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CBTA 

CETA 82-6 



A Low-Cost Planting Technique for 
Eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) 

by 
Mark S. Fonseca, W. Judson Kenworthy, and Gordon W. Thayer 



COASTAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL AID NO. 82-6 
DECEMBER 1982 



WHOI 

DOCUMENT 

COLLECTION 







Approved for public release; 
distribution unlimited. 



Prepared for 

U.S. ARMY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS 

COASTAL ENGINEERING 
RESEARCH CENTER 

Kingman Building 
Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060 



Reprint or republication of any of this material 
shall give appropriate credit to the U.S. Army Coastal 
Engineering Research Center. 

Limited free distribution within the United States 
of single copies of this publication has been made by 
this Center. Additional copies are available from: 



National Teehnioal Information Service 
ATTN: Operations Division 
5285 Port Royal Road 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 

Contents of this report are not to be used for 
advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. 
Citation of trade names does not constitute an official 
endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial 
products. 

The findings in this report are not to be construed 
as an official Department of the Army position unless 
so designated by other authorized documents. 




UNCLASSIFIED 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) 



REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 



READ INSTRUCTIONS 
BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 



1. REPORT NUMBER 

CETA 82-6 



2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 



3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 



4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 

A LOW-COST PLANTING TECHNIQUE FOR EELGRASS 
(ZOSTERA MARINA L.) 



5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 

Coastal Engineering 
Technical Aid 



6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 



AUTHORfo; 

Mark S . Fonseca 

W. Judson Kenworthy 

Gordon W. Thayer 



8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERfsJ 



PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 

National Marine Fisheries Service 

Southeast Fisheries Center, Beaufort Laboratory 

Beaufort, NC 28516 



G31632 



11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 

Department of the Army (CERRE-CE) 
Coastal Engineering Research Center 
Kingman Building, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060 



12. REPORT DATE 

December 1982 



13. NUMBER OF PAGES 
15 



14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESSfff dllletent from Controlling Office) 



15. SECURITY CLASS, (of this report; 

UNCLASSIFIED 



16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (o( this Report) 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, 



17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20, if different from Report) 



18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



19. KEY WORDS (Confirm 



osaary and identify by block i 



Cost evaluation 
Current regime 
Seagrass 



Sediment stabilization 
Transplanting techniques 



20. ABSTRACT fCbntfaue aa reverse sfrfo tf n*jce&aaey and Identify by block number) 

Transplanting of eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) has undergone considerable experimental study in the 
last decade, but with limited practical application. A new technique has been developed using bundles 
of mature, vegetative shoots of eelgrass washed free of sediment and anchored in the bottom. Using 
this technique, planting units have been successfully established in high (>1.6 feet per second) and 
low (<1.6 feet per second) current regimes on grids of 2.0 and 2.6 feet, respectively. The production- 
line efficiency of the technique greatly reduces planting costs. Methods developed for selecting wild 
planting stock and anchoring planting units greatly increases planting success across the range of 
current velocities in which eelgrass is found. 






1473 



EDfTION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 



UNCLASSIFIED 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Ent 



PREFACE 

This report is published to provide coastal engineers with a low-cost 
eelgrass transplanting technique which is suitable for establishment in both 
high current and quiescent marine habitats. It is intended to update infor- 
mation on planting techniques presented in "Planting Guidelines for Sea- 
grasses," (Phillips, 1980). 

The work was carried out under the U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research 
Center's (CERC) Coastal Engineering Uses of Submerged Plants work unit, Envi- 
ronmental Impact Program, Environmental Quality Area of Civil Works Research 
and Development. 

The report was prepared by Mark S. Fonseca, Department of Environmental 
Sciences, University of Virginia, in affiliation with the National Marine 
Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Center, Beaufort Laboratory, Beaufort, 
North Carolina, and W. Judson Kenworthy and Gordon W. Thayer of the Beaufort 
Laboratory. 

The authors express appreciation to M. LaCroix and T. Currin for assist- 
ance in field exercises, and to H. Gordy for graphics. 

Paul L. Knutson was technical monitor for this report, under the general 
supervision of E.J. Pullen, Chief, Coastal Ecology Branch and Mr. R.P. Savage, 
Chief, Research Division, CERC. 

Technical Director of CERC was Dr. Robert W. Whalin, P.E., upon publica- 
tion of this report. 

Comments on this publication are invited. 



Approved for publication in accordance with Public Law 166, 79th Congress, 
approved 31 July 1945, as supplemented by Public Law 172, 88th Congress, 
approved 7 November 1963. 




TED E. BISHOP 

Colonel, Corps of Engineers 

Commander and Director 



CONTENTS 

Page 

CONVERSION FACTORS, U.S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) 5 

I INTRODUCTION 7 

II HARVESTING AND STORING PLANTS 7 

1. Identifying Preferred Harvest Sites 7 

2. Harvest Technique . 7 

3. Storage Guidelines 7 

III PREPARING PLANTING UNITS 9 

IV PLANTING METHOD 9 

V PLANT MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 9 

1. Number of Units Required for a Planting 9 

2. Number of Shoots Required for a Planting. 12 

VI LABOR REQUIREMENTS 12 

1. Harvesting 12 

2. Preparation of Planting Units 12 

3. Planting 12 

VII SUMMARY 13 

LITERATURE CITED 15 

TABLE 

Labor estimates (by source) 14 

FIGURES 

1 A photo of a high current area eelgrass meadow at low tide 8 

2 Plant collection 10 

3 Isolating the proper number of shoots per planting unit . . 10 

4 Attachment of anchor and fasteners 11 

5 Placing the planting units into containers for transport to the 

planting site 11 



CONVERSION FACTORS, U.S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 



U.S. customary units of measurement used in this report can be converted to 
metric (SI) units as follows: 



Multiply 



inches 

square inches 
cubic inches 

feet 

square feet 
cubic feet 

yards 

square yards 
cubic yards 

miles 

square miles 

knots 

acres 

foot-pounds 

millibars 

ounces 

pounds 

ton, long 
ton, short 
degrees (angle) 
Fahrenheit degrees 



by 



To obtain 



25.4 


millimeters 


2.54 


centimeters 


6.452 


square centimeters 


16.39 


cubic centimeters 


30.48 


centimeters 


0.3048 


meters 


0.0929 


square meters 


0.0283 


cubic meters 


0.9144 


meters 


0.836 


square meters 


0.7646 


cubic meters 


1.6093 


kilometers 


259.0 


hectares 


1.852 


kilometers per hour 


0.4047 


hectares 


1.3558 


newton meters 


1.0197 x 10~ 3 


kilograms per square centimi 


28.35 


grams 


453.6 


grams 


0.4536 


kilograms 


1.0160 


metric tons 


0.9072 


metric tons 


0.01745 


radians 


5/9 


Celsius degrees or Kelvins 1 



*To obtain Celsius (C) temperature readings 
use formula: C = (5/9) (F -32). 

To obtain Kelvin (K) readings, use formula: 



from Fahrenheit (F) readings, 
K = (5/9) (F -32) + 273.15. 



A LOW-COST PLANTING TECHNIQUE FOR EELGRASS (Zostera marina L.) 

by 
Mark S. Fonseca, W. Judson Kenworthy 3 and Gordon W. Thayer 



I. INTRODUCTION 

Cooperative research by the Beaufort Laboratory of the Southeast 
Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, and the U.S. Army 
Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) has developed a low-cost trans- 
planting technique for eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.). This technique can 
be used for planting and rehabilitating areas damaged by coastal engineering 
activities, for creating eelgrass beds to stabilize substrates, and provide 
habitats for numerous commercially and recreationally important marine 
species. The planting technique may also prove to be effective for other 
seagrass species. 



II. HARVESTING AND STORING PLANTS 

1. Identifying Preferred Harvest Sites . 

Research has demonstrated that eelgrass transplants obtained from 
high current areas have superior growth rates (Fonseca, et al., 1979) and 
higher rhizome mat integrity which improves collection efficiency (Fonseca, 
Kenworthy, and Thayer, 1981) . High current areas are defined as those areas 
where the surface current velocity often exceeds 1.6 feet (50 centimeters) 
per second. These areas are characterized by discrete, raised patches of 
grass on a sandy substrate of low organic matter (Fig. 1) (Kenworthy, 1981). 

2 . Harvest Technique . 

Harvesting entails digging up sods of eelgrass with a shovel 
that is inserted at least 8 inches (20 centimeters) into the substrate so 
as to include the whole root-rhizome complex. These sods should be shaken 
free of any attached sediment at the harvest site. Care should be taken to 
maintain the carpetlike integrity of the rhizomes to facilitate later 
planting. 

3 . Storage Guidelines . 

Sediment-free mats of seagrass should be stored in ambient sea- 
water and processed into planting units within 36 hours. Aeration of the 
storage containers (plastic trash cans work well) is often required to pre- 
vent anaerobic conditions. Setting the mats into shallow, flowing seawater 
tables works best and provides an ideal working area for preparing the plant- 
ing units. 




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III. PREPARING PLANTING UNITS 

Past plantings have used either whole plugs of sediment from 
natural seagrass beds or, in a few cases, shoots that have been washed free 
of sediment. Plugs create excessive logistical problems due to their weight 
and size. Shoots without sediment circumvent this problem, but anchoring 
techniques have previously proven successful only in low energy environments. 

Figures 2 to 5 illustrate the four-step procedure for preparing 
planting units: 

(1) The eelgrass is dug up and washed free of sediment at the harvest 
site, taking care to keep the root-rhizome system intact (Fig. 2). 

(2) Shoots are pulled in clumps from the dug-up mats and held upright 
to make the planting units (approximately 15 shoots per planting unit) (Fig. 
3). 

(3) One-third (about 8 inches) of a metal coathanger (pre-cut and bent 
to form an L-shape for anchoring purposes) is added to the shoots, which are 
then wrapped with a piece of bonded construction paper (filecards cut in 
strips also work well) and secured with a twist-tie fastener, forming the 
finished planting unit (Fig. 4). 

(4) The plants are transported to a planting site in small containers 
that are filled with water (Fig. 5). The quantity of plants in the containers 
shown in Figure 5 will plant more than 250 square yards (200 square meters) . 



IV. PLANTING METHOD 

The proper planting of the eelgrass unit is critical for its sur- 
vival. Inserting the plants into the sediment so that the top of the L-shaped 
anchor is covered with sediment is a stringent requirement. Plantings should 
be made on 2.6-foot (0.79 meter) centers for the low current areas (surface 
current velocity not exceeding 1.6 feet per second) and 2-foot (0.61 meter) 
centers for the high current areas. Since the eelgrass tends to propa- 
gate in the direction of the least resistance, the down-current spacing in 
the high current areas should be shortened to 1.8-foot (0.55 meter) centers, 
while the cross-current spacing should be lengthened to 2.2 foot (0.66 meter) 
centers. 

The planting units are easily inserted, even into compacted sand, 
by the creation of a lead hole (a heavy dive knife works well) . Planting 
time is actually faster when using scuba divers rather than wading workers if 
leadlines with interval markings are used as planting guides. Planting should 
always be done while facing into the current flow. 



V. PLANT MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 

Number of Units Required for a Planting . 

Number of planting units = 

planting area (square feet) x 1 (1) 

(plant spacing) ^ 




Figure 2. Plant collection. 




Figure 3. Isolating the proper number of shoots per 
planting unit. 




Figure 4. Attachment of anchor and fasteners; 
planting unit . 




Figure 5. Placing the planting units into containers for 
transport to the planting site. 



I I 



plant spacing = 2.6-foot grid in low current areas, 

2.2-foot by 1.8-foot (average spacing of 2.0-feet) 

grid in high current areas. 

Therefore, planting in low current areas will require about 6,440 
planting units per acre (15,910 planting units per hectare) while plantings 
in high current areas will require about 10,890 units per acre (26,910 units 
per hectare), to obtain completed cover in one growing season. 

2. Number of Shoots Required for a Planting . 

Number of number of shoots number of ,_ N 

x — — ; ; = , (2) 

planting units planting unit shoots harvested, 

:number of shoots per planting unit = 15 mature, vegetative shoots. 

Therefore, shoots required for 1 acre of planting in a low current 
area are about 96,600 and about 163,350 for a high current area. 



VI. LABOR REQUIREMENTS 

1. Harvesting . 

a. The harvest rate is about 18,000 shoots per man-hour. 

b. Approximately 5 man-hours are required to harvest the 96,600 
shoots necessary for a 1-acre planting in a low current area. 

c. Approximately 9 man-hours are needed to harvest the 163,350 shoots 
required for a 1-acre planting in a high current area. 

2. Preparation of Planting Units . 

a. The fabrication rate of the planting units is approximately 100 per 
man-hour. 

b. Approximately 64 man-hours are required to fabricate the 6,440 plant- 
ing units necessary for 1 acre of low current planting. 

c. Approximately 109 man-hours are required for the fabrication of the 
10,890 planting units for 1 acre of high current planting. 

3 . Planting . 

a. The planting rate is about 150 planting units per man-hour for most 
habitats. Planting can be conducted by wading in water depths up to about 
2 feet (0.6 meter). Planting in deeper areas may require scuba gear. 



b. Scuba-assisted workers can plant at least 15 percent faster than the 
wading, nonscuba assisted workers, but the wage difference has always resulted 
in nonscuba workers being the most economical when conditions permit. 

c. Approximately 43 man-hours are required to plant the 6,440 planting 
units for a 1-acre, low current planting. 

d. Approximately 73 man-hours are required for planting the 10,890 
planting units for a 1-acre, high current area. 

4. Total Operation . 

a. Labor per acre of low current area: 

Harvest 5 man-hours 

Preparation 64 man-hours 

Planting 43 man-hours 



Total 112 man-hours 

Labor per acre of high current area: 

Harvest 9 man-hours 

Preparation 109 man-hours 

Planting 73 man-hours 



Total 191 man-hours 

With the improved seagrass planting technique presented in this report, sea- 
grass meadows can be established with a labor effort of 100 to 200 man-hours 
per acre (250 to 500 man-hours per hectare) . 

VII. SUMMARY 

Labor estimates for transplanting eelgrass have been reported as 
high as 4,081 man-hours per acre (10,084 man-hours per hectare) for plugs and 
as low as 189 man-hours per acre (467 man-hours per hectare) for unanchored 
shoots (see Table). The improved planting units described in this report are 
as stable as plugs and are as labor-saving as unanchored shoots. They have 
proven to be effective in a wide range of current and wave regimes. 

The labor estimates included in this report and in most literature 
on this subject reflect only the effort required to perform specific planting 
operations. The additional costs that are associated with actual projects 
such as mobilization, planning and administration, transportation of materials, 
travel, equipment, downtime, overhead, and profit are not considered in these 
estimates. Because of this, contract costs are generally much higher than 
reported labor estimates imply. Contract costs for the improved planting 
technique presented here will range from $10,000 to $15,000 per acre 



13 



Table . Labor estimates (by source) . 







Man-hours 


Source 


Technique 


per acre 


Fonseca, et al., 1979 


Fifteen shoots in 
bio-degradable mesh. 


262 


Churchill, Cok, and Riner, 


Unanchored shoots. 


189 


1978 






Robilliard and Porter, 1976 


Plugs of whole shoots 


4,081 


(estimated from manuscript) 


with attached sediment. 





($30,000 to $45,000 per hectare) in 1982 dollars for most projects. This 
low-cost technique provides substantial savings in labor, transportation of 
materials, and purchase of equipment. 



14 



LITERATURE CITED 

CHURCHILL, C.A., COK, A.E., and RINER, M.I., "Stabilization of Subtidal 
Sediments by the Transplantation of the Seagrass Zostera marina , "Report 
No. NYSSGP-RS-78-15, New York Sea Grant, Garden City, N.Y., 1978. 



FONSECA, M.S., KENWORTHY, W.J., and THAYER, G.W., "Transplanting of the Sea- 
grasses Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii for the Stabilization of Sub- 
tidal Dredged Material," Annual Report, Beaufort Laboratory, Beaufort, N.C. 
Oct. 1981. 



FONSECA, M.S., et al . , "Transplanting of Eelgrass and Shoalgrass as a Potential 
Means of Mitigating a Recent Loss of Habitat, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual 
Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation, D.P. Cole, ed., 1979. 

KENWORTHY, W.J., "The Interrelationship Between Seagrasses, Zostera marina and 
Halodule wrightii and the Physical and Chemical Properties of Sediments in a 
Coastal Plain Estuary Near Beaufort, North Carolina," M.S. Thesis, University 
of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. , 1981. 

PHILLIPS, R.C., "Planting Guidelines for Seagrasses," CETA 80-2, U.S. Army, 
Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Va., 
Feb. 1980. 

ROBILLIARD, G.A., and PORTER, P.W., "Transplantation of Eelgrass Zostera marina 
in San Diego Bay," Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1976. 



15 









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