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PROFESSOR BOAS' NEW THEORY OF THE FORM OF 

THE HEAD— A CRITICAL CONTRIBUTION 

TO SCHOOL ANTHROPOLOGY 

By PAUL R. RADOSAVLJEVICH 

I. Introductory 

LAST year a government document was published by the 
Immigration Commission in which an attempt was made to 
show that New York environment is bringing about " funda- 
mental " changes in the physical type of immigrants. The author of 
this document is Professor Franz Boas 1 (i) of Columbia University. 

Under his direction the heads of a large number of New York 
immigrants have recently been measured. These measurements 
include a study of: (i) the stature; (2) weight; (3) general physio- 
logical development of the individual; (4) two head measurements 
(length and width) and the corresponding cephalic index, indicating 
"the form of head"; (5) width of face; (6) color of hair, eyes, and 
skin. A majority of the individuals measured were school children. 

The results of this investigation aroused much popular interest 
and considerable discussion in the daily press, and many popular 
magazines and semi-scientific journals repeated uncritically the 
several " unexpected" conclusions. It was widely believed that 
the results had dealt a death blow to the old theories regarding 
the stability of the form of the head, because they seemed to show 
that the form of the head is not a permanent characteristic of 
race as anthropologists had assumed; that the American environ- 
ment rapidly affects the form of the head; that Jews are grow- 
ing long-headed, and Sicilians short-headed, i. e., that the cephalic 
index of the Jews is decreasing and that of the Sicilians increasing. 

More especially on page 39 Boas concluded that 

"on the whole, there has been a decrease in length of head,. width of head, and 
width of face since the middle of the past century. ... A feature that is particu- 

1 Numbers in parenthesis after authors' names or quotations refer to the numbers 
in the Bibliography at the end of this paper. 

394 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 395 

larly noticeable is the general drop of all the absolute measurements after the year 
1894. An attempt to combine all the material, adult and children, for these 
years, brings out the sudden drop after 1893 even more clearly; and a similar 
phenomenon is repeated between the years 1907 and 1909. For this reason I am 
inclined to believe that the type of immigrants is directly affected by financial 
panics." 

In another place (p. 28) Boas expresses the same conclusions in 
the following words : 

"The type of immigrants changes from year to year, owing to a selection 
which is dependent upon the economic conditions of our country. This is shown 
by the fact that after the panic of 1893 a sudden decrease in the general develop- 
ment of immigrants may be observed, which persisted for several years. A similar 
change seems to have taken place after the panic of 1907." 

How the "type" of immigrants was affected after the panic 
of 1893 is shown in Table III (p. 28) referring to the general 
deterioration in stature, length and width of head, width of face, 
and cephalic index (see Table VI of this study). According to these 
figures the panic of 1893 decreased stature, length and width of 
head, and width of face, but increased the cephalic index. 

Does this increase and do these decreases affect the physical 
type of immigrants at all? Are the observed differences significant, 
and if so, are they due to the American environment and financial 
panics? Is there any scientific explanation of "far-reaching" 
changes in this new theory? Does it really mean a discovery ia 
anthropological science that is of "fundamental" importance? 

Before we enter into this large subject it is necessary to remind 
the reader of the older notions concerning the form of head, because 
it will help us in localizing various very important difficulties in- 
volved in the problem, and throw a new light on Boas' material 
and his explanation of it. Boas himself admits frankly that his 
"surprising and unexpected" results require "the most thorough- 
going criticism before being accepted as definitely established." 
We also believe that a healthy criticism will be beneficial. 

II. Historical: On the Form of the Head 
Until the appearance of this new theory, the historical answers 
to the question, "Does the form of the head change ?" may be 
summarized in the following theories : 



396 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13. 1911 

1. The Mechanical-functional Theory 
According to this theory the shape of the head may be caused 
by the mechanical influences during the postnatal life. Thus 
the head-form may be modified individually by the kind of cradle 
in which baby sleeps. In his Descent of Man, Darwin says 
that the 

"habitual spasm of the muscles, and a cicatrix from a severe burn, have per- 
manently modified the facial bones. In young persons whose heads have become 
fixed either sidewise or backward, owing to disease, one of two eyes has changed 
its position, and the shape of skull has been altered apparently by the pressure 
of the brain in a new direction. "(2) 

He quotes Jarrold's Anthropologic, (1880, pp. 11 5-6) in which are 
given the cases of modification of the skulls from the head being 
fixed in an unnatural position. Darwin says that Jarrold believed 

"that in certain trades, such as that of a shoemaker, where the head is habitu- 
ally held forward, the forehead becomes more rounded and prominent." (2) 

In another place Darwin says that the skulls of many of our im- 
proved and domesticated species of animals have varied perceptibly; 
and he cites in addition pigs, diverse species of fowls, and rabbits. 
From his own observations on domestic rabbits he inferred that 
some kinds of skulls 

"have become very much larger than in the wild animal, while others have 
retained nearly the same size, but in both cases the brain has been much reduced 
relatively to the size of the body. Now I was at first much surprised on finding 
that in all these rabbits the skull had become elongated or dolichocephalic; for 
instance, of two skulls of nearly equal breadth, the one from a large domestic 
kind, the former was 3.15 and the latter 4.3 inches in length.' '(3) 

He also thinks that the tall men may be compared with the 
larger and longer-bodied rabbits, all of which have elongated skulls, 
or are dolichocephalic (2). And about fifty years ago, a German 
anthropologist, Welcker (4), found that short men more frequently 
have rounded heads and tall men elongated ones. 

The mechanical-functional theory has been supported in quite 
recent times by a Stockholm anthropologist, Nystrom (5), who 
believes that the form of head may change under the influence 
of diet. The osteologist Holden (6) claims that different habits 
develop different muscles, and that these muscles give rise to 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 397 

modifications in the form of the bones as well as the bodily 
configuration. In short, function makes structure. He contrasts 
the skulls of the Carnivora with those of the Ungulata (or hoofed 
animals). His examples are the tiger and deer. He says: 

"The skull of the tiger is in perfect adaptation to his enormous temporal muscle. 
It has a high median ridge, to which the muscles are attached, great arches of 
the zygoma, under which they pass, and broad and lofty coronoid processes, into 
which they are inserted. But his masseters are comparatively small, therefore 
the zygomata and the angles of the jaw are not specially strong. Now, the sole 
action of this temporal muscle is to clench the teeth together as on a hinge; so 
we find that his jaw articulation is hinge like, and allows no other motion. This 
mechanism is admirably fitted for cutting purposes, but is quite unfit for grinding; 
so his teeth are cutters. He has no grinders. Exactly the converse of all is 
true of the deer: his temporals are small; he has no median ridge, the passage 
under the zygoma is small, and his coronoid process is delicate and scarcely 
deserves notice. On the other hand, his masseters and pterygoid plates are 
greatly expanded, the angles of the jaw massive and extensive. The masseters 
acting with the internal pterygoids cause the grinding action; so here the articula- 
tion of the jaw is nearly flat, allowing of a free grinding movement; and in ac- 
cordance with this, we find the teeth are flattened on the surface, and good 
grinders. It will be seen how clearly this conformation is in keeping with the 
habits and nature of each animal "(6). 

And the slight differences between opposite sides of the same 

skull is explained by Holden on the basis of the law of Cuvier (7) : 

''That an invariable co-relation exists not only between the different parts of 
an animal's body, but likewise between the parts of his body and his mode of life." 

Holden says that 

"the posterior condyloid foramen of one side may be wanting, the mastoid process 
of one side may be larger than that of the other, or the digastric fossae may be 
of unequal size; one nasal passage may be larger than the other; the lateral sinus 
may be much deeper on the one side than on the other, or there may be a middle 
clinoid process on one side only. Asymmetry may occur in men highly gifted 
as in the celebrated French anatomist Bichat. This is no more than one might 
expect, seeing the difference often existing between features of the two sides of 
the same face. Such want of symmetry is greatly exaggerated in many of the 
lower animals, as may be seen in the Cetacea, in the head of the great sperm-whale, 
or in that of the narwhal. ... But the most striking example of asymmetry 
is seen in those of flat-fish which lie usually on their left sides, viz., soles and 
plaice. . . . For in them both eyes are on the right or upper side of the skull, 
and one orbit only is completed, the eyes being directed away from the ground 
on which they lie. The teeth are chiefly developed on the left side of their jaws — 



398 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13. 191 1 

away from the side on which their eyes are — that is, on the white side. It is 
interesting to note that in those fish, when very young, the skulls are symmetrical. 
When the turbot is just hatched, it has an eye on each side of the head, and it 
is only by subsequent development that the asymmetry occurs. The turbot, 
unlike the sole and plaice, lies on its right side" (6). 

Holden says, further, that the 

"great and heavy skull of the crocodile contains large nasal passages and air- 
cavities which float it, so that its body can lie under the water while its eyes and 
nostrils alone appear just above the surface" (6). 

In regard to the fact that some human heads are long, some 
broad, and others round, Holden claims that it is due to "the vary- 
ing extent of growth of bone either in the transverse or the longi- 
tudinal sutures," or to " the early union of one or other of them." 
So in the case where the parietal bones unite very early, 

"the skull was unable to accommodate the growing by increasing in breadth, 
and therefore, could only increase in length by growing at the fronto-parietal 
and the occipito-parietal sutures, thu» giving rise to these extraordinary long 
skulls" (6). 

Holden goes so far as to claim that " the history of the animal is 
always written on its bones," and that " low degraded types have 
skeletons which can not be mistaken, while the healthy, intelligent, 
and upright carry their characters in their skeletons as much as 
they do in their faces." 

Miiller (8) claims that there is a close relation between the form 
of head and the mechanismus of birth. He gives many illustrative 
examples from his own observations. Gorke (9), Papillault (10), 
Haeckel (11), and others studied these mechanical influences in the 
light of functional shaping of skulls, based on the ontogeny and 
phylogeny of the human skull. In more recent times R. C. Osburn 
(12) studied the effects of the shape of skulls on the teeth of man. 
All these factors show the great complexity of the problem. (See 
especially Hrdlicka, Eskimos, effects of temporal muscles on form 
of jaws and head.) 

2. The Hereditary Theory 

This theory is one of the oldest. But it has at least the following 
three forms: 

a. The First Form of the Hereditary Theory. — According to this 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 399 

theory the shape of head is not changed; it is one of the clearest of 
all permanent hereditary differences; it is relatively uninfluenced 
by climate, age, food, locality, and exercise. This theory is in one 
form or another advanced by Myers (13), Spitzka (14), Mobius (15), 
Rieger (16), G. Stanley Hall (17), Zupanchich (18), and other 
craniologists, archeologists, and so-called "anthropo-sociologists" 

(19). 

So, for example, Myers found that the chief head measurements 
show approximately the same variability in the " prehistoric' ' 
people of Upper Egypt as in the modern population of the same 
region. A pupil of Prof. Martin (former director of the Anthro- 
pological Laboratory of the University of Zurich), Oetteking (20), 
came to the conclusion that the influence of Bushmen, Negroes, 
Libyans, and Hamito-Semites upon the Egyptian skulls can not yet 
be given exact craniometric expression. Keith (21), in his study of 
the remains of an ancient Briton, the Galley Hill man, was " struck* ' 
with the modernity of his form of skull, i. e., the extreme length and 
extreme narrowness of his head, which is the "national" charac- 
teristic of modern Englishmen. Similar results are reached by a 
Croatian anthropologist, Gorjanovich (22). We might also mention 
the fact that the form of skull of a Scandinavian of the neolithic time 
is very similar to that of the modern Scandinavian. There are 
other cases of this kind. 

From both Myers' and Keith's investigations one is led to con- 
clude that age alone does not produce in a people increased hetero- 
geneity. Keith says that the history of man in England does not 
begin some 5,000 years ago with an invasion of Celt or of Saxon, but 
at a period of which 5,000 years is but a small fraction. This theory 
has recently been advanced also by a Slovenian anthropologist, 
Zupanchich, in his lecture given last year at the University of 
Belgrade (Serbia) (23). 

In short, the theory that the shape of the head is stable, hered- 
itary and not fortuitous is the first form of the hereditary theory. 

b. The Second Form of the Hereditary Theory. — This form of the 
hereditary theory holds that the shape of the head is inherited, but 
that it does not assume its final shape until after birth, and that it 



400 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13, 191 1 

does not depend on the mixed parental value of the cephalic index. 
O. Ranke (24), in his study of the form of the head of 4,607 German 
children (the age ranging from a new-born infant to a child of 15), 
concludes that the form of the head reaches its definite form rela- 
tively early, at seven, or even at six years of age. Sir W. Hamilton 
also says that in man the encephalos reaches its full size at about 
seven years of age (25). Vosilyev (26), who studied 936 boys and 
264 girls between the ages of 7 and 16 years, belonging to the dis- 
trict of Szerpuchov, in the Government of Moscow, found that the 
form of head does not finally shape itself until after the sixteenth 
year. Pfitzner (27), who studied 3,660 cases in Elsace, also found 
that, apart from sex and age, the cephalic index seems to be the only 
absolutely fixed character for the determination and recognition of 
individuals. 

Boas (28) in another study, in 48 families of eastern Jews, 
measured by Fishberg, states that one half of the children resembled 
the father in regard to the shape of head and the other half the 
mother. But the results of O. Ranke (29), based on head measure- 
ments of children of the same parents (51 families) do not sub- 
stantiate Boas' conclusions. Ranke found a very striking re- 
semblance in the form of head of all children of the same parents, 
regardless of the fact that the brothers and sisters were of different 
ages (ranging in age from 3 to 14 years), with two or three exceptions. 
Ranke's results agree with those of Thorndike (29a) who found that 
35 pairs of twins of New York City showed a striking resemblance 
in cephalic index. Thorndike measured 50 pairs of twins from 9 to 
15 years old; 58.5 per cent, of these school children showed brachy- 
cephaly, 37.1 per cent, mesocephaly, and 4.3 per cent, dolicho- 
cephaly. 

Gray and Tocher (30) also found very little difference in the 
cephalic index of the racial elements of 14,561 pupils in east 
Aberdeenshire, England. Binet (31) in France, Tscherowskovsky 
(32) and Viasemsky (33) in Russia, and many others, came to almost 
the same conclusion (34). Matiegka (35), studying some 7,000 
boys in the public schools of Prague, from 5% to 14 years of age, 
found throughout those ages the same national, brachycephalic 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 401 

type of the head. The measurements by two pupils of professors 
Meumann and Martin, Engelsperger and Ziegler (36), of 238 boys 
and 238 girls of the entering classes (average ages 6 years and 4.5 
months) in the schools of Munich, show that the bulk of these 
pupils had the national form of the head — 93.5 per cent, being 
brachycephalic and only 6.5 per cent, mesocephalic (not a single 
case of dolichocephaly). Schliz (37), studying 962 school children 
(from 12 to 14 years of age) in Heilborn, also found that the large 
majority of these children represent the brachycephalic type of head- 
form. The same is found by a pupil of Professor Martin, Teumin 
(38), who measured 100 female university students (mostly of Jewish 
race) in the Anthropological Laboratory of Zurich University The 
bulk of these students were brachycephalic — 74 per cent. 

Browne (39), who measured the students of Trinity College 
(from 1891 to 1898), found an average cephalic index of 72.5, which 
is the national type of the head of Englishmen. The same result 
was found by Venn (40), who measured 1000 students of Cambridge 
University (England). The majority of these students were 
mesocephalic — 55.2 per cent. 

In addition to these we may mention the study of a Polish 
author, Kraitschek (41), based on the measurements of 173 Jewish 
students of the State Gymnasium in Landskron (Galicia, Austria). 
He found not a single dolichocephalic student; only three were 
mesocephalic and the rest, 170 in number, were of a brachycephalic 
type (98 per cent.). 

All these and many other studies show clearly that the youth 
represent the same type of head as the race to which they belong, 
with slight differences in degree, of course. This is the second 
form of the hereditary theory. 

c. The Third Form of the Hereditary Theory. — This form of the 
hereditary theory claims that the shape of head (or rather skull) is 
inherited, but " heredity' ' means not absolute stability. Hrdlicka 
(42), believes that heredity is subject to incidental irregularities as 
well as to gradual modifications. He thinks that the alterations in 
the skull 
"need not be general or of prime importance, and may require for their d's- 



402 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST |n. s., 13, 191 1 

covery detailed study and extended comparisons; but in the case of an indi- 
vidual from the earlier stages of the geological period immediately preceding the 
recent one they should as a rule be pronounced enough to be easily apprehended." 

Hrdlicka is very careful in using generalizations. He says: 

"In the case of single features or with scanty material, all far-reaching con- 
clusions must be avoided, for in such cases we can not be certain that we are 
outside of the territory of semipathological occurrences, and features of reversion, 
degeneration, or purely accidental variation limited to individuals or small 
numbers of persons." 

HrdliCka's scientific sanity and exactness in measuring crania 
might be compared with the craniological work of Klaatsch (43), 
Kollmann (44), Martin (45), and other European experts in 
experimental physical anthropology. 

3. The Geographical-local Theory 

This theory is not unlike the preceding. It claims that the 
shape of the head is distributed more according to geographical 
localities than to nationalities. So, for example, the people of the 
Alps, no matter what language they may speak, show considerable 
similarities in type. Deniker (46), who analyzed and utilized all 
that has been published in different languages on the cephalometry 
and craniometry of European peoples (the total number of indices 
examined represent about 380,000 measured individuals or skulls), 
concludes that the cephalic indices are distributed over four groups 
of well defined areas, viz., a dolichocephalic area, with mesocephalic 
enclaves, in the north of Europe; another more pronounced dolicho- 
cephalic area in the south of Europe; an area of strongly brachy- 
cephalic heads in the center of western Europe, and, finally, a 
sub-brachy cephalic area in eastern Europe. A similar cephalic 
"world map," constructed from data on living men, and "sufficient 
in amount to eliminate the effects of chance," is given by W. Z. 
Ripley (47). 

Beddoe (48), in studying 200 boys (16 and 17 years old) found 
that those belonging to the navy have larger heads than those of 
the reformatory and industrial schools. If anything, he says, their 
heads are slightly broader, but within the limits of error. He con- 
cludes that the differences in the form of head are connected with 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 403 

the locality rather than with any other condition or characteristic. 
But Gray and Tocher, who measured about 15,000 school children 
from 93 schools, covering 30 parishes, in England, could not draw 
such a conclusion; they found only a very little difference in the 
cephalic indices of the racial elements, i. e., something racial to 
heredity. 

According to Amnion's (49) investigation the longheaded indi- 
viduals are concentrated more in the city than in the country. In 
studying the recruits of Baden and " Gymnasialschuler " from 
Karlsruhe and Mannheim he found that the urban class (those whose 
fathers were of city birth, as well as themselves), the semi-urban 
class (those born in cities, but whose fathers were immigrants from 
the country), and the semi-rural class (those born in the country 
who had migrated to the city), as compared with those who re- 
mained in the country, show a regularly increasing dolichocephaly 
in each generation. He believes that the longheaded individuals 
are intelligent, or, as he calls them, "die Auserlesenen," the selected, 
because they have either the energy or the physical ability to seek 
their fortunes at a distance from their rural place of birth. This 
theory of cephalic superiority was accepted by many anthropo- 
sociologists (50). But others say that the percentage of dolicho- 
cephaly decreases with the progress of civilization. J. Ranke (51), 
who studied the " Reihengraber " of Bavaria, the skulls of Lindau, 
and the skulls of modern Bavaria, found a very regular decrease of 
dolichocephaly and an enormous increase of brachycephaly : 



Reihengraber of Bavaria 


Lindau 


Modern Bavaria 


I. Dolichocephaly: 42 


32 


I 


2. Mesocephaly: 44 


36 


16 


3. Brachycephaly: 14 


32 


83 



Weisbach (52) also found a brachycephalic index for the con- 
temporary Austrian Germans. According to Livi (53) in northern 
Italy the professional classes are more dolichocephalic than the 
peasants, but in the south the reverse is the case. Topinard (54) 
says that the cephalic index 

"varies in the human races from 71.40 in Greenlanders to 85.63 in Lapps, in 
the averages of the series; and from 62.62 in a New Caledonian to 92.77 in Slav 



404 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13, 191 1 

(Wend) in particular instances. The difference is greater if we include the 
distorted skulls. A scaphocephaly in the Laboratory of Anthropology has an 
index of 56.33, and a Peruvian skull of an Inca, one of 103." 

Our intention is not to criticize here all these more or less dif- 
ferent theories. All who are familiar with the sources of these 
investigations will agree that in many cases it is very hard to decide 
what are the reasons of very great differences in the form of the 
head. These differences appear to be due partly to the differences 
of race, but also, unfortunately, partly to the differences in the 
methods, and precision of measurements, and in the mathematical 
calculation. It is, therefore, almost impossible to tell in many cases 
whether a difference is due to inaccuracy or to variation of indivi- 
duals. The past of craniological and cephalometrical studies moved 
along the horizontal rather than along the vertical line, a big col- 
lection of anthropological data being made without deeper explana- 
tion of it. President G. Stanley Hall is right in saying that there 
are so few problems in this field yet solved that the great number of 
cephalometric and craniometric measurements sometimes insisted 
on seem at present little more than affectation (Adolescence, vol. 1, 
p. 72). 

Evidently further careful studies and investigations are neces- 
sary before any dogmatic statement can be made. Does Boas* new 
theory present a hope of reaching such a goal? Did he utilize ele- 
mentary errors of previous investigators? Did he grasp the diffi- 
culties of their theories in shaping his own theory? Is his investi- 
gation a progress or regress in experimental physical anthropology 
in general and in school anthropometry in particular? 

III. The New Theory in Relation to Results 
We thought it would be in place to point out the main theories of 
the origin of the form of the head before we take up the theories of 
Boas, based on his study of immigrants and their descendants. 
His new views do not agree with any previous. He himself is 
opposed to the first, the mechanical theory. On page 51 of his 
report he says: 

" It seems conceivable that the change in the length of the head might be due 
to the treatment of the infant. While the children born abroad are swathed, the 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 405 

method of treatment in families living in America is entirely different. The 
swathed child lies on its back, and the continued pressure upon the occiput might 
bring about a slight shortening of the skull. All the data relating to correlation 
between width of head and length of head are opposed to this assumption." 

He is not an enthusiast for the hereditary theory either, be- 
cause, he says, the head changes may be inherited, and yet not 
necessarily reproduce the characters of the parents. He believes 
that it is quite possible that we can leave the problem of the 
head entirely out of consideration. 

He also does not agree fully with the third main theory, the 
geographical-local theory. On page 32 of his report he says that 
no evidence has been collected which would show an actual change 
in type due to the direct influence of enviromment, because the type 
of immigrants changes from year to year, owing to a selection which 
is dependent upon the economic conditions of our country, " far- 
reaching* ' changes in "type" which "can not be ascribed to selec- 
tion or mixture." According to Boas the racial characteristics do 
not survive under the new social and climatic environment of 
America. We may, therefore, call Boas' theory the environmental- 
economic theory, the first theory of its kind ; environmental, because 
it claims that the descendants of the European immigrants change 
their type "even in the first generation almost entirely." 

"Children born not more than a few years after the arrival of the immigrant 
parents in America develop in such a way that they differ in type (!) essentially 
from their foreign-born parents. These differences seem to develop during the 
earliest childhood and persist throughout life. It seems that every part of the 
body is influenced in this way, and even the form of the head, which has always been 
considered as one of the most permanent hereditary features, undergoes considerable 
change" 1 

The theory may be called economic, because it claims that the 
panics of 1893 and 1907 caused a "sudden decrease in the general 
physical development of immigrants* ' and a "sudden" increase in 
the cephalic index. 

But before accepting these unexpected scientific results un- 
qualifiedly they should first be sifted by those who at least know 
the immense difficulties in attacking such complicated problems. 



1 Here, as throughout this study, the Italics are mine. 



406 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13, 1911 

Therefore, this critical study. Our purpose is to follow step by- 
step the scientific validity of Boas' results on the shape of the 
head and his interpretations of them. We will follow the order of 
his summary: 

a. Boas 1 First Conclusion 
"The head form which has always been considered as one of the most stable 
and permanent characteristics of human races, undergoes far-reaching changes 
due to the transfer of the races of Europe to American soil. The East European 
Hebrew, who has a very round head, becomes more long-headed; the south Italian 
who in Italy has an exceedingly long head, becomes more short-headed; so that both 
approach a uniform type in this country." 

But what is the nature of these ''far-reaching changes," and do 
they really affect "the type" of the form of the head? For the 
sake of concrete illustration let us compare Boas' results with 
those of Hoesch-Ernst (56), Hrdlicka (55), Landsberger (57), Muf- 
fang (62), O. Ranke (58), Reuter (59), West (60), Windle (61), 
and the results of the study of the Edinburgh and Aberdeen 
school children (63). Table I gives this comparison. 

Before attempting to make any comparison and draw any con- 
clusion, let us clearly state that anthropological science discrim- 
inates few types of the head as indicated by the cephalic index 
(generally called the "cranial index," or "latitudinal index" or 
"index of breath," in contrast to two other altitudinal cephalic 
indices, viz., the "vertical index" or "index of height" or the length- 
height cephalic index, and the breadth-height cephalic index). It 
is a ratio between the width (or breadth) of head and the length of 
the head. Say the width (W) is 142 mm. and the length (L) 180 
mm. Then the cephalic index (x) is found as follows: 

142 X 100 

180 : 100 = 142 : x or x = = 78. 

182 

T f t f , , ,. . , . WX"ioo. 
In short the formula of this index is: x = . 

This method of determination of cephalic (or cranial) index was 
introduced by a Swedish anthropologist, Andreas Retzius (1742- 
1 821) (64). By measuring the skulls he found two extreme indices: 
the long or dolichocephalic and the round, broad, or brachycephalic. 



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408 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST In. s., 13. 1911 

Later this number of types was increased to five. Today anthro- 
pological science discriminates three main types of the form of head 
as indicated by their indices: 

(1) Long-headedness (or dolichocephaly) x — 74.99. 

(2) Medium-headedness (or mesocephaly) 75 — 79-9. 

(3) Broad-headedness (or brachycephaly) 80 — x. 

This is the classification of Torok (65), Reuter, Fishberg (66), 
and others. Let us now see what the above mentioned " far- 
reaching changes 1 ' mean. 

If we compare Boas 1 average figures for American-born and 
foreign-born Hebrew boys and girls we see that at all ages both 
are of the same type — they all are broad-headed. And if we agree 
with those authors (Martin (67), Engelsperger and Ziegler, etc.), 
who classify broad-headedness into sub-brachycephaly (80-86.9) 
and hyper-brachycephaly (87-*) we shall find that both belong to 
the same division, sub-brachycephaly. Not one single year is 
represented by hyper-brachycephaly (except the Hebrew foreign- 
born girls whose average index is just 87, which is, according to 
O. Ranke's classification, also under sub-brachycephaly). 

Or let us take the Sicilian boys. Boas concludes that the south 
Italian, who in Italy has an "exceedingly long head," becomes more 
"sZwrZ-headed." But his average values show that not one single 
year measured is represented by exceeding long-headedness. The 
index of such long-headedness (technically called " hyper-dolicho- 
cephaly") is below 70 (according to Hoesch-Ernst's classification), 
and the figures for Sicilians show a minimum of 76, which represents 
a mesocephalic type of the form of head. 

In short: It appears that Prof. Boas' own figures or results do not 
prove <his conclusions. It may perhaps be contended that these 
figures are only averages. To this we may reply: first, that it is 
not customary to draw " entirely unexpected" conclusions from 
mere averages, — a method which has been condemned both in 
America and in Europe; second, if we take into account all indi- 
vidual subjects measured, we find that the number of medium- 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 409 

headed is very small. Out of 3,090 American-born Hebrew boys 
and girls there are only 13 long-headed individuals (10 boys and 3 
girls); out of 2,942 foreign-born Hebrew boys and girls there are 
4 long-headed individuals (boys only). On the basis of Boas 1 
tables presented in his appendix (Tables III, 5, a, b; Table IV, 
4, a, b) we find that the bulk of both American-born and foreign- 
born Hebrew boys and girls belong to the same brachycephalic (or 
rather to the sub-brachy cephalic) type at all ages represented. The 
only exception is the age of 17 in the case of American-born Hebrew 
girls, whose largest percentage belongs to mesocephaly (50 per cent.). 
The rest are distributed as follows: 36.4 per cent, brachycephaly, 
and 13.6 per cent, dolichocephaly. 

If we compare the percentages of the whole, regardless of age, 
we have the following table : 

Table II 

[ Dolichocephaly j Mesocephaly | Brachycephaly 



I. Foreign-born Hebrew boys 


4 


12 


84 


II. Foreign-born Hebrew girls 


2 


12 


86 


III. American-born Hebrew boys 


3 


27 


70 


IV. American-born Hebrew girls 


5 


26 


69 



So far as these results go it can not be said that there is a real 
sex difference (a fact found also by Wissler (68) in his measurements 
of college students, Columbia University), and, therefore, we may 
combine these percentages under the two headings thus: 





Foreign-born Hebrews 


American-born Hebrews 


Dolichocephaly: 


3 


4 


Mesocephaly: 


12 


26 


Brachycephaly: 


85 


70 



The ratio of these types does not show any "far-reaching 
change/ ' because it deals with two distinct groups, and does not affect 
the type — the bulk in both belonging to brachycephaly. The tables 
show that there is a difference of 1 per cent, in dolichocephaly, 14 
per cent, in mesocephaly, and 15 per cent, in brachycephaly, but it 
is not known what the differences were in the parents of these two groups. 

AM. ANTH. N. S., 13 — 27 



410 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s. f 13, 1911 

Again, Boas' theory is based not on percentile values but on aver- 
ages, showing that there is not one single age represented either 
by long-headedness or medium-headedness. Boas' figure 1, repre- 
senting the comparison of head forms of American-born and foreign- 
born Hebrews, has no bearing on his conclusion, that "the east 
European Hebrew, who has a very round head, becomes more long- 
headed' ' on American soil. The differences found by Boas, if they 
have any real meaning, may be regarded as the normal differences 
of separate groups, such as are frequently noticed in separate parts 
of the same people. 

What is true of American-born and foreign-born Hebrew males 
and females is also true of the Sicilians born here and abroad. 
Table I does not prove Boas' conclusion that the south Italian, 
who in Italy has an " exceedingly long head," becomes more short- 
headed, because at all ages represented in this table there is not a 
single year represented either by " exceedingly " long-headed or by 
the lowest degree of dolichocephaly . The only conclusion we can 
draw from Boas' results of the cephalic indices of the American 
Sicilians is that the foreign-born American Sicilians, males and 
females, from 5 to 18 and over, are highly mesocephalic (cephalic 
index, 78-79), with the exception of the ages 5 (males, 80.8), 6 and 
7 (females, 80.2; 80), the cephalic indices of which are very slightly 
broad-headed. 

In regard to the American-born Sicilians, both males and females, 
we might conclude that the cephalic index is slightly above 82 only 
at the age of 12 (ceph. index, 82.1), in males, and at 6 and 16 years 
of age in females, whose cephalic indices are 81.2 and 85.0 respec- 
tively. The only striking difference affecting the type is shown at 
the age of 16 where the foreign-born Sicilian females are highly 
mesocephalic (78.4) and their American sisters of the same age 
are brachycephalic (85.0). This difference may, however, in 
the small number of cases, be entirely incidental. Boas also says 
that the adult American-born Italians are " few in numbers," but 
he does not state the exact number. Even in his appendix there is 
not a single table referring to Sicilians ; and it is, therefore, impossi- 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 4II 

ble to see what the number of cases involved in every year tested, 
and what the individual distribution of cephalic indices is. 

If we take Boas 1 results as they are, and compare them with 
those of other school anthropologists we shall see that both Ameri- 
can-born and foreign-born Hebrews, males and females, are more 
or less sub-brachycephalic throughout the ages measured. These 
individuals agree with the subjects measured by Hoesch-Ernst, 
Hrdlicka, Landsberger, 0. Ranke, Reuter, and Teumin. In addi- 
tion to that we may mention that the average figures of Matiegka 
Vosilyev, Schliz, Kraitschek, Engelsperger and Ziegler, and many 
others, agree with Boas' results in regard to the cephalic type of his 
Hebrew individuals. Schwerz (68a) measured recently 1,788 indi- 
viduals in Kan ton Schaffhausen, Switzerland, and found that all of 
them were more or less brachycephalic : 83.1 (at the age 6-7 years), 
83.5 (7-8), 83.7 (8-9), 824 (9-10), 83.9 (10-11), 83.1 (n-12), 83.2 
(12-13), 82.9 (13-14), 834 (14-16), 82.8 (16-17), 82.5 (17-18), 82.8 
(18-19), 82.9 (19-20), 82.5 (over 20 years). 

In regard to the American-born and foreign-born Sicilians Boas' 
average figures show that they are of mesocephalic type. Compared 
with the results of other authors mentioned in Table I we see that 
Boas' Sicilians agree with the type of the head form of West's sub- 
jects in America, and with that of pupils in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, 
Liverpool, and Birmingham (England). In addition we may men- 
tion that the high mesocephalic type was also found by Browne, Bed- 
doe, Gray and Tocher (in England), and by Wissler and MacDonald 
(69) (in America) . 

Referring to his first conclusion Boas says : 

"This fact is one of the most suggestive ones discovered in our investigation, 
because it shows that not even those characteristics of a race which have proved 
to be most permanent in their old home remain the same under our new sur- 
roundings; and we are compelled to conclude that when these features of the 
body change, the whole bodily and mental make-up of the immigrants mcty 
change" (p. 8). 

A short time ago a well-known New York magazine made a 
sarcastic reference to the old statement "You can not change 
human nature," based on Boas 1 conclusions. 



412 



AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 



[n. s., 13, 1911 



b. Boas' Second Conclusion 
" The influence of American environment upon the descendants of immigrants 
increases with the time that the immigrants have lived in this country before the birth 
of their children" 

But this conclusion does not affect the type of the head form, 
at least. Here is Boas' table (p. 10) : 



Table III 










Cases 


Cephalic 
Index 


Average 
Age 


Sicilian: 








Foreign-born boys 5 to 12 years old .. .* 


24I 

375 
127 


79.5 

80.9 
81.8 


9.6 

1 0.0 
95 


American-born boys 5 to 19 years old: 

Born less than 10 years after arrival of mother 
Born 10 years and more after arrival of mother 


Hebrew: 








American-born boys 7 to 10 years old: 

Born 10 years and more after arrival of mother 
Born less than 10 years after arrival of mother 

Foreign-born boys 7 to 10 years old 


290 

257 
179 


82.3 
824 
84.6 


9.2 
9.2 
9-1 



This table shows clearly: (1) that all Hebrew boys (both those 
born less than 10 or those born more than 10 years after arrival of 
mother in America and those born in Europe) are of the same sub- 
brachycephalic type (not one of them is represented by.the average 
hyper-brachycephaly !) ; (2) that all Sicilian boys are of the meso- 
cephalic type of rather high degree. The American-born and 
foreign-born Hebrew and Sicilian boys differ only in degree, which 
may be considered as something normal on account of the possible 
errors in measuring and calculations, and to the comparatively small 
number of cases, or, especially, as due to corresponding differences 
in the parents. 

In this table Boas compares 5-12 years old foreign-born and 5-19 years old 
American-born Sicilian boys with the 7-10 years old Hebrew boys born in 
America and Europe. The range of age (and, of course, greater individual 
variation) in Sicilian boys is 14 years and in Hebrew boys — only 3 years. Again 
the average values for these American-born Sicilian and Hebrew boys does not 
correspond with Table IH (p. 12). According to this table the average value 
for the American-born Sicilian boys 5-19 years old is 80.5, not 81.3 as is suggested 
by Boas* Table II (the average of 80.9 and 81.8). According to our calculation 
from Table III the average value for the American Hebrew boys 7-10 years old 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 413 

is 82.7, not 82.3 as suggested by Boas' Table IV (the average of 82.3 and 82.4). 
According to our calculation from Table III the average value for the American- 
born Hebrew boys 7-10 years old is not 84.6 but 84.4. It is very interesting to 
note that Boas gives no tables presenting the individual distribution of cephalic 
indices of Sicilian and Hebrew boys born less than ten years, or ten years and 
more, after arrival of mother. All that he gives is the year of arrival of foreign- 
born Hebrew boys and girls, and the year of arrival of mothers of American-born 
Hebrew boys and girls (pp. 40-42) without any data in regard to their cephalic 
indices. 

c. Boas' Third Conclusion 
"The changes in head form which the European races undergo here consist in 
the increase of some measurements, in the decrease of others." 

So, for example, Boas found that the length of the head is in- 
creased in American-born Hebrews and decreased in American-born 
Sicilians; the breadth of head is decreased in American-born He- 
brews, but increased in American-born Sicilians. 

But what is the nature of this decrease or increase? Table IV 
(see next page) will tell the whole story. 

From this table we may figure out the increases and decreases, 
if foreign-born subjects are compared with those born in America. 
The average of maximum increase of the length in the Hebrews 
is 3.8 mm. at the age of 19 years; the average minimum increase 
for the same race is 0.8 mm. And here is an exception. At the 
age of 6 the foreign-born Hebrew boys excel their American-born 
brothers in the length of head by 0.6 mm. In regard to the Sicilian 
boys we see that the average maximum decrease of length of head is 
7.6 mm. at the age of 18 years; the average minimum decrease is 
2.1 mm. at the age of 5 years. At the age of 10 years both 
are on the same average level, and at the ages of 14 and 17 
years the American-born Sicilian boys excel their foreign-born 
brothers by 0.5 mm. and 7.0 mm. respectively. And there are other 
irregularities : 

The average maximum decrease in the breadth of head of the 
American-born Hebrew boys is 5.7 mm. (at the age of 18 years) 
and their average minimum decrease is 1.0 mm. (at the age of 13 
years), with one exception at the age of 19 where there is an increase 



414 



AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 



[n. s., 13, 1911 



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radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 415 

of 1.2 mm. The average maximum increase of the width of head 
of American-born Sicilian boys is 7.4 mm. at the age of 18; the 
average minimum increase is 0.5 mm. (at the ages of 7 and 13); 
the exception to this rule is the age of 5 showing a decrease of 2.8 mm. 
The fact is that there are exceptions in Boas' "fundamental" 
and "far-reaching" discovery. And we may ask, are these in- 
creases and decreases of two or three millimeters on the average 
due to "the American soil" and "financial panics" rather than to 
errors in measuring, calculating, and comparing results and differ- 
ences in the parental stock ? 




Fig. 55. — a, average European skull; b, Spy skull; c, Neanderthal skull; d, skull 
of pithecanthropus; e, skull of gorilla. 

It is interesting to note here that all previous anthropologists 
found almost the same length of skull in the Europeans, Spy man, 
Neanderthal man, pithecanthropus, and gorilla. The difference 
of their skulls is shown in the height of the crania, as it is indicated 
in the accompanying figure (fig. 55) (after Wheeler: Anthropology, 
New York, 1909, p. 36; or Keane: Ethnology, Cambridge, Univer- 
sity Press, 1901, p. 145). 

There is no difference in the length and breadth of the head, 
but only in the height. Boas did not measure the height of the 
head. This third head dimension is of about the same difficulty in 
measuring as the other two head dimensions, the only difference 
being, perhaps, that the measurement of the height of the head 



416 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13, 1911 

needs more time and trials until the required safety is reached. 
All modern anthropometricians measure the height of the head 
(Hoesch-Ernst, Engelsperger and Ziegler, Browne, Teumin, Reuter, 
Hrdlicka, Martin, etc.). By means of this third head dimension 
could be figured out other, perhaps more important, cephalic 
indices and formulae (i. e. f length-height cephalic index, breadth- 
height cephalic index, cephalic module, and cephalic capacity 
according to the formulae of Venn-Galton, Schmidt, Pearson and 
Lee, or Hoesch-Ernst). 

d. Boas* Fourth Conclusion 

" The differences in type between the American-born descendants of the immigrant 
and the European-born immigrant develop in early childhood and persist throughout 
life, . . . The influence of American environment makes itself felt with increasing 
intensity, according to the time elapsed between the arrival of the mother and the 
birth of the child.' " 

But a careful study of Boas' Table IV compels us to disagree 
with his conclusion that it " clearly shows the strong and increasing 
effect." This conclusion is of still less value if we apply it to the 
cephalic index. Let us study carefully his corresponding table giving 
the cephalic index of Hebrew males (p. 19) (see Table V opposite). 

Are these differences in cephalic index of the total series and of 
foreign-born and American-born Hebrew males "the difference in 
type," and due to the "influence of American environment ?" 
In other words is a plus or minus of 0.1 mm. and a difference in 
type due to the American soil? Besides this deviation from the 
average does not affect the type of the head form. Both foreign- 
born and American-born Hebrew males (regardless of the time of 
arrival of their mothers) fall within the brachycephalic type. In 
this connection I desire to call attention to what appears to me too 
great discrepancies in the numbers of cases recorded under different 
heads. 

We find in the figures of the above table that one age is represented by 2 and 
the other by 223 cases (ages of 19 and 14 respectively). In the column three 
we see that the age of 6 is represented by 28 cases, but the corresponding tables 
of the length and breadth of head (pp. 17 and 18) have only 25 cases. The age 



radosavljevich] 



THE FORM OF THE HEAD 



417 



Table V 









Differences in Cephalic Index of Total Series and — 




Total Cephalic 


Foreign-born 


American-born 


Age 


Index 


Born less than 10 | Born IO Ye ars after 
Years after Arrival | Arrival of Mother 
of Mother 




mm. 


cases 


mm. 

+ 15 
± 0.0 
+ 0.7 
+ 1.0 

+ 1.7 

+ 1.6 
+ 1.6 

+ 1.7 
+ 1.2 
+ 1.6 
+ 1-7 
+ 1.1 
+ 0.8 
+ 0.6 
+ 0.1 
+ 0.1 


cases 


mm. j cases mm. 


cases 


5 years 

6 " 

7 ■ " 

8 " 

9 " 

10 " 

11 " 

12 " 

13 " 

14 " 

15 " 

16 " 

17 " ..... 

18 " 

19 " 

20 and over . . . 


83.5 
84.I 

83.3 
83.3 
83.O 
83.O 
82.9 
82.9 
82.8 
82.5 
82.4 
82.6 
82.2 
82.4 
82.8 
82.9 


71 

57 

75 

98 

185 

359 

442 

521 

498 

477 

331 

73 

40 

27 

37 
803 


16 
18 
27 
51 
83 
114 

133 
137 
120 

94 
36 

24 
22 

31 
764 


±0.0 
+0.4 
+0.2 
+0.2 
-0.5 
-O.4 

— 0.2 

— 0.2 
-0.2 
-0.2 
—O.4 

-0.8 
-1.4 
-0.7 
+ 1.0 


29 — 101 

28 -0.8 

32 | -0.7 

45 ] -1.6 

34 ! -1.0 

137 -0.6 

189 —1.1 

225 —1.2 

208 —0.9 

223 —1.0 

174 —1.6 

23 -1.6 

10 —1.2 

3 -54 

4 -4-3 

— ! _ 


24 

15 

25 

26 

100 

139 

139 

163 

153 

134 

63 

14 

6 
2 
2 



of 9 in the same column has 34 cases, but the corresponding tables show 61 cases 
each. The age of 10 in the same column has 137 cases, but the corresponding 
tables show 140 and 141 cases respectively. The age of 11 in the same column 
shows 189 cases but the corresponding tables show only 184 cases each. The 
age of 14 in the same column shows 223 cases but in the corresponding tables 
there are only 215 and 184 cases respectively. The age of 15 in the same column 
has 174 cases, and the corresponding tables only 154 and 126 respectively. 

Again the age of 6 in the fourth column shows 15 cases and the corresponding 
tables 16 each; the age of 9 shows 100 cases, but the corresponding tables only 
82; the age of 10 has 139 cases and the corresponding tables have 136 and 137 
respectively; the age of 11 shows 139 cases, and the corresponding tables 144 
each; the age of 14 has 134 cases and the corresponding tables 142 each; finally 
the age of 15 in the same column shows 63 cases and the corresponding tables 83 
cases each. 

The same table shows 803 cases at the age of "20 years and over" (first 
column), but the corresponding tables show 802 cases each; the second column 
of the same table shows 764 cases for the age of "20 and over," and the corre- 
sponding tables have 736 cases each. 



It may be contended that all these errors do not materially affect 
the conclusions. We do not know. But we believe that these 



41 8 



AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 



[n. s., 13, 1911 



and other methodological errors may be just the cause of the dif- 
ferences, and not the American soil and financial panics. Even by 
those minute deviations from the average it can not be certainly 
inferred that the greater variation of the figures means that the 
Hebrew or Sicilian is undergoing a modification of the shape of the 
head on American soil. 

e. Boas 1 Fifth Conclusion 
" The type of the immigrant changes from year to year, owing to a selection which 
is dependent upon the economic conditions of our country. This is shown by the 
fact that after the panic of 18Q3 a sudden decrease in the general development of 
immigrants may be observed, which persisted for several years. A similar change 
seems to have taken place after the panic of 1907." 

Here is Boas' table, referring to foreign-born Hebrews, men 

and women (p. 28) : 

Table VI 



Period of 
Arrival 


Stature 


Length of 
Head 


Width of Head 


Cephalic Index 


Width of Face 




cm. 


mm. 


mm. 




mm. 


1880 


-0.5 


+1.7 


+1-5 


+0.1 


+3-5 


I 880-1 884 


-0.8 


+0.2 


+0.7 


+0.0 


+ 1.6 


I 885-I 889 


+0.5 


+ 1.2 


+0.3 


-0.4 


+0.4 


I 89O-I 894 


+0.1 


+ 1.6 


+0.4 


-0.5 


+0.2 


I895-I899 


-0.9 


— 1.2 


-0.3 


+0.3 


-0.4 


I 9OO-I9O4 


+0.7 


-0.9 


-0.4 


+0.2 


-0.7 


I905-I909 


±0.0 


-0.3 


+0.1 


+0.1 


— 1.2 



This table does not warrant such a broad conclusion it seems to 
me, and especially in regard to the head form as indicated by 
the cephalic index, because it is of the same sub-brachycephalic 
type, before and after the panic of 1893. The slight increase (0.3) 
of the cephalic index after 1893 is so small that we may with con- 
fidence say that it is due to something else than the financial panic. 
Even the absolute measurements of the length and breadth of 
head show such small differences that they can hardly be ascribed 
to it. 

These differences are of no typical character or fundamental 
significance. The same may be said of Boas' differences in cephalic 
index between American-born and foreign-born Hebrew children 
and their own parents (see his Tables XVI and XVII). It is a fact 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 419 

that all Jews, from Roumania, Galicia, Little and White Russia, 
Poland, Lithuania (according to Boas' Table XII), including the 
foreign-born and American-born Hebrew boys and girls, and. their 
parents, are more or less sub-brachycephalic. Even the differences 
which Boas found between parents and their children are normal 
differences in degree, which may be the result of the countless errors 
in such delicate measurements, and other causes. 

IV. Critical Remarks on Dr Boas' Methodology. 

Regarding the methodology the following criticisms are to be 
made : 

1. The prime condition in reporting cephalometric results is to 
give the modus operandi, to state exactly what is meant by antero- 
posterior and transversal head diameter. All that the author says 
about those two diameters is that the transver~il diameter is the 
"width of the head," and that the second diameter ("or the length 
of the head") is measured from the forehead to the back of the head. 
But the "forehead" has at least three anthropometrical points — 
glabella, ophryon, and metopion. Perhaps the point most gener- 
ally adopted was used, namely the point on the glabella, the space 
between the eye-brows, but it is not stated. Many anthropome- 
tricians (for example, Bertillon (70)) use the point situated on the 
root of the nose. And then, is "the back of the head" the inion, 
or the highest point on the occiput? Boas fails to state. Is the 
width of the head the maximum width of head taken above the 
ears wherever found? He also fails to inform us whether he followed 
the Frankfurter Verstdndigung (71), or the International Com- 
mission AnthropomUrique (72) or some of the English systems 
(Cambridge or Dublin Anthropometrical Systems), for example the 
method given in the "Report of the Anthropometric Committee 
of the British Association" (London, 1910). 

2. Boas did not make all these measurements himself. What assur- 
ance have we that his staff of thirteen anthropometrical amateurs 
exactly understood and applied with uniformity what was meant 
by the length and width of head? On page 36 of his report Boas 
gives a table of the measurements of his observers, and concludes 



420 AMERICAN .ANTHROPOLOGIST In. s., 13, 191 r 

that the measurements are " quite comparable." We should like 
to. enquire, however, whether those figures are averages of their 
"training" taken on the first and fourth Saturdays in May, 1909, 
the averages of the second Saturday of their practice, or the 
values of the first or last of their trials. This very important fea- 
ture is not explained, and it is difficult to understand what the 
purpose was in giving the table. But, suppose these figures 
are the values of the final trial; then it is difficult to imagine 
what the rule is in such delicate practice for original research work. 
Bertillon, Martin, and other anthropometricians require from 
their students an exactness for the length and breadth of the head 
within the limit of about 1 mm. If the difference is as much 
as 2 it is regarded as a discrepancy beyond which measurements 
cease to make identification of the subject measured possible; and, if 
it is over 2, mistakes of a serious character are made beyond which 
non-identity can be made. The personal equation of Boas' thirteen 
observers who made successive measurements by way of preliminary 
practice on each other is in every observer above 0.5 mm. Now, if 
these figures represent the final test trial of those observers, then we 
can not understand how they can be qualified to take up such a 
delicate piece of research work. It is not stated how many times 
a subject was measured. Perhaps each subject was measured ten 
times. There would be probably ten signalments, differing by very 
small quantities. These differences can be, of course, ignored until 
they reach a certain point after which they destroy the value of 
the measurements. Have Boas' observers reached this point ? 
Again, if this point is reached during the practice when each ob- 
server's measurements are controlled by their master, what personal 
equation can we expect from their main measurements of school 
children and adults! Boas, indeed, says that in the case of school 
children a "considerable number of control measurements were 
made," but he gives no details. 

We have to keep in mind the fact that the method in the collecting 
of his data is not individualistic but collective (" generalized , " en masse) 
in nature. This means Boas did not study the effect of "American 
soil " and "financial panics" on the same individuals during a period 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 42 1 

of time representing the age of his subjects (4-20 years "and over") 
but he collected this data in a very short period, measuring a large 
number of immigrants. Why is it not possible that all the supposed 
"facts" thus brought to light may be quite spurious, owing to the 
great individual differences which may and do exist in the subject? 
Just on account of these individual differences it may be that the 
variations within a group of a given age are such as to completely 
obliterate all the actual peculiarities of the curve of growth. This 
difficulty is not touched upon in his theory. 

4. Another difficulty with this theory is that big conclusions are 
drawn from comparatively few measurements. We are told that the 
measurements include about 30,000 individuals, but in the report 
are given only the results of measurements on (1) 6,032 foreign- 
born and American-born Hebrew boys and girls (Tables III and IV, 
in Appendix of Boas' report), 730 foreign-born adult Hebrew males, 
according to place of birth (Table I, Appendix), together 6,752 
Hebrews; (2) 743 Sicilian boys (both born in Italy and America) 
but the number of American-born and foreign-born girls is not 
given. In regard to the adult American-born Italians, Boas says 
that they are "few in numbers." We are surprised indeed that 
he has not a single table in his appendix referring to Sicilians, yet 
throughout his report he comes again and again to his discovery 
that very short-headed Jews are becoming "long-headed" and 
very "long-headed" Sicilians "short-headed." Instead of these 
tables, he gives tables occupying 11 full pages, relating to his old 
study of the stature of Toronto children, and having no connec- 
tion at all with his study of the descendants of immigrants. Again, 
from those tables given in the Appendix it is very hard to fix the 
exact number of Hebrews. According to Table I, Appendix, 
giving the types of foreign-born adult Hebrew males in regard to 
the place of birth, Table III, giving the cephalic indices of foreign- 
born boys, and Table IV, showing the cephalic index of foreign-born 
girls, the whole number of Hebrew immigrants is 3,672. But from 
Table II (also in Appendix, pp. 60, 64) we see that there are 1,527 
"types of foreign-born Hebrews immigrating at different periods." 
Where are the rest of the 2,145 foreign-born Hebrews? 



422 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s , 13, 1911 

The distribution of individuals according to place of birth, 
different periods of immigration, and ages does not seem to be an 
ideal one. 

As, for example, Hebrews from Lithuania represented by 82 cases and those 
from White Russia by 163. Or, the Hebrews immigrating during the period 
between 1900 and 1904 are represented by 214, and before 1880 by only 22 
cases. Or, the cephalic index for foreign-born at the age of "20 and over" is 
based on 764 cases, and at the age of 6 there are only 6 cases. The American - 
born Hebrew boys at the age of 12 are represented by 388 cases, at the age of 18 
by 5, and at the ages of 4 and 19 by 6 cases only. 

In regard to the cephalic index of the foreign-born Hebrew girls the age of 
"18 and over" is represented by 895 cases, and the age of 4 by one single girl 
only. Of American-born girls, the age of "18 and over" is represented by 65 
and the age of 4 by 6 cases. 

Now, with such a very uneven distribution of cases it is impossi- 
ble to accept the given explanation of his results. The even dis- 
tribution of pupils is not an unimportant scientific requirement. 
The modern anthropological investigations of the pupils of Meumann 
and Martin (Engelsperger and Ziegler, Hoesch-Ernst), Reuter, 
Edinburgh and Aberdeen school anthropometric investigations, 
etc., had the same number .of each year and sex. Even Quetelet 
(73) used this principle in his measurements in his day. 

In looking over the tables dealing with the Hebrew subjects we 
have found a few more errors, which ought not to be found in the 
work of an expert biometrican of high rank, whose investigations 
are carried out by a "small army of serious, scholarly-looking young 
men" and generously supported by the Immigration Commission. 

So, for example, the first table on page 60 of Boas' report shows that there are 
214 cases of cephalic indices at the period of 1900-1904 and the two corresponding 
tables of the length and breadth of head show only 213 cases each. The first 
table on page 64 shows 162 cases of cephalic index in the period of 1 890-1 894, but 
corresponding tables show 161 and 163 cases respectively. On page 68 the 
average of the length of head of 18 foreign-born Hebrew boys is given as 169.9 
instead of 169.4. 

The first table on page 72 shows 764 cases of cephalic index at the age of 
"20 and over," but the corresponding tables show only 763 cases. On page 82 
there are 24 cases of cephalic index at the age of 14,. but the corresponding tables 
show 24 and 23 cases respectively. On the same page (second table) there are 
65 cases at the age of " 18 and over," and the corresponding tables show 66 and 67 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 423 

cases respectively. On page 90 there are 100 cases at the age of 9, but the cor- 
responding tables show only 82 cases. On the same page there are 139 cases at 
the age of 10, but the corresponding tables show 137 and 136 cases respectively. 
The age of 11 is represented by 139 cases, but the corresponding tables show 144 
cases each. The age of 14 is represented by 134 cases, and the corresponding 
tables show 142 cases each. The age of 15 years shows 63 cases, but the cor- 
responding tables show 20 cases more. The ages of 18 and 19 are represented 
by 2 cases each, but the corresponding tables of the length and width of head show 
not one single case. 

5. Another difficulty in the way of accepting Boas' theory is the 
fact that his statements in regard to the methods of his other records and 
measurements are not as complete as they should be. So, for example, 
he does not say what he means by the figures representing the age 
of his subjects. Do they represent the "last birthday" or the 
"nearest birthday" or, perhaps, something else? The same am- 
biguity we find when we want to know what is meant, by the "general 
physiological development of the individual," "stature," "weight/' 
"width of face." All that he says about "general physical develop- 
ment" is that observations were made on pubescence as a means of 
determining the approximate physiological development." How- 
ever, he mentions that the "method of these observations has been 
developed by Dr C. Ward Crampton, but it is available only for 
the short period of adolescence." The question is now, was the 
same, or similar, or a different method used from that of Cramp- 
ton and what is this method? Again, he says that in "those New 
York schools in which bathrooms are established it was possible 
to obtain the weight of children without clothing." But how about 
other schools and individuals investigated? We also fail to see 
the precise method in measuring the stature of body. Did the 
subjects stand in the upright position with or without shoes? 

Again, what is meant by the distance "between the zygomatic 
arches"? This measurement is subject to great errors if the 
method of taking is not exactly stated, especially in measuring the 
living. Is it not possible that the "surprising and unexpected 
changes" in width of the face and other measurements are due to 
inexact statements and consequent inaccurate measurements ? 

A similar difficulty confronts us in regard to the instruments 
used. 



424 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13, 191 1 

On page 33 of his report we are told that the "color of hair, eyes and skin" 
was studied. On page 37 we are told that "a standard of hair-colors made by 
Messrs. B. Dickson & Co., of New York" used. But this "standard" is not 
described. Is this standard something new in principle and structure, or is 
it superior for example to the " Haarfarbentafel " of Fischer? Is there any 
scientific reason for preferring to use "no samples of eye-colors" instead of 
Martin's eye-colors (which, according to Boas, were "not as successful as might 
have been desired"), or Bertillon's chart of the colors of the human iris? Prefer- 
ence seems to have been given to guess-measurements of the eyes by young men 
of little experience over the best scientific means in that matter, "on account of 
the great expense involved in the purchase of a sufficient number of sets" 
(the "Augenfarbentafel" of Prof. Martin costs about #16). Nor were the 
"standards" for the determination of the skin-color used. 

On page 34 of his report Boas says that he copied the full records which have 
been kept in the Newark Academy for many years. He gives a blank used for 
recording the measurements in this school but he does not state how many pupils 
were measured, who measured them, what was the method in measuring the 
"stature," "weight," "grip," "color of eyes," ''hair," "skin," "length of head," 
"width of head," and "width of face." Again Boas says that he used this 
record for the sake of studying the "American families settled in this country 
for several generations and living under more favorable conditions." Do results 
of his report include the results of these records? If these records refer to 
the American-born Hebrew and Sicilian boys, from what tables can we see this 
fact? Did he treat the results of his staff together with these strange records? 

On page 34 of his report Boas says that "in the schools it was necessary to 
obtain statistical information from the parents." He gives a blank for collecting 
this information but he does not state who filled out those blanks — the members 
of his staff, teachers, parents, or children. As the blank includes the following 
headings: 

"I . . . came to America . . . years ago; in the year . . . My father came to 
America . . . My mother came to America . . . Father's father . . . Father's 
mother . . . Mother's father . . . Mother's mother came to America . . .," 
there is room for the suspicion that these blanks were filled in by children. 

6. Another difficulty in Boas' theory of the head form is that 
he explains it by the use of means to which, I claim, he is not entitled. 
On page 11 of his report he gives three sketches of head form 
which are reproduced in the accompanying figure (fig. 56). 

In the upper row there is " the more rounded" head form of the 
foreign-born Hebrew (1), and "the more elongated" head form of 
the Sicilian (2). Below these two there is a form of the head of the 
descendants of the Hebrews and Sicilians born more than 10 years 
after the arrival of their mothers (3). Careful study of these three 



radosavljevichJ 



THE FORM OF THE HEAD 



425 






Fig. 56. — Slightly reduced from Immigration Commission Rep., Senate Doc. No. 20-8. 

sketches will show that their cephalic indices are of the same type; all 
three represent brachycephaly, since the length of each of the three 
(original) sketches is almost the same (56 mm.), and the width 49, 
46, and 46 mm. respectively. The corresponding indices of these 
sketches is above 82, representing the same type of head form. The 
slight difference is one of degree only; and, if we take into account the 
possible errors in such delicate head measurements, and especially 
if we have in mind the difficulties above mentioned, we may be 

AM. ANTH., N. S„ 13— 28 



426 



AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST 



[n. s., 13, 191 1 




Fig. 57. — Upper, front, and side views of skulls of the Long and Round Barrow 
Races, photographed by A. C. Haddon from specimens in the Cambridge Anatomical 
Museum. On right, Long Barrow, Dinnington, Rotherham. Length, 204; breadth, 143; 
cran. index, 70.1; male. On left, skull of a man of the Round Barrow Race, from a 
secondary interment, two feet below the surface, in a long barrow, Winterbourne 
Stoke. Length, 177; breadth, 156; cran. index, 88.1. (Reproduced from Haddon's 
The Study of Man by courtesy of G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) 



justified in doubting whether these differences are due to the 
effect of "financial panics" or " American soil." 

But these sketches were made so that they give an impression 
of "more rounded" and "more elongated." This impression is 
not due to the mere ratio between length and width of head but 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 427 

to the shape of head as viewed from above. And then, in his plan of 
investigation he did not use this, Sergi's "natural system" of 
classification of the shape of head. He did not even measure either 
the total horizontal circumference, or the forehead (the smallest 
width of forehead), or any other part of the head form, except the 
length and width of the head. These sketches of head forms are, 
therefore, based not on his measurements but on pure imagination. 
According to Sergi's natural classification, the head form may be 
"ellipsoides," "ovoides," "pentagonoides," "sphenoides," etc. (74) 
but not "more rounded' ' or "more elongated." To show the 
reader what a "more elongated" and "more rounded" skull really 
means, we will use the accompanying figure from Haddon (75) 
( n §- 57)- In Boas' sketches there are no "more elongated" head 
forms but all of them are of the same brachy cephalic type, more 
or less broad. There is no reference either to Sergi's demonstration 
that a head which, according to the measurements of the cephalic 
index ought to be of dolichocephalic type, might be of brachy- 
cephalic type and vice versa, or to Manouvrier's (76) theory that 
the variations of the cephalic indices are the most insignificant 
physiologically. 

7. Attention must also be called to Professor Boas' citation 
of authors. He has apparently overlooked almost all the new 
anthropometrical movements outside of America, and it would seem 
from his references that his reading here has been uniquely re- 
stricted. He mentions the names of few authors (Gould, Baxter, 
H. P. Bowditch, C. W. Crampton, M. Fishberg), and gives only 
one reference (p. 38). This quotation is of such a nature that we 
can not see any special scientific reason' for quoting one authority 
and not the works of other authors mentioned also. 

Further, on page 46 Professor Boas says: 

" In all races of man the head becomes slightly longer with increasing 
age, so that a young son is always more round-headed than his father." 
He does not state who discovered that fact nor does he give any 
references. He states this result in a categorical manner. But the 
fact is that authorities do not agree on this point and dogmatic 
assertion is misleading. So, for example, Weissenberg (77), who 



428 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s.. 13. 191 1 

studied Russian Jewish children en masse, found thefollowing indices : 
86.4 (for 3 newborn children), 84.7 (for 4 five year old children), 
84.0 (for 25 ten year old), and 82.5 (for 100 " grown* ' children). 
But such regular decreases were not proven by any other author. 
And then the number of Weissenberg's cases is too small to draw 
any general conclusions from, especially if we take into account 
that he did not measure the same children from year to year. 
Landsberger, who measured the same children yearly (from 1880- 
1886) found an average yearly increase of 1.0 in cephalic index. 
Lucae (78), who studied 20 boys from their third to their fourteenth 
year, found a slight decrease of cephalic indices in 16 boys; in one 
case the cephalic index was the same from six to ten years of age, and 
in three cases there was an increase from year to year. 0. Ranke, 
who studied a large number of children, could not establish Weis- 
senberg's results. Lecourtois (79) and Bonnifay (80) agree with 
Ranke. Lecourtois, on the basis of his own measurements, claims 
that the cephalic index of a newborn infant remains constant 
throughout life. Bonnifay found rather a slight increase of the 
cephalic index with age. Gray (63) in his Aberdeen report remarks 
that the cephalic index was less in the older than the younger girls, 
but in boys it was the same at all ages tested between six and 
fifteen years. 

The comparison of the results of our Table I will show clearly 
that Weissenberg's regularity of decrease in the degrees of cephalic 
index (not in cephalic type 1 .) is not proven. And even the sup- 
posed " general irregularity " of West and others is of doubtful 
scientific value, because these " general regular increases " may be 
due not to age or any "law" of the cephalic periodicity (similar to 
the periodicity in the body growth) but to countless mistakes and 
errors in measurements, comparisons, and mathematical calcula- 
tions. Some biometricians and experimental psychologists make a 
fetish of figures. Mathematical calculations in anthropometry and 
experimental psychology, as also in experimental pedagogy, are of 
fictitious value if we do not know exactly the nature of their modus 
operandi and the exact value of their "units." 

All that we can say from these "general regularities" is that the 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 429 

type of the head form is not materially affected by age; it is always 
either brachycephalic or mesocephalic. That these differences may 
be due to methodological mistakes and personal equations was 
proven by Binet (ji), who measured the same pupils with the same 
instruments on several days r and found differences in results. He also 
compared his results with those of three well-known French anthro- 
pometricians, Manouvrier, Deniker, and Lapique, who used the 
same instruments (compass-glissi&re k triple graduation), and meas- 
ured the same pupils on the same day, and found that the results 
did not agree. Gray (63) found that the measurement with Hep- 
burn's callipers was uniformly greater than the measurements with 
Hay's instrument. All these facts are only an additional reason 
why the cephalic measurements must be taken not once or twice in 
succession, but five, ten, or even more times, until the difference 
required of these measurements is limited to about 0.5 to 1 mm. 

Yes, the two common head measurements (length and breadth) 
are not in themselves difficult, but they require a good deal of 
attention, patience, and perseverance. Anthropometrical and 
cephalometric work is like all other work: the more attention is 
paid to its details, the better results it yields. 

V. General Summary 
To summarize then, the main objections to the new theory of 
Boas are: 

1. That his theory of the head form does not agree with his actual 
results. From his tables we see that all Hebrews (born in America 
and in different countries of Europe) are of the same sub-brachy- 
cephalic type. Not one age, not one sex, not one individual of 
Hebrew nativity is represented either by dolichocephalic or by 
mesocephalic type. The same is true in its way of the Sicilians 
measured. They are of a high mesocephalic type, both in America 
and in Europe. 

2. That the normal differences in degree of these two types are prob- 
ably not due to the " American soil 11 or "financial panics," as Boas 
maintains, but to the countless methodological, technical, and mathemati- 
cal difficulties which we have shown. It is a well known fact that even 



430 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s. f 13. 191 1 

specialists, experienced in technical methods of measurement, can 
make serious mistakes in measuring the same head, if they have 
not taken the precaution to harmonize their methods at the 
beginning, while Boas' results are based, not on his own measure- 
ments but on those of thirteen amateurs. It is also interesting 
in this connection to note Boas' own statement, that the work of 
his staff "had to be pushed with considerable energy," "owing to 
the necessity of collecting material in time for the present report." 

3. That his method in collecting scientific data is uncritical; he 
fails to state exactly the points from which measurements were made, 
to explain his modus operandi, or to give an objective account of the 
previous theories of the head form, while there are many errors and in- 
consequences in his tables. 

4. That his theory is based rather on a cross-section of the facts than 
on a genetic interpretation of them. It is only a genetic description and 
explanation of them that can give a trustworthy basis for a theory. 
"Durch das Werden wird das Gewordene klar." What we also 
need in physical anthropology is to learn* the methods and grammar 
of physical anthropology in relation to historical, evolutionary facts. 
Boas ignores all previous theories of head form, even the American 
biological (G. Stanley Hall) and sociological (Ripley) interpretation 
of this large subject. 

5. That he began and finished the investigation in which he was put 
in general charge without requisite scientific exactness and care. In 
the "Introductory" to his report we read the following: 

"A small appropriation was made to test the question and see if the promise 
of results was sufficient to warrant the continuance of the investigation. Almost 
immediately it became evident that there might be much value in such a study, 
and the work has therefore been continued, although as yet only on a small scale." 

It is to' be regretted that he does not state on what grounds it 
became "almost immediately" evident. 

The "mystery" of New York environment could be partially 
solved either by repeating the same measurements on the same 
subjects and correcting the tables or by attacking this big problem 
with less temper, but on a really new, scientific plan, which can 
stand any professional criticism. This was and is the only way to 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 43 1 

save both the public and science from prejudicial, provincial, and 
narrow theories. 

To conclude : J contend that the theories advanced by Boas in re- 
gard to physical changes in the immigrants to the United States and 
their children neglect the various influences which, in different degrees, 
affect different subjects in the tests, and pours all data from whatever 
source into the statistical mill, which in consequence expresses an 
anthropologically meaningless result. 

VI. Bibliography 
i . Boas, Franz. Changes in bodily form of descendants of immigrants. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1910, p. 112 (The Immigration Com- 
mission, Senate Document No. 208). 

2. Darwin, Ch. Descent of Man, vol. 1, p. 82. 

3. . Variations of Animals, vol. 1, p. 117. 

4. Welcker, H. Kraniologische Mittheilungen (Archiv fur Anthropologic, 1, 

1866, 89/160). 

5. Nystrom, A. Uber die Formanderungen des menschlichen Schadels und 

deren Ursachen. Ein Beitrag zur Rassenlehre. (Arch. f. Anthrop., 
xxvii, 1902, 211/31, 317/36). 

6. Holden. Human Osteology. Edited by Ch. Stewart and R. W. Reid, 

London, Churchill, 1897, pp. 150-153. 

7. Cuvier. Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, 1822, 11, 231 (after Holden, pp. 

153, 349). mm 

8. Mtiller, A. Uber die wechselseitige Beziehungen zwischen Kopfform und 

Geburtsmechanismus (Archiv fur Gynakologie, vol. 82). 

9. Gdrke, O. Beitrage zur functionellen Gestaltung des Schadels bei den 

Anthropomorphen und Menschen durch Untersuchung mit Rontgen- 
strahlen (Arch, fur Anthr., 1, 1903, 91/108). 

10. Papillault, G. Ontogenese et phylogenese du crane humain (Rev. d'ecole 

anthr., ix, 1899). 

11. Haeckel, E. Unsere Ahnenreihe (Progonotaxis Hominis) . Kritische Studien 

uber phyletische Anthropologic, Jena, Fischer, 1908. 

12. Osburn, R. C. The effects of brachycephaly and dolichocephaly on the 

teeth of man (Am. Orthodontist, 11, 191 1, 113/24). 

13. Myers, Ch. S. Contributions to Egyptian Anthropology (Jour. Anthr, 

Institute, London, xxxm, 1903, 82/90; xxxv, 1905, 80/92; xxxvi, 1906, 
237/72; xxxvm, 1908, 99/148). Tucker and Myers, Contribution to the 
Anthropology of the Suddan (Ibid., xl, 1910, 141/64). 

14. Spitzka, E. A. Hereditary resemblances in brains of three brothers (Amer. 

Anthropologist, vi, 1904, 307/13); A preliminary communication of a 
study of the brains of two distinguished physicians, father and son (Proc. 
Assoc. Am. Anatomists, 1900, 70/92); A study of six eminent scientists 



432 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13. 1911 

and scholars belonging to the American Anthropometric Society together 
with a description of the skull of Prof. E. D. Cope, Philadelphia, 1907. 

15. Mobius, P. Geschlecht und Kopfgrosse, Halle, 1903 (Beitrage zur Lehre von 

den Geschlechtsunterschieden, 5. Heft). 

16. Rieger. Uber die Beziehungen des Schadellehre zur Physiologic, Psychologie 

und Ethnologic, • Wurzburg, r8&2; Eine exacte Methode der Kranio* 
graphie, 1885. 

17. Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence, vol. 1, 1904, p. 73. 

18. Zupanchich, N. Concerning Physio-ethnology ("Prosvetni Glasnik," Bel- 

grade, 1909, p. 144/61 ; Serbian). 

19. Lapouge, G. V. der L' Aryan. Son role sociale. Paris, Fontemoing, 1 899, 

xx + 569. 

20. Oetteking, B. Kraniologische Studien an Altagyptern. Diss. Braunschweig, 

Vierweg, 1908, pp. 90. 

21. Keith, A. The Briton of 170,000 years ago: the Galley Hill Man. (The 

Illustrated London News, March 4, 191 1, 304). 

22. Gorjanovich-Kramberger, K. Der palaolithische Mensch und seine Zeit- 

genossen aus dem Dilivium von Krapina in Kroatien (Mitteilungen der 
anthropol. Gesellschaft in Wien, 1901, 163/247). 

23. M. M. Theories of Dr. N. Zupanchich of the prehistorical inhabitants of 

the Balkan Peninsula and neighbouring regions ("Pregled," Sarajevo, 
Bosna, 191 1; Serbian). 

24. Ranke, O. Anthropometrische Untersuchungen an gesunden und kranken 

Kindern mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des schulpflichtigen Alters 
(Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, xvin, 1905, 719/45, 816/37). 

25. Webster's Dictionary, 1907, pp. 488. (Harris' edition). 

26. Vosilyev, V. F. Measurements of head and face in relation to stature and 

age in the school children, Moscow, 1899 (Russian). 

27. Pfitzner, W. Social-anthropologische Studien (Zeitschrift fur Morphologic 

und Anthropologic, 1, 1899, 325/77). 

28. Boas, F. Heredity in head form (Am. Anthropologist, v, 1903, 530/8); The 

form of head as influenced by growth (Science, iv, 50/1); Heredity in 
anthropometric traits (Am. Anthropol., ix, 1907, 453/7°)- 

29. Ranke, O. Beitrage zur Frage des kindlichen Wachstums. Anthropolo- 

gische Untersuchungen ausgefuhrt an holsteinischen Kindern, von der 
Geburt bis zum vollendeten 15. Jahre (Archiv fur Anthropologic, in, 1905, 
161). 
29a. Thorndike, E. L. Measurements of twins. New York, 1905, pp. 37-39. 

30. Gray, J. and Tocher, J. F. The physical characteristics of adults and school 

children in East Aberdeenshire (Journ. Anthr. Institute, xxx, 1900, 104/24). 

31. Binet, A. Recherches sur la technique de la mensuration de la t#te vivante 

(I/Annee Psych., vn, 1901, 314); Correlation des mesures cephaliqiies 
(Ibid., vm, 363). 

32. Tscherowskovsky, E. Contribution to the study of heredity and variation in 

the different anthropological types, St. Petersburg, 1905 (Russian); Uber 



radosavljevich] THE FORM OF THE HEAD 433 

die Vererbung des Kopfindex von seiten der Mutter (Korrespondenzblatt 
der deutschen Anthrop. Gesellschaft, Mttnchen, xxxiv, 1904, 172). 

33. Viasemsky, N. W. Resume de l'ouvrage sur les modifications de Torganisme 

de 10 a 20 ans . . . Paris, Marthieux, 1902. (A study of 4,872 school 
children of St. Petersburg). 

34. Chamberlain, A. F. Some recent anthropometrical studies (Ped.. Seminary > 

Viil, 1901,239/57). 

35. Matiegka, H. Uber die B ziemmg zur Korperbeschaffenheit und geistigen 

Tatigkeit bei den Schulk ndern (Mitteilungen der Anthrop. Gesellschaft in 
Wien, xxviii, 1898, 122/6); Stature, development and health of school 
children in Prague. Prague, 1896, 78 (Bohemian). 

36. Engelsperger and Ziegler. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der physischen und 

psychischen Natur des sechsjahrigen, in die Schule eintretenden Kindes. 
I. Anthropometrischer Teil (Meumann's Zeitschrift fur die Experimentelle 
Padagogik, 1905, 173/235)- 

37. Schliz, A. Eine Schulkinderuntersuchung zum Zweck der Rassenbestimmung 

nach Farbencomplexion und primaren Korpermerkmalen (Archiv fur 
Anthropologic, xxvii, 1902, 191). 

38. Teumin, S. Topographisch-anthropometrische Untersuchungen iiber die 

Proportionsverhaltnisse des weiblichen Korpers (Archiv fiir Anthropologic, 
xxvii, 1902, 379/432). 

39. Browne, C. R. Report of the Work Done in the Anthropometric Laboratory 

of Trinity College, Dublin from 1891 to 1898 (Proceed. Royal Irish 
Academy, Ser. 3, vol. 5, 1899, 26 9/93). 

40. Venn, J. Cambridge Anthropometry (J. Anthr. Institute, London, xvm, 

1888, 140/54). 

41. Krakschek; G. Die anthropologische Beschaffenheit der Landskroner Gym- 

nasialjugend (Jahresbericht des K. K. Staats-Obergymnasium in Lands- 
kron, 1901). 

42. Hrdlicka, A. Skeletal Remains suggesting or attributed to early man in 

North America (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Bulletin 33, Washington, 1907. See pages 12 and 13, especially); 
Measurements of the cranial fossae (Proceedings U. S. National Museum, 
xxxii, No. 1521); Physiological and medical observations among the 
Indians of Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (Smithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 34, Washington, 
1908) ; Report on Anthropological Work in the State Institution for feeble- 
minded children, Syracuse, N. Y., 1899. 

43. Klaatsch, H. The Skull of the Australian Aboriginal (Reports from the Patho- 

logical Laboratory of the Lunacy Department, New South Wales Govern- 
ment, vol. I, part 3, 1908, pp. 43/167). 

44. Kottmann, J. Der Schadel von Kleinkems und die Neandertal-Spy-Gruppe 

(Archiv fiir Anthropologic v, 1906, 208/27). 

45. Martin, R. Die Inlandstamme der malaischen Halbinsel. Wissenschaft- 

liche Ergebnisse einer Reise durch die vereinigten malaischen Staaten. 



434 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., i 3 , 191 i 

Jena, Fischer, 1905, pp. 1052 + 137 Textabbildungen, 26Tafeln + 1 Karte. 
Martin's long expected Lehrbuch der Anthropologic is in print. 

46. Deniker, J. The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnog- 

raphy. London and New York, Scribner's Sons, 1907. (Translation from 
French.) 

47. Ripley. The Races of Europe, a Sociological Study. New York, Appleton, 

1889; Notes et Documents pour la Construction d'une Carte de l'lndice 
Cephalique en Europe (L 'Anthropologic vn, 1896, 513); The European 
Population of the United States (J. Anthr. Institute, London, xxxvui, 
1908, 221/4). 

48. Beddoc, J. The Somatology of eight hundred boys in Training for the Royal 

Navy (J. Anthr. Inst., xxxiv, 1904, 92/100). 

49. Ammon, O. Die naturliche Auslese beim Menschen. Auf Grund der Ergeb- 

nisse der anthropologischen Untersuchungen der Wehrpflichtigen in Baden 
und anderer Materialien dargestcllt. Jena, 1893; Zur Anthropologic der 
Badener. Statistik uber rund 30,000 Wehrpflichtigen und Gymnasiasten, 
1899. 

50. Demolins. A quoi tient la superiorite des Anglo-Saxons, Paris, Didot, 1897. 

51. Ranke, J. Fruhmittelalterliche Schadel aus Lindau (Sitz. der bayer. 

Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1897, xxvn). After Lapouge's L'Aryen, 

1899, PP. 338. 

52. Weisbach, A. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Schadelformen osterreichischer 

Volker (Mediz. Jahrbucher der Gesellschaft der Arzte in Wien, Jahrgang, 
1864, 119/54; l86 7» 1/120); Die Oberosterreicher (Mitteil. Anthrop. 
Gesell. in Wien, xxiv, 1894, 232/46). 

53. Livi's distribution of the cephalic indices for Italy is given by Lapouge, 

L'Aryen, 1899, pp. 441, 443. See also Ripley, Races of Europe, 1899, PP- 
41. 

54. Topinard, T. Anthropology. English Translation by R. T. H. Bartley, 

London, 1890, pp. 237. 

55. Hrdlicka, A. Anthropometrical Investigations on One Thousand White and 

Colored' Children of Both Sexes, the Inmates of the New York Juvenile 
Asylum, With Additional Notes on One Hundred Colored Children of 
the New York Colored Orphan Asylum (47th Annual Report of the New 
York Juvenile Asylum, New York, 1899, pp. 86); Physical Difference be- 
tween White and Colored Children of the Same Sexes and the Same Ages 
(Proc. Amer. Ass. Sci., xxvn, 1898, 475/6). See also his measurements 
of Indian children in Bull. 34, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

56. Hoesch-Ernst, L. Anthropologisch-psychologische Untersuchungen an 

Zuricher Schulkindern nebst einer Zusammenstellung der Resultate der 
wichtigsten Untersuchungen an Schulkindern in andern Landern (Meu- 
mann's "Das Schulkind in seiner korperlichen und geistigen Entwicklung, 
1. Teil, Leipzig, Nemnich, 1906). 

57. Landsberger. Das Wachstum im Alter der Schulpflicht (Archiv fur Anthn>- 



radosavljevicHj THE FORM OF THE HEAD 435 

pologie, xvii, 1888, 229/64); Das Wachstum der Knaben vom 6. bis zum 
16. Lebensjahre (Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege, i, 1888, 65/9). 

58. Ranke, O. Anthropometrische Untersuchungen an gesunden und kranken 

Kindern mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung des schulpflichtigen Alters 
(Zeitsch. f. Schulgesundheitspflege, xviii, 1905, 719/45, 816/37). 

59. Reuter, F, Beitrage zur Anthropologic Hinterpommerns. Eine Schulkind- 

eruntersuchung in Pollnow (Arch. f. Anthr., xxvm, 1903, 1/91); Kopfform 
and Korperbau (Archiv fur Rassen and Gesellschafts-Biologie, v, 1908, 

449/77). 

60. West, G. M. Anthropologische Untersuchungen an Schulkindern in Wor- 

cester, Mass. (Archiv fiir Anthrop., 1893); Worcester (Mass.) school 
children; the growth of the body, head and face (Science, N. Y., xxi, 1893, 

2/4). 

61. Windle. On the physical characters of a group of Birmingham pupil teachers 

(female) (Proc. of Birmingham Nat.-hist. and Phil. Soc, 1895). 

62. Muffang, M. H. Ecoliers et etudiants de Liverpool (L' Anthropologic, Paris, 

1899, 21/41). 

63. Mackenzie, W. L. The Medical Inspection of School Children. Edinburgh 

and Glasgow, Hodge & Co., 1904, pp. 395; Observations on physical 
characteristics of children and adults taken at Aberdeen in Banffshire, 
and in the island of Lewis (Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. ScL, 1897. London, 
1898, lxvii, 506). 

64. Retzius. Ethnologische Schriften. Stockholm, 1864. After: L. Milykovich 

The Science of Man: Somatology and Anthropology. Belgrade, Serbian 
Government Printing Office, 1891, pp. 385. 

65. Torok, A. Versuch einer systematischen Characteristik des Kephalindex 

(Archiv fiir Anthropologic, 1905, 110/29); Reform der Kraniologie (Int. 
Monatsschrift f. Anatomie und Physiologie, vol. xi); Grundziige einer 
systematischen Kraniometrie, Stuttgart, 1890. 

66. Fishberg, M. Physical Anthropology of the Jews. I. The Cephalic Index 

(Amer. Anthropologist, 1902, 684/706). 

67. Martin, R. Anthropometrische und Craniometrische Technik. Zurich, 

Fiissli, 1903, pp. 6. 

68. Wissler, C. Correlation of Mental and Physical Tests (Psych. Rev., Monogr. 

Suppl., Whole No. 16, 1901). 
68a. Schwerz, F. Untersuchungen iiber das Wachstum des Menchen (Arch. f. 
Anthrop., x, 191 1, pp. 1-38). 

69. MacDonald, A. Experimental Study of School Children. Washington, 

D. C, Government Printing Office, 1899. 

70. Bertillon, A. Signaletic Instructions. Chicago, New York, and London: 

The Werner Co., 1896, pp. 107. 

71. Archiv fiir Anthropologic, xv, 1883. 

72. L' Anthropologic, Paris, xvii, 1906, 560/572. 

73. Quetelet. Anthropometric ou Mesure des Differentes Facultes de L' Homme. 

Bruxelles, 1870. 



43^ AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [n. s., 13. 191 r 

74. Sergi, G. Die Variationen des menschlichen Schadels und die Klassification 

der Rassen (Archiv fur Anthropologic, in, 1905, iii/22). Translation from 
Italian. 

75. Haddon, A. C. The Study of Man. London, Bliss, Sands & Co., 1898, 

plate 1, pp. 64. 

76. Manouvrier, L. L'indice cephalique et la pseudo-sociologie (Rev, l'ecole 

d'anthrop., Paris, ix, 1899). 

77. Weissenberg, S. Die sudrussischen Juden. Eine anthropometrische Studie 

(Archiv fur Anthropologic, xxm, 1895, 347/425, 531/81). 

78. Lucae, J. Ein Beitrag zuni Waehstum des Kindeskopfes von 3.-14. Lebens- 

jahre (Festschrift der 13. Jahresversammlung der deutschen anthro- 
pologischen Gesellschaft zu Frankfurt a. M., 1882). 

79. Lecourtois. Bulletin de la Societe d* Anthropologic, 1869, pp. 720; Forme du 

crane dans ['Hydrocephalic (Rev. mensuelle des maladies de Tenfance, 
1894). 

80. Bonnifay, J. Du developpement de la t£te au point de vue de la cephalomet- 

rie depuis la natesance jusqu'a Page adulte. These de Lyon, 1897. 
New York University, 
New York City.