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PROPERTY  OF 

THE  PSYCHOLOGICAL  CUN!Q 


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Copyright  1953  by  EDUCATIONAL  TEST  BUREAU 

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To  the  mcmorij  of 

EDWARD  RANSOME  JOHNSTONE 


Wir  lernen  so  v'iel  als  wir  leben, 
und  wissen  so  viel  als  wir  wirken. 

— Unidentified. 


Acknowledgments 

There  is  a  destiny  that  makes  us  brothers. 

None  goes  his  way  alone. 
All  that  we  send  into  the  lives  of  others 

Comes  back  into  our  oicn.       — Edwin  Markliam 

^  -^  It  is  hardly  possible  to  make  due  acknowledgment  for  the 

varied  assistance  received  in  a  work  of  this  kind.  One  feek 
that  he  is  only  the  agent  through  whom  many  influences  con- 
verge to  a  new  end.  Especially  is  this  true  when  the  outcome 
epitomizes  a  lifetime  of  varied  observation,  study,  and  instruc- 
tion. 

The  initial  inspiration  for  the  present  work  may  be  said 
to  date  from  undergraduate  association  with  the  late  Prof, 
Guy  M.  Whipple,  at  Cornell,  and  the  continuing  interest  in 
human  development  which  he  generously  communicated  to  me. 
This  beginning  was  augmented  by  intimate  association  with 
Henry  H.  Goddard  in  the  days  when  the  work  of  Binet,  and 
research  with  the  feeble-minded,  were  yielding  a  new  orienta- 
tion and  a  more  profitable  approach  in  the  field  of  human 
development.  I  am  also  deeply  indebted  to  many  other  associates 
and  teachers  whose  specific  influence  it  is  now  difficult  to  trace 
but  which  colors  this  entire  volume. 

Likewise  the  whole  atmosphere  within  which  this  research 
has  been  conducted,  and  the  cooperative  sharing  of  ideas  and 
effort,  have  afforded  conditions  and  aid  highly  favorable  to  th^ 
present  result.  For  this  setting,  and  for  generous  support  and 
freedom  in  working  conditions,  grateful  credit  is  accorded  the 
late  Edward  R.  Johnstone,  former  Director  of  The  Training 
School  at  Vineland,  whose  enthusiasm  for  research  and  the  use 
of  scientific  method  contributed  so  heavily  to  the  welfare  and 
the  happiness  of  both  normal  and  handicapped  children.  His 
successor,  Walter  Jacob,  and  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  The 
Training  School,  continued  that  support  in  the  later  stages  of 
this  work. 

Previous  efforts  are  to  be  found  in  my  early  work  on  job 
analysis  and  training  in  correctional  institutions  in  collabora- 
tion with  Burdette  G.  Lewis  and  the  late  Wm.  J.  Ellis,  at  a 
time  when  Stanley  D.  Porteus  was  independently  engaged  in 
similar  work  on  industrial  and  social  rating  scales;  in  work 
with  Lloyd  N.  Yepsen  which  eventuated  in  his  social  adjust- 
ment score  card;  in  association  with  Myra  W.  Kuenzel  in  the 
construction  of  a  scale  of  industrial  virtues ;  and  in  cooperation 


viii  Acknowledgments 

with  Dr.  Henry  A.  Cotton  in  the  preparation  of  a  scale  for 
measuring  mental  deterioration  and  recovery. 

These  maiieiivers  anticipated  the  work  on  the  present  Scale. 
This  was  concretely  begim  with  the  assistance  of  S.  Geraldine 
Longwell,  now  my  wife,  while  studying  the  improvement  of 
cerebral  palsy  patients  receiving  muscle  training  in  collabora- 
tion with  Dr.  Winthrop  M,  Phelps.  The  initial  form  of  the  Scale 
and  the  first  condensed  manual  were  products  of  joint  work 
which  was  extended  from  the  birth-palsied  to  the  feeble- 
minded, then  to  the  normal,  to  variously  handicapped  groups, 
and  to  multiple  social  uses. 

This  initial  formulation  of  the  Scale  was  materially 
assisted  by  seminar  and  staff  discussions  with  the  author's 
junior  colleagues  at  the  Vineland  Laboratory.  Among  these, 
especially  helpful  aid  was  obtained  from  J.  Thomas  Mclntire, 
A.  Douglas  Glanville,  and  George  Kreezer.  At  this  period  I  also 
drew  heavily  on  the  more  recent  work  in  the  literature  of 
child  development  which  has  had  such  a  vigorous  expression 
during  the  past  thirty  years. 

I  am  especially  indebted  to  Katherine  Preston  Bradway  for 
critical  suggestions  on  method,  for  all  data  constituting  the 
initial  standardization,  for  records  on  the  first  re-examinations 
of  normal  subjects,  for  initial  statistical  treatment  of  data,  for 
exploratory  studies  with  deaf  and  with  blind  subjects  and  in  the 
field  of  inheritance,  and  especially  for  work  on  the  Thomson 
method  and  other  statistical  devices  for  item  evaluation,  scale 
calibration  and  validation.  Mrs.  Bradway  also  critically  re- 
viewed the  final  manuscript. 

Further  collection,  tabulation  and  revised  treatment  of 
data  were  accomplished  by  Kathryn  Fitch  Deacon.  She  par- 
ticipated also  in  the  successive  series  of  examinations  of  the 
normal  growth  study,  in  several  application  studies,  in  analyz- 
ing miscellaneous  data,  in  collating  the  work  of  collaborating 
students  at  other  centers,  and  in  critical  reading  of  the  present 
volume. 

Thanks  are  due  the  members  of  the  Vineland  research  staff 
who  collaborated  in  various  exploratory  applications  of  the 
Scale,  to  other  authors  and  to  libraries  for  access  to  unpublished 
studies,  to  those  institutional  superintendents  and  school  au- 
thorities who  cordially  offered  access  to  special  populations 
for  trial  investigations,  to  Marianne  H.  Wasson  for  translating 
the  study  by  Helmut  von  Bracken,  to  Noemi  Morales  for  as- 


Acknowledgments  ix 

sistance  in  translating  the  Scale  into  Spanish,  to  my  son  Eugene 
E.  Doll  for  counsel,  several  exploratory  studies,  and  helpful 
review  of  the  manuscript,  and  to  the  many  research  workers 
and  correspondents  whose  critical  interest  induced  specific 
improvements  in  formulation. 

We  are  specifically  indebted  to  the  people  of  Vineland  for 
their  cooperative  assistance  in  receiving  our  examiners  and 
cordially  assisting  us  in  gathering  of  data.  The  Mothers  Re- 
search Club  of  Vineland,  at  whose  annual  meetings  at  the  Vine- 
land  Laboratory  the  early  phases  of  this  work  were  profitably 
discussed,  gave  invaluable  early  encouragement.  Our  initial 
normative  data  were  obtained  from  the  children  of  these  par- 
ents in  the  initial  stages  of  the  investigation.  Assistance  was 
received  also  from  a  similar  group  associated  with  the  paro- 
chial schools,  through  whom  favorable  home  visiting  contacts 
were  established.  Further  aid  was  received  from  the  local  pub- 
lic school  authorities  and  teachers. 

The  initial  and  revised  preparation  of  manuscript  has  been 
the  work  of  Florence  C.  Matlack,  whose  continuing  sympathetic 
understanding,  encouragement,  and  protection  from  distractions 
have  contributed  indispensably  to  bringing  this  work  to  print. 
I  am  also  indebted  to  her  for  continuing  assistance  in  reviewing 
and  recalculating  much  of  the  data,  preparing  the  final  graphs 
and  the  index,  and  faithfully  seeing  the  work  through  over 
fifteen  arduous  years. 

To  Lillian  Note  Dilg  I  owe  cordial  thanks  for  her  unflag- 
ging editorial  support  and  unlimited  good  will  during  the  nearly 
four  years  of  publication  stages.  And  to  the  Educational  Test 
Bureau  for  sparing  no  effort  in  the  production.  Also  to  Merle 
W.  Tate  for  a  critical  reading  of  the  statistical  treatment  of 
the  basic  data. 

Appreciation  is  expressed  to  Raymond  S.  Patterson  and  the 
John  Hancock  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Company  for  permission 
to  use  the  item  illustrations  from  their  publication  "Your 
Child  Grows  up".  These  interpretative  sketches  were  prepared 
by  Hazel  Hoecker,  New  York  City. 

Thanks  are  due  the  "children"  and  staff  of  The  Training 
School  at  Vineland,  New  Jersey,  for  their  cheerful  collabora- 
tion. Only  those  at  the  immediate  scene  can  know  the  cordial 
and  effective  manner  and  extent  of  their  support.  To  all 
those  who  "belong"  and  have  given  so  generously  I  express 
regi-et  and  pride  that  the  list  is  too  long  for  personal  mention. 


X  Acknowledgments 

And  over  all  is  the  aura  of  inspiration  and  esteem  of  Agnes 
Martz  Doll  and  our  gi'owing  sons  Eugene  and  Bruce.  Her 
confidence  in  me,  and  the  home  laboratory  supplied  by  them, 
afforded  a  major  source  of  motives  and  materials. 

What  can  be  said  for  indebtedness  to  the  professional 
literature?  Truly  yesterday  today  was  tomorrow;  there  is 
nothing  new  under  the  sun;  we  pillage  the  common  heritage; 
all  men  are  brothers.  To  burden  this  text  with  the  library 
sources  on  which  much  of  it  is  based,  from  which  inspiration 
and  utility  have  been  freely  drawn,  or  toward  which  warrant 
for  authoritative  support  is  directed,  seems  as  futile  as  it  would 
inevitably  be  tiresome.  Since  the  original  copy  was  either 
conceived  or  actually  formulated  prior  to  1938  it  is  particularly 
difficult  to  document  works  which  have  appeared  since  about 
that  date,  although  some  supporting  references  are  included, 
and  specific  contributions  on  the  uses  of  the  Social  Scale  are 
cited.  The  interested  reader  will  find  adequate  recent  treatment 
and  ample  references  to  topical  backgi'ound  in  the  scholarly 
"Manual  of  Child  Psychology"  edited  by  Leonard  Carmichael. 

God  keep  me  froyn  ever  completing  anything.  This  lohole 
hook  is  but  a  draft — Nay,  but  the  draft  of  a  draft.  Oh,  Time, 
Strength,  Cash,  and  Patience!      — Herman  Melville 

Ederar  A.  Doll 

VINELAND,  NEW  JERSEY 
January,  1958 


Contents 


Acknowledgments       -----          _  vii 

Tables  and  Figures      ------  xvii 

Part  I  —  Philosophy  of  the  Method 

Chapter  1.   Introduction 

Epitome            _______  1 

Origin  of  the  Scale     ______  4 

Progress  Schedule       ______  6 

Further  Evolution       ______  7 

References       _______  g 

Chapter  2,   Postulates 

Major   Premises           ______  10 

Biological  Orientation              -            -            -            -            -  11 

Growth   Potentials       ______  12 

Environmental   Modifiability   _____  14 

Behavior    Modalities    ______  14 

Behavioral   Components           _____  15 

Focus  of  Behavior       -            -            -            -            —            -  15 

Maturation  Principle  ______  16 

Categorical    Aspects    _-__--  17 

Environmental    Circumstances             -            -            -            -  19 

References        _______  20 

Chapter  3.    The  Problem  of  Measurement 

Common  Observations              -----  23 

Stages  of  Maturation  -            -            -            -            -            -  25 

Techniques  of  Social  Appraisal          -            -            -            -  27 

Difficulties    Encountered          _____  33 

Example  of  Analytic  Method  -----  35 

References        _______  37 

Part  II  —  Construction  of  Social  Maturity  Scale 
Chapter  4.   Design  of  the  Scale 

General  Plan  __----_  39 

Requirements  __            —            -            —            —            —  42 

Range  of  Application  -            —            _            —            —            —  44 

Interview    Method       ______  45 

Calibration  Principle  ------  46 

Point  Scale  Principle  ------  48 

Year  Scale  Principle  ------  48 

Final  Scale      _______  50 

Chapter  5.  Item  Criteria 

General  Considerations  ------  55 

Item    Formulation       ______  59 

Practicability  of  Items           _____  63 

Item   Scoring  in  re   Placement           _            _            _            _  64 

Habitual   Performance             -            -            —            —            —  65 

xi 


Contents 


Chapter  6.   Item  Specification 

Orientation      _--____  67 

Item   Graphs   -------71 

Self-Help  General  Category  -----  75 

Summary  -------93 

Self-Help  Eating  Category     -----  96 

Summary  -------  110 

Self-Help  Dressing  Category  -----  112 

Summary  -------  129 

Locomotion  Category  ------  131 

Summary  -------  145 

Occupation  Category  ------  149 

Summary  -------  180 

Communication    Category        -----  185 

Summary  -------  206 

Self-Direction   Category           -----  210 

Summary  -------  228 

Socialization   Category             -----  231 

Summary  -------  255 

General   Summary       _-_-            —            -  259 

Part  III  —  Administration  of  the  Scale 
Chapter  7.  Procedures  and  Scoring 

General   Features         _-__--  266 

Rapport  with  Informants         -----  267 

Interview   Technique  -            -            —            -            —            -  270 

Categorical  Sequences               _            -            _            _            -  272 

Habitual    Performance              -----  277 

Scoring   Principles       ------  278 

Scoring    Summary       ___---  283 

Total   Scores   -------  287 

SA  Scores        -            -            -            -             -            -            -  288 

Special  Procedures       ------  291 

Self-Informing      ------  292 

Double  Scoring      ------  292 

Retrospective  Examining               -            -            -            -  293 

Multiple   Informants         -----  296 

History  and  Literature      -----  297 

Description  and  Counseling           -            -            -            -  297 

Informal   Use        ------  298 

Chapter  8.  Illustrative  Examinations 

Case  I  —  Normal  Preschool  Child       -            -            -            -  299 

Case  II  —  Superior   Adult       -----  305 

Case  III  —  Constitutionally   Inferior   Adult   -            -            -  309 

Case  IV  —  Deteriorated    Adult            -            -            _            _  323 

Case  IV  — At    Prime               -            -            -            __  330 

Case  V  — Blind   Adult             -            _            _            _            _  335 

xii 


Contents 

Part  IV  —  Standardization  and  Validation 
Chapter  9.   Normative  Standardization 

Preliminary  Experimentation  -----  347 

Normative  Scene         ______  349 

Selection  of  S's           -            -            -            -            -            -  352 

Collection  of  Data       --____  357 

Treatment  of  Data       ------  353 

Normative  Results       --_-__  354 

Item   Sex   Diflferences       -----  365 

Total  Item   Scaling           -             -            -             _             _  363 

Total    Scores         -_-___  368 

Year    Scale            ______  373 

SA  and   SQ   Scores           -             -             -             _             _  374 

LA  -  SA  Distributions       -             -             _             -             _  379 

LA  -  SQ  Distributions       -----  330 

Absolute  Scaling  ------  38O 

Reliability              -_-___  330 

Validity    -------  38I 

Types  of  Scores  ------  382 

Scattering              ______  334 

SQ  and  Social  Status       -----  386 

Statistical    Cautions          -            -            -            _            _  388 

References        -------  388 

Chapter  10.  Item  Validation  — Feeble-Minded  Subjects 

Institutional  Scene       ------  390 

Description  of   S's       -            -            -            -             -            -  395 

Sex    Diflferences            ------  490 

Item    Validation            ---_-_  491 

Differential    Items        -_-_-_  495 

Influence  of   LA           ------  497 

Types  of  Scores           --___-  493 

Scattering        --__--_  412 

Chapter  11.  Scale  Validation  —  V.  T.  S.  Subjects 

Analysis  of  Total  Scores         -            -            -            _            _  414 

Influence  of  LA  and  MA         -            -            _            -            _  416 

Quotient   Scores           ---_-_  423 

SA  -  MA   Differences  ------  427 

Summary  of  Relationships       -----  428 

Reliability  of  Measurement      -            -            -            -            _  429 

Self-Informing      --__-_  432 

Validity            _______  433 

Sources  of  Error         _---__  434 

VTS    Residual   S's       -            -            -            -            _            -  435 

Insufficient  Data  -            -            -            -            -            _  436 

Visually  Handicapped  S's  -            -            -            -            -  436 

Auditory  Handicaps           _____  437 

Aphasic   S's           -----            -  437 

Crippled  S's           ------  437 

Convulsive  Seizures          -----  437 

xiii 


Contents 


VTS  Residual  S's  (contU) 

Deteriorating  S's  -  ~  -  -  -  -  438 

Mentally   Disturbed   S's  -  -  -  -  -  438 

Diagnosis  Deferred  _  _  _  _  -  438 

Constitutionally  Inferior  -----  438 

Borderline  Dull-Normal  -----  439 

Influence  of  Secondary  Variables       _  -  -  -  440 

Length  of  Residence  _  -  _  -  _  440 

Paternal  Occupation  -----  442 

Etiology    -------  444 

Mongoloid  Type  ------  446 

References        -__--  —  -  447 


Part  V  —  Applications 

Chapter  12.   Varieties  of  Uses 

Normative  Maturation             _____  449 

Social  Studies  -------450 

Education         -             -             -             -             -             -             -  452 

The  Handicapped         ______  453 

Executive  Uses             ______  454 

Field  and  Laboratory  Studies  _             -             -             _             _  456 

Casework          -_--_-_  457 

Literature         -             -             -             -             -             -             -  458 

Chapter  13.   Exploratory  Studies 

Growth   Rates               -_--__  460 

Normative   S's      -            -            -            -            -            -  460 

Mentally  Deficient  S's       -             -             -             -             -  462 

Physically  Handicapped  S's          _            _            _            _  465 

Inheritance       ___---_  466 

Family  Strains     ------  466 

Twins         __-_---  467 

Developmental  Periods             -             -             _             _             -  471 

Preschool   S's        -             -             -             -             -             -  471 

Individual  Infants             _____  473 

Early  and   Late  Childhood           _            _            _            _  476 

Early  and  Late  Adolescence        _            _            _            _  482 

Senescence              ______  484 

Retrospective  Growth  Records      _            -            _            _  486 

Social  Variables           ______  487 

Socio  -  Economic   Status  _            -            -            -            -  487 

Marginal  Social  Status    _            -            _            -            -  488 

Dependent    Children          _____  490 

Culture  Groups      ____--  495 

Nationality  Derivation           _            _            _            _  495 

Negro  S's       -            -            -            -            -            _  497 

Pueblo  Indians           _            ^            _            -            _  502 

xiv 


Contents 


Social  Variables   (cont'd.) 

Conduct  Disorders  _  _  _  _  «  505 

Behavior  and  Intelligence      -  -  -  _  505 

Behavior  and  Organic  Involvement  -  -  -  507 

Child  Guidance  Problems      -  -  -  _  510 

Maladjusted  Youths  -  -  -  -  -  511 

Juvenile   Delinquents        _____  512 

Adult   Offenders  -  -  -  -  -  -  517 

Physically  Handicapped  S's      _____  520 

Auditory    Handicaps         _____  520 

Visual  Handicaps  _____  527 

Orthopedic  Handicaps       -  -  -  -  -     -      535 

Mentally  Handicapped  S's      -  -  -  _  _  541 

Feeble-Minded       _--___  541 

General  Evidence       _____  541 

Degree  of  Deficiency  _  _  _  _  543 

Double  Scoring  _____  544 

Training  (Idiocy)       _____  547 

Physical  Therapy  (Cerebral  Palsy)  _  _  _  550 

Social   Placement       -  -  -  -  -  551 

Special  Class  S's       -  -  -  -  -  557 

Social  Adequacy         _____  558 

Later  Maturity  _____  559 

Mentally   Disturbed  _____  560 

Convulsive    Seizures  _____  562 

Educational  Applications         _____  563 

Principles  and  Practice     _____  563 

Grade  School  ChUdren      -  -  -  -  -  564 

High  School  Students       _____  566 

Special    Education  _____  567 

Literary  Employment  ______  571 

Fiction,  Cultures,  Biography        _  _  _  _  572 

Adaptations     -  _  _  _  _  -  -  574 

Abbreviation   and  Expansion        _  _  _  _  574 

Group    Form  ______  578 

Summary  _______  579 

References        _______  579 

Chapter  14.    Clinical  Integration. 

Principles         _______  5g5 

Case  1     Superior  Twins  _____  588 

Case  2     Young  Idiot  ______  589 

Case  3     Adult  Idiot    ____--  5M 

Case  4     Adult   Imbecile  _____  5W 

Case  5     Marginal  Deficiency  _____  595 

Case  6     Borderline  Dull-Normal         _  _  _  _  598 

Case  7     Potential   Moron        _____  6^2 

Case  8     Potential  Normality  _____  606 

Case  9     Spastic  Imbecile         _____  610 

Case  16  High  Moron  ____--  612 

Case  11  Spastic  Inadeqiitate    _____  €16 


Contents 


Chapter  14  {cont'd.) 


Case  12  Borderline  Normal    -            -            -            -            -  618 

Case  13  Doubtful  Diagnosis  -----  621 

Case  14  Borderline  Moron      -----  623 

Case  15  Aphasic  Moron           _            _            _            -            _  625 

Case  16  Organic  Impairment  -----  627 

Case  17  Blind  Moron  ------  629 

Case  18  Deteriorated  Moron  -----  632 

Case  19  Psychotic  Episode      -----  635 

Summary          ___----  637 

References       -            -            -            -            _            -            -  637 

Epilogue     --------  639 

Name   Index            _--_---  643 

Subject   Index         __-----  647 


'10ik 


TABLES  and  FIGURES  Page 

Fig.  I.  Median  LA  by  point  scores  -        -        -        -  371 

Table  A.  For  converting  total  scores  to  social  -  age  values  290 

B.  Fragmentary  example,  differential  comparisons  499 

C.  MA  and  SA  boundaries,  clinical  degrees  of  MD  543 

D.  Illustrative  abbreviated  scale         -        -        -  576 

E.  Profile,  VSMS 577 

1.  Description  of  normative  subjects         -        -  355 

2.  Item   standardization,   normal   S's        -        -  366 

3.  Total  scores  by  LA,  normal  S's      -        -        -  369 

4.  Distribution  of  total  scores,  normal  S's  -         -  372 

5.  Standardization  of  SA  and  SQ  scores,  normal  S's  376 
5A.  Distribution  of  SA  by  LA,  normal  S's  -  -  378 
5B.  Distribution  of  SQ  by  LA,  normal  S's  -        -  379 

6.  "Scattering"  on  point  scores,  normal  S's      -  385 

7.  Distribution  of  SQ  by  POC,  normal  S's  -  -  386 
7A.  Distribution  of  SQ  by  own  occupational  class  -  387 

8.  Description  of  FM  S's,  item  -  analysis  sample  397 
8A.  Distribution  of  SA  by  LA,  item  -  analysis  sample  398 
8B.  Distribution  of  MA  by  LA,  item  -  analysis  sample  399 
8C.  Distribution  of  SA  by  MA,  item  -  analysis  sample  400 

9.  Mean  item  total  norms,  item  -  analysis  sample  402 
9A.  Items  showing  significant  CR's,  N  vs  FM  S's  -  406 

10.  Types  of  item  scores,  N  vs  FM  S's      -        -  409 

11.  "Scattering"  on  point  scores,  FM  S's      -        -  413 

12.  Distribution  of  LA  and  MA,  VTS  S's    -        -  417 

13.  Distribution  of  LA  and  SA,  VTS  S's      -        -  419 

14.  Distribution  of  MA  and  SA,  VTS  S's      -        -  421 

15.  Distribution  of  MA  and  SA,  LA's  combined  -  422 

16.  Distribution  of  LA  and  IQ,  VTS  S's      -        -  428 

17.  Distribution  of  LA  and  SQ,  VTS  S's      -        -  425 

18.  Distribution  of  IQ  and  SQ,  VTS  S's      -        -  426 

19.  Summary  data,  etiological  -  cultural  origins  -  445 

20.  Sample  data  on  continuing  maturation  -        -  486 

I.  (Doll)  Analysis  of  SA  increments,  FM  S's    -  464 

I.  (Ceres)  Mean  scores,  VSMS,  gi'oups  I  -  II      -  478 

xvii 


PART     I 

PHILOSOPHY    OF    THE    METHOD 

Chapter  1.    Introduction 

Chapter  2.    Postulates 

Chapter  3.    The  Problem  of  Measurement 


Introduction 


Two  little  seeds  awoke  one  day. 

As  seeds  will  do  in  the  month  of  May, 

But  lo,  and  behold,  they  had  clean  forgot 

If  they  were  carrots  or  beets  or  what! 

At  length  they  decided  that  they  must  needs 

Call  a  council  of^  sixteen  seeds, 

Some  said  onions  or  beets;  but  no. 

Others  said  it  couldn't  be  so; 

Some  said  turnips  or  celery  seeds; 

Some  said  lettuce;   and  some  said  weeds; 

Then  a  sunflower  spoke;   "It  may  be  slow 

But  the  way  to  find  out  is  just  to  grow!"      — County  Y's 


Epitome.  This  volume  presents  the  Vineland  Social 
Maturity  Scale  for  the  measurement  of  social  competence.  It 
elaborates  previous  preliminary  publications  and  includes  the 
background  of  the  method,  detailed  manual,  basic  data, 
preliminary  standardization  and  validation,  illustrative  group 
and  clinical  application. 

This  scale  is  not  just  one  more  "testing"  instrument  in  the 
field  of  human  measurement.  On  the  contrary,  as  a  standard- 
ized method  for  the  quantitative  estimation  of  personal  social 
maturation  it  presents  a  unique  device  for  the  overall  evalu- 
ation of  human  behavior.  Social  competence  is  a  universal 
human  attribute.  The  measurement  of  its  maturational  degrees 
within  known  limits  of  error  affords  a  new  means  for  investi- 
gating its  constituent  variables  and  its  significant  relations  to 
many  human  problems. 

Attention  has  often  been  directed  to  the  study  of  the  or- 
ganism as  a  whole,  with  corresponding  deprecation  of  the 
dissectional  analysis  of  human  growth  and  behavior.  Investi- 
gations concerned  with  single  aspects  of  behavior  such  as 
physical  growth,  physiological  functioning,  intellectual  en- 
dowment, behavioral  adjustment,  learning,  and  the  like,  almost 
inevitably  fall  short  of  holistic  integration.  Many  thoughtful 
students  appreciate  the  importance  of  treating  maturation  and 
adjustment  in  bio-psycho-social  terms.  But  how  shall  we  en- 
compass the  complete  individual  in  his  dynamic  complexity? 
Decomposition  is  essential  for  an  understanding  of  a  compound, 


2  Introduction 

and  reassemblage  of  elements  is  equally  necessary  to  the  in- 
tegrity of  the  aggregate.  The  H2O  is  not  the  water;  the  frac- 
tional distillates  of  human  behavior  may  not  reveal  the  unique 
self ;  the  group  is  more  than  the  catalogue  of  its  members. 

We  explore  here  two  fundamental  considerations;  (a)  the 
ontogenetic  evaluation  of  the  individual  as  an  independent  so- 
cial unit  with  emphasis  on  his  subjective  self-sustaining  social 
adequacies,  and  (h)  the  individual  as  a  cooperating  and  contri- 
buting member  of  the  social  group.  The  former  scrutinizes 
certam  developmental  "operations"  of  the  individual  in  their 
predominantly  personal  relevance  as  an  important  precon- 
dition of  social  self-sufficiency.  The  latter  probes  the  extension 
of  such  personal  activities  into  spheres  of  congregate  welfare 
or  their  impingement  upon  other  persons. 

This  relation  of  one  person  to  another  integrates  individ- 
ual with  social  psychology.  Personal  and  subjective  experiences 
acquire  social  significance  when  shared  with  other  persons.  The 
ultimate  import  of  self-psychology  derives  from  its  social  rele- 
vance. We  are  concerned  here,  then,  with  human  behavior  as 
ultim.ately  capitalized  in  some  relevant  expression  of  social 
competence.  This  competence,  we  submit,  ir.ay  be  conceived  in 
terms  of  personal  independence  and  social  responsibility. 
Thus  the  social  adequacy  of  the  individual  as  a  whole,  with  due 
regard  for  age  and  culture,  is  conceived  as  the  social  end- 
result  of  the  physical,  physiological,  intellectual,  habitual, 
emotional,  volitional,  educational,  occupational  aspects  of  per- 
sonal growth,  adjustment,  and  attainment  which  ensue  from 
his  constitutional  predispositions  and  environmental  impacts. 

This  social  competence  is  not  something  static.  It  entails 
both  phylogenetic  and  ontogenetic  evolution  and  it  varies  with 
physical  and  cultural  conditions  according  to  time,  place,  and 
circumstance.  Social  competence  may  therefore  be  expressed  in 
terms  of  age,  status,  opportunity,  talent,  health,  degree  of  free- 
dom., and  so  on. 

In  short,  social  competence  may  be  defined  as  a  functional 
composite  of  human  traits  which  subserves  social  usefulness  as 
reflected  in  self-sufficiency  and  in  service  to  others.  This  con- 
cept postulates  at  all  points  a  relation  between  constitutional 
aptitude  and  environmental  activity  and  assumes  that  deviation 
or  variation  from  the  normal  in  these  respects,  whether  arising 
from  physical,  mental,  or  social  causes,  is  ultimately  mirrored  in 
some  measurable  increase,  decrease,  or  other  modification  of 
social  competence. 


Epitome  3 

Consider  for  a  moment  some  of  the  advantages  of  such 
a  scale  in  its  larger  aspects.  Our  experimental  evidence  shows 
that  it  provides  a  fairly  reliable  and  valid  measure  of  genetic 
maturation  and  senescent  decline  in  social  competence.  It  ex- 
presses individual  differences  in  such  competence  within  defi- 
nite limits  of  statistical  deviation  or  co-variation.  It  reflects 
the  influence  of  known  variables.  It  therefore  may  be  used  as 
an  indirect  measure  of  its  components;  for  example,  such  a 
constituent  variable  as  mental  age  can  be  estimated  from  the 
measure  of  social  age. 

Of  critical  importance  is  the  fact  that  this  scale  does  not 
require  the  presence  of  the  subject  for  examination;  on  the 
contrary,  the  standard  method  provides  an  examination  of  the 
subject  in  absentia,  and  therefore,  if  desirable,  without  his  col- 
laboration; e.g.,  if  deceased  or  otherwise  inaccessible  to  direct 
examination.  This  makes  possible  the  plotting  of  retrospective 
growth  curves  and  thereby  reduces  the  limits  of  error  in  the 
prediction  of  further  growth  (by  supplying  more  points  for  a 
given  curve).  By  the  sam.e  reasoning  the  Scale  affords  an  im- 
mediate method  of  longitudinal  as  well  as  cross-sectional  study. 

Moreover,  it  yields  not  only  a  measure  of  total  competence 
within  the  limits  of  definition,  but  also  a  somewhat  detailed 
description  or  analysis  of  that  competence.  It  provides  a  basic 
criterion  for  the  study  of  environmental  influences  and  com- 
parative culture  groups.  It  affords  an  objective  quantitative 
method  for  family  history  study.  Used  as  a  developmental 
schedule  for  anamnesis  it  reflects  precocity,  retardation,  alter- 
ations, or  decline  in  growth.  It  serves  to  reveal  the  social 
consequences  of  such  handicaps  as  deafness,  blindness,  insanity, 
delinquency,  and  other  mental,  physical,  and  social  abnormali- 
ties. Translated  in  terms  of  the  customs  and  attainments  of 
"primitive"  or  ethnic  groups  it  affords  a  useful  scientific  device 
in  the  field  of  cultural  anthropology. 

The  present  volume  samples  some  of  these  possibilities. 
A  few  applications  of  the  Scale  have  been  investigated  with 
some  thoroughness ;  other  explorations  have  been  made  as  pro- 
totypic  studies  to  demonstrate  the  practicability  of  the  method. 
In  spite  of  the  serious  preliminary  work  already  accomplished, 
the  present  form  of  the  Scale  should  be  viewed  as  only  the  first 
step  in  the  development  of  a  method  that  merits  extensive 
experimental  evaluation.  In  view  of  the  wide  range  of  useful- 
ness which  such  an  instrument  affords  it  is  evident  that  par- 
ticular areas  of  the  Scale  should  be  elaborated,  more  extensive 
normative  standardization  undertaken,  and  wider  differential 
validation  essayed  in  various  fields  of  application. 


4  Introduction 

The  standardized  interview  procedure  on  which  this  scale 
is  based  is  itself  a  relatively  new  departure  in  the  field  of  hu- 
man measurement.  While  the  Scale  is  constructed  on  the  same 
principles  as  the  Binet-Simon  scale  for  intelligence,  the  manner 
of  its  employment  is  radically  different.  In  spite  of  precon- 
ceived objections  to  the  method  of  interview  as  applied  to 
precise  measurement,  the  evidence  herein  indicates  the 
practicability  of  the  definitive  interview  technique. 

Origin  of  the  Scale.  In  the  course  of  various  investigations 
on  these  propositions  we  ultimately  designed  the  present  pro- 
cedure. About  1925,  The  Vineland  Laboratory  was  engaged  in 
studies  of  job  analysis  of  training  procedures  (Buhl,  1928; 
Doll,  1924,  1929a;  Kuenzel,  1928)*  as  an  expansion  of  the  tech- 
niques of  industrial  occupational  analysis  previously  employed 
in  the  correctional  institutions  of  New  Jersey  (Doll,  1920,  1921, 
1926;  Doll  and  Kuenzel,  1930).  Occupational,  classroom, 
and  cottage  training  situations  were  reduced  from  their  overall 
extent  to  relatively  specific  unit  operations.  This  work  led  to 
the  designing  of  experimental  score-cards  for  the  measurement 
of  learning  in  occupational  situations  (Kuenzel,  1929),  ad- 
justment in  social  group  relations  (Yepsen,  1928),  and  im- 
provement or  recovery  (Doll,  1929b)  among  hospital  patients 
(see  Chapter  3). 

These  efforts  soon  proved  helpful  in  another  direction.  In 
1928,  systematic  muscle  training  was  begun  at  The  Training 
School  for  a  group  of  mentally  deficient  and  mentally  normal 
patients  with  motor  handicaps  produced  by  intracranial  birth 
lesions  (Doll,  1933a).  In  undertaking  to  measure  the  improve- 
ment of  these  patients  under  treatment  we  endeavored  first  to 
observe  the  nature  of  the  anticipated  progress  and  then  to 
gauge  its  amounts  (Melcher,  1930).  Amelioration  was  ex- 
pected in  body  mechanics  through  increased  facility  of  move- 
ment at  the  various  joints,  enhancement  of  muscle  tone,  and 
smoother  timing  of  antagonists.  This  was  essentially  a  neuro- 
muscular problem  which  was  primarily  the  mutual  responsi- 
bility of  the  physical  therapist  and  the  examining  orthopedist. 
Various  attempts  to  measure  such  benefits  proved  clinically 
unsatisfactory.  We  finally  concentrated  on  a  different  problem, 
namely,  the  gains  in  total  performance  of  the  individual  from 
the  point  of  view  of  social  usefulness,  or  the  practical  capital- 
ization of  rectified  body  mechanics  as  expressed  through  in- 
creased personal  adequacy  (Longwell,  1935). 

*  References  in  parentheses  apply  to  authors  and  related  years  of  publica- 
tion in  the  list  of  references  at  the  ends  of  the  same  chapters  in  which 
they  occur. 


Origin  of  the  Scale  5 

The  problem  was  complicated  by  the  wide  variation  in  the 
characteristics  of  the  patients  (Doll,  1933b).  They  represented 
both  sexes,  life  ages  from  two  to  fifty  years,  mental  ages  from 
two  to  thirteen  years,  and  mental  conditions  from  low-grade 
imbecility  to  mental  superiority.  The  motor  handicaps  ranged 
from  almost  complete  helplessness  to  relatively  minor  inco- 
ordination. 

Obviously,  such  a  study  required  anticipation  of  improve- 
ment through  growth  and  development  as  well  as  from  treat- 
ment, and  the  possibility  that  these  might  be  interdependent. 
This  led,  naturally,  to  a  consideration  of  maturation  versus 
amelioration.  The  problem  seemed  simple  enough  until  we 
attempted  to  use  our  knowledge  of  genetic  psychology  in  so 
practical  a  manner. 

A  staff  seminar  was  organized  to  canvass  the  field.  The 
literature  of  child  study  was  found  rich  in  general  orientation 
but  barren  of  details  that  could  be  employed  for  the  systematic 
appraisal  of  individual  social  development.  In  this  respect  the 
situation  was  much  the  same  as  that  which  confronted  Binet 
and  Simon  when  they  first  proposed  their  scale  for  measuring 
intelligence  (Binet  and  Simon,  1016).  To  employ  an  engineer- 
ing simile,  preliminary  survey  lines  had  been  run  but  there 
were  no  accurate  devices  for  chaining,  and  no  satisfactory 
instruments  for  determining  levels. 

In  the  field  of  psychometry  a  wealth  of  material  was  avail- 
able. But  our  problem  was  not  one  of  adapting  mental  tests  as 
indirect  measures  of  social  aptitude.  Our  task  was  to  measure 
attainment  in  social  competence  considered  as  habitual  per- 
formance rather  than  as  latent  ability  or  capacity.  Mental 
traits  could  not  be  ignored  as  components,  but  their  direct 
measurement  was  to  be  avoided  except  as  contributing  factors 
and  for  controlling  interpretation. 

The  wide  range  of  our  subjects  in  developmental  status  and 
motor  handicaps  required  that  we  encompass  the  entire  period 
of  normal  maturation  and  that  we  consider  all  factors  contri- 
buting to  social  maturation,  such  as  intelligence,  motor  facility, 
training,  experience,  motivation,  conduct,  environmental  cir- 
cumstances. Our  goal  was  to  appraise  the  social  effects  of  these 
participating  variables  while  avoiding  their  isolated  measure- 
ment, to  evaluate  their  integrated  capitalization  rather  than 
their  ispecific  roles. 

At  this  point  we  adopted  the  method  of  Binet  and  Simon 
by  postulating  a  developmental  central  factor  (corresponding 
to  their  "judgment,"  or  Spearman's  g)  operating  in  combination 


6  Introduction 

with  various  specific  or  group  factors.  This  central  factor  we 
loosely  conceived  as  progressive  self-direction  culminating  in 
the  direction  and  protection  of  others. 

Unlike  Binet  and  Simon,  we  sought  to  measure  accustomed 
performance  in  mastered  attainment  rather  than  innate  capac- 
ity for  solving  novel  problems.  Like  them,  however,  we  were 
obliged  to  follow  the  principle  of  sampling  representative  per- 
formances from  which  general  performance  might  be  inferred. 

The  conclusions  from  these  considerations  were  not  imme- 
diately self-evident.  On  the  contrary,  our  initial  attack  served 
only  to  emphasize  the  difficulties  without  more  than  faintly 
suggesting  their  resolution.  We  were  obliged  for  a  time  to  con- 
tent ourselves  with  the  less  ambitious  task  of  appraising  the 
immediate  consequences  of  muscle  training  in  specific  direc- 
tions. 

Progress  schedule.  Capitalizing  our  earlier  experiences  we 
then  formulated  a  tentative  systematic  performance  schedule 
arranged  as  a  descriptive  progress  chart.  The  categories  of 
this  schedule  included  items  on  the  motor  aspects  of  locomotion, 
dressing,  bathing,  eating,  speech,  writing,  and  eliminative  con- 
trol. For  each  of  these  categories  a  number  of  detailed  per- 
formances were  arranged  in  presumptive  order  of  progressive 
difficulty.  With  the  exception  of  the  items  on  speech  and  writ- 
ing, most  of  the  categories  were  fairly  complete  from  the  easi- 
est to  the  most  difficult  tasks  for  the  developmental  period 
corresponding  to  infancy  and  early  childhood.  This  made  it 
possible  to  score  each  patient  in  terms  of  the  entire  schedule 
and  thus  determine  his  overall  progressive  status  regardless  of 
the  variables  of  sex,  age,  mental  age,  diagnostic  classification, 
and  motor  handicap. 

This  uniform  chart  enabled  us  to  rescore  each  patient  at 
successive  time-intervals  and  note  such  changes  as  might  have 
taken  place.  For  this  purpose  the  child  was  observed,  the  physi- 
cal therapist  interviewed,  and  the  patients'  cottage  attendants 
carefully  questioned  as  to  the  extent  to  which  each  item  was 
usefully  performed,  and  as  to  the  habitual  or  emergent  nature 
of  such  performances.  On  some  items  the  child  was  actually 
"tested,"  but  the  progressive  or  habitual  extent  to  which  the 
performance  was  revealed  in  daily  behavior  was  deemed  more 
significant. 

This  study  was  carried  out  over  a  period  of  three  years  with 
birth-palsied  subjects  receiving  muscle  training  (Longwell, 
.19S5).  As  the  work  progressed  it  became  evident  that  we 
were   employing   a   device    with    significant    possibilities    for 


Further  Evolution  7 

estimating  the  social  improvement  or  genetic  social  maturation 
of  the  feeble-minded  in  general.  Accordingly  we  set  ourselves 
the  task  of  extending  this  schedule  so  as  to  encompass  a  wider 
variety  and  range  of  activities.  This  task  was  undertaken 
early  in  1934  and  the  first  draft  of  the  final  scale  was  completed 
in  July  of  that  year. 

Further  evolution.  Tentative  examinations  were  made 
of  a  number  of  trial  subjects  with  this  rough  draft.  These 
were  normal  and  feeble-minded,  juvenile  and  adult,  low-grade 
and  high-grade,  male  and  female.  The  Scale  was  still  only  a 
series  of  items  arranged  in  presumptive  order  of  difficulty. 
These  first  results  led  to  rearrangements,  rejections  and  addi- 
tions and  also  provided  preliminary  year-scale  groupings.  The 
modified  draft  was  submitted  to  the  executive  staff  (depart- 
ment heads)  and  to  the  full  research  staff  of  The  Training 
School  for  critical  evaluation.  Helpful  suggestions  and  general 
approval  encouraged  further  work. 

By  this  time  the  need  for  precise  definition  of  items  was 
apparent  as  well  as  for  a  systematic  method  of  administration 
and  scoring.  After  numerous  formulations,  which  incidentally 
led  to  further  modification  of  items,  a  fairly  stable  preliminary 
manual  of  procedure  was  worked  out. 

From  the  data  obtained  on  a  relatively  small  number  of 
subjects,  experimental  Form  A  was  evolved.  This  was  presented 
for  discussion  at  the  annual  meeting  (1935)  of  the  American 
Orthopsychiatric  Association  and  published  in  its  Journal 
(Doll,  1935a).  Favorable  reception  led  to  releasing  the  Scale 
to  a  few  colleagues  for  collaborative  experimentation. 

To  facilitate  such  collaboration  a  preliminary  brief  manual 
was  published  (Doll,  1935c).  Further  data  on  normative 
standardization  and  feeble-minded  validation  were  soon  pre- 
sented at  the  annual  meeting  (1935)  of  the  American  Asso- 
ciation on  Mental  Deficiency  and  published  in  the  Proceedings 
of  that  Association  (Doll,  1935b). 

As  experience  with  the  method  gave  assurance  of  its  mer- 
its, a  systematic  program  of  standardization  and  validation  was 
carried  out  (Doll,  1936a).  The  many  studies  ensuing  from 
that  program  both  at  Vineland  and  elsewhere  over  the  subse- 
quent years  delayed  the  preparation  of  the  elaborated  manual 
and  formal  report  of  substantiating  data  now  presented  here- 
with. 

These  investigations,  fortified  by  extensive  correspondence 
with  collaborating  workers,  generally  confirmed  the  practicabil- 


8  Introduction 

ity  of  the  method  and  yielded  further  refinements.  Form  B 
and  a  revised  condensed  manual  were  published  (Doll,  1936b). 
and  the  method  was  released  for  general  experimental  use. 
We  further  tested  the  efficacy  of  the  method  and  sought  addi- 
tional clarification  of  various  diflficulties.  This  was  accomplished 
(1)  by  applying  Form  B  with  various  tjrpes  of  handicapped 
subjects  such  as  deaf,  blind,  delinquent,  and  insane;  (2)  by 
investigating  such  influences  as  inheritance  and  culture  in 
family  strains,  with  twins  and  siblings,  with  Negroes  and 
Pueblo  Indians;  (3)  by  demonstrating  its  clinical  usefulness 
in  social,  educational  and  psychological  casework;  (4)  by  ex- 
ploring its  administrative  ramifications  and  its  feasibility  for 
appraising  fictional  characters  and  biographies.  In  particular 
we  began  longitudinal  growth  studies  of  both  normal  and 
feeble-minded  subjects.  The  results  of  these  and  other  ex- 
perimental evaluation  of  the  method  and  its  versatile  potential- 
ities are  summarized  in  subsequent  chapters,  especially  Parts 
IV  and  V. 


REFERENCES 

BiKET,  Alfred,  and  Th.  Simon.  1916.  The  development  of  intalligenee  m 
children.  (Trans,  by  Elizabeth  S.  Kite).  Baltimore:  Williams  and 
Wilkins. 

Buhl,  George  H.  1928.  The  education  of  low-grade  feeble-minded  througb 
job  analysis.    Training  School  Bulletin,  26,  1-10. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  1920.  The  correlation  of  mental  types  with  occupational 
assignment.  Proceedings  of  the  American  Prison  Atsociation,  1920,  pp^ 
306-313. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  1921.  Report  of  the  Psychologist.  In  New  Jersey  Stats 
Prison  Biennial  Report  for  Fiscal  Years  1920  and  1921,  pp.  92-122. 
Trenton:  N.  J.  State  Prison. 

Doll,    Edgar    A.    1924.     Capabilities    of    low-grade    feeble-minded.     Training 

School  Bulletin,  21,  65-77. 
Doll,  Edgar  A.    1926.    Psychology  in   the  organization   of  prison  industries,. 

Bulletin  of  the  Taylor  Society,  11,  219-223. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  1929a.  Job  analysis  as  a  basis  for  teaching.  Bulletin  of  th* 
Taylor  Society,  14,  134-141. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  1929b.  A  score-card  for  measuring  the  improvement  of  mental 
patients.    Unpublished  research  form.  The  Vineland  Laboratory. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  1933a.  Birth  lesion  as  a  category  of  mental  deficieacy. 
American  Journal  of  Orthopsychiatry,  3,  1-13. 


References  9 

Don,  Edgah  a.    1933b.    Psychological   significance   of  cerebral  birth  lesions. 

American  Journal  of  Psychology,  46,  444-462. 
Doix,  Edgar  A.  1935a.   A  genetic  scale  of  social  maturity.    American  Joumai 

of  Orthopsychiatry,  6,  180-188. 
Doll,  Edgab  A.  1935b.   The  measurement  of  social  competence.   Proceedings 

of  the  American  Association  on  Mental  Deficiency,  40,  103-123. 
Doll,  Edgab  A.  1935c.  The  Vineland  Social  Maturity  Scale.   Training  Bchool 

Bulletin,  32,  1-7,  25-32,  48-55,  68-74. 
Doll,  Edgab  A.   1936a.    Preliminary  standardization  of  the  Vineland   Social 

Maturity  Scale.    American  Journal  of  Orthopsychiatry,    6,  283-293. 
Doll,  Edgae   A.    1936b.    The   Vinelnnd   Social  Maturity    Scal£i   revised  con- 
densed manual  of  directions.    Vineland:  The  Training  School. 
Doll,  Edgab  A.,  and  Myka  W.  Kuenzel.   1930.    Job  analysis  for  placement 

and  training.    Unpublished  monograph.  The  Vineland  Laboratory. 
KtTENZEL,  Mtha  W.  1928.  Job  analysis  for  training  assignment  in  dining  room, 

housework,  pantry  and  poultry  occupations.    Unpublished  research  report, 

The  Vineland  Laboratory. 
KuENZEL,  Mtha  W.    1929.    A  score-card   of  industrial  virtues.    Unpublished 

research  form,  The  Vineland  Laboratory. 
LoNGWELL,  S.  Geraldine.  1936.    Influence  of  muscle  training  on  birth-injured 

mentally  deficient  children.    Journal  of  Genetic  Psychology,  46,  349-370. 
Melcher,   Ruth   T.    1930.    Research   in   progress   on  birth   injury.    Training 

School  Bulletin,  27,  41-49. 
Yepsen,   Llotd  N.    1928,    Objective   estimation   of   social   behavior.    TrainUig 

School  BuUetin,  26,  33-41. 


Postulates 


Maturity  is  not  dated  on  any 

calendar,  nor  is  it  achieved  at  a  given  day 

like  a  twenty-first  birthday  and  the  right  to 

vote.   The  maturity  of  adulthood  is  the  outcome 

of  lifelong  growth.   A  child  begins  to  grow  up 

the  minute  he  is  born.   He  may  be  "grown  up" 

at  any  level,  provided  he  is  making  use  of  the 

potentialities  and  adjusting  to  the  needs  inherent 

in  that  stage  of  his  development.   In  this  sense 

"growing  up"  is  a  process  which  is  continuously 

going  on — in  infancy,  in  childhood,  in  adolescence 

and  on  throughout  life.  —  Child  Study 

Major  premises.  This  book  explores  the  following  assump- 
tions : 

1.  Social  competence  maj'-  be  defined  as  the  functional 
ability  of  the  human  organism  for  exercising  personal  inde- 
pendence and  social  responsibility. 

2.  This  competence  may  be  measured  progressively  in 
terms  of  maturation  by  sampling  its  genetic  stages  by  means 
of  representative  performances  at  successive  life  ages. 

3.  Such  maturation  may  be  taken  as  a  practicable  measure 
of  the  changing  organism  as  a  whole,  as  an  epitome  of  the 
useful  capitalization  of  all  minutiae  of  detailed  structures, 
functions  and  experiences  of  the  integrated  personality. 

4.  Individual  status  in  social  competence  may  be  expressed 
in  terms  of  numerical  and  descriptive  deviation  from  established 
maturational  norms  and  evaluated  in  terms  of  related  variables. 

5.  The  Scale  proposed  herein  affords  a  unique  procedure 
for  the  measurement  of  individual  social  competence  in  its 
group  and  clinical  ramifications. 

6.  Such  measurement  provides  a  valid  means  for  the 
scientific  pursuit  of  many  relevant  social  studies. 

The  treatment  of  these  propositions  will  involve  some 
repetition.  Re-statement  of  standpoint  will  clarify  diverse 
emphases.  The  argument  may  first  be  expounded  in  terms 
of  some  of  the  postulates  which  underlie  the  construction  of 
the  Scale. 


Biological  Orientation  11 

Biological  orientation.  Capacity  for  survival  is  a  universal 
attribute  of  all  things.  That  this  capacity  may  be  greater  or 
less,  and  variously  displayed,  from  matter  to  man.  Smith  to 
Jones,  or  cave  to  penthouse  adds  to  its  fascination  by  the  very 
diversity  of  its  expression  (Allee,  1938;  Bradley,  1938;  Jen- 
nings, 1930).  From  gas  to  cell,  cell  to  organism,  organism  to 
society,  without  survival  there  would  be  void. 

Added  to  the  capacity  for  survival  are  the  attributes  of 
variation  and  modifiability.  Matter  emerges  in  structure, 
structure  induces  function,  function  leads  to  integration,  and 
individual  behavior  merges  into  group  action,  in  the  great  cycle 
of  creative  synthesis  we  call  emergent  evolution  (Newman, 
1926).  Such  evolution  is  ontogenetic  and  phylogenetic,  personal 
and  social,  idiosyncratic  and  cultural,  normal  or  deviate,  and  to 
an  appreciable  extent  reciprocally  interacting  (Briffault,  1927; 
Cowdry,  1930;  Dorse.v,  1925;  Pressey,  1939;  Yerkes,  1929). 

In  this  complex  of  Nature  each  element,  compound,  or 
substance  has  properties  which  uniquely  reflect  its  holistic  role 
in  some  global  setting.  And  each  of  these  modifies  the  organ- 
ismic  effectiveness,  total  adequacy,  or  useful  value  of  part 
structures  as  exercised  in  relation  to  other  parts  and  the  inte- 
grated whole.  If  we  may  consider  this  exercise  as  function, 
then  the  adequacy  of  matter  may  be  described  in  terms  of  its 
effects  on  other  matter  in  specific  or  general  relationships. 

The  human  organism  is  a  complex  example  of  these  gen- 
eralizations (Cannon,  1932;  Carrel,  1935;  Crile,  1916).  Its 
capacity  for  survival  derives  from  multiple  aptitudes  which  in 
their  togetherness  are  expressed  as  self-sufficiency  or  personal 
independence,  of  greater  or  less  degree  and  of  varied  expres- 
sion. It  also  has  relations  to  other  organisms,  principally  human 
for  our  purposes,  which  we  may  term  social  exchange.  It 
has  personal  functions  which  reflect  its  total  structure  and  the 
sum  of  its  experiences.  And  it  exercises  these  functions  in  rela- 
tion to  other  individuals  of  its  social  scene. 

We  may  further  observe  that  the  capacity  for  structural 
survival  and  functional  adequacy  in  the  organic  world  is  rough- 
ly correlated  with  age  and  species.  As  the  organism  grows 
structurally  it  matures  functionally  in  a  cycle  of  development 
and  deterioration,  of  evolution  and  involution.  The  tempo  and 
pattern  of  this  maturation  determine  the  progressive  adequacy 
of  the  organism  for  both  personal  and  group  action. 

The  human  infant  is  dependent  on  his  elders  for  survival, 
but  with  advancing  years  gradually  attains  relatively  com- 
plete  self-sufficiency    (Goodenough,    1945).    This   increase   in 


12  Postulates 

personal  independence  is  accomplished  by  correlative  matura- 
tion in  responsibility  toward  others.  For  example,  among  the 
mentally  subnormal  the  adult  idiot  fails  to  mature  beyond  the 
level  of  adequacy  of  the  normal  infant  in  personal  independence, 
while  the  grown  moron  never  achieves  effective  adult  re- 
sponsibility for  others.  At  the  stage  of  senescent  involution 
the  previously  normal  adult  may  regress  to  a  "second  childhood" 
(Cowdry,  1942). 

Growth  potentials.  All  organisms  begin  life  with  a  genetic 
potential  for  growth.  In  its  simplest  forms  this  growth  is 
mere  expansion  in  size  or  volume  without  appreciable  elabora- 
tion of  parts.  In  multicellular  organisms  such  growth  is 
accompanied  by  development,  with  differentiation  of  parts  in 
complexity  and  function.  This  physical  diversification  is 
paralleled  in  greater  or  less  degree  by  modification  of  behavior 
which  increases  in  variety  and  scope  as  the  organism  matures 
(Carmichael,  1946;  Coghill,  1929;  Graubard,  1936). 

Rates  of  gro\\i:h  and  development  show  individual  differ- 
ences within  a  given  species,  although  the  patterns  of  differen- 
tiation are  relatively  constant  (Gesell.  1934,  1938,  1939,  1940; 
McGraw,  1935;  Shirley,  1931,  1935).  The  evolution  of  behavior 
varies  from  phylum  to  phylum,  but  is  more  or  less  constant  in 
a  given  genus  or  family.  As  the  organism  reaches  later  stages 
of  maturity,  and  correspondingly  advanced  degrees  of  com- 
plexity, the  order  and  type  of  behavioral  development  tend  to 
depart  from  that  which  is  constant  for  the  species  as  deter- 
mined by  genetic  potential,  and  become  more  or  less  individual- 
ized in  relation  to  environmental  circumstances  and  adaptation 
to  milieu  (Ellis,  1928;  Gilliland,  1933). 

Let  us  apply  these  general  principles  to  the  development  of 
behavior  in  the  human  species.  The  child  is  born  apparently 
helpless.  Yet  not  entirely  so,  for  certain  vital  functions  are 
present  not  only  at  birth  but  before  birth,  and  the  same  is  true 
of  some  relatively  unorganized  movements.  At  birth  certain 
forms  of  reflex  behavior  are  obvious,  such  as  nursing,  grasp- 
ing, and  the  more  or  less  total,  vague,  or  random  motor 
responses  to  sensory  stimuli.  Inventories  of  prenatal  and 
neonatal  behavior  are  becoming  increasingly  definite  in  the 
enumeration  of  specific  and  general  movement  complexes 
((Carmichael,  1946). 

If  from  this  extremity,  we  leap  to  an  examination  of  the 
behavior  of  superior  adults  in  their  prime,  we  observe  such 
variety,   complexity,   and  individuality  in  behavior  that  one 

finds  it  practically  impossible  to  catalogue  their  forms  and 


Growth  Potentials  13 

extent  (Grabbe,  1939 ;  Korzybski,  1933 ;  Thorndike,  1940 ;  Wer- 
ner, 1948;  Young,  1943).  The  mechanics  of  such  behavior 
and  the  underlying  principles  are  becoming  increasingly  un- 
derstood, but  need  not  concern  us  here.  For  our  purposes,  such 
behavior  may  be  viewed  in  functional  terms  as  the  maturation- 
al  adaptation  of  the  individual  in  and  to  his  environment.  The 
adaptive  behavioral  forms  are  specifically  modified  by  time^ 
place  and  circumstance,  but  their  nature  and  extent  are  bio- 
logically and  morphologically  predetermined  by  genetic 
potential. 

The  relative  influence  of  nature  and  nurture  has  long  been 
debated.  This  question  is  enjoying  a  current  revival  of  interest, 
especially  among  psychologists.  The  surge  of  conviction  is 
seldom  one  of  heredity  or  environment  but  the  relative  influence 
of  each  in  the  total  development  and  attainment  of  the  organ- 
ism (Howells,  1945;  Werner,  1948). 

That  environmental  conditions  can  materially  alter  the 
expression  of  hereditary  potential  is  now  clear  enough  (Plant, 
1937;  Stockard,  1931).  But  such  alteration  tends  to  require 
conditions  which  are  so  specifically  abnormal  to  the  species 
under  consideration  as  to  produce  pathological  modification. 
Or  the  conditions  are  so  unusual  as  to  lose  significant  relevance 
by  their  very  rarity,  and  the  amounts  of  alteration  due  to  mini- 
mum or  optimum  conditions  surrounding  ordinary  maturation 
are  relatively  small  as  compared  with  the  hereditary  potential. 
Even  the  environmental  modification  of  hereditary  potential 
through  selective  mating  operates  within  relatively  narrow 
limits  as  compared  with  the  destiny  of  species. 

Attention  to  these  (relative)  minutiae  of  environmental 
modifications  for  most  organisms  and  under  typical  conditions 
tends  to  obscure  the  basic  biological  perspective  (Needham, 
1941).  Thus  dogs  do  not  beget  kittens  even  if  their  progeny  are 
"reared"  in  a  state  of  chronic  alcoholism.  Nor  are  chicks  wont 
to  swim,  however  skilled  their  instruction.  On  the  other  hand 
the  primitive  may  learn  to  hunt  but  not  to  read,  and  the  slum 
dweller  vice  versa.  So  also  the  smithy  develops  strong  muscle 
while  the  tea  taster  acquires  keen  sensitivity. 

An  interesting  example  is  apparent  in  the  training  of 
Seeing  Eye  dogs.  Only  certain  breeds  (or  exceptional  individ- 
uals) have  been  found  to  profit  from  such  training.  Following 
two  months  of  obedience  training  the  animal  is  then  instructed 
in  judicious  (disobedience  (where  obedience  would  be  hazardous 
to  the  master)  or  the  exercise  of  purposive  initiative  and 
judgment.    Some  animals  prove  unsuited  to  this  second  stage 


14  Postulates 

of  training.  No  selective  "tests"  have  yet  been  devised  for 
the  selection  of  animals  who  will  prove  successful  at  this  more 
advanced  stage  of  competence. 

Whatever  the  merits  of  such  argument,  we  herein  assume 
that  biological  endowment  predetermines  minimum  and  max- 
imum levels  of  maturation  while  cultural  influences  affect 
expression  within  these  limits — when  it  is  a  question  of  assign- 
ing relative  weights  to  either.  Both  may  be  modified  within 
limits  by  environmental  agencies.  Yet  man  remains  human, 
and  beast  remains  brute.  And  man  throughout  history,  no 
matter  what  his  environment,  eats,  dresses,  moves  about,  talks, 
works,  plays,  and  acts  purposively.  His  own  influence  on  that 
environment  as  well  as  its  influence  on  such  activities  become 
susceptible  to  investigation  when  typical  behavior  in  a  defined 
milieu  is  subjected  to  standardized  measurement. 

Environmental  modifiability.  In  the  simpler  organisms 
behavior  is  relatively  unmodifiable,  even  though  it  may  be  ex- 
traordinarily complex  (e.g.,  among  the  insects).  Such  behavior 
is  commonly  said  to  be  instinctive,  or  the  product  of  inherited 
neuron  patterns ;  however  varied  it  is  not  appreciably  variable. 
That  is,  the  limits  of  modifiability  of  behavior  are  narrowly 
circumscribed.  Nevertheless,  even  here  there  is  definite  evi- 
dence of  some  modifiability  through  adaptation  to  the  environ- 
ment. 

In  the  human  species  modifiability  of  behavior  is  at  a 
biological  maximum  though  still  constitutionally  limited.  Its 
nuances  are  accomplished  through  spontaneous  adaptation, 
imitation,  formal  education,  self-instruction  as  different  modes 
of  learning.  Indeed,  as  Thorndike  put  it,  the  human  individual 
modifies  what  he  learns  as  well  as  being  modified  by  it,  not 
merely  by  passive  receptivity  to  surrounding  influences,  but 
by  active  reaction  to  them.  In  this  way  man  dominates  his  en- 
vironment and  his  social  relations,  controls  the  environment 
within  limits,  or  interacts  with  the  environment  rather  than 
simply  reacting  to  it.  Instead  of  merely  "cooperating  with  the 
inevitable"  he  seeks  to  master  or  at  least  to  alter  his  destiny. 

Behavioral  modalities.  Behavioral  adaptation  is  a  coor- 
dinated process,  but  the  pattern  of  the  component  details  may 
amplify  now  this,  now  that,  facet  (Boring,  1933).  These 
specialized  aspects  of  behavior  may  be  logically  isolated  for 
study,  but  are  rarely  seen  alone,  and  then  only  in  the  earliest 
stages  of  their  development.  Pure  sensation  almost  immediately 
becomes  perception,  and  perception  at  once  involves  correlated 
experience.    Isolated  stimuli  quickly  become  invested  with  re- 


Behavioral  Components  15 

lated  stimuli  by  immediate  association,  and  simple  responses 
soon  become  more  or  less  complex  through  diffusion  of  reaction. 
The  mechanically  exact  tropisms  of  our  prototypes  are  among 
us  at  least  more  subtly  disguised. 

Hence,  although  we  may  talk  about  simple  sensation, 
movement,  memory,  feeling,  and  ideation,  and  refer  to  their 
more  complex  forms  as  perception,  skill,  habit,  sentiment,  and 
thought,  we  do  this  always  with  the  reservation  that  these 
phases  of  behavior  are  almost  never  seen  in  isolation,  but  al- 
ways in  more  or  less  integrative  association  (Angyal,  1941). 
When  we  discuss  these  particular  aspects  of  behavior  as  if  they 
were  independent,  we  are  really  describing  that  detail  of  a 
totality  which  is  for  the  moment  of  the  greatest  interest, 
seldom  separable  from  the  entirety,  but  for  the  time  being  its 
most  significant  feature. 

Behavioral  components.  Not  forgetting  this  essential  im- 
practicability of  segregating  special  types  of  behavior  as 
independent  of  each  other  or  of  the  organism  as  a  whole,  we 
do  nevertheless  for  convenience  of  description  and  analysis 
separate  some  forms  of  behavior  for  special  study  on  the  basis 
of  their  most  characteristic  components  (Warren,  1934). 
Thus,  if  we  are  interested  in  thfe  motor  coordination  aspect  of 
a  particular  total-response  situation,  we  may  label  this  as  skill, 
even  though  without  attention,  motivation,  memory,  and  the 
like  we  should  have  no  directed  activity.  Or,  if  we  are  concern- 
ed with  the  reproductive  aspect  of  behavior,  we  may  speak  of 
it  as  memory.  And  if  this  memory  is  cumulative,  organized, 
and  assimilated,  we  may  speak  of  it  as  learning.  When  its 
most  important  feature  is  rational  comprehension,  we  may  la- 
bel behavior  as  purposively  adaptive  and  refer  to  its  capacity 
for  such  expression  as  intelligence.  When  repetitively  organ- 
ized for  relatively  automatic  or  standardized  response,  be- 
havior becomes  habit. 

Likewise,  we  may  be  concerned  with  more  than  one  such 
feature  of  behavior  isolated  from  the  totality,  while  still  not 
forgetting  that  all  phases  of  behavior  are  always  present  in 
greater  or  less  degree.  Thus,  we  may  use  the  word  sentiment 
as  meaning  ideas  compounded  with  feelings,  or  consider 
personality  as  representing  the  characteristic  (manifold) 
individual  response  attitude.  Learning  may  refer  to  isolated 
achievements  or  to  such  complex  acquisitions  as  trade  skills, 
social  habits,  general  knowledge,  formal  conduct,  and  the  like. 

Focus  of  behavior.  Our  major  interest  in  developing  a 
social  maturity  scale  is  directed  toward  the  measurement  of 


16  Postulates 

that  complex  of  behavior  which  engenders  personal  and  inter- 
personal social  competence.  It  has  been  said  that  no  human  be- 
havior is  significant  except  in  terms  of  its  social  import.  Just 
as  there  is  no  sound,  but  only  vibration,  without  a  listening  ear 
to  sense  it,  so  there  is  no  worth  to  behavior  except  as  there  is 
some  situation  in  respect  to  which  that  behavior  is  pertinent. 
Literally,  of  course,  behavior  may  be  significant  for  the  person 
himself  in  social  isolation,  but  such  situations  are  exceptional 
or  temporary  (Gesell,  1940;  Singh,  1942).  Social  behavior 
may  therefore  be  viewed  as  the  ultimate  focus  of  integrated 
behavior. 

Maturation  principle.  From  these  premises  we  infer  that 
it  is  possible  to  observe  certain  behavioral  complexes  as  specially 
significant  in  those  aspects  of  gi'ov/th  and  development  which 
effect  an  increasing  identification  of  the  individual  with  his 
social  environment  (Carmichael,  1946;  Morgan,  1942).  Such 
behavior  may  first  be  viewed  as  the  extent  to  which  the  individ- 
ual fends  for  himself  or  increasingly  attends  to  his  own  needs, 
privileges,  duties,  and  responsibilities  according  to  his  age  and 
social  surroundings.  We  note  at  once  that  this  social  independ- 
ence, considered  as  one  aspect  of  individual  social  competence, 
is  progressive  and  follows  a  fairly  definite  course  from  birth 
to  senescence.  In  other  words,  social  behavior  expands  or  con- 
tracts as  an  accompaniment  of  mental  and  physical  ontogenesis 
or  decline. 

Such  behavior  normally  becomes  increasingly  complex  in 
type  and  varied  in  expression  with  advancing  age.  It  reveals  a 
conative  ingredient  which  induces  the  individual  to  seek  pro- 
gressive domination  of  his  environment  by  taking  over  the 
authority  and  responsibility  for  his  own  acts.  This  is  first  ex- 
pressed as  an  increasing  demand  for  freedom  from  the  domina- 
tion of  protectors,  elders  or  superiors,  and  conversely  as  an 
assumption  of  authority  over  dependents,  juniors  and  inferiors. 

In  short,  the  individual  moves  from  helplessness  to  inde- 
pendence, then  to  helpfulness,  and  again  to  dependence.  In 
early  infancy  he  must  rely  upon  others  for  subsistence  and  for 
those  personal  needs  which  he  is  unable  to  provide  for  or  attend 
to  himself.  Gradually  a  self-help  tyipe  of  behavior  becomes 
organized  with  increasing  exercise  of  personal  initiative  and 
resourcefulness.  When  this  enables  him  to  satisfy  his  imme- 
diate wants  he  becomes  self-directive  in  his  social  relations, 
stretching  the  apron  strings  to  their  elastic  limit.  Following 
emancipation  from  the  disabilities  and  restraints  of  childhood 
and  youth  he  emerges  into  adulthood,  responsible  now  for  him- 


Categorical  Aspects  17 

self  and  assuming  his  share  of  group  and  family  responsibility 
for  the  continuity  of  the  race,  its  society  and  its  welfare.  He 
is  now  a  contributing  member  of  that  society  and  repays  to  it 
and  to  his  family  the  services  rendered  him  previously  by  them. 
His  bio-social  compulsive  aspirations  lead  him  beyond  the 
necessities  of  mere  survival  to  add  his  mite  to  the  social  and 
familial  heritage  of  his  world.  Finally,  with  the  infirmities  of 
age  reducing  him  to  senescent  dependence  he  completes  the 
endless  cycle  by  an  involutional  return  to  his  original  helpless- 
ness (de  la  Mare,  1935). 

".  .  .  Though  we  dye  but  once,  yet  do  not  we 
dye  at  once:   We  may  make,  yea  we  do  make  many  assaies  or 
tryals  of  dying:   Death  insinuates  it  selfe,  and  seizeth 
upon  us  by  peecemeals;  it  gives  us  a  tast  of  it  self: 
It  is  the  Cronie,  or  Consort  of  life:    So  soon  as  we  begin 
to  be,  wee  begin  to  wast  and  vanish;  we  cannot  ascend  to 
life,  without  descending  towards  death:    Nay  we  begin  to 
dye  before  we  appeare  to  live;  the  perfect  shape  of  the 
Infant  is  the  death  of  the  Embryo,  childhood  is  the  death 
of  Infancie,  youth  of  Childhood,  Manhood  of  youth,  and 
old  age  of  Manhood.    When  we  are  arrived  at  this  last 
stage,  if  we  stay  any  long  time  in  it,  and  pay  not  the 
debt  we  owe,  death  requires  interest;  she  takes  his 
hearing  from  one,  his  sight  from  another,  and  from 
some  she  takes  both:    The  extent  and  end  of  all  things 
touch  their  beginning,  neither  doth  the  last  minute 
of  life  do  any  thing  else,  but  finish  what  the  first 
began  .  .  .  Life  is  a  Terrace-walke  with  an  Arbour  at 
one  end,  where  we  repose,  and  dream  over  our  past  per- 
ambulations. .  ." 

Categorical  aspects.  For  our  purposes  we  may  label  this 
evolution  as  social  maturation.  Such  maturation  has  at  least 
three  major  dimensions,  (1)  from  dependence  to  independence, 
(2)  from  irresponsibility  to  responsibility,  and  (3)  from  in- 
competence to  competence.  Actually  the  degree  of  social  com- 
petence is  here  viewed  as  the  synthesized  expression  of  the 
progressive  independence  and  responsibility  which  signify 
social  maturation.  By  social  competence  we  here  mean  more 
than  the  creative  or  productive  phases  of  behavior.  To  such 
occupational  pursuits  we  must  add  social  cooperation,  social 
intercourse,  social  mobility,  social  self-management,  and  social 
self-assistance.  These  in  their  altogetherness  determine  the 
degree  of  selfish  and  philanthropic  attainment.  It  is  only  for 
purposes  of  clarity  and  convenience  that  they  may  be  considered 
separately. 


18  Postulates 

We  note  at  once  that  the  child  at  birth  is  relatively  helpless. 
Although  he  can  nurse,  he  must  be  placed  to  the  breast;  al- 
though he  can  grasp  and  hold,  objects  must  be  placed  within  his 
reach  or  in  his  hands ;  although  he  vocalizes,  his  "vocabulary" 
is  unarticulated.  His  early  expressive  development  is  essen- 
tially sensori-motor.  His  initial  behavior  is  uninhibited  and 
poorly  coordinated.  His  personal  competence  is  grossly  limited. 

When  he  learns  to  roll  over  instead  of  having  to  be  turned 
over,  this  may  be  viewed  as  an  early  step  toward  personal  in- 
dependence or  self-help.  If  he  grasps  objects  within  reach, 
these  do  not  have  to  be  handed  to  him.  Such  performances  in- 
crease in  number,  variety,  and  complexity,  pursuing  normally 
a  fairly  constant  order  but  at  a  somewhat  variable  rate. 

These  modes  of  behavior  soon  become  categorically  dif- 
ferentiated as  well  as  specifically  elaborated  (Carmichael, 
1946).  Thus,  even  in  the  first  six  months  of  postnatal  life 
there  is  some  achievement  in  communication,  self-help,  social- 
ization, occupation,  self -direction,  and  locomotion.  As  we  ob- 
serve the  course  of  development,  all  these  major  categories  of 
behavior  are  seen  to  be  generally  present,  but  of  unequal  im- 
portance and  degree.  The  detailed  performances  within  and 
among  these  categories  are  seen  to  be  both  co-extensive  and 
overlapping  with  the  result  that  given  categories  may  predomi- 
nate over  others  at  different  periods  of  development,  or  among 
different  children  of  equivalent  development. 

The  principal  developments  of  early  childhood  are  in  the 
direction  of  self-help,  with  the  other  details  of  development 
principally  subordinate  or  anticipatory.  Similarly,  self-direc- 
tion items  tend  to  predominate  in  adolescence,  and  socialization 
items  in  adulthood.  Occupational  items  are  present  throughout 
the  life  span,  but  rise  in  importance  in  the  adolescent  and  adult 
periods.  Locomotion  items  appear  significantly  throughout 
the  life  period,  and  this  is  also  true  for  communication  items. 

As  noted  later  (Chapter  4),  our  method  of  approach  to 
this  problem  was  two-fold,  first  through  an  inventory  of  specific 
behavior  that  seemed  to  be  fairly  characteristic  of  given  age 
periods,  and  second  by  an  analysis  of  behavior  categories  which 
seemed  susceptible  to  progressive  definition.  The  outcome  in 
both  directions  may  therefore  be  described  as  the  result  of  em- 
pirical observation  and  analysis  rather  than  of  logical  or 
theoretical  considerations. 

For  example,  with  respect  to  locomotion,  we  observe  in 


Environmental  Circumstances  19 

children  at  successive  life  ages  a  continuing  extension  of  free- 
dom in  personal  and  environmental  mobility.  From  this  we 
infer  that  "getting  about"  reflects  a  major  category  of  behavior 
which  can  be  formulated  as  a  progression  of  detailed  stages  of 
increasing  independence  and  personal  responsibility.  These 
achievements  influence  social  competence  and  may  be  taken  as 
one  measure  of  it.  Thus,  we  observe  the  new-born  infant  con- 
fined to  his  crib,  getting  about  only  as  he  is  moved  by  someone 
else.  Soon,  by  rolling  over  instead  of  being  moved,  he  is  able  to 
"roam"  within  his  crib  from  side  to  side  or  end  to  end.  Later, 
as  his  motor  coordination  and  his  personal  social  responsibility 
enlarge  and  ramify,  he  moves  from  the  crib  to  the  room,  and 
so  increases  his  social  horizon  through  independent  (social) 
locomotion.  With  increasing  responsibility  he  is  permitted  (or 
he  insists  upon)  moving  about  the  house,  then  to  and  about  the 
yard,  then  about  the  immediate  neighborhood,  then  within  the 
remote  neighborhood,  and  ultimately  to  unrestricted  distant 
points.  Such  locomotion  may  be  construed  as  social  rather 
than  as  simply  neuromuscular,  for  the  individual  enlarges 
thereby  not  only  his  independence,  but  also  his  opportunities 
for  increased  self-expression.  And  this  accession  of  movements 
is  attended  by  hazards  which  he  learns  to  obviate  pari  passu. 

Environmental  circumstances.  Obviously,  such  locomotion 
is  limited  by  terrain,  custom,  dangers,  means  of  transportation, 
expense,  freedom,  and  restrictions,  as  well  as  by  degree  of 
personal  social  maturity  and  the  restraints  due  to  age,  sex, 
degree  of  responsibility  and  the  like.  Consequently,  the  eval- 
uation of  social  locomotion  must  be  construed  according  to  such 
exigencies.  And  this  principle  applies  to  all  items  of  this  scale. 

We  therefore  note  at  once  that  the  formulation  of  this 
scale  is  related  to  the  central  North  American  (United  States) 
environment,  and  that  flexibility  must  be  allowed  in  scoring 
the  item  requirements  with  due  regard  for  particular  altera- 
tions from  the  generalized  situation.  For  this  reason,  and  as 
will  appear  later,  it  is  impracticable  to  formulate  the  definition 
of  items  with  unequivocal  precision.  However,  the  Scale  as  a 
system  could  be  adapted  to  any  environment  which  differs 
materially  from  that  for  which  the  standard  scale  is  formulated 
and  upon  which  it  is  normatively  standardized  and  differential- 
ly validated.  The  reformulation  or  substitution  of  items  neces- 
sary for  such  adaptation  thus  becomes  a  means  for  the  study 
of  local  or  comparative  culture  patterns  or  acculturation. 

It  would  obviously  be  absurd  to  endeavor  to  apply  the 
standard  items  of  this  scale,  designed  for  the  typical  cultural 


20  Postulates 

environment  of  our  day  and  country,  without  appropriate  modi- 
fication for  other  environments  or  times.  This  is  important 
when  there  is  occasion  to  use  the  Scale  retrospectively  for  en- 
vironments which  have  materially  changed  during  the  individ- 
ual's life  history  (e.  g.,  by  migration  from  one  environment  to 
another),  or  in  family  history  studies  where  the  environment 
has  changed  materially  with  passage  of  time.  Illustrations  of 
such  necessity  for  modification  are  set  forth  in  later  chapters  on 
the  use  of  the  method  under  variable  conditions,  such  as  various 
types  of  personal  handicaps  and  environmental  restrictions. 

It  is  also  to  be  noted  that  social  maturity  and  social  com- 
petence are  not  identical  concepts.  Some  of  the  items  of  this 
scale  measure  the  former  without  consistent  relatedness  to  the 
latter.  We  shall  subsequently  (Chapters  5,  6  and  13)  discuss 
this  issue  in  some  detail. 


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Carrel,   Alexis.    1935.    Man,  the  unknown.    New  York:   Harper, 

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Ellis,  Robert  S.  1928.  The  psychology  of  individual  differences.  New  York: 
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22  Postulates 

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The  Problem  of  Measurement 


.  .  .  Behold  the  child,  by  nature's  kindly  law. 

Pleased  with  a  rattle,  tickled  with  a  straw: 

Some  livelier  plaything  gives  his  youth  delight, 

A  little  louder,  but  as  empty  quite: 

Scarfs,  garters,  gold,  amuse  his  riper  stage, 

And  beads  and  prayer-books  are  the  toys  of  age: 

Pleaded  with  this  bauble  still  as  that  before. 

Till  tired  he  sleeps,  and  life's  poor  play  is  o'er.  .  .  — Alexander  Pope 


Common  observations. 

"My  Anne  does  everything  for  herself  now ;  she  says  every- 
thing ;  she  goes  everywhere." 

"Johnny,  you're  old  enough  to  do  that.  I'm  tired  of  always 
looking  after  you." 

''Please,  Susan;  you  should  know  better!  At  your  age  I 
was. . ." 

"Henry  is  such  a  problem.  I  can't  control  him  any  more« 
He  insists  on  having  his  own  way  all  the  time." 

"Sam  is  so  shiftless.  He  has  no  responsibility,  doesn't 
hold  up  his  own  end,  doesn't  even  provide  decently  for  his  old 
mother." 

"What  a  success  Mr.  Brown  has  made  of  his  life!  He  is 
one  of  the  leaders  in  our  community,  runs  a  big  business,  and 
is  in  everything.  When  you  want  something  done,  go  to  a  busy 
person  like  him  for  help." 

"Poor  old  father.  He's  getting  so  helpless;  needs  con- 
stant looking  after.  I  have  to  do  everything  for  him  now- 
adays." 

How  commonplace  these  expressions  are!  What  do  they 
mean?  They  reveal  a  general  appreciation  of  the  process  of 
growing  up  and  the  increasing  responsibilities  and  duties 
which  accompany  such  growth. 

We  all  judge  each  other.  It  has  been  said  that  every  man 
is  his  own  psychologist.  We  evaluate  our  own  behavior  as  well 
as  that  of  others  more  or  less  closely  in  our  everyday  relations. 


24  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

We  do  not  need  a  scientific  "test"  to  know  that  one  person  is 
stupid  and  another  intelligent.  We  make  such  observations 
spontaneously.  We  lack  only  a  formal  analysis  of  how  we 
reach  such  decisions  and  what  the  precise  degree  of  ability  is. 

We  deprecate  having  our  own  intelligence  tested,  yet 
each  of  our  associates  has  already  formed  what  is  for  him  a 
satisfactory  estimate  of  that  intelligence.  The  correction  of 
that  estimate  by  formal  measurement  merely  reduces  the 
margin  of  error. 

Likewise,  without  benefit  of  formal  procedures  we  "know" 
that  Jim  Smith  is  a  capable  carpenter.  Dr.  Brown  a  competent 
physician,  or  Mrs.  Jones  a  good  mother.  We  call  one  friend 
phlegmatic  and  another  optimistic;  we  say  one  is  moody, 
another  easily  angered ;  so-and-so  is  rated  an  excellent  student, 
while  another  can't  seem  to  learn  anything.  All  these  individ- 
ual differences  in  behavior  are  clearly  apparent  in  the 
simplest  social  contacts.  In  such  mutual  appraisal  of  each 
other's  aptitudes  we  note  range  of  vocabulary  and  ideas, 
degree  of  education,  readiness  of  comprehension,  quickness 
of  perception,  spontaneity  of  reaction. 

In  the  same  way  we  "intuitively  sense"  the  social  worth 
or  stature  of  our  acquaintances  and  of  comparative  strangers. 
The  more  discerning  among  us  even  pass  judgment  on  the 
stages  and  rates  of  development  of  growing  children,  or  of 
adults  who  are  "slipping."  This  is  particularly  true  within 
the  family  where  the  ordinary  parent  continuously  appraises 
the  development  of  his  children.  He  knows  which  of  them  are 
bright  and  which  dull,  which  alert  or  unresponsive,  and  which 
capable  or  handicapped.  Each  of  us  has  generalized  ideas 
regarding  development  in  relation  to  age,  and  some  idea  as  to 
why  these  standards  are  exceeded  or  not  yet  reached  among 
those  so  observed. 

That  this  knowledge  is  only  impressionistic  does  not  pre- 
vent our  making  daily  use  of  it.  When  the  fond  parent  states 
that  "Anne  says  everything",  although  Anne  is  only  two  years 
old,  she  means  that  her  daughter  says  everything  that  anyone 
would  reasonably  expect  a  two-year-old  girl  to  say  under  the 
circumstances.  When  the  neighbor  says  that  the  child  is  old 
enough  to  know  better,  or  to  do  this  and  that  for  himself,  he 
is  employing  definite  concepts  of  child  development,  even 
though  he  could  not  precisely  formulate  those  concepts  or 
define  the  standards  he  employs. 

The  same  principles  hold  for  judgments  at  successive 
life  stages — in  adolescence,  in  early  manhood,  in  adult  prime 


General  Stages  of  Social  Maturation  25 

and  in  senescence.  Such  solicitous,  admiring,  or  disparaging 
appraisals  of  others  reflect  wide-spread  knowledge  of  develop- 
ment which  is  more  assured  in  the  field  of  social  behavior  than 
in  other  directions  because  of  the  more  universal  significance 
of  social  performances  and  the  more  frequent  occasions  for 
observing  them. 

On  such  ready  evidence  rest  nearly  all  of  our  offhand  esti- 
mates of  development  or  capability.  Social  competence  is  a 
complex  expression  of  many  component  aptitudes,  being  as  a 
rule  highly  correlated  with  them.  A  socially  competent  person 
tends  to  be  correspondingly  dependable,  energetic,  emotionally 
mature;  and  the  degree  of  each  is  inferred  from  the  whole. 
Indeed,  lack  of  such  correlation  calls  for  explanatory  comment. 
One  person  is  deprecated  as  intelligent  but  untrustworthy, 
another  as  skillful  but  improvident,  another  as  well  educated 
but  "lacks  punch."  Whatever  the  degree  of  correlation,  we 
take  it  for  granted  that  a  person's  social  competence  is  the 
coordinated  sum-total  of  his  specific  abilities,  and  that  this 
is  an  index  of  his  stage  of  development. 

Yet  we  also  acknowledge  that  such  "common  sense" 
estimates  are  to  a  degree  untrustworthy.  So  we  turn  to 
scientific  measurement  for  confirmation.  For  science  as 
"uncommon  observation  of  the  commonplace"  commands  a 
well-earned  respect.  Its  measures  are  less  haphazard  (more 
systematized),  less  crude  (more  exact),  less  dubious  (more 
reliable) . 

General  stages  of  social  maturation.  The  awareness  of 
the  social  "ages  of  man"  is  as  old  as  literature  and  as  new  as 
science.  Whether  we  consult  the  ancient  or  modern  classics 
in  any  tongue,  the  epitomes  are  much  the  same  as  that  by 
Shakespeare : 

All  the  world's  a  stage. 

And  all  the  men  and  women  merely  players; 
They  have  their  exits  and  their  entrances. 
And  one  man  in  his  time  plays  many  parts. 
His  acts  being  seven  ages.    At  first  the  infant. 
Mewling  and  puking  in  the  nurse's  arms. 
Then  the  whining  school-boy,  with  his  satchel 
And  shining  morning  face,  creeping  like  a  snail 
Unwillingly  to  school.    And  then  the  lover. 
Sighing  like  a  furnace,  with  a  woeful  ballad 
Made  to  his  mistress'  eyebrow.    Then  a  soldier, 
Full  of  strange  oaths,  and  bearded  like  the  pard. 


26  The  Problem  op  Measurement 

Jealous  in  honor,  sudden  and  quick  in  quarrel. 

Seeking  the  bubble  reputation 

Even  in  the  cannon's  mouth.    And  then  the  justice, 

In  fair  round  belly  with  good  capon  lined; 

With  eyes  severe,  and  beard  of  formal  cut. 

Full  of  wise  saws  and  modern  instances; 

And  so  he  plays  his  part.    The  sixth  age  shifts 

Into  the  lean  and  slippered  pantaloon. 

With  spectacles  on  nose  and  pouch  on  side. 

His  youthful  hose,   well  saved  a  world  too  wide 

For  his  shrunk  shank;  and  his  big  manly  voice, 

Tarning  again  toward  childish  treble,  pipes 

And  whistles  in  his  sound.    Last  scene  of  all, 

That  ends  this  strange  eventful  history, 

Is  second  childishness  and  mere  oblivion. 

Sans  teeth,  sans  eyes,  sans  taste,  sans  everything.  — As  You  Like  It 

And  if  we  search  the  record  of  science,  the  observations 
are  only  somewhat  more  formally  expressed,  as  in  the  sum- 
mary by  H.  L.  Hollingworth  who  adds  three  significant  "ages* 
to  complete  the  visible  cycle : 

HUMAN   DEVELOPMENTAL   STAGES* 
Period  Descriptiox 

1.  The  germ  plasm — The  career  and  permutations  of  germinal  elements, 

representing  biological  heredity,  and  the  contribution  of  determinants 
by  near  and  remote  ancestry. 

2.  The  fetal  period — The  life  of  the  embryo,  from  the  moment  of  con- 

ception or  ovum  fertilization,  to  the  time  of  birth. 

3.  The  infant — The  "neonate"  or  newborn  imdividual,  in  its  first  few  weeks 

or  months  of  life. 

4.  The  babyhood  age — The  first  three  years  of  life,  up  to  the  point  which, 

if  the  individual  does  not  intellectually  pass,  he  remains  an  "idiot." 

5.  Questioning   age — Centering  at  about  the  time   of  customary  school 

entrance,  at  the  sixth  year,  the  point  which,  if  the  individual  does 
not  intellectually  pass,  he  is  characterized  as  an  "imbecile." 

6.  "Big  Injun"  age — Culminating  at  about  the  eleventh  year,  the  point 

which,  if  the  individual  does  not  intellectually  pass,  he  is  described 
as  a  "moron." 

7.  "The  Awkward  Age,"  adolescence — The  typical  high-school  age,  termi- 

nating at  or  around  the  eighteenth  year,  with  wide  variations. 

8.  Maturity — The  long  stretch  of  economic,  political  and  dotnestic  respon- 

sibility, running  up  to  seventy  years  or  thereabouts. 


♦From  HoixiNGWOETH,  H.  L.   1927.   Mental  growth  and  decline.   New  York: 
D.  Appleton,  (p.  45).    Reproduced  by  permission  of  author  and  publisher. 


Techniques  of  Social  Appraisal  27 

9.  Senescence — The  period  of  decline,  and  in  some  cases  of  involution  or 

senile  decay. 

10.  Post-mortem  age — That  period,  brief  or  prolonged,  in  which  the  person- 

al influence  of  the  individual  persists  and  the  institutions  he  has  had 
a  part  in  establishing  remain  effective. 

Such  epochal  groupings  have  long  proved  useful  for 
practical  orientation.  They  indicate  that  there  are  gross  peri- 
ods of  maturation  which  can  be  roughly  distinguished  from 
each  other  by  characteristic  level  and  type  of  social  activity. 
But  these  groupings  are  also  rather  arbitrary,  subjective,  and 
correspondingly  variable  from  one  "grouper"  to  another.  They 
lack  both  comprehensiveness  and  precision  from  period  to 
period  as  well  as  from  author  to  author,  and  this  lack  of 
specificity  greatly  limits  the  usefulness  of  the  distinctions. 
Witness  the  whimsical  taxonym  of  the  Rotarian  gastrologist : 

DIETARY  AGES 

The  eleven  ages  of  man  can  be  expressed  in  menu 
form    as     follows : 

1.  Milk. 

2.  Milk  and  bread. 

3.  Milk,  bread,  eggs  and  spinach. 

4.  Oatmeal,  bread  and  butter,  green  apples  and  all-day  suckers. 

5.  Ice  cream  soda  and  hot  dogs. 

6.  Minute  steak,  fried  potatoes,  coffee  and  apple  pie. 

7.  Bouillon,     roast     duck,     scalloped     potatoes,     creamed     broccoli, 
fruit  salad,  divinity  fudge  and  demi-tasse. 

8.  Pate    de    foie    gras,    wiener    schnitzel,    potatoes    Parisienne,    egg 
plant  a  I'opera,  demi-tasse  and  Roquefort  cheese. 

9.  Two  soft-boiled  eggs,  toast  and  milk. 

10.  Crackers  and  milk. 

11.  Milk.  — PhiladelpJiia  Rotary  Clut  Bulletin. 

Techniques  of  social  appraisal.  Since  Binet  and  Simon, 
this  difficulty  has  been  appreciably  remedied.  Their  intelli- 
gence scale,  and  especially  their  year-scale  method,  opened 
new  vistas  of  correlative  study  (Binet  and  Simon,  1916). 
We  now  have  so  many  scales  for  appraising  maturation 
in  nearly  all  directions  that  it  is  impracticable  to  catalogue 
them  or  even  to  cite  some  without  injustice  to  others. 

The  attempt  to  trace  our  own  scale  to  these  sources  so  that 
we  might  make  due  acknowledgment  has  proved  too  baffling 
to  record  here  since  we  drew  upon  general  awareness  of  these 
techniques  rather  than  specific  borrowings  from  them.  And 
since  those  techniques  had  their  own  antecedents  we  might 
honestly  enough  claim  to  have  been  guided  by  the  same.    We 


28 


The  Problem  of  Measurement 


therefore  leave  it  to  others  to  make  a  game  of  detecting  such 
unconscious  plagiarisms  as  may  be  more  apparent  to  them 
than  they  are  to  us. 

Our  greatest  debt  is  to  Alfred  Binet,  whose  original  observa- 
tions, experiments  and  ideas,  supplemented  by  joint  work 
with  Th.  Simon,  we  have  freely  employed  throughout  this 
work.  Those  not  intimately  acquainted  with  this  background 
in  the  successive  volumes  of  UAnnee  Psychologique  will  find 
profit  in  the  selected  translations  by  Eliz.  S.  Kite  (Binet  and 
Simon,  1916),  and  in  the  able  review  by  Edith  J.  Varon  (1935). 

That  Binet  and  Simon  anticipated  the  social  ends  sub- 
served by  intelligence  is  clear  from  their  following  classifi- 
cation: 


TABLE  of  TRAITS  DISTINGUISHING  IDIOT,  IMBECILE  and  MORON* 


Degree  of 
retardation. 


Intellectual  devel- 
opment compared 
to  that  of  a  nor- 
mal child. 


Sociftl  relations 
with  other  per- 
sons. 


Nature  of  the  tasks 
which  these  indi- 
viduals can  accom- 
plish. 


Idiot 


Development  of 
0  to  2  years. 


By  gestures. 


Grasp  an  object 
presented,  walk,  sit 
down,  get  up,  etc. 


Imbecile 


Development  of 
+2  to  7  years. 


By  speech. 


Eat  alone,  dress, 
wash  hands,  keep 
clean,  sweep,  make 
a  bed,  shine  shoes. 


Moron 


Development  of 
+  7  to  12  years. 


By  writing. 


Comb  hair,  garden, 
v/ash,  iron,  make  a 
hem  or  a  darn, 
cook  an  egg  or  an 
onion  soup. 


*From  Binet,  ALFBaa),  and  Th.  Simon.  L'Arri^ration.  L'Ann^e  Psychologique, 
1910.  Vol.  16,  p.  353.  Note  that  the  translator  has  omitted  "roll  a  hoop" 
from  the  imbecile  tasks,  and  has  substituted  "or  an  onion  soup"  (perhaps 
too  difficult)   for  "etc."  at  the  moron  level   (Varon,  1935,  p.  129). 


Techniques  of  Social  Appraisal 


29 


Goddard  carried  this  "nature  of  the  tasks"  a  step  further 
in  his  industrial  classification  of  the  feeble-minded  by  succes- 
sive mental  ages. 

INDUSTRIAL  CLASSIFICATION* 


Mental 
Age 


Industrial  Capacity 


Grade 


Under  i^)  Helpless,    (b)   Can  walk,    (c)   With      Low 

1  year  voluntary  regard 

1  year  Feeds  self.    Eats  everything  Middle   Idiot 

2  years  Eats   discriminatingly    (food   from  non- 

food) High 


Low 


No  work.    Plays  a  little 

Tries  to  help 

Only  simplest  tasks 

Tasks  of  short  duration.    Washes  dishes 

Little  errands  in  the  house.    Dusts  High 


Middle  Imbecile 


8  "  Errands.    Light  work.    Makes  beds  Low 

9  "  Heavier    work.     Scrubs.     Mends.     Lays 

bricks.   Cares  for  bath-room 

10  "  Good  institution  helper.   Routine  work  Middle  Moron 

11  "  Fairly     complicated     work     with     only 

occasional  oversight 

12  "  Uses  machinery.    Can  care  for  animals.      High 

No   supervision    for    routine    work. 
Cannot  plan 

Forteus  (1922)  continued  the  elaboration  in  his  industrial 
and  social  rating  scales,  as  did  Buhl  (1928)  in  his  refined  job 
analysis  of  idiot  performances.  Yepsen  (1928)  added  a  be- 
havioral adjustment  schedule,  Kuenzel  (1929)  an  industrial 
virtues  score-card,  and  Oseretsky  (Doll,  1946)  a  year-scale  of 
motor  proficiency.  Furfey  (1931)  studied  developmental  age  in 
terms  of  social  interests,  Wood  and  Lerrigo  (1927)  for  health 
behavior,  Gesell  (1925)  for  infant  growth,  Anderson  and 
Goodenough  (1929)  for  family  records,  Rogers  (1931)  for 
personality,  Brace  (1927)  for  motor  ability,  and  so  on. 

These  and  many  similar  investigations  are  relevant  to  our 
immediate  task.  They  bear  on  the  components  and  facets  of 
maturation  and  adjustment  which  in  their  integration  reveal 


♦Prom  GooDARD,  Henby  H.  1914.  Feeble-Mindedness:  its  causes  and 
consequences.  New  York:  Macmillan,  (p.  581),  Reproduced  by  permission 
of  author  and  publisher. 


30  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

social  competence.  But  we  cannot  here  be  specifically  concerned 
with  the  extensive  scientific  literature  (Euros,  1949)  in  these 
and  other  fields  such  as  the  direct  measurement  of  personality, 
emotional  maturity,  educational  attainment,  or  occupational 
achievement.  Two  such  unpublished  endeavors,  however,  merit 
special  attention. 

Myra  Kuenzel's  "Scale  of  Industrial  Virtues"  was  part  of 
a  larger  program  of  studies  in  the  field  of  job  analysis  and 
serves  to  contrast  the  manner  of  behavior  with  its  level. 

SCALE  OF  INDUSTRIAL  VIRTUES* 

A.  Quantity  of  Woek  Done 

1.  Does  more  than  others  in  the  same  work. 

2.  Does  less  than  half  of  the  work  he  is  given  to  do. 

3.  Does  more  than  half  but  less  than  all  of  the  work  he  is 
given  to  do. 

4.  Does  all  that  he  is  told  to  do  but  no  more. 

5.  Does  more  than  he  is  given  to  do. 

6.  Is  given  no  instructions  since  he  does  not  do  as  told. 

B.  Quality  of  Wobk  Done 

1.  Work  must  be  done  over  again. 

2.  Quality  of  work  is  accepted. 

3.  Quality  of  work  is  approved  with  a  feeling  of  satisfaction. 

4.  Quality  of  work  is   accepted  although  not  liked. 

5.  Does  better  than  others  in  the  same  work. 

C.  Improvement 

1.  Is  not  doing  as  good  work  as  formerly  (last  week). 

2.  Is   improving  in  his  work. 

3.  Shows  no  improvement  in  his  work. 

4.  Has  reached  top  performance  for  job. 

D.  iNDUSTKtOUSNESS 

1.  Works  regardless  of  hours. 

2.  Works   according  to  schedule  hours. 

3.  Watches   for   quitting  time. 

4.  Does  not  put  in  full  time. 

E.  Peoductivity 

1.  Gets  as  much  done  as  do  others  in  the  same  work. 

2.  Puts  things  off. 

3.  Doesn't   do   anything. 

4.  Gets   things  done. 

5.  Gets  more  dome  than  you  expect  him  to  do. 

F.  Good  Nature 

1.  Seems  to  enjoy  this  work. 

2.  Works  in  an  unconcerned  manner. 

3.  Seems  to  dislike  this  work. 


*  BYom  KuENzKL,  Myra  W.  A  score-card  of  industrial  virtues.  Unpublished 
research  form.  The  Vineland  Laboratory.  Reproduced  by  author's 
permission. 


Techniques  of  Social  Appraisal  31 

G.     Ambitiousneiss 

1.  Loafs  on  the  job. 

2.  Actions  show  no  desire  on  his  part  to  excel  in  this  work. 

3.  Looks  for  work  to  do. 

H.     Supervision 

1.  Requires  less  attention  than  do  others  in  the  same  work. 

2.  Has  to  be  watched  every  minute. 

3.  Requires  no  more  supervision  than  is  given  others  in  the 
same  woi'k. 

4.  Initiates  own  work. 

I.      YouB  Attitude  Toward  Him 

1.  Enjoy  his  working  for  you. 

2.  Gets  on  your  nerves. 

3.  Is  part  of  your  job  to  put  up  with  him. 

J.     Cooperation 

1.  Does  best  work  while  working  alone. 

2.  Does  best  work  while  working  with  others. 

3.  Does  as  good  work  while  alone  as  when  with  others. 

K.     Friendliness 

1,  Others  in  the  same  work  do  not  ask  to  work  with  him. 

2,  Others  in  the  same  work  object  to  working  with  him. 

3,  Others  in  the  same  work  ask  to  work  with  him. 

L.     Efficiency 

1.  Works  too  fast  to  do  good  work. 

2.  Works  too  slowly  to  be  considered  a  good  worker. 

3.  Does  satisfactory  work  in  an  acceptable  period  of  time. 

4.  Works  more  rapidly  and  effectively  than  is  required, 

M.    Usefulness 

1.  Makes  himself  wanted. 

2.  Work  would  be  better  off  without  him. 

3.  Could  be  replaced  without  loss  to  work. 

N.     Destructfulness 

1.  Breaks  things  oftener  than  seems  necessary. 

2.  Breaks  no  more  than  others  in  the  same  work. 

3.  Breaks  nothing. 

O.     Economy 

1.  Wastes  materials. 

2.  Uses  that  which  he  is  given. 

3.  Economizes   materials. 

P.     Reliability 

1.  Takes  things  which  do  not  belong  to  him. 

2.  Takes  nothing  that  does  not  belong  to  him. 

Q.     Truthfulness 

1.  Misrepresents  his  work. 

2.  Tells  the  truth  about  his  work. 

R.     Capability 

1.  Has  more  ability  that  this  job  uses. 

2.  Has  as  much  ability  as  this  job  requires. 

3.  Hasn't  enough  ability  for  this  job. 

S.     Disability 

1.  Works  under  a  mental  or  physical  disability  which  makes  the 
work  difficult. 

2.  Work  is  not  affected  by  the  disability  if  there  is  one. 

3.  Tires  easily. 

4.  Was  oflF  duty  recently  because  of  illness. 


32  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

The  job  analysis  technique  produces  item  performances  within 
job  families  analogous  to  the  categorical  items  of  the  Social 
Maturity  Scale.  But  such  analyses  usually  ignore  mode  of 
performance  in  favor  of  degree  of  performance.  The  Kuenzel 
scale  permits  estimation  of  the  manner  or  quality  of  perform- 
ance at  any  given  level  and  is  applicable  to  the  entire  range 
of  social  competence  from  idiocy  to  superior  adult  extensions. 
Such  a  scale  is  particularly  useful  in  the  supplementary  estima- 
tion of  deviation  in  social  competence,  regression  at  senescence, 
or  in  instances  of  mental  or  physical  deterioration.  (It  is 
observed  elsewhere  that  in  senescence,  deterioration,  or  im- 
pairment the  Social  Maturity  Scale  does  not  afford  satisfactory 
measures  of  losses  in  versatility  of  performance  as  contrasted 
with  level.) 

Doll  (1929)  devised  a  score-card  for  evaluating  changes 
in  the  behavior  of  hospitalized  mental  patients  prior  to,  during, 
and  following  psychiatric  care  and  treatment. 

BEHAVIOR  SCORE  CARD 
for 

MENTALLY  DISTURBED  PATIENTS* 

(Check  the  one  item  in  each  group  which  most  nearly  describes 
the  patient) 

Score 

Values 


2  1.  Is  careless  as  to  appearance  of  person  and  dress. 
1             2.  Dresses  with  care  and  is  neat  of  person. 

4  3.  Tears   clothing',   presents   dishevelled   appearance,   unclean 

in  person  or  habits. 

3  4.  Is     specially     preoccupied     with     dress,    presents     bizarre 

appearance,  shows  vanity  approaching  exhibitionism. 


B. 


1.  Becomes    angry    on   slight   provocation;    swears,   destroys 
things,  threatens  people. 

2.  Conducts  himself  with  extreme  dignity  of  bearing,  shows 
exaggerated  jwliteness. 

3.  Sulks,    resists    attempts    to    interest    him,    shows    apathy 
toward  surroundings  and  events 

4.  Takes  an  alert  interest  in  what  is  going  on,  goes  about 
his  own  business.  • 


*  From  Doll,  Edgab  A.    A  score-card  for  measuring  the  improvement  of 
mental   patients.    Unpublished   research   form.   The   Vineland   Laboratory. 


Difficulties  Encountered  33 


3  1.  Fusses     about    trifles,     "butts     in,"    annoys     people    with 
desire  for  attention. 

2  2.  Has  queer  mannerisms,  assumes  odd  postures,  runs  a  little 
show  of  his  own. 

1  3.  Gets   along  well  with  others,  not   easily  upset.    Is  calm 
and  self-possessed. 

4  4.  Laughs  a  good  deal,  talks  volubly,  walks  about  and  busies 
himself  with  many  activities,  much  ado  about  nothing, 

D. 

3  1.  Believes    people    treat   him    unfairly,    makes    unreasonable 
demands,  fears  for  safety,  thinks  he  is  not  well. 

2  2.  T^lks  incoherently,  wanders  from  the  point  in  conversation, 
introduces  irrelevant  ideas. 

1  3.  Sustains  a  rational  conversation,  can  be  relied  upon  to  carry 

out  instructions,  appreciates  surroundings. 

4  4.  Acts  as  if  he  were  someone  else,  actions  are  not  consistent 
with  significant  surroundings. 

1  1.  Takes  an  interest  in  surroundings,  works  cheerfully,  reads 

or  engages  in  games  or  hobbies. 

2  2.  Keeps  to  himself,  sits  idle  most  of  the  time,  does  not  enjoy 

recreational  pursuits. 
4  3.  Collects  and  hoai'ds  meaningless  trifles,  values  articles  out 

of  all  proportion  to  their  worth. 
1  4.  Looks  for  work  to  do  or  seeks  opportunities  to  be  of  help, 

does  not  abuse  freedom,  discreet  and  can  be  trusted. 

3  5.  Engages  in  petty  deceptions,  appropriates  the  property  of 

others,  misrepresents  facts  and  events. 

Difficulties  encountered.  Ask  any  person  who  has  but  little 
hesitation  in  judging  another's  behavior  what  is  the  basis  for 
that  judgment  or  what  standards  he  employs,  and  his  opinion 
is  immediately  rendered  uncertain.  Ask  any  parent  to  enumer- 
ate the  evidence  by  which  he  feels  assured  of  the  normal 
development  of  his  children,  and  that  parent  becomes  vaguely 
inarticulate.  Search  the  textbooks  of  genetic  psyehology  or  so- 
cial psychology  and  note  how  limited  is  the  information  that 
can  be  usefully  employed  in  preparing  normative  schedules  of 
development.  Observe  children  yourself,  compare  notes  with 
others,  reflect  retrospectively  on  your  own  development,  and 


E. 


34  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

note  how  elusive  are  both  the  content  and  the  timing  of  such 
maturation.  Such  observations  require  both  direction  and 
quantification. 

The  attempt  to  reduce  general  observations  to  specific 
definition  does  not  often  receive  the  immediate  approval  that 
one  might  expect.  The  first  reaction  of  others  is  one  of  skepti- 
cism.. As  Whitehead  has  observed,  new  ideas  have  a  certain 
aspect  of  foolishness  when  they  are  first  produced.  But  we 
agree  with  William  A.  McCall  that  "whatever  exists  at  all 
exists  in  some  amount,"  and  "  anything  that  exists  in  amount 
can  be  measured."  Or  as  Binet  and  Simon  said  long  ago, 
"quantitative  differences  are  of  no  value  unless  they  are  meas- 
ured, even  if  measured  but  crudely." 

Can  we,  then,  through  standardized  measurement  achieve 
a  more  exact  appraisal  of  social  adequacy  than  has  previously 
been  possible  through  observational  estimation?  It  is  a  truism 
in  science  that  numerical  measurement  magnifies  the  difficulties 
that  were  previously  overlooked  by  subjective  observation. 
Refinement .  of  analysis  exaggerates  the  variables  it  discloses. 
When  one  asks  "At  what  age  does  the  normal  child  do  this  or 
that?",  or  "What  does  the  normal  child  do  at  this  or  that  age?", 
one  gets  the  reply  "It  all  depends."  This  phrase  implies  that 
the  nature  of  development  varies  from  person  to  person  by  such 
wide  differences  that  no  individual  standard  can  be  established. 
It  also  implies  that  the  rate  of  development  is  so  heavily  in- 
fluenced by  environmental  variables  that  no  genetically  deter- 
mined course  of  maturation  can  be  plotted  independently  of 
these  variables. 

These  are  real  difficulties.  To  overcome  them  requires 
persistent  search  for  those  features  of  development  which  are 
more  or  less  universal  and  which  do  follow  an  orderly  progres- 
sion. Behavior  items  must  therefore  be  sought  which  are 
relatively  independent  of  specifically  variable  influences  on 
maturation.  Items  must  also  be  sought  in  respect  to  which 
individual  differences  in  rate  of  development  are  at  a  minimum. 
"It  all  depends,"  must  be  reduced  to  "It  depends  somewhat." 

Consequently,  out  of  a  very  large  number  of  performances 
that  might  easily  be  arrayed  as  indicative  of  development  at 
random  ages,  or  for  particular  persons,  or  for  specific  nationali- 
ties, or  in  isolated  environments,  those  must  be  chosen  which 
reflect  the  innate  biological  potential  that  flowers  more  or  less 
constantly  from  person  to  person,  age  to  age,  and  place  to 
place  as  milestones  of  growth  of  the  organism  as  a  whole. 


Example  of  Analytic  Method  35 

There  is  ample  evidence  that  regardless  of  environment  the 
human  individual  passes  through  a  series  of  developmental 
stages  common  to  the  species  (Fortes,  1938;  Mead,  1946). 
These  gross  aspects  of  development  have  long  been  recognized ; 
our  present  task  is  only  to  analyze  them  for  finer  degrees. 
That  this  can  be  done  with  statistical  precision  we  endeavor  to 
show  in  subsequent  chapters. 

Example  of  analytic  method.  Consider  a  single  example. 
Sooner  or  later  every  normal  person  feeds  himself  without 
assistance.  When  does  the  average  individual  do  this?  What 
are  the  successive  stages  and  ages  involved  in  this  accomplish- 
ment? Grant  immediately  that  "it  depends"  more  or  less  on 
many  circumstances,  such  as  the  kind  of  food,  its  availability, 
how  prepared  or  served,  the  utensils  used  for  eating,  the 
etiquette  of  the  occasion,  the  instruction  or  urging,  or  the  lack 
of  these. 

Immediately  we  must  define  what  we  mean  by  feeding  one's 
self.  Assume  that  one  need  not  prepare  the  food  as  a  cook,  nor 
obtain  it  as  a  producer.  Pass  over  the  conditions  which  obtain 
in  a  primitive  environment  where  one  may  eat  with  one's 
knuckles  or  from  a  gourd,  to  the  ordinary  U.  S.  environment 
where  one  sits  down  to  a  table  in  a  company,  with  (perhaps) 
appropriate  linen  and  utensils,  using  knife,  fork,  and  spoon, 
as  well  as  cup,  glass,  and  dish,  and  eats  a  variety  of  prepared 
foods.  We  may  consider  this  performance  of  caring  for  self 
unassisted  at  table  as  meaning  that  the  individual  eats  inde- 
pendently as  any  mature  person  (in  this  respect)  would  in 
similar  circumstances.  The  circumstances,  to  be  sure,  may  re- 
quire particular  definition ;  using  chopsticks  may  be  more  or  less 
difficult  than  using  knuckles  or  knife  and  fork,  and  politely 
dissecting  a  wing  of  fowl  may  not  be  so  easy  as  gulping  a 
bowl  of  gruel. 

Some  definition  then  is  necessary  which  shall  be  represent- 
ative of  the  mode  of  behavior  according  to  age  and  custom. 
At  the  moment  we  are  not  comparative  cultural  anthropologists 
nor  students  of  etiquette  in  a  long-established  formal  civiliza- 
tion. Our  immediate  interest  is  confined  to  a  representative 
(defined)  environment  of  general  scope.  In  this  environment 
the  child  progresses  from  nursing  at  the  breast  to  feeding  from 
a  bottle,  to  drinking  from  a  cup  assisted,  eating  from  a  spoon 
assisted,  doing  these  unassisted,  using  a  fork,  using  a  knife, 
helping  himself,  and  so  on.  Such  successive  stages  in  the  process 
of  self-help  eating  may  be  formulated  without  too  much  regard 


86  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

for  their  minor  variability.  When  subjected  to  empirical 
examination  the  inconsequential  details  and  the  temporal 
appearance  of  critical  sequences  become  more  clearly  apparent. 

Considering  for  the  moment  the  major  result,  and  not 
forgetting  that  circumstances  alter  cases,  we  hardly  expect  the 
infant  at  birth  to  care  for  himself  without  aid  at  the  table,  even 
if  by  some  miracle  he  could  sit  in  a  highchair  to  do  so.  Neither 
do  we  expect  him  to  do  this  at  one  year  of  age,  or  at  two,  three, 
four,  or  five,  although  to  be  sure  at  these  successive  ages  we 
shall  see  the  child  making  noticeable  headway  toward  this  goal, 
as  we  may  also  note  marked  differences  among  children  in 
reaching  it.  Or  if  we  view  this  performance  from  the  other 
extremity,  we  should  expect  to  find  some  mental  or  physical 
handicap  among  those  who  do  not  care  for  themselves  inde- 
pendently at  the  table  after  twenty  years  of  age,  or  fifteen,  or 
perhaps  twelve,  or  possibly  ten. 

From  such  considerations  we  "discover"  that  this  feat 
(complete  care  of  self  at  table)  is  accomplished  most  commonly 
between  eight  and  ten  years  of  age.  Our  data  for  this  item 
(p.  110)  reveal  an  obtained  per  cent  of  "passes"  at  each 
successive  life  age,  from  which  may  be  calculated  an  average 
age  at  which  the  performance  is  accomplished.  The  Thomson 
means  of  our  maturation  data  fall  at  8.8  years  for  girls,  and  9.3 
years  for  boys. 

We  learn  further  that  the  standard  deviation  for  these 
means  is  1.8  years  for  girls,  and  1.4  years  for  boys.  We  may 
combine  the  data  and  find  that  without  regard  for  sex  this 
performance  is  average  at  9.0  years,  with  a  standard  deviation 
of  1.4  years,  and  with  the  extreme  limits  falling  between  5  and 
11  years.  For  what  it  might  be  worth  we  may  calculate  the 
standard  error  of  this  total  mean,  or  of  the  sex  means,  or  the 
statistical  significance  of  the  sex  difference,  and  so  on,  with  due 
regard  for  th©  limitations  of  the  samples  and  the  adequacy  of 
the  original  data.  The  variables  which  influence  such  results 
can  be  isolated  and  to  a  degree  empirically  or  statistically  con- 
trolled for  further  analysis.  For  example,  the  variation  in  rate 
of  development,  or  age  at  passing,  for  a  given  person  may  no 
doubt  be  influenced  more  or  less  by  environmental  circum- 
stances. In  broadly  similar  cultures  such  variation  is  much 
more  probably  due  to  individual  differences  in  maturation  or 
to  special  handicaps  respecting  the  various  abilities  involved  in 
accomplishing  this  act.  Such  variation  will  also  be  related  to 
"errors"  of  data  (e.g.,  examining,  scoring,  sampling). 


References  37 

We  could  pursue  this  illustration  further  for  other  items  of 
the  "self-help  eating"  category,  or  other  categories  of  behavior. 
In  fact,  such  exposition  will  be  the  principal  task  of  this  volume. 
Our  purpose  for  the  moment  is  to  illustrate  the  hypothesis,  and 
particularly  to  show  that  whatever  variability  may  be  at  issue 
because  of  specific  variables,  whether  correlative  or  selective, 
may  itself  be  expressed  within  definite  statistical  limits  through 
experimental  inquiry  as  soon  as  a  stando^rd  concept  has  been 
established. 


REFERENCES 

Anoebson,  John  E.,  and  Florence  L.  Goodenough,  1929.  The  modern 
bahy  book  and  child  development  record:  from  birth  to  sixteen  years. 
New  York:    W.  W.  Norton. 

Bij!?et,  ALFiiED,  and  Th.  Simon.  1910.  L'Arrieration.  UAnnee  Psychologique, 
16,  349-360. 

BiNET,  Alfred),  and  Th.  Simon.  1916.  The  development  of  intelligence  in 
children.  (Trans,  by  Elizabeth  S.  Kite.)  Baltimore:  Williams  and 
Wilkins. 

Beace,  David  K.  1927.  Measuring  motor  ability:  a  scale  of  motor  ability 
tests.    New  York:    A.  S.  Barnes. 

Buhl,  Geokoe  H.  1928.  The  education  of  low-grade  feeble-minded  through 
job  analysis.    Training  School  Btilletin,  25,  1-10. 

BuEos,  OscAB  K.  (Ed.)  1949.  The  third  mental  measurements  yearbook. 
New  Brunswick:    Rutgers  University  Press. 

Doll,  Edgab  A.  1929.  A  score-card  for  measuring  the  improvement  of 
mental  patients.   Unpublished  research  form.  The  Vineland  Laboratory. 

Doll,  Edgar  A.  (Ed.)  1946.  The  Oseretsky  tests  of  motor  proficiency:  a 
translation  from  the  Portuguese  adaptation.  (By  Maria  I.  L.  da  Costa, 
trans,  by  Elizabeth  J.  Fosa).  Minneapolis:  Educational  Test  Bureau. 
(Reprinted  from  Training  School  Bulletin,  AS,  1-13,  27-38,  50-59,  62-74). 

FoBTEs,  M.  1938.  Social  and  psychological  aspects  of  education  in  Taleland. 
(Supplement  to  Africa,  Vol.  XI,  No.  4).  London:  Oxford  University 
Press. 

FuEFET,  Paul  H.  1931.  A  revised  scale  fdr  measuring  developmental  age 
in  boys.    Child  Development,  2,  102-114. 

Gesell,  Arnold.  1925.  The  mental  growth  of  the  preschool  child:  a 
psychological  outline  of  normal  development  from  birth  to  the  sixth 
year,  including  a  system  of  developmental  diagnosis.  New  York: 
Macmillau. 


38  The  Problem  of  Measurement 

GoDDARD,  Henry  H.  1914.   Feeble-Mindedness:  its  causes  and  consequences. 

New  York:    Macmillan. 
HoLLiNGWOETH,    H.    L.    1927.     Mental    growth    and    decline.     New    York: 

D.  Appleton. 
KuENzEL,  Myba  W.  1929.    A  score-card  of  industrial  virtues.    Unpublished 

research    form,    The    Vineland    Laboratory. 
Mead,    Makgaret.     1946.     Research    on    primitive    children.     In    Leonabo 

Caemichael  (Ed.),  Manual  of  Child  Psychology,  pp.  667-706.  New  York: 

John  Wiley  and  Sons. 
Poeteus,  S.  D.  1922.   Studies  in  mental  deviations.   Viaeland:  The  Training 

School. 
RoGEES,  Gael  R.  1931.   Measuring  personality  adjustment  in  children  nine 

to    thirteen   years   of   age.    New   York:    Teachers   College,   Columbia 

University. 
Vaeon,    Edith   J.    1935.     The   development   of   Alfred    Binet's   psychology. 

Psychological  Monographs,  46,  No.  3. 
Wood,  Thomas  D.,  and  Maeion  O.  Lebbigo.  1927.  Health  behavior:  a  manual 

of  graded  standards  of  habits,  attitudes,  and  knowledge  conducive  to 

health  of  the  physical  organism,  and  of  personality,  home,  community 

and  race.    Bloomington:     Public   School   Publishing   Co. 
Yepsen,  Lloyd  N.  1928.    Objective  estimation  of  social  behavior.    Training 

School  Bulletin,   25,   33-41. 


PART     II 

CONSTRUCTION  OF  SOCIAL  MATURITY  SCALE 

Chapter  4.    Design  of  the  Scale 

Chapter  5.    Item  Criteria 
Chapter  6.    Item  Specification 


Design  of  the  Scale 


//  one  should  look  at  things  as 
they  grow  from  the  beginning  it 
would  be  the  best  method  of  study. —  Aristotle 

The  preceding  chapters  comprise  a  general  statement  of  the 
problem  and  the  concepts  which  underlie  this  method  of  meas- 
uring social  competence.  The  need  for  such  a  method  is  clear 
and  the  manifold  uses  readily  apparent.  Following  the  leads 
inherent  in  common  observation,  and  coordinating  the  scattered 
scientific  material  seems  simple  enough.  So  also  the  distant 
mountain  appears  easy  to  scale  until  one  explores  its  more 
imminent  ascents.  A  facetious  rime  well  expresses  the  dilemma : 

The  centipede  w^as  happy  quite 

I'ntil  the  toad,  in  fun, 

Said,  pray,  which  leg  moves  after  which? 

This  raised  her  doubts  to  such  a  pitch 

She  fell  distracted  in  the  ditch, 

Not  knowing  how  to  run.  —  Marion  Quinlan  Davis 

General  plan  of  full  scale.  The  procedure  finally  adopted 
was  somewhat  as  follows.  We  first  canvassed  the  nature  and 
course  of  genetic  development  as  revealed  by  ordinary  obser- 
vation, the  scientific  literature  and  general  knowledge.  With 
few  exceptions,  the  literature  proved  fertile  in  general  trend 
but  strikingly  barren  of  specific  material  that  satisfied  our  re- 
quirements. The  studies  of  child  development  (especially  for 
the  decade  1920 — 1930)  proved  helpful  for  the  period  of  early 
infancy,  but  offered  little  after  the  close  of  the  pre-school  period. 
The  genetic  milestones  of  the  road  to  maturity  were  few  in 
number,  indeterminately  spaced,  and  vaguelj^  inscribed;  the 
traveler  was  guided  by  a  variable  compass  and  shifting  land- 
marks. 

Supplementing  these  broad  resources  we  drew  upon  our 
own  observations  of  normal  children  during  a  quarter  century 
of  child-study  supplemented  by  intimate  acquaintance  with  the 
feeble-minded.  The  latter  in  many  ways  afford  slow-motion  or 
"still"  pictures  of  human  maturation  which  makes  possible 
more  detailed  analysis  of  developmental  stages  than  is  practica- 


40  Design  of  the  Scale 

ble  among  normal  children  (who  pass  these  stages  too  rapidly 
for  minute  appraisal).  And  since  the  initial  purpose  of  the 
proposed  scale  was  to  measure  subnormal  degrees  of  social 
maturation,  these  observations  on  the  feeble-minded  were 
specifically  relevant.  Moreover,  among  the  various  types  and 
degrees  of  deficiency  we  could  note  the  presumptive  influence  of 
age  and  experience,  general  intelligence,  special  abilities  and 
disabilities,  effect  of  instruction,  and  above  all  the  discrimina- 
tive value  of  such  items  among  those  permanently  retarded  in 
social  maturation. 

From  this  background  we  sought  to  assemble  an  inventory 
of  genetically  apparent  performances  which  would  serve  to 
distinguish  one  level  of  attainment  from  another.  What  are  the 
specific  social  accomplishments  of  normal  childern  at  say  five, 
ten,  fifteen,  or  twenty  years  which  characterize  "growing  up"  ? 
Which  of  these  afford  the  sharpest  discrimination  at  successive 
ages?  Which  of  them  are  significant  of  social  adequacy?  How 
can  these  periods  be  reduced  to  smaller  intervals  and  yet  retain 
discriminative  distinctiveness  ?  By  what  performances  are  nor- 
mal persons  at  any  age  superior  to  morons,  morons  to  imbeciles, 
and  imbeciles  to  idiots?  Can  these  differences  be  expressed  in 
age-scale  units  similar  to  mental-age  scores  ? 

Such  inventories  were  constructed  by  listing  apparently 
significant  segments  of  maturation  that  seemed  to  distinguish 
one  normative  age-level  from  another  and  each  mental  defi- 
ciency level  from  its  neighbors.  As  major  criteria  for  itemizing 
such  performances  it  seemed  desirable  that  all  items  should  have 
relatively  universal  appearance,  rapid  emergence,  prolonged 
retention,  and  biogenetic  socially  significant  value. 

It  soon  became  evident  that  such  detailed  performances 
fell  somewhat  naturally  into  major  categories  of  expression 
which  included  progressive  degrees  of  essentially  similar 
activity.  It  was  equally  evident  that  these  progressions  might 
be  segmented  as  distinctive  stages  of  the  categorical  behavior  in 
question.  We  subsequently  combined  these  two  procedures  by 
pooling  from  all  categories  those  items  which  most  obviously 
discriminated  successive  age  levels. 

In  this  we  followed  few  preconceived  notions  either  as  to 
the  abilities  present  at  a  given  age  or  the  categorical  relations 
of  such  items.  Our  initial  task  was  to  enumerate  as  many  per- 
formances as  possible  that  seemed  characteristic  of  successive 
life  ages,  using  information  regarding  both  the  age  periods  and 
the  categorical  aspects  of  development.    Of  prime  importance 


General  Plan  of  Full  Scale  41 

was  the  requirement  that  each  item  should  bear  pertinent  rela- 
tion to  social  competence. 

Other  considerations  required  that  the  itents  of  the  Scale 
be  relatively  independent  of  the  specific  influence  of  sex  (so 
that  we  might  have  a  single  scale  for  both  sexes),  personality, 
conventions,  social  status,  special  environmental  opportunity, 
and  the  like,  as  such.  Further,  we  decided  to  retain  only  those 
items  which  represented  the  ultimate  capitalization  of  personal 
abilities  and  experiences  for  social  competence  rather  than  these 
for  their  own  sake.  We  chose  deliberately  to  select  items  which 
reflected  the  tout  ensemble  of  social  expression.  Consequently 
we  discarded  items  which  seemed  to  be  specific  measures  of 
intelligence,  skill,  attitudes,  habits,  specific  achievement,  and 
the  like,  preferring  instead  the  more  generalized  and  more 
universal  utilitarian  end-results  produced  by  their  correlated 
application.  As  will  appear  later,  we  were  not  altogether 
successful  in  identifying  social  maturity  with  social  competence. 

In  adopting  this  point  of  view  we  assumed  that  in  the 
normal  course  of  growth  and  development  the  individual 
dominates,  capitalizes,  or  utilizes  his  environmental  opportuni- 
ties according  to  the  stage  of  genetic  evolution  in  which  he  may 
be  at  the  time.  We  were  not  immediately  concerned  with  the 
extent  to  which  this  learning  was  the  product  of  formal  instruc- 
tion, imitation,  original  adaptation,  or  the  bio-social  urge  to 
self-expression.  Fortunately  for  this  purpose,  the  democratic 
atmosphere  of  the  United  States  environment  and  the  gener- 
al freedom  of  social  opportunity  afford  almost  unlimited  scope 
for  social  maturation.  The  generally  high  level  of  material  and 
scholastic  culture,  the  comparative  freedom  from  political  and 
economic  restraints,  the  comparative  wealth  and  universality 
of  social  expression,  encourage  the  fullest  personal  exploitation 
of  the  environment  possible  according  to  one's  native  ability 
and  stage  of  development.  These  opportunities  are  incidental, 
accidental,  and  consequential;  their  effects  are  direct  and 
indirect,  causal  and  casual. 

Our  thesis  bears  repeating,  namely,  that  the  child  is  rel- 
atively, helpless  at  birth,  gradually  "takes  over"  increasing 
responsibility  for  his  own  personal  needs,  later  assumes 
responsibility  for  the  welfare  of  others,  and  in  the  highest 
forms  of  self-expression  contributes  to  the  general  welfare  of 
society.  In  the  involutional  stage  of  post-maturity  (senescence) , 
and  in  disordered  mental  states  or  physical  conditions,  he  may 
revert  to  more  or  less  dependent  status  from  loss  or  impairment 
of  vigor. 


42  Design  of  the  Scale 

Requirements.  What  principles  govern  the  selection  of 
items  for  such  a  scale? 

1.  A  choice  must  be  made  regarding  the  environmental 
limits  within  which  the  scale  is  to  be  considered  standard.  This 
scale  is  designed  for  general  use  in  (a)  "ordinary"  urban  and 
rural  (U.S.)  situations,  (b)  within  the  "usual"  limits  of  social- 
economic  status  as  a  whole,  (c)  over  the  entire  range  of  literacy, 
(d)  for  the  complex  of  nationality  derivations  found  in  this 
country  in  large  numbers.  Obviously,  the  validations  for  such 
generalities  must  depend  upon  further  inquiry,  without  which 
we  cannot  know  how  adequately  the  Vineland  sample  represents 
the  total  U.S.  population  and  its  cultural  differences.  We  must 
therefore  leave  to  later  applications  of  the  Scale  the  determina- 
tion of  major  environmental  differences  and  their  effect  on  the 
standardization  of  the  items.  This  would  require  composite 
sampling  of  the  population  according  to  proportional  represen- 
tation and  other  details.  In  other  words,  the  "addends"  require 
more  explicit  exposition  both  as  to  their  specification  and  their 
effects, 

2.  We  must  decide  whether  to  have  a  separate  scale  for 
each  sex,  or  a  single  scale  for  both  sexes.  For  practical  reasons 
a  single  scale  offers  decided  advantages.  This  merely  requires 
that  items  which  show  presumptive  or  demonstrated  sex 
differences  be  excluded  and  only  those  items  retained  which  are 
equally  applicable  to  both  sexes.  Thus,  in  Item  75  (Cares  for 
self  at  table)  there  is  a  mean  sex  difference  of  .45  years  in  favor 
of  the  girls,  but  the  statistical  reliability  (critical  ratio)  of  this 
difference  is  only  .60  (and  therefore  not  statistically  signifi- 
cant). Moreover,  the  amount  of  difference  is  relatively  small. 
This  criterion  is  made  more  explicit  in  the  discussion  of  item 
standardization  (Chapter  6) . 

In  place  of  a  separate  scale  for  each  sex  or  a  single  scale 
for  both,  a  combination  scale  might  be  constructed  with  certain 
items  alternative  for  the  sexes.  This  has  been  avoided  except  in 
a  few  instances  where  the  same  item  is  alternatively  defined. 
For  the  rest,  the  sex  differences  which  remain  are  of  limited 
significance,  and  their  effects  are  further  compensated  in  the 
total  scores.  The  total  elimination  of  sex  differences  must  await 
a  more  extensive  revision  or  standardization.  As  we  shall  note 
later,  such  total  elimination  may  be  undesirable  as  well  as 
impracticable.  For  there  may  well  be  genuine  differences  which 
should  be  revealed  rather  than  obscured,  or  clarified  rather  than 
suppressed. 


Requirements  43 

3.  Each  item  should  show  rapid  rise  and  consistency  for  its 
maturation  period.  In  other  words,  the  extreme  limits  within 
which  success  and  failure  are  comprised  in  successive  life-age 
groups  should  be  narrow ;  that  is,  the  standard  deviation  of  the 
distribution  should  be  small.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  for  the 
majority  of  our  items  (sexes  combined)  the  total  maturational 
spread  is  less  than  six  years,  the  standard  deviation  is  less 
than  1.10  years,  and  the  coefficient  of  variability  is  less  than  30. 

4.  It  is  desirable  that  item  "success"  should  be  retained 
rather  than  lost  in  successive  stages  of  maturation.  Continued 
maturation  may  involve  the  loss  of  some  types  of  behavior  while 
acquiring  others,  as  the  organism  evolves.  For  example,  the  play 
activities  of  early  childhood  are  superceded  by  the  creative 
realities  of  adolescence,  for  as  related  Biblically,  "When  I  be- 
came a  man  I  put  away  childish  things."  It  is  desirable  that  the 
individual  be  scored  throughout  the  entire  range  of  develop- 
ment ;  hence  if  loss  of  function  is  taken  as  an  evidence  of  matu- 
rity, this  introduces  a  difficulty  due  to  the  fact  that  the  actual 
scoring  of  an  item  then  requires  knowledge  as  to  whether  the 
absence  of  habitual  performance  is  due  to  immaturity  or  to  post- 
maturity. This  principle  need  not  apply,  however,  to  those 
items  which  might  be  employed  when  loss  of  function  represents 
a  return  to  an  earlier  stage  of  dependence  because  of  mental  or 
physical  impairment.  The  violation  of  this  principle  for  certain 
items  is  discussed  in  relation  to  the  item  specifications 
(Chapter  6). 

5.  It  is  essential  that  such  a  scale  be  employed  in  its 
entirety  either  in  fact  or  by  implication  since  the  maturity 
level  of  the  individual  is  indicated  by  his  total  score  on  the 
scale  as  a  whole.  It  is  therefore  necessary  not  only  to  calibrate 
the  scale  item  by  item,  but  also  to  standardize  the  total  scores. 

Each  item  of  this  scale  reveals  some  lower  age  at  which 
there  is  total  absence  of  performance  on  the  part  of  the  most 
gifted  or  precocious  individuals,  and  most  items  some  upper 
age  at  which  the  performance  is  present  in  all  individuals  ex-, 
cept  those  whose  development  has  been  reduced  by  extreme 
mental,  social,  or  environmental  handicap.  At  the  upper  ex- 
tremity of  the  Scale  some  items  are  ultimately  passed  by  only 
a  majority,  and  others  by  only  a  minority.  The  final  items  are 
passed  only  rarely  or  not  at  all  by  the  most  competent  S's 
(subjects)  in  our  sample.  In  short,  each  item  reveals  a  matura- 
tion that  may  be  plotted  statistically  as  progressive  percentages 


44  Design  of  the  Scale 

of  passing  for  successive  life  ages.  The  central  tendencies  of 
these  curves  yield  a  numerically  precise  calibration  of  scale 
units  and  the  standard  deviations  of  these  means  afford  criteria 
for  item  selection  in  relation  to  specific  influences. 

6.  The  items  finally  retained  must  be  susceptible  of  explicit 
definition,  and  adequate  information  must  presumptively  be 
obtainable  for  satisfying  these  definitions  with  a  minimum  of 
equivocation.  Many  otherwise  desirable  items  were  discarded 
because  of  the  difficulty  of  clear  specification,  or  that  of  obtain- 
ing suitable  evidence.  This  was  conspicuously  apparent  on  items 
of  school  attainment  where  the  useful  application  of  attained 
literacy  proved  difficult  to  evaluate.  It  is  hardly  to  be  expected 
that  all  items  will  equally  satisfy  this  requirement  of  clearcut 
definition  and  evidence.  The  present  weaknesses  of  particular 
items  can  be  corrected;  such  specific  shortcomings  do  not 
seriously  affect  the  Scale  as  a  whole. 

Range  of  application.  What  are  the  limits  of  social  matu- 
rity that  can  be  measured  by  such  a  device  ?  We  have  discussed 
the  helplessness  of  the  new-born  infant  as  equivalent  to  the 
approximate  zero  of  the  Scale.  Indeed,  the  zero  point  of  social 
maturity  is  somewhat  below  that  of  the  new-born  infant, 
dating  as  far  back  as  at  least  early  fetal  movement. 

We  have  seen  a  mental  patient  in  a  state  of  catalepsy  whose 
social  behavior  was  less  than  that  of  the  new-born  infant.  This 
patient  displayed  no  movement  whatever  other  than  occasional 
faint  twitchings  of  the  eyelids.  Not  even  the  simplest  self- 
sustaining  functions  were  operative  aside  from  such  involuntary 
vital  processes  as  respiration,  circulation,  digestion  and 
elimination.  This  patient  was  tube-fed,  since  even  swallowing 
or  the  most  elementary  feeding  mechanisms  were  inhibited. 
Even  elimination  had  to  be  induced  by  cathartic  and  enema. 
Such  a  person  is  hardly  even  vegetative  since  his  performances 
are  at  such  low  ebb  that  even  vital  functions  are  not  self- 
sustained  and  the  capacity  for  independent  survival  is  less  than 
that  of  a  rooted  plant.  Yet  we  may  not  say  that  the  mental  life 
of  such  a  person  is  absolutely  nil  even  though  there  be  at  the 
time  no  evidence  of  such  activity.  It  is  not  unusual  for  such  a 
patient  on  recovery  to  have  clear  recollection  of  the  experiences 
going  on  about  him  at  the  time  although  to  all  appearances  in  a 
complete  state  of  coma. 

And  lest  this  simple  illustration  seem  unique  we  may  note 
whole  categories  of  extreme  deficiency,  either  developmental 
or  involutional,  associated  with  mental  or  physical  disabilities 


The  Interview  Method  45 

such    as    vegetative    idiocy,    severe    cerebral    palsy,    terminal 
dementia,  the  final  stages  of  Parkinsonism,  and  so  on. 

At  the  other  pole,  the  height  of  social  maturity  may  be 
said  to  be  reached  by  those  individuals  who  control  the  destinies 
of  others  in  large  measure.  Here  we  encounter  the  difficulty  of 
appraising  moral  social  values.  Was  Aristotle  socially  more 
"mature"  than  Alexander,  or  Nietzche  more  "competent"  than 
Bismark?  Shall  we  esteem  ethical,  spiritual,  and  intellectual 
expression  above  political,  economic,  and  military  leadership? 
We  shall  subsequently  propound  a  philosophy  of  social  values  on 
which  the  adult  items  of  this  scale  are  postulated.  We  shall 
have  no  little  difficulty  defending  the  thesis  that  the  sword  is 
mightier  than  the  pen,  that  Caesar  was  socially  more  competent 
than  Paul,  or  Stalin  than  Gandhi.  For  the  immediate  superiority 
of  the  extrovert  does  not  outlive  the  ultimate  influence  of  the 
introvert.  We  agree  with  Poincaire  that  "the  conquests  of 
industry  which  have  enriched  so  many  practical  men  would 
never  have  seen  the  light,  if  these  practical  men  alone  had 
existed  and  if  they  had  not  been  preceded  by  unselfish  devotees 
who  died  poor,  who  never  thought  of  utility."  On  the  other 
hand  the  "practical"  ones  do  harvest  such  fruits. 

For  completeness  vv^e  have  endeavored  to  include  both 
points  of  view.  The  most  mature  individual  would  therefore 
be  he  who  is  both  teacher  and  statesman,  or  both  conqueror  and 
ruler,  a  Plato  equal  to  the  practical  exploitation  of  his  own 
philosophy,  or  a  Napoleon  politically  able  to  unite  Europe.  This 
involves  the  difficult  question  of  what  constitutes  social 
progress,  since  it  has  been  so  frequently  evident  that  efforts 
toward  world  domination  have  resulted  only  in  social  desolation. 

The  interview  method.  Such  a  scale  could  be  formulated 
as  a  rating  scale,  in  which  case  the  subject  would  be  described 
in  respect  to  his  performances  on  the  basis  of  the  personal  opin- 
ion of  some  observer.  These  opinions  would  be  relatively 
subjective  values  inferred  from  observations  and  would  vary 
according  to  the  standards  employed  by  the  informant  in  ex- 
pressing his  opinions.  The  method  would  be  only  moderately 
improved  by  adopting  more  recent  rating  scale  techniques. 

In  place  of  such  a  rating  scale,  we  might  employ  represent- 
ative standard  situations  for  "testing"  a  subject's  capabilities. 
This  alternative  has  the  merit  of  relative  objectivity  but  is 
obviously  not  suited  to  our  purposes,  first  because  of  the  es- 
sential difficulty  of  providing  practical  test  situations  as  labo- 


46  Design  of  the  Scale 

ratory  equivalents  of  the  behavior  in  question,  and  also  because 
such  observations  would  reveal  only  what  the  subject  can  do  at 
the  time  of  examination  rather  than  what  he  does  do  routinely. 

Since  it  is  our  purpose  in  measuring  social  behavior  to 
describe  the  expression  of  abilities  in  terms  of  their  capitaliza- 
tion for  socially  significant  purposes,  we  are  concerned  not  so 
much  with  innate  ability  as  with  overt  performance.  Conse- 
quently we  desire  to  appraise  a  person's  habitual  or  customary 
behavior  as  an  established  mode  of  conduct  rather  than  as  a 
potential  for  acquiring  such  conduct.  Hence  we  require  of  the 
method  that  it  should  reveal  what  the  subject  typically  does 
in  daily  life  (within  the  limits  of  repeated  experience)  rather 
than  what  he  could  do  if  required. 

In  place  of  test  observations  we  must  therefore  rely  upon 
report.  But  this  returns  us  to  the  pitfalls  of  the  rating  scale 
method.  To  avoid  this  we  must  seek  relatively  objective  state- 
ments as  factual  descriptions,  which  are  comparatively  free 
from  mere  opinion  or  subjective  (inferred  value)  standards. 
We  require  more  than  a  statement  of  yes  or  no,  or  of  more  or 
less.  In  short,  we  require  specific  information  regarding  overt 
behavior  which  can  be  evaVimted  by  the  examiner  on  the  basis 
of  standard  definitive  formulation. 

Calibration  principle.  Assuming  a  satisfactory  system  of 
examination,  and  a  fair  degree  of  adequacy  for  the  data  so 
obtained,  the  next  problem  is  that  of  "normalizing"  the  material 
in  the  form  of  a  standardized  scale.  The  basic  units  of  measure- 
ment within  the  data  are  the  LA  (life  age)  item  norms.  But 
the  ultimate  performance  unit  to  be  standardized  is  the  norma- 
tive sum  of  item  successes.  The  items  must  therefore  be 
arranged  in  some  systematic  fashion,  and  the  total  scores 
reduced  to  standard  units.  These  are  to  be  expressed  as  age- 
norms  since  this  is  the  basic  equivalent  standard  for  expressing 
the  performance  values. 

Such  numerical  derivatives  are  inevitably  conventional  rather 
than  "natural"  units  since  the  performance  scores  afford  no 
(other)  dimensional  measure.  These  derived  units  are  in- 
fluenced by  the  particular  principle  employed  in  the  treatment 
of  data  suggested  by  logical,  mathematical  and  practical  con- 
siderations (cf.  p.  373  and  p.  380). 

While  various  modes  of  treatment  have  acquired  a  general 
acceptance  (or  at  least  vogue) ,  no  "best  way"  has  yet  become 
a  final  criterion.  In  the  present  state  of  experimentation  dif- 
ferent procedures  afford  relative  advantages  and  limitations 


Calibration  Principle  47 

according  to  the  materials  and  problems  at  issue.  In  designing 
the  structural  form  of  a  scale  such  as  this,  one  must  therefore 
exercise  those  predilections  which  seem  most  advisable  in 
view  of  all  circumstances. 

In  constructing  the  present  scale  we  sought  a  compromise 
between  the  intricacies  of  recent  statistical  developments  and 
the  looseness  of  earlier  analysis.  Simplicity  and  clarity  as  well 
as  practicability  are  virtues  not  to  be  lightly  bartered  for 
mathematical  complexities  which  have  not  yet  proved  their 
empirical  worth.  As  Kurt  Lewin  once  observed,  "Theory  is 
great,  but  we  musn't  let  it  get  in  our  way."  For  the  involved 
theory  and  extensive  labor  attending  these  methods  yield 
products  whose  ultimate  merits  are  still  dubious.  And  lest  such 
a  statement  seem  dogmatic  or  apologetic  we  should  perhaps 
add  that  this  conclusion  was  reached  in  this  work  only  after 
a  thoughtful  appraisal  of  the  statistical  resources  at  present 
variously  advocated.  A  resume  of  these  arguments  is  not  here 
desirable.  Nor  is  it  feasible  to  review  the  trial  treatments  of 
data  which  helped  to  decide  the  above  standpoint. 

As  a  first  requirement  it  was  deemed  desirable  to  arrange 
the  Scale  items  in  a  statistically  definite  hierarchy.  This  pro- 
vided a  schedule  of  performances  in  orderly  progression  of 
mean  life-age  values  for  the  entire  maturation  period  covered 
by  each  item  for  all  subjects  examined. 

The  specific  data  are  reported  in  Chapter  6.  Other  progres- 
sions may  depart  from  this  one  (a)  by  statistically  determi- 
nable (but  probably  minor)  amounts  if  the  size  of  the  sample 
is  increased,  (b)  by  generally  predictable  amounts  if  the 
selectivity  of  the  sample  is  modified  in  known  directions,  (c)  by 
relatively  unpredictable  (but  perhaps  appreciable)  amounts  if 
the  standards  of  administration  or  scoring  are  notably  altered, 
and  (d)  by  serious  amounts  if  the  items  themselves  are 
modified  in  number,  scope  or  form.  Since  all  of  these  variables 
are  subject  to  at  least  some  variation  in  other  samples,  it  is 
to  be  expected  that  other  standardizations  may  yield  corre- 
sponding revisions  of  item  arrangement  and  age-scores  (as  in 
the  Maxfield-Fjeld  adaptation  for  young  blind  subjects,  p.  531). 

These  progressions  will  further  be  modified  by  the  particu- 
lar procedures  employed  for  determining  them  for  any  given 
body  of  data.  Of  the  different  methods  and  various  criteria 
advocated  for  treating  this  type  of  data  the  Thomson  method 
was  adopted  as  the  most  objective  and  otherwise  satisfactory- 
This  method  affords  a  statistically  accurate  mean  difficulty  for 
each  item  by  taking  account  of  all  data  from  total  absence  to 


48  Design  of  the  Scale 

total  presence  of  passes  for  each  item  throughout  the  entire 
maturation  period.  It  also  yields  a  standard  measure  of  varia- 
bility which  in  turn  permits  statistical  appraisal  of  the  relia- 
bility of  differences  of  means. 

The  precise  order  of  progression  of  items  of  the  final  Scale 
is  based  on  mean  life-age  maturation.  To  accomplish  this  we 
employed  a  selected  sample  rather  than  a  random  sample.  The 
consistency  of  the  selection  at  successive  stages  is  indicated  by 
the  central  tendencies  for  such  influences  as  paternal  occupa- 
tion and  bi-parental  schooling  as  well  as  by  the  subjects'  own 
occupation  and  schooling  (Chapter  9).  The  influence  of  the 
number  of  cases  (S's)  on  the  item  norms  and  age  norms  can  be 
statistically  calculated  from  the  data.  The  results  are  further 
stabilized  by  having  been  gathered  and  scored  by  one  examiner 
as  well  as  initially  treated  under  that  person's  immediate  super- 
vision. Hence  the  standardization  may  be  taken  as  unusually 
dependable  within  the  limits  of  the  data. 

Point-scale  principle.  The  arrangement  of  items  in 
sequential  order  of  difficulty  is  not  essential  to  point-scale 
standardization,  but  does  facilitate  and  clarify  such  an  outcome. 
Moreover,  since  the  Thomson  method  affords  not  only  a  statis- 
tically conventional  progression,  but  also  yields  precise  year- 
locations  of  items,  the  Scale  is  a  "neater"  instrument  and  has 
more  meaning.  This  simplifies  the  conversion  of  the  point-scale 
arrangement  to  a  year-scale. 

For  present  purposes  a  point-scale  may  be  defined  as  a 
series  of  items  graded  according  to  some  criterion  in  such  a 
manner  that  a  given  sum  of  points  may  be  expressed  as 
criterion-unit  values.  In  the  present  scale  the  normative  unit 
of  grading  is  life  age  and  the  corresponding  values  are  the 
mean  point  scores  corresponding  to  successive  mean  ages.  As 
a  point-scale,  total  point-scores  may  be  converted  to  age-values 
(termed  SA  or  "social  age")  by  interpolation  or  from  a  stand- 
ard table  (Chapter  7). 

Year-scale  principle.  A  year-scale  as  distinguished  from  a 
point-scale  is  one  in  which  the  items  are  arranged  in  year-groups 
as  well  as  (or  rather  than)  in  simple  point  progression.  Age- 
scores  may  be  calculated  directly  from  a  year-scale  without 
resort  to  conversion  tables. 

The  Binet-Simon  Scale  is  a  well-known  example  of  year- 
scale  construction.  (In  the  Yerkes-Bridges-Hardwick  modi- 
fication and  in  the  Herring  Revision  it  is  arranged  as  a  point- 


Year  Scale  Principle  49 

scale.)  That  scale  was  first  presented  in  1905  as  a  roughly 
progressive  series  of  test  items.  In  the  1908  version  the  year- 
scale  principle  was  adopted  and  has  been  retained  in  most  of 
the  subsequent  reformulations.  The  items  (tests)  of  such  a 
scale  are  typically  arranged  in  a  rough  approximation  to 
progressive  order  of  difficulty  on  the  principle  of  being  passed 
by  a  majority  of  the  subjects  of  the  age-level  at  which  each  item 
"standardizes."  This  "majority"  has  been  uncertainly  defined 
and  dubiously  determined  by  most  workers.  (The  more  pre- 
cise procedures  proposed  by  Otis,  Kuhlmann,  Thurstone, 
Thorndike  and  others  have  not  been  widely  employed.)  The  re- 
sulting inadequacies  disturb  the  internal  "neatness"  of  such 
scales ;  while  not  gravely  disturbing,  they  induce  a  wider  "scat- 
ter" in  individual  results.  Other  year-scales  have  employed 
other  procedures  (as  in  the  year-scale  arrangement  of  the 
Pintner-Paterson  Performance  Scale).  And  of  course  many 
scales  are  designed  on  other  principles.  Indeed,  many  students 
are  vigorously  opposed  to  the  year-scale  (commonly  called 
mental-age)   principle. 

The  method  herein  employed,  which  gives  precise  mean- 
age  values  to  each  item  for  its  total  maturation  range,  and 
which  derives  age-scores  from  point-scores,  has  many  practical 
advantages  over  the  empirical  method  of  the  Binet-type  scale. 

The  Social  Scale  has  been  arranged  as  a  year-scale  by 
segmenting  the  successive  items  in  groups  according  to  sequen- 
tial interval  point-scores  as  year-equivalents  (Chapter  9).  The 
numerical  progression  of  items  represents  the  order  of  difficulty 
in  terms  of  mean-age  calibration.  This  numerical  progression 
considered  cumulatively  is  reduced  to  total  point  scores,  and 
these  are  further  reduced  to  age-level  groups  by  progressive 
interpolation  (Chapter  9).  The  SA  item  values  are  then  taken 
as  proportional  to  the  number  of  items  per  year-group. 

It  is  a  convenience,  but  not  a  necessity,  to  have  the  same 
number  of  items  for  each  year  group.  This  would  give  all  items 
equal  values  (where  the  year  intervals  are  equal)  since  each 
would  have  the  same  fractional  year  value,  and  these  values 
could  be  easily  memorized.  And  the  number  of  items  per  year 
could  be  determined  so  as  to  simplify  fractional  or  decimal 
additions  as  convenient  multiples  of  years  or  months. 

In  this  Scale,  instead  of  an  equal  number  of  tests  per  year- 
interval  the  number  decreases  progressively  as  age  level  in- 
creases.   At  some  year-intervals  the  point  scores  standardize 


50  Design  of  the  Scale 

unevenly  or  by  such  small  increments  that  it  is  advisable  to  com- 
bine intervals  and  assume  a  smooth  distribution  between  in- 
tervals. The  individual  items  are  therefore  of  unequal  age-score 
value.  Hence  point-score  values  are  retained  by  summing  the 
total  number  of  items  passed.  The  age-score  may  then  be  ob- 
tained by  interpolation  from  the  blank  or  from  the  conversion 
table  (since  the  point-score  age-scores  are  the  same  as  the 
year-score  age-scores  throughout  the  Scale). 

The  advantages  of  the  year-scale  principle  are  therefore  of 
the  order  of  practical  convenience.  For  example : 

1.  The  year-scale  arrangement  of  items  facilitates  identify- 
ing and  memorizing  the  items  in  terms  of  their  central  matu- 
ration value. 

2.  It  simplifies  administration  of  the  Scale  by  suggesting 
the  most  probable  area  of  examining  in  relation  to  life  age,  or 
score  level,  and  within  categories. 

3.  It  makes  the  Scale  more  readily  intelligible  to  the  layman 
or  the  amateur  examiner,  and  thus  encourages  more  meaningful 
attitudes  toward  its  acceptance,  mastery  and  use. 

4.  It  permits  direct  calculation  of  age-scores  from  the  blank 
without  need  for  consulting  conversion  tables. 

5.  It  encourages  use  of  the  Scale  as  a  history  schedule  of 
child  development. 

6.  It  calls  attention  to  the  Scale's  internal  constitution,  such 
as  numbers  of  items  per  age-level,  categorical  loading  at  differ- 
ent intervals,  change  in  item  content  with  age,  which  are  less 
readily  apparent  in  the  point-scale  alone. 

The  final  Scale.  From  such  considerations  the  initial  de- 
scriptive outline  of  motor  improvement  with  which  this  work 
began  grew  into  a  developmental  schedule  of  manifold  per- 
formances, then  a  calibrated  sequence  of  social  maturation, 
then  to  a  standardized  point-scale  and  finally  a  combination  of 
these  into  a  year-scale.  This  is  accomplished  in  Chapter  9 
(see  p.  373  and  p.  380).  The  outcome  is  anticipated  here  in  the 
record  blank  for  the  Scale  which  follows. 


The  Final  Scale 


51 


VINELAND  SOCIAL  MATURITY  SCALE* 


Name  

Sex  

...  Grade  Date 

Residence   

Descent   Born 

M.A.  or            LQ. 

or 

M.G.U P.A 

Test  Used 

When Age  

Occupation 

Class.. 

....  Yrs.  Exp Schooling  

Father's  Occupation  ... 

Class.. 

....  Yrs.  Exp Schooling 

Mother's  Occupation  ... 

Class.. 

....  Yrs.  Exp Schooling 

Informant  

...Relationship   

Recorder 

Informant's  £iSt. 

Basal  Score 

T?  PTniiTlr^i ' 

Additional  Pts 

AkrClXACkl.  JViD  ■ 

Total  Score _ 

Age  Equivalent 

Social  Quotient 

Categories**       Item 

Age  Levels 

O  — I 

C 

1. 

"Crows";  laughs 

SHG 

2. 

Balances  head 

SHG 

3. 

Grasps  objects  within  reach 

S 

4. 

Reaches  for  familiar  persons 

SHG 

5. 

Rolls  over 

SHG 

6. 

Reaches  for  nearby  objects 

0 

7. 

Occupies  self  unattended 

SHG 

8. 

Sits  unsupported 

SHG 

9. 

Pulls  self  upright 

C 

10. 

"Talks";  imitates  ! 

sounds 

SHE 

11. 

Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  assisted 

L 

12. 

Moves  about  on  floor 

SHG 

13. 

Grasps  with  thumb  and  finger 

S 

14. 

Demands  personal 

attention 

S  H  G 

15. 

Stands  alone 

SHE 

16. 

Does  not  drool 

C 

17. 

Follows  simple  instructions 

I  — II 

L 

18. 

Walks  about  room 

unattended 

0 

19. 

Marks  with  pencil 

or  crayon 

SHE 

20. 

Masticates  food 

SHD 

21. 

Pulls  off  socks 

0 

22. 

Transfers  objects 

SHG 

23. 

Overcomes  simple 

obstacles 

0 

24. 

Fetches  or  carries 

familiar  objects 

SHE 

25. 

Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  unassisted 

SHG 

26. 

Gives  up  baby  carriage 

S 

27. 

Plays  with  other 

children 

SHE 

28. 

Eats  with  spoon 

L 

29. 

Goes  about  house 

or  yard 

SHE 

30. 

Discriminates  edible  substances 

♦Copyright,  1936,  The  Training  School  at  Vineland  N.  J 

**Key  to  categorical  arrangement  of  items: 

SHG  —  Self-help  general  C  —  Communication 

SHD  —  Self-help  dressing 
SHE  —  Self-help  eating 


SD 

S- 


Self -direction 
Socialization 


L  —  Locomotion 
O  —  Occupation 


52  Design  of  the  Scale 

Uses  names  of  familiar  objects 
Walks  upstairs  miassisted 
UnwT.'aps  candy 
Talks  in  short  sentences 

II  — III 

Asks  to  go  to  toilet 

Initiates  own  play  activities 

Removes  coat  or  dress 

Eats  with  fork 

Gets  drink  unassisted 

Dries  own  hands 

Avoids  simple  hazards 

Puts  on  coat  or  dress  vmassisted 

Cuts  with  scissors 

Relates  experiences 

III  —  IV 

Walks  downstairs  one  step  per  tread 

Plays  cooperatively  at  kindergarten  level 

Buitons  coat  or  dress 

Helps  at  little  household  tasks 

"Performs"  for  others 

Washes  hands  unaided 

IV  — V 

Cares  for  self  at  toilet 

Washes  face  unassisted 

Goes  about  neighborhood  unattended 

Dresses  self  except  tying 

Uses  pencil  or  crayon  for  drawing 

Plays  competitive  exercise  games 

V  — VI 

Uses  skates,  sled,  wagon 
Prints  simple  words 
Plays  simple  table  games 
Is  trusted  with  money 
Goes  to  school  unattended 

VI  — VII 

Uses  table  knife  for  spreading 
Uses  pencil  for  writing 
Bathes  self  assisted 
Goes  to  bed  unassisted 

VII  — VIII 

Tells  time  to  quarter  hour 
Uses  table  knife  for  cutting 
Disavows  literal  Santa  Claus 
Participates  in  pre-adolescent  play 
Combs  or  brushes  hair 

vin— IX 

Uses  tools  or  utensils 
Does  routine  household  tasks 
Reads  on  own  initiative 
Bathes  self  unaided 

DC  — X 

Cares  for  self  at  table 
Makes  minor  purchases 
Goes  about  home  town  freely 


c 

31. 

L 

32. 

SHE 

33. 

C 

34. 

SHG 

35. 

0 

36. 

SHD 

37. 

SHE 

38. 

SHE 

39. 

SHD 

40. 

SHG 

41. 

SHD 

42. 

0 

43. 

C 

44. 

L 

45. 

S 

46. 

SHD 

47. 

0 

48. 

s 

49. 

SHD 

50. 

SHG 

51. 

SHD 

52. 

L 

53. 

SHD 

54. 

0 

55. 

S 

56. 

0 

57. 

C 

58. 

s 

59. 

SD 

60. 

L 

61. 

SHE 

6-2. 

C 

63. 

SHD 

64. 

SHD 

65. 

SHG 

66. 

SHE 

67. 

S 

68. 

S 

69. 

SHD 

70. 

0 

71. 

0 

72. 

c 

73. 

SHD 

74. 

SHE 

75. 

SD 

76. 

L 

77. 

The  Final  Scale  53 

X  — XI 

C  78.  Writes  occasional  short  letters 

C  79.  Makes  telephone  calls 

O  80.  Does  small  remunerative  work 

C  81.  Answers  ads;  purchases  by  mail 

XI  —  XII 

Does  simple  creative  work 

Is  left  to  care  for  self  or  others 

Enjoys   books,   newspapers,   magazines 

XII  — XV 

Plays  difficult  games 
Exercises  complete  care  of  dress 
Buys  own  clothing  accessories 
Engages  in  adolescent  group  actiAdties 
Performs  responsible  routine  chores 

XV  — XVIII 

Communicates  by  letter 
Follows  current  events 
Goes  to  nearby  places  alone 
Goes  out  unsupervised  daytime 
Has  own  spending  money 
Buys  all  own  clothing 

XVIII  — XX 

Goes  to  distant  points  alone 
Looks  after  own  health 
Has  a  job  or  continues  schooling 
Goes  out  nights  vinrestricted 
Controls  oM'n  major  expenditures 
Assumes  personal  responsibility 

XX  — XXV 

Uses  money  providently 

Assumes  responsibilities  beyond  own  needs 

Contributes  to  social  welfare 

Provides  for  future 

.  XXV+ 

Performs  skillled  work 
Engages  in  beneficial  recreation 
Systematizes  own  work 
Inspires  confidence 
Promotes  civic  progress 
Supei-vises  occupational  pursuits 
Purchases  for  others 
Directs  or  manages  affairs  of  others 
Performs  expert  or  professional  work 
Shares   community  responsibility 
Creates  own  opportunities 
Advances  general  welfare 

It  is  evident  that  the  Scale  is  more  heavily  "loaded"  at  the 
early  stages  and  "thins  out'"  progressively  toward  the  higher 
levels.  There  are  several  reasons  for  this  outcome.  First,  the 
young  infant  has  a  narrow  spread  of  years  over  which  the 


0 

82. 

SD 

83. 

C 

84. 

S 

85. 

SHD 

86. 

SD 

87. 

S 

88. 

0 

89. 

C 

90. 

C 

91. 

L 

92. 

SD 

93. 

SD 

94. 

SD 

95. 

L 

96. 

SD 

91. 

0 

98. 

SD 

99. 

SD 

100. 

SD 

101. 

SD 

102. 

S 

103, 

S 

104. 

SD 

105. 

0 

106. 

0 

107. 

0 

108. 

s 

109. 

s 

110. 

0 

111. 

SD 

112. 

0 

113. 

0 

114. 

s 

115. 

0 

116. 

s 

117. 

54  Design  of  the  Scalb 

examination  may  be  considered,  and  consequently  the  number 
of  items  must  be  increased  in  relation  to  the  age  interval  in 
order  to  obtain  reliability  and  representativeness  for  the 
measure.  Toward  the  adult  level  the  situation  changes  as  year 
differences  become  less  meaningful  due  to  the  "compression 
effect"  of  the  ultimate  ceiling  of  maturation.  Here  we  reach  the 
upper  limit  of  measurement  of  individual  differences  in  terms 
of  area  as  well  as  altitude.  Moreover,  few  of  the  adult  items 
reach  complete  expression  for  the  average  person,  and  some  are 
specifically  designed  to  yield  only  rare  success.  Consequently 
the  successes  for  the  adult  items  by  their  very  nature  do  not 
attain  to  a  very  high  percentage  of  incidence.  In  other  words, 
growth  over  its  total  span  tends  to  be  logarithmic  rather  than 
rectilinear  and  the  problem  of  equal  units  is  not  readily  resolved. 
We  must  assume  that  the  technically  interested  reader  is 
reasonably  familiar  with  these  issues  and  the  many  publications 
bearing  on  them. 

It  is  of  course  possible  to  expand  the  number  of  items  at 
each  age  level,  and  it  is  important  that  this  be  done  ultimately 
for  the  refinement  of  measures  at  all  ages,  and  especially  for 
the  adolescent  period.  This  task,  however,  is  not  so  easy  as  at 
first  appears  if  one  adheres  to  the  criteria  specified  above  and 
selects  items  rather  rigorously  as  measures  of  fundamental 
rather  than  superficial  differences.  Nevertheless,  this  task  is 
by  no  means  impossible  and  is,  indeed,  suggested  as  one  import- 
ant further  development  to  anticipate. 

We  have  in  fact  elaborated  certain  items  as  a  Cottage 
Activities  Chart  (p.  548)  for  estimating  the  more  minute 
degrees  of  progress  in  training  for  institutionalized  feeble- 
minded wards.  For  this  purpose  Item  35  (Asks  to  go  to  toilet) 
was  expanded  into  eighteen  details.  Items  21  and  37  (undress- 
ing) were  increased  to  nineteen,  and  so  on. 

Finally,  the  item-categories  are  not  co-extensive,  or  evenly 
spread,  for  all  life-age  ranges.  This  is  most  obviously  due  to 
changes  in  the  direction  of  social  competence  as  maturation 
proceeds,  so  that  some  categories  "peter  out"  as  others  emerge 
(cf.  p.  577).  The  problem  here  is  to  portray  social  maturation 
as  it  flowers  rather  than  to  fit  its  measurement  into  a  precon- 
ceived logic  of  psychology. 


Item  Criteria 


Youth  lives  in  the  future.  It  matters  not  so  much  what  the 
young  is  as  ichat  he  promises  to  hecome.    So  he  has  amliitions  and 
the  eagerness  to  get  at  the  business  of  realizing  them.   Middle 
age  lives  in  the  present.   Amhition  is  realized  or  it  is  not,  but  it 
ceases  to  become  an  emotional  drive.   Middle  age  vieios  approaching 
old  age  and  is  content  to  hang  on  to  -what  it  has  and  fearful  of 
losing  that.  Hope  has  become  foreboding.   Old  age  lives  in  the  past. 
When  the  reminiscences  begin,  one  can  say  icith  certainty,  ''This  man 
is  old." 

—The  Kalends 

General  considerations.  To  repeat,  in  designing  this  scale 
two  approaches  were  employed,  (a)  a  broad  detailed  inventory 
of  performances  which  seemed  distinctive  for  successive  age 
periods,  and  (b)  a  generalized  categorical  evaluation  of  behavior 
throughout  the  life  span.  These  reciprocal  advances  led  to  a 
critical  selection  of  items  as  detailed  phases  of  categorical  be- 
havioral progression.  We  now  proceed  to  a  more  particular 
consideration  of  these  items  and  categories  with  reference  to 
the  specific  criteria  underlying  their  definitive  formulation. 

First,  it  may  be  well  to  recapitulate  and  elaborate  some  of 
the  premises  involved  in  the  conception  of  these  items. 

1.  Each  item  is  presumed  to  reflect  some  relatively  univer- 
sal performance  which  characterizes  a  definite  stage  of  social 
maturation. 

2.  By  social  maturation  is  here  meant  the  developmental 
evolution  of  behavior  as  revealed  by  the  integrated  expression 
of  experience  and  learning  for  successive  stages  of  adequacy  in 
personal  independence,  interpersonal  cooperation,  and  group 
responsibilities. 

3.  This  progressive  adequacy  is  viewed  as  a  continuing  pro- 
cess of  biological  survival  and  social  continuity.  (We  are  not 
concerned  here  with  other  telegenic  philosophies  regarding  life 
purpose  or  value  except,  perhaps,  as  these  may  adventitiously 
influence  individual  aspiration  toward  achievement  beyond  mere 
survival.) 

4.  In  this  continuity  of  human  survival  we  see  the  organism 
at  first  dependent  (cared  for),  then  independent  (caring  for 
self),  then  protective  (caring  for  others)  and  finally  again 
dependent  (senescent). 


56  Item  Criteria 

5.  This  process  of  evolution  and  involution  occurs  within, 
and  is  modified  by,  both  physical  and  social  surroundings  which 
affect  the  form  and  extent  of  expression  of  genetic  potential  at 
successive  stages  of  maturation.  Presumably  the  relative  influ- 
ence of  nature  and  nurture  can  be  factored,  although  not  herein 
attempted — our  immediate  concern  being  with  social  outcome 
and  secondarily  with  causes. 

6.  Representative  forms  of  such  behavior  are  observed  as 
self-help,  locomotion,  occupation,  communication,  self -direction, 
and  socialization.  These  categorical  designations  of  behavior 
are  not  mutually  exclusive  but  represent  the  variable  aggregates 
of  total  maturation. 

This  classification  is  indicated  by  the  special  content  of  the  item 
in  question,  although  each  item  reflects  a  central  factor  of  self- 
sufficiency  in  terms  of  age  expectancy.  There  is  consequently 
no  need  to  insist  upon  the  uniqueness  of  the  classifications. 
What  is  more  important  is  the  degree  of  attainment  within 
each.  As  we  shall  see,  some  of  the  items  might  have  been  nearly 
as  well  placed  in  other  groups.  Nor  is  there  any  implication  that 
these  are  the  only  groupings  or  the  only  items  which  might  have 
been  considered.  Rather  they  are  categories  and  items  which 
after  careful  consideration  seemed  reasonably  representative 
of  developmental  progression  as  candid  photographs  of  social 
competence  throughout  its  maturational  course. 

7.  While  we  may  assume  that  all  aspects  of  maturation  are 
relevant  to  social  adequacy,  it  seems  evident  that  some  forms 
are  more  relevant  than  others.  Hence  "maturity"  and  "compe- 
tence" are  not  identical  terms  and  we  are  immediately  concerned 
only  with  their  relative  identification. 

Thus  Item  68  (Disavows  literal  Santa  Claus),  which  deals 
with  the  repudiation  of  animistic  (anthropomorphic)  phantasy, 
marks  a  stage  of  "growing  up"  which  bears  rather  subtly  on 
social  adequacy  as  reflecting  a  more  realistic  outlook  on  experi- 
ence. Instead  of  leaving  it  all  to  "the  Lord"  we  try  to  help 
ourselves.  Instead  of  appealing  to  "the  stars"  we  look  for  the 
fault  in  ourselves.  Instead  of  blaming  pixies  or  Jove  for  dis- 
rupting our  affairs  we  "remove  the  bugs"  and  materialize  the 
mysteries. 

So,  too,  competence  as  a  consequence  of  maturity  varies  with 
environment.  The  linguistically  mature  person  may  be  com- 
petent in  his  own  language  yet  incompetent  in  some  other.  The 
blind  may  be  linguistically  mature  and  competent  in  Braille  if 
not  in  other  forms  of  writing  or  print.  The  deaf  may  be  mature 
in  "written  speech"  and  competent  in  "sign"  communication 


General  Considerations  57 

while  incompetent  in  oral  speech.  The  crippled  may  be  mature 
for  social  locomotion  but  handicapped  in  physical  locomotion. 

So  also  one  may  be  mature  yet  dependent,  as  in  master  and 
valet,  executive  and  secretary,  or  husband  and  wife. 

But  such  competencies  in  respect  to  maturity  are  "special  cases" 
which  may  be  insightfully  allowed  for  as  divisions  of  labor  or 
as  artifacts  of  particular  environments.  In  some  instances  they 
respond  to  the  technique  of  NO  (no  opportunity  or  no  occasion) 
scoring  and  in  others  to  double  scoring  (Chapter  7).  In  still 
other  instances  the  allowance  must  be  interpreted  according  to 
the  attending  circumstances.  The  same  principles  apply  to 
idiosyncracies  of  environmental  status  or  surroundings. 

8.  The  items  are  selected  as  representing  (a)  rather  dis- 
tinct aspects  of  individual  development,  (b)  rapid  emergence 
within  a  comparatively  brief  span  of  years,  and  (c)  relative 
freedom  from  marked  individual  and  sex  differences  within  the 
normative  period  of  maturation  (Chapter  6). 

9.  The  items  are  conceived  as  integrative  composites  of 
such  specific  "trait"  qualities  as  personality,  habit,  motivation, 
memory,  judgment,  emotion,  special  skills.  Obviously,  any  of 
these  influences  may  be  unequally  present  in  the  composite.  In- 
telligence is  apparently  the  most  important  single  factor  in  these 
performances,  but  item  success  also  involves  experience,  judg- 
ment, initiative,  persistence,  aptitude,  resourcefulness,  and 
similar  factors  as  holistic  utilization.  Certainly  this  scale  is  not 
a  direct  measure  of  intelligence,  skill,  personality,  or  the  like, 
but  only  of  their  conative  capitalization  for  social  effectiveness. 

10.  The  items  are  assumed  to  reflect  the  correlative  exploi- 
tation of  individual  aptitudes  and  experiences  as  reflected  in 
more  or  less  universal  settings,  that  is,  as  not  overweighted  by 
economic  status,  formal  education,  race,  nationality,  religion, 
convention,  or  what  might  in  general  be  considered  cultural 
stimulation  or  restraint.  Rather,  the  items  are  intended  to 
represent  that  "inner  urge"  toward  independent  self-expression 
which  results  in  the  selective  consolidation  of  discriminated 
experience.  This  urge  is  expressed  as  eagerness  to  shift  for  one- 
self, to  manage  one's  own  affairs,  to  dominate  the  environment 
and  to  take  one's  place  as  a  responsible  member  of  the  social 
group.  However,  this  does  not  deny  the  likelihood  of  specific 
environmental  influence.  On  the  contrary,  as  repeatedly  stated, 
the  Scale  affords  a  means  for  the  systematic  appraisal  of  such 
influence.  Our  aim  here  is  to  avoid  exceptional  modes  of  be- 
havior in  a  given  milieu. 


58  Item  Criteria 

Pertinent  evidence  regarding  the  nature-nurture  determinants 
of  social  behavior  is  found  in  primitive  environments  where 
cultural  modes  may  specifically  circumscribe  social  expression. 
Obviously  both  the  form  and  the  degree  of  social  evolution 
will  be  influenced  by  the  social  scene,  but  will  be  relatively 
constant  for  a  given  segment  of  it.  It  remains  to  deter- 
mine experimentally  how  broad  this  segmentation  may  be  and 
yet  permit  such  a  scale  as  this  to  be  used  without  cultural 
modification.  Gross  differences  in  the  total  environment  will 
require  the  use  of  specialized  adaptations  of  this  scale  which 
may  then  be  employed  as  comparative  measures  of  dissimilar 
cultures.  Hence  it  may  prove  desirable  to  use  a  number  of 
representative  scales  for  such  gross  cultural  differences.  Such 
alternative  scales  thereby  become  measures  of  cultural  dif- 
ferences. 

11.  The  significance  of  retarded  or  arrested  social  matura- 
tion as  seen  among  the  feeble-minded  is  a  further  consideration. 
Here  the  genetic  potential,  limited  either  by  endowment  or 
modified  by  accidents  of  development,  seriously  restricts  the 
normal  evolution  of  social  behavior.  The  relatively  fixed  limits 
of  arrested  development  reveal  the  innate  character  of  behavior- 
al evolution  as  significantly  immune  to  environmental  persua- 
sion. The  expressive  behavior  associated  with  arrested  mental 
development  seems  neither  greatly  enhanced  by  aggressive 
stimulation,  nor  utterly  inhibited  by  protective  restraint.  And 
the  social  criterion  of  feeble-mindedness  is  the  diagnostic  point 
of  departure. 

Studies  on  the  amelioration  of  mental  deficiency  have  pro- 
duced more  controversy  than  agreement.  The  techniques  of 
operative  maneuvers,  chemotherapy,  physical  therapy,  environ- 
mental enrichment,  and  progressive  educational  methods  have 
been  generally  unconvincing.  At  best  these  studies  reveal  im- 
proved expression  of  constitutionally  limited  aptitudes  without 
alteration  of  their  organic  bases.  Or  they  suggest  release  from 
the  inhibitions  to  expression  imposed  by  various  orthopsychiat- 
ric  conditions  or  physical  handicaps. 

Confidence  in  such  amelioration  is  weakened  by  imperfect 
diagnosis  and  the  suspicion  of  adventitious  auras.  Or  the 
amounts  of  such  benefits  may  be  small  or  not  permanently 
sustained.  Some  of  the  studies  reveal  delayed  development 
without  aid  of  special  overtures,  or  perhaps  during  rather  than 
because  of  treatment.  The  design  of  such  investigations  has  not 
usually  satisfied  the  requirements  of  complete  symptom-complex 
diagnosis,  including  etiology,  grade,  type  and  extra-therapeutic 
prognosis.  In  short,  the  results  from  IQ-determined  mental 
deficiency  do  not  necessarily  apply  to  clinical  feeble-mindedness. 


Item  Formulation  59 

And  improvement  is  psychometric  scores  does  not  ipso  facto 
constitute  diagnostic  alterations. 

Item  for^mulation.  Each  item  is  initially  set  forth  in  a  con- 
cise phrase  or  caption  which  is  intended  to  convey  a  self-evident 
meaning.  But  these  captions  require  expanded  formulation  to 
clarify  and  delimit  their  implications.  We  have  met  this  prob- 
lem by  a  brief  elaboration  of  each  item  as  a  definitional  guide  to 
its  meaning.  Each  item  is  defined  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
facilitate  specific  judgments  rather  than  to  prove  unequivocally 
applicable  to  all  persons  and  all  occasions.  Meticulously  elab- 
orated definitions  are  inadvisable  as  well  as  impractical,  since 
it  is  almost  impossible  to  envisage  all  the  minor  conditions  that 
would  have  to  be  met  in  every  case  or  any  situation.  Hence  the 
definitions  are  phrased  thematically  rather  than  crucially. 

We  are  reminded  of  the  solicitous  parent  who,  desiring  to 
prepare  his  red-haired  son  for  the  inevitable  taunts  of  his 
playmates,  affectionately  dubbed  him  "Red-head,"  "Brick-top," 
"Sorrel,"  and  such,  only  to  find  his  son  involved  in  a  fight  on  his 
first  day  at  school  because  someone  had  called  him  "Rusty,"  an 
expression  that  fell  outside  the  father's  anticipation.  So  we 
have  experienced  an  extraordinary  number  of  equivalent  situa- 
tions which  satisfy  the  essential  requirements  of  each  item, 
but  do  so  in  such  a  variety  of  forms  as  to  make  impossible  an 
exhaustive  description  of  their  details,  or  even  the  completely 
satisfactory  use  of  illustrative  examples.  We  have  therefore 
been  forced  to  limit  the  definitions  deliberately  to  such  general 
terms  as  will  make  the  meaning  clear  and  will  satisfy  the  gen- 
eral rather  than  the  specific  occasion.  This  embarrassment  is 
mitigated  by  the  ample  use  of  illustrative  examinations  (Chap- 
ter 8)  which  offer  illuminating  examples  of  item  scoring  in 
their  associated  setting.  However,  the  examiner  is  specifically 
warned  not  to  rely  too  much  on  these  examples,  but  rather  to 
consider  them  as  suggestive  of  the  kind  of  situation  which  is 
likely  to  be  encountered  in  respect  to  which  he  must  exercise 
his  own  judgment  in  each  particular  instance. 

One  immediately  encounters  differences  of  more-or-less 
and  of  better-or-worse  in  the  evaluation  of  these  performances. 
How  long  must  these  have  been  performed  to  be  considered 
customary,  routine  or  habitual?  How  "rich"  should  they  be  in 
duration,  amount,  variety  or  extent  to  receive  credit?  What 
allowances  are  to  be  made  for  obvious  environmental  influences 
such  as  social  pressure,  solicitude  or  freedom?  How  evident 
is  the  need,  occasion  or  opportunity  for  the  subject  to  exercise 
the  activities  in  question?    What  encouragement,   direction, 


60  Item  Criteria 

teaching,  supervision,  or  their  lack  has  the  subject  encountered? 
How  exacting  shall  the  standards  be  with  due  regard  for  varia- 
tion in  time,  place  and  circumstances?  What  are  the  limits  of 
£uch  qualifying  expressions  as  ordinarily,  acceptably,  usually, 
occasionally?  How  does  the  examiner  "exercise  discretion"? 
How  literally  are  such  words  and  phrases  to  be  understood? 

These  and  similar  questions  will  at  first  disturb  those  who 
undertake  to  apply  this  scale.  The  initial  obviousness  of  the 
item  captions  will  give  way  to  skepticism  or  doubt  as  their 
elaborated  formulations  are  considered  with  earnest  candor. 
This  in  turn  gives  rise  to  an  ultimate  impression  of  impractica- 
bility of  scoring. 

The  problem  of  definition  is  an  embarrassment  to  all  science. 
We  observe  that  it  is  a  warm  day,  and  there  is  not  much  doubt 
about  it  until  we  read  the  thermometer.  Then  we  find  that  our 
impression  of  warmth  is  modified  by  humidity,  air  currents, 
amount  of  clothing,  time  of  day,  degree  of  activity,  season,  and 
the  like.  A  warm  day  in  winter  would  be  a  cold  one  in  summer. 
A  warm  day  in  between  two  cooler  days  is  psychologically 
warmer  than  one  between  two  hotter  days.  Altitude  makes  a 
difference,  as  does  one's  mental  or  physical  state  at  the  time. 
A  day  too  warm  for  office  work  may  be  cool  enough  for  tennis ; 
one  cool  enough  for  hiking  may  be  too  cool  for  sailing.  We 
re-examine  the  (ordinary)  thermometer.  We  thought  it  was 
a  reasonably  accurate  instrument;  but  it  is  not  so  accurate  as 
a  clinical  thermometer,  nor  so  sensitive  as  the  delicate  thermo- 
piles of  the  physics  laboratory.  We  find  it  is  difficult  to  estimate 
temperature  v»dthout  regard  to  altitude,  barometric  pressure, 
humidity  and  other  related  variables.  Nevertheless,  we  return 
to  the  original  conclusion,  that  it  is  a  warm  day,  and  this  gen- 
eral observation  is  agreed  to  by  those  present  with  due  regard 
for  the  degree  of  accuracy  warranted  by  the  circumstances. 
It  is  this  question  of  circumstances,  then,  that  governs  the 
crudity  or  the  refinement  of  the  measurement  for  the  purpose 
in  hand.  It  becomes  important  to  effect  a  compromise  between 
that  degree  of  crudity  which  allows  too  wide  a  margin  of  error 
of  observation  and  judgment  on  the  one  hand,  and  that  degree 
of  refinement  which  makes  such  observation  and  judgment  im- 
practicable on  the  other. 

The  principle  employed  in  formulating  the  definitions  of 
items  was  therefore  a  compromise  between  too  little  and  too 
much  refinement.  Enough  detail  has  been  formulated  to  clarify 
the  meaning  of  each  item  beyond  serious  uncertainty  and  yet 
allow  for  flexibility  of  interpretation  within  a  practicable  mar- 
gin of  consistency  on  repetitive  emplojmient.    Such  minimum 


Item  Formulation  61 

definition  is  designed  to  circumscribe  the  interpretation  of  the 
performance  within  explanatory  limits  which  would  leave 
relatively  little  doubt  for  inclusion  or  exclusion  of  all  but 
marginal  or  extraordinary  instances.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
have  deliberately  avoided  over-refinement  of  definition  for  the 
simple  reason  that  as  a  definition  becomes  more  and  more 
meticulously  explicit  its  application  becomes  correspondingly 
impracticable.  Minute  differences  become  relatively  more 
rather  than  less  apparent ;  as  one  approaches  perfection  imper- 
fection becomes  more  obvious. 

Precision  of  definition  is  also  a  function  of  the  practica- 
bility of  standardization,  since  the  Scale  is  composed  of  items 
v/hich  rather  clearly  emerge  in  a  genetic  sequence  of  behavioral 
development.  Item  definition  is  also  related  to  the  criteria  of 
use  and  reliability.  These  functional  criteria,  if  adequately 
satisfied,  outweigh  a  priori  quibbling.  Equivocal  scoring  stan- 
dards will  be  reflected  in  poor  item  standardization,  in  low 
reliability  on  test-retest  performance,  and  in  impracticability 
for  comparative  application. 

We  have,  in  fact,  experimented  with  various  degrees  of 
definition  and  have  touched  those  extremes  where  too  little  or 
too  much  meticulousness  are  equally  disturbing.  This  experi- 
ence clearly  indicated  the  impossibility  of  defining  any  item 
beyond  cavil  while  still  satisfying  the  severe  requirements  of 
standardization,  reliability  and  validity. 

This  is  not  to  say  that  precision  is  not  desirable,  but  only 
that  with  high-power  magnification  perspective  and  relationship 
are  lost.  We  view  an  object.  From  a  distance  it  is  only  "some 
thing,"  As  we  near  it  we  observe  that  it  resembles  a  piece  of 
furniture.  On  closer  view  we  observe  that  it  appears  to  be  a 
desk.  Its  "deskness"  is  now  its  important  feature.  We  are  not 
so  much  concerned  (although  we  might  be  able  to  judge) 
w^hether  or  not  it  might  be  most  useful  for  library,  office,  study 
or  parlor.  We  are  not  even  so  much  concerned  whether  it  is 
oak,  mahogony,  walnut  or  steel,  nor  v/hat  might  be  the  relation 
of  the  material  to  the  desk's  use. 

Coming  still  closer  we  lose  the  deskness  of  the  object,  since 
now  viewing  but  one  end,  we  see  only  an  expanse  of  material. 
Coming  still  closer  this  becomes  a  kind  of  wall.  Applying 
microscopic  vision  we  observe  its  cellular  constitution.  We 
may  in  this  way  determine  its  material  composition. 

The  point  here  is  that  if  we  are  interested  merely  to  classify 
this  object  as  a  piece  of  furniture,  there  is  a  range  of  dis- 
tance within  which  ordinary  vision  is  adequate  for  this  purpose. 


62  Item  Criteria 

From  too  far  a  distance  we  cannot  determine  the  deskness  ot 
the  object,  and  at  too  close  a  range  we  lose  this  judgment. 
Nevertheless,  there  is  no  denying  that  a  careful  definition  of 
what  constitutes  a  desk  might  be  of  assistance,  especially  to  one 
who  has  never  seen  or  heard  of  a  desk,  or  if  one  wished  to 
distinguish  between  a  desk  and  a  work  table  of  like  purpose. 

In  the  Binet  scale  we  ask  the  child  "What  is  a  chair?".  If 
he  says  "It  is  to  sit  on,"  we  accept  this  answer  for  certain 
purposes,  although  quite  obviously  many  objects  can  be  sat  upon 
without  being  chairs,  such  as  a  hassock,  a  sofa,  a  box,  or  even 
the  floor  or  the  ground.  Or  he  may  say  "A  chair  is  a  piece  of 
furniture  upon  which  one  sits."  This  is  more  satisfying,  but 
hardly  more  explicit,  since  the  other  objects  just  mentioned, 
except  the  last  two,  might  be  considered  furniture.  If  he  says 
"It  is  something  to  sit  upon  which  has  four  legs  and  a  back," 
this  is  better,  but  still  not  exclusively  definitive.  Does  the 
reader  know  what  a  chair  is?  Can  he  define  it  within  limits 
which  would  be  adequate?  Can  he  define  it  with  that  degree 
of  exactitude  which  would  preclude  all  other  objects  from  this 
category?  And  if  he  can  do  this,  how  desirable  is  such  refine- 
ment for  inventory  purposes? 

The  examiner  employing  this  social  scale  is  entitled  to  that 
minimum  of  definition  which  will  clarify  the  meaning  of  each 
item  beyond  serious  doubt  even  though  not  satisfying  all  con- 
tingencies. Elaboration  is  necessary  in  order  that  the  examiner 
may  comprehend  the  intent  of  the  definition  under  variable 
conditions  of  interpretation  rather  than  its  exact  delimitations 
in  all  instances  without  exercising  any  judgment  of  his  own. 
In  adopting  the  former  alternative  we  have  deliberately  left 
some  choice  to  the  examiner. 

This  conclusion  may  prove  disturbing  to  the  formal  psy- 
chometric psychologist.  The  standardized  mental  test  puts  a 
premium  upon  uniformity  of  test  administration  and  scoring. 
Those  who  are  well  drilled  in  psychometric  work  will  therefore 
be  habituated  to  a  type  of  examining  which  calls  for  little  or  no 
judgment  on  their  part.  But  this  appearance  of  exactness  is  not 
a  psychological  reality.  Words  do  not  convey  the  same  meanings 
to  all  people.  Variations  in  vocal  clarity  or  inflection,  and  in  the 
"engagingness"  of  presentation,  supplemented  by  the  examiner's 
conscious  or  unconscious  gestures,  produce  variations  in  the 
examination  which  are  appreciably  variable  (the  error  of 
the  "personal  equation  of  the  examiner").  And  in  the  response, 
the  examiner  must  judge  to  what  extent  the  subject  is  able  to 
verbalize  his  thought  or  convey  his  meaning  within  the  variable 
use  of  diction.  The  attempt  of  psychometric  work  to  force  the 
examination  into  inflexible  presentation  and  rigid  scoring  ac- 
complishes only  an  approximation  to  desirable  precision.  (Wit- 
ness the  fruitless  attempts  to  score  a  copied  square  as  just  plus 


Practicability  of  Items  63 

or  just  minus,  and  the  still  more  fruitless  efforts  to  assign 
discriminative  values  to  different  degrees  of  success.)  Its  con- 
sequence is  to  stultify  the  psychological  aspect  of  psychometry 
by  reducing  it  to  a  mechanical  routine. 

We  have  discussed  this  matter  at  this  length  because  im- 
mediate objections  to  this  scale  derive  from  the  apparent  lack  of 
precision  in  the  definition  of  items.  To  those  who  will  evaluate 
the  Scale  by  logical  criticism  rather  than  by  experimentation,  it 
will  immediately  appear  that  the  Scale  cannot  "work"  because 
the  item  formulations  are  too  vague.  The  answer  is  to  be  found 
in  the  experimental  evidence.  If  the  objection  held,  it  would 
obviously  be  impossible  to  standardize  the  items  Mith  sufficient 
approximation  to  stable  accuracy.  And  if  the  item  formulations 
yielded  unstable  judgments,  then  there  would  be  a  low  degree 
of  reliability  on  repeated  examining.  But  if  the  definitions  are 
sufficiently  exact  for  practical  purposes,  then  this  will  be  re- 
vealed in  the  stability  of  the  standardization  and  in  the  con- 
stancy of  results  obtained  on  re-examination,  whether  by  the 
same  examiner  or  by  different  examiners.  That  these  require- 
ments are  satisfied  is  evident  from  the  experimental  evidence. 

Practicability  of  items.  Since  the  standard  method  of  ad- 
ministering the  Scale  requires  that  information  regarding  the 
S  (subject  examined)  be  obtained  from  someone  familiar  with 
his  capabilities,  it  is  necessary  that  such  information  be  not  too 
difficult  to  obtain.  Hence  the  questions  asked  must  not  be  so 
intimate  as  to  disturb  the  informant.  The  information  sought 
should  be  sufficiently  evident  and  proper  so  that  an  informant 
well  acquainted  with  the  S  need  not  experience  too  much  con- 
cern for  supplying  an  adequate  factual  report.  Still  further, 
the  information  sought  should  not  be  such  as  might  reflect  un- 
duly upon  the  character  of  the  S  or  seem  to  disparage  his  attain- 
ments. In  short  the  items  must  be  discreetly  conceived  and 
considerately  phrased  in  order  to  avoid  embarrassment  for  all 
concerned. 

We  repeat  that  there  is  an  ethical  aspect  to  the  examina- 
tion which  requires  the  examiner  to  be  socially  tactful  as  well 
as  objective.  He  is  not  at  liberty  to  seek  or  to  purvey  prurient 
information  having  to  do  with  the  personal  affairs  of  the  S  un- 
related to  his  social  maturity  as  such.  It  should  be  unnecessary 
to  warn  examiners  that  most  people  are  sensitive,  not  to  say 
defensive,  about  nearly  any  kind  of  examination  which  might 
reveal  their  ability  at  a  lesser  level  than  they  would  like  to  have 
it  assumed.  Each  of  us  tends  to  put  up  a  bold  front  toward  the 


64  Item  Criteria 

world,  and  we  are  more  or  less  constantly  on  guard  about  having 
our  real  aptitudes  exposed  to  measurement.  In  using  this 
scale  there  is  definite  risk  of  appearing  to  pry  into  the  private 
affairs  of  the  S  by  seeking  surreptitious  information  from  the 
informant.  Such  impertinence  is  properly  resented  by  both 
informant  and  S  and  might  discredit  the  examiner  or  bring  the 
use  of  the  Scale  into  disrepute. 

Therefore  the  use  of  items  which  involve  the  conduct  of  the 
S  in  the  sense  of  "good"  or  "bad"  behavior  is  deprecated  as 
well  as  questions  bearing  on  the  morality  or  character  of  the 
individual  except  as  these  directly  influence  the  expression  of 
social  competence.  Careful  consideration  of  this  question  has 
led  us  to  the  conclusion  that  moral  conduct  represents  person- 
ality variables  within  various  levels  of  maturity  rather  than 
levels  of  maturity  as  such.  However,  we  may  not  ignore  those 
details  of  conduct  which  do,  in  fact,  affect  social  competence. 

Item  scoring  in  relation  to  placement.  Many  doubts  regard- 
ing item  interpretation  may  be  resolved  by  considering 
items  with  reference  to  their  relative  positions  in  the  Scale.  This 
is  specially  evident  within  the  categorical  sequences  since 
each  item  depends  more  or  less  on  those  which  serially 
precede  or  follow  it.  But  this  hint  must  not  be  pursued 
too  far,  as  we  should  then  be  reasoning  in  a  circle.  The 
items  are  to  be  scored  as  strictly  as  possible  on  the  basis 
of  the  performances  as  defined.  Thus,  we  cannot  say  that 
"gets  a  drink  unassisted"  requires  performing  this  as  a 
child  between  one  and  two  years  of  age  would  perform 
it,  since  the  position  of  the  item  must  be  first  determined  in 
terms  of  the  definition  rather  than  the  definition  determined  by 
the  placement.  Such  reciprocal  relation  between  definition  and 
placement  has  been  stabilized  through  experimental  standard- 
ization. The  examiner  is  therefore  encouraged  to  adhere  to  the 
definition,  but  to  be  guided  in  general  by  its  placement  on  the 
assumption  that  the  placement  as  determined  by  the  original 
construction  of  the  Scale  is  a  better  guide  than  the  examiner's 
independent  opinion  as  to  such  placement. 

In  presenting  the  detailed  item  formulations  (Chapter  6) 
the  order  of  presentation  follows  the  categorical  arrangement 
of  items,  rather  than  the  numerical  sequences  of  age  place- 
ment. This  simplifies  interpretation  for  scoring  as  well  as  for 
administration.  The  numerical  sequences  are  followed  within 
the  categories  to  facilitate  reference.  These  numerical  se- 
quences might  have  been  re-grouped  within  the  categories  to 


Habitual  Performance  65 

indicate  the  progressive  extensions  of  essentially  similar  per- 
formances, but  to  avoid  confusion  these  relations  are  noted  inci- 
dentally and  summarized  in  the  general  discussion. 

This  plan  encourages  the  grouping  of  closely  related  items 
in  examining,  recording,  and  scoring,  and  thereby  simplifies 
item  interpretation.  However,  care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  scor- 
ing any  item  on  the  basis  of  its  inferential  relation  to  some 
other  item  rather  than  on  its  own  merits.  The  integrity  of  the 
Scale  as  a  whole  is  not  to  be  ignored,  and  internal  coherence 
will  simplify  many  apparent  difficulties.  The  Scale  can  hardly 
be  permitted  to  "lift  itself  by  its  own  bootstraps."  Perspective 
clarifies  but  does  not  determine  item  details. 

Habitual  performance.  The  examiner  will  at  first  be  some- 
what troubled  by  the  apparent  indefiniteness  of  the  temporal 
criterion  of  "habitual"  performance.  This  varies  all  the  way 
from  an  obvious  "never"  to  an  equally  obvious  "always"  or 
"without  exception."  Between  these  extremes  many  doubtful 
instances  occur.  "Customarily"  perhaps  serves  better  than 
"habitually"  to  allay  these  misgivings ;  indeed  habitually  is  used 
here  in  the  sense  of  "when  circumstances  require,  make  desira- 
ble, or  warrant"  the  performance  in  question.  Bearing  in 
mind  that  the  Scale  assumes  personal  initiative  and  creative 
dominance  as  one  aspect  of  item  maturation,  we  must  neverthe- 
less reckon  with  the  nature  of  the  occasions  which  call  forth 
such  expression.  Occasional  performance  usually  precedes 
habitual  performance  as  emergent  success. 

We  therefore  define  habitual  in  the  sense  that  usually  or 
nearly  always  (and  allowing  for  minor  mitigating  circum- 
stances) the  item  in  question  is  performed  without  undue  pres- 
sure as  need  or  occasion  makes  desirable.  This  "equal  to  the 
occasion"  concept  may  mean  continuously,  or  several  times  a 
day,  or  once  a  week,  or  even  once  in  several  years  according  to 
the  nature  of  the  task  in  question.  In  other  words  the  item  may 
be  called  for  intermittently,  but  when  called  for  its  successful 
performance  is  habitually  (substantially  always)  forthcoming. 

One  must  reckon  with  reduced  social  competence  when  the 
habitual  (accustomed)  manner  of  item  performance  is  inter- 
fered with.  A  different  way  of  doing,  a  varied  time  for 
performance,  enforced  delay  or  inhibition  in  expression,  or 
exceptional  obstacles  to  such  behavior  may  so  disturb  the 
marginally  adequate  individual  as  to  seriously  disrupt  his  self- 
reliance.  The  flexible  personality  readjusts  quickly  to  these  de- 


66  Item  Criteria 

mands ;  the  slave  to  rigid  habit  may  be  significantly  frustrated. 

For  example:  Taking  a  bath  as  an  accustomed  and  inde- 
pendently exercised  activity  may  situationally  occur  (a)  more 
than  once  a  day,  (b)  daily,  (c)  weekly  on  a  stated  day,  (d) 
with  other  regular  periodicity,  or  (e)  at  irregular  intervals  as 
opportunity  affords.  Whatever  the  temporal  occasion,  the  com- 
petent individual  routinely  does  so  on  his  own.  But  we  have 
known  a  feeble-minded  girl  whose  failure  on  an  otherwise 
successful  parole  placement  was  due  to  change  in  bathing  habit. 
Although  quite  capable  of  bathing  herself  this  had  been  rou- 
tinely supervised  at  the  institution  as  an  administrative  pro- 
tection against  scalding.  Her  new  situation  required  that  she 
bathe  herself.  There  was  also  a  change  from  shower  to  tub,  and 
from  the  regularity  of  Thursday  evening  to  the  novelty  of 
Saturday  night.  These  altered  circumstances  left  her  confused 
and  helpless.  This  girl's  employer  could  not  understand  the 
girl's  apparent  unwillingness-  Here  formerly  habitual  success 
was  upset  by  circumstances  where  initiative  rather  than  rou- 
tine were  determining  requirements. 

Habitual  performance  beyond  marginal  limits  of  compe- 
tence is  not  so  readily  upset.  The  adequately  mature  person 
adapts  his  behavioral  expression  resourcefully,  and  quickly  ac- 
commodates to  situational  differences.  But  losses  in  previously 
habitual  behavior  may  result  from  changes  in  age,  health,  social 
circumstances  and  the  like  which  require  special  scoring.  These 
exigencies  are  provided  for  in  the  specific  technioues  of  scoring 
(Chapter  7). 


6 


Item   Specification 


Continuity  is  perhaps  the  most  significant  characteristic  of 
growth;  it  implies  both  a  past  and  a  future.  In  childhood — 
and  for  that  matter,  throughout  life — each  "level"  emerges 
gradually  out  of  that  which  has  just  passed  and  merges  almost 
imperceptibly  toward  that  which  is  about  to  be.  Nor  is  maturity 
itself  a  static  ideal;  rather,  it  is  a  progressive  adjustment 
between  the  individual  and  the  demands  of  life.  This  in  turn 
gives  to  maturity  a  quality  of  dependableness. 

— Ruth  Brickner 

Orientation.  Successful  technical  use  of  this  scale  requires 
that  the  examiner  be  intimately  familiar  with  the  basic  prin- 
ciples underlying  its  construction,  and  particularly  with  the 
general  and  specific  instructions  which  govern  its  administra- 
tion. The  formulation  of  items  cannot  be  divorced  from  these 
overall  considerations.  The  student  is  cautioned  not  to  rely 
solely  on  the  clarifying  material  of  this  chapter,  but  should  re- 
late these  details  to  the  method  as  a  whole.  This  requires  con- 
scientiousness, adaptive  judgment  and  experience. 

The  item  specifications  are  therefore  an  interpretative 
guide  to  item-scoring.  They  are  designed  to  make  the  general 
instructions  specifically  applicable.  They  have  been  phrased  to 
forestall  diflficulties  of  interpretation,  to  facilitate  rather  than  to 
delimit  scoring.  The  examiner  must  sometimes  resort  to  ap- 
parently arbitrary  decisions,  but  such  judgments  will  usually 
reflect  sub-articulate  rationalizations  which  are  likely  to  be 
sound  rather  than  capricious. 

It  is,  of  course,  desirable  that  these  definitions  be  relatively 
ii'ee  from  need  for  further  authoritative  interpretations  of  im- 
plicit meaning.  We  may  say  with  the  confidence  gained  from 
fifteen  years  of  experience  on  the  part  of  many  examiners  using 
the  Scale  in  widely  different  circumstances  that  satisfactory 
scoring  can  be  performed  with  surprisingly  little  difficulty. 
This  is  facilitated  by  relating  the  specific  item  definitions  to  the 
general  instructions  and  to  the  principles  underlying  the  method 
as  a  whole. 

The  intent  of  each  item  is  basic  to  its  definitional  formula- 
tion. This  is  first  indicated  in  the  general  assumptions  of  the 
method.  It  is  further  implied  by  (a)  the  grouping  of  items  as 
consecutive  stages  of  similar  behavior,   (b)  the  abridged  item 


68  Item  Specification 

captions,  (c)  the  maturation  curves  and  mean  year-values  for 
each  item,  as  well  as  (d)  the  definitive  requirements  of  item 
performances. 

The  categorical  grouping  of  items  materially  facilitates  the 
technique  of  examining  as  well  as  scoring.  Each  category  re- 
presents a  different  phase  of  social  competence  and  each  item  a 
particular  stage  of  its  maturational  extension.  The  central 
theme  of  each  item  requires  self-sufficiency,  social  independence, 
social  responsibility  or  social  participation.  This  is  most  readily 
conceived  as  some  form  of  self-direction  in  the  broad  sense.  The 
specific  mode  whereby  this  central  theme  is  expressed,  or  the 
behavioral  form  of  self-direction,  is  particularized  within 
several  types  of  social  activity.  These  behavioral  categories  are 
not  all-inclusive,  but  only  representative,  and  their  several  de- 
grees (the  items  themselves)  are  only  some  of  the  significant 
stages  which  can  be  clearly  differentiated. 

Each  item  is  presumed  to  reveal  social  competence  as  well 
as  social  maturation  (p.  56).  Some  items  reflect  a  maturational 
anticipation  of  later  competence,  that  is,  the  item  may  be  a 
behavioral  preliminary  to  ultimate  adequacy.  This  is  indi- 
cated in  the  comm.ent  which  follows  each  item  definition.  In 
later  revisions  or  extensions  of  the  Scale  the  categories  and  the 
specific  items  might  be  altered,  contracted,  expanded,  fraction- 
ated or  rearranged. 

The  item  captions  are  condensed  cues  to  item,  meanings. 
They  should  not  he  relied  upon  to  replace  item  formulations 
hut  only  to  keynote  their  intent.  The  examiner  must  resist  the 
temptation  to  interview  the  informant  by  use  of  direct  or  leading 
questions  based  on  item  captions.  Non-committal  lead-questions 
related  to  a  category  as  a  whole  and  building  up  toward  item 
particulars  should  preferably  be  employed  (Chapters  7,  8). 

A  general  requirement  of  discretion  as  an  element  of  suc- 
cessful performance  pervades  all  items  and  is  an  implicit 
requirement  for  assigning  item  scores.  We  are  reminded  of  a 
parole  officer's  report  which  told  all  in  the  laconic  phrase,  "No 
hits,  no  runs,  no  errors."  As  the  S  "goes  to  bat"  on  a  given  form 
of  behavior  he  runs  the  risk  of  danger  to  himself  or  to  his  sur- 
roundings. Successful  performance  therefore  requires  that  in 
spite  of  these  risks  the  S  does  not  get  into  trouble,  or  injure 
himself  or  others,  or  damage  the  material  environment,  or 
otherwise  compromise  himself,  his  guardians  or  associates. 
The  examiner  may  find  it  specially  difficult  to  score  those  per- 
formances which  are  successfully  achieved  by  unfair  exploita- 
tion or  by  heedless  disregard  for  the  rights  of  others. 


Orientation  69 

This  discretional  aspect  of  item  scoring  is  noted  casually 
for  some  items  and  explicitly  for  others,  but  it  is  implicit  for 
all.  Its  observance  is  of  cardinal  importance  for  it  reflects  the 
central  factor  "loading"  of  self-direction  which  is  in  greater  or 
less  degree  common  to  all  items.  The  frequent  notation  "and 
does  not  get  into  trouble  in  so  doing"  is  a  reminder  of  these 
implications. 

For  some  S's,  discretion  or  its  lack  materially  influences 
the  total  score  as  an  indication  of  special  asset  or  handicap.  Or 
this  may  be  significantly  evident  for  a  single  category  of  items. 
Recognition  of  these  idiosyncrasies  is  helpful  in  the  specific 
evaluation  of  results.  Marked  indiscretions  (waywardness, 
impulsiveness,  untrustworthiness,  misconduct)  call  for  double- 
scoring  as  an  aid  to  clinical  interpretation  (p.  292). 

A  particular  consequence  of  indiscreet  performance  is  the 
resulting  imposition  of  restraints  to  behavior  by  parents, 
guardians,  elders  or  superior  authorities.  It  may  be  that  the  S 
is  not  permitted  the  opportunity  to  express  himself  in  certain 
ways  because  when  so  doing  he  gets  into  trouble  or  seems  likely 
to  do  so.  Such  apparently  justifiable  limitation  to  behavior  may 
be  regarded  as  "no  opportunity"  situations  of  special  signifi- 
cance; +N0  scores  (p.  284)  should  not  be  employed  in  scoring 
them,  especially  in  the  case  of  feeble-minded,  delinquent  and 
other  socially  irresponsible  subjects. 

The  discussion  for  each  item  follows  a  general  pattern. 
Each  category  is  presented  v/ith  overall  introductory  comment. 
This  is  followed  by  a  specification  of  items  within  the  category 
in  their  progressive  order  of  difficulty.  Each  item  number  is 
followed  (in  parentheses)  by  its  mean  total  life  age  standard- 
ization norm  and  then  by  the  item  caption.  Interpretative 
sketches  illustrate  the  central  themes  for  about  half  of  the  items. 
Ogives  of  item  success  (item  maturation  curves)  also  accom- 
pany each  item  showing  (a)  normative  sex  comparisons  by 
life-age  progression,  and  (b)  normative  total  LA  progression 
compared  with  feeble-minded  total  SA  progression.  Sex  dif- 
ferences for  feeble-minded  subjects  are  omitted  except  for 
incidental  comment  when  specifically  relevant. 

The  item  exposition  further  includes:  (a)  introductory 
comment,  (b)  standard  definition,  (c)  normative  LA  standard- 
ization comment,  (d)  feeble-minded  SA  validation  comment, 
(e)  general  comment.  References  to  the  normative  data  derive 
from  the  population  sample  of  normal  subjects  employed  in  the 
experimental  standardization    (Chapter  9)    arranged  by  life 


70  Item  Specification 

age.  References  to  feeble-minded  validation  data  apply  to  the 
item  analysis  sample  of  mentally  deficient  subjects  employed 
for  this  purpose  (Chapter  10)  arranged  by  social  age.  All  data 
references  in  this  chapter  are  specifically  delimited  to  these 
samples  except  as  specifically  noted.  Data  from  other  samples 
are  discussed  in  later  chapters.  The  systematic  derivation  of 
data  is  presented  in  Chapters  9  and  10  to  which  the  reader  is 
referred  for  elaboration  of  the  summary  data  offered  in  this 
chapter. 

For  simplicity  of  expression  certain  conventional  abbrevi- 
ations are  used  as  follows:  S  for  the  subject  (examinee)  of 
the  examination  (not  to  be  confused  with  the  informant)  ;  LA 
for  life  age  (sometimes  termed  calendar  age  or  chronological 
age)  ;  SA  for  social  age  (converted  total  scale  score)  ;  SQ  for 
social  quotient  (SA  divided  by  LA  times  100)  ;  Q  for  quartile 
deviation  (one  half  the  interquartile  range  of  the  distribution 
of  a  sample)  ;  SD  for  standard  deviation  (sigma  of  the  distri- 
bution of  a  sample)  ;  SE  for  standard  error  (sigma  of  the 
mean)  ;  CR  for  critical  ratio  (the  statistical  reliability  of  the 
difference  between  means).  SA  year-intervals  are  noted  by 
Roman  numerals;  SA  scores  by  Arabic  numbers.  N  refers 
sometimes  to  number  of  S's  and  sometimes  to  normative  S's, 
according  to  context,  FM  refers  to  feeble-minded  S's ;  M  -  F 
to  male  versus  female  S's. 

The  reader  is  particularly  warned  against  misinterpreta- 
tion of  comment  on  normal  versus  feeble-minded  differences, 
especially  when  feeble-minded  item  performance  appears  to  be 
superior  to  normative  performance.  The  normative  data  are 
arranged  by  LA  disregarding  SA ;  the  feeble-minded  validation 
data  are  arranged  by  SA  disregarding  LA.  Since  the  item  mean 
SA's  for  feeble-minded  subjects  approximate  the  item  mean 
LA's  for  normal  subjects  at  all  LA  intervals  (Chapter  10),  the 
normative  LA  data  are  equivalently  comparable  to  the  feeble- 
minded SA  data.  However,  the  feeble-minded  subjects  always 
have  the  advantage  of  more  advanced  life  ages  than  the  normal 
subjects.  The  mean  LA's  for  feeble-minded  subjects  range 
from  14  years  at  SA  1-2,  to  30  years  at  SA  10-11,  falling  typi- 
cally between  15  and  25  years  (Table  8,  p.  397).  This  influence 
of  chronological  maturity  sometimes,  but  by  no  means  always, 
gives  the  feeble-minded  subjects  an  advantage  on  some  items 
because  of  prolonged  experience. 

The  differences,  then,  between  normal  and  feeble-minded 
subjects  never  reveal  genuine  maturational  precocity  of  feeble- 


Item  Graphs  71 

mindedness  versus  normality,  but  only  sometimes  a  relative 
superiority  because  of  the  advantage  of  more  advanced  life 
age.  Such  superiority  is  evident  for  only  some  items  and  some 
categories. 

For  other  items  and  categories  the  specific  handicaps  to 
social  competence  produced  by  and  reflected  in  the  feeble- 
mindedness more  than  offset  the  advantage  of  advanced  age. 
Yet  in  addition  to  the  greater  experience  accruing  from  in- 
creased age,  these  subjects  have  the  environmental  assets  of 
generally  favorable  home  and  institutional  stimulation. 

The  reader  must  guard  throughout  against  confusion  of 
ordinal  versus  cardinal  numbers.  The  first  year  of  life  repre- 
sents life  age  from  birth  to  the  end  of  the  first  year,  or  LA  0  to 
0.99,  which  becomes  by  approximation  and  conventional  desig- 
nation LA  0-1.  Likewise  the  second  year  is  1  -  2,  the  third  2-3, 
and  so  on.  Hence  the  ordinal  designation  is  always  one  interval 
above  the  cardinal  unit. 

Other  general  precautions  are  incorporated  in  the  com- 
ments on  item  scoring  and  interpretation  where  they  seem  most 
pertinent,  or  where  they  first  bear  directly  on  a  particular  item 
in  the  order  of  the  categorical  presentation.  An  early  example 
is  found  on  page  88  in  the  comment  following  Item  35  (Asks  to 
go  to  toilet).  It  is  to  be  assumed  that  serious  students  of  the 
method  will  generalize  the  comments  from  all  the  item  specifi- 
cations as  highlighting  the  Scale  as  a  whole. 

Item  graphs.  The  exposition  of  each  item  includes  matura- 
tion curves  constructed  from  the  original  item  data.  These, 
with  their  derived  calculations,  constitute  a  definite  contribu- 
tion to  normative  genetic  psychology  as  well  as  to  the  differen- 
tial psychology  of  mental  deficiency.  They  also  present  the  raw 
data  from  which  other  calculations  on  this  scale  as  a  whole  are 
derived.  In  view  of  the  importance  of  these  data  the  reader 
may  wish  to  note  the  following  observations : 

1.  The  item  graphs  are  presented  in  dual  pairs  with  (a)  the 
normative  standardization  by  sex  to  the  left,  and  (b)  the  total 
normative  standardization  by  life  age  with  comparative  valida- 
tion for  the  total  feeble-minded  subjects  (item  analysis  sample) 
by  social  age  to  the  right.  To  simplify  presentation  the  graphs 
are  discontinuous  at  the  "tails"  which  represent  at  the  left 
continuous  zero-percentiles  of  passes  and  at  the  right  continuous 
100-percentile  of  passes  (to  Item  101 ) .  The  continuity  in  both 
of  these  directions  was  established  in  the  original  data  but  has 


72  Item  Specification 

been  omitted  on  the  graphs  except  as  the  partial  tails  suggest 
such  continuity. 

2.  The  theoretical  zero  for  all  items  for  normal  subjects  is 
at  LA  0.0,  that  is,  the  time  of  birth.  Theoretically  no  item  of  this 
scale  would  be  passed,  and  for  these  data  no  item  actually  is 
passed,  immediately  following  birth.  (Out  of  our  20  normal 
subjects  at  LA  0-1  no  S's  among  two  boys  and  two  girls  who 
were  under  two  months  of  age  passed  any  items  of  the  Scale.) 
This  does  not  deny  maturational  behavior  on  the  part  of  the 
foetus  or  the  newborn  infant,  but  this  scale  is  not  concerned 
with  such  behavior.  The  first  plot  of  neonate  behavior  would 
therefore  be  at  the  actual  zero  of  postnatal  maturation.  This 
point  is  not  represented  on  these  item  graphs  since  the  entire 
first  year  of  life  is  represented  in  our  data  at  the  midpoint  of 
that  year,  namely  mean  LA  0.5.  Consequently  the  graphs  are 
not  projected  back  to  the  maturational  zero  point  since  that 
point  is  included  in  the  year-group  which  represents  the  first 
year  of  life. 

3.  With  respect  to  the  feeble-minded  subjects  this  argument 
would  presumably  obtain  for  LA  but  not  for  SA.  At  SA  0-1 
all  our  feeble-minded  subjects  (whose  LA's  exceed  their  SA's) 
pass  at  least  one  item  of  the  Scale.  Yet  we  have  seen  some 
vegetative  idiots  and  also  some  cataleptics  so  helpless  as  not  to 
pass  a  single  item  of  this  scale.  Among  our  feeble-minded  S's 
the  lowest  score  was  SA  .41  (LA  13.4,  SQ  3),  the  lowest  LA 
was  5.6  (SA  1-6,  SQ  28),  and  the  lowest  SQ  was  2  (LA  35,  SA 
.53) .  The  least  number  of  items  passed  by  any  of  these  subjects 
was  7  (SA  .41).  Consequently  none  were  at  the  maturational 
zero  point  of  the  Scale,  although  as  noted  this  is  not  only  pos- 
sible but  actually  occurs.  Here  again  the  zero  point  for  each 
item  is  projected  from  the  mid-point  of  SA  0-1  (SA  0.5)  rather 
than  from  absolute  zero. 

4.  The  data  for  feeble-minded  subjects  by  sex  are  omitted, 
but  the  general  observation  may  be  made  that  sex  differences 
were  not  significantly  apparent.  Summary  information  on  sex 
differences  for  the  feeble-minded  item  validation  group  is  con- 
tained in  subsequent  tables  (Chapter  10). 

5.  In  general  the  feeble-minded  subjects  were  approxi- 
mately fifteen  years  older  in  life  age  than  the  normative  subjects 
at  most  LA-SA  comparisons.  This  in  itself  is  one  indication  of 
the  influence  of  life  age  on  item  performance.  Consequently 
where  the  performance  of  the  feeble-minded  subjects  by  SA  is 
advanced  in  comparison  to  the  normative  subjects  by  LA  the 


Item  Graphs  73 

difference  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  LA  differences  between  the 
two  groups,  in  respect  to  which  the  feeble-minded  subjects  have 
the  advantage  of  life  age  but  not  of  actually  superior  com- 
petence in  terms  of  LA  itself. 

6.  The  item  graphs  for  the  feeble-minded  subjects  are  based 
on  an  "Item  Analysis  Group"  (Chapter  10).  They  are  discon- 
tinuous beyond  SA  11-12  because  of  lack  of  sufficient  available 
S's  thereafter.  The  item  analysis  group  was  composed  of  ten 
male  and  ten  female  subjects  at  each  SA  to  correspond  to  the 
normative  LA  groups.  Although  our  total  feeble-minded  popu- 
lation (see  Chapter  11)  included  some  subjects  from  SA's 
12-17  inclusive  the  number  of  these  at  each  SA  was  not  suffi- 
cient to  permit  adequate  calculation  either  by  sex  or  by  totals. 
The  reader  is  advised  that  because  the  item  gi-aphs  are  restrict- 
ed by  this  limitation  of  sampling  he  should  not  infer  that  SA 
11-12  is  the  upper  limit  of  SA  for  all  feeble-minded  subjects. 
This  limitation  of  subjects  does  not  permit  the  projection  of 
these  item  graphs  for  the  feeble-minded  subjects  beyond  SA 
11-12.  Ultimately  stable  100  per  cent  of  passes  are  evident  for 
all  items  below  Item  76.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA 
11-12  for  Items  76  to  89  inclusive  are  incorporated  in  the  item 
comments.  Beyond  Item  89  the  fragmentary  data  do  not  reach 
100  per  cent  of  passes  at  any  SA. 

7.  The  item  graphs  accompany  the  categorical  exposition  of 
item  definitions  and  follow  the  order  of  progressive  difficulty 
of  the  items  within  categories.  To  locate  particular  item  graphs 
the  reader  may  consult  the  index  where  the  items  are  listed  in 
alphabetical  order  of  item  captions  without  reference  to  cate- 
gorical segregation. 

8.  Below  each  graph  is  a  brief  summary  of  the  data  (see 
Chapters  9  and  10).  The  abbreviations  for  these  data  not  al- 
ready noted  (p.  70)  are:  M  for  male  (normative  S's)  ;  F  for 
female  (normative  S's) ;  N  for  normal  (total  normative  S's, 
sexes  combined) ;  FM  for  feeble-minded  (total  validation  S's, 
sexes  combined) ;  Med.  for  median  (LA  for  normative  S's  or 
SA  for  feeble-minded  S's)  ;  and  D  for  difference  between  means 
(M-F  and  N-FM).  The  mean  differences  with  minus  signs 
indicate  at  the  left  hand  (M-F)  normative  LA  sex  differences 
in  favor  of  the  male  S's,  and  at  the  right  hand  (N-FM)  LA  total 
normative  versus  SA  total  feeble-minded  differences  in  favor  of 
the  normul  S's  (the  higher  means  indicating  later  maturation). 
Similarly,  the  M-F  mean  differences  without  minus  sign^s  favor 
the  normative  female  S's,  while  the  N-FM  mean  differences 


74  Item  Specification 

without  minus  signs  favor  the  feeble-minded  S's.  SD's  are 
not  calculable  for  those  item  means  which  are  derived  from 
curves  which  include  only  one  significant  point  between  0  and 
100  per  cent.  In  such  instances  the  corresponding  CR  is  also 
lacking  (Chapter  9).  For  those  curves  which  begin  at  100 
per  cent  the  mean  is  0  and  the  corresponding  SD  is  0  (see  foot- 
note p.  77). 

9.  Some  of  the  statistical  trends  for  the  normative  subjects 
are  unconventionally  derived  for  items  above  101  (cf.  pp.  361- 
363).  The  nature  of  these  derivations  is  indicated  in  the  text 
accompanying  the  item  definitions  or  in  the  comments  below 
the  graphs.  These  derivations  have  regard  for  the  items  which 
do  not  ultimately  achieve  100  per  cent  of  passes  before  LA  25 
years.  Following  Item  101  no  item  attains  100  per  cent  of  passes 
except  Item  103  (which  after  LA  25  years  fluctuates  between 
90  and  100  per  cent  of  passes).  Consequently  the  order  of 
progressive  difficulty  for  these  items  has  been  determined  by 
the  total  sums  of  per  cent  passing  (see  page  362)  rather  than 
by  median  age  or  mean  age  values,  which  cannot  suitably  be 
calculated  from  such  incomplete  data. 

10.  A  similar  situation  obtains  for  the  total  feeble-minded 
subjects  for  items  between  Items  76-89  inclusive.  Certain  of 
these  items  do  not  reach  100  per  cent  of  passes  for  these  feeble- 
minded subjects  and  others  do  not  reach  50  per  cent  of  passes. 
For  Items  90-99  inclusive  the  feeble-minded  subjects  do  not 
exceed  5  per  cent  of  passes  on  three  items  (Items  90,  96,  97)  ;  do 
not  exceed  2.5  per  cent  of  passes  on  two  items  (Items  94,  98)  ; 
and  do  not  exceed  zero  per  cent  of  passes  on  all  other  items  of 
the  Scale  thereafter.  Consequently  the  graphs  for  feeble-minded 
subjects  are  omitted  beyond  Item  89.  The  graphs  for  total 
normative  subjects  are  also  omitted  beyond  Item  89  since  the 
comparisons  with  feeble-minded  subjects  are  either  irrelevant 
or  impossible  and  because  the  graphs  for  total  normative  sub- 
jects represent  only  the  mid-points  of  the  normative  graphs  by 
sex  which  can  readily  be  observed  either  by  inspection  or  calcu- 
lation from  the  normative  graphs  by  sex. 

11.  Most  of  the  item  curves  have  almost  startling  regularity 
and  pitch.  However,  some  items  show  marked  irregularities 
with  relatively  wide  spread-  Some  of  these  irregularities 
are  probably  attributable  to  the  limited  number  of  subjects  at 
each  LA,  especially  when  these  are  segregated  by  sex.  The 
items  which  show  v/ide  spread  or  marked  irregularities  have 
correspondingly  less  discriminative  value.     (The  item  curves 


Self-Help  Categories  75 

might  appear  more  impressive  if  presented  as  Gk)mpertz  curves, 
but  such  presentation  would  have  obscured  the  raw  data  and 
might  have  yielded  inferences  not  warranted  by  the  face  value 
of  the  data.) 

12.  On  most  items  there  is  a  noteworthy  absence  of  signifi- 
cant sex  differences.  Some  specific  items,  especially  in  the  adult 
range,  reveal  sex  differences  which  may  be  attributable  to  arti- 
facts of  scoring  or  of  occupational  pursuits.  Careful  analysis 
of  these  items  has  revealed  no  serious  obstacles  to  retaining 
them  since  they  produced  no  seriously  disturbing  influence  in 
the  Scale  as  a  whole,  because  of  compensating  sex  influences. 


SELF  -  HELP  CATEGORIES 

The  most  obvious  evidence  of  social  maturation  from  early 
infancy  to  adolescence  is  in  self-help.  Three  divisions  of  this 
category  are  evident,  (a)  general  activities,  (b)  eating,  and  (c) 
dressing  (including  cleansing).  The  major  considerations  in 
these  items  are  the  manner  and  degree  to  which  the  individual 
attends  to  his  immediate  personal  wants.  Some  of  these  per- 
formances anticipate  other  activities  of  wider  significance  with- 
out constituting  specific  preliminary  stages  of  those  activities. 


Self-Help 
General 

The  parent  whose  wisdom  is  compounded  of  intelligence  and 
emotional  control  will  sense,  without  the  aid  of  a  textbook, 
the  moment  at  which  he  can  say  to  himself,  "Hands  off]" 

— Lillian  Symes 

It  should  be  noted  that  although  balancing  the  head, 
grasping,  rolling  over,  reaching,  sitting,  standing,  and  the  like, 
are  in  a  sense  preliminary  stages  of  locomotion,  we  prefer  to 
consider  them  independently  in  this  category  of  Self-Help  Gen- 
eral (SHG)  since  they  are  common  to  a  wide  variety  of  tasks 
and  do  not  lend  themselves  to  ready  classification  in  the  other 
categories. 

The  14  SHG  items  extend  from  SA  0  to  SA  VII.  All  but  two 
appear  before  SA  III  (8  at  O,  2  at  I,  2  at  II,  1  at  IV,  and  1  at 
VII).  Hence  this  category  is  specially  applicable  to  normal 
infants  and  to  idiot-grade  feeble-minded.  A  series  of  items 
preliminary  to  walking  is  apparent  in  Items  2,  5,  8,  9,  and  15. 


76 


Item  Specification 


Items  3,  6, 13  and  23  reveal  manipulation.  Items  35  and  51  indi- 
cate toilet  reliance.  Item  26  might  be  considered  as  locomotion, 
Item  41  as  self -direction,  and  Item  66  as  communication.  Such 
serial  orders  may  be  employed  as  examining  sequences  according 
to  expediency. 


Item  2.  (LA  .25)  Balances  head. 


If  the  S  raises  and  vol- 
untarily supports  his  head,  it 
does  not  need  to  be  raised  or 
supported  for  him.  This  capa- 
bility is  essential  to  many 
other  socially  significant  ac- 
tivities. This  is  not  to  say  that 
balancing  the  head  is  the  first 
significant  form  of  human 
behavior,  but  only  that  it  is 
an  early  indication  of  person- 
al independence.  Students  of  infant  development  will  appreciate 
that  this  is  a  relatively  advanced  form  of  activity,  which  in  this 
scale  is  preceded  by  crowing  and  laughing,  which  in  turn  have 
other  antecedents  not  included  as  such  in  this  scale. 

To  satisfy  this  item,  the  S  spontaneously  balances  his  head  continu- 
ously (about  at  least  one  minute)  and  at  fairly  frequent  intervals  as  occa- 
sion warrants.  The  S  may  be  held  in  the  erect  posture,  but  the  head  should 
be  free  to  move  independently  of  support.  Or  the  S  may  raise  (and  hold) 
his  head  erect  from  prone  or  supine  positions,  perhaps  with  shoulders 
raised.  We  are  not  concerned  with  the  psychomotor  details,  but  rather  with 
th«  fact  that  the  S  needs  no  longer  to  have  his  head  balanced  for  him. 

Performance  on  this  item  may  be  limited  by  extreme  ma- 
turational  mental  or  physical  handicap,  by  serious  mental  or 
physical  deterioration,  or  by  temporary  conditions.  Only  the  last 
of  these  receives  mitigating  credit.  Plus-minus  credit  may  be 
given  if  the  item  is  passed  occasionally  but  not  usually.  This 
item  might  have  been  so  defined  as  to  require  continuous  balanc- 
ing of  the  head  (indefinitely  longer  than  about  a  minute,  or  at 
least  for  so  long  as  the  trunk  or  shoulders  might  be  held  erect) . 
But  this  in  turn  would  require  continuous  support  of  the  trunk 
or  shoulders  for  definite  or  indefinite  periods.  Such  a  require- 
ment would  supplant  this  significant  item  by  another  as  pre- 
requisite. Moreover  all  activities  are  socially  discontinuous ;  that 
ii,  they  occur  intermittently.  One  does  not  walk  all  day,  nor  wash 
one's  face  every  hour,  nor  talk  uninterruptedly.   Hence  the 


Self-Help  General 


77 


periodic  nature  of  the  performance  must  not  be  confused  with 
its  customariness  when  called  for  (Chapter  7). 

In  the  normative  sample  (Chapter  9)  this  item  is  passed  by  80  per 
cent  of  the  boys  and  by  70  per  cent  of  the  girls  in  the  first  year  of  life, 
and  by  all  subjects  thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  (normatve  male-female) 
difference  is  .10  years  in  favor  of 
the  boys.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
.25   years. 

Since  there  is  only  one  sig- 
nificant point  on  the  curve  betw^een 
0  and  100  per  cent  a  standard  SD 
(other  than  the  SD  of  a  percent- 
age) cannot  be  calculated.  Conse- 
quently a  standard  CR  cannot  be 
calculated.  And  this  applies  to  all 
such  curves   (Chapter  9). 

In  the  validation  sample  (fee- 
ble-minded subjects,  Chapter  10) 
this  item  is  passed  by  all  subjects 
in  all  SA  groups.  The  mean  SA 
norm  is  0  years.*  The  mean  N-FM 
(normals  by  LA  versus  feeble- 
mir.ded  by  SA)  difference  is  .25 
years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded. 


PLl 

ion 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

S 

M- 

1 

fm/ 

/ 

-F 

An 

1 

i 

-4— 

Iten 

1  2 

Item  2 

1 

t- 

1 

2 

3 

4... 

) 

■    i 

\ 

4... 

LA  (norms!  by  sex )m^      LA  /normal  tot)  i 
SA  (    FM  tot     ) 


Mea. 

Mean 

M: 

.13 

.20 

F: 

.21 

.30 

D: 

-.10 

Item  2:    Balances  head 
8D         CR 


Med. 

Mean 

N    : 

.17 

.25 

FM: 

0 

0 

D    : 

.25 

8D 


CB 


Item  3.    (LA  .30)    Grasps  objects  within  reach. 


The  infant  at  birth  displays  a  reflex  grasp  of  such  strength 
as  to  support  his  body  weight.  With  increasing  maturation  in 
voluntary  attention  and  muscular  control  he  will  for  brief  mo- 
ments hold  objects  placed  in  his  hands.  Later  development  of 
prehensile  movements  enables  him  to  pick  up,  take,  and  retain 
small  objects  within  arm's  length.  And  still  later  he  will  extend 
the  area  of  grasping  by  extending  his  body  length  by  rolling 
over,  creeping  and  other  locomotor  processes. 

This  item  is  considered  passed  if  the  S  spontaneously  or  without 
undue  urging  picks  up,  pulls,  or  takes  simple  objects  within  arm's  length 
and  retains  them  for  something  more  than  a  few  seconds.   He  is  not  to  be 


*This  norm  is  actually  indefinite  between  SA  0  to  .9  years.  It  signifies 
that  all  S's  at  this  interval  and  beyond  passed  the  item.  This  applies 
throughout  the  text  and  for  graphs  where  the  mean  SA  is  given  as  0  years. 


78 


Item  Specification 


penalized  for  lack  of  judgment  as  to  when  or  what  objects  are  taken,  a 
detail  which  is  considered  in  later  items  (e.g.,  Item  41,  Avoids  simple 
hazards).  Opposition  of  thumb  and  finger  as  a  more  effective  form  of 
grasping  is  also  considered  later  (Item  13,  Grasps  with  thumb  and  finger). 


In  the  normative  sample,  this 
item  is  passed  by  70  per  cent  of 
each  sex  in  the  first  year  of  life 
and  by  all  subjects  thereafter.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  0.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  .30  years. 

In  the  validation  sample  the 
mean  SA  norm  is  .50  years,  SD 
.52.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is 
.20  years  in  favor  of  the  normal 
S's. 


% 

100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

F-H 

/ 

N- 

/' 

»♦  1 

i 

L 

J 

^ 

FMj 

/ 

I 

'i 

1 

1 

1 

1 

• 

i 

■  1 

Item  3 

1 
Item  3 

0       1       2       3      4...     ^       1       2      3      4 
LA  (normal  by  sex)  LA  (normal  tot.)  ^ 

SA  (     FM  tot     )  ^ 


Item  3:     Orasps   objects   within  reach. 

Med.     Bean  SD         CR                          Med.     Mean       8D         CR 

M:                .21         .30  -                       N    :             .21         .30 

F:                 .21         .30  -                       FM:             .41         .50         .52 

D:                               0  -          D    :                        -.20 

We  are  not  so  much  concerned  here  with  method  as  with 
result.  If  the  S  can  reach  and  take  objects,  they  need  not  be 
handed  him.  This  activity  thus  extends  the  S's  social  horizon  and 
makes  him  less  dependent  upon  others  to  satisfy  his  wants  or 
needs.  It  also  increases  his  environmental  perils  since  the 
objects  taken  may  involve  potential  hazards  in  the  form  of 
damage  to  him  or  to  them.  This  discretionary  aspect  of  reach- 
and-grasp  is  considered  under  the  category  of  locomotion  with 
due  consideration  of  the  risks  involved  in  extended  surround- 
ings. 

Note  again  that,  as  in  all  items,  special  circumstances  may 
limit  performance  as  provided  for  in  Chapter  7.  Muscular  inco- 
ordination may  be  present  as  in  birth  palsy.  Environmental 
stimulation  or  its  lack  may  be  a  factor.  After  taking  an  object 
there  may  be  difficulty  in  letting  go,  or  "ungrasping."  Such 
performances  are  to  be  scored  ad  hoc  with  allowances  made  for 
subsequent  interpretation  rather  than  for  modified  scoring.  The 
technique  of  double-scoring  (p.  292)  may  be  resorted  to  for  spe- 
cial purposes. 


Self-Help  General 


79 


Item  5.  (LA  .30)  Rolls  over. 

The  gross  control  of  body  movement  progresses  matura- 
tionally  from  head  to  feet.  This,  broadly  speaking,  is  revealed  in 
the  voluntary  exercise  of  neck,  arms,  trunk  and  legs  in  that 
order.  Our  interest  here  is  not,  however,  so  much  in  body  me- 
chanics as  in  the  increase  in  personal  social  effectiveness.  If  the 
infant  (or  other  S)  rolls  over,  he  does  not  have  to  be  turned  over 
and  this  is  another  early  evidence  of  personal  independence. 
Rolling  over  may  also  be  viewed  as  a  first  stage  of  locomotion 
which  extends  the  physical  environment  and  thereby  the  range 
of  social  expression.  It  may  thus  become  the  motor  means  of 
satisfying  Item  12  (Moves  about  on  floor),  but  is  here  consid- 
ered as  a  general  activity  in  self-help. 

The  item  is  considered  passed  if  the  S  lying  prone  on  a  relatively 
unobstructed  surface  rather  frequently  and  voluntarily  (or  often  and 
purposively)  maneuvers  to  supine  positions,  or  vice  versa,  without 
assistance.  (The  movement  from  ventral  to  dorsal  positions  is  for  most 
S's  more  easily  and  frequently  accomplished  but  is  disregarded  for  sco'-ing 
purposes.  Likewise  the  manner  of  accomplishing:  this  feat  while  note- 
worthy may  be  disregarded  for  scoring.) 


The  item  is  passed  by  70  per 
cent  of  the  normative  S's  of  each 
sex  in  the  first  year  of  life  and  by 
all  subjects  thereafter.  The  mean 
IVt-F  difference  is  0.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  .30  years. 

The  item  is  passed  by  all 
feeble-mfnded  S's  at  SA  0-1  and 
thence  forward.  The  mean  SA 
norm  is  0  years.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .30  years  in  favor  of 
the  feeble-minded. 


* 

F- 

/ 

i 

L 

1 

Iten 

t  5 

0 

i 

*... 

LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


PL 

100 

JS 

FM 

/ 

80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

j 

u 

J 

Iter 

1  5 

£ 

i 

j 

\ 
.A( 
IA( 

°% 

alt 
tot 

ot) 
.    ) 

«... 

Item  5:    Rolls  over. 


Med. 

Mean 

BD 

M: 

.21 

.30 

- 

F: 

.21 

.30 

- 

D: 

0 

CR 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


Med.    Mean 
.21        .30 
0  0 

^0 


8D 


CR 


80 


Item  Specification 


Since  rolling  from  front  to  back  is  somewhat  easier  thaa 
vice  versa  (because  the  prone  position  being  less  comfortable 
"motivates"  turning  over,  and  this  is  better  facilitated  by  the 
use  of  the  arms  when  prone)  it  might  seem  desirable  to  differen- 
tiate these  performances.  But  by  accepting  either  rather  than 
both  the  scoring  is  simplified,  for  usually  one  act  accompanies 
the  other  or  is  acquired  in  close  maturational  sequence.  When 
combined  for  movement  in  a  continuous  direction,  rather  than 
for  alternating  movement  in  a  single  locus,  the  performance  be- 
comes an  early  stage  of  locomotion  and  a  forerunner  of  crawl- 
ing or  creeping.  This  aspect  is  taken  account  of  in  Item  12 
(Moves  about  on  floor). 


Item  6.  (LA  .35)  Reaches  for  nearby  objects. 


This  item  is  an  extension 
of  Item  3  (Grasps  objects 
within  reach),  usually  com- 
bined with  Item  5  (Rolls 
over)  or  other  means  of  lo- 
comotion. Here  the  activity  of 
the  S  is  stimulated  by  the 
desire  to  obtain  an  object  be- 
yon*?  arm's  length,  and  this  requires  some  "displacement,"  such 
as  rolling  over,  "hunching,"  creeping,  stepping,  toward  the 
object.  Logically,  therefore,  this  performance  includes  some 
elementary  locomotion  and  correspondingly  increases  social 
independence  by  enabling  the  S  to  obtain  objects  which  would 
otherwise  have  to  be  placed  within  arm's  length. 


Objects  at  a  distance  have  a  stimulating  allure  that  prompts 
desires  to  obtain  them.  This  form  of  social  exploration  is  less 
vigorously  displayed  by  feeble-minded  S's  and  by  normal  S's 
of  passive  personality. 


The  item  is  considered  passed  if  the  S  attempts  to  obtain  objects  which 
are  nearby  but  beyond  arm's  length.  The  objects  are  assumed  to  be  such  as 
would  attract  the  S  through  familiarity,  form,  color,  or  other  stimalns- 
incentiye,  and  which  are  within  compi>iratiTely  easy  access,  say  at  a  dis- 
tance of  about  a  few  feet,  more  or  less. 


Self-Help  General 


81 


The  normative  sample  shows 
the  item  passed  by  70  per  cent  of 
the  boys  and  60  per  cent  of  the 
girls  at  LA  0-1,  and  by  all  S's 
thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .10  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys.  The  mean  total  norm  is  .35 
years. 

The  item  is  passed  by  40  per 
cent  of  feeble-minded  S's  at  SA  0-1, 
90  per  cent  at  SA  1-2,  and  by  all 
S's  thereafter.  The  mean  total  SA 
norm  is  .70  years,  SD  .57.  The 
mean  N-FM  difference  is  .35  years 
in  favor  of  the  normal  S's. 


2     3 

LA  (normal  by  sex) 


0      1      2      3    '  4, 
LA  (normal  tot)  ^i 

SA  i     FM  toi     ) 


Item  6:    Reaches  for  nearby  objects. 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.21 

.30 

F: 

.33 

.40 

D: 

-.10 

SD 


CR 


N 

FM 

D 


Med.     Mean 
.27         .35 
.70  .70 

-.35 


SD 


.57 


CR 


ITEM  8.  (LA  .45)  Sits  unsupported. 

This  item  is  sequential  to  Item  2  (Balances  head)  by  exten- 
sion to  voluntary  control  of  sitting  posture. 


This  item  is  passed  by  60  per 
cent  of  the  boys  and  50  per  cent  of 
the  girls  at  LA  0-1,  and  by  all  S's 
thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .10  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys.  The  mean  total  norm  is  .45 
years. 

This  item  is  passed  by  all  the 
feeble-minded  S's  at  SA  0-1  and 
thereafter.  The  mean  SA  norm  is  0 
years.  The  mean  N-FM  difference 
is  .46  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded. 


*' 

PLI 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

T 

FM 

T 

M- 

/ 

' 

1 

«-N 

I 

-' 

/ 

1 

-F 

I 

Item  8 

iter 

n  8 

a      1       2      3      4... 
LA  (normal  by  sex)a^ 

0       12      3      4. 
LA  (normal  tot.)  ^^ 
SA  i     FM  tot.     » 

ITBM  8:    Sits 

unsupported. 

Med, 

Mean 

8D         OR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D         C 

M: 

.33 

.40 

- 

N    :             .41 

.46 

- 

F: 

.50 

.50 

. 

FM:                0 

0 

0 

D: 

-.10 

• 

D    : 

.45 

CB 


82 


Item  Specification 


The  S  may  raise  himself  or  be  raised  to  the  sitting  posture. 
The  slight  temporal  differences  in  this  respect  are  here  ignored 
as  are  those  other  postural  sequences  which  may  be  involved. 

For  scoring  purposes  the  sitting  is  presumed  to  be  on  a  relatively  firm 
flat  surface  without  provision  for  other  support.  Balance  may  be  some- 
what unsteady,  but  the  erect  spinal  posture  is  maintained  for  about  a 
minute  or  more. 


Item  9.    (LA  .55)  Pulls  self  upright. 


This  item  is  logically  se- 
quential to  Item  8  combined 
with  Items  2  and  3  and  per- 
haps 6.  The  S  now  engages 
in  a  number  of  voluntary  pos- 
tures which  reduce  his  need 
for  assistance  from  others 
and  which  lead  ultimately  to 
walking. 


This  item  is  passed  by  50  per 
cent  of  the  normative  boys  and  40 
per  cent  of  the  girls  at  LA  0-1,  and 
by  all  S's  thereafter.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .10  years  in  favor 
of  the  boys.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  .55  years. 

Ninety  per  cent  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  at  SA  0-1  pass  this 
item,  and  all  thereafter.  The  mean 
SA  norm  is  .10  years.  The  mean 
N-FM  difference  is  .45  in  favor  of 
the  feeble-minded. 


%' 

f 

j 

M- 

1 

< 

/ 

/ 

1- 

-F 

Iten 

9 

PLUS 

100 


FM"' 


0       12      3      4... 
LA  (normal  by  9ex)a^ 


Item  9 


0  1  2  3  fl 
LA  (normal  tot)  ^ 
SA  (    FM  tot    )  ^ 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
.50 
.67 


Item   9; 

Mean       SD 

.50 

.60 
-.10 


Pulls  self  upright. 
CR  Med. 


N 

FM 

D 


.59 
.06 


Mean 
.55 
.10 

.45 


8D 


CR 


Self-Help  General 


83 


To  pass  this  item  the  S  is  reported  as  frequently  accustomed  to  pulling 
himself  to  a  standing  position  by  holding  to  some  fixed  object  within  easy 
reach.  This  object  should  be  something  other  than  a  person,  since  a  person 
might  pull  the  S  to  the  upright  position,  whereas  the  S  is  expected  to  do 
this  for  himself.  The  upright  position  is  then  commonly  sustained  with  or 
without  hand  support  for  about  a  minute  or  more. 


Item  13.  (LA  .65)  Grasps  with  thumb  and  finger. 

This  item  is  a  particularization  of  Item  3.  Instead  of  grasp- 
ing with  the  entire  hand  or  fist  as  a  simple  form  of  manipula- 
tion, the  S  now  uses  thumb  and  finger  for  obtaining  more  minute 
objects  or  a  more  effective  grasp  for  which  more  precise  co- 
ordination is  required.  This  increases  the  range  in  kind  of  object 
that  can  be  grasped,  and  again  reduces  the  amount  of  attendance 
needed. 

The  item  is  passed  if  the  S  commonly  picks  up  small  objects  by  means  of 
thumb  and  finger  opposition.  The  objects  are  such  as  could  not  readily 
be  grasped  without  such  manipulation.    They   are  not  to  be  handed  to 

the  S,  but  are  to  be  within  relatively  easy  reach. 


Fifty  per  cent  of  the  normative 
boys  and  20  per  cent  of  the  girls 
succeed  in  this  performance  at  LA 
0-1,  and  all  thereafter.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .30  years  in  favor 
of  the  boys.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  .65  years. 

Seven  and  one-half  per  cent 
(counting  half -credit  as  half-S)  of 
the  feeble-minded  S's  succeed  at  SA 
0-1,  60  per  cent  at  SA  1-2,  and  all 
thereafter.  The  mean  SA  norm  is 
1.33  years,  SD  ,54.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .68  years  in  favor  of 
the  normal  S's. 


% 

r 

M- 

/ 

1 

i 

/ 

-F 

/; 

1 
1 

1 
i 

: 

tern 

13 

(!) 

i 

2 

J 

1.  .  . 

US 

/ 

1 

N- 

/ 

1 

1 

1  !\ 

1 

FM 

$ 

/ 

1 

i, 

1 
1 

[teni 

13 

1 

4 

0      ] 

2 

>      I 

4 

... 

LA  (normal  by  Bex)"^ 


LA  (normal  tot) 
SA(     FMtot     ) 


Item   li 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.50 

.50 

F: 
D: 

.88 

.80 
-.30 

Grasps  with  thwnib  and  finger. 
8D  CR 


Med. 

Mean 

N    : 

.73 

.65 

FM: 

1.31 

1.33 

D    : 

-.68 

8D 


.54 


CB 


84 


Item  Specification 


The  ability  to  pick  up  small  objects  is  more  important  so- 
cially than  may  at  first  appear.  Like  other  such  aptitudes,  it 
involves  also  certain  hazards  which  must  subsequently  be  dis- 
creetly avoided.  This  item  is  further  significant  as  prerequisite 
to  later  self-help  items,  especially  dressing. 

Note  that  this  is  the  first  item  thus  far  discussed  which 
shows  comparative  FM  delay  (SA  versus  LA  maturation)  in 
spite  of  comparative  LA  advantage.  The  amount  of  mean  differ- 
ence is  small,  but  the  relative  amount  large.  In  the  absence  of 
normative  SD,  a  CR  is  not  obtainable. 


Item  15.  (LA  .85)  Stands  alone. 

This  is  a  logical  extension  of  Item  9  and  completes  the  pre- 
walking  motor  series. 

To  satisfy  this  performance  the  S  stands  readily  on  a  firm  flat  surface 
free  from  support  of  person  or  object.  Balance  may  be  unsteady  and  may 
be  assisted  by  foot  movements,  but  the  standing  position  is  maintained  for 
about  at  least  a  minute. 


Twenty  per  cent  of  the  normative 
boys  and  10  per  cent  of  the  girls 
succeed  at  LA  0-1,  and  all  there- 
after. The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.10  years  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  .85  years.  The 
maturation  curve  is  notable  for  the 
sharp  rise  in  frequency  of  success 
in  the  second  year  of  life  and  the 
influence  of  this  on  the  mean  (the 
norm  being  v\rithin  the  first  year  of 
life  even  though  the  item  is  passed 
relatively  seldom  within  the  whole 
range  of  that  year). 

The  item  is  passed  by  all  the 
feeble-minded  S's  at  SA  0-1  and 
thereafter.  The  mean  SA  norm  is 
0  years.  The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .85  years  in  favor  of  the 
feeble-minded. 


% 

PL 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

LTS 

if 

FM  / 

M- 

r^ 

/^ 

F 

-N 

' 

J 

/ 

/ 

tem 

15 

tem 

15 

1 

i 

0      1      2      S      4..  . 
LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


0  12  3  4- 
LA  (normal  tot) 
SA(    FMtot    )' 


Item  15:    Stands  alone. 

Med.     Mean       8D         CR                          Med.  Mean       SD 

M:               .88        .80           -                      N    :             .91  .85 

F:                 .94         .90            -                       FM:               0  0            0 

D:                          -.10                      -          D    :  ^5 


CR 


Self-Help  Genekal 


85 


This  item  is  more  significant  as  a  stage  in  the  motor  pre- 
liminaries to  walking  than  as  clear  evidence  of  social  com- 
petence per  se.  It  is  a  commonly  sought  item  in  developmental 
histories  as  are  also  balancing  the  head  and  sitting.  The  relative 
advantage  in  SA  maturation  for  feeble-minded  S's  derives  from 
their  greater  physical  maturity  due  to  the  advantage  (about  15 
years)  in  life  age. 


Item  23.  (LA  1.30)  Overcomes  simple  obstacles. 

The  S  now  employs  a  group 
of  motor  acts  for  the  explora- 
tion of  his  environment  and  as 
a  means  of  extending  his  social 
effectiveness.  With  success  on 
this  item  the  S  surmounts 
simple  difficulties  which  other- 
v/ise  restrict  his  activities,  or 
employs  new  means  of  extend- 
ing those  activities.  Success  on 
Item  18  (Walks  about  room 
unattended)  typically  precedes 
this  item.  (The  categorical  ex- 
position of  items  tends  to  obscure  their  relatedness  to  items  in 
other  categories.  The  reader  may  offset  this  by  frequent  refer- 
ence to  the  Scale  as  a  whole.) 

To  satisfy  this  item  the  S  succeeds  in  such  activities  as  opening  closed 
doors,  reaching  otherwise  inaccessible  points,  climbing  up  on_  objects  such 
as  chair  or  stool  to  increase  his  vertical  extension,  using  a  stick  as  an  im- 
plement for  extending  his  reach,  using  some  receptacle  for  transferring 
objects  from  place  to  place  more  effectively.  The  activities  should  be  some- 
what varied  though  not  necessarily  very  numerous.  The  criterion  of  custom - 
ariness  is  related  to  simple  situations,  as  well  as  to  need,  want  or  occasion, 
and  spontaneous  resourcefulness. 

A  number  of  previous  items  are  here  combined  as  fairly 
complex  (integrative)  behavior  and  the  influences  of  matura- 
tion on  social  competence  becomes  more  clearly  evident.  Note 
particularly  that  such  extensions  of  behavior  induce  social  haz- 
ards both  to  and  from  the  S.  Hence  this  and  corresponding  items 
micst  be  performed  without  unfavorable  consequences  to  the 
child  or  his  surroundings.  This  involves  the  general  factor  of 
safe  or  proper  (discreet)  as  well  as  effective  behavior  (p.  68). 


86 


Item  Specification 


This  item  is  performed  success- 
fully by  none  of  the  normative  S's 
in  the  first  year  of  life.  At  LA  1-2 
the  item  is  passed  by  75  per  cent  of 
the  boys  and  65  per  cent  of  the  girls. 
All  the  normative  S's  succeed  there- 
after. The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.10  years  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.30  years. 

The  normal  versus  feeble-minded 
comparison  shows  close  parallelism 
between  LA  and  SA  groups.  The 
mean  SA  norm  is  1.33  years,  SD  .70. 
The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .03 
years  in  favor  of  the  normal  S's. 


r~— 

% 

/■ 

M 

rV 

i 

r 

-F 

I 

V 

' 

/ 

tern 

23 

PLUS 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 

f- 

1 

1 

N 

r 

fA-FM 

• 

10 

1 

■^o 

''O 

■1 

10 

• 

Item  23 

1 

0      1 


I. A  (jjormal  by  sex>^      LA  (normal  tot) 

S4( 

FM  tot     ) 

Item   23:     Overcomes   simple   obstacles. 

Med. 

Mean       8D         CR                          Med.     Mean 

SD 

M: 

1.17 

1.25            -                       N    :            1.21       1.30 

. 

F: 

1.27 

1.35            -                       FM:            1.38       1.33 

.70 

D: 

-.10                        -           D    :                         -.03 

OR 


Item  26.  (LA  1.43)  Gives  up  baby  carriage. 

This  item  might  have  been  placed  in  the  locomotion  cate- 
gory except  that  the  locomotion  series  is  intended  to  reflect  the 
social  responsibility  displayed  in  getting  about  as  contrasted 
with  the  motor  performances  involved.  Consequently  this  item 
is  placed  in  the  general  self-help  category  as  another  expression 
of  immediate  personal  independence. 

A  baby  carriage,  perambulator  or  auto  cradle  is  commonly 
used  for  transporting  (other  than  carrying)  children  who  do 
not  walk  appreciable  distances.  As  the  child  extends  his  walking 
aptitude  he  reveals  an  increasing  aversion  to  the  restraints 
imposed  on  his  activities  by  these  passive  postures.  He  then 
usually  is  taken  about  in  a  go-cart  or  auto  chair,  is  carried  short 
distances  in  the  upright  posture,  or  walks  holding  some  person's 
hand  or  some  moving  object.  The  item  is  not  intended  to  sug- 
gest that  the  S  now  walks  long  distances,  but  rather  that  he  may 
be  taken  about  much  more  easily.  In  short,  his  locomobility  is 
greatly  simplified  when  the  perambulator  or  equivalent  may  be 
discarded  for  simpler  forms  of  getting  about.  (Note  that  the  use 
of  a  wheel-chair  as  a  substitute  for  a  perambulator  in  the  case 
of  cripples  and  invalids  involves  definitely  more  dependence  than 
is  the  case  with  a  go-cart  or  equivalent.) 

The  item  is  passed  if  the  S  seldom  is  "taken  out"  by  pram  or  auto 
cradle,  but  instead  usually  walks,  uses  gfo-cart  or  chairseat,  or  is  carried 
only  intermittently  when  "out  walking." 


Self-Help  General 


87 


None  of  the  normative  S's  pass 
this  item  at  LA  0-1,  while  70  per 
cent  of  the  boys  and  45  per  cent  of 
the  girls  succeed  at  LA  1-2,  and  all 
thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  difference 
is  .25  years  in  favor  of  the  boys. 
The  mean  total  norm  is  1.43  years. 

Ninety  per  cent  of  Ihe  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this  item  at  SA  0-1, 
and  all  thereafter.  The  mean  SA 
norm  is  .10  years.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  1.33  years  in  favor  of 
the  feeble-minded. 


% 

/■ 

1 

1 

M- 

4 ' 

1  ; 

/  ' 

l» 

' 

/ 

[tem 

26 

ji 

li 

—  lOO 


0      12      3      4... 
LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


0      12      3      4. 

LA  (normal  tot) 

SA(     FMtot     ) 


Med. 

Mear 

M: 

1.21 

1.30 

F: 

1.59 

1.55 

D: 

-.25 

Item  26:    Gives  up  ba'by  carriage. 
8D         CB  Med. 


N 

FM 

D 


1.37 
.06 


Mean 

1.43 

.10 

1.33 


SD 


CR 


As  in  other  items  thus  far  in  which  the  feeble-minded  sub- 
jects are  relatively  superior,  attention  is  again  called  to  their 
advantage  of  life  age  (about  15  years  at  this  level)  which  affects 
items  where  the  motor  element  is  relatively  more  important  than 
the  self-dependent  element. 


Item  35.  (LA  1.98)  Asks  to  go  to  toilet. 

In  early  infancy  the  child  lacks  bladder  and  bowel  control 
and  requires  frequent  attendance  in  this  respect.  Gradually 
these  controls  are  acquired,  bowel  control  usually  preceding 
bladder  control,  and  diurnal  control  usually  preceding  nocturnal. 
As  this  comes  about,  the  child  first  achieves  personal  "cleanli- 
ness" by  indicating  his  desire  to  go  to  the  toilet,  and  by  con- 
trolled elimination  between  these  periods.  At  this  stage  the  child 
still  requires  assistance  at  toilet,  but  if  such  assistance  is  avail- 
able he  seldom  has  toilet  "accidents"  during  the  daytime.  Night 
control  at  this  stage  is  usually  not  yet  established.  This  per- 
formance involves  transition  from  uninhibited  reflex  to  volun- 
tary habit.  It  is  motivated  not  only  by  a  desire  for  personal  com- 
fort, but  also  for  social  approval,  and  within  limits  by  response 
to  special  training. 


88 


Item  Specification 


We  are  not  concerned  here  with  cleanliness  resulting  from  attention  in 
respect  to  which  the  child  expresses  no  initiative.  It  is  required  that  he 
definitely  indicate  his  needs  by  pertinent  vocalization  or  gesture  rather  than 
by  mere  general  restlessness,  thereby  relieving  his  attendants  of  responsi- 
bility for  anticipating  his  needs.  As  a  result  of  this  responsible  initiative 
the  S  is  generally  clean  as  to  eliminative  habits  during  the  day  if  help  at 
the  toilet  is  readily  available.  He  is  not  required  to  care  for  himself  at  the 
toilet  but  only  to  responsibly  and  clearly  call  attention  to  his  needs. 

None  of  the  normative  subjects  at  LA  0-1  pass  this  item.  Some  suc- 
cesses are  observed  at  LA  1-2  followed  by  marked  increases  at  LA  2-3. 
All  the  subjects  succeed  at  LA  4-5  and  thereafter.  Girls  show  earlier 
maturation  than  boys,  especially  at  LA  1-2;  the  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.45  years  in  their  favor,  OR  1.61.  The  mean  total  norm  is  1.98  years, 
SD  .63.  The  maturation  variability  is  somewhat  higher  for  the  girls.  (Note 
that  this  is  the  first  item  thus  far  discussed  for  which  both  SB's  by  sex, 
and  consequently  the  CR  of  the  M-F  mean  difference,  are  available.) 


The  normative  and 
feeble-minded  matura- 
tion curves  are  nearly 
coincidwital  except  for 
slightly  more  individual 
delay  in  success  among 
the  feeble-minded  S's 
after  SA  2-3.  The  mean 
SA  norm  is  2.13  years, 
SD  .96.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .15  years 
in  favor  of  the  normal 
S's,  CR  .57.  Note  that 
the  SD  for  the  feeMe- 
minded  S's  is  somewhat 
larger   than   for   normal 


&  s,  ir 
pling 

lOicating  more  sar 
variability. 

1- 

J      1      2      .;'      4      5      6. . .         0      I      ;;      n      4 
LA  (riorma!  fey  fexj"^                     LA  (rorrRf;'  tot)  ^^ 
SA  (     F>i  sut.     ;  "^ 

Item  35:    Asks  to  go  to  toilet. 

Med. 

Mean 

8D        CR                         Med.    Mean      SD 

M: 

2.14 

2.20 

.42                       N    :           1.96       1.98         .63 

F: 

1.70 

1.75 

.71                       FM:           1.95       2.13         .96 

D: 

.45 

1 

.61 

D 

: 

-.15 

CR 


.57 


Performance  on  this  item  will  at  first  be  thought  of  as 
heavily  influenced  by  environmental  training  and  perhaps  by  the 
nature  and  accessibility  of  toilet  conveniences.  More  probably, 
successful  performance  is  governed  by  neurophysiological  de- 
siderata. As  in  all  behavior  training  is  ineffectual  prior  to  the 
establishment  of  a  morphological  basis  to  profit  therefrom.  The 
ordinarily  optimum  period  for  training  is  that  time-interyal 
within  which  morphological  maturation  is  most  evident.  Prior 
to  this  interval  training  may  be  worse  than  wasted ;  it  may  in- 


Self-Help  General 


89 


duce  negativism,  delay  or  conflict  tendencies.  Subsequent  to  this 
interval,  training  may  be  unnecessary  or  may  have  to  counter- 
act imperfect  self -initiated  learning.  Indeed,  it  is  our  conviction 
that  the  normative  standardization  of  the  items  which  consti- 
tute this  scale  is  a  significant  guide  to  these  optimum  periods,  or 
psychological  moments,  for  child  training.  This  assurance  is  fur- 
ther strengthened  by  the  feeble-minded  validation  data  (again 
recalling  their  LA  advantage) . 

The  accessibility  and  nature  of  toilet  conveniences  are  also 
evidently  less  important  than  at  first  appears  and,  like  training, 
influence  the  results  only  mildly  within  the  period  of  neuro- 
physiological  development.  This  does  not  deny  variation  in  the 
cultural  conventions  which  attend  elimination.  Toilet  functions 
are  performed  under  such  an  extreme  range  of  time,  place  and 
material  convenience  that  their  variable  effect  cannot  readily  be 
allowed  for.  We  may  not  totally  ignore  the  presumptive  influ- 
ences of  training  or  convention  in  scoring;  the  examiner  must 
allow  for  them  in  evaluation  as  his  insight  and  the  S's  circum- 
stances may  warrant. 

Temporary  lapses  in  control  are  encountered  as  associated 
with  illness,  emotional  stress,  change  of  environment,  diet,  milk 
or  water  supply,  and  so  on.  Some  specific  foods,  experiences  and 
activities  have  a  diuretic  effect.  There  are  also  individual  and  sex 
differences  in  frequency  and  other  aspects  of  elimination.  Like- 
wise relatively  permanent  loss  or  abeyance  of  control  is  en- 
countered under  such  circumstances  as  conflict  situations,  neuro- 
physiological  and  anatomical  deviations,  mental  or  physical  de- 
terioration. These  enuretic  complexes  require  s]8ecial  interpreta- 
tion. But  ad  hoc  scoring  may  still  be  adhered  to  as  an  indication 
of  fact  with  or  without  reference  to  explanation. 


Item 


41.  (LA  2.85)  Avoids  simple  hazards. 

This  item  is  a  logical  exten- 
sion of  Item  23  (Overcomes 
simple  obstacles) .  The  perform- 
ances involved  afford  a  con- 
crete illustration  of  the  need 
for  self -protection  as  compared 
with  the  safeguards  provided 
by  others.  The  item  reveals 
appreciation  of  simple  environ- 
mental dangers  and  efforts  to 


90 


Item  Specification 


avoid  them.  These  dangers  are  material  and  personal.  They 
involve  caution  with  regard  to  strangers,  protecting  one's  self 
from  the  natural  elements,  use  of  potentially  harmful  tools  or 
utensils,  relations  with  animals,  perils  of  traffic,  and  so  on. 
We  cannot  anticipate  all  the  dangers  against  which  a  child  of 
preschool  age  protects  himself,  but  can  mention  some  that  are 
representative. 

To  oDtain  a  plus  score  the  self-protection  should  encompass  a  fair 
variety  of  hazards,  rather  than  a  specific  number.  For  example,  the  S 
literally  comes  in  (or  does  not  go  out)  during  inclement  weather  unless 
suitably  clothed  or  except  as  he  has  adult  approval.  He  also  figuratively 
'comes  in  out  of  the  rain,"  that  is,  he  meets  simple  contingencies  protec- 
tively. He  is  generally  cautious  toward  strangers  and  animals;  has  regard 
for  the  possibility  of  dangerous  falls;  is  careful  with  matches,  sharp  uten- 
sils, broken  glass,  heavy  objects,  dishes,  lamps;  he  keeps  out  of  the  street 
or  is  watchful  while  in  it  or  crcssirt^  it.  In  general,  while  normally  ven- 
turesome and  inquisitive,  the  S  expresses  wariness  toward  familiar  ex- 
periences and  a  guarded  manner  of  dealing  with  new  experiences. 

The  normative  curves  show  some  irregular  but  compensating  sex 

difFerenccs.  The  rapid  rise  in  performance  on  the  part  of  the  boys  at  LA 
S-4  and  the  notable  lapse  at  KA  4-5  may  reflect  sonie  imbalance  between 
caution  and  venturesomeness.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  0  years.  The 
SD  for  the  boys  is  somewhat  higher  than  that  for  the  girls.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  2.85  years,  SD   1.00. 


The  feeble-minded  S's 
are  slightly  in  advance 
of  the  normative  S's  at 
all  SA  versus  LA  inter- 
vals. This  may  be  a  re- 
sult of  lesser  initiative 
rather  than  more  cau- 
tion, but  might  also  be 
due  to  the  factor  of  ex- 
perience through  more 
advanced  age.  The  mean 
SA  norm  is  2.30  years, 
SD  .76.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .55  years  in 
favor  of  the  feeble- 
minded,  CR   1.91. 


—  100 


80 


% 

K 

r 

1 

/ 

n 

\/ 

' 

M^. 

Y 

• 

/ 

■*-F 

i] 
IJ 

If 

'1 

tem 

41 

/ 

^ 

I 

60 


US 

/ 

f 
'  ^ 

> 

/ 
¥ 

f 

I 

^M- 

1 

1 

• 

t-N 

7 

1 

/ 

/ 

tem 

41 

j 

i 

0      12      3      4      5 
LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


0  12  3  4 
LA  (nonnal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) 


Item  44:    Avoids  simple  hazards. 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

2.68 

2.85 

1.12 

N    : 

2.64 

2.85 

1.00 

F: 

2.50 

2.85 

.86 

FM: 

2.14 

2.30 

.76 

D: 

0 

0 

D    : 

.55 

CR 


1.91 


Self-Help  General 


91 


This  item  reflects  the  child's  independent  capitalization  of 
experience  as  well  as  his  response  to  advice  and  instruction.  The 
performance  is  somewhat  influenced  by  personality  attitudes, 
such  as  heedlessness  or  timidity,  and  the  examiner  may  note 
this  for  other  items  or  for  overall  behavior.  Likewise,  the  haz- 
ards vary  with  environment  and  parental  solicitude.  The  exam- 
iner must  use  his  discretion  as  to  the  significance  of  such  vari< 
ables  for  scoring  and  evaluation. 


Item  51.  (LA  3.83)  Cares  for  self  at  toilet. 


This  item  is  an  obvious  extension  of  Item  35  (Asks  io  go 
to  toilet) . 

The  S  now  not  only  is  aware  of  his  eliminative  needs,  but  requires  little 
or  no  assistance  in  attending  to  them,  except  perhaps  for  unfastening  and 
fastening  back  buttons,  tight  garments  or  difficult  fasteners.  He  cares  for 
himself  completely  at  the  toilet  without  usual  need  for  other  assistance, 
and  is  free  of  daytime  accidents.  He  is  also  relatively  free  of  night  acci- 
dents which  may,  however,  occur  rarely.  These  operations  may  vary  some- 
what as  to  time,  place,  type  of  toilet  or  garments,  the  essential  requirement 
being  that  the  child  requires  no  assistance  except  with  difficult  clothing. 
Thus,  in  the  case  of  flush  toilets,  the  S  should  be  expected  to  operate  them 
himself.  In  the  case  of  non-flush  toilets  or  out-houses,  he  would  not  require 
follow-up.  He  would  also  "clean"  himself. 

The  maturation  curves  for  the  normative  boys  and  girls  are  closely 
similar  except  for  slight  individual  differences.  The  curves  show  rapid 
rise  between  LA's  3  and  5,  with  slight  delay  thereafter  to  LA's  6  and  7. 
The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .35  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .64.  The 
SD  for  the  boys  is  some- 
what higher  than  that  for 
the  girls.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  3.83  years,  SD  1.19. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  an  early  but  not 
sustained  advantage  for 
SA  versus  normative  LA 
groups.  The  mean  SA 
norm  is  2.98  years,  SD 
1.30.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .85  years  in 
favor  of  the  feeble-mind- 
ed,   CR    2.10,  LA(ao™,alby«x). 


— 

% 

PL 

100 

M 
80 
70 
«0 
SO 
4ft 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

^ 

•'* 

/ 

*^ 

/ 

/ 

iT 

V 

p 

F 

M 

f- 

-• 

N 

1 

■•M 

'i 

.•/ 

,' 

/ 

1  1 

/ 

, 

tem 

51 

,' 

1 

r 

tea 

51 

/ 

/ 

J 

f 

/ 

,(/ 

/ 

0 

i 

>      ( 

r 

... 

i-" 

i 

t 

... 

LA  (normal  toL)  ^ 
SA  (     FM  toL     >^ 


Item  51:    Cares  for  self  at  toilet. 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

CB 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

3.86 

4.00 

1.35 

N    : 

3,75 

3.83 

1.19 

F: 

3.61 

3.65 

.97 

FM: 

3,30 

2,98 

1.30 

D: 

.35 

.64 

D    : 

.85 

CB 


2.10 


92 


Item  Specification 


Comment  on  this  item  is  similar  to  that  on  Item  35 
(p.  88) .  Note  that  several  Self-Help  Dressing  items  normatively 
precede  this  item.  These  include  removing  and  putting  on  (or 
adjusting)  garments  and  washing  hands,  although  this  last 
nicety  need  not  be  routinely  included  as  a  conventional  detail 
for  Item  51. 


Item  68.  (LA  7.28)  Tells  time  to  quarter-hour. 


Following  the  preschool 
years  the  child  acquires  ap- 
preciation of  time  orientation 
and  employs  this  for  practical 
purposes.  Thus,  in  the  Binet- 
Simon  Scale  at  successive 
ages  the  S  knows  the  differ- 
ence between  morning  and 
afternoon,  the  days  of  the 
week,  the  months,  and  the 
date. 


Since  such  practical  information  has  previously  been  em- 
ployed in  tests  of  general  intelligence  we  avoid  its  use  in  this 
scale  in  spite  of  its  significance  for  social  competence.  We  have 
however,  included  the  use  of  timepieces  as  a  feasible  item  be- 
cause so  many  daily  functions  are  regulated  by  time,  and  the 
child's  responsibility  in  respect  to  these  functions  is  determined 
in  some  measure  by  his  ability  to  tell  time  approximately. 

For  this  purpose  the  S  is  expected  to  read  an  ordinary  timepiece  (clock 
or  watch)  to  the  nearest  quarter  hour,  and  to  use  this  ability  in  regulating 
his  activities.  We  are  not  so  much  concerned  with  the  intellectual  ability 
to  tell  time  as  with  the  routine  employment  of  this  ability  in  relation  to 
his  social  needs.  By  this  means  he  insures  his  availability  for  meeting  his 
ordinary  obligations  of  the  day.  It  is  not  necessary  that  the  S  own  or  carry 
a  timepiece,  but  rather  that  he  be  practised  in  consulting  one  in  relation 
to  comings  and  goings.  Indeed,  thi«  performance  may  be  scored  emergently 

Slus  (Chapter  7)  if  the  S  inquires  of  others  as  to  the  time  of  day  in  rela- 
on  to  his  responsibilities  without  actually  consulting  a  timepiece.  In  some 
instances,  he  might  be  able  to  estimate  the  time  of  day  by  the  position  of 
the  sun  or  by  some  other  device,  but  this  would  usually  be  a  more  difficult 
expression  of  the  same  performance  in  the  ordinary  environment. 

The  examiner  should  be  on  guard  against  '"testing"  the  S 
on  this  item.  Not  can  the  S  tell  time,  but  does  he  employ  approxi- 


Self-Help  General 


93 


mate  time  orientation  in  daily  activities.  Ordinarily  the  ability 
to  tell  time  will  accompany  the  use  of  time-telling. 


Normative  success  on 
this  item  is  revealed  be- 
tween LA  6  and  10  years. 
The  mean  M-F  difference 
is  .25  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls,  CR  .41.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  7.28 
years,  SD  1.29. 

The  normal  S's  show  a 
definite  though  not  very 
large  advantage  over  the 
feeble-minded  S's  at  all 
LA  versus  SA  periods. 
The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  1.20  years  in  favor 
of  the  normal  S's,  CR  2.75. 


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Item  ©6: 

Tells  time  to  q 

Med. 

Mean       SD 

CR 

M: 

6.94 

7.40       1.40 

N    : 

F: 

6.83 

7.15       1.16 

FM: 

D: 

.25 

.41         D    : 

Med.     Mean 

6.92       7.28 

8.58       8.48 

-1.20 


SO 
1.29 

1.40 


OR 


2.75 


Summary.  This  completes  the  items  grouped  under  the 
category  of  Self-Help  General.  No  significant  normative  sex 
differences  are  apparent  for  these  items.  The  highest  M-F  CR 
is  1.61  (Item  35)  and  the  amount  of  the  corresponding  mean  dif- 
ference is  only  .45  years,  although  the  proportional  difference 
is  one-quarter  of  the  base.  No  other  CR  in  this  category  exceeds 
.64  (Item  51)  and  no  other  mean  difference  exceeds  .35  years 
(also  Item  51). 

In  the  N-FM  comparisons  three  items  (41,  51  and  66)  re- 
veal CR's  of  1.91,  2.10  and  2.75,  respectively.  The  corresponding 
mean  differences  are  relatively  small  in  amount  although  two  of 
them  (Items  41  and  51)  represent  about  one-quarter  of  their 
bases.  Numerically  small  (though  relatively  large)  differences 
are  apparent  for  the  items  for  which  CR's  are  not  available. 

In  recapitulation,  we  may  note  that  the  items  in  this  cate- 
gory do  not  lend  themselves  satisfactorily  to  other  categorical 
placement.  Nevertheless,  within  the  category  certain  serial  se- 
quences are  observable.  As  noted  in  the  general  instructions 
(Chapter  7),  these  serial  items  may  be  scored  through  one  se- 
quence of  questions  in  which  the  entire  series  is  encompassed  by 


94 


Item  Specification 


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Self-Help  General  95 

the  same  general  interrogation.  Note,  however,  that  these  se- 
quential items  do  not  necessarily  involve  continuous  gradations 
in  a  given  case ;  under  special  circumstances  some  superior  items 
in  the  same  series  might  attain  plus  scores  even  though  some 
inferior  item  might  be  minus. 

These  item  sequences  within  the  category  may  be  logically 
extended  into  other  categories.  Thus  Items  2,  5,  8,  9,  15,  26 
extend  naturally  into  the  locomotion  category  and  might  be  used 
in  connection  with  that  category,  the  items  of  which  are  them- 
selves in  series.  Or,  vice  versa,  these  items  might  be  used  as  the 
lower  extension  of  the  locomotion  series,  if  the  locomotion  items 
are  scored  first.  As  repeatedly  observed,  it  is  not  practicable  to 
indicate  specifically  the  shifting  of  interrogation  from  one  cate- 
gory to  another  since  this  will  depend  upon  circumstances  and 
the  appropriateness  of  any  series  or  category  in  relation  to  the 
level  or  range  at  which  the  examination  is  conducted.  Conse- 
quently, in  presenting  these  instructions  we  are  constrained  to 
follow  an  order  of  presentation  which  may  not  be  the  order  that 
might  be  followed  actually  in  a  given  examination.  Moreover, 
the  point  at  which  the  interrogation  may  be  taken  up  within  a 
given  series  or  within  a  given  category  will  be  determined  in 
large  measure  by  the  interview  as  a  whole.  This  should  follow 
as  a  smooth  conversation  from  the  initial  general  orientation 
data,  naturally  merging  all  interrogation  in  a  continuous  de- 
scription of  the  S's  social  aptitudes. 


96  Item  Specification 

Self-Help 
Eating 

My  dear  brother  Augustine 
Wants  everything  he  wants, 

And  what  he  wants 

He  doesn't  have, 

And  what  he  has 

He  doesn't  want. 
My  dear  brother  Augustine 
Wants  everything  he  wants.  — Mein  lieber  Bruder  Augustine 

Feeding  oneself  is  another  conspicuous  manner  in  which 
social  independence  is  progressively  expressed  in  the  early  years. 
Those  who  take  the  various  stages  of  this  activity  for  granted 
may  overlook  indi\iiduals  who  because  of  mental  or  physical 
limitations  never  do  learn  to  feed  themselves  or  those  who  later 
in  life  lose  this  ability.  Most  idiots,  many  cripples,  the  blind,  and 
some  previously  normal  adults  who  have  become  disabled 
through  mental  or  physical  deterioration  require  m^ore  or  less 
assistance  in  this  respect.  Viewing  this  activity  with  regard  for 
its  progressive  social  value  a  number  of  f^airly  definite  stages 
may  be  recognized. 

It  will  immediately  be  evident  that  the  conditions  of  eating 
vary  materially  with  cultural  situations.  The  primitive  m.ay  eat 
with  few  utensils,  or  in  social  isolation  observing  certain  taboos. 
But  whatever  may  be  the  conventional  etiquette  of  eating,  its 
modus  operandi  reflects  genetic  maturation.  It  will  be  necessary 
to  determine  by  careful  study  whether  manipulating  chopsticks 
is  more  or  less  difficult  than  handling  a  fork,  whether  drinking 
from  a  cup  with  a  handle  is  more  or  less  difficult  than  from  a 
bowl  without  handle.  The  complexities  of  eating,  the  wide  vari- 
ety of  food  to  which  the  average  United  States  white  resident 
is  accustomed,  and  the  manner  of  its  preparation  and  serving 
may  present  elusive  difficulties.  Gnawing  a  bone  when  knight- 
hood was  in  flower  was  presumably  easier  than  is  dissecting  a 
broiled  fowl  under  conditions  of  modern  polite  society.  Certainly 
these  differences  must  somehow  be  allowed  for. 

We  are  not  here  specially  concerned  with  customs  of  eati  Qg 
except  as  these  determine  the  degrees  to  which  the  individual  is 
capable  of  managing  for  himself.  As  far  as  practicable  the  fol- 
lowing Scale  items  are  restricted  to  those  more  fundamental 
details  of  eating  in  respect  to  which  elders  are  accustomed  to 
give  aid  to  their  juniors,  or  the  more  competent  are  accustomed 
to  assist  the  le'ss  competent.  It  is  both  difficult  and  inadvisable 
to  formulate  these  items  in  such  a  manner  as  to  satisfy  the  wide 
variations  incident  to  time  and  place.  Until  further  investiga- 


Self-Help  Eating 


97 


tion  reveals  the  actual  difficulties  involved  in  different  modes  of 
eating,  the  examiner  must  rely  upon  his  own  good  judgment 
as  to  the  equivalent  difficulties. 

This  category  contains  12  items,  nine  of  which  occur  prior 
to  LA  3  years  (2  at  0,  5  at  I,  2  at  II,  1  each  at  VI,  VII  and  IX) . 
The  items  are  therefore  specially  relevant  to  the  second  year  of 
infancy  or  to  rather  low-grade  feeble-minded  S's  and  severe 
stages  of  deterioration  or  handicap.  Items  11,  25  and  39  are 
serial  for  drinking.  Items  28,  38,  62  and  67  for  table  utensils. 
Items  16,  20,  30  and  33  for  control  and  discrimination,  while 
Item  75  reveals  an  overall  synthesis. 


Item  11.  (LA  .55)  Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  assisted. 


At  first  thought  this 
seems  to  be  a  relatively  ad- 
vanced performance.  It  is 
preceded  in  fact  by  nursing  at 
the  breast,  nursing  from  a 
bottle,  or  being  spoon-fed.  We 
have  avoided  these  earlier 
details  of  eating  because  of 
the  comparatively  wide  varia- 
tion in  their  performance  and 
have  emplo3''ed  this  item  in 
their  place  because  of  its 
greater  universality. 


The  item  is  to  be  scored  plus  if  the  S  commonly  drinks  from  a  cup, 
glass,  bowl  or  similar  vessel  assisted  by  someone  holding  the  utensil.  The 
S  will  himself  ordinarily  also  grasp  the  utensil,  but  does  not  employ  it 
independently.  In  either  case  the  drinking  is  done  with  little  or  no  spilling. 
This  means  that  the  child  is  beyond  the  spoon-feeding  of  liquids  and  even 
though  still  nursing  drinks  supplementary  liquids  instead  of  merely  mouth- 
ing them. 

Successful  performance  on  this  item  reveals  emancipation 
from  breast  or  bottle  feeding  and  a  corresponding  extension  of 
feeding  opportunity  and  food  variety.  It  is  also  a  first  step 
toward  self-feeding.  An  equivalent  item  might  readily  be 
formulated  as  an  alternative  performance  in  terms  of  gruels 
or  semi-liquid  foods  being  spoon-fed.  Such  spoon-feeding  is  a 
somewhat  less  general  performance  than  the  drinking  of 
liquids  during  the  period  when  most  infants  are  breast-fed 
or  bottle-fed. 


98 


Item  Specification 


The  item  is  passed  by  about 
half  of  the  normative  S's  in  the  first 
year  of  life  and  by  all  in  the  second 
year  and  thereafter.  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .10  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
.55  years. 

The  maturation  curve  for  the 
feeble-minded  S's  almost  exactly 
coincides  with  that  of  the  normal 
S's  at  corresponding  SA  vs  LA 
intervals.  The  mean  SA  norm  is 
.53  years.  The  mean  N-FM  dif- 
ference is  .02  years  in  favor  oi 
the  feeble-minded. 


LA  (normal 


LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) ' 


Item  11:    Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  assisted. 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.67 

.60 

F: 

.50 

.50 

D: 

.10 

8D 


CR 


N 

FM 

D 


Med.    Mean 
.59        .55 
.55        .53 
.02 


8D 


CR 


Item  16.  (LA  .90)   Does  not  drool. 

Comparatively  few  negative  items  have  been  included  in 
this  Scale.  This  is  one  of  them.  Most  infants  require  more  or 
less  frequent  attention  because  of  the  lack  of  control  of  saliva- 
tion, especially  at  times  of  teething.  In  some  circles  this 
causes  no  concern,  but  in  most  the  parent  attends  the  child  in 
this  respect.  Gradually  the  inhibitory  control  of  salivation  is 
established  so  that  the  lips  and  chin  seldom  require  being  wiped 
except  perhaps  during  or  after  eating.  This  is  a  further  step  in 
the  child's  freedom  from  attendance  by  others. 

Successful  performance  is  recognized  when  the  S  no  longer  (seldom) 
requires  attention  for  drooling,  no  longer  wears  a  salivation  bib,  or  has 
mastered  salivary  control  except  when  eating.  Note  that  in  later  teething 
drooling  is  inhibited ;  hence  no  special  allowance  need  be  made  for  intermit- 
tent control  between  periods  of  dentition. 

Drooling  is  not  infrequently  observed  among  children  and 
adults  with  cerebral  palsy  and  among  previously  normal  senile 
adults.  In  such  cases  the  item  is  scored  minus  if  the  S  must  be 
attended  in  this  respect,  or  plus  if  he  attends  to  it  himself. 


Self-Help  Eating 


99 


A  few  children  have  gained 
this  control  by  the  end  of  the  first 
year  of  life.  (Indeed,  some  children 
drool  but  little  or  only  rarely  from 
the  time  of  birth,  or  only  slightly 
at  periods  of  difficult  dentition.) 
By  the  end  of  the  second  year  (LA 
1-2)  90  per  cent  of  the  boys  and  80 
per  cent  of  the  girls  succeed.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  0.  The  F 
sample  is  slightly  more  variable. 
The  mean  total  norm  is  .90  years, 
SD  .55. 

The  normative  and  feeble- 
minded validation  curves  are  nearly 
coincident.  The  mean  SA  norm  is 
.85  years,  SD  .80.  The  mean  differ- 
ence is  .05  in  favor  of  the  feeble- 
minded subjects,  CR  .23. 


%    PLUS 

100 


LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


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a 

f 

/..FM 

/ 

\ 

; 

/ 

i 

Jteiji  16 

1 

.A 

2      3 
normal  tot) 

1... 

SA(     FMtot    ) 


F: 
D: 


Med. 
.93 
.90 


.90 

.90 

0 


Item  16:    Does  not  drool. 

SD         CR                            Med.  Mean       8D         CR 

.46                       N    :             .92  .90         .55 

.64                       FM:             .75  .85         .80 

0         D    :  .05                      .23 


This  item  clearly  shows  the  influence  of  general  intellectual 
and  social  maturation  upon  apparently  physiological  function. 
Note  that  although  the  feeble-minded  subjects  average  about  15 
years  older  in  LA  than  the  normals  at  these  SA  versus  LA 
levels,  the  comparative  successes  on  this  item  are  substantially 
the  same.  The  term  "drooling  idiot"  appears  redundant. 


Item  20.  (LA  1.10)  Masticates  food. 

Following  breast-nursing  and  bottle-feeding  the  young  in- 
fant eats  or  is  fed  prepared  semi-solid  foods  or  gruels  which 
require  relatively  little  mastication.  In  the  second  year  of  life 
the  chewing  of  more  solid  food  offerings  occurs,  with  the  S  em- 
ploying teeth  and/or  gums.  In  the  case  of  infants  who  have  been 
almost  entirely  breast-fed,  this  activity  will  be  somewhat  de- 
layed; but  most  infants  have  some  opportunity  in  this  regard, 
or  if  not,  will  indicate  it  by  chewing  non-edible  material.  This 
performance  is  significant  as  enlarging  the  child's  feeding 
through  the  availability  of  a  wider  variety  of  food  with  less 
preparation  than  if  the  child  eats  without  masticating. 


100 


Item  Specification 


For  a  successful  score,  the  S  instead  of  merely  "mouthing"  soft  food 
breaks  up  and  salivates  solid  or  semi-solid  food  by  chewing  or  mastication. 
Naturally  those  children  who  hare  no  opportunity  in  this  respect  will  be 
temporarily  penalized  in  this  item.  Plus  NO  scoring  should  be  circumspect, 
since  lack  of  chewing  makes  feeding  solids  inadvisable.  Note  that  feeding 
which  requires  mastication  may  be  undesirable  because  of  the  hazards  of 
choking,  regurgitating  or  digesting.  Delay  in  solid-food  intake  may  be 
based  on  well-advised  restrictions,  e.g.,  as  in  the  typical  soft  diet  offered 
to  idiot-grade  mental  deficients. 


This  item  shows  rapid  matu- 
ration in  the  second  year  of  life, 
without  sex  difference,  in  the  nor- 
mative sample.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  1.10  years. 

The  normative  S's  show  a 
slight  relative  advantage  over  the 
feeble-minded  S's  in  spite  of  the 
mean  LA  advantage  ef  the  latter. 
The  mean  SA  norm  is  1.40  years, 
SD  .81.  The  mean  N-FM  difference 
is  .30  years  in  favor  of  the  normal 
S's. 


1 — i     :i     i — ? 
LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


i     i     i     S. 

LA  (normal  tot)  ,^ 
SA  (     KM  tot    )"* 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med.    Mean 
1.06       1.10 
1.06      1.10 
0 


Item  20:    Masticates  food. 
8D         CR  Med. 


N 

FM 

D 


1.06 
1.26 


Mean 
1.10 
1.40 
-.30 


SD 


.81 


CR 


Swallowing  unchewed  solids  may,  as  noted,  disturb  the 
child's  health  or  food  habits.  Dentition  and  gum  resistance  are 
usually  antecedent  rather  than  prerequisite,  but  may  be  periodi- 
cally somewhat  inhibitory.  The  discrimination  of  edible 
substances  and  the  removal  of  food-coverings  are  provided  for 
in  Items  30  and  33.  As  to  customs,  we  recall  the  two-year-old 
whose  morning  pork  chop  and  cup  of  coffee  caused  no  apparent 
immediate  distress ! 


Item  25.  (LA  1.40)  Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  unassisted. 


This  is  an  extension  of.  Item  11.  In  place  of  cup  or  glass, 
some  other  drinking  vessel  might  be  employed,  such  as  a  bowl 


Self-Help  Eating 


101 


or  dipper.  The  important  distinction  is  that  the  child  does  not 
require  assistance  except  that  the  liquid  and  the  vessel  contain- 
ing it  may  be  supplied  him.  This  item  has  a  further  evolution  in 
Item  39  (Gets  drink  unassisted)  in  which  the  S  is  responsible 
for  obtaining  the  utensil  and  the  liquid. 

The  item  is  to  be  performed  witliout  serious  hazard  or  spilling,  since 
otherwise  the  amount  of  independence  which  the  S  experiences  in  drinking 
unassisted  would  be  ofifset  by  the  consequences  of  doing  so  in  an  unsatis- 
factory manner.  The  surroundings,  utensils  and  liquid  should  be  familiarly 
acceptable  since  otherwise  the  strangeness  of  the  environment,  article  or 
beverage  might  interpose  resistive  inhibitions.  The  S  may  grasp  the  vessel 
as  may  please  him,  ignoring  handle  or  using  both  hands.  As  an  associated 
superior  detail  he  might  pour  from  pitcher  to  drinking  vessel  or  dip  from 
a  bucket  or  other  large  container,  but  this  would  be  an  embellishment 
rather  than  a  requirement. 


The  item  shows  rapid  matura- 
tion for  the  boys  in  the  second 
year  of  life,  and  in  the  third  year 
for  the  girls.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .40  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys.  The  mean  total  norm  is  1.40 
years,  SD  .45. 

The  normative  LA  versus  fee- 
ble-minded SA  curves  are  closely 
identical.  The  mean  SA  norm  is 
1.43  years,  SD  .40.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .03  years  in  favor  of 
the  normal  S's,  CR  .22. 


h 

y- 

1 
1 

/ 

1 

1 

M- 

/ 

1 

1    1 

-F 

1    1 
1    ' 

1 
1 

J 

f 
1 

1 

Iten 

25 

' 

i 

012S4...        0123      f 

LA  (normal  by  sex)^      LA  (normal  tot) 

SA(     FMtot     ) 


Item  25: 

Med.     Mean 

M: 

1.09       1.20 

XT' . 

1.67       1.60 

D: 

-.40 

Drinks  from  cup  or  glass  unassisted. 
8D         CR 

.42 


N    : 

l.SO 

1.40 

.45 

Fl^: 

1.37 

1.43 

.40 

D    : 

-.03 

CR 


Ji2 


This  and  other  relatively  "explosive"  (rapid  maturation) 
curves,  and  those  coupled  with  closely  identical  normative  LA 
versus  feeble-minded  SA  performances  in  spite  of  the  latter's 
markedly  higher  associated  life  ages,  are  witness  to  the  practi- 
cability of  the  Scale  and  the  formulation  of  items.  While  not  all 
the  items  ideally  satisfy  these  desirabilities,  they  do  for  the  most 
part  successfully  approximate  them.  The  marked  dependence  of 
feeble-minded  performance  on  SA  rather  than  LA  for  items 
that  a  priori  seem  functions  of  age  rather  than  ability  is 
specially  clear  in  the  lower  levels  of  the  Scale. 


102 


Item  Specification 


Item  28.  (LA  1.53)  Eats  with  spoon. 


In  eating  some  solid  foods 
the  S  may  use  his  fingers. 
However,  in  the  average 
United  States  environment, 
when  eating  most  solid  or 
semi-solid  foods  some  eating 
utensil  is  employed.  In  its 
simplest  form,  this  consists  of 
using  a  spoon  and  bowl,  cup, 
or  plate,  and  commonly  re- 
quires eating  in  the  sitting 
posture  at  a  table. 


To  satisfy  the  item,  the  food  may  be  cut  up  or  broken  up  before  serv- 
ing, but  the  actual  consumption  of  food  by  means  of  a  spoon  is  accom- 
plished without  help  and  without  appreciable  spilling.  If  a  plate  is  used 
instead  of  a  cup  or  bowl,  a  "pusher"  of  some  sort  may  be  used,  such  as  a 
piece  of  bread,  or  some  utensil.  The  child,  of  course,  might  without  detri- 
ment to  the  score  eat  in  a  standing  posture,  or  even  while  sitting  on  the 
floor.  The  important  thing  is  that  after  the  food  is  prepared  for  him  he 
does  not  have  to  be  fed.  The  process  is  obviously  somewhat  less  difficult 
if  a  baby-spoon  is  used  in  place  of  the  ordinary  teaspoon. 


The  item  is  passed  by  70  per 
cent  of  the  boys  and  25  per  cent  of 
the  giris  in  the  second  year  of  life 
and  by  all  the  normative  subjects 
thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .45  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys.  The  mean  total  norm  is  1.53 
years. 

The  normative  and  feeble- 
minded validation  curves  are  close- 
ly approximate.  The  mean  SA  norm 
is  1.45  years,  SD  .82.  The  mean 
N-FM  difference  is  .08  years  in 
favor  of  the  feeble-minded. 


T    2    3    r   _ 

LA  (normal  by  sex)«^ 


Item  28 

M: 

1.21 

1.30 

- 

F: 

1.83 

1.75 

- 

D: 

-.45 

Eats  with  spoon. 


N 

FM 

D 


1.55 
1.25 


JS 

^•*' 

*" 

' 

FM 

-J 
1 

1  / 

If 
\  1 

1 

I 

I  ten 

28 

ij 

J- 

0       1       2      3      4       V- 
LA  (normal  tot.)  ^ 
SA  (     FMtot     )^ 


1.53 

1.45 
.08 


.82 


Some  children  are  breast-fed  to  a  relatively  late  age  and 


Self-Help  Eating 


103 


this  may  delay  the  habitual  use  of  spoon  through  limited  oppor- 
tunity. Maturation  seems  more  significant  than  training ;  hence 
too  generous  allowance  should  not  be  made  for  lack  of  opportu- 
nity or  parental  indulgence. 


Item  30.  (LA  1.65)  Discriminates  edible  substances. 

In  the  early  stages  of  infancy  it  is  necessary  to  guard  the 
child  against  eating  objects  indiscriminately,  especially  such  as 
might  be  harmful.  As  the  child  learns  to  distinguish  edible  from 
inedible  substances  and  resists  the  temptation  to  ingest  anything 
at  hand,  this  vigilance  may  be  relaxed. 

In  passing  this  item,  therefore,  the  child  typically  avoids  mouthing  or 
swallowing  substances  commonly  considered  unsuitable  for  eating,  except 
as  this  may  be  a  tentative  "sampling"  of  such  substances.  The  essence  of 
the  item  requires  that  the  S  does  not  require  frequent  watching  in  respect 
to  his  tendency  to  carry  objects  to  the  mouth. 


Normative  success  in  this  per- 
formance is  achieved  between  the 
second  and  fourth  years  of  life.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .10  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .29.  The  total 
norm  is  1.65  years,  SD  .74. 

Normative  LA  and  feeble- 
minded SA  maturation  are  closely 
similar.  The  mean  SA  norm  is  1.63 
years,  SD  87.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .02  in  favor  of  the 
feeble-minded   subjects,   CR   .08. 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
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; 

,... 

LA  (normal  tot)  .^                LA  (normal  tot)  _^. 
SA(     FMtot     )■•■               SA(     FMtot     )^ 

Item  30 

Disc 

riniinates  edible  substances. 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med.     Mean 

SD 

M: 

1.33 

1.60 

.75 

N    :           1.41       1.65 

.74 

F: 

1.50 

1.70 

.73 

FM:           1.66       1.63 

.87 

D: 

-.10 

.29 

D    :                         .02 

CB 


The  S  should  not  eat  certain  substances,  such  as  candy, 
peanuts  or  bananas  before  their  coverings  are  removed  either  by 
himself  (Item  33)  or  by  others.  The  item  is  therefore  related  to 
Item  41  (Avoids  simple  hazards),  and  to  Item  33  (Unwraps 
candy) .  The  S  should  not  be  held  responsible  for  avoiding  sub- 
stances which  are  in  themselves  edible  but  not  suitable  for  diges- 


104 


Item  Specification 


tion,  such  as  green  apples,  or  foods  which  might  have  a  delete- 
rious eif ect  on  him,  beyond  his  reasonable  range  of  information 
or  experience.  (Note  also  comment  on  Item  33.) 


Item  33.  (LA  1.85)  Unwraps  candy. 

This  item  is  closely  related  to  Item  30.  Although  the  item 
caption  is  specific,  it  is  intended  as  a  general  activity,  namely 
the  removing  of  coverings  from  various  edibles.  This  requires 
not  only  appreciation  of  the  inedibility  of  these  covers  but  also 
some  resourcefulness  in  removing  them. 

Score  plus  if  the  S  as  a  rule  uncovers  enclosed  edibles,  without  need 
of  reminder,  before  masticating  them.  "Candy"  is  to  be  understood  as  a 
generic  term  for  similar  "eats,"  including  gum  or  cakes.  Likewise,  "un- 
wraps" includes  peeling  bananas  and  oranges  (but  not  apples  or  edible 
skins)  removing  shells  from  nuts,  and  rejecting  pits  from  such  fruits  as 
prunes,  peaches  and  cherries.  The  S  may  obtain  assistance  from  others 
when  such  manipulation  requires  strength  or  skill,  or  he  may  reject  or 
eat  around  pits  and  cores.  Ordinarily,  inedible  skins,  sh«lls  and  pits  will 
be  removed  in  advance  for  him,  but  covers  or  centers  which  involve  only 
simple  manipulation  should  be  removed  by  him,  usually  by  hand  or  by  the 
hands  and  teeth  or  mouth.  Essentially  the  S  more  than  discriminates  the 
inedible  parts  of  such  food  substances  and  on  his  own  initiative  removes 
or  rejects  those  parts  except  for  assistance  where  dexterity  beyond  his 
years  is  necessary.  Otherwise  the  performance  reverts  to  Item  30. 


The  item  reveals  rapid  ons©t  of 
accomplishment  between  the  sec- 
ond and  third  years  of  life.  The 
mean  M-F  diiference  is  .10  years  in 
favor  of  the  normative  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.85  years,  SD 
.38. 

The  feeble-minded  SA  matura- 
tion curve  closely  follows  the  nor- 
mative LA  progression.  The  mean 
SA  norm  is  1.95  years,  SD  .68.  The 
mean  N-FM  difference  is  .10  years 
in  favor  of  the  normal  S's,  CR  .56. 


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30 
30 
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50 
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M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 

1.88 

1.93 


Mean 
1.80 
1.90 
-.10 


Item  33:    Unwraps  candy. 
8D         CR  Med. 


.46 


N 

FM 

D 


1.90 
1.92 


Mean 
1.85 
1.95 
-.10 


SD 
.38 
.68 


OR 


.56 


To  repeat,  the  caption  designation  for  this  item  should  not 
be  taken  too  literally.  Some  S's  are  not  given  candy ;  "candy"  is 


Self-Help  Eating 


105 


here  used  for  any  edible  substance  from  which  coverings  or  cores 
may  readily  be  removed.  If  the  S  refuses  to  eat  such  substances 
instead  of  removing  their  inedible  accompaniments,  such  refus- 
als are  to  be  considered  under  Item  30. 


Item  38.  (LA  2.35)  Eats  with  fork. 


In  the  typical  United  States  environment,  the  use  of  a 
fork  supplements  or  replaces  the  use  of  a  spoon.  This  involves 
Kot  only  more  dexterity,  but  also  certain  hazards,  since  the  fork 
is  a  more  "dangerous"  implement  than  the  spoon.  Otherwise  this 
item  is  substantially  the  same  as  Item  28. 

The  food  may  be  prepared  for  the  S,  but  he  is  expected  to  eat  without 
appreciable  spilling.  It  is  not  required  that  the  fork  be  used  for  cutting, 
but  only  for  conveying  the  food  from  the  plate  to  the  mouth,  either  by 
piercing  the  food  or  by  balancing  it  on  the  tines.  Ordimarily,  but  not  neces- 
sarily, a  plate  will  be  used  in  such  eating  instead  of  a  bowl. 

Success  on  this  item  is  achieved  without  appreciable  sex  variation  be- 
tween the  second  and  fifth  years  of  life  by  the  normative  S's.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  0.    The  mean  total  norm  is  2.35  years,  SD  .86. 

The  normative  S's 
significantly  excel  the 
feeble-minded  S's  by  a 
small  advantage  at  all 
IxA.  versus  SA  matura- 
tion periods.  The  mean 
SA  norm  is  3.10  years, 
SD  1.19.  The  mean  N- 
FM  difference  is  .75 
years  in  favor  of  the 
normal  S's,  CR  2.23. 
This  may  be  due  in  part 
to  a  tendency  to  restrict 
the  use  of  forks  by  low- 
grade  feeble-minded 
subjects  because  of  the 
hazards  involved. 


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Item 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

2.25 

2.35 

.92 

F: 

2.09 

2.35 

.80 

D: 

0 

38:     Eats  vAth  fork. 
Ch  Med. 


N 

FM 

D 


2,14 
2.94 


Mean 

2.35 

3.10 

-.75 


8D 

.86 

1.19 


GB 


2.23 


The  use  of  a  fork  to  replace  or  supplement  a  spoon  involves 
nicety  as  well  as  convenience  in  eating.  It  applies  of  course  to 
solid  or  semi-solid  foods.  A  "pusher"  may  be  employed  without 
detriment  to  score.  The  use  of  a  baby-fork  facilitates  the  per- 
formance with  normal  infants. 


106  Item  Specification 

Item  39.  (LA  2.43)  Gets  drink  unassisted. 


This  item  extends  Item  25 
by  enabling  the  S  to  get  a 
drink  for  himself  instead  of 
merely  drinking  what  is  of- 
fered him. 


For  this  purpose  the  S  uses  any  acceptable  drinking  utensil,  but  does 
so  without  assistance.  This  may  be  a  cup,  glass,  dipper,  bowl  or  other 
device  with  or  without  handle  (including  fountain,  stream,  hand  dipping, 
and  so  on).  The  utensil  may  be  employed  in  any  manner  the  S  desires.  He 
should,  however,  be  able  to  obtain  this  utensil  for  himself  if  it  is  reasonably 
accessible.  Likewise,  the  source  of  the  beverage  should  be  accessible, 
whether  from  a  tap,  bucket,  bowl  or  other  source.  We  should  not  expect 
the  S  to  draw  the  water  from  a  pump  or  well,  nor  to  drink  face  down 
from  a  spring  or  brook.  There  should  be  no  external  dangers  to  overcome, 
nor  is  it  required  that  the  S  use  good  judgment  as  to  the  sanitary  safeness 
of  the  supply.  Success  in  these  respects  yields  a  fortiori  plus  score.  How- 
ever, some  discrimination  should  be  expected  as  to  hot  and  cold,  waste 
or  unclean,  prohibited,  dangerous  or  unfamiliar  liquids. 


Successful  normative  perform- 
ance matures  rapidly  between  the 
third  and  fourth  years  of  life.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .25  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  2.43  years,  SD  .51. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  a 
relatively  small  but  statistically  re- 
liable advantage  over  the  normal 
S's.  The  mean  SA  norm  is  1.95 
years,  SD  .51.  The  mean  N-FM  dif- 
ference is  .48  years,  OR  2.89. 


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LA  (normal  hy  sex)i 


LA  (normal  tot)  _^ 
'SA(     FMtot     )'•' 


Item  39:    Gets  drink  unassisted. 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

2.21 

2.30 

- 

F: 
D: 

2.41 

2.55 
-.25 

.61 

CR 


N 

FM 

D 


Med.     Mean 
2.30       2.43 
1.94       1.95 
.48 


8D 
.51 
.51 


CR 


2.89 


In  general  this  item  shows  the  S  ordinarily  successful  in 
getting  a  drink  "on  his  own"  as  desired,  in  familiar  surround- 
ings and  without  hazard  or  messing.  The  element  of  hazard  is 


Self-Help  Eating 


107 


implicitly  (but  not  explicitly)  provided  for  in  Item  41  (Avoids 
simple  hazards)  which  "comes"  a  half-year  later.  Hence  the 
careful  avoidance  of  unsanitary,  dangerous  or  prohibited 
"drinkables"  is  not  urged  as  a  necessary  (though  desirable) 
detail  in  this  item. 


Item  62.  (LA  6.03)  Uses  table  knife  for  spreading. 


Whereas  the  use  of  a  fork 
supersedes  that  of  a  spoon  in 
less  than  one  maturational 
year,  more  than  three  and  a 
half  years  (on  the  average) 
intervene  between  use  of  fork 
and  use  of  knife.  This  is  prac- 
tically confirmed  in  the  field 
of  merchandising;  baby- 
spoons  and  baby-forks  are 
more  commonly  marketed 
than  are  baby-knives.  The  use 
of  a  knife  is  generally  more 
hazardous  and  requires  more 
manipulative  skill  than  does 
the  use  of  a  fork.  The  knife  is  used  for  both  spreading  and  cut- 
ting, but  the  former  use  appears  much  simpler  than  the  latter. 


% 

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90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
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ilea.    Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

6.70      6.10 

2.26 

N    : 

6.00? 

6.03 

2.24 

F: 

5.75  ?  5.95 

2.18 

FM: 

4.26 

4.75 

1.34 

D: 

.15 

.14 

D    : 

1.28 

CB 


2.14 


108 


Item  Specification 


This  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  uses  an  ordinary  table  knife  in  familiar 
circumstances  for  spreading  bread  with  butter,  jam  or  other  "spread," 
provided  this  is  done  without  appreciable  messing.  As  in  the  other  eating 
items,  in  performing  this  act  the  S  should  not  require  more  assistance 
in  cleaning  up  after  him  than  would  be  required  if  the  act  were  performed 
for  him. 

This  item  is  the  first  of  thoae  thus  far  discussed  which  shows  a  wide 
spread  (or  large  SD)  for  the  period  of  effective  maturation.  This  may 
speculatively  be  attributed  to  (1)  actually  prolonged  period  of  maturational 
success,  or  (2)  variable  environmental  stimulation,  opportunity  or  re- 
striction. The  absence  of  significant  sex  variation  confirms  neither  of  these 
speculations.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .15  years,  OR  .14.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  6.03  years,  SD  2.24.  The  normative  F  and  total  N  curves  reveal 
"awkward  distributions"   (p.  363)  with  consequently  dubious  medians. 

The  graph  shows  an  evident  and  statistically  reliable  advantage  of 
the  feeble-minded  S's  (in  SA  versus  normative  LA  groups  disregarding 
about  18  years  difference  in  LA)  over  the  normative  S's,  coupled  with  sim- 
ilar wide  maturational  range.  The  mean  SA  norm  is  4.75  years,  SD  1.34. 
The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.28  years,  CR  2.14,  with  the  normative  SD 
nearly  twice  that  for  the  feeble-minded. 


Item  67.  (LA  8.05)  Uses  table  knife  for  cutting. 
This  item  extends  Item  62. 

In  performing  this  item  the  S  is  not  required  to  overcome  special 
difficulties  such  as  those  offered  in  the  case  of  tough  meat,  meat  on  bones, 
fowl  or  other  circumstances  requiring  special  skill  and  patience.  To 
satisfy  the  item  the  S  no  longer  needs  someone  else  to  cut  up  the  food 
served  for  him  (whether  meat  or  other  edibles)  but  usually  does  this  satis- 
factorily for  himself  as  occasion  warrants. 


% 

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100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
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f 

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1 

J 

/ 

1 
1 

I 

• 
1 

f 

/ 

J 

FM 

1 
t 

/ 

? — 1 

1 

} 

r 

/ 

I 

/ 

-N 

1 

h 

-M 

• 

/ 

J 

1 

/ 

/ 

1 

/ 

<<, 

l^ 

^ 

^ 

J 

«. 

cX- 

J 

lli 

mal 

(y  « 

x)-l 

► 

i 

i      { 

\'  i 

6    1 

1    1 

\... 

LA 

J. 
!nor 

mal 

tot 

1 

i 

1 

6    f 

S.    1 

J... 

M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 

8.79 
7.50 


Item  67:     Z7ses  table  knife  for  cutting. 


Mean 
8.35 

7.75 
.60 


8D 

1.91 
1.9i 


CR 


.66 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


Med. 
7.93 
5.35 


Mean 
8.05 
5.55 
2.50 


SD 
1.95 
1.37 


CR 


4.58 


Self-Help  Eating 


109 


Like  Item  62,  this  performance  shows  delayed  and  irregular  emergence, 
maturing  principally  between  the  seventh  and  twelfth  years  of  life.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .60  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .66.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  8.05  years,  SD  1.95. 

The  maturational  advantage  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  on  this  item  is 
materially  greater  than  on  Item  62  and  is  one  of  the  largest  amounts  and 
highest  CR's  of  all  items  studied  (Table  9).  The  mean  SA  norm  is  5.55 
years,  SD  1.37.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  2.50  years,  CR  4.58. 

Many  S's  will  be  encountered  whose  parents  find  it  simpler 
in  the  family  routine  to  perform  this  item  for  the  S  instead  of 
permitting  or  encouraging  him  to  do  it  for  himself.  However, 

one  notes  that  most  S's  tend  to  assume  this  responsibility  as 
soon  as  they  can.  One  might  speculate  that  on  this  item  and  on 
Item  62  the  delay  and  irregularities  in  the  maturation  curve  may 
leflect  (1)  incomplete  examining,  (2)  prejudiced  informing,  or 
(3)  variable  social  circumstances.  Among  these  and  the  previous 
speculations  the  most  plausible  seems  to  be  actual  slowness  of 
acquisition  in  the  performance  as  such. 


Item  75.  (LA  9.03)  Cares  for  self  at  table. 


This  item  represents  a 
general  consolidation  of  the 
principal  details  of  feeding,  in 
that  the  S  now  looks  after 
himself  for  substantially  all 
his  needs  at  the  table. 


Within  a  plus  score  the  S  Biay  occasionally  (but  not  ordinarily)  re- 
ceive minor  assistance  in  some  relatively  difficult  details  such  as  removing 
a  boiled  egg  from  the  shell,  cutting  difficult  meat  such  as  fowl,  remov- 
iing  bones  from  fish,  extracting  the  contents  of  a  hot  baked  potato,  and  so 
on.  He  may  be  served  at  table  as  a  social  custom,  but  otherwise  he  appro- 
priately helps  himself  according  to  accepted  standards  (without  too  much 
emphasis  on  the  details  of  etiquette),  and  in  general  requires  little  or  no 
attention  at  the  table.  Such  performance  is  assumed  to  be  successful  away 
from  home  as  well  as  in  familiar  surroundings.  Attention  which  reveals 
family  or  other  table  services  not  really  needed  by  the  S  are  not  bars  to 
pJus  scores. 

The  normative  maturation  curves  show  fairly  rapid  maturation  be- 
tween the  ninth  and  twelfth  years  of  life.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .45 
years  in  favor  of  the  girls.  CR  .60.  The  mean  total  norm  is  9.03  years, 
SD  1.61. 

As  in  Item  67,  the  feeble-minded  S's  show  a  marked  advantage  over 
the  normative  S's.  The  mean  SA  norm  is  6.40  years,  SD  1.12.  The  mean 

N-FM  difference  is  2.63  vears,  CR  5.84. 


110 


Item  Specification 


^A  (normal  by  sex)" 


r^ 

% 

/ 

(ten 

75 

/ 

/ 

f 

"*/ 

1 

>    J 

H 

-M 

F- 

-»> 

f 

/ 

• 

1 

1 

k 

r^ 

-^ 

_  / 

>      < 

[I 

i      - 

)       1 

0     i 

1     1 

2... 

0«.5 

LA  (normal  totj 
SA  (     FM  tot.     { 


Item  75: 

Cares 

for  self  at  table. 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

9.50 

9.25 

1.41 

N    : 

9.25 

9.03 

1.61 

F: 

8.50 

8.80 

1.75 

FM: 

6.33 

6.40 

1.12 

D: 

.45 

.60 

D    : 

2.63 

CR 


5.84 


In  scoring  this  item  the  related  performances  should  be 
relatively  familiar  and  free  from  penalties  due  to  specific  cus- 
toms or  inelegant  table  manners.  The  examiner  will,  however, 
require  judgment  in  respect  to  table  habits  and  the  general  social 
proprieties  to  be  expected. 


Summary.  In  this  category  we  find  no  statistically  signifi- 
cant normative  sex  differences.  The  highest  CR  is  .66  (Item  67) 
and  the  largest  mxean  difference  is  .60  years  (Item  67). 

The  normative-feeble-minded  comparisons  show  five  items 
(38,  39,  62,  67  and  75)  where  the  CR  is  2.00  or  higher.  The  first 
three  of  these  CR's  are  below  3,00  and  the  corresponding  mean 
differences  are  small  in  amount  but  proportionally  one-quarter 
to  one-third  of  their  bases;  the  last  two  are  fairly  large  in 
amount  and  more  than  one-half  of  their  bases.  Item  38  favors 
the  normal  S's;  the  other  four  favor  the  feeble-minded. 

This  category  is  readily  explored  by  beginning  with  such 
a  general  lead  question  as  "How  much  help  does  S  receive  at  the 
table  (or  in  feeding  himself),"  or  "I  suppose  S  looks  after  him- 
self in  eating  (or  at  the  table) ,"  or  ''How  far  along  is  S — "  and 
so  on.  The  informant  will  usually  enumerate  some  details  spon- 
taneously ;  these  may  then  be  pursued  to  more  and  more  specific 
elaboration  of  particulars. 


Selp-Help  Eating 


111 


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112  Item  Specification 

Self-Help 
Dressing 

What  shall  I  do  for  him  noiv  that  he  is  grown? 

Send  him  forth  on  his  own. 
Shall  I  no  longer  tuck  him  in  bed? 

Give  him  a  latchkey  instead. 
Shall  1 7iot  ivarn  that  pride  takes  a  fall? 

Not  at  all;  not  at  all. 
(I  must  never  forget  he's  a  man  among  men 

Noiu  that  he's  ten!) — Jean  Crosse  Hansen 

Like  eating,  some  degree  of  dressing  is  a  universal  activity 
and  one  in  respect  to  which  the  development  of  independence  and 
responsibility  is  readily  obvious.  Primitive  forms  of  concealment 
or  adornment  are  in  some  respects  more  complex  than  those  of 
our  time  and  place.  Likewise  body  cleanliness  is  a  concern  which, 
while  varied  in  demand  or  expression,  is  a  universally  distribut- 
ed observance.  It  is  possible  to  job-analyze  the  details  of  dressing 
Yvith  a  high  degree  of  refinement,  but  somewhat  more  difficult 
to  select  those  critical  stages  which  reflect  a  minimum  of  indi- 
vidual differences  and  which  are  sufficiently  typical  to  permit 
ready  formulation  of  definition. 

This  category  deals  v/ith  two  separate  aspects  of  dressing-, 
namely,  personal  cleanliness  and  the  use  of  garments.  The 
examiner  m.ust  exercise  some  discretion  in  regard  to  variations 
in  social  standards  and  customs  and  in  respect  to  variation  in 
time  and  mode  of  toilet  routines  and  type  of  clothing  worn. 

Tiie  13  item.s  in  this  category  extend  from  early  infancy 
to  adolescence  (1  at  I,  3  at  II,  2  at  III,  2  at  IV,  2  at  VI,  and  1 
each  at  VII,  VIII  and  XII-XV) .   The  clustering  of  7  items  at 

II,  III  and  IV  makes  the  category  specially  relevant  for  the 
preschool  (later  infancy)  years  or  the  borderline  between 
high-idiot  and  low-imbecile  degrees  of  feeble-mindedness.  A 
minor  cluster  of  4  items  is  evident  at  VI  to  VIII  years  (early 
childhood  or  high-imbecile  feeble-mindedness) . 

Two  series  of  items  are  apparent,  (a)  dressing  and  undress- 
ing (Items  21,  37,  42,  47,  54,  65)  and  (b)  cleansing  (Items  40, 
50,  52,  64,  70) .  Items  65  and  74  include  both.  Item  86  synthesizes 
the  category  and  adds  superior  details. 


Self-Help  Dressing 

Item  21.  (LA  1.13)  Pulls  off  socks. 


li: 


Although  dressing  logi- 
cally precedes  undressing,  in 
actual  performance  the  latter 
is  generally  the  easier  task 
and  is  performed  earlier.  An 
early  stage  of  undressing  is 
seen  in  the  removal  of  foot 
coverings.  In  the  young  infant 
these  are  easily  manipulated 
if  not  too  firmly  fastened. 


"Socks"  is  here  used  as  a  generic  cue  for  bootees,  slippers,  and  un- 
fastened shoes  or  stockings.  To  pass  the  item  the  S  removes  such  footwear 
withcut  help,  provided  these  are  already  unfastened,  or  can  be  readily 
unfastened  by  the  S.  This  should  be  done  as  a  deliberate  and  frequent  act 
of  undressing  rather  than  as  merely  occasional,  playful  or  perverse  activ- 
ity. The  articles  in  question  are  presumed  to  be  of  sufficiently  loose  fit  or 
simple  fastening  to  permit  easy  manipulation.  Thus,  shoe  laces,  slipper 
buttons,  sandle  buckles,  elastics  or  garters  should  not  constitute  serious 
impediments. 


This  performance  shows  rapid 
normative  maturation  in  the  second 
year  of  life.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .15  years  in  favor  of  the 
girls,  CR  .44.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  1.13  years,  SD  .73. 

The  normative  S's  excel  the 
feeble-minded  by  a  mean  difference 
of  .42  years. 


0      1      2      3      4... 
LA.  (normal  by  sex)^ 


LA  (normal  toL) , 

SA(     FMtfflt    ) 


Item  21:     Pulls  off  socks. 

Med.     Mean       8D  CR                           Med.  Mean       SD         CR 

M:              1.00       1.20         .82  N    :           1.02  1.13         .73 

F:               1.05       1.05         .61  FM:           1.59  1.55 

D:                             .15  .44         D    :                         -.42 

The  examiner  should  inquire  whether  the  S  may  have  been 
disciplined  against  this  activity  in  its  playful  stage,  or  whether 


114 


Item  Specification 


the  activity  is  authoritatively  restricted.  (If  so,  this  may  require 
NO  scoring.)  It  is  not  required  that  the  S  show  good  judgment 
as  to  time  and  place,  but  rather  as  to  purpose. 


Item  37.  (LA  2.05)  Removes  coat  or  dress. 

This  item  resembles  Item  21,  but  is  relatively  more  difficult 
from  the  point  of  view  of  manipulation. 

Again  the  garments  involved,  such  as  coat,  dress,  sweater-coat,  waist 
or  overcoat,  may  first  be  unfastened  or  should  permit  easy  manipulation 
by  the  S.  It  is  assumed  that  the  clothing  is  not  torn  or  damaged  in  the 
process.  Under  these  circumstances  the  S  usually  removes  such  outer  gar- 
ments without  assistance.  Intermittent  assistance  may  be  received  as  a 
sentimental  courtesy,  but  such  aid  is  not  needed. 


The  normative  performance  on 
this  item  reveals  a  mean  M-F  dif- 
ference of  .30  years  in  favor  of 
the  ffirls,  OR  .79.  The  mean  total 
noi-m  is  2.05  years,  SD  .82. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  an 
advantage  of  .27  years  over  the 
normal  S's. 


% 

f^ 

V 

f 

t 

/ 

F- 

i    1 

-M 

( 

1 

(ten 

37 

t 

J 

5* 

•^^ 

I 

1 

2    . 

* 

1 

5-.. 

Item  37: 


L.\  (nornal  by  «ex)a^ 

Removes  coat  or  dress. 


PLl 

100 

90 
£0 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

'S 

1 

y 

/ 

1 

^ 

-N 

m- 

Ij 

' 

l 

1 

1 

j 

4 

Iten 

37 

f 

/ 

1 

LA 

5A( 

1 

nor 
F 

inal 
Wto 

4 
tot) 
t    ) 

1 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

2.13 

2.20 

.88 

N    : 

1.95 

2.05 

.82 

F: 

1.86 

1.90 

.71 

FM: 

1.86 

1.78 

— 

D: 

.30 

.79 

D    : 

.27 

CB 


The  caption  phrase,  "coat  or  dress,"  refers  to  any  outer 
garment  which  may  be  removed  by  slipping  off  when  unfastened, 
with  or  without  need  of  pulling  over  the  head.  No  assistance  is 
conceded  except  for  unfastening,  and  the  performance  is  to  be 
usual  rather  than  occasional.  Help  may  be  allowed  for  tight 
garments  but  presumably  loose-fitting  garments  will  be  worn 
frequently  enough  to  permit  standard  scoring. 


Item  40.  (LA  2.60)  Dries  own  hands. 

Washing  various  parts  of  the  body  logically  precedes  drying 
them.  But  drying  is  in  fact  easier  than  washing.  Thus,  drying 
the  hands  without  assistance  is  found  to  be  easier  than  washing 


Self-Help  Dressing 


115 


them  and  maturationally  precedes  other  lavational  details. 

This  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  dries  his  own  hands  acceptably  without 
help,  employing  towel  or  other  suitable  means  beyond  merely  exposing 
them  to  the  air  or  wiping  them  on  his  clothing.  The  hands  may  be  washed 
ie*r  '  ^^^  towel  may  be  supplied  him,  or  he  may  obtain  it  for  him- 
self if  accessible.  However,  the  S  requires  no  assistance  in  adequately  dry- 
ing his  hands. 


The  normative 
mean  M-F  difference  is 
.30  years  in  favor  of  the 
girls,  CR  .67.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  2.60  years, 
SD  .95. 

The  normative  S's 
excel  the  feeble-minded 
by  .40  years,  CR  1.52. 


0^   1  "  2      3      ,       -, 
LA  (aormaj  by  sex)a* 


A  (normal  tot) 
SA(     FMtot     )' 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 

2..50 

2.12 


Mean 

2.75 

2.45 

.30 


Item  40: 
SD 
.90 
.99 


Dries  own  hands. 
CR  Med. 


.67 


N 

FM 

D 


2.28 
3.00 


Mean 
2.60 
3.00 
-.40 


SD 
.95 
.65 


CR 


1.52 


Item  42.  (LA  2.85)  Puts  on  coat  or  dress  unassisted. 


/ 


This  item  is  satis- 
fied if  the  S  is  able  to 
put  on  outer  garments, 
such  as  dress,  coat  or 
overcoat,  without  help 
or  need  of  adjusting, 
except  for  buttoning, 
which  may  be  done  for 
him.  Such  clothing 
should  be  such  as  not  to 
require  difficult  manip- 
ulation and  should  be  of 
such  a  style  as  not  to 
interpose  exceptional 
manipulative  difficul- 
ties. "Ck>at  or  dress" 
includes  garments  noted 
in  comment  on  Item  37, 
but  not  necessarily  cov- 
eralls, leggings,  rubbers 
(see  Item  S4). 


116 


Item  Specification 


The  normatiTe 
mean  M-F  difference  is 
.50  years  in  favor  of  the 
girls,  CR  1.14.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  2,85 
years,  SD  .97. 

The  mean  N-FM  dif- 
ference is  .40  years  in 
favor  of  the  feeble- 
minded, CR  1.60. 


% 

/ 

r 

/ 
/ 

y 

/ 

F- 

/ 

/ 

1 
1  / 

L 

-M 

1  1 
1  / 

If 

/ 

/ 

Item  42 

; 

./ 

LA  ( 

norr 

iaii 

i    4 

>y  se 

x)-j 

> . . . 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

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/ 

1 

1  . 

/ 

FM 

1 
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Item  42 

/ 

./ 

LA 

r*2  s 

normal  tot.) 

i 

3 

br 

SA  (     FMtot     ) 


Item  42:    Fu 

Mt&. 

Mean       SD 

M: 

2.83 

3.10       1.10 

F: 

2.33 

2.60         .75 

D: 

.50 

Puts  on  coat  or  dress  unassisted. 
CR 


1.14 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


Med. 
2.50 
2.33 


Mean 

2.85 

2.45 

.40 


SD 
.97 
.51 


CR 


1.60 


Item  47.  (LA  3.35)  Buttons  coat  or  dress. 

Soon  after  the  child  has  mastered  putting  on  garments  he 
learns  to  button  or  fasten  them. 


The  normative  mat- 
uration curves  show 
the  girls  consistently  in 
advance  of  the  boys. 
The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .50  years  in  their 
favor,  CR  1.19.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  3.35 
years,  SD  .92. 

The  feeble-minded 
S's  by  SA  are  consis- 
tently in  advance  of  the 
normative  S's  by  LA. 
The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .30  years,  CR  .98. 


1 

% 

4 
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F- 

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/ 

// 

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/ 

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PLUS 
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80 
70 
GO 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

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/ 
/ 

/ 

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Item  47 

; 

1 

J 

S?, 

i 

I 

:     i 

.       , 

)    ( 

>..• 

(normal  tot) 
;A  (     FM  toL     ) 


Item  47: 

Med. 

Mean      SD 

M; 

3.50 

3.60        .87 

F: 

3,00 

3.10        .90 

D: 

.50 

Buttons  coat  or  dress. 

CR  Med. 

N    :  3.25 

FM:  2.92 


1.19 


D 


Mean 

3.35 

3.05 

.30 


SD 
.92 
.96 


CR 


.98 


Self-Help  Dressing 


117 


For  present  purposes  the  buttons  or  fasteners  should  mot  present  seri- 
ous difficulties  of  manipulation.  The  clothing  should  be  reasonably  well 
adjusted  and  the  fastening  done  in  such  a  manner  as  to  require  little  or 
no  readjustment  or  assistance.  Success  on  Item  42  usually  but  not  neces- 
sarily precedes  this  item.  (It  is  assumed  in  this  and  other  dressing  items 
that  if  the  S  has  difficulty  with  some  articles  of  clothing  because  of  de- 
tails  of  manipulation,  there  will  nevertheless  be  a  suflScient  number  of 
articles  of  clothing  which  can  easily  be  manipulated  so  as  to  remoTe  any 
doubt  as  to  his  general  ability  in  these  regards.) 

"Buttoning"  here  includes  such  fasteners  as  buttons  (other 
than  tiny),  slide  fasteners,  snaps  and  buckles,  but  not  neces- 
sarily hooks  and  eyes  or  tie-fasteners.  In  general  these  should 
not  be  difficult  to  manage,  as  when  too  new  or  too  old,  too  stiff 
or  too  limber.  Hence  "habitually"  here  means  as  a  rule  and  when 
no  serious  material  obstacles  to  manipulation  are  present. 

Some  may  question  the  absence  of  an  item  for  unbuttoning 
garments.  Such  an  item  was  "tried  out"  but  did  not  "standard- 
ize" satisfactorily. 


Item  50.  (LA  3.83)  Washes  hands  unaided. 


Washing  the  hands  with- 
out assistance  is  found  to  be 
more  difficult  than  drying 
them.  Moreover,  this  task 
must  be  done  more  thoroughly 
in  order  to  avoid  need  of  as- 
sistance. 


This  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  washes  his  hands  (usually  with  soap  or 
similar  cleanser)  without  need  of  "going  over"  and  also  dries  them.  The  S 
may  receive  admonishment,  but  this  should  not  have  to  be  too  often  or  too 
persistent.  As  one  criterion  for  the  adequacy  of  washing,  the  towel  or  other 
means  of  drying  should  not  be  unduly  soiled  as  a  result  of  inadequate  wash- 
ing. In  this  the  S  should  be  able  to  perform  the  entire  task  for  himself, 
making  his  own  arrangements  as  to  soap  and  water  (provided  these  are 
readily  accessible),  tempering  the  water,  not  messing,  and  in  the  highest 
state  of  performance  "cleaning  up."  This  last  step  need  not  be  insisted 
upon,  since  it  may  under  some  circumstances  be  a  specially  inculcated 
habit  which  (unfortunately !)  is  not  always  attended  to  even  by  some  adults,. 
This  "removing  the  evidence,"  such  as  disposing  of  or  suitably  replacing  the 
towel,  cleaning  or  removing  the  receptacle,  rinsing  and  replacing  the  soap, 
and  other  homely  meticulous  details  affords  a  good  example  of  the  differ- 
ence between  fastidious  habits  as  opposed  to  raw  performances  in  this  and 
other  categories.  This  "touching  up"  of  item  performance  is  an  added  glor j 
which,  all  too  seldom  followed  through,  should  not  disturb  the  punctilious 
«xaminer  on  this  or  other  items. 


118 


Item  Specification 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

,<' 

/ 

A 

V 

7' 

f? 

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1 
1 

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SA  (     FM  tot     ) 


Item   50: 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
4.50 
3.61 


Mean 

4.30 

3.35 

.95 


1.56 
.97 


Washes  hands  unaided. 
CR 


1.56 


N 

FM 

D 


Med. 
3.77 
3.93 


Mean 
3.83 
4.05 
-.22 


SD 

1.38 

.87 


Ci2 


.59 


The  normative  performances  show  fairly  rapid  maturation  between  the 
•third  and  fifth  years  for  the  girls  with  slightly  delayed  success  (larger  SD) 
for  the  boys.    The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .95  years  in  favor  of  the  girls, 
CR  1.56.  The  mean  total  norm  is  3.83  years,  SD  1.38. 

The  normative  versus  feeble-minded  performances  are  maturationally 
similar  (disregarding  differences  in  LA)  but  with  sharper  SA  versus  LA 
rise  (lower  SD)  for  the  feeble-minded.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .22 
years  in  favor  of  the  normal  S's,  CR  .59. 


Item  52.  (LA  4.65)  Washes  face  unassisted. 

This  item  is  much  the  same  as  Item  50,  except  that  washing 
the  face  presents  special  difficulties  which  have  to  be  taken  into 
account.  Thus,  adequate  washing  and  drying  of  the  ears  is  so 
much  more  difficult  (or  at  least  less  well  attended  to)  than 
washing  the  face  itself,  that  this  detail  is  excepted  at  this  stage. 
Indeed,  there  is  some  literal  warrant  for  the  expression  "Not 
dry  behind  the  ears,  yet." 

The  item  is  satisfied  for  plus  scoring  if  the  S  washes  and  dries  hia  face 
without  need  of  help  except  for  the  ears.  He  may  be  assisted  on  occasion 
for  soap  in  the  eyes.  Like  washing  his  hands,  he  may  require  being  told* 
but  not  too  often. 


Self-Help  Dressing 


% 

•- 

-•' 

r 

1 
1 

A 

J 

F- 

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Item 

52 

t     1 

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7 

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too 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

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,•' 

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Item  52 

1 

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..• 

LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 

LA  (normal  tot>  _^ 
SA  (     FM  tot.     >^ 

Item  52: 

Washes 

face  unassisted. 

Med. 

Mean      SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8B 

M:              4.93 

5.05      1.66 

N    • 

4.57 

4.65 

1.46 

F:               4.30 

4.25      1.10 

FM 

4.80 

4.65 

.86 

D: 

.80 

1.21 

D    : 

0 

The  mean  normative  M-F  difference  is  .80  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  1,21, 
The  mean  total  norm  is  4.65  years,  SD  1.46. 

The  normative  and  feeble-minded  validation  curves  are  closely  similar 
except  for  briefer  span  (lower  SD)  for  the  feeble-minded  S's.  The  mean 
N-FM  difference  is  0  years. 

In  respect  to  other  details,  the  comment  on  Item  50  applies 
on  this  item  also.  There  should  be  little  need  for  inspectional 
"going  over"  except  perhaps  for  special  occasions. 

This  item  affords  an  illustration  of  those  minor  individual 
differences  (such  as  cleansing  the  ears)  which  disturb  the  mat- 
urational  specification  of  inclusive  details.  If  cleansing  the  ears 
is  included  in  the  definition  of  success  for  scoring,  then  the 
performances  are  confused  with  individual  differences  which 
frustrate  a  satisfactory  standardization.  Yet  such  a  detail  may 
be  included  in  a  later  item  where  these  differences  are  cancelled 
by  a  higher  degree  of  maturation. 


120 


Item  Specification 


Item  54.  (LA  4.80)  Dresses  self  except  tying. 

At  this  stage  of  dressing 
the  child  (or  handicapped  old- 
er person)  is  able  to  "man- 
age" most  ordinary  articles  of 
clothing  if  these  are  laid  out 
or  designated.  Thus,  the  S  now 
puts  on  his  own  underclothing, 
his  outer  clothing,  shoes,  hat, 
ribbons,  ties,  and  so  on,  and 
fastens  them  except  for  tying. 
He  may  receive  some  assist- 
ance in  the  manipulation  of 
those  articles  which  require 
special  aid,  such  as  the  suit- 
able adjustment  of  scarfs  or 
mufflers,  ribbons,  overshoes,  slip-over  and  all-over  garments, 
garments  buttoning  up  the  back,  and  garments  which  are  close 
fitting  or  otherwise  specially  difficult  to  put  on. 

This  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  routinely  performs  the  ordinary  task  of 
dressing  in  everyday  clothes,  except  for  tying,  with  only  minor  assistance 
on  exceptional  garments  or  for  exceptional  occasions  such  as  dressing  for 
parties,  or  dressing  for  going  out  when  the  occasion  requires  more  than 
usual  care.  The  item  includes  Items  42  and  47  but  not  necessarily  50  and  52. 


% 

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54 

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5 

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100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 

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1 

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• 

40 

1 
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1 

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tot) 

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> 

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k.. 

Item  54: 


F: 
D: 


Med. 
5.03 
4.50 


Mean 
5.85 
4.25 
1.10 


SB 
1.50 

.84 


SA(    FMtot    )■* 

Dresses  self  except  tying. 
CR  Med. 


1.93 


N 

FM 

D 


4.82 
3.45 


Mean 
4.80 
3.80 
1.00 


8D 

1.33 

.96 


CR 


2.66 


Self-Help  Dressing  121 

The  normative  standardization  shows  rapid  maturation  for  the  girls 
between  the  fourth  and  sixth  years  of  life,  with  longer  delay  and  irregular 
lapses  (unaccountably  marked  at  LA  6-7)  and  consequently  larger  SD 
for  the  boys.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  l.lO  years  in  favor  of  the  girls, 
CR  1.93.  The  mean  total  norm  is  4.80,  SD  1.33. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  a  consistent  advantage  (and  lower  SD) 
over  the  normative  S's.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.0  years,  CR  2.66. 

The  irregular  performance  of  the  boys  (which  is  reflected 
in  the  total  N)  may  be  due  to  changes  in  type  of  garments  at 
different  years  not  encountered  in  the  case  of  girls,  but  this  is 
not  clearly  confirmed  by  specific  inquiry,  nor  is  it  evident  from 

the  FM  SA  curve. 


Item  64.  (LA  6.23)  Bathes  self  assisted. 

In  the  early  stages  of  total  body  cleansing,  the  mother, 
nurse,  or  other  attendant  "gives"  the  child  a  bath.  This  requires 
preparing  the  shower,  tub,  or  bathing  medium,  tempering  the 
water,  and  the  entire  process  of  bathing.  In  the  course  of  time, 
the  child  splashes  around  in  the  tub  and  gradually  is  permitted 
to  assist  in  the  bathing  process.  Subsequently  the  child  is  able 
to  bathe  himself  under  supervision  with  some  assistance,  and 
this  stage  is  represented  by  this  item. 

The  significance  of  the  item  derives  from  the  fact  that  ex- 
cept for  the  preparatory  and  final  details,  the  S  may  be  left  to 
accomplish  the  bathing  routine  for  himself.  In  other  words,  the 
supervision  does  not  require  the  immediate  presence  of  a  second 
person  in  the  actual  act  of  bathing  except  as  noted. 

To  satisfy  the  item  the  S  bathes  and  dries  himself  "overall,"  including 
the  face,  but  not  including  washing  and  drying  the  ears,  the  hair  or  the 
back.  The  bathing  means  may  be  prepared,  and  the  water  drawn  and 
tempered  for  him;  also  the  S  may  be  "inspected"  and  "touched  up"  in 
those  areas  where  special  cleanliness  should  be  assured.  The  tub  or  recep- 
tacle may  be  drained  and  cleaned  for  the  S.  Some  protective  supervision 
may  be  advisable  in  special  circumstances  (e.g.,  risk  of  scalding  by  hot 
water  or  other  dangerous  conditions). 

This  item  shows  steady  maturation  between  the  fifth  and  ninth  years 
of  life  for  the  normative  girls,  and  between  the  fifth  and  eleventh  years  for 
the  boys.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .85  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR 
1.08.  The  mean  total  norm  is  6.23,  SD  1.73. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  more  rapid  maturation  (lower  SD)  in  SA 
groups  than  do  the  normative  S's  at  LA  intervals.  The  mean  N-FM  dif- 
ference is  .40  years,  CR  .92. 


122 


Item  Specification 


T\ 

/ 

y 

/■ 

F— 

/ 

^ 

/ 

y 

/.. 

M 

1 
1 

f 

1 
J 

1 

1 

1 

J 

■t 

^ 

:/ 

Iten: 

64 

1 

7 

((. 

J 

Urt 

I 

.  i 

i 

> 

t 

i      1 

6    1 

1... 

100 


(normal  by  sex)" 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
6.83 
5.88 


Item  64: 
Mean      SD 
6.65       1.91 
5.80       1.41 
.85 


3^      5      6 
LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA  (     FM  tot.     ) 

Bathes  self  assisted. 

CR  Med 


1.08 


N 

FM 

D 


6.17 
5.77 


Mean 

6.23 

5.83 

.40 


1.73 
.81 


CE 


.92 


Care  should  be  taken  by  the  examiner  not  to  be  too  lenient 
in  scoring  those  S's  who  merely  playfully  assist  at  the  bath,  nor 
too  severe  in  scoring  those  S's  where,  because  of  solicitude, 
impatience  or  sentiment,  the  S  is  not  permitted  to  bathe  him- 
self. However,  plus  NO  scoring  on  this  item  should  be  used 
with  discretion  even  though  in  some  environments  the  regi- 
mentation may  make  it  difficult  for  the  S  to  exercise  independ- 
ent activity.  Note  that  in  spite  of  presumptive  limitations  the 
(institutionalized)  feeble-minded  subjects  show  no  SA  disad- 
vantage. Table  10  shows  only  one  +  NO  score  for  the  FM  S's 
and  none  for  the  N  S's. 


Item  65.  (LA  6.75)  Goes  to  bed  unassisted. 


In  this  item  the  act  of  un- 
dressing is  related  to  the  vari- 
ous other  responsibilities  at 
retiring.  The  undressing  itself 
at  this  stage  is  relatively  sim- 
ple, but  is  only  one  part  of  the 
associated  routines  (e.g.,  pre- 
paring for  the  night  at  the 
toilet,  and  divorcing  one's  self 
from  the  social  environment) . 
Going  to  bed  alone  and  at- 


Self-Help  Dressing 


123 


tending  to  one's  needs  in  social  isolation  marks  a  definite  step 
in  maturation  in  respect  to  which  the  tasks  are  less  important 
than  the  conditions  under  which  they  are  performed. 

To  completelj'  satisfy  the  item  the  S  voluntarily,  and  as  a  customary 
performance,  removes  himself  from  the  rest  of  the  household  and  without 
assistance  prepares  himself  for  bed.  He  might,  however,  be  reminded  of 
the  hour,  or  be  accompanied  to  bed  and  "tucked  in"  as  an  evidence  of 
affection,  but  such  assistance  should  be  sentimental  rather  than  necessary. 

The  routine  involved,  such  as  simple  washing,  brushing  the  teeth,  going 
to  the  toilet,  lighting  or  extinguishing  the  illumination,  should  be  reason- 
ably interpreted  according  to  circumstances.  Thus,  presumably  taking  a 
kerosene  lamp  to  the  bedroom,  going  to  bed  in  the  dark  or  at  a  relatively 
remote  distance,  using  an  outside  toilet,  and  other  possibly  apprehensive 
details  may  be  waived  if  these  apparently  interpose  special  difficulties. 
Scoring  discretion  must  also  be  exercised  in  respect  to  other  details  such  as 
the  regulation  of  heat  and  ventilation.  Also  it  is  permissible  for  some  older 
and  more  responsible  person  to  check  up  on  the  outcome,  adjusting  these 
somewhat  more  remote  factors.  Timidity  and  fear  of  darkness  should  be 
regarded  as  marks  of  immaturity,  unfortunate  conditioning,  or  poor  train- 
ing which  render  the  scoring  minus  in  fact  but  may  be  allowed  for  in 
evaluation.  Contrariwise,  the  situation  is  less  difficult  if  the  S  shares 
the  bed  or  room,  or  retires  in  company  with  others.  Tliese  many  variable 
circumstances  make  it  necessary  to  allow  the  examiner  considerable 
leeway  for  scoring. 


% 

PLl 

100 

so 

80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

'/ 

^\ 

^ 

•^ 

r 

^ 

^^ 

y' 

/ 

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v 

F- 

1 

7 

FM 

-*/ 

1 

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/, 

■M 

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/ 

/ 

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J 

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Item 

165 

/ 

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/ 

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rr 

:*" 

SA  (     FMtot     ) 

Item    65:  Goez   to   bed  unassisted. 

Med.     Mean       SD  CR                          Med.     Mean       8D         CR 

M:               7.50       7.35       1.46  N    :            6.75       6.75       1.95 

F:               5.90       6.15       2.18  FM:            5.95       6.45       1.79 

D:    .                       1.20  1.37        D    :                          .30                     .49 


This  item  shows  steady  though  not  very  rapid  normative  maturation 
between  the  fourth  and  eleventh  years  of  life,  with  the  girls  consistently  in 
advance  of  the  boys  (but  with  larger  SD).  The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
1.20  years,  CR  1.37.  The  mean  total  norm  is  6.75  years,  SD  1.95. 

The  normative  versus  feeble-minded  performances  are  closely  similar 
in  SA  versus  LA  groups.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .30  years  in  favor 
of  the  feeble-minded  subjects,  CR  .49. 


124 


Item  Specification 


This  item  reveals  relatively  delayed  maturation  as  com- 
pared with  those  previously  discussed.  However,  its  evolution  is 
steady  and  consistent  for  both  normal  LA  and  feeble-minded  SA 
progressions.  These  consistencies  tend  to  offset  the  misgivings 
regarding  adequate  scoring. 


Item  70.  (LA  8.45)  Combs  or  brushes  hair. 

Care  of  the  hair  represents  a  relatively  late  achievement  in 
the  process  of  "dressing,"  but  in  spite  of  its  apparent  scoring 
difficulties,  shows  rather  rapid  maturation  when  it  emerges. 

To  satisfy  the  item,  the  S  typically  brushes  or  combs  his  hair,  without 
assistance,  well  enough  not  to  require  "going  over"  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances. We  are  not  concerned  here  with  the  total  care  of  the  hair  as  a 
routine  habit,  but  rather  that  the  S  fulfills  the  need  for  personal  attention 
to  this  detail  when  dressing,  or  before  going  out,  or  "repairing"  his  appear- 
ance, or  in  anticipation  of  receiving  company.  We  may  distinguish  here 
between  the  need  for  help  and  the  desire  of  the  mother  or  attendant  to 
somewhat  affectionately  review  the  outcome  even  though  there  may  be 
little  such  practical  need.  In  the  case  of  girls,  this  item  includes  simple 
dressing  of  the  hair  such  as  braiding,  and  the  use  of  suitable  pins  and 
ribbons.  In  the  case  of  girls  with  bobbed  hair  or  curls,  this  item  is  per- 
formed much  the  same  as  by  boys,  and  the  successful  parting  of  the  hair 
seems  to  be  the  principal  difficulty.  In  the  case  of  girls  with  long  hair,  the 
braiding  or  other  manner  of  dressing  of  the  hair  need  not  be  too  skilfully 
done,  but  should  be  done  well  enough  to  satisfy  ordinary  circumstances,. 
It  is  not  required  that  other  details  of  hair-dressing  which  might  ordinarily 
be  done  by  a  second  person,  such  as  curling  the  hair,  be  performed  inde- 
pendently. Washing  and  drying  the  hair  are  not  required  until  Item  8S- 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

1 
( 

T 

A-. 

A 

'  J 

/ 

Iter 

170 

/ 

y 

[ten 

70 

/ 

y 

X 

1 
1 

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1 

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-1 

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Item  70:    Combs  or  brushes  hair. 


Med. 

Mean 

an 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

9:00 

8.80 

1.75 

N    : 

8.39 

8.45 

1.47 

F: 

8.30 

8.10 

1.00 

FM: 

6.17 

6.33 

1,58 

D: 

.70 

1.05 

D    '. 

2.12 

CR 


4.29 


Self-Help  Dressing 


125 


The  performance  normatively  matures  principally  between  the  ninth 
and  tenth  years  of  life  for  the  girls,  and  the  ninth  and  twelfth  years  for 
the  boys,  except  for  a  few  precocious  subjects  at  the  sixth,  seventh  and 
eighth  years.  The  girls  precede  the  boys  at  all  but  two  minor  LA  intervals 
(with  smaller  SD).  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .70  years,  CR  1.05.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  8.45  years,  SD  1.47. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  a  marked  advantage  at  all  SA  versus 
normative  LA  intervals.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  2.12  years,  CR  4.29. 

The  common  expectation  that  girls  succeed  later  on  this 
item  than  boys  because  of  greater  manipulative  difficulties  la 
clearly  contradicted  by  these  data.  The  girls  definitely  excel  the 
boys  although  not  by  a  very  marked  or  significant  amount. 
Similarly  the  feeble-minded  excel  the  normative  S's,  and  the 
comparative  difference  is  fairly  large  in  both  amount  and  statis- 
tical reliability.  Girls  presumably  overcome  the  manipulative 
obstacles  by  more  intense  motivation;  the  (institutionalized) 
feeble-minded  subjects  are  under  consistent  stimulation  plus  the 
mean  advantage  of  fifteen  to  twenty  years  in  life  age.  Insofar 
as  the  performance  is  dependent  on  motor  aptitude  this  is  not 
clearly  apparent  from  related  evidence  or  inference. 


Item  74.  (LA  8.85)  Bathes  self  unaided. 


This  item  is  a  superior 
extension  of  Item  64,  in  which 
the  entire  bathing  process  is 
now  accomplished  without 
help  except  for  washing  and 
drying  hair. 


To  satisfy  the  item  the  S  prepares  and  tempers  the  tub,  shower  or 
other  means  of  bathing;  undresses;  bathes  without  need  of  assistance;  dries 
self  without  need  of  touching  up.  In  short,  the  bath  is  routinely  accom- 
plished entirely  without  help  except  for  the  hair,  which  may  be  washed 
and  dried  by  someone  else  independently  of  the  bath  itself  or  coincidentally 
with  it. 

The  normative  curves  show  smooth  and  rapid  acceleration  between  the 
ninth  and  twelfth  years  except  for  unaccounted  advance  success  by  some 
girls  at  the  seventh  year  (or  lapse  at  the  eighth  year).  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .90  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  1.17.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  8.85,  SD  1.69. 

The  feeble-minded  excel  the  normative  S's  at  all  significant  SA  versus 
LA  intervals.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.25  years,  CR  2.34. 


126 


Item  Specification 


r 

% 

PLl 
100 

90 

80 

70 

60 

50 

40 

30 

20 

10 

JS 

r 

/ 

Iteit 

i74 

1 

Iten 

74 

i 
,/ 

/ 

< 

/ 

/ 

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/ 

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/ 

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nor 

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I  1 

brr 

( 

LA 
SA  ( 

r^5      6      7      8      i 
normal  tot.)  ^ 
FM  tot.     )  ^ 

>     10    11    12... 

Item  74:    Bathes  self  unaided. 

Med.     Mean       SD         CR                          Med.  Mean       SD         CR 

M:               9.30       9.30       1.28                      N    :            8.92  8.85       1.69 

F:                8.64       8.40       1.91                      FM:            8.33  7.60       1.61 

D:                             .90                   1.17         D    :  1.25                   2.34 


This  item  requires  scoring  judgment  regarding  the  varieties 
of  bathing  conventions,  media  and  routines.  A  dip  in  the  river 
vi^ithout  benefit  of  soap  seems  a  far  cry  from  the  complexities 
of  a  hot  shower  or  Turkish  bath.  Privacy  versus  attendance  at 
the  bath  is  another  consideration.  Suffice  it  here  to  state  some- 
what dogmatically  that  when  the  maturational  period  is  attained 
the  minor  vagaries  of  Tnodus  operandi  seem  readily  accommo- 
dated. This  has  already  been  noted  in  previous  items.  More 
serious  are  the  environmental  restraints  of  parental  or  parent- 
surrogate  solicitude,  and  of  institutional  regimentation,  regard- 
ing safety  and  meticulous  cleansing.  Yet  even  these  are  actually 
or  surreptitiously  overcome  when  maturity  in  this  performance 
becomes  dominant.  These  comments  apply  with  less  force  to 
Item  64  where  attendance  at  the  bath  is  expected.  The  comment 
for  Item  50  regarding  emptying  and  cleaning  the  bath  receptacle 
and  generally  restoring  the  material  situation  to  its  original 
orderliness  is  pertinent  here  also;  such  conscientious  habits 
certainly  increase  one's  total  competence  but  cannot  readily  be 
•incorporated  in  particular  items  without  introducing  the  vari- 
ables of  personality  differences  or  specific  indoctrination.  Note 
that  Table  10  shows  only  one  normative  and  four  feeble-minded 
-1-NO  scores.  Yet  there  is  a  standing  rule  that  none  of  these 
FM  S's  should  bathe  alone  or  unsupervised  (because  of  possible 


Self-Help  Dressing 


127 


scalding  or  other  risks).  Here  again  those  who  can,  do.  Or, 
when  restrictions  are  not  necessary  they  tend  to  be  unenforced. 
(For  habit  interference  see  p.  66.) 


Item  86.  (LA  12.38)  Exercises  complete  care  of  dress. 


This  item  is  an  inclusive 
summation  for  the  totality  of 
self  -  help  in  dressing  and 
cleansing,  plus  additional  de- 
tails. At  this  stage  the  individ- 
ual rarely  requires  assistance 
in  any  detail  of  personal  toilet. 


To  satisfy  the  item  the  S  bathes  himself  completely,  including  w^ashin^ 
and  drying  the  hair;  pares  his  own  nails  (hands  and  feet);  shaves  himself 
if  bearded;  makes  a  proper  selection  of  clothing  according  to  the  occasion 
and  the  weather;  ties  his  own  laces,  neckties,  ribbons  or  sashes;  in  short 
entirely  looks  after  himself  in  cleanliness  and  dress  except  for  occasional 
assistance  in  fastening  inaccessible  parts  of  the  clothing  and  perhaps  lit 
preparing  for  specially  formal  occasions.  Cosmetic  makeup  on  the  part  of 
girls  may  be  an  added  but  not  required  detail.  Advice  may  be  sought  re- 
garding suitability  of  dress. 

PLUS 

ion 


% 

A 

^r 

/ 

-^. 

V 

' 

M- 

i 

V 

r 

1 1 

- 

'-' 

1 1 

, 

Iter 

nSf 

/ 

f'<, 

f^ 

■V 

« 

1 

)  "^ 

! ' 

\ 

o 

\ 

;  1 

\  { 

k  1 

S  1 

S  1 

7    1 

J.. 

LA  (normal  by  sex)i* 


SA  (    FM  tot.    ) 


i  tcl.)^ 


CR 


Item  86:     Exercises  complete  care  of  dress. 
Med.    Mean      8D        CB  Med.    Mean      8D 

M:  12.17     12.20      1.73  N    :  12,33     12.38      2.00 

F:  12.64    12.55      2.23  FM:  9.14      9.23*     1.24* 

D:  -.35  .37        D    :  3.15  5.82 

*100%  assumed  at  SA  12-13. 

Success  on  this  item  shows  steady  and  rapid  progression  by  norma- 
tive LA  intervals  between  the  twelfth  and  sixteenth  years  except  for  a 
few  emergent  successes  before  the  twelfth  year  and  a  lapse  for  both  sexea 
at  LA  14-15.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .35  years  in  favor  of  the  boys, 
CR  .37.  The  mean  total  norm  is  12.38  years,  SD  2.00.  The  absence  of  notable 


128 


Item  Specification 


CO 

> 


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Q 


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CO  Oi  -^  c<j  ec  c» 
c4  '  '  -^  ci  »fi 


Nt-OoOC^SoOOONtOlO 

I*     '     I*     ■     *     I*         rH     '     ■  (N  1-i  eo 

* 

I       |«eiClOJ0000O500t-;ira«OC<} 

1-?    1-H    r-J    iH 

eoc<iLOc-c<jootoeoMiot>oso 

t>ooo»ososeoT}<cot-o>'^«c>o 


o 


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o 

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fe 


o 


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s 

u 
o 


P5 


Q 


B 

Q 

CO 


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tnc-o-<j(ootocqoq-^_cciooj 


comoimu^eoLOOcomiciooo 
»-j05Coocooq«^oq(Nt>Ti«oqco 
iHoioitNcoco-^-^'cocooocxJw 


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1H 


rHt-ONt-Ofi^'^'rfia    O 


Self-Help  Dressing  129 

sex  difference  may  surprise  some  students. 

This  is  the  first  item  thus  far  discussed  in  which  the  feeble-minded 
S's  do  not  show  complete  final  success  in  the  SA  group  range  available. 
(Item  76  is  the  first  such  item  in  the  Scale  as  a  whole.  For  discussion  of 
statistical  implications  see  comment  p.  361.)  In  this  instance  if  v/e  assume 
complete  success  at  SA  12-13  and  thereafter  in  view  of  (1)  the  close 
approximation  to  one  hundred  per  cent  at  SA  11-12,  (2)  the  stable  pro- 
gression of  the  curve,  and  (3)  the  nature  of  the  item,  then  the  mean  SA 
norm  is  9.23  years,  SD  1.24;  and  the  mean  N-FM  difference  is  then  3.15 
years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded,  CR  5.82.  This  would  then  be  the  larg- 
est amount  of  difference  and  also  the  largest  CR  found  for  any  of  the 
normative-feeble-minded  comparisons.  Actually  the  fragmentary  data  be- 
yond SA  11-12  show  90  per  cent  passes  at  SA  12  (N  =  15),  87.5  per  cent  at 
SA  13  (N  =  7),  92.5  per  cent  at  SA  14  (N  =  6),  lOO  per  cent  at  SA  15 
(N  =  4)  and  SA  16  (N  =  5).  Because  of  these  incomplete  data  this  item  is 
omitted  from  Table  9-A. 


Summary.  The  normative  sex  differences  in  this  category 
are  all  in  favor  of  the  girls  except  Item  86.  However,  the  differ- 
ences are  both  numerically  and  relatively  of  small  amount  and 
low  reliability.  Item  54  reaches  a  CR  of  1.93  and  a  mean  differ- 
ence of  1.10  years  (one-quarter  of  its  base) .  All  other  CR's  are 
below  1.57  and  the  mean  differences  (except  Item  50)  below  one- 
quarter  of  their  bases.  On  Item  86  the  difference  is  in  favor  of 
the  boys  but  is  of  small  amount  and  low  statistical  significance. 

In  the  feeble-minded  comparisons  four  items  (54,  70,  74 
and  86)  have  CR's  of  2.66,  4.29,  2.34  and  5.82,  respectively.  All 
of  these  favor  the  feeble-minded  subjects;  Item  54  by  a  mean 
difference  of  1.00  years  (one-quarter  of  the  base),  Item  70  by 
2.12  years  (one-third  of  the  base),  Item  74  by  1.25  years  (one- 
seventh  of  the  base),  and  Item  86  by  3.15  years  (one-third  of 
the  base).  All  other  CR's  in  this  category  fail  belovN^  1.61  and 
the  amounts  of  difference  are  negligible.  Item  86  shows  the 
largest  mean  difference  and  the  highest  CR  of  all  the  normative- 
feeble-minded  comparisons  for  the  entire  Scale,  but  this  result 
is  rendered  somewhat  uncertain  by  incomplete  data  at  the  upper 
extremity  of  the  SA  ogive. 

It  may  be  helpful  to  comment  further  on  the  variations  in 
sex  in  respect  to  these  items.  In  many  details  of  dressing,  in- 
cluding specially  care  of  the  hair,  the  performances  seem  a 
priori  to  be  somewhat  more  difficult  for  girls  than  for  boys. 
However,  this  is  somewhat  offset  by  apparently  greater  in- 
centive among  girls  and  the  greater  premium  they  apparently 
set  upon  dressing.  There  is  also  a  somewhat  closer  relation  (in 
dressing)  of  girls  to  their  mothers,  or  to  their  elders  of  the 
same  sex,  which  tends  toward  a  greater  emphasis  on  dressing 
and  therefore  tends  to  develop  greater  attention  to  these  per- 
formances. In  the  final  stages  this  somewhat  greater  variation 


130  Item  Specification 

in  the  dressing  process  among  girls  is  offset  in  some  degree 
among  boys  by  the  practice  of  shaving  and  the  special  difficulties 
of  tying  neckties,  although  this  in  turn  is  at  least  equalled  on 
the  part  of  girls  in  the  details  of  hair  dressing  and  the  more 
or  less  complicated  use  of  ribbons  and  later  of  cosmetic  makeup. 

Some  comment  may  also  be  pertinent  in  regard  to  the  en- 
vironmental standards  of  dressing  which  on  the  whole  tend  to 
be  somewhat  reduced  for  boys,  as  well  as  in  the  lower  occupa- 
tional classes  and  the  simpler  environments.  At  lower  cultural 
levels  the  standards  of  dressing  are  somewhat  more  simple  or 
the  modes  of  dressing  less  refined,  so  that  in  these  respects  it 
is  not  surprising  if  S's  in  inferior  or  primitive  environments 
may  seem  to  perform  these  items  more  easily.  Actually,  in 
gathering  these  data  few  difficulties  were  encountered  in  regard 
to  these  variables  within  the  environmental  sample  employed. 
However,  in  other  environments  and  for  other  samples  these 
difficulties  should  be  seriously  investigated  by  the  accumulation 
of  pertinent  systematic  data.  The  apprehensions  of  the  examiner 
in  this  regard  will  be  more  evident  in  a  priori  expectation  than 
experienced  in  fact.  The  arm-chair  fine  points  of  distinction  so 
easily  argued  for  all  items  of  the  Scale  seem  to  dissipate  under 
careful  study. 


Locomotion  131 

Locomotion 


The  census-taker  encountered  an  unschooled  mother  and 
asked  for  the  ages  of  her  five  children.    She  declared 
she  couldn't  remember.   On  further  urging,  she  said,  "Well, 
there's    one    lap    child,    one    creeper,    one   porch    child, 
one  yard  child  and  one  school  child."  —  Willard  Olson 

The  title  for  this  category  is  somewhat  misleading,  sug- 
gesting as  it  does  (at  least  to  psychologists)  the  motor  aspect 
of  getting  about,  whereas  our  major  concern  is  with  the  social 
responsibilities  associated  therewith.  It  might  more  appro- 
priately have  been  termed  "social  locomotion"  and  was  indeed 
originally  called  "social  movements." 

Locomotor  activity  reaches  its  primary  peak  in  body  me- 
chanics by  about  the  fifth  year  of  life  (running,  skipping, 
jumping),  but  the  social  accompaniments  of  locomotion  increase 
with  the  range  of  expression  as  individual  maturity  elaborates 
use  and  need.  This  category,  therefore,  covers  a  wide  span  of 
years  and  is  fairly  consistent  in  its  sequential  evolution.  The 
individual  not  only  expresses  increasing  degrees  of  independ- 
ence and  responsibility  in  respect  to  his  geographical  horizons, 
but  also  expands  his  social  effectiveness  through  this  ever- 
widening  extension  of  his  peregrinations.  Note  particularly  that 
the  motor  aspects  of  each  item  generally  precede  the  social 
aspects. 

In  the  case  of  physically  handicapped  or  deteriorated  sub- 
jects (crippled,  enfeebled,  blind  and  to  some  extent  the  deaf) 
the  motor  aspect  of  the  item  as  a  precondition  of  success  may 
not  be  ignored  in  fact  but  may  be  allowed  for  in  evaluation. 
"Walks"  in  such  cases  means  "goes"  in  some  way,  perhaps  with 
use  of  cane,  crutch,  wheelchair,  guide,  dog  or  attendant.  The 
degree  of  dependence  upon  such  aids  must  be  reckoned  with  if 
without  them  the  person  is  rendered  immobile  or  unsafely 
mobile.  This  presents  difficulties  of  scoring  that  cannot  clearly 
be  anticipated  in  all  such  subjects  but  must  be  weighed  with 
objective  candor  by  the  examiner  according  to  the  circumstances 
obtaining.  Nor  should  the  examiner  be  too  subjectively  op- 
timistic in  inferring  that  if  the  S  could  walk  with  physical 
ease  he  would  assuredly  meet  the  social  requirements  of  these 
items.  Plus  NO  scoring  is  generally  inappropriate  in  most  such 
instances  but  may  be  admissible  for  some.  Plus  F  scoring  is 
permissible  (if  otherwise  appropriate)  if  the  incapacity  is 
temporary  (Chapter  7). 


132  Item  Specification 

In  the  case  of  mentally  and  socially  handicapped  or  de- 
teriorated subjects  (e.g.,  mentally  deficient,  psychopathic,  epi- 
leptic, senile  or  infirm,  socially  maladjusted,  delinquent  and 
criminal)  the  social  aspect  of  these  items  looms  larger  than  the 
motor  requirements.  These  performances  place  a  premium  on 
discretion  and  judgment,  or  freedom  from  unfortunate  conse- 
quences of  their  exercise.  This  introduces  a  difficulty  of 
estimating  the  kind  and  degree  of  mental,  social  and  moral 
responsibility  that  must  be  reckoned  with  and  the  conventions  or 
proprieties  to  be  exacted  without  becoming  puritanically  moral- 
istic. Usually  the  examiner  will  have  no  difficulty  in  resolving 
these  components,  but  he  should  not  become  too  discouraged  if 
some  such  scoring  is  unavoidably  dubious.  Plus  NO  scoring  may 
be  applicable  to  the  more  advanced  items  but  should  be  skep- 
tically objective.  Plus  F  scoring  may  also  apply  to  the  more 
advanced  items  provided  the  loss  of  performance  is  only  tem- 
porary and  that  the  restraints  to  performance  are  not  imposed 
because  of  difficulties  resulting  from  such  performances. 

In  the  case  of  institutionally  confined  or  otherwise  regi- 
mented environments,  plus  F  and  plus  NO  scoring  may  be 
necessary  for  some  items.  In  such  situations  candid  objective 
regard  for  the  above  considerations  is  essential  to  sound  scoring. 
Also  in  some  environments,  and  in  certain  social  strata,  ques- 
tions regarding  much  or  little  occasion  for  exercise  of  the  item, 
as  well  as  custom,  fashion,  incentive,  and  means  will  call  for 
discriminating  judgment.  These  eventualities  are  so  varied, 
yet  ordinarily  infrequent,  that  to  provide  for  them  here  would 
be  at  best  only  confusing  even  if  not  otherwise  impracticable- 
It  may  be  noted  parenthetically  that  such  modes  of  locomo- 
tion as  running,  skipping  and  jumping  while  logically  contribu- 
tory to  effective  movement  did  not  readily  lend  themselves  to 
use  in  this  scale  because  of  the  varieties  of  conditions  and  in- 
dividual differences  involved.  Likewise,  except  as  included  in 
occupation  and  socialization  items,  no  emphasis  is  placed  on 
various  means  of  locomotion  (such  as  scooters,  skates,  bicycles, 
automobiles,  trains,  ships,  airplanes)  because  of  their  variable 
universality  for  personal  use. 

The  10  items  of  this  category  extend  from  years  O-I  to 
XVIII-XX  (1  at  0,  3  at  I,  and  1  eachatIII,IV,V,Ix;  XV-XVIII, 
and  XVIII-XX).  Simple  ambulation  is  apparent  in  the  second 
item  (Item  18)  and  is  a  difficult  phase  in  the  fourth  and  fifth 
(Items  32  and  45).  The  other  items  have  an  essentially  social 
rather  than  ambulatory  significance.  The  items  are  serially 
sequential  for  the  category  as  a  whole. 


Locomotion 


133 


Item  12.  (LA  .63)  Moves  about  on  floor. 

Certain  items  in  the 
SHG  category  constitute  a 
premonitory  extension  of  the 
environment  through  rolling 
over,  reaching  and  grasping, 
sitting,  and  the  like.  These  de- 
velopments enable  the  S  not 
only  to  move  about  within  his 
immediate  environment,  but 
also  to  explore  and  manipulate 
that  environment.  This  in- 
creases his  opportunities  for 
self-expression  and  own  de- 
pendence, but  also  introduces 
certain  hazards  to  himself  or 
to  the  environment  in  so  doing.  Consequently,  the  child's  loco- 
motor activities  give  his  elders  perhaps  as  much  concern  as 
satisfaction,  since  locomobility  produces  risks  as'w^ell  as  ad- 
vantages. 


This  performance  shows  rapid 
normative  progression  in  the  later 
first  and  early  second  years  of  life. 
The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .85 
years  in  favor  of  the  normative 
girls.  The  mean  total  norm  is  .63 
years. 

Nearly  all  the  feeble-minded 
S's  succeed  at  SA  0-1,  and  all  there- 
after. The  mean  SA  norm  is  .05 
years.  The  mean  N-FM  difference 
(ignoring  mean  LA  difference)  is 
.58  years  in  favor  of  the  feeble- 
minded. 


Med. 

Mear 

M: 

.88 

.80 

F: 
D: 

.41 

.45 
.35 

SA( 

FMtot     ) 

ibout  on  floor. 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

N    :             .70 

.63 

- 

FM:             .03 

.05 

- 

D    : 

.68 

CB 


134 


Item  Specification 


In  the  stage  of  locomotion  represented  by  this  item  the  S  gets  about 
on  the  floor  by  creeping,  crawling,  rolling  over,  and  so  on.  He  may  be  more 
or  less  guarded  or  watched  in  his  movements  in  order  to  protect  him  from 
environmental  hazards.  In  this  early  stage,  therefore,  the  item  is  satisfied 
if  in  moving  about  on  the  floor  the  S  does  not  become  involved  in  appre- 
ciable difficulties.  This  is  witnessed  by  the  extent  to  which  more  responsible 
persons  may  "keep  an  eye  on  him."  The  motor  performance  is  only  a  pre- 
condition of  the  social  consequences. 


Item  18.  (LA  1.03)  Walks  about  room  unattended. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  12  in  both  motor  and  social 
directions.  Walking  as  opposed  to  simple  "moving"  greatly 
extends  the  range,  speed  and  amount  of  getting  about. 

The  S  now  walks  about  the  room  instead  of  creeping,  rolling  or  crawl- 
ing, and  is  unattended  except  for  occasional  admonition  or  casual  oversight. 
More  important  than  the  motor  activity  itself  is  the  increased  personal  re- 
sponsibility that  accompanies  it.  Consequently,  in  spite  of  greater  activity, 
the  necessary  watchfulness  is  little  more  than  for  Item  12.  In  other  words, 
the  S  materially  enlarges  his  environmental  movements  (as  represented  by 
a  single  room)  without  increasing  hazard;  or  as  the  possible  hazards  are 
increased  his  greater  maturity  enables  him  to  cope  with  them  more  inde- 
pendently. 


This  accomplishment  shows 
substantially  total  normative  mas- 
tery in  the  second  year  of  life.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .05  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  1.03  years. 

The  normative  S's  excel  the 
feeble-minded  by  .15  years,  in  spite 
of  the  latter's  life  age  advantage. 
This  emphasizes  the  social  content 
of  the  item  since  all  these  feeble- 
minded subjects  are  physically 
ambulatory  but  not  socially  very 
responsible    at    this    SA    period. 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS' 

— 

/- 

^F 

1 

M- 

/ 

'-FI 

4 

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N-H 

1    ( 

]   1 

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1   ( 

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Med. 
1.00 
1.03 


Item  18: 

Mean 
1.00 
1.05 
-.05 


Walks  about  room  unattended. 

D        CR  Med.    Mean 

N    :  1.01       1.03 


PM: 
D    : 


1.27 


1.18 
-.15 


8D 


.75 


CB 


Locomotion 


135 


Item  29.  (LA  1.63)  Goes  about  house  or  yard. 


This  is  an  extension  of 
Item  18  in  that  the  environ- 
ment is  extended  from  a 
single  room  (at  a  time)  to 
other  rooms  of  the  house  and 
to  certain  parts  of  the  yard. 


"House"  here  means  a  single  floor  of  any  familiar  abode^  where  some 
responsible  person  is  within  sight  or  call,  and  where  the  oversight  required 
as  to  the  S's  whereabouts  is  little  more  than  for  a  single  room.  This  "range" 
may  be  extended  to  a  yard  which  is  something  more  than  a  play-pen, 
whether  or  not  enclosed,  but  again  where  some  responsible  person  is  within 
sight  or  hearing.  In  either  house  or  yard  certain  areas  or  "deadlines"  may 
be  indicated  so  that  the  S  may  be  forbidden  to  enter  certain  rooms  or  to  go 
beyond  certain  limits  in  an  unfenced  yard,  or  oflf  the  porch.  If  the  S  uses 
the  yard,  he  need  not  be  required  to  go  up  and  down  steps  alone  (see  Items 
32  and  45),  but  may  be  taken  to  or  from  the  yard.  If  he  goes  about  the 
house  or  porch,  he  may  be  protected  in  his  movements  by  outside  doors  or 
porch  gates.  Aside  from  these  limitations,  the  S  is  relatively  free  to  move 
about  and  the  exercise  of  this  freedom  requires  only  intermittent  watch- 
ing or  checking  up,  rather  than  continued  surveillance  or  concern  as  to 
Ms  probable  whereabouts  and  actions. 


The  normative  maturation  for 
this  item  occurs  between  the  second 
and  fourth  years  of  life.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .05  years  in  favor 
of  the  boys,  CR  .14.  The  mean  total 
morm  is  1.63  years,  SD  .73. 

The  normative  and  feeble  - 
Blinded  performances  are  closely 
similar  in  LA  versus  SA  groups. 
The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .08 
years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded, 
CR  .37. 


% 

r 

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M- 

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-F 

1 

Iteir 

29 

/ 

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! 

[--^ 

1" 

PLUS 


LA  (nonnal  by  »ex)^     LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (    FM  tot    ) 


F: 


Item 

29: 

Goes  about  house 

or  yard. 

Mea. 

Mean 

&B 

CR 

Med.    Mean 

SD 

1.33 

1.60 

.75 

N   : 

1.S7      1.63 

.73 

1.41 

1.65 

.74 

FM: 

1.60       1.55 

.60 

-.05 

.14 

D    : 

.08 

OR 


.87 


136 


Item  Specification 


Item  32.  (LA  1.75)  Walks  upstairs  unassisted. 

Walking  upstairs  is  both  more  difficult  and  more  hazardous 
than  the  preceding  locomotion  items.  Coordination  and  balance 
are  at  a  premium,  and  if  the  S  should  fall  there  is  genuine 
danger  of  bodily  injury.  In  the  early  stages  the  child  may 
creep  step  by  step,  using  arms  and  knees  instead  of  treading 
the  stairs.  Usually  this  act  is  so  precarious  as  to  require  close 
watching.  Following  this  the  S  may  walk  upstairs  holding  the 
hand  of  some  person  and  usually  taking  two  steps  to  a  tread. 
In  these  protected  stages  the  child  may  be  guarded  from  falling 
even  if  no  actual  help  is  given.  We  have  not  employed  these 
early  stages  because  of  the  wide  individual  differences  in  man- 
ner of  doing  so  and  because  other  phases  of  locomotion  of  sub- 
stantially similar   difficulty   could   be   more  readily  employed. 


The  item  shows  rapid  norma- 
tive maturation  in  the  third  year  of 
life.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.30  years  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.75  years,  SD 
.45. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  a 

mean  advantage  of  .97  years  over 
the  normal  S's,  CR  4.75. 

The  motor  aspect  of  this  item 
is  taken  as  a  partial  guarantee  of 
its  social  aspect.  This  appears  to 
account  for  the  advantage  reflected 
in  the  feeble-minded  S's. 


% 

I 

.p^ 

1 

M^ 

1 
1 

1 

h 

1 1 

■' 

/' 

nh 

I  32 

Y  ! 

/i  1 

0       1      2      3 

LA  (normal  by  sex)**^ 


0      1 

LA  {normal  tot) 

SA(     FMtoL     i' 


Item  32: 

Med. 

Mean       SD 

M: 

1.67 

1.60 

F: 

1.93 

1.90         .46 

D: 

-.30 

Walks  upstairs  unassisted. 

CR  Med.     Mean 


N 

FM 

D 


1.81 
.70 


1.75 
.78 
.97 


SD 
.45 

.77 


CR 


4.75 


This  item  requires  that  the  S  go  upstairs  without  help  and  without 
watchful  protection.  It  also  requires  that  the  S  walk,  rather  than  creep  or 
go  on  "all  fours,"  since  such  maneuvers  usually  require  oversight.  However, 
if  the  S  habitually  creeps  or  otherwise  goes  upstairs  with  consistent  safety 
and  without  supervision,  plus  scoring  may  be  allowed.  He  may  hold  to  the 
banister  or  the  wall,  but  not  to  a  person,  and  may  take  two  steps  to  a 
tread.  The  significance  of  the  item  for  our  purposes  is  that  the  S  receives 
no  assistance  in  going  upstairs,  not  only  from  the  motor  standpoint,  but 
more  particularly  with  reference  to  the  responsibilities  involved  as  to  safety 


Locomotion 


1.37 


and  also  as  to  the  increasing  range  of  the  environment  and  the  consequent 
reduction  of  supervision  in  that  environment.  It  is  to  be  assumed  that  the 
stairs  are  of  appreciable  length,  say  a  minimum  of  five  or  ten  treads  (for 
porch  stairs).  In  the  case  of  one-story  abodes,  going  up  and  down  porch 
steps  alone  may  be  taken  as  equivalent  success.  Here  the  number  of  steps 
would  be  smaller,  but  the  hazards  presumably  somewhat  greater  than  from 
first  to  second  floor. 


Item  45.  (LA  3.23)  Walks  downstairs  one  step  per  tread. 


Walking-  downstairs  is 
both  more  difficult  and  more 
hazardous  than  walking  up- 
stairs. The  motor  difficulty  is 
increased  and  the  social  com- 
petence assured  by  the  re- 
quirement that  the  S  employ 
one  step  per  tread. 


This  performance  ma- 
tures normatively  for  all 
but  a  few  subjects  be- 
tween the  third  and  fifth 
years  of  life.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .25 
years  in  favor  of  the 
boys,  CR  .50.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  3.23  years, 
SD  1.07. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  an  advantage  of 
1.03  years,  CR  2.24,  over 
the  normative  S's  in  SA 
versus  LA  intervals.  The 
delay  in  feeble-minded 
performance  at  S A  3-4  is 
not  readily  explainable. 


7^ 

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Item 

45 

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LA  (norma!  tot.) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Item  45: 
Med.    Mean 
3.30       3.10 
3.77       3.35 
-.25 


Walks  downstairs  one  step  per  tread. 
SD        CR  Med.     Mean 


1.05 
1.07 


.50 


N 

FM 

D 


3.61 
1.50 


3.23 
2.20 
1.03 


SD 
1.07 
1.70 


vis 


2.24 


138 


Item  Specification 


The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  freely  walks  downstairs  without  help  and 
without  protection  taking  one  step  per  tread.  If  the  S  habitually  takes  two 
steps  per  tread  with  consistent  safety  not  requiring  oversight,  plus  scoring 
may  not  be  allowed.  (Two  steps  per  tread  appears  to  be  an  intermediate 
stage  for  this  item  which  did  not  yield  satisfactory  scoring  on  the  criterion 
of  habitual  performance  over  a  sufficiently  protracted  time  period.)  He  may 
hold  to  the  banister  or  wall,  but  not  to  a  person. 

As  for  other  items,  the  performances  on  this  item  and 
Item  32  should  be  accustomed  rather  than  infrequent  but  may- 
be confined  to  familiar  environments.  We  may  note  again  that 
going  downstairs  two  steps  per  tread  seldom  is  accompanied 
by  independent  assurance  of  safety.  Running  or  jumping  in 
this  performance  (not  to  mention  sliding  down  banisters)  are 
of  course  later  embellishments. 


Item  53.  (LA  4.70)  Goes  about  neighborhood  unattended. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  29,  with  responsibility  ex- 
tended to  larger  and  more  varied  areas.  Success  on  this  item 
reduces  the  need  for  immediate  supervision  by  elders  and  ex- 
pands both  the  geographic  limits  and  the  social  variables  within 
which  the  S  is  responsible  for  his  own  movements. 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

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d 

/ 

,•' 

;  j 

f 

^•^ 

F 

— » 

;/ 

tJ 

1 

/»- 

-M 

/ 
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f-*~ 

-N 

1 

1 

/ 

FM 

/ 

1 , 

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1 

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/ 

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ten 

53 

/ 

ten 

53 

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F: 


Item  53: 

Goes  about  neighborhood  unattended. 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

5.1©      4.95 

1.03 

N    :            4.93       4.70 

1.09 

4.77      4.45 

1.08 

FM:            4.08      4.58 

1.95 

.50 

1.00 

D    :                          .12 

CB 


.23 


Performance  on  this  item  shows  fairly  rapid  onset  during  the  fourth 
to  seventh  years  of  life  for  the  normative  S's.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.50  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  1.00.    The  mean  total  norm  is  4.70 

years,  SD  1.09. 


Locomotion  139 

Maturation  in  this  item  for  the  feeble-minded  S's  in  SA  groups  shows 
earlier  onset  but  individually  delayed  completion  (with  consequently  larger 
SD)  than  for  the  normal  S's.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .12  years  in 
favor  of  the  feeble-minded,  CR  .23.  This  result  may  be  influenced  positively 
by  the  more  advanced  life  ages  of  the  feeble-minded  and  negatively  by  the 
regimented  (institutional)  restraints  due  to  the  social  hazards  involved. 

For  purposes  of  scoring,  the  range  of  locomotion  may  be  restricted  as 
to  areas  or  deadlines;  also  the  S  receives  credit  even  though  he  might  be 
required  to  be  accoimtable  for  his  probable  whereabouts  or  activities.  Thus, 
the  S  might  be  warned  against  crossing  streets  or  going  in  particular  direc- 
tions because  of  the  dangers  involved,  but  would  be  relatively  free  from 
supervision  within  a  limited  area  outside  his  own  yard.  The  actual 
distances  traversed  need  not  be  great,  but  require  some  interpretation 
in  relation  to  the  nature  of  the  environment.  Thus,  in  a  city  or  large 
town  this  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  goes  about  within  the  area  of  his 
own  block,  whereas  in  more  open  districts  the  reasonable  limits  might 
be  farther  removed.  In  either  case,  the  area  is  to  be  thought  of  as  such 
that  the  S  is  within  relatively  easy  access  or  "on  call"  and  presumably 
would  not  be  removed  from  supervision  for  long-  or  indefinite  periods. 

This  item,  like  the  other  locomotion  items,  is  of  course 
somewhat  influenced  by  the  conduct  or  disposition  of  the  S, 
since  responsibilities  in  these  directions  might  serve  to  limit 
successful  performance.  Throughout  the  Scale  we  are  not  con- 
cerned with  conduct  directly,  but  if  conduct  limits  the  S's  re- 
sponsibility as  one  aspect  of  competence,  this  is  presumed  to 
be  reflected  in  the  degree  of  independence  he  might  exercise 
or  be  allowed  in  particular  activities.  Similarly,  specific  dangers 
in  a  particular  environment  should  be  evaluated  at  the  dis- 
cretion of  the  examiner. 

Note  that  whereas  boys  might  be  expected  to  excel  girls 
in  this  item  the  reverse  is  true  (by  a  small  and  statistically 
unreliable  difference).  This  suggests  that  whereas  boys  are 
more  venturesome,  their  initiative  may  outrun  their  social 
discretion,  and  vice  versa  for  the  girls. 

In  institutional  environments  "neighborhood"  must  be  de- 
fined locally  according  to  circumstances  and  should  constitute 
a  practical  equivalent  to  its  extra-institutional  concept  in  terms 
of  the  first  increase  of  "bounds"  beyond  Item  29  yet  prior  to 
Item  61.  Note  also  that  institutional  areas  of  whatever  extent 
presumably  afford  continuous  general  as  well  as  special  over- 
sight of  greater  or  less  degree.  However,  the  regimented 
restraints  of  institutional  environments  should  not  be  too 
superficially  disparaged  by  the  unsophisticated  examiner,  for 
institutional  confinement  is  evidence  per  se  of  difficulties  en- 
countered in  the  unrestrained  exercise  of  personal  freedom. 
Hence  both  plus  F  and  plus  NO  scoring  while  frequently  ap- 
plicable should  be  employed  with  sophisticated  candor. 


140  Item  Specification 

Item  61.  (LA  5.83)  Goes  to  school  unattended. 


This  item  is  an  obvious  exten- 
sion of  Item  53  and  carries 
similar  implications  but  larger 
scope.  "School"  here  denotes  any 
relatively  specific  or  familiar 
place  or  area  recurrently  visited 
on  the  S's  own  responsibility 
outside  the  immediate  neighbor- 
hood but  less  than  "home  town" 
(see  Item  77). 


The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  goes  either  alone  or  with  friends  to  par- 
ticular near-distant  familiar  points  without  someone  having  direct  charge 
of  him  (in  the  sense  of  being  responsible  for  him).  It  is  presumed  that  the 
S  will  go  appreciably  outside  the  limits  indicated  in  Item  53  but  not  so  far 
as  in  Item  77,  and  that  he  either  does  in  fact  cross  streets  and  cope  with 
other  (often  unforeseen)  situations  successfully,  or  has  in  comparable  cir- 
cumstances definitely  demonstrated  his  ability  for  doing  so.  There^  is  the 
further  assumption  as  in  all  locomotion  items  that  the  S's  conduct  is  such 
as  to  anticipate  no  unhappy  consequences. 


(ncrmal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) ' 


Item  61: 

Goes  to 

school  unattended. 

Med. 

Mean       8D 

CR 

Med.    Mean 

SD 

M: 

5.41 

5.65        .86 

N    :           5.66      5.83 

.98 

F: 

5.83 

6.00      1.06 

FM:            6.35       6.75 

2.03 

D: 

-.35 

.76 

D    :                        -.92 

CR 


1.78 


Locomotion 


141 


The  normative  maturation  on  this  item  is  rapid  in  the  sixth  and  seventh 
years  of  life.  The  individual  delays  in  success  may  represent  parental  solici- 
tude or  individual  differences  in  environment,  conduct  or  personality.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .35  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .76;  this  is  small 
in  amount  as  well  as  low  in  statistical  reliability,  suggesting  that  the  haz- 
ards for  girls  are  not  so  great  as  might  at  first  be  assumed.  (Note  that  this 
is  a  reversal  of  the  sex  trend  for  Item  53.)  The  mean  total  norm  is  5.83 
years.  SD  .98. 

The  normative  S's  excel  the  feeble-minded  by  a  mean  N-FM  difference 
of  .92  years,  CR  1.78.  The  relatively  large  SD  for  the  feeble-minded  S's 
reflects  chiefly  individual  differences  in  initiative  and  responsibility.  Among 
the  feeble-minded  of  more  advanced  mental  age  the  social  hazards  are 
increased  rather  than  decreased  because  greater  venturesomeness  is  not 
accompanied  by  correspondingly  greater  judgment.  Note  the  reversal  of 
the  N-FM  difference  for  Item  53.  This  may  in  part  be  due  to  the  interpre- 
tation of  "school"  in  the  institutional  environment. 

If  the  S  goes  to  school  (or  equivalent  point)  by  some 
public  conveyance,  it  is  assumed  that  he  is  responsible  for  his 
own  actions  from  the  time  he  leaves  the  house  (to  reach  the 
conveyance)  until  he  returns,  subject  of  course  to  such  normal 
safeguards  as  might  be  provided  for  children  in  general.  The 
item  therefore  involves  going  back  and  forth  more  or  less 
frequently  to  some  familiar  place  relatively  apart  from  the 
home  environment  and  relatively  independent  of  supervision. 


Item  77.    (LA  9.43)    Goes  about  home  totem  frei 


This  item  is  inter- 
mediate between 
Items  61  and  92.  It 
involves  an  extension 
of  the  environment 
to  rather  remote 
points  of  the  home 
district,  that  is,  be- 
yond the  familiar 
daily  surroundings 
and  to  other  than 
specific  points. 


142 


Item  Specification 


Such  minor  excursions  may  be  made  either  alone  or  with  friends,  but 
the  S  is  free  from  both  immediate  and  remote  supervision.  However,  he 
may  still  be  somewhat  restricted  as  to  areas  or  deadlines,  but  these  are 
such  as  to  permit  him  to  go  beyond  easy  call,  and  the  time  involved  in 
the  movements  is  extended  to  perhaps  a  half-day  or  longer.  There  is  also 
an  assumption  that  the  parents  or  others  who  may  be  responsible  for  the 
&  do  not  feel  unduly  concerned  for  his  safety  in  the  sense  of  imposing 
checks  on  his  movements. 

The  normative  standardization  shows  fairly  smooth  progression  ex- 
cept for  a  marked  lapse  jor  both  sexes  at  LA  10-11.  The  mean  M-F  difference 
is  .15  years  in  favor  of  the  ffirls,  CR  .21.  The  mean  total  norm  is  9.43 
years,  SD  1,55.  The  distributions  are  "awkward"  (p.  363)  for  both  sexes 
and  for  the  total  N,  with  correspondingly  dubious  medians. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  a  consistent  progression  in  SA  groups  up 
to  SA  11-12  which  is  the  highest  SA  group  for  which  at  least  ten  sub- 
jects of  each  sex  were  available  in  the  institutional  population  from 
which  these  subjects  were  obtained.  (This  is  the  first  item  thus  far 
discussed  which  does  not  approximate  maturational  completion  for  the 
feeble-minded  S's.)  Hence  a  comparison  of  either  mean  or  median  N-FM 
differences  is  not  possible.  The  average  decile  difference  (interpolated 
from  unsmoothed  data)  from  0  to  40  percentile  inclusive  is  about  1.5 
years  in  favor  of  the  normal  S's,  How^ever,  the  curves  are  divergent 
rather  than  parallel  with  an  average  decile  increment  of  difference  of 
about  .4  years  (estimated  from  the  divergent  slopes  of  the  curves).  The 
comparative  40-percentile  difference  is  about  2.3  years  (disregarding  the 
normative  lapse  at  LA  10-11).  The  estimated  median  difference  is  2.75 
years.  The  reliabilities  of  these  differences  (based  on  approximate  slopes) 
cannot  be  satisfactorialy  estimated. 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  the  fragmentary  data  (see  p.  73)  on 
this  item  beyond  SA  11-12  with  the  corresponding  data  for  Item  86 
(p.  129).  These  data  for  Item  77  are  as  follows:  92,5  per  cent  passes 
at  SA  12  (N  =  15),  92.5  per  cent  at  SA  13  (S  =  7).  83  per  cent  at 
SA  14  (N  =  6),  lOO  per  cent  at  SA  15  (N  =  4)  and  at  SA  16  (N=  5). 
However,  because  of  environmental  restrictions  many  of  these  upper  plus 

scores    are    based    on        

"+  NO"  and  "+  F"  per- 
formances within  the 
range  of  otherwise  "-1-" 
scores  (as  was  also  the 
case  below  SA  12  for  all 
FM  S's  except  one). 
When  these  data  are 
compared  with  those  for 
Item  86  the  curves  be- 
come fairly  comparable 
at  SA  12  and  beyond. 
However,  the  statistical 
calculations  for  Item  77 
are  unwarranted  in  view 
of  the  smaller  number  of 
S's  who  represent  super- 
ior attainment. 


% 

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Item  77:     Goes 

ahout 

home 

town  freely. 

Med.    Mean      SD 

CR 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

M: 

9.88?    9.50       1.54 

N    : 

10.01?    9.43 

1.55 

F: 

9.98?    9.35       1.56 

FM: 

. 

. 

D: 

.15 

.21 

D    : 

- 

CB 


Locomotion  143 

The  actual  distance  traversed  in  satisfying  this  item  may 
be  relatively  great  or  small,  dependent  upon  the  complexity  of 
the  environment.  Thus  in  a  large  city,  the  item  would  be  satisfied 
if  the  S  goes  about  only  certain  sections  of  his  home  town  rather 
than  the  entire  city,  whereas  in  the  rural  district  the  S  may  go 
about  the  remote  neighborhood.  In  either  case  he  might  even  be 
accompanied  to  "town,"  but  once  there  would  be  on  his  own 
responsibility.  The  word  "town"  is  therefore  to  be  construed 
as  an  extension  of  the  environment  to  include  unfamiliar  places 
not  too  distant  necessarily  in  point  of  mileage,  but  remote  in 
the  sense  of  removing  him  from  the  usual  early  surroundings 
and  introducing  him  to  non-specific  yet  not  too  strange  areas 
and  to  unforeseen  but  not  too  specific  contingencies. 

The  absence  of  appreciable  sex  difference  on  this  and  later 
locomotion  items  is  noteworthy  considering  the  presumptively 
greater  hazards  for  girls  approaching  and  during  adolescence. 
So  also  is  the  lapse  in  performance  for  both  sexes  on  this  item 
at  LA  10-11.  That  this  (and  minor  lapses  on  other  items)  is  not 
due  to  significant  differences  in  native  ability  in  the  successive 
LA  samples  is  evident  from  lack  of  consistent  lapses  on  other 
items  for  adjacent  LA  groups. 


Item  92.  (LA  15.85)  Goes  to  nearby  places  alone. 

This  item  is  intermediate  between  Items  77  and  96.  It  re- 
veals more  extended  distances  travelled,  a  lesser  degree  of  famil- 
iarity with  the  remote  environment,  a  longer  time  period  (for 
distance  traversed) ,  more  complicated  arrangements  to  be  made, 
greater  responsibility  involved,  broader  freedom  of  action,  and 
greater  resourcefulness  in  meeting  contingencies.  Again  depend- 
able conduct  must  be  construed  as  influencing  the  scoring  since 
limitations  in  these  regards  will  naturally  reduce  the  competence 
with  which  the  item  is  fulfilled. 

To  "pass"  the  item  the  S  more  or  less  frequently  and  readily  goes  be- 
yond the  limits  of  his  "home  town"  (as  defined  in  Item  77)  as  occasioim 
warrants.  It  is  rather  difficult  to  set  limits  as  to  the  distances  travelled, 
since  these  will  be  determined  in  part  by  the  complexity  of  the  environment 
and  the  modes  of  transportation  available.  Thus,  going  to  strange  or 
remote  portions  of  a  large  city  may  be  construed  as  equivalent  to  going  to 
a  somewhat  distant  but  familiar  town,  or  to  one  perhaps  nearer  but  less 
familiar  or  requiring  a  greater  degree  of  resourcefulness.  While  on  such 
"trips"  the  S  is  responsible  for  arrangements  and  contingencies,  not  merely 
following  explicit  directions  or  going  to  and  from  familiar  points.  If  accom- 
panied he  is  still  responsible  for  his  own  actions.  The  occasions  may  be 
major  or  minor,  and  the  S  may  or  may  not  "have  permission"  or  give 
notice  of  his  intentions.  In  short,  his  social  movements  are  relatively  un- 
hampered, but  their  scope  is  still  mildly  restricted. 


144 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  S's  show  fairly  rapid  and  consistent  maturation.  The 
boys  excel  the  girls;  the  former  reveal  a  maturational  lapse  at  LA  14  and 
the  latter  at  15.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.60  years  in  favor  of  the  boys, 
CR  1.65.  The  mean  total  norm  is  15.85  years,  SD  2.20. 


The  feeble-minded  sub- 
jects show  no  successes 
on  this  item  up  to  SA 
11-12,  the  upper  limit  of 
grouped  subjects  avail- 
able. Hence  the  nonna- 
tive  comparison  is  not 
possible.  Some  beyond 
SA  11-12  do  succeed  or 
obtain  plus  F  or  plus 
NO  scores,  but  the  data 
are  too  meaner  for  pre- 
sentation. Conceivably, 
the  feeble-minded  at 
largre  get  into  more  or 
less  trouble  when  per- 
forming this  item. 


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Item  92:    Goes  to  nearby  places  alone. 

CR 


1.65 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

15.50 

15.05 

2.14 

F: 

16.83 

16.65 

1.96 

D: 

-1.60 

Tot.: 

16.23 

15.85 

2.20 

Item  96.  (LA  18.05)  Goes  to  distant  points  alone. 


This  item  represents  the 
final  stage  in  locomotion  and 
is  to  be  considered  as  reveal- 
ing substantially  complete 
responsibility  in  going  nearly 
anywhere  without  limitation. 
In  other  words,  the  geographi- 
cal and  social  limits  contained 
in  Item  92  are  extended  to  al- 
most any  environment  with 
complete  responsibility.  Pre- 
sumably the  arrangements  re- 
quired, the  resourcefulness  in 
meeting  dangers  and  other 
details  are  now  beyond  need  of 
any  supervision. 


Locomotion 


145 


In  this  item  the  movent ents  may  be  to  specific  or  non-specific  points. 
They  may  involve  greater  distance,  staying  overnight,  loss  of  ready  con- 
tact with  the  home  environment,  broader  resourcefulness,  more  complex 
arrangements,  more  stable  conduct,  heavier  expenditures,  and  so  on.  The 
item  is  most  easily  defined  as  requiring  that  the  S  be  unrestricted  in  his 
movements  except  for  the  ordinary  considerations  and  courtesies  of  family 
or  friendly  living.  In  the  case  of  girls  a  companion  or  chaperone  may  ac- 
company the  S  (as  also  on  Item  92),  as  a  convention  or  to  protect  reputa- 
tion rather  than  to  assure  safety,  but  in  recent  years  such  discretion  has 
been  appreciably  relaxed  in  the  U.S.  environment. 


The  normative  progression  rises 
rapidly  between  LA's  16  and  20 
inclusive  with  a  lapse  for  the  boys 
at  LA  18  (or  anticipatory  peak  at 
LA  17).  The  mean  M-F  difference 
is  .60  years  in  favor  of  the  boys, 
CR  .88.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
18.05  years,  SD  1.47. 

Comment  on  the  feeble-minded 
subjects  is  the  same  as  for  Item 
92. 


ttilil^'u    \1     18    IS     20    21. 
LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


Item  96: 

Goes  to  distant  poir 

Med.    Mean      SD 

M: 

17.96?  17.75      1.52 

F: 

18.75     18.35      1.36 

D: 

-.60 

Tot.: 

18.72     18.05      1.47 

CB 


.88 


Summary.  The  items  in  this  category  afford  an  example  of 
the  manner  in  which  a  variety  of  performances  reveal  a  pro- 
gressive extension  of  substantially  the  same  area  of  behavior. 
The  expanding  horizon,  from  the  point  of  view^  of  social  getting 
about,  demands  increasing  responsibility  in  personal  conduct, 
conformable  behavior,  modes  of  transportation,  expenditures, 
resourcefulness,  cautions,  and  so  on.  As  these  items  increase  in 
difficulty  their  relation  to  other  items  of  the  Scale  is  readily 
apparent.  The  category  extends  from  early  infancy  to  early 
adulthood  and  in  itself  so  comprehensively  represents  successive 
degrees  of  social  competence  that  it  might  almost  be  used  alone 
as  a  brief  method  of  measuring  social  maturation.  In  general 
this  category  includes  one  of  the  most  obvious  and  satisfactory 


146  Item  Specification 

series  of  items  of  the  Scale  as  a  whole,  reflecting  as  it  does  more 
than  other  categories  the  increasing  complexity  in  extent  of 
social  performance  and  the  involvement  of  other  forms  of  social 
competence. 

The  particular  items  which  have  been  placed  in  this  cate- 
gory are  designed  to  emphasize  their  distinctive  value  for  sep- 
arate appraisal.  But  prerequisite  success  on  certain  stages  of 
locomotion  is  implicitly  assumed  for  many  item  performances  in 
other  categories. 

There  is  some  presumption,  regarding  which  we  have  no 
systematic  evidence,  that  there  might  be  some  difference  in 
locomotion  items  in  relation  to  social  class  or  according  to  the 
general  environm.ent  as  rural  or  urban. 

This  category  readily  illustrates  the  interview  principle  of 
proceeding  from  the  general  to  the  particular.  From  "To  what 
extent  does  the  S  go  about"  to  "Where  does  he  go"  and  "What 
or  how  does  he  manage"  and  then  to  specific  details  is  readily 
obvious. 

It  might  at  first  be  supposed  that  sex  diflferences  would 
affect  performance  on  these  items.  But  the  largest  normative 
sex  difference  is  only  1.60  years  (Item  92).  This  D  is  only  one- 
tenth  of  its  base,  and  its  CR  is  only  1.65.  All  other  mean  M-F 
differences  are  below  .61  years,  and  all  other  CR's  are  below 
1.01.  The  SD's  of  the  sex  distributions  are  also  small  and  seem 
not  to  be  seriously  affected  by  the  onset  of  adolescence  for  either 
sex. 

The  feeble-minded  comparisons  show  only  Item  32  with 
high  CR  (4.75) .  The  mean  N-FM  difference  for  this  item  is  only 
.97  years  (in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded)  but  this  is  numerically 
more  than  its  base  (.78  years) .  Item  45  shows  a  mean  difference 
of  1.03  years  (half  of  its  base) ,  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded, 
with  CR  2.24.  All  other  N-FM  comparisons  show  numerically 
low  and  statistically  unreliable  differences.  Three  of  them  (Items 
77,  92  and  96)  do  not  yield  central  tendencies  for  the  feeble- 
minded subjects  because  of  insufRcient  subjects  beyond  SA  11-12 
and  the  relative  difficulties  of  these  items  for  FM  S's.  Item  77 
yields  an  estim.ated  median  difference  of  2.75  years  (one  quarter 
of  its  base)  in  favor  of  the  normal  subjects  with  inferentially 
high  reliability. 

The  marked  and  progressively  divergent  comparative  re- 
tardation for  the  feeble-minded  subjects  on  the  more  advanced 
locomotion  items  is  only  partly  due  to  institutional  restraint.  As 
a  foster  parent  the  institution  imposes  such  restrictions  on  the 


Locomotion 


147 


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148  Item  Specification 

presumption  that  because  of  the  limited  social  discretion  certain 
degrees  of  locomotion  have  not  previously  been  performed  with 
habitual  success  or  presumably  now  would  not  be  successfully 
performed  if  regimentation  were  not  imposed. 

Note  that  some  (institutionalized)  feeble-minded  S's  pass 
each  item,  and  the  number  (proportion)  increases  consistently 
with  SA  progression.  This  indicates  that  envir'onmental  re- 
straint becomes  relaxed  when  performance  warrants,  and  this 
principle  applies  to  all  items  of  the  Scale.  Moreover,  "elopement" 
from  the  institution  is  quite  simple  (although  of  course  by  vari- 
ous means  discouraged),  and  is  indeed  successfully  accomplished 
in  a  certain  num.ber  of  borderline  cases.  The  events  usually  ex- 
perienced on  such  absences  only  confirm  the  need  for  restrictions 
on  such  movements.  Indeed,  the  general  willingness  with  which 
such  restrictions  are  ordinarily  accepted  by  the  feeble-minded 
is  one  significant  indication  of  the  mental  deficiency.  Hence  plus 
F  and  plus  NO  scoring  should  be  employed  skeptically  and  ob- 
jectively with  handicapped  S's  not  only  in  this  category  but  in 
others  where  like  considerations  obtain. 

The  actual  NO  and  F  scores  are  found  in  Table  10.  There 
are  few  such  scores  for  the  normative  S's  on  any  item,  and  few 
for  the  feeble-minded  on  the  lower  items.  Beyond  Item  45  the 
number  of  +N0  and  —NO  scores  increase  and  then  decrease 
(with  a  few  +F  scores  on  Item  61).  Items  61  and  77  show  the 
largest  number  of  NO  scores,  and  these  occur  in  the  upper  SA 
group.  Many  of  them  occur  within  the  range  of  otherwise  minus 
scores.  Hence  environmental  restraint,  while  present,  has  not 
seriously  aifected  these  results. 

Two  items  in  the  Self-Direction  category,  namely  Item  93 
(Goes  out  unsupervised  daytime)  and  Item  99  (Goes  out  nights 
unrestricted),  are  closely  related  to  the  Locomotion  categorj^. 
Other  Self -Direction  items,  such  as  Item  94  (Has  own  spending 
money).  Item  101  (Assumes  personal  responsibility),  and  Item 
98  (Has  a  job  or  continues  schooling)  have  other  relations  to 
Locomotion.  Such  correlation  of  items  in  general,  and  the  se- 
quences of  items  across  categories,  already  has  been  or  will  be 
clarified  elsewhere. 


Occupation  149 

Occupation 

So  little  makes  him  happy  when  he's  young; 
A  dog,  a  sled,  a  ball  and  bat,  a  gun, 
A  game  to  play  or  e'en  a  race  to  run. 
But  youth  has  vanished  as  a  tale  that's 

told; 
He  thrills  not  now,  save  in  the  quest  of 

gold; 
So  little  makes  him  happy  when  he's  old.        —The  Kalends 

For  most  people  social  competence  means  the  degree  of 
occupational  activity  or  the  kind  of  productive  v^^ork  in  which 
a  person  is  typically  engaged.  This  is  usually  evaluated  in  terms 
of  useful  or  gainful  employment.  But  v^e  have  already  observed 
that  total  social  competence  also  involves  the  extent  to  v^^hich 
the  individual  looks  after  his  immediate  personal  needs,  and 
moves  about  in  his  social  and  geographical  environment;  v/e 
shall  see  later  hov^  social  competence  also  includes  other  kinds 
of  activity. 

Successful  use  of  one's  time  at  any  age  is  clearly  related  to 
other  aspects  of  social  maturation  since  these  are  inevitably 
involved  in  such  pursuits.  Thus,  in  the  successive  stages  of 
occupational  activity,  we  observe  that  self-help,  locomotion, 
self-direction,  communication  and  social  participation  are 
intimately  interwoven,  and  without  their  harmonious  coordina- 
tion the  successful  expansion  of  occupational  activities  would 
be  seriously  restricted. 

Occupational  engrossments  thus  broadly  conceived  reveal 
a  genetic  evolution,  such  as  (1)  concentration  on  playful  activity 
in  infancy,  (2)  helping  at  minor  tasks  in  early  childhood,  (3) 
engaging  in  exploratory  creative  pursuits  in  early  adolescence, 
(4)  gainfully  (perhaps  sporadically)  working  for  others  in  late 
adolescence,  (5)  continuous  productive  employment  in  the  adult 
years,  and  (6)  finally  the  employment  or  supervision  of  others. 
In  treating  this  category,  therefore,  we  are  concerned  not  merely 
with  useful  work,  but  with  all  the  ontogenetic  stages  of  voca- 
tional engagements,  including  prevocational  and  avocational 
absorption.  Moreover,  the  mastery  of  scholastic  and  manual  arts 
in  the  late  grammar  grades  may  be  taken  as  equivalent  to  the 
novice  levels  of  gainful  work,  while  attendance  at  high  school 
and  college  may  substitute  for  apprentice  or  junior  levels  of 
skilled  trades,  business,  the  arts  and  professions.  Similarly, 
time  devoted  to  hobbies  constitutes  recreational  occupation 
which  corresponds  to,  or  may  even  become,  useful  productivity 
or  gainful  employment. 


150  Item  Specification 

For  present  purposes  we  must  not  be  misled  by  the  result- 
ing income  or  prestige  alone.  Nor  dare  we  become  too  involved 
in  the  details  of  occupational  skills  or  the  complexities  of  busi- 
ness and  professional  work.  We  must  avoid  also  the  adventitious 
nature  of  employment  as  reflected  in  personal,  economic  or  in- 
dustrial contingencies. 

Our  principal  concern  here,  as  in  other  categories  and  items, 
is  with  the  extent  to  which  occupational  pursuits  reflect  per- 
sonal independence,  individual  responsibility,  social  adjustment, 
specific  usefulness  or  general  self-sufficiency.  Some  forms  of 
work  involve  a  high  degree  of  self -direction  and  resourcefulness 
but  relatively  little  skill,  whereas  in  other  work  skill  may  be 
at  a  premium  and  responsibility  at  a  minimum.  Likewise  some 
relatively  simple  occupations  may  yield  large  returns  in  satisfac- 
tion, fame  or  fortune,  while  others  more  complex  may  com- 
mand few  such  emoluments.  Not  only  skill,  effort,  output  and 
remuneration,  but  also  related  conduct,  amount  of  supervi- 
sion required,  degree  of  responsibility  involved,  resourcefulness, 
adaptation,  educational  accompaniments,  and  the  like  must  be 
considered.  So  conceived,  this  category  extends  throughout  the 
entire  range  of  life  age  from  early  infancy  to  late  adulthood, 
and  evolves  from  childish  play  to  the  highly  skilled  arts  and 
professions,  or  from  simple  creative  interests  to  expert  trades, 
manufacture  and  commerce. 

The  22  items  in  this  category  extend  from  the  first  year  to 
the  superior  adult  reaches  of  the  Scale.  They  are  rather  evenly 
distributed  except  that  seven  items  are  above  the  average  adult 
score  (XXV+ ) .  There  are  3  items  at  Year  I,  2  at  II  and  at  VIII, 
and  1  each  at  0,  III,  IV,  V,  X,  XI,  XII-XV,  and  XVIII-XX. 
Some  serial  groupings  are  apparent  such  as  self-occupation 
(Items  7,  19,  22,  36,  43,  55,  57,  107),  helpful  tasks  (Items  24, 
48,  72,  89),  self -initiated  work  (Items  71,  80,  82,  108,  116), 
progressive  levels  of  adult  productivity  (Items  98,  106,  111,  113, 
114). 


Item  7.  (LA  .43)  Occupies  self  unattended. 

An  early  stage  of  occupational  activity  is  seen  when  the 
child  begins  to  amuse  himself.  This  practicable  self-sufficiency 
is  found  in  those  brief  periods  of  absorbed  attention  when  the 
child's  interest  is  stimulated  and  held  by  the  exploitation  of 
simple  objects.  When  so  engaged,  the  child  is  active  rather  than 
passive,  and  exercises  practical  interest  in  the  manipulation  of 


Occupation 


151 


simple  objects  and  the  exploration  of  their  uses  or  properties. 
He  does  sc  during  what  are  for  him  extended  periods  of  time, 
say  a  quarter  hour  or  longer,  without  need  of  attention  or  assist- 
ance. In  other  words,  the  child  can  be  left  to  himself  for  brief 
periods  during  which  he  is  not  demanding  attention,  but  is  look- 
ing after  his  spontaneous  desire  to  be  actively  engaged  at  some- 
thing. 

The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  frequently  plays  with  simple  objects  or 
engages  in  any  form  of  activity  which  is  not  harmful  or  destructive,  for 
brief  periods,  say  a  quarter  hour  or  longer,  without  need  of  oversight.  The 
item  is  not  satisfied  if  these  activities  are  simply  mischievous  or  of  such 
character  that  the  S  requires  watching,  for  even  at  this  early  stage  this 
activity  should  reflect  such  a  degree  of  responsibility  that  personal  attend- 
ance on  his  actions  is  not  continuously  required  when  the  child  is  not  rest- 
ing. 


Half  of  the  normative  S's  pass 
this  item  in  the  first  year  of  life 
and  all  in  the  second  year  and 
thereafter.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .05  years  in  favor  of  the 
girls.  The  mean  total  norm  is  .43 
years. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  de- 
layed maturation  in  SA  groups 
compared  with  the  normative  LA 
intervals  in  spite  of  their  mean  life 
age  advantage  of  about  15  years. 
The  mean  SA  norm  is  1.05  years, 
SD  .60.  The  mean  N-FM  difference 
is  .62  years. 


% 

/ 

F- 

/ 

j 

«-M 

J 

i 

Itea 

I   7 

0 

i    \ 

\      i 

L.. 

LA  (normal  by  sex)'i^ 


Item  7:  Occupies  self  unattended. 

Med.     Mean       SD         CR                          Med.  Mean 

M:                .41         .45            -                       N    :             .37  .43 

F:                 .33         .40           -                      FM:           1.05  1.05 

D:                              .05                        -           D    :  -.62 


FMtot 


SD 


CR 


.60 


We  may  observe  here  what  we  shall  return  to  later,  namely, 
that  in  self -initiated  occupational  and  social  participation  activ- 
ities the  feeble-minded  are  definitely  inferior  to  normals  of  the 
same  general  degree  of  ontogenetic  development.  This  is  in  spite 
of  persistent  stimulation  from  others,  for  even  if  such  stimula- 
tion is  effective  the  pursuits  are  not  self -sustained.  This  confirms 
the  common  observation  regarding  the  inertia,  or  low  energy 
drive,  or  low-motivated  complacency  so  characteristic  of  mental 
defectives  and  which  extends  even  to  the  so-called  subcultural 
normal  adult.  . 


152 


Item  Specification 


Item  19.  (LA  1.10)  Marks  ivith  pencil  or  crayon. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  7  involving-  more  specific  skill, 
more  specialized  concentration  to  a  particular  activity,  more 
purposeful  employment  of  materials,  a  more  permanent  out- 
come, and  a  more  advanced  stage  of  motor  coordination.  In 
formulating  the  item  we  have  employed  the  use  of  pencil  or 
crayon  on  the  assumption  that  these  are  rather  more  generally 
available  than  other  specific  objects.  Moreover,  the  motor  skill 
involved  is  also  somewhat  more  specific  and  the  item  can  there- 
fore be  held  within  a  definite  compass.  However,  this  item  should 
not  be  construed  literally  but  as  representative  of  other  equiva- 
lent activities,  such  as  stringing  beads,  or  arranging  blocks  Ir 
something  more  than  random  fashion,  if  the  environment  does 
not  provide  (or  permit)  pencil  or  crayon.  Hence  the  item  is  not 
considered  as  an  early  stage  of  the  communication  category. 

The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  occupies  himself  for  brief  periods,  say  a 
quarter-hour  or  longer,  in  something  more  than  mere  handling  of  objects, 
and  does  so  either  spontaneously  or  on  simple  suggestion  as  a  means  of 
self -occupation.  Little  emphasis  is  laid  on  the  useful  outcome,  but  the  man- 
ner of  performing  the  item  should  be  such  as  not  to  require  supervision, 
and  this  is  practically  indicated  by  the  fact  that  the  S  should  not  be  de- 
structive in  doing  so,  since  in  that  case  attention  and  supervision  are  pre- 
sumably necessary.  Thus,  whether  pencil  (or  crayon)  and  paper,  or  beads, 
or  blocks,  are  used,  the  result  may  be  only  a  form  of  occupation  in  respect 
to  which  the  operations  involved  should  not  require  immediate  oversight 
as  to  the  importunities,  difficulties  and  hazards  involved. 


This  performance  matures  rap- 
idly at  LA  1-2  for  the  normative 
S's.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .20 
years  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.10  years,  SD 
.33. 

As  in  the  previous  item,  the 
normative  S's  by  LA  excel  the 
feeble-minded  by  SA.  The  mean 
N-FM   difference  is   .70  years. 


1 

% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

/ 

/T 

t  t 

-F 

f 

1 
1 

F 
n 

1 

FM 

M- 

N- 

j 

1 

/' 

i 

1 

1 

1 

Iteji 

il9 

1 
1 

Iter 

il9 

1 

/ 

1 

1 

J; 

LA  (normal  by  3ex)i^     LA  (normal  tot)  ^ 
SA(     FMtot     )^ 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

1.00 

l.OO 

F: 

1.13 

1.20 

D: 

-.20 

Item  19:    Marks  xvith  pencil  or  crayon. 

SD         CR 
.34 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

N    : 

1.06 

1.10 

.33 

FM: 

1.88 

1.80 

- 

D    : 

-.70 

CB 


Occupation 


153 


This  item  seems  at  first  ill-advised  because  of  possible  lack 
(or  prohibition)  of  materials  and  the  difficulty  of  evaluating  ob- 
tainable information.  However,  although  these  data  reveal  no 
such  anticipated  difficulties,  they  may  sometimes  be  encounter- 
ed. And  although  the  item-caption  is  to  be  construed  as  including 
similar  equivalents,  these  are  not  easily  formulated.  Hence  this 
item  is  not  wholly  satisfactory  and  may  be  discarded,  or  a  sub- 
stitute prepared,  in  later  revisions  of  the  Scale  (see  Item  22). 


Item  22,  (LA  1.20)  Transfers  objects. 

A  characteristic  and  rela- 
tively spontaneous  form  of 
self -occupation  is  found  in  the 
child's  inclination  to  move  ob- 
jects from  place  to  place  in 
a  more  or  less  purposeful, 
though  not  necessarily  useful, 
manner.  This  is  seen  in  filling 
and  emptying  receptacles, 
pouring  from  one  vessel  to 
another,  arranging  random  ob- 
jects in  some  definite  pattern 
or  grouping,  employing  one 
object  as  a  means  of  transferring  another,  and  so  on.  In  its 
most  useful  form  the  S  may  do  this  as  a  simple  form  of  helping 
another  person  by  taking  specific  objects  as  indicated  and  "mov- 
ing" them  to  specifically  indicated  locations. 


This  performance  appears  nor- 
matively  in  the  second  year  of  life. 
The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .10 
years  in  favor  of  the  girls.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.20  years. 

Again  the  normative  S's  excel 
the  feeble-minded.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .65  years. 


PU 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

L 

,•-' 

■^ 

N 

y 

1 

/ 

H- 

-FIV 

/ 

f 

» 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

Iter 

1  22 

' 

_ 

LA  (itormal  by  sex)^ 

LA  (normal  tot 
SA  (     FM  tot 

Item 

22:     Transfers  objects. 

Med. 

Mean       8D 

CR                         Med. 

Mean       SD 

M: 

1.17 

1.25 

N    :           1.13 

1.20 

F: 

1.09 

1.15 

FM:            1.83 

1.85         .67 

D: 

.10 

D    : 

-.65 

CR 


154 


Item  Specification 


The  item  is  satisfied  if  these  activities  are  either  purposeful  or  playful 
in  character,  but  they  are  to  be  performed  in  such  a  manner  as  not  to 
require  immediate  supervision  and  assistance.  The  periods  of  such  pre- 
occupation are  generally  longer  and  more  frequent  than  for  Item  19.  The 
activity  may  be  self -initiated  or  suggested  but  is  maintained  without  con- 
tinued surveillance.  Purpose  or  outcome  may  include  arranging  objects  in 
some  formal  pattern  or  apparent  order. 

On  a  priori  grounds  this  item  is  preferable  to  Item  19,  al- 
though the  data  for  both  items  are  closely  similar.  Hence  if 
bead-stringing  and  block  patterns  are  employed  (instead  of 
marking  with  pencil  or  crayon)  for  Item  19,  these  should  be 
slightly  more  simple  than  for  Item  22  and  the  same  activities 
should  not  be  used  for  both  items. 


Item  24.  (LA  1.38)  Fetches  or  carries  farrJUar  objt  ts. 

Item  22  quickly  develops  into  Item  24,  in  consequence  oi  v.  h  we  find 
the  S  employed  in  some  small  measure  as  a  help^^r  in  perfo  .n.  <  simple 
errands  on  request  or  by  anticipation,  such  as  bnngin :,  rcmevjng  or 
transferring  objects  to  or  from  nearby  places,  or  carrying  s  pie  m^.^sa^es 
to  or  from  nearby  persons.  Such  performances  need  not  be  -.^  ed 
continuously  or  for  protracted  periods  at  a  time,  but  should  be  con-  it'v 
even  though  intermittently  evident. 


Nonnative  success  for  this  ac- 
tivity appears  between  LA's  1-3. 
The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .25 
years  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.38  years. 

The  normative  S's  surpass  the 
feeble-minded  by  a  mean  N-FM 
difference  of  .37  years.  This  differ- 
ence is  seen  as  more  significant  in 
direction  than  it  is  in  amount  or 
reliability  when  the  advantage  to 
the  feeble-minded  S*s  of  about  15 
years  of  age  and  the  associated 
stimulation  from  training  are  taken 
into  account. 


0     i     2     3     4... 
LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


)  1  2  3  , 
LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FMtot     ) 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Item  24: 
Med.    Mean 


1.17 
1.50 


1.25 
1.50 
-.25 


Fetches  or  carries  familiar  objects. 
8D         CB  Med.     Mean 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


1.30 
1.81 


1.38 
1.75 
-.37 


SD 


.45 


CR 


Occupation 


155 


Item  36.  (LA  2.03)  Initiates  own  play  activities. 

An  appreciably  higher 
stage  of  development  is  seen 
when  the  S  initiates  his  own 
play  activities  and  when  these 
are  of  a  somewhat  more  com- 
plex nature  than  those  pre- 
viously described.  Thus,  the  S 
now  finds  things  to  do  for 
himself  without  immediate  or 
direct  suggestion,  although 
indirect  suggestions,  hints  or 
the  situation  itself  might  be 
the  stimulus  to  such  pursuits. 

The  activities  themselves  may  be  relatively  simple,  such  as  drawimg 
or  "coloring  in"  with  pencil  or  crayon,  building  with  blocks,  dressing  dolls, 
looking  (by  himself)  at  books  or  pictures.  While  so  engaged  the  S  requires 
no  "looking  after"  and  consequently  is  presumed  not  to  be  mischievous  or 
destructive  or  to  engage  in  pursuits  which  might  be  harmful  or  dangerous. 
In  this,  as  in  other  items,  there  is  a  generalized  increase  not  only  in  the 
personal  responsibility  exercised  by  the  S,  but  also  in  the  complexity  of  the 
occupational  activity  itself  (as  compared  with  Items  7  and  19). 


Successful  normative 
performance  appears 
rapidly  and  consistently 
between  LA's  1-4.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is 
.25  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys,  CR  .64.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  2.03  years, 
SD  .83. 

The  feeble-minded  pro- 
fession in  SA  groups 
closely  corresponds  to 
■ihe  normative  LA  curve 
with  a  mean  N-FM  dif- 
ference of  .30  years  in 
favor  of  the  normal  S's, 
CR  1.19. 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 

1.83 

2.06 


Iteim 

Mean 

1.90 

2.15 

-.25 


36: 


LA  (normal  by  sex)** 


PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

rs 

r 

<a- 

*"•' 

f 

N- 

Ji 
■7^ 

/i 

iw 

■FM 

/ 

1 

1 

/' 

/' 

tem 

36 

y 

/ 

y 

9*^ 

I 

I 

J 

I 

>     i 

>... 

LA  (normal  tot) 


.78 

.86 


Initiates  own  play 
CR 


SA  (     FM  tot 

activities. 


.64 


N 

FM 

D 


Med. 

1.94 

2.23 


Mean 
2.03 
2.33 
-.30 


SD 
.83 

.73 


CR 


1.19 


Item  43.  (LA  2.88)  Cuts  with  scissors. 

Some  of  the  child's  play  is  inevitably  (though  often  unwit- 


156 


Item  Specification 


tingly)  destructive.  This  item  reflects  a  purposive  direction  of 
such  tendencies  into  constructive  channels.  However,  the  item 
is  not  altogether  satisfactory  because  of  the  specific  responsi- 
bility and  skill  required,  and  because  some  environments  do  not 
afford  (or  permit)  adequate  opportunity. 

To  pass  this  item  the  S  uses  blunt  scissors  for  cutting  paper  or  cloth. 
He  does  this  as  either  purposive  or  playful  occupation  with  safety  to  him- 
self and  without  destructive  consequences,  but  in  view  of  the  hazards 
and  temptations  involved,  there  may  be  some  intermittent  supervision  of 
the  activity.  The  skills  involved  are  of  a  higher  order  than  those  in  the 
previous  items,  and  the  hazards  somewhat  greater;  the  outcome  need  not, 
but  may  be,  useful.  Cutting  with  a  knife  as  in  whittling,  or  the  use  of 
equivalent  tools  involving  equivalent  skill  and  hazards  (e.g.,  painting  with 
water  colors),  might  be  substituted  for  use  of  scissors,  but  these  are  gen- 
erally more  difiBcuIt  and  not  readily  defined. 


Normative  success  ap- 
pears smoothly  between 
LA's  1-5.  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .15  years  in 
favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .30. 
The  mean  total  norm  is 
2.88  years,  SD  1.06. 

The  feeble-minded  in 
SA  g^'oups  show  delayed 
success  but  reach  the 
normative  performance 
at  SA  4-5.  The  mean 
N-FM  difference  is  .77 
years,  CR  2.68. 


% 

// 

f 

,-' 

'/ 

F-i 

■A 

/ 

'- 

-M 

f 

7 
// 

y 

; 

' 

[ten 

43 

/ 

rf< 

1 

0* 
LA  ( 

f'  i 

nori 

nali 

xH 

). . . 

0^  2^3  4 
LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) ' 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
2.83 
2.50 


Item  43:    Cuts  vnth  scissors. 
Mean      8D        CR  Med. 


2.95 

2.80 

.15 


1.17 
.94 


.30 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


2.67 
3.50 


Mean 
2.88 
3.65 

-.77 


-SD 
1.06 

.67 


CR 


2.68 


Although  this  item,  like  Item  19  and  perhaps  Item  55,  may 
seem  restricted  by  some  environmental  circumstances,  the  con- 
sistent data  for  both  normative  and  feeble-minded  S's  suggest 
that  this  is  not  really  the  case  except  as  environmental  control 
may  retard  but  not  prevent  outcome.  However,  the  likelihood  of 
limited  opportunity  must  be  considered.  In  such  instances  plus 
NO  scoring  may  be  resorted  to. 


Occupation 


157 


Item  48.  (LA  3.55)  Helps  at  little  household  tasks. 

This  is  an  extension  of 
Item  24  involving  more  diffi- 
cult operations,  more  persist- 
ent application,  wider  range 
of  performances,  more  useful 
outcome,  and  higher  degree  of 
responsibility  for  the  S.  These 
tasks  may  be  more  or  less 
equivalent  to  serious  play,  but 
they  have  a  utilitarian  value 
in  the  assistance  they  give  to 
others. 

The  item  is  defined  as  helping  in  small  ways  such  as  running  errands 
around  the  house,  picking  up  or  setting  things  to  rights,  helping  to  some 
extent  in  setting  or  clearing  the  table,  feeding  pets,  and  being  generally 
useful  in  minor  domestic  ways.  Equivalent  operations  may  be  done  outside 
the  house;  since  such  tasks  will  usually  be  more  diflScult  and  less  intrinsi- 
cally interesting  at  this  level  they  may  be  scored  accordingly  within  the 
intent  of  the  item.  The  S  is  not  required  to  perform  the  tasks  routinely 
(regularly)  but  rather  on  request  or  suggestion.  He  will  usually  show  inter- 
mittent initiative  or  spontaneity  rather  than  sustained  reliability. 

The  normative  matura- 
tion is  smooth  and  rapid 
between  LA's  2-6  years. 
The  mean  M-F  difference 
is  .30  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls,  OR  .63.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  3.55 
years,  SD  1.03. 

The  feeble-minded 
closely  approximate  the 
normative  successes  in 
SA  versus  LA  intervals. 
The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .15  years  in  favor 
of  the  feeble-minded,  CR 
.49. 


8         '  2    ,3     i      5     6~ 
LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot.     ) 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

3.39 

3.70 

1.11 

F: 

3.28 

3.40 

.93 

D: 

.30 

Item  48:    Helps  at  little  household  tasks. 

CR  Med.     Mean 


.63 


N 

FM 

D 


3.33 
3.21 


3.55 

3.40 

.15 


8D 
1.03 

.87 


CR 


.49 


Many  S's  show  sporadic  success  on  this  item  which  is  con- 
sequently sometimes  difficult  to  evaluate.  The  child's  interest  or 
initiative,  the  adult's  pressures  for  either  help  or  training,  the 
"nuisance"  rather  than  assistance  value  of  such  "help"  may 
prove  confusing  for  precise  scoring.  Such  saltatory  successes 


158 


Item  Specification 


may  usually  be  considered  as  emerg-ent  behavior  and  scored  ac- 
cordingly. NO  scoring  as  restricted  opportunity  or  limited  occa- 
sion (need  or  necessity)  should  therefore  be  used  sparingly. 


Item  55.  (LA  5.13)  Uses  pencil  or  crayon  for  drawing. 


This  is  a  refinement  of 
Item  19,  being  also  to  some  ex- 
tent present  in  Item  36.  Here 
the  product  is  more  "mature" 
and  more  realistically  identi- 
fiable. 


Normative  success  is  smoothly  apparent  between  LA's  4-7.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .55  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  1.41.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  5.13  years,  SD  .88. 

The  feeble-minded  show  similar  onset  but  delayed  fruition  as  com- 
pared with  the  normative  S's.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .82  years  in 
favor  of  the  normative  S's,  CR  1.88.  This  may  to  some  extent  be  explained 
by  loss  of  interest  on  the  part  of  the  older  feeble-minded  subjects  in  the 
more  advanced  SA  groups. 


% 

PU 

100 

90 
80 

JS 

r 

/ 

/ 

, 

,*' 

M- 

J 

/ 
J 

^-> 

/ 

•' 

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I 

r 

F 

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/ 

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FM 

■ 

60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

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Item  55: 

Use 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

M: 

4.86      4.85 

.80 

F: 

5.17       5.40 

.87 

D; 

-.55 

Uses  pencil  or  crayon  for  drawing. 
CR  Med.    Mean 


1-41 


N 

FM 

D 


5.02 
5.92 


5.13 
5.95 
-.82 


8D 

.88 

1.69 


CR 


1.88 


Occupation 


159 


Successful  performance  is  indicated  if  the  S  produces  readily  recog- 
nizable outlines  of  familiar  objects  such  as  a  man,  house,  tree,  animal  or 
scene  with  materials  equivalent  to  paper  and  pencil.  In  lieu  of  actual  draw- 
ings successful  detailed  or  di£Ferential  coloring  with  crayons  or  paints  may 
be  credited.  Another  acceptable  equivalent  is  the  modelling  of  objects  with 
pSastics  such  as  clay,  wet  sand  or  plasticine.  In  such  equivalents,  and  in 
use  of  water  colors,  finger  painting  and  the  like,  the  S  should  not  be  too 
"messy"  and  should  not  require  "cleaning  up  after." 

Some  envircmnents  discourage  the  use  of  pencils  or  crayons 
at  this  early  stage  because  of  apprehension  regarding  the  haz- 
ards or  annoyances  attending  such  use.  But  here  as  in  similar 
situations  such  restrictions  may  often  (though  not  alv/ays)  be 
well  advised  because  the  S  may  not  be  maturely  trustworthy. 
Hence  NO  scoring  should  not  be  resorted  to  uncritically. 


Item  57.  (LA  5.13)  Uses  skates,  sled,  wagon. 

This  item  might  better 
have  been  captioned  "Engages 
in  hazardous  play"  since  it  is 
designed  to  represent  those 
vigorous  forms  of  recreation 
which  involve  appreciable 
childish  risks.  Hence  the  per- 
formances involved  are  to  be 
considered  more  general  than 
the  caption  suggests.  While 
engaged  in  such  play,  the  in- 
dividual is  presumed  to  show 
due  care  for  the  attendant 
dangers.  The  item  is  to  some  extent  alternative  for  Item  55 
on  the  part  of  children  more  actively  inclined,  and  is  of  the  same 
mean  difficulty. 

The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  plays  on  or  with  such  "locomotor  aids" 
as  skates,  stilts,  scooter,  velocipede  and  like  "vehicles"  outside  his  own 
yard  but  within  a  more  or  less  restricted  neighborhood  area,  and  does  so 
with  due  caution.  Equivalent  forms  of  relatively  hazardous  piay  may  be  in- 
cluded, such  as  climbing  trees,  skipping  rope,  use  of  playground  apparatus., 
and  so  on.  While  the  S  may  have  an  occasional  accident,  he  should  be  con- 
sidered generally  "safe-worthy"  in  respect  to  the  ordinary  risks  likely  to 
be  encountered. 

The  normative  curves  show  rapid  progression  between  LA's  3-6  with 
some  scattered  individual  delayed  success  at  LA's  7-9.  The  mean  M-F  dif- 
ference is  .15  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  OR  .23.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
5.13  years,  SD  1.39. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  retarded  accomplishment  and  some  minor 
lapses  in  SA  versus  normative  LA  groups.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is 
1.55  years  in  favor  of  the  normal  S's,  OR  2.67.  The  SD  for  the  feeble- 
minded subjects  is  nearly  twice  that  for  the  normals.  These  differences 
may  reflect  a  specific  influence  of  the  more  advanced  life  ages  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  as  cessation  of  such  activities  without  permitting  plus  F  scor- 
ing or  equivalent  substitute  pursuits. 


160 


Item  Specification 


% 

/ 

Q 

/ 

Iten 

i57 

/ 

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f 

/; 

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1 

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M- 

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M: 
F: 
D: 


(normal  by  sex)* 


Med. 
4.70 
5.50 


Item  57: 


Mean 

s.es 

5.20 
-.15 


SB 
1.29 
1.47 


LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     )^' 

XJses  skates,  sled,  wagon, 

CR  Med.     Mean 


10    II. 


.23 


N 

FM 

D 


5.10 
7.11 


5.13 

6.68 

-1.55 


SD 
1.39 
2.12 


CR 


2.67 


Note  that  the  purpose  of  this  item  is  to  assess  trustworthi- 
ness at  vigorous  play  when  absorbed  attention  to  the  means  may 
prove  hazardous  through  relaxation  of  vigilance.  It  is  this  ob- 
servance of  safety  in  the  face  of  distraction  that  is  of  special 
importance.  Hence  the  kind  and  variety  of  play  are  critical  1>o 
the  item.  In  short,  the  item  is  somewhat  misleading  if  restricted 
to  mere  manipulation  of  some  play  vehicle  without  regard  for 
the  risks  attending  its  use. 


Item  71.  (LA  8.50) 


Uses  tools  or  utensils. 

During  the  preschool 
years  the  S  may  have  pounded 
with  a  mallet  or  hammer  and 
may  have  used  various  impro- 
vised crude  utensils  for  play. 
In  later  childhood  he  employs 
simple  tools  with  some  discre- 
tion and  skill  for  useful  or 
creative  ends.  These  ordinar- 
ily include  the  purposeful  use 
of  a  few  construction  tools 
such  as  hammer,  saw  or  screw 
driver;  kitchen,  household  or 
sewing  utensils;  and  perhaps 
garden  tools  such  as  rake  and 


Occupation 


161 


shovel.  Sex  differences  are  not  sharply  distinct,  although  there 
is  some  tendency  toward  preferential  masculine  or  feminine 
interests. 

This  item  is  passed  if  such  tools  or  utensils  are  employed  for  som« 
practical  purpose  such  as  repairing  or  making  simple  objects,  sewing,  cook- 
ing or  gardening.  The  S  is  presumed  to  have  some  practical  knowledge  and 
skill  in  the  simple  use  of  these  articles  even  though  the  resulting  product 
or  practical  outcome  may  be  relatively  crude. 

The  normative  curves  progress  rather  smoothly  between  LA's  6-12, 
with  a  lapse  at  LA  8  for  the  boys,  and  a  "pause"  at  LA  9  for  the  girls. 
The  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.10  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  1.38.  (Sex 
difference  in  kinds  of  tools  is  allowed  for  to  some  extent  in  the  alternatives 
of  the  definition.)  The  mean  total  norm  is  8.50  years,  SD  1.78. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  earlier  onset  in  SA  versus  normative  LA 
groups,  but  delayed  completion  of  maturation.  The  SA  validation  curve 
ceases  at  LA  11-12  with  95  per  cent  of  the  S's  successful.  As  for  Item  86 
(p.  129)  no  serious  error  is  introduced  by  assuming  complete  success  at 
SA  12-13  and  thereafter  (as  is  actually  the  case  for  the  fragmentary  data 
beyond  SA  11-12).  If  this  is  done,  the  mean  N-FM  difference  becomes  .85 
years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded,  CR  1.44.  Part  of  the  delay  in  final 
maturation  for  the  feeble-minded  subjects  is  possibly  due  to  restricted 
"occasion  for"  this  performance  in  relation  to  the  advanced  age  of  many 
of  these  subjects. 


% 

PLl 

100 

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4    1 

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SA  (    FM  tot. 


Item  71 

Ifed.    Utan      SD 

M: 

8.02?    7.95      1.66 

F: 

9.00?    9.05       1.72 

D: 

-1.10 

Uses  tools  or  utensils. 
CB 


1.38 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

N    : 

8.61 

8.50 

1.78 

FM: 

7.81 

7.65* 

1.86* 

D    : 

.85 

CR 


1.44 


*  100%  assumed  at  SA  12-13. 


162  Item  Specification 

Item  72.  (LA  8.53)  Does  routine  hoiLsehold  tasks. 


This  item  is  an  ex- 
tension of  Item  48  in 
that  more  continuous 
responsibility  is  car- 
ried for  routine  de- 
tails of  more  help- 
ful, yet  still  simple, 
domestic  work.  In 
difficulty  the  item 
corresponds  closely 
to  Item  71,  although 
different  in  content. 


To  pass  this  item  the  S  is  relied  upon  (without  need  of  undue  urging 
and  follow-up)  for  effective  help  at  simple  tasks  which  recur  routinely 
about  the  house  or  yard.  In  accomplishing  this  the  S  displays  some  con- 
tinning  responsibility  for  their  recurrent  fulfillment  (i.e.,  supervision  and 
follow-up  are  only  intermittently  necessary).  The  tasks  are  such  as  dust- 
ing, arranging,  cleaning,  washing  or  wiping  dishes,  setting  or  clearing  the 
table,  making  beds,  and  other  relatively  simple  or  assistant  "jobs." 

In  scoring  this  item  the  S  may  not  be  excused  for  frequent  laziness, 
carelessness,  incompetence  or  ■ndependability  in  the  performance  of  tasks. 
Although  incentive  and  training  are  difficult  to  take  into  account,  it  will 
be  evident  that  they  may  be  particularly  significant. 

The  normative  maturation  occurs  between  LA's  5-11.  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .85  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .96.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  8.53  years,  SD  1.93. 

The  feeble-minded  show  markedly  earlier  success  and  more  rapid  mat- 
urational  acceleration  than  the  normative  S's.  The  mean  N-FM  difference 
is  2.28  years,  CR  4.45.  This  is  one  of  the  few  relatively  large  and  statis- 
tically reliable  N-FM  differences.  While  this  result  may  reflect  environ- 
mental stimulation  and  training  in  tasks  easily  performed,  note  that  such 
an  effect  is  evident  for  only  a  few  items  (Table  9-A). 


Occupation 


16S 


% 

/ 

/ 

^ 

•- 
/ 

-/ 

F 

/ 

/ 

\ 

•- 
1 

1 
-• 

/ 

-M 

1 
1 

y 

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1 

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La  (norma!  totj 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

9.50 

8.95 

1.72 

F: 

7.38 

8.10 

2.03 

D: 

.85 

SA  (     FM  tot     ) 

Item  72:     Does  routine  household  tasks. 
CR 


CE 


.96 


Med.  Mean  SI 

N    :            8.67  8.53  1.93 

FM:            6.10  6.25  1.14 

D    :  2.28                    4.45 


The  comment  for  Item  48  (p.  157)  is  equally  relevant  here. 


Item  80.  (LA  10.90)  Does  small  remunerative  work. 


This  item  is  an  ex- 
tension of  Item  72  in 
regard  to  helpful 
tasks  and  of  Item  71 
as  to  self-initiated 
work.  It  is  a  forerun- 
ner of  more  serious 
types  of  gainful 
occupation  or  employ- 
ment. The  item  is 
rather  difficult  to  de- 
fine, however,  because 
of  its  relation  to  the 
circumstances  of  the 
environment,  and 
especially  in  relation 
to  work  done  as  fa- 
milial cooperation, 


Such  work  withm  some  families  is  considered  as  implicit  duty, 


164 


Item  Specification 


whereas  in  other  families  cash  payments  are  made.  Hence  at  this 
level,  work  within  the  family  often  takes  the  place  of  work  out- 
side the  family,  or  at  least  is  equivalent  to  it,  and  the  "pay" 
received  may  be  in  satisfactions  other  than  cash. 

In  defining  the  item,  therefore,  we  are  concerned  with  early  stages  of 
"work"  which  merit  payment  of  some  appreciable  sort;  which  are  reflected 
in  occasional  or  intermittent  efifort  on  the  S's  own  initiative;  which  are 
performed  within  the  household  or  about  the  neighborhood;  and  for  which 
some  small  returns  (cash  or  other)  are  paid  or  might  properly  be  paid. 
Such  work  may  include  odd  jobs,  housework,  gardening,  caring  for  chil- 
dren, sewing  or  cooking,  selling  magazines  or  simple  products,  carrying 
newspapers,  acting  as  messenger,  and  other  activities  of  similar  nature. 

In  respect  to  work  within  the  household,  this  item  falls  be- 
tween Items  72  and  89.  In  relation  to  Item  72,  the  tasks  are  as- 
sumed to  go  beyond  the  simpler  forms  of  family  helpfulness  and 
to  involve  those  "extras"  for  which  the  family  might  have  to 
pay  or  be  willing  to  pay  if  performed  by  some  one  outside  the 
family.  Such  work  should  not  be  merely  trivial,  or  should  not 
be  paid  for  just  as  a  matter  of  sentiment  or  encouragement,  but 
should  represent  the  first  stages  of  gainful  employment. 

It  has  proved  ratlier  difficult  to  score  this  item  because  of 
environmental  and  personality  variables,  and  this  is  reflected  in 
the  maturation  curves.  In  rural  environments  the  item  may  be 
satisfied  by  assistance  in  simple  farm  work;  in  urban  environ- 
ments various  forms  of  street  work  such  as  shining  shoes,  tend- 
ing stands,  or  making  one's  self  generally  useful  will  serve ;  in 
some  industrial  environments  part-time  juvenile  employment  of 
various  sorts  may  be  accepted. 


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n 

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Item  80:     Does  small  remunerative  work. 
Med.     Mean       8D         CR  Med.     Mean       SD         CB 


M:  10.00  ?  10.10      2.03  N 

F:  1J..30    11.70      2.46  FM 

D:  -1.60  1.51        D 


10.94     10.90      2.39 
10.03 


Occupation 


165 


The  normative  boys  progress  rather  steadily  from  LA  7  to  LA  11, 
but  show  a  scattering  of  individual  failures  thereafter  up  to  LA  16.  The 
girls  show  only  scattered  successes  before  LA  11,  then  progress  rapidly  to 
LA  14,  with  a  lapse  at  LA  15.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.60  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys,  OR  1.51.  The  mean  total  norm  is  10.90  years,  SD  2.39. 

Individual  feeble-minded  S's  succeed  at  SA's  6-8;  thereafter  the  valida- 
tion curve  rises  rapidly  up  to  SA  10,  but  falls  slightly  at  SA  11,  which  is 
the  highest  SA  item  validation  group  available.  Hence  a  satisfactory  SA 
mean  cannot  be  calculated.  Within  its  span  the  validation  curve  closely 
approximates  the  curve  for  the  normative  S's.  Median  success  for  the 
feeble-minded  S's  is  calculated  at  SA  10.03  years,  whereas  the  normative 
median  is  10.94  years.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  100 
per  cent  of  passes  at  SA  12  (N  =  15)  and  SA  13  {N  =  7),  83  per  cent  at  SA 
14  (N  =  6)  and  100  per  cent  at  SA's  15  (N  =  4)  and  16  (N=5). 

Although  this  item  is  important  and  readily  defined,  some 
difficulty  is  encountered  in  obtaining"  thoroughly  satisfactory 
information  for  scoring  because  of  variability  in  environmental 
situations.  In  these  days  of  "softer"  •  economic  conditions,  of 
reduced  parental  pressures,  and  of  legislation  which  limits  the 
earning  pursuits  of  children  and  youth,  one  is  tempted  to  specu- 
late on  the  effect  of  the  times  on  this  item.  One  might  also  moral- 
ize on  the  effect  of  such  reduced  social  incentives  on  later  occupa- 
tional effectiveness.  Does  the  current  benevolent  solicitude  for 
children's  welfare  aid  or  hinder  their  later  adjustments  to  life's 
occupational  desirabilities?  Or  does  it  by  lack  of  social  encour- 
agement frustrate  the  assuming  and  later  fulfillment  of  social 
responsibilities? 


Item  82.  (LA  11.25)  Does  simple  creative  ivork. 


This  is  an  extension  of 
Item  71,  and  in  some  respects 
has  a  relation  to  Item  80.  Here 
the  use  of  tools  or  utensils  is 
assumed  to  result  in  more  ma- 
ture products,  such  as  simple 
repair  w^ork,  or  simple  con- 
structive activity  of  a  rather 
original  nature.  The  relation 
to  Item  80  derives  from  both 
the  self -initiated  aspect  of  the 
work  done  and  its  possibly  re- 
munerative value.  The  out- 
come in  either  case  may  be 
only  the  prototype  of  socially 
more  valuable  contributions. 


166 


Item  Specification 


This  is  reflected  in  such  household  tasks  as  self -initiated  cooking,  bak- 
ing, sewing,  mending;  or  about  the  place  in  simple  repair  work,  construc- 
tion,_  gardening,  raising  of  pets;  or  in  more  intellectual  pursuits  in  the 
writing  of  simple  stories  or  poems,  or  the  production  of  simple  paintings  or 
drawings.  The  important  feature  of  this  item  is  its  creative  aspect  as  con- 
trasted with  routine  occupational  or  industrial  pursuits.  There  is  conse- 
quently involved  some  personality  element,  since  it  will  be  observed  that 
some  individuals  tend  toward  routine  activities,  whereas  others  tend  toward 
the  more  independent  or  creative  occupations. 

The  normative  progression  in  this  performance  is  gradual  and  some- 
what irregular  from  LA  7  to  LA  18.  This  is  reflected  in  the  rather  high 
SD*s.  The  ogives  by  sex  are  closely  similar  with  several  crossings.  The 
curve  for  the  boys  shows  delayed  completion  between  LA's  12-18  with  a 
noticeable  lapse  at  LA  15.  Sex  difference  in  type  of  activity  is  allowed  for 
in  the  alternatives  of  the  definition.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .10  years 
in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .06.  The  mean  total  norm  is  11.25  years,  SD  3.29. 

The  success  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  closely  follows  that  of  the  norma- 
tive S's.  The  FM  curve  is  incomplete  beyond  SA  11-12,  with  SA  means  con- 
sequently not  calculable.  The  median  N-FM  difference  is  .54  years  in  favor 
of  the  normative  S's.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  80  per 
cent  at  SA  12  (N  =  15),  86  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N  =  7),  and  100  per  cent 
thereafter  (N  =  6,  4  and  5  at  SA's  14,  15  and  16  respectively). 


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Item  82:     Does  si'inple  creative  work. 


Med.    Mean 

SD 

VR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

10.10?  11.20 

3.36 

N    : 

10.36 

11.25 

3.29 

F: 

10.25     11.30 

3.23 

FM: 

10.90 

- 

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D: 

-.10 

M 

D    : 

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CB 


Comment  on  this  item  is  not  the  same  as  for  Item  80  since 
the  emphasis  here  is  on  activity  rather  than  value,  whereas  in 
Item  80  this  emphasis  is  reversed.  The  delayed  normative  mat- 
uration probably  reflects  personality  differences  but  may  be 
due  to  lack  of  environmental  incentive. 


Occupation 


167 


Item  89.  (LA  14.65)  Perfonns  responsible  routine  chores. 

This  is  an  extension  of 
Items  72  and  80.  At  this 
level  the  work  requires  more 
responsibility  because  of  its 
recurrent  nature,  and  because 
the  tasks  involved  are  per- 
formed with  little  or  no  direc- 
tion. The  work  is  also  more 
serious  and  more  varied;  al- 
though routine  in  character 
it  requires  judgment  and 
resourcefulness.  It  may  be 
performed  within  or  outside 
the  family,  and  from  the  point 
of  view  of  meriting  payment 
is  at  a  higher  level  than  Item 
80. 


Typical  examples  include  household  tasks,  family  chores,  gardening, 
farm  work,  miscellaneous  jobs,  or  industrial  work.  It  is  important  that  the 
S  reveal  responsibility  for  continuously  performing  (with  only  occasional 
instruction,  urging  and  oversight  after  the  initial  stages  of  effort)  the 
somewhat  variable  routine  tasks  assigned  to  him. 


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Item  89: 

Perfor 

ms  responsi'bJe 

routine  chores. 

Med.     Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med.     Mean 

SD 

M: 

13.83     14.50 

2.68 

N     : 

14.14     14.65 

2.36 

F: 

15.06  ?  14.80 

1.97 

FM: 

11.07 

- 

D: 

-.30 

.27 

D    : 

. 

CR 


The  normative  maturation  occurs  between  LA  11  and  LA  19.  There  are 
minor  lapses  for  the  girls  at  LA  12  and  LA  15,  a  downward  trend  for  the 
boys  at  LA's  15  and  16,  and  delayed  completion  for  both  sexes  at  LA's 
17-19.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .30  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .27. 
The  mean  total  norm  is  14.65  years,  SD  2.36. 


168  Item  Specification 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  earlier  onset  and  more  rapid  initial  rise 
than  the  normal  subjects,  but  the  validation  curve  is  incomplete  beyond 
SA  11-12.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  67  per  cent  at  SA 
12  (N  =  15),  57  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N  =  7),  75  per  cent  at  SA  14  (N  =  6), 
100  per  cent  at  SA  15  (N  =:  4)  and  60  per  cent  at  SA  16  (N  =  5).  The 
median  N-FM  difference  is  3.07  years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded. 

It  is  tempting  to  infer  that  the  relative  superiority  of  the 
feeble-minded  S's  is  due  to  environmental  pressure  directed  to- 
ward useful  tasks,  or  to  advanced  LA,  but  this  ignores  the  lack 
of  corresponding  advantages  in  other  item  performances. 


Item  98.  (LA  18.53)  Has  a  job  or  continues  schooling. 

This  continues  Item  89  to  a  higher  level  Vv^here  the  work  is 
done  as  fairly  continuous  full-time  employment,  usually  for 
wages,  at  common  labor  or  slightly  skilled  occupations.  The  item 
takes  reasonable  account  of  the  variable  conditions  of  employ- 
ment, but  assumes  that  under  ordinary  conditions  the  S  will 
maintain  work  on  his  own  initiative.  The  item  also  recognizes 
in  view  of  (1)  recent  legislative  restrictions  to  employment  be- 
cause of  age  and  sex,  and  (2)  the  marked  rise  in  the  age  of  com- 
pulsory attendance  at  school,  and  (3)  the  conditions  favorable 
to  voluntary  continuation  of  school  beyond  the  high  school  age 
and  level  (all  in  the  United  States),  that  continued  school 
attendance  beyond  senior  high  school  (junior  college,  business 
school,  trade  or  technical  school,  normal  school,  college,  and 
so  on)  may  be  accepted  in  lieu  of  (other)  steady  employment. 

Some  elaboration  of  the  variables  which  make  it  difficult  to 
more  precisely  define  the  adult  items  related  to  occupational  em- 
ployment is  offered  in  the  summary  for  this  category  (pp.  180- 
184).  That  discussion  includes  some  general  principles  which 
should  be  considered  in  relation  to  the  particular  specifications 
of  these  more  advanced  activities.  Further  assistance  is  found 
in  the  general  summary  for  this  chapter  (pp.  259-265). 

As  to  gainful  work,  success  on  this  item  assumes  fairly  regular  self- 
sought  employment  which  either  yields  or  merits  remuneration  in  cash  or 
equivalent  emoluments  in  relatively  unskilled  or  semi-skilled  jobs.  These 
include  common  laborers,  routine  farm  workers,  factory  and  construction 
operatives,  trade  helpers,  minor  clerks,  servants,  routine  houseworkers, 
and  in  general  occupations  below  those  required  for  Item  106.  These  occu- 
pations may  be  described  (1)  as  those  included  in  occupational  grades  5 
and  6  of  standard  occupational  scales,  or  (2)  as  the  apprentice  or  sub- 
Journeyman  level  of  semi-skilled  trades.  The  examiner  will  need  to  make 
due  allowance  for  unemployment  due  to  genuine  lack  of  work  opportunity 
rather  than  to  occupational  incompetence,  perhaps  utilizing  F  or  NO  scor- 
ing. It  is  impracticable  to  specify  the  degree  of  remuneration  since  this 
fluctuates  markedly  with  time,  place,  and  type  of  work,  and  demand. 


Occupation 


169 


The  normative  curves  rise 
sharply  from  LA  17  to  LA  20  with 
a  minor  "plateau"  at  LA  18.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .25  years 
in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .44.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  18.53  years,  SD 
1.20. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  no 
successes  on  this  item  up  to  SA  11- 
12.  Nor  are  there  any  successes  be- 
yond this  limit  in  the  total  VTS 
sample,  which  includes  only  insti- 
tutionalized subjects  most  of  whom 
presumably  could  not  hold  an  in- 
dependent steady  job  satisfactorily 
in  the  world  at  large.  They  are  also 
incapable  of  continuing  schooling 
beyond  high  school. 


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LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


I  98: 

Has  a  jol)  or  con 

tinues 

Med.    Mean 

SD 

M: 

18.9t>    18.65 

1.02 

F: 

18.13  ?  18.40 

1.36 

D: 

.25 

Tot.: 

18.86     18.53 

1.20 

CR 


.44 


It  may  be  noted  that  many  feeble-minded  S's  outside  insti- 
tutions are  gainfully  and  often  satisfactorily  employed  in  spite 
of,  and  without  contradicting,  their  mental  deficiency.  This  is 
evidence  that  occupational  pursuits  alone  do  not  insure  social 
competence  amounting  to  essential  normality,  nor  does  lack  of 
employment  alone  reduce  normal  social  competence  to  feeble- 
minded limits. 

Some  institutional  mental  defectives  are  excellent  workers 
and  either  merit  or  actually  receive  remunerative  emoluments. 
But  this  fact  does  not  warrant  a  plus  score  on  this  item  since 
such  S's  are  not  maintaining  their  employment  independently. 
Specific  evidence  on  these  issues  is  reported  by  Ordahl,  Keyt  and 
Wright  (p.  558). 

The  detailed  distribution  of  all  the  normative  plus  scores  on 
this  item  were:  (1)  for  males,  5  attending  school  beyond  high 
school,  61.5  in  general  occupations,  34.5  in  trade  jobs,  and  25  in 
clerical  work;  (2)  for  females,  5  attending  school,  60.5  in  gen- 
eral occupations,  27  in  trade  jobs,  and  36  in  clerical  work.  The 
scores  were  generally  unaffected  by  LA  except  that  those  at- 


170  Item  Specification 

tending  school  were  all  below  LA  24  years.  The  plus  scores  for 
"general  occupations"  for  female  S's  included  19  as  housewife, 
not  including  23  additional  on  Item  106  (q.v.). 

Some  difficulty  will  be  encountered  in  evaluating  grade  of 
work  in  relation  to  occupational  titles.  The  spread  in  type  of 
work,  degree  of  skill,  responsibility  and  knowledge  is  rather 
wide  for  each  of  three  items  (98,  106  and  114)  employed  for  this 
purpose  in  this  scale.  Thus  "farmer"  may  mean  anything  from 
the  odd- jobs  farm  hand  to  independent  farm  manager  on  a 
large  scale.  "Teacher"  may  range  from  routine  elementary 
instruction  to  professional  research  supervision.  "Secretary" 
might  include  duties  from  appointment  clerk  through  file  clerk, 
typist,  stenographer,  senior  clerk  stenographer  to  high-grade 
business,  professional  or  editorial  duties.  A  "carpenter"  may  be 
a  hatchet-and-saw  helper,  journeyman  specialist,  contract  car- 
penter, cabinet-maker,  or  designer.  The  examiner  must  be  fairly 
conversant  with  these  wide  ranges  of  occupational  talent  as 
represented  in  standard  occupational  scales  in  order  to  assign 
proper  evaluation  scores  in  a  given  case.  Even  when  this  is 
clear,  the  range  from  bare  plus  to  abundant  plus  on  a  given 
item  will  be  wide,  and  doubt  will  be  experienced  in  deciding 
whether  a  given  score  should  be  a  high  plus  at  a  low  level  or  a 
low  plus  at  a  higher  level  (e.g.,  a  high-plus  housewife  on  Item 
98  versus  a  low-plus  household  manager  on  Item  106). 

School  mortality  statistics  indicate  that  even  under  today's 
favorable  conditions  less  than  a  third  of  those  who  enter  school 
graduate  from  the  12th  grade.  Probably  less  than  a  third  of 
these  (or  about  ten  per  cent  of  those  of  college  age)  continue 
schooling  beyond  high  school.  In  our  normative  sample  only  10 
subjects  of  all  those  who  were  scored  plus  on  this  item  were  so 
scored  on  the  schooling  alternative.  Five  of  these  were  boys 
under  LA  24  and  five  were  girls  under  LA  22  years,  with  not 
more  than  two  subjects  at  any  one  age  and  sex.  Hence,  this 
alternative  is  less  important  than  might  at  first  be  expected. 
And  in  spite  of  the  extreme  range  of  individual  occupations,  no 
difficulty  was  encountered  in  scoring  this  item  within  its  rather 
general  form  of  definition. 

Item  106.  (LA  about  25)  Performs  skilled  work. 

This  item  is  similar  to  Item  98,  but  at  a  higher  level. 

The  grade  of  work  is  represented  by  the  journeyman  level  of  skilled 
occupations,  including  trade  technical,  skilled  clerical  and  minor  profes- 
sional occupations,  and  the  minor  degrees  of  supervisory  work. 

These  occupations  are  represented  by  classes  3  and  4  of  standard  occu- 
pational scales  and  include  such  workers  as  skilled  oflSce  clerk,  skilled  ar- 


Occupation 


171 


ff^^'  K!«^^  teacher,  trained  nurse,  independent  farmer  (as  contrasted  with 
farm  hand),  small  merchant,  shop  foreman,  department  supervisor  and 
those  superior  grades  of  housework  which  might  be  designated  as  hou"e. 
hold  manager  (as  contrasted  with  simple  housework).  These  occupations 
fTfjJn  \^°'fi  '"  ^**"!,l^-  «"d  ^^1«^-  those  of  Item  114.  It  is  impracUcaWe 
inl.  •  •/*  fi"r.ff^*'^*'°"^  ^'^'^^^^^  *>^  th«  variable  work  encompassed 
under  similar  job  titles  (see  comment  on  Item  98).  In  lieu  of  such  gainful 
employment,  the  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  is  successfully  attending  upner 
class  courses  of  standard  college  curricula  that  are  beyond  junior  college 
oi  beyond  the  sophomore  year  of  a  standard  four-year  college  course 


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.^^-  ^^}^  ^^}^^  ^^!*  ^t^™  thus  far  discussed  for  which  the  normative  stand- 
ardization does  not  reach  or  maintain  100  per  cent  of  success  (see  Item  102 

f^J^Ll^'^S'i!;'"^  11""^  '"^  *^^  ^?^^^  ^^  ^  ^hole).  Hence  we  must  resort  to 
r^.^n^n  ^^Jher  than  conventional,  statistical  interpretations  (see  di^ 
S«i^-?'  ^'v- 1^1'  °^  course,  desirable  in  such  a  scale  as  this  to  include 
celling  Items  which  few  or  no  subjects  pass.  "ii-iuue 

c-:««  ^^^  ^^^^f-'^T  ^o?"en  surpass  the  men.  This  is  chiefly  due  to  the  inclu- 
?i^^  Qfil^'P^^-.l^?"^?^  occupations  which  are  beyond  the  upper  liiSt  of 
ti!^^  ^""^  ^^^^^"^  J¥,  ^°,Y^^  ^^"2®  °^  It^™  106.  Individual  successes  for 
the  women  occur  at  LA's  18-20.  followed  by  rather  rapid  rise  to  LA  23  and 

SerJof/w"^"""  of  success  thereafter^  Hence  laTer  maturatiTnfn  thfs 
fnt  c,  ^  "°i  succeed  in  cancelling  individual  differences  beyond  LA  22. 
for  success  fluctuates  thereafter  between  50  and  90  per  cent  of  Dfsses 
Median  success  is  reached  at  LA  22.17  years,  but  is  r^Jeated  at  lA  IIS 
wlrd  di^f^lJT^^'l  ^^  It"^"  ^^  2^-?^  y^^^^-  <Note  that  f o?  all  fuch^awk- 
Tv  "-^^  tn?.Hf.'?^lV"  *^^'^  ^f^\f  i^^  "^^^^a"  reported  is  accompanied 
?J^i,-L  •  '"<S?ate  the  average  of  all  the  50-percentile  points.)  The  average 
ceiling  IS  at  71  per  cent  success  for  LA's  22-30.  average 


172  Item  Specification 

The  normative  men  show  individual  successes  from  LA  19  to  LA  23. 
then  rising  to  a  maximum  of  40  per  cent  and  maintaining  an  average  ceil- 
ing of  33  per  cent  for  LA's  24-30. 

The  total  normative  curve  (omitted)  is  a  mean  of  the  M-F  curves.  It 
rises  gradually  from  LA  18  to  LA  23  but  is  unevenly  maintained  there- 
after. There  are  five  median  crossings,  whose  average  is  25.38  years.  The 
average  ceiling  is  52  per  cent  for  LA's  23-30. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  no  successes  on  this  item.  Nor  are  there 
any  individual  successes  beyond  the  item  validation  group  within  the  total 
VTS  sample.  It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  any  mentally  deficient  person 
would  succeed  on  this  item  without  exceptional  supervision. 

In  general,  the  item  may  be  said  to  represent  the  25-year 
level  of  maturation.  This  means  that  only  one-half  of  S's  over 
LA  25  are  expected  to  succeed  on  this  item.  The  M-F  differences 
are  more  apparent  than  real ;  the  women  are  favored  by  clerical 
and  teaching  occupations  (a)  in  which  success  is  rather  quickly 
established,  (b)  which  represent  chiefly  intellectual  rather  than 
manually  skilled  tasks,  and  (c)  which  tend  toward  routine 
rather  than  independent  skilled  work.  The  schooling  alternative 
occurs  for  only  one  man  (LA  22)  and  no  women.  The  range  of 
occupations  is  wide  as  to  degree  of  skill  and  varied  as  to  kind 
of  work.  Hence  it  is  impracticable  to  define  the  kinds  of 
employment ;  the  examiner  must  be  sophisticated  in  such  inter- 
pretations and  will  be  assisted  by  familiarity  with  standard 
occupational  job-analyses. 

The  detailed  analysis  of  the  normative  plus  scores  shows: 
(1)  for  males,  a  scattering  of  occupations  from  skilled  trades 
to  junior  professional  work  and  small  business  management 
(positions  occurring  more  than  once  being  salesmen  5,  office 
manager  4,  business  4,  bookkeeper  3,  in  a  total  of  28)  ;  (2)  for 
females,  more  concentration  in  fewer  occupations  especially 
clerical  and  teaching  (20  stenographers,  8  secretaries,  8  book- 
keepers, 21  teachers,  6  hairdressers,  3  nurses,  3  telephone 
operators).  All  of  23  housewives  were  either  yet  or  recently 
in  such  skilled  occupations  as  just  listed. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  plus  score  on  this  item  gives  auto- 
matic credit  on  Item  98.  Credit  for  occupation  as  housewife 
is  given  at  Item  98  when  "housewife"  involves  only  routine 
housework  on  a  simple  plane,  and  also  at  Item  106  where  it 
involves  household  management  at  a  more  complex  level.  This 
requires  examiner's  discretion  regarding  the  specific  circum- 
stances encountered,  e.g.,  when  the  care,  training  and  nursing 
of  children  is  at  a  semi-professional  level,  or  the  problems  of 
the  business  management  of  the  home  (financial,  household 
staff,  maintenance  and  the  like)  approximate  business  manage- 
ment.   Consideration  of  husbands  is  not  included  here  except 


Occupation 


173 


in  those  instances  where  the  "man  of  the  family"  actually 
performs  the  work  of  the  typical  housewife.  Note  that  husband 
and  wife  may  receive  additional  scores  on  such  items  as  Items 
100-105. 


Item  107.  (LA  25+)  Engages  in  beneficial  recreation. 

This  item  may 
seem  to  be  irrelevant 
in  the  occupational 
category.  It  repre- 
sents a  continuation 
of  those  early  self- 
initiated  personal  ac- 
tivities which  reflect 
social  maturation 
without  necessarily 
productive  outcome. 
But  even  if  these  en- 
gagements do  yield 
practical  returns,  our 
interest  centers  not 
so  much  on  these 
fruits  as  on  the  other- 
wise profitable  use  of 
leisure  time. 

The  item  is  to  be  interpreted  as  seriouslj  purposive  adalt  recreation 
as  contrasted  with  mere  sitting  around  or  relaxine:  in  passive  amuse- 
ment as  spectator  or  listener  rather  than  as  an  active  participant.  In  other 
words,  the  activities  reflect  a  mature  display  of  need  for  development  of 
what  might  be  called  personal  self-expression  outside  the  field  of  economic 
necessity.  These  absorptions  are  extremely  varied  in  such  fields  as  athletics, 
literature,  music,  art,  drama,  gardening,  collecting,  travel,  serious  discus- 
sion of  important  topics,  and  in  general  the  more  advantageous  forms  of 
worthwhile  diversions.  Some  of  the  more  specifically  socially  directed 
forms  of  correlated  activities  will  be  found  in  the  superior  level  of  the 
socialization   category. 

Like  most  of  the  superior  adult  items,  this  item  is  difficult  to  define 
because  of  its  varied  forms  of  expression  and  because  of  the  difficulty  of 
placing  a  proper  value  on  the  level  of  development  which  the  activities 
reflect.  The  examiner  is  therefore  cautioned  against  scoring  the  item  too 
generously.  The  performances  involved  are  basically  related  to  making 
profitable  use  of  leisure  time  for  safeguarding  or  improving  the  S's  mental 
and  physical  welfare.  This  is  witnessed  in  serious  reading,  healthful  games 
and  sports,  constructive  hobbies,  creative  gardening  or  breeding,  musical 
performance  and  appreciation,  serious  dramatic  and  artistic  interests,  and 
so  on.  Merely  passive  interests,  casual  amusement,  or  pre-adult  pastimes 
are  not  to  be  credited  at  this  level.  The  examiner  must  distinguish  between 
youthful  and  adult  recreations  of  the  same  order  but  different  purpose  and 
outcome,  and  this  calls  for  discreet  judgment  as  well  as  sophisticated  dis- 
crimination. 


174 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  evidence  shows  a  few  individual  or  emergent  successes 
prior  to  LA  19 ;  thereafter  some  maturation  is  apparent  but  is  heavily  over- 
laid with  individual  differences.  M-F  differences  are  not  consistent  in  LA 
groups  (note  interlacing  graphs),  but  the  women  show  a  faint  tendency  to 
excel  the  men.  The  data  do  not  permit  calculation  of  standard  central  ten- 
dencies. The  mean  per  cent  of  success  for  men  is  35  per  cent  for  LA's  19-30, 
and  for  women  is  38  per  cent  for  the  same  intervals.  Top  success  is  75  per 
cent  of  passes  for  the  women,  65  per  cent  for  the  men,  and  57.5  per  cent 
for  the  total.  The  "medians"  (averages  of  50-percentile  points)  are  invalid 
since  the  graphs  are  not  ultimately  sustained  above  the  50-percentile. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  in  the  total  VTS  population  pass  this 
item. 


%    PLl 

100 

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Item  107: 

Engages  in  beneficial 

recreation. 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

CR 

M: 

24.88  ? 

. 

F: 

26.06  ? 

- 

D: 

. 

. 

Tot.: 

25.20  ? 

_ 

This  item  is  not  very  satisfactory  and  should  be  replaced  or 
discarded  in  later  revisions.  Although  readily  defined  it  is  not 
easily  scored  because  of  difficulties  of  specific  evaluation.  More- 
over, the  item  seems  rather  weakly  "loaded"  for  social  com- 
petence at  this  level  and  somewhat  irrelevant  because  of  its  in- 
dividual rather  than  group-social  bearing.  It  is  also  for  some 
subjects  a  "retreat"  substitute  for  more  effective  forms  of  social 
self-sufficiency. 


Occupation 


175 


Item  108.  (LA  25+)  Systetmtizes  own  work. 

This  item  represents  the  superior  aspects  of  general  occupa- 
tional effectiveness  as  revealed  by  the  initiative,  responsibility, 
originality,  system  and  resourcefulness  with  which  the  S  per- 
forms his  work.  The  item  might  be  considered  as  belonging  in 
the  self-direction  category,  but  is  included  here  because  of  its 
more  immediate  reference  to  manner  of  working.  A  superior 
aspect  of  all  work  is  the  extent  to  which  one  exercises  foresight, 
planning,  alertness,  adaptiveness  and  thoroughness  for  increas- 
ing one's  occupational  success. 

To  satisfy  the  item  it  should  be  apparent  that  the  S  typically  programs 
Ms  work  in  such  a  manner  as  to  provide  for  contingencies  and  for  making 
the  most  eflfective  use  of  his  time  and  energies  for  increasing  the  value  ol 
his  work  as  to  quantity,  quality,  and  variety.  Another  aspect  is  the  employ- 
ment of  new  devices  and  methods  (see  Item  116),  a  tendency  toward  experi- 
mentation, and  the  designing  or  adoption  of  new  tools,  methods,  materials 
and  procedures. 


%    PLUS 


18     19     20    21 
LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 

Item  108:     Systematizes  own  work. 

Med.    Mean  8D        CR 

M:  -  -  - 

F:  -  -  - 

D:  -  - 

Tot.:  -  -  - 

A  few  of  the  normative  subjects  pass  this  item  between  LA's  18  and 
22.  Success  is  thereafter  revealed  in  about  one-quarter  of  all  subjects  but 


176 


Item  Specification 


without  stable  increases  with  advancing  LA.  Prior  to  LA  23  the  men 
slightly  excel  the  women;  thereafter  the  M-F  difference  is  neutral  (LA's 
23-26)  or  reversed  (LA's  27-29). 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  in  the  total  VTS  population  pass  this 

item. 

This  item  is  valuable  as  one  phase  of  superior  adult  social 
competence  but  does  not  "standardize"  normatively  because  of 
its  comparatively  late  and  infrequent  appearance.  A  scoring 
difficulty  is  encountered  because  the  criteria  reflect  personality 
attitude  or  a  qualitative  manner  of  performing  work  as  opposed 
to  the  level  at  which  such  work  is  performed.  The  item  empha- 
sizes self -improvement  in  work  as  one  important  phase  of  occu- 
pational competence  which  is  not  satisfactorily  provided  for  in 
the  preceding  items.  It  also  anticipates  the  remaining  items  in 
this  category. 


Item  111.  (LA  25-[-)  Supervises  occupational  pursuits. 


V 


nn 


-fy 


This  item  provides 
for  the  minor  super- 
visory and  executive 
features  of  gainful 
employment.  Admin- 
istrative control,  or 
occupational  manage- 
ment, requires  apti- 
tudes and  competen- 
ces beyond  the  pro- 
ductive work  to  be 
done.  This  exercise  of 
directive  responsibil- 
ity represents  a  high- 
er level  of  accom- 
plishment than  those 
required  for  Items  98 
or  106. 


To  pass  this  item,  the  S  satisfactorily  fills  a  minor  executive  position, 
which  is  appreciably  higher  than  that  reflected  in  the  foreman  grade  of 
routine  occupations;  or  the  S  manages  an  independent  business  at  some- 
thing higher  than  the  small  merchant  level. 


Occupation 


177 


None  of  the  normative  S's  pass'  % 
this  item  below  LA  25,  and  none 
of  the  women  succeed  below  LA 
28.  TSventy  per  cent  of  all  the 
men  at  LA's  25-30  succeed,  and 
IC  per  cent  of  the  women  at  LA's 
28-30.  The  item  therefore  suggests 
maturational  progression  rather 
than  mere  individual  differences  in 
the  superior  adult  range  vdth  a 
"top"  of  30  per  cent  success  for 
men  and  10  per  cent  for  women. 
This  intimation  of  male  superiority 
(if  real)  may  reflect  a  cultural 
prejudice  but  more  plausibly  sug- 
gests a  male  advantage. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  in 
the  VTS  population  succeed  on  this 
item. 


PLUS 
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Item  111 

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S«24     2 

r4H 

7''28     29     30 

LA  (normal  by  sex)" 


Item  111: 

M: 
F: 
D: 

Tot.: 


Supervises  occupational  pursuits. 
Med.    Mean      SD        CR 


It  will  be  evident  that  several  of  the  adult  items  in  this 
category  might  be  considered  as  alternative  rather  than  pro- 
gressively cumulative.  That  is,  some  superior  adults  may 
achieve  less  than  the  scores  due  them  because  of  differences  in 
interests  or  aptitudes  rather  than  of  lower  competence.  We 
can  merely  indicate  that  versatility  of  interests  and  aptitudes 
does  increase  competence  if  for  no  other  reason  than  that  of 
greater  availability  for  more  manifold  undertakings.  In  short, 
supervisory  success  added  to  other  success  means  more  than 
merely  alternative  to  such  achievement  (cf.  p.  181). 


Item  113.  (LA  25+)  Directs  or  manages  affairs  of  others. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  111  in  which  managerial  and 
supervisory  functions  operate  at  a  superior  executive  level. 

This  is  represented  by  department  heads  of  fairly  large  business  con- 
cerns, or  by  administrative  responsibility  for  technical  or  professional 
operations  which  require  leadership  in  addition  to  specialized  knowledge 
or  skill;  or  the  S  manages  a  large  business  in  which  he  employs  numerous 
workers  or  controls  extensive  investments  or  expenditures.  The  item  is  also 
a  superior  development  of  Item  108,  in  respect  to  which  the  S  not  only 
systematizes  his  own  work,  but  also  plans  and  directs  the  work  of  others  in 
a  major  way.  The  item  does  not  imply  that  the  work  of  those  thus 
coordinated  is  inferior  to  that  of  the  coordinator  (cf.  Items  114  and  116 
and   also  discussion   pp.   180-182). 


178 


Item  Specification 


%   PLUS 

loof— 


None  of  the  normative  women, 
and  none  of  the  men  below  LA  25, 
pass  this  item.  Ten  per  cent  of  the 
normative  men  succeed  at  LA's 
25,  27  and  28.  The  item  apparently 
demands  superior  competence,  but 
these  data  reveal  oiJy  superior 
individual  differences  suggestive  of 
superior  maturation. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's 
in  the  total  VTS  population  pass 
this  item. 


Item  113 


0  \<r24 


M 


X 


Item  113: 

M: 

F: 
D: 

Tot. 


25    26"27    28    29     3 
LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 

Directs  or  manages  affairs  of  others. 

Med.    Mean      SIX       CR 


r- 


Item  114.  (LA  254-)  Performs  expert  or  professional  work. 
This  item  is  both  superior  and  alternative  to  Item  113. 


Occupation 


179 


The  level  of  activity  is  superior  to  the  items  previously 
discussed  in  degrees  of  skill,  knowledge,  product  or  manage- 
ment, as  represented  by  occupational  grades  1  and  2  of  stand- 
ard occupational  scales.  Note  that  such  work  may  be  above, 
equal  to,  or  below  the  requirements  of  Item  113,  i.e.,  inclusive 
or  exclusive  of  it. 


To  pass  this  item,  (a)  the  S  pursues  with  note  some  profession  (e.g., 
ministry,  law,  medicine,  engineering)  such  as  requires  at  least  college 
graduation  or  equivalent  preparation  or  aptitude;  or  (b)  the  S  maintaina 
a  career  (literary,  dramatic,  artistic  and  other)  of  high  merit  as  reflected 
in  successful  output,  reputation  and  performance;  or  (c)  the  S  commands 
respect  as  an  acknowledged  authority  in  a  field  requiring  specialized 
knowledge  or  superior  skills;  or  (d)  the  S  performs  executive  work  at 
the  superior  executive  level  of  a  large  business  or  professional  sphere, 
as  for  example,  director  of  department  heads,  or  chief  of  skilled  operations. 


In  the  normative  sample  one 
woman  at  LA  24  passes  this  item 
and  one  man  at  LA  28.  These  S's 
reveal  the  occasional  incidence  of 
successful  performance  in  the  adult 
range  of  social  development.  Hence 
the  item  samples  a  highly  superior 
achievement  which  does  not  "nor- 
matize"  because  of  its  rarity. 


%   PU 

JS 

\ 

[ 

90 

80 

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114 

70 

60 

50 

40 

30 

20 

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LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


iTEif  114:     Performs  expert  or  professional  work. 

Med.    Mean      8D        CR 
M:  ... 

P:  -  -  - 

D: 
Tot.:  -  -  . 

This  item  might  have  included  a  schooling  alternative  at 
the  graduate  level  of  college  instruction  or  at  correspondingly 
high  levels  of  artistic,  business,  and  other  career  preparation. 
This  alternative  was  deemed  inadvisable  because  such  graduate 
or  preparatory  study  represents  only  a  high-grade  novitiate 
preliminary  to  the  social  competence  expected  for  this  item  in 
the  gainful,  productive  or  administrative  pursuit  of  such  call- 
ings. 


180  Item  Specification 

Item  116.  (LA  25-|-)  Creates  own  opportunities. 

This  item  is  a  superior  expression  of  the  performances  con- 
tained in  Items  108,  113  and  114. 

Here  the  S  independently  exploits  his  environment  in  a  large  or  criti- 
cal way  for  his  own  advancement  or  the  general  good.  Here  the  S  also 
shows  superior  creative  or  organizing  success  sustained  over  an  appre- 
ciable period  of  time  in  such  a  manner  as  to  reveal  something  more  than 
the  capitalizing  of  temporary  favorable  opportunity.  Thus  the  S  designs 
new  ways  of  doing  things,  makes  important  contributions  to  the  further 
development  of  his  field  of  work,  is  adaptive  and  creative  in  departing  from 
accepted  routines  and  substituting:  improved  procedures  or  promoting  orig- 
inal discoveries,  improved  operation,  and  more  e£5cient  management.  Or  th« 
S  opens  new  markets,  fosters  the  use  of  new  materials,  increases  the  eflfi- 
ciency  of  organization,  introduces  new  procedures,  and  in  general  does  the 
work  of  an  outstanding  investigator,  authority  or  leader.  The  fields  of 
operation  are  extensive,  such  as  science,  invention  or  discovery,  the  arts 
and  humanities,  politics  and  government,  business  education,  and  many 
others. 

None  of  the  normative  S's  pass  this  item.  This  means  that  the  perform- 
ance is  too  rare  to  be  encountered  at  all  in  the  relatively  small  population 
sample  employed  in  this  standardization.  Yet  the  item  obviously  represents 
an  important  high  degree  of  social  competence  which  is  encountered  infre- 
quently  in  more  extended  population  data.  Its  inclusion  in  this  scale  is  war- 
ranted by  the  need  for  "tailing"  the  Scale  to  cover  relatively  unattainable 
performances  or  those  which  are  only  rarely  attained  in  relatively  extended 
population  samples.  Its  successful  performance  in  particular  individuals  is 
witnessed  in  the  illustrative  examinations  (pp.  307,  334). 

Sumynary.  In  summarizing  this  category  we  may  re-observe 
that  the  items  are  designed  to  evaluate  all  stages  of  occupational 
development.  The  difficulties  of  this  undertaking  are  readily 
apparent.  The  juvenile  items  include  self -occupation  and  simple 
forms  of  work ;  the  adult  items  include  occupational  skills  which 
require  facility,  knowledge  and  management  as  well  as  social 
relations.  Although  we  have  placed  in  this  category  those  items 
which  are  primarily  occupational  in  character,  this  grouping  is 
principally  one  of  convenience  for  purposes  of  examination  and 
no  special  value  attaches  to  this  arrangement.  Except  for  the 
logic  of  the  Scale  as  a  whole,  this  dilemma  is  relatively  unim- 
portant. Much  more  serious  is  the  distinction  to  be  made  between 
occupations  from  the  point  of  view  of  their  inherent  skills  and 
knowledge  as  contrasted  with  their  executive  supervision  and 
administrative  management  as  well  as  associated  social  rela- 
tions. The  philosophy  of  the  Scale  suggests  that  directing  the 
work  of  others  represents  a  higher  stage  of  social  maturity  than 
does  the  actual  performance  of  skilled  work. 

A  particular  difficulty  is  encountered  in  attempting  to  illus- 
trate the  fields  of  work,  the  levels  of  work  performance,  and  the 
nature  and  variety  of  tasks.  Considering  the  extremely  wide 


Occupation  181 

range  of  occupational  activities  and  the  varying  levels  at  which 
these  are  performed  under  different  exigencies  of  time  and  cir- 
cumstances, it  is  both  inadvisable  and  impracticable  to  amplify 
the  illustrations  of  the  central  principles  involved  in  each  item. 
This  is  taken  care  of  to  some  extent  in  the  standard  occupational 
scales,  job  analysis  descriptions,  and  occupational  dictionaries 
with  which  the  examiner  must  be  familiar  if  he  is  to  score  the 
adult  occupational  items  with  confidence  and  accuracy.  Obvi- 
ously it  is  desirable  that  the  examiner  himself  be  widely  in- 
formed or  experienced  in  the  field  of  employment  and  intimately 
familiar  with  the  complex  of  abilities  required  at  different 
occupational  levels. 

It  is  also  important  to  distinguish  between  what  might  be 
called  occupational  levels  and  occupational  virtues  (p.  30). 

We  have  already  noted  that  the  three  items  (98,  106  and 
114)  employed  for  successive  job  levels  are  severally  too  broad 
for  clear  differentiation  of  the  progressive  stages  of  social  com- 
petence reflected  in  productive  work.  Perhaps  five,  or  even  ten, 
stages  might  be  isolated.  This  v^^ould  avoid  compressing  dissim- 
ilar work  levels  into  similar  stages.  It  is  probable  that  the  un- 
satisfactory nature  of  the  data  curves  for  Items  106  and  114  is 
in  part  due  to  this  confusion  of  inequalities  of  work  values. 

There  is  a  further  dilemma,  namely,  the  relative  values  of 
"productive"  versus  administrative  effort.  Society  generally 
places  a  higher  value  upon  (offers  larger  returns  to)  managerial 
tasks  than  upon  supervised  work.  This  is  presumably  because 
the  executive  provides  for  the  "worker."  Yet  at  given  levels  of 
work  the  "operative"  may  be  more  competent  than  the  "oper- 
ator" in  respect  to  the  work  to  be  done,  while  less  competent  to 
provide  the  conditions  needed  for  doing  it  successfully.  It  is  the 
coordinating  leadership  of  the  manager  that  rates  him  as  more 
competent  than  those  whom  he  m.anages,  even  though  the  ulti- 
mate operations  performed  may  require  other  proficiencies  su- 
perior to  those  attained  by  "the  boss." 

In  effect  the  dilemma  may  be  resolved  by  rating  the  leader 
at  one  work  level  as  equivalent  in  competence  to  the  workman 
at  the  next  level.  Thus,  in  the  estimation  of  social  competence 
(1)  the  gang-labor  boss  may  be  thought  of  as  equivalent  to  the 
semi-skilled  workman,  (2)  the  foreman  of  a  semi-skilled  group 
to  the  skilled  craftsman,  (3)  the  supervisor  of  a  skilled  group  to 
the  highly  skilled  artisan,  (4)  the  minor  executive  to  the 
expert —  elaborated  according  to  the  occupational  fields  or  job 
titles  under  consideration. 


182  Item  Specification 

In  this  scale  we  have  implemented  a  compromise  solution 
by  separating  the  manner  of  work  (Items  108,  111,  113  and  116) 
from  its  (other)  level  of  difficulty  (Items  98,  106  and  114).  But 
we  have  also  extended  the  compromise  to  alternatives  within 
these  items.  It  is  evident  from  both  speculative  and  empirical 
considerations  that  the  result  is  not  altogether  satisfactory; 
indeed  to  some  it  will  seem  quite  unsatisfactory.  We  may  well 
anticipate  that  later  work  may  produce  happier  results. 

The  maturational  tendency  toward  self-expression  in  work 
is  likely  to  be  inhibited  when  the  individual  is  obliged  to  work 
at  occupations  not  suited  to  his  talents.  There  may  then  ensue 
apathetic  attitudes  toward  work  which  produce  laziness,  perver- 
sity or  insubordination.  The  frustrated  normal  satisfactions  in 
work  may  then  be  compensated  by  resistance  toward  manage- 
ment authority  with  consequent  need  for  increasing  the  pressure 
of  supervision.  This  creates  a  vicious  circle  in  which  the  individ- 
ual tends  to  limit  his  own  achievements  by  seeking  to  avoid  the 
constraints  imposed  upon  him  by  the  necessities  of  working.  The 
final  result  is  an  obvious  temporizing  or  trifling  with  one's  most 
important  social  responsibility,  namely,  the  need  for  sustaining 
economic  self-sufficiency.  Hence  many  individuals  succeed  poorly 
under  authority  but  succeed  rather  well  when  this  pressure  is 
absent,  although  freedom  in  work  is  usually  earned  by  first  sub- 
mitting to  authoritative  direction.  However,  the  opposite  effects 
are  also  encountered. 

These  observations  are  pertinent  in  scoring  occupational 
performances  with  reference  to  the  degree  of  responsibility  or 
self-suffi.ciency  with  which  such  activities  are  pursued.  This  is 
specially  noteworthy  during  the  late  adolescent  period  when  the 
individual  is  most  positively  seeking  self-dependent  status. 

The  adolescent  m.ay  be  so  absorbed  in  pursuing  his  own  in- 
terests that  he  tends  to  be  socially  non-cooperative  except  for 
his  0"wn  immediate  group  or  where  his  ov>7n  interests  are  heavily 
at  stake.  This  egocentric  absorption  is  so  characteristic  of  ado- 
lescents as  to  seriously  influence  the  scoring  of  items  in  the 
adolescent  range.  Consequently  personality  attitudes  at  all  ages 
have  special  influence  on  these  performances.  The  examiner  is 
cautioned  against  being  too  sympathetic  with  these  motivation 
complexes  and  is  urged  to  score  the  items  at  face  value  in  terms 
of  actual  performance  since  the  measure  of  maturation  during 
this  period  involves  cooperative  social  responsibility. 

The  situation  is  further  complicated  by  the  need  for  accept- 
ing continued  attendance  at  school  in  lieu  of  gainful  employment. 
Here  the  occupational  activity  is  one  of  continued  preparation 


Occupation 


183 


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,HrHrHc4c4o3lCSi005od'-*t-5Tfo6 


mo>o»ooiooioii3ioiooootn 

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184  Item  Specification 

for  later  gainful  employment  and  may  be  accepted  in  place  of 
productive  employment  provided  that  such  schooling  is  pursued 
with  success  and  is  not  a  mere  evasion  of  work  or  a  passive 
continuation  of  the  period  of  adolescent  dependence. 

Although  occupational  activities  are  essential  to  the  satis- 
factory appraisal  of  social  competence,  the  environmental  and 
personal  differences  involved  make  difficult  a  satisfactory  formu- 
lation of  relatively  universal  performances  which  adequately 
anticipates  all  varieties  of  such  experiences.  Hence  the  items  of 
this  category  may  seem  subject  to  criticism  as  too  heavily 
influenced  by  opportunity,  necessity,  or  variety  of  attending 
circumstances.  On  the  other  hand,  for  at  least  these  experimen- 
tal subjects,  both  normative  and  comparative,  and  in  the  various 
application  studies  of  both  individuals  and  groups,  such  antici- 
pations are  not  seriously  encountered  in  fact.  Hence  the  data 
confirm  the  practicability  of  these  items  even  though  logical 
speculation  raises  doubts.  The  criterion  of  habitual  performance 
is  assumed  for  each  item  as  elsewhere  emphasized,  but  to  avoid 
tedious  repetition  has  not  been  stressed  in  these  items. 

Mean  item  norms  are  not  established  in  this  category  be- 
yond Item  98.  (For  discussion  of  norms  rated  "LA  25+"  see 
p.  362.) 

Statistically  reliable  normative  sex  differences  are  not  ap- 
parent for  any  item  in  this  category.  The  highest  M-F  CR  is  1.51 
(Item  80).  The  highest  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.60  years  (also 
Item  80).  Variability  in  performance  is  also  not  serious;  the 
highest  SD  is  found  on  Item  82  (3.36  for  boys  and  3.23  for 
girls). 

Three  items  show  relatively  high  N-FM  CR's,  namely  Item 
72  (CR  4.45),  Item  43  (CR  2.68)  and  Item  57  (CR  2.67).  The 
first  shows  a  mean  N-FM  difference  of  2.28  years  (one-third  its 
base)  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded  S's,  the  second  .77  years 
(one-quarter  of  its  base)  in  favor  of  the  normative  S's,  and  the 
third  1.55  years  (one-third  of  its  base)  in  favor  of  the  norma- 
tive subjects. 


Communication  185 


Communication 

These  four  facets — listening,  speaking,  reading  and 
writing — give  shape  and  form  to  the  diamond  of  language. 
Polishing   this   diamond  is   a   life's   ivork.  —  Emmett   A.   Betts 

Verbal  commerce  with  one's  fellows  is  another  critical  mode 
of  social  development.  Societies  may  be  said  to  develop  through 
increased  facility  in  social  intercourse,  and  language  use  is  ita 
principal  medium.  In  our  day  and  in  our  society,  this  develop- 
ment has  reached  such  a  high  point  that  much  of  our  early  life 
experience  is  devoted  to  acquiring  various  means  for  the 
interchange  of  ideas  through  conversation,  reading,  writing, 
pictures,  graphs,  formulas  and  so  on. 

From  another  point  of  view,  we  may  say  that  social  com- 
petence is  directly  related  to  facility  in  means  of  communication, 
since  so  much  of  the  aif  airs  of  any  human  society  are  conducted 
through  verbal,  pictorial  and  symbolic  exchange.  In  the  higher 
forms  of  society  such  facility  is  increased  from  the  merely  vocal- 
verbal  and  pictographic  stage  to  the  literate-verbal  and  abstract 
symbol  level.  Thus  remote  and  recorded  communication  as  op- 
posed to  immediate  and  evanescent  intercourse  increase  the 
range  of  social  competence.  Literacy  and  the  extended  use  of 
modern  mechanical  means  of  communication  (printing,  tele- 
phone, telegraph,  phonograph,  camera,  radio,  for  example) 
definitely  influence  social  competence  by  increasing  both  the  ex- 
tent and  variety  of  the  individual's  social  horizons.  The  illiterate 
person  is  definitely  handicapped  in  the  social  expression  of  his 
capabilities.  Similarly  the  deaf  are  handicapped  by  the  limita- 
tions of  non-vocal  communication,  and  the  blind  by  non-visual 
communication. 

We  are  not  concerned  primarily  here  with  the  psychological 
significance  of  the  development  of  language  nor  with  the  intrin- 
sic values  of  scholastic  achievement.  We  are  concerned  rather 
with  the  social  uses  to  which  language,  literacy,  and  other  means 
of  communication  are  put  and  the  degrees  to  which  this  influ- 
ences the  more  complex  forms  of  social  adaptation.  This  cate- 
gory therefore  includes  items  from  earliest  infancy  through  late 
adolescence,  beyond  which  communication  becomes  too  highly 
specialized  for  our  purposes  or  else  is  reflected  indirectly  as 
contributing  factors  in  other  items,  especially  as  related  to 
occupational  and  social  pursuits. 

We  shall  have  to  exclude  the  use  of  certain  means  of 
communication  because  of  their  relative  lack  of  universality  or 


186  Item  Specification 

general  availability.  This  is  not  because  of  their  unimportance 
but  rather  is  due  to  environmental  and  economic  variabilities. 

We  must  also  distinguish  between  social  maturity  and  social 
competence  in  this  category.  With  a  given  degree  of  compe- 
tence in  the  use  of  the  English  language  one  may  be  incompetent 
in  Chinese,  although  perhaps  capable  of  so  becoming  competent. 
Or  a  sign-versed  deaf  person  may  be  unable  to  "talk"  with 
a  hearing  person  not  so  versed.  Also  the  blind  who  attain  com- 
petence in  the  use  of  Braille  are  set  apart  in  such  communication 
from  those  not  thus  competent  though  equally  mature  in  com- 
mand of  language.  Hence  competence  in  communication  as  in 
other  aspects  of  social  maturation  depends  heavily  upon  milieu, 
and  the  individual's  capacity  or  incapacity  for  assimilating  the 
modes  of  competence  pertaining  to  various  environments  may 
not  be  ignored. 

The  15  items  in  this  category  are  spread  from  birth  to  eight- 
een years,  with  3  at  j^ears  O-I,  2  at  I,  1  each  at  II,  V,  VI  and 
VIII,  3  at  X,  1  at  XI,  and  2  at  XV-XVIII.  Originally,  certain  of 
these  items  were  expressed  as  the  use  of  school  grade  achieve- 
ment, but  this  proved  impracticable  because  of  the  difficulty  of 
obtaining  satisfactory  evidence  on  the  use  of  achievement.  Con- 
sequently the  items  were  reformulated  with  use  as  achievement. 
Obviously,  school  achievement  is  not  necessarily  capitalized  for 
social  use,  and  conversely  social  use  may  be  independent  of 
(formal)  school  achievement.  Hence,  what  the  S  does  with  his 
learning  rather  than  what  he  has  learned  or  been  taught  is  of 
prime  concern. 

The  serial  sequences  include  eight  items  (1,  10,  17,  31,  34, 
44,  79  and  91)  on  vocal  communication  (inarticulate,  articulate, 
receptive,  declarative,  narrative  and  discussive),  five  items  (58, 
63,  78,  81  and  90)  on  writing,  and  2  items  (73  and  84)  on  read- 
ing. However,  there  is  considerable  overlap  in  the  last  nine  items 
of  the  category  since  reading,  writing  and  conversation  are  in- 
termingled. 


Item  1.  (LA  .25)  "Croius";  laughs. 

This  is  one  of  the  earliest  forms  of  all  expression  and  is 
socially  useful  as  communicating  to  others  the  state  of  the  indi- 
vidual from  the  point  of  view  of  need  for  attention.  The  item  is 
also  a  preliminary  stage  of  more  significant  later  details  of  com- 
munication. 


Communication 


187 


At  this  stage  the  S  vocalizes  inarticulately  through  spontaneous  gur- 
gHng  or  cooing,  and  in  this  way  expresses  spontaneous  evidence  of  comfort 
or  satisfaction.  Or  the  S  may  laugh  spontaneously,  or  when  stimulated,  as 
a  means  of  registering  pleasure  feelings.  Not  that  other  forms  of  vocaliza- 
tion such  as  crying  or  fretting  are  less  significant,  but  rather  that  these 
continue  only  for  a  few  years,  and  therefore  cannot  be  differentiated  read- 
ily for  maturation  purposes.  The  relative  absence  of  crying  after  about 
LA  4,  5  or  6  years  is  more  significant  socially  than  is  the  presence  of  cry- 
ing previous  to  these  ages. 


Success  on  this  item  is  report- 
ed in  75  per  cent  of  the  normative 
S's  of  both  sexes  at  LA  0-1,  and  in 
all  subjects  thereafter.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  .25  years. 

Similar  results  are  noted  for 
the  feeble-minded  S's,  with  67.5  per 
cent  succeeding  at  SA  0-1,  and  all 
thereafter.  The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .08  years  in  favor  of  the 
normal  subjects. 


0      1      2      3     TTT       0      12,^^ 
LA  (iscrmal  by  sex)^      LA  (normal  tot) 
SA(     FMtot     ) 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Item  1:    "Crows";  laughs. 

Med.    Mean      SB         CR  Med.  Mean      SD 

.17         .25  -  N    :  .17         .25 

.17         .25  -  FM:  .24         .33 

0  -  D    :  -.08 


CR 


Item  10.  (LA  .55)  "Talks";  imitates  sounds. 

This  is  a  simple  extension  of  Item  1,  in  which  babbling  or  inarticulate 
speech  reveals  higher  expressive  or  imitative  attempts  toward  communica- 
tion which  are  something  more  than  mere  pleasurable  vocalization.  By  this 
means  the  S  "talks"  to  himself  or  to  those  about  him.  The  latter  commonly 
attach  definite  meanings  to  these  sounds  as  indicating  the  S's  desires  or 
attitudes.  We  exclude  here  those  various  forms  of  crying  which  represent 
fretfulness,  annoyance,  anger  or  dissatisfaction,  even  though  these  may  be 
just  as  useful  socially  for  indicating  the  infant's  desires.  As  in  Item  1,  we 
are  more  concerned  with  positive  (essentially  linguistic)  means  of  com- 
munication which  develop  later  stages  of  practical  usefulness,  whereas  the 
negative  tendency  (annoyance  cries)  is  ultimately  abortive  and  becomes^ 
eliminated. 


188 


Item  Specification 


This  item  is  passed  by  40  per 
cent  of  the  normative  boys,  and  by 
50  per  cent  of  the  girls  at  LA  0-1, 
and  by  all  S's  thereafter.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .10  years  in  favor 
of  the  girls.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
.55  years. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  de- 
layed maturation  in  SA  versus 
normative  LA  groups.  The  mean 
N-FM  difference  is  .90  years  in 
favor  of  the  normal  subjects. 


ri     2     3     4. 
LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


0      12      3      4. 

LA  (normal  tot.) 

SA(     FMtot     ) 


Item  10:    "Talks";  imitates  sounds. 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.67 

.60 

F: 

.50 

.50 

D: 

.10 

SD         CR  Med.  Mean       SD 

N    :  .59  .55 

FM:  1.39  1.45         .75 

D    :  -.90 


CR 


If  at  first  it  may  seem  that  this  item  an(3  Item  1  are  not 
readily  discriminable,  this  impression  is  contradicted  by  the 
consistency  of  the  normative  and  validation  data  for  the  two 
items,  from  which  clear  distinctions  are  readily  apparent. 


Item  17.  (LA  .93)  Follows  simple  instructions. 


In  this  item  we  turn  from 
vocal  expression  to  linguistic- 
aural  comprehension. 


The  S  comes  when  called,  or  goes  short  distances  to  particular  places 
as  directed.  He  points  to  specific  objects  in  pictures  when  asked,  or  per- 
forms games  of  pantomime  on  verbal  request  (not  merely  by  imitation). 
In  general  this  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  cooperates  on  verbal  request  in 
very  simple  activities  without  need  of  stimulation  through  gestures.  The 
motor  responses  involved  may  be  waived  in  the  case  of  physical  handicaps 
thereto,  provided  the  examiner  is  satisfied  that  the  linguistic  element  of 
the  item  is  clearly  satisfied. 


Communication 


189 


Normative  maturation  appears 
rapidly  in  the  second  year  of  life. 
Except  for  a  negligible  half-score 
at  LA  0-1  there  is  no  sex  differ- 
ence. The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.05  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR 
.36.  The  mean  total  norm  is  ,93 
years,  SD  .29. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  closely 
parallel  the  normative  maturation. 
The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .25 
years  in  favor  of  the  normal  sub- 
jects, CR  2.48. 


6 — i — 2 — r  - 

LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA(     FMtot     )■ 


Item  17:    Follows  simple  instructions. 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

.94 

.90 

.33 

N    : 

,95 

.93 

.29 

F: 

.97 

.95 

.25 

FM: 

1.11 

1.18 

.33 

D: 

-.05 

.36 

D    : 

-.25 

CR 


2.48 


It  may  be  noted  here  that,  other  things  equal,  verbal  com- 
prehension generally  precedes  verbal  expression  of  like  degree, 
as  reading  usually  precedes  writing  of  equal  difficulty. 


Item  31.  (LA.  1.70)   Uses  names  of  familiar  objects. 

This  item  follows  Item  10  as  the  evolution  of  inarticulate 
to  articulate  speech.  (It  should  be  clear  that  we  are  not  attempt- 
ing to  trace  the  psychological  development  of  language,  but  only 
to  employ  certain  points  in  that  development  as  representing 
epochal  social  uses  of  speech.) 


To  satisfy  the  item,  the  S  readily  names  a  few  familiar  objects  (not 
including  persons)  when  these  are  presented  materially  or  pictorially;  he 
also  calls  for  such  objects  by  name  or  refers  to  them  by  name  sponta- 
neously. These  "names"  may  be  substitutes  for,  or  corruptions  of,  dictionary 
words,  but  should  be  something  more  than  poorly  articulated  sounds  recog- 
nizable only  as  "baby-talk"  by  those  intimately  familiar  with  the  S.  The 
number  of  words  employed  need  not  be  extensive,  say  a  half-dozen  or  more, 
but  the  words  should  be  clearly  useful  in  assisting  the  S  to  enlarge  his 
purposes. 


190 


Item  Specification 


Twenty  per  cent  of  the 
normative  boys,  and  40 
per  cent  of  the  girls,  suc- 
ceed at  LA  1-2,  and  all 
thereafter.  The  mean  M- 
F  difference  is  .20  years 
m  favor  of  the  girls.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  1.70 
years. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  delayed  acquisition 
of  this  item  in  SA  versus 
normative  LA  intervals. 
The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .45  years  in  favor 
of  the  normal  subjects. 


% 

r 

fi 

1 

t 

c 

I— 

M 

F- 

c 

11 

! 

'  1 

}  1 

Iter 

i31 

S 

s 

/ 

/ 

)  *  ] 

'. 

I      i 

5... 

LA  (normal  by  sex)"J» 


t?  r  ?  2  ,3  4 
LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA(     FMtot     )■ 


Med. 

Mear 

M: 

1.88 

1.80 

F: 

1.67 

1.60 

D: 

.20 

Item  31:     Uses  names  of  familiar  objects. 

SD         CR  Med.     Mean 

N    :  1.79       1.70 


FM: 
D    : 


2.25 


2.15 
-.45 


SD 


.97 


CR 


This  item  is  not  to  be  confused  with  the  naming  of  actual 
objects,  or  of  objects  in  pictures,  as  required  in  some  intelligence 
tests,  and  this  comment  applies  to  the  other  items  of  this  cate- 
gory. We  are  concerned  here  with  the  habitual  practical  iise  of 
language  rather  than  with  aptitude  for  such  expression.  Hence 
the  S  should  not  be  "tested"  on  these  items  as  a  substitute  for 
reports  on  his  habitual  performance.  It  is  comparatively  easy  to 
test  for  language  attainment,  but  quite  another  thing  to  evaluate 
the  everyday  use  thereof. 


Item  34.  (LA  1.95)  Talks  in  short  sentences. 

The  child's  vocabulary  is  extended  not  merely  by  the  addi- 
tion of  single  words  but  also  by  simple  phrases  and  subject- 
object  combinations.  These  ultimately  emerge  as  short  sentences 
or  equivalent  without  much  regard  for  polished  grammatical 
structure.  In  other  words,  speech  is  elaborated  at  this  stage  from 
the  use  of  single  words  to  integrated  word  combinations  which 
have  the  effect  of  sentence  forms  of  speech. 

To  satisfy  the  item,  the  S  uses  speech  which  includes  short  sentences, 
meaningful  phrases  or  subject-object  combinations  for  simple  conversa- 
tion. The  range  of  speech  is  defined  as  including  a  vocabulary  of  about  25 
words  or  more,  and  the  expressions  are  practically  useful  within  these 


Communication 


191 


limits  to  satisfy  the  child's  social  wants  or  to  express  his  ideas,  being  some- 
thing more  than  baby  talk  or  mere  repetitive  speech,  and  revealing  instead 
the  child's  practical  progress  in  the  adaptive  use  of  language. 


The  performance  ma- 
tures normatively  be- 
tween LA's  1-3  years. 
The  girls  excel  the  boys 
by  a  mean  difference  of 
.50  years.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  1.95  years,  SD 
.52. 

The  SA  curve  for  the 
feeble-minded  S's  paral- 
lels the  normative  LA 
curve.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .70  years  in 
favor  of  the  normal  sub- 
jects, CR  3.61. 


LA  (normal  by  sex)"*-' ' '        LA  (normal  "tot) 
SA(     FMtot.     ) 


Item  34:  Talks  in  short  sentences. 

Med.     Mean       SD  CR                          Med.     Mean       8D         CR 

M:             2.17       2.20         .53  N    :           1.9S       1.95         .52 

F:               1.79       1.70            -  FM:           2.50       2.65         .67 

D:                            .50  -          D    :                        -.70                    3.61 


Item  44.  (LA  3.15)  Relates  experiences. 


Speech  develops  rapidly 
from  the  use  of  isolated  sen- 
tences and  phrases  to  what 
might  be  termed  paragraph 
speech. 


The  S  now  engages  in  continuous  conversation,  such  as  relating  simple 
experiences,  or  telling  (unprompted)  simple  short  stories.  This  use  of 
speech  involves  sequential  ideation  with  coherence  and  relevant  detail.  Or 
negatively,  the  speech  should  not  be  incoherent,  irrelevant  or  flighty,  but 


192 


Item  Specification 


PLUS 

loo'- 


should  reveal  definite  continuitj  of  thought.  The  range  of  vocabulary  will 
be  extended  above  that  of  Item  34,  and  the  language  forms  (including 
nouns,  pronouns,  verbs,  adjectives,  adverbs)  will  be  somewhat  elaborated, 
but  the  speech  structure  is  less  important  than  its  useful  significance. 

This  performance  ma- 
tures rapidly  for  the 
normative  girls  between 
LA's  2-4;  the  boys  show 
some  relative  delay  in 
reaching  full  success.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is 
.20  years  in  favor  of  the 
girls,  CR  .43.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  3.15  years, 
SD  .97. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
parallel  the  normative  in 
later  SA  versus  LA  in- 
tervals. The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .90  years  in 
favor  of  the  normal  sub- 
jects, CR  2.78. 


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aA<    FMtvb 


Item  44:  Relates  experiences. 

Med.     Mean      8D        CB                         Med.  Mean      SD        CB 

M:              2.96      3.25       1.14                     N    :            3.0O  3.15        .97 

F:               3.07      3.05        .75                     FM:           4.05  4.05      1.03 

D:                             .20                     .43        D    :  -.90                   2.78 

Item  58.  (LA  5.23)  Prints  simple  wards. 

In  the  literate  social  environment  writing  may  be  used  as 
a  substitute  for  vocal  speech.  This  yields  remote  or  delayed 
(engraved)  communication,  and  consequently  represents  a 
significant  social  advance  over  talking.  In  the  tjrpical  U.  S. 
American  environment  the  child  soon  learns  to  write  or  to  print 
words,  printing  ordinarily  preceding  writing  as  an  easier 
accomplishment.  At  this  stage,  the  performance  is  of  but 
limited  social  usefulness  except  as  the  forerunner  of  more 
extensive  writing. 


This  early  stage  of  writing  is  employed  in  this  item  as  the  legible 
printing  or  writing  of  the  S's  first  name,  or  a  few  familiar  words  of  three 
or  four  letters,  not  using  copy.  This  may  be  done  either  on  the  child's  own 
initiative  or  from  dictation.  Exact  spelling  is  not  essential,  but  the  words 
should  be  legible  and  intelligible.  They  may  be  common  words  of  3  or  4 
letters,  or  they  may  be  proper  names.  The  writing  may  be  done  with  pencil, 
or  crayon,  or  even  by  means  of  a  child's  typewriter. 


Communication 


193 


This  accomplishment  matures  normatively  between  LA's  4-7  yeare. 
The  mean  M-F  diiference  is  .35  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  1.00.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  5.23  years,  SD  .77. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  relative  SA  delay  and  larger  SD  when 
compared  with  the  normative  S's.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.45  years, 
CR  3.06. 


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SA(     FMtot     )"* 


Item  58:    Frints  simple  words. 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

5.50 

5.40 

S7 

N    : 

5.21 

5.23 

.77 

F: 

5.05 

5.05 

.61 

FM: 

6.72 

6.68 

1.92 

D: 

.35 

1.00 

D    : 

-1.45 

CR 


3.06 


Performance  on  this  item  is  to  some  extent  influenced  b3^ 
instruction  at  home  or  at  school.  This  factor  is  more  apparent 
among  the  feeble-minded  subjects  who  respond  or  aspire  but 
poorly  to  academic  instruction.  Note  that  a  majority  of  the 
normal  S's  succeed  prior  to  LA  6,  the  usual  age  for  beginning 
school,  whereas  the  feeble-minded  S's  are  noticeably  delayed  in 
spite  of  an  advantage  of  about  fifteen  years  in  life  age  plus  the 
benefits  of  intensive  instruction.  It  has  been  said  that  the  normal 
child  learns  whereas  the  defective  must  be  taught,  meaning  that 
the  former  needs  chiefly  favorable  opportunity,  while  the  latter 
needs  repeated  systematic  drill. 


194 


Item  Specification 


^^Z 

^j^:^ 

-J 

Item  63.  (LA  6.15)  Uses  pencil  for  writing. 

Script  writing  is  for  most 
persons  genetically  more  diffi- 
cult than  print  writing,  but 
typically  is  readily  acquired 
as  the  writing  vocabulary 
increases  in  extent  and  com- 
plexity. In  some  instances, 
however,  print  writing  (li- 
brary script)  is  employed  as 
a  substitute  for  ordinary 
script,  rather  than  as  a  fore- 
runner. If  print  writing  is 
developed  in  this  manner  it 
may  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  script  writing. 


This  evolution  of  writing  also  involves  more  extended  vo- 
cabulary, longer  words,  more  complex  spelling  and  more  in- 
volved meanings.  It  also  typically  employs  more  delicate  means, 
such  as  lead  pencil,  or  pen  and  ink,  to  replace  crayons  or  slate 
and  pencil.  The  typewriter  may  be  substituted  as  a  more  complex 
mode  of  writing. 


% 

PU 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

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SA(    FMtot    )"^ 

Item 

63: 

Uses 

pencil  for  writing 

Med.    Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med. 

M:               6.50       6.30 

.73 

N    :            6.13 

F:               5.90       6.00 

.85 

FM:            7.50 

D:                             .30 

.81 

D    : 

Mean 
6.15 
8.13* 

-1.93 


8D 

.80 

1.71* 


CB 


4.5S 


*100%  assumed  at  SA  12-13 


Communication  195 

The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  writes  legibly  with  pencil  or  pen  a  dozen 
or  more  simple  words,  and  at  this  stage  does  so  with  reasonably  correct 
spelling.  The  words  may  be  of  three  or  four  letters  or  more  in  length.  They 
are  to  be  written  on  the  S's  own  initiative  or  from  dictation,  rather  than 
from  copy.  The  words  may  be  written  independently  of  grammatical  struc- 
ture. 


The  normative  performance  is  about  one  year  in  advance  of  Item  58. 

Maturation  is  rapid  and  consistent  between  LA's  5-8  years  for  both  sexes. 
The  mean  M-F  diflFerence  is  .30  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .81.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  6.15  years,  SD  .80. 

The  feeble-minded  performances  are  markedly  delayed  in  SA  versus 
LA  groups,  MTith  larger  SD.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.98  years  in 
favor  of  the  normal  subjects,  CR  4.58,  in  spite  of  more  advanced  Kfe 
ages  and  more  persistent  instruction  on  the  part  of  the  feeble-minded 

subjects. 


It  may  be  well  to  repeat  that  we  are  not  here  concerned 
with  the  products  of  teaching  as  educational  achievement,  but 
rather  with  the  use  of  literacy  for  socially  helpful  purposes.  In 
the  ordinary  environment  the  degrees  of  literacy  represented  in 
this  scale  may  easily  be  acquired  independently  of  formal  teach- 
ing. In  fact  the  items  have  been  so  formulated  as  to  avoid  the 
need  for  formal  education  on  the  assumption  that  as  the  child 
feels  the  need  for  self-expression  in  reading  and  writing  he  can 
readily  command  the  commonly  available  facilities  for  learning. 
This  is  not  to  deny,  of  course,  that  in  some  environments  there 
is  relatively  little  demand  or  opportunity  for  acquiring  literacy, 
or  that  the  environment  may  offer  but  a  limited  urge  to  the 
acquisition  of  these  abilities.  Nevertheless,  under  such  condi- 
tions the  person  concerned  is  actually  less  competent  than  the 
person  who  has  had  the  advantages  of  such  environmental 
stimulation.  We  are  most  immediately  concerned  with  the  meas- 
urement of  social  maturity  as  such  in  the  standard  environment, 
rather  than  with  explaining  the  lack  of  such  maturation  by 
apologizing  for  the  environment.  In  short,  we  must  distinguish 
between  the  measurement  of  social  competence  and  the  inter- 
pretation of  such  measurements.  It  is  to  be  assumed  that  the 
examiner  will  always  interpret  the  results  of  the  measurement 
in  relation  to  the  handicaps  which  affect  the  person  examined. 


196 


Item  Specification 


Item  73.  (LA  8.55)  Reads  on  oivn  initiative. 

Printing  and  writing  typ- 
ically succeed  reading,  wheth- 
er by  reading  we  mean  the 
mere  recognition  of  single 
words  or  the  comprehension  of 
Vv^ords  arranged  in  meaningful 
relations.  Because  of  easier 
definition  and  scoring  we  have 
reversed  this  genetic  sequence 
in  formulating  these  items  and 
have  used  the  writing  of  sim- 
ple words  instead  of  their  reading  recognition.  The  later 
stages  of  reading  are  more  readily  defined  and  scored  than  the 
early  stages,  whereas  the  reverse  is  true  for  writing. 

As  a  child  learns  to  read  he  does  so  first  for  his  own  satis- 
faction or  pleasure ;  the  process  of  reading  has  but  little  social 
usefulness  until  about  the  fourth  grade  level  of  reading  is  ac- 
complished. Since  we  are  here  concerned  with  the  independent 
uses  to  v/hich  reading  is  put,  we  omit  merely  scholastic  reading 
performed  as  school  tasks.  The  examiner  will  discover  (as  we 
have)  how  diflEicult  it  is  to  evaluate  the  practical  employment  of 
scholastic  attainment. 


This  item-performance  matures  steadily  for  boys  between  LA's  6-11; 
for  girls  the  range  is  the  same,  but  there  is  a  marked  spurt  at  LA  8 
and   a   corresponding  lapse   at   LA   9.    The   mean   M-F   difference   is    .50 
years    in    favor    of    the 
girls,  CR  .75.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  8.55  years, 
SD  1.45. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  delayed  onset  with 
later  rapid  rise  in  SA 
versus  normative  LA 
groups.  The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  1.43  years 
in  favor  of  the  normal 
subjects,  CR  2.94  (full 
success  assumed  for  SA's 
above  11-12  and  con- 
firmed in  total  VTS 
sample  except  for  one  of 
15  S's  at  SA  12). 

Item  73 :    Reads  on  ovm  initiative. 


% 

PLl 
100 

90 

80 

70 

«0 

50 

40 

30 

20 

10 

JS 

r" 

/ 

'"r 

It«r 

73 

r, 

Itei 

73 

/ 

1 

1 

1 

J 

1 
1 

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1 
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F- 

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m 

non 

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L 

5-1 

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T~I 

irr. 

nor 
F 

Uto 

tot 

t 

ri 

0-j 

ri 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

CB 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

CR 

M: 

9.07 

8.80 

1.44 

N    : 

8.27 

8.55 

1.45 

F: 

7.92 

8.30 

1.42 

FM: 

10.68 

9.98* 

1.55* 

D: 

.50 

.75 

D    : 

-1.43 

2.94 

*1009c  assumed  at  SA  12-13 


Communication 


197 


The  item  is  expressed  as  the  spontaneous  and  effective  use  of  reading 
(at  about  4th  grade  level  of  difficulty)  for  personal  desires,  needs  or  satis- 
factions. This  is  commonly  expressed  in  the  reading  of  informative  notes, 
simple  stories,  signs,  comic  strips,  movie  titles,  simple  news  items,  and  the 
like.  Generally  speaking,  we  may  observe  that  the  practical  use  of  reading 
lags  definitely  behind  the  formal  accomplishment  of  reading.  In  other 
words,  the  S  is  usually  able  to  read  at  a  higher  level  than  he  actually  does 
read  for  his  own  satisfaction  (witness  for  example  the  uninspired  reading 
activities  of  most  adults). 

Reading  success  has  until  recently  been  generally  employed 
as  a  basis  for  school-grade  promotions.  Assuming  a  child  to 
enter  school  at  LA  6,  fourth-grade  reading  would  typically  be 
achieved  at  LA  10.  But  many  normal  children  are  above  grade 
in  reading  achievement.  Hence  it  is  not  a  contradiction  to  find 
the  average  child  in  this  standardization  employing  fourth-grade 
reading  at  LA  8.55.  Likewise  the  well-recognized  comparative 
delay  in  learning  to  read  exhibited  by  feeble-minded  subjects  is 
in  harmony  with  their  use  of  such  reading  at  mean  SA  9.98 
years. 


Item  78.  (LA  9.63)  Writes  occasional  short  letters. 


This  is  a  practical  exten- 
sion of  Item  63,  revealing  the 
use  of  writing  for  distant  or 
delayed  communication. 


The  item  is  defined  as  now  and  then  writing  brief  letters  to  friends  or 
relatives  on  the  S's  own  initiative  or  following  mild  suggestion.  This  is 
done  without  material  help  from  others  as  to  content,  formulation,  ordinary 
spelling,  addressing  and  mailing.  A  substitute  activity  is  found  in  the  writ- 
ing of  notes  to  immediate  friends  or  the  writing  of  simple  instructions  of 
equivalent  scope  and  difBculty.  The  most  diflScult  aspect  of  this  item  is  the 
requirement  that  the  S  should  address  the  envelopes  (or  notes)  containins 
the  communications  and  provide  for  mailing  (or  otherwise  sending)  the 
same.  These  details  are  included  in  order  to  take  the  item  out  of  the  field 
of  mere  educational  achievement  and  convert  it  to  practical  social  useful- 
ness. 


198 


Item  Specification 


Normative  success  is  achieved  between  LA's  7-13  years.  There  is  a 
spurt  for  the  girls  at  LA  8  followed  by  a  lapse  at  LA  9,  and  plateaus  for 
the  boys  at  LA's  10  and  12.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .65  years  in  favor 
of  the  girls,  CR  .90.  The  mean  total  norm  is  9.63  years,  SD  1.57. 

The  performances  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  in  SA  groups  is  closely 
similar  to  that  of  the  normative  subjects  up  to  SA  11-12  (the  highest  SA 
affording  uniform  statistical  comparisons).  The  median  difference  is  .57 
years  in  favor  of  the  feeble-minded  subjects.  Assuming  95  per  cent  success 
for  the  feeble-minded  at  SA  12  and  100  per  cent  at  SA  13  and  thereafter 
gives  a  presumptive  SA  mean  of  9.53  years,  which  is  closely  comparable 
to  the  LA  mean  (9.63).  Or  calculating  a  fragmentary  mean  between  the 
10  and  90  percentiles  yields  9.24.  Actually  the  fragmentary  data  beyond 
SA  11-12  show  100  per  cent  of  full  plus  scores  for  all  S's  (N  =  15,  7,  6,  4 
and  5  respectively  for  SA's  12,  13,  14,  15  and  16). 


% 

a    i, 

t 

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78 

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LA  (normal  tot) 
SA  (     FM  tot     )' 


Me^. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

9.33 

9.95 

1.40 

F: 

9.01? 

9.30 

1.65 

D: 

.65 

Item  78:    Writes  occasional  short  letters. 

CR  Med.    Mean 


J90 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


9.61 
9.04 


9.63 


8D 
1.57 


CE 


It  is  probable  that  the  feeble-minded  subjects  have  an  ad- 
vantage of  "more  occasion"  or  greater  stimulation  to  write 
letters  because  of  institutional  residence  and  that  this  absence 
from  home  produces  an  incentive  of  sufficient  weight  to  offset 
their  otherwise  presumptive  inferiority  on  this  item.  It  is  possi- 
ble, too,  that  more  assistance  was  given  these  S's  than  the  defini- 
tion allows,  or  than  the  examiner  elicited. 


Item  79.  (LA  10.30)  Makes  telephone  calls. 

In  the  typical  U.  S.  American  environment  the  prevalence 


Communication 


19^ 


of  public  or  private  telephones  provides  an  almost  universal 
and  effective  means  of  remote  yet  immediate  communication. 
Here  vocal  speech  reflects  a  facile  degree  of  development,  since 
the  employment  of  the  telephone  is  materially  complicated  by 
the  fact  that  the  conversation  is  not  held  vis-a-vis  and  involves 
such  related  aptitudes  as  using  the  telephone  directory,  recalling 
numbers,  "pursuing"  delayed  calls  and  resolving  various  difficul- 
ties (e.g.,  no  answer,  wrong  number,  unlisted  parties). 

In  addition  to  conducting  a  purposive  conversation,  the  S  is  here  re- 
quired to  employ  the  entire  process  of  telephoning  from  looking  up  numbers 
(which  involves  a  fairly  diflScult  type  of  reading)  and  placing  calls,  to 
carrying  on  a  conversation  of  some  serious  intent.  The  item  does  not  re- 
quire making  long  distance  calls,  and  does  not  include  the  mechanical  diffi- 
culties of  using  automatic  or  dial  phones  where  such  phones  are  not  in 
common  use.  The  item  is  not  confined  to  the  use  of  private  or  family 
telephones,  but  assumes  that  the  S  uses  the  telephone  in  general  as  a  com- 
monly available  means  of  remote  communication.  In  this  the  looking  up  of 
numbers  and  the  placing  of  unfamiliar  calls  is  apparently  the  most  difficult 
requirement,  which  is  only  to  some  extent  avoided  by  calling  "information." 
The  item  assumes  a  relatively  general  use  of  the  telephone  rather  than  its 
minimum  use  as  limited  to  familiar  persons  and  places  and  to  merely  social 
calls. 


% 

PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

S 

r 

1 

y 

/^ 

Itew 

79 

i 

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79 

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non 

t"^ 

tot) 

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6   1 

1    1 

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S   1 

i  1 

s... 

Item  79 

Med.    Mean      SD 

M: 

11.10    10.40      1.80 

F: 

9.37  ?  10.20      2.34 

D: 

.20 

SA  (     FMtot     ) 

Makes  telephone  calls. 
CR  Med.    Mean 


.20 


N 

FM 

D 


10.50     10.30 


8D 
2.09 


CR 


Normative  success  appears  between  LA's  7-12  for  the  boys,  and 
between  LA's  7-14  for  the  girls,  with  a  spurt  for  the  latter  at  LA  8, 
followed  by  a  lapse  at  LA  9,  and  a  plateau  at  LA's  12  and  13.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .20  years  in  favor  of  the  girls  (but  with  higher  SD), 
CR  .20.  The  mean  total  norm  is  10.30  years,  SD  2.09. 


200  Item  Specification 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  delayed  success  in  SA  groups  as  com- 
pared with  the  normative  LA  maturation.  This  is  only  partly  due  to 
restricted  opportunity  in  the  institutional  environment,  which  is  somewhat 
offset  by  -f  F  and  +  NO  scores.  Moreover,  the  feeble-minded  maturation 
curve  is  fairly  parallel  to  the  normative  up  to  the  validation  limit  of 
SA  11-12  years.  Since  the  curve  does  not  reach  median  success,  and  no 
mean  can  be  estimated,  a  valid  N-FM  comparison  cannot  be  made.  The 
fragmentary  data  beyond  SA's  11-12  show  87  per  cent  of  passes  for 
SA  12  (N  =  15),  93  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N  =  7),  100  per  cent  at  SA's  14, 
15  and  16  (N  =  6,  4  and  6  respectively).  These  data  are  practically  all 
based  on  "  +  NO"  scores  in  view  of  environmental  restriction.  The  curve 
based  on  these  fragmentary  data  coincides  with  the  normative  curve  at 
SA  12  and  beyond. 


Experience  with  this  item  indicates  that  it  is  fairly  satis- 
factory in  spite  of  the  variations  in  opportunity  for  gaining 
successful  experience.  However,  the  item  is  not  wholly  appro- 
priate since  many  examiners  are  prone  to  score  the  performance 
specifically  rather  than  generally.  Answering  the  telephone  is 
of  course  much  easier  than  placing  calls,  as  calling  familiar 
persons  from  familiar  places  is  easier  than  calling  strangers 
by  public  phone.  Likewise,  sociable  use  of  the  telephone  is  much 
simpler  than  business  use.  The  corresponding  use  of  telegraph 
was  not  considered  because  of  relative  infrequency  of  use. 


Item  81.  (LA  11.20)  Answers  ads;  purchases  by  mail. 

This  extends  Item  78  to 
written  communication  for 
commerce  by  mail.  It  repre- 
sents a  concrete  employment 
of  literacy  for  expanding  the 
range,  and  perhaps  increasing 
the  efficiency  of  merchandis- 
ing. It  is  also  a  means  of 
enlarging  one's  field  of  in- 
formation and  capitalizes  a 
•'^^  ^^^^^^^^  well-recognized    tendency    of 

young  adolescents  and  many 
adults  to  enlarge  the  sphere  of 
contact  and  experience  beyond  local  or  personal  resources.  This 
is  a  somewhat  whimsical  recognition  of  the  modern  pre-adoles- 
cent  susceptibility  to  current  advertising  of  the  box  top,  juvenile 
magazine  or  newspaper  contest  variety.  Its  significance  is 
attested  by  the  maturation  data  for  LA's  8-14.  But  its  value  is 
reduced  by  the  individual  differences  apparent  after  LA  13. 


Communication 


201 


Yet  the  performance  of  this  activity  does  seem  to  reveal  a 
practical  capitalization  of  literacy  which  has  some  social  merit. 

The  item  is  defined  as  responding  to  newspaper,  magazine,  radio,  or 
other  advertising  by  mailing  coupons,  requesting  samples,  sending  for  in- 
formative literature,  and  purchasing  from  catalogs.  The  item,  therefore, 
includes  the  same  details  as  Item  78,  and  to  some  extent  Item  73,  but  at  a 
somewhat  higher  level  of  operation  and  with  a  significant  modification  in 
purpose. 

Normative  success  shows  fairly  smooth  and  rapid  development  from 
LA  7  to  LA  13,  but  with  delayed  fulfillment  (presumably  due  to  individual 
differences)  between  LA's  13-19.  The  relatively  long  tail  produces  a  large 
SD  and  a  noticeable  difference  between  median  and  mean  values.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  (note  interlacing  graphs)  is  .90  years  in  favor  of  the  boys 
(with  higher  SD  for  the  girls).  CR  .60.  The  mean  total  norm  is  11.20  years, 
SD  3.21.  The  total  mean  versus  total  median  difference  is  1.07  years  in 
favor  of  the  median. 

The  performances  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  show  a  marked  tendency 
toward  later  acquisition  in  SA  versus  normative  LA  groups,  but  success 
reaches  only  the  23-percentile  at  SA  11-12.  This  difference  is  only  partly 
due  to  environmental  restriction  or  lack  of  stimulation,  since  -1-F  and  +N0 
scores  serve  to  offset  such  lack  of  opportunity  or  occasion.  Moreover  there 
is  no  serious  prohibition  to  such  performance  in  the  institution  at  which 
these  subjects  reside.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  40  per 
cent  at  SA  12  (N=15),  43  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N=7),  67  per  cent  at  SA  14 
(N=6),  100  per  cent  at  SA  15  (N=4)  and  80  per  cent  at  SA  16  (N=5). 


— 1 

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Item  81:     Answers  ads;  purchases  hy  mail. 

Med.  Mean  SD  CR  Med.  Mean  BD        OR 

M:              9.50  10.75  2.59  N    :  10.13  11.20  8.21 

F:            10.21  11.65  3.67  FM:  -           -  - 

D:  -.90  .60        D    : 


202- 


iTKlf  SPECmCATION 


Item  84.  (LA  11.58)  Enjoys  books,  newspapers,  magazines. 


nL^nX/sXaJ^  X^vX-aX/'^J.^ 


This  item  requires 
about  sixth-grade  lit- 
eracy as  compared 
with  fourth-grade  for 
Item  73. 


The  item  is  defined  as  the  useful  application  of  reading  achicTement  for 
pFactical  information  or  personal  enjoyment  in  reading  sources  such  as 
story  or  news  columns  in  newspapers,  magazines,  books  of  fiction,  adven- 
ttoire,  travel,  and  so  on.  There  is  some  presumption  that  this  degree  of  read- 
iing  promotes  the  extension  of  self-education  as  well  as  personal  pleasure. 
The  item  assumes  that  ample  reading  material  is  generally  accessible 
either  at  or  outside  the  home,  and  further  assumes  some  inclination  on  the 
part  of  the  S  to  seek  out  such  reading  opportunities  rather  than  merely 
to  respond  to  them  when  readily  available.  The  item  may  also  include  more 
extended  reading  of  catalogs  than  is  called  for  by  Item  81,  more  serious 
reading  of  advertisements,  and  other  socially  useful  reading  activities. 


Performance  on  this  item  matures  normatively  between  LA's  10-13, 
with  one  partial  success  at  LA  9  and  four  partial  failures  between  LA's 
14-17  years.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .35  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR 
.46.  The  mean  total  norm  is  11,58  years,  SD  1.63. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  delayed  success  in  SA  versus  normative 
LA  groups,  reaching  the  35-percentile  at  SA  11-12.  The  fragmentary  data 
beyond  SA  11-12  show  47  per  cent  of  passes  at  SA  12  (N  =  15),  86  per 
cent  at  SA  13  (N=7),  and  100  per  cent  at  SA's  14,  15  and  16  (N=6,  4  and 
5  respectively). 


Communication 


203 


% 

PL! 
100 

90 

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Item  84;  Enjoys  hooks,  netcspapers,  magazines. 

Med.     Mean  8D         CR  Med.     Mean       SB         CR 

M:  11.33     11.75  1.55  N    :  11.65     11.58      1.63 

F:  11.14  ?  11.40  1.69  FM:  -  -  - 

D:  .35  .46        D    : 


The  normative  performance  on  this  item  represents  sixth- 
grade  capitalization  of  reading  achievement  for  social  purposes, 
which  is  not  attained  by  all  subjects  until  LA  17  years.  Even 
the  highest  grade  morons  seldom  succeed  in  academic  subjects 
beyond  the  6th  school  grade.  This  is  confirmed  by  the  relativeb/" 
small  numbers  represented  below  SA  12,  and  even  these  are 
apparently  scored  generously  as  to  the  useful  outcome  of  such 
reading.  Eighth-grade  academic  success  represents  about  the 
average  school  attainment  for  most  people  of  adolescent  years 
and  beyond. 


Item  90.  (LA  14.95)  Communicates  by  letter. 

This  item  extends  Item  78  by  requiring  more  serious  pur- 
pose and  more  serious  content  of  written  communication. 


The  item  includes  the  writing  of  substantial  business  or  social  letters  to 
persons  other  than  (or  in  addition  to)  personal  friends,  the  exchange  of 
letters  for  giving  and  receiving  of  serious  information,  the  giving  or  ac- 
knowledging of  serious  instructions,  and  the  exchange  of  significant  per- 
sonal or  general  news.  The  item  therefore  involves  something  more  than 
merely  friendly  or  perfunctory  "chit-chat''  correspondence  and  puts,  a 
premium  on  the  use  of  corresponding  for  mature  purposes.  It  a!so 
represents  a  more  sophisticated  extension  of  Item  31. 


204 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  pro- 
gression for  this  item 
shows  a  fairly  steady- 
though  not  very  rapid 
evolution  between  LA's 
10-19  years.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  ,40 
years,  in  favor  of  the 
girls,  CR  .33.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  14.95  years. 
SD  2.59. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
(graph  omitted)  show 
only  one  partial  success 
(at  SA  10)  which  may  be 
a  mistaken  or  over-gen- 
erous score. 


,  (Boraal  by  aex>i^ 


Item  90:     Communicates  by  letter. 

Med.    Mean      8D        CR 
M:  15.79     15.15 

F:  15.00     14.75 


2,33 

2.81 


D: 
Tot. 


.40 


^3 


15.64    14.95      2,59 


This  item  normatively  represents  about  Sth-grade  or  early 
high-school  level  of  scholastic  attainment.  The  fact  that  it  is 
ultimately  passed  by  all  of  the  normative  S's,  many  of  whom 
have  not  had  formal  schooling  beyond  the  8th  grade,  shows  good 
capitalization  of  writing  for  practical  purposes.  Similarly,  the 
absence  of  success  on  this  item  for  the  feeble-minded  subjects 
confirms  the  observation  that  few  of  them  reach  8th-grade  at- 
tainment and  still  fewer  make  practical  use  of  such  attainment. 


Item  91.  (LA  15.35)  Follows  current  events. 


GOMMUNICATION 


205 


This  item  extends  Item  84.  It  involves  mature  reading,  seri- 
ous conversation,  intelligent  use  of  radio,  attendance  at  lectures, 
and  so  on  as  a  means  of  keeping  vi^ell-informed.  The  level  of 
activity  involved  is  presumed  to  be  above  eighth-grade  equiv- 
alent as  to  content  and  difficulty. 


The  item  is  formulated  so  as  to  include  the  intelligent  discussion  of 
general  news,  national  and  local  sports,  scientific  and  cultural  developments, 
political  and  economic  progress,  or  general  events  of  wide  interest.  ^  It 
further  assumes  continued  interest  in  such  news  and  the  use  of  information 
so  gained  for  critical  evaluation  or  controversial  discussion.  The  item 
therefore  assumes  that  the  S  keeps  himself  informed  in  various  ways 
on  matters  of  broad  social  interest  which  in  the  long  run  increase  his 
value  as  a  citizen  or  have  some  serious  bearing  on  his  affairs  and 
community  welfare.  Performance  obviously  should  rate  well  above  petty 
news-mongering. 

The  normative  maturation  progresses  rather  regularly  for  the  boys, 
and  by  serrated  stages  for  the  girls,  between  LA's  12-19,  with  one  par- 
tial success  at  LA  11  and  three  failures  after  LA  19.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  1.20  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .91. 
The  mean  total  norm  is 
15.35  years,  SD  2.86.  The 
mean  versus  median  dif- 
ference is  1.04  years  in 
favor  of  the  median. 

The  feeble-minded  sub- 
jects show  no  success  on 
this  item  up  to  SA  11-12. 
The  fragmentary  data 
beyond  SA  11  show  1 
success  at  SA  12  (N= 
15),  1  at  SA  13  (N=7), 
1  at  SA  14  (N=6),  1  at 
SA  15  (N=4)  and  4  at 
SA  16  (N=5). 


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4... 

LA  (normal  by  sex)" 


Item  91:     Follows  current  events. 


M: 
F: 
D: 

Tot.: 


Med.    Mean 
14.25     14.75 
15.17?  15.95 
-1.20 
14.31     15.35 


8D 
2.51 
3.06 

2.86 


CR 


.91 


The  definition  of  this  item  would  lead  one  to  expect  its  mat- 
uration as  an  average  adult  item.  However,  it  is  readily  passed 
by  high-school  students.  Among  adults  of  less  than  10th  grade 
attainment  it  reflects  a  good  capitalization  of  education  or  a 
form  of  communication  which  functions  rather  independently  of 
formal  iastruction.  This  is  to  be  desired,  since  otherwise  formal 
schooling  would  constitute  a  specific  environmental  advantage  to 
some  subjects  and  its  lack  a  handicap  to  others. 


206  Item  Specification 

Summary.  In  summarizing  this  category  we  may  profitably 
collect  the  comments  scattered  throughout  the  items.  We  are  not 
here  directly  concerned  with  the  psychological  development  of 
language  nor  with  specific  educational  achievement,  but  rather 
with  the  social  evolution  of  language  use  and  with  various  means 
and  significant  levels  of  communication.  The  early  items  deal 
with  the  elementary  genesis  of  immediate  conversation  while 
the  later  items  deal  with  rather  general  and  (in  our  society) 
easily  acquired  employment  of  reading  and  writing  for  remote, 
delayed  and  recorded  speech. 

The  use  of  literacy  has  here  been  conceived  as  relatively 
independent  of  need  for  formal  schooling  since  there  are  many 
non-scholastic  avenues  by  means  of  which  literacy  may  be  ac- 
quired. Likewise,  the  normal  sequences  of  reading  and  writing 
have  been  ignored  in  favor  of  a  progression  that  indicates  the 
most  readily  evaluated  evidences  of  maturation  in  communica- 
tion. These  progressions  as  to  literacy  have  been  only  loosely 
related  to  school  grade  attainment.  The  tise  of  literacy  is 
observed  as  coming  either  before,  after,  or  independently  of 
equivalent  school-grade  standing.  Successful  advance  in  educa- 
tion, whether  formally  or  informally  obtained,  and  with  due 
regard  for  economic  factors,  is  itself  one  expression  of  compe- 
tence which  both  yields  and  reflects  other  social  assets. 

Our  first  formulation  of  the  items  involving  literacy  was 
based  on  school  achievement,  whether  formally  or  informally 
accomplished,  and  especially  on  the  essential  relation  of  reading 
and  writing  to  other  forms  of  educational  attainment.  These 
early  formulations  were  seriously  revised  because  of  the  wide- 
spread differences  encountered  in  educational  attainment  and 
the  recognition  of  the  fact  that  the  average  adult  has  not  gone 
beyond  the  eighth  grade  in  formal  academic  schooling.  Further 
consideration  of  these  questions  also  revealed  a  rather  weak 
capitalization  of  educational  advantages  for  social  purposes,  a 
fact  so  obvious  as  to  constitute  a  major  professional  educational 
problem  in  conceiving  as  well  as  accomplishing  the  social  objec- 
tives of  public  education. 

Another  difficulty  in  the  communication  items  is  found  in 
the  environmental  limitations  which  surround  education  and  the 
fact  that  the  education  most  commonly  referred  to  is  still  called 
compulsory  education.  The  self-initiated  educational  attain- 
ments are  even  unjustly  disparaged  in  contrast  with  achieve- 
ments gained  from  formal  schooling.  The  items  in  this  category 
therefore  as  applied  to  environments  and  persons  of  limited 
educational  opportunity  cannot  but  reflect  the  social  consequen- 


Communication  207 

ces  of  such  limitation,  for  there  seems  to  be  a  definite  correlation 
between  social  progress  and  the  level  of  man's  education,  or  even 
the  extent  to  which  education  is  a  special  privilege.  It  would 
therefore  seem  that  not  too  much  allowance  should  be  made  for 
lack  of  educational  opportunity  in  measuring  social  competence ; 
the  evaluation  of  that  competence  in  terms  of  the  individual's 
undeveloped  aptitudes  as  compared  with  his  actual  performances 
requires  realistic  orientation. 

The  professional  educator  and  many  examiners  may  wonder 
why  we  have  not  tapped  such  other  educational  disciplines  as 
arithmetic,  geography,  history,  literature,  the  sciences,  and  so 
on.  Our  reason  for  this  is  that  we  encountered  insurmountable 
difficulties  in  obtaining  information  as  to  how  these  disciplines 
are  socially  capitalized.  Thus  even  so  fundamental  a  subject  as 
arithmetic  seems  to  be  developed  in  school  to  much  higher  levels 
than  the  subsequent  purposes  to  which  this  is  put.  Consequently 
we  were  obliged  to  incorporate  such  evidence  indirectly  in  other 
items.  We  have  even  encountered  serious  difficulty  in  determin- 
ing the  extent  to  which  children  read  and  write ;  either  little  use 
is  made  of  these  accomplishments  or  the  informants  are  not 
intimately  acquainted  with  the  manner  or  extent  to  which  educa- 
tional achievements  are  capitalized. 

The  social  consequences  of  education  beyond  the  elementary 
three  R's  are  observed  chiefly  in  occupational  pursuits  and  in 
general  intellectual  culture.  The  subject-matter  of  the  educa- 
tional branches  beyond  about  the  6th  school  grade  will  therefore 
be  found  capitalized  in  the  occupational  items  beyond  Item  98, 
in  the  self-direction  items  beyond  Item  99  and  in  the  socializa- 
tion items  beyond  103.  This  affords  indirect  evaluation  of  scho- 
lastic knowledge  by  employing  the  more  general  situations  in 
which  such  knowledge  is  socially  capitalized.  We  do  not  overlook 
the  rather  personal  advantages  of  education  for  enriched  living, 
but  such  outcomes  are  not  strictly  relevant  for  present  purposes. 

It  has  also  been  difficult  to  include  the  use  of  specialized 
means  of  communications  (e.g.,  telegraph,  typewriter,  short- 
hand and  other  recording  devices,  publicity  and  advertising 
mediums,  scientific  and  mathematical  symbolism)  because  of 
environmental,  scholastic  and  economic  differences.  Moreover, 
while  these  greatly  facilitate  they  do  not  entirely  replace  more 
natural,  more  fundamental,  more  readily  available  and  there- 
fore more  universal  modes  of  expression. 

Some  comment  may  also  be  offered  regarding  the  use  of 
these  items  with  handicapped  subjects  such  as  the  blind,  the 
deaf,  the  crippled  and  the  feeble-minded.  The  primary  handicap 


208  Item  Specification 

of  the  feeble-minded  is  constitutional  mental  subnormality,  in 
respect  to  which  the  educational  handicap  is  a  secondary  con- 
sequence. The  deaf  are  handicapped  vocally  and  aurally  and  this 
indirectly  produces  some  linguistic  handicaps  even  when  means 
of  linguistic  expression  (manual  signs,  lip-reading,  touch  read- 
ing, and  so  on)  are  formally  acquired.  The  communication  diffi- 
culties encountered  by  blind,  crippled  and  neurologically  affected 
subjects  are  self-evident  and  must  be  taken  into  account  at  face 
value  and  appraised  accordingly.  The  blind  and  the  deaf  may 
be  competent  among  themselves  in  language  use  and  devices. 
Yet  they  may  be  incompetent  in  relation  to  the  hearing  and  the 
sighted,  and  vice  versa. 

These  principles  become  extended  when  related  to  foreign 
languages  or  to  regional  differences  in  language  which  some- 
times result  in  embarrassments  or  inadequacies  in  the  absence 
of  interpreters.  Similar  difficulties  are  encountered  in  the 
"language"  of  money.  (We  are  reminded  of  the  provincial  New 
Yorker  who  expected  to  be  annoyed  in  Rome,  patronized  in 
Paris,  confused  in  Moscow  and  so-sorried  in  Tokyo,  but  thought 
that  he  had  a  right  to  get  on  smoothly  in  London  and  Chicago!) 

Sex  differences  for  items  in  this  category  are  negligible  as 
to  amounts  and  low  as  to  reliabilities.  The  highest  CR  is  1.00 
(Item  58)  with  M-F  difference  of  .35  years  (one-fourteenth  of 
its  base).  The  largest  M-P  difference  is  1.20  years  (Item  91) 
with  CR  .91  (D  one-twelfth  of  its  base).  However,  such  slight 
differences  as  are  apparent  are  in  favor  of  the  normative  girls 
on  12  of  the  15  items. 

In  contrast,  the  N-FM  differences  are  relatively  large 
and  reliable  for  nearly  all  the  items.  This  is  in  accord  with  the 
well-recognized  linguistic  and  literate  inferiority  of  the  feeble- 
minded in  spite  of  advanced  life  age  and  intensive  instruction — 
an  observation  which  adds  weight  to  the  significance  of  this 
category  for  social  competence.  The  CR's  for  the  six  items  for 
which  the  data  yield  standard  computations  range  from  2.48  to 
4.58  (Items  17,  34,  44,  58,  63  and  73).  The  corresponding  D's 
range  from  .25  years  (Item  17)  to  1.98  years  (Item  63),  are 
relatively  large  in  proportion  to  their  bases,  and  are  all  in  favor 
of  the  normative  subjects.  The  last  6  of  the  15  items  do  not 
yield  FM  SA  means. 


Communication 


209 


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210  Item  Specification 


Self-Direction 


"Say  Pap,  how  soon  will  I  be  old  enough 

to  do  just  as  I  please?" 
"I  don't  know.  Son;  nobody  has  ever  lived 

that  long  yet."  — Unidentified 


The  concept  of  social  competence  as  herein  set  forth  places 
heavy  emphasis  on  personal  independence  and  the  exercise  of 
individual  responsibility.  The  principal  component  of  such  self- 
sufficiency  is  self-direction.  It  is  to  a  greater  or  less  degree 
present  at  the  core  of  all  items  of  the  Scale  and  corresponds  in 
principle  to  Spearman's  g  factor  in  general  intelligence.  How- 
ever, some  behavior  so  specifically  reveals  this  factor  as  to 
warrant  a  special  category  of  self-direction  items. 

No  doubt  our  point  of  view  has  been  specifically  influenced 
by  experience  with  the  feeble-minded.  Viewing  mental  deficiency 
in  terms  of  its  effects,  weakness  in  self -direction  is  a  conspicuous 
characteristic  of  the  feeble-minded,  and  one  which  colors  all 
their  social  performances.  Since  this  scale  was  originally  de- 
signed to  measure  the  social  competence  of  the  feeble-minded, 
the  emphasis  on  self -direction  throughout  the  Scale  as  a  whole 
is  readily  appreciated. 

In  the  early  maturation  of  social  competence,  self -direction 
appears  as  self-help  and  these  modes  of  behavior  have  already 
been  presented.  In  the  locomotion  category,  self-direction  is 
again  apparent  but  with  a  different  content;  and  similarly  for 
the  other  categories  of  the  Scale.  But  a  definite  group  of  items 
may  now  be  formulated  which  reveal  self-direction  somewhat 
more  specifically.  These  include  items  which  do  not  seem  to  fit 
in  very  well  in  other  groupings  from  the  point  of  view  of  logical 
arrangement. 

The  period  of  adolescence  is  specially  characterized  by  the 
desire  for  social  freedom  in  personal  conduct.  This  expresses 
itself  in  a  gradual  breaking  away  from  authority,  which  is  fol- 
lowed in  early  adulthood  by  the  assumption  of  responsibility  and 
authority  for  others.  This  is  most  clearly  expressed  in  the  han- 
dling of  money,  in  the  looking  after  all  of  one's  needs,  and  finally 
in  performing  these  same  offices  for  others. 

It  is  therefore  not  surprising  that  specific  self-direction 
items  appear  principally  in  the  adolescent  and  adult  age-periods. 


Self-Direction 


211 


Nor  should  it  be  surprising  if  failure  on  these  items  is  prevalent 
among  the  feeble-minded  both  in  and  out  of  institutions  since 
the  mentally  deficient  seldom  reach,  and  never  by  definition 
exceed,  the  adolescent  overall  level  of  social  maturation.  Some 
feeble-minded  at  large  in  the  community  have  complete  freedom 
in  these  respects,  but  they  perform  these  items  with  such 
limited  success  as  to  reveal  their  feeble-mindedness  in  these 
very  ways. 

In  scoring  these  items  the  examiner  will  therefore  need  to 
be  careful  to  pay  special  attention  to  the  manner  in  which,  and 
the  conditions  under  which,  these  items  are  performed  since  in 
them  will  be  found  a  definite  reflection  of  that  prudent  foresight 
and  successful  management  of  one's  own  affairs  which  is  essen- 
tial to  all  acceptable  definitions  of  social  adequacy. 

The  14  items  in  this  category  extend  from  LA  5  to  LA 
25+,  with  1  each  at  years  V,  IX,  XI  and  XII,  3  at  XV-XVIII, 
4  at  XVIII-XX,  2  at  XX-XXV,  and  1  at  XXV+.  That  is,  10  of 
the  14  items  cluster  around  late  adolescence  and  early  adult- 
hood. Two  series  are  apparent,  one  with  regard  for  money  and 
purchasing  (Items  60,  76,  87,  94,  95,  100,  102,  105  and  112), 
the  other  dealing  with  self -controlled  behavior  (Items  83,  93, 
97,  99  and  101).  Two  of  the  last-mentioned  (Items  93  and  99) 
might  have  been  placed  in  the  locomotion  category,  but  seem 
more  suitably  oriented  here.  Item  97  is  somewhat  apart  from 
the  others  in  scope. 


Item  60.  (LA  5.83)  Is  trusted  with  money. 


Most  societies  put  a 
special  premium  on  the  ac- 
quisition and  conservation  of 
material  possessions.  In  our 
culture  this  is  most  readily 
expressed  in  the  careful  use  of 
money.  Economic  responsibil- 
ity is  therefore  a  major  con- 
sideration in  the  later  stages 
of  social  development.  An 
early  evidence  of  this  respon- 
sibility is  observed  when  the 
individual  is  trusted  with 
small  sums  of  money  at  the 
messenger  level. 


212 


Item  Specification 


Here  the  S  is  deemed  to  be  careful  of  money  when  sent  to  make  pay- 
ments or  explicit  purchases.  At  this  level  it  is  not  necessary  that  the  S 
be  able  to  make  change,  but  only  that  he  be  responsible  in  the  care  of 
money  and  in  using  it  as  directed.  Since  money  is  such  a  general  medium 
of  obtaining  satisfaction,  it  offers  obvious  temptations  and  its  careful  use 
involves  a  definite  degree  of  trustworthiness. 

The  normative  data  show  rapid  and  steady  progression  between  LA's 
4-8  years,  without  appreciable  sex  difference.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.15  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  OR  .28.  The  total  norm  is  5.83  years,  SD  1.12. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  striking  retardation  in  SA  versus  norma- 
tive LA  groups.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  2.35  years,  CR  5.21.  There 
is,  of  course,  some  but  not  complete  prohibition  to  this  performance  in  the 
institutional  environment  of  these  subjects,  but  this  is  evident  only  at 
those  SA's  where  the  value  of  money  is  not  properly  regarded,  and  is 
somewhat  offset  by  the  use  of  +F  and  -f  NO  scores.  That  the  item  reaches 
full  success  at  SA  11-12  is  evidence  of  this  and  of  the  dependence  of  such 
success  on  SA  itself.  Indeed,  this  is  the  only  item  in  this  category  on  which 
the  feeble-minded  S's  in  our  item  validation  sample  ultimately  attain 
100  per  cent  of  passes.  Fragmentary  data  for  S's  beyond  SA  11-12  are 
included  in  the  item  discussion  where  pertinent,  but  are  without  sta- 
tistical import  except  as  trends.  In  some  instances  N-FM  median  dif- 
ferences are  noted  when  the  SA  ogive  for  feeble-minded  S's  below 
SA  11-12  reaches  or  passes  the  50-percentile  but  without  attaining  the 
100-percentile.  Such  comparisons  should  be  considered  as  only  suggestive 
rather  than  dependable. 


. 

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Item  60:    7s  trusted  with  money. 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

SD 

M: 

5.50 

5.90 

1.00 

N     : 

5.59 

5.83 

1.12 

F: 

5.64 

5.75 

1.23 

FM: 

8.23 

8.18 

1.62 

D: 

.15 

.28 

D    : 

-2.35 

CR 


5.21 


Self-Direction 


213 


Item  76.  (LA  9.38)  Makes  minor  purchases. 

This  extends  Item  60  to  the  actual  expenditure  of  money, 
as  in  the  purchasing  of  useful  articles,  especially  those  involving 
some  choice  and  discretion  as  to  their  nature  and  cost. 

In  this  item  the  S  (1) 
exercises  some  discreet 
choice  in  the  purchase 
of  useful  minor  articles 
and  safeguards  them  as 
the  equivalent  of  money, 
(2)  displays  care  and 
judgment  in  the  hand- 
ling of  money,  and  (3) 
makes  correct  change 
in  small  amounts  (say 
about  one  dollar  or 
more).  In  making  such 
minor  purchases  (e.s>, 
school  supplies,  toilet  art- 
icles, trinkets,  little  gifts) 
the  S  is  relatively  inde- 
pendent or  can  be  relied 
upon  to  follow  instruc- 
tions of  a  more  serious 
extent  than  those  inr 
volved  in  Item  60,  and 
which  may  involve  judg- 
ment  in  carrying  out  in- 
structions. In  performing  this  item  the  money  involved  may  be  the 
property  of  the  S  himself  (allowance,  gifts,  earnings),  or  may  be 
entrusted  to  him  as  the  agent  for  others. 

This  performance  matures  normatively  between  LA's  7-12  for  the  boys, 
and  8-11  for  the  girls.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .25  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls,  CR  .40.   The  mean  total  norm  is  9.38  years,  SD  1.34. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  delayed  maturation  in  SA  versus  normative 
LA  intervals,  reaching  65  per  cent  of  success  at  SA  11-12.  The  median  N-FM 
difference  is  1.65  years  in  favor  of  the  normal  subjects.  A  satisfactory 
mean  SA  cannot  be  cal- 
culated. The  fragmentary 
data  beyond  SA  11-12 
show  90  per  cent  at  SA 
12  (N=15),  86  per  cent 
atSAlS  (N=7),100per 
cent  at  SA  14  (N=6), 
SA  15  (N=4)  and  SA 
16  (N=5).  These  data 
are  only  slightly  influ- 
enced by  +N0  and  +F 
scores.  The  comment  on 
Item  60  applies  with 
equal  weight  to  this  item. 


% 

PLl 

100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
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Item  76 :     Makes  minor  purchases. 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

9.36 

9.50 

1.37 

N    : 

9.25 

9.38 

1.34 

F: 

8.50 

9.25 

1.31 

FM: 

10.90 

- 

- 

D: 

.25 

.40 

D    : 

- 

CB 


214  Item  Specification 

Item  83.  (LA  11.45)  Is  left  to  care  far  self  or  others. 

This  is  one  of  a  group  of  items  involving  accountability  for 
personal  safety  and  discreet  behavior  when  freed  from  the 
supervision  of  elders  for  protracted  periods.  On  first  considera- 
tion this  appears  to  be  a  special  case  of  "locomotion"  and  the 
examiner  may  be  surprised  to  find  that  contrary  to  first  expecta- 
tion it  represents  a  higher  stage  of  performance  than  Item  77 
(Goes  about  home  town  freely) .  This  is  explained  in  part  by  the 
fact  that  in  the  locomotion  category  the  individual  has  definite 
behavior  goals,  and  the  absorption  of  interest  in  these  tends  to 
make  their  performance  simpler  than  does  remaining  in  a  given 
place.  In  other  words,  when  the  individual  is  left  to  his  own 
devices  for  protracted  periods  without  supervision  the  trust- 
worthiness involved  seems  to  be  of  higher  degree.  The  difficulty 
on  this  item  is  increased  by  the  assumption  that  the  S  may  not 
only  be  left  to  care  for  himself,  but  may  be  made  responsible 
for  the  supervision  of  others  independently  of  adult  social  con- 
tacts and  consequently  is  relied  on  in  case  of  emergency. 

The  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  is  sometimes  left  alone,  or  on  his  own 
responsibility,  for  an  hour  or  longer  at  home  or  at  work  and  in  so  doing  is 
successful  in  directing  his  own  behavior,  or  is  responsible  for  the  behavior 
of  others  who  may  be  left  in  his  care.  It  is  assumed  that  in  so  doing  the  S 
is  resourceful  regarding  such  emergencies  (fire,  callers,  accidents,  phone 
calls)  as  may  arise  and  is  trustworthy  in  respect  to  his  personal  conduct, 
that  is,  does  not  get  into  difficulties  under  these  circumstances.  Consequent- 
ly this  apparently  simple  item  is  seen  to  involve  not  only  responsibility  for 
the  S's  own  actions,  but  his  responsibility  in  relation  to  events  which  he 
might  or  might  not  initiate  and  in  respect  to  which  his  behavior  is  not 
controlled  or  assisted  by  others. 

This  performance  shows  rather  slow  and  somewhat  irregular  matura- 
tion, with  consequently  high  SD,  between  LA's  7-16.  There  is  a  sex  differ- 
ence of  from  two  to  four  years  between  LA's  10-14  which  presumably  re- 
flects the  greater  hazards,  or  fear  of  hazards  which  attend  girls  in  the 
period  just  before  adolescence.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.40  years  in 
favor  of  the  boys,  CR  1.13.  The  mean  total  norm  is  11.45  years,  SD  2.72. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  are  not  markedly  different  from  the  normative 
in  success  on  this  item  in  SA  versus  LA  groups  up  to  SA  11-12.  This  may 
be  due  to  more  generous  scoring  since  the  item  would  be  more  readily 
passed  in  the  institutional  environment  because  of  closer  social  contacts. 
Moreover,  most  of  these  successes  are  +F  and  +N0  scores  which  on  this 
item  are  rather  difficult  to  assign.  Few  institutionalized  feeble-minded  chil- 
dren or  adults  are  left  alone  or  to  care  for  others  except  under  unusual 
circumstances. 

The  progression  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  does  not  reach  the  median 
within  the  range  of  the  validation.  Hence  conventional  central  tendency 
comparisons  cannot  be  made.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show 
67  per  cent  at  SA  12  (N=:15),  100  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N=7),  83  per  cent 
at  SA  14  (N=6)  and  100  per  cent  for  SA's  15  and  16  (N=4  and  5). 


Self-Direction 


215 


^T 

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100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
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LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA  (     FM  tot.     ) 

10    11    12    13    14    1 

\     16     1 

\... 

Item  83:     Is  left  to  care  for  self  or  others. 
Med.     Mean       8D         CR  Med.     Mean       SD 


M:  10.00     10.75       2.33 

F:  13.63     12.15       2.91 

D:  -1.40 


1.13 


N 

FM 

D 


CR 


11.25     11.45       2.72 


Item  87.  (LA  13.00)  Buys  own  clothing  accessories. 

This  extends  Item 
76,  involving  wider 
choice  and  discretion, 
larger  sums  and  more 
responsible  use  of 
money,  and  increased 
responsibility  for  de- 
cisions. The  item  has 
been  made  specific  to 
the  purchase  of  arti- 
cles of  clothing  in 
order  to  avoid  the 
variable  complica- 
tions encountered  in 
the  general  expendi- 
ture of  money,  the 
purchase  of  clothing 
being  a  relatively 
universal  type  of  ex- 
penditure. 

In  satisfying  this  item  the  money  used  may   be  either  supplied   or 
earned,  or  the  purchases  may  be  made  on  authorized  credit.  The  articles 


216 


Item  Specification 


purchased  are  defined  as  minor  articles  of  personal  clothing  such  as  ties, 
ribbons,  undergarments,  gloves,  shoes,  and  so  on,  not  including  coats,  suits, 
dresses,  hats.  The  selections  are  presumed  to  be  made  with  due  regard  to 
suitability,  cost  and  fit.  The  S  is  therefore  required  to  have  some  judg- 
ment of  values  in  respect  to  prices,  materials,  quality,  style,  and  in  gen- 
eral to  "get  his  money's  worth."  The  purchases  are  also  presumed  to  be 
appropriate  to  the  S's  financial  resources  or  social  status,  bearing  in  mind 
that  one  person's  necessity  might  be  another's  extravagance,  and  that  thrift 
la  relative  to  the  S's  station  in  life  as  well  as  to  his  age. 

The  normative  matiiration  shows  some  minor  lapses  within  a  gener- 
ally consistent  progression.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .10  years  in  favor 
of  the  girls,  CR  .09.  The  mean  total  norm  is  13.00  years,  SD  2.29. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  reach  20  per  cent  of  successes  at  SA  11-12. 
Among  the  scattered  subjects  beyond  this  limit  success  continues  to  pro- 
gress with  SA  in  +F,  +N0  and  full  plus  scores.  Hence  the  data  reveal  the 
difficulty  of  the  item  rather  than  lack  of  opportunity  for  expression.  The 
fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  10  per  cent  at  SA  12  (N=15),  29 
per  cent  at  SA  13  (N=7),  75  per  cent  at  SA  14  (N=6),  75  per  cent  at 
SA  15  (N=4)  and  100  per  cent  at  SA  16  (N=5). 


" 

% 

PLI 

100 

90 
80 
70 
RO 

JS 

A 

J 

f^' 

/ 

/ 

ter 

«87 

A 

, 

f 

ten 

M7 

K 

/ 

w 

A 

V 

•^ 

' 

Y 

J 

7 ' 

SO 
40 
30 
20 
10 

/ 

F 

— 1 

( 

y 

-/' 

y 

( 

/ 

M 

N 

/ 

J 

V 

1^ 

J 

../ 

■f- 

-F^ 

<4 

1 

LA 

noi 

e*- 

_^ 

;j 

A 

"1 
noi 

■ma 

lb 

f  se 

IJ 

2   1 

3   J 

4   1 

5  ] 

6    1 

7    1 

B--. 

( 
ma 

ra 

!.,' 

1    1 

2   1 

3    1 

(     1 

i     1 

i  I 

1  1 

]•- 

Item  87:     Buys  own  clothing  accessories. 


Med.     Mean 

8D 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

13.07     13.05 

2.32 

N    : 

12.75 

13.00 

2.29 

F: 

12.50  ?  12.95 

2.27 

FM: 

- 

- 

. 

D: 

.10 

.09 

D    : 

_ 

CR 


Among  the  normative  S's  individual  differences  are  evident 
as  to  personal  versus  parental  dominance.  This  produces  the 
minor  irregularities  of  the  normative  curve,  but  progressive 
maturation  ultimately  obliterates  these  differences. 


Self-Direction 


217 


Item  93  (LA  16.13)  Goes  out  unsupervised  daytime. 


This  extends  Item 
83,  and  the  same  gen- 
eral principles  apply. 
Again  at  first  thought 
it  seems  surprising 
that  this  item  should 
standardize  at  a  later 
age  than  Item  92,  or 
even  Item  77,  in  the 
locomotion  category. 
The  item  might  of 
course,  with  Item  99, 
be  included  in  the 


locomotion  category  for  examination  purposes. 


The  normative  progressions  are  smooth  and  rapid  between  LA's  15-19 
years  following  "false  starts"  at  LA's  13  and  14.  The  mean  M-F  differ- 
ence is  .25  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  ,27.  The  mean  total  norm  is  16.13 
years,  SD  1.96. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  below  SA  12  succeed  on  this  item.  The 
fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  a  small  scattering  of  S's  with 
-}-  F,  -j-  NO,  plus-minus  or  full  plus  scores.  Of  course,  many  feeble-minded 
subjects  outside  of  institutions  obtain  intermittent  success  on  this  item, 
and  some  attain  full  suc- 


cess. However,  the  ever- 
present  marginal  nature 
of  this  success  in  terms 
of  prudent  behavior  is 
one  indication  of  such 
non-institutional  h  i  g  h  - 
grade  mental  deficiency. 
We  are  of  course  here 
referring  to  the  genu- 
inely feeble-minded  and 
not  to  S's  of  mere  intel- 
lectual subnormality,  or 
the  so-called  subcultural 
normal  persons,  who  su- 
perficially resemble  the 
feeble-minded  on  verbal 
mental  tests  (see  ab- 
stract p.  466  on  the  in- 
heritance of  social  com- 
petence). 


% 


PLl 

JS 

100 

f 

/■ 

90 

tem 

93 

/ 

'J 

80 

/ 

/ 

/ 

60 

f 

/ 

QA 

/ 

1 

/•- 

10 

M- 

-*■; 

1 

Vf 

( 

llr 

Jr 

r^ 

;-l 

5    1 

!    1 

,-1 

\    I 

>    2 

o:;': 

LA  (normal  by  sex)" 


Item  93:      Goes  out  unsupervised  daytime. 


M: 
F: 
D: 
Tot. 


Med. 
16.21 
16.25 

16.23 


Mean 
16.00 
16.25 
-.25 
16.13 


8D 
2.31 
1.52 

1.96 


CB 


.27 


218  Item  Specification 

The  item  is  defined  as  leaving  home  during  the  daytime  without  ac- 
counting for  one's  movements  in  advance  except  as  a  matter  of  courtesy. 
In  this  the  S  displays  prudent  behavior  with  respect  to  the  opportunities 
for  misconduct  inherent  in  the  related  activities. 

In  this  item  the  S  is  not  merely  moving  from  place  to  place 
with  fairly  definite  absorption  of  interest  in  definite  objectives, 
but  is  left  to  his  own  devices  without  specific  reference  to  loco- 
motion. Consequently  there  is  broader  opportunity  for  getting 
into  trouble,  greater  need  for  trustworthiness,  more  occasion  for 
resourcefulness  in  meeting  emergencies,  and  a  larger  measure 
of  self -direction  and  judgment.  This  item  therefore,  like  Items 
83  and  99,  puts  more  of  a  premium  upon  discreet  conduct  and 
wholesome  interests  than  do  the  locomotion  items.  Once  more, 
we  do  not  insist  on  the  categorical  segregation  of  items  as 
having  more  than  expository  value.  Yet  there  do  seem  to  be 
significant  behavior  conditions  for  some  items  which  at  first 
thought  appear  to  be  integral  with  others  (cf.  discussion 
introducing  Item  83,  p.  214). 


Item  94.  (LA  16.53)  Has  own  spending  money. 

This  enlarges  the  intent  of  Item  60  and  is  somewhat  more 
generalized  in  scope  than  Items  76  and  87. 

In  performing  this  item  the  S  is  presumed  to  have  independent  and 
continuing  control  of  small  sums  of  money  which  he  regards  as  his  own 
whether  earned  or  received  as  gifts  or  allowance.  The  S  uses  this  money 
with  reasonable  discretion  for  satisfying  fairly  serious  personal  needs 
rather  than  for  the  gratification  of  merely  personal  or  immediate  pleasures. 
The  amount  of  money  is  of  some  moment  (a  dollar  or  more  per  week),  and 
must  be  regarded  in  relation  to  the  social  or  economic  status  of  the  S.  If 
the  amounts  are  too  small,  then  there  is  not  sufficient  opportunity  for  the 
exercise  of  discretion  or  the  satisfaction  of  genuine  needs  as  opposed  to 
"candy"  money.  Moreover,  the  amount  of  money  in  relation  to  its  intended 
uses  somewhat  arbitrarily  influences  the  age  location  of  the  item.  Children 
not  infrequently  have  smaller  sums  of  money  and,  in  some  instances,  even 
larger  amounts  than  one  dollar  per  week  as  conventional  allowances.  This 
is  usually  expended  at  earlier  ages  rather  ingenuously  for  indulgences 
rather  than  for  necessities. 

The  item  is  superior  to  Item  87,  and  some  cue  as  to  its  significance  is 
found  in  this  fact.  The  examiner,  therefore,  will  need  to  be  cautious  in  not 
scoring  this  item  too  lightly.  There  is  some  presumption  that  the  S  may 
earn  or  is  capable  of  earning  a  fair  sum  of  money  beyond  childish  allow- 
ances and  over  which  he  exercises  control.  There  is  also  some  expectation 
of  significant  minor  monetary  obligations,  and  consequently  a  fair  amount 
of  money  is  needed.  Nevertheless,  the  emphasis  is  not  so  much  on  the 
amount  of  money,  since  this  varies  so  greatly  from  person  to  person,  but 
rather  on  the  manner  in  which  this  money  is  conserved  or  expended  for 
purposes  which  at  earlier  ages  would  have  been  attended  to  by  the  S's 
elders.  Care  must  also  be  taken  not  to  credit  this  item  on  the  basis  of  per- 
formances in  Item  87  or  76  alone.  In  general  such  "telescoping"  of  items 
is  to  be  avoided. 


Self-Direction 


219 


The  normative  maturation  pro- 
gresses smoothly  between  LA's 
15-19  except  for  a  minor  spurt 
for  the  boys  at  LA  16  and  a  false 
start  for  both  sexes  at  LA's  13  and 
14.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is 
.35  years  in  favor  of  the  boys, 
CR  .40.  The  mean  total  norm 
is  16.53  years,  SD  1.86. 

The  comment  for  the  feeble- 
minded S's  is  the  same  as  for 
Item  93. 


PLUS 

100 

/ 

80 

Item 

94 

j 

f\ 

/ 

60 

50 
40 

)^ 

W-«- 

1  , 

• 

/ 

/"• — 

-F 

20 

10 

■ 

,Af1 

i 

«. 

J. 

0  '(^2  '  13     11     15     16     17     18     19     1 

y.. 

LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


Item  94: 

Has 

own  spending 

Med. 

Mean       8D 

M: 

16.07 

16.35       1.94 

F: 

16.70 

16.70       1.77 

D: 

-.35 

Tot.: 

16.25 

16.53       1.86 

CR 


.40 


Item  95.  (LA  17.37)  Buys  all  own  clothing. 


This  enlarges  Item 
87  as  to  more  ex- 
pensive articles  of 
clothing,  those  less 
frequently  purchased, 
and  those  requiring 
greater  care  of  selec- 
tion as  to  style,  fit  and 
quality. 


In  performing  this  item,  the  S  usually  selects  and  purchases  his  own 
clothing  and  eflfects,  including  dresses,  suits,  overcoats,  hats,  or  at  least 
makes  his  own  final  decisions  in  their  selection  and  for  their  payment.  In 
so  doing  he  may  be  assisted  or  advised  in  matters  of  taste,  fit,  style,  cost, 
and  so  on,  as  adults  assist  or  advise  each  other  in  these  respects,  but  the 
final  responsibility  for  decisions  and  choice  rests  with  him.  These  purchases 
may  be  made  with  his  own  earned  money,  or  from  a  substantial  allowance, 
or  by  means  of  authorized  credit. 


220 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  maturation  is 
rapid  and  smooth  between  LA's 
16-19  (except  for  a  lapse  for  the 
boys  at  LA's  17  and  18),  with 
one  subject  of  each  sex  succeeding 
at  LA  14,  and  one  of  each  sex 
failing  at  LA  19.  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .45  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls,  CR  .58.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  17.37  years,  SD  1.66. 

The  comment  for  the  feeble- 
minded subjects  follows  in  principle 
the  comment  for  Item  93. 


Item  9£ 

:    Buys  all  own  do 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

17.37  ? 

17.60 

1.86 

P: 

17.17 

17.15 

1.39 

D: 

.45 

Tot.: 

17.50 

17.37 

1.66 

0«13'1'J     15     16     17     18     la     20    21. 
LA  (normal  by  sex)" 


CB 


.58 


Item  97.  (LA  18.48)  Looks  after  own  health. 

One  important  detail  of  self -direction  is  the  conservation 
of  personal  well-being.  This  involves  well-advised  precautions  in 
preventive  hygiene,  avoiding  infectious  diseases,  obtaining  and 
following  suitable  treatment  in  case  of  acute  illness,  organic 
difficulty,  accident  and  other  medical  needs.  The  significance 
of  these  needs  is  not  diminished  by  the  fact  that  so  few  people 
effectively  attend  to  them.  The  exercise  of  this  responsibility  is 
difficult  to  define  because  so  frequently  the  proper  safeguards 
to  health  involve  the  assistance  of  others. 

The  item  requires  that  the  S  observe  reasonable  safeguards  in  preven- 
tive hygiene,  guard  against  illnesses  and  accidents,  care  for  himself  with 
respect  to  minor  ailments,  and  properly  employ  medical,  dental  or  nursing 
assistance  as  needed  in  the  more  personal  aspects  of  health  conservation; 
i.e.,  the  ultimate  responsibility  for  sound  health  rests  with  the  S  rather 
than  with  someone  else  and  is  successfully  discharged  (with  due  regard  for 
emergencies  or  situations  beyond  his  personal  reasonable  control).  This 
responsibility  is  rather  difficult  to  determine  in  practice  because  of  the 
varying  degrees  of  responsibility  that  the  S  observes  at  different  life  ages. 
The  item  is  also  rendered  somewhat  uncertain  by  the  all  too  common  in- 
attention to  health  prophylaxis  by  some,  and  by  too  much  apprehension  in 
these  matters  by  others.  In  our  empirical  data,  however,  the  maturation 
ogive  for  this  item  is  not  appreciably  different  from  other  items  of  the 
same  age  level.  The  examiner  must  not  be  too  critical  of  the  judgment  dis- 
played by  the  S  in  performing  this  item  (in  view  of  marked  differences  in 
personal  attitudes  toward  health  matters),  but  rather  by  the  extent  to 
which  he  does  this  for  himself,  since  there  is  such  a  wide  variety  of  atti- 
tudes, judgment  and  resourcefulness,  in  respect  to  health  practices.  On  th« 


Self-Direction 


221 


other  hand,  successful  performance  in  these  regards  seems  good  evidence 
of  competence.  Obtaining  dental  care  is  one  of  the  simpler  details  of  this 
item  which  taken  alone  does  not  fully  satisfy  the  item. 

The  normative  maturation  is  fairly  steep  between  LA's  16-19,  with 
one  partial  success  at  LA  15,  a  spurt  for  the  boys  at  LA  16  and  a  lapse  for 
the  girls  at  LA  18,  and  delayed  individual  success  at  LA's  20-22.    The 
mean  M-F   difference  is 
.15  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys,  CR  .18.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  18.48  years, 
SD  1.71. 

For  the  feeble-minded 
S's  there  is  one  partial 
success  (probably  gener- 
ous scoring)  at  SA  11-12. 
Scattered  individual  -1-F, 
H-NO  and  full  plus  scores 
appear  thereafter  but  are 
not  significant  for  statis- 
tical comparison.  Within 
the  institution,  health  su- 
pervision is  extended  to 
substantially  all  subjects ; 
outside  the  institution 
this  item  seems  per- 
formed by  the  feeble- 
minded only  marginally 
if  at  all. 

Item 


PLl 

r— 
IS 

\ 

100 

,^ 

^ 

80 
70 
60 
50 
40 

[ten 

97 

/ 

• 

/•' 

1 

/ 

/ 

■t — 

-F 

/' 

1 " 
1 

/• 

20 

M- 

A 

■J 

10 

/ 

f  > 

1 

V 

«. 

■■t 

0«14'15-1(J    17    18    19     20    21    22    23    i4... 

M: 
P: 
D: 
Tot. 


LA  (normal  by  sex)*^ 

97:     Looks  after  own  health. 

Med.    Mean  8D        CR 

18.61     18.40  1.72 

18.88     18.55  1.75 

-.15  .18 

18.74     18.48  1.71 


Item  99.  (LA  18.70)  Goes  out  nights  unrestricted. 

This  is  an  enlargement  of  Item  93,  and  the  discussion  for 

Items  83  and  93 
applies  here  with  sub- 
stantially equal  force. 
This  item  standard- 
izes at  a  higher  age 
level  than  locomotion 
Item  96,  which  at 
first  thought  seems 
to  include  Item  99. 
Viewed  empirically, 
going  out  at  night 
without  supervision 
in  the  home  area  does 


222 


Item  Specification 


seem   to   require  a  higher   degree   of   responsibility   than   is 
required  when  the  S  is  travelling  at  some  distance  from  home. 

In  satisfying  this  item,  the  S  is  free  to  come  and  go  at  night  without 
supervision,  but  may  as  a  matter  of  courtesy  account  for  his  absence.  This 
responsibility  for  one's  own  actions  after  dark  presents  certain  conduct 
hazards,  and  the  item  requires  that  the  S  show  discretion  in  conduct  and 
does  not  get  into  trouble.  The  item  does  not  require  or  include  staying  out 
all  night.  On  the  contrary,  plus  score  is  allowed  if  the  S  is  required  to  be  at 
home  by  some  stated  hour. 

The  item  shows  rapid  maturation  for  the  normative  boys  between  LA's 
16-19  with  one  success  at  LA  14  and  one  failure  at  LA  22.  For  the  girls 
there  is  relative  delay  in  success  between  LA's  19-22,  with  full  success  at 
LA  24.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .90  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .91. 
The  mean  total  norm  is  18.70  years,  SD  2.14. 

The  comment  for  the  feeble-minded  subjects  follows  the  same  prin- 
ciples as  that  for  Item  93. 


%    PLl 

JS 

100 
90 
80 
7n 

] 

\ 

V 

• 

• 

Iten 

99 

• 

• 

1 

/ 

• 

IV 

• 

/ 

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40 

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t 

[  '^:. 

r?. 

"% 

1 « •• 

LA  (normal  by  sex)i 


Item  99:     Goes  out  nights  unrestricted. 

CR 


.91 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

18.73 

18.25 

1.64 

F: 

19.00 

19.15 

2.46 

D: 

-.90 

Tot.: 

18.79 

18.70 

2.14 

The  normative  sex  difference  on  this  item  between  LA's 
19-22  corresponds  to  the  similar  difference  on  Item  83  between 


Self-Direction 


223 


LA's  10-14,  while  there  is  no  appreciable  sex  difference  on  Item 
93.  This  is  an  interesting  reflection  of  the  greater  social  risks 
which  surround  girls  at  these  ages  (or  are  by  their  elders  as- 
sumed to  be  present)  in  relation  to  the  ability  of  girls  to  cope 
with  potential  hazards. 


Item  100.  (LA  19.68)  Controls  own  major  expenditures. 
This  extends  Items  94  and  95. 

Here  the  S  exercises  wider  discretion  in  the  personal  use  of  money, 
and  increased  responsibility  for  larger  sums  of  money.  The  money  involved 
may  be  earned,  or  may  be  wholly  or  in  part  income  or  allowance,  but  no 
restraints  are  placed  on  its  expenditure  except  as  the  S  may  seek  general 
advice  from  others  where  this  would  reflect  good  judgment  rather  than 
dependence  or  irresponsibility.  The  item  assumes  that  the  S  provides  for 
all  his  financial  needs  without  dictation  and  therefore  assumes  control  of 
a  sufficient  amount  of  money  to  satisfy  these  needs.  In  the  case  of  married 
persons  there  might  of  course  be  some  division  of  responsibility  in  the 
expenditure  of  money,  in  which  event  the  item  is  satisfied  if  the  S  is  im- 
mediately responsible  for  a  certain  department  of  family  or  personal  ex- 
penditures without  dictation  but  perhaps  following  mutual  discussion.  It 
should  be  evident  that  the  personal  command  of  spending  is  warranted  by 
the  manner  of  its  exercise. 

The  principal  normative  maturation  appears  between  LA's  18-20  for 
the  boys  and  between  LA's  18-22  for  the  girls,  with  individual  successes 
and  failures  before  and  after  these  limits.    A  noticeable  sex  difference  in 
favor  of  the  boys  occurs 
at  LA's  20  and  21.  The 
mean   M-F   difference   is       ^, 
.75  years  in  favor  of  the 
boys,  CR  .85.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  19.68,  SD 
1.89. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  no  successes  up  to 
SA  11-12.  Thereafter 
there  are  no  satisfactory 
-l-F  or  +N0  scores.  The 
adult  feeble-minded  out- 
side institutions  may 
pass  the  item  literally 
but  show  marginal  dis- 
cretion in  doing  so.  In- 
deed, really  satisfactory 
success  on  this  and  later 
items  in  this  category 
raises  doubt  as  to  the 
likelihood  of  mental  de- 
ficiency in  a  given  case. 


17  '  18       _ 
LA  (normal  by  sex)=^ 


^r^r 


Item  100:     Controls  own  major  expenditures. 
Med.     Mean       8D         CR 
M:  19.25     19.30       1.71 

F:  20.00     20.05       1.99 

D-  -.75  .85 

Tot.:        19.42    19.68      1.89 


224  Item  Specification 

Item  101.   (LA  20.53)  Assumes  personal  responsibility. 


This  performance  matures  normatively  between  LA's  18-24,  with  a 
minor  sex  difference  in  favor  of  the  boys  at  LA's  20  and  21.  It  is  the  last 
item  in  this  category  which  attains  and  maintains  full  normative 
success.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .45  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .50. 
The  mean  total  norm  is 
20.53  years,  SD  1.90. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this  item 
at  SA  11-12  or  beyond. 
Those  feeble-minded  out- 
side institutions  who 
exercise  this  degree  of 
independence  do  so  with 
only  marginal  success, 
which  is  indeed  the  cru- 
cial measure  of  their 
mental  deficiency.  Bor- 
derline normal  persons 
succeed,  whereas  the 
feeble-minded  fail;  con- 
sequently this  item  is 
another  crucial  indica- 
tion of  social  normality 
versus    deficiency. 


PLl 

100 

90 
80 
70 

JS 

■ 

/ 

f 

item 

101 

-^ 

A 

,  { 

/^' 

f 

)V 

60 

1 

/ 

'^O 

M- 

~^l 

/ 

1/ 

-no 

10 

1 

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' 

10 

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<4., 

mn^ 

s 

J 

3<<'i 

ri 

7     1 

8M 

92 

6- -2 

1"2 

2--2 

3    2 

4    2 

5... 

LA  (normal  by  sex)* 


Item  101: 

Assumes  personal  res 

Med.    Mean      SD 

M: 

19.75     20.30       1.71 

F: 

20.17     20.75       2.07 

D: 

-.45 

Tot.: 

19.86    20.53      1.90 

CR 


.50 


This  item  reflects  a  general  synthesis  of  the  preceding  items  in  this 
category.  It  incorporates  complete  accountability  for  the  personal  direction 
of  the  S's  own  affairs  subject  only  to  such  consultation  with  others  and 
such  conformity  to  social  conventions  as  would  ordinarily  be  expected  of 
young  adults  in  general.  The  item  assumes  that  the  S  will  be  reasonably 
considerate  of  the  comfort  and  welfare  of  others,  and  will  manage  his  own 


Self-Direction 


225 


affairs  with  self-reliance,  prudence  and  foresight.  The  item  of  course  does 
not  assume  that  the  S  is  totally  independent  socially.  On  the  contrary,  in 
his  occupational  activities  he  may  be  subservient  to  others,  and  marriage 
or  family  living  may  require  some  concessions  of  personal  independence 
to  the  amenities  or  necessities  of  group  living.  But  the  S  should  clearly  not 
be  dependent  on  others  for  successful  direction  of  his  personal  activities. 


Item  102.  (LA  about  21.5  +)    Uses  money  providently. 

This  amplifies  Item  100  by  including  thrift  and  foresight 
for  maintaining  what  might  be  called  a  state  of  financial  sol- 
vency. Allowance  must  be  made  for  amount  of  income  in 
relation  to  necessary  obligations  with  due  regard  for  variations 
in  standards  of  living.  In  general  a  Jow  income  with  heavy 
obligations  and  a  favorable  living  standard  will  reveal  success 
more  readily  than  a  high  income  with  few  obligations  and  poor 
standard  of  living.  In  another  sense,  success  on  this  item  is 
intermediate  between  Item  100  and  Item  105. 

To  pass  this  item  the  S  not  only  has  responsible  control  of  his 
income  but  lives  circumspectly  within  it,  meets  his  proper  financial 
obligations  promptly,  maintains  his  credit,  and  avoids  waste  and  extrava- 
gance within  a  standard  of  living  which  is  prudently  related  to  his 
financial  resources  and  obligations.  The  item  therefore  assumes  that  in 
the  use  of  money  there  will  be  a  reasonable  harmony  between  luxuries 
and  necessities,  and  reasonable  discretion  such  as  might  be  reflected  in 
a  balanced  budget  whether  or  not  the  expenditures  are  budgeted  in  fact. 


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Item  102 

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5^6'  17-18     19    20    2 

[     22     23     24     25    26    27    28     29      30 

LA  (normal  hv  sex^'^*^ 

Item  102:     Use. 

f  money  providently. 

Med. 

Mean       8D         OR 

M:            19.83 

_ 

F:             21.00? 

. 

D: 

_ 

Tot 

; 

20 

.06 

. 

. 

226 


Item   Specification 


The  normative  curve  reveals  two  successes  prior  to  LA  18,  fairly  rapid, 
increase  from  LA's  18-22,  and  individual  differences  thereafter  which  pre- 
vent completion  of  the  curve.  Hence  the  conventional  statistical  measures 
cannot  readily  be  employed.  The  boys  show  a  slight  but  inconsistent  advan- 
tage over  the  girls.  Total  median  success  is  at  LA  20  years,  with  estimated 
mean  success  at  about  LA  21  +  for  the  boys,  LA  22  +  for  the  girls  and 
LA  21.5+  for  the  total  (see  discussion  p.  361).  The  calculation  of 
estimated  means  is  disturbed  by  the  long  tail  of  the  distribution  which 
fluctuates  between  70  and  100  per  cent  for  LA's  20-30  +  .  This  only 
confirms  the  common  observation  that  not  all  otherwise  competent 
adults  usually  spend  money  prudently. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  pass  this  item,  nor  is  it  likely  that  the 
mentally  deficient  outside  institutions  would  satisfy  its  requirements  more 
than  marginally. 


Item  105.    (LA  25  +)    Provides  for  future. 

This  enlarges  lUm 
102  by  assuming  that 
in  the  use  of  money 
some  provision  will 
be  made  for  remote 
rather  than  imminent 
expenditures.  The 
item  requires  that  the 
S  retains  his  eco- 
nomic independence 
for  protracted  pe- 
riods and  anticipates 
future  needs.  Allow- 
ance may  be  made  for 
extended  rather  than 
temporary  emergen- 
cies or  financial  ca- 
tastrophies,  but  it  is 
the  anticipated  pro- 
vision for  such  unexpected  events  that  is  reflected  in  the  item. 


For  satisfying  the  item,  the  S  consistently  sets  aside  some  significant 
part  of  his  income  as  bank  savings,  insurance,  investment,  long-time  pur- 
chases, higher  education  of  dependents,  and  the  like,  and  this  is  done  with 
good  financial  judgment.  Thus  the  purchase  of  a  home,  special  home  fur- 
nishings, or  special  personal  effects,  which  have  a  definite  investment  value 
or  which  can  fairly  readily  be  converted  to  cash,  would  be  acceptable.  In 
other  words,  the  item  requires  that  the  S  does  not  consume  his  entire  in- 
come in  maintaining  a  present  standard  of  living  and  that  he  defers  imme- 
diate satisfactions  for  remote  advantages.  The  item  assumes  a  sufficiently 
adequate  income  to  provide  for  the  necessities  of  life,  but  recognizes  that 
the  variations  in  the  standard  of  living  makes  possible  some  providing  for 
the  future  even  at  a  relatively  low  income.  If  the  income  is  considered  too 
small  to  permit  setting  aside  appreciable  sums  for  future  needs,  the  item 
is  scored  minus. 


Self-Direction 

The  normative  matura- 
tion begins  at  LA  19  and 
progresses  slowly  to  me- 
dian success  at  LA  25 
with  individual  differen- 
ces in  success  between  25 
and  85  per  cent  (average 
60  per  cent)  thereafter. 
The  men  excel  the  women 
at  LA'S  19-23,  but  sub- 
sequently fall  definitely 
below  them.  Internal  a- 
nalysis  of  the  data  yields 
no  satisfactory  confirma- 
tion of  speculative  ex- 
planations of  these  M-F 
differences. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this  item, 

iTEJi'' 


227 


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Item  105 

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7^8  ■  19  ■  20    21    22    23    24    US    i6    'it    2S    2&     3o 
LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 

'05:     Provides  for  future. 


Med.     Mean 

M: 

27.70  ? 

F: 

24.85  ? 

D: 

- 

Tot.: 

25.50 

8D 


CR 


The  examiner  must  be  careful  not  to  substitute  apologies 
for  success  in  scoring  this  item.  The  reasons  surrounding  the 
performance  may,  however,  influence  the  interpretation  of  the 
score  assigned.  Yet  even  here  sophistication  is  helpful  since 
many  immediate  luxuries  may  become  regarded  as  necessities, 
and  denying  one's  self  such  present  satisfactions  in  favor  of 
presumptive  later  and  greater  values  requires  a  definitely  su- 
perior degree  of  social  maturation. 


Item  112.    (LA  25  +)    Purchases  for  others. 

This  is  a  superior  form  of  Item  100  and  related  items  by 
extending  monetary  responsibility  from  personal  discretion  to 
acting  as  financial  agent  for  others. 

In  the  performance  of  this  item  the  S  either  makes  or  approves  major 
purchases  beyond  his  own  needs  or  those  of  his  own  household  and  rela- 
tives, and  in  so  doing  displays  adequate  responsibility,  choice  and  financial 
judgment. 

The  item  may  be  considered  in  some  instances  as  an  occupa- 
tion item  and  may  be  so  interpreted,  as  in  the  case  of  buyers  and 
financial  agents.  It  might  in  other  instances  be  regarded  as  a 


228 


Item  Specification 


superior  adult  socialization  item  if  the  performance  represents 
social  assistance  rather  than  a  frank  occupation.  However,  it 
has  been  placed  in  the  self-direction  category  because  of  its 
major  significance  as  extending  this  form  of  assistance  to  others 
as  a  comparatively  rare  degree  of  general  prudence.  Purchasing 
for  others  within  the  ordinary  family  circle  does  not  warrant 
plus  scores. 


The  normative  data 
show  one  partial  success 
for  men  at  LA  21,  one 
full  success  at  LA  25  and 
another  at  LA  27,  and 
one  partial  success  for 
women  at  LA  24.  The 
item  cannot  be  interpre- 
ted statistically  except  as 
revealing  individual  apti- 
tude within  the  superior 
adult  range. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this 
item. 


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Item  112:     Purchases  for  others. 

Med.     Mean      8D        CR 
M:  ... 

F:  .  -  - 

D: 
Tot.: 


SurrhTYiary.  In  summarizing  this  category  we  may  add  that 
a  major  difficulty  was  encountered  in  formulating  these  items  in 
that  they  were  designed  to  allow  for  wide  variation  in  personal 
standards  of  conduct,  social  conventions,  monetary  discretion, 
social  and  economic  status,  scale  of  living  and  other  details  of 
personal-social  accountability.  Care  has  been  exercised  to  avoid 
virtuous  and  moralistic  concepts  of  such  behavior  except  as 
social  competence  involves  certain  relatively  universal  con- 
formity to  accepted  social  standards  of  living  on  the  one  hand 
and  freedom  of  individual  conduct  on  the  other.  The  extent  to 
which  the  formulations  are  fruitful  may  be  inferred  from  the 
consistency  of  the  data  obtained  (1)  as  to  total  normative  pro- 
gressions, (2)  as  to  sex  differences  and  (3)  as  to  normal  versus 


Self-Dieection   ,  229 

feeble-minded  validation.  These  results  are  in  general  accord 
with  expectation;  except  for  a  generally  adequate  formulation 
such  consistent  evidence  could  hardly  have  been  obtained.  Fur- 
ther confirmation  is  found  in  the  consistent  relation  of  items 
in  this  category  to  the  Scale  as  a  whole. 

The  normative  sex  differences  on  these  items  are  of  neg- 
ligible amount  and  low  statistical  reliability.  The  highest  M-F 
CR  is  1.13,  and  the  highest  mean  difference  is  1.40  years  (one- 
eighth  of  its  base),  both  on  Item  83.  All  other  M-F  CR's  are 
below  .92,  and  all  other  D's  are  below  .91  years. 

The  items  show  markedly  inferior  maturation  for  feeble- 
minded SA  groups  compared  with  normative  LA  intervals. 
However,  this  is  not  statistically  proved  because  of  the  limited 
number  of  feeble-minded  subjects  in  the  upper  range  of  matura- 
tion for  these  items.  The  feeble-minded  S's  attain  100  per  cent 
success  on  only  one  item  (Item  60)  with  a  CR  of  5.21  and  a 
mean  difference  of  2.35  years  (nearly  half  its  base)  in  favor 
of  the  normal  subjects. 

Our  observations  oh  the  feeble-minded  outside  institutional 
residence  (estimated  generally  as  90  per  cent  of  all  the  feeble- 
minded) are  somewhat  gratuitous  as  well  as,  speculative.  These 
comments  are  based  on  impressions  gained  from  extensive 
field  experience  rather  than  on  systematic  evidence,  except  as 
reported  on  page  466. 


280 


Item  Specification 


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Socialization  231 

Socialization 

So  you  have  mastered 

mighty  things 

my  son  -  - 

walking  -  -  talking  -  -  thinking 

play  -  -  well  done. 

And  today  -  -  great  wide  world 
beckons  -  -  and  you  go  to  school. 

Have  I  lost  a  little  boy 

have  I  gained  a  man? 

What  is  the  rule 

What  is  the  plan? 

I  must  not  question  the 
mystery  of  you 
I  must  follow  in  your  high- 
way if  I  can.  — Eva  Parshalle 

Social  competence  naturally  involves  social  relationships 
since  the  expression  of  individual  adequacy  matures  within  a 
social  setting.  Few  if  any  persons  are  more  than  partially  or 
temporarily  independent  of  their  social  environment.  Conse- 
quently the  exercise  of  personal  independence  and  personal  re- 
sponsibility must  always  be  gauged  with  reference  to  the  social 
group  as  well  as  to  the  age  level  within  which  these  performan- 
ces are  displayed.  Indeed,  the  social  competence  of  the  individual 
from  one  point  of  view  is  indicated  by  the  extent  to  which  he 
is  accepted  among  his  fellows  as  equal,  inferior  or  superior  to 
his  age  and  cultural-economic  level. 

We  have  elsewhere  observed  that  in  the  first  decade  of  life 
the  individual  is  dominated  by  his  elders,  in  the  second  decade 
acquires  self -dominance,  and  in  the  adult  period  dominates  his 
juniors  and  perhaps  his  elders  or  contemporaries.  This  move- 
ment from  dependence  to  independence  and  then  to  responsibil- 
ity for  others  is  most  clearly  evident  in  these  social  perform- 
ances which  involve  group  relationships.  In  the  periods  of 
childhood  and  youth,  these  relationships  are  most  clearly  evident 
in  play  activity  and  cooperative  group  interests.  These  emerge 
in  the  adult  period  as  altruistic  enterprises  which  advance  the 
welfare  of  associates,  family  and  society  at  large.  Hence  the 
socialization  items  of  this  scale  cover  the  entire  range  of  social 
maturation  from  early  infancy  to  superior  adult  levels. 


232  Item  Specification 

The  term  "self-sufficiency"  has  previously  been  used  rather 
loosely  as  indicative  of  social  competence  as  herein  defined.  This 
may  imply  to  some  readers  a  divorce  of  the  individual  from  his 
social  milieu  and  fellov^s.  On  the  contrary,  such  a  concept  would 
not  rise  above  mere  adequacy  for  sustaining  existence,  whether 
within  or  without  the  social-cultural-economic  setting  in  which 
most  human  beings  grow  up  and  live  their  later  years.  Few  men 
are  sufficient  to  themselves ;  normal  human  living  requires  col- 
laborative association.  Hence  living  merely  by  and  for  self  alone, 
however  adequately  accomplished,  falls  outside  the  bounds  of 
social  competence  as  here  set  forth.  In  the  same  way  our  concept 
of  social  adequacy  is  not  limited  to  mere  self -subsistence  at  a 
marginal  level,  but  assumes  a  spread  of  performances  to  include 
assistance  to  others.  To  be  socially  adequate  may  literally  mean 
just  "getting  along"  or  "getting  by,"  but  is  here  construed  as 
also  involving  some  residue  which  accrues  to  the  general  wel- 
fare. 

We  wish  that  these  intentions  might  have  included  the 
evaluation  of  emotional  maturity  and  dynamic  attitudes  as  criti- 
cal facets  of  total  personality  since  these  are  such  obviously 
potent  factors  in  overall  social  maturation.  Indeed,  we  made  an 
earnest  attempt  to  incorporate  these,  but  without  success  except 
as  they  are  reflected  in  various  ways  in  all  items  and  categories. 
Insofar  as  these  and  other  aspects  of  personality  influence  social 
competence  they  may  be  assayed  by  other  means,  and  such  re- 
sults may  be  employed  in  the  evaluation  of  social  maturity  as 
here  conceived. 

The  items  of  this  category  are  somewhat  difficult  to  formu- 
late at  the  play  activity  levels  because  at  first  thought  they  seem 
irrelevant  to  the  productive  expressions  of  competence  that  have 
been  so  characteristic  of  the  items  previously  presented.  But  the 
evolution  of  play  activity  does  reflect  growth  in  psycho-social 
experience  which  is  something  more  than  psychological  matura- 
tion alone.  Our  problem  is  to  avoid  the  explicit  genesis  of  these 
psychological  phases  of  development,  and  instead  employ  their 
functional  incorporation  in  social  participation. 

Some  comment  is  pertinent  here  regarding  the  scoring  of 
these  items  in  the  face  of  special  disabilities,  such  as  blindness, 
deafness,  crippling,  anti-social  conduct,  mental  disorder  and 
advanced  age.  Equivalent  forms  of  play  may  be  employed  as 
alternatively  acceptable  where  self-evident  and  feasible,  but 
allowances  for  specific  disabilities  should  be  accounted  under 
interpretation  rather  than  under  generous  scoring. 


Socialization 


233 


Among  subjects  with  mental  disorders  or  in  their  senescent 
years  there  is  some  regression  toward  childish  play  normatively 
outgrown  at  intermediate  age  levels.  The  examiner  must  decide 
for  himself  in  such  cases  whether  the  absence  of  play  activity 
of  a  given  sort  represents  immaturity  or  involution.  In  such 
circumstances  the  attending  LA  and  SA  of  the  S  will  afford 
some  clue  to  scoring.  In  the  case  of  feeble-minded  subjects  the 
level  of  activity  may  not  have  been  exceeded  but  its  type  modi- 
fied by  advancing  years,  a  fact  which  is  pertinent  in  those  sub- 
jects whose  inactivity  is  due  to  lack  of  energy  or  initiative 
rather  than  to  immaturity  or  deterioration. 

The  17  items  in  this  category  cover  almost  the  entire  range 
of  the  Scale  (from  Item  4  to  Item  117) .  There  are  no  items  for 
years  II,  VI,  VIII  to  XII  and  XV  to  XX.  Whether  this  dearth 
of  items  between  LA's  8-20  years  is  due  to  weaknesses  of  formu- 
lation or  categorization  is  a  moot  point.  There  is  a  rather  marked 
series  of  socialized  play  and  recreation  items  (27,  46,  56,  59,  69, 
85,  88),  another  series  of  advanced  social  responsibility  (103, 
104,  109,  110,  115,  117),  and  a  minor  series  of  interpersonal 
relations  (4,  14,  49).  Item  68  is  an  odd  item  marking  the  tran- 
sition from  animistic  to  realistic  social  consciousness. 


Item  4.    (LA  .80)    Reaches  for  familiar  persons. 


284 


Item  Specification 


In  early  infancy  the  adult  or  elder  person  assumes  respon- 
sibility for  the  care  of  the  infant  and  ministers  to  his  needs  and 
desires.  A  few  months  after  birth  the  normal  infant  seeks  at- 
tention instead  of  waiting  for  it.  Aside  from  mere  bodily  needs 
and  the  satisfaction  of  immediate  physical  wants,  the  infant 
soon  reveals  a  desire  for  social  attention  on  the  part  of  familiar 
persons. 

At  this  item  level,  the  S  in  various  ways  indicates  a  desire  to  be  taken 
UD  or  fondled  by  such  familiar  persons  as  the  mother,  father,  nurse  or 
elder  sibling,  and  in  so  doing  discriminates  between  familiar  persons  and 
strangers.  This  is  an  early  form  of  the  identification  of  the  individual  with 
his  social  environment  and  reflects  the  growing  recognition  of  those  per- 
sons from  whom  he  may  expect  immediate  assistance  or  comfort.  "Reaches" 
here  means  any  form  of  clear  recognition,  such  as  actual  reaching,  eager 
squirming,  vocalization  or  even  invitational  smiling,  as  an  obvious  distinc- 
tion between  familiar  and  unfamiliar  persons. 


The  normative  data  shovir  70 
per  cent  success  for  both  sexes  in 
the  first  year  (LA  0-1)  and  100  per 
cent  thereafter.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  .30  years. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  show  de- 
layed maturation  in  SA  versus 
normative  LA  groups.  The  mean 
N-FM  diflference  is  .75  years. 


% 

F- 

f 

j 

L 

i 

Iten 

1    4 

0 

1 

i 

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i   .• 

LA  (normal  by  sex)«^ 


.      1      2      3      T 

LA  (normal  tot) 

SA  (     FMtot     ) 


Item 

Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.21 

.30 

F: 

.21 

.30 

D: 

0 

:     Reaches  for  familiar  persona. 
8D        OR  Med.     Mean      8D        CR 

N    :  .21         .30 

FM:  1.05       1.05        .60 

D    :  -.75 

This  item  as  formulated  places  no  emphasis  on  neutral  or 
withdrawal  attitudes  toward  familiar  or  unfamiliar  persons. 
Such  negatively  discriminative  recognition  of  strangers,  or  re- 
sistance towards  unwelcome  approaches  by  familiar  persons, 
might  well  be  incorporated  as  an  item  (e.g.,  Resists  unwelcome 
advances)  between  this  item  and  Item  41. 


Item  14.  (LA  .70)  Demands  personal  attention. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  4  (more  insistence) . 


Socialization 


235 


The  infant  now  "demands"  attention  beyond  mere  care  for  his  physical 
wants.  In  addition  to  mere  fondling  he  indicates  desires  to  be  transported, 
talked  to,  played  with,  or  otherwise  taken  account  of.  In  so  doing,  he  par- 
ticipates to  some  degree  actively  rather  than  as  a  mere  passive  recipient  of 
attention.  The  response  may  be  accepted  from  either  familiar  or  (though 
less  likely)  unfamiliar  persons. 


The  normative  distinction  be- 
tween this  item  and  Item  4  is 
evident  from  the  comparative 
maturation  curves.  The  mean  M-P 
difference  is  .10  years  in  favor  of 
the  girls.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
.70  years,   SD  .48. 

As  for  Item  4,  the  feeble-minded 
S's  show  comparative  retardation 
in  SA  versus  LA  intervals.  The 
mean  N-FM  difference  is  .65  years, 
CR  4.14.  This  difference,  as  well  as 
that  for  Item  4,  might  be  inter- 
preted as  one  early  evidence  of  the 
typical  lack  of  initiative  so  com- 
monly evident  among  feeble-mind- 
ed subjects,  but  such  an  interpreta- 
tion may  be  specious. 


,. 

% 

E>LL 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

S 

F- 

7/ 

/^ 

f 

7 

N- 

/ 

t 

-M 

/    »f-Fft 

i 

1 

'    / 
/ 

1 

/ 

/ 

/ 

1 

1 

I 

i 

f 

Iten 

14 

/ 

Item  14 

/ 
1 

4 

0 
LA< 

I 

nori 

2 
nail 

1... 

* 

)      1      2      3      4 
^  (normal  tot) 

■^ 

SA  (     FMtot     ) 


Med. 

Mean 

M: 

.77 

.75 

F: 

.73 

.65 

D: 

.10 

Item  14:    Demands  personal  attention. 

8D         CR 
.55 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

N    : 

.75 

.70 

.48 

FM: 

1.32 

1.35 

.49 

D    : 

-.65 

CB 


4.14 


While  seeking  attention  from  familiar  persons  the  S  may 
refuse  or  resist  such  ministrations  from  strangers.  Negativism 
toward  strangers  (as  well  as  "repudiation"  of  some  familiar 
persons)  suggests  a  higher  degree  of  social  discrimination  and 
selective  behavior  with  perhaps  more  than  one  definitive  stage. 


Item  27.  (LA  1.50)  Plays  with  other  children. 


The  desire  for  social  association  soon  shifts  from  demands 
on  elders  to  active  relations  with  other  children  of  similar  age. 
At  first  this  takes  the  form  of  playing  in  company  with  others, 
although  such  play  may  be  relatively  independent  or  non-cooper- 
ative. 

To  pass  this  item  the  S  engages  in  social-situation  play  with  or  among 
other  children  of  about  his  own  age  and  some  familiarity,  but  in  so  doing 
does  not  interfere  obnoxiously  with  others,  or  create  disturbances,  and  re- 
quires but  little  oversight  from  his  elders.  The  periods  of  play  may  be 
relatively  brief  and  intermittent,  but  the  tendency  to  get  along  with  others 
is  well  established. 


236 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  maturation  in  this  item  develops  between  LA's  1-2. 
mean  M-F  difference  is 
.10  years,  in  favor  of  the 
girls.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  1.50  years,  SD 
.47. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
show  mild  but  consistent 
retardation  in  SA  versus 
normative  LA  periods. 
The  mean  N-FM  differ- 
ence is  .45  years,  CR 
2.47.  Self-initiated  play 
on  the  part  of  feeble- 
minded children  is  some- 
what less  spontaneous 
and  is  accompanied  by 
more  inter-personal  in- 
terferences than  among 
normal  children.  Note 
also  that  the  mean  LA  of 
the  feeble-minded  sub- 
jects is  about  fifteen 
years  in  advance  of  the 
normative. 


The 


1 

% 

/' 

'' 

/ 

/ 

F- 

-*1 

1 L 
1  j 

-M 

il 
If 

f/ 

li 

Iten 

27 

/ 

0^1 

LA  (normal  by  sex)"^ 


2  3  4 
LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA  (     FMtot.     ) 


Item  27: 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 

1.59 

1.33 


Mean 
1.55 
1.45 

.10 


-SD 


.52 


Plays  with 
CR 


other  children. 


N 

FM 

D 


Med. 

1.45 

1.94 


Mean 
1.50 
1.95 
-.45 


-SD 
.47 
.64 


CR 


2.47 


Item  46.  (LA  3.28)  Plays  cooperatively  at  kindergarten  level. 


Socialization 


237 


As  play  interests  develop,  the  social  relationships  are  extended  from 
independent  play  in  company  with  others  to  coordinate  play  in  partici- 
pation with  others.  Such  coordinated  early  group  play  takes  place  at  a 
simple  level  as  represented  by  kindergarten  and  circle  games,  imaginative 
group  play  (such  as  tea  parties,  doll  play,  family  projections),  or  in 
general  "folk  play"  in  which  mutual  or  reciprocal  action  is  involved.  The 
S  may  be  leader  or  follower,  but  the  play  is  expressive  and  cooperative 
and  is  more  than  fitfully  pursued. 

Normative  success  oc- 
curs between  LA's  2-4 
yearSk  The  mean  M-F 
difference  is  .25  years 
(note  interlacing)  in  fa- 
vor of  the  girls,  CR  .57. 
The  mean  total  norm  is 
3.28  years,  SD  .93. 

The  feeble-minded  S's 
closely  match  the  norma- 
tive. The  mean  N-FM 
difference  is  .08  years,  in 
favor  of  the  feeble-mind- 
ed subjects,  CR  .24.  Al- 
though this  group  play  is 
at  the  kindergarten  level, 
it  should  be  noted  that 
the  average  LA  of  the 
feeble-minded  subjects  is 
in  the  late  adolescent 
years. 

Item  46:    Plays  cooperatively  at  kindergarten  level. 


eg    ■ 

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M- 

4 

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/ 

1    ■ 

1    j 

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46 

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( 

jA  (norma)  by  sex)» 


PU 

100 

90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

JS 

r^ 

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"/ 

t 

J 

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i    4     5    a 

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LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA  (     FWtot.     ) 


Med. 

Mean 

SD 

CR 

Med. 

Mean 

8D 

M: 

3.25 

3.40 

.68 

N    : 

3.23 

3.28 

.93 

F: 

3.17 

3.15 

1.12 

FM: 

3.00 

3.20 

1.15 

D: 

.25 

.57 

D    : 

.08 

CR 


.24 


Item  49.  (LA  3.75)  "Performs"  for  others. 


As  social  expression  develops,  the  child  engages  in  simple  perform- 
ances for  the  entertainment  of  others  by  doing  various  "stunts"  such  as 
reciting,  singing,  dramatizing,  dancing  or  gymnastics.  This  may  be  done 
(1)  for  the  edification  of  children  of  his  own  age,  (2)  as  a  form  of  aggres- 
sive self-expression,  (3)  as  a  means  of  self -satisfying  expression,  or  (4) 
as  an  elementary  form  of  social  entertainment  of  elders.  The  performances 
are  presumed  to  be  fairly  creditable  rather  than  merely  "showing  off"  or 
sentimentally  "cute."  They  may  be  executed  individually  or  with  others. 

The  normative  progression  is  fairly  smooth  and  rapid  between  LA's 
2-5.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  .10  years  in  favor  of  the  girls,  CR  .19.  The 
mean  total  norm  is  3.75  years,  SD  1.12. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  closely  follow  the  normative  curve  at  SA  versus 
LA  intervals  2  and  3,  with  progressive  comparative  delay  thereafter  to 
10  years.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  .70  years  in  favor  of  the  normal 
subjects,  CR  1.31. 


238 


Item  Specification 


^, 

PLUS 

1 

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90 

30 

» 

50 
40 
30 
20 
10 

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^, 

.- 

-  »' 

f 

f 

N-* 

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F- 

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j      6 

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J      9      10    11... 

M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
3.75 
3.90 


Item  49:    '"Performs"  for  others. 

Mean       SD         CR                         Med.  Mean 

.99                       N    :             3.86  3.75 

1.24                      FM;            4,10  4.45 

.19         D     :  -.70 


3.80 

3.70 

.10 


SD 
1.12 
2.05 


CR 


1.31 


Item  56.  (LA  5.13)  Plays  competitive  exercise  games. 


At  about  the  time  the 
child  enters  school  he 
competes  at  play  within 
small  groups  of  children 
of  approximately  similar 
ages.  This  takes  the  form 
of  exercise  games  such 
as  tag,  hide-and-seek, 
jumping  rope,  playing 
marbles,  spinning  tops, 
hopscotch,  statue.  These 
games  involve  some  ap- 
preciation of  simple 
rules,  or  forms  of  play, 
and  some  subservience  to 
these  as  facilitating 
group  cooperation. 


Socialization 


239 


The  normative  development  occurs  rapidly  between  LA's  4-6,  with  one 
partial  success  at  LA  3.  The  mean  M-F  sex  difference  is  .15  years  in  favor 
of  the  boys,  CR  .48.  The  mean  total  norm  is  5.13  years,  SD  .65. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  excel  the  normal  slightly  at  LA's  3  and  4,  and 
then  fall  seriously  behind  them  in  SA  versus  normative  LA  periods.  The 
mean  N-FM  difference  is  1,07  years  in  favor  of  the  normal  subjects,  CR 
1.95.  The  SD  is  comparatively  high  for  the  feeble-minded  S's  because  of 
the  protracted  delay  in  attaining  complete  success.  This  delay  is  affected  by 
the  LA  increases  in  the  later  SA  groups  and  the  loss  of  interest  in  childish 
play  with  advancing  years. 


"i^ 

Pii 

JS 

/■ 

90 
80 
70 

eo 

50 

/ 

/ 

f 

J 

1 

N- 

~*7 

f 

/ 

M- 

fjl 

/ 

/ 

-FR 

I'-* 

-F 

/ 

/ 

19- 

I 

^•. 

40 
30 
20 
10 

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1 

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1 

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56 

fl 

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5A< 

non 

FI 

nal 

(I  to 

tot) 

>     1 

I 

r  1 

\   { 

l  ■  1 

0    1 

i.. 

Med. 

Mean 

SB 

M: 

5.07 

5.05 

.61 

P: 

5.25 

5.20 

.69 

D: 

-.15 

Item  56:    Plays,  competitive  exercise  games. 
CR 


.48 


Med. 

Mean 

8D 

N    : 

5.14 

5.13 

.65 

FM: 

5.50 

6.20 

2.31 

D    : 

-1.07 

CR 


1.95 


In  this  as  in  other  play  items  regard  must  be  had  for 
regional  and  "fashionable**  (temporal)  differences  in  play  inter- 
ests. Variations  also  occor  in  social-economic-cultural  group 
settings.  It  is  impracticable  to  specify  such  variations;  the 
definitions  and  examples  herewith  are  designed  to  convey  a  cen- 
tral theme  for  evaluation,  the  particular  modulations  of  which 
must  be  left  to  the  examiner's  judgment  according  to  local  and 
temporal  circumstances. 


240  Item  Specification 

Item  59.  (LA  5.63)  Plays  simple  table  games. 


In  this  item  the 
play  activity  is  sim- 
plified with  reference 
to  the  degree  of  phys- 
ical activity  involved 
and  somewhat  more 
complicated  as  to  the 
game  patterns  and 
rules.  It  also  em_pha- 
sizes  the  increased 
need  for  harmonious 
group  action. 


The  normative  maturation  is  smooth  and  rapid  between  LA's  4-7.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  .15  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  OR  .33.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  5.63  years,  SD  .98. 

Tfie  feeble-minded  S's  show  definite  retardation  in  SA  versus  LA 
periods.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.87  years,  CR  5.15.  This  difference 
reflects  the  relative  lack  of  sustained  intellectual  and  social  rivalry  so 
apparent  among  feeble-minded  subjects,  rather  than  loss  of  interest  due 
to  relatively  advanced  years. 


LA  (normal  by  sex) 


LA  (normal  tot.) 
SA  (     FM  tot     ) ' 


10    11 


Item  59:  Plays  ^mple  table  games. 

Med.    Mean  8D        CR                         Med.     Mean 

M:              5.38      5.55  .98                     N    :            5.57 

F:               5.70       5.70  .96                      FM:            7.29 
D:                             -.15                      .33         D 


5.63 

7.50 

-1.87 


SB 

.98 

1.25 


CR 


5.15 


Socialization 


241 


The  item  requires  cooperation  with  others  at  table  games  in  taking 
turns,  appreciation  of  goals,  observance  of  rules,  exercise  of  judgment,  and 
friendly  rivalry.  These  nuances  are  to  be  maintained  without  dissension  in 
such  games  at  tiddle-de-winks,  simple  card  games,  dominoes,  checkers, 
spinning  games,  and  so  on.  The  kinds  of  games  will  vary  with  time  and 
place;  the  level  is  beyond  kindergarten  amusements. 

Item  68.  (LA  8.28)  Disavows  literal  Santa  Claus. 

The  child's  early  concepts  of  social  organization  are  tinged 
with  animistic  and  anthropomorphic  ideas  as  reflected  in  various 
myths  and  the  social  preservation  of  primitive  sentiments.  In 
early  infancy  the  child  accepts  these  phantasies  regarding 
fairies,  the  personification  of  objects,  and  the  spiritism  asso- 
ciated with  certain  festivals  and  holidays.  In  later  childhood  the 
literal  significance  of  these  concepts  is  rejected,  but  their  senti- 
mental or  symbolic  values  may  be  retained.  This  release  from 
mythical  to  realistic  attitudes  is  sufficiently  important  in  the 
social  adjustment  of  the  individual  to  serve  as  indicating  a 
definite  stage  of  social  sophistication  which  marks  a  distinct 
turn  in  the  child's  social  orientation.  This  item  is  therefore 
included  to  reveal  this  emergence  from  naive,  animistic  to 
materialistic  attitudes  as  having  a  definite  bearing  on  the 
child's  social  insight. 

To  pass  the  item  the  S  rejects  his  earlier  mythical  notions  and  turns 
to  more  objective  interpretations  of  experience.  "Santa  Claus"  here  is  em- 
ployed as  a  generic  term  for  related  personifications  such  as  fairies,  elves, 
Easter  Rabbit,  goblins,  gremlins,  "bogyman"  and  other  demi-deistic  patrons 
and  devils. 


1 
1 

\%  i 

1 

1 

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LA  (normal  by  sex)^ 


LA  (normal  totj . 
SA(     FMtot     )" 


10    11    12... 


M: 
F: 
D: 


Med. 
8.21 
9.83 


Item  68:    Disavows  literal  Santa  Claus. 
Mean      8D        CB  Med.    Mean 


7.80 
8.75 
-.95 


1.44 
2.00 


1.16 


N  : 
FM: 
D    : 


8.39 
7.08 


8.28 
7.25 
1.03 


8D 
1.81 
1.21 


CB 
2.07 


242  Item  Specification 

The  normative  maturation  for  this  item  occurs  between  LA's  5-10. 
There  is  an  interesting  discrepancy  for  girls  at  LA  9.  The  mean  M-F  dif- 
ference is  .95  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  1.16.  The  mean  total  norm  is 
8.28  years,  SD  1.81. 

The  feeble-minded  S's  pass  the  item  earlier  than  the  normative  S's 
in  SA  versus  LA  intervals.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  1.03  years,  CR 
2,07.  This  suggests  that  the  item  is  materially  influenced  by  LA. 

This  item  is  subject  to  some  misunderstanding.  The  exam- 
iner is  likely  to  confine  the  scoring  to  Santa  Claus  alone  as  the 
Christmas  patron-spirit  rather  than  generically  to  other  anthro- 
pomorphic and  animistic  equivalents.  Some  S's  do  not  for 
various  reasons  "accept"  the  Santa  Claus  myth  in  spite  of  its 
universality  (by  whatever  name  may  be  regionally  conventional). 
There  are  also  marked  individual  and  family  differences  regard- 
ing the  desirability  of  fostering  or  destroying  this  "supersti- 
tion." And  where  shall  the  lines  be  drawn  between  sentimental 
myth,  superstitition  and  whimsical  "rapping  on  wood,"  spiritual 
conceptions  and  religious  beliefs  of  many  kinds?  One  may  also 
question  the  value  of  this  item  as  to  its  relevance  for  measuring 
social  competence  as  herein  conceived. 

We  reply  that  the  belief  in  Santa  Claus  or  equivalent  mythi- 
cal spirits  of  good  and  evil  (as  well  as  in  their  abodes)  is  so 
widespread  in  our  culture  as  to  constitute  environmental  uni- 
versality of  experience.  The  transition  from  ingenuous  literal 
credence  in  such  "unverified  phenomena"  (of  which  Santa  Claus 
is  ordinarily  the  last  to  be  given  up)  to  sentimental  or  symbolic 
sophistication  constitutes  an  early  form  of  ideational-emotional 
conversion  which  has  definite  social  import  and  is  not  always 
without  attendant  attitudinal  trauma.  The  later  religious  con- 
versions so  typical  of  adolescent  reorientation  of  faith  in  theistic 
convictions  and  the  supernatural  are  closely  similar  social  ex- 
periences which  have  even  graver  bearing  on  social  attitudes 
and  consequently  on  social  values.  The  variety  of  that  experi- 
ence, however,  and  the  manifold  forms  of  religious  expression 
encountered  among  adults,  balked  our  several  attempts  t© 
formulate  its  continuing  orderly  maturation  and  practical  per- 
tinence. The  time  of  onset,  or  first  acceptance,  of  such 
"convictions"  might  well  enough  be  conceived  as  substitute 
items. 


Socialization 


243 


Item  69.  (LA  8.28)  Participates  in  pre-adolescent  play. 


The  play  activities 
of  growing  children 
show  such  progres- 
sive modification  as 
to  reveal  definite 
stages  of  social  mat- 
uration. This  is  re- 
flected in  the  accept- 
ance or  rejection  of 
the  individual  in 
groups  of  his  own  age 
level  of  development. 
While  some  older 
children  may  partici- 
pate in  play  activities 
below  their  years, 
and  some  younger 
children  may  be  tol- 
erated in  the  play  activities  of  their  more  grown-up  fellows,  play 
activities  do  gradually  lead  to  a  fusion  of  age-group  interests 
which  are  rather  clearly  diff erentiable. 

In  the  period  of  infancy  and  early  childhood  these  activities 
are  largely  bisexual,  with  boys  and  girls  collaborating  on  equal 
terms.  In  the  pre-adolescent  period  definite  sexual  differentiation 
evolves.  This  is  somewhat  abated  in  later  adolescence  as  the 
sexes  join  in  heterosexual  or  competitive,  folk,  group  and  sports 
activities. 

Boys  here  engage  in  cooperative  team  play  not  requiring  very  highly 
coordinated  skills  or  very  complex  rules,  yet  which  reveal  a  higher  degree 
of  organization  than  the  activities  discussed  in  previous  items.  Or  the  forms 
of  play  pursued  at  earlier  ages  under  simple  rules  become  more  complex 
although  still  rather  loosely  organized,  such  as  (a)  baseball,  football, 
basketball,  hockey  and  the  like,  of  the  "sand-lot"  variety;  (b)  range  games 
such  as  follow-the-leader,  fox  and  geese;  (c)  more  individual  forms  of 
recreation  such  as  hiking,  bicycling,  swimming,  skating,  fishing  or  hunt- 
ing which  may  be  pursued  alone  or  in  the  company  of  a  few  others  of  the 
same  age  or  older. 

Girls,  for  satisfactory  scoring  on  this  item,  engage  in  dramatic  play 
symbolizing  domestic  or  social  situations,  such  as  playing  house,  school  or 
store  (the  reproduction  of  adult  activities  at  a  juvenile  level).  They  may, 
of  course,  also  engage  in  team  play  similar  to  that  of  boys,  but  usually  in 
somewhat  less  vigorous  or  modified  form.  They  may  also  pursue  individual 
and  small-group  recreations  not  requiring  team  organization.  And  some 
girls  may  still  be  accepted  among  boys  as  "good  sports"  on  equivalent 
terms. 


244 


Item  Specification 


The  examiner  will  recognize  that  complete  sex  differentation  in 
play  has  not  yet  taken  place  at  this  level  and  that  while  there  is  some  dif- 
ferentiation in  groups,  this  does  not  necessarily  apply  to  individuals,  as  in 
the  case  of  "torn -boy"  girls  or  of  "sissy"  boys. 

This  is  therefore  one  of  the  few  items  which  may  require  some  distinc- 
tion as  to  sex  in  scoring  the  type  of  activity  although  there  is  little  need 
for  discrimination  as  to  its  level.  The  item  is  considered  passed  if  the  S 
typically  seeks  recreation  in  modes  equivalent  to  those  noted  in  the  preced- 
ing paragraphs.  It  is  permissible  to  score  boys  on  the  activities  ordinarily 
preferred  by  girls,  and  vice  versa. 

The  principal  normative  maturation  is  evident  between  LA's  7-10,  with 
single  successes  at  LA's  5  and  6,  and  a  single  failure  at  LA  11.  The  mean 
M-F  difference  is  .45  years  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .63.  The  mean  total 
norm  is  8.28  years,  SD  1.55. 

The  feeble-minded  validation  curve  closely  parallels  the  normative 
progression  except  for  a  lapse  at  SA  9.  The  curve  falls  slightly  short  of 
full  success  at  SA  11-12.  If  assumed  as  complete  thereafter  (as  is  war- 
ranted by  the  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12),  the  mean  SA  is  8.43 
years,  SD  1.68.  The  mean  N-FM  difference  is  then  .15  years  in  favor  of  the 
normal  subjects,  CR  .29. 


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SA(    FMtot     ) 


Item  69 

Med.    Mean 

M-: 

7.83       8.05 

F: 

8.30       8.50 

D: 

-.45 

Participates  in  pre-adolescent  play. 
SD         CR  Med.     Mean       SD         CR 

1.40  N    :  8.05       8.28       1.55 

1.66  FM:  8.78?     8.43*     1.68* 

.63         D    :  -.15  .29 

*10O%  assumed  at  SA  12-13 


Some  difficulty  is  encountered  in  scoring  this  item  with 
feeble-minded  and  (other)  adult  subjects  because  with  advanced 
years  the  item  may  be  (perhaps  should  be)  outgrown,  restricted 
or  superseded.  Such  scoring  is  provided  for  under  the  general 
rules  for  scoring  (Chap.  7),  which  should  be  resorted  to  for 
overall   considerations   on   all   items.     Relatively   low   energy 


Socialization 


245 


expenditure  or  lack  of  spontaneous  initiative  on  the  part  of  the 
S  should  not  be  too  lightly  ignored  if  present  as  a  limiting 
factor.  Judgment  is  also  required  as  to  substitute  equivalent 
forms  of  expression  which  are  too  variable  for  exposition  here. 


Item  85.  (LA  12.30)  Plays  difficult  games. 

This  item  combines  ex- 
tensions of  Items  59  and 
69.  Here  "games"  is  used 
as  a  generic  term  for 
table-games,  team  sports, 
inter-personal  and  small- 
group  competitive  sports, 
and  recreations  involving 
relatively  high  degrees 
of  complexity  of  rules, 
skills  and  scoring.  These 
include:  Hoyle  card 
games;  Mah  Jong  equiv- 
alents ;  organized  base- 
ball, basketball,  football, 
hockey;  tennis,  golf, 
archery,  competitive  or 
highly  skilled  swimming, 
skating,  fencing,  boxing, 
wrestling,  gymnastics; 
field  and  track  sports; 
chess,  billiards,  pool;  and 
so  on.  These  games  may 
be  played  with  or  with- 
out sex  differentiation, 
may  be  indoor  or  outdoor,  may  be  pursued  singly,  in  pairs,  in  small  groups, 
or  in  teams.  In  any  case  they  require  "strategy,"  skill,  conformity  to  rules, 
and  ability  to  keep  score  in  varying  degrees. 

There  is  considerable  variety  as  to  these  requirements  but  the  item  is 
to  be  scored  plus  when  the  activity  includes  a  degree  and  kind  of  per- 
formance typically  and  consistently  expressed  as  beyond  the  juvenile  level 
but  below  semi-professional  attainment.  The  item  differs  in  social  content 
from  Item  88  and  in  social  intent  from  Item  107. 

The  normative  progression  is  gradual  and  somewhat  irregular  between 
LA's  8-15,  with  subsequent  lag  (individual  failures).  There  is  a  periodic 
sex  difference  at  LA's  11-13  in  favor  of  the  boys.  The  nature  of  the  mat- 
uration curve  suggests  individual  differences  which  are  not  wholly  offset 
by  rapidity  of  genetic  maturation.  The  mean  M-F  difference  is  1.20  years 
in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  .92.  The  mean  total  norm  is  12.30  years,  SD  2.84, 

The  feeble-minded  S's  follow  the  normative  maturation  curve  with  mild 
retardation  in  SA  versus  normative  LA  groups  to  SA  11-12.  A  satisfactory 
central  tendency  score  cannot  be  computed.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond 
SA  11-12  show  33  per  cent  of  passes  at  SA  12  (N  =  15),  57  per  cent  at  SA 
13  (N=:7),  25  per  cent  at  SA  14  (N=6),  and  100  per  cent  at  SA's  15  and 
16  (N=4  and  5  respectively). 


246 


Item  Specification 


ii     i     IB    ll    U    U    M    li    )i    1?    it    IS    28    21 
HA  UMrant  by  sex>i» 


LA  (normol  tot.) 
SA  (    rM  tot.    >  ** 


Item  85:  Plays  difficult  games. 

Med.    Mean      SD  CR                       Med.    Mean 

M:            11^     11.70       2.49  N    :          11.50     12.30 

F:            13.17     12.90      3.03  FM: 

D:                         -1.20  .92      D    : 


SD 

2.84 


CR 


Those  who  are  not  well  acquainted  with  the  feeble-minded 
may  be  surprised  to  learn  (partly  because  the  caption  title  is 
misleading)  that  any  mental  defectives  succeed  on  this  item. 
Such  success  usually  reflects  individual  aptitude  combined  with 
favorable  opportunity  for  expression.  Morale  in  team  work  may 
be  unstable,  and  sustained  persistence  may  be  intermittent.  But 
the  high-grade  feeble-minded  do  engage  in  sports,  table  games, 
team  gymnastics  and  individual  or  small-group  recreational 
skills.  The  Training  School  baseball  team,  for  example,  has  sev- 
eral times  won  the  cup  of  the  local  inter-church  and  YMCA- 
sponsored  leagues.  Football  has  been  less  successful.  Swimming, 
skating,  tennis,  track  sports,  and  so  on  have  their  individual 
"stars"  even  though  of  dubious  magnitude.  Lesser  degrees  of 
success  are  apparent  at  the  level  of  Item  69. 


Item  88.  (LA  14.10)  Engages  in  adolescent  group  activities. 

Item  85  deals  with  games,  sports  and  recreation  in  more 
or  less  competitive  forms  of  social  relations.  Another  and  some- 
what higher  form  of  collaboration  is  found  in  those  group  activ- 
ities in  which  the  emphasis  is  on  social  communion  rather  than 
rivalry.  This  both  overlaps  and  expands  the  content  of  Items 
69  and  85  by  "playing  up"  the  internal  cooperation  rather  than 
the  external  emulation  in  activities  where  friendly  rivalry  is 
not  wholly  absent. 

To  satisfy  this  item  the  S  is  an  active  member  of  a  cooperative  group, 
athletic  team,  social  club,  dramatic,  musical,  literary  or  similar  organiza- 
tion. The  inter-social  aspect  of  such  group  participation  is  considered  more 
important  than  the  activity  in  which  the  group  engages,  whether  card  cinb, 
sewing  circle,  debating  team,  outing  group,  church  league,  or  whatever.  In 


Socialization 


247 


such  connections  the  S  commonly  plans  or  participates  in  friendly  sports, 
dances,  parties,  trips  and  other  enterprises  as  one  of  a  social  quorum  of 
similar  age  and  interests — a  self-determined  group  without  adult  leader- 
ship in  which  the  S  is  accepted  on  equal  terms  with  his  fellows.  The  size 
of  the  group  is  not  so  important  as  its  social  coherence  and  mutual  give  and 
take.  The  S  is  to  be  more  than  merely  tolerated  in  such  groups.  The  item  is 
in  effect  a  junior  level  of  Item  104.  The  kind  of  enterprise  is  less  important 
than  its  cooperative  nature  as  intermediate  between  juvenile  and  adult 
interests. 

Normative  success  emerges  gradually  but  somewhat  irregularly  be- 
tween LA's  10-17,  with  periodic  sex  difference  at  LA's  12,  13  and  15.  The 
mean  M-F  difference  is  1.40  years,  in  favor  of  the  boys,  CR  1.26.  The  mean 
total  norm  is  14.10  years,  SD  2.44. 

The  performance  of  the  feeble-minded  subjects  coincides  with  that  of 
the  normal  subjects  up  to  SA  11-12.  A  comparative  central  tendency  can- 
not be  computed.  The  fragmentary  data  beyond  SA  11-12  show  37  per  cent 
at  SA  12  (N=15),  43  per  cent  at  SA  13  (N=7),  50  per  cent  at  SA  14 
(N=6),  50  per  cent  at  SA  15  (N=4),  and  100  per  cent  at  SA  16  (N=5). 


La  (norma!  by  S3x)s*^  tA  (riormoi  tof.) 

SA  (    FM  »of.    )  ^ 

Item  88:     Engages  in  adolescent  group  activities. 


Med.     Mean  8D  CR 

M:            13.87  ?  13.40  2.44  N 

F:             15.00?  14.80  2.25  FM 

D:                           -1.40  1.26         D 


Med.     Mean       8D         CR 
14.63     14.10      2.44 


Item  103.   (LA  21-22)   Assumes  responsibilities  beyond  own 
needs. 


This  is  logically  an  extension  of  Item  101  of  the  self- 
direction  category,  and  reports  of  its  performance  might  well 
enough  be  obtained  in  that  connection.  The  item  is  placed 
in  the  socialization  category  because  of  its  broad  social  bearing. 


248 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  performance  rises  rapidly  from  LA  17  to  LA  20  but 
then  "tails  off"  somewhat  slowly  and  irregularly.  Maturation  in  the  later 
years  is  apparently  overlaid  with  individual  differences,  especially 
among  the  boys  between 
LA's  19  and  25  years. 
Although  the  graph 
reaches  100  per  cent  of 
passes  at  LA  26  it  is 
slightly  unstable  there- 
after. If  the  individual 
failures  (one  for  men  and 
1.5  for  women)  beyond 
LA  26  are  ignored,  the 
mean  total  norm  is  21.83 
years,  the  mean  versus 
median  difference  2.16 
years  (in  favor  of  the 
median),  and  the  mean 
M-F  difference  1.17  years 
(in  favor  of  the  women). 
None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  pass  this  item. 


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Item  103:     Assumes  responsihilities  beyond  own  needs. 


Med.     Mean 

M: 

20.85  ? 

F: 

20.00 

D: 

. 

Tot.: 

19.67 

8D 


CR 


In  this  item,  the  S  contributes  eflfectively  to  the  care  and  support  of 
others  through  personal  or  financial  assistance,  or  shares  in  these  respon- 
sibilities beyond  the  point  of  merely  managing  his  own  aCFairs  to  a  self- 
sufticient  degree.  These  "others"  may  be  relatives,  dependents,  friends  or 
protegees;  the  activities  may  include  family  responsibilities  or  inter-per- 


Socialization  249 

sonal  and  "good  neighbor"  helpfulness  of  practical  moment;  and  the  per- 
formances may  represent  financial  or  personal  aid.  This  item  represents  the 
mature  onset  of  that  group  of  adult  items  where  family  responsibilities 
are  successfully  discharged  or  altruistic  assistance  is  offered  beyond  merely 
juvenile  obligations  and  sentiments.  The  performances  are  to  be  habitually 
characteristic  of  the  S  rather  than  temporarily  casual  or  intermittent.  The 
beneficiaries  may  vary  in  kind  or  number,  and  the  material  assistance  may 
fluctuate  from  great  to  small,  but  the  S  after  satisfying  his  own  needs  gives 
material  aid  and  comfort  to  others. 


Performance  on  this  item  is  influenced  by  personality  and 
social  circumstances  as  well  as  by  social  maturation.  Introver- 
sion, inculcated  sense  of  extra-personal  obligation,  early  mar- 
riage, fortuitous  situations,  social-economic  circumstances  and 
the  greater  tendency  among  women  to  assume  responsibilities 
for  others  all  combine  to  mingle  individual  differences  with 
maturational  tendencies.  In  earlier  items  the  influence  of  mat- 
uration obscures  such  fortuitous  individual  differences,  but  as 
the  adult  limits  of  maturation  are  approached  the  uniqueness  of 
performance  in  relation  to  other  variables  becomes  more  appar- 
ent. 

The  earlier  items  were  formulated  with  these  considerations 
realistically  in  mind,  with  such  varying  degrees  of  success  as  the 
data  demonstrate.  Other  items  which  proved  less  successful  were 
rejected.  But  between  LA's  20-25  we  must  reckon  with  personal 
differences  rather  than  similarities  in  mature  competence.  Here 
the  items  tend  to  become  alternative  rather  than  sequential,  as 
is  evident  from  the  fact  that  the  total  scores  from  LA's  20-25 
and  thereafter  are  "smoother"  than  are  the  item  scores  in  the 
same  range  (cf.  p.  177). 


Item  104.    (LA  25  +  )    Contributes  to  social  welfare. 

This  is  an  extension  of  Item  103  involving  active  participation  in  so- 
cially helpful  altruistic  ways,  such  as  collaborating  as  an  active  worker  in, 
or  giving  financial  support  to,  community  and  public  welfare  enterprises. 
This  is  revealed  in  personal  activities  outside  the  ordinary  demands  of  one's 
major  occupation  and  by  active  membership  in  semi-professional,  or  semi- 
official social  welfare  groups,  such  as  parent-teacher  associations,  church 
guilds,  health  promotion  groups,  occupational  organizations,  charitable 
activities,  civic  and  cultural  movements,  and  the  like. 

The  progression  for  the  normative  women  proceeds  smoothly  though 
slowly  from  LA  18  to  LA  25;  thereafter  the  maturation  curve  is  irregular, 
reaching  its  highest  point  at  LA  29  with  80  per  cent  success.  Median  per- 
formance is  reached  at  LA  23.17  years.  The  mean  of  successes  for  LA  25 
years  and  beyond  is  at  66  per  cent. 


250 


Item  Specification 


The  normative  men  show  marked  irregularity  of  maturation  and  at 
lower  levels  than  the  women.  An  "awkward"  median  is  calculated  at 
27.38'  years.  The  mean  of  successes  for  LA  25  years  and  beyond  is  at 
56  per  cent. 


The  total  normative 
maturation  is  slow  and 
irregular  with  awkward 
median  success  at  ap- 
proximately 25  years. 
The  mean  of  successes 
after  LA  25  years  is  at 
61  per  cent. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this 
item. 


Item  104: 

M: 
F: 
D: 
Tot.: 


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Contributes  to  social  welfare. 

Med.    Mean      8D        CR 
27.38  ?         -  - 

23.17 

25.03  ?         -  - 


The  activities  encompassed  in  this  item  should  be  such  as  to 
give  reasonable  promise  of  improving  social  welfare  whether  or 
not  at  the  time  such  work  might  seem  somewhat  misguided,  or 
not  in  accord  with  social  tradition.  Here  the  examiner  must  be 
careful  to  avoid  reflecting  his  personal  prejudices  for  or  against 
the  S,  or  in  respect  to  the  type  of  work  done,  or  its  final  social 
value.  The  merit  of  such  work  must  be  judged  in  terms  of  ear- 
nest purpose,  since  promotion  of  social  welfare  proceeds  experi- 
mentally or  somewhat  adventitiously,  and  some  well-intended 
movements  may  prove  socially  harmful.  Merely  bizarre,  "crack- 
pot," or  sentimental  "uplift"  activities,  and  those  pursued  for 
purposes  of  personal  prestige  or  popular  approval  may  well  be 
viewed  with  some  reservations.  The  examiner  must  be  both 
generous  and  cautious  in  evaluating  such  activities.  He  may 
properly  resort  to  the  immediate  public  favor  with  which  they 
are  viewed,  even  though  such  social  endorsement  may  be  ill- 
considered.  Presumably  the  S  will  engage  in  a  sufficient  number 
and  variety  of  such  activities  over  a  considerable  period  of  time 
to  render  suitable  scoring  more  evident  than  might  at  first  be 
supposed  possible. 

Many  occupations  aim  to  improve  social  welfare.  These  in- 
clude such  callings  as  the  ministry,  teaching,  the  arts,  science 


Socialization 


251 


and  invention,  manufacture  and  distribution,  social  welfare, 
politics,  medicine  and  so  on  through  a  long  list.  The  criterion 
here  might  well  be  whether  the  individual's  purpose  in  pursuing 
such  callings  is  altruistic  or  selfish.  A  more  strictly  objective 
criterion,  however,  is  that  of  outcome  rather  than  motive.  It 
therefore  seems  wiser  not  to  credit  this  item  in  terms  of  the  ordi- 
nary consequences  of  those  occupational  callings  which  would 
automatically  include  its  caption  title  (since  this  would  auto- 
matically give  double  credit  to  many  S's  on  Item  106),  but  to 
require  performances  outside  such  callings  or  beyond  their  ordi- 
nary expectation.  Nor  need  the  examiner  concern  himself  too 
seriously  with  the  problems  of  immediate  motive  or  remote  out- 
come. He  will  do  better  to  evaluate  the  performances  at  issue  in 
their  more  immediate  aspects. 


Item  109.    (LA  25+)'   Inspires  confidence. 


This  enlarges  Item  1(^3  111  a  somewhat  different  direction  and  repre- 
sents social  maturity  from  the  standpoint  of  the  substantial  comfort  and 
sound  counsel  which  is  sought  from  the  S  by  others  in  tim^es  of  stress_or 
need.  In  satisfying  this  item  the  S  is  found  to  be  helpful  in  emergencies, 
shews  acknowledged  or  effective  leadership,  is  generally  rated  as  a  person 
of  sound  judgment,  is  consulted  and  relied  upon  in  times  of  serious  trouble, 
or  meritoriously  fills  positions  requiring  trust  and  confidence. 

The  normative  per- 
formance reveals  a  defi- 
nite maturational  trend 
for  women  between  LA's 
22-30.  Among  the  male 
subjects  this  trend  is  less 
obvious  (more  marked  in- 
dividual differences)  and 
at  a  lower  level.  Median 
success  is  approximated 
for  both  sexes  at  LA  30. 
The  mean  of  successes 
for  LA's  25-30  is  at  38 
per  cent  for  the  women, 
25  per  cent  for  the  men, 
and  32  per  cent  for  the 
total. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this  item. 


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Item  109:     Inspires  confidence. 

Med.    Mean       8D         CR 
M:  - 

F:  -  -  - 

D: 
Tot.:  -  -  - 


252 


Item  Specification 


It  might  be  questioned  whether  the  intent  of  this  item  was 
carefully  retained  in  gathering  the  normative  data.  From  a 
jyriori  reasoning  the  item  should  reveal  comparatively  rare  suc- 
cess as  a  special  (personality?)  attainment  at  the  adult  level  of 
maturity.  However,  the  item  is  unavoidably  related  to  occupa- 
tional pursuits  and  its  performance  reveals  many  specific  forms 
in  relation  thereto.  Hence  the  generalized  intent  of  this  item  is 
overshadowed  in  fact  by  the  manifold  forms  of  its  expression. 
Even  so,  one  may  well  question  whether  one-third  of  all  subjects 
of  LA  25  and  over  satisfy  the  requirements  as  formulated. 

As  for  Item  104,  many  occupational  pursuits  automatically 
may  be  assumed  as  including  success  on  this  item.  But  such  suc- 
cess should  be  specifically  assured  rather  than  assumed.  It  is 
particularly  necessary  to  insure  that  a  person  who  fills  a  position 
which  presumes  trust  and  good  judgment  does  in  fact  command 
(even  if  he  may  not  merit)  the  confidence  which  that  position 
implies. 


Item   110.     (LA  25+)     Promotes  civic  progress. 

This  extends  Item  104  to  superior  aspects  of  social  leader- 
ship. 

The  performances  in- 
clude active  enterprise  in 
advancing  civic  welfare 
beyond  the  ordinary  lim- 
its of  good  citizenship 
and  immediate  occupa- 
tion. Evidence  of  this 
may  be  found  in  vigorous 
membership  in  prominent 
professional,  commercial, 
occupational,  fraternal, 
religious,  civic,  political 
and  other  organizations 
for  improving  public  af- 
fairs. 

The  diversity  of  civic 
activities  prevents  their 
inclusive  enumeration. 
The  leadership  involved 
is  presumed  to  represent 
genuine  social  service 
even  though  those  partici- 
pating may  receive  per- 
sonal advantages  there- 
from in  fame,  fortune  or 
other  satisfactions. 

In  this  and  in  similar  items  the  point  of  view  adopted  is 
realistic  rather  than  morally  virtuous.    It  is  tempting  to  ex- 


Socialization 


253 


patiate  on  the  essentially  egocentric  nature  of  all  human 
enterprise,  whether  apparently  to  the  advantage  of  the  person 
represented,  or  whether  pursued  impersonally  or  even  to  his 
private  disadvantage.  Social  progress  rises  above  both  pro- 
tagonists and  antagonists — some  saints  misguidedly  retard 
progress  while  some  nether  souls  unwittingly  advance  it.  Here 
again  the  examiner  is  required  to  exercise  some  discretion  as  to 
the  manner  in  which  as  well  as  the  level  at  which  these  activi- 
ties are  pursued.  Caution  is  also  necessary  in  passing  judgment 
on  the  social  merits  of  the  performances.  Thus,  many  well- 
supported  programs  for  civic  betterment  may  reflect  interests 
which  however  beneficently  conceived  may  really  work  toward 
civic  deterioration.  Again  the  examiner  must  be  careful  to  avoid 
personal  prejudice  respecting  such  movements  as  they  may 
agree  with  or  conflict  with  his  own  social  preconceptions. 


100 
90 


80 
70 


As  in  Item  100,  the  intent  of  this  item  seems  to  have  been  rather  loose- 
ly construed  in  the  normative  scoring.  The  normative  maturation  curve  for 
women  shows  a  rise  and  fall  between  LA's  23-30  +,  with  a  peak  of_  35 
per  cent  at  LA  25  and  a  mean  success  of  18  per  cent  for  the  total  period. 

The  curve  for  men  resem- 
bles the  curve  for  women 
but  with  delayed  onset; 
it  reaches  a  peak  of  25 
per  cent  at  LA  27  but 
thereafter  falls  to  zero 
per  cent  with  mean  suc- 
cess of  7  per  cent  for  the 
total  period.  The  total 
curve  (both  sexes)  shows 
a  mean  success  of  12  per 
cent  for  LA's  22-30+. 
Hence  the  data  suggest 
a  spread  of  individual 
differences  at  a  superior 
adult  level  of  maturity 
rather  than  a  consistent 
maturational  trend.  The 
influence  of  age  seems 
rather   ambiguous. 

None  of  the  feeble- 
minded S's  pass  this 
item. 


60 
50 


40 
30 


20 
10 


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Item  110:     Promotes  civic  progress. 
Med.    Mean      SB        CB 
M:  -  .  _ 

F:  -  -  - 

D:  -  - 

Tot: 


254  Item  Specification 

The  sex  difference  on  this  and  related  items  may  not  be  so 
spurious  as  at  first  appears.  While  the  normative  curves 
"standardize"  (as  scored)  at  higher  than  anticipated  per  cents 
of  passes,  the  sex  difference  may  reveal  a  relative  precocity  of 
social  participation  which  can  plausibly  be  supported  by  other 
evidence.  Women  tend  to  be  socially  aggressive  at  earlier  ages 
than  men,  who  take  up  such  concerns  only  after  having  laid  an 
assured  foundation  of  self-sufficiency. 

Item  115.    (LA  25+)    Shares  community  responsibility. 

This  is  a  higliei  level  of  Item  109.  Its  performance  is  defined  as  par- 
ticipation in  the  general  management  or  control  of  large  financial  respon- 
sibilities, or  extensive  employment,  or  major  leadership  in  such  fields  of 
social  welfare  as  science,  commerce,  the  arts  and  professions,  government, 
and  so  on.  This  may  be  witnessed  by  holding  major  positions  of  public  trust 
or  by  other  civic  and  philanthropic  leadership  where  effective  devotion  to 
human  progress  is  at  a  premium.  The  item  may  be  considered  occupation- 
ally  as  well  as  extra-occupationally. 

None  of  the  normative  S's  pass  this  item.  This  means  that  the  norma- 
tive sample  was  not  sufficiently  extended  to  encounter  even  a  single  in- 
stance of  this  advanced  performance.  In  a  large  random  sample  this  item 
probably  would  not  be  passed  by  more  than  one  person  in  several  hundred 
adults.  And  since  life  age  is  probably  a  relevant  factor,  successful  per- 
formance on  this  item  would  seldom  be  found  below  LA  30+  years.  The 
comment  on  Items  104,  109  and  110  pertains  also  to  this  item  at  higher 
levels  of  distinction.  An  instance  of  individual  success  is  found  in 
Chapter  8,  Illustrative  Examinations  p.  308,  and  of  near  success  on  p.  332. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  pass  this  item. 

The  criterion  of  habitual  performance  may  be  relaxed  al- 
though not  ignored  on  this  item.  Successful  performance  is 
almost  inevitably  transient  between  the  period  of  prime  adult- 
hood and  senescent  decline.  Within  this  age  range  the  S  may 
pass  the  item  over  a  short  period  of  time,  and  may  do  so  for 
numerous  or  varied  performances  of  high  merit  or  for  occasional 
performances  of  very  high  merit.  Still  others  may  succeed  whose 
glory  may  only  be  thrust  upon  them  by  circumstances  rather 
than  merit.  Not  all  of  us  are  rewarded  according  to  effort  or 
desert;  the  criterion  is  again  realistic  rather  than  academic. 


Socialization 


255 


Item  117.    (LA  25+)    Advances  general  welfare. 

This  is  a  superior  aS' 
pect    of    the    preceding 
items    in    this    category 
from  Item  103  forward. 
It   comprehends   the   S's 
having  attained  wide  rec- 
ognition   for    promoting 
human   progress   in   im- 
portant   directions.    This 
may  be  done  through 
very  large  scale  respon- 
sibility  in   the   manage- 
ment of  public  affairs  or 
through  the  impetus 
given   to   movements   of 
fundamental  social  value. 
This  maybe  accomplished 
in     some     instances 
through  occupational  ac- 
tivities   as    a    superior 
aspect  of  Items  114  and 
116.  Thus  the  S  may  have 
promoted  major  scientific 
discoveries  or  inventions, 
created  industrial  enter- 
prises, accomplished  important  public  welfare  legislation,  exercised  out- 
standing leadership  in  religious,  cultural,  patriotic  and  similar  fields,  or 
contributed  heavily  to  philanthropic  enterprises.  While  this  may  be  done 
somewhat  humbly,  or  the  recognition  for  such  efforts  may  be  obscure  or 
delayed,  and  it  must  be  conceded  that  some  individuals  attain  to  positions 
of  public  trust  and  the  management  of  large  affairs  somewhat  adventi- 
tiously, in  general  such  positions  must  be  more  or  less  earned  or  at  least 
held  by  merit. 

None  of  the  normative  S's  pass  this  item.  Comment  on  the  perform- 
ances involved  is  a  fortiori  similar  to  that  for  Item  115. 

None  of  the  feeble-minded  S's  pass  this  item. 


^-N^^X^ 


Summary.  In  review,  the  items  of  this  category  fall  princi- 
pally into  two  major  divisions,  (a)  those  pre-adult  performances 
which  principally  reflect  social  participation  through  play  and 
recreation  which  may  be  taken  at  successive  life-age  stages  as 
measures  of  social  maturation,  and  (b)  those  in  the  adult  period 
which  reflect  contributions  to  general  welfare. 

In  considering  the  recreational  group  the  examiner  will 
meet  with  some  difficulty  from  the  point  of  view  of  individual 
differences  and  the  influence  of  circumstances  of  time  and  place 
and  stimulation.  As  already  noted,  these  activities  vary  with 
social  and  economic  environment,  with  sex,  local  and  temporal 
convention,  personal  inclination,  and  so  on.  Nevertheless  the 


256  Item  Specification 

data  reveal  that  in  spite  of  such  variables  the  items  do  "stand- 
ardize" rather  well,  and  are  reasonably  well  validated,  at  least 
for  these  population  samples. 

The  underlying  influences  must  of  course  be  taken  into 
account  for  purposes  of  interpretation,  but  should  not  be  given 
undue  weight  for  factual  scoring.  Thus  the  naive  versus  the 
sophisticated  type  of  person,  the  inactive  versus  the  active,  the 
introvert  versus  the  extrovert,  will  be  fairly  evident,  but  these 
differences  will  appear  as  qualities  observable  at  all  levels  of 
maturation  rather  than  as  basic  determiners  of  those  levels.  The 
problem  of  item  formulation  has  been  one  of  expressing  the 
levels  at  which  these  qualities  of  performance  least  obscure  the 
degree  of  performance.  In  elaborating  the  limited  scope  of  these 
definitions  the  examiner  will  be  materially  assisted  by  familiar- 
ity with  scales  of  developmental  interest  such  as  those  prepared 
by  Furf ey  and  by  Rogers.  Further  aid  will  be  derived  from  con- 
sulting various  personality  schedules  with  which  the  profes- 
sional student  will  be  familiar. 

A  more  serious  difficulty  is  that  of  evaluating  the  influence 
of  life  age  on  performances  which  are  so  dependent  on  age  that 
they  may  be  outgrown  with  advancing  years.  Such  items  are 
somewhat  dubious  measures  of  social  competence  even  though 
they  may  succeed  in  revealing  social  maturation.  The  general 
and  somewhat  arbitrary  rule  here  is  to  score  as  plus  those  items 
which  are  normally  outgrown  with  advancing  age  provided  the 
higher  items  in  the  same  sequence  are  scored  plus  (see  Chapter 
7).  Strictly  speaking,  the  recreational  items  are  not  true  meas- 
ures of  social  competence  except  as  social  effectiveness  depends 
upon  social  acceptance  as  one  form  of  social  participation  in  a 
gregarious  society. 

The  adult  items  in  this  category  may  be  viewed  as  exten- 
sions of  the  self-direction  items,  but  with  a  beyond-self  orienta- 
tion. It  is  assumed  that  the  performances  are  sustained  for  a 
fairly  definite  period  of  years,  that  they  reflect  basic  social 
competence  rather  than  opportunistic  capitalization  of  circum- 
stances, and  that  (as  the  items  increase  in  difficulty)  they  are 
extended  in  scope  from  the  family  to  the  neighborhood,  the  com- 
munity, the  country,  the  state,  the  nation,  and  even  among 
nations. 

The  student  will  readily  recognize  some  of  the  essential 
difficulties  encountered  in  the  formulation  of  these  adult  social- 
ization items  from  the  point  of  view  of  social  philosophy.  We 
have  been  at  some  pains  to  avoid  the  direct  expression  of  moral 
and  ethical  virtues.  But  these  have  been  by  no  means  ignored. 


Socialization  257 

since  such  values  are  assumed  to  be  somewhat  inherent  in  each 
of  these  performances.  What  is  of  particular  difficulty  in  these 
items  is  to  consider  them  in  terms  of  acknowledged  values.  Yet 
it  is  obvious  that  in  the  beginning  most  movements  for  improv- 
ing social  welfare  are  viewed  conservatively  if  not  with 
suspicion,  and  on  the  other  hand,  many  such  movements  are 
merely  smug  or  self-interested  expressions  of  popularly  ap- 
proved benevolence.  In  the  problems  of  paternalistic  or 
authoritarian  versus  democratic  conduct  of  social  affairs  it 
is  not  for  us  to  pass  judgment,  but  the  formulation  of  these 
social  patterns  must  provide  ample  leeway  for  individual  ex- 
pression in  motivation. 

A  further  difficulty  arises  from  the  fact  that  the  superior 
adult  items  represent  the  extreme  upper  limits  of  social  matu- 
rity as  we  have  been  able  to  conceive  them.  They  cannot  be 
standardized  as  average  performances  because  comparatively 
few  S's  attain  such  performances.  Consequently,  the  calibration 
of  such  items  is  limited  by  the  impracticability  of  obtaining 
extensive  data,  since  by  definition  these  items  will  be  performed 
by  only  the  exceptional  person.  Some  clue  to  this  is  found  in  the 
total-score  standardization  norms,  which  reveal  the  average 
adult  score  at  a  total  of  105  items.  Consequently,  some  of  the 
final  twelve  items  for  the  Scale  as  a  whole  will  be  failed  by  the 
average  adult  and  only  the  exceptionally  superior  person  will 
pass  more  than  a  few  of  these  highest  items.  Indeed,  the  99- 
percentile  score  for  our  experimental  sample  is  only  110  points 
for  LA  25+,  leaving  7  additional  points  for  the  exceptional 
individuals  in  larger  samples.  However,  in  formulating  these 
superior  items,  we  have  been  guided  by  the  achievements  of 
particular  individuals  of  acknowledged  social  leadership  not 
included  in  the  statistical  sample  (Chapter  8,  Cases  II  and  IV). 
In  doing  so  we  have  employed  observations  as  to  the  apparent 
basis  for  such  leadership  in  a  number  of  outstanding  indi- 
viduals, both  as  public  figures  and  those  of  lesser  notoriety 
whose  attainments  have  had  perhaps  deeper  if  not  wider 
acclaim. 

The  normative  sex  differences  in  this  category  are  small  in 
size  and  of  low  statistical  reliability.  The  highest  CR  is  1.26 
(Item  88)  with  a  mean  M-F  difference  of  1.40  years  (one-tenth 
its  base)  in  favor  of  the  boys.  In  the  superior  adult  items  statis- 
tical comparisons  are  not  feasible  because  of  incomplete  norma- 
tive curves,  but  the  women  show  some  tendency  toward  earlier 
success  on  these  items  as  scored. 


258 


Item  Specification 


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Summary  259 

The  feeble-minded  comparisons  show  three  items  (Items 
14,  27  and  59)  with  statistically  significant  CR's  (4.14,  2.47  and 
5.15  respectively)  and  with  amounts  of  difference  fairly  high  in 
proportion  to  their  bases,  though  small  in  amount.  All  of  these 
are  in  favor  of  the  normal  subjects.  Item  68  has  a  CR  of  2.07, 
and  a  mean  N-FM  difference  one-seventh  of  its  base,  in  favor  of 
the  feeble-minded  subjects. 


GENERAL  SUMMARY  OF  ITEM  SPECIFICATION 

In  closing  this  detailed  discussion  of  the  items  of  the  Scale, 
it  is  advisable  to  recapitulate  some  of  the  general  principles  on 
which  the  presentation  has  been  based. 

The  student  who  wishes  to  use  the  Scale  with  only  casual 
effort  may  be  disappointed  that  so  few  concrete  illustrations 
have  been  offered.  To  him  the  discussion  may  seem  too 
generalized  if  not  actually  vague.  We  confess  at  once  that  the 
introduction  of  specific  examples  would  be  a  serious  labor.  We 
have  elsewhere  expressed  the  opinion  that  such  details  are 
both  impracticable  and  inadvisable. 

The  items  have  been  formulated  so  as  to  provide  for  a  wide 
variety  of  activities  and  so  as  to  allow  for  unavoidable  varia- 
tions in  time,  place  and  circumstance.  Consequently,  any  attempt 
to  provide  more  detailed  exposition  would  involve  tedious  multi- 
plication of  specific  circumstances;  far  from  satisfying  the 
examiner  this  might  serve  only  to  confuse  him.  Adequate  ex- 
emplification would  also  tend  to  circumscribe  the  definitions, 
since  many  students  would  be  inclined  to  interpret  the  items  in 
such  specificity  rather  than  in  terms  of  central  principles.  To 
safeguard  the  basic  definitions,  the  equivalents  would  therefore 
need  to  be  sufficiently  numerous  to  provide  for  the  major  con- 
tingencies that  are  most  likely  to  be  encountered,  and  this  in 
itself  would  not  satisfy  the  examiner  because  v/here  he  will 
most  need  help  is  in  the  scoring  of  isolated  examples  of  the  prin- 
ciples involved.  Moreover,  specific  instances  would  be  difficult 
to  formulate  because  we  are  dealing  with  such  a  complex  and 
synthetic  relation  of  abilities,  and  such  a  wide  variety  and  range 
of  subjects.  Instead  we  have  prepared  (Chapter  8)  overall 
orientation  in  a  number  of  illustrative  case  studies  displaying 
the  procedure  as  a  whole. 


260  Item  Specification 

We  have  attempted  to  assist  the  examiner  in  interpreting 
the  items  as  to  the  specific  performances  likely  to  be  encountered 
by  indicating  repeatedly  the  essential  issues  involved.  Indeed,  we 
fear  the  student  may  be  somewhat  harassed  by  the  repetition 
of  these  suggestions  not  only  in  the  general  statement  of 
technique,  but  also  in  the  general  comment  introducing  and 
summarizing  each  category,  and  by  more  specific  comment 
accompanying  each  item.  This  repetition  is  designed  to  remind 
the  examiner  at  various  points  of  the  need  for  thematic 
orientation. 

We  have  suggested  for  example,  that  the  items  are  not  con- 
cerned primarily  with  psychological  ontogenesis,  but  rather  with 
the  capitalization  of  all  personal  aptitudes  for  socially  signifi- 
cant performances.  We  specifically  disclaim  any  attempt  to 
reveal  the  psychological  evolution  of  the  individual  at  any  stage 
or  for  any  process  or  with  any  continuity.  Where  we  have  com- 
m^ented  upon  the  psychological  features  of  the  items  this  has 
been  done  only  to  assist  in  the  interpretation  of  the  items  in 
social  situations.  Hence  we  have  not  attempted  to  present  a 
scheme  of  mental  development  (although  the  item  data  do  afford 
a  substantial  body  of  knowledge  for  genetic  psychology) ,  but  on 
the  contrary  have  avoided  this  as  far  as  is  consistent  with  the 
clear  presentation  of  items  in  terms  of  their  social  relevance. 

Neither  have  we  attempted  to  evaluate  in  any  specific 
manner  the  complex  of  abilities  present  in  given  performances, 
nor  even  to  indicate  in  any  major  way  the  relative  importance 
of  these  elements  in  social  adaptation.  Since  it  may  be  assumed 
that  this  scale  will  be  most  commonly  employed  by  examiners 
with  psychological  orientation  (whether  or  not  they  may  be 
professional  psychologists),  this  caution  can  hardly  be  repeated 
too  often,  namely,  that  our  concept  of  social  maturation  is  based 
on  evidence  of  personal  independence  and  personal  responsibil- 
ity and  on  the  resulting  effect  of  these  as  promoting  the  social 
competence  of  the  individual  in  miscellaneous  directions  and 
from  the  standpoint  of  maturation.  The  examiner  will,  of  course, 
always  be  interested  to  assay  the  conditions  surrounding  the  per- 
formance, and  this  interpretation  of  scores  as  contrasted  with 
the  actual  scoring  itself  becomes  his  clinical  responsibility. 

We  have  at  various  points  suggested  that  the  professional 
examiner  must  be  widely  informed  with  respect  to  the  perform- 
ances which  constitute  the  Scale.  He  is  therefore  expected  to  be 
familiar  with  the  psychological  principles  and  facts  of  human 
development  and  also  with  the  special  fields  of  behavior  in  which 
these  aptitudes  are  reflected.  In  evaluating  the  social  perform- 


Summary  261 

ance  of  infants  and  children  he  must  be  discerning  in  regard  to 
patterns  of  domestic  life,  and  well  oriented  in  child  training, 
parent  education,  and  child  conduct,  with  due  regard  for  the 
cultural  evolution  of  children  and  youth  at  successive  ages.  In 
scoring  the  communication  items  he  must  be  familiar  with  the 
subject-matter  and  practices  of  scholastic  education  and  the 
social  capitalization  of  educational  attainments.  Here  the  exam- 
iner will  note  that  education  usually  progresses  appreciably 
beyond  the  social  uses  to  which  such  achievement  is  put,  and  then 
often  only  fortuitously.  Indeed,  a  major  problem  of  public  educa- 
tion is  to  teach  not  only  tool  and  content  mastery  but  also  their 
uses,  and  to  develop  not  only  personal  initiative  but  also  to  en- 
courage the  habitual  employment  of  such  resourcefulness  in 
everyday  situations.  Similarly  the  examiner  must  be  vddely  in- 
formed as  to  the  conditions  of  employment  and  the  principles 
and  facts  of  industrial  psychology,  occupational  practice  and 
vocational  guidance. 

In  view  of  these  considerations,  it  will  readily  be  appreci- 
ated that  although  the  Scale  may  be  used  crudely  by  a  layman, 
and  even  under  these  conditions  suprisingly  useful  results  will 
often  be  obtained,  the  scientific  and  professional  use  of  the 
Scale  as  an  instrument  of  some  precision  requires  insight, 
resourcefulness  and  a  wide  range  of  professionally  organized 
information  in  addition  to  orientation  in  the  technique  of 
clinical  interview  and  knowledge  of  individual  differences. 

A  further  caution  may  be  offered  regarding  the  formula- 
tion of  items  in  relation  to  their  definition.  Usually  the  definition 
of  the  item  includes  a  wider  scope  of  performance  than  is  epit- 
omized in  the  item  caption.  These  captions  should  not  therefore 
be  taken  too  literally,  but  should  be  considered  as  a  brief  con- 
ventional way  of  presenting  the  main  requirement  of  the  item. 
This  abbreviation  of  item  captions  is  for  convenience  of  treat- 
ment and  provides  a  succinctness  of  expression  which  has  cer- 
tain advantages  for  easy  reference. 

It  is  particularly  important  to  caution  the  examiner  against 
making  too  generous  allowance  for  the  limiting  circumstances 
under  which  an  item  may  be  performed.  The  items  have  been 
defined  and  standardized  so  as  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the 
ordinary  middleclass  U.  S.  American  environment.  Some  clue 
to  the  scoring  of  each  item  is  found  in  its  age  value  as  derived 
from  the  standardization  sample  which  has  provided  the  prelim- 
inary calibration  of  the  Scale.  This  sample  has  been  described 
and  its  representativeness  can  be  judged  in  terms  of  this  descrip- 
tion. Whether  it  is  actually  representative  or  adequate  is  not  at 


262  Item  Specification 

the  moment  a  critical  issue.  Some  standard  must  be  adopted  as 
a  point  of  reference,  and  for  this  purpose  all  that  is  necessary  is 
that  the  population  employed  be  adequately  defined.  To  explore 
a  larger  universe  for  a  more  representative  standardization  is 
certainly  to  be  desired. 

These  difficulties  obtain  for  rural  as  contrasted  with  urban 
areas,  for  variations  in  social  milieu  and  geographical  locus,  for 
differences  in  color,  or  nationality  origins,  for  social-economic 
class  within  a  given  community,  and  so  on.  The  Scale  as  here  re- 
ported gives  one  standard  of  social  maturation.  The  universality 
of  this  standard  can  be  appraised,  or  the  standards  modified, 
only  by  more  extensive  work. 

The  examiner  is  also  cautioned  in  using  the  Scale  with  vari- 
ously handicapped  groups  first  to  employ  the  Scale  as  designed 
for  the  standard  (non-handicapped)  sample.  The  limitations  to 
social  maturity  or  social  competence  which  are  imposed  by  such 
handicaps  as  blindness,  deafness,  crippling,  mental  or  physical 
deterioration,  environmental  restraints,  lack  of  opportunity, 
parental  solicitude,  and  so  on,  should  first  be  expressed  in  the 
actual  performances  of  the  individual  as  reflected  in  the  norma- 
tive scores.  The  influence  of  these  handicaps  from  the  point  of 
view  of  interpretation  as  related  to  the  specific  developmental 
aptitudes  of  different  types  of  subjects  is  a  matter  for  clinical 
evaluation  based  on  differential  norms  established  for  particular 
kinds  and  degrees  of  handicap.  Thus  the  developmental  history 
of  the  individual,  his  social  opportunities,  his  environmental 
limitations,  his  mental,  physical  or  social  restrictions,  his  moti- 
vation, the  conventions  of  time  or  place,  and  so  on,  are  all  factors 
in  the  item  scores  which  should  be  evaluated  after  the  standard 
score  has  been  assigned.  What  is  desired  here  is  to  determine 
the  competence  of  the  individual  in  term.s  of  typical  environ- 
ments and  defined  social  groups,  and  for  this  purpose  no  apology 
or  allowance  should  be  made  for  those  circumstances  outside  the 
individual's  personal  control  which  handicap  his  performance. 
Thus  in  interpreting  the  performance  of  adults,  one  may  find 
it  desirable  not  only  to  determine  the  present  social  competence 
of  the  S,  but  also  to  determine  his  competence  at  his  prime  so 
far  as  this  can  be  determined  by  applying  a  retrospective  exam- 
ination employing  the  Scale  as  at  the  age  when  the  S  was  at  his 
optimum  level  of  development.  This  is  particularly  important 
in  evaluating  the  scores  of  individuals  in  a  state  of  senescence 
or  of  mental  or  physical  deterioration,  and  is  of  critical  impor- 
tance when  the  Scale  is  employed  in  family  history  studies. 

Again  if  the  Scale  is  employed  in  foreign  or  primitive  en- 


Summary  263 

vironments,  no  allowance  need  be  made  initially  for  variations 
in  these  environments  or  in  the  persons  examined  until  after 
the  standard  Scale  has  been  applied.  In  many  environments  the 
standard  items  M^ill  at  once  appear  absurd,  but  this  in  itself 
becomes  a  measure  of  the  variation  in  environment.  The  adapta- 
tion of  the  Scale  to  foreign  and  preliterate  environments  will 
therefore  require,  first,  the  use  of  the  standard  Scale,  and  sec- 
ond, the  derivation  of  substitute  scales  which  would  be  more  in 
accord  with  the  particular  environment  or  types  of  subjects  in 
question.  The  comparison  between  the  standard  Scale  and  such 
substitute  scales  would  then  itself  constitute  a  useful  means  of 
comparing  different  environments  and  different  types  of  sub- 
jects. 

Still  another  consideration  is  the  question  of  sex  differences 
throughout  the  Scale.  We  have  elsewhere  questioned  the  desir- 
ability of  constructing  a  single  scale  which  can  be  employed  with 
either  sex,  and  have  noted  that  items  which  in  the  prelimi- 
nary standardization  showed  significant  sex  differences  were 
later  eliminated.  A  more  detailed  discussion  of  this  problem  is 
found  in  Chapter  9. 

There  is  some  question  regarding  the  propriety  of  avoiding 
sex  differences,  especially  at  the  adult  level,  in  view  of  the  differ- 
ent roles  played  by  the  sexes  in  societal  organization.  The  social 
status  of  woman  is  materially  altered  through  marriage  and  her 
responsibilities  are  thereby  reduced  or  inhibited  in  some  direc- 
tions, but  enlarged  or  facilitated  in  others.  This  same  influence 
is  reflected  to  some  extent  among  married  men,  but  much  less 
conspicuously.  More  serious  is  the  generally  assumed  social 
superiority  of  men  when  compared  with  women  in  almost  every 
field  of  social  endeavor  outside  the  home.  This  is  a  debatable 
question ;  much  evidence  indicates  that  men  are  not  superior  to 
women  in  general  ability,  but  do  excel  them  in  some  directions 
and  are  excelled  by  them  in  others.  But  when  the  performances 
of  the  sexes  are  viewed  in  terms  of  socially  significant  achieve- 
ment, the  superior  accomplishments  of  men  are  readily  evident 
in  nearly  all  fields  such  as  government,  business,  industry,  the 
professions,  the  arts,  literature,  and  so  on.  Whatever  may  be  the 
causes  for  this  superiority  in  male  achievement  (whether  due  to 
differences  in  organic  structure,  biological  destiny,  social  di- 
vision of  labor,  social  history,  or  what  not)  it  seems  clear  that 
there  are  few  matriarchal  societies  as  compared  with  patri- 
archal, and  relatively  few  superior  attainments  of  women  as 
compared  with  equal  attainments  by  men. 

Both  current  and  historical  observation  suggest  that  the 


264  Item  Specification 

material  progress  of  societies  as  revealed  in  governmental  struc- 
ture, military  conquest,  exploration,  social  institutions,  knowl- 
edge, invention,  and  the  arts,  derives  principally  from  men.  On 
the  other  hand,  as  Briffault  contends,  the  cultural  progress  of 
society  while  effected  by  men  is  basically  prompted  by  women. 
The  biological  basis  of  society  reflects  a  tendency  for  women  to 
improve  their  status  through  marriage  by  more  selective  mating 
than  men  display.  We  are  thus  confronted  with  a  paradox  in 
which  we  find  that  the  basic  motivations  for  social  progress  are 
provided  by  the  women  whereas  implementation  of  social 
organization  is  carried  out  by  men.  The  urge  to  power  and  self- 
expression  is  exercised  in  quite  different  channels  by  men  as 
compared  with  women,  but  the  ultimate  control  of  social  organ- 
ization would  seem  to  rest  with  the  women  for  whose  favor  men 
compete  and  from  whose  inspiration  their  aspirations  so  fre- 
quently and  fruitfully  derive. 

This  fundamental  difference  in  the  psychology  of  the  sexes 
and  its  influence  on  the  social  destinies  of  the  sexes  is  clearly 
revealed  by  Esther  Harding  who  emphasizes  the  fundamental 
feeling-tone  motivation  in  women  as  contrasted  with  the  ration- 
alized activities  of  men.  The  intricate  consequences  of  these 
fundamental  differences  have  been  to  some  extent  avoided  in 
constructing  this  scale  which  as  now  constituted  affords  about 
equal  recognition  for  men  and  women,  but  may  favor  men  in 
spite  of  a  definite  effort  to  equalize  the  performances  of  the 
sexes  in  the  adult  period.  Further  evidence  on  sex  differences  in 
item  and  total  scores  is  presented  in  Chapter  9. 

As  to  the  validity  of  the  items,  this  is  found  in  the  internal 
consistency  of  the  normative  data  as  well  as  in  the  comparative 
evidence  from  the  feeble-minded  validation  sample.  We  may 
note  again  the  extraordinary  similarity  of  the  normative  LA 
versus  feeble-minded  SA  item-maturation  curves.  This  obtains 
in  spite  of  an  advantage  of  15  to  30  years  in  life  age  on  the  part 
of  the  feeble-minded  subjects  and  in  spite  of  favorable  environ- 
mental stimulation.  Specific  differences  of  statistically  reliable 
significance  and  meaningful  amounts  apparent  on  some  items 
do  not  contradict  the  essential  similarity  of  the  general  depend- 
ence of  item  performance  on  total  maturation  with  relatively 
little  apparent  influence  of  other  variables. 

The  dependence  of  social  maturity  on  mental  maturity  is 
self-evident  and  in  accord  with  rational  expectation.  Yet  in  spite 
of  long  experience  and  observation,  the  specific  relation  of  social 
competence  as  revealed  in  the  item  performances  to  total  devel- 
opmental retardation  continues  to  impress  us  as  little  short  of 


Summary  265 

astonishing.  The  practical  implications  of  these  results  for  clas- 
sification and  training  programs  for  the  mentally  deficient 
hardly  require  further  specification. 

Finally,  the  examiner  should  be  clearly  oriented  regarding 
the  relation  of  environmental  stimulation  and  restraint  to  social 
maturation.  We  have  repeatedly  emphasized  the  role  of  time, 
place  and  social  circumstances.  To  these  should  be  added  the  in- 
fluence of  sex,  age  per  se,  social-economic  status,  conventions, 
parent-child  relations,  regimentation,  social  crises  (political, 
financial,  military)  and  so  on.  The  mode  of  social  expression, 
but  to  a  lesser  extent  the  level  of  performance,  will  obviously 
be  affected  by  these  variables.  Our  conviction,  however,  is  that 
in  respect  to  the  relatively  universal  activities  comprehended 
in  the  items  of  this  scale  the  effect  of  these  variables  is  much 
less  potent  than  is  plausibly  anticipated.  Indeed,  the  items  have 
been  formulated  with  this  outcome  as  one  criterion  for  the  re- 
tention of  items. 

But  since  these  issues  are  susceptible  to  experimental  in- 
vestigation we  need  not  here  insist  upon  their  cogency.  Some  of 
these  variables  are  reported  upon  in  this  Chapter;  others  are 
considered  in  Chapters  12  and  13.  The  procedure,  therefore,  is 
subject  to  experimental  control.  Certainly  the  S  is  not  expected 
to  mature  in  a  social  vacuum,  but  rather  to  assum.e  his  pyscho- 
biological  destiny  within  a  situational  matrix  (or  more  correctly 
a  succession  of  matrices).  But  he  reacts  upon  as  well  as  to  this 
milieu,  modifying  it  as  well  as  being  modified  by  it.  The  Scale 
affords,  then,  an  instrument  for  evaluating  such  interaction. 


PART    III 

ADMINISTRATION  OF  THE  SCALE 

Chapter  7.     Procedures  and  Scoring 
Chapter  8.    Illustrative  Examinations 


Procedures   and   Scoring 

The  trend  toward  interpreting  child  training  in  terms  of 
capacities  and  needs  at  various  levels  of  childhood,  rather  than 
on  the  basis  of  preconceived  adult  standards,  has  done  a  great 
deal  to  make  all  our  ideas  of  education  more  realistic,  and  by 
so   much   has   enriched   children's   daily   experience   of   living. 
The  findings  of  psychology  and  physiology  have  made  important 
contributions  to  this  point  of  view  by  giving  us  an  authorita- 
tive gauge  of  what  we  may  fairly  expect  of  a  child  at  any  given 
time.  But  in  comparing  him  with  his  age  group  we  must  guard 
against   laying  too   heavy  emphasis   on   either  short-comings   or 
precociousness.       —  Ruth  BRicK^fER 

General  features.  The  very  simplicity  of  this  method  of 
measuring  social  maturation  is  also  paradoxically  a  serious 
obstacle  to  its  successful  use.  The  procedure  is  so  natural,  and 
the  content  of  the  items  so  obvious,  that  the  examiner  may 
ingeniously  overlook  numerous  pitfalls.  "It  can't  be  done"  now 
becomes  "Why,  we've  always  been  doing  that!" 

The  Scale  lends  itself  to  a  variety  of  uses  (Part  V),  and 
these  require  corresponding  degrees  of  sophistication.  For 
informal  use :  ( 1 )  a  record  blank  may  be  handed  to  the  inform- 
ant with  the  request  that  he  mark  the  items  plus  or  minus 
without  more  adieu,  preceded  perhaps  only  by  a  general  state- 
m.ent  of  what  it  is  all  about;  or  (2)  the  examiner  may  himself 
ask  the  questions  with  only  minor  elaboration  and  without  pre- 
cise regard  for  the  habitual  nature  of  the  performances,  that  is, 
without  establishing  all  the  factual  and  temporal  aspects  of 
each  item ;  or  (3)  the  examiner  may  use  the  Scale  as  a  guide  to 
clinical  interview,  using  such  items  as  seem  relevant  and  dis- 
carding others  and  summarizing  the  whole  as  a  more  standard- 
ized procedure  than  he  might  otherwise  have  employed. 

Obviously  none  of  these  ways  of  using  the  Scale  can  be 
considered  professionally  thorough  for  standard  practice.  If 
the  method  is  to  be  used  with  clinical  accuracy,  careful  attention 
to  detail  is  necessary.  For  this  purpose  the  examiner  must  be 
broadly  experienced  in  general  techniques  of  clinical  psychologi- 
cal casework  or  the  equivalent  in  similar  disciplines.  Standard 
application  of  the  Scale  requires  skilled  interviewing  rather  than 
direct  examining,  or  the  psychometric  type  of  "testing." 

The  unskilled  interviewer  tends  to  demand  objective  in- 
struments which  provide  fixed  questions  and  exact  scoring.   A 


Rapport  with  Informants  267 

close  approximation  to  such  rigidly  objective  method  is  exempli- 
fied by  the  Binet-Simon  scales  for  measuring  intelligence.  Such 
a  scale  can  be  given  by  rote  and  scored  by  formula ;  its  routine 
administration  requires  clerical  conscientiousness,  but  little 
clinical  versatility.  Its  more  thoughtful  use  and  interpretation, 
however,  demand  extensive  clinical  sophistication.  The  Social 
Maturity  Scale  because  of  its  apparent  simplicity  affords  more 
latitude  but  requires  greater  examining  skill  than  do  most 
standard  psychometric  procedures.  The  broader  resourcefulness 
required  corresponds  to  that  needed  for  psychotherapy.  The 
requirements  for  scoring  are  rather  more  objective  than  those 
necessary  for  the  interpretation  of  results  from  projective 
techniques. 

The  fine  points  of  administration  and  scoring  can  therefore 
only  be  suggested  through  general  and  specific  instructions. 
These  cannot  be  formulated  with  finality  since  they  would  other- 
wise hamper  the  examiner  by  inhibiting  flexible  adaptation  to 
particular  situations  with  which  he  may  be  confronted.  Conse- 
quently the  principal  methodological  difliculty  in  expounding 
this  scale  has  been  to  mediate  between  instructions  which  on  the 
one  hand  may  seem  too  vague,  and  on  the  other  hand  too  rigid ; 
which  are  definite  enough  to  hold  the  examiner  clearly  within 
limits,  yet  flexible  enough  to  allow  for  variable  exigencies  with- 
out serious  loss  of  essential  uniformity  (cf.  pp.  59-63). 

This  is  a  somewhat  disconcerting  feature  of  this  scale 
when  first  employed  by  examiners  accustomed  to  the  formal 
objectivity  of  routine  psychometric  examining.  The  Social 
Scale  demands  constant  alertness  on  the  part  of  the  examiner 
for  adapting  himself  to  those  contingencies  which  require  cir- 
cumstantial modification  of  questions  and  scoring.  The 
examiner  who  accepts  this  appeal  to  his  ingenuity  and  meets 
the  challenge  candidly,  will  find  the  method  precise  enough  in 
both  instructions  and  scoring.  Evidence  for  this  is  found  in  the 
experience  of  competent  examiners.  Such  competence  can 
readily  be  gained  from  thoughtful  practice  based  on  careful 
study.  The  more  scientific  answer  is  found  in  the  evidence  on 
item  calibration,  total-score  standardization  and  overall 
validation  (Chapters  6,  9,  10  and  11).  Additional  assurance 
is  offered  in  the  results  obtained  from  the  numerous  application 
studies  reviewed  in  Chapter  13  and  the  clinical  applications  in 
Chapter  14. 

Rapport  with  informants.  The  standard  examination  is 
conducted  by  personal  interview  with  a  single  informant.  This 


268  Procedures  and  Scoring 

will  be  someone  intimately  acquainted  with  the  person  under  ex- 
amination, usually  a  parent,  near  relative,  foster-relative,  close 
friend,  institutional  attendant,  or  the  like.  Or  the  examiner  may 
be  required  by  circumstances  to  use  as  informant  any  available 
person  from  whom  a  presumably  satisfactory  examination  can 
be  obtained.  In  the  self-informing  type  of  examination  the  sub- 
ject will  himself  serve  as  informant  (p,  292). 

For  the  standard  procedure  it  is  not  necessary  for  the 
examiner  to  know  or  to  see  the  subject,.  Indeed,  to  do  so  usually 
prejudices  the  examination.  The  criterion  of  consistent  fulfill- 
ment of  the  performances  requires  reports  of  continuing 
performances  which  the  examiner  need  not  or  cannot  derive 
from  direct  observation.  If  the  examiner  is  personally  ac- 
quainted with  the  S,  he  is  likely  not  to  pursue  the  analysis  of 
the  Scale  items  to  that  degree  of  completeness  which  is  neces- 
sary for  assigning  an  unprejudiced  score,  but  might  substitute 
his  own  gratuitous  opinions  instead. 

This  feature  of  examining  an  individual  in  absentia  greatlj;^ 
increases  the  usefulness  of  the  method,  making  practicable  the 
examination  of  persons  inaccessible  or  resistive  to  direct  exami- 
nation, and  also  permitting  retrospective  examinations  covering 
the  life  history  of  the  individual  at  successive  age  periods, 
or  at  critical  moments  in  that  history  All  that  is  necessary  is 
that  competent  informants  be  obtainable  who  can  and  will  sup- 
ply adequate  information.  This  makes  it  possible  to  obtain 
several  examinations  for  the  same  subject  from  different 
informants,  or  for  different  subjects  from  the  same  informant. 

The  examiner's  first  problem  is  to  insure  cooperation  with 
the  informant.  Sound  factual  bases  for  scoring  each  item  must 
be  assured.  Consequently,  it  is  necessary  to  evaluate  the  will- 
ingness, honesty,  accuracy,  candor  and  freedom  from  prejudice 
conveyed  by  the  informant.  To  this  end  the  examiner  initially 
employs  questions  which  will  reveal  the  informant's  degree  of 
acquaintance  with  the  S,  his  indulgence  or  hostility  toward  the 
examiner  or  the  S,  his  vacillation  in  judgment,  wishful  or  vague 
impressions,  virtuous  opinions,  and  so  on. 

Skillful  interview  quickly  reveals  the  extent  to  which  the 
informant  is  acquainted  with  the  person  examined  and  other- 
wise able  and  willing  to  supply  the  necessary  data  without 
prejudice.  The  results  of  our  many  thousands  of  examinations, 
including  resort  to  different  informants  and  different  examiners 
for  the  same  subjects,  give  experimental  confirmation  of  this 


Rapport  with  Informants  269 

assertion.  The  inadequately  informed,  prejudiced,  inarticulate 
or  misleading  informant,  is  quickly  recognized  by  the  nature 
and  inconsistency  of  his  replies.  Indeed,  the  greater  difficulty  is 
the  likelihood  that  the  examiner  may  not  be  sufficiently  compe- 
tent in  developing  the  interview  with  that  degree  of  thorough- 
ness and  skill  which  will  yield  the  factual  information  necessary 
for  stable  scoring.  Thus  the  examiner  may  be  led  to  inferential 
judgments  without  obtaining  the  detailed  data  essential  to  une- 
quivocal assignment  of  scores.  Haste  in  examining  may  lead 
to  lack  of  thoroughness ;  plausibility  of  the  informant  may  in- 
duce the  examiner  to  accept  declarative  response  without  sup- 
porting detail ;  or  the  temporal  onset  and  habitual  nature  of  the 
performance  may  be  poorly  established. 

The  examiner  may  discount  but  should  not  ignore  the 
informant's  mere  opinions.  He  should  seek  constantly  to 
establish  their  detailed  foundations  and  check  this  in  various 
ways  as  indicated  below.  The  examination  is  to  be  regarded  as 
incomplete  or  inaccurate  if  the  examiner  doubts  that  the  inform- 
ant is  both  candid  and  adequately  informed  regarding  the  S. 
This  condition  is  generally  satisfied  by  the  examiner's  shrewd 
impression,  supported  by  the  actual  record  of  information  re- 
ceived. It  will  also  be  indicated  by  the  number  of  items  scored 
"NI"  (no  information),  such  items  to  include  answers  which 
are  regarded  as  inadequate.  It  will  further  be  sustained  by 
the  inherent  consistency  of  the  information  from  item  to  item, 
or  from  category  to  category,  and  by  the  overall  plausibility  of 
the  S's  aptitudes  in  relation  to  the  item  norms. 

Rapport  with  the  informant  will  depend  partly  on  the 
purpose  of  the  examination  and  consequently  on  the  attitudes  of 
the  informant  with  reference  to  what  is  at  stake.  He  may  be 
somewhat  influenced  by  unusual  circumstances  affecting  the 
subject  such  as  blindness,  deafness,  delinquency,  race,  color, 
and  possibly  defensive  or  aggressive  prejudices.  Or  he  may 
desire  to  have  the  subject  admitted  to  or  discharged  from  an 
institution,  or  otherwise  advantaged,  and  this  may  color  the 
information  given.  He  may  consequently  dissimulate,  malinger, 
or  gratuitously  misrepresent  the  S  favorably  or  unfavorably. 
These  likelihoods  require  the  examiner  to  continuously  evaluate 
all  circumstances  attending  the  examination  and  to  be  on  guard 
accordingly. 

In  dealing  with  the  informant,  the  examiner  must  therefore 
be  neither  ingratiating  nor  hostile,  neither  sentimentally  gulli- 
ble nor  unduly  skeptical,  but  amiable,  sympathetic  and  objective. 


270  Procedures  and  Scoring 

He  must  win  the  informant  to  an  unprejudiced  point  of  view 
and  will  accomplish  this  by  a  fi-iendly  persistence  in  establish- 
ing as  accurate  information  as  the  circumstances  permit.  A 
sense  of  humor  is  a  definite  asset  in  putting  the  informant  at 
ease  and  in  persuading  him  to  a  higher  degree  of  candor.  An 
entre  nous  feeling  should  be  encouraged  while  retaining  the 
dignity  of  the  examination  free  from  gossip,  undue  intimacy  or 
personal  inquisitiveness.  In  short  the  examiner  must  be  recep- 
tive without  being  naive,  and  must  be  circumspect  without 
appearing  suspicious,  and  should  avoid  projecting  his  own 
reflections  into  the  situation. 

Finally  there  is  an  ethical  aspect  to  the  examination  which 
requires  that  the  examiner  discreetly  respect  the  private  affairs 
and  personal  shortcomings  of  the  S  as  these  may  become 
apparent.  He  therefore  will  not  embarrass  the  informant  by 
improperly  insisting  upon  such  evidence  or  by  making  disparag- 
ing comments.  He  will  instead  help  both  informant  and  subject 
to  "save  face."  He  will  specifically  regard  all  information  as 
confidential  and  will  assure  the  informant  that  no  subsequently 
indiscreet  use  will  be  made  of  the  information  elicited. 

Interview  technique.  Observing  these  general  precautions 
the  examiner  begins  a  friendly  conversation  with  the  informant. 
He  briefly  explains  the  purpose  and  procedure.  He  takes  the 
informant  into  his  confidence,  appeals  to  his  cooperation  and 
frankness,  puts  him  at  ease  by  a  cordial,  chatty  attitude,  and 
assures  him  that  the  best  interests  of  the  S  will  be  served  by 
unreserved  frankness. 

The  examiner  then  proceeds  to  merge  the  general  orienta- 
tion of  the  examination  with  some  overall  inquiry  regarding  the 
S  himself,  recording  the  relevant  data  under  "Remarks"  on 
the  record  blank.  How  old  is  he,  what  sex,  color,  race  or 
nationality,  marital  or  social  status,  religion,  degree  of  school- 
ing, state  of  health,  freedom  from  handicaps?  What  are  the 
parental  occupations,  degrees  of  education,  social  and  economic 
familial  status,  personal  and  group  associates?  What  is  the 
subject's  own  standing  in  his  family  group  and  community,  his 
interests,  friends,  activities,  experiences,  general  personality? 
If  the  S  is  handicapped  in  some  way,  or  embarrassed  by  special 
circumstances,  the  nature  and  extent  as  well  as  the  temporal 
and  social  aspects  of  these  limitations  should  be  generally  re- 
viewed and  recorded.  Such  general  orientation  may  immediate- 
ly serve  as  a  basis  for  scoring  particular  items  of  the  Scale-  The 
examiner  then  consolidates  these  general  questions  with  a  more 


Interview  Technique  271 

specific  approach  to  the  direct  examination. 

This  approach  immediately  reveals  the  inadvisability  of 
preformulated  interview  questions.  No  single  system  of  inter- 
view can  offer  more  than  an  illusion  of  adequacy  for  all 
occasions.  The  S  may  be  infantile  or  senile,  boy  or  girl,  colored 
or  white,  sound  or  handicapped,  free  or  confined,  and  so  on, 
and  these  variable  conditions  taken  singly  or  in  combination 
must  determine  the  further  questioning  to  be  followed  by  the 
examiner. 

Example.  John  Picola  is  a  14-year-old  boy  of  Italian  par- 
entage who  is  in  juvenile  court  for  theft  of  a  bicycle.  Before 
disposing  of  the  case  the  court  has  referred  John  for  clinical 
consideration.  The  court  record  is  meager,  but  affords  some 
preliminary  data  which  serve  to  assist  the  examiner  in  apprais- 
ing the  honesty  and  accuracy  of  the  interview.  An  older  sister 
is  the  informant.  The  father  works,  the  mother  speaks  English 
poorly,  the  place  of  examination  is  the  caseworker's  office,  the 
Social  Scale  is  the  first  detail  of  preliminary  clinical  study  of 
the  case.  John  is  in  detention ;  the  sister  has  come  for  interview 
by  telephone  appointment;  no  others  present. 

Q:  You  are  John's  sister,  Angela?  I  want  to  talk  with  you  ahout  him  to 
see  if  we  can  keep  him  out  of  further  trouble.  But  first  tell  me  something 
about  yourself  and  your  family. 

A:  Well,  I'm  not  sure  what  you  want  to  know.    My  father  is  a  mason 

has  not  been  very  well  and  John  is  not  so  easy  to  manage  and  there  are 

and  work  is  scarce  and  I  am  glad  I  could  come  instead  of  him.    Mama  has 

my  brothers  and  sisters. 

Q:   And  you?   What  do  you  do? 

A:   I  am  a  counter  girl  at  Kresge's.    How  old  am  I?    Twenty.    I  left  high 

school  last  year.    Yes,  I  graduated,  but  it  wasn't  so  easy. 

Q:   And  the  rest  of  your  family? 

A:   I  am  the  oldest.    Besides  John  I  have  a  sister  in  high  school  and  a 

brother  in  sixth  grade.    Yes,  they're  all  right  and  no  trouble  at  all. 

Q:   And  how  are  things  at  home? 

A:  My  mother  is  not  well,  as  I  said,  but  we  manage  all  right.    No,  we 

don't  have  a  car.    A  teleplione?    Yes,   since  last  year.    How  much  rent? 

Thirty  dollars  a  month,  but  we  expect  to  move  to  a  better  neighborhood 

soon. 

Q:  And  what  about  John? 

A:  Well,  he  worries  us  a  good  deal.  No,  he's  not  a  bad  boy,  but  not  so  good 
at  school  and  he  runs  around  too  much — No,  he's  never  been  in  special 
class,  but  he's  failed  twice  in  school  and  we  wonder  if  he  should  go  to  work. 
Q:  Is  there  anything  the  matter  with  him?  Sick  often,  or  crippled  or  any- 
thing like  that? 

A:  No,  he's  always  been  very  healthy.  Sometimes  we  think  he  doesn't  hear 
so  very  well,  and  you  can't  always  trust  what  he  says.  How  old  is  he? 
Fourteen  last  month.  Born  March  7,  1934.  Yes,  he  was  born  in  Camden, 
but  I  was  born  in  Italy  before  my  parents  came  over. 


272  Procedures  and  Scoring 

Q:   How  do  you  feel  about  him? 

A:   Oh,  we  all  like  him,  but  he  worries  my  mother,  and  my  father  thinks 

he  is  too  lazy.   And  as  I  told  you,  he  runs  around  too  much. 

Q:   How  did  he  get  into  this  trouble? 

A:  You    see,   we   live   near   15th    Street   and    Green   Avenue   and   when 

children  go  to  the  stores  there  they  often  come  on  bicycles.    And  John 

was  feeling  fresh  and  the  other  day  he  took   a  bike  to  take  a  ride. 

I  believe  he  meant  to  bring  it  back,  but  he  ran  into  a  tree  and  damaged 

the  bicycle  and  left  it  there.   But  they  found  he  did  it  and  so — 

Q:  Well,  when  he  goes  around  where  does  he  go?    I  mean  how  far  and 

with  whom  and  do  you  worry  about  him?    (Beginning  direct  eixamination 

with  locomotion  category.) 

Comment.  The  examiner  has  thus  obtained  a  general  orientation  as  to 
the  boy,  his  family  and  neig-hborhood  from  which  the  direct  examination 
can  proceed  and  against  which  the  results  may  be  interpreted.  Such  an 
approach  is  pursued  as  informally  as  possible,  sympathetically  rather  than 
ingratiatingly,  courteously  rather  than  officiously,  tactfully  and  expedi- 
tiously but  without  undue  persistence  or  impatience. 

In  the  above  example  due  regard  must  be  given  in  the 
interpretation  of  ultimate  score  to  the  presumptive  mental 
backwardness,  possible  hearing  deficiency,  incipient  untrust- 
worthiness.  These  items  can  be  checked  by  other  methods. 
There  is  an  implication  of  family  security,  moderate  home 
circumstances,  youthful  restiveness,  probable  maternal  laxity 
and  paternal  severity,  and  a  general  picture  of  social  mediocrity. 
These  will  be  reflected  to  a  degree  in  the  boy's  item  scores  and 
total  score  as  factual  behavior  ad  hoc  which  must  not  be  con- 
fused with  the  corresponding  evaluation  thereof. 

Categorical  sequences.  Having  established  the  preliminary 
conditions  with  satisfaction,  the  examiner  proceeds  with  the 
direct  examination.  From  this  point  forward  the  examination  is 
best  conducted  by  following  the  arrangement  of  items  in  their 
categorical  sequences  (as  detailed  in  Chapter  6  and  abstracted 
in  the  condensed  manual).  The  preliminary  information 
obtained  from  the  informant  indicates  the  presumptive  levels 
at  which  the  items  within  the  categories,  as  well  as  the  cate- 
gories themselves,  are  most  probably  applicable  according  to 
the  age  and  presumptive  development  of  the  S.  The  examiner 
therefore  will  not  find  it  diflicult  to  know  where  to  begin  either 
as  to  the  sequence  of  categories,  or  as  to  the  sequence  of  items 
within  categories.  In  the  case  of  young  children,  the  obvious 
point  of  departure  is  in  the  self-help  category.  In  the  case  of 
adults  the  more  obvious  approach  is  through  the  occupational 
category.  For  more  general  approach,  the  locomotion  category 
may  be  used,  or  the  socialization  category.  A  little  experience 
enables  the  examiner  to  adapt  his  approach  to  the  conditions  of 
the  examination  as  indicated  by  the  attitude  of  the  informant, 


Categorical  Sequences  273 

the  age  or  maturity  of  the  S,  and  the  special  circumstances 
surrounding  the  examination  as  a  whole. 

Example.  Thus  in  the  example  of  John  Picola  above,  the  pre- 
liminary interview  leads  naturally  to  beginning  the  direct 
examination  with  the  locomotion  category.  John's  age,  his 
sister's  comment  that  he  runs  around  too  much,  the  relation  of 

this  to  his  offense,  and  the  environmental  circumstances  all 
suggest  this  departure. 

Q:  Well,  when  he  "goes  around"  where  does  he  go?  I  mean  how  far  and 
with  whom  and  do  you  worry  much  about  him? 

A:  Of  course  he  goes  to  school  by  himself;  he  doesn't  like  to  go  with  his 
brother  most  of  the  time.  And  he  goes  t®  the  store  for  my  mother.  Maybe 
I  don't  know  what  you  mean  ? 

Q:  I  mean  how  far  does  he  go  as  a  rule  by  himself,  or  when  he  is  out  with 
his  friends.  Does  he  get  into  trouble  this  way,  or  do  you  feel  somebody 
should  be  looking  after  him? 

A:  Around  home  he's  all  right,  but  when  he's  gone  all  afternoon  or  out 
at  night  very  long  we  start  looking  for  him  or  we  wonder  what  he's 
doing.  (This  reply  touches  the  self -direction  category  and  may  be  fol- 
lowed up  at  this  point  or  postponed  for  more  detail  later.) 
Q:  Does  he  go  outside  of  Camden,  say  to  Philadelphia  or  Atlantic  City? 
A:  Not  unless  we  are  along  or  he  is  with  someone  we  know  real  well. 
Once  he  went  to  Philadelphia  and  got  home  all  right,  but  my  mother  was 
worried  and  papa  gave  him  a  talking  to.  He  talks  about  going  but  he 
hasn't  tried  it  again.  Could  he  if  we  let  him?  I  guess  maybe,  but  we'd 
be  worried  till  he  got  back. 
Q:  And  here  in  Camden? 

A:  He  goes  more  than  we  think  is  good  for  him,  with  older  boys  mostly 
instead  of  by  himself.  It's  all  right  if  he  doesn't  go  too  far  from  our 
neighborhood.  Sometimes  he  visits  my  aunt  where  he's  been  before. 
And  as  I  told  you  he  gets  into  little  scrapes  like  taking  this  bicycle.  Of 
course  he  doesn't  have  his  own  money  except  a  little  now  and  then  (again 
touching  self -direction  category). 

Comment.  Referring  to  the  item  definitions  (Chapter  6)  and  the  scoring 
instructions  (later  in  this  chapter),  we  note  that  Item  96  (Goes  to 
distant  points  alone)  is  failed;  92  (nearby  places)  is  also  failed  but  is 
emerging  toward  success  since  he  goes  somewhat  surreptitiously  without 
approval  and  might  succeed  if  he  were  more  trustworthy  (score  is  not  "no 
opportunity"  since  disapproval  is  not  strictly  enforced  but  is  due  to  his 
immaturity);  77  (home  town)  is  passed  marginally  (because  of  mild 
untrustworthiness ) ;  61  (to  school)  is  passed.  The  preceding  locomotion 
items  (12,  18,  29,  32,  45  and  53)  are  also  passed,  being  in  this  case 
automatically  present  or  assumed  in  Item  61. 

The  examiner  then  proceeds  in  like  manner  with  the  self-direction  cate- 
gory for  which  he  has  leads  on  certain  items  from  the  locomotion 
category. 

In  general,  once  a  category  has  been  started  it  is  best  to 
complete  that  category  before  proceeding  to  another  unless 
special  difficulties  or  leads  are  encountered  which  make  it 
advisable  to  shift  to  some  other  category.  Since  the  items  are 
arranged  in  a  standard  order  of  difficulty  within  the  categories, 
the  examiner  may  conduct  his  inquiry  within  the  category  from 


274  Procedures  and  Scoring 

easy  to  difficult  items,  or  from  difficult  to  easy  as  may  be  moist 
expedient. 

It  will  greatly  assist  the  examination  if  the  examiner  has 
broadly  memorized  the  items  which  compose  the  Scale,  their 
age-group  locations,  and  their  definitions  for  scoring.  Memo- 
rized familiarity  with  the  categorical  arrangement  of  items  will 
also  expedite  the  examination,  since  the  responses  to  single 
questions  may  often  be  used  as  a  basis  for  scoring  a  whole  series 
of  items  and  lead  naturally  to  well-directed  further  questions. 

It  is  desirable  for  the  examiner  to  pursue  each  related 
group  of  items  as  a  unit  and  then  score  the  items  individually 
on  the  basis  of  such  unit  questioning.  For  this  purpose  the 
detailed  item,  instructions  are  presented  in  their  progressive 
sequences  within  the  categories  (Chapter  6)  rather  than  in  their 
numerical  sequences  for  the  Scale  as  a  whole.  The  record  sheet 
is  arranged  with  the  items  in  normative  sequence  (mean  LA 
progression)  without  reference  to  the  categorical  arrangements. 

Theoretically,  each  S  is  scored  on  every  item,  but  in  actual 
practice  the  extension  of  this  principle  to  absurd  extremes  be- 
comes obvious.  Moreover,  since  certain  of  the  lower  items  are 
prerequisite  to  success  on  some  of  the  higher  items,  in  these 
circumstances  inquiries  on  the  higher  item  will  automatically 
establish  the  information  for  scoring  the  lower  items.  On  the 
other  hand,  since  all  the  items  are  not  successive  degrees  of 
the  same  performance,  care  must  be  taken  to  score  separately 
every  item  in  respect  to  which  there  might  be  failure  or  success 
regardless  of  its  position  in  the  Scale  as  a  whole.  This  is  par- 
ticularly noteworthy  if  special  handicaps  are  present  which 
might  cause  failure  on  lower  items  while  not  interfering  with 
success  on  higher  items. 

For  example,  we  have  examined  an  S  of  LA  8  years  with  a 
final  SA  score  of  8.5  years,  who  nevertheless  failed  on  all 
locomotion  items  above  Year  II  because  of  specific  untrust- 
worthiness.  Indeed,  it  was  this  behavior  problem  (a  persistent 
tendency  to  set  fires  and  be  destructive)  which  brought  the 
child  for  examination,  and  the  major  purpose  of  the  examination 
was  reflected  in  this  particular  difficulty. 

Likewise  in  the  case  of  special  physical  handicaps,  such  as 
crippling  or  deafness,  the  range  of  scores  may  be  affected  by 
the  specific  disability.  Therefore,  success  on  lower  items  may 
not  be  automatically  assumed  in  all  cases,  nor  may  failure  be 
assumed  in  all  circumstances  for  higher  items.  This  is  particu- 


Categorical  Sequences  275 

larly  true  with  senescents  whose  success  in  the  adult  ranges  in 
some  particulars  may  be  accompanied  by  failure  in  the  juvenile 
ranges  as  a  result  of  infirmity  or  deterioration  due  to  advanced 
age. 

The  examiner  is  urged  to  record  the  essential  information 
on  which  each  item  is  scored.  In  doing  so  he  may  score  a 
particular  item  by  referring  to  relevant  data  recorded  else- 
where. Such  cross-reference  may  be  indicated  by  item-record 
notation  such  as  "see  Item — ,"  or  "see  Remarks."  Thus,  in 
scoring  "Bathes  self  unaided,"  all  other  items  involved  in  self- 
help  as  to  cleanliness  are  scored  cumulatively.  Similarly,  "Cares 
for  self  at  table,"  automatically  includes  all  other  items  on  self- 
help  eating,  each  of  which  must  be  established  before  the  total 
can  be  assumed.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  occupational  cate- 
gory, this  continuation  is  less  apparent,  so  that  "Performs 
responsible  routine  chores,"  while  including  small  remunerative 
work,  routine  household  tasks,  and  little  household  tasks,  does 
not  necessarily  include  simple  creative  work,  or  use  of  utensils, 
or  use  of  pencil  for  drawing.  Thus,  some  categories  are  seen  to 
be  more  definitely  progressive  in  the  same  essentials  than  is  true 
for  other  categories.  This  is  clarified  in  the  definition  of  items. 

Example.  In  the  self -direction  category  most  of  the  items  bear 
on  discretion  in  the  use  of  money  (Items  60,  76,  87,  94,  95, 
100,  102,  105,  112).  But  intervening  items  in  this  category 
deal  with  more  personal  forms  of  responsibility  (Items  83,  93, 
97,  99,  101)  which  also  involve  self -direction.  It  is  noted  else- 
where that  the  categorical  arrangements  are  designed  to  aid 
examining;  their  grouping  as  to  like  modes  of  performance 
need  not  be  insisted  upon. 

To  illustrate  from  the  example  of  John  Picola,  note  that  the  ques- 
tions on  locomotion  brought  incidental  replies  on  self-direction.  These 
may  now  be  amplified  by  shifting  from  the  former  to  the  latter  category. 

Q:  You  said,  Angela,  that  your  brother  sometimes  goes  out  by  himself 
during  the  day.   Tell  me  more  about  that. 

A:  I  said  that  when  he  goes  out  in  the  afternoon  or  at  night  we  don't 
feel  too  good  about  it.  My  mother  likes  to  know  where  he  is  and  what  he 
Is  doing.  He  is  supposed  to  tell  her  where  he's  going  and  when  he  is 
coming  back.  Generally  he  isn't  gone  more  than  an  hour  or  two  unless 
we  know  where  he  is.  Almost  always  if  he  is  away  very  long  he  is  with 
older  boys  instead  of  by  himself.  And  at  night  we  have  to  know  where 
he  is.  He  is  not  supposed  to  leave  our  neighborhood  in  the  evening  and 
he  has  to  be  home  before  nine  o'clock  unless  it's  something  special. 
Q:  But  can't  he  be  trusted  alone? 

A:  Oh  yes,  when  he's  here  at  home  he's  all  right  if  we're  not  gone  too 
long,  maybe  a  couple  of  hours.  And  when  he's  doing  odd  jobs  of  work 
(touching  occupation  items)  he  is  real  dependable.  It's  only  that  he  is 
easily  led  by  other  boys. 


276  Procedures  and  Scoring 

Comment.  Item  83  (Is  left  to  care  for  self)  Is  thus  readily  passed.  Items 
93  and  97  (Goes  out  daytime  unsupervised  and  Goes  out  nights  un- 
restricted) are  dubious  but  must  be  marked  failed.  Item  101  (Assumes 
personal  responsibility)  is  obviously  failed. 

The  restrictions  imposed  by  his  family  reflect  the  need  for  concern 
in  view  of  John's  personal  irresponsibility  when  away  from  home  on  his 
own.  But  the  urge  to  dominate  his  own  activities  is  apparent.  Items  93 
and  97  are  emergent  and  may  force  themselves  in  spite  of  family  solicitude 
and  their  relatively  mature  placement  in  the  Scale  (being  several  years 
above  his  other  performances). 

Here  we  see  personal  dominance  forcing  a  situation  and  thereby 
encountering  consequent  hazards.  John's  poor  judgment  has  already  led 
to  his  arrest  for  theft  as  a  result  of  urges  which  his  social  immaturity 
did  not  enable  him  to  satisfy  legitimately. 

Q:  And  you  said  before  something  about  his  having  a  little  money  to 
spend?    How  much  does  he  have  and  what  does  he  do  with  it? 
A:  Only  what  he   earns   at   odd   jobs,   and   that's   not  much,   and   he   is 
supposed  to  give  it  to  my  mother  who  gives  it  back  to  him  a  little  at  a 
time. 

Q:  He  has  no  regular  allowance  even  from  what  he  earns? 
A:  No.    Only  as  he  asks  for  it  when  he  wants  to  buy  something  or  go 
somewhere. 

Q:  He  goes  to  the  store  for  you? 

A:  Yes.    He's  good  that  way.    You  might  think  he'd   "snitch"   some  or 
spend  it  on  himself.    But  he  has  always  been  honest  with  money.    Maybe 
he's  afraid  of  what  papa  would  do  to  him! 
Q:  Well,  what  money  does  he  spend  on  himself? 

A:  I  meant  to  say  he  has  good  judgment,  too,  about  money.  Much  better 
than  in  other  things,  where  he  is  kind  of  willful.  He  likes  to  buy  our 
groceries — makes  him  fee]  important.  And  he  does  as  he  is  told  or  some- 
times even  better.  And  you'd  be  surprised  how  he  can  make  change. 
They  never  cheat  Mm. 

Q:  But   for   himself? 

A:  He's  good  at  that,  too.   And  my  mother  likes  to  have  him  learn  how 

to  buy  his  own  things — like  when  he  needs  a  cap  or  have  his  shoes  fixed 

or  he  wants  some  thing^s  from  a  catalogue  (touching  communication  items) 

like  a  baseball — which  he  can  get  cheaper  that  way.    Once  he  saved  up 

for  a  baseball  suit.   And  I  guess  if  we  had  helped  him  save  for  a  bicycle 

he  saw  at  Sears  maybe  he  wouldn't  have  taken  this  one. 

Q:  Does  he  buy  his  own  clothes? 

A:  Only  little  things  like  a  belt  or  fancy  handkerchiefs.    My  mother  goes 

along  when  he  needs  shoes  and  she  likes  to  pick  out  his  shirts  or  anything 

that  costs  very  much. 

Comment.  We  see  here  responsibility  in  money  matters  as  a  special 
aptitude  compensating  for  the  premature  drive  for  locomotor  independ- 
ence. This  is  in  spite  of  some  scholastic  backwardness.  And  in  contrast 
with  parental  restraint  on  locomotion  (because  of  his  difficulties  in  that 
direction)  we  observe  parental  encouragement  in  handling  money  (be- 
cause of  relative  aptitude  in  that  direction  and  in  spite  of  limited  family 
resources). 

Items  passed  are  60  (Is  trusted  with  money)  and  76  (Makes  minor 
purchases).  Items  failed  are  87  (Buys  own  clothing  accessories)  which  Is, 
however,  emerging,  94  (Has  own  spending  money),  and  (from  logical 
sequence  as  well  as  direct  information)  Item  95  and  beyond  in  the 
monetary  sequences   of  this   category. 


Habitual  Performance  277 

It  has  proved  inadvisable  to  indicate  the  categorical 
arrangement  of  the  items  on  the  standard  record  blank  itself. 
A.t  first  thought,  to  do  so  would  appear  to  be  an  advantage  as 
assisting  the  examiner  in  mastering  the  Scale.  Experience 
has  indicated,  however,  that  if  the  blank  alone  is  used  too  early 
in  the  examiner's  experience  prior  to  complete  mastery  of  the 
instructions,  the  examiner  is  likely  to  be  satisfied  with  less  than 
that  amount  of  detailed  information  which  is  necessary  to  score 
the  items  beyond  question  in  terms  of  their  elaborated  defini- 
tions. If  the  examiner  will  err  in  the  beginning  in  the  direction 
of  more  than  necessary  completeness,  both  as  to  number  of  items 
employed  and  the  amount  of  information  obtained  regarding 
each  item,  he  will  subsequently  be  able  to  curtail  the  extent 
and  detail  of  the  examination  without  detrimental  result.  If, 
on  the  other  hand,  this  curtailment  of  the  examination  becomes 
established  before  the  Scale  is  thoroughly  mastered,  then  the 
result  is  almost  certain  to  lack  precision.  No  measurement 
scale  is  entirely  free  from  the  influence  of  the  personal  equation 
of  the  examiner  on  the  probable  error  of  the  measure.  But  such 
influence  can  be  materially  reduced  by  sound  practice. 

Habitual  performance.  The  examiner  is  emphatically  urged 
to  avoid  inquiring  can  the  S  do  so  and  so,  but  rather  does  he 
usually  or  customarily  do  so.  All  leading  questions  which  might 
possibly  indicate  a  desired  response,  as  well  as  all  test  implica- 
tions, should  be  avoided.  The  examiner  is  urged  to  follow  gener- 
al answers  with  questions  designed  to  produce  elaboration  of 
these  answers.  For  this  purpose  he  should  avoid  interrogating 
the  informant  in  terms  of  the  item  captions,  but  should  phrase 
the  question  in  some  more  general  form.  In  this  way  he  may 
encompass  a  series  of  items  in  a  single  line  of  questioning.  For 
example,  instead  of  asking  "Does  the  S  eat  with  a  fork,"  it  is 
better  to  inquire  "To  what  extent  does  the  S  care  for  himself  at 
the  table."  Similarly,  instead  of  asking  "Does  the  S  wash  his 
own  face,"  it  is  better  to  ask  "How  much  does  the  S  do  for  him- 
self in  respect  to  personal  cleanliness."  Again,  instead  of  ask- 
ing "Does  the  S  perform  routine  household  tasks,"  it  is  better  to 
inquire  "What  kind  of  work  does  the  S  do  around  the  house." 
From  such  general  questions,  as  contrasted  with  leading  ques- 
tions suggested  by  the  specific  item  captions,  the  examiner  may 
proceed  toward  the  simpler  or  the  more  difficult  tasks  in  the 
same  major  activity,  and  so  may  score  a  group  of  items  on  the 
basis  of  a  single  set  of  questions. 

Consequently  in  applying  the  items  of  this  scale,  the 
examiner  should  inquire  as  to  the  time  of  onset,  frequency, 


278  Procedures  and  Scoring 

manner  and  extent  of  the  S's  performances.  Instead  of  accept- 
ing an  unelaborated  "yes"  or  "no"  to  leading  questions,  he 
should  obtain  substantial  factual  evidence  from  which  some  one 
else  might  form  a  judgment.  Hence  the  informant  is  to  be  asked 
how  often  and  how  long  the  S  has  been  doing  so  and  so,  when 
he  began,  how  frequently  if  at  all  he  receives  assistance,  under 
what  conditions  it  is  done,  how  the  performance  is  made  mani- 
fest, what  occasion  there  may  be,  what  hazards  or  difficulties 
are  evident.  On  the  basis  of  such  evidence,  assisted  by  the 
standard  definition  of  the  item,  the  examiner  assigns  one  or 
another  of  the  scores  which  signify  the  passing  or  failing  of 
each  item.  This  is  facilitated  by  the  sequence  of  items  in  cate- 
gories which  permits  ready  distinctions  as  to  variety  and  degree 
of  success.  (For  simplicity  of  exposition  these  details  are  omit- 
ted in  the  example  of  John  Picola  but  are  elaborated  in  the 
overall  illustrative  examinations  in  Chapter  8.) 

Familiarity  with  the  categorical  arrangements  of  items 
will  enable  the  examiner  to  move  smoothly  from  one  category 
to  another  in  spontaneous  accord  with  the  informant's  responses 
so  that  the  examination  may  proceed  informally  without  embar- 
rassing breaks,  and  without  undue  abruptness  in  trend  of 
thought.  This  smoothness  in  interview  not  only  assists  the 
examiner  to  conduct  a  rapid  and  effective  examination,  but  also 
assists  the  informant  to  respond  more  easily,  fully  and  accu- 
rately with  the  information  desired.  To  this  end  the  examiner 
encourages  the  informant  to  respond  spontaneously  without 
undue  interruption,  interspersing  only  encouraging  remarks 
and  specific  questions  as  the  occasion  demands.  If  the  examiner 
is  unpracticed  in  such  facility,  or  has  not  memorized  the  Scale 
as  a  whole,  he  should  work  from  the  manual  during  the  exami- 
nation, using  the  categorical  definitions  of  items  to  guide  both 
the  direction  and  extent  of  his  questioning.  Even  the  experi- 
enced examiner  should  have  the  manual  accessible  for  ready 
use,  not  relying  too  unreservedly  on  memory,  and  should  from 
time  to  time  studiously  refresh  his  technique  by  frequent  review 
of  procedure  and  scoring. 

Scoring  principles.  It  is  desirable  to  record  full  data  and 
to  score  each  series  of  items  or  each  category  as  a  whole  as  soon 
as  the  information  in  that  series  or  category  is  adequately 
established.  Scoring  should  not  be  postponed  to  the  end  of  the 
examination,  but  should  continue  throughout  the  examination. 
This  again  requires  memorized  facility  which  can  be  gained 
only  by  thorough  familiarity  with  the  Scale  and  the  item 


Scoring  Principles  279 

arrangements.  It  also  enables  the  examiner  to  check  each  item 
fully  at  the  point  where  this  is  most  practicable  and  to  avoid 
regret  after  the  informant  has  been  dismissed.  The  record 
blank  provides  adequate  space  in  which  the  examiner  should 
enter  verbatim  answers  or  at  least  suflScient  essential  notations 
for  him  or  for  someone  else  to  review  the  results  later  if  desired. 

The  examiner  should  not  infer  evidence  unless  this  is  amply 
warranted.  It  will  not  usually  be  practicable  to  record  all  the 
information  received ;  some  of  this  may  have  to  be  generalized 
inferentially  rather  than  precisely,  but  such  generalizations 
should  be  conscientiously  justifiable. 

Care  should  be  observed  not  to  make  the  same  data  serve 
too  many  purposes.  All  information  will  shed  light  on  the 
examination  as  a  whole.  Some  may  apply  to  more  than  the 
immediate  items  under  consideration.  Yet  each  item  must  have 
its  own  justification  whether  independently  of  or  included  in 
the  others.  Since  not  all  items  are  successive  degrees  of  similar 
performances,  care  must  be  taken  to  score  separately  every 
item  in  respect  to  which  there  might  be  failure  or  success 
regardless  of  its  position  in  the  Scale  as  a  whole.  This  is 
particularly  noteworthy  if  special  handicaps  are  present  which 
might  cause  failure  on  lower  Items  while  not  interfering  with 
success  on  higher  items. 

The  "telescoping''  of  items  from  one  category  to  another 
tends  to  defeat  the  ultimate  purpose  of  item  specification.  On 
the  other  hand,  each  item  is  only  a  specific  moderation  of  a 
general  aptitude.  Hence  there  should  be  internal  consistency 
among  item  performances,  and  therein  the  examiner  finds 
confidence  in  the  reliability  of  the  evidence  as  a  whole  as  well 
as  in  detail. 

The  temporal  aspect  of  item  evaluation  is  essential  to  this 
method  of  gauging  social  competence.  Special  care  must  there- 
fore be  observed  to  insure  the  habitual  nature  of  the  perform- 
ance on  each  item.  If  there  is  doubt  on  this  point,  the  examiner 
should  satisfy  himself  as  to  when  such  item  performance  began, 
how  long  it  has  continued,  how  frequently  or  intermittently  it  is 
expressed,  what  is  the  degree  of  success,  how  much  help, 
supervision  or  encouragement  the  S  receives.  Or,  alternatively, 
has  the  S  perhaps  "graduated"  to  more  important  performances 
which  either  supplant  the  item  or  incorporate  it?  What  are 
the  environmental  obstacles  to  successful  performance,  especial- 
ly in  case  the  S  can  or  could  perform  if  environmental  oppor- 
tunity or  encouragement  were  afforded?    Care  must  here  be 


280  Procedures  and  Scoring 

taken  not  to  allow  too  generously  for  restrictions  of  environ- 
ment, and  the  S  must  be  neither  penalized  unduly  nor  too  read- 
ily credited  on  items  where  he  fails  to  dominate  his  environment 
in  the  absence  of  genuine  prohibitions  beyond  his  control. 

This  habitual  feature  of  item  success  or  failure  will  vary 
somewhat  according  to  the  nature  of  the  item  and  the  environ- 
mental circumstances  or  "occasions"  which  affect  it.  Conven- 
tional periodicity  of  performance  must  be  reckoned  with.  Most 
people  do  not  travel  to  distant  points  alone  habitually  in  the 
sense  of  "all  the  time,"  but  only  when  they  have  occasion  to  do 
so.  Or  one  may  not  invariably  spend  one's  money  providently. 
Hence  the  usualness  of  performance  is  related  to  need,  occasion 
or  opportunity,  and  here  again  the  examiner  must  exercise 
discreet  judgment. 

Information  should  be  sought  regarding  items  on  which 
performance  was  formerly  successful  but  has  for  various  rea- 
sons been  discontinued.  These  are  scored  "F"  (formerly). 
"F"  scoring  should  not  be  confused  with  "NO"  (no  opportunity) 
scoring,  and  both  of  these  should  be  carefully  distinguished 
from  performance  which  has  been  lost  due  to  deterioration  or 
disability.  "Has  the  S  ever  habitually  done  so?"  "Why  did  he 
stop  doing  so?"  "Do  you  think  (assuming  no  disablement)  he 
will  do  so  again  in  other  circumstances?"  These  are  leading 
questions  which  will  indicate  the  substantial  worth  of  perform- 
ances which  have  become  suspended  or  discontinued. 

Particular  difficulty  is  encountered  in  the  scoring  of  items 
when  the  environment  either  prohibits  the  subject  from  parti- 
cular performances  or  does  not  afford  necessity  or  encourage- 
ment for  such  performance.  These  are  classed  for  scoring 
purposes  as  "NO"  (no  opportunity)  items.  Some  of  these 
situations  might  better  be  described  as  "no  occasion"  rather  than 
"no  opportunity,"  if  the  environment  does  not  afford  sufficient 
stimulus  or  need.  On  the  other  hand,  the  S  should  not  too  loose- 
ly be  absolved  of  exercising  dominant  initiative  in  these  respects. 
Hence,  in  scoring  items  as  NO,  special  care  should  be  taken  to 
establish  the  factual  basis  for  the  opinions  expressed  by  the 
informant  regarding  such  performances.  Such  questions  as 
"What  makes  you  think  so?"  or  "How  long  would  it  take  him 
to  learn?"  or  "Do  you  think  he  would  do  so  continuously  and 
without  trouble?"  or  "Why  doesn't  he  create  his  own  opportuni- 
ties?" will  assist  the  examiner  in  evaluating  the  informant's 
opinion.  Special  care  should  also  be  taken  to  guarantee  that  the 
environment  really  affords  no  opportunity,  does  provide  genuine 


Scoring  Principles  281 

restrictions,  always  bearing  in  mind  that  the  Scale  assumes  that 
the  mature  and  competent  individual  tends  to  find  some  way 
of  surmounting  or  sidestepping  the  absence  of  opportunity  if 
the  urge  and  ability  to  perform  are  developmentally  inherent. 

Since  the  sympathy  of  the  examiner  is  usually  with  the  S, 
he  is  inclined  to  be  over-generous  toward  him  on  the  scoring 
of  items  in  respect  to  which  there  are  apparent  environmental 
limitations.  This  is  particularly  true  when  the  S  does  not 
perform  an  item  within  the  immediate  range  of  plus  scores  yet 
where  a  minus  score  seems  to  be  out  of  place.  The  examiner 
should,  therefore,  make  certain  that  in  the  use  of  +N0  scores, 
:;he  S  really  has  no  genuine  bar  to  providing  his  own  opportuni- 
ty. If,  for  example,  the  environment  appears  to  limit  self- 
expression  on  the  ground  that  "It  isn't  done,"  or  "It  is  contrary 
to  regulations,"  or  because  of  parental  prejudice,  the  examiner 
should  make  sure  that  the  item  is  not  in  fact  performed  in  spite 
of  those  restraints  by  at  least  some  S's  under  substantially  the 
same  circumstances.  Occasionally  the  informant  may  be  una- 
ware of  some  surreptitious  performances,  or  ill  informed  as  to 
what  the  S  does  as  compared  to  what  he  thinks  the  S  does. 
Similarly,  in  some  institutional  environments  the  S  may  reveal 
successful  performance  on  items  which  are  officially  prohibited. 
The  examiner  should,  therefore,  avoid  ingenuousness  regarding 
the  true  situation.  When  the  S  is  really  capable,  prohibitions 
may  be  waived,  disapproval  forgotten,  supervision  relaxed, 
exceptions  granted.  Or  the  performance  may  be  clandestine, 
guileful,  sporadic,  subtly  self-assertive,  openly  rebellious. 
Competence,  like  love,  finds  a  way ! 

Use  of  "NI"  (no  information)  scoring  will  be  helpful  if 
the  informant  is  uninformed,  inadequately  informed,  unwilling 
to  inform,  vacillating,  insincere,  or  on  NO  items  may  be  reluct- 
ant to  venture  an  opinion.  Such  scoring  serves  to  call  attention 
to  incomplete  or  unsatisfactory  evidence  for  record  purposes, 
and  the  number  and  location  of  such  scores  is  a  direct  indication 
of  the  adequacy  of  the  examination. 

In  the  range  between  fully  satisfactory  plus  scores  and 
undoubtedly  minus  scores  it  may  be  difficult  to  assign  unequiv- 
ocal scores  for  all  items.  Some  of  these  may  be  due  to  F,  NO  or 
NI  evidence.  Others  will  be  genuinely  borderline  because:  (a) 
the  performance  may  be  occasionally  but  not  habitually  success- 
ful; (b)  the  performance  may  be  habitually  but  incompletely 
successful;  (c)  the  performance  may  be  embarrassed  by 
environmental  circumstances,  uncertainty  of  evidence,  or  diffi- 


282  Procedures  and  Scoring 

culty  of  interpreting  the  item  definition;  (d)  the  performance 
as  reported  on  a  given  item  may  be  out  of  harmony  with  reports 
on  related  items  or  with  general  expectation  from  the  aura  of 
the  examination  as  a  whole. 

The  very  diflScuIty  of  such  borderline  scoring  indicates  the 
intermediate  character  of  these  performances.  Such  items  may 
be  developmentally  emergent  rather  than  maturely  established. 
Or  they  may  reflect  incipient  deterioration  or  environmental 
variability.  As  a  practical  way  of  resolving  such  scores  the 
items  concerned  may  be  scored  "it"  (plus-minus).  For  stand- 
ard practice  such  performances  should  be  complete  as  to  con- 
tent but  incomplete  as  to  habitualness.  It  is  extremely  difficult 
to  assign  plus-minus  scores  to  habitual  but  incomplete  perform- 
ance, since  the  variability  of  content  is  more  elusive  than  that  of 
customariness.  However,  it  makes  little  practical  difference, 
since  any  item  which  cannot  readily  be  scored  as  plus  or  minus 
may  thereby  be  judged  as  of  intermediate  degree  of  success, 
since  it  is  only  a  question  of  whether  the  balance  of  doubt  is 
toward  success  or  toward  failure.  Assuming  no  constant  tend- 
ency for  the  examiner  to  be  characteristically  lenient  or  severe, 
the  errors  due  to  balance  of  doubt  will  tend  to  cancel  in  the  total 
result,  but  should  frankly  be  regarded  as  borderline  perform- 
ances for  purposes  of  detailed  interpretation.  If  such  scores  are 
numerous,  or  widely  scattered,  they  suggest  vacillation  of  judg- 
ment on  the  part  of  the  informant  or  the  examiner. 

To  those  unpracticed  in  the  use  of  the  Scale  the  specific 
scoring  of  items  may  appear  equivocal.   This  is  because  atten- 
tion may  be  focused  on  doubtful  rather  than  assured  perform- 
ance.  The  examiner  will  quickly  observe  in  actual  examining 
that  certain  items  are  passed  or  failed  without  question,  and 
that  doubtful  scoring  is  a  problem  only  on  doubtful  perform- 
ances,  namely  those  which  are   intermediate,   borderline   or 
emergent.  The  very  intermediacy  of  such  performances  limits 
their  number  (in  a  given  examination)  and  reveals  their  bor- 
derlinity.  The  examiner  then  addresses  himself  conscientiously 
to  these  dubious  performances  and  finds  their  definition  some- 
what unprecise  for  sharp  delineation.   This  problem  is  readily 
resolved,  and  the  examiner  relieved  of  undue  apprehension, 
ambivalence  or  skepticism  if  he  will  remind  himself  that  the 
"easy"  items  (for  a  particular  S)  and  also  the  "hard"  items 
pose  no  such  scoring  diflSculties.   Hence  the  very  doubt  raised 
by  the  difficulty  of  precisely  scoring  a  given  item  is  ipso  facto 
evidence  of  the  item's  borderlinity.    The  problem  of  doubtful 
scoring  should  therefore  not  be  taken  too  seriously;  it  may 


Scoring  Summary  283 

instead  be  considered  as  additional  evidence  of  marginal  item 
competence. 

Finally,  it  is  necessary  to  warn  the  examiner  again  that 
the  performances  are  not  to  be  considered  as  test  situations,  but 
are  to  be  viewed  as  established  modes  of  behavior  which  reveal 
stable  achievement.  If  the  item  permits  being  observed  as  a  test 
situation,  this  may  be  used  only  as  a  check  on  the  reliability  of 
the  informant.  But  the  test  situation  merely  reveals  that  the 
task  can  be  done  rather  than  that  it  usually  is  done  under  vari- 
able circumstances.  We  specifically  desire  here  to  measure 
performance  rather  than  capability.  Some  of  the  performances 
may  never  be  acquired  in  the  life  history  of  the  individual  be- 
cause of  specific  mental  or  physical  handicaps.  Note  also  that 
specific  performances  may  be  lost  through  temporary  or  perma- 
nent mental  or  physical  disability  and  especially  in  the  deterio- 
rated years  of  senescence,  or  in  the  physical  results  of  accidents 
or  disease.  In  all  such  cases  each  item  should  be  scored  in  order 
to  obtain  a  complete  picture  of  the  individual,  even  though  the 
significance  of  such  an  item,  when  interpreted  in  the  light  of 
the  accompanying  circumstances,  may  have  to  be  allowed  for. 

Scoring  summary.  We  may  now  summarize  overall  scor- 
ing as  follows : 

(a)  Score  item  plus  (-[-)  if  it  seems  clear  that  the  essen- 
tials for  that  item,  as  indicated  by  the  item  definitions,  are 
satisfied  and  habitually  performed  without  need  of  undue  (w 
artificial  incentive,  or  with  only  occasional  assistance  in  case 
of  special  circumstances. 

Plus  credit  may  be  assumed  for  all  items  below  that 
succession  of  pluses  which  provides  the  basal  score  for  the 
Scale  as  a  whole,  assuming  no  limiting  handicaps  to  expression. 
For  such  basal  scores  at  least  two  consecutive  pluses  are  desir- 
able within  each  category  appropriate  to  the  range  of  the 
examination.  The  highest  continuous  plus  score  for  all  items  is 
considered  the  basal  score,  allowance  being  made  for  lack  of 
opportunity,  as  noted  below.  If  the  S  is  handicapped  by  signifi- 
cant mental,  physical  or  social  disability,  all  items  likely  to  be 
influenced  thereby  should  be  scored  factually  rather  than 
inferentially. 

(b)  If  formerly  successful  performance  has  been  outgrown 
or  temporarily  discontinued,  the  item  is  scored  "-fF"  (former- 
ly) .  For  such  scoring  the  recorder  must  be  convinced  that  the 
performance  could  easily  be  re-established  if  desirable,  or  that 


284  Procedures  and  Scoring 

the  item  is  superseded  by  some  obviously  higher  degree  of 
similar  behavior.  Score  +F  also  those  items  which  the  subject 
does  not  perform  at  the  time  of  examination  because  of  present 
temporary  restraint  or  lack  of  opportunity,  but  which  he 
formerly  did  perform  successfully  when  no  such  restraints 
were  imposed  or  when  the  opportunity  was  present.  Plus-F 
scores  are  to  receive  full  credit. 

F-score  credit  is  to  be  allowed  where  previously  successful 
performance  is  interfered  with  by  temporary  ill  health,  by 
institutional  commitment,  or  by  other  critical  circumstances. 
Credit  is  not  allowed  for  previously  successful  performance 
which  has  been  lost  as  a  result  of  senescence  or  relatively 
permanent  mental  or  physical  impairment.  Credit  is  not  allowed 
ivhere  restrictions  have  proved  advisable  because  of  the 
unfavorable  consequences  already  experienced  in  the  absence  of 
such  restrictions. 

(c)  Score  "-f-NO"  (no  opportunity)  those  items  which  the 
subject  has  not  previously  performed  and  does  not  now  perform 
because  of  environmental  restraint  or  environmental  lack  of 
opportunity,  such  as  parental  solicitude,  arbitrary  adult  domina- 
tion, attendance  at  high  school  or  college,  institutional  restric- 
tions, or  other  grossly  limiting  circumstances,  but  which  the 
subject  presumably  would  perform  habitually  or  could  quickly 
learn  to  perform  if  such  limitations  to  behavior  were  removed. 
Such  scores  do  not  apply  when  performance  is  or  has  been 
limited  by  permanent  physical  or  mental  disability. 

Plus-NO  scores  receive  full  credit  within  the  range  of  the 
otherwise  continuous  plus  scores.  They  receive  no  credit  within 
the  range  of  the  otherwise  continuous  minus  scores.  They 
receive  half -credit  within  the  intermediate  range.  If  the  +N0 
score  is  the  last  of  the  otherwise  continuous  plus  scores,  or 
immediately  precedes  the  otherwise  continuous  minus  scores,  it 
is  counted  in  the  intermediate  range  and  receives  half -credit. 

This  system  of  crediting  -f-NO  scores  is  a  compromise 
allowance  for  presumptive  performance  in  the  absence  of 
reasonable  opportunity  for  such  performance  in  fact.  It  is 
frankly  an  expedient  to  avoid  penalizing  a  subject  whose 
performance  on  a  given  item  is  artificially  restricted.  Such 
scores  will  not  affect  the  total  score  materially  in  most  instances 
(except  in  some  institutional  environments).  The  effect  that 
such  scores  may  produce  can  be  allowed  for  in  interpreting  the 
results  in  a  given  case  or  in  a  given  group  according  to  the 
limiting  circumstances. 


Scoring  Summary  285 

Care  must  be  taken  not  to  be  ingenuous  or  too  generous  in 
estimating  limitations  of  opportunity  or  to  confuse  such  limita- 
tions with  actual  immaturity,  inability  or  irresponsibility  since 
the  fundamental  purpose  of  the  Scale  is  to  measure  the  extent  to 
which  the  person  progressively  dominates  his  environment  and 
creates,  demands  or  justifies  his  own  freedom  of  action  as  age 
increases.  This  is  the  principal  evidence  of  maturing  social 
competence  and  care  must  be  taken  not  to  discount  it  naively. 
Such  items,  therefore,  should  be  viewed  skeptically  as  well  as 
sympathetically. 

It  is  impracticable  to  provide  alternate  items  in  cases  of 
limited  opportunity,  as  this  would  require  an  alternate  for  each 
item  and  these  alternates  might  be  subject  to  the  same  difficul- 
ties as  the  items  they  are  intended  to  replace.  It  also  seems 
inadvisable  to  omit  such  items  in  a  given  case  and  provide  an 
adjusted  score  on  the  basis  of  the  number  of  items  actually  used. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  these  items  provide  specially  significant 
information  for  evaluating  individual  social  competence. 

For  purposes  of  guidance,  training  or  treatment,  these 
items  afford  suggestions  for  increasing  social  maturity.  It  is 
important,  however,  that  the  recorder  be  free  from  prejudice  in 
assuming  that  restraint  or  lack  of  opportunity  is  not  caused  by 
social  irresponsibility  of  the  person  scored,  as  for  example  in 
relation  to  ordinary  environmental  dangers  where  the  success- 
ful avoidance  of  ordinary  hazards  is  itself  the  measure  of 
social  success.  Care  should  be  exercised  also  regarding  the 
limitations  to  behavior  imposed  by  generally  accepted  social 
conventions,  especially  such  as  vary  with  locality  or  the  times. 

Actual  use  of  the  Scale  within  a  number  of  institutions  for 
the  mentally,  socially  and  physically  handicapped  has  demon- 
strated the  practicability  of  the  use  of  +N0  scores  in  restricted 
environments,  and  suggests  that  alternate  items  or  scales  are 
not  necessary  for  such  groups. 

(d)  Score  plus-minus  (±)  those  items  which  are  in 
transitional  or  emergent  state,  that  is,  which  are  occasionally 
but  not  ordinarily  performed  with  full  success.  Such  perform- 
ances should  be  complete  as  to  content  (degree  of  success)  but 
not  yet  fully  established  as  to  habitualness,  rather  than  vice 
versa.  These  scores  are  to  be  given  half-credit  in  the  final 
summation  for  total  score. 

Borderline  scores  are  to  be  expected  in  the  borderline 
range.   They  will  reflect:  (a)  timidity,  indiff'erence,  low  incen- 


286  Procedures  and  Scoring 

tive,  dependency,  lack  of  self-assertion,  and  the  like  on  the  part 
of  the  subject;  (b)  solicitude,  displeasure  or  domination  on 
the  part  of  parents  or  elders;  (c)  special  hazards  in  the 
particular  environment,  and  so  on. 

Subjects  will  be  encountered  who  can  perform  (and  some- 
times do),  or  presumably  could  quickly  learn  to  perform  a 
given  item,  but  who  for  various  reasons  generally  do  not  do  so, 
especially  in  cases  where  the  subject  enjoys  a  certain  degree  of 
sentimental  dependence  or  assistance.  In  such  instances  the 
examiner  must  decide  whether  the  item  is  to  receive  full  credit 
as  a  genuine  capability  not  always  exercised,  or  whether  the 
ability  is  only  emergent.  In  the  former  case  the  item  is  to  be 
scored  full  credit  (see  [e]  below)  ;  in  the  latter  case  half -credit. 
Judgment  is  required  to  decide  whether  such  assistance  as  may 
be  given  is  really  due  to  sentiment,  solicitude,  expediency,  lack 
of  occasion  or  need,  or  whether  such  assistance  conceals  a 
genuine  lack  of  performance. 

The  use  of  ±  is  to  be  discouraged  for  merely  doubtful 
performance.  While  such  a  practice  has  certain  advantages,  it 
tends  to  relieve  the  examiner  of  thorough  work.  Really  doubtful 
scores  which  do  not  reflect  emergent  maturation  should  be  scored 
frankly  plus  or  frankly  minus  and  the  doubt  regarding  them 
indicated  by  prefixing  "?"  to  the  assigned  score. 

(e)  Items  which  otherwise  might  be  scored   4-NO  but 
which  represent  "no  occasion"  rather  than  no  opportunity  as 
defined  above,  may  be  scored  "-|-NOc"  and  treated  as  if  H-NO. 
This  notation  is  for  record  purposes. 

(f )  Similarly,  the  notation  "NI"  (no  information,  or  not- 
sufficient  information)  may  be  added  to  any  score  which  must 
be  assigned  inferentially.  Such  NI  scores  Indicate  presumptive 
performance  based  on  the  aura  of  the  examination  as  a  whole 
for  items  which  do  not  shield  adequate  scores  due  to  lack  of 
reliable  data  or  due  to  equivocal  or  contradictory  information. 

These  NI  scores  are  necessary  for  record  purposes. 
Their  evaluation  for  item  credit  in  summation  remains 
somewhat  arbitrary.  Extended  experience  warrants  the  practice 
of  allowing  otherwise  standard  credit  for  NI  scores  as  assigned 
inferentially.  However,  if  more  than  five  (5)  NI  scores  are 
unavoidable  within  the  range  between  continuously  plus  and 
continuously  minus  scores,  then  the  examination  as  a  whole  is 
to  be  regarded  as  clinically  unreliable  and  should  be  repeated 
with  some  other  informant  who  is  more  intimately  acquainted 
with  the  S. 


Total  Scores  287 

(g)  Score  minus  ( — )  those  items  in  respect  to  which  the 
person  scored  has  not  yet  succeeded  at  all,  or  only  rarely,  or 
only  under  extreme  pressure  or  unusual  incentive.  Such  scores 
receive  no  credit.  A  complete  record  should  show  at  least  two 
consecutive  minus  scores  in  each  category  appropriate  to  the 
range  of  application. 

Minus  scores  must  be  assigned  for  all  failures  in  perform- 
ance without  regard  to  causes  therefor  (except  as  noted  for 
F-scores,  NO-scores  and  Nl-scores).  This  scale  seeks  to 
measure  social  competence  as  expressed  in  fact  or  ad  hoc. 
Hence  no  allowance  may  be  made  in  the  examination  procedure 
itself  for  the  reasons  which  underlie  lack  of  social  competence. 
Such  allowance  is,  of  course,  essential  to  the  interpretation  of 
results.  This  interpretation  is  the  ultimate  purpose  of  the 
examination  and  would  be  defeated  if  mitigating  circumstances 
are  permitted  to  influence  item  scoring.  The  examiner  must 
therefore  conscientiously  resist  the  temptation  to  make  conces- 
sions for  the  effects  of  crippling,  sensory  defects,  conduct 
disturbances,  social  maladjustment,  mental  disturbance,  person- 
ality defects,  immaturity  itself,  and  the  like;  the  effect  of 
these  on  social  success  is  the  point  at  issue. .  These  issues  may 
properly  be  dealt  with  by  the  method  of  double-scoring  (p.  292) . 
The  interpretation  of  these  performances  is  to  be  related  to 
independent  estimates,  measures  or  observations  of  the  circum- 
stances which  may  be  influencing  those  performances.  We 
return  to  this  point  in  reporting  trial  studies  of  the  Scale  with 
handicapped  individuals  and  groups   (Chapters  11-14). 

Score  " — NO"  those  items  respecting  which  special  re- 
straints or  lack  of  opportunity  may  be  noted,  but  which  presum- 
ably would  not  or  could  not  be  performed  even  if  the  opportunity 
were  provided.  This  scoring  does  not  affect  the  final  score,  but 
serves  to  indicate  that  the  disability  is  in  the  S  and  not  due 
to  some  other  cause. 

Total  scores.  After  at  least  two  plus  scores  have  been 
established  at  the  beginning  of  each  category,  and  two  minus 
scores  at  the  end,  some  attention  may  well  be  paid  to  terminat- 
ing the  examination  neatly  to  the  satisfaction  of  both  examiner 
and  informant.  It  is  advisable  not  to  close  the  examination  too 
abruptly,  but  rather  to  return  to  the  general  friendly  conversa- 
tion with  which  it  was  begun,  commending  the  informant,  for 
his  cooperation  and  conscientiousness,  as  well  as  for  the  adequa- 
cy of  the  information,  his  interest  in  the  S,  and  the  material 
benefits  gained  from  his  assistance.  Fresquently  in  such  a  termi- 


288  Procedures  and  Scoring 

nal  chat,  additional  information  of  value  may  be  brought  forth. 
If  both  parties  to  the  examination  express  their  mutual  satis- 
faction, good  feeling  is  promoted  as  well  as  confidence  in  the 
returns.  In  situations  where  continuing  examining  is  desired, 
this  good  feeling  will  spread  among  other  informants  and 
toward  other  examiners,  and  a  progressive  state  of  cooperation 
will  be  promoted.  However,  the  examiner  must  exercise  discre- 
tion in  commenting  upon  the  results  of  the  examination  and 
should  not  reveal  the  obtained  scores  unless  specifically- 
warranted. 

In  closing  the  examination  a  check  on  the  obtained  score  is 
sought  by  asking  for  the  informant's  general  estimate  of  the 
subject's  age-level  of  social  maturity  in  the  light  of  the  inter- 
view just  completed.  This  "informant's  estimate"  is  readily 
obtained  without  prejudice  by  asking  the  informant  to  express 
an  opinion  within  outside  limits  (if  he  cannot  express  it  more 
precisely)  and  then  assuming  the  mid-point  of  those  limits  as  a 
mid-estimate.  Such  judgments  are  to  be  expressed  in  terms  of 
the  average-normal  person  at  progressive  age-periods  of  social 
competence.  This  estimate  should  be  requested  at  the  close  of 
the  examination  rather  than  earlier.  If  it  is  not  in  reasonable 
accord  with  the  obtained  SA  score,  then  the  examiner  should 
proceed  to  harmonize  the  discrepancy,  but  without  attempting 
to  modify  the  informant's  judgment  except  as  this  may  have 
been  improperly  conceived. 

The  total  score  is  the  sum  of  scores  as  provided  above.  This 
is  obtained  by  adding  to  the  basal  score  (the  highest  of  all  the 
continuous  plus  scores)  the  additional  scattered  credits  beyond 
the  basal  score,  and  expressing  this  sum  as  a  total  number  of 
items  passed   (counting  two  half -credits  as  one  item). 

SA  scores.  This  total  (point)  score  is  then  converted  to 
an  SA  (year)  score  from  the  conversion  table  (p.  290),  or  by 
interpolation  from  the  record  sheet.  For  this  purpose  the  item 
numbers  may  be  used  to  represent  total  point  scores.  The 
position  in  the  year-scale  of  this  item-number  equivalent  may 
then  be  reduced  to  an  interpolated  SA  value. 

Thus  a  total  point  score  of  61  equals  the  "top"  item-number 
of  year  V-VI,  which  would  be  SA  5.99,  or  6.0.  A  total  score  of 
62  would  mean  one-fourth  of  a  year  beyond  SA  6.0,  which  is 
6.25  or  6.3.  A  total  score  of  69  would  mean  four-fifths  of  a  year 
beyond  SA  7.0,  which  is  7.8.  A  total  score  of  83  would  mean 
two-thirds  of  a  year  beyond  SA  11.0,  which  is  11.67,  or  11.7.  If 
the  SA  interval  represents  more  than  one  year,  this  would  be 


SA  Scores  289 

calculated  proportionately.  Thus  a  total  score  of  88  represents 
four-fifths  of  the  XII  -  XV  year-interval,  or  12.0  +  (5^  X  3), 
=  12.0  +  2.4,  =  14.4. 

The  general  rule  for  interpolation  is  therefore  as  follows: 

(1)  Subtract  the  obtained  total  score  (as  an  item  number) 
from  the  top  (equivalent  item  number)  of  the  year  group 
preceding  that  in  which  the  actual  score  is  found ; 

(2)  express  this  remainder  as  a  fractional  part  of  the 
year  group  in  which  the  total  score  is  found  (based  on  the 
number  of  items  in  that  group  and  the  year-range  of  the  group)  ; 

(3)  add  this  value  to  the  top  year  value  of  the  lower 
limiting  group. 


EXAMPLE 
Male,  life  age  14.9,  Binet  age  age  7.2,  Binet  IQ  51. 


Items : 

Scores: 

Credit: 

55-59 
+ 
59 

60 

+  N0 
1 

61-63 

+ 
3 

64 

+  N0 
.5 

65 
0 

+ 
1 

67 
.5 

68 

+ 

1 

Items: 
Scores : 
Credit: 

69 

+  F 
1 

70 

-t- 

.5 

71 

+ 
0 

72 

+ 

1 

73 
0 

74-76 

0 

77 

+  N0 

0 

78-86 
0 

Basal  score  63,  additional  credits  5.5,  total  score  68.5. 

Age-score  (SA)  =  7.0  +  .7  =  7.7  years. 

The  total  point-score  (in  this  case  68.5)  is  converted  to  an  age-score 
(SA  =  7.7)  as  follows: 

(1)  On  the  record  blank  find  the  year-interval  in  which  the  total 
point-score  (68.5)  occurs  (year  VII-VIII). 

(2)  Note  the  item-number  (65)  which  marks  the  end  of  the  preceding 
year  (VI-VII). 

(3)  Subtract  this  item-number  (65)  as  a  point-score  from  the  total 
point-score   (68.5). 

(4)  Divide  this  remainder  (68.5  —  65  =  3.5)  by  the  number  of 
items  (5)  in  the  year-group  (VII-VIII)  in  which  the  total  point- 
score  (68.5)  occurs. 

(5)  Multiply  this  result  (3.5  -^  5  =:  .7)  by  the  year  value  of  the 
interval  (in  this  case  1  year)  in  which  the  total  point-score  (68.5) 
occurs. 

(6)  Add  this  result  (.7x1  =  .7)  to  the  end  value  (6.99  or  7.0)  of 
the  lower  limiting  year  (VI-VII). 

(7)  This  result  (7.0  -f  .7  =  7.7)  is  the  interpolated  SA-score 
corresponding  to  the  total  point-score  (68.5). 

The  social  quotient  (SQ)  is  obtained  by  dividing  the  social  age  (SA) 
by  the  corresponding  life  age  (LA)  and  multiplying  by  100  (in  this  cas< 
7.7  ^  14.9  X  lOO  =  52). 


290  Procedures  and  Scoring 


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Special  Procedures  '  291 

This  exposition  of  interpolating  SA  scores  from  point 
scores  makes  the  procedure  look  more  complex  than  it  is  in 
fact.  As  a  convenient  alternative  Table  A  affords  a  ready 
reference  for  obtaining  SA  equivalents  from  total  point  scores 
directly  from  the  appropriate  entries. 

We  advocate  expressing  age-values  in  years  and  decimals 
rather  than  in  total  months,  years  and  months,  or  years  and 
fractions.  We  also  favor  the  practice  of  calculating  life  age 
values  to  nearest  whole  month,  disregarding  days.  The  errors 
thus  introduced  are  slight  except  for  very  low  ages  and  are 
merged  with  the  probable  error  of  measurement.  Calculations 
may  be  approximated  to  the  nearest  first  decimal  for  age  values 
and  to  the  nearest  second  figure  for  SQ's  below  100.  Some 
workers  may  prefer  more  exact  arithmetic  but  such  accuracy 
in  calculation,  while  overlooking  inaccuracies  of  measurement, 
yields  only  a  nicety  which  is  more  apparent  than  real.  For 
the  reader's  convenience  the  following  approximation  to  decimal 
years  is  offered  for  corresponding  calendar  months. 

Months  123456789      10      11      12 

Decimal-         .1     .2     .3     .3     .4     .5     .6     .7     .8       .8       .9     1.0 
year 


Special  procedures.  Various  modifications  of  the  standard 
examination  may  be  employed  for  particular  purposes.  Among 
these  are:  (1)  self -informing,  (2)  double-scoring,  (3)  retro- 
spective examining,  (4)  use  of  multiple  informants,  (5)  use  of 
history  data  or  literature,  (6)  description  and  counseling,  and 
(7)  informal  use.  Such  departures  should  always  be  noted  in 
reporting  results. 

These  modified  techniques  are  here  briefly  described  and 
elsewhere  alluded  to  (see  index).  Some  of  them  have  been 
investigated  or  employed  in  exploratory  studies  (Chapter  13), 
Although  some  of  these  devices  yield  scores  which  apparently 
are  closely  comparable  to  the  scores  obtained  by  standard 
examining,  such  results  should  be  cautiously  interpreted  since 
normative  data  and  correlative  evidence  on  reliability,  validity, 
and  probable  error  of  measurement  have  not  yet  been  system- 
atically established.  Aside  from  the  obtained  SA's,  information 
about  the  S  may  be  obtained  in  these  ways  which  may  contribute 
to  an  understanding  of  the  S  not  readily  obtainable  by  the 
standard  method. 


292  Procedures  and  Scoring 

1.  In  the  self -informing  examination  the  S  is  interviewed 
as  his  own  informant  instead  of  by  means  of  a  proxy.  Logically 
this  should  be  the  standard  type  of  examination,  since  presum- 
ably the  S  is  better  informed  about  himself  than  are  his 
acquaintances  or  relatives.  But  self-informing  has  the  disad- 
vantage that  the  S  may  be  reluctant  to  describe  his  own  social 
behavior  as  candidly  as  this  may  be  done  by  others.  He  might 
through  modesty  understate  his  habitual  attainments  or  for 
various  reasons  misrepresent  them.  Or  the  intimate  nature  of 
the  interview  might  prove  personally  embarrassing  to  the  S, 
engendering  reluctance  because  the  interrogation  might  seem 
more  improper  to  him  than  to  someone  else.  Moreover,  this 
procedure  requires  the  presence  of  the  S,  whereas  the  standard 
examination  makes  this  unnecessary.  In  short,  the  self-inform- 
ing examination  encounters  both  subjective  and  practical 
embarrassments.  If  resorted  to,  this  method  of  examining  is 
the  same  as  that  employed  with  other  informants. 

In  general,  S-examinations  tend  to  yield  somewhat  higher 
scores,  although  some  such  scores  are  lower  than  those  obtained 
from  independent  informants.  This  does  not  necessarily  reflect 
the  S's  overestimation  or  disparagement  of  his  abilities  but  may 
simply  yield  more  recent  and  perhaps  more  detailed  or  more 
intimate  evidence  on  his  attainments. 

The  results  from  self -informing  examinations  have  certain 
advantages  in  that  they  provide  insight  on  the  part  of  the  S 
regarding  his  own  competence  as  compared  with  the  appraisal 
of  others.  Such  scores  likewise  serve  somewhat  as  indications  of 
introversion  or  extroversion,  or  of  tendences  toward  egotistic 
thinking  vs.  self -deprecation.  Self-informing  consequently  may 
be  used  with  therapeutic  purpose  or  consequences  because  of 
the  insightful  self-evaluation  of  the  S  and  the  improved 
appreciation  of  personal-social  abilities  or  desirabilities.  This  is 
comparable  to  the  insight  regarding  the  S  gained  in  the  stand- 
ard examination  by  independent  informants,  for  example, 
parents  or  parent-surrogates.  Hence  the  method  is  helpful  for 
mental  hygiene  purposes  or  in  guidance  and  counseling. 

2.  Double  scoring.  The  standard  procedure  for  employing 
the  Scale  takes  account  of  the  individual  as  he  is  (or  was)  at  the 
time  of  the  examination.  It  makes  no  direct  allowances  for  the 
influence  of  mental,  physical  or  social  handicaps  on  the  success 
of  the  performances  but  attempts  rather  to  score  the  per- 
formances ad  hoc.  It  is  obvious,  however,  that  the  evaluation 
of  such  results  should  not  ignore  the  presumptive  influences 


Retrospective  Examining  293 

of  such  specific  handicaps  as  may  obscure  the  innate  capacities 
of  the  individual. 

A  fairly  satisfactory  procedure  for  appraising  the  effects 
of  special  handicaps  is  to  employ  "double  scoring."  By  this  is 
meant  the  scoring  of  item  performances  (a)  as  these  are  ex- 
pressed without  allowance  for  the  handicap,  and  then  (b)  as 
they  presumably  might  be  performed  if  the  handicap  were  not 
present.  This  second  type  of  scoring  should  be  accomplished  as 
objectively  as  possible  by  careful  interrogation  on  the  same 
principles  as  are  employed  for  assigning  "no  opportunity" 
scores.  That  is,  the  reasons  for  assigning  the  alternative  score 
should  be  as  valid  as  may  be  practicable.  Indeed,  in  one  sense 
the  handicap  poses  the  equivalent  of  the  "no  opportunity" 
situation,  the  handicap  being  considered  as  the  bar  to  opportu- 
nity for  expression. 

These  alternative  scores  will  assist  in  the  interpretation  of 
the  total  examination  as  well  as  of  particular  item  perform- 
ances. The  difference  between  the  total  score  obtained  by  the 
method  of  standard  scoring  and  the  method  of  alternative  scor- 
ing may  be  taken  as  a  rough  measure  of  the  influence  of  the 
handicap  on  individual  total  social  competence. 

When  such  double  scoring  is  employed,  the  influence  of 
particular  handicaps  becomes  more  readily  apparent  and  sus- 
ceptible to  more  objective  evaluation.  This  is  helpful  not  only 
for  clinical  purposes  but  also  in  group  studies  where  the  in- 
fluence of  special  handicaps  is  a  central  problem  for  comparative 
evaluation.  This  is  somewhat  analogous  to  the  employment  of 
alternative  norms  for  restricted  environments. 

3.  Retrospective  examining.  We  have  repeatedly  suggested 
the  practicability  of  using  this  scale  as  a  very  helpful  means 
of  reviewing  the  course  of  social  maturation  in  a  given  subject. 
We  have  also  suggested  that  this  may  be  done  in  either  of  two 
ways:  (a)  by  plotting  total  social  scores  at  particular  ages,  or 
(b)  by  indicating  the  LA's  at  which  particular  items  showed 
their  earliest  successful  performance. 

Retrospective  total-score  growth  curves  may  be  constructed 
by  establishing  scores  at  more  or  less  continuous  points  in  the 
previous  history  of  the  S.  These  scores  need  not  be  less  precise 
than  standard  scores  taken  at  successive  ages  over  a  succession 
of  years.  Many  S's  will  be  clearly  recalled  by  particular  inform- 
ants, or  even  by  the  same  informant,  at  earlier  ages  than  the 
subject's  present  age.  Hence  although  the  S  may  be  no  longer 
living,  or  not  of  intimate  recent  acquaintance,  the  informant 


294  Procedures  and  Scoring 

may  have  vivid  recollections  of  the  S  as  of  a  desired  former  date. 
Indeed  some  informants  may  have  their  best  knowledge  of  the 
S  as  of  dates  prior  to  the  time  of  actual  examination.  In  other 
instances  retrospective  scores  may  be  somewhat  less  thoroughly 
established  as  between  certain  limits  of  precision.  In  general, 
retrospective  examining  is  possible  with  a  surprising  degree  of 
success.  The  procedure  has  several  variations  as  follows : 

(a)  The  usual  procedure  for  retrospective  examinations 
is  the  same  as  that  employed  for  standard  examinations. 
The  informant  is  asked  to  recall  the  S  as  of  a  certain  date  in  his 
life  history.  The  accuracy  and  vividness  of  recollection  is  best 
insured  by  directing  the  preliminary  interrogation  toward  the 
general  status  of  the  S  as  of  the  time  in  question.  This  is 
facilitated  by  encouraging  the  recollection  of  specific  events  of 
some  dramatic  moment  in  the  life  of  the  S  at  that  time  such  as 
school  entrance,  entrance  to  or  graduation  from  high  school  or 
college,  marriage,  or  other  significant  events  bearing  on  the  S 
which  will  serve  to  "date"  him  in  the  mind  of  the  informant. 
With  this  specific  orientation  toward  the  S  as  of  that  date,  the 
examination  proceeds  in  the  usual  manner  for  standard  examin- 
ing. The  scores  thus  obtained  may  be  considered  as  develop- 
mental scores  in  the  life  history  of  the  S,  and  may  be  used  as 
measurement  points  in  the  developmental  history. 

Such  retrospective  examinations  may  be  conducted  when 
the  S  is  deceased  or  has  not  been  known  to  the  informant  since 
the  last  date  of  intimate  acquaintance.  Retrospective  data  may 
therefore  be  obtained  from  the  same  or  different  informants  on 
the  same  S  at  different  life  ages.  Retrospective  examinations 
may  also  employ  the  S  as  his  own  informant  if  his  memory  is 
assuredly  accurate.  These  procedures  supply  retroactive 
growth  curves,  or  evidence  of  social  maturity  at  critical  periods 
which  may  be  of  exceptional  scientific,  professional,  or  even 
legal  value. 

(b)  As  noted  earlier,  another  method  of  retrospective 
examining  is  to  record  the  particular  ages  at  which  specific 
items  of  the  Scale  first  became  habitually  successful.  In  this 
procedure  the  progressive  maturation  of  the  S  is  developed  in 
terms  of  item  scores  rather  than  in  terms  of  total  scores. 
Employing  the  standard  method  of  interrogation,  item  defini- 
tion and  scoring,  the  examiner  inquires  as  to  the  earliest  date 
(or  age)  at  which  habitual  performance  on  given  items  was 
clearly  attained.  This  is  analogous  to  the  usual  questions  of 
developmental  history  such  as  when  was  the  first  smile  noted, 


Retrospective  Examining  295 

when  did  he  hold  up  his  head,  sit  up,  stand  alone,  walk,  run, 
jump;  but  the  interrogation  is  more  precise,  the  standards  of 
achievement  more  clearly  defined,  and  the  factual  details  more 
systematically  elicited. 

On  the  early  items  of  the  Scale  these  "first  dates"  may  be 
established  with  reasonable  accuracy  to  the  approximate  month 
of  attainment.  Or  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  emergent 
period  of  attainment  may  be  revealed,  in  which  case  the  date 
of  successful  emergence  is  assigned  as  the  critical  point.  In  the 
later  items  of  the  Scale  as  age  advances  it  may  be  impracticable 
to  assign  fiixed  dates,  but  approximate  dates  may  be  given  within 
limits,  such  as  between  4-5  years,  or  at  about  15  years,  or 
somewhere  between  20-25  years.  In  general  the  safest  practice 
is  to  assign  the  mid-point  of  such  limiting  dates  as  the  most 
probable  time  of  achievement.  The  same  technique  may  be 
employed  for  senescent  retrogression  or  for  mental  deteriora- 
tion and  recovery. 

It  is  apparent  that  this  method  of  examining  does  not  yield 
the  same  precise  results  as  in  standard  examining,  nor  does  it 
yield  satisfactory  total  scores.  The  Scale  does,  however,  afford 
item  definitions  and  norms  for  obtaining  developmental  history 
data  significantly  beyond  the  techniques  and  content  of  examin- 
ing now  generally  practiced.  Even  if  all  the  items  of  the  Social 
Scale  are  not  employed  in  this  way,  some  of  them  may  be  used 
as  milestones  in  the  developmental  or  involutional  history  and 
used  as  specific  points  of  reference. 

This  method  is  particularly  helpful  when  one  desires  to 
relate  morbid  events  in  the  life  history  to  degrees  of  competence 
concomitantly  obtaining,  e.g.,  as  in  correlating  suspected  causes 
of  mental  retardation  with  date  of  onset  from  a  possibly  former 
normal  state.  The  technique  is  specially  useful  in  some  legal 
circumstances  for  determining  the  consequences  of  accidents 
vs.  previous  status.  This  possibility  of  "timing"  states  of 
competence  has  many  assets. 

(c)  The  Scale  may  be  used  in  either  of  the  above  ways  for 
the  evaluation  of  social  maturation  on  the  basis  of  material 
already  of  record,  as  in  summarizing  case-history  records. 
From  such  records,  assuming  adequacy  of  data,  it  is  practicable 
to  establish  total  scores  at  various  points  in  the  life  history  of 
the  S  or  to  establish  the  dates  of  item  attainment.  These 
methods  are  applicable  to  data  inherent  in  biographies,  novels, 
drama,  epic  poetry,  social-history  records  and  similar  sources. 


296  Procedures  and  Scoring 

In  such  circumstances  the  examiner  is  obliged  to  rely  upon 
the  material  available,  and  this  will  adventitiously  determine 
the  life-age  points  at  which  the  recorded  data  are  interpretable. 
However,  in  the  field  of  biographical  research  it  may  be  possible 
for  the  investigator  to  determine  the  particular  points  at  which 
he  most  desires  developmental  data  and  proceed  accordingly. 
Obviously  in  the  utilization  of  such  data,  the  examiner  may  not 
be  able  to  escape  the  necessity  of  pooling  information  from 
varied  sources  rather  than  utilizing  single  informants.  He  may 
also  have  to  infer  presumptive  item  success  from  correlated 
information  outside  the  details  of  item  scoring.  Consequently, 
the  use  of  recorded  evidence  is  less  precise  and  calls  for  more 
resourcefulness  than  is  the  case  in  standard  examining.  How- 
ever, the  examiner  has  recourse  to  the  definitional  elaboration 
of  item  performance  and  the  normal  age  standards  of  item 
success. 

These  several  uses  of  retrospective  examining,  like  stand- 
ard examining,  assume  adequacy  of  information.  It  is  therefore 
incumbent  upon  the  examiner  to  insure  reasonable  scope  and 
reliability  for  the  evidence  elicited.  Insofar  as  the  examination 
may  be  considered  incomplete  or  even  invalid,  the  evidence  may 
at  least  be  set  forth  explicitly  within  the  limits  indicated. 

4.  Multiple  informants.  It  is  sometimes  impracticable  to 
employ  a  single  informant  as  required  by  the  standard  method. 
It  may  be  difficult  to  obtain  a  sufficiently  informed  or  coopera- 
tive informant  (p.  269,  286).  Or  the  examiner  may  be  con- 
strained to  conduct  the  examination  with  a  third  person  present 
who  may  contradict  or  supplement  the  "official"  informant 
(as  when  both  parents,  or  the  informant  and  the  S,  are  present) . 
Or  each  of  several  informants  may  be  inadequately  informed 
regarding  different  categories  of  items,  and  may  disagree  or 
complement  each  other.  The  skilled  examiner  is  usually  able  to 
reconcile  inconsistent  evidence  by  reducing  the  informants' 
expressions  of  opinion  to  their  factual  bases.  One  way  of  doing 
this  is  to  clarify  the  habitual  (temporal)  aspect  of  the  perform- 
ances or  the  particular  situations  or  occasions  which  affect  them. 
The  examiner  should  resist  the  temptation  to  introduce  inform- 
ation of  his  own  as  gained  from  observations,  records,  hearsay, 
or  personal  acquaintance  with  the  S. 

In  such  circumstances  it  is  inadvisable  to  "pool"  infor- 
mation from  multiple  informants  or  other  sources  for  a  single 
examination.  It  is  better  practice  to  conduct  independent 
examinations  for  each  informant,  or  other  source  of  informa- 


History  and  Literature  297 

tion,  and  evaluate  these  separately  either  as  incomplete  records 
(p.  557)  or,  if  complete,  in  terms  of  the  probable  error  of 
measurement.  It  is,  however,  sometimes  necessary  or  advisable 
to  pool  information  from  multiple  sources  for  purposes  of  a 
single  overall  appraisal, 

5.  History  and  literature.  History  data  and  literary  mate- 
rial (p.  458,  571)  are  sources  of  information  from  which 
approximate  SA's  may  be  systematically  estimated.  Sufficient 
evidence  may  often  be  culled  from  casework  records,  personnel 
files,  biographies  and  autobiographies,  histories  and  historical 
novels,  fiction,  drama,  poetry  and  similar  means  to  serve  as 
"quasi-interviews  with  proxy  informants."  Such  "examina- 
tions" will  usually  be  unavoidably  sketchy  and  the  item  scores 
largely  inferential.  Yet  the  over-all  analysis  afforded  by  this 
procedure  yields  results  which  appear  to  be  within  rather 
definite  limits  of  plausibility  for  definitive  appraisal. 

6.  Description  and  counseling.  The  standard  examination 
may  be  modified  in  purpose  rather  than  procedure  in  order  to 
gain  a  complete  description  of  the  S  or  for  indirect  counseling. 
This  involves  different  emphasis  in  respect  to  which  item  scoring 
and  ultimate  SA  are  less  important  than  intimate  understanding 
of  the  S.  While  these  results  inhere  in  all  clinical  uses  of  the 
Scale  they  may  be  specifically  at  issue.  Hence  the  implications 
of  the  item  details  assume  importance  beyond  the  mere  routine 
of  assigning  item  scores.  Indeed,  in  such  circumstances  precise 
item  scoring  may  be  both  more  difficult  and  less  relevant  than  is 
typically  the  case.  These  descriptive  and  implicational  values 
are  particularly  helpful  with  handicapped  or  maladjusted  S's.. 

Two  illustrations  may  be  cited. 

1.  A  classroom  demonstration  of  the  Scale  was  being  given  before  a 
group  of  graduate  students  in  speech  and  hearing  impairment.  The  S  (not 
present)  was  a  2.7-year-old  girl  with  congenital  cerebral  palsy,  mother 
informant,  the  child's  physical  therapy  nurse  present  as  class  auditor. 
Exploratory  interview  revealed  the  S  to  be  grossly  impaired  in  speech 
and  movement  but  apparently  of  better-than-average  intelligence  and 
personality.  Standard  examining  encountered  many  difficulties  of  scor- 
ing due  to  physical  handicaps  associated  with  superior  mental  aptitudes, 
which  yielded  partial  or  emergent  performances  and  consequently  equiv- 
ocal item  scores.  The  examination  was  then  "pointed  up"  by  intensified 
interview  to  reveal  the  minute  details  and  variable  circumstances  of  the 
child's  performances  with  special  regard  for  a  "no  opportunity"  halo 
resulting  from  physical  dependency  and  environmental  solicitude. 

In  the  course  of  the  examination  the  mother  gained  insight  regarding 
the  child's  physical  limitations  in  relation  to  the  child's  mental  assets  and 
the  social  regimentation.  Forced  item-scoring  yielded  an  SA  of  1,0  years, 
and  inferential  double-scoring  an  SA  of  3.2  years.  Both  these  scores  were 


298  Procedures  and  Scoring 

considered  approximate  rather  than  precise.  The  description  of  the  child 
was  here  much  more  significant  than  the  formal  scores.  Likewise,  both 
mother  and  physical  therapist  perceived  suggestions  for  management  and 
therapy,  and  concurred  in  similar  direct  suggestions  from  the  examiner. 
Moreover,  the  record  stands  as  a  point  of  reference  for  future  improvement 
due  to  maturation  and  treatment  as  well  as  an  indirect  estimate  of  intel- 
lectual aptitude  not  susceptible  to  direct  standard  measurement  in  view  of 
the  receptive  and  expressive  physical  handicaps. 

2.  A  classroom  demonstration  of  the  Scale  was  b^ng  given  before  a 
group  of  advanced  students  in  special  education.  The  S  was  a  self -inform- 
ing boy  of  19,  a  high  school  junior,  with  relative  reading  disability, 
reported  IQ  95.  As  the  examination  progressed,  it  was  evident  that  the  S 
was  increasingly  embarrassed  by  his  own  candid  responses  which  re- 
vealed numerous  shortcomings  of  performance.  It  was  obvious  that  he  was 
accepting  indirect  suggestion  from  the  content  and  spirit  of  the  interview 
as  well  as  requesting  and  accepting  direct  suggestions  of  the  order  of 
informal  counseling.  The  obtained  SA  of  18  years  was  less  significant 
for  all  concerned  than  was  the  personality  description  and  apparently 
spontaneous  insight  gained  from  the  examination.  Even  the  reading 
disability  loomed  less  important  than  his  social  attitudes. 

Subsequent  to  this  examination  the  following  unsolicited  letter  was 
received  from  this  S. 

"I've  been  doing  a  lot  of  thinking  since  we  had  that  talk  together  in 
front  of  all  those  teachers.  To  me  it  didn't  seem  to  be  a  test  of  some 
kind  but  a  talk  between  two  persons  who  just  met.  It  started  me  thinking 
if  I'm  the  boy  my  parents  want  me  to  be.  I  never  did  give  much  thought 
to  those  questions  before  you  and  I  had  the  talk.  I  just  want  you  to  know 
that  I'm  doing  a  little  changing  at  a  time.  I'm  trying  to  do  the  things  I 
am  expected  to  do  and  a  little  more  and  I  feel  better  about  everything. 
Thanks  a  lot  and  I  hope  I  get  to  meet  you  again.  You  don't  know  what 
this  help  means  to  me.  I  enjoyed  every  minute  of  it  because  you  treated 
me  so  good." 

7.  Informal  use.  Apart  from  these  methods  of  direct 
examination,  the  Scale  may  be  used  informally  by  inexperienced 
examiners,  or  by  interested  informants,  or  the  S  himself, 
independently  of  systematic  interview.  This  loose  procedure 
affords  a  useful  though  crude  appraisal  of  the  S  in  situations  or 
by  persons  where  standard  examinations  are  impracticable.  In 
such  use  of  the  Scale  the  items  may  be  scored  on  the  basis  of 
yes-or-no  expression  of  opinion  unsupported  by  detailed  inter- 
rogation, as  a  rough  method  of  orientational  evaluation  of  the 
S.  The  record  blank  may  even  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the 
informant  or  of  the  S  himself  and  the  items  merely  scored  plus 
or  minus  on  the  basis  ef  the  implications  of  the  caption 
formulation  of  items  without  definitional  elaboration  of  per- 
formance. A  special  case  of  such  use  of  the  Scale  is  the 
employment  of  the  Scale  by  correspondence,  either  with  or 
without  the  use  of  definitional  scoring.  Obviously  the  results 
obtained  from  such  procedures  are  not  to  be  taken  very 
seriously  for  scientific  purposes,  but  may  be  all  that  is  desired 
or  may  serve  where  other  methods  are  impracticable. 


8 


Illustrative    Examinations 


The  strength  of  a  man  is  according  to  his  age.     — Judges  VIII-21 


The  examining  procedures,  and  some  specific  uses  of  this 
scale,  have  been  set  forth  rather  explicitly  in  manual  form  in 
preceding  chapters.  These  instructions  become  more  realistic 
when  amplified  by  illustrative  examples.  The  following  detailed 
accounts  of  actual  examinations  are  designed  to  elaborate  both 
theme  and  nuance  of  procedure  for  various  types  of  subjects, 
stages  of  maturity  and  purposes  of  inquiry. 


Case  I.  Normal  preschool  child,  male.  LA  2.1,  SA  2.4,  SQ  114. 

The  examiner  establishes  rapport  through  general  conver- 
sation in  which  the  nature  and  purpose  of  the  examination  are 
briefly  explained.  In  this  case  the  S  is  being  examined  for  pur- 
poses of  normative  standardization  of  the  Scale.  The  mother  is 
a  cooperative  and  willing  informant.  The  child  is  of  American 
descent;  father  is  a  farm  supervisor;  father's  education  high 
school  graduate  and  university  short  courses ;  mother's  occupa- 
tion housewife;  mother's  education  high  school.  The  child  has 
no  limiting  handicaps.  The  examiner  notes  the  somewhat 
better  than  average  social  status  of  the  family  as  well  as  the 
parental  education  and  paternal  occupation,  and  gauges  his 
questions  accordingly.  These  notes  on  the  general  family  status 
and  environment  are  readily  gained  from  initial  conversation 
showing  a  thoughtful  interest  in  the  child  and  the  family. 

The  reader  will  note  the  use  of  interspersed  general  conver- 
sation designed  to  maintain  the  informant's  interest  and  coop- 
eration and  to  facilitate  the  volunteering  of  gratuitous  informa- 
tion, and  the  attempt  to  avoid  the  cross-examination  type  of 
interview.  This  includes  occasional  conversational  digressions 
during  the  interrogation  not  immediately  relevant  to  the  par- 
ticular items  of  the  Scale,  but  designed  to  ease  the  transition 
from  one  item  to  another,  or  from  one  category  to  another. 
The  examiner  "feels  his  way"  toward  effective  questioning  by 
interspersing  somewhat  irrelevant  remarks  as  far  as  the  Scale 


300  Illustrative  Examinations 

is  concerned  in  order  to  keep  the  examination  on  a  conversa- 
tional plane.  The  examiner  specifically  avoids  stilted  questions 
and  unqualified  "yes"  or  "no"  answers.  His  problem  is  to 
refrain  from  scoring  the  items  until  he  has  elicited  sufficiently 
detailed  information  to  warrant  clean-cut  scores. 

Knowing  that  the  child  is  two  years  old,  and  assuming 
normal  development  for  that  age  in  view  of  the  preliminar3^ 
conjectures,  the  examiner  (in  this  case)  begins  with  the 
locomotion  category  as  follows : 

E,  (Examiner)  I  suppose  Carl  (the  S)  walks  about  rather  freely? 

I.  (Informant)  Oh  yes,  he  goes  everywhere  by  himself  now, 

E.  Do  you  have  to  watch  him  very  much  as  he  gets  around? 

I.  No,  I  can  trust  him  most  of  the  time  and  he  seldom  causes  me  any 

trouble. 

E.  How  long  do  you  leave  him  alone  to  look  after  himself,  and  where  does 

he  go  without  need  of  your  watching  him  ? 

I.  Of  course  he  goes  all  around  the  house  during  the  day,  and  he  plays  out 

in  the  yard  when  the  weather  is  good. 

E.    Are  you  worried  about  his  safety  or  getting  into  trouble  when  he  does 

this? 

I.  Of  course  I  like  to  know  where  he  is  and  I  keep  an  eye  on  him,  or  I 
look  from  time  to  time  to  see  what  he  is  doing.  But  he  is  very  good  about 
not  being  meddlesome  and  when  he  is  in  the  yard  he  doesn't  wander  off 
the  place.  I  feel  that  I  can  trust  Mm,  but  from  time  to  time  I  go  to  see 
what  he  is  doing.  Generally  I  can  leave  him  to  himself  for  half  an  hour  at 
a  time. 

E.  When  he  does  this,  is  he  by  himself  or  in  the  company  of  other 
children  ? 

I.  Both,   Sometimes  he  plays  by  himself.  Other  times  he  is  with  the  other 
children.   He  likes  to  be  with  others,  but  doesn't  cause  them  any  annoy- 
ance.  But  of  course  he  likes  a  certain  amount  of  attention. 
E.  Does  he  go  up  and  down  stairs  by  himself  ? 

I.  Yes,  he  goes  up  and  down  the  porch  steps  without  trouble  and  goes 
up  and  down  stairs  alone,  but  when  he  is  upstairs  I  feel  a  little  more 
concerned  about  him  because  he  doesn't  go  downstairs  very  easily  by 
himself. 

E.  Does  he  need  any  help  going  up  and  down  stairs  ? 

I.  He  walks  upstairs  all  right  holding  to  the  banister,  but  coming  down- 
stairs he  is  rather  timid  and  doesn't  manage  so  well.    Yes,  he  puts  both 
feet  on  each  step  as  he  goes  up. 
E.  Does  he  walk  downstairs? 

I.  No,  he  goes  downstairs  backwards  on  his  hands  and  knees. 
E.  Does  he  play  by  himself  outside  the  yard? 

I.  Oh  no,  I  wouldn't  feel  safe  about  that.  He  understands  that  he  isn't 
to  go  beyond  the  sidewalk  or  outside  our  own  property. 

This  completes  the  locomotion  series  (for  this  S).  Items  IE,  18,  29, 
and  32  are  scored  plus,  while  items  45  and  53  are  scored  minus.  Items 
61  and  above  are  obviously  inapplicable. 

E.  I  suppose  he  does  a  good  many  things  for  himself  now? 


Normal  Preschool  Child  301 

I.  Oh  yes,  I  don't  have  to  give  him  much  attention  in  ordinary  matters. 
E.  (Shifting  to  the  general  self-help  category.)    Does  he  still  use  a  baby 
carriage  when  he  goes  out? 

I.  No,  we  put  it  away  a  few  months  ago.  I  take  him  for  short  walks 
either  holding  his  hand  or  having  him  walk  beside  me.  When  we  go  any 
distance  we  use  the  car.  If  I  am  out  shopping  he  manages  very  nicely 
without  being  carried. 

E.  Does  he  help  himself  in  little  ways,  or  do  you  have  to  look  after  him? 
I.  Well,  around  the  house  he  manages  very  well,  I'm  afraid  I  don't 
understand  quite  what  you  mean. 

E.  I  mean,  do  you  have  to  open  the  door  for  him  when  he  wants  to  go  out, 
or  pick  up  his  things  for  him,  or  watch  him  frequently  in  regard  to 
ordinary  dangers  such  as  playing  with  matches  or  teasing  the  cat,  or 
breaking  things  ? 

I.  Oh  I  see!  No,  he  looks  after  himself  quite  well.  If  the  door  is  closed  he 
can  get  on  a  chair  to  turn  the  knob  and  can  then  open  the  door  unless  it 
should  stick.  He  climbs  up  on  things  to  get  what  he  wants  and  he  doesn't 
worry  me  about  the  things  he's  not  supposed  to  touch.  He  carries  his  play- 
things around  in  a  little  wagon.   We  don't  have  a  cat,  but  he  plays  with 
the  neighbor's  dog  without  any  fear,  keeps  out  of  the  street,  and  is 
generally  quite  careful.  In  fact  if  anything,  he  is  over-cautious  and  even  a 
little  bit  afraid  in  some  ways.   Around  the  house  he  uses  a  kindergarten 
scissors  to  make  paper  cut-outs  and  he  uses  a  knife  without  hurting  him- 
self.  He  doesn't  like  strangers  and  won't  have  anything  to  do  with  them. 
E.  Do  you  take  him  to  the  toilet,  or  does  he  go  by  himself? 
I,  Most  of  the  time  he  lets  me  know  when  he  wants  to  go  to  the  toilet, 
but  now  and  then  when  he  waits  too  long  I  ask  him,  to  avoid  accidents. 
E.  He  doesn't  go  to  the  toilet  by  himself  then  ? 
I.  Oh  no,  I  have  to  help  him. 
E.  Does  he  still  wear  a  napkin? 
I.  No,  not  for  some  time. 
E.  Does  he  sometimes  wet  himself  ? 

I.  No,  not  during  the  daytime,  and  he  does  wear  a  napkin  at  night,  but  I 
can  give  that  up  now  because  he  really  no  longer  needs  to. 

In  this  category  Items  2,  3,  5,  6,  8,  9,  13,  and  15  are  scored  plus  on  the 
basis  of  information  already  obtained.  Items  23  and  41  are  scored  plus. 
Item  26  plus.  Item  35  plus-minus  as  an  emergent  item  (being  successfully 
performed  much  of  the  time  but  not  habitually).  Item  51  is  scored  minus. 
Item  66  is  obviously  inapplicable. 

E.  (Taking  up  self-help  eating.)    I  suppose  you've  stopped  nursing  him? 

I.  Yes,  about  a  year  ago.  And  he  has  given  up  his  bottle  too. 

E.  What  does  he  do  for  himself  at  the  table  ? 

I.  Well,  he  uses  a  fork  now  and  insists  on  having  it  for  eating  vegetables 

because  he  lik€s  to  eat  like  his  older  brother. 

E.  Does  he  have  any  difficulty  using  a  fork  for  eating  meat,  or  does  he 

spill  very  much  food? 

I.  He  doesn't  have  meat  very  often,  and  of  course  I  cut  it  for  him  in  small 

pieces  and  he  has  no  trouble  using  a  fork  that  way.    Of  course,  he  does 

spill  a  little  bit  and  he  is  kind  of  awkward,  and  sometimes  when  he's  in  a 

hurry  or  tired  he  uses  a  spoon  instead  of  a  fork,  but  most  of  the  time  he 

has  no  trouble. 

E.  How  long  has  he  been  using  a  fork  successfully  ? 

I.  Well,  there  was  quite  a  time  when  he  wanted  to  use  it,  but  he  made  such 


302  Illustrative  Examinations 

a  mess  that  I  had  to  take  it  away  from  him,  but  for  the  last  six  weeks  or 
so  he  has  been  getting  along  very  nicely. 

E.  Does  he  also  use  a  knife  at  the  table? 

I.  No,  that  is,  not  very  well.    He  is  pretty  independent  and  wants  to 
spread  his  own  bread,  but  this  is  too  much  for  him,  and  anyway  I'd  rather 
do  it  for  him  because  otherwise  I  have  to  watch  him  all  the  time. 
E.  He  doesn't  use  a  knife  very  well  then  ? 

I.  No,  I'm  afraid  not.  Do  you  think  he  should?  Sometimes  he  tries  to  cut 
with  a  knife  and  then  there's  trouble. 

E.  Do  you  have  difficulty  keeping  him  from  eating  things  that  might  be 
harmful  ? 

I.  No,  he's  pretty  careful  about  that.  In  fact,  we  think  he's  pretty  fussy. 
He  spits  out  things  that  he  doesn't  like,  and  if  he  sometimes  puts  some- 
thing in  his  mouth  that  isn't  good  to  eat,  he  gets  rid  of  it  pretty  quickly. 
E.  Does  he  use  good  judgment  in  eating  things  that  have  peelings  on 
them? 

I.  Well,  I  think  he  could  do  that,  but  he  hasn't  had  much  chance  because 
I'd  rather  do  that  for  him.  Lately  he  has  begun  to  peel  a  banana  when 
he  has  one,  but  sometimes  I  even  have  to  help  him  with  that.  If  we  have 
salt  water  taffy,  I  have  to  take  the  paper  off  for  him  because  I'm  not  sure 
that  he  would  take  it  all  off  and  I'm  afraid  he  might  eat  some  of  it. 
Sometimes  the  other  children  give  him  peanuts,  but  I  have  to  watch  to 
see  that  he  takes  the  shells  off,  and  really  it's  easier  to  do  this  for  him. 
E.  Is  he  careful  about  chewing  his  food  ? 

I.  Yes,  he  has  been  taught  to  eat  slowly  and  to  chew  his  food  before 
swallowing,  and  unless  he  is  in  a  hurry  to  get  away  from  the  table  we 
don't  have  any  trouble  about  that.  As  I  said  before,  he's  careful  about 
eating  and  although  he  still  wears  a  bib  at  meal  time,  he  can  use  the 
same  one  for  several  meals  before  changing  it.  At  first  I  used  to  have  to 
wash  his  face  after  each  meal,  but  now  all  I  have  to  do  is  to  wipe  his  mouth 
when  the  meal  is  over. 

E.  Does  he  use  a  glass  all  right  at  the  table  ? 

I.  Yes,  and  also  a  cup.  In  fact,  he  can  get  a  drink  for  himself  away  from 
the  table  and  has  been  doing  this  for  a  couple  of  months.  When  he  wants 
a  drink  he  gets  a  glass  from  the  shelf  by  climbing  on  a  chair  and  goes  to 
the  kitchen  faucet.  In  fact,  if  he  asks  me  for  a  drink,  I  generally  tell 
him  that  he's  old  enough  to  get  a  drink  by  himself  now. 

In  this  category  Items  11,  16,  20,  25,  28,  30,  38,  and  39  are  all  scored 
plus.  Item  38  is  slightly  dubious,  but  may  be  scored  full  plus  rather  than 
plus-minus.  Items  33,  62,  and  67  are  scored  minus  and  Item  75  is  therefore 
automatically  minus. 

E.  How  about  dressing  himself  ?  How  much  can  he  do  for  himself  or  what 
does  he  do  for  himself  in  that  way? 

I.  Well,  I'm  afraid  he  isn't  so  good  about  that,  or  maybe  I  don't  give  him 

much  chance.  You  know  how  a  mother  hates  to  have  her  boy  grow  up  too 

fast!    I  like  to  do  things  for  him,  and  anyway,  with  the  other  children  I 

haven't  the  time  to  let  him  do  these  things  for  himself.    It's  so  much 

easier  to  do  it  for  him. 

E.  Does  he  help  at  all  in  dressing  himself,  or  even  in  undressing  ? 

I.  Well,  he's  always  wanting  to  take  off  his  own  shoes  and  stockings  when 

he  goes  to  bed  or  when  I  change  his  clothes,  but  I  usually  do  this  for  him, 

and  he  doesn't  have  much  chance.   I'm  afraid  I  spoil  him  a  little  bit  that 

way. 

E.  He  doesn't  take  off  his  outer  clothes  either  ? 


Normal  Preschool  Child  303 

I.  No,  I  have  to  take  off  all  his  clothes  for  him,  but  I  think  he  could  do 

more  if  I'd  let  him,  and  of  course  he  doesn't  put  on  any  of  his  clothes 

although  he's  always  wanting  to. 

E.  You  do  eversrthing  for  him  then? 

I.  Yes,  you  know  how  it  is  with  a  mother! 

E.  How  about  washing  himself  ? 

I.  Well,  he  tries  to  wash  his  hands  every  now  and  then,  but  he  makes  a 

pretty  bad  job  of  it  and  gets  the  towel  so  dirty  when  he  dries  them  that  I 

find  It  much  easier  to  do  this  myself. 

E.  He  doesn't  really  even  dry  his  own  hands  then? 

I.  No,  he  just  dabs  at  them  and  I  have  to  finish  the  job. 

E.  He  doesn't  wash  his  face  either? 

I.  No,  I'm  afraid  that  would  be  expecting  too  much.   He  doesn't  even  like 

it  when  I  wash  his  face  for  him. 

The  items  in  this  category  are  all  minus.  Items  21,  37,  40,  42,  47,  50, 
52,  are  specifically  failed,  and  the  succeeding  items  are  under  the  circum- 
stances inapplicable  or  automatically  minus.  Note  that  this  category 
shows  special  retardation  in  maturity  and  that  the  mother  apologizes  for 
the  child's  inadequacy  on  the  basis  of  her  own  convenience  or  solicitude. 

E.  (Considering  the  occupation  category.)    You  told  me  a  while  back  that 

Car]  uses  the  scissors  when  playing  in  the  house.  Can  you  tell  me  some  of 

the  other  things  he  does  in  his  play,  or  in  keeping  himself  occupied? 

I.  Well,  he  has  always  been  an  active  boy  and  is  always  doing  something. 

We  always  thought  he  was  a  little  bit  ahead  of  other  children  and  quite 

able  to  help  himself  in  these  ways 

E.  Tell  me  some  of  the  things  he  does. 

I.  Well,  he  likes  to  use  colored  crayons  and  even  tries  to  draw  with  them. 

He  tells  us  what  the  drawings  are,  but  mostly  they're  just  marks.   Then 

he  carries  things  around  the  house,  and  for  a  half  hour  or  so  at  a  time 

will  put  his  toys  in  all  kinds  of  imaginary  arrangements.    He  plajrs  with 

blocks,  pushes  his  wagon  around,  and  looks  after  himself  very  well  without 

being  told  what  to  do.    He  likes  to  work  with  the  scissors  cutting  paper. 

He  can  follow  a  line  fairly  well  in  making  cut-outs  but  doesn't  make  very 

good  patterns.    Sometimes  I  let  him  have  my  sewing  scissors  and  an  old 

piece  of  cloth  when  I  am  with  him. 

E.  Does  he  help  around  the  house  in  little  ways  ? 

I.  Well,  I  can  ask  him  to  go  get  things  for  me  or  put  things  away  and  he 

is  very  good  about  this  if  I  don't  ask  for  too  much.    In  fact,  he  likes  to 

help  me  and  has  been  doing  this  for  some  time. 

E.  Does  he  do  anything  more  than  this  ? 

I.  Well,  now  and  then  he  helps  to  put  things  on  the  table,  but  I  have  to 

tell  him  what  to  do,  and  he  doesn't  stay  at  it  very  long.   He's  all  right  as 

long  as  I  tell  him  one  thing  at  a  time.   Of  course  I  can't  rely  on  him  for 

anything  very  important  or  that  requires  much  persistence. 

E.  Does  he  play  with  a  wagon  or  things  like  that? 

T.  He  pulls  a  wagon  around  the  yard  and  he  uses  a  kiddy-car  in  the 

house,  but  I  don't  trust  him  that  way  outside  the  yard  or  off  the  sidewalk 

in  front  of  the  house.    I'd  be  afraid  to  let  him  go  very  far  because  be 

might  hurt  himself. 

E.  Does  he  use  tools  at  all  ? 

I.  Besides  the  scissors  he  usies  my  kitchen  spoons  and  pans,  but  just  to 

play  with.  Of  course  he  isn't  old  enough  to  use  a  hammer  or  tools  like  that. 

In  this  category  Items  7,  19,  2^,  24,  36  and  43  are  scored  plus.  Items 


304  Illustrative  Examinations 

48,  55,  57,  and  71  are  scored  minus.  The  other  items  in  this  category  are 
either  automatically  minus  or  not  applicable. 

E.  I  ^ther  from  what  you've  told  me  that  Carl  has  no  difficulty  in 
talking? 

I.  Well,  he  does  pretty  well,  but  we  think  he's  a  little  slow  that  way. 

Maybe  we're  expecting  too  much  because  his  older  brother  did  so  much 

better  than  he  at  the  same  age. 

E.  Does  he  understand  pretty  well  what  you  say  to  him? 

I.  Oh  yes,  he  understands  everything  I  say.  As  I  told  you,  I  can  send  him 

to  get  things  for  me  or  to  put  things  away,  and  I  have  told  you  how  he 

helps  me  if  I  tell  him  what  to  do. 

E.  Does  he  understand  pretty  well  what  you  say  to  him? 

L  He  says  a  lot  of  words  and  can  name  the  things  be  wants,  but  he  doesn't 

talk  very  distinctly  and  other  people  don't  understand  him  very  well.  It 

isn't  so  much  that  he  can't  talk,  but  he  doesn't  talk  very  clearly. 

E.  Does  he  talk  connectedly?    I  mean,  does  he  tell  you  very  much  about 

what  he  wants  or  what  happens  to  him? 

I.  Well,  not  very  well.  He  uses  a  few  sentences  but  not  very  many  and  not 
very  often,  like  "See  dog."  or  "Want  my  ball."  His  sentences  very  seldom 
have  a  subject.  Still  we  understand  most  of  the  time  what  he  is  trying  to 
say.  Of  course,  he  doesn't  talk  very  connectedly  or  say  very  much  that 
we  can  understand  except  for  these  little  sentences.  When  he  tries  to  tell 
us  anything  he  has  to  be  prompted  or  very  much  encouraged.  We  think  he 
would  talk  more  if  we  could  understand  him  better. 
E.  Does  he  do  any  writing? 
I.  No.  He  just  makes  marks  with  a  pencil. 

Communication  items  1,  10,  17,  31  are  scored  plus.  Item  34  is  scored 
plus-minus  as  an  emergent  performance,  but  this  is  a  little  generous. 
Items  44,  58  and  above  in  the  communication  category  are  scored  minus 
or  are  inapplicable. 

Skipping  the  self-direction  items  as  inapplicable  the  examiner 
proceeds  to  the  socialization  category. 

E.  You  told  me  that  Carl  plays  with  other  children.    What  do  they  do? 

I.  Well,  he  gets  along  very  nicely  with  other  children.    Of  course  they 

are  older  than  he  is  and  so  he  pla3rs  mostly  by  himself,  even  if  the  other 

children  are  around. 

E.  What  games  does  he  play  with  the  other  children? 

I.  Well,  he  doesn't  really  play  games  with  them  very  much.    He  plays 

more  by  himself.    He  likes  to  watch  the  other  children  and  they  play 

pretend  games.    Sometimes  he  plays   **ring-around-the-rosy"   or  "lude- 

and-seek"  and  I  notice  lately  that  he  does  this  much  more  often  than  he 

used  to. 

E.  Does  he  try  to  entertain  the  other  children  or  does  he  "perform" 

when  you  have  visitors  ? 

I.  No,  he's  pretty  shy  and  there  isn't  very  much  he  can  do  that  way, 

although  he's  quite  active  in  his  own  play. 

Items  4,  14  and  27  are  scored  pins.  Item  46  is  scored  plus-minns. 
Items  49  and  above  are  minus  or  inapplicable. 

The  examination  is  terminated  with  complimentary  com- 
ments on  Carl's  growth  and  behavior  and  expressions  of  appre- 
ciation for  the  mother's  cooperation. 


Superior  Adult  305 

In  summary,  all  items  are  plus  in  the  first  year.  Items  21 
and  33  are  minus,  and  Item  34  plus-minus,  in  the  second  year. 
In  the  third  year  Items  36,  38,  39,  41,  43  are  plus,  35  plus- 
minus,  and  the  others  minus.  In  the  fourth  year  (year  III-IV) 
Item  46  is  plus-minus,  and  the  other  items  are  minus.  Totaling 
these  scores,  all  items  are  plus  to  Item  20  inclusive,  which  is 
therefore  the  basal  score.  There  are  16  full  pluses  and  3 
half-credits  in  addition  to  the  first  20  items,  or  17.5  additional 
points  which,  added  to  the  basal  score  of  20,  yield  a  total  score 
of  37.5.  Converting  this  total  score  to  an  SA  score  by  the 
method  described  on  page  289,  we  observe  that  34  points  equals 
2.0,  and  that  the  remaining  3.5  points  expressed  as  a  fraction 
of  the  10  points  included  in  year  II-III  equals  .35  years,  which 
added  to  2.0  equals  2.35  or  2.4.  Or  the  SA  may  be  obtained 
directly  from  the  conversion  table  (Table  A,  p.  290) .  SA  2.4 
divided  by  LA  2.1  yields  SQ  114. 

The  statistical  significance  of  this  result  in  terms  of 
deviation  from  the  mean  is  most  readily  calculated  for  the  SQ. 
Reference  to  Table  5  (p.  376)  shows  that  the  mean  SQ  for  LA 
2-3  is  112,  SD  17.  This  S  is  therefore  2  points,  or  .12  SD,  above 
the  mean  for  his  age.  (Other  methods  of  calculating  position 
scores  are  considered  in  Chapter  9) .  For  additional  interpreta- 
tion we  may  note  that  this  S  comes  from  a  somewhat  superior 
family  for  social  status  and  is  without  noteworthy  handicap. 
In  the  absence  of  psychometric  data  and  personality  evaluation 
(other  than  apparent  from  the  Social  Scale  itself)  further  spec- 
ulation is  not  warranted.  Item  evaluation  shows  relative  retar- 
dation in  the  self-help  dressing  category.  Otherwise  the  S's 
performances  are  well-rounded. 

In  this  examination  we  note  immediately  the  facility  with 
which  the  examination  proceeds.  We  are  dealing  here  with  an 
informant  who  readily  comprehends  the  questions  and  volun- 
teers helpful  information.  She  is  eager  to  tell  of  the  child's 
successes  and  her  very  apologies  for  his  lack  of  performance 
are  ingenuously  informing. 

Case  II.  Superio7-  adult  male.   LA  65,  Sil  30-t-,  SQ  120+, 

We  have  elsewhere  noted  the  difficulties  of  formulating 
the  adult  items  and  that  in  designing  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
Scale  we  were  guided  by  analyzing  the  social  performances  of  a 
number  of  acknowledgedly  superior  adults.  Dr.  J.  is  one  of 
these.  He  is  the  director  of  a  well-known  institution  for  the 
care  of  mentally  subnormal  children  and  has  devoted  his  life  to 


306  Illustrative  Examinations 

the  promotion  of  public  v/elfare.  His  present  age  is  65  years, 
and  the  examination  is  made  as  of  that  age.  While  there  has 
been  some  abatement  in  recent  years  as  to  the  vigor  of  his 
activities,  there  has  been  no  reduction  in  the  level  of  his  social 
performances,  and  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  Scale  he  may 
still  be  considered  as  at  his  prime  social  competence.  In  his 
case,  adult  prime  was  reached  certainly  before  40  and  probably 
before  35  years  of  age. 

This  period  of  prime  attainment  could  readily  be  established 
through  retrospective  examining.  It  is  relevant  to  note  that  the 
period  of  optimum  attainment  for  superior  talent  is  reached  at 
LA  30-40,  with  the  mean  at  about  33-35  years.*  By  that  age 
the  promise  of  productive  prime  is  well  assured  for  the  average 
of  superior  adults.  This  does  not  of  course  mean  all  such  adults 
but  only  half  of  them  (the  mean  approximating  the  mid-point 
of  the  distribution).  In  some  instances  optimum  work  is  done 
after  LA  50  or,  with  decreasing  incidence,  as  late  as  LA  80. 

We  might  generalize  the  principle  that  the  major  impetus  to 
productive  effort  is  well  set  before  LA  40  and  that  productivity 
continues  on  the  momentum  from  this  impetus,  but  with  nega- 
tive acceleration.  This  deceleration  is  ordinarily  not  noticeable 
before  LA  50  but  is  usually  apparent  by  LA  60.  Thereafter 
the  decline  in  imaginative  effort  becomes  increasingly  obvious 
with  progressive  loss  of  vision,  venturesomeness  and  vigor. 

The  relatively  new  science  of  gerontology,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  geriatrics  and  gerontotherapy,  has  already  assembled 
a  large  body  of  systematic  material  and  is  earnestly  engaged  in 
varied  aspects  of  further  research. 

The  informant  in  this  case  is  a  personal  friend  and  pro- 
fessional associate,  intimately  acquainted  with  the  S  for  a 
period  of  20  years  and  closely  contacted  with  his  activities.  In 
orienting  the  examination,  the  examiner  learns  that  the  S  is  of 
Canadian  birth,  English  descent,  whose  life  since  childhood 
has  been  spent  in  the  United  States.  His  scholastic  education 
included  three  years'  study  of  medicine,  but  the  extent  of  his 
education  is  by  no  means  limited  to  formal  instruction.  On  the 
contrary,  his  self-education  has  continued  throughout  his  life 
and  his  scholastic  and  intellectual  attainments  might  well  be 
envied  by  the  best  of  scholars.  Most  of  his  life  has  been  spent 
in  the  field  of  institutional  administration ;  since  30  years  of  age 
he  has  been  the  superintendent,  and  later  the  director,  of  an 


*Cf.    Harvey    C.    Lehman.     "Intellectual"    versus    "physical"    peak 
performance:  the  age  factor.    Scientific  Monthly,  61.  July,  1945  t)p,  127-137. 


Superior  Adult  307 

institution  which  has  attained  international  recognition.  The 
examiner  approaches  the  examination  with  this  information 
which  is  readily  elaborated  as  the  examination  proceeds. 

E.  You've  known  "Prof."  J.  for  some  time,  and  are  pretty  well  acquainted 
with  him,  are  you  not? 

I.  Yes,  I've  known  him  in  various  capacities  for  over  20  years  and  have 
been  closely  associated  with  him.  Indeed,  he  has  been  one  of  my  "heroes" 
and  I  have  observed  his  achievements  and  his  manner  of  work  in  the 
hope  that  I  might  profit  from  these  observations  myself, 

E.  (Beginning  naturally  with  the  occupation  category.)  Well,  what  is 
the  nature  of  his  work? 

I.  His  immediate  position  is  that  of  director  of  a  semi-private  institution 
for  the  care  of  mentally  subnormal  children  with  an  inmate  population 
of  about  five  hundred.  But  this  position,  important  as  it  is,  serves  only 
as  a  base  of  operations,  for  he  is  actively  engaged  in  many  fields  of 
humanitarian,  scientific  and  business  interests. 

E.  Do  you  consider  him  a  man  of  recognized  professional  attainment? 
I.  Oh,    unquestionably!     In    fact,    he    is    known    internationally    for    the 
exceptionally  high  standard  of  his  work.    He  is  an  outstanding  leader  in 
his   field,  twice   president  of  the   national  association   representing  that 
field.   He  is  the  author  of  books  and  articles,  not  only  in  this  field  but  in 
related  subjects.   He  is  a  man  of  unusual  versatility  and  wide  interests. 
E.  You  say  he  is  the  managing  director  of  a  fairly  large  institution? 
I.  Yes,  and  has  been  so  successfully  for  35  years. 

E.  How  large  is  the  staff  of  this  institution  for  which  he  is  responsible? 
I.  The  employed  personnel  exceeds  175  persons. 
E.  And  he  organizes  and  directs  the  work  of  this  group? 
I.  Yes,  and  he  is  well  known  for  the  originality  and  system  with  which 
he  does  his  work.  He  is  specially  keen  in  the  development  and  application 
of  the  principles  and  methods  of  scientific  management.  As  the  executive 
head  of  the  institution  he  is  responsible  for  safeguarding  the  financial 
income  and  budget  of  that  institution. 

E.  And  would  you  say  that  he  is  himself  responsible  for  increasing  the 
success  of  the  institution  by  his  own  effort,  or  that  this  has  been  somewhat 
the  result  of  favorable  circumstances  ? 

I.  Dr.  J.  is  a  man  of  extraordinary  initiative  and  resourcefulness  and  it 
is  largely  due  to  his  creative  efforts  that  his  School  has  grown  from  a 
relatively  small  and  little  known  place  to  its  present  size  and  its  present 
international  reputation.  He  has  been  a  dominant  factor  in  these  develop- 
ments, and  has  attained  them  against  serious  odds.  His  readiness  to 
depart  from  accepted  practice  is  one  of  his  outstanding  characteristics. 
E.  And  is  he  completely  absorbed  in  his  work,  or  does  he  take  time  out 
to  play  now  and  then,  and  if  so,  what  does  he  do? 

I.  In  spite  of  his  wide  responsibilities  and  interests,  he  manages  to  find 
time  for  profitable  recreation.  He  reads  a  great  deal  in  subjects  outside 
his  immediate  field.  He  is  fond  of  outdoors,  especially  fishing,  travels 
a  good  deal  both  for  pleasure  and  profit,  has  an  immense  capacity  for 
enjoying  his  experiences,  and  has  no  time  at  all  for  idling  except  as  this 
is  itself  recreational.  He  holds  a  longstanding  membership  in  an  out- 
of-state  hunting  and  fishing  club  and  pursues  numerous  intellectual 
hobbies  as  well.  At  present  his  special  interest  runs  to  archaeology  and 
he  has  collected  quite  a  number  of  relics  of  this  sort. 

Items  106,  107,  108,  111,  113,  114,  and  116  are  obviously  plus,  since 


308  Illustrative  Examinations 

the  items  are  all  more  than  satisfied  by  the  S's  performances. 

E.  (Checking  the  s€lf -direction  items.)  In  his  capacity  as  managing 
director,  I  suppose  he  has  large  responsibilities  for  the  welfare  of  others  ? 
I.  Obviously.  Aside  from  his  personal  family  responsibilities  (he  has 
four  children)  and  those  of  the  institution,  he  voluntarily  gives  much 
help  to  many  individual  friends  and  employees  and  shows  concern  for 
their  welfare. 

E.  And  I  suppose  his  position  carries  some  financial  responsibility? 

I.  Yes,  he  approves   all  major  purchases   of  the  institution  and  is  its 

responsible  financial  head.  This  work  involves  not  only  ordinary  purchases, 

but  also  the  large  construction  projects  which  he  initiates  and  ultimately 

approves.    Of  course,  he  also   approves  the   payroll   of  the  institution. 

These  expenditures  run  to  six  figures. 

E.  And  would  you  say  that  he  manages  his  own  financial  affairs  as  well 

as  those  of  the  institution? 

I.^  Well,  as  to  that,  I  am  not  so  well  informed,  but  I  know  he  pays  his 

bills   and   lives   rather   prudently,   where   most   persons    might   well   be 

extravagant. 

E.  And  what  is  he  doing  to  meet  the  rainy  days  ? 

I.  I  understand  that  he  carries  extensive  life  insurance  and  has  important 

investments   which   are   carefully   safeguarded.    Also    I   believe   he   has 

provided  well  for  his  family.    While  he  has  had  some  financial  business 

losses,  his  principal  resources  are  well  invested.    Incidentally  he  is  one 

of  our  bank  directors  and  vice-president  of  the  Board. 

Items  100,  101,  102,  105    and  112  are  obviously  plus,  and  more  than 
satisfied. 

E.  (Introducing  the  socialization  category.)   You  have  said  that  Dr.  J. 

has  made  important  contributions  to  social  welfare.    What  are  some  of 

these  contributions? 

I.  Well,  there  is  hardly  any  local  movement  for  social  betterment  in  which 

he  doesn't  have  some  large  share.    He  is  active  in  the  support  of  good 

government,  church  work,  the  local  schools,  the  local  Grange,   YMCA, 

Boy  Scouts;  in  fact  there  is  hardly  anything  that  goes  on  locally  in  which 

he  doesn't  have  some  large  and  disinterested  share. 

E.  Does  this  extend  outside  his  local  contacts? 

I.  Yes,   he  not  only  supports,  but  actually   stimulates,   movements   for 

civic   betterment,  and  has   done   so  for   many   years.    His   professional 

activities   are  far-flung.    While   not   personally   ambitious,   he  does   not 

hesitate  to  take  an  active  share  in  these  movements. 

E.  Can  you  be  a  little  more  specific? 

I.  Well,  for  many  years  he  has  been  a  recognized  leader  in  his   own 

community.   He  recently  received  a  public  award  as  our  most  outstanding 

local  citizen.    He  is  consulted  on  practically  all  matters  of  local  public 

concern,  as  for  example,  in  the  appointments  of  important  officials,  in 

the  selection  of  candidates  for  public  positions.    As  I  said  before,  he  is 

a  member  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  our  local  bank.    He  has  been  a 

Mason  for  many  years,  belongs  to  numerous  professional  and  scientific 

national  organizations  and  has  had  a  wide  influence  in  both  state  and 

national  public  welfare  movements.    At  the  close  of  World  War  I  he 

participated  in  the  morale  work  in  the  Army  and  had  an  active  part  in 

the   child  welfare   program  in   Serbia  for  which   he  was   decorated  by 

Crown  Prince  Alexander. 

E.  And  would  you  say  that  some  of  these  activities  have  risen  above 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  309 

immediate  necessities?  By  that  I  mean,  how  far  has  this  influence  been 
felt?  What  universal  recognition  has  it  had?  What  implications  for  a 
better  world  tomorrow? 

I.  Well,  he  is  listed  in  Who's  Who,  and  as  I  have  said,  has  been  twice 
president  of  a  major  national  association,  has  held  numerous  important 
appointments  of  professional  or  consulting  nature  in  his  state  and  in 
national  relations.  He  was  awarded  an  honorary  degree  at  Princeton 
and  another  at  Rutgers.  He  has  been  cited  on  several  occasions  for  his 
contributions  to  the  improvement  of  agriculture,  education,  public  welfare 
administration.  He  is  well-known  for  his  vigorous  promotion  of  scientific 
research.  You  can  see  it's  a  long  list,  but  if  you  want  more  detail 

Items  103,  104,  109,  110,  115  and  117  are  obviously  plus,  and  more 
than  completely  satisfied. 

From  this  information  it  is  clear  that,  diif icult  as  the  adult 
items  may  seem  to  be  from  the  point  of  view  of  performance, 
definition,  and  scoring,  their  application  is  relatively  simple 
when  the  S  is  obviously  capable.  There  is  no  question  that  every 
item  of  the  Scale  is  generously  satisfied  by  this  S  whose  social 
competence  reaches  beyond  the  limits  of  the  Scale  and  leaves 
much  to  be  measured  that  the  Scale  does  not  provide  for.  Note 
that  three  categories  of  the  Scale,  self-help,  locomotion,  and 
communication,  were  omitted  from  the  examination  as  being 
entirely  comprehended  in  the  other  categories  by  implication 
or  in  fact  by  reason  of  the  level  of  attainment  in  the  three 
categories  employed  and  in  the  absence  of  special  handicaps. 

The  total  score  in  this  case  is  117.  This  score  is  beyond 
the  highest  score  obtained  in  the  normative  standardization 
sample  (112  points)  and  represents  the  Scale's  maximum  limit 
of  measurement.  The  extrapolated  SA  is  30+  years  (maximum 
SA  score)  and  the  corresponding  SQ  is  1204-  (maximum  assign- 
able adult  SQ). 

Case    III.     Constitutionally   inferior   institutionalized   adult 
girl  LA  26,  SA  14.1,  SQ  56. 

The  preceding  examinations  illustrate  the  procedure  with 
normal  subjects  at  both  ends  of  the  Scale.  We  now  consider  the 
intermediate  range  with  variously  handicapped  subjects  and 
for  different  types  of  examining  and  scoring. 

The  present  S  reveals  serious  social  deficiency  combined 
with  psychometrically  average  intelligence  without  noteworthy 
handicaps  other  than  the  developmental  retardation  in  social 
maturation.  The  examination  illustrates  environmental  limita- 
tion and  facilitation  in  development  and  the  use  of  "F"  and 
"NO"  scores.  The  case  history  reveals  the  stability  of  the  total 


310  Illustrative  Examinations 

scores  obtained  over  a  period  of  ten  years  by  different  examin- 
ers employing  various  informants.  These  standard  scores  are 
compared  with  retrospective  scores  based  on  recorded  informa- 
tion from  the  life  history  at  various  dates.  The  categorical 
analysis  of  item  performances  indicates  relative  proficiency  and 
deficiency  in  different  phases  of  social  competence.  The  exami- 
Qation  is  illuminated  by  a  preliminary  overall  clinical  summary 
of  the  life  history  and  some  comment  on  the  problem  of 
differential  diagnosis.  This  S  has  been  permanently  institu- 
tionalized on  a  life  provision  plan  in  a  residential  school  for  the 
mentally  deficient  and  has  so  spent  the  past  seventeen  of  her 
thirty-five  years  (illustrative  examination  as  of  LA  26). 

We  are  immediately  confronted  with  the  difficult  problem  of 
mental  diagnosis  and  the  discrepancies  between  clinical  impres- 
sion and  objective  measurement.  This  difficulty  is  increased 
by  the  uncertainties  of  both  subjective  and  objective  criteria 
for  determining  the  upper  limits  of  mental  deficiency  vs.  consti- 
tutional inferiority  (constitutional  inadequacy,  constitutional 
defectiveness). 

The  systematic  diagnosis  of  mental  deficiency  requires  evidence 
of  six  definitional  criteria,  namely  (1)  social  incompetence, 
due  to  (2)  intellectual  deficiency,  (3)  existing  from  birth  or 
an  early  age,  (4)  which  obtains  at  maturity,  (5)  is  essentially 
incurable,  and  (6)  is  of  constitutional  origin.  In  short,  mental 
deficiency  is  defined  as  a  social  insufficiency  ascribable  to 
developmental  retardation  in  the  field  of  intelligence  due  to 
native  lack  or  permanent  modification  of  normal  constitutional 
potential  prior  to  maturity. 

Constitutional  inferiority  resembles  mental  deficiency  in  its 
major  indications  as  a  developmental  inadequacy,  but  relates 
the  constitutional  basis  to  unresolved  organic  and  personality 
factors  other  than  intelligence.  The  condition  is  essentially 
one  of  inadequate  personality  rather  than  inadequate  intelli- 
gence. Yet  the  personality  factors  are  by  no  means  clear.  The 
major  implications  of  the  personality  deviation  are  conative 
weakness,  limited  insight  and  judgment  in  spite  of  fair  "intelli- 
gence," conduct  disorders,  and  particularly  deficiency  in  social 
achievement  or  adjustment.  The  skillful  use  of  projective 
techniques  materially  clarifies  the  diagnostic  distinction. 

These  observations  are  relevant  to  the  present  case  study  as 
illustrating  the  comparative  merits  of  the  Social  Scale  vs. 
psychometric  measures  when  taken  in  relation  to  the  total 
individuality  of  the  S  under  consideration. 

Natalie  was  born  in  New  England,  of  English  descent,  but 
grew  up  in  a  city  of  moderate  size  in  the  South.   Her  mother 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  311 

was  twenty-five  years  old  at  the  birth  of  the  child ;  her  father 
was  twenty-nine.  The  family  is  of  superior  financial  and  social- 
economic  status,  the  father  an  accountant  and  builder, 

Natalie  was  the  first-born  of  three  daughters.  The  two 
sisters  are  living  and  reported  as  entirely  normal.  The  birth 
history  as  reported  was  uneventful,  but  the  details  are  some- 
what meager.  There  are  no  indications  of  prenatal  complica- 
tions and  the  description  of  the  birth  reports  nothing  unusual 
in  the  birth  process.  However,  there  is  a  statement  of  injury 
to  the  skull  at  birth,  the  nature  and  cause  of  which  could  not 
at  this  time  be  elicited.  She  was  born  at  full  term  with  normal 
labor. 

Early  developmental  history  indicates  delay  in  walking  (at 
2  years)  and  talking  (at  "less  than  3  years").  These  events 
suggest  the  likelihood  of  early  neurological  damage,  probably  of 
paranatal  intracranial  origin.  This  probability  is  increased  by 
the  absence  of  unfavorable  family  history  and  the  absence  of 
serious  illness  antedating  the  onset  of  developmental  retarda- 
tion. The  medical  history  available  is  negative  except  for 
certain  childhood  diseases  without  noteworthy  consequences. 
The  history  relates  "glandular  fever"  at  6  years,  and  severe 
pneumonia  at  about  17  years  of  age.  These  later  illnesses, 
however,  postdate  the  onset  of  retardation. 

Developmental  retardation  was  noted  from  early  infancy. 
She  was  delayed  in  motor  development  and  was  "different  from 
other  children."  Following  the  onset  of  speech  she  had  difficulty 
in  pronouncing  words  and  seemed  otherwise  backward  in 
development.  (Given  adequate  informants  this  developmental 
retardation  could  be  more  clearly  described  and  more  accurately 
dated  by  retrospective  Social  Scale  examining.) 

She  attended  a  small  "porch  school"  and  was  assisted  by  a 
tutor  at  home.  She  entered  public  school  in  the  fourth  grade 
at  about  ten  years  of  age  and  was  promoted  regularly  year  by 
year  with  favorable  aptitude  for  scholastic  work.  She  gradu- 
ated from  grammar  school  and  entered  a  high  school  academy. 
But  at  this  time  it  was  noticed  that  she  had  reached  the  limit 
of  her  scholastic  attainment.  She  was  removed  from  school 
because  of  illness  and  subsequently  was  placed  in  a  private 
school  for  mentally  exceptional  pupils.  After  three  months  at 
this  school  she  left  because  of  illness,  and  the  following  year 
was  placed  in  another  school  for  mentally  deficient  children  and 
adults  where  she  has  spent  her  subsequent  years  in  continuous 
j-esidence  except  for  brief  visits  at  her  home. 


312  Illustrative  Examinations 

In  spite  of  various  signs  of  retarded  development,  Natalie's 
disposition  and  educational  progress  were  generally  favorable,. 
However,  she  is  described  as  always  being  a  misfit  with  children 
and  as  showing  "lack  of  social  orientation."  She  tended  to 
mingle  with  her  social  inferiors  and  with  younger  children  and 
showed  generally  poor  social  judgment.  There  was  a  tendency 
toward  sexual  preoccupation  and  untrustworthiness.  These 
sexual  tendencies  were  the  immediate  social  cause  for  institu- 
tional placement  plus  the  desire  for  continued  training  in  social 
adaptation. 

At  the  time  of  entering  high  school  she  lived  with  her 
maternal  uncle  and  his  five  children  in  order  to  extend  and 
improve  her  social  relations.  It  was  in  this  situation  that  her 
social  irresponsibility  became  conspicuous  and  that  it  became 
evident  she  had  reached  her  limit  of  academic  achievement. 
During  the  intervening  years  between  high  school  and  institu- 
tional placement  the  sexual  tendencies  caused  grave  concern, 
but  so  far  as  the  record  shows  did  not  eventuate  in  sexual 
promiscuity.  She  did  however  become  rather  difficult  to  manage 
because  of  her  social  aggressiveness  and  somewhat  obtrusive 
personality  coupled  with  an  unwarrantedly  high  opinion  of  her 
abilities.  Because  of  verbal  superiority  she  attained  relatively 
exceptional  though  somewhat  shallow  scholastic  success.  At  17 
yeats  of  age  she  showed  excellent  command  of  language  and  a 
fairly  wide  range  of  general  information.  However,  insight 
was  limited,  judgment  poor,  and  behavior  socially  imprudent. 

At  the  time  of  admission  to  the  institution  where  she  now 
resides,  Natalie  received  extensive  psychological  study  and  this 
has  been  continued  over  the  intervening  years.  Binet  mental 
age  (1916  Stanford-Binet)  at  this  time  (LA  18.5  years)  was 
12.9  years,  IQ  91  (14-year  basis),  which  placed  her  at  the  lower 
quartile  of  the  normative  standardization  for  this  test.  Various 
other  tests  of  literacy,  educational  achievement  and  literate 
intelligence  (Ohio  Literacy,  Stanford,  Pressey  X-0)  exceeded 
this  result  with  scores  at  median  or  above  performance.  A 
standard  test  of  non-verbal  abstract  intelligence  (Myers)  like- 
wise yielded  a  score  above  the  normative  median.  This  was 
confirmed  by  performance  test  (Witmer)  score.  Low  scores 
were  obtained  on  the  Porteus  Maze  (9.5  years),  and  on  the 
Healy  PC  #2  (9.0  years).  Social  competence  at  this  time  could 
not  be  measured  for  lack  of  suitable  measuring  devices  other 
than  rating  scales  and  descriptive  score  cards.  But  the  history 
indicated  social  inadequacy  coupled  with  amenable  social 
adjustment  under  supervision. 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  313 

In  general  these  favorable  scores  have  been  sustained  by 
repeated  examinations  (including  Morgan,  Alpha,  Monroe,  Otis, 
Goodenough)  in  the  subsequent  years.  Successive  Binet  scores 
hovered  about  13  years  (12.7  to  13.3  years)  with  literate-verbal 
scores  and  non-verbal  abstract  scores  at  average  adult  level 
(Porteus  score  advanced  to  12.5  years).  Educational  attain- 
ment has  been  reasonably  well  sustained  but  without  much 
practical  capitalization. 

These  test  results,  coupled  with  clinical  observations 
revealed  excellent  verbal  memory,  superficial  reasoning  ability, 
limited  insight,  poor  judgment,  fairly  good  range  of  general 
information.  Her  social  behavior  has  been  characterized  by 
obtrusive  personality  and  imprudent  conduct  but  amenable 
disposition.  These  observations  are  best  confirmed  by  the 
Forteus  Maze  test. 

Since  1935  Natalie  has  been  repeatedly  examined  with  the 
Vineland  Social  Maturity  Scale.  These  results  have  centered 
about  SA  14  years  (13.5  - 15.3)  with  a  maximum  score  of  16.0 
years  on  self -informing  administration. 

The  extended  clinical  study  of  this  girl  over  a  period  of 
LA  18  to  LA  35  years,  coupled  with  evidence  from  institutional 
experience  and  adjustment,  reveals  a  consistent  picture  of 
serious  subnormality  in  social  competence  associated  with  sub- 
stantially average  intelligence  as  measured  by  standard  psycho- 
metric tests.  The  clinical  observations  and  the  history  reveal 
no  evidence  of  mental  deterioration  or  disorder,  and  no  compli- 
cating handicaps  aside  from  the  social  incompetence  itself.  The 
only  limiting  circumstance  is  the  specific  supervision  required 
with  reference  to  sexual  proclivities,  but  these  were  not  serious- 
ly unusual  or  abnormal.  The  later  history  does  reveal  a  succes- 
sion of  somatic  complaints,  such  as  difficult  menstruation  which 
ultimately  yielded  to  radium  treatment,  physical  discomfort 
which  yielded  to  appendectomy,  mild  behavioral  instability 
which  improved  following  dental  extractions,  and  some  appar- 
ently gonadal  involvement  which  has  subsided  with  advancing 
years. 

In  view  of  the  favorable  degree  and  quality  of  intelligence 
a  diagnosis  of  mental  deficiency  seems  unwarranted.  But  in 
view  of  the  social  inadequacy  and  apparently  permanent  arrest 
in  social  development  at  the  adolescent  level  the  most  tenable 
diagnosis  is  one  of  constitutional  inferiority.  The  specific 
reasons  for  this  inferiority  are  not  clearly  elicited,  but  the 
social  inadequacy  itself  is  clearly  established  in  fact  both  by  the 


314  ILLUSTEATIVE    EXAMINATIONS 

history  of  social  achievement  and  the  direct  measuremeait  of 
social  competence  by  the  Social  Maturity  Scale. 

There  is  no  clear  etiology  for  Natalie's  condition  other 
than  that  of  possible  intracranial  birth  lesion.  This  presumption 
is  increased  by  motor  awkwardness  (generalized  incoordina- 
tion) evident  from  physical  education  instruction,  occupational 
experience  and  clinical  observation.  These  inferences  are  sup- 
ported by  recent  tests  of  motor  facility  (Heath  rail  walking, 
e.g.).  In  more  recent  terminology  she  would  be  described  as 
the  organically  impaired  crystallized  type  with  language  facility 
and  limited  concept  formation,  or  Heath's  Y-3  type.*  The 
psychometric  data  may  reflect  a  somewhat  spurious  measure- 
ment of  intelligence  since  the  test  scores  are  above  the  level 
of  practical  function,  an  observation  which  is  common  to  the 
Y-3  type. 

In  undertaking  the  direct  examination,  the  examiner  has 
access  to  the  above  case  history  information  but  may  prefer 
to  conduct  the  examination  unprejudiced  by  this  knowledge. 
In  the  latter  case  the  examiner  would  find  it  necessary  as  a 
preliminary  to  the  examination  to  orient  himself  in  respect  to 
some  of  the  above  information  which  presumably  would  be  at 
the  informant's  command. 

In  either  case  the  examiner  notes  that  the  S  has  been  a 
resident  pupil  of  a  training  school  for  mentally  deficient  chil- 
dren and  adults  since  late  adolescence    (LA  18  years).    He 
observes  that  she  has  had  excellent  opportunity  at  home,  a 
favorable   public   school    education    including   first-year    high 
school,  optimum  institutional  care    (including  cottage,  school 
and  occupational  training),  intermittent  home  visits,  corrective 
medical  attention,  and  favorable  personality  stimulation.  These 
training  opportunities  have  included  a  wide  variety  of  specific 
pursuits  such  as  physical  education,  dramatic  instruction,  hand- 
work, domestic  arts  and  science,  music.    Nevertheless  she  has 
not  succeeded  socially  at  any  point  in  her  life  without  embar- 
rassment to  her  family  or  without  careful  supervision.    And 
she  is  still  incapable  of  self-support,   self-management,   and 
self-direction    without    serious    apprehension    regarding    the 
hazards  involved  with  reference  to  her  ability  to  live  prudently 
or  to  become  economically  independent.    There  is  at  present 
little  reason  to  suppose  that  if  she  were  returned  to  her  family 
or  to  some  other  social  scene  that  she  would  be  able  to  succeed 


*Cf.  S.  Roy  Heath,  Jr,    A  mental  pattern  found  in  motor  deviates. 
Journal  of  Abnormal  and  Social  Psychology,  41,  April,  1946,  pp.  223-225. 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  315 

independently  of  continuous  supervision  and  assistance.  Hence 
the  examiner  is  on  guard  in  this  case  not  to  be  misled  by  the 
evidence  from  psychometric  measurement  revealing  average 
level  of  intelligence.  The  examiner  is  also  on  guard  in  employing 
the  Scale  for  use  of  "F"  scores  in  the  home  environment  and 
"NO"  scores  at  the  institution. 

,  The  examination  here  presented  was  conducted  at  LA  26 
years  (i.e.  nine  years  prior  to  the  latest  records  in  this  history) 
through  the  attendant  at  the  cottage  where  Natalie  resides  at 
the  institution.  This  attendant  had  been  in  close  contact  with 
Natalie  for  a  number  of  years  and  was  fairly  well  acquainted 
with  the  family  and  the  home  to  which  Natalie  returns  for 
occasional  visits  and  vacations.  Since  Natalie  is  both  loquacious 
and  well  informed,  the  attendant  knew  a  good  deal  of  Natalie's 
background  from  conversations  with  her,  especially  following 
her  return  from  home  visits.  The  student  will  note  that  in 
spite  of  the  above  historj^  the  examination  is  based  entirely  on 
the  information  obtained  from  this  cottage  attendant  as  inform- 
ant, and  that  even  the  "F"  scores  and  the  "NO"  scores  are 
based  on  this  informant's  evidence.  The  student  will  also 
notice  that  Natalie  has  been  examined  on  a  self-informing  basis, 
that  she  might  be  examined  by  using  her  parents  as  informants, 
that  information  of  record  might  be  resorted  to  (retrospective 
biographical  procedure)  but  that  it  is  inadvisable  to  pool  these 
various  sources  of  information  in  a  single  examination.  Each 
such  examination  should  rather  be  conducted  independently. 
The  results  of  several  such  examinations  might  be  compared 
but  should  not  be  pooled  for  a  single  score. 

Disregarding  the  above  summary,  the  examiner  interviews 
the  cottage  attendant  as  follows : 

E.  You've  known  Natalie  for  some  time  and  are  well  acquainted  with  her? 
L  Yes,  she  has  been  in  this  cottage  under  my  supervision  for  the  past 
three  years,  and  in  this  capacity  I  am  reasonably  familiar  with  her  life 
in  the  institution.  I  have  also  met  her  parents  and  of  course  Natalie 
talks  to  me  a  great  deal  about  her  life  at  home. 

E.  (Feeling  his  way.)  Do  you  know  what  led  up  to  her  coming  to  this 
institution  ? 

I.  I  understand  she  has  been  here  for  8  years,  and  before  that  she  spent 
four  months  at  a  private  school  in  Pennsylvania.  Her  parents  have  told 
me  that  although  she  got  along  all  right  at  school  she  was  always  a 
rather  peculiar  girl.  It  seems  that  she  was  pretty  fond  of  the  boys,  and 
that  she  didn't  show  very  good  judgment  in  what  she  did  at  home.  Her 
parents  felt  that  she  was  not  responsible,  didn't  get  along  well  with  girls 
of  her  own  age,  had  to  be  watched  continually,  and  all  together  it  wais 
too  much  responsibility  for  them.  Her  mother  told  me  that  her  interest 
in  boys  and  men  was  the  final  straw,  but  that  in  many  other  ways 
Natalie  could  not  be  trusted  to  look  after  herself. 


316  Illustrative  Examinations 

E  These  sexual  inclinations,  then,  were  not  the  only  reason  for  her 
commitment  ? 

I.  Oh  no,  this  was  only  the  immediate  reason.   As  I  have  seen  Natalie  I 

can  understand  how  impossible  it  would  be  to  have  her  at  home  unless 

she  was  continually  looked  after. 

E„  (Moving  into  self -direction  category.)    I  understand  that  here  at  the 

mstitution  where  we  are  responsible  for  looking  after  her,  she  is  kept 

under  fairly   close   supervision? 

1.  Yes,  of  course.    Like  all  the  other  girls  we  have  to  know  where  they 

are  all  the  time.    Otherwise  she  might  run  off  or  get  into  trouble  with 

any  man  she  might  meet  and  we  would  be  held  responsible. 

E.  I  suppose  this  means  that  she  is  not  left  to  look  after  herself  for 

very  long  at  a  time,  or  to  go  out  alone  during  the  day,  or  to  go  out  at 

night  without  someone  being  with  her? 

L  Yes,  of  course.    She  is  able  to  look  after  herself  as  far  as  keeping 

occupied  is  concerned,  but  I  wouldn't  want  to  trust  her  alone  very  long 

because  she  really  is  so  irresponsible.    She  doesn't  stay  at  things  or  do 

them  well  when  left  to  herself  very  long,  and  she  might  even  "handle" 

some  of  the  other  girls  or  teach  them  bad  habits,  although  I  haven't  seen 

much  of  this  of  late.    And  of  course  she  isn't  permitted  to  go  out  either 

during   the   day    or   night   unless    some    responsible   woman   employee   is 

with  her. 

E.  Do  you  think  she  could  do  any  of  these  things  if  it  were  not  for  the 
lules  of  the  institution;  I  mean,  would  you  be  willing  to  trust  her  to  go 
out  nights  by  herself  or  during  the  daytime,  or  would  you  be  willing  to 
leave  her  alone  or  to  look  after  other  children,  either  boys  or  girls 
younger  than  herself  for  any  length  of  time? 

I.  Well,  I  wouldn't  want  to  be  responsible  for  her  if  she  went  out  nights 
or  during  the  daytime,  for  I  am  quite  sure  she  would  be  likely  to  get 
into  trouble.  I  think  she  could  find  her  way  around  familiar  places,  but 
she's  pretty  heedless  and  impulsive  and,  no,  I  wouldn't  feel  comfortable 
about  it.  As  I  told  you,  I  wouldn't  even  feel  very  good  about  leaving  her 
alone  for  longer  than  half-an-hour  by  herself  unless  I  knew  where  she 
was  and  what  she  was  doing.  Even  then  I  would  want  to  check  up  on 
her  from  time  to  time.  I  certainly  wouldn't  be  willing  to  leave  her  with 
younger  boys,  and  wouldn't  feel  very  safe  even  with  younger  girls. 
E.  Do  you  know  whether  she  did  these  things  at  home  ? 
I.  Well,  her  parents  have  told  me  that  they  never  felt  really  safe  to 
leave  Natalie  at  home  alone  because  they  didn't  know  who  might  come 
to  the  house  or  what  she  might  do.  They  say  she  was  always  rather 
flighty  and  even  after  she  grew  up  they  didn't  feel  comfortable  about  her 
being  alone.  I  know  the  neighbors  never  left  the  children  with  her. 
However,  she  did  for  a  time  go  to  church  alone  and  go  downtown  on 
errands,  but  she  took  such  unreasonably  long  time  about  these  things 
that  after  a  while  the  family  never  allowed  her  to  go  out  alone  during  the 
daytime,  and  certainly  not  at  night! 

E.  (Taking  up  locomotion  items  because  of  their  immediate  relation  to 
these  aspects  of  self -direction.)  Does  she  go  to  town  from  the  institution 
by  herself,  or  is  she  allowed  to  go  anywhere  by  herself  off  the  grounds  ? 

I.  No,  she  never  goes  off  the  grounds  unless  she  is  attended  by  some  woman 
employee.  In  fact,  she  isn't  even  permitted  to  go  about  the  grounds  except 
from  this  cottage  to  the  next,  unaccompanied. 

E.  Did  she  do  any  of  these  things  at  home? 

I.  Natalie  tells  me  that  when  she  was  at  home  attending  high  school  she 
went  to  school  by  herself,  but  usually  other  pupils  went  with  her.  For 
a  while  she  went  to  church  alone  as  I  told  you,  and  now  and  then  went 
to  town  on  errands  by  herself,  but  finally  she  wasn't  permitted  to  do  this 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  317 

because  the  parents  were  always  worried  about  her  while  she  was  away. 

E,  When  she  visits  at  home  now,  does  she  go  alone? 

I.  No.    When  she  goes  from  here  to  her  home  for  visits,  either  sonie 

relative  comes  for  her,  or  if  that  is  impossible,  she  goes  by  train  in 

charge  of  the  conductor.    We  see  her  safely  into  the   Pullman  car  at 

Philadelphia  and  the  conductor  is  carefully  instructed  to  look  after  her 

until  she  reaches  her  home  where  she  is  always  met  by  some  relative 

when  the  train  comes   in.    Her  parents   don't  feel   any  too   good  about 

this,  and  so  they  almost  always  come  and  get  her  and  bring  her  back. 

E.  (Returning   to   the   self -direction   items.)     You    said   she   isn't   really 

responsible  for  her  own  affairs? 

I.  No.  She  shows  very  poor  judgment  in  what  she  does,  is  quite  impulsive, 

and  has  very  little  idea  of  the  consequences  of  what  she  does.    She  is  a 

well-behaved  girl,  but  of  course  here  she  is  under  supervision  most  of  the 

time  and  I  feel  that  she  certainly  could  not  be  trusted  to  look  after  herself. 

E.  How  about  the  use  of  money?    Does  she  have  any  spending  money, 

and  what  does  she  do  with  it? 

I.  Of  course  you  know  that  in  the  institution  the  children  do  not  have 

any  money.   Natalie's  parents  send  her  two  dollars  a  month  for  spending 

money  and  this  is  put  in  Store  for  her.    She  doesn't  have  direct  control 

of  this  and  I  don't  believe  she  would  use  it  very  wisely  if  she  did.   I  am 

sure  she  would  spend  it  foolishly  if  she  had  opportunity  to  do  so. 

E.  Did  she  have  a  spending  allowance  when  she  was  at  home? 

I.  She  says  that  her  mother  used  to  give  her  fifty  cents  a  week  for 

spending  money  when  she  was  in  high  school,  and  that  she  spent  this 

for  candy  and  sodas  and  other  trifles,  but  not  for  anything  serious. 

E.  Doesn't  she  buy  anything  for  herself  with  her  allowance,  or  didn't 

she  when  she  was  at  home? 

L  She  buys  little  things  at  Store  here,  like  writing  paper,  or  something 

that  one  of  the  children  has  made  that  is  for  sale,  and  she  buys  her  own 

toilet  articles,  and  at  Christmas  time  or  Easter  she  buys  gifts  for  friends 

and  relatives.   Her  parents  send  her  clothing  to  her,  so  that  she  doesn't 

need  to  buy  much  of  that  sort. 

E.  How  about  when  she's  at  home? 

I.  Her  mother  gives  her  money  to  buy  some  articles  of  clothing  such  as 

a  few  underthings  or  stockings,  or  things  that  she  wears.    Most  of  the 

time  her  mother  is  with  her  when  she  selects  these  things.    She  can  be 

trusted  with  money,  but  never  is  actually  given  very  much  at  a  time. 

You  know  she  is  very  generous  and  likes  to  give  things  away  and  buy 

things  for  people.   Her  mother  had  to  tell  the  store  people  at  home  not 

to  let  her  buy  things  on  the  family  charge  account. 

E.  Does  she  select  her  own  dresses  or  coats  or  the  more  important  kinds 
of  clothing? 

I.  Natalie  has  very  nice  clothes  and  I  have  often  spoken  to  her  mother 
about  how  well  dressed  she  is  and  how  much  she  likes  nice  things.  Her 
mother  said  that  Natalie  likes  nice  things  but  is  rather  "flashy"  and  a 
little  childish  in  her  taste  when  she  picks  out  things  for  herself.  So, 
while  she  humors  Natalie  in  buying  little  things  and  consults  her  about 
her  more  important  clothes,  she  (the  mother)  actually  decides  what  to 
get  after  getting  Natalie  to  see  it  her  way.  (That  sounds  a  little  mixed 
up,  doesn't  it?  Does  that  answer  your  question  all  right?) 
E.  Yes,  I  see.  But  you  said  she  does  buy  some  things? 
I.  Yes,  when  she  is  home  she  is  given  small  bits  of  money  for  this  and 
that  and  most  of  the  time,  but  not  always,  she  uses  this  money  as  she 
is  expected  to. 

E.  To  what  extent  does  Natalie  look  after  her  own  health? 


318  Illustrative  Examinations 

I.  Well,  here  in  the  institution  we  keep  a  fairly  close  check  of  that  and 
send  the  children  to  the  hospital  in  case  of  anything  serious.  She  lets 
me  know  when  there  is  something  the  matter  with  her  or  when  she  doesn't 
feel  well,  but  I  don't  think  she  uses  very  good  judgment,  of  course  I 
keep  an  eye  on  her  like  all  the  other  girls.  When  she  is  at  home  her 
parents  take  her  to  their  own  dentist  to  have  her  teeth  looked  after, 
and  also  have  their  family  doctor  give  her  a  general  examination.  And 
she  had  a  pretty  hard  time  each  month  and  needed  looking  after, 
but  not  so  much  lately. 

E.  Do  you  think  she  could  do  these  things  for  herself  if  this  were  made 
her  responsibility? 

L  Well,  I  think  she  would  in  a  way,  but  not  very  successfully.  She  has 
some  idea  about  avoiding  colds  and  she  knows  enough  to  keep  away 
from  the  other  children  if  they  have  some  infection,  but  I  notice  that 
if  I  don't  keep  after  her  she's  pretty  careless  about  herself  in  these 
matters. 

This  group  of  self -direction  items  is  particularly  difficult 
to  administer  to  institutionalized  subjects,  since  performances 
are  limited  by  the  very  mental  deficiency  which  makes  institu- 
tional care  desirable  and  in  respect  to  which  environmental 
safeguards  are  necessary  or  advisable.  However,  in  this  case 
we  have  background  information  as  to  what  the  S  does  at  home 
when  on  visits  and  what  she  did  formerly  at  home  before 
institutional  placement  at  17  years  of  age.  We  also  have  the 
opinion  of  a  well-informed  attendant  of  good  judgment  as  to 
what  the  S  might  be  capable  of  doing  if  she  were  in  a  home 
environment. 

As  for  scoring  the  items,  we  have  the  fpllowing  data:  Items  60,  76 
and  87  are  scored  plus-minus  (as  being  sometimes  successfully  but  not 
habitually  successfully  performed);  Items  83,  93,  94,  95,  97,  99,  100 
and  101  are  minus,  and  the  other  items  in  the  self-direction  category  are 
automatically  minus  or  inapplicable.  The  locomotion  items  given  coin- 
cidentally  with  the  self -direction  items  are  scored  as  follows:  Item  53  is 
"4-F."    Item  61  "—  NO,"  and  Items  77,  92  and  96  are  minus. 

These  scores  are  rendered  difficult  in  this  case  because  of 
the  wide-spread  areas  of  performance  over  which  the  S  is  only 
partially  successful  both  at  home  and  at  the  institution.  It  is 
rather  likely  that  if  the  S  were  given  complete  freedom,  some 
of  the  items  might  reach  a  full  plus  and  others  a  full  minus 
performance.  The  somewhat  dubious  nature  of  the  scoring  is 
illuminating,  however,  as  revealing  the  incapabilities  of  the  S 
and  as  indicating  the  less  clear-cut  nature  of  performance 
among  constitutionally  inferior  and  mentally  deficient  subjects 
as  compared  with  normal  subjects.  This  results  from  the  fact 
that  such  S's  can  do  so  many  things  within  guarded  limits,  but 
weakness  of  judgment  operates  as  a  special  handicap  which 
limits  complete  success  on  items  that  are  otherwise  (or  appar- 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  319 

ently)  within  the  limits  of  capability-  The  feeble-minded  or 
constitutionally  inferior  S  therefore  shows  a  wider  range  of 
scores  on  the  Scale  because  of  the  dependence  of  performance 
on  judgment  and  responsibility  and  the  rather  weak  capitali- 
zation of  experience.  It  is  also  obvious  that  such  S's  would  be 
most  handicapped  on  those  items  involving  self-direction,  since 
it  is  the  inability  to  manage  their  own  affairs  which  constitutes 
their  most  conspicuous  deficiency.  Hence  the  examiner  must 
be  specially  on  guard  for  use  of  can  instead  of  does  and  should 
be  careful  to  check  the  basis  of  opinion  of  "+N0"  scores.  Lack 
of  opportunity  must  not  be  construed  independently  of  the  real 
reasons  therefor. 


E.  (Taking:  up  socialization  category.)  You  have  said  that  Natalie  gets 
along  with  the  other  children  well  and  with  employees  except  for  her 
irresponsibility.  What  does  she  do  for  recreation? 

I.  Although  Natalie  feels  herself  rather  superior  to  the  older  and  brighter 
girls    in   the    group,   she   is   fond    of    the   younger    children    and    really 
associates  more  with  them  than  with  the  older  girls  who  feel  that  she  is 
rather  childish  in  spite  of  her  general  ability. 
E.  What  kind  of  recreation  does  she  prefer? 

I.  Well,  she's  always  talking  about  tennis,  but  she  doesn't  play  the  game 
very  much.    She  understands  it  and  can  keep  score  and  keeps  up  an 
interest  in  such  news  about  tennis  as  she  can  get  hold  of.    She  likes  to 
go  swimming  and  walking  and  does  so  whenever  she  has  a  chance.    She 
enjoys  playing  card  games  and  can  even  play  a  fair  though  rather  simple 
game  of  bridge.    Most  of  the  girls  don't  play  these  games,  but  Natalie 
sometimes  fills  in  when  we  (staff  members)  are  playing  a  game. 
E.  Does  she  play  a  good  game  of  bridge?    Does  she  keep  score? 
I.  I  would  say  that  she  understands  the  rules  and  plays  a  rather  simple 
game.    She  likes  to  keep  score  and  usually  does  so  when  she  plays  with 
us.    You  know  she  is  very  quick  at  arithmetic  and  prides   herself  on 
understanding  and  following  the  rules  of  the  game.   However,  she  doesn't 
really  play  a  very  good  game  and  often  makes  quite  foolish  plays. 
E.  What  other  things  does  she  do? 

I.  Well,  when  she's  out  playing  with  the  little  girls  she  joins  in  games 
of  tag,  turns  the  rope  for  them,  plays  hop-skotch,  or  in  the  house  she 
entertains  the  younger  girls  with  dominos  or  games  like  parchesi.  Of 
course  she  does  these  things  much  better  than  the  little  girls  do,  and 
plays  with  them  more  like  I  would,  giving  them  a  chance  to  win  and 
apparently  enjoying  her  superiority.  She  also  likes  to  play  grandmother 
when  the  smaller  girls  are  playing  house,  and  often  she  pretends  she 
is  the  attendant  when  the  children  "take  us  off."  She  is  quite  a  tomboy, 
too,  and  likes  the  more  active  games,  but  of  course  does  not  have  much 
opportunity  here  for  playing  them.  If  she  had  a  chance  she  would  much 
prefer  to  play  vigorous  boys'  games  because  they  are  so  much  more 
active. 

E.  You  say  she  doesn't  join  the  older  girls  in  their  activities? 
I.  Yes,  she  does.  But  she  isn't  so  very  popular  with  them.  She  is  a 
member  of  the  girls'  Triangle  Club,  and  is  a  leader  in  that  group  on  the 
more  difficuk  things.  You  see  Natalie  is  very  bright,  but  she  doesn't 
have  much  judgment  and  the  other  girls  don't  like  her  to  dominate  them. 
She  very  much  enjoys  going  to  camp  with  her  group  and  is  always 
planning  "big"  things  for  them  to  do.    Even  more  she  likes  to  be  with 


320  Illustrative  Examinations 

the  employees  and  is  constantly  hinting  to  them  that  she  would  like  to  be 
taken  places. 

E.  You  said  she  is  not  very  responsible  herself.  Does  she  assume  any 
responsibility  for  others? 

I.  She  looks  after  the  younger  girls  quite  a  good  deal,  and  likes  to 
"mother"  them,  but  she  does  this  like  an  older  sister  would,  rather  than 
like  an  adult.  And,  of  course,  she  doesn't  carry  any  continuous  responsi- 
bility, but  does  this  more  on  special  occasions. 

E.  With  this  fondness  for  children,  does  she  still  believe  in  Santa  Glaus? 
I.  Oh  dear  no!  She's  much  too  bright  for  that,  but  she  does  encourage 
the  younger  children  and  likes  to  tell  them  fairy  stories  and  to  pretend 
as  they  do. 

In  this  category,  the  scores  are  consistently  plus  for  items  56,  59,  68, 
69,  85  and  88,  and  minus  for  103  and  beyond.  In  this  category  Natalie's 
relatively  high  intelligence  and  activity  give  her  an  advantage  in  directions 
where  her  type  of  irresponsibility  and  poor  judgment  do  not  put  a  pre- 
mium on  successful  performance.  Nevertheless,  there  will  be  noted  an 
undercurrent  of  lack  of  adult  maturity  revealing  both  her  performances 
and  her  attitude  as  of  the  early  period  of  adolescence. 

E.  (Considering  the  occupational  items.)    What  kind  of  work  does  Natalie 

do?    Is  she  helpful  and  can  she  be  relied  upon  for  any  important  work? 

I.  She  is  a  very  helpful  girl  and  does  a  great  deal.    She  is  large  and 

strong  and  active  and  enjoys  having  things   to  do.    She  is  also  quick 

and  makes  herself  useful.    The  only  trouble  I  find  is  she  overdoes  it  and 

is  rather  forward  about  it,  and  this  sometimes  gets  annoying.    Also  I 

can't  rely  on  her  for  thoroughness. 

E.  Does  she  have  any  special  routine  of  work? 

I.  Yes,  she  has  her  daily  "jobs"  such  as  helping  to  dress  the  children, 

assisting  the  children  in  making  their  beds,  waiting  tables  in  the  staff 

dining  room,  and  things  like  that.   She  has  a  room  by  herself  and  takes 

care  of  it.  I  seldom  have  to  speak  to  her  about  the  condition  of  her  room. 

E.  Has  she  ever  had  a  job  with  wages  ? 

I.  No,  her  parents   are  well-te-do,  and   have  kept  her  at  school.    She 

doesn't  really  do  much  school  work  any  more,  although  she  still  attends 

classes,  and  never  did  finish  the  first  year  of  high  school.    The  kind  of 

work  she  does  best  is  simple  housework. 

E.  Do  you  think  she  could  get  a  job  and  hold  it  either  at  housework  or 

in  a  factory? 

I.  I  think  she  might  be  able  to  obtain  a  position  because  she  is  rather 

plausible  until  you  get  to  know  her,  but  I  doubt  if  she  could  hold  it. 

E.  What  makes  you  think  so? 

I.  Well,  she  is  too  flighty  and  irresponsible.  She  requires  a  lot  of  follow-up 

and  then,  you  know,  she  is  rather  forward,  and  as  I  have  said  before, 

she  doesn't  have  very  good  judgment.    In  the  staff  dining  room  she  is 

officious  and  is  always  "listening  in"  or  "kibitzing." 

E.  Does  she  make  things  for  herself? 

I.  She  has  had  domestic  science  work  and  sewing  and  although  she  no 

longer  goes  to  these  classes,  she  likes  to  do  this  kind  of  work  either  for 

herself  or  about  the  house. 

E.  Just  what  does  she  do  of  this  kind? 

I.   She  does  good  sewing  and  mending,  helps  in  the  care  of  the  other 

children,  prepares  vegetables  in  the  kitchen,  takes  care  of  some  plants 

in  her  room,  tries  her  hand  at  cooking  but  isn't  very  successful.    Oh  yes, 

and  she  writes  a  great  many  romantic  stories. 

The  scores  for  this  category  may  be  assumed  as  plus  in  the  earlier 


Constitutionally  Inferior  Adult  321 

items.   Items  72,  80,  82,  89  are  also  plus.   Item  98  is  minus  and  tJie  higher 
items  in  the  category  are  also  minus. 

E.  (Transferring  to  the  communication  categoiy.)    You  say  she  writes 

stories  and  I  judge  from  what  you  already  said  that  she  likes  to  read? 

I.    Yes,  this  is  her  long  suit.   And  in  her  own  way  she  is  quite  capable. 

She  reads  a  great  deal  in  magazines  and  such  newspapers  as  she  may 

have.  Her  people  send  her  quite  a  few  books  and  she  even  borrows  som? 

of  mine. 

E,  What  does  she  like  to  read? 

i.  She  reads  nearly  anj^hing  she  can  get  hold  of.    She  is  specially  fond 

of  romantic  novels  and  likes  the  more  lurid  magazine  stories  if  she  can 

get  them.    She  also  enjoys  the  Geographic  Magazine  and  likes  to  read 

about  travel  and  adventure. 

E.  Does  she  read  any  serious  books? 

I.  Not  very  many,  and  not  very  often>  and  not  very  much.    When  I  talk 

to  her  about  this  reading  she  doesn't  seem  to  have  gained  very  much 

from  it  except  some  rather  glib  information. 

E.  Would  you  say  that  she  reads  with  profit? 

1.  Yes,  to  the  extent  that  she  keeps  me  informed  on  the  general  news 

and    especially   the   sensational   news.     She   keeps    pretty   well    informed 

about  athletics  and  knows  who's   who  in  the  major  sports.    She  has   a 

general  interest  in  fashions,  but  this  is  rather  girlish.    Also  she  gets  the 

news  over  the  radio  and  it  is  surprising  how  much  she  can  tell  you  about 

what's  going  on  in  the  world! 

E.  Does  she  do  much  writing? 

I.    I'll    say   she   does!     She   is    always   writing   to   friends    and   relatives 

whether  they  answer  or  not.    She  tells  them  all  about  what's  going  on 

here,  tells  her  folks  what  she  needs  or  wants,  and  keeps  them  so  well 

informed  that  when  they  visit  her  there  isn't  much  left  to  talk  about. 

E.  Does  she  have  any  occasion  to  write  business  letters  ? 

I.  She   is   bothering   me   all   the   time  about   sending   for   catalogs   and 

answering  the  radio  offers  of  samples  and  things.    Then,  too,  she  likes 

to  order  things  from  catalogs.    I  usually  help  her  in  her  selections,  but 

she  does  all  the  correspondence. 

E.  Does  she  use  the  telephone? 

I.  Not  here,  except  to  answer  the  house  phone  when  it  rings,  but  when 

she's  at  home  she  keeps  the  family  on  edge  by  calling  up  all  her  friends. 

E.  In  doing  this,  does  she  call  only  familiar  numbers? 

I.  No,  she  uses  the  telephone  book  and  even  likes  to  place  long  distance 

calls  for  her  father  when  she  has  occasion  to  use  the  phone  at  home. 

The  items  in  this  category  tap  the  special  scholastic  aptitude  of  this 
S  and  are  plus  for  all  items,  i.e.,  73,  78,  79,  81,  84,  90  and  91. 

E.   (Considering  self-help  items.)    May  I  take  it  for  granted  that  she  looks 

after  herself  pretty  well? 

I.  Well,  I'm  not  sure  I  understand  what  you  mean. 

E.  Does  she  require  any  Pielp  at  the  table? 

I.  Not  any  whatever.    She  looks  after  herself  entirely. 

E.  What  does  this  include? 

I.  Everything.    She  gets  no  help  whatever,  cuts  her  own  meat,  prepares 

her  own  food,  she  has  nice  table  manners,  and  helps  the  other  girls  at 

the  table  who  may  need  assistance. 

E.  And  as  to  the  care  of  her  person? 

I.  She  takes  entire  care  of  herself. 

E.  What  do  you  mean  by  that? 


322  Illustrative  Examinations 

I.  Well,  just  that. 

E.  Does  this  include  bathing  herself  and  entirely  dressing  herself? 

I.   Yes,  she  takes   her  own  bath  without  any  assistance  whatever  and 

exercises  entire  responsibility  for  her  clothes. 

E.  I  thought  this  wasn't  permitted  (under  institution  rules). 

I.  Well,  officially  it  isn't,  but  Natalie  is  so  unquestionably  able  to  take 

jner  own  bath  and  so  much  likes  to  be  independent  that  I  let  her  do  it. 

fehe  isn't  likely  to  scald  herself  or  run  the  tub  over  or  leave  it  dirty. 

And  it's  the  same  with  her  clothes.    She  selects  her  own  clothes,  and  as 

1  told  you  she  has  nice  clothes  and  she  knows  what  to  wear  for  the 

proper  occasion. 

E.  Does  she  get  any  help  at  all  ?  . 

I.  No,  she  cares  for  herself  entirely,  looks  after  her  own  nails,  washes 

and  dries  her  own  hair,  curls  her  own  hair  (and  would  go  to  the  barber 

or  beauty  shop  if  she  could).  In  fact,  I  never  have  to  look  after  her  in 

those  respects.   Indeed,  she  helps  me  a  great  deal  with  the  other  children. 

E.  Can  she  tell  time  ? 

I.  Oh  yes.    To  the  fraction  of  a  minute.    She  even  wants  to  own  a  stop 
watch! 

We  have  considered  the  three  self-help  categories  together  here  and 
find  all  items  plus  without  question. 

We  are  nov/  in  a  position  to  total  Natalie's  scores.  The 
items  are  all  plus  to  Item  75,  inclusive,  except  for  plus-minus 
on  Item  60  and  minus  NO  on  Items  53  and  61.  These  three 
low  items  reflect  Natalie's  special  disability  in  the  direction 
of  social  irresponsibility.  However,  Items  53  and  61  may  be 
scored  plus  F  even  though  it  seems  rather  likely  that  she  re- 
ceives more  or  less  supervision  at  home  even  when  she  is  going 
about  the  neighborhood  or  when  she  goes  on  relatively 
nearby  errands  (the  equivalent  of  going  to  school  unattended) . 
The  examiner's  decision  is  to  allow  the  plus  F  score  on  these 
two  items  because  of  their  position  and  because  the  amou-nt  of 
supervision  that  Natalie  now  receives,  or  appears  to  need,  on 
these  items  is  not  greater  than  that  which  would  normally  be 
exercised  for  children  4  or  5  years  of  age.  Item  60,  however, 
is  allowed  only  half  credit.  The  remaining  items  are  as  follows : 
76,  plus-minus ;  77,  minus ;  78  to  82,  plus ;  83,  minus ;  84  to  86, 
plus;  87,  plus-minus;  88  to  91,  plus;  92  to  103  (and  beyond), 
minus.  This  gives  a  basal  score  of  74.5  with  12  additional  full 
scores  and  2  additional  half  scores,  or  a  total  of  13  additional 
points.  This  gives  a  total  score  of  87.5  points,  which  by  inter- 
polation (or  from  the  conversion  table)  gives  a  total  SA  of 
14.1.  Natalie's  LA  at  the  time  of  this  examination  is  26.1  years, 
but  since  25  years  is  the  average  adult  (ceiling)  performance, 
this  latter  age  is  used  for  purposes  of  calculating  quotients 
where  the  life  age  is  above  25  years.  The  SQ  is  therefore  14.1 
divided  by  25,  or  SQ  =  56.  Reference  to  Table  5  (p.  876)  shows 
that  the  mean  SQ  for  LA  25-!-  is  approximately  100,  SD  10. 


Deteriorated  Adult  323 

The  position  score  for  SQ  56  is,  therefore,  —  4.4  SD. 

In  interpreting  this  score,  we  recall  that  SQ's  below  70 
when  not  seriously  affected  by  special  handicaps  are  a  sugges- 
tive (but  not  conclusive)  indication  of  possible  mental  deiicien- 
cy.  Natalie's  SQ  of  56  is  well  within  feeble-minded  limits  and 
the  SA  of  14.1  is  well  below  the  upper  SA  limit  of  mental  defi- 
ciency (which  we  have  elsewhere  indicated  may  be  taken  at  SA 
18  years  for  LA  25  plus) .  The  SA  is  also  one  year  above  the  MA 
which  is  consistent  with  other  data  for  mental  defectives.  The 
examination  as  a  whole  further  confirms  the  suspicion  of  mental 
deficiency  on  qualitative  grounds.  However,  the  relatively  high 
MA  and  scholastic  achievement,  even  though  affected  by  super- 
ficial verbal  aptitude,  are  not  consistent  with  a  rigorous  diagno- 
sis of  mental  deficiency,  but  suggest  instead  the  alternative  of 
constitutional  inferiority.  This  alternative  is  not  altogether 
satisfying  since  constitutional  inferiority  as  a  diagnostic  syn- 
drome is  not  very  clearly  defined  and  is  in  the  realm  of 
neuropsychiatric  practice.  This  problem  of  mental  age  at  the 
upper  limit  of  mental  deficiency  coupled  with  social  sufficiency 
below  the  lower  limit  of  normality  has  not  yet  been  solved. 

Case    IV,     Deteriorated    {formerly   superior)    adult    womjin. 
LA  84,  SA  1.1,  SQ  4. 

This  examination  is  presented  to  show  the  use  of  the  Scale 
for  the  measurement  of  (a)  social  deterioration,  and  (b)  the 
ability  of  the  S  at  her  prime.  The  examination  illustrates  the 
practicability  of  measuring  the  social  consequences  of  dementia 
in  the  late  period  of  senescence  and  also  of  determining  the 
former  level  of  competence.  This  is  a  rather  extreme  case  and 
is  not  to  be  considered  as  typical  of  ordinary  senescence, 

Mrs.  C.  is  now  84  years  of  age,  American-born,  of  superior 
social-economic  and  cultural  status.  She  has  been  a  woman  of 
exceptional  attainment,  brilliant  intellect,  and  forceful  person- 
ality. Her  father  was  a  teacher  in  the  days  when  this  occupation 
was  less  common  than  at  present.  Mrs.  C's  several  children  also 
are  of  superior  competence.  She  herself  is  now  an  invalid  show- 
ing signs  of  extreme  mental  deterioration  and  physical 
inactivity.  She  maintained  a  superior  level  of  social  competence 
up  to  age  65-70.  At  about  that  age  there  was  a  natural  decline 
in  the  vigor  of  her  activities,  but  no  signs  of  deterioration  were 
observed  until  she  was  past  70.  During  the  next  10  years  there 
was  increasing  inactivity,  but  the  present  serious  invalidism 
has  come  about  principally  within  the  last  two  years. 


'324  Illustrative  Examinations 

Mrs.  C.  is  cared  for  by  her  daughter  who  manages  a  small 
private  school  for  subnormal  children.  The  informant  is  a 
granddaughter  who  has  assisted  in  her  care  and  is  intimately 
familiar  with  her  present  disabilities,  as  well  as  with  her  for- 
mer attainments.  Under  the  circumstances  the  examination 
requires  special  tact  and  sympathy  in  view  of  the  natural  con- 
cern which  the  informant  has  for  the  S.  In  the  course  of  the 
examination  the  informant  is  candid  and  helpful  and  is  intelli- 
gently interested  both  in  the  conduct  and  the  implications  of 
the  examination,  being  herself  a  college  graduate  and  profes- 
sionally as  well  as  personally  interested  in  the  examination. 

E.^  I  understand  that  your  grandmother  was  an  exceptional  woman  in  her 
prime.  Does  she  manage  her  own  affairs  at  all  now,  such  as  going  out 
by  herself,  or  handling  her  own  money,  or  making  her  own  purchases  ? 
I.  No,  that  is  quite  beyond  her  present  ability.  We  have  to  look  after 
her  completely  and  do  everything  for  her.  It  is  several  years  now  since 
she  has  been  able  to  look  after  her  own  affairs  or  do  any  shopping. 

This  immediately  eliminates  all  self-direction  items. 

E.  Does  she  get  about  by  herself,  or  is  she  taken  about? 
I.  At  present  she  goes  nowhere  at  all  except  as  we  take  her.    She  use<J 
to  travel  quite  a  good  deal,  then  she  stopped  going  out  of  town.    After 
a  while  she  no  longer  even  went  into  town  or  around  the  neighborhood. 
At  the  present  time  she  doesn't  even  go  outside  the  house  except  as  we 
take  her.  In  fact,  at  the  present  time,  she  is  as  dependent  as  an  infant. 
E.  You  mean  she  doesn't  even  go  about  the  yard  by  herself? 
I.  Not  only  that,  she  doesn't  even  walk  about  the  room.    She  is  unable 
to  go  either  upstairs  or  downstairs  by  herself.   In  fact,  she  is  practically 
bedridden.    We  think  she  is  able  to  get  around  the  room  by  herself,  but 
actually  she  doesn't.   She  falls  very  easily  when  she  tries  to  walk,  and  so 
she  eitiier  sits  in  the  chair  or  sits  or  lies  in  bed  practically  all  the  time. 
If  she  gets  about  at  all,  it  is  only  as  we  take  her.   It  is  hard  to  realize 
how  completely  helpless  she  really  is. 

These  replies  give  minus  scores  for  all  locomotion  items.    (Item  12 
minus  on  later  evidence  for  self-help.) 

E.  What  does  she  do  to  keep  herself  occupied?  Does  she  sew,  or  read? 

I.  No,  she  does  practically  nothing  all  day  long.   She  does  no  reading  and 

nothing  at  all  useful. 

E.  Does  she  occupy  herself  at  all  ? 

I.  Yes,  she  fills  in  the  time  at  one  thing  or  another  for  a  half -hour  or  so, 

or  sometimes  for  as  long  as  one  hour,  when  she  is  at  her  best,  without 

demanding   attention.    Mostly  we   have  to   help   keep   her   occupied   by 

suggesting  things  to  do.  We  try  to  keep  her  occupied  by  giving  her  little 

things  to  do  which  are  helpful,  such  as  folding  the  laundry,  which  she  can 

do  by  sitting  up  to  a  table.    She  will  do  things  like  this  for  short  periods, 

but  continued  effort  makes  her  nervous.    She  moves  things  about^  within 

reach  and  straightens  up  the  objects  on  the  table.   We  keep  thinking  she 

could  do  more  if  she  would  try,  but  I  guess  the  fact  that  she  doesn't  try 

is  itself  a  sign  of  her  weakness. 

E.  She  doesn't  then  do  these  things  on  her  own  initiative? 

I.  She  very  seldom  any  longer  does  anything  of  her  own  accord.    If  we 

give  her  things  to  do  she  will  stay  at  it  for  a  while,  maybe  fifteen  minutes 


Deteriorated  Adult  325 

or  longer,  if  it  does  not  require  too  much  concentration. 

E.  I  assume  then  she  does  not  really  do  any  helpful  work  that  requires 

getting  about? 

I.  No,  that  would  be  out  of  the  question. 

E.  Do  you  give  her  things  to  do  which  require  the  use  of  cutting,  such 

as  with  scissors? 

I.  No,  we  are  afraid  to  trust  her  with  knives  or  scissors  or  anything  that 

has  sharp  points.  We  don't  even  let  her  have  a  sharpened  pencil. 

E.   She  doesn't  amuse  herself  then  by  making  drawings,   even  of  the 

simplest  kind  ? 

I.   We  can't  let  her  have  a  pen,  and  don't  like  to  have  her  have  a  pencil. 

We  keep  crayons  handy  in  case  she  wants  to  use  them,  but  she  no  longer 

shows  any  inclination  to  do  any  writing  or  dravsdng. 

E.  Do  you  rely  on  her  for  help  in  carrying  messages  from  one  person  to 

another   or  performing  little   errands   for  you,   such   as   putting   objects 

away  or  bringing  them? 

I.  No,  that  is  out  of  the  question  because  she  isn't  able  to  get  about  the 

room  or  to  help  herself,  much  less  us. 

In  the  occupation  category.  Item  7  is  scored  plus,  Item  19  minus,  22 
plus  (because  of  the  orderly  activity),  24  minus,  and  all  subsequent  oc- 
cupation items  minus. 

E.  (Taking  up  communication  items.)  I  understand  that  she  no  longer 
reads  or  writes  then  ? 

I.  Yes  and  no.  After  she  stopped  writing  on  her  own  initative,  for  a  while 
she  would  write  if  we  told  her  what  to  say.  Now,  however,  she  doesn't 
write  anything  at  all,  and  as  for  reading,  she  still  reads  aloud  with  good 
expression,  but  her  inflection  has  no  relation  to  the  meaning.  She  reads 
for  a  half -hour  or  more  at  a  time,  but  her  comments  on  what  she  reads 
show  little  relation  to  the  meaning. 
E.  I  suppose  there  is  no  difficulty  in  her  conversation  ? 
I.  Yes,  I'm  sorry  to  say  there  is.  She  talks  quite  a  good  deal  and  some- 
times clearly,  but  mostly  her  attempts  at  conversation  are  rambling  and 
incoherent. 

E.  What  kind  of  things  does  she  talk  about? 

I.  Well,  she  uses  sentences  all  right,  but  she  is  unable  to  carry  on  a 
connected  conversation  such  as  being  able  to  tell  us  ansrthing  about  what 
has  been  happening  while  we  have  been  away.  She  tries  to  talk  to  us,  bat 
most  of  her  connected  conversation  is  irrelevant  or  incoherent,  or,  when  we 
can  understand  her,  her  ideas  are  not  connected  but  move  from  one  thing 
to  another.  Occasionally  she  has  brief  intervals  when  she  talks  quite 
sensibly,  but  doesn't  nevertheless  seem  to  understand  what  she  is  saying 
in  terms  of  its  meaning. 

E.  Well,  if  she  uses  sentences,  does  she  do  this  in  a  way  to  convey  her 
wants  or  wishes;  that  is,  does  she  have  any  really  useful  command  of 
speech  ? 

I.  We  can't  really  depend  upon  what  she  says  to  understand  what  she 
wants.  Most  of  our  talk  is  just  to  humor  her  and  keep  her  mind  as  active 
as  we  can,  but  what  she  says  to  us  is  so  much  like  babbling  or  just  saying 
words  that  we  could  hardly  call  it  useful  speech  except  as  I  said,  occasion- 
ally she  has  a  kind  of  "lucid  interval"  when  she  can  make  herself 
understood,  but  these  periods  are  now  infrequent. 

E.  Has  she  retained  enough  use  of  language  so  that  she  is  able  to  call  for 
objects  by  name,  or  give  the  names  of  familiar  objects? 
I.  Yes,  she  does  ask  for  objects,  but  she  gets  very  badly  mixed  in  using 
the  names  of  objects.  We  usually  can  guess  what  she  wants,  but  we  have 
to  use  our  imagination.  If  we  hand  her  something  and  ask  if  that  is  what 


326  Illustrative  Examinations 

she  wants,  she  is  just  as  likely  as  not  either  to  refer  to  it  by  the  wrong 
name,  or  to  again  call  for  what  she  wants  using  another  name.  I  mean 
she  gets  the  names  of  objects  pretty  much  confused, 

E.  But  I  thought  you  told  me  before  that  she  reads  and  comments  on 
what  she  reads? 

I.  Well,  that  is  the  odd  part  of  it-  I  should  have  said  that  those  comments 
are  mostly  just  exclamations.  They  are  usually  not  in  harmony  with 
the  meaning  of  what  she  has  apparently  read,  and  of  course  we  aren't 
really  sure  that  she  reads  all  the  time,  that  is,  she  might  be  just  following 
the  copy  without  getting  all  the  words. 
E.  But  you  also  said  she  reads  aloud  with  expression. 
I.  Yes,  that's  true.  We  have  puzzled  over  this  ourselves.  Have  you  any 
explanation  of  it? 

E.  Let's  go  back  a  bit.   Does  she  really  understand  your  conversation? 
L  She  enjoys  having  people  talk  to  her,  but  judging  from  her  part  in  the 
conversation,  either  she  doesn't  understand  what  is  said  or  else  she  cannot 
form  her  own  replies,  for  her  side  of  the  conversation  is  limited,  incoher- 
ent and  irrelevant. 

E.  But  does  she  carry  out  simple  instructions?  Does  she  do  what  you  tell 
her? 

I.  Sometimes,  but  not  always.  She  seems  to  understand  very  simple 
commands,  but  any  directions  which  are  at  all  involved  she  doesn't  carry 
out.  We  are  puzzled  because  sometimes  she  understands  and  does  fairly 
difficult  things  and  then  again  she  seems  to  have  no  idea  of  the  simplest 
kind  of  request  we  might  make. 
E.  Have  you  any  other  comment  to  make? 

L  What  puzzles  us  most  is  the  variation  in  her  use  of  language.  For 
example,  she  still  can  say  most  of  the  ritual  prayers  to  which  she  has 
been  accustomed,  and  when  she  does,  her  speech  is  perfectly  clear. 
Sometimes,  too,  she  has  very  brief  periods  in  which  she  recalls  or  relates 
some  former  experiences,  but  in  the  midst  of  such  a  conversation  her 
mind  is  likely  to  wander  to  something  entirely  foreign. 

The  interpretation  of  items  in  this  category  is  made  difficult  by  the 
contradictory  nature  of  the  information  obtained.  The  information  is 
consistent  with  the  picture  of  extreme  dementia  involving  interference 
with  language  functions  and  revealing  illogical  contradictions.  In  such 
SL  case  the  examiner  cannot  avoid  being  embarrassed  in  scoring  the  items 
with  assurance  because  of  the  unstable  performances  of  the  S.  The 
description  of  performances  is  clear  enough,  but  the  evaluation  of  them 
for  scoring  purposes  can  hardly  be  made  very  precise.  In  this  case  the 
scores  assigned  by  the  examiner  were  as  follows:  Items  1  and  10  plus. 
Items  17,  31,  34,  44  and  73,  plus-minus,  and  Items  58  and  63  minus.  All 
other  items  in  this  category  are  minus.  These  scores  are  somewhat  diffi- 
cult to  justify  with  complete  satisfaction  and  the  examiner  has  perhaps 
been  somewhat  generous  on  some  items  with  compensating  severity  of 
judgment  on  other  items.  The  instability  of  performance  is  indicated  in 
the  plus-minus  scores,  where  performance  is  sometimes,  but  not  habitually, 
satisfactory.  Another  examiner  might  have  extended  the  plus-minus 
scores  to  other  items  depending  upon  the  rigor  of  interpretation  for 
practical  purposes.  The  actual  description  of  performance  is  more  impor- 
tant than  the  scores  assigned,  since  the  total  score  of  the  S  will  not 
vary  greatly  as  a  result  of  uncertainty  in  assigning  borderline  scores 
even  in  so  difficult  a  case  as  this.  Incidentally  the  student  may  be  interest, 
ed  in  the  "demergent"  plus-minus  score  of  the  deteriorating  person  in 
contrast  with  the  emergent  score  of  the  maturing  S. 

E.  (Continuing  the  examination  in  the  self-help  category.)  You  have  told 
me  that  she  is  pretty  helpless.  What  does  she  do  in  the  way  of  looldng 
after  herself? 


Deteriorated  Adult  327 

I.  Do  you  mean  in  getting  around? 

E.  Yes,  for  one  thing.  Do  you  have  to  move  her,  or  does  she  help  herself? 
I.  Well,  as  I  said  before,  she  does  get  around  the  room  to  some  extent, 
but  not  at  all  actively.   You  remember  I  said  she  is  likely  to  fall  over  if 
she  tries  to  walk.    She  does  sit  up  in  a  chair  and  you  remember  I  said 
she  was  able  to  do  some  work  at  the  table.    She  now  has  a  fear  of  falling 
and  while  she  turns  over  and  can  bring  herself  to  a  sitting  position  in 
bed,  she  doesn't  pull  herself  upright  to  a  standing  position,  and  never 
stands  alone,  or  if  she  tries  to,  she  is  pretty  certain  to  fall. 
E.  Does  she  get  about  the  room  by  crawling  on  the  floor  ? 
I.  No.  She  doesn't  even  do  that.    If  she  falls  to  the  floor,  she  just  lies 
there  and  cries  for  help  until  we  pick  her  up. 
E.  Does  she  help  herself  when  in  difficulty? 

I.  I  would  say  not.  Even  the  simplest  obstacle  is  difficult  for  her  to 
overcome.  She  isn't  able  to  move  her  chair  from  one  part  of  the  room  to 
another  or  to  turn  the  lights  on  or  off,  or  to  raise  or  close  the  window,  or 
even  to  lower  the  shade.  Is  that  the  kind  of  thing  you  mean  ? 
E.  Yes,  and  more  than  that.  Is  she  careful  in  avoiding  ordinary  dangers  ? 
I.  No,  we  have  to  pay  careful  attention  to  the  things  around  her.  If  she 
tries  to  move  from  her  chair  she  is  likely  to  fall.  As  I  said,  we  don't  let 
her  have  anything  except  blunt  instruments.  She's  even  likely  to  knock 
things  over,  and  shows  no  discretion  at  all  in  protecting  herself  from 
even  the  simplest  hazards. 

E.  Do  you  have  to  help  her  at  the  toilet  or  does  she  do  this  for  herself? 
I.  She  has  to  be  taken  to  the  toilet.   Indeed,  she  doesn't  even  tell  us  when 
she  needs  help.    We  have  to  anticipate  her  needs,  and  even  with  care 
she  sometimes  has  an  "accident"  like  a  small  baby  would. 
E.  How  do  you  take  her  out? 

I.  We  have  a  wheel-chair  in  her  room  and  another  on  the  porch  and  lor 
use  in  the  yard.  Actually  it  is  so  difficult  to  move  her  that  she  spends 
practically  all  of  her  time  in  her  room.  We  used  to  take  her  out  in  the 
car,  but  this  is  much  too  trying.  Her  wheel-chair  is  practically  a  baby- 
carriage,  for  she  doesn't  even  wheel  herself  around. 
E.  Is  she  still  able  to  tell  time? 

I.  No,  she  doesn't  seem  to  have  any  appreciation  of  time,  and  pays  no 
attention  to  the  passage  of  time.  I  don't  know  whether  she  can  still  tell 
time  from  a  clock  or  not,  but  actually  she  makes  no  use  of  any  kind  of 
time-piece.  If  it  is  a  question  of  giving  her  medicine  every  haLf-hour  or 
so,  she  doesn't  have  enough  idea  of  the  passage  of  time  to  do  this  by 
herself. 

These  self-help  general  items  on  the  basis  of  this  (anjd  previously 
related)  information  are  scored  plus  for  Items  2,  3,  5,  6,  8  and  13.  The 
scores  are  minus  for  Items  9,  15,  23,  26,  and  the  remainder  of  the  self-help 
general  category.    Item  12  (locomotion  category)  is  also  minus. 

E.  As  to  feeding,  does  she  feed  herself  at  all,  or  do  you  have  to  help  her? 

I.  She  is  able  to  drink  from  a  cup  and  even  a  glass  if  we  hold  it  for  her. 

And  she  still  does  this  without  spilling  things.    When  she  tries  to  drink 

without  help,  which  she  sometimes  does,  she  doesn't  succeed  very  well  and 

spills  quite  a  good  deal.   On  the  other  hand,  she  has  her  "good  days,"  and 

then  she  is  able  to  drink  by  herself  without  help. 

E.  Does  she  do  this  very  often? 

I.  Not  as  a  rule,  but  sometimes.    She  is  doing  this  less  and  less  as  time 

goes  on. 

E.  You  have  said  that  she  is  confined  to  her  room  and  is  unable  to  get 

about.    I  suppose  this  means  she  would  not  be  able  to  get  a  drink  by 

herself? 


328  Illustrative  Examinations 

I,  That  would  be  quite  out  of  the  question.    She  doesn't  walk  around, 

would  not  be  able  to  get  herself  a  glass  or  reach  the  tap.   And  she  would 

drop  the  glass  anyway. 

E.  Does  she  have  control  of  saliva,  or  if  not,  does  she  wipe  her  own  mouth  ? 

I.  She  sometimes  drools,  especially  when  eating,  and  sometimes  before 

or  after  eating.    Usually  she  wipes  her  own  mouth  with  napkins  that 

we  keep  handy,  but  often  this  has  to  be  done  for  her. 

E.  Does  she  use  a  knife  and  fork  for  eating? 

I.  We  are  afraid  to  let  her  have  a  fork,  because  of  the  sharp  points,  and 

also  because  when  she  does  use  a  fork  she  is  so  awkward  and  spills 

everything  she  tries  to  eat.   She  doesn't  use  a  knife  at  all  any  more,  not 

even  for  spreading  her  bread.  And  of  course  we  have  to  cut  her  meat  and 

prepare  her  plate. 

E.  Does  she  chew  her  food,  or  does  she  just  swallow  it  without  chewing? 

I.  She  has  had  dental  plates  for  the  last  twenty  years,  but  for  the  past 

five  years  she  has  not  used  these  because  she  doesn't  manage  them  very 

well  and  we're  afraid  she  might  swallow  them.    I  think  she  might  be  able 

to  chew  with  her  gums,  but  actually  we  give  her  only  soft  or  liquid  foods 

which  do  not  require  mastication. 

E.  Does  she  discriminate  between  things  that  are  suitable  for  eating  and 

those  which  are  not  edible? 

I.  She  doesn't  have  much  chance  because  we  don't  leave  very  many  things 

around.    However,  I  have  never  known  her  to  try  to  eat  something  that 

was  not  fit  to  eat,  and  although  we  are  careful  what  we  feed  her,  she 

has  very  positive  likes  and  dislikes  for  certain  things  and  will  refuse  to 

eat  things  she  doesn't  like. 

E.  Does  she  remove  the  wrappings  from  candy  or  the  coverings  from  food 

that  may  need  peeling? 

I.  She  doesn't  have  a  chance  because  we  prepare  all  her  food  for  her.    I 

have  noticed,  however,  that  if  there  are  things  around  that  might  be 

eaten  before  they  are  prepared  for  her,  she  never  removes  the  peelings 

or  wrappings  herself.    For  example,  she  will  not  eat  an  apple  until  we 

have  peeled  it  for  her,  and  she  makes  no  attempt  to  peel  a  banana.   If  we 

have  wrapped  candy  on  her  tray,  she  leaves  it  until  we  have  taken  the 

wrapping  off  for  her. 

E.  Does  she  feed  herself  Avith  a  spoon  or  does  she  have  to  be  fed  ? 
I.  We  have  to  feed  her.    She  tries  to  eat  with  a  spoon,  but  she's  so 
unsteady  that  the  results  are  not  very  pleasant  to  watch.    So  for  some 
time  we  have  been  feeding  her  ourselves  with  a  spoon. 

The  scores  for  the  self-help  eating  items  are  plus  for  Items  11  and  30, 
plus-minus  for  Items  16  and  25,  and  minas  for  Items  20,  28,  33,  and  the 
remainder  of  the  category. 

E.  To  what  extent  does  she  dress  or  undress  herself? 

I.  We  have  to  do  every  little  thing  for  her.    She  doesn't  take  off  any  of 

her  own  clothes  and  doesn't  even  help  the  least  bit.    In  fact,  she  has  to 

be  dressed  and  undressed  like  a  baby,  even  to  the  buttoning. 

E.  You  assist  her  at  bathing  ? 

I,  Yes,  in  every  detail  even  to  washing  and  drying  her  hands  and  face. 

She  used  to  dry  her  hands  until  recently,  but  not  any  more. 

This  reply  indicates  minus  scores  for  all  the  self-help  dressing  items. 

E.   (Including  the  lower  limiting  socialization  items  in  relation  to  self- 
help.)  You  have  said  she  manages  to  call  when  she  needs  something? 
I,  She  cries  or  somehow  manages  to  attract  our  attention  when  she  is  in 
trouble  or  wants  something.   She  also  demands  quite  a  good  deal  of  what 
I  suppose  you  would  call  social  attention  in  that  she  wants  to  be  enter- 


Deteriorated  Adult  329 

tained  like  a  small  child  would.   As  I  have  said,  she  tries  to  keep  up  her 

end  of  a  conversation  and  likes  to  be  with  company  if  it  isn't  overdone. 

E.  Does  she  still  recognize  friends  and  members  of  the  family? 

I.  Yes,  she  knows  the  immediate  members  of  the  family  and  the  nurse. 

but  sometimes  seems  to  confuse  them  when  talking  with  them.  She  doesn't 

like  to  be  helped  by  people  with  whom  she  is  not  closely  acquainted. 

E.  Does  she  show  any  desire  to  be  occupied  in  what  might  be  called  play 

or  recreation  with  other  people  ? 

I.  Only  as  I  have  indicated,  when  she  wants  to  talk  with  people  or  be 

with  them,  or  maybe  to  "read"  to  them. 

E.  I  understand  she  used  to  play  and  sing  a  good  deal.   Does  she  still  like 

to  entertain  people? 

I.  Once  in  a  while  she  still  sings  and  her  voice  is  still  clear  and  pleasing. 

but  I  notice  that  she  does  this  less  and  less.    Also  she  likes  to  say  the 

ritual  prayers  especially  when  others  are  present  and  likes  to  do  this  for 

the  members  of  the  family. 

E.  I  suppose  anything  beyond  this  is  out  of  the  question? 

I.  Quite. 

E.  Has  she  shown  any  disposition  to  return  to  a  childish  belief  in  fairies 

or  the  sort  of  thing  represented  by  belief  in  Santa  Glaus  ? 

I.  No.    She  seems  to  have  no  interest  along  these  lines.    She  takes  a 

childish  interest  in  Christmas  and  other  holidays  like  Easter,  but  seems 

to  have  no  appreciation  of  the  significance  of  the  occasion  outside  its 

personal  pleasures.    I  wouldn't  say  that  she  has  returned  to  a  belief  in 

fairies,  but  rather  that  these  ideas  are  now  beyond  her. 

The  scores  of  the  socialization  items  are  plus  for  Items  4  and  14,  pins- 
minus  for  49,  and  minus  for  the  remainder  of  the  category. 

Summarizing  this  examination,  we  have  plus  scores  to 
Item  8  inclusive,  which  becomes  the  basal  score.  Additional 
plus  items  are  Items  10,  11,  13,  14,  2^2  and  30.  Items  obtaining" 
plus-minus  scores  are  16,  17,  25,  31,  34,  44,  49  and  73.  All 
other  items  are  minus.  The  total  score  is  therefore  a  basal  score 
of  8  plus  10  additional  points  (6  plus  and  8  plus-minus).  This 
is  equivalent  to  18  points,  or  SA  1.1,  SQ  4,  It  is  interesting" 
that  the  performance  level  as  estimated  by  the  informant  is 
only  1  year,  which  might,  however,  be  interpreted  as  between 
1  and  2  years. 

In  interpreting  and  commenting  upon  this  score,  it  is 
necessary  to  bear  in  mind  the  rather  obvious  accompanying 
circumstances.  The  S  is  clearly  in  a  state  of  severe  and  perma- 
nent progressive  deterioration.  As  will  appear  from  the  exami- 
nation of  this  same  S  at  her  prime,  her  present  level  is  a 
reduction  to  early  infant  level  of  performance  from  a  previously 
superior  adult  performance.  It  is  impracticable  in  examining 
the  S  for  present  status  to  allow  F-score  credit,  because  the 
previously  successful  performances  have  been  lost  as  a  result 
of  presumably  permanent  mental  impairment   (p.  284). 

The  examination  is  especially  interesting  as  well  as  some- 
what difficult  by  reason  of  the  dementia  and  the  rapid  and 


330  Illustrative  Examinations 

progressive  loss  of  performance  which  on  many  items  is 
revealed  as  uneven,  unstable,  or  irregular.  We  may  observe 
therefore  a  number  of  performances  which  are  in  process  of 
being  lost  through  deterioration  as  compared  with  the  emergent 
items  which  may  be  observed  among  developing  infants  and 
children.  The  number  of  these  (eight)  is  itself  significant  aiid 
the  examination  is  embarrassed  by  the  difficulty  of  assigning 
precise  objective  scores  to  these  performances  which  are  of 
such  dubious  character,  or  are  sometimes  satisfactorily  per- 
formed but  not  habitually.  Attention  may  also  be  called  to  the 
range  of  the  examination  and  the  uneven  spread  which  is  so 
much  more  charactistic  of  dementia  than  of  normal  infancy. 

This  examination  suggests  how  the  information  obtained 
by  dealing  with  several  items  at  one  time  applies  to  several  or 
all  items  of  a  group.  The  experienced  examiner  will  readily 
observe  the  practicability  of  omitting  some  items  in  a  given 
category  because  of  obvious  inability  to  perform  these  items 
as  indicated  by  information  obtained  in  other  categories.  Thus 
the  fact  that  this  S  is  confined  to  her  room  and  is  unable  to 
get  about,  immediately  gives  automatic  scores  to  a  considerable 
group  of  items  for  which  locomotion  is  a  prerequisite.  On  the 
other  hand,  care  must  be  observed  to  insure  that  failure  on  a 
particular  item  is  not  offset  by  some  substitutive  performance 
on  another  item  in  respect  to  which  the  first  performance 
might  seem  to  be  prerequisite.  It  is  therefore  advisable  in  the 
interests  of  thoroughness  to  check  each  item  independently  as 
has  been  done  in  the  above  illustration.  This  sometimes  reveals 
inconsistencies  in  the  information  obtained  and  the  examiner 
is  able  to  check  back  and  forth  on  the  Scale  as  a  whole. 

The  examiner  must  be  specially  cautious  not  to  challenge 
the  veracity  of  the  informant  from  the  point  of  view  of  intent 
to  mislead,  but  should  tactfully  check  the  internal  consistency 
of  all  information  as  related  to  the  Scale  as  a  whole.  When 
this  is  done,  some  apparent  inconsistencies  will  be  justified  by 
the  variations  in  requirements  from  one  item  to  another  which 
at  first  thought  seem  to  contain  the  same  essential  preconditions. 

Case  IV.    (at  prime.)    Socially  superior  adult  ivoman.  LA  70, 
SA  (Retrospective)  30+,  SQ  120+. 

The  present  social  competence  of  this  S  (as  just  revealed) 
is  that  of  a  one-year-old  infant  reduced  from  a  previously 
superior  adult  level  as  indicated  by  the  orienting  information 


Socially  Superior  Adult  331 

at  the  beginning  of  the  examination.   The  examiner  now  pro- 
ceeds to  determine  the  condition  of  the  S  at  her  prime. 

The  two  examinations  are  specially  interesting  as  involving 
both  extremes  of  the  Scale.  It  would,  of  course,  have  been 
feasible  to  plot  the  course  of  the  deterioration  by  making  a  series 
of  examinations  dated  at  successive  chronological  stages  of  the 
period  of  involution.  It  would  also  have  been  possible  within 
the  limits  of  information  available  to  have  made  successive 
examinations  of  her  development  before  reaching  her  prime 
and  throughout  its  duration. 

These  possibilities  of  the  retrospective  examination  are 
extremely  important  for  certain  purposes,  especially  in  family 
history  studies  (cf.  p.  466)  and  in  gerontological  studies 
(cf.  p.  484)  where  the  status  of  adult  or  postmature  propositi 
must  be  taken  at  (or  projected  to)  their  prime.  Such  examina- 
tions accent  the  importance  of  insuring  for  any  examination 
whether  the  S  was  formerly  at  some  higher  or  lower  level  of 
attainment  in  total  performance  or  on  particular  items. 

The  examiner  should  tlierefore  be  on  the  lookout  for  the 
possibility  of  loss  or  recovery  in  performance  which  is  either 
temporary  or  permanent  as  provided  for  in  the  instructions  for 
F-scores  (p.  283).  It  will  be  recalled  from  those  instructions 
that  F-credit  is  not  allowed  if  the  S  at  the  time  of  examination 
shows  loss  in  performance  as  a  result  of  senescence  or  rela- 
tively permanent  mental  or  physical  impairment.  In  all 
examinations,  therefore,  the  examiner  should  be  on  the  alert 
to  raise  the  question  from  time  to  time,  "Has  the  S  ever  done 
so  and  so?,"  or  "How  long  has  he  been  doing  (or  not  doing) 
so?"  Likewise,  F-scores  should  not  be  used  in  the  specific 
measurement  of  social  competence  during  critical  episodes, 
such  as  temporary  deterioration,  except  as  the  measurement 
of  such  episodic  deterioration  is  itself  a  direct  issue. 

In  the  present  case,  having  completed  the  examination 
for  present  status,  the  examination  continues  as  follows: 

E.  You  told  me  that  your  grandmother,  Mrs.  C,  was  not  always  like  this. 
I.  Yes,  she  was  previously  well-known  as  an  unusually  capable  woman. 
E.  (Seeking  a  tactful  approach  to  the  examination  as  to  former  status 
and  date.)  Will  you  tell  me  something  about  her  accomplishments  in 
those  earlier  days? 

I.  People  have  told  me  that  my  grahdnlother  was  an  unusually  energetic 
and  resourceful  person.    She  married  early,  but  from  the  time  of  her 
marriage,  and  in  spite  of  a  large  family,  she  was  very  active  in  nearly 
everything  of  importance  that  was  going  on. 
•E.  What  were  some  of  the  things  that  she  did  ? 


332^  Illustrative  Examinations 

I.  For  many  years  she  sang  in  a  church  choir,  and  even  now  has  a  grood 
voice.  For  years  she  was  active  as  the  head  of  an  organization  for  city 
beautification,  and  was  successful  in  having  streets  widened,  trees  planted, 
buildings  kept  in  repair,  and  so  on.  She  also  promoted  missionary 
extension  work,  was  an  active  member  of  the  local  Historical  Society, 
and  was  a  member  of  the  Colonial  Dames.  I  don't  remember  all  the 
different  organizations  to  which  she  belonged,  but  I  know  there  were 
quite  a  number  and  rather  important,  and  that  she  wasn't  one  to  shirk 
responsibility. 

E.  (Organizing  information  of  the  socialization  items.)  Would  you  say 
that  she  was  also  well-known  outside  her  community,  say  in  the  state, 
or  was  her  work  perhaps  even  of  a  national  character? 
L  No,  not  quite  that.  She  held  offices  in  these  societies,  but  to  the  best  of 
my  knowledge  her  work  was  entirely  in  this  town.  Of  course  she  was 
interested  in  the  state  organizations,  but  I  don't  believe  she  had  any 
active  part  in  them. 

E.  Aside  from  these  societies,  did  she  hold  any  important  public  positions  ? 
Was  she  active  in  business  or  politics  ? 

I.  I  wouldn't  say  so.  She  had  a  wide  interest  in  civic  betterment,  but 
aside  from  holding  offices  in  these  organizations  that  I  have  mentioned, 
she  didn't  really  hold  any  important  public  positions.  She  was  never  in 
business,  and  had  no  occasion  to  manage  other  people's  affairs  except 
as  I  have  indicated. 

E.  But  she  did  go  outside  her  own  family  to  help  other  people  ? 
I.  Oh,  yes.  Not  only  that,  but  people  came  to  her  from  all  around  the 
neighborhood,  and  when  there  was  any  important  movement  affecting 
the  church  or  the  schools,  they  would  come  to  ask  her  advice  about  it. 
People  used  to  come  to  her  with  their  family  troubles,  or  in  case  of  severe 
illness  in  the  family.  She  seemed  to  be  a  person  to  whom  people  came 
spontaneously  for  advice  and  sympathy. 
E.  How  long  did  these  activities  continue  ? 

I.  Well,  almost  up  to. the  time  when  she  was  about  70  years  old.  Of  course 
I  don't  have  very  much  personal  recollection  of  this,  but  it  has  been  talked 
about  in  the  family  a  good  deal.  Even  after  50  or  60  she  still  used  to  do 
a  great  deal.  Then  she  became  less  active,  but  not  any  less  interested. 
Mother  has  often  talked  about  how  she  used  to  patch  up  other  people's 
difficulties  and  bring  people  together  who  had  perhaps  had  serious 
quarrels. 

E.  When  did  you  first  personally  become  clearly  aware  of  your  grand- 
mother with  some  sense  of  personal  detachment? 

I.  I'll  have  to  think  that  out.  I'm  now  29  and  she  is  84.  I  was  always 
very  close  to  "Nannie"  (that's  what  we  call  her)  and  she  humored  me  by 
talking  about  herself  when  we  exchanged  confidences.  And  then  later 
she  would  talk  reminiscently  about  the  old  days.  Or  mother  would  relate 
her  achievements  as  something  we  should  be  proud  of  as  a  family. 

E.  But  can  you  "date"  some  point  when  you  formed  your  own  independent 

judgment  about  her? 

I.  Yes,  I  can.   It  was  at  the  end  of  my  first  year  in  high  school.   We  had 

a  long  talk  one  night  that  stands  out  clearly  in  my  mind.   It  was  sort-of 

woman  to  woman  (although  I  was  only  15).    I  needn't  tell  you  what  it 

was  all  about,  but  next  morning  and  thereafter  it  seemed  as  if  we  had 

changed  places  and  now  I  was  looking  after  her  instead  of  her  watching 

me. 

E.  And  she  was  then,  let's  see,  about  70? 

I.  Sixty-nine,  approaching  her  seventieth  birthday. 

E.  And  the  things  you've  just  told  me  about  her  —  was  she  like  that  then  ? 

I.  Yes.   I'm  sure  she  was  still  as  I  recall  her  now  about  that  time.    But 

from  family  talk  I'd  say  she  was  "turning  the  corner"  or,  as  you  might 


Socially  Superior  Adult  333 

say,  she  had  topped  the  hill  and  was  beginning  to  let  up. 

E.  You  don't  remember  her  so  clearly  before  then? 

I.  No,  except  from  mother's  frequent  conversation.    If  you'd  care  to  aslc 

her,  I'm  sure 

E.  Well,  let's  assume  that  she  is  70  and  you're  a  sophomore  in  high  school. 
What  you've  told  me  about  her  is  pretty  sound? 

I.  That's  when  Gene  and  I  were  budding  pianists.  He  was  fond  of  her, 
too.  Yes  —  I'm  sure  I  can  "place"  her  then,  and  looking  back  I  often 
think  that  she  must  have  already  been  facing  the  sunset. 

The  examiner  accepts  that  "dating"  and  proceeds  as  if  the  S  were 
at  LA  70. 

The  socialization  items  are  readily  scored  plus  for  Items  103,  104,  109, 
110,  and  minus  for  Items  115  aind  117. 

At  this  level  in  this  case  the  socialization  items  are  rather  obviously 
related  to  the  self -direction  items,  and  might  well  have  been  given  at  the 
same  time  had  the  "dating"  been  already  determined. 

E.  And  in  financial  matters,  was  she  a  good  manager? 
I.  Yes  indeed.  She  and  my  grandfather  were  quite  well-to-do  at  the  time 
of  their  marriage.  Of  course  I  don't  know  all  this  from  personal  knowledge, 
but  from  what  I  have  gathered  from  family  conversation.  Before  her 
marriage  she  was  carefree  and  gay,  but  when  her  husband  began  to  waste 
their  resources  as  he  did  in  later  life,  she  took  charge  of  things  as  far  as 
she  could,  and  became  the  business  manager  of  the  family.  She  had  a 
large  household  and  several  servants,  and  this  required  not  only  good 
management,  but  careful  spending.  Then,  of  course,  she  had  an  important 
share  in  the  things  that  were  done  by  the  societies  of  which  she  was  a 
member.  You  see,  some  of  these  had  quite  a  bit  of  money  to  spend,  like 
the  Historical  Society.  And  while  she  was  never  treasurer  of  any  of 
these,  she  had  an  important  part  in  decisions  involving  the  spending  of 
money  in  fairly  large  sums. 

E.  Would  you  say  she  had  good  business  judgment  in  the  use  of  money? 
I.  Well,  aside  from  running  a  large  household  economically  (her  credit 
was  always  good  everywhere)  she  persuaded  my  grandfather  to  build  the 
house  which  my  mother  now  uses  as  a  private  school.  In  those  days  this 
was  considered  a  mansion.  She  tied  up  quite  a  bit  of  their  money  in  this 
house  and  its  furnishings.  She  also  provided  well  for  her  children  in  the 
way  of  education  and  getting  them  started.  I  don't  believe  she  did  much  in 
the  way  of  business  investments.  She  was  always  cautious  about  that  sort 
of  thing  and  preferred  to  put  her  money  into  property.  Would  you  call 
that  investment?  Then  when  my  mother  started  the  school,  she  used  to 
do  the  buying  for  my  mother. 

B.  And  would  you  say  that  she  was  as  capable  as  this  when  she  was  70? 
I.  That  would  have  been  1921,   Yes,  mother  still  relied  on  her  completely. 

The  self -direction  items  are  scored  plus  for  Items  100,  101,  102,  105, 
and  112. 

E.    (Shifting  to  occupation  category.)    You  say  she  helped  your  mother 

start  this  private  school.    I  suppose  this  was  after  her  own  family  was 

more  or  less  scattered  ? 

L  Yes.   When  the  family  broke  up  my  grandmother  hadn't  much  to  do, 

and  had  this  large  property  on  her  hands.   Things  had  been  going  pretty 

badly  with  the  family  finances  due  to  my  grandfather's  carelessness  in 

financial    matters,    endorsing    people's    notes,    and    putting    money   into 

doubtful  business  ventures.   My  mother  then  started  the  school,  with  my 

grandmother's  help. 

E.  In  this  capacity,  what  kind  of  actual  work  would  you  say  Mrs.  C.  did  ? 

I.  Well,  in  view  of  her  previous  experience  in  managing  a  pretty  large 


334  Illustrative  Examinations 

household,  she  took  over  the  principle  responsibility  for  mana^n^  the 

help,  planning  the  meals,  buying  food,  and  things  like  that,  while  my 

mother  planned  the  educational  program. 

E.  Did  Mrs.  C.  actually  do  this  on  her  own  responsibility  or  under  your 

mother's  direction?    And,  don't  forget,  was  she  really  doing  it  in  1921? 

I.  They  had  a  division  of  responsibility  according  to  which  my  grandmother 

was  responsible  for  the  general  management  of  the  school  as  a  kind  of 

chief  steward  would  be,  but  my  mother  really  planned  the  work  as  a 

whole  and  really  had  the  final  responsibility  for  what  her  mother  did.   But 

as  I  said,  my  grandmother  managed  the  help  and  supervised  the  general 

housekeeping  side  of  the  work. 

E.  Would  you  say  this  work  was  of  professional  character? 

I.  No,  it  was  more  like  responsible  household  management.    My  mother 

did  the  professional  work  on  the  care  and  training  of  the  children  that 

came  to  her  school. 

E.  Did  Mrs.  C.  do  any  professional  work  in  other  directions?    Or  did  she 

write  or  paint  or  anything  like  that? 

I.  In  the  various  societies  to  which  she  belonged  she  had  an  active  part 

in  the  things  that  went  on.    Some  of  these  were  literary,  some  artistic, 

and  some  historic,  and  I  guess   it  was   taken  pretty  seriously,  but  it 

wouldn't  get  very  far  outside  their  own  group. 

E.  She  didn't  publish  anything  then,  or  attain  any  serious  recognition 

for  artistic  or  other  kind  of  ability? 

I.  No,  I  wouldn't  think  so