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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY 

AT THE MEETING IN ITHACA, N. Y., 1920 

The annual sessions of the Society, forming its one hundred 
and thirty-second regular meeting, were held in Ithaca, N. Y., 
at Cornell University, on Tuesday and Wednesday of Easter 
Week, April 6 and 7, 1920. 

The following members were present at one or more of the 
sessions : 



Abbott 


Griswold 


Lybyer 




Schmidt 


Abbott, Mrs. 


Haupt 


Montgomery 


Schofi 


Barbour 


Hopkins 


Nies 




Torrey 


Barret 


Hyde 


Ogden 




Waterman 


Bates, Mrs. 


Jackson 


Olmstead 




Westphal 


Berry 


Jackson, Mrs. 


Popper 






Brockwell 


Jastrow 


Sanders 






Edgerton, F. 


Lanman 


Saunders, 


Mrs. 


[Total: 29] 



THE FIRST SESSION 

The first session was held on Tuesday morning beginning at 
9 :45 a. m., in Goldwin Smith Hall, the President, Professor Lan- 
man, being in the chair. The reading of the Proceedings at 
Philadelphia in 1919 was dispensed with, as they had already 
.been printed in the Journal (39.129-151) : there were no cor- 
rections and they were approved as printed. 

Prof. Schmidt, as Chairman of the Committee on Arrange- 
ments, presented the report of the Committee in the form of a 
printed program. The succeeding sessions were appointed for 
Tuesday afternoon at half past two, Wednesday morning at 
half past nine, Wednesday afternoon at half past two, and 
Thursday morning at half past nine. The session of Wednes- 
day afternoon was to be devoted to the presentation of papers on 
the historical study of religions, and papers of a more general 
character. It was announced that on Tuesday at 1 p. m. the 
President and Trustees of Cornell University would entertain 



Proceedings 205 

the members at a luncheon in Prudence Risley Hall; that local 
friends would take the members on an automobile excursion 
Tuesday at 4:30 p. m., after which the members would dine 
together at the Forest Home Tea Room ; that the members would 
gather at the house of the Telluride Club for an informal recep- 
tion Tuesday evening; that the members would have luncheon 
together at the Ithaca Hotel on Wednesday at 1p.m.; that there 
would be a special organ recital in Sage Chapel on Wednesday 
at 5 :15 p. m. ; and that the annual subscription dinner would take 
place in Prudence Risley Hall on Wednesday at 7 :30 p. m. 



REPORT OF THE CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 

The Corresponding Secretary, Dr. Charles J. Ogden, pre- 
sented the following report : 

The rather miscellaneous duties of the Corresponding Secretary are hard 
to summarize; but they are in the main the arrangement of the formal pro- 
gram of the Annual Meeting, the noting of changes affecting the member- 
ship, and the conducting of correspondence with other Societies and organ- 
izations. 

There is little for the Secretary to say about the program of the sessions, 
since, tho he has been engaged in learning both from precedent and by 
experience, he is as yet more able to receive suggestions than to make them. 
Also the problem of coping with the increasing output of the Members' 
learned zeal has been evaded this year thru our escaping from cities into 
a thoroly academic atmosphere where we can enjoy a meeting of a man- 
ageable size. The sixth session decreed by the resolution passed at the last 
meeting (see the Journal, 39. 134) has therefore been omitted, as it is alto- 
gether likely that five sessions will give time enough for the presentation in 
full of all papers and for ample discussion. 

The report concerning the membership can best be stated thru statis- 
tics. The list of corporate members, as it was at the opening of the meet- 
ing in 1919, contained 359 names. At that meeting 24 persons were elected 
to membership, and three former members were reinstated during the year, 
the total accessions to the list being 27. The losses during the past twelve 
months have been : deaths reported, 13 ; formal resignations, 4 ; names dropt 
from the list, 13 ; total losses, 30. There are therefore at present 356 names 
in the list of corporate members, which registers a net loss of 3 for the 
year; but it is unnecessary to emphasize these figures, since they will very 
soon be made obsolete when the unprecedentedly large list of persons 
recommended for membership is laid before the meeting. 

One honorary member, Sir Arthur Evans, was elected at the last meeting 
to fill the only vacancy then known to exist, and he has signified his accept- 



206 Proceedings 

ance of membership. Two deaths reported during the past year leave two 
vacancies to be filled in the roll of honorary members. 

It is how the duty of the Secretary to report to the Society the names of 
those members whose deaths have been brought to his notice since the last 
meeting. 

Professor Ernst Windisch, of the University of Leipzig, a scholar whose 
activities embraced the extremes of Indo-European philology, since his 
studies ranged from Old Irish to Sanskrit and Pali. In the Oriental field 
his edition of the Itivuttaka and his articles on Buddhist legend and doc- 
trine have been of especial value. Elected an honorary member in 1890. 
Died on October 30, 1918. [See JBAS 1919, pp. 299-306.] 

Professor Leonard W. King, Assistant Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian 
Antiquities in the British Museum, and professor in King 's College, London. 
He was widely known for his work in editing Babylonian tablets and the 
great Behistan Inscription and for his books on Babylonian history. Elected 
an honorary member in 1917. Died on August 20, 1919. [See AJSL 36. 
89-94.] 

Mr. J. Nelson Robertson, of Toronto, Canada. Elected in 1913. Died 
in December, 1918. 

Dr. Paul Carus, of La Salle, 111., editor of The Open Court. He was 
primarily interested in philosophy, but had written extensively on Oriental 
religions, notably on Buddhism. Elected in 1897. Died on February 11, 
1919. [See memorial number of The 'Open Court, Sept., 1919.] 

Mr. Gtjstav A. von Brauchitsch, fellow in Semitics at the University of 
Chicago. Elected in 1917. Died on April 2, 1919. 

Professor Crawford H. Toy, of Cambridge, Mass., for twenty-nine years 
Professor of Hebrew and cognate subjects at Harvard University, and one 
of the pioneers in America of the critical study of the Old Testament. 
Elected in 1871. President of the Society in the year 1906-7, being the 
first President to be elected under the system of annual rotation. Died on 
May 12, 1919. [See AJSL 36. 1-17.] 

Mr. Gerard Alston Reichling, of Brooklyn, N. Y., a young scholar of 
promise, who contributed an article to the Journal only a short time before 
his death. Elected in 1912. Died on June 18, 1919. 

Professor W. Max Muller, of the University of Pennsylvania, one of the 
most distinguisht Egyptologists in America, and an active member of this 
Society. Elected in 1905. Died on July 12, 1919. 

Mrs. Jane Dows Nies, of Brooklyn, N. Y., wife of the Rev. Dr. James 
B. Nies, and herself a supporter of Oriental studies thru her gifts to this 
Society and to the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. 
Elected in 1916, and from that time a life member. Died on September 16, 
1919. 

Dr. Franklin Carter, of Williamstown, Mass., president of Williams 

College from 1881 to 1901. Elected in 1873. Died on November 22, 1919. 

M. Victor Segalen, M6deein-major, Brest, France. Elected in 1919. 

Died during the year 1919. 

Dr. Solomon T. H. Hurwitz, of New York City, editor of The Jewish 



Proceedings 20? 

Forum, professor in the Eabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, and 
a leader in Jewish higher education. Elected in 1912. Died on January 
12, 1920. [See memorial number of The Jewish Forum, Feb., 1920.] 

Eev. Henry F. Jenks, of Canton Corner, Mass., formerly pastor of the 
First Congregational Parish in Canton. Elected in 1874. Died on Jan- 
uary 31, 1920. 

Professor Edwin Whitfield Fay, of the University of Texas, where for 
twenty-one years he had been Professor of Latin. His scholarly activities, 
however, extended into the wider domain of comparative Indo-European 
philology, especially in its relation to the classical languages and Sanskrit, 
and his brilliant and ingenious discussions of etymological problems had 
won for him an international reputation. His death is a serious loss to this 
Society, for, tho unable to attend its meetings often, he has been a fre- 
quent contributor to the Journal on Indo-Iranian topics. Elected in 
1888. Died on February 17, 1920. 

Mr. Charles Martyn Prynne, of Boston, Mass. Elected in 1919. Died 
during the year 1919-20. 

Among the external affairs of the Society there has been only one matter 
of prime importance to note; namely, the Conference of Learned Societies 
held in Boston last September, and the consequent organization, in February 
of this year, of the American Council of Learned Societies Devoted to 
Humanistic Studies. This topic, however, need not be elaborated here, 
as it has been summarized in the February number of the Journal (40. 
77-80) and has thus been brought, at least constructively, to the members' 
notice. 

The efforts of the Corresponding Secretary to obtain some preliminary 
consensus of opinion by sending a circular letter to the officers and Directors 
of the Society have made him believe that a board of eighteen persons is 
too unwieldy to function between meetings of the Society and that a smaller 
Executive Council, as has been already suggested, could in the interval 
deal with urgent questions, under proper limitations. Such a power is 
doubtless inherent in the President; but as he is apt to be a distinguisht, 
and therefore a busy, man, and likewise duly sensible of the brevity of his 
tenure, he cannot well be compelled to exercise it. And that the Cor- 
responding Secretary, by reason of his strategic position in respect to the 
Society's affairs and his comparative permanency in office, should assume 
the right of decision, would be a consequence from which he must be saved 
if need be in spite of himself. 

The Secretary cannot end this report without expressing his apprecia- 
tion of the cordial co-operation that he has received from the officers and 
the members of the Society in general, both in answering his requests for 
information, and in other ways. Especially is it his duty and his pleasure 
to thank his predecessors in office, Professors Jackson and Edgerton, and 
the President of the Society, Professor Lanman, for putting at his disposal 
their stores of precedents and their practical wisdom. Of whatever has 
been accomplisht the merit is theirs. 



208 Proceedings 

Upon motion the report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
accepted. Brief remarks were made concerning several late 
members: Professor Jastrow spoke of Max Miiller; Professors 
Hopkins, Lanman and Barret of E. W. Fay; Professor Montgom- 
ery of Mrs. J. B. Nies; Professors Hopkins and Haupt of E. 
Windisch; Professors Lanman and Jastrow of Crawford H. 
Toy ; and Professor Waterman of Leonard W. King. 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

The Corresponding Secretary presented the report of the 
Treasurer, Prof. A. T. Clay: 

Receipts and Expenditures for the Tear ending Dec. 31, 1919 

Receipts 

Balance from old account Dec. 31, 1918 $3,326.83 

Annual dues 1,540.10 

Interest on bonds: 

Chicago, Eock Island and Pacific By $120.00 

Lackawanna Steel Co 100.00 

Virginia Eailway Co 50.00 

Minneapolis General Electric Co 50.00 320.00 

J. B. Nies, for the Encyclopedia of Islam 50.00 

Publication Fund 77.50 

Old plates sold 5.52 

Sale of publications 456.54 

Interest on deposit 169.30 

$5,945.79 
Expenditures 

To the Corresponding Secretary: printing $ 12.17 

Treasurer 's expenses : clerical $ 7.00 

postage (for four years) 36.43 43.43 

Librarian 's expenses : postage .12 

Expenses of the Middle West Branch 27.15 

Journal: printing of 38.5 337.14 

39.1 239.31 

39.2 350.94 

39.3 350.01 

39.4 313.37 

W. Drugulin for printing 96.55 

Editors' honorariums: J. A. Montgomery . . 100.00 

Franklin Edgerton . . 150.00* 

Editors' expenses: postage 13.33 

printing 62.35 2,013.00 

* $50.00 for the preceding year. 



Proceedings 209 

C. Snouck Hurgronje, honorarium for the Encyclopedia 

of Islam 100.40 

Membership Committee Expense: printing 31.75 

postage 7.42 

clerical 3.00 42.17 

Balance, Dee. 31, 1919 3,707.35 

$5,945.79 

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE 

The report of the Auditing Committee was presented by Pro- 
fessor Hopkins : 

We hereby certify that we have examined the account of the Treasurer 
of the Society and have found the same correct, and that the foregoing 
account is in conformity therewith. We have also compared the entries 
with the vouchers and the account book as held for the Society by the 
Treasurer of Yale University, and have found all correct. 

E. Washburn Hopkins, 

F. W. Williams, 

Auditors. 
New Haven, Conn., March 15, 1920. 

On motion the Treasurer's report and that of the Auditing 
Committee were accepted; and a suggestion from the Auditing 
Committee concerning the investment of funds was referred to 
the Directors for report. 

REPORT OP THE LIBRARIAN 

The Corresponding Secretary presented the report of the 
Librarian, Prof. A. T. Clay, and upon motion it was accepted : 

Periodicals have been added to catalogue cards, marked and placed on 
shelves to date. New accessions, including both periodicals and books, are 
now being catalogued. Mr. Paul, a graduate student, has looked over the 
books and manuscripts in the Tamil and Bengali languages, and has made 
additions to the catalogue cards which were already made for them. 

Accessions to the Library of the American Oriental Society 
Mar. 1919 — Jan. 1920 
'Abd al-Karim ibn Muhammad al-Sam'ani. The Kitab al-ansab reproduced 
from the ms. in the British museum. 1912. (E. J. W. Gibb memorial 
series, v. 20.) 
Banerjee, G. N. Hellenism in ancient India. 1919. 

Bhandarkar, D. E. Lectures on the ancient history of India 650 to 

325 B. C. 1919. 

14 JAOS 40 



210 Proceedings 

Bloomfield, M. The life and stories of the Jaina Savior Parcvanatha. 
1919. 

Calcutta university commission report (1-5). 

Claretie, L. Nos freres roumains. 

De Eoo de la Faille, P. lets over Oud-Batavia. (Popular-wetensehappen- 
lijke serie, no. I.) 

Gann, T. W. F. The Maya Indians of southern Yucatan and northern 
British Honduras. 1918. (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of Amer- 
ican ethnology. Bulletin, 64.) 

Giuffrida-Buggeri, V. Prime linee di un' antropologia sistematica dell' 
Asia. 1919. 

Holmes, W. H. Handbook of aboriginal American antiquities. 1919. 

Journal of Jewish lore and philosophy, v. 1, no. 2. 

Kaplun-Kogan, W. W. Die jiidischen Wanderbewegungen in der neuesten 
Zeit (1880-1914). 1919. 

Krom, N. J. De sumatraansche Periode der javaansche Geschiedenis. 1919. 

Laufer, B. Sino-Iraniea. Chinese contributions to- the history of civiliza- 
tion in ancient Iran. 1919. 

Le Nain, L. Rapport succinct sur l'6tat du palais des academies apres le 
depart des Allemands. 1919. 

Marseille. Chambre de commerce. CongrSs fran§ais de la Syrie, 3, 4, et 
5 Janvier 1919. Seances et travaux, fasc. II. 

Al-Mokattam, a daily Arabic newspaper. June-Aug. 1919. 

Narasimhachar, B. The Kesava remple at Belur. 1919. (Mysore archae- 
ological series.) 

The New China Review, v. 1. 1918. 

Parmentier, H. Inventaire descriptif des monuments cams de 1'Annam, 
t. II. 

Pratt, I. A., comp. Armenia and the Armenians, a list of references in the 
New York Public Library. 1919. 

The South Indian research, a monthly journal of researches, v. 1, no. 3-4. 

Stein, A. A third journey of exploration in Central Asia. 1913-16. 

Tuttle, E. H. Dravidian S. Repr. from Am. jour, of philology, v. 40, 1919. 

REPORT OF THE EDITORS OF THE JOURNAL 

Prof. J. A. Montgomery, Senior Editor of the Journal, pre- 
sented the report of the Editors, and upon motion it was 
accepted : 

The five Parts of the Journal for 1919 have appeared very closely to 
schedule time. We have received more than the usual amount of copy, 
which has been delayed in printing because we have not yet returned to the 
pre-war size of the Journal, the volume for 1919 containing 352 pages 
against 460 pages of the volume for 1914-15. Unfortunately it is more 
than ever obvious that only a considerably larger income will enable us to 



Proceedings 211 

return to the original quantum, for with the new year the printers notified 
us that their rates would be increased between 20 and 25%. We have 
been advised that in the present state of the printing business we must 
accept the situation. The Editors are practising all possible economy. 
Among other economies they must now require that authors shall furnish 
copy in final shape or else bear the cost of changes in composition. They 
would urge upon contributors the virtue of condensation and the sacrifice 
of any but necessary display of foreign types. 

Included in the last year's printing bill were items for printing a large 
number of offprints of the very timely Presidential Address and of a 
brochure containing the papers on the proposed School of Living Oriental 
Languages which has been widely distributed by the appropriate Committee. 

As the Treasurer's report will show, we came off very cheaply in paying 
our outstanding printing bill in Germany, at about one-sixth of the normal 
rates. Although this bill was paid in the latter part of the summer we 
have not yet received from the Messrs. Drugulin the missing copies of the 
Parts of Volumes 34 and 35, f which were held up by the War. A letter 
from the Messrs. Drugulin of date Jan. 22 advised us that they were at 
once shipping the missing numbers but these have not yet been received. 

The Editors would recommend supplying libraries and other learned insti- 
tutions with the Journal at the same rates as to members. 

A suggestion was made from the floor that abstracts of papers 
announced for the sessions be printed for distribution before the 
meeting ; upon motion the matter was referred to the Editors of 
the Journal and the Corresponding Secretary with power. 

ELECTION OP MEMBERS 

The following persons, recommended by the Directors, were 
elected members of the Society; the list includes some elected 
at a later session : 

Honorary Members 

Eev. Pere Vincent Scheil, Member of the Institute, Paris, France. 

Dr. Frederick W. Thomas, Librarian of the India Office, London, England. 

Corporate Members 

Prof. William Frederic Bade, Prof. John M. Burnam, 

Mr. Oscar Berman, R ev . Isaac Cannaday, 

Mr. Isaac W. Bernheim, Mr. Alfred M. Cohen, 

Prof. Campbell Bonner, Dr. George H. Cohen, 

Prof. Edward I. Bosworth, Rabbi Dr. Henry Cohen, 

Miss Emilie Grace Briggs, Mr. Kenneth Colegrove, 

Prof. C. A. Brodie Brockwell, Prof. Frank Leighton Day, 

Mr. Leo M. Brown, Mr. Robert E. Dengler, 



212 



Proceedings 



Babbi Dr. Israel Elfenbein, 

Eabbi Abraham J. Feldman, 

Eabbi Joseph L. Fink, 

Eabbi Leo M. Franklin, 

Mr. Maurice J. Freiberg, 

Mr. Sigmund Frey, 

Prof. Israel Friedlaender, 

Mr. Dwight Goddard, 

Rabbi Dr. S. H. Goldenson, 

Rabbi Solomon Goldman, 

Mr. Philip J. Goodhart, 

Rev. Dr. Herbert Henry Gowen, 

Mr. M. E. Greenebaum, 

Rev. Dr. J. R. Griswold, 

Pres. William "W. Guth, 

Dr. George Ellery Hale, 

Prof. W. H. P. Hatch, 

Mr. Daniel P. Hays, 

Mrs. Edward L. Heinsheimer, 

Rabbi James G. Heller, 

Prof. Max Heller, 

Mr. B. Hirshberg, 

Mr. Theodore Hofeller, 

Mr. G. F. Hoff, 

Prof. Alice M. Holmes, 

Mr. Samuel Horehow, 

Prof. Walter W. Hyde, 

Ikbal Ali Shah, 

Babbi Edward L. Israel, 

Mr. Melvin M. Israel, 

Prof. F. J. Foakes Jackson, 

Miss Alice Judson, 

Mr. Julius Kahn, 

Mr. Vahan H. Kalendarian, 

Mr. I. Keyfitz, 

Mr. Eugene Klein, 

Rev. Dr. Emil G. H. Kraeling, 

Mr. Harold Albert Lamb, 

Mr. D. A. Leavitt, 

Mr. Samuel J. Levinson, 

Mrs. Lee Loeb, 

Rev. Arnold Look, 

Rev. Dr. Chester Charlton McCown, 

Mr. Ralph W. Mack, 

Rabbi Edgar F. Magnin, 

Prof. Henry Malter, 



Babbi Jacob B. Marcus, 

Mr. Ralph Marcus, 

Mr. Arthur William Marget, 

Mr. Harry S. Margolis, 

Mr. H. J. Marshall, 

Prof. D. Boy Mathews, 

Rabbi Dr. Eli Mayer, 

Mr. Henry Meis, 

Mr. Myron M. Meyerovitz, 

Rabbi Louis A. Mischkind, 

Rev. Hugh A. Moran, 

Mr. Effingham B. Morris, 

Rev. Thomas Kinloch Nelson, 

Mr. Herbert C. Ottinger, 

Mr. Robert Leet Patterson, 

Mr. Harold Peirce, 

Dr. .Joseph Louis Perrier, 

Dr. Arnold Peskind, 

Mr. Julius I. Peyser, 

Mr. Robert Henry Pfeiffer, 

Mr. Julian A. Pollak, 

Mr. Carl E. Pretz, 

Rabbi Dr. Max Raisin, 

Prof. H. M. Ramsey, 

Prof. Joseph Ransohoff, 

Mr. Marcus Rauh, 

Prof. John H. Raven, 

Rev. A. K. Reischauer, 

Mr. Robert Thomas Riddle, 

Mr. Julius Rosenwald, 

Rabbi Samuel Sale, 

Rabbi Dr. Marcus Salzman, 

Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, 

Mr. John F. Schliehting, 

Prof. John A. Scott, 

Mr. Max Senior, 

Mr. Gyokshu Shibata, 

Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, 

Mr. Hiram Hill Sipes, 

Mr. Jack H. Skirball, 

Prof. Edmund D. Soper, 

Mr. Alexander Spanakidis, 

Prof. Wallace N. Stearns, 

Dr. W. Stede, 

Mr. A. J. Sunstein, 

Prof. Leo Suppan, 



Proceedings 213 

Mr. I. Newton Trager, Mr. Peter Wiernik, 

Mr. David Arthur Turnure, Mr. Herman Wile, 

Mr. Dudley Tyng, Prof. Clarence Russell Williams, 

Mrs. John King Van Rensselaer, Prof. Curt Paul Wimmer, 

Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein, Mr. Louis Gabriel Zelson, 

Mr. Morris P. Westheimer, Mr. Joseph Solomon Zuokerbaum, 

Mr. Milton C. Westphal, Rev. Dr. Samuel M. Zwemer. 

[Total: 122.] 

Upon motion it was voted that the thanks of the Society be 
extended to the Committee on the Enlargement of Membership 
and Resources, and particularly to the Chairman, Prof. Morgen- 
stern, for zealous and efficient work. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR 1920-1921 

Dr. J. B. Nies for the Committee on Nomination of Officers 
reported as follows : 

President — Professor Talcott Williams, of Columbia University. 

Vice-Presidents — Professor Paul Haupt, of Johns Hopkins University; 
Dr. Archer M. Huntington, of New York City; Professor Albert Howe 
Lybyer, of the University of Illinois. 

Corresponding Secretary — Dr. Charles J. Ogden, of New York City. 

Recording Secretary — Professor LeRoy Carr Barret, of Trinity College. 

Treasurer — Professor Albert T. Clay, of Yale University. 

Librarian — Professor Albert T. Clay, of Yale University. 

Editors of the Journal — Professor James A. Montgomery, of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania; Professor Franklin Edgerton, of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

Directors, term expiring 1923 — Dr. Justin Edwards Abbott, of Summit, 
N. J.; Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, of Columbia University; Pro- 
fessor Charles Rockwell Lanman, of Harvard University. 

The officers thus nominated were duly elected. 

Upon motion reports of other committees were deferred. 

The President, Prof. C. R. Lanman of Harvard University, 
delivered an address on 'India and the West' [to be printed in 
the Journal] . 

At the luncheon which followed adjournment of the first ses- 
sion Dean J. E. Creighton of the Graduate School made an 
address of welcome, acting in behalf of President Schurman 
who was at the time on a mission to Japan. 



214 Proceedings 



THE SECOND SESSION 

The second session was called to order by President Lanman 
at 2 :30 o 'clock on Tuesday afternoon. The reading of papers 
was immediately begun : 

Professor M. Jastrow, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania: Two 
New Fragments of a Sumerian Code of Laws. Remarks by Professor 
Haupt. 

A discussion of two texts recently published by Dr. H. F. Lutz 
(Selected Sumerian and Babylonian Texts, Philadelphia, 1919) con- 
taining fragments of laws dealing with agricultural regulations and 
with family relationships. A comparison of the fragments with the 
Hammurabi Code shows only a general dependence of the latter with 
many variations. Differences between the Sumerian and Babylonian 
regulations throw an interesting light on shiftings in social conditions 
in Ancient Babylonia. 
Professor F. Edgerton, of the University of Pennsylvania: Evil-wit, 
No-wit, and Honest-wit. [To be printed in the Journal.] Remarks by 
Professors Lanman and Hopkins. 

Professor N. Schmidt, of Cornell University: (a) Traces of Early 
Acquaintance in Europe with Ethiopic Enoch; (b) The First German 
Translation of Ethiopic Enoch. [To be printed in the Journal.] Remarks 
by Professors Jackson and Montgomery. 

Professor 6. R. Berry, of Colgate University: The Psalms called Songs 
of Ascents. Remarks by Professors Haupt and Jastrow. 

Professor L. C. Barret, of Trinity College: The Kashmirian Atharva 
Veda, Book Eight. [To be printed in the Journal.] 

Professor C. R. Lanman, of Harvard University: (a) Phrase-derivatives; 
(b) The Sanskrit Passive-formative, ya or fra. [To be printed in the 
Journal.] Remarks by Professors Haupt and Ogden. 

At 4 :25 p. m. the Society took a recess to enjoy an automobile 
ride. 

THE THIRD SESSION 

The third session was called to order by President Lanman 
at 9 :45 o 'clock on Wednesday morning. Some additional nom- 
inees for membership, included in the list already given, were 
duly elected. 

It was announced that the next meeting of the Society would 
be held in Baltimore at Johns Hopkins University and at Goucher 
College on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of Easter Week, 
March 29, 30, and 31, 1921. 

Upon recommendation of the Directors it was voted to amend 



Proceedings 215 

Article V of the Constitution so that the present wording 
thereof shall be denominated Section 1 ; and to add thereto the 
following : 

Section 2. An Executive Committee, consisting of the President, Cor- 
responding Secretary, and Treasurer, and two other Directors each elected 
for a term of two years, shall be constituted by the Board of Directors. 
The Executive Committee shall have power to take action provisionally in 
the name of the Society on matters of importance which may arise between 
meetings of the Society or of the Board of Directors, and on which, in the 
Committee's opinion, action cannot be postponed without injury to the 
interests of the Society. Notice of .all actions taken by the Executive 
Committee shall be printed as soon as possible in the Journal, and shall be 
reported to the Directors and the Society at the succeeding annual meeting. 
Unless such actions, after being thus duly advertised and reported, are 
disapproved by a majority vote of the members present at any session of the 
succeeding annual meeting, they shall be construed to have been ratified 
and shall stand as actions of the Society. 

Upon recommendation of the Directors it was voted to amend 
By-Law VII so that as amended it shall read : 

VII. All members shall be entitled to one copy of all current numbers 
of the Journal issued during their membership. Back volumes of the 
Journal shall be furnished to members at twenty percent reduction from 
the list price. All other publications of the Society may be furnished to 
members at such reductions in price as the Directors may determine. 

Upon motion it was voted that greetings from the Society be 
sent to the newly organized Palestine Oriental Society, and that 
it be placed on the exchange list. 

For the Directors it was reported that they had voted to send 
as a gift to the Library of the University of Louvain a set of the 
Journal. 

Professor Lanman reported for the Committee on Co-operation 
with other Oriental Societies, as follows : 

Delegates of the Societe Asiatique, American Oriental Society, and 
Scuola Orientale (of Rome), met in joint-session with the Boyal Asiatic 
Society, at London, September 3-6, 1919. The representatives of our Society 
were Professors Breasted, Clay, Woods, and Worrell. 

[A full account of the meeting is given in Number 1 of the Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society for 1920, pages 123-162. This number arrived in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, between April 5th and 8th, 1920, that is, while 
the annual meeting of the American Oriental Society was in progress at 
Ithaca, and so too late for oral presentation.] 



216 Proceedings 

Report upon plans concerning the progress of Semitic and related studies 
may best be left\to the competent hands of Professors Breasted and Clay 
and Worrell, who have not yet returned from Egypt and Palestine. And as 
the issues of our Journal are now frequent, the delay need not be serious. 
On the other hand, a brief report upon the projected General Dictionary 
of Buddhism, drawn up by Professor Woods, who came back to America 
soon after the meeting, may well be submitted herewith. 

At a meeting of the officers of the joint-session, including M. Senart, 
Professors Finot, Sylvain Levi, Macdonell, and Woods, Dr. F. W. Thomas, 
and Sir George Grierson, it was decided to plan a General Dictionary of 
Buddhism, with special reference to biography, history, geography, doctrine, 
and philosophical technique, and in the form of short and precise definitions 
or articles, and with characteristic passages from the printed texts. 

The point of departure would be the vocabulary of Rosenberg (Tokyo, 
1916). The first undertaking would be to collect on uniform cards the 
words already assigned to local groups of workers: a Japanese group, a 
Cingalese group, an Indian group at Calcutta, and a Tibetan group at 
Darjeeling or Petrograd. Provisional arrangements for these centres of 
study have already been made. The revision and editing, especially of the 
historical and geographical cards, would be the work of the Western 
members. 

The Chairman of the Committee for the conduct of the undertaking is 
Sylvain Levi of the College de France. With him are associated Dr. 
Thomas of the India Office Library, and Professor Woods of Harvard. The 
services of those who make the collections will have to be paid for and 
there will be (besides necessary incidentals) clerical expenses. A budget 
of say six thousand dollars will be required. It is proposed to prepare a 
circular letter to be sent to persons interested in furthering such scholarly 
work in the various countries, — the letter to be approved and signed by the 
four bodies already represented at the joint-meeting. 

On behalf of the above Committee, Professor Woods asks that the Amer- 
ican Oriental Society give its general approval to this undertaking and join 
the other societies in signing the letter thus approved. 

It was voted that the matter of relations be referred back to the 
Committee for further report. 

Professor Jastrow offered the reports of several Committees. 

The Publication Committee reported some progress. 

The Committee on the Establishment of a School of Living 
Oriental Languages reported that it had discovered sympathy 
for the project in important quarters. 

The Committee on Enlargement of Membership and Resources 
pointed to the nominations for membership as its report. 

It was voted that members be requested to send to Professor 
Morgenstern suggestions regarding new members. 



Proceedings 21? 

The Committee on Honorary Associates reported progress. 

The Committee on the Statement of Scope, Character, Aims, 
and Purposes of Oriental Studies reported inability to prepare 
a suitable statement and asked to be discharged. 

The Committee on the Formation of a National Academy of 
Humanities reported progress. 

At this point it was voted : that the American Oriental Society 
ratify and it does hereby ratify, the convention and constitution 
of the American Council of Learned Societies devoted to Human- 
istic Studies. This constitution has already been printed in the 
Journal (40.781). 

It was also voted : that the Society 's delegates to the Academic 
Council just mentioned be appointed by the Directors. 

The Committee on the Interests of the American School in 
Jerusalem gave a brief report on the activities of the school dur- 
ing the last year. 

The Committee on a Plan for Archaeological Exploration in 
the Near East reported that Professor Breasted is now in that 
region looking over the ground. 

At this point the presentation of papers was resumed. 

Mrs. A. H. Saunders, of New York: Some Literary Aspects of the 
Absence of Tragedy in the Sanskrit Drama. Remarks by Professors Edger- 
ton, Jastrow, Ogden, Jackson, and Brockwell. 

This paper is a consideration of the loss of possibly great tragedies 

through the rules of dramaturgy against unhappy endings for Sanskrit 

plays. 

Mr. W. H. Schofp, of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum: Cinnamon, 

Cassia, and Somaliland. [To be printed in the Journal.] Remarks by 

Professors Torrey, Ogden and Haupt. 

Mr. P. L. Barbour, of New York: Some Observations regarding the 
Burushaski Language of Northern Kashmir'. Remarks by Professors Haupt 
and Brockwell. 

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to certain features of 
this unclassified language of Northwestern India. The peculiarities 
particularly noted are: 

(1) a system of pronominalizing or adding a pronominal prefix to 
the various words, be they noun, adjective, or verb, which express the 
idea of family relationship, or name the parts of the body or concepts 
of the mind; 

(2) the use of a vigesimal system in counting. 

In conclusion the author expresses his desire to investigate the lan- 
guage at first hand. 



218 Proceedings 

Professor C. A. B. Brockwell, of McGill University: Some of the 
basic principles of the science and art of measuring time, as used among 
the early Mediterranean peoples. Remarks by Professors Haupt and 
Jastrow. 

Bev. Dr. J. E. Abbott, of Summit, N. J.: Maloba, the Maratha Saint. 
[To be printed in the Journal.] Bemarks by Professor Jackson. 

The President announced the appointment of the following 
committees : 

On Arrangements for the meeting in Baltimore in 1921 : Professors 
Haupt, Bloomfield, and Dougherty, and the Corresponding Secretary. 

On Nominations for the year 1981-1922 : Professors Jastrow and Schmidt 
and Dr. W. N. Brown. 

Auditors for 1920-1921 : Professors P. W. Williams and Torrey. 

The Society took a recess at 12 :15 p. m. 

THE FOURTH SESSION 

The fourth session was called to order by President Lanman 
at 2 :40 o 'clock on Wednesday afternoon. The reading of papers 
was immediately begun. 

Professor Paul Haupt, of Johns Hopkins University: (a) Ventriloquism 
in Babylonia; (b) The Nuptials of Jahveh and the Sun; (e) Sumerian 
Stillatories ; (d) Suckling Sea-monsters. 

(a) The instruction at the end of a cuneiform exorcistic manual 
(ZA 30, 213) to pipe like creatures of the desert (cf. Arab. ' azf) and 
female voices refers to ventriloquism, which has a higher pitch and a 
different timbre ( Assyr. lisdnu enitu) . The Hebrew necromancers were 
ventriloquists (Is. 8, 19; 29, 4). The Sipirmeneans were said to pipe 
like women (ZA 30, 227 n. 3; of. Herod. 4, 183) because they spoke 
a tonal language. The Sumerian tones may have been more marked in 
the older (erne-sal) dialect .(ZA 31, 240) and in the language of the 
women (J A 08 37, 312). The Tibetans say that sounds uttered with 
a high tone are spoken with a woman's voice (EB 11 26. 920 b ; cf. also 
PSBA 40. 95). 

(b) MV AG 22, 69 regards Ps. 19 as Davidic, and Ps. 132 (JBL 33, 
168) as Solomonic. Ps. 19 is called a song for the Neomenia or the 
Peast of the Tabernacles, from the Solomonic Book of Songs (JHUC 
No. 316, p. 22) which is identified with the Psalter. Before in them 
hath Be set a tabernacle (or bridal pavilion) for the sun the line 
Jahveh knew (Gen. 4, 1; cf. JHUC, No. 316, p. 24) the sun in heaven, 
He thought to dwell in thick darkness (see Kings, SBOT 101) is sup- 
posed to have been omitted. This reconstruction is untenable (JBL 38, 
182). 



Proceedings 219 

(e) Sum. TcaJclcul, Assyr. namzttu, Talmud, nazaita is not a mash-tun 
for the brewing of beer (ZA 32, 168) but the receiver of a still for the 
distillation of brandy (JHUC, No. 287, p. 33). The boiler of the still 
is called in Assyrian : qannu or qanqannatu = Talmud, qanean. Siduri 
(which may be the prototype of Calypso; ef. Tcuttumat, HW 363) had 
a still near the sea ; she was not a Sabean maiden : s&bitu is the femi- 
nine of sdbu, taverner (cf. Heb. sobe'e idin, wine-bibbers) = Sum. 
lu-gestin or lu-Tcastin. During the siege of Erech (JAOS 22, 8) the 
hostess in despair smashed the receiver of her still (KB 6, 273, 6). 

(d) In the Maecabean Elegies (JBL 38, 157) Lam. 4, 3 we must 
read: Gam-tanninim halegu sedehen, hentqu gUrehSn, Even sea- 
monsters offered (lit. drew out) their teats, and suckled their young. 
The Jews may have observed dugongs suckling their young in the Bed 
Sea. There were also whales (both right whales and sperm-whales) 
in the Mediterranean (JHUC, No. 296, pp. 37, 43). Whales bring 
forth their young alive and suckle them; the two teats are placed in 
depressions on each side of the genital aperture. The dugong often 
raises its round head out of the water and carries its young under the 
forefm (see plate in Brockhaus, 14, 1002). 
Rev. Dr. F. K. Sanders, of New York: The Publications of the Board 

of Missionary Preparation relating to Beligions. Bemarks by Professors 

Haupt, Jackson, Torrey, and Montgomery. 

The purpose of the speaker is to report certain results already 
reached, illustrating these by the actual publications and indicating 
the further policy of the Board in that direction, and then to speak of 
a proposed series. Each is of interest as representing a distinct 
attempt to utilize the very best scientific knowledge in order to assist 
young missionaries to enter thoughtfully and broadly into their work. 
Professor A. T. Olmstead, of the University of Illinois: The Assyrian 

Land System. Bemarks by Professors Haupt and Jastrow. 

Professor A. V. W. Jackson, of Columbia University: On the Site of the 

most ancient Zoroastrian Fire. Bemarks by Professor Hopkins. 

In Zoroastrian tradition the Farnbag Fire, or the special fire of 
the priestly class, is the most sacred of all fires, as it represents the 
divine fire of Ormazd. Tradition assigns its original foundation to 
the legendary ruler Yim, who established it in Khvarazm, to the east 
of the Caspian Sea. According to the Indian Bundahishn it was 
removed to Kabul by Zoroaster 's patron, King Vishtasp ; but according 
to the Iranian recension of that work (now available) it was carried 
to a place which may be identified with Kariyan in Fars. The paper 
discusses this latter tradition in the light of various other sources. 
Professor C. C. Toreey, of Yale University: The So-called Original 

Hebrew of Siraeh. Bemarks by Professors Montgomery and Jastrow. 

The Hebrew text of Siraeh recently discovered is not the original 
Hebrew, but the result of a process of retroversion. The proofs of this 
are chiefly the following: (1) Our Greek text is by no means a ren- 



220 Proceedings 

dering of this Hebrew. (2) The style of the Cairo fragments is 
wretched. (3) Unlike the Greek, there is everywhere a weak repeti- 
tion of Old Testament phrases. (4) The Hebrew of the fragments is 
largely the language of a much later day than that of Ben Sira. 
(5) The original metrical form is very often wanting. (6) Not sel- 
dom there is unmistakable evidence of translation. (7) There is good 
reason to believe that the real Hebrew of Sirach was lost at a very 
early date. 
Professor E. W. Hopkins, of Yale University: The Ethical Element in 
the Eig Veda. Remarks by Professors Lanman, Haupt, and Dr. Abbott. 

Some ethical quality is inferable from pre-Vedic period. Vedic 
gods are peculiarly related to man. The idea of mediation has been 
exaggerated. The relation of sinner to gods and nature of the divine 
laws. These laws are according to the divine Order and Supreme Being; 
extracts in illustration. Nature of sin. Punishment of sinner; reward 
of pious. 

By unanimous consent Prof. Lybyer's paper on The Syrian 
Desire for Independence was postponed for presentation in the 
evening, afterl the annual dinner. 

After discussion it was voted : that the Executive Committee 
consider the preparation of questionaires to be sent to missionary 
areas for the purpose of gathering information which might be 
useful to scholars. 

On motion of Professor Jackson, the following resolution was 
unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, that the American Oriental Society, in appreciation of its par- 
ticularly pleasant visit at Ithaea, wishes to express its cordial thanks to 
the President and Trustees of Cornell University for welcoming the Society 
at Goldwin Smith Hall, where its sessions were held, and for hospitably 
entertaining the members at luncheon; also to thank the Telluride Associa- 
tion for the reception kindly given at its home and for various other atten- 
tions; to thank furthermore the Town and Gown Club and the University 
Club for courtesies extended; to express appreciation likewise to the Ithaca 
Chamber of Commerce for the enjoyable automobile excursion, and to thank 
Professor Quarles for the delightful organ recital which he gave for the 
members of the Society. It wishes, in conclusion, to add special acknowl- 
edgements to the Chairman of the Committee on Arrangements and Ms very 
efficient Reception Committee for the remarkable manner in which they con- 
tributed to make the meeting a memorable one for all those in attendance. 

The President announced the formal presentation by title of 
the following papers. 

Professor P. R. Blake, of Johns Hopkins University: A Bibliography of 
the Philippine Languages, Part II. 



Proceedings 221 

Professor M. Bloomfield, of Johns Hopkins University: (a) Notes on 
the Divyavadana. [To be printed in the Journal.] (b) On overhearing, 
as a motif in Hindu Fiction. 

Dr. E. W. Burlingame, of Albany, N. Y.: Buddhist influence on Bid- 
pai's Fables. [To be printed in the Journal.] 

Dr. E. Chiera, of the University of Pennsylvania: The Sin Offering. 

Professor B. P. Dougherty, of Goucher College: The Temple Guard in 
Ereeh. 

Professor F. Edgerton, of the University of Pennsylvania: The Panca- 
tantra Reconstructed: a report of progress. 

Dr. I. Efros, of Baltimore: An Emendation to Jer. 4. 29. 

Dr. A. Ember, of Johns Hopkins University: Several Semitic Etymologies. 

Professor E. W. Hopkins, of Yale Universty: Rte Srantasya, 'without 
toil,' EV. 4. 33. 11. 

Mr. V. H. Kalendarian, of Columbia University: The Turanian Ele- 
ment in Armenian. 

Professor M. Jastrow of the University of Pennsylvania: Notes on 
Criticism of Inscriptions: I, The Behistan Inscription of Darius the Great. 
[To be printed in the Journal.] 

Professor A. V. W. Jackson, of Columbia University: Notes on the 
Persian Poet Baba, Tahir. 

Professor M. Jastrow, of the University of Pennsylvania: Notes on 
the Text of Ishtar 's Descent to the Lower World. 

Dr. H. S. Linfield, of Dropsie College: (a) An Approach to the Study 
of Jewish Contracts from the point of View of Babylonian Contracts, (b) 
The Forms seWM selasit selastn ielasot, reha' % -it 4n -ot, etc., in Neo-Hebrew 
and their Equivalents in other Semitic Languages. 

Professor D. G. Lyon, of Harvard University: Assyrian City Gates. 

Dr. D. I. Macht, of Johns Hopkins University: A Pharmacological 
Appreciation of Biblical Incense. 

Professor T. J. Meek, of Meadville Theological School: (a) Some New 
Assyrian Ideograms, (b) An Assyrian Copy of the Hammurabi Code. 

Dr. J. J. Price, of Plainfield, N. J. : The Rabbinic Conception of Labor. 

Professor J. D. Prince, of Columbia University: The Sumerian Original 
of the name Nimrod. [To be printed in the Journal.] 

Rev. J. E. Snyder, of Johns Hopkins University: (a) Habbakuk's Male- 
dictions, (b) The a before the affixes of the Assyrian permansive. 

(a) The four imprecatory triplets in Heb. 2, 6b = 17 (18-20 is a sub- 
sequent addition) refer to events and conditions recorded in 1 Mac. 10, 
30. 42; 11, 34. 35.— 1, 21-23; 2, 9; 6, 12; 1, 33; 10, 32; 11, 41.— 1, 
46; 2, 12; 3, 51; 4, 38; 7, 35. 42; 14, 36; 9, 50-53.— 1, 24. 30; 2, 38; 
5, 2; 7, 17. 19. We must read WokUnO, for 16-16 and 'ulU la-abutay,, also 
nesukeka and ■mez'-oz&eka, and mispdh, bloodshed (miswritten mispdh 
in Is. 5, 7 and mispat in Ezek. 7, 23) for mesappeh. 

(b) The a in Assy, palxaku, I fear, does not correspond to the 6 in 



222 Proceedings 

Heb. sabiota, which is conformed to the verba tertiae u (JAOS 28. 113), 
but to the 6 in Heb. anoM I. The pronoun of the first person was 
(am)afcw. This o was afterward transferred to the other persons. And 
in Arabic and Aramaic (Ethiopic and) is shortened from anaku and 
Heb. dn% and anoM are conformed to the suffix of the first person (SFG 
53). 
Professor C. C. Torrey, of Yale University: The Site of Niniveh in the 
Book of Tobit. 

The Society took a recess at 5 :10 p. m. 

THE FIFTH SESSION 

The fifth session was called to order by President Lanman at 
8 :35 p. m., after the annual dinner, in Prudence Bisley Hall, for 
the purpose of listening to Prof. Lybyer's paper, postponed from 
the afternoon session, and of transacting certain business. The 
following paper was presented : 

Professor A. H. Ltbter, of the University of Illinois: The Syrian Desire 
for Independence. Eemarks by Professors Haupt, Jastrow, Montgomery, 
Popper, and others. 

Impressions of the Syrian character and desire for self-rule as observed 
with the American Commission on Mandates in Turkey last summer. 
The program of the Syrian Conference at Damascus. How the Syrian 
desires conflict with the secret treaties which are in process of being 
put into effect. How America might solve the problem of the world. 
If the triple partition be enforced upon the country, there is small pros- 
pect of permanent peace. 

At the end of the discussion of Professor Lybyer's address, 
the Society held a brief business session. 

Professor Lanman, as Chairman of the Committee on Co-op- 
eration with the Societe Asiatique, presented the report of that 
Committee. On motion of Professor Haupt, properly seconded, 
it was voted, after some discussion, that the report be referred to 
the Executive Committee with power to act upon the proposal 
therein contained that this Society co-operate with the Societe 
Asiatique and other. Oriental Societies in regard to planning a 
General Dictionary of Buddhism and issuing an appeal for aid 
in its preparation. 

On motion it was voted that the President of the Society be 
authorized to appoint delegates to represent the Society at the 



Proceedings 223 

joint meeting of Oriental Societies to be held at Paris in July, 
1920. 

Certain additional nominees for membership, included in the 
list already given, were duly elected. 

Professor Olmstead extended an informal invitation for the 
Society to hold its annual meeting with that of the Middle "West 
Branch in Easter Week of 1922. 

At 11 :10 o 'clock the Society adjourned, to meet again in Balti- 
more on March 29, 1921.