi (Tammuz), who was killed while hunting boar 
(Jeremias, Altor. Oeisteskultur, pp. 270 ff.), and the renowned 
Oilgames, whose name, however, contains no suggestion of hunt- 
ing and has no connection with the name Nimrod (Prince, 'Note 
sur le nom Gilgames,' Babyloniaca, 1907, pp. 63-65). 

A second suggestion of Dr. Kraeling 's is that Nimrod may have 

1 For other opinions, cf. the material in Gesenius-Buhl, p. 501. 



Brief Notes 203 

been an epithet of the first great Semitic Babylonian king Ham- 
murapi, who, however, was not distinguished in the chase, but, 
like the Biblical Nimr.od, was an empire builder, which would cor- 
respond with the expansion attributed to Nimrod, Gen. 10. 10 &., 
and, so far as the historicity of Nimrod is concerned, it is highly 
probable that we have in this obscure character a reminiscence of 
early Semitic territorial extensions in the Euphrates valley. But 
it is doubtful whether Hammurapi is intended. 

How can the description of Nimrod as a great hunter in the 
presumably glossated text of Gen. 10. 9, be accounted for? In 
the absence of any known tradition confirming this statement, the 
next step would be to examine the form Nimrod itself, to discover 
whether the name does not offer some suggestion of the chase. 
Assuming Nimrod to be a Sumerian name or epithet, it is highly 
probable that the first syllable nim contains the Sum. nin, with 
gloss ni-ni (Del. Glossar, p. 204) = cdidu, occurring in lu edin 
ni-ni (=kili), 'field huntsman.' That this stem nin (ni-ni) is 
identical with nigin = saxaru, 'turn, seek,' which itself contains 
gin, gi—taru, 'turn around, seek,' is highly likely. In nin- 
nini, the final n was probably nasal ng, as in the equation gi = 
ni = 'man' (also = lu = nu, 'man'; Prince, JAOS 39, pp. 270, 
275). This nin-nini also has the meaning napxaru, 'entirety,' 
a variant of saxaru, 'surround,' in which sense the sign has the 
val. kili = nasal k + I = n = ningi-ningim. 

The element -rod in Nimrod is more difficult. It may stand 
for Sum. gud 2 — ellum 'bright, distinguished' (Glossar, p. 215), 
a very common epithet. In this case, ning-h'ud — ' distinguished 
hunter.' It is, however, possible that a later tradition may have 
confounded this guttural gud with gud = qarradu (Glossar', 
108), the exact equivalent of the Biblical ")3J. If this suppo- 
sition is correct, Nimrod is merely the original of the rendering 
T2f ~OJ. This suggestion has never been made before, so far 
as I know, and would serve to explain the introduction of the 
supposed gloss, Gen. 10. 9, implying that the glossator connected 
the idea of a huntsman with the name Nimrod. 

r< i v tt • .*_ J- Dyneley Prince 

Columbia University. 



'Variant bad = ellum, ebbum, 'shining, distinguished' (Glossar, p. 209).