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La  RiSpublique  Francaise 





W.  H.  ERASER  and  J.  SQUAIR 








CoPTKiGHT,  Canada,  1922,  bt  The  Copp  Clark  Companf,  Limited, 
Toronto,  Ontario. 


The  first  American  edition  of  this  Grammar  was  published 
March  26,  1901.  It  was  received  with  favor,  and  since  that  date 
nimierous  reimpressions  have  been  made  to  meet  the  demands 
of  the  public. 

The  present  re\'ision  has  been  undertaken  for  the  purpose  of 
introducing  such  changes  as  time  and  experience  have  suggested 
as  likely  to  be  useful,  without  however  disturbing  the  original 
character  of  the  book,  or  changing  the  paragraph  numbers.  The 
use  of  the  phonetic  symbols  adopted  by  the  Association  Phon^tique 
Internationale  has  been  retained  throughout  the  book,  wherever 
needed  to  aid  in  the  teaching  of  pronunciation.  The  pronunciar 
tion  of  all  French  words  in  the  French-English  portion  of  the 
Vocabulary  is  given  by  phonetic  transcription  based  upon  the 
Didionnaire  PhonUique  of  Michaelis  and  Passy. 

The  most  considerable  changes  have  been  made  in  the  Exercises 
I-XXXIX  of  Part  I,  which  have  been  rewritten  by  Professor  A. 
Coleman  of  the  Romance  Department  of  the  University  of  Chicago, 
who,  with  great  unselfishness  and  in  a  spirit  of  admiration  for  the 
Grammar,  has  cooperated  with  the  authors  and  publishers  in  their 
effort  to  make  the  book  more  useful  to  teachers  and  students. 
The  grammatical  part  of  each  lesson  remains  substantially  as  it 
was  in  the  original  edition.  In  the  Exercises  an  attempt  has  been 
made,  in  accordance  with  advanced  methods  of  teaching,  to  provide 
an  abundant  and  varied  apparatus  for  oral  practice  and  for  train- 
ing in  accuracy  of  pronunciation,  in  writing  from  dictation,  and 
in  composition;  also  a  section  of  useful  Classroom  Expressions  has 
been  introduced  for  the  convenience  of  both  teachers  and  stu- 
dents. In  fact,  it  is  everywhere  emphasized  throughout  the  book 
that  learning  to  speak  the  language  is  of  prime  importance.  The 
Vocabulary  of  Part  I  has  been  revised;   words  which  are  not  of 



common  use  have  been  excluded,  and  liberal  provision  has  been 
made  for  drill  on  the  uses  and  meanings  of  the  words  given. 

Attention  is  called  to  the  following  important  new  features  of 
Part  I: 

1.  In  the  Lesson  vocabularies  and  in  the  text  of  the  Exer- 
cises great  emphasis  is  laid  on  Verb  Forms,  particularly  on  the 
learning  of  the  forms  and  the  use  of  a  number  of  common  irregular 

2.  The  difficult  topic  of  Tense  Usage  is  especially  dealt  with, 
particularly  the  functions  of  the  present,  the  imperfect,  and  the 
past  indefinite  forms  in  past  narration. 

3.  A  great  variety  of  driU  work  and  abundant  opportunity  for 
Oral  Practice,  based  on  continuous  reading  passages,  have  been 

4.  Much  stress  is  laid  on  the  acquisition  of  a  Working  Vocabu- 
lary: (a)  by  abundant  repetition  and  review  of  the  vocabulary 
in  the  Exercises;  (6)  by  pointing  out  differences  in  usage  between 
words  nearly  aUied  in  meaning;  (c)  by  the  introduction  of  many 
common  idioms;  (d)  by  formal  Review  Exercises. 

Amongst  the  new  features  to  which  special  attention  is  directed 
are  also  the  photographic  reproductions  of  important  buildings, 
parks,  paintings,  sculpture,  etc.,  as  well  as  the  Map  of  France, 
the  appearance  of  which  here  is  due  to  the  courtesy  of  the 
Literary  Digest. 

The  first  thirty-nine  lessons  of  Part  I  contain  enough  grammatical 
material  for  four  semesters  with  younger  pupils  beginning  in  the 
Secondary  School  and  for  two  semesters  with  beginning  classes  of 
High  School  seniors  or  of  College  freshmen.  As  a  rule  the  A  sec- 
tions are  composed  of  passages  for  reading,  which  can  also  be  used 
for  dictation  and  oral  practice,  and  the  B  sections  of  various  types 
of  grammar  drill.  These  are  followed  by  composition  and  trans- 
lation exercises,  as  well  as  by  special  exercises  in  pronunciation 
and  dictation. 

In  regard  to  the  Exercises  in  Pronunciation  in  which  phonetic 
transcription  is  employed,  teachers  must  use  their  discretion.  They 
may  be  omitted  by  those  who  regard  them  as  unnecessary. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  it  is  sound  pedagogy  to  spend  enough 
time  on  the  essentials  of  French  grammar  contained  in  these  Les- 



sons  of  Part  I  to  go  through  them,  or  most  of  them,  twice  with 
great  care;  for  it  is  only  by  such  repetition,  with  abundant  illustra- 
tive exercises,  that  beginners  can  acquire  that  trained  sense  for 
the  correct  form  of  expression  and  the  proper  grammatical  con- 
struction which  is  essential  to  ^  real  knowledge  of  a  foreign  tongue. 

In  Part  I,  Exercises  XIri.1,  consisting  of  interesting  Anecdotes, 
have  been  retained  in  their  entirety,  and  may,  like  Exercises 
I-XXXIX,  also  be  used  in  teaching  by  the  direct  method.  .  They 
have  been  found  useful  as  furnishing  easy  reading  material  in 
French  as  well  as  drill  in  elementary  grammar,  particularly  in 
the  regular  and  irregular  verb  forms  treated  in  Part  II.  The 
French  Reader  has  been  dropped  from  the  present  edition. 

By  virtue  of  a  decree  of  the  French  Minister  of  Public  Instruction, 
dated  February  26,  1901,  certain  deviations  from  commonly  ac- 
cepted rules  of  granmiar  were  permitted  as  optional  at  all  official 
examinations.  In  the  Appendix  will  be  found  a  list  of  these  devia- 
tions affecting  the  various  sections  of  the  Grammar. 

Special  acknowledgments  for  suggestions  regarding  various 
parts  of  the  book  are  due  to  Professor  J.  Home  Cameron  of  the 
University  of  Toronto  and  to  Professor  G.  D.  Morris  of  Indiana 
University.  The  manuscript  of  the  new  Exercises  to  Part  I  was 
read  by  Messrs.  Antony  Constans  and  James  Kessler  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Chicago,  by  Miss  Edna  C.  Dunlop  of  Parker  High  School, 
Chicago,  and  by  Professor  E.  C.  Hills  of  Indiana  University.  To 
Professor  Hills  are  due  particularly  thanks  for  excellent  suggestions 
in  regard  to  the  order  of  the  material.  The  authors  are  indebted 
also  to  Professor  H.  C.  Lancaster  of  Johns  Hopkins  University 
and  to  Professor  D.  H.  Camahan  of  the  University  of  Illinois  for 
reading  the  proofs  of  Part  I;  to  the  Publishers  for  their  liberal 
jx)licy  which  made  available  all  this  invaluable  assistance;  and  to 
Dr.  Alexander  Green  of  the  Editorial  Office,  for  rendering  the 
volume  more  accurate  in  contents  and  more  attractive  in  appearance. 

Ociober,  1920 

NoTB.^ —  The  re\nsed  edition  of  the  Elementary  French  Grammar  cor- 
responds to  §§  1-226  of  the  revised  Complete  French  Grammar  which  fur- 
nishes also  a  systematic  treatment  of  modem  French  grammar  and  syn- 
tax, with  Composition  Exercises,  for  later  study  and  general  reference. 



Phonetic  Introduction 1 

Exercise  in  Ptionetic  Transcription     12 

Useful  Classroom  Expressions 14 



I.  Definite  Article.    Gender.    Case.    Agreements  ...  17 

II.  Indefinite  Article 20 

III.  Possessives.    N^ation.    Interrogation 23 

IV.  Pronoun  Objects 26 

V.  Plural  Forms.    Possessive  Adjective  (continued)     .   .  28 

VI.  Present  Indicative  of  avoir.  Partitive  Noun  and  Pro- 
noun.  En 32 

VII.  Avoir  (continued).    Interrogation  (continued)  ....       36 

VIII.  Present  Indicative  of  fitre 39 

IX.  Regular  Conjugations:  Present  Indicative  of  donner. 
Interrogation  (continued).  Demonstrative  ad- 
jective            43 

X.  Plural  Forms.    Contractions.    Use  of  11  y  a     ....       47 
Review  of  Vocabulary  and  Pronunciation  No.  1     .   .       50 
XI.  Indefinite  Pronoun  on.     Interrogation    (continued). 

Present  Indicative  of  faire 52 

XII.  Feminine   of   Adjectives.      Position   of    Adjectives. 

Interrogative  Adjectives.    Y 56 

XIII.  Present  Indicative  of  donner,  finir,  vendre.    General 

Noun.    Tout 60 

XIV.  Partitives  (continued).  Avoir  +  Undeterminate  Noun 

(besoin,  etc.) 64 

XV.  Past    Participles.       Past    Indefinite.      Word-order. 

Idiomatic  Present  Indicative 68 

XVI.   Comparatives.     Superlatives.      Comparison  of  Ad- 
verbs.   Present  Indicative  of  aller 72 

XVII.  Agreement  of  Past  Participle.    Relatives 76 




XVIII.  Tenses  with  etre 80 

Vocabulary  Review  No,  2 84 

XIX.  Pronoun    Objects.      Orthographical    PecuUarities: 

commencer,  manger,  and  mener 86 

XX.  Personal  Pronoun  Objects.     Pronominal  Adverbs: 

y,  en.   Reflexive  Verb.    Possessive  Force  of  Article  90 
XXI.   Imperfect  Indicative.     Use  of  the  Imperfect.     Im- 
perfect of  faire 94 

XXII.  Future  Indicative.    Use  of  the  Future 100 

XXIII.  Disjunctive  Personal  Pronouns.    Ce  +  etre    ....  104 

XXIV.  Impersonal  Verbs 107 

Vocabulary  Review  No.  3 Ill 

XXV.  Infinitive.     Present  Participle.     Present  Indicative 

of  pouvoir.    II  faut 113 

XXVI.  Present    Subjimctive.      Use    of    the    Subjunctive. 

Tense  Sequence.    Present  Indicative  of  vouloir  .    .  119 
XXVII.  Imperative     (coniinued).       Position     of      Objects 

{continued) 124 

XXVIII.  Conditional  Mood.    Conditional  Sentences     ....  128 

XXIX.  Use  of  Article.    Present  Indicative  of  savoir   ....  133 

Vocabulary  Review  No.  4 137 

XXX.  Possessive  Pronouns.    Present  Indicative  of  dire  .   .  139 

XXXI.  Demonstrative  Pronouns 144 

XXXII.  Relative  Pronouns.    Present  Indicative  of  connaitre.  148 

XXXIII.  Interrogative  Pronouns 153 

XXXIV.  Indefinite  Pronouns      158 

Vocabulary  Review  No.  5 164 

XXXV.  Numerals:  Cardinal,  Ordinal.      Fractions 166 

XXXVI.  Dates,  Titles.    Seasons,  Months 171 

XXXVII.  Time  of  Day      176 

XXXVIII.  Past  Definite.    Use  of  the  Past  Defmite 180 

XXXIX.  Imperfect  Subjunctive.    Tense  Sequence.     Meanings 

of  devoir  and  votiloir 184 

Vocabulary  Review  No.  6 188 


XL.  La  Th6iere  du  Matelot 190 

XLI.  L'Arabe  et  les  Perles 191 

XLII.  Le  Paysan  et  les  ifcpis  de  B16 192 

XLIII.  Le  Tr6sor  du  Laboureur 194 



XLIV.  Louis  XIV  et  Jean  Bart 195 

XLV.  La  Fourmi  et  le  Brin  d'Herbe 197 

XLVL  Le  Bon  Samaritam 198 

XLVIL  M.  Laffitte  et  I'fipingle 200 

XLVIIL  Le  Sifflet  de  Benjamin  Franklin 201 

XLIX.  Henri  IV  et  le  Paysan      203 

L.  Thomas  et  les  Cerises 205 

LI.  Fr6d6ric  le  Grand  et  son  Page .  207 

PART  n 

The  Verb 1 

The  Noun 92 

The  Article .  95 

The  Adjective 119 

The  Pronoun 134 

The  Adverb 174 

The  Numeral 186 

The  Preposition 193 

The  Conjunction 203 

The  Interjection 206 

Abbreviations 208 

Exercises  on  Part  II  (Detached  Sentences)  la-La 209 

Exercises  on  Part  II  {Continuous  Prose)  Lla-LXXVa     ....  259 

Vocabularies  : 

French-English 273 

English-French 307 

Index 343 

Appendix:  Tolirances 352 

Courtesy  of  V.  S.  Army  Air  Service 

L'Arc  de  Triomphe,  Paris 

k  Vol  d'Oiseau 



1.  General  Distmctioiis.  The  pronunciation  will  be 
explained,  as  far  as  possible,  by  comparison  with  English 
sounds,  but  it  must  never  be  forgotten  that  the  sounds  of 
two  languages  rarely  correspond.  Important  general  distinc- 
tions between  English  and  French  are  the  following: 

1.  English  has  strong  stress  (§7)  and  comparatively  weak  action  of 
the  organs  in  articulation. 

2.  French  has  weak  stress,  while  the  action  of  the  organs  in  articula- 
tion is  very  energetic. 

3.  Hence,  French  sounds,  both  vowels  and  consonants,  are  almost 
all  'narrow,'  i.e.,  uttered  with  tenseness  of  the  organs  concerned  in 
their  articulation.  (To  imderstand  'narrow'  and  'wide,'  compare 
the  narrow  sound  of  i  in  '  machine'  with  its  wide  sound  in  'stt.') 

4.  Tongue  and  lip  positions  for  French  vowels  are  more  definite, 
and  more  promptly  taken,  than  in  English.  Lip-rounding  (as  in 
'who,'  'no,'  'law')  and  lip-retraction  (as  in  'let,'  'hat')  are  much 
more  definite  and  energetic  in  forming  French  vowels. 

5.  The  tongue,  both  for  vowels  and  consonants,  is,  in  general, 
either  further  advanced  or  further  retracted  than  in  forming  English 
sounds  requiring  tongue  action. 

6.  English  long  vowels  (like  a  in  *lody')  shade  off  into  other  vowels 
(especially  in  the  South  of  England),  while  all  French  vowels  are  free 
from  this  off-glide,  and  are  uniform  throughout  their  utterance. 

7.  The  nasal  vowels  of  French  are  foreign  to  standard  English. 
They  are  formed  by  allowing  the  soft  palate  to  hang  freely,  as  in  ordi- 
nary breathing,  thus  causing  the  air  to  escape  through  both  nose  and 
mouth  at  once.    If,  for  example,  the  a  of  'father'  be  uttered  with  the 




soft  palate  hanging  freely,  the  resulting  sound  will  be  approximately 
that  of  the  nasal  [a]  in  tante  [td:t].  The  position  of  the  soft  palate 
in  forming  this  sound  may  be  readily  observed  with  a  mirror.  It 
must  be  carefully  noted  that  there  is  absolutely  no  sound  of  n,  m,  or 
ng,  in  French  nasal  vowels,  and  hence  that  great  care  must  be  taken 
neither  to  raise  the  tongue  nor  close  the  lips  until  the  sound  is  complete, 

2.  Sounds.  The  French  language  has  thirty-seven  sounds, 
exclusive  of  minor  distinctions.  French  spelling,  Hke  that 
of  English,  is  irregular  and  inconsistent.  Hence,  to  avoid 
confusion  in  indicating  the  pronunciation,  we  shall  employ 
a  phonetic  alphabet  (that  of  the  Association  Phonetique 
Internationale),  in  which  each  sound  is  represented  by  its 
own  symbol,  and  each  symbol  has  but  one  sound. 

3.  Table  of  Sjrmbols.  In  the  following  table,  the  ex- 
amples are  in  ordinary  orthography,  the  heavy  type  indi- 
cates the  sounds  which  correspond  to  the  symbols,  and  the 
phonetic  transcription  is  given  within  brackets: 





ni,  vive  [ni,  vi:v] 



pu,  muse  [py,  my:z] 



ete  [ete] 



creux,  creuse  Pcr0,  kr0:z] 



le  [l9] 



pres,  pere  [pre,  pt'.T] 



fin,  prince  [fe,  pre:s] 



neuf,  neuve  [ncef,  noeiv] 



im,  humble  [de,  de:bl] 



patte,  part  [pat,  pa:r] 



pas,  passe  [pa,  pais] 



tant,  tante  [ta,  ta:t] 



note,  tort  [not,  ta:r] 



rond,  ronde  [r5,  r3:d]] 



sot,  chose  [so,  So:z] 



tout,  tour  [tu,  tuir] 



viande  [vjaid] 



lui  [Iqi] 



oui  [wi] 


beau,  robe  [bo,  rob] 
dame,  fade  [dam,  fad] 
fort,  neuf  [fo:r,  noef] 
gant,  dogue  [ga,  dog] 
aha!  [a(h)a] 
car,  roc  [kar,  rok] 
long,  seul  [l3,  soel] 
mot,  dame  [mo,  dam] 
ni,  &ne  [ni,  a:n] 
agneau,  digne  [ajio,  diji] 
pas,  tape  [pa,  tap] 
drap,  par  [dra,  par] 
si,  pense  [si,  pais] 
chou,  lache  [^u,  laiS] 
tas,  patte  [ta,  pat] 
vin,  cave  [ve,  kaiv] 
zone,  rose  [zoin,  roiz] 
je,  rouge  [sa,  ruis] 
sign  of  length 


4.  The  Alphabet.    The  letters  of  the  alphabet,  with  their 
French  names,  are  as  follows: 




ji  [3i] 


esse  [csj 










eUe  [el] 




d6  [de] 


emme  [em] 


v6  Qve] 




enne  Qen] 


double  v^  [dublavej 


effe  [eQ 




iks  [iks] 






i  grec  [i  grek] 


ache  [aS] 




t^e  [zedj 




erre  [er] 

Note.  —  These  names  are  often  all  treated  as  mascuhnes  (un  a,  on  h, 
etc.)f  hut  some  treat  f,  h,  1,  m,  n,  r,  s,  as  feminines  (une  h,  one  r,  etc.)< 

6.  Other  Orthographic  Signs.  In  addition  to  the  letters 
of  the  alphabet,  the  following  signs  are  used: 

1.  The  acute  accent  '  Fr.  accent  aigu  [aksategy],  e.g.,  I'fiti, 
I'Ecosse.     Note.  — The  word  'accent'  doos  not  denote  stress;  see  §7. 

2.  The  grave  accent  ^  Fr.  accent  grave  Cak8dgra:v3,  e.g.,  voili, 
pdre,  o^ 

3.  The  circumflex  accent  *  Fr.  accent  circonflexe  [aksosirkSfleks], 
e.g.,  Ane,  tdte,  ile,  hdte,  flfite. 

4.  The  cedilla  ^  Fr.  c6dille  [sediij],  used  under  c  to  give  it  the 
sound  of  [s],  before  a,  o,  u  (§17,  13),  e.g.,  facade,  le^on,  commenfait. 

5.  The  diaeresis  "  Fr.  trSma  [trema],  shows  that  the  vowel  bearing 
it  is  divided  in  pronunciation  from  the  preceding  vowel,  e.g.,  NoSl, 

6.  The  apostrophe  '  Fr.  apostrophe  ([apastror],  shows  omission  of 
final  vowel  before  initial  vowel  sound,  e.g.,  I'amie  (=  la  amie),  I'ami 
(=  le  ami),  I'homme  (=  le  homme),  s'il  (=  si  fl),  §  19. 

7.  The  hyphen  -  Fr.  trait  d'union  [tredynjs],  used  as  in  En^ish. 

6.  Syllabication. 

1.  A  single  consonant  sound  between  vowel  sounds,  including  the 
four  nasalized  vowels,  alwaj-s  belongs  to  the  following  syllable. 

Ex.:  Ma-rie,  in-di-vi-si-bi-li-te,   bon-t^,  con-scien-cicu-s(e)-mont. 

2.  When  the  second  of  two  consonant  sounds  is  I  or  r,  both  usually 
belong  to  the  following  syllable,  except  Ir,  rl  and  a  few  more. 

Ex.:  ta-bleau,  6-cri-vain,  ap-frii-quer. 

4  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAB  §§  7-8 

3.  other  combinations  of  consonants  representing  two  or  more 
sounds  are  divided. 

Ex.:  par-ler,  per-dre,  es-ca-lier,  sep-tem-bre. 

N.B.  —  Great  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  the  consonantal  end- 
ing of  syllables,  so  frequent  in  English.  Compare  French  ci-te,  ta-bleau* 
with  English  '  ci<-y/  '  taWeau.' 

Parallel  rules  hold  in  script  and  print  where  division  occurs. 

7.  Stress. 

'Stress'  is  the  force  with  which  a  syllable  is  uttered  as  compared 
with  other  syllables  in  the  same  group.  In  French,  the  syllables  are 
uttered  with  almost  equal  force,  a  very  sUght  stress  falling  on  the  last 
syllable  of  a  word  of  two  or  more  syllables,  or,  on  the  last  but  one,  if 
the  last  vowel  of  the  word  is  [a]. 

Ex.:  Che-val,  par-ler,  par-lai,  per-dre,  cr6-di-bi-li-te  (compare  the 
strong  stress  of  English  'cred-i-6iMt-y'). 

Note.  —  In  connected  discourse  the  rule  above  stated  varies  consider- 
ably, but  a  full  treatment  of  the  subject  would  exceed  the  limits  of  an  ele- 
mentary work.  The  safest  practice  for  the  beginner  is  to  pronounce  all 
syllables  with  almost  equal  force.  All  vowels  except  [a],  see  §  19,  whether 
stressed  or  unstressed,  are  carefully  sounded  and  not  slurred  over  as  in 

8.  Vowel  Qixantity.   The  most  important  general  rules  are: 

1.  Final  vowel  sounds  (including  nasals)  are  usually  short,  e.g., 
fxni  [fini],  vie  [vi],  loue  [lu],  parle  [parle],  rideau  [rido],  mais  [me], 
donner  [done],  enfant  [afa],  parlerons  [parl(a)r5]. 

2.  Stressed  vowels  are  long  before  the  sounds  [v],  [z],  Qs],  [j], 
[r  final],  e.g.,  rive  [ri:v],  ruse  [ryiz],  rouge  [ruis],  femlle  [fce:j], 
faire  [feir]. 

3.  Of  stressed  vowels  standing  before  other  consonant  sounds, 
nasals  are  long,  e.g.,  prince  [pre:s];  [o],  [0],  long,  e.g.,  faute  [fo:t], 
meule  [m0:l];  [a],  long  (almost  always),  e.g.,  passe  [pais];  [e],  long 
or  short,  e.g.,  reine  [rem],  renne  [ren];  other  vowels  regularly  short, 
e.g.,  cap  [kap],  poche  [poS],  coupe  [kup],  pipe  [pip],  seul  [soel], 
lune  [lyn]. 

Note.  —  It  is  possible  to  distinguish  also  between  'long'  and  'half 
long'  vowels,  but  it  has  been  thought  best  to  omit,  in  an  elementary  work, 
the  rules  relating  to  this  distinction,  and  to  indicate  only  'long'  vowels  in 
the  transcriptions. 



9.  Tongue  Position.  The  relative  position  of  the  tongue 
for  the  various  vowels  may  be  seen  from  the  following  dia- 
gram.   Rounded  vowels  are  enclosed  in  parentheses: 

greatest— > *— least  ' 

i        (y)  (u) 

e         (0)  (o) 

e  £        (oe)  (<S)         (o)  (3) 

a  a 
least—* *— greatest  . 

N.B.  —  In  the  following  descriptions  of  sounds,  the  word 
'like'  means,  of  course,  only  'resembling,'  or  'approximately 
like'  (§1).  The  examples  given  after  the  word  'also'  show 
the  less  common  orthographical  equivalents. 

10.  i,y 

1.  i  —  Like  i  in  'machine';  the  comers  of  the  mouth  are  slightly 
drawn  back  (§1,  4);  avoid  the  sound  of  i  in  'sit';  avoid  'off-^de' 
(§  1,  6);  narrow  (§  1,  3). 

Ex.:  ni  [ni],  vive  [vi:v];  also,  lie  [i:ll  lyre  [Ti:r]. 

2.  y  —  Has  no  counterpart  in  English.  The  tongue  position  is 
practically  the  same  as  for  [i]  above;  very  tense  lip-rounding  (§  1,  4); 
narrow  (§  1,  3).  The  sound  may  be  best  acquired  either  by  prolonging 
Q],  and  at  the  same  time  effecting  the  rounding,  or  by  holding  the  Ups 
roimded  and  taking  the  tongue  position  of  [i]. 

Ex.:  pu  [py],  muse  [myiz];  also  fftt  [fyl  il  eut  [il  y],  nous  elimes 
[nuzym],  j'ai  eu  [se  y]. 

11.  e,  0,  9 

1.  e  —  Like  the  first  part  of  the  sound  of  a  in  *doy,'  but  with  the 
lips  more  retracted  (§  1,  4);  avoid  'off-glide'  (§  1,  6);  narrow  (§1,  3). 
Ex.:  6t6  [ete];  also,  parlor  [parle],  donnai  [done]. 

6  A  FRENCH   GRAMMAB  §§  12-13 

2.  0  —  Has  no  counterpart  in  English.  The  tongue  position  is  prac- 
tically the  same  as  for  [e],  with  rounding  of  the  lips  for  o  (§  1,  4); 
narrow  (§1,  3);  best  acquired  by  combining,  as  explained  for  [y] 
above,  the  lip-rounding  with  the  [e]  position. 

Ex.:  weux  Ckr0],  creuse  [kr0!z];  also,  boeufs  [b0],  yeux  (j0]. 

3.  a  —  Like  English  e  in  'the  man,'  or  a  in  'Louisa,'  but  slightly 
rounded;  best  acquired  by  relaxing  the  tension  of  the  organs  required 
for  the  production  of  the  [0]  sound. 

Ex.:  le  [b],  premier  [pramje];  also,  monsieur  [m8sj0],  faisant 

12.  e,  g,  oe,  CB 

1.  e  —  Like  the  sound  of  e  in  'let,'  with  the  mouth  more  definitely 
open  and  the  lips  more  retracted  (§  1,  4);  narrow  (§  1,  3). 

Ex.:  prds  [pre],  pere  [pe:r];  also,  fete  [fe:t],  terre  Ctesr],  secret 
[sakre],  parlais  [parle],  paix  [pe],  reine  [rem]. 

Note.  —  The  e  of  a  stressed  syllable  followed  by  a  syllable  con- 
taining e  mute  has  almost  always  this  sound  (orthographically  denoted 
by  d,  §,  or  e  +  double  consonant),  e.g.,  je  mdne  ([men],  tdte  Cte:t2, 
ch6re  [Seir],  j'appelle  [apel],  ancienne  [cisjen].  This  principle  ac- 
counts for  the  apparent  irregularities  of  certain  verbs  and  adjectives. 

2.  g  —  The  [e]  soimd  nasalized  (§1,  7),  but  slightly  more  open. 
Ex.:  fin  [fe],  prince  Cpre:s];   also,  faim  [fe],  sainte  [seit],  Reims 

[rgis],  plein  [pie],  simple  [se:pl],  symbole  [sebol],  syntaxe  [sgtaks], 
viendrai  [vjedre],  soin  [swe]. 

3.  oe  —  Has  no  counterpart  in  English.  It  has  practically  the 
tongue  position  of  [s],  combined  with  definite  rounding  of  the  lips  for 
[a];  narrow  (§1,  3);  best  acquired  by  combining,  with  the  [e]  posi- 
tion, the  roimding  described. 

Ex.:  neuf  [noef],  neuve  [nceiv];  also,  cceur  Pcoe:r],  ceil  [oeij], 
orgueil  [orgoeij]. 

4.  oe  —  The  [ce]  sound  nasalized  (§1,  7),  but  sUghtly  more  open. 
Ex.:  tin  [de],  htunble  [de:bl];  also,  a  jeun  [asde],  parftim  [parfcfe]. 

13.  a,  a,  a 

1.  a  —  This  sound  is  similar  to  but  requires  wider  mouth  opening 
than  a  of  'pat,'  and  lowering  of  the  tongue,  though  with  the  point  still 


touching  the  lower  teeth;    narrow  (§  1,  3).     It  is  generally  short, 
resembling  English  'madam.' 

Ex.:  patte  [pat],  part  Cpa:r];  also,  li  [hi],  femme  [fam],  moi 
[mwa],  boite  Q)wa:t];  and,  by  exception,  parlAmes  [parlaml  parlAtes 
[parlatl  parlAt  [parla]. 

2.  a  —  Like  a  in  'father';  the  mouth  well  of)en,  the  tongue  lying 
flat,  and  so  far  retracted  that  it  no  longer  touches  the  lower  teeth; 
lips  absolutely  neutral,  i.e.,  neither  rounded  nor  retracted;  avoid 
especially  rounding,  as  of  a  in  'fall.' 

Ex.:  pas  [pa],  passe  [pars];  also,  p4te  [pa:tl  rot  [rwo],  po*le 

3.  a  —  The  [a]  sound  nasalized  (5  1,  7).    (Written  an,  am,  en,  em.) 

Ex.:  tant  [ta],  tante  [td:t];  also,  Ijunpe  Qfirp],  enfant  [flifa], 
entre  [a:tr],  membre  [mdrbr]. 

14.  3,  3,  o 

1.  0  —  Like  the  vowel  in  'lair,'  but  with  definite  bell-like  rounding 
(§  1,  4),  avoid  'off-glide'  to  u  (§  1,  6);  narrow  (§  1,  3). 

Ex.:  note  [not],  tort  [torr];  also  Paul  [pol],  album  [albom]. 

2.  3  —  The  [a]  sound  nasalized  (§1,  7),  but  slightly  more  close. 
Ex.:  rond  [r5],  ronde  [r3:d];   also  tomber  [tsbe],  comte  [k3:t]. 

3.  o  —  Like  o  in  'omen,'  but  with  more  protrusion  and  much  tenser 
rounding  of  the  Ups  (§1,  4);  avoid  'off-glide'  to  u  (§  1,  6);  narrow 
(§  1,  3). 

Ex.:  sot  [so],  chose  [So:z],  fosse  [fo:s];  also,  cdt^  [kote],  cAte 
[koit],  faute  [fo:t],  beaut6  [borte]. 

15.  u 

1.  n  —  Like  oo  in  'pool'  but  with  more  protrusion  and  much  tenser 
roimding  of  the  Ups  (§1,  4);  avoid  'off-gUde'  to  w  (§1,  6);  narrow 
(§  1,  3). 

Ex.:  tout  [tu],  tour  [tu:r];  also,  goftt  [gu],  ao(it  [uj 

s  a  french  grammar  §§  16-17 


16.  j,  II,  w 

When  the  sounds  [i],  Ly]>  Qu],  §  10  and  §  15,  come  before  a  vowel 
of  stronger  stress,  they  are  pronounced  with  the  tongue  sUghtly  closer 
to  the  palate,  and  hence  assume  a  consonantal  value,  indicated  by 
\j2,  [q],  [w],  respectively.    They  are  sometimes  called  semi-vowels. 

1.  j  —  Like  very  brief  and  narrow  y  in  'yes.' 

Ex.:  viande  [vjaid];  also,  yeux  [j03,  aieul  [ajoel],  fille  [fi:]], 
travailler  [travaje],  travail  [travaj],  the  last  three  being  examples 
of  I  mouillee. 

2.  q  —  Has  no  counterpart  in  English,  but  is  similar  to  a  w  pro- 
noimced  with  the  tongue  pressed  close  to  the  lower  teeth;  may  also 
be  acquired  by  at  first  substituting  [y]  for  it,  and  afterward  increasing 
the  speed  of  the  utterance  and  the  elevation  of  the  tongue  until  it  can 
be  pronounced  in  the  same  syllable  with  the  vowel  which  always  follows. 

Ex.:  lui  DqiDj  huit  [tjit];  also,  nuage  [nqais],  ^cuelle  [ekqel]. 

3.  w  —  Like  very  brief  and  narrow  w  in  'we/  'west.'  It  is  best, 
however,  to  proceed  from  the  sound  of  [u]  in  the  manner  described 
for  [q]  above. 

Ex.:  oui  [wi];  also,  poids  [pwa],  tramway  [tramwe]. 

17.  The  remaining  consonantal  sounds  can  be  sufficiently 
described  by  noting  the  differences  between  their  mode  of 
formation  and  that  of  the  nearest  English  sounds  (see  §  1). 

1.  b  —  Like  b  in  '6ar&.' 

Ex.:  beau  [bo],  robe  [rob],  abb^  [abe]. 

2.  d  —  Like  d  in  'did,'  but  with  the  tongue  so  far  advanced  that 
its  point,  or  upper  surface,  forms  a  closure  with  the  inner  surface  of 
the  upper  teeth  and  gums;  or  the  point  of  the  tongue  may  be  thrust 
against  the  lower  teeth,  the  upper  surface  forming  a  closure  with  the 
upper  teeth  and  gums.  It  must  be  remembered  that  in  forming  English 
d  (also  1,  n,  r,  s,  t,  z)  the  tongue  touches  at  some  little  distance  above 
the  teeth  (§1,  5). 

Ex.:   dame  [dam],  fade  [fad],  addition  [axiisjS]. 

3.  f  —  Like  f  in  '/at.' 

Ex.:  fort  [fo:r],  neuf  [nccf],  difficile  [difisil]. 


4.  g  —  Like  g  in  'go.' 

Ex.:  gant  [gd],  dogue  [dogl  guerre  [g£:r];  also,  second  [sag 5]. 

5.  h  —  In  orthography  the  letter  h  is  known  as  'h  mute'  (Fr.  h 
muet  or  h  muette),  or  'h  aspirate'  (Fr.  h  aspire  or  h  aspiree),  according 
as  it  does,  or  does  not,  cause  elision  (§19).  ITie  learner  may  r^ard  it, 
in  either  case,  as  absolutely  silent. 

Ex.:  h  mute  in  I'homme  [bm],  iliistoire  [listwairl  ITi^roIne 
Deroin];  h  aspirate  in  le  h^ros  [la  ero],  le  hetre  [la  e:trl  la  haine 
[la  e:n],  la  hAte  [la  ait],  je  hais  [sa  e]. 

In  hiatus,  however,  a  sound  resembling,  but  much  weaker  than  h 
in  */iat,'  is  permissible,  and  is  actually  used  by  many  Frenchmen. 
Ex.:  aha!  [aha],  leh^roe  [la  hero],  fldau  [fleho]. 

6.  k  —  Like  k  in  'taifce';  avoid  the  slight  aspiration  which  generally 
follows  the  English  sound. 

Ex.:  car  [kar],  roc  [rjk],  accorder  [akarde];  also,  Chretien  [kretj€]» 
cinq  [sc:k],  bouquet  [buke],  acqudrir  [akeri:r],  kilo  [kilo],  mazime 

7.  1  —  Like  1  in  'l&w,'  but  with  the  tongue  advanced  as  for  [d] 

Ex.:  long  D3],  seul  [soel],  aller  [ale],  mille  [mil],  village  [vilats]. 
For  soft  I  see  §  16,  1. 

8.  m  —  Like  m  in  'man,'  'dumb.' 

Ex.:  mot  [mo],  dame  [dam],  honune  [am]. 

9.  n  —  Like  n  in  'not,'  'man,'  but  with  the  tongue  advanced  as 
for  [d]  above. 

Ex.:  ni  [ni],  &ne  [a:n],  donner  [done]. 

10.  ji  —  Somewhat  like  ny  in  *ban-yan,'  except  that  [p]  is  a  single, 
not  a  double,  sound,  and  is  formed  by  pressing  the  middle  of  the  tongue 
against  the  hard  palate,  the  tip  being  usually  thrust  against  the  lower 

Ex.:  agneau  [ajw],  digne  [diji]. 

11.  p  —  Like  p  in  'pan,'  'top';  avoid  the  slight  aspiration  which 
generally  follows  the  English  sound. 

Ex.:  paa  [pa],  tape  [tap],  appUqtier  [aplike]. 

10  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  17 

12.  r  —  Has  no  English  counterpart.  It  is  formed  by  trilling  the 
tip  of  the  tongue  against  the  upper  gums,  or  even  against  the  upper 
teeth.  This  r  is  called  in  French  r  linguale.  The  tongue  must,  of 
course,  be  well  advanced  towards  the  teeth,  and  not  retracted  and 
turned  upward,  as  in  our  r  sound  (§1,  5).  The  sound  may  be  advan- 
tageously practised  at  first  in  combination  with  d,  e.g.,  'dry,'  'drip,' 
'drop,'  'drum'  (as  in  Scotch  or  Irish  dialect),  and  afterwards  in  com- 
binations in  which  it  is  less  easily  pronounced. 

Ex.:  drap  [dra],  par  [par],  torrent  [tora],  rond  [r3]. 

Note.  —  Another  r  sound  (called  in  French  r  uvulaire),  used  especially 
in  Paris  and  in  the  large  cities  and  towns,  is  formed  by  withdrawing  and 
elevating  the  root  of  the  tongue  so  as  to  cause  a  trilling  of  the  uvula.  This 
r  is  usually  more  difficult  for  English-speaking  people  to  acquire. 

13.  s  —  Like  s  in  'sea,'  'cease,'  but  with  the  tongue  advanced  as  for 
[d]  above. 

Ex.:  si  [si],  pense  [pa:s],  casser  [ka:se];  also  scene  [sein],  place 
[plas],  fafade  [fasad],  legon  [lasS],  regu  [rasy],  commenfait  [komoss], 
commenfons  [komasS],  reftimes  [rasyin],  portion  [porsjS],  soixante 

14.  S  —  Like  sh  in  's/ioe,'  but  with  the  tongue  more  advanced 

Ex.:  chou  [Su],  Idche  Da:S],  also,  schisme  [Sism]. 

15.  t  —  Like  t  in  'iall,'  but  with  the  tongue  advanced  as  for  [d] 
above;  avoid  the  slight  aspiration  which  generally  follows  the  English 

Ex.:  tas  [ta],  patte  [pat]. 

16.  V  —  Like  v  in  '»ine,'  'cawe.' 

Ex.:  vin  [ve],  cave  [ka:v];  also,  wagon  [vago],  neuf  heures  [ncev 

17.  z  —  Like  z  in  'zone,'  or  s  in  '  rose,'  but  with  the  tongue  advanced 
as  for  [d]  above. 

Ex.:  zone  [zo:n],  rose  [ro:z];  also,  deux  heures  [d0zoe:r],  exact 

18.  3  —  Like  z  in  'azure'  or  s  in  'pleasure,'  but  with  the  tongue 
more  advanced  (§  1,  5). 

Ex.:  je  [38],  rouge  [mis];  also  mangeant  [mdsal  Jean  [3a]. 


19.  A  douUed  consonant  has  usually  the  same  sound  as  a  single 
consonant,  e.g.,  aller  [ale],  ville  [vil],  tranqiiille  [trdkil],  donner 
[done],  terre  [t£:r].    Exceptions  are,  however: 

(1)  The  liquid  1,  Fr.  I  mouillSe  [muje],  i.e.,  double  1  after  i  \j] 
(§  16,  1),  e.g.,  fiUe  [fi:j],  biUet  [bije],  bataille  [bata:j],  veiUer  [veje], 
feuille  [fceij]. 

N.B.  —  Note  also  that  Uquid  1  may  be  spelled  -ail,  etc.,  e.g.,  travail 
[trava:j],  soleil  [sokij],  etc. 

(2)  The  verb  forms  acquerrai  [akerre],  courrai  [kurre],  mourrai 

(3)  The  doubled  consonant  in  such  words  as  illegal,  intellectuel, 
intelligence,  litterature,  connexe,  immoral,  etc.,  is  pronounced  double, 
i.e.,  given  double  its  usual  length,  by  many  people.  But  foreigners  be- 
ginning French  may  neglect  this  manner,  regarded  by  many  as  an 

18.  Liaison.  Final  consonants  are  iisuaDy  silent,  but  in 
oral  speech,  within  a  group  of  words  closely  connected 
logically,  a  final  consonant  (whether  usually  sounded  or  not) 
is  regularly  sounded,  and  forms  a  syllable  with  the  initial 
vowel  sound  of  the  next  word.  This  is  called  in  French 
liaison  [IjezS]  =  linking,  joining. 

Ex. :  C'est^un  petit^omme  [se-toe-pa-ti-tom]. 

1,  A  few  of  the  consonants  change  their  sound  in  liaison,  thus, 
final  s  or  x  =  z,  d  =  t,  g  =  k,  f  =  v,  e.g.,  nos^_,ami8  [no-za-mi], 
quand^on  parle  [kd-t3-parl];  the  t  of  et  is  silent;  for  examples  see 
Exercise  in  Phonetic  Transcription. 

2.  The  n  of  a  nasal  is  carried  on,  and  the  nasal  vowel  loses  its  nasal- 
ity in  part,  or  even  wholly,  e.g.,  un  bon^ami  [de-bS-na-mi,  or  de-bo-na- 

19.  Elision.  The  letters  a,  e,  i,  are  entirely  silent  in  cer- 
tain cases: 

1.  The  a  and  e  are  silent  and  replaced  by  apostrophe  in  le,  la,  je, 
me,  te,  se,  de,  ne,  que  (and  some  of  its  compounds)  before  initial  vowel 
or  h  mute  (not,  however,  je,  ce,  le,  la  after  a  verb);  so  also  i  of  si  be- 
fore il(s). 

Ex.:  L'arbre  (=  le  arbre),  I'encre  (=  laencre),  j'ai  (=  jeai),  qu'a-t-ii 
(=  que  a-t-il),  jusqu*^  (=  jusque  h),  s'U  (=  si  il). 

12  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  20-21 

2.  In  prose  the  letter  e  is  silent  at  the  end  of  all  words  (except  when 
e  is  itself  the  only  vowel  in  the  word),  silent  in  the  verbal  endings 
-es,  -ent,  silent  within  words  after  a  vowel  sound,  and  in  the  combina- 
tion ge  or  je  [s].  In  verbs  which  have  stem  g  [3],  g  becomes  ge  [3] 
before  a  or  o  of  an  ending,  to  preserve  the  [3]  sound. 

Ex.:  rue  [ry],  donnee  [done],  rare  [ra:r],  place  [plas],  ai-je  [eis], 
table  [tabl],  sabre  [sa:br],  prendre  [praidr],  tu  paries  [typarl],  ils 
parlent  [ilparl],  gaiete  [gete],  mangeons  [ma333,  Jean  [5a]. 

Note.  —  In  ordinary  discourse,  this  sound  is  usually  slighted  or  wholly 
omitted  in  most  cases  in  which  consonantal  combinations  produced  by  its 
weakening  or  elision  can  be  readily  pronounced,  but  beginners  will  do  well 
to  sound  it  fully,  except  in  the  cases  above  specified.  The  treatment  of  the 
[a]  in  verse  is  beyond  the  scope  of  this  work. 

20.  Punctuation.  The  same  punctuation  marks  are  used 
in  French  as  in  English,  but  not  with  identical  values. 

1.  Their  French  names  are: 

•  point  -  trait  d'union  [  ]  crochets 

,  virgule  —  tiret,  m  tiret  de  f  .   , 

;  point  et  virgule  separation  \ 

:  dexiz  points  . . .  points  suspensifs  *      asterisque 

?  point  d'interrogation  "  "  giullemets  f      croix  de  renvoi 

!  point  d'exclamation  ( )  parenthese 

2.  They  are  not  used  exactly  as  in  English,  especially  the  colon  and 
the  dash,  the  latter  being  very  useful  in  showing  a  change  of  speaker 
in  dialogue. 

Ex.:  «  Qui  est  1^?  dis-je.  —  Personne.  —  Quoi !  persoime  !  —  Per- 
sonne,  dit-il.  » 

21.  Capitals.  Some  of  the  differences  between  French 
and  English  in  the  use  of  capital  letters  (Fr.  lettres  ma- 
juscules, capitales)  may  be  seen  from  the  following  examples: 

Un  Uvre  canadien  6crit  en  fran9ais  par  un  Canadien.  Toronto, 
le  lundi  3  Janvier.    Je  lui  ai  dit  ce  que  je  pensais. 


[The  sign  (:)  in  unstressed  syllables  indicates  'half  long.'] 

Tu  aimeras  le  Seigneur  ton  Dieu  de  tout  ton  cceur,  de  toute 
ty     eimra     1     sqicezr     t5     dj0    d     tu     t5    koeir,  da    tut 


ton  &me,  de  toute  ta  force,  et  de  toute  ta  pens6e;    et  ton 
t5n    a:m,    da     tut     ta    fors,     e     d      tut     ta     pa:se;      e     t3 

prochaiu  comme  toi-m6me  . . . 
pra^g         kam     twa  me'.m  . . . 

Un  homme  descendait  de  Jerusalem  h  Jericho;     et  il  est 
oen       om  desa:de       d     seryzalcm    a     seriko;       e    il    e 

tomb6  parmi  des  brigands,  qui  I'ont  d6pouill6,  ils  I'ont  charg6 
t3:be    parmi    de      briga,       ki    1  5       depuje,      i    1   5       Sarse 

de  coups,  et  ils  sont  partis,  en  le  laissant  h  moiti6  mort.     Et 
d      ku,      e     i      85      parti,     a     I      k'sa      a  mwatje  m3:r.      e 

par  hasard  un  pr^tre  descendait  par  ce  chemin-1^,  et  en  le 
par     aza:r     6b    prettra      desaide      par   sa      Si^S      la,    e     a     I 

voyant,    il  a  pass6  outre.     De  m6me   aussi   un   Invite,    arriv^ 
vwaja,     il   a    pa:se      utr.        dd    me:m     otsi     cc      levit,     ari:ve 

dans  cet  endroit,  il  est  venu,  et  en  le  voyant,  il  a  pass^  outre, 
da      at    d'drwa,    il    e     vny,    e     a    1     vwa.ja,    il  a  pase     utr. 

Mais  un  Samaritain,  qui  voyageait,  est  venu  li,  et  en  le  voyant, 
me     ce     samaritf,      ki     vwajase,      e     vny   la,  e    Q    1    vwajd, 

il  a  6t4  ^mu  de  piti^;    et  il  s'est  approch^  pour  bander  see 
il  a  ete   emy    d    pitje;     e    il    s  et       apraSe       pur      bd:de     se 

blessures,  en  y  versant  de  I'huile  et  du  vin;   puis  il  I'a  mis  sur 
blesyir,     an  i     versa     da  1    qil     e   dy    v2;      pqi   i  la   mi    syr 

sa  propre  bete  pour  le  conduire  h  une  auberge,  et  il  a  pris  soin 
sa  propra   be:t   pur    la   k5:dqi:r   a  yn      obers,      e    il  a   pri   swg 

de  lui.     Et  le  lendemain  il  a    tir6  deux  deniers,  et  il  les  a 
d    Iqi.       e     1        la:dme      il  a    ti:re   d0       danje,      e    il   lez   a 

donnas  k  I'aubergiste,  en  disant,  *  prends  soin  de  lui,  et  ce  que 
dDne    a  1    obcrsist,       a     diizfi,  pro      swg  de  Iqi,  e    s    ka 

tu  d^penseras  de  plus,  moi  je  te  le  rendrai  h  mon  retour.* 
ty      depasra       d    plys,  mwa  3   ta   1     ra:dre    a    m3      rtuir. 

—  Reprinted  by  kind  permission  of  M.  Paul  Passy,  from  his  Ver- 
sion populaire  de  Vtlvangile  de  Luc  en  transcription  phonetique.  Note, 
however,  that  in  pronouncing  ils  the  1  may  be  sounded. 




Qu*est-ce   que   c'est   que   cela? 

[keskasekasla'Q    What  is  that? 

C'est  un  (une) . . .  [s£tce(yn)]  It 
is  a. . . 

Que  veut  dire  (Que  signifie)  cela? 
[k8v0di:r  (kasijiifi)  sala?]  What 
does  that  mean? 

Comment  dit-on  en  fran^ais  (en 
anglais)?  [komfiditS  afrase 
(finagle)?]  How  do  you  say.  in 
French  (in  English)? 

On  dit  —  en  francs  [3di  — 
afrase]  You  (People)  say  — 
in  French. 

Commencez . . .  Prononcez  . . . 
Ecrivez . . .  Pcomase  . . .  pron5se 
. . .  ekrive  . .  .]  Begin  .  .  .  Pro- 
nounce . . .  Write  . . . 

Comment  ecrivez-vous?  Com- 
ment ecrit-on?  Pcomate- 
krivevii?  komatekritS?]  How 
do  you  (people)  write  (spell) . . .? 

Comment?  Plait-il?  Vous  dites? 
[koma?  pktil?  vudit?]  What 
did  you  say? 

Merci  bien.  Merci  mille  fois. 
[mersibjg.  mersi  milfwa.] 
Thank  you  very  much  (a  thou- 
sand times). 

n  nV  a  pas  de  quoi.  [ilnjapadkwa] 
De  rien.  [darje]  You  are  wel- 
come.    Don't  mention  it. 

Voulez-vous  bien  . . .?  [vulevnbjg 
...?]    Will  you...? 

Quelle  le^on  avons-nous  aujour- 
d'hui?  [kellasD  avSnu  ojuirdqi?] 
What  lesson  have  we  to-day? 

A  quelle  page  (legon)  en  sommes- 
nous?  [akelpais  (lasS)  asomnu?] 
What  page  (lesson)  are  we  on? 

Au  haut,  au  milieu,  au  bas  de  la 
page,  [o  o,  omilj0,  obadlapais] 
At  the  top,  middle,  bottom  of 
the  page. 

Commencez.  Continuez.  Celasuf- 
fit.  Qkomase.  kotinqe.  sala 
syfi]  Begin.  Continue.  That 
will  do. 

Le  suivant.  La  suivante.  [lasqiva. 
la  sqivfist]  Next  (boy,  girl). 

Lisez  la  phrase  suivante,  s'il  vous 

Read  the  next  sentence,  please. 

Prononcez  distinctement  toutes 
les  syllabes.  [pronDse  disteikta- 
ma  tutlesilab]  Pronounce  all 
the  syllables  distinctly. 

Comprenez-vous?  fkopranevu?] 
Do  you  understand? 

Je  comprends.  Je  ne  comprends 
pas.  [39k5pra.  sankoprapa]  I 
understand,  I  do  not  understand. 

Comprenez-vous  ce  que  j'ai  dit? 
ce  que  vous  avez  lu?  fkSprgnevu 
skasedi?  skavuzavely?]  Do 
you  understand  what  I  said? 
what  you  read? 



Traduisez  le  passage  que  vous 
avez  lu.  [tradqize  bposats 
kavuzavelyj  Translate  the  pas- 
sage that  you  have  read. 

C'est  tres  bien  fait,  Robert. 
Felicitations !  [setrebjefe,  robeir. 
felisitosJD!]  Well  done,  Robert. 

Expliquez.  Repondez  en  francs, 
en  anglais.  Ceksplrke.  rep3de 
dfrase,  anagk]  Explain.  An- 
swer in  French,  in  English. 

Faites  attention.  Je  vous  prie  de 
faire  attention.  [fetzatosjS. 
savupridafeiratosjo]  Pay  atten- 
tion. I  beg  you  to  pay  atten- 

Allez  au  tableau.  £crivez  la 
phrase  au  tableau,  [alezotablo. 
ekrivelafra:zotablo]  Go  to  the 
board.  Write  the  sentence  on 
the  board. 

Quelle  est  la  faute?  Quelles  sont 
les  fautes?  [kd  c  la  fo:t?  kels^le 
fo:t?]  What  is  (are)  the  mis- 

Quel  changement  faut-il  faire? 
[kelSa:3ma  fotilfeir?]  What 
chan^  must  be  made? 

Maintenant  c'est  bien  (c'est  5a). 
Ce  n'est  pas  bien  de  dire  .  .  .; 
il  ne  faut  pas  dire ;  on  ne  devrait 
pas  dire;  on  ne  dit  pas  .  .  . 
[metna  scbjg,  8£  sa.  sanepa- 
bjedadin:;  il  na  fo  pa  di:r;  3n- 
davTE  pa  di:r;  3ndipa]  It  (thai) 
is  right  now,  (that's  it).  It 
(that)  is  not  right  to  say  .  .  . 

Vous  avez  raison.  Vous  avez  tort. 
[vuzaverczS.  vuzaveto:rJ  You 
arc  right  (wrong). 

Conunencez  k  la  page  — .   £tudiez 

jusqu'i   la   page   — .    Pcamose 

alapa:3    — .      etydjc    syskala 

pa:  3  — D     Begin  on  page  — . 

Study  as  far  as  page  — . 
Est-ce  clair?    C'est  clair,  n'est-ce 

pas?  [eskleir?  sekleir  nespa?3  Is 

that  clear?    That  is  clear,  isn't 

Savez-vous?      Je    ne    sais    pas. 

Qsavevu?     3dnsepaJ     Do  you 

know?    I  do  not  know. 
IToubliez  pas.    Avez-vous  oubli6? 

[nubli  jepa .  avcvuzubU  je  ?3Don' t 

forget.    Have  you  forgotten? 
Dites-moL      Rep^tez.    Qditmwa. 

repete]    Tell  me.    Repeat. 
Qu'avez-vous?      Je     n'ai     rien. 

Pcavevu?     sanerje]     What  is 

the  matter  with  you?    Nothing. 
Qu'y  a-t-il  de  nouveau?  [kjntilda- 

nuvo?]    What  is  the  news? 
J'en    suis  bien  content    (fftch6). 

[sosqibjekjtd  (faje)]  I  am  very 

glad  (sorry)  about  it. 
Je  pense   (crois)  que  oui  (non). 

[33  pais    (krwa)    k8wi(n3)]    I 

think  so  (not). 
C'est    dommage.      Tant    mieux. 

Tant  pis.     [scdomais.     tdmj*. 

tfipi]    It's  a  pit}'.    So  much  the 

better.    So  much  the  worse. 
Ce  n'est  pas  la  peine  de . . .  [sane- 

palapendal   It  isn't  worth  while 

to  .  .  . 
Je  ne  suis  pas  d'accord  avec  vous 

[sansqipadakotr  aVekvu]     I  do 

not  agree  with  you. 
Ni  moi  (lui,  elle)  non  plus,  [nimwa 

(Iqi,    el)    n5ply]     I    (he,   she) 




y  a-t-il  quelque  chose  k  corriger? 
[jatilkelkaSoiz  akorise?]  Is  there 
anything  to  correct? 

D  faut  ajouter.  [ilfotasutej  You 
must  add. 

Asseyez-vous.  [asejevu]  Sit  down. 

iScoutez  bien.  Je  vais  vous  in- 
diquer  la  lefon  pour  demain. 

[ekutebje.     savevuzedike  lals5 
pu'.rdamej    Listen  attentively. 

I  am  going  to  assign  the  lesson 
for  to-morrow. 
Preparez  pour  demain.  [prepare 
puirdamej      Prepare     for    to- 

Bon  jour,  mesdames  (messieurs). 
C'est  fini.  A  demain.  [b53u:r 
medam  (mesj0).  ss  fini.  adms] 
Good-by,  Ladies,  (Gentlemen). 
Class  is  over.  I  shall  see  you 

f  La  DERNiiiRB  Classe  » 

d'AlpboDse  Daudet 



22.  Definite  Article.  1.  The  definite  article  has  the 
following  forms  in  the  singular: 

ile  Cla],  before  a  masculine  noun  beginning  with  a  consonant, 
la  [la],  before  a  feminine  noun  beginning  with  a  consonant. 
I'  P],    before  any  noun  beginning  with  a  vowel  or  h  mute. 

Le  pere,  la  mSre.  The  father,  the  mother. 

L'enfant  (m.  or/.),  /'homme.  The  child,  the  man. 

2.   The  definite  article  must  be  repeated  before  each  noun 
to  which  it  refers: 
L'oncle  et  la  tante.  The  uncle  and  (the)  aunt. 

23.  Gender.  1.  All  French  nouns  are  either  masculine 
or  feminine: 

Le  papier  (w.),  la  plume  (/.).  The  paper,  the  pen. 

2.  Names  of  male  beings  are  masculine,  and  names  of 
female  beings  feminine,  as  in  English. 

24.  Case.  French  nouns  have  no  case  endings.  The 
direct  object  {accusative)  is  expressed  by  verb  +  noun;  the 
indirect  object  (dative)  by  the  proposition  a  +  noun;  the 
possessive  (genitive)  by  de  +  noun,  and  these  prepositions 
must  be  repeated  before  each  noun  to  which  they  refer: 

La  mSre  aime  Venfant.  The  mother  loves  the  child. 

J'ai  la  plimie  de  Robert.  I  have  Robert's  pen  (the  pen  of 

Je  doime  I'argent  a  Marie  et  d     I  give  the  money  to  Mary  and  (to) 
Jean.  John. 


18  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  25 

25.  Agreements.  French  has  the  following  agreements, 
and  they  are  usually  expressed  by  change  of  form:  (1)  Verb 
and  subject,  in  number  and  person;  (2)  adjective  and  noun, 
in  gender  and  number;  (3)  pronoun  and  antecedent,  in 
gender  and  number. 


bonjour  1  [bosuir]  good  day !  j'ai  [se]  I  have 

I'argent  m.  [larsa]  money  j'aime  [seim]  I  love,  like 

Tenfant   m.,/.    [lafa]   child;  Marie  aime  [mariem]  Mary  likes, 

boy,  giri  loves 

rhomme  [bm]  man  je  donne  [sadon]  I  give 

le  livre  [liivr]  book  Jean  donne  [sadon]  John  gives 

la  mere  [ms:r]  mother  est  [e]  is 

I'oncle  [ISikl]  uncle  fennez !  [ferme]  close ! 

le  papier  [papje]  paper  montrez-moi !    [motremwa] 

le  pere  [psir]  father  show  me  ! 

la  plume  [plym]  pen  ouvrez !  [uvre]  open  ! 

la  porte  [port]  door  voici  [vwasi]  here  is  (are) 

la  table  [tabl]  table  voiia  [vwala]  there  is  (are) 
la  tante  [tait]  aimt 

Jean  [3a]  John  oft?  [u]  where? 

Louise  [lwi:z3  Louise  &  [a]  to,  at,  in 

Marie  [man]  Mary  de  [da]  of,  from 

Robert  [robeir]  Robert  sur  [syr]  on 
et  [e]  and 

A.  1.  Bonjour!  Bonjour,  Robert!  2.  Ou  est  le  livre? 
3.  Le  livre  est  sur  la  table.  4.  Ouvrez  le  hvre,  Jean.  5.  Fer- 
mez  le  livre,  Marie.  6.  Ouvrez  la  porte,  Robert.  7.  Fermez 
la  porte,  Jean.  8.  Montrez-moi  la  porte,  Marie.  9.  Voil^ 
la  porte.  10.  Montrez-moi  le  papier,  Marie.  11.  Voil^  le 
papier  sur  la  table.  12.  Oii  est  la  plume  de  Robert  (§  24, 
example  2)  ?  13.  Voil^  la  plume  de  Robert  sur  la  table.  14.  Et 
oii  est  le  papier  de  Marie?  15.  Voici  le  papier  de  Marie  sur 
la  table.  16.  L'enfant  aime  I'oncle  Jean.  17.  L'homme  aime 
I'enfant.  18.  L'oncle  Jean  aime  l'enfant.  19.  J'aime  I'oncle 
Jean  et  tante  *  Marie.      20.  Je  donne  la  plume  h  I'oncle  Robert. 

*  LinkiDg  will  be  indicated  by  ^^  in  the  reading  passages  of  Lessons  I-X. 

*  Note  the  idiomatic  omission  of  the  article  before  tante  in  19  and  21. 

§25  LESSON  I  19 

21.  Je  donne  le  papier  k  tante  Marie.  22.  L'homme  &  la 
porte  est  le  p6re  de  Marie.  23.  La  m6re  de  Jean  est  la  tante 
de  Louise.  24.  Le  p^re  de  Jean  donne  le  papier  k  Marie. 
25.  La  m^re  de  Marie  donne  le  papier  k  Robert.  26.  Oii  est 
I'argent  de  Louise?  27.  J'ai  I'argent  de  Louise.  28.  Montrez- 
moi  I'argent  de  Robert.  29.  Voil^  I'argent  de  Robert  sur  la 
table.  30.  J'ai  le  livre  de  Louise.  31.  Louise  aime  le  livre. 
32.  Je  donne  le  livre  k  Louise.  33.  Ou  est  le  livre,  Marie? 
34.  Voil^  le  livre,  Louise. 

ExEEcisE  IN  Pronunciation 

(1)  Read  aloud  the  series:  Q],  [e],  [e],  [a],  [a],  [d],  [o], 
[u]  (see  §§  9-15).  Write  in  phonetic  characters  all  the  words 
of  the  vocabulary  in  which  any  of  these  sounds  occur. 

(2)  Read  aloud:  [a],  [yj,  [5],  [i]  (see  §  11,  3;  §  10,  2; 
§  14,  2;  §  13,  3).  Write  in  phonetic  characters  all  the  words 
of  the  vocabulary  in  which  these  sounds  occur. 

(3)  List  the  ways  in  which  the  following  sounds  in  the  vocabu- 
lary are  spelled  in  the  standard  orthography:  [i],  [e],  [ej, 
[a],  [o],  [u],  [o],  [y],  [5],  [a J. 

(4)  What  kind  of  vowels  are  [5]  and  [a]?  Does  the  tongue 
go  to  the  position  for  the  letter  n  in  the  pronunciation  of  the 
spellings  an,  en,  on  (see  §1,7)?    Is  this  true  in  the  word  donne? 

(5)  In  Robert,  papier,  Marie,  are  the  syllables  divided  as  in 
English?  What  is  the  difference  (see  §6,  1,  3)?  Is  this  dif- 
ference important? 

(6)  What  happens  to  the  article  when  we  write  Phomme, 
Penfant  (see  §  19)?  Is  the  article  pronounced  as  a  separate 
word  or  as  a  part  of  the  following  word?  Write  in  phonetic 
characters:   I'oncle,  I'argent. 

(7)  In  le  papier,  I'enfant,  ouvrez,  fennez,  on  what  syllable 
does  the  stress  seem  to  fall  (see  §  7  and  note)  ?  How  does  this 
differ  from  the  English  paper,  infant,  open  f  In  which  language 
is  the  syllable  stress  the  stronger?  Pronounce  difficile 
[difisil],  president  [prezida],  important  [gporta],  appartement 
Qacartama],  Clemenceau  [klemaso],  and  compare  the  syllable 
stress  with  the  corresponding  English  words. 

20  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  26 

(8)  What  two  pronunciations  does  the  spelling  ai  have  in 
this  vocabulary?     Mention  the  words. 

(9)  What  ways  are  there  of  spelhng  the  sound  [a]? 

(10)  What  is  the  pronunciation  of  the  spelUng  oi?   of  the 
spelling  ou? 


26.  Indefinite  Article.    It  has  the  following  forms,  which 
must  be  repeated  before  each  noun  to  which  they  refer: 

f  un  foe  (n)l,  before  any  masculine  noun. 
A  or  an  =  ■' 

une  [yn],  before  any  feminine  noun. 

Un  livre  et  une  plume.  A  book  and  (a)  pen. 

Vn  homme  Qoenom],  une  ecole.  A  man,  a  school. 


le  crayon  [krejs]  pencil  il  a  [ila]  he  (it)  has 

la  fenetre  [lafneitr]  window  elle  a  [ela]  she  (it)  has 

madame  [madam]  Madam  vous  avez  [vuzave]  you  have 

mademoiselle     [madmwazel]  avez-vous?[avevu]haveyou? 

Miss  il  ecrit  [ilekri]  he  writes 

monsieur  [m3sj0]  sir,  Mr.  elle  ecrit  [elekri]  she  writes 

le  morceau  [morso]  piece  vous  ecrivez     [vuzekrive]     you 

le  mot  C™o]  word  write 

le  professeur  [profescEir]  teacher,  ecrivez-vous  [ekrivevu]  are 

professor  {used  for  both  men  you  writing?  do  you  write? 

and  women)  ecrivez !  [ekrive]  write ! 
le  tableau  noir  [tablonwair]  black- 

non  [nS]  no 
oui  [wi]  yes; 

un  [ce(n)]  a,  an;  one  avec  [avek]  with 

deux  [d0]  two  derriere  [derjeir]  behind 

trois  [trwa]  three  devant  [dava]   in  front  of, 

quatre  [katr]  four  before 

A.  1.  Bonjour,  mes^enfants  [mezafa]  {lit.,  my  children)] 
2.  Bonjour,  monsieur  (madame,  mademoiselle)!  3.  O^  est  la 
porta?  4.  Voil^  la  porte.  5.  Voici  une  fenetre  [ynfaneitrj. 
6.  Voici  une  table.  7.  Voil^  un  tableau  noir.  8.  La  table  est  de- 
vant le  professeur;  elle  est  devant  le  professeur.     9.  Le  tableau 

§  26  LESSON  21 

noir  est  demure  le  professeur;  il  est  demure  le  professeur. 
10.  Le  professeur  6crit  sur  le  tableau  noir.  11.  II  ^rit  un 
mot,  deux  mots,  trois  mots,  quatre  mots  Qkatramo].^  12.  Marie 
6crit  sur  un  morceau  de  papier  avec  un  crayon.  13.  Robert 
^rit  avec  une  plume.  14.  II  6crit  sur  un  morceau  de  papier. 
15.  II  4crit  le  mot  « derri^re ».  16.  Marie  6crit  le  mot 
c  devant  ».  17.  Marie,  6crivez  le  mot  «  bonjour  ».  —  Oui, 
monsieur  (madame,  mademoiselle).     18.  fieri vez-vous,  Louise? 

—  Non,  monsieur.      19.  ficrivez-vous  sur  le  tableau  noir,  Jean? 

—  Non,  monsieur.  20.  ficrivez-vous  avec  un  crayon?  —  Oui, 
monsieur.  21.  Sur  un  morceau  de  papier?  —  Oui,  monsieur. 
22.  Avez-vous^un  crayon,  Jean?  23.  Oui,  monsieur,  j'ai  un 
crayon  et  une  plume.  24.  Voili  un  livre.  II  est  sur  la 
table,  devant  le  professeur.  25.  Marie  a  un,  deux,  trois, 
quatre  crayons  [krej5].  26.  Voil^  une  enfant.  27.  EUe  a 
deux,  trois,  quatre  plumes  [plym].  28.  Avec  la  plume  elle 
6crit  un,  deux,  trois,  quatre  mots. 

B.  (1)  Write  the  proper  forms  of:  le,  la,  un,  une,  before 
tableau  noir,  professeur,  mot,  morceau,  papier,  fen6tre,  crayon. 

(2)  Make  all  reasonable  combinations  of:  avec,  devant,  der- 
ri^re,  sur,  mth  la  plume,  le  crayon,  le  tableau  noir,  I'enfant, 
I'oncle,  la  fen^tre,  Louise,  le  professeur. 

(3)  Supply  proper  forms  of  *  have ':    1.  J un  crayon. 

2.  Vous  un   morceau   de   papier.       3.  Elle  deux 

plumes.      4.  Robert  trois  tantes. 

Supply  suitable  form^  of  '  write ':    5.  le  mot,   Marie. 

6. vous,  Jean?      7.  Robert, le  mot  avec  une  plume. 

8.  II  trois  mots  avec  le  crayon.       9.  Elle  quatre 

mots  avec  la  plume. 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  I  have  the  book.  2.  Have  you  a 
book,  John?  3.  Yes,  sir,  here  is  the  book  on  the  table.  4.  Open 
the  book,  John,  and  show  me  the  word  "pen."  5.  There  is 
Robert's  pencil.  6.  Louise  writes  on  the  blackboard.  7.  The 
blackboard  is  behind  the  teacher.  8.  He  writes  on  a  piece  of 
paper.  9.  Marie,  are  you  writing  a  word?  10.  Yes,  sir,  she 
writes  one,  two,  three,  four  words. 

*  See  §  19.  note. 

22  a  fkench  grammar  $26 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce:  un  livre,  une  table,  une  porte,  une  fenStre, 
un  crayon,  une  plume,  un  pere,  une  mere,  un^oncle,  ime  tante, 
un^enfant,  un^omme. 

(2)  Substitute  for  vm,  ime,  before  each  noun  above,  the  proper 
form  of  le,  la.    How  many  cases  of  ehsion  (see  §  19)  are  there? 

(3)  Why  do  we  write  phonetically  and  pronounce:  depeir, 
but  cenoikl,  denom;  oeliivr,  but  cenafa;  lehivriBsyirlatabl,  but 
3a  etdenafa?  What  do  we  call  this  carrying  over  of  a  sound  to 
the  next  word  (see  §  18)  ? 

(4)  Note  in  A  the  spelling  mots,  crayons,  plumes,  pronounced 
Cmo],  CkrejS],  [plym].  Does  the  addition  of  the  -s  in  spelUng 
change  the  pronunciation? 

(5)  Pronounce  the  last  syllable  of:  fermez,  ouvrez,  ecrivez, 
avez.  What  is  the  ending  of  the  second  person  of  French  verbs 
in  spelUng?    Make  the  phonetic  symbol  for  this  spelUng. 

(6)  Pronounce  [d0].  How  must  the  Ups  and  the  tip  of  the 
tongue  be  placed  to  make  [0]  (see  §11,2)?  It  is  very  important 
to  hold  the  tongue  and  Ups  in  the  right  position  for  this  sound. 
Pronounce  bleu  [h\0],  feu  [f0],  peu  [p0].  How  does  position 
for  this  sound  differ  from  that  for  words  like  le  [la],  de  [da] 
(see  §  11,  3),  professeur  [profesoeir]  (see  §  12,  3)?  If  we  add 
these  vowels  to  those  found  in  Lesson  I  (Exercise  in  Pro- 
nunciation), how  many  does  it  give  us  thus  far? 

(7)  What  new  way  of  spelling  the  sound  [o]  in  this  vocabu- 

(8)  Write  and  indicate  by  a  hyphen  the  syllable  division: 
tableau  (see  §  6,  2),  devant,  professeur,  morceau,  madame, 
Marie,  avec,  fenetre. 

(9)  Write  in  phonetic  characters  and  read  aloud:  un  livre, 
une  table,  un  pere,  une  mere,  un  homme,  un  enfant,  une 
enfant,  un  oncle,  une  tante,  une  fenetre.  How  many  cases  of 
Hnking  are  there  in  these  examples? 

(10)  Observe  by  the  phonetic  transcription  of  monsieur  that 
the  spelling  indicates  the  pronunciation  only  in  part.  From  the 
pronunciation  how  would  you  expect  the  word  to  be  spelled? 

§S  27-29  LE8SON  m  23 


27.  Some  Possessives.  Observe  the  following,  and  re- 
member that  possessive  adjectives  must  be  repeated  before 
each  noun  to  which  they  refer  (for  pronunciation,  see  §  32). 

Mon  (W4.)  livre  et  ma  (/.)  plume.  My  book  and  (my)  pen. 

Ton  (rn.)  livre  et  ta  (/.)  plimie.  Thy  (your)  bookand  (thy,  your)  pen. 

Son  (rn.)  livre  et  sa  (/.)  plume.  His  or  her  book  and  pen. 

Votre  (m.)  livre  et  votre  (/.)  pliune.  Your  book  and  (>our)  pen. 

28.  Negation.  With  verbs,  not  or  no  =  ne  .. .  pas,  with 
the  verb  placed  between  them,  ne  becoming  n*  before  a 
vowel  (§19,  1): 

Je  n'ai  pas,  vous  n'avez  pas.  I  have  not,  you  have  not. 

29.  Interrogation.     In  questions,  the  personal  pronoun 
subject  comes  after  the  verb,  as  in  English,  and  is  joined  to 
it  by  a  hyphen,  or  by  -t-  if  the  verb  ends  in  a  vowel: 
Avez-vous?  a-t-il?  est-elle  id?  Have  you?  has  he?  is  she  here? 


le  cahier  pcaje]  notebook,  ex- 
ercise book 

la  classe  QdaisJ  classroom,  class 

la  craie  [kre]  chalk 

le  frftre  [fre:r]  brother 

la  le^on  [lalsj]  lesson 

la  maison  [mez5]  h«u9e;  k  la 
maison  at  home,   at   the 
merd  [mersi]  thanks,  thank 

la  place  [plas]  seat,  place 

la  sceur  [sceirj  sister 

que?  [ka]  what? 

allez!  [ale]  go! 
i'#cris    [sekri]    I   write,    am 
writing,  do  write 
vous  ecrivez  [ vuzekri ve]  you  write, 
are  writing,  do  write 

U  (eUe)  6crit  Xfl(d)ekri]  he   (she) 
writes,  is  writing,  does 
je  suis  [saeqi]  I  am 
vous  §tes  [vuzetj  you  are 

Stes-vous?  [etvu]  are  you? 
vous  faites  [vuf etj  you  do,  are 
faites-vous?    [fetvu]    are 
you  doing? 

aussi  [osi]  also,  too 
bien  [bj€]  well,  comforta- 
comment  [koma]  how 
id  [isi]  here 

maintenant  [mctna]  now 
trSs  [tre]  very 

dans  [da^  in,  into 
ou  [u3  or 

24  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  29 

A.  (1)  1.  Bonjour,  mes^enfants!  2.  Bonjour,  monsieur 
(madame,  mademoiselle)!  3.  Comment^allez-vous  (are  you)? 
4.  Bien,  merci.  Et  vous?  5.  Tres  bien,  merci.  6.  AUes^^ 
la  porte,  Jean.  7.  Ouvrez  la  porte!  8.  Fermez  la  porte! 
9.  Merci.  AUez^^  votre  place.  10.  Allez^a  la  fenetre,  Louise. 
11.  Merci.    Allez^a  votre  place. 

(2)  1.  Je  ne  suis  pas^a  la  maison.  2.  Je  suis  dans  la  classe. 
3.  Mon  professeur  est  dans  la  classe  aussi.  4.  J'6cris  la 
legon  dans  mon  cahier.  5.  Mon  fr^re  6crit  sa  legon  dans  son 
cahier.  6.  Que  faites-vous,  Robert?  7.  ficrivez-vous  dans 
votre  cahier?  8.  Oui,  monsieur  (madame,  mademoiselle),  je 
suis^a  ma  place  et  j'^cris  dans  mon  cahier.  9.  Jean  n'est  pas^^ 
sa  place  maintenant.  10.  II  n'^crit  pas  dans  son  cahier.  Ou 
est-:_^il?  11.  II  a  un  morceau  de  craie.  12.  II  6crit  sur  le  tableau 
noir.  13.  Que  faites-vous,  Louise?  14.  Je  suis^a  ma  place. 
15.  J'ai  une  plume,  mais  je  n'^cris  pas.  16.  Avez-vous  votre 
cahier?  17.  Non,  monsieur,  je  n'ai  pas  mon  cahier  dans  la 
classe.       18.  II  n'est  pas^ici.    II  esl^^^a  la  maison. 

B.  (1)  Use  four  possessive  adjectives  with  each  of  the  follow- 
ing nouns:   crayon,  plume,  enfant,  fr^re,  soeur,  oncle. 

(2)  In  what  two  ways  may  each  of  the  following  possessives 
be  translated:    sa  m^re,  son  enfant,  sa  tante,  son  frdre? 

(3)  What  is,  therefore,  the  difference  between  the  agreement  of 
the  possessive  adjective  in  French  and  in  English  as  indicated  by 
combinations  like:  1.  Marie  a  son  crayon.  2.  Robert  a  sa 
plume.  3.  Louise  a  son  papier.  4.  Jean  est-il  devant  sa 

(4)  Change  to  negative  (taking  as  model  for  the  negative  ques- 
tions: n'a-t-elle  pas  son  crayon?  ^hasn't  she  her  pencil?^)'. 
1.  Henri  [ari]  6crit.  2.  Louise  a  trois  fr^res.  3.  Vous  avez 
quatre  crayons.  4.  Avez-vous  deux  freres?  5.  Louise  est 
la  sceur  de  Robert.  6.  Est-elle  la  tante  de  I'enfant?  7.  Est-il 
votre  professeur?  8.  A-t-il  le  morceau  de  papier?  9.  ficrit-il 
h.  sa  mdre?  10.  AUez  k  la  fenetre.  11.  ficrivez-vous  sur  un 
morceau  de  papier?  12.  Aime-t-elle  son  fr^re?  13.  II  aime 
sa  sGeur. 

§29  LESSON  III  25 

(5)  Prepare  complete  sentences,  some  affirmative  and  som£  negc^ 
live,  in  answer  to  the  following  questions:  1.  Ou  etes-vous? 
2.  Que  faites-vous?  3.  Jean  est-il  dans  la  classe  maintenant? 
4.  A-t-il  sa  plume?  5.  Oil  est-il  maintenant?  6.  A-t-il  deux 
plumes?  7.  ficrit-il  dans  son  cahier  ou  sur  le  tableau  noir? 
8.  !ficrit-il  avec  son  crayon  ou  avee  un  morceau  de  craie? 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  How  are  you,  (my)  boys?  2.  Are 
you  in  your  seat,  Robert?  3.  What  are  you  doing?  4.  Mary, 
are  you  writing  your  lesson?  5.  Is  John  writing  with  a  piece 
of  chalk  ?  6.  Am  I  at  home  or  in  the  classroom  ?  7.  Where 
is  my  brother  now?       8.  Is  his  sister  here? 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce  suis  [sqi],  being  careful  to  project  the  lips 
tensely  and  hold  the  tongue  tip  well  forward  as  for  [y]  and  [i] 
(see  §  16,  2).  It  is  well  to  pronounce  in  succession  [y-i],  Cy~il 
and  then  try  to  combine  them  in  one  sound.  This  sound  is 
not  like  that  of  oui  [wi]  (see  §  16,  3),  in  which  the  lips  and  tongue 
are  less  tensely  advanced.  Practise  with  nuit  [nqi],  huit  Cn'O. 
lui  Qqi].  Contrast  the  sound  of  Louis  Qwi]  with  that  of 
lui  [Iqi]. 

(2)  Pronounce:  soeur  [soeir]  (see  §  12,  3),  classe  pdais] 
(see  §  13,  2),  maintenant  [mgtna]  (see  §  12,  2).  Note  the 
difference  in  the  sound  value  of  the  letter  a  in  la,  voilft,  papier, 
mademoiselle,  argent,  allez,  place,  and  in  classe,  pas. 

(3)  What  new  way  of  spelling  the  sound  [o]  is  there  in  this 
vocabulary?  What  sound  has  the  spelling  -ain  in  maintenant? 
-ien  in  bien?  -ier  final  in  papier,  cahier?  What  new  way  of 
spelling  the  sound  [e]  have  we  in  this  vocabulary?  We  have 
had  now  three  ways  of  spelling  this  sound:  find  an  example  of 

(4)  All  cases  of  linking  are  indicated  in  the  sentences  in 
part  A  of  the  Exercise  given  above.  Which  consonant  sounds 
seem  to  be  oftenest  linked  thus  far? 

(5)  Divide  and  pronounce  by  syllables:  6cris  (see  §6,  2), 
€crivez,  maison,  maintenant,  aussi,  ouvrez,  fermez,  cahief} 
papier,  morceau,  mademoiselle. 





30.  Some  Pronoun  Objects.  Him  or  it  =  le  (m.),  and 
heroTit  =  hi{f.)  both  becoming  1'  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute 
(§  19,  1).  They  come  next  before  the  verb,  or  before  voici 
and  voila: 

Oa  est  la  pliune?  Je  Pai. 
Oa  est  le  livre?  Le  voici. 
OA  est  Marie?    La  voili. 

Where  is  the  pen?    I  have  it. 
Where  is  the  book?    Here  it  is. 
Where  is  Mary?    There  she  is. 

Note.  —  Voici  and  Voiltl  are  derived  from  vols  =  see  +  ici  =  here  and 
vols  =  see  + 14  =  there  (literally,  see  here,  see  there),  and,  owing  to  theii 
verbal  force,  govern  words  directly  like  transitive  verbs. 


un  (une)  apres-midi  [denapremidi^         il 
afternoon  j 

une  ecole  [ynekol]  school 
uneleson    [l9s5]   de  fran^ais,  a        je 
French  lesson  il 

la  lettre  [letr]  letter 
un  livre  de  frangais,  a  French 
book,  a  book  for  learning 
French  je 

la  main  Cme]  hand 

le  matin  [mate]  morning  il 

le  monsieur  [m9sj0]  gentleman 
le  soil  [swa:r3  evening  je 

anglais  [agle]  English  . , 

frangais  [frase]  French 

j'etudie  [etydi]  I  am  studying,         le 

do  study 
il  etudie  [etydi]  he  is  studying, 

je  ferme  [ferm]  I  am  closing 

A.  1.  Le  matin  je  vais^^  I'^cole.  2.  L'apr^s-midi  je  retourne 
h  la  maison.  3.  Le  soir  je  reste  h  la  maison  et  j'etudie  ma 
le^on  de  frangais.  4.  —  Que  faites-vous  le  matin,  Louise? 
6.  —  Je  vais^^  I'^cole.       6.  —  Et  Henri,  que  fait-il  I'aprds- 

fait  [fe]  he  does,  is  doing 

'ouvre  [u!vr]  I  am  opening,  do 

reste  [rest]  I  stay,  am  staying 

reste  [rest]  he  stays,  is  stay- 

reste-t-U?  [restatil]  does  he 
stay?  is  he  staying? 

retourne  [sartum]  I  go  back, 

retourne  [rstum]  he  goes 
back,  returns 

vais  [ve]  I  go,  am  going 

main,  in  my  (his,  her,  your, 

our,  their)  hand 
matin  (le  soir,  I'apres-midi), 

in   the   morning    (evening, 

pardon!  [pard5]  I  beg  your 

pardon!  Excuse  me! 

$30  LESSON  lY  27 

midi?  7.  —  II  retourne  k  la  maison.  8.  —  Reste-t-il  k  la 
maison  le  soir?  9.  — Oui,  il  reste  k  la  maison  le  soir  et  il 
6tudie  sa  legon  d'anglais.  10.  —  Montrez-moi  votre  legon  de 
franyais,  Jeanne  [3an].      11.  — La  voici;  j'ai  la  le9on  quatre. 

12.  —  Et  vous,  Robert,  vous  n'avez  pas  votre  livre  de  frangais. 

13.  — Pardon,    mademoiselle,    je   I'ai    k   la    main;     le    voici. 

14.  Mais  je  n'ai  pas  mon  livre  d'anglais;   il  est;_^  la  maison. 

15.  —  Vous  etes^^  votre  place,  Louise.  16.  —  Pardon,  made> 
moiselle,  je  ne  suis  pas^^  ma  place;    Marie  esti^  ma  place. 

17.  Je  suis^^  la  place  de  Jeanne  et  j'^cris  dans  son  cahier. 

18.  —  Et  Henri?  19.  —  Le  voil^  k  sa  place  demure  Louise. 
20.  II  4crit  sa  legon  dans  mon  cahier  avec  sa  plume. 

B.  Substitute  for  each  direct  object  the  proper  prorumn:  1.  Je 
ne  ferme  pas  la  porte.  2.  J'ouvre  la  porte.  3.  Je  ferme  la 
porte.  4.  J'6cris  la  lettre  maintenant.  5.  Je  ne  donne  pas 
le  morceau  de  craie  k  Louise.  6.  J'ai  la  plume  k  la  main. 
7.  Yeilk  la  maison.  8.  Voici  le  cahier.  9.  Voici  ma  place. 
10.  Voil^  mademoiselle  Louise.  11.  Voici  madame  Dupont 
[dypo].  12.  Voil^  monsieur  Dupont.  13.  Voil^  un  monsieur 
k  la  porte.      14.  Vous^^crivez  la  le^n  de  fran^ais. 

C.  Trar^slate  into  French:  1.  I  have  your  pen;  I  have  it, 
I  haven't  it.  2.  You  have  my  notebook;  you  have  it,  you 
haven't  it.  3.  The  teacher  has  a  piece  of  chalk;  he  has  it, 
he  hasn't  it.  4.  I  am  studying  my  French  lesson;  I  study 
it,  I  don't  study  it.  5.  He  is  giving  John  the  book;  he  gives 
it  to  John.  6.  I  beg  your  pardon,  sir;  he  doesn't  give  it  to 
John.  7.  I  open  his  door;  I  open  it.  8.  He  is  in  his  house. 
9.  He  has  his  pen  in  his  (la)  hand.  10.  He  is  not  stud3ring 
his  French  lesson.       11.  He  is  studying  it. 

D.  Translate  into  French:  1.  Do  you  go  (Allez-vous)  to  (the) 
school  in  the  afternoon?  2.  No,  I  go  to  school  in  the  morn- 
ing. I  return  home  in  the  afternoon.  3.  What  do  you  do  in 
the  evening?  4.  I  stay  at  home  and  study  my  French  les- 
son. I  am  studying  (the)  Lesson  IV  now.  5.  You  haven't 
your  notebook.  6.  I  beg  your  pardon,  sir;  there  it  in  behind 
my  French  booL 

28  a  french  grammar  §§  31-32 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce  slowly  by  syllables,  with  attention  to  syl- 
lable stress:  matin,  apres-midi,  etudie,  franjais,  anglais, 
montrez,  pardon,  monsieur,  retourne. 

(2)  What  is  the  difference  in  pronunciation  between  et  and 
est?  Is  there  any  difference  between  them  in  regard  to  link- 
ing (see  §18,  1)? 

(3)  In  what  words  so  far  has  the  spelUng  combination  ai 
been  pronounced  [e]?  What  sound  value  does  this  combina- 
tion seem  to  stand  for  oftenest? 


31.  Plural  Forms.    1.  The  plural  of  a  noun  or  an  adjec- 
tive is  regularly  formed  by  adding  -s  to  the  singular: 

Le  grand  roi,  la  grande  reine.  The  great  king,  the  great  queen. 

Les  grandi  rois,  las  grandes  reines.    The  great  kings,  the  great  queens. 

2.  The  plural  of  the  definite  article  le,  la,  V  is  les: 
Les  [le]  livres,  les  Dez]  enfants.     The  books,  the  children, 

3.  The  plural  of  the  personal  pronoun  le,  la,  V  is  also 

Je  les^jai.  I  have  them  (books,  pens,  etc.). 

32.  The   Possessive   Adjective.      1.  The   following   are 
its  forms  in  full  (for  agreement  and  repetition,  see  §  27) : 

Masculine  Feminine  Plural. 

mon  Cm3]  ma     [ma]  mes  [me],  my 

ton     [t5]  ta       [ta]  tea  [te],  thy,  your 

son    [83]  sa       [sa]  ses  [se],  his,  her,  its 

notre  [notr]  notre  [notr]  nos  [no],  our 

voire  [votr]  votre  [votr]  vos  [vo],  your 

leur    [loeir]  leur    [loerr]  leurs  [loe:r],  their 

2.  The  forms  mon,  ton,  son,  are  used  instead  of  ma,  ta, 
sa  before  feminines  beginning  with  a  vowel  or  h  mute: 

Mon  [mon]  amie  (/.).  My  friend. 

Son  [s3n]  histoire  (/.).  His  story. 

Son  [83n]  autre  plume  (/.).  His  other  pen. 




3.  Since  son  (sa,  ses)  means  his,  her,  or  its,  it  can  be 
known  only  from  the  context  which  is  meant 


un  ami  [denami]  friend 

une  amie  Cynami]  friend 

le  doigt  [dwa]  finger 

cinq  [sgk]  five 
six  [sis]  six 
sept  [set]  seven 
huit  Cqit]  eight 
neuf  [noef]  nine 
dix  [dis]  ten 

j'ecris  [sekri]  I   am   writing 
il  ecrit  [ekri]  he  is  writing 
nous  6crivons  [nuzekrivS]  we  are 

vous  Icrivez  [vuzekrive]  you  are 
toivezi  [ekrive]  write!  {im- 

i'6tudie  [etydi]  I  am  studying 

il  Studie  [etydi]  he  is  studying 

nous  etudions  [nuzetydjo]  we  are 

vous  €tudiez  [vuzetydje]  you  are 
gtudiezi  [etydje]  study!  (tw- 
je  ferme  [fenn]  I  am  closing, 
do  close 
eile  fenne  [ferm]  she  is  closing 
nous  fermons  [fenn53  we  close 
vous  fermez    [ferme]    you    close 
f^mez!  [ferme]  close!  shut! 

i'ouvre  [u:vr]  I  am  opening 
elle  ouvre  [u:vr]  she  opens 
nous  ouvrons  [nuzuvro]  we  open 
vous  ouvrez  [vuzuvre]  you  open 
ouvrez!    [uvre]    open!    {im- 

je  reste  [rest]  I  stay,  am  stay- 
il  reste  [rest]  he  stays 
nous  restons  [rests]  we  are  stay- 
vous  restez  [reste]  you  stay 

restezi  [reste]  stay!  {impera- 

je  retoume  [sartum]  I  go  back 
elleretoume   [ratum]  she  goes 
nous  retoumons    [nurtumS]    we 

vous  retoumez     [vurtume]    you 
retoumez!  [ratume]  go  back! 
return!  {imperative) 

je  suis  [sqi]  I  am 
il  est  [ile]  he  (it)  is 
elle  est  [ele],  she  (it)  is 
nous  sommes  [sam]  we  are 
vous  etes  [vuzet]  you  are 

je  vais  [ve]  I  am  going 
il  va  [va]  he  is  going 

aujourd*hui  [osurdqi]  to-day 

combien  de?    [k5bj?da]  how  many  ?  how  much?  (followed 
by  a  noun  naming  the  object  of  inquiry) 

30  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  32 

A.  (1)  1.  Ouvrez  vos  livres,  mes^amis.  2.  Que  faites-vous? 
3.  —  Nous^ouvrons  nos  livres.  4.  —  Fermez  vos  livres, 
5.  —  Nous  les  fermons.  6.  —  Nous^avons^aujourd'hui  la 
le5on  cinq  [sgk].  7.  Ouvrez  vos  livres  a  la  legon  cinq. 
8.  — Nous  les^ouvrons.  9.  — fieri vez  dans  vos  cahiers:  je 
ferme,  il  ferme,  nous  fermons,  vous  fermez.  10.  J'ouvre,  il 
ouvre,  nous^ouvrons,  vous  ^ouvrez.  11.  Je  reste,  il  reste,  nous 
restons,  vous  restez.  12.  Je  retourne,  il  retourne,  nous  re- 
tournons,  vous  retournez.  13.  J'^tudie,  il  6tudie,  nous^6tudions, 
vous^^tudiez.  14.  J'ai,  il  a,  nous^avons,  vous^avez.  15.  Je 
suis,  il  est,  le  mot  est  sur  le  tableau,  il  est  sur  le  tableau;  ou 
est  votre  plume?  Elle  est^£i  la  maison,  nous  sommes,  vous^etes. 
16.  J'6cris,  il  6crit,  nous^^crivons,  vous^^crivez.  17.  Je  vais, 
il  va,  nous^allons,  vous^allez. 

(2)  1.  —  Maintenant  fermez  vos  cahiers.  2.  —  Nous  les 
fermons.  3.  —  Merci,  mes^amis.  4.  AUez^^  la  porte, 
Louise  et  Marie.  5.  Que  faitesrvous?  6.  —  Nous^allons^a 
la  porte.  7.  —  Retournez^^  votre  place.  8.  —  Je  vais^^ 
ma  place.  9.  —  Od  6tes-vous  maintenant,  mes^amies? 
10.  —  Nous  sommes^^  nos  places.  11.  —  Combien  de  mains 
avez-vous,  mes^enfants?  12.  —  Nous^avons  deux  mains. 
13.  —  Montrez-moi  vos  mains.  14.  —  Les  voici.  15.  Et 
nous^avons  dix  [di]  doigts. 

B.  (1)  What  seems  to  be  the  ending  of  the  verb  that  corresponds 
to  nous?  Find  one  exception  in  A.  What  ending  seems  to  cor- 
respond to  vous?    Find  two  exceptions  in  A. 

(2)  Substitute  the  possessive  adjective  for  the  article-and-de 
phrase:  1.  La  plume  de  Jean;  les  plumes  de  Jean.  2.  Le 
p6re  de  Jeanne;  les  fr&res  de  Jeanne.  3.  La  m6re  de  Marie 
et  de  Pierre;  les  fr^res  de  Marie  et  de  Pierre.  4.  La  maison 
de  Robert;  les  maisons  de  Robert.  5.  L'^cole  de  Louise; 
r^cole  de  Louise  et  de  Marie.  6.  La  legon  de  I'enfant;  les 
legons  de  I'enfant.  7.  La  legon  de  deux  enfants;  les  legons 
de  trois  enfants.  8.  Devant  la  maison  de  Marie.  Derridre 
la  maison  de  Pierre. 

(3)  Make  the  nouns  plural:  notre  ami,  votre  doigt,  sa  main, 
leur  cahier,  votre  enfant,  son  professeur,  sa  place,  notre  soeur. 


^    ' 




•  1 

.  1 

I    -^riy-i 





{32  LESSON  V  31 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  Our  friend,  our  friends;  your 
finger,  your  fingers;  his  (her)  hand,  his  (her)  hands;  their 
hands;  her  (his)  letters,  their  letters.  2.  What  are  you  doing, 
Robert?  3.  I  am  writing  a  letter  to  my  mother.  John 
is  writing  a  letter  to  his  sister.  4.  Louise  is  writing  to  her 
father.  She  is  writing  her  letter;  he  is  writing  his  letter. 
5.  Write  your  letters,  (my)  children!  6.  Do  you  open  their 
letters?  No,  sir,  we  do  not  open  their  letters.  7.  Henry's 
father  does  not  open  his  letters;  he  does  not  open  them.  8.  Do 
you  open  your  children's  letters?  No,  sir,  we  do  not  open 
them.  9.  I  am  at  my  place  in  the  classroom.  I  have  my 
books,  my  notebook,  and  my  pen.  10.  My  friend  John  is 
at  his  seat,  too.  He  has  his  pen  in  his  hand.  He  is  writing  his 
French  lesson  in  his  notebook.  11.  There  he  is  in  front  of 
the  window.  He  goes  to  school  in  the  morning,  but  he  does  not 
stay  at  school.  He  returns  home  in  the  afternoon.  12.  Show 
me  your  French  book,  John.  Here  it  is  on  my  table.  —  Excuse 
me,  sir;  I  haven't  it  at  (the)  school.  It  is  not  here;  it  is  at 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce  after  the  teacher:  depeir,  defreir,  denom, 
dfenoikl,  sSpeir,  sofreir,  s5n5:kl;  saraezo,  85nekol;  lapetr,  lameir, 
lezafa;  latast,  lafreir,  lezSikl;  bmat^,  laswair,  lezapremidi; 
Setydi  melsS,  39lezetydi;  sekri,  salezekri;  58donvoliivr  arobeir, 
Sdledan  arobeir. 

Observe  the  elision  of  the  [a]  in  the  pronunciation  of  mes 
legons  [mels5].  The  sound  [a],  which  is  called  often  "  mute 
e,"  disappears  when  the  preceding  syllable  ends  in  a  vowel 
sound  followed  by  a  single  consonant  sound,  as  in:  las  lemons 
OelsS],  ses  lefons  [selso]. 

(2)  In  how  many  different  ways  are  un,  son,  les  pronounced  ? 
What  decides  this?  What  name  do  we  give  to  the  joining  of 
words  as  in  mezafa,  sslezekri,  sonoikl?  Do  we  say  <£nekol  or 

(3)  Write  phonetically  and  pronounce:  le  doigt,  les  doigts; 
I'ami,  les  amis ;  men  amie,  mes  amies.  Do  these  nouns  change 
in  sound  in  the  plural,  or  only  in  spelUng? 

32  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  33-34 

(4)  Pronounce:  dedwa,  denom;  d0me,  d0zafa;  trwaplas, 
trwazekol;  katrokrejo,  katrami;  selso,  sekami;  sifreir,  si:zdfa; 
seraezo,  setom;  qikaje,  i{itapremidi;  ncemorso,  ncevami;  diswair, 

In  how  many  ways  is  each  numeral  pronounced?  On  what 
does  the  change  depend? 

(5)  Write  phonetically  and  read  aloud:  un  doigt,  detix  doigts, 
etc.,  up  to  10;   un  enfant,  deux  enfants,  etc.,  to  10. 

(6)  Write  phonetically  the  answers  to:  1.  Combien  de  doigts 
avez-vous?  2.  Combien  de  tantes  avez-vous?  3.  Combien 
de  professeurs  de  fran^ais  avez-vous?  4.  Combien  de  crayons 
avez-vous  k  I'ecole?  5.  Combien  de  crayons  avez-vous  k  la 
maison?  6.  Combien  d'oncles  avez-vous  (ou  Combien  avez- 
vous  d'oncles)? 

(7)  What  have  you  to  say  about  linking  between:  (a)  Pro- 
noun subject  and  verb?  (b)  Article  and  noun?  (c)  Posses- 
sive adjective  and  noun?  (d)  Forms  of  verb  '  to  be  '  and  their 

Look  for  cases  of  each  in  A  above. 


33.  Present  Indicative  of  avoir,  to  have 

1.   Affirmative  2.    Negative 

/  have,  etc.  I  have  not,  etc. 



je  n'ai  pas 


tu  as 


tu  n'as  pas 




il  n'a  pas 


nous  avons 


nous  n'avons  pas 


vous  avez 


vous  n'avez  pas 


lis  ont 


ils  n'ont  pas 


34.  Pronouns  in  Address.  You  is  regularly  vous;    the 

form  tu  =  thou  or  you  is  used  in  familiar  address: 

Avez-vous  ma  pltune,  monsieur?  Have  you  my  pen,  sir? 

As-/u  ta  plume,  mon  enfant?  Have  you  your  pen,  my  child? 

N.B.  —  Translate  you  by  vous  in  the  exercises,  unless  the  use  of  tu  is 
required  by  the  context. 

$5  35-36  LESSON  VI  33 

36.  Contractions.  De  +  le  and  de  +  les  are  always  con- 
tracted into  du  and  des;  the  remaining  forms  are  not  con- 
tracted, thus,  de  la,  de  1'  in  full: 

La  plxune  du  [dy]  frere.  The  brother's  pen. 

Les  plumes  des  [de]  soeurs.  The  sisters'  pens. 

But:  La  idume  de  Televe.  The  puiul's  pen. 

36.  The  Partitive  Noun  and  Pronoun.  1.  Some  or  any, 
whether  expressed  or  implied  before  a  noun  in  English,  is 
regularly  expressed  in  French  by  de  +  the  definite  article: 

Avez-vous  de  la  craie?  Have  you  (some)  chalk  (lit.,  'of 

the  chalk')? 
A-t-elle  du  pain?  Has  she  (any)  bread? 

J'ai  de  rencre.  I  have  (some)  ink. 

A-t-il  des  freres?  Has  he  (any)  brotheis? 

2.  In  a  general  n^ation  the  partitive  is  expressed  by  de 


D  n'a  pas  de  pain.  He  has  no  bread. 

n  n'a  pas  (f  amis.  He  has  no  friends. 

3.  Some  or  any  as  a  pronoun  =  en,  which  must  be  ex- 
pressed in  French,  even  when  omitted  in  English  (cf.  §  80): 

A-t-il  de  Tencre?  —  H  en  a.  Has    he    (any)    ink?  —  He    has 

A-t-il  une  plume?  —  D  en  a  une.     Has  he  a  pen?  —  He  has  one. 

N.B.  —  En,  like  the  other  partitive  expressiona,  is  often  equal  to  Eng- 
lish of  it,  of  them,  especially  when  the  object  of  the  verb  is  a  numeral  not 
followed  by  its  noun. 

A-t-il  une  plume?  —  H  en  a  une.  Has  he  a  pen?  —  He  has  one. 

Combien  de  lettres  ecrivez-vous? —      How  many  letters  do  you  write?  —  I 
yen  ecris  quatre  aujourd'hui.  am  writing  four  (of  them)  to-day. 

4.  The  position  of  the  pronoun  en  in  the  sentence  is  dif- 
ferent from  the  usage  of  English:  en  alwaj's  comes  directly 
h^ore  the  verb,  except  in  one  instance  (cf.  §  113): 

Avez-vous  des  crayons?  Have  you  (any)  pencils? 

Oui,  monsieur,  j'cn  aL  Yes,  sir,  I  have  some. 





un  eleve  [ceneleiv]  pupil 
une  eleve  [yneleiv]  pupil 
le  mtjr  [my:r]  wall 
le  plafond  [plaf  3]  ceiling 
le  plancher  [plaje]  floor 
le  pupitre        [pypitr]       desk 

aller  [ale]  to  go 
je  vais  [ve]  I  am  going,  go,  do 

il  va  [va]  he  is  going,  goes 
nous  aliens  [nuzals]  we  go,  are 

vous  allez  [vuzale]  you  are  going, 
il  commence    Ptoma:s]   he   is 
Scoutez!  [ekute]  listen!  (im- 
nous  entrons  (dans)  [nuzatrS  da] 
we  enter,  go  in 

il  marche  [marS]  he  walks,  is 
walking,  does  walk 
parler  [parle]  speak  (infini- 

je  sors  [soir]  I  go  out,  am  going 

il  sort  [sa:r]  he  goes  out 
nous  sortons  [sorts]  we  go  out 
vous  sortez  [sorte]  you  go  out 
nous  voulons     [vul5]    we    wish, 

want,  are  willing 

vous  voulez     [vule]     you    wish, 

want,  are  willing 

en  [a]  of  it,  of  them  (pronoun) 
en  [a]  in  (preposition;  to  be 
tised  by  pupils  only  in  ex- 
pressions found  in  text) 

apres  [apre]  after 
par  [par]  by 

j'en  suis  [sasqi]  I  belong  to  it,  am  of  it,  of  them. 
n'est-ce  pas?[nespa]  don't  you?  don't  we?  isn't  it  true? 

A.  1.  ficoutez,  mes^amis.  Nous  sommes^en  classe  de 
frangais.  En  etes-vous,  Robert?  2.  —  Oui,  monsieur  (made- 
moiselle), j'en  suis,  et  mon^amie  Marie  en^est^aussi.  3.  Nous 
sommes  dix^616ves  et  le  professeur.  4.  Nous^avons  des  livres, 
des  crayons  et  du  papier.  5.  Le  professeur  en^a  aussi,  II  a 
aussi  de  la  craie.  6.  Nous^^tudions  le  frangais.  7.  —  Vous 
voulez  parler  frangais,  n'est-ce  pas?  8.  —  Oui,  monsieur, 
nous  voulons  parler  frangais.  9.  —  Eh  bien  (Well  then), 
6coutez:  La  classe  a  quatre  murs.  10.  Voila  les  murs  de  la 
classe.  11.  Voil^  le  plafond,  et  vous  marchez  sur  le  plancher. 
12.  Combien  de  portes  la  classe  a-t-elle  (has  the  classroom)?  — 
EUe  en^a  une.  13.  —  Combien  de  fenetres?  —  Elle  en^a 
trois.  14.  —  Les^^l^ves  ont  des  pupitres  et  le  professeur  a 
une  table.      15.  Elle  est  devant  le  professeur,  et  le  professeur 

1 36  LESSON  VI  35 

est  devant  les^^l^ves.  16.  Nous^entrons  dans  la  classe  par  la 
porte,  nous^allons^^  nos  places,  nous^ouvrons  les  livres  et  la 
le^on  commence.  17.  Apr^  la  classe,  nous  fermons  les  livres 
et  nous  sortons  par  la  porte.  18.  Nous  sortons  par  la  fen^tre, 
Pierre  [pjeir].  19.  —  Pardon,  mademoiselle,  nous  ne  sortons 
pas  par  la  fenStre. 

B.  (1)  Using  in  turn  as  svbjeds  je,  il,  elle,  vous  in  place  oj 
nous,  rewrite  affirmatively  and  negatively,  the  sentences  16-19 
of  A:    Nous  entrons  dans  la  classe,  etc^  to  the  end. 

(2)  Substitute  the  partitive  expression  for  the  article  and  read 
aloud:  les  doigts,  les  mains,  le  papier,  les  anus,  les  amies,  les 
apr6s-midi,  la  craie,  les  mots, 

(3)  Supply   the  partitive  expression  and  read  aloud:     1.  lis 

ont fr&res  et sceurs.      2.  Nous  ouvrons portes 

et  fenetres.       3.  lis    ont  doigts    et  mains. 

4,  Donnez-moi papier  et plumes.      5.  Mademoiselle 

a craie.    6.  Elle  6crit mots  dans  son  cahier.    7.  Nous 

6crivons  mots  dans  nos  cahiers.       8.  Vous  donnez  

papier  ^  Robert.      9.  II  a craie  k  la  main. 

(4)  a.  Write  affirmative  and  negative  answers,  using  the  parti- 
tive pronoun:  1.  Avez-vous  des  fr^res?  2.  A-t^il  du  papier? 
3.  Avons-nous    des    doigts?        4.  fites-vous    de    notre    classe? 

5.  £tudions-nous  des  legons?  6.  Ont^ils  des  sceurs?  7.  Avez- 
vous  de  la  craie  h  la  main? 

b.  Write  negative  ansicers  to  the  questions  under  a,  first  keeping 
the  noun  objects,  and  then  substituting  the  partitive  pronoun  for 
the  noun  objects. 

(5)  Conjugate:    1.  Je  n'ai  pas  d'amis.      2.  Je  n'en  ai  pas. 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  You  are  in  the  classroom,  (my) 
children.  2.  You  have  paper,  pens,  pencils,  and  notebooks. 
3.  The  classroom  has  doors,  windows,  and  walls.  4.  Listen, 
Louise,  you  are  not  writing  your  lesson.  5.  I  have  no  paper, 
sir.  6.  You  haven't  any?  Excuse  me,  you  have  some.  There 
it  is  in  front  of  Robert.  7.  I  have  no  chalk.  Pierre  has  some 
chalk  in  his  hand,  and  Jeanne  has  some  too.  8.  How  many 
fingers  have  you?  I  have  ten.  9.  There  are  ten  of  us  (we  are 
ten)  pupils  in  the  classroom  with  our  teacher.       10.  Do  you 

36  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§37-38 

belong  to  (Are  you  of)  the  French  class,  Marie?  11.  Yes,  sir, 
I  belong  to  it,  and  Henri  belongs  to  it  too.  12.  What  do 
you  want?    We  want  to  speak  French. 

D.  (1)  After  several  readings  aloud,  first  by  the  teacher, 
then  by  the  class  in  concert,  the  pupils  should  be  asked  to  retell 
orally  and  in  writing  the  facts  about  the  classroom  in  A. 

(2)  Dictation:    Lesson  V,  A. 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

Write  phonetically  and  pronounce:  un  oncle,  des  oncles; 
un  eleve,  des  eleves;  un  mot,  des  mots;  une  tante,  des  tantes; 
un  pupitre,  des  pupitres;  tm  plancher,  des  planchers;  un  mur, 
des  murs.    What  is  the  plural  of  un,  une? 


37.         Present  Indicative  of  avoir  {continued)' 

1.   Interrogative 

2.   Negative  Interrogative 

Have  It  ete. 

Have  I  not?  etc. 

ai-je?               [eis] 

n'ai-je  pas?               [neispa] 

as-tu?              [aty] 

n'as-tu  pas?              [natypa] 

a-t-il?               [atil] 

n'a-t-il  pas?              [natilpa] 

avons-nous?    [av5nu] 

n'avons-nous  pas?    [navonupa] 

avez-vous?       [avevu] 

n'avez-vous  pas?       [navevupa] 

ont-ils?            [3til] 

n'ont-ils  pas?            [notilpaj 

38.  Interrogation.     1.   When   the   subject   of   an   inter- 
rogative sentence  is  a  noun,  the  word  order  is  noun-verb- 
L*homine  est-il  I&?  Is  the  man  there? 

2.  This  form  of  question  may  be  combined  with  an  inter- 
rogative word: 

Mais  Jean  o&  est-il?  But  where  is  John? 

Combien  de  plumes  Jean  a-t-il?        How  many  pens  has  John? 

3.  What?  (as  direct  object  or  predicate  of  a  verb)  =  que? 
See  also  §19,  1: 

Qu'avez-Tous  Ul?  What  have  you  there? 





le  beurre  [bce:r]  butter 
la  bouche  Cbu:S3  mouth 
la  dent  [da]  tooth 
lalangue    [Ia:g]   tongue,    lan- 
une  oreille  [ore:]]  ear 
le  pain  [pt]  bread,  loaf  of  bread 
la  tete  [te:t]  head 
les  yeux  m.  [Iezj03  eyes 

onze  [3:z3  eleven 
douze  [du:z3  twelve 
treize  [treiz]  thirteen 
quatorze  [katorz]  fourteen 
quinze  Qcgiz]  fifteen 

il  donne  [don]  he  is  giving, 

nous  donnons  [donS]  we  are  giving, 
we  give 

vous  donnez  [done]  you  are  giving 

nous  ecoutons  [nuzekuts]  we  lis- 

vous  Icoutez  [vuzekute]  you  are 

j'entends  [dta]  I  hear,  do  hear 
il  entend  [ata]  he  hears 
nous  entendons  [nuzatadS]  we  do 

vous  entendez  [vuzatade]  you  are 

je  mange  [ma:  3]  I  am  eating 
elle  mange  [mors]  she  is  eating 
nous  mangeons  [ma  13  3]  we  do  eat 
vous  mangez  [maise]  you  eat 

je  parle  [pari]  I  am  sp>eaking 
elle  parle  [pari]  she  talks,  speaks 
nous  parlous  [pari  3]  we  talk 
vous  parlez  [parle]  you  speak 

je  vois  [vwa]  I  see,  do  see 
elle  volt  [vwa]  she  sees,  is  seeing 
nous  voyons  [vwaj  3]  we  do  see 
vous  voyez  [vwaje]  you  are  seeing 

mais  [mr]  but,  why  {not  in  a 
queMion) ;  mais  non!  Why 

A.  (1)  1.  ficoutez,  Jean!  ficoutez,  mes^jamis!  Que  faites-vous? 
2.  —  Nou8^6coutons.  3.  —  ficrivez  dans  votre  cahier,  Marie! 
4.  Marie  oil  6crit-  elle?  5.  —  Elle  ^crit  dans  son  cahier. 
6.  —  Donnez  votre  plume  k  Robert.  7.  —  Que  donnez- 
vous  h  Robert,  Henri?  8.  Je  donne  ma  plume  k  Robert. 
9.  — Qu'avez-vous  k  la  main,  Louise?  10.  — J'ai  k  la  main 
mon  livre  de  frangais.  11,  — N'avez-vous  pas^aussi  votre 
crayon  k  la  main?  12.  — Oui,  mademoiselle;  et  j'ai  aussi 
des  livres  et  du  papier,  mais  Pierre  n'en^a  pas. 

(2)  1.  —  Combien  de  tetes  avez-vous,  Maurice  [moris]? 
2.  —  J'en^ai  une,  et  Henri  en^a  une  et  le  professeur  en^a  une 
aussi.  3.  —  N'avez-vous  pas  deux  mains,  Pierre?  4.  —  Oui, 
mademoiselle,  j'en^ai  deux.    5.  —  Et  combien  de  doigts  Louise 

38  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §38 

a-t-elle?  6.  —  Elle  en^a  dix  [dis]  et  Marie  a  dix  doigts  [didwa] 
aussi.  7.  —  Combien  de  mains  Robert  a-t-il?  II  en^a  deux. 
8.  Nous^avons  des^oreilles,  des^yeux  et  une  bouche.  9.  Dans 
la  bouche  nous^avons  une  langue  et  des  dents.  10.  — Le 
professeur   a-t-il   des^oreilles   aussi?     —  Oui,   il   en^a   deux. 

11.  —  Que  faites-vous  avec  vos^oreilles,  mes^amis  (mon^ami)? 

12.  —  Nous^entendons  (j'entends)  avec  les^oreilles,  nous 
voyons  (je  vois)  avec  les_j-eux,  nous  parlons  (je  parle)  avec 
la  langue  et  la  bouche,  et  nous  mangeons  (je  mange)  avec  les 
dents.  13.  —  Que  mangez-vous?  —  Nous  mangeons  du 
pain  avec  du  beurre.  14.  —  Qu'avez-vous  dans  la  bouche? 
—  J'ai  un  morceau  de  pain  dans  la  bouche. 

B.  (1)  Say  in  French:  I  (we,  you)  open;  I  (we,  you)  close; 
I  (we,  you)  go  in;  I  (we,  you)  go  out;  I  (we,  you)  stay;  I 
(we,  you)  study;  I  (we,  you)  write;  I  (we,  you)  listen;  I 
(we,  you)  hear;  I  (we,  you)  see;  I  (we,  you)  talk;  I  (we,  you) 
eat;  hsten,  eat,  speak,  stay,  go  out,  come  in,  write;  I  (we,  you) 
go;  I  am,  we   (you)  are. 

(2)  Complete:   1.  Vous  voyez  avec .      2.  J'entends  avec 

.       3.  Nous  mangeons  avec  .       4.  Vous  parlez  avec 

.       5.  mangez-vous?       6.  Je  pain  avec  

beurre.       7.  Combien  doigts   avez-vous?       8.  J' ai 

dix  {See  A,  (2),  6).       9.  Et  combien yeux  [j0]  {preceding 

[a]  elided)  le  professeur  a-t-il?       10.  II a  deux. 

(3)  Study  the  examples  of  the  use  of  en  in  A,  (2)  and  try  to 
make  a  rule  for  the  use  of  en  with  numerals. 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  Do  you  want  some  butter  with 
your  bread?  2.  I  have  no  bread.  3.  But  you  have  some 
butter.  4.  I  beg  your  pardon,  I  have  none  (haven't  any). 
5.  Has  the  man  ears  and  eyes  and  teeth?  6.  He  has  ears  and 
eyes,  but  he  has  no  teeth.  7.  How  many  ears  has  he?  8.  He 
has  two.  9.  I  hear  with  my  (the)  ears  and  see  with  my  (the) 
eyes.  10.  Have  you  no  teeth?  11.  I  have  teeth  and  I  am 
eating  some  bread,  but  I  have  no  butter.  12.  Do  you  want 
some?  Why  (Mais)  yes,  sir  (miss).  13.  I  have  ten  fingers; 
he  has  ten.  14.  There  are  fifteen  of  us  pupils  (We  are  fifteen 
pupils)  in  the  classroom.      15.  I  see  fifteen  in  the  classroom. 

§  39  LESSON  Yin  39 

ExEBciSE  IN  Pronunciation 

(1)  Read:  siliivr,  siizami,  eldnasis;  noeda,  noevami,  vuzfina- 
veAoef;   didwa,  navSnupadiizami?   bprofesoeiranadis. 

In  how  many  ways  are  the  words  for  6,  9  and  10  pronounced? 

In  how  many  ways  are  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  7,  8  pronounced  (see 
Lesson  V,  Exercise  in  Pronunciation,  4)?     Explain. 

Count:  oiz,  duiz,  treiz,  katarz,  kgiz. 

Count  1-15,  putting  after  each  numeral  a  noun  beginning 
with  a  consonant,  and  then  one  beginning  with  a  vowel.  For 
example:  6  crayons,  6  eldves.  Write  out  the  combinations  in 
phonetic  characters. 

(2)  What  two  ways  do  you  know  of  spelling  the  sound  [g^ 
What  three  ways  of  spelling  the  sound  [o]?  What  sound  does 
the  letter  o  (not  in  combination  or  nasal)  usually  represent? 
One  exception  so  far:  what  is  it?  What  sound  does  the  letter 
a  (not  in  combination  or  nasal)  usually  represent?  ^Name  the 
two  exceptions  up  to  this  point.  What  sound  does  the  combina- 
tion ai  (not  nasal)  usually  represent?  Name  the  two  exceptions. 
What  is  the  position  of  your  lips  in  pronouncing  [p}  as  in  porta, 
©reille,  so  as  to  get  the  French  quality  (see  §  14,  1)?  Note 
how  the  -eille  of  oreille  gives  Ce:j].  Pronounce  le  soleil  [soleijj, 
sun.    What  is  the  name  of  this  sound?     (See  §  16,  1). 

LESSON  vra 

39.  Present  Indicative  of  itre,  to  be 

1.  Afl&rmative  2.   Negative 

/  am,  etc.  I  am  not,  etc. 

je  suis  [sdsqiD  je  ^^  suis  pas  [ssnsqipa^ 

tu  es  [tye]  tu  n'es  pas  [tynepa] 

il  est  [lie]  il  n'est  pas  [ilnepKi] 

nous  sommes    [nusom]  nous  ne  sommes  pas  [nunsompa] 

vous  etes  [vuzet]  vous  n'etes  pas  [%'unetpa] 

ils  sont  [ils33  ils  ne  sont  pas  [ilnssspa^ 




3.  Interrogative 
Am  If  etc. 
suis-je?  [8qi:s3 

•s-tu?  [ety] 

est-a?  [etil] 

sommes-nous?  [somnu] 
etes-vous  [etvu] 

sont-ils?  [s3til] 

4.  Negative  Interrogative 
Am  I  not?  etc. 
ne  suis-je  pas?  [nasqiis 

n'es-tu  pas?  [netypa] 

n'est-il  pas?  [netilpa] 

ne  sommes-nous  pas?  [nasomnupa] 
n'etes-vous  pas?  [nstvupa] 

ne  sont-ils  pas?  [nasotilpa] 

40.  Observe  that  11  and  elle  mean  not  only  he  and  she,  but 
also  it,  since  there  are  but  two  genders  of  nouns  in  French: 
Oft  est  la  plTime?    Elle  est  ici.  Where  is  the  pen?    It  is  here. 

Oft  sont  les  pliunes?  £He5sontici.    Where  are  the  pens?  Theyaxehere. 


la  carte  D^art]  map,  card 
le  contraire  [k3tre:r]  opposite 
la  France  [frais]  France 
le  jour  Csuir]  day 
la  nuit  [nqi]  night 

autre  [otrj  other 
bon  Q)3]  good 
ferme  [ferme]  closed 
ouvert  [uvEir]  open 
petit  [pati]  small,  little 
tout  [tu]  all;  {as  a  'pronoun) 

quinze  [keiz]  fifteen 
seize  [setz]  sixteen 
dix-sept  [disset]  seventeen 
dix-huit  [dizqit]  eighteen 
diz-neuf  [dizncef]  nineteen 
vingt  [ve]  twenty 

comprendre   [k3pra:dr]  un- 
derstand (infin.) 
Je  comprends  [kopra]  I  under- 
stand, do  understand 

il  comprend   QcSpra]  he  does 

nous  comprenons    D^5pran3]    we 

vous  comprenez    p5:3pr9ne]    you 


compter  [k3te]  coimt  (infin.) 
comptez!  [k3te]  count!  (im- 

dormir      Qdormiir]]       sleep 

(infin.),  be  asleep 
entendre       [ataidr]      hear 

manger  [[maise]  eat  (infin.) 
ilsrestent,  elles  restent  [rest] 
they  stay,  remain 
noustachons  (de)  [ta:S3]  we  are 

trying  (to),  etc. 
voustachez  (de)  [taije]  you  are 
trying  (to),  etc. 

bien  [bje]  well,  very  well 
potir  [pur]  for,  in  order  to 
c'est  [se]  it  is,  that  is 

voulez-vous  bien?  [vulevubje]  will  you  (please)? 
are  you  willing  to? 

Sio  LESSON  vm  11 

A.  (1)  1.  —  Oil  6tes-vous,  mes^mis?  2.  —  Nous  sommes^ 
I'^cole,  dans  la  classe.  3.  —  Que  voyez-vous,  Louise?  4.  —  Je 
vois  une  porte,  des  fenltres,  des  murs,  un  plafond,  un  plancher, 
un  tableau  noir,  et  notre  professeur.      5.  —  C'est  tout,  Pierre? 

6.  — Non,  monsieur  (mademoiselle);  je  vois  aussi  des  livres, 
des  plumes,  des  cahiers,  vingt^616ves,  des  crayons,  des  pupitres. 

7.  Sur  le  mur  je  vois  une  carte  de  France.  8.  —  C'est  bon, 
Pierre.      Vous   voyez    tout.        9.  Voulez-vous    bien    compter 

les    616 ves?        10.  Jeanne:    —   un^616ve,     deux^^l^ves 

ving1i_^616ves.  11.  — Bien!  combien  d'616ves  6tes-vous? 
12.  —  Nous  sommes  ving1;^616ve8.  13.  —  Et  la  porte, 
esWile  ouverte  [uvert]?  14.  Non,  mademoiselle,  elle  est 
ferm^e  [ferme].  15.  —  Et  les  fen^tres,  son^elles  ouvertes? 
16.  —  Une  des  fenStres  est^ouverte  et  les  deux^autres  sont  fer- 

(2)  1.  —  Que  faites-vous  en  classe?  2.  —  Nous^^tudions 
le  frangais.  3.  Le  professeur  parle  frangais,  nous^^coutons 
et  nous  tdchons  de  comprendre.  4.  —  Comprenez-vous  les 
mots  f  ouverte  »  et  t  ferm6e  »?  5.  — Oui,  mademoiselle. 
Nous^ouvrons  la  porte,  elle  est^ouverte.  6.  Nous^entrons 
dans  la  classe  et  nous  fermons  la  porte.  Elle  est  fermie 
maintenant.       7.  —  Bon!       Votre    bouche   es^elle    ouverte? 

8.  —  Oui,  mademoiselle.  Je  I'ouvre  pour  parler  et  pour  man- 
ger. 9.  —  Et  vos^oreilles?  —  EUes  sont^ouvertes.  Elles 
restent  [rest]  ouvertes  pour  entendre,  10.  —  Et  vos^^eux, 
restent-ils  [restatil]  ouverts  [uve:r]?  11.  — Non,  made- 
moiselle, je  les^ouvre  le  matin;  le  jour  ils  restent  ouverts. 
La  nuit  je  les  ferme  pour  dormir.  12.  —  Bien!  t  Porte 
ouverte  »  est  le  contraire  de  t  porte  ferm^.  »  13.  Ccoutez 
bien:  mes,_^eux  sont_ouverts  [uveir],  les  deux  portes 
sonli^ouvertes  [uvert].  14.  Henri  est-^il  petit  [pati]?  Louise 
est^^elle  petite  [pstit]? 

B.  (1)  Where  reasonably  possible,  make  every  verb  in  A 

(2)  Substitute  the  proper  personal  pronoun  for  the  rioun  object 
in:  1.  Je  vois  une  porte.  2.  Nous  6coutons  le  professeur. 
3.  II  compte  les  616 ves.      4.  Ouvrez-vous  la  fen^tre?     5.  Com- 

42  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §40 

prenez-vous  le  mot?  6.  Vous  ne  voyez  pas  mes  dents.  7.  Ne 
voyez-vous  pas  mes  dents?  8.  Ne  fermez-vous  pas  les  yeux 
pour  dormir?  9.  Je  vols  une  carte  de  France.  10.  Je  ne 
comprends  pas  le  mot.  11.  Avez-vous  des  amis?  12.  Nous 
avons  des  dents.  13.  Nous  entendons  des  mots.  14.  Nous 
voyons  nos  amies.       15.  J'entends  le  mot. 

(3)  Make  sentences  of  the  groups  of  words,  supplying  lacking 

words  and  using  as  many  partitives  as  possible:   1.  J'ai,  ne 

pas,  en.  2.  II,  dents,  a.  3.  Soeurs,  avez-vous?  4.  J'ai, 
quatre.      5.  Vous  tachez,  la  nuit,  de  dormir.      6.  II  voit,  portes, 

et  fenetres.      7.  Nous,  en,  voyons,  ne pas.      8.  Entendez- 

vous?    ne  pas.        9.  Porte    ouverte,    porte    ferm^e,    le 

contraire.  10.  Portes,  ouvertes,  mais,  f enures,  ferm6es. 
11.  Pierre,  petit  et  Louise,  petite. 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  Are  your  books  open?  Are  the 
windows   open?      2.  Has   the  classroom  windows  and  doors? 

3.  It  has  windows,  doors,  walls,  desks,  a  ceiUng,  and  a  floor. 

4.  Have  the  pupils  books?    Yes.     There  are  the  pupils'  books. 

5.  They  have  notebooks  too,  and  pens,  and  paper,  and  pencils, 
but  they  have  no  chalk.     6.  The  teacher  has  some  in  his  hand, 

7.  What   are   you   doing?     We  are  listening  to  the  teacher. 

8.  She  is  speaking  French  and  we  are  trying  to  understand 
her.  9.  Do  you  understand  her,  Marie?  Yes,  I  understand 
her.       10.  That's  good. 

D.  The  differences  of  spelling  and  pronunciation  of  ouvert, 
ouverte;  petit,  petite  are  due  to  a  difference  in  what?  To  judge 
by  ferme,  fermee,  do  these  same  differences  appear  in  every  case? 
Would  the  addition  of  an  s  for  the  plural  make  any  difference 
in  the  pronunciation  of  any  of  these  words? 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

ficrivez  en  caract^res  phon^tiques  et  prononcez:  1.  Je  vols 
vingt  616 ves.  2.  Ou  etes-vous,  mes  amis?  3.  Vous  voyez 
les  livres.  4.  Nous  entrons  dans  la  classe.  5.  Vos  yeux  restent 
ouverts.  6.  Nous  studious  le  frangais.  7.  Vous  ouvrez  la 
porte.      8.  II  compte  les  616ves. 

§§41-43  LESSON  IX  43 


41.  The  Regular  Conjugations.  French  verbs  are  con- 
veniently divided,  according  to  the  infinitive  endings  -er, 
-ir,  -re,  into  three  conjugations: 


Donner  [done]  to  give       Finfr  [finiir]  to  finish      Vendre  [va:dr]  to  sell 

Like  these  are  conjugated  all  regular  verbs  with  corre- 
sponding infinitive  endings. 

42.  Present  Indicative  of  donner,  to  give 
1.  Affirmative  2.   Negative 

/  give,  am  giving,  etc.  I  do  not  give,  am  not  giving,  etc. 

je  donn  e      [sadon]  je  ne  donn  e  pas  [ssndonpa] 

tu  donn  es     [tydon]  tu  ne  donn  es  pas  [tyndonpa] 

il  donn  e      [ildon]  il  ne  donn  e  pas  [ilnadanpa] 

nous  donn  ons  [nuddnS]  nous  ne  donn  ons  pas  [nundonSpa] 

vous  donn  ez     [vudone]  vous  ne  donn  ez  pas  [v'undonepa] 

ils  donn  ent  [ildon]  ils  ne  donn  ent  pas  Cilnsdonpa] 

3.  Interrogative  4.   Negative  Interrogative 

Am  I  giving  f  do  I  give  f  etc.  Am  I  not  giving  f  do  I  not  give  f  etc. 

donne-je?           [doners]  ne  donne-je  pas?           [nadonerspa] 

donnes-tu?         [donty]  ne  donnes-tu  pas?         [nadontypa] 

donne-t-il?         [dontil]  ne  donne-t-il  pas?         [nadantilpa] 

donnons-nous?  [donSnu]  ne  donnons-nous  pas?  [nadononupa] 

donnez-vous?     [donevu]  ne  donnez-vous  pas?     [nadoneviipa] 

donnent-ils?       [dontil]  ne  donnent-ils  pas?       [nadontilpa] 

43.  Interrogation.  By  prefixing  the  words  est-ce  que? 
literally,  is  it  that?  any  statement  may  be  turned  into  a 
question : 

Vous  avez  mon  canif .  You  have  my  penknife. 

Est-ce  que  vous  avez  mon  canif?     Have  you  my  penknife? 
Est-ce  que  vous  n'aimez  pas  la     Don't  you  like  walking? 


Note.  —  The  first  singular  interrogative  form  (e.g.,  donnS-je?  suis-je? 
etc.)  is  avoided  in  most  verbs,  and  must  be  avoided  in  some,  by  using  est-ce 
Que?    In  the  exercises,  use  est-ce  que?  everywhere  with  the  1st  singular. 

44  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  $  44 

44.  The  Demonstrative  Adjective.  1.  The  following  are 
its  forms,  and  they  must  be  repeated  before  each  noun  to 
which  they  refer: 

!ce  [sa],  before  a  masculine  beginning  with  a  consonant, 
cet  [set],  before  a  m.  beginning  with  a  vowel  or  h  mute, 
cette  [set],  before  any  feminine. 
These,  those  =  ces  [se],  before  any  plural. 

2.  To  distinguish  this  from  that,  or  for  emphasis,  add 
-ci  (=  ici)  and  -la  respectively  to  the  noun: 

Ce  livre,  cet  honime,  cette  amie.     This  (or  that)  book,  man,  friend. 
Ce  crayon-ci  et  ces  plumes-Zd.  This  pencil  and  those  pens. 

a.  In  the  combinations  c'est  and  ce  sont  the  demonstrative  pronoun 
ce  is  often  equal  to  English  it  (standing  for  and  pointing  to  the  real 
subject  that  follows),  he,  she,  they. 

C'est  mon  ami  Pierre.  It  (he)  is  my  friend  Pierre. 

Ce  sont  les  enfants  de  ma  tante.     They  are  my  aunt's  children. 
Est-ce  [es]  vous?    C'est  vous.  Is  it  (that)  you?    It  is  you. 


un  ige  [cenais]  age  nous  nous  appelons  [nunuzaplS] 
un  an  [oenfi]  year  we  are  named,  etc. 

le  cousin  [kuze]  cousin  vous  vous    appelez    [vuvuzaple] 
la  cousine  [kuzin]  cousin  you  are  named 

la  fille  [fiij]  daughter,  girl  *  regarder  [ragarde]  look  (at) 

le  fits  [fis]  son  jg  regarde  [sargard]  I  look  at 

le  garfon  [gars5]  boy  -^  ^^g^^^  [regard]  he  is  looking 

la  marche  [marS]  walkmg  ^^^^  regardons  [nurgardo] 

le  sport  [spoir]  sport  ^^^^  regardez  [vurgarde] 

fort  [fo:r]  strong  dites  [dit]  say,  tell  {impera' 

grand  [gra]  large,  tall  tive  of  dire) 

quel?  TO.  [kel]  what?  ^    ^  x       ri.-i.--n 

attentivement       [atativma] 

aimer  [eme]  like,  love  attentively 

i'aime  [em]  I  (do)  like,  love  comment?  [koma]  how? 

lentement  [lat(9)ma]  slowly 
Je  m'appelle     [mapel]    I    am  plus  [ply]  more 

named,  my  name  is  vite  [vit]  rapidly,  quickly 

11  s'appelle  [sapel]  he  is  named  parce  que  [parska]  because 

{44  LESSON  IX  45 

EXERCISE   IX  (Continued) 

quel  &ge  avez-voxis  [kelaisavevu]  how  old  are  you? 

j'ai  trois  ans  [setrwoza]  I  am  three;  il  a  quinze  ans,  he  is  fifteen. 

s'a  vous  plait  [silvupk]  please. 

*  Endinga  like  donner,  but  obeerv-e  the  pronimciation  of  the  pres.  indica- 
tive.   See  Leeson  V,  Exercise  in  Prtmundation,  (1). 

A.  (1)  1.  Comment  vous^ppelez-vous  Cvuzaplevu  *],  mon 
ami?  2.  — Je  m'appelle  Maurice,  monsieur  (mademoi- 
selle). 3.  —  Quel  kge  avez-vous?  4.  —  J'ai  quinze  ans. 
5.  —  Vous^^tes  grand  Cgra]!  Est-ce  que  votre  p^re  est  grand 
aussi?  6.  —  Oui,  monsieur  (mademoiselle),  il  est  grand,  mais 
ma  m6re  est  petite;  elle  n'est  pas  grande  [graid].  7.  —  Est-ce 
que  vous^avez  des  fr^res  et  des  sceurs?  8.  —  Oui,  monsieur 
(mademoiselle),  j'ai  un  fr^re  et  trois  sceurs.  9.  Mon  fr^re 
s'appelle  fidouard  [edwa:r],  et  mes  sceurs  s'appellent  Germaine 
[sermen],  Jeanne  et  Ad61e  [adel].  10.  fidouard  a  treize  ans; 
il  est  petit;  mais  tr^  fort  (fo:r).  11.  Germaine  a  huit,^ans, 
Jeanne  a  dix-sept^ans,  et  Ad^le  en^  dix-neuf.  12.  EUes  sont 
grandes  (^gra!d]  et  fortes  [fort].  13.  Moi,  je  suis  trds  fort 
aussi  et  j'aime  les  sports.  14.  J'aime  le  tennis  [tenisX  le 
baseball  pbesbal]  et  la  marche.  15.  Mes  sceurs  aiment  le 
tennis;  mais^elles  n'aiment  pas  la  marche. 

(2)  1.  —  Est-ce  que  cette  petite  fille-ci  est^une  de  vos  sceurs? 
2.  —  Non,  mademoiselle,  c'est  (she  is)  la  soeur  de  ce  petit 
gar^on-l^.  3.  —  Et  ces  trois  petit€s  filles-E?  4.  —  Non,  mes 
sceurs  ne  sont  pas^^  I'^cole;  elles  sont^^  la  maison.  5.  Ces 
grandes  filles-li  sont  les^nfants  de  mon^oncle.  6.  Ce  sont 
{They  are)  mes  cousines,  et  cet^61^ve-ci  est  son  fils.  7.  C'est 
(He  is)  mon  cousin.  8.  —  Est-ce  que  cet^61^ve-l^  6coute  le 
professeur?  9.  —  Oui,  il  I'^oute  attentivement,  mais^l  ne 
comprend  pas  tr^  bien,  parce  que  le  professeur  parle  tr^ 
vite.  10.  Parlez  plus  lentement,  monsieur,  s'il  vous  plait. 
11.  Nous^^coutons  tr^^attentivement  mais  nous  ne  vous 
comprenons  pas. 

•  Obser\'e  the  disappearance  of  the  [a]  in  the  pronunciation  of  appelw 
[apie].     See  Lesson  V,  Exercise  in  Pronunciation,  (1). 

46  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §44 

B.    Write,  supplying  the  proper  form:    ce,  cet,  cette,  or  ces; 

enfant  (/.),  deve  (m.  and  /.), fille, gargon, 

apres-midi, carte, cartes, yeux, jour, 


C.  (1)  Translate  into  French:  1.  I  count  the  pupils.  2.  He 
studies  his  lesson.  3.  She  enters  (in)  the  classroom.  4.  We 
eat  bread  and  butter.  5.  You  look  at  the  map,  6.  They 
begin  the  lesson.  7.  Don't  I  speak  French?  (see  §  43,  note) 
8.  Doesn't  he  listen  to  the  teacher?  (two  ways)  9.  Don't 
we  look  at  the  map?  (two  ways)  10.  Don't  they  study? 
11.  I  do  not  close  the  door.  12.  She  does  not  eat  butter. 
13.  We  do  not  eat  any.  14.  You  do  not  return  home  in  the 
morning;  you  return  home  in  the  afternoon.  15.  They  do 
not  come  in. 

(2)  1.  I  count  the  pupils;  he  counts  them;  they  count  the 
windows;  we  count  them.  2.  We  do  not  stay  at  home  in  the 
morning;  they  stay  at  home  in  the  evening.  3.  He  opens 
the  door;  they  open  it;  it  is  open.  4.  Look  at  the  map! 
What  do  you  see?  5.  They  look  at  it;  they  study  it.  6.  Come 
in!  They  enter  (in)  the  classroom  by  the  door.  7.  They  eat 
bread;  they  eat  some.  8.  Do  you  want  (Voulez-vous)  some 
bread?  9.  Do  you  want  some?  Don't  you  want  any?  We 
eat  none. 

(3)  Dites  en  frangais:  1.  My  name  is  Robert.  2.  Her  name 
is  Adele.  3.  His  name  is  Joflfre  [sofr].  4.  What  is  your 
name?      5.  Their  (/.)  name  is  Hugo  [ygo]. 

D.  Dictation:   Lesson  VII,  A,  (2). 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  ficrivez  en  caracteres  phon^tiques  et  prononcez:  1.  Ce 
garQon  est  petit.  2.  Cette  fille  est  petite.  3.  Cette  maison 
est  grande.  4.  Cet^homme  est  grand.  5.  Cet^enfant  est 
fort.  6,  Mademoiselle  est  forte.  7.  Le  cahier  est^ouvert. 
8.  La  porte  est^ouverte. 

(2)  Pronounce  the  feminine  of  grand,  ouvert,  petit 

§§  45-47  LESSON  X  47 


46.  Plural  Forms.  Note  the  following  exceptions  to  the 
rule  (§31)  that  the  plural  of  nouns  and  adjectives  is  formed 
by  adding  -s  to  the  singular: 

1.  Nouns  in  -s,  -x,  -z,  and  adjectives  in  -s,  -x,  remain  unchanged  in 
the  plural,  e.g.,  bras,  bras,  amt{8);  voix,  voiac,  vaiceis);  nez,  nez, 
noseis);  bas,  bas,  low;  vieux,  vieuac,  old. 

2.  Nouns  and  adjectives  in  -an,  nouns  in  -eu,  and  a  few  nouns  in 
-ou,  add  -X  instead  of  -s,  e.g.,  couteau,  couteoux,  knife,  knives;  beau, 
beaux,  fine;  jeu,  jeux,  game{s);  bijou,  bijoux,  jewelis);  cailloi/,  cail- 
loux,  j)ebble{s),  and  a  few  rarer  nouns  in  -ou. 

3.  Nouns,  and  the  commoner  adjectives,  in  -al  change  -al  to  -au 
and  add  -x  (as  above),  e.g.,  general,  generoux,  generdis);  mat, 
rivoux,  rival{s),  except  bal,  bals,  ball{s),  and  a  few  rarer  nouns. 

4.  (Eil,  yeux,  eye(s);  del,  cieux,  nky,  skies,  heavenis). 

46.  Contractions.  The  forms  i  +  le  and  a  +  les  are 
always  contracted  into  au  and  aux  respectively;  the  remain- 
ing forms  are  not  contracted,  thus,  ^  la,  a  1'  in  full: 

Je  parle  au  [o]  frdre.  I  speak  to  the  brother. 

Aux  [o]  soeurs,  aux  [oz]  hommes.     To  the  sisters,  to  the  men 
But:  Je  parle  d  la  sceur,  a  rhomme. 

47.  Use  of  z7  y  a  [ilja].  1.  There  is  and  there  are  are  not 
only  translated  by  voila,  but  also  by  il  y  a: 

Voifd  des  plumes  sur  la  table.  There  are  some  pens  on  the  table. 

n  y  a  des  plumes  sur  la  table.  There  are  some  pens  on  the  table. 

2.  Observe,  however,  that  voila  answers  the  question 
'where  is?'  'where  are?*  and  makes  a  specific  statement 
about  an  object  to  which  attention  is  directed  by  pointing  or 
the  like,  while  il  y  a  does  not  answer  the  question  'where  is?' 
'where  are?'  but  makes  a  general  statement.  Voila  is 
stressed,  il  y  a  is  unstressed,  just  as  in  English  there  is  (are) 
is  usually  stressed  or  unstressed  according  as  it  points  out 
or  merely  makes  a  general  statement. 




3.  n  y  a  governs  nouns  just  as  other  transitive  verbs  do: 

Je  donne  des  plumes  k  Marie. 
U  y  a  des  plumes  s\xt  la  table. 

I  give  (some)  pens  to  Mary. 
There  are  (some)  pens  on  the  table. 


le  bas  [ba]  stocking 
le  bijou  [bisu]  jewel 
le  bout  [bu]  tip,  end 
le  bras  [bra]  arm 
le  cheval  [laSval]  horse 
le  corps  Di3:r]  body 
le  couteau  [kuto]  (table-)knife 
la  difference  [diferais]  difference 
le  general  [seneral]  general 
la  jambe  [3a!b]  leg 
le  nez  [ne]  nose 
un  ceil  [denceij]  eye 
le  pied  [pje]  foot 
le  pluriel  [plyrJEl]  plural 
la  voix  [vwa]  voice 

beau    [bo]    fine,    handsome, 

vieux  rvj0]  old 
vingt  et  un  [vetece]  21 
vingt-deux  [v£td03  22 
vingt-trois  [vettrwa]  23 

vingt-quatre  [vetkatr]  24 
vingt-cinq  [vetsek]  25 
vingt-six  [vetsis]  26 
vingt-sept  [vetset]  27 
vingt-huit  [vetqit]  28 
vingt-neuf  [vetnoef]  29 
trente  [trait]  30 

quelle?  /.  [kel]  what? 
qui?  [ki]  who?  whom? 

desirer  [deziire]  wish,  want 
lire  [li:r]  read 
porter  [porte]  wear,  carry 
prononcer      [pronoise]      pro- 

distinctement     [distekt  (a )  ma] 

en  fran^ais  [frase]  in  French 

entre  [Qitr]  between 
pourquoi?  [purkwa]  why? 
quand?  [ka]  when? 

A.  (1)  1.  II  y  a  ving^t  un  ou  vingt-deux^^ldves  dans  cette 
classe  de  fran^ais.  2.  Ils^^tudient  le  frangais  pares  qu'ils 
dfeirent  le  lire,  le  comprendre  et  le  parler.  3.  Pourquoi 
^tudiez-vous  le  fran^ais?  4.  D6sirez  (voulez)-vous  lire  des 
livres  frangais,  mes^amis?  5.  —  Oui,  monsieur,  nous  voulons 
(desirous)  lire  les  livres  de  Victor  Hugo,  de  Maupassant 
[mopasa],  de  Balzac  [balzak],  d'AnatoIe  France  [anatolfrais], 
de  Dumas  [dyma],  de  Voltaire  [volts  ir],  de  Beaumarchais 
[bomaree],  de  Lesage  [lasais],  de  Moli^re  [moljeir],  et  nous 
d^sirons  (voulons)  comprendre  le  frangais  et  le  parler  aussi. 
6.  —  Eh  bien,  mes^amis,  6coutez-moi  tres^attentivement  parce 
que  je  vais  vous  parler  en  frangais. 


Victor  Hugo 

{47  LESSON  X  49 

(2)  1.  Entendez-vous  ma  voix?  —  Oui,  monsieur.  2.  —  Com- 
prenez-vous  les  mots  quand  je  parle  lentement?  3.  — Oui, 
monsieur,  mais  nous  ne  comprenons  pas  quand  vous  parlez 
vite.  4.  —  Eh,  bien,  6coutez.  Je  vais  parler  lentement  et 
prononcer  distinctement.      5.  J'ai  un  corps.    Voici  mon  corps. 

6.  Voici  mes  deux  bras.  Au  bout  de  mes  deux  bras,  j'ai  deux 
mains.  7.  II  y  a  cinq  doigts  k  cette  main  et  cinq  doigts  k 
cette  main;  combien  de  doigts  est-ce  que  j'ai?  8.  Voici 
mon  nez.  Est-ce  que  j'ai  un  nez  ou  deux  nez?  9.  Et  Louise, 
combien  de  nez  a-t-elle?  10.  A-t-elle  trois^eux?  Et  un 
cheval  combien  d'yeux  [dj0]  a-t-il?  11.  Et  combien  d'yeux 
[dj0]  ont  douze  chevaux?  12.  Et  vous^vez  deux  jambes 
QsQib]  et  deux  pieds  Cd0pje],  Henri,  n'est-ce  pas?  13.  Et  les 
chevaux  combien  de  jambes  ont^ils?  —  Ils^en^ont  quatre. 
14.  —  Combien  de  jambes  ont  sept  chevaux?  15.  —  Qu'avez- 
vous  aux  pieds?  —  J'ai  des  bas  aux  pieds.  16.  —  Oil  portez- 
vous  les  bas,  aux  mains?  17.  —  Non,  monsieur,  je  les  porte 
aux  pieds  et  aux  jambes.  18.  —  Qu'avez-vous  au  bout  des 
jambes?      19.  —  J'ai  mes  deux  pieds  au  bout  de  mes  jambes. 

B.  1.  Alle^au  tableau (noir),  Jean.  2.  £crivez^aupluriel:le 
bras,  la  voix,  un  g^n^ral,  un  couteau.  3.  Maintenant  6crivez^au 
singulier:  les  yeux,  les  chevaux.  4.  Dit-on  {Do  we,  people, 
say) :  « II  y  a  \'ingt-trois^616ve8  dans  cette  classe,  »  ou  t  Voili 
vingt-trois^^l^ves  dans  cette  classe?  »  5.  Dit-on:  t  II  y  a  mes 
deux  bras*,  ou  «  Voil^  mes  deux  bras  »?  6.  Dit;^n:  t  II  y 
a  notre  professeur  de  fran^ais  »,  ou  «  Voili  notre  professeur 
de  frangais »?  7.  Quelle  est  la  difference  entre:  t  Voil^ 
deux^ei^ves  qui  n'^coutent  pas!  »  et  «  II  y  a  deux^616ve8  qui 
n*6coutent  pas  »? 

C.  Translate  into  French:  1.  There  are  twenty-nine  pupils 
in  this  French  class.  2.  The  teacher  speaks  to  the  pupils  in 
French.  3.  He  speaks  slowly  and  the  pupils  try  (tftchent  de) 
to  understand  him.  4.  He  says  (dit) :  "  What  is  your  name? 
How  old  are  you?  Why  do  you  study  French?  "  5.  "  My 
name  is  Edward.  I  am  sixteen.  6.  I  am  studying  because 
I  wish  to  read,  understand,  speak,  and  write   (the)  French. 

7.  Will  you    (Voulez-vous  bien)  speak  slowly?" 

50  a  french  grammar  §47 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Write  phonetically  and  pronounce:  men  bras,  mesbras; 
sa  voix,  leurs  voix;  un  bas,  vos  bas;  son  pere  est  vieux;  ses 
amis  sent  vieux;  void  leurs  couteaux;  ces  enfants  sont  beaux; 
les  bijoux  de  cette  dame  sont  tres  beaux. 

(2)  Compare  the  pronunciation  of  the  singular  and  plural 
of  the  new  words.  Do  they  differ  as  to  pronunciation  from 
words  that  make  their  plural  according  to  §31?  What  will 
usually  indicate  to  the  ear  the  plural  of  such  words? 

(3)  Write  phonetically  and  read  aloud:  un  general,  des 
generaux;  un  cheval,  des  chevaux;  k  I'ceil,  aux  yeux;  au  del, 
aux  deux. 

(4)  Is  this  a  mere  spelling  change  as  in  livres,  bijoux? 

(5)  Count  aloud  1-30,  putting  after  each  numeral,  first  a 
noun  beginning  with  a  consonant  and  then  one  beginning  with 
a  vowel:  e.g.,  vingt-dnq  couteaux,  vingt-cinq  amis.  Note 
that  the  final  letter  of  vingt  is  heard  as  t  in  21-29. 

(6)  Note  the  pronunciation  of  bras,  tu  as  (§  33),  as  compared 
mth  bas,  pas.  What  is  the  usual  pronunciation  of  the  letter 
a  (alone  and  not  nasal)?    Is  this  true  of  ftge?  of  nous  tSchons? 

(7)  Contrast  the  pronunciation  of  le  soir,  pourquoi,  je  vols, 
la  voix,  void,  voil^  with  that  of  trois.  What  seems  to  be 
the  usual  sound  value  of  the  spelling  oi? 


No.    1 

(1)  Nommez  (Name)  les  parties  (parts)  du  corps  (12)  dont 
(of  which)  vous  savez   (know)  le  nom  (name). 

(2)  Quels  sont  les  membres  (members)  d'une  famille  (family)  ? 

(3)  Nommez  tous  (pluriel  de  tout)  les  objets  (objects)  dans 
la  classe  dont  vous  savez  le  nom. 

(4)  Donnez  les  contraires  de:  nous  ouvrons;  le  jour;  petit; 
vite;    nous  sortons;    ils  ouvrent. 

(5)  What  words  or  expressions  do  you  think  of  in  connection 
with  the  following?  le  gar<jon;  le  corps;  I'oncle;  le  crayon; 
le  plafond;  I'apres-midi;   en  anglais;   devant;   voil^;  le  cahier; 

$47  LESSON  X  51 

d6sirez-vous?   pourquoi;  j'^coute;  la  nuit;  la  fille;  la  famille; 
le  matin;   de. 

(6)  Fill  in  blanks  with  appropriate  words:    1.  Oil  sont  vos 

mains?    Les  voilll  au de  mes .     2.  J' votre  voix, 

mais  je  ne  vons pas.    Pourquoi?    Parce  que  vous  parlez 

tr^ .      3.  J'^tudie  le  fran^ais je  desire les  livres 

de  Balzac.      4.  Les  hommes  ont  deux ;    les en  ont 

quatre.     5.  II vingt-trois dans  cette  classe.      6.  Nous 

avec  les  dents;  nous avec  les  oreilles;  nous avec 

les  yeux.       7.  Nous  de  la  salle  de  classe  par  la  porte. 

8.  Donnez-moi  un de  pain  avec  du .      9.  Sur  le  mur 

11  y  a  une de  France.       10.  Nous  tdchons  de  vous , 

mais  vous tr^  vite;  vous  parler  plus ?      11.  Je 

ferme  les  yeux  pour .      12.  Quel  age  a-t-il?    II vingt 

.      13.  J' avec  ma  plume  dans  mon .      14.  Com- 
ment vous  vous?     Je  m' Henri;    ma  sceur  s' 

Louise.       15.  Montrez  votre  professeur  de  fran5ais,  s'il 

.     Le ,  monsieur. 

(7)  What  verbs  do  you  know  (seven  or  eight)  that  indicate  the 
activities  (a)  of  the  brain,  the  eyes,  or  the  ears,  or  (b)  of  the  limbs  t 

Use  each  in  a  serUence. 


(1)  To  judge  from  words  like  papier,  pied,  what  sound  value 
does  the  spelling  ie  usually  have?  Indicate  in  phonetic 

(2)  What  is  the  sound  value  of  the  combination  ien,  as  in 
bieiif  combien?  Of  the  combinations  in,  ain?  Of  the  combina- 
tion un  as  in  un,  Verdun? 

(3)  What  two  sounds  has  the  letter  c?  Compare  morceau, 
ciel,  c'est,  gargon,  fran^ais  with  carte,  crayon,  compter,  and 
make  a  rule   {see  §  5,  4). 

(4)  What  two  sounds  has  the  letter  s?  Compare  soir,  soeur, 
professeur  with  maison,  vous  avez,  and  make  a  rule  (see,  in 
part,  §  18,  1). 

(5)  Pronounce:  avec,  voir,  par,  soeur,  anglais,  est,  doigt, 
nuit,  huit,  fermez,  les  yeux,  cousin,  aimer  (Lesson  I),  cheval 

52  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§48-40 

[Saval],  general,  grand,  fils.  Are  final  consonants  usually- 
sounded  in  French?  How  does  fils  compare  in  sound  with 
other  words  ending  in  s  as  far  as  we  have  gone? 

(6)  What  are  the  usual  sound  values  for  the  spellings  -on, 
-en,  -an,  -in,  -ain,  -un,  -ien?  For  the  spelling  -eu?  Contrast 
beurre  with  vieuz,  yeux.  For  the  spelling  -ai?  Contrast  j'ai, 
maison,  with  franjais,  s'il  vous  plait,  vous  faites. 

(7)  Compare  the  French  sound  1  with  English  1  (§  17,  7). 
Where  is  the  tip  of  the  tongue  for  French  1? 

(8)  Compare  French  r  with  English  r  (§  17, 12).  Is  the  tongue 
brought  farther  forward  in  French?  In  French  avoid  using  the 
English  r.     The  French  lingual  r  is  sharper, 

(9)  Pronounce  slowly  and  distinctly  with  attention  to  syU 
lable  division:  general,  desirer,  regarder,  attentivement,  vous 
comprenez,  apres-midi,  nous  ecrivons,  porter,  vous  vous  ap- 
pelez,  bonjour,  merci,  monsieur,  mademoiselle. 


48.  An  Indefinite  Pronoun.  1.  One,  some  one,  we,  you, 
they,  people,  used  indefinitely,  are  represented  in  French  by 
on,  with  the  verb  always  in  the  singular: 

On  [5]  parle  de  Jean.  We  (you,  they,  etc.)  speak  of  John. 

2.  When  following  a  verb  with  a  final  vowel,  on  is  joined 

toitby-t-  (cf.  §29): 

Par  o&  commence-t-on?  Wliere  do  we  (etc.)  begin? 

3.  An  on  construction  often  corresponds  to  an  English 
passive,  especially  when  the  agent  is  not  mentioned: 
Ensuite  on  apporte  le  potage.  Next  the  soup  is  brought. 

49.  Interrogation.  Observe  the  frequently  used  inter- 
rogative phrase  qu'est-ce  que?  =  what?  which  is  made  up 
of  que?  (§  38,  3)  +  est-ce  que?  (§  43): 

^'a-t-il?  or  Qu'est-ce  ^'il  a?        What  has  he? 

{50  LESSON  XI  53 

60.  Present  Indicative  of  faire,  to  do,  make  {meg), 

I  do,  am  doing,  etc.  We  do,  are  doing,  etc. 

je  fais  [safe] 

tu  fais  [tyf e3 
ilfait  [ilfe] 

nous  faisons  [nufdzd] 
vous  faites  [vuf ct] 
ils  font      [ilf3] 


I'algSbre  /.  [Talseibr]  algebra 
rarithmetique  /.   [Taritmetik] 

une  assiette  [as jet]  plate 
la  bonne  [boo]  maid,  nurse 
la  cuiller  [kqijeir]  spoon 
le  dessert  [deseir]  dessert 
le  diner  [dine]  dinner 
la  fourchette  [furjet]  fork 
le  fruit  [frqi]  fruit 
une  histoire     [istwair]    history, 

le  journal  [sumal]  newspaper 
le  latin  [lat€]  Latin 
le  legimie  [legym]  vegetable 
les  mathematiques     /.     [mate- 

matik]  mathematics 
le  potage  [potais]  soup 
la  question  [kEstjo]  question 
la  salle  [sal]  large  room,  hall 
la  salle  i  manger   [salamase] 

dining  room 
les  sciences  naturelles  /.  [sjfiis- 

natyrel]  natural  science 
la  tasse  [ta:s]  cup 
la  viande  [vjfiid]  meat 

fige  [a:3e]  old,  aged 

s'amuser  [samyze]  enjoy  one- 
self, have  a  good  time 

apporter  [aporte]  carry  (to), 

commencer  (&)  [kamose]  be* 

diner  [dine]  dine 
jouer  [swe]  play 
nous  lisons  [liz3]  we  are  reading 
il  prend  [pro]  he  takes,  is  tak- 
preparer  [prepare]  prepare 
repondezl    [rep5de]    reply! 
je  me  sers  de  [samseirdd]  I  use, 

make  use  of 
il  se  sert  de  [se:r]  he  makes  use 
nous  nous  servons  de  [servS]  we 
sonner  [sone]  ring 
traduisez    [tradqize]   trans^ 

late  (imperative) 
travailler  [travaje]  work 

comme  [kom]  as,  like 
que  [ka]  than 

d'abord  [daborr]  in  the  first 
place,  first 
puis  [pqi]  then,  in  the  next 

A.    (1)  1.  Que    fait-on    (Qu*est-ce    qu'on    fait)    h.    r^cole? 
2.  On  6tudie  sea  le9ons  k  I'^cole;    on  fait  du  frangais,   de 

54  A  FBENCH  GRAMMAB  |  50 

I'anglais,  du  latin.  3.  On  6tudie  aussi  Thistoire,  les  math6- 
matiques  et  les  sciences  naturelles.  4.  Je  fais  de  rarithm^tique 
et  du  frangais;  mon  frere,  qui  est  plus  dg6,  6tudie  aussi  I'algebre 
et  le  latin.  5.  On  travaille  mais  on  joue  aussi;  on  s'amuse 
bien.      6.  On  joue  au  tennis  et  au  football  [futbal]. 

(2)  R4pondez  aux  questions:  1.  Qu'est-ce  qu'on  fait  k  I'^cole? 
2.  Est-ce  qu'on  va  k  I'^cole  pour  s'amuser?  3.  Pourquoi 
va-t-on  k  r^cole?  4-6.  Faites-vous  du  latin  k  T^cole?  de 
I'histoire?  de  I'anglais?  7.  Aimez-vous  les  sports?  8-9.  Fait- 
on  du  tennis  ^  votre  6cole?  du  baseball?  10.  Jouez-vous  au 
football?  11.  Avez-vous  un  fr^re?  12.  Est-il  plus  dg6  que 
vous?  13.  Est-il  plus  grand?  14.  Aimez-vous  les  langues 
ou  les  sciences  naturelles?  15.  Faites-vous  de  I'arithm^tique 
ou  de  I'algebre?       16.  Aimez-vous  I'histoire? 

(3)  1.  L'apres-midi  nous  retournons  de  I'^cole  et  nous  allons 
h.  la  maison.  2.  La  porte  est  ferm^e.  Nous  sonnons  et  on 
ouvre.  3.  Nous  entrons  dans  la  maison,  et  nous  commengons 
^  lire  le  journal  avant  le  diner,  4.  On  sonne  et  nous  entrons 
dans  la  salle  h.  manger.  5.  On  commence  k  diner.  D'abord 
nous  avons  du  potage.  6.  Nous  le  mangeons  avec  une  cuiller. 
7.  Puis  la  bonne  apporte  la  viande  et  les  legumes.  8.  Pour 
les  manger  nous  nous  servons  d'un  couteau  et  d'une  fourchette. 
9.  Mon  petit  fr^re  se  sert  d'une  cuiller  pour  manger  tout  son 
diner.  10.  Moi,  je  suis  grand;  je  me  sers  d'une  fourchette 
et  d'un  couteau  comme  mon  p^re  et  ma  mere.  11.  On  mange 
dans  une  assiette.  12.  Puis  au  dessert,  on  mange  du  fruit 
et  on  prend  du  caf6  dans  une  tasse.  13.  Mon  petit  fr^re  ne 
prend  pas  de  caf6  parce  qu'il  est  petit.  14.  Apr^  le  diner 
nous  lisons  les  journaux  du  soir.  15.  Puis  nous  t&chons  de 
preparer  nos  legons. 

B.  (1)  Rewrite  A  (3)  c^ove,  suhstitvting  far  the  first  plural, 
when  possible  (a)  the  first  person  singular,  (6)  the  third  person 

(2)  a.  What  do  you  notice  in  A  (3)  about  the  verb  entrer  when 
followed  by  a  nounf  About  commencer  when  followed  by  an 

$50  LESSON  XI  55 

6.  What  have  you  already  noted  about  Ucher,  d^sirer,  vous 
voulez,  when  followed  by  an  infinitive?  Translate:  1.  We  try  to 
understand  and  to  speak  French.  2.  I  learn  French  because  I 
want  (desirer)  to  read  the  works  of  Balzac.  3.  Will  you, 
please,  speak  slowly? 

(3)  Insert   the   proper   subject    pronoun:     1.  me   sers. 

2.  (m.  and  /.)  se  sert.      3. nous  senons.      4.  

vous  servez.      5.  se  servent.     Insert  the  object  pronouns: 

6.  Je  appelle.         7.  II  appelle.        8.  Nous  

appelons.       9.  Vous  appelez.       10.  lis appellent. 

{Note  the  shifts  in  pronunciation  and  spelling  in  the  present  tense 
of  s'appeler  [saple].     These  will  be  discussed  in  L^son  XIX.) 

(4)  Supply  the  missing  preposition:    1.  Je  me  sers  ma 

plume  f)Our  6crire.       2.  lis  se  servent  leur  cuiller  pour 

manger  le  potage.      3.  On  prend  le  caf6 une  tasse.      4.  II 

a  une  asaette la  main.      5.  A  I'^cole  on  joue tennis. 

6.  Nous  ^tudions  le  diner.       7.  Nous  entrons  la 

salle  k  manger.      8.  On  prend  le  caf6 le  diner.      9.  Mon 

petit  fr6re  se  sert une  cuiller manger  son  diner. 

C.  Traduisez  en  frangais:  1.  What  have  you  (two  ways) 
in  your  plate?  2.  I  have  meat,  vegetables,  and  bread  and 
butter.     I   have   no   fork    to    (pour)   eat   my  dinner   [withj 

3.  What  is  the  maid  doing?  She  is  bringing  spoons,  knives, 
and  forks.  4.  We  have  no  fruit  for  (the)  dessert.  Look! 
The  maid  is  bringing  some  into  the  dining-room  now.  5.  You 
are  fond  of  (aimer)  (the)  fruit  (plural),  aren't  you?  Yes,  I 
am  fond  of  (the)  soup  to  (pour)  begin  [\»nth]  and  I  like  (the) 
fruit  for  dessert.  6.  What  do  you  do  before  (the)  dinner? 
We  read  the  evening  paper.  In  the  morning  we  read  the 
morning  paper.  7.  What  do  people  (on)  do  after  (the) 
dinner?  They  (On)  work  or  they  (on)  have  a  good  time. 
8.  First  I  prepare  my  lessons,  then  I  enjoy  myself.  9.  Does 
your  small  sister  work  (arrange  the  question  in  t^oo  ways)? 
10.  No,  she  has  a  good  time.  She  looks  at  her  books,  but  she 
doesn't  work. 

D.  Dictation.    Lesson  IX,  Exercise  A,  15  sentences. 

56  a  french  grammar  §§51-52 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce  slowly  and  distinctly  with  especial  attention 
to  syllable  division  and  stress:  mathematiques,  naturelles, 
arithmetique,  cuiller,  couteau,  nous  §tudions,  nous  nous  ap- 
pelons,  vous  vous  servez.     Try  to  stress  all  syllables  alike. 

(2)  a.  What  do  you  notice  about  the  spelling  of  nous  com- 
menfons  in  A,  (3),  3  ?  See  §  5,  4.  Would  this  spelling  occur 
^in  any  other  form  of  the  present  tense  of  commencer?  Com- 
/pare  §78,  1. 

b.  Is  there  anything  of  the  same  sort  in  the  spelling  of  nous 
mangeons  [nu  masS]?    See  §  17,  18  and  compare  §78,  2. 

(3)  Note  the  pronunciation  of  the  first  plural  of  faire.  What 
sound  value  does  the  spelling  ai  oftenest  have?  What  next? 
Compare  faire,  je  fais,  j'aime,  anglais,  la  craie,  la  maison,  j'ai. 

(4)  Write  in  phonetic  characters  and  read  aloud  in  singulai 
and  plural,  putting  in  the  definite  article:  cuiller,  couteau, 
fourchette,  viande,  fruit,  legiune,  tasse,  dessert. 


51.  Feminine  of  Adjectives.  It  is  regularly  formed  by 
adding  -e  to  the  masculine  singular,  but  adjectives  ending 
in  -e  remain  unchanged. 

Grand,  m.,  grande,/.,  tall;  facile,  m.  or/.,  easy. 

52.  Irregularities.  Change  of  stem  takes  place  in  certain 
adjectives  on  adding  -e.  The  following  list  shows  the  com- 
moner types: 

M.  F. 

acti/,  actiye,  active 

heureux,  heureuse,  happy 

flatteur,  fJatteuse,  flatter- 

blanc,  blanche,  white 

\ongf  longue,  long 

faux,  fausse,  false 




crueZZe,  cruel 


gentiKe,  nice 


ancienne,  ancient 


grosse,  big 


mue«e,  dumb 


chdre,  dear 


sdcAe,  dry 

(§53-54  LESSON  xn  S7 

Observe  also:  m.  beau  or  bel,  /.  befle,  fine;  m.  dootmu  or  nomre/ 
f.  nouve/te,  neu?;  m.  vieiuc  or  viei/,  /.  viei//e,  oW,  with  two  forms  for 
the  masculine,  one  of  which  gives  the  feminine.  The  masculine  fonna 
in  -1  are  used  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute: 

Le  hel  arbre,  le  bel  homme.  The  fine  tree,  the  handsome  man. 

But:   L'arbre  est  beau;  le  beau  livre;  les  beaux  arbres;  les  arbres 
sent  beaux. 

63.  Position.     1.  An  attributive  adjective  more  usually 

follows  its  noun: 

Un  homme  riche,  une  pomme  mure.       A  rich  man,  a  ripe  appk. 

2.  Adjectives  from  proper  nouns,  adjectives  of  physical 
quality,  participles  as  adjectives,  almost  always  follow: 

La  langue  anglaise.  The  English  language. 

Du  cafe  chaud,  ime  lampe  cassie.       Hot  coffee,  a  broken  lamp. 

3.  The  following  of  very  common  occurrence  nearly  always 


Bon,  good,  mauvais,  had;  beaUf  fine,  handaome,  joli,  prHty,  yflain, 
ugly;  jeune,  young,  vieuz,  aid;  grand,  tall,  great,  gros,  big,  petit,  tmaU; 
long,  long,  court,  short. 

4.  A  number  of  common  adjectives  have  different  mean- 
ings according  as  they  precede  or  follow  the  noun.  Two 
examples  are: 

Hon    ancien    61ive.      My    old     Lliistoire  ancienne.    Ancient  hi»- 

(formor)  pupil.  tory. 

Mon  Cher  amL    My  dear  friend.     Un    diner   cher.     An   expensive 


64.  Interrogative  Adjective.  Whi^hf  what?  what  (a)/ - 
m.  quel?/,  quelle?  m.  pi.  quels?/,  pi.  quelles? 

Quel  [kel]  livre?  Which  (what)  book? 

Quette  [kel]  plume?  Which  (what)  pen? 

A  quelle  heure?  At  what  time? 

Quelle  belle  vue!  Quels  hSrosI  What  a  fine  viewl    What  beroeal 
[kelero]  (««  %  17,  5) 

58  A   FRENCH   GRAMMAR  5  55 

55.   There,  in  that  place  =  y.     It  stands  for  a  place  al- 
ready referred  to,  is  put  before  the  verb  like  a  pronoun 
object,  and  is  less  emphatic  than  la  =  there: 
Est-il  h  I'ecole?   II  y  [i]  est.  Is  he  at  school?    He  is  (there). 


la  dictee  [dikte]  dictation  exercise  joli  [soli]  pretty 

I'eau  /.  [lo]  water  long  [15]  long 

ancien  [asje]  former,  old,  an-  mauvais  [move]  bad,  poor  (in 

cient  quality) 

beau,  bel  [bo]  [bel]  fine,  hand-  muet  [mqe]  dumb,  silent 

some  mftr  [my:r]  ripe 

blanc  [bla]  white  nouveau  [nuvo]  new 

chaud  [So]  warm,  hot  riche  [riS]  rich 

Cher  [Ss'.r]  dear,  expensive  vilain  [vile]  ugly,  naughty 

court  [ku:r]  short  ,      r      •      -, 

,  )r,       ,-i         ,  asseyez-vousl      [aseievu]     sit 

cruel  [kryel]  cruel  j        t  / •  ,■    ^ 

.    .,   7-.    .,-r  down!  nmperahve) 

facile  [fasxl]  easy  .       ,  .        '^    _ 

faux  [to]  false,  deceitful  ''  ^^^  ^^^,  ^=^^77^^  ^  ««  ^^^^ 

^,r  -2.-,     ■  xi.  11       11  s'en  va  [ilsava]  he  goes  away 

gentil  [sati]  nice,  pretty,  well-  "^ 

behaved  beaucoup  [boku]  much,  many, 

grand  [gra]  large,  tall  a  great  deal,  a  great  many 

gros  [gro]  big  peu  [p0]  little  (quantity),  few 

heureux  [oer0]  glad,  happy  y  [i]  there,  to  it,  to  them;  at. 

jeune  [seen]  young  in  it,  them 

A.  (1)  Write  with  each  of  the  following  nouns  two  or  more 
of  the  adjectives  in  §§51,  52,  53,  that  may  be  reasonably  used 
with  them,  being  careful  about  the  position  and  form:  un  homme, 
une  sceur,  ces  journaux,  una  salle  h.  manger,  des  bijoux,  quelle 
voix!  une  jambe,  cette  bouche,  les  yeux,  une  t6te,  cet  oncle, 
men  ami,  quel  jour!  notre  professeur,  le  monsieur,  un  mur, 
une  maison,  un  gargon,  un  cheval,  des  fruits,  ces  livres. 

(2)  Supply  the  proper  form  of  a  suitable  adjective  in  each  case: 

1.  Le   potage   est   tr^s  .       2.  Men  caf6  n'est  pas  . 

3.  Asseyez-vous,  men ami.      4.  Le  professeur  nous  donne 

de* lecons.      5.  La  dame  a  de*  bijoux.      6.  EUe  a 

de  * yeux.        7.  J'aime  les  enfants  quand  ils  sent . 

*  This  use  of  de  will  be  treated  in  §  59,  2. 

$55  LESSON  xn  69 

8.  Louise  parle  beaucoup;  elle  n'est  pas .      9.  Le  fruit  est 

bon  quand  il  est .       10.  Voil^  des  enfants  . 

(3)  Donnez  le  contraire  de:  longuc,  vidlle,  jolie,  bonne,  petite, 
&g4e,  noire. 

B.  Traduisez  en  fran^ais:  1.  This  hot  soup.  That  dumb 
woman.  A  nice  woman.  Their  pretty  little  boy.  Her  white 
stockings.  2.  Some  false  stories.  Two  big  (gros)  spoons. 
Her  long  knife.  Happy  men  {note  ttoo  cases  of  linking  in  this 
phrase).  3.  What  a  nice  boy!  What  a  short  lesson!  What 
a  big  foot!  4.  An  English  newspaper.  An  old  Frenchman 
(see  §  21).  A  tall  (grand)  Englishman.  5.  Their  new 
teacher.  A  poor  (bad)  teacher.  Our  old  (»  former)  teacher. 
Ancient  history.  6.  Do  you  want  any  hot  water?  There  is 
no  hot  water.  7.  Are  we  in  the  classroom?  We  are  (there). 
8.  What  do  you  do  in  the  dining-room?  We  eat  (in  it).  What 
do  you  eat  (there)?  We  eat  bread,  meat,  vegetables  and  fruit 
(there).  9.  Do  you  have  a  good  time  at  school?  Yes,  we 
have  a  very  good  time  (nous  nous  amusons  beaucoup  [boku]) 
there.  10.  Do  you  work  or  (do  you)  play  at  school?  We  work 
a  great  deal  (there)  and  play  a  little  (there).  11.  I  am  going 
Qaway]  this  evening.  What  is  your  sister  doing?  She  is 
going  away  this  evening. 

C.  Dict^,  Lesson  X,  B. 

ExERasE  IN  Pronunciation 

(1)  Prononcez  et  6crivez  en  caract^res  phon^tiques:  mon 
ancienne  (old  =  former)  place,  notre  ch^re  amie,  un  bel  homme, 
tme  grosse  cuiller,  une  histoire  fausse,  ma  nouvelle  maison, 
une  vieille  maison,  les  beaux  enfants,  un  vilain  enfant,  une 
courte  le(on,  une  gentille  petite  fille,  des  enfants  heureux. 

(2)  As  regards  pronunciation,  is  the  effect  of  adding  the  -c 
for  the  feminine  the  same  with  all  adjectives?  Compare,  for 
example,  jolie  and  grande.  On  this  basis  group  the  adjectives 
in  §§  51,  52,  53. 

(3)  Pronounce  slowly,  with  special  attention  to  syllable  diviaon 
and  stress:  salle  d  manger,  je  m'en  vais,  nous  commen^ons, 
les  sciences  naturelles. 




LESSON  xin 
56.     Present  Indicative  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

I  give,  am  giving, 

donn  e      [don] 
donn  es     [don] 
donn  e      [don] 
donn  ons  [dono] 
donn  ez    [done] 
donn  ent  [don] 

I  finish,  am  finishing, 

fini  s  [fini] 

fin/  s  [fini] 

fiiu  t  [fini] 

finiss  ons  [finiso] 

finiss  ez  [finise] 

Gniss  ent  [finis] 

/  sell,  am  selling, 

vend  s      [va] 
vend  s      [va] 
vend  *       [va] 
vend  0715  [vad5] 
vend  ez    [vade] 
vend  ent  [va:d] 

*  Vendre  is  irregular  in  this  one  form.  The  regular  verb  rompre  has 
romp^  but  vendre  is  here  given  as  being  more  useful  for  practice. 

Note.  —  The  pronouns  je,  tu,  il,  etc.,  have  been  omitted  in  this  paradigm 
and  in  some  others  to  economize  space  in  printing.  They  should  be  sup- 
plied in  learning  or  reciting  the  paradigms. 

57.  The  General  Noun.  A  noun  used  in  a  general  sense 
takes  the  definite  article  in  French,  though  not  commonly 
in  English: 

LTiomme  est  mortel. 

Les  hommes  sont  mortels. 

Le  miel  est  tres  douz. 

Le  cheval  est  un  animal  utile. 

Man  is  mortal. 

Men  are  mortal. 

Honey  is  very  sweet. 

The  horse  is  a  useful  animal. 

58.  Tout.    All,  the  whole,  every  =  tout,  with  the  follow- 
ing forms,  which  precede  the  article,  when  it  is  present: 

M.  F. 

S.  tout  [tu]  toute  [tut] 

Toute  ma  vie. 

Tout  le  monde. 

Tous  les  mois. 

Toute  la  semaine. 

Tout  homme,  toute  femme. 

Tous  les  hommes. 

Toute  la  joumee. 

M.  F. 

PI.  tous  [tu]  toutes  [tut] 

All  my  life. 

Everybody  ( =  the  whole  world). 

Every  month. 

The  whole  week. 

Every  man,  every  woman.  ; 

All  the  men. 

The  whole  day. 





la  tMUe  [bal]  baU 

le  bois  [bwa]  wood,  woods 

la  campagne  pcfipap]  country 
{in  contrast  with  toum);  k  la 
campagne  to  or  in  the 

le  champ  [Sa]  field 

un  6t6  [ete]  summer;  en  M, 
l'6t6  in  summer 

la  famille  [famij]  family 

la  f emme  [fam3  woman,  wife 

la  fleur  [fl(£:r3  flower 

la  gare  [ga:r]  station 

le  grand-pdre  forapeir]  grand- 

la  grand'm^  [grdme:r]  grand- 
uneheure     [cbit]    hour;      deux 
heures  [d^Bcetr]  two  o'clock 

un  hiver  [denivcrr]  winter;  en 
hiver  [anive:r3,  ITurer 
Qivcrr]  in  winter 

le  lit  Qi]  bed 

le  parent  [parfi]  kinsman,  parent 

la  poup^  Cpupe]  doll 

le  train  [trt]  train 

lea  vacances  /.  [vakflrs]  vacation 

la  ville  [vil]  city,  town;  en  ville 
in  town 

la  voiture  [vwatytr]  carriage, 
vehicle;  en  voiture  in  a 
carriage  {as  distinguished 
from  other  ways  of  trateUng) 

content  (de)  [kSta]  glad  (to) 
fatigu6  [fatige]  tired 
tranquille  [trOkil]  quiet,  alone 

(in   the   expression:    leave 

utile  [ytil]  useful 

arriver  [arive]  arrive,  oome 
attendre    [ata:dr]   wait   for, 

dierdier    [Saie]    hunt   for; 

aller  chercher,  go  and  get 
86  ooucher  [sdkuSe]  go  to  bed, 

lie  down;   nous  nous  oou- 

chons  we  go  to  bed,  lie  down 
il  fait  chaud  [ilfejo^  it  is  warm, 

habiter  [abite]  live  in,  inhabit 
inviter  (4)  [fvite]  invite 
marcher  [marSe]  walk,  go  {of 

train,  tnitch,  ttc.) 
mmiter  [m5te]  get  (in),  climb; 

monter  i  cheval  ride  horse* 

passer  [pose]  spend  {of  time)^ 

prendre  [prfi:dr]  take,  get 
se  preparer  [saprepare]  get  ready 
voir  [vwa:r]  see 

commel  [kdm]  howl 
comme  Pom]  as,  like 
k  pied  [apje]  on  foot 
si  [si]  so 

A.    (1)  1.  Nous  habitons  la  ville  de  X (iks),  mais  nous 

aimons  la  campagne.  2.  J'y  vais  avec  ma  famille  tous  les 
^iAs.  3.  Nous  y  passons  les  vacances.  4.  J'ai  des  parents  k 
la  campagne,  mon  grand-p^re,  ma  grand'm&re,  deux  oncles  et 
une  tante.     5.  lis  nous  invitent  k  passer  I'^t^  dans  leur  maison. 

62  A  FBENCH  GRAMMAR  §58 

6.  Quand  I'hiver  est  fini,  il  fait  tres  chaud  en  ville  et  nous  nous 
pr^parons  h  aller  a  la  eampagne.  7.  Je  prends  ma  poup6e, 
mon  petit  frere  prend  sa  balle.  8.  A  une  heure  de  Tapres-midi 
nous  allons  k  la  gare.  9.  Le  train  arrive  a  deux  heures  et  nous 
montons  dans  une  voiture.  10.  Le  train  marche  vite  et  au 
bout  de  trois  heures  nous  arrivons  a  la  petite  gare.  11.  Notre 
grand'm^re  et  tons  nos  cousins  nous  attendent  a  la  gare  avec 
leur  voiture.  12.  Nous  montons  dans  la  voiture.  13.  Les 
deux  chevaux  marchent  lentement  et  nous  avons  le  temps  de 
voir  les  jolis  champs  et  les  beaux  bois.  14.  Tout  est  en  fleurs. 
15.  II  y  a  des  hommes  et  des  chevaux  qui  travaillent  dans  les 
champs.  16.  Notre  grand-p^re  nous  attend  a  la  maison. 
17.  II  est  content  de  nous  voir  et  nous  sommes  tres  contents 
de  le  voir  aussi.  18.  Nous  nous  couchons  (Je  me  couche)  ^ 
neuf  heures  du  soir  parce  que  nous  sommes  fatigues,  et  nous 
dormons  bien.  19.  Les  lits  sont  si  bons  et  tout  est  tranquille. 
20.  Comme  j'aime  la  eampagne!  Les  enfants  s'amusent  beau- 
coup  k  la  eampagne  en  6t6.  21.  Les  gargons  montent  k  cheval, 
les  petites  fiUes  jouent  avec  leurs  poup6es  et  cherchent  des  fleurs 
dans  les  champs  et  dans  les  bois. 

(2)  Imagine  thai  the  passage  above  [A  (1)]  refers  to  you. 
Answer  the  questions  in  complete  sentences:  1.  Habitez-vous  la 
ville  ou  la  eampagne?  2.  Aimez-vous  la  ville  en  hiver  ou 
en  6t6?  3.  Ou  passez-vous  les  vacances?  4.  Quels  parents 
avez-vous  k  la  eampagne?  5.  Est-ce  que  vous  prenez  [prane] 
(pres.  of  prendre)  le  train  pour  aller  k  la  eampagne?  6.  A 
quelle  heure  montez-vous  dans  le  train?  7.  Combien  d'heures 
restez-vous  dans  la  voiture?  8.  Le  train  marche-t-il  vite  ou 
lentement?  9.  Qui  vous  attend  k  la  petite  gare  de  eampagne? 
10.  Est-ce  que  votre  grand-pere  y  est  aussi?  11.  Allez-vous 
k  la  maison  de  vos  parents  k  pied  ou  en  voiture?  12.  Est-ce 
que  votre  grand'mere  est  contente  de  vous  voir?  13.  fites- 
V0U8  fatigu^?  14.  A  quelle  heure  vous  couchez-vous? 
15.  Dormez-vous  bien?  16.  Mangez-vous  bien?  17.  Est- 
ce  que  les  enfants  aiment  la  eampagne?  18.  Que  font  les 
gargons?  19.  Que  font  les  petites  fiUes?  20.  Est-ce  que 
tes  grandes  filles  montent  k  cheval  aussi?       21.  Est-ce  que  la 

§58  LESSON  xm  63 

campagne  est  tranquille?  22.  Plus  tranquille  que  la  ville? 
23.  Fait-il  chaud  en  ville  en  6t^  {or  l'6t^)?  24.  Fait-il  plus 
chaud  qu'i  la  campagne?  25.  Fait-il  chaud  k  Saint-Louis 
[sglwi]  en  6t6?  26.  Fait-il  plus  chaud  en  6t^  k  Chicago  ou 
ik  Paris  Cpari]? 

B.  (1)  Add  the  proper  preserU  endings  and  read  aloud:  J 'at- 
tend-, nous  attend-,  ib  attend-;  nous  entend-;  ils  entend-; 
je  travaill-;  je  comprend-;  vous  fini-;  ils  s'amus-;  vous 
jou-;  nous  commeng-;  nous  nous  appel^apl]-;  il  fini-;  ila 
fini-;  nous  compren[lc5pran]-  (observe  the  absence  of  the  d); 
compren[k3pron3-  vous?  Je  prenQprfi^-.  U  prenQprfi])-,  nous 
prenCpran]-,  vous  prenQpran]-,  ils  prenn[prEn3-.  {Note  the 
absence  of  the  d  in  the  plural.  Note  also  that  the  letter  e  stands 
for  three  different  sounds  in  these  five  forms.) 

(2)  a.  Write  in  parallel  columns  the  present  of:  finir,  ouvrir, 
dormir  {sing,  je  dors,  tu  dore,  il  dort;  nous  dormons,  vous 
dormez,  ils  dorment),  sortir,  se  servir  {sing,  je  me  sere,  tu  te 
aera,  il  se  sert). 

b.  Some  verbs  in  -ir  are  not  conjugated  in  the  present  like  finir. 
Make  a  list  of  those  you  know  that  are  not,  and  point  out  the 

C.  Dites  en  franqais:  1.  We  open;  he  is  opening;  I  am  sleep- 
ing (asleep);  are  you  asleep?  Go  out!  Go  to  sleep!  He  is 
asleep.  2.  We  go  out;  we  finish;  we  (make)  use  (of)  these 
pens;  he  is  finishing  his  lesson;  they  are  finishing  their  les- 
son. 3.  They  are  lea\nng  (going  out  of)  the  classroom;  they 
are  sleeping;  men  (on)  use  (make  use  of)  horses;  we  sell  fruit 
(plural).  4.  The  whole  house;  all  night  (the  whole  night); 
all  women,  all  horses.  5.  Animals  are  useful  to  men;  I  am  very 
fond  of  (aimer  beaucoup)  animals.  6.  Do  you  like  flowers? 
Very-much-indeed  (beaucoup).  7.  Little  girls  like  dolls  and 
little  boys  like  horses,  but  my  uncle's  son,  my  little  cousin 
Pierre,  likes  horses  and  dolls  too. 

D.  Dict^:    Lesson  XI,  A  (3). 

64  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§59-61 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Note  the  pronunciation  of  villa,  tranquille.  Compare 
fille,  travaille,  gentille,  oreille.  Write  all  six  in  phonetic 

(2)  Write  B  (1),  in  phonetic  characters,  after  adding  the 
proper  endings,  and  read  aloud. 


59.  Partitives.  In  partitive  constructions  (§36),  de 
alone  is  used: 

1.  In  a  general  negation  (§  36,  2): 

n  n'a  pas  de  plumes.  He  has  no  pens. 

2.  When  an  adjective  precedes  the  noun: 

Marie  a  dejolies  fleurs.  Mary  has  (some)  pretty  flowers. 

J'ai  de  votre  argent.  I  have  some  of  your  money. 

But:  J'ai  des  pommes  mures.  I  have  (some)  ripe  apples. 

3.  Similarly  when  a  noun  after  an  adjective  is  understood: 
De  bons  rois  et  de  mauvais.  Good  kings  and  bad  (kings). 

4.  After  words  of  quantity  in  such  expressions  as  these: 

Beaucoup  de  the.  A  great  deal  of  tea  (much  tea). 

Une  livre  de  viande.  A  pound  of  meat. 

Assez  de  viande.  Enough  (of)  meat. 

Trop  de  pain.  Too  much  bread. 

n  n'a  plus  cTargent.  He  has  no  more  money. 

60.  The  preposition  de  +  a  noun  forms  adjectival  phrases: 
Une  robe  de  soie.  A  silk  dress. 

La  feuille  cTerable  The  maple  leaf. 

61.  Observe  the  following  expressions  of  frequent  use, 
formed  from  avoir  +  an  undetermined  noun: 

avoir  besoin  [bazwg]  de,  be  in     avoir  soif  [swaf],  be  thirsty. 

need  of,  need.  avoir  sommeil  [someij],  be  sleepy, 

avoir  chaud  [So],  be  warm.  avoir  raison  [rezo],  be  (in  the) 

avoir  froid  [frwa],  be  cold.  right. 

avoir  /aim  [fg],  be  hungry.  avoir  tort  [toir],  be  (in  the)  wrong. 




■4  S 

s  GO 

(61  LESSON  xiy  66 


le  chemin    [laSm^]    road    (in  aimer  mieuz  [ememj0]  like 

general);  le  chemin  de  fer  better,  prefer 

[laSm£dfe:r]  railroad  avoir  envie  de  [avwairflri] 

la  joumee  [sume]  day  {when  wish,  want 

duration  is  emphasized)  boire  [bwair^  drink 

la  narration  [narosjS^  compoei'  je  bois  [bwa]  I  drink 

tion,  theme  voua  buvez  [bjrve]  you  drink 

la  pomme  [pom]  apple  porter  [portej  wear,  have  on, 

la  robe  [rob]  dress  carry 

la  soie  [swa3  silk  r6pondre   [rep3:dr]  answer, 

le  sommeil  [samerj]  sleep  reply  to 

le  verre  [vctr]  glass  {tumbler)  trouver    [truve]   find,    con- 

le  voyage    [vwajais]    voyage,  aider,  think 

trip  _      ^  ,  , 

assez  [asej  enough,  rather 

malheureux  [malci'r0]  unfor-  bien  Cbjf  ]  well,  very 

tunate,  unhappy  juste  [5>'8t]  exactly,  just 

stuTant  [si{iva]  following  trop  [tro]  too  much,  too  many 

quelque  chose  Pcelka^oiz^  something 
de  bonne  heure  [ddbonceir]  early 
tout  de  suite  [tutsqit]  at  once 

A.  1.  II  fait  chaud  dans  les  champs  en  4t^.  2.  Quand  on 
a  chaud,  on  a  soif  et  on  a  envie  de  boire  de  I'eau  froide.  3.  Void 
un  verre  d'eau  que  je  vais  boire.  4.  Quand  on  travaille  dans 
les  champs,  on  a  aussi  tr^s  faim  avant  I'heure  du  diner.  5.  On 
a  besoin  de  manger  quelque  chose.  6.  Le  soir  on  a  bien  som- 
meil. 7.  On  a  envie  de  se  coucher  de  bonne  heure.  8.  On  est 
content  de  voir  arriver  la  nuit.  9.  On  a  besoin  de  six  heures  de 
sommeil.  10.  —  Pardon,  monsieur,  vous  a\ez  tort.  Moi,  j'ai 
besoin  de  huit  heures  de  sommeil  toutes  les  nuits.  11.  — Vous 
dormez  beaucoup.  Avez-vous  sommeil,  maintenant?  12.  — 
Oui,  madame,  j'ai  sommeil.  J'ai  grand  besoin  de  dormir.  J'ai 
froid  aussi,  et  faim.  13.  —  Vous  avez  sommeil  et  froid  et 
faim!  Vous  Hes  trds  malheureux.  Allez  vous  coucher  tout 
de  suite.  14.  —  Vous  avez  raison.  Je  vais  me  coucher. 
mais  d'abord  j'ai  grand  besoin  de  manger  quelque  chose  parce 
que  j'ai  tr^  faim.      15.  Donnez-moi,  s'il  vous  platt,  une  tasse 

56  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  f  61 

de  the,  beaucoup  de  viande,  et  des  legumes.  16.  Nous  avons 
assez  de  pain,  mais  il  n'y  a  pas  trop  de  beurre  dans  cette 
assiette.  17.  J'ai  besoin  aussi  de  plus  de  cafe;  je  n'en  ai 
pas  assez.  18.  —  Buvez-vous  du  caf6?  —  Oui,  j'en  bois 
beaucoup.  19.  — Eh  bien,  mon  ami,  vous  avez  tort.  Ne 
buvez  pas  trop  de  caf6.  20.  — Merci.  Je  n'en  bois  pas 
trop;   j'en  bois  juste  assez. 

B.  Supply  the  proper  form  of  expression  for  some,  any,  no, 

as  demanded  by  the  sentences:    1.  J'attends   aujourd'hui  

parents  de  la  campagne.    2.  fidouard  n'a  pas parents  h 

la   campagne.    3.  II   n'y  a  pas fruit    cet   ^t^.      4.  Mon 

grand-p^re  me  donne bonnes  pommes.      5.  Nous  cherchons 

pommes    pour  le  dessert.       6.  Ma  sceur  a   jolies 

poup^es;  elle  a  beaucoup poup^es.      7.  Les  petits  gargons 

n'ont  pas  poup^es;    ils  ont  bonnes  balles.       8.  Je 

vols fieurs;   il  ne  voit  pas fleurs;   nous  voyons  

jolies  fieurs  et  vilaines;    voyez-vous  assez  fleurs  k 

la   campagne?      lis   voient   [vwa]    (third   plural)   fleurs 

blanches  dans  les  champs. 

C.  (1)  Traduisez:  1.  When  a  man  (use  on)  works  in  the 
fields  in  summer,  he  (on)  gets  (avoir)  hungry  and  thirsty  and 
he  (on)  wants  some  cold  water.  But  do  not  drink  too  much 
cold  water.  2.  What  do  you  want  for  your  dinner?  Some  hot 
soup,  some  vegetables,  meat  and  fruit.  I  am  very  hungry 
and  I  need  a  good  dinner.  3.  There  is  no  water  in  her  glass. 
There  is  no  tea  in  his  cup.  They  need  cold  water  and  hot  tea. 
4.  Are  there  any  pupils  in  the  classroom?  Yes,  there  are 
some  small  boys  and  some  pretty  little  girls.  They  are  play- 
ing and  are  having  a  very  good  time.  5.  These  little  girls 
have-on  (porter)  pretty  silk  dresses.  Boys  do  not  wear  silk 
dresses.  6.  These  children  play  all  day  [long]  (the  whole 
day:  "  day  "  =  joumee).  They  are  hungry  and  sleepy  at 
dinner  time  {k  I'heure  du  diner).  They  need  a  great  deal  of 
sleep.  7.  I  need  more  sleep.  You  sleep  too  much.  I  invite 
you  to  go  to  bed  (vous  coucher)  at  once. 

(2)  Fermez  le  livre  et  ecrivez  comme  narration  un  voyage  d  la 

{61  LESSON  XIV  67 

D.  R&pondez  en  fran^ais  aux  questions  suivantes:  1.  Habitez- 
V0U8  la  campagne?  2.  Restez-vous  en  ville  en  hiver?  3.  Oil 
passez-vous  I'^t^?  4.  Y  avez-vous  des  parents?  5.  Quels 
parents  avez-vous  k  la  campagne?  6.  Est-ce  qu'ils  vous  in- 
vitent  k  aller  les  voir?  7.  Quels  parents  avez-vous  dans  la 
ville?  8.  Comment  allez-vous  k  la  campagne,  k  pied,  k  che- 
val  ou  en  chemin  de  fer?  9.  Od  va-tron  {do  you  go,  does 
one  go)  pour  prendre  le  train?  10.  Est-ce  qu'on  prend  le  train 
k  la  maison?  11.  Est-ce  que  le  train  marche  vite?  12.  Est- 
ce  qu'on  vous  attend  k  la  petite  gare  de  campagne?  13.  Qui 
est-ce  qui  vous  attend  k  la  gare?  14.  Allez-vous  k  pied  de 
la  gare  k  la  maison  de  vos  parents?  15.  Qui  trouvez-vous  k 
la  maison?  16.  Sont-ils  contents  de  vous  voir?  17.  Et 
vous,  6tes-vou8  content  de  les  voir?  18.  A  quelle  heure 
vous  couchez-vous?  19.  Les  enfants  aiment-ils  la  campagne? 
20.  Que  font  les  gargons?  21.  Et  les  petites  filles,  montent- 
elles  k  cheval  aussi?  22.  Que  voyez-vous  k  la  campagne? 
23.  Aimez-vous  mieux  la  campagne  en  hiver  ou  en  6t^? 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Pronounce:  quand  on,  grand  homme,  neuf  heures,  dix 
heures,  les  eauz.     See  §  IS,  1. 

(2)  Pronounce  sommeil.     With  what  does  it  rhyme? 

(3)  Pronounce:  faim,  pain,  bien,  ancien,  besoin,  latin,  main. 

(4)  Pronounce:  eau,  chaud,  trop,  quelque  chose.  Be  care- 
ful about  lip  position. 

(5)  a.  Pronounce;  soeur,  leur,  heure,  beurre,  ceil,  fleur, 
jeune.  Write  each  in  phonetic  characters.  Pronounce:  deux, 
bleu,  yeuz,  veut,  monsieur,  vieuz,  peu.  W^rite  each  in  phonetic 

b.  In  the  first  group,  is  the  vowel  (spelled  eu,  ceu,  ce)  followed 
by  a  consonant  sound?  What  is  true  of  the  vowel  of  the  second 
group?  Try  to  make  a  rule  as  to  when  these  spellings  give  [oe], 
and  when  they  give  M. 

c.  For  which  of  these  sounds  is  the  mouth  more  open?  For 
which  are  the  lips  more  tense?  In  trying  to  make  these  sounds 
many  English-speaking  people  fail  to  project  the  lips  enough. 




Too  often  also  they  allow  the  tongue  to  move,  giving  a  dis- 
agreeable r  sound.    Avoid  this  fault  by  all  means. 

In  view  of  the  above  (b),  how  do  you  explain  the  pronun- 
ciation of  the  second  and  third  vowels  of  malheureux  [maloer0]? 



Past  Participles 


finir               vendre 




finished                  sold 



donne  [done] 

fini  [fini]        vendu  [vfidy] 


ite  [ete] 

63.  Compound  Tenses.  They  are  formed  from  the  past 
participle  along  with  an  auxiliary  (usually  avoir,  sometimes 
etre,  see  §  155),  as  in  the  following  section. 


/  have  given,  or 
/  gave,  etc. 
j'ai  donne    [sedone] 
tu  as  donne  [tyadone] 

The  Past  Indefinite 

I  have  finished,  or 

I  finished,  etc. 
j'ai  fini   [sefini] 
tu  as  fini  [tyafini] 

/  have  sold,  or 
I  sold,  etc. 
j'ai  vendu    Csevady] 
tu  as vendu  [tyavddy] 


/  have  had,  or  /  had,  etc. 
j'ai  eu  [sey] 
tu  as  eu  [tyazy] 
il  a   eu  Cilay3 

I  have  been,  or  /  was,  etc. 
j'ai  ete  [seete] 
tu  as  ete  [tyazete] 
il  a    ete  Cilaete] 

65.  Word  Order.     The  auxiliary  is  the  verb  in  a  com- 
pound tense,  and  all  rules  of  word  order  apply  to  it: 

Nous  ne  I'avons  pas  fini. 
N'a-t-elle  pas  ete  ici? 

We  have  not  finished  it. 
Has  she  not  been  here? 

66.  Use  of  Past  Indefinite.  It  denotes  not  only  what 
has  happened  or  has  been  happening,  as  in  English,  but  also 
what  happened  (=  English  past  tense): 



J'ai  fini  mon  ouvrage.  I  have  finished  my  work. 

Elle  a  chante  toute  Ut  matinee.  She  has  been  singing  all  morning, 

n  a  ete  longtemps  id.  He  was  here  for  a  long  time. 

Poi  quitte  Paris  I'hiver  passe.  I  left  Paris  last  winter. 

N.B.  —  The  past  indefinite  is  the  ordinary  past  tense  of  French. 
For  the  past  tense  of  narrative  in  the  hterary  style,  see  $  148. 

67.  Idiomatic  Present  Indicative.  Besides  its  use  in 
general,  as  in  English,  the  present  indicative  is  used  idioniat- 
ically,  in  certain  phrases,  to  denote  what  has  been  and  still 
continues  to  be: 

Depuis  quand  etes-vous  id? 
Je  suis  id  depuis  trois  jours. 

How  long  have  you  been  here? 
I  have  been  here  for  three  days 

{or  for  three  days  past,  or  for 

the  last  three  days). 


une  ann£e  [ane^  year  {when  durar 

lion  is  emphasized) 
un  arbre  [denarbr]  tree 

le  bl6  [ble]  wheat 

le  dejeuner  [desoene]  lunch 

lafeuille  [fcEij]  leaf,  sheet  {qf 

la  f orfit  [fore]  forest 

la  matinee  [matine]  morning 

le  mois  [mwa]  month 
un  oiseau  [wazo]  bird 

le  pays  [pei]  countrj',  land 

le  pommier  [pomje]  apple  tree 

le  raisin  [rtzt]  grapes 

la  vigne  [viji]  grape  vine 

le  vin  [v?2  wine 

agricole  [agrikol]  agricultural 
celSbre  [sekbr]  famous 
excellent  [eksclQ]  excellent 
Industrie!    [Sdj'stricl]  manu- 

passe  [pose]  past,  last 
sec  [sek]dry  (§52) 
vert  [v£:r]  green 

chanter  [Sate]  sing 
couper  [kupe]  cut 
mfirir  [myriir]  get  ripe,  ripen 
TU  [vy]  seen  {past  participle) 
visiter  [vizite]  go  to  see  (in 
detail),  inspect 

aujourd'hui  [osurdqi]  to-day 
hier  [je:r]  yesterday 
huit  jours  [qisuir]  a  week 
longtemps  P5ta]  long  (time) 
quinze    jours  [kS:z5u:r]  two 

depuis  [dapqi]  since 
pendant  [pddQ]  during 

depuis  quand  [dapqika]  since 

when,  how  long  {conj.) 
si  [si]  if 

70  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §67 

A.  1.  Depuis  quand  etes-vous  ici  k  la  campagne?  2.  —  Nous 
sommes  ici  depuis  deux  mois.  3.  —  Que  faites-vous?  —  Oh, 
nous  nous  amusons  bien.  4.  Hier  j'ai  pass6  toute  la  matinee 
k  cheval  et  j'ai  eu  tres  faim  avant  I'heure  du  dejeuner.  5.  J'ai 
6te  content  de  voir  arriver  le  dejeuner.  6.  Apres  le  dejeuner 
j'ai  visits  les  bois  et  les  champs  avec  mon  oncle.  7.  Nous 
avons  regard^  le  bl6,  qui  est  beau  cette  ann^e.  8.  II  a  m<iri 
pendant  I'^t^;  on  va  le  couper.  9.  Nous  avons  besoin  de  bl4 
pour  faire  le  pain.  10.  Le  pain  frangais  est  excellent.  J'ai 
mang6  du  pain  aujourd'hui  a  mon  dejeuner.  11.  Puis  nous 
avons  visits  les  pommiers  et  les  vignes.  12.  Les  pommes  ne 
sont  pas  belles  cette  annee,  mais  le  raisin  est  excellent.  13.  On 
va  en  faire  de  bon  vin.  On  n'a  pas  fait  de  tres  bon  vin  I'ann^e 
passee.  14.  II  a  fait  trop  froid  en  6t6  et  le  raisin  n'a  pas 
bien  mtiri.  15.  Les  vins  frangais  sont  c^l^bres.  On  en 
voit  tr^s  peu  en  Am^rique  maintenant.  16.  La  France  est 
un  pays  agricole.  La  Belgique  [belsik]  est  un  pays  indus- 
triel.  17.  Dans  les  bois  nous  avons  regard^  les  beaux  arbres. 
18.  Leurs  feuilles  sont  vertes  et  dans  les  arbres  on  entend  chan- 
ter des  oiseaux.  19.  II  y  a  de  jolis  bois  en  France.  20.  Si 
vous  allez  en  France,  allez  voir  les  forets  de  Chantilly  CS^tiji] 
et  de  Fontainebleau  [fotenblo].  21.  On  ne  coupe  pas  beau- 
coup  d' arbres  dans  cea  for^ts-la  et  il  y  en  a  qui  sont  tres  vieux. 

B.  (1)  With  what  French  words  is  the  Idiomatic  Present 
generally  found?  What  verb  form  in  English  conveys  the  same 
meaning  as  the  Idiomatic  Present? 

(2)  Traduisez:  1.  We  have  been  here  for  a  week.  2.  The 
piece  of  bread  is  too  dry;  it  has  been  on  the  table  for  a  fortnight 
(quinze  jours).  3.  How  long  have  you  been  studying  French? 
4.  We  have  been  studying  French  for  three  months.  5.  How 
long  have  you  been  hungry?  6.  I  have  been  hungry  since 
five  o'clock.  7.  Aren't  you  mistaken  (wrong)  ?  No,  I  am  right. 
8.  Wheat  ripens  in  summer.  I  saw  a  great  deal  in  the  fields 
in  France.  9.  We  need  wheat  to  make  bread.  10.  They 
(On)  make  a  great  deal  of  wine  in  France.  11.  Very  little  is 
made  (use  on)  in  America.  12.  You  (On)  hear  many  birds 
sing  in  (the)  French  forests  (de  la  France). 

%e7  1MBBOS  XV  71 

(3)  What  word  do  toe  find  after  content  before  an  infinitive  t 
After  inviter?  Does  the  pure  infinitive  follow  entendre  or  ie  it 
preceded  by  a  preposition  f  Notice  in  A,  18  the  word  order  in 
French  after  entendre.  In  what  two  ways  may  the  infinitive 
after  entendre  he  translated  into  English?  TrandaU:  Pourquoi 
n'entend-on  pas  chanter  les  oiseauz  en  hiver? 

C.  Traduisez:  1.  We  invited  him  (see  ^  65  for  word  order). 
They  did  not  wait  for  him.  She  hunted  for  Pierre  and  Louise. 
2.  The  pupils  finished  their  lessons.  3.  We  did  not  sell  the 
bread.  4.  We  were  {use  past  indef.)  in  the  country  last  summer. 
Our  cousins  were  not  at  the  station  yesterday.  5.  I  was 
hungry  for  a  long  time  (see  §  66,  example  3).  They  were  cold 
all  the  morning  (la  matinee).  6.  It  was  (II  a  fait)  cold  last 
winter.  Were  you  not  thirsty  yesterday?  7.  We  worked  all 
summer.  Did  you  wait  for  the  train?  Did  you  need  the  car- 
riage yesterday? 

D.  R^ondez  aux  questions:  1.  Oil  passez-vous  les  vacances? 
2.  Depuis  quand  6tes-vous  ^  la  campagne?  3.  Aimez-vous  k 
monter  iL  cheval?  4.  Avea-vous  visits  les  champs?  5.  Qu'avea- 
vous  vu  dans  les  champs?  6.  Le  bl6  est-il  beau  cette  ann^? 
7.  A-t-il  mdri  pendant  I'hiver  ou  pendant  I'^t^?  8.  Est-ce 
qu'on  va  couper  le  bl6?  9.  Que  fait-on  avec  le  bl6?  10.  Ave«- 
vous  vu  des  arbres?  11.  Quel  fruit  les  pommiers  donnent-ils 
Q)ear)t  12.  Et  les  vignes  quel  fruit  donnent-elles?  13.  Est-ce 
que  les  pommes  sont  bonnes  cette  ann^e?  14.  Ont-elles  mftri? 
15.  Que  fait-on  avec  le  raisin?  16.  Fait-on  beaucoup  de  vin 
en  France?  17.  Fait-on  beaucoup  de  \\n  en  Am6rique? 
18.  Est-ce  que  la  France  est  un  paj's  industriel?  19.  Oii 
est-ce  qu'on  trouve  de  grands  arbres?  20.  Avez-vous  \\s\i^ 
une  forfit?  21.  Est-elle  grande  ou  petite?  22.  Donnez  les 
noms  de  deux  for^ts  c^l^bres  en  France.  23.  Qu'est-ce  qu'on 
voit  dans  une  for^t  en  ^t^?  24.  Qu'est-ce  qu'on  y  entend? 
25.  Voit-on  des  feuilles  vertes  en  hiver?  26.  Est-ce  qu'on 
entend  chanter  les  oiseaux  en  hiver? 

R  Dict^:  Lesson  XIII,  A  (1). 

72  a  french  grammar  §§  6&-70 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

(1)  Write  phonetically  and  read  aloud:  nous  avons  eu,  il 
a  eu,  vous  avez  ete,  depuis,  depuis  quand,  ils  ont  vendu. 

(2)  Is  the  word  eu  pronounced  as  you  would  expect?  Note 
that  this  speUing  combination  is  pronounced  thus  only  in 
forms  of  avoir.  What  two  other  sounds  does  it  stand  for?  Is 
there  any  way  of  knowing  which  sound  value  it  should  have  in 
a  given  word?  Compare  Lesson  XI,V,  Exercise  in  Pronuncia- 
tion, (5),  6. 


68.  Comparatives.  Place  plus  =  more,  moins  =  less,  or 
aussi  =  as,  before  the  adjective,  and  que  =  than  or  as 
after  it,  to  form  the  comparative: 

n  est  plus  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  taller  than  John. 

n  est  moins  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  less  tall  than  (not  so  taU 

as)  John. 
n  est  aussi  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  as  tall  as  John. 

69.  Superlatives.  1.  Place  the  definite  article  or  a  pos- 
sessive adjective  before  plus  or  moins  to  form  the  superla- 

Marie  est  la  plus  jeune  de  toutes.     Mary  is  the  youngest  of  all. 
Obs.:   La  plus  jeune  des  deux.     The  younger  of  the  two. 

Note.  —  In,  after  a  superlative,  is  translated  by  de:  le  meilleur  eleve 
de  la  classe,  the  beat  student  in  the  class. 

2.  Do  not  omit  the  definite  article  when  the  superlative 
follows  the  noun: 

La  le?on  la  plus  difficile.  The  most  difficult  lesson. 

Mes  livres  les  plus  utiles.  My  most  useful  books. 

70.  Irregular  Comparison.    Observe  the  irregular  forms: 

bon  [b5j.  good      meilleur  [mejceir],  better      le  meilleur  [la  mejoeirj 

the  best 

§§  71-73  LESSON  XVI  78 

71.  Comparison  of  Adverbs.  1.  They  are  compared  by 
plus  and  moins  like  adjectives,  but  le  in  the  superlative  is 

2.  Observe  the  irregular  forms: 

bien  [bjf],  well     mieux  [mj0],  better     le  mieux  Qo  mj0],  (the)  beet 
peu  [p0],  little      moins  [mw£3,  less        le  moins  [la  mwt'],  (the)  least 

72.  Present  Indicative  of  aller,  to  go  (irreg.) 

/  go,  am  going,  etc.  We  go,  are  going,  etc. 

je  vais  [save]  nous  aliens  [nuzal9] 

to  vas  [tyva]  vous  allez    [vuzale] 

fl  va    [ilva]  ils  vont    [ilv5] 

73.  Imperative  of  atter,  to  go 

va  [va],  go  alloR5  Cal5l  let  us  go  allez  [ale],  go 


1'  air  m.  {tit^  air  la  rose  [rotz^  rose 

la  cerise  Pasriiz]  cherry  la  route    [rut]    highway,    main 

le  cerisier  [lasrizje]  cherry  tree  road,  route 

le  chou  CSu]  cabbage  la  rue  [ry]  street 

les  haricots  verts  Qe  ariko  ve:r]  la  tulipe  [tylip]  tulip 

string  beans  {see  §  17,  6) 

r  herbe  /.  [crb]  grass  difficile  [difisil]  hard,  difficult 

le  jardin    [sardf]    yard,    lawn,  fruitier  [frqitje]  fruit  bearing 

park,   garden  meilleur  [mejcEtr]  better 

le  lapin  [lapf]  rabbit  quelque   [kdka]  some;  in  pi. 

la  partie  [parti]  part,  game,  party  (rmuiUy)  few 

la  peche  [peiS]  peach  utile  [ytil]  useful 
lespetits   pois    Qeptipwa]   green 

peas  mieux  [mj0]  better 

la  poire  [pwair]  pear  moins  [mwe]  leas,  fewer 

le  poirier  [pwarje]  pear  tree  toujours  [tusutr]  always,  still 
le  pommier  [pomje]  apple  tree 

la  pomme  de  terre  [pamdatcir]  aussi . . .  que  [osi  ka]  as ...  as, 

(Irish)  potato  (ae€  §  68) 

'74  "A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §73 

A.  (1)  1.  Nous  sommes  toujours  k  la  campagne.  2.  II  fait 
moins  chaud  k  la  campagne  et  I'air  y  est  meilleur  que  dans  la 
ville.  3.  Les  grandes  routes  et  les  chemins  sont  plus  jolis 
que  les  rues,  et  j'aime  mieux  les  fleurs  des  champs  et  les  feuilles 
vertes  des  grands  arbres  que  les  petits  jardins  des  maisons  de 
ville.  4.  Dans  la  vUle  les  jardins  sont  tres  petits  et  beaucoup 
de  maisons  n'en  ont  pas.  5.  Dans  ces  petits  jardins  on  voit 
un  peu  d'herbe  et  quelques  arbres.  6.  A  la  campagne  les 
jardins  sont  plus  grands.  7.  On  y  trouve  des  fleurs,  des  arbres 
fruitiers,  des  legumes,  de  I'herbe.  8.  Nous  aimons  mieux  les 
jardins  de  campagne  que  les  jardins  de  ville. 

(2)  1.  Allons  voir  le  jardin  de  mon  grand-p^re.  Voila  les 
legumes.  2.  Dans  cette  partie  du  jardin  il  y  a  des  pommes 
de  terre,  des  choux,  des  petits  pois  et  des  haricots  verts. 
3.  Aimez-vous  les  choux?  J'aime  mieux  les  pommes  de  terre, 
les  petits  pois  et  les  haricots  verts  que  les  choux.  4.  Le 
chou  est  le  legume  le  plus  utile  pour  les  lapins.  lis  aiment 
beaucoup  les  choux.  5.  Dans  cette  autre  partie  du  jardin  il 
y  a  des  fleurs  et  des  arbres  fruitiers.  6.  Voici  des  roses  et 
des  tulipes.  Voil^  des  cerisiers,  des  pommiers  et  des  poiriers. 
7.  La  cerise  et  la  poire  sont  excellentes,  mais  la  pomme  et  la 
p^che  sont  meilleures.  8.  La  peche  est  le  meilleur  de  tous 
les  fruits,  mais  elle  est  moins  utile  que  la  pomme.  9.  Nous 
avons  besoin  de  legumes  et  de  fruits  pour  la  table.  10.  II  y 
a  peu  d'arbres  fruitiers  dans  la  ville,  mais  il  y  en  a  beaucoup 
dans  le  jardin  de  mon  grand-p^re  a  la  campagne. 

B.  (1)  Supply  the  missing  words:    1.  quand  6tes-vous 

dans  la  classe?      2.  Nous  y depuis  neuf  heures.      3.  De- 

puis 6tudiez-vous  le  frangais?     4.  Je  1' depuis  deux 

mois.      5.  Le  pain  est  sur  la  table hier.      6.  C'est  I'hiver, 

il  froid  depuis  un  mois.       7.  J' froid  depuis  huit 


(2)  Supply  the  proper  form  of  the  verb  given  in  the  infinitive: 

1.  (attendre)  II  son  pere  depuis  une  heure.       2.  (mtirir) 

Ce  hU depuis  huit  jours.      3.  (chanter)  Les  oiseaux 

depuis  cinq  heures.      4.  (avoir)  Pierre faim  depuis  onze 

heures.       5.   (etre)  Nous  k  la  campagne  depuis  quinze 

§73  LESSON  XYI  75 

jours.        6.  (voir)    Nous    avons  hier    une    belle    for^t. 

7.    (finir)    Nous  nos  lemons.      8.    (miirir)    Les    pommes 

vite.       9,   (aller)    Ces  enfants  k  I'^cole  tous  les 

jours.      10.  (aller)  Nos  amis k  la  campagne  tous  les  ^t^s. 

11.  (6tre)  II  a longtempe  en  France.      12.  (6tre)  II 

depuis  longtempe  en  France. 

(3)  a.  WhcU  u  the  difference  between  meilleur  and  mietix? 
Is  this  clear  from  the  English  equivalerUf 

b.  Note  carefully  the  difference  between:  II  y  a  un  peu  de 
beurre  sur  la  table,  and  il  y  a  peu  de  {rwt  much;  negative  force) 
beurre  sur  la  table.  We  cannot  say  II  y  a  un  peu  de  pommes 
sur  mes  arbres;  we  must  say  il  y  a  quelques  ponunes  sur  mes 
arbres.  Un  peu  can  be  used  only  before  nouns  in  what  number? 
What  is  the  case  in  regard  to  quelques?  What  is  the  force  of 
II  y  a  eu  peu  de  pommes  de  terre  Tannic  pass^?  Of  Nous  allons 
avoir  quelques  choux  cette  ann^  pour  noe  lapins?  Of  Nous 
allons  avoir  peu  de  choux  cette  ann^  pour  noe  lapins?  Whai 
is  the  difference  between  the  last  two  senleruxsT 

(4)  a.  Scrivez  au  tableau  noir  au  comparatif  et  au  superlalif: 
bon,  bien;  petit,  peu;  difficile,  excellente,  ancienne,  s^he, 
vilain,  gentille. 

b.  Which  of  these  adjectives  usually  precede  or  follow  the  noun  t 

c.  On  the  basis  of  A  (1),  3,  make  a  rule  for  the  gender  of  an 
adjective  qualifying  ttoo  nouris  of  different  genders. 

C.  (1)  dcrivez  en  franqais:  1.  The  most  useful  vegetable. 
The  hardest  lesson.  The  hardest  part  of  the  lesson.  2.  My 
largest  rabbit.  My  best  j)each.  His  best  pear.  His  most 
beautiful  rose.  3.  Our  most  difficult  lesson.  Little  money. 
A  little  money.  4.  Fewer  green  peas.  A  few  (some)  green 
peas.  5.  We  work  better.  We  dine  better.  Our  dinner  is 
better.  6.  Fruit  {pi)  is  better  than  cabbie  ijpl.).  She  hears 
better.  They  see  better.  7.  We  write  better.  A  better  book. 
Fewer  string  beans.  8.  A  little  tired.  Not  very  tired.  A 
little  boy.  9.  A  few  little  boys.  Fewer  little  girls.  Not  many 
(=  few)  little  girls. 

(2)  Traduisez:  1.  I  prefer  the  country  to  the  city  (like 
better  .  .  .  than  .  .  .)  in  summer.       2.  It  is  less  warm  and 

76  A  FREXCH  GRA.MMAR  §74 

the  air  is  better.  3.  We  went  (use  etre)  to  the  country  last 
summer.  4.  Our  relatives  have  a  large  yard  (jardin),  but 
they  have  little  fruit  this  year.  5.  It  (Ce)  is  not  a  good  year 
for  fruit  (plural).  Last  year  was  better.  6.  The  leaves  and 
grass  were  greener  last  summer.  7.  I  like  the  flowers  too. 
Roses  are  the  most  beautiful  of  all  flowers. 

D.  Compose  questions  to  which  the  following  sentences  may  be 
considered  replies:  1.  Je  suis -^  la  campagne.  2.  Je  passe  1' hi ver 
en  ville.  3.  J'aime  mieux  la  campagne  en  6t6.  4,  Les  chemins 
sont  plus  joUs  que  les  rues.  5.  Oui,  madame,  les  routes  sont 
plus  grandes  que  les  chemins.  6.  II  y  a  plus  d'herbe  a  la 
campagne.  7.  J'aime  mieux  les  pommes  de  terre  que  les 
choux.  8.  Les  lapins  mangent  les  choux.  9.  Voici  la  partie 
la  plus  difficile  de  cette  legon.  10.  Voila  le  plus  grand  des 
arbres.  11.  J'ai  un  petit  jardin  devant  ma  maison  de  ville. 
12.  Le  jardin  de  ma  maison  de  campagne  est  plus  joli.  13.  Je 
travaille  depuis  huit  heures.  14.  Nous  n'avons  pas  besoin 
de  ces  livres.  15.  Non,  la  Belgique  est  un  pays  industriel. 
16.  Nous  allons  passer  huit  jours  k  New- York. 

E.  Dict^e:   Lesson  XV,  A. 

LESSON  xvn 

74.  Agreement  of  Past  Participle.  1.  In  a  compound 
tense  with  avoir  the  past  participle  agrees  in  gender  and 
number  with  a  direct  object  which  precedes  it: 

J'ai  fini  mes  lemons.  I  have  finished  my  lessons. 

Je  les  ai  finies.  I  have  finished  them. 

Quels  livres  a-t-il  achates?  What  books  has  he  bought? 

N.B.  —  Remember  that  the  participle  does  not  agree  with  en,  e.g., 
Avez-vous  des  plumes?  Oui,  j'en  ai  achete  hier.  Have  you  any  pens? 
Yes,  I  bought  some  yesterday. 

2.  When  used  as  an  adjective,  the  past  participle  agrees 
like  an  adjective: 

La  plume  achetee  hier.  The  pen  bought  yesterday. 


LESSON  xvn 


75.  Some  Relatives.  1.  The  relative  pronouns  of  most 
common  use  are  qui  as  subject,  and  que  as  direct  object  of 
a  verb: 

Lft  dame  ^ta  chante. 

Les  livres  qui  sont  ici. 

Les  pommes  que  j'ai  acheties. 

The  lady  who  sings- 
The  books  which  are  here. 
The  apples  that  I  have  bou^t. 

2.  The  relative  pronoun,  often  omitted  in  English,  is 
never  omitted  in  French: 
Le  pain  que  j'ai  achete  hier.  The  bread  I  bou^t  yesterday 


le  cigare  [sigair]  cigar 
la  cigarette  [sigarct]  cigarette 
la  cuisine  [kqizin]  kitchen,  cook- 
la  cuisiniire  [kqizinjezr]  cook 
le  facteuT     [faktoe:r]     postman, 

le  franc  [fro]  franc 
le  kilo(gramme)Ckilo(gram)]  kilo- 
gram {about  2  lbs.,  3  oz.) 
la  laitue  [Icty]  lettuce 
le  march6  [marSe]  market 
les  messieurs  [me8J0]  gentlemen 
le  poulet  [pule]  chicken 
les  provisions  /.   [pro viz j  5]  food, 

la  salade  [salad3  salad 

Cher  CSerr]  dear,  costly 
quelqu'un  Pcelkde]]  some  one 

acheter  [aSte]  buy 
6crit  [ekri]  written  (paai  part.) 
itre  k  [e:tr  a]  belong  to 
faire  visite  i  go  to  see,  pay  a 

fumer  [fjTne]  smoke 
ouvrir  [uvri:r]  open 
ouvert  [uve:r]  open  {ptul  par* 

ticiple  of  ouYrir) 
payer  [prje]  pay  for,  pay 
prendre  [prfitdr]  take,  get 
pris  [pri]  got,  taken  {pcut  par- 
ticiple of  prendre) 

alors  [al3:r]  then,  therefore 
comme  [lum]  as 
encore  [dk3:r]  again,  still,  yet 
ensuite   [oisqit]   then,   in   the 

next  place 
peut-4treCp0te:tr]]  perhaps 

A.  1.  Nous  avons  6t^  (wen/)  au  march^  ce  matin.  2.  Nous 
avons  pris  nos  provisions  pour  ce  soir,  parce  que  nous  allons 
avoir  des  amis  k  diner.  3.  Nous  avons  pris  des  legumes, 
des  fruits,  des  fleurs  et  deux  poulets.  4.  Tout  est  cher  main- 
tenant.  Nous  avons  pay6  les  deux  poulets  douze  francs. 
5.  Comme  fruit  nous  avons  pris  du  raisin  blanc  que  nous 

78  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §75 

avons  pay6  quatre  francs  le  kilo(-gramme).  6.  Les  roses  et 
les  tulipes  que  nous  avons  prises  pour  la  table  sont  cheres 
aussi.  Nous  les  avons  payees  dix  francs.  7.  Voici  les 
legumes  que  nous  avons  achetes:  des  pommes  de  terre,  de  la 
laitue  et  des  petits  pois.  8.  D'abord  nous  allons  manger  le 
potage.  9.  Puis  on  va  apporter  des  pommes  de  terre  avec 
des  petits  pois.  10.  Ensuite  on  va  apporter  (servir)  le  poulet 
et  la  salade  de  laitue  et  puis,  apres,  nous  allons  avoir  du  raisin 
blanc.  11.  Ensuite  nous  allons  prendre  du  caf6  et  les  mes- 
sieurs vont  fumer  des  cigares  ou  des  cigarettes.  12.  La  cuisi- 
niere  qui  est  dans  la  cuisine  prepare  maintenant  un  excellent 
diner.  13.  J'ai  tr§s  faim  depuis  longtemps.  14.  Je  vais  etre 
content  de  manger  quelque  chose. 

B.    (1)   The  past  participle  of  ouvrir  is  ouvert;    of  ecrire, 

ecrit;    of  prendre,  pris;    of  comprendre,   (?).     Pronounce 

the  feminine  form  of  these  participles.  Is  the  change  one  of  spelling 
simply,  or  of  spelling  and  sound  both  f  What  is  tru£  of  the  change 
in  participles  like  fini,  eu,  vu,  achete,  fume?  Compare  with 
these  the  following  adjectives,  giving  in  each  case  the  feminine 
form:  un,  grand,  petit,  mauvais,  heureux,  facile,  faux,  gentil, 
ancien,  gros,  vieux,  joli,  court,  vilain,  quel,  bleu.  See 
Lesson  XII,  Exercise  in  Pronunciation,  (2). 

(2)  Substitute  pronouns  for  the  object  nouns,  making  the  neces- 
sary changes:  1.  II  a  mang^  les  pommes  de  terre.  2.  Nous 
avons  icTit  deux  lettres  h  nos  parents.  3.  La  bonne  a  apport^ 
les  cuillers.  4.  Nous  avons  pass6  nos  vacances  chez  nos 
parents.      5.  II  a  ouvert  la  porte.      6.  J'ai  6crit  cette  lettre. 

7.  Quelqu'un  a  pris  nos  cerises.      8.  Qui  a  mang6  leurs  poires? 

(3)  Supply    the    correct  form   of  the    participle:     1.    (Ecrire) 

Voici  les  lettres  que  mon  frere  a .      2.  (prendre)  La  plume 

que  vous  avez sur  la  table  est  au  professeur.      3.  (acheter) 

Je  n'aime  pas  la  viande  que  la  bonne  a .      4.  (ouvrir)  A 

qui  est  la  lettre  qu'il  a ?      5.   (ouvrir)  La  lettre  qu'il  a 

hier  est  k  Jean.       6.  (visiter)  J'aime  la  belle  foret  que  nous 

avons  aujourd'hui.       7.  (Ecrire)  Comment  trouvez-vous 

{What  do  you  think  of)  la  lettre  que  j'ai  k  notre  tante? 

8.  (ouvrir)  Allez  fermer  la  porte  que  cet  enfant  a  ,  s'il 

}75  LE880N  xvn  79 

V0U8  plait.     9.  (ouvrir)  Cette  porte  n'est  pas .     10.  (6crire) 

Ma  lettre  n'est  pas  encore .      11.  (prendre)  Je  n'aime  pas 

la  voiture  que  vous  avez  pour  moi. 

(4)  Reply  to  the  questions,  using  in  each  case  a  pronoun  object: 
1.  Qui  a  6crit  cette  lettre?  2.  Est-ce  que  votre  oncle  I'a 
ouverte?  3.  L'avez-vous  prise  sur  ma  table  de  travail? 
4.  Avez- vous  vu  les  lettres  que  nous  avons  6crite8?  6.  Est-ce 
que  quelqu'un  a  pris  nos  peches?  6.  Pierre  a-t-il  6crit  ces 
deux  lettres?  7.  A-t-il  donn6  les  lettres  au  facteur?  8.  Le 
facteur  a-t-il  pris  les  lettres  que  vous  avez  ^crites  ce  matin? 

(5)  Use  correctly  in  sentences:  mieux,  aiissi . . .  que,  depuis, 
depuis  quand,  peu  de,  un  peu  de,  quelques,  meilleur,  on,  de 
bonne  heure,  tons  les  soirs. 

(6)  How  does  the  French  use  oj  the  tense  compounded  with 
the  present  of  the  auxiliary  (perfect,  or  past  indefinite)  differ  from 
its  xise  in  English?  Did  you  ever  hear  a  Frenchman  speaking 
English  use  sentences  like  these:  "  I  have  seen  him  yesterday?  " 
"I  have  arrived  in  America  two  months  ago?"  How  do  you 
explain  his  mistake  t 

(7)  Thus  far  what  three  uses  of  the  present  form  of  verbs  have 
we  had?  Compare:  je  travaille,  il  arrive  demain,  je  travaille 
depuis  I'heure  du  dejeuner.  What  two  uses  of  the  perfect  form 
{past  indefinite)  have  we  hadf 

C.  (1)  Vary  A  (orally  or  in  writing)  using  subject  pronouns 
of  other  persons  and  numbers. 

(2)  a.  Note  that  the  French  idiom  often  differs  from  the  Eng- 
lish. The  French  say:  ^coutez  le  professeur;  regardez  le  poulet; 
ils  ont  pay6  leur  diner;  nous  attendons  le  train.  What  is  the 
general  difference  here  between  French  and  English  f 

b.  Nous  entrons  dans  la  salle,  la  cuisini^re  entre  dans  la 
cuisine.     How  does  this  verb  contrast  with  the  four  given  above  f 

c.  In  A,  (2)  and  (3),  what  special  meaning  does  the  verb  prendre 

(3)  Write  French  sentences  in  which  you  use  correctly  in  the 
preserU  and  in  the  past  indefinite:  ^couter,  payer,  regarder, 
aimer  mieux,  avoir  besoin  de,  avoir  raison,  faire  chaud,  avoir 
chaud,  prendre. 

80  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §76 

D.  Traduisez:  1.  Have  you  been  to  market?  Yes,  I  was 
there  early  this  moming,  to  get  our  provisions  for  this  even- 
ing. I  got  some  meat  and  vegetables.  2.  The  fruit  (plural) 
that  I  see  is  dear  and  is  not  very  good,  but  the  flowers  that 
we  bought  are  very  pretty.  There  they  are.  3.  We  expect 
some  friends  this  evening  who  are  very  fond  of  (aimer  beau- 
coup)  flowers.  The  gentlemen  hke  to  (k)  smoke.  Here  are 
some  cigars  and  cigarettes  I  bought.  4.  We  are  going  to  have 
an  excellent  dinner:  soup,  potatoes,  peas,  chicken,  a  lettuce 
salad,  and  then,  as  dessert,  grapes,  and,  afterwards,  coffee. 
5.  How  long  have  your  friends  been  here?  They  have  been 
here  for  a  week.  6.  They  are  visiting  (6tre  en  visite  chez) 
their  relatives.  They  are  going  to  stay  a  few  days  longer  (still 
a  few  days),  perhaps  a  fortnight  (fifteen  days). 

LESSON  xvin 

76.  Tenses  with  etre.  1.  The  verb  etre  +  the  past 
participle  form  the  compound  tenses  of  all  reflexive  verbs 
(§  82)  and  of  some  intransitive  verbs,  of  which  the  following 
are  the  most  important: 

aller  [ale]  go,  be  (of  health)  naitre  [nertr]  be  bom 

arriver  [arive]  arrive,  get  (to)  rentrer  [ratre]  come  back  again 

descendre  [desa:dr]  go  down,  stop  partir  [parti: r]  go  away,  leave 

(at  a  hotel)  rester  [rrste]  stay,  remain 

devenir  [davniir]  become  sortir  (de)  [sortiir]  go  out 

entrer  (dans)  [atre]  enter,  go  in  tomber  [tSbe]  fall 

monter  [mSte]  go  up,  get  (in),  climb  venir  [vaniir]  come 

Note.  —  It  will  be  observed  that  all  of  these  intransitive  verbs,  except 
rester,  denote  a  change  of  place  or  state. 

2.  The  past  participle  of  a  verb  (not  reflexive)  conjugated 
with  etre  agrees  with  the  subject,  thus: 

/  have  arrived,  etc. 
je  suis  arrive(e)  [arive]  nous  sommes  arrive(e)«  [arive] 

tu  es  arrive(e)     [arive]  vous  etes  arrive(e)s         [arive] 

U  (elle)  est  arrive(e)    [arive]      ils  (elles)  sent  arrive(e)s        [arive] 







'  -^^U^lMUl 


r'  ' 

..  i^^nSHBBMSHI 





Copi/rigU,  Undencood  A  Underwood 

Le  March£  aux  Fleitrs,  Paris 


LESSON  xym 



la  com^die  PcomedO  comedy 
le  concert  [kSaeir]  concert 
la  f CIS  [fwa3  time 
ime  f  ois  one  time,  once 
le  lundi  [Idedi]  Monday 
le  magasin  [magaz^]  shop,  store 
le  musee  [myze3  museum 
la  musique  [myzik]  music 
le  palais  [palp]  palace 
le  pare  [park]  park 
la  piftce  [pjes]  play,  room 
le  restaurant    [restorfl]    restau- 
le  salon   {jsalS}  drawing  room, 

le  taxi  [taksij  taxi 
le  temps    [ta]    time    (period), 

le  thIAtre  [teartr]  theater,  8ta(?e 
le  tramway  [tramwe]  street  car, 

•ller  [ale]  go,  be  (cf  heaUh) 
s'en  aller  [sdnale]  go  away 
arriver  [arivel  arrive,  get  (to) 
descendre  [de8d:dr]  go  down,  stop 
portir  (de)  [parti: r]  go  away,  leave 
tomber  [t5be]  fall 
venir  [vani:r]  oome;  vena  [vany] 

come  (past  part.) 
causer  [koze]  talk,  chat 
mener  [mane]  take,  lead 
quitter  [kite]  leave,  quit 
rire  [ri:r]  laugh:  ri  fri]  laughed 

(past  part.) 

directement     [direkt(d)md]     di- 
rectly, straight 
midi  [midi]  noon 
minuit  [minqi]  midnight 
partout  [partu]  everj-where 
Chez  [Se]  at  the  house  (office)  of, 

A.  (1)  1.  No6  parents  de  la  campagne  sont  ches  nous  depuis 
huit  jours.  2.  Nous  sommes  trte  contents  de  les  voir.  3.  lis 
sent  arrives  lundi  par  le  train  de  midi.  4.  Nous  ne  sommee 
pas  all^  les  chercher  h  la  gare.  5.  lis  ont  pris  un  taxi  k  la 
gare  et  ils  sent  venus  directement  k  la  maison.  6.  lis  ne  sent 
pas  descendus  h  un  h6tel.  7.  Nous  les  menons  partout  pour 
les  amuser.  8.  Nous  avons  pris  le  tramway  et  nous  avons 
visits  les  diff^rentes  parties  de  la  ville.  9.  Nous  les  avons 
men6s  aux  grands  magasins  de  la  ville,  aux  mus^,  et  au  con- 
cert pour  entendre  de  la  musique.  10.  Nous  les  avons  men^ 
deux  fois  au  th^&tre  pour  voir  jouer*  des  pi^es.  11.  Nous 
avons  6t6  hier  soir  au  th^dtre.  12.  Nous  sommes  entrfe  dans 
la  salle  k  huit  heures  et  nous  avons  trouv6  nos  places.      13.  On 

*  Obeerve  the  word  order  here.    Compare  for  position  and  translation 
with  the  infinitive  after  voir  (see  XIV,  A,  8)  and  entendre  (XV,  B,  3). 

82  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  76 

a  jou6  le  Bourgeois  gentilhomme  nburswasatijam]  de  Moli^re 
qui  nous  a  beaucoup  amuses.  14.  C'est  une  excellente  com^die 
et  nous  en  avons  beaucoup  ri.  15.  Nous  sommes  sortis  du 
th64tre  apres  minuit.  16.  La  nuit  6tait  (was)  tr^s  noire  et  un 
de  nos  cousins  est  tomb6. 

(2)  1.  Nous  sommes  rest6s  quelque  [kelka]  temps  au  salon 
pour  causer  avant  d'aller  nous  coucher.  2.  Aujourd'hui  nous 
sommes  tous  [tusj  tres  fatigues,  mais  notre  tante  et  deux  de 
nos  cousines  sont  parties  de  bonne  heure.  3.  Elles  vont 
visiter  le  palais  et  le  pare  de  Versailles  |~versaij].  4.  Demain 
toute  la  famille  va  voir  le  grand  march^  de  Paris,  les  Halles 
[le  al]  (see  §  17,  5),  et  ce  soir  nous  allons  les  mener  diner  dans 
un  des  grands  restaurants.  5.  lis  vont  rester  encore  quelques 
jours  chez  nous.      6.  lis  vont  partir  dans  huit  jours. 

B.  (1)  Supply  the  auxiliary  of  the  past  indefinite  tense  and 
use  the  proper  form  of  the  participle:    1.   (entrer)  Nous  

;   (partir)  elle ;    (aller)  elles au  march^; 

(monter)   nous  dans  la  voiture.       2.  (descendre) 

Madame  Durand  [dyra] k  I'hdtel  Crillon  [krij5]. 

3.  (arriver)  La  petite  fille hier  chez  son  grand-pere. 

4.  (sortir)  Monsieur  n'est  pas  k  la  maison;  il tout  de 

suite  apr^s  le  dejeuner.       5.  (aller)  Les  enfants se 

coucher  de  bonne  heure.       6.  (entrer)   Les  ^l^ves 

dans  la  classe.       7.  (venir)  Elles  ne  pas  h,  I'^cole 

aujourd'hui.       8.  (partir)   Nos  amis  hier  pour  la 

France;    (quitter)  ils  Chicago  lundi.       9.  (quitter) 

Nous notre  amie  dans  la  rue  et  elle* 

tout   de    suite.       10.   (quitter)    Nous  la apr^s  le 


(2)  a.  Observe  the  difference  in  meaning  and  use  between 
aller,  s'en  aller,  partir,  sortir,  quitter.  We  say  in  French:  je 
vais  chez  moi  apres  la  classe,  but  we  do  not  say:  la  classe  est 
finie,  je  vais;  instead,  we  say,  je  pars,  je  m'en  vais.  That  is, 
with  aller  alone  some  expression  of  place  is  usually  added.  Ex- 
amples: nous  allons  dans  le  jardin;  nous  y  allons;  il  va  en 
France;   il  y  va.    Aller  alone  does  not  mean  "  leave,  go  away." 

•  Use  the  proper  form  of  s'en  aller. 

§  76  LESSON  xvin  83 

For  that  we  use  partir  or  s'en  aller.  Study  the  different  mean>- 
ings:  je  vais  k  New- York  demain;  k  quelle  heure  partez-vous? 
Je  pars  de  Chicago  (je  quitte  Chicago)  demain  k  9  heures; 
il  est  all6  k  la  campagne  hier;  il  est  parti  (s'en  est  all6)  hier 
matin;  il  a  quitte  le  train  k  la  petite  gare.  Is  quitter  transitive  f 
What  auxiliary  does  it  take?  Observe  too  that  the  English  "  come  " 
is  often  expressed  in  French  by  arriver:  je  suis  arriv6  par  le  trfun 
de  huit  heures. 

b.  Write  a  group  of  sentences  about  a  trip  to  the  country  in 
which  you  use  correctly  aller,  partir,  quitter. 

C.  (1)  Sortir  means  "  to  go  out  ":  je  sors  de  la  salle  k  manger 
apr^s  le  diner;  il  sort  de  sa  chambre;  nous  sommes  sortis  de 
la  cuisine.  Oft  est  la  cuisinidrc?  Elle  est  sortie.  Est-ce  que 
Monsieur  Hugo  est  chez  lui  (at  home)?  Non,  mademoiselle, 
monsieur  est  sorti. 

(2)  Observe  that  the  present  tense  of  servir,  partir,  sortir,  dormir 
is  not  inflected  like  that  of  finir,  miirir.  Compare  Lesson  XIII, 
B,  (2).  Write  and  read  aloud  the  present  tense  of  these  six  verbs. 
Note  that  servir  alone  means  "  to  serve,**  and  that  used  with  the 
personal  object  pronoun  (reflexive)  and  the  preposition  de  (se 
servir  de)  it  means  "  to  use  "  "  make  use  of."  Observe  also  that 
the  past  participle  of  venir  is  different  from  that  of  other  verbs  in 
-ir.  Mon  frSre  est  venu  nous  voir  hier;  elles  sont  venues  de 
bonne  heure. 

D.  (1)  Rewrite  A,  substituting  une  de  mea  cousines  for  noe 
parents  and  je  for  nous,  where  the  sense  allows  it.  Pay  especial 
attention  to  the  use  of  auxiliaries  and  to  participle  agreement. 

(2)  What  seems  to  be  the  differerux  of  meaning  between  temps 
arui  fois  in  A  (1)  10  and  (2),  1? 

Exercise  in  Pronuncution 

(1)  What  ways  do  you  know  of  spelling  the  sound  [e]  ?  Pro- 
nounce: vous  fetes,  mon  frfere,  muette,  la  craie. 

(2)  Note  the  pronunciation  of  tous  in  nous  sommes  tous 
[tus]  trfes  fatigues.  In  this  case  tous  is  a  pronoun.  Contrast 
the  pronunciation  of  Tous  mes  amis  sont  partis,  and  lis  sont 

84  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  76 

tous  partis;  of  Tous  les  restaurants  sont  ferm6s,  and  Tous 
sont  fermes.  How  may  you  tell  when  tous  is  an  adjective  and 
when  it  is  a  pronoun? 


(1)  What  words  —  opposites  or  synonyms  —  are  suggested  by 
the  following  (in  case  of  nouns,  always  supply  the  proper  definite 
or  indefinite  article):  plus,  peu,  facile,  blanc,  long,  vieux,  joli, 
heureux,  monter,  s'en  aller,  6t6,  froid,  raison,  miir,  agricole, 
campagne,  chemin,  entrer,  arriver,  midi. 

(2)  Supply  words  that  make  sense:    1.  Le  petit  gargon  joue 

k  la ;  la  petite  fiUe  j avec  sa .      2.  Pour  manger 

de  la  viande  nous  avons  besoin  d'un et  d'une .      3.  On 

mange  les  legumes  dans  une et  on  boit  le  caf4  dans  une 

.       4,  Nous  travaillons  beaucoup  a  I'^cole;    nous  faisons 

du  et  de  1' et  des  et  de  V .       5.  Je  Us  le 

le  Temps  (journal  c^lebre  de  Paris)  tous  les .      6.  Nous 

allons  nous parce  que  nous  sommes  fatigues.      7.  II 

chaud  en  ville  en  .       8.  Nous  allons  les  vacances 

k  la .      9.  Je un  taxi  pour  aller  k  la .      10.  A 

la    gare    j 'attends    le  .       11.  Le    train  et    je  

dans  une .       12.  Mes  parents  sont  contents  de  me . 

13.  Nous    allons    voir   les  et   les  .        14.  Dans   les 

champs  nous  voyons  des et  du miir.      15.  Dans  les 

bois  nous  voyons  des avec  leurs vertes  et  nous 

chanter  les .      16.  J'^cris  une k  ma  m^re.      17.  La 

bonne  a  achet6  un  (adverb  of  quantity)  de  beurre. 

(3)  In  your  answer,  enumerate  all  the  objects  that  may  properly 
be  included:  Qu'est-ce  qu'on  voit  k  la  campagne  (les  animaux, 
les  legumes,  les  fruits,  etc.)? 

(4)  Qu'est-ce  qu'on  achate  (Sd  sing,  present)  au  march6? 

(5)  1.  Quand  on  achate  quelque  chose,  que  faut-il  (must 
one)  faire?  2.  Que  fait-on  avec  une  poup6e?  3.  Que  fait-on 
pendant  le  diner?  4.  Que  fait-on  au  concert?  5-7.  Que 
fait-on  avec  un  couteau?    avec  une  plume?    avec  la  laitue? 

(76  LESBON  XTIH  85 

8.  Pourquoi  est-ce  qu'on  mange?      9.  Pourquoi  est-ce  qu'on 
bolt?      10.  Que  faitrOD  quand  on  a  sommeil? 

(6)  Pourquoi  va-t-on  au  th6&tre?  au  concert?  au  march^T 
au  magasin?  au  restaurant?  k  la  campagne?  dans  les  champe? 
dans  les  bois? 

(7)  Quels  legumes  aimez-vous?  Quels  fruitfi?  Que  boit-on 
(3d  sing.  pres.  of  boire)  chez  vous? 

(8)  Quels  parents  avez-vous? 

(9)  Distinguish  {by  examples  of  correct  usage  or  by  explanO' 
tion)  between  the  use  of  fois  and  temps  {see  Lesson  XVIII,  A); 
of  aller  and  partir  (s'en  aller) ;  of  partir  and  quitter;  of  partir 
and  sortir;  of  dcpuis  and  depuis  quand;  of  avant  and  devant; 
of  meilleur  and  mieux;  of  peu  and  un  peu;  of  un  peu  and 
quelque(s);  of  joli  and  beau;  of  \ieux  and  ancien;  of  gentil 
and  joli;  of  je  prends  and  je  mdne  (1st  sing,  pres.);  of  ^couter 
and  entendre;  of  com6die  and  pi^ce;  of  Bervir  and  se  servir 
de;  of  cher  in  ch^re  cousine  and  le  poulet  est  cher;  of  voir 
arid  regarder;   of  il  fait  chaud  and  il  a  chaud.  i  » 

(10)  Scrivez  au  plurid:  monsieur,  animal,  ceil,  ciel.  Au 
fSminin:  blanc,  vert,  tout,  sec,  court,  muet,  long,  groe,  vieux, 
nouveau,  gentil. 

(11)  Conjuguez  au  prisent:  regarder,  chercher,  faire,  aller, 
voir,  miirir,  ouvrir,  partir,  dormir,  servir,  entendre,  comprendre, 
prendre,  ^rire. 

(12)  tlcrivez  d  la  premihe  personne  (first  person)  du  pluriel  du 
passi  indifinx:  chercher,  quitter,  faire,  fitre,  aller,  voir,  sortir, 
attendre,  prendre,  ouvrir,  ^rire,  descendre,  monter,  s'en  aller, 
se  coucher,  s'appeler. 

(13)  Scrivez  en  fran^is:  1.  Belgium  is  an  mdustrial  couotry. 
2.  France  is  an  agricultural  country.  3.  There  are  many  fields 
in  France'.  4.  There  are  also  many  forests  and  there  are  some 
that  are  very  old.  5.  Their  trees  are  tall  and  beautiful. 
6.  One  hears  many  birds  sing  in  the  green  leaves.  7.  The 
lYench  fields  are  beautiful  this  year.  8.  The  wheat  has  ripened 
during  the  summer  and  they  are  going  to  cut  it. 

86  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §77-78 


77.  Pronoun  Objects.  1.  The  personal  pronoun  has,  for 
the  indirect  object  of  the  third  person,  the  following  forms: 

lui  [Iqi],  (to,  for)  him,  (to,  for)  her.        leiir  [Iceir],  (to,  for)  them. 

2.  Lui  and  leur  precede  the  verb  (§  30),  but  follow  le,  la, 


Nous  lui  parlons.  We  speak  to  him  (to  her). 

Je  la  lui  donne.  I  give  her  it  (it  to  her). 

Je  les  leur  donne.  I  give  them  (to)  them. 

78.  Observe  the  following  peculiarities  of  pronunciation 
and  spelling: 

1.  commencer,  to  begin,  —  nous  conimen$;ons.  The  c  [s]  of  the  stem 
is  written  g  [s]  before  o  of  the  ending  (cf.  §  5,  4). 

2.  manger,  to  eat,  —  nous  mangeons.  The  g  [s]  of  the  stem  ie 
written  ge  [3]  before  o  of  the  ending  (§  19,  2). 

3.  mener  [mane],  to  lead,  take  (someone  somewhere),  je  mene  [men], 
tu  menes  [men],  il  mene  [msn],  nous  menons  [numno],  vous  menez 
[vumne],  ils  menent  [men]. 

In  this  case  the  change  affects  both  the  spelling  and  the  pronuncia- 
tion. The  vowel  [a],  called  mute  e  or  feminine  e,  becomes  [e]  when 
the  syllable  stress  falls  on  it,  as  in  four  forms  of  the  present  of  mener. 
This  sound  [s]  is  here  spelled  e.  The  shift  of  stress  occurs  in  those 
forms  in  which  the  [a]  of  the  stem  would  be  followed  by  a  single  con- 
sonant +  e  mute  (cf.  §  12,  1,  n.). 


Ie  bonbon  [bobS]  (piece  of)  candy  le  mouchoir  [mu^wair]  handker- 

la  bottine  [botin]  shoe,  high  shoe  chief 

le  chapeau  [Sapo]  hat  la  paire  [pe:r]  pair 

la  chaussure  [Sosy.r]  footwear  le  prix  [pri]  price 

la  chemise  QaSmiiz]  shirt  Ie  Soulier  [sulje]  shoe,  low  shoe 

la  cravate  [kravat]  cravat,  neck-         ^^^^  ^^^-^  ^j^^ 

1    /*        N    ,  i-/i.  M   1-1     1,  m§me  [meim]  same 
Ie  (faux-) col  r(fo)kol]  collar  r         t  *^-*., 

,  .      ,  7-     \.  -r   ,      !  pauvre  [poJvr]  poor,  unfortu- 

le  marchand  [marSa]  shopkeeper,  ^^^ 

^^^^  ^^  plusieurs  [plyzjcEsr]  several 

§78  LESSON  XIX  87 

EXERCISE  XIX  (Contintted) 

accompagner     [akSpajieJ     go  rentrer  [ratre]  return  (home), 
with,  accompany  come  in  again 

appeler  [aple]  call 

oourir  [kuri:r]  nm,  run  about;  bon  march^  [bSmarSe]  chei^ 
couru  Ckury3  (past  participle  (invarioMe) 

of  courir)  enfin  [afe]  finally,  at  length 

demander  [damdde]  ask,  ask  for  souvent  [suva]  often 

A.  1.  Que  nous  sonunes  fatigu^!  2.  Nous  avons  beau- 
coup  couru  aujourd'hui.  3.  Mes  cousins  sont  allds  2t  plusieurs 
magasins  et  je  les  ai  accompagn^.  4.  Nous  sommes  entree 
d'abord  chez  un  marchand  de  chapeaux.  5.  Un  de  mes  cousins 
a  demand^  un  chapeau.  6.  Le  marchand  lui  montre  un  joli 
chapeau.  7.  Mon  cousin  lui  dit:  Combien,  monsieur? 
8.  Trois  dollars  [dolar],  r^pond  le  marchand,  et  mon  cousin 
I'achdte.  9.  J'en  ai  pris  un  aussi  au  m^me  prix,  10.  Ensuite 
nous  sommes  all^  chez  un  marchand  de  chaussures  oil  Ton  * 
nous  a  montr6  des  bottines  et  des  souliers.  11.  Nous  avons 
achet4  une  paire  do  bottines  pour  notre  cousine  et  deux  paires 
de  souliers.  12.  Les  chaussures  ne  sont  pas  tr^  bon  march6 
maintenant.  13.  Nous  les  avons  payees  bien  cher.  14.  Puis 
nous  sommes  entr^  dans  un  grand  magasin.  15.  Un  de  mes 
cousins  a  demand^  des  chemises,  des  mouchoirs,  des  faux-cols 
et  des  cravates.  16.  Le  marchand  lui  en  a  montr^  de  tr^ 
jolis.  17.  II  en  a  achet^.  II  a  achet^  aussi  des  mouchoirs 
pour  son  p^re.  18.  J'ai  achet4  une  tr^  jolie  cravate  en  soie. 
19.  Je  I'ai  pay6e  treize  francs.  20.  Enfin  nous  avons  achet^ 
des  bonbons  pour  ma  tante  et  mes  cousines  et  nous  sommes 
rentr^s  chez  nous. 


B.  (1)  Run  rapidly  through  A,  changing  the  number  or  tht 

person  (or  both)  of  each  subject. 

(2)  Beginning  xvUh  Nous  sommes  entr^s  (A,  4)  change  all  the 
verbs  to  the  present  form.  Such  a  passage  would  be  quite  normal 
in  French.    Would  it  be  so  in  English? 

*  The  1'  of  I'on  has  no  significance.  It  merely  makes  the  sound  more 
agreeable  when  coning  between  oH  and  on. 

88  A  FRENCH  GBAMMAB  §78 

(3)  Give  two  translations  for  courir.  Whai  is  the  past  participle  ? 
What  auxiliary  does  it  take?  Contrast  with  aller,  partir,  sortir, 
s'en  aller,  etc.  Say:  he  ran,  he  did  not  run,  you  have  run  about 
a  lot  to-day,  haven't  you? 

(4)  Substitute  a  personal  pronoun  for  the  indirect  object: 
1.  Nous  parlons  au  marchand.  2.  Nous  avons  pay6  cette 
cravate  au  marchand.  3.  Je  I'ai  pay6e  au  marchand  douze 
francs.  4.  II  a  parl6  de  la  piece  k  sa  tante.  5.  Les  petites 
fiUes  ont  donne  leurs  poup^es  h  ces  pauvres  enfants.  6.  La 
bonne  a  apport6  du  cafe  a  nos  amis.  7.  Elle  a  6crit  une  courte 
lettre  k  sa  soeur.  8.  Louise  ne  r^pond  pas  a  son  pere.  9.  Je 
vais  porter  des  flleurs  k  mon  amie.  10.  Robert  demande  un 
faux-col  et  une  cravate  au  marchand. 

(5)  Substitute  personal  pronouns  for  the  direct  and  indirect 
objects:  1.  Le  g^n^ral  a  donn6  le  cheval  k  son  fils.  2.  Les 
g6n6raux  ont  donn6  les  chevaux  k  leurs  fils.  3.  Elle  a  6crit 
cette  longue  lettre  k  son  oncle.  4.  Vous  ^crivez  la  lettre  au 
professeur  en  frangais,  n'est-ee  pas?  5.  Voulez-vous  donner 
une  balle  au  petit  gargon?  6.  Le  marchand  a  montr^  les 
chapeaux  k  mon  oncle.  7.  II  a  vendu  les  bottes  k  mon  cousin. 
8.  Le  petit  gargon  a  demand^  la  balle  a  son  p^re. 

(6)  Make  these  revised  sentences  negative. 

(7)  Supply  a  suitable  personal  pronoun  of  the  third  person, 

direct  or  indirect  object,  according  to  the  verb:   1.  Nous (le? 

lui?    les?    leur?)  ^coutons.       2.  Nous  parlons.      3.  Les 

hommes  regardent.       4.  Je  attends.       5.  II  

paie  trois  francs.      6.  Pierre demande  une  chemise  et  un 


(8)  What  is  to  be  noted  abovi  the  objects  of  ecouter,  regarder, 
attendre,  payer,  demander,  as  compared  with  the  English 
equivalents  ?  Note  that  payer  may  have  three  objects:  the  thing  paid 
for  (direct  object),  the  amount  paid  (adverbial  object),  and  the  person 
paid  (indirect  object). 

C.  (1)  ^crivez  en  frangais:  1.  I  waited  for  him;  we  waited 
for  her.  2.  John  is  hstening  to  them;  we  are  talking  to 
them.  3.  I  paid  ten  francs  for  them.  4.  We  begin  dinner 
(to  dine) ;   first  we  take  soup.      5.  He  takes  his  friends  to  the 

{78  LESSON  XIX  89 

theater.  Let's  take  {like  first  plural  present  indicative  htU  no 
subject  pronoun)  our  cousins  to  the  park.  6.  I  took  my  place. 
We  take  our  friends  to  the  station  where  they  are  going  to  take 
the  train.  7.  Our  relatives  often  take  us  to  the  concert.  8.  I 
ask  my  father  for  money.  I  ask  my  father  for  some.  9.  Let's 
ask  the  merchant  for  a  blue  cravat  and  six  collars.  10.  We 
paid  for  the  dinner.  We  paid  five  francs  for  it.  11.  We  paid 
the  merchant  ten  francs  for  the  shirt.  We  paid  hun  ten  francs 
for  it. 

(2)  Re-read  the  reading  passages  (A)  in  Lessons  XII,  XIV, 
XV,  XVI,  and  wriU  in  French  an  account  of  a  visit  to  the 

D.  Dict<Se:  Lesson  XVII,  A. 

Exercise  in  Pronunciation 

Note  the  pronunciation  and  spelUng  of  the  various  forms  of 

the  present  of  acheter,  to  btty  and  appeler,  to  call: 

acheter  [a^te]  appeler  [aple] 

1.  achate  CaSet3  1.  appelle  [apel] 

2.  achates  [a^ct]  2.  appellee  [apel] 

3.  achate  [ajet]  3.  appelle  [apel] 

4.  achetons  [aStS]  4.  appelons  [apl3] 

5.  achetez  [aSte]  6.  appelcz  [aple] 

6.  achdtent  Cajet]  6.  appellent  [apel] 

Where  does  the  syllable  stress  fall  in  forms  1,  2,  3,  6?  Where 
in  4  and  5?  What  difference  does  this  make  in  the  sound  of 
the  [9]  of  the  stem  of  the  infinitive?  Note  that  this  [a]  dis- 
appears entirely  in  the  pronunciation  of  the  infinitive  of  acheter, 
appeler,  devenir,  and  in  the  forms  nous  menons,  vous  menez, 
appelons,  appelez,  achetons,  achetez,  but  that  it  is  sounded  in 
the  infinitive  of  a  word  of  only  two  syllables  like  mener  [mane], 
venir  [vaniir].  Compare  Lesson  V,  Exercise  in  Pronunciation, 
(1).  Observe  that  we  say  similarly  [Saval],  but  [laSval,  dfeSval]. 
Are  these  changes  of  spelling  in  mener,  appeler,  etc.,  due  to 
any  phonetic  principle?  Contrast  them  with  the  changes  in 
words  like  manger,  commencer. 

90  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  JS  79-82 


79.  Personal  Pronoun  Objects.  The  remaining  forms 
serve  both  as  direct  and  indirect  object  of  verbs  (for  eUsion, 
see  §19): 

me  [ma],  me,  to  (for)  me.  nous  [nu],  us,  to  (for)  us. 

te  [ta],  thee,  to  (for)  thee,  you  vous  [vu],  you,  to  (for)  you. 

se  [s9],  himself,  herself,  itself,  one-  se  [sa],  themselves,  to  (for)  them- 

self,  to  (for)  himself,  etc.  selves. 

80.  Pronominal  Adverbs.  They  are  used  with  verbs, 
and  are  equivalent  to  a  preposition  +  a  pronoun,  standing 
usually  for  things: 

y  =  k  (dans,  sur,  etc.)  +  a  pronoun,  means  to  (at,  on,  in,  into,  etc.) 
it  or  them;  there. 

en  =  de  +  a  pronoun,  means  of  (from,  etc.)  it  or  them,  some  of  it, 
some  of  them,  some,  any,  thence;  from  there. 

Je  vais  a  la  campagne.  I  am  going  to  the  country. 

Yy  vais  detnain.  I  shall  go  there  to-morrow. 

Venez-vous  de  Paris?  Do  you  come  from  Paris? 

Oui,  j'en  arrive.  Yes,  I  am  coming  from  there. 

81.  Position.  Personal  pronoun  objects  and  pronominal 
adverbs,  coming  before  the  verb,  are  arranged  thus: 

me    1   before   f  le    1   before  f  lui    1  before  y|  before  en. 




n  me  donne  les  plumes.  He  gives  me  the  pens. 

D  me  les  donne.  He  gives  them  to  me. 

D  les  leur  donne.  He  gives  them  to  them. 

n  nous  en  donne.  He  gives  us  some  of  it, 

n  y  en  a.  There  is  (are)  some. 

82.  Reflexive  Verb.  The  compound  tenses  of  reflexive 
verbs,  e.g.,  se  flatter,  to  flatter  oneself,  are  formed  with  etre: 




Present  Indicative 
/  fiaUer  myself,  etc. 
je  me  flatte     [ssmflat^ 
tu  te  flattes    [tytflat] 
il  (eUe)  se  flatte     [ilsdflat] 
nous  nous  flattons  [nunuflat5j 
vous  vous  flattez    [vuvuflate] 
ils  (elles)  se  flattent  [ilsdflat] 

Past  iNDEFiNrrE 
/  {have)  flattered  myself,  ele. 
jeme  suis 
tut'  es 
il  (elle)  s'  est 
nous  nous  sommes 
vous  vous  ites 
Us  (elles)  se  sont 


flatte  {e)s 

83.  Agreement.  The  past  participle  agrees  with  the 
preceding  direct  object,  as  in  the  case  of  verbs  compounded 
with  avoir: 

Elles  se  sont  flatte  ex. 

But:  lis  se  sont  lave  les  mains. 

They  have  flattered  themselves. 
They  have  washed  their  hands. 

84.  Observe  the  possessive  force  of  the  article,  or  of  the 
article  with  an  indirect  object,  when  there  is  no  ambiguity 
as  to  the  possessor,  especially  when  referring  to  parts  of 
the  body,  clothing,  etc. 

Je  vous  donne  la  main. 

La  bonne  leur  lave  les  mains. 

I  give  you  my  hand. 

The  maid  is  washing  their  hands. 


la  brosse  [bros]  brush  se 

la  chambre  [Sa:br]  bedroom  (ueu- 

ally)  se 

les  cheveuz  m.  [leSv0]  hair 

la  figure     [figyrr]    face,     figure      se 

{statue,  etc.) 
les  nouvelles  /.  [nuvd]  news 

le  peigne  [pep]  comb 

le  savon  [sav5]  soap  se 

la  serviette  [servjrt]  towel,  nap- 
kin se 

la  t§te  [t£!t]  head 

intgressant  [Stercsfi]  interest- 

brosser  [brose]  brush 

coucher  [sakuSe]  go  to  bed,  lie 

laver    [salave]   wash   onesdf, 

lever  [salve]  get  up 
penser  (4)    [pose]  think   (of, 

have  in  mind) 
perdre  [perdr]  lose,  waste 
promener    [promne]    take    a 

walk,  ride 
servir  de   [sa6ervi:rd3]  make 

use  of,  use 

avant  de  [avada]  before  {uriik 


dej4  [desa]  already 

92  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §84 

A.  (1)  Supply  the  object  pronoun  of  the  person  indicated,  both 

singular  and  plural:   1,  Le  marchand {1st  pers.)  r^pond. 

2.  Je    ne   iSd)    ai    pas    r^pondu.        3.  Vous  {3d) 

demandez  des  cigares?      4.  lis {1st)  ecoutent.      5.  Nous 

{3d)  6coutons.       6.  lis {1st)  {3d)  donnent.       7.  Je 

{3d)  ai  paye  un  diner. 

(2)  Rewrite,  using  where  possible  direct  and  indirect  object 
pronouns  instead  of  the  object  nouns:  1.  Mon  cousin  a  demand^ 
des  chapeaux  {see  §  36,  3)  au  marchand.  2.  Le  marchand  a 
montr6  des  souUers  k  mon  oncle.  3.  La  bonne  a  apport^  les 
lettres  k  mon  p6re.  4.  EUe  m'a  apport6  les  lettres.  5.  EUe 
m'a  apport6  des  lettres.  6.  EUe  nous  a  servi  du  potage. 
7.  EUe  nous  a  servi  le  potage.  8.  II  vend  des  pommes  k  ma 

(3)  Substitute  en  or  y  for  the  prepositional  phrases  with  de 
and  k  according  to  the  sense:  1.  Nous  parlous  du  lapin.  2.  II 
a  parl6  de  ses  vacances.  3.  EUe  est  sortie  de  la  salle  a  manger. 
4.  Nous  sommes  sorties  du  salon.  5.  Lui  avez-vous  parl6 
de  ses  legons  de  latin?  6.  II  se  sert  d'une  fourchette.  7.  Nous 
avons  besoin  de  serviettes.  8.  Mes  cousins  se  sont  servis 
de  mes  cravates.  9.  Je  vais  avoir  besoin  d'un  mouchoir. 
10.  Nous  pensons  k  notre  voyage.  11.  EUe  pense  k  son  nou- 
veau  chapeau.  12.  Avez-vous  pens6  a  chercher  des  bonbons? 
13.  Co  lapin  pense  a  manger  vos  choux,  n'est-ce  pas?  14.  Nous 
allons  k  la  campagne.  15.  Voyez-vous  les  Aleves  dans  le  pare? 
16.  Avez-vous  quelque  chose  k  la  main?  17.  II  a  couru  k 
r^cole.  18.  II  sort  de  sa  chambre  de  bonne  heure.  19.  Nous 
sommes  descendus  du  train  k  midi.  20.  Nous  sommes  des- 
cendus  k  cet  h6tel  et  nous  y  sommes  rest^s  pendant  I'hiver. 
21.  lis  sont  rest^s  quinze  jours  k  Paris.  22.  Nos  amis  les 
ont  accompagn^s  a  la  gare.  23.  Ces  messieurs  sont  arrives 
k  Chicago  hier.      24.  lis  sont  de  vos  amis,  n'est-ce  pas? 

B.  (1)  Answer,  using,  instead  of  the  nouns,  personal  pronouns 
and  en  or  y  when  suitable:  1.  Sortez-vous  du  th^dtre?  2.  Avez- 
vous  6t6  au  th6dtre?  3.  AUez-vous  encore  au  th^dtre? 
4.  Avez-vous  ri  de  la  com^die?  5.  Dinez-vous  avant  d'aUer 
au  th64tre?      6.  Vos  cousins  sont-ils  aU6s  au  concert  hier? 

S84  LESSON  XX  98 

7.  Avez-vous  pens^  k  votre  voyage?  8.  Avez-vous  pens^ 
k  m'accompagner  chez  Wanamaker?  9.  Vous  a-t-on  servi 
du  vin,  monsieur?  10.  La  bonne  a-t-elle  apport^  du  caf6 
au  salon?  11.  En  a-t-elle  donn^  k  Madame  Perrin 
Cpere]?       12.  Qui    a    accompagn6    vos    cousins   au    th6Atre? 

13.  Avez-vous  demand^    le   journal    k   cette   vieille    femme? 

14.  Avez-vous  donn6  k  la  vieille  femme  le  prix  du  journal? 

15.  Lisez-vous  les  journaux  tous  les  jours  avant  de  quitter 
la  maison?  16,  Avez-vous  trouv6  des  nouvelles  int^ressantes 
dans  le  journal?  17.  L'^ldve  a-t-il  r^pondu  aux  questions? 
18.  Avez-vous  r^pondu  k  sa  lettre?  19.  A-t-il  r^pondu  k 
ces  dames?* 

(2)  Write  out  the  present  and  past  indefinite  indicative  of:  se 
promener  {see  §  78,  3);  se  coucher;  8e  servir  d'une  fourchette; 
s'en  aller. 

C.  Traduisez  en  fran^ais:  1.  He  gets  up  early;  he  takes  a 
drive  (use  se  promener  en  voiture,  en  automobile  Qotomobil]); 
he  goes  to  bed.  2.  The  cook  uses  lettuce  to  make  salad. 
3.  She  washes  her  (§  84)  hands  before  preparing  dinner.  4.  I 
wash  my  hands  and  face  every  evening  (§  58)  before  going  to 
bed.  5.  I  have  already  washed  my  hands  once.  6.  These 
children  washed  their  hands  with  (avec)  (some)  soap.  Now 
they  need  a  towel.  7.  They  ride  horseback  (use  se  promener 
ft  cheval)  every  day.  8.  When  they  are  tired,  they  go  to  bed 
early.  9.  It  is  time  to  (II  est  temps  de)  get  up  now;  we  get  up; 
we  got  up  early  this  morning;  the  girls  (bonnes)  got  up;  they 
are  getting  up  now.  10.  I  have  eyes  in  my  (§  84)  head.  He 
has  pencils  in  (ft)  his  hands,  a  hat  on  (sur)  his  head,  shoes  on 
(ft)  his  feet.  11.  We  used  soap  and  a  towel  to  (pour)  wash 
our  hands.  12.  They  need  a  brush  and  a  comb  to  brush  their 
hair.  13.  He  lost  his  hair.  If  you  do  not  wash  your  hair, 
you  are  going  to  lose  it  (numberf).  14.  We  are  washing  our 
hair.  She  washed  her  hair  yesterday.  15.  Do  you  wash  your 
hair  often?  16.  How  many  times  (Combien  de  fois)  a  day 
(par  jour)  do  you  wash  your  hands?    Your  face?      17.  How 

*  Note  that  y  may  not  be  subetituted  in  the  reply  to  the  last  question. 
Can  you  suggest  a  reason? 

94  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  85-86 

many  times  a  day  do  you  get  up?  18.  How  often  (=  How 
many  times)  do  you  eat  daily?  19.  The  whole  family  has 
gone  away  {two  ways)  and  it  is  time  to  study  my  history  lesson 

D.  a.  Count  from  1-30,  putting  in  each  case  a  different  noun 
after  each  numeral,  as:  un  franc,  deux  serviettes,  trois  brosses,  etc. 

6.  Pronounce  and  learn  the  following  numerals:  trente  et  un 
616ve8  [traitedenelesv],  trente-deux  enfants  ntraitd0zafa],  trente- 
trois  marchands.  Continue  through  39,  puding  a  noun  after  each 

c.  40  =  quarante  [karait],  41  =  quarante  et  un  Ckaraitede]], 
42  =  quarante-deux  [^karditd0]].  Count  through  Ii9,  putting  a 
different  noun  after  each  numeral. 

d.  50  =  cinquante  [sekast],  51  =  cinquante  et  un  Csekaitede], 
52  =  cinquante-deux  [seka!td0].  Count  through  59,  using  in 
each  case  a  noun  beginning  with  a  vowel. 


86.     Imperfect  Indicative  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

I  was  giving,  etc.  I  loas  finishing,  etc.  I  was  selling,  etc. 

donn  ais     [done] 

Gniss  ais     [finise] 

vend  ais      [vade] 

donn  ais     [done] 

finz5S  ais     [finise] 

vend  ais      [vade] 

donn  ait      [done] 

Gniss  ait      [finise] 

vend  ait      [vade] 

donn  ions   [donjo] 

Gniss  ions   [finisjo] 

vend  ions   [vadjo] 

donn  iez     [donje] 

Sniss  iez     [finisje] 

vend  iez      [vddje] 

donn  aient  [done] 

finish  aient  [finise] 

vend  aient  [vade] 

86.  Imperfect  Indicative  of  avoir,  etre 

I  had,  used  to  have,  etc.  I  was,  used  to  he,  etc. 

aval's  [ave]    avians   [avj5]  etafs[ete]    et  ions    [etjo] 

av  ais  [ave]    av  iez     [avje]  et  ais  [ete]    et  iez     [etje] 

av  ait  [ave]    av  aient  [ave]  et  ait  [ete]    et  aient  [ete] 

To  form  the  Pluperfect  tense,  add  a  past  participle;   see 

$87  LESSON  XXI  95 

87.  Use  of  the  Imperfect.  The  name  'Past  Descriptive* 
is  often  given  to  this  tense-form.  In  general,  it  serves  to 
indicate  the  situation,  the  setting,  the  state  of  affairs  at  a 
time  in  the  past,  without  regard  to  the  b^inning  or  the  end 
of  the  action,  or  to  the  length  of  its  duration.  In  past  narra- 
tive, the  past  indefinite  is  used  to  record  the  successive 
events  one  after  the  other;  the  imperfect  form  is  used  to 
give  the  background  and  the  descriptive  elements  of  the 

Since  the  English  language  has  no  such  special  tense  form, 
except  the  progressive  past  (idos  ivalking,  etc.),  it  is  highly 
important  to  understand  clearly  the  meaning  of  the  sen- 
tence before  deciding  whether  to  translate  a  given  English 
past  into  the  French  imperfect  or  into  the  past  indefinite. 
Often  both  translations  are  possible,  but  with  different 

Study  the  following  passage: 

Vous  itiez  (avez  eti)  absent  hier,  You  were  absent  yeeteiday,  Pierre. 


Oui,   monsieur,    yittris    (fli  iti)  Yes,  sir,  I  uxu  ill. 


Je  suis  resie  au  lit  toute  la  joum6e.  I  $tayed  in  bed  all  day. 

pawn's  (fli  eu)  la  fidvre.  I  had  fever. 

Ma  gorge  m^afait  {mefaisaif)  tris  My  throat  hurt  me  very  badly. 


Le  mSdecin  est  venu  deux  fois  it.  The   doctor  came  to  the  house 

la  maison,  et  m'o  si  bien  soigni  twice  and  took  such  good  care 

que  mon  rbume  a  disparu.  of  me  that  my  cold  disappeared. 

J'fli   ete   (etais)   malade   comme  I  uxu  ill  like  that  last  winter  too. 

cela  lliiver  pass6  aussi. 

Notre  medecin  etait  en  France  Our  physician  was  in  France  with 

avec  nos  soldats,   et   j'oi   eti  our  soldiers,  and  I  was  in  bed 

toute  une  semaine  au  lit.  for  a  whole  week. 

In  only  one  case  above  (Notre  medecin  etait  en  France  . . .) 
would  the  past  indefinite  be  quite  out  of  place,  but  wherever 
it  is  used  it  stresses  the  narrative  element  of  the  story,  the 

96  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  8»-89 

fact  that  the  incident  was  completed  at  a  time  in  the  past, 
whereas  the  imperfect  form  directs  attention  to  the  incident 
as  it  occm-red,  or  to  the  state  of  affairs  as  it  existed. 

In  certain  cases,  where  the  descriptive  element  is  all  im- 
portant, the  imperfect  form  is  regularly  used  and  corre- 
sponds to  an  Enghsh  progressive  past,  or  to  a  past  modified 
by  'used  to.' 

1.  It  denotes  what  used  to  or  continiled  to  take  place  in 
the  past. 

Nous  parlions  souvent  de  vous.         We  often  spoke  (used  to  speak)  of 

Tous  les  ans  j'alZats  a  la  campagne      I  used  to  go  to  the  country  in 
en  ete.  summer  every  year. 

2.  It  is  used  for  an  action  that  was  happening  when 
something  else  happened  or  was  happening. 

Quand   le   medecin    est   arrive.  When  the  doctor  came  I  was  in 

yetais  au  lit.  bed. 

Pendant  que  je  parlais,  men  ami  While  I  was  talking,  my  friend  was 

furruxit  un  gros  cigare.  smoking  (smoked)  a  large  cigar. 

Note.  —  In  the  first  example  under  1  above  we  could  juat  aa  correctly 
say:  Nous  avons  souvent  parle  de  vous.  The  meaning,  however,  would 
be  somewhat  different.  The  notion  of  an  habitual  action  would  have  dis- 

88.  Imperfect  of  faire  (irreg.) 

/  was  doing,  etc. 

je  fais  ais  [safaze])  nous  fais  ions  [nufazjo] 

tu  fais  ais  [tyfaze]  vous  fais  iez     [vufazje] 

il  fais  ait  [ilfaze]  ils  fais  aient  [ilfaze] 

89.  For  imperfect  of  commencer,  manger,  cf.  §§  78,  156: 

je  commen^rais  [sakamaise]  je  man^eais  [matse] 

tu  commenfais  [tykDmaise]  tu  mang'eais  [maissll 

il  commenfait  [ilkomaiss],  etc.  il  xaangesiit  [ma: sell,  etc. 





crier  [kriej  shout,  cry  out 
dit  [di]  said  (pasl  part.) 
faire  jour  [feirsuir]  get  li^t, 
be  light;    faire  noir  [fext 
nwa:r3  be  dark 
se  faire  mal  [m&l]  hurt  oneself 
frapper    [frape]    strike,    im- 
slubiller  [sabije]  dress 
reveiller   [revrje]  wake;    se 

r^veiller  wake  up 
rfiver  Crcve]  dream 

fort  Cfa:r]  loudly 
heureusement        [ocr0:zma3 

tard  [ta:r]  late 
par  terre  [parte  :r3  on  the  ground 
si  [si]  so 
k  travers      [atraveir]     across, 

A.  (1)  1.  Je  me  suis  couch6  hier  soir  de  bonne  heure,  mais 
je  n'ai  pas  bien  dormi  parce  que  j'^tais  un  peu  soufTrant.  2.  Men 
bras  me  faisait  mal.  J'ai  eu  aussi  de  mauvais  r^ves.  3.  J'ai 
rSv6  que  men  cheval  courait  k  travers  les  champs  et  dans  Ics 
bois.  4.  Les  branches  dea  arbres  me  frappaient  partout  et  j'a- 
vais  peur  de  tomber  et  do  me  faire  trte  mal.  5.  J'ai  eu  si  peur 
dans  men  sommeil  que  j'ai  cri6  tr^  fort  et  je  me  suis  r^veilld. 
6.  Mais  il  faisait  toujours  trha  noir  quand  je  me  suis  r^veill^ 
et  je  ne  me  suis  pas  lev6  tout  de  suite.  7,  J'ai  dormi  encore 
un  peu  avant  de  me  lever.  8.  A  six  heures  il  a  fait  jour  et  je 
me  suis  lev6.  9.  J'ai  fait  ma  toilette.  10.  J'ai  pris  mon  bain 
dans  de  I'eau  froide  et  je  me  suis  habill^.  11.  La  bonne  com- 
mengait  b.  preparer  le  petit  dejeuner.  12.  J'avais  si  faim  que 
j'^tais  content  quand  elle  a  dit  «  C'est  servi!  »  13.  Je  suis 
descendu.  Ma  sceur  6tait  d6ji  i  table.  14.  Elle  m'a  dit 
«  Bonjour!  bon  app^tit!  »  15.  Ma  m^re  n'6tait  pas  encore 
descendue.  16.  J'ai  mang6  de  (tcith)  bon  app6tit,  et  puis 
nous  sommes  partis  pour  I'^cole. 

un  appetit  [apeti]  appetite 
le  bain  [be]  bath 
la  branche    [bni:S]   branch    {of 

une  6poque  [epak]  time,  period 
le  mal  [mal]  evil,  harm 
la  minute  [minj't]  minute 
le  petit  dejeuner  [l3ptide50ne] 

la  peur  [pce:r]  fear 
le  rftve  [r£:v]  dream 
la  terre  [te:r]  earth,  ground 
la  toilette  [twalet]  toilet  (dresa- 


malade  [malad]  ill 
souffrant  [sufrd]  not  well 

avoir  peur  [avwa:r  poe:r]  be 

afraid,  get  frightened 
cesser  (de)  [sese]  stop 

98  A  FBEXCH  GRAMMAR  §89 

(2)  Try  to  explain  in  each  case  the  use  of  the  tenses:  (a)  1.  Nous 
avons  fait  visite  hier  a  un  de  nos  amis.  2.  II  commengait  a 
diner  quand  nous  sommes  arrives.  3.  II  mangeait  le  potage. 
Nous  sommes  restes  deux  heures.  4.  II  nous  a  invites  a 
dtner  et  apres  nous  avons  fum6  plusieurs  bons  cigares.  5.  Mon 
ami  n'a  pas  fum6.  6.  II  fumait  quand  il  6tait  jeune,  mais  il 
a  cess6  de  fumer  I'annee  passee  parce  qu'il  6tait  malade.  7.  J'ai 
6te  souvent  malade  mais  je  n'ai  pas  cesse  de  fumer.  8.  Je  ne 
fumais  pas  quand  j'^tais  petit.  9.  J'ai  commence  quand 
j'avais  vingt  ans. 

(b)  1.  Nous  avons  6t6  souvent  k  la  campagne.  2.  Nous  y 
allions  tous  les  et6s.  3.  II  faisait  moins  chaud  qu'en  ville. 
4.  Nos  parents  nous  accompagnaient,  5.  A  cette  6poque-l^ 
mon  grand-pere  habitait  la  vieille  maison  de  famille.  6.  II 
6tait  tr^s  age  mais  il  6tait  encore  assez  fort.  7.  II  se  promenait 
k  cheval  tous  les  jours.  8.  Souvent  je  I'accompagnais  sur  un 
petit  cheval  qu'il  m'avait  donn6.  9.  Apr^s  ces  promenades 
j'^tais  fatigu6  et  j'avais  un  excellent  app6tit.  10.  Une  fois  le 
cheval  a  eu  peur.  11.  II  a  couru  k  travers  les  champs  et  je 
suis  tombe  par  terre.  12.  J'avais  tr^s  peur,  et  je  me  suis  fait 
mal  au  bras.  13.  Heureusement  il  y  avait  de  I'herbe  et  je  suis 
tomb6  sur  I'herbe,  mais  le  bras  m'a  fait  mal  pendant  deux  ou 
trois  jours. 

B.  (1)  In  nous  sommes  restes  deux  heures  and  nous  avons 
6te  souvent  k  la  campagne  (A,  2),  is  the  emphasis  on  the  con- 
tinuousness,  the  repetition  of  the  action,  the  situation,  or  on  the 
event  itself?  Contrast  the  verb  forms  used  in  le  cheval  a  eu  peur 
{got  frightened)  and  in  j'avais  tres  peur  {was  very  much  fright- 
ened).   What  seems  to  be  the  difference  in  the  effect  of  the  two? 

Note  that  verbs  like  rester,  adverbs  like  souvent,  longtemps, 
and  expressions  of  time  like  deux  heures,  deux  ans,  do  not  neces- 
sarily call  for  an  imperfect  tense,  which,  although  it  denotes  '  what 
continued  to  happen,'  is  used  only  when  the  ivriter  wishes  to 
stress  that  element.    Compare  §  66,  examples  2  and  3. 

(2)  Use  the  proper  form  of  the  verbs  in  parenthesis.  Choose 
the  past  indefinite  or  the  imperfect  according  to  the  sense  of  the 

§89  LESSON  XXI  90 

sentence:  1.  (Hre)  Quand  je petit  je *  de  bonne  heure. 

2.  (dormir)  Je  bien.       3.  (se  lever)  Je  de  bonne 

heure  aussi  et  je *  avec  mes  parents.      4.  (avoir)  Je  

toujours  bon  app^tit.      5.  (rever)  Une  nuit  je que  mon 

cheval •  avec  moi  k  travers  la  for^t.      6.  (frapper)  Une 

branche  me dans  la  figure  et  je *  tr^  peur.     7.  (crier) 

Je si  fort  que  je .*     8.  (dormir)  Mais  je encore 

deux  heures  avant  de  .*      9.  (r6ver)  Je  beaucoup. 

10.  (r^ver)  Je plusieurs  fois  que  je '  de  mon  cheval. 

(3)  Vary  the  person  arui  number  of  the  sulked  in  A. 

(4)  The  imperfect  of  dormir  is  je  dormais,  etc.  Conjugate  it 
throughout.  Contrast  it  with  je  finissais.  Conjugate  in  the 
imperfect  on  this  model:  sortir,  partir,  servir. 

C.  Traduisez:  1.  I  used  to  go  to  bed  early  and  I  slept  well. 
2.  But  once  when  I  was  ill  I  slept  very  badly  and  I  dreamed  a 
great  deal.  3.  I  got  very  much  frightened  and  shouted  so 
loudly  that  my  father  came  into  my  room  and  wakened  me. 
4.  He  said  that  I  was  shouting  so  loudly  that  I  was  waking  the 
whole  family.  5.  When  he  saw  that  I  was  very  much 
frightened,  he  stayed  in  my  room  [for]  some  minutes.  6.  I 
slept  some  hours  still  before  waking.  7.  When  I  got  up,  the 
maid  was  preparing  breakfast.  8.  I  was  hungry  and  was  glad 
to  eat  something.  9.  When  the  maid  said . "  Breakfast  is 
ready,"  I  went  down  stairs.  10,  The  family  was  at  table 
already.  We  ate  ynih  a  good  appetite.  11.  My  sister  left  for 
school,  but  I  looked  at  (j'ai  parcouru)  the  morning  paper  before 
leaving.  12.  It  was  Monday  and  I  got  (arriver)  to  school 
late  that  morning. 

Note.  —  In  6  put  encore  (stOI)  before  'some  hours.'  Be  careful  about 
the  position  of  diji  in  10  (see  A,  (1),  13).  Note  the  abeence  of  any  article  in 
i  table  and  de  bon  appitit.  Note  the  different  French  forma  in  1  and  2 
for  'I  slept ';  why?    In  12  put  tard  before  k  I'^cole. 

D.  Dict^:  Lesson  XIX,  A. 

*  (se  coucher).  *  (d£jeaner).  *  (coorir). 

*  (aToir).  •  (se  r6veiUer).  •  (se  lever).  '  (tomber). 




90.      Future  Indicative  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

I  shall  give,  etc. 
donner  ai  [doii(8)re] 
donner  as  [don  (a)  ra] 
donner  a  [don(8)ra] 
donner  ons  [don(a)r5] 
donner  ez  [don  (a)  re] 
donner  out  [don  (a)  r 5] 

I  shall  finish,  etc. 

finir  ai  [finire] 

finir  as  [finira] 

finir  a  [finira] 

finir  ons  [finiro] 

finir  ez  [finire] 

finir  ont  [finiro] 

/  shall  sell,  etc. 
vendr  ai  [vadre] 
vendr  as  [vadra] 
vendr  a  [vadra] 
vendr  ons  [vadro] 
vendr  ez  [vadre] 
vendr  on<  [vadro] 

Note.  —  In  the  future  of  verbs  of  the  donner  type,  we  print  the  sjTnbol  9 
in  parenthesis  to  indicate  that  it  is  pronounced  very  lightly.  In  fact  it 
usually  disappears  in  rapid  speech. 

This  symbol  is  printed  in  the  same  way  in  the  future  of  fetre  and  f aire  in 
§§  91,  92  to  indicate  that  it  is  pronoimced  very  lightly,  and  that  it  disap- 
pears if  the  preceding  syllable  ends  in  a  vowel  sound.  Compare  with  this 
la  fenetre  Qafnsitr],  ses  lemons  [selso],  deux  chevaux  [d0Svo],  je  me  leve 
[samleiv],  je  serai  [sasre],  nous  ferons  [nufro].  See  Lesson  V,  Exercise 
in  Pronunciation,  (1);   XIX,  Exercise  in  Pronunciation. 

91.  Future  Indicative  of  avoir,  etre 

I  shall  have,  etc.  I  shall  be,  etc. 

aur  of  [ore]    aur  ons  [oro]  seroi  [s(a)re]    ser  ons  [8(a)r5] 

aur  OS  [ora]    aurez    [ore]  seras  [s(a)ra]    set  ez    [s(a)re] 

aura   [ora]    aur onf  [or5]  sere   [s(a)ra]    ser on<  [s (a )r5] 

92.  Future  Indicative  of  atter  (irreg.),  and  faire  (irreg.) 
I  shall  go,  etc.  I  shall  do,  etc. 

iraipre]    ir  ons  [iro]  fer  af  [f(a)re]    fer  ons  [f (a) r 5] 

ir  as  [ira]    ir  ez    [ire]  fer  as  [f  (a)ra]    fer  ez    [f  (a)re] 

ir  a   [ira]    ir  ont  [iro]  fer  a   [f  (a)ra]    fer  ont  [f  (a)r5] 

93.  For  the  future  of  lever  and  acheter,  cf.  §  78,  3: 
je  Idverai  [levre],  etc.  j'acheterai  [aSetre],  etc. 

94.  Use  of  Future.  It  is  used  in  general  as  in  English, 
but  observe  its  use  in  a  subordinate  sentence,  when  futurity 
is  implied  (but  for  'if  clause  see  §  116,  3): 

Je  lui  parlerai  quand  11  arrivera.     I  shall  speak  to  him  when  he  cornea. 


LESSON  xxn 



un  autobus  Cotobya]  motor  bus 
la  couturidre    PtutxTJeir]    dreas- 

le  devoir  [ladvwair]  exercise 
le  gant  [gd]  glove 
la  modiste  [madist]  milliner 
le  projet  [prose]  plan 
la  promenade    [pronmad]    walk, 

ride,  excursion 
la  semaine  [lasmen]  week 
le  travail  [trava:j]  woik 

dernier  [dernje]  last 
fatigant  [fatigd]  tiring 
prit  [pre]  ready 
prochain  [proS^]  ^^^ 

sale  [sal]  dirty 

blanchir  [bldSi:r]  launder 

essayer  [esrje]  trj*  on 

faire  beau     [bo]     be     good 

weather;     faire      mauvais 

[move]    be   bad    weather; 

faire  nuit  [nqi]  get  dark, 

be  dark 
mettre  [metr]  put,  put  on 

demain  fdame]  to-morrow 
en  retard    [arta:r]   behind  time, 

n^Mement  [n^idmd]  rapidly, 

A.  1.  n  est  d^j^  tard.  Nous  aliens  nous  coucher  tout  de 
suite.  2.  Demain  nous  nous  l^verons  de  bonne  heure  parce 
que  nous  avons  des  projets  de  promenade.  3.  Le  petit 
dejeuner  sera  prSt  quand  nous  descendrons.  4.  Nous  sor- 
tirons  tout  de  suite  parce  que  nous  ne  voulons  pas  ^tre  en 
retard.  5.  S'il  fait  beau  (temps)  nous  irons  k  pied;  s'il  fait 
mauvais  (si  le  temps  est  mauvais),  nous  prendrons  un  autobus 
ou  le  tramway.  6.  Nous  passerons  chez  la  modiste.  Si  nos 
chapeaux  ne  sont  pas  prSts,  nous  attendrons  un  peu.  7.  Avant 
onze  heures  nous  serons  chez  la  couturi^re  pour  essayer  nos 
robes.  8.  Nous  les  payerons  [pejrS]  quand  elles  seront  prfites. 
9.  Quand  nous  serons  fatigu^,  nous  irons  dejeuner  au  restau- 
rant du  Caf6  Voltaire.  10.  Notre  p^re  nous  y  attendra  k  midi. 
11.  Apr^  le  dejeuner  nous  entrerons  dans  un  magasin  pour 
acheter  des  mouchoirs  et  des  gants  et  puis  nous  rentrerons  chez 
nous.  12.  Nous  attendons  h  diner  des  amis  qui  nous  m^neront 
au  th^dtre  ce  soir.  13.  Si  nos  nouvelles  robes  sont  prates, 
nous  les  mettrons.  14.  On  sort  tr&s  tard  du  th^Atre  k  Paris. 
15.  II  est  fatigant  de  courir  nuit  et  jour  et  nous  serons  bien 
contentes  quand  nous  serons  au  lit. 

102  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  594 

B.  (1)  Make  a  list  from  A  of  the  instances  of  the  special  tise 
of  the  future  (§94). 

(2)  Complete  the  future  forms,  and  reply  to  the  questions:  1.  Je 
me  fei-  mal.  2.  lis  se  fer-  mal.  3.  Nous  ir-  chez  nous. 
4.  lis  ir-  au  mus6e.  5.  II  repondr-  k  vos  questions.  6.  On 
vous  entendr-.  7.  Vous  vous  r6veil-.  8.  II  fer-  jour  k  six 
heures.  9.  Si  j'ai  peur,  je  cri-.  10.  Aui^--vous  peur  si  je 
crie?  11.  Crie— vous  si  vous  avez  peur?  12.  A  quelle  heure 
descendr— vous?  13.  Vous  servir— vous  de  cette  brosse? 
14.  Vous  amus— vous  au  th^dtre  ce  soir?  15.  Cette  pi^ce 
de  Moli^re   vous  amus-  beaucoup. 

(3)  Use  in  the  future  the  verbs  in  parenthesis:    1.  (se  lever) 

A  quelle  heure  vous ?    2.  (se  lever)  Je k  sept  heures. 

3.  (se  lever)  Vous tard,  mon  ami.       4.  (r^pondre)  Mon 

fr^re aux  questions  du  professeur.      5.  (entrer)  Nous 

dans  le  th64tre  avant  huit  heures.     6.     (sortir)  Nous du 

th^dtre  apr^s  minuit.      7.  (^tre) vous  k  I'^cole  la  semaine 

prochaine?       8.  (mener)    Je    vous   au    march6    demain 

matin.      9.  (acheter)  Nous des  haricots  verts,  des  petits 

pois,  et  un  chou  pour  mon  lapin.       10.  (Mre)  Nous chez 

nous  avant  midi,       11.  (avoir)  La  cuisini^re  besoin  des 

legumes  avant  onze  heures.       12.  (perdre)  Si  vous  arrivez  si 
tard  vous  votre  temps. 

(4)  Supply  the  correct  form  of  the  verb  in  parenthesis  and  trans- 
late:   1.  (avoir)  Je  vous  apporterai  la  chemise  quand  vous  en 

besoin.      2.  (avoir)  Vous  la  mettrez  quand  vous  la . 

3.  (etre)  Vous  la  ferez  blanchir  quand  elle sale.      4.  (etre) 

Vous  vous  laverez  les  mains  quand  elles sales.      5.  (Hre) 

Nous  dtnerons  quand  le  diner  prM.       6.   (^tre)    Nous 

descendrons    quand    vous   habill6.        7.    (avoir)     Nous 

d^jeunerons    quand    nous  faim.       8.  (faire)    Nous    sor- 

tirons  tous   les  jours   cet    hiver    quand  il  beau  temps. 

9.   (faire)  Nous  nous  ISverons  quand  il jour.       10.  (faire) 

Nous  resterons  dans  la  maison  quand  il  mauvais  temps. 

11.  (entendre)  J'ouvrirai  la  porte  quand  je  vous  venir. 

12.  (entendre)  Je  fermerai  la  fen^tre  quand  je  chanter 

$94                              LESSON  xxn                               103 
votre  amie.       13.  (aller)  Je  prendrai  iin  taxi  quand  je  

k  la  gare.      14.  (finir)  J'irai  me  coucher  quand  je mon 

devoir.      15.  (se  r^veiller)  Serez-vous  pr^t  quand  je ? 

(5)  What  do  you  observe  to  be  the  written  stem  of  the  future 
of  donner,  finir,  vendre?  What  familiar  part  of  the  verb  does  it 
seem  to  bet  What  do  the  future  endings  remind  you  oft  Observe 
that  for  £tre,  avoir,  faire,  aller  these  same  endings  are  added  to 
a  new  stem:  ser-,  aur-,  fer-,  ir-.  Note  the  pronunciation  of  the 
future  of  donner. 

C.  (1)  Beginning  wiih  A,  2,  substitute  hier  for  demain  and 
shift  the  rest  of  the  passage  to  the  past.  Look  out  for  the  imperfect 
and  past  indefinite  forms.  The  si  clauses  must  be  converted  into 
affirmative  statements,  as  (A,  5):  II  a  fait  (or  il  faisait)  beau 
tempe  et  nous  sommes  all^  k  pied;  il  a  Yait  mauvais  et  nous 
avons  pris  .  .  .  The  slight  confusion  of  sense  here  may  be  ig- 
nored.  The  two  present  forms  in  A,  14  and  15,  contain  general 
statements,  and  therefore  remain  unchanged. 

(2)  Traduisez  en  fran^ais:  1.  We  used  to  finish  our  work 
early.  2.  Did  you  finish  it?  3.  The  grapes  (use  singular) 
were  ripening  when  I  was  in  the  country  last  (translate  two 
ways)  week.  4.  Did  they  get  ripe  rapidly?  5.  Were  you 
(past  indef.)  at  the  concert  yesterday?  6.  Were  they  (on) 
singing  when  you  got  (arriver)  there?  7.  Had  they  (on) 
begun?  8.  Did  you  Uke  the  music?  9.  How  long  did  you 
stay?  10.  Did  the  merchant  sell  (two  ways,  with  different 
senses)  shoes?  11.  Did  you  dream  when  you  were  little? 
12.  Did  you  dream  last  (cette)  night?  13.  Did  you  get  scared? 
14.  Did  you  hurt  yourself  when  your  horse  fell?  15.  Did 
you  get  frightened  when  your  horse  ran  through  the  woods? 
16.  You  didn't  come  yesterday;  were  you  ill?  17.  Did  j'ou 
see  her  often  in  France?  18.  Did  you  stay  long  in  France? 
19.  I  worked  two  hours  yesterday  evening.  20.  I  worked  a 
great  deal  (beaucoup)  when  I  was  younger.  21.  It  got  light 
very  lat«  yesterday  morning.  22.  I  was  late  for  (the) 
school.      23.  It  was  dark  when  I  left. 

D.  Dict^:  Lesson  XXI,  A. 

104  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAB  §§  95-97 


95.  Disjunctive  Personal  Pronouns.  The  personal  pro- 
nouns already  given  are  used  as  subject  or  object  with  the 
verb,  and  are  hence  called  'conjunctive.'  The  following 
forms,  not  being  immediately  connected  with  a  verb,  are 
called  'disjunctive': 

moi  [mwa],  I,  me  nous  [nu],  we,  us 

toi    [twa],  thou,  thee,  you  vous  [vu],  you 

lui   [Iqi],  he,  him  eux    [0],  they  (m.),  them  (m.) 

elle  [el],  she,  her  elles  [el],  they  (/.),  them  (/.) 

96.  The  following  are  some  of  their  uses: 

1.  Absolutely,  a  verb  being  implied,  but  not  expressed: 
Qui  est  Ik?  —  Moi  (eux,  elles).         Who  is  there?  —  I  (they). 

2.  After  a  preposition: 

Poiu:  elles;  avec  moi;  sans  eux.     For  them;  with  me;  without  them. 

3.  As  logical  subject  after  ce  +  etre: 

Cast  moi,  c'est  toi.  It  is  I,  it  is  thou  (you). 

Cast  lui,  c'ast  elle.  It  is  he,  it  is  she. 

Cast  nous,  c'ast  vous.  It  is  we,  it  is  you. 

Ca  sent  eux,  ca  sent  elles.  It  is  they  (w.),  it  is  they  (/.). 

97.  When  the  real  subject  foUows  the  verb  etre,  ce  is 
used  to  represent  or  point  to  this  logical  subject,  whereas 
the  English  would  seem  to  demand  a  personal  pronoun 
(see  §44,  2,  a): 

C'ast  Marie  at  sa  mere.  It  is  Mary  and  her  mother. 

C'est  nous,  ce  sont  aux.  It  is  we,  it  is  they. 

C'ast  un  homma  celebra.  He  is  a  celebrated  man. 

Ce  sont  mas  maillaaxres  amias.  They  are  my  best  friends. 

C'ast  aujourd'hui  lundi.  It  is  Monday  to-day  (To-day  is). 

Cast  a  nous  qu'il  parla.  It  is  to  us  that  he  is  speaking. 

Note.  —  When  the  logical  subject  is  a  noun,  ce  is  used  in  case  the  noun 
is  modified  by  an  article  or  a  possessive  adjective;  il  (elle)  is  used  when  the 
noim  has  no  modifier,  as  when  it  denotes  nationality  or  profession: 
Cest  un  soldat  But       II  est  soldat 

Cast  un  Americain  tl  est  Americain 

§97  LESSON  xxm  106 


un  autobus  [otobys]  motor  bus  s'arreter  [sarete]  halt,  come  to 

le  coin  [kwS]  comer  a  stop 

le  conducteur  [kSdyktceirj  con-  demeurer      [damoere]      live, 

ductor  dwell,  reside 

le  c6t6  [kote]  side,  direction  saluer  [salqe]  dpeak  to,  greet 
la  dame  [dam]  lady 

la  destination    [destinosjS]    des-  bientdt  [bj€to]  soon,  in  a  UtUe 

tination  "^'^^^ 

le  miUtaire  [militc:r]  soldier  {of  ^'^^  1>^-1  o^""  ^«'«'  ^^^^ 

any  rank)  ^h*'^ 

le  numfiro  [nymero]  number  ^  <^t«  <*«  '>«»^*^'  "^^'^^  ^ 

un  ordre  [ardr]  order  «^  ^^^  without,  but  for 

le  voisin  [vwazO  neighbor  ne . . .  rien  [na  . . .  rj«]nothing 

levoyageur[vwaja3ce:r]  traveler,  ^^^  ^^  j^  ^^  [salanfcriO 

P'^^^^  that  doesn't  matter 

autre  [otr]  other  de  ce  cdt6  [daskote]  on  this  side, 

sage  [sass]  good,  well-behaved  in  this  direction 

A.  1.  Nous  sortirons  ce  matin,  n'est-ce  pas?  2.  —  Oui, 
voulez-vous  aller  k  pied  ou  prendrons-nous  Tautobus  au  coin 
de  la  rue?  3.  —  Allons  k  pied.  II  fait  trte  beau.  4.  J'aime 
k  marcher  quand  il  fait  froid.  5.  Qui  est  ce  monsieur  I^ 
bas  de  I'autre  c6t^  de  la  rue?  6.  —  C'est  un  de  nos 
anciens  voisins,  qui  demeure  maintenant  dans  une  autre  rue. 
7.  —  Est-ce  votre  professeur  de  fran^ais?  8.  —  Non,  ce  n'est 
pas  lui.  Le  voili  de  ce  cdt^  de  la  rue  qui  monte  dans  (getting 
into)  le  tramway.  9.  Avez-vous  vu  ces  trois  messieurs  qui  nous 
ont  salu^s?  10.  —  Oui,  je  les  ai  vus.  —  Ce  sont  des  amis  de 
mon  p^re.  11.  Voyez-vous  cette  dame  qui  monte  en  voiture? 
C'est  une  amie  de  votre  m6re,  n'est-ce  pas?  12.  —  Non, 
elle  est  trop  petite.  Ma  mSre  n'a  pas  d'amie  aussi  petite  qu'elle. 
13.  —  Mais  elle  nous  a  salu^.  14.  —  Cela  ne  fait  rien. 
Ce  n'est  pas  une  amie  de  ma  m^re.  15.  Elle  a  salu^  peut- 
6tre  ces  messieurs  qui  sont  derri^re  nous.       Les  voyez-vous? 

16.  —  Oui,  vous  avez  raison.     Ce  sont  eux  qu'elle  a  salu^s. 

17.  Ce  sont  deux  jeunes  militaires,  n'est-ce  pas?      18.  —  C'est 
k  ce  coin-1^  que  nous  attendrons  I'autobus.       19.  II  s'arrdte 

106  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §97 

de  I'autre  c6t6  de  la  rue.  .  Prenons  des  num^ros.  20.  Quand 
I'autobus  arrivera,  le  conducteur  criera  les  num^ros  et  les 
voyageurs  monteront  dans  I'ordre  de  leurs  num^ros.  21.  —  Oh, 
je  comprends!  On  ne  fait  pas  comme  cela  chez  nous. 
22.  —  Non,  mais  cela  ne  fait  rien;  on  fait  comme  cela  en 
France.  23.  —  Eh  bien,  nous  voila  months!  Nous  avons  de 
bonnes  places,  n'est-ce  pas?  24.  L'autobus  marche  vite  et 
nous  serons  bientdt  k  notre  destination. 

B.    (1)  a.  Identify  each  case  of  ce  and  il  (elle,  etc.)  in  A. 
b.  Fill  in  the  blank  with  ce  or  il  (elle,  ils,  elles):    1. 

faitchaud.     2.  est  quatre  heures.      3.  estaujourd'hui 

qu'il  part.      4.  est  le  conducteur  qui  a  cri6  les  num^ros. 

5. fera  jour  bientdt.       6. est  facteur;  —  est  cuisinidre. 

7.  sera   bient6t    midi.       8.   est   ici    que  I'autobus 

s'arrete.       9.  s'arrete   ici.        10.  sont  mes  freres 

que  vous  avez  vus.      11.  sont  arrives  hier.      12. sont 

ici  depuis  huit    jours.       13.  demeurent  h.  Saint-Louis. 

14.  est  h.  Saint-Louis  qu'ils  demeurent.       15.  A  qui  est- 

?      16.  est  ^  eux. 

(2)  Translate:  with  me,  at  my  house,  at  his  house,  with 
her,  before  them  {masc),  behind  them  {fern.),  for  him,  of  them 
(masc),  without  her,  without  them  (masc),  by  (beside)  him, 
by  me,  after  you,  after  her. 

(3)  Give  eight  possible  answers  to  each  question,  using  dis- 
junctive pronouns:  1.  Qui  est  1^?  2.  Qui  a  cri6  pendant  la 
nuit?      3.  Qui  a  perdu  ce  mouchoir? 

C.  (1)  Re-^ead  exercise  A  of  Lesson  XXII.  Close  the  book 
and  reproduce  it  in  the  future  with  the  following  as  key  words: 

se  coucher  ce  soir des  pro  jets  pour  demain se  lever 

dejeuner sortir prendre  tramway,  autobus 

passer  chez  modiste  aller  chez  couturi^re  essayer 

robes dejeuner  avec  papa  au  restaurant au  magasin 

des  gants rentrer th^dtre  ce  soir content 

d'etre  au  ht. 

(2)  Translate  and  explain  the  cases  of  ce  or  il  (elle,  etc.): 
1.  She  is  here;  she  is  my  teacher.  2.  They  went  (partir,  see 
Lesson  XVIII,  B,  2)  this  morning;   they  are  the  ones  (=  it  is 

§98  LESSON  XXIV  107 

they)  who  went  this  morning.  3.  I  am  the  one  (=  It  is  I) 
who  spoke  (Ist  person)  to  you.  4.  He  is  famous;  he  is  a  famous 
man.  5.  She  is  very  pretty;  she  is  a  very  pretty  lady.  6.  He 
is  good  (sage);  he  is  a  good  boy.  7.  It  (street  car)  stops  here; 
it  is  here  that  it  stops.  8.  They  are  gone  (partir);  they  are 
my  friends.  9.  She  stops;  she  is  a  good  child.  10.  Heis^ai] 
postman;  he  is  the  postman  who  brought  the  letters. 

(3)  Fill  m  each  blank  leith  the  present,  imperfect,  past  indefinite 
and  future  {Jour  forms)  of  the  verb  in  parenthesis:  1.  (sortir) 
Notre  voisin de  sa  maison.      2.  (monter)  Les  voyageurs 

dans  la  voiture.      3.  (faire)  Cela  ne  rien  (rien  as 

object  has  the  same  position  as  pas).      4.  (crier)  Le  conducteur 

les  num6ros.      5.  (s'arrfiter)  Les  tramways de  I'autre 

cdt6  de  la  rue.      6.  (se  promener)  Mon  oncle  k  cheval. 

7.  (courir:    1st  future,  courrai)  Ces  jeunes  filles  nuit  et 

jour.       8.  (avoir  besoin)   Ces  enfants  d'un  bon  diner. 

9.  (avoir)   II  y  une  fois  une  belle  dame.       10.  (6tre)  II 

temps  de  partir.      11.  (cesser)  Mon  pdre de  fumer. 

12.  (s'appeler)  Le  petit  gargon Charles  [Sarl].      13.  (com- 

mencer)  Le  prof esseur la  le<;on. 


98.  Impersonal  Verbs.  They  are  conjugated  in  the  third 
person  singular  only,  with  the  subject  fl  =  it,  used  indef- 
initely and  absolutely.    Among  such  are 

(a)  verbs  describing  natural  phenomena,  as  in  English: 

Quel  temps  fait-U?  What  kind  of  weather  is  it? 

II  fait  beau  temps.  It  is  fine  (weather). 

U  pleut,  il  pleuvait.  It  is  raining,  it  was  raining. 

II  a  plu,  il  pleuvra.  It  has  rained,  it  will  rain, 

n  neige,  il  a  neige  It  is  snowing,  it  has  snowed, 

n  fait  chaud,  il  fait  du  vent  It  is  hot,  it  is  windy. 


n  faut  saluer  ses  amis.  It  is  necessary  to  (we  must,  you 

must,  one  must)  speak  to  our 
(your,  one's)  friends. 

108  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §98 

(c)  The  idiomatic  expression  il  y  a  4-  an  object  noun. 

D  y  a  des  plixmes  sur  la  table.         There  are  pens  on  the  table. 
II  y  a  diz  milles  d'ici  k  la  ville.        It  is  ten  miles  from  here  to  the 


(d)  II  est  with  expressions  of  time: 

H  est  trois  heures,  midi.  It  is  three  o'clock,  twelve  o'clock 

n  est  une  heure  (du  matin).  It  is  one  o'clock  (1  A.M.). 


mie  auto(mobile)  [oto(mobil)3  au- 
tomobile  (often  masc.) 

le  bateau  [bato]  boat 

le  bout  [bu]  end 

le  camarade  [kamarad]  school- 
mate, chum 

le  ciel  [sjd]  sky 

le  conge  [kose]  leave;   jour  de 
conge  holiday 

le  coucher  du  soleil  [kuSedyso- 

le!J]  sunset 
im  endroit  [denadrwa]  spot,  place 
une  excursion  [ekskyrsjo]  trip 

le  lac  [lak]  lake 

le  lever  du  soleil  Palvedysols:  j] 

le  monde  [moid]  world 

le  nuage  [nqais]  cloud 

les  provisions  /.  [provizjo]  food, 
things  to  eat 

le  repas  Qarpa]  meal 

le  vent  [vQ]  wind 

couvert     Qcuveir]    overcast, 

propre  [propr]  clean 

le  lundi  [Idedi]  Monday 
le  mardi  [mardi]  Tuesday 
le  mercredi  [merkradij  Wednes- 
le  jeudi  [30di]  Thursday 
le  vendredi  [vdidradi]  Friday 
le  samedi  [samdi]  Saturday 
le  dimanche  [dimaiS]  Simday 

appeler  [aple]  call 
s'appreter  [saprete]  get  ready 

chasser  [Sase]  drive  away 

neiger  [nsse]  snow 
il  neige  [neisH  it  is  snowing 

pleuvoir  [ploevwair]  rain 
il  pleut  [pl0]  it  is  raining 
se  reposer  [sarpoze]  rest 

apres-demain  [apredmg]  day 

after  to-morrow 
avant-hier    [ava(t)je:r]    day 

before  yesterday 

dehors  [d9o:r]  outdoors 
pres  de   [preda]  near   . 
sous  [su]  under,  beneath 
pendant  que  [padoka]  while 

§98  LESSON  XXIV  109 

A.  (1)  1.  C'est  aujourd'hui  vendredi.  2.  Mardi  dernier  nous 
avons  fait  une  jolie  excursion.  3.  Nous  nous  sommes  lev^ 
avant  le  lever  du  soleil  et  nous  avons  regard^  dehors  pour  voir 
quel  temps  il  faisait.  4.  Le  ciel  6tait  convert  de  nuages  et  il 
commen^ait  k  pleuvoir.  5.  II  a  plu  pendant  une  heure,  mais 
apr^s  le  petit  dejeuner  il  a  cess^  de  pleuvoir.  6.  Le  vent  a 
chassS  les  nuages  et  bient6t  il  a  fait  trha  beau.  7.  A  dix  heures 
nous  sommes  partis  en  automobile  pour  passer  la  journ^ 
dans  le  pare  de  Versailles,  un  des  plus  beaux  pares  du  monde. 
8.  Nous  avons  pris  des  choees  k  manger  parce  que  nous 
voulions  (wished)  diner  sous  les  arbres.  9.  Nous  6tions  huit 
dans  notre  automobile  mais  nous  6tions  bien  malgr6<  cela. 
10.  II  y  avait  plusieurs  autres  automobiles  pour  nos  camarades. 
IL  En  route  nous  avons  chants  et  cri6,  et  nous  avons  beau- 
coup  ri.  12.  J'aime  les  excursions  en  auto,  si  on  ne  marche 
pas  trop  vite.  13.  La  grande  route  6tait  tr^s  belle,  avec  de 
beaux  arbres  des  deux  cdt^.  14.  Les  petits  chemins  dans  la 
forSt  6taient  moins  bens  mais  cela  ne  faisait  rien.  15.  Nous 
ne  voulions  pas  aller  trop  vite. 

(2)  16.  Au  bout  d'une  heure  nous  nous  sommes  arr^t^s  dans 
un  joli  endroit  prds  d'un  petit  lac.  17.  II  y  avait  de  I'herbe  et 
de  beaux  arbres.  18.  Nos  parents  sont  rest^s  sous  les  arbres 
pour  preparer  le  repas,  pendant  que  les  enfants  s'amusaient. 
19.  Quelques-uns  des  ganjons  ont  jou6  k  la  balle.  20.  D'autres 
ont  fait  une  promenade  en  bateau  sur  le  petit  lac.  21.  II 
y  avait  plusieurs  bateaux  et  quelques-unes  des  jeunes  filles 
les  ont  accompagnfe.  22.  Avant  le  repas  ma  m^re  m'a  dit: 
•  Tes  mains  ne  sont  pas  propres;  va  les  laver  tout  de  suite.  » 
23.  Apr^s  le  dtner  on  s'est  repos^  sur  I'herbe  parce  qu'on  6tait 
fatigu6.  24.  A  cinq  heures  nous  sommes  partis  et  nous  sommes 
arrives  chez  nous  avant  le  coucher  du  soleil.  25.  Quelle  belle 
journ6e!  En  hiver  on  ne  fait  pas  de  si  jolies  excursions.  26.  II 
fait  froid,  il  neige  et  tr^  souvent  il  pleut  toute  la  journ6e  et 
on  s'amuse  mieux  k  la  maison.  27.  Les  jours  sont  aussi  tr^s 
courts.  Le  soleil  se  16ve  tard  et  se  couche  de  bonne  heure. 
J'aime  mieux  I'^t^ 

110  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  1 98 

B.  Memorize*:  Eh,  bonjour  Lundi! 

Comment  va  Mardi? 

Tres  bien,  Mercredi; 

Je  viens  de  la  part  de  Jeudi, 

Dire  h  Vendredi, 

Qu'il  s'apprdte  Samedi, 

Pour  aller  a  I'eglise  Dimanche. 

C.  (1)  Transfer  the  story  in  A  to  the  future,  substituting 
demain  for  aujourd'htii,  prochain  for  dernier,  futures  for  past 
indefinites,  etc.,  and  tell  it  first  in  the  first  person  as  above,  and 
then  of  mes  cousins,  making  the  proper  changes  of  verbs,  pronouns, 
etc.  The  first  person,  future,  of  voulions  is  voudrons  (or  use 
allons  vouloir). 

(2)  Traduisez:  1.  It  was  raining  when  we  got  up  this  morning, 
but  it  did  not  rain  long.  2.  When  it  stopped  raining  we  went 
out.  Our  friends  were  waiting  for  us.  3.  They  invited  us 
to  go  with  them  to  Versailles,  where  they  were  going  to  spend 
the  day  in  the  beautiful  park.  4.  There  were  eight  of  us  in 
their  motor  car,  but  in  spite  of  that  we  were  very  comfortable. 
5.  On  the  way  we  laughed  and  sang.  When  we  got  to  our 
destination  we  all  got  out  (descendre).  6.  While  our  parents 
prepared  dinner  on  the  grass,  the  boys  played  ball.  7.  Some 
of  the  girls  went  for  a  boat  ride  on  the  small  lake.  8.  We 
asked  them  (indirect  object)  to  (de)  wait  for  us,  but  they  would 
(imperf.  of  vouloir;  1st  person,  voulais)  not.  9.  Two  of  the 
girls  fell  into  the  water,  but  they  did  not  hurt  themselves. 
10.  At  six  o'clock  my  mother  called  us  and  we  set  out  (=  de- 
parted). 11.  The  car  went  rapidly  and  we  got  home  before 

D.  RSpondez  aux  questions:  1.  Quel  jour  de  la  semaine  est-ce 
aujourd'hui?      2.  Quel  jour  est-ce  que  ce  sera  demain?      3.  Et 

*  Translation:  (Good  morning,  good  day),  How  do  you  do  Monday! 
How  is  Tuesday?  —  Very  well,  Wednesday;  —  I  come  from  (=  in  behalf  of) 
Thursday  —  To  tell  Friday  —  That  he  is  to  get  ready  Saturday,  —  To  go 
to  church  Sunday. 

Observe  the  use  of  capital  letters  here,  contrary,  apparently,  to  §  21. 
In  this  jingle  the  days  are  personified. 

%98  LESSON  XXIV  111 

quel  jour  6tait-ce  hier?  4.  Et  aprds-demain?  5.  Et  avant- 
hier?  6.  Quels  jours  de  la  scmaine  avez-vous  vos  classes? 
7.  AUez-vous  k  I'^cole  tous  les  jours?  8.  Jeudi  est  jour 
de  cong6  pour  les  petits  Frangais;  avez-vous  cong6  le  jeudi? 
9.  Est-ce  que  vous  vous  amusez  le  samedi?  10.  Aimez-voua 
mieux  les  samedis  ou  les  lundis?  11.  Quand  est-ce  que  tVen- 
dredi  »  s'apprSte?  12.  Pourquoi  s'appr6te-t-il?  13.  Vous 
appr^tez-vous  le  samedi  pour  aller  h  I'^glise  le  dimanche? 
14.  Comment  allez-vous  aujourd'hui?  15.  Comment  va 
votre  p6re?      16,  Quels  sont  Ifes  jours  de  la  semaine? 

E.   Dict6e:    Lesson  XXII,  A. 


(1)  Give  opposite  or  synonym:  bon  march6,  une  bottine,  une 
semaine,  deux  semaines,  tard,  faire  beau,  faire  chaud,  avoir 
raison,  essayer,  se  lever,  de  bonne  heure,  le  lever  du  soleil,  jour, 
matin,  pauvre,  ensuite,  quelque  chose,  sale,  premier. 

(2)  Supply  the  proper  words:    1.  La  terre  est  de  neige. 

2.  Le  vent les  nuages.      3.  II k  vos  questions.      4.  La 

couturiSre  fait  des  ;   la  modiste  fait  des- .       5.  J'^tais 

fatigu6  et  j'ai  dormi  ee  matin.       6.  Jc  suis  arriv6  en  

k  r^cole.      7.  Je  me  coucherai  de  bonne  heure  parce  que  j'ai 

.      8.  Je  vais  au  concert  parce  que  j'aime  la .      9.  Je 

vais  voir  une de  Molidre  au ce  soir.      10.  AUez  vite 

laver  vos  mains,  elles  sont ;  elles  ne  sont  pas .      11.  Je 

me  suis les  cheveux;  je  me  suis  la  figure.      12.  J'ai 

mes  aux  pieds.      13.  Pour  me  laver  les  mains  j'ai  besoin 

de  et  d'une  — ^.      14.  Je  n'aime  pas  cet  enfant,  il  n'est 

pas .      15.  Prenons   I'autdbus    qui k  ce   coin    de   la 

rue.       16.  Les montent  dans  le  tramway;    le  conducteur 

crie    les  et   nous   montons    dans  de    nos    num^ros. 

17.  Je  n'aime  pa.s  les  autos,  j'aime  mieux  me  promener  k  . 

18.  Quand   il  froid,   je   mettrai    mes   gants.       19.  Nous 

avons  achet^  doux  de  souliers.      20.  Je  marche  avec  lea 

:;^^ —  et  les ,  je  pense  avec  la . 

112  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §98 

(3)  Supply  past  indefinite  and  future  of  cesser  or  s*arreter 

according  to  the  sense:    1.  II  de  pleuvoir.       2.  Le  train 

.       3.  II  ne  neige  pas  maintenant,  la  neige  a   de 

tomber.      4.  Get  enfant  a  d'ecouter.       5.  II  k  la 

porte.      6.  Ne  vous pas  dans  la  rue;  vous  serez  en  retard 

pour  la   classe.     Supply   the   infinitive   of  one   of  these  verbs: 

7.  Voulez-vous  ?       8.  Voulez-vous  de  causer  avec 


(4)  Supply  fois  or  temps  or  heure:    1.  II  fait  beau  ; 

deux  k  la  ;   il  est de  partir;   quelle est-il?  c'est 

du  dtner.       2.  Combien  de  resterez-vous  chez  la 

couturiere?      3.  Combien  de  les  avez-vous  vus?      4.  Le 

c'est  de  I'argent.      5.  Je  n'ai  pas  le  d'y  aller.      6.  II 

a  neig6  plusieurs  vendredi  dernier.       7.  Depuis  combien 

de   demeurez-vous  h  New- York?       8.  Notre  auto  [oto] 

s'est  arret6e  trois .       9.  II  y  avait  une une  petite  fille 

trds  sage. 

(5)  a.  Supply  de  bonne  heure  or  bientdt:    1.  lis  se  leveront 

demain.      2.  II  est  un  peu  en  retard  mais  il  arrivera . 

3.  J'ai  fait  une  promenade  ce  matin.       4.  Je  rentrerai 

pour  le  dejeuner.      5.  Attendez  un  peu,  I'autobus  arrivera 

.      6.  Si  le  tramway  n'arrive  pas  ,  j'irai  a  ma  destina- 
tion h  pied.       7.  Aujourd'hui  ils  se  sont  r^veill^s  . 

6.  Supply  tard  or  en  retard:    1.  J'aime  a  me  lever  en 

hiver.       2.  Le  soleil  se  couche   en  6t^.       3.  Je  suis  parti 

tr^s    de   chez    moi.        4.  Get   61eve   est   tou jours    . 

5.  Vous  etes  pour  prendre  le  train.      6.  Le  train  est  ar- 
rive    k  la  gare. 

(6)  Use  in  two  sentences  each  the  verbs  conjugated  with  dtre 
{see  Lesson  XVIII). 

(7)  Supply   suitable   words:    1.  Nous   avons   6t6   au    «  Bon 
March6  »  (magasin  c^l^bre  de  Paris).      2.  Nous  avons  achet6 

une  paire  de  ,  trois  paires  de ,  et  deux  pour  ma 

grande  sceur.       3.  Et  nous  avons  achet6  une  jolie  verte 

pour  mon  oncle,  des ,  des ,  et  des pour  mon  p^re 

et  des pour  ma  petite  sceur.      4.  Tous  les  enfants  aiment 

les . 

§99  LESSON  XXV  113 

(8)  ^numirez  (enumerate)  les  objets  dont  vous  vous  senez 
pour  voire  toilette  {voyez  aux  Legons  XX,  XXI). 

(9)  Completez:    1.  Vous  trop  de  cigares.       2.  Quand 

les  enfants peur,  ils .      3.  Les  enfants ne  crient 

pas    beaucoup.      4.  Quand    le    ciel    est    convert   de en 

hiver,  on  dit  qu'il  va .      5.  Si  c'est  en  6t^,  on  dit  qu'il  va 

.      6.  On  se  promdne  sur  I'eau  dans  un .      7.  On  se 

promSne  k  travers  la  for^t  k .      8.  On  se  prom^ne  sur  les 

grandes  routes  en ou  k ou  k . 

(10)  Quels  80tU  les  jours  de  la  semainef 

(11)  Dites  en  fran^is:  already,  again,  late,  early,  at  length, 
through,  beside,  near,  yell  loudly,  the  same  day,  out-doors. 


99.  The  Infinitive.  Some  of  the  commoner  uses  of  the 
infinitive  are: 

1.  Without  any  preposition,  (o)  after  such  verbs  as  devoir, 
must,  ought  to,  falloir,  must,  be  necessary  to,  pouvoir,  can,  be 
able  to,  savoir,  can,  know  how  to,  vouloir,  will,  vrish;  (b)  after 
verbs  of  motion  such  as  aller,  go,  venir,  come;  (c)  after  verbs 
of  perceiving  such  as  ecouter,  listen  (to),  entendre,  hear, 
voir,  see,  regarder,  look  at;  and  after  faire,  make,  cause  to, 
laisser,  let. 

Desire-t-il  aller  en  ville?  Does  he  wish  to  go  downtown? 

D  faut  travailler.  He  (we,  you,  they,  etc.)  must  work. 

Je  vais  chercher  des  plumes.  I  am  going  to  pet  some  p>ens. 

Je  vois  venir  des  soldats.  I  see  some  soldiers  coming. 

Je  fais  sonnet  la  cloche.  I  make  the  bell  ring. 

2.  Preceded  by  de,  (a)  after  impersonal  etre  followed 
by  an  adjective;  (6)  after  many  verbs,  such  as  cesser,  stop, 
demander,  ask,  dire,  tell,  essayer,  try,  prier,  beg,  regretter, 
regret,  be  sorry,  ticher,  try;  (c)  after  nouns  to  form  ad- 
jective phrases;  and  after  most  adjectives. 

114  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §99 

II  est  facile  de  parler.  It  is  easy  to  talk. 

II  a  cesse  de  chanter.  He  has  ceased  singing. 

Le  crime  de  voler.  The  crime  of  stealing. 

Vous  etes  libre  de  partir.  You  are  free  to  go. 

Je  vous  prie  de  tester  quelques  I  beg  of  you  to  stay  a  few  min- 
minutes.  utes. 

3.  Preceded  by  a,  (a)  after  such  verbs  as  aimer,  like, 
s'amuser,  have  a  good  time,  apprendre,  learn,  avoir,  have 
to,  chercher,  seek,  commencer,  begin,  continuer,  continue, 
enseigner,  teach,  inviter,  invite,  se  mettre,  begin,  reussir, 
succeed;  and  (6)  after  some  adjectives  denoting  fitness, 
tendency,  purpose,  etc. 

J'aime  a  patiner.  I  like  to  skate  (like  skating). 

Je  m'amuse  a  patiner.  I  amuse  myself  (by)  skating. 

Commencez  a  lire.  Begin  to  read. 

Nous  avons  a  copier  nos  phrases.      We  have  to  copy  our  sentences. 

H  se  met  a  travailler.  He  begins  to  work. 

Ceci  est  bon  a  manger.  This  is  good  to  eat. 

Cela  est  facile  d  faire.  That  is  easy  to  do. 

N.B.  —  Aimer  may  also  (colloquially)  be  followed  by  the  pure  infinitive; 
e.g.,  j'aime  (i)  marcher  lentement,  /  like  to  walk  slowly. 

4.  Observe  that  the  same  adjective  may  take  a  or  de, 
according  to  the  construction  in  which  it  is  used.  When  the 
infinitive  depends  upon  the  adjective  and  is  not  the  logical 
subject  of  the  sentence,  the  adjective  and  the  infinitive  are 
connected  by  means  of  a;  when  the  infinitive  is  the  real 
subject  of  the  sentence,  it  is  preceded  by  de. 

n  est  facile  a  contenter.  He  is  easy  to  satisfy. 

n  est  facile  de  le  contenter.  It  is  easy  to  satisfy  him. 

La  chose  est  facile  d  faire.  The  thing  is  easy  to  do. 

H  est  diflScile  de  patiner.  Skating  is  difficult. 

5.  A  verb  governed  by  a  preposition  must  be  in  the  infini- 
tive, except  after  en  (cf.  §101);  the  infinitive  is  usually 
translated  into  English  by  means  of  a  present  participle: 

Je  I'ai  fait  sans  penser.  I  did  it  without  thinking. 

JD  est  parti  sans  rien  dire.  He  left  without  saying  anything. 

§§  100-103  LESSON  XXV  115 

100.  Present  Participle  of  dormer,  firur,  vendre,  etc. 
Giving  Fimsking  Selling 

donn  ant  [dana]  finiss  ant  [finisd]  vend  ant  [vfidd] 

Hating  Being 

ay  ant  [eja]  6t  ant  [eta] 

101.  Agreement.    Used  as  an  adjective,  the  present  parti- 
ciple agrees  like  an  adjective;  otherwise  it  is  invariable: 
Une  sc^ne  charmante.  A  channing  scene. 

Les  enfants  sont  obeissant5.  The  children  are  obedient. 

Elle  tombait  souvent  en  marchant.  She  often  fell  while  walking. 

Ce  professeur  aime  k  s'amuser  en  This   teacher   likes  to  entertain 
lisant  les  pieces  de  Molilre.  himself   by   reading    Molidre's 


En  lisant  on  apprend  k  lire.  By  reading  one  learns  to  read. 

Tout  en  pleurant,  elle  continua.  Still  weeping,  she  went  on. 

N.B.  —  The  present  participle,  when  preceded  by  en,  strengthened  acme- 
times  by  tout,  ia  ofteD  called  the  gerund.  The  preposition  en  is  ezpreased 
in  EInglish  by  on,  in,  whiU,  by  or  is  left  untranslated. 

102.  Present  Indicative  of  pouvoir,  be  able,  can,  may  (irr^.) 

/  can,  am  able,  etc. 

je  petji  or  puis  [3ap0,pqi]  nous  pouvons  fnupuvS] 

tupeuz  Ctyp0]  vouspouvez    [vupuve] 

ilpeut  [ilp0]  ilspeuvent  [ilpoerv] 

103.  The  impersonal  il  faut  (imperfect  il  fallait,  past 
indef.  il  a  fallu,  future  il  faudra)  is  often  used  with  the  pure 
infinitive  to  indicate  a  general  obligation  on  the  part  of  the 
speaker  or  the  person  spoken  to  or  about: 

n  faut  faire  son  devoir.  One  must  do  one's  duty. 

D  faut  partir.  I  (we,  you,  he,  they)  must  leave. 

n  ne  fallait  pas  s'srrlter.  You  (we,  he,  they,  she)  ought  not 

to  have  stopped. 
n  a  fallu  beaucoup  travailler  We  (they,  you,  etc.)  had  to  work 

n  ne  faudra  pas  voler.  We  (one,  people,  etc.)  must  not 

Observe  the  position  of  the  negative  words  in  the  French  examines. 

116  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  103 


la  carte  [kart]  card,  map  venir  [vaniir]  come;    il  vient 
la  cloche  [kloS]  bell  [vje]  he  comes,  is  coming 

la  comiaissance    [konesais]    ac-  vouloir  [vulwair]  wish 

quamtance  apprendre  (&)  [apraidr]  learn, 
un  effort  [efoir]  effort  teach 

la  glace  [glaa]  ice,  mirror  enseigner  (k)  [asepe]  teach 

le  roman  [roma]  novel  reussir  (i)  [reysi:r]  succeed 
la  soiree  [sware]  evening  {when 

duration  is  stressed)  essayer   (de)   [essje]  try,  at- 

charmant  [Sarma]  delightful  prier  (de)  [prije]  ask,  beg,  re- 
enchante  [oCate]  delighted  quest 

libre  Qibr]  free  regretter  (de)  [ragrete]  regret, 

be  sorry 
patiner  Cpatine]  skate 

falloir  [falwair]  be  necessary; 

il  faut  [fo]  it  is  necessary,  _^     i_    /  n.    i.i.\ 

\    M  e^  ,j,«  rf^j^„n  se  porter  be  {of  health) 
one  must    il  faudra  Qfodra]  ^  .     y  •  t  xt.    i 

.,     .„  ,  .,,  remeraer  [ramErsjeJ  thank 

it  will  be  necessary,  one  will  '-       .      -' 

,        ^  .  soimer  [sonel  ring 

have  to  or  must  i.       j       o 

pouvoir  [puvwa!r3  be  able,  can  facilement  [fasilma]  easily 

A.  1.  Bonjour,  monsieur;  je  suis  enchants  de  fairs  votre  con- 
naissance.  2.  Comment  allez-vous  aujourd'hui?  3.  — Tr^s 
bien,  merci.  Et  vous?  4.  —  Qui?  Moi?  Toujours  bien,  je 
vous  remercie.  5.  Aimez-vous  ce  temps?  —  Oh,  beaucoup. 
6.  II  a  fait  froid  cette  nuit  {last  night)  mais  maintenant  on 
voit  le  soleil  et  il  fait  presque  chaud.  7.  J'ai  fait  una  promenade 
charmante  dans  le  pare  ce  matin.  8.  II  n'y  a  pas  de  fleurs, 
mais  il  y  a  des*  petits  oiseaux  qui  ne  sont  pas  partis,  et  qui 
n'ont  pas  encore  cess6  de  chanter.  9.  En  passant  j'ai  regard^ 
le  petit  lac  et  j'ai  vuqu'ily  avaitde  la  glace.  10.  Nouspouvons 
bient6t  patiner.  11.  On  pent  s'amuser  facilement  en  hiver, 
n'est-ce  pas?  12.  — Oui,  il  est  tres  facile  de  s'amuser  dehors 
quand  on  se  porte  bien.  13.  Et  si  on  ne  d6sire  pas  sortir,  on 
peut  rester  k  la  maison  h  lire  et  a  faire  de  la  musique.      14.  J'ai 

*  Observe  des  petits  oiseaux,  like  des  petits  pois.  The  adjective  and 
noun  are  felt  as  a  compound  noun.  Similarly  we  say  regularly  des 
jeunes  fille«,  des  petits  pains  {rolls)  and,  often,  des  petits  gar^ons. 

S  103  LESSON  XXY  117 

commence  hier  un  roman  de  Dumas  [d3mia].  15.  Et  souvent 
nous  invitons  nos  amis  k  passer  la  soiree  chez  nous.  16.  On 
chante,  on  danse,  on  joue  aux  cartas.  17.  Oui.  U  est  facile 
de  bien  s'amuser  quand  on  a  des  amis. 

B.  ff)    Use  the  indicated  infinitive,  directly  or  preceded  by  a 
preposition,  according  to  §  99:    1.  Vous  ne  pouvez  pas  (parler). 

2.  II  faut  (se  coucher)  tout  de  suite.  3.  Nous  allons  (nous 
lever)  maintenant.  4.  D  a  d6j^  cess^  (pleuvoir).  5.  Je 
regrette  (quitter)  mes  amis.  6.  Je  vous  prie  (r^pondre)  k  ma 
question.  7.  J'ai  beaucoup  k  faire;  nous  avons  trop  (fiure). 
8.  Ma  sceur  a  entendu  (chanter)  Caruso.  9.  Vous  entendrez 
(chanter)  les  oiseaux  dans  le  pare.  10.  Nous  voulons  (voir) 
le  petit  lac.  11.  Je  vois  (tomber)  la  neige.  12.  A  quelle 
heure  voulez-vous  (diner)?  13.  Le  vent  a  r^ussi  (chasser)  les 
nuages.  14.  Vous  pouvez  (r^ussir)  (parler)  fran^ais,  si  vous 
tAchez  (bien  prononcer).  15.  Nous  essayons  (parler)  fran- 
gais.  16.  Je  vais  (me  promener)  pr6s  de  la  for6t.  17.  II  m'a 
enseign6  (monter)  k  cheval.  18.  Vous  6tes  libre  (jouer)  dans 
mon  jardin.  19.  Regrettez-vous  (cesser)  (fumer)?  20.  Je 
vous  prie  (vous  serv'ir)  de  mon  savon.  21.  II  fait  jour;  il 
faut  (se  lever)  tout  de  suite;  il  faudra  (rentrer)  avant  minuit. 
22.  J'aimms  (passer)  les  vacances  k  la  campagne.  23.  Elle 
avait  r^ussi  (trouver)  son  livre.  24.  II  n'est  pas  facile  (bien 
prononcer)  le  frangais.  25.  D6sirez-vous  (vous  arrfiter)  ici? 
26.  lis  voient  (venir)  leurs  amis.  27.  II  ^coutait  (sonner)  les 
cloches.  28.  II  m'a  pri6  (le  mener)  au  concert.  29.  II 
s'amuse  (lire).  30.  II  m'apprendra  (patiner).  31.  Les  616 ves 
demanderont  au  professeur  (leur  enseigner)  (lire)  le  frangais. 

*f2)  What  do  you  observe  about  the  position  of  the  infinitive 
after  entendre,  voir,  §couter?  Contrast  it  with  the  order  in 

1(8)  a.  Observe  carefully:  1.  La  classe  a  appris  k  bien  pro- 
noncer.      2.  Aprds  avoir   fait  ma    toilette,  je  suis  descendu. 

3.  Je  regrette  de  vous  voir  partir.  4.  Mon  p6re  a  fini  par  me 
chasser  de  la  maison,  5.  On  se  couche  po'or  dormir.  6.  On 
ne  peut  rien  apprendre  sans  faire  un  effort. 

118  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  103 

6.  These  six  prepositions  take  the  infinitive.  What  form  of 
the  infinitive  is  found  after  aprds  ?  Par  with  the  infinitive  is  usually 
found  only  after  commencer  and  finir.  Observe  that  en  does  not 
take  the  infinitive.  For  by  +  verb  form  in  other  cases,  compare 
§101,  example  5.    May  we  use  avant  alone  before  an  infinitive? 

Ifgf  Translate:  1.  After  finishing  my  work;  after  eating  too 
much.  2.  We  shall  begin  by  reading  aloud  (a  haute  voix). 
3.  One  learns  to  skate  by  skating.  4.  Before  leaving,  I  wish 
to  thank  you  again  (encore  une  fois). 

d.  Note  the  usual  position  of  bien  with  infinitives  (before),  and 
in  compound  tenses  (before  the  past  participle).  Write:  1.  We 
had  a  very  good  time.      2.  She  sang  well  yesterday. 

C.  »(f)  Translate  the  participial  phrases  (be  careful  about  the 
auxiliaries):  1.  Having  finished  his  lesson.  2.  Having  ar- 
rived before  noon.  3.  Having  stopped  eating.  4.  Having 
gone  to  see  her.  5.  Having  succeeded  in  teaching  you  tc 
skate.  6.  Having  been  to  the  theater  yesterday  evening  (not 
soiree).  7.  Having  gone  out  early.  8.  Having  come  in 
(rentrer)  late.  9.  Having  waked  {1st  person:  m'etant  reveille. 
Third  person?)  before  daylight  (le  jour).  10.  Having  got  up 
(1st  plural  fern.:  nous  etant  levees.  Third  plural  fern.?)  at  six 
o'clock.  11.  Having  begged  (prier)  my  father  to  give  me  more 
money.  12.  Having  asked  (demander)  my  chum  to  come  to 
see  me. 

^2)  Traduisez:  1.  He  enters  without  knocking.  2.  She 
left  without  looking  at  me;  you  cannot  pronounce  French 
without  making  an  effort.  3.  In  winter  we  amuse  ourselves 
by  (k)  skating.  4.  He  will  not  succeed  in  finding  the  right 
(bon)  road.  5.  Do  you  want  to  spend  your  time  in  (k)  running- 
about  (courir)  the  streets?  6.  He  speaks  of  going  to  France 
(the)  next  summer.  7.  He  cannot  speak  of  going  away  without 
regretting  to  leave  his  friends.  8.  While  skating  (see  §  101, 
example  3)  yesterday,  I  fell  and  hurt  myself.  9.  When  1  was 
small  I  used  to  fall  and  hurt  myself  while  skating.  10.  Appe- 
tite comes  (vient)  while  one  eats  (=  eating).  11.  We  (On) 
learn  to  speak  French  by  speaking  (see  §  101,  example  5). 
12.  We  (On)  succeed  in  stopping  smoking  by  stopping  smoking. 

$S  104-106  LESSON  XXVI  119 

104.  Present  Subjunctive  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

I  (may)  give,  etc.  I  (may)  finish,  etc  I  {niay)  sell,  etc 

donn  e      [dan]  Oniss  e      ZGniB}  vend  c      [vflid] 

donn  es    [don]  finish  es     [finis]  vend  e*    [vflid] 

donn  e      [don]  5niss  e      [finis]  vend  e      [vflrd] 

donn  ions  [danjS]  Sniss  ions  [finisjS]  vend  ions  [vfldjS] 

donn  iez   [donje]  finiss  iez    [finisje]  vend  iez    [vfldje] 

donn  ent  [don]  finish  ent   [finis]  vend  ent  [void] 

N.B.  —  The  paradigm  meanings  /  may  give,  etc.,  are  only  approxi- 
mate, as  will  be  seen  from  the  examples  below. 

106.  Present  Subjunctive  of  avoir,  ktre 

I  (may)  have,  etc.  I  {may)  be,  dc. 

ale    [e]    ayons  [ej3]  sois  [swa]    soyons  [swajS] 

ales  [e]    ayez    [cje]  sois  [swa]    soyez    [swaje] 

ait    [e]    aient  [e]  soit  [swa]    soient  [swa] 

106.  Use  of  the  Subjunctive.  Some  of  the  commoner 
uses  of  the  subjunctive  are: 

1.  In  a  subordinate  noun  clause  introduced  by  que,  (half 
after  expressions  of  wiUing  or  desiring: 

Je  desire  que  vous  restiez.  I  desire  you  to  remain  ( =  that  you 

may  or  should  remain). 

2.  Similarly,  after  expressions  of  joy  or  sorrow: 
Je  suis  content  qu'il  soit  icL  I  am  glad  he  is  here. 

3.  So  also  after  expressions  of  necessity,  like  11  faut: 
n  faut  que  vous  restiez.  You  must  remain. 

II  est  nScessaire  que  vous  restiez.     It  is  necessary  for  you  to  remain. 

N.B.  —  We  learned  in  %%  99,  103  that  fallotr  is  often  followed  by  the  pure 
infinitive.  In  B  and  C  of  the  Exercise  below  the  pupil  will  find  examples 
that  should  help  him  to  decide  between  the  cases  when  the  infinitive  or 
subjvmctive  may  be  tised  indifferently,  or  when  the  subjunctive  is  required. 
It  should  be  observed  that  the  subjunctive  construction  is  preferaWe  in 
such  cases  as  example  1,  when  we  have  a  definite  person  in  mind. 




4.  It  is  used  in  adverbial  clauses  after  certain  conjunc- 
tions, e.g.,  afin  que,  in  order  that,  pour  que,  in  order  that, 
avant  que,  before,  bien  que,  although,  quoique,  although,  etc. 
Bien  qu'il  soit  pauvre  il  est  heureux.      Although  he  is  poor,  he  is  happy. 

5.  Que  is  never  omitted,  as  that  often  is  in  English: 
Je  sms  content  gu'il  soit  ici.  I  am  glad  (that)  he  is  here. 

107.  Tense  Sequence.    Present  or  Future  in  the  principal 
clause  is  regularly  followed  by  Present  Subjunctive: 
Pees.  II  faut      1  ..  (  You  must  speak. 

Ftjt.    II  f audra  /  P  •  \  You  will  have  to  speak. 

108.  Present  Indicative  of  vouloir,  mil,  wish,  etc.  (irreg.) 

/  will,  wish,  etc. 
je  veux  [3av0]  nous  voulons  [nuvulo] 

tu  veux  [tyv0]]  vous  voulez    [vuvule] 

il  veut  [ilv0]  lis  veulent  [ilvoel] 

109.  Present  Subjunctive  of  faire  (irreg.) 

/  {may)  do,  etc. 

fasse    [fas]  fassions  [fasjS] 

fasses  [fas]  fassiez    [fasje] 

fasse   [fas]  fassent   [fas] 


le  billet  [bije]  ticket 
le  doute  [dut]  doubt 
un  esprit  [espri]  wit,  intelligence, 

la  fin  [fe]  end 
la  guerre  [geir]  war 
une  intention  [etasjS]  intention 
le  moyen  [mwaje]  means,  way 
la  vie  [vi]  life 

aimable  [emabl]  kind 
charme  [^arme]  delighted 
mille  [mil]  a  thousand 
possible  [posibl]  possible 

avoir  1 'intention  de  intend 
dire  [diir]  say,  tell 
envoyer  [avwaje]  send 
f eliciter  [felisite]  congratulate 
laisser  [Isse]  leave,  allow 
permettre      (de)      [permetr] 

allow,  permit 
voyager  [vwajase]  travel 

ne  . . .  que  only 

sans  doute  [sfidut]  doubtless, 

seulement  [soelma]  only 

S  109  LESSON   XXVI  121 

EXERCISE  XXVI  (Continued) 

afin  que  [afeka]  in  order  that,  au  revoirl    [orvwair]    good-bye, 

so  that  see  you  again! 

avant  que  [avdka]  before  c'est  cela  [sesla]  that's  ri^t, 

bien  que  [bjeka]  although  that's  it 

quoique  [kwakaj  although  peut-Stre  [p0te:tr]  perhaps 

A.  Use  the  infinitive  in  parerUhesis  with  or  without  a  prepo- 
sition according  to  usage:  1.  On  ne  peut  pas  (bien  marcher) 
8ur  la  glace;  11  faut  (apprendre)  (patiner).  2.  Je  regrette  (ne 
pas  pouvoir)  (patiner).  3.  II  a  ce8s6  (neiger)  maintenant; 
nous  pouvons  (sortir).  4.  Ddsirez-vous  (faire)  la  connais- 
sance  de  Monsieur  Daudet  Cdode]?  6.  —  Beaucoup.  Je  voua 
prie  (me  presenter)  k  Monsieur  Daudet.  6.  — Alors,  per- 
mettez-moi    (vous    presenter)    mon    ami,    Monsieur    Dupin. 

7.  — Je    suis   charm6    (faire)   votre    connaissance,    monsieur. 

8.  Etes-vous  depuis  longtemps  en  Am^rique?  9.  —  Non, 
monsieur.  Je  ne  suis  en  Am^rique  que  depuis  troiB  mois.  Je 
I'aime  beaucoup,  et  je  regretterai  (partir)  la  semaine  pro- 
chaine.  10,  —  Vous  avez  r6ussi  (tr6s  bien  apprendre)  I'anglais. 
Permettez-moi  (vous  f^liciter).  11.  — Je  vous  remercie,  mon- 
sieur. Vous  6tes  mille  fois  aimable,  mais  je  commence  seule- 
ment  (I'apprendre).  12.  Mab  od  avez-vous  appris  (parler) 
frangais?  13.  Comment  avez-vous  r6ussi  (parler)  et  (com- 
prendre)  si  bien?  Vous  avez  6t€  sans  doute  en  France!  14. 
—  Non,  monsieur,  je  regrette  (n'avoir)  pas  encore  vu  la  France. 
15.  J'avais  I'intention  (y  aller)  I'ann^e  derni^re,  mais  la  guerre 
ne  permettait  pas  (voyager).  16.  —  Eh  bien,  il  faut  (venir) 
bientdt;  et  venez  (me  voir)  i  Paris,  n'est-ce  pas?  17.  — Merci, 
monsieur.  Je  veux  (\e  faire)  et  je  le  ferai  I'^t^  prochain,  si  je 
peux.  —  Au  revoir,  monsieur!  —  Au  revoir!  A  (till)  I'annde  pro- 
chaine!  —  C'est  cela.    A  I'ann^  prochaine,  k  Paris! 

B.  Contrast  the  following  senteruxs: 

1.  II  d6sire  r^ussir.  II  desire   que    nous   r^ussis- 


2.  Je  veux  le  faire.  II  veut  que  je  le  fasse. 

3.  Nous  sommes  contents  de      Nous  sommes    contents  que 

vous  voir  si  bien  rdussir.  vous  ayez  si  bien  r^ussi. 

122  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  5  109 

4.  Vous    regrettez    de   I'avoir      Je  ne  regrette  pas  que  vous 

fait,  n'est-ce  pas?  I'ayez  fait. 

5.  II  f aut  vous  f^liciter  de  votre      II  f aut  que  le  professeur  vous 

prononciation.  f^licite  de  votre  prononcia- 


6.  II  est  ndcessaire  de  permettre     II  est  n^cessaire  que  vous  me 

cela  aux  enfants.  permettiez  de  vous  le  dire. 

What  is  the  essential  difference  in  regard  to  the  subject  of  the 
dependent  verb  that  makes  the  subjunctive  necessary  in  the  sentences 
of  the  second  column  ? 

Hence,  what  general  statement  can  you  formulate  in  the  case 
of  verbs  that  com£  under  both  §  99  and  §  106;  that  is,  when  is  the 
infinitive  used  and  when  the  subjunctive? 

C.  (1)  Make  two  groups  of  sentences  with  desirer,  vouloir, 
regretter,  §tre  content,  11  faudra,  in  which  you  illustrate  both 
constructions  possible  after  these  verbs.  Observe  that  in  cases 
like  §  99,  1,  example  2,  §  103,  and  §  106,  3,  example  1,  the  in- 
finitive and  subjunctive  constru^ctions  after  il  faut  (faudra)  are 
exactly  equivalent.  This  is  often  the  case  when  the  subject  in 
English  is  a  personal  pronoun;  but  il  faut  que  cet  eleve  fasse 
son  travail. 

(2)  Supply  the  proper  form  of  the  verb  in  parenthesis,  inserting 
any  missing  preposition:    1.  (6tre)  Bien  qu'il  — i —  riche,  il  est 

heureux.      2.  (avoir)  Quoiqu'elle beaucoup  d'argent,  elle 

a  de  I'esprit.      3.  (faire)  Bien  qu'il beau  aujourd'hui,  ces 

enfants  ne  peuvent  pas  sortir.     4.  (partir)  Quoique  nous 

de  tr^s  bonne  heure,  nous  n'arriverons  qu'^  minuit.     5.  (faire) 

Mon  p6re  desire  que  je un  voyage  en  France  pour  mieux 

(apprendre)  (parler)  frangais.  6.  (entendre)  Nous  mfenerons 
mon  cousin  au  concert  ce  soir  afin  qu'il de  la  ^  bonne  musique. 

7.  (finir)  Je  le  laisserai  tranquille  tout(e)  Tapr^s-midi  pour  qu'il 

son  travail  avant  le  dtner.      8.   (finir)  Nous  ne  partirons 

pas  avant  qu'il  ses  legons  pour  demain.       9.  (faire)   II 

fermera  la  porte  afin  qu'il assez  chaud  dans  sa  chambre. 

10.  (arriver)  Nous  n'avons  pas  nos  places  et  il  ne  faut  pas  que 
nous trop  tard.       11.  (etre)  Quoique  nos  places  ne 

*  Compare  XXV,  A,  footnote. 

§  109  LESSON  XXVI  123 

pas  trop  bonnes,  j'entendrai  bien.       12.  (avoir)  Mon  cousin 

entendra  bien  aussi  quoiqu'il  ne pas  de  trop  bonnes  oreilles. 

13.  (quitter)  11  faudra  que  nous  la  salle  avant  la  fin  du 

concert.       14.  (avoir)    II  est  n^cessaire  que  nous  nos 

billets  avant  d'entrer  dans  la  salle.       15.  (^tre)  II  faut  que 

nous k  nos  places  avant  qu'on *  (chanter). 

(3)  Traduisez:  1.  We  are  delighted  that  you  are  having  a 
good  time  in  America.  2.  Although  you  have  been  here  only 
a  few  months,  you  speak  English  very  well.  3.  I  must  con- 
gratulate you  on  your  pronunciation.  4.  I  wish  to  send  my 
son  to  France,  in  order  that  he  may  learn  (§  202)  to  speak 
French.  5.  He  likes  it  very  much,  but  he  is  just  beginning 
(is  beginning  only)  to  learn  to  speak  it.  6.  When  your  son  is 
in  Paris,  he  must  make  the  acquaintance  of  my  old  friend  Mr. 
Dumas,  who  has  several  sons  and  three  daughters.  7.  One 
learns  a  language  very  quickly  by  talking  with  other  young 
people  (gens).  8.  They  are  the  best  teachers.  Your  son  must 
often  spend  the  evening  at  his  house.  9.  He  will  have  to 
(must)  learn  the  language,  in  order  to  play  cards  and  chat  with 
the  young  ladies.  10.  I  shall  be  glad  to  have  him  do  that 
(that  he  do  ...  ).  11.  We  wish  him  to  become  acquainted 
with  (faire  connaissance  avec)  the  life  of  a  French  family. 
12.  It  is  the  best  way  of  becoming  acquainted  with  France. 

D.  Form  questions  to  which  the  sentences  in  C,  (2)  could  be 
considered  as  anstoers. 

E.  (1)  a.  Observe  the  similarities  bettpeen  the  stem  of  the 
present  participles  of  verbs  like  donner,  finir,  vendre  (§  100)  and 
that  of  the  present  and  imperfect  indicative  and  the  present 





















b.  Complete  orally  or  at  the  board  the  conjugation  of  these  forms, 
1  (commencer). 

124  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  110-113 

(2)  This  similarity  exists  in  all  the  so-called  regular  verbs,  and 
is  important  for  all  others.     For  example: 

Pres.  part.       ayant    6tant    faisant    [faza]]  dormant 
Pres.  indic.      ai  suis       fais  [fe]      dors 

Imperp.  indic.  avais     6tais     faisais      [faze]  dormais 
Pres.  subj.       aie         sois       fasse        [fas]    dorme 

Complete  orally  or  at  the  board  the  conjugation  of  these  forms. 
Observe  that  the  forms  of  the  verb  etre  are  derived  from  more  than 
one  stem.     Compare  am,  was,  been. 


110.  Imperative  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

Give,  etc.  Finish,  etc.                         Sell,  etc. 

donn  e     [don]  finis          [fini]                vend  s     [va] 

qu'il  donn  e     [don]  qu'il  finiss  e     [finis]  qu'il  vend  e    [vdid] 

donn  ons  [dono]  finiss  ons  [finiso]             vend  ons[vad5] 

donn  ez   [done]  finiss  ez    [finise]             vend  ez  [vade] 

qu'Us  donn  ent  [don]  qu'ils  finfss  ent  [finis]     qu'ils  vend  ent  [va:d] 

Oba.:  The  3rd  sing,  and  3rd  pi.  are  subjunctive  forms  used  aa  imperatives. 

111.  Imperative  of  avoir,  etre 

Have,  etc.  Be,  etc. 

aie       [e]  sois        [swa] 

qu*il  ait        [kile]  qu'il  soit        [swa] 

ay  ons  [ejo]  soy  otis  [swajS] 

ay  ez    [eje]  soy  ez    [swaje] 

qu'ils  aient    [kilze]  qu'ils  soient    [kilswa] 

112.  Imperative  Negative 

ne  donne  pas  qu'il  ne  donne  pas  ne  donnons  pas,  etc. 

113.  Position  of  Objects.  1.  Personal  pronoun  objects 
follow  the  positive  imperative  (but  not  the  subjunctive  as 
imperative),  and  are  joined  to  it  and  to  one  another  by 




Donnez-Zui  la  plxune.  Give  bim  the  pen. 

Donnez-Zo-Zui.  Give  it  to  him. 

Donnons-/eur-en.  Let  us  give  them  some. 

But:  Qu'il  me  la  donne.  Let  him  give  it  to  me. 

2.  If  the  imperative  is  negative,  the  general  rule  of  posi- 
tion (§81)  holds  good: 

Ne  la  lui  domiez  pas.  Do  not  give  it  to  him. 

3.  Moi  and  toi  are  used  after  an  imperative  instead  of  me 
and  te  (unless  before  y  and  en,  in  which  case  apostrophe 
replaces  hyphen) : 

Donnez-moi  des  pommes.  Give  me  some  apples. 

Domiez- m'en.  Give  me  some  (of  them). 

4.  When  a  verb  has  two  objects,  they  are  usually  ar- 
ranged thus  after  it: 

le  (la,  les)  before  moi  (toi,  lui,  nous,  vout,  leor). 

me  (te,  lui,  nous,  vous,  leur)  before  y  (en). 
y  before  en. 


un  accord  C<Snako:r]  agreement 
une  encre  [a:kr]  ink 
un  exercice  [egzersis]  exercise 
lafeuille  [fcE:j]  leaf,  sheet  (of 

un  instant    [estd^    instant,    mo- 
le  participe  [partisip]  participle 
la  rSgle  [rrtgl]  nile 
le  stylo  (graphe)    [stilo^ 
fountain  pen 

droit  [drwa]  right 
malade  [malad]  ill 
allonsl  [al5]  come!  {interjec- 
sedepScher  (de)  [sadepcSe]  hurry 

deranger  [derase]  disturb 
faire  son      possible     [fe:rB5 

paeiblj  do  one's  (his,  etc.) 

prendre  [pratdrjtake;  prenex! 

[prgne]  take! 
remplir  [rapliir]  fill 

d'accord  in  agreement 

ferme  [f erm]  hard 

ne . . .  i^us  [na  ply]  no  more, 

no  longer 
ne . . .  que  only 

Sa  Csa3  contraction  (familiar) 
of  cela 

moi-m£me  [mwameim]  my- 

mon  cher  [m5Se:r]  old  man,  my  dear  fellow 
sapristil  [sapristi]  good  graciousi 

126  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  113 

A.  1.  On  nous  a  dit  de  preparer  nos  legons  et  nous  faisons 
notre  possible  pour  les  bien  preparer.  2.  Le  professeur  nous  a 
laiss^s  ici  afin  qu'on  ne  nous  derange  pas.  3.  Nous  avons  pri6 
nos  camarades  de  nous  laisser  tranquilles.  Nous  avons  peu  de 
temps  et  il  faut  travailler  ferme.  4.  Quel  est  le  livre  que  vous 
avez^la  maindroite?  Est-ce  votre  livre  de  frangais  ?  5.  —  Oui, 
c'est  ma  grammaire  fran^aise.  —  Donnez-la-moi  un  instant,  s'il 
vous  plait.  6.  II  faut  que  je  tache  de  trouver  la  regie  de  I'ac- 
cord  des  participes.  La  voici.  7.  —  Moi  aussi.  Laissez-moi 
la  regarder  un  instant,  je  vous  prie.  EUe  n'est  pas  facile. 
8.  —  Maintenant  c'est  de  I'encre  que  je  cherche.  II  n'y  en  a 
plus  dans  mon  stylo  [^stilo].  En  avez-vous?  9.  — Oui,  j'en 
ai.  —  Alors  donnez-m'en,  s'il  vous  plait:  assez  pour  remplir 
mon  stylo.  10.  —  Voila.  —  Je  vous  remercie  beaucoup. 
11.  AUons,  d^pechons-nous.  Travaillons  un  peu  plus  vite.  Ne 
causons  plus.  12.  Vous  me  faites  perdre  trop  de  temps.  — 
Soyez  tranquille,  nous  finirons  avant  que  le  professeur  soit  pr^t. 

13.  —  Sapristi!  J'ai  perdu  mpn  cahier.  —  Qa  (Cela)  ne  fait 
rien!  Prenez  de  ce  papier-ci.  14.  Prenez-en  assez,  je  vous 
prie,  mais  n'en  prenez  pas  trop,  parce  que  j'ai  besoin  de  quel- 
ques  feuilles  moi-meme.  15.  —  Merci  bien.  Voulez-vous 
que  j'en  donne  aussi  k  mon  camarade  Henri?  16.  — Oui, 
donnez-lui-en,  mais  ne  lui  en  donnez  pas  trop.  17.  —  N'ayez 
pas  peur,  mon  cher.  Je  prendrai  seulement  ces  quelques 
feuilles  (ou  je  ne  prendrai  que  ces  quelques  feuilles). 

B.  (1)  Substitute  personal  pronouns  for  the  direct  and  indirect 
object  nouns:  1.  Prenez  du  papier,  je  vous  prie.  2.  Ne  prenez 
pas  trop  d'encre.  3.  Chassez  ces  enfants  du  jardin.  4.  Priez 
votre  oncle  de  venir  nous  voir.  5.  ficrivez-lui  la  lettre  tout  de 
suite.  6.  N'6crivez  pas  la  lettre  k  votre  camarade  cette 
semaine.  7.  Ne  mettez  pas  la  cuiller  dans  votre  tasse.  8.  Met- 
tez  les  cuillers  k  nos  places,  s'il  vous  plait.  9.  Pr6sentez-moi 
votre  ami.  10.  Pr^sentez  mon  ami  k  votre  p^re,  je  vous  prie. 
11.  Donnez  le  roman  a  votre  tante.  12.  Ne  donnez  pas  les 
romans  aux  enfants.       13.  Finissons  le  devoir  vendredi  soir. 

14.  Ne  finissons  pas  ces  devoirs  samedi  matin.  15.  Ne  d6- 
rangeons  pas  nos  camarades  pendant  qu'ils  travaillent.      16.  Ne 

$113  LESSON  xxvu  127 

d^rangez  pas  le  professeur.       17-18.  Demandez  la  r^gle  des 
participes  h  votre  voisin;  —  ^  votre  voisine. 

(2)  Give  orally  or  write  on  the  board  the  Ist  arui  Sd  plural 
imperative,  affirmative  and  negative,  of  commencer,  se  lever,  se 
coucher,  voir,  aller,  se  d6p6cher,  prendre,  remplir,  partir  (o6- 
serve  that  partir  differs  from  finir  in  the  imperative  exactly  as  in 
the  present  indicative),  sortir,  attendre. 

(3)  Complete  the  following  by  adding  a  noun  object,  and  then  re- 

pealing  the  phrase  with  the  proper  pronoun:  1.  Cherchez {Model: 

Cherchez  le  livre;   cherchez-le).        2.    Ne  cherchez   pas  . 

3.  Finisaez .      4.  Ne  finisaez  pas .      6.  Vendez . 

6.  Ne  vendez  pas  .       7.  Qu'il  6ooute .       8.  Chante 

.      9.  Ne  chante  pas .      10.  ChoisiaBes .      11.  Ne 

choisissez  pas ,       12.  Donnons . 

C.  icrivez  en  fran^ais:  1.  I  r^ret  to  tell  (i)  his  mother  that 
he  is  ill.  2.  I  regret  that  he  is  ill.  3.  He  will  be  delighted 
(enchant^)  to  see  you.  4.  He  will  be  delighted  that  you  brought 
him  some  money.  5.  We  want  to  learn  to  skate  and  to  ride 
horseback.  6.  My  father  wants  me  to  learn  {pres.  subj.  td 
pers.,  apprenne)  music.  7.  Allow  me  to  tell  you  my  name  (use 
s'appeler:  see  Lesson  IX,  A).  8.  Must  (Faut-il  que)  we  begin 
to  speak  French  immediately?  9.  They  will  have  to  (II 
faudra  qu'ils)  let  her  alone  (=  leave  her  quiet).  10.  She  wants 
them  to  let  her  alone,  but  they  don't  want  to  let  her  alone. 
11.  Introduce  me,  please  (s*il  vous  plait  or  je  vous  prie)  to 
your  friend.  12.  I  beg  you  to  introduce  me  to  him  (4  lui). 
13.  Introduce  him  to  me,  please.  14.  Although  he  has  a  lot 
of  money,  he  does  not  travel.  15.  Although  I  thanked  him, 
he  did  not  answer  me.  16.  Leave  me  alone  so  that  (pour  que) 
I  may  finish  my  work  before  dinner.  17.  We  must  (II  faut 
que)  go  to  bed  early  and  I  must  get  up  to-morrow  before  sun- 
rise. 18.  Although  he  does  his  best,  he  hasn't  succeeded  in 
learning  to  pronounce  French  *  very  well  (after  verb). 

D.  Dict^:   Le^on  XXIV,  A,  (1). 

*  We  say  parler  frangais,  but  prononcer  le  franctis,  comprendre  le  frui- 
(ais,  apprendre  le  franfais. 

128  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  114-116 

114.         Conditional  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

I  should  give,  etc.  I  should  finish,  etc.  I  should  sell,  etc. 

doimerai5  [don(8)r8]  finir  afs     [finirE^  vendr  ais     [vadre] 

donner  afs  [don(8)re]  finir  ais      [finire]  vendr  ais     [vadre] 

donner  aft  [don(8)re]  finir  ai7      [finir£]  vendr  aft      [vadre] 

donner  ions  [donarjo]  finir  ions   [finir jo]  vendr  ions   [vadriS] 

donner  iez  [donarje]  finir  iez     [finirje]  vendr  iez     [vadrie] 

donner  ai'enf  [don  (9)rE3  finir  aicnf  [finire]  vendr  aien/ [vadre] 

Note.  —  For  the  pronunciation  of  the  conditional  of  donner  and  of  the 
future  and  conditional  of  fetre  (§115)  and  of  faire  (§  117),  see  the  note  to 
§  90;  but  observe  that  the  3  is  generally  sounded  in  the  first  and  second 
plural  of  the  conditional  tense. 

116.  Conditional  of  avoir,  Hre 

I  should  have,  etc.  I  should  be,  etc. 

aurais[ore]    aur  ions   [orjo]  ser  ais  [s  (8)rE]    set  ions  [sarjS] 

aur  ais  [ore]    aur  iez     [orje]  ser  ais  [s(a)re]    ser  fez     [sarje] 

auraif  [ore]    aur  aienf  [orE]  ser  aft  [s(a)re3    ser  aienf  [s(8)re] 

116.  Conditional  Sentences.  1.  The  conditional  is  used 
to  express  what  would  happen  {result)  in  case  something  else 
were  to  happen  (condition): 

S'il  avait  le  temps  (condition),  H     If  he  had  time  (Had  he  time,  etc.), 
finirait  sa  lejon  {result).  he  would  finish  his  lesson. 

2.  A  '  result '  clause  in  the  conditional  (EngUsh  should  or 
would)  regularly  has  the  'if'  clause  in  the  imperfect  indica- 
tive, whatever  be  the  corresponding  English  form: 

Si  j'etudiais  bien  (condition),  le     If  I  studied  (or  if  I  were  to  s.,  or 
maitre  serait  content  (result).  were  I  to  s.,  or  should  I  s.)  well, 

the  teacher  would  be  glad. 

3.  A  *  result'  clause  in  the  future  requires  the  'if  clause 
in  the  present  indicative,  whatever  be  the  corresponding 
EngUsh  form: 


LESSON  xxvin 


S'il  est    ici    demain    (condition), 
je  lui  donnerai  I'argent  (result). 

If  be  is  (or  be,  or  will  be,  or  should 
be)  here  to-morrow,  I  shall  give 
him  the  money. 

N.B.  —  Neither  the  future  nor  the  conditioDal  may  be  used  after  si  in 
the  clause  that  expresses  the  supposition. 

117.  Future  and  Conditional  of  faire  (irr^.)  and  otter 


fer  ai  [f  (a)re]  fer  ais  [f  (a)n:]  ir  ai  [ire]  ir  ais  [ire] 

fer  as  P (»)»!  ^^-  /«'  *is  [f  (a)rEl  etc.  ir  as  [iral  etc.  t  ais  [irt],  etc. 


r  Angleterre  /.  [laglat£:r]  Eng- 
la  bicyclette  [bisikkt]  bicycle 
la  cathedrale    [katedral]    cathe- 
le  chAteau  [Satd]  chateau,  coun- 
try mansion 
r  Espagne  /.  Qespaji]  Spain 
le  fleuve  [flce:v]  river  (that  JUnrs 

into  the  sea) 
le  gargon  [gars5]  waiter 
la  langue  Da:g]  language,  tongue 
le  montmient    [monyma]  build- 
ing, etc.,  of  interest 
lepaysage  Cpeiza:;]  landscape 
la  rividre  [rivJE:r]  river  (that  flows 

into  another  stream) 
la  valine  [vale]  valley 

Ic  vignoble  [vipobl]  vineyard 

ignorant  [ipardj  ignorant 
siir  [syir]  certain 

coftter  [kute]  cost 

ezpliquer  [eksplike]  explain 
se  mettre  [so  metr]  place  oneself 
jc  pense  bien!  I  should  think  so! 

revoir  [rovwa:r]  see  again 

traverser  [traverse]  cross 
80  trouver  [so  truve]  be,  be  situ- 

un  jour  some  day 
k  temps  [a  to]  in  time 

tout  le  monde  [tulm5:d]  every- 

sans  [sfi]  but  for,  without 

A.  1.  Si  vous  alliez  faire  un  grand  voyEtge,  oil  iriez-vous? 
2.  — J'irais  en  France  d'abord.  Puis,  si  j'avais  le  temps  et 
I'argent,  j'irais  voir  1' Italic,  I'Espagne  et  1' Angleterre.  3.  Ce 
sont  les  pays  les  plus  int^ressants  de  TEurope.  4.  Sans  la 
guerre,  je  serais  d6]h  all6  en  Europe,  mais  k  pr^nt,  m^me 
(even)  si  j'avais  le  temps,  je  n'aurais  pas  assez  d'argent.  5.  Les 
voyages  cotltent  beaucoup  plus  cher  qu'avant  la  guerre.      6.  Si 

fl30      )  A   FBENCH   GRAMMAR  §117 

les  billets  coAtaient  moins  cher,  j'irais  passer  les  prochaines 
vacances  en  France.  7.  —  Si  vous  6tiez  en  France,  que  feriez- 
vous?  8.  — J'irais  voir  les  plus  jolies  villes,  comme  Rouen, 
Chartres,  Blois,  Tours.  9.  A  Rouen  et  a  Chartres,  je  visi- 
terais  les  belles  cath6drales.  10.  A  Blois  et  a  Tours  j'iraia 
voir  les  beaux  chateaux  et  je  me  promenerais  h.  bicyclette  dans 
la  jolie  campagne.  11.  Toute  cette  valine  de  la  Loire  est 
charmante.  12.  Si  vous  ayiez^yu  une  fois  les  jolis  paysagea 
et  les  belles  routes,  vous  regretteriez  beaucoup  de  ne  pas  y 
passer  vos  vacances  tous  les  ans.  13.  —  Y  a-t-il  d'autres 
villes  int^ressantes  a  voir?  14.  —  Je  pense  bien.  Si  nous 
avions  le  temps  je  vous  parlerais  aussi  de  Marseille,  la  ville 
de  Monte-Cristo,  de  Bordeaux,  la  ville  du  vin  de  Bordeaux, 
de  Lyon,  la  grande  ville  industrielle,  de  Nimes  et  d' Aries  et 
d' Avignon  [avijio],  qui  sont  si  riches  en  beaux  monuments  du 
pass6.  15.  Et  nous  regarderions  aussi  les  beaux  champs  de 
bl6,  les  vignobles,  les  arbres  fruitiers,  et  les  jolies  rivieres 
qu'on  traverse  sou  vent  en  voyageant  par  le  train  ou  en  auto. 
16.  Enfin,  j'aimerais  beaucoup  revoir  les  jolis  paysages  de 
la  France.  17.  Si  je  suis  assez  riche,  j'irai  en  France  I'^t^ 
prochain.    Soyez-en  s^.     18.  —  Bon,  je  vous  accompagnerai. 

B.    (1)  a.  Point  out  in  A  each  illustration  of  §  116,  2. 

b.  Change  these  conditions  to  the  present  when  possible,  and  the 
other  tenses  correspondingly;  for  example:  Si  vous  faites  un  grand 
voyage,  ou  irez-vous  .  .  .,  etc. 

(2)  Supply  the  proper  form  (two  when  possible,  see  §  116,  2,  3) 

of  each  verb  in  parenthesis:    1.  (dormir)  Si  vous pendant 

la  classe  le  professeur  ne  ^  pas  trop  content.      2.  (aller) 

Si  je en  France,  je ^  la  cath^drale  de  Notre-Dame  k 

Paris.      3.  (pleuvoir)  S'il aujourd'hui  nous  ne ^  pas 

notre  excursion.      4.  (marcher)  Si  notre  automobile bien, 

nous  ■*  k  Blois  avant  midi.       5.  (^tre)   Si  le  chateau  ne 

pas  ferm6,  on  nous ^  d'y  entrer.  6.  (Mre)  Si  ce  cha- 
teau   en  Am6rique,  tout  le  monde ^  le  voir.      7.  (faire) 

Que vous  s'il "^  trop  froid  pour  sortir? 

'  (§tre).  «  (visiter).  »  (faire).  «  (arriver). 

B  (permettre).  •  (aller).  »  (faire). 





^^    '    — I-t-l 

•  H 

SW  •  -f+1 


■     ^^     : 

^  ^H 

( 1.    ■- 

•  J 



•  J 

Chateau  des  Papes,  Avignon 

La  Maison  CAsidiE,  NtMES 

§  117  LESSON  XXVlll  131 

(3)  Complete  the  following  by  an  infinitive  (with  or  without  a 
preposition)  or  the  subjunctive  of  the  verb  in  parenthesis,  as  the 

case  demands:    1.  (vous  voir)  Je  suis  charm6 .      2.  (faire) 

Je  suis  content  qu'il enfin  son  travail.      3.  (se  d6p6cher) 

Dites-lui  qu'il  faut .      4.  (se  d6p6cher)  II  faut  que  nous 

si  nous  voulons *  le  train  de  deux  heures.      5.  (rem- 

plir)  Voulez-vous mon  verre  d'eau?       6.  (remplir)  Vous 

ne  voulez  pas  que  le  gargon  votre  verre?       7.  (ticher) 

(le  faire)  lis  peuvent avant  midi.      8.  (t&cher)    (le 

faire)  Faudra-t-il  que  nous tout  de  suite?      9.  (se  d6- 

p^cher)  Bien  que  nous  ,  nous  n'arriverons  pask  temps. 

10.  (remplir)  J'appellerai  le  gargon  pour  qu'il votre  verre. 

11.  (remplir)  Donnez  votre  encre  k  Pierre  afin  qu'il  son 

stylo.       12.  (commencer)  (6crire)   II  faudra  que  le  professeur 

nous  explique  la  le^on  avant  que  nous le  devoir. 

13.  (perdre)  Ccoutez  bien,  mes  amis;   il  ne  faut  pas  que  vous 

votre  temps  k  causer.      14.  (entendre)  Dites-lui  de  venir 

86  mettre  ici  pour  qu'il  mieux.       15.  (d^ranger)   Nos 

camarades  ont  ferm6  la  porte  afin  que  nous  ne  lea  pas. 

16.  (se  lever)  II  faudra  que  nous avant  qu'il  *  jour. 

17.  (dtre)  Je  vais  me  coucher  tout  de  suite  bien  que  mon  devoir 
ne pas  fini. 

C.  Scrivez  en  frangais:  1.  If  I  went  to  (en)  Europe,  I  should 
go  to  England,  France,  Spain  and  Italy.  2.  I  should  spend 
more  time  in  France  than  in  England,  because  I  wish  to  learn 
to  understand  and  speak  French.  3.  If  I  had  (the)  time  I 
should  learn  French  before  leaving  America  (I'Amerique). 
4.  You  (On)  enjoy  yourself  much  more  if  you  speak  the 
language  of  the  country.  5.  When  I  get  (arriver)  to  France, 
I  shall  have  lessons  every  day  if  it  is  possible.  6.  If  I  had  a 
French  lesson  every  day,  (and  if  I  heard  French  spoken  (use 
present  infinitive)  all  the  time),  I  should  quickly  learn  to  speak 
(it,  le)  and  understand  it,  shouldn't  I?  7.*  If  you  are  going 
to  travel,  you  must  (il  faut)  also  read  the  history  of  the  coun- 
tries you  will  visit.  8.  The  ignorant  traveler  doesn't  have  a 
very  good  time.  9.  He  sees  only  (ne  . . .  que)  towns  and  hotels 
and  restaurants  and  taxicabs. 

'  (prendre).  *  (f«ir«). 

132  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  117 

D.  (1)  Conjugate  in  the  present  indicative:  faire,  aller,  pou- 
voir,  vouloir,  partir. 

(2)  Conjugate  in  the  past  indefinite  indicative:  avoir,  etre, 
voir,  sortir,  s'amuser,  ouvrir. 

(3)  Conjugate  in  the  imperfect:  mOrir,  donnir  {see  Lessons 
XIII,  B,  2  and  XXVI,  E,  2)  fake,  reussir. 

(4)  Conjugate  in  the  future  and  conditional:  dtre,  avoir,  faire, 
aller,  entendre. 

(5)  Conjugate  in  the  present  subjunctive:  dtre,  avoir,  remplir, 
faire,  entendre,  partir. 

Note.  —  Sortir,  partir,  servir,  donnir,  differ  from  finir  in  the 
present  subjunctive  as  in  the  present  and  imperfect  indicative  and 
imperative,  i.e.,  by  leaving  out  the  -iss  of  the  (participle)  stem.  See 
Lesson  XXVI,  E. 

E.  Repondez  aux  questions  suivantes:  1.  Est-ce  que  vous  avez 
voyage  en  Europe?  2.  En  Am6rique?  3.  Comment?  (Par 
le  train?  en  auto?  a  bicyclette?  etc.)  4.  Quelles  villes  am^ri- 
caines  avez-vous  vues?  5.  Quelle  ville  aimez-vous  le  mieux? 
6.  A-t-elle  des  musees?  7.  Y  avez-vous  entendu  de  la  loonne 
musique?  8.  Y  etes-vous  alle  au  theatre?  9.  Est-ce  que 
cette  ville  a  de  jolis  pares?  10.  Quels  pays  de  I'Europe  voulez- 
vous  visiter?  11.  Est-ce  que  tout  le  monde  pent  voyager 
maintenant?  12.  Pourquoi  pas?  13.  Avez-vous  I'intention 
de  voyager  un  jour?  14.  Ov  irez-vous?  15.  Que  ferez- 
vous  en  France?  16.  Comment  sont  les  routes  en  France? 
17.  Ferez-vous  des  excursions  h  bicyclette?  18.  Dites-moi  quels 
sont  les  noms  des  grandes  villes  de  France.  19.  Cherchez 
sur  la  carte  comment  s'appellent  les  grands  fleuves.  20.  Quelles 
villes  se  trouvent  dans  la  valine  de  la  Loire?  21.  Est-elle 
agr^able,  cette  valine?  22.  Sur  quel  fleuve  la  ville  de  Paris 
se  trouve-t-elle?  23.  Est-ce  que  la  France  est  un  pays  agri- 
cole?  24.  Que  voit-on  dans  les  champs?  25.  A-t-on  raison 
d'appeler  ce  pays  « la  belle  France  »?  26.  0\i  trouve-t-on  les 
belles  cathMrales?  27.  Ou  iriez-vous  voir  les  beaux  chMeaux? 
28.  Oil  voit-on  les  beaux  monuments  du  pass6? 

§§  118-119  LESSON  XXIX  133 


118.  Use  of  Article.  1.  Names  of  continents,  countnes, 
provinces,  and  large  European  islands,  regularly  take  the 
definite  article: 

La  France  est  un  beau  pays.  France  is  a  beautiful  country. 

Nous  partons  pour  le  Canada.  We  are  leaving  for  Canada, 

n  demeure  aux  Etats-Unis.  He  lives  in  the  United  States. 

La  Sardaigne  est  une  ile  italienne.  Sardinia  is  an  Italian  island. 

But  non-European  islands  do  not  r^ularly  take  the 

Terre-Neuve  est  une  grande  ile.        Newfoundland  is  a  large  island. 
Cuba    est    la    plus    grande    des     Cuba  is  the  largest  of  the  Antilles. 

2.  The  article  is  omitted  after  the  preposition  en  »  in, 
to;  it  is  also  omitted  after  de  in  certain  constructions, 
notably  when  de  means  from  (after  verbs  of  ^motion)  or 
denotes  of  in  an  adjectival  phrase: 

Mon  pdre  est  en  Angleterre.  My  father  is  in  England. 

Nous  allons  en  France.  We  are  going  to  France, 

n  vient  d'ltalie.  He  comes  from  Italy. 

Les  vins  d'Espagne.  Spanish  wines. 

119.  1.  Place  'where,'  *  where  to,'  is  usually  denoted  by 
en  before  names  of  continents,  European  countries  singular 
and  feminine  countries  singular  outside  of  Europe;  other 
countries  usually  take  the  preposition  k  +  the  definite  article: 

n  est  en  (va  en)  Europe.  He  is  in  (goes  to)  Europe, 

n  est  au  (va  au)  Canada.  He  is  in  (goes  to)  Canada. 

2.  Cities,  towns,  etc.,  usually  take  I,  without  any  article. 

D  est  a  (va  i)  Paris.  He  is  in  or  at  (goes  to)  Paris. 

But:  A  la  Nouvelle-Orleans.  At  New  Orleans. 




120.  Present  Indicative  of  savoir,  to  know  (irreg.) 

/  know,  etc. 

je  sais  [se]  '       nous  savons  [savS] 

tu  sais  [se]  vous  savez    [save] 

il  sait  [se]  Us  savent  [saiv] 


TAllemagne  /.   [lalmaji]   Ger- 
une  auberge  [obers]  inn,  coimtry 

I'Autriche  /.  [lotriS]  Austria 
la  chevre  [S£:vr]  goat 
la  chose  [So:z]  thing 
la  Corse  [kors]  Corsica 
la  cuisine  [kipzin]  cooking 

Test  m.  [lest]  east 
la  montagne  [mStaji]  mountain 
le  mouton  [muto]  sheep 
le  nord  [no:r]  north 

I'ouest  QwEst]  west 
la  prairie  [preri]  meadow 
la  ruine  [rqin]  ruin 
la  Suisse  [sqis]  Switzerland 
le  sol  [sol]  soil 
le  sud  [syd]  south 
la  vache  [vaS]  cow 

chaque  [Sak]  each 
doux  [du],  douce  [dus]  sweet, 
gentle,  soft 

etranger    [etrase]   6trang&re 

[etraseir]  foreign 
haut  [o]  high,  tall 
japonais  [sapone]  Japanese 
large  [lars]  broad,  wide 
vrai  [vre]  true 

savoir  [savwair]  know,  know 
how,  be  able 

autrefois  [otrafwa]  formerly 
quelquefois  [kelkafwa]  some- 
mal  [mal]  badly 
malheureusement     [maloe- 
r0!zmd]  unfortunately,  un- 
moins  de  [mweda]  less  than 
partout  [partu]  everywhere 
pas  du  tout  [padytu]  not  at  all 
surtout  [syrtu]  especially 
t6t  [to]  early,  soon 

tandis  que  [tadi(s)ka]  while, 

A.    (1)  Supply  the  article  or  leave  it  out  as  the  case  may  be, 
and  put  in  the  proper  preposition  when  one  is  needed:   1.  Savez- 

vous  qu'en  parlant  de France,  on  I'appelle  souvent  « 

belle  France  »?       2.  On  I'appelle  aussi « douce  France  ». 

3.  On  dit  aussi:   «  Chaque  homme  a  deux  pays,  le  sien  {his 
own)  et France  ».      4.  Au  sud  de France,  se  trouve 

Espagne;  k  Test, 

AUemagne  et 

Belgique  (/.),  et  au  nord-ouest 

Suisse;  au  nord 

Angleterre.      5.  Pour 

(  120  LESSON  XXIX  135 

aller Italic  il  faut  traverser  les  Alpes,  qui  sont  de  hautes 

montagnes.      6.  En  partant Paris  le  matin  en  chemin  de 

fer,  en  moins  de  deux  jours  on  est Rome.  7.  Nous  par- 
tons  demain  pour  Italie;    aux  Alpes  nous  quitterons  le 

sol  de France  et  nous  passerons Italie.      8.  De 

Italie  nous  irons Sicile  et  de  \k  nous  passerons  

Corse  pour  visiter  la  maison  de  Napoleon.      9.  Voici  un  de  nos 

amis  qui  vient  de Corse  et  d(e) Eispagne.      10.  Mal- 

heureusement  nous  ne  pouvons  pas  aller Europe  tous  les 

ans.       11.  Quelquefois  nous  passons  les  vacances £!tats- 

Unis  ou  k  faire  des  voyages Canada.      12.  Un  jour  nous 

irons  peut-ltre Mexique  (jn.),  et  je  veux  voir  aussi 

Asie, Japon  et Chine.      13.  Je  voudrais  (conditional 

of  vouloir)  passer  le  printempe  Japon.       14.  —  Savez- 

vous  le  japonais?  —  Non,  je  ne  le  sais  pas  du  tout.  15.  Je 
sais  un  peu  de  fran^ais,  d'allemand,  et  d'italien  parce  que  j'lu 
6iA  plusieurs  fois  dans  ces  pays-l&.  16.  Mes  parents  savent 
assez   bien  Tespagnol.         17.  lis  ont   pass^  quelques  ann6es 

Mexique,  mais Am^rique  nous  savons  assez  mal  les 

langues  6trang6re8.      18.  On  apprend  mieux fran^ais 

France,  allemand  Allemagne  et  italien  

Italie.      19.  On  pent  les  apprendre  aussi  k  I'^cole Am^rique 

si  Ton  *  a  de  bons  professeurs.  20.  En  France  tout  le  monde 
salt  parler  fran^ais,  m^me  les  petits  enfants. 

(2)  Review  of  partitives  (§§36,  59).     Supply  what  is  lacking: 

1.  Faites-vous  quelquefois excursions  i  bicyclette?      2. — 

Oh,  oui.     Et  je  vois  jolies  choees,  surtout  France. 

3.  On  trouve  partout bonnes  routes  et bons  chemins 

et  on  s'arr^te  pour  dejeuner  ou  pour  diner  k petites  auberges 

od  I'on  trouve  une  bonne  cuisine.      4.  De  la  route  on  voit 

beaux  bois, champs  verts  et jolies  prairies.      5.  Dans 

les  prairies  il  y  a  souvent  vaches, chevaux,  

moutons  et ch^vres.      6.  Souvent  on  passe  devant 

jolies  maisons  de    campagne  et  ch&teaux,  et  de  (from) 

temps  en  (to)  temps  on  voit mines  int^ressantes.      7.  Nous 

n'avons  pas  ruines  int^ressantes  en  Am^rique,  n'est-ce 

*  NoTB.  —  The  /   of  Ton   has  the  effect  of  making  the  sound  more 
agreeable  after  si.    It  has  no  other  sigmficance  here. 

136  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  120 

pas!      8.  —  Non,  c'est  vrai,  mais  nous  avons hautes  et 

belles   montagnes,   beaux    fleuves  et  larges    plaines. 

9.  Dans  le  Far-West  il  y  a  aussi ruines  tres  int6ressantes. 

10.  —  Oui,  mais  on  ne  peut  pas  aller  voir  tout  cela  a  bicyclette. 

11.  Notre  pays  est  trop  grand.  II  faut  plus  de  quatre  jours  de 
chemin  de  fer  pour  le  traverser.  12.  Et  on  voit  peu  de  bicy- 
clettes fitats-Unis,  tandis  qu'on  voit  beaucoup,  beau- 
coup  France.       13.  avez-vous  une?  —  Non,  je  ne 

ai  pas  maintenant.      14.  Autrefois  je  faisais  souvent 

excursions  £t  bicyclette  et  je avals  touj  ours  une.      15.  Mais 

maintenant  j'ai  plus travail  et  moins temps. 

B.  (1)  Supply  the  preposition  meaning  *  to,'  'into':  Europe 
tcerop],  France,  Am^rique  Camerik],  Angleterre  [agloteir], 
Italic  [itali]],  Allemagne  Calmaji],  Autriche  [otri^],  (le)  Japon 
[sapS],  (la)  Chine  [Jin],  Russie  Qrysi],  (le)  Danemark  [dan- 
mark],  les  Eltats-Unis  [etazyni],  (le)  Canada,  (la)  Pologne 
[pDloji],  Espagne  [espaji]  (fern.),  Afrique  [afrik]  (fern.),  (la) 
Syrie  [siri],  (les)  Indes  [eid],  (la)  Normandie  [normadi],  (la) 
Provence  [provais],  (la)  Touraine  [turen],  (la)  Corse  fkors]. 

(2)  Learn:  A  Paris,  k  Paris 

Sur  un  p'tit  cheval  gris, 

A  Rouen,  k  Rouen, 

Sur  un  p'tit  cheval  blanc 

Au  trot,  au  trot,  au  trot, 

Au  galop,  au  galop,  au  galop!  * 

C.  Traduisez  rapidement:  1.  If  I  had  any.  2.  If  he  were 
here.  3.  If  the  postman  should  not  take  his  letter.  4.  If 
she  were  to  put  on  her  prettiest  blue  dress.  5.  If  the  postman 
were  to  bring  it  to  me.  6.  If  you  should  get  up  too  late,  what 
would  you  do?  7.  Would  you  regret  it  (le)  if  you  were  to 
sleep  too  late?  8.  If  she  were  to  put  on  her  prettiest  dress, 
she  would  be  the  prettiest  girl  (jeiine  fille)  in  (de)  the  world. 
9.  If  you  should  run  too  fast  you  would  arrive  too  soon  (tdt). 

*  To  Paria,  to  Paris  —  On  a  little  gray  horse;  —  To  Rouen,  to  Rouen  — 
On  a  little  white  horse  —  Trot  (at  the  trot),  trot,  trot,  —  Gallop,  gallop, 
gallop ! 

§  120  LBSSON  XXIX  137 

10.  You  would  like  to  (aimer)  look  at  the  interesting  ruins  if 
you  took  (faire)  a  bicycle  trip  in  France.  11.  If  you  will 
(_  are  willing  to,  vouloir  bien)  go  with  me  to  Spain  next  summer, 
I  -shall  pay  for  your  ticket.  12.  If  you  will  pay  for  my  ticket, 
I  shall  be  delighted  to  go  with  you. 

o.  What  two  simple  tense  forms  are  possible  in  the'if  clause 
of  a  French  sentence  f    Are  we  as  rigidly  limited  in  English? 

b.  Does  the  English  uwrd  '  will '  always  call  for  a  future  form 
in  French?  {see  last  two  sentences  of  C).  Explain  and  give  three 
examples  in  French. 

D.  (1)  The  texts  of  A,  (1)  and  (2)  should  be  read  aloud  and 
understood  and  then  worked  over  thoroughly  by  questions  and 

(2)  Dict^:    Lesson  XXVII,  A. 

E.  (1)  Conjugate  in  the  future  and  conditional  forms:  avoir, 
gtre,  faire  (note  the  pronunciation  of  the  conditional  singular: 
[sosre],  [safre]),  prendre  (regular),  dire  (regular),  mettre  (regu- 
lar), remplir,  courir  [see  Lesson  XXIII,  C,  (3),  7],  remercier, 
appeler,  se  d6pecher,  se  lever. 

(2)  How  does  the  sound  value  of  the  spelling  ai  differ  in  the 
endings  of  the  future  and  conditional?  Of  what  does  the  ending  of 
the  conditional  form  remind  you?  On  the  basis  of  XXII,  B,  (5), 
how  would  you  say  this  form  is  made? 


(1)  Donnez  les  contraires  de:  facile,  prochain,  commencer, 
trouver,  mal,  malheureusement,  sud,  est,  la  montagne,  t6t,  le 

(2)  Donnez  les  synonymes  de:  chann6,  t&cher  de,  soirde, 
vouloir,  causer,  demander. 

(3)  Supply  articles  so  as  to  show  gender,  arui  use  in  a  sentence 
or  a  phrase:  glace,  roman,  soir^,  r^gle,  feuille,  vall^,  ch&teau, 
bicyclette,  vache,  mouton,  ch^vre,  montagne,  prairie,  terre, 
sol,  guerre,  fin,  billet,  fleuve,  nord,  carte,  exercice,  camarade, 
chemin  de  fer. 

138  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  120 

(4)  Supply  the  missing  words:    1.  Pour  bien  parler  il  faut 

savoir  les  de  la  grammaire.       2.  Nous  avons  rintention 

faire  une  a  bicyclette  dans  la  de  la  Loire. 

3.  Nous  voyons  des  betes  {farm  animals)   dans  les   champs; 

des et  des et  des et  des .      4,  Mon  stylo 

n'6crit  pas;  il  faut  que  je  le .      5.  Je  fais  mon pour 

apprendre  k  bien  prononcer.       6.  Vous  prononcez  trds  bien; 

je  vous  en .      7.  Permettez-moi  de mon  ami,  M.  Du- 

pont.      8.  de  faire  votre ,  monsieur.      9.  II  y  a  de 

la  glace  sur  le  ;    nous  pouvons  .       10.  Avez-vous 

besoin  d'encre?       11.  Merci   (=  No,  thank  you),  j'ai  un  . 

12.  Avant  de  monter  dans  le  train  il  faut  prendre  un  . 

13.  Avant  de  prendre  le  train  il  faut  payer  son avec  de 

r .      14.  Le  dessert  vient  k  la d'un  diner. 

(5)  Fit  the  definitions  to  words:  1.  Faire  quelque  chose  tr^s 
vite.  2.  La  personne  qui  fait  la  cuisine.  3.  La  personne  qui 
vient  d'un  autre  pays.  4.  Un  petit  hdtel  de  campagne. 
5.  Aller  k  travers  de.  6.  La  grande  eglise.  7.  Les  champs 
pour  les  vignes.  8.  Faire  tout  ce  qu'on  pent.  9.  II  ne  se 
porte  pas  bien  (se  porter  =  to  he  [_of  healthj).  10.  Frier  quelqu'un 
de  venir  chez  vous.      11.  Dire  merci  k  quelqu'un. 

(6)  Supply  the  proper  preposition: 

essayer faire  quelque  chose    permettre quelqu'un 

r^ussir faire  quelque  chose  faire  une  chose 

regretter avoir  fait  quelque    prier  quelqu'un faire  quel- 

chose  que  chose 

tdcher faire  quelque  chose     apprendre  faire  quelque 

se  d^p^cher faire  une  chose  chose 

dire quelqu'un faire    s'amuser  faire  une   chose 

une  chose  commencer    faire     une 

demander quelqu'un chose 

faire  une  chose  penser faire  une  chose 

(7)  Give  the  French  equivalent:  wit  (intelligence),  the  land- 
scape, the  doubt,  the  mountain,  the  ruin,  the  river  (large); 
next,  free,  certain,  each,  ready;  to  ring  the  bell,  to  be  named; 
especially,  everywhere,  formerly,  whereas,  only;   everybody. 

§S  121-123 





le  mien      [mj€],  m. 

la  mienne  [mjen],  /. 

le  tien 

la  tienne 

le  slen 

la  sienne 

le  ndtre 

la  ndtre 

le  vfitre 

la  vdtre 



The  Possessive  Pronoims 

I  mine 

[tj€l  TO. 

[sjel  m. 
[sjcn],  /. 
[no:tr],  m. 
[no:tr],  /. 
[voitr],  m. 
[lce:r],  to. 


les  miens      [mjg],  to. 
les  miennes  [mjcn],/. 
lestiens        [ticl  to.    \^,. 
lestiemies    [tjenl/.   l^bme,  youm 
les  siens        [sjf],  to.  1  his,  here, 
les  siennes   [sjcnl  /.  /  ite,  one's  own 

les  ndtres     [noitrj,  oure 
les  vdtres      [vo:trel  youn 
les  leurs        Doejr],  theire 

122.  Agreement.  Possessive  pronoims  agree  in  gender 
and  number  with  the  object  possessed,  and  in  person  with 
the  possessor: 

J'ai  mes  livres;  elle  a  les  siens.        I  have  my  books;  she  has  here. 

123.  Use  of  Possessive  Pronouns.  1.  After  etre,  mere 
ownership  is  regularly  expressed  by  &  +  a  disjunctive 
personal  pronoun,  while  the  use  of  a  possessive  pronoun 
implies  distinction  of  ownership,  as  when  a  notion  of  com- 
parison is  expressed  or  suggested. 

Cette  montre  est  d  mot.  This  watch  is  mine. 

Cette  montre  est  la  mienne.  This  watch  is  mine  (not  youre). 

2.  De  and  S  +  le  mien,  etc.,  contract  as  usual  (cf.  §§  35, 

Je  parle  de  son  ami  et  du  mien.       I  speak  of  his  friend  and  of  mine. 

3.  Since  le  sien,  la  sienne,  etc.,  mean  his,  hers,  Us,  one^s 
the  context  determines  which  sense  is  intended : 

n  a  ses  livres;  elle  a  les  siens.        He  has  his  books;  she  has  here. 




4.  Observe  the  idioms: 
Un  de  mes  amis. 
Un  Parisien  de  mes  amis. 

A  friend  of  mine. 

A  Parisian,  a  friend  of  mine. 

124.  Present  Indicative  of  dire,  to  say,  tell  (irreg.),  and 
of  voir,  to  see  (irreg.) : 

I  say,  etc.  I  see,  etc. 

je  dis  [di]    nous  disons  [dizo]    je  vois  [vwa]    nous  voyons  [vwajo] 
tu  dis  [di]    vous  dites    [dit]       tu  vois  [vwa]    vous  voyez    [vwaje] 
il  dit  [di]        ils  disent  [di:z]      il  voit  [vwa]        ils  voient  [vwa] 


le  compagnon     [kopajiS]     com- 

la  comparaison  [kSparezo]  com- 

le  compartiment        [kopartima] 

le  couloir  [kulwair]  corridor,  pas- 

la  coutimie  [kutym]  custom 
un  exemple  [egzapl]  example 
un  individu  [edividy]  fellow,  per- 
son,  individual   {often   c(m- 

le  milieu  [milj0]  middle 

la  montre  [m5:tr]  watch 
Tor  m.  [lo:r]  gold 

la  personne  [person]  person  {man 
or  woman) 

la  poche  [poS]  pocket 

le  revolver  [revolve  ;r]  revolver 

la  voiture  [vwatyir]  carriage 

le  voleur  [voice  :r]  thief,  robber 

canadien  [kanadje]  Canadian 
commode  [komod]  convenient 
dangereux  [da3r0]  dangerous 
desagreable  [dezagreabl]  un- 
rare  [ra:r]  infrequent,  rare 

approcher  (de)  [aproje]  ap- 

fallait  [fals]  was  necessary 
{imperf.  of  falloir) 

pouvait  [puve]  was  able,  could 
{imperf.  of  pouvoir) 

savait  [savs]  knew  {imperf.  of 
savoir),  sachiez  [sajje] 
{pres.  suhj.) 

sauter  [sote]  jump 

tirer  [tire]  pull  out 

actuellement  [aktqelma]  at 

A.  (1)  1.  Un  Canadien  *  de  mes  amis  qui  voyage  actuellement 

en  Europe,  m'a  6crit  une  lettre  int^ressante.       2.  Dans  cette 

lettre  il  fait  les   comparaisons  les  plus  int^ressantes  entre  les 

coutumes   des   Europ^ens    [oeropeg]   et   les   n6tres.        3.  Par 

*  For  the  use  of  capital  letter  here,  Bee  §  21. 

Une  Voiture  Divis^e  en  Compartiments 

Un  Compartiment  de  Premiere  Classb 

{  124  LESSON  XXX  141 

exemple,  les  chemins  de  fer  en  Europe  sont  diff^rents  des  nAtres. 
4.  Les  voitures  am^ricaines  et  canadiennes  sont  plus  grandes 
et  plus  longues  que  les  leurs,  et  les  leurs  ont  plusieurs  comparti- 
ments.  5.  Dans  ces  compartiments  il  y  a  de  la  place  pour 
six  k  huit  personnes,  et  on  pent  passer  d'un  compartiment  dans 
I'autre.  6.  Les  voitures  am^ricainee  ont  un  couloir  au  milieu. 
En  Europe  le  couloir  est  sur  un  c6t6  de  la  voiture.  7.  Dans 
les  vieilles  voitures  il  n'y  avait  pas  de  couloir.  Une  fois 
dans  un  compartiment,  il  fallait  y  rester.  8.  Ces  comparti- 
ments 6taient  assez  commodes,  mais  j'aime  mieux  les  voitures 
modernes.  9.  On  pouvait  s'y  trouver  avec  un  compagnon  de 
voyage  d^sagr^able  ou  meme  dangereux. 

(2)  1.  Un  jour  mon  ami  s'est  trouv6  seul  dans  un  comparti- 
ment avec  un  homme  qui  ne  savait  pas  trop  bien  la  difference 
entre  le  mien  et  le  tien.  2.  Mon  ami  avait  une  jolie  montre 
en  or.  Son  compagnon  la  voit.  3.  Le  train  approche  d'une 
petite  ville  et  marche  moins  vite.  4.  L'individu  tire  de  sa 
poche  un  revolver  et  dit  k  mon  ami:  Votre  montre  est  plus 
jolie  que  la  mienne.  Donnez-la-moi.  Je  vous  donnerai  la 
mienne  afin  que  vous  sachiez  I'heure.  5.  —  Que  dites-vous? 
demande  mon  ami.  Voulez-vous  me  {from  me)  prendre  ma 
montre?  6.  —  Oui,  dit  le  voleur  en  approchant  son  revolver 
de  la  t^te  de  mon  ami.  7.  Alors  mon  ami  a  peur.  II  lui 
donne  sa  montre.  8.  Le  voleur  lui  donne  la  sienne  et  saute 
du  train. 

B.  (1)  Complete  by  a  suilable  possessive  pronoun:  I.  La  montre 

de  mon  ami  6tait  en  or, 6tait  en  argent.      2.  Leurs  voitures 

sont  moins  grandes  que  .       3.  II  fait  une  comparaison 

entre  nos  chemins  de  fer  et 4.  Leurs  voitures  k  (vnth) 

compartiments  sont  plus  commodes  que .  5.  Votre  com- 
pagnon de  voyage  est  moins  dangereux  que  .       6.  La 

montre  du  voleur  est  moins  jolie  que .      7.  Vous  6criviez 

k  votre  m^re  et  j'6crivais  k .      8.  Je  saute  de  mon  cheval 

et  elle  saute  de .      9.  Tout  homme  a  deux  pays,  et 

la  France.      10.  Maintenant  le  voleur  a  ma  montre  et . 

(2)  Supply  in  each  case  the  usual  expression  of  ownership 
(§  123,  1):   1.  A  qui  est  cette  montre?    EUe  est .      2.  A 

142  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  124 

qui  sont  ces  cMvres?    EUes  sont .      3.  A  qui  6tait  cette 

vache?    Elle  6tait  .      4.  A  qui  sont  ces  moutons  1^-bas 

dans  la  prairie?    lis  sont . 

(3)  Supply  all  the  possible  tense  forms  in  each  case  in  the 
'  if  '  clause  or  in  the  result  clause:   1.  (prendre)  S'ils  voient  votre 

montre  ils  vous  la  .      2.  (avoir)  Si  je  trouve  un  voleur 

dans  mon  compartiment  je peur.      3.  (avoir)  Si  je  voyais 

un  voleur,  je  peur.       4.  (sauter)  Si  le  train  approchait 

d'une  gare,  le  voleur  en  .       5,  (voyager)  Vous  aimeriez 

les  paysages  de  France  si  vous  y  .       6.  (faire)  Que  

vous,  si  un  voleur  vous  ^  votre  montre  en    tirant    un 

revolver  de  sa  poche?      7.  (vouloir)  Si  Ton passer  d'une 

voiture  dans  une  autre,  on ^  dans  le  couloir.      8.  (vouloir) 

J'entrerai  dans  le  couloir  si  je passer  dans  un  autre  com- 
partiment.     9.  (s'arreter)  Si  je  faisais  une  excursion  k  la  cam- 

pagne,  je k  une  auberge  pour  le  dejeuner.      10.  (s'arreter) 

Si   vous   k   une    auberge,    qu'est-ce   que   vous  '  ? 

11.  (prendre)    Je  un    potage,    du   poulet,    des    haricots 

verts  et  un  dessert.       12.  (traverser)  Si  vous les  Alpes, 

vous *  en  Italic. 

(4)  Supply  below  the  proper  tense  forms  (present,  imperfect, 
future,  past  indefinite)  and  other  missing  words.  The  basic  time 
of  a  is  the  present. 

a.   1.  (etre)  Je  dans  le  compartiment  avec  ce  voleur- 

1^    depuis    plus    de    trois    heures.        2.  (approcher)     Quand 

nous d'une  gare,  il  me ^  ma  montre.     3.  (tirer)  Quand 

il son  revolver  de  sa  poche,  j'aurai  peur.      4.  (s'arreter) 

Quand  le  train ,  il  sautera  de  la  voiture.      5.  Nous ^ 

France  depuis  plus  de  quatre  mois  et  nous  faisons  tous 

les  jours  des  comparaisons  entre coutumes  et  les . 

6.   1.  Dans  nos  voyages  dans  le  midi  de  France  nous 

^  plus  de  ch^vres  que  chez  nous.       2.  (traverser)  Nous 

la  Normandie  la  semaine  pass^e;    il  y  *  beaucoup 

de  vaches  et  de  gros  chevaux.       3.  Les  chevaux  '  plus 

grands  que  les  .       4.  (causer)   Je  avec  mes  com- 

>  (demander).         »  (entrer).  »  (prendre).  *  (se  trouver). 

•  (demander).         *  (voyager).         '  (voir).        «  (avoir).        «  (6tre). 

S  124  LESSON  XXX  143 

pagnons  de  voyage.      5.  (aimer)  II  y  avait  quelques  individus 

qui  ne pas  les  Am^ricains,  mais  ce *  rare.      6.  (dire) 

On  me  souvent  que  la  France  et  I'Am^rique  *  de 

bonnes  amies  depuis  plus  de  cent  ans.      7.  (r^pondre)  Je 

que  ce ^  vrai,  et  que  les  Frangais  et  les  Am6ricains  ne * 

pas ^tre  de  bons  amis. 

C.  (1)  Shift  A,  (1),  7-9,  into  the  present.  Note  that  the  verba 
that  move  the  story  along  fall  naturally  into  this  form,  as  do  the 
descriptive  imperfect  form^. 

(2)  Pxd  A,  (2),  3-6,  irUo  the  past.  The  direct  discourse  must 
be  made  indirect  preceded  by  que.  Then  the  presents  that  tell 
the  story  take  what  form  (the  past  participle  of  dire  is  dit)? 
What  becomes  of  presents  like  approche,  marche?  What  happens 
to  est? 

(3)  Change  A,  (2),  7-8,  to  the  past.  Does  a  peur  take  a 
different  form  from  the  other  three  verbs  t  See  Lesson  XXI,  §  87. 

(4)  a.  Note  in  the  vocabulary  the  imperfects  of  pouvoir,  falloir, 
savoir:  pouvait,  fallait,  savait.  Conjugate  pouvait  and  savait 
in  the  singular  and  plural.  We  cannot  do  this  for  fallait  05  this 
verb  is  used  only  in  the  Sd  singular  of  all  tense  forms.  It  is  called 
an  impersonal  verb.  What  is  the  present  formt  the  future?  the 
conditional  f 

b.  The  present  participle  of  savoir  is  sachant  Conjugate 
savoir  in  the  present  subjunctive.  Is  the  imperfect  indicative 
formed  as  you  would  expect?    Compare  Lesson  XXVI,  E. 

D.  Traduisez:  1.  This  fellow  did  not  know  the  difference 
between  mine  and  thine.  2.  My  friend  could  not  jump 
from  the  train.  3.  He  was  afraid  of  hurting  himself.  4.  He 
had  to  give  his  watch  to  the  thief  who  gave  him  his,  saying 
(en  lui  disant) :  "I  am  giving  you  mine  so  that  (=  in  order  that) 
you  may  know  when  you  are  hungry.  5.  I-wish-you-a-good- 
appetite  (Bon  appetit)."  6.  Although  my  friend  knows  that 
this  fellow  was  a  thief,  he  still  thinks  that  he  was  rather  (assez) 

1  (6tra).  *  (cesser). 





The  Demonstrative  Pronouns 

ce  [s9],  this,  these,  that,  those,  he,  she,  it,  they 
ceci  [sasi],  this 
cela  [sala],  that 
celui  [salqi],  m. 

this,  that  (one), 
the  (one), 
celle  [sel].  /.      J  he,  she 
celui-ci  [salqisi],  m.  1  this  (one), 
celle-ci  [selsi],  /.        J  the  latter 
celui-1^  [salqila],  m.  \that  (one),  the 
oelle-lH  [sella],/.       /former 

ceux  [s0],  m.    j 

celles  [sell  /•  J 
ceux-ci  [s0si],  m. 
celles-ci  [selsi],/. 
ceux-li  [s0la],  m. 

these,  those, 
the  ones, 

1  these, 

/  the  latter 

\  those, 

celles-lll  [sella],/,  /the  former 

126.  For  the  use  of  ce  as  distinguished  from  the  personal 
pronoun  11  (elle,  etc.),  see  §  97. 

127.  Ceci  =  this,  and  cela  =  that,  are  used  to  denote 
something  pointed  out  or  indicated,  but  not  named.  Cela 
is  often  contracted  into  ga  in  familiar  language: 

Cela  est  joli;  je  prefere  ceci.  That  is  pretty;  I  prefer  this. 

Pouvez-vous  faire  cela  ?  Can  you  do  that? 

J'aime  fa.  I  like  that. 

128.  Celui,  that  (one),  the  (one),  he,  is  used  of  persons  or 
things,  and  is  regularly  followed  by  a  relative  clause  or  a 
de  clause: 

Celui  que  j'attendais  est  arrive. 
Ceux  qui  cherchent  trouvent. 
Mas  fleurs  et  celles  de  Marie. 
Celles  que  vous  aimez. 

He  whom  I  expected  has  arrived. 
Those  who  seek  find. 
My  flowers  and  Mary's. 
The  ones  (flowers)  you  like. 

129.   1.  Celui-ci,  this,  this  one,  he,  and  celui-l&,  that, 
that  one,  are  used  of  persons  or  things  already  mentioned, 
to  contrast  the  nearer  and  the  more  remote: 
Voici  les  deux  chaines;    gardez     Here  are  the  two  chains;    keep 

celle-ci  et  donnez-moi  celle-la,        this   (one)   and  give  me  that 


§  129  LESSON  XXXI  145 

2.  The  latter  is  celui-ci,  and  the  former  is  celui-ld,  the 
order  of  ideas  being  inverted  as  compared  with  EngUsh: 

Ciceron  et  Virgile  etaient  tous  Cicero  and  Virgil  were  both  cele- 
deux  celSbres;  celui-ci  etait  brated;  the  former  waa  an 
podte  et  celui-ld  orateur.  orator  and  the  latter  a  poet 


un  Ane  [dknaml  ass,  donkey  courant  [kurd]  present  partit, 

le  b&ton  [butS]  stick  pic  of  courir 

la  caresse  [kares]  caress  se  demander  [sadmade]  wonder 

le  chien  [Sje]  dog  lu  [ly]  read  {past  part,  of  lire) 

le  coup  [ku]  blow  rapporter[rap3rte]  bring(back) 

le  domestique  [damestik]  servant  renverser  [rfiverse]  upset 

un  Stranger  [denetrfise]  foreigner  voulu  [vuly]  past  participle  of 

le  maltre  [mettr]  master  youloir 

la  parte  [pat]  foot  (o/  animal)  ^    ^  /j  n  r  *-t 

1      •>      r  •    n  autant  (de)  [otaj  as  many,  as 

la  pidce  [pjraj  room  h 

la  vaisselle  rvcsen  dishes  ,  .    ^i    .-t  t 

lorn  Pwf  J  far 

mScontent  (de)  [mekStd]  dis-  par-ci  par-lft  [parsiparla]  here 

satisfied  (with)  and  there 

miserable  [miaerabl]  wretched  prfts  {jprz}  near  {adv.) 

avoir  beau  [avwair  bo]  in  vain  qu'est-ce?  [kes]  what  is  it? 

{followed  by  infinilive) 
caresser  [kanae]  caress  prSs  de  [prtda]  near  {prep.) 

A.  1.  II  y  avait  une  fois  un  homme  qui  avait  un  &ne  et  un 
petit  chien,  2.  II  caressait  celui-ci  et  k  celui-1^  il  donnait 
beaucoup  de  travail  k  faire.  3.  Le  chien  s'amusait  toute  la 
journ6e.  II  courait  par-ci  par-li.  4.  A  table  il  mangcait  avec 
son  maitre.  5.  II  donnait  la  patte  k  tout  le  monde  et  tout  le 
monde  le  caressait.  6.  Le  pauvre  dne  voyait  tout  cela,  et  il 
en  6tait  tr6s  m^content.  7.  Un  jour  il  se  demande:  — «  Pour- 
quoi  ne  me  donne-t-on  pas  autant  de  bonnes  choses  qu'^  ce 
miserable  petit  chien?  8.  Pourquoi  donne-t-on  toutes  les 
caresses  k  celui  qui  ne  travaille  pas  et  tous  les  coups  de  bSton 
k  celui  qui  travaille  toujours?  9.  Je  cesserai  de  travailler. 
J'entrerai  dans  la  salle  k  manger  de  mon  maitre  quand  il  sera 
k  table  avec  ses  amis.       10.  Je  donnerai  la  patte  k  tous  ceux  qui 

146  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAB  §  12& 

y  seront  et  ils  me  donneront  des  caresses  ».  11.  Le  pauvre 
Ane  tache  de  faire  cela;  il  entre  dans  la  salle  a  manger.  12.  II 
salue  ceux  qui  y  sont;  il  chante  de  sa  belle  voix.  13.  II  veut 
donner  la  patte  k  son  maitre  et  a  ses  amis.  14.  Mais  en  levant 
la  patte,  il  renverse  la  table,  il  fait  tomber  la  vaisselle.  15.  Les 
dames  ont  peur,  elles  orient.  Le  mattre  se  leve  de  table  et 
appelle  ses  domestiques.  16.  II  leur  dit  de  donner  au  pauvre 
dne,  non  pas  des  caresses,  mais  beaucoup  de  coups  de  baton. 
17.  On  lui  donne  des  coups  de  baton  et  des  coups  de  pied  aussi 
et  le  pauvre  ane  sort  de  la  piece  en  courant.  18.  Un  ane  a 
beau  vouloir  cesser  d'etre  ane;  il  a  beau  tacher  d'etre  chien;  il 
reste  toujours  4ne.     (Adapted  from  La  Fontaine,  Fables,  IV,  5). 

B.    (1)  Supply  the  demonstrative  pronouns,  suffixing  -ci  and 

-Ik  when  needed.    1.  Cette  chevre-ci  est  blanche, est  noire. 

2.  J'ai  din6  hier  dans  une  meilleure  auberge  que .      3.  J'ai 

deux  poches;  dans j'ai  mon  argent  et  dans ma  montre. 

4.  Get   individu-ci   s'appelle    Dupin,  s'appelle   Durand. 

5.  Regardez  ces  deux  enfants;  se  d^peche  de  finir  son  tra- 
vail,    ne  fait  rien.       6.  Donnez-moi  une  autre  feuille  de 

papier;  n'est  pas  propre.      7.  que  vous  me  donnez 

actuellement  est  sale  aussi.       8.  Voil^  mes  deux  compagnons 

de  voyage;  s' amuse  a  regarder  le  paysage, tache  de 

me  faire  parler  fran9ais.       9.  qui  est  dans  le  couloir  est 

un  stranger  qui  arrive  d'Espagne.      10.  Dites-moi  qui  sont  ces 

individus-l&,. ci?    Non, -1^.       11.  Voulez-vous  m'ex- 

pliquer ?      12.  Oui,  mais  d'abord  parlons  un  peu  de . 

13.  Mon  camarade  a  perdu  son  stylo.    ne  fait  rien;   nous 

sommes  prets  h  lui   donner  -ci.       14.  Pendant  que  cet 

individu-ci  me  prend  ma  montre,  me  prend  mon  argent. 

15.  Ils  ont  pris  ma  montre  et du  monsieur  qui  m'accom- 

pagnait.      16.  A  qui  est  cette  montre  maintenant?      17.  Quelle 

montre?  que  I'individu  a  prise.      18.  Je  ne  sais  pas,  mais 

que  j'ai  k  la  main  est  k  moi. 

(2)  Replace  the  dash  by  ce,  or  il  (elle,  ils,  elles) :    1.  Qu'est-ce? 

est  un  dne.     2.  Et  cela?    est  un  chien.     3.  sont 

les  chiens  de  mon  p^re.      4.  est  I'dne  qui  a  renvers^  la 

table.      5.  Qui  a  chass^  I'^ne?      6taient  les  domestiques. 

§  129  LESSON  XXXI  147 

6.  Que  fait  cet  Ane?    fait  tomber  la  vaisselle.      7.  Od  est 

le  chien?    est  dans  une  autre  pi6ce.      8.  Qui  appelle  les 

domestiques?    est  le  maltre  qui  les  appelle.      9.  se 

16ve  de  table  pour  les  appeler.       10.  Quel  est  ce  monsieur? 

est  le  maltre  de  I'&ne  et  du  chien.       11.  Quels  sont  ces 

individus?     sont  noe  amis.       12.  Quel  est  cet  animal? 

est  notre  cher  ane.       13.  est  midi.       14.  est 

huit  heures.      15.  fait  beau.      16.  pleut.      17.  

est  temps  de  partir.      18.  Quand  on  est  dne, est  n^cessaire 

de  rester  &ne.       19.  est  vrai. 

(3)  When  is  *  it'  expressed  by  U  (elle)?  When  is  ce  equivalenl 
to  *  he,'  '  she,'  '  they  '? 

C.  (1)  Shift  A,  2-6,  to  the  present.  Does  this  harmonize  xoith 
the  forms  used  in  the  rest  of  the  anecdote  t  If  you  were  to  trans- 
late the  whole  passage  into  English  in  the  present,  would  the  ef- 
fect he  satisfactory?  What  do  you  conclude  about  the  use  of  the 
present  form  in  French  in  narration  as  compared  with  English? 
This  is  often  called  the  '  historical '  present,  and  is  far  more 
frequently  used  in  French  than  in  English. 

(2)  Woidd  it  be  satisfactory  to  shift  to  the  past  indefinite  the 
imperfects  of  A:  donnait,  s'amusait,  courait,  mangeait,  donnait, 
§tait?  See  Lesson  XXI,  §87.  Is  this  anstoer  equally  true  of 
voyait  (6)?    Explain. 

(3)  Beginning  with  A,  6,  teU  the  story  in  the  past  (§  66,  N.B.) 
to  the  end  of  the  paragraph.  Does  the  direct  discourse  (7-10) 

(4)  Translate,  with  especial  attention  to  demonstrative  pro- 
nouns and  participle  agreement:  1.  Explain  this  to  him;  explain 
that  to  her;  explain  this  to  them,  please.  2.  Don't  think  that. 
You  must  not  (§  106,  3)  think  that.  3.  These  novels  are  more 
interesting  than  those.  4.  Which  novels?  The  ones  we  bought 
in  Canada.  5.  Have  you  read  (lu)  them?  Not  (non  pas)  the 
ones  that  are  in  the  drawing  room,  but  I  have  read  several 
times  the  one  we  brought  from  France.  6.  When  my  father 
was  younger  he  was  very  fond  of  (aimer  beaucoup)  those  of 
Victor  Hugo,  but  now  he  reads  (lit)  oftener  Daudet's  and  Bal- 

148  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §§  130-132 

zac's.  7.  Whose  motor  car  is  that?  8.  That  one  across 
(de  I'autre  cote  de)  the  street?  It  is  hers.  9,  Mine  is  on  the 
other  side  of  the  street  too,  a  Uttle  farther  [away].  10.  And 
those  that  are  nearer  belong  to  (XVII,  Vocab.)  our  schoolmates. 

D.  Conjitgate  courir  {present  participle  in  Vocab.)  in  the 
present  and  imperfect  indicative,  and  the  present  subjunctive  (see 
Lesson  XXVI,  E,  dormir);  and  in  the  past  indefinite,  future, 
and  conditional  (see  Lessons  XIX,  B,  (3),  XXIX,  E).  Is  the 
auxiliary  avoir  or  etre?     How  about  marcher? 


130.  The  Relative  Pronouns 

qui  [ki],  who,  which,  that,  whom  {after  a  preposition) 

que  [ka],  whom,  which,  that 

dont  [do],  whose,  of  whom,  of  which 

oft  [u],  in  which,  into  which   at  which,  to  which,  etc. 

iequel  [lakel],  m.  s.,  lesquels  [lekEl],  m.  pi.     \    ,         ,  l-  .    -t  ^ 

laquelle  [lakel],  /.  ..,  lesquelles  [leksl],  /.  pi.  J  ^^^'  ^^°°^'  ^^^^^'  *^* 

quoi  [kwa],  what,  which  i 

131.  Agreement.  A  relative  pronoun,  whether  variable 
or  invariable  in  form,  is  of  the  gender,  number  and  person  of 
its  antecedent: 

Moi  qui  etais  (vous  qui  etiez)  \k.        I  who  was  (you  who  were)  there. 
Les  lettres  que  j'ai  apportees.  The  letters  which  I  have  brought. 

132.  Use  of  the  Relative.  1.  The  relative  of  most  com- 
mon use  is  qui,  as  subject,  and  que,  as  direct  object,  of  a 
verb  (cf.  §  75). 

2,  Qui  =  whom  (of  persons  only)  is  also  used  after  a 
preposition : 

L'oncle  chez  ^wi  je  demeurais.  The  uncle  with  whom  I  lived. 

3.  The  force  of  de  +  a  relative  is  generally  expressed  by 

Les  amis  dont  nous  parlions.  The  friends  of  whom  we  spoke. 

L'eglise  dont  je  vols  la  tour.  The  church  whose  tower  I  see. 

§  133  LESSON  xxxn  149 

4.  Ou  =  dans  (or  some  other  preposition  of  position)  +  a 

L«  ville  ou  {or  dans  laquelle)  je     The  city  in  which  I  live, 

5.  Lequel  is  often  used  instead  of  qui  (que,  etc.),  to  avoid 
ambiguity,  and  must  be  used  of  things  after  a  preposition: 

Les  soeurs  de  nos  amis,  lesquelles     The  aisters  of  our  friends,  who 
sont  Chez  nous  k  present.  (i.  e.,  the  sisters)  are  with  ua 


6.  Quoi  stands  after  a  preposition,  rarely  otherwise: 
VoiUl  de  quoi  je  parlais.  That  is  what  I  was  speaking  of. 

7.  The  absolute  what,  which,  that  which  as  subject  is 
ce  qui,  and,  as  object  or  predicate,  ce  que;  qf  what,  thai 
of  which,  is  ce  dent: 

Je  vois  ce  qui  vous  amuse.  I  see  what  amuses  you. 

Je  sais  ce  que  je  sais.  I  know  what  I  know. 

Vous  savez  ce  que  je  suis.  You  know  what  I  am. 

Je  n'ai  pas  ce  dont  j'ai  besoin.  I  haven't  what  (that  whidi)  I 


8.  He  who,  the  one  who,  etc.  =  celui  qui,  etc. 

Palme  ceux  qui  m'aiment.  I  love  those  who  love  me. 

Ma  montre  est  plus  jolie  que  ceOe     My  watch  is  prettier  than  the  one 
que  vous  avez.  you  have. 

9.  The  relative  pronoun,  often  omitted  in  English,  is  never 
omitted  in  French: 

Le  tableau  que  j'ai  vu  hier.  The  picture  I  saw  yesterday. 

133.  Present   Indicative  of  connaitre,  to  knew,  be  aC' 

quainied  with,  etc.  (irr^.). 

/  know,  etc 
Je  connais  [sakone]  nous  connalssons  CnukotraSj 

tu  connais  [tykone]  vous  connaissez    [vukonese] 

il  connait  [ilkanej  Us  connaissent  [UkonersJ 





un  agent    (de    police)    [oenasa- 

dpolis]  policeman 
un  Allemand  [cenalma]  German 
im  anniversaire     [denaniverseir] 

anniversary,  birthday 
im  arc  [oenark]  arch,  bow 
une  avenue  [avny]  avenue 
la  banque  Cbaik]  bank 
le  bassin  [basej  basin 
le  bout  [bu]  end 
le  depute  [depyte]  congressman 
un  edifice  [oenedifis]  building 
une  eglise  [egliiz]  church 
la  fa^de  [fasad]  front,  f agade 
la  figure  [figy:r]  figure,  face 
la  loi  [Iwa]  law 

un  obelisque  [denobelisk]  obelisk 
la  peintiure  [pety:r]  painting 
la  pierre  [pjeir]  stone 
la  portiere  [portjeir]  door,  win- 
dow (o/  car) 
le  roi  [rwaU  king 

la  statue  [staty]  statue 

agreable  [agreabl]  pleasant 
important  [eporta]  important 
magnifique    [majiifikj    mag- 
parisien  [parizje]  Parisian 

b4tir  [batiir]  build 
connaitre    [koneitr]    be    ac- 
quainted with,  know 
garder  [garde]  keep,  guard 
menacer  [manase]  threaten 
representer  [raprezQte]  repre- 
sent, stand  for 

done  [d5(;k)]  then,  therefore 
longtemps  [lota]  long 
meme  [meim]  even 
que!  how! 

volontiers    [volotje]    gladly, 
with  pleasure 

autour  de  [otuir  do}  around 

A.  (1)  Supply  the  proper  relative  word  and  the  demonstra- 
tive, too,  if  one  is  lacking.  Substitute  suitable  forms  of  the  past 
participle  for  the  infinitives  in  footnotes:  1.  II  y  a  ici  un  voleur. 
Voil^  le  voleur nous  parlous.      2.  Voici  la  montre il 


•  ^.     3.  Voilk  la  fenetre  par  - 

pris  le  revolver  avec il  m'a 

dans (or )  nous  voyagions 

il  a 

*.     4.  On  lui  a 

'.     5.  II  a  quitt^  la  voiture 

6.  Nous  sommes * 

k  la  gare  k (or )  j'allais  descendre.      7.  Je  vous  dirai 

il  a  fait  apres.       8.  II  a ^  dans  sa  poche  le  revolver 

il  s'etait «  pour  me  menacer.        9.  II    m'a    dit:  — 

Gardez  ces  quelques  francs vous  aurez  besoin  pour  payer 

votre  dejeuner.       10.  II  ne  faut  pas  montrer  votre  argent  et 

votre  montre  k  qui  voyagent  dans  le  m^me  comparti- 

ment.       11.  Alors  il  a  *   dans  une  poche  ma  montre, 

*  (prendre).  «  (sauter).  »  (menacer). 

*  (arriver).  *  (mettre).  •  (servir). 


)  133  LESSON  xxxn  151 

mon  p^re  m'a  *  k  mon  anniversaire.       12.  Dans 

I'autre  il  a  mis  mes  billets  de  banque on  m'avait * 

k  la  banque  et j  'avals  besoin  pour  mon  voyage.      13.  Comme 

il  veut  sortir  par  la  portiere, 6tait  *,  un  agent  de 

police le  connait  entre  d'une  autre  voiture il  voyageait. 

14.  Mon  voleur, a  peur,  s'arrete  un  instant.      15.  VoilA 

ce I'a »! 

(2)  Fill  in  blanks  ioith  suitable  words  (demonstratives,  rela- 
tives, verbs,  etc.): 

1.  Je  me  prom^ne  aujourd'hui  k  Paris  avec  un  de  mes  amis. 
Nous  voil4  sur  la  Place  de  la  Concorde  Ck5kord3.    Connaissei- 

vous  cette  6glise on  voit  la  facade  au  bout  de  la  rue  Royale 

[rwajal]?      2.  — C'est  I'^glise  de  la  Madeleine je  vous 

ai  parl6.      3.  Je  vous  y  mineral  un  jour  quand  nous plus 

de  temps.  4.  Quel  est  cet  autre  Edifice  de  I'autre  c6t6  de  la 
Seine?  —  C'est  la  Chambre  des  d^put^.       5.  —  Savez-vous 

on  y  fait?  —  Oui,  on  y  fait  les  lois  du  pays.      6.  —  Con- 

naissez-vous  des  d^put^?  —  Oui,  je connais  un m'a 

donn^  deux  cartes je  vais  me  servir  demain.      7.  Voulee- 

vous  m'y  accompagner?  —  Volontiers.    Et  savez-vous  ce  qu'est 

(ce  que  c'est  que)  ce  grand  monument  en  pierre se  trouve 

au  milieu  de  la  Place?      8. Ik,  sur on  voit  ces 

figures  amusantes?       9.  —  Oui, Ik.  —  C'est  un  ob^lisque 

vient    d'Egypte  [esiptj      10.  —  Voilk    de    grandes    et 

belles    statues    autour   de   la    Place.       Savez-vous ellea 

repr^sentent?      11.  II  y a  huit.  — Elles  repr^ntent  les 

villes   les    plus   importantes   de  la  France.       12.  Voyez-vous 

1^  sur il  y  a  tant  de  fleurs?       13.  — Oui,  je  me 

demandais  ce c'^tait.  —  C'est  la  statue  de  la  belle  ville 

de  Strasbourg  [strazbuir]  en  Alsace  [alzas].  14.  Vous  saves 
que  la  France  I'a  perdue  apr^  la  guerre  de  soixante-dix.  Les 
Parisiens  sont  si  heureux  que  Strasbourg  soit  maintenant  una 

ville  frauQaise!       15.  Mais  en  voWk  une  autre  sur il  y  a 

beaucoup  de  fleurs.      16.  —  C'est  la  statue  de  Lille  [Til] 

a  6t6  longtemps  aux  mains  des  Allemands  pendant  la  grande 
^{uerre.      17.  Dites-moi   maintenant  quel  est  ce  joli   pare  k 

»  (donner).  •  (ooTrir).  •  (perdreX 

152  A   FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  133 

Touest  de  la  Place,  au  bout  de on  voit  cet  arc  magnifique? 

18. sont  les  Champs-£llys6es  [Jazelize]  dans il  y 

a  de  tres  jolies  promenades,  et  Tare vous  parlez  est  I'Arc 

de    Triomphe    [arkdatriof],    a    ^t^   bati    par    Napoleon 

Cnapoleo].      19.  Regardez  done  (Just  look)\     Qu'elle  est  large 

et  belle,  I'aveuue  par  on  en  approche!       20.  —  Oui,  en 

effet   c'est  magnifique.     Et  voila  h,  I'est   I'entree  d'un  autre 

pare.     Qu'est-ce?      21. sont  les  jardins  des  Tuileri-^s 

[tqilri]  dans il  y  avait  autrefois  un  beau  palais  des  rois 

de  France.       22.  On  y  trouve arbres,  fleurs,  

jolies  statues  et agr^ables  promenades.      23.  II  y  a  presque 

tou jours  enfants  jouent   avec  leurs  petits  bateaux 

autour  du  bassin  des  Tuileries.      24.  Si  nous ^  les  Tuileries, 

nous  nous  trouverions  devant  le  Louvre  [luivr],  dans ipr 

)  il  y  a  un  musee  celebre.      25.  C'^tait  autrefois  un  palais 

des  rois  de  France.  —  Que  tout  cela  est  int^ressant!  26.  Nous 
irons  un  jour  y  voir  les  peintures,  n'est-ce  pas?  —  Oh,  oui. 
Quelle  ville  int^ressante  que  ^  Paris! 

B.  Repondez  aux  questions  suivantes:  1.  Qu'est-ce  qu'un 
ane?  2.  Est-ce  qu'on  le  caresse?  3.  Que  lui  donne-t-on? 
4.  Que  veut-il  avoir?  5.  A  qui  donne-t-on  les  caressec? 
6.  Ou  sont  le  maitre  et  ses  amis?  7.  Que  fait  I'dne? 
8.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  tache  de  faire?  9.  Est-ce  qu'il  r^ussit  h 
amuser  son  maitre?  10.  Que  fait  celui-ci?  11.  Et  que 
font  les  domestiques? 

C.  (1)  Racontez  d'abord  oralement,  puis  Scrivez  «  L'Histoire 
de  I'ane  qui  veut  qu'on  le  caresse  ». 

(2)  Traduisez:  1.  With  whom  are  you  going  to  go  around 
(se  promener)  in  (dans)  Paris?  2,  With  my  old  friend;  the 
one  with  whom  I  traveled  in  Italy  last  year  (annee).  3.  We 
visited  the  Place  de  la  Concorde  yesterday  (after  past  part.), 
around  which  are  (se  trouver)  eight  fine  statues.  4.  The  ones 
that  represent  Strasbourg  and  Lille  are  covered  (XXIV,  Vocah.) 
with  (de)  flowers.      5.  What  I  liked  best  was  (c'etait)  Napo- 

1  (traverser). 

»  This  que  is  untranslatable.   It  is  often  found  before  nouns  in  apposition. 

S§  134-135  LESSON  xxxm  153 

leon's  Arc  de  Triomphe  which  one  sees  at  the  end  of  that 
magnificent  avenue.  6.  We  want  to  go  to  see  the  Madeleine, 
the  fagade  of  which  we  could  see  at  the  end  of  (la)  rue  Royale. 
7.  We  want  to  visit  also  the  Louvre  of  which  I  have  often 
heard  (entendre  parler),  and  the  Tuileries  gardens  in  which 
the  children  Uke  to  play  with  their  little  boats.  8.  What 
an  interesting  city  Paris  [is]! 

D.  1.  Count  from  50  to  59,  putting  a  different  noun  after  each 
numeral:  Cinquante  et  un  monuments,  cinquante-deux  ave- 
nues Q8gka:td0zavny],  etc. 

2.  Count  from  60  to  69:  soixante  Qswasdit]  d^put^,  soixante 
et  un  billets  de  banque,  etc. 

3.  Count  from  70  to  79:  soixante-dix  agents  Qswaa&tt  diiz  asfil 
soixante-onze  figures,  etc. 

E.  Dict^:   Lesson  XXVIII,  A. 

LESSON  xxxm 

134.  The  Interrogative  Pronouns 

qui?  [ki],  who?  whom? 

que?  [kal  what? 

quoi?  [kwa],  what? 

lequel?  [laktl],  m.  ».,  lesquels?  [lekerj.  "»•  pl    1  which?  which  oneCs)? 

laquelle?  [lakel],/.  «.,  lesquelles?  [lekel],  /.  pi.  /what  one(8)? 

136.  Use  of  Interrogatives.     1.  Qui?  =  whof  whomf  is 
used  of  persons: 

Qui  Sonne?  Qm  sont-elles?  Who  is  ringing?    Who  are  they? 

Dites-moi  qui  sonne.  TeU  me  who  is  ringing. 

Qui  a-t-il  frappe?  Whom  has  he  struck? 

De  ^i  parlez-vous?  Of  whom  are  you  speaking? 

2.  Whose?  denoting  ownership  simply  =  k  qui?  otherwise 
generally  de  qui?  but  never  dont: 
A  qui  est  ce  livre?  Whose  book  is  this? 

De  qui  £tes-yous  (le)  fils?  Whose  son  are  you? 




3.  Que?  =  whatf  stands  always  as  the  object  or  the 
predicate  of  a  verb: 

Que  vous  a-t-il  dit?     Qu'est-ce?       What  did  he  tell  you?   What  is  it? 

4.  Whatf  as  subject  is  usually  qu'est-ce  qui?  and  what 
in  indirect  question  is  usually  ce  qui  (ce  que,  etc.) : 
QWest-ce  qui  vous  a  interesse?         What  has  interested  you? 

Je  ne  sais  pas  ce  qui  m*a  frappe.        I  do  not  know  what  struck  me. 
Dites-moi  ce  que  vous  desirez.  Tell  me  what  you  desire. 

5.  Quel?  =  whatf  stands  regularly  after  a  preposition,  or 
absolutely,  the  verb  being  understood: 

A  quoi  pensez-vous?  What  are  you  thinking  of? 

Je  cherche  quelque  chose. —  Quoi?   I  am  looking  for  something. — 


6.  Lequel?  [laquelle?  etc.)  =  which?  which  or  what  one? 
agrees  in  gender  with  the  noun  referred  to.  Both  parts  of 
lequel  (le  and  quel)  are  inflected,  and  the  usual  contractions 
with  de  and  a  (cf.  §§35,  46)  take  place: 

Laquelle  des  dames  est  Ik?  Which  of  the  ladies  is  there? 

Auquel  des  hommes  parle-t-il?         To  which  of  the  men  does  he 

speak  ? 


une  architecture  [arjitsktyir]  ar- 
le  banquier  Q)akje]  banker 
la  cite  [site]  oldest  part  of  cer- 
tain cities 
un  hdpital  [opital]  hospital 
une  lie  [il]  island 
un  interieur  [eterioeir]  interior 
le  marl  [marij]  husband 
le  personnage  [personals^  char- 
acter {in  hook),  personage 
la  photographie  [fotografi]  pho- 
le  Pont-Neuf  [p5noef3Pont-Neuf 
('New  Bridge') 

la  question  [kestjS]  question 
la  scene  [sen]  scene 
le  sommet  [some]  top 
la  tour  [tu:r]  tower 
la  traduction  [tradyksjo]  trans- 
la  vue  [vy]  view 

bete  [belt]  stupid,  foolish 
cent  [sa]  hundred 
droit  [drwa]  right 
gauche  [goi^]  left 
gothique  [gotik]  gothic 
impossible  [gposibl]  impossi- 

§  135  LESSON  xxxm  156 

EXERCISE  xxxm  (Continued) 

terrible  [teribl]  terrible  tourner  [tume]  turn 

J        r         f,xj  T  venir  de  fvaniir  dal  to  have 

8'approcher     de      [saproSeda]  just ..  .(foW>wed  by  anin- 

^pouser  [epuzej  marry 

Jeter  [sate]  throw  ^  ^g^t  [onefe]  in  fact 

poser   [po:ae]   put,   ask   (of  ^^^  ^^^  j-^^g-j  opposite 

questioTu)  ensemble  [dsfiibl]  together 

ramasser  [ramase]  pick  up  ^^^  ^  j-ply  j^-j  j^Q^g  jj^^ 

se  rappeler  [saraple]  remember,  ^^^^  (d^)  QtAj   ^   many,   so 

recall  much 

rencontrer  [rakStre]  meet 

repeter  [repete]  repeat  car  [kar]  for 

ressembler  (4)  [raedble]  re- 
semble, be  like  il  y  a  [ilja]  ago 

A.  1.  Pendant  notre  promenade  je  pose  k  mon  ami  beau- 
coup  de  questions  sur  ce  que  nous  voyons  k  Paris.  2.  Je  lui 
demande,  par  exemple:  —  Qu'est-ce  que  (or  qu'est-ce  que  c'est 
que)  rtle  de  la  Cit6  dont  vous  me  parlez  si  souvent?  3.  —  L'lle 
de  la  Cit6  est  une  lie  de  la  Seine  [sen]  od  se  trouve  la  partie  la 
plus  ancienne  de  Paris.  4.  VoilA  le  Pont-Neuf  par  lequel  on 
entre  dans  la  Cit4.  Traversons-le  et  toumons  k  gauche  et  puis 
k  droite.  5.  —  Quel  est  ce  grand  Edifice  dont  nous  nous  ap- 
prochons?  —  C'est  le  Palais  de  Justice.  6.  —  Mais  il  y  en  a 
une  partie  qui  ressemble  k  une  6glise.     Qu'est-ce  que  c'est? 

7.  — C'est  en  effet  une  6glise  qui  s'appelle  la  Sainte-Chapelle 
et  qui  a  6t6  b&tie  par  Saint  Louis  il  y  a  plus  de  six  cents  ans. 

8.  C'est  un  des  bijoux  de  I'architecture  gothique.  Son  int^rieur 
est  trds,  tr6s  joli.  9.  Prenons  maintenant  la  rue  de  Lut^ce, 
et  tournons  k  droite.  Voyez-vous  ce  grand  Edifice  k  notre  gauche  ? 
10.  C'est  rH6tel-Dieu,  un  hdpital  qui  a  6tA  b&ti  il  y  a  tr6s, 
trSs  longtemps.  11.  — Et  en  face  de  nous  quelle  est  cette 
grande  ^glise?  12.  — C'est  la  cath^drale  de  Notre-Dame 
dont  vous  avez  tant  entendu  parler.  13.  — Oh  oui,  je  me 
rappelle.  Que  je  suis  b^te!  J'en  ai  vii  souvent  des  photographies. 
14.  Voili  en  effet  les  deux  grandes  tours.  C'est  1^  que  se  trou- 
vent  les  cloches,  n'est-ce  pas?     15.  —  Oui.    Avez-vous  lu  Notre" 

156  A  FRENCH  GRAMBiAR  §  135 

Dame  de  Paris,  ce  grand  roman  de  Victor  Hugo?  16.  —  Oui. 
Je  I'ai  lu  dans  une  traduction  anglaise.  17.  Je  me  rappelle 
qu'un  des  personnages  de  ce  roman  a  6t6  jet6  du  sommet 
d'une  de  ces  tours-la,  ce  qui  m'a  beaucoup  frapp6.  18.  C'est 
une  scene  terrible.  —  Oui,  terrible.  Victor  Hugo  aimait  les 
scenes  terribles.  19.  Allons  maintenant  visiter  I'interieur  de 
r^glise  qui  est  tres  beau.  20.  La  cathedrale  est  une  des  plus 
anciennes  et  des  plus  belles  de  la  France.  21.  Elle  a  ^te  batie 
il  y  a  plus  de  huit  cents  ans.  22.  Du  sommet  des  tours  il  y  a 
une  vue  magnifique  sur  Paris. 

B.  Supply  the  missing  relative  or  interrogative  words.     Be  or^ 

the  look  out  especially  for  examples  of  §  132,  7.    1.  Dites-moi 

vous  avez  k  la  main.       2.  Demandez-lui  il  desire  faire 

aujourd'hui.      3.  Ne  vous  rappelez-vous  pas votre  cama- 

rade  vous  a  dit?      4.  Nous  ne  pouvons  pas  entendre vous 

dites,  monsieur.       5.  me  frappe  dans  ce  roman  c'est  la 

sc^ne  de  la  tour.       6.  vous  me  demandez  est  impossible. 

7.  Comprenez-vous  me  fait  rire?       8.  Savez-vous  

est  cet  objet-ci?    C'est  k  moi.      9.  Je  vais  vous  dire je 

pense.      10.  Voici me  fait   penser  que  vous  aviez  tort. 

11.  Tout vous  dites  est  vrai.       12.  II  ne  faut  pas  r^p^ter 

tout vous  entendez  dire.       13.  Tout est  sur  la  table 

est  k  Marie,  n'est-ce  pas?      14.  Non, est  k  ce  bout-ci  est 

k  moi,  et est  h  I'autre  bout  est  k  elle.      15.  Je  crois 

vous  me  dites.       16.  II  vient  de  me  demander  j 'avals 

I'intention  de  faire  demain.       17.  Mais  j'ai  beau  lui  expliquer; 

il  ne  pent  pas  comprendre  je  lui  dis.       18.  II  faut  que 

j'apprenne  (pres.  subj.)  k  parler  frangais, sera  tres  difficile 

pour  moi. 

C.  (1)  Some  of  the  following  sentences  have  "  ragged  "  ends. 
Straighten  them  out,  supply  missing  words  (prepositions,  relatives, 
and  the  correct  forms  of  verbs).     1.  Oil  est  I'autobus  que  nous 

* coin rue  ?   2.  S'arr^te-t-il  au  coin  de  la  rue  dans 

nous '  ?      3.  Les  dames  k I'ane  voulait  donner 

la  patte '  peur.      4.  Voil^  I'^ne  k (qui?  lequel?)  les 

domestiques  ont  * coups.      5.  Les  domestiques  ont 

*  (prendre).  *  (demeurer).  »  (avoir).  *  (donner). 


3  ra 

•:5  <"        T! 

O  (1)       -■  '^ 

li-s^g-S  tfu^-a^^s..^- 

3  rt 


J5  u  o  o  <Li  o  gW'O  5 

§  135  LESSON  xxxm  157 

ramass^  la  vaisselle  que  I'^ne  *  fwt'  tomber  en  » 

patte amis son  maltre.      6.  Coanaissez-vous  les 

messieurs  qui  causent  ensemble  l^bas?  —  Oui,  ce  sont  les  mes- 
sieurs   (two  ways)  votre  femme  vient  de  me  presenter. 

7.  Ce  sont  des  personnes  mon  p6re  m' »  souvent 

.*     8.  Je  ne  connais  pas  ces  deux  autres  1^-bas vous 

voyea  les  t6tes.     Us  viennent  d'entrer.       9.  Quelle  est  cette 

^^ise vous  voyez  la  f a9ade  au  bout  de  cette  grande  rue  ? 

10.  C'est  r^glise  je  viens  de  rencontrer  le  man  de  ma 

sceur.       11.  Ah  oui!    Celui  qu'elle  vient  d'^pouser  est  un  jeune 

militaire  de  mes  amis.    Je  le  (connaUre)   bien  depuis 

dix  ans. 

(2)  A  good  many  idioms  or  expressions  peculiar  to  the 
French  language  in  the  arrangement  arul  choice  of  words  have 
already  occurred.  Express  in  English:  1.  Vous  avez  beau  me 
r6p4ter  ce  que  vous  avez  entendu  dire,  je  ne  vous  comprends 
pas.  2.  Nous  venons  de  rencontrer  le  man  de  ma  soeur. 
3.  Ma  soeur  I'a  6pous6  il  y  a  plus  de  trois  ans.  4.  Monsieur 
I'agent,  voulez-vous  me  dire  oil  se  trouve  le  Bon-March4? 
5.  II  a  trouvS  que  cette  sc^ne  ^tait  terrible.  6.  Ne  vous  rap- 
pelez-vous  pas  que  ce  personnage  a  €t4  jet^  du  sommet  de  la 
tour?  7.  Combien  6tes-vous?  Nous  sommes  dix.  8.  Quelle 
belle  ville  que  Paris! 

(3)  Make  French  sentences  of  your  own  on  each  of  these  models. 

(4)  1.  We  have  just  seen  Notre-Dame.  It  is  magnificent. 
2.  We  climbed  (in)  one  (I'une)  of  the  towers  and  admired  the 
view.  3.  What  a  magnificent  view  of  Paris!  4.  I  thought 
of  (4)  Victor  Hugo's  great  novel,  but  I  tried  in  vain  to  recall 
the  name  of  the  heroine  (ITiSroIne),  although  I  have  just  read 
the  book  for  the  second  time.  5.  Ah!  I  remember  it!  La 
Esmeralda!  6.  The  cathedral  was  built  more  than  eight 
hundred  years  ago  and  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  whole 
world.  It  is  in  the  lie  de  la  Cit^,  which  is  the  oldest  part 
of  Paris.  7.  It  is  there  that  the  first  Parisians  lived  {invert 
order  of  subject  and  verb)  a  long  time  ago.     Now  it  is  a  very 

'  («TOtr).  '  When  followed  by  an  infinitive,  fait  does  not  agree  with 
a  noun  or  pronoun  object  that  precedes.  *  (donner).  *  (parlv). 

158  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  136 

quiet  spot.  8.  It  is  there  that  the  traveler  must  go  to  see 
(the)  old  Paris,  for  Paris  is  now  a  modern  (moderne)  city, 
which  makes  it  (le)  less  interesting  for  the  foreigner  (etranger), 
but  more  convenient  for  everybody. 

D.  Supply  questions  for  the  following  answers:  1.  Ce  chien 
noir  est  h  mon  fr^re.  2.  Mon  frere  a  un  baton  h  la  main. 
3.  II  va  donner  un  coup  de  baton  au  chien.  4.  C'est  le  do- 
mestique  qui  a  chass6  I'ane  de  la  salle  a  manger.  5.  Nous 
allons  visiter  les  monuments  de  Paris  aujourd'hui.  6.  Nous 
allons  dejeuner  au  restaurant  du  cafe  Voltaire.  7.  Des  hari- 
cots verts  et  des  petits  pois.  8.  Nous  allons  payer  notre  de- 
jeuner avec  ces  billets  de  banque.  9.  On  nous  les  a  donnas 
dans  une  banque  qui  s'appelle  le  Credit  Lyonnais.  10.  Mon 
banquier  de  New- York  m'a  dit  d'y  aller.  11.  J'y  ai  rencontr^ 
un  ancien  camarade  d'^cole.  12.  Je  lui  ai  parl6  de  notre 
projet  d'aller  voir  la  cath^drale  de  Notre-Dame  et  la  Sainte- 
Chapelle.  13.  II  m'a  dit  qu'il  a  eu  beau  essayer  de  se  faire 
comprendre  en  fran^ais;  personne  ne  le  comprenait.  14.  II 
est  le  fils  d'un  vieil  ami  de  mon  pere.  15.  II  s'appelle  Pierre 
Dupont.  16.  Des  deux  6glises,  la  Madeleine  et  Notre-Dame, 
nous  trouvons  Notre-Dame  la  plus  int^ressante.  17.  Notre- 
Dame  est  la  plus  ancienne  des  deux. 

.    E.  Dict^e:   Lesson  XXXI,  A. 


136.  Indefinite  Pronouns.  The  indefinite  pronouns  of 
most  frequent  occurrence  are: 

1.  On  [5],  one,  some  one,  we,  you,  they,  people,  etc.  (cf.  §  48). 

2.  Quelqu'un  [kelkde],  m.,  quelqu'une  [kelkyn],  f.,  some- 
body, some  one,  any  one,  plural  quelques-uns  [kelkaz(£],  m., 
quelques-unes  [kelkazyn],  /.,  some,  some  people,  any,  a  few. 

II  y  a  quelqu'un  h  la  porte.  There  is  somebody  at  the  door. 

J'ai  vu  quelques-unes  de  vos  amies.  I  have  seen  some  of  your  friends. 

Avez-vous  des  cerises,  madame?  Have  you  any  cherries,  madam? 

J*en  ai  quelques-unes.  I  have  a  few. 

§  137  LESSON  XXXIV  169 

3.  Quelque  chose  [kelkdJoisJ,  m.,  something,  anything: 
Quelque  chose  est  tombe.  Something  has  fallen. 

J'ai  quelque  chose  de  bon.  I  have  something  good. 

4.  Along  with  ne  -|-  a  verb,  or  when  alone,  a  verb  being  un- 
derstood, personne  [person],  m.,  means  nobody,  not  anybody, 
no  one,  and  rien  [r'lt],  m.,  nothing,  not  anything: 

Je  n'ai  parl6  i  personne.  I  did  not  speak  to  anybody. 

Vous  n'avez  rien  apport§.  You  have  brought  nothing, 

n  n'a  rien  dit  de  mauvais.  He  said  nothing  bad. 

Qu'a-t-U  dit?  —  Rien.  NVhat  did  he  say?  —  Nothing. 

Personne  ici!  Nobody  here! 

137.  Certain  forms  serve  both  as  adjectives  and  as  pro- 
nouns.   Those  of  most  frequent  occurrence  are: 

1.  Autre  Cotr],  other  (adjective);  un  autre,  another,  I'autre, 
t?te  other  (pronoun): 

Une  autre  fois;   d^autres  causes.     Another  time;  other  causes. 
Les  autres  iront  aussL  The  others  will  go  too. 

2.  Distinguish  un  autre  from  encore  un: 

Une  autre  plume.  Another  (a  different)  pen. 

Encore  une  pltmie.  Another  (an  additicnal)  pen. 

3.  With  autre  are  formed  various  locutions: 

L'une  et  I'autre  occasion.  Both  occasions. 

Les  uns  et  les  autres  partent.  All  are  going  away. 

Donne  z-le  k  I'un  ou  i  V autre.  Give  it  to  either. 

Ce  n'est  m  pour  les  uns  ni  pour  les  It  is  for  none  of  them. 


Elles  se  flattent  les  unes  les  autres.  They  flatter  each  other. 

Ds  ont  peur  les  uns  des  autres.  They  are  afraid  of  one  another. 

4.  When  used  with  ne  +  a  verb,  or  when  alone,  the  verb 
being  understood,  aucun  [okdfe],  nul  [nyl],  pas  un  [pazde],  as 
adjectives  =  no,  not  one,  not  any,  and  as  pronouns  =  none,  ru) 
one,  not  one: 

Aucun  auteur  ne  dit  cela.  No  author  says  that. 

A-t-on  de  I'espoir?  —  Aucun.  Have  they  any  hope?  —  None. 

5.  Tel  [tel]  =  such,  un  tel  =  stich  a.  Such  as  an  adverb  is 
si  [si]  or  tellement  [tclma]: 




Telles  sont  mes  douleurs. 
Qui  raconte  une  telle  histoire? 
Une  si  belle  maison. 
Un  honune  tellement  cruel. 
D  s'est  couche  tout  de  suite,  telle- 
ment U  etait  fatigue. 

Such  are  my  griefs. 
Who  tells  such  a  story? 
Such  a  beautiful  house. 
Such  a  cruel  ruan. 
He  was  so  tired  that  he  went  to 
bed  at  once. 

Note.  —  Observe  the  idiomatic  use  of  tel  (telle)  in  the  expressions  Mon- 
sieur un  tel,  Mr.  So-and-So;    Madame  une  telle,  Mrs.  So-and-So. 

6.  Tout  [tu],  m.,  toute  [tut],  /.,  tous  [pronounced  tu  (as 
adj.),  tus  (as  pron.)],  m.  pi,  toutes  [tut],  /.  pi.,  =  all,  every, 
any,  whole,  etc.: 

Tous  les  hommes.  All  (the)  men. 

Toute  ma  vie.  All  my  (My  whole)  life. 

Tous  (toutes)  sont  arrive (e)s.  All  have  come. 

7.  Meme  [me:m],  before  a  noun  or  as  a  pronoun  =  same; 
meme,  following  the  noun  or  pronoun  qualified  =  self,  very, 
even,  and  agrees,  but  has  no  article;  as  adverb  meme  =  even. 

La  m^me  chose. 
Ce  sont  les  memes. 
Dieu  est  la  bonte  m^me. 
Les  enfants  mimes  le  savent. 
Nous-m^mes;  elles-m^mes. 
Us  nous  ont  mime  battus. 

The  same  thing. 
Thej  are  the  same. 
God  is  goodness  itself. 
The  very  children  know  it. 
We  ourselves;  they  themselves. 
They  even  beat  us. 


la  beaute  [bote]  beauty 
le  berger  [berse]  shepherd 
un  endroit  [denadrwa]  spot,  place 
une  entree  [atre]  entrance 
la  grandeur  [gradoeir]  size,  gran- 
le  loup  Pu]  wolf 
la  revolution  [revolysjSl  revolu- 

actif  [aktif]  lively,  energetic 
intelligent  [gtslisa]  intelligent 
plein  [pie]  full 
Tide  [vid]  empty 

aider  (k)  [ede]  help 
devenir     [davniir]     become; 
qu'est-il  devenu?  what  has 
become  of  him  (it)? 
envoyer  [Qvwaje]  send 
iocendier  [esadje]  set  fire  to, 

ramener  [ramne]  bring  back 
rendre  [raidr]  give  back,  re- 

tellement  [telma]  so 
rarement  [rarma]  rarely,  not 

§  137  LESSON  XXXI V  161 

A.  Bring  out  the  differences  between  the  words  in  black  type: 
1.  Nous  venons  de  faire  une  promenade  dans  les  champs  qui 
^taient  pleins  d'animaux,  2.  Nous  avons  vu  des  vaches,  des 
moutons,  des  chdvres,  et  des  chevaux  qui  mangeaient  I'herbe 
dans  des  prairies  vertes.  3.  II  y  avait  1^  quelques  enfants  qui 
les  gardaient.  4.  lis  avaient  des  chiens  de  berger  avec  eux. 
5.  Quelques-uns  des  enfants  nous  ont  arrit^  et  ont  demand^ 
quelle  heure  il  6tait.  6.  Pendant  que  nous  causions  avec  eux, 
quelques-unes  des  vaches  ont  voulu  {wished)  manger  le  bl6  d'un 
champ  voisin.  7.  On  a  envoys  des  chiens  aprte  elles  pour  les 
chasser.  8.  Les  chiens  jouaient  en  courant,  mais  quelques-uns, 
en  entendant  la  voix  des  petits  gar^ons,  sont  partis  au  galop 
pour  ramener  les  vaches.  9.  C'6tait  quelque  chose  d'amusant 
de  les  voir  chasser  ces  grosses  Mtes  dont  quelques-unes  ne 
voulaient  pas  quitter  le  champ  de  bl6.  10.  Mais  elles  avaient 
beau  vouloir  y  rester,  elles  ne  le  pouvaient  pas,  tellement  les 
chiens  ^taient  actifs.       11.  Aucune  (Pas  une)  n'y  est  rest^. 

12.  Je  n'ai  rien  vu  de  plus  intelligent  que  ces  chiens  de  berger, 
dont  quelques-uns  ressemblaient  beaucoup  k  de  groe  loupe. 

13.  lis  ont  fait  tout  ce  que  les  enfants  leur  ont  dit  de  faire. 

B.  (1)  Supply  from  §§  136-137  the  missing  words:   1.  Je  n'ai 
■{two  possibilities)  mang6  aujourd'hui,  et  j'ai  faim.     2.  Don- 

nez-moi de  bon  pour  mon  diner,  s'il  vous  platt.      3.  Je 

crois  que  la  salle  est  vide.    Je  n'y  vois .      4.  Ma  tasse  est 

vide;  il  n'y  a dans  ma  tasse.      5.  n'est  dans  la  salle. 

6   Voyez-vous  quelqu'un  dans  la  salle?     Non,  ;    elle  est 

vide.      7.  S'il  y  avait  une  vache  et  un  mouton  dans  le  champ 

de  bl6,  les  chiens  iraient  les  chasser (=  both).      8.  Je  ne 

peux    pas  dormir,  (§  137,  5)  je  suis   fatigu6.       9.  Nous 

serons  fatigu^  que  nous  ne  jwurrons  {fut.  of  pouvoir) 

pas  dormir.      10.  Dites-moi de  nouveau.      11.  Je  ne  sais 

de  nouveau. 

(2)  Tramlate  in  several  ways:  1.  On  dit.  2.  Que  dit-on? 
3.  On  apprend  h  parler  en  parlant.  4.  On  sert  le  potage  avant 
la  viande. 

C.    (1)  tcrivez  en  frangais:  1.  Paris  is  a  city  of  which  people 

162  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAB  §  137 

have  often  spoken  to  me.  2.  My  friend  knows  the  city  well 
and  will  show  me  everything  that  is  interesting.  3.  The  place 
at  which  we  begin  our  trip  (promenade)  is  the  Place  de  la  Con- 
corde. 4.  What  do  those  statues  represent?  Which  ones? 
The  ones  that  are  (se  trouver)  around  the  square.  5.  They 
represent  the  most  important  cities  in  (de)  France.  The  one 
on  which  you  see  so  many  flowers  is  the  statue  of  the  city  of 
Strasbourg,  which  has  just  been  restored  to  France.  6.  What 
strikes  me  is  (c'est)  the  size  of  the  square,  and  the  beauty  of 
that  broad  avenue  by  which  you  approach  the  Arc  de  Triomphe. 
7.  But  first  let's  visit  those  gardens  the  entrance  of  which 
we  (on)  see  there,  behind  us.  They  are  the  Tuileries  gardens  in 
which  (two  ways)  there  was  formerly  a  fine  palace  of  the  kings 
of  France.  8.  What  has  become  of  it?  It  was  burned  (On  and 
active  voice)  during  a  revolution.  9.  Wasn't  the  Louvre  for- 
merly a  palace  too?  What  has  become  of  it?  10.  There  it 
is  on  the  other  side  of  that  square.    It  is  now  a  famous  museum. 

(2)  1.  We  like  the  very  streets  of  Paris.  2.  In  France  even 
the  children  speak  French.  3.  Everything  is  interesting. 
4.  We  (On)  see  something  new  at  every  street  corner.  5.  The 
sheep  walk  one  in  front  of  (devant)  the  other.  6.  The  cows 
and  dogs  were  afraid  of  each  other  (§  137,  3).  7.  I  never  saw 
anything  funnier.  8.  Some  of  the  goats  got  frightened. 
9.  Not  one  stayed  in  the  neighboring  wheat  field.  10.  Not 
one?  Some  of  the  sheep  got  frightened  too,  the  dogs  were  so 
(tellement)  energetic. 

(3)  Rewrite  A,  5-11,  wsrwgr  the  historical  present  as  the  basic 
tense.  The  3d  sing.  pres.  of  envoyer  is  envoie.  Why  do  not 
jouaient  and  c'etait  shift  to  the  present? 

D.  (1)  a.  Conjugate  in  the  present  and  in  the  past  indefinite: 
Je  me  rappelle  cette  sc^ne.  Do  the  same,  substituting  a  pronoun 
for  the  noun  object. 

b.  Conjugate  in  the  present  and  translate:  je  viens  {see  §  178) 
de  rencontrer  un  vieil  ami.  In  the  imperfect:  je  venais  de  (  = 
h^d  just)  rendre  le  journal  a  mon  voisin.  Repeat,  substituting 
the  proper  pronouns  for  the  noun  objects. 

S  137  LESSON  XXXIV  163 

c.  Conjugate  in  the  future  and  conditional,  making  the  neces- 
sary changes  in  the  possessive  adjective:  je  ressemble  k  mon  pdre; 
je  ressemble  k  mes  parents. 

d.  Conjugate  in  the  present  and  also  in  the  past  indefinite:  je 
viens  voir  mon  ancien  professeur. 

e.  Conjugate  in  the  present  and  in  the  imperfect:  je  pars  avant 
la  fin  de  la  pi^e;  je  finis  un  roman  de  Victor  Hugo. 

/.  Make  a  list  of  the  verbs  that  resemble  partir  (see  Lesson 

xvni,  C,  2). 

(2)  a.  Study  the  forms  of  envoy er  (§  161). 

b.  Does  the  peculiarity  of  the  present  indicative  and  subjune- 
tive,  1st,  2d,  3d,  sing,  and  Sd  pi.,  appear  in  the  pronunciation  or 
only  in  the  spelling  f  Is  the  same  thing  true  of  the  irregularity 
of  the  future  and  conditional  T  This  peculiarity  occurs  in  the 
forms  of  verbs  in  -oyer  where  the  -y-  would  otherwise  come  before  [a]. 

c.  Supply  the  forms  of  envoyer  and  then  vary  by  changing  the 

person  or  number  of  each  subject:    1.  Les  enfants (present) 

les  chiens  aprds  les  b^tes.      2.  II  faut  que  nous (present) 

des  chiens  pour  chasser  ces  moutons.      3.  Le  berger (fut.) 

le  chien  pour  chasser  les  vaches  de  cet  endroit.      4.  Si  nous 

avions  des  chiens  de  berger  nous  les (cond.)  chercher  nos 

moutons  perdus. 

E.  (1)  Rtpondez  aux  questions:  1.  Qui  gardaient  les  bfites? 
2.  Qui  les  aidait?  3.  Est-ce  que  les  enfants  allaient  chasser 
les  b^tes  des  champs  de  bl6?  4.  Est-ce  que  les  chiens  dor- 
maient  ou  jouaient?  5.  Comment  jouaient-ils?  6.  Lesquels 
6taient  les  plus  grands,  les  vaches  ou  les  chiens?  7.  Est-ce 
que  les  chiens  avaient  peur  des  vaches?  8.  A  quels  animaux 
les  chiens  ressemblaient-ils?  9.  Est-ce  que  quelques  vaches 
restaient  dans  les  champs  de  bl6?  10.  Que  voulaient-elles  y 
faire?  11.  Pourquoi  les  chiens  sont-ils  partis  au  galop?  12.  Ont- 
ils  fait  tout  ce  que  les  enfants  leur  ont  dit  de  faire?  13.  Que 
venons-nous  de  faire  dans  les  champs?  14.  Qu 'est-ce  que  les 
enfants  nous  ont  demand^?  15.  Avez-vous  jamais  vu  des  chiens 
de  berger? 

(2)  Dict^e:    Lesson  XXXIII,  A,  1-12. 

164  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  $  137 


(1)  Donnez  le  contraire  de:  loin  de,  actuellement,  d4sagr6a- 
ble,  rarement,  content,  possible,  a  droite,  nouveau,  bete  (adj.), 

(2)  A  quels  autres  mots  pensez-vous  quand  on  dit:  le  milieu, 
un  individu,  la  soupe,  le  chien,  des  caresses,  la  journ6e,  la 
soiree,  un  baton,  une  piece,  une  6glise,  une  grande  rue,  le  bout, 
iin  roi,  un  mus^e,  mener,  autrefois? 

(3)  Fit  words  to  the  definitions:  dire  plus  d'une  fois;  aller 
pres  de  quelqu'un;  celui  qui  accompagne  quelqu'un;  les  as- 
siettes,  les  tasses,  les  verres,  etc.  pour  la  table;  le  pied  d'uu 
animal;  une  figure  en  pierre,  etc.,  qui  repr6sente  une  personne, 
une  ville,  etc, ;  porte  d'une  voiture;  I'endroit  ou  I'on  entre  dans 
un  pare,  etc.;  celui  qui  garde  les  moutons;  animal  qui  mange 
les  moutons. 

(4)  Translate:  1.  The  policeman  has  arrested  (arreter)  this 
fellow.  2.  He  has  just  set  fire  to  the  palace.  3.  The  dogs 
tried  in  vain  to  bring  back  the  sheep;  they  would  not  (=  did 
not  want  to)  come.  4.  He  cannot  remember  what  you  told 
(past  part,  of  dire  is  dit)  him  ten  minutes  ago.  5.  These  statues 
are  like  each  other. 

(5)  Supply  the  missing  words:    1.  Les  voitures  de  chemin  de 

fer  en  France  ont  plusieurs .       2.  D'un  c6t^  elles  ont  un 

.      3.  Pour  sortir  il  faut  ouvrir  les .      4.  L'ane  a 

la  table  et  fait  la  vaisselle.       5.  Le  maitre  a  les 

domestiques  qui  ont  donn6  k  l'ane  des  de  et  I'ont 

de  la  salle.      6.  L'^ne  veut  chanter  mais  sa est . 

7.  Les  d^put^s  font  les du  pays.       8.  Presque  (Almost) 

tous  les  Edifices  en  France  sont  batis  en .      9.  Louis  XVI 

6tait de  France.       10.  Son  palais  a  6t6  incendi^  pendant 

une  .       11.  Le  voleur  a  son  revolver  de  sa  . 

12.  Dans  le  mus^e  du  Louvre  il  y  a  de  belles .      13.  Nous 

traversons  la  Seine  sur  un qui  s'appelle  le .      14.  La 

de   Notre-Dame  se  trouve  sur   une  de  la  . 

15.  EUe  a  6t6  batie  plus  de  huit ans. 

S  137  LESSON  XXXIV  IfiS 

(6)  Translate:  over  there,  convenient,  infrequent,  wretched, 
so  much  (many),  as  much  (many),  together,  in  fact,  opposite, 
threaten,  a  bank  note,  with  pleasure  (gladly),  around,  for,  be- 
cause, why,  spot  (place),  give  back,  full,  empty,  in  former 
times,  to  become,  to  meet,  to  relate,  to  send. 

(7)  Translate:  1.  What  has  become  of  the  kings  of  France 
(What  have  the  kings  .  .  .  become)?  2,  What  became  of 
you?  3.  I  shall  send  you  news  of  myself  (=  of  my  news). 
4.  I  begged  him  to  send  me  news  of  them.  5.  What  [a] 
terrible  scene  (que)  that  one  [is]!  6.  What  do  you  think  of* 
(two  nxiys)  that  scene? 

(8)  Translate:  Everybody,  nobody,  somebody;  everything, 
something,  nothing;  such  a  day,  such  a  bad  day;  each  other 
(two  persons),  each  other  (more  than  two  persons),  to  each 

(9)  Pidce  is  the  general  word  for  *  room  *:  what  other  meaning 
has  it?     What  are  the  distinctive  meanings  of  chambre  and  salle? 

Supply  the  missing  words:    1.  Ma  maison  a  six ,  un  salon, 

une  cuisine,  trois k  coucher  et  une k  manger.      2.  Le 

jour  je  travaille  k  I'^cole  dans  notre de  classe;  je  passe  la 

nuit  chez  moi  dans  ma .      3.  Nous  avons  cherch6  I'enfant 

dans  toutes  les de  la  maison. 

(10)  Racontez  d'abord  oralement,  puis  icrivez  iLa  Montre  de 
mon  ami.  »  (Make  use  of  the  following  words  and  expressions  in 
Leqon  XXX:)  Un  jour,  se  trouver,  compartiment,  homme,  ne  savoir 
pas,  la  difference,  mien,  tien.  Ami,  avoir,  montre,  or.  Train,  ap- 
procher  de,  petite  ville,  marcher,  moins  vite.  L'individu,  tirer, 
poche,  revolver,  dire.  Votre  montre,  plus  jolie,  la  mienne,  donnez- 
la-moi.  Je,  donner,  la  mienne,  afin  que,  vous,  savoir  I'heure.  Le 
voleur,  approcher,  revolver,  de  la  t^te.  Ami,  avoir  peur.  II, 
donner,  montre.  Voleur,  donner,  la  sienne,  sauter  du  train.  Com- 
partiment, fran^ais,  6tre,  commode,  mais,  on,  pouvoir,  se  trouver 
avec,  compagnon  de  voyage,  d6sagr6able,  meme  dangereux. 

♦  Penser  de  =  think  of,  have  an  opinion  of;  penser  i  =  think  of,  have 
in  mind.  Example:  Au  revoir!  Pensez  k  moi  quand  vous  serez  en  France  I 
—  Je  penserai  souvent  i  vous  et  je  vous  enverrai  des  cartes  postales.  May 
penser  i  be  used  in  (7),  67 



§§  138-139 


138.  Cardinal  Numerals 

1  im,  une  [ce,  yn] 

2  deux  [d0] 

3  trois  [trwa] 

4  quatre  [katr] 

5  cinq  [seik] 

6  six  [sis]    . 

7  sept  [set] 

8  huit  Cqit] 

9  neuf  [ncef] 

10  dix  [dis3 

11  onze  [5iz] 

12  douze  [du:z] 

13  treize  [treiz] 

14  quatorze  [katorz] 

15  quinze  Qceiz] 

16  seize  [se:z] 

17  dix-sept  [disset] 

18  dix-huit  [dizqit] 

19  dix-neuf  [diznoef] 

20  vingt  [ve] 

Nouns  of  Number:  1,000,000  =  un  millior  [de  miljo];  2,000,000 
=  deux  millions  [d0  milJDj;    1,000,000,000  =  un  milliard  [de  miljair]. 

Observe:  1.  The  hyphen  unites  the  parts  of  compound  numerals 
under  100,  except  where  et  occurs.  2.  Et  stands  regularly  in  21,  31, 
41,  51,  61,  71,  omitted  in  81,  and  elsewhere. 

Notes  on  Pronunciation:  1.  The  final  consonant  of  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 
10,  17,  18,  19,  is  silent  before  initial  consonant  or  h  aspirate  of  a  word 
multiplied  by  them,  not  elsewhere:  Cinq  livres  [s£  M:vr],  but  le  cinq 
mai  [b  se:k  me].  2.  No  elision  or  liaison  occurs  before  huit,  onze: 
le  huit  [l8  qit];  les  huit  livres  Qe  qi  H:vr];  le  onze  [la  5:z];  les  onze 
francs  [le  5:z  fra].  3.  The  t  is  sounded  in  vingt  in  21,  23,  24,  25,  26, 
27,  28,  29,  is  sounded  with  the  d  in  22,  is  silent  from  81  to  99,  is 
silent  in  cent  im,  deux  cent  un,  etc. 

139.  Million  and  milliard  require  de  before  the  object 
enumerated;  cent  =  a  (or  one)  hundred;  mille  =  a  (or  one) 

21  vingt  et  un 


22  vingt-deux 


30  trente 


31  trente  et  un 


40  quarante 


50  cinquante 


60  soixante 


70  soixante-dix 


71  soixante  et  onze 


80  quatre-vingts 


81  quatre-vingt-un 


90  quatre- vingt- dix 


91  quatre-vingt-onze  [katrave5:zj 

100  cent 


101  cent  un 

[sa  de] 

200  dexix  cents 


201  deux  cent  un 


1000  male 


1001  mille  un 


2000  deux  mille 


§§  140-143  LESSON  XXXV  167 

U  a  paye  un  million  de  francs.  He  has  paid  a  million  (of)  francs. 

Ceci  vaut  cent  francs.  This  is  worth  a  hundred  francs. 

140.  Quatre-vingt  and  the  multiples  of  cent  take  -s  only 
when  immediately  preceding  a  noun,  or  when  they  themselves 
are  used  as  nouns  of  number: 

Quatre-vingts  francs.  Eighty  francs. 

Trois  cenU  francs.  Three  hundred  francs. 

Les  cinq  cents.  The  five  hundreds. 

But:  Trois  cent  un  francs;  quatre-vingt-un  francs,  etc. 

Oba.:  They  are  not  nouns  of  number  in  dates,  or  when  used  as  ordinals. 

141.  Multiplicatives.  Once  =  une  foiSi  tvnce  =  deux  fois, 
three  times  =  trois  fois,  etc.: 

Dix  fois  dix  font  cent.  Ten  times  ten  make  a  hundred. 

142.  Ordinal  Nimierals.  They  are  formed  from  'third' 
upwards  by  adding  -ieme  to  the  corresponding  cardinal, 
final  e  being  dropped ;  cinq  adds  u,  and  neuf  changes  f  to  v 
before  -ieme: 

Ist     premier     [pramje]  7th  septidme  Cs^tjcm] 

-    .  I  second       [sagS]  8th  huitieme  Cqitjem] 

deuzieme  [d0zjem]  9th  neutndme  nnoevjem] 

3rd     troisiSme  [trwazjem]  10th  dizidme  CdizjemJ 

4th     quatridme  [katriem]  11th  onzidme  [Szjem] 

5th     cinqui^me  [sekjem]  21st  vingt  et  unilme  [vetej-njem] 

6th     sixiSme      [sizjem]  22nd  vingt-deuzi^me  [v£td0zjem] 

143.  Fractions.  The  numerator  is  expressed  by  a  cardi- 
nal, the  denominator  by  an  ordinal,  as  in  English.  Half  = 
moitie, /.  (as  noun),  and  demi  (as  adjective);  J  =im  quart, 
f  =  im  tiers  Qjeir],  Before  a  noun,  demi  is  invariable  and 
joined  by  a  hyphen,  but  agrees  elsewhere.  Use  la  moitie  (not 
demi)  where  the  half  of  is,  or  may  be,  used  in  English: 
Un  huitieme;  les  trois  diudmes.  One-eighth;  the  three  tenths. 
La  moitie  de  I'annge.  (The)  half  (of)  the  year. 

Une  heure  et  demie.  An  hour  and  a  half. 

Une  demi-heure.  Half  an  hour. 

Les  trois  quarts  de  cette  somme.       Three-fourths  of  that  sum. 

168  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  143 


le  centime  [satim]  centime  en  etre  k  [aneitr  a]  be  (at  a  point 

la  fagon  [faso]  manner,  way  in  a  book,  etc.) 

la  moitie  [mwatje]  half  se  fficher  [safaSe]  get  angry 

la  monnaie       [mone]       change,  indiquer  [edike]  assign,  point 

money;    moimaie  frangaise,  out 

French    money    (argent    is  nommer  [name]  name 

more  general)  6ter  [ote]  take  off,  remove 

le  nom  [no]  name  il  vaut  [vo]  is  worth   {pres.   of 

un  objet    [obse]    object,    article,  valoir) 

thing  venillez  [vceje]  please  (impera- 

la  page  [pais]  page  live  of  vouloir) 

le  par-dessus  [pardasy]  overcoat  ^  j^^^j^  ^^^  [aoitvwa]  aloud 
le  quart  [kairj  fourth 

le  sou  [su]  cent,  penny,  sou  autant  (de)  [ota]  as  many,  as 

le  tiers  [tjeir]  third  much 

jusqu'a   [syska]  until,  as  far 

demi  [dami]  half  ^^  ^p  ^ 

completer    [kSplete]   fill   out,  par  [par]  by 

finish  sur  [syr]  out  of 

A.  (1)  Lisez  d,  haute  voix  en  frangais:  40,  41,  50,  51,  55, 
60,  61,  66,  69,  70,  71,  75,  79,  80,  81,  88,  90,  91,  92,  93,  95,  99, 
100,  101,  140,  175,  190,  200,  201,  250,  281,  500,  1000,  1001, 
25,000  hommes,  1,000,000  de  francs. 

(2)  CompUtez:  2  fois  1  font ;  2  fois  2  font  - — ;  2  fois  3 

font .     Continuez  jusqu'd  2  fois  25. 

(3)  Parlez-vous  frangais  le  ^  du  temps,  ou  la  ^  du  temps,  ou 
les  f  du  temps,  ou  les  f  du  temps  ou  tout  le  temps  en  classe? 
Quelle  partie  du  temps  le  professeur  parle-t-ilf    Parle-t-il  tropf 

(4)  On  indique  la  valeur  des  ohjets  par  francs,  par  sous  et  par 
centimes.  II  y  a  20  sous  dans  un  franc.  Un  sou  vavt  un  cent 
amiricain.    Cinq  centimes  font  un  sou. 

1.  Combien  de  centimes  y  a-t-il  dans  un  franc?  2.  Combien 
de  sous  un  dollar  am^ricain  vaut-il?  3.  Quelle  partie  d'un 
franc  un  sou  est-il?  4.  Quelle  partie  d'un  franc  un  centime 
est-il?  5.  Quelle  partie  d'un  dollar  am^ricain  un  franc  est-il? 
6.  Quelle  est  la  valeur  en  monnaie  am^ricaine  de  cinq  francs? 

S  143  '  LESSON  xxxv  160 

7.  De  dix  francs?  8.  De  cent  francs?  9.  De  cinq  centimes? 
10.  De  vingt-cinq  centimes?  11.  De  cinquante  centimes? 
12.  De  soixante-quinze  centimes? 

Note,  —  If  the  teacher  can  secure  some  French  coins  and  bank  notes 
or  facsimiles  of  them,  it  will  be  helpful  at  this  point.  The  teacher  may 
also  exhibit  a  number  of  articles  with  the  prices  marked  in  francs  and 
centimes.  This  will  stimulate  interest  in  converting  the  sums  into 
dollars  and  cents. 

Much  drill  is  needed  for  teaching  the  numerals  thoroughly,  more 
than  can  be  provided  in  Exercises  in  the  text.  In  addition  to  seizing 
every  occasion  to  make  the  students  count,  have  them  tell  the  page  of 
each  lesson,  answer  questions  involving  dates,  and  tell  the  prices  in 
French  money  of  real  and  imaginary  articles  and  meals.  The  teacher 
will  find  it  profitable  to  cut  up  several  pages  of  a  calendar  that  has  the 
numerals  printed  in  large  type  and  to  paste  the  numbers  in  order  on 
sheets  of  paper.  These  may  be  manipulated  before  the  class  like  flash- 
cards  so  as  to  show  any  desired  combination,  and  are  very  useful  in 
rapid  daily  practice. 

B.  (1)  Study  (a),  the  future  and  conditional  forms  of  voir 
(§224);  and  (6),  the  present  indicative  and  subjunctive,  the  tm- 
perfect  indicative,  and  the  imperative.  Refer  each  of  these  forms  to 
the  "  principal  parts  "  according  to  the  grouping  in  §  159,  1,  2,  3,  4. 

(2)  Study  the  present,  imperfect,  and  future  of  mettre  (§  198). 
Tabidate  according  to  §  159. 

C.  (1)  Dites  en  franqais:  1.  You  must  get  a  ticket  before 
taking  the  train.  2.  We  got  enough  bread  for  two  days. 
3.  This  fellow  gets  angry  too  easily.  4.  Please  go  and  get 
my  hat.      5.  His  horse  got  frightened, 

(2)  iScrivez  en  franqais:  1.  If  the  cows  were  in  our  neigh- 
bor's wheat  field,  the  dogs  would  see  them.  2.  If  they  were 
to  see  the  cows,  they  would  go  and  bring  them  back.  3.  Please 
go  [and]  get  the  animals  (bfete)  when  you  see  them  in  your 
neighbor's  yard.  4.  If  no  one  went  and  got  them,  they  would 
eat  [up]  the  grass  in  our  neighbor's  yard,  5.  If  he  saw  them, 
he  would  get  angry.  6.  He  will  get  angry  when  he  sees  them 
in  his  field.  7.  If  our  neighbors  were  to  see  these  goats  in  their 
fields,  there  would  be  no  use  (avoir  beau  in  1st  pi.:  which  tense  f) 

170  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  143 

in  our  trying  to  run  them  out,  for  (car)  our  neighbors  would  go 
and  get  them  first  (les  premiers). 

(3)  1.  No  one  puts  on  his  hat  in  the  house.  2.  I  shall  put 
on  my  hat  before  (avant  de)  going  out  (see  §  99,  5).  3.  When 
it  is  cold,  you  (indef.)  put  on  your  (which  possessive  adj.?) 
overcoat  before  going  out  and  take  it  off  before  coming  in. 
4.  Half  the  time  he  would  put  on  his  overcoat  in  the  house, 
because  his  mother  had  told  him  to  do  it  (le),  but  once  outside 
he  would  take  it  ofif.     5.  Nine  times  out  of  ten  he  would  get  angry. 

D.  RSpondez  en  frangais:  (1)  a.  1.  Combien  de  jours  y 
a-t-il  dans  une  semaine?  2.  Combien  de  semaines  dans  un 
mois?  3.  Combien  de  jours  y  a-t-il  dans  les  mois  de  sep- 
tembre  [septdibr],  avril  [avril],  juin  [sqe],  novembre  [novaibrj? 
4.  Combien  de  jours  dans  les  mois  de  Janvier  [savje],  mars 
[mars],  mai  [me],  juillet  [sqije],  aoM  [u],  octobre  [oktobr], 
d^cembre  [desaibr]?  5.  Quels  sont  les  mois  qui  ont  trente  et 
un  jours?  6.  Nommez  ceux  qui  ont  trente  jours.  7.  Combien 
de  jours  le  mois  de  fevrier  [fevrie]  a-t-il?  8.  Combien  de 
jours  y  a-t-il  dans  une  ann6e? 

6.  1.  Combien  d'eleves  ^tes-vous  dans  cette  classe?  2.  Comp- 
tez:  un  €ihve,  deux  Olives,  etc.  3.  Comptez  les  places  dans 
la  salle  de  classe:  une  place,  deux  places,  etc.  4.  Y  a-t-il 
assez  de  places  pour  les  Aleves?  5.  Y  a-t-il  autant  d'eleves 
qu'il  y  a  de  places?  6.  Y  a-t-il  autant  de  places  qu'il  y  a 
d'616ves?  7.  Y  a-t-il  plus  de  places  ou  moins  de  places  que 

c.  i.  Combien  de  pages  votre  livre  de  frangais  a-t-il?  2.  A 
quelle  page  est-ce  que  nous  en  sommes?  3.  A  quelle  page 
en  6tions-nous  hier?  4.  Avant-hier?  5.  Lundi  dernier? 
6.  A  quelle  page  en  serons-nous  demain?  7.  A  quelle  page 
en  sommes-nous  rest6s  hier?  8.  A  quelle  page  en  6tes-vous 
rest6  avant-hier? 

(2)  1.  Quel  est  le  premier  jour  de  la  semaine?  2-7.  Quel 
est  le  deuxieme  jour  de  la  semaine,  etc.  8.  Quel  est  le  premier 
mois  de  l'ann<§e?  9-19,  Quel  est  le  deuxieme  mois  de  Tannic? 
etc.      20.  Quelle  legon  6tudions-nous  aujourd'hui?      21.  Quelle 

I  144  LESSON  XXXVI  171 

le^on  aurons-nous  pour  demain?  22.  A  quelle  le^on  en  ^tions- 
nous  hier?  23.  A  quelle  page  nous  sommes-nous  arrSt^  hier? 
24.  A  quelle  page  en  sommes-nous  restfe  avant-hier? 

E.  Dict6e:  Lesson  XXXIU,  A,  1^-22. 

F.  Lisez  d  haute  voix  {compare  Lessons  V,  VII) :  un  billet,  un 
&ne,  une  banque,  un;  deux  d^put^s,  deux  Edifices,  deux;  trois 
monuments,  trois  ob^lisques,  trois;  quatre  statues,  quatre 
arcs  de  triomphe,  quatre;  cinq  rois,  cinq  avenues,  cinq;  six 
lois,  six  ^gUses,  six;  sept  promenades,  sept  objets,  sept;  huit 
personnages,  huit  endroits,  huit;  neuf  ponts,  neuf  ans,  neuf; 
dix  repas,  dix  avenues,  dix. 

a.  Which  of  these  numerals  have  two  pronunciations?  Make 
examples  illustrative  of  each,  using  other  nouns  than  those 
above.       See  §  138,  N(^es  on  Pronunciation. 

b.  Which  of  these  numerals  have  three  pronunciations?  Illus- 
trate as  in  a. 


144.  Dates,  Titles,  etc.  1.  The  form  mil  is  used  in 
dates  of  the  Christian  era,  from  1001  to  1999 ;  from  1100 
onward,  dates  are  often  expressed  by  hundreds,  as  so  fre- 
quently in  English: 

(En)  Tan  mil  six.  (In)  the  year  1006. 

En  mU  neuf  cent  vingt  In     nineteen     hundred     and 

En  dix-neuf  cent  vingt  et  nn.  In  192L 

2.  Dajrs  of  the  month  and  numerical  titles  of  rulers  are 
indicated  by  cardinals,  except  first  =  premier: 

Le  premier  mai.   Charles  premier.     The  first  of  May.     Charles  I. 
Paris,  le  deux  maL  Paris,  on  the  2nd  of  May. 

Louis  quatorze  (XIV).  Louis  XIV. 

Observe:  —  The  F.ngli«^h  word  the  in  titles  is  not  translated  in 

172  A   FRENCH   GRAMMAR  §144 

3.  Observe  the  following  date  idioms: 

Quel  jour  du  mois  est-ce  aujour-  What  day  of  the  month  is  this? 

Quel  jour  du  mois  sommes-nous         "       "       "  "  " 

Quel  quantieme  [katjem]  du  mois         "       *'        "  "  " 

est-ce  aujourd'hui? 

C'est  aujourd'hui  le  quinze.  To-day  is  the  fifteenth. 

Ce  sera  domain  le  seize.  To-morrow  will  be  the  sixteenth. 

Le  six  Janvier.  On  the  sixth  of  January. 

Ds  sont  arrives  Itmdi.  They  came  on  Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui  en  hmt.  A  week  from  to-day  {future). 

II  y  a  quinze  jours.  A  fortnight  ago. 

Observe:  —  The  English  words  on  and  of  in  dates  are  not  trans- 
lated.   Before  days  of  the  week  on  is  likewise  omitted. 

4.  The  names  of  the  seasons  are:  I'ete,  summer,  Tau- 
tomne,  autumn,  I'hiver,  winter,  le  printemps,  spring.  The 
names  of  the  months  may  be  conveniently  learned  from  the 
following  rhyme;  they  are  all  masculine: 

Trente  jours  ont  septembre, 
Avril,  juin,  novembre; 
Trente  et  un  ont  mars  et  maiy 
Ao&t,  octobre,  puis  juillet, 
Et  decembre  et  Janvier; 
De  vingt-huit  est  fevrier. 

5.  Observe  the  following  idioms  referring  to  age: 
Quel  kge  avez-vous?  How  old  are  you? 

J'ai  vingt  ans.  I  am  twenty  (years  old). 

Une  fillette  (Sgee)  de  six  ans.  A  girl  six  years  old  {or  of  age). 

A  l'4ge  de  vingt-cinq  ans.  At  the  age  of  twenty-five  (years). 


le  cadeau  [kado]  present  le  foyer  [fwaje]  hearth 

la  date  [dat]  date  une  importance  [eporta:s]  impor- 

une  encyclopedie  [Qsiklopedi]  en-  tance 

cyclopedia  la  naissance  [nesais]  birth 

la  fete  [fsst]  festival,  holiday  le  Noel  [noel]  Christmas 




EXERCISE  XXXVI  (Continued) 

une  origine  [on  sin]  origin 
laplupart   (de)    [plypair]   ma- 
jority, most 
la  prise  [priiz]  capture 
la  prison  Qprizo]  prison 
le  rSgne  [rrji]  reign 
ie  souvenir  Qsuvniir]  memory 

catholique  [katolik]  Catholic 
historique  [istorik]  historical 
national  [nasjanal]  national 
protestant  [protestd]  Protes- 
religieux  [r3li3J0l  religious 

croire  [krwair]  believe,  think 
durer  [dyre]  last 

faire  froid  [fe:r  frwo]  be,  get 

cold  (o/  weather) 
regner  [repe]  reign 
revenir  [ravniir]  come  back 

couramment  Pcuramd]  flu- 
ently, generally 

environ  [dviri]  about 

non  (dus  [Q^pIyD  either, 

davantage  [davfita'.s]  more 

k  cause  de  [akoiz  da]  on  ac- 
count of 
jusqu'i  [syska]  until,  up  to, 

as  far  as 
parmi  Cparmi]  among 

A.  (1)  1.  Dans  tous  les  pays  il  y  a  des  jours  de  f^te  oii  on  ne 
travaille  pas.  2.  Quelques-uns  de  ces  jours  de  f4te  ont  une 
origine  religieuse,  comme  les  dimanches  et  le  jour  de  Noel, 
le  25  d^cembre.  3.  D'autres  ont  une  origine  historique, 
comme  le  14  juillet.  4.  La  plupart  des  fStes  ont  une  origine 
religieuse,  surtout  dans  les  pays  catholiques,  comme  la  France. 
5.  Combien  de  dimanches  y.  a-t-il  dans  une  ann^?  —  II  y  en 

a (?),      6.  On  appelle  le  premier  jour  de  I'annde  le  •  jour 

de  I'an  ».  7.  Ce  jour-1^  on  fait  des  visites,  on  envoie  des 
cartes  et  des  lettres  h  ses  amis.  8.  La  fdte  du  jour  de  Tan  a 
plus  d'importance  en  France  que  chez  nous. 

(2)  1.  Le  14  juillet  on  c^l^bre  la  fete  nationale  frangaise  en 
souvenir  de  la  prise  de  la  Bastille,  le  14  juillet,  1789.  2.  La 
Bastille  6tait  une  prison  oh  le  roi  mettait  les  indi\'idus  dont  il 
avait  peur.  3.  Ce  jour-U  la  Revolution  frangaise  a  com- 
mence. 4.  Elle  a  dur^  dix  ans  environ,  jusqu'^  Napoleon. 
5.  Quelle  est  la  date  de  la  fete  nationale  americaine?  6.  Quand 
est-ce  qu'on  I'a  ceiebr^e  la  premiere  fois? 

(3)  1.  Le  25  d^cembre  nous  c^l^brons  le  jour  de  Noel,  en  souve- 
nir de  la  naissance  de  J6sus-Christ  [sezykri].  2.  On  c^l^bre 
ce  jour-l^  dans  les  pays  protestants  aussi  bien  que  dans  les  pays 

174  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  144 

catholiques.  3.  Le  soir  du  24  d^cembre,  avant  de  se  coucher, 
les  petits  FranQais  laissent  leurs  souliers  autour  du  foyer,  et  le 
petit  Noel  (ou  le  petit  J^sus  [sezy])  vient  y  mettre  des  cadeaux 
pendant  la  nuit.  4.  Dans  trois  semaines  nous  allons  c416brer 
la  fete  de  Noel. 

B.  (1)  1.  Parmi  les  rois  de  France  les  plus  c^l^bres  se 
trouvent  Charlemagne,  Saint  Louis  (Louis  IX),  Fran9ois  I*'", 
Henri  IV,  Louis  XIV  et  Louis  XVI,  sous  lequel  la  Revolu- 
tion a  commence.  2.  Trouvez  dans  une  encyclop4die  ou  un 
livre  d'histoire,  les  dates  de  leurs  rhgnes  et  lisez-les  d  haute  voix 
dans  la  dasse.  Par  exemple,  Frangois  I^  a  rSgne  de  1516  d, 
1547.  3.  Trouvez  les  dates  de  trois  presidents  de  la  R^puhlique 
frangaise  et  lisez-les  devant  la  classe.  ( 

(2)  a.  Study  the  present,  imperfect,  and  future  indicative,  the 
present  subjunctive,  the  conditional  and  compound  forms  of  aller 
(§160);  of  venir  (§  178).  Tenir  is  conjugated  like  venir  except 
that  it  takes  a  different  auxiliary  in  the  compound  tenses. 

b.  TabuIcUe  the  forms  of  these  verbs  under  the  principal  parts 
(§  159). 

C.  (l)  Studiez  la  ^{section  [szkspli)  lOQ.  ^crivez  en  frangais: 
1.  Will  winter  come  soon?  I  do  not  want  it  to  come  this 
month.  2.  I  am  glad  that  it  is  not  cold  yet,  but  I  am  afraid 
that  winter  will  come  soon.  3.  Last  year  it  got  very  cold  in 
November.  4.  Old  people  (Les  vieux)  do  not  like  the  cold, 
and  I  do  not  like  it  either,  although  I  am  young.  5.  I  want 
my  family  to  go  south  (dans  le  sud)  before  winter  comes,  be- 
cause when  January  and  February  and  March  come  there  will 
be  much  snow  and  ice.  6.  It  will  be  necessary  for  us  to  wear 
our  gloves  and  overcoats  when  we  go  out,  in  order  not  to  be 
cold  (in  order  that  we,  etc.).  7.  When  spring  and  summer 
come,  I  shall  prefer  that  we  come  back  (subjunct.)  (to  the) 
north  before  it  gets  too  warm.  8.  We  went  south  last  year 
in  December  and  we  came  back  in  April.  9.  My  mother  wants 
the  family  to  go  to  Canada  for  May,  June,  July,  August,  and 
September.  10.  I  think  (Je  crois)  that  we  shall  have  to  come 
back  before  the  middle  of  September,  on  account  of  the  cold. 

$  144  LESSON  XXXVI  175 

(2)  a.  1.  He  is  coming  to-morrow.  2.  He  used  to  come 
every  day.  3.  They  will  come  on  Friday.  4.  Our  sisters 
came  back  on  June  1st.  5.  They  would  come  back  at  once 
if  you  asked  them  to  do  it  (le). 

b.  1.  We  shall  go  to  the  country  on  June  2nd.  2.  We  used 
to  go  (y)  on  June  15.  3.  We  should  go  to  France  in  July  if 
we  had  3500  francs.  4.  Did  those  ladies  go  to  England  in 
July  or  in  August? 

c.  1.  How  old  is  he?  He  is  ten.  2.  What  is  his  name? 
His  name  is  Pierre.  3.  He  has  a  sister  15  years  old.  4.  He 
wants  to  go  to  Europe  when  he  is  sixteen  and  stay  two  years. 

5.  He  thinks  that  in  (au  bout  de)  two  years  he  will  be  able  to 
speak  French  fluently. 

D.   (1)   Void  le  participe  pr^erU  du  verbe  lire:  lisant. 

Complitez  par  la  forme  convenable  (proper)  de  lire:    1,  Je^— 

(present)  un  roman  de  Dumas.      2.  Nous  ne (present)  pas 

beaucoup  de  romans  frangais.      3.  II  faut  que  vous (pres- 

ent)  I'histoire  de  France  avant  de  visiter  ce  pays.      4.  Quoique 

cet  enfant  ne (present)  pas  trop  facilement  le  frangais,  il 

aime  les  MisSrabks  de  Victor  Hugo.  5.  Si  tons  les  voyageurs 
(imperfect)   plus  d'histoire,  ils  s'amuseraient  davantage. 

6.  Quand  nous  aurons  le  temps,  nous (future)  des  ro- 
mans de  Balzac.     7.  J'ai  d6j^ (past  participle)  son  Euginie 


(2)  Ripondez  aux  questions:  1.  Quel  dge  avez-vous? 
2.  Quel  dge  aurez-vous  dans  cinq  ans?  3.  Quelle  est  la  date 
de  I'anniversaire  de  votre  naissance?  4.  Quel  jour  du  mois 
sommes-nous  aujourd'hui?  5.  Quel  jour  du  mois  serons-nous 
d'aujourd'hui  en  huit?  6.  D'aujourd'hui  en  quinze?  7.  Quel 
jour  du  mois  6tions-nous  il  y  a  huit  jours?  8.  II  y  a  trois 
jours?  9.  Quel  dge  a\'iez-vou3  il  y  a  trois  ans?  10.  II  y  a 
cinq  ans?  11.  Quel  jour  de  la  semaine  Noel  tombe-t-il  cette 
ann^?  12.  Et  le  14  juillet  quel  jour  de  la  semaine  tombe-t-il? 
13.  Quels  sont  les  mois  qui  n'ont  que  trente  jours?  14.  Le  mois 
de  f6\Tier  combien  de  jours  a-t-il?  15.  R^p^tez-moi  les  noms  des 
six  premiers  mois  de  I'ann^.      16.  Dans  quel  mois  etes-vous  n6? 

176  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  145 


145.  The  Time  of  Day.  The  hours  and  fractions  of 
hours  are  indicated  as  follows: 

Quelle  heure  est-il?  What  time  (o'clock)  is  it? 

II  est  deux  heures.  It  is  two  o'clock, 

Trois  heures  et  demie.  Half-past  three. 

Trois  heures  (et)  un  quart.  A  quarter  past  three. 
Quatre  heures  moins  un  (le)  quart.   A  quarter  to  four. 

Trois  heures  dix  (mmutes).  Ten  minutes  past  three. 
Quatre  heures  moins  cinq  (minutes).  Five  minutes  to  four. 

Trois  heures  cinquante-cinq.  Three  fifty-five. 

-II  est  midi  et  demi.  It  is  half-past  twelve  (noon). 

11  est  minuit.  It  is  twelve  o'clock  (midnight). 

A  sept  heures  du  soir.  At  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening. 

A  quelle  heure?  At  what  time? 

A  trois  heures  precises.  At  three  o'clock  precisely. 

Vers  (les)  trois  heures.  About  three  o'clock. 

It  will  be  noted  that: 

1.  liie  time  of  day  is  expressed  by  etre  combined  with 
the  impersonal  subject  il. 

2.  Contrary  to  English  usage,  in  French  the  hour  is 
given  first  and  then  the  minutes  are  added  or  subtracted. 
The  word  heure  (s)  is  always  mentioned,  but  the  word 
minute (s)  is  frequently  omitted. 

3.  Le  midi  [midi]  means  noon,  midday;  le  minuit  [minqi] 
means  midnight. 

4.  Demi  when  preceding  a  noun,  is  regar(fed  as  part  of 
the  noun  and  is  joined  to  it  by  means  of  a. hyphen  and 
does  not  agree  with  it  in  gender;  as  an  adjective,  following 
the  noun,  demi(e)  observes  the  usual  rules  of  agreement; 
e.g.  une  demi-heure,  a  half-hour,  but  une  heure  et  demie, 
half  paM  one  or,  one  and  a  half  hours. 

5.  In  the  French  time  tables  and  in  the  usage  of  some 


LESSON  xxxvn 


Frenchmen,  time  is  counted  from  1  to  24  hours;  e.g. 
heures  (du  soir)  =  vingt-deux  heures. 

N.B.  —  Distinguish  carefully  between  telling  the  time  of  day  (11  +  itre) 
and  describing  the  condition  of  weather,  temperature  and  naturai  phenomena 
(U  +  f  Aire).  198. 

EXERCISE  xxxvn 

UD  avis  [denavi]  opinion,  mind 
un  employe    Cdenaplwaje^    clerk, 

lelendemain  QadmS]  next  day, 

la  m6fiance  [mefjdts^  distrust 
la  part    [pa:r]    portion,    share; 

pour  ma  part  for  my  part; 

de  ma  part,  from  me 
la  partie  [parti]  part,  game 
la  poste  [post]  poet  office 
le  repos  Parpo]  rest 
le  veston  [vests]  (sack)  coat 

fou  [fu],  (/.  foUe)  mad,  craiy 
precis  [preei]  exact,  precise 

agir  [asirr]  act,  have  an  effect 
avancer  [avose]  be  fast,  ad- 
changer  [Sose]  change 
discuter  [diskyte]  argue,  dis- 
se  fier  k  [ssf  jea]  trust,  have  faith  in 
se  mefier  de  [samefjeda]  distrust, 
beware  of 

oublier  [ubiie]  forget 

plaisanter  [pkzdte]  joke 

raconter  [rakSte]  relate,  re- 

rec<Hnmencer  [rakamdse]  be- 
gin again,  do  again 

remonter  [ramSte]  wind  (0/  a 
watch  or  dock) 

retarder  [ratarde]  be  behind, 
be  late,  delay 

tromper  [trSpe]  deceive,  fool 

varier  [varje]  vary 

d'aillears  [dajoe;r]  besides,  fur- 

d'autant  [dotfi]  so  much  more, 
all  the  more 

(•  va  it's  all  right,  it  will  do, 

that  works 
nc  —  jamais  [na  same]  never 

pourtant  [purta]  however 

tiens!  [tJO  Is  that  so!  Indeed! 
{imperative  of  tenir,  hold) 

A.  (1)  1.  Avez-vous  une  montre,  Louise?  —  Oui,  made- 
moiselle, j'en  ai  une.  2.  C'est  un  cadeau  de  men  p^re.  II  me 
I'a  donn^  pour  men  anniversaire.  3.  —  Est-elle  en  or  ou  en 
argent?  —  En  or,  mais  elle  marche  mal.  A  present  elle  retarde 
d'un  {hy)  quart  d'heure.  4.  —  Alors  9a  ne  va  pas.  On  ne  pent 
pas  se  fier  ^  votre  montre.      5.  Et  la  v6trc,  £)douard,  marche- 

178  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  145 

t-elle  mieux  que  celle  de  Louise?  6.  —  Oui,  mademoiselle,  la 
mienne  marche  ties  bien.  Vous  savez  que  les  montres  des 
gargons  marchent  toujours  mieux  que  celles  des  jeunes  fiUes. 
7.  — Tiens!  Comment  expliquez-vous  cela,  Edouard?  —  Mais, 
c'est  facile!  8.  Les  jeunes  filles  changent  si  souvent  d'avis, 
elles  varient  tant  elles-memes,  qu'on  ne  pent  pas  se  fier  a  elles, 
et  cela  agit  sur  leurs  montres.  9.  D'ailleurs  elles  ne  les  re- 
montent  jamais.  Elles  oublient  toujours  de  les  remonter. 
10.  —  Tiens,  Edouard!  Vous  commencez  tr^s  jeune  k  vous 
m^fier  des  femmes.  11.  Vous  avez  entendu  chanter  sans 
doute:  «  Souvent  femme  varie,  Bien,  (very)  fou  qui  s'y  fie  ». 
12.  Pourtant  vous  avez  beau  parler  de  cette  fagon,  vous  ferez 
comme  les  autres.  13.  Vous  payerez  bien  cher  cette  m^fiance. 
On  vous  trompera  d'autant  plus  facilement.  Vous  allez  voir! 
14.  Mais  ne  discutons  pas  cette  question.  Quelle  heure  est-il 
k  votre  montre?  —  II  est  midi  moins  le  quart.  15.  —  Et  k 
la  v6tre,  Pierre?  —  II  est  midi  moins  treize,  mademoiselle. 
16.  —  Alors  vous  avancez  de  deux  minutes?  —  Non,  made- 
moiselle; je  ne  crois  pas.  17.  C'est  que  la  montre  d'fidouard 
retarde  de  deux  minutes.  On  ne  pent  pas  s'y  fier.  18.  —  Ah? 
Alors  vous  n'etes  pas  de  I'avis  d'fidouard  sur  les  jeunes  filles 
et  les  gargons  et  leurs  montres?  19.  Mais  je  crois  qu'il  plai- 
santait.  Pourtant  nous  He  pouvons  pas  passer  I'heure  k  discuter 
sur  les  femmes  et  leurs  montres.  20.  Nous  ne  serions  jamais 
d'accord.     Nous  n'arriverions  jamais  k  rien. 

(2)  1.  Racontez-moi  votre  journ^e,  Pierre.  —  Les  jours  de 
classe  je  me  l^ve  a  sept  heures  moins  vingt.  2.  II  me  faut 
vingt-cinq  minutes  pour  faire  ma  toilette,  et  a  sept  heures  cinq 
je  suis  pret  k  travailler  une  demi-heure  avant  le  dejeuner. 
3.  Le  dejeuner  est  prdt  k  huit  heures  moins  vingt-cinq  et  k 
huit  heures  dix  je  pars  pour  I'^cole.  4.  J'arrive  a  I'^cole  k 
huit  heures  vingt-cinq.  La  premiere  classe  commence  a  huit 
heures  et  demie  et  dure  quarante-cinq  minutes.  5.  La 
deuxi^me  classe  commence  k  neuf  heures  et  quart,  .  .  .  etc.  (Con- 
tinuez).  6.  A  midi  nous  avons  un  peu  de  repos.  Nous  pre- 
nons  notre  dejeuner  et  k  une  heure  les  classes  recommencent. 
7.  J'arrive  chez  moi  k  quatre  heures  de  I'apres-midi,  nous  dinons 
k  six  heures  et  demie,  et  apr^s  le  diner  je  travaille  ou  je  m' amuse 

§  145  LESSON  xxxvn  179 

k  lire  jusqu'i  dix  heures.  8.  Alors  je  me  couche  et  je  dors 
jusqu'au  lendemain  matin.  9.  —  Tr6s  bien,  Pierre.  Voua 
6te8  un  jeune  homme  sage.  10.  Je  comprends  pourquoi  votre 
montre  marche  mieux  que  celle  de  Louise,  —  et  m^me  que  celle 

B.  (1)  StibstitiUe   pronouns  for  the  italicized  object  nouns: 

I.  Voici  une  lettre.  2.  J'ai  6crit  la  leUre  hier  soir.  3.  J'ai 
demand^  k  mon  fr^re  de  mettre  la  lettre  k  la  poste,  mais  il  a 
mis  la  lettre  dans  sa  poche.  4.  II  a  mis  la  Idtre  dans  sa  poche 
11  y  a  cinq  jours.  5.  II  y  a  trouv^  la  lettre  ce  matin  quand  il 
changeait  de  veston.  6.  II  n'avait  pas  ouvert  la  lettre.  7.  En- 
fin  il  a  donn6  la  lettre  au  facteur  le  4  juillet.  8.  Donnez 
la  lettre  au  facteur.  9.  Ne  mettez  pas  la  lettre  k  la  poete. 
10.  Prenez   vos   billets    avant   de   monter   dans   une   voiture. 

II.  II  faut  donner  les  billets  k  Vemployi  avant  de  sortir  de  la 
gare  de  destination. 

(2)  Study  the  present  iruiicative  and  subjunctive,  the  imperfect, 
future,  and  conditional  forms,  and  the  compound  forms  of  dire 
(§  193)  and  of  prendre  (§  202). 
Group  these  forms  according  to  §  159. 

C.  (1)  Traduisez  en  frangais:  1.  People  say  so  (le).  2.  Some 
one  said  so.  3.  No  one  will  say  so.  4.  Your  father  doesn't 
want  him  to  say  so.  5.  Tell  me  at  once.  6.  I  regret  that 
he  told  (perf.  subj.;  see  §  155)  you  that.  7.  You  never 
say  anything  (rien).  8.  What  would  you  say  if  I  told  him 
what  you  said  yesterday?      9.  She  takes  sugar  in  her  coffee. 

10.  They  take  the  8:28  train  (le  train  de . . .)  every  morning. 

11.  Your  father  must  get  (prendre)  the  tickets  before  taking 
the  train.  12.  The  apples  we  took  were  yours,  weren't  they? 
13.  Somebody  has  just  taken  all  my  apples.  14.  It  is  5:45 
exactly;  I  shall  put  on  my  overcoat  at  once  and  take  the  street 
car  at  the  corner.  15.  If  you  took  the  car  at  6:15  exactly,  you 
would  get  (etre)  to  my  house  before  a  quarter  to  seven.  16.  Tell 
him  to  take  the  7:36  train.      17.  Don't  let's  take  it. 

(2)  For  les  jours  de  classe  in  A,  (2),  1  substitute  hier  and  re- 
vrite  to  the  end  of  the  eighth  sentence,  making  the  necessary  changes 
in  the  tense  form. 




(3)  Substitute  demain  for  les  jours  de  classe,  and  rewrite  as 
indicated  in  (2). 

D.  (1)  The  teacher  dictates  the  English  of  the  examples  in 
§  145  and  the  class  gives  the  French,  orally  or  in  writing. 

(2)  a.  Note  the  idiomatic  expressions:  1.  Cette  dame  a 
change  de  robe.  2.  Vous  pouvez  vous  fier  k  cette  jeune  fille, 
car  elle  ne  ressemble  pas  aux  autres.  3.  Si  vous  vous  mefiez 
trop  des  hommes,  ils  vous  tromperont  d'autant  plus  sou  vent. 
4.  II  passe  son  temps  k  penser  aux  {compare  Lesson  XX,  A,  (3), 
11,  12,  13  and  (7)  of  Vocabulary  Review  No.  5)  parties  de  base- 
ball. 5.  Elle  ne  pense  jamais  k  remonter  sa  montre.  6.  Get 
enfant  ne  pense  k  rien  d'utile.    . 

b.  Write  sentences  in  French  after  the  model  of  those  in  (2)  a. 

E.  Dict^e:  Lesson  XXXIV,  A. 

146.       Past  Definite  of  donner,  finir, 

I  gave,  etc.  I  finished,  etc. 

donn  ai       [done] 
donn  as       [dona] 
donn  a        [dona] 
donn  ames  [donam] 
donn  ates    [donat] 
donn  ^ent  [doneir] 

fin  is       [fini] 
fin  is       [fini] 
fin  it       [fini] 
fin  imes  [finim] 
fin  lies    [finit] 
fin  irent  [finiir] 


I  sold,  etc. 
vend  IS      [vadi] 
vend  is       [vadi] 
vend  it       [vadi] 
vend  imes  [vadim] 
vend  ites    [vadit] 
vend  irent  [vadi:r] 

147.  Past  Definite  of  avoir,  etre 

I  had,  etc.  I  was,  etc. 

eus  [y]  eflmes  [ym]  fus  [fy]  fiimes  [fym] 

eus  [y]  elites    [yt]  fus  [fy]  ffites    [fyt] 

eut  [y]  eurent  [y:r]  fut  [fy]  furent  [fy:r] 

a.  All  verbs  have  the  same  endings  (-mes,  -tes,  -rent)  in  the  plural, 
and  aU  take  a  circumflex  over  the  vowel  of  the  first  and  second  plural. 

b.  In  the  donner  group,  the  letter  a  appears  in  the  endings  of  all 
forms  except  the  3d  plural.  Note  the  pronunciation  of  fi  in  -tmes  and 

c.  The  past  definite  endings  of  the  finir  and  vendre  groups  are  alike. 

d.  Observe  the  pronimciation  of  the  past  definite  of  avoir. 

SS  148-149 

LESSON  xxxvm 


148.  Use  of  the  Past  Definite.  The  past  definite  is  used 
in  the  Uterary  narrative  style  to  denote  what  happened 
(completed  past  action),  or  what  happened  next  (successive 
events).  It  never  denotes,  like  the  imperfect  (§  87),  what  was 
happening  or  used  to  happen,  or  continued  to  happen: 

Les  Romains  brMSrent  Carthage.     The  Romans  burnt  Carthage. 

Dieu  accepta  les  presents  d'Abel, 
qui  &ait  plus  pieux  que  son  frdre; 
mais  11  detouma  les  yeux  de  ceux 
de  Cain  [ka^l  parce  que  son  coeur 
li'itait  pas  pur. . .  Un  jour  Cain 
et  Abel  &ment  seuls  dans  un 
champ,  et  Cain  se  jeta  sur  Abel, 
et  le  tua. 

God  accepted  the  gifts  of  Abel, 
who  was  more  righteous  than  his 
brother;  but  he  turned  away  his 
eyes  from  those  of  Cain,  because 
his  heart  was  not  pure. . . .  One 
day  Cain  and  Abel  were  alone  in  a 
field,  and  Cain  fell  upon  Abel,  and 
slew  him. 

148.  Past  Definite  of  Jmre  (irr^.) 

/  did,  etc. 
je  fis  Csafin  nous  fimes  [nufim^ 

tu  fis  [tyfi]  vous  fites    [vufit] 

U  fit  [ilfi]  ils  firent  Cilfi:r3 

EXERCISE  xxxvm 

un  accuefl    [ftnakcEij]    welcome, 

un  automne  [oton]]  autumn 

le  chant  [Sa]  song 

la  compagne  QcSpaji]  wife,  mate 

la  confiance  Pc5fja:s]  confidence 

le  dieu  [(lj0]  god 
un  evenement  [cenevcnmQ]  event 

lafaute  [fo:t]  mistake,  fault 

la  miette  Co^jct^  crumb 

le  nid  Cni3  nest 

la  pitil  [pitje]  pity 

le  printemps  [prgta],  spring 

le  rouge-gorge    [rursgors]     red- 

la  saison  [sezS]  season 

gentil  [sfiti]  nice,  pretty 
joyeuz  C5waj03  merr>',  cheerful 

avoir  piti£  de  [avwairpitjeda] 
have  pity  on 

corriger  [korise]  correct 

employer  [fiplwaje]  use 

savoir  Csavwair]  know  how 
(=  can);  jenesauraiSf  I  can- 

sembler  [saible]  seem,  appear 

tu*  [tqe]  kill 

voler  [vole]  fly 

de  nouveau  [danuvo]  ngaia 
lorsque  Porskal  when 
entre  [a:tr]  between 

182  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  149 

A.  1.  Un  petit  rouge-gorge  frappa  a  notre  fenStre.  II  sem- 
blait  dire:  «  Ayez  piti6  de  moi!  2.  Ouvrez-moi,  je  vous  prie; 
il  neige,  il  fait  du  vent.  3.  J'ai  bien  froid  et  je  ne  puis  rien 
trouver  k  manger  parce  que  la  terre  est  couverte  de  neige.  » 
4.  Nous  etimes  piti6  du  petit  rouge-gorge,  et  nous  ouvrtmes  la 
fenetre.  5.  Le  gentil  petit  oiseau  entra  dans  la  chambre. 
6.  II  vola  mSme  dans  la  salle  a  manger  et  mangea  les  miettes 
qui  6taient  tomb6es  de  la  table.  7.  Bientdt  il  mangea  me  me 
dans  nos  mains  et  il  resta  chez  nous  tout  I'hiver  jusqu'au  prin- 
temps.  8.  Mais  lorsque  la  neige  fut  partie,  le  printemps 
revint,  et  les  arbres  se  couvrirent  de  feuilles.  9.  Nous  ouvrimes 
de  nouveau  la  fenetre,  et  notre  petit  ami  en  sortit  joyeux. 
10.  II  alia  dans  le  bois  voisin  oCi  il  fit  son  nid  et  nous  enten- 
dtmes  souvent  ses  chants  joyeux.  11.  Lorsque  I'^t^  et  I'au- 
tomne  furent  passes,  I'hiver  revint,  et  le  rouge-gorge  revint  aussi, 
cette  fois  avec  sa  petite  compagne.  12.  Les  deux  petits  oiseaux 
ne  semblaient  pas  du  tout  se  m^fier  de  nous.  13.  J'ouvris  la 
fenetre  et  ils  entr^rent  avec  confiance  dans  la  maison,  oii  ils 
passerent  la  froide  saison  sans  essayer  meme  de  nous  quitter 
avant  le  printemps.  14.  Vous  pouvez  6tre  sAr  que  nous  leur 
fimes  bon  accueil. 

B.  (1)  Study  the  present  indicative  and  subjunctive,  the  irfi- 
perfect,  future,  conditional,  and  compound  tense  forms  of  pouvoir 
(§  221);  of  savoir  (§  222).    Group  these  forms  according  to  §  159. 

(2)  a.  Change  to  the  conversational  past  the  literary  past  forms 
in  the  story  of  Cain  and  Abel  (§  148).  Are  the  three  imperfect 
forms  changed?     Explain. 

b.  Similarly,  retell  the  incident  in  the  present. 

(3)  Traduisez:  1.  I*  cannot  trust  you  (i  vous).  2.  They 
can  trust  their  friends.  3.  Why  couldn't  you  trust  your  watch? 
4.  We  shall  come  when  we  can.  5.  He  could  come  to-morrow 
if  he  wished  {insert  le).  6.  The  pupils  must  (II  faut)  be  able  to 
leave  home  (partir  de  chez  eux)  earlier  (compar.  of  t6t).  7.  I 
could  have  left  home  earlier  if  I  had  wished. 

C.  (1)  Traduisez  (use  the  past  definite  where  suitable): 
1.  What  did  Cain  do?      2,  Do  you  not  know  what  Cain  did 

§  149  LESSON  XXXVIII  183 

(inverted  order)?  3.  Did  you  know  that  Cain  killed  his 
brother  (see  §  148,  example  2)?  4.  I  couldn't  {compare  B,  (1)) 
kill  my  brother.  5.  Could  you  kill  yours?  6.  Cain  did  not 
know  that  God  was  looking  at  him.  7.  Do  you  know  that  God 
saw  everything  (§  132,  7,  9)  Cain  did  (use  past  of  conversation)! 
8.  When  he  learned  (past  indef.  of  savoir)  that  I  had  fallen 
ill,  he  came  to  see  me  at  once.  9.  You  must  (devez)  know  that 
I  would  not  distrust  those  persons  if  I  did  not  know  (connattre 
or  savoir?)  them  very  well.  10.  The  pupils  must  (II  faut) 
know  how  to  explain  the  difference  between  "  connattre  "  and 
"  savoir."  11.  If  I  were  to  ask  you  (supply  it,  le),  could  you 
answer  the  question? 

(2)  Rewrite  A,  changing  the  past  narrative  of  literary  style  to 
the  past  narrative  of  conversational  style.  Note  that  fut  partie 
becomes  6tait  partie.     Why  do  not  the  imperfects  change? 

(3)  a.  Some  verbs  have  a  special  meaning  in  the  past  definite, 
differing  from  that  of  the  infinitive: 

avoir  to  have  j'eus  I  have  received 

savoir  to  know  je  sus  I  found  out  (learned) 

dtre  to  be  je  fus  I  became 

h.  Tradidsez:  1.  II  6tait  bien  triste  quand  il  re^ut  (see  §213) 
ma  lettre.     2.  II  fut  bien  triste  quand  il  regut  ma  lettre. 

(4)  Racontez  en  franqais  les  ivhiemenis  de  la  jourr^ie,  en  indi- 
quarU  Vheure  d  laqueUe  voits  votis  Hes  levS,  etc.  [Le^on  XXXVII, 
A,  (2)]. 

(5)  ^crivez  t  L'Histoire  du  rouge-gorge, » le  livrefermS.  Employez 
Us  temps  de  la  conversation.  Servez-vous  des  expressions  et  des 
mots  suivants:  frapper,  sembler  dire,  avoir  piti6,  ouvrir,  il  neige, 
fait  froid,  terre  couverte  de  neige.  Nous  ouvrir,  gentil  petit 
oiseau,  entrer,  manger  miettes,  rester,  tout  I'hiver,  partir  au 
printemps,  b&tir  nid,  chanter,  6t€,  automne  passer,  hiver  revenir, 
rouge-gorge  revenir  avec  compagne,  ne  se  m^fier  pas,  leur  faire 
bon  accueil. 

D.  Dict^:  f  L'Histoire  du  rouge-gorge.  »  Chaque  616ve  cor- 
rige  les  fautes  de  son  devoir  en  se  servant  du  texte,  et  le  donne 
ensuite  au  professeur. 



§§  150-152 


150.  Imperfect  Subjunctive  of  donner,  finir,  vendre 

(That)  I  gave,  might 
give,  etc. 
donn  asse      [donas] 
donn  asses     [donas] 
donn  at  [dona] 

donn  assions  [donas j  5] 
donn  assiez  [donasje] 
donn  assent   [donas] 

(That)  I  finished, 
might  finish,  etc. 
fin  isse      [finis] 
fin  isses     [finis] 
fin  it  [fini] 

fin  issions  [finisjS] 
fin  issiez  [finis je] 
fin  issent  [finis] 

{That)  I  sold,  might 
sell,  etc. 
vend  isse       [vQdis] 
vend  isses     [vadis] 
vend  it  [vadi] 

vend  issions  [vQdisjS] 
vend  issiez  [vadis je] 
vend  issent   [vadis] 

151.         Imperfect  Subjxmctive  of  avoir,  etre 

(That)  I  had,  might  have,  etc. 
eusse  [ys]  eussions  [ysjo] 
eusses  [ys]  eussiez  [ysje] 
e(it       [y]        eussent  [ys] 

(That)  I  was,  were,  might  he,  etc. 
fusse  [fys]  fussions  [fysjo] 
fusses  [fys]  fussiez  [fysje] 
f<it       [fy]        fussent   [fys] 

152.  Tense  Sequence.  In  complex  sentences  any  other 
tense  than  the  present  or  future  (§  107)  in  the  governing 
clause  regularly  requires  the  imperfect  subjunctive  in  the 
governed  clause;  so  also  for  compound  subjunctive  tenses, 
the  auxiUary  in  the  principal  clause  being  considered  as  the 

Impf.  Je  desirais 
P.  Dep.  Je  desired 
P.Ikdef.  J'ai  desire 
CoNDL.  Je  desirerais 
Fluff.  Pavais  desire 

qu'il  restat. 

'  I  was  desiring  him  to  remain. 
I  desired  him  to  remain. 
I  (have)  desired  him  to  remain. 
I  should  desire  him  to  remain. 
I  had  desired  him  to  remain. 

Note.  —  The  imperfect  subjunctive  is  of  very  limited  use  in  the 
language  of  everyday  life,  being  rarely  employed  except  in  the  hterary 
or  elevated  style.  There  is  a  tendency  in  tense  sequence  to  avoid  the 
imperfect  and  the  pluperfect  subjunctive  in  favor  of  the  present  and 
the  perfect  subjunctive;  e.g.  j'allais  rentrer  dans  I'eglise  en  attendant 
qu'il  vienne  {instead  of  vint)  me  chercher. 





le  compatriote  PcSpatriot]  fellow 

la  mort  [moir]  death 
le  petit-fils  [bptifis]  grandflcm 
le  prince  [pre:s]  prince 
la  religion  [larlisjo]  religion 
le  rochet     [roje]    rock     {large), 

le  sang  [sa]  blood 
le  siicle  [sjckl]  century 
lesoldat    [solda],   soldier    (mora 

specific  than  militaire) 

assassine  Casasine]  assassinated 
dvil  [sivil]  civil,  civilian 
entier  [atje]  whole,  entire 
habitue  [abitqe^  accustomed 
montagneuz  [m5tap0]   moun- 

royal  [rwajal]  royal 

accepter  [akscpte]  accept 
s'agir  de  [8a3i:rd3]  be  a  question 

devoir  [davwair]  owe 

§lever  [elve]  bring  up 

grimper  [grSpe]  climb 

lutter  [lyte]  fi^t,  struggle 

mourir  [muri:r]  die 

nourrir  [nuriir]  feed 

ordonner  [ordone]  give  orders 

reconnattre  [rskonettr]  recog- 
nize, acknowledge 

ruiner  [rqine]  ruin 

yivre  [virvr]  live 

d' ordinaire  [d3rdine:r^  usually 

en  soldat  [osolda]  like  a  soldier, 

in  the  r61e  of  a  soldier 

A.  (1)  1.  II  s'a^t  de  l'6ducation  d' Henri  IV  qui  fut  roi  de 
France  au  seizi^me  si^le.  2.  II  fut  6\e\€  non  (not)  en  prince, 
mais  en  soldat.  3.  Son  grand-pdre  ne  voulut  pas  qu'on 
l'6lev&t  comme  on  616ve  d'ordinaire  lea  enfants  de  sang  royal. 

4.  II  ordonna  qu'on  habill&t  et  qu'on  nourrlt  son  petit-fils 
comme  les  autres  enfants  de  son  pays  montagneux  de  Navarre. 

5.  II  voulut  aussi  que  le  jeune  prince  v6c<lt  (vivre,  §211) 
comme  ses  jeunes  compatriotes.  6.  II  voulut  qu'il  courOt, 
jou&t,  lutt&t  avec  eux  comme  s'il  n'^tait  pas  de  sang  royal. 
7.  Et  mime  il  voulut  qu'il  fM  habitu6  k  grimper  aux  arbres 
et  k  courir  sur  les  rochers  pour  se  faire  fort.  8.  II  d6sira 
que  son  petit-fils  n'eM  peur  de  rien. 

(2)  1.  Henri  IV  devint  roi  de  France  en  1589  par  la  mort  de 
son  cousin  Henri  III.  2.  II  fut  le  premier  roi  de  la  famille 
des  Bourbons.  3.  La  ville  de  Paris  ne  voulut  pas  le  recon- 
naltre  roi  parce  qu'il  6tait  protestant.  4.  Voyant  que  la 
France  enti^re  ne  voulait  pas  accepter  un  roi  protestant,  et 
qu'il  s'£kgissait  de  ruiner  son  pays  par  la  guerre  civile,  s'il  con- 

186  A  FRENCH  GRAMMAR  §  152 

servait  sa  religion,  il  se  fit  catholique.       5.  Henri  IV  fut  un 
excellent  roi  jusqu'au  moment  oH  il  mourut  assassine  en  1610. 

B.  (1)  a.  With  what  tense  of  the  indicative  is  the  imperfect 
subjunctive  evidently  to  be  grouped  in  formaiionf  With  what 
tense  of  the  indicative  do  we  group  the  present  subjunctive  in 

b.  Observe  thai  the  endings  of  all  imperfect  subjunctives  are 
spelled  alike:  -sse,  -sses,  -t,  -ssions,  -ssiez,  -ssent;  and  that 
the  stem  vowel  preceding  the  -t  of  the  3d  pers.  sing,  is  always 
spelled  with  a  circumflex  accent. 

c.  Study  the  forms  of  mourir   (§174)  and  of  vivre  (§211). 
Are  there  any  irregularities  in  groups  2  and  4  (§  159)  o/ mourir? 

Does  the  vowel  sound  represented  by  eu  [oe]  occur  in  those  forms 
of  mourir  that  have  the  stress  on  the  stem  or  on  the  ending  ? 

d.  Point  out  the  phonetic  resemblances  in  the  conjugation  of 
appeler,  mener,  venir,  mourir,  vouloir,  pouvoir. 

(2)  Study  devoir  and  vouloir  (§§214,  225)  as  in  the  preceding 
lessons.    Group  all  the  forms  according  to  §  159. 

(3)  a.  Note  the  various  meanings  of  devoir  and  vouloir.  Devoir* 
may  be  translated  in  several  ways: 

Combien  est-ce  que  je  vous  dois?      How  much  do  I  owe  you? 
n  me  doit  3  fr.  50.  He  owes  me  three  francs  fifty  cen- 

Vous  devez  expliquer  clairement      You  are  to  explain  this  sentence 
cette  phrase.  clearly. 

6.  It  is  less  emphatic  than  il  faut. 

Vous  devez  avoir  froid.  You  must  be  cold.     (It  is  likely 

that .  .  .) 
n  devait  raconter  cette  histoire.         He  was  to  tell  that  story. 
Le  facteur  devait  passer  a  3  h.  10.      The  postman  was  to  go  by  at  3:10. 
II  dut  (a  dfi)  changer  de  veston.        He  had  to  change  his  coat. 

*  The  chief  difficiilty  with  devoir  is  due  to  the  fact  that  it  is  a  fully  con- 
jugated verb  in  French,  and  that  the  corresponding  English  verbs  {cmght, 
should,  must)  have  only  a  few  forma.  The  result  is  that  in  English  we 
have  to  make  up  for  the  missing  forms  by  the  use  of  auxiliaries.  The 
same  is  true  of  pouvoir  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  of  vouloir. 




Le  professeur  deyrait  indiquer  la 
le$on  d'avance. 

D  aurait  d&  expliquer  cette  dif- 

Elle  a  dH  changer  d'avis. 

Vous  auriez  dd  vous  mefier. 

Le  facteiir  a  dd  passer  sans  ap- 
porter  de  lettres. 

(4)  Meanings  of  vouloir: 

Je  ne  veuz  pas. 
L'oiseau  veut  entrer. 
Voxilez-vous  manger  ces  miettes 

de  pain? 
Le  rouge-gorge  n'a  pas  voxJu  rester 

plus  longtemps. 
Je  lui  ai  demand^  de  raconter  son 

histoire,  mais  il  n'a  pas  voiilu. 
Je  voudrais  (aimerais)  discuter  la 

question  avec  euz. 
J'aurais  voulu  agir  autrement. 

n  voulait  que  le  prince  se  mefiAt 
des  fenimes. 

The  teacher  ou^t  to  (but  does 
not)  assign  the  lesson  in  ad- 

He  should  have  (ou^t  to  have) 
explained  this  difficulty. 

She  must  have  (probably  has) 
changed  her  mind. 

You  ought  to  have  been  on  your 

The  {xietman  must  have  gone  by 
without  bringing  any  letters. 

I  will  not. 

The  bird  wants  to  come  in. 

Will  you  (Do  you  want  to)  eat 

these  bread  crumbs? 
The  robin  would  not  stay  longer. 

I  asked  him  to  tell  his  story,  but 
he  wouldn't. 

I  should  Uke  to  discuss  the  ques- 
tion with  them. 

I  should  have  liked  to  act  differ- 

He  wanted  the  prince  to  beware 
of  women. 

Note  that  English  *  will,*  '  should,'  '  would,'  have  a  variety  of 
meanings,  which  are  therefore  expressed  in  French  in  variout 
ways,  according  to  the  particular  case. 

'  C.  Traduisez:  (1)  1.  You  must  know  the  date  of  the  cap- 
ture of  the  Bastille.  2.  The  Bastille  must  have  been  a  prison. 
3.  The  French  national  festival  must  have  had  an  historical 
origin.  4.  The  taking  of  the  Bastille  was  to  be  the  beginning 
of  the  French  revolution.  5.  Henry  IV  was  obliged  (past  def.) 
to  become  [a]  Catholic  in  order  (pour)  to  be  king.  6.  You 
should  have  given  the  letters  to  the  postman.  7.  You  ought 
to  know  that  he  is  to  come  at  8:35. 

188  A  FBENCH  GRAMMAR  $  152 

(2)  1.  However,  if  you  will  not  give  him  the  letter,  please 
(veuillez)  mail  it  yourself.  2.  We  begged  the  robin  to  come 
in,  but  he  wouldn't.  3.  I  should  Uke  the  robin  and  his  mate 
to  come  back  {pres.  suhj.)  every  winter.  4.  We  should  hke  to 
hear  his  merry  songs  again.  5.  I  have  explained  the  matter 
(affaire)  to  him,  but  he  will  not  {two  ways,  two  meanings) 
change  his  mind.  6.  We  begged  the  teacher  to  explain  the 
use  (emploi)  of  these  verbs,  but  he  will  not  or  cannot.  7.  Say 
what  you  will  (§  94),  he  will  not  change  reUgions  (sing.). 
8.  Do  what  you  will  (§94). 

(3)  *  Beginning  with  II  fut  61ev6  in  A,  write  out  the  passage  in 
the  conversational  past,  making  the  necessary  changes  in  the  verb 
forms,  e.g.,  II  a  ete  eleve,  etc. 

(4)  *  Write  out  the  passage  on  the  basis  of  the  historical  present. 

(5)  Racontez  en  frangais,  oralement,  V Anecdote  du  rouge-gorge. 

D.     Dict6e:   Legon  XXXVIII,  A. 


(1)  A  quels  autres  mots  pensez-vous  quand  on  dit:  la  moiti^, 
un  franc,  de  la  monnaie,  avoir  froid,  croire,  Noel,  la  Revolu- 
tion frangaise,  catholique,  le  facteur,  la  m^fiance,  le  nid,  vivre, 
le  prince,  civil,  le  printemps? 

(2)  Quel  est  le  contraire  de:  se  fier  k,  vivre,  joyeux,  gentil, 
avancer,  avoir  chaud,  faire  chaud,  se  rappeler,  s'en  aller? 

(3)  Remplacez  le  tiret  par  le  mot  convenable  ('  Replace  the  dash 
by  the  proper  word  '):  1,  J'ai  quatre  francs  et  je  vous  en  donne 

deux;  c'est  la de  ce  que  j'ai.       2.  Louis  XVI quand 

la  Revolution  a  commence ;  elle  a  commence  pendant  son . 

3.  Le  quatorze  juillet  est  la nationale  frangaise.      4.  Le 

25  decembre  est  le  jour  de .      5.  Le  I®'"  Janvier  est  le  jour 

de  .      6.  Un  homme   qui   est  en  prison  n'est  pas  . 

*  Note.  —  In  doing  (3)  and  (4),  shift  the  imperfect  subjunctives  to 
present  or  perfect  subjunctives,  consulting  the  alphabetical  Refer- 
ence List,  §226,  in  order  to  find  the  proper  forms  of  the  irregular 

{  152  LESSON  XXXIX  18d 

7.  Le  jour  de  Tan  en  France  on  envoie  des  et  on  fait 

des .      8.  II  faut  mettre  cette  lettre  k  la .      9.  Ma 

montre  ne  marche  pas;  j'ai  dd  oublier  de  la .  - 10.  Voulez- 

vous  corriger  lea dans  ce  devoir?      11.  Les  enfants  aiment 

^ sur  les  arbres.      12.  Les  granda-p^res  aiment  leure , 

13.  Henri  IV  est en  1610.    II  a  6t6 .      14.  Son  grand- 

p^re  a  voulu le  prince  comme  les  autres  .      15.  Le 

voisin  se si  les  betes  mangent  son  bl6. 

(4)  Traduisez:  pendant,  pendant  que.  Distinguish  the  latter 
from  tandis  que.     Use  the  two  in  sentences. 

(5)  Employez  daris  des  phrases:  jusqu'^;  k  cause  de;  penser 
k,  penser  de;   il  s'est  agi  de;   tiens!;    d'ailleure;   pourtant. 

(6)  Traduisez:  q&  ne  va  pas,  habill6  en  soldat,  environ  cent 
personnes,  k  six  heures  precises,  couramment,  lorsque,  jours 
d'^cole,  la  montre  marche  mieux,  elle  retarde  d'une  heure,  6tre 
d'accord,  d'autant  plus  facilement,  avoir  beau,  h,  haute  voix,  neuf 
fois  sur  dix. 

(7)  Racontez  en  frangais,  oralement,  c  L'£!ducation  et  I'histoire 
de  Henri  IV,  roi  de  France, »  en  vous  servant  des  expressions  et  des 
mots  suivants:  s'agir,  ^ucation,  seizidme  sidcle,  Clever,  en  prince, 
en  soldat.  Son  grand-p^re,  vouloir,  61ever,  d'ordinaire,  enfants 
de  sang  royal.  II  ordonna,  habiller,  nourrir,  comme,  les  enfants, 
pays  montagneux.     II  voulut,  jeune  prince,  courir,  jouer,  lutter, 

grimper,  les  arbres.     Henri  IV,  devenir  roi  en .     La  ville 

de  Paris,  ne  vouloir  pas,  reconnaltre,  protestant.  II  s'agissfut, 
miner,  pays,  guerre  civile,  se  faire  catholique.  II,  6tre,  excellent 
roi,  mourir,  assassiner  en . 

(8)  Traduisez:  1.  You're  joking,  aren't  you?  2.  Tell  lum 
from  me  {use  part)  that  I  was  joking.  3.  That's  right!  That 
works!  4.  It  is  a  question  of  bringing  him  up  like  the  son  of 
a  poor  man.  5.  However,  he  is  rich.  Furthermore,  he  will 
be  king  of  France  some  day.  6.  What  page  are  we  on?  At 
what  page  did  we  stop  yesterday?  7.  He  lost  a  third  or  a 
fourth  of  his  money.  8.  I  think  so.  He  says  so.  We  think 
not  (que  non).  9.  We  have  just  finished  this  part  of  the 
book.  10.  It  is  a  question  now  of  remembering  what  we  have 
learned.  11.  If  we  succeed  in  doing  so  (le),  we  shall  know 
a  good  deal  of  French. 



XL.   La  Theidre  du  Matelot 

(The  sections  indicated  give  the  forms  of  the  irregular  verbs.) 

A.  Un  matelot,  h  bord  d'un  vaisseau,  ayant  ^  eu  la  maladresse 
de  laisser  tomber  par-dessus  le  bord  une  thei^re  d' argent,  alia  ^ 
trouver  le  capitaine  et  lui  dit  ^:  «  Peut-on  *  dire  ^  d'une  chose, 
qu'elle  est  *  perdue  ^,  lorsqu'on  sait  ^  ou  elle  est  ^?  —  Non,  mon 
ami.  —  En  ce  cas,  vous  n'avez  ^  rien  a  craindre  ^  pour  votre 
th^i^re,    car  je  sais  ^  qu'elle  est  *  au  fond  de  la  mer.  » 

1  §  154.  »  §  193.  »  §  154.  "  §  222.  «  §  190. 

»  5  160.  <  §  221.  •  §  210. 

B.  Complete  the  following  by  conjugating  the  tense  in  full, 
repealing  also  the  remainder  of  the  expression  along  with  the  verb: 

1.  II  alia  trouver  le  capitaine.  2.  II  lui  dit.  3.  Peut-il  dire? 
4.  II  sait  od  elle  est.  5.  Elle  est  perdue.  6.  Vous  n'avez 
rien  k  craindre. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  De  quelles  personnes  parle-t-on  dans  cette 
histoire?  2.  Ou  6taient  ces  personnes?  3.  Qu'avait  fait  le 
matelot?  4.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  qu'une  th^idre?  5.  En  quoi 
6tait  cette  th^i^re?  6.  A  qui  6tait-elle?  7.  Oh  6tait-elle 
tomb^e?  8.  Savait-on  ou  elle  6tait?  9.  fitait-elle  alors  vrai- 
ment  perdue?       10.  Mais  quel  6tait  I'argument  du  matelot? 

D.  1.  The  sailor  was  so  clumsy  as  to  let  the  teapot  fall. 

2.  If  you  let  a  silver  teapot  fall  into  the  sea,  it  is  lost.  3.  Go 
to  the  captain.  4.  I  went  to  the  captain.  5.  Tell  him  that 
the  teapot  is  not  lost.  6.  The  captain  will  say:  "  My  good 
fellow,  did  you  drop  my  silver  teapot  into  the  sea?  "  7.  When 
we  are  on  board  of  a  ship  we  do  not  let  teapots  fall  into  the 
sea.  8.  Where  is  the  teapot?  9.  I  do  not  know  where  it  is. 
10.  No  one  finds  teapots  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea. 

LESSON  XU  191 

XLI.   L'Arabe  et  les  Perles 

A.  Un  Arabe,  6gar6  dans  le  desert,  n'avait  *  pas  mang^ ' 
depuis  deux  jours,  et  se  voyait '  menace  *  de  mourir  *  de  faim. 
En  passant  prha  d'un  de  ces  puits  oii  les  caravanes  viennent' 
abreuver  leurs  chameaux,  il  voit  *  sur  le  sable  un  petit  sac  de 
cuir.  II  le  ramaase  et  le  tfite.  t  Allah  soit  ^  b^ni  *!  dit-il »; 
ce  sont,'  je  crois,*"  des  dattes  ou  des  noisettes.  »  Plein  de  cette 
douce  esp6rance,  il  se  hdte  d'ouvrir  "  le  sac;  mais,  k  la  vue  de 
ce  qu'il  contient  **:  «  H61as!  8'6crie-t-il  douloureusement,  ce  ne 
sent '  que  des  perles!  » 

>  J  154.  «  §  166.  M  164-  •  I  193.  "  |  17fi. 

»  I  156.  •  8  174.  •  §  163.  '    »  I  191.  »  1 177. 

»  {  224.  •  S  178. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  cu  in  the  preceding  exercise:  1.  II 
n'avait  pas  mang^.  2.  II  se  voyait  menace.  3.  lis  viennent. 
4.  II  voit  son  sac.  5.  II  le  t&te.  6.  Qu'il  soit  b^ni!  7.  Je 
le  crois.      8.  II  se  h&te  d'ouvrir  le  sac.      9.  II  s'^cria. 

Relate  the  story  in  the  first  person  singular,  thus:  c  figar^ 
dans  le  d6sert,  je  n'avais  pas,  »  etc. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Od  demeurent  les  Arabes?  2.  Oil  est  I'Arabie? 
3.  Od  s'^tait  6gar6  I'Arabe?  4.  Est-ce  qu'il  y  a  beaucoup  de 
deserts  dans  ce  pays?  5.  Dans  quel  6tat  se  trouvait  I'Arabe? 
6.  Par  oil  passait-il?  7.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  a  vu?  8.  Qu'est-ce 
qu'il  y  avait  dans  le  sac?  9.  fitait-il  content  de  trouver  les 
perles?  10.  Est-ce  que  les  perles  ne  sont  pas  des  choses  pr^ 
cieuses?  11.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  esp^rait  trouver  dans  le  sac? 
12.  Pourquoi  pr6f6rait-il  des  noisettes  k  des  perles?  13.  Les- 
quelles  pr6f6reriez-vous  maintenant? 

D.  1.  The  Arab  has  lost  his  way.  2.  If  we  had  not  eaten 
for  two  days,  we  should  be  hungry.  3.  We  saw  ourselves 
threatened  with  starvation.  4.  The  caravans  will  come  to 
water  their  camels  at  the  well.  5.  We  shall  water  our  camels. 
6.  If  I  saw  pearls  on  the  sand,  I  should  pick  them  up.  7.  He 
felt  the  dates  in  the  bag.  8.  If  there  had  been  hazelnuts  in 
the  leathern  bag,  he  would  have  hastened  to  open  it.  9.  But 
the  bag  did  not  contain  nuts,  it  contained  only  pearls.  10.  At 
the  sight  of  that  he  exclaimed:  "I  shall  die  of  hunger." 


XLII.   Le  Paysan  et  les  Epis  de  B16 

A.  Un  paysan  accompagne  de  son  fils,  le  petit  Augusta,  alia  ^ 
un  jour  visiter  ses  champs  pour  voir  ^  dans  quel  6tat  6tait ' 
son  h\6.  lis  arriverent  k  un  champ  ou  certains  epis  se  te- 
naient  *  droits  tandis  que  d'autres  6taient '  lourdement  inclines 
vers  la  terre.  Auguste  s'^cria:  «  Quel  dommage  que  ces  6pis 
soient '  si  courbes!  Combien  je  pr6fere  ^  ceux-la  qui  sont ' 
vigoureux  et  droits.  »  Le  pere  prit  ^  deux  des  6pis,  les  roula 
entre  ses  doigts  pour  faire''  sortir  ^  le  grain,  et  r^pondit^: 
«  Regarde  un  peu  mon  enfant;  ces  6pis  courbes  sont  ^  pleins 
du  meilleur  ble,  car  c'est  ^  le  poids  qui  fait  ^  pencher  leur  tete, 
tandis  que  ceux  qui  la  reinvent  ^°  si  fierement  sont  ^  vides  et  ne 
valent  ^^  rien.  » 

1  §  160.  ■•  §  177.  •  §  202.  *  §  166.  "  §  158. 

2  §  224.  »  §  168.  7  §  195.  •  §  210.  "  §  223. 
»  §  154. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  II  alia  visiter  ses 
champs.  2.  lis  arriverent  k  un  champ.  3.  lis  se  tenaient 
droits.  4.  II  s'^cria.  5.  Quel  dommage  qu'ils  soient  si 
courbes!  6.  Je  pr^fere  ceux-la.  7.  II  en  prit  deux.  8.  II 
fait  pencher  leur  t^te.      9.  lis  ne  valent  rien. 

Give  the  present  indicative  in  full  of :  1.  Alia.  2.  Se  tenaient. 
3.  Prit.      4.  Fait.       5.  Valent. 

Relaie  the  story,  substituting  the  past  indefinite  for  the  past 
definite,  thus:  «  Un  paysan  ...  est  all6  visiter,  »  etc. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  qu'un  paysan?  2.  Oil  ce 
paysan  est-il  all6?  3.  Est-ce  qu'il  6tait  seul?  4.  Qui  est  all6 
avec  lui?  5.  Pourquoi  sont-ils  all6s  aux  champs?  6.  Com- 
ment se  tenaient  certains  6pis  dans  les  champs  qu'ils  ont 
visit^s?  7.  Tons  les  6pis  se  tenaient-ils  droits?  8.  Comment 
les  autres  se  tenaient-ils?  9.  Quels  6pis  pr^f^rait  le  petit 
Auguste?  10.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  s'est  6cri6?  11.  Lesquels  pr6- 
f6rez-vous?  12.  Pourquoi  les  pr6f^rez-vous?  13.  Lesquels 
des  6pis  6taient  courbes?      14.  Qu'est-ce  qui  leur  faisait  pen- 


cher  la  tete?  15.  Pourquoi  les  autres  se  tenaient-ib  si  droits? 
16.  Lesquels  valent  le  plus?  17.  Comment  le  pdre  a-t-il  d6- 
montr6  cela  k  son  fik?  18.  Les  personnes  fieres  valent-elles 
ordinairement  grand'chose?  19.  Pr6f6rez-vous  les  personnes 

D.  1.  I  am  going  to  see  the  fields.  2.  If  you  were  to  go 
and  visit  the  fields,  in  what  condition  would  you  find  the 
wheat?  3.  We  reach  the  field  where  the  wheat  is  standing 
upright.       4.  Some  of  the  ears  of  wheat  are  heavily  weighted. 

5.  Why  do  you  exclaim:  "  What  a  pity  they  are  so  bent  down?" 

6.  You  prefer  those  that  are  standing  upri^t,  do  you?  7.  Hold 
yourself  upright,  8.  Take  two  ears  of  wheat.  9.  Rub 
the  grain  out.      10.  The  best  wheat  is  not  in  the  upright  ears. 

11.  The  full  ears  are  bent,  while  the  empty  ears  are  upright. 

12.  Just  look,  my  boy,  the  upright  ears  are  empty.  13.  Full 
heads  are  worth  a  great  deal,  but  empty  heads  are  worth  nothing. 
14.  Do  you  not  observe  Uie  same  thing  amongst  men  as  among 
the  ears  of  wheat? 

Use  either  the  past  definite  or  the  jmst  indefinite  for  the  not' 
rative  tenses  of  the  following: 

E.  Little  Augustus  went  one  day  to  the  fields.  He  went 
with  his  father  who  was  going  to  see  whether  his  wheat  was 
ripe.  They  arrived  at  a  wheat  field.  Augustus  observed  that 
certain  ears  of  wheat  were  bent  down  towards  the  earth.  He 
observed  also  that  others  held  themselves  upright.  He  said 
to  his  father:  "  Look  at  those  ears  of  wheat.  What  a  pity 
they  are  so  bent  down!  I  prefer  those  which  hold  them- 
selves upright."  His  father  wished  to  teach  him  a  lesson. 
He  took  two  of  the  ears  of  wheat  and  rolled  them  between 
his  fingers.  The  one  was  empty  and  was  worth  nothing.  The 
other  was  full  of  good  wheat.  Then  he  said:  "  Look,  my  boy, 
this  ear  which  raised  its  head  so  proudly  was  almost  empty. 
On  the  contrary,  this  other  which  was  so  bent  down  was  full 
of  the  best  grain.  We  observe  the  same  thing  amongst  men. 
Those  who  are  proud  have  an  (the)  empty  head.  They  are 
worth  nothing.  On  the  contrary,  those  who  are  modest  and 
humble  are  generally  the  best." 


XLni.   Le  Tresor  du  Labouretir 

A.  Un  laboureur  etant  sur  le  point  de  mourir  ^,  et  voulant ' 
donner  a  ses  enfants  une  derniere  preuve  de  sa  tendresse,  les 
fit  2  venir  *  aupres  de  lui,  et  leur  dit  *:  «  Mes  enfants,  apres 
moi  vous  aurez  le  champ  que  mon  pere  a  possed6®,  le  champ 
qui  m'a  servi  "^  k  Clever  ^  et  ^  nourrir  ma  famille.  Cherchez 
bien  dans  ce  champ,  et  vous  trouverez  un  tr6sor.  » 

Les  enfants,  apres  la  mort  de  leur  pere,  se  mirent '  ^  retour- 
ner  le  champ  en  tons  sens,  bechant,  labourant  la  terre.  lis 
n'y  trouverent  ni  or  ni  argent;  mais  la  terre  bien  remu6e,  bien 
labouree,  produisit  ^°  une  moisson  abondante.  Le  sage  vieillard 
ne  les  avait  pas  tromp6s;  il  leur  avait  enseign^  que  le  travail 
est  un  tresor. 

1  §  174.  8  §  195.  »  I  193.  ■>  §  166.  »  §  198. 

«  §  225.  ••  §  178.  •  §  158.  s  §  153.  10  §  ig5_ 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  II  les  fit  venir  aupres 
de  lui.  2.  lis  se  mirent  a  retourner  le  champ.  3.  II  produisit 
une  moisson.      4.  II  ne  les  avait  pas  tromp^s. 

Give  the  future  and  the  past  definite  in  full  of:  1.  Mourir. 
2.  Voulant.      3.  Fit.      4.  Venir.      5.  Dit.      6.  Servir. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  De  quelles  personnes  parle  I'histoire? 
2.  Qu'est-ce  (que  c'est)  qu'un  laboureur?  3.  Ce  laboureur-ci 
6tait-il  un  jeune  homme?  4.  Dans  quel  6tat  se  trouvait-il? 
5.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  allait  laisser  a  ses  enfants?  6.  Avait-il 
achate  ce  champ?  7.  £tait-ce  un  bon  champ?  8.  Quel  con- 
seil  le  laboureur  a-t-il  donn6  h.  ses  enfants?  9.  Ont-ils  bien 
cherch6?  10.  Est-ce  qu'ils  y  ont  trouve  de  I'or?  IL  Leur 
pere  les  avait-il  tromp6s,  alors?  12.  Quel  tr6sor  ont-ils  trouv6? 
13.  Quelle  est  la  morale  de  I'histoire? 

D.  1.  The  father  gave  his  children  a  proof  of  his  love.  2.  He 
called  his  children  into  his  presence.  3.  The  children  will 
own  the  field  after  the  father.  4.  The  children  dug  up  and 
plowed  the  field.  5.  Stir  the  land,  and  it  will  produce  a 
harvest.  6.  If  you  plow  this  field,  you  will  find  a  treasure. 
7.  It  will  not  be  silver  or  gold,  but  it  will  be  a  good  harvest. 


8.  Your  father  is  not  deceiving  you,  he  is  teaching  you  a  good 

E.  A  husbandman,  who  was  at  the  point  of  death,  wished  to 
teach  his  children  that  labor  is  a  treasure.  Calling  his  chil- 
dren into  his  presence,  he  told  them  that  they  would  have  the 
field  which  his  father  had  owned.  It  was  a  good  field,  and  it 
had  fed  his  father  and  his  father's  family.  If  they  would 
seek  in  it,  they  would  find  a  treasure  there.  After  the  old 
man's  death,  the  children  dug  everywhere  in  the  field,  but 
they  found  no  treasure.  There  was  no  gold  or  silver,  but  they 
stirred  the  land  so  well  that  they  had  an  abundant  harvest. 
They  had  not  been  deceived.  Their  father  had  taught  them  a 
good  lesson. 

XLIV.  Louis  XIV  et  Jean  Bart 

A.  Louis  XIV,  traversant  avec  sa  cour  la  galerie  de  Ver- 
sailles, apergoit  *  Jean  Bart  fumant  sa  pipe  dans  I'embrasure 
d'une  fenfire  ouverte  *;  il  le  fait'  appeler*,  et  lui  dit '  d'un 
ton  affoctueux:  •  Jean  Bart,  je  viens*  de  vous  nommer  chef 
d'escadre.  —  Vous  avez  bien  fait ',  sire,  r^pondit  ^  le  marin  en 
continuant  de  fumer  tranquillement  sa  pipe.  •  Cette  brusque 
r^ponse  ayant  excite  parmi  les  sots  courtisans  un  grand  6clat 
de  rire:  t  Vous  vous  trompez,  messieurs,  leur  dit '  gravement 
le  roi,  cette  r^ponse  est  celle  d'un  homme  qui  sent '  ce  qu'il 
vaut ',  et  qui  compte  m'en  donner  bient6t  de  nouvelles  preuves. 
Sans  doute,  Jean  Bart  ne  parle  pas  comme  vous;  mais  qui  de 
vous  pent  ^'^  faire  *  ce  que  fait »  Jean  Bart?  » 

»  §  213.  «  §  195.  »  S  193.  »  S  210.  •  §  223. 

*  i  176.  «  §  158.  •  5  178.  •  5  166.  >»  §  221. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  H  apergoit  Jean  Bart. 
2.  II  le  fait  appeler.  3.  Je  viens  de  le  nommer.  4.  Vous 
avez  bien  fait.  5.  Vous  vous  trompez.  6.  II  sent  ce  qu'il 
vaut.  7.  II  ne  parle  pas  comme  les  autres.  8.  Je  ne  peux  faire 
ce  que  fait  Jean  Bart.  9.  II  continue  de  fumer  tranquillement. 
10.  II  leur  dit  gravement.  11.  Comptez-vous  donner  de  nouvelles 
preuves  ? 


Give  the  imperfect  indicative  and  the  imperfect  subjunctive  of. 
1.  Apergoit.  2.  Fait.  3.  Dit.  4.  Viens.  5.  Sent.  6.  Nomme. 
7.  Repondit.  8.  Vaut.  9.  Appelle.  10.  Pennit.  11.  Montre. 
12.  Continuant.  i 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Qui  6tait  Louis  XIV?  2.  O^  est  Versailles? 
3.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'^tait  autrefois?  4.  Quel  est  I'autre  person- 
nage  de  notre  histoire?  5.  Quelle  6tait  sa  profession?  6.  fitait- 
il,  ce  jour-la,  a  bord  de  son  vaisseau?  7.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  faisait 
qui  montrait  qu'il  n'etait  pas  courtisan?  8.  De  quelle  fagon  le 
roi  a-t-il  montre  qu'il  n'en  etait  pas  m^content?  9.  Quelle 
sorte  de  r^ponse  Jean  Bart  a-t-il  faite  au  roi?  10.  Quelle  im- 
pression a-t-elle  faite  sur  les  courtisans?  11.  Quelle  en  6tait 
I'opinion  du  roi?  12.  Pourquoi  6tait-il  permis  k  Jean  Bart,  et 
non  pas  aux  courtisans,  de  faire  une  brusque  r^ponse? 

D.  1.  The  king  sends  for  Jean  Bart.  2.  I  shall  call  him. 
3.  We  have  just  called  Jean  Bart.  4.  The  king  had  just 
appointed  him  rear  admiral.  5.  A  great  outburst  of  laughter 
was  excited  by  Jean  Bart's  blunt  answer.  6.  The  king  did  not 
appoint  the  silly  courtiers  rear  admirals.  7.  We  are  mis- 
taken; it  is  not  a  blunt  answer.  8.  Do  not  make  a  mistake. 
9.  The  silly  courtiers  did  not  make  blunt  answers,  because 
they  did  not  feel  their  own  worth.  10.  Jean  Bart  hopes  soon 
to  give  the  king  new  proofs  of  his  worth.  11.  We  cannot  do 
what  Jean  Bart  did. 

E.  Jean  Bart  was  coolly  smoking  his  pipe  in  the  embrasure 
of  a  window  in  the  palace  (chiteau)  of  Versailles,  as  the  king, 
accompanied  by  his  courtiers,  was  passing  through  the  great 
gallery.  The  king  sent  for  the  brave  sailor,  and  told  him  that 
he  had  just  been  appointed  rear  admiral.  The  sailor's  blunt 
reply:  "  You  have  done  well,  sire,"  caused  a  burst  of  laughter 
among  those  who  were  with  the  king.  But  Louis  knew  that 
it  was  the  reply  of  a  man  who  would  soon  give  proofs  of  his 
worth.  Jean  Bart  did  not  talk  like  a  courtier,  but  he  did 
what  courtiers  could  not  do.  At  that  time  Jean  Bart  was 
already  forty-one  years  old  and  it  was  late  for  him  (pour  qu'il) 
to  change  the  habits  of  his  youth. 


XLV.   La  Fourmi  et  le  Brin  d'Herbe 

A.  J'ai  vu  *  une  petite  fourmi  qui  allait  *  9^  et  li  cherchant 
fortune.  Elle  a  rencontr^  sur  son  chemin  un  brin  d'lierbe 
qu'elle  voudrait '  bien  emporter;  mais  comment  faire  *?  II  est 
si  gros,  et  elle  est  si  faible.  Alors  elle  est  mont6e  sur  un 
caillou,  du  haut  duquel  elle  regarde  la  campagne,  comme  du 
haut  d'une  tour.  Elle  regarde,  elle  regarde;  enfin  elle  a 
apergu  *  deux  de  ses  compagnes  qui  passent  par  1^,  et  elle 
court  •  k  elles.  Elle  se  frotte  le  nez  contre  leur  nez  pour  leur 
dire':  «  Venez  '  vite  avec  moi;  il  y  a  par  l^  quelque  chose  de 
bon!  »  Les  trois  fourmis  se  pr6cipitent  vers  le  brin  d'herbe  et 
le  saisissent.  Ce  que  Tune  ne  pouvait  •  faire  *,  les  trois  le  font  * 
ars^mcnt,  et  elles  emportent  en  triomphe  le  brin  devenu"" 
16ger  pour  elles. 

»  5  224.  »  J  225.  •  §  213.  »  (  193.  •  f  221. 

M  160.  *  i  195.  •  J  164.  •  I  17a  "»  §  178. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  Elle  allait  qk  et  1^. 
2.  Elle  voudrait  bien  I'emporter.  3.  Elle  est  mont^.  4.  Elle 
court  k  elles.  5.  Elle  se  frotte  le  nez.  6.  Venez.  7.  Elles 
se  pr6cipitent.  8.  Elles  le  saisissent.  9.  Elle  ne  pouvait  pas 
le  faire.       10.  Elles  le  font  ais^ment. 

Give  in  full  the  past  definite  of:  1.  Vu.  2.  Rencontr6.  3.  Re- 
gard6.      4.  Apergu.      5.  Court.      6.  Se  pr^cipitent.      7.  Font. 

Beginning  at  the  second  sentence,  relate  the  story  in  the  past 
definite,  thus:  t  Elle  rencontra,  »  etc. 

C.  {Oral.)  1.  De  quel  insecte  parle-t-on  ici?  2.  Qu'est-ce 
qu'elle  faisait?  3.  Qu'est-ce  qu'elle  a  rencontr^  sur  son 
chemin?  4.  Le  brin  d'herbe  6tait-il  gros  ou  petit?  5.  Et  la 
fourmi  6tait-elle  forte  ou  faible?  6.  Qu'est-ce  que  la  fourmi 
aurait  voulu  faire?  7.  Est-ce  qu'elle  pouvait  le  faire  toute 
seule?  8.  Oil  est-elle  mont^?  9.  Qu'est-ce  qu'elle  a  regard^ 
du  haut  du  caillou?  10.  Pour  la  fourmi  le  caillou  6tait  comme 
une  tour,  n'est-ce  pas?  11.  Qu'est-ce  qu'elle  apergoit  enfin? 
12.  Que  faisaient  les  deux  compagnes  de  la  fourmi?  13.  Et 
la  fourmi  qu'est-ce  qu'elle  a  fait?  14.  Est-ce  qu'elle  leur  a 
parl6?     15.  Comment  leur  a-t-elleparl6?     16.  Qu'est-ce  qu'elle 


leur  a  dit?  17.  Quelle  est  la  premiere  chose  qu'ont  faite  les 
trois  fourmis?  18.  Et  ensuite  qu'ont-elles  fait?  19.  Une 
fourmi  pouvait-elle  emporter  le  brin  d'herbe?  20.  Les  trois 
fourmis  ensemble  pouvaient-elles  le  faire  ais^ment?  21.  Pour- 
quoi  le  brin  d'herbe  est-il  devenu  leger? 

D.  A  little  ant  was  going  hither  and  thither  one  day.  She 
found  a  blade  of  grass  on  the  road.  "  This  blade  of  grass  is 
very  big,"  thought  the  ant.  "  I  am  too  weak  to  carry  it  off 
alone.  I  know  what  I  shall  do.  I  shall  chmb  upon  a  pebble. 
From  the  top  of  the  pebble  I  shall  look  around.  The  pebble 
will  be  for  me  like  a  tall  tower."  She  did  so.  She  looked 
about  her  a  long  time.  At  last  she  saw  two  of  her  compan- 
ions. They  were  passing  along  (par)  the  same  road.  She 
called  them,  and  they  ran  to  her.  She  said  to  them:  "  Come 
here,  for  I  have  found  something  good."  She  said  this  by 
rubbing  her  nose  against  theirs.  Ants,  as  you  know,  cannot 
5peak  like  men.  After  that  the  three  ants  rushed  towards 
the  blade  of  grass.  They  seized  it  quickly.  It  had  been  very 
heavy  for  one  ant.    But  the  three  together  carried  it  off  easily. 

XLVI.   Le  Bon  Samaritain 

A.  Un  homme  descendit  ^  de  Jerusalem  a  Jericho,  et  tomba 
parmi  des  brigands,  qui  le  depouillerent.  Apres  I'avoir  bless^ 
de  plusieurs  coups,  ils  s'en  allerent  ^,  le  laissant  a  demi  mort.' 
Un  pr^tre,  qui  par  hasard  descendait  ^  par  ce  chemin-la,  I'ayant 
vu  *,  passa  outre.  Un  Invite,  venant  ^  aussi  dans  le  meme 
endroit,  et  le  voyant  *,  passa  outre.  Mais  un  Salharitain, 
qui  voyageait  ^,  vint  ^  vers  cet  homme,  et  le  voyant  *,  f ut 
touch6  de  compassion.  S'approchant  de  lui,  il  banda  ses 
plaies,  et  il  y  versa  de  I'huile  et  du  vin;  puis  il  le  mit '  sur  sa 
monture,  le  mena  ^  k  une  auberge,  et  prit  ^  soin  de  lui.  Le 
lendemain,  en  partant^",  il  tira  de  sa  poche  deux  deniers  d'ar- 
gent,  et  les  donnant  h  I'aubergiste,  lui  dit^^:  «  Aie  soin  de  lui, 
et  tout  ce  que  tu  d^penseras  de  plus  je  te  le  rendrai  ^  £1,  mon 
retour.  » 

»  §  210.  ••  §  224.  «  §  156.  8  §  158.  i"  §  166. 

«  §  160.  «  §  178.  »  §  198.  »  §  202.  "  §  193. 

"  §  174. 


B.  Complete  the  foUomng,  as  above:  1.  II  descendit.  2.  lis 
le  d6pouill6rent.  3.  lis  s'en  alldrent.  4.  II  descendit  par  ce 
chemin.  5.  II  passa  outre.  6.  II  vint  vers  cet  homme.  7.  II 
y  versa  de  I'liiiile.  8.  II  le  mit  sur  sa  monture.  9.  II  prit 
soin  de  lui. 

Give  the  present  indicative  and  present  subjunctive  of:  1.  S'en 
alldrent.      2.  Mort.      3.  Venant.      4.  Voyant.      5.  Mit. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  D'oCl  a-t-on  tir6  cette  histoire?  2.  Com- 
ment s'appelle  I'histoire?      3.  Oil  sont  Jerusalem  et  Jericho? 

4.  Est-ce  que  la  terre  sainte  est  un  grand  ou  un  petit  pays? 

5.  Qu'ont  fait  les  brigands  au  voyageur?  6.  En  quel  ^tat  se 
trouvait-il  apr^s  leur  d6part?  7.  Quelles  personnes  sont  venues 
ensuite?  8.  Qu'est-ce  qu'elles  ont  fait?  9.  Qui  est  venu 
apr6s  le  prStre  et  le  16vite?  10.  Est-ce  que  les  Samaritains 
6taient  bien  aim63  des  Juifs?  11.  Est-ce  que  cela  a  empdch^ 
le  Samaritain  de  faire  le  bien?  12,  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  a  fait  au 
Juif?  13.  Apr^s  I'avoir  8oign6  qu'a-t-il  fait?  14.  Qu'a-t-il 
donn6  k  I'aubergiste?      15.  En  quittant  I'auberge,  qu'a-t-il  dit? 

D.  1.  If  we  fall  among  thieves,  they  will  strip  us.  2.  After 
having  wounded  us  they  will  depart.  3.  If  you  should  see  a 
poor  traveler  half  dead,  would  you  pass  by  on  the  other  side? 
4.  If  the  priest  had  been  touched  with  compassion,  he  would 
have  bound  up  the  wounds.  5.  Let  us  pour  oil  and  wine  into 
his  wounds.  6.  Let  us  put  the  poor  man  on  our  own  beast. 
7.  Let  us  take  him  to  the  inn.  8.  Let  us  take  care  of  him 
there.  9.  The  next  day  we  shall  give  money  to  the  inn- 
keeper. 10.  On  our  return  we  shall  give  him  back  whatever 
he  shall  have  spent  for  our  friend. 

E.  A  man,  who  was  going  down  from  Jerusalem  to  Jericho, 
fell  among  thieves.  They  stripped  him  and  wounded  him, 
and  left  him  half  dead.  Then  a  priest  and  a  Levite  came  by 
chance  to  the  same  place,  and  they  saw  him  and  passed  by  on 
the  other  side.  But  a  Samaritan,  who  was  going  down  by 
that  road,  saw  him,  and  was  touched  with  compassion.  Then, 
after  having  bound  up  his  wounds,  he  put  him  on  his  beast 
and  took  him  to  an  inn.    On  the  morrow  he  gave  money  to 


the  innkeeper,  and  said  that  on  his  return  he  would  give  the 
innkeeper  whatever  he  should  spend  if  he  took  care  of  the 
poor  man. 

XLVn.   M.  Laffitte  et  I'Epingle 

A.  Lorsque  M.  Laffitte,  le  fameux  banquier,  vint*  k  Paris, 
en  1788,  a  I'age  de  21  ans,  toute  son  ambition  se  bornait  k  ob- 
tenir  ^  une  petite  place  dans  une  maison  de  banque.  II  se 
presenta  chez  un  riche  banquier.  «  Impossible  de  vous  ad- 
mettre  ^  chez  moi,  du  moins  pour  le  moment,  lui  dit  *  le  banquier: 
mes  bureaux  sont  au  complet.  »  Le  jeune  homme  salue  et  se 
retire.  En  traversant  la  cour,  il  apergoit  ^  a  terre  une  ^pingle, 
et  la  ramasse.  Debout  devant  la  fenetre  de  son  cabinet  le 
riche  banquier  avait  suivi  ^  des  yeux  la  retraite  du  jeune  homme. 
II  lui  vit  ^  ramasser  I'Epingle  et  ce  trait  lui  fit  ^  plaisir.  Le  soir 
meme  le  jeune  homme  regut^  un  billet  du  banquier,  qui  lui 
disait  *:  «  Vous  avez  une  place  dans  mes  bureaux;  vous  pou- 
vez  ^  venir^  I'occuper  des  demain,  »  Le  jeune  homme  devint  ^ 
bientdt  caissier,  puis  associ6,  puis  mattre,  de  la  premiere  maison 
de  banque  de  Paris,  et  enfin  homme  d'fitat  tr^s  influent  sous 

»  §  178.  s  §  198.  e  §  213.  »  §  224.  »  §  221. 

«§177.  <§193.  «§206.  8  §195. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  II  vint  k  Paris. 
2.  EUe  se  bornait  k  cela.  3.  II  se  presenta  chez  le  banquier. 
4.  II  se  retire.  5.  II  apergoit  k  terre  une  6pingle.  6.  II  I'avait 
suivi  des  yeux.  7.  II  vit  ramasser  I'Epingle.  8.  II  regut  un 
billet.  9.  II  lui  disait.  10.  Vous  pouvez  venir.  11.  II  de- 
vint  mattre. 

Give  in  full  the  future  and  conditional  of:  1.  Tenir.  2.  Ad- 
mettre.      3.  Apergoit.       4.  Suivi.       5.  Vit. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Quel  age  avait  M.  Laffitte  k  son  arriv^e  k 
Paris?  2.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  cherchait?  3.  R6ussit-il  d'abord  k 
trouver  une  place?  4.  Oil  se  pr6senta-t-il?  5.  Que  lui  a-t-on 
dit?  6.  En  se  retirant  ou  va-t-il?  7,  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  trouve? 
8.  Qui  I'a  vu?      9.  En  6tait-il  content?      10.  De  quelle  fagon 

LESSON  xLvm  201 

a-t-il  montr^  son  contentement?      11.  Qu'est  devenu  le  jeune 
homme  par  la  suite?      12.  Quelle  est  la  morale  de  I'histoire? 

D.  1.  If  your  ambition  is  only  to  get  a  humble  position, 
you  will  get  it.  2.  Present  yourself  at  the  oflSce  of  the  rich 
banker.  3.  He  will  admit  you  into  his  employ.  4.  His 
offices  are  not  full.  5.  Do  you  see  that  pin  on  the  ground? 
6.  Pick  it  up.  7.  There  is  the  rich  banker  standing  at  his 
office  window.  8.  The  banker  is  watching  the  young  man  as 
he  retires.  9.  If  we  see  him  pick  up  a  pin,  it  (cela)  will  please 
us.  10.  Did  you  receive  a  note  from  the  banker?  11.  You 
shall  have  a  position  in  his  banking-house.  12.  You  will 
soon  become  his  partner,  will  you  not?  13.  Those  who  pick 
up  pins  may  become  statesmen. 

E.  When  M.  Laffitte  was  twenty-one  years  of  age  he  came 
to  Paris.  He  wished  to  get  a  humble  position  with  a  rich 
banker.  But  when  he  presented  himself,  the  rich  banker  told 
him  that  his  offices  were  full,  and  that  he  could  not  admit 
him.  He  withdrew.  The  rich  banker  watched  him  from  his 
office  window,  and  saw  him  pick  up  a  pin  which  he  noticed  on 
the  ground  as  he  was  crossing  the  yard.  This  action  pleased 
the  banker.  That  very  evening  he  sent  a  note  to  the  young 
mftn,  which  said  that  he  could  have  a  position  in  his  offices 
the  very  next  day.  The  young  man  became  head  of  a  great 
banking-house,  and  at  last  an  influential  statesman. 

XLVm.   Le  SifBet  de  Benjamin  Franklin 

A.  Benjamin  Franklin  raconte  I'anecdote  suivante  ^:  t  Quand 
j'^tais  un  enfant  de  cinq  ou  six  ans,  mes  amis,  un  jour  de  fete, 
remplirent  ma  petite  poche  de  sous.  Je  partis  *  tout  de  suite 
pour  une  boutique  oil  Ton  vendait '  des  jouets.  Chemin  faisant  *, 
je  vis '  dans  les  mains  d'un  autre  petit  gar^on  un  sifflet,  dont 
le  son  me  charma.  Je  lui  donnai  en  ^change  tout  mon  argent. 
Revenu*  chez  moi,  fort  content  de  mon  achat,  sifflant  par 
toute  la  maison,  je  fatiguai  les  oreilles  de  toute  la  famille. 

»  5  206.  »  §  210.  »  §  224. 

*  §  166.  «  S  195.  •  i  17& 


Mes  fr^res  et  mes  soeurs  apprenant^  que  j 'avals  tout  donn6 
pour  un  mauvais  instrument,  me  dirent  ^  que  je  I'avais  pay6  ^ 
dix  f ois  plus  cher  qu'il  ne  valait  *.  Alors  ils  enumererent  ^ 
toutes  les  jolies  choses  que  j'aurais  pu  ^  achetor  *  avec  mon 
argent  si  j 'avals  et6  plus  prudent.  lis  me  tournerent  tellement 
en  ridicule  que  j'en  pleural.  Cependant,  cet  accident  fut  de 
quelque  utillte  pour  moi.  Lorsque  plus  tard  j'etais  tent6 
d'acheter  ^  quelque  chose  qui  ne  m'etait  pas  n6cessaire,  je 
disais^  en  mol-meme:  Ne  donnons  pas  trop  pour  le  sifflet,  et 
j'epargnais  mon  argent.  » 

1  §  202.  »  §  157.  6  I  158. 

2  §  193.  *  §  223.  6  §  221. 

B.  Complete  the  following,   as   above:     1.  Quand  j'etais  un, 
enfant.       2.  lis  remplirent  ma  poche.       3.  Je  partis  tout  de 
suite.       4.  Je  vis  un  sifflet.       5.  Je  fatigual  tous  mes  amis. 
6.  Je  remplis  mes  poches,  tu  remplis  tes  poches,  etc.      7.  lis 
me  dirent,  ils  te  dirent,  etc.       8.  Je  disals  en  mol-meme,  tu  . 
disais  en  tol-meme,  etc.  ^ 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Qui  etait  Benjamin  Franklin?  2.  A  quelle 
6poque  vivalt-il?  3.  Quel  age  avait-il  a  I'epoque  de  I'anecdote? 
4.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  avait  dans  sa  poche?  5.  Qui  le  lui  avait 
donne?  6.  Pour  quel  endroit  est-il  parti  ensuite?  7.  Y  est-il 
jamais  arrive?  8.  Quel  6talt  I'obstacle?  9.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  a 
fait  de  son  argent?  10.  A  son  retour  chez  lui,  qu'est-ce  qu'il 
a  fait?  11.  A-t-il  charme  ses  freres  et  ses  sceurs?  12.  Est-ce 
qu'il  avait  pay6  assez  cher  son  sifflet?  13.  Est-ce  que  la 
famille  etait  contente  de  son  achat?  14.  De  quelle  fagon  la 
famille  a-t-elle  fait  voir  son  m^contentement?  15.  Le  pauvre 
Franklin  6tait-ll  content  h  la  fin?  16.  Quelle  legon  FrankUn 
a-t-il  regue  par  cet  accident? 

D.  1.  You  have  paid  twice  as  much  for  that  apple  as  it  is 
worth.  2.  If  you  pay  ten  cents  for  that  pencil,  that  will  be 
three  times  as  much  as  it  is  worth.  3.  Never  pay  more  for 
things  than  they  are  worth.  4.  We  could  have  bought  many 
pretty  things  with  our  money,  if  we  had  been  prudent.  5.  If 
our  friend  had  been  less  prudent,  he  could  not  have  bought  so 
many  pretty  things.      6.  That  accident  will  be  of  some  use  to 


our  friends.  7.  When  we  are  (ftU.)  tempted  to  buy  some- 
thing which  is  not  necessary  for  us,  we  shall  say  to  ourselves: 
"  We  are  not  going  to  give  too  much  for  the  whistle." 

E.  When  Benjamin  Franklin  was  five  years  old,  his  brother, 
on  a  holiday,  filled  his  pockets  with  coppers.  Starting  off  at 
once  for  a  shop  where  toys  were  sold,  he  met  on  the  way 
another  Uttle  boy  who  had  a  whistle.  The  sound  of  the  in- 
strument charmed  him,  and  he  gave  all  his  money  to  have  it. 
He  was  much  pleased  with  his  purchase,  but  he  whistled  so 
much  all  over  the  house  that  he  tired  the  whole  family.  His 
brothers  and  sisters  asked  him  where  he  had  bought  his  whistle 
and  how  much  he  had  paid  for  it.  He  told  them  he  had  given 
all  his  money  to  the  little  boy.  Then  they  told  him  he  had 
paid  too  much  for  it.  They  said  too  that  if  he  had  been  more 
prudent,  he  could  have  bought  ten  times  as  many  pretty  things, 
and  he  cried  on  account  of  it.  But  the  affair  was  of  some  use 
to  him  later  on.  Whenever  he  was  tempted  to  buy  things 
which  he  did  not  need,  he  would  always  say  to  himself:  "  I 
will  not  give  too  much  for  the  whistle." 

XLIX-   Henri  IV  et  le  Paysan 

A.  Henri  IV,  dans  une  chasse,  s'6tant  6cart^,  suivant*  sa 
coutume,  de  ses  gardes  et  de  sa  cour,  rencontra  un  paysan 
assis  '  sous  un  arbre.  «  Que  fais-tu  *  li?  lui  dit  *  le  prince.  — 
J'6tais  venu  *  ici  dds  le  point  du  jour,  pour  voir  •  passer  le  roi, 
r^pondit^  le  paysan;  sans  ce  d^sir,  je  serais  i  labourer  mon 
champ,  qui  n'est  pas  fort  61oign6.  —  Si  tu  veux  '  monter  sur  la 
croupe  de  mon  cheval,  lui  r6pliqua  Henri,  je  te  conduirai  •  oil 
est  le  roi,  et  tu  le  verras  •  k  ton  aise.  i» 

Le  paysan,  enchants,  profite  de  la  rencontre,  monte  k  c6t^ 
du  roi,  et  demande,  chemin  faisant ',  comment  il  pourra  "•  recon- 
naltre  "  le  roi.  t  Tu  n'auras  qu'^  regarder  celui  qui  sera  cou- 
vert*'  pendant  que  tons  les  autres  auront  la  tete  nue.  » 

Enfin  le  moment  arrive  oil  le  roi  rejoint""  une  partie  de  sa 
cour  et  se  trouve  parmi  ses  courtisans;  tous  se  d^couvrent", 

»  §  206.  *  §  193.  »  5  210.  "»  §  221.  "  §  170. 

»  §  215.  »  §  178.  •  §  225.  "  8  188.  "  §  190. 

*  i  195.  •  §  224.  •  i  185. 


excepts  lui.  Alors  il  demande  au  paysan:  «  Eh  bien,  quel  est 
le  roi?  —  Ma  foi,  monsieur,  lui  r6pondit-il  ^,  c'est  vous  ou  moi, 
car  il  n'y  a  que  nous  deux  qui  ayons  le  chapeau  sur  la  tete.  » 

1  §  210. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  J'^tais  venu.  2.  Tu 
veux  voir  le  roi.  3.  Tu  le  verras  k  ton  aise.  4,  II  pourra 
reconnaitre  le  roi.  5.  II  sera  convert.  6.  II  rejoint  les 
courtisans.  7.  lis  se  d^couvrent.  8.  II  n'y  a  que  nous  qui 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Qui  ^tait  Henri  IV?  2.  A  quelle  6poque 
vivait-il?  3.  Quelle  6tait  sa  coutume  quand  il  6tait  a  la 
chasse?  4.  Qui  a-t-il  rencontr^  un  jour?  5.  Qu'est-ce  que 
c'est  qu'un  paysan?  6.  Que  faisait  le  paysan?  7.  Depuis 
combien  de  temps  y  6tait-il?  8.  Pourquoi  y  6tait-il  venu? 
9.  S'il  n'6tait  pas  venu  ou  aurait-il  6t6?  10.  Qu'est-ce  que  le 
roi   a   propose   au   paysan?       11.  Le   paysan   a-t-il   accepts? 

12.  Qu'est-ce  que  le  paysan  a  demand^  au  roi   en  chemin? 

13.  Quel  6tait  le   signe  par  lequel   on  reconnattrait  le  roi? 

14.  Ou  le  roi  et  le  paysan  arrivent-ils  bientot?  15.  Qu'est-ce 
que  les  courtisans  ont  fait  a  leur  approche?  16.  Combien 
de  personnes  restaient  couvertes?  17.  Et  combien  de  rois  y 
avait-il  dans  la  compagnie? 

D.  1.  We  have  wandered  from  the  court.  2.  If  the  king 
had  not  wandered  from  the  court,  he  would  not  have  met  the 
peasant.  3.  We  came  here  at  the  very  peep  of  day.  4.  I 
have  not  seen  the  king  go  by.  5.  The  peasants  are  busy 
plowing  the  field.  6.  If  you  get  up  beside  me,  you  will  see 
the  king.  7.  As  they  went  along,  the  peasant  said  to  the 
king:  "  Take  me  where  the  king  is."  8.  Everybody  had  his 
hat  on,  and  we  could  not  recognize  the  king.  9.  If  the 
courtiers  had  taken  off  their  hats,  we  could  have  recognized 
the  king. 

E.  One  day  Henry  IV  had  wandered  from  his  courtiers. 
Meeting  a  peasant  who  was  sitting  under  a  tree,  he  asked 
the  latter  what  he  was  doing  there.  The  peasant  replied  that 
he  had  beeu  there  since  daybreak,  and  that  he  wished  to  see 

LESSON  L  205 

the  king,  and  that  if  he  had  not  come,  he  would  be  busy 
plowing  his  field.  The  king  said  to  him:  "  Get  up  behind 
me,  and  I  shall  take  you  where  you  can  see  the  king."  The 
peasant  was  delighted,  and  got  up  beside  the  king.  As  they 
went  along,  he  asked  how  he  should  recognize  the  king,  and 
the  king  told  him  to  look  at  the  one  who  should  have  his  hat 
on,  while  the  others  should  be  bareheaded.  When  they  ar- 
rived where  the  cOurtiers  were,  the  latter  took  off  their  hats. 
Then  the  king  asked  the  peasant  which  was  the  king.  He 
replied:  "  We  two  have  our  hats  on,  the  others  are  bare- 
headed: it  is  you  or  I." 

L.   Thomas  et  les  Cerises 

A.  Un  paysan  traversait  la  campagne  avee  son  fils  Thomas, 
t  Regarde!  lui  dit-il  *  en  chemin,  voili  par  terre  un  fer  k  cheval 
perdu  *,  ramasse-le!  » 

€  Bah!  r^pondit  *  Thomas,  11  ne  vaut  •  pas  la  peine  de  se 
baisser  pour  si  peu  de  chose!  »  Le  p6re  ne  dit  *  rien,  ramassa 
le  fer  et  le  mit  *  dans  sa  poche.  Arriv6  au  village  voisin,  il  le 
vendit  *  pour  quelques  centimes  au  mar^chal  ferrant,  et  acheta ' 
des  cerises  avec  cet  argent. 

Cela  fait  •,  ils  se  remirent  *  en  route.  Le  soleil  ^tait  br^ilant. 
Thomas  mourait  ^  de  soif ,  et  avait  de  la  peine  k  poursuivre  • 
son  chemin.  Le  pdre,  qui  marchait  le  premier,  laissa,  comme 
par  hasard,  tomber  une  cerise.  Thomas  la  ramassa  avec  em- 
pressement,  et  la  mangea  '.  Quelques  pas  plus  loin,  une  seconde 
cerise  s'^chappa  des  mains  du  p^re,  et  Thomas  la  saisit  avec 
le  m^me  empressement.  Le  p^re  fit '  de  m^me  avec  toutes  les 
cerises.  Lorsque  I'enfant  eut  port^  k  la  bouche  la  derni^re 
cerise,  le  p^re  se  retouma  et  lui  dit  *:  «  Vois  *",  mon  ami,  tu  n'as 
pas  voulu  "  te  baisser  une  fois  pour  ramasser  le  fer  k  cheval,  et 
tu  as  6i6  oblige  "  de  te  baisser  plus  de  vingt  fois  pour  ramasser 
les  cerises.  » 

»  S  193.  <  J  198-  »  §  174.  •  §  156.  u  j  225. 

»  i  210.  »  §  158.  •  §  206.  «>  5  224.  "  §  156. 

»  5  223.  •  §  195. 

B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:   1.  II  ne  dit  rien.      2.  II 


vendit  le  fer,  3.  II  mourait  de  soif.  4.  II  mangea  une 
cerise.  5.  II  la  saisit.  6.  II  fit  de  meme.  7.  lis  se  remirent 
en  route.  8.  II  s'echappa  de  ses  mains.  9.  II  se  retourna. 
10.  Tu  t'es  baisse. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  De  quelles  personnes  parle-t-on  dans  cette  his- 
toire?  2.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  qu'un  paysan?  3.  Etait-il  seul? 
4.  Qu'est-ce  qu'ils  ont  vu  en  chemin?  5.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est 
qu'un  fer  a  cheval?  6.  Qu'est-ce  que  le  pere  a  dit  au  fils? 
7.  Qu'est-ce  que  le  fils  a  repondu?  8.  Lequel  des  deux  6tait 
le  plus  prudent?  9.  Par  quelle  action  a-t-il  montr6  sa  pru- 
dence? 10.  A  qui  a-t-on  vendu  le  fer  a  cheval?  11.  Pour- 
quoi  I'a-t-on  vendu  k  un  marechal  ferrant?  12.  Qu'est-ce 
qu'on   a   achet6   avec   I'argent?       13.  Quel    temps   faisait-il? 

14.  Quel    6tait  I'effet   de  la   chaleur    sur    le    petit    Thomas? 

15.  Est-ce  que  le  pere  n'avait  rien  pour  la  soif?  16.  Est-ce 
que  les  cerises  sont  bonnes  pour  la  soif?  17.  Qu'est-ce  que  le 
p^re  a  fait  des  cerises?  18.  Et  qu'est-ce  que  son  fils  en  a  fait? 
19.  Combien  en  a-t-il  mangles?  20.  Pourquoi  aurait-il  mieux 
fait  de  se  baisser  pour  le  fer  a  cheval? 

D.  1.  It  was  not  worth  the  trouble.  2.  It  will  not  be 
worth  the  trouble.  3.  If  it  is  worth  the  trouble,  we  shall 
pick  up  the  horseshoe.  4.  Put  the  horseshoe  into  your  pocket 
and  buy  cherries.  5.  We  shall  set  out  again  on  our  journey. 
6.  If  the  sun  is  hot,  they  will  not  set  out  again.  7.  I  am 
very  thirsty  (dying  with  thirst) ;  give  me  some  cherries.  8.  We 
have  difficulty  in  picking  up  the  cherries.  9.  If  you  are  dying 
with  thirst,  I  shall  drop  a  cherry.  10.  The  cherries  are  on  the 
ground;  pick  them  up.  11.  If  you  walk  ahead,  will  you  pick 
up  the  cherries?  12.  A  few  steps  farther  on,  I  stooped  to 
pick  up  the  horseshoe.  13.  Why  did  you  seize  the  horseshoe 
so  eagerly?  14.  We  did  not  seize  it  eagerly.  15.  If  you  had 
been  wilUng  to  turn  around,  we  should  have  given  you  the 
cherries.      16.  Stoop,  if  you  wish  to  pick  them  up. 

E.  As  a  peasant  and  his  son  were  crossing  the  country, 
they  saw  a  horseshoe  on  the  ground.  The  father  told  his  son 
to  pick  it  up  and  put  it  into  his  pocket.  The  son  replied  that 
it  was  not  worth  while  to  stoop  for  a  horseshoe.     Then  the 

LESSON  LI  207 

father  stooped  and  picked  it  up.  They  sold  it  to  the  black- 
smith of  the  neighboring  village,  and  bought  some  cherries, 
which  the  father  put  into  his  pocket.  They  pursued  their 
way,  the  father  walking  ahead.  The  sun  was  hot  and  Thomas 
was  very  thirsty,  and,  as  if  by  chance,  a  cherry  fell  from  his 
father's  pocket.  The  son  seizing  it,  ate  it,  and  also  a  second 
one,  which  slipped  from  his  father's  pocket.  Soon  the  last 
cherry  was  carried  to  his  myuth,  and  his  father,  turning  round, 
told  him  that  if  he  had  been  willing  to  stoop  once  for  the  horse- 
shoe, he  would  not  have  been  obliged  to  stoop  twenty  times  for 
the  cherries. 

LL   Fr§d6ric  le  Grand  et  son  Page 

A.  Un  jour  Frederic  le  Grand,  roi  de  Prusse,  ayant  8onn4 
sans  que  personne  r^pondit  *  k  cet  appel,  ouvrit  *  la  porte  de 
son  antichambre  et  trouva  son  page  endormi  *  sur  une  cluuse. 
Au  moment  oii  il  allait  *  le  r6veiller,  il  aper^ut '  un  papier  6crit  • 
sortant  ^  de  la  poche  du  page.  La  curiosity  du  roi  f ut  excit^e, 
il  prit  •  le  papier  et  le  lut '.  C'6tait  une  lettre  de  la  mdre  du 
jeune  homme,  dans  laquelle  elle  remerciait  son  fils  de  ce  qu'il 
lui  envoyait  *"  une  partie  de  ses  gages  pour  la  soulager  "  dana 
sa  misdre.  Le  roi,  ayant  lu  •  la  lettre,  prit  •  un  rouleau  de 
ducats  et  le  glissa  avec  la  lettre  dans  la  poche  du  page.  Un  ins- 
tant apr^s  il  sonna  si  fort  que  le  page  se  r^veilla  et  accourut " 
auprSs  de  lui.  «  Vous  avez  dormi ' »  lui  dit "  le  roi.  Le  jeune 
homme,  ayant  honte,  tdcha  de  s'excuser.  Dans  son  embarras  il 
mit "  la  main  dans  sa  poche,  et  y  trouva  le  rouleau  de  ducats. 
II  le  prit  *,  p&lit,  trembla,  et  ne  put  *'  articuler  un  seul  mot. 
€  Qu'avez-vous?  dit "  le  roi.  —  H^las!  sire,  dit "  le  page,  quel- 
qu'un  veut"  me  perdre*;  je  ne  sais  "  pas  d'od  m'est  venu  " 
cet  or.  —  La  fortune  ne  \nent-elle  "  pas  sou  vent  en  dormant '? 
reprit '  Fr^d^ric.  Envoie  '°  cette  somrae  i  ta  m^re,  en  lui  fai- 
sant  "  mes  compliments  et  assure-la  bien  que  j'aurai  soin  d'elle 
et  de  toi.  » 

»  §  210.  «  5  213.  •  5  197.  "  §  193.  "  §  222. 

»  §  176.  •  5  194.  »  §  157.  "  §  198.  "  §  178. 

»  §  166.  »  §  166.  "  §  156.  »  §  221.  »  §  195. 

M  160.  *  S  202.  u  S  164.  u  fi  225. 


B.  Complete  the  following,  as  above:  1.  Sans  qu'il  r^pondtt. 
2.  II  ouvrit  la  porte.  3.  II  lut  le  billet.  4.  II  allait  le 
r^veiller.      5.  II  apergut  un  papier.      6.  II  remerciait  le  roi. 

7.  II   envoyait  I'argent.       8.  II   prit  le  rouleau. 

C.  (Oral.)  1.  Quel  est  le  sujet  de  cette  anecdote?  2.  A 
quelle  epoque  vivait  Frederic  le  Grand?  3.  Ou  est  la  Prusse? 
4.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  qu'un  page?  5.  Ou  6tait  le  page  dont 
parle  I'histoire?  6.  Qu'est-ce  qu'll  y  faisait?  7.  Qu'est-ce 
que  les  pages  devraient  faire  dans  les  antichambres  des  rois? 

8.  Est-ce  que   le    roi    s'est    mis    en    colere    contre   le    page? 

9.  Qu'est-ce  qu'il  a  fait?  10.  En  lisant  la  lettre  qu'est-ce 
que  le  roi  a  decouvert?  11.  Est-ce  que  la  mere  du  page  6tait 
riche?  12.  Qu'est-ce  que  le  page  faisait  pour  elle?  13.  Le 
roi  en  etait-il  content?  14.  De  quelle  fagon  a-t-il  montr6  son 
contentement?  15.  Comment  le  jeune  homme  a-t-il  decouvert 
ce  que  le  roi  avait  fait  ?     16.  Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  qu'un  ducat? 

17.  Que    pensait-il    en    sentant    les    ducats    dans    sa    poche? 

18.  De  quelle    fagon    le    roi    a-t-il    calm6  le  jeune  homme? 

19.  Est-ce  que  le  proverbe  est  toujours  vrai:  « La  fortune 
nous  vient  en  dormant?  » 

D.  One  day  Frederick  the  Great  rang,  and  nobody  answered 
him.  Opening  the  door  of  the  antechamber,  he  finds  his  page 
asleep.  A  letter,  which  was  sticking  out  of  the  page's  pocket, 
aroused  the  king's  curiosity.  The  young  man  used  to  send  his 
mother  a  part  of  his  wages,  and  in  this  letter  she  was  thanking 
him  for  it.  The  king  read  the  letter,  and,  taking  a  roll  of 
ducats,  sUpped  it,  with  the  letter,  into  the  young  man's  pocket. 
Then  ringing  very  loud,  he  waked  the  page,  who  hastened  into 
his  presence.  He  asked  the  young  man  if  he  had  been  asleep. 
The  young  man  was  ashamed,  and  tried  to  excuse  himself. 
Putting  his  hand  into  his  pocket  he  finds  the  ducats.  He 
trembles,  and  cannot  utter  a  word.  The  king  asked  him  what 
was  the  matter  with  him,  and  he  replied  that  somebody  wished 
to  ruin  him,  for  he  did  not  know  where  the  ducats  came  from. 
The  king  replies  that  good  luck  comes  to  us  often  while  we 
sleep.    He  tells  the  page  that  he  will  take  care  of  his  mother. 

J                 5       P 

\)    in      'J       ^^h^  A     1 


%           „  /  la  J    (5 

-.  **    i  UIM 

CO                          1 


JTj           } ^      jc     ^       / 

f                  *"  Y             1 

'pi  si) 


S  SIS' 




n«  ^5 

^</  tit 







c  tS^ 






153.  Regular  Conjugations.  R^ular  verbs  are  conven- 
iently divided  into  three  classes  or  conjugations,  according 
as  the  present  infinitive  ends  in  -er,  -ir,  -re,  and  are  inflected 
in  their  simple  tenses  as  follows: 

donn  er,  to  gipe 

Infinitive  Mood 


fin  ir,  to  finish 



romp  re,  to  break 

donn  ant,  giving 

donn  6,  given 


/  give,  am  giving, 


je  donn  e 

tu  donn  es 

il  donn  e 

nous  donn  ons 

vons  donn  ez 

ils  donn  ent 



fin  iss  ant,  finishing 


fin  i,  finished 

Indicative  Mood 

/  finish,  am  finishing, 
je  fin  i  s 
tu  finis 
nous  fin  iss  ons 
vons  fin  iss  ez 
ils  fin  iss  ent 


romp  ant,  breaking 


romp  u,  broken 


/  break,  am  breaking, 


je  romp  s 

tu  romp  s 

fl  romp  t 

nous  romp  ons 

vous  romp  ez 

ils  romp  ent 




/  was  giving,  iised 
to  give,  etc. 

je  donn  ais 

tu  donn  ais 

il  donn  ait 

nous  donn  ions 

vous  donn  iez 

ils  donn  aient 


I  was  finishing,  iised 
to  finish,  etc. 

je  fin  iss  ais 

tu  fin  iss  ais 

il  fin  iss  ait 

nous  fm  iss  ions 

vous  fin  iss  iez 

ils  fin  iss  aient 


/  was  breaking,  itsed 
to  break,  etc. 

je  romp  ais 

tu  romp  ais 

il  romp  ait 

nous  romp  ions 

vous  romp  iez 

ils  romp  aient 

Past  Definite 
/  gave,  etc. 

je  donn  ai 

tu  donn  as 

il  donn  a 

nous  donn  ames 

vous  donn  ates 

ils  donn  erent 

Past  Definite 
I  finished,  etc. 

je  fin  is 

tu  fin  is 

U  fin  it 
nous  fin  imes 
vous  fin  ites 

ils  fin  irent 

Past  Definite 
/  broke,  etc. 

je  romp  is 

tu  romp  is 

il  romp  it 

nous  romp  imes 

vous  romp  ites 

ils  romp  irent 

/  shaU  give,  etc. 

je  dormer  ai 

tu  donner  as 

U  donner  a 

nous  donner  ons 

vous  donner  ez 

ils  donner  ont 

/  shaU  finish,  etc. 

je  finir  ai 

tu  finir  as 

il  finir  a 

nous  finir  ons 

vous  finir  ez 

Us  finir  ont 

/  shall  break,  etc. 

je  rompr  ai 

tu  rompr  as 

il  rompr  a 

nous  rompr  ons 

vous  rompr  ez 

ils  rompr  ont 


I  should  give,  etc. 

je  donner  ais 

tu  donner  ais 

il  donner  ait 

nous  donner  ions 

vous  donner  iez 

ils  donner  aient 

/  should  finish,  etc. 

je  finir  ais 

tu  finir  ais 

il  finir  ait 

nous  finir  ions 

vous  finir  iez 

ils  finir  aient 


/  should  break,  etc. 

je  rompr  ais 

tu  rompr  ais 

il  rompr  ait 

nous  rompr  ions 

vous  rompr  iez 

ils  rompr  aient 



Give,  etc. 
donn  e* 
(qu'il  donn  e) 
donn  ons 
donn  ez 
(qu'ils  donn  ent) 

♦  This  form  becomes 
ob$.  3.  4). 


(That)  I  (may)  give, 


(que)  je  donn  e 

(que)  tu  donn  es 

(qu')  il  donn  e 

(que)  nous  donn  ions 

(que)  vous  donn  iez 

(qu')  ils  donn  ent 

Imperative  Mood 
Finish,  etc. 
fin  is 
(qu'il  fin  iss  e) 
fin  iss  ons 
fin  iss  ez 
(qu'ils  fin  iss  ent) 

donn  es  when  followed  by  -y  or  -en  (cf.  {  370,  3, 

Break,  etc. 
(qu'il  romp  e) 
romp  ons 
romp  ez 
(qu'ils  romp  ent) 



I  (might)  give, 

Subjunctive  Mood 

(That)  f  (may)  finish, 
(que)  je  fin  iss  e 
(que)  tu  fin  iss  es 
(qu')  il  fin  iss  e 
(que)  nous  fin  iss  ions 
(que)  vous  fin  iss  iez 
(qu')  ils  fin  iss  ent 


(That)  I  (might)  finish, 

(que)  je  donn  asse  (que)  je  fin  isse 

(que)  tu  donn  asses  (que)  tu  fin  isses 

(qu')  il  donn  At  (qu')  il  fin  it 

(que)  nous  donn  assions  (que)  nous  fin  issions 

(que)  vous  donn  assiez  (que)  vous  fin  issiez 

(qu')  ils  donn  assent  (qu')  ils  fin  issent 


(That)  I  (may)  break, 


(que)  je  romp  e 

(que)  tu  romp  es 

(qu')  il  romp  e 

(que)  nous  romp  ions 

(que)  vous  romp  iez 

(qu')  ils  romp  ent 


(That)  I  (might)  break, 
(que)  je  romp  isse 
(que)  tu  romp  isses 
(qu')  il  romp  it 
(que)  nous  romp  issions 
(que)  vous  romp  issiez 
(qu')  ils  romp  issent 


164.  The  auxiliary  verbs  avoir,  to  have,  and  etre,  to  be, 
are  conjugated  in  their  simple  tenses  as  follows: 

Pres.     avoir,  to  have  Pres.     ^tre,  to  be 

Pres.  ayant,  having 
Past,  eu,  had 




Fees,  etant,  being 
Past,  ete,  been 

/  have,  am  having,  etc. 

j'ai    nous  avons 
tu  as    vous  avez 
il  a         ils  ont 

I  had,  was  having,  etc. 
j'avais    nous  avions 
tu  avals    vous  aviez 
il  avait        ils  avaient 

/  am,  am  being,  etc. 

je  suis    nous  sommes 
tu  es        vous  etes 
il  est         ils  sont 


I  was,  was  being,  etc. 

j'etais     nous  6tion8 

tu  6tais    vous  6tiez 

il  ctait        ils  6taient 

Past  Definite 

Past  Definite 

/  had,  etc. 

/  was,  etc. 

j'eus    nous  ellmes 
tu  eus    vous  eAtes 
il  eut        ils  eurent 

je  fus    nous  fiimes 
tu  fus     vous  ftltes 
il  fut        ils  furent 



/  shall  have,  etc. 

/  shall  be,  etc. 

j'aurai    nous  aurons 

je  serai     nous  serons 

tu  auras    vous  aurez 
il  aura         ils  auront 

tu  seras     vous  serez 
il  sera          ils  seront 



I  shovM  have,  etc. 

/  shovld  be,  etc. 

i'aurais    nous  aurions 

je  serais    nous  serions 

tu  aurais    vous  auriez 
il  aurait        ils  auraient 

tu  serais    vous  seriez 
il  serait        ils  seraient 


Present                                          Present 

Have,  etc. 

Be,  etc. 

aie                     ayez 
(qu'il  ait)         (qu'ils  aient) 

sois                      soyez 
(qu'il  soit)         (qu'ils  soient) 




(That)  I  {may)  have,  etc. 
(que)  j'aie     (que)  nous  ayons 
(que)  tu  aies    (que)  vous  ayez 
(qu')  il  ait  (qu')  ils  aient 


(That)  I  {migfU)  have,  etc. 
(que)  j'eusse    (que)  nous  eussions 
(que)  tu  eusscs  (que)  vous  eussiez 
(qu')  il  eAt  (qu')  ils  eussent 

(That)  I  {may)  be,  etc. 
(que)  je  aoia     (que)  nous  soyons 
(que)  tu  sois     (que)  vous  soyez 
(qu')  il  soit         (qu')  ils  soient 


(That)  I  {might)  be,  etc. 
(que)  jc  f usse    (que)  nous  fussions 
(que)  tu  fusses  (que)  vous  f ussiez 
(qu')  il  fdt  (qu')  ils  fussent 


156.  Formation.  Compound  tonses  are  formed  from  the 
past  participle  of  the  principal  verb  along  with  an  auxiliary 
verb  (usually  avoir,  sometimes  etre),  see  §§  227-229. 

Avoir  ktre 


To  have  given 
avoir  donn6 

Having  given 
ayant  donn6 

Past  Indefintfe 
I  have  given,  etc. 

j'ai  donn6 
tu  as  donn6,  etc. 

/  had  given,  etc. 
j 'avals  donn6,  etc. 



To  have  arrived 
6tre  arrive  (e)(8) 


Having  arrived 
€tant  arriv6(e)C8) 

Past  Indefinttb 
/  have  arrived,  etc. 
je  suis  arriv^(e) 
tu  es  arrive  (e),  etc. 

7  had  arrived,  etc. 
j'dtais  arriv6(e),  etc. 



Past  Anterior 
/  had  given,  etc. 
j'eus  donne,  etc. 

Future  Anterior 

/  shaU  have  given,  etc. 

j'aurai  donne,  etc. 

Conditional  Anterior 

I  should  have  given,  etc. 
j'aurais  donne,  etc. 


Past  Anterior 
/  had  arrived,  etc. 
je  fus  arrive (e),  etc. 

Future  Anterior 
/  shall  have  arrived,  etc. 
je  serai  aiTiv6(e),  etc. 

Conditional  Anterior 

7  should  have  arrived,  etc. 

je  serais  arrive(e),  etc . 


(That)  I  (may)  have  given,  etc. 

(que)  j'aie  donn6,  etc. 


(That)  I  (might)  have  given,  etc. 

(que)  j'eusse  donn^,  etc. 


(That)  I  (may)  have  arrived,  etc. 

(que)  je  sois  arriv6(e),  etc. 


(That)  I  (might)  have  arrived,  etc. 

(que)  je  fusse  arrive (e),  etc 


156.  Verbs  in  -cer  and  -ger 

1,  Verbs  in  -cer,  e.g.,  avancer  [a vase],  to  advance,  require  the  [s] 
sound  of  c  throughout  their  conjugation,  and  hence  c  becomes  f  before 
a  or  o  of  an  ending  (§  5,  4),  but  not  elsewhere: 

Pres.  Part.     Pres.  Indie.  Impf.  Indie.  Past  Def.  Impf.  Subj. 

avangant        avance  avanfais  avanfai  avanfasse 

avances  avanfais  avangas  avanjasses 

avance  avanfait  avanfa  avanfat 

avanfons  avancions  avan5S,me3  avanfassions 

avancez  avanciez  avanfates  avanjassiez 

avancent  avanfaient  avancSrent  avanpassent 

2.  Verbs  in  -ger,  e.g.,  manger  [mace],  to  eat,  require  the  [[3.1  sound 
of  g  throughout  their  conjugation,  and  hence  g  becomes  ge  before  a  or 
o  (§  19,  2),  but  not  elsewhere: 


Pres.  Part. 

Pres.  Indie. 

Impf.  Indie. 

Past  Def. 

Impf.  Sul^. 







mange  ais 



















167.  Verbs  in  -yer 

Verba  in  -oyer  and  -uyer  change  y  to  i  whenever  it  oomee  before  Qa] 
in  conjugation,  but  not  elsewhere;  verbs  in  -ayer  and  -eyer  may  either 
retain  y  throughout,  or  change  it  to  i  before  [aj: 

Pres.  Indie. 
nettoie,  etc. 

xe,  J  paie,  J 

Pres.  Svbj. 

nettoie,  etc. 



nettoierai,  etc. 


nettoierais,  etc 


168.  Verbs  with  Stem-vowel  e  or  e 

Verbs  with  stem-vowel  e  require  the  [e]  sound  of  e  (§  12,  1)  when- 
ever, in  conjugation,  the  next  syllable  contains  [a],  i.e.,  when  the  stress 
fails  on  the  stem-vowel;  so  also  verbs  with  the  stem-vowel  6,  shown 
orthc^raphically  as  follows:  — 

1.  By  changing  e  or  e  to  d  (§  12,  1),  e.g.,  mener,  to  lead,  ceder,  to 

Pres.  Indie. 

Pres.  Svbj. 



























But  ceder  with  the  stem- vowel  6: 

cide,  etc.   cide,  etc.   cederai  [[8ed(3)re]],  ete.   c^derais  [sed(3)rEl  etc. 

06s.:  In  men^je  ?  [mancsl  e  of  the  ending  is  not  mute,  and  hence 
the  stem- vowel  e  is  unchanged. 

Like  mener:  Verbs  with  stem- vowel  e  (for  exceptions  in  -eler  and 
-«ter,  see  below). 




Like  ceder:  Verbs  with  stem- vowel  e  +  consonant,  e.g.,  regner, 
reign,  etc. 

Note.  —  Verbs  like  creer,  create,  with  stem-vowel  followed  by  a  vowel, 
are  regular:   Je  cree,  etc. 

2.  Most  verbs  in  -eler,  -eter,  however,  indicate  the  [e]  sound  by 
doubhng  1  or  t,  e.g.,  appeler,  to  call,  jeter,  to  throw: 

Pres.  Indie. 

Pres.  Subj. 





.  appelle 








So  also,  jeter: 

jette,  etc. 

jette,  etc. 


jetterai,  etc. 








jetterais,  etc. 

A  few  verbs  in  -eler,  -eter  take  the  grave  accent  precisely  like  mener, 
e.g.,  acheter,  to  buy: 

achete,  etc.  achete,  etc.  acheterai,  etc.  acheterais,  etc. 

Exceptions  like  acheter: 

agneler,  lamb 
becqueter,  peck 
bourreler,  goad,  torture 
demanteler,  dismantle 
6carteler,  quarter 

6pousseter,  dust 
etiqueter,  label 
geler,  freeze 
harceler,  harass 
marteler,  hammer 

modeler,  model 
peler,  peel 
rapieceter,  patch 
trompet«r,  trumpet 

*  Fut.  epousseterai  according  to  the  Dictionnaire  de  VAcadimie. 
Exceptions  like  appeler  or  acheter: 

crocheter,  pick  (a  lock) 

botteler,  hale  (hay,  etc.) 
caaneler,  groove 

caqueter,  cackle 
ciseler,  chisel 


159.  Principal  Parts.  By  the  following  rules,  the  various 
tenses  of  all  regular  verbs  and  of  most  irregular  verbs  may 
be  known  from  five  forms  of  the  verb,  called  principal  parts 
or  primary  tenses :  — 

1.  The-  Infinitive  gives  the  Future  by  adding  -ai,  -as,  -a,  -ons,  -ez, 
•ont,  and  the  Conditional  by  adding  -ais,  -ais,  -ait,  -ions,  -iez,  -aient 

§§  160-161  IRREGULAR   VERBS   IN  -EB  9 

—  dropping  the  final  infinitive  -e  of  the  third  conjugation  for  both 

2.  The  Present  Participle  gives  the  Imperfect  Indicative  by  changing 
-ant  into  -ais,  -ais,  -ait,  -ions,  -iez,  -aient,  and  the  Present  Svhjunctive 
by  changing  -ant  into  -e,  -es,  -e,  -ions,  -iez,  -ent 

3.  The  Past  Participle  gives  the  Compound  Tenses,  with  the  auxiliary 
avoir  (§  227)  or  etre  (§  228),  and  the  Passive,  with  the  auxiliary  €tre 

4.  The  Present  Indicative  gives  the  Imperative  by  dropping  the 
pronoun  subject  of  the  second  singular  and  first  and  second  plural, 
the  -s  of  the  first  conjugation  second  singular  being  also  dropped, 
except  before  y  and  en  (cf.  §  370,  3,  obs.  3,  4). 

5.  The  Past  Definite  gives  the  Imperfect  Subjunctive  by  changing  the 
final  letter  of  the  first  singular  (-i  or  -s)  into  -sse,  -sses,  -t,  -ssions, 
-ssiez,  -ssent,  and  putting  a  circumflex  accent  over  the  last  vowel  of 
the  third  singular. 

Obs.:  The  tensoa,  except  the  future  and  conditional,  are  not  really 
derived  from  the  principal  parts,  as  is  sometimes  said  in  grammars:  the 
method  is  merely  an  aid  to  memory. 


160.  Aller,  to  go 

1.  Infinitive,  aller;  fut.  *  irai,  iras,  ira,  etc.;  condl.  irais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  allant;  impf.  indie,  allais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  aille  [a:'}], 
aiUes,  aille,  aliions,  alliez,  aillent. 

3.  Past  Part,  alle ;  past  indef.  je  suis  all^,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  vais  [ye],  vas,  va,  allons,  allez,  vont;  impve.  va 
(vas-y),  allons,  allez. 

5.  Past  Def.  allai,  alias,  alia,  alldmes,  all&tes,  alldrent;  impf.  subj. 
allasse,  allasses,  allSt,  allassions,  allassiez,  allassent. 

*  The  stem  of  the  future  is  from  the  Latin  infinitive  ire. 
Like  aller: 
s'en  alter,  go  atoay. 

161.  Envoyer,  to  send 

1.  Infinitive,  envoyer;  fut.  enverrai,  etc.;  condl.  enverrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  envoyant;  impf.  indie,  envoyais,  envoyais,  envoyait, 
envoyions  QavwaijS],  envojnez,  envoyaient;  pres.  subj.  envoie,  envoies, 
envoie,  envoyions  [avwaijSl  envoyiez,  envoient. 

10  THE  VERB  §§  162-164 

3.  Past  Part,  envoye;  past  indef.  j'ai  envoys,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  envoie,  envoies,  envoie,  envoyons,  envoyez,  envoient; 
impve.  envoie,  envoyons,  envoyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  envoyai,  envoyas,  envoya,  envoyames,  en\oydte8, 
envoy^rent;  impf.  subj.  envoyasse,  envoyasses,  envoyat,  envoyassiona, 
envoyassiez,  envoyassent. 

Like  envoy er: 
renvoyer,  send  away,  dismiss 


162.  Acquerir,  to  acquire 

1.  Infinitive,  acquerir;  fttt.  acquerrai,  acquerras,  etc.;  condl.  acquer- 
rais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  acquerant;  impf.  indie,  acqu^rais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj. 
acquiere,  acquieres,  acquiere,  acqu6rions,  acqueriez,  acquierent. 

3.  Past  Part,  acquis;  past  indef.  j'ai  acquis,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  acquiers,  acquiers,  acquiert,  acqudrons,  acqudrez, 
acqnidrent;    impve.  acquiers,   acquerons,  acquerez. 

5.  Past  Def.  acquis,  acquis,  acquit,  acquimes,  acquttes,  acquirent; 
impf.  subj.  acquisse,  acquisses,  acquit,  acquissions,  acquissiez,  acquissent. 

Like  acquerir: 

conqu6rir,  conquer  *  querir  or  qu^rir,  seek  requSrir,  require,  claim 

s'enquerir,  inquire  reconquerir,  reconquer 

*  Has  only  the  infinitive. 

163.  Benir,  to  hless 

Is  regular,  but  has  also  an  irregular  past  participle  benit,  used  only 
as  adjective: 

De  Peau  binite;  du  pain  henit        Holy  water;  consecrated  bread 

164.  Courir,  to  run 

1.  Infinitive,  courir;  fut.  courrai,  courras,  etc.;  condl.  C3urrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  courant;  impf.  indie,  courais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  coure, 
coures,  coure,  courions,  couriez,  courent. 

3.  Past  Part,  couru;  past  indef.  j'ai  couru,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  cours,  cours,  court,  courons,  courez,  courent;  impve. 
cours,  courons,  courez. 

5.  Pa^t  Def.  courus,   courus,    courut,   courAmes,  courAtes,  couru- 

§§  165-166  IRREGULAR  VERBS   IN  -IR  11 

rent;   impf.  subj.  courusae,  oourusacs,  courAt,  couruasions,  oouniasiez, 

Like  courir  are  its  compounds: 
accourir,  run  up,  hasten         discourir,  discourse      recourir,  run  aoain,  apjiy 
concourir,  codperate,  con-       encourir,  incur  aecourir,  succor,  help 

cur,  compete  parcourir,  run  over 

Note.  —  Courre,  chase  (a  hunting  term),  sometimes  replaces  coorir  in 
the  infinitive. 

165.  Cueillir,  to  gather,  pick 

1.  Infinitive,  cueillir;  fut.  cueillerai,  etc.;  amdl.  cueillerais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  cueillant;  impf.  indie,  cueillais,  etc.;  pres.  nibj. 
cueille,  cueilles,  cueille,  cueiilions,  cueilliez,  cucillent. 

3.  Past  Part,  cueilli;   past  indef.  j'ai  cueilli,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  cueille,  cueilles,  cueille,  cueillons,  cueiUei,  cueillent; 
impve.  cueille,  cueillons,  cueillez. 

5.  Past  Def.  cueillis,  cueillLs,  cueillit,  cueilltmes,  cueillftes,  cueilli- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  cueillisae,  cueilliaaes,  cueillit,  cueilliasions,  cueilliasiex, 

06s.:  The  present  indicative,  futxue,  and  conditional  are  like  those  of 

Like  cueillir: 
accueillir,  welcome  *  aasaillb',  assail  *  tressaillir,  start 

recueillir,  oather,  collect  t  saillir,  jut  out 

*  Regular  in  future  and  conditional:   assaiUirai,  etc 

t  Saillir,  fpuh  out,  rush  forth,  is  regular,  like  finir. 

166.  Dormir,  to  sleep 

1.  Infinitive,  dormir;  fut.  dormirai,  etc.;   condl.  dormirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  dormant;  impf.  indie,  dormais,  etc.;  pres.  subj. 
dorme,  dormes,  dorme,  dormions,  dormiez,  dorment. 

3.  Past  Part,  doyii;  past  indef.  j'ai  dormi,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  dors,  dors,  dort,  dormons,  dormez,  dorment;  impve. 
dors,  dormons,  dormez. 

5.  Past  Def.  dormis,  dormis,  dormit,  dormhncs,  dormttes,  dormirent ; 
impf.  subj.  dormiase,  dormisses,  dormtt,  dcuinissions,  dormissiez, 

Like  dormir: 

endormir,  put  to  sleep  se  rendormir,  go  to  sleep  ^bouillir,  boQ  avxiy 

e'endormir,  fall  asleep  again  rebotiillir,  boil  again 

rendormir,  put  to  sleep  redormir,  sleep  again  mentir,  lie 

again  bouillir,  boil  d6mentir,  contradict,  belit 

12  THE  VERB  §§  167-169 

partir,  set  out  se  repentir,  repent  servir,  serve 

departir,  distribute  eentir,  feel  se  servir,  make  use 

Be  departir,  desist  consentir,  consent  desservir,  clear  the  table 

repartir,  set  out  again,  pressentir,  forebode  sortir,  go  out 

reply  ressentir,  resent  ressortir,  go  out  again 

Note.  —  Asservir,  enslave,  assortir,  sort,  match,  ressortir,  depend  (on, 

a),  repartir,  distribute,  are  like  finir. 

Observe  the  Present  Indicative  of  the  following  types,  which  axe 
represented  in  the  above  list: 

botxillir:  bons,  bous,  bout^  bouillons,  bonillez,  bouillent 

mentir:    mens,  mens,  ment,  mentons,  mentez,  mentent 

partir:  pars,  pars,  part,  partons,  partez,  partent 

se  repentir:   repens,  repens,  repent,  repentons,  repentez,  repentant 

sentir:   sens,  sens,  sent,  sentons,  sentez,  sentent 

servir:   sers,  sers,  sert,  servons,  servez,  servent 

sortir:  sors,  sors,  sort,  sortons,  sortez,  sortent 

167.  Faillir,  to  fail 

1.  Infinitive,  faillir;  fut.  faudrai,  faudras,  etc.;  condl.  faudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  faillant;  impf.  indie,  faillais,  etc.;  pres.  suhj.  faille, 
failles,  faille,  faillions,  failliez,  faillent. 

3.  Past  Part,  failli;   past  indef.  j'ai  failli,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  faux,  faux,  faut,  faillons,  faillez,  faillent;     impve. 

}  >  • 

5.  Past  Def.  faillis,  faillis,  faillit,  faUlimes,  failli tes,  faillirent;  impf. 
svbj.  faiUisse,  faillisses,  faillit,  faUlissions,  faillissiez,  faillissent. 

Note.  —  The  irreg.  forms  of  pres.  indie,  fut.,  and  condl.  are  usually 
replaced  by  the  regular  forms  (of.  finir). 

Like  faillir: 
difaillir,  faint,  fail  (pres.  indie,  usually  defaus,  defaus,  defaut) 
Note.  —  Faillir,  fail  in  business,  is  usually  hke  finir. 

168.  Ferir,  to  strike 

Used  only  in  Sans  coup  ferir,  Without  striking  a  blow,  and  in  the 
past  part,  feru,  wounded  (a  veterinary  term). 

169.  Fleurir,  to  flourish,  etc. 

Pres.  Part,  florissant;  impf.  indie,  florissais,  etc.  when  used  of  per- 
sons or  a  collection  of  p>er8ons,  or  jfleurissais,  etc.,  when  used  of  things, 
otherwise  like  finir. 

Note.  —  Fleurir,  blossom,  bloom  (in  a  literal  sense)  is  like  finir. 

S$  170-174  IRREGULAR  VTIRBS   IX  -IR  13 

170.  Fuir,  to  flee,  fly 

1.  Infinitive,  fuir;  ful.  fuirai,  etc.;  condl.  fuirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  fuyant;    impf.  indie,  fuyais,  etc.;    pres.  subj.  fuie, 
fuies,  fuie,  fuyions,  fuyiez,  fuient. 

3.  Past  Part,  fui;  past  indef.  j'ai  fui,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  fuis,  fuis,  fuit,  fuyons,  fuyez,  fuient;    impoe.  fuis, 
fuyons,  fuyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  fuis,  fuis,  fuit,  fulmes,  fuitcs,  fuirent;  imp/,  subj.  fuiase. 
fuisses,  fuit,  fuissioDS,  fuissiez,  fuiasent. 

Like  fuir: 
s'enfuir,  flee,  escape 

171.  G^sir,  to  lie,  lie  buried 

1.  Infinitive.  g6sir;  fvl. ;  condl. . 

2.  Pres.  Part,  gisant;   impf.  indie,  gisais,  etc.;    pres.  subj.  . 

3.  Past  Part. . 

4.  Pres.  Indie.  ,  ,  git,  gisons,  giaez,  giaent;  impoe.  , 

t  • 

6.  Past  Def. ;  impf.  subj • 

NoTB.  —  Its  most  frequent  use  is  in  epitaphs:    Ci-glt,  Here  lies,  Ci- 
gisent.  Here  lie. 

172.  Hair,  to  hale 

1.  Infinitive,  hair;  fut.  hairai,  etc.;  cotidl.  hairais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  halssant;  impf.  indie,  haissais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  halase, 
haisses,  haiase,  halssions,  h^Lssiez,  haiascnt. 

3.  Past  Part,  hid;   past  indef.  j'ai  hal,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  hais,  hais,  bait,  haiiasons,  haiaaez,  halssent;    impve. 
hais,  haissons,  haissez. 

5.  Past  Def.  hais,  hais,  halt,  haimes,  haites,  halrent;   impf.  subj. 
haisse,  haisses,  bait,  halssions,  halssiez,  halssent. 

06a.:    Hair  loses  its  diffiresis  in  the  present  indicative  and    imperative 
singular,  and  takes  no  circumflex  accent;    otherwise  like  finir. 

173.  Issir,  to  spring  (from,  de),  etc. 

Used  oiJy  in  the  past  part,  issu;  pa^  indef.  je  suis  issu,  etc. 

174.  Mourir,  to  die 

1.   Infinitive,  mourir;  fut.  mourrai,  mourras,  etc.;  condl.  mourraia, 
etc.  • 

14  THE  VERB  §§  175-177 

2.  Pres.  Part,  mourant;  impf.  indie,  mourais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj.  meure, 
meures,  meure,  mourions,  mouriez,  meurent. 

3.  Past  Part,  mort;  past  indef.  je  suis  mort,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  meiirs,  meurs,  meurt,  mourons,  mourez,  meurent; 
impve.  meurs,  mourons,  mourez. 

5.  Past  Def.  mourus,  mourus,  mourut,  mourAmes,  mouriites,  mou- 
rurent;  impf.  svbj.  mourusse,  mourusses,  mourut,  mourussions,  mou- 
russiez,  mourussent. 

Obs.:   The  stem- vowel  becomes  eu  wherever  it  bears  the  stress. 

Like  mourir: 
se  mourir,  be  dying  (used  only  in  infin.,  pres.  indie.,  impf.  indie.) 

175.  Ouir,  to  hear 

Is  hardly  used  beyond  the  infinitive  and  past  participle:  j'ai  oul 
dire,  I  have  heard  said,  etc. 

176.  Ouvrir,  to  open 

1.  Infinitive,  ouvrir;  ftit.  ouvrirai,  etc.;   condl.  ouvriraia,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  ouvrant;  impf.  indie,  ouvrais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj.  ouvre, 
ouvres,  ouvre,  ouvrions,  ouvriez,  ouvrent. 

3.  Past  Part,  ouvert;  past  indef.  j'ai  ouvert,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  ouvre,  ouvres,  ouvre,  ouvrons,  ouvrez,  ouvrent; 
impve.  ouvre,  ouvrons,  ouvrez. 

5.  Past  Def.  ouvris,  ouvris,  ouvrit,  ouvrimes,  ouvrltes,  ouvrirent; 
impf.  svbj.  ouvrisse,  ouvrisses,  ouvrit,  ouvrissions,  ouvrissiez,  ouvrissent. 

Obs.:   The  present  indicative  is  like  that  of  donner. 

Like  ouvrir: 

entr'ouvrir,  open  slightly  decouvrir,  discover  offrir,  offer 

rouvrir,  open  again  recouvrir,  cover  again  eouffrir,  suffer 

couvrir,  cover 

177.  Tenir,  to  hold 

1.  Infinitive,  tenir;  fvi.  tiendrai,  tiendras,  etc.;  condl.  tiendrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  tenant;  impf.  indie,  tenais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  tienne, 
tiennes,  tienne,  tenions,  teniez,  tiennent. 

3.  Past  Part,  tenu;   past  indef.  j'ai  tenu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie.  tienS)  tiens,  tient,  tenons,  tenez,  tiennent;  impve. 
tiens,  tenons,  tenez.  • 

§§  178-179  mREGUIAB   VERBS   IN  -IB  15 

5.  Past  Def.  tins,  tins,  tint,  ttnmes  [tgtml  ttntes  [15:  t],  tinrent 
[tg:r];  impf.  suhj.  ivaaae,  [ttis},  tinaaes,  tint,  tinaaions,  tinasiez,  tinssent. 

Ob*.:  The  stem-vowel  becomes  ie  wherever  it  bears  the  streoB. 

Like  tenir  are  its  compounda: 
s'abetenir,  abstain  d^teoir,  detain  obtenir,  o6totn 

appartenir,  belong  entretenir,  entertain  retenir,  ntain 

contenir,  contain  maintenir,  maintain  aoutemr,  sustain 

178.  Venir,  to  come 

1.  Infinitive,  venir;  ftU.  viendrai,  viendras,  etc.;  condl.  viendrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  venant;  impf.  indie,  venaia,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  vienne, 
viennes,  vienne,  veniona,  veniez,  viennent. 

3.  Pcist  Part,  venu;  past  indef.  je  suis  venu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  viens,  viens,  vient,  venoiia,  venez,  viennent;  impve. 
viens,  venona,  venez. 

5.  Past  Def.  vins,  vins,  vint,  vtnmes  [vf:m],  vtntes  [\'f:tl  vinrent 
[vSir];  impf.  subj.  vinase  [vCia],  vinases,  \1nt,  v-inaaions,  vinanes, 

Obs.:  1.  The  stem-vowel  becomes  ie  wherever  it  bears  the  stress. 
3.  Venir  is  precisely  like  tenir  in  its  irregularities,  but  owing  to  its  diffi- 
culty it  is  given  in  full. 

Like  venir  are  its  compounda: 

avenir,  happen  disconvenir,  fee  discordant  redevenir,  become  again 

advenir,  happen  intcrvenir,  intervene  se  souvenir,  recollect 

convenir,  agree,  suit  parvenir,  attain  subvenir,  aid 

contrevenir,  violate  pr6venir,  prevent,  anticipate  survenir,  occur 

circonvenir,  circumvent  provenir,  proceed  (from,  de)  se  ressou venir,  recollect 

devenir,  become  revenir,  come  back 

179.  Vetir,  to  clothe 

1.  Infinitive.  vStir;  fiU.  vfetirai,  etc.;  condl.  vfitirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  vetant;  impf.  indie.  vStaia,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  vfite,  v^tes, 
v6te,  vfitiona,  v§tiez,  v6tent. 

3.  Past  Part,  vfetu;   past  indef.  j'ai  vdtu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie.  vSts,  vSta,  v6t,  vfitona,  v6tez,  v6tent;  impve.  vdts, 
vfetona,  v^tez. 

5.  Past  Def.  vetis,  v6tis,  vStit,  vfittmes,  vfitttes,  vfitirent;  impf.  subj. 
vfitisae,  vdtisses,  vStit,  vStiaaiona,  vStiasiez,  vdUaaent. 

Like  v6tir: 

d^vfetir,  diveM  revfetir,  clothe,  invest     se  revfitir,  jnit  on  clothing 

Be  d6v6tir,  take  off  clothing 

16  THE   VERB  §§  180-183 


180.  Battre,  to  beat 

Loses  one  t  in  the  present  indicative  singular:  bats,  bats,  bat;  other- 
wise hke  rompre. 

Like  battre : 
abattre,  fell  dfebattre,  debate  rabattre,  beat  down 

combattre,  fight,  oppose  se  d^battre,  struggle 

181.  Boire,  to  drink 

1.  Infinitive,  boire;  ftU.  borrai,  etc.;  condl.  boirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  buvant;  impf.  indie,  buvais,  etc.;    pres.  Sfubj.  boive, 
boives,  boive,  buvions,  buviez,  boivent. 

3.  Past  Part,  bu;   past  indef.  j'ai  bu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  bois,  bois,  boit,  buvons,  buvez,  boivent;  impve.  bois, 
buvons,  buvez. 

5.  Past  Def.  bus,  bus,  but,  biimes,  bAtes,  burent;  impf.  subj.  busse, 
busses,  bAt,  bussions,  bussiez,  bussent. 

Like  boire: 
emboire,  coat  (in  painting)  imboire,  imbibe,  imbue 

B'emboire,  becorne  dull  (used  in  third  person)     reboire,  drink  again 

182.  Bruire,  to  murmur,  rustle 

1.  Infinitive,  bruire;  fvi.  bruirai,  etc.;   condl.  bruirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  bruyant;   impf.  indie,  bruyais,  etc.;   pres.  subj.  . 

3.  Past  Part,  bruit;  past  indef.  j'ai  bruit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  bruis,  bruis,  bruit,  ,  ,  ;   impve.  . 

6.  Past  Def.  ;   impf.  subj. . 

Notes. —  1.  The  pres.  part,  bruyant,  noisy,  is  used  as  adjective  onlyo 
2.   The  forms  bruissant,  bruissais,  etc.,  bruisse,  etc.,  are  also  in  use. 

183.  Clore,  to  close,  enclose 

1.  Infinitive,  clore;  fut.  clorai,  etc.;  condl.  clorais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part. ;  impf.  indie. ;  pres.  subj.  close,  closes,  close, 

closions,  closiez,  closent. 

3.  Past  Part,  clos;  past  indef.  j'ai  clcs,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  clos,  clos,  cl6t,  , , ;  impve. . 

5.  Past  Def. ;  impf.  siibj.  . 

SS  184-185  IRREGULAR  VflRBS  IN  -RB  17 

Like  dore: 

d6clore,  throw  open  t  enclore,  endoae 

♦  feclore,  fiatch,  open  (of  flowers)  tt  forclore,  foreclose,  debar 

*  Has  also  pres.  pi.  6dosons,  etc. ;  imp/,  indie.  6closais,  etc.  Its  future 
and  conditional  are  6clorai,  etc. 

t  Has  also  pres.  pi.  endosons,  etc. ;  pre».  part,  endosant ;  imp/,  indie. 
enclosais,  etc. 

tt  Hardly  used  beyond  the  infinitive,  past  partidide,  and  compound 

184.  Concltire,  to  conclude 

1.  Infinitive,  condtire;  ftU.  condurai,  etc.;  condl.  oondurais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  conduant;  impf.  indie,  concluais,  etc.;  pres.  tvi^. 
oonclue,  conclues,  conclue,  concluions,  concluiez,  oonduent. 

3.  Past  Part,  condu;  paM  indef.  j'ai  conclu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  condus,  conclus,  conclut,  concluons,  concluez,  oon- 
duent;  impve.  oonclus,  concluons,  concluez. 

5.  Past  Def.  condus,  conclus,  conclut,  conclAmes,  oonclAtes,  conclu- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  conclusse,  conclusses,  concldt,  conclussions,  oonclus- 
siez,  conclussent. 

Like  condure: 

exclure,  exclude  *  inclure,  enclose  t  reclure,  shut  up 

*  Past  Part,  indus. 

t  Used  only  in  infin.,  past  part.,  and  comp.  tenses.    Past  part,  redna. 

186.  Conduire,  to  conduct,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  conduire;  fxU.  conduirai,  etc.;  condl.  conduirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  conduisant;  impf.  indie,  conduisais,  etc.;  pres.  subj. 
oonduise,  conduiaes,  conduise,  oonduisions,  oonduisiez,  conduisent. 

3.  Past  Part,  conduit;  past  indef.  j'ai  conduit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  conduis,  conduis,  conduit,  conduisons,  oonduiscz, 
conduisent;   impve.  conduis,  conduisons,  conduisez. 

5.  Past  Def.  conduisis,  conduisis,  conduisit,  conduiafmes,  condui- 
attes,  conduisirent;  impf.  subj.  conduisisse,  oonduisisses,  oondui^t, 
conduisissions,  conduisissiez,  oonduisissent. 

Like  conduire: 

Be  conduire,  conduct  oneself  induire,  induce  reproduire,  reproduce 

feconduire,  show  out,  dismiss  introduire,  introduce  sfeduire,  seduce 

reconduire,  lead  back  prod  aire,  produce  traduire,  translate 

dMuire,  deduct  r^duire,  reduce  oonstruire,  construct 
enduire,  coat  (with  plaster) 

18  THE   VERB  §§  186-188 

d6construire,  take  apart  detruire,  destroy  *  luire,  shine 

instruire,  instruct  cuire,  cook  *  reluire,  glisten 

reconstruire,  reconstruct  recuire,  cook  again  t  nuire,  injure 

*  Past  part,  lui  and  relui  respectively.    No  past  def.  or  impf.  subj. 
t  Past  part.  ntii. 

186.  f  tre,  to  be 

See  §  154  for  the  full  conjugation. 

187.  Confire,  to  preserve,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  confire;  fvi.  confirai,  etc.;  condl.  confirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  confisant;  impf.  indie,  confisais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  con- 
fise,  confises,  confise,  confisions,  confisiez,  confisent. 

3.  Past  Part,  confit;   past  indef.  j'ai  confit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  confis,  confis,  confit,  confisons,  confisez,  confisent; 
impve.  confis,  confisons,  confisez. 

5.  Past  Def.  confis,  confis,  confit,  confimes,  confttes,  confirent; 
impf.  subj.  confisse,  confisses,  confit,  confissions,  confissiez,  confissent.. 

Like  confire: 
dficonfire,  discomfit;  circoncire  (p.p.  -cis),  circumcise:  suffire  (p.p.  suffi),  suffice 

188.  Connaitre,  to  know,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  connaitre;  fut.  connaitrai,  etc.;  condl.  connaltrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  connaissant;  impf.  indie,  connaissais,  etc.;  pres. 
subj.  connaisse,  connaisses,  connaisse,  connaissions,  connaissiez,  con- 

3.  Past  Part,  connu;  j'ai  connu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  connais,  connais,  connait,  connaissons,  connaissez, 
connaissent;   impve.  connais,  connaissons,  connaissez. 

5.  Past  Def.  connus,  connus,  connut,  conntlmes,  connotes,  connu- 
rent;  impf.  svbj.  connusse,  connusses,  conntlt,  connussions,  connussiez, 

Oba.:  Stem-vowel  i  has  circumflex  (J)  everywhere  before  t. 

Like  connaitre: 
m6connattre,  not  to  know     comparaltre,  appear  (law  *  paltre,  graze 
reconnaltre,  recognize  term)  repaltre,  feed,  feast 

paraltre,  appear  disparaltre,  disappear  se  repaltre,  feed,  feast 

apparaltre,  appear  reparattre,  reappear     ^ 

*  Lacks  the  past  part.,  past  def.,  and  impf.  subj. 

Note.  —  Apparoir  (also  used  in  third  singular  il  appert,  it  appears)  and 
comparoir  are  archaic  variants  of  apparaitre  and  comparaltre. ; 

$$  189-191 




Coudre,  to  sew 

1.  Infinitive,  coudre;  fid.  coudrai,  etc.;  condl.  coudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  cousant;  imp/,  indie,  cousais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  couse, 
couses,  couse,  cousions,  cousiez,  cousent. 

3.  Past  Part,  cousu;   past  indef.  j'ai  cousu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  couds,  couds,  coud,  cousons,  cousez,  cousent;  impve. 
couds,  cousons,  cousez. 

5.  Past  Def.  cousis,  cousis,  cousit,  coustmes,  cousttes,  cousirent; 
impf.  subj.  cousisse,  cousisses,  cousit,  cousissions,  cousissiez,  couassent. 

Like  coudre: 
d6coudre,  rip,  unsew 

recoudre,  sew  again 


Craindre,  to  fear 

1.  Infinitive,  cralndre;  ftU.  craindrai,  etc.;  condl.  craindrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  craignant;  impf.  indie,  craignais,  etc.;  pres.  subj. 
craigne,  craignes,  craigiie,  craignions,  craigniez,  craignent. 

3.  Past  Part,  craint;  pas/  indef.  j'ai  craint,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  crains,  crains,  craint,  craignons,  craigncz,  craignent; 
impve.  crains,  craignons,  craignez. 

5.  Past  Def.  craignis,  craignis,  craignit,  craignfmes,  craignttes, 
(Taignirent;  impf.  subj.  craignisse,  craignisses,  craignit,  craignissions, 
craignissicz,  craignissent. 

Like  craindre: 
in  -aindre : 
contraindre,  constrain 
plaindre,  pity 
Be  plaindre,  complain 

in  -eindre : 

astreindrc,  abstract 
atteindre,  attain 
ceindre,  enclose,  gird,  gird 

on  (a  sword,  etc.) 
d^peindre,  depict 
empreindre,  imprirU 
enceindre,  gird 

*  Hardly  used  beyond 

enfreindre,  infringe 
^preindre,  squeeze  out 
6teindre,  extinouish 
fetreindre,  draw  tight 
feindre,  feign 
geindre,  groan 
peindre,  paint 
ratteindre,  overtake 
rej)eindre,  paint  again 
restreindre,  restrain 
teindre,  dye 
d^teindre,  fade 
the  infinitive  and  future. 

reteindre,  dye  again 

in  -oindre : 
joindre,  join 
adjoindre,  adjoin 
conjoindre,  conjoin 
d^joindre,  disjoin 
disjoindre,  disjoin 
enjoindre,  enjoin 
rej  oindre,  rejoin 
oindre,  anoint 
*  poindre,  davm 

191.  Croire,  to  believe 

L  Ir^finitive.  croire;  ftU.  croirai,  etc.;  condl.  croirais,  etc 

20  THE   VERB  §§  192-193 

2.  Pres.  Part,  croyant;  impf.  indie,  croyais,  etc.;    pres.  svbj.  croie, 
croies,  croie,  croyions,  croyiez,  croient. 

3.  Past  Part,  cm;  past  indef.  j'ai  cru,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  crois,  crois,  croit,  croyons,  croyez,  croient;   impve. 
crois,  croyons,  croyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  crus,  crus,  crut,  crAmes,  crAtes,  crurent;  impf.  svbj. 
crusse,  crusses,  criit,  crussions,  crussiez,  crussent. 

Like  croire: 

*  accroire,  believe  (an  untruth)  t  dfecroire,  disbelieve 

*  Found  only  in  faire  accroire,  to  cause  to  believe  (an  untruth). 

t  Used  only  in  je  ne  crois  ni  ne  decrois,  I  neither  believe  nor  disbelieve. 

192.  Croitre,  to  grow 

1.  Infinitive,  croitre;  fut.  croitrai,  etc.;   condl.  croitrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,   croissant;     impf.  indie,   croissais,   etc.;     pres.  svbj. 
croisse,  croisses,  croisse,  croissions,  croissiez,  croissent. 

3.  Past  Part,  crft  (f.  crue);  past  indef.  j'ai  crtl,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,   crois,    crois,    croit,   croissons,    crmssez,    croissent; 
impve.  crois,  croissons,  croissez. 

5.  Past  Def.  crfls,  crAs,  crdt,  crimes,  crtltes,  criirent;   impf.  svbj. 
crusse,  crusses,  crtit,  crussions,  crussiez,  crussent. 

Obs. :  The  circumflex  accent  distinguishes  several  otherwise  similar  forms 
of  croitre  and  croire. 

193.  Dire,  to  say,  tell 

1.  Infinitive,  dire;  fut.  dirai,  etc.;  condl.  dirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  disant;  impf.  indie,  disais,  etc.;   pres.  svbj.  disc,  discs, 
diee,  disions,  disiez,  disent. 

3.  Past  Part,  dit;   past  indef.  j'ai  dit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  dis,  dis,  dit,  disons,  dites,  disent;  impve.  dis,  disons, 

5.  Past  Def.  dis,  dis,  dit,  dimes,  dites,  dirent;    impf.  suhj.  disse, 
disses,  dit,  dissions,  dissiez,  dissent. 

Like  dire: 

*  contredire,  contradict  *  interdire,  interdict  *  pr6dire,  predict 

*  dedire,  retract,  deny  *  medire  (de),  slander  redire,  say  again 

*  The  2nd  pi.  pres.  indie,  and  impve.  is:    Contredisez,  d^disez,  inter- 
disez,  etc. 

Note.  —  Maudire  is  like  dire  only  in  infinitive,  past  participle  (maudit)( 
future,  and  conditional;  otherwise  like  finir. 

§§  194^196  IRREGULAR  VERBS   IN  -RE  21 

194.  ficrire,  to  write 

1.  Infinitive.  6crire;  fiU.  6crirai,  etc.,  condl.  4crirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  ecrivant;  impf.  indie.  6crivais,  etc.;  prea.  subj.  derive, 
derives,  6crive,  ^criv-ions,  6criviez,  6crivent. 

3.  Past  Part,  ecrit;  past  indef.  j'ai  dcrit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  ecris,  6cris,  dcrit,  ^crivons,  6crivez,  6crivent;  impve. 
6cris,  dcrivons,  6crivez. 

5.  Past  Def.  ecrivis,  6crivis,  dcri\'it,  ^crivimes,  6crivites,  dcrivi- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  ^criviase,  ^riviases,  6crivit,  ^crivissions,  dcriviasiez, 

Like  €crire  are  all  verbs  in  -(s)crire: 
circonscrire,  circumscribe         prcecrire,  pt  escribe  souscrire,  subscribe 

dfecrire,  describe  proacrire,  proscribe  tranacrire,  transcribe 

ioacrire,  inscribe  r6crire,  rewrite 

195.  Faire,  to  do,  make 

1.  Infinitive,  faire;  ftit.  ferai  [f(a)re],  etc.;  condl.  ferais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  faisant  [faza];  impf.  indie,  faisais  [fazel  etc.;  pres. 
nibj.  faase,  fasscs,  fasse,  fassions,  fassiez,  fasscnt. 

3.  Past  Part,  fait;  past  indef.  j'ai  fait,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  fais,  fais,  fait,  faisons  QfazSl  faites,  font;    impve. 
fais,  faisons,  faites. 

5.  Past  Def.  fis,  fia,  fit,  fimes,  fites,  firent;  impf.  subj.  fiaae,  fiases, 
ftt,  fissions,  fissiez,  fissent. 

Like  faire: 

contrefaire,  imitate  m^faire,  harm  refaire,  do  again 

dMaire,  undo  parfaire,  complete  Batisfaire,  satisfy 

forfaire,  forfeit  red6faire,  undo  again  surfaire,  overcharge 

196.  Frire,  to  fry  (intr.) 

1.  Infinitive,  frire;  fut.  frirai,  etc.;  condl.  friraia,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part. ;  impf.  indie. ;   pres.  subj.  . 

3.  Past  Part,  frit;  past  indef.  j'ai  frit,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  fris,  fris,  frit, ,  ,  ;    impve.  fris, 

5.  Past  Def. ;  impf.  subj. . 

22  THE  VERB  §§  197-199 

197.  Lire,  to  read 

1.  Infinitive,  lire;  fut.  lirai,  etc.;  condl.  lirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  lisant;  impf.  indie,  lisais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  lise,  Uses, 
Use,  Usions,  Usiez,  Usent. 

3.  Past  Part,  lu;  past  indef.  j'ai  lu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  lis,  Us,  lit,  lisons,  lisez,  Usent;  impve.  Us,  lisons,  lisez. 

5.  Past  Def.  lus,  lus,  lut,  lAmes,  Wtes,  lurent;  impf.  subj.  lusse, 
lusses,  lilt,  lussions,  lussiez,  lussent. 

Like  lire: 
61ire,  elect  r661ire,  re&ect  relire,  read  again 

198.  Mettre,  to  place,  pvi 

1.  Infinitive,  mettre;  fvi.  mettrai,  etc.;  condl.  mettrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  mettant;  impf.  indie,  mettais,  etc.;  pres.  sid}j.  mette, 
mettes,  mette,  mettions,  mettiez,  mettent. 

3.  Past  Part,  mis;  past  indef.  j'ai  mis,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  mets,  mets,  met,  mettons,  mettez,  mettent;  impve. 
mets,  mettons,  mettez. 

5.  Past  Def.  mis,  mis,  mit,  mimes,  mttea,  mirent;  impf.  subj.  misse, 
misses,  mit,  missions,  missiez,  missent. 

Like  mettre: 

se  mettre,  begin  demettre,  dismiss  promettre,  promise 

admettre,  admit  6mettre,  emit  remettre,  put  back,  hand  to 

commettre,  commit  s'entremettre,  interpose   repromettre,  promise  again 

compromettre,  compro-  omettre,  omit  soumettre,  submit 

mise  pennettre,  permit  transmettre,  transmit 

199.  Moudre,  to  grind 

1.  Infinitive,  moudre;  fut.  moudrai,  etc.;   condl.  moudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  moulant;  impf.  indie,  moulais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  moule, 
moules,  moule,  moulions,  mouUez,  moulent. 

3.  Past  Part,  moulu;  past  indef.  j'ai  moulu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  mouds,  mouds,  moud,  moulons,  moulez,  moulent; 
impve.  mouds,  moulons,  moiilez. 

5.  Past  Def.  moulus,  moulus,  moulut,  moulAmes,  moulAtes,  moulu- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  moulusse,  moulusses,  moulAt,  moulussions,  moulussiez, 

Like  moudre: 
femoudre,  whet  remoudre,  grind  again  rfemoudre,  sharpen 

§§  200-202  IRREGULAR  VERBS  IN  -RE  23 

200.  Naitre,  to  be  bom,  arise,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  naitre;  fiU,  nattrai,  etc.;  condl.  nattrais,  etc. 

2.  Prea.  Part,  naissant;  impf.  indie,  naissais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj.  naisse, 
naisses,  naisse,  naissions,  naissiez,  naissent. 

3.  Past  Part,  ne ;  past  indef.  je  suis  n<5,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  nais,  nais,  oatt,  naissons,  naissez,  naissent;  impve. 
nais,  naissons,  naissez. 

5.  Past  Def.  naquis,  naquis,  naquit,  naqutmes,  naquftes,  naqiii- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  naquisse,  naquisses,  naquit,  naquissions,  naquissiez, 

068.;  Stem-vowel  i  has  the  circumflex  (I)  everywhere  before  t 

Like  naitre: 
renaltre,  revive 

201.  Plaire,  to  please 

1.  Infinitive,  plaire;  fiU.  plairai,  etc.;  condl.  plairais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  plaisant;  impf.  indie,  plaisais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  phiiae, 
plaises,  plaise,  plaisions,  plaisiez,  plaisent. 

3.  Past  Part,  plu;  past  indef.  j'ai  plu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  plais,  plais,  plait,  plaisons,  plaisez,  plaisent;  impve. 
plais,  plaisons,  plaisez. 

5.  Past  Def.  plus,  plus,  plut,  pldmes,  plOtes,  plurent;  impf.  subj. 
plusse,  plusses,  pl<it,  plussions,  plussiez,  plussent. 

Like  plaire: 
comploire,  humor  d^plaire,  displease  *  taire,  say  nothing  about 

*  D  tait  has  no  circumflex. 

202.  Prendre,  to  take 

1.  Infinitive,  prendre;  fut.  prendrai,  etc.;   condl.  prendrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  prenant;  impf.  indie,  prenais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj.  prenne, 
prennes,  prenne,  prenions,  preniez,  prennent. 

3.  Past  Part,  pris;  past  indef.  j'ai  pris,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  prends,  prends,  prend,  prenons,  prenez,  prennent; 
impve.  prends,  prenons,  prenez. 

5.  Past  Def.  pris,  pris,  prit,  primes,  prites,  prirent;  impf.  svbj. 
prisse,  prisses,  prit,  prissions,  prissiez,  prissent. 

Like  prendre  are  its  compoimds: 
apprendre,  learn  entreprendre,  undertake         rapprendre,  learn  again 

dfeprendre,  part  8'6prendre,  be  taken  reprendre,  take  back 

dfesapprendre,  unlearn     se  m^prendre,  be  mistaken    surprendre,  surprise 
comprendre,  understand 

^4  THE  VERB  §§  203-206 

203.  Resoudre,  to  resolve 

1.  Infinitive,  resoudre;  Jvi.  r^soudrai,  etc.;   condl.  r^soudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  resolvant;  impf.  indie,  r^solvais,  etc.;  jrres.  svbj.  r^ 
solve,  resolves,  resolve,  resolvions,  r^olviez,  resolvent. 

3.  Past  Part,  resolu  and  *resous;  past  indef.  j'ai  r^solu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  resous,  resous,  resout,  r6solvons,  resolvez,  resolvent; 
impve.  resous,  r^solvons,  resolvez. 

5.  Past  Def.  resolus,  resolus,  r^solut,  r6sol<imes,  r^solAtes,  r6solu- 
rent;  impf.  svbj.  resolusse,  r^solusses,  resoldt,  r6solussions,  r^solussiez, 

*  Of  restricted  usage. 
Like  resoudre: 

*  absoudre,  absolve  *  dissoudre,  dissolve 

*  Past  jMrt.  absous  (f.  absoute),  dissous  (f.  dissoute),  respectively; 
lack  the  past  definite  and  imperfect  subjunctive. 

204.  Rire,  to  laugh 

1.  Infinitive,  rire;  fut.  rirai,  etc.;  condl.  rirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  riant;  impf.  indie,  rials,  etc.;  pres.  suhj.  rie,  ries,  rie, 
riions,  riiez,  rient. 

3.  Past  Part,  ri;  past  indef.  j'ai  ri,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  ris,  ris,  rit,  rions,  riez,  rient;  impve.  ris,  rions,  riez. 

5.  Past  Def.  ris,  ris,  rit,  rimes,  rites,  rirent;  impf.  suhj.  risse,  risses, 
lit,  rissions,  rissiez,  rissent. 

Like  rire: 
ae  rire,  make  sport  (of,  de)  sourire,  smile 

205.  Sourdre,  to  rise,  spring  up,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  sourdre;  fut.  il  sourdra;   condl.  il  sourdrait. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  sourdant;  impf.  indie,  il  sourdait;  pres.  subj.  il  sourde. 

3.  Past  Part. ;  past  indef. . 

4.  Pres.  Indie. , ,  sourd, , ,  sourdent;  impve. . 

5.  Past  Def.  il  sottfdit;  impf.  svbj.  il  sourdit. 

Note.  —  Little  used  beyond  the  infin.  and  third  sing.  pres.  indie. 

206.  Suivre,  to  follow 

1.  Infinitive,  suivre;  fvi.  suivrai,  etc.;  condl.  suivrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  suivant;  impf.  indie,  suivais,  etc.;  pres.  svbj.  suive, 
suives,  suive,  suivions,  suiviez,  suivent. 

55207-209  IRREGULAR  VERBS  IN  -RE  25 

3.  Past  Part,  suivi;  past  indef.  j'ai  suivi,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  suis,  suis,  suit,  suivons,  suivez,  suivent;  impve.  suis, 
suivons,  suivez. 

5.  Past  Def.  suivis,  suivTS,  suivit,  suivimes,  suivites,  suivirent; 
impf.  subj.  sui\'isae,  suix-iaaes,  suivit,  suivissions,  8ui^'issiez,  suivissent. 

Like  suivre: 
s'ensmvre  (impers.)i  itfoUows  poursoivre,  pursue 

207.  Tistre,  to  weave 

Used  only  in  the  past  part,  tissu,  and  compound  tenses. 

208.  Traire,  to  milk 

1.  Infinilice.  traire;  fut.  trairai,  etc.;  condl.  trairais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  trayant;  impf.  indie,  trayais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  traie, 
traies,  traie,  trayions,  trayiez,  traient. 

3.  Past  Part,  trait;  past  indef.  j'ai  trait,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  trais,  trais,  trait,  trayons,  trayes,  traient;  tmpps. 
trais,  trayons,  trayez. 

5.  Past  Def. ;  impf.  subj. . 

Like  traire: 
abstrairc,  abstract  eztraire,  extract  aoustraire,  mbtrael 

attraire,  attract  rentraire,  dam  *  braire,  bray 

distrairc,  distract  retrairc.  redeem  Qcgal) 

*  Commonly  used  only  in  the  infin.  and  the  third  pers.  pres.  indie,  fut. 
and  cond. 

209.  Vaincre,  to  conquer 

1.  Infinitive,  vaincre;  fut.  vaincrai,  etc.;  condl.  vaincrais,  etc 

2.  Pres.  Part,  yainquant;  impf.  indie,  vainquais,  etc.;  pres.  tvitj. 
vainque,  vainques,  vainque,  vainquions,  vainquiez,  vainquent. 

3.  Past  Part,  vaincu;   past  indef.  j'ai  vaincu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  vaincs  [ve],  vaincs,  vainc,  vainquons,  vainquez, 
vainquent;   impve.  vaincs,  vainquons,  vainquez. 

5.  Past  Def.  vainquis,  vainquis,  vainquit,  vainquimes,  vainqxrftes, 
vainquirent;  impf.  »ttbj.  vainquisse,  vainquisses,  vainquft,  vainquissions, 
vainquissiez,  vainquissent. 

06a.:  Stem  c  [k]  beccmes  qu  [k]  before  any  vowd  except  a.  . 
Like  vaincre: 
oonvaincre,  eonvinee,  convict 

26  THE  VERB  §§  210-213 

210.  Vendre,  to  sell 

Irregular  only  in  third  singulax  present  indicative :  II  vend  (t  omitted). 

Like  vendre: 
All  verbs  in  -andre,  -endre,*  -erdre,  -ondre,  -ordre 
*  Except  prendre,  reprendre,  surprendre,  etc. 

211.  Vivre,  to  live 

1.  Infinitive,  vivre;  fvi.  vivrai,  etc.;  condl.  vivrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  vivant;  impf.  indie,  vivais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  vive,  vives, 
vive,  vivions,  viviez,  vivent. 

3.  Past  Part,  vecu;  past  indef.  j'ai  v^cu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  vis,  vis,  vit,  vivons,  vivez,  vivent;  impve.  vis,  vivons, 

5.  Past  Def.  vecus,  v6cus,  v^cut,  v^ctlmes,  v^cAtes,  v^curent;  impf, 
svlyj.  v6cusse,  v6cusse8,  v6c<it,  v^cussions,  v6cussiez,  v^cuasent. 

Like  vivre: 
revivre,  revive  survivre,  survive 


Note.  —  The  few  verbs  in  -oir,  which  are  all  irregular,  form  in 
some  grammars  a  separate  conjugation,  the  third,  verbs  in  -re  being 
the  foxirth. 

212.  Avoir,  to  have 
See  §  154  for  the  full  conjugation  of  this  verb. 
Like  avoir: 

ravoir,  have  again  (used  only  in  the  infinitive) 

213.  Recevoir,  to  receive 

1.  Infinitive,  recevoir;  fvi.  recevrai,  etc.;  condl.  recevrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  recevant;  impf.  indie,  recevais,  etc.;  pres.  sub j.  re- 
Qoive,  regoives,  regoive,  recevions,  receviez,  regoivent. 

3.  Past  Part,  reju;   past  indef.  j'ai  regu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  refois,  regois,  regoit,  recevons,  recevez,  regoivent; 
impve.  regois,  recevons,  recevez. 

5.  Past  Def.  repus,  regus,  regut,  regimes,  regAtes,  regurent;  impf. 
svbj.  regusse,  regusses,  reg<it,  regussions,  regussiez,  regussent. 

§§214-215  IRREGULAR  VERBS  IN  -OIR  27 

Oba.:  1.  Stem-vowel  becomes  oi  wherever  it  bears  the  stress.  2.  Stem 
c  [s]  is  vrritten  s  [s]  before  o  or  a  ($  5,  4). 

Like  recevoir: 
apercevoir,  perceive  d^cevoir,  deceive  percevoir,  collect  taxes 

ooncevoir,  conceive 

214.  Devoir,  to  owe 

1.  Infinitive,  devoir;  frd.  devrai,  etc.;  condl.  devrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  devant;  impf.  indie,  devais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  doive^ 
doives,  doive,  devions,  deviez,  doivent. 

3.  Past  Part,  dii  (f.  due,  pi.  du(e)s);  past  indef.  j'ai  dO,  etc. 

:    4.   Pres.  Indie,  dois,  dois,  doit,  devons,  devez,  doivent;  impve. . 

5.  Past  Def.  dus,  dus,  dut,  d^imes,  dOtes,  durent;  impf.  subj.  duase, 
duaees,  dQt,  dussions,  dussiez,  dussent. 

Note.  —  DeToir  follows  the  recevoir  model,  but,  as  its  forma  present 
some  difficulty,  they  have  been  given  in  full. 

Like  devoir: 
redevoir,  atxU  owe 

215.  Asseoir,  to  seat 

1.  Infinitive,  asseoir;  fut.  assidrai,  etc.,  or  aaseyerai,  etc.,  or  aaacHrai, 
etc.;   condl.  assi^rais,  etc.,  or  aaseyeraia,  etc.,  or  assoirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  asseyant  or  assoyant;  impf.  indie,  asseyais,  etc.,  or 
aaaoyais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  asseye,  assies,  asaeye,  aaaeyiona,  aaaeyiez, 
aaaeyent,  or  aasoie,  aasoiea,  assoie,  aasoyiona,  assoyiez,  assoient. 

3.  Past  Part,  assis;  past  indef.  j'ai  aasia,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  assieds,  aaaieda,  assied,  aaaeyona,  asseyez,  aaaeyent, 
or  assois,  aasois,  aasoit,  aaaoyona,  aaaoyez,  aasoient;  impve.  aaaieda, 
aaaeyona,  aaaeyez,  or  aaaois,  aaaoyona,  aasoyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  assis,  aasia,  aasit,  aaetmea,  aasltes,  aaairent;  impf.  svbj. 
assLsae,  aasisaea,  aaait,  aasiaBiinis,  assiasiez,  aasiaaent. 

Like  asseoir: 
s' asseoir,  sit  down        ee  rasseoir,  sit  down  again  *  messeoir,  fit  badly 
rasseoir,  reseat,  calm  *  seoir,  he  becoming  t  surseoir,  suspend,  reprieve 

*  Used  in  third  person  of  the  following:  Pres.  indie,  sied,  sifeent  (mes- 
aied,  messifeent);  impf.  indie,  seyait,  seyaient  (messeyait,  messeyaient) ; 
pres.  subj.  siSe,  silent  (messi^e,  messifeent);  fut.  si^ra,  siferont  (messi^ra, 
measi^ront);    coruU.  si^rait,  si6raient  (messi^rait,  messi^raient). 

t  Like  the  forms  in  oi  (oy)  of  asseoir,  but  fut.  and  condl.  surseoirai(8). 

28  THE  VERB  §§216-219 

216.  Dechoir,  to  decline,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  dechoir;  fiU.  decherrai,  etc.;   condl.  d^cherrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part. ;  impf.  indie. ;  pres.  svbj.  dechoie,  dechoies, 

d^choie,  d^choyions,  d6choyiez,  dechoient. 

3.  Past  Part,  dechu;   past  indef.  j'ai  dechu  or  je  suis  d6chu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  dechois,  d6chois,  dechoit,  d6choyons,  d^choyez, 
dechoient;   impve.  dechois,  dechoyons,  dechoyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  dechus,  d6chiis,  d^chut,  dechtimes,  d6chAtes,  d^chu- 
rent;  impf.  subj.  d^chusse,  d^chusses,  d^chM,  d6chussions,  d^chussiez, 

Like  d6choir: 
•  choir,  fall  *  rechoir,  fall  again 

*  Hardly  used  beyond  the  infin.  and  comp.  tenses. 

217.  fichoir,  to  fall  due,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  echoir;  ftit.  11  echerra;  *  condl.  il  6cherrait.* 

2.  Pres.  Part,  echeant;  impf.  indie,  il  6choyait;  pres.  subj.  il  6choie. 

3.  Past  Part,  echu;   past  indef.  je  suis  echu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie. , ,  6choit  or  6chet, , ,  6choient  or 

6ch6ent;  impve. . 

5.  Past  Def. , ,  il  echut;  , ,  ils  6churent;  impf. 

subj.  il  6ch<it. 

*  Or  regular:  il  echoira(it). 

218.  Falloir,  must,  etc.  (impers.) 

1.  Infinitive,  falloir;  fut.  il  faudra;  condl.  il  faudrait. 

2.  Pres.  Part.  ;   impf.  indie,  il  fallait;    pres.  svbj.  il  faille. 

3.  Past  Part,  fallu;  past  indef.  il  a  fallu. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  il  faut;   impve. . 

5.  Past  Def.  U  fallut;   impf.  subj.  il  fallAt. 

219.  Mouvoir,  to  move,  drive 

1.  Infinitive,  mouvoir;  fut.  mouvrai,  etc.;   condl.  mouvrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  mouvant;  impf.  indie,  mouvais,  etc.;  pres.  subj. 
meuve,  meuves,  meuve,  mouvions,  mouviez,  meuvent. 

3.  Past  Part.  m(i  (f.  mue,  pi.  mu(e)s);   past  indef.  j'ai  md,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  meus,  meus,  meut,  mouvons,  mouvez,  meuvent; 
impve  meus,  mouvons,  mouvez. 

§§  220-223  mREGULAR  VERBS  IN  -OIB  29 

5.   Past  Def.  mus,  mus,  mut,  mtlmes,  mfltes,  murent;   impf.  nibj. 
musse,  musses,  mut,  mussions,  mussiez,  mussent. 

Obs.:   Stem-vowel  becomes  euwherever  streesed. 

Like  mouvoir: 
♦  femouvoir,  arouse  *  promouvoir,  promote 

*  Past  participle  has  no  circumflex  accent. 

220.  Pleuvoir,  to  rain  (impers.) 

1.  Infinitive,  pleuvoir;  f%U.  11  pleuvra;  condl.  il  pleuvrait. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  pleuvant;  impf.  indie,  il  plcuvait;  pres.  subj.  il  pleuve. 

3.  Pa»t  Part,  plu;  past  indef.  il  a  plu. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  il  pleut;   impve. . 

5.  Past  Def.  il  plat;  impf.  svJbj.  il  pldt. 

221.  Pouvoir,  to  he  able,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  pouvoir;  fut.  pourrai,  etc.;   condl.  pouirais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  pouvant;  impf.  indie,  pouvais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  puiase, 
pmsscs,  puisse,  puissions,  puissiez,  puissent. 

3.  Past  Part,  pu;   past  indcf.  j'ai  pu. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  puis  or  peux,  pcux,  peut,  pouvons,  pouvez,  peuvent; 
impve. . 

5.  Past  Def.  pus,  pus,  put,  primes,  p(itc8,  purent;  impf.  subj.  pusse, 
pusses,  pOt,  pussions,  pussicz,  pussent. 

Oba.:  The  first  sing.  pres.  indie,  in  negation  is  usually  je  ne  penz  pas  or 
je  ne  pais ;   in  questions,  only  pnis-je  ?  otherwise  pais  or  penz. 

222.  Savoir,  to  know,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  savoir;  fut.  saurai,  etc.;  condl.  saurais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  sachant;  impf.  indie,  savais,  etc.;    pres.  subj.  sache, 
Baches,  sache,  sachions,  sachiez,  sachent. 

3.  Past  Part,  su;   past  indef.  j'ai  su,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  sals  [se^,  sais,  sait,  savons,  saves,  savent;    impve. 
sache,  sachons,  sachez. 

5.  Past  Def.  sus,  sus,  sut,  sdmes,  sAtes,  surent;   impf.  subj.  suase, 
stisscs,  silt,  sussions,  sussiez,  sussent. 

223.  Valoir,  to  he  worth 

1.  Infinitive,  valoir;  fut.  vaudrai,  etc.;   condl.  vaudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  valant;    impf.  indie,  valais,  etc.;    pres.  subj.  vaille, 
vailles,  vaille,  valions,  valiez,  vaillent. 

30  THE  VERB  §§  224-225 

3.  Past  Part,  valu;  past  indef.  j'ai  valu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  vaux,  vaux,  vaut,  valons,  valez,  valent;  impve.  vaux, 
valons,  valez. 

5.  Past  Def.  valus,  valus,  valut,  vaKimes,  valtites,  valurent;  impf. 
svbj.  valusse,  valusses,  valtit,  valussions,  valussiez,  valussent. 

Like  valoir: 
6quivaloir,  be  equivalent  *  pr6valoir,  prevail  f  chaloir 

revaloir,  pay  back,  return 

like  for  like 

*  Pres.  subj.  prevale,  etc. 

t  Hardly  used  beyond,  II  ne  me  chaut  de,  I  care  not  for. 

224.  Voir,  to  see 

1.  Infinitive,  voir;  ftU.  verrai,  etc.;  condl.  verrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  voyant;  impf.  indie,  voyais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  voi^ 
voies,  voie,  voyions,  voyiez,  voient. 

3.  Past  Part,  vii;   past  indef.  j'ai  vu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  vols,  vols,  voit,  voyons,  voyez,  voient;  impve.  vols, 
voyons,  voyez. 

5.  Past  Def.  vis,  vis,  vit,  vimes,  vltes,  virent;  impf.  subj.  visse, 
visses,  vtt,  vissions,  vissiez,  vissent. 

Like  voir: 
entrevoir,  catch  sight  of   *  pourvoir,  provide  t  prfevoir,  foresee 

revoir,  see  again  *  d^pourvoir,  strip,  leave  destitute 

*  Past  def.  -vus,  etc.;  impf.  subj.  -vusse,  etc.;  fut.  and  condl.  -voirai(s), 

t  Fut.  and  condl.  -voirai(s),  etc.,  regular. 

226.  Vouloir,  to  mil,  etc. 

1.  Infinitive,  vouloir;  fut.  voudrai,  etc.;  condl.  voudrais,  etc. 

2.  Pres.  Part,  voulant;  impf.  indie,  voiilais,  etc.;  pres.  subj.  veuille, 
veuilles,  veuille,  voulions,  vouliez,  veuillent. 

3.  Past  Part,  voulu;  paM  indef.  j'ai  voulu,  etc. 

4.  Pres.  Indie,  veux,  veux,  veut,  voulons,  voulez,  veulent;  impve. 
veux,  voulons,  voulez. 

5.  Past  Def.  voulus,  voulus,  voulut,  voulAmes,  voulAtes,  voulu- 
rent;  impf.  suhj.  voulusse,  voulusses,  voulAt,  voulussions,  voulussiez, 

Obs.:    Stem- vowel  becomes  eu  whenever  it  is  stressed. 
Note.  —  The  regular  impve.  veux,  voulons,  voulez  is  rare;    veuillez  = 
have  the  kiridness  to  generally  serves  as  second  plural  imperative. 





Reference  List  of  Irregular  Verbs 

Note.  —  Each  verb  in  the  hat  is  referred  to  the  section  in  which 
its  irregularity  is  explained.  For  verbs  in  -cer,  -ger,  see  §  156 ;  for 
verbs  in  -yer,  §  157 ;  for  verbs  with  stem-v'owel  e  or  6,  $  158;  for 
verbs  in  -andre,  -endre,  -erdre,  -ondre,  -ordre,  5  210. 


abattre §180 

absoudre 203 

abstenir 177 

abstraire 208 

accourir 164 

accroire 191 

aocueillir 165 

acqudrir 162 

adjoindre 190 

admettre 198 

advenir 178 

aller 160 

apercevoir 213 

app>ara!tre 188 

apparoir 188 

appartenir 177 

apprendre 202 

assaillir 165 

asseoir 215 

astreindre 190 

atteindre 190 

attraire 208 

avenir 178 

avoir 154 


battre 180 

b6nir 163 

boire 181 

bouillir 166 

braire 208 

bruire 182 


ceindre §190 

chaloir 223 

choir 216 

cirooncire 187 

circonscrire 194 

circonvenir 178 

clore 183 

combattre 180 

commettre 198 

comparaftre 188 

comparoir 188 

complaire 201 

comprendre 202 

oompromettre. . .  198 

ooncevoir.t 213 

oonclure 184 

concourir 164 

conduire 185 

confire 187 

conjoindre 190 

connaitre 188 

conqu^rir 162 

oonsentir 166 

oonstruire 185 

contenir 177 

contraindre 190 

contredire 193 

contrefaire 195 

contrevenir 178 

convaincre 209 

convenir 178 

coudre 189 

courir §  164 

oourre 164 

couvrir 176 

crai."^dre 190 

croire 191 

crottre 192 

cueillir 165 

cuire 185 


d^battre 180 

d^cevoir 213 

d6choir 216 

ddclore 183 

d6confire 187 

d^construire ....   185 

d^coudre 189 

d<5couvrir 176 

d^crire 194 

d6croire 191 

d<5dire 193 

d^uire 185 

d^faUhr 167 

ddfaire 195      * 

d^joindre 190 

d^mentir 166 

d^mettre 198 

d^partir 166 

d^peindre 190 

d^plaire 201 

d^px)urvoir 224 

d6prendre 202 

d^sapprendre. . .  202 


desservir §  166 

d^teindre 190 

d^tenir 177 

d6truire 185 

devenir 178 

d^vetir 179 

devoir 214 

dire 193 

disconvenir 178 

discourir 164 

disjoindre 190 

disparattre 188 

dissoudre 203 

distraire 208 

dormir 166 


6bouillir 166 

6choir 217 

eclore 183 

6conduire 185 

dcrire 194 

mre 197 

emboire 181 

6mettre 198 

6moudre 199 

6mouvoir 219 

empreindre 190 

enceindre 190 

enclore 183 

enconrir 164 

endormir 166 

enduire 185 

enfreindre 190 

enfuir 170 

enjoindre 190 

enquerir 162 

ensmvre 206 

entremettre 198 

entreprendre.  .  . .   202 

entretenir 177 

entrevoir 224 


entr'ouvrir §  176 

envoyer 161 

6preindre. ......   190 

^prendre 202 

6quivaloir 223 

6teindre 190 

etre 154 

^treindre ,   190 

exclure 184 

extraire 208 


faillir 167 

faire 195 

falloir 218 

feindre 190 

ferir 168 

fleurir 169 

forclore 183 

forfaire 195 

frire 196 

fuir 170 


geindre 190 

gesir •. 171 

hair 172 


imboire 181 

inclure 184 

induire 185 

inscrire 194 

instruire 185 

interdire 193 

intervenir 178 

introdxiire 185 

issir 173 


joindre 190 


lire 197 

luire 185 



maintenir §  177 

maudire 193 

meconnaitre ....   188 

medire 193 

mefaire 195 

mentir 166 

meprendre 202 

messeoir 215 

mettre 198 

moudre 199 

mourir 174 

mouvoir 219 


nattre 200 

nuire 185 


obtenir 177 

offrir 176 

oindre 190 

omettre 198 

ouir 175 

ouvrir 176 


paitre 188 

paraitre 188 

parcourir 164 

parfatre ........   195 

partir 166 

parvenir 178 

peindre 190 

percevoir 213 

permettre 198 

plaindre 190 

plaire 201 

pleuvoir 220 

poindre 190 

poursui\Te 206 

pourvoir 224 

pouvoir 221 

predire 193 




prendre §202 

prescrire 194 

pressentir 166 

pr^valoir 223 

pr^venir 178 

prdvoir 224 

produire 185 

promettre 198 

promouvoir 219 

proscrire 194 

provenir 178 



rabattre 180 

rapprendre 202 

rasseoir 215 

ratteindre 190 

ravoir 212 

reboire 181 

rebouillir 166 

recevoir 213 

rechoir 216 

reclure 184 

reconduire 185 

reconnaltre 188 

reconqu6rir 162 

reoonstruire 185 

recoudrc 189 

recourir 16t 

recouvrir 176 

r^rire 19t 

recueillir 165 

recuire 185 

red^faire 195 

redevenir 178 

redevoir 214 

redire 193 

redormir 166 

r^duire 185 

r661ire §  197 

refaire 195 

rejoindre 190 

reiire 197 

reluire 185 

remettre 198 

remoudre 199 

remoudre 199 

reiu^tre 200 

rendormir 166 

rentraire 208 

renvoyer 161 

repaltre 188 

rcparaitre 188 

repartir 166 

repeindre 190 

rep>entir 166 

reprendre 202 

reproduire 185 

repromettre 198 

requ^rir 162 

rdsoudre 203 

rcsscntir 166 

ressortir 166 

rcssouvenir 178 

restreindre 190 

reteindre 190 

retcnir 177 

retrairc 203 

revaloir 223 

revenir 178 

revetir 179 

revivre 211 

revoir 224 

lire 204 

rouvrir 176 

saillir 165 

satisfaire 195 

savoir 222 

secourir 164 

86duire §  185 

sentir 166 

seoir 215 

servir 166 

Bortir 166 

souffrir 176 

soumettre 198 

Bourdre 205 

sourire 204 

souscrire 194 

Boustraire 208 

soutenir 177 

souvenir 178 

subvenir 178 

suffire 187 

8ui\Te 206 

surfaire 195 

surprendre 202 

surseoir 215 

8ur\'enir 178 

sun-ivTe 211 

taire 201 

tdndre 190 

tcnir 177 

tistre 207 

traduire 185 

traire 208 

transcrire 194 

transme'.tre 198 

tressaillir 165 

vaincre 209 

valoir 223 

vendre 210 

venir 178 

vetir 179 

vivre 211 

voir 224 

vouloir 225 



§§  227-229 


227.  Avoir  +  the  past  participle  forms  the  compound 
tenses  of  all  transitive  and  of  most  intransitive  verbs  (cf. 

228.  fetre  +  the  past  participle  forms  the  compound 
tenses  of  all  reflexive  verbs  (§  242),  and  of  the  following  in- 
transitives  denoting  motion  or  change  of  condition  (cf.  §  155); 

aller,  go 
arriver,  arrive 
d6c6der,  die 
descendre,  descend 
fichoir,  fall  due 
6clore,  hatch  out 

entrer,  enter,  go  {come)  in 
monter,  go  up 
mourir,  die 
naltre,  be  born 
partir,  set  out 
remonter,  go  up  again 

So  also,  the  following  compounds  of  venir: 

devenir,  become 
redevenir,  become  again 
intervenir,  intervene 

parvenir,  attain 
provenir,  proceed 
revenir,  come  back 

ientrer,  go  in  again 
Tester,  remain 
retourner,  go  back 
sortir,  go  out 
tomber,  fall 
venir,  come 

survemr,  supervene 

229.  1.  Avoir  or  etre  +  the  past  participle  forms  the  com- 
pound tenses  of  a  number  of  intransitive  verbs,  the  general 
distinction  being  that  avoir,  when  so  used,  denotes  action, 
while  etre  denotes  state  or  condition  resulting  from  action: 

n  a  passe  par  Lyon. 
Cest  passe  de  mode. 
EUe  a  grandi  bien  vite. 
Elle  est  grandie. 

He  went  by  way  of  Lyons. 
It  is  out  of  fashion. 
She  grew  up  very  fast. 
She  is  grown  up. 

2.  Reference  list  of  verbs  with  avoir  or  etre: 

aborder,  land 
accourir,  run  to 
apparaltre,  appear 
baisser,  fall,  decline 
cesser,  cease 
changer,  change 
croltre,  grow 
d6border,  overflow 

dfichoir,  decay 
dScroltre,  decrease 
d6g6n6rer,  degenerate 
demeurer,  remain 
disparattre,  disappear 
6chapper,  escape 
Schouer,  be  stranded,  fail 
embellir,  grow  handsomer 

empirer,  grow  worse 
expirer,  expire 
grandir,  grow  up 
passer,  pass 
r6chapper,  escape  again 
repasser,  pass  again 
sonner,  strike,  toU 
vieillir,  grow  old 

§230                                USE  OF  VERB   PHRASES  35 

a.  Any  verb  in  the  list,  used  transitively,  must,  of  course,  take 
avoir  (§227): 

D  m*a  passe  la  pliune.  He  handed  me  the  pen. 

ilvez-vous  rentre  votre  ble  ?  Have  you  taken  in  your  wheat? 

Us  ont  descendu  le  tableau.  They  have  taken  down  the  picture. 

6.  The  meaning  also  determines  the  auxihary  in  a  few  other  cases: 

Avoir  £tre 

convenir,  suit,  become  oonvenir,  agree 

disoonvcnir,  not  to  suit,  be  du-  disconvenir,  deny 


repartir,  repiy  repartir,  go  atcay  aoain 

Nous  sommes  convenus  du  prix.  We  arc  (have)  agreed  on  the  price. 

Le  priz  ne  m'a  pas  convenu.  The  price  did  not  suit  me. 


230.  Auxiliary  Function.  Several  verbs,  when  followed 
by  an  infinitive,  have  a  sort  of  auxiliary  function,  and  serve 
to  form  verb  phrases  of  various  values,  modal,  temporal,  etc.: 

1 .  Vouloir  =  will,  wish  to,  tDant  to,  desire  to,  etc. : 
Je  ne  veux  pas  rester.  I  will  not  remain. 

D  voudrait  (bien)  le  savoir.  He  would  like  to  know  it. 

Elle  n'a  pas  voulu  m'ecouter.  She  would  not  listen  to  me. 

D  aurait  voulu  le  faire.  He  would  have  liked  to  do  sa 

Veuillez  le  faire.  Be  so  good  as  to  do  so. 

a.   Distinguish  from  'will'  of  simple  futurity: 
Elle  vous  6coutera.  She  will  listen  to  you. 

2.  Devoir  =  ought,  should,  must,  be  to,  have  to,  be  obliged  to,  intend 
to,  etc.,  varies  in  force  in  different  tenses: 

Present:  je  dais  rester.  I  am  to  (have  to,  intend  to,  must) 

Imperfect:  je  devais  parler.  I  was  to  (had  to,  etc.)  speak. 

Future:  je  devrai  revenir.  I  shall  have  to  (be  obUged  to)  come 

Conditional:  je  devrais  ^crire.  I  ought  to  (should)  write. 

Past  Indefinite:  j'ai  du  m'arreter.      I  have  had  to  (been  obUged  to) 

stop,  must  have  stopped. 

36  THE  VERB  §230 

Past  Definite:  je  dus  revenir.  I  had  to  come  back. 

Conditional  Anterior:  j'aurais  du       I   ought   to  have    (should  have) 
savoir.  known. 

3.  Pouvoir  =  can,  be  able  to,  be  permitted  to,  may,  etc. : 

H  ne  pouvait  pas  porter  le  sac.  He  could  not  carry  the  sack. 

Pms-je  aller  a  la  villa?  May  I  go  to  town? 

lis  auraient  pu  le  faire.  They  could  (might)  have  done  it. 

Je  pourrais  le  faire,  si  je  voulais.  I  could  do  it  if  I  would. 

Pouvaient-ils  en  trouver?  Could  they  find  any? 

Poiurais-je  vous  demander?  Might  I  ask  you? 

4.  Savoir  =  know  how  to,  can,  etc. : 

Elle  salt  chanter  et  danser.  She  can  sing  and  dance, 

n  ne  salt  pas  lire.  He  can't  read. 

a.  Distinguish  savoir  in  this  sense  from  pouvoir: 

Elle  est  enrouee  et  ne  peut  pas         She  is  hoarse  and  cannot  sing  this 
chanter  ce  soir.  evening. 

b.  The  conditional  with  ne  has  peculiar  idiomatic  force: 
Je  ne  saurais  le  croire.  I  cannot  believe  it. 

5.  Oser  =  dare : 

Je  n'ose  pas  le  lui  dire.  I  dare  not  tell  him  so. 

Note.  —  The  above  five  verbs  are  sometimes  called  '  Modal  Auxiliaries. 

6.  Faire  =  make,  cause  to,  cause  to  be,  have,  order,  order  to  be,  etc. : 
J'ai  fait  etudier  les  enfants.  I  have  made  the  children  study. 

11  les  fera  ecouter.  He  will  make  them  hsten. 

II  s'est  fait  faire  im  habit.  He  had  a  coat  made  for  himself. 

a.  A  governed  substantive  follows  the  infinitive,  but  a  governed  con- 
junctive personal  pronoun  (not  reflexive)  goes  with  faire: 

Faites  venir  le  domestique.  Have  the  servant  come. 

Faites-Ze  venir.  Have  him  come. 

6.   If  the  infinitive  with  faire  have  a  direct  object,  the  personal 
object  of  faire  must  be  indirect  (cf .  §  293,  2,  a) : 

Je  fis  ecrire  mon  fits.  I  had  my  son  write. 

Je  fis  ecrire  un  devoir  a  mon  fils.  I  made  my  son  write  an  exercise. 

Faites-le-fui  ecrire.  Make  him  write  it. 

Je  le  leur  fis  voir.  I  showed  them  it. 

§§231-232  AGREEMENT  OF  VERB   AND  SUBJECT  37 

c.  Possible  ambiguity  is  sometimes  avoided  by  par: 

D  fit  porter  le  sac  par  le  guide.     He  had  the  sack  carried  by  the  guide. 

d.  Note  the  (seeming)  passive  force  of  a  transitive  infinitive  after 

Je  feral  ecrire  une  lettre.  I  shall  have  a  letter  written. 

7.  Laisser  =  let,  is  in  construction  somewhat  like  faire : 
Laissez  ecrire  les  enfants.  Let  the  children  write. 
Laissez-/eur  (jor  -les)  6crire  un  Let  them  write  an  exercise. 


8.  The  present  and  imperfect  of  aller  +  an  infinitive  give  a  kind 
of  immediate  future,  as  also  in  English: 

D  va  I'acheter.  He  ia  going  to  (is  about  to)  buy  it 

Nous  alllons  nous  arreter.  We  were  about  to  stop. 

D  allait  se  noyer.  He  was  on  the  point  of  drowning. 

9.  Similarly  the  present  and  imperfect  of  venir  de  +  an  infinitive 
give  a  kind  of  immediate  past: 

Je  viens  de  le  voir.  I  have  just  soen  him. 

n  venait  de  1' entendre.  He  had  just  heard  it. 


231  General  Rule.  The  verb  agrees  with  its  subject  in 
number  and  person: 

Les  homines  sont  mortels.  Men  are  mortal. 

Tout  le  monde  est  ici.  Everybody  is  here. 

Toi  et  moi  (nous)  ne  faisons  qu'un.    You  and  I  are  but  one. 

232.  Simple  Subject.  Special  rules  for  the  agreement 
of  a  verb  with  one  subject  are: 

1.  A  collective  subject  singular,  when  not  followed  by  de, 
or  when  followed  by  de  +  the  singular,  has  regularly  a  singu- 
lar verb: 

Le  peuple  frangais  est  brave.  The  French  people  are  brave. 

Le  senat  I'a  decide.  The  senate  has  (or  have)  decided  it. 

La  plupart  du  monde  le  croit.  Most  people  believe  it. 

2.  A  collective  subject  singular  +  de  +  a  plural  takes  a 
plural  verb,  unless  the  sense  of  the  collective  be  dominant: 




Une  nuee  de  sauvages  I'attaque- 

Une  nuee  de  traits  Pobsctxrcit. 
Une  partie  des  soldats  restent. 
Une  partie  des  bourgeois  protesta. 
Cette  sorte  de  poires  est  chere. 

A  host  of  savages  attacked  him. 

A  cloud  of  arrows  hid  him. 
A  part  of  the  soldiers  remain. 
A  part  of  the  citizens  protested. 
This  sort  of  pears  is  dear. 

a.  When  so  used,  adverbs  of  quantity,  e.g.,  beaucoup,  peu,  etc.,  the 
nouns  nombre,  quantite,  without  article,  and  la  plupart,  are  regularly 
plural  in  sense;  so  also,  force: 

Beaucoup  de  gens  pensent  ainsi. 
Peu  de  gens  le  savent. 
Que  d'ennemis  m'attaquenti 
Nombre  d'Atheniens  avaient  fui. 
La  plupart  des  soldats  perirent. 
Force  sots  le  tenteront. 

Many  people  think  so. 

Few  people  know  it. 

How  many  enemies  attack  me  I 

Many  Athenians  had  fled. 

Most  of  the  soldiers  perished.  ^ 

Many  a  fool  will  try  it. 

6.  Beaucoup,  peu,  combien,  used  absolutely,  are  singular  or  plural 
according  to  the  sense  of  the  de  clause  imphed;  la  plupart  when  so 
used  is  generally  plural: 

Beaucoup  {sc.  de  gens)  le  croient.     Many  {sc.  people)  believe  it. 
Peu  {sc.  de  ceci)  me  suffira.  Little  (sc.  of  this)  will  suffice  me. 

La  plupart  voterent  centre.  The  majority  voted  nay. 

c.  Plus  d'un  is  singular,  imless  reciprocal  or  repeated,  and  moins  de 
deux  is  plural: 

Plus  d'lm  temoin  a  depose. 

Moins  de  deux  ne  valent  rien. 

Plus  d'un  fripon  se  dupent  I'tm 
1' autre. 

Plus  d'un  officier,  plus  d'un  ge- 
neral furent  tues. 

More  than  one  witness  has  sworn. 

Less  than  two  is  no  use. 

More  rogues  than  one  cheat  each 

More  than  one  officer,  more  than 

one  general  was  killed. 

3.  Ce  requires  a  plural  verb  only  when  the  predicate  is  a 
plural  noun,  a  plural  pronoun  of  the  third  person,  or  when 
ce  refers  to  a  preceding  plural: 

Sont-ce  vos  amis?  —  Ce  sont  emc.     Is  it  your  friends?    It  is  they. 
Ce  doivent  etre  les  siens.  Those  must  be  his. 

Ce  sont  nos  semblables.  They  are  our  fellow-creatures. 

Ses  desirs,  ce  sont  sa  loi.  His  desires  are  his  law. 

But:  C'estmoi;  c'esttoi;  c'estlui;  c'esf  nous;  c' csf  vous. 

a.  The  third  singular  is  often  used  for  the  third  plural  in  this 
construction,  more  especially  in  famiUar  language  or  to  avoid  harsh 


Est-ce  les  Anglais  que  je  crains?  Is  it  the  English  that  I  fear? 

C'est  eux  qui  I'ont  fait.  It  is  they  who  did  it. 

C'est  des  betises.  That  is  stupidity. 

Ne  fftt-ce  que  quelques  lignes.  If  it  were  only  a  few  lines. 

6.  The  verb  with  ce  is  singular  when  the  predicate  is  a  numeral 
+  a  noun  of  collective  force: 
C'est  dlx  heures  qui  sonnent.  It  is  ten  o'clock  that  is  striking. 

c.  Si  ce  n'est  is  always  singular: 
Qui,  si  ce  n'est  nos  parents?  Who,  if  it  is  not  our  parents? 

4.  n  (impers.)  always  has  a  singular  verb,  whatever  be 
the  logical  subject: 

D  est  arrive  bien  des  chosesL  There  have  happened  many  thinga 

n  en  reste  trois  livres.  There  remain  three  pounds  of  it. 

a.  Importer  is  construed  personally  or  impersonally: 
Qu'importe  (importent)  les  depens?  What  matters  the  cost? 

233.  Composite  Subject  A  verb  common  to  two  or 
more  subjects  is  regularly  plural;  when  the  subjects  differ  in 
person,  the  verb  agrees  with  the  first  person,  if  one  subject 
is  of  the  first  person,  otherwise  with  the  second: 

Toi  et  moi  nous  ne  faisons  qu'un.      You  and  I  are  but  one. 
Sa  soeur  et  lui  sent  li.  His  sister  and  he  are  there. 

a.  With  subjects  of  different  person,  pleonastic  nous,  Tous  is  gen- 
erally used: 

Vous  et  lui  vous  I'avez  vu.  You  and  he  have  seen  it. 

6.  With  ou  =  or,  ni ...  ni  =  neither  . . .  nor,  the  verb  is  singular  if 
the  sense  is  clearly  alternative,  i.e.,  the  one  subject  excluding  the  other, 
otherwise  generally  plural;  Pun  ou  I'autre  is  always  singular: 

Sa  vie  ou  sa  mort  en  depend.  His  life  or  death  depends  on  it. 

Ni  lui  ni  votre  frere  n'aura  ce  Neither  he  nor  your  brother  will 

poste.  have  that  post. 

Ni  Tun  ni  I'autre  ne  sont  bons.  Neither  is  good. 

L'une  ou  I'autre  viendra.  The  one  or  the  other  will  come. 

L'un  ou  I'autre  jour  me  convient.  Either  day  suits  me. 

c.  If  the  subjects  (generally  without  et)  are  synonymous,  or  nearly 
80,  or  form  a  cUmax,  the  verb  may  be  singular: 

40  THE  VERB  §§234-236 

Sa  dignite,  sa  noblesse  frappa  His  dignity,   his  nobility   struck 

tout  le  monde.  everybody. 

L'heure,  le  lieu,  le  bras  se  choisit  The  hour,  the  place,  the  arm  are 

aujoiu-d'hui.  chosen  to-day. 

Una  excuse,  un  mot  le  desarme.  An  excuse,  a  word  disarms  him. 

d.  When  the  subjects  are  recapitulated  by  a  word  in  the  singular, 
^e.g.,  tout,  rien,  etc.,  the  verb  is  singular  agreeing  with  it: 

Remords,  crainte,  perils,  rien  ne      Remorse,  fear,  dangers,  nothing  de- 
m'a  retenue.  terred  me. 

e.  With  an  intervening  clause,  e.g.,  ainsi  que,  plus  que,  etc.,  the 
subject  is.  usually  only  apparently  composite: 

La  vertu,  plus  que  le  savoir,  eleve      Virtue,     more     than     knowledge, 
I'homme.  elevates  man. 

/.  Even  with  et  the  sense  is  occasionally  singular,  or  distributive,  or 
alternative,  and  a  singular  verb  is  required: 
Le  bien  et  le  mal  est  en  ta  main.      Good  and  ill  are  in  thy  hand. 
L'ete  est  revenu  et  le  soleil.  Summer  has  returned  and  the  sun. 

Tombe  Argos  et  ses  murs.  Let  Argos  and  its  walls  fall. 

234.  Relative  Subject.  The  verb  agrees  with  the  rela- 
tive pronoun  subject,  which  is  itself  of  the  number  and 
person  of  the  antecedent  (see  also  Relative  Pronoun,  §  396) : 

C'est  nous  qui  I'avons  fait.  It  is  we  who  have  done  it. 

Dieuz  (vous)  qui  m'exaucez  I  (Ye)  Gods  who  hear  me  I 


235.  General  Rule.  The  subject  usually  precedes  the 
verb.  Exceptions  to  this  rule  are  noted  in  the  following 

236.  Interrogative  Word  Order.  Direct  interrogation  is 
expressed  as  follows: 

1.  A  personal  pronoun  subject  (also  ce  or  on)  follows  the 
verb,  and  is  joined  to  it  by  a  hyphen: 

Parlez-uous  franpais?  Do  you  speak  French? 

Est-cc  lui?  Is  it  he? 


a.  The  letter  -t-  is  inserted  after  a  third  singiilar  with  final  vowel 
before  a  pronoun  with  initial  vowel: 

Parla-/-elle?    Parle-Z-on?  Did  she  speak?    Do  they  speak? 

b.  A  final  e  of  the  first  fdngrilar  takes  acute  accent,  but  with  the 
sound  of  [ej: 

Donne- je?  [done  13]  Do  I  give? 

2.  A  noun  subject  precedes  the  verb,  and  is  repeated  after 
it  by  a  pleonastic  pronoun;  so  also,  possessive,  demonstra- 
tive, and  indefinite  pronouns: 

Cet  homme  parle-t-i7  anglais?  Does  that  man  speak  English? 

Cela  est-i7  vrai?  Is  that  true? 

Les  miens  ne  sont-ils  pas  bons?        Are  mine  not  good? 

3.  Questions  are  also  asked  by  intenx^tive  words  (adjec- 
tives, pronouns,  adverbs): 

Quel  podte  a  6crit  cela?  What  poet  wrote  that? 

A  quelle  heure  partira  son  ami?  At  what  time  will  his  friend  go? 

Qui  est  14?     Qu'ya-t-il?  Who  is  there?    What  is  the  matter? 

Lequel  des  deux  est  parti?  Which  of  the  two  has  gone? 

Combien  coAte  ceU?        >  g^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^  ^, 
Combien  cela  coflte-t-u?  > 

a.  The  word  order  of  either  of  the  last  two  examples  is  commonly 
permissible  for  noun  subject  under  this  rule. 

h.  The  word  order  of  the  last  example  is  obligatory  when  the  verb 
has  a  direct  object  (not  reflexive),  or  a  prepositional  complement,  or 
when  ambiguity  might  arise;  this  arrangement  is  preferable  with 
pourquoi?  or  when  a  compound  tense  is  used: 

Ott  le  roi  tient-il  sa  cour?  Where  does  the  king  hold  his  court? 

De  quoi  le  roi  parle-t-U?  Of  what  is  the  king  speaking? 

Quel  prix  le  roi  paya-t-il?  What  price  did  the  king  pay? 

Jean  qui  aime-t-il?  Whom  does  John  love? 

Pourquoi  mon  ami  part-il?  Why  does  my  friend  go? 

Quand  ce  roi  a-t-il  et6  decapite?      When  was  this  king  beheaded? 

4.  By  prefixing  est-ce  que?  a  statement  becomes  a  ques- 
tion without  change  in  its  word  order: 

Est-ce  que  vous  partei?  Are  you  going  away? 

Quand  est-ce  que  vous  partez?        When  are  you  going  away? 

42  THE  VERB  8  237 

0.  The  use  of  est-ce  que?  is  permissible  with  all  forms  of  the  verb, 
but  is  obligatory  with  a  monosyllabic  first  singular  (except  ai-je? 
suis-je?  dis-je?  dois-je?  fais-je?  puis-je?  sais-je?  vais-je?  vois-je?), 
and  is  preferable  to  avoid  forms  like  doime-je?: 

Est-ce  que  je  sers,  moi?  Do  I  serve? 

Est-ce  que  je  parle  de  lui?  Do  I  speak  of  him? 

5.   Interrogation  is  also  expressed  by  mere  inflection  of 
the  voice,  without  change  in  word  order: 
Vous  partez  dejk?  You  are  going  already? 

237.  Rhetorical  Inversions.  Owing  to  rhetorical  consider- 
ations, the  noun  subject  not  uncommonly  follows  the  verb, 
or  the  sentence  assumes  interrogative  form,  though  not 
interrogative,  as  follows: 

1.  In  interjected  remarks  explanatory  of  direct  quotation, 
as  in  English: 

Fais  comme  tu  voudras,  dit-il.  Do  as  you  please,  said  he. 

Que  veux-tu?  demanda  la  mere.       What   do  you   wish?    asked   the 


2.  In  optative  clauses  when  que  is  omitted,  and  also  after 
the  rare  omission  of  si,  if: 

Vive  le  roi !  Perisse  le  tyran !  (Long)  hve  the  king !     Perish  the 

Voulait-il  de  I'argent,  son  pere       If  he  wished  money,  his  father  al- 

lui  en  donnait  toujours.  ways  gave  him  some. 

Ne  ftit-ce  que  pour  cela.  If  it  were  only  for  that. 

3.  Very  commonly  after  certain  adverbs  and  adverbial 

Du  moins  devrait-il  attendre.  He  should  at  least  wait. 

A  peine  le  jour  fut-il  arrive.  Hardly  had  the  day  arrived. 

Such  are: 

k  peine,  hardly  *  peut-6tre,  perhaps  toutefois,  however 

aussi,  hence  encore,  besides  en  vain,  in  vain 

aussi  bien,  moreover  toujours,  however  rarement,  rarely 

au  moins,  at  least  tout  au  plus,  at  most  probablement.probafcZj/ 

du  moins,  at  least  d'autant  plus,  the  more                etc. 

*  Peut-etre  que  does  not  cause  inversion:  Peut-ltre  qu'il  le  fera,  Per- 
hapt  he  will  do  so. 

§  238  POSITION  OF  SUBJECT  43 

4.  Sometimes  in  exclamatory  sentences: 
Avons-nous  crie  t  Didn't  we  shout  I 

5.  When  a  predicate  adjective  heads  the  phrase: 

Telle  fut  la  fin  de  Carthage.  Such  was  the  end  of  Carthage. 

Quelque  riche  que  soit  cet  honuae.    However  rich  that  man  is. 

Note.  —  All  the  above  inversions,  except  the  last  given,  may  take  place 
whatever  be  the  nature  of  the  subject,  but  the  following  rules  do  not  usually 
hold  good  for  a  personal  pronoun  subject. 

6.  Very  commonly  in  a  relative  clause,  especially  when  a 
second  relative  clause  qualifies  its  subject: 

n   fera   ce   que   peut   faire   un  He  will  do  what  a  man  can  who 

homme  qui  se  respecte.  respects  himself. 

Dites-moi  ce  qu'a  fait  votre  ami  Tell  me  what  your  friend  did. 

Dis-moi  oft  est  ton  amL  Tell  me  where  your  friend  is. 

Note.  —  The  relative  is  unstressed  (procUtic),  and  naturally  stands  next 
the  verb  which  governs  it. 

7.  Commonly  after  c*est  que,  and  in  the  second  member 
of  a  comparative  sentence: 

C'est  en  vous  qu'espdrent  tons.  It  is  in  you  that  all  hope. 

Pen  ai  plus  que  n'en  a  mon  ami.      I  have  more  of  it  than  my  {ri&ad 


8.  Commonly  when  an  adverb,  other  than  those  men- 
tioned in  (3)  above,  e.g.,  ainsi,  bientot,  ici,  lit,  etc.,  or  an  ad- 
verbial phrase  heads  the  sentence: 

Ainsi  va  le  monde.  So  goes  the  world. 

Bientdt  viendra  le  printemps.  Spring  will  soon  come. 

A  la  tete  de  I'armee  fut  porte  At  the  head  of  the  army  was  carried 

I'etendard  sacre.  the  sacred  standard. 

9.  Quite  exceptionally,  when  the  verb  comes  first: 

Viendra  im  autre.  (Along)  will  come  another. 

Note.  —  No  inversion  of  noun  subject  usually  occurs  if  the  verb  has  a 
direct  object  or  a  prepositional  complement. 

238.  Indirect  Interrogation.  It  has  no  special  rules  of 
word  order  apart  from  those  of  the  clause  in  which  it  occurs: 
Dis-moi  ce  qu'il  a  dit.  Tell  me  what  he  said. 

44  THE  VERB  §§239-241 


239.  Formation.  The  passive  voice  of  a  transitive  verb  is 
formed  from  the  auxiliary  etre  +  the  past  participle,  which 
agrees  with  the  subject  of  the  verb  in  gender  and  number: 

Pres.  Infin.  Etre  lou6(e)  or  Ioue(e)s,  to  be  praised 

Perf.  Infin.  Avoir  et6  lou6(e)  or  loue(e)s,  to  have  been  praised 

Pres.  Part.  Etant  lou6(e)  or  loue(e)s,  being  praised 

Perf.  Part.  Ayant  6t6  lou6(e)  or  loue(e)s,  having  been  praised 

Present  Indicative  Past  Indefinite  Indicative 

/  am  (/  am  being)  praised,  etc.  I  have  been  (/  was)  praised,  etc. 

je  suis  1  j'ai  6t6  1 

tu  es      >  lou6(e)  tu  as  6tA   >  lou6{e) 

il  (elle)  est    J  11  (elle)  a  6ie  J 

nous  sommes  ]  nous  avons  ete   | 

vous  etes  [  lou6(e)8  vous  avez  6te   >  lou6(e)8 

ils  (elles)  sont         J  ils  (elles)  ont  6t6  J   etc.,  etc. 

Obs.:  1.  The  past  participle  ete  is  always  invariable.  2.  The  past 
participle  after  vous  agrees  with  the  sense:  Madame,  vous  serez  meprisee 
de  tous,  Madam,  you  will  be  despised  by  all. 

240.  The  Agent.  The  person  by  whom  the  action  is  done 
is  usually  denoted  by  par,  when  a  specific  intention  or  defi- 
nite volition  is  implied,  and  by  de  when  the  action  is  habitual, 
usual,  or  indefinite,  a  condition  rather  than  a  definite  action: 

Elle  fut  saisie  par  le  voleur.  She  was  seized  by  the  thief. 

Le  general  fut  suivi  de  pres  par      The  general  was  closely  followed  by 

I'ennemi.  the  enemy. 

La  reine  etait  suivie  de  ses  dames.    The  queen  was  followed  by  her 

lis  sent  aimes  de  tous.  They  are  loved  by  everybody. 

241.  Remarks.  1.  Only  transitive  verbs  regularly  have 
the  passive  voice,  but  the  intransitive  obeir,  desobeir,  par- 
donner  (§  296,  2)  may  also  be  made  passive: 

Vous  etes  pardonnes  tous.  You  are  all  pardoned. 

Elle  est  toujours  obeie.  She  is  always  obeyed. 

2.  The  passive  is  less  used  than  in  English,  especially  if 
the  agent  be  not  specified,  or  if  the  corresponding  French 




verb  is  intransitive,  or  if  an  indirect  object  be  present. 
Substitutes  are: 

a.  A  verb  with  the  indefinite  pronoun  on: 

On  m'a  trompe. 

On  me  soup$onne. 

On  a  repondu  k  ma  question. 

On  lui  a  rendu  I'argent. 

6.  A  reflexive  construction: 
Ce  livre  se  publie  &  Paris. 
La  guerre  se  prolongea. 
Voild  ce  qui  se  dit. 

3.  A  transitive  infinitive  in  French  sometimes  equals  a 
passive  in  English,  after  verbs  of  'perceiving,'  (voir,  etc.), 
after  faire,  laisser,  and  when  i  +  an  infinitive  is  used 
adjectivally  (cf.  §284). 

Le  ferez-vous  vendre?  Will  you  have  it  sold? 

On  entend  dire  cela.  You  hear  that  said. 

Une  faute  &  eviter.  A  mistake  to  be  avoided. 

I  have  been  deceived. 
I  am  suspected. 

My  question  has  been  answered. 
The  money  has  been  given  back  to 

Thb  book  is  published  in  Paris. 

The  war  was  prolonged. 

This  (or  that)  is  what  is  being  said. 


242.  Compound  Tenses.  The  auxiliary  etre  +  the  past 
participle  forms  the  compound  tenses  of  all  reflexive  verbs, 
as  follows: 

Pres.  Infin.    Se  flatter,  to  flatter  onesdf 

Perf.  Infin.    S'Stre  flatt6(e)  or  flatte(e)s,  to  have  flattered  oneself 

Pres.  Part.     Se  flattant,  flnttering  onesdf 

Perf.  Part.     S'etant  flatt^(e)  or  flatt^(e)s,  having  flattered  onesdf 


Past  iNDEFiNrrE 

/  (have)  flattered  mysdf,  etc. 
je  me  suis 
tu  t'es       •  flatt6(e) 
fl  (elle)  s'est     J 
nous  nous  sommes  | 
vous  vous  etes  [  flatt^C6)8 

ils  (elles)  se  sont        J   etc.,  etc. 

/  flatter  mysdf,  etc. 
je  me  flatte 
tu  te  flattee 
il(elle)  se  flatte 
nous  nous  flattons 
vous  vous  flaMez 
ils  (elles)  se  flattent 

46  THE  VERB  §§243-245 


FlcMer  thyself,  etc.  Do  not  flatter  thyself,  etc. 

flatte-toi  ne  te  flatte  pas 

(qu'il  se  flatte)  (qu'il  ne  se  flatte  pas) 

flattons-nous  ne  nous  flattens  paa 

flattez-vous  ne  vous  flattez  pas 

(qu'ils  se  flattent)  (qu'ils  ne  se  flattent  pas) 

Notes.  —  1.  Se  flatter,  se  flattant,  etc.,  are  the  infinitive  and  participial 
forms  found  in  dictionaries,  but  se  must  be  replaced  by  me,  te,  etc.,  accord- 
ing to  the  sense. 

2.  Except  in  the  use  of  etre  as  auxiliary,  reflexive  verbs  have  no  pecu- 
liarities of  conjugation  on  account  of  being  reflexive. 

243.  Reflexive  or  Reciprocal.  A  reflexive  verb  often 
has  reciprocal  force,  especially  in  the  plural.  Ambiguity  is 
generally  avoided  by  some  modifying  expression: 

vu  ft  ft    t  /  '^^^y  flatter  themselves. 

\  They  flatter  each  other. 
Elles  se  flattent  I'une  V autre.  They  flatter  one  another. 

On  se  dupe  muiueUement.  They  cheat  each  other, 

244.  Agreement  of  Past  Participle.  1.  In  compound 
tenses,  the  past  participle  of  a  reflexive  agrees  in  gender 
and  number  with  the  direct  object,  as  in  the  case  of  verbs 
compounded  with  avoir: 

Elle  s'est  ecriee.  She  cried  out. 

Elle  s'est  dit  k  elle-m6me.  She  said  to  herself. 

Ds  se  sont  ecrit.  They  wrote  to  each  other. 

Elles  se  sont  achete  des  robes.  They  bought  themselves  dresses. 

2.  Besides  the  reflexive  object,  a  direct  object  may  pre- 
cede the  verb,  and  with  this  object  the  participle  agrees: 

Les  plumes  qu'ils  se  sont  achetees.    The  pens  they  bought  themselves. 

Notes.  —  1.  The  auxiliary  etre  is  considered  as  replacing  avoir,  and  the 
above  agreements  are  explained  by  the  general  principle  (§291). 

2.  The  agreement  with  vous  is  according  to  the  sense:  Vous  vous  fetes 
trompee,  madame.  You  were  mistaken,  madam. 

245.  Omission  of  Reflexive  Object.  1.  It  is  always 
omitted  with  the  past  participle  used  as  attributive  adjective: 
Le  temps  ecoule.  The  time  past. 

§§  246-247  THE  REFLEXIVE  VERB  47 

2.  The  infinitives  of  certain  verbs,  such  as  s'asseoir,  se 
souvenir,  se  taire,  regularly  omit  se  when  preceded  by 
faire ;  but  modem  French  has  many  exceptions. 

Faites  asseoir  vos  amis.  Make  your  friends  sit  down. 

Je  vous  en  ferai  souvenir.  I  shall  remind  you  of  it. 

But  also :  II  la  fit  se  souvenir  de  . . .  He  reminded  her  of . . . 

a.  A  similar  omission  of  se  sometimes  occurs  after  laisser,  entendre, 
▼oir,  etc. 

246.  Remarks.  The  reflexive  construction  is  much  com- 
moner in  French  than  in  English: 

1.  It  often  translates  the  English  passive,  especially  when 
the  agent  is  not  specified: 

La  bourse  s'est  retrouv6«.  The  purse  has  been  recovered. 

Cela  se  raconte  partout.  That  is  being  told  everjrwhere. 

2.  Or  it  is  expressed  by  an  English  non-reflexive  verb, 
generally  intransitive: 

S'arreter;  s' Verier;  se  porter.  Stop;  exclaim;  be  (of  health). 

S'asseoir;  seh&ter;  se  tromper.       Sit  down;  hasten;  be  mistaken. 

3.  Or  the  French  reflexive  -|-  a  preposition  has  the  value 
of  an  English  transitive: 

S'approcher  de;  se  douter  de.  Approach;  suspect. 

S'attendre  a ;  se  fier  a.  Elxpect;  trust. 

Se  passer  de;  se  souvenir  de.  Do  without;  recollect. 

247.  S'en  Aller.  The  conjugation  of  s*en  aller,  to  go 
away,  presents  special  difficulty: 

Present  Indicative  Past  Indefinite  Indicative 

/  go  away,  etc.  I  have  gone  (/  went)  away,  etc. 

je  m'en  vais  je  m'en  suis  1 

tu  t'en  vas  tu  t'en  es     \  all^(e) 

il  s'en  va  il  (elle)  s'en  est  J 

nous  nous  en  aliens  nous  nous  en  sommes  ] 

vous  vous  en  allez  vous  vous  en  ^tes         [  all6(e)8 

ils  s'en  vont  ils  (elles)  s'en  sont        1 

48                                                THE  VERB  §§  24S-249 

Imperative  Imperative  Negative 

Go  away,  etc.  Do  not  go  away,  etc. 

va-t'en  ne  t'en  va  pas 

(qu'il  s'en  aille)  (qu'il  ne  s'en  aille  pas) 

allons-nous-en  ne  nous  en  allons  pas 

allez-vous-en  ne  vous  en  allez  pas 

(qu'ils  s'en  aillent)  (qu'ils  ne  s'en  aillent  pas) 

Further  examples: 
Est-ce  que  je  m'en  vais?  lis  ne  s'en  sont  pas  alles. 
Vous  en  allez-vous?  Ne  nous  en  sommes-nous  pas  El- 
s'en  sont-elles  allees?  le(e)s? 


248.  Conjugation.  An  impersonal  verb,  or  a  verb  used 
as  such,  is  one  conjugated,  in  the  third  singular  only,  with 
the  subject  il  =  it,  there,  used  indefinitely  and  absolutely, 
e.g.,  tenner,  to  thunder: 


Pres.  II  tonne,  it  thunders  Past  Indf.  II  a  tonn6,  it  has  thundered 

Impf.  II  tonnait,  it  thundered       Plupf.  II  avait  tonne,  it  had  thundered 

Past  Dep.  II  tonna,  it  thundered   Past  Ant.  II  eut  tonn6,  it  had  thundered 

etc.,  etc.,  like  the  third  singular  of  donner 

Note.  —  Apart  from  being  limited  to  the  third  singular,  their  conjuga- 
tion does  not  differ  from  that  of  ordinary  verbs.  Some  are  regular,  others 

249.  Use  of  Impersonals.  1.  Verbs  denoting  natural 
phenomena  and  time  are  impersonal,  as  in  English: 

n  tonne;  il  a  plu;  il  pleuvra.  It  thunders;  it  rained;  it  will  rain. 

II  a  gele  hier;  il  degele.  It  froze  yesterday;  it  is  thawing. 

II  est  une  heure;  il  est  tard.  It  is  one  o'clock;  it  is  late. 

Such  verbs  are: 
pleuvoir,  rain  grfeler,  hail  geler,  freeze 

neiger,  snow  Sclairer,  lighten  degeler,  thaw 

2.  Faire  =  make,  is  also  much  used  impersonally  to  de- 
scribe weather,  temperature,  etc.: 

§§250-251  IMPERSONAL  VERBS  49 

Quel  temps  fait-il?  What  kind  of  weather  is  it? 

U  fait  beau  (temps)  ce  matin.  It  is  fine  (weather)  this  morning. 

D  a  fait  bien  froid  hier.  It  was  very  cold  yesterday. 

n  faisait  du  vent  aussi.  It  was  windy  too. 

Est-ce  qu'il  fera  obscur  ce  soir?        Will  it  be  dark  this  evening? 

D  fait  des  eclairs.  It  is  hghtning. 

06s.;  Diijtinguish  theae  from  constructions  with  a  personal  subject: 
Le  temps  est  beau.  The  weather  ia  fine;  L'eau  est  froide,  The  uxUer  w  cold. 

250.  Impersonal  avoir  and  etre.  1.  The  verb  avoir, 
preceded  by  y,  used  impersonally  =  there  is,  there  are,  there 
was,  there  were,  etc.: 

D  y  a.    D  y  a  eu.    Y  a-t-il?  There  is.  There  has  been.  Is  there? 

D  n'y  a  pas.    II  n'y  a  pas  eu.  There  is  not.    There  has  not  been. 

Y  a-t-il  eu?    N'y  a-t-il  pas  eu?  Has  there  been?     Has  there  not 


Y  aura-t-il?    II  peut  y  avoir.  Will  there  be?    There  may  be. 

2.  n  est  is  sometimes  used  for  11  y  a  in  this  sense: 

n  est  des  hommes  qui  le  croient.       There  are  men  who  think  so. 

3.  n  y  a  =  there  is,  there  are,  is  distinguished  from  voUk 
=  there  is,  there  are.  Voili  answers  the  question  'where  is?' 
'where  are?*  and  makes  a  specific  statement  about  an 
object  to  which  attention  is  directed  by  pointing  or  the 
like,  while  il  y  a  does  not  answer  the  question  'where  is?' 
'where  are?'  and  makes  a  general  statement. 

n  y  a  des  plumes  sur  la  table.  There  are  pens  on  the  table. 

Voilft  les  plumes  sur  la  table.  There  are  the  pens  on  the  table. 

4.  Y  avoir  also  forms  idiomatic  expressions  of  time, 
reckoned  backwards,  and  of  distance: 

lis  sont  arrives  il  y  a  trois  jours.  They  came  three  days  ago. 

D  y  avait  trois  jours  que  j'etais  UL  I  had  been  there  three  daj's. 

Combien  y  a-t-il  d'ici  k  la  villa?  How  far  is  it  to  the  city? 

n  y  a  dix  milles  d'ici  k  la  ville.  It  is  ten  miles  from  here  to  the  city. 

261.  Falloir  =  he  necessary,  expresses  the  various  mean- 
ings of  rrnist,  be  obliged  to,  have  to,  need,  as  follows: 

1.  Must  -h  infinitive  =  falloir  -}-  que  and  subjunctive: 

50  THE  VERB  §252 

D  faut  que  je  parte.  I  must  go. 

D  faudra  que  vous  restiez.  You  will  have  to  (be  obliged  to) 


2.  Or  the  subject  of  must,  etc.,  if  a  personal  pronoun,  may 
become  indirect  object  of  falloir  +  an  infinitive: 

D  me  faudrait  tester.  I  should  be  obhged  to  remain. 

D  leur  faut  faire  cela.  They  must  do  that. 

D  lui  a  fallu  parler.  He  was  forced  (obhged)  to  speak. 

3.  The  infinitive  construction  without  indirect  object  is 
used  in  general  or  indefinite  statement: 

D  faut  faire  son  devoir.  One  must  do  one's  duty. 

n  ne  faut  pas  voler.  We  must  not  steal. 

4.  Falloir  +  an  indirect  object  and  a  substantive  signifies 
lack,  need: 

n  faut  une  ardoise  k  Jean.  John  needs  a  slate. 

n  leur  faudra  cent  francs.  They  will  need  a  hundred  francs. 

5.  S'en  falloir  =  lack: 

U  s'en  faujt  de  beaucoup  que  I'un      The  one  is  not  nearly  so  good  as  the 
vaille  I'autre.  other. 

252.  Other   Impersonals.     1.  Besides   faire    and   avoir, 

already  noted,  many  other  verbs  take  a  special  meaning  as 
impersonals : 

De  quoi  s'agit-il?  What  is  the  matter? 

H  est  souvent  arrive  que,  etc.  It  has  often  happened  that,  etc. 

II  vaudra  mieux  ne  rien  dire.  It  will  be  better  to  say  nothing. 

n  y  va  de  ses  joiu"s.  His  life  is  at  stake. 

II  se  peut  que  je  me  trompe.  It  may  be  that  I  am  mistaken. 

06s.:  Compare  the  literal  meanings:  agir,  act,  arriver,  arrive,  valoir,  be 
XDorth,  alter,  go,  pouvoir,  he  able. 

2.  Many  verbs  may  stand  in  the  third  singular  with  im- 
personal 11  representing  a  logical  subject,  singular  or  plural, 
following  the  verb: 

n  viendra  un  meilleur  temps.  There  will  come  a  happier  time. 

H  en  reste  trois  livres.  There  remain  three  pounds  of  it. 

H  est  arrive  des  messagers.  Messengers  have  arrived. 

§§  253-256  TENSES  OF  THE  INDICATIVE  61 

253.  Omission  of  il.    U  is  understood  in  certain  phrases, 
such  as: 

Reste  k  savoir.  It  remains  to  be  seen. 

N'importe.  No  matter  (it  matters  not). 

Mleuz  vaut  tard  que  jamais.  Better  late  than  never. 


264.  Use  of  Indicative.  The  indicative  is  the  mood  of 
direct  or  indirect  assertion,  and  of  direct  or  indirect  inter- 
rogation. It  stands  both  in  principal  and  in  subordinate 
clauses,  both  affirmative  and  negative: 

Dieu  crea  le  monde.  God  created  the  world. 

Molse  dit  que  Dieu  crea  le  monde.      Moses  says  that  God  created  the 

Ot  allez-vous?  Where  are  you  going? 

Dites-moi  oii  vous  allez.  Tell  me  where  you  arc  going. 

Je  le  ferais,  si  je  pouvais.  I  should  do  so  if  I  could. 

Notes.  —  1.  It  should  be  noted  especially  that  the  indicative  is  regu- 
larly the  mood  of  indirect  discourse  and  of  'if  clauses. 

2.  When  the  verb  of  a  8ulx>rdinate  clause  is  subjunctive,  the  mood  is 
determined  by  the  context,  and  not  simply  by  the  fact  that  the  clause  is 


265.  Periphrastic  Forms.  Such  forms,  so  common  in 
English,  are  not  used  in  French: 

Je  parte.  I  speak  (am  speaking,  do  speak). 

II  a  ecrit.  He  has  written  (has  been  writing), 

n  disait.  He  was  sajdng  (used  to  say,  etc.). 

256.  Elliptical  Forms.  Ellipsis  of  part  of  a  verb  form  is 
common  in  English;  in  French  the  form  is  either  fully  given 
or  entirely  avoided: 

pirai.  —  Moi,  je  n'irai  pas.  I  shall  go.  —  I  shall  not  (go). 

II  a  promis  de  venir,  Tnaig  U  n'est      He  promised  to  come,  but  he  did 
pas  venu.  not  (come). 

52  THE  VERB  §§257-258 

n  est  venu.  —  Vraiment !  He  has  come.  —  Has  he !  ( Indeed !) 

Vous  viendrez,  n'est-ce  pas?  You  will  come,  will  you  not? 

11  etait  sorti,  n'est-ce  pas?  He  had  gone  out,  had  he  not? 

257.  Present  Indicative.    The  present  tense  is  used: 

1.  To  denote  what  is  happening,  including  the  habitual 
and  the  universally  true: 

Je  crois  qu'il  pleut.  I  think  it  is  raining. 

II  se  leve  toujours  de  bon  matin.      He  always  rises  early. 

L'homme  propose  et  Dieu  dispose.    Man  proposes  and  God  disposes. 

2.  To  denote  what  has  happened  and  still  continues,  after 
11  y  a  . . .  que,  void  (voila) . . .  que,  depuis,  depuis  quand? 
depuis  . . .  que : 

Depuis  quand  attendez-yous?  How  long  have  you  been  waiting? 

II  y  a  (or  voici,  voil^)  trois  jours  I  have  waited  (I  have  been  wait- 

que  y attends,  or  ^attends  de-  ing)  for  three  days. 

puis  trois  jours. 

3.  Instead  of  a  past  tense  in  animated  narrative: 

La  nuit  approche,  I'instant  arrive,      Night  draws  on,  the  moment  comes, 
Cesar  se  presente,  etc.  Caesar  appears,  etc. 

a.  This  use.  is  much  commoner  than  in  EngUsh,  especially  side  by 
side  with  past  tenses.     It  is  called  the  'Historical  Present.' 

b.  C'est . . .  que  +  a  past  tense  =  was  . . .  that : 

C^est  \k  que  je  I'ai  vu.  It  was  there  that  I  saw  him. 

4.  Instead  of  a  future  in  familiar  style: 

Nous  partons  demain  matin.  We  go  to-morrow  morning. 

5.  As  a  virtual  future  after  si  =  if: 

Je  serai  content,  si  vous  venez.         I  shall  be  glad  if  you  (will)  come. 

258.  Imperfect  Indicative.  The  action  or  state  denoted 
by  the  imperfect  is  in  general  viewed  as  being  in  progress, 
i.e.,  as  contemporaneous,  customary,  continued,  etc.,  and 
it  is  employed  as  follows: 

1.  To  denote  what  was  happening,  when  something  else 
happened  or  was  happening: 


B  etait  nuit,  qtiand  je  sortis.  It  was  night  when  I  went  out. 

n  parlait,  pendant  que  je  chantais.    He  was  talking  while  I  sang. 

2.  To  denote  what  used  to  happen: 

n  se  levait  de  bon  matin.  He  used  to  rise  early. 

Je  parlais  souvent  de  cela.  I  often  spoke  (used  to  speak,  would 

sp>eak)  of  that. 
Les  Romains  br(ilaient  leurs  morts.    The  Romans  were  accustomed  to 

bum  their  dead. 

3.  To  denote  what  continued  to  happen: 

Son  pdre  etait  negodant  et  de-      Ilis  father  was  a  merchant  and 
meiirait  dans  cette  rue.  lived  in  tiiis  street. 

4.  To  denote  what  had  happened  and  still  continued, 
after  il  y  a  . . .  que,  void  (voilA) . . .  que,  depuis,  depuis 
quand?  depuis  . . .  que  (cf .  §  257,  2) : 

Je  le  disais  depuis  longtemps.  I  had  long  been  sajring  so. 

VoiUl  im  an  que  je  le  disais.  I  had  been  sa>ing  so  for  a  year. 

5.  In  indirect  discourse,  after  a  past  tense,  instead  of  the 


Je  croyals  qu'il  revenait  I  thought  he  was  coming  back. 

Je  demandai  oH  11  etait.  I  asked  where  he  was. 

But:  Oft  est-H?  demandai- je.  "Where  is  he?"  I  asked. 

6.  Regularly  in  an  'if*  clause  when  the  'result'  clause 
is  conditional: 

S'il  venait,  je  serais  content.  If  he  came,  I  should  be  ^ad. 

7.  Occasionally,  instead  of  the  conditional  anterior  in 
conditional  sentences: 

Si  je  ne  Pavais  pas  arrete,  il  torn-      Had  I  not  stopped  him  he  would 
bait  (=  serait  tombe)  du  train.  have  fallen  from  the  train. 

8.  Sometimes  instead  of  the  past  definite  (§  260) : 

Un  moment  apr^s,  le  pSre  Alphee      A  moment  afterwards,  Father  AI- 
se  dressait,  marchait  k  grands  pheus  rose,  walked  about  with 

pas,  voili,  s'ecriait-il,  etc.  great  strides,  "There,"  cried  he, 


269.  Past  Indefinite.    The  past  indefinite  is  used: 

54  THE  VERB  §260 

1.  To  denote  what  has  happened  or  has  been  happening, 
equivalent  to  an  English  tense  with  'have/  reference  to  the 
present  being  implied: 

J'ai  fini  mon  ouvrage.  I  have  finished  my  work. 

L'avez-vous  vu  demierement?  Have  you  seen  him  lately? 

Je  I'ai  souvent  rencontre.  I  have  often  met  him. 

J'ai  chante  toute  la  matinee.  I  have  been  singing  all  morning. 

2.  In  familiar  style,  spoken  or  written,  to  denote  a  past 
event,  without  implied  reference  to  the  present,  or  a  succes- 
sion of  such  past  events  as  mark  the  progress  of  a  narrative, 
answering  the  question  'What  happened?'  or  'What  hap- 
pened next?'  For  narrative  in  the  literary  style,  see  §  260: 
lis  sent  arrives  ce  soir.  They  arrived  this  evening. 

Je  I'ai  vu  il  y  a  dix  ans.  I  saw  him  ten  years  ago. 

De  quoi  est-il  mort?  What  did  he  die  of? 

J'ai  qmtte  Rome  le  dix.    Puis  je  I  left  Rome  on  the  tenth.     Then 

suis  alle  voir  des  amis  k  Lyon,  I  visited  some  friends  at  Lyons, 

j'ai    passe    quelques    jours    k  I  spent  some  days  in  Paris,  and  I 

Paris,  et  je  suis  revenu  k  Lon-  came  back  to  London  yesterday. 
dres  hier. 

3.  Occasionally  instead  of  a  future  anterior: 
Attendez,  j'ai  bientdt  fini.  Wait,  I  shall  have  finished  soon. 

260.  Past  Definite.  The  past  definite  denotes  a  past 
event,  or  a  succession  of  such  past  events  as  mark  the 
progress  of  the  narrative,  answering  the  question  'What 
happened?'  or  'What  happened  next?'  Its  use  is  largely 
confined  to  literary  or  "book"  French,  and  formal  public 
address.  It  is  not  much  used  in  conversation  or  in  easy 

Dieu  area  le  monde.  God  created  the  world. 

La  guerre  dura  sept  ans.  The  war  lasted  seven  years. 

On  forca  le  palais,  les  sc61erats      They  broke  into  the  palace,  the 
n^oserent    pas    resister   long-  villains  did  not  dare  to  resist 

temps   et  ne   songerent   qu'a  long,  and  only  thought  of  fleeing. 

fuir.    Astarbe  voulut  se  sauver  Astarb6  tried  to  escape  in  the 

dans  la  foiJe,  mais  un  soldat  crowd,  but  a  soldier  recognized 

la  reconnut;  elle  fut  prise.  her;  she  was  captured. 


a.  Some  verbs  have  a  special  force  in  the  past  definite: 
£tre:  je  fus.  To  be:  I  became. 

Avoir:  j'eus.  To  have:  I  received. 

Savoir:  je  sus.  To  know:  I  found  out  (learned). 

Connaltre:  je  connus.  To  know:  I  reaUzed. 

In  this  force  fus  and  sus  are  common,  the  other  two  less  so. 

261.  Examples  of  Narrative.  1.  The  following  exam- 
ples illustrate  the  principal  uses  of  the  past  definite, 
imperfect,  past  indefinite,  and  historical  present,  in  the 
literary  narrative  style: 

Les  Turcs,  qui  cependant  entouralent  cette  maison  tout  embrasde, 
voyaient  avec  une  admiration  mel^e  d'^pouvante  que  les  Su6dois  n'en 
sortaient  point;  mais  leur  dtonnement  fut  encore  plus  grand  lorsqu'ils 
▼irent  ouvrir  les  portes,  et  le  roi  et  les  siens  fondre  sur  eux  en  d^ses- 
p6t6b.  Charles  et  sea  principaux  officiers  £taient  armds  d'^p^es  et  de 
pistolcts:  chacun  tira  deux  coups  k  la  fois  k  Tinstant  que  la  porte 
s'ouvrit;  et  dans  le  mSme  clin  d'oeil,  jetant  leurs  pistolets  et  s'armant 
dc  leurs  6p6cs,  ils  firent  reculer  les  Turcs  plus  de  cinquante  pas;  mais 
le  moment  d'apr&s  cette  petite  troupe  fut  entour^e:  le  roi,  qui  6tait  en 
bottes  selon  sa  coutume,  s'embarrassa  dans  ses  ^perons,  et  tomba; 
vingt  et  un  janissaires  se  jettent  aussitdt  sur  lui:  il  jette  en  I'air  son 
6p6e  pour  s'^pargner  la  douleur  de  la  rendre;  les  Turcs  I'emmSnent 
au  quartier  du  bacha.  —  Voltaire. 

Stanislas  se  deroba  un  jour  k  dix  heures  du  soir  de  I'armde  suddoise 
qu'il  commandait  en  Pomdranie,  et  partit  avec  le  baron  Sparre,  qui  a 
6t6  depuis  ambassadeur  en  Angleterre  et  en  France,  et  avec  un  autre 
colonel:  il  prend  le  nom  d'un  Fran?ais,  nomm6  Ilaran,  alors  major 
au  service  de  SuMe,  et  qui  est  mort  depuis  commandant  de  Dantzick. 

—  Vollatre. 

2.  So  nearly  identical  may  be  the  force  of  the  past  definite 
and  the  past  indefinite,  as  narrative  tenses,  that  they  are 
often  used  interchangeably,  as  in  the  following  extract, 
taken  from  a  newspaper: 

LoNDRES,  5  aoGt.  —  Hier  soir,  k  onze  heures  et  demie,  un  incendie 
a  eclate  dans  I'atelier  de  composition  de  la  National  Press  Agency. 
Plusieurs  pompes  k  vapeur  arrivdrent  immddiatement  sur  le  lieu  du 
sinistre,  et  I'incendie  s'etendit  avec  une  telle  rapidity,  que  toute  la 
maison  a  ete  completement  ddtruite.  —  Le  Matin. 

56  THE  VERB  §§262-263 

262.  Pluperfect    and    Past    Anterior.    1.  Both    denote 
what  'had  happened,'  hke  the  EngUsh  pluperfect: 
Lorsque  je  I'avais  (eus)  fini.  When  I  had  finished  it. 

2.  The  pluperfect  is  of  much  commoner  occurrence  than 
the  past  anterior,  and  is  used  after  si  =  if,  in  conditional 
clauses,  or  when  custom,  continuance,  etc.,  is  implied  (but 
cf.  §§258,275,6): 

Si  je  I'avais  vu,  je  I'aurais  dit.  Had  I  seen  it,  I  should  have  said  so. 

J'avais  toujoxxrs  fini  avant  midi.       I  always  had  finished  before  noon. 

3.  The  past  anterior  denotes  what  had  happened  imme- 
diately before  another  past  event.  It  is  rarely  used  except 
after  conjunctions  of  time,  such  as  lorsque,  quand,  apres 
que,  aussitot  que,  ne  . . .  pas  plus  tot . . .  que,  etc. : 

Apres  qu'il  eut  dine,  il  partit.  After  he  had  dined,  he  set  out. 

263.  Future.    The  future  is  used: 

1.  To  denote  what  will  happen: 

Ds  viendront  demain.  They  will  come  to-morrow. 

Je  les  verrai  bientSt.  I  shall  see  them  soon. 

Je  ne  sais  pas  s'il  viendra.  I  know  not  whether  he  will  come. 

a.  Distinguish  English  'will'  of  futurity  from  'will'  of  vohtion,  and 
from  'will'  of  habitual  action: 

H  ne  resiera  pas.  He  will  not  stay. 

H  ne  veut  pas  rester.  He  will  not  stay. 

Ce  chasseur  reste  souvent  dans  That    hunter    will    often    remain 

les    bois    pendant    des    mois  whole  months  in  the  woods. 


b.  Observe  the  following  commonly  occurring  forms: 
Ne  voulez-vous  pas  rester?  Will  you  not  stay? 
Voulez-vous  que  je  reste?  Shall  I  stay? 

Je  ne  resterai  pas.  I  shall  not  stay, 

2.  Regularly  in  a  subordinate  clause  of  implied  futurity: 
Payez-le  quand  il  viendra.  Pay  him  when  he  comes. 

Faites  comme  vous  voudrez.  Do  as  you  please. 

Tant  que  je  vivrai.  As  long  as  I  live. 

3.  To  denote  probability,  conjecture,  or  possibiHty,  etc.: 

§§  264-265  TENSES  OP  THE  INDICATIVE  57 

La  nef  appartient  au  Xn®  siecle,      The  nave  belongs  to  the  12th  cen- 
mais  le  choeur  sera  du  XV®.  tury,  but  the  choir  is  probably 

of  the  15th. 

4.  Sometimes  with  imperative  force: 

Tu  ne  tueras  point.  Thou  shalt  not  kill. 

Vous  voudrez  bien  m'ecouter.  Be  good  enough  to  hear  me. 

a.  This  use  is  common  in  official  style  (edicts,  etc.). 

264.  Future  Anterior.    The  future  anterior  is  used: 

1.  To  denote  what  will  have  happened: 

n  aura  bientdt  finL  He  will  soon  have  done. 

2.  To  denote  implied  futurity  (cf.  §  263,  2),  probability, 
conjecture,  or  possibility,  etc.  (cf.  §  263,  3) : 

Quand  vous  serez  rentr€  je  When  you  have  come  home,    I 

sortiral.  shall  go  out. 

Je  me  serai  trompe.  I  must  have  made  a  mistake. 

265.  Conditional.  1.  The  main  use  of  the  conditional  is 
to  denote  result  dependent  on  condition,  i.e.,  what  would 
happen  in  case  something  else  were  to  happen: 

Je  serais  content,  s'il  venait.  I  should  be  glad  if  he  came. 

a.  The  condition  on  which  the  result  would  depend  is  often  merely 
implied,  but  not  formally  stated: 

Heslter  serait  ime  faiblesse.  To  hesitate  would  be  weakness. 

6.  Distinguish  English  'should'  of  duty,  etc.,  'would'  of  volition, 
and  'would'  of  past  habit,  from  conditional  'should'  and  'would': 
Je  devrais  partir.  I  should  (ought  to)  set  out. 

D  ne  voulait  pas  ecouter.  He  would  not  listen. 

yallais  souvent  le  voir.  I  would  often  go  to  see  him. 

2.  It  corresponds  to  an  English  past  in  a  subordinate 
clause  of  implied  futurity  (cf .  §  263,  2) : 

Je  prendrais  ce  qui  resterait.  I  should  take  what  remained. 

3.  In  indirect  discourse,  it  denotes  what  was  once  future 
and  is  now  regarded  as  past,  i.e.,  the  original  future  of  the 

58  THE  VERB  §§266-267 

assertion  or  question  becomes  a  conditional  when  in  a  clause 
subordinate  to  a  verb  in  a  past  tense: 

Je  croyais  qu'il  pleuvrait.  I  thought  it  would  rain. 

A-t-U  dit  s'il  le  ferait?  Did  he  say  whether  he  would  do  so? 

But:  Je  le  ferai,  dit-il.  "I  shall  do  so,"  said  he. 

4.  It  is  used  in  statement  or  request  expressed  with  defer- 
ence or  reserve: 

Je  le  croirais  au  moins.  I  should  think  so,  at  least. 

Auriez-vous  la  bonte  d'y  aller?  Would  you  have  the  kindness  to  go? 

Cela  ne  serait  jamais  vrai.  That  never  could  (can)  be  true 

Je  ne  saurais  vous  le  dire.  I  cannot  tell  you. 

Je  voudrais  qu'U  fiit  (soit)  ici.  I  wish  he  were  here. 

5.  It  sometimes  denotes  probability,  conjecture,  or  possi- 
bility, etc.,  in  exclamations  and  questions  (cf.  §263,  3): 

Serait-il  vrai  qu'il  I'ait  dit?  Can  it  be  true  that  he  said  so? 

Serait-il  possible?  Can  (could)  it  be  possible? 

6.  It  sometimes  denotes  concession  after  quand,  quand 
meme,  or  with  que: 

Quand  (meme)  il  me  tuerait,  etc.      Even  if  he  should  kiU  me,  etc. 
Vous  me  le  jiireriez  que  je  ne      Even  if  you  swore  it  to  me,    I 
vous  croirais  pas.  should  not  believe  you. 

7.  It  is  used  to  give  the  substance  of  hearsay  information: 
A  ce  qu'on  dit,  le  roi  serait  malade.    By  what  they  say,  the  king  is  ill. 

266.  Conditional  Anterior.  Its  uses  are  precisely  parallel 
with  those  of  the  conditional  (§  265) ;  it  denotes  what  would 
have  happened,  etc.,  etc.: 

Je  serais  parti,  s'il  etait  venu.  I  should  have  gone  had  he  come. 

Selon  les  joumaux,  la  guerre  se      According  to  the  newspapers,  war 
serait  declaree  hier  soir.  was  declared  last  evening. 

267.  Imperative  Mood.  It  is  used  in  general  as  in 

Lisez-le.    Ne  le  lisez  pas.  Read  it.    Do  not  read  it. 

Allons-nous-en  a  present.  Let  us  go  away  now. 

Veuillez  m'ecouter.  Be  good  enough  to  hear  me. 

§§  268-269  THE  SUBJUNCTIVE  MOOD  69 

a.  The  first  plural  sometimes  serves  instead  of  the  lacking  first 

Soyons  digne  de  ma  naissance.         Let  me  be  worthy  of  my  birth. 
Pensons  im  moment.  Let  me  think  a  moment. 

b.  The  imperatives  va,  aliens,  allez,  voyons,  often  have  special 
idiomatic  force: 

Allons  done!  Allons,  du  courage !     Nonsense !  Come,  courage ! 

J^en  suis  content,  allez!  I  am  glad  of  it,  I  can  assure  you  I 

Voyons,  que  pensez-vous?  Come  now,  what  do  you  think? 

c.  An  imperative  perfect  is  rare: 

Ayez  fini  votre  tAche  ce  soir.  Have  your  task  done  to-night. 


268.  General  Function.  The  subjunctive  denotes,  in 
general,  what  is  viewed  as  being  desirable  or  undesirable^ 
uncertain,  contingent,  or  the  like,  and  usually  stands  in  a 
subordinate  clause. 

269.  Subjunctive  in  Noun  Clause.  The  subjunctive  is 
used  in  a  clause  introduced  by  que  and  serving  as  logical 
subject  or  as  object  of  a  verb: 

1.  After  expressions  of  desiring  (including  willing,  wish- 
ing, preferring)  and  avoiding: 

Je  desire  (veux)  qu'il  parte.  I  desire  (wish)  him  to  go. 

Voulez-vous  que  je  reste?  Do  you  wish  me  to  (shall  I)  stay? 

Je  souhaite  qu'il  ait  du  succ^s.  I  wish  that  he  may  have  success, 

n  prefere  que  vous  restiez.  He  prefers  that  you  should  stay, 

fivitez  qu'il  (ne)  vous  voie.  Avoid  his  seeing  you. 

Such  are: 

aimer,  like  feateH^owna -•*^  souhaiter,  wish 

aimer  mieux,  prefer  prtf^rer,  prefer  il  me  tarde,  /  long 

avoir  cnvie,  be  desirous  prendre  garde,  take  vouloir,  vrill,  wish, 

dfeirer,  desire,  wish                         care  (lest!)-*^  etc. 

a.  Prendre  garde  requires  ne  in  the  subjunctive  clause;    so  also, 
4viter  generally. 
Prends  garde  que  cela  ne  se  fasse.    Take  care  lest  that  happen. 




2.  After  expressions  of  commanding  (including  request- 
ing, exhorting),  forbidding,  consenting: 

You  order  me  to  go. 

I  ask  that  you  should  pay  me. 

Tell  them  to  be  ready. 

The  doctor  forbids  me  to  go  out. 

I  consent  that  that  be  done. 

Vous  ordonnez  que  je  m'en  aille. 
Je  demande  que  vous  me  payiez. 
Dis-leur  qu'ils  soient  prets. 
Le  medecin  defend  que  je  sorte. 
Je  consens  que  cela  se  fasse. 

Such  are: 
admettre,  admit 
agreer,  permit 
avoir  soin,  fake  care 
conjurer,  implore 
consentir,  consent 
convenir,  agree 
defendre,  forbid 

demander,  ask  pennettre,  permit 

empecher,  hinder^JL  prier,  heg,  ask 

exhorter,  exhort  souffrir,  suffer 

exiger,  exact  supplier,  beg,  pray 

laisser,  allow  trouver  nature!,  find  natural 

s'opposer,  oppose  veiller,  take  care 

ordonner,  order  etc. 

So  also,  dire,  tell,  ecrire,  write,  entendre,  mean,  pretendre,  intend,  when 
denoting  command. 

a.  The  future  or  conditional  often  stands  after  arreter,  commander, 
decider,  decreter,  etc.,  especially  when  the  subject  is  a  word  denoting 
final  authority,  such  as  cour,  roi,  etc. : 

Le  roi  decrete  qu'il  sera  pendu.      The  king  decrees  that  he  shall  be 


6.  The  subjunctive  after  empecher  usually  has  ne: 
Empechez  qu'il  ne  sorte.  Prevent  his  going  out. 

3.  After  expressions  of  judgment  or  opinion  involving 
approval  or  disapproval: 

J'approuve  qu'il  revienne. 

n  merite  qu'on  le  craigne. 

H  vaut  mieux  que  vous  restiez. 

Je  tiens  beaucoup  a  ce  qu'il  y  soit. 

I  approve  of  his  coming  back. 
He  deserves  to  be  feared. 
It  is  better  for  you  to  stay. 
I  am  very  anxious  that  he  should 
be  there. 

Such  are: 
approuver,  approve 
bia.mer,  blame 
d^sapprouver,  disapprove 
6tre  digne,  be  worthy 
fetre  indigne,  6c  unworthy 
juger  h  propos,  think  fit 

louer,  praise 
m6riter,  deserve 
tenir  (h  ce  que),  insist 
trouver  bon,  approve 
trouver  mauvais,  dis- 

trouver  juste,  think  just 
trouver    in  juste,    think 

valoir,  be  worthy 

So  also,  a  large  nvmiber  of  impersonals  of  like  force; 




U  convient,  it  ia  fitting 
il  est,  it  is  ...  . 
+  k  propos,  proper 
-\-  bien,  well 
-\-  bon,  good 
+  convenable,  fitting 
-(-  essentiel,  essential 
+  &  d^sirer,  to  be  desired 
+  facile,  easy 

+  important,  important 
-f-  indispensable,  indis- 
+  juste,  just 
+  naturel,  natural 
+  n^ceesaire,  n«ce««ary 
+  k    souhaiter,   to    be 

+  temps,  time 

u  necessary, 

il    faut,  it 

il  importe,  it  is  important 
il  peut  se  faire,  t^  may  be 
il  suffit,  it  suffices 
il  vaut  mieux,  it  is  better 

etc.,  and  their  oppo- 


4.  After  expressions  of  emotion  or  sentiment,  such  as  joy, 
sorrow,  anger,  shame,  wonder,  fear: 
fites-vous  content  qu'il  soit  ici?      Are  you  glad  he  is  here? 

Je  regrette  qu'il  soit  parti. 
II  est  fiche  que  vous  le  bl&miez. 
II  a  honte  que  vous  le  sachiez. 
Je  m'etonne  qu'il  n'ait  pas  honte. 
J'ai  peur  qu'il  n'ait  trop  dit. 

Such  are: 
admirer,  be  astonished 
s'affliger,  grieve 
avoir  honte,  be  ashamed 
avoir  crainte,  fear 
avoir  peur,  fear 
craindre,  fear 
d6plorer,  deplore 
c'est,  it  is  ...  . 
+  un  bonheur,  fortunate 
+  dommage,  a  pity 
4-  une  honte,  a  shame 
+  honteux,  a  shame 
+  piti6,  a  pity 
U  est,  it  is  ...  . 
+  curieux,  strange 

I  regret  that  he  has  gone. 
He  is  angry  at  your  blaming  him. 
He  is  ashamed  that  you  know  it. 
I  wonder  he  is  not  ashamed. 
I  fear  he  has  said  too  much. 

+  6tonnant,  astonishing  -\-  joyeux,  glad 

•\-  f&cheux,  annoying 
+  heureux,  fortunate 
enrager,  be  enraged 
8'6tonncr,  be  astonished 
fetre,  be  ... . 
+  afflig6,  grieved 
+  bien  aise,  very  glad 
-\-  charm6,  delighted 
-\-  content,  glad 
-\-  d68ol6,  very  sorry 
+  6tonn6,  astonished 
+  f&ch6,  sorry,  angry 
+  heureux,  happy 

+  m^content,  displeased 
-\-  satisfait,  satisfied 
+  surpris,  surprised 
+  trist€,  sad 
86  f&cher,  be  sorry,  angry 
se  plaindre,  complain 
redouter,  fear 
regretter,  regret 
se  r^jouir,  rejoice 
se  rcpentir,  repent 
Boupirer,  sigh 
trembler,  tremble 

+  indign6,  indignant 

a.  When  it  is  feared  something  will  happen  the  subjunctive  has  ne; 
when  it  is  feared  something  will  not  happen  the  subjunctive  has  ne  . . . 
pas;  when  the  expression  of  fearing  is  negative,  or  interrogative,  or 
conditional,  ne  is  usually  omitted;  with  double  negation  ne . . .  pas 
stands  in  both  (see  also  §  419  and  Appendix  referring  to  §  419) : 
Je  crains  qu'il  ne  vienne.  I  fear  he  will  come. 

Je  crains  qu'il  ne  vienne  pas.  I  fear  he  will  not  come. 

Je  ne  crains  pas  qu'il  vienne.  I  do  not  fear  he  will  come. 

Craignez-vous  qu'il  vienne?  Do  you  fear  he  will  come? 

62  THE  VERB  §269 

Ne  craignez-vous  pas  qu'il  ne  vienne?    Do  you  not  fear  he  will  come? 
Si  je  craignais  qu'il  vint.  If  I  feared  he  would  come. 

Je  ne  crains  pas  qu'il  ne  vienne  pas,      I  do  not  fear  he  will  not  come. 

h.  After  expressions  of  emotion  or  sentiment  (except  fear),  which 
admit  de  after  them,  de  ce  que  +  indicative  may  be  used: 
J'ai  honte  de  ce  qu'U.  a  echoue.         I  am  ashamed  that  he  failed. 

5.  After  expressions  of  doubt,  denial,  despair,  ignorance, 

or  very  slight  probability: 

n  doute  que  je  sois  loyal.  He  doubts  that  (whether)  I  am  honest. 

Je  nie  que  cela  soit  vrai.  I  deny  that  that  is  true. 

H  est  rare  que  vous  ayez  tort.    You  are  rarely  in  the  wrong. 

Such  are: 

contester,  dispute  +  faux,  false  de  (k)  quel  sert-il?  of 

d6sesp6rer,  despair  +  impossible,  impossible  what  use  is  it  f 

disoonvenir,  deny  +  possible,  possible  il  ne  sert  de  (k)  rien, 

diasimuler,  not  confess  +  rare,  rare  it  is  of  no  vse 

se  dissimuler,  be  hidden  il  s'en  faut,  there  is  want-  il  se  peut,  it  may  be 

douter,  doubt  ing  il  ne  se  peut  pas,  it 

il  est,  it  is  .  .  .  ignorer,  not  know  cannot  be 

+  douteux,  doubtful  nier,  deny  '   il  semble,  it  seems,  etc. 

o.  Douter  si  (  =  if,  whether)  requires  the  indicative: 
H  doute  si  je  suis  loyal.  He  doubts  if  (whether)  I  am  honest. 

h.  H  semble  regularly  has  the  subjunctive,  since  it  indicates  shght 
probabiUty  as  distinguished  from  il  parait  =  it  appears,  is  evident, 
and  il  me  semble  =  it  appears  to  me  (personal  conviction;  but  cf.  6,  c): 
n  semble  que  vous  me  craigniez.      It  seems  that  you  fear  me. 
n  me  semble  (il  parait)  que  vous      It  seems  to  me  (it  appears)  that  you 

me  craignez.  fear  me. 

c.  Verbs  of  doubt  and  denial  used  negatively  or  interrogatively  regu- 
larly require  ne  in  the  subjunctive  clause: 

Je  ne  nie  pas  que  je  ne  le  sois.         I  do  not  deny  that  I  am  such. 

d.  Ignorer  +  negative  =  know  well,  and  hence  takes  indicative: 

Je  n'ignore  pas  qu'il  a  menti.  I  know  well  he  has  lied. 

Note.  —  Peut-gtre  que,  perhaps,  and  sans  doute  que,  doubtless,  require 
the  indicative. 

6.  After   expressions   of   perceiving,    thinking,    knowing, 
declaring,  resulting,  but  only  when  uncertainty  or  doubt  is 




implied  by  negation,  interrogation,  or  condition;  otherwise 
the  indicative: 

Will  they  see  that  I  have  wept? 

I  do  not  think  that  that  is  he. 

Do  you  hope  he  will  succeed? 

I  am  not  sure  he  will  come. 

If  I  claimed  that  he  was  wrong. 

I  think  it  is  he. 

I  hope  he  will  succeed. 

Verra-t-on  que  j'aie  pleure? 
Je  ne  crois  pas  que  ce  soit  lui. 
Esperez-vous  qu'il  reussisse? 
Je  ne  suis  pas  sdr  qu'il  vienne. 
Si  je  pretendais  qu'il  ett  tort. 
But:  Je  crois  que  c*est  lui. 
J'espdre  qu'il  reussira. 

Such  are: 
ftflSnner,  affirm 
s'apercevoir,  perceive 
apprendre,  learn,  hear 
assurer,  assure 
s'attendre,  expect 
avertir,  «wm 
avoucr,  declare 
coDclure,  conclude 
connattre,  recognize 
croire,  believe,  think 
d6clarjr,  declare 
deviner,  guess 
dire,  say,  tell 
se  douter,  suspect 
6crire,  write 
entendre  dire,  fiear  said 

esp^rer,  hope  prgvoir,  foresee 

6tre  certain,  be  certain  promettre,  promise 

6tre  persuade,  be  persuaded  se  rappeler,  recollect 

reconnaltre,  achruneledot 
remarquer,  remark 
r^p^ter,  repeat 
r^pondre,  ansxcer 
savoir,  know 
sentir,  feil,  notice 
soutenir,  maintain 
se  souvenir,  recollect 
supposer,  suppose 
trouver,  find,  think 
voir,  see 

6tre  s<lr,  be  sure 
se  figurer,  imagine 
se  flatter,  flatter  onesdf 
imaginer,  imagine 
s'imaginer,  imagine 
juger,  judge,  think 
jurer,  declare 
oublier,  forget 
penaer,  think 
persuader,  persuade 
pressentir,  fordtode 
pr6tendre,  assert,  claim 
pr6venir,  forewarn 

So  also,  a  number  of  impersonals  of  like  force: 
il  s'ensuit,  it  follows       +  Evident,  evident  -\-  ^a,  sure 

+  dfemontrfe,  demonstrated  +  vraisemblable,  prchabiU 
+  incontestable,  indisput-  il  r&ulte,  it  follows 

able  il  me  semble,  it  seems  to 

+  probaMe,  probable  me 

a.   N^ative  question  usually  implies  affirmation;  hence  the  indica- 
Ne  trouves-tu  pas  qu'il  est  beau?        Don't  you  think  he  is  handsome? 

6.  When  what  the  speaker  regards  as  fact  follows  the  negative  or 
conditional  clause,  or  when  a  person  is  questioned  as  to  his  knowledge 
of  what  is  regarded  as  fact,  the  indicative  stands: 
D  ne  croit  pas  que  je  suis  ici.  He  does  not  beUeve  I  am  here. 

S'il  savait  que  tu  es  ici.  If  he  knew  you  were  here. 

Savez-vous  qu'il  est  arrive?  Do  you  know  that  he  has  come? 

il  est  &\&t€,  it  is  stated 
il  est,  it  is  . .  . 
+  certain,  certain 
+  clair,  clear 

64  THE  VERB  §  270 

c.  H  ne  me  semble  pas  is  followed  by  the  subjunctive,  but  in  nega- 
tive interrogation  by  the  indicative  (cf.  also  5   b): 

H  ne  me  semble  pas  qu'il  soit  fou.     It  does  not  seem  to  me  he  is  mad. 
Ne  vous  semble-t-il  pas  qu'il  est  fou?  Does  it  not  seem  to  you  he  is  mad? 

d.  A  preceding  dependent  clause  with  this  class  of  verbs  always  has 
the  subjunctive: 

Qu'il  ail  echoue,  je  le  sais.  That  he  has  failed,  I  know. 

Note.  —  For  the  choice  between  que  clause  and  infinitive  see  §  283. 

270.  Subjunctive  in  Adjectival  Clause.  The  subjunc- 
tive is  used  as  follows  in  clauses  introduced  by  a  relative 

1.  When  purpose  regarding  the  antecedent,  or  unattained 
result  is  implied: 

Montrez-moi  im  chemin  qui  con-  Show  me  a  way  which  leads  to 

dulse  a  la  science.  knowledge. 

Je  cherche  un  endroit  oil  je  sois  I  seek  a  place  where  I  may  be  in 

en  paix.  peace. 

a.  The  indicative,  however,  is  used  to  express  what  is  regarded  aa 
fact  or  certain  result: 

Montrez-moi  le  chemin  qui  con-  Show  me  the  road  which  leads  to 

duit  a  la  ville.  the  town. 

J'irai  oft  je  serai  libre.  I  shall  go  where  I  shall  be  free.^ 

2.  When  the  principal  clause  contains  general  negation, 
interrogation  implying  negative  answer,  or  condition  (all  of 
which  imply  non-existence  of  the  antecedent): 

H  n'a  pas  de  raison  qui  vaille.  He  has  no  reason  worth  anything. 

As-tu  im  seul  ami  qui  soit  fidele?  Have  you  one  friend  who  is  true? 

Si  j'ai  im  ami  qui  soit  fidele  c'est  If  I  have  one  friend  who  is  true,  it 

lui.  is  he. 

a.  General  negation  is  sometimes  merely  implied: 

n  y  a  peu  de  gens  qui  le  sachent.      There  are  few  people  who  know  it. 

b.  When  the  negation  is  not  general,  or  when  the  interrogation  does 
not  imply  negative  answer,  the  indicative  stands: 

Ce  n'est  pas  vous  que  je  crains.        It  is  not  you  that  I  fear. 
N'est-ce  point  un  songe  que  je  vois  I   Is  it  not  a  dream  that  I  see  1 


c.   In  a  n^ative  relative  clause  ne,  not  ne  . . .  pas,  is  used  when  the 
principal  clause  is  n(^ative  or  implies  negation: 
En  est-il  un  seal  qui  ne  tremble?      Is  there  one  who  does  not  tremble? 

3.  When  the  antecedent  is  qualified  by  a  superlative,  or  by 
seul,  unique,  premier,  dernier  (all  with  superlative  force) : 

C'est  le  meilleur  ami  que  j'aie.         He  is  the  best  friend  that  I  have. 
C'est  le  seul  ami  que  j'aie.  He  is  the  only  friend  I  have. 

a.  What  is  stated  unreservedly  as  fact  requires  the  indicative: 

C'est  la  seule  chose  qu'il  a  dite.        It  is  the  only  thing  he  said. 

4.  With  concessive  force  in  compound  relative  and  in- 
definite clauses  (=  'whoever/  'whatever,'  etc.): 

Quoi  que  vous  fassiez.  Whatever  you  do. 

Qui  qu'on  y  puisse  6Iire.  Whosoever  may  be  elected  to  it. 

Qui  que  tu  sois,  parle !  Whoever  you  are,  speak  ! 

Quelles  que  soient  vos  raisons.  Whatever  be  your  reasons. 

271.  Subjunctive  in  Adverbial  Clause.    The  subjunctive 
is  used  in  clauses  of  adverbial  force,  as  follows: 

1.  After  conjunctions  of  time  before  which  or  up  to  which 
(avant  que,  en  attendant  que,  jusqu'i  ce  que): 

Dis-Ie-lui,  avant  qu'il  parte.  Tell  it  to  him  before  he  goes. 

Asseyez-vous,  en  attendant  qu'il      Sit  down  until  he  comes  back. 

Perseverez  jusqu'4  ce  que  vous      Persevere  till  you  have  succeeded. 

ayez  reussi. 

a.   Jusqu'i  ce  que  may  have  the  indicative*  when  referring  to  com- 
pleted past  event: 

n  y  resta  jusqu'i  ce  que  je  revins.      He  remained  till  I  came  back. 

2.  After  conjunctions  of  purpose  or  result  (afin  que,  pour 
que,  de  crainte  que,  de  peur  que) : 

.Pecris  ceci  afin  que  (pour  que)  I  write  this  in  order  that  you  may 

vous  sachiez  la  verite.  know  the  truth. 

Je  le  tins  de  crainte  qu'il  ne  torn-  I  held  him  for  fear  he  should  falL 
.  bit. 

66  THE   VERB  §271 

a.  So  also,  de  sorte  que,  en  sorte  que,  de  telle  sorte  que,  de  fagon 
que,  de  maniere  que,  tel . . .  que,  tellement . . .  que,  when  denoting  pur- 
pose, but  not  result: 

Agis  de  sorte  que  tu  reussisses.         Act  in  such  a  way  as  to  succeed. 
But:  J'al  agi  de  sorte  que  j'ai  reussi.    I  acted  so  that  I  succeeded. 

3.  After  conjunctions  of  condition  (en  cas  que,  au  cas 
que,  a  moins  que . . .  ne,  pourvu  que,  suppose  que,  en 
supposant  que): 

Je  viendrai  au  cas  que  je  sois      I  shall  come  in  case  I  am  free  to- 
libre  demain,  ou  k  moins  que  morrow,  or  unless  I  am  detained. 

je  ne  sois  retenu. 

a.  After  si  =  if,  the  pluperfect  subjunctive  stands  exceptionally 

6.  The  present  subjunctive  sometimes  expresses  condition: 
Vienne  I'ennemi,  11  s'enfuit.  If  the  enemy  comes,  he  flees. 

c.  A  (la)  condition  que  takes  indicative,  conditional,  or  subjunctive: 
Je  lui  donne  I'argent  &  (la)  condi-       I  give  him  the  money  on  condition 

tion  qu'il  partira  (or  parte),  that  he  will  go. 

Note.  —  Dans  le  cas  oH,  au  cas  ofi  usually  have  conditional:  Au  cas  ofi 
cela  serait  vrai,  In  case  that  should  be  true. 

4.  After  conjunctions  of  concession  (quoique,  bien  que, 
encore  que,  nonobstant  que,  soit  que . . .  soit  que  or  ou 
que,  pour  (si)  peu  que,  si  tant  est  que,  malgre  que) : 

Bien  qu'il  soit  malade,  il  sortira.      Although  he  is  ill,  he  wiU  go  out. 
Pour  peu  qu'il  fiit  malade,  il  se       If  he  were  ever  so  httle  ill,  he 
croyait  mourant.  thought  himself  dying. 

a.  The  present  subjunctive  with  que  sometimes  has  concessive  force: 
Qu'il  perde  ou  gagne,  U  partira.       Though  he  lose  or  win,  he  will  go. 

b.  The  use  of  a  subjunctive  after  adverbial  quelque  (tout,  si,  etc.)  + 
que  =  however  depends  on  the  same  principle: 

Quelque  grand  que  vous  soyez.         However  great  you  may  be. 

Si  brave  qu'il  se  croie.  However  brave  he  thinks  himself. 

c.  Quand  (meme)  used  concessively  sometimes  takes  the  pluperfect 
subjunctive  for  the  conditional  anterior  (cf .  §  265,  6) : 

Quand  (meme)  il  m'efit  dit  cela.       Even  if  he  had  told  me  that. 

§5272-273  THE   SUBJUNCTIVE  MOOD  67 

5.  After  conjunctions  of  negative  force  (non  que,  non  pas 
que,  loin  que,  sans  que) : 

0  partit  sans  que  je  le  susse.      He  went  away  without  my  knowing  it. 

6.  After  que  replacing  any  conjunction  requiring  the  sub- 
junctive, and  also  after  que  replacing  si  =  if: 

Venez  que  ( =  afin  que,  pour  que)      Come,  that  I  may  see  you. 

je  vous  voie. 
Si  je  viens  et  que  je  le  voie.  If  I  come,  and  if  I  see  him. 

272.  Subjunctive  in  Principal  Clause.  The  subjunctive 
is  sometimes  used  in  principal  clauses,  as  follows: 

1.  Either  with  or  without  que  to  denote  what  is  desired, 

Ainsi  soit-il  I    Vive  le  roi  I  So  be  it !     (Long)  live  the  king  ! 

Plflt  k  Dieu  qu'il  en  ffit  ainsi  1  Would  to  God  it  were  so  ! 

Qu'il  parte  tout  de  suite.  Let  him  go  at  once. 

(Que)  je  meure,  si  je  mens  I  May  I  die  if  I  am  lying! 

Le  croie  qui  voudra !  Let  him  believe  it  who  will  \ 

a.   Que  followed  by  the  third  person  present  subjunctive  regularly 
serves  as  an  imperative;  so  also,  sometimes,  the  first  singular: 
Qu'il  parte.  Let  him  go. 

Que  je  vous  entende.  Let  me  hear  you. 

Note.  —  This  construction,  as  also  those  without  que,  may  be  explained 
by  ellipsis  of  some  expression  of  desire,  command,  etc.  (§  269,  1,  2). 

2.  The  present  subjunctive  first  singular  of  savoir  is 
sometimes  used  to  denote  modified  assertion: 

Je  ne  sache  rien  de  plus  beau.  I  know  nothing  finer. 

3.  The  pluperfect  subjunctive  stands  exceptionally  for 
conditional  anterior  in  a  '  result '  clause  (cf .  §  275,  6) : 

S'il  eflt  (or  avait)  su  cela,  il  ne      If  he  had  known  that,  he  would  not 
I'eftt  {or  aurait)  pas  dit.  have  said  it. 

273.  Tense  Sequence.  The  tense  of  the  subjimctive  is 
usually  determined  by  the  tense  of  the  finite  verb  in  the 
governing  clause,  as  follows: 

68  THE   VERB  §  273 

la.   A  present  (including  present  subjunctive  and  impera- 
tive) or  a  future,  in  the  governing  clause,  requires  the  pres- 
ent subjunctive  in  the  governed  clause  in  order  to  denote 
incomplete  action: 
Je  doute  1  I  doubt  that  (whether)  he  will  come. 

Quoique  je  doute   [        ,..    .  Though  I  doubt  that  he  will  come. 

Doutez  [  *  Doubt  that  he  wUl  come. 

Je  douterai  J  I  shall  doubt  that  he  will  come. 

1&.  But  if  we  wish  to  denote  completed  action  the  perfect 
subjunctive  must  be  used: 
Je  doute  qu'il  soft  venu.  I  doubt  that  he  has  come. 

2a.  Any  other  tense  than  the  above  (i.e.,  an  imperfect, 
past  definite,  past  indefinite,  conditional,  etc.)  requires  the 
imperfect  subjunctive  in  order  to  denote  incomplete  action: 

Je  doutais 
Quoique  je  doutasse 

Je  doutai  1 

J'ai  doute  J 
Je  douterais 

I  doubted  whether  he  would  come. 

,.,      Though  I  doubted  that  he  would  come, 
qu'il  ^ 

vint.     I  doubted  that  he  would  come. 

I  should  doubt  that  he  would  come. 

26.  But  if  we  wish  to  denote  completed  action,  the  plu- 
perfect subjunctive  must  be  used: 

Je  doutais        )  qu'il  fut         I  doubted  that  he  had  come. 

J'aurais  doute  j  venu.  I  should  have  doubted  that  he  had  come. 

3.  The  following  exceptional  cases  depend  mainly  on  the 
sense  of  the  context: 

a.   J'ai  doute  qu'il  viemie.     I  have  doubted  that  he  will  come. 

&.  After  verbs  of  saying,  believing,  etc.,  a  governing  present  may 
take  a  past  subjunctive  and  vice  versa: 

Je  ne  dis  pas  qu'il  fiit  k  bltmer.       I  do  not  say  he  was  to  blame. 
D  ne  croyait  pas  qu'il  y  ait  xm        He  did  not  believe  that  there  is  a 

Dieu.  God. 

c.    In  a  relative  clause  a  past  indefinite  may  stand  for  a  pluperfect: 
n  portait  cet  habit  la  seule  fois      He  was  wearing  that  coat  the  only 
que  je  Vaie  vu*  time  that  I  saw  him. 


d.  The  conditional  of  modified  assertion  (§  265,  4),  being  virtually  a 
present,  is  commonly  followed  by  the  present  subjunctive: 

Je  desirerais  que  vous  veniez.  I  should  like  you  to  come. 

D  faudrait  qu'il  s'en  aille.  He  would  have  to  go. 

e.  The  imperfect  or  pluperfect  subjunctive,  with  the  force  of  an 
EInglish  conditional,  may  follow  any  tense: 

n  n'y  a  pas  de  rang  qu'elle  ne      There  is  no  rank  she  could  not  hold. 

put  tenir. 
Je  doute  qu'il  jou&t  (eflt  joue),       I  doubt  that  he  would  play  (would 

s'il  avait  (avait  eu)  de  Targent.         have  played)  if  he  had  (had  had) 



274.  Tsrpical  Fonn.  A  conditional  sentence  consists 
r^ularly  of  two  parts:  the  condition,  introduced  by  si  =  if, 
and  the  result: 

Si  j'avais  le  temps,  j'irais  i  B.  If  I  had  time,  I  should  go  to  B. 

a.  The  condition  may,  of  course,  either  precede  or  follow  the  result: 

Irez-vous  k  B,  s'il  pleut?  Will  you  go  to  B  if  it  rains? 

S'il  ne  fait  pas  beau,  je  n'irai  pas.     If  it  is  not  fine,  I  shall  not  go. 

h.  The  condition  is  often  di^msed  or  imphed,  or  the  result  under- 

Hlsiter  serait  une  faiblesse.  To  hesitate  would  be  weakness. 

Je  n'irais  pas  (si  petals  de  lui).         I  should  not  go  (if  I  were  he). 
Ah  I  si  j'etais  k  sa  place.  Ah,  if  I  were  in  his  place  I 

275.  Mood  and  Tense.  A  'result'  clause  in  the  present 
indicative,  imperative,  or  future,  regularly  requires  the  *if' 
clause  in  the  present  indicative;  a  'result'  clause  in  the 
conditional  regularly  requires  the  'if '  clause  in  the  imperfect 

S'il  a  le  temps,  il  y  va.  If  he  has  time,  he  goes  there. 

S'il  a  le  temps,  ditesAvl  de  7eoir.      If  he  has  (have,  will  have,  should 

have)  time,  tell  him  to  come. 

70  THE  VERB  5275 

S'il  a  le  temps,  il  viendra.  If  he  has  (have,  will  have,  should 

have)  time,  he  will  come. 

S'il  avait  le  temps,  il  viendrait.  If  he  had  (had  he,  were  he  to  have, 

if    he    should    have,    should  he 
have)  time,  he  would  come. 
068..*   The  condition  is  regularly  expressed  by  the  indicative  present  or 

imperfect,  whatever  be  the  corresponding  English  form. 

a.  The  above  rules  hold  good  for  compound  tenses,  the  auxiliary 
being  considered  as  the  verb: 

S'il  Va  dit,  U  le  fera.  If  he  has  said  it,  he  will  do  it. 

S'il  est  venu,  faites~le~moi  savoir.     If  he  has  come,  let  me  know. 

S'il  a  eu  le  temps,  il  sera  venu.         If  he  has  had  time,  he  will  have 

Si  yavais  eu  le  temps,  je  serais      If  I  had  had  time,  I  should  have 

parti.  gone. 

S'il  etait  brave,  il  aurait  fait  cela.      If  he  were  brave,  he  would  have 

done  that. 

6.  Sometimes,  in  literary  style,  the  pluperfect  subjunctive  stands  in 
the  'if  clause,  or  in  the  'result'  clause,  or  in  both: 

S'il  efit  (or  avait)  su  cela,  il  ne       Had  he  known  that,  he  would  not 
I'eftt  {or  aurait)  pas  dit.  have  said  so. 

c.  Occasionally  the  imperfect  indicative  stands  in  the  'if  clause 
instead  of  the  pluperfect,  and  in  the  *  result '  clause  instead  of  the  con- 
ditional anterior: 

Si  Stanislas  demeurait  ( =  etait       If  Stanislas  had  remained,  he  would 
demeure),   il   etait    (=  aurait  have  been  lost. 

ete)  perdu. 

d.  Occasionally  the  condition  is  expressed  by  inversion,  without  si: 

N'etait-ce  la  crainte  de  cela.  If  it  were  not  for  fear  of  that. 

Eftt-il  ete  moins  riche.  If  he  had  been  poorer. 

e.  A  virtual  condition  (concession)  is  sometimes  expressed  by  various 

Quiconque  le  fera.  Whoever  (if  any  one)  does  it. 

Quand  meme  il  ne  I'aurait  pas  dit.  Even  though  he  had  not  said  so. 

H  le  dirait  que  je  ne  le  croirais  Even  if  he  said  it,   I  should  not 
pas.  beUeve  it. 

§§276-278  THE  INFINITIVE  MOOD  71 

/.  The  past  definite  is  rare  in  the  'if'  clause.  The  expression  s'il 
en  fut,  however,  ia  noteworthy: 

Riche,  s'il  en  fut  (jamais),  mais      Rich,  if  any  one  ev&c  was,  but  oor- 
corrompu.  nipt. 

g.   Si  =  whether  may  take  the  future  or  conditional: 
Dis-moi  si  tu  iras  (irais)  chez  elle.      Tell    me    whether    (if)    you    will 

(would)  go  to  her  house. 


276.  Function.  The  infinitive  is  a  verbal  noun.  As  a  verb 
it  governs,  and  as  a  noun  it  serves  as  subject,  object,  etc.: 
Vous  devriez  lui  parler.  You  ought  to  speak  to  him. 

Voir  c'est  croire.  Seeing  is  beUeving. 

D  lit  sans  comprendre.  He  reads  without  understanding. 

277.  Use  of  Infinitive.  The  chief  difiiculty  in  the  use  of 
the  infinitive  is  to  determine,  (1)  when  it  should  stand  with- 
out any  preposition,  (2)  when  it  should  be  preceded  by  k, 
(3)  when  it  should  be  preceded  by  de. 

278.  Infinitive  without  Preposition.  The  infinitive  with- 
out any  preposition  is  used: 

1.  As  subject,  or  in  apposition: 

Mentir  est  honteuz.  To  lie  (lying)  is  base. 

Trop  parler  nuit.  Too  much  talk  does  harm, 

^^vre  c'est  souflfrir.  To  hve  is  to  suflFer. 

2.  As  predicate  after  a  few  verbs  (see  list  below) : 
Vous  semblez  hesiter.  You  seem  to  hesitate. 

n  est  cense  ravoir  fait.  He  is  supposed  to  have  done  it. 

3.  As  logical  subject  after  a  few  impersonals  (see  list  below) : 
n  yaudrait  mieux  se  taire.  It  would  be  better  to  keep  quiet. 
n  fait  Cher  vivre  k  Paris.                   Living  is  dear  in  Paris. 

4.  As  object  or  complement  after  the  so-called  modal 
auxiliaries  (§  230),  after  most  verbs  of  motion  and  causation 
of  motion,  after  verbs  of  desiring  and  preferring,  after  verbs 
of  perceiving,  after  verbs  of  thinking  and  intending,  after 




verbs  of  saying  and  declaring,  and  after  certain  verbs  of 
lacking  and  failing  (see  list  below): 

Voulez-vous  diner  chez  nous? 
Faites-lm  apprendre  sa  lefon. 
Envoyez  chercher  le  medecin. 
Je  desirerais  lui  parler. 
Je  les  vois  venir. 
Quand  comptez-vous  revenir? 
II  pretend  avoir  raison. 
J'avais  beau  crier. 

Will  you  dine  with  us? 

Make  him  learn  his  lesson. 

Send  for  the  doctor. 

I  should  Uke  to  speak  to  him. 

I  see  them  come  (coming). 

When  do  you  expect  to  come  back? 

He  claims  to  be  in  the  right. 

It  was  in  vain  that  I  shouted. 

5.  Sometimes,  in  elliptical  expressions,  as  an  imperative, 
as  a  direct  or  indirect  interrogative,  or  absolutely: 

Voir  les  affiches.  See  the  posters. 

Que  faire?    Oft  me  cacher?  What  (am  I)  to  do?    Wtere  hide? 

Je  ne  sals  que  faire.  I  know  not  what  to  do. 

Penser  qu'il  a  dit  cela  I  To  think  that  he  said  that  I 

6.  Reference  list  of  verbs  requiring  direct  infinitive: 

accourir,  hasten  envoyer,  send  se  rappeler,*  recollect 

affirmer,  affirm  csperer,*  liope  reconnaltre,  acknowledge 

aimer  (condl.),  should  like  fctre,  be         •  regarder,  look  at 

aimer  autant,  like  as  well   fetre  cens6,  be  supposed  rentrer,  go  in  again 

aimer  mieux,  prefer 
aller,  go 

apercevoir,  perceive 
assurer,  assure 
avoir  beau,  be  in  vain 
avouer,  avow 
compter,  1  intend 
confesser,  confess 
courir,  run 
croire,  think 
daigner,  deign 
declarer,  declare 
deposer,  testify 

faillir,2  ^^  q^  the  point  of  retourner,  go  back' 

i aire,  make,  cause 
il  fait  (impers.),  it  is 
falloir,  be  necessary 
se  figurer,  imagine 
s'imaginer,  fancy 
juger,  consider 

revenir,  come  back 
savoir,  know  how  to,  can 
sembler,  seem 
sentir,  hear,  feel 
souhaiter,*  vnsh 
soutenir,  maintain 

jurer,^  swear, attest  by  oath  supposer,  suppose 

laisser,'  *  let,  allow 
mener,  lead,  bring 
mettre,  set,  put  at 
monter,  go  up 
oser,  dare 

descendre,'  come(go)down  ouir,  hear 

desirer,!  desire,  vnsh 
devoir,  ought,  to  be,  etc. 
dire,*  say 
6couter,  listen  to 
entendre,  hear,  intend 
*  Sometimes  takes  de. 

parattre,  appear 
I>enser,'  intend,  be  near 
pouvoir,  can,  may 
pr6ferer,  prefer 
pretendre,  assert,  claim 

^  Sometimes  takes  k  or  de. 

6tre  supposfe,  be  supposed 

t^moigner,  testify 

se  trouver,  be 

valoir  autant,  be  as  good 

valoir  mieux,  be  better 

venir,'  *  come 

voir,  see 

voler,  fly 

vouloir,  will,  vnsh 

*  See  also  list  of 

verbs  requiring  k  (§  279,  6).      *  See  also  list  of  verbs  requiring  de  (§  280,  6). 

§  279  THE  INFlNrnVE  MOOD  73 

a.  Devoir  =  owe,  be  indebted,  with  indirect  object  takes  de: 

Je  lui  dois  d'etre  encore  en  vie.      I  owe  to  him  that  I  am  still  alive. 

b.  Faire  takes  de  in  ne  faire  que  de: 

n  ne  fait  que  de  sortLr.  He  has  just  gone  out. 

c.  Ne  pas  laisser  =  not  to  cease,  etc.,  takes  de: 

n  ne  laisse  pas  (que)  de  le  dire.        He  is  always  saying  so  (says  so  for 

all  that). 

279.  Infinitive  with  the  Preposition  h.  The  infinitive 
preceded  by  a  =  to,  in,  at,  by,  etc.,  is  used: 

1.  As  direct  object  of  a  few  transitives  (see  list  below): 
paime  d.  chanter.  I  Uke  to  sing. 

Continuez  k  lire.  Continue  to  read. 

D  m'enseigne  k  chanter.  He  teaches  me  to  sing  (singing). 

J'ai  k  etudier  demain.  I  have  to  study  to-morrow. 

D  n'y  a  pas  k  se  plaindre.  There  is  nothing  to  complain  of. 

2.  As  a  complement,  after  many  verbs,  to  denote  the 
object  to  which  the  action  tends  (answering  the  question 
'to  do  what?')  or  the  object  in,  at,  on,  about  which  the 
action  takes  place  (answering  the  question  'in  doing  what?* 
'at  doing  what?*  etc.): 

D  aspire  k  devenir  riche.  He  aspires  to  become  rich. 

Poussez-Ies  k  agir.  Urge  them  to  act. 

Je  les  ai  invites  k  venir.  1  have  invited  them  to  come. 

Aidez-moi  k  porter  cette  malle.  Help  me  to  carry  this  trunk. 

D  reussit  k  me  trouver.  He  succeeded  in  finding  me. 

Je  suis  k  ecrire  ime  lettre.  I  am  (busy)  writing  a  letter. 

n  s'amuse  k  me  taquiner.  He  amuses  himself  teasing  me. 

J'ai  gagne  k  vendre  ma  maison.  I  gained  by  selling  my  house. 

U  joue  k  faire  le  malade.  He  plays  at  being  ill. 

3.  As  the  complement  of  certain  adjectives  (cf.  §  280,  2) 
and  nouns  denoting  fitness,  tendency,  purpose,  etc.: 

Ceci  est  bon  k  manger.  This  is  good  to  eat. 

Je  suis  pret  k  vous  ecouter.  I  am  ready  to  hear  you. 

Quelque  chose  d'utile  k  savoir.  Something  useful  to  know. 

Cela  est  facile  k  faire.  That  is  easy  to  do. 

74  THE  VERB  §279 

La  tendance  a  se  croire  grand.  The  tendency  to  think  oneself  great. 

Une  bonne  a  tout  faire.  A  maid  of  all  work. 

o.  So  also,  le  premier,  le  dernier,  le  seul: 
n  n'est  pas  le  seul  a  le  dire.  He  is  not  the  only  one  to  say  so. 

4.  To    form    adjectival    phrases    denoting    use,    fitness, 
quality,  etc.: 

Une  salle  k  manger.  A  dining-room. 

Une  chose  a  voir.  A  thing  worth  seeing. 

Des  contes  a  dormir  debout.  Very  tiresome  stories. 

Un  spectacle  a  faire  peur.  A  terrible  sight. 

De  maniere  a  reussir.  In  such  a  way  as  to  succeed. 

Vous  etes  a  plaindre.  You  are  to  be  pitied. 

C'est  k  en  mourir.  It  is  enough  to  kill  one. 

5.  To  form  adverbial  phrases: 

Elle  chante  k  ravir.  She  sings  charmingly. 

Elle  pleurait  k  faire  pitie.  She  wept  pitifully. 

A  vrai  dire,  je  le  plains.  To  tell  the  truth,  I  pity  him. 

Elle  est  laide  k  faire  peur.  She  is  frightfully  ugly. 

6.  Reference  Ust  of  verbs  requiring  infinitive  with  a: 

s'abaisser,  sloop  s'arrfiter,  stop  condamner  (se) ,  condemn 

abandonner  (s'),  give  up  aspirer,  aspire  condeacendre,  condescend 

aboutir,  end  (in),  tend      assujettir  (s').  subject  conduire,  lead 

B'ahuseT,  be  mistaken  (in)  astreindre,  compel  consacrer  (se),  devote 

s'accorder,*  agree  (in)       s'astreindre,  bind  o.  s.  consentir,  consent 

6tre  d'accord,  agree  (in)   attacher,  attach  consister,  consist  (in) 
accoutumer(s'),''accwsto7n  s'attacher,  be  intent  (on)  conspirer,  conspire 

s'acharner,  be  bent  (on)     attendre  (s'),  expect  consumer  (se),  consume  (in) 

admettre,  admit  autoriser,  authorize  continuer.^  continue 

s'adonner,  addict  o.  s.       s'avilir,  stoop  contraindre,  i  constrain 

aguerrir  (s'),  inure  avoir,  have,  must  contribuer,  contribute 

aider,  help  avoir  (de  la)  peine,  have  convier,"  invite 

aimer,*  like  difficulty  (in)  cofiter,  cost 

amener,  lead  balancer,  hesitate  decider,*  induce 

amuser(8'), amiwc  (in,hy)se  borner,  limit  o.  s.  se  decider,  resolve 

animer  (s'),  ea^"te  chercher,  seefc,  <ry  de^er,^  challenge,  incite 

appeler,  call  tomvaencer,^  begin  demander,^  ask 

appliquer  (s'),  apply         se  complaire,  take  pleas-  demeurer,  remain 

apprendre,  learn,  teach         ure  (in)  depenser,  spend  (in) 

apprfiter  (s'),  ffef  reodj/     concourir, cooperate  (tre)  d6sapprendre, /or(7«f 


descendre,*   stoop,   abase  finir  (neg.),*  have  done      porter,  induce 
destiner,  destine         [jo.s.  forcer,*  force  pousser,  urge,  indie 

d6termuier,»  induce  gagner,  gain  (by)  prendre  garde,*  take  care 

se  determiner,  reso/oe         habituer,*  accustom  prendre  plaisir,  de/i^^U  (in) 

dfevouer  (se),  devote  s'habituer,  accustom  o.  s.  se  prendre,  begin 

diffferer,*  delay  hair,  hate  preparer  (se),  prepare 

disposer  (se),  dispose  se  hasarder,*  venture         pr6tendre,<  aspire 

divertir  (se),  amuse  hesiter,'  hesitate  prier,'  invite  (JormaUy) 

donner,  give  inciter,  incite  proc6der,  proceed 

dresser,  train  incliner,  incline  provoquer,  incite 

s'efforcer,'  try  induire,  induce  recommencer,'6ct^in  aoain 

s'dgayer,  divert  o.  t.  (by)     instruire,  instruct  rfeduire,  reduce 

employer  (b'),  employ  (in)  int£res8er(s'),i7Uere«{(tn)  se  r6duire,  confine  o.  «. 
s'empresser,* »  be  eager       inviter,  inviie  refuser,*  refuse  to  give 

encourager,  encourage        jouer,  play  (at)  se  refuser,  refuse 

engager  (s'),*erHPa0e,admciaisser,'  *  leave  renoncer,  renounce 

enhardir,*  embolden  se  lasser,*  tire  a.  «.  (in)     r^pugner,  be  reluctant 

s'enhardir,'  venture  manquer,*  be  remiss  (in)  se  rdsigner,  resign  o.  a. 

s'ennuyer,* '  tire  o.  s.  (in)  mettre,  put,  set  rfsoudre,*  induce 

enseigner,  teach  se  mettre,  set  about  se  r^soudre,  resolve 

s'entendre,  know  well  how  montrer,  show  how  rester,  remain 

entratner,  allure  obliger,'  »  oblige,  force       r6u8sir,  succeed  (in) 

essayer,'  try  s'obiiger,*  bind  o.  s.  servir,  serve 

s'essayer,  try  o.  s.  (in)        s'obstiner,  persist  (in)      songer,  think  (of) 
fttre,*  to  be  occupied  (in,  occuper  (s'),'  employ  (in)  souffrir,*  suffer 

at)  s'offrir,*  offer  sufi^e,  suffice 

6tre  k,*  be  one's  turn  s'opiniatrer,  persist  (in)  surprendre,  discover 

s'6tudier,  apply  o.  s.  parvenir,  succeed  (in)       tarder,'  be  long,  delay  (in) 

s'6vertuer,  exert  o.  ».,  try  passer,  spend  (in)  tendre,  tend 

exceller,  excel  (in)  pencher,  incline  tenir,  be  anxious 

exciter  (s'),  excite  penser,*  think  (of)  travailler,  work 

exercer  (s'),  exercise  (in)    perdre,  lose  (in,  by)  trembler,*  tremble  (at,  on) 

exhorter,  exhort  pers^vfirer,  persevere  (in)  trouver,  find 

exTposer  (s') ,  expose  persister,  pcr»i«/ (in)        venir ,*<  Aappen 

se  fatiguer,'  tire  o.  s.  (in,  se  plaire,  delight  (in)        viser,  aim 

at)  se  plier,  stibmit  vouer  (se),  devote 

>  Or  de.      *  Sometimes  takes  de.     »  See  also  list  of  verbs  requiring  de 
(5  280,  6).      *  See  also  list  of  verbs  requiring  direct  infinitive  (5  278,  6). 

a.  Suflire  sometimes  takes  pour: 

Cela  suflfira  potir  I'amuser.  That  will  suflice  to  amuse  him. 

b.  The  infinitive  after  #tre  k  often  has  passive  force: 

Cet  ouvrage  est  k  refaire.  That  work  has  to  be  done  again. 

c.  Hair  may  take  de  when  negative: 

n  ne  hait  pas  k  (d')  etre  endette.      He  does  not  dislike  being  in  debt. 

76  THE  VERB  §280 

280.  Infinitive  with  the  Preposition  de.  The  infinitive 
preceded  by  de  =  to,  of,  from,  for,  at,  etc.,  is  used: 

1.  As  logical  subject  of  an  impersonal  verb  (for  rare 
exceptions  see  §  278,  3) 

II  est  facUe  de  faire  cela.  It  is  easy  to  do  that. 

D  importe  d'arriver  a  temps.  It  is  important  to  arrive  in  time. 

Bien  vous  sied  de  vous  taire.  It  well  becomes  you  to  be  silent. 

a.   Similarly  as  subject  in  inverted  sentences: 
Cast  ime  folie  (que)  d'aller  Ik.        It  is  madness  to  go  there. 

2.  As  complement  of  most  adjectives  and  nouns  (cf. 

Le  desir  de  partir.  The  desire  of  going. 

La  necessite  de  rester.  The  necessity  of  remaining. 

II  n'est  pas  digne  de  vivre.  He  is  not  worthy  to  Hve. 

J'ai  envie  de  pleurer.  I  feel  like  crying. 

a.  So  also,  many  expressions,  like  the  last  example,  made  from  verb 
+  noun,  e.g.,  avoir  besoin  (honte,  peur,  raison,  soin,  tort,  etc.),  faire 
envie  (plaisir,  semblant,  etc.),  courir  risque,  etc.,  etc. 

3.  After  verbs  as  object  or  complement,  usually  to  de- 
note the  source  or  occasion  of  action  (answering  'whence?' 
*  concerning  what?'),  or  to  denote  separation  or  cessation 
from  (answering  'from  what?').     See  fist  below: 

Je  me  rejouis  de  le  voir.  I  rejoice  to  see  it. 

Elle  se  pique  d'etre  la  premiere.  She  prides  herself  on  being  first. 

Prenez  garde  de  (ne  pas)  tomber.  Take  care  not  to  fall. 

II  s'excuse  d'y  aller.  He  excuses  himself  from  going. 

Promettez  de  ne  pas  le  dire.  Promise  not  to  tell  it. 

4.  As  historical  infinitive  (=  a  past  definite): 
Et  I'ennemi  de  s'enfuir.  And  the  enemy  fled. 

5.  After  que  in  the  second  member  of  a  comparison, 
unless  the  sentence  be  very  short: 

H  vaudra  mieux  rester  que  de      It  will  be  better  to  stay  than  to  go 

partir  si  tard.  so  late. 

But:  Mieux  vaut  savoir  qu'avoir.     Better  wisdom  than  wealth. 




6.  Reference  list  of  verbs  requiring  infinitive  with  de: 

s'absenter,  abeent  o.   s. 
ifrom)  [_(/rom) 

s'absoudre,  absolve  o.  a. 
s'abstenir,  abstain  (from) 
accorder,  grant\_cu8tomed 
avoir  accoutum6,  be  ac- 
accuser  (s'),  accuse  {of) 
achever,  finish 
admirer,  wonder  (at) 
afifecter,  affect 
s'aflliger,  grieve  (at,  over) 
s'apercevoir,  perceive 
s'applaudir,  congratulate 

0.  8.  (on) 
appr6hender,  fear 
arrfiter,   prevent   (from), 
determine  CC^^O 

s'attrister,    become    sad 
avertir,  notify,  xvam 
s'aviser,  think  (of) 
bl&mer,  blame  (for) 
brfiler,  long 
censurer,  censure  (for) 
cesser,  cease  [_over) 

se  chagrincr,  grieve  (at, 
charger,  charge 
se  charger,  undertake 
choisir,  choose 
commander,  command 
commencer,^  begin 
conjurer,  beseech 
conseiller,  advise 
consoler,  console  (for) 
se  contenter,  be  satisfied 
continuer,*  continue 
contraindre,*   constrain 
convaincre,  convict  (of) 
convenir,  agree 
craindre,  fear 
crier,  cry 

decider,'  decide,  resolve 
d6courager  (se),  discour- 
age (from) 
d6daigner,  disdain 

dfifendre,  forbid 
se  defendre,  forbear,  ex- 
cuse o. «. 
d6fier,'  defy 
se  d6fier,  distrust 
d6go(iter,  disgust  (with) 
d61ib6rer,  deliberate 

demander,*  ask 
se  d6p6cher,  make  haste 
d6saccoutumer  (se),  dis- 
accustom (from) 
d6sesp^rer,  despair  (of) 
d68habituer  (se),  disac- 
custom (from) 
d6terminer,*  resolve 
d^tester,  detest     [^(from) 
d6toumcr,      dissuade 
dire,*  bid 

discontinuer,  cease 
disconvenir,  deny  [_(for) 
se  disculpcr,  excuse  o.  s. 
dispenser ,di«pcn«c  (from) 
dissuadcr,  dis8uade(from) 
douter,  hesitate 
se  douter,  suspect 
6crire,  write 
s'efforcer,*  try 
s'effrayer,  be  afraid 
emp6cher,  preverU 
s'cmpdchcr,      abstain 

s'empresser,'  hasten 
s'empresser,*  be  eager 
enjoindre,  enjoin 
s'ennuyer,*  ^  be  tired  (of) 
s'enorgueillir,  be  proud 
enrager,  be  enraged  (at) 
entreprendre,  undertake 
6pargner,  spare 
essayer,'  try 
s'^tonner,  he  astonished 
6tre  ik^  '  be  duty  or  office 

6viter,  avoid 

excuser  (s') ,  excuse  (from) 

exempter,  exempt  (from) 

faire  bien,  do  well 

se  fatiguer,'  be  tired  (of) 

feindre,  feign 

f61iciter  (se),  congratulate 

&nir,*  finish  [.(on) 

se  flatter,  flcUter  o.  s. 

forcer,^  force 

fr6mir,  shudder 

gager,  tvager 

garder  (so) ,  forbear 

g6mir,  groan 

gfiner,  incommode 

se  glorifier,  boast  (of) 

gronder,  scold  (for) 

hasardcr,  verdure 

se  h&ter,  hasten 

imaginer,  imagine 

s'impatienter,  be  impct- 

imputer,  impute 
s'indigncr,  be  indignant 
s'ing6rer,  meddle  (xpith) 
inspirer,  inspire 
interdire,  interdict  (from) 
jouir,  enjoy 
juger  bon,  think  fit 
jurer,*  promise  (on  oath) 
ne  pas  laisser,'*  not  to 

se  lasser,'  be  weary  (of) 
louer,  praise  (for) 
mander,  bid       [point  of 
manquer,'   fail,    be    on 
m6diter,  meditate 
se  mfeler,  meddle  (with) 
menacer,  threaten 
m^riter,  deserve        [(of) 
se  moquer,   make  sport 
mourir,  die,  long 
n6gliger,  neglect 
notifier,  notify 




obliger,*  oblige,  force  presser,  urge 

obliger,'  do  favour  se  presser,  hasten 

obtenir,  obtain  presumer,  presume 

s'occuper,'  be  intent  {on)  prier,^  beg,  pray 

offrir,  offer 
omettre,  omit 
ordonner,  order 
oublier,^  forget 
pardonner,  forgive 
parier,  bet 
parler,  speak 
86  passer,  do  without 
permettre  (se),  permit 

priver  (se),  deprive  (of) 

pro  Jeter,  intend 

promettre  (se),  promise 

proposer,  propose 

se  proposer,  intend 

protester,  protest 

punir,  punish  (for) 

recommander,  recommend  sourire,  smile 

TecommenceT,^  begin  again  se  souvenir,  recollect 

reprocher  (se),  reproach 

resoudre,'  resolve 
se  ressouvenir,  remember 
rire  (se),  laugh 
risquer,  risk 
rougir,  blush 
sommer,  summon 
se  soueier,  care 
souffrir,^  suffer 
soupQonner,  suspect 

refuser,^  refuse 

persuader,  persuade 

se  piquer,  pride  o.  s.  {on)  regretter,  regret 

plaindre,  pity  Z{of)  se  rejouir,  rejoice 

se     plaindre,     complain  remercier,  thank  {for) 

prendre  garde,'  take  care  se  repentir,  repent  {of) 

not,  beware  {of)  reprendre,  reprove  {for) 

prendre  soin,  take  care      reprimander,  reprimand 
prescrire,  prescribe  {for) 

^  Or  4.      *  Sometimes  4.      '  See  also  list  of  verbs  requiring  t  (§  279,  6). 
*  See  also  list  of  verbs  requiring  direct  infinitive  (§  278,  6). 

Bugg6rer,  suggest 
supplier,  beseech 
tfi,cher,^  try 
tenter,^  attempt 
trembler,'  tremble,  fear 
trouver  bon,  think  fit 
Be  vanter,  boast  {of) 
venir,'  ^  have  just 

281.  Distinctions.  As  appears  from  the  list,  the  same 
verb  sometimes  requires  a,  de,  or  the  direct  infinitive.  The 
following  are  examples  of  cases  in  which  the  sense  varies 
with  the  construction: 

1.  Aimer: 

J'aimerais  bien  le  connaitre. 
J'aime  mieiu:  vous  dire  tout. 
Aimez-vous  a  demeurer  ici? 

2.  Decider: 

n  m'a  decide  a  entrer. 
Nous  decidimes  de  partir. 

3.  Defier: 

On  le  defia  a  boire. 

Je  vous  defie  de  prouver  cela. 

4.  Descendre: 
Descends  chercher  ton  chapeau. 
D  descendit  meme  a  voler. 

I  should  like  to  know  him. 
I  prefer  to  tell  you  all. 
Do  you  like  to  live  here? 

He  induced  me  to  go  in. 
We  decided  to  set  out. 

They  challenged  him  to  drink. 
I  defy  you  to  prove  that. 

Go  down  and  get  your  hat. 
He  even  descended  to  theft. 




5.  Determiner: 

Je  I'ai  determine  a  raster. 

n  avalt  determine  de  le  rebdtir. 

6.  Dire: 

n  dit  I'avoir  vu. 

Je  hii  ai  dit  de  venir. 

7.  S'empresser: 

n  s'empressait  d  Im  plaire. 
n  s'empressa  de  repondre. 

8.  fitre: 

Je  suis  d  ecrire  des  lettres. 
C'est  Si  vous  de  parler. 
C'est  k  vous  d  parler. 

9.  Se  fatiguer: 

D  se  fatigua  a  jouer  au  billard. 
n  est  fatigue  de  jouer. 

10.  Finir: 

n  ne  finissait  pas  d  me  le  dire. 
J^ai  fini  de  travailler. 

11.  Jurer: 
Je  jure  I'avoir  vu. 
Je  jure  de  le  faire. 

12.  Laisser: 
Je  I'ai  laisse  dire. 

Je  vous  laisse  a  penser. 
n  lie  laissa  pas  de  parler. 

13.  Se  lasser: 

n  s'est  lasse  a  courir. 
n  se  lasse  de  courir. 

14.  Manquer: 

Ne  manquez  pas  d'j  §tre. 
Je  manqtiai  de  tomber. 
n  ne  manque  jamais  d  faire  son 

15.  Obliger: 

Je  I'ai  oblige  a  (de)  le  faire. 

I  induced  him  to  stay. 

He  had  determined  to  rebuild  it. 

He  says  he  saw  it. 
I  told  him  to  come. 

He  was  eager  to  please  her. 
He  hastened  to  reply. 

I  am  (busy)  writing  letters. 

It  is  your  place  (or  turn)  to  speak. 

It  is  your  turn  to  speak. 

He  fatigued  himself  playing  billiaid& 
He  is  tired  playing. 

"He  was  never  done  telling  me  so. 
I  have  finished  working. 

I  swear  I  saw  it. 
I  swear  I  will  do  it. 

I  let  him  talk. 

I  leave  you  to  think. 

He  did  not  stop  talking. 

He  tired  himself  out  (by)  running. 
He  is  tired  of  nmning. 

Don't  fail  to  be  there. 

I  was  on  the  point  of  falling. 

He  never  fails  to  do  his  duty. 

I  obliged  him  to  do  it. 




Je  suis  oblige  de  partir. 
Vous  m'obligerez  beaucoup  de  le 

16.  S'occuper: 
H  s'occupe  a  lire. 

n  s'occupe  de  detruire  les  abus. 

17.  Penser: 

Que  pensez-vous  faire  ? 

Je  pensai  tomber. 

Je  pense  a  repliquer  k  cela. 

18.  Prendre  garde: 
Prenez  garde  a  ne  pas  le  faire. 
Prenez  garde  de  (ne  pas)  tomber. 

19.  Pretendre: 

n  pretend  vous  connaitre. 
D  pretend  a  devenir  savant. 

20.  Prier: 

n  m'a  prie  a  diner. 

Je  vous  prie  de  m'aider. 

21.  Refuser: 

Me  refusez-vous  a  manger? 
Je  refuserai  d'y  aller. 

22.  Resoudre: 

H  m'a  resolu  a  I'acheter. 
J'ai  resolu  de  I'acheter. 

23.  Trembler: 
H  tremble  a  me  voir. 

D  tremble  de  me  rencontrer. 

24.  Venir: 
Venez  nous  voir. 

Si  vous  veniez  a  le  voir. 
Je  viens  de  le  voir. 

I  am  obliged  to  go. 
You    will    greatly   oblige    me  by 
doing  it. 

He  is  busy  reading. 

He  is  intent  on  destroying  abuses. 

What  do  you  intend  to  do  ? 

I  nearly  fell. 

I  think  of  replying  to  that. 

Take  care  not  to  do  it. 
Take  care  not  to  fall. 

He  asserts  that  he  knows  you. 
He  aspires  to  become  learned.    _ 

He  invited  me  to  dine. 

I  pray  (ask)  you  to  help  me. 

Do  you  refuse  to  give  me  food  7 
I  shall  refuse  to  go. 

He  induced  me  to  buy  it. 
I  have  determined  to  buy  it. 

He  trembles  when  he  sees  me. 
He  fears  to  meet  me. 

Come  to  see  us. 

If  you  should  happen  to  see  him. 

I  have  just  seen  him. 

282.  Infinitive  with  other  Prepositions.  The  infinitive 
stands  also  after  par,  pour,  sans,  apres,  entre,  and  after  locu- 
tions ending  in  de  or  a,  such  as  afin  de,  avant  de,  jusqu'a,  etc.: 

§§  283-284  THE  mFINITIVE  MOOD  81 

1.  Par  =  by  usually  only  after  commencer  and  finir: 

n  finit  par  m'insulter.  He  ended  by  insulting  me  {or  He 

finally  insulted  me). 

2.  Pour  usually  translates  in  order  to,  for  the  purpose  of; 
sometimes  also  for,  from,  because,  though,  etc.,  and  to  after 
assez,  trop,  ete.: 

H  faut  manger  pour  vivre.  We  must  eat  (in  order)  to  live, 

n  est  mort  pour  avoir  trop  bu.  He  died  from  over-drinking, 

n  fut  pimi  pour  avoir  ri.  He  was  punished  for  laughing. 

Pour   6tre  pauvre,  11  n' est  pas  Though  poor,  he  is  no  thief. 


n  est  trop  franc  pour  se  talre.  He  is  too  frank  to  keep  quiet. 

a.  Pour  after  a  verb  of  motion  (§  278,  4)  emphasizes  the  purpose: 
Plrai  pour  le  voir.  I  shall  go  to  see  him. 

3.  Sans  =  unthout: 

Ne  partez  pas  sans  manger.  Do  not  go  without  eating. 

4.  Apres  =  after  requires  the  perfect  infinitive: 
Aprls  avoir  dine,  je  partis.  *    After  having  dined,  I  set  out. 

283.  Infinitive  for  Subordinate  Clause.  1.  An  infini- 
tive construction  usually  replaces  a  que  clause  of  which  the 
subject  is  the  same  with  that  of  the  subject  or  object  (direct 
or  indirect)  of  the  principal  clause: 

n  croit  vous  avoir  vu.  He  thinks  that  he  has  seen  you. 

Dltes-Ieur  de  s'en  aller.  Tell  them  to  be  gone. 

2.  Similarly  afin  de,  a  moins  de,  apres,  avant  de,  de 
crainte  de,  de  petu*  de,  de  fagon  a,  de  maniere  a,  pour,  sans, 
etc.  +  the  infinitive  stand  for  afin  que,  etc.  +  the  subjunc- 
tive, but  only  when  the  subject  of  both  verbs  is  the  same: 
n  partlt  sans  me  voir.  He  went  without  seeing  me. 

But :  n  partlt  sans  que  je  le  visse.      He  went  without  my  seeing  him. 

284.  Infinitive  with  Passive  Force.  A  transitive  infini- 
tive has  (seeming)  paseive  force  after  verbs  of  perceiving 

82'  THE  VERB  §§285-286 

(voir,  etc.),  after  faire,  laisser,  and  when  a  +  an  infinitive 

is  used  adjectively  (cf.  §241,  3): 

J'ai  vu  batir  cette  maison.  I  saw  this  house  being  built. 

Je  me  f ais  faire  un  habit.  I  am  having  a  coat  made  for  myself. 

Vous  etes  k  plaindre.  You  are  to  be  pitied. 

Une  faute  k  eviter.  A  mistake  to  be  avoided. 

Note.  —  This  construction  may  be  explained  by  supplying  some  such 
ellipsis  as  the  following:    J'ai  vu  bStir  une  maison  a  or  par  quelgu'un,  I 

haos  seen  somebody  building  a  house. 

285.  Infinitive  for  English  -ing.  The  infinitive  must  be 
used  to  translate  many  such  forms  (see  §  287,  2,  3,  4). 


286.  Functions.  The  participial  form  in  -ant  serves  as  a 
verbal  adjective,  as  a  present  participle  (without  en),  and 
as  a  gerund  (with  en): 

1.  As  a  verbal  adjective,  it  denotes  quahty  or  state,  and 
agrees  like  an  adjective: 

Elle  parait  bien  portantc.  She  seems  well. 

Les  enfants  doivent  etre  obeissants.  Children  must  be  obedient. 

Les  vivants,  et  les  mourants.  The  living  and  the  dying. 

Des  paroles  consolantes.  Comforting  words. 

Obs.:  The  verbal  adjective,  attributively,  regularly  follows  the  noun, 
as  in  the  last  example. 

o.  Some  verbs  have  a  special  form  for  the  verbal  adjective: 

Adj.  Part.  Adj.  Part. 

different,  different  differant  negligent,  careless       nSgligeant 

convaincant,  convincing       convainquant       puissant,  powerful      pouvant 
fatigant,  fatiguing  f atiguant  savant,  learned  sachant 

2.  As  a  present  participle,  it  is  used,  in  general,  like  the 
English  present  participle,  to  denote  simultaneous  action, 
manner,  cause,  motive,  etc.,  and  is  invariable: 

Pleurant,  elle  continua  le  recit.         Weeping,  she  continued  the  story. 
Je  le  trouvai  riant  comme  un  fou.      I  found  him  laughing  like  mad. 
Elle  ne  sortit  pas,  etant  malade.       She  did  not  go  out,  being  ill. 


Ayant  parle  ainsi,  il  sortit.  Having  thus  spoken,  he  went  out. 

II  n'entrera  pas,  moi  vivant.  He  shall  not  enter  while  I  live. 

Notes.  —  1.  It  is  often  difficult  to  determine  whether  the  form  in  -ant 
is  participle  (invariable)  or  adjective  (variable).  As  a  participle,  the  action 
(generally  transitory)  is  prominent,  but  as  an  adjective,  quality  or  else 
continued  action  (state)  is  denoted.  It  is  nearly  always  a  participle  when 
it  has  a  complement  or  a  construction  peculiar  to  the  verb,  such  as  object, 
negative,  adverb  following:  Une  femme  mourante,  A  dying  woman:  Des 
gens  mourant  de  faim,  People  dicing  of  hunger;  Les  ennemis  se  retirerent, 
brfilant  les  villes  partout.  The  enemy  retired,  burning  the  toums  eteryuhere; 
Une  femme  ne  craignant  rien,  A  woman  fearing  nothing;  Des  dames  par- 
lant  doucement«  Ladies  speaking  softly;  De  soi-disant  amis.  So-called  friends. 

2.  In  the  last  example,  soi-disant,  though  adjective  in  force,  remains 
invariable  in  view  of  the  literal  meaning,  calling  themselves. 

3.  Ayant  and  itant  are  also  always  invariable,  except  in  les  ayants- 
droit  (-cause). 

3.  As  a  gerund,  it,  df>nn|fta  oither  simultaneous  action  or 
*  means  by  wliich/  and  is  invariable;  en  =  while  ^  in^  on, 
when,  aSj  bi/^  etc..  or  is  untranslated: 

En  jouant,  j'ai  perdu  ma  montre.      While  playing,  I  lost  my  watch. 
En  rentrant,  j'ai  trouve  la  lettre.       On  returning,  I  found  the  letter. 
Vous  perdrez,  en  agissant  ainsi.        You  will  lose  if  you  act  thus. 
En  lisant  on  apprend  k  lire.  By  reading  one  learns  to  read. 

a.  Both  participle  and  gerund  denote  simultaneous  action,  but  the 
use  of  en,  strengthened  sometimes  by  tout,  usually  emphasizes  the 
continuity  of  the  action: 

(En)  disant  ceci,  il  prit  la  lyre.  (While)  saying  this,  he  took  the  harp. 

Tout  en  pleurant,  elle  continua.      Still  weeping,  she  went  on. 

6.  The  gerund  usually  refers  to  the  subject: 
Je  I'ai  vu  en  allant  k  la  poste.  I  saw  him  while  going  to  the  post. 

But:  L'appetit  vient  en  mangeant.    One's  appetite  comes  while  eating. 

c.  En  is  sometimes  omitted,  especially  after  aller: 
Generalement  parlant.  Generally  speaking. 

n  s'en  va  (en)  grondant.  Off  he  goes  grumbling. 

d.  The  genmd  denotes  progressive  action  in  a  few  expressions  formed 
from  aller: 

Cela  alia  (en)  diminuant  That  kept  growing  less  and  less. 

287.  English  Forms  in  -ing.  These  are  variously  trans- 
lated into  French;  idiomatic  differences  are: 

84  THE  VERB  §§  288-289 

1.  Periphrastic  tense  forms  are  avoided  in  French: 

II  a  joue  toute  la  matinee.  He  has  been  playing  all  morning. 

2.  EngHsh  gerunds  are  translated  by  an  -ant  form  only 
when  the  preposition  en  may  be  used;  otherwise  by  an 
infinitive,  a  noun,  or  a  clause: 

En  lisant  on  apprend  k  lire.  By  reading  one  learns  to  read. 

But:  D  parle  de  partir.  He  speaks  of  going  away. 

n  fut  pendu  pour  avoir  vole.  He  was  hanged  for  having  stolen. 

Ella  partit  sans  dire  adieu.  She  went  without  saying  good-bye. 

Voir  c'est  croire.  Seeing  is  believing. 

J'aime  la  chasse  (or  k  chasser).  I  like  hunting. 

Je  suis  etonne  qu'il  soit  venu.  I  am  surprised  at  his  coming. 

3.  After  verbs  of  perception  (entendre,  sentir,  voir,  etc.), 
the  relative  or  infinitive  construction  is  much  commoner 
than  the  participle: 

Je  les  vois  venir  (qui  viennent  or  I  see  them  coming. 


Les  voila  qui  passent  I  See  them  passing ! 

II  a  vu  sortir  mes  freres.  He  saw  my  brothers  going  out. 

Les  avez-vous  entendus  f rapper  Did  you  hear  them  knocking? 

(qui  frappaient)? 

Je  la  {or  Ixii)  vis  frapper  I'enfant.  I  saw  her  striking  the  child. 

4.  Compound  nouns  with  a  first  component  in  -ing  are 
not  literally  translated: 

Une  machine  k  coudre.  A  sewing-machine. 

5.  It  is  often  more  elegant  to  avoid  a  French  form  in 
-ant,  even  when  permissible: 

Pendant  mon  voyage.  While  traveling. 


288.  General  Use.  The  past  participle  is  used,  (1)  with- 
out auxiliary,  (2)  with  etre,  (3)  with  avoir  (or  etre  used 
as  avoir). 

289.  Without  Auxiliary.  A  past  participle  without  any 
auxiliary  has  the  force  of  an  adjective  (attributive,  predica- 

§§290-291      .  THE  PAST  PARTICIPLE  85 

tive,  appositive),  and  agrees,  like  an  adjective,  in  gender 

and  number  with  the  word  quaUfied: 

Des  Utes  doonees  par  le  roL  Festivities  given  by  the  king. 

Lesbattiw;  lesmorts.  The  beaten;  the  dead. 

Le  passe  n'est  plus  k  nous.  The  past  ia  no  longer  ours. 

Jean  et  Marie  semblent  fatigues.      John  and  Mary  look  tired. 

Tenez  les  portes  fermees.  Keep  the  doors  closed. 

Us  me  regarderent  etonnw.  They  looked  at  me  astonished. 

a.  Certain  past  participles  have  prepositional  force  when  preceding 
the  substantive,  and  are  invariable,  but  are  variable  when  following: 
Vu  les  difficultes.  In  view  of  the  difficulties. 
Ezcepte  eux;  eux  eicepte*.               Except  them;  they  excepted. 

Such  are:  Approuve,  attendu,  certifie,  collationn6,  y  compris,  non 
compris,  entendu,  eicepte,  oul,  paye,  passe,  suppose,  vu,  etc. 

b.  Ci-inclus  =  enclosed  and  d-joint  =  herewUh,  are  invariable  when 
beginning  a  sentence,  or  when  followed  by  a  noim  without  article: 
Ci-indus  la  copie,  etc.  Herewith  the  copy,  etc. 

Vous  recevez  d-joint  copie,  etc.         You  receive  herewith  a  copy,  etc. 
But:   J'envoie  d-jointc  ime  (la)      I  send  herewith  a  (the)  copy,  etc. 
copie,  etc 

290.  Past  Participle  with  ktre.  A  past  participle  with 
etre  agrees  with  the  subject;   for  exceptions  see  §244: 

Ds  sont  (ont  ete)  battu5.  They  are  (have  been)  beaten. 

Marie  et  Louise  sont  venues.  Mary  and  Louisa  have  come. 

Ds  sont  sortis.  They  have  gone  out. 

Les  dames  etant  arrivees.  The  ladies  having  come. 

Elle  paria  d'avoir  ete  bless€e.  She  spoke  of  having  been  hurt. 

a.  Hence  the  past  participle  of  an  impersonal  verb  with  Stre  ia 
invariable,  agreeing  strictly  with  the  grammatical  subject  il: 
n  etait  venu  des  soldats.  Soldiers  had  come. 

291.  Past  Participle  with  avoir.  1.  A  past  participle 
with  avoir  agrees  with  a  preceding  direct  object;  otherwise 
it  is  invariable: 

La  piece  que  f  ai  ecritc,  I'avez-      Have  you  read  the  play  I  wrote  t 

vous  lue? 
Quels  livres  a-t-il  apporte*?  What  books  did  he  bring? 

86  THE  VERB  §292 

But :  J'ai  ecrit  la  lettre.  I  have  written  the  letter. 

Elles  ont  lu  et  ecrit.  They  have  read  and  written. 

Je  lixi  ai  donne  la  lettre.  I  have  given  her  the  letter. 

2.  Similarly,  the  past  participle  of  a  reflexive  verb  (con- 
jugated with  etre  for  avoir)  always  agrees  with  the  reflexive 
object,  unless  that  object  be  indirect: 

Us  se  sont  rejouis.  They  have  rejoiced. 

Elles  s'etaient  trompees.  They  were  mistaken. 

EUe  s'est  blessee.  She  wounded  {or  hurt)  herself. 

Elle  s'est  laissee  tomber.  She  has  fallen  (fell). 

But:  lis  se  sont  ecrit.  They  wrote  to  each  other. 

Elle  s'est  blesse  la  main.  She  wounded  her  hand. 

lis  se  sont  arroge  ce  privilege.  They  assumed  that  privilege. 

Us  se  sont  plu  k  Paris.  They  enjoyed  themselves  in  Paris. 

a.   Besides  the  indirect  reflexive  object,   a  direct  object  may  be 
present,  with  which  the  following  past  participle  agrees: 
Les  robes  qu'elle  s'est  achetees.      The  dresses  she  bought  herself. 

292.  Remarks.  AH  cases  of  the  agreement  of  the  past 
participle  depend  upon  the  above  general  principles;  special 
difficulties  are: 

1.  The  past  participle  of  an  impersonal  verb  is  invariable: 

La  belle  joumee  qu'il  a  fait !  What  a  fine  day  it  was ! 

La  disette  qu'il  y  a  eu.  The  scarcity  that  there  was. 

2.  A  noun  denoting  distance,  time,  price,  weight,  etc., 
with  such  verbs  as  marcher,  courir,  vivre,  coiiter,  peser, 
valoir,  etc.,  is  adverbial  accusative  (not  direct  object); 
hence  no  agreement: 

Les  dix  milles  que  j'ai  marche.         The  ten  miles  I  walked. 

Les  cent  francs  que  cet  ouvrage      The  hundred  francs  that  book  cost 

^    m'a  coiite.  me. 

a.  Such  verbs  used  transitively,  or  figuratively  with  transitive  force, 
follow  the  general  rule: 

La  malle  que  j'ai  pesee.  The  trunk  which  I  weighed. 

Les  dangers  qu'il  a  courus.  The  dangers  he  incurred. 

La  peur  que  cela  a  coatee.  The  fear  which  that  caused. 

§292  THE   PAST   PARTICIPLE  87 

3.  A  past  participle  preceded  by  an  expression  of  number 
or  quantity,  a  collective,  etc.,  is  variable  or  invariable  ac- 
cording to  the  sense  (cf.  §  231-234) : 

Que  de  maux  il  a  soufferts !  Wliat  ills  he  endured ! 

C'est  la  moitie  des  meubles  qu'on  It  is  the  half  of  the  furniture  that 

a  saisie.  has  been  seized. 

La  moitie  des  meubles  que  j'ai  The  half  of  the  furniture  which  I 

vendue.  sold. 

Quelle  joie,  quel  bonheur  vous  What   joy,    what   happiness   you 

lui  avez  procure !  have  procured  him ! 

a.  Partitive  en  is  never  a  direct  object;  agreement,  however,  takes 
place  with  combien,  plus,  moins,  preceding  en,  if  the  sense  be  plural: 
Combien  Dieu  en  a-t-il  eiauces  I  How  many  of  them  God  has  heard  ! 
Plus  on  vous  a  donne  de  livres.       The  more  books  you  were  given, 

plus  vous  en  avez  lus.  the  more  of  them  you  read. 

4.  When  an  infinitive  (with  or  without  a  preposition) 
follows,  the  past  participle  is  invariable  when  the  preceding 
direct  object  is  governed  by  the  infinitive,  and  variable  if 
governed  by  the  past  participle  alone: 

La  lettre  que  j'ai  voulu  6crire.  The  letter  I  wished  to  write. 

La  lettre  que  j'ai  oublie  d'ecrire.  The  letter  I  forgot  to  write. 

D  nous  a  pries  d'y  aller.  He  begged  us  to  go. 

On  nous  a  dit  de  sortir.  They  told  us  to  go  out. 

a.  Entendu,  vu,  laissS,  agree  when  the  infinitive  has  active  force, 
but  are  invariable  if  it  has  passive  force  (§284): 
La  dame  que  j'ai  entendue  chanter.    The  lady  I  heard  sing(ing). 
Les  enfants  que  j'ai  vu  battre.  The  children  I  saw  beaten. 

6.   After  dd,  pu,  voulu,  ose,  with  auxiliary  force,  a  governing  infini- 
tive is  either  expressed  or  implied;   hence  no  agreement: 
J'ai   lu  tous  les  livres  que  j'ai     I  read  all  the  books  that  I  could 

pu  (lire).  (read). 

But:  Les  livres  que  j'ai  vouIu5.        The  books  I  wished. 

c.  Fait  +  infinitive  is  invariable: 

Les  medecins  qu'il  a  fait  venir.         The  doctors  he  sent  for. 

d.  The  past  participle  of  avoir  k  is  variable  or  invariable: 
Les  lettres  que  j'ai  eu  (cues)  k  lire.   The  letters  I  had  to  read. 

88  THE  VERB  §§  293-294 

5.  The  relative  pronoun  que  is  sometimes  direct  object  of 
a  verb  in  a  following  que  clause,  either  fully  expressed  or 
impUed,  and  hence  the  past  participle  is  invariable: 

Des  choses  que  j'ai  cm  qu'il  ferait.     Things  I  thought  he  would  do. 
J'ai  lu  les  livres  qu'U  a  voxilu  (que     I  read  the  books  which  he  wished 
je  lusse).  (me  to  read). 


293.  Transitives.  1.  A  transitive  verb  governs  a  direct 
object,  as  in  English: 

J'ai  ecrit  la  lettre  (des  lettres).         I  wrote  the  letter  (letters). 

2.   A  transitive  verb  can  have  only  one  du-ect  object; 
other  substantives   related   to   it   must  stand  as   indirect 
object  or  as  prepositional  complement: 
Pardonnez-Iui  ses  peches.  Pardon  him  his  sins. 

Je  donne  le  de  k  la  fille.  I  give  the  girl  the  thimble. 

Je  lui  donne  le  de  avec  plaisir.  I  give  her  the  thimble  with  pleasure. 

Je  conseille  k  mon  fils  de  partir.         I  advise  my  son  to  go. 

o.   By  an  extension  of  this  principle,  the  verb  faire  =  make,  cause 
to,  etc.,  +  an  infinitive,  requires  an  indirect  personal  object  when  the 
infinitive  has  a  direct  object: 
Je  fais  lire  ce  livre  d  mcfli  fils.  I  make  (have)  my  son  read  this 

Je  lui  fais  lire  ce  livre.  I  make  him  read  this  book. 

But:  Je  fais  lire  mon  fils.  I  make  my  son  read. 

Je  le  fais  lire.  I  make  him  read. 

6.  Laisser,  voir,  entendre,  ouir,  may  have,  and  frequently  do  have, 
the  same  construction: 

Laissez-Ze  {-lui)  lire  le  livre.  Let  him  read  the  book, 

Je  V  (lui)  ai  vu  jouer  ce  r61e.  I  saw  him  play  that  part. 

But:  Laissez  lire  Venfant.  Let  the  child  read. 

294.  Intransitives.  An  intransitive  verb  can  have  no 
direct  object,  but  may,  of  course,  have  an  indirect  object 
or  a  prepositional  complement: 

H  parle  k  ce  soldat.  He  is  speaking  to  that  soldier. 

n  lui  parle  de  la  guerre.  He  speaks  to  him  of  the  war.    ' 

S§  295-296  GOVERNMENT  OP  VERBS  89 

a.  A  very  few  intransitives  govern  a  direct  object  anomalously: 
II  a  vecu  sa  vie  en  heros.  He  lived  his  life  like  a  hero. 

II  va  tout  droit  son  chemin.  He  goes  straight  on  his  way. 

Note.  —  Many  verbe  serve  either  &a  transitives  or  intraiisitives:  II 
est  descendu  (intransitive),  He  has  gone  down;  II  a  descendu  le  tableau 
(transitive).  He  has  taken  down  the  picture. 

295.  Predicative  Complement.  Nouns  are  used  predic- 
atively  after  certain  verbs,  as  follows: 

1.  In  nominative  relation: 

lis  sont  Anglais.  They  are  Englishmen. 

D  est  medecin.  He  is  a  doctor. 

Elle  est  morte  jeime  fille.  She  died  a  young  girL 

Such  verbs  are: 

demeurer,  remain  6tre  cens^,  be  auppoted  passer,  paaa 

devenir,  become  mourir,  die  rester,  remain 

entrer,  enter  naltre,  be  bom  sembler,  seem 

6tre,  be  paraltre,  appear  aortir,  go  out,  eto. 

2.  In  accusative  relation: 

On  le  fit  roi.  They  made  him  king. 

Je  le  crois  honnete  homme.  I  think  he  is  an  honest  man. 

Je  le  connais  incapable  de  mentir.      I  know  he  is  incapable  of  falsehood. 

Such  verbs  arc: 

appeler,  call  estimer,  esteem  se  montrer,  show  onesd/ 

oouronner,  crown  faire,  make  nommer,  name 

croire,  believe  Be  faire,  become  proclamer,  proclaim 

declarer,  declare  instituer,  institiUe  savoir,  know,  etc. 

296.  Prepositional  Complement.  The  use  of  de  and  k 
presents  special  difficulty;  other  prepositions  have,  in 
general,  their  usual  hteral  force: 

1.  Some  verbs  with  de  have  the  force  of  an  English 

D  Jouit  d'lme  p»  -faite  sante.  He  enjoyB  perfect  health. 

Elle  s'est  trompee  de  porte.  She  took  the  wrong  door. 

On  se  sert  d'encre  pour  ecrire.  Ink  is  used  for  writing. 

Such  verbs  are: 
abuser  de,  mistue  s'approcher  de,  approach      avoir  peur  de,  fear 

B'apercevoir  de,  perceive       avoir  beeoin  de,  netd  avoir  piti6  de,  pity 




convenir  de,  admit 
ee  defier  de,  mistrust 
se  demettre  de,  resign 
disconvenir  de,  deny 
douter  de,  doubt 
ee  douter  de,  suspect 

gemir  de,  bemoan 
jouir  de,  enjoy 
manquer  de,  lack 
medire  de,  slander 
Be  mefier  de,  mistrust 
partir  de,  leave 

se  passer  de,  do  without 
Be  servir  de,  use 
se  souvenir  de,  recoiled 
se  tromper  de,  mistake 
user  de,  employ,  use 

2.     Similarly,  some  verbs  with  a  have  the  force  of  an 

English  transitive: 

H  obeit  a  son  pere.  He  obeys  his  father. 

Ella  ressemble  k  sa  mere.  She  resembles  her  mother. 

Such  verbs  axe: 

aller  h,  fit,  suit 

arriver  k,  reach 

attenter  k,  attempt  (]the  life) 

compatir  k,  pity 

convenir  k,  suit 

deplaire  k,  displease 

d^sobeir  k,  disobey 

se  fier  k,  trust 

importer  k,  concern 

nuire  k,  harm 
obeir  k,  obey 
obvier  k,  obviate 
ordonner  k,  order 
pardonner  k,  pardon 
parvenir  k,  attain 
permettre  k,  permit 
persuader  k,  persuade 
plaire  k,  please 

promettre  k,  promise 
remedier  a,  remedy 
renoncer  k,  renounce 
rfipondre  k,  answer 
rfesister  k,  resist 
ressembler  k,  resemble 
succeder  k,  succeed 
survivre  k,  survive 

3.   In  some  instances,  on  the  contrary,  a  French  transi 
tive  has  the  force  of  an  Enghsh  verb  +  a  preposition. 
Payez-lui  les  livres.  Pay  him  for  the  books. 

Je  regarde  cet  arbre-l&.  I  am  looking  at  that  tree. 

Such  verbs  are: 

demander,  ask  for 
d6sirer,  wish  for 
6couter,  listen  to 
envoyer  chercher,  send  for 
esperer,  hope  for 

accepter,  accept  of 
admettre,  admit  of 
approuver,  approve  of 
attendre,  wait  for 
chercher,  look  for 

payer,  pay  for 
regarder,  look  at 
rencontrer,  meet  with 
souhaiter,  vnsh  for 

4.  De  and  k  frequently  have,  as  compared  with  English, 
a  special  idiomatic  force  with  certain  verbs: 
*Cela  depend  de  vous.  That  depends  on  you. 

Pensez  a  voire  devoir.  Think  of  your  duty. 

Such  verbs  are: 

B'affliger  de,  grieve  at  blS,mer  de,  blame  for     consoler  de,  console  for 

approcher(8')  de,  draw  complimenter  de,  com-  d6jeuner  de,  breakfast  on 

near  to  pliment  on                d6pendre  de,  depend  on 




se  dfesoler  de,  grieve  over  se  nourrir  de,  live  on 

diner  de,  dine  on  profiter  de,  profit  by 

f61iciter  de,  congratulate  on  punir  de,  puniah/or 

g^mir  de,  lament  over  r^compenser  de,  re- 
louer  de,  praise  far  ward  Jot 

Be  m61er  de,  meddle  with  se  r^jouir  de,  r^oice  at 

remercier  de,  thank  for 
rire  de,  laugh  at 
triompher  de,  triumph  over 
vivre  de,  live  on 

acheter  qqch.  k  qqu.,  buy  something 

from  (or  for)  some  one 
arracher  qqch.  k  qqu.,  snatch  from 
cacher  qqch.  k  qqu.,  hide  from 
conf6rer  qqch.  k  qqu.,  confer  on 
demander  qqch.  k  qqu.,  ask  for  {of) 
d6rober  qqch.  k  qqu.,  steal  from 
emprunter  qqch.  k  qqu.,  borrow  from 
infliger  qqch.  k  qqu.,  inflict  on 
inspirer  qqch.  k  qqu.,  inspire  with 
m61er  qqch.  k  qqch.,  mingle  with 

6ter  qqch.  k  qqu.,  take  away  from 
pardonner  qqch.  k  qqu.,  pardon  for 
payer  qqch.  k  qqu.,  pay  for 
pcDser  k  qqch.  or  k  qqu.,  think  of 
prendre  qqch.  k  qqu.,  take  from 
pourvoir  k  qqch.,  provide  for 
procurer  qqch.  k  qqu.,  procure  for 
prodiguer  qqch.  k  qqu.,  lavish  on 
reprocher  qqch.  k  qqu.,  reproach  with 
80uhait«r  qqch.  k  qqu.,  unsh 
volcr  qqch.  k  qqu.,  steal  from 

5.  Many  verbs  have  a  double  construction  with  varying 

Ds  jouent  aux  cartes.  They  are  plajnng  cards. 

EUe  joue  du  piano.  She  is  playing  the  piano. 

Such  verbs  are: 
abuser  qqu.,  deceive 
abuser  de  qqch.,  misuse 
aasister  qqu.,  help 

assister  k  qqch.,  be  present  at,  witness 
concourir  k  qqch.,  contribute  to 
concourir  pour  qqch.,  compete  for 
convenir  k  qqu.,  suit 
convenir  de  qqch.,  agree  about 
croire  qqu.  or  qqch.,  believe 
croire  k,  en,  believe  in 
demander  qqu.  or  qqch.,  ask  after 
demander  qqch.  k  qqu.,  ask  for  (from, 

h6riter  de  qqu.,  be  heir  of 
hferiter  de  qqch.,  inherit 
jouer  qqu.,  deceive  {^strumerU 

jouer  d'un  instrument,  play  on  an  in- 
jouer  k  un  jeu,  play  (at)  a  game 
manquer  qqu.  or  qqch.,  miss 
manquer  de,  lack,  be  nearly 
manquer  k,  fail  in 

k,  think  of  (about) 
de,  hate  opinion  of 
prfetcndre  qqch.,  assert 
prfetendre  k,  aspire  to 
servir,  serve  (tr.  and  intr.) 
servir  de,  serve  as 
serv'ir  k,  be  useful  for 
se  servir  de,  make  use  of 
supplier  qqu.,  take  the  place  of 
supplier  k  qqch.,  complete 
toucher  qqu.  or  qqch.,  touch 
toucher  de  I'argent,  draw  money 
toucher  k,  meddle  with,  be  near  to 
toucher  d'un  instrument,  play  an  in- 
strument (keyed) 
user  qqch.,  wear  out 
user  de,  make  use  of 
en  user  de,  deal,  act 
veiller  qqu.,  watch  over,  nurse 
veiller  k  qqch.,  attend  to,  watch  over 
veiller  sur  qqu.,  watch  over,  etc. 

92  THE  NOUN  §§297-301 

297.  Position.  Objects  and  prepositional  complements 
regularly  follow  the  verb,  the  direct  object  (if  any)  being 
first;  but  if  of  unequal  length,  the  longer  is  usually  last.  For 
position  of  personal  pronouns,  see  the  Pronoun. 

298.  Composite  Complement.  The  various  parts  of  a 
complement  must  be  of  the  same  grammatical  value,  i.e., 
all  nouns,  all  verbs,  etc.: 

H  apprend  a  lire  et  k  chanter.  He  learns  to  read  and  sing. 

II  apprend  la  lecture  et  le  chant.       He  learns  reading  and  singing. 

299.  Manifold  Verb.  Two  or  more  verbs  can  govern 
the  same  complement  only  if  alike  in  government: 

II  aime  et  respecte  son  oncle.  He  loves  and  respects  his  uncle, 

n  aime  son  oncle  et  lui  obeit.  He  loves  and  obeys  his  uncle. 



300.  General  Rule.  Nouns  in  French  are  either  mascu- 
line or  feminine.  As  an  aid  to  memory,  general  rules  for 
determining  gender  are  given  in  the  following  sections. 

301.  Gender  by  Derivation.  1.  Nouns  derived  from 
Latin  mascuUnes  are  regularly  masculine: 

Miu-  (L.  murum);    livre  (L.  librum);     Wall;  book;  order;  poet. 
ordre  (L.  ordinem);  poete  (L.  poeta), 

a.  Exceptions  are  not  luicommon;  Latin  masculine  abstracts  in  -or 
(accusative  -orem)  have  become  feminine,  except  masculine  honneur, 
deshonneur,  labeur,  amour: 

candeur,  f.  (L.  candorem),  innocence  erreur,  f.  (L.  error  em),  error 

*  couleur,  f.  (L.  colorem),  color  fureur,  f.  (L.  furorem),  fury 

douleur,  f.  (L.  dolorem),  pain  etc. 

*  Masculine  in  such  phrases  as  couleur  de  feu,  couleur  de  rose,  etc., 
e.g.,  ce  ruban  est  d'un  beau  couleur  de  rose. 




2.  Nouns  derived  from  Latin  feminines  are  r^ularly 

Justice    (L.   justitiam);    charite      Justice;  charity;  hand;  faith. 
(L.  caritatem);  main  (L.  ma- 
num);  foi  (L.  fidem). 

3.  Nouns  derived  from  Latin  neuters  are  r^ularly 

Corps  (L.  corptw) ;  fer  (L. /errum) ;    Body;  iron;  gold;    meadow;    cen- 
or  (L.  aurum);  pr6  (L.  pratum);         tury;  verb, 
sidde  (L.  soeadum);  yerbe  (L. 

a.  More  than  a  hundred  neuter  plurals  in  -«  have  become  feminine 
angular  in  French,  just  as  if  derived  from  nouns  in  -a  of  the  Latin 
first  declension: 

feuillc  (L.  folia),  leaf 

graine  (L.  (prma),  seed 

huile  (L.  olea),  oU 

joie  (L.  gaudia),  joy 

anne  (L.  arma),  arm 
date  (L.  data),  date 
dett«  (L.  debita),  debt 
6tude  (L.  atudia),  study 

l^vre  (L.  labra),  lip 
oeuvre  (L.  opera),  toork 
pomme  (L.  poma)  apple 

302.  Gender  by  Endings.    L  Masculine  are  most  nouns 
ending  as  follows: 

(1)  In  a  vowel  sound  (not  -e  mut^): 

Un  op€ra  (c6tl,  chapeau,  cheveu).      An  opera  (side,  hat,  hair). 
Un  parti  (zero,  caillou,  tissu).  A  party  (zero,  pebble,  tissue). 

a.  Feminine  exceptions  are: 

guerilla,  guerilla  inoiti6,  half 

gutta-percha,  gutta-percha  founni,  ant 

polka,  polka  merci,  mercy 

razzia,  raid  foi,  faith 

tombola,  charity  lottery  loi,  law 

v6randa,  veranda  paroi,  uxUl 

cit^,  city  virago,  virago 

Further,  most  abstracts  in  -te,  -tie : 

aimti6,  friendship  liberty,  liberty 

charity,  charity  piti6,  pity 

bru,  daughter-in-law 
glu,  bird  lime 
tribu,  trS>e 
vertu,  virtue 
eau,  water 
peau,  akin 

sant^,  health 

(2)  In  a  consonant: 
Le  sac  (pied,  joug,  sol,  nez,  temps).  The  sack  (foot,  yokcj  soil,  nose,  time). 





a.  Feminine 

exceptions  are: 

clef,  key 

chair,  fksh 

vis,  screw 

croix,  cross 

nef,  ship,  nave 

cour,  court 

dent,  tooth 

faux,  scythe 

soif,  thirst 

cuiller,  spoon 

dot,  dow)er 

noix,  walnut 

faim,  hunger 

mer,  sea 

foret,  forest 

paix,  peace 

fagon,  fashion 

tour,  iot^^er 

gent,  <n6e 

perdrix,  partridge 

fin,  end 

brebis,  sheep 

mort,  death 

poix,  pite/i 

lefon,  lesson 

fois,  <ime 

nuit,  ni&/i< 

toux,  coit(;A 

main,  Aand 

oasis,  oasis 

part,  par<,  share 

voix,  voice 

rancon,  ransom 

souris,  mouse 

chaux,  lime 


Further,  nouns  in  -son,  -ion  and  most  abstracts  in  -eur  (cf.  §  301,  a): 

chanson,  song  nation,  nation  faveur,  favor 

maison,  hov^e  occasion,  occasion  "  fureur,  fury 

raison,  reason  possession,  possession  peur,  fear 

trahison,  treason  couleur,  color  etc. 

(3)  In  -acle,  -age,  -asme,  -ege,  -erne,  -isme,  -tere: 

Le  spectacle  (voyage,  sarcasme,      The  spectacle   (journey,  sarcasm, 
college,  diademe,  magnetisme,  college,      diadem,      magnetism, 

mystere).  mystery). 

a.  The  following  feminines  in  -age  should  be  noted: 

plage,  beach 
rage,  rage 

cage,  cage 
image,  image 

nage,  swimming 
page,  page  (of  a  book) 

2.  Feminine  are  most  nouns  ending  as  follows: 

(1)  In  -e  preceded  by  a  vowel  or  double  consonant: 

Une  annee  (vie,  vue,  raie,  sole,      A  year   (life,   sight,   streak,    silk, 
roue,  pluie,  famille,   fiamme,  wheel,     rain,     family,     flame, 

couronne,  tristesse,  botte).  crown,    sadness,    boot). 

(2)  In  -ace,  -ade,  -ance,  -ence,  -ense,  -iere,  -oire,  -ude, 

La   preface    (salade,    Constance,      The    preface     (salad,    constancy, 
presence,     defense,     liuniere,  presence,    defence,    light,    his- 

histoire,  habitude,  culture).  tory,    habit,    culture). 

303.  Gender  by  Meaning.  1.  Names  of  male  beings 
are  usually  masculine,  and  names  of  female  beings  feminine; 
Un  homme;  ime  fenune.  A  man;  a  woman. 

Un  bceuf ;  une  vache.  An  ox;  a  cow. 

§  303  GENDER  OF  NOUNS  95 

a.   Most  nouns  denoting  professions,  e.g.,  auteur,  author,  6crivain, 
tcriier,  imprimeur,  printer,  etc.,  and  a  few  nouns  lacking  a  feminine 
form,  e.g.,  ange,  angel,  temoin,  witness,  etc.,  remain  masculine  when 
applied  to  females: 
Cette  dame  est  un  auteur  dis-      That  lady  is  a  celebrated  author- 

tingue.  ess. 

Marie  est  un  ange.  Mary  is  an  angel. 

h.  Some  names  of  lower  animals  are  masculine  only,  e.g.,  Elephant, 
elephant,  hibou,  otd;  others  are  feminine  only,  e.g.,  fourmi,  ant,  souris, 
mouse;  ambiguity  may  be  avoided  by  adding  mAle  or  femelle: 
Un  Elephant  mdle  (femelle).  A  bull  (cow)  elephant. 

c.  Some  nouns  are  feminine  only,  whether  apphed  to  males  or  females : 
caution,  surety  personne,  peraon  vedette,  Kout 

connaissance,  acquaintance  pratique,  customer  victime,  victim 

dupe,  dupe  recrue,  recruit  vigje,  look-cut  man 

ganache,  blockhead  sentinelle,  sentind  etc. 

2.  The  following  are  masculine: 

(1)  Names  of  cardinal  points  and  winds: 

Le  nord;  le  sud;  le  zephyr.  The  north;  the  south;  the  zephyr. 

a.   Feminine  exceptions  are: 
Use,  north  wind  mouaaon,  montoon  tramontane,  north  wind 

fanse,  breeze 

(2)  Names  of  seasons,  months,  dajrs  of  the  week: 
Le  printemps;   octobre;    lundi.        Spring;  October;  Monday. 

(3)  Names  of  countries  not  ending  in  -e: 

Le  Canada;  leDauphine;  le  Chili.    Canada;  Dauphiny;  Chile. 

(4)  Most  names  of  mountains  not  ending  in  -es,  and 
most  names  of  rivers: 

Le  Hartz;  le  Jura.  The  Hartz  mts.;  the  Jura  mts. 

Les  Apennins.  The  Apennines. 

Le  Volga;  le  Rhfine;  le  Rhin.  The  Volga;  the  Rhone;  the  Rhine. 

But  fem.:  Les  Alpes  (Pyrenees,  Vosgcs,  etc.). 

a.  The  rivers  of  France  in  -e  are  nearly  all  feminine: 
La  Seine,  la  Loire,  etc.  The  Seme,  the  Loire,  etc. 

(5)  Names  of  trees  and  shrubs: 

Le  chSne ;  le  bouleau ;  le  pommier.    The  oak;  the  birch;  the  apple  tree. 

96  THE  NOUN  §303 

a.  Feminine  exceptions  are: 

aubepine,  hawthorn  6pine,  thorn  vigne,  vine 

bourdaine,  buckthorn  hi^ble,  dwarf  elder  viorne,  wild  clematis 

bruy^re,  heath  ronce,  bramble  etc. 

(6)  Names  of  weights  and  measures  of  the  metrical  system: 
Un  metre  (gramme,  litre,  etc.).        A  meter  (gramme,  liter,  etc.). 

(7)  Names  of  metals  and  chemicals: 

Le  fer  (or,  cuivre,  argent,  sul-      Iron    (gold,    copper,    silver,   sul- 
fate), phate). 

a.  Feminine  exceptions  are: 

fonte,  cast  iron  t61e,  sheet  iron 

(8)  Words  and  phrases  not  nouns  when  used  as  nouns: 
Lebeau;  leblanc;  le  franfais.         The  beautiful;  white;  French. 
Un  a ;  im  mais ;  vm  oui-dire.  An  '  a ' ;  a  '  but ' ;  a  rumor. 

Le  derriere  de  la  tete.  The  back  of  the  head. 

a.  Adjectives  referring  to  concrete  objects  have  the  gender  of  the 
noun  understood: 

Une  belle  {sc.  dame,  femme,  etc.).  A  beauty. 

Une  capitale  (sc.  ville,  lettre).  A  capital. 

b.  The  names  of  the  letters  of  the  alphabet,  as  given  in  §  4,  are  all 
masculine,  but  f,  h,  1,  m,  n,  r,  s  are  often  treated  as  feminine. 

Un  a;  un  b;  une  {or  tm)  f.  An  '  a ';  a  '  b ';  an  '  f.' 

3.  The  following  are  feminine: 

(1)  Names  of  countries  in  -e: 

La  France-  (Asie,  Normandie).  France  (Asia,  Normandy). 

a.   Some  masculine  exceptions  are: 
le  Bengale,  Bengal  le  Mexique,  Mexico  le  Maine,  Maine  (in  Fr.) 

(2)  Most  names  of  cities  and  towns,  especially  in  -e,  -es: 
Rome;  Athenes;  Tyr;  Hion.  Rome;  Athens;  Tyre;  Ilium. 

a.   Masculine  exceptions  are: 
le  Caire,  Cairo  Londres,  London  Paris,  Paris 

le  Havre,  Havre  Versailles,  Versailles  etc. 

Notes.  —  1.  Any  name  of  a  town  or  city  is  masculine  as  a  collective: 
Tout  Rome  le  sait,  All  Rome  knows  it.  2.  In  case  of  doubt  as  to  the  gender, 
the  name  may  always  be  preceded  by  la  ville  de  =  the  town  {city)  of. 

S  304  GENDER  OP  NOUNS  97 

(3)  Names  of  holidays,  fete  de  being  understood: 
La  Saint-Martin;  la  mi-juln.  Martinmas;  mid- June. 

a.  Observe : 
NoSl,  m.  (la  Noel,  la  fete  de  NoSl).     Christmas. 

(4)  Names  of  arts,  sciences,  trades: 

La  peinture  (chimie,  librairie).  Painting  (chemistry,  book-trade). 

a.   Principal  exception: 
le  dessin,  drawing 

304.  Nouns  of  Double  Gender.  1.  Some  nouns  denot- 
ing persons,  mostly  in  -e,  and  adjectives  in  -e,  when  so 
used,  are  either  masculine  or  feminine: 

Un  (une)  artiste ;    un  (une)  €[kve.        An  artist;  a  pupil. 
Un  (une)  malade;  un  (tme)  rebelle.      A  patient;  a  rebel. 

Such  nouns  are: 

aide,  assiatant  *  enfant,  child  proim^taire,  ovoner 

camaradc,  comrade  esclave,  slave  pupille,  toard 

compatriote,  compatriot  locataire,  tenant  etc. 

*  Regulariy  masculine  in  tbe  plural.     But :  belles  enf ants,  pretty  little  girU. 

2.  The  meaning  of  some  nouns  varies  with  the  gender: 
Un  critique;  une  critique.  A  critic;  a  criticism. 

Le  mode;  la  mode.  The  mode,  mood  (gram.);  the  fashion. 

Other  such  nouns  are: 

Masc.  Fem. 

pttge  peve(ofabook) 

pendulum  clock 
stove,  pall    frying-pan 
politician   politics 
position      post  office 
sleep,  nap  sum 
smile  mouse 

sculptor       sculpture 
turn,  trick   tower 
!  trumpeter    trumpet 
steamer       steam 
vase  slime,  mud 

veil  amL 





assistant,  hdp 











guard  (mil.), 

keeper,  body  of 



troops,watrJi,hiU  poste 













mtooire  memorandum  memory 




mercy,  pity 














98  THE  NOUN  §304 

3.  The  following  nouns  are  either  masculine  or  feminine, 
with  identical  or  closely  related  meaning: 

a.  Apres-midi  =  afternoon  and  automne  =  aviumn  are  usually  mas- 
culine, sometimes  feminine. 

h.  Amour  (m.)  =  love,  loved  object,  passion,  amour;  amour  (f.  s. 
poet.)  =  passion,  amour;    amoiurs  (f.  pi.)  =  passion,  amours. 

c.  Automobile  (m.  or  f.),  more  commonly  feminine. 

d.  Delice  =  delight  and  orgue  =  organ  {music)  are  masculine  in 
singular  and  feminine  in  plural. 

c.  Hymne  (m.)  =  hymn,  song  of  praise;  hymne  (f.)  =  {church) 
hymn.     (Commonly  cantique  is  used.) 

/.  Couple  (m.)  =  couple,  pair  (joined  by  affection,  sentiment,  etc.); 
couple  (f.)  =  couple,  two  (two  like  objects  taken  together): 

Vn  couple  d'amoureux.  -     A  pair  of  lovers. 

Une  couple  d'oeufs.  Two  (a  couple  of)  eggs. 

Note:  TJne paire  de  gants,  etc.  A  pair  of  gloves,  etc, 

g.  PSque  or  paques  (m.  s.)  =  Easter;  piques  fieuries  (f.  pi.)  = 
Palm  Sunday  (so  also  in  other  phrases);  paque  (f.)  =  Passover. 

h.  Orge  (f.)  =  barley  is  masculine  in  orge  monde  (perle)  =  pot- 
{pearl-)  barley. 

Wi'  Foudre  (f.)  =  thunderbolt  is  ^metimes  masculine  in  poetry  or 
elevated  prose;  foudre  (m.)  in  le  foudre  de  Jupiter  =  Jove^s  thunder- 
bolt and  in  figurative  expressions,  e.g.,  un  grand  foudre  de  guerre  = 
a  great  warrior. 

j.  (Euvre  (f.)  =  work,  works,  is  sometimes  masculine  in  elevated 
style;  ceuvre  (m.  s.)  =  works  (collectively  of  an  engraver  or  musician); 
le  grand  ceuvre  =  the  philosopher's  stone. 

k.  Gens  (pi.  m.  or  f.)  =  people,  persons,  etc.  Attributive  adjec- 
tives are  feminine  when  preceding,  and  masculine  when  following  gens, 
but  predicatives,  before  or  after,  are  masculine.  All  is  translated  by 
toutes  only  when  attributive  and  separated  from  gens  by  an  adjective 
variable  for  the  feminine;  otherwise  by  tous: 

De  bonnes  gens.  Good  people. 

Les  vieilles  gens  sont  malbeuretuc.    Old  people  are  unhappy. 

85  305-306 



Les  petites  gens  et  les  grands. 
Merci,  bonnes  gens,  merci. 
Ces  gens  sont  heureuz. 
Toutes  les  vieilles  gens. 
Tous  les  gens. 
But:  Tous  les  habiles  gens. 

Tous  ces  gens-ci. 

Tous  sont  de  bonnes  gens. 

Les  gens  sont  tous  ici. 

The  small  people  and  the  great. 

Thanks,  good  people,  thanks. 

Those  people  are  happy. 

All  (the)  old  people. 

AH  the  people. 

All  the  clever  people. 

All  these  people. 

All  are  good  people. 

The  people  are  all  here. 

Notes.  —  1.  A  pronoun  to  which  gens  is  antecedent  is  masculine:  Les 
gens  qui  sont  venus.  The  people  who  have  come.  2.  Gens  in  expressions  like 
gens  de  robe  =  lawyers  and  in  jeones  gens  =  young  men  is  always  mas- 

305.  Gender  of  Compound  Nouns.  1.  Compound  nouns 
made  up  of  a  verb  -f  a  governed  noun  are  r^ularly 

Un  cure-dents ;  un  porte-pliune.       A  toothpick;  a  penholder. 
Un  tire-bouchon ;  un  portefeuille.     A  corkscrew;  a  portfolio. 

a.  Occasionally  they  are  feniinine: 
Une  perce-neige.  A  snowdrop. 

2.  The  gender  of  other  compounds  is  r^ularly  that  of 
the  noun  when  only  one  noun  is  present,  or  of  the  principal 
noun  in  case  there  are  two: 
Une  eau-forte.  An  etching. 

Une  mappe-monde.  A  map  of  the  world. 

La  fete-dieu.  Corpus  Christi  day. 

306.  Formation  of  the  Feminine.  Most  nouns  denot- 
ing living  beings  distinguish  the  masculine  and  feminine  as 

1.  Some  by  a  different  word: 





bceuf,  ox 


mari,  httsband 


bouc,  he-goat 


oncle,  unde 


coq,  cock 


parrain,  godfather 


fr^re,  brother 


pore,  pig 


homme,  man 

fem  me 






a.  The  feminine  form  is  often  obviously  cognate; 

Masc.  Fem. 

ambassadeur,  ambassador  ambassadrice 

canard,  drake 


*  chanteur,  singer 


cochon,  hog 


compagnon,  companion 


dindon,  turkey  cock 


empereur,  emperor 


Masc.  Fem, 

gouverneur,  tutor  gouvernante 
loupi  wolf  louve 

mulet,  mule  mule 

*procureur,  proxy  procuratrico 
serviteur,  servant   servante 
vieillard,  old  man  vieille 
etc.  etc. 

*  Also  in  -euse,  see  §  337.  2  (2),  a. 

2.  Some  by  adding  -esse  to  the  last  consonant; 





abb^,  abbot 


ogre,  ogre 


ane,  ass 


pair,  peer 


chanoine,  canon 


pauvre,  pauper      pauvresse 

comte,  count 


pretre,  priest 


diable,  devil 


prince,  prince 


drole,  rogue 


Suisse,  Swiss 


druide,  druid 


tigre,  tiger 


bote,  host 


traitre,  traitor 


maitre,  master 




a.  So  also  the  following,  but  with  changes  in  the  stem; 





dieu,  god 


defendeur,  defendant 


doge,  doge 


*  demandeur,  plaintiff 


due,  duke 


docteur,  doctor 


larron,  thief 


enchanteur,  enchanter 


nfegre,  negro 


p6cheur,  sinner 


prophfete,  prophet 


*  vendeur,  seller  (law) 


*  chasseur,  huntsman  chasseresse 

vengeur,  avenger 


*  Also  in  -euse,  see  §  337,  2  (2),  a. 

3.  A  few  nouns  take  -ine: 





tsar,  czar 


Philippe,  Philip 


h^ros,  hero 




4.   Most  other  nouns  follow  the  analogy  of  adjectives  of 
like  termination,  and  will  be  noted  under  the  Adjective. 

§§  307-308  NUMBER  OF  NOUNS  101 


307.  General  Rule.    The  plural  of  a  noun  is  r^ularly 
formed  by  adding  -s  to  the  singular: 

Roi(5);  reine(s);  jardm(s).  King(«);  queen(«);  garden(a). 

308.  Principal  Exceptions.    The  following  are  the  prin- 
cipal exceptions  to  the  above  rule: 

1.  Nouns  in  -s,  -x,  -z  remain  imchanged  in  the  plural; 
so  also  invariable  words  when  used  as  nouns: 

Le  bras;  la  voir;  le  nez.  The  arm;  the  voice;  the  noae. 

Les  bras;  les  voix;  les  nez.  The  arms;  the  voices;  the  noses. 

Les  oui  et  les  non;  les  on  dit.  The  ayes  and  noes;  the  rumors. 

I^usieurs  peu  font  tm  beaucoup.  Many  littles  make  a  '  muckle.' 

2.  Nouns  in  -au,  -eu,  and  seven  in  -ou,  take  -x: 
NoyauCx);    ch4teau(x);    jeu(x),      Kemel(«);    ca8tle(«);    game(8); 

VCBU(X).  vow(«). 

The  seven  nouns  in  -ou  are: 
hijou(x)t  jewel  genou(x),  A»ie«  joujou(i),  toy 

caillou(x),  pe662e  hibou(x),  oui  pou(x),  Umse 

chou(x),  cabbage 
But:  clou(s),  nail,  sou(s),  half-penny,  etc. 

3.  Most  nouns  in -al  change  -al  to  -au,  and  add  -x  as  above: 
G^nero/;  cheva/;  journal.  General;  horse;  newspaper. 
Generotix;  chevoux;  joumoux.         Generals;  horses;  newspapers. 

a.  But  the  following,  and  a  few  rarer  ones  in  -al,  are  r^ular: 
avalis),  endorsemerU  cal(8),  caUosity  chacal(8),yac*aZ 

bal(8),  ball  (for  dancing)  camaval(8),  carnival  r6gal(s),  treat 

4.  The  following  in  -ail  have  the  plural  in  -aux: 

bail  (-aux),  lease         travafl  (-aux),  work  vitrail  (-aux),  stained 

corail  (-aux),  coral     vantail  (-aux),  folding-door        glass  window 
soupirail  (-aux),         ventail  (-aux),  veniail 


But:  d6tail(s),  detail;  €ventafl(s), /an,  etc.,  are  regular. 

Note.  —  Bestianz  (pi.),  catile,  is  often  given  as   the   plural   of  b^tail, 
eatUe;  it  is  from  an  obsolete  form  bestiail,  parallel  to  b^tail. 

5.  Gent  =  ra4X,  tribe,  has  the  plural  gens  =  people,  etc. 

102         '  THE  NOUN  §§  309-311 

309.  Double  Plurals.  The  following  have  two  plural 
forms,  mostly  with  varying  meaning: 

aleul  (ajieux),  ancestor  ceil  (yeux),  eye 

aieul  (aieuls),  grandfather  ceil  (oeils-)  in  compounds,  e.g., 

ail  (aulx),  garlic  ceUs-de-boeuf,  oval  mndows 

ail  (ails),  garlic  pal  (paux),  pale,  stake 

ciel  (cieux),  sky,  heaven,  climate         pal  (pals),  pale,  stake 

ciel  (ciels),  bed-tester,  sky  {in  paint-     travail  (travaux),  work 

ing),  roof  {of  a  quarry)  travail  (travails),  report  {of  a  minis' 

ter,  etc.),  brake  {for  horse-shoeing) 

Obs.;  The  -x  plural  regularly  has  the  literal  meaning  of  the  word. 

310.  Foreign  Nouns.  Nouns  of  foreign  origin -take  -s, 
usually  only  when  fully  naturalized,  but  usage  varies  greatly 
(see  a  dictionary): 

a.  Partial  list  of  variable  foreign  nouns: 

accessit(s),  honorable  bill(s),  bill  toast(s),  toast 

mention  duo(s),  duo  tramway(s),  street-railway 

album(s),  aZfewm  jury(s),ywrj/  •viva,t{s) ,  hurrah 

alibi(s),  alibi  opera(s),  opera  etc. 

bifteck(s),  beefsteak  pensum(s),  task 

b.  Partial  list  of  invariable  foreign  nouns: 

amen  in-folio  magnificat  requiem  veto 

facsimile  in-octavo  nota  bene  Te  Deum  etc. 

item  interim  post-scriptum  vade  mecimi 

c.  A  few  Italian  nouns  retain  their  plural  in  i: 

dilettante (-1),  dilettante  8oprano(-i),  soprano  quintetto(-i),  guintette 

libretto  (-1),  libretto  lazzarone(-i),  beggar  etc. 

311.  Compound  Nouns.  The  only  components  which 
take  a  plural  sign  are  nouns  and  adjectives.  The  following 
are  special  rules: 

1.  Compounds  without  hyphen  are  treated  as  one  word, 
and  follow  the  general  rules: 
Portemanteau(x) ;  grand*niere(s).      Valise(s);  grandmother (s), 

a.  Exceptions  are: 

bon(s)homme(s),  goodman,  etc.  madame  (mesdames),  madam,  Mrs. 

gentil(s)homme(s),  nobleman  mademoiselle  (mesdemoiselles),  Misa 

monsieur  (messieurs),  Mr.,  sir,  etc.  monseigneur  (messeigneurs),  my  lord 

§  311  NUMBER  OF  NOUNS  103 

2.  When   placed   in  juxtaposition  and  connected  by  a 
hyphen,  nouns  and  adjectives  are  variable: 
Chef(s)-lieu(x);  chou(ac)-fleur(5);      County-town («);      cauliflower(«); 

gran(l(s)-pere(5).  granclfather(«). 

a.  Demi-  is  invariable  in  compounds. 

Des  demi-heuits.  Half  hours. 

b.  Further  exceptions  are: 

blanc-fleuig(s),  signature  in  blank  teiTe-pIein(8),  platform 

chevau-16ger(8),  licht-horseman  etc. 

3.  Of  two  nouns  joined  by  preposition  and  hyphens,  the 
first  only  is  variable: 

Arc(s)-en-ciel ;  chef(5)-d'0Buvre.        Rainbow;  masterpiece. 

a.  The  preposition  de  is  sometimes  understood: 
bain(s)-marie,  vxUer  bath,  double  boiler     tiinbre(8)-poete,  pottage-atamp 
hdtel(8)-dieu,  hospital  etc. 

b.  The  following  are  invariable,  since  the  idea  conveyed  by  their 
plural  docs  not  properly  belong  to  the  first  component  simply: 
ooq-&-l'&ne,  coch-and-buU  story  pot-au-fcu,  beef  and  soup 
pied-i-terre,  temporary  lodging               iAte-k-tAte,  private  interview 

4.  A  noun  with  preceding  invariable  component  is  usually 
variable : 

Anglo-Saxon (5 ) ;  avant-garde (f)        Anglo-Saxon;  vanguard 
tire-bouchon(s) ;  vice-roi(s)  corkscrew;  viceroy 

bouche-trou(«)  stop-gap 

a.  But  the  final  noun  remains  invariable  when  the  plural  idea  does 
not  properly  belong  to  it: 

abat-jour,  lamp  shade  gagne-pain,  means  of  living  r6vellle-matin,  alarm 

coupe-goTge,  cut-throat  place  perce-neige,  snowdrop  dock 

crfeve-coeur,  heartbreak  prie-dieu,  praying~stool        serre-tAte,  headband 

contre-poison,  antidote  boute-en-train,  jolly  fellow     etc. 

b.  On  the  other  hand,  a  final  noun  of  clearly  plural  sense  retains  -s 
in  the  singular: 

un  (des)  casse-noiaettes,  nutcracker        un  (des)  porte-clefs,  turnkey 
un  (des)  cure-dents,  toothpick  etc. 

5.  Invariable  words,  such  as  verb,  adverb,  preposition, 
etc.,  are  invariable  in  compounds: 

Des  on  dit;  des  passe-partout.        Rumors;  master-keys. 

104  THE  NOUN  §§  312-313 

a.  Garde-  is  usually  variable  in  compounds  denoting  persons,  and 
invariable  in  those  denoting  things: 

Des  gardes-malades.  Sick-nurses. 

But:  Des  garde-robes.  Wardrobes. 

312.  Plural  of  Proper  Nouns.    1.  Names  of  persons  or 

families  are  usually  invariable  in  the  plural: 

Les  deux  Racine.  The  two  Racines. 

Les  Comeille  et  les  Racine  de  la      The  ComeiUes  and  Racines  of  the 
scene.  stage  {i.e.,  Comeille,  Racine,  and 

others  like  them). 
Les  Duval  sent  arrives.  (The)  Duvals  have  come. 

a.  A  few  Latin  names,  originally  plural  in  form,  and  certain  well- 
known  historical  names  of  families  and  dynasties,  take  -s : 

Les  Bourbons 

Les  Gracques 

Les  Pharaons 

Les  Tudors 

Les  C^sars 

Les  Guises 

Les  Scipions 


Les  Cond6s 

Les  Horaces 

Les  Stuarts 

h.  Names  of  persons  used  as  common  nounri  to  denote  '  p)ersons  like* 
or  'works  by'  those  named  are  often  variable,  but  usage  is  not  fixed: 

Les  ComeiUes  sont  rares.  Corneilles  are  rare. 

J'ai  vu  detjx  Raphaels.  I  saw  two  Raphaels. 

But:  Les  Hamlet;  les  La  Fontaine ;  les  Goethe;  les  Washington,  etc. 

2.  Names  of  places  take  -s  when  the  idea  is  plural: 

Les  Indes ;  les  Vosges.  The  Indies;  the  Vosges. 

Les  deux  Romes.  The  two  Romes  {i.e.,  the  ancient 

and  modem). 


313.  Case  Relations.    The  noun  in  French  does  not  vary 
in  form  to  denote  case;  it  is  used  as  follows: 

1.  With  verbs,  as  subject,  object,  predicate: 

Le  pere  aime  son  fils.  The  father  loves  his  son. 

Jean  est  devenu  soldat.  John  has  become  a  soldier. 

§§  314-316  CASE  RELATION  AND  AGREEMENT  105 

2.  In  appositions,  and  with  adjectival  force: 
Henri  IV,  roi  de  France.  Henry  IV,  King  of  France. 
Un  roi  enfant.  A  child  king. 

3.  After  prepositions: 

Jai  parie  k  son  pere.  I  have  spoken  to  his  father. 

4.  Absolutely,  generally  with  adverbial  force: 

Le  diner  fini,  il  partit.  The  dinner  ended,  he  set  out. 

n  etait  li,  le  chapeau  k  la  main.  He  was  there,  (with)  his  hat  in  his 


Je  suis  venu  samedi.  I  came  on  Saturday. 

D  est  reste  trois  hetires.  He  stayed  three  hoiu^. 

pai  marche  dix  milles.  I  walked  ten  miles. 

Nous  I'avons  achet6  dix  francs.  We  bought  it  for  ten  francs. 

5.  Vocatively: 

Bonjotu*,  mes  amis.  Good  morning,  my  friends. 

314.  Agreement.  A  predicate  noun,  or  a  noun  used 
adjectivally,  usually  agrees  like  an  adjective  with  the  word 
referred  to  (see  Agreement  of  the  Adjective): 

Ds  (elles)  sont  Allemand(e)s.  They  are  Germans. 

La  reine  mere.  The  queen  mother. 


316.  The  Indefinite  Article 

Masc.  Fem. 

un,  a  (an)  tme,  a  (an) 

316.  The  Definite  Article 

Sma.  Pl. 

^-     1^2?,)  the  Masc.  or  Fem.  les,  the 

Fem.       la  (1')  j 

Ob*.:  For  the  forms  in  parenthesis,  see  i  19,  1. 

106  THE  ARTICLE  §§317-318 

317.  Contractions.  The  prepositions  de  and  a  +  le  and 
les,  are  always  contracted  as  follows: 

de  +  le  =  du  ^  +  le  =  au 

de  +  les  =  des  k  +  les  =  aux 

Notes.  —  1.  No  contraction  takes  place  with  la,  1'.  2.  Formerly  en 
+  les  was  contracted  to  es,  a  form  still  used  in  academical  titles,  e.g., 
Bachelier  es  lettres,  Bachelor  of  Arts. 

318.  Agreement  and  Repetition.  The  article  agrees  in 
gender  and  number  with  its  noun,  and  is  regularly  repeated 
(as  also  de,  a)  before  each  noun  or  adjective  denoting  a 
distinctive  object: 

Une  maison  et  un  jardin.  A  house  and  garden. 

Le  flux  et  le  reflux.  High  and  low  tide. 

Au  bon  et  au  mauvais  c6te.  On  the  good  and  bad  side. 

Les  bons  et  les  mauvais.  The  good  and  the  bad. 

Des  homines  ou  des  femmes.  Men  or  women. 

But:  Le  bon  et  pieux  pretre.  The  kind  and  pious  priest. 

Le  delta  ou  basse  Egypte.  The  Delta  or  Lower  Egypt. 

a.  The  definite  article  is  not  repeated  when  a  single  adjective  pre- 
cedes nouns  joined  by  et: 

Les  principales  villes  et  provinces      The  principal  towns  and  provinces 
de  la  France.  of  France. 

&.  Singular  adjectives  in  apposition  to  a  plural  noun  omit  the  article: 

Les  langues  frans:aise  et  anglaise.      The  French  and  English  languages. 
Or:  La  langue  frangaise  et  la  langue  anglaise. 
La  langue  franjaise  et  I'anglaise. 

c.  A  few  expressions  of  collective  force,  like  the  following,  are  per- 
missible, but  are  either  not  obUgatory  or  are  confined  to  set  expressions : 

Les  pere  et  mere.  The  parents. 

Les  lundl  et  mardi.  (On)  Mondays  and  Tuesdays. 

Les  trois  et  quatre  avril.  The  third  and  fovirth  of  April. 

Les  officiers  et  soldats.  The  officers  and  soldiers. 

£cole  des  ponts  et  chaussees.  School  of  bridges  and  roads. 

d.  For  the  repetition  of  le,  la,  les  with  the  superlative,  see  Com- 
parison of  Adjectives.  7 

§§31^321  USE  OF  ARTICLE  WITH  NOUNS  107 


319.  Use  in  GeneraL  French  and  English  agree  to  a 
considerable  extent  in  the  use  of  the  article;  differences  are 
noted  below. 

320.  The  Indefinite  Article.  1.  Its  use  corresponds  in 
general  with  that  of  EngUsh  o,  an;  its  plural  is  the  partitive 
des  (§323): 

Un  honune;  tine  femme;  des  gens.        A  man;  a  woman;  people. 

2.   Contrary  to  English  usage,  the  indefinite  article  also 
commonly  stands  before  an  abstract  noun  used  parti  tively 
with  an  adjective  or  an  adjectival  adjunct: 
n  montra  un  soin  extreme.  He  showed  extreme  care, 

n  a  une  patience  k  toute  epreuve.      He  has  patience  equal  to  anything. 
EUe  jouit  d'une  bonne  sant6.  She  enjoys  good  health. 

C'est  ime  triste  nouvelle.  It  is  sad  news. 

a.  The  adjective  or  complementary  clause  depending  on  such  a  noun 
may  be  understood: 

VoilA  une  patience  I  There  is  patience  for  you  I 

J'etais  d'une  humeur  ...  I  was  in  a  temper  . . . 

Un  gar^on  d'une  raison  ...  A  young  fellow  of  (splendid)  in- 


Note.  —  For  several  cases  in  which  the  English  indefinite  article  is  re- 
placed by  the  French  definite  article,  or  vice  versa,  or  is  omitted,  see  below. 

321.  The  General  Noun.  A  noun  used  in  a  general  sense, 
i.e.,  *in  general,'  'all,'  'every,'  etc.,  being  implied  with 
it,  r^ularly  has  the  definite  article  in  French,  though  not 
usually  in  English: 

La  vie  est  courte.  Life  is  short. 

Le  f er  et  le  cuivre  sont  utiles.  Iron  and  copper  are  usefuL 

Petudie  la  musique.  I  am  studying  music. 

Les  Franfais  aiment  la  gloire.  The  French  love  glory. 

Le  cheval  est  Tami  de  I'homme.  The  horse  is  the  friend  of  man. 

Le  noir  vous  sied  bien.  Black  becomes  you. 

Paime  les  pommes  et  les  poires.  I  like  apples  and  pears. 

le.beau  et  Tutile.  The  beautiful  and  (he  useful. 

Le  boire  et  le  manger.  Eating  and  drinking. 

108  THE  ARTICLE  §§  322-324 

a.  So  also,  names  of  languages,  except  after  en;  but  not,  however, 
after  parler: 

Sait-il  le  frang ais  ?  Does  he  know  French  ? 

D  parle  bien  (le)  frangais.  He  speaks  French  well. 

But:  Dites  cela  enfranfais.  Say  that  in  French.  * 

Parlez-vous  frangais  ?  Do  you  speak  French  ? 

322.  The  Partitive  Noun.  A  noun  implying  'an  unde- 
termined quantity  or  number  of '  is  said  to  be  used  par- 
ti tively  or  in  a  partitive  sense. 

323.  Partitive  with  Article.  The  partitive  sense,  ex- 
pressed in  English  by  the  noun  simply,  or  else  the  noun 
preceded  by  'some*  or  'any/  is  regularly  expressed  in 
French  by  the  noun  preceded  by  de  +  the  definite  article: 
Du  pain  trempe  dans  du  vin.  (Some)  bread  dipped  in  wine. 
A-t-il  des  amis  ?                                 Has  he  (any)  friends  ? 

Des  enfants  poussaient  des  cris  Some  children  were  uttering  ter- 

desesperes.  rible  cries. 

II  est  des  gens  qui  le  croient.  There  are  people  who  believe  it. 

C'est  du  Carlyle  pur.  That  is  pure  Carlyleism. 

Note.  —  This  use  of  de  +  the  definite  article,  or  even  of  de  alone  (see 
next  section) ,  is  often  called  the  '  partitive  article  ' ;  it  is  entirely  identical 
in  form  with  de  +  the  article  in  other  senses,  e.g.,  Je  vends  du  ble,  I  sell 
wheat;  Quel  est  le  prix  du  ble?    What  is  the  price  of  the  wheat  ? 

324.  Omission  of  Article.  The  partitive  sense  is  ex- 
pressed by  de  alone  +  the  noun  as  follows: 

1.  When  an  adjective  precedes  the  noun;  so  also,  when  a 
noun  is  understood  after  an  adjective: 
Avez-vous  de  bon  papier  ?  Have  you  any  good  paper  ? 

Donnez-moi  de  ces  plumes-la.  Give  me  some  of  those  pens. 

J'ai  de  vos  livres.  I  have  some  of  your  books. 

De  bon  vin  et  de  mauvais  (sc.  vin).     Good  wine  and  bad. 
De  gros  livres  et  de  petits  (sc.     Big  books  and  little  ones. 

But:  Des  soldats  franjais.  French  soldiers. 

J'ai  du  pain  blanc.  I  have  white  bread. 

a.  The  article  is  not  omitted  when  the  noun  has  a  distinctive  adjunct: 
Du  bon  papier  qu'il  a  achete.  Some  of  the  good  paper  he  bought. 

§  325  USE  OF  ABTICLE  WITH  NOUNS  109 

6.  The  article  is  not  omitted  when  adjective  and  noun  are  indivisible 
in  sense,  i.e.,  when  forming  a  real  or  a  virtual  compound: 
Des  grands-peres;  des  petits-fils.     Grandfathers;  grandsons. 
Des  petits  pels;  du  ton  sens.  Green  peas;  common  sense. 

Des  jeunes  gens;  de  la  bonne  foi.    Yoimg  men;  honesty. 

c.  Famiharly,  the  article  is  often  used  contrary  to  the  rule: 
Du  bon  Tin;  du  vrai  bonheur.  Good  wine;  true  happiness. 

2.  After  a  general  negation,  implying  non-existence  of 
the  object  in  question: 

D  n'a  pas  de  montre.  He  has  no  (not  any)  watch. 

Je  n'ai  point  de  livres.  I  have  no  (not  any)  books. 

Sans  avoir  d'argent.  Without  having  (any)  money. 

D  ne  fit  pas  de  remarques.  He  made  no  remarks. 

Pas  d'argent  et  pas  d'amis.  No  money  and  no  friends. 

3.  But  the  article  is  not  omitted,  the  n^ation  being  no 
longer  general: 

a.  When  the  noun  has  a  distinctive  adjunct: 

Je  n'ai  plus  du  vin  de  cette  annee.       I  have  no  more  of  this  year's  wine. 

Je  n'ai  pas  de  Targent  pour  le      I  have  no  money  to  waste  (=1 

gaspiller.  have  money,  but  not  to  waste). 

b.  In  contrasts: 

Pas  du  lait,  mais  du  th€.  Not  milk,  but  tea. 

c.  In  negative  interrogation  impljing  affirmative  answer: 
ITavez-vous  pas  des  amis,  de  la      Have  you  not  friends,  health,  in- 

santS,  de  Tinfluence  ?  fluence? 

325.  Omission  of  the  P*artitive  Sign.  The  partitive  sense 
is  expressed  by  the  noun  simply,  when  the  preposition  de 
forms  an  essential  part  of  the  governing  expression,  thus: 

1.  In  expressions  of  quantity  or  number: 

Une  iivre  de  the  (noix).        '  A  pound  of  tea  (nuts). 

Un  morceau  de  papier.  A  piece  of  paper. 

Une  foule  de  gens.  A  crowd  of  people. 

Peu  de  temps;  beaucoup  d'amis.  Little  time;  many  friends. 

Assez  de  livres.  Enough  books  (or  books  enough). 

110  THE  ARTICLE  §  326 

Trop  de  peine.  Too  much  trouble. 

Que  de  gens  assembles  I  What    a    number   of    people   as- 

sembled ! 

a.  Analogous  to  the  above  are  expressions  like  the  following: 
Trois  jours  de  marche.  Three  days'  march. 

Cent  soldats  de  tues.  A  hundred  soldiers  killed. 

Quelque  chose  (rien)  de  bon.  Something  (nothing)  good. 

h.  Bien  =  beaucoup  regularly  has  de  +  the  definite  article: 
Bien  c?e /'argent ;  biendu  monde.      Much  money;  many  people. 
Bien  des  gens  le  croient.  Many  people  think  so. 

But:  Bien  d'autres.  Many  others. 

Note.  —  Bien  in  other  senses  does  not  take  de :  J'ai  bien  faim,  /  am 
very  hungry. 

c.  La  plupart  =  most,  the  greater  part,  etc.,  haa  de  +  the  def.  art.: 
La  plupart  des  hommes.  Most  men. 

La  plupart  du  temps.  Most  of  the  time. 

d.  Expressions  of  quantity  or  number  with  a  distinctive  adjimct 
have  de  +  the  definite  article;  so  also,  beaucoup,  peu,  etc.,  absolutely: 
Une  livre  du  the  de  ce  marchand.      A  pound  of  this  tradesman's  tea. 
Beaucoup  des  gens  de  ce  pays.  Many  of  the  men  of  that  country. 

2.  After  a  verb  requiring  de  before  its  complement,  and  in 
phrases,  adjectival  or  adverbial,  formed  from  de  +  a  noun: 

H  vit  de  pain  (not  de  du  pain).  He  lives  on  bread, 

D  manquait  d'argent.  He  lacked  money. 

J'ai  besoin  d'argent.  I  need  money. 

H  se  passe  de  vin.  He  does  without  wine. 

Un  vase  rempli  d'eau.  A  vessel  filled  with  water. 

II  etait  convert  de  plaies.  He  was  covered  with  wounds  (sores) . 

Une  robe  de  sole.  A  silk  dress. 

Un  homme  de  genie.  A  man  of  genius. 

Une  bourse  pleine  d'or.  A  p\n-se  full  of  gold. 

326.  General  and  Partitive  Sense.  The  general  sense  of 
a  noun  (§  321)  is  to  be  carefully  distinguished  from  the 
partitive  sense   (§  322) : 

Les  oiseaux  ont  des  ailes.  Birds  have  wings. 

Les  hommes  sent  des  animauz.        Men  are  animals. 

5§  327-328  USE  OF  ARTICLE  WITH  NOUNS  111 

327.  Article  with  Titles.  A  title  of  dignity  or  profession, 
preceding  a  proper  name,  regularly  takes  the  definite  article, 
except  in  direct  address: 

La  reine  Victoria  fut  aimee.  Queen  Victoria  was  beloved. 

Le  docteur  Ribot  est  arrive.  Doctor  Ribot  has  come. 

Qu'est-ce  que  le  pere  Dam  dit?  What  does  Father  Dam  say? 

But:  Bon  jour,  docteur  Ribot.  Good  morning,  Doctor  Ribot. 

a.  So  also,  when  such  title  is  preceded  by  a  title  of  courtesy  (mon- 
sieur, madame,  etc.),  whether  in  speaking  to  or  in  speaking  of  the 

Bonjour,  monsieur  le  docteur.  Good  morning,  doctor. 

Monsieur  le  president  I'a  dit.  The  president  said  so. 

6.  A  preceding  attributive  adjective  may  have  the  force  of  a  title: 
La  petite  Claire;  le  gros  Robert.      Little  Clara;  big  Robert. 

328.  Article  for  Possessive.  The  definite  article  is  com- 
monly used  with  the  force  of  a  possessive  adjective,  when 
no  ambiguity  arises  from  its  use: 

Donnez-moi  la  main.  Give  me  your  hand, 

n  a  perdu  la  vie.  He  has  lost  his  life. 

II  avait  le  chapeau  sur  la  tete.  He  had  his  hat  on  his  head. 

a.  The  use  of  an  indirect  pronoun  object  +  the  definite  article  often 
avoids  ambiguity: 

Le  courage  lui  manqua.  His  courage  failed  (him). 

Elle  lui  a  arrache  les  yeux.  She  tore  out  his  eyes, 

n  s'est  fait  mal  k  la  tete.  He  hurt  his  head. 

6.  Possessive  force  appears  also  in  avoir  mal  (froid,  chaud,  etc.) 
k  +  the  definite  article  followed  by  a  novm  denoting  part  of  the  per- 
son; similarly,  in  phrases  of  personal  description  made  up  of  avoir  + 
the  definite  article  +  a  noim  +  an  adjective: 

Pai  mal  k  la  tete.  I  have  a  headache  (my  head  aches), 

n  a  mal  aux  yeux.  He  has  sore  eyes  (Ws  eyes,  etc.). 

H  a  froid  aux  pieds.  He  has  cold  feet  (his  feet,  etc.). 

H  a  la  tete  grosse  {or  une  grosse     He  has  a  large  head. 

n  a  les  bras  longs(or  de  longs  bras) .     He  has  long  arms. 
Le  chene  a  I'ecorce  mde.  The  oak  has  (a)  rough  bark. 

112  THE  ARTICLE  §§  329-330 

329.  Article  Distributively.  1.  The  definite  article  with 
distributive  force  replaces  English  a  of  weight,  measure, 
number,  when  indicating  price: 

Deixx  francs  la  livre  {le  metre).         Two  francs  a  pound  (a  meter). 
Des  oeufs  (a)  dix  sous  la  dotizaine.  Eggs  at  ten  cents  a  dozen, 
Des  poires  (&)  xm  sou  la  piece.          Pears  at  a  cent  apiece. 

a.  Otherwise  par  is  generally  used  with  price: 
Cinq  francs  par  jour.  Five  francs  a  (per)  day. 

Cent  francs  par  tete.  A  hundred  francs  a  (per)  head. 

Trois  francs  par  legon.  Three  francs  a  (per)  lesson. 

2.  The  definite  article  is  also  used  distributively  with 
names  of  days: 

H  vient  le  dimanche.  He  comes  (on)  Sundays. 

Le  bateau  part  tous  les  Itmdis.  The  boat  goes  every  Monday. 

330.  Omission  of  the  Article.  The  article,  whether  defi- 
nite, indefinite,  or  partitive,  is  frequently  omitted.  This 
takes  place: 

1.  In  a  large  number  of  expressions  made  up  of  a  verb 

+  a  noun: 

J'ai  sommeil;  il  a  honte.  I  am  sleepy;  he  is  ashamed. 

Je  vous  demande  pardon.  I  beg  your  pardon. 

Further  examples  are: 

avoir  besoin,  need  donner  avis,  notify  faire  place,  make  room 

avoir  faim,  he  hungry  donner  ordre,  give  orders  prendre  cong6,  take  leave 

avoir  bonne  mine,  look  well  faire  attention,  pay  at-  prendre  garde,  take  care 

avoir  peur,  he  afraid  tention  rendre  visite,  pay  a  visit 

avoir  tort,  he  {in  the)  wrong  faire  cadeau,  make  a  trouver      moyen,    find 
courir  risque,  run  the  risk          present  ■  means 

demander  conseil,  ask  ad-  faire  faillite,  fail  (in  etc.,  etc. 

vice  business) 

2.  In  many  adjectival  and  adverbial  phrases  made  up  of 
a  preposition  +  a  noun: 

D'apres  nature;  devant  temoins.      After  nature;   before  witnesses. 
Sans  cause;  k  travers  champs.        Without  cause;  across  the  fields. 

Further  examples  are: 


k  bord,  on  board  chien    de    berger,  par  chemin  de  fer,  by  rail- 

k  cheval,  on  horseback  shepherd's  dog           xoay 

k  dessein,  intentionally  homme    de    cceur,  par  exemple,  for  example 

k  genoux,  on  one's  knees  man  of  feeling      par  experience,  by  experience 

k  pied,  on  foot  homme    de    g^nie,  par  terre,  by  land 

pot  k  fleurs,  fknoerpot  man  of  genius        sans  crainte,  without  fear 

moulin  k  vent,  windmill  en  bateau,  in  a  boat  sans  raiaon,  without  reason 

apr^  diner,  after  dinner  en  6t^,  in  summer    sous  condition,  on  condition 

avec  int^rfet,  with  interest  en  voiture,  in  a  oar-  sous  pressc,  in  the  press 

avec  plaisir,  unth  pleasure  riage                       sur  papier,  on  paper 

Bortir  de  table,  2«ave  tAe  <a6^  par  an,  by  the  year       etc.,  etc. 

3.  Before  a  predicate  noun  which  qualifies  in  a  general 
way  the  personal  subject,  or  object,  of  certain  verbs  (cf. 

lis  sent  Russes.  They  are  Russians. 

EUe  est  modiste.  She  is  a  milliner. 

Nous  sommes  medecins.  We  are  doctors. 

n  parait  honnete  homme.  He  seems  an  honest  man.  * 

Son  frere  se  fit  soldat.  His  brother  became  a  soldier. 

On  I'a  ordonne  pretre.  He  was  ordained  a  priest. 

Soyons  amis.  Let  us  be  friends. 

NoTB.  —  Nouns  so  used  are  commonly  those  of  nationality,  profession, 
title,  etc.,  and  their  function  ia  adjectival.  Whenever  a  predicate  noun 
denotes  an  individual  or  a  species,  it  must  have  the  article :  La  rose  est  xm» 
fleur,  The  rose  is  a  flower;   Les  rois  sent  des  hommes.  Kings  are  men. 

a.  The  article  is  not  omitted  when  the  predicate  noun  has  a  dis- 
tinctive adjunct: 

Son  fr&re  est  un  artiste  de  merite.  His  brother  is  an  artist  of  merit. 

Ds  sont  devenus  des  generaux  They  became  distinguished  gen- 

distingues.  enb. 

6.  Observe  the  predicative  force  of  a  noun  after  traiter  +  de,  quali- 
fier +  de: 

D  m'a  traite  de  sot.  He  called  me  a  fool. 

Je  qualifie  cela  de  fraude.  I  call  that  fraud. 

a  After  c'est,  ce  sont,  the  noun  is  logical  subject,  not  predicate,  and 
hence  the  article  or  some  other  determinative  word  must  be  used  with 

C'est  xme  Allemande.  She  is  (a)  German. 

Ce  sont  les  (mes)  gants.  Those  are  the  (my)  glovea 

114  THE   ARTICLE  §330 

4.  Before  such  an  appositive  noun  as. serves  merely  the 
purpose  of  a  parenthetical  explanation: 

L'Avare,  comedie  de  Moliere.  L'Avare,  a  comedy  by  Moliere. 

Paris,  fils  de  Priam,  ravit  Helene,      Paris,  the  son  of  Priam,  carried  off 
femme  de  Menelas.  Helen,  (the)  wife  of  Menelaus. 

a.  Thus  is  explained  the  omission  of  the  article  in  numerical  titles: 
Jacques  premier  (deux).  James  the  First  (the  Second). 

6.  An  apposition  which  distinguishes,  contrasts,  compares,  regularly 
has  the  article,  as  in  English: 

Pierre  le  Grand.  Peter  the  Great. 

Racine  le  fils  et  non  Racine  le  Racine  the  son  and  not  Racine  the 

pere.  father. 

Montreal,  la  plus  grande  ville  du  Montreal,     the    largest    city    in 

Canada.  Canada. 

M.  Cook,  im  ami  de  men  pere.  Mr.  Cook,  a  friend  of  my  father. 

c.   Colloquially,  the  article  is  often  omitted  in  contrasts: 
Dumas  pere  et  Dumas  fils.      Dumas  the  elder  and  Dumas  the  younger. 

Note.  —  Peeudo-apposition  (really  ellipsis  of  de  or  of  a  de  clause)  is 
found  in  many  cases  like  L'eglise  {sc.  de)  Saint-Pierre,  St.  Peter's  Church; 
des  meubles  {sc.  du  temps  de)  Louis  XV,  Louis  XV  furniture;  La  rue  (sc. 
de)  MLrabeau,  Mirabeau  Street. 

5.  In  condensed  sentences,  such  as  titles  of  books,  enu- 
merations, addresses,  advertisements,  proverbs,  antithet- 
ical expressions,  etc.,  and  usually  after  ni  . . .  ni,  sans  . . . 
ni,  soit . . .  soit,  tant . . .  que,  jamais : 

Causes  de  la  perte  de  Rome.  Causes  of  the  fall  of  Rome. 

Portrait  de  Napoleon  HI.  (A)  portrait  of  Napoleon  III. 

Soldats,  officiers,  citoyens,  tous  Soldiers,  officers,  citizens,  all  has- 

accounirent.  tened  up. 

Beaute,  talent,  esprit,  tout  s'use  Beauty,    talent,    wit,    everything 

a  la  longue.  wears  out  in  the  long  run. 

II  loge  rue  Richelieu.  He  lives  in  Richelieu  street. 

Maison  k  vendre.  (A)  house  for  sale. 

Chapeaux  pour  hommes.  Men's  hats. 

Corps  et  ame;  nuit  et  jour.  Body  and  soul;  night  and  day. 

Soit  pexu",  soit  prudence,  il  evita  Whether  from  fear  or  prudence,  he 

le  combat.  avoided  the  combat. 




D  n'a  ni  pere  ni  mere. 
Sans  amis  ni  argent. 
Tant  hommes  que  femmes. 
Jamais  pere  n'a  tant  aime. 

He  has  neither  father  nor  mother. 

Without  friends  or  money. 

As  well  men  as  women. 

Never  did  a  father  love  so  much. 

331.  Unclassified  Examples.  The  following  examples 
show  idiomatic  distinctions  in  the  use  of  the  article  which, 
from  the  point  of  view  of  EngUsh,  cannot  conveniently  be 
brought  under  general  rules: 

Vous  etes  le  bienvenu. 

Demander  (faire)  /'aumdne. 

Avoir  le  temps. 

Aller  k  /'ecole  (/'eglise). 

Coimnander  le  respect. 

Le  feu  s'est  declare. 

Faire  la  guerre. 

Jeter  (lever)  Z'ancre. 

Garder  le  silence. 

Mettre  le  feu  k. 

Sur  (vers)  les  trois  heures. 

Au  revoir ! 

L'annee  demidre  (prochaine). 

La  semaine  (Z'annee)  passfie. 

Le  vendredi  saint. 

Le  mercredi  des  cendres. 

Le  printemps,  I'ete,  etc. 

Au  printemps,  en  ete,  etc. 

La  (sc.  fete  de)  Saint-Michel. 

La  {sc.  fete  de)  mi-juin. 

La  moitie  de  I'annee. 

Les  deux  tiers  du  temps. 

Tous  (Jes)  detix;  tons  (les)  trois. 

Tous  les  mois. 

Le  ministre  de  la  guerre. 

Le  meilleur  des  amis. 

n  cria  d  Tassassin. 

Je  I'ai  dit  au  hasard. 

Prendre  le  deuil  de  quelqu'un. 

Sentir  la  fumee. 

Je  vous  souhaite  la  bonne  annee. 

II  n'a  pas  le  sou. 

You  are  welcome. 

Ask  (give)  alms. 

To  have  time. 

To  go  to  school  (church). 

To  command  respect. 

Fire  broke  out. 

To  make  war. 

To  cast  (weigh)  anchor. 

To  keep  silence. 

To  set  fire  to. 

Towards  three  o'clock. 

Good-bye ! 

Last  (next)  year. 

Last  week  (year). 

Good  Friday. 

Ash  Wednesday. 

Spring,  summer,  etc. 

In  spring,  in  summer,  etc 



(The)  half  (of)  the  year. 

Two-thirds  of  the  time. 

Both;  all  three. 

Every  month. 

The  minister  of  war. 

The  best  of  friends. 

He  cried  murder. 

I  said  it  at  random. 

To  go  into  mourning  for  somebody. 

To  smell  of  smoke. 

I  wish  you  a  happy  new  year. 

He  is  wretchedly  poor. 

116                                               THE  ARTICLE                                             §332 

D  est  plus  grand  que  vous  de  la  He  is  taller  than  you  by  a  head. 


Un  homme  a  la  barbe  noire.  A  man  with  a  black  beard. 

La  belle  question !  What  a  (fine)  question  ! 

A  la  (sc.  mode)  franjaise.  In  the  French  style. 

S'en  aller  a  /'anglaise.  To  take  French  leave. 

A  la  {sc.  mode  de)  Henri  IV.  In  the  style  of  Henry  IV. 

Cent  (mille)  ans.  A  hundred  (a  thousand)  years. 

Les  amis,  oii  allez-vous?  (My)  friends,  where  are  you  going? 


332.  Names  of  Persons.     1.  As  in  English,  names  of  per- 
sons usually  take  no  article: 
Corneille;  George  Fox.  Corneille;  George  Fox. 

a.  The  definite  article  is  a  constituent  part  of  some  surnames: 
Les  tomans  de  Zesage.  The  novels  of  Lesage. 

Les  fables  de  La  Fontaine.  The  fables  of  La  Fontaine. 

2.  The  definite  article  is  used  according  to  Italian  analogy 
in  the  French  form  of  a  few  famous  Italian  surnames;    so 
also  sometimes  in  a  very  few  names  which  are  not  Italian: 
Le  Cortege;  le  poeme  du  Tasse.      Correggio;  the  poem  of  Tasso. 

Le  Poussin;  le  Camoens.  Poussin;  Camoens. 

3.  The  article  is  used  when  the  name  has  a  distinctive 
adjunct,  when  it  is  plural,  or  when  used  as  a  common  noun: 
Le  Christ.  Christ  (=  the  'Anointed').     - 

Le  Satan  de  Milton;    le  grand  Milton's  Satan;  the  Great  Cond6. 


Les  Corneille  et  les  Racine.  A  Corneille,  a  Racine  ( =  Corneille, 

Racine  and  others  hke  them). 

C'est  un  Alexandre.  He  is  an  Alexander. 

C'est  du  Ciceron  tout  pur.  It  is  pure  Ciceronian. 

J'ai  lu  le  Telemaque.  I  have  read  Telemaque. 

4.  Familiarly,  often  in  a  depreciatory  sense,  the  definite 
article  is  not  uncommon,  especially  with  names  of  females: 
Sans  attendre  la  Barbette.  Without  waiting  for  Barbara. 

Le  Duval  me  Pa  dit.  Duval  told  me  so. 


333.  Names  of  Countries.  1.  Names  of  continents,  coun- 
tries, provinces,  large  European  islands,  take  the  definite  ar- 
ticle, especially  when  standing  as  subject  or  object  of  a  verb: 

L'Asie  est  un  grand  continent.  Asia  is  a  large  continent. 

Nous  aimons  la  France.  We  love  France. 

La  Normandie  produit  des  cereales.  Normandy  produces  cereals. 
La  Corse  est  une  ile  franfaise.         Corsica  is  a  French  island. 
But  non-European  islands  often  do  not  take  the  article: 
Madagascar  est  une  grande  ile.        Madagascar  is  a  large  island. 
Cabot  decouvrit  Terre-Neuve.  Cabot  discovered  New'foundland. 

Note  also  such  forms  as:   L'ile  de  Cuba,  les  ties  Bahama. 

2.  Before  names  of  continents,  European  countries  and 
islands  singular,  and  feminine  countries  singular  outside  of 
Europe,  en  without  the  article  denot€s  'where,'  'where  to'; 
so  also,  after  de  denoting  'point  of  departure  from'  and 
after  de  in  most  adjectival  phrases: 

n  est  en  (va  en)  Europe.  He  is  in  (is  going  to)  Europe. 

D  voyage  en  France  (Portugal).  He  travels  in  France  (Portugal). 

n  vient  d'Espagne  (Danemark).  He  comes  from  Spain  (Denmark). 

Le  roi  de  Portugal  (Espagne).  The  King  of  Portugal  (Spain). 

Le  fer  de  Suede.  Swedish  iron. 

U  va  en  Corse.  He  is  going  to  Corsica. 

a.  Exceptions  are  rare,  e.g.,  au  Maine,  Le  due  du  Maine,  etc. 

Note. — In  an  adjectival  phrase,  de  denoting  titular  distinction,  origin, 
description,  or  mere  apposition  usually  omits  the  article,  e.g.,  le  pays  de 
France,  ^e  Royaume  Uni  de  Grande-Bretagne  et  (f'Irlande. 

3.  But  the  definite  article  is  not  omitted,  in  answer  to 
'where?'  'where  to?'  or  after  de  as  above,  when  the  name 
is  plural,  or  has  a  distinctive  adjunct,  or  denotes  a  mascu- 
line name  of  a  country  outside  of  Europe: 

n  est  aux  Indes.  He  is  in  India. 

n  va  aux  Etats-Unis.  He  goes  to  the  United  States. 

Aux  Pays-Bas.  In  (to)  the  Netherlands. 

L'imperatrice  des  Indes.  The  Empress  of  India. 

Venir  des  Indos  (de  I'Inde).  To  come  from  India. 

Dans  la  France  meridionale.  I 

Dans  le  Midi  de  la  France.    J 

In  Southern  France. 

118  THE  ARTICLE  §§  334r-335 

Dans  I'Amerique  du  Nord.  In  North  America. 

La  reine  de  la  Grande-Bretagne.  The  Queen  of  Great  Britain. 

II  revient  de  I'Afrique  australe.  He  returns  from  South  Africa. 

Au  Mexique  (Japon).  In  (to)  Mexico  (Japan). 

Le  Dominion  du  Canada.  \     -  m,     t>.      •  •        r  ^ 

La  Puissance  du  Canada.  /  ^^^  Domimon  of  Canada. 

Chasse  de  la  Chine.  Expelled  from  China. 

Le  consul  du  Perou.  The  consul  of  Peru. 

Le  fer  du  Canada.  Canadian  iron. 

But  note  such  as:  Son  pere  est  k  Madagascar. 

a.  In  a  few  names  hke  Asie  Mineure,  basse  Bretagne,  the  adjec- 
tive is  no  longer  felt  to  be  distinctive: 

En  Asie  mineure.  In  Asia  Minor. 

4.  Omission  of  the  article  in  the  predicate,  in  enumera- 
tions, titles,  etc.,  sometimes  occurs  (cf.  §330,  5): 

La  Gaule  est  devenue  France.  Gaul  became  France. 

Espagne,   Italic,   Belgique,  tout      Spain,   Italy,  Belgium,  all  would 
eftt  pris  feu.  have  caught  fire. 

334.  Names  of  Cities.  Names  of  cities  and  towns  usu- 
ally have  no  article,  unless  used  with  a  distinctive  adjunct: 

Londres,  Paris,  Quebec.  London,  Paris,  Quebec. 

A  Boston  (Montreal).  To  or  in  Boston  (Montreal). 

But:  La  Rome  de  ce  siecle.  (The)  Rome  of  this  century. 

La  Nouvelle-Orleans.  New  Orleans. 

a.  The  definite  article  is  an  essential  part  of  several  names  of  cities: 
Le  Caire;  le  Havre;  la  Havana.      Cairo;  Havre;  Havana. 

335.  Names  of  Mountains  and  Rivers.  Names  of  moun- 
tains always,  and  names  of  rivers  regularly,  have  the  defi- 
nite article: 

LesAlpes;  leNU;  lemont  Blanc.      The  Alps;  the  Nile;  Mt.  Blanc. 

a.  For  rivers,  the  usage  after  en,  de,  is  parallel  with  that  described 
in  §  333,  2: 

De  I'eau  de  Seine.  Seine  water. 

Un  abordage  a  eu  lieu  en  Seine.      A  collision  occurred  on  the  Seine.. 




grande,  tall 


jolie,  pretty 


rus6e,  cunning 


morte,  dead 

§§  336-337  THE  FEMININB  OP  ADJECTIVES  119 


336.  General  Rtile.  The  feminine  of  an  adjective  is 
r^ularly  formed  by  adding  -e  to  the  mascuUne  singular, 
but  adjectives  ending  in  -e  remain  unchanged: 

Masc.  Fem. 

facile,  facile,  easy 

jeune,  jeune,  young 

sincere,  sincere,  sincere 

c^ldbre,  cdlebre,  celebrated 

a.  Similarly,  nouns  of  like  termination  (but  see  §  306,  2) : 
Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

marquis,  marquis,        marquise  artiste,  artist,  artiste 

ami,  friend,  amie  camarade,  comrade,        camarade 

cousin,  cousin,  cousine  concierge,  porter,  concierge 

lapin,  rabbit,  lapine  malade,  patient,  malade 

6.  Adjectives  in  -gu  are  r^ular,  but  require  the  diaeresis  to  indicate 
that  u  is  sounded,  e.g.,  aigu,  sharp,  aigu6. 

c.  The  circumflex  in  d&  (f.  due)  distinguishes  it  from  du  =  of  the, 
and  disappears  in  the  fem.  (§214);  observe  also  mft  (f.  mue,  §219). 

d.  Besides  adjectives  in  -e,  a  very  few  others  are  invariable  for  the 
feminine,  e.g.,  capot,  in  etre  capot  =  have  come  to  grief,  grognon,  grum- 
bling, rococo,  rococo,  sterling,  sterling,  and  rarer  ones. 

Note.  —  Here  also  properly  belongs  grand  in  grand'mftre,  etc.  In 
O.  F.  grand  was  masculine  or  feminine,  but  grammarians  at  a  later  date 
gave  it  the  apostrophe  to  denote  the  supposed  elision  of  e. 

337.  Special  Rules.  1.  Irr^ularities  consist  chiefly  of 
changes  in  the  stem  on  adding  the  feminine  sign  -e;  thus, 
when  -e  is  added: 

(1)  Final  £  =  v,  x  =  s,  c  =  chin  some,  and  qu  in  others, 
g  =  gu: 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

actif,  active,  active  *  blanc,  white,        blanche 

bref ,  brief,  breve  t  pubUc,  public,     publique 

heureux,  happy,    heureuse  long,  long,  longue 

*  So  also:   franc,  frank,  franche;   sec,  dry,  s^he. 

t  So  also:   ammoniac  (-que),  ammoniac;   turc  (-que),  TurkisJi. 

120  THE  ADJECTIVE  5337 

a.  Similarly,  nouna  of  like  termination: 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem.  Masc.        Fem. 

veuf,  widower,     veuve  epoux,  spouse,     6pouse         turc,  Turk,     turque 

Note.  —  Here  also  belongs  bailli,  bailiff  (O.  F.  baillif),  baillive. 

6,  The  adjectives  doux,  douce,  sweet,  faux,  fausse,  false,  roux, 
rousse,  red  (of  hair,  etc.),  retain  the  [s]  sound  in  the  feminine,  denoted 
by  c  and  ss  respectively;  grec,  Greek,  has  feminine  grecque;  prefix, 
■prefixed,  is  regular. 

(2)  Final  -el,  -eil,  -ien,  -on,  and  usually  -s,  -t,  double  the 
final  consonant: 



cruel,  cruel, 


pareil,  like. 


ancien,  old. 


bon,  good, 


bas,  low, 




gros,  big. 


6pais,  thick, 


expres,  express, 


muet,  dumb. 


sot,  foolish, 


But:  ras,  rase,  flat;  gris,  grise,  gray;  mat,  mate,  dead,  dvU;  pret, 
prete,  ready;  d6vot,  devote,  devout;  bigot,  bigote,  bigoted;  cagot, 
cagote,  hypocritical;  idiot,  idiote,  idiotic,  and  a  few  rarer  ones. 

a.  Similarly,  nouns  of  like  termination,  but  see  §306: 

Masc.  Fem,  Masc.        Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

mortel,  mortal,  mortelle  lion,  lion,  lionne  poulet,  chicken,  pouletto 

chien,  dog,  chienne  chat,  cat,    chatte  linot,  linnet,        linotte 

b.  A  very  few  adjectives  and  nouns  of  other  endings  follow  this 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

paysan,  peasant,        paysanne  gentil,  nice,        gentille 

rouan,  roan,  rouanne  nul,  null,  nulle 

(3)  The  following  have  two  masculine  forms,  one  of  which 
doubles  1  for  the  feminine,  like  the  above: 



Masc.                        Fem. 

beau  or  bel,  fine, 


mou  or  mol,  soft,               molle 

fou  or  fol,  mad. 


nouveau  or  nouvel,  netp,    nouvelle 

jumeau  or  (0.  F. 

vieux  or  vieil,  old,             vieille 

jumel),  tmn, 


Ohs.:  The  -1  form  is  regularly  used  only  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute;  vieux 
before  a  vowel  is  permissible,  e.g.,  un  vieux  ami  (better:   un  vieil  ami). 


a.  Analogous  are  a  few  nouns: 
Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

chameau,  camel,    chamelle        jouvenceau,  young  fellow,    jouvenceUe,  etc. 

(4)  Before  final  -r  and  -et  of  a  few  adjectives  e  becomes  e 
(cf.  §  12,  1);  so  also  in  bref,  breve,  sec,  seche: 

Masc.            Fem. 



cher,  dear,         chdre 

complet,  complete, 


l^er,  ligfU,        16gdre 



a.  Similarly,  nouns  in  -cr. 

Masc.                 Fem. 



berger,  shepherd,        bergdre 

Stranger,  stranger,        6trang8re,  etc 

6.  The  complete  list  of  adjectives  in  -et  with  fem.  in  -dte  is:    . 
(in)ooiDplet,  {in)comjdeU  (in)discret,  iin)di3creet         replet,  over-ttout 

eoncret,  concrete  inquiet,  uneasy  secret,  secret 

(5)  Tt .'  following  feminine  stems  show  etymological  ele- 
ments w  ich  have  disappeared  in  the  masculine: 

Ma£c.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

coi  (L.  quit   »),  qitiet,  ooite  frais  (L.  L.frescits),  cod,  fraidie 

b4nin  (L.  Ik  lignus),  benign,  b^nigne       tiers  (L.  tertius),  third,     tierce 
favori(It.j  vorito),  favorite,    favorite 

2.  Adjectives  in  -eur  form  their  feminine  as  follows: 

(1)  Majeur,  mineur,  meilleur  and  those  in  -erieur  are 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

majeur,  major,     majeure  ext^rieur,  exterior,      extdrieure 

meilleur,  better,    meilleiu'e  sup^eur,  superior,    sup^ieure 

a.  Similarly,  nouns  of  like  termination: 

Masc.         Fem.  Masc.    '     Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

mineur,  mirwr,  mineure ;  prieur,  prior,  prieure ;  inf^rieur,  inferior,  inf6rieure 

(2)  Those  in  -etir  with  a  cognate  present  participle  in 
-ant  change  -r  to  -s  and  add  -e : 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

cau8eur,  talkative,  causeuse  r^veur,  dreamy,  r^veuse 

flatteur,  JUUtering,  flatteuse  trompem-,  deceitftd,  trompeuse 

menteur,  lying,  menteuse  etc.  etc. 

122  THE  ADJECTIVB  §§  338-339 

a.  Similarly,  nouns  of  like  termination,  but  see  also  §  306,  1,  a,  2,  a: 
Masc.  Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

danseur,  dancer,  danseuse  buveur,  drinker       buveuse 

chanteur,  singer,         chanteuse  vendeur,  seller         vendeuse 

flatteur,  flatterer,         flatteuse  etc.  etc. 

(3)  Those  in  -tear,  with  no  cognate  present  participle  in 
-ant,  have  the  feminine  in  -trice: 

Masc.  Fem.  Masc.    ^  Fem. 

accusateur,  accusing,    accusatrice  directeur,  directive,    directrice 

createur,  creative,  creatrice  etc.  etc. 

a.  Similarly,  nouns  of  like  termination,  but  see  §  306,  1,  a,  2,  a: 
Masc.                      Fem.  Masc.  Fem. 

accusateur,  accuser,        accusatrice  createur,  creator,     creatrice, 
acteur,  actor,                   actrice  etc.  etc. 


338.  General  Rule.  Most  masculine  adjective  i  and  all 
feminines  form  their  plural  by  adding  s  to  th  singular 
(cf.  §307): 

grand(s),    grande(s)        jeune(s),         ieune(s)  bas,      basse(s) 

ioli(s),        jolie(s)  aigu(s),  aigue(s)  douj-,    douce(s) 

rus6(s),       rusee(s)  complet(s),     complete(s)  etc.        etc. 

339.  Special  Rules.  The  following  rules  are  parallel 
with  those  for  the  irregular  plural  of  nouns  (cf .  §  308) : 

1.  Masculine  adjectives  in  -s,  -x  (none  in  -z)  remain 

Sing.      Pl.  Sma.  Pl.  Sing.  Pl. 

bas  bas  gris  gris  faux  faux 

6pais  epais  soumis  soumis  vieiix  vieux 

frais  frais,  etc.  doux  doux,  etc.  heureux  heureux,  etc. 

2.  Masculine  adjectives  in  -eau,  and  one  in  -eu  take  x: 
Sing.  Pl.  Sing.  Pl. 

beau  beaux  jumeau         jumeaxix 

nouveau         nouveaux  h^breu  h6breux 

But:  bleu,  bleus;  feu,  feus 




3.  Masculine  adjectives  in  -al  regularly  have  the  plural 
in  -aux: 





































a.  Fatal  makes  fatals;  Littr6  gives  also  final (s). 

6.  According  to  the  Dictionnaire  de  VAcadcmie,  the  following  have 
no  masculine  plural: 

*  sutomnal  frugal  *  jo\'ial  naval  f  paacal 

*  colossal  glacial  natal  *  partial 

*  Littr6  gives  a  plural  in  -aux. 

t  Littr^  admits  a  plural  in  -aoz,  and  quotes  authority  for  a  plural  in  -«. 

Notes.  —  1.  There  are  upwards  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  adjectivee 
in  -al.  The  Dictionnaire  de  I'AccuUmie  is  silent  regarding  the  masculine 
plural  of  some  sixty  of  these,  to  nearly  fifty  of  which,  however,  Littr^  gives 
a  plural  in  -aux.  The  following  have  not  been  pronounced  upon  by  either 
authority:  Brumal,  d^loyal,  diagonal,  instrumental,  labial,  medicinal, 
mental,  monacal,  paradoxal,  quadragesimal,  total,  virginal. 

2.  Regular  plurals  in  -als  were  formerly  much  commoner,  and  usage  is 
still  unsettled  for  some  words.  When  the  plural  is  wanting  or  doubtful  it  ia 
often  avoided,  e.(7.,  Unrepas  frugal;  des  repas  st/n^es.  Plurals  commonly  ao 
avoided  are:    Final,  frugal,  glacial,  initial,  matinal,  natal,  naval,  th6&tral. 


340.  General  Rule.    An  adjective,  whether  attributive 
or  predicative,  regularly  agrees  in  gender  and  number  with 

its  substantive: 

Cold  seasons  are  healthful. 
They  are  pleased. 
They  said  they  were  ill. 
I  believe  them  sincere. 

Les  saisons  froides  sent  sained. 
Elles  sont  contentes. 
Bs  se  disaient  maladet. 
Je  les  crois  sinc^res. 

a.  When  the  substantive  has  a  de  clause,  the  agreement  ia  parallel 
with  that  explained  for  subject  and  verb  (cf.  §  232,  2). 

h.  The  agreement  with  vous  is  according  to  the  sense: 
Madame,  vous  etes  bien  boime.      Madam,  you  are  very  kind. 

124  THE   ADJECTIVE  §§341-343 

341.  Manifold  Substantive.  1.  One  adjective  qualify- 
ing two  or  more  substantives  is  made  plural,  and  agrees  in 
gender  with  both,  if  of  the  same  gender;  if  of  different 
gender,  the  adjective  is  masculine. 

De  la  viande  et  des  pommes  de      Cold  meat  and  potatoes. 

terre  froides. 
Sa  soetir  et  lui  sent  contents.  His  sister  and  he  are  pleased. 

a.  When  substantives  are  joined  by  ou,  ni  . . .  ni,  or  are  synonymous, 
or  form  a  chmax,  etc.,  the  principles  stated  for  agreement  of  subject 
and  verb  apply  (cf.  §  233). 

b.  When  nouns  differ  in  gender,  the  masculine  one  is  usually  placed 
nearest  the  adjective,  especially  when  the  feminine  form  is  distinct 
from  the  masculine. 

La  mer  et  le  ciel  bleus.  The  blue  sea  and  sky. 

2.  When  the  noun  is  followed  by  a  preposition  +  a  noun, 
the  agreement  is,  of  course,  according  to  the  meaning: 
Une  table  de  bois  dur.  A  table  of  hard  wood. 

Une  table  de  bois  carree.  A  square  wooden  table, 

342.  Manifold  Adjective.  When  two  or  more  adjectives, 
denoting  different  objects  singular,  refer  to  one  noun,  the 
noun  is  made  plural,  and  the  adjectives  follow  it  in  the 
singular,  or  the  noun  is  made  singular,  and  the  article  re- 
peated with  each  adjective. 

Les  nations  grecque  et  romaine.       The  Greek  and  Roman  nations. 
La  nation  grecque  et  la  romaine.       The  Greek  nation  and  the  Roman. 
Or:  La  nation  grecque  et  la  nation  romaine. 

a.  The  agreement  for  a  preceding  ordinal  is  parallel  to  this: 
Les  sixieme  et  septieme  rangs.         The  sixth  and  seventh  ranks. 
Le  sixilme  rang  et  le  septieme.         The  sixth  rank  and  the  seventh. 
Le  sixieme  et  le  septidme  rang.         The  sixth  and  the  seventh  rank. 

343.  Special  Cases.  1.  Adjectives  used  as  adverbs  are 
regularly  invariable: 

Cette  rose  sent  bon.  That  rose  smells  sweet. 

Les  livres  content  cher  ici.  Books  cost  dear  here. 


a.  Possible,  replacing  a  clause,  and  fort,  in  se  faire  fort  =  to 
oneself,  are  considered  as  adverbs: 
Pal  fait  le  moins  de  fautes  pos-       I  have  made  as  few  mistakes  as 

sible.  possible. 

Elle  se  fait  fort  de  le  payer.  She  pledges  herself  to  pay  it. 

2.  Compound  adjectives,  with  or  without  hyphen,  are 
treated  as  follows: 

(1)  Both    components    are    variable    when    coordinate, 

except  first  components  in  -o: 

Des  sourd(e)s-muet(/c)s.  Deaf-mutee. 

Des  oranges  aigres-douces.  Sourish  oranges. 

But :  Les  lettres  greco-romaines.      Graeco-Roman  literature. 

(2)  A  subordinate  component  is  usually  invariable,  being  re- 
garded as  adverbial,  but  the  principle  is  not  fully  carried  out: 

Des  mots  grecs-modeme.  Modem  Greek  words. 

Des  enfants  coxirt-vetus.  Short-coated  children. 

Une  dame  haut  placee.  A  lady  of  high  rank. 

Des  enfants  nouveau-nes.  New-bom  infants. 

o.  But  the  subordinated  component  is  variable  in  frais  cueilli  = 
freshly  gathered,  in  ivre  mort  =  dead  drunk,  in  grand  onvert  =  tride 
open,  and  in  premier,  dernier,  nouveau  +  a  past  participle  (except 
nouveau-ne,  see  above): 

Des  fleurs  fraiches  cueillie;.  Freshly  gathered  flowers. 

La  porte  est  grande  ouvertc.  The  door  is  wide  op>en. 

Les  nouveaox  maries.  The  bridegroom  and  bride. 

3.  Nouns  serving  as  adjectives  of  color  are  regularly 

Des  robes  lilas  (citron).  Purple  Gemon-colored)  dresses. 

a.  Rose,  cramoisi,  pourpre,  are  exceptions,  and  vary: 
Des  robes  rose^  (cramoisies).  Pink  (crimson)  dresses. 

b.  Modified  adjectives  of  color  are  also  usually  invariable,  the 
modifier  being  also  invariable  by  rule,  2  (2),  above: 

Des  cheveux  blond  ardent.  Reddish  blond  hair. 

Note.  —  Those  constructions  are  explained  by  suppljnng  the  ellipsis: 
Des  robes  (cooleor  de)  iilas;  Des  cheveox  (couleor  de)  blond  ardent. 

126  THE  ADJECTIVE  §  344 

4.  A  few  adjectives  are  variable  or  invariable  according 
to  position  or  context: 

a.  Demi  =  half,  nu  =  naked,  plein  =  ftdl  of,  are  invariable  before 
and  variable  after  the  noun;  so  also,  excepte  and  others  (§  289,  a,  b), 
franc  de  port  =  postpaid  (also  franco,  adverb)  is  invariable  before, 
and  usually  variable  after: 
Une  demi-hetire;    une  hexxre  et      Half  an  hour;  an  hour  and  a  half. 

H  a  de  I'or  plein  ses  poches.  He  has  his  pockets  full  of  gold. 

n  est  nu-tete;  il  a  les  bras  nus.        He  is  bareheaded;  his  arms  are  bare. 
H  a  les  yeux  pleins  de  larmes.  His  eyes  are  full  of  tears. 

Recevoir  franc  de  port  une  lettre.     To  receive  a  letter  postpaid. 
Des  lettres  franches  de  port.  Postpaid  letters. 

Obs.:   demi,  nu,  when  preceding,  form  a  compound  with  hyphen. 

&.  Feu  =  late,  deceased,  is  invariable  when  preceding  the  definite 
article,  or  determinative,  and  variable  after  it: 
Feu  la  reine  (la  feue  reine).  The  late  queen. 

c.  After  avoir  I'air  =  have  an  air  (appearance)  the  adjective  agrees 
with  air;  but  it  agrees  with  the  subject  of  the  verb  when  the  expression 
means  seem,  appear: 

Cette  dame  a  I'air  hautain.  That  lady  has  a  haughty  air. 

Elle  a  I'air  malheureuse.  She  seems  unhappy. 

Cette  soupe  a  I'air  bonne.  This  soup  looks  good. 

5.  A  very  few  adjectives  are  always  invariable: 
Nous  avons  ete  capot.  We  had  come  to  grief. 
Vingt  livres  sterling.  Twenty  pounds  sterling. 

344.  Nouns  as  Adjectives.     By  a  sort  of  apposition, 
nouns  are  frequently  used  as  adjectives;  when  so  used,  they 
usually  agree  like  adjectives: 
Une  maitresse  cheminee.  A  main  chimney. 

Des  philosopbes  poetes.  Poet  philosophers. 

But:  La  race  negre,  etc. 

a.  Temoin  =  wiiness,  at  the  head  of  a  phrase,  is  adverbial  and 

J'ai  bien  combattu,  temoin  les        I  have  fought  well,  witness  the 
blessures  que  j'ai  rejues.  wounds  I  received. 

b.  For  nouns  as  adjectives  of  color,  see  §  343,  3. 



345.  The  Comparative.  It  is  regularly  denoted  by  plac- 
ing plus  =  more,  moins  =  less,  for  inequality,  and  aussi  = 
as,  for  equality,  before  each  adjective  compared;  than  or 
as  =  que: 

D  est  plus  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  taller  than  John. 

n  est  moins  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  less  tall  than  (not  so  tall  as) 


n  est  aussi  grand  que  Jean.  He  is  as  tall  as  John. 

II  est  plus  diligent  et  plus  attentif  He  is  more  diligent  and  (more)  at* 

que  Jean.  tentive  than  John. 

U  est  plus  faible  que  malade.  He  is  more  weak  than  ill. 

a.  Aussi,  used  negatively,  may  be  replaced  by  si: 

II  n'est  pas  aussi  (si)  grand  que  J.    He  is  not  so  tall  as  John. 

b.  When  aussi  or  si  is  omitted,  comme  (jwI  que)  is  used: 
Un  roi  riche  comme  Cresus.  A  king  as  rich  as  Crossus. 

c.  After  plus,  moins,  afi&rmatively,  than  =  que  . . .  ne  when  coming 
before  a  finite  verb : 

n  est  plus  grand  ^'il  ne  (le)  parait.   He  is  taller  than  he  seems. 

d.  More  and  more  (or  -er  and  -er)  =  de  plus  en  plus;  less  and  lest 
(or  -er  and  -er)  =  de  moins  en  moins;    the  more . .  .the  more  =  plus 

. . .  (et)  plus ;  the  less the  less  =  moins  . . .  (et)  moins;  the  more . . . 

=  d'autant  plus  . . .: 

L'air  devint  de  plus  en  plus  froid.  The  air  became  colder  and  colder. 

n  devint  de  moins  en  moins  actif .  He  became  less  and  less  active. 

Plus  il  devient  riche  (et)  moins  il  The  richer  he  becomes   the  less 

est  genereui.  generous  is  he. 

II  en  sera  d'autant  plus  riche.  He  will  be  the  richer  for  it. 

346.  Irregular  Comparison.  The  adjectives  bon,  mau- 
vais,  petit,  have  a  special  comparative  form: 

Pes.  CoMP.                             Pes.                     -COMP. 

bon,  good,  meilleur  or  bon,  plus  bon  (rare) 

mauvais,  bad,  fire  or  mauvais,  plus  mauvais 

petit,  small,  moindre  or  petit,  plus  petit 

128  THE  ADJECTIVE  §§347-348 

a.  Bon  is  hardly  ever  compared  regularly: 

A  bon  marche,  a  meilleur  marche.      Cheap,  cheaper. 

Cela  sent  bon  (meilleur).  That  smells  good  (better). 

But:  Ce  n'est  ni  plus  bon  mplus  mauvais. 

Notes.  —  1.  In  expressions  like  Ce  vin  est  plus  ou  moins  bon,  bon  is 
not  really  comparative.  2.  Some  grammarians  admit  plus  bon  =  more 

b.  Pire  is,  in  general,  stronger  than  plus  mauvais,  and  may  serve 
also  as  a  comparative  to  mechant  =  bad,  evil,  wicked: 

Cet  homme  est  mechant  (pire).         That  man  is  bad  (worse). 

c.  In  general,  moindre  =  less,  lesser,  less  (in  importance)  and  plus 
petit  =  smaller,  less  {in  size): 

Votre  douleur  en  sera  moindre.        Yovir  sorrow  will  hence  be  less. 
Une  plus  petite  pomme.  A  smaller  apple. 

347.  The  Superlative  Relative.  1.  It  is  denoted  by 
placing  the  definite  article  (variable)  or  a  possessive  adjec- 
tive (variable)  before  the  comparative  of  inequality: 

Elle  est  la  moins  aimable.  She  is  the  least  amiable. 

Mes  metlleurs  amis.  My  best  friends. 

La  moindre  diflficulte.  The  sKghtest  difficulty. 

a.  When  the  superlative  follows  the  noim,  the  definite  article  is  not 

C'est  1' enfant  le  plus  diligent  et  le  He  is  the  most  dihgent  and  atten- 

plus  attentif  de  tous.  tive  boy  of  all. 

Mes  amis  les  plus  fideles.  My  most  faithful  friends. 

2.  After  a  superlative,  in  =  de  (not  a,  dans>  etc.);  among 
=  entre  or  d'entre: 

L'homme  le  plus  riche  de  la  ville.      The  richest  man  in  the  city. 
Le  meillevu:  ecrivain  des  Etats-tJnis.  The  best  writer  in  the  United  States. 
Le  plus  brave  (d')entre  les  Grecs.     The  bravest  among  the  Greeks. 

348.  The  Superlative  Absolute.  It  is  expressed  by  le 
(invariable)  +  plus  or  moins  before  the  adjective,  or  else 
by  an  adverb,  such  as  tres,  bien,  fort,  extremement,  etc., 
or  some  other  modifying  expression: 

Elle  est  le  plus  heureuse  (moins      She  is  happiest  (least  happy)  when 
heureuse)  quand  elle  est  seule.        she  is  alone. 

§§  349-350  POSITION  OF  ADJECTIVES  129 

Vous  etes  tres  aimable.  You  are  very  (most)  kind. 

C'est  tout  ce  qu'il  y  a  de  plus  beau.  It  is  most  beautiful. 

Un  brave  des  braves.  One  of  the  bravest. 

Un  homme  des  plus  dignes.  A  most  worthy  man. 

Une  dame  on  ne  peut  plus  digne.  A  most  worthy  woman. 

Des  tribus  sauvages  au  possible.  Most  savage  tribes. 

a.  Occasionally  it  is  denoted  in  familiar  style  by  re|)etition  of  the 
adjective,  or  by  -issime: 

Cet  homme  est  ruse,  ruse.  That  man  is  very,  very  cunning. 

D  est  richissime.  He  is  very  wealthy. 

349.  Remarks.    1.   Comparative  and  superlative  are  in- 
distinguishable   in    constructions    requiring    in    English    a 
definite  article  before  the  comparative: 
Le  plus  fort  de  mes  deux  frdres.       The  stronger  of  my  two  brothers. 

2.  De  denotes  by  how  much  after  a  comparative  or 
superlative : 

Plus  fige  de  trois  ans.  Older  by  three  years. 

II  est  de  beaucoup  le  plus  grand.      He  is  the  tallest  by  far. 
But:  D  est  beaucoup  plus  grand.      He  is  much  taller. 

3.  Observe  the  following: 

Les  basses  classes.  The  lower  classes. 

J'ai  fait  mon  possible.  I  did  my  utmost. 


350.  Predicative  Adjectives.    They  are  placed,  in  general, 
as  in  English: 

Elles  sont  contentes.  They  are  pleased. 

Elle  parut  fatiguee.  She  seemed  tired. 

Brave,  savant,  vertueux,  il  se  fit  Brave,  learned,  virtuous,  he  made 

aimer  de  tons.  himself  beloved  by  all. 

o.  Observe  the  position  after  assex,  after  plus . . .  plus,  moins  . . . 
moins,  and  in  exclamations  with  combien !  conime !  que !  tant !  as 
compared  with  the  order  of  words  in  English: 
II  est  assez  sot  pour  le  croire.  He  is  silly  enough  to  beheve  it. 

130  THE  ADJECTIVE  §§351-352 

Plus  il  devint  riche  moins  il  fut       The  richer  he  became    the  less 

generexix.  generous  was  he. 

Que  vous  etes  aimable  de  venir  I      How  kind  you  are  to  come ! 

351.  Attributive  Adjectives.  When  used  literally,  to  de- 
fine, distinguish,  specify,  emphasize,  etc.,  they  usually 
follow;  but  when  used  figuratively,  or  as  a  merely  orna- 
mental epithet,  or  denoting  a  quality  viewed  as  essential 
to  the  object,  or  when  forming,  as  it  were,  one  idea  with 
the  noun,  they  usually  precede: 

Une   rue    etrolte;    une    etroite  A    narrow    street;    an    intimate 

amitie.  friendship. 

Un  roi  savant;  le  savant  auteur.  A  learned  king;  the  learned  author. 

Le  fameux  Pitt;  un  ruse  coquin.  The  famous  Pitt;  a  cunning  rogue, 

a.  The  following,  of  very  common  use,  generally  precede: 
beau  grand  joli  meilleur  pire  vilain 

bon  gros  long  moindre  sot 

court  jeune  mauvais  petit  vieux 

352.  Special  Rules  for  Attributives.  1.  Certain  adjec- 
tives serve  regularly  to  define,  distinguish,  etc.,  and  hence 
regularly  follow;  such  are: 

(1)  Adjectives  of  physical  quality: 

tJne  table  carte e;  une  pierredure;  A  square  table;  a  hard  stone;  cold 

de  I'eau  froide    (chaude);    de  (hot)  water;  black  ink;    a  pi- 

I'encre   noire;    une   sauce   pi-  quant  sauce, 

a.  By  the  general  rule  (§  351)  they  sometimes  precede: 
De   noirs   chagrins;    une  verte      Dark  sorrows;  a  green  old  age; 
vieillesse;  le  bleu  ciel  d'ltalie.  the  blue  sky  of  Italy. 

(2)  Adjectives  of  nationality,  religion,  profession,  title, 

and  those  from  proper  names: 

Le  droit  anglais;  un  pretre  catho-      English  law;    a  Cathohc  priest; 
lique;   une  splendeur  royale;  royal     splendor;       Ciceronian 

le  latin  cic6ronien.  Latin. 

(3)  Participles  used  as  adjectives: 

Une  etoile  filants;    un  homme      A  shooting  star;  an  educated  man; 
instruit;  une  porte  ouverte.  an  open  door. 


o.  By*  the  general  rule  (§351)  they  sometimes  precede: 
Una  eclatante  victoire.  A  signal  victory. 

h.  Past  participial  forms  which  have  become  real  adjectives,  e.g., 
pretendu,  absolu,  parfait,  dissolu,  feint,  ruse,  etc.,  very  often  precede 
(pretendu  nearly  always): 

Une  feinte  modestie.  Feigned  modesty. 

Le  pretendu  comte.  The  would-be  coxmt. 

2.  Adjectives  sometimes  follow  the  noun  on  account  of 
their  adjuncts  or  their  function;  thus: 

(1)  When  modified  by  an  adverb,  other  than  aussi,  si, 
tres,  bien,  fort,  plus,  moins,  assez: 

Un  discours  extremement  long.      An  extremely  long  speech. 
But:  Un  tres  long  discours.  A  very  long  speech. 

(2)  When  modified  by  an  adverbial  phrase,  or  in  com- 

Une  contr^e  riche  en  vins.  A  district  rich  in  wines. 

Un  guerrier  brave  conune  un  lion.      A  warrior  as  brave  as  a  lion. 

(3)  Nouns  used  appositively  as  adjectives: 
Une  puissance  amie.  A  friendly  power. 

3.  Two  or  more  adjectives,  with  one  noun,  follow,  m 
general,  the  rules  stated,  but,  if  joined  by  a  conjunction, 
they  all  follow,  in  case  one  is  such  as  must  follow: 

Une  jolie  petite  fille.  A  pretty  little  girl. 

Une  belle  maison  blanche.  A  beautiful  white  house. 

Un  objet  blanc  et  etincelant.  A  white  and  dazzling  object. 

Une  dame  belle  et  savante.  A  beautiful  and  learned  lady. 

a.  The  more  sjiecific  of  two  or  more  adjectives  which  follow  comes 
last,  contrary  to  English  usage: 

Des  ecrivains  fran^ais  habiles.  Clever  French  writers. 

4.  A  considerable  number  of  adjectives  differ  more  or 
less  widely  in  meaning,  according  as  they  precede  or  follow: 
Mon  cher  enfant ;  une  robe  ch ere.    My  dear  child;  a  costly  dress. 

Le  moyen  &ge;  un  homme  d'kge    The  Middle  Ages;   a  middle-aged 
moyen.  man. 




Such  adjectives  are: 











































Note.  —  Distinctions  of  this  kind  depend,  in  the  main,  upon  the  general 
principles  laid  down  above,  but  they  are  too  numerous  and  too  subtle 
to  be  given  in  detail  here.  Observation,  and  the  use  of  a  good  dictionary 
will,  in  time,  make  the  learner  familiar  with  the  most  important  of  them. 

353.  Determinatives.  Such  adjectives,  including  numer- 
als, possessives,  demonstratives,  indefinites,  precede: 

Trois  plumes;  mes  plumes.  Three  pens;  my  pens. 

Ces  plumes-ci;  d'autres  plumes.       These  pens;  other  pens. 


354.  An  adjective  is  often  followed  by  a  complement  con- 
nected with  it  by  a  preposition,  such  as  a,  de,  en,  envers, 
etc.  The  preposition  to  be  used  is  determined  by  the  mean- 
ing of  the  adjective,  as  explained  in  the  following  sections. 

355.  Adjective  +  a.  The  preposition  a.  =  to,  at,  for, 
etc.,  is  required  after  most  adjectives  denoting  tendency, 
fitness,  and  their  opposites,  comparison,  etc. 

Cet  homme  est  adoime  a  la  boisson.  That  man  is  addicted  to  drink. 

II  est  favorable  a  mes  projets.  He  is  favorable  to  my  projects. 

II  est  bien  habile  aux  affaires.  He  is  very  clever  in  business. 

Un  homme  superieur  a  tous.  A  man  superior  to  all. 

Ce  n'est  bon  a  rien.  That  is  good  for  nothing. 

Such  adjectives  are: 

accoutum6,  accustomed  (to)   cher,  dear  (to)  hardi,  bold  (in) 

adroit,  clever  (at)  convenable,  suitable  (to)   impropre,  unfit  (for) 

agreable,  pleasant  (to)  6gal,  equal  (to)  inferieur,  inferior  (to) 

antferieur,  anterior  (to)  exact,  exact  (in)  inMble,  unfaithful  (to) 

ardent,  ardent  (in)  fiddle,  faithful  (in)  inutile,  useless  (to) 

bon,  good,  fit  (for)  fort,  clever  (at)  lent,  slow  (in) 


nuisible,  hurtful  (to)  pr6t,  ready  (to)  semblable.  similar  {to) 

oppos6,  opposed  (to)  prompt,  prompt  (in)  utile,  useful  (to) 

pareil,  similar  (to)  propice,  propitious  (to)         etc. 

port6,  inclined  (to)  propre,  fit  (for) 

a.  Bon  pour  =  good  for,  beneficial  to,  kind  to. 

356.  Adjective  +  de.  The  preposition  de  =  of,  from, 
with,  etc.,  is  required  after  most  adjectives  denoting  source 
or  origin  (hence  also,  feeling,  sentiment,  abundance),  sepa- 
ration (hence  also,  absence,  distance,  want,  etc.),  and  after 
most  past  participles  to  denote  the  agent  (cf.  §  240): 
fetes-vous  natif  de  IHuis?  Are  you  a  native  of  Paris? 

lis  sont  contents  de  mon  succds.  They  are  pleased  at  my  succesa. 

Elle  est  pleine  de  vanite.  She  is  full  of  vanity. 

Je  suis  libre  de  soucis.  I  am  free  from  care, 

n  est  inconnu  de  tous.  He  is  unknown  to  all. 

Such  adjectives  are: 

absent,  absent  (from)        digne,  vwrihy  (of)  jaloux,  jealous  (of) 

afflig^,  grieved  (at)  61oign6,  distant  (from)  lourd,  heavy  (tciih) 

aise,  glad  (of)  enchant^,  delighted  (with)  offens6,  offended  (at) 

alann6,  alarmed  (at)         ennuy6,  weary  (of)  pauvre,  poor  (in) 

ambitieux,  ambitious  (of)  6tonn6,  astonished  (at)  plcin,  full  (of) 

avide,  greedy  (of)  exempt,  free  (from)  ravi,  delighted  (tvith) 

b6ni,  blessed  (by)  f&ch6,  sorry  (for)  satisfait,  satisfied  (with) 

capable,  capable  (of)         fier,  proud  (of)  soucieux,  anxious  (about) 

charm6,  delighted  (with)  gloricux,  proud  (of)  souill^,  soiled  (with) 

ch6ri,  beloved  (by)  h6riss6,  bristling  (with)  etr,  sure  (of) 

confus,  confused  (at)         heureux,  glad  (of)  surpris,  surprised  (at) 

contrari6,  vexed  (with)      honteux,  ashamed  (of)  triste,  sad  (at) 

d6nu6,  destitute  (of)  ignorant,  ignorant  (of)  vain,  tain  (of) 

dfepourvu,  devoid  (of)       indigne,  unworthy  (of)  vex6,  vexed  (at) 

d6sireux,  desirous  (of)      inquiet,  uneasy  (about)  vide,  empty  (of) 
different,  different  (from)  ivre,  intoxicated  (with)  etc. 

a.  Fiche  centre  =  angry  at  or  with  (a  person). 

357.  Adjective  +  en.     En  is  required  after  a  few  adjec- 
tives denoting  abundance,  skill,  etc.: 

Le  Canada  est  fertile  en  ble.  Canada  is  fertile  in  wheat. 

D  est  expert  en  chirurgie.  He  is  expert  in  surgery. 

Such  adjectives  are: 
abondant,  abounding  (in)  fort,  strong  (in),  learned  (in)     riche,  rich  (in) 
f6cond,  fruitful  (in)  ignorant,  ignorant  (in)    ,  savant,  learned  (in) 



§§  358-359 

a.  fort  and  ignorant  sometimes  have  sur: 
n  est  fort  sur  I'histoire.  He  is  well  versed  (good)  in  history. 

Ignorant  sur  ces  naatieres-l&. 

Ignorant  about  those  matters. 

358.  Adjective  +  envers.     Envers   is  used   after  most 
adjectives  denoting  disposition  or  feeling  towards: 

II  est  liberal  envers  tous. 

He  is  hberal  towards  all. 

Such  adjectives  are: 

affable,  affable 
bon,  kind 

charitable,  charitable 
civil,  civil 
cruel,  cruel 
dur,  hard,  harsh 
g^nereux,  generous 
grossier,  rude 

honnfete,  polite 
indulgent,  indulgent 
ingrat,  ungrateful 
insolent,  insolent 
juste,  just 
mechant,  malicious 
misericordieux,  merciful 
ofEcieux,  obliging 

poli,  polite 
prodigue,  lavish 
reconnaissant,  grjiteful 
respectueux,  respectful 
responsable,  responsible 
rigoureux,  stern 
severe,  severe,  stern 

a.  Bon,  dur,  very  frequently  take  pour;  indulgent  may  take  pour 
or  a: 

n  est  bon  (dur)  pour  moi. 
Indulgent  pour  {k)  ses  enfants. 

He  is  kind  (harsh)  to  me. 
Indulgent  to  his  children. 

6.  Observe  that  bien  and  mal  are  sometimes  used  adjectivally, 
as  in:  il  est  bien,  he  is  good-looking;  elle  n'est  pas  mal,  she  is  not  bad- 
looking;  nous  sommes  bien  ici,  we  are  comfortable  here,  etc. 



Personal  Pronouns 

1.   Conjunctive  forms: 

IST  Peb.  2nd  Per. 

'JN.  je   I  tu   thou 

3hd  Peh.  (f.)    3bd  Ref.  (m.f .) 
elle   she,  it 

lui   (to)  her 
la  her,  it 
elles  they 




3bd  Per.  (m.) 
il   he,  it 
§  D.  me  (to)  me  te   (to)  thee    lui   (to)  him 
SS'A.   me  me  te  thee  le   him,  it 

^N.  nous  we         vous  you        ils  they 
P^  D.  nous  (to)  us  vous  (to)  you  leur  (to)  them  leur  (to)  them  se  (to)  -selves 
^^A.   nous  us        vous  you        les  them  les  them         se  -selves 

§§360-361  THE  PERSONAL  PRONOUN  135 

2.   Disjunctive  forms: 

l8T.  Feb.        2nd  Feb.    3rd  Feb.  (m.)         Sbd  Per.  (f.)    3bd  Ref.  (m.f.) 

5  A 

moi  I,  me     toi  thou,     loi  he,  him  elle  she,  her  soi  oneself,  etc 


^A..  >  nous  we,  us    vous  you   euz  they,  them   elles  they,  them 
^P.  J 

[N.  =  nominative;  D.  -  dative;  A.  -  accusative;  P.  »  object  of  a 

Note.  —  A  more  scientific  terminology  would  be  '  unstressed '  and 
'stressed'  instead  of  'conjunctive'  and  'disjunctive,'  as  indicating  the  real 
distinction  between  the  two  sets  of  forms,  e.g.,  Je  (unstressed)  parte;  Q'" 
parle  ?  —  Moi  (stressed).  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  unstressed  forms  usually 
stand  in  immediate  connection  with  the  verb  (as  subject  or  object),  hence  the 
term  'conjunctive,'  while  the  stressed  forms  are  usually  employed  otherwise, 
hence  the  term  'disjunctive.' 

360.  Pronominal  Adverbs 

J  =  to  (at,  on,  in,  into,  etc.)  it  at  them;   there,  thither, 
en  =  of  {from,  etc.)  it  or  them;  some,  any,  some  of  it,  some  of  them; 
thence,  from  there. 

Note.  —  Y  and  en  were  originally  adverbs  ( y  from  L.  ibi  =  there,  and 
en  from  L.  inde  =  tlience),  but  they  are  now  usually  pronominal  in  function, 
and  are  used  precisely  like  the  conjunctive  forms. 

361.  Agreement.  The  personal  pronoun  regularly  agrees 
with  its  antecedent  in  gender,  number,  and  person: 

Nous  les  avons  frappe(e)s.  We  have  struck  them. 

Elle  lit  la  lettre;  elle  la  lit.  She  reads  the  letter;  she  reads  it. 

a.  The  first  person  plural  for  the  first  person  singular  is  used  by 
sovereigns  and  authorities,  and  by  writers,  as  in  English: 
Nous  (le  roi)  avons  ordonnS  et      We  (the  king)  have  ordained  and 

ordonnons  ce  qui  suit.  ordain  as  follows. 

Comme  nous  avons  dit  dej&.  As  we  have  said  already. 

6.   Vous  =  you  (singular  or  plural)  has  a  plural  verb;    its  other 
agreements,  as  also  those  of  nous  above,  are  according  to  the  sense: 
Nous  (la  reine)  sommes  contente.      We  (the  queen)  are  satisfied. 
Madame,  vous  etes  bien  bonne.      Madam,  you  are  very  kind. 

136  THE   PRONOUN  §  362 

c.  For  imperative  first  plural  instead  of  first  singular,  see  §  267,  a. 

d.  II  and  le  are  used  as  invariable  neutral  forms,  when  the  antecedent 
is  one  to  which  gender  cannot  be  ascribed: 

y  en  a-t-i7 ?  —  Jele  crois.  Is  there  any  (of  it)?     I  think  so. 

362.  Case    Relations    of    Conjunctives.     1.   The    nomi- 
native forms  stand  as  subject  and  the  accusative  forms  as 
direct  object  to  a  verb;  their  use  is  obvious: 
n  nous  a  vus.  He  saw  us. 

a.  The  conjunctive  is  optional  when  there  are  two  accusatives: 
Je  (les)  blame  lui  et  elle.  I  blame  him  and  her. 

2.  The  dative  forms  denote  the  person  or  thing  for  whose 
*  advantage  '  or  '  disadvantage  '  the  action  is  done,  denoted 
by  a  =  to,  for,  from,  with  nouns: 

Je  leur  preterai  les  livres.  I  shall  lend  them  the  books. 

On  lui  a  vole  son  argent.  His  money  has  been  stolen  from 


But  a  +  a  disjunctive  form  is  used  in  the  following  cases: 

(1)  When  two  datives  are  joined  by  a  conjunction,  or 
when  in  emphasis  a  second  dative  is  implied: 

J' en  ai  parle  &  lui  et  i  elle.  I  spoke  of  it  to  him  and  to  her, 

Je  donne  le  livre  k  elle  (pas  k  lui).       I  give  the  book  to  her  (not  to  him). 

(2)  When  the  conjunctive  direct  object  is  any  other 
pronoun  than  le,  la,  les: 

Je  vous  presente  k  elle.  I  introduce  you  to  her. 

II  se  presenta  a  moi.  He  introduced  himself  to  me. 

But:  Je  le  (la,  les)  leur  presente,  etc. 

(3)  After  verbs  of  motion  and  some  others,  to  denote  the 
'  object  towards  which  the  action  tends,'  the  relation, 
though  expressed  by  a,  not  being  really  dative: 

Je  courus  k  lui.  I  ran  to  him. 

Cette  maison  est  k  moi.  That  house  belongs  to  me. 

n  pense  (songe,  reve)  a  eux.  He  thinks  (muses,  dreams)  of  them. 

§§  363-365 



Such  verbs  are: 

accoutumer,  accustom 

aller,  go 

appeler,  call 

en  appeler,  appeal 

aspirer,  aspire 

attirer,  attract 

avoir  affaire,  have  to  do 

avoir  recours,  have  re- 

comparer,  compare 
courir,  run 
fetre  (i),  bcloTto  (to) 
faire  attention,  pay  atten- 
habituer,  accustom 
marcher,  march 
penser,  think 
prendre  garde,  take  heed 

prendre  interSt,    take 

pretendre,  aspire 
recourir,  have  recoxurte 
renoncer,  rerunince 
revenir,  come  back 
rfever,  dream 
songer,  muse 
venir,  come 

a.  Certain  verbs  of  this  class,  when  not  Uteral,  take  the  conjunctive 

n  lui  Vint  une  idee.  There  occurred  to  him  an  idea. 

Vous  nous  reviendrez.  You  will  come  to  see  us  again. 

Note.  —  The  ethical  dative,  denoting  the  person  'interested  in'  or 
'affected  by'  an  action,  rare  in  English,  is  common  in  French:  Gotitez-moi 
ce  vin-lft,  Just  taste  that  wine. 

363.  Impersonal  il.  For  invariable  il  as  the  subject  of 
an  impersonal  verb,  see  §§  248-253. 

364.  Predicative  /e,  la,  les.  As  predicate  the  third  per- 
son is  either  variable  or  invariable: 

1.  Le  agrees  when  referring  to  a  determinate  nomi  or 
to  an  adjective  used  as  such: 

fites-vous  sa  mere?  —  Je  la  suis.     Are  you  his  mother?  —  I  am. 
£tes-vous  la  mariee?  —  Je  la  suls.    Are  you  the  bride?  —  I  am. 

2.  Le,  invariable,  is  used  when  referring  to  an  adjective, 
or  to  a  noun  as  adjective: 

l;tes-vous  fatiguee?  —  Je  le  suis.     Are  you  tired?  —  I  am. 
Etes-vous  mere?  —  Je  le  suis.  Are  you  a  mother?  —  I  am. 

365.  Pleonastic  le.  The  neutral  form  le  (§361,  d)  is 
often  pleonastic,  as  compared  with  Enghsh  usage: 

fites-vous  mere?  —  Je  le  suis.  Are  you  a  mother?  —  I  am. 

Qu'ils  soient  venus,  je  le  sais.  That  they  have  come,  I  know. 

Pais  du  bien,  quand  tu  le  peux.  Do  good  when  you  can. 

Ce  qu'il  voulait,  il  le  veut  encore.  What  he  wished,  he  still  wishes. 

138  THE  PRONOUN  §§366-367 

Je  suis  prete,  s'il  le  faut.  I  am  ready  if  need  be. 

Je  m'en  irai,  si  vous  le  desirez.         I  shall  go  if  you  wish  (it), 
lis  sent  comme  je  (le)  desirerais.      They  are  as  I  should  like. 
II  est  plus  age  que  je  ne  (le)  suis.   He  is  older  than  I  am. 
06s.:   This  le  is  optional  in  comparative  clauses. 

a.  Le  is  also  used  in  a  number  of  fixed  expressions: 
II  ne  le  cede  a  personne.  He  yields  to  nobody. 

Nous  Z'avons  emporte.  We  have  carried  the  day. 

II  Va  echappe  belle.  He  had  a  narrow  escape. 

6.   Le  may  sometimes  be  translated  by  one  or  so: 
II  est  soldat;  je  le  suis  aussi.  He  is  a  soldier;  I  am  one  too. 

Sois  brave,  et  je  Ze  serai  aussi.         Be  brave  and  I  shall  be  so  too. 

366.  Reflexives.  1.  A  special  conjunctive  reflexive  form, 
se  for  dative  or  accusative  of  either  gender  or  number,  is 
required  in  the  third  person  only;  for  the  first  and  second 
person  the  ordinary  forms  are  used  (cf .  §  242) : 

n  (elle)  se  loue.  He  (she)  praises  him  (her)  -self. 

lis  (elles)  se  le  sent  dit.  They  said  so  to  each  other. 

But:   Je  me  loue;  tu  ie  loues;  nous  nous  louons;  vous  vous  louez. ' 

2.  The  disjunctive  soi  is  hardly  used  beyond  the  third 
singular  in  an  indefinite  or  general  sense: 
Chacun  travaille  pour  soi.  Every  one  works  for  himself. 

On  doit  parler  rarement  de  soi.         One  should  rarely  speak  of  oneself. 
De  soi  le  vice  est  odieux.  In  itself  vice  is  hateful. 

But:  EUe  est  contente  d'elle-meme;  ils  ne  songent  qu'a  eux-memes. 

a.  The  use  of  soi  is  rarer  for  the  feminine  than  for  the  mascuhne: 
Un  bienfait  porte  sa  recompense      A   good   deed   brings   its   reward 

avec  SOI  (lui).  with  it. 

La  guerre  entraine  apres  elle  (soi)      War  brings  after  it  countless  evils. 

des  maux  sans  nombre. 

Note.  —  Soi  is  no  longer  used  of  persons  denoted  by  a  general  noun,  e.g.', 
L'avare  ne  vit  que  pour  lui-m^me  (not  pour  soi),  nor  is  it  used,  as  formerly, 
of  p)ersons  to  avoid  ambiguity,  e.g.,  Quoique  son  frere  soit  dans  la  misere, 
U  ne  pense  qu'3  lui-meme  (not  k  soi). 

367.  Uses  of  en.  1.'  En  is  in  function  an  equivalent  of 
de  +  a  pronoun  of  the  third  person  of  either  gender  or 
number;  it  is  used  of  things,  and  less  commonly  of  persons: 




Je  parle  des  plumes;  j'en  parle. 
Donnez-les-moi;  j'en  ai  besoin. 
11  est  mon  ami;  j'en  reponds. 
II  aime  ses  fils,  et  11  en  est  alme. 

Vous  voili ;  j'en  suis  content. 
Vient-il  de  Chicago?  —  II  en  vient. 

I  speak  of  the  pens;  I  speak  of  them. 
Give  me  them;  I  need  them. 
He  is  my  friend;   I  answer  for  him. 
He  loves  his  sons,  and  is  loved  by 

There  you  are;  I  am  glad  of  it. 
Does  he  come  from  C?    He  does. 

a.  The  antecedent  is  often  understood  or  indefinite: 

Voyons !  oft  en  etions-nous? 
Ds  en  sont  venus  auz  mains. 
D  m'en  veut. 
Tant  s'en  faut. 
C'en  est  fait  de  luL 
A  vous  en  crolre. 
Quo!  qu'll  en  solt. 
Je  n'en  peuz  plus. 

Let  me  see,  how  far  on  were  we? 

They  came  to  blows. 

He  has  a  grudge  against  me. 

Far  from  it. 

It  is  all  up  with  him. 

If  one  is  to  believe  you. 

However  it  (that)  may  be. 

I  am  worn  out. 

There  are  some  who  think  so. 

n  y  en  a  qui  le  crolent. 

2.  Through  a  somewhat  special  application  of  the  general 
principle,  it  is  further  used: 

(1)  In  a  partitive  sense: 

Void  du  papier;  en  voxilez-vous?  Here  is  some  paper;  do  you  wish 

—  Mercl,  j'en  al.  any?  — Thank  you,  I  have  some. 

Avez-vous  xme  plume?  — J'en  ai  Have  you  a  pen?  —  I  have  one  (I 

une  (j'en  al  plusleurs).  have  several). 

H  me  faut  en  acheter  d'autres.  I  must  buy  others. 

(2)  En  =  thereof  +  the  definite  article  replaces  a  possess- 
ive adjective  referring  to  a  possessor  in  the  preceding 
clause,  but  only  when  the  thing  possessed  is  a  direct 
object,  a  subject  of  etre,  or  a  predicate  noun: 

Palme  ce  pays;  j'en  admire  les      I  like  this  country;    I  admire  its 

Blimez  les  peches  de  ces  gens, 

mals  n'en  bl&mez  pas  les  mal- 

Cette  affaire  est  delicate;  lesuc- 

cds  en  est  douteux. 
Ceci  est  la  gloire  du  pays;  cela 

en  est  la  honte. 
But:  Cette  maison  a  ses  defauts  (the  possessor  not  being  in  the  pre- 

Blame  the  sins  of  those  people,  but 
do  not  blame  their  misfortunes. 

That  affair  is  delicate;  its  success 

is  doubtful. 
This  is  the  country's  glory;  that  is 

its  disgrace. 

140  THE  PRONOUN  §§368-369 

vious  sentence);  J'aime  ces  vers;  leur  hannonie  me  ravit  (the  thing 
possessed  being  subject  of  another  verb  than  etre) ;  J'admire  ce  pays; 
11  est  fameux  par  ses  bonnes  lois  (the  thing  possessed  being  governed 
by  a  preposition). 

368.  Use  of  y.     Y  is  in  function  equivalent  to  a  (en, 
dans,  etc.)  +  a  pronoun  of  the  third  person  of  either  gender 
or  number;  it  is  used  of  things,  and  rarely  of  persons: 
Jepenseimespeches;  j'ypense.     I  think  of  my  sins;  I  think  of  them. 
II  est  en  Europe;  il  y  est,  et  moi     He  is  in  Em-ope;  he  is  there,  and  I 

j'y  vais  aussi.  am  going  there  too. 

II  se  connait  en  ces  choses,  mais  He  is  an  expert  in  those  things,  but 

moi  je  ne  m'y  connais  pas.  I  am  not. 

II  aspire  a  cela;  il  y  aspire.  He  aspires  to  that;  he  aspires  to  it. 

Vous  fiez-vous  k  lui?  —  Je  m'y  fie.  Do  you  trust  him?  —  I  trust  him. 

a.  The  antecedent  is  often  tmderstood  or  indefinite: 
II  y  va  de  votre  vie.  Your  life  is  at  stake. 

J'y  suis  I     Qu'i/  a-t-il?  I  have  it !    What  is  the  matter? 

II  s'y  prend  adroitement.  He  goes  about  it  cleverly, 

Est-ce  que  Monsieur  B.  y  est?  Is  Mr.  B.  at  home? 

Y  pensez-vous?  You  don't  mean  it? 

369.  Position  of  Conjunctive  Objects.  1.  They  stand 
immediately  before  their  governing  verb,  except  the  impera- 
tive affirmative: 

Je  leiu:  en  parietal.  I  shall  speak  to  them  of  it. 

Je  I'y  ai  envoye  pom:  le  leur  dire.       I  sent  him  there  to  tell  them  it. 
II  lui  faut  parler ;  11  faut  lui  parler.      He  must  speak;  one  must  speak  to 


a.  With  negative  infinitive,  the  object  may  stand  between  ne  and 
pas  (point,  rien,  etc.);   similarly  adverb  +  infinitive: 
Je  suis  etoime  de  ne  point  le  voir      I  am  astonished  not  to  see  him. 

{or  ne  le  point  voir). 
Pour  les  blen  considerer.  To  consider  them  well. 

6.  The  objects  of  an  infinitive  governed  by  falre,  lalsser  (cf.  §  230, 
6,  7)  or  a  verb  of  perceiving  (entendre,  etc.),  accompany  the  finite  verb: 
Je  le  lui  feral  dire.  I  shall  make  him  say  it. 

II  se  le  volt  refuser.  He  sees  himself  being  refused  it. 

Faites-vous-la  raconter.  Have  it  related  to  you. 


c.  A  similar  arrangement  is  permissible  with  aller,  venir,  envoyer, 

etc.  +  an  infinitive: 

Je  vais  le  chercher.  I'll  fetch  it  (or  him). 

J'enverrai  le  chercher  or\  t   l  n       j  r     l- 

"1    „  .    ,       .  r  A  shall  send  for  him. 

Je  Tenverrai  chercher.    J 

Note.  —  In  the  older  language,  objects  of  an  infinitive  often  stood 
before  the  so-called  modal  auxiliaries,  e.g.,  Je  vous  dois  dire,  but  usage 
hardly  permits  this  now,  except  for  en,  y,  eg.,  Ce  qu'on  en  doit  attendre. 

2.  Conjunctive  objects  stand  immediately  after  an  im- 
perative affirmative: 

Regardez-les;  4coutez-nous.  Look  at  them;  listen  to  us. 

Donnez-le-lui ;  allons-nous-en.  Give  it  to  him;  let  us  go  away. 

But:  Ne  les  regardez  pas.  Do  not  look  at  them. 

Ne  les  ecoutez  point.  Do  not  listen  to  them. 

Ne  le  lui  donnez  pas.  Do  not  give  it  to  him. 

0.  The  rule  does  not  apply  to  the  subjunctive  as  impve.  (§  272,  1,  o) : 

Qu'il  les  ecoute.  Let  him  listen  to  them. 

Notes.  —  1.  Formerly,  but  rarely  now,  an  imperative  affirmative  when 
joined  to  another  by  et  (ou,  mais)  might  have  an  object  before  it:  Achetez- 
les  et  les  payez,  etc. 

2.  Void  and  voild,  which  are  imperatives  by  derivation,  are  always 
preceded  by  their  conjunctive  object:  Les  Toid,  en  voili,  etc. 

370.  Relative  Position  of  Objects.  Personal  pronomi 
objects  and  pronominal  adverbs  are  arranged  with  reference 
to  each  other,  as  follows: 

1.  When  coming  before  the  verb: 

before   [  le   1   before  f  lui    1  before  y  —  before  en 
\]&    \  \  leur  / 






n  me  les  donne.  He  gives  them  to  me. 

n  les  lui  donne.  He  gives  them  to  him. 

n  nous  en  donne.  He  gives  us  some  of  it. 

Je  leiir  en  parlerai.  I  shall  speak  to  them  of  it. 

Ne  leur  en  parlez  pas.  Do  not  speak  of  it  to  them. 

Je  l*y  ai  envoye  po;ir  le  leur  dire.  1  sent  him  there  to  tell  them  it. 




a.  When  there  are  two  direct  or  two  indirect  objects,  they  become 
disjunctive  and  follow  the  verb: 

J'ai  vu  lui  et  elle.  I  have  seen  him  and  her. 

J'en  ai  parle  a  lui  et  a  elle.  I  spoke  of  it  to  him  and  to  her. 

2.   When  coming  after  the  verb: 

le  (la  les) 

me  (te,  lui,  nous,  vous,  le\ir) 

before  moi  (toi,  lui,  nous,  vous,  leur) 
before  y  (en) 
before  en 

Doimez-m'en;  va-Z'en. 

Give  them  to  me. 
Give  them  some  of  it. 
Give  me  some;  begone. 
Take  us  there. 
Go  away. 

a.  After  an  imperative,  the  indirect  objects  nous,  vous,  may  precede 
the  direct  le,  la,  les  in  familiar  language: 
Conservez-i'ous-?e.  Keep  it  for  yourselves. 

Tenez-vous-le  pour  dit.  Consider  it  as  final. 

3.   Reference  table  showing  possible  con 


of  two 

pronouns : 

(Before  the  Verb) 

(After  the  Verb) 

me  le 

te  le 

se  le 

le      lui 

-le  -moi 

-le  -toi 

-le  -lui 

me  la 

te  la 

se  la 

la     lui 

-la  -moi 

-la  -toi 

-la  -lui 

me  les 

te  les 

se  les 

les    lui 




nous  le 

vous  le 

se  le 

le   leur 

-le  -nous 

-le  -vous 

-le  -leur 

nous  la 

vous  la 

se  la 

la  levu- 

-la  -nous 

-la  -vous 

-la  -leur 

nous  les 

vous  les 

se  les 

les  leur 







lui  en 











nous  en 

vous  en 


leur  en 




nous  en 

vous  en 


les    en 



-les  -en 















nous  y 

vous  y 


leur  y 




nous  y 

vous  y 


les    y 



-les  -y 

y  en 


§§371-372  THE  PERSONAL  PRONOXJN  143 

Obs.:  1.  The  dujunctive  forms  moi,  toi  are  used  instead  of  me,  te  after 
the  verb,  except  before  en. 

2.  After  the  verb,  the  forms  are  joined  to  it  and  to  each  other  by  hyphens, 
apostrophe  instead  of  hyphen  being  used  according  to  §  19. 

3.  Combinations  of  three  forms  are  rare,  e.g.,  11  nous  y  en  a  domi6; 
they  are  usually  avoided,  e-g.,  Donnes-y-en  a  moi  for  Donne-m'y-eTi. 

4.  The  forms  in  [  ]  are  almost  always  avoided,  either  by  transposition 
or  by  some  other  form  of  expression,  e.g.,  Menes-y-moi  or  Mene-moi  la  for 
'M.hne-m'y,  etc.     See  §  159,  4. 

371.  Omission  of  Object  The  object  of  the  second  of 
two  verbs  in  a  compound  tense  joined  by  et  or  ou  may  be 
omitted  along  with  the  auxiliary  and  the  subject: 

H  Pa.  pris  et  tue.  He  caught  and  killed  it. 

Or:    II  Ta  pris  et  Ta  tue.  He  caught  it  and  killed  it. 

*      D  Ta  pris  et  il  Ta  tu6.  He  has  caught  it  and  has  killed  it. 

But:  II  Pa.  pris,  Pa  tue.  He  has  caught  it,  has  killed  it. 

II  le  prend,  et  le  tue.  He  catches  it,  and  kills  it. 

Note.  —  The  verbs  must  be  alike  in  government,  must  have  the  same 
auxiliary,  must  both  be  affirmative  or  negative,  otherwise  no  omission  is 

372.  Disjunctives.  When,  for  any  reason,  the  pronoun 
is  stressed  (§  7),  the  disjunctive  form  is  usually  employed 
(see  §359,  note);   thus,  the  disjunctives  are  used: 

1.  Absolutely,  a  verb  being  implied,  but  not  expressed: 
Qui  est  Ik?  —  Moi  (eux,  elle).  Who  is  there?  —  I  (they,  she). 
Qui  as-tu  vu?  —  Lxii  (eux).  Whom  did  you  see?  —  Him  (them). 
Toi  absent,  que  ferai-je?  You  absent,  what  shall  I  do? 

a.  So  also,  in  compariaons,  and  analogously,  after  ne . . .  que: 
Je  suis  plus  grand  que  toi.  I  am  taller  than  you. 

Faites  comme  eux.  Do  as  they  do. 

Je  n'ai  vu  que  lui.  I  have  seen  him  only. 

2.  In  appositions,  often  emphatic: 

Moi,  je  I'ai  vu  (moi-meme).  (Why)  I  saw  it  myself. 

Toi  qui  I'as  vu,  tu  me  crois.  You  who  saw  it  (j'ou)  believe  me. 

Lui  aussi  (il)  le  sait.  He  too  knows  it. 

Cela  vous  est  facile  k  vous.  That  is  easy  for  you. 

144  THE   PRONOUN  §  373 

a.  With  lui  so  used,  and  sometimes  also  with  eux,  the  conjimctive 
subject  may  be  omitted: 

Lui  seul  (il)  ne  le  voulait  pas.  He  alone  did  not  wish  it. 

Lui  travaillait;  eux  jouaient.  He  worked;  they  played. 

Note.  —  Je  soussigne  =  /  the  undersigned  is  a  relic  of  the  earlier  language. 

3.  As  logical  subject  after  ce  +  etre: 
C'estmoi(toi,vous);  ce  sent  eux.      It  is  I  (thou,  you);  it  is  they. 

4.  With  an  infinitive: 

Moi  t'oublier !  jamais.  I  forget  thee  !    Never. 

Et  eux  de  s'enfuir.  And  they  made  off. 

5.  When  the  subject  or  object  is  composite,  see  also 
§362,  1,  a  and  2,  (1): 

Son  frere  et  lui  sent  venus.  His  brother  and  he  have  come. 

a.  A  composite  subject  or  object  is  usually  summed  up  by  a  pleo- 
nastic appositive  conjunctive,  especially  when  the  components  are 
unlike  in  person: 

Vous  et  lui  (vous)  I'avez  vu.  You  and  he  saw  it. 

Je  vous  envoie,  toi  et  ton  frere.        I  send  you  and  your  brother. 

6.  After  a  preposition: 

Je  parle  de  toi  et  d'eux.  I  speak  of  you  and  of  them. 

Us  sont  chez  eux.  They  are  at  home. 

n  se  moque  de  nous.  He  makes  sport  of  us. 

a.  Observe  the  peculiar  use  of  a  preposition  +  a  disjunctive  pronoun 
as  a  sort  of  emphatic  appositive  of  possession. 
J'ai  une  maison  k  moi.  I  have  a  house  of  my  own. 

Mon  idee  k  moi,  c'est,  etc.  My  (own)  idea  is,  etc. 

Note.  —  A  disjunctive  for  things  after  a  preposition  is  usually  avoided, 
either  by  means  of  en,  y,  or  else  by  an  adverb,  such  as  dedans,  dehors, 
dessus,  devant,  derriere,  etc.:  Je  ne  vols  rien  la  dedans  (in  it);  Voyez  sur 
la  table,  cherchez  dessus  (on  it)  et  dessous  (under  it). 

7.  For  moi  and  toi  after  imperative,  see  §  370,  3,  ohs.  1. 

373.  Pronouns  in  Address.  In  addressing  one  person 
vous  is,  in  general,  the  pronoun  of  formality  and  respect, 
whilst  tu  denotes  familiarity,  affection,  solemnity,  etc., 
as  follows: 




1.  Tu  =  you,  of  one  person,  is  generally  used  between 
members  of  the  same  family  (husband  and  wife,  parents 
and  children,  brothers  and  sisters),  between  very  intimate 
friends,  between  children,  by  grown  persons  to  children  and 
sometimes  to  servants,  by  everybody  to  animals  and  inani- 
mate objects: 

Oa  es-tu,  mon  cher  pSre?  Where  are  you,  my  dear  father? 

Est-ce  toi,  mon  enfant?  Is  that  you,  my  child? 

Pauvre  chien,  tu  as  faim.  Poor  dog,  you  are  hungry. 

2.  Tu  =  thou  is  used  in  poetry  and  elevated  prose,  and 
by  Protestants  in  addressing  God,  Roman  Catholics  using 

Nous  te  (vous)  louons,  6  Dieu  I       We  praise  thee,  O  God ! 

3.  Vous,  with  the  above  limitations,  is  used,  both  in  the 
singular  and  plural,  as  'you'  is  in  English. 




1.  Adjectival  Forms: 
Sing.  Pl. 

m.  mon 
f.    ma  (mon) 
m.  ton 
f.   ta  (ton) 
m.  son 
f.    sa  (son) 

mes,  my 

tes,  thy,  your 

his,  her, 
its,  one's 

>    ses  \ 









nos,  our 
vos,  your 
leurs,  their 

Obs.:    1.   The  forms  in  parenthe- 
sis, mon,  ton,  son,  are  used  instead 

2.  Pronominal  Forms: 

Sma.  Pl. 

m.  le  mien  les  miens     1     . 

,    ,       .  ,         .  >  mme 

f .  la  mienne  les  miennes  j 

m.  le  tien  les  tiens     1    , . 

f .    la  tienne  les  tiennes  J  ' 

m.  le  sien  les  siens     \  his,  hers,  its, 

f .    la  sienne  les  siennes  J  one's  own 

m.  Ien6tre\  ,        ^^ 

e     ,      «>_    ^  les  notres,  ours 

f.    la  ndtre  I  ' 

m.  le  v6tre  1  ,       -.^ 

f.    Iav6tre/  l^s  v6tres,  yours 

m.  le  leurl  ,     ,  ^,   . 

,     ,    ,       >  les  leurs,  theirs 
f .    la  leur  j 

Obs.:  1.   The  feminine,  except  for 
leur,  is  formed  as  for  adjectives  of 

146  THE  PRONOUN  §§375-376 

of  ma,  ta,  sa,  before  a  vowel  or  h  like  ending.  2.  De,  a  +  le,  les, 
mute:  Mon  amie,  my  friend  (f.);  contract  as  usual;  thus,  du  mien 
ton  histoire  (f.),  your  story;  son  (=  de  -\-  le  mien),  aux  miennes 
aimable  tante,  his  amiable  aunt.  {=  h  -\-  les  miennes),  etc.  3.  Note 
2.  Since  son  (sa,  ses)  =  his,  her,  its,  the  accent  mark  in  notre,  vdtre, 
one's,  the  context  determines  which  absent  in  notre,  votre.  4.  Since  le 
sense  is  intended.  sien  (la   sienne,    etc.)  =  his,   hers, 

its,    one's,  the    context    determines 
which  sense  is  intended. 
Note.  —  The  regular  feminine  forms,  ma,  ta,  sa,  were  at  one  time  used 
before  a  vowel  sound ;  a  trace  of  this  usage  survives  in  ma  mie  (for  m'amie) . 

375.  Agreement.  The  possess! ves  agree  in  gender  and 
number  with  the  noun  denoting  the  object  possessed,  and  in 
person  with  the  possessor: 

Elle  a  son  crayon  et  les  miens.  She  has  her  pencil  and  mine. 

n  a  sa  plume  et  les  votres.  He  has  his  pen  and  yours. 

a.  The  possessive  adjective  must  be  repeated  precisely  like  the 
definite  article  (cf.  §  318): 

Mes  parents  et  mes  amis.  My  relatives  and  friends. 

b.  When  the  possessor  is  indefinite,  son  (sa,  etc.)  and  le  sien  (la 
sienne,  etc.),  are  used: 

On  doit  tenir  sa  parole.  One  must  keep  one's  word. 

Se  charger  des  affaires  d'autrui      To  undertake  the  business  of  others 
et  negliger  les  siennes.  and  neglect  one's  own. 

376.  Use  of  Adjectival  Forms.  They  are  used,  in  general, 
like  the  corresponding  EngUsh  forms;  idiomatic  distinc- 
tions and  special  rules  are: 

1.  The  possessive  adjective  is  commonly  replaced  by  the 
definite  article  (cf .  §  328)  when  no  ambiguity  arises  from 
its  use: 

II  s'est  casse  la  jambe.  He  broke  his  leg. 

Donnez-moi  la  main.  Give  me  your  hand. 

n  m'a  dechire  le  visage.  He  has  scratched  my  face. 

But:  II  a  dechire  son  habit.  He  has  torn  his  coat. 

a.  If  the  sense  is  specific,  emphatic,  or  distinctive,  the  possessive  is 

Mon  bras  me  fait  mal.  My  arm  pains  me. 

Voili  ma  migraine  encore  I  There  is  my  sick-headache  again  I 


Je  I'ai  vu  de  mes  propres  yeuz.        I  saw  it  with  my  own  eyes. 
Elle  lui  a  donne  sa  main.  She  has  given  him  her  hand  {sc.  in 


2.  En  +  tiie  definite  article  serves  in  certain  cases  as  a 
substitute  for  son,  leur,  see  §  367,  2,  (2) : 

a.  This  construction  is  more  usual  for  things  than  for  persons;  for 
things  personified,  for  names  of  places,  or  to  avoid  ambiguity,  son,  leur 
are  not  uncommon: 

La  necessite  parle;  il  faut  suivre  Necessity  speaks;  we  must  follow 

sa  loi.  her  law. 

Vous  rappelez-vous  cette  ville?  Do  you  remember  that  city?     Its 

Ses    promenades    sont    trds  promenades  are  very  fine. 


La  source  de  toutes  les  passions  Sensation  is  the  source  of  all  the 

est  la  sensibilite,  I'imagination  passions,  imagination  determines 

determine  leur  pente.  their  tendency. 

3.  The  emphatic  own  is  denoted  by  propre  or  by  an 
apposition  with  k: 

Je  I'ai  ecrit  de  ma  propre  main.        I  wrote  it  with  my  own  hand. 
C'est  mon  opinion  k  moi.  That  is  my  own  opinion. 

Cf.  also:  J'ai  un  cheval  k  moi.  I  have  a  horse  of  my  own. 

a.  Along  with  son  the  k  construction  often  avoids  ambiguity: 

Son  pere  d  lui.  His  (i.e.,  not  her)  father. 

Sa  mere  a  elle.  Her  mother. 

4.  Men  (ma)  is  commonly  used,  in  direct  address,  before 
the  name  of  a  relative  (not  before  papa,  maman)  or  the  title 
of  a  superior  officer: 

Bonjour  mon  pere  (mon  colonel).      Good  morning,  father  (colonel). 
But:  Est-ce  toi  papa  (maman)?      Is  that  you,  papa  (mamma)? 

Note.  —  This  usage  explains  the  origin  of  monsieur  (=  mon  +  sienr), 
madame  (=  ma  -f  dame),  etc. 

5.  In  speaking  to  a  person  of  his  or  her  relatives,  votre 
(vos)  is  often  preceded  by  monsieur,  etc.,  for  politeness: 
Madame  votre  mhte  y  est-elle?      Is  your  mother  in? 

148  THE  PRONOUN  §  377 

6.  When  there  is  plurality  of  possessor,  the  object  pos- 
sessed usually  remains  singular,  if  it  is  singular  as  regards 
the  individual  possessor: 

Les  homines  songent  moins  a  leur      Men  think  less  of  their  souls  than 

ame  qu'a  leur  corps.  of  their  bodies. 

lis  ont  perdu  la  vie.  They  lost  their  lives. 

a.   Sometimes  the  sense  demands  a  plural: 
Leurs  tetes  se  ressemblent.  Their  heads  are  alike. 

377.  Use  of  Pronominal  Forms.  They  are  used,  in 
general,  like  the  corresponding  English  forms;  idiomatic 
distinctions  and  special  rules  are  the  following: 

1.  Mine,  etc.,  after  etre  is  regularly  expressed  by  a  +  moi, 
etc.,  when  denoting  ownership  simply,  while  le  mien,  etc. 
denotes  a  distinction  of  ownership: 

Cette  montre  est  a  moi.        1  That  watch  is  mine. 

Cette  montre  est  la  mienne.  J  That  watch  is  mine  (not  yours). 

2.  The  pronominal  form  sometimes  stands  without  article 

in  the  predicate  after  certain  verbs: 

Ces  opinions  sont  v6tres.  Those  opinions  are  yoiu-s. 

Elle  deviendra  mienne.  She  shall  become  mine. 

Je  les  ai  fait  miens.  I  made  them  mine. 

Such  verbs  are: 
Stre  devenir  dire  faire  regarder  comme,  etc. 

3.  The  idiom  a  friend  of  mine,  etc.,  is  not  literally 
translated : 

Un  de  mes  amis.  A  friend  of  mine. 

/  One  of  my  friends,  (who  is)  a  doctor. 
Un  medecin  de  mes  amis.      |  ^  ^^^^^^^  ^  ^^.^^^  ^^  ^^^ 

Un  ami  k  moi.  A  friend  of  mine. 

Mon  ami  que  void.  This  friend  of  mine. 

Cf . :  Un  tour  de  sa  fafon.      One  of  his  tricks. 

a.  The  use  of  mien  (tien,  sien)  attributively  in  this  sense  is  familiar: 
Un  mien  parent.  A  relative  of  mine. 

Une  sienne  cousine.  A  cousin  of  his. 

§§  378-379  THE  DEMONSTRATIVE   PRONOUN  149 

4.  Ejnphatic  own  is  rendered  by  propre,  or  is,  more 
usually,  untranslated: 

Son  avis  et  le  mien  (propre).  His  opinioa  and  my  own. 

5.  When  used  absolutely,  i.e.,  without  antecedent,  the 
singular  denotes  property,  what  is  mine,  etc.,  and  the  plural 
relatives,  friends,  allies,  etc. : 

Je  ne  demande  que  le  mien.  I  ask  only  for  what  is  mine. 

Les  notres  se  sont  bien  battus.         Our  soldiers  (etc.)  fought  well. 

a.   Familiarly,  the  feminine  means  pranks,  etc.: 
U  fait  encore  des  siennes.  He  is  at  his  pranks  again. 

Note.  —  Other  absolute  uses  are  not  permissible,  e.g.,  Votre  lettre  (not 
la  T6tre)  de  la  semaine  demiere. 


378.  Demonstratives 

1.  Adjectival  forms:  2.  Pronominal  forms: 

Sma.  Pii.  SiNQ.  Pl. 

™- «("*)!  this,  that     ces  f"!"^l  that  (one),  etc.       ""^ 

'  >  tms.  inai     ces  >  inai  ^one;.  etc. 

f.    cette      J  f.    cellej  celles 

m.  ce  (cet)  ...-cil  ^.  .  •  m.  celui-cil  ...    ,      »     .      ceux-ci    \ 

,     ^^      '       .       >  this  ces...-ci,        „      .>  this  (one),  etc.       ,,       .  > 
f.    cette... -a       I  f.    celle-cil  celles-ci  J 

m.  ce  (cet)  . . .  -ul  .,    .  ^,_         ,»  m.  celui-li  1  ..    .  ,      v     .     ceui-ia    ) 

J  ..       >  that  ces  . . . -la  ,        „    ,.>  that  (one),  etc.      „      .^  \ 

f.    cette... -li      J  f.    celle-iaj  "■  celles-li  / 

l^ce,  this  (these),  that  (those),  he  (she, 
Oba.:     The   form    cet   is   used        <a        it,  they) 
before  a  vowel  or  h  mute:    Cet        ^  ceci,  this 
arbre;  cet  Aomme;  cet  autre  di;       >::^cela,  that 

but:    ce  ch£ne;    ce  hhtre.  Obs.:   The  e  of  ce  is  elided  before  a 

vowel  or  h  mute   (§  19);    c'   becomes 
$»  before  a  (§5.  4):   f'a  €t€. 

379.  Agreement.  The  adjectival  form  agrees  in  gender 
and  number  with  the  noun  before  which  it  stands;  the  pro- 
nominal form  agrees  in  gender  and  number  with  the  noun 
instead  of  which  it  stands: 

Cette  pltime  et  celle  de  Jean.  This  pen  and  that  of  John. 

J'aime    ces    livres-ci,    mais    je        I  like  these  books,  but  I  do  not 

n'aime  pas  ceuz-li.  like  those. 

150  THE  PRONOUN  §§  380-382 

a.   The  demonstrative  adjective  must  be  repeated  like  the  definite 
article  (cf.  §  318). 

380.  Use  of  Adjectival  ce.  Ce  (cette,  etc.)  =  this  or 
that;  to  distinguish  this  from  that  -ci  and  -la  are  respec- 
tively added  to  the  noun: 

Lis  ce  livre-ci;  lis  ce  Iivre-/a.  Read  this  book;  read  that  book. 

J'aime  ces  tableaux-Zd.  I  Hke  those  pictures. 

a.   Ce  (cette,  etc.),  referring  to  what  has  ah-eady  been  mentioned, 
sometimes  has  the  force  of  that: 
Le  telegraphe,  cette  grande  de-      The  telegraph,  that  great  discovery 

couverte  de  notre  siecle.  of  our  century. 

6.  The  definite  article  replaces  the  demonstrative  adjective  in  a  few 

Ne  parlez  pas  de  la  sorte.  Do  not  speak  in  that  way. 

Je  reviens  a  Z'instant.  I  shall  be  back  in  a  moment. 

381.  Celui.  The  pronoun  celui  (celle,  etc.)  =  that,  that 
one,  the  one,  he,  is  regularly  used  only  along  with  a  relative 
clause  or  a  de  clause: 

Ceux  qui  rient  pleureront.  Those  who  laugh  will  weep. 

Celle  dent  je  parle  est  venue.  She  of  whom  I  speak  has  co'me. 

Le  devoir  d'aimer  Dieu  et  celui  The  duty  of  loving  God  and  that  of 

d'aimer  son  prochain.  loving  one's  neighbor. 

Cette  robe  et  celle  que  j'ai  vue.  This  dress  and  the  one  I  saw. 

Mes  plumes  et  celles  de  mon  frere.  My  pens  and  my  brother's. 

Obs.:   Note  the  use  of  celui  =  English  possessive  noun. 

a.  The  relative  sentence  is  sometimes  elliptically  expressed  by  the 
past  participle: 
Les  decouvertes  enumerees  sont      The   discoveries   enumerated    are 

celles  faites  par  Edison.  those  made  by  Edison. 

6.   Celui-la  replaces  celui  when  the  predicate  comes  before  the 
Celui-la  est  riche  qui  est  toujours      He  (that  man)  is  rich  who  is  always 

content.  happy. 

382.  Celui-ci,  celui-la.  The  pronouns  celui-ci  (celle-ci, 
etc.)  =  this,  this  one,  he,  the  latter  and  celui-la  (celle-la, 


etc.)  =  that,  that  one,  the  former,  are  used  to  contrast  the 

nearer  with  the  more  remote: 

Voici  les  deux  chaines;    gardez      Here  are  the  two  chains;  keep  this 

celle-ci,  et  renvoyez  celle-la.  (one),  and  send  back  that  (one). 

Veut-il  ceux-ci  ou  ceux-1^?  Does  he  wish  these  or  those? 

Ciceron   et   Virgile   etaient  Ro-      Cicero  and  Virgil  were  Romans; 

mains;   celui-ci  etait  poete,  et  the  former  was  an  orator,  and 

celui-lA  orateur.  the  latter  a  poet. 

Oba.:   The  idiom  in  the  last  example  is  literally  the  latter . ...  the  former. 

a.    This  or  that  for  emphasis,  not  contrast,  is  celui-U: 
C'est  ime  bonne  loi  (que)  celle-li.      This  (that)  is  a  good  law. 

383.  Ce  as  Representative  Subject.  Ce  =  this,  that, 
these,  those,  hie,  she,  it, 'they,  according  to  the  context,  is  used 
with  etre,  or  with  devoir,  pouvoir,  savoir  +  etre,  as  repre- 
sentative subject,  when  the  logical  subject  is: 

1.  A  proper  noun,  or  a  determinate  noun,  including 
adjectives  as  such: 

Cest  Marie  et  sa  mSre.  It  is  Mary  and  her  mother. 

Ce  sera  im  beau  spectacle.  That  (it)  will  be  a  fine  sight. 

Ce  sont  nos  plumes.  These  (those)  are  our  pens. 

t.tait-ce  le  meilleur?  Was  it  the  best? 

Ce  «ont  des  Allemands.  They  (those)  are  Germans. 

Cest  mon  anii(e).  He  (she)  is  my  friend. 

Ce  pent  etre  Jean.  That  may  be  John. 

a.  Before  6tre  +  an  indeterminate  noim  il  (lis,  elles)  is  the  regular 

77  est  temps  de  s'en  aller.  It  is  time  to  go. 

lis  sont  amis  (Franfais).  They  are  friends  (French). 

Elle  est  couturiere.  She  is  a  seamstress. 

Note.  —  For  a  few  expressions  like  c'est  dommage,  etc.,  in  which  c'est 
stands  with  an  indeterminate  noim,  see  384,  1,  note  3. 

6.  n  est  is  always  used  to  indicate  hours  of  the  day: 
77  est  midi  (trois  heures).  It  is  noon  (three  o'clock). 

But:  Quelle    heure    est-ce    qui      What  hour  has  just  struck?  —  It 

vient  de  sonner?  —  Cest  cinq         is  five. 


152  THE  PRONOUN  §384 

c.  Observe  the  use  of  ce  in  the  following  date  idioms: 
C'est  aujourd'htii  lundi.  To-day  is  Monday. 

Ce  sera  domain  le  quatre.  To-morrow  will  be  the  fourth. 

2.  A  pronoun: 

Qui  est-ce?  —  Ce  sent  eux.  Who  is  it?  —  It  is  they. 

Ce  sent  les  leurs.  Those  are  theirs. 

C'est  ceci;  c'est  cela.  It  is  this;  it  is  that. 

C'etaient  les  memes.  They  (those)  were  the  same. 

Ce  doivent  etre  les  miens.  Those  must  be  mine. 

3.  An  infinitive,  or  an  infinitive  with  de: 

Ce  serait  tout  perdre.  That  would  be  losing  everything. 

Voir  c'est  croire.  Seeing  is  believing. 

Ce  que  je  crains  c'est  de  /'offenser.    What  I  fear  is  to  offend  him. 

4.  A  noun  sentence: 

Est-ce  que  vous  ne  le  ferez  pas?       WA\  you  not  do  it? 
Oa  est-ce  qu'il  est?  Where  is  it  that  he  is? 

Ce  n'est  pas  qu'il  ait  peur.  It  is  not  that  he  is  afraid. 

a.  The  noun  sentence  may  be  understood : 
Vous  partirez,  n'est-ce  pas?  (=       You  will  go,  will  you  not? 
n'est-ce  pas  qu»  t«us  partirez?) 

5.  An  adverb  of  quantity: 

Combien  est-ce?    C'a  ete  trop.         How  much  is  it?   It  was  too  much. 
Note.  —  For  agreement  of  the  verb,  see  §  232,  3. 

384.  Ce  as  Real  Subject.  Ce  stands  as  real  subject  of 
etre,  or  of  devoir,  pouvoir,  savoir  -f-  etre,  when  the  com- 
plement of  etre  is: 

1.   A  masculine  adjective,  an  adjective  +  a  +  an  infinitive, 
an  infinitive  preceded  by  a,  an  adverb  (in  all  these  cases 
without  further  syntactical  connection;  see  a,  below): 
C'est  beau  (vrai,  bien).  That  (it)  is  fine  (true,  well). 

Ce  doit  etre  (ne  saurait  etre)  vrai.      That  must  be  (cannot  be)  true. 
II  est  parti,  c'est  clair.  He  is  gone,  that  is  clear. 

C'est  clair,  il  est  parti.  It  is  clear,  he  is  gone. 

C'est  a  desirer.  That  (it)  is  to  be  desired. 

La  vue  est  belle !  —  Oui,  c'est  beau  I  The  view  is  fine ! — Yes,  it  is  fine  I 


Oft  sera-ce?  Where  will  it  (that)  be? 

Cetait  bien  mal  k  vous.  That  was  very  wrong  of  you. 

a.  When  followed  by  de  +  an  infinitive  or  by  a  que  clause,  the 
regular  construction  for  the  above  is  impersonal  il  (not  ce);   so  also 
the  parenthetical  il  est  vrai  and  n'est-il  pas  vrai?  (=  n'est-ce  pas?), 
though  without  syntactical  connection: 
n  est  facile  de  dire  cela.  It  is  easy  to  say  that. 

n  est  triste  de  vous  voir  ainsL  It  is  sad  to  see  you  thus. 

n  est  clair  que  j'ai  raison.  It  is  clear  that  I  am  right. 

n  est  k  desirer  que  la  guerre      It  is  to  be  desired  that  the  war  will 

finisse  bientot.  soon  end. 

On  rit,  il  est  vrai,  mais  attendez.      They  laugh,  to  be  sure,  but  wait. 
Jl  est  bien  mal  a  vous  de  parler  aiosL    It  is  very  wTong  of  you  to  speak  so. 

Note.  —  1.  Cclloquially,  c'est  is  pretty  freely  used  instead  of  Q  est  before 
de  +  infinitive  or  a  que  clause:  Cest  facile  de  faire  cela;  Cest  clair  que  j'ai 
raison,  etc. 

2.  This  use  of  ce  is  permissible  in  the  literary  style  only  in  expressions 
of  emotion,  e.g.,  C'est  heureuz  (malheureoz,  beau,  triste,  €toimant,  etc.), 
c'est  i  presumer  (craindre,  regretter,  etc.):  Cest  triste  de  vons  voir; 
Cest  k  craindre  qu'il  ne  soit  noy£. 

3.  The  ce  construction  is  obligatory  after  a  few  noun  phrases  of  like  value, 
e-g.,  C'est  dommage  (piti6,  plaisir,  justice),  etc.,  Cest  piti6  de  I'entendre. 

2.   A  prepositional  phrase,  or  a  conjunction: 
Cest  pour  vous.  It  (that)  is  for  you. 

Cest  pourquoi  je  suis  venu.  That  is  why  I  came. 

Cest  comme  vous  (le)  dites.  It  is  as  you  say. 

386.   Ce  +  a   Relative.    As  antecedent   ce  +  a   relative 
denotes  that  which,  what,  which,  etc.: 
Ce  qui  m'amuse.  What  (that  which)  amuses  me. 

Ce  que  je  dis  est  vraL  What  I  say  is  true. 

Ce  dont  nous  parlions.  What  we  were  speaking  of. 

Ce  d  quoi  je  pense.  What  I  am  thinking  of. 

n  est  ige,  ce  qui  est  dommage.         He  is  old,  which  is  a  pity. 

a.  Ce,  so  used,  either  immediately  precedes  the  relative,  or  is,  for 
emphasis,  di\nded  from  it  by  etre  +  a  predicate  substantive: 
Ce  qu'il  veut  c'est  la  gloire.  What  he  desires  is  glory. 

Cest  la  gloire  ^'il  veut.  It  is  glory  that  he  desires. 

Note.  —  This  type  of  construction  is  widely  used  to  render  a  predicate 
substantive  emphatic,  e.g.,  Cest  ton  frere  qui  le  dit;  Cest  k  vous  que 
(=  &  qui)  je  parle;  Cest  monrir  que  de  vivre  ainsi;  Cest  one  belle  ville 
que  Paris  (cf.  397,  2,  note  1). 

154  THE   PRONOUN  §§386-388 

386.  Other  uses  of  ce.  Apart  from  its  use  with  etre 
or  with  a  relative,  ce  is  found  in  a  few  phrases  only,  mostly 
archaic,  familiar  or  jocular: 

Ce  devint  un  usage.  This  (that)  became  a  custom. 

Tu  cralns,  ce  lui  dit-il.  "  You  fear,"  said  he  to  him. 

Sur  ce,  je  vous  quitte.  And  now,  I  leave  you. 

De  ce  non  content.  Not  satisfied  with  this. 

a.  The  parenthetical  ce  semble  may  be  used  only  when  uncon- 
nected (cf .  §  384,  1,  a),  otherwise  il  semble : 
C'estlui,  ceme  semble,  au  moins.      It's  he,  it  seems  to  me,  at  least. 
But:  //  me  semble  que  c'est  lui. 

387.  Pleonastic  ce.  As  compared  with  English,  ce  is  often 
pleonastic;  thus,  it  is  used  with  etre  +  a  logical  subject: 

1.  Regularly,  after  celui  qui  and  ce  qui: 

Celle  qui  I'a  dit  c'est  vous.  The  one  who  said  so  is  you. 

Ce  que  je  crains  ce  sent  mes  pre-  What  I  fear  is  my  would-be  friends. 

tendus  amis. 

Ce  a  quel  je  pense  c'est  sa  sante.  What  I  think  of  is  his  health. 

2.  Regularly,  between  infinitives  when  not  negative: 
Penser,  c'est  vivre.  To  think  is  to  live. 

But:  Vegeter(ce)n'est  pas  vivre.      To  vegetate  is  not  to  live. 

3.  Regularly,  in  inversion  with  que: 

^  _.    .        (Paris  is  a  beautiful  city. 

Cest  une  beUe  viUe  que  Pans,    jj^  ^  ^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^  p^^^ 

4.  Optionally,  in  other  inversions  for  emphasis: 

La  guerre  (ce)  serait  la  mine.  War  would  be  ruin. 

Note,  —  When  the  complement  of  fetre  is  an  adjective  or  participle, 
pleonastic  ce  may  not  be  used:    Ce  qui  est  utile  n'est  pas  toujours  juste. 

388.  Ceci  and  cela.  Ceci  =  this,  the  nearer,  and  cela 
=  that,  the  more  remote,  are  used  to  denote  something 
indicated,  but  not  yet  named: 

Gardez  ceci  et  donnez-moi  cela.      Keep  this  and  give  me  that. 

Obs.:  If  the  object  has  been  already  named,  or  if  the  name  is  fully  in*- 
plied  by  the  context,  celui-ci  (-li),  etc.  must  be  used. 


a.  Ceci  also  refers  to  what  is  about  to  be  said,  and  cela  to  what  haa 
been  said: 

Reflechissez  bien  k  ceci.  Think  well  on  this. 

Je  ne  dis  pas  davantage,  cela  suffit.     I  say  no  more,  that  is  enough. 

6.   Ceci  {not  cela)  may  have  a  predicate  noun: 

Cea  est  im  secret.  Irr,,.    •  . 

_        _    ^  .  .  .  /        .    >  This  IS  a  secret.  , 

Or:     C'est  ici  im  secret  (rarer).  J 

But:  Cest  Ih  un  secret.  1 

Cela  c'est  un  secret.  J 

Note.  —  Cela  is  not  so  divided  before  mtme,  seul,  and  ita  division  in 
negations  is  optional:  Cela  seul  (m£me)  en  est  la  cause;  Cela  n'est  pas 
{or  ce  n'est  pas  Id)  une  faute. 

c.  Cela  {riot  ceci)  =  ihia  before  a  de  clause: 

Paris  a  cela  d'avantageux.  Paris  has  this  advantage. 

d.  Cela  may  be  replaced  by  Ul  after  de  and  par: 

De  Ih  vient  que,  etc.  From  that  it  comes  that,  etc. 

D  faut  commencer  par  Zd.  We  must  begin  with  that. 

e.  Cela  is  often  contracted  to  fa  colloquially: 

Qa  ne  fait  rien.  That  doesn't  matter. 

/.  Ca  is  sometimes  used  famiUarly  or  contemptuously  of  persona 
instead  of  a  personal  pronoun: 

Regardez  comme  fa  mange.  Look  how  they  (etc.)  eat. 

fa  veut  faire  k  sa  tete.  You  (etc.)  wish  to  do  as  you  please. 

Note.  —  Distinguish  c>  from  (i  (adverb)  and  s4I  (interjection). 

389.  Interrogatives 

1.  Adjectival  forms:  2.   Pronominal  forms: 

SiNO.        Pl.  Sing.  Pl. 

m.  quel?      quels?     1  which?         m.  lequel?      lesquels?    1  which?  which 
f.    quelle?  quelles?  J  what?  etc.    f.    laquelle?  lesquelles?/ or  what  one(8)7 

I;  qui?  who?  whom? 
>  que?  what? 
^  quel?  what? 
ObB.:  1.  For  the  feminine  and  plural  of  quel,  of.  {§  337,  1  (2),  and  338. 

2.  Lequel  =  le  +  quel,  both  parts  being  inflected  (§§  316,  389,  1);  de, 
d  contract  with  le,  les  (cfuquel,  auquel,  etc.,  cf.  §  317). 

3.  Que  =  qu'  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute  (8  19). 

156  THE  PRONOUN  §§  390-391 

390.  Agreement.  The  adjectival  forms  agree  like  ordi- 
nary adjectives;  the  variable  pronominal  forms  agree  in 
gender,  but  not  necessarily  in  number,  with  the  nouns  for 
which  they  stand;  the  invariable  qui?  assumes  the  number 
of  the  noun  or  pronoun  referred  to: 

Quels  livres  avez-vous?  Which  (what)  books  have  you? 

Quelle  plume  avez-vous  prise?  Which  pen  did  you  take? 

Quelles  sont  vos  raisons?  What  are  your  reasons? 

Laquelle  des  dames  est  venue?  Which  of  the  ladies  has  come? 

Qui  Sonne?    Qui  sont-elles?  Who  rings?    Who  are  they? 

391.  Quel?  Lequel?  The  adjective  quel?  =  which? 
whatf  and  the  pronoun  lequel?  =  which  (one)?  what  (one)? 
refer  either  to  persons  or  things,  and  stand  both  in  direct 
and  indirect  questions: 

Quels  livres  avez-vous?  Which  (what)  books  have  you? 

Dites-moi  quel  livre  il  a.  Tell  me  which  (what)  book  he  has. 

Desquels  avez-vous  besoin?  Which  (ones)  do  you  need? 

Dites-moi  lesquels  vous  avez.  Tell  me  which  (ones)  you  have. 

Quelle  dame  est  arrivee?  Which  (what)  lady  has  come? 

Je  ne  sais  pas  laquelle.  I  do  not  know  which  (one). 

Quelles  sont  vos  raisons?  What  are  your  reasons? 

Quel  homme  est-ce  la?  What  (what  kind  of)  man  is  that? 

Auquel  des  hommes  parle-t-il?  To  which  of  the  men  does  he  speak? 

a.  Quel !  in  exclamations  sometimes  =  what  a  !  what ! :  ' 

Quel  heros !     Quels  heros !  What  a  hero  !    What  heroes  ! 

Quelle  belle  scene  1  —  Oui,  c'est      What  a  beautiful  scene  !  —  Yes,  it 
beau!  is  fine. 

b.  Quel?  as  predicative  adjective  often  replaces  qui?  =  who? 

Quels  sont  ces  gens-ia?  Who  are  those  people?    (or  what 

kind  of  people  are  those?) 
Sais-tu  quelle  est  cette  dame?        Do  you  know  who  that  lady  is? 

Note.  —  A  pleonastic  de  is  commonly  used  before  alternatives  after 
quel?  lequel?  and  other  interrogatives,  probably  caused  by  case  attraction 
with  des  deux,  often  present  in  such  expressions:  Lequel  (des  deux)  est 
le  plus  habile,  de  cat  homme-ci  ou  de  celui-la;  Laquelle  est  la  plus  illustre, 
d'Athenes  ou  de  Rome? 

§§392-393  THE   INTERROGATIVE   PRONOUN  157 

392.  Qui?  1.  The  pronoun  qui?  =  w;Ao?  if;/iam?  is  regu- 
larly used  of  persons  only,  and  stands  in  both  direct  and 
indirect  questions: 

Qui  frappe?     Qui  est  li?  Who  is  knocking?     Who  is  there? 

De  qui  {k  qui)  parle-t-il?  Of  whom  (to  whom)  is  he  speaking? 

Qui  avez-vous  vu?  Whom  did  you  see? 

Qui  etes-vous?  Who  are  you? 

Dites-moi  qui  est  venu.  Tell  me  who  has  come. 

a.  Qui?  is  sometimes  used,  though  rarely  and  not  necessarily,  as 
subject  of  a  transitive  verb  in  the  sense  of  wtiat  t 

Qui  vous  amene  de  si  bonne  heure?  What  brings  you  so  early? 

b.  Qui?  predicatively,  is  often  replaced,  especially  when  feminine 
or  plural,  by  quel? 

Quelle  est  cette  dame?  Who  is  that  lady?  (What  1.  is  that?) 

Quels  sont-ils?  Who  are  they? 

2.  Whose f  denoting  simply  ownership  =  k  qui?  other- 
wise generally  de  qui  ?  sometimes  quel  ?  but  never  dont : 

A  qui  est  cette  maison-li?  Whose  house  is  that? 

De  qui  etes-vous  fils?  Whose  son  are  you? 

Quelle  maison  a  ete  briilee?  Whose  (what)  house  was  burnt? 

Note.  —  Compare  with  this  the  idiom  c'est  i  qui:  C'^tait  i  qui  finirait 
le  premier,  It  teas  a  strife  as  to  who  would  finish  first. 

393.  Que?  Quoi?  The  form  que?  =  tr/wi/f  is  conjunc- 
tive, while  quoi?  =  what?  is  disjunctive;  their  uses  in  detail 

1.  Que?  stands  regularly  as  direct  object  or  as  predicate, 
and  in  direct  question  only: 

Que  vous  a-t-il  dit?  What  did  he  say  to  you? 

Que  cherchez-vous?  What  are  you  looking  for? 

Que  sont-ils  devenus?  What  has  become  of  them? 

a.  Que?  alternatively  with  quoi?  may  stand  with  an  infinitive  in 
indirect  question: 

Je  ne  sais  que  (quoi)  dire.  I  know  not  what  to  say. 

158  THE  PRONOUN  §394 

b.   Que?  and  que !  sometimes  have  adverbial  force : 

Que  ne  m'avez-vous  dit  cela?  Why  did  you  not  tell  me  that? 

Que  vous  etes  heureux  I  How  happy  you  are ! 

Que  d'argent  perdu  1  What  a  quantity  of  money  lost ! 

2.  What?  as  subject  of  a  verb  is  regularly  qu'est-ce  qtii? 
Qu'est-ce  qui  fait  ce  bniit?  What  is  making  that  noise? 

o.  The  form  que?  may  stand  as  subject  of  a  few  intransitive  verbs, 
mostly  such  as  may  also  be  impersonal,  but  never  as  subject  of  a 
transitive  verb: 

Que  sert  de  pleurer?  What  is  the  use  of  crying? 

Que  vous  en  semble?  What  do  you  think  of  it? 

Qu'est-ce?  What  is  it? 

3.  Quoi?  is  used  absolutely,  i.e.,  with  ellipsis  of  the  verb, 
and  after  a  preposition: 

II  y  a  du  nouveau.  —  Quoi?  There  is  news.  —  What? 

Quoi  de  plus  beau  que  cela?  What  finer  than  that? 

Quoi !    vous  I'admirez !  What !    You  admire  him ! 

A  quoi  pensez-vous?  What  are  you  thinking  of  ? 

En  quoi  puis-je  vous  servir?  In  what  can  I  help  you? 

•a.   In  cases  of  special  emphasis  quoi?  may  be  direct  object : 
Je  regois  quoi?  —  Des  lettres.  I  receive  what?  —  Letters. 

6.  With  an  infinitive,  que?  or  more  emphatically,  quoi?  is  used: 

Que  (quoi)  faire?  What  is  one  to  do? 

Je  ne  sais  que  (quoi)  repondre.         I  know  not  what  to  answer. 

394.  Interrogative  Locutions.  The  use  of  interrogative 
phrases  formed  vi^ith  est-ce,  etc.,  instead  of  the  simple  forms 
is  very  frequent  (cf .  §§  392-3) : 

Qui  est-ce  qui  chante?  for  Qui  chante? 

Qui  est-ce  que  vous  demandez?  "  Qui  demandez-vous? 

A  qui  est-ce  que  vous  parliez?  "  A  qui  parliez-vous? 

Qu'est-ce  que  cela  prouve?  "  Que  prouve  cela? 

Qu'est-ce  que  c'est?  "  Qu'est-ce? 

Qu'est-ce  que  c'est  que  cela?  "  Qu'est-ce  que  cela? 

De  quoi  est-ce  qu'il  parle?  "  De  quoi  parle-t-il? 

8§  395-397  THE  RELATIVE  PRONOUN  159 


395.  Relative  Pronouns 

qui,  who,  which,  that;  whom  {after  a  preposition} 

que,  whom,  which,  that 

dont,  whose,  of  whom,  of  which,  etc. 

ofl,  in  which,  into  which,  at  which,  to  which,  etc. 

lequel,  m.  s.        lesquels,  m.  pi.  1 

laqueUe,  f.  s.      lesqueUes,  f.  pLJ  ^^®'  ^^°^'  ^^^^'  "^' 

quoi,  what,  which 

06a.:   For  qu',  see  $  19. 

396.  Agreement.  A  relative  pronoun,  whether  variable 
or  invariable  in  form,  is  of  the  gender,  number,  and  person  of 
its  antecedent: 

Moi  qui  etais  (vous  qui  etiez)  UL  I  who  was  (you  who  were)  there. 

Les  lettres  que  j'ai  apportees.  The  letters  which  I  have  brought. 

Moi  qui  suis  son  ami(e).  I  who  am  his  friend  (m.  or  {.). 

Dieux  (vous)  qui  m'ezaucez  !  (Ye)  gods  who  hear  me ! 

C'est  nous  qui  I'avons  dit.  It  is  we  who  have  said  it. 

Je  suis  celui  qui  I'ai  dit.  I  am  the  one  who  has  said  it. 

a.  When  the  antecedent  is  a  predicate  noim,  or  an  adjective  as  such, 
the  relative  may  agree  in  person  either  with  this  noim  or  with  the 
subject  of  the  sentence: 

Nous  sommes  deiix  moines  qui    We  are  two  monks  who  are  trav- 

voyageons  (voyagent).  eling. 

Je  suis  le  seul  qui  I'aie  (ait)  dit.      I  am  the  only  one  who  has  said 


b.  The  relative  after  un  +  a  plural  is  either  singular  or  plural,  usually 
according  to  the  sense: 

C'est  un  de  mes  (des)  procds  qtii      It  is  one  of  my  (of  the)  lawsuits 
m*a  (m'ont)  mine.  which  has  (have)  ruined  me. 

397.  Qui,  Que.  Both  qui  and  que  refer  to  antecedents, 
of  either  gender  or  number,  denoting  persons  or  things; 
their  uses  in  detail  are: 




1.  Qui  =  who,  which,  that,  serves  as  subject;  qui  = 
whom,  of  persons  only,  or  things  personified,  may  also  be 
used  after  a  preposition: 

La  dame  qui  a  chante. 

Les  amis  qui  sont  arrives. 

La  vache  qui  beugle. 

Les  livres  qui  ont  ete  perdus. 

Les  oiseaxix  qui  volent. 

Ce  qui  m'amuse. 

Rien  qui  soit  beau. 

La  tante  chez  qui  je  demeure. 

Les  amis  a  (de)  qui  je  pariais. 

Rochers  k  qui  je  me  plains. 

The  lady  who  (that)  has  sung. 
The  friends  who  (that)  have  come. 
The  cow  which  (that)  lows. 
The  books  which,  have  been  lost. 
The  birds  which  (that)  fly. 
What  (that  which)  amuses  me. 
Nothing  that  is  beautiful. 
The  aunt  with  whom  I  live. 
The  friends  to  (of)  whom  I  spoke. 
Rocks  to  whom  I  complain. 

a.    Qui,  without  antecedent,  sometimes  =  celui  qui  (ceux  qui,  etc.), 
or,  when  repeated,  =  les  uns  ...  les  autres : 

Love  him  (the  one)  who  loves  you. 

Aimez  qtii  vous  aime. 

Jouera  qui  voudra. 

Pour  qui  connait. 

Qui  d'un  cote,  qui  de  I'autre 

Let  those  who  will  play. 
For  any  one  who  knows. 
Some  on  one  side,  some  on  the  other. 

h.  Similarly,  in  a  few  phrases,  mostly  exclamatory  or  parenthetical, 
qui  =  ce  qui: 

Voiia  qui  est  etrange  !  That  is  strange ! 

Qui  pis  est  {or  ce  qui  e^t  pis).  What  is  worse. 

2.   Que  =  whom,  which,  that,  serves  regularly  as  direct 

Les  ami(e)s  que  j'aime. 
Le  livre  (cheval)  que  j'ai. 
Les  plumes  que  j'ai  achetees. 
Ce  que  vous  dites. 
Rien  de  ce  que  vous  dites. 

The  friends  whom  (that)  I  love. 
The  book  (horse)  which  I  have. 
The  pens  which  I  have  bought. 
That  which  you  say. 
Nothing  that  you  say. 

a.   Que  stands  also  as  predicate  nominative  (cf.  §295,  1),  and  as 
logical  subject  of  an  impersonal  verb: 

Malheureuse  que  je  suis ! 
Qu'est-ce  qu'elle  est  devenue? 
A  I'heure  qu'il  est. 
L'homme  qu'il  vous  faut. 
Prenez  ce  qu'il  vous  faut. 

Unhappy  woman  that  I  am ! 
What  has  become  of  her? 
At  the  present  hour. 
The  man  that  you  need. 
Take  what  you  need. 

§§398-399  THE  RELATIVE  PRONOUN  161 

Notes.  —  1.  The  que  of  emphatic  inversions  (§  385,  a,  n.)  is  best  ex- 
plained as  predicative  que:  C'est  une  belle  ville  que  Paris  =  C'est  une 
belle  ville  que  Paris  (est)  or  C'est  une  belle  ville  (ce)  que  (c'est)  Paris; 
Erreur  que  tout  cela  =  (C'est)  erreur  que  tout  cela  (est)  or  (C'est)  erreur 
(ce)  que  (c'est)  tout  cela. 

2.  The  form  que  is  often  a  relative  adverb,  not  to  be  confounded  in 
function  with  the  relative  proper:  Dans  le  temps  que  cela  arrivait;  C'est 
k  Tous  que  ]e  parle  (or  C'est  voos  i  qui  je  parle). 

398.  Dont  The  form  dent  =  whose,  of  whom,  of  which, 
etc.,  has  the  value  of  de  +  a  relative;  it  refers  to  anteced- 
ents, of  either  gender  or  number,  denoting  persons  or  things 
(dont  is  never  interrogative): 

L'homme  dont  le  fils  est  mort.  The  man  whose  son  is  dead. 

Les  gens  dont  je  parle.  The  people  of  whom  I  speak. 

Les  plumes  dont  je  me  sers.  The  peua  which  I  make  use  of. 

La  gloire  dont  il  est  avide.  The  fame  for  which  he  is  eager. 

Ce  dont  je  me  plains.  That  of  which  I  complain. 

a.  A  noun  after  dont  =  whose  does  not  omit  the  article  as  in  English, 
and  must  follow  its  governing  verb  (cf .  §  400,  2) : 

Le  monsieur  dont  j'ai  trouve  la      The    gentleman    whose     purse    I 
bourse.  found. 

b.  As  compared  with  d'oft  (cf.  §399,  a),  dont  has  figurative  force 
in  expressions  referring  to  extraction,  lineage,  etc.: 

La  maison  dont  il  sort.  The  family  from  which  he  comes. 

c.  Dont  was  originally  an  adverb  (L.  de  +  tmde),  and  is  often  best 
construed  as  such: 

Le  pays  dont  il  est  venu.  The  country  whence  he  came. 

399.  Oii.  The  adverb  o^  =  where  is  also  used  as  a 
relative  with  the  value  of  dans  (a,  sur,  vers,  etc.)  +  a 
relative;    if  preceded  by  a  preposition,  ou  =  which,  where: 

La  maison  oft  je  loge.  The  house  in  which  I  lodge. 

Le  siecle  oft  nous  vivons.  The  age  in  which  we  live. 

Le  but  oft  il  tend.  The  end  towards  which  he  tends. 

Les  villes  par  oft  je  sxiis  venu.  The  cities  through  which  I  came. 

L'endroit  d'oft  il  vient.  The  place  from  which  he  comes. 

162  THE  PRONOUN  §§  400-401 

a.  D'oft  =  from  which,  whence,  is  usually  literal  in  force: 
La  maison  d'oft  il  sort.  The  house  out  of  which  he  comes. 

400.  Lequel.  The  form  lequel  =  who,  whom,  which,  that, 
refers  to  persons  or  things,  and  varies  in  form  to  agree  with 
its  antecedent;  it  is  chiefly  used  where  qui,  que,  etc.,  may 
not  be  employed: 

1.  Lequel,  being  inflected,  stands  where  qui,  que,  from 
want  of  inflection,  would  be  ambiguous,  or  it  serves,  owing 
to  its  stress,  to  denote  the  more  remote  of  two  possible  ante- 
cedents : 

La  soeur  de  mon   ami   laquelle  The  sister  of  my  friend  who  has 

vient  d'arriver.  just  come. 

Le  fils  du  redacteur  lequel  je  The  son  of  the  editor  whom  {i.e., 

viens  de  voir.  the  son)  I  have  just  seen. 

a.  Lequel  may  not  be  used  of  persons  after  en,  and  it  must  be  used 
of  persons  after  parmi,  entre: 

Un  homme  en  qui  je  crois.  A  man  in  whom  I  beUeve. 

Les  amis  parmi  (entre)  lesquels.       The  friends  among  whom. 

2.  When  depending  on  a  noun  governed  by  a  preposition, 
whose  must  be  turned  by  duquel,  etc.,  which  must  follow 
the  noun  (cf .  §  398,  a) : 

La  dame  au  fils  de  laquelle  {or      The  lady   to  whose   son   I   give 
de  qui)  je  donne  des  legons.  lessons. 

Note.  —  Lequel  is  used  exceptionally  as  an  adjective:  J'espere  partir 
demain,  auquel  cas,  etc.;  Je  viens  de  toucher  mille  francs,  de  laquelle 
somme  je  payerai  mes  dettes. 

401.  Quoi.  1.  The  form  quoi  =  what,  which,  is  used 
without  definite  antecedent,  and  stands  after  a  preposition, 
rarely  otherwise: 

Voili  de  quoi  je  parlais.  That  is  what  I  was  speaking  of. 

Sur  quoi  il  est  parti.  Whereupon  he  went  away. 

C'est  a  quoi  je  pensais.  That  is  what  I  was  thinking  of. 

H  m'a  paye,  ce  k  quoi  je  ne  m'at-  He  paid  me,  which  I  hardly  ex- 

lendais  guere.  pected. 


a.  De  quoi  +  an  infinitive,  expressed  or  implied,  denotes  the  means 
or  cause  of  the  action  of  the  infinitive: 

D  a  de  quoi  vivre.  He  has  enough  to  live  on. 

I]  a  de  quoi  {sc.  vivre,  etc.).  He  has  means  (is  well  off). 

Donnez-moi  de  quoi  eciire.  Give  me  something  to  wTite  with, 

n  n'y  a  pas  de  quoL  There  is  no  occasion  (don't  men- 

tion it,  etc.). 

6.   Quoi  stands  without  a  preposition  in  a  few  expressions: 

Quoi  faisant.  (By)  doing  which. 

Un  je  ne  sals  quoi  de  cruel.  A  certain  indefinable  cruelty. 

2.   What  =  that  which  is  expressed  by  ce  +  a  relative 

Je  vois  ce  qui  se  passe.  I  see  what  is  going  on. 

Je  sais  ce  que  je  sais.  I  know  what  I  know. 

Ce  dont  je  me  plains.  That  of  which  I  complain. 

Ce  k  quoi  je  me  fiais.  What  I  was  trusting  to. 

n  est  sourd,  ce  qtii  est  bien  dom-  He  is  deaf,  which  is  a  great  pity, 

402.  Remarks.     1.  The  relative  pronoun,  often  omitted 
in  English,  is  never  omitted  in  French: 

Le  tableau  que  j'ai  vu  Ul.  The  pictxire  (which)  I  saw  there. 

Le  livre  dont  je  parle  est  k  moi.      The  book  (which)  I  speak  of  is 

2.  Relative  and  antecedent  should  stand  as  near  together 

as  possible: 

H  y  a  de  ce  livre  une  edition  qui      There  is  an  edition  of  that  book 

se  vend,  etc.  which  is  sold,  etc. 

Not:  Une  edition  de  ce  livre  qui,  etc. 

3.  A   preposition  never  ends  the  relative  sentence,  as 
sometimes  in  English: 

Ce  k  quoi  je  me  fiais.  What  I  was  trusting  to. 

4.  For  English  forms  in  -ing  =  relative  clause,  see  §  287,  3. 




403.  Indefinites 

1.   Adjectival  forms: 

1.  certain,  a  certain;  pi.  certain      4.  divers,  m.  pi.  \  ^^„^.  „„     .„ 

2.  chaque,  each,  every  diverses,  f .  pi.  J 

3.  difierent(e)s,  pi.,  various,  etc.       5.  maint,  many  a 

6.  quelque,  some;  pL,  some,  (few) 

Obs.:   Except  for  divers,  the  feminine  and  plural  are  formed  hke  those 
of  ordinary  adjectives. 

2.   Pronominal  forms: 

1.  autrui,  others,  other  people,  etc. 

2.  chacun,  m.  1  each  (one),  every 
chacune,f.  /  (one) 

3.  on  (I'on),  one,  people,  etc. 

4.  personne  . . .  ne,  nobody,  etc. 

5.  quelqu'un,  m.  s.  1  somebody, 
quelqu'une,  f .  s.  J  etc. 
quelques-uns,  m.  pi.  1  some  (peo- 
quelques-unes, f .  pi.  J  pie),  etc. 

6.  quelque  chose,  something 

7.  rien  . . .  ne,  nothing 

Obs.:  1.  On  often  becomes  I'on  after  a  vowel  sound  to  avoid  hiatus, 
especially  after  et,  ou,  oii,  que,  lorsque,  etc.,  qui,  quoi,  pourquoi,  si,  ainsi, 
aussi,  but  not  usually  when  a  closely  following  word  has  initial  1;  qu'on 
almost  always  becomes  que  I'on  when  a  closely  following  word  has  initial 
[k]  sound. 

2.  For  quelqu'un(e),  see  §  19. 

3.  Note  the  hyphen  of  the  plural  of  quelqu'tm. 

3.   Forms  serving  either  as  adjective  or  as  pronoun: 

1.  auctm  . . .  ne,  no;  nobody,  etc. 

2.  autre,  other 

3.  meme,  same,  etc. 

4.  nul . . .  ne,  m.  1  no;  nobody, 
nulle  . . .  ne,  f .  J  etc. 

5.  pas  un  . . .  ne,  no;  nobody,  etc. 

such,  etc. 

6.  plusieurs,  m.  or  f.  pi.,  several 

7.  tel,  m. 
telle,  f . 

8.  tout,  m.  tons,  m.  pi.  1  all,  every, 
toute,  f .  toutes,  f .  pi.  /  etc. 

9.  un,  a;  one,  etc. 

065.:  The  feminine  and  plural  are  like  those  of  adjectives  of  like  ending, 
except  the  feminine  of  nul  and  the  plural  of  tout. 

404.  Use  of  Adjectival  Forms.  1.  Certain  =  (a)  cer- 
tain, pi.  certain,  some,  precedes  its  noun;  the  use  of  un  in 
the  singular,  and  of  partitive  de  in  the  plural,  is  optional: 
(Un)  certain  roi  de  France.  A  certain  French  king. 

(De)  certaines  gens.  C3ertain  (some)  people. 


a.  Certains  is  exceptionally  used  as  a  pronoun: 
Certains  pretendent,  etc.  Some  assert,  etc. 

Note.  —  Certain,  placed  after  the  noun,  is  an  ordinary  adjective  = 
sure,  trustworthy,  positive,  etc.  (cf.  §  352,  4). 

2.  Chaque  =  each,  every,  is  distributive  and  singular  only: 
Chaque  honune  (femme).  Each  or  every  man  (woman). 

a.  Distinguish  chaque  =  every,  each,  which  individualizes,  from 
tout  =  every,  all,  which  generalizes: 

Chaque  honune  a  des  passions.         Every  (each)  man  has  passions. 
Tout  homme  a  une  passion  do-      Every  man  has  (all  men  have)  a 

minante.  ruhng  passion. 

Chaque  annee;  tous  les  ans.  Each  year;  every  year. 

3.  Differents,  Divers  =  various,  sa^eral,  sundry,  divers, 
are  indefinite  adjectives  only  when  plural  and  standing 
before  nouns: 

Differentes  choses  m'ont  retenu.      Various  things  detained  me. 

On  a  essaye  divers  moyens.  Several  methods  have  been  tried. 

Note.  —  With  the  sense  of  different,  diverse,  they  are  used  as  ordinary 

4.  Maint,  whether  singular  or  plural,  =  many  a;  it  is 
often  repeated: 

Maint(s)  danger(s).  Many  a  danger. 

Mainte(s)  fois.  Many  a  time. 

En  mainte  et  mainte  occasion.  On  many  an  occasion. 

5.  Quelque  =  some;  when  used  of  quantity  or  number, 
quelque  =  some,  hut  not  much  or  many,  a  little,  a  few,  and 
is  of  more  limited  force  than  the  partitive  some  (§322): 

Quelques  amis  sont  pires  que  des      Some  friends  are  worse  than  ene- 

ennemis.  mies. 

J'ai  eu  quelque  difficulte.  I  have  had  some  (a  little)  diflBculty. 

D  a  quelques  amis  ici.  He  has  some  (a  few)  friends  here. 

Voici  les  quelques  francs  qui  nous      Here  are  the  few  francs  we  have 

restent.  left. 

a.  Quelque  has  adverbial  force,  and  is  invariable,  before  numerals 
(not  nouns  of  number)  =  about,  some: 

166  THE  PRONOUN  •  §405 

A  quelque  dix  milles  d'ici.  About  (some)  ten  miles  from  here. 

But:  Quelques  centaines  de  pas.    A  few  hundred  paces. 

A  cent  et  quelques  pas.  At  a  httle  more  than  100  paces. 

6.  Similarly  before  adjectives  or  adverbs  =  however  (cf.  §  271,  4,  6): 
Quelque  riches  qu'ils  soient.  However  rich  they  may  be. 

Quelque  bien  que  vous  parliez.         However  well  you  may  speak. 

Note.  —  However  +  adjective  is  also  expressed  by  tout . . .  que  (usually 
with  the  indicative),  si . . .  (que)  (with  the  subjunctive),  pour  ...  que 
(with  the  subjunctive),  e.g.,  Toutes  bonnes  gu'elles  sont,  However  good 
they  are;  Si  bonnes  gu'elles  soient,  However  good  they  are;  Si  bonnes  vos 
raisons  soient-elles,  However  good  your  reasons  are;  Pour  bonnes  ^u'elles 
soient,   However  good  they  are. 

c.   For  the  use  of  quelque  (s) . . .  que  =  whatever,  see§  407. 

405.  Use  of  Pronominal  Forms.  1.  Autrui  =  others,  other 
people,  our  neighbor  (in  general),  is  rarely  used  except  after 
a  preposition: 

D  ne  faut  pas  convoiter  les  biens      We  must  not  covet  the  goods  of 

d'autrui.  others. 

La  rigueur  envers  autrui.  Severity  towards  others. 

Note.  —  Others  is  more  usually  les  autres,  d'autres  (§406,  2,  b);  regu- 
larly so,  as  subject  or  direct  object. 

2.  Chacun  =  each,  each  one,  every  one  is  the  pronoun 
corresponding  to  the  adjective  chaque  (§404,  2): 

Chacun  d'eux  a  refuse.  Each  (every)  one  of  them  refused. 

Donnez  a  chacun  (e)  sa  part.  Give  to  each  his  (her)  share. 

Des  poires  a  deux  sous  chacune  Pears  at  two  cents  each, 

a.  The  possessive  form  to  chacun  is  regularly  son: 

Mettez-les  chacun  (e)  a  sa  place.      Put  them  each  in  his   (her,  its) 


b.  Chacun,  in  apposition  to  nous,  vous,  takes,  as  its  possessive,  notre, 

Parlez  chacun(e)  k  votre  tour.  Speak  each  in  your  turn. 

c.  Chacun,  in  apposition  to  ils,  <illes,  takes  the  possessive  lour  before 
the  direct  object;   otherwise  son  or  lexir: 


Elles  recitent  chacune  leur  verset      They  each  recite  thdr  verse  (each 
(chacune  a  son  or  leur  tour).  in  turn). 

d.  The  reflexive  to  chacun  =  ewry  one  is  se  (soi) : 
Chacun  poxir  soL  Every  one  for  himself. 

3.  On  =  one,  some  one,  we,  you,  they,  people,  etc.,  is  used 
as  subject  of  a  verb  in  the  third  singular,  without  specifying 
any  person  in  particular: 

On  dit  que  la  reine  est  malade.  They  (people)  say  the  queen  is  ill. 

A-t-on  allume  mon  feu?  Has  any  one  hghted  my  fire? 

On  ne  pent  pas  meler  I'hiiile  avec  One  (we,  you)  cannot  mix  oil  with 

Feau.  water. 

a.  The  on  construction  often  corresponds  to  an  English  passive, 
especially  when  the  agent  is  not  specified: 

On  a  attrape  le  larron.  The  thief  has  been  caught. 

On  croit  que  la  guerre  est  finie.        It  is  thought  the  war  is  over. 
On  vous  demande.  You  are  wanted. 

b.  On  may  not  be  replaced  by  a  personal  pronoun  subject: 

On  est  triste  quand  on  est  sans      A  man  is  sad  when  he  is  without 
argent.  money. 

c.  Since  on  is  subject  only,  the  corresponding  direct  and  indirect 
objects,  when  required,  are  borrowed  from  vous: 

Lorsqu'on  presse  trop  un  poisson      When  you  squeeze  a  fish  too  much 
a  vous  echappe.  it  escapes  you. 

d.  The  reflexive  to  on  is  se  (soi),  and  the  corresponding  possessive 
is  son,  whatever  be  the  English  equivalent: 

On  se  demande.  People  ask  themselves  (wonder). 

On  perdrait  son  temps*  You  would  lose  yoiu*  time. 

«.  Although  on  is  invariable,  a  feminine  or  plural  noun  or  adjective 
may  relate  to  it,  when  the  sense  is  clearly  feminine  or  plural: 
On  est  plus  jolie  k  present.  She  is  prettier  now. 

On  est  si  proches  voisins.  We  are  such  near  neighbors. 

/.  On  may  replace  a  personal  pronoim,  often  with  depreciatory  force: 
On  y  pensera.  I  (we)  shall  see  about  it. 

On  se  croit  bien  fin.  You  (he,  etc.)  think  yourself  vary 

cunning.  x 


The  pronoun 


4.  Personne  and  rien  along  with  ne  +  a  verb,  or  when 
alone,  a  verb  being  understood,  =  nobody,  no  one,  not  any- 
body, etc.,  and  nothing,  not  anything,  respectively: 
Personne  n'est  venu.  Nobody  (no  one)  has  come. 

Je  n'ai  parle  a  personne.  I   have   spoken   to   nobody    (not 

spoken  to  anybody). 
Ne  dites  rien.  Say  nothing  (do  not  say  anything). 

Personne  ici !  —  Personne.  No  one  here  !  —  No  one. 

Qu'a-t-il  dit  ?  —  Rien.  What  did  he  say?  —  Nothing. 

a.   If  the  context  contains  or  implies  negation,  personne,  rien,  as- 
sume affirmative  force  (=  quelqu'un,  quelque  chose): 
II  n'a  rien  dij  k  persoime.  He  said  nothing  to  any  one. 

Personne  n'a  jamais  rien  dit.  Nobody  has  ever  said  anything. 

Je  vous  defends  de  rien  dire.  I  forbid  you  to  say  anytliing. 

Je  crains  de  parler  k  personne.  I  fear  to  speak  to  anybody. 

Impossible  de  rien  faire  ! 
H  cessa  de  rien  donner. 
Oft  trouverai-je  rien  de  pareil? 
Sans  parler  a  personne. 

Impossible  to  do  anything  ! 
He  ceased  giving  anything. 
Where  shall  I  find  anything  like  it? 
Without  sp>eaking  to  anybody. 

b.   The  above  rule  does  not  apply  to  pleonastic  ne,  nor  to  double 
Je  crains  qu'il  ne  fasse  mal  k      I  fear  he  will  hiirt  somebody. 

Ne  revenez  pas  sans  voir  quel-      Do  not  come  back  without  seeing 

qu'un.  somebody. 

Note.  —  The  pronoun  personne  is  masculine  (sometimes  sylleptically 
feminine  like  on,  3,  e,  above);  the  noun  personne  is  always  feminine  (cf. 
§  303,  1,  c). 

5.  Quelqu'un (e)  =  somebody,  some  one,  any  one,  etc., 
with  its  plural  quelques-un(e)s  =  some,  some  people,  any, 
a  few,  etc.,  is  the  pronoun  corresponding  to  the  adjective 
quelque  (§  404,  5) : 

H  y  a  quelqu'un  la. 

Y  a-t-il  quelqu'un  Ik? 

A-t-il  quelques-unes  des  fleurs? 

H  en  reste  quelques-unes. 

Quelqu'une  des  dames  viendra. 

Quelques-uns  le  croient. 

There  is  somebody  there. 

Is  there  any  one  there? 

Has  he  some  (any)  of  the  flowers? 

A  few  of  them  remain. 

Some  one  of  the  ladies  will  come. 

Some  (people)  believe  it. 


6.   Quelque  chose  =  something,  anything,  and  is  mascu- 
line, though  formed  from  the  feminine  noun  chose: 
Quelque  chose  est  promis.  Something  is  promised. 

A-t-il  dit  quelque  chose?  Did  he  say  anything? 

A-t-il  quelque  chose  de  bon?  Has  he  anything  good? 

406.  Adjectival  or  Pronominal  Forms.    1.  Aucun,  nul, 

pas  un,  along  with  ne  +  a  verb,  or  when  alone,  a  verb  being 

understood,  =  no,  not  any,  not  one,  as  adjective,  and  none, 

nobody,  no  one,  not  one,  as  pronoun: 

Aucun  ^ 

Nul       >•  ecrivain  ne  le  dit.  No  writer  says  so. 

Pas  un  ) 

Aucun  ne  le  croit.  No  one  believes  it. 

Je  n'en  ai  vu  aucim(e).  I  saw  none  of  them. 

Pas  un  de  ses  amis  ne  reste.  Not  one  of  his  friends  remains. 

A-t-il  de  I'espoir?  —  Aucun.  Has  he  any  hope?  —  None. 

a.   Aucun,  but  not  nul  or  pas  un,  becomes  afiSrmative  (=  quelque 
or  quelqu'un)  when  the  context  is  negative  (of.  §  405,  4,  a) : 
Sans  aucune  cause.  Without  any  caiise. 

Rien  pour  aucun  de  nous.  Nothing  for  any  of  us. 

Gardez-vous  de  faire  auctme  faute.  Take  care  not  to  make  any  mistake. 

6.  The  plural  adjective  aucun(e)s  may  be  used,  especially  before 
nouns  with  no  singular,  or  before  such  as  are  preferably  plural;   (d')aa- 
cuns  =  quelques-uns  is  sometimes  found: 
n  ne  me  rend  aucuns  soins.  He  gives  me  no  care. 

(D')auc\ms  le  croiraient.  Some  would  beUeve  it. 

2.  Autre  =  other,  is  usually  preceded  in  the  singular  by 
un  or  1* : 

Une  autre  fois;  d'autres  livres.         Another  time;  other  books. 

En  avez-vous  un(e)  autre?  Have  you  another? 

Un  autre  dit  le  contraire.  Another  says  the  contrary. 

Les  autres  m'aideront.  The  others  will  help  me. 

Entre  autres  choses.  Among  other  things. 

a.  Distinguish  un  autre  =  another  (a  different)  from  encore  un  = 

another  (an  additional): 

Donnez-moi  une  autre  plimie.    \       ^.  ., 

_  .  ,         f      Give  me  another  pen. 

Donnez-moi  encore  une  plume.  J 

170  THE  PRONOUN  §406 

h.  Others,  other  people,  =  les  autres  or  d'autres,  sometimes  autrui 
(cf.  §405,  1): 

II  se  mefie  toujours  des  autres.         He  always  suspects  others. 
D'autres  pensent  autrement.  Others  think  otherwise. 

Bien  d'autres.  Many  others. 

Obs.:  The  d'  of  d'autres  is  a  partitive  sign  (cf.  §  325,  1,  b). 

c.  Autres  is  often  added  famiharly  to  nous,  vous: 
Nous  autres  peintres.  We  painters. 

Vous  autres  Franjais  parlez  tr§s      You  Frenchmen  speak  very  fast, 

d.  Observe  the  following  expressions  with  autre: 
Autre  part;  de  part  et  d'autre.  Elsewhere;  reciprocally. 
C'est  un  (tout)  autre  homme.            He  is  a  very  different  man. 
Parler  de  choses  et  d'autres.             To  speak  of  this  and  that. 
L'autre  jour.                                        The  other  day. 

Autre  est  promettre,  autre  est      It  is  one  thing  to  promise,  and 

doimer.  another  to  give. 

Tout  autre  que  lui.  Any  one  but  him. 

De  temps  k  autre.  From  time  to  time. 

A  d'autres  (familiar).  Tell  that  to  the  marines  (familiar). 

e.  For  I'un . . .  l'autre,  les  uns  ...  les  autres,  see  §  406,  7,  (2). 

3.  Meme  varies  in  meaning  and  form  according  to  its 
position  and  function:  .  . 

(1)  Preceding  its  noun  or  as  a  pronoun,  meme  =  same, 
and  nearly  always  has  the  article: 

La  (les)  meme(s)  chose(s).  The  same  thing(s). 

Les  miens  sont  les  memes.  Mine  are  the  same. 

Donnez-moi  des  memes.  Give  me  some  of  the  same. 

Une  meme  affaire.  One  and  the  same  business. 

Des  plantes  de  la  meme  espece.  Plants  of  the  same  species. 

(2)  Following  the  noun  or  pronoun  qualified,  meme  = 
self,  very,  even,  and  agrees,  but  has  no  article: 

Dieu  est  la  bonte  meme.  God  is  goodness  itself. 

Moi-meme;  elles-memes.  I  myself;  they  themselves. 

Celameme;  celui-ia  meme.  That  itself ;  that  man  himself. 

Les  enfants  memes.  The  very  (even  the)  children. 




a.  MSme  is  also  used  as  an  adverb  (invariable) : 
D  nous  a  meme  insultes.  He  even  insulted  us. 

Quand  meme  11  le  dirait.  Even  if  he  should  say  so. 

6.   Meme  forms  a  nimiber  of  highly  idiomatic  locutions: 
Cela  revient  au  meme.  That  amounts  to  the  same  thing, 

fites-vous  i  meme  de  faire  cela?      Are  you  in  a  position  to  do  that? 
II  en  est  de  meme  de  . . .  It  is  the  same  with  . . . 

4.  Plusieurs  =  several;  it  is  sometimes  used  lq  the  sense 
of  beaucoup  =  many: 
Plusieurs  hommes  (femmes). 
Apporte  plusieurs  des  plumes. 
Pen  ai  plusieurs. 
Plusieurs  I'ont  era. 

Several  men  (women). 
Bring  several  of  the  pens. 
I  have  several  of  them. 
Many  (people)  beUeved  it. 

5.  Tel,  as  adjective,  =  such,  like;  un  tel  =  such  a;  tel, 
as  pronoun,  =  many  a  one,  he,  som£,  etc. : 
Ne  crois  pas  \me  telle  histoire. 
Tels  sont  mes  malheurs. 
n  n'y  a  pas  de  tels  animaur. 
A  telles  et  telles  conditions. 
Telle  qu'xme  tigresse. 
Tel  qui  rit  vendredi  dimanche 

pleurera  (proverb). 

Do  not  believe  such  a  story. 

Such  are  my  misfortunes. 

There  are  no  such  animals. 

On  such  and  such  conditions. 

Like  (as)  a  tigreas. 

Some    (many    a     one,    he)    who 

laugh  (s)  on  PViday  will  weep  on 

Examples  of  more  idiomatic  uses  are: 

Tel  pgre,  tel  fils. 

Tel  rit,  tel  pleure. 

Monsieur  un  tel  (Mme  une  telle). 

De  la  musique  telle  quelle. 

Votre  argent  tel  quel. 

Like  father,  like  son. 

One  laughs,  another  weeps. 

Mr.  So-and-eo  (Mrs.  So-and-so). 

Music  such  as  it  is. 

Your  money  intact. 

Note.  —  Such,  as  adverb,  is  si  or  tellement  (not  tel):  Dne  «   belle 
€toile;  Un  homme  teUement  cruel. 

6.  Tout   (singular)  =  all,   every,  any,  whole,   etc.;    tous 
(plural)  =  aU: 
Toutemavie;  tous  les  hommes.      All  my  (my  whole)  life;   all  (the) 

Tout  homme;  toute  creature.  Every  (any)  man;  every  creature. 

Tous  (toutes)  sont  venu(e)s.  All  have  come. 

172  THE  PRONOUN  §  406 

C'est  tout;  de  tous  c6tes.  That  is  all;  on  all  sides. 

Tout  m'efiraie.  Everything  frightens  me. 

a.  Tout  is  often  adverb  =  quite,  wholly,  very,  very  much,  etc.,  and 
agrees  like  an  adjective,  when  immediately  preceding  a  feminine  adjec- 
tive with  initial  consonant  or  h  aspirate,  but  is  elsewhere  invariable: 
Elles  etaient  toutes  pales  et  tout      They  were  quite  pale  and  very 

agitees.  much  excited. 

But:  Us  etaient  tout  pales  et  tout  agites,  etc. 

Note.  —  So  also,  in  the  compound  tout-puissant,  e.g.,  Elle  est  toute- 

6.  Observe  the  following  idiomatic  expressions: 
Toutlemonde  (cf.  le  monde  entier).  Everybody  (c/".  the  whole  world). 
Tous  les  mois;  pas  du  tout.  Every  month;  not  at  alL 

Tous  les  deux  jours.  Every  other  (alternate)  day. 

Tous  (les*)  dexix  or  les  deux.  Both. 

Tout  a  I'heure.  Presently  {or  a  httle  while  ago) 

Tout  beau;  tout  doux.  Gently  (slowly);  softly. 

(Pour)  tout  de  bon.  Seriously. 

*  Tous  deux  (trois,  etc.)  —  without  les  —  usually  denotes  '  simultane- 
ousness '  ( =  both  together,  etc.) ;  les  is  obligatory  above  ten,  and  usual  from 
five  to  ten. 

c.  For  the  distinction  between  tout  and  chaque  see  §  404,  2,  a;  for 
tout . . .  que  =  however,  see  §  404,  5,  h,  note. 

7.  Un  is  used  either  alone  or  as  correlative  to  autre: 

(1)  Un,  as  adjective,  =  a,  an  (cf.  §  320),  one,  a  certain; 
un,  as  pronoun,  =  one: 

"La.  maison  est  d'un  c6te.  The  house  is  on  one  eide. 

Un  monsieur  A.  l*a  dit.  A  (certain)  Mr.  A.  said  so. 

Une  des  dames  I'a  dit.  One  of  the  ladies  said  so. 

Void  un  crayon.  —  J'en  ai  un.  Here  is  a  pencil.  —  I  have  one. 

Les  uns  sont  de  cet  avis,  les  au-  Some  are  of   this  opinion,   (the) 
tres  n*en  sont  pas.  others  are  not. 

a.  Un  as  a  pronoun  is  often  preceded  by  1*,  especially  with  a  de  clause: 
L'un  des  consuls  est  arrive.  One  of  the  consuls  has  come. 

(2)  L*un  Pautre,  so  also  the  feminine  and  plural,  are 
combined  into  various  correlative  phrases^  as  follows: 




I'un  I'autre  =  each  other,  one  another;  pi.  ditto 

I'un  et  I'autre  =  both ;  pi.,  both,  aU 

I'un  ou  i'autre  =  either;  pi.,  ditto 

ni  i'un  ni  I'autre  (. . .  ne)  =  neither;  pi.,  neither,  none 

Elles  se  flattent  Tune  I'autre. 
lis  parlent  les  uns  des  autres. 
Us  se  parlent  I'un  k  I'autre. 
L'une  et  I'autre  occasion. 
Les  uns  et  les  autres  parlent. 
Dites  ceci  aux  uns  et  aux  autres. 
Je  prends  l'un(e)  ou  I'autre. 
Parle  4  l'une  ou  Ik  I'autre. 
Ni  les  un(e)s  ni  les  autres  ne 

sont  pour  vous. 
Ni  potir  l'un(e)  ni  pour  I'autre. 

They  flatter  each  other. 

They  speak  of  one  another 

They  8f>eak  to  one  another. 

Both  occasions. 

All  of  them  speak. 

Say  this  to  all. 

I  take  either. 

Speak  to  either. 

Neither    (none    of    them)    is   for 

For  neither. 


Indefinite  Relatives 

2.   Pronominal: 
Quiconque,  whoever 

Qui     que...(+    subjunctive   of 

etre),  whoever 
Quoi     que...  (4-     subjunctive), 

a.  Quelconque  takes  -s  for  the  plural,  and  always  follows  its  noun; 
quiconque  is  invariable;  the  other  forms  are  made  up  from  quel,  quel- 
que,  qui,  quoi,  +  que: 

1.  Adjectival: 

Quelconque,  any  (whatever,  at 

Quel  que  (+  subjunctive  of 
etre),  whatever 

Quelque  . . .  que  (+  subjunc- 
tive), whatever 

Un  (deux)  point  (s)  quelconque  (s). 
Une  raison  quelconque. 
Quiconque  parle  sera  puni(e). 
Quels  que  soient  (puissent  etre) 

vos  desseins. 
Quelle  que  fiit  la  loi. 
Quelques  efforts  qu'il  fasse. 
Qui  que  tu  sois  (puisses  etre). 
Quoi  que  vous  fassiez. 

Any  (two)  point  (s)  whatever. 
Any  reason  whatever  (at  all). 
Whoever  speaks  will  be  punished. 
Whatever  be  (may  be)  your  designs. 

Whatever  the  law  was. 
Whatever  efforts  he  makes. 
Whoever  you  be  (may  be). 
Whatever  you  do. 

Obs.:  For  the  use  of  the  subjunctive,  see  §  270,  4: 
b.   Qui  que  and  quoi  que  are  also  used  with  ce  before  soit: 
Qm  que  ce  soit  qui  le  dise.  Whosoever  says  it. 

Quoi  que  ce  soit  qu'il  dise.  Whatsoever  he  says. 



§§  40&-409 


408.  Simple  Adverbs.    The  following  list  contains  the 
commoner  simple  adverbs: 

ailleurs,  elsewhere 
ainsi,  thiis,  so 
alors,  then    * 
aprds,  afterwards 
assez,  enough,  rather 
aujourd'hui,  to-day 
auparavant,  before 
aussi,  also,  too,  as 
aussitot,  directly 
autant,  as  much 
autrefois,  formerly 
beaucoup,  mu/;h 
bien,  well,  very,  much 
bientot,  soon 
cependant,  however 
certes,  indeed 
combien(?)  howmuch{f) 
comme,  as,  like 
comment  (?)  how{f) 
davantage,  more 
dedans,  inside 
dehors,  outside 
d^ik,  already 
demain,  to-^morrow 
derri^re,  behind 
d^sormais,  henceforth 
dessous,  under 
dessus,  above 
devant,  before 
dor^navant,  henceforth 

encore,  stiU 

enfin,  at  last 

ensemble,  together 

ensuite,  then 

environ,  aboui 

expres,  on  purpose 

fort,  very 

hier,  yesterday 

ici,  here 

jadis,  formerly 

jamais,  ever,  never 

Ih,  there 

loin,  far  {off),  a  long 

longtemps,  (a)  long 

lors,  then 

maintenant,  now? 

mal,  badly 

mdme,  even 

mieux,  better 

moins,  less 

ne  . . .,  not 

n^anmoins,  neverthe- 

non,  no 

oW)  where{f) 

oui,  yes 

parfois,  sometimes 

partout,  everywhere 

pas,  not 
peu,  little 
pis,  worse 
plus,  more 
plutot,  rathe)' 
point,  not 
pourquoi(?)  why  {7) 
pourtant,  however 
prSs,  near  {by) 
presque,  almost 
proche,  near  {by) 
puis,       then,       there- 
quand(?)  when{f) 
que !  how{ !) 
quelquefois,  sometimes 
si,  so;  yes 
souvent,  often 
surtout,  especially 
tant,  so  much 
tantot,  soon,  recently 
tard,  late 
tot,  soon 

tou jours,  always,  still 
tout,  quite,  entirely 
toutefois,  however 
tr^s,  very 
trop,  too  {much) 
vite,  quickly 
volontiers,  willingly 

409.  Adverbs  from  Adjectives.    Most  adjectives  become 
adverbs  by  the  addition  of  -ment  to  the  feminine  singular: 









purement,  purely 


doucement,  sweetly 


strictement,  strictly 


follement,  madly 


activement,  actively 


facilement,  easily 


s^hement,  dryly 


autrement,  otherwise 

a.  Adjectives  ending  in  a  vowel,  other  than  -e,  drop  the  -e  of  the 
feminine  on  adding  -ment: 

Adj.  Adv.  Adj.  Adv. 

poli(e),        poliment,  polUdy  d6cid6(e),    d6cid6ment,  decidedly 

ab8olu(e),    absolument,  absolutely  etc.  etc. 

Note. — The  omitted  e  is  denoted  by  a  circumflex  accent  in  assidti- 
ment,  contin(iment,  criiment,  (in)d{iment,  gaiment  (better,  gaiement), 

h.   The  following  adjectives  in  -«  change  e  to  e  on  adding  -ment: 



















uniform  e. 


c.  The  following  adjectives  change  the  added  -e  of  the  feminine  to  6: 

























d.  Adjectives  in  -ant,  -cnt  (except  lent,  present,  vehement)  as- 
similate -nt  to  m  and  add  -ment  to  the  masculine  form: 

Adj.  Adv.  Adj.  Adv. 

constant,    constamment,  constarMy  prudent,    prudemment,  prudently 

616gant,       61^gamment,  elegantly  etc.  etc. 

But:  Lentement,    slowly;     prfeentement,    presently;    v4h6mentement,    te- 

e.  Gentil  gives  gentiment,  nicely;  the  adverb  to  bref  is  brievement 
(from  a  parallel  form),  briefly;  the  adverb  to  im|mni  is  impunement 
(probably  from  L.  impune,  cf.  b,  above),  with  impunity. 

f.  The  adverbs  corresponding  to  bon,  (jood,  and  mauvais,  bad,  are 
bien,  well,  and  mal,  badly.  From  bon  comes  regularly  bonnement  = 

176  THE  ADVERB  §§410-411 

410.  Adjectives  as  Adverbs.  Adjectival  forms  are  not 
uncommonly  used  as  adverbs,  and,  as  such,  are  regularly 
invariable : 

1.  A  number  of  adjectives  serve  as  adverbs  in  certain 
fixed  expressions: 

Cette  sottise  lui  co6te  cher.  That  folly  is  costing  him  dear, 

EUes  parlent  bas  {haut).  They  speak  low  (loud). 

Such  expressions  are: 

cofiter  bon,  cost  dear  arr^ter  court,  stop  short     coiiter  gros,  cost  dear 

sentir  bon,  smell  good  filer  doux,  '  sing  small '      viser  haut,  aim  high 

tenir  bon,  stand  firm  aller  droit,  go  straight        chanter  juste,  sing  in  tune 

acheter  cher,  buy  dear  viser  droit,  aim  straight     frapper  juste,  strike  straight 

coftter  cher,  cost  dear  chanter  faux,  sing  out  of     sentir  mauvais,  smell  bad 
vendre  cher,  sell  dear        tune  6crire  serr6,  write  small 

voir  clair,  see  clearly  frapper  ferme,  strike  hard  (h)  vrai  dire,  speak  truly 

prouver    clair,    prove  parler  ferme,  speak  firmly         etc.     etc. 

2.  An  adjective  sometimes  modifies  another  adjective: 

Des  dames  haut  placees.  Ladies  of  high  rank. 

Un  veritable  grand  homme.  A  truly  great  man. 

3.  Besides  the  above,  a  few  adjectival  forms  serve  also 
as  adverbs: 

Je  I'ai  dit  expres.  I  said  it  purposely. 

Soudain  nous  vimes  I'ennemi.  Suddenly  we  saw  the  enemy. 

Such  forms  are: 

bref,  in  short  mfime,  even                          tout  beau,  not  bo  fast 

exprSs,  purposely  proche,  near  (by)                 tout  doux,  gently 

fort,  very,  hard,  loud,  etc.  soudain,  suddenly            t  vite,  quickly 

juste,  exactly,  etc.  *  tout,  quite,  very,  etc. 

*  For  the  inflection  of  tout  as  adverb,  see  §  406,  6,  a. 
t  The  adverb  vitement  =  quickly,  is  familiar. 

a.  For  certain  adverbs  used  adjectivally,  see  §  358,  h. 

411.  Adverbial  Locutions.  Phrases  with  adverbial  func- 
tion are  numerous: 

Je  viendrai  tout  h  I'heure.  I  shall  come  presently. 

Venez  de  bonne  heure.  Come  early. 




Further  examples  are: 

h  bon  march6,  cheap 
h  c6t6,  near,  near  by 
k  droite,  to  the  right 
ii  jamais,  forever 
h  la  fois,  at  once 
k  ravenir,  in  future 
h  peine,  hardly 
k  peu  prfes,  nearly 
au  juste,  exactly 
au  moins,  at  least 
autre  part,  elsewhere 
d'abord,  at  first 

d'ailleurs,  beside* 

d^  lors,  since 

d'ordinaire,  usually 

d'oil,  whertce 

d'oti?  whence  t 

du  moins,  at  least 

en  avant,  forward 

en  bas,  below,  down  stairs 

en  effet,  in  fact 

en  haut,  above,  up  stairs 

lA-bas,  yonder 

l^-dessus,  thereupon 

nuile  part,  nowhere 
plus  tot,  sooner 
quelque  part,  somewhere 
tant  mieux,  so  much  the 

tdt  ou  tard,  sooner  or  later 
tour  k  tour,  in  turn 
tout  k  coup,  suddenly 
tout  de  suite,  at  once 
tout  d'un  coup,  all  at  once 

412.  Comparison  of  Adverbs.  1.  Adverbs  are  regularly 
compared  like  adjectives  (cf.  §  345)  by  the  use  of  plus, 
moins,  aussi;   que  =  than,  cts: 

Plus,  moins  facilement  que  Jean.      More,  less  easily  than  John. 
Aussi  facilement  que  Jean.  As  easily  as  John. 

a.  Further  examples,  illustrating  §345,  a,  b,  c,  d,  as  applied  to 

n  ne  marche  pas  aussi  (si)  vite. 
Vite  comme  un  eclair. 
II  marche  plus  vite  que  je  ne  pen- 

De  plus  en  plus  vite. 
Plus  je  le  connais  (et)  moins  je 


He  does  not  walk  as  (so)  fast. 

As  quick  as  hghtning. 

He  walks  faster  than  I  thought. 

Faster  and  faster. 
The  more  I  know  him  the  less  I 
esteem  him. 

b.  More  than,  less  than,  as  adverbs  of  quantity  =  plus  de,  moins 
de,   respectively;    they   must   be   carefully   distinguished   from   plus 
(moins)  que  =  more  (less)  than  in  an  elliptical  sentence: 
J'al  plus  (moins)  de  dix  francs.         I  have  more  (less)  than  ten  francs. 
En  moins  d'une  demi-hetu'e.  In  less  than  half  an  hour. 

But:  Un   elephant   mange   plus      An  elephant  eats  more  than  six 

que  six  chevatix  (ne  mangent).  horses  (eat). 

2.  The  following  are  irregularly  compared: 

bien,  well 

B.1,  badly,  m     [^^ 

mieux,  better 
.us  mal,  worse 

beaucoup,  much 
peu,  little 

plus,  more 
moins,  less 

178  THE  ADVERB  §413 

a.  Beaucoup  =  much  {many)  or  very  much  (many),  and  is  never 
modified  by  another  adverb,  except  pas. 

3.  The  superlative  is  formed  by  placing  le,  which  is  in- 
variable, before' the  comparative  of  inequality: 

Le  plus  souvent  (moins  souvent).      (The)  most  frequently  (least  f .). 
Elle  parle  le  plus  (mieux,  moins).      She  speaks  (the)  most  (best,  least). 

413.  Position.  1.  An  adverb  regularly  stands  immedi- 
ately after  its  verb,  rarely  between  the  subject  and  the  verb: 

Charles  porta  souvent  ma  caime.  Charles  often  carries  my  cane. 

On  devrait  lire  lentement.  One  should  read  slowly. 

Se  levant  tard,  se  couchant  t6t.  Rising  late,  going  to  bed  early. 

Us  I'ont  bien  refu.  They  have  received  him  well. 

Obs.:   Hence  the  adverb  regularly  comes  between  the  auxiliary  and  the 
participle  in  compound  tenses,  except  when  it  is  in  a  stressed  position: 
Je  I'avais  rencontre  dejd  =  /  had  met  him  already. 

a.  The  adverbs  aujourd'hui,  hier,  demain,  autrefois,  t6t,  tard,  ici, 
la,  ailleurs,  partout,  never  come  between  the  auxiUary  and  the  par- 

II  est  parti  hier.  He  went  away  yesterday. 

Je  I'ai  cherche  partout.  I  looked  for  it  everywhere. 

h.   Long  adverbs  in  -ment  not  uncommonly  stand  after  the  past 
II  a  parle  eloquemment.  He  has  spoken  eloquently. 

c.  Most  adverbs  of  quantity,  such  as  peu,  beaucoup,  trop,  etc.,  and 
a  few  short  adverbs  like  bien,  mal,  mieux,  etc.,  as  also  adverbs  of  nega- 
tion, regularly  precede  the  infinitive: 

Tu  ne  devrais  pas  trop  lire.  You  should  not  read  too  much. 

II  ne  saurait  mieux  faire.  He  cannot  do  better. 

H  parle  de  ne  pas  y  aller.  He  speaks  of  not  going  (there). 

d.  Interrogative  adverbs  head  the  phrase,   as  in  English;    other 
adverbs  are  not  uncommonly  placed  first  for  emphasis  (cf .  §  237,  3) : 
Quand  allez-vous  revenir?  When  are  you  going  to  come  back? 
Aujourd'hui  je  vais  me  reposer.      To-day  I  am  going  to  rest. 
Malheureusement  tout  est  perdu.      Unfortunately  all  is  lost. 

2.  Adverbs  usually  precede  the  nouns,  adjectives,  ad- 
verbs, and  phrases  modified  by  them: 

§§  414-415  NEGATION  179 

Assez  de  livres,  et  assez  chers.         Books  enough,  and  dear  enough. 
Bien  mal  k  propos.  Very  unseasonably. 

a.  For  combien !  comme !  que !  tant !  and  plus  . . .  plus,  moins . . . 
moins,  with  adjectives  or  adverbs,  cf .  §  350,  o. 

3.  Adverbial  phrases  follow  the  same  rules  as  adverbs, 
except  that  only  the  shorter  ones  may  usuallj^  come  between 
the  auxiliary  and  the  verb: 
Nous  etions  &  peine  partis.  Hardly  had  we  gone. 


414.  Negation  without  Verb.  Non  =  no,  not,  apart  from 
a  verb;  it  is  often  emphasized  by  pas,  point: 

L'avez-vous  dit?  —  Non.  Did  you  say  it?  —  No. 

Vous  viendrez?  —  Non  pas  (point).  You  will  come?  —  Certainly  not. 

Non,  non,  je  n'irai  pas.  No,  no,  .1  shall  not  go, 

Non  content  de  dire  cela.  Not  satisfied  with  saying  that. 

Ricbe  ou  non,  il  ne  I'aura  pas.  Rich  or  not,  he  shall  no*t  have  it. 

A-t-il,  oui  ou  non,  du  talent?  Has  he  talent,  yes  or  no? 

Des  idees  non  moins  vastes.  Ideas  not  less  vast. 

Une  maison  non  meublee.  A  house  not  furnished. 

Non  seulement . . .  mais  encore.  Not  only  . . .  but  also. 

o.  For  the  use  of  que  non,  see  §  420,  1,  a. 

415.  Negation  with  Verb.  1,  Along  with  a  verb,  a 
negation  consists  regularly  of  two  parts,  ne  (n',  see  §  19) 
together  with  some  other  word  or  words;  the  principal  cor- 
relative expressions  of  this  kind  are: 

aucunement  1  not  at  ne  .  . .  rien,  nothing 
.  nuUement     f  all       ne  .  . .  ni( . .  .  ni)  neither 
.  aucun    1  ...  nor 

.  nul         >  no,  none 
.  pas  un  J 
,  personne,  nobody 

Notes.  —  1.  Point  is  usually  more  emphatic  than  pas,  and  is  less  com- 
mon in  ordinary  language. 

2.  Negation  is  often  denoted  by  pas,  without  ne,  in  familiar  language: 
Ai-je  pas  dit  cela?  (=  N^sd-je  pas  dit  cela?) 


. .  pas,  not 


ne. . 

. .  point,  not 


ne . 

. .  guere,  hardly 


ne . , 

. .  jamais,  never 


ne . , 

.  .  plus,  no  more 


ne. . 

.  .  que,  only 


180  THE   ADVERB  §416 

2.  Other  forms  of  less  frequent  use  are: 

a.  Ne  . . .  quelconque  =  no  .  .  .  whatsoever  {at  all),  ne  . . .  qm  que  ce 
soit  =  nobody  whatsoever  {at  all),  ne . . .  quoi  que  ce  soit  =  nothing 
wfiatsoever  {at  all). 

Je  n'ai  dit  quoi  que  ce  soit.  I  said  nothing  at  all. 

b.  Ne brin  (lit.  blade),  or  mie  (lit.  crumb),  or  goutte  (lit.  drop), 

or  mot  (lit.  word)  =  ne  . . .  rien,  in  certain  phrases: 

H  n*y  en  a  brin.  There  is  none  of  it. 

Je  n'y  entends  goutte.  I  understand  nothing  of  it. 

c.  Ne  . . .  fime  vivante,  or  homme  qui  vive,  or  Suae  qui  vive,  etc.  = 
ne  . . .  personne : 

II  n'y  avait  ame  vivante  dans  la  '    There  was  not  a  living  soul  in  the 
maison.  house. 

d.  Ne . . .  de  +  an  expression  of  time,  e.g.,  la  (ma)  vie,  de  huit 
jours,  etc. 

Je  ne  I'oublierai  de  ma  vie.  I  shall  not  forget  it  while  I  live. 

416.  Position.  Ne  always  precedes  the  verb,  and  its 
conjunctive  objects,  if  any;  pas,  point  and  other  adverbs 
immediately  follow  the  verb,  and  its  conjimctive  pronouns, 
if  any;   indefinites  have  their  usual  place. 

Je  ne  le  leur  ai  pas  (point)  dit.  I  did  not  tell  them  it. 

Je  n'en  ai  guere.  I  have  hardly  any  of  it. 

Ne  les  a-t-il  jamais  vus?  Did  he  never  see  them? 

Je  n'y  resterai  plus.  I  shall  stay  there  no  longer. 

II  ne  le  veut  nuUement.  He  does  not  wish  it  at  all. 

II  ne  prend  aucun  soin.  He  takes  no  care. 

Personne  ne  pent  le  dire.  Nobody  can  say  (it). 

D  n'a  pas  mal  du  tout.  He  has  no  pain  at  all. 

Je  ne  I'ai  dit  &  qui  que  ce  soit.  I  have  told  it  to  nobody  at  all. 

a.  Pas,  point,  usually,  and  plus,  often,  precede  the  simple  infinitive, 
and  its  conjunctive  objects;   they  may  precede  or  follow  avoir,  gtre, 
either  when  alone  or  in  a  compound  infinitive: 
II  parle  de  ne  pas  vous  voir.  He  speaks  of  not  seeing  you. 

fitre  ou  ne  pas  gtre.  To  be  or  not  to  be. 

J'etais  fache  de  ne  vous  avoir  pas      I  was  sorry  not  to  have  seen  you. 

vu  {or  de  ne  pas  vous  avoir  vu, 

or  de  ne  vous  pas  avoir  vu). 

§§  417-418  NEGATION  181 

b.  Rien  as  object  is  treated  as  an  adverb;  it  may  also  precede  an 
infinitive  like  an  adverb: 

II  promet  de  ne  rien  dire.  He  promises  to  say  nothing. 

c.  The  que  of  ne. . .  que  immediately  precedes  the  word  it  modi- 

Je  n'en  ai  vu  que  trois.  I  saw  only  three  of  them. 

II  n'y  a  pas  ^'eux  qm  en  aient.      It  is  not  they  only  who  have  some. 

d.  To  denote  neither . . .  nor,  ni  is  placed  before  each  coordinate 
word,  and,  when  verbs  are  expressed,  ne  stands  before  the  auxiliary 
or  other  leading  verb.  When  principal  verbs  are  coordinated,  ne 
stands  before  each  of  them,  while  ni  also  must  stand  with  the  last, 
but  may  not  stand  with  the  first,  and  is  optional  with  others: 

Qui  le  sait?  —  Ni  lui  ni  moi.  Who  knows  it?  —  Neither  he  nor  I. 

n  n'a  ni  parents  ni  amis.  He  has  neither  relatives  nor  friends. 

Je  ne  I'ai  ni  vu  ni  entendu.  I  neither  saw  nor  heard  it. 

n  ne  sait  ni  lire  ni  ecrire.  He  can  neither  read  nor  write. 

Je  ne  veux  ni  qu'il  Use  ni  qu'il  I  neither  wish  him  to  read  nor  to 

ecrive.  write. 

II  ne  le  bldme  ni  ne  le  loue.  He  neither  blames  nor  praises  it. 

Je  ne  pouvais,  (ni)  ne  devais,  ni  I  neither  could,  nor  should,  nor 

ne  voulais  ceder.  would  yield. 

417.  Ellipsis  of  the  Verb.  If  the  verb  be  omitted,  but 
understood,  ne  is  also  omitted,  and  the  correlative  itself 
denotes  negation: 

Est-il  venu?  —  Pas  encore  (=11  Has  he  come?  —  Not  yet  (=  He 

n'est  pas  encore  venu).  has  not  yet  come). 

Qui  est  la?  —  Personne.  Who  is  there?  —  Nobody. 

Plus  de  larmes;  plus  de  soucis.  No  more  tears;  no  more  cares. 

0.  Pas,  when  so  used,  may  not  stand  alone: 

Non  (pas);  pas  encore;  pas  lui;      No;   not  yet;   not  he  (him);  not 
pas  du  tout;  pas  ce  soir,  etc.  at  all;  not  this  evening,  etc. 

418.  Ne  alone  as  Negative.  Negation  with  verbs  is 
expressed  by  ne  alone  in  certain  cases,  as  follows: 

1.  After  que  =  pourquoi?  and  usually  after  que,  qui  in 
rhetorical  question  or  exclamation: 

182  THE   ADVERB  §418 

Que  ne  le  disiez-vous  plus  tot?      Why  did  you  not  say  so  sooner? 
Que  ne  ferais-je  pour  lui?  What  would  I  not  do  for  him? 

Qui  ne  voit  cela?  Who  does  not  see  that? 

2.  After  condition  expressed  by  inversion: 

N'efit  ete  la  pluie.  Had  it  not  been  for  the  rain. 

a.  Sometimes  also  in  conditions  regularly  expressed  with  si: 

Si  je  ne  me  trompe  (m'abuse).         If  I  am  not  mistaken. 
Qtxi,  si  ce  n'est  vous?  Who,  if  not  you? 

3.  In  dependent  sentences  after  negation,  either  fully 
expressed  or  implied : 

Je  n'ai  pas  (j'ai  peu)  d'amis  qui  I  have  no  (I  have  few)  friends  who 

ne  soient  les  v6tres.  are  not  yours. 

II  n'y  a  rien  qu'il  ne  sache.  There  is  nothing  he  does  not  know. 

Non  que  je  ne  le  craigne.  Not  that  I  do  not  fear  him. 

Impossible  qu'il  ne  vienne !  Impossible  that  he  will  not  come ! 

Ai-je  un  ami  qtii  ne  soit  fidele?  —  Have  I  one  friend  who  is  not  faith- 

Non.  ful?  —  No. 

a.  More  obscure  cases  of  implied  negation  are  prendre  garde  que  = 
take  care  that  not,  etc.,  and  such  expressions  as  il  tient  =  it  depends  on, 
used  interrogatively: 

Prenez  garde  qu'il  ne  tombe.  Take  care  he  does  not  fall. 

Gardez  qu'il  ne  sorte.  Take  care  he  does  not  go  out. 

A  quoi  tient-il  qu'on  ne  fasse  What  is  the  cause  of  that  not  be- 

cela?  ing  done? 

4.  Sometimes  with  savoir,  bouger,  and  with  pouvoir, 
oser,  cesser  +  an  infinitive,  expressed  or  implied: 

Je  ne  sais  (pas).  I  do  not  know. 

Ne  bougez  (pas)  de  Ik.  Do  not  stir  from  there. 

Je  ne  puis  (pas)  repondre.  I  cannot  answer. 

II  n'oserait  (pas)  le  dire.  He  would  not  dare  to  say  so. 

Elle  ne  cesse  (pas)  de  pleurer.  She  does  not  cease  weeping. 

a.  Always  ne  alone  in  je  ne  saurais  and  je  ne  sais  quoi: 
Je  ne  saurais  vous  le  dire.  I  cannot  tell  you. 

Ne  sauriez-vous  m'aider?  Can  you  not  help  me? 

Un  je  ne  sais  quoi  de  terrible.  Something  indefinably  terrible; 

5.  In  a  few  set  expressions,  such  as; 

§  419  NEGATION  183 

ITimporte;  n'avoir  garde.  It  does  not  matter;  not  to  care. 

Ne  vous  en  deplaise.  By  your  leave. 

N'avoir  que  faire  de.  To  have  no  use  (whatever)  for. 

n  n'est  pire  eau  que  I'eau  qui  Still  waters  run  deep, 
dort  (proverb). 

419.  Pleonastic  ne.  In  a  que  clause  ne  is  often  pleo- 
nastic, as  compared  with  English;   thus,  ne  stands: 

1.  After  empecher  =  prevent,  eviter  =  avoid,  k  moins 
que  =  unless,  or  que  so  used: 

Empechez  qu'il  ne  sorte.  Prevent  him  from  going  out. 

J'evite  qu'on  ne  me  voie.  I  avoid  being  seen. 

A  moins  que  je  ne  sois  retenu.  Unless  I  be  detained. 

a.  This  ne  is  often  omitte(f  after  empecher  and  €viter,  after  em- 
p^her  mostly  when  n^ative  or  interrogative. 

6.  Ne  may  also  stand  after  avant  que : 
Avant  qu'il  (ne)  parte.  Before  he  goes  away. 

2.  After  expressions  of  fearing,  such  as  craindre,  redouter, 
etc.,  avoir  peur,  etc.,  when  not  negative,  or  when  negation 
is  not  implied  by  interrogation  expecting  negative  answer, 
or  by  condition: 

Je  Grains  qu'il  ne  vienne.  I  fear  he  will  come. 

Craignez-vous  qu'il  ne  vienne?  Do  you  fear  he  will  come? 

But:  Je  ne  crains  pas  qu'il  vienne.   Sans  craindre  qu'il  vienne.    Crai- 
gnez-vous qu'il  vienne?  —  Non.    Si  je  craignais  qu'il  vint. 

a.  What  it  is,  or  is  not,  feared  will  not  happ)en,  has  the  full  negation 
ne . . .  pas  in  the  que  clause: 

Je  crains  qu'il  ne  vienne  pas.  I  fear  he  will  not  come. 

Je  ne  crains  pas  qu'il  ne  vienne  pas.    I  do  not  fear  he  will  not  come. 

6.  Negation  and  interrogation  or  condition  neutralize  each  other, 
and  ne  stands: 
Ne   craignez-vous    pas   qu'il  ne    Do  you  not  fear  he  will  come? 

Si  je  ne  craignais  (pas')  qu'il  ncvtnt.    If  I  did  not  fear  he  would  come. 
Quand  meme  je  ne  cralndrais      Even  though  I  did  not  fear  he 

pas  qu'il  ne  vint.  would  come. 

3.  With  a  finite  verb  in  the  second  member  of  a  compari- 

184  THE  ADVERB  5  419 

son  of  inequality,  when  the  first  member  is  not  negative, 
or  does  not  imply  negation  as  above: 

II  est  plus  riche  qu'il  ne  I'etait.         He  is  richer  than  he  waa. 
Est-il  plus  riche  qu'il  ne  I'etait?        Is  he  richer  than  he  was? 
II  gagne  moins  qu'il  n'esperait.         He  earns  less  than  he  hoped. 
But:  II  n'est  pas  plus  riche  qu'il  I'etait;  est-il  plus  riche  qu'il  I'etait?  — 

a.  A  negative  interrogation  implies  aflBrmation,  and  ne  stands: 
N'est-il  pas  plus  riche  qu'il  ne      Is  he  not  richer  than  he  was? 

Note.  —  Autre,  autrement,  plutdt,  plus  tdt,  similarly  take  ne:  II  est  tout 
autre  que  je  ne  pensais. 

4.  Usually  after  expressions  of  doubt,  denial,  such  as 
douter,  nier,  disconvenir,  ete.,  Sften  desesperer,  when 
negative,  or  when  negation  is  implied  as  above: 

Je  ne  doute  pas  qu'il  ne  vienne.      I  do  not  doubt  that  he  will  come. 
Doutez-vous  qu'il  ne  vienne?  —      Do   you   doubt   whether   he   will 

Non.  come  ?  —  No. 

But:  Je  doute  qu'il  vienne;  doutez-vous  qu'il  vienne?  ( — question  for 


5.  After  il  s'en  faut  negatively,  interrogatively,  or  with 
peu,  guere,  etc.: 

II  ne  s'en  fallut  pas  (de)  beaucoup      He  came  very  near  being  killed. 

qu'il  ne  fM  tue. 
H  s'en  faut  de  peu  que  ce  vase  ne      This  vessel  is  nearly  full. 

soit  plein. 
Peu  s'en  est  fallu  que  je  ne  vinsse.     I  came  very  near  coming. 

6.  With  compound  tenses  after  il  y  a,  voila,  depuis: 

n  y  a  (voiia)  trois  jours  que  je  ne  It  is  three  days  since  I  saw  him  (I 
I'ai  vu.  have  not  seen  him  for,  etc.). 

II  avait  grandi  depuis  que  je  ne  He  had  grown  since  I  saw  him. 
I'avais  vu. 

Depuis  que  je  ne  vous  ai  vu.  Since  I  saw  you. 

a.  In  a  simple  tense  (§§  257,  2;  258,  4)  negatively,  ne  . . .  pas,  etc., 
must  be  used: 

VoiU  un  an  qu'il  ne  buvait  plus.      He  had  drunk  none  for  a  year. 





420.  Distinctions.    The  following  are  especially  liable  to 
be  confounded  in  use: 

1.   Oui,  Si.     Yes  in  affirmation  or  assent  is  oui;   yes  is  usually  si 
in  contradiction,  in  correction,  in  dissent: 
L'avez-vous  dit?  —  Oui,  monsieur.    Did  you  say  it?  —  Yea,  sir. 

Venez.  —  Oui,  oui,  j'y  vais. 

D  ne  s'en  va  pas.  —  Si,  monsieur, 

il  s'en  va. 
n  ne  s'en  va  pas?  —  Mais  si. 
Je  n'irai  pas.  —  Si,  si,  venez. 

Come.  —  Yes,  yes,  I  shall  go. 

He  is  not  going.  —  Yes,  (sir),  he  is 

He  is  not  going?  —  Yes,  certainly. 
I  shall  not  go.  —  Yes,  yes,  come. 

Nom.  —  The  use  of  si,  as  also  of  the  intensive  si  fait,  etc.,  though  very 
conunon.  is  classed  as  familiar  by  the  Acadimie;  it  is  often  avoided  by 
pardon,  etc.,  or  other  expressions:  D  ne  va  pas.  —  Pardon,  monsieor  (il  va). 

a.  Oui,  si,  and  non  are  often  preceded  by  que,  really  with  ellipsis 
of  a  whole  que  clause,  and  are  then  variously  translated  by  yes,  so, 
no,  not,  etc.,  or  by  a  clause: 

Je  dis  que  oui  (non). 

Je  crois  que  oui  (non). 

Vous  ne  I'avez  pas?  —  Oh !  que  sL 

Le  fera-t-il?  —  Je  crois  que  ouL 

Je  dis  que  non. 

Peut-etre  que  non. 

I  say  yes  (no). 

I  think  so  (not). 

You  haven't  it?  —  Oh  yes  I 

WiU  he  do  it?  —  I  think  he  will. 

I  say  it  is  not  so. 

Perhaps  not. 

2.  Au^ant,  Tant.     As  mttch  {many)  =  autant;    so  much  (many) 

Je  gagne  autant  que  vous. 
n  but  tant  qu'il  en  mourut. 

Pai  tant  d'amis;   j'en  ai  autant 
que  vous. 

I  earn  as  much  as  you. 

He  drank  so  much  that  he  died 

from  it. 
I  have  so  many  friends;  I  have  as 

many  as  you. 

3.  Plus,  Davantage.  Plus  is  used  in  all  senses  of  m^yre,  most  (see 
below);  davantage  (strengthened  sometimes  by  bien  =  mtich,  encore 
=  «<tZZ)  =  more,  is  regularly  used  only  absolutely,  and  usually  stands 
at  the  end  of  its  clause: 

rren  parle  pas  davantage. ) 
ITen  parle  plus.  > 

Say  no  more  about  it. 

186  THE  NUMERAL  §  421 

Ne  restez  pas  davantage.   )  t-»       ^  •  i 

„         ,       ,  r  Do  not  remain  any  longer. 

Ne  restez  plus.  )  jo 

Cela  me  plait  encore  davantage      That  pleases  me  still  more. 

Jesuisriche;  il  I'est  bien  davaiv-      I  am  rich;  he  is  much  more  so. 

tage  (plus). 
But  only:  J'en  ai  plus  que  lui;  il  est  plus  habile;  plus  de  dix  francs; 
c'est  ce  qui  le  flatte  le  plus,  etc. 

4.  Ne  . . .  que,  Seulement.  Seulement  must  be  used,  (1)  when  no 
verb  is  present,  (2)  when  only  refers  to  the  subject,  (3)  or  to  the  verb, 
(4)  or  to  a  que  clause,  and  (5)  it  may  be  used  to  strengthen  a  ne . . . 
que;   otherwise  only  =  ne  . . .  que  or  seulement; 

Seulement  les  braves.  Only  the  brave. 

Seulement  mon  frere  le  sait.  Only  my  brother  knows  it. 

ficoutez  seulement.  Only  listen. 

H  dit  seulement  qu'il  viendrait.         He  only  said  he  should  come. 
H  n'a  (seulement)  qu'S  venir.  He  has  only  to  come. 

But:  Nous  ne  serons  que  trois  {or  trois  seulement);   je  ne  veux  que 
voir  son  pSre  {or  je  veux  seulement  voir  son  pere),  etc. 

a.  Only,  referring  to  the  subject,  may  be  turned  also  by  il  n*y  a 
que,  il  n*y  a  pas  que : 

II  n'y  a  que  les  morts  qui  ne  re-      The  dead  only  do  not  come  back. 

viennent  pas. 
n  n'y  a  pas  qu'elles  qui  le  sachent.      It  is  not  only  they  who  know. 

421.  Cardinal  Ntimerals 

1  un,  une 

[«,  yn] 

2  deux 


3  trois 


4  quatre 


6  cinq 


6  six 


7  sept 


8  huit 


9  neuf 


10  dix 


11  onze 


12  douze 


13  treize 


14  quatorze  [katorz] 





70  soixante-dix 



71  soixante  et  onze 



80  quatre-vingts 



81  quatre- vingt-un 



90  quatre-vingt-dix 



91  quatre-vingt-ODze  Ckatravgoiz] 


100  cent 



101  cent  un 



200  deux  cents 



201  deux  cent  un 



1000  mille 



1001  mille  un 



2000  deux  mille 


15  quinze 

16  seize 

17  dix-sept 

18  dix-huit 

19  dix-neuf 

20  vingt 

21  vingt  et  un 

22  vingt-deux 

30  trente 

31  trente  etun 
40  quarante 
50  cinquante 
60  soixante 

Nouns  of  Number:  1,000,000  =  un  million  [de  miljs];  2,000,000  = 
deux  miUions  [d0  miljs];    1,000,000,000  =  un  milliard  [ce  miljair]. 

Observe:  1.  The  hyphen  unites  together  compound  numerals  under 
100,  except  where  et  occurs.  2.  Et  stands  r^ularly  in  21,  31,  41,  51, 
61,  71,  omitted  in  81,  and  elsewhere. 

Notes  on  Pronunciation:  1.  The  final  consonant  of  5,  6,  7,  8,  9, 
10,  17,  18,  19,  is  silent  before  initial  consonant  or  h  aspirate  of  a  word 
multiplied  by  them,  not  elsewhere:  Cinq  livres  [sg  hivr].  but  le  cinq 
mai  Qa  sSik  me].  2.  No  elision  or  liaison  occm^  before  huit,  onze: 
Le  huit  Da  qit];  les  huit  livres  Qe  qi  U:vt];  le  onze  Da  5:z];  les  onze 
francs  De  5:z  fra].  3.  The  t  is  sounded  in  vingt,  in  21,  23,  24,  25,  26, 
27,  28,  29,  is  sounded  with  the  d  in  22,  is  silent  from  81  to  99,  is 
silent  in  cent  tm,  deux  cent  un,  etc.    ■ 

o.  Un  (f.  ime)  is  the  only  cardinal  which  varies  for  gender: 

Une  (deux,  trois,  etc.)  plume(s).      One  (two,  three,  etc.)  pen(s). 
\^ngt  et  une  vaches.  Twenty-one  cows. 

6.  Cardinals  are  invariable  for  number,  except  that  -s  is  added  to 
quatre-vingt  and  the  multiples  of  cent,  but  only  when  immediately 
preceding  a  noun,  or  an  adjective  +  a  noun,  or  when  they  themselves 
serve  as  nouns  of  number: 

Quatre-vingts  francs. 
Trois  cent*  (bonnes)  plumes. 
Deux  cent5  millions  de  francs. 
Trois  cents  hommes. 
Les  cinq  cents. 

Eighty  francs. 
Three  hundred  (good)  pens. 
Two  hundred  million  francs. 
Three  hundred  men. 
The  five  hundreds. 

188  THE  NUMERAL  §  422 

But:  Trois  cent  irn  francs;  les  cent  hommes  engages;  quatre-vingt- 
une  plumes ;  deux  cent  mille ;  trois  mille  milles  (miles) ,  etc. 
N.B.  —  They  are  not  nouns  of  number  in  dates  (c.  below)  or  when  used 
as  ordinals  (§  427):  L'an  quatre  cent;  page  deux  cent;  page  qu&tte-vingt. 

c.  The  form  mil  (not  mille)  is  used  in  dates  of  the  Christian  era 
from  1001  to  1999: 

En  mil  huit  cent  quatre-vingt-  In  eighteen  hundred  and  ninety- 

onze.  one. 

(En)  l'an  mil  six.  (In)  the  year  1006. 

But:  L'an  mille  (sometimes  mil) ;  l'an  deux  xrulle  trois  cent;  l'an  mille 
cent  du  monde,  etc. 

d.  From  1100  onward  dates  are  often  expressed  by  hundreds,  as  so 
frequently  in  English: 

Onze  cent (s);  treize  cent (s).  Eleven  hundred;  thirteen  hundred. 

Quinze  cent  cinquante.  Fifteen  hundred  and  fifty. 

e.  A  (or  one)  hundred  =  cent;  a  (or  one)  thousand  =  mille: 
Mille  soldats.  A  (one)  thousand  soldiers. 

Note.  —  Septante  =  70,  octante  =  80,  nonante  =  90,  six-vingt(s)  =  120, 
and  quinze-vingt(s)  =  300,  are  now  obsolete  in  the  literary  language, 
although  sometimes  heard  in  certain  French-speaking  regions. 

422.  Ordinal  Numerals.  The  ordinal  numerals  denote 
order  or  place  in  a  series  relatively  to  the  first;  they  are 
formed,  from  'third'  up,  by  adding  -ieme  to  the  last  conso- 
nant of  the  corresponding  cardinal,  cinq  adding  u,  and  f 
of  neuf  becoming  v  before  -ieme: 

1st      premier     Cpr^nije]  7th  septiSme  Qsetjem] 

„  J  f  second        Cs^gaD  8th  huiti^me  CuitJEm] 

deuxieme   Cd0zi£m]  9th  neuviSme  [noevjem] 

3rd     troisieme    [trwazjem]  10th  dixieme  [dizjem] 

4th     quatriSme  [katriem]  11th  onzieme  Cozjsm] 

5th     cinqui^me  [sgkjem]  21st  vingt  et  uni6me[vgteynjem] 

6th     sixiSme       Qsizjem]  22nd  vingt-deuxieme  [vetd0zjem] 

Notes.  —  1.  Besides  the  ordinary  forms,  tiers  (f.  tierce)  =  third, 
quart(e)  =  fourth,  are  used  in  a  few  expressions  and  in  fractions:  Le  tiers 
etat,  The  commoners;  En  maison  tierce,  In  the  house  of  a  third  party;  Une 
fievre  quarte,  A  quartan  ague. 

2.  Quint  =  fifth  is  used  only  in  Ch&iles-Quint,  Charles  V  {the  Em- 
peror);   Sixie-Qidnt,  Sixtus  V  (the  Pope). 

§§423^24  COLLECTIVES  —  FRACTIONS  189 

a.  Ordinals  are  like  ordinary  adjectives  in  inflection  and  agreement, 
and  regularly  precede  the  noun: 

La  (les)  preniiere(s)  maison(s).        The  first  house(8). 
NoTis  sommes  arrives  les  premiers.    We  arrived  first. 

b.  Deuxieme  instead  of  second  is  more  usually  employed  in  a  series 
of  more  than  two,  and  always  in  compounds: 

Le  second  volume.  The  second  volume  (of  two). 

Le  deuxieme  volume.  The  second  volume  (of  three,  etc.). 

La  cent  deiudeme  fois.  The  hundred  and  second  time. 

423.  Collectives.  The  following  nouns  are  used  with 
collective  force: 

un(e)  couple,  a  couple  (tux>)  une     quarantaine,     about     forty, 

une  paire,  a  pair  quarantine 

une  huitaine,  about  eight  une  cinquantaine,  about  fifty 

une  dixaine,  about  ten  une  soixantaine,  about  sixty 

une  douzaine,  a  dozen  une  centaine,  about  a  hundred 

une   quinzaine,    about  fifteen,  a      un  cent,  a  hundred 

fortnight  un  millier,  {about)  a  thousand 
une  vingtaine,  about  twenty,  a  score    un  million,  a  million 

une  trentaine,  about  thirty  un  milliard,  a  billion,  etc. 

a.  They  take  -s  in  the  plural,  and  have  the  construction  of  ordinary 

H  y  a  une  centaine  d'eleves.  There  are  about  100  pupils. 

D  y  en  a  deux  cents.  There  are  two  hundred  of  them. 

Des  milliers  de  gens.  Thousands  of  people. 

Deux  millions  de  francs.  Two  million(8  of)  francs. 

424.  Fractions.  The  numerator  is  regularly  denoted  by 
a  cardinal  and  the  denominator  by  an  ordinal;  half  =  moitie, 
f.,  as  a  noun,  and  demi  as  an  adjective  or  a  noun: 

un  demi                  i  un  quart  ^  trois  seiziSmea 

une  moiti6              i  trois  quarts  t^  s^pt  centiemes 

I    deux  demia                I  un  cinquidme  WV  dix  cent  uniemes 

J    un  tiers                      i  un  septi^me  i^hf  o^ze  millilmes 

I    deux  tiers  -^  un  onzi&me  etc. 

a.  Demi,  before  its  noun,  is  invariable  and  joined  by  a  hyphen,  but 
agrees  elsewhere;  as  a  noun,  demi  is  hardly  used,  except  in  arithmetical 
calculations;  see  also  §  429: 

190  THE  NUMERAL  §§  425-426 

Une  demi-heure;    xrne  heure  et      Half  an   hour;    an   hour   and   a 
demie.  half  or  half  past  one. 

Trois  quarts  d'heixre.  Three  quarters  of  an  hour. 

Quatre  demis  =  deux.  Four  halves  =  two. 

La  moitie  de  la  somme.  Half  the  sum. 

6.  The  definite  article  is  required  before  fractions  followed  by 

de  +  a  noun  when  the  noun  is  determined  by  the  definite  article,  a 

possessive,  or  a  demonstrative,  and  similarly  for  pronominal  substi- 
tutes for  such  constructions: 

La  moitie  du  temps.  Half  the  time. 

Les  trois  quarts  de  ces  (ses)  biens.    Three-fourths  of  those  (his)  goods. 

J'en  prends  les  cinq  sixiemes.  I  take  five-sixths  of  them. 

425.  Multiplicative s.  1.  The  following  are  used  as  adjec- 
tives, or  absolutely  as  nouns: 

double,  dovble  septuple,  sevenfold 

triple,  triple  octuple,  eightfold 

quadruple,  quadruple  nonuple,  ninefold 

quintuple,  fivefold  decuple,  tenfold 

sextuple,  sixfold  centuple,  hundredfold 

As  nouns,  le  double,  the  double,  etc. : 

La  triple  alliance.  The  triple  alliance. 

Payer  le  double.  To  pay  twice  as  much. 

a.  Double  is  sometimes  adverb: 

n  voit  double.  He  sees  double. 

2.  Once,  twice,  three  times,  etc.  =  une  fois,  deux  fois, 
trois  fois,  etc.: 

Dix  fois  dix  font  cent.  Ten  times  ten  make  a  hundred. 

Deux  fois  autant  (plus).  Twice  as  much. 

426.  Numeral    Adverbs.    They    are    formed    from   the 
ordinals  by  -ment,  according  to  rule  (cf .  §  409) : 
premifirement,  first,  firstly  troisi^mement,  thirdly 

secondement    \  ,,  etc.    etc. 

,      .  ^  ,  >  secondly 

deuxiftmement  J 

a.  Substitutes  for  them,  of  very  frequent  use,  are:  d'abord  =  at  first, 
puis  =  then,  after  that,  ensuite  =  then,  next,  en  premier  lieu  =  in  the  first 
place,  en  second  lieu,  etc.  =  in  the  second  place,  etc. ;  or  the  Latin  adverb 
forms  prime,  secundo,  tertio,  etc.,  abbreviated  to  1°,  2°,  3°,  are  used. 

What  day  of  the  month  is  this? 

§§427-428  REMARKS  ON  USE  OF  NUMERALS  191 


427.  Cardinals  and  Ordinals.  1.  Premier  =  first  is  the 
only  ordinal  used  to  denote  the  day  of  the  month  or  the 
numerical  title  of  a  ruler;  otherwise,  cardinals  are  employed: 

Le  premier  (deux,  dix)  mai.  The  first  (second,  tenth)  of  May. 

Le  onze  de  ce  mois.  The  eleventh  of  this  month. 

Napoleon  (Gregoire)  premier.  Napoleon  (Gr^ory)  the  First. 

Henri  (Catherine)  deux.  Henry  (Catherine)  the  Second 

2.  Observe  the  following  date  idioms: 

Quel  jour  du  mois  est-ce  aujour- 

Quel  jour  du  mois  sommes-nous 

Quel  quantieme  du  mois  est-ce 


C'est  aujourd'htii  le  quinze.  To-day  is  the  fifteenth. 

Ce  sera  demain  le  seize.  To-morrow  will  be  the  sixteenth. 

Le  six  Janvier.  On  the  sixth  of  January, 

lis  sont  arrives  lundi.  They  came  on  Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui  en  huit.  A  week  from  to-day  (Jutvare). 

II  y  a  quinze  jours.  A  fortnight  ago. 

3.  Other  numerical  titles,  book,  chapter,  scene,  page,  etc., 
are  expressed  as  in  English,  ordinals  being  used  before  nouns, 
and  either  cardinals  or  ordinals  after  nouns: 

Tome  troisieme  ^ois).  Volume  third  (three). 

La  dixieme  scene  du  second  arte.      The  tenth  scene  of  the  second  act. 

a.  The  first  of  two  ordinals  joined  by  et  or  ou  is  not  imcommonly 
replaced  by  a  cardinal: 
La  quatre  ou  cinquieme  page.  The  foiulh  or  fifth  page. 

h.  Cardinals  must  precede  ordinals  in  French: 
Les  deux  premieres  scSnes.  The  first  two  scenes. 

428.  Dimension.  The  various  methods  of  indicating 
dimension  may  be  seen  from  the  following: 




(1)  Une  table  longue  de  deux  metres. 

(2)  Une  table  de  2  m.  de  longueur. 

(3)  Une  table  de  2  m.  de  long. 

(4)  Une  table  d'une  longueur  de  2  m. 

(5)  La  table  est  longue  de  2  m. 

(6)  La  table  a  2  m.  de  longueur. 

(7)  La  table  a  2  m.  de  long. 

(8)  La  table  a  ime  longueur  de  2  m. 

A  table  two  meters  long. 

The  table  is  two  meters  long. 

Obs.:  1.  Dimension  after  an  adjective  is  denoted  by  de,  cf.  (1),  (5). 

2.  Substitutes  for  the  adjectival  construction  of  (1)  are  seen  in  (2),  (3), 

3.  The  verb  to  be  is  gtre,  as  in  (5),  or  avoir,  as  in  (6),  (7),  (8). 

4.  Haut,  large,  long  (but  not  epais,  profond)  may  be  used  as  nouns 
instead  of  hauteur,  largeur,  longueur,  cf.  (3),  (7). 

a.   By,  of  relative  dimension  =  sur;  by,  after  a  comparative  =  de: 
Cette  table  a  deux  metres  de      This  table  is  two  meters  long  by 

longueur  sur  un  de  largeur.  one  wide. 

Plus  grand  de  cinq  centimetres.      Taller  by  5  cm.  (=2  inches). 

429.  Time  of  Day.    The  method  of  indicating  the  time 
of  day  may  be  seen  from  the  following: 

Quelle  hetire  est-il? 

D  est  une  (deux)  hexire(s). 

11  est  trois  heures  et  demie. 

Trois  heures  (et)  un  quart. 

Quatre  heures  moins  un  (le)  quart. 

Trois  heures  trois  quarts. 

Trois  heures  dix  (minutes). 

Six  heures  moins  cinq  (minutes). 

Cinq  heures  cinquante-cinq. 

II  est  midi  et  demi. 

II  est  minuit  (et)  xm  quart. 

A  hmt  heures  du  soir. 

A  quelle  heixre? 

A  trois  heures  precises. 

Vers  (les)  trois  heures. 

What  time  (o'clock)  is  it? 

It  is  one  (two)  o'clock. 

It  is  half-past  three. 

A  quarter  past  three. 

A  quarter  to  four. 

A  quarter  to  four. 

Ten  minutes  past  three. 

Five  minutes  t^  six. 

Five  fifty-five. 

It  is  half -past  twelve  (noon). 

It  is  a  quarter  past  twelve  (night). 

At  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening. 

At  what  o'clock? 

At  three  o'clock  precisely. 

Towards  (at  about)  three  o'clock. 

Obs.:   1.   It  is  (was,  etc.)  =  11  est  (4tait,  etc.). 

2.  Heure(s)  is  never  omitted. 

3.  £t  is  essential  only  at  the  half  hour. 




4.  Deim(e)  agrees  with  heure  (f.)  or  with  midi  (m.).  minuit  (m.). 

5.  Minutes  id  often  omitted. 

6.  A  quarter  to,  minutes  to  is  moins  before  the  following  hour. 

7.  Twelve  o'clock  is  never  douze  heures. 

430.  Age.    Idiomatic  expressions  denoting  age  are: 

Quel  fige  avez-vous? 
J'ai  vingt  ans. 
Je  suis  ige  de  vingt  ans. 
Une  fillette  de  six  ans. 
Plus  dg6  de  deux  ans. 

How  old  are  you? 
I  am  twenty  (years  old). 
I  am  twenty  (>'ears  old). 
A  little  girl  of  six. 
Older  by  two  years. 

Oba.:   I.   The  construction  with  avoir  is  the  more  common. 

2.  An(s)  may  be  omitted  in  specifying  age. 

3.  By  =  de,  after  a  comparison. 


431.  Simple  Prepositions.    The  following  list  contains 
the  commoner  simple  orepositions: 

k,  to,  at,  iri,  on,  etc. 
aprds,  after,  next  to 
avant,  before 
avec,  tnth 
chez,  with,  at  — '» 
contre,  against 
dans,  tn(to) 
de,  of,  from,  toith,  etc. 
depuis,  since,  from 
derriere,  behind 
dds,  from,  as  early  as 
devant,  b^ore 

durant,  during 
en,  in,  to 

entre,  between,  among 
envers,  towards 
hormis,  except 
jusque,  till,  uniU 
malgr6,  in  spite  of 
moyennant,  by  means  of 
nonobstant,        notwith- 
outre,  besides 
par,  by,  through 

parmi,  among 
pendant,  during 
pour,  for 
sans,  without 
sauf ,  save,  except 
selon,  according  to 
sous,  under 
suivant,  according  to 
sur,  on,  upon 
vers,  towards 
voici,  here  is  {are) 
voil^  there  is  (are) 

432.  Prepositional    Locutions.    Phrases    with     preposi- 
tional function,  mostly  ending  in  de  or  a,  are  numerous: 

A  cflte  de  I'eglise.^  Beside  the  church. 

Jusqu'4  la  semaine  prochaine.  Until  next  week. 

A  travers  la  foret  Through  the  forest. 

194  THE  PREPOSITION  §§433-435 

Such  locutions  are: 

h  cause  de,  on  account  of  au-dessus  de,  above  faute  de,  for  want  of 

k  c6t6  de,  by  the  side  of    au  lieu  de,  instead  of  jusqu'^,  as  far  as,  untU 

h  force  de,  by  dint  of         autour  de,  around  par  del^,  beyond 

h  regard  de,  vnth  regard  to  au  moyen  de,  by  means  of  par-dessous,  U7ider 

&  I'exception  de,  except     auprds  de,  near  by  par-dessus,  over 
k  I'insu  de,  unknown  to     au  travers  de,  across,  through  pr^s  de,  near 

k  travers,  across,  through  d'apr^s,  according  to  quant  h.,  as  for 

au  del^  de,  beyond  en  degh  de,  on  this  side  {of)  vis-a-vis  de,  opposite 

au-dessous  de,  under  en  d^pit  de,  in  spite  of  etc.,  etc. 

433.  Position.  Prepositions  regularly  precede  the  gov- 
erned word,  as  in  English: 

Je  parle  de  Jean  (de  lui).  I  speak  of  John  (of  him). 

a.  Conjunctive  personal  pronouns  governed  by  voici,  voila,  precede: 

Me  voici;  les  voilS.  Here  I  am;  there  they  are. 

En  voici  quelques-uns.  Here  are  some  of  them. 

6.  Durant  is' sometimes  placed  after  its  noun: 
Durant  sa  vie  {or  sa  vie  durant).      During  his  life. 

434.  Repetition.  The  prepositions  a,  de,  en,  are  regu- 
larly repeated  before  each  governed  substantive;  the  rep- 
etition of  other  prepositions  is  regular  in  contrasts,  but  is 
elsewhere  optional,  as  in  English: 

II  aime  h.  lire  et  &  ecrire.  He  likes  to  read  and  write. 

Le  pere  de  Jean  et  de  Marie.  The  father  of  John  and  Mary. 

En  France  ou  en  Italie.  In  France  or  Italy. 

Sur  terre  et  sur  mer.  By  land  and  sea. 

Par  la  persuasion  ou  par  la  force.      By  persuasion  or  force. 

But:  Pour  lui  et  (pour)  son  frdre,  etc. 


435.  Prepositions  vary  greatly  as  to  idiomatic  force  in 
different  languages.  In  the  following  sections  are  given 
some  of  the  various  French  equivalents  of  the  commoner 
English  prepositions. 

§§  436-438  IDIOMATIC  DISTINCTIONS  195 

436.  About 

1.  In  the  sense  of  around  =  autour  de: 
Regardez  autour  de  vous.  Look  about  you. 
AutouT  de  la  place.  About  the  square. 

2.  In  the  sense  of  concerning,  of  =  de,k: 

De  quoi  parlez-vous?  What  are  you  talking  about? 

A  quoi  pensez-vous?  What  are  you  thinking  about? 

3.  In  the  sense  of  with,  about  {the  person)  =  sur: 

Avez-vous  de  I'argent  sur  vous?      Have  you  any  money  about  you? 

4.  Denoting  approximation  =  environ,  pres  de,  UpeuprSs,  vers: 
Environ   (pres  de,  k  peu   prfes)      About  two  thousand  francs;  about 

deux  mille  francs;   vers  (sur         ten  o'clock;   about  1830. 
les)  diz  heures;  vers  1830. 

437.  After 

1.  Denoting  time,  rank,  order,  position  =  aprds: 

Apres  diner;  le  premier  apres  le      After  dinner;    the  first  after  the 
roi;  on  met  I'adjectif  apres  le  king;    the   adjective  is   placed 

nom;  courez  aprds  lui.  after  the  noun;  run  after  him. 

2.  In  the  sense  of  at  the  end  of  =  au  bout  de: 

Au  bout  de  trois  siecles.  After  three  centuries. 

3.  Unclassified: 

De  jour  en  jour;  dessine  d'aprds      Day  after  day;  drawn  after  Raph- 
Raphael;  le  lendemain  de  son  ael;  the  day  after  his  return;  he 

retour;  il  tient  de  sa  mdre.  takes  after  his  mother. 

438.  Among 

1.  In  the  sense  of  in  the  midst  of,  surrounded  by  =  parmi,  some- 
times entre: 

Une  brebis  parmi  les  loups.  A  sheep  among  wolves. 

n  fut  trouve  entre  les  morts.  He  was  found  among  the  dead. 

2.  Among  (distributively  or  reciprocally)  =  entre: 

n  le  partagea  entre  ses  amis.  He  divided  it  among  his  friends. 

lis  parlaient  entre  eux.  They  spoke  among  themselves. 

3.  Unclassified: 

C'etait  ainsi  chez  les  Grecs.  It  was  so  among  the  Greeks 

196  THE  PEEPOSITION  §§439-441 

439.  At 

1.  Denoting  place,  time,  =  d,  sometimes  en: 

Ai'ecole;  aDouvres;  a  table;  H  At  school;  at  Dover;  at  table;  at 
cinq  heures;  k  I'age  de;  en  five  o'clock;  at  the  age  of;  at 
tete  de;  en  (au)  meme  temps;  the  head  of;  at  the  same  time; 
H  la  fin  (enfin).  at  last. 

2.  In  the  sense  of  at  the  house,  etc.,  of,  at — 's   =  chez: 

J'ai  ete  chez  vous;  il  est  chez  I  was  at  your  house;  he  is  at  Mr. 
Monsieur  Ribot.  Ribot's. 

3.  Unclassified: 

A   mes   depens;    i   tout   prix;  At  my  expense;  at  any  price;  at 

d'abord;  sous  la  main;  entrer  first;   at  hand;   come  (go)  in  at 

par  la  fenetre;  en  haut  (bas) ;  the  window;  at  the  top  (bottom); 

aumoins;  surmer;  en  guerre.  at  least;  at  sea;  at  war. 

440.  Before 

1.  Denoting  place,  in  the  sense  of  in  front  of,  in  the  presence  of  = 

Mettez  cela  devant  le  f eu ;  le  jar-  Put  that  before  the  fire;  the  gar- 
din  est  devant  la  maison;  il  den  is  before  the  house;  he 
precha  devant  le  roi.  preached  before  the  king. 

2.  Denoting  time,  order  =  avant: 

Avantmidi;  jel'aivu  avant  vous;  Before  noon;  I  saw  him  before 
mettez  I'article  avant  le  nom.         you;   put  the  article  before  the 


3.  Unclassified: 

Sous  mes  yeux;  la  veille  de  la  Before  my  eyes;  the  day  before 
bataille;  comparaitre  par-de-  the  battle;  to  appear  before  the 
vant  le  juge.  judge. 

441.  By 

1.  Denoting  the  agent  after  the  passive  =  par,  de  (cf.  §  240): 

EUe  fut  saisie  par  le  voleur;  ils  She  was  seized  by  the  robber;  they 
sont  aimes  de  tous.  are  loved  by  all. 

2.  Denoting  means,  way,  etc.  =  par  (usually) : 

Parlaposte;  par  chemin  de  fer;  By  post;  by  railway;  by  this 
par  ce  moyen;  par  tm  ami.  means;  by  a  friend. 




3.  Denoting  measure  =  de;  relative  dimension  =  sur: 

Plus  grand  de  la  tete;  plus  Sge      Taller  by  a  head;    older  by  ten 
de  dix ans  (de  beaucoup) ;  plus  years   (by  far);    heavier  by  a 

lourd  d'une  livre;  moindre  de  pound;  less  by  half;  ten^meters 

la  moitie ;   dix  metres  sur  six.  by  six. 

4.  Unclassified: 

De  jour  (nuit) ;  il'annee;  goutte 
k  goutte;  il  est  midl  k  ma 
montre;  connaitre  de  vue;  de 
vive  voix;  im  tailleur  de  son 
£tat ;  vendre  au  poids ;  fait  k  la 

By  day  (night);  by  the  year;  drop 
by  drop;  it  is  noon  by  my  watch; 
to  know  by  sight;  by  word  of 
mouth;  a  tailor  by  trade;  to  sell 
by  weight;   made  by  hand. 

442.  For 

1 .  In  the  sense  of  for  the  sake  of,  instead  of,  (in  exchange)  for  =  pour : 

Mourir  pour  la  patrie;  je  le  fais      To  die  for  one's  country;   I  do  it 
pour   vous;    donnez-moi   ceci  for  you;   give  me  this  for  that, 

pour  cela. 

I  leave  for  France;    a  letter  for 

2.  Denoting  destination: 

Je  pars  pour  la  France;  une  let 
tre  potir  vous. 

3.  Denoting  a  period  of  time  (future)  =  potir: 

Je   resterai    (pour)   huit  jours;      I  shall  stay  (for)  a  week;  I  have 
j'en  ai  pour  dix  ans.  enough  of  it  for  ten  years. 

Note.  —  For,  of  time  not  future,  is  variously  rendered:  Petals  huit  jours 
absent  or  Petals  absent  pendant  huit  jours,  /  tpas  absent  for  a  week;  U  y 
a  (void,  voili)  deux  heures  que  je  lis  or  Je  lis  depuis  deux  heures,  /  fuite 
been  reading  for  two  hovra. 

4.  Unclassified: 

Mot  k  mot  or  mot  pour  mot;  un 
remede  centre  (pour);  trem- 
bler de  crainte;  par  eiemple; 
quant  k  moi ;  vendre  dix  francs 
or  laisser  (donner)  pour  dix 
francs;  remercier  (punir)  de; 
changer  pour  (centre) ;  c'est  k 
vous  de  dire;  malgre  tout  cela. 

Word  for  word;  a  remedy  for;  to 
tremble  for  fear;  for  example; 
as  for  me;  to  sell  for  ten  francs 
or  to  give  for  ten  francs;  to 
thank  (punish)  for;  to  change 
for;  it  is  for  you  to  say;  for 

198  THE  PREPOSITION  §§  443-444 

443.  From 

1.  Usually  =  de: 

II  vient  de  Paris;  de  trois  k  He  comes  from  Paris;  from  three 
quatre  hetires;  je  I'ai  appris  to  four  o'clock;  I  heard  it  from 
de  lui.  him, 

2.  In  the  sense  of  because  of,  out  of,  through  =  par: 

Cela  arriva  par  negligence;  par  That  happened  from  carelessness; 
experience  (amitie).  from  experience  (friendship). 

3.  In  the  sense  of  dating  from  =  des,  depuis,  k  partir  de : 
Des  (depuis,  k  partir  de)  ce  jour;      From  that  day;  from  1820  (on). 

k  partir  de  1820. 

4.  Unclassified: 

D'aujourd'hui  en  huit;  dessine  A  week  from  to-day;  drawn  from 
d'apres  nature ;  boire  dans  un  nature;    to  drink  from  a  glass; 

verre;  6tez  cela  k  I'enfant.  take  that  from  the  child. 

444.  In,  into 

1.  Denoting  place  or  time  specifically,  i.e.,  in  the  sense  of 
within,  inside  of,  in{to)  the  interior  of  =  dans  (cf.  §  333,  3): 

Dans  ce  paquet  (champ);    dans  In  this  parcel  (field);    in  (to)  the 

lamaison;  dans  I'Afrique  aus-  house;   in  South  Africa;   in  the 

trale;     dans    toute    la    ville;  whole  city;  in  the  same  year, 
dans  la  meme  annee. 

Note.  —  The  governed  noun  usually  has  the  definite  article. 

2.  Denoting  place  or  time  generally  =  en,  k  (cf .  §  333,  2,  3) : 
En  Afrique;    a  la  maison;    aux      In  Africa;  in  the  house  (at  home) ; 

champs;    au  Canada;    a  Lon-  in  the  fields;  in  Canada;  in  Lon- 

dres;  a  la  campagne  (ville) ;  en  don;   in  the  country  (city);    in 

hiver;  au  printemps;  en  paix.  winter;   in  spring;   in  peace. 

Note.  —  The  governed  word  after  en  has  but  rarely  the  definite  article 
(mostly  in  fixed  expressions  before  initial  vowel  sound):  En  /'air;  En 
rhonneur  de,  etc.  ^ 

3.  In  the  sense  of  at  the  end  of  (time)  =  dans;  in  the  course  of 
(time)  =  en: 

Le  train  part  dans  uneheure;  on  The  train  leaves  in  an  hour;  one 
peut  aller  k  L.  en  tme  heure.  can  go  to  L.  in  an  hour. 




4.  Denoting  place,  after  a  superlative  =  de: 
La  plus  grande  ville  du  monde.        The  largest  city  in  the  world. 

6.  Unclassified: 

Par  la  pluie;  le  matin;  de  nos 
jours;  par  le  passe;  il'avenir; 
d'avance ;  antra  las  mains  de ; 
k  mon  avis;  sous  le  regne 
da;  sous  prasse;  de  catte 
maniera ;  un  sur  diz. 

445.  Of 

1.  Usually  =  de: 

Le  toit  da  la  maison;  la  ville  de 
Paris;  tm  homma  d'influance; 
una  livra  da  the ;  digna  dTion- 
naur;  il  parle  d'aller  k  Paris. 

2.  Denoting  material  =  en: 

Un  pent  en  bois  (f  er) ;  las  pieces 
de  diz  francs  sont  en  or. 

3.  Unclassified: 

C'est  aimable  k  vous;  sur  loo 
parsonnes  50  sont  echappees; 
docteur  en  medecine;  un  de 
mes  amis;  majeur. 

In  the  rain;  in  the  morning;  in 
our  day(s);  in  the  past;  in  the 
future;  in  advance;  in  the  hands 
of;  in  my  opinion;  in  the  reign 
of;  in  (the)  press;  in  this  way; 
one  in  ten. 

The  roof  of  the  house;  the  city  of 
Paris;  a  man  of  influence;  a 
poimd  of  tea;  worthy  of  honor; 
he  speaks  of  going  to  Paris 

A  bridge  of  wood  (iron) ;  ten-franc 
pieces  are  (made)  of  gold. 

It  is  kind  of  you;  of  100  persons 
50  escaped;  doctor  of  medicine: 
one  of  my  friends;  of  age. 


1.  Usually  =  sur: 

On,  upon 

Le  livre'ast  (ja  mats  le  livre)  sur 
la  table. 

The  book  is  (I  put  the  book)  on  the 

2.  Is  omitted  in  dates  before  specified  days: 

Ledizmal;  je  viendrai  mardi;  il 
arriva  le  lendemain. 

On  the  tenth  of  May;  I  shall  come 
on  Tuesday;  he  arrived  on  the 




3.  Unclassified: 

Par  une  belle  joumee  d'ete ;  met- 
tre  au  feu;  pendre  contre 
le  miir;  dans  la  rue;  dans 
I'ile;  dansl'escalier;  en  (dans 
un)  voyage;  en  visite  (conge); 
en  chemin  (route) ;  d'un  cote ; 
tomber  par  terre;  k  genoux; 
dans  cette  occasion;  k  cheval 
(pied);  k  droite  (gauche);  k 
son  arrivee;  au  contraire; 
pour  affaires. 

On  a  fine  summer  day;  to  put  on 
the  fire;  to  hang  on  the  wall; 
on  the  street;  on  the  island;  on 
the  stairs;  on  a  journey;  on  a 
visit  (a  hoUday) ;  on  the  way  (the 
road);  on  one  side;  to  fall  on 
the  ground;  on  one's  knees;  on 
that  occasion;  on  horseback 
(foot);  on  the  right  (the  left); 
on  his  arrival;  on  the  contrary; 
on  business. 

447.  Out  of 

1.  Unclassified: 
Boire  dans  tin  verre;  copier  dans 
un  Uvre;  regarder  par  la  fene- 
tre;  un  sur  diz. 

To  drink  out  of  a  glass;  to  copy 
out  of  a  book;  to  look  out  of  the 
window;  one  out  of  ten. 

448.  Over 

1.  In  the  sense  of  above  =  au-dessus  de: 

Au-dessus  de  la  porte  etaient 
ecrits  ces  mots;  les  nombres 
au-dessus  de  mille. 

Over  the  door  were  written  these 
words;  the  numbers  over  one 

2.  Denoting  motion  above  =  sur,  par,  par-dessus: 

Passez  la  main  sur  ce  drap ;  par 
monts  et  par  vaux;  il  sauta 
par-dessus  la  hale. 

3.  Unclassified: 

Au  deia  de  la  riviere;  I'emporter 
sur  (triompher  de) ;  se  rejouir 
de;  veiller  sur. 

Pass  your  hand  over  this  cloth; 
over  hill  and  dale;  he  leaped 
over  the  hedge. 

Over  the  river;   to  triumph  over; 
to  rejoice  over;   to  watch  over. 

449.  Through 

1.  Denoting  motion  across  =  d.  travers  (au  travers  de),  par: 

Je  passai  k  travers  (au  travers      I  passed  through  the  forest;  to  pass 
de)  la  foret;  passer  par  Paris.  through  Paris. 


2.  In  the  sense  of  because  of,  owing  to  =  par: 
Par  negligence.  Through  careleesnesB. 

460.  TiU,  unta 

1.  Unclassified: 

Jusqu'i  demain;  pas  avant  I'an-      Till  to-morrow;  not  till  next  year; 
nee  prochalne;    jusqu'ici;  du  till    now;     from    morning    till 

matin  au  soir.  night. 

451.  To 

1.  Denoting  the  indirect  object  =  i  (cf.  §362,  2): 
Je  I'ai  donne  k  im  ami.  I  gave  it  to  a  friend. 

2.  Denoting  motion  to  =  ft,  en  (cf.  §333,  2,  3);  in  the  sense  <rf 
to  the  house,  etc.,  of,  to 's  =  chez: 

II  va  &  Paris  (i  I'ecole ;  aujapon;  He  goes  to  Paris  (to  school;    to 

k  un  bal;  en  France;  en  Por-  Japan;  to  a  ball;  to  France;  to 

tugal;    chez  euz;    chez  mon  Portugal;    to  their  house,  etc.; 

ami).  to  my  friend's). 

3.  In  the  sense  of  towards  =  vers  (physical  tendency),  enters 
(moral  tendency) : 

Levez  les  yeux  vers  le  del;  il  est      Raise  yoxu-  eyes  to  heaven;   he  is 
juste  envers  tous.  just  to  all. 

4.  In  the  sense  of  as  far  as  =  jusqu'ft: 

Venez  ju