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LITHUANIAN KLONAS, KLUONAS 'A PLACE WHERE 
SOMETHING IS SPREAD OUT' 

Harold H. Bender 
Princeton University 

Lithuanian klonas (Nesselmann) 'ein hinter den Wirtschafts- 
gebauden, bes. hinter der Scheune und dem Garten gelegener 
Ort; dann auch die von dem Wohnhause abgelegen gebauten 
Wirtschaftsgebaude'. arklius i klonq paleisti (Nesselmann) 'die 
Pferde auf den Platz hinter der Scheune treiben'. klounas 
(Geitler, Litauische Studien, 92) " (= klonas, Ness.) bedeutet 
auch die Tenne". klunas (Bezzenberger, Beitrage zur Ge- 
schichte der litauischen Sprache, 295) 'Tenne, Scheune'. 
klunas (Schleicher, Litauische Sprache, II. 282) 'Raum hinter 
dem Hause nach dem Felde zu '. kluonas (Leskien, Nomina, 196, 
361) 'Tenne, Scheuer'. klonas, klunas (Kurschat) 'der Bleich- 
platz hinter der Scheune'. klons (Bezzenberger, Litauische 
Forschungen, 126) : dpatinis klons 'der Platz unter dem Of en', 
virszujis klons 'die Decke auf dem Of en', klonas (Leskien, 
Nomina, 197) 'place where cattle graze', kluonas (Lalis) 'barn, 
barnyard'. 

I propose to embrace all of the above words under a klonas, 
klunas 'a place where something is spread out' and to connect 
this klonas, klunas with kloju, kloti 'to spread out'. Only one 
or two of these words have hitherto received etymological treat- 
ment. Leskien 's Ablaut (379) goes no further than connecting 
klunas (beside klonas) 'Bleichplatz hinter der Scheune' with 
Lett, kluns 'Estrich'. None of the group is assigned to any 
root by Nesselmann or Kurschat, or by Leskien, either in his 
Ablaut or in his Nomina. Bruckner, Die slavischen Fremd- 
worter im Litauischen, 94, considers klonas 'Wirtschaftsgebaude' 
and klounas 'Tenne' Slavic loanwords: White Russian, Polish 
dial, kluna 'Scheuer', Little Russian klun, kluna. Bezzen- 
berger, BB 17. 215, relates Old Lith. klunas 'Tenne, Scheune' = 
Samogit. klouns, Lett, klons 'Tenne, Estrich' with Lith. kulti, 
Lett, kult 'dreschen', Lett, kuls 'Tenne, Estrich'. He adds that 
White Russian, Little Russian kluna 'Scheune' is perhaps bor- 
rowed from the Lith., but that klunas, klons are certainly not from 
23 JAOS 40 



354 Harold H. Bender 

the Slavic. Berneker, Slavisches etymologisches Worterbuch, 
I. 522-3, derives Little Russian, "White Russian kluna from Polish 
dial, klunia for *klonia, which he attaches to Old Bulg. klo-ho, 
kloniti 'neigen, beugen'; the latter he is inclined to consider an 
iterative formation to a lost present *kli-ng, which was conceived 
as *klin-g, and to connect, with Gutturalwechsel (¥ in slong, 
sloniti) , with the root k'lei- in Skr. srdyati, Gk. k\Ivo>, Goth. Mains, 
Lith. szleju, szleti 'anlehnen', szlljqs 'sich geneigt habend, 
schief ', etc. Of the Polish dial, klunia for *klonia Berneker says, 
"Entlehnung aus lit. kluonas 'Tenne, Scheuer'; klonas bei Kur- 
schat 'Bleichplatz hinter der Scheune'; le. kluns 'Estrich' erk- 
lart die Form nicht; gegen Bezzenberger BB 17. 215". Finally, 
Brugmann, Grundriss 2 , II. 1. 259, points, with a single line, in 
the right direction, "Lit. klonas 'Bleichplatz hinter der Scheune', 
zu kld-ti 'hinbreiten' ". 

The basic idea of klonas, klunas (on uncertainty and confusion 
between u and o in the Lith. dialects see, among others, Leskien, 
Ablaut, 378) is that of a place where something is spread out, 
e. g. the bleaching place near the house or barn, the small pasture 
in the same location, the threshing floor, barn floor (and then, by 
synecdoche, barn), barn yard, the space above or under the stove. 
Formally, klonas bears exactly the same relation to kloju, kloti 
that Old Lith. planas (i. e. plonas) 'Tenne' bears to ploju, ploti 
'breitschlagen' and that stonas 'Stand' bears to stoju, stoti 
'treten, stehen'. The IE. belongings of kloju, kloti are clear: 
Lett, kldju, Mat 'hinbreiten, breit hinlegen'; Old Bulg. kladg, 
klasti 'laden, legen'; Goth, af-hlap'an 'iiberburden'; OHG. hladan 
'laden'. Cf. Brugmann, Grundriss 2 , II. 3. 368; Berneker, Slav, 
etym. Wb., I. 508. 

Leskien, Ablaut, 376, gives only five Lith. words under the 
group of kloju, klojau, kloti 'zudecken'. The following list will 
extend his group and at the same time throw semasiological light 
upon the nouns grouped together above in the first paragraph. 
The words included there are not repeated here; regular com- 
pound verbs are omitted unless they are valuable semantically. 

kloju, kloti ' decken, iiberdecken ; den Fussboden ausdielen ; das 
Bett, ein Nest machen; zum Dreschen anlegen' (Nesselmann) ; 
'hinbreiten, breit hinlegen (z. B. ein Bett ; Getreide auf die Tenne 
zum Dreschen breit hinlegen); breit bedecken' (Kurschat). 
apklodas (Ness.) 'das Gezimmer zu einem Bau'. apkloju, 



Lithuanian klonas, klunas 355 

apkloti 'herumlegen, befleihen, bedecken; eine "Wand bekleiden' 
(Ness.) ; 'hinbreitend (oder breitlegend, z. B. mit Brettern, 
Laken) etwas bedecken' (Kur.). apklotis fern. (Ness.) 'Deck- 
bett'. inklode, Mode (Ness.) 'Bodenbrett eines Lastwagens'. 
iszkloju, iszkloti 'den Boden tafeln, pflastern, ausdielen' (Ness.) ; 
stubq dekiais iszkloti 'em Zimmer mit Decken auslegen oder aus- 
schlagen' (Kur.). klodas (Lalis) 'layer, bed, stratum', klodinu, 
klodinti caus. (Kur.) 'mit etwas Breitem bedecken'. klojimas 
'das Auslegen; das Lager, die Lage zum Dreschen; die Tenne' 
(Ness.); 'das Spreiten, Breitlegen; die Dreschtenne; die zum 
Dreschen ausgespreitete Getreidelage ' (Kur.) ; 'spreading, cover- 
ing ; threshing floor, barn floor ; (Bng.-Lith. Diet.) barn' (Lalis). 
klojys (Ness.) 'eine Lage zum Dreschen, das Getreide, das auf 
einmal auf die Dreschtenne gelegt wird'. klostau, klostyti 
(Kur.) 'fortgesetzt breiten, spreiten und decken'. klota (Ness.) 
'das Pflaster im Hause, das Ziegel- oder Fliesenpflaster'. Mote 
(Lalis) 'cover, bed cover, blanket', pakloda, paklodas (Ness.) 
'eine holzerne Schlittenschiene ; das Unterfutter im Kleide, unter 
dem Sattel, das Polster ; ein Bettlaken, auch ein Umschlagelaken, 
in dem man Kinder auf dem Eiicken tragt, und das man gegen 
den Kegen gebraucht; auch das Saelaken, in welchem der Sae- 
mann die Saat tragt'. paklode (Lalis paklode, paklote) 'Bett- 
laken'. pakloju, pakloti (Ness.) 'decken, unterbreiten ; aus- 
spreiten; Getreide zum Dreschen anlegen; holzerne Schienen 
unter den Schlitten legen; das Bett machen'. paklotis fern. 
(Ness, also masc.) 'Unterbett' (Ness.); 'Streu' (Bezzenberger, 
Beitr. zur Geschichte d. lit. Spr., 308) ; 'spread, bedding' (Lalis). 
paklotuve (Ness.) 'Matratze, Polster; Filzdecke unter dem Sat- 
tel'. priklodas (Ness.) 'Deckbett; Beispiel, Paradigma'. uz- 
klodas, uzkloda, uzklode (Lalis uzklote; cf. paklode above) 
(Ness.) 'Bettdecke, meistens von grober Leinwand, die iiber das 
aufgemachte Bett gebreitet wird'. uzklonis masc. (Kur.) 'ein 
Grasplatz hinter dem Hause, hinter der Scheune ; so ziemlich das 
was klonas'. uzklotuve (Ness.) 'Deckbett, Bettdecke'.