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E BELLES-LETTRES 
SERIES 




)[ EARLY ENGLISH LITERATURE 



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SECTION I 

ENGLISH LITERATURE 

FROM ITS BEGINNING TO THE 
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h.vc exactly represent lutings from the unique MS. sf the Riddles, reduced to about halt" the original size. I. The close of Rid. i. 2. The close of Rid. v., with the rune at the head of Rid. vi. over 
"criat." 3. The cluie uf Rid. vi., with the same rune at the end over the word •■. ige." 4. The close of Rid. vii. ; " ferende gaest " comes at the end of a MS.-line, the rest of which it blank 
eC-rune over Rid. viii. 5. Sign (rune >) in margin of Rid. xiii., at extreme edge of MS. 6. Sign (rune?) in the margin of Rid. xiv. ; there is another sign, not reproduced, at the end. 7. See first foot- 
id. KVii. The signs .,re not in the margin, but over Rid. xvii., in the same position, with reference to the word " hwzet" in Rid. xvi., as in Fig. 4. 8. Usual stop marking close of Rid. xvn. , with sign 
by ne.ther Gr-W. nor Tupper) over Rid. xviii. 9. Marks (also unrecorded) in the margin of Rid. xviii. to the right of the word "msldan." 10. Runes in Rid. xxiv., precisely in their relative 
II. Signs (runes') in the margin of Rid. xxx. ; the close of the words "wuldre" and "bearu" also given. 12. The portion of Rid. xxxvi. containing the secret writing. , 13. The runes in Rid. 
live positions. 14. Rid. xxvii., lines ic, 16; see footnote to text. 15, 16. Rids. Ixviii., Ixix., to make clearer the footnote on the former. The words at the end of the first MS.-lin 
I. ' 17. Kunes and closing stop in Rid. Ixxiv. 18. Close of Rid. lxxxv., with an unrecorded sign (B-runc >). 19. Rune in Rid. lxxxix. 20. Runes in I 
rrs of Rids, v., xxni., xl., Ivii., and Ixxxii. respectively. 



1 their relative positions. 21-25. The 



OLD ENGLISH 
RIDDLES 



EDITED BY 



A. J. WYATT, M.A. 

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND 



BOSTON, U. S. A., AND LONDON 

D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY 
D. C. HEATH & CO. 



2 G 9 



PRINTED IN U.S.A. 



ptttatt 



I am almost ashamed to say that this little book represents the 
spare hours of the last eight years. It is ten years since I undertook 
it, at the request of the late Prof. E. M. Brown, of the University of 
Cincinnati. It has been a labour of love and pleasure, except for the 
waste involved in picking up the threads again each autumn after 
an interval of ten or eleven months. The text alone occupied weeks 
(including several visits to Exeter to consult the MS.) ; the punc- 
tuation, days. I have not cared about recovering an additional letter 
here and there in the numerous mutilated passages ; but I have cared 
greatly to try and evolve a more intelligible text in the many whole 
passages that were yet obscure. The Riddles are the most difficult 
Old English text I know, because the editor needs to combine the 
qualifications of an editor, a riddler, and an antiquary in about equal 
proportions. To such qualifications I can lay no claim : my sole 
qualification is that I have endeavoured to let neither the riddler 
carry it with a high hand over the editor nor the editor over the 
riddler. The only safe road to riddle-guessing is the comparative 
method, combined with some antiquarian investigation into the exact 
form and construction of objects in early times. 

Right or wrong, my own conclusions are in the main independent} 
that is to say, I have read everything that seemed worth reading 
and formed my own judgment. No rivalry, it seems to me, is pos- 
sible between this edition and that of Prof. Tupper ; but it is 
necessary to state quite clearly the relations in date between the two 
books. The text of this edition was completed in 1909 ; at the end 
of that year the Notes were finished, except for a few reserved mat- 
ters ; but the Introduction was still unwritten. Then the heavy duties 



vi preface 

connected with the Examinership in English at London University 
compelled me to put this work altogether on one side for two years, 
until the autumn of 1911, when, and in the following Christmas 
vacation, it was completed. Meantime, early in 19 10 Prof. Tupper 
sent me a copy of his edition ; until I received it, I had no ink- 
ling that he was engaged upon, or even contemplating, such a book. 
My Introduction then alone remained to be written j and in the 
circumstances I deemed that I was not entitled to make any use of 
his researches, except to state with greater emphasis those points, 
if any, in which I differed from him. Before the appearance of his 
edition, however, I had made full use of his informing and stim- 
ulating articles, in Modern Language Notes (1903), on "The Com- 
parative Study of Riddles." 

One pleasant task remains : to thank those good friends who have 
so willingly helped me. The Rev. Chancellor Edmonds of Exeter 
gave me ready access to the MS., sometimes at very inconvenient 
hours and without any forewarning ; Miss J. D. Montgomery of 
Exeter made the exact measurements given in the first foot-note to 
Riddle 9 1 : and Mr. A. E. Morgan of University College, Exeter, 
though a complete stranger to me, most readily consulted the MS. 
more than once in order to verify my tracings and memoranda. 
The General Editor, Prof. E. M. Brown, took the kindliest interest 
in the progress of the work ; since his death I have greatly missed his 
knowledge and critical acumen. Two old pupils of mine, Max 
Drennan of Cambridge and Bernard Pitt of London, have done 
whatever I wanted whenever I wanted it. Last and greatest, my 
friend, G. Ainslie Hight, late of the Indian Forest Service, has 
been like the Centurion's servant; he relieved me entirely of the 
immense labour of making the glossary ; without his ready sympa- 
thy and cheery help the work would never have come to completion. 
Much of the credit is his ; the many faults and defects are mine. 

^ A Alfred J. Wyatt 

Cambridge, April, 1912 J 



Contents; 

List of Riddles and Solutions .... viii 

Introduction ...... xiii 

The Commoner Anglian Runes . . xxxix 

Text of Riddles ...... I 

Notes ........ 65 

Bibliography . . . . . .124 

Glossary . . . . . . .126 





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Solutions 

Accepted or 

Favoured 

(See the Notes) 


Disproved. 
Storm. 

Shield. 

Sun (given by 
rune before 


and after). 
Swan. 
Nightingale. 

Cuckoo. 
Barnacle-goose. 

Wine. 

Skin, hide, leather. 


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Submarine earthquake J 
(Erlemann). j 

Horse turning mill. 
Bell (Tupper, 1910). 

Review, Oct. 191 1, p. 433. 
Shield (L. C. MiiUer). 


Jay (Tupper, 1910). 

Barnacle-goose (Brooke). 
Water-lily (Holthausen). 
Gold (Walz). 


w 

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fan 
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Trautmann 

Anglia, Beibl. V; 

Bonner Beitr. 

XVII-XIX 

1895-1905 


FlaU. 
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.... 


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Dietrich 

Haupt. Ztscht. 

xi and xn 

1859-65 


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Sun. 


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Cuckoo. 

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fntro&uction 

I. Historical Survey 

In Wanley's account of the Codex Exoniensis, 1705, he 
notes that the ninth and tenth «« books* ' of the MS. consist al- 
most entirely of Enigmas. Already in 1703 Hickes had pub- 
lished facsimiles of five Riddles in his Grammatica Islandica, 
with a discussion of these pieces and citations from other Rid- 
dles of the collection. Hickes seems to have thought them religious 
poems; he found sacred meaning in the homeliest expressions. 

For a hundred years the Exeter Book remained undisturbed, 
until in 1 8 1 2 J. J. Conybeare published an account of the MS. 
very little improved upon Wanley's description, while in 1826 
six Riddles as specimens and translations of three were given by 
him to the world. 

A complete transcript of the Codex was made by Robert 
Chambers in 1831. Not so valuable as Thorkelin's copies of 
the Beowulf, this transcript, still at the British Museum, is use- 
ful, since Chambers saw in the damaged portions of the MS. 
letters which we are no longer able to distinguish. Thorpe's 
transcript of the following year formed the basis of his edition 
of the Codex in 1 842. Thorpe gave the Riddles in three groups 
as they occur in the MS., omitting fragments, supplying trans- 
lations, and offering solutions of two Riddles. In his preface he 
was the first to note the connection of our Riddles with the 
Latin ^nigmata " by Symphosius, Aldhelm, Beda and others," 
but claimed for the author of the English Riddles almost com- 
plete originality. 



xiv 3|ntroDuctton 

During the following years L. C. Miiller, Wright, Ettmuller 
(giving the text of twenty-six Riddles), Bouterwek and others 
suggested solutions or otherwise advanced the discussion of these 
poems. But the next date of importance in their history is 1857, 
in which year Leo's treatise £)u<z de se ipso Cynevulfus . . . tra- 
diderit solved the quondam First Riddle as a charade on Cyne- 
wulPs name, attributed to that great poet "if not all yet many 
of those riddles collected in the Exeter Codex, especially those 
whose answers are the names of runic letters," and thus drew 
the Riddles into the versi-coloured searchlights of controversy. 

The publication of Grein's Bibliothek der Angels achsischen 
Poesie in 1858 was followed quickly by the penetrating studies 
of Dietrich, who in two articles in Haupt's Zeitschrift fur 
deutsches Alter turn (1859 an ^ l % & 5 ) attempted no less a task than 
solving all the Riddles. By an effort of sympathetic imagination 
Dietrich enabled himself to see and think with the eyes and mind 
of an eighth-century Englishman : no scholar can question his pre- 
eminence as a solver. Unfortunately, under the influence of his 
pupil Lange, Dietrich withdrew some of his own excellent so- 
lutions in favour of poorer ones. As a supplement to his work, 
Ed. Miiller's treatise of 1861 should be mentioned. Cynewulf's 
authorship was generally admitted after Leo's treatise, and Die- 
trich found that the Latin Riddle and the last Riddle revealed 
the same author. 

It remained to place the Riddles in relation to their contem- 
porary European literature, a task fitly undertaken by Ebert, 
whose work Die Ratsel des Exeterbuches, 1877, gave a full ac- 
count of the Latin riddle-collections to which the composer or 
composers of the Riddles might have been indebted. He found 
that Aldhelm borrowed from Symphosius, and Tatwine and 
Eusebius from Aldhelm; that the Exeter Book riddler borrowed 



31ntroDuctton xv 

from Tat wine and Eusebius; that there were probably ioo Eng- 
lish Riddles at first, since there were ioo in each Latin collec- 
tion; that, as the English writer used Tatwine-Eusebius, this af- 
fords a clue to the date of composition. 

Ebert's work, though useful, lacked accuracy. To supply an 
exact account of the sources of the Riddles was the object of 
August Prehn ( 1 883 ), but he unfortunately essayed to show that 
almost every one of our Riddles rested on a Latin original. 
Abusing to the utmost the dangerous method of parallel pas- 
sages he found evidence of borrowing everywhere. Prehn' s 
work is ridiculous:* the one sound conclusion he arrived at, that, 

* In effect — not in intention — Prehn was an impostor, and, inasmuch 
a3 his authority is still imposing on people who do not read him — for instance 
a writer in Qutllcn und Forschungen (xcv. 32) who says: " Thanks to the 
labours of Prehn and others, it is possible to discover, in almost every case, 
the sources of these Old English riddles among the Latin riddle-poems of Sym- 
phosius, Eusebius and Aldhelm " — it maybe well to expose his method, 
of which Rid. 32 furnishes a good example. He has a long article to prove 
that this riddle has been suggested by one of Symphosius. He quotes fragments 
instead of giving the full Latin text. In the first line of Symphosius: 

Longa feror velox formosae filia silvae, 
he thinks that the word ' formosae * may have suggested the adornment of the 
world spoken of in the beginning of our riddle, completely ignoring that the first 
two lines of No. 32 are repeated word for word from 3 1 . There is not the remot- 
est connection in the thought apart from the idea of beauty. The Latin l feror 
velox ' he finds reproduced in 11. 3, 4 (q. v.). Again, of the words * filia silvae,' 
the first, without the second, is reproduced in 11. 5-9, " if you collect together 
all the different bodily parts which the object is there asserted to have or not 
to have." But one doesn't get a daughter by collecting eyes, mouth and ribs 
— at least it is not the usual way. The Latin riddle on a fish which he quotes 
in a footnote (p. 203) has just as little connection. Similarly, Rid. 1 is sup- 
posed to reproduce three wretched hexameters of Aldhelm. It is a very old 
story, this of reminiscences, and it is always turning up again with unoriginal 
minds. A poet reads; here and there an idea, perhaps in itself a very trivial 
one, remains in his mind, and is unconsciously worked into something totally 



xvi 31ntroDuction 

of the Latin riddlers, first Aldhelm and next Symphosius had 
influenced the Exeter riddler most, had been anticipated by Die- 
trich. 

For a convenient summary of the views of scholars up to 
this point Wiilker's Grundriss der Angelsdchsischen Litteratur, 
1885, may be consulted. 

The next stage in the literary history of the Riddles is the 
dispute over the authorship. In 1883 Trautmann had denied 
that Cynewulf was the author. Herzfeld in 1890, though still 
ascribing the riddles to the youthful Cynewulf, made a careful 
investigation into their language and metre. Then in 1891 Sievers 
entered the field with a crushing and final attack on Leo's solu- 
tion of the quondam First Riddle. He showed that the form* 
extracted from this poem by Leo were utterly impossible for the 
first syllable of Cynewulf. Probably the Riddles were anterior 
to Cynewulf. Already in 1888 Bradley {Academy, No. 829) 
had declared that the quondam First Riddle was no riddle at all, 
" but a fragment of a dramatic soliloquy,' ' like the Wife's Com- 
plaint. The Latin Riddle and the last Riddle had also been 
thought to refer to Cynewulf, one as a pun and the other as 
the wandering minstrel : Trautmann rejected the connection in 
each case. 

The literary beauty of the Riddles was insisted upon by 
Brooke in his Early English Literature, 1892, where he trans- 
lated or paraphrased over thirty riddles, with many useful re- 
marks on Old English culture, and an emphatic assertion of the 
originality of the English riddler. 

In 1900 Madert attacked Herzfeld' s ascription of the Riddles 
to Cynewulf, and, carrying on Sievers' s work, found linguistic 

new. To try to trace its source is like asking where I bought the seeds for the 
poppies in my garden. 



^Introduction xvii 

and metrical grounds for abandoning the theory of Cynewulf s 
authorship. 

The Riddles had been studied as poetry and investigated 
from phonological and grammatical standpoints, but very little 
as riddles , until after the publication of other collections of pop- 
ular enigmas, notably Wossidlo's book of North German riddles 
( 1897). Questions of origin and classification are now absorb- 
ing students, and the question of the authorship of our Riddles 
becomes more complicated. Which are Folk-riddles, which Art- 
riddles ? Did one man make the whole collection, rewriting and 
revising, or were riddles from many sources copied into the 
Codex by a compiler or by the scribe? In these questions Prof. 
Tupper takes a prominent part, his articles of 1903 and later 
his edition of 19 10 laying special stress on the comparative study 
of riddles of all times and lands. 

Since 1883 Trautmann has had a vigorous share in discus- 
sions on the Riddles. Having rejected Leo's explanation of the 
quondam First Riddle, he took part in contrasting the language 
and metre of the Riddles with those of the signed Cynewulfian 
poems; he has printed Riddles, translated them, and solved them, 
offering successively different solutions with equal confidence. 

Other metrical and grammatical criticism has been put for- 
ward by Holthausen and Sievers. Side by side with purely 
philological or literary criticism a growing body of antiquarian 
and anthropological lore has helped to give meaning to once 
meaningless passages, and to solve problems hitherto unsolvable. 

II. The Latin Riddles 

The Riddles of the Exeter Book form one of several extant 
collections of enigmas attributed to Englishmen of the 7th and 



xviii ^Introduction 

8 th centuries — the ^Enigmata of Aldhelm (640-709), Bishop 
of Sherborne, of Tat wine, Archbishop of Canterbury (731- 
734), of Eusebius (Hwaetberht), Abbot of Wearmouth (716- 
c. 747), of Boniface (Winfrith), the Lorsch Riddles, and 
those attributed to Bede, with thoseof Alcuin (735-804), Arch- 
bishop of York. Prose conversation manuals, such as iElfric'* 
Colloquies, and especially Alcuin* s Disputatio inter Pippinum 
et Alcuinum, show a close affinity to these puzzles. 

The literary origin, as distinguished from the prevalence of 
popular riddles, of all these collections is to be found in the iEnig- 
mata of one Symphosius, whether the minor poet Firmianus 
Symphosius Caelius or not we cannot tell. Some critics place 
the riddler as early as the 2d century a.d., others as late as 
the 6th. There is a prologue of seventeen hexameters, mention- 
ing the poet by name; then come a hundred (or a hundred and 
one, a cuckoo-riddle being doubtful) three-line hexameter puz- 
zles. Common animals, plants, tools, clothing are the usual 
themes, treated in a purely pagan spirit, with grace and wit, 
and with here and there a phrase of Ovid or Horace worked in. 
They are easily accessible in Migne's Patrologia Latin a, vol. 
vii, column 285, where they are ascribed to Lactantius. 

Aldhelm's works are best read in the edition of Giles, S. Aid- 
helmi Opera (Oxford, 1844). The ^Enigmata occur in the 
Epistola ad Acircium (Ealdferth of Northumbria), written in 
695, a tractate on metrical composition. As precedents, Aid- 
helm adduces the Biblical story of the thistle and the cedar of 
Lebanon, the verse enigmas of Symphosius, and prose riddles 
of Aristotle. For giving to speechless things a human voice and 
human sentiments, Aldhelm appeals to the Scriptures: the trees 
of the wood met to choose a king, the Psalmist gives life to the 
hills, riddles are found in Ecclesiastes. An acrostic in hexame- 



^Introduction xix 

ters, whose initials and finals read Aldhelmus cecinit millenis 
versibus odas 9 is followed by a hundred riddles of from four to 
sixteen lines each, with one De Creatura of eighty-three or eighty- 
eight lines. In these riddles the following objects, nightingale, 
salamander, pepper, pillow, ostrich, Minotaur, fate, Pleiades, 
nature, kettle, basilisk, speak in their own persons. Some of 
his subjects were familiar to Aldhelm, but many either are fabu- 
lous or were known to him only through books. In fact these 
riddles are learned exercises in poetical natural history and in 
versification, most of their poetical merit lying in a picked vocabu- 
lary. Aldhelm shows Christian influence, but the riddles are not 
distinctively clerical. A remarkable feature is their independence 
of Symphosius: only two enigmas and a few ideas are borrowed 
from him. 

Tatwine wrote forty hexameter riddles, the number of lines 
varying as in Aldhelm' s. About one third of them deal with 
specifically Christian subjects, dogma or church ornaments. He 
is a philosopher and grammarian, one riddle actually being on the 
theme of prepositions and the cases they govern. Though Tat- 
wine borrows something from Aldhelm he is not unoriginal, but 
he is always dull. 

In the same MSS. which contain Tatwine* s enigmas occur 
the sixty riddles of Eusebius, completing the hundred. A friend 
of Bede, Eusebius followed the great teacher by writing on 
chronological and grammatical themes, but, unlike Tatwine, he 
has but little Christian colouring in his work. A man apparently 
of feeble invention, he borrows many of his subjects from the 
Etymologies of Isidore of Seville; he owes little to Aldhelm and 
less still, perhaps nothing, to Symphosius. Eusebius is, if possi- 
ble, duller than Tatwine. 

Other collections of Latin riddles are, almost certainly, un- 



xx Jlntrotiuction 

connected with those of the Exeter Book except through their 
resemblances to Symphosius and Aldhelm. 

It was Thorpe who first noted the connection between the 
^Enigmata of Bede, Aldhelm and Symphosius and those of the 
Exeter Book; he claimed essential originality for the « scop.' But 
the researches of Dietrich, Ebert, Prehn and their critics have 
pretty well established the following conclusions: 

( I ) Riddles 3 5 and 40 are directly translated from Aldhelm' s 
poems De Lorica and De Creatura ; 66 is a re-working of 40. 

(2) Riddles 47 and 60 are plainly derived from the Tinea and 
Arundo of Symphosius, while 84 is a different handling of Sym- 
phosius 12, Flumen et Piscis. 

( 3 ) In seventeen or eighteen riddles hints from Aldhelm * and 
Symphosius are somewhat freely used: the twelve hundred heads 
of 85 must be from Symphosius (One-eyed garlic-seller), Aid- 
helm's nightingale poem and no. 8 have much in common, the 
riddles on a young bull have parallels in the Latin collections. 
Other correspondences are pointed out in the notes. 

(4) Though 14 shows resemblance to Eusebius 30, and there 
are undoubted resemblances in other riddles, it seems improba- 
ble that Tatwine or Eusebius exercised any influence on the 
writers of the Exeter-Book enigmas. 

III. The Quondam First Riddle 

This poem occupies the lower half of folio 1 00 b and the first 
lines of 1 01 a. It is preceded by miscellaneous poems and fol- 
lowed by the first batch of Riddles. As Riddles 1, 2, 3 invite 
the reader to solve them and this poem does not, as the struc- 
ture of the poem is quite unlike that of the Riddles, it is rather 

* " The author of the Old English riddles derived most of his inspiration from 
Aldhelm ! " (Cambridge History of English Literature 9 l. 60.) 



JlntroDuction xxi 

strange that it should ever have been thought to be a riddle. 
This is the first edition of the Riddles in which this interesting 
interloper does not take its place with the poems which follow 
it in the Codex. 

The text is as follows: 

Leodum is minum swylce him mon lac gife: 

willaft hy hine apecgan gif he on preat cyme's. 

Ungelic is us. 

Wulf is on lege, ic on operre; 
5 faest is paet eglond, fenne biworpen; 

sindon waelreowe weras pier on lge; 

willaft hy hine apecgan gif he on preat cymelS. 

Ungelice is us. 

Wulfes ic mines wldlastum wenum dogode; 
10 ponne hit waes renig weder ond ic reotugu saet, 

J>onne mec se beaducafa bogum bilegde: 

waes me wyn to pon, waes ine hwaepre eac la^. 

Wulf, min Wulf, wena me pine 

seoce gedydon, pine seldcymas 
15 murnende m5d, nales meteliste. 

Gehyrest pu, Eadwacer? Uncerne earne hwelp 

bire'5 wulf to wuda. 

J?aet mon eape toslIte'S paette naefre gesomnad waes, 

uncer giedd geador. 
9 Imelmann hogode, 16 Holthausen earmne. 

The meaning of apecga?i and dogode is unknown, earne may 
be from earn = quick, active, or from earh = cowardly. Wulfv\\z.y 
be the name of some particular person, or perhaps means wolf. 
preat sometimes means a throng, sometimes a calamity. Bogum 
may mean with boughs, or with arms, and w'tdlastum may be 
either noun or adjective. The following translation must there- 
fore be regarded as tentative: 

To my people it is as if one should give them a gift; 
They will oppress him (?or give him food) if he comes into the throng 
{or into calamity). 



xxii ^Introduction 

It is otherwise with us. 

Wolf is on an island, I on another; 

The island is firm, encompassed by marsh; 

There are fierce men there on the island; 

They will [etc. as 1. 2 above). 

It is otherwise with us. 

I waited ( ?) for my Wolf with far-wandering longings; 

Then it was rainy weather and I sat tearful, 

When the man bold in war surrounded me with boughs (or arms) : 

It was joy for me so far, yet it was also pain. 

Wolf, my Wolf, thy hopes 

Have made me sick, thy rare visits 

A grieving spirit, not at all want of food. 

Dost thou hear, Eadwacer ? Brisk ( or cowardly) cub of us two 

Wolf bears to the wood. 

Easily one tears asunder what was never united, 

Our song together. 

LI. 16, 17 above are so punctuated as to give some intelligible 
meaning; but the meaning, and therefore the punctuation, is 
quite uncertain. " Bears " and " tears" may be future tense. 

This poem being taken to be a Riddle, solutions had to be 
found for it. In 1857 Leo, by changing words, meanings, and 
grammar feodum to leosum and so forth), arrived at this trans- 
lation of lines 1,2: 

My limbs are as one assigns to them a meaning, 

This they will reveal when the meaning gathers itself together. 

That is to say that the parts of the riddle may receive different 
names, but when they are juxtaposed the true meaning will be 
apparent: the riddle is a charade. Leo then finds that cyn or cynt 
may be represented by cene, by can, or by e'en. And wal~ 
(Ji) re owe = cene ( bold) ; so too zuuda = cen (a torch) which is made 
of split wood. A woman speaks in this poem; woman = cwen 
or in Northumbrian ccen (a more than doubtful form). The 



^Introduction xxiii 

word wulf occurs frequently in the poem. Let Eadwacer repre- 
sent the vowel e, translate uncerne earne "of us two," and lines 
1 6, 17 by "Dost thou hear? A wolf bears Eadwacer, the 
child of us two, to the wood, ' ' Nothing now remains to be proved : 
Cyn -f e + wulf is the meaning gathered together. More in- 
genuity explains the islands as syllables, bogum as whatever 
parts the syllables. The last lines signify that, as c'ene and c&n 
are different, they can easily be sundered. 

Cynewulf' s authorship of this charade being then admitted 
by everyone, it was not strange that Dietrich should find that 
the Latin Riddle and the last Riddle referred to Cynewulf too. 

In 1869 Rieger published a short re-reading of the quondam 
First Riddle with comments on Leo's explanation. He retained 
leodum mtnum, which he explained as cynn (observing that cynn 
is not cyne*) ; he read ccene = cwene instead of ccen = cwen. In, 
short he agreed with Leo's conclusion though disapproving of 
his phonology. 

Trautmann in 1883 utterly rejected Leo's text, translation, 
and explanation. He declared that there are no syllabic charades 
in Old English literature, and that Leo had made this one only 
by outrageous liberties with text and lexicon. Cynewulf belonged 
to the same class of names as Cyneheard and Cyneweard; Cyne- 
is the syllable seen in cyne-stoL The long vowels in Cene- 
wulf, Ccenewulf would have no likeness, in the native and con- 
temporary ear, to Cyne-. The explanations offered by Leo of 
the island passage are quite impossible, and those of lines 16, 
17 altogether too far-fetched. Leo's solution is harder than the 
riddle, and it is time that it was done away with. 

Trautmann' s own solution is Riddle, and he says that, just 
as there can be no doubt Leo is wrong, so there can be no doubt 
Trautmann is right. The wolf is the solver, the speaker is the 



xxiv ^Introduction 

riddle ; being on different islands means that the solver cannot 
get at the riddle; the w<el(h)reowe werasare other guessers. As 
the solver makes wandering guesses the riddle sits weeping, but 
she is both glad and sorry when she is embraced, that is, guessed. 
The rare visits of the solver are his rare good guesses. When 
the solver drags the whelp to the wood the riddle is solved. 
Trautmann makes no attempt to explain Eadvvacer. Lines 18, 
1 9 signify that the riddle and solution, never united, may easily 
be sundered; but the answer brings riddle and guesser together. 
The last Riddle he also solved as The Riddle. 

At the time of its publication, Trautmann's demolition of 
Leo's work did not receive its fair share of consideration, since 
almost all scholars were too thoroughly committed to the Cyne- 
wulfian theory. The Riddle solution was almost unanimously 
rejected. Professor Henry Morley was then bringing out his 
English Writers ; while accepting Trautmann* s destructive result, 
he rejected his constructive attempt, and suggested that the real 
solution was the Christian Preacher. A review of Morley' s 
second volume by Henry Bradley in the Academy for March 24, 
1888, opened an entirely new chapter in the history of the poem. 
" I may as well state my own view, which is that the so-called 
riddle is not a riddle at all, but a fragment of a dramatic solilo- 
quy, like Deor and The Wife' s Complaint, to the latter of which 
it bears, both in motive and in treatment, a strong resemblance.' ' 
The speaker is a woman — the grammar shows this — proba- 
bly a captive in a foreign land, Wulf is her outlaw lover, Ead- 
wacer is her " tyrant husband." Bradley renders on fcreat cu- 
man "come to want," afiecgan "give food to," ear tie "cow- 
ardly." 

Gollancz approved of Bradley's theory, with modifications. 
Herzfeld adduced further considerations in its favour, taking 



^Introduction xxv 

lines 1 6 and 1 7 to mean that Wulf drags away as a hostage the 
child of Eadwacer and the lady, while she herself is held in cus- 
tody by her husband. 

In 1 89 1 Sievers, with more thorough and accurate scholar- 
ship than Trautmann had displayed in 1883, denied the equiv- 
alence of cyniy eazni, e'en, ewcen (giving these normal Early 
Northumbrian forms). Cook in 1900 sums up thus: " Cyne- 
wulf s name is not found in the First Riddle, which in all prob- 
ability is not a riddle at all. Hence there is no ground for as- 
suming that either Riddle 86 [the Latin riddle] or Riddle 89 
[i.e. 93] is intended to denote Cynewulf. There is therefore 
nothing in any of the Riddles to indicate that Cynewulf was a 
wandering minstrel. Finally, the Riddles, on the best authority 
(Sievers), probably antedate Cynewulf." 

In 1902 a careful study of the poem was made by W. W. 
Lawrence and W. H. Schofleld. Lawrence declared that the 
poem is a translation from Old Norse. Lines 3, 8, 17, 19 are 
very short, and hint at a strophic structure, as the repetition of 
lines 2 and 3 later in the poem appears to indicate a refrain. 
Some of the difficult phrases in the poem {on frreat eymed, to 
fion) seem like Norse idioms. The alliteration is weak, as might 
be expected in a translation. 

Schofield sought to connect the poem with Teutonic legend. 
He calls it "Signy's Lament/ '' and declares that it represents 
a phase of the Volsungasaga. Signy, the daughter of Volsung, 
has married Siggeir, who treacherously slays Volsung and all his 
sons except Siegmund, who escapes and lives in the forest. Sieg- 
mund and Signy plot to avenge the death of their father and 
brothers. Signy' s two sons by Siggeir are in turn tested by Sieg- 
mund, but failing in courage are slain by him. But a boy born 
to Siegmund by Signy, and thus of Volsung blood on both sides, 



xxvi introduction 

is bold enough to carry the revenge through. Signy dies with 
Siggeir, not caring for life as long as the task of the blood-feud is 
accomplished. (In after days Siegmund, with his son and 
nephew Sinfjotli, performed many exploits: their names were 
known to the English, see 11. 875 fF. of Beowulf,) In our 
poem Signy speaks, hinting at her connection with Siegmund 
in 11. 11 — 12, the removal of her cowardly offspring in 11. 16 
and 1 7, her loathed union with Siggeir in 11. 1 8 and 1 9. «Wulf ' 
is a word well applied to Siegmund both as outlaw and as head 
of the Wolfing clan. The crux is Eadwacer. Schofield supposes 
an Old Norse audvakr = " the very vigilant one," not a proper 
noun. 

Bradley retorts that audvakr is not Old Norse, but new 
American of Schofield's own coinage, and finds Eadwacer a 
good English name borne by at least two historical Englishmen. 
Gollancz declares that Eadwacer is Odoacer (in the Hildebrands- 
lied etc.), and that Wulf applies better to Theodoric than to 
Siegmund. In 1907 Imelmann elaborately connected our poem 
with the Odoacer cycle. It seems that Bradley's view is the 
right one in essentials: the poem is the monologue of a woman 
bewailing her absent lover who is in danger. Whether it may 
be assigned to a Teutonic legend, and if so to which, there seems 
to be as yet no sufficient evidence to show. 

It will be seen (section on Authorship) that Tupper in his 
edition of the Riddles (1910) denied CynewulPs authorship; 
he also gave a general adhesion to the views expressed above. 
" The First Riddle is thus unquestionably a lyrical monologue/' 
he wrote. 

By the end of the year (see Modern Language Notes, De- 
cember, 1910) he had made a complete volte-face: "Now 
all is changed.' ' He revived, with the utmost confidence, the 



31ntroDuction xxvii 

theory that the quondam First Riddle is a cryptogram, giving 
the name of Cynewulf in the form Cynwulf (as in the Crist 
and the Fates of the Apostles}. Apparently the quondam First 
Riddle is a combination of acrostic and charade after " the Ice- 
landic method." Runes are employed, not the runes themselves 
but their names, or if not their names synonyms for their names, 
with a little further rectification when necessary. Everything 
means something else. The first word, L'eodum = Cyn; two or 
three other words also = Cyn. In 1. 5 eg- = ea (which is not 
true)=Lagu, the name of the L-rune. In 1. 1 1 bog = boga 
(which is not true)=Yr, one name for the Y-rune. The let- 
ters L and Y, essential to the acrostic, are given in this way 
only. The student must be referred to Tupper* s article. But a 
few things have to be said. The Icelandic rimur, here supposed 
to be imitated, are as dreary as Chaos, but they are consistent. 
They pursue one method consistently. As Tupper says, "In 
the Icelandic rimur the synonyms of the runes fill the text to 
the exclusion of other ideas.' ' The first line, "It is for my peo- 
ple as if one should give them treasure," might, on the Icelandic 
method, stand for the word king. Tupper admits that there is 
no attempt at anything of the kind in the English. That is to 
say, we are asked to believe that the sole and solitary instance 
(for that we offer humble thanks) in our language of a charade 
and acrostic imitated from the Icelandic departs completely from 
the traditional method. Then who could possibly know how 
to interpret it ? Even the ingenious, original Cynewulf had to be 
intelligible. L'eodum is interpreted Cyn ; but Tupper gives no 
example of a riddle or acrostic in Icelandic or Latin, where the 
hidden word is not defined but has to be guessed from a case of 
a similar word. In the Icelandic, every line has pointed refer- 
ence, in one way or another, to the hidden meaning : what 



xxviii jflntroDuction 

point is there in our refrain, * Ungelic is us ' ? Lastly, Cyne- 
wulf 's other signatures are not particularly difficult to read ; why 
should he have made this riddle undecipherable, one would im- 
agine, even to a man of his own day? 

It must be added that Tupper proceeds to restore the great 
majority of the riddles to Cynewulf. " The proper interpreta- 
tion of the ' Cynwulf ' cryptogram shifts the burden of proof 
to the shoulders of him who endeavours to show that this collec- 
tion of poems, in the main homogeneous, was not (with a few 
exceptions) the work of Cynewulf. . . . The undoubted varia- 
tions in metre, language and style from the usage in the gener- 
erally accepted poems of Cynewulf are after all too slight to 
avail against the explicit evidence of the First Riddle." 

IV. Classification 

No rigid classification can be made, and the heading is per- 
haps something too daring. Nevertheless, even an attempt at 
classification may prove to have important bearings on the ques- 
tions of date and authorship. The riddles, it will be seen, are 
not riddles in the modern sense of the word, but enigmas, de- 
scriptions of an object which are intended to be at once accu- 
rate and misleading: the more misleadingly accurate and accu- 
rately misleading, the better. There is so little play upon words 
and their meanings that I regard the few cases adduced (31 14 , 
377, 72") as uncertain or unintentional. But, apart from 
word-play, several devices are employed, such as the use of 
runic characters, of the names of runic characters, and even of 
secret writing. The riddles vary greatly in length, from one line 
to 108 lines (incomplete); the average length is about 15 lines. 
They vary almost as much in poetic quality: some are barren 
of poetry, some few are among the finest things extant of Old 



introduction xxix 

English literature. To some extent it would be true to say that 
the poetic quality varies inversely as the true riddle quality, that 
of misleading accuracy; hence we may infer that it is a mistake 
to attempt minute explanation of the most poetic pieces. Both 
length and poetic quality are connected, more or less closely, 
with another aspect under which the riddles must be viewed, 
that of * popular ' or * learned ' origin — Volksratsel and Kunst- 
ratseL One might even make a rough canon as follows : There 
is a presumption that a long or highly poetic riddle, and still 
more that a long and highly poetic riddle, is of learned origin ; 
and that a short or unpoetic riddle, and still more that a short 
and unpoetic riddle, is popular, traditional, of folk origin. A 
folk riddle may be worked over by a poet and thus far pass into 
the other class ; almost certainly No. 22, and perhaps Nos. 31 
and 32, both beginning with the same learned couplet, are ex- 
amples. In another way an Old English riddle may combine 
popular and learned elements: some of the OE. riddles (as is 
shewn in detail in the Notes) are partly, and two wholly, 
translated from Latin ; so far they are of learned origin; but some 
of the Latin originals contain folk elements. In other instances 
the writer would seem to have started from an English folk riddle, 
and to have elaborated and embellished it with borrowings, at 
times merely of a line, phrase or thought, from a Latin riddle ; 
as an example I would adduce No. 16. This is a subject requir- 
ing further investigation and a treatise to itself. 

One word here as to the amount of the borrowing from the 
Latin (v. sup. ) . In twenty-five riddles at the utmost does the debt 
exceed that of an occasional, often doubtful, line or phrase; 
only six of these are translations or reproductions of the Latin, 
and in only two of the six (nos. 35 and 40, possibly by the 
same translator) is the rendering literal. 



xxx ^Introduction 

We are now in a position to attempt a partial classification. 
Ten riddles must be set aside as defective or fragmentary: nos. 
18, 41, 67, 70, 75, J7, 78, 81, 88, 92. The following 
shew clear borrowing from Latin riddles and are to that extent 
learned: nos. 9, 12, 16, 26, 30, 35, 37, 38, 40, 47, 48, 
49> 5**, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 83, 84, 85, 86. The following 
nine are among the most poetic of the riddles — some of them 
are poems rather than riddles — and are presumably in the main 
of learned origin (no. 8 is a possible exception): nos. 1, 2, 3, 
8, 15, 26, 40, 60, 66. To these the following seven may be 
added, which in their present form I take to be too long and 
sometimes too diffuse in treatment (for the true folk riddle is 
wondrous pregnant) for Volksratsel : nos. 20, 22, 31, 39, 72, 
87, 91. And to these again I would add the markedly Chris- 
tian riddles: nos. 6, 11, 40, 48, 55, 59. It seems to be clearly 
implied in Rid,. 425-7; 

Ic on flettc maeg 
l>urh runstafas rincum secgan, 

pam Pe bee ivitan: 

that the riddles containing runic characters (nos. 19, 24, 64, 
74; the rune in no. 89 is merely scribal), or the names of 
runic characters (nos. 42, 58), are learned, as is undoubtedly 
no. 36 with its secret writing. The Monster riddles, with the 
exception of no. 32 which is doubtful, are among those already 
placed in the learned class. 

The attempt, on the other hand, to assign a popular origin 
to certain riddles is a much more difficult task because, as has been 
said, of the possibility or probability that a later poet may have 
worked over an early folk motive. The absence of lubricity in 
Old English poetry is so remarkable, that the breach of the 
rule in the double entendre riddles (nos. 25, 44, 45, 54, 61, 



introduction xxxi 

62) leads me to attribute to them a folk origin. Where a simi- 
lar trait appears in riddles of learned origin, as in nos. 42 and 
63, it is confined to one sentence or portion of the whole and is 
much less gross. Among other marks of folk riddles may be men- 
tioned : familiarity of the object described, the occurrence of ana- 
logous riddles in other vernaculars, a certain abrupt pregnancy of 
description, shortness, and, generally, absence of the character- 
istic marks of the learned class. On one or more of these grounds 
I incline to class as popular the following numbers: 4, 13, 14 
(Brandl regards the ten occurrences of hwllum as a mark of 
folk origin), 21, 23, 27, 28 (note the frequent rimes), 29, 33 
(but there are Latin parallels), 34, 46, 50, 52, 56, 57, 61, 
65, 68, 69, 71 (but the related riddles, 12 and 38, are 
Latin), 76, 86, 90. 

V. Authorship 

The bearing of the last section on the question of authorship is 
clear. The most obvious conclusion is that the collection of riddles 
partakes of the nature of the Exeter Book itself, and is a riddle- 
album, a riddle-anthology. This is the impression left on the 
mind after reading through the collection at a sitting: they are 
a miscellaneous, a very miscellaneous, collection; unity of au- 
thorship seems impossible. Cynewulf may have written some 
of them, for example, nos. 1, 2, 3, and 40. But the attribu- 
tion of the whole collection to him belongs to the days when 
he was regarded as the only begetter of the whole Codex Ex- 
oniensis. The plain fact is that there is not a particle of evidence 
for assigning one single riddle to him or to any other namable 
person. 

As long ago as 1891 Sievers urged that the Riddles belong 
to an earlier date than that of Cynewulf {Anglia xin. pp. 13- 



xxxii ^Introduction 

21). Rid. 23 shows the change of final b into f in its first 
word, a change that took place about the same time as, or a 
little earlier than, that of i to e, which latter change is recorded 
completed in the name Cynewulf as handed down to us in the 
runes of the Elene. Yet Rid. 23 must have been composed 
before the change of b to f, to give the solution « boga.' (In my 
Notes to that Riddle I have suggested that the change may have 
been already completed before the riddle was composed. ) 
Therefore the Riddles are earlier than Cynewulf. This conclu- 
sion Sievers finds to be confirmed by the rune spellings of nos. 
19 and 42. His argument seems to me partly vitiated by the 
assumption that all the riddles are of the same date, which is at 
the least doubtful. But his conclusion as to the non-Cynewulfian 
authorship has been accepted and confirmed by almost all later 
writers. Bradley says {Mod. Lang. Review, Oct. 191 1): 
"The arguments of Sievers and others, though not fully con- 
clusive, go far to justify the provisional belief that most of them 
are not his; and no positive grounds of any value have yet been 
adduced in favour of his authorship of any particular piece in the 
collection." With this conclusion even Prof. Tupper agreed 
in his edition of 1 910. "In Madert's monograph the final blow 
is dealt to the theory of Cynewulfian authorship of the Riddles." 
" Hardly anyone now believes that the poet had aught to do 
with these problems' ' (see pp. lix., lxiii.). 

See also the section on < The quondam First Riddle.' 

VI. Date 

The Codex Exoniensis is assigned by the handwriting to the 
beginning of the eleventh century. But this downward limit is 
admittedly of no use, for by general agreement the Riddles be- 



jfinttODUCtiOtt xxxiii 

long, in the main, to the great period of OE. poetry, the 8th 
century. The folk elements are no doubt earlier, and some of 
the folk riddles may well be. But for most of the riddles, in the 
form in which they have come down to us, the best assignable 
date is the 8th century. This does not preclude the possibility 
that such a riddle as No. 66, for example, and a few of the 
more diffuse and of the religious pieces (such as no. 59), may 
be of later date. It will have been seen, in the section on Latin 
Riddles, that the date given above accords perfectly with the 
proved borrowing of the riddlers in English from the English 
riddlers in Latin. 

Attempts have been made to assign the collection to the first 
half of that century. Sievers {Anglia xm.) says that the change 
e > i took place about 750 a.d., and he finds in some riddles 
traces of an earlier orthography. E. Erlemann (see Notes on 
Rid. 1) argues that the poet certainly used Eusebius ; that the 
date of Eusebius is not known exactly, but he made use of 
Tat wine's collection, which dates from 732; that Eusebius was 
therefore shortly after Tatwine, so that the OE. poet must be 
placed about 732-740, but in any case before the middle of the 
century. 

With the assumption of one poet and a necessarily 8th-cen- 
tury collection of his works I cannot agree. Just as the Codex 
itself is a collection, so I think it must be regarded as a possi- 
bility that the compiler of the Codex, whose date is quite uncer- 
tain, drew from more than one smaller collection of riddles. 
But it is probable that the great majority of the riddles were first 
written down in the great century of OE. poetry, which was 
also that of our riddlers in Latin, with the exception of Aldhelm. 



xxxiv introduction 

VII. The Solutions 

Tupper calls the Riddles <* certainly the most difficult text in 
the field of Anglo-Saxon.' ' Part of this difficulty is due to the 
uncertainty as to the solution of particular riddles with which 
the editor ought to approach his task — an uncertainty that 
should have diminished before he leaves it. Uncertainty as to 
the solution often makes the determination of the true text, and 
thus the translation, equally uncertain. For, where the solution 
is uncertain, conjectural emendation is almost precluded, because 
it is sure to be inspired by a favoured and not proven solution. 

I have endeavoured in this edition to make a clear distinction 
between those solutions which rest upon good grounds and are 
tolerably certain — as when there is distinct similarity to a 
headed Latin riddle, or some hint in runes or otherwise — and 
those which are merely suggested. The latter need not be ac- 
cepted by the student ; if he does not like them he can amuse 
himself by suggesting others. Some riddles (e.g. no. 4) cer- 
tainly require further investigation. Rather than to put forward 
solutions with all the solemnity of certitude, only to withdraw 
them later in favour of other solutions advanced in the same 
way, surely it is better for the present to confess to uncertainty. 
Trautmann especially errs in this respect ; he fights injudicially, at 
times furiously, for his own interpretation: if even the MS. does 
not accord with his answer, so much the worse for the MS., 
and it is altered accordingly. 

The solution of each riddle, if uncertain, is discussed in the 
first note on each. 



jflntrotmction xxxv 

VIII. The Gender of x (=the Unknown Solution) 

Cosijn (Paul and Braune's Beitrage xxxiii. 128-30) says : 
' The poet is particularly careful to respect the gender of the 
object to be guessed. Departures from this rule are to be sus- 
pected ; read therefore lengra in 237; in 247 however gladodots 
not refer to the ' higora/ but to wiht in 1. 1." Trautmann 
(Bonner Beitrage, Heft xix. pp. 181, 187) makes and re- 
peats a similar statement : "The OE. riddlers, when they per- 
sonify x, respect the gender very carefully: a thing whose name 
is masculine, they always represent as a man, feminine, as a 
woman." Accordingly, the solution 'Burg* is disqualified by 
him in Rid. 1 7 because of the masculine word mundbora in 1. 
1 : " mundbora kann also nicht das weibliche wort burg an- 
deuten." 

I join issue with these doughty champions in their adoption 
of such an extreme postion. Their statements are true of Latin 
riddles to this extent, that adjectives referring to the solution 
agree with it in gender. For example, in Symphosius no. 34, 
Vulpes, we read : 

Sum versuta dolis, arguto callida sensu. 

But if we turn to the OE. riddles, the argument is pressed fur- 
ther: Something, unknown to the audience (and therefore of 
unknown gender), is personified by the ' scop ' ; but he knows 
that the answer is a word of feminine gender, therefore he will 
not use the masculine word mundbora to describe it. No facts 
are adduced in support of this theory: where the text is not in 
accord with it, the text is to be altered, and lengre in 237 is 
at once ruled out. It is possible that glado in 247 agrees with 
wiht in 24 1 , but such agreement is quite abnormal. With re- 
gard to mundbora, it is worth while recalling the fact that in 



xxxvi 31ntroBuctton 

Judith 127 the heroine's female attendant is called her 
* foregenga ' (masculine). Let us look at other cases. Traut- 
mann's solution of Rid. 8 is 'Bell/ and OE. belle is feminine; 
yet the poet calls it « eald iefensceop ' (masc. ). In 374*5, hit and 
he in following lines apparently both refer to x (OE. blast- 
belg? masculine). In Rid. 39, the pronouns are feminine 
throughout, yet by far the best solution is dag, masculine ; but 
then of course these pronouns can all be made to refer to wiht 
in 11. 1 and 26! In Rid. 40 it will be seen that the gender of 
the adjectives '* wobbles" between masculine and feminine or 
neuter : cp. bradre (50) with widgielra (51) ; leohtre (76) 
and hnescre (80) with heardra (78). What possible solution 
can explain this? In Rid. 44, Trautmann's solution (no doubt 
the correct one, I think) is cag, feminine, yet it is apparently 
represented by the pronoun he (1. 7). Trautmann says nothing 
of those instances in which x is neuter, but here again the same 
discrepancy of gender is found. His solution of Rid. 50 (again, 
I feel sure, the correct one) is/)r, neuter ; but the riddle opens 
with the masculine word wiga : if mundbora cannot refer to a 
feminine word, can wiga refer to a neuter word ? Once more, 
in Rid. 33 the unknown is his (1. 5), hyre sylfre (8), seo 
(12). OE. // is neuter; what word of feminine gender is here 
referred to? 

These examples seem to show that the Old English riddlers 
were not minutely careful to observe the gender of x, anymore 
than the Old English poets and writers in general were scrupu- 
lously accurate in matters of grammar and syntax. From another 
point of view, there is an assignable reason for these changes 
of gender: theriddler's process of accumulating metaphors forces 
a change as he views the wiht in turn as a warrior, a woman, 
and a mere object. 



3flntro6uction xxxvii 

IX. Style 

See what has been said above under the head of Classification. 
Here, in place of formal literary criticism, I offer a little of the 
ft sign-post " order. To my thinking, the finest riddles of all 
are the storms at the beginning, particularly no. 3, a magnificent 
poem, something in the spirit of the 104th Psalm. This poem 
alone ought to save the collection from ever being forgotten. No. 
8 (Nightingale) will be a general favourite. It reminds one 
of some of Goethe's little poems, in that it is impossible to ex- 
plain exactly where the charm lies. No. 26 (Bible or Book) 
is a fine bit of poetry. The ideas may not be quite original, but 
the expression of them is. The outburst at the end, on the 
pleasures and advantages to be gained from reading books, is most 
inspiriting, and the little conceit, of the pen stepping off to take 
a drink and then returning to continue its black journey, is cap- 
ital. No. 60 (Reed) is similar to no. 8 in its evasive charm. It is 
very graceful and pleasing, but without the plaintive fieriness 
of the "eald aBfensceop." 

Distinctly in the second rank, but very interesting neverthe- 
less, are nos. 15 (Badger) and 40 (Creation). The latter is a 
little overwrought; it is as if the poet had something to say 
greater than the language would bear: this impression is explained 
when the English is compared with the Latin original. All the 
above are poems rather than riddles; there is no attempt to 
mystify the hearer or reader; any of these might be CynewulPs. 
But the whole collection does not bear one poetic impress. 

Stopford Brooke (E. E. Literature 11. 186) has put into 
better words than mine some of the impressions finally left on my 
mind by a prolonged study of the Old English riddles: "The 
greater number of them escape from the Latin convention, and 



xxxviii 31ntroBuction 

are as English in matter and feeling as they are in verse. Even 
when they closely follow for a line or two the Latin original, the 
translation takes an English turn, as if the English verse and 
words compelled a change of thought and sentiment. Nor is 
this the only difference. The writer has the poetic faculty of 
which his models are destitute, and his work is as superior to 
theirs in conception of each subject, in impersonation of it, and 
in imagination, as Shakspere's Hamlet is to its precursor. Those 
who state that these riddles are merely imitations can either not 
have read them, or, having read them, are unable to distinguish 
between what is poetry and what is not poetry. Their excel- 
lence is not however uniform. Some are poor and meagre. . . . 
Others are of an extraordinarily fine quality, as, for example, 
those on the storms and the weapons of war." 

I conclude this unorthodox section with a few sentences from 
a letter of a friend whom I first taught to read Old English and 
then set to read the Riddles. '< One thing I should indeed like, 
only I am afraid you cannot provide it — if the old poet could 
awake from his grave, and come and see what pleasure he can 
still give to some of us a thousand years after his death! My 
friends often laugh at me for liking old-fashioned books — it is 
a libel ! my foremost love is for Wagner — but I do hold that one 
of the noblest pleasures given to us is when we can join with 
one who is far removed from us, in nation, in habits, in time, 
and feel that we have still common ground ; that humanity is 
the same through all the centuries; that all the prophets and 
poets have told the same tale, if only one can understand it. Nev- 
ertheless, our riddles are very unequal; a few are almost child- 
ish. But at other times, when the singer has got something that 
inspires him, when he is not singing for pay or to amuse his 
audience, how beautifully he can do it!" 



€^e Commoner Anglian Munt$ 

(including all those found in the MS. of the Riddles) 
Letter Rune Sound Name 



A 


P 


ah 


ac (oak) 


B 


* 


b 


beorc (birch) 


C 


h 


k 


cen (torch) 


D 


M 


d 


daeg (day) 


£ 


M 


c(eo) 


eh, eoh (horse) 


F 


¥ 


f,v 


feoh (pecunia) 


G 


X 


g 


gifu (gift) 


H 


N 


h 


haegel (hail) 


I 


1 


i 


is (ice) 


L 


h 


1 


lagu (sea) 


M 


M 


m 


mann (man) 


N 


4 


n 


nied (need) 


O 


R 


o 


6s (god) 


P 


P 


peorft 


R 


f* 


r 


rad (riding) 


S 


Ks 


s 


sigel (sun) 


T 


+ 


t 


Tir, TI 


TH 


h 


ft, \ (th,dh) porn (thorn) 


U 


h 


u 


ur (wild ox) 


W 


l» 


w 


wynn (joy) 


Y 


ft 


y 


yr 


M 


h 


e 


aesc (ash-tree) 


EA 


T 


ea 


ear (ground) 


EO 


Z 


eo 


eoh = Tw (yew) 


CE 


A 


ce, e 


eftel (fatherland) 



MtfoM 



yi. Foi. io i» 

Hwylc is haelej?a }>aes horse *j j?aes hygecraeftig 
\at }?aet maege asecgan, hwa mec on sift wraece ? 
ponne ic astlge strong, stundu/w rej?e, 
J?rymful J?unie, J;ragum wraece 
5 fere geond foldan, folcsalo baerne, 
raeced reafige, recas stlgaft 
haswe ofer hrofu/w, hlin bift on eor]?an, 
waelcwealm wera. ponne ic wudu hrere, 
bearwas bledhwate, beamas fylle 

ioholme gehrefed, hea[h]u/w meahtum 
wrecan on wa]?e wide sended, 
haebbe me on hryege ^at asr hadas wreah 
foldbuendra, flaesc -) gaestas 
somod on sunde. Saga^nwl mec J?ecce, 

150^6 hu ic hatte }?e J?a hlaest bere. 

■A. 

Hwilum ic gewlte, swa ne wenaj? men, 
under y}?a ge}?raec eor]?an secan, 



Z (GrPVl). 10. Ms hcanum. 
14. Gr sandc, comparing Genesis 242 % where however the context it entirely 
different. 



2 Mttolts 

garsecges grund. Gifen bi]? gewreged, 

, fam gewealcen ; 

5hwaelmere hlimmeft, hlude grimmeS ; 

streamas staj?u beataS, stundum weorpaj? 

on stealc hleoba stane ^ sonde, 

ware *j wasge, \onne ic winnende 

holmmsegne blj?eaht hrusan styrge, 
io side saegrundas. Sundhelme ne maeg 

losian, asr mec laete, se |?e min latteow brS 

on stya gehwam. Saga, )?oncol mon, 

hwa mec bregde of brimes faej^mum 

)ponne streamas eft stille weorJ?a$, 
i5y)?a gej?wa!re, J?e mec ser wrugon. 

*/y Fol. IClb 

Hwllum mec min Frea faeste genearwaft 
sendees ]>onne under salwonge 
bearm bradan *j on bid wriceft, 
}?rafaS on {jystruw J?rymma sumne, 
5 hjetst on enge, J?aer me he [a] rd [e] siteft 
hruse on hrycge : nah ic hwyrftweges 
of )?am aglac [e] , ac ic eJ?elstoi 

2 ( Gr fV 3 ) . 4. Ett proposed flod ara?red for the missing half line. Cos 
reads famge wealcan (foamy waves), comparing Andreas 1524. 

3 ( G r W 4). There is no break in the Ms betiveen this riddle ana the 
last, and hwilum has not an initial capital. 

3. Holt #one bradan j supported by Sv on metrical grounds and probably 
correct. 

5. Ms heord. 
7. Ms aglaca. 



Kitoles 3 

haelepa hrer[u] ; hornsalu wagiaS, 

wera wlcstede ; weallas beofiaft 
iosteape ofer sy wit urn . Stille p>ynce# 

lyft ofer londe *j lagu swige, 

o]>}?aet ic of enge up aj^ringe 

efne swa mec wlsa]?, se mec wraede on 

aet frumsceafte furjmm legde, 
^bende^j clomme, J?^/ ic onbugan ne mot 

of p>aes gewealde, )?e me wegas tsecneS. 

Hwllum ic sceal ufan y)?a wregan, 

[streamas] styrgan, *-| to sta]?e }>ywan 

flintgraegne flod : famig winneft 
2owalg wrS wealle ; wonn arlseft 

dun ofer d ypc hyre deorc on last 

eare geblonden 5J?er fereft, 

J?aet hy gemittaS mearclonde neah 

hea hlincas. paer biS hlud wudu, 
25brimgiesta breahtm ; bldaft stille 

stealc stanhleo]?u streamgewinnes, 

h6pgehnastes, ]>onne heah gearing 

on cleo rue ry de ]> : J?aer biS ceole wen 

sltyre saecce, gif hine sas byreS 
30 on J>a grimman tld gaesta fulne, 

j?aet he scyle rice birofen weor}?an, 

feore bifohten faemig ridan 

yj?a hrycgum : J?aer bi$ egsa sum 

3 8. Ms hrera. 

18. No gap in Ms y Th streamas. Ms pyran, Th J>ywan. 



4 Ktuuietf 

aeldum geywed, J?ara }?e ic hyran sceal 
35 strong on strSweg. Hwa gestilleiS J^aet ? 

Hwilum ic Jmrhrase \at me [rldeS on baece], 

won waegfatu, wide tojmnge Fol. 102a 

lagustreama full, hwilum laste eft 

slupan tosomne. Se brS swega maest, 
4obreahtma ofer burgum, *j gebreca hludast, 

\onne scearp cymeS sceo wij? 6J?rum, 

ecg wr3 ecge ; earpan gesceafte 

fus ofer folcuw fyre swseta'S, 

blacan llge, *j gebrecu feraS 
45deorc ofer dr[yh] turn gedyne micle, 

faraft feohtende, feallan laetaft 

sweart sumsendu seaw of bosme, 

waetan of wombe. Winnende fareS 

atol eored|?reat, egsa astigcS, 
Somicel mddj?rea monna cynne, 

brogan on burgum, ]>onne blace scotiaS 

scri]?ende scln scearpum wsepnum. 

Dol him ne ondrasdeft fta deaftsperu ; 

swylteS hwae)?re, gif him soS Meotud 
55 on geryhtu )?urh regn ufan 

of gestune laeteiS stricle fleogan, 

farende flan ; fea \<zt gedygaft, 

}?ara j?e gerasceft rynegiestes waepen. 

3 36. Ms on baece ride^S. The change brings the alliterative syllable into 
place and the line scans better. 

45. Ms dreontumj Th dreohtum (dryhtum). 



fttoaie* 5 

Ic J?aes orleges or anstelle, 
Soponne gewlte wolcengehnaste 

}mrh gej?raec )?ringan )?rimme micle 

ofer byrnan bosm ; biersteS hlude 

heah hloftgecrod ; ponne hnlge eft 

under lyfte helm londe near, 
65*5 me [on] hrycg hlade J?aet ic habban sceal 

meahtum gemanad mines Frean. 

Swa ic, J?rymful J?eow, }?ragum winne ; 

hwilum under eorJ?an ; nwIlu/# yj?a sceal 

heah underhnlgan ; hwilum holm ufan, 
7oStreamas, styrge; hwilu/w stlge up, 

wolcnfare wrege, wide fere 

swift -j swtyfeorm. Saga hwaet ic hatte, Fol. 102b 

o]?)?e hwa mec ra?re ponne ic restan ne mot, 

oj?J?e hwa mec stae$}?e J;onne ic stille beom. 

-\ 4- 
Ic sceal J>ragbysig * J>egne minum 
hringan haefted hyran georne, 
min bed brecan, breahtme cyj?an 
)?aet me halswri]?an hlaford sealde. 
5 Oft mec slaepwerigne secg oftj?e meowle 
gretan eode ; ic him gromheortum 
winterceald oncwe|;e : u Wearm lim 
gebundenne b[ea]g [bersteS hwilum] ." 

3 65. No gap in Ms ; Gr % s emendation. 

4. (Gr W $). 8. Ms bacg hwilum bersteft. Gr bersteS hwilum /or the 
alliteration. This is the only one, of several such half-lines, which Gr trans- 
poses ; I have transposed them all. 



6 Hitoles 

Se]?eah bij? on ]?once ]?egne mlnum, 
iomedwlsum men, me \<zt sylfe, 
)?2er wiht wite, *i wordum min 
on sped maege spel gesecgan. 

Ic eom anhaga Iserne wund, 
bille gebennad, beadoweorca saed, 
ecgum werig. Oft ic wig seo, 
frecne feohtan ; frofre ne wene, 

5]?^/ me geoc cyme girSgewinnes, 
aer ic mid aeldum eal forwurde ; 
ac mec hnossiaS homera lafe 
heardecg, heoroscearp, hondweorc smij?a 
bltaft in bwvgum ; ic a bidan sceal 

iola]?ran gemotes. Naefre laececynn 
on folcstede findan meahte, 
];ara J?e mid wyrtum wunde gehaelde ; 
ac me ecga dolg eacen weorSaft 
)?urh deaSslege dagum ^ nihtum. 



Mec gesette soft sigora Waldend, 
Crist, to compe. Oft ic cwice baerne, 

5 (Gr PV 6). 5. Ms mec. 
6. Ett forwurfte. 

8. Ms ^weorc. 

9. Ms abidan, ivhich may be right, 

6 {Gr W 7). At the head of this riddle and again at the close stands in 
the Ms the rune for S, the name of ivhich is Sigel = the sun, ivhich is doubt-, 
less the correct solution. See sheet of figures. 



HiDUie* 7 

unrlmu cyn eor)?an getenge, 

nsete mid nlj?e, swa ic him no hrlne, 
$1ponne mec mln Frea feohtan hate}?. 

Hwllum ic monigra mod arete ; 

hwllum ic [wel] frefre, J?a ic air winne on Fol. 103a 

feorran swlj;e : hi )?aes fela$ ]?eah, 

swylce J>aes o^res, |;onne ic eft hyra 
ioofer deop gedreag drohtaS bet[e]. 

Hraegl mln swIgaS, ]>onne ic hrusan trede 
o}?)?e j?a wic buge oJ?)?e wado drefe. 
Hwllum mec ahebbaS ofer haelej?a byht 
hyrste mine *j ]?eos hea lyft, 
5^j mec \onne wide wolcna strengu 
ofer folc byreft ; fraetwe mine 
swogaft hlude *} swinsia$, 
torhte singa$, ]>onne ic getenge ne beom 
flode ^ foldan, ferende gaist. 

Ic )mrh muj? sprece mongum reordum, 
wrencum singe, wrixle geneahhe 
heafodwd];e, hlude cirme, 
healde mine wlsan, hleo|?re ne ml[?e. 

6 7. Gr inserted wel for the alliteration. 

10. Ms betan. 
8 (Gr W 9). Over this riddle stands the rune for C (see Introduction) t 
but it does not seem to help us to the solution. See sheet of figures. 



8 Httoie* 

sEald j-efensceop, eorlum bringe 

blisse in burgum ; ]>onne ic bugendre 

stefne styrme, stille on wlcum 

sit[ta]3 [h] nigende. Saga hwaet ic hatte, 

J?[e] swa scire [c]Ige, sceawendwlsan 
iohlude onhyrge, haele)?um bodige 

wilcumena fela woj?e mlnre. 

9- 

Mec on Jrissum dagu/w deadne ofgeafu[n] 
faeder *j modor ; ne waes me feorh ]?a gen, 
ealdor in innan. pa mec [an] ongon 
wel hold me gewedum [j/]eccan, 
sheold ^ freoJ?ode, hleosceorpe wrah 
s[w]e arllce swa hire agen beam, 
oJ>}?aet ic under sceate, swa mln gesceapu wseron, 
ungesibbum wearS eacen gseste. 
Mec seo fri}?emaeg fedde sij>{?an, 
ioo)?)?aet ic aweox, widdor meahte 
slj?as asettan ; heo haefde swsesra ]>y la^s Fol. 103b 

suna *] dohtra, ]>y heo swa dyde. 

8 8. Ms siteft nigende. Gr hnigcndc. Ett [and Cos) swlgende. 

9. Ms }>a swa scire nige. Th pe. To cige. The retention of nigende = 
listenings and swa scire nige = so keenly listen , is tempting, but the word is found 
nowhere else, and is unlikely to occur in two following lines. 

9 (Gr ^T 10). 1. Ms. ofgeafum. 

3. Gr* s emendation. 

4. Ms weccan. 
6. Ms snearlice. 



fttDUte* 



10, 



Neb waes mln on nearwe, ^ ic neo}?an waetre, 
flode, underflowen, firgen stream urn 
swibe besuncen ; ^j on sunde awox 
ufan ypum J?eaht, anum getenge 
5 ltyendum wuda lice mine ; 
haefde feorh cwico, }>a ic of faeSmum cwom 
brimes ^j beames on blacum hraegl [e] . 
Sume waeron hwlte hyrste mine, 
j?a mec lifgende lyft upp ahof, 
?owind of waege ; sij?]?an wide baer 
ofer seolhba^o. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

XX. 

Hraegl is mln hasofag; hyrste beorhte, 
reade ^ scire, """oh reafe [hafu] . 
Ic dysge dwel|e, ^ dole hwette 
[on]unr3edsI)?as ; o|;rum s tyre 
snyttre fore. Ic )?aes nowiht wat, 
Ipat heo swa gemaedde, mode bestolene, 
diede gedwolene, deoraj? mine 
won wlsan gehwam. Wa him paes |;eawes, 
si]?]?an Heah bringeS horda deorast, 
logif hi unriedes aer ne geswlca]?. 

10 (Gr W n). 7. Tr bea[r]mes. Ms hraegl. 

11 (Gr W 12). 2. Tr's emendation. Gr mlnum 
4. Her% s emendation. See note. 



io fcitole* 

12. 

Fotum ic fere, foldan sllte, 

grene wongas, J>enden ic gsest bere. 

Gif me feorh losaft, faeste binde 

swearte Wealas, hwllum sellan men. 
5 Hwllum ic deorum drincan selle 

beorn [e] of bosme ; hwllum mec bryd triedeS 

felawlonc fotum. Hwllum feorran broht, 

wonfeax Wale wegeft ^ ]?y3, 

dol druncmennen, deorcufri nihtuw, 
iowaeteft in waetre, wyrmeft hwllum 

faegre to fyre ; me on faeftme sticaj? 

hygegalan hond ; hwyrfeS geneahhe, 

swifeft me geond sweartne. Saga hwaet ic hatte, Foi. 104* 

)?e ic lifgende lond reafige, 
15^ aefter dea]?e dryhtum J?eowige. 

Ic seah turf tredan ; X waeron ealra, 
VI gebroj^or ^ hyra sweostor mid ; 
haefdon feorp- cwico. Fell hongedon 
sweotol *j gesyne on seles waege 
5anra gehwylces. Ne waes hyra aenguw j?y wyrs, 
ne side ]>y sarre, J?eah hy swa sceoldon 
reafe birofene, rodra Weardes 

12 (Gr W 13). 6. Mi beorn. 

13 (Gr W 14). See sheet of figures. 6. Mi sarra. 



ftttole* 1 1 

meahtum aweahte, muj?um slltan 
haswe blede. Hraegl brS genlwad 
2cJ;am j?e aer forScymene fraetwe leton 
licgan on laste, gewitan lond tredan. 

14. 

Ic waes waepenwiga ; nu mec wlonc );ece3 

geong hagostealdmon golde *j sylfore, 

woum wlrbogum. Hwllum weras cyssaft ; 

hwllum ic to hilde hleoJ?re bonne 
5 wilgehlej?an ; hwllum wycg byre)? 

mec ofer mearce, hwilum merehengest 

fereft ofer flodas fraetwum beorhtne ; 

hwilu/w maegfta sum mlnne gefylleft 

bosm beaghroden ; hwllum ic bordum sceal, 
10 heard, heafodleas, behly)?ed licgan ; 

hwiluw hongige hyrstum fraetwed, 

wlitig, on wage, ]?2er weras drincaft ; 

freolic fyrdsceorp hwllu/w folcwigan 

wicge wegaS (ponne ic winde sceal 
i5sincfag swelgan of sumes bosme); 

hwiluw ic gereordum rincas laftige 

wlonce to wine ; hwllum wra]?um sceal 

stefne mlnre forstolen hreddan, 

flyman feondscea)?an. Frige hwaet ic hatte. 

14 (GV Jf 15). Sec sheet of figures. 17. Ms wraj?)mm. 



i2 Mifcfiies 



^ 



Hals is min hwit *j heafod fealo, Fol. 204b 

sidan swa some ; swift ic eom on febe ; 

beadowaspen bere ; me on baece standaS her, 

swylce sue on [hlleorum; hllfiaS tu 
searan ofer eagum ; ordum ic steppe 

in grene graes. Me brS gyrn witod, 

gif mec onhaele an onfinde^ 

waelgrim wiga, ]?aer ic wic buge, 

b[ol]d mid bearnum ; ^ ic bide };aer 
10 mid geogu^cnosle, hwonne gaest cume 

to durum minuw. Him bi|? deaS witod j 

for}?on ic sceal of eftle eaforan mine 

forhtmod fergan, fleame nergan : 

gif he me aefterweard ealles weorWS, 
i5hine beraS breost. Ic his bidan ne dear 

re]?es on geruman (nele ]?aet raed teal fa] ), 

ac ic sceal fromllce fej?emundu/7z 

]?urh steapne beorg strsete wyrcan. 

Ea]?e ic maeg freora feorh genergan, 
20 gif ic maegburge mot mine gelaedan 

on degolne weg J?urh du[ne] J?yrel 

15 (Gr W 16). 4. Ms swylce sweon leorum. See note. 
6. Ms grenne. 
9. Ms blod. Th y s emendation. 

15. ffcriz breost beraft, to the great improvement of the metre. Ms biddan. 

16. Ms teale. 

21. Ms dum. Gr's emendation. 



Ifarjleg i i 

swsese *j gesibbe ; ic me sij/pan ne }?carf 
waelhwelpes wig wiht onsittan. 
Gif [s]e nr3scea)?a nearwe stlge 
25 me on swa]?e sece]?, ne tosaelej ? him 
on J?am gegnpa)?e gu}?gemotes, 
si)?];an ic j?urh hylles hrof geraice 
fc j J?urh hest hrino hildepllum 
laSgewinnum, J;am }?e ic longe fleah. 

Oft ic sceal wij? waege winnan ^ wi}? winde feohtan ; 
somod wi$ J;a/w saecce, ]>onne ic secan gewite 
eor]?an ybum J?eaht : me bij? se e);el fremde. 
Ic beom strong |?aes gewinnes, gif ic stille weor]?e ; Fo1 - 
5 gif me }>aes tosaeleft, hi beo$ swlj?ran ]>onne ic 
"j mec slltende sona flymaS ; 
willaS oj?fergan j?aet ic fri];ian sceal. 
Ic him ]>at forstonde, gif mln steort }?ola$ 

T mec ^fikfl f y ^^ stanas moton 
iofaeste gehabban. Frige hwaet ic hatte. 

Ic eom mundbora mlnre heorde, 
eodorwlrum faest, innan gefylled 

16 24. Ms gifre. Th*s emendation. 

29. Zu laftgewinnan, which is more consistent with 11. 10 , IJ, 2J t 2<f t 
and may well be the true reading. 

17 (Gr W 18). Over this riddle stands the rune for B [see Introduction), 
and over that ivhat appears to be the rune for L. See sheet of figures. 



14 ixitoie* 

dryhtgestreon.u Daegtldum oft 
spaete sperebrogan ; sped bi}> ]?y mare 
5 fylle minre ; fre[a] j?aet blhealdeft, 
hu me of hrife fleogaS hyldepllas. 
Hwllum ic sweartum swelgan onginne 
brunum beadowaspnum, bitrum ordum, 
eglum attorsperum. Is min innaS til, 
iowombhord wlitig, wloncu/w deore. 
Men gemunan J?aet me j?urh mu)? fareS. 

1 8. 

Ic eom wunderlicu wiht : ne maeg word sprecan, 
maeldan for monnum, J;eah ic muj; haebbe, 

wide wombe 

Ic waes on ceole *j mines cnosles ma. 

/ 19. 

Ic seah [swoncorne] • J/j • • |^ • • Jtf « 

* N ' hygewloncne, heafodbeorhtne, 
swi[f]tne ofer saelwong swi]?e J>rasgan ; 
haefde him on hrycge hilde^ry^e.*** 

17 5. Ms freo. 

18 (Gr W 19). 3,4. There is no gap in the Ms after wombe. Probably 
ive ha've here only a fragment of a longer riddle. After ma stands the sign that 
usually indicates the end of a riddle. 

19 (Gr W 20). The runet in this riddle ha've the following values : 11. 
/, 2, SROH = (backwards) hors ; /. 5, NOM = mon j /. 6, AGEW a 
aweg (?); //. 7, 8, COFOAH = haofoc = hafoc. 

I. Gr supplied 9omod ( = together) after seah. 
J». Ms swistne % Th's correction. 



tetanies 15 

• *f* * • |^ ' * M ' naegled ne rad ; 

" P * " X * ' M ' • ^ • wldlast ferede 

rynestrong on rade rofne • (^ • • |tf • 

.p. .^. • p • • ^ • For waes }?y beorhtre, 

swylcra styfaet. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 



Ic eom wunderlicu wiht, on gewin sceapen, 
frean mmum leof, fsegre gegyrwed. Fol. 105b 

Byrne is mln bleofag ; swylce beorht seoma[$] 
wlr ymb j?one waelgim, pe me waldend geaf, 
5se me wldgalum wlsa$ hwilum 
sylfum to sace, ]>onne ic sine wege 
}?urh hlutterne daeg, hondweorc smij?a, 
gold ofer geardas. Oft ic gaestberend 
cwelle compwaepnu/w. Cyning mec gyrweft 

10 since "j seolfre, ^ mec on sele weor}?a$ ; 
ne wyrne? word lofes, wlsan maeneS 
mine for mengo, )?aer hy meodu drincaft ; 
healdeft mec on heaj;ore, hwilum laeteft eft 
radwerigne on gerum sceacan 

isorlegfromne. Oft ic o]?rum scod 

frecne aet his freonde ; fah eom ic wide, 
waepnum awyrged. Ic me wenan ne }?earf 
]?aet me beam wraece on bonan feore, 

195. The Ms has quite clear ly naegled ne in tivo ivords. 
5,6. Th proposed rad-NGEW = rad-wegn = rad-waegn, riding-wagon. 
See note. 

20 (Gr W 11). 3. Ms leomad. 



1 6 ftto&ies? 

gif me gromra hwylc guj?e genaege-8; 
20 ne weor]?eS sio msegburg gemicledix 

eaforan minum, }?e ic aefter woe, 

nym]?e ic hlafordleas hweorfan mote 

from ]?a/;2 healdende, |?e me hringas geaf. 

Me br§ foriS witod, gif ic frean hyre, 
25gQJ;e fremme, swa ic glen dyde 

minutfz J;eodne on ]?onc, ];aet ic J?olian sceal 

bearngestreona ; ic wij? bryde ne mot 

halmed habban ; ac me J?aes hyhtplegan 

geno wyrneft, se mec gear [a] on 
^obende legde : forJ?on ic brucan sceal 

on hagostealde haele)>a gestreona. 

Oft ic wlrum dol wife abelge, 

wonie hyre willan ; heo me worn spreceft, 

floceS hyre folmum, firenap mec wordum, 
*$ungod gaele^ ; . ic ne gyme }?aes compes. 

21. 

Neb is mm ni|?erweard ; neol ic fere Fol. 106a 

*j be grunde graefe, geonge swa me wlsaS 
har holtes feond ; ^ hlaford mm 
[on] woh faereS, weard, aet steorte, 
5wrlga)? on wonge, wege$ mec *i )?y$, 
sawe}? on swariS min. Ic sny};ige forS 

20 29. Ms gearo ( = altogether}. B TV* suggestion gearo = geara, improves 
both sense and metre. 

35. There is nothing in the Ms to indicate any lacuna here. 

21 (G> W 22). 4. S*v\ emendation. 



ftttoles 17 



brungen of bear[w]e, bunden craefte, 
wegen on waegne ; haebbe wundra fela, 
Me bij? gongendre grene on healfe, 

10 *j mln swaeS sweotol sweart on 6J;re. 
Me Jmrh hrycg wrecen hongaj? under 
an orj?onc pil, 6]?er on heafde 
faest ^ forSweard feallej? on sldan, 
\at ic to)?um tere, gif me teala J?enaJ; 

i5hindeweardre )?aet bij; hlaford mln. 



22. 

/Etsomne cwom LX monna 
to waegstae)?e wicgum ridan ; 
haefdon XI eoredmaecgas 
fridhengestas, IIII s ceamas . 

5 Ne meahton magorincas ofer mere feolan, 
swa hi fundedon ; ac waes flod to deop, 
atol y|?a ge]?raec, ofras hea, 
streamas stronge. Ongunnon stlgan }?a 
on waegn weras, ^ hyra wicg somod 

lohlodan under hrunge. pa ]?a hors oSbaer, 
eh *j eorlas aescum dealle, 
ofer waetres byht waegn to lande : 
swa hine oxa ne teah, ne esna maegen, 
ne fast hengest, ne on flode sworn, 

15 ne be grunde wod gestum under, 

21 7. Ms bear me 

22 (Gr JV 23). 4. Th fyrd-hengestas (= ivar-horses). 



1 8 MtuDlfS 

ne lagu drefde, ne o[n] lyfte fleag, 
ne [u] nder baec cyrde ; brohte hwaej?re 
beornas ofer burnan *j hyra bloncan mid 
from staeSe heaum, )?aet hy stopan up 
toon 6)?erne ellenrofe Fol. 106b 

wcras of waege ^ hyra wicg gesund. 

V23- 

Agof is min noma eft onhwyrfed. 

Ic eom wrastlic wiht on gewin sceapen. 

ponne ic onbuge, *j me of bosme fare? 

setren onga, ic beom eallgearo 
5 )?aet ic me)^/ feorhbealo feor aswape. 

Si]?}>an me se waldend, se me J?aet wlte gescop, 

leo)?o forlasteft, ic beo lengre ponne aer, 

oj?}?aet ic spaete spilde geblonden, 

ealfelo attor, )?aet ic ser geap. 
ioNe togongeft J?aes gumena hwylcum 

aenigum ea}?e, }?aet ic J?aer ymb sprice, 

gif hine hrineft \czt me of hrife fleoge3, 

)?aet |;one mandrinc maegne geceapajj, 

full wer faeste feore sine. 
i5Nelle ic unbunden aenigum hyran, 

nymj?e searosasled. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

22 1 6. Ms of. 

17. Ms ondcr. 

23 (Gr W 24). 7. Cos would read lcngra to agree ivith the gender of 
the solution boga. 

9. Sv proposes aeror for xr,for the metre. 



Uitftletf 19 

Ic com wunderlicu wiht ; wriesne mine stefne : 
hwllum beorce swa hund, hwlluw blsete swa gat, 
hwilum graede swa gos, hwlluw gielle swa hafoc ; 
hwllu//* ic onhyrge ]?one haswan earn, 
5gu$fugles hleoj?or; hwllum glidan reorde 
muj?e gemsene, hwllum maewes song, 
J?aer ic glado sitte. • ^ " mec nemna"S, 
swylce • p • *] • ft • ; • p • fullesteS 

■ N - 1 * I *• Nu * c n ^ ten eom 

10 swa ]>a siex stafas sweotule becna)?. 



/. 



25- 

Ic eom wunderlicu wiht, wlfum on hyhte, 

neahbuendu/w nyt ; naengum sce)jj?e 

burgsittendra, nym}?e bonan anum. 

Sta]?ol mln is steap, heah stonde ic on bedde, 
5 neo]?an ruh, nathwaer. Ne)?e$ hwilum 

ful cyrtenu ceorles dohtor, Fol. 107* 

modwlonc meowle, Ipaet heo on mec griped, 

neseft mec on reodne, reafaS mln heafod, 

fegeS mec on faesten ; felej? sona 
[0 mines gemotes se[o] }?e mec nearwaft, 

wlf wundenlocc : waet big J?aet eage. 

24 (Gr W 25). 7-9. The runes stand respectively for GAROHI = 
higora. See note. 

25 {Gr W iti). 4. Holthauscn steap-heah on metrical grounds. IO. Ms 
se ; Th seo. 



20 &mit* 

Mec feonda sum feore besny)?ede, 
woruldstrenga binow, waette sij>}?an, 
dyfde on waetre, dyde eft J?onan, 
sette on sunnan, J?asr ic swlj?e beleas 
5herum ]?am J?e ic haefde. Heard mec si)>}>an 
sna§ seaxes ecg sindrum begrunden, 
fingras feoldan ; *j mec fugles wyn 
geond speddropum r spyrede geneahhe 
ofer brunne brerd, beamtelge swealg, 

iostreames daele, stop eft on mec, 
sl)?ade sweartlast. Mec sij;J)an wrah 
haele^S hleobordum, hy[d]e be};enede, 
gierede mec mid golde ; for}?on me gllvvedon 
wraetlic weorc smi]?a wire blfongen. 

15NQ p>a gereno *j se reada telg 
*-( J?a wuldorgesteald wide maere[n] 
dryhtfolca Helm ! nales dol wite ! 
Gif mln beam wera brucan willaft, 
hy beoS |?y gesundran *i ]>y sigefaestran, 

2oheortum ]?y hwaetran, *j ]?y hygebltyran, 
fer]?e py frodran; habba); freonda )>y ma 
swassra *j gesibbra, s6J?ra ^ godra, 
tilra ^ getreowra, j;a hyra tyr *j ead 

26 (Gr W 27). 6. Ms seaxsesecge. 
8. Gr geondfsprengde] r= sprinkled. 
12. Ms hyj>e. 
16. A/* maere. 



estum ycaft, *j hy arstafum, 
25lissum, bllecgaS, ^ hi lufan fae];mum 
faeste clyppaft. Frige hwaet ic hatte, 
ni|?um to nytte. Nama min is maere, 
haelej?um gifre, ^ halig sylf\ Fol. 107b 



. ^27. 

Ic eom weorS werum, wide funden, 

brungen of bearwum *j of burghleoj^uw, 

of denum *j of dunum. Daeges mec waegun 

fe);re on lifte, feredon mid liste 
5 under hrofes hleo. HaeleS mec sij?|;an 

ba}?edan in bydene . Nu ic eom bindere 

^ swingere, sona weorpere ; 

efne to eor]>an hwllum ealdne ceorl. 

Sona ]><et onfindeS, se )?e mec ferrS ongean 
10*3 wiS maegenbisan mlnre genaesteft, 

J?aet he hrycge sceal hrusan secan, 

gif he unraedes aer ne geswlceft ; 

strengo blstolen, strong on spruce, 

maegene binumen, nah his modes geweald, 
i5fota ne folma. Frige hwaet ic hatte, 

$e on eorJ;an swa esnas binde 

dole aefter dyntum be daeges leohte. 

27 (Gr IV 28). 2. Th suggested beorghleopum {mountain-slopes'). 
15. After hattc in the Ms is a sign such as generally indicates the end of 
a riddle. The remainder of the riddle begins on the same line, but after an 
interval and ivith an initial capital. See sheet of figures. 



22 KtDDles 



28. 

Bi)? foldan dael faegre gegierwed 
mid \y heardestan *j mid j?y scearpestan 
*j mid J?y grymmestan gumena gestreona. 
Corfen, sworfen, cyrred, J?yrred, 
5bunden, wunden, blaeced, wseced, 
fraetwed, geatwed, feorran laeded 
to durum dryhta, dream br§ in innan 
cwicra wihta. Clenge/3 lengeS 
j?ara J;e aer lifgende longe hwlle 
iowilna bruceS, *j no wiS spriceft ; 
*j \or\ne aefter dea)?e deman onginneS, 
meldan mislice. Micel is to hycganne 
wisfaestum menn, hwaet seo wiht sy. 

-v 29. 

Ic wiht geseah wundorllce 
born [um] bltweonu/w hu)?e lasdan, 
lyftfaet leohtlic listum gegierwed, FoL 108* 

huj?e to J?am ham of J>a/w heresl}?e ; 
^walde hyre on }?aere by rig bur atimbra[n], 
searwum asettan, gif hit swa meahte. 
Da cwom wundorlicu wiht ofer wealles hrof, 
seo is eallum cirS eorSbuendum ; 

28 (Gr W 29). 2. Gr [heoru] — scearpestan, to supply the misting 
alliterative syllable. Cf. Riddle 6, /. 8. 

39 {Gr JV 30). 2. Ms horna abitweonum. Th's emendation in text, 
5. Ms walde and atimbram. 



ahredde J>a }?a hQJ?e, *j to ham bedr[a]f 
iowreccan ofer willan ; gewat hyre west J?onan 
fa^hjmm feran, fbrS onette. 
Dust stone to heofbnum ; deaw feol on eorpan; 
niht for$ gewat. Naenig styj?an 
wera gewiste J?aire wihte sl3. 

30- 
Ic eom lig bysig ; lace mid winde 
bewunden mid wuldre, wedre gesomnad, 
fus forSweges, fyre gebysgad, 
bearu blowende, byrnende gled. 
5Ful oft mec gesl)?as sendaft aefter hondum 
Ipat mec weras ^ wlf wlonce cyssaft. 
ponne ic mec onhaebbe, hi onhnigaj? to me 
monige mid miltse, }?«r ic monnum sceal 
yean upcyme eadignesse, 

29 9. Ms bedraef. 
II. Ms onetteft. 

30 (Gr W 3 1 ) . This Riddle is one of the very few 0. E. compositions 
of which ive possess two texts. They are both in the Exeter Book, folios 
108a and 122b (Th pp. 412 and 470). The second version is the first riddle 
of the second batch ; it is defective in 11. 2 and 4. The above text is compiled 
from the two versions [A % B). Where they differ^ the rejected reading is 
given below. 

1. A leg. 

2. B wunden. 

3. B gemylted (= melted). 

6. B paer and gecyssaft. 

7. A T hi onhingaj). 

8. B modge miltsum swa ic mongum sceal. See sheet of figures. 



24 UitoUtf 



3 1 - 

Is J?es middangeard missenlicum 
wisum gewlitegad, wrzettum gefraetwad. 
Ic seah sellic ];ing singan on raecede ; 
wiht waes [nower] werum on gemonge 
5 slo haefde waestum wundorlicran. 
NiJ/erweai [d] waes neb hyre, 
fet ^ folme fugele gellce ; 
no hwae];re fleogan maeg, ne fela gongan. 
Hwae]?re fej/egeorn fremman onginneS 
iogecoren craeftum, cyrre^S geneahhe 
oft "i eelome eorlum on g-emonge. 

jiiiwdUgJMlliiMn i _ p CD ' 

siteS aet symble, sasles bide]?, 

hwonne ser heo craeft hyre cyp>an mote Fo1 - xo8b 

werum on wonge. Ne heo J;aer wiht }>ige$ 
15 paes |?e him aet blisse beornas habba[£l. 

Deor, domes georn, hlo dumb wunaft ; 

hwae)?re hyre is on fote faeger hleo)?or, 

wynlicu woSgiefu ; wraetlic me p>ince$ 

hu seo wiht maege wordum lacan 
2oJ?urh fot neop>an fraetwed hyrstum. 

Hafaft hyre on halse, )>onne hlo hord waraft 

baer, beagum deall, brdj?or sine, 

maeg mid maeg[um]. Micel is to hycgenne 

wisum wo^boran, hwaet [slo] wiht sle. 

31 (Gr JV 32). 4. Ms on; Gr no; Her% nower (for the form cf. 
Crist, igg). 

6, Ms niperwearft. 15. Ms habbad. 

23. Ms maeene. 24. Sio supplied by Th. Cf Riddle 32, /. 14. 



l&itoie* 15 



32. 



Is J>es middangeard missenlicum 
wlsum gewlitegad, wraettum gefraetwad. 
Sfyum sellic ic seah searo hweorfan, 
grindan wr$ greote, giellende faran. 
5 Naefde sellicu wiht syne ne folme, 
exle ne earmas ; sceal on anum fet 
searoceap swlfan, swtye feran, 
faran ofer feldas ; haefde fela ribba ; 
muS waes on middan. Moncynne nyt 
iofer foddurwelan folcscipe dreogeft, 
wist in wigeS, *j werum gieldeS 
gaful geara gehwam J?aes J?e guman bruca'S 
rice ^ heane. Rece, gif J?u cunne, 
wis worda gleaw, hwaet slo wiht sle.> 



33- 



Wiht cwom aefter wege wraetlicu ll}?an, 
cymlic from ceole cleopode t5 londe, 
hlinsade hlude ; [h] leahtor waes gryrelic, 
egesful on earde, ecge waeron scearpe. 
5 Waes hlo hetegrim, hilde to saene, Fol. 109* 

biter beadoweorca ; bordweallas grdf 

32 (Gr W 11). 8. Ms fella. 
10. Ms fere. 

33 {Gr W 34) 
3. Ms leahtor. 

5. Herz suggests tosaege (inclined) or onsiege (assailing). 



26 HiDDle* 

heard, hl)?ende ; heterune bond. 
Saegde searocraeftig ymb hyre sylfre gesceaft : 
"Is min mddor, maeg[$]a cynnes 
ioJ?aes deorestan, }>at is dohtor min, 
eacen up liden ; swa baet is aeldum cub, 
flrum on folce, \at seo on foldan sceal 
on ealra londa gehwam lissum stondan." 

34- 
Ic wiht geseah in wera burgum 
seo )?aet feoh fed eft ; hafaft fela toj?a ; 
nebb bij? hyre aet nytte ; ntyerweard gongeft, 
hi)?e$ holdllce ^ to ham tyh$, 
5\vse)?e$ gepnd weallas, wyrte seceS. 
Aa heo j;a findeS J?a )>e faest ne bij? ; 
l«te$ hlo )>a wlitigan, wyrtum faeste, 
stille stondan on staJ?olwonge, 
beorhte bllcan, blowan ^ growan. 

Mec se waeta wong wundrum freorig 
of his innate asrist cende. 
Ne wat ic mec beworhtne wulle fly sum, 
haerum }mrh heahcraeft, hyge|?oncum min. 
5Wundene me ne beoS wefle, ne ic wearp hafu, 
ne J?urh J?reata gej?raecu prasd me ne hlimmeS, 
ne set me hrutende hrlsil scrlj?e$, 

33 9. Mi maegda. 



ne mec ohwonan sceal amas cnyssan. 
Wyrmas mec ne awaefan wyrda craeftum, 

ioj>a J?e geolo godwebb geatwum fraetwaft. 
Wile mec mon hwaej;re se}?eah wide ofer eor)?an 
hatan for haele)?u;w hyhtlic gewaede. 
Saga, softcwidum, searojxmcum gleaw, 
wordum wlsfaest, hwaet j?is gewaed[e] sy. Fol. 109b 

Ic wiht geseah on wege feran, 
seo waes wraetllce, wundrum, gegierwed ; 
haefde feowere fet under wombe, 
^ ehtuwe, monn h [/>] Af[/>], wiif mxlkf [r], 
-priors qxxs ufon on hrycge. 
Haefde tu ftyru *j twelf eagan 
"j siex heafdu. Saga hwaet hlo wasre. 
For flodwegas ; ne waes \at na fugul ana, 
ac J?ae"r waes aeghwylces anra gellcnes, 
10 horses ^ monnes, hundes *j fugles, 
*j eac wlfes wlite. pu wast, gif ]m const, 
to gesecganne, \<zt we soft witan, 
hu J;aere wihte wise gonge. 

35 (Gr W 36). 14. Ms gewaedu. 

36 (Gr W 37). 4. Ms certainly has " h iv M wiif mxlk f tv" (see 
the Notes and my tracing). Gr ehte we, i.e. ehtun we, preterite of ehtan, 
eahtan [ = eahtian], aestimare. 

9. Gr suggests fold-wegas (approved by Cos). 



28 KiDMes 



37 



Ic J?a wihte geseah ; womb waes on hindan 
J;riJ?um aj^runten. pegn folgade, 
maegenrofa man, *j micel haefde 
gefered J?aer [J?aet] hit f[y]lde fleah ]?urh his eage. 
5Ne swylte$ he symle ponne syllan sceal 
innaft )?am 6)?ru/w, ac him eft cymeS 
bot in bosme, blaed bi|? arsered ; 
he sunu wyrce$, bi$ him sylfa faeder. 

, 38. 

Ic J?a wiht geseah waepnedcynnes 
geogirSmyrwe grsedig. Him on gafol forlet 
FerSfri];ende feower wellan 
scire sceotan, on gesceap J?eotan. 
^Mon majjelade, se }?e me gesaegde : 
u Seo wiht, gif hlo gedygeft, duna briceft ; 
gif he tobirsteS, bindeS cwice." 

V39- 
Gewritu secgaft J?aet seo wiht sy 
mid moncynne miclum tl[d]um 
sweotol ^ gesyne ; sundorcraeft hafaft 
mara[n] micle ]>onne hit men witen. 

37 (Gr W 38). 4. Ms pxr hit feldc. 

38 (Gr IV 39). 2. Holthausen's emendation. 4. B To suggests ges- 
ceappeotan (teat). 

39 (Gr W 4fO). 2. Ms ticlum, evidently a case of dittography. 
4. Mi maram. 



5Heo wile gesecan sundor aeghwylcne Fol. no» 

feorhberendra ; gewite^ eft feran onweg ; 

ne biS hlo naefre niht }?aer 6J?re ; 

ac hlo sceal wldeferh wreccan laste 

hamleas hweorfan J no ]>y heanre bi]?. 
10 Ne hafaft hlo fot ne folm, ne aefre foldan hran, 

ne eagen [a hafaft] aeg]?er twega ; 

ne mu3 hafa};, ne wi)> monnum spraec ; 

ne gewit hafaft : ac gewritu secgaS 

J?aet seo sy earmost ealra wihta, 
*5)>ara ]?e aefter gecyndum cenned waere. 

Ne hafaft hlo sawle ne feorh ; ac hlo slj?as sceal 

geond j?as wundorworuld wide dreogan. 

Ne hafa]? hlo blod ne ban ; hwaej?re bearnum wearS 

geond J?isne middangeard mongum to frofre. 
2oN«fre hlo heofonum hran, ne to helle mot; 

ac hlo sceal wldeferh Wuldorcyninge [s] 

larum lifgan. Long is to secganne 

hu hyre ealdorgesceaft aefter gongeS, 

woh wyrda gesceapu. paet [is] wraetlic J?ing 
52 to gesecganne : soS is aeghwylc 

J;ara |?e ymb fras wiht wordum becneff . 

Ne hafaft he[o] aenig lim, leofa]? efne se|?eah. 

Gif j?u maege reselan recene gesecgan 

s6J?um wordum, saga hwaet hlo hatte. 

39 1 1 . Ms eagene 5 hafaft supplied by Gr. 
18. beornum (?) 
21. Ms wuldorcyninge. 
24. Is supplied by Th. 
27. Ms he haeniff. Cf. //. 10, /6 t 18. 



30 MtoDled 

/40. 

Ece is se Scyppend, se )?as eor[>an nu 

wreSstu)?um *] p>as world healdeft; 

rlc[e] is se Reccend *j on ryht Cyning, 

ealra Anwalda, eor|>an *j heofones ; 
5healde$ *j wealdeS, swa he utan hweorfeft ymb }>as. 

He mec wrastllce worhte aet frymj?e, Foi. nob 

j>a he J^isne ymbhwyrft merest sette ; 

heht mec waeccende wunian longe, 

paet ic ne slepe si)?^an aifre : 
IO *j rnec semminga slaep ofergongej?, 

beoft eagan mm ofestum betyned. 

pisne middangeard meahtig Dryhten 

mid his onwalde ^Eghw^r styreiS ; 

swa ic mid Waldendes worde ealne 
i5j?isne ymbhwyrft utan ymbclyppe. 

Ic eom to Jx>n bleaS )?aet mec bealdllce maeg 

gearugongende grima abregan : 

*} eofore eom aeghwaer cenra, (~ t 

\onne he gebolgen bldsteal giefeS. 
20 Ne maeg mec oferswi}?an segnberendra 

aenig ofer eorJ?an, nymj;e se ana God 

se J?isne hean heofon healde}? *j wealdej?. 

Ic eom on stence strengre [micle] 

]>onne rlcels o]?];e rose sy, 

40 (Gr W 41). 3. Ms ric. 5. Ms ymb pas utan hweorfeft. 
23, 25, 56, 61. Gr's emendations. No gaps in the Ms. 



ftitole* 31 

25 [}?e swa senlice] on eorJ?an tvrf 

wynlic weaxeS ; ic eom wrsestre fyonne heo. 

peah )?e lilie sy leof moncynne, 

beorht on blostman, ic eom betre ponnt heo. 

Swylce ic nardes stenc nyde oferswtye 
3omid mlnre swetnesse symle seghwaer : 

^ ic fulre eom J?on/^ J?is fen swearte 

pert her yfle adelan stincecS. 

Eal ic under heofones hwearfte recce, 

swa me leof Faeder laerde aet frym)?e, 
35J7aet ic ]?a mid ryhte reccan moste 

}?icce *j ]?ynne, }?inga gehwylces 

onllcnesse asghwaer healde. 

H yrr e ic eom heofone ; hate)? mec Heahcyning 

his deagol |?ing dyre blhealdan : 
4oeac ic under eor]?an eal sceawige, 

wo[nn] wraSscrafu wra)?ra g[se]sta. Fol. m» 

Ic eom micle yldra \onne ymbhwyrft J?aes 

o]?]?e ]?es middangeard meahte geweorJ?an : 

^ ic giestron waes g eon g acenned 
45maere to monnum }?urh mlnre modor hrif. 

Ic eom fsegerre fraetwum goldes, 

]?eah hit mon awerge wirum utan : 

ic eom wyrslicre \ox\ne J?es wudu fula 

40 41. Ms worn — an unexampled form for accusative plural. The choice 

lies between wonn and won (weak plural of woh). The former makes the 

better sense. — It is more than possible that wrapra is an instance of ditto- 

graphy ; perhaps tve should read awyrgdra. Ms gcsta j cf. Guthlac, j6j. 

41. Ms J?aes. 



32 KiDDleS 

cr&Se }?is waro? )?e her aworpen ligeiS. 
50 Ic eor}?an eom aeghwaer braedre, 

*j widgielra ]?onne }?es wong grena : 

folm mec maeg bifon, *j fingras ]?ry 

utan ea}>e ealle ymbclyppan. 

Heardra ic eom *j caldra ]>onne se hearda forst, 
55hnm heorugrimma, ]?onne he to hrusan cymeS : 

[ic eom] Ulcanus upirnendan 

leohtan leoman, lege, hatra. 

Ic eom on goman gena swetra, 

]>onne ]>u beobread blende mid hunige : 
6oSwylce ic eom wra]?re ponne wmriod sy, 

[|?e] her on hyrstum heasewe stonde];. 

Ic mesan maeg meahtelicor 

*j efnetan ealdum }?yrse : 

"j ic gesaelig maeg symle lifgan, 
65^eah ic aetes ne sy aefre to feore. 

Ic maeg fromllcor fleogan Iponne p^rnex 

o|?};e earn o];J?e hafoc aefre meahte ; 

nis zefFerus se swifta wind 

]?aet swa fromlice maeg feran aeghwaer 
70 me is snaegl swiftra, snelr[a] regnwyrm, 

-) fenyce fore hre bre ; 

i[s] j?aes gores sunu gonge hraedra 

)?one we wifel worduw nemna?. Fol. u^> 

4063. Ms pyrre. Th suggested pyrse. 
70. Ms snclro pon. 
72. Ms ic. 



HiDDleg 33 

Hefigere ic eom micle \onne se hara stan 
75o}?]?e unlytel leades clympre : 

leohtre ic eom micle }pox\ne J?es lytla wyrm 

J?e her on flo de gieS fotum dryge . 

Flinte ic eom heardra J?e |;is fyr drlfej? 

of ]?issum strongan style heardan : 
gohnescre ic eom micle halsrefej;re 

seo her on winde wa?we3 on lyfte. 

Ic eor]?an eom aeghwasr biiedre, 

^ wldgelra ]>onne |?es wong grena ; 

ic uttor eal ymbwinde 
85\vraetllce gewefen wundorcraefte. 

Nis under me aenig 6}?er 

wiht waldendre on worldlife. 

Ic eom ufor ealra gesceafta 

]?ara };e worhte Waldend user, 
90 se mec ana maeg ecan meahtum 

ge]?eon ]?rymme )?aet ic on[|;uni]an ne sceal. 

Mara ic eom *j strengra ponne se micla hwael, 

se }7e garsecges grund bihealdeft 

sweartan syne ; ic eom swij?re ponne he : 
95swylce ic eom on maegene mlnum laesse 

40 77. Ms flonde. 84. Holthausen ic uttor [ea$e] on metrical grounds $ 

<P> I- 53> 

91. Ms onrinnan. Gr'j emendation, necessitated by the alliteration. Nei- 
ther onrinnan nor onfunian occurs elsewhere. Perhaps ive should read punian, 
a common ivord occurring twice elsewhere in the Riddles (1,4; 45, 2), and in 
The Soul to the Body 40 {Vercelli Ms) apparently in the sense required here. 

94. Herz proposes sweart aisyne. Cf. faeger onsyne in Rune-poem //. 



34 l&ttiDles 

yonne se hondwyrm, se ]?e haelef?a beam, 
secgas searo)?oncle, seaxe delfaft, 
Ne hafu ic in heafde hwlte loccas 
wneste gewundne, ac ic eom wide calu ; 

ioone ic breaga ne bruna brucan moste, 
ac mec bescyrede Scyppend eallum : 
nu me wrastllce weaxaS on heafde, 
J7^/ me on gescyldrura sclnan motan 
ful wraetlice, wundne loccas. 

105 Mara ic eom *j faettra ]>onne amaested swln, 
bearg bellende on bocwuda ; 
won, wrotende wynnum lifde, 



\cet he 



4 



41. 

* * * 

ednlwu. Fol. ii2 a 



paet is moddor monigra cynna, 
J?aes selestan, J?aes sweartestan, 
J?aes deorestan, }?aes ]>e dryhta beam 
5ofer foldan sceat to gefean agen. 
Ne magon we her in eor]?an owiht lifgan, 
nynvSe we brucen J?aes J?a beam do?. 
ptet is to ge|?encanne J?eoda gehwylcum, 
wisfaestu/fl werum, hwaet seo wiht sy. 

40 108. There is no gap in the Ms here, but it is evident that thit riddle 
has no end and the next no beginning. 



ftiDDlea 35 



4*/A2. 



42. 

Ic seah wyhte wraetlice twa 

undearnunga ute plegan 

hasmedlaces : hwitloc anfeng 

wlanc under wsedum, gif }>aes weorces speo [w] , 
sfaemne fyllo. Ic on flette maeg 

J?urh runstafas rincum secgan, 

]>am J?e bee witan, bega aetsomne 

naman }?ara wihta. paer sceal N^d wesan 

twega oj?er ^ se torhta i*Esc 
ioan an llnan, Acas twegen, 

Haegelas swa some* hwy] [J 7 ] 268 hordgates. 

caegan craefte |?a clam me onleac, 

J?e )?a rasdellan wr3 rynemenn 

hygefaeste heold heortan, bewrigene 
i5orJ?oncbendum. Nu is undyrne 

werum aet wine, hu }?a wihte mid us 

hean mode twa hatne sindon. 

Ic wat indryhtne, ae)?elum deorne 
giest in geardum, }?am se grimma ne maeg 
hungor sce&San ne se hata Jmrst, 
yldo ne adle. Gif him arllce 

42 (Gr ^43). 4. Ms speop. 
1 1 . Ms waes. 

17. Ms sindon. Ic {the last word of this riddle and the first of the next) 
on the same line. 



36 Minnies 

5esne ]?ena$, se Se a gan sceal 

on j?am srSfate, hy gesunde aet ham 

findaft, witode him, wiste *] blisse, 

cnosles unrim ; care, gif se esne 

his hlaforde hyre$ yfle, Fol. 112b 

iofrean on fore Ne wile forht wesan 

bro}?or 6}?rum ; him ]?aet bam scefteS, 

tyonne hy from bearme begen hweorfaS 

anre magan ellorfuse, 

moddor ^ sweostor. Mon, se )?e wille, 
i 5 cy|?e cynewordum, hu se cuma hatte 

e$J?a se esne, ]?e ic her ymb sprice. 

44- 
Wraetlic honga^S bl weres )?eo, 
frean under sceate ; foran is }?yrel ; 
brS stl]? ^ heard, stede hafa"S godne. 
ponne se esne his agen hraegl 
5 ofer cneo hefeS, wile }?aet cuj?e hoi 
mid his hangellan heafde gretan, 
J?aet he efelang aer oft gefylde. 

45- 
Ic on wincle gefraegn w[aces] nathwaet 
]?indan *j ]?unian, )?ecene hebban. 
On J?aet banlease bryd grapode 

45 (GV TV 46). 1. Ms weax. Apparently nathwaet is always construed 
with a genitive. Weax, ivax y looks like a primitive pun of the scribe's. 



fttoales 37 

hygewlonc hondum ; hraegle ]?eahte 
5j?[i]ndende J?ing [;eodnes dohtor. 

V46. 

Waer saet aet wine, mid his wifum twam, 
*j his twegen suno ^ his twa dohtor, 
swase gesweostor, ^ hyr[a] suno twegen, 
freolico frumbearn ; faeder waes J;aerinne 
5j?ara ae)?elinga aeghwae^Sres mid, 
earn *j nefa. Ealra waeron fife 
eorla y idesa insittendra. 

- 47- 
Mo$3e word fraet. Me J?aet }?uhte 
wraetlicu wyrd, J?a ic )?aet wundor gefraegn, 
J?aet se wyrm forsweaig wera gied sumes, 
}?eof in J?ystro ]?rymfaestne cwide 
5^j ]?aes strangan sta)?ol. Staelgiest ne waes 
wihte ]>y gleawra, J?e he j?am wordu/w swealg. Fol. 113a 

,,48. 

Ic gefraegn f [o] r haelej?um hring [aer] endean 
torhtne butan tungan, tila, ]?eah he hlude 

45 5. Ms prindende. There is little to choose between pindende and prin- 
tcnde, both meaning u swelling." 

46 {Gr fF 47). 3. Ms hyre. 

47 {Gr IV 48). 6. Ms swealg. Ic {the last ivord of this riddle and the 
first of the next) on the same line. 

48 {Gr W 49). I. Ms fa. 

2. Gr inserted rcordian after tila, and put the next three words at the be' 



38 fctotrtetf 

stefne ne cirmde strongum worduw. 
Sine for secgum swigende cwariS : 
5 U Gehsele mec, Helpend g^esta ! " 
Ryne ongietan readan goldes 
guman, galdorcwide ; gleawe be];uncan 
hyra haelo to Gode, swa se hring gecwaeft. 

Ic wat eardfaestne anne standan 

deafne dumban, se oft daeges swilgeft 

J?urh gopes hond gifrum lacum. 

Hwilu[m] on J?a/w wicum se wonna J^egn, 
5sweart -j saloneb, sendeS 6)?re 

under goman him golde dyrran, 

}?a ae];elingas oft wilniaft, 

cyningas *j cwene. Ic \<zt cyn nu gen 

nemnan ne wille, J;e him to nytte swa 
10^ to dug)?um do)?, ^at se dumba her, 

eorp unwita, ser f [o] rswilgcS. 

V 50. 

Wiga is on eor)?an wundrum acenned 
dryhtum to nytte of dumbum twam, 

ginning of I. J, ivhere they nvill not scan. It is of course possible that there is 
something missing after tila, as the editors assume ; but there is no gap in the 
Ms, and the passage as printed above is not worse doggerel than is found in 
several other riddles. Ifnd that Klb has anticipated my reading of I. 2. 
49 (Gr W 50). 4. Ms hwilu mon. 
II. Ms fer swilge'S. 



torht atjrhted, ]?one on teon wigeft 
feond his feonde. F [o] rstrangne oft 
5\vlf hine wrr$. He him wel hereS, 
J?eowa]? him gej?waere, gif him }>egnia$ 
maegeft ^ maecgas mid gemete ryhte, 
fedaft hine fsegre ; he him fremum stepeS 
life on lissum. Leanaft grimme, 
io}?e hine wloncne weor)?an laeteS. 

Ic seah wraetlice wuhte feower 

samed simian; swearte waeran lastas, Fol. 113b 

swa];u swlj?e blacu. Swift waes on fore, 
fuglum fr[o]mra fleotgan lyfte ; 
5 deaf under y}?e. Dreag unstille, 
winnende wiga, se him w[e]gas taecnej? 
ofer faeted gold feower eallu/w. 

Ic seah raepingas in raeced fergan, 
under hrof sales, hearde twegen ; 
J?a waeron gen[u]mne, nearwum bendum, 
gefeterade faeste togaedre. 
5 para o)?rum waes an getenge 

50 (Gr W 51). 4. Ms fer strangnc. 

51 (Gr IF 52). 4. Ms frumra. 
6. Ms waegas. 

52 (Gr W 53). 3. Ms gcnamnc, which Gr retains and renders gleich- 
namigen, namesakes. 



40 ifcttote* 

wonfah Wale, seo weold hyra 
bega sij?e bendum faestra. 

Ic seah on bearwe beam hllfian 
tanum torhtne ; J?aet treow waes on wynne, 
wudu weaxende. Waeter hine *j eorj^e 
feddan faegre, o]?J;aet he frod dagum 

5 on 6}?rum wearS, aglachade 
deope gedolgod, dumb in bendum, 
wrtyen ofer wunda, wonnum hyrstum 
foran gefraetwed. Nu he faecnum w[e]g 
]>urh his heafdes maeg[en] hildegieste 

\ootyrum rymeft; oft hy an yst[e] strudon 
hord aetgaedre. Hraed waes *j unlaet 
se aeftera, gif se aerra faer genam ; 
nan in nearowe ne}>an moste. 

V54- 
Hyse cwom gangan, |?aer he hie wisse 
stondan in wl[n]sele; stop feorran to 
hror haegstealdmon, hof his agen 
hraegl hondum up, h[r]and under gyrdels 
5hyre stondendre stipes nathwaet, 

53 (Gr /F54). 8. ikfrwaeg. 

9. Ms maeg. 

10. Ms hy an yst. Th on yst, furiously. My emendation in the text 

54 (Gr W 55). 2. Ms wine sele. 
4. Ms rand. 



fcitftle* 4.1 

worhte his willan ; wagedan buta. 
pegn onnette, waes J>ragum nyt, 
tillic esne ; teorode hwaepre ~ 

aet stunda gehwam strong aerjxmfjiej hie 6, Fol. 114a 
lowerig j?aes weorces. Hyre weaxan ongon 
under gyrdelse J?aet oft gode men 
ferSJmm freogaS ^ mid feo bicgaft. 

Ic seah in heall, J?aer haeleft druncon, 

on fiet beran feower cynna : 

wraetlic wudutreow *j wunden gold, 

sine searobunden, "j seolfres dael 
5*j rode tacn, }?aeg us to roderum up 

hlaedre raerde, aer he helwara 

burg abraece. Ic J>aes beames maeg 

ea)?e for eorlum aej;elu secgan : 

J?aer waes hlin *j a[c] *] se hearda Iw 
io*j se fealwa holen. Frean sindon ealle 

nyt aetgaedre ; naman habbaft anne, 

wulfheafedtreo, )?aet oft waepen abaed 

his mondryhtne, maSm in healle, 

goldhilted sweord. Nu me [gieddes pisses] 
i5ondsware ywe, se hine onmede 

wordum secgan, hu se wudu hatte. 

54 9. Ms j>on. 

55 {Gr W 56). 9. Ms ace. 

14. Ms pisses gieddc9. Heroes emendation for the alliteration* 



42 Miuuies 

fa. 



■ "c6. 



Ic waes J?aerinne, }>aer ic ane geseah 
winnende wiht wido bennegean, 
holt hweorfende ; hea}?oglemma feng, 
deopra dolga. DaroJ?as waeron 
5we[a] ];aere wihte, *j se wudu searwum 
faeste gebunden. Hyre fota waes 
biidfaest 6J?er ; oper bisgo dreag, 
leolc on lyfte, hwllum londe neah. 
Treow waes [)>am] getenge, J?e ]?aer torhtan stod 
ioleafum blhongen. Ic lafe geseah 
mlnum hlaforde, J?aer haeleS druncon, 
j?ara flan[geweorca] on flet beran. 

>/57- 
Beos lyft byreS lytle wihte 

ofer beorghleoj^a, J?a sind blace swij^e, Fol. 114b 

swearte, salopade. Sanges ro[f]e 
heapum feraft, hlude cirmaft ; 
StredaS bearonaessas, hwllum burgsalo 
niJ?J?a bearna. NemnaS hy sylfe, 

56 {Gr W 57). 5. Ms weo, 'which Gr. glosses as plural of woh. Bui 
see Sv, § 295, N. 1. 

9. Some such changes as those made in the text seem necessary. Gr in his 
u Sprachschat%" gi'ves getenge pam J?e (*/" fuf); hut this makes }>am, instead 
of treow, the 'virtual subject of stod. 

12. Gr s emendation. 

57 (Gr ^58). 3. Mi rope. 



tUDDlrs 43 




'58. 

Ic wat an fete ellen dreogan 

wiht on wonge. Wide ne fere^S, 

ne fela rideS, ne fleogan maeg 
, J?urh scirne daeg, ne hie scip fereft, 
5naca naegledbord ; nyt biS hwaej;re 

hyre [monjdryhtne monegum tidum. 

Hafa<5 hefigne steort, heafod lytel, 

tungan lange, to$ naenigne, 

isernes dail ; eorSgraef psej?eS. 
ioWaetan ne swelge]?, ne wiht itej?, 

foj?res ne gltsaS, fereft oft swaj?eah 

lagoflod on lyfte ; life ne gielpeft, 

hlafordes gifum, hyreS swaj^eana 

);eodne slnum. pry sind in naman 
i5ryhte runstafas ; J?ara is Rad f[o]r[ma]. 

59- 
Ic seah in healle, hring gyl[d]enne 
men sceawian modum gleawe, 
fer}?)?um fr5de. FriJ?ospe[de] baed 
God nergende gaeste slnum 
tse j?e wende wri}?an. Word aefter cwseS 

58 (Gr W 59). 6. TVs emendation. 

15. Ms furum. It is possible that tve ought to read frum (first) , of 
ivhich furum may represent the scribe* s pronunciation. 

59 (Gr fV do). I. Ms gylddennc. 
3. Ms fripo spc, at the end of a line. 



44 HtoMetf 

hring on hyrede, Haelend nemde 

tillfremmendra, him torhte in gemynd 

his Dryhtnes naman dumba brohte, 

*] in eagna gesilvS, gif J?aes ae]?elan 
iogoldes tacen ongietan cuj?e, 

Dryht[en] dolgdon 

Swa ]?aes beages Denne cwaedon. 

Ne maeg, J?aere bene 

aeniges monnes ungfejfullodre, 
15 Godes ealdorburg gaest gesecan, 

rodera ceastre, Raede^ se J?e wille. 

hu $aes wrStlican wunda cwaeden 

hringes to haele)?um, J?a he in healle waes Fol. 115* 

wylted -j wended wloncra folmum. 

//60. 

Ic waes be sonde saewealle neah, 
aet merefaroJ;e ; mlnum gewunade 
frumstaJ?ole faest. Fea ienig waes 
monna cynnes, )?aet mlnne J?aer 
5 on anaede eard beheolde, 
ac niec uhtna gehwam y$ slo brune 
lagufae^me beleolc. Lyt ic wende, 
ypat ic aer oJ?)?e sTS aefre sceolde Fol. 123* 

ofer meodu [setlaj mirSleas sprecan, 

59 11, 13. It is evident from the alliteration that words are missing 
here, though there are no gaps in the Ms. 

14. Ms ungafullodrc. 

60 (Gr W 61). 9. No gap in the Ms. 



Kttoie* 45 

lowordum wrixlan. p^/ is wundres dsel 
on sefan searolic )?a/w J?e swylc ne conn, 
hu mec seaxe[s] ord *j seo swtyre hond, 
eorles ingej^onc ^ ord somod, 
bingum gebydan, baet ic wib be sceolde 

i5rorunc anum twaTmJ aerendspraece 
abeodan bealdllce, swa hit beorna ma, 
uncre wordcwidas, wlddor ne maenden. 

V6i. 

Oft mec faeste blleac freolicu meowle, 
ides on earce ; hwllum up ateah 
folmum slnum -} frean sealde, 
holdum ]?eodne, swa hlo haten waes. 
5Si8j?an me on hre}?re heafod sticade ; 
nioj>an upweardne on nearo fegde. 
Gif J?aes ondfengan ellen dohte, w 

J?e mec fraetwed[e], fyllan sceolde 
ruwes nathwaet. Raed hwaet ic maene. 

Ic eom heard *j scearp, [hjingonges strong, 
forSstyes from, frean unforcirS; 

60 12. Ms seaxeft. 

13. Herz suggests ecg, to avoid the awkward repetition of ord. Cf. Riddle 
87, //. 23-4. 

15. Ms twah. 

61 (Gr W 62). 8. Ms fraetwedne. 

62 {Gr W 63). 1 Ms ingonges. 



46 ixmit* 

wade under wambe *j me weg sylfa 
ryhtne geryme. Rinc br§ on ofeste, Fol. 125* 

5se mec on J?jr3 aeftanweardne, 
haele$ mid hraegle ; hwllum ut tyh$ 
of hole hatne; hwllum eft fare[ic] 
on nearo nathwaer; nydej? swlj?e 
suj?erne secg. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

63. 

Oft ic secg [a] seledreame sceal 
faegre on]?eon, \ov\ne ic eom forS boren 
glaed mid golde, p>aer guman drincaft. 
Hwllum mec on cofan cysseS muj?e 
5 tillic esne, )?aer wit tu beo}? ; 
faeftme on folm [e fin] grum )>y$, 

wyrceS his willan 

.... fulre, ]>onne ic for$ cyme. 



10 Ne maeg ic J?y mlj?an 

[si]}?j?an on leohte 

swylce eac br$ sona 

te getacnad 

15 hwaet me to 

. . . leas rinc, )?a unc geryde waes. 

62 7. Ms fareft. Gr proposed fegeft j cf. Riddle 6l, /. 6. 

63 {Gr W 64). 1. Ms secgan. 

6. Here for the first time in the Riddles, ive encounter the grievous mutila- 
tion of the Ms, which mars its last folios and renders satisfactory editing an im- 
possible task 



ftiMie* 47 

-^64. 

Ic seah • ^ • *j • | • ofer wong faran, 
beran • £ " ° M ' » bam waes on si)?)?e 
haebbendes hyht, • j^ • ^ • ^ • 
swylce j?ry]?a dael, • ^ ' ^ ' M " 
5 Gefeah • p • *j • j^ •, fleah ofer • *f • ; 
" M " "3 " K " sylfes )?aes folces. 

65. 

r 

Cwico waes ic, ne cwaeo* ic wiht ; cwele ic efne sej?eah. 
JEr ic waes, eft ic cwom. JEghwa mec reafaft, 
hafaft mec on hea[$]re ^ mln heafod scire];, 
bite? mec on baer lie, briceS mine wisan. 
5 Monnan ic ne bite, nym []?] e he me bite ; 
sindan J?ara monige j?e mec blta?. 



r 



66. 



Ic eom mare ]>onne J;es mi[d]dangeard, 
laesse bonne hondwyrm, leohtre J?onne mona, Fol. 115b 
swiftre tyonne sunne. Saes me sind ealle, 
flodas, on faeftmum ^ j? [e] s foldan bearm, 
5grene wongas. Grundum ic hrlne, 
helle underhnlge ; heofonas oferstlge, 
wuldres ej?el, wide raece 

65 (Gr IV 66). 3. Miheadre. T/i proposed hetfSre. Cf. (ge)hea$orian. 
5. Ms nymppe. 

66 (Gr fV 67). I. Ms mindangeard. 
4. Ms fas. 



48 HtoDle* 

ofer engla eard ; eor]?an gefylle, 
ea[l]ne middangeard *j merestreamas 
io side, mid me sylfum. Saga hwaet ic hatte, 



6 7 . 



[I]c on }?ing[e] [gjefraegn peodcyninges 
wraetlice wiht, word galdra .... 



hlo symle de3 fira gel 

5 

wlsdome wundor me )?a . . w . 

enne mu? hafaft 

fet ne f 

IO welan oft sacaft, 

cwtyeft cynn 

wearS 

leoda lareow, for|?on nu longe mag 

ealdre ece lifgan 

ismissenlice, )?enden menn bugaft 

eorjjan sceatas. Ic ]?aet oft geseah 

golde gegierwed, J?aer guman druncon, 

since ^ seolfre. Secge se J?e cunne, 

wisfaestra hwylc hwaet seo wiht sy. 

68 9. Ms ealdnc. 

67 (f* r W ^8). 2 « Unless otherwise stated, these defective passages art 
left exactly as arranged in Gr JV, 



UiDQle* 49 

68. 

Ic }>a wiht geseah onweg feran; 

heo waes wraetllce, wundruw, gegierwed. 

Wundor wear? on wege : waeter wearS to banc. 

/ 

V69. 

Wiht is wraetlic J?am )?e hyr[e] wlsan ne conn : 
singe? J?urh sldan ; is se sweora woh 
orJ?oncum geworht ; hafaj? eaxle t[w]a 
scearp on gescyldrum. His gesceapo [dreogeft], 
5]?e swa wraetllce be wege stonde Fol. 126a 

heah ^ hleortorht haelej;um to nytte. 

•70. 

Ic eom rices aeht reade bewaefed. 
Stl$ *l steap wong, staj^ol waes lu };a 
wyrta wlitetorhtra ; nu eom wra}?ra laf, 
lyres ^ feole, faeste gen ear wad, 
5 wire geweorpad. Wepeft hwllum 
for mlnum gripe, se }?e gold wigeS, 

]>onne ic £j?an sceal 

hringum gehyrsted me 

68 (Gr Jf 69) 2. At the end of this line is the sign that usually marks 
the conclusion of a riddle {see Illustrations), and the next line begins with a large 
capital. It is quite possible that ive have here tivo unconnected fragments. 

69 (Gr IV 70). I. Ms hyra. 

3. Ms tua. 

4. Gr" ' s emendation ,• no gap in the Ms. 



50 Ktwrte* 

dryhtne mln .... 

10 wlite bete. 

7 1 - 

Ic waes lytel 

. . ante geaf 

we pe unc gemasne 

sweostor mln 

5 fedde mec feower teah 

swasse brdjx>r, ]?ara onsundran gehwylc 

daegtiduw me drincan sealde 

J?urh }?yrel ];earle. Ic ]?[a]h on lust, 

o)?]?aet ic waes yldra *j }?aet anforlet 
iosweartuw hyrde ; si)?ade wlddor^ 

mearcpa]?as Wala traed, moras paeSde 

bunden under beame, beag haefde on healse ; 

wean on laste, weorc, );r6wade, 

earfoSa dsel. Oft mec Isern scod 
i5sare on sidan ; ic swigade, 

naefre meldade monna aengu/w, 

gif me ordstaepe egle waeron. 

70 (Gr JV Ji). 10. My examination of the Ms completely confirms W\ 
assertion that belt follows wlite immediately. 

71 (Gr W 72). \y 2. lyt and ante are still unmistakably to be dcci' 
phered in the Ms. 

8. Ms J?aeh. 

II. Ms Walas. Gr's emendation. 



fctoDle* 51 



• 7 2 



Ic on wonge aweox, w[u]node )?aer mec feddon 
hruse ^ heofonw[olcn], o];)?aet [onhwyrfdon me] Fol « 
gearum frodne, J?a me grome wurdon, 
of J^aere gecynde, J?e ic aer cwic beheold, 
5 onwendan mine wlsan * wegedon mec of earde, 
gedydon J?aet ic sceolcfe wij> gesceape mlnuw 
on bonan willan bugan hwllum v 
Nu eom mines frean folme by , go , 9 
.... Ian dael, gif his ellen deag, 
iooJ;J>e aefter dome ri < „ « * i . 

dan mzer}?a fremman, 

wyrcan w 

. . ec . on }?eode Qtan we 

pe ^ to wroht stap . . . 

*5 

. . . n eorp, eaxle gegyrde 

wo 

*i swiora smael, sldan fealwe 

\onne mec hea)>osigel 

2oscIr besclneft ^ mec 

fegre feormaft *j on fyrd wigeft 
craefte on haefte. CuS is wide, 
J?aet ic }?rlst[r]a sum J?eofes craefte 

72 (Gr W 73). I. Mj wonode. 
2. Mi heofonwlonc. GVj jSw* emendation. Ms me onhwyrfdon 
Her% > s emendation for the alliteration. 
23. Ms prista. 



52 Htoaie* 

under [b] raegnlocan • • > 

25hvvllum eawunga e)?elfaesten 

forSweard brece, )>aet air friS haefde. 
Feringe from, he fus }?onan 
wendeft, of }?am wlcum, wiga se J>e mine 
wlsan cunne. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

73- 
Ic waes faemne geong, feaxhar cwene 
*j aenlic rinc on ane tid ; 
fleah mid fuglum *j on flode sworn, 
deaf under y]>c dead mid fiscum 
5^ on foldan stop; haefde f[e]rS cwicu. 

/ 74. 
Ic swiftne geseah on swaj?e feran Fol. 127a 

•HUN' 

• 75- 
Ic ane geseah idese sittan. 

V76. 

S[ae] mec fedde, sundhelm J?eahte, 
*] mec y)?a wrugon eorj^an getenge, 

72 24. Ms hraegnlocan. After this ivord there is no gap in the Ms. 
D supplied hwilum nefte ; Gr bealde nefte. 

27. Gr faeringa. 

28. Gr JV has a colon after wicum, apparently making wiga a vocative. 
With that punctuation, ivho is the he of I. 27? 



73 {Gr JV 74). 5. Ms for« 3 Th's emendation. 
76 {Gr 



JV 7 7). I. Mi Se. 



UiD&lrs 53 



fe}?elease ; oft ic flode ongean 
mu? ontynde. Nu wile monna sum 
5 min flsesc fretan ; felles ne r ecce jS , 
si}?J?an he me of sidan seaxes orde 

hydarypeS ec h[w] . 

J>e si)?j>an itefc unsodene eac . . . . 



r 77- 

Oft ic flodas 

... as cynn mlnum *j 

yde me to mos 

swa ic him 

^ an ne aet ham gesaet . . 

flote cwealde 

}?urh orjjonc yj?um bewrigene. 

Vf8. 
Ic eom sejjelinges aeht *j willa. 

79- 
Ic eom se]?elinges eaxlgestealla, 
fyrdrinces gefara, frean mlnum leof, 
cyninges geselda. Cwen mec hwllum 
hwltloccedu hond on lege?, 
5eorles dohtor, ]?eah hlo ae}?elu sy. 
Haebbe me on bosme J?aet on bearwe geweox, 
Hwllum ic on wloncuw wicge ride 

77 (Gr W i%). I. MsOA, 



54 KiMle* 

herges on ende : heard is mln tunge. 
Oft ic woSboran wordleana sum 
ioagyfe aefter giedde. Good is mln wise, 
*j ic sylfa salo. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

Ic eom bjdedbreost, belcedsweora ; Fol 117b 

heafod haebbe *j heane*1steort, 
eagan *j earan *j aenne foot, 
hrycg *j heard nebb, hneccan steapne 
5 ^j sidan twa, sag on middum, 
eard ofer aeldu/w. Aglac dreoge, 
)?aer mec wegeft se J?e wudu hrereft, 
*] mec stondende streamas beata$ 
haegl se hearda ' "1 hrim };ece$ 
10. . orst . . . . eo se$ *j fealleS snaw 

)?yrelwombne *j ic }?aet 

maet . . . sceaft mine. 

81. 

Wiht 

ongende greate swilgefc 



.... 11 ne flaesc fotum gong 

5 • 

. . sceal msela gehwam 

80 (Gr W 8l). 7. S'v proposes w£gc5 on metrical grounds. 



82. 

Frod waes mln fromcynn, 

biden in burgum, si)?)?an baeles weard 

wera life bewunden, 

fyre gefaelsad. Nu me fah waraS 
5eor}>an br6J?or, se me Merest wearS 
gumena to gyrne ; ic ful gearwe gemon 
hwa mln fromcynn, fruman, agette 
eall of earde ; ic him yfle ne mot ; 
ac ic haeftnyd hwilum araire 
10 wide geond wongas. Haebbe ic wund[r]a fela, 
middangeardes maegen unlytel ; 
ac ic mij;an sceal monna gehwylcuw 
degolfulne dom dyran craeftes, 
slSfaet minne. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

83. 

An wiht is wundrum acenne[d] 

hreoh *j re)?e ; hafaS ryne strongne ; Fol. 128a 

grimme grymetaft ^ be grunde fareS. 

Modor is monigra maerra wihta. 

82 (Gr W 83). I. Gr supplies haefde fela wintra. 

3. The number of letters missing here has been disputed, Sch says about 
ten betiveen bales and wera. In fact, betiveen weard and wera there is exactly 
the same space as that taken in the line below by e fah waraft, i. $. at least 
nine letters. Holt (Anglia, xxiv. 265) conjectures lige. 

9. Ms ac ic on. 

10. Ms wunda. 

83 (Gr W 84). I. Ms acenneft. The first half of the line is imperfect. 



56 MMt* 

5Faeger ferende fundafc aefre; 
neol is nearograp. Naenig 6J?rum maeg 
wlite *5 wisan wordum gecyj>an, 
hu mislic bi}? maegen J?ara cynna. 
Fyrn forSgesceaft Faeder ealle bewat, 

ioor ^j ende, swylce an Sunu, 
maere Meotudes beam, Jmrh 

*j \at hyhste maest J?es gas . . 

dyre craeft . . . . 

onne hy aweorp . . . 

15 )?e aenig )>ara .... 

f . r ne maeg . . 






6]?er cynn eorJ;an )?on aer waes 

wlitig *j wynsum 

20 Bi)? slo moddor maegene eacen, 

wundru/w bewre)?ed, wistum gehladen, 

hordum gehroden, haele}?um dyre. 

Maegen brS gemiclad, meaht gesweotlad; 

wlite bij? geweorJ>ad wuldornyttingum. 
25Wynsu/w wuldorgimm w[olcn]u/w getenge, 

claengeorn brS *j cystig, craefte eacen ; 

hlo bi}? eadgum leof, earmu/w getaese, 

freolic, sellic. Fromast "j swtyost, 

gifrost *j graedgost grundbedd tridej> 
3oJ>aes \t under lyfte aloden wurde 

*] aelda beam eagum sawe. 

83 12. The Ms has gae, not tx. 25. Ms wloncum. Gr* s conjecture ; 
cf. Riddle 72, /. 2. 



KiBDlrtf 57 

Swa \at wuldor wifeS worldbearna maege[n], 

J?eah ]?e ferj;um gleaw , 

mon mode snottor, mengo wundra. Fol. 128b 

35Hrusan bi<$ heardra, haele);um frodra, 

geofum bij? gearora, gimmu/w deorra ; 

worulde wlitigaS, waestmum tydreS, 

firene dwsesceS 

oft utan beweorpeS anre }?ecene 
40 wundrum gewlitegad geond werj^eode, 

\tet wafia$ weras ofer eorj^an, 

}>aet magon micle eafte 

bi}? stanum bestrewed, stormum 

timbred weall 

45J?rym ed 

. . . hrusan hrineS h 

g en g e °ft 

searwum 

deafte ne feleS 

5 oJ?eah J?e 

du hreren hrif wundig 

risse hord. 

Word onhlld haele}?um g 

wreoh, wordum geopena, 

55 hu mislic sy maegen J>ara cy . • 

83 32. Ms maege. 
33. Gr supplies gefrigen haebbe : there is no gap in the Ms. 
38. There is no gap in the Ms. 

53-5. Holt conjectures: Hord wordfa] onhlld, haelepum gfeswutela], 
[wisdom on]wreoh, wordum geopena, hu mislic sy maegen para [cynna]. 



58 ttiDDU* 

84. 

Nis mln sele swige ne ic sylfa hlud 

ymb ; unc Driht[en] sc5p 

si)? aetsomne. Ic eom swi[f]tre ]>onne he, 
j?ragum strengra, he j?reohtigra *, 
5hwilum ic me reste, he sceal yrnan forS. 
Ic him in wunige a j?enden ic lifge ; 
gif wit unc gedaelaft, me bi$ dea$ witod. 

^85. 

Wiht cwom gongan, }?2er weras sseton 
monige on maeSle mode snottre ; 
haefde an eage *j earan twa 
^ II fet, XII hund heafda, 
shryc[g] *j wombe ^ honda twa, 
earmas *i eaxle, anne sweoran Fol. 129* 

-j sldan twa. Saga hwaet ic hatte. 

86. 

Ic seah wundorlice wiht ; wombe haefde micle, 
)?ryj;um ge)?rungne. pegn folgade 
maegenstrong *] mundrof ; micel me Jmhte, 
godlic gumrinc ; grap on sona 
5 heofones t6J>e 

84 (Gr PT&S). 2. Ms driht. 

3. Ms swistre. 5. Tupper nnnan f I alliteran. 

85 {Gr PV 86). 5. Ms hryc. 

86 (GV W 87). 5. No gap in the Ms. 



HtUfile« 59 



bleo[w] on eage ; hlo bo [r] cade, 
[J;]ancode willum. Hlo wolde sej?eah 



mol 



Y*7- 



Ic weox baer ic s 






*} sumor mi ; 


me waes min tin 




i • • 

. . d ic on sta$[ol] 

; . . , . um ffeon? swa . , 




D O 





io se weana oft geond 

f geaf. 

Ac ic uplong stod, }?aer ic 

^ ml[n] broj?or ; begen wsron hearde ; 

eard waes \>y weorSra j?e wit on stodan, 
i5hyrstum J?y hyrra. Ful oft unc holt wrugon, 

wudubeama helm wonnu/w nihtu/tf, 

scildon wiS scurum. Unc gescop Meotud. 

Nu unc maeran twam magas uncre 

sculon aefter cuman, eard o$}?ringan 
logingran bro);or. Eom ic gumcynnes 

86 6. Ms blcowc and boncadc. 

7. Ms wancode ; cf. 0. E. woncol and Ger. wanken. But it is difficulty 
if not impossible, to assign a meaning to wancian that ivould accord ivith wil- 
lum. Tupper wanodc. 

87 (GrfTiS). 13. Ms mine. 



60 HtDDlctf 

anga ofer eor)?an. Is mln baec 

wonn "j wundorlic; ic on wuda stonde 

bordes on ende. Nis mln br6J?or her, 

ac ic sceal bro]?orleas bordes on ende 
25Sta)7ol weardian, sto[n]dan faeste ; 

ne wat hwaer mln bro}?or on wera aehtum 

eorj?an sceata eardian sceal, Fol. 129b 

se me asr be healfe heah eardade. 

Wit waeron gesome saecce to fremman ; 
30 ne naefre uncer aw];er his ellen cySde, 

swa wit j?aere beadwe begen ne on}?ungan. 

Nu mec unsceafta innan slitaS, 

wyrda}? mec be wombe ; ic gewendan ne maeg. 

JEt ]>am spore findeS sped se ]?e se[ce$] 
35 sawle raedes. 

88. 



wiht wombe haefd . 

re lej?re waes 

beg hindan 

5 grette wea worhte, 

hwilum eft )>yg an > 

him J;oncade si)?]?an 

. . . swaesendum swylce )?rage. 

87 25. Ms stodan. 
34. Gr se[ce$]. 



• • 



ftiDDle* 6 1 



*y{q. 



Mln heafod is homere gej?uren, 
searoplla wund, sworfen feole. 
OTFTc begin e j?aet me ongean sticaft, 

]>onne ic hnltan sceal hringum gyrded 
shearde wiS heardu///, hindan J?yrel 
forS ascufan J?aet [frean mines] 
mod - • ^ • freo}?a$ middelnihtum. 
Hwllum ic under baec bregde nebbe, Fol. 130* 

hyrde |?aes hordes, }?on^ mln hlaford wile 
iolafe j?icgan, }?ara j?e he of life het 
waelcraef[te] awrecan, willu/w sinum. 

^90. 

Ic wass brunra beot, beam on holte, 
freolic feorhbora *j foldan waestm, 
wy[nn]staj?ol *j wifes sond, 
gold on geardum. Nu eom guSwigan 
5 hyhtlic hildewa^pen, hringe bete 



byreS op>rum 



89 (Gr IV 91. Gr W 90 is the Latin riddle given in the Notes). i. 
Here, and in Beowulf 1285. Gr's conjecture gepruen is supported by Sv 

6. Her* s emendation for the alliteration. 

1 1 . Ms waelcraef. There is space for one or tivo (certainly not more) 
missing letters, plus the usual interval between tivo words. 

90 (Gr W 92). 3. Ms wym stapol. 



62 UtODto 

Frea min 

. . . de willum sinuw 

heah ^ hyht sc[e]arpne 

hwiluw 

5[h]wllum sohte frea as, 

wod daegrlme frod deo [pe stre] amas ; 

hwllu/w stealc hlipo stlgan sceolde 

up in e)?el ; hwilu/w eft gewat 

in deop dalu dugu)?e secan 
o strong on staepe, stanwongas grof 

hrlmighearde ; hwllum hara scoc 

forst of feax[e], Ic of fusum rad, 

91 (Gr W 93). 1-5. It has not seemed to me worth while to upset tht 
numbering of the lines of this riddle as established in Gr W. But it is neces- 
sary to call attention to the following facts : The number of omitted letters , as 
calculated by Sch, is 2 J in the first gap, 26 in the second, 20 in the third, 22 
in the fourth, and 17 in the fifth, making, ivith the legible parts, a total of 
I 75 l etteri i n the first five lines, i. e., 35 to a line. In the first five perfect 
lines of this riddle, 11. 7-1 1, the total of letters is I2b y or 25 to a line. There- 
fore, if Sch y s estimate of the number of missing letters is correct, the mutilated 
opening of the riddle must have occupied at least six lines : an average of jj 
to the line is obviously too great. J have transferred wod to the beginning of 
I. 6. Since ivriting the first part of this note I have ascertained the exact 
measurements, which may be of use to those ivho take pleasure in attempting 
restorations. The measurements are in millimetres : the number of millimetres 
divided by four gives approximately the number of letters that are missing. 
Between min (/. 1 ) and de (2), uj mm. ; between sinu (2) and heah (3), 
llj mm. ; between hyht (3) and scearpne (3), IOQ mm. ; between hwilu 
(4) and hwilum (5), 101 mm. ,• between frea (5) and as (5), 73 mm. 

6. Sch y s conjecture. 

12. Ms feax. 



oJ;J?aet him J;one gle[o]wstol g m g r [ a ] br6J;or 

mln agnade ^ mec of earde adraf. 
15 Si]?)7an mec Isern innanweardne 

brun bennade ; blod ut ne com, 

heolfor of hrej?re, |;eah mec heard bite 

strSecg style. No ic |?a stunde bemearn, 

ne for wunde weop, ne wrecan meahte 
20 on wigan feore wonnsceaft mine; 

ac ic aglaeca ealle J^olige, Fol. 130b 

J; [a J?]e bord biton. Nu ic blace swelge 

wuda "j waetre, w [ombel befaeSme 

j;aet mec on fealleft ufan, }?a*r ic stonde, 
l5eo[rpe]s nathwaet ; haebbe anne fot. 

Nu mln hord wara$ htyende feond, 

se J;e «r wide baer wulfes gehle)?an, 

oft me of wombe bewaden fereS, 

stepped on stlS bord 

- ])onne daegcondel 

. sunne 

[wjeorc eagum wllteS ^ sp 

92. 

Smi}? cl 

hyrre ]>onne heofon 

dre ]>onne sunne, 

91 13. Ms glcawstol and gingran 

22. Ms "j? te. 

23. Sc/i womb[c?]. Noiv the w alone appears, 
25. D*s conjecture. 



64 KtoDlea 

style, 

5smeare )>onne sealt ry 

leofre ]>onne J?is leoht eall, leohtre ]>onne w 

/ 

V93- 

Ic eom indryhten ^ eorlum c£r$, 

"j reste oft, ricum *j heanu/w 

folcuw gefraege ; fer[e] wide, 

*j me fremd[um] ser freondum stondeft 

5hij;endra hyht, gif ic habban sceal 

blaed in burgum o)>)>e beorht[e] god. 

Nu snottre men swtyast lufia); 

midwist mine ; ic monig-um sceal 

wisdom cyj?an ; no J?icr word sprecaS 

iosenig ofer eorSan. peah nu aelda beam, 

londbuendra, lastas mine 

swlj?e secaft, ic swaj?e hwilum 

mine bemi}?e monna gehwylcum. 

93 (Gr W 95). 3. Ms fereft; Th't conjectures in text, 
4. Ms fremdes. My conjecture v* text. 
6. Ms bcorbtne. 



$ote$ 



Solutions are given at the head of the notes on each riddle only ivhen they 
are certainly correct, or highly probable, or when a single suggestion at present 
holds the field. In all other cases reference should be made to the table of solutions, 
pages viii—xii. 

ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES 

The following abbreviations are used in the Notes : 

Brooke = History of E. E. Literature by Stopford A. Brooke, 2 vols. 

(London 1892). 
B-T. = An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Dr. Bosworth and T. N. Toller 

(Oxford 1 882-1908). 
Cosijn = Anglosaxonica in Paul und Braune's BeitrSge xxm. 128-30. 
Diet. = Dietrich's articles in Haupt's Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Altertum 

xi. (1859) and xii. (1865). 
Grein = Dichtungen der Angelsachsen stabreimend ubersetzt von C. W. 
M. Grein (Zweite Ausgabe, 1863). 
Gr-JV. = Bibliothek der Angel sac hi sc hen Poesie, III. Band, 1. Halfte (Leipzig, 
1897), edited by Assmann. 
Her%feld = Die Ratsel des Exgterbuches undihr Verfasser von Georg Herzfeld 
(Berlin 1890). 
Prehn = Komposition und i^uellcn der Rfitscl des Exeterbuches by Augutt 

Prehn, Neuphilologischen Studien in. (1883). 
Stew. = Sievers' OE. Grammar (Cook's translation. New York 1903). 
Sprach. = Sprachschafz der Angel sac hi sc hen Dichter (1864) by Christian 
W. M. Grein. 
Traut. = Article by Trautmann in Anglia Beiblatt 5 (1895). 
Traut. 2 = Alte und Neue Antivorten auf Altenglische Ratsel in Heft xix. 

of Bonner Beitrage (1905). 
Tupper = Articles by F. Tupper, Jr., in Modern Language Notes xrm. 
(Baltimore 1903), nos. I and 4. 



66 0ott8 

Wal% = Notes on the A. S. Riddles by John A. Walz in Harvard Stud- 
ies and Notes in Philology and Literature vol. v. (Child Memo- 
rial Volume), 1896. 

I. Storm on Land 

Are the first Three Riddles one riddle ? 

In 1895 (when his edition of the Riddles was "really about to appear*'), 
Traut. said Yes. 

In 1903, E. Erlemann {Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen in. 
49 seq. ) answered more emphatically, that R. i-iii are undoubtedly a whole 
built up in the strictest order. In R.i the storm in general is described. After 
that, the different parts of the riddle commence with, and are marked off 
by, the word hivilum (see 2 1 , 3 1 , 3 17 , 3 s6 ). Of these four parts, (1) the first 
(R.2) is a submarine earthquake. " The storm is under the waves. It is at 
the bottom of the sea, and stirs up not so much the waves as the floor of 
the sea itself. The poet feels the necessity of distinguishing R.2 as sharply as 
possible from R.3 17 " 36 , the description of a real sea storm." (2) The second 
(R.3 1 " 16 ) is the earthquake, the storm under the upper surface of the earth. 
•' The storm is in the poet's view the scientific explanation of the earthquake. 
... In his De Natura Rerum Beda gives the customary medieval explana- 
tion of the earthquake, which he derived from the work of the same name 
by Isidor of Seville. The conception is the same as that on which the A.S. 
poet built his riddle : the wind compressed in the hollow of the earth seeks 
with violence to force its way upward, and so the earthquake comes about." 
(3) The third (R.3 17-36 ) "gives not simply a continuation of the first 
section, but an entirely different representation, ' Storm at sea,' described with 
the greatest artistic skill . . . The storm itself appears here, not simply, as in 
(1) and (2), as the supposed cause of the earthquake." (4) In the fourth 
part (R. 3 36 ~ 66 ) " the solution thunderstorm' is not correct. It should 
be * Thunder ' itself, for the storm is here again merely the scientific explana- 
tion of natural phenomena. Beda describes a thunderstorm in a similar 
manner." (5) Lastly, the four hivilums of the summary {Zusammenfassung 
R. 3 67 scc l') correspond exactly with the four sections of the description 
proper which begin with AivTlum t except that here the order is (2) (1) (3) 

(4.)* 

* This is as full a summary of a longish article as space permits, and it 
unbiased in intention. 



0ott& 67 

What arc we to say to all this ? It will be seen that I have not followed 
Traut.'s example, but have numbered them as three distinct riddles. As regards 
R. 1 it seems to me that the opposition has no case. On the other hand, 
hivilum in 2 1 seems definitely to anticipate another h<wTlum y and the next 
hiuilum (3 1 ) follows without a gap in the MS. and without even a capital 
letter.* But it will be seen from the foot-notes to the text (e. g. 27 IS , 42 17 , 
47 6 ) that the scribe's practice in marking off one riddle from another seems 
to vary unintelligently. On the whole, then, it appears to me that R. 2 and 
3 are parts of one considerable design, in which the poetic element predomi- 
nates markedly over the enigmatic ; but that, since the riddle-question is so 
prominent in R. 2 12 " 15 , the poet may have intended to subdivide it for rid- 
dling purposes, and in any case we are justified in maintaining the familiar 
division. It is to be noted that the riddle-question is always indirect ; so that 
the direct question of 3 s5 is to be regarded as rhetorical, and does not justify 
Erlemann's reference to it as a riddle-question. 

R. 1 " follows, not verbally, but motive for motive, Pliny's account of 
Water (Nat. Hist. Bk. xxxi. C. 1 ) : * Terras devorant aquae ; flammas ne- 
cant ; scandunt in sublime et caelum quoque sibi ^indicant : ac nubium obtentu 
vita/em spiritum strangulant, qua causa fulmina elidunt y ipso secum discordantt 
mundo. £{uid esse mirabilius potest aquis in caelo stantibus ? At illae ceu 
parum sit in tantum pervenire altitudinem rapiunt eo secum piscium examina : 
s#pe etiam lapides sub<vehunt y portantes aliena ponder aj* The ^calculus of proba- 
bilities ' invites a doubt whether this resemblance be a mere matter of coinci- 
dence." (Tupper.) 

Line I. The construction is uncertain. Gr-W. ends the opening 
question at rlafige y 1. 6. I prefer a short question, corresponding with the 
apostrophe at the close. What intervenes seems to fall most easily into two 
sentences, each consisting of protasis and apodosis. Each protasis begins with 
ponne j the apodoses begin at recas and habbe. 

2. wraece = <wrece y pres. subj. Probably a N. form (Siev. § 391 N. 5), 
for which cp. yuliana 719. 

9-1 1, beamas — sended : * when I, roofed with water, sent by the 
high pcwers a-wandering far to drive, fell the trees. ' Cosijn proposes ' wrecen,' 
which, with a comma after ' wape,' makes the translation easier. 

* Erlemann ignores the medial hmuilum in 3 38 . 



68 j^ote* 

2. Storm at Sea 

5. hlimmeS . . . grimmeS : notice the leonine rime, and cp. 1 5". 
The use of rime in OE. poetry is striking because of its rarity : there can be 
little doubt that it is introduced for imitative effects. 

7. stealc : Sprach. and B-T. record this word only in the Riddltt and 
only with hlid. 

13. bregde I subjunctive of oratio obliqua (indirect question). 

15. wrugon : cp. 76 2 and 87 15 , and wrw^ i I2 j and see Siev. § 383 (2). 

3. Storm — continuation of 2. 

2, 3. *' Sends then my broad bosom beneath the fertile plain.** This is 
the sole instance in B-T. of under governing the dative when motion is 
implied. Though I have left the MS. reading in the text, I should prefer 
salivonges (or salivongas) : " sends [me] under the broad bosom of the plain.** 

5« hfletst : drives, throws — the unique occurrence of this verb. 

hearde. Thorpe suggested heard, but apparently translated it as an ad- 
verb : * There hard sits the earth on my back.' There is no authority for this 
and I have found no close parallel j but it seems to accord with the genius of 
our language. 

8. hreru : N. form of the 1st sing. pres. indie. 

31. rice birofen weor)?an : be deprived of its dominion [over the sea]. 

41. Sceo : cloud(?) — unique occurrence. 

47. sumsendu : pattering or rustling — unique occurrence. 

62. byrnan : unique occurrence of this form of burxe, burna y stream, 
burn. 

63 - 4. From the high cloud-region the storm descends nearer to the earth. 

69. heah : I from on high, I in my exaltation. Grein reads 'hean,* 
and takes it with * yfta' = high waves : with that reading I should prefer to 
take the word as nom. sing, of heart 9 abject, brought low ; the meaning would 
be almost the same as with heah. 

74. beom in the dialects = WS. bio. 

4. 

Prehn supports the answer " millstone " by quotations from Latin riddles, 
in which, as in several other instances, I find nothing pertinent to our riddle. 
See Introduction, Index. 

Z. )>egne: master, = 'hlaford' (4). Grein translates ' Diener,' but one 
does not obey one's servant. 



jpotes 69 

2. hringan: dat. pi. (Siev. § 237 N. 6). 

J. The second half-line is unmetrical. 

9. On J?once : pleasant. In 20 26 * on pone ' is used adverbially. 

11. J>aer: if [he] = who. 

5. Shield 

9, 10. ic S — gemStes: I must endure encounter ever more hostile. 

12. gehcElde. Such expressions as ale <5ara Se are regularly followed by 
a sing, verb in OE., de agreeing (contrary to modern syntax) with the remoter 
antecedent ale. Cp. 39 26 . The same agreement is found very commonly 
after Sara &e, even where the remoter antecedent, as here (ljececynn), is sepa- 
rated by intervening words. Cp. 39 I5 and note. In 28 10 there is no remoter 
antecedent. In 34 6 the same construction is found with * pa pe* with a 
plural antecedent. All these apparent examples of a plural subject with a sing. 
verb occur in subordinate clauses. Occasionally we even find the same con- 
struction in a principal clause, as in Beowulf 905 : " Hine sorhwylmas lemede 
t5 lange." 

13. CCga dolg: wounds made by the edges of swords. 

6. Sun 

See foot-note to the text. 

8, 9. hi faes — d]?res: i.e. they feel both my injuries and my bene- 
fits. 

7. Swan 

8. 

See foot-note to the text. 

Of the solutions given in the Index the nightingale is easily first favourite. And 
may one not ask : who else could the * eald aefensceop ' be ? What could be 
more joyous and delicate than this little jewel of a poem ? It is worthy of its 
subject. It is the " creature of a fiery heart.'* 

" I quote here the whole of Ealdhelm's riddle De Luscinia in order to con- 
found those who say that Cynewulf in his Riddles is a mere imitator of the 
Latin. In the Latin there is not a trace of imagination, of creation. In the 
English both are clear. In the one a scholar is at play, in the other a poet is 
making. 

11 Vox mea diversis variatur pulcra figuris, 
Raucisonis nunquam modulabor carmina rostris, 
Spreta colore tamen, sed non sum spreta canendo. 



70 jfeotes 

Sic non cesso canens, fato terrente futuro : 
Nam me bruma fugat, sed mox aestate redibo." 

Almost every riddle, the subject of which Cynewulf took from Ealdhelm, 
Symphosius, or Eusebius, is as little really imitated as that. Even the riddle De 
Creatura, the most closely followed of them all, is continually altered towards 
imaginative work." — Stopford Brooke. 

The above passage is, I think, of sufficient interest to justify quotation. 
The Introduction will have made it clear that I do not agree with the state- 
ment, that "almost every riddle is as little really imitated as that." I doubt 
if there is any imitation at all here. 

9. Cuckoo 

The 1 ooth riddle of Symphosius is on the * cuculus * : it is worth quoting 
in itself, and is a good illustration of what may be called indebtedness in the 
second degree. 

" Frigore digredior, redeunte calore revertor. 

Desero quod peperi ; hoc tamen educat altera mater. 
Quid tibi vis aliud dicam ? me vox mea prodit. ' * 

(In winter I depart; when the warmth returns I come back. My offspring 
I abandon, but another mother rears it. What else do you want me to tell 
you ? My voice betrays me. ) 

4. wel hold me : very faithful to me. This half-line is metrically de- 
fective. 

8. lingesibbum : towards or amongst those who were no kin of mine. 

10. 

Trautmann argues at length for his second solution * Anchor * and against 
Stopford Brooke's tempting * Barnacle goose' in Bonner Beitrage xvii. 142 
and xix. 168. But his arguments convey the impression that he has neither read 
the passage from Gerarde's Herbal! quoted by Brooke (Hist, of E. E. Literaturt 
i. 247), nor ever seen a ship barnacle (Lepas} himself. 

"This [Brooke's] solution is sustained by the first enigma in the collection 
of Pincier (Aenigmatum Libri Tres Hagae 1655), which has many points in 
common with the Anglo-Saxon : — 

' Sum volucris, nam plumosum mini corpus et alae 
Quarum remigio, quum Tibet, alta peto. . . . 
Sed mare me gignit biforis sub tegmine conchac 
Aut in ventre trabis quam tulit unda. 



' Solutio — 

' Anseres Scotici quos incolae Clak guyse indigitant ... in lignis longiore 
mora in mare putrefactis gignuntur.* The first literary account of this fable 
is found in the Topographia Hiberniae of Giraldus Cambrensis in the last halt 
of the twelfth century. Giraldus, after a long description which tallies remark- 
ably with the Anglo-Saxon, declares that i bishops and clergymen in some parts 
of Ireland do not scruple to dine off these birds at the time of fasting, because 
they are not flesh nor born of flesh.* With such evidence as this, we must 
accept Max Miiller's opinion (Science of Lang. Second Series, 1865, 552-71) 
that ' belief in the miraculous transformation of the Barnacle Shell into the Bar- 
nacle Goose was as firmly established in the twelfth as in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. ' " — Tupper (p. 100). 

II. 

Walz (q. v.) proposes ' Gold,' Traut. 2 (q. v.) * Wine.* I agree with the 
latter solution, though I interpret the close of the riddle quite differently from 
Trautmann. 

4. Sprach. glosses i hwette * with two accusatives, * dole ' and i unraedslpas.* 
I agree with Herzfeld that this is impossible. Grein seems to take ' dole ' as an 
adv. : " toll errege ich Unrathwege " (madly I promote ways of folly); but 
no other instance of such a usage is on record ; the OE. adv. is dollice. And it 
seems to me clear that 'dole' is accus. pi., parallel with 'dysge.' Herzfeld 
makes two suggestions: unned[ge]sipas * (companions in folly), in apposition 
with * dole ' ; and i [on] unrzedslpas.' I prefer the latter, with which cp. An* 
dreas 286 : — 

Usic lust hweteft on pa leodmearce, 
and Seafarer 63: 

hweteft on [h]waelweg hreper unwearnum. 

5» faes nSwiht : naught of this, viz. This use of pat (pas), to antici- 
pate a noun-clause following, is very common. 

8. Wa him faes J?eawes: woe to them because of that habit. 

9. The meaning of this passage is much disputed. Diet, suggests that * horda 
deorast ' = the sun ( Cosijn approves, but reads pringed), a rendering that stands 
or falls with his solution ' Night.' Prehn renders : " wehe ihnen des Treibens 
wenn es der edelste Schatz in die Hohe bringt ** — which I shall not attempt 
to translate. Sprach. gives heah = Deus, Christus. Walz says * horda deorast * 
(the dearest of treasures) is the Word of God or the heavenly kingdom. Traut.* 
reads * hearm ' for ' heah/ and translates : " spater wird der teuerste leid 



72 jftotea 

bringen " (later the dearest will bring sorrow). I believe that the reference it 
to the Day of Doom. * Horda deorast " may = soul, mind, spirit, understand- 
ing, which are in OE. sometimes called brlost-hord % mod-hord^ sa<wl-hord. 
This interpretation is confirmed by Genesis 1 608-10: 

oftjpaet breosta hord, 
gast, ellorfus gangan sceolde 
to Godes dome. 

We may translate 11. 8-10 thus : " Woe to them because of that habit 
when the Lord brings the soul [to judgment], unless they first desist from 
folly.* ' 

10. Walz points out correspondences between this Rid. and no. 27: cp. 1. 10 
with 27 12 , and 1. 6 with 27 13 . He writes : "As for n I0 and 27 12 , it maybe 
said, however, that the same line occurs in Juliana (1. 120) and a similar 
line occurs in Elene (1. 516). This makes it very probable that the line was 
not the creation of any one poet, but belonged to the common stock of epic 
formulae. The other correspondences are of little importance.* ' 

12. Skin, Hide, Leather 

This is one of the sixteen problems in which, according toTupper, " the use 
and development of one or more motives so closely suggest both the matter 
and manner of the Latin enigmas that we can hardly entertain a doubt of the 
service done to E. B. R. by the earlier and more bookish puzzles.** He refers 
in this case to Symphosius 56, and Ealdhelm Hi. 1 1 & v. 8. I quote and 
translate the first of these. 

Symphosius 56. Caliga (soldier's boot): 

11 Major eram longe quondam, dum vita manebat 5 
Sed nunc exanimis, lacerata, ligata, revulsa, 
Dedita sum terrae, tumulo sed condita non sum** 

(I was far larger once while life remained ; but now I am lifeless, after being 
rent, tied up and plucked away ; I am devoted to the soil, yet I am not buried 
in a tomb). The very dim supposed resemblance lies in the fact that both 
riddles begin by speaking about the leather when alive, i.e. on the ox. 

J seq. The strap or belt, the ' leather bottel * or wine-flask, the boot (or 
possibly rug), of the earlier lines are easily identified. But what is the dark- 
haired drunken female Welsh serf doing on dark nights (or early mornings) ? 
The processes seem to be those of cleaning boots, and the hand inside is so 



&Ott& 73 

well hit off. And after all, if the proud lady wears them, probably the Welsh 
slave would have to clean them. 

8. J>yS. This word, here and in 21 5 , was no doubt disyllabic in the 8th 
century, py(Ji)e3 ; similarly, tyhd 34* and 62 6 , ivr'td 50 s , and peo 44 1 , are to 
be scanned as disyllables. 

13. 

Diet.'s solution " 22 letters of the alphabet *' seems to me too grotesque for 
discussion. LI. 1 and 2 distinctly say "10 in all, 6 brothers and their sisters 
with them," i.e. 4 sisters. Diet, makes 10 plus 6 brothers plus 6 sisters = 
22 in all. Then how does the alphabet " tread the land*' (1. 11)? He 
quotes two parallel riddles : one from a Heidelberg MS, of the 15th century, 
given in Mone's ^uellen und Forschungen p. 1 20, where the letters are 22 
people from Greece, of whom 5, the vowels, are brothers j the others, with- 
out them, are dumb : the second riddle (Mone's Anxeiger 11. 310) is from 
the 1 6th century j here there are 23, of which 5 are interpreters of the rest. 
My first and last impression is that these are no parallels at all, and that the 
whole thing is ridiculously far-fetched. 

Traut. solved i ten young chickens.* 

Tupper calls this, *' like so many of his solutions, an absurdly random 
guess. The Key to the problem is presented by Bede's Flores y No. 2, * Vidi 
filium cum matre manducantem cujus pellis pendebat in paricte ; * where the 
4 son ' is evidently the pen, the i mother ' the hand and the * skin ' the glove. 
So, in our riddle, the ten creatures are the fingers — the six brothers being the 
larger, the four sisters, the little fingers and thumbs. ... In popular riddles 
the fingers are always browsing animals. And the glove ever hangs on the 
wall. The new solution is thus clearly established." Probably to no one but 
its author, for it seems to me almost as far-fetched as Dietrich's. 

For Trautmann's reply see Traut. 2 177-180. His solution appears to be 
the right one, but I am not sure that his interpretation of 11. 3-5 is correct. 
He translates : " Their skins hung distinct and visible on the wall of the 
house of each" j and explains: " Besides by the egg-shell, unhatched birds 
are surrounded by an enclosing membrane. When the young are hatched, 
these membranes (fell) remain hanging on the wall of their house (on selcs 
t w^ge) i the egg-shell." It is at any rate possible to take * anra gehwylces * 
as a genitive depending on * fell,' to interpret * fell as the egg-shells, and 
' seles wiege ' as the wall of a human dwelling. That is how I took the passage 
when I first read it, and I jotted in the margin the query : ' Can they have 



74 ifeotrs 

hung egg-shells up a9 a charm ? * Whether as a charm or not, I am told that 
hens' egg-shell9 are still strung up on the walls of country cottages : the 
Rev. J. Wesley Green of Ely tells me that he well remembers seeing them 
as recently as 1885 at Linton, eleven miles from Cambridge, and another 
friend of mine, Mrs. Travers Sherlock, remembers a string of such shells 
hanging from the chimney-piece in a cottage between Smethwick and Warley, 
when inhabited, about 1887, by a Mrs. Lawton. Of this practice members 
of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society furnished further confirmation. 

6. feah . . . swa : although (not recorded in Sprach. or B-T.). 

11. gewitan = gewiton. 

14. Horn 

X. Wiepenwiga: i. e. when on the head of the ox (Diet.). 
10. bordum . . . behlyfed = i heafodleas * = deprived of my orna- 
mented, bejeweled lids or covers. 

18, As an alarm-horn to catch thieves (Diet.). 

15. 

Dietrich's solution * Badger * has generally been accepted. Walz proposes 
1 Porcupine ' : the neck or throat of the badger is not white, nor is he a swift- 
footed animal ; the porcupine was known to the Anglo-Saxons as ' se mara 
igil,' the larger hedgehog, it is said to run with considerable speed at night, 
it ha9 a white stripe round the throat. See note on 1. 28. 

* Porcupine * is tempting, but the evidence, after careful collecting and weigh- 
ing, favors * Badger' (Hystrix cristata). The colouring is not quite accurate 
for the English badger ; but this has white markings on the head. Dr. Ship- 
ley, the zoologist, considers the general resemblance in color and habits con- 
clusive. The decisive consideration with me is the prominence given in the 
riddle to burrowing. The porcupine often shelters in a burrow by day, but is not 
a great burrower. The porcupine " makes its attack by rushing backwards ": 
that would be impossible/or a porcupine in a burroiv. On the other hand I 
am unable to resist the conclusion that the following sentences refer to the 
animal of this riddle : " The digging capacities of the Badger are very great, 
the animal being able to sink itself into the ground with marvellous rapidity' * 
(Wood, Popular Nat. Hist. p. 86). " Nocturnal in habit, it spends much 
of the day in the spacious burrow, which has many exits, and is excavated by 
preference on the sunny side of a wooded hill. Though naturally inoffensive in 
its habits, the badger is capable of biting when severely roused. It is hunted 



il^otrsf 75 

with the help of dogs, from which it chiefly seeks to escape by burrowing" 
(Nelson's Encyclopaedia 1906). 

3-5. A difficult passage. Gr-W. reads : 

" me on baece standaft 
her swylce sue : on hleorum hlifiaft 
tu earan ofer eagum 

(on my back stand hairs like a sow's ; on my cheeks tower two ears over my 
eyes). Maclean (OE. and ME. Reader) has: 

1 ' me on baece standaft 

her, swylce swe on hleorum ; hlifiaft tu 

earan ofer eagum ' ' 

(on my back stand hairs, likewise on my cheeks ; two ears tower over my eyes) . 
With the transference of * her ' to the preceding line, this is, I believe, the 
true reading. What towers over the eyes does not stand on the cheeks. And 
the form ' su ' for sugu (sow) seems to rest on this one passage ; I do not be- 
lieve it is an English form. Sive (sue) for swa is found elsewhere j and swy/c 
siva f such as, swylce swa, just as, occur in combination, but not the latter with 
the meaning * likewise.' 

14. me — weorfeS: ///. altogether becomes following me, i. e. pursues 
me very closely. 

16. OH geruman : in my room, hole. The end of the riddle shows that 
an open place was necessary for the animal to defend himself. 

nele — teala : counsel certainly wills not that, that were very ill advised. 

25. me on swafe : on my track. 

28. " hildepilum, which occurs again in 17 6 , refers to a weapon which 
is thrown. I believe this line contains an allusion to the fabulous mode of de- 
fence, the * shooting ' of quills, which the porcupine is said to practise when at- 
tacked. This was known to Pliny and has long been a popular belief ' ' ( Walz). 

29. Herzfeld calls attention to the number of <x7ra£ \ey6fxeva in this riddle, 
consisting of the following compounds (I omit two that I have found elsewhere) : 
geoguftcnosl (10), feSemund (17), waelhwelp (23), ni^scea|?a (24), gegnpaeft 
(26), laSgewinna (29). 

16. Anchor 

The * Ancora ' of Symphosius, which also speaks of fighting the winds and 
waves, is worth quoting : 

"Mucro mihi geminus ferro conjungitur unco ; 
Cum vento luctor, cum gurgite pugno profundo ; 
Scrutor aquas medias; ipsas quoque mordeo terras " 



76 iliotefi 

(My twin points are joined together by crooked iron ; with the wind I wrestle, 
with the depths of the sea I fight ; I search out the midmost waters, and I bite 
the very ground itself). 

" The Old Norse anchor {HeitSrch Gatur 6) is, like the Old English one, 
a fighting warrior." — Tupper. 

3. me — fremde: my native land is strange to me (because I am always 
at sea). 

4. faes gewinnes : for or in the strife ; genitive of respect or definition. 

5. hi : the waves and winds. 

9. mec stljme wij? : against me strong, against my strength. 

The rune for B in the MS. is claimed in support of the various suggested 
solutions: Diet.'s ' Ballista' and l Burg ' and Traut.'s l Baec-ofen ' (defended at 
length in Traut. 3 180). Traut. 2 admits that the word i baec-ofen ' is not re- 
corded. He claims that similarity to No. 49 (the answer to which is, he says, 
undoubtedly c baec-ofen ') supports his conclusion. But if ' baec-ofen ' be the 
answer to No. 49 (q. v.), it is the less likely to be the correct solution here. 

I incline to the answer * Burg,' fortress. (See sheet of figures.) 

1 8. " Leather Bottel** 

Probably a fragment only : the solution is necessarily quite uncertain. See 
sheet of figures. 

19. 

See sheet of figures. 

Hicketier, in Anglia x. 592-6 (1888), discusses this riddle fully, and puts 
forward the following recension : 

Somod ic seah S R O 

H hygewloncne, heafodbeorhtne, 

swiftne ofer saelwong swipe praegan. 

Haefde him on hrycge hildeprype 

N O M, ncgledne ra«d. 

WOE]? widlast ferede 

rynestrong on rade rofne C O 

FOAH. For waes py beorhtre, 

swylcra ilpfaet. — Saga, hwaet ic hatte ! 



jliote* 77 

I add a few passages from his article. " Nagled rand is a shield with bosses, 
or at least with one boss in the centre. The shield has really nothing to do with 
falconry, but it is not incompatible with it. The construction is : the subject to 
hafde is mon ; him does not refer to a word in the same sentence, but to hors ; 
hildeprype is in apposition with the object nagledne rand.'''' " For the restor- 
ation this must be remembered : it is intended that the names of the runes are 
to be read. When the runes are in such a position that they can alliterate, the 
first rune in every line alliterates, as it is generally necessary for the first noun 
in the first half of a line to alliterate : in 1. I S (sigel) alliterates with (the lost 
first foot and with) seah ; in 1. 2 H (hagol) with hygeiv/oncne heafodbeorhtne ; 
in 1. 5 N (nied), the first foot, with nagledne ; in 1. 8 F (feoh) with for. 
Only in 1. 7 C (cen) cannot alliterate, since it is the second arsis in the second 
half of the line. According to the analogy of 11. 2, 5, 8, the first rune in 1. 6 
must be W ( wen),* first foot and sole alliteration with ividlast. f In the fourth 
position p for W is hardly to be called an alteration ; if you now alter G to 0, 
you have what you want : ptoiv. 1 '' " The mode of corruption in our passage 
has probably been this: a scribe, who saw through the meaning and mannei 
of the riddle, but who was unconcerned about the alliteration, altered peoiv f 
which rarely occurs alone, to the usual pegn with the same meaning. A second 
scribe, who read hastily and thought sense unnecessary, corrupted the latter to 
wega. 

Traut. makes 11. 5 and 6 run: 

N O [ond] M. Naegledne gar 
W O E p widlast ferede. 

The alliteration-argument for peow is, I readily admit, a strong one. But the 
last twenty years have witnessed a strong conservative movement in opposition to 
textual changes, and I am not prepared to admit that the change from the runes 
for A G E W to those for W O E J>, however ingeniously explained, if a 
slight one. Besides, there are other things against Hickelier's recension: His 
" Konstruktion" (v. sup.) has only to be read to be rejected, and with it go 
other parts of his argument. Again, who is the * peow ' ? is he the same person 
as the i mon' ? If not, what is he doing there ? Are we to believe that the 
horse carries one man and another man carries the hawk ? I find much to agree 

* For the runes see Introduction. 

j" On the contrary Cosijn says: il Eh and ivynn can remain, when a B-type 
occurs ; the alliteration then rests on the second arsis as it does several times in 
the Riddles. *' 



78 $ott& 

with in Tupper's remark: " The modern * monster* riddle of * Man on Horse- 
back with Hawk on Fist' (Book of Merry Riddles Ed. 1660 No. 70 ; Holmt 
Riddles No. 28) employs an ancient and widely spread motive, which is so to- 
tally neglected in the pointless Exeter Book logogriphs, xix., Lxiv.,that it is 
difficult to regard these runic riddles as other than fragments." 

I suspect that this riddle — I wrote these words long before I ever saw 
Tupper's article — is not worth the time and ingenuity that have been ex- 
pended on it. The conclusion asks what " I " am called, but no clue is given 
beyond that " I saw" various things. If, as seems to be generally supposed, 
the runes read backwards give the solution, then the last half-line is altogether 
misleading, and the riddle is no riddle at all. The runes in 1. 6 read backwards 
give i wega,' which is not a known word ; those in 11. 7, 8, give * haofoc,* 
an unknown and impossible (Sievers in Anglia xm. 13-) form of * hafoc, 
heafoc,' hawk. Except where the necessity for emendation is admitted, in U. 
I and 3, I have tried to make some sense of the riddle as it stands. 

I. Grein's emendation * somod' (= together) is hardly satisfactory; it re- 
fers to the runes, for he translates : i I saw together S and O with the proud- 
minded R.' I have made * swoncorne' ace. masc. sing, to be consistent 
with the other adjectives, although hors is always neuter. Probably, through 
using the runes, the writer was thinking rather of the living animal than of the 
word hors. 

4 seq. By considerable, and by no means convincing, alterations of the 
text, Grein and others (v. sup.) have made some sense of this difficult passage. 
The chief difficulty is 1. 5, where *rad,' if a noun, is fern., whereas ' naegledne,' 
if one word, is masc. Thorpe's ' waegn' (see foot-note to the text) appears an 
unnecessary intrusion ; the horse carries a man, and the man carries a hawk. 
Holding myself excluded, by the general plan of this series, from all but slight 
changes of reading, I have been able to make but indifferent sense. Reading 
* naegled ne' as two words (as they undoubtedly are in the MS.), and taking 
the runes in 1. 6 to stand for ' aweg,' I translate thus : "He had on his back 
warlike strength ( = man). The rider rode not in armour (riveted). Wander- 
ing far away, he bore, etc." 

20. Sword 

" Eusebius, Ealdhelm, and Tatwine have all written riddles on the sword. 
Cynewulf has most followed the first j but Cynewulf adds all the imaginative 
work. It is he alone who represents the sword as a warrior, wearing armour 
of his own, showing his lord the way through the battle, and when the war 



iliotetf 79 

is over, mourning like a shattered veteran over his lonely future." — Brooke. 
I recognise no debt to Eusebius ; on that question Brooke is not a reliable 
guide. 

13. heaJ?ore : restraint ; a rare word, but the verb {gt)hca$orian, to re- 
strain, is fairly common. 

13-4. lieteS ... on gerum sceacan: lets me go at large. 

20-1. maegburg . . . }>e ic aefter w5c : family from which I 
sprang. 

26-7. ic folian sceal bearngestreona : I must be deprived of the 
begetting of children. So l gestreona' (1. 31) = begettings. The leading idea of 
the riddle is that the sword works, not for itself, but only for its lord. 

35. gaeleS : (probably) utters an incantation. Grein seems to take the clos- 
ing words as spoken by the woman : " and angrily (ungut) she cries: I heed 
not the battle." This riddle terminates with dramatic abruptness ; but I see no 
reason why that may not be due to the scop's deliberate intention. 

21. Plough 

Prof. A. W. Mair in his translation of Hesiod (p. 158 seq. ) has a useful 
note on the plough. 

2. geonge: go; apparently a Northumbrian form. 

3. har holtes feond : the two oxen (Diet.). But * feond ' and * wisaft ' 
are singular; and the man guides the oxen that draw the plough. * The enemy 
of the wood ' is either the plougher, who cuts down the wood to turn it into 
plough-land; or still better, as Cosijn suggests, " the iron, which, in the shape 
of an axe, bears ill-will to the tree; here it denotes the ploughshare." 

9» gongendre: this word and ' hindeweardre ' (1. 15) are fern, to 
agree with sulh, a plough. 

H-13: " Driven through my back there hangs under me a well-forged 
pointed weapon; another in my head, firm and pointing forward, inclines to 
the side." The former is the share, the latter the coulter. 

22. Month 

Diet.'s answer is * December.' Here is his article in briefest summary: 
The 60 riders are 60 half-days. The four white horses are the four Sundays. 
The other seven of the * fridhengestas' might be week-days, but the number 
does not fit, so they probably refer to a month in which there are seven feast- 
days. December is the only one with seven: (1) Conception of the Virgin, 



80 j£ote$ 

(2) S. Nicholas, (3) S. Thomas, (4) Christmas, (5) S. Stephen, (6) S.John the 
Evangelist, (7) Innocents. The opposite shore which they reach would then 
be the following year. 

" Among the problems of the Exeter Book are a few that from their wide 
vogue in all centuries well deserve the title of world-riddles. Prominent in 
this short list is the query of the Month (no. 22). This is, of course, a vari- 
ant of the year problem, which, in one form or other, appears in every land, 
as Ohlert, * 122-126, Wiinsche (Kochs Zs. N. F. ix. 1896, 425-456) and 
Wossidlo,f pp. 277-278, have shown. The Anglo Saxon chariot-motive has 
long since been linked by Dietrich with Reinmar von Zweter's * ein sneller 
wol gevierter wagen ' (Roethe, R. •von Z. 1887, Rid. 186, 187, p. 616). 
But there are many other analogues. Haug J translates from the Rig-veda, 1, 
several Time riddles, in one of which (Hymnus 164) the year is pictured as 
a chariot bearing seven men (the Indian seasons ?) and drawn by seven horses; 
in another (H. 11) as a twelve-spoked wheel, upon which stand 720 sons of 
one birth (the days and nights). Still closer to the Anglo-Saxon is the Per- 
sian riddle of the Month, § also cited by Wiinsche, in which thirty knights 
(the days of the month) ride before the Emperor. In the ' Disputatio Pippinf 
cum Albino,' 68-70 (i/. Z. xiv. 530 f.), the Year is the Chariot of the' 
World, drawn by four horses, Night and Day, Cold and Heat, and driven by the 
Sun and Moon. And finally in the Liigenmarchen of Vienna MS. 2705, fol. 
145 — classed by its editor, Wackernagel (H. Z. 11. 562) as a riddle — the 
narrator tells how he saw, through the clouds, a wagon, upon which seven 
women sat and near which seven trumpet-blowers (garziine) ran and a thou- 
sand mounted knights rode. 

Der liigenaere nam des goume, 
Das si nach dem selben sliten, 

Alles uf dem ivolken riten, 
Und ivolten da mite uber mer. 

The likeness of these last lines to the desire of the sixty knights in E. B. 22 
to pass over the sea is peculiarly suggestive. i Reinmar's riddle,' says Roethe, 

* Ratsel und Gesellschaftsspiele der alten Griechen, Berlin 1886. 

"f" Mecklenburgische Volkmberlieferungen, Part I. Wismar 1897. 

j Sitzb. der kbnig. Akad. der PFiss. zu Miinchen, Phil.-Hist. Kl. II. 
1875, 4 57 f. 

§ J. Gorres, Das Heldenbuch von Iran aus dem Schah Nameh des Firdussi, 
Berlin 1820, 1. 104 f. 



jpote* 8 1 

p. 251, ' is really popular — that is, it is not drawn directly or indirectly from 
learned or Latin sources.' This is equally true of the Anglo Saxon problem; 
still we must feel that, like Reinmar's poem, it has come to us from an ar- 
tist's hand." — Tupper (p. 102).* 

I. cwom singular agreeing with 'siextig.' 

23. Bow 

The riddles show tracei of an older orthography. The change of final b 
into/ took place at about the same time as, or a little earlier than, that of i to 
e (that is, about 750). See No. 23, where 'agof stands for * agob.' The 
latter, being the reverse of *boga,' was certainly the form when the riddle 
was composed, but the later scribe wrote an f in accordance with the custom 
of his time. — Sievers {Anglia xm. 1 3 seq. condensed). 

It seems to me that this argument is too purely a philological one. If 
* agob ' was the form when the riddle was composed, the opening line gave 
the solution at once : " * Agob ' is my name reversed." There is no other 
riddle in which so simple a mode of concealment is adopted. Again, if a later 
scribe found * agob ' and changed it to 'agof,' either he did not understand 
the riddle himself, which is to suppose him unwontedly stupid even for a scribe, 
or he deliberately made the solution more difficult, which is to attribute to him 
t free hand in matters quite outside his province. Surely it is simpler to sup- 
pose that the author of this riddle had seen the change of final b to f y and 
that he utilised it here to befog his auditors. One might even dare to picture 
the scene. The harp is passed to our scop, and he sings this riddle. At its 
close, " ' Agof ' reversed ? " says one ; " why that 's * foga,' and * foga ' is 
naught. Give it up." " Ah ! " says the scop, "but don't you know that 
where we used to write b at the end of a word we now write f y so that one 
may put the one letter for the other ? " " Not fair," is the rejoinder j " what 
do we know of script?" But there are those at the feast who do know 
something, and one of them has taken the hint. " * One letter for the other,' " 
he exclaims, " b for f — I have it, ' boga ' ? Very good ! " And the applause 
is general, and so is the request for the repetition of the riddle, that every point 
may be fully appreciated now that the answer is known. 

* I quote this passage with the more pleasure because it gives some valua- 
ble references for what is entirely beyond the scope of this edition, the com- 
parative study of riddle-literature. For fuller information the student is referred 
to Tupper' s articles. 



82 j£otes 

2. Cp. 20 1 . 

wrastlic: cp. 'wnetlicu* 33 1 , 'wunderlicu* 20 1 , 24 1 , showing the 
variation in the gender of iviht. But there are instances where this explana- 
tion will not suffice, cp. ' wraetlicu * 33 1 and "cymlic ' 33 2 $ here we may 
say that adjectives separated from their nouns frequently do not agree. 

6. J? aet Wlte : the torture suffered by the bow in being bent and let 
loose again. 

8. offaet : until, i.e. I am longer until I shoot again. 

24. Magpie 

See sheet of figures. 

Diet, showed that the runes arranged make the word higora, glossed in 
^Elfric's time as picus (woodpecker). There is terrible confusion among 
commentators about the meaning of higora, which Diet, identified with Ger. 
Haher, jay, and which is variously translated * magpie,' * jay,* * woodpecker.' 
Prehn (who has quite a genius for being wrong) chooses * woodpecker,' which 
is impossible here. The Lat. picus, woodpecker, would seem to have been 
confounded with pica, magpie. A little natural history is wanted, and that we 
are not likely to get from monkish Latin glossaries. Probably the poet wai 
singing here, as in nearly all the riddles, about something quite familiar to hirr 
and his audience, and was not likely to confound the magpie (Corvus pica 
Lin. ) with the jay (Cor-vus glandarius Lin. ) or the woodpecker (Picus viridis). 
To my mind it is pretty certain that what is intended is the beautiful bird, 
once the farmer's friend and the cheery companion of the homestead in 
England as elsewhere, but now, alas ! through slander and persecution be- 
come rare — the magpie, the bird which can learn to imitate the cry of al- 
most any animal, and which from its beauty, familiarity and tamableness, was 
much more likely to attract the attention of the scop than the shy and char- 
acterless jay or woodpecker. 

7. glado I see Introduction : The Gender of x. 

25. 
This riddle has had the misfortune to arouse contention. Tupper (p. 104 
(2)) says: " Another riddle by Scaliger ( Reusner* I. 190), cannabis, gives 
in every line a reason for accepting * Hemp ' as an answer to the misleading 

* Nicholas Reusner, JEnigmatographia sive Sylloge JEnigmatum et Gri- 
phorum Convivaliumy Frankfort 1 602. 



$0tt6 83 

E. B. R. xxv., that interesting adaptation of the Onion motive to another 
theme." Traut. 2 replies : " An opinion that can only be uttered by one who 
knows either no Latin, or no Old English, or neither the one nor the other.* * 
Walz quotes Simrock's Deutsches Ratselbuch 11. 84 in support of his solution 
Mustard; but Traut. 2 shows that the solution of the quoted riddle is Onion, 
not Mustard. See Traut. 2 186-8 for his solution ' the hip of the wild rose ' ; 
it is obviously impossible to reproduce his arguments here. For my own part 
I entirely endorse a remark of Tupper's (p. 6 (2)), that this is one of those 
riddles, fortunately very few in our collection, in which the solution was not 
"the chief concern of the jest.* * And I may add that it is not now worth 
one drop of bad blood or one discourteous word. 

I, 2. These opening lines seem to favor the answer 'Hemp.' It should 
be added that there is another riddle, No. 65, the answer to which is gener- 
ally admitted to be ' Onion.' 

3. nymj>e bonan anum: save my slayer only. The 'slayer,' accord- 
ing to Diet., is the one who eats the onion. But the person * hurt ' is more 
often the one who dresses it for table or for cooking. 

8. rzeseS mec on reodne : lit. rushes at me [who am] red. Grein bog- 
gled at this half-line, which yields good sense without any change j Guthlac 968 
is almost an exact parallel : " ac hinc neseft on " (but Death rushes on him). 

9. 10. fegeS mec on faesten . . . mec nearwaS. The meaning 
assigned to these expressions will depend on the solution favored. Diet, at first 
explained t puts me [onion] in her mouth. ' But for his second solution • Hemp ' 
the passage was taken to mean that " the hemp is pressed between the fin- 
gers of the spinner '*; the " wet eye " (1. 11) is the small hole at the upper 
end of the spindle which is moistened by the wet fingers. With reference to 
Walz's solution 'mustard' Traut. 2 says: "It is of course correct that 
mustard makes one's eyes water ; only, however, when its seeds are bitten 
through, or when it is taken into the mouth as mustard ; not when it is 
merely pressed between the fingers, as Walz seems to understand the phrases, 
fegeS mec on fasten and mec nearivad." 

10. mines gemStes : /. e. her meeting with me. 

26. Bible or Book 

Often in the more poetical riddles there is no attempt to disguise the solu- 
tion. Here 11. 17 and 28 seem to favor the answer ' Bible,' which appears 
to be also the solution of No. 67 : but ' Book' or « Bible ' makes little dif- 
ference. On the poetical value of this riddle see the Introduction. 



84 jftote* 

Indebtedness to Latin models becomes a crucial question in this instance, L. 
the main my contention is that the English poet owes little in the way of in- 
spiration to any one : he borrows a thought, a phrase, here and there, but the 
poetry is nearly all his own. However, opinions still differ to some extent, 
and I desire to put the student in the way of forming an opinion for himself. 
There is a supposed debt here to Ealdhelm, Tatwine (the only instance in which 
I acknowledge even a possibility) and Eusebius. I give the Latin originals, 
and add a translation because the Latin is often crabbed and difficult. 

Ealdhelm v. 3 : De Penna Scriptoria (quill pen). 

Me pridem genuit candens onocratalus albam 
Gutture qui patulo sorbet dc gurgite lymphas. 
Pergo per albentes directo tramite campos, 
Candentique viae vestigia caerula linquo, 
Lucida nigratis fuscans amfractibus arva. 
Nee satis est unum per campos pandere callem : 
Semita quin potius milleno tramite tendit, 
Quae non errantes, ad cceli culmina vexit. 

(I am white, and long ago I was born of a milk-white pelican whose throat 
sucks down the waters of the wide-stretching mere. I go in a straight track 
over white plains, and on the milk-white way I leave deep blue traces, dark- 
ening the bright fields with gloomy, winding paths. I am not satisfied with 
opening up a single track through the plains: nay, rather with a thousand by- 
paths extends the route, which carries such as go not astray up to the heights 
of heaven.) Here, as in other riddles of Ealdhelm, there is undoubtedly a cer- 
tain resemblance in the thought. 

Tatwine 5 : De Membrano (parchment). 

Efferus exuviis populator me spoliavit, 

Vitalis pariter flatus spiramina dempsit; 

In planum me iterum campum sed verterat auctor : 

Frugiferos cultor sulcos mox irrigat undis, 

Omnigenam nardi mersem mea prata rependunt 

Qua sanis victum et lesis prestabo medelam. 

(A ruthless pillager stripped me from a skin and likewise took away the holes 
through which passed the breath of life ; the preparer next pounds me into a 
level surface j soon the dresser waters the fruitful furrows, my level fields pay 



ilioces 85 

back a manifold and fragrant harvest, whereby I shall give livelihood to the 
healthy and healing to the sick.) The original is obscure and far-fetched; 
the OE. is, I think, quke independent of it.* 
Eusebius 35: De Penna. 

Natura simplex stans, non sapio undique quicquam, 
Sed mea nunc sapiens vestigia quisque sequetur; 
Nunc tellurem habitans, prius ethera celsa vagabar; 
Candida conspicior, vestigia tetra relinquens. 

(By nature I am simple and have no wisdom in any way, but now every 
wise man will follow my tracks; now I dwell on earth, ere while I roamed on 
high through the heavens; I am white in appearance, though I leave black 
traces). There is little suggestion here which might not more probably have 
been got from Ealdhelm (v. sup.). 

6. sindrum begrunden : lit. deprived by grinding of impurities, i.e. 
with the impurities ground off. 

7. fugles wyn : lit. bird's joy, i. e. goose-quill. 

8. Gr-W. reads * geond [sprengde]* etc., with a comma after * speddro- 
pum.' The principle usually adopted in recent editing of old texts, and es- 
pecially in the works of this series, is, to retain the reading of the MS. in 
the text whenever it makes sense. In this instance it cannot be denied that 
the reading of the MS. passes that test. In its favour is the fact that ' geond- 
sprengde (MS. spregde) ' occurs once only, in the prose Guthlac. Against it 
is the fact, that t geond ' following its case, and especially in the next line, is un- 
paralleled. The metre is inconclusive. 

spyrede geneahhe : made frequent traces. 

10. streames daele : this may be a mere parallel to * beamtelge,* or 
it may mean that the dye was mixed with water. 

11. sifade SWeartlast : journeyed on leaving a black track. 

13-4. forJ?on — blfongen : and thus the artistic works of smiths, en- 
circled with wire-ornament, adorned me — possibly, delighted me (dat.) ; but 
it would be a unique occurrence of the verb in the latter sense. 

It is interesting to compare the first half of this riddle with part of the story 
of the famous MS. of the Lindisfarne Gospels as given by the glossarist in the 
colophon : " Eftiluald Lindisfearneslondinga bisc. hit uta gilSryde 7 gibelde, 

* The first lines of Rid. 26 are a reproduction of Tatwine De Membrano 
11. 1,2; but the poet soon works himself free, and gives it a Christian turn. — « 
Herzfeld (p. 19). 



86 jftotetf 

sua he uel cuftae. 7 Billfrift sc oncrae, he gismiofiade tSa gihrino, fta fte utan 
on sint, 7 hit gihrinade mift golde 7 mi$ gimmum, aec miftsulfre ofergylded 
faconleas feh." 

15-7. Nu J?a — Wlte : Now let those ornaments, and the red dye, and 
the glorious possessions (codexes or libraries) celebrate widely the Sovereign of 
nations — not be, as some think, a stupid penance. This is the best I can 
make of this difficult passage j it falls in well enough with the poet's enthusi- 
astic praise of reading in the following lines, and no doubt there were then, as 
now, many to whom reading was a penance. 

l8. min : me, genitive governed by 'brucan.* 

23. J>a : who, subject of the three remaining verbs of the sentence. 

27. Mead 

2. burghleoj?um : perhaps we should read beorg-hleopum, mountain- 
slopes, as in 57 2 . 

4. Notice the curious " transverse " alliteration of this line — an antici- 
pation of Lyly. 

5. hr5fes hleo: the hive, or possibly the honeycomb. 

9. J?set: this, with forward reference to 1. II. 

mec feh<5 ongean : grapples with me. Fbn is frequently construed with 
preps. Cp. Beowulf 1542 : * him togeanes feng,' clutched at him. 

10. genaesteS — unique occurrence. Perhaps we ought to read gt- 
hn&ttcS f cp. gehnasty conflict. 

12. See note on u 10 . 

28. John Barleycorn 

Cp. the well known poem by Burns. 

11 I have already mentioned the drinking habits of our early ancestors, and 
mocked at the accusation of a special barbarism leveled against them on this 
account — as if they were not in the eighth century the most cultivated people 
in Europe. In all Anglo-Saxon poetry, in these Riddles written by a wander- 
ing Bohemian, there is a tone of contempt for the drunkard." — Brooke. 

8. ClengeS lengeS. Emendation is difficult, if not impossible, for 
' clengeft lengcft ' seems an intentional jingle, like those in 11. 2 and 4-6. C, 
required for the alliteration, disqualifies Thorpe's glenged, adorns. B-T. gives 
'* Dream clengeS = joy exhilarates," which helps to increase the difficulty. 
Grein translates " Es verlangert den Jubel " (It prolongs the merry noise), 
which is good sense and seems the best way out. 



jl^ote* 87 

10. bruceS . . . spriceS: see note on 5". 
XI. deaj»e : the death of John Barleycorn. 

29. Moon and Sun 

" It is characteristic of Cynewulf, who probably derived his first idea of 
this riddle from that of Eusebius on the same subject, that he depart! altogether 
from the way Eusebius treats the subject. In Eusebius, sun and moon are 
friendly. Here they are enemies, — their strife is renewed each night and day. 
Defeat and victory and pursuit are incessantly interchanged. The little poem is 
a true piece of imaginative and mythical Nature-poetry, and the end is as terse 
and rapid as it would be in the hands of Tennyson." — Brooke. 

See Tupper 104 (2). 

I am convinced that Dietrich's solution, * Moon and Sun,* is the right 
one, but it does not meet with the approval of Walz and Trautmann. 

Walz says: " Dietrich's solution was doubtless suggested by the phrases 
1 hornum bitweonum in 1. 2 and * lyftfaet leohtlic* in 1. 3. It finds no justi- 
fication in any other part of the riddle." (How " absolute " these solution- 
mongers are ! ) So Walz proposes " Cloud and wind." " LI. 5 and 6 express 
poetically that the cloud wished to rest above the castle " (to which Traut.* 
unkindly retorts: " but if one could only comprehend for what reason and for 
what purpose the cloud should cherish such a wish! "). " In 1. 7 the wind 
appears above the top of the wall." (The plot thickens!) " L. 12 expresses 
the result of this feud between wind and cloud: dust rises and rain falls (' deaw ' 
poetically used for rain); then night comes on (this makes the disappearance 
of the wind all the more mysterious)." The fact is that all such detailed expla- 
nations of things "poetically " expressed are unfailingly ridiculous. 

Trautmann is equally absolute and almost equally amusing. He abandoned 
his first solution * Swallow and sparrow,' and adopted half of Walz's. " The 
quite correct solution, as I did not recognize till later, must be * bird and 
wind.' . . . The correct solution can only be * Bird and wind.' " The * hor- 
num * are the upper and lower bill. The * hupe ' (1. 4) is straw or a feather 
for the nest. "Then came a[n other] being (the wind) over the top of the 
wall. It took the booty from the luckless one [snatched the feather from the 
bird] and drove him home against his will." The last third of the riddle is en- 
tirely irrelevant to the bird. "The expression lyft~fat (1. 3) agrees with a 
straw or a blade of grass just as well as it does with a feather : both are hollow 
and filled with air." 



88 iiotrs 

Let the student read the riddle three times, each time with one of the above 
solutions in mind, and then decide for himself. 

2. hu}?e : the spoil is the ring of the old moon. Cp. Sir Patrick Spins 

" I saw the new moon late yestreen, 
Wi' the auld moon in her arm." 

5. walde: Anglian for wolde ; Siev. \ 428, N. 4. 
hyre: for herself, referring either to * wiht * (1. 1) or to the unknown 
solution (see note on 21 9 ). This makes much better sense than referring it to 

* hupe.' * Hit' in the next line I take to be impersonal. 

13. niht forS gewat : Night went forth. 

13-4. Walz compares John iii. 8 : " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and 
thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither 
it goeth." 

"Dietrich's solution of E. B. R. xxix., Moon and Sun, seerm to me 
strongly supported by the close likeness between the last lines of the riddle, 

* Nor did any one of men know afterwards the wandering of that wight,* 
and Vienna MS. 67, No. 60 {Luna), 1-2 (Mone, Anzeiger vin. 219) : — 

* Quo movear gressu nullus cognoscere tentat, 
Cernere nee vultus per diem signa valebit.' " — Tupper. * 

SO- 

This is the first riddle, the answer to which I give up with regret. I first 
give the suggested solutions, then add a few words of comment. 

Diet. 's solution ' Water' is the generally accepted answer to No. 83. 

" E. B. R. xxx., Rainwater, also points to the Natural History chapter. 
That it is one of the Water cycle, no one can for a moment doubt who com 
pares it carefully with Vienna MS. 67, No. 50 (Mone, An%eiger viii. 219)^ 
Brussels MS. 604 (12th cent.), No. 48 (Id., 40) ; Strassburger Ratselbuch 
Nos. 52, 54, 57 ; and Scaliger's Plwvia (Reusner 1. 1 84). Blackburn's solu- 
tion, Beam (Wood) — indeed his entire theory — is based upon the sandy 
foundation of insufficient knowledge of riddle-literature." — Tupper. 

F. A. Blackburn, in the Journal of Germanic Philology, in. 4-7, says: 
" The true solution, I think, is * an beam,' in the various senses that the word 

* Traut. 2 : " Tupper is always sure that two riddles have the same solution 
when he discovers in them a common, or distantly similar, trait ; what else it 
in the two riddles does not matter to him." 



jpote* 89 

carries in OE., tree, log, ship and cross (probably also harp and ^w/). M Here 
is his translation : 

"I am agile of body, I sport with the breeze ; {tree) 
I am clothed with beauty, a comrade of the storm ; (tree) 
I am bound on a journey, consumed by fire 5* (ship, tree) 
A blooming grove, a burning gleed. (tree, log) 
Full often comrades pass me from hand to hand, (harp) 
Where stately men and women kiss me. (cup f) 
When I rise up, before me bow 
The proud with reverence. Thus it is my part 
To increase for many the growth of happiness, (the cross) 

Traut. 2 (p. 211) says: u No one (Tupper naturally excepted) will agree 
that Dietrich's solution, Water, is correct." He abandons his earlier solution 
'das ahrenfeld ' (cornfield) in favor of Blackburn's 'beam,' with whom he 
agrees also in preferring the B. text. But he does not agree that beam can 
mean • ship,' ' harp ' or • cup.' Beam = ship is supported only by io 7 , where 
the true reading is ' bea[r]mes.' Traut. 2 thus reduces beam to two meanings: 
(1) ' tree ' in 11. 1-4, (2) « Cross ' in 11. 5-9. ' Fus forftweges ' (1. 3) then 
refers to tree-felling, ' fyre gemylted ' (1. 3 ) to faggots. 

Here, as in every other instance, my chief concern is to put the student, 
as far as space permits, in a position to decide for himself. I do not myself 
feel that the right solution has yet been proposed. Very likely our knowledge 
does not suffice for us to think ourselves back into the right surroundings and 
conditions. If a riddle is a good one, I find the best test of the correct solu- 
tion to be a feeling of satisfaction in reading it through with the answer in mind. 
I have not that feeling in this instance, and I am not satisfied about the read- 
ing of the first line (v. inf. ) . 

I. Kg, leg, flame, are the readings of A and B. Gr-W. reads ' II* 
bysig,' a busy body j but I am very sceptical as to whether lie is ever used in 
this sense, or even can bear it. I find it so used in no other riddle ; cp. io' t 
65*. Grein's Ifc-bysig, " mit meinem Leib geschaftig (busy with my body)," 
adopted by Blackburn and Traut. 2 , is found nowhere else in OE. literature. 
Therefore, until I know what the riddle means, I retain the MS. reading. 
This uncertainty as to the meaning makes it difficult to decide in some line* 
which version gives the better reading ; and this is the more tantalizing because 
OE. so rarely offers an editor the luxury of a choice of readings. 

* See the B. readings given in the foot-notes to the text. 



90 i^otcsf 

6. Sec Traut.*, pp. 214-5, for a note on " the kiss of peace," where he 
attempts to show that the practice of kissing the pax at mass arose in England 
and spread hence to the other churches. 

7. onhaebbe = onhebbe y raise. For a alternating with f see Siev. § 89, 
N. I. No verb onhabban is known. 

31. Bagpipe 

This is a very obscure and difficult riddle. It may be very corrupt, for 
11. 4, 6 and 24, as they stand in the MS., do not scan. The most favoured 
answer is * Bagpipe, ' to which 1. 1 7 appears to point. There is an excellent 
article by Stone on this instrument in Grove's Dictionary of Music. It it 
mentioned by Procopius (6th cent.) as the war instrument of the Roman 
infantry. 

4. -wSr may easily have been omitted by ** anticipation " of the iver- in 
ivcrutn. 

13. hwonne sBr : how soon, when. 

heo: the reed-chanter; see note on 1. 22. 

22. br6}>or : the 'brothers,* the reed-drones of the bagpipe, brothers of 
the reed-chanter. "The pipe upon which the melody is performed is called 
the ' chanter,* and is fitted with a double reed. The other pipes, called 
1 drones,' which sound simultaneously with the chanter, have a single reed 
and produce only one note each " (Nelson's Encyclopedia , 1906). 

32. 

The solutions ' Ship ' and ' Wheel ' seem to do almost equally well : riddle- 
analogues appear to favour the former. 

1 , 2. Cp. the opening lines of 3 1 . 

3. Sijmm sellic : Grein takes these words with l searo,' but the symme- 
try of the sentence favors the punctuation here adopted. 

6. exle: see Siev. § 108. 2(a). 
fet : the keel (?) . 

9. tnu5: the hatchway (?) . 

10. i Bears abundance of food to the people.* Sprach. y following Diet., 
glosses ' fere' (MS.) as accus. of faru; ' fere . . . dreogeft * =fere5 t fod- 
durwelan ' is genitive, ' folcscipe * dative. I read ' fer,' dialectal for far p 
neut. (see B-T.), on the ground that fere for fare is impossible, while f$r 
for far occurs more than once. 



33. Ice-floe, Iceberg, Ice 

Diet, makes three apposite quotations from Latin: (1) from Aenigmata *»<?- 
terumpoetarum, p. 44: " Mater me genuit, eadem mox gignitur ex mc" j (1) 
from Mone, Anzeiger viii. 316: " Quam mater genuit, generavit filia ma- 
trem *'j (3) ib. 224 : " Creatam rursus ego concipio matrcm " j and adds: 
" All that is abstract and jejune.; how much better and livelier in the Anglo- 
Saxon poet, who again has created a warrior, a sea-hero, out of the subject 
of the riddle.*' 

11 The Roman grammarian, Pompeius, tells us that this question was often 
bandied about by the small boys of Rome." — Tupper, p. 4 (q v.). 

il We dissemble againe under covert and darke spcaches, when we speake 
by way of riddle (Enigma) of which the sence can hardly be picked out, but 
by the parties owne assoile, as he that said: 

* It is my mother well I wot, 
And yet the daughter that I begot.* 

Meaning it by the ise which is made of frozen water, the same, being 
molten by the sunne or fire, makes water againe." — Puttenham, The Arte 
of English Poetic, 1589. 

H But Cynewulf only brings in this fancy at the end of his riddle. The rest 
— the audacious Ice Viking, victoriously dashing through the sea, with all 
his ship ringing as it goes, and he himself shouting on the prow — that is 
Cynewulf s alone, and it is another illustration of the absurdity of those who 
pass over these riddles of his as a mere imitation of the Latin." — Brooke 
(i. 249). 

I. w€ge, apparently a Kentish form (Siev. § 151. (1)) which occurs 
nowhere else in the Riddles. 

5. Gr-W. reads * Waes his hete grim.' For l hetegrim * cp. Andreas 1395 
and 1562. Herzfeld's objection to the MS. reading, which I have retained, 
is that * hilde to saene ' contradicts hetegrim' and * biter beadoweorca.' I 
doubt if that objection can be sustained. I render somewhat freely: li too 
sluggish [in beginning] battle, [but] bitter in deeds of war [when begun], ' 
That is not inconsistent with * fierce in hate '$ rather, it might be given as a 
definition of hete-grim. Sane is regularly construed with the genitive, and I 
am prepared to say neither that the MS. reading is impossible, nor even that 
it is inferior to the emendations suggested (see also foot-note to text). Cp. 
Andreas 204, 211, and Doomsday 88, 



92 ilioteg 

6. bordweallas: sides of ships hung round with shields. 

7. Contrast Beowulf 501 : * onband beadu-rune,' he opened a quarrel. 

34. Rake 

5. weallas : ///. walls ; mounds, banks, slopes, hillocks. 

6. bij>: see note on 5 12 . 

35. Coat of Mail 

This riddle, in Northumbrian dialect, is also found in MS. Voss. Q. 106 
in the University Library at Leyden, ' in a continental hand of the ninth cen- 
tury * (Sweet). The text here given is from Dr. O. B. Schlutter's reading or 
the MS. (Anglia xxxii. pp. 384-388, 516). 

Letters in italics are missing or unrecognisable in the MS. Where the sense 
differs materially from that of the West Saxon version a translation is given in 
parentheses. 

Mec se ueta ertS-uong uundrum freorig 

ob his innaftae ierist cxndar: 

Ni uuat ic mec biuorthae uullan fliusum, 

herum fterh haehcraeft, hygidohta vyn (the joy of thoughts). 
5 Uundnae me ni bla^ ueflae, ni ic uarp hafae 

ni 'Serih ftreavungiftraec ftrasf me hlapmmeft (twisting pressure). 

Ne me hrutende hrisil scelfaeft (shakes, rattles) , 

ne mec ouana aam sceal cnyissan. 

Uyrmas mec ni auefun uyndicraeftum (spinning-craft), 
10 "SaiSi gcelu godueb geatum fraetuath. 

Uil mec huethrae suaefteh uidae ofaer eorftu 

haatan mith heliftum hyhtlic giuaede. 

Ni ancigun ic me aerigfaerae egsan brogum, 

ftelvfti nimaen flanas fracadlicae ob cocrum ( I fear not arrow-fig htt 
with shocks of terror j though they take shafts from their quivers with evil in- 
tent). 8. MS. caam. 

Tupper, p. 9 8 , says : 1 1 Only in the first three [Riddles 3 5 , 40 and 6 6] is the Eng- 
lish rendering literal, and two of these constitute a poetic homily rather than 
an enigma. R. 3 5, in its two forms, stands out as the solitary instance in our col- 
lection of a very close translation of a Latin puzzle. ' ' Brooke says that the 
English poet " expands into poetry " the Latin phrases. 



$LOttS 93 

It is necessary therefore, for purposes of comparison, to give Ealdhelm'i 
riddle: 

iv. 3 : De lorica (breastplate)". 

Roscida me genuit gelido de vircere tellus. 
Non sum setigero lanarum vellere facta, 
Licia nulla trahunt, nee garrula fila resultant, 
Nee crocea Seres texunt lanugine vermes, 
Nee radiis carpor, duro nee pectine pulsor: 
Et tamen en vestis vulgi sermone vocabor. 
Spicula non vereor longis exempta pharetris 

(The dewy earth brought me forth from her cold womb. I am not made of 
a hairy fleece of woolj no leashes draw me tight, nor do threads vibrate with 
vocal sound, no Chinese worms weave me from downy floss of saffron huej 
I am not plucked at by the shuttle, nor struck by the ruthless sleyj and yet, 
lo! I shall be called a garment in common parlance. I fear not darts drawn 
from long quivers). This is certainly a help to the understanding of our riddle, 
whether with Diet, we call the latter a free, or with Tupper a literal, transla- 
tion. 

Herzfeld points out that this riddle differs from the others in that the syn- 
tactical sections correspond with the metrical instead of crossing them, as they 
usually do. 

4. min: genitive sing, of the personal pron. here, not an adj. 

8. sceal amas. This reading, a peculiarly harsh conjunction of sing, 
verb with plural subject, is inferior to that of the Leyden MS. (* am sceal 
cnyssan ') in both grammar and metre. 

10. geolo god webb: silk. 

11. The omission of the redundant * se peah ' would greatly improve the 
metre. 

36. 

See sheet of figures. 

This is one of the riddles one wishes at the bottom of the Bay of Portugal : 
there is no poetry in it, and the ingenuity is misplaced. Traut. divides it into 
two parts at 1. 75 but the horse, man, dog, bird, woman of 11. 10, 11, with 
the thing itself, agree so far with 11. 6, 7. If we take 11. 8-13 as a separate 
riddle, we may read i foldwegas ' in 1. 8, and the solution Bat is suggested. 

Dietrich takes a line of interpretation which may be first given and then 
explained : 



94 jftotr* 



Written 


h w 


MMxIRfwfq 


XXI 


Interpreted 


h 5 


mmuirfdeg 


U U I 


Order 


12 8 


14 5 13 6 11 9 7 10 3 


2 4 I 


Mtuning 


sugu 


mid 5 ferhum 





= sow with a litter of five pigs. 

This interpretation is obtained in the following way ; (1) The common arti- 
fice has been adopted of writing, instead of a vowel, the consonant following 
it in the alphabet, f for e y x for u. (2) Two mistakes in copying have been 
made [as usual !] : q should be g y and the second w should be d. (3) The first 
w stands for 5. (4) The letters so corrected must be transposed as above. The 
two wings (1. 7 ) are the ears of the sow, which resembles a horse in its mane, a 
woman in having womb and teats, a dog in its snout and teeth. * Flodwegas ' 
is not to be altered to * foldwegas ' ; it is an allusion to the pools which the 
sow loves to wallow in. 

Some support is given to this interpretation by Aldhelm's vi. 10 (below), 
and by other lines quoted by Prehn (p. 209), and a similar conceit occurs in 
the 30th riddle of the Hervararsaga. Aldhelm's riddle, De Scrofa pragnanti 
(Breeding Sow), opens thus : 

Nunc mihi sunt oculi bis seni in corpore solo 

Bis ternumque caput, sed caetera membra gubernat. 

Nam gradior pedibus sufTultus bis duodenis, 

Sed novies deni sunt et sex corporis ungue9, 

Synzygias numero pariter simulabo pedestres. 
(Now I have twice six eyes in one body and twice three heads, and they 
guide the rest of the limbs. For I walk supported by twice twelve feet, and 
my body has nine times ten and six hoofs, and I shall make believe that I 
have pairs of feet equal in number.) 

Diet, was at least right in supposing that we' have here an example of the 
common device, in disguised writing, of substituting for each vowel the fol- 
lowing consonant : b = a, f = e, k = i, p = o, x = u. 

LI. 4, 5 appear to contain the OE. and the Latin for man, woman, horse: 
— monn, homo ; wif, mulier ; hors, equus. Traut. boldly says that this is 
so, but does not explain the somewhat obvious discrepancies. 

So far the critics had been dealing with an incorrect, misread text, as given 
in Gr-W., viz : h iv M . . . MxIRfivf. . . q x x s. Holthausen 
(Engl. Stud. vol. 37, p. 208) considered that the text should read : h p m 
[/>] . . . m x I kfr y f . . . q x x s= (in disguised writing) homo, mulier, 



jfeote* 95 

equus. This is very nearly the true reading of the MS., as may be seen in 
the reproduction, in the sheet of figures, of my tracing. But the scribe of 
the MS. made three mistakes: it is obvious tha the omitted the second p (= o) 
in homo ; and he twice wrote iv for another letter, for the first p (= o) in homo 
and for the r in mulier. 

The suggested solution is Ship: the four feet under its belly are the oars, 
and the eight on its back are supposed to be those of the man, woman and 
horse. We have to add the dog, the bird and the creature itself (or the fig- 
urehead) to get the two wings, twelve eyes and six heads (11. 6, 7), but ap- 
parently the feet of the dog and bird don't count. This is what is known 
as a Monster riddle. " A very weak monster ... A most scurvy monster 
. . . An abominable monster ... A most ridiculous monster." 

I am not without hope that my arrangement of the text in 11. 4, 5 may 
be accepted as final. 

4. ehtuwe, eight ; an Anglian form (Siev. § 325. 8). G rein's suggestion 
(see foot of text) would mean, * we took the thing for a man, etc.' 

8. flodwegas: Grein gives one other instance of far an with the accus., 
Andreas 774. 

9-I I. The periphrastic conclusion is usually punctuated: pu ivast gif pu 
const to gesecganne, thou knowest whether thou canst say. But I know no 
other instance of conn with the dat. infin., and the sense is at any rate no 
feebler with the punctuation in the text: * Thou knowest how to say, if thou 
canst. * 

37. Bellows 
With 11. 5-7 should be compared Symphosius, no. 72, Follis (bellows) : 

Non ego continuo morior, dum spiritus exit ; 
Nam redit assidue, quamvis et saepe recedat, 
Et mihi nunc magna est animae, nunc nulla facultas 

(I do not die forthwith when my breath leaves me ; for it constantly returns, 
though as often it departs ; and one moment I have a great store of air, the 
next I have no power at all). 

4. The emendations I have suggested are, I admit, based on the supposition 
that the solution is Bellows. But the changes are not great and seem to give 
sense for nonsense. I translate : * A servant followed, a very strong fellow, 
and had endured much where (if, in that) what filled it escaped through its 
eye,' i.e. it was hard on the blower that the wind he filled the bellows with 



96 jliotes 

flew out at once through its eye. Gtferan = endure, suffer, is not uncom- 
mon (see Andreas 677, 1403) ; pat might easily be dropped out after par , 
and felde is a dialectal form of fyldt. For pat = what, cp. I 12 , 3 s6 , 3 6s , 
16 7 etc. 

38. Bullock 

This is almost a free translation of Aldhelm, in. 11, De Bove, sive de 
Juvenco ( Ox or steer) : 

Arida spumosis dissolvens faucibus ora 

Bis binis bibulus potum de faucibus hausi. 

Vivens nam terrae glebas cum stirpibus imis 

Nisu virtutis validae disrumpo feraces: 

At vero linquit dum spiritus algida membra, 

Nexibus horrendis homines constringere possum 

(Slaking the dryness of my mouth with foaming throat I thirstily drew in 
my drink from twice two throats. While living I break up the fertile clods 
of soil along with the stubble by the effort of my stout strength j but when 
the breath leaves my chill frame, I can bind men fast in terrible bonds). 

Prehn (p. 212, § 27) thinks Eusebius no. 37 is here very closely adhered 
toj he compares with 11. 6 and 7: 

et si vixero, rumpere colles 
Incipiam, vivos moriens aut alligo multos. 

He says that the * Mon ' of 1. 5 means Eusebius, not Aldhelm as Dietrich 
thought. 

" Unfortunately for this conclusion, other Latin riddles of the Old Eng- 
lish period furnish quite as close a parallel to E. B. R. xxxviii. Bede, F/ores f 
No. 12, gives the following: — * Vidi filium inter quattuor fontes nutritum: 
si vivus fuit, disrupit montes: si mortuus fuit, alligavit vivos.' And I find the 
same motive later in Brit. Mus. MS. Burney 59 (eleventh cent.), foi. 
lib.: — 

* Dum juvenis fui, quattuor fontes siccavi ; 

Cum autem senui, montes et valles versavi ; 

Post mortem meam vivos homines ligavi.' 

In the light of the wide vogue of the riddle, the chief claim of Eusebius as a 
lource fails." — Tupper (p. 99). 



jliotetf 97 

I. J>a wiht : fern, i-stem; cp. wihte, 37 1 , where the word has passed 
over to the ordinary declension. 

4. on gesceap J?eotan is something of a crux, peotan, rush, issue 
with a noise, gush, makes an admirable parallel to sceotan ; but on gesceap is 
difficult; for the present I translate it, * into the creature,' the calf. Grein 
translates * nach Geschick toscn (resound as their destiny is ?),' but this both 
lacks authority and makes feeble sense. B-T. suggests that * * perhaps gesceap- 
peote may be a compound noun meaning the teat." Against this is the fact 
that it leaves gesceap- practically meaningless ; moreover the word does not 
readily enter into compounds ; only one is recorded, gesca?p-hiv~tl (Beow. 26), 
fated hour. Besides, ' teat ' is not the sense required ; the four springs brightly 
shoot into something ; if we are to assume a compound, it must surely cor- 
respond with the calf's * spumosis faucibus ' in Aldhelm's riddle. 

5. Mon : see quotation from Tupper above. 

6. duna briceS, will break downs, i.e. plough. 

7. bindeS cwice, it will bind the living, i.e. with thongs made of hide. 

39. Day 

With reference to the adj. earmost in 1. 14 Dietrich says that the pov- 
erty of the day was proverbial. This statement ( if taken literally) seems to 
lack authority. I find no allusion to the poverty of the day in any dictionary 
or collection of proverbs ancient or modern. Among the 668 proverbs under 
1 Tag * (day) in Wander's Sprickivorter Lexicon in 5 volumes I find none that 
directly or indirectly refer to the poverty of Day. Stories in which Day and 
Night wrangle about their respective merits seem to know nothing of the 
'proverbial' poverty of Day (' Nacht und Tag,' E. Bock, Deutschcs Lesebuch, 
etc.). No doubt Day, the son of Night (irbrvLa Nu£), the mother of deathless 
gods and mortal men, was looked upon as the less opulent, less teeming of the 
two ; but was that opinion ever clothed in the memorial form of a proverb ? 

15. J?ara J?e . . . wsere. Such expressions as ale (a?gnwylc) Sara tie 
are regularly followed by a singular verb in OE., that is to say, tie agrees with 
the remoter antecedent ale : see 11. 25-6. Hence by confused analogy the 
same construction is found where, as here, the remoter antecedent is plural. 

18. bearnum. Beam is frequently used with a dependent genitive, as in 
40 96 , 41 4 , meaning ' children of men, men,' but I know no instance of its 
being used alone in this sense. I therefore suggest the reading beornum. 



9 8 



0Ott6 



40. Creation 

From the indication of parallel passages given below it will be seen how 
closely the English follows Aldhelm's Latin. It is in fact a translation with a 
little padding. * * Even the Riddle De Creatura, the most closely followed of 
them all, is continually altered towards imaginative work" (Brooke). Some 
of the verses are in a different order, and the end is wanting. As in other 
cases I have added a translation of the Latin. 



XIII. De Creatura (Creation). 

Conditor, eternis fulsit qui saecla columnis 
Rector regnorum fraenans et fulmina lege, 
Pendula dum patuli vertuntur culmina mundi, 
Me variam fecit primo dum conderet orbem. 
Pervigtt excubiis nunquam dormire juvabit, ) 

Sed tamen extemplo clauduntur lumina somno. ) 
Nam Deus ut propria mundum ditione gubernat, ) 
Sic ego complector sub coeli cardine cuncta. ) 

Segnior est nullus, quoniam me larvula terret 16, 

IO Setigero rursus constans audacior apro. 18, 19 

Nullus me superat cupiens vexilla triumphi, ) 
Ni Deus aethrali summus qui regnat in arce. J 
Prorsus odorato thure fragrantior halans 
Olfactum Ambrosiae, necnon crescentia glebac. 
Lilia purpureis possum connexa rosetis 
Vincere, spirantis nardi dulcedine plena: 
Nunc olida coeni squalentis sorde putresco. 
Omnia quaeque polo sunt subter et axe reguntur. 
Dum pater arcitenens concessit, jure guberno. 

20 Grossas et graciles rerum comprenso figuras, 
Altior en caelo rimor secreta Tonantis, 
Et tamen inferior terris tetra Tartara cerno 



Cp. no. 
11. 1-5 



4©j 



6-1 1 



-15 

17 



20-22 



Y *3-3* 



33-37 






38-4I 



Nam senior mundo pracessi tempora prisca ; ) 



Ecce tamen matris horna generabar ab alvo. 
Pulchrior auratis dum fulget fibula bullis ; ) 
Horridior rhamnis, et spretis vilior algis. j 
Latior en patulis terrarum finibus exto, ) 
Et tamen in media concludor parte pugilli. f 



42-45 



46-49 



50-53 



ijiocetf 



99 



30 



Frigidior brumis, necnon candentc pruina, ) 

Cum sim Vulcani flammis torrentibus ardens. ) 54~57 

Dulcior in palato quam lenti nectaris haustus. i 

Dirior et rursus quam glauca absinthia campi. ( 

Mando dapes mordax lurcorum more Cyclopum, 

Cum possim jugiter sine victu vivere felix: 

Plus pernix aquilis, Zephyri velocior alis, 

Necnon accipitre properantior, et tamen horrens 

Lumbricus et limax et tarda testudo palustris, 

Atque fimi soboles sordentis cantharus ater 

Me, dicto citius, vincunt certamine cursus, 

40 Sic gravior plumbo scopulorum pondera vergo: ) 
Sum levior pluma cedit cui tippula lymphae. j 
Nam silici densas fundit qui viscere flammas ) 
Durior aut ferro, tostis sed mollior extis. ) 
Cincinnos capitis nam gesto cacumine nullos. 
Ornent qui frontem pompis et tempora setis ; 
Cum mini caesaries volitent de vertice crispae, 
Plus calamistratis se comunt quae calamistro 
Pinguior en multo scrofarum exungia glesco, ^ 
Glandiferis iterum referunt dum corpora fagis, / 

50 Atque saginata laetantur carne subulci: 
Sed me dira fames macie torquebit egenam, 
Pallida dum jugiter dapibus satiabor opimis 
Limpida sum fateor Titanis clarior orbe, 
Candidior nivibus dum ningit vellere nimbus 5 
Carceris et multo tenebris obscurior atris, 
Atque latebrosis ambit quas Tartarus umbris. 
Ut globus astrorum plasmor teres atque rotunda, 
Spherula seu pilae, necnon et forma crystalli: 
Et versa vice protendor ceu Serica pensa 

60 Porrecta in gracilem pannum seu stamina pepli. 
Senis ecce plagis latus qua panditur orbis 
Ulterior multo tendor, mirabile fatu ; 
Infra me suprave nihil per saecula constat j 1 
Ni rerum genitor mundum sermone coercens. J 
Grandior in glaucis quam ballena fluctibus atra, 1 
Et minor exiguo sulcat qui corpore verme, J 



58-61 
J 62-65 

66-73 

74-77 
78, 79 

y 98-IO4 
105 etc. 



?8o-85 

86-91 
92-97 



ioo jliotetf 

Aut modico Phcebi radiis qui vibrat atomo. 

Centenis peditus gradior per gramina ruris. 

Et penitus nunquam per terram pergo pedester, 
70 Sic mea prudentes superat sapientia Sophos, 

Nee tamen in byblis docuit me littera dives, 

Aut unquam quivi, quid constet syllaba, nosse. 

Siccior aestivo torrentis caumate Solis 

Rore madens iterum plus udo flumine fontis. 

Salsior et multo tumidi quam marmora pond, 

Et gelidis terrae lymphis insulsior erro, 

Multiplici specie cunctorum compta colorum, 

Ex quibus ornatur praesentis machina mundi, 

Lurida cum toto nunc sim fraudata colore, 
80 Auscultate mei credentes famina verbi, 

Pandere quae poterit gnarus vix ora magister, 

Et tamen inficians non retur frivola lector ; 

Sciscitor inflatos, quo fungar nomine, Sophos 

(The Creator, who stablished the ages on eternal pillars, the Ruler of 
kingdoms, who bridles the lightnings by his law, while the heights of the 
wide-expanding universe are swaying to and fro in space, formed me in 
varied shapes, when in the beginning he founded the world. Wakefully I 
keep watch ; never in sleep shall I take pleasure ; yet forthwith my eyes are 
closed in sleep. For even as God rules the universe by his own power, so I 
embrace all things beneath the poles of the heavens. None is more cowardly, 
for a mere goblin affrights me, but again I have courage and am bolder than 
the bristly boar (10). None outdoes me in my desire for the banners of victory, 
save God who reigns above in the heavenly heights. Truly I breathe forth a 
scent that smells sweeter than the fragrant frankincense, and yet I am a 
growth of the soil. Lilies mingled with bright rosaries I can surpass, and I am 
full of the charm of the sweet-scented nard. But now I rot away with the 
stinking noisomeness of filthy ordure. All things that exist and are ruled 
beneath the vault of heaven rightfully I govern, inasmuch as the Father, the 
Bow-bearer [Apollo], has given permission. Great and small shapes of things 
I hold in my grasp (20). Lo ! rising higher than the sky I search out the 
secrets of the Thunderer, and yet sinking lower than the earth I gaze on the 
hideous realms of Hell. For I am older than the universe and came before 
primaeval times j but lo! I was born from my mother's womb this year. 



jftote* ioi 



Fair am I while my clasp is shining with gilded amulets ; yet I am more re- 
pulsive than the buckthorn and more worthless than the despised seaweed. 
I spread wider than the far-stretching boundaries of the lands, and yet I can 
be held in the middle of a handful. I am colder than mid-winter and white 
frost, though I may be heated with the raging flames of the Fire-God (30). 
Sweeter on the palate I am than a draught of rich (lit. slow-flowing) nectar, and 
yet more horrid than the grey wormwood of the field. When I eat my food 
I bolt it like the gluttonous Cyclopes, though I can always live happily with- 
out food. Fleeter am I than the eagle, swifter than the wings of the West 
Wind, speedier than the hawk ; and yet the cowering earth-worm, the snail, 
the slow turtle of the marshes, and the black worm that springs from foul 
ordure can outstrip me in the race quicker than it takes to tell. Though I am 
heavier than lead and cause heavy crags to rise in the scales (40), yet I am 
lighter than a feather and a water-spider is heavier than me. Yea I am harder 
than the rock which pours forth thick flames from its vitals, or than iron, 
yet softer than roasted tripe. I wear no curls on the crown of my head to 
adorn my forehead and temples with an artificial show of hair; for the curly 
locks growing from my head wave around it and they are more graceful than 
locks curled with the curling-iron. Lo, I grow far fatter than fat sows, when 
they come back from the beeches rich in mast and the swine-herds take de- 
light in their fattened flesh ( 50) : but dire hunger will torture me with lean- 
ness when I am needy, whereas rich feasts will ever bring me pallor and 
satiety. I am bright, I admit, brighter than the orb of the sun, whiter than 
snow when the clouds drop snow like wool ; darker by far than the black 
shadows of the dungeon, and the obscure gloom which Hell encompasses. 
Like a planet's globe I am moulded smooth and round, or a spherical ball, or 
a crystal globe, and changing again I am extended like Chinese silk thread 
stretched out into thin material, or like the threads of a state robe (60). Lo, 
where the earth spreads out through its six zones, I extend much further, 
marvellous to tell ; below me and above me nothing exists throughout the 
ages, save the Father of all things who curbs the universe by his word. I am 
larger than the black whale in the grey waves, and smaller than the worm 
which makes a furrow with its little body or than the tiny atom that trembles 
in the sun's rays. With a hundred feet I walk through the grassy fields ; yet 
I never go at all through the land on foot. My wisdom surpasses the know- 
ledge of the philosophers (70) ; but I have not been taught by costly letters 
written on papyrus, nor could I ever understand what a syllable is. I am drier 
than the summer heat of the blazing sun : again I am more drenched with 



io2 jftotes 

dewy moisture than the watery stream from the spring. Salter am I than the 
smooth expanse of the heaving deep, and I wander about more insipid than 
the chill streams on land, adorned by the manifold beauty of all the hues to 
which the structure of this present universe owes its adornment ; though again 
I am wan and robbed of all my colour. Give ear and believe the tenor of my 
words (80), utterances that a clever master will scarce be able to explain ; and 
yet a reader who dips into them would not think them trifling. I would ask 
of puffed-up philosophers what name I bear). 

2. The first half of the line is obviously short. I believe ivealded has 
dropped out after ivredstupum ; healdeS and ivealdeS occur together again in 
11. 5 & 22. For construction cp. Ps. 88 10 : • Heofonas ftu wealdest.' 

5. ymb . . . hweorfeS, by tmesis for ymbniveorfed, encompasses. 

I4-5. Creation says : 'I, who am the word and instrument of the Creator, 
include all his creatures.* 

26. wriJestra sc. on stence (1. 23). 

31-2. J?is fen SWearte — stinceS: This seems to point to Peter- 
borough, Crowland or Ely; cp. 11. 48-9 & 71. 

42. faes. I am reluctant to abandon the MS. reading for the weaker 
pes ; pas bears the arsit much better. It may refer to heofon in 1. 38, or 
anticipate middangeard in 1. 43, or be used with a vague reference to what 
precedes ('I am much older than the circuit thereof). Ymbhwyrft is most 
often found with the dependent genitive eordan, but also with heofones and 
middangeardes ; cp. Orosius 1. I : ' ealne ftisne ymbhwyrft ftises middan- 
geardes,* rendering orbem totius terrae, 

6l. on hyrstum : Grein renders * im Blattschmuck' (amid the varie- 
gated leaves), confounding this masc. word, mod. hurst in place-names, with 
the fern. Ayrst, gehyrst, ornament. 

heasewe: the form is that of the nom. pi. of the adj. or (as here) that 
of the adv. 

65. sy: for the form see Siev. § 374, N. 4-6. 

66. pernex : a bird invented by the poet. I fear there can be no doubt that 
the Latin word pernix (see Aldhelm sup. 1. 35, * Plus pernix aquilis') was 
a will o' the wisp to our early poets, for this is the very word which so griev- 
ously led Chaucer astray, when he, misled by Italian pernice, translated pernici- 
bus alts (JEneid iv. 180)' partriches winges redely * (House of Fame 1. 1 392). 

71. hrej?re. The choice lies between hreprt = hradre (see 1. 72), and 
hrtprt = re pre, more fierce (zealous). For the former cp. hreSe = hratie, 
Beow. 991 j we find hrede = rede in Genesis 2261, Guthlac 11 13, and 



jliote* 103 

elsewhere. I reject the tautology of fore hrepre and gonge hradra in follow- 
ing lines. 

78. heardra. The variation of gender is noticeable throughout this 
piece j cp. hnescre (1. 80), bradre (50) and tuldgielra (51), and see Intro- 
duction : The Gender of x. 

82-3. These lines are repeated from 11. 50-1 j there is sameness of idea, 
but not of wording, in the corresponding passages of the Latin. 

84. The second half of this line is short. 

91. For gefeon = 5yiuan t dyn, see Siev. § 408, N. 12, i8„ 

41. 

The solution of this fragment is not worth discussing. For suggested an- 
swers in all cases see the Index in the Introduction. 

42. Cock and Hen 

[Ref.: Sievers Anglia xiii. 13.] _ 

9. twega 5]?er : one of two (each). Nyd, ^sc, Ac & Haegel are the 
names of the runic characters for », a y a and h respectively. The riddle tells 
us that there are two »s, one ^, two as and two H, and that there is one n 
in each name. The words are therefore hana and han. 

II. hwyle : an unusual and noteworthy use of hivyk y not recorded in 
B-T. The passage may be literally translated : * if any one unlocked the 
bonds of that hoard-gate with the might of the key, which held the riddle 
concealed with cunning bands against the sages wise in heart. ' 

17. hean mode. Heanmode, dejected, is not suited to the context. 
Grein proposed heahmodc, haughty, which gives the required sense. But the 
same sense can be obtained by simply making h'ean mode two words, i haughty 
in mind,' or ' with (of) haughty mind ' ; parallels to both these constructions 
are not uncommon. 

43. Body and Soul (Mind) 

I3-4. The common relation of both body and mind (soul), who is at 
once mother and sister, is the earth (Diet.). 

16. sprice : I have retained this unusual form of the 1st pers. sing, both 
here and in 23" (Gr-W. keeps it there and alters it here). It must be 
due to analogy with the mutated forms of the 2d and 3d persons ; tpriced 
occurs in 28 IO (but spreced in 10 33 ). 



104 jftote* 

44. Key 

[Refs.: Walz 265 ; Traut. 2 192.] 

Dietrich also proposed Sheath, and Tupper says " either or both may be cor- 
rect, as each has strong support. " I doubt the applicability of the word * pyrel * 
(from purK) to a sheath. 

7. he. In face of the positive assertions of Trautmann and Cosijn, that 
the gender of the name of the solution is rigorously observed, it is noteworthy 
that the only solutions proposed for this riddle are cag, feminine, and sciaff, 
feminine. 

45. Dough 

4 Confirmatory evidence of Dough is overwhelming.' — Tupper. But the 
riddle itself seems sufficient evidence, as against the only other solution sug- 
gested, Bee. Any one who has seen bread made will acknowledge the accuracy 
of the description : the dough swelling, making sounds (the curious little hissing 
explosions as the yeast works through the mass), raising the roof or surface, 
and being covered with a cloth. 

46. Lot and his Daughters 

See Genesis xix. vv. 32-38. 

I. Waer is a Northumbrian form. 

47. Bookworm 

This is one of the seven riddles that Tupper considers to be " based so di- 
rectly upon the Latin that we may fairly regard them as translations or repro- 
ductions.*' The resemblance is obvious, but only in idea. The English riddle 
monopolizes the poetry. The Latin says the same thing three times in differ- 
ent words. But the reader shall judge for himself. 

Symphosius, No. 16. Tinea (Bookworm). 
Littera me pavit, nee, quid sit littera, novi. 
In libris vixi, nee sum studiosior inde. 
Exedi musas, nee adhuc tamen ipsa profeci 

(A letter was my food, yet I know not what a letter is. In books I lived, yet 
I am no more studious on that account. I devoured the Muses, yet so far I 
have made no progress). 

5. ]?aes strangan : I am not certain as to the meaning of these words. 
From their position I take them to be a subjective genitive : the foundation 
is laid by the * wera sumes' of 1. 3, who is strong. 



jftotes 1 05 

48. Chalice. 

Prehn suggested Monstrance, but the monstrance probably dates from the 
13th century and is certainly too late. See notes to Riddle 59. 

49. 

It may be well to explain that Diet.'s first suggestion, Uhu, is a large owl, 
commonly used to decoy other birds. It is exposed in the daylight and they 
come to torment it. This my friend, Mr. Hight, tells me he has seen in the 
Harz. Diet, later abandoned this solution in favor of Book-chest, which still, 
if somewhat timidly, holds the field. The uncertainty as to the solution re- 
acts necessarily, to some extent, upon the translation. The subject of the rid- 
dle is something deaf and dumb (1. 2) which swallows from the hand of a 
gop (slave?). The dumb one is in the last line said to be swarthy (eorp) 1 
which clearly identifies it with the * thane ' of 1. 4, who is dark (ivonna), 
black (siveari) and swarthy-faced (saloneb) . But the poet also desires to mys- 
tify us about a race (cyn, 1. 8), which Diet, takes to mean books, but which, 
as I translate (v. inf.), must mean scribes or, still better (with a pretty touch 
of professional delicacy), authors. 

8-1 1. I translate doubtfully: " I will not now yet name the race who 
prepare thus for his use and benefit what the mute, a swarthy ignoramus, 
swallows as said above" {her . . . aer = her-ar, cp. her-after). 

50. Fire. 

9. life on lissum : for their joy in life. I take this to be one of the 
very rare instances where on 9 governing the dative, follows its case. 

51. Quill-pen. 

This solution, put forward in Traut. 2 , is in possession of the field. The four 
creatures (1. 1) are the thumb, two fingers and the pen, and the fighting war- 
rior that directs them (1. 6) is the arm. He compares Tatwine's riddle De 
Penna, which is * vincta tribus' (sc. digitis). The fated gold (1. 7) is the gold 
mount of the ink-horn; cp. 14 1 " 3 . 

52. Two Buckets in a Well. 

[Refs. : Trautmann in Anglia xvii. 3965 \Valz265; Traut. 2 198 j Tupper 
106.] 



106 Jtoted 

53. Battering Ram. 

Traut. proposes Spear (neut.), although he (1. 8) and se arra (1. 12) ap- 
pear to break his own canon, that "the OE. riddlers very carefully preserve 
the gender of the solutions." On the other hand, ramm is masc. Diet, com- 
pares * Jmrh his heafdes maegen ' (1. 9) with Aldhelm's De Arute : i Turri- 
tas urbes capitis certamine quasso. ' 

12. far genam : fell into danger or (possibly) fear. There is no other 
occurrence of the expression, and the metre is defective. 

13. in nearowe: lit. into straits, prob. into close conflict with it (se 
after a), 

54. Churn. 

The only competing solution is Diet/s Baker's boy and oven. Ofen is masc. , 
cyren fern., and there are numerous indications of fern, gender. And the 
whole cast of the riddle favors Churn: e.g. churning is much the more tir- 
ing and tedious work: cp. teorode (8), iverig pas ivecrces (10). Lastly, 
vogue favours this solution, and to the argument drawn from tradition great 
weight must be assigned. 

55. Scabbard 

The scabbard is richly decorated (11. 3,4), and divided into quarters by a 
cross; probably each quarter was made of a different wood (11. 9, 10). 

5. J?aes : of him who. 

6, 7. helwara burg abrsece: a reference to the Harrowing of Hell, 
which, based on 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20, was developed in the apocryphal Gospel 
of Nicodemus, became one of the great themes of the dark ages, and furnished 
a well-known scene in the cycl "s of Mysteries. 

12. WlllfheafedtrSo = ivearg-rod= ivearg-trloiu y O.S. ivarag-treo, 
Icel. <varg-tre % all meaning * gallows,' * cross,' from ivearg = wulf-Aeafod, 
criminal, outlaw. Hailiwell says that <wolf-head is the usual old word for 
4 outlaw. * The reason is obvious : the outlaw had no more rights than a 
wolf, and there was no punishment for killing him. 

56- 

Loom and Thresher's flail here compete for our suffrages ; the latter has 
mine. Let the student read the riddle once through with each lolution in 
mind, and decide for himself. 



iliote* 107 

5. Wlldll. As I interpret Flail, I take ivido (1. 2 — a very early form) 
and ivudu to mean the threshing floor ; londe (8), the ground in opposition to 
the air, has the same meaning. "The spears of straw were a misery to the 
flail, and so was the wood of the floor.'* 

8. leolc: one of the few remnants in OE. of the reduplicating past tenses. 
See Siev. § 394. 

10. lafe • . . J>ara flangeweorca: the bread, or the woven cloth. 
This is a frequent mode of expressing the finished product in OE. j cp«5 7 and 70 3 . 

57. Gnats or Midges. 

[Refs.: Traut. 50; Traut. 2 199.] 

"I object to Dietrich's airy * Swallows or if you like Gnats.* There was 
no ' if you like ' about the OE. riddle." — Trautmann in Anglia xvn. 398. 

But, one may fairly ask, is Trautmann' s own course preferable, when he 
solemnly proposes at different times Hailstones, Drops of rain, and Storm- 
clouds, and with each new proposal as solemnly rejects the last ? 

44 Anyway, Swallows hardly tredatS bearonassas and Gnats hardly hlude cir- 
matS. ' ' — Trautmann ib. 

I submit that this is hardly fair criticism. In the first place, the word tredad 
must not be taken too literally. Is it not as applicable to Swallows as to Storm- 
clouds ? And, as applied to Gnats or Midges, I find it a perfectly delightful 
word for their up and down motion in the summer air. And gnats hardly 
hlude cirmaS t That depends entirely on the distance from your ear. At his 
own selected distance the vibration of the wings of a solitary gnat produces a 
44 chirm " much too loud for comfort or sleep. 

3. SangeS r5fe : valiant in song. The MS. has rope. A word row, 
mild, occurs once in OE. prose to describe the itch, and Cosijn adduces that as 
a parallel passage in support of the reading roive here ! 

58. RlDING-WELL. 

Diet, says such wells exist in Saxony and Prussia. Mr. and Mrs. Eirikr 
Magnusson well remember them in Iceland and Denmark. Mr. Hight tells 
me he has often seen them in brick-fields near London, also in Madras, 
worked by men riding on them, and he has furnished me with a sketch of 
one (see fig.). 

I4-5. I have seen no explanation of this closing sentence but Diet.'s, and 



108 jftotes 

that is not convincing. He takes ryhte runstafat to mean consonants, and sug- 
gests burna. The last word in the MS. is furum, for which he proposes fur- 
Sum, and translates : * at whose beginning is the word rad,' arriving thus at 
the compound radburna. 

For furum I have read forma, first. It is possible that the epithet ryhte is 
merely ornamental, and that * three right runes are in the name ' means merely 
that the answer is a word of three letters, of which r is the first (Rad is the 
name of the runic r). In this case the name may have been rid, rod or rad. 

59. Chalice. 

There can be little, if any, doubt that the solutions of 48 and 59 are the 
same. The only serious competitor of Chalice is Pyx. Both were circular in 
shape, and each might be spoken of in Riddle-language as a ' ring.' But these 
riddles would do too much honor to the pyx, which was a mere convenience, 
not a symbol, not even a sacred vessel j whereas the chalice was a sacred vessel 
consecrated with holy chrism. 

The similarities between this riddle and No. 48 are obvious. This suffers 
from being, apparently, an expansion of the former, as well as from a defective 
text which leaves the meaning of parts quite uncertain. There is too the vague- 
ness and dulness of phrase which unfortunately characterise so much of OE. 
religious poetry. 

4. nergende, for nergendne: cp. Siev. \ 305, N. 1. The final -e proves 
the adj., not the noun. 

II. Dryhten dolgdon (= dolgdan). By thus altering the meaning- 
less dry ht dolgdon of the MS. I have tried to make sense of a difficult passage; 
1 Dumb, it brought vividly into his mind the name of his Lord, and into the 
sight of his eyes, if he could understand the token of the noble gold, the 
wounded Lord.* 

60. Reed. 

This riddle is immediately followed in the Exeter Book by the M Husband's 
Message, ' ' and Blackburn has put forward the hypothesis that it forms in reality 
the opening of the latter poem. For the full statement of his case see Journal 
of Germanic Philology in. I (1900). " The riddle form is not distinct here 
. . . we do not find the apparent contradictions that are meant to puzzle the 
hearer. . . . The object that speaks is plainly a * letter,* OE. beam, i.e. 
a slip of wood on which a message had been carved. But what follows in the 



jpotea 109 

MS. is also the utterance of a letter, which is represented as delivering its 
errand as a living messenger might do ; and when we read the whole as a single 
poem, we find a consecutiveness and unity so clear, etc. " It is noteworthy that 
no other riddle occurs in this part of the MS., except the second (incomplete) 
form of Riddle 30, Blackburn's solution of which is beam; and he attributes 
the intrusion of this one riddle among other poems to the connection of beam 
with what follows and the mistake of a scribe. 

Tupper retorts (M. L. Notes xviii. 98) : " Blackburn's pretty and ingenious 
theory can rest only upon a studious ignoring of the correspondence between 
all the motives in the little A.S. poem and those in the * Arundo ' problem 
of Symphosius. Then, too, this theory calmly overlooks the striking circum- 
stance, that this Latin * Arundo ' enigma has been expanded into Kunstratiel 
in several languages. " 

It seems impertinent to discuss the matter further after this Olympian utter- 
ance, but even Jove's outlook is limited. The following points must be duly 
weighed. 

(1) The Lat. * Arundo' consists of three lines, and the reader shall judge 
whether it anticipates " all the motives" of No. 60: 

Dulcis arnica Dei, ripis vicina profundis, 
Suave canens Musis, nigro perfusa colore, 
Nuntia sum linguae, digitis stipata magistri 

(I, the god's dear mistress, that dwell near the deep banks, sweetly singing to 
the Muses, overspread with black hue, I am the herald of my master's tongue 
when pressed light between his fingers). In any case the prize this time is 
distinctly for the Englishman, who puts his matter so poetically, whether in 
riddle or lyric. 

(2) The form of No. 60 is certainly unusual, not only in being non-enig- 
matic, but in the striking introduction of a person addressed in 1. 14. 

(3) The * Husband's Message ' is unfortunately very fragmentary in the 
opening lines, but the meaning of the first two lines is sufficiently clear, and I 
think Blackburn makes an excellent point in their apparent continuity from 
the closing lines of No. 60. I quote his rendering from the middle of 1. 14 to 
the end of 1. 2 of the * Message ' : 

" that boldly I might 
So deliver a message to thee 
In the presence of us two alone, 
That to other men our talk 



no jftote* 

May not make it more widely known.* 

Now to thee will I tell apart 
That I sprang from the stock of the tree-race.** 

In fact, so specious is this continuity that one is tempted to hazard the con- 
jecture that an unilluminated scribe started with a * Reed ' riddle, and, not 
recognizing it as such, attempted to weld it into one piece with the following 
lyric. 

61. 

The answers hitherto proposed are Shirt and Coat of mail. I cannot recon- 
cile either of these with 11. 5 and 6, whereas Helmet seems to me free from 
difficulty. L. 5 cannot mean ' He stuck his head in my breast,' bee. stician 
as a trans. verb means only * stab, pierce'; whereas, as an intrans. verb, it has 
the very meaning here required, * stick, remain fast.' The wearer's head may 
be said to stick fast in the breast of a helmet, but not in the breast of a shirt 
or a coat of mail. Besides, 1. 6 appears to describe accurately the action of 
putting on a helmet: the helmet is held upside doivn in the hands before being 
placed on the head ; so, " turned upwards he fixed me from beneath in a tight 
place or in a position of danger.*' Ru*w$s nathivat (1. 9) fits a head of hair 
better than anything else. 

9. ruwes : see Siev. § 116. 

62. 

It seems pretty clear that some boring tool is intended. 

I. [h]ingonges: the h is required for the alliteration; and hingonges 
is a much better parallel than ingonges to ford si pes. 

5. mec . . . aeftanweardne : the back part of me. It does no vio- 
lence to the sense if one renders aftaniveardne ' from behind,' as if it were an 
adverb. 

7. fareS, the reading of the MS., is impossible, for it is contradicted by 
the next line: the southern man does not return to the hole ; he drives me 
into it again. 

63. Beaker. 

Once more I quote here the supposed Latin original, because it seems to me 
of the greatest value that the student should judge for himself the amount of 

* Lit. * { So that more men should not more widely mention it, the talk 
of us two.** 



iliotes 1 1 1 

the OE. riddler's indebtedness to models. The answer to the Latin is too obvi- 
ous ; the OE. enigma almost always gives you something to guess. This is one 
of the sixteen riddles of which Tupper says: "The use and development of 
one or more motives so closely suggest both the matter and manner of the 
Latin enigmas that we can hardly entertain a doubt of the service done to EBR. 
by the earlier and more bookish puzzles." In this instance I see little con- 
nection beyond the fact that in the English riddle too someone kisses the tank- 
ard j but that may be due in part to its fragmentary state. 
Aldhelm vi. 9: De Calice vitreo (glass goblet). 

De rimis lapidum profluxi flumine lento, 
Dum frangunt flammae saxorum viscera dura, 
Et laxis ardor fornacis ardet habenis. 
Nunc mihi forma capax, glacieque simillima lucet 
Nempe volunt plures collum confringere dextra 
Et pulchre digitis lubricum comprendere corpus. 
Sed mentes muto ^ium labris oscula trado. 
Dulcia compressis impendens bacchia buccis 
Atque pedum gressus titubantes sterno ruina 

(From the cracked stones I poured in sluggish stream, what time the flames 
broke up the hard vitals of the rocks and the heat of the furnace raged un- 
checked. Now I am shaped to hold things and I glitter like ice. Many, you 
must know, would like to break my neck with the right hand and grasp my 
slippery form with the fingers, for I am fair to see. But I turn the'r brains 
when I kiss their lips, holding the sweet gifts of the wine-god over their well 
filled cheeks. Ay, and their tottering steps headlong I bring down to the 
ground). 

Here the fearful mutilation of the MS., becoming worse in each succeed- 
ing folio, begins seriously to affect the text As the folios of the MS., back 
and front, are recorded in the margin of the text, the reader can observe that 
the spoilt passages begin a few lines below the top of each folio. There is a 
restoration of the missing parts in Diet. (xi. 478), which serves the useful pur- 
pose of making the unrestored originals appear the finest poetry. 

64. 

See sheet of figures. 

Often the greatest amount of time and thought have been expended upon 
the riddles that are least worthy of them. This riddle is still unsolved, but it 



u2 0otte 

offers no guerdon of immortality. It resembles No. 1 9 in that the names of the 
runes must be read for the metre, but apparently the runes are to be taken as 
letters for the interpretation. It is pretty clearly of the " Horse-Man-Hawk" 
variety, and one may begin to translate thus : ' I saw [a horse] faring over the 
plain, bearing [a man] ; to both was on the journey a possessor's joy, [hawk], 
likewise a share of might, [a man].' Even this is the essence of feebleness: the 
man is a * share of might' both to the horse and to himself. 

According to Diet, the runes stand for W I B E H A D E F A EA S P, 
which when arranged in proper order make the words : pea beah-sivlfeda t 
ring-tailed peacock, which is his solution. The objections to this are numer- 
ous. The second A is a mistake for /E (see text, and the table of Runes in 
the Introduction). The change of D to D is not allowable; $ (or J?) is re- 
quired to alliterate with prypa. Dietrich admits that sivlfeda is a coinage of 
his own. His solution leaves all the riddle but the runes unexplained. The ea 
in pea and the ea in blah can hardly be given by two runes in the one case 
and one rune in the other. And so on. 

Hicketier (Anglia x. 596-600) regards the runes in 11. 1-4 as abbreviations; 
two consecutive runes are to be taken together and give the first two letters 
of the required words, which are ivicg 9 beorn, hafoc, pegn. Then he makes 
a desperate attempt to get something intelligible out of F and JE, and S and 
P. Here is his argument condensed : ' Ftelca is quite a natural misspelling of 
a foreign word for a foreign bird. A falcon naturally rejoices when he gets free 
and flies. Ea, not being a pair of runes like the other letters, must be the 
word ea, water, as you would naturally expect in a falcon-hunt. S P then must 
be in apposition to falca and, as any Englishman of the 8th century would 
guess at once,* must be spear hafuc, sparrow-hawk.' As I have nothing bet- 
ter to suggest, I have punctuated the riddle on this basis. The concluding 
words, sylfes pasfolces, may mean that spearhafuc (the sparrow-hawk belongs 
to the Falconida?) is the native name for the falcon. Barnouw says they refer 
to the six creatures indicated by the runes. 

Traut. adopts Hicketier' s method, but takes the runes in the last three lines 
to mean pegnas or pioivas f hafoc, earh y speru; he does not vouchsafe any ex- 
planation. 

* This intimate knowledge of the Englishman of the 8th century fills me 
with envy. 



jliotr* 113 

65. Onion 

The last two lines should be compared with Symphosius No. 44: Cepa (onion). 

Mordeo mordentes, ultro non mordeo quemquam ; 
Scd sunt mordentem multi mordere parati $ 
Nemo timet morsum, dentes quia non habeo ullos 
(I bite those that bite me j of my own accord I bite no one ; but though I bite, 
many are ready to bite me. No one fears my bite, because I have no teeth). 

" A motive long connected with a certain solution may, in a later time or 
among another folk, become attached to other subjects and do double or triple 
duty. The well-known English Cherry riddle has much in common with three 
German puzzles — those of the Cherry, Arbutus, and Haw (Hagebutte). 
Side by side with this may be placed the onion-hemp-pepper motive or 
early Latin and English riddles. Symph. 44 (Onion); Exeter Bk, 25 (Hemp), 
65 (Onion) ; Vienna MS. 67, No. 38 (Pepper). See also Royal Rtddle Bk. t 
p. II." — Tupper (p. 6). 

66. Creation 
This may be an abridgment of No. 40, with which it should be compared. 

67. 

The readable passages of this mutilated riddle give no reasonable clue to the 
solution. 

68. 

See foot-note to text & sheet of figures. 

Traut. considers 11. 1 and 2 the beginning of an incomplete riddle, and 1. 3 a 
separate riddle. But on ivege in 1. 3 seems to refer to 1. 1. LI. 1 and 2 are almost 
identical with the first two lines of No. 36, which shows that they are not a 
complete riddle in themselves. The answers Winter and Ice have been pro- 
posed j in either case the word bone (1. 3) is feeble and inaccurate. It would 
seem to me to point rather to something in the nature of petrifaction, recalling 
to mind various objects that I once possessed that had been petrified in the Drip- 
ping Well at Knaresborough in Yorkshire. 

69. Shepherd's Pipe 

2, 3. woh orj>oncum geworht : made crooked with skill. Diet, 
sayi he has seen such a shepherd's pipe with bent mouthpiece. 



ii4 jpotee 

3. eaxle twa: apparently the stops on either side, which make the crea- 
ture seem to "sing through its side." 

5. Stonde : one would rather have expected stonded, but the meaning of 
these last two lines is obscure. 

70. 

It seems to me thatthe subject of this riddle is Iron, first in the ore (11. 1-3), 
then made into a weapon (11. 3 sey.). 

2. The first half of this line has usually been taken with 1. 1. I take 1. 1 as 
an introductory statement, reade being in allusion to the color of the ore, red 
or brown haematite (ferric oxide). Then Stid and sfcap ivong, with stapoi 
ivyrta ivlitetorhtra in apposition, is the place whence the ore is obtained ; 
cp. No. 35, 11. 1 1 2. The next two lines (middle of 3 to middle of 5) describe 
the making of a weapon, apparently (for minum gripe) a weapon of offence j 
cp. 5 7 . 

71. Ox 

Diet. (xi. 48 1 ) has a restoration of the opening lines, inspired by the be- 
lief that the solution is Axle. 

5, 6. feower . . . swaese broJ?or: the cow's dugs (OE. tittas, masc). 
Later, in an almost humorous touch, this milking process is given over to the 
jwart herdsman (11. 9, 10). 

14-7. It is in CynewulPs manner to sympathise in this fashion with the 
suffering and joy of animals. — Brooke. 

72. Lance or Spear 

Diet. (xi. 481) has a restoration of the mutilated lines, which is also given 
in Gr-W. iii. 225. 

X. Cp. the opening of No. 35. 

23. fristra sum : one of the bold, i.e. with bold or shameless companions. 

27-9. ' Bold in his journeying, he eagerly turns away thence, from that 
camp (1. 25), does the warrior who knows my ways." 

73- 

No satisfactory solution has yet been proposed. Aldhelm has a riddle (1. 1 8) 
De loligint (Cuttle-fish) which bears some slight resemblance to this: 



jftottsf IIS 

Nunc cernenda piacent nostrae spectacula vitae: 
Cum grege piscoso scrutor maris aequora squamis, 
Cum volucrum turma quoque scando per aethora pennis, 
Et tamen aethereo non possum vivere flatu 

(This time my life affords a spectacle pleasant to see. Amid shoals of fish with 
my scaly form I search the waters of the sea, amid flocks of birds too upon 
my wings I soar through the air, and yet I cannot live by breathing air). 
Hence Diet, in 1859 doubtfully suggested Cuttle-fish as the solution, and in 
1865 withdrew it a3 " nowhere near " (gar nicht nahe gekommen). Never- 
theless Waiz revived this defunct solution because Pliny says " loligo etiam 
volitat extra aquam," and because Pliny says something else which does not 
explain 1. 4. Moreover, 1. 1 is for the present fatal to the cuttle-fish. 

Tupper (p. 100) proposes * Siren' and I had better quote him. u I find a 
clue in two Latin riddles in Reusner's collection; the first is by Scaliger (R. 

'• «77) = - , . .... 

Me fugere pice et velo victncia signa, 

Qua sum, qua non sum foemina, piscis, avis. 

The second is by Reusner himself (R. 11. 77) : — 

Foemina, piscis, avis sum, nautas fallere docta, 
Sum scopulus, non sum foemina, piscis, avis. 

The answer to each of these is Siren. Now the word appears several times in 
the Anglo-Saxon glosses (B-T., s. v. Meremen), and the creatures themselves 
were well-known in British waters. Gervasc of Tilbury, in his Otia Impe- 
rialia (121 1) c. lxiv. p. 31, describes the ' Sirenes maris Britannici,' their 
woman-fish shape and their song. No mention is made in the Latin riddles of 
the double sex referred to in E. B. R. lxxiii. ; but it is noteworthy that in 
Middle High German * Siren * appears sometimes as a male water-sprite. Had 
it not been for the evidence of the Reusner enigmas — with their interesting 
ascription of Protean traits to Sirens — I should probably have offered as a so- 
lution * Dolphin * or * Sea-pig * (' Mereswin ' — common enough in A. S. 
vocabularies, B-T.), as this fish was supposed to possess the power of assuming 
other forms (Gervase, c. lxiii. p. 30)." This is not convincing. The Reus- 
ner enigmas are not sufficiently close parallels to lead to the abandonment of 
an otherwise favoured solution. Besides, has not Tupper lost sight of the words, 
* on ane tld,' at one time ? 

Finally, Traut. 2 proposes Water: the young woman is the spring, the grey- 



u6 JliOtftf 

haired lady is die eiischolk (ice-floe), the 'Snlic rinc ' is snow. As snow it flies 
with the birds; as eisscholle it swims in the flood and when dead, i.e. dis- 
solved, dives under the wavesj as a spring it moves over the ground. This is 
ingenious, and certainly the best of the three. He compares Tatwine's riddle 
Da Ni'vc y Grandinc et Glacte. But what of the ' ferft cwicu' ? Traut. 2 trans- 
lates: M I had brisk life." This is not what the words i haefde ferft cwicu' 
convey to my mind, and that flaw mars the whole. Water is the answer to 
No. 83. 

The very confidence of these doughty champions in their respective solu- 
tions, combined with their unmitigated scorn for the rival answer, should make 
us hesitate as to the Tightness of either. 

5. haefde fer5 cwicu: cp. Shelley's " Cloud ": I change but I can- 
not die. 

74- 

Gr-W. prints the runes for M (as in No. 19), N, U, H. The first rune 
in the MS. is not quite the same as that for M in No. 19 (see sheet of fig- 
ures), and is probably intended for D. These two runes, through their simi- 
larity, were sometimes confounded. The third rune is certainly not U, but 
L. Thorpe took them to be the runes of D N U H, and reading them back- 
wards obtained hund, dog, as the solution. It is impossible to decide whether 
he wai right or wrong. 

75- 

Diet, thought this might possibly be the first line of the next riddle. Per- 
the answer is Hen. 

76. Oystir. 

3. fe}>elease : ace. sg. fern, to agree in gender with the answer, ottre, 
oyster. 

5. recceS is altered in Gr-W. to receS, but see Siev. § 407 N. II. 
7. hyd, like ftlla in 1. 5, refers to the oyster's shell. 

77- 

Too broken to do anything with ; so also are Nos. 81, 88, and 92. 

78. 

Seemi to be a variant of the first line of the next riddle — possibly a false 
start unerased. 



$om 117 

79- 

Diet, suggested Falcon, which is accepted by Brooke, Tupper and others. 
Traut.* objects : that its tongue is not hard (1. 8) j that eaxlgestealla (1. 1), 
fyrdrinces (1. 2) and herges (1. 8) imply war, not the chase ; that it was not 
often given to a singer as a reward (11. 9, 10), as Diet, states j that the sub- 
ject of the riddle gives, and not is given; that queens'* do not put their 
hands on falcons. Without laying too great stress on any one of these objec- 
tions, one is bound to admit their collective force. Walz had anticipated 
some of them, but he puts himself out of court by a most extraordinary mis- 
interpretation of 1. 6 : " L. 6 refers to the wooden sheath " — his answer is 
Sword. Apparently he takes pat on bearive geiveox as the subject of the 
sentence ; and now all he has to do is to parse haebbe. 

Traut. 2 opposes Sword and his own earlier solution dtr Gcer (javelin) be- 
cause we never hear of black swords or black spears. His new solution is 
Horn, which he recommends to us with his wonted confidence. He cites 
the well-known passages in Beowulf about Wealhpeow (11. 494 ff. , 620 rT. , 
1980 ff. ; in none of which however is the horn mentioned). In its bosom 
is mead, M which is made from honey grown in woods " (1. 6). And what is 
the tongue of a horn ? Its cry, its blast, its tone, which is well called hard. 

It must be added that Trautmann accepts Horn as the solution of No. 14 
alio. 

4- On governs mec in the preceding line. 

80. Weathercock. 

Diet.'s second solution is Maskenhelm, visored helmet ; but I know of no 
evidence to show that the English of the days of the Riddles were familiar 
with visored helmets. In any case, Weathercock seems to answer the several 
phrases better, with the possible exception of 1. 7, which Brooke renders : 
1 Wheresoe'er he carries me, he who clasps the spear.' I cannot equal that 
with the solution Weathercock : * Wheresoe'er He turns me who shake! 
the wood,' meaning that God shakes the trees and turns the weathercock 
with his wind. But that is the only line, I think, which is better solved by 
Helmet. 

8, stondende for stondendne ace. masc. sing, agreeing with mec ; cp. 
pyrelivombne, 1. 11. 

* Civln is not necessarily * <jueen,' 



n8 jliotes 

82. Ore, Metal, Money. 

5. eorfan brofor : fire, through whose agency the ore was brought 
into the service of men. 

7. hwa : this is supposed by Diet, to mean Tubal-Cain 5 but I prefer to 
refer it to fire, spoken of above as ' first of men,' and the present tense in it 
him y fie ne mot lends support to this interpretation. 

9. h«ftnyd, apparently with reference to fetters and weapons of iron. 

10-2. Diet, thinks that the ore is here speaking of its former way of life 
in the bowels of the earth. 

83. Water. 

There are some indications pointing to a double answer, such as Water and 
Sun. There is very distinctly the double gender of hio in 1. 27 and the masc. 
adjs. in 11. 35-6 j but I think the ' mother ' of 1. 20 had better be taken as a 
mere repetition of the * mother'of 1. 4, i.e. Water. Again, with the reading 
ivolcnum, it is a temptation to refer 1. 25 to the sun: " a winsome glorious 
gem nigh to the clouds" ; but I think it is better to take it as referring to the 
jewels of rain. Once more, the word para in 1. 55 seems to show clearly that 
x is twofold ; but again I think it better not to dualise the answer, but to take 
the plural form as covering the different manifestations of water. 

The riddle holds out a certain promise of beauty which is hardly fulfilled. 
This is not entirely due to its mutilated condition: 11. 30-4 are obscure, and 
cast in an unusual * high-falutin * style, poor at the best. It is to be feared 
that, after a secular youth, the riddle passed some time in a monastery. 

4-8. Diet, quotes two lines from each of Aldhelm's riddles on the same 
subject (hi. 1 and iv. 14): 

Nam volucres caeli nantesque per aequora pisces 
Olim sumpserunt ex me primordia vitae 

(For the birds of heaven and the fishes that swim about the sea in former days 
took the first beginning of life from me). 

Quis numerus capiat, vel quis laterculus aequet, 
Vita viventum generem quot millia partu ? 

(What number would contain or what register would be equal to holding the 
many thousands of living creatures I bring to birth ?) 

21. bewre]?ed : d-irai- \eybfitvov, I cannot find the word in any diction- 
ary, but its meaning, ' upheld,* is easily inferred from the simple verb. 



jpote* 119 

30. J>aes J>e, of [all] that which, the gen. pas being governed by the 
four superlative advs. 

31. sawe. Beam is certainly plural, and saive in a relative clause may 
easily stand for saiven: u and which the children of men have seen with their 
eyes" ; but the line could also mean u and which saw the children of men 
with its eyes." 

32-4. " So that glory weaves the might of the children of the world,*' 
or (with a comma at the end of 1. 31), u as the might of the children of the 
world weaves that glory " — I do not know what these lines mean, even with 
Gre'in s gefr igen habbe supplied in 1. 33. 

35. frodra, probably * older,' not * wiser,' just as frod is 'old' in 82*. 

38. firene dwaesceS: Diet, thinks the reference is to baptismal water 
washing away sin. 

84. Fish and River. 

Taken from Symphosius No. 11, Flumen et Piscis: 

Est domus in terris, clara quae voce resultat : 
Ipsa domus resonat, tacitus sed non sonat hospes; 
Ambo tamen currunt, hospes simul et domus una 
(Its home is in the earth, and it reechoes with loud voice: the home itself re- 
sounds, but the host is mute and makes no sound j both however run, the 
host and the home run together). 

85. One-eyed Seller of Garlic (or Onions). 

See sheet of figures. 

Cp. Symphosius No. 92: 

Cernere jam fas est, quod vix tibi credere fas est : 

Unus inest oculus, capitum sed millia multa. 

Qui quod habet vendit; quod non habet, unde parabit ? 

( Now you may see what you may hardly believe : there is one eye, but many thou- 
sand heads. Whence shall he, who sells what he has, get what he has not ?) 

4. The alliteration is supplied by the numerals tivegen and tivdf. 

5. yrnan : the absence of alliteration seems to point to the earlier form 
rinnan. 

7. ic. It will have been observed that the ic of the Riddles is often the 
poet, as in Nos. 29 and 34, the unknown personality that so often shows itself for 



120 iliotea 

a moment in OE. poetry, only to withdraw into the deeper obscurity ; still more 
often ic stands for x (the solution). In the latter case the first person is usually 
maintained consistently throughout j this is the only instance in which we 
have the 3d person throughout the riddle, and the 1st person suddenly intro- 
duced in the closing question. Conversely, in No. 35, we have the 1st person 
right through to the closing question, which is in the 3d. In no. 19 ic is ap- 
parently used first for the poet and last for x. 

86. 

This riddle is now in a tantalising state : several phrases excite curiosity, which 
remains unallayed. For conjectures see Index in Introduction. 
4. on: this adverbial use is noteworthy j cp. * hold on.* 

87, Antler, Antlers. 

14. card : the head of the stag. 

)>e wit on stddan: 'on which we two stood,* the apodosis being 
implied. But perhaps pe should be pe, in which case this clause is the apodo- 
lis : * because we two stood upon fit].* 

19. aefter cuman: * succeed,' when the antlers are cast in Spring. 

21. The second half of the line is metrically defective. 

23, 24. bordes on Cnde: on the gable ; cp. hormal 3 8 , hornsele Gen. 
1 82 1, hornrectd Beow. 703. LI. 32-3 are supposed to describe the horn's 
feelings on being made fast to the gable. 

26. Herzfeld proposes bropor triin for the scansion (type B). 

27. eorfan SCeata: gen. depending on hivar; cp. wov 777s. 

31. onjmngan : past pi. of x onpinAan y extant only in the contracted 
form onpeon (q. v.). Siev. § 186, N. 4 ; Wyatt, OE. Gram. § 81, N. 6. 

32. unsceafta: evil creatures; not in any dictionary, or in Napier's 
1 Contributions. ' 

The Latin Riddle (Grein 90). 

Between Nos. 88 and 89 the following Latin riddle is found in the MS. : 

Mirum mihi videtur:* lupus ab agno tenetur j 
obcurrit agnus [rupi] et capit viscera lupi. 
Dum starem et mirarem, vidi gloriam magnam : 
duo lupi stantes et tertium tribul[antes] 
mi pedes habebant, cum septem oculis videbant. 

* MS. videtur mihi. 



iliote* 121 

Dietrich supposes the answer to be "a wolf caught in the shoots of a hop- 
plant which has five buds." Henry Morley gives as solution " the Lamb of 
God"! Trautmann thinks that the Riddle contains two problems, and that 
the first, 11. I and 2, means that a man named Lupus has a cancer on his face! 
The reader whose curiosity has been aroused may consult Hicketier, Anglia 
x. 582 j Trautmann, Anglia xvn. 396 j Erlemann, Archiv f d S d n S III 
(1903) 59 ; Tupper 105$ Bradley, Mod. Lang. Review, Oct. 191 1, p. 436. 



89. Key. 

It may be useful to give here Symphosius No. 4, as an instance of a num- 
ber of Latin riddles which bear so slight a resemblance to the OE. enigmas on 
the same subjects that it is impossible to say in a given case whether the au- 
thor was acquainted with the Latin analogue or not. 

Clavis (key). 

Virtutes magnas de viribus affero parvis. 

Pando domos clausas ; iterum sed claudo patentes. 

Servo domum domino j sed rursus servor ab ipso 

(I bring great power from little strength. I open houses when closed up ; 
but again I shut them up when open. I keep the house safe for its owner ; 
yet again I am kept safe by him). 

2. searoplla: instrumental genitive. 

3~7- 'Oft I gape at what is fixed over against me, when girded with rings 
I must thrust hard against the hard [bolt], pierced from behind I must shove 
forward what protects my lord's heart-easing wealth at midnight.* 

5. hearde, glossed and translated above as an adv., is possibly the weak 
form of the adj. agreeing with 'ic.' 

7. See sheet of figures. Sievers (Anglia xiii. 4) has proved conclusively 
that the name of the W rune was * wynn,' not * wen \ and that * mod-wynn' 
= wealth : * llfwynna da?l ' (Crist 807 ) is parallel to * feorT ; the dragon's hoard 
is * hordwynn ' in Beowulf 22jo j * e<5elwyn ' is parallel to * lond ' and * eard ' 
in Beowulf 2492. 

II. willum Sinum, * for his own pleasures/ I connect with lafe pic- 
gan in 1. 10. These last two line9 seem to indicate that the frea wasa famous 
warrior in troublous times. 



122 jliote* 

90. "Boc" (Beech, Book). 

This riddle is omitted by Thorpe and Grein. Traut.'s solution is die Buche 
(beech), but it seems to me that OE. hoc is better, as covering both ' beech,' 
with its several uses, and * book. ' 

1. brunra : possibly referring to the beech-mast. 

2. 3. feorhbora and wynnstafol are neither in the Dictionaries nor 
in Napier's * Contributions.' 

3. This line may refer to the early use of beech as writing material. 

4. gold : the value of books is suggested by two OE. words for * library,' 
boc-gestreon and boc-hord. 

5. hildewaepen : the word boc-scyld shows that beech was used for 
making shields. 

91. Horn (antler, ink-horn). 

12. fusum : apparently, the eager hunters. 

13, 14. gingra brdjior . . . earde : cp. 87 18 - 20 . 

21-2. ' But I suffer all those torments which bit the board,' i.e. the 
antler, when made into an ink-horn, was pierced by the nails which fastened 
it to the stand. Cp. rhe similar experiences of the horn that was secured to a 
gable in 8 7 32 " 3 . 

93. 

Unfortunately we close with a poor riddle, the text almost certainly corrupt, 
the solution uncertain. Dietrich's solutionis " Wandering Minstrel," Traut- 
mann's is " Riddle." Both have a certain appropriateness. If the former is 
correct, one might imagine this riddle to be a bit of poor cajolery to win 
presents from the scop's hearers j if the latter, one might suspect it to be a 
kind of monkish colophon to the collection. The arguments are lengthy and 
wearisome: the references are Diet. xi. 487; Trautmann in Anglia 6 
Anzeiger 158, 7 Anzeiger 210; Nuck in Anglia x. 394; Hicketier in 
Anglia x. 584 5 Traut. 2 206. Trautmann, as usual, asks the reader to follow 
him in rejecting his own emendations : in 1. 4 he first proposes fremdet gefea, 
then fremdes ftedm f and finally fremdesfSr (for <£r) ; the last gives us " irre- 
proachable metre, good sense and correct speech" ! Gefrage (1. 3) is to be 
taken in its original sense, " erfragt " ; and we are to read gong for god (1. 6). 
Parts of the enigma apply almost equally well to the riddler and to the riddle ! 
The close appears to favour Trautmann' s answer. On the other hand, the 



jliote* 123 

general tenor of the poem, and in particular 11. 4-6, seem to me to favour 
the * Minstrel ' solution. But it is a poor composition and not worth further 
discussion. 

3. I have adopted Thorpe's proposal, to read 'fere ' for ( fereft ' ; first, be- 
cause 4 reste ' (1. 2) seems to require such an antithesis j second, because ' hi- 
pendra hyht ' seems an impossible subject to ' fereft.' 

4-6. It is generally agreed that these lines are corrupt. Even with two 
emendations, I can get only the following, barely tolerable sense : * I travel 
widely, and the joy of plunderers (prob. = money, reward) will fall to the lot 
of me a stranger, sooner than to friends, if I am to have prosperity in the burgs 
or bright success.' For this meaning of * stondeft ' see itandan xii. in B-T. 



Concise 'Btbitograp^i? * 



I. THE MANUSCRIPT. 

The unique authority for the West Saxon text of the Old English Riddles is 
the famous Codex Exoniensis, or Exeter Book, in the Chapter Library of Exeter 
Cathedral. It will be seen from the folios of the manuscript printed in the 
text, that the Riddles occur in three different places of the manuscript, viz., on 
folios 101 recto-115 recto, 122 verso-123 recto, and 124 verso-130 verso. 
These last folios are the last of the whole manuscript, and they have suffered 
terrible mutilation. It is supposed that a burning piece of wood fell upon the 
manuscript lying face downwards and burnt a deep hole through thirteen or 
fourteen leaves, from folio 130 backwards to folio 117; at folio 119 the script 
begins to be affected, and the lacuna on every page gradually increases in size. 
The disastrous consequences are seen in the text of Riddles 63—93. Folio 130 
is also fearfully stained. It will be noticed that the end of Riddle 40 and the 
beginning of 41 are both missing : since there is no gap in the manuscript as it 
stands, the most probable explanation is that one or more leaves are missing 
here. Thorpe thought that the same thing had happened after Riddle 20. 

Some peculiarities of the manuscript are reproduced from my own tracings 
on the sheet at the beginning of the volume. One of these peculiarities may 
be noticed here: the last word in some riddles, e.g. 37, 45, 69, 70, 85, 
comes at the end of the first manuscript-line (which rarely corresponds with 
a verse-line) in the next riddle. For instance, * hatte,' the last word in 85, 
comes at the end of the first manuscript-line in 86, with a gap of 1^ inches 
between it and 'wombe.' See sheet of figures. 

II. EDITIONS, ETC. 

183I-2. R. Chambers, 5r/V/^ Museum Transcript of the Exeter Book, 
Addit. MS. 9067. 

1842. B. Thorpe, Codex Exoniensis pp. 380-441 j 470-4725 479- 
500. 

* In accordance with the plan of the series, this bibliography consists of M a care- 
fully selected list of the critical and historical materials which are really helpful in the 
ptudy of the text." Other works are referred to in the Notes on particular Riddles. 



Concise UBibUograpljE 125 

X858. C. W. M. Grein, Bibliothek der angelsdchsischen Poeste h\ 
369-407. 

1897. Grein- Wulker (R. P.), Bibliothek der angeh'dchmchen Poesit 
Hi. 183-238. 

I9IO. F. Tupper, The Riddles of the Exeter Book. 



III. TRANSLATIONS. 

1842. B. Thorpe, parallel with text as above. 

1863. C. W. M. Grein, Dichtungen der Angelsachsen stabreimend 
ubersefzt ii. 207-247. 

IV. CRITICISM: LANGUAGE, METRE, HISTORY, ETC. 

1857. H. Leo, Quae de se ipso Cyncvulfus . . . tradiderit. 

1859, I 865. F. Dietrich, Die Ratsel des Exeterbuches, Haupts Zeit- 
schrift xi. 448-490; xii. 232-252. 

1883. A. Prehn, Komposition und Qucllen der Ratsel des Exeterbuches t 
Neuphilologische Studien iii. 145—285. 

1885. R« Wulker, Grundriss . . . der angelsdchsischen Litteratur, 
147-170. 

1890. G. Herzfeld, Die Ratsel des Exeterbuches und ihr Verfasser t 
Acta Germanica 11. i. 

1891. E. Sievers, Zu Cyneivulf, Anglia xii. 13-21. 

1892. S. A. Brooke, The History of Early English Literature. 
1894. M. Trautmann, Die Aujlosungen der Altenglischen Ratsel \ 

Anglia, Beiblatt v. 

1895* M. Trautmann, Zu den altenglischen Ratsel ', Anglia xvii. 

I9OO. A. Madert, Die Sprache der altenglischen Ratsel des Exeter- 
buches und die Cyneivulf frage. 

1903. F. Tupper, The Comparative Study of Riddles ; Originals and 
Analogues of the Exeter Book Riddles, Modern Language Notes xviii. i-8j 
97-106. 

1905. M. Trautmann, Alte und neue Antivorten auf altenglische 
Ratsel, Bonner Beitrage zur Anglistik xix. 167-215. 

I908. A. Brandl, Altenglische Litteratur, Paul's Grundriss der Gcr~ 
manischen Philologie. 

I9IO. F. Tupper, The Riddles of the Exeter Book. 



(Mozart 



Mec and me. The only matter connected with the glossary that is 
worthy of mention here is the use of mec and me. Apart from a few excep- 
tional instances, mec is always accusative, me dative. The exceptional or doubt- 
ful instances are : 

Mec Apparently once dative (Cook's Sievers § 332 N. 4 end): mec ivhad 
3 13 , whereas 20 5 and 21 2 have me iv'isad. Cp. mec ongean 2J 9 and me ongean 
89 s ; but ongean governs both cases. 

Me eight times accusative : me 12 13 seems to be qualified by siveartne ; me 
after ivrecan 20 18 ; and 20 19 , 40 34 , 65 s , 72 s , 82 4 , 84 s . 

It seems worthy of note that not one of these seven riddles, in which the 
later accusative form me occurs, had I classed as folk riddles, and six of them 
I had classed as learned riddles, without reference to this usage. 



d5lo$$att 



[The order of words is strictly alphabetical, ae coming between ad and af, 
but initial ft following t. Roman numerals indicate the class of ablaut verbs $ 
wi. , etc., that of the weak verbs $ rd., the reduplicating j prp., the preteri- 
tive present verbs 5 anv., the anomalous verbs. When the designations of 
mood and tense are omitted, " infin." is to be understood, unless some other 
designation has just preceded; when of mood only, supply li ind." if no 
other has preceded, otherwise the latter. ] 

GENERAL NOTE TO THE GLOSSARY 

For the following words, occurring very frequently and very easily intelli- 
gible, it has not been thought necessary to give all references; a few are given 
and "etc." added : 

is, to (prep.), eom, bits, ic, ac, ond, ne, na, no, Sonne (demonstr. and rel), 
hi (nom. masc), odde, under, 5urh,mid (prep.), nu, hatan ("to be called," 
since it occurs always in the same formula), gif, oft, Awllum, ddr, at, se 
(nom. of def. article), after, me, mec (ace. of ic). 



a, aa, adv., always, 5 9 , 346, 

43 5 , 8 4 6 . 
abelgan, in, provoke, anger, w. 

d. prcs. 1 sg. 20 32 . 
abeodan, 11, announce, 60 16 . 
abiddan, v, ask for, get, obtain, 

pret. 3 sg. absed, 55 12 . 
abrecan, iv, break down, conquer 

storm, pret. opt. 3 sg., 55 7 . 
Sbregan, wi, terrify, 40 l7 . 



ac, conj., but, 3 7 , etc. 
ac, m., oak, 55 9 . 

(2) the rune A, n. pi. 42 10 . 

acennan, wi, bear, bring 

forth, pret. ptc. 40 44 , 50 1 , 83 1 . 

adela, m. wk., dirt, evil, d, sg. 



40 



32 



adle, f. wk., sickness, 43 4 . 
adrifan, 1, drive out, pret. 3 sg. 



9 1 



l4 



aefensceop, m., evening-bard, 
85. 



128 



filosmty 



aefre, adv., ever, 39 10 , 40 9 , 65 , 67 , 

608, 83 s . 
aeftanweard, adj., hinder, a. sg. 

m. 62 s . 
aefter, prep., w. d., after, 12 15 , 

27 17 , 28 15 , etc. j through, 

along, 33'. 

aefter hondum, from hand 

to hand, 30 5 ; aefter gecyn- 

dum, after {their) kinds, 39 15 ; 

maegburg . . . tSe ie aefter woe, 

the family from which J 

sprang, 20 21 . 
aefter, adv., afterwards, 39 23 , 

59 5 - 

aeftera, comp. adj., hinder, sec- 
ond, 53 12 . 

aefterweard, adj., after, fol- 
lowing, he me aefterweard 
weorSeft, he is after, i.e. pur- 
sues me, 1 5 14 . 

Sghwa, indef. pron. , each one, 
everyone, 652. 

aSghwaer, adv. , everywhere, 
in every way, 40 l3 , l8 , 3o , 37 , 

5o 69 82 

aeghwaeSer, from, each, g. sg. 

m. 46 s . 
aghwyle, pron., each one, 39 25 j 

a. sg. m. 39 5 ; g. 36^ 
algSer, pron., either, a. sg. neut. 

39". 
lEht, f., property, possession, 70 1 , 

78* ; d. pi. 87 26 . 



aelde, pi. m., men, mankind, g. 

8 3 3 ', 93^5 d. 3 3 S 56, 33x1, 

806. 
aenig, pron., any, 40 21 , 86 , 60 3 

(v. sub. fea)$a. sg. neut. 39 27 , 

93 io 5 g- sg. m. 59^5 d. 13 5 , 

23", l5 , 71 16 , ?8 3 l5 . 
aenlic, adj., unique, peerless, 

_73 2 - 
aenlice, adv., in a unique way, 

splendidly, beautifully, 40 25 . 
aer, adv., before, formerly, 1 12 , 

2' 5 , 6 7 , 11 10 , 13 10 , 2 3 7 , 9, 

27", 289, 44 7^ 4911, 65*, 72*, 

26 1 8 7 28 > 9 l27 j xr °^ e S1 ^> 

sooner or later, 60 8 . 
aer, conj., before, 2", j 6 , 54?, 

55 6 > 93 27 > hwonne aer, ^0<u> 

/oo», when, 31 13 . 
aerendean, wi, ^riw^ a mes- 
sage, (2) intercede, plead, 48*. 
aerendspraec, f. , message, a. sg. 

60' 5 . 
aerest, -ist, adv.,/r//, 35 a ,4o 7 , 

825. 
aerra, compar. adj., first, for- 

mer, 53 12 . 
aesc, m., ash -tree. 

(2) spear, d. pi. 22". 

(3) the rune JE. 

aet, prep., w. dat., at, 3 14 , 21 4 , 
31", 35 7 , 406, 34 ? 43 6 t 46 i f 
etc. 

(2) /n?/w, «/ the hands of, 



&los#att> 



129 



20 16 ; act blisse, in their merri- 
ment, 31 15 . 
St, m.,food, meal, g. sg. 40 6S , 
aetgaedre, adv., together, 53", 

55". 
aetren, adj. , poisonous, 2 3*. 

aetsomne, adv., together, 22 l , 
4 27, g 4 3. 

aeSeie, adj., noble, exalted, 
distinguished, n. sg. f. 79 s 5 g. 
sg. wk. 59 9 j d. pi. 43 1. 

aeSeling, m., nobleman, g. sg. 
78", 79*511. pi. 4975g.pl.46 5 . 

aeSelu, neut. pi., nobleness, ex- 
cellence, a. 55 8 . 

agan, prp., possess, opt., 3 pi. 

4,5. 

w. neg. pref. pres. 1 sg. 

nah, w. g. 3 6 , 3 sg. w. a. 27 14 . 
agen, pron., with poss ve adjs., 

own, a. sg. neut. 9 6 , 44 4 , 54 s . 
Sgetan, w. 1, destroy, pret. 3 sg. 

827. 

aglac, aglaec, n., tribulation, 
calamity, torment, a. sg. 80 6 5 
d« sg, 3 7 j a. pi. 9 1 21 . 

aglachad, m., terrible condition, 
d. sg. 53 5 . 

agnian, W2, claim, take posses- 
sion, pret. 3 sg. 91 l4 . 

agyfan, v, j»w, pres. 1 sg. 
79 10. 

ahebban, vi, raise up, pres. 3 
pi. 7 3 ; pret. 3 sg. ahof, io 9 . 



ahreddan, wi, deliver, recap- 
ture, pret. 3 sg. 2 9 9 . 

aleodan, 11, groiv, (trans.) bring 
up, pret. ptc. 83 30 . 

am, m., reed of a loom, n. pi. 
35*. 

amaestan, W3, fatten, pret. 
part. 4o'° 5 . 

an, prep. = on, in, w. d. 42 10 , 

53'°- 
an, num., one, n. sg. m. 9 3 , 42 10 , 
83'° 5 f. 52*5 a. sg. m. 49', 
55 X S 8 5 6 > 9i 25 jsenne, 80 3 5 

f. 73 2 ; neut. 85^ g. sg. f. 
43 r3 5 d. sg. m. 32 6 5 f. 83 s9 5 

g. pi. 3 69. 

As indef. art., a, an, n. sg. 

m. 157 5 neut. 21 12 , 83 r 5 a. 

s g. f - 5 6 S 75 1 > d. sg. m. io 4 ; 

anra gehwylc, aeghwylc, each 

one, 13 5 , 36 9 . 

(2) alone, only, (gen. wk.) 

n. sg. m. 36 s , 40 21 , 9o 5 d. sg. 

(strong) 2 5 3 5 d. pi. 60 l5 . 
ana, v. an. 

anaed, n., desert, d. sg. 60 5 . 
and, ond, conj., and, i 1 , etc. 
anfete, adj., one-footed, a. sg. 

f. 58'. 

anfSn, rd. contr. , receive, pret. 

3 sg. anfeng, 42 s . 
anforlaetan, rd., abandon, pret. 

1 sg. 71 9 . 
anga, adj., sole, singular, 87 21 . 



130 



dttofitfarp 



anhaga, m. wk., a lonely dwell- 
er, s l > 
anstellan, wi, bring about, de- 



vise, pres. i sg. 3 



59 



anwalda, m. wk., ruler, gov- 
ernor, 40 4 . 

arieran, wi, raise up, pres. 1 
sg. 82 9 } pret. ptc. 37 7 . 

aretan, wi, gladden, delight, 
pres. 1 sg. 6 6 . 

arisan, 1, arise, rise up, pres. 

3 sg. 3 2 °- 
arlice, adv., honourably, kindly, 

9 6 , 43 4 - 
Srstsef, m., favour, d. pi. 2 6 24 . 

arypan, wi, strip off, pres. 3 

sg. y6 7 . 
ascufan, 11, dravo forth, bring 

out, 896. 
asecgan, W3, declare, i 2 . 
asettan, wi, set, set up, erect, 

found, 9 11 , 2 9 6 . 
astigan, 1, arise, pres. 1 sg. i 3 j 



3 s g- 3 



49 



aswapan, rd., svoeep off, drive 

off, pres. 1 sg. 23 s . 
ateon, 11, contr. , take out, dravo 

out, pret. 3 sg. 6 1 2 . 
atimbran, wi, build, 29 s . 
atol, adj., terrible, dire, 3 49 , 

22 7 . 

attor, n., venom, a. sg. 2 3 9 . 
attorspere, n., poisoned spear, 
d. pi. 1 7 9 . 



atyhtan, wi, bring forth, pro- 
create, pret. ptc. 50 3 . 

aSringan, in, break forth, pres. 
1 sg. 3' 2 . 

aSrintan, in, svjell, pret. ptc. 

3 7 2 - 
aweaxan, rd., grovj up, pret. 

1 sg. 9 10 , io 3 , 72 1 . 
aweccan, wi, avoaken, pret. 

ptc. n. pi. m. aweahte, 13 8 . 
awefan, n, voeave, pret. 3 pi. 

35 9 - 
aweorpan, in, throvu up, cast 

avuay, pret. ptc. 40 49 . 
awergan, w2, encircle, cover, 

protect, pres. opt. 3 sg. 40 47 . 
awrecan, wi, drive out, 89".. 
awSer, pron., either (of tvuo), 

87 30 . 
awyrgan, wi, strangle, injure, 

curse, pret. ptc 20 17 . 



B. 



baec, n., back, %j 21 -, d. sg. 3 36 , 
15 3 ; under baec, backvoards, 
ii* 7 , 8 9 8 . 

bael, n., bale, funeral fire, de- 
structive fire, g. sg. 82 2 . 

baer, adj , bare, n. sg. 31 22 j a. 
sg. n. 65 4 . 

bsernan, wi, burn (trans.), pres. 
1 sg. i 5 , 6 2 . 

ban, n., bone, a. sg. 39 18 j d. 68 3 . 



<Slos#ari> 



131 



banleas, adj., boneless, a. sg. 

neut. wk. 45 s . 
baSian, wi, bathe, pret. 3 pi. 

279. 

be, bi, prep., w. d., by, at, in, 
27 17 , 44', 60 1 , 69 s , 87 28 } be 
grunde, along the ground, 2i a , 
22 15 , 83 3 . 

be-, prefix. See bi-. 

beadowaepen, m., weapon of 
battle, a. pi. 1 5 3 ; d. 1 7 s . 

beadu, f., battle, d. sg. 87 31 . 

beaduweorc, n., battle-work, 
g. pi. 5 2 , 3 3 6 . 

beag, m., ring, a. sg. 48, 71", 



g- 59 



i3 



beaghroden, ptc. adj., adorned 
with rings, n. sg. f. 14 9 . 

bealdlice, adv., boldly, 40 16 , 
60 16 . 

beam, m., tree, 90 1 ;a. sg. 53 1 } 
g. 55 7- a. pi. i 9 . 

(2) beam, \jakeY\ f d. sg. 
7 i< 2 . 

(3) skip* g. sg. io7. 
beamtelg, m., tree-dye, tnk, d. 

sg. 2 6 9 . 

bearg, m., />/£, 40 106 . 

bearm, m., bosom, 66 4 , a. sg. 

3 3 5 d. sg. 43'*. 
beam, n., child, 20 18 , 83"; a. 

sg. 9 6 jn. pi. 26 18 , 40 96 , 4 1 4 , 

7 , 83 ,I ,93 IO ;g. 57 6 }d. 15 9 , 
39x8. 



bearngestrSon, n., wealth of 

children, g. pi. 20 27 . 
bearonaes, m., woody shore, a. 

pi. 57 s . 
bearu, m., wood, grove, 30 4 ; 

d. sg. 2i7, 53 r, 79 6 } a . pi. 

1 9 ; d. pi. 272. 
beatan, rd., beat, strike, hurt, 

pres. 3 pi. 2 6 , 80 8 . 
becnan, wi, indicate, signify, 

pres. 3 sg. 39 26 j 3 pi. 24 10 . 
bed(d), n., bed, a. sg. 4 3 ; 

d. 2 5 4 . 

bedrifan, 1, drive, pret. 3 sg. 

2 9 9 . 

befaeSman, wi, embrace, pres. 



1 sg. 91 



23 



begen, pron., both, 43 I2 , 87 13 , 

31 5 g- bega, ^427, 5 2 7 j d. 

bam, 43 11 } baem, 64*. 
beginan, 1, gape at, take 'with 

open mouth, pres. 1 sg. 89 s . 
begrindan, 111, grind away, 

pret. ptc. 2 6 6 . 
behlySan, wi, deprive, strip, 

w. d. rei., pret. ptc. 14 10 . 
belacan, rd., flow round, play 

round, pret. 3 sg. beleolc, 6o 7 . 
belcedsweora, adj., having a 

swollen neck, puff-necked, 80 1 . 
beleosan, 11, be deprived of, 

lose, w. d. rei. pret. 3 sg. 2 6 4 . 
belgan, in, rage, be angry, pret 

ptc. 40 19 . 



132 



&lo$my 



bellan, wi, grunt, pres. ptc. 



\r* 



4 o 



106 



bemiSan, 1, conceal, pres. 1 sg. 

93 13 . 

bemuman, in, mourn for, la- 
ment, pret. 1 sg. 91 18 . 

bin, f., petition, prayer, d. sg. 



59 



i3 



bend, f., bond, chain, a. pi. 

3 l5 » 2 ° 3o > d - pl- S*\ 7 y 53 6 - 
benn, f., wound, n. pl. 59 12 . 
bennian, bennegean, wi, 

wound, 5 6 2 j pret. 3 sg. 91 16 , 

ptc. 5 2 . 
bSobread, n., honey-comb, a. sg. 



40 



59 



beofian, W2, tremble, shake, 

pres. 3 pl. 3 9 . 
beon, anv., to be, pres. 1 sg. 

beom, 3 74 , 7 8 , 16 4 , 2 3 4 j beo, 

*3 7 5 3 sg. i 7 , 2", 3^4, 28, 

etc.; 3 pl. 16 5 , 26'9, 35 5, 

40", 63 s . 
beorcan, in, bark, pres. 1 sg. 

24*. 
beorg, m. , mountain, a. sg. 1 5 l8 . 
beorghliS, n., mountain-slope, 

a. pl. beorghleofta, 572. 
beorht, adj., bright, 20 3 ; f. 

40 28 ; a. sg. m. i4 7 ;n. pl., 

f. 11 1 ; wk. a. neut. 936; 

compar. f. 1 9 s . 
beorhte, adv., brightly, 34 9 . 
beorn, m., a man, warrior, 



nobleman, d. sg. 1 2 6 ; n. pl. 

31 15 ; a. 22 18 ; g. 60 16 . 
beot, n., boast, 90 1 . 
beran, iv, bear, carry, 552, 56 12 , 

642; pres. 1 sg. i l5 , 12 2 , 

15 3 ; 3 sg. byreS, 3 29 , 7 6 , 

i4 5 » 57S 9° 7 > P ret - 3 sg. 

10 10 , 9 1 27 ; pret. ptc. boren, 

63 2 . 
berian, W2, bare, make clear, 

expose, pres 3 sg. 15 15 . 
berstan, in, burst, crash, pres. 

3 sg. 4 8 ; bierstecS, 3 62 . 
bescinan, 1, shine upon, pres. 

3 sg. 72 20 . 
bescyiran, wi, deprive, w. d. 

rei. pret. 3 sg. 40 IQI . 
besincan, m, sink, pret. ptc. 

io 3 . 
besny&San, wi, deprive, w. d. 

rei. pret. 3 sg. 26 1 . 
bestolene, v. bistelan. 
bestreoan, wi, cover over(?)^ m 

pret. ptc. 8 3 43 . 
be tan, wi, amend, improve, 

pres. 1 sg. 6 IQ , 90 5 , ? 70 10 . 
betra,adj., compar. of god, bet- 
ter, n. sg. neut. 40 28 . 
betynan, wk. close, prt. ptc. 

40". 
beSenian, wi, stretch over, 

pret. 3 sg. 26 12 . 
beouncan, wi, entrust, pre6. 

opt. 3 pl. 48 7 . 



filotfsan? 



133 



hewadan, vi, deprive, pret. 

ptc. 91 28 . 
bewaefan, W2, surround ', clothe ', 

pret. ptc. 70 1 . 
beweorpan, in, cast over, 

cover, pres. 1 sg. 83 s9 . 
bewindan, in, voind rounds 

encircle, pret. ptc. 30 2 , 82 3 . 
bewitan, prp., have care of, 

watch over, pres. 3 sg. 83 9 . 
bewreon, 1, cover up, conceal, 

pret. ptc. a. sg. f. bewrigene, 

4* r4 > - ? 77 7 . 
bewreSian, wi, support, pret. 

ptc. 83 21 . 
bewyrcan, wi, make, pret. ptc. 

a. sg. m. beworhtne, 35 s . 
bi, v. be. 

bicgan, wi,buy, pres. 3 pi. 54 12 . 
bid, n., delay, on bid wriceft, 
forces to stop, holds back, 3 3 . 
bidan, 1, abide, voait for, w. g. 

5 9 > "5 l5 i P res - 3 sg. 3 1 12 } 
3 pi. 3 2 5. 

(2) remain, pres. 1 sg. 1 5 9 , 
pret. ptc. 82 2 . 
biddan, v., beg, entreat, pray, 
w. a. pers. g. rei. pret. 3 sg. 

59 3 - 
biidfaest = bid fast, adj. , stable, 

5 67. 
bidsteal, n., resistance, bldsteal 

giefeft, stands at bay, 40 l9 . 
bifeohtan, in, deprive by fight- 



ing, deprive, w. d. rei. pret. 

ptc. 3 32 . 
bifon, rd, contr., surround, en- 
circle, 40 52 ; pret. ptc. n. pi. 

neut. bifongen, 26 l4 . 
bihealdan, behealdan, rd. hold, 

retain, 40 39 ; pret. 1 sg. 72 4 . 
(2) behold, observe, pres. 

3 sg. 1 75, 40 93 j pret. opt. 

3 sg. 60 5 . 
bihSn, rd. contr., hang, pret. 

ptc. bihongen, hung vuith, 

56 10 . 
bilecgan, wi, encircle, cover, 

pres. 3 pi. 2 6 25 . 
bill, n., svjord, d. sg. 5 2 . 
bilucan, n, shut up, pret. 3 sg. 

61 ». 
bindan, in, bind, tie, pres. 1 sg. 

12 3 , 27' 6 j 3 sg. 38 7 ; pret. 

3 sg. 3 3 7 ; pret. ptc. 21 7, 

28 s , 56 6 , 71 12 ; a. sg. m. 4 8 . 
bindere, m., a binder, zj 6 . 
biniman, iv, deprive, w. g. 

rei. pret. 3 sg. 2 6 2 ; w. d. 

pret. ptc. 27 14 . 
bireofan, n, bereave, w. d. rei. 

pret. ptc. 3 5 ' ; n. pi. 1 3 7 . 
bisgo, f., labour, pains, a. sg. 

5 67. 
bistelan, iv, rob, deprive, w. 

d. rei. pret. ptc. 27 l3 ; n. pi. 

116. 
bitan, 1, bite, pres. 1 sg. 65 s ; 



134 



^lossaiT 



3 sg. 6 5 4 ', 3 pi. 5 9 > 6 5 6 ;pres. 

opt. 3 sg. 6 5 5 } pret. 3 pi. 

91 22 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 91 17 . 
biter, adj., bitter, 3 3 6 j d. pi. 

1 7 8 . 
bitweonum, prep., w. dat., be- 
tween, folng. its case, 292. 
biSeccan, wi, cover, pret ptc. 

bTSeaht, 29. 
blac, adj., bright, shining, 

white, pale, d. sg. wk. 3 44 j 

n. pi. neut. 3 51 . 
blaec, adj., black, d. sg. io 7 ; i. 

9 1 22 j n. pi. neut. 51 3 5 f. 57 2 . 
blaecan, bleach, pret. ptc. 28 s . 
blad, m., wealth, prosperity, 

37 7 . a. sg. 936. 
blatan, rd., £/*#/, pres. 1 sg. 

24*. 
blandan, rd., blend, mix, stir 

up, pret. opt. 2 sg. 40 59 j 
k Jt \V f pret. ptc. 3 22 , 2 3 8 . 
' bleaS, adj., timid, 40* 

bled, f., shoot, flower, leaf, crop, 

a. pi. i 3 9. 
bledhwaet, adj. , flowery, fruit- 
ful, a. pi. m. i 9 . 
bleofag, adj., coloured, 20 3 . 
bleowe, ?86 6 . 
blican, 1, shine, (2) appear, be 

visible, 34 9 . 
bliss, f., bliss, joy, a. sg. 8 6 ,43 7 ; 

d. 31^. 
blod, n., blood, 91 16 , a. sg. 40 18 . 



blonca, m. wk., a white horse, 

a. pi. 22 18 . 
blostma, m. wk. , blossom, a. sg. 



40 



28 



blowan, rd., bloom, 34 9 ; pres. 

ptc. n. sg. 30 4 . 
boc, f. , book, a. pi. bee, 42 7 . 
bOcwudu, m., beech-wood, d. 

sg. 40 ro6 . 
bodian, w2, announce, declare, 

foretell, pres. 1 sg. bodige, 

8 IQ . 
bold, n., building, habitation, a. 

sg. 159. 
bona, m. wk., murderer, g. sg. 

20 18 , 72 7 , d. 25 s . 
bonnan, rd., summon, pres. 1 

sg. 14*. 
borcian, W2, bark, pret. 3 sg. 

86 6 . 
bord, n., board, table, a. sg. 

9 1 22 , 2 9 j g. 8 7 23 , 24 . 
borda, m. wk., lid, cover, 

fringe, d. pi. i 4 9. 
bordweall, m., shield-wall, a. 

pi. 336. 
bdsm, m., bosom, breast, a. sg. 

3* 2 , i 4 9;d. sg. 3 47 , 126, 141S, 

*3 3 > 37 7 , 79 6 - 

bot, f., recompense, reward, re- 
newing, 3 7 7 . 

brad, adj., broad, a. sg. m. wk. 
3 3 5 comp. n. sg. neut.brsedre, 
40 50 , 82 # 



^logsarg 



135 



braegnloca, m. wk., brain- 
locker, skull, d. sg. 72 24 . 

breahtm, m., noise, shouting, 
3 25, d. sg. 4 3 5 g. pi. 3 40 . 

breaw, m., eye-lid, g. pi. 
breaga, 40 100 . 

brecan, iv, break, 4 s ; pres. 1 
sg. 72265 3 sg . 386,65! 

bregdan, in, draw, drag, w. d. 
pres. 1 sg. 898 , w. a. pres= 
opt. 3 sg. 2 l3 . 

brengan, wi, bring, pret. 3 sg. 
brohte, 22 l7 , 59 s ; pret. ptc. 
n. sg. broht, 12 7 . 

breost, n., breast, n. sg. 15 15 . 

brerd, m., margin, surface, a. 

sg. 269. 

brim n., the sea, g. sg. 2 13 , 
io 7 . 

brimgiest, m., sea-guest, mar- 
iner, g. pi. 3 25 . 

bringan, in = brengan, wi, 
bring, pres. 1 sg. 8 5 5 3 sg. 
11 9 i pret. ptc. 2 1 7 , 272. 

broga, m. wk., terror, horror, 
n. pi. 3 Sl . 

broSor, m., brother, 43 ", 82 s , 
gy^ 23^ 2 6 f 9 ,i3 . n . pi. 8720 . 

a. 3 1 22 . 
broSorleas, adj., brother less, 

872I 
bru, f., eye-brow, g. pi. 40 100 . 
brucan, 11, use, enjoy, w. g. 20 30 , 

26 18 , 40 100 j pres. 3 sg. (w. 



pi. subj.) i8 10 ,- 3 pi. 32" • 

pres. opt. 1 pi. 4 1 7 . 
brun, adj., brown, f. wk. 6o 6 j 

neut. 91 16 } a. sg. m. 26 9 , g. 

pi. 90 1 ; d. pi. 178. 
bryd, f., bride, lady, 12 6 , 45 s ; 

d. Sg. 20 27 . 

bugan, wi, inhabit, dwell, w. a. 

pres. 1 sg. 72, i 5 8 } 3 pi. 67' 5 . 
bugan, 11, bend, 72? $ pres. ptc. 

d. sg. f". bugendre stefne, with 

pliant, or modulated,<voice, 8 6 . 
bur, n., bower, cottage, dwell- 
ing, a. sg. 2 9 5. 
burg, f., city, castle, a. sg. 55? ; 

d. byrig, 2 9 5 } d. pi. 3 4o, 5x f 

5 9, 86, 34 r, 822, 936. 
burghliS, n. , castled hill, slope of 

the stronghold, d. pi. b-hleo- 

$um, 272. 
burgsael, n., castle-hall, a. pi. 

burgsalo, 57 s . 
burgsittende, pi., dwellers in 

the castle, people, g. pi. 25 s . 
burne, byrne, f. wk., torrent, 

mountain-stream, water, a. 

sg. 2 2^8} g. 362. 
buta, pron., = butu, neut. of 

begen, both, 546. 
butan, prep., w. d., 'without, 

482. 
byden, f., barrel, tun, butt, d. 

Sg. 2 7 6 . 

byht, m., bight, bay, a. sg. 12 IJ . 




136 



(Slogan? 



byht, n., dwelling, habitation, 

a. pi. 7 3 . 
byledbreost, adj., with breast 

like a beak, puff-breasted, 

8o*. 
byrnan, in, burn (intr.) pres. 

ptc. 30 4 . 
byrne, v. burne. 
byrne, f., byrnie, corslet, 20 3 . 
bysgian, W2, agitate, trouble, 

pret. ptc. 30 3 . 
bysig, adj., busy, 30 1 . 



caege, f. wk., key, g. sg. 42 I2 . 
cald, adj., cold, comp., 40 54 . 
calu, adj., callow?, bald, 40". 
cam, f., care, trouble, sorrow, 

a. sg. 438. 
ceaster, f., city, a. sg. 59 16 . 
cene, adj., bold, comp. 40 l8 . 
cennan, wi, bring forth, bear, 

pret. 3 sg. 352; ptc. 39 15 . 
c£ol, m., keel, ship, d. sg. 3 28 , 

1 8 4 , 33a. 
ceorfan, in, carve, hew;, pret. 

ptc. 2 8 4 . 
ceorl, m., churl, countryman, 

a. sg. 27 s , g. 256. 
cigan, wi, r#//, pres. 1 sg. 8 9 . 
cirman, wi, chirm, cry out, pres. 

1 sg. 8 3 j 3 pi. 57 4 } pret. 3 

sg. 4 83. 



cl»ngeorn, adj., desirous oj 

purity, cleanly, 8 3 26 . 
clengeS, 28 s ; perh. a noun in 

a. sg., meaning merriment, 

jollity. 
cleopian, W2, call out, pret. 3 

sg- 3 3 2 - 
clif, n., cliff, a. pi. cleofu, 3 28 . 
clomm, clamm, m. f., bond, 

fetter, a. pi. 3 15 , 42 I2 . 
clympre, m., lump, 40 75 . 
clyppan, wi, embrace, pies. 3 

pi. 26 26 . 
cneo, n., knee, a. pi. 44 s . 
cnosl, n., offspring, kindred, 

tribe, g. sg., 18 4 , 43 8 . 
cnyssan, wi, strike, 35 s . 
cofa, m. wk., chamber, d. sg. 

comp, m., battle, strife, contest t 

g. sg. 20 35 j d. 6 2 . 
compwaepen, n. , battle-weapon, 

d. pi. 2 9. 

conn, const, v. cunnan. 
craeft, m., craft, skill, 83 13 5 

a- sg. 31 13 } g. 821 3 j d. 42", 

72 23 j d. pi. 31 10 . 

(2) might, strength, d. sg. 

21 7 , 72", 83 26 j d. pi. 35 9 . 
creodan, 11, crowd, press, pres. 

3 sg. crydeft, 3 28 . 
Crist, m., Christ, 6*. 
cuma, m. wk., guest, stranger, 



43 



ib 



€Ho$san> 



137 



cuman, iv, come, 87 19 ; pres. 3 
sg. 3 4 S 37 6 > 4o 5S 5 pres. opt. 
sg. cyme, 5 5 , 63 8 ;cume, 1 5 io j 
pret. 1 sg. 652 j 3 sg. io 6 , 
22S297, 331 ; 54^ 85S 9H 6 . 

cunnan, prp., to be ablc y pres. 
2 sg. const, 36 11 j pres. opt. 

2 sg. 32 13 j pret. 3 sg. cQtfe, 

59 IG - 

(2) know, pres. 3 sg. conn, 
60 11 , 69 1 ; pres. opt. 3 sg. 
67 '», 72*9. 
cuS, adj., <well-kno*wn, 29 s , 

33"> 7* 22 > 93*5 a - s g- neut - 

wk. 44 5 . 
cuSe, v. cunnan. 
cwelan, iv, <//>,pres. 1 sg. 65 ". 
cwellan, wi, kill, pres. 1 sg. 

20 9 j pret. sg. 77 6 . 
cwen, f. , queen, lady, 79 3 $ n. pi. 

49 8 - 
cwene, f., woman, 73 1 . 
cweSan, v, j/zy, pret. 1 sg. 65 x j 

3 sg. 4» 4 , 59 s , 67" ; 3 pi. 
59" f pret. opt. 3 pi. J 9 i% 

cwic, cwico, adj., yw/V£, living, 
^5S 71 4 5 a. sg. neut. cwico, 
io 6 , 13 3 j cwicu, 73S; g. pi. 
28 s ; a. pi. /^ living, 6 2 , 3 8 7 , 

cwide, m., speech, saying, a. sg. 

cymlic, adj., comely, beautiful, 

33 2 - 
cyn(n), n., race, tribe, kind, 77* j 



a- sg. 498 j g. sg. 33S 6o 4 j 
d. sg. 3 50 ; a. pi. 6 3 j g. pi. 

4i 2 , 55 2 , 83 8 - 
cyneword, n., fitting word, d. 

pi. 43>5. 
cyning, m., king, 20 9 , 40 3 ; g. 

sg. 7 9 3 j n. pi. 498. 
cyrran, wi, turn, pres. 3 sg. 

3 1 10 ,- pret. 3 sg. 22 17 j pret. 

ptc. 2 8 4 . 
cyrten, adj., comely, beautiful, 

n. sg. f. 256. 
cyssan, wi, kiss, pres. 3 sg. 

63 4 5 3 pi. 14 3 , 30 6 . 
cystig, adj., bountiful, good, 

8326. 

cpSan, wi, announce, make 

known, 4 3 , 3 1 l3 , 9 3 9 ; pres. 

opt. 3 sg. 43 * 5 j pret. 3 sg. 
8 7 3 °. 

D. 

daed, f., ^^, d. sg. n 7 . 

daeg, m., day, a. sg. 20 7 , 58 4 ; 
g. 27 17 ; adverbially, by day, 
2 7 3 , 492 j d. pi. 9', 53 4 j 
advbl. 5 l4 . 

daegcondel, f., day-candle, sun, 



9 1 



3o 



daegrim, m., number of days, 

d. sg. 9 1 6 . 
daegtid, f., day-time, d. pi. 



17 3 , 71 7 . 



138 



tfUotftfarp 



dael, n., valley, a. pi. dalu, 91 9 . 
dael, m., share, portion, 28 1 , 

60% 644 } a. sg. 55 4, 5 89, 

71 14 j d. 26% ?72 9 . 
daroS, m., spear, n. pi. 56 4 . 
dead, adj., dead, 73* j a. sg. m. 

9 r - 
deaf, adj., deaf, a. sg. 49 s . 
deagol, degol, adj., secret, a. 

s g- J 5 21 5 a - pl- 40 39 . 
deall, adj., proud, resplendent, 

31 22 j a. pi. 22". 
dear, prp., only in pres. 1 sg. 

I dare, 1 5 * 5 . 
deaS, m., death, 15", 84 7 ; d. 

sg. i2 lS , 28 ", ?8 3 49 . 
dea5slege, m., death-blow, a. 

pi. s 14 - 
deaSspere, n , death-spear, a, 

P i. 353. 

deaw, m., dew, 29 12 . 
degol, adj. v. deagol. 
degolful, adj., secret, a. sg. m. 

82'3. 

delfan, 111, dig out, pres. 3 pi. 

4 9 7. 

d5man, wi, judge, 28 ". 

denu, f., 'valley, d. pi. 27 s . 

d6op, adj., deep, 22 6 ; a. sg. 
neut. 6'°; a. pi. m. 91 6 5 
neut. 9 1 9 j g. pi. 56I 

deope, adv., deeply, 5 3 6 . 

deor, adj., brave, strong, 31 16 ; 
d. sg. m. 12 s . 



deor an, 11, praise, glorify, pres. 
3 pi. 11 7 . 

deorc, adj., dark, 3 21 $ n. pi. 
neut. 3 45 ; d. pi. 12 9 . 

deore, adj., dear, precious, de- 
sirable, 1 7'° 5 a. sg, m. 43 * $ 
comp. 83 s6 } sup, a. sg, neut. 
11 9 } g sg. wk. 33'°, 41 4 . 

dohtor, f., daughter, 2 5 6 , 33*°, 

45 5 > 79 5 J «• pi- 46 2 } g. 
912. 

dol, adj., stupid, foolish, 3 s3 , 
20 32 j neut. 12 9 , 26' 7 j a. pi. 
1 1 3 , 27 17 . 

dolg, n., wound, n. pi, 5' 3 j 

g- .56 4 - 
dolgian, W2, wound, pret. ptc. 

53 6 > a- sg. wk. (?) 59". 
ddm, 111., judgment, d sg. 72 10 . 
(2) honour, power, a. sg. 

82» 3 ;g. sg. 31*6. 
d5n, anv., do, pres. 3 sg. 67*; 

3 pi. 4 1 7, 49 10 ; p r et. sg. 

dyde, 20 25 $ 3 sg. 9 12 , 26 s . 
dream, m., song, mirth, revelry, 

287. 

drefan, wi, stir, trouble, pres. 

1 sg. 7 2 ; pret. 3 sg. 22 l6 . 
dreogan, 11, suffer, labour, pres. 

1 sg. 80 6 ; 3 sg. 32 IO ;pret. 

3 sg. 51 s - 

(2) perform, fulfil, 58'; 
pres. 3 sg. 6 9 4 ; s!5as dreogan, 
journey, 39 l7 j bisgo dreag, 



tfHostfar^ 



139 



performed labour, suffered 
trouble, $6 7 . 
drifan, 1, drive, drive out, pres. 



3 sg. 40 78 . 
drihten, v. dryhten. 
drincan, 111, drink, 12 s , 71 7 $ 

pres. 3 pi. 14 12 , 2o 12 , 63 s 5 

pret. 3 pi. 55«, 56", 671 7 . 
drohtaS, f., vuay of life, lot, 

fortune, a. sg. 6 IG . 
druncmennen, n. , drunken 

maidservant, 12 9 . 
dryge, adj., dry, 40 77 . 
dryht, f., troop, multitude, pi. 

men, mankind, g. pi. z% 7 , 

41 4 } d. 3 45 , i2'5, 50 2. 
Dryhten, Orihten, m., /^* 

Lord, God, 40 I2 , 842 ; a. sg. 

59" > g- 59 8 > - ? 7° 9 - 
dryhtfolc, n., nation, multitude, 

g. pi. 26 17 . 

dryhtgestrCon, n., noble trea- 
sure, g. pi. 17 3 . 

dufan, 11, dive, pret. 1 sg. 73^ ; 

3 sg. 5* 5 - 

dugan, prp., avail, pres. 3 sg. 
deag, 72 9 ; pret. 3 sg. dohte, 
6i7. 

dugu5 f f., gain, benefit, ad- 
vantage, a. sg. 91 9 ; him to 
dugftum for his benefit, 49 io . 

dumb, adj., dumb, 31 16 , 53 6 , 
wk. 49 IO , 59 8 ; a. sg. wk. 
492 } d. pi. 502. 



dun, f., down, mountain, 3 21 5 
g. sg. is 21 ', a. pi. 386 } d. 

27 3 . 

duru, f., door, d. pi. 15 11 , 2 8 7 . 
dust, n., dust, 29 I2 . 
dwsescan, wi, extinguish, pres. 

3 sg. 8 3 38. 
dwellan, wi, lead astray, pres. 

1 sg. II 3 . 

dyfan, wi, dip, pret. 3 sg. 2 6 3 . 
dynt, m., blow, d. pi. 27 17 . 
dyp, f., depth, the deep (sea), a. 

sg. 321. 
dyre, adj., precious, dear, 40 39 , 

83*3; f. 83"; g. sg. wk. 82 l3 j 

comp. a. pi. 49 6 . 
dysig, adj., stupid, a. pi. n 2 . 



E. 



Sac, conj., also 36", 40 40 , 

6 3 * 3 . 
Sacen, adj., increased, great, 

mighty, 5 ' 3 , 98; f. 33", 8 3 2 °, 
26, 

€ad, n., wealth, possessions, 
a. sg. 2 6 23 . 

eadig, adj., wealthy, prosper- 
ous, d. pi. 83 27 . 

Sadignes, f., wealth, prosper- 
ity, happiness, g. sg. 30 9 . 

eafora, m. wk., child, off- 
spring, d. sg. 20 21 j a. pi. 
i 5 ». 



140 



aiostfarp 



eage, n. wk., eye, 25" ; a. sg. 
37 4 , 8 5 3, 866; n . p l. 40 xi 5 
a. pl. 366, 8o3 ; g. pl. 39", 

59 9 ;d. pl. I 5 5, 8 3 3i. 

eal(l), adj. pron.,<z//, a. sg. m. 
40 * 4 , 66 9 ; f., 40 53 ; neut. 

40 33 7 4 0> 84 ? g 2 8. n , pl, m> 

55 10 , 66 3 ; a. neut. ealle, 8 3 9 , 

9 l2i ; g. pl. 131, 33 i3, 391^ 

40 4 , 88 , 46 6 j d. 29 s , 40 101 , 

Si 7 - 
eal(l), adv., #//, quite, 5 6 , 92 7 . 
eald, adj., old, 8 5 j a. sg. m. 

27 s ; d. sg. m. 4o 63 j comp. 

yldra, 40 42 , 71 9 . 
ealdor, n., ///>, j/>/>/7, 9 3 , ?67 l4 . 
ealdorburg, f., princely dwell- 
ing, a. sg. 59*5. 
ealdorgesceaft, f., condition of 

life, 3923. 
ealfelo, adj., most pernicious, a. 

sg. n. 2 3 9 . 
ealles, adv., quite, 15 14 . 
eallgearo, adj., all eager, 23*. 
earn, m. , uncle, 46 6 . 
ear, m., the sea, d. sg. 3". 
earc, f., box, d. sg. 61 2 . 
eard, m., home, dvoeliing, 87 14 ; 

a. sg. 60 5 , 66 8 , 8^6, 8 7*9; 

d- sg. 3 3 4 , 72 s , 82 s , 91 14 . 
eardfaest, adj., established in its 

place, a. sg. 49 x . 
cardian, W2, dwell, 2y 27 ; 

pret. 3 sg. 87 28 . 



6are, f. wk., ear, n. pl. 15 5 } 
a. pl. 8o 3 , 853. 

earfoS, n., labour, g. pl. 71 14 . 

earm, adj., />oor, d. pl. 832? $ 
sup. 39 14 . 

earm, m., arm, a. pl. 32 6 , 8 5 6 . 

earn, m., eagle, 40 67 ; a. sg. 24*. 

earp, eorp, adj., dark brown, 
dark, 49", 72 16 ; g. sg. neut. 
91 25 ; n. pl. wk. 3 42 . 

eaSe, adv., easily, 15 19 , 23", 
4 o53, S5 8 . 

eawunga, adv., evidently, open- 
ly, 7 2*5. 

eaxl, exl, f., shoulder, a. pl. 
32 6 , 693, 85 6 , ?72 l6 . 

eaxlgestealla, m., shoulder- 
companion, 79 1 . 

ece, adj., eternal, 40 1 ; d. pl. 
ecan, 40 90 . 

(2) adv. ?67 l4 . 

ecg, f., edge, sword, 3 42 , *6 6 j 
n- pl. 33 4 i g. 5 ,3 > d. 3 42 , 5 3. 

edniwe, adj., renewed, (.^i 1 . 

efelang, adj., of equal length, 
447. 

efnan, wi, level, make even, 
pres. 1 sg. 27 s . 

efne, adv., even, just ; efne swa, 
even as, 3 l3 ; efne swa fteah, 
— seSeah, nevertheless, 39 27 , 
651. 

efnetan, v, rival in eating, 



40 



63 



&lo£#arp 



141 



eft, adv., again, i l4 , 3 s8 , 63 , 6 9 , 
20 i3 ? 26 3, i 0j 376^ 39^ 6 52> 

9 1 8 . 

(2) backwards, 23 1 , 62 7 . 
egesful, adj., terrible, 3 3 4 . 
egie, adj., odious, painful, n. pi. 

f. 71 <7. d. pi. 17 9 . 
egsa, m. wk., terror, panic, 

,33 49 
3 > 

eh, n., horse, a pi. 22". 
ehtuwe, num., eight, 36 4 . 
ellen, m. n., strength, feat of 

strength, 61 7 , 72 9 5 a. sg. 58 1 , 

87 30 . 
ellenrof, adj., brave, stout, 

strong, n. pi. 22 20 . 
ellorfus, adj., hurrying away, 

n. pi. 43' 3 . 
ende, m., end, a. sg. 83 10 } d. 

79 8 , 87^. 
engel, m., angel, g. pi. 66 8 . 
engu, f., a narrow place, a. sg. 

3 5 ; d. r 2 - 
code, v. gan. 
eodorwir, m., wire-fence, d. pi. 

17 2 . 
eofor, m., boar, d. sg. 40 l8 . 
eoredmaecg, m., rider, a. pi. 

22 3 . 

eoredSreat, m., legion, army, 

host, 3 49 . 
eorl, m., earl, nobleman, man, g. 

sg. 6o l3 , 79 5 ; a. pi. 22" } g. 

4 6 7 } d. 85, 31", 55 8, 93 i. 



eorp, v. earp. 

eorSbuende, pi., dwellers on 

earthy d. pi. 29 s . 
eorSe, f. wk., the earth, 5 3 3 j 

a. sg. 2 2 , 16 3 , 29 12 , 35", 

40',^', 66 8 , 8 3 4t, 8 7 2i j93 io. 

g. 40 4 , 25 , 67* 82*, 8 7 27 ;d. 

1 7 , 3 68 > 63 > 27 s , l6 , 40 40 , 5o, 

82 , 416, 50', 762. 
eorSgraef, n., trench, ditch, a. 

sg. 5 89. 
esne, m., servant, 43 s , 8 , l6 , 

44 4 , 54 8 , 6 3 5; a. pi. 27^} g. 

22 l3 . 

5st, f., favour, love, d. pi. 26 4 . 

etan, v, eat, pres. 3 sg. iteft, 
58*0, 76 8 . 

eSel, m., home, homestead, na- 
tive land, 16 3 ; a. sg. 66 7 , 
9 1 8 ; d. 15 12 . 

SSelfaesten, n., fortress-home, 



a. sg. 72 



25 



eSelstol, m., ancestral seat, 

home, a. sg. 3 7 . 
eS5a, conj. = o65e, or, 43 l7 . 
exl, v. eaxl. 



F. 



fsecne, adj., deceitful, malicious, 

d. sg. m. 53 8 . 
faeder, m., father, 9*, 37 s , 
_ 4 o 34 , 4 6 4 , 8 3 9. 
faeger, adj., fair, beautiful, 



142 



Clossan? 



31 17 , 83 s j comp. n. sg. neut. 



4 o46. 

faegre, adv., fairly, pleasantly, 
kindly, well, 12", 10 2 , 28 1 , 
_5° 8 > 53 4 > 6 3 2 , 72". 

faehS, f., feud, hostility, strife, 
d. pi. 29 11 . 

faelsian, w2, clean, purify, pret. 
ptc. 82 4 . 

faemig, v. famig. 

faemne, f., maiden, 42s, 731. 

faer, m., y*<zr, sudden danger, 

5 3 12 - 

faest, adj.,/r/w, 17 2 , 21 13 , 34 6 , 
60 3 ; a. pi. 34 7 ; g. 52 7 . 

faeste, adv., y^//, firmly, se- 
curely, 3 1 , 12 3 , 16 10 , 23 14 , 
26 26 , 52 4 , 56 6 , 61 », 70 4 , 87 25 . 

faesten, n., a fastness, confined 
place, a. sg. 2 5 9 . 

faet, adj., fat, stout, 22 14 , comp. 



40 



io5 



fasted, adj., plated, a. sg. 51 7 . 
faeSm, m., embrace, d. sg. 636; 

d. pi. 26^, 66 4 . 

(2) bosom, d. sg. 12 11 j d. 

pi. 2 13 , io 6 . 
fah, adj., hostile, foe, proscribed, 

20 16 , 82 4 . 
fam, n., foam, 2 4 . 
famig, faemig, adj., foamy, 

faran, vi, £0, travel, drive, 
(intr.) 32 4 , » f 64^ pres. 1 sg. 



62 7 ; 3 sg. 3 4 », 17", 21 4 , 23 3 , 

83 s j 3 pi. 3 46 > w. ace. pret. 

3 s g- 3^ 8 ; pres. ptc. a. sg. 

m. farende, 3 s7 . 
fea, adj., few, n. sg. fea aenig, 

very few, 60 3 ; n. pi. 3 s7 . 
fealdan,rd.,yi/^, pret. 3 pi. 2 6 7 . 
feallan, rd., fall, 3 46 } pres. 3 

sg. 21 13 , 80 JO , 9 1 24 } pret. 3 

sg. 29 I2 . 
fealo, adj., brown, or yellowish 

red, 15 1 ; n. sg. m. wk. 55 10 } 

n. pi. 72 18 . 
feax, n., hair, d. sg. 91 12 . 
feaxhar, adj., grey-haired, 73 1 . 
fedan, wi, feed, pres. 3. sg. 

34 2 ; 3 pi. 5o«; pret. 3 sg. 98, 

7i5, 7 6' ; 3 pi. 53 4 , 72". 
fegan, wi, fix, join, pres. 3 sg. 

2 5 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 6 1 6 . 
fela, indecl., much, many % w. g. 

pi. 8", 21 8 , 32^, 34 2 , 82 IO } 

adverbially, 31 8 , 58 s . 
felan, wi, feel, w. g. pres. 3 

sg. 2 5 9, 8349; 3 pi. 6». 
felawlonc, adj , very proud, 

stately, f. 12 7 . 
feld, m., field, a. pi. 32 s . 
fell, n., hide, skin, g. sg. 76 s ; 

n. pi. 13 3 . 
fen, n.,fen, morass, 40 31 . 
fenyce, f., swamp-frog, 40 71 . 
feoh, n., cattle, a. sg. 34 2 . 
(2) money, d. sg. 54 12 . 



$lo00ar£ 



143 



feohtan, 111, fight, 6 5 , 16 1 5 

pres. ptc. n. pi. 3 46 . 
feohte, f., battle, a. sg. 5 4 . 
feol, I, file, g. sg. 70 4 ; d. 89?. 
feolan, in, penetrate, pass, 22 s . 
feond, m., enemy, 21 3 , 50 4 , 

9 1 26 5 d. sg. 50 4 ; g. pi. 26 r . 
feondsceaSa, m. wk., enemy, 

a. pi. 14 19 . 
feor, adv., far, 23 s . 
feorh, feorg, n., life, y 2 , 12 3 ; 

a. sg. io 6 , 13 3 , 15*9, 39 i6. 

d. feore, 3 32 , 20 l8 , 23 14 , 26 1 , 

4o 6S , 91 20 . 
feorhbealu, n., life-bale, a. sg. 

feorhberend, m., living person, 

g. pi. 396. 
feorhbora, m., bearer of life, 

living thing, 90 2 . 
feormian, wi, /*«</, care for, 

cherish, pres. 3 sg. 72 21 . 
feorran, adv. , from a distance, 

6 8 , 12 7 , 2 8 6 , 54 2 . 
fgower(e), num., /o#r, 36 3 , 

3 83 , 55S 7 > 55 2 , 71 5 . 
fer (= faer), n., journey, a. 32 10 

(see note), 
feran, wi, go, move, travel, 

»9 n ) 3* 7 , 3 6 S 39 6 , 40 69 , 
68', 74 1 ; pres. 1 sg. i 5 , 3 71 , 
12', 21* ;3 sg. 3", 5 8 2 , 91 28 , 
93 3 J 3 pl- 3 44 > 57 4 i pres. ptc. 
n. sg. m. 7 9 ; f. 83 s . 



fere, 32 10 , v. faer, neut. 

ferian, fergan, wi, carry, bear, 
15' 3 , 52' 5 pres. 3 sg. i 4 7, 
5 8 4 , "5 pret. 3 sg. 19 6 ; 3 

pl. 27 4 . 
fering, f., journeying, g. sg. 



72 



27 



fer5, n., mind, life, spirit, soul, 
heart, a. sg. 73 s ; d. 26 2I ; 
d. pl. 8 3 33 j fer#Sum, 54 12 , 
59 3 . 

ferSfriSende, adj., life-sustain- 
ing, 3 8 3 . 

fe5e, n., course, running, d. sg. 

*5 2 - 
feSegeorn, adj., eager to move, 

3 1 9 - 

feSeleas, adj., vjithout feet, a. 
sg. f. 76 3 . 

feSemund, f., a "run-hand," 
i.e., a foot suited for run- 
ning and also digging (?), d. 
pl. 1 5 '7. 

feSer, f., feather, n. pl. 27 4 . 

fif, num., five, pl. fife, 46 6 . 

findan, in, find, 5 11 -, pres. 3 
sg- 34 6 , 8 7 34 ; 3 pl. 437 5 
pret. ptc. 27 '. 

finger, m., finger, n. pl. 2 6 7 , 
40 52 ; d. pl. 6 3 6 . 

firas, pl. m., men, g. 67 4 j d. 
33 < 2 . 

firen, f., crime, sin, a. sg. 
83 38 . 



144 



(Sio00ar£ 



firenian, W2, revile, pres. 3 sg. 



20 



34 



firgenstream, m., mountain- 
stream, d. pL io 2 . 
fisc, rev., fish, d. pi. 73 4 . 
fiSru, n. pi., swings, a. 36 6 . 
flaesc, vl., flesh, a. sg. 1 l3 , 76 s , 

?'8i«. 
flan, f., arrow, a. sg. 3 s7 . 
flangeweorc, n., arrow-work, 

arrows, g. pi. 56 r2 . 
fleam, m., flight, d. sg. 15 13 . 
flgogan, 11, fly, 3 s6 , 318, 40^, 

5 8 3 ; pres. 3 sg. 23" • 3 pi. 

176. pret. 1 sg. 7 3 3 ; 3 sg. 

22 16 , 37 4 . 
flgon, 11, contr. , flee, pret. 1 sg. 

1 5 f 9 5 3 sg. 6 4 5. 
flgotig, adj., floating, fleeting, 

d. sg. wk. 5 1 77 . 
flet(t), n. floor. 

(2) hall, a. sg. 55 2 , 56 12 ; 

d. 42 s . 
flint, m., flint, d. sg. 40 78 . 
flint graeg, adj., flint-grey, a. sg. 



m. 3 



i9 



flocan, wi, <:/#/> W//2 the hands, 



pres. 3 sg. 20 



34 



flod, m., flood, stream, 2 2 6 , a. 

sg. 3^ } d. 7 9, IO 2 , 22' 4 , 

40 77 , 73 3 , 76 s j n. pi. 66 4 j 

a. pi. 14 7 , 77 1 . 
flodweg, m., flood-way, a. pi. 

368. 



flyman, w 1, put to flight, 14 19 } 

pres. 3 pi. 16 5 . 
fiys, n., fleece, d. pi. 35 3 . 
foddurwela, m., provision, 

store, a. sg. 32 10 . 
folc, n., people, nation, a. sg. 

7 6 5 g. 646 jd, 3 3 I2 ,d. pi. 3 43 , 

93 3 . 
folcssel, n., people' s hall, public 

building, a. pi. i 5 . 
folcscipe, m., nation, people, 

d. sg. 32 10 . 
folcstede, m., people's place, d. 

sg. 5". 
folcwiga, m. wk., warrior, n. 

pi. 14 13 . 
foldbuende, pi., dwellers on 

earth, g. 1 l3 . 
folde, f. wk., earth, a., sg. i 5 , 

12* ; g. 28', 4 i5, 66 4 , 90 2 ; 

d. 7 9, 3312, 39m 73 5 4 

folgian, w2, follows, pret. 3 sg. 
37 2 , 86 2 . " 

folm, f.,hand, 40 52 , a. sg. 3 9 to 5 
d. 636; n. pi. 31 7 ; a. 32*5 
g. 2 7 l5 jd. 20 34 , 59 l9 , 6 1 3 , 

? 7 2*. 

fon, rd. contr., take, seize, 
catch, pres. 3 sg. fehft, 2 7 9 
(grapples with) j pret. 3 sg. 
feng, w. g. 56 3 . 

for, prep., w. d., before, 18 2 , 
20", 3512, 4 g s 4, 55 8, 6o i5. 

(2)>r, 706, 9 ii9. 



<SHostfar]? 



145 



for, f., journey, 19 8 $ d. sg. 11 s , 

43 IO « 

(2) movement, d. sg. 40 71 , 

Jl3. 

foran, adv., in front, 44 2 , 53 s . 
forht, adj., timid, afraid; (2) 

w. d. formidable, 43 IO , 
forhtmod, adj., timid, 15 13 . 
forl^tan, rd., release, let flow, 

pres. 3 sg. 2 3 7 5 pret. 3 sg. 382. 
forma, adj.,/rj/, 58 15 . 
forst, m., frost, 40 54 , 91 12 . 
forstelan, 11, rob, steal, pret. 

ptc. forstolen, a. pi. neut. 

stolen {property), 14 18 . 
forstondan, vi, hinder, pre- 

vent, w. d. pers. a. rei. pres. 

1 sg. 1 6 8 . 
forstrang, adj., very strong, a. 

sg. m. 50 4 . 
forswelgan, in, svoallovo up, 

pres. 3 sg. 49" 5 pret. 3 sg. 

47 3 . 
forS, adv. , forth, onward, away, 

216,29", '3, 632, «, 8 4 5, 8965 

henceforth, 20 24 . 
forScuman, iv, come forth, pret. 

ptc. n. pi. forftcymene, 13 10 . 
forSgesceaft, f. n., creation, a. 

sg. 839. 
for5on, conj., for that, there- 
fore, 15 12 , 20 30 , 26 l3 , 67 13 . 
forSsiS, m.,forthgoing, depart- 
ure, exit, g. sg. 62 2 . 



forSweard, adj., pointing for- 
ward, moving forward, 2 1 l3 , 



72 



26 



forSweg, m., departure, g. sg. 
30 3 . 

forweorSan, in, perish, die, 
pret. opt. 1 sg. 5 6 . 

fot, m.,foot, a. sg. 31 20 , 39 10 , 
80 3 , 9 1 25 ; d. fote, 31 17 ; fet, 
32 6 j n. pi. fet, 3 1 7 j a. 3 6 3 , 
678, 8 5 4 ;g. 2 7 '5, 5 66jd. 12', 
7 , 4 o 7 7, 81 4 . 

f56or, m., fodder, food, g. sg. 
58". 

fraetwan, wi, -ian, w2, orna- 
ment, adorn, pres. 3 pi. 3 5 IO 5 
pret. 3 sg. 6i 8 5 pret. ptc. 
14", 28 6 , 3 i 2 , 2 °, 3 2 2 , 53*. 

fraetwe, pi. f., ornaments, 
adornments, y 6 ; a. 1 3 IO j d. 
14 7 , 40^. 

fram, v. from. 

frea, m. wk., lord, master, 3 1 , 

6 5 , 17 5 , 91 '» g- s g- 3 66 >44 2 , 

7 2«, 8 9 7 ; d. 20 2 , 24 , 43'°, 

55 10 , 61 3 , 62 2 , 79 2 . 
frecne, adj., dangerous, terrible, 

a. sg. n. 5 4 . 
frecne, adv., fiercely, severely, 

dangerously, 20 l6 . 
frefran, wi, comfort, delight, 

pres. 1 sg. 6 7 . 
fremde, adj., foreign, strange, 

16 4 , 93 4 . 



146 



dHostfarp 



fremman, wi, do, work, 31 9 , 
72", 87 29 ; gii(5e fremme, 
Wtffo itYzr, 20 25 . 

fremu, f., benefit, advantage, d. 
pi. 50 8 . 

freo, adj., free-born, noble, g. 

pi. I 5 19. 

freogan, w. contr., love, pres. 

3 pl. 54 12 - 
freolic, ad}., free, noble, goodly, 

14 13 , 8 3 28 , 90 2 j n. sg. f. 61 1 j 

n. pl. neut. 46 4 . 
freond, m., friend, d. sg. 20 16 $ 

g. pl. 26 21 j d. 93 4 . 
freorig, adj., r<?/^, 35'. 
freoSian, W2, protect, cherish, 

pres. 3 sg. 89 7 ; pret. 3 sg. 9 s . 
fretan, v, eat (of animals), <fe- 

*vour, 76 s ; pret. 3 sg. 47 «. 
fricgan, v, tfj£, search for, im- 

pertve. 14 19 , i6 ,Q , 26 26 , 27^. 
fridhengest, m., a stately horse, 

a. pl. 2 2 4 . 
friS, m. n., peace, safety, a. sg. 

72A 
friSemaeg, f., protectress, 9 9 . 
friSian, w2, protect, defend, 

1 67. 
frioosped, f., prosperity, g. sg. 

frod, adj., voise, prudent, a. pl. 
59 3 ; comp. 83 s5 , n. pl. 26 21 j 
©/</, 53 4 , 82 1 , 91 6 ; a. sg. m. 
7a 3 . 



frofor, f. , comfort, help, joy, g. 

sg- 5 4 i d. 39 l9 - 
from, fram, adj., strenuous, 

vigorous, bold, w. g. 62 2 , 

72 27 ; comp. 5 1 4 j sup. advbl. 

8 3 2 ». 
from, prep. w. d., from, away 

from, 20 23 , 22 19 , 33 2 , 43 I2 . 
fromcynn, n., lineage, ancestry, 

a. sg. 82 1 , 7 . 
fromlice, adv., stoutly, boldly, 

promptly, 15 17 , 40 69 j comp. 

40 66 . 
fruma, m. wk., beginning, 

origin, a. sg. 82 7 . 
frumbearn, n., first-born, n. 

pl. 46I 
frumsceaft, f., first creation, be- 
ginning of all things, d. sg. 3 14 . 
frumstaSol, m., original seat, 

place of birth, d. sg. 60 3 . 
frymS, m., beginning, d. sg. 

4o6,34. 

fugol, fugul, m., bird, 36 s } 
g. sg. 26 7 , 36'°} d. 3 1 7 j d. 
pl. 5 1 4 , 73 3 . 

ful, adj., full, a. sg. 3 30 j ad- 
verbially with adj. or another 
adv. as ful oft, 30 5 j sim. 256, 
40 Io4 , 82 6 , 87'*. 

ful, adj., foul, n. sg. wk. 40 48 $ 
comp. 40 31 . 

full, n., cup, a. sg. 23 14 j a. pl. 

-38. 



&lo$$ar£ 



147 



full est an, wi, help, pres. 3 sg. 

24 s . 
fuadian, wi, strive, endeavour, 

pres. 3 sg. 83 s } pret. 3 pi. 22 6 . 
furSum, adv., at first, formerly, 

3 ' 4 - . 

fQs, adj., ready, prompt, eager, 

hastening, -ji. 27 j n. pi. neut. 

3 43 , d. pi. 9 1 12 j w. g. eager 

for, 30 3 , 
fyllan, wi, fell, overthrow, 

pres. 1 sg. i 9 . 
fyllan, wi, fill, 61 8 , pret. 3 sg. 

37 4 j w. g. pret. ptc. 17 2 . 
fyllo, f., fulness, wealth, a. sg, 

425} g. I7 5. 
f>?r, n , /r*, a. sg. 40™ ; g. 

70 4 ; d. 3 43 , 12", 30 3 , 82 4 . 
fyrd, f., army, a. sg. 72 21 . 
fyrdrinc, m., warrior, g. sg. 

79 2 - 
fyrdsceorp, n , war-equipment, 



14 



i3 



fyrn, adj., ancient, f. 8 3 9 . 

G. 

gaest, gest, giest, m., guest, 

stranger, 15'° j a. sg. 43^ 

g. pi. 3 30 ; d. 22'5. 
gaest, m., spirit, 7 9 , 59 15 ; d. 

sg- 9 8 > 59 4 J a. pi. i' 3 j g. 

4 o 4 ', 4 85. 

(2) /(/*, a. sg. 12 2 . 



gaestberend, m., bearer of life, 

man, a. sg. 20 8 . 
gaful, gafol, n., tribute, a. sg. 

32 12 ; on gafol, for the use of, 

3 8 2 . 
galan, vi, sing, cry out, pres. 

3 sg. gaeleft, 20 35 . 
galdor, n , incantation, g. pi. 

67 2 . 
galdorcwide, m., magic, 

speech, a. sg. 48 7 . 
gan^anv.,^, 43 5 • pres. 3 sg. 

gaeft, 40 77 ; pret. 3 sg. eode, 4 6 . 
gangan, v. gongan. 
garsecg, m., the ocean, g. sg. 

2 3 , 40 93 . 

gat, m. f, £0*/, 24 2 . 

gear, n., year, g. pi. 32 12 } d. 

72 3 . 

geara, adv., of yore, formerly, 



20 



29 



geard, m., enclosure, dwelling, 
a. pi. 20 8 j d. 43 2 , 90 4 . 

gearu, adj., ready, prompt, 
comp. 83 s6 . 

gearugongende, adj , going 
swiftly, 40 l7 . 

gearwe, adv., readily, entirely, 

82 6 . 

geatwan, wi, prepare, equip, 
pret. ptc. 2 8 6 . 

geatwe, pi. f., ornaments, 
trappings, advbl. d., splen- 
didly, 35 10 . 



148 



$los$at£ 



gebrec, n., crash, noise, n. pi. 

3 44 , g- 3 4 °- 
gebroSor, pi. m., brethren, 

brothers (collectively), 13 2 . 

geceapian, w2, purchase, pres 
3 sg. 2 3 '3. 

geceosan, 11, choose, pret. part, 
gecoren, 3 1 IO , 

gecweSan, v, say, pret 3 sg. 
488. 

gecynd, f., kind, species, na- 
ture, d. sg, 72 4 j d. pi. 



39 



1 5 



gecySan, wi, w<z£* known, de- 
clare, 8 3 7 . 
gedselan, wi, separate, pres. 

3 pl. 84^ 
gedon, anv., cause, pret. 3 pl. 

gedydon, 72 6 . 
gedreag, n., tumult, turmoil, 

a, sg, 6 IG . 
gedwelan, iv, go astray, err ; 

pret. ptc, n, pl. m., perverse, 

Il7. 

gedygan, wi, escape, survive, 

pres. 3 sg. 38 6 } 3 pl. 3 57. 
gedyn, n,, din, noise, d. sg. 



45 



gefara, m, wk., companion, 79*. 

gefea, m., joy, d. sg 41 5. 

gefeon, v, contr., delight, re- 
joice, pret. 3 sg. 64 s . 

geferan, wi, endure, suffer, 
pret ptc. 2 7 4 . 



gefeterian, W2, fetter, chain, 

pret= ptc. 52I 
gefrage, adj., knovun, manifest, 



93 



gefrignan, in, hear of, pret. 

1 sg. 45', 472, 48', 67*. 
gefyllan, wi, ///, pres. 3 sg. 

14 8 , 66« } pret. 3 sg 447. 
gegnpaeS, m., hostile voay, d. 



s g l 5 



26 



gehabban, W3, hold firm, 16 10 . 
gehaelan, wi, heal, cure, pret. 

3 sg 5 12 5 imptve. 48 s . 
gehleSa, m, wk., companion, a. 

pl. 9 1 27 . 
gehrefan, wi, roof, cover, pret. 

ptc. 1 10 . 
gehwa, pron., each one, every 

one, d. sg. n 8 ; w. g. 2 12 , 

32", 33^, 54 9, 6o 6 f 8l 6 

gehwylc, pron., each, w. g. pl. 

7 1 6 ; g. sg. i 3 5, 4 o36j d. pl. 

41 8 , 82 12 , 93 13 . 
gelsedan, wi, lead, bring, 15 20 . 
gelic, adj., like, n. pl. 5i 7 . 
gelicnes, f., likeness, 36 9 . 
gelSme, adv., frequently, 31". 
gemadan, wi, madden, pret. 

ptc. n. pl. gema§dde, n 6 . 
ge mien an, wi, speak, utter, 

pres. 1 sg. 24 6 . 
gema*ne, adj., common, 71 3 . 
gemanian, W2, admonish, re* 

mind, pret. ptc. 3 66 , 



tfHossar^ 



149 



gemet, n., measure, fitness, d. 

sg. so 7 , 
gemittan, wi, meet, pres. 3 pi. 



23 



gemong, n., society, company, 

d. sg, 31 4 , » 
gemot, n., meeting, g. sg. 5 10 , 

25 10 . 
gemunan, prp., pres. 1 sg 82 6 $ 

3 P^ i7"- 
gemynd, n , mind, memory, a. 

sg- 59 7 
gen, geno, gena, glen, adv., 

yet, still, 20 29 , 40 58 , 49 8 5 

ftagen, rf/ry longer, 9*. 
(2) hitherto, 20 25 . 
gensegan, wi, approach, assail, 

pres, 3 sg. 2o j9 . 
gensestan, wi, contend, pres. 

3 sg. 2 7 10. 
geneahhe, adv., enough. 

(2) abundantly, frequently, 

8 2 , 12 12 , 2 6 8 , 3 1 10 . 
genearwian, W2, constrain, 

confine, pres, 3 sg. 3 1 . 
genergan, wi, save, 15 19 , 
geniman, iv, /#£*, hold, pret. 

3 s g- 53 12 (fiM into), ptc. n. 

pi. 52 s . 
geniwian, W2, renew, pret. 

ptc. 13 9 , 
geno, v. gen. 
geoc, f, A*7/>, health, 5 s , 
geofum, 83 36 , v. gifu. 



geoguScnosl, n., young family, 

d. sg. 15 10 . 
geoguSmyru, f. , gladness of 

youth, g. sg. 382. 
geolo, adj., yellow, a. sg. neut 

35 IO > 
geond, prep., w. a., through, 

throughout, all over, 1 5 , 13 13 , 

268, 34 5 , 39 t7 , 82% 8 3 4 0) 

87 IO , 
geong, adj., young, 14 2 , 40^, 

8 7 8 i f. 73' 5 comp. gingra, 

91 13 } n. pi. 87 20 . 
geongan, v gongan. 
geopan, 11, take into oneself, 

swallow, pret. 1 sg. 2 3 9 . 
georn, adj., eager, w g. 31 16 . 
georne, adv., eagerly, zeal- 
ously, 4 2 
gersecan, wi, reach, arrive, 

pres. 1 sg, 15 27 ; 3 sg. 3 58 . 
gerenl n. , ornament, n. pi. 

26 '5. 
gereord, n., speech, voice, d. 

pi. 14 16 . 
gerum, n., space, on geriim, 

into space, at large, 20 14 
geruma, m. wk., place, station, 

d, sg. 15 16 . 
geryde, adj., ready, convenient, 

63 A 
geryhte, n,, direction, straight 

direction, a. pi. on geryhtu, 

straight, 3 5 $. 



15° 



dJlosaarp 



geryman, wi, clear , open out, 

pres. i sg 62 4 . 
gesaelig, adj., £*/#>, 40 64 . 
gesceaft, f n., creature, n. pi 

3 42 . g, 40 88. 

(2) condition of life, nature, 
a. sg. 338. 

gesceap, n , creature, fate, na- 
ture, a. sg. 38 4 (see note); d. 
72 6 ; n. pi. io 7 , 39 24 ; a. 69 4 . 

gesceppan, vi, make, fashion, 
create, pret. 3 sg. 23 d , 87 17 . 

gescyldre, f. pi. shoulders, d. 
40 103 , 69I 

gesecan, wi, j^, «i/i//V, 39 s , 



59 



i5 



gesecgan, W3, say, 4 12 , 39*8; 
pret. 3 sg, 38 s ; infl. infin. 

36 12 , 39 2S - 
geselda, m. wk., comrade, 79 s . 
geseon, v, contr., see, pret. 1 

sg- 29', 34S 3 6 S 37S 3 8 S 

56', '°, 67 16 , 68', 74S 75 1 - 
gesettan, wi, set, establish, 

pret. 3 sg. 6 1 . 
gesibb, adj., akin, related, a. pi. 

m. 15 22 ; g. 26". 
gesihS, f., j/^A/, a. sg 599. 
gesiS, m., companion, n. pi. 

30 5 . 
gesom, adj., united, n. pi. 87 29 . 
gest, v. gaest. 
gestillan, wi, set at rest, quiet, 

pres. 3 sg. 3 3 5. 



gestreon, n , wealth, posses- 
sions, g. pi 20 3j , 2 8 3 , 

gestun, n , noise, commotion, 
vuhirlvuind, d sg. 3 s6 . 

gesund, adj , sound, safe, sane, 
n pi. 43 6 , 22 21 j comp. n. pi. 

26'9. 

gesweostor, f pi., sisters, n. 
pi. 4 6 3 . 

gesweotolian, W2, show, de- 
clare, pret. ptc. 8 3 23 . 

geswican, 1, leave off, desist, 
w. g. pres, 3 sg. 2 7' 2 j 3 pi. 

gesyne, adj , visible, evident, 
manifest, 39 s , n. pi. 13 4 . 

getaese, adj., mild, soothing, 
n. sg. f. 8327. 

getenge, adj., near to, resting 
upon, w. d. 7 8 , io 4 , 525, 56 9 , 
8 3 25 5 a - sg. f. 76 2 ; a. pi. 
neut. 6 3 . 

getreowe, adj. , faithful, g. pi. 

26 23 . 

geSencan, wi, reflect upon, 
infl infin. 41 8 . 

geSeon, wi, oppress, tame, sub- 
due, 4o9 r . 

geSraec, n., press, tumult, crash, 
violence, 2 2 7 ; a. sg. 2 2 , 3 61 5 
a. pi 3 5 6 . 

geSring, n., press, tumult, 3 27 . 

geSringan, indwell, pret. ptc. 
a. sg. f. 86 2 . 



(Slossarp 



151 



geSuren, v. Sweran. 

geSwaere, adj., harmonious, 
obedient, gentle, 2 15 , 50 6 . 

geSywan, wi, fashion, press, 
pret. 3 pi. geftydan, 6o l4 . 

gewaede, gewede, n., gar- 
ment, a. sg. 35 12 , l4 i d. pi. 

geweald, n. f., power, a. sg 

27 14 ; d. 3 16 . 

geweaxan, rd., grow, pret. 3 

sg- 79 6 - 
gewendan, wi, turn, change. 

(2) go, 8 7 34 . 
geweorSan, in, become, 40 43 . 
gewin(n), n., battle, strife, g. 

16 4 j on gewin,yir strife, 20 1 , 

232. 
gewit, n., w*/, understanding, 



a. sg. 39 



1 3 



gewitan,prp., know, pret. 3 sg. 



29 



i4 



gewitan, \, depart, go forth, freq. 
constr. with another verb of 
motion, feran, tredan, secan, 
etc., in infin. ; sometimes also 
w. refl. pron. (29 10 ) ; pres. 1 
sg. 2', 360, 16 2 ; 3 sg. 396 } 
pret. 3 sg. 29 % «3, 9 i« ; 3 
pi. 13". 

gewrit, n., writing, book, n. pi. 
39', '3. 

gewunian, w2, dwell, pret. 
1 sg. 60 2 . 



gied, n,, song, a. sg. 47 3 } g. 

55 l4 5 <*• 79'°- 
giefan, v, £/*;*, pres. 3 sg, 

40 19 j pret. 3 sg. 20 4 , 23 , 

87". 
gieldan, in, pay, pres. 3 sg 

giellan, in, yell, scream, pres. 1 

sg. 24 3 ; pres ptc. 32 4 . 
gielpan, in, boast of, glory in, 

w. d. pres. 3 sg. 58 12 . 
glen, v. gen. 

gierwan, gyrwan, wi, pre- 
pare, adorn, pres. 3 sg. 20 9 ; 

pret. 3 sg 26' 3 ; pret. ptc. 

20 2 , 28', 29 3 , 36 2 , 67 17 , 68 2 , 

?7i< 6 . 
giest, v. gaest. 
giestron, adv., yesterday, 40 44 
gif, conj., if, 3 29 , 54 , 12 3 , etc. 
gifen, n., the sea, 2 3 . 
gifre, adj., useful, salutary, 

26 28 j d. pi. 49 3 . 
gifre, adj., greedy, voracious, 

sup. adv. 8 3 29 . 
gifu, geofu,f.,^//, d. pi. 5 8< 3 i 

geofum, 83 s6 . 
gimm, m , gem, jewel, d. pi. 

83^. 
gingra, v. geong. 
gitsian, W2, desire, crave for, 

w. g. pres. 3 sg. 58". 
glaed, adj., glad, happy > 63* j 

f. 24 7 . 



152 



<£los»aH? 



gleaw, adj., clever, skilled, 

wise, 33 l4 , 35 l3 , 83 s3 ; n. pi. 

48 7 5 a. 592 ; comp. n. sg. 47*. 
gied, i.,glede,fire,T>Q*. 
gleowstol, m., seat of joy, a. 

sg, 91^. 
glida, m. wk., kite, g. sg. 24 s . 
gliwian, wi, delight, adorn, 

w. d. pret. 3 pi. 26 13 . 
God, m., God, 40 21 5 a. sg. 59 4 j 

g. 59 '5; d. 488. 
god, good, adj., good, 79 IO 5 a. 

sg. m. 44 3 j n. pi. m. 54" ; 

g. 26". 
god, n., £00*/, well-being, a. pi. 

93 6 . 
godlic, ad)., goodly, 86 4 . 
godwebb, n., precious web, 

a. 3510. 
gold, xv., gold, 90 4 ; a. sg. 20 8 , 

5 l7, 55 3, ?0 6. g , ^46, 4 g 6> 

59 io j d. 142, 2 6« 3 , 49 6 , 6 3 3 , 
6y'7. 

goldhilted, adj., golden-hilted, 



55 



i4 



goma, m. wk., palate, gums, 
d. sg. 40 58 ; a. pi. 49 6 . 

gong, m., course, movement, d. 
sg. 4 o72. 

gongan, geongan, gangan, 
rd., go, walk, 3 1 8 , 54', 85 • ; 
pres. 1 sg. 212; 3 sg. 34 s , 
39 23 5 pres. opt. 3 sg. 36 13 ; 
pres. ptc. d. sg. f. 21 9 . 



gop, m. (&r. X«7.)» slave (?), g. 

sg. 49 3 . 
gor, n., dirt, dung, g. sg. 40 72 . 
gos, f., goose, 243. 
graedan, rd., cry, 24 s . 
graedig, adj.,^r^, a. sg. 38* ; 

sup. adv. 8 3 29 . 
graes, n., grass, a. sg. 15 6 . 
grafan, vi, dig, pres 1 sg. 21 2 ; 

pret. 3 sg. 336, 91'°. 
grapian, W2, take hold of, snatch 

at, pret. 3 sg. 45 3 . 
great, adj., stout, thick, ?8i*. 
grene, adj., green, 21 9 ; wk. 

4o 5r , 83 } a. sg. neut. 15 6 ; 

n. pi. 66 5 ; a. 12 2 , 
greot, m., ground, dust, earth, 

d. sg., 3 2 4 . 
gretan, wi, approach, visit, 4 6 , 

44 6 , ?88 5 . 
grim, grym, adj., grim, cruel, 
dreadful, wk. 43 2 ; a. sg. 
wk. 3 3o j sup. d. (i.) sg. wk. 

28 3 . 

grima, m. wk., phantom, spec^ 

tre, 40 l7 . 
grimman, in, rage, roar, pres. 

3 Sg. 2 5 . 

grimme, adv. cruelly, fiercely, 

50 9 , 8 3 3 . 
grindan, m, grind, 32 4 . 
gripan, 1, seize, take hold of 

pres. 3 sg 257 } pret. 3 sg 

(with on), 86 4 . 



4$lo00ar? 



153 



gripe, m., grip, grasp, d. sg. 

70 6 . 
grom, adj., angry, hostile, cruel, 

n. pi. 72 s j g. 20 19 . 
gromheort, adj., cruel-hearted, 

d» sg. 4 6 . 
gr5wan, rd., grow, 34 9 . 
grund, m., ground, a. sg. 2 3 , 

40 93 ; d. 21 2 , 22» 5 , 83 s ; d. 

pi. 66 5 . 
grundbedd, n., ground, a. sg. 

8 3 29 . 
grym, v. grim, 
grymetian, W2, nzgY, ra^r, 

pres. 3 sg. 83 s . 
gryrelic, adj., horrible, 33 s . 
guma, m. wk., man, n. pi, 

32", 4 87, 6 3 3 j g. 23'°, 28 3 , 

82 6 . 

gumcynn, n., mankind, g. sg. 

8720. 
gumrinc, m., man, 86 4 . 
guS, f., at^r, battle, a. sg. 

20 2S } d. 20* 9 . 

guSfugol, m., war-bird, g. sg. 
guSgemot, n., battle-meeting, 



g- sg. 15 



26 



guSgewinn, n., battle, war- 
like contest, g. sg. 5 s . 

guSwiga, m. wk., warrior, g. 
sg. 90 4 . 

gylden, adj., golden, a. sg. m. 
59 1 - 



gyman, wi, heed, w, g. pres. 

1 sg. 20 35 , 
gyrdan, wi, gird, encircle, 

pret. ptc. 89 4 . 
gyrdels, m., girdle, a sg. 54 4 5 

d. 54". 
gyrn, m., sorrow, 15 6 } d. sg. 

826. 
gyrwan, v. gierwan. 



habban, W3, have, hold, 3 65 , 



20 



28 n 35 . 



pres. 1 sg. i 12 , 
18 2 , 21 8 , 79 6 , 80 2 , 82 IG , 91 25 j 
hafb, 11 2 , 35 5, 4 o98j 3 sg. 

3* 2 S 34 2 , 39 3 , ,oet S 44 3 , 
5 87, 6 5 3 ,6 7 8 , 6 9 3 , 8 3 2 j 3 pi. 
26 2 ', 3 i'5, 55 n ; p r et, 1 sg. 
io 6 , 265, 71 '2, 73 5 ; 3 sg. 9", 

*9 4 > 3 l5 > 3* 8 > 3 636 > 37 3 , 7* 26 , 

8 5 3 , 86<; 3 pi. 13 3 , 22 3 i 

pres. ptc. g. sg 64 s . 

w. neg. pref. pret. 3 sg. 

nsefde, 32 s . 
had, m., person, form, a. pi. i 12 . 
haeft, n., bondage, captivity, d. 

sg. 7222. 
haeftan, wi, imprison, confine, 

pret. ptc. 4 2 . 
haeftnyd, f., imprisonment, a. 

Sg. 82 9 . 

haegl, haegel, m., hail, 80 9 . 
(2) the rune H, n. pi. 42". 



154 



^lostfarg 



haegstealdmon, v. hagosteald- 

mon. 
Hae"lend, m., the Saviour, a. sg. 

59 6 . 
haeleS, m., man, hero, warrior, 
26 12 , 62 6 j n pi. haeleft, 27 s , 

55 r > 56 JI ;g- IS 3 8 > 7 3 , *° 31 , 
40^ . d. gi 0> 2 6 28 , 35 12 , 48 1 , 
59««, 69 6 , 83", 35 , 53 . 

haelo, f., welfare, salvation, 
a. sg. 48 s . 

hsemed, n., marriage, inter- 



course, a. sg. 20 



28 



haemedlac, n., intercourse, g. 

haer, n., v. her. 

haetsan, wi, drive, urge, pres. 
3 sg. 3 5 . 

hafoc, m., hawk, 24 s , 40 67 . 

hafu, see habban. 

hagosteald, n., celibacy, bach- 
elorhood, d Sg. 2 3 '. 

hagostealdmon, haegsteald- 
mon, m., dweller in the 
homestead, bachelor, youth, 

i4 2 , 54 3 - 
halig, adj., holy, 2628. 
hals, heals, m., neck, throat, 

15', d. sg. 3121, 7,12. 
halsrefeSer, f., down, d. sg. 



40 



80 



halswriSa, m. wk., neck-band, 

a. sg. 4I 
ham, m., ^owf, d. sg. to ($am) 



ham, homewards, 29*, 9 , 34*$ 
aet ham, at ho?ne, 43 7 , 77 s . 

hamleas, adj., homeless, 39 9 . 

hangelle, f. vvk. (for. Xe7.), hang- 
ing thing, g. sg. 44 6 . 

har, adj., hoar, grey, 21 3 j wk. 

4 o74, 9I n. 

hasofag, adj., tawny, v hasu, 
11 1 . 

hasu, heasu, adj , golden-grey, 
tawny, originally the colour 
of a wolf or eagle, a. sg. wk. 
2 4 4 ; n, pi. m. has we, 1 7 ; a. f. 
1 3 9 ; for heasewe, 40 61 . See 
note. [Dietrich : "fulvo- 
cinereus" \ " wol ursprimg- 
lich wolfgrau, und adlergrau, 
jene gemischte Farbe von 
goldgelb und grau : bald 
iiberwiegt der Gedanke an 
das Goldgelbe (vgl. blond), 
bald das Grau der Mischung. " 
Traut. 2 : " Ich kann nach 
allem nur glauben, dass hasu 
' glanzend * und * schim- 
mernd ' bedeute ." 

hat, adj., hot, wk. 43 s j a. sg. 
m. 62 7 , comp. 40 57 . 

hatan, rd., command, pres. 3 
sg. 6 5 , 40 38 j pret. 3 sg. het, 
g9'° ; heht, 40 8 \ pret. ptc. 
61* 

(2) call, name, 35 12 ; pret. 
ptc. 24 9 ; n. ph 42 l7 . 



tfUossarE 



155 



(3) be called, named, pres. 
1 sg. hatte, i' 5 , 3 72 , 8 8 , 10", 
etc. 
he, heo (hio), hit, pron. he, she, 

it, 3 3 S *5 l4 > *7 lI > l2 > etc. ; 
f. 9", r2 , 20 33 , 25 7 , 31 13 , l4 , 

l6 , 2I , 34 6 > 7 , 3* 7 , 3« 6 , 39 5 , 
7ete^ 4026^ a8, 54 .9 (hie), 6 1 4 , 

6 7 4 , 68 2 , 79 5 , «3 27 , 86*, 7. a . 



sg. m. 3^, 15", 2 3", 50 



i5 



,8 10 

5 3V.54S58 4 ;neut. 37 4 ,39 4 > 
40 47 ig- sg. m. 1 5 "5, 352, 37 4, 
4 o«3,39, 43 9 f44 4,6 f 46 ., 53 9, 

54 3 > 6 > 55 ,3 > 6 9 4 , 7* 9 5 £ 9 6 > 

2o34, 3 i6 ? ,3 ? 338, 39 23 ? ^ 

586, 69'; d. m. 3 54, 4 6, 6 4 y 

i5 25 ,37 6 , 38 2 ,43 4 ,49 6 , 9 ,5o 6 , 
828, 846, 8 7 3 °, 887, 9I i3. f. 

321, 20 33 , 31.7, 34 3 ? 54,5^0. 

pi. n. 6 8 , 11 6 , '°, 13 6 , 16 5 , 
20 12 , 22 6 , »9, 26 19 , 30 7 , 43 6 , 
«*, 53 to ja. 26^5, 57 6. g . 6 9, 

13 2 , 5, 22 9, ,8 f 21, 26 23 ? 453, 
488, 5265 d. 15", ,6», 43 7 , 

reflex, a. sg. m. 55 15 ; d. 
3 53 , 194, 37 8 5 f. 2 9 5, io } 3I 2. . 
d. pi. 31 



i5 



heafod, n., head, 15', 61 5 , 89 1 j 

a. sg. 258, 5 87, 6 5 3 , 8o 2 j g. 

53 9 ; d. zi'», 4 o98, io 2> 44 6. 

a. pi. 3 67 ; g . g 5 4. 
heafodbeorht, bright-headed, a. 

sg. m. 19 2 . 



heafodleas, adj., headless, 14 10 . 
heafodwoS, f. , head-tone, <voice, 

d. sg. 8 3 . 
hSah, adj., high, 3 «, n* (/^ 

///£/* One), 254, 696, 8728, 

9 1 3 j f. wk. 7 4 j neut. 3 2 7, 63 . 

a. sg. m. 8o 2 j wk. 4022 5 d. 

heaum, 22 19 ; n. pi. m. 22 7 j 

wk. 42 l7 5,a. 3 24 }d. 1 10 , comp. 

hyrra, 87 15 $ neut. 40 s8 , 922 $ 

sup. hyhst, 83 12 . 
heahcraeft, m., high art, a., sg. 

35 4 - 
heahcyning, m., high king, 



40 



33 



healdan, rd., hold, maintain, 
keep, pres. 1 sg. 8 4 j 3 sg. 
l3 , 40 2 , 5 , 22 5 pres. opt. 1 



20 

sg. 4o 3 7 ; pret. 3 sg. 9*, 42^. 
healdend, m., holder, possessor, 

d. sg. 20 23 . 
healf, f., side, d. sg. 21 9 , 8728. 
heall, f., hall, a. sg. 55*$ d. 

55 l3 > 59S l8 - 
heals, v. hals. 

hean, adj., abject, mean, poor, n. 

pi. 32 13 j d. 93 2 , comp. 39 9 . 
heap, m. n., heap, crowd, flock, 

d. pi. S 7 4 - 
heard, adj., hard, 14 10 , 26 s , 

3 3 7, 44 3 , 62% 798, 9 n7 ; 

wk. 40 s4 , 559, 8 9j a. sg. 

neut. 8o 4 ; d. sg. 89 s j wk. 

4o79 5 n. pi. 87 13 } a. 52*, 



1 5 6 



drtossan? 



comp. n. sg. 40 s4 , 7 8 , 83 s5 ; 

sup. i. wk. 28*. 
hearde, adv., severely, sorely ', 

3 5 , 8 9 5. 
heardecg, adj., hard-edged, n. 

pi. neut. 5 8 . 
heasu, v. hasu. 
heaSoglem, m., battle-wound, 

g. pi. 5 63. 
hea&or, m., restraint, confine- 
ment, d. sg. ^o l^ <| 65 s . 
heaSosigel, m., sun, 72 19 . 
hebban, vi, raise, 45* j pres. 3 

sg. hefeft, 445 5 pret. 3 sg. 

hof, 543. 
hefig, adj., heavy, a. sg. m. 

587, comp. 40 74 . 
hell, f., hell, the nether world, 

a. sg. 66 6 } d. 39 20 . 
helm, m., covering, protection, 

87 16 , a. sg. 3 64 . 

(2) protection, sovereign, a. 

sg. 26 17 . 
helpend, m., helper, Saviour, 

49 5 « 
helwaru, f., dweller in hell, 

g- pi- 55 6 - 
hengest, m., horse, 22 14 . 
heofon, m., heaven, the sky, 

922, a. sg 40" ; g. 40 4 , 33 f 

865 . d. 4 o3»j a. pi. 666 j d. 

29", 3920. 
heofonwolcn, n., cloud of 

heaven, n. pi. 72*, 



heolfor, n., gore, 91 17 . 
heord, f., herd, flock, g. sg. 17 1 . 
heoroscearp, adj., terribly 

sharp, n. pi. neut. 5 s . 
heorte, f. wk., heart, d. sg 42 14 } 

d. pi. 26 20 . 
heorugrim, adj., very fierce, 

wk. 40 55 . 
hCr, adv., here, 40 32 , 49 , 6l , 

77«', 416,49'°, 8 7 23 . her. . . 

aer, heretofore, before this, 

49 ^ 
her, haer, n., hair, n. pi. 15 3 ; 

d. 26 s , 35 4 . 
heran, v. hyran 
here, m., army, g sg. herges, 

79 8 . 
heresiS, m., voar-march, cam- 
paign, d. sg. 29 s . 
hest, f. , violence, fury, a. sg. 



15 



28 



hetegrim, adj., fierce with 

hatred, 33 s . 
heterQn, f. , charm of mischief, 

a. pi. 33 7 . 
hie, she, 54 9 , v. he. 
higora, m. wk., magpie, runes 

of, 24. 
hild, f., battle, g. sg. 33 s 5 d. 

14 4 . 
hildegiest, m., enemy, d. sg. 

S3 9 - 

hildepil, hyldepil, m., dart, 

javelin, n. pi. 17 6 5 d. 15 28 . 



45iotf$an? 



iS7 



hildeSryS, f., strength in war, 
a. sg. 19 4 . 

hildewsepen,n., battle-weapon, 
90 5 . 

hindan, adv., from behind, be- 
hind, 88 4 , 89 s j on hindan, 

37 1 - 

hindeweard, adj., hinder, be- 
hind, d. f. 2i lS . 

hingong, m., hence-going, g. 
sg. 62 1 . [Ingong, 1 readg, 
of MS., means entree.] 

his, v. he. 

hiSan, wi. plunder, ravage, 
pres. 3 sg. 34 4 5 pres. ptc. n. 

sg- 33 7 > 9i 26 ; g- pl- 93 s - 
hladan, vi, load, heap up, pres. 

1 s g. 3 65 > P ret « 3 pi- 2* I0 i 

pret. ptc. 83 21 . 
hlaeder, f., ladder, a. sg. 55*. 
hlaest, n., burden, a. pl. i lS . 
hlaford, m., /or^, master, 4*, 

2i3, is, g 9 9. g . sg . 5 gi3. d< 

43 9 , 56". 
hlafordleas, adj., without a 

master, 20". 
hleahtor, m., laughter, 33 s . 
hl5o, n., cover, shelter, a. sg. 

27 s . 
hleobord, n., protecting board, 

d. pl. 26 12 . 
hl5or, n., cheek, d. pl. 15 4 . 
hleortorht, adj., with bright 

cheeks, 69 s . 



hleosceorp, protecting garment, 

d. sg. 9 5 . 
hleoSor, n., sound, voice, song, 

3i' 7 ;a. sg. 2 4 5 } d. 8 4 , 14 4 . 
hlifian, W2, tower, stand erect, 

53' 5 pres. 3 pl. 15 4 . 
hlimman, m, sound, roar, pres. 

3 sg- * 5 , 35 6 - 
hlin, m., maple, 55 9 . 
hlin, m., »0/V*, i 7 . 
hlinc, m., hill, a. pl. 3 24 . 
hlinsian, W2, sound, resound, 

pret. 3 sg. 333. 
hli5, n., slope, hill, cliff, a. pl. 

hleo$a, 2 7 $ hlifto, 91 7 . 
hloSgecrod, n., press of troops, 

3 63 . 
hlud, adj , loud, noisy, 3 24 , 84 1 ; 

sup. 34°, 
hlude, adv., loudly, 2 s , 3 62 , 7 7 , 

8 3 , IO , 33 3 , 4« 2 , 57 4 - 
hluttor, adj., clear, bright, a. sg. 

m. 2c 7 . 
hnecca, m. wk., neck, a. sg 

80 4 . 
hnesc, adj. , tender, soft, delicate, 

comp. 40 80 . 
hnigan, 1, bend, incline, descend, 

pres. 1 sg. 3 63 \ pres. ptc. n. 

pl. m. 8». 
hnitan, 1, strike, touch, 89 4 . 
hnossian, W2, beat, strike, pres. 

3 pl. 57. 
hoi, n., hole, a. sg. 44 s j d. 62 7 



1 5 8 



aiostfars 



hold, adj., kind, gracious, faith- 
ful, 9 4 ; d. sg. 6 1 4 . 

holdlice, adv. t graciously, faith- 
fully, sedulously, 34I 

holen, m., holly, 55'°. 

holm, m., the sea, water, a sg. 
3 6 9 5 d. i «°. 

holmmaegen, n., ocean, d. sg. 
29. 

holt, n., forest, wood, g. sg. 21 3 ; 
d. 90 1 ; n. pi. 87 15 . 
(2) log or /*£/«, a. sg 56 s . 

homer, m., hammer, d. sg. 8 9 « ; 

S P L 5 7 
hond, f., hand, 60 f2 ; a. sg. 

i2' 2 , 49 3 > 79 4 J g- P 1 8 5 5 i 

d. 30 5 , 45 4 > 54 4 - 
hondweorc, n., hand-work, a. 

sg. 20 7 ; n. pi. 5 8 . 
hondwyrm, m., handworm, 

a worm that attacks the hand, 

4 o96, 662. 
hongian, W2, hang, pres. 1 sg. 

hongige, 14" , 3 sg 21", 

44' i pret. 3 pi. 13 3 . 
hopgehnast, n., dashing of 



hornssel, n., gabled hall, or a 
hall with horns on its gable 
(see %7 2Z ), n. pi. hornsalu, 

3 8 - 
hors, n., horse, 36 s , g sg. 36'°^ 

a pi. 22 10 . 
horse, adj., ready-witted, 

clever, i 1 . 
hraed, hraeS, adj., swift, active, 

53 l! j comp. hraedra, 40 72 . 
hraegl, n., i/r^jj, 7 1 , u 1 , 1 3 9 ; 

a- sg. 44 4 , 544; d. io 7 , 45 4, 

626. 
hreddan, wi, save, rescue, 



14 



18 



hreoh, adj., rough, wild, 832. 
hreoSan, 11, adorn, pret. ptc. 

gehroden, 8 3 22 . 
hreran, wi, move, stir, pres 

1 sg. i« } hreru, 3*; 3 sg. 

80 7 5 pres. opt. pi. ?8 3 5 '. 
hreSe, adj., fierce, zealous, 



comp. 40 



7 f 



waves, g. sg. 3 



27 



hord, n., treasure, a. sg 31 21 , 
53 m, 9 i26. g . 8 9 9,g. pi. Il9; 

d. 83", ?83 52 . 

hordgeat, n., door of the treas- 
ure-room, g. sg. hordgates, 
42". 

horn, n., horn, d. pi. 2 9 2 . 



hreSer, m., breast, d sg. 61 s , 

9 i l7 . 
hrif, f. , stomach, womb, a sg. 

40 45 , d. 17 6 , 23 12 , ?8 3 5 '. 
hrim, m., rime, frost, 40 55 , 

8o9. 
hrimigheard, adj. , hard-frozen, 

a. pi. m. 91". 
hrinan, 1, touch, reach, w. d. 

pres. 1 sg. 6 4 , 66 5 j hrino, 

x 5 28 i 3 s g- 8 3 46 j pret. 1 sg. 



dHogsarp 



159 




39 IO > 3 s g* 39 2 °i w * a * P res « 
3 sg. 2 3 '2, 
hrindan, in, />#///, press, pret. 

3 sg. 54 4 - 
bring, m. , ring, 48 s , 596; a. 

48 1 , 59 1 5 g. 59 ,8 > d - 9° 5 > a - 

pi. 20 23 j d. 70 8 , 89 4 j hrin- 

gan, 4 2 . 
hrisil, m., shuttle, 3 5 7 . 
hrof, m., roof, a. sg. 2 9 7 , 52 2 j 

g. 27 s j d. pi. i 7 } (2) j#/#- 

mit, a. sg. 15 27 . 
iror, adj., lusty, vigorous, 54 s . 
hrung, f. , rung (of a cart), 

perh. the pole supporting the 

cover, a. sg. 22 10 . 
hruse, f. wk., earth, 3 6 , 722 j a. 



s g- 



27 11 ; d. 40 



55 



8 3 35 , ?8 3 46 . 
hrutan, 11, resound, whirr, 

pres. ptc. 3 5 7 . 
hrycg, m., back, a. sg. 3 65 , 

21", 80 4 , 8 5 5 - d. 1 « f 36, 

19 4 , 27 11 , 36 s j d. pi. 3 33 . 
hu, adv., h ow, i i5 , 17 6 , 31 19 , 

3 6' 3 , 39 23 , 42 l6 , 59 ,7 > 6 o I2 » 

8 3 8 , 55 - 
hund,num., hundred, w. g. 8 5 4 . 
hund, m., dog, za 2 ; g. sg. 

36'°. 
hungor, m., hunger, 43 3 . 
hunig, n., honey, d. sg. 40 59 . 
hu5, f., plunder, a. sg. 29 2 , 4 , 9 . 
hwa, hwaet, interrog. pron., 



who? what ? i 2 , l4 , 2 13 , 3 35 , 
73 , 74 , 82 7 } neut. 3 72 , 8 8 , 10", 
1 9 9, 23* 2 8< 3 , 31 24 , 35 ' 4 , 
3 6 7 , 41 9 , 6i9, 63'S. 

hwael, m., whale, 4o 92 . 

hwaeimere, m.," whalemere," 
the sea, z 5 . 

hwser, adv., where, %j 26 . 

hwaet, adj., vigorous, bold, 
comp. n. pi. 26 20 . 

hwaeSre, conj., however, nev- 
ertheless, 3 54 , 2 2« 7 , 3 1 8 , 9, i7 y 
3 9 l8 > 54 8 > 5 85 > hwaeftre se 
fteah, nevertheless, 3 5 1 l . 

hwearft, m., circuit, expanse, 
d. sg. 40 33 . 

hweorfan, m, turn, change, 
move, pres. 3 sg. 40 5 ; 3 pi. 
43 l2 ; pres. ptc. 56 s . 

(2) roam, 20 22 , 32 s , 3 9 9 . 

hwettan, wi, whet, urge, ex- 
cite, pres. 1 sg. ii. 3 

hwil, f. , a while, space of time, 
a. sg. 2 8 9 . 

d. pi. advbl. hwilum, some- 
times, 2 1 , 3 1 , l7 , etc. 

hwit, adj., white, 15* $ n. pi. 
f. io 8 j a. pi. m. 40 98 . 

hwitloc, hwitlocced, adj., 
white-locked, fair-haired, 
42 3 j n. sg. f. 7 9 4 . ^ 

hwonne, adv. w. subjve. , until, 
15'°$ hwonne xr, how soon, 
when, 3 1 l2 . 



i6o 



d5lo0$atT? 



hwylc, pron. interrog. , which ? 
who? w. g. pi. i 1 . 

(2) indef. anyone, w. g. pi. 



20 



1 9 



67 



siquis, 42 ] 



hwylc senig, any, d. sg. 23'°. 

hwyrfan, wi, turn, move about, 
pres. 3 sg. hwyrfeS, 12 12 . 

hwyrftweg, m., way back, es- 
cape, g. sg. 3 6 . 

hycgan, W3, think, meditate, 
infl. infin. 28 12 , 31 23 . 

hyd, f., ^fVfc, skin, a. sg. 76 7 ; 
d. 26 12 . 

hygebliSe, blithe of heart, comp. 
n. pi. wk. 26 20 . 

hygecraeftig, adj., wise, saga- 
cious, i 1 . 

hygefsest, adj., wise, a. pi. m. 



42 



i4 



hygegal, adj., light-minded, 

wanton, a. sg. f wk. 12 12 . 
hygeSonc, m., thought, d. pi. 

35 4 - 
hygewlonc, adj. , proud-minded, 

f. 454 j a. sg. m. 19 2 . 
hyhst, v. heah. 
hyht, m., hope, joy, 64 3 , 93 s } 

d. sg. 25 1 . 
hyhtlic, adj., joyful, n., 90 5 ; 

a. sg. n. 35' 2 . 
hyhtplega, m. wk., sport, g. 



sg. 20 



28 



hyldepil, v. hildepil. 
hyll, m., hill, g. sg. 15 27 . 



h^ran, heran, wi, hear. 

(2) obey, w. d., 3 34 , 4 2 , 



2c 



3 sg. 



2 3' 5 j pres. 1 s 

43 9 , 50 5 , 58 13 . 
hyrde, m., keeper, herdsman, 

a. sg. 89 9 ; d. 71 *°. 
hyred, m., congregation, d. sg. 

_59 6 . 
hyrra, v. heah. 

hyrst, ra., hurst, coppice, wood, 

d. pi. 40 61 . 
hyrst, f., ornaments, trappings, 

n. pi. 7 4 , io 8 , 11 1 j d. 14 11 , 

3 i 2 °, 53 7, 8 7 t5. 
hyrstan, wi, adorn, pret. ptc. 

70 8 . 
hyse, m., youth, 54 r . 

I. 

Ic, pron., /, i 3 , 8 , etc.; a. sg. 
mec. i 2 , l4 , etc. ; g. mm, 
26 18 , 354; d. me, i' 2 , 3 5 , 
etc.; n. dual, wit, 63 s , 84 7 , 

87 14 , 29 , 3l ; a. unc, 8 4 7 , 

87 15 , l7 ; g. uncer, 87 30 ; d. 
unc, 6o« 5 , 63 16 , 84 2 , 87'*, 
?7i 3 , n. pi. we, 3 6 12 , 40 73 , 
416, 7 9 ?I 3 . g . u Ser> 40 89 . 
d. 42 16, 54 5. 

ides, f., woman, 61 2 ; a. sg. 

75 1 J g- P 1 - 4^ 7 . 
in, prep. w. d., in, 8 6 , etc.; 
following its case, 84 6 ; w. a. 
into, 15 6 . 



dlottttrp 



161 



in, adv., in 9 32". 

indryhten, adj., noble, 93 1 ; a. 

sg. m. 43'. 
ingeSonc, m., inward thought, 

wit, 6o l3 . 
innan, adv., in, within, i? 2 ? 

87 32 j in innan, inside, 9 3 , 2 8 7 . 
innanweard, adj., internal, a. 

sg. m. 91 15 . 
innaS, m., stomach, womb, in- 
side, 17 9 , a. sg. 37 6 ; d. 35*. 
insittende, m., one who sits 

within, g. pi. 46?. 
isern, n., iron, 71 14 , 91^ ; g. 

sg. 5 8 9 ;d. 5'. 
iu, adv., once, formerly, 70 2 . 
Iw, m.,^w, 559. 

L. 

15c, n., £///, d. pi. 49 3 . 
lacan, rd., play, dance, 31 19 , 

pres. 1 sg. 30 1 } pret. 3 sg. 

leolc, 56 s . 
laececynn, n., leech-kin, tribe 

of doctors, a. sg. 5 10 . 
laedan, wi, lead, bring, 29*, 

pret. ptc. 2 8 6 . 
laeran, wi, teach, pret. 3 sg. 



40 



34 



laes, adv., comp. of lyt, less, 

9". 

laessa, adj., comp. of lytel, 

less, neut. 4o 9S , 66 2 . 
laetan, rd., let, allow, pres. 1 



sg- 3 38 i 3 s g. 3 56 > 2 ° l3 > 34 7 , 
50 10 ; 3 pi. 3465 pres. opt. 3 
sg. 3 38 j pret. 3 pi. 13 10 . 

laf, f. , remnant, what is left, 
70 3 , a. sg. 56 10 , 89 10 ; feole, 
homera, etc. , laf, leavings of 
the file, of hammers, etc. (a 
usual kenning for sword or ar- 
mour), n. pi. 5 7 . 

lagu, m., sea, water, 3"; a. 



sg. 22 



.6 



lagufaeSm, m., watery embrace, 

d. sg. 60 7 . 
lagofl5d, m., water-flood, a. 

sg. 58^. 
lagustream, m., water-stream, 

g pl. 3 38 - 
land, v. lond. 
lang, v. long, 
lar, f., lore, teaching, guidance, 

d. pl. 3922. 
lareow, m., teacher, 67 13 . 
last, m., footstep, track, a. sg., 

3 2I > d. 39 8 >7i l3 ;"• pl- 5^ 2 i 
a. 93 11 j on last, on laste, be- 
hind, 3 21 , 13". 

latteow, m., leader, guide, 2 11 . 

laS, adj., hateful, hostile, comp. 
g. sg. 5 10 . 

laSgewinna, m. wk., hated op- 
ponent, d. pl. 15 29 . 

laSian, W2, invite, summon, 



pres. 1 sg. 14 



16 



lead, n., lead, g. sg. 40 75 . 



1 62 



^iogtfan? 



leaf, f., leafy foliage, d. pi. 56 10 . 
leanian, W2, reward, requite, 

pres. 3 sg. 50 9 . 
lecgan, wi, /<z>>, pres. 3 sg. 

79 4 5 pret. 3 sg. 3 14 , 20 30 . 
leg, v. lig. 
lengan, wi, lengthen, prolong, 

pres. 3 sg. 28 s . 
lengra, v. long, 
leode, pi., people, g. pi. 67 13 . 
leof, adj., beloved, dear, 20 2 , 

40 27 , 34 , 79 2 , 83 27 , comp. 

92 6 . 

leofian, v. lifgan. 

leoht, n., light, yz 6 , d. sg. 

27 17 , 63 11 . 
leoht, adj., light (opp. to 

heavy), comp. neut. 40 76 , 

?92 6 . 

leoht, adj., light (opp. to dark), 

bright, d. sg. wk. 40 57 , comp. 

neut. 66 2 . 
leohtlic, adj., shining, bright, 

a. sg. neut. 29 3 . 
leolc, v. lacan. 
leoma, m. wk., gleam, light, 

ray, d. sg. 40 57 . 
libban, w2, live, pres. 3 sg. 

leofafl, 39 27 . 
lie, n., body, a. sg. 65* ; d. 10 s . 
licgan, v., lie, 13 11 , 14 10 ; pres. 



3 sg. 40 



49 



Hf, n., life, d. sg. 50 9 , 5 8 1 2 , 
82 3 , 89 10 . 



lifgan, lifian, leofian, wi, 2, 

live, 39 22 , 40 64 , 41 6 , 67 14 ; 
pres. 1 sg. 846; 3 sg. 39 27 j 
pret. 3 sg. lifde, 4o Io7 $ pres. 

ptC. IO 9 , I2' 4 , 2 8 9 . 

lift, v. lyft. 

lig, m., flame, fire, 30', d. sg. 

3 44 , 40 57 . 
lilie, f., lily, 40 27 . 
lim, n., limb, 47, a. sg. 3 9 27 . 
line, f. wk., line, row, d. sg. 

42 io . 
liss, f., kindness, favour, joy, 

d. pi. 26 25 , 33 13 , 50 9 . 
list, f., skill, art, d. sg. 2 7 4 ; 

d. pi. 29 3 . 
US, n., limb, a. pi. leofto, 2 3 7 . 
liSan, 1, go, travel, vuander, 

33 1 , pres. ptc. d. sg. io 5 , 

pret. ptc. n. sg. f. up liden, 

grovun up, 3 3 ir . 
locc, m., lock (of hair), n. pi. 

40 I0 4 j a. 40 98 . 
lof, n., praise, g. sg. 20". 
lond, land, n., land, country, 

ground (opp. to air), a. sg. 

i2 l4 , 13" 5 d. 3 11 , 64 , 22 12 , 

33 2 > 5^ 8 5 g. pi- 33 ,3 « 
londbuend, m., dvoeller in the 

land, g. pi. 93". 
long, lang, adj. long, 39"} a. 

sg. f. 2 8 9 , 58 s , comp. n. 2 3 7 , 
longe, adv., long, a long time, 

15 29 , 40 8 , 67 13 . 



Gloomy 



163 



losian, W2, escape, quit, w. d. 

2 11 j pres. 3 sg. 12 3 . 
lufe, f. wk., love, g. sg. 26 25 . 
luiian, W2, /0<w, pres. 3 pi. 93 7 . 
lust, m., pleasure, a. sg. 71 8 . 
lyft, lift, f., air, 3 », 7 4 , io 9, 

57 x 5 g. sg. 3 64 > d. 22 16 , 2 7 4, 

408', 51 4 , 568, 5 8« 8 3 3o. 
lyftfaet, n., aerial vessel, 29 s . 
lyt, adv. /////*, 60 7 . 
lytel, adj., /////*, wk. 40 76 ; a. 

sg. neut. 58 7 5 a. pi. f. 57 1 . 

M. 

ma, compar. adv., used as in- 
decl. neut. w. gen. more, 1 8 4 , 
60 16 j a. 26 21 . 

maecg, m., /«^», n. pi. 50 7 . 

maeg, prp., / can, pres. 1 sg. 
2 10 , 15 19 , 18', 40 62 , 64 , 66 , 
4 25, 55 7 ? 6310. 3 sg . 3I 8 f 
40^, 2 Qj 69 f 9o f 43 a f S 83, 59^ 
83 6 , l6 ; pi. 41 6 , 8342 j opt. 2 
sg. 39285 3 S g. i 2 , 4 12 , 3i' 9 ; 



pret. 1 sg. 5 



9i 



i9 . 



sg. 29 6 , 40 43 , 67 ; 3 pi. 22 5 . 
maeg, m., kinsman, son, 31 23 , 

n. pi. 8 7 < 7 ; d. 3 1 23 . 
maegburg, f., family, 20 20 , a. 

sg. 15 20 . 
maegen, n., main, might, 22 13 , 

838, 23 , 55, a . S g. 53 9, 82", 

(?) 8 3 32 jd. 2 3 < 3 , x 7 < 4 , 40 95 , 

83 20 . 



maegenrof, adj., very strong, 

wk. 37 3 . 
maegenstrong, adj., strong of 

main, 86 3 . 
maegenSise, f. wk., strength, 

d. sg. 27 10 . 
maegS, maegeS, f. , maid, n. pi. 

jo 7 } g. 148, 33 9. 
mael, n., mark (2) time, g. pi. 

816. 
maeldan, meldan, wi, meldian, 

W2, announce, declare, 18 2 , 

28 12 ; pret. 1 sg. 71 16 . 
maenan, wi, tell of, relate, pres. 

1 sg. 61 9 ; 3 sg. 20 ix j pret. 

opt. 3 pi. 6o l7 . 
maeran, wi, celebrate, pres. opt. 

3 pi. 26 16 . 
maere, adj., celebrated, great, 

26 27 , 4 o45, 8 3 ,i. g# pl> g 3 4. 

d. 87x8. 
maerS, i.,fame, glory, (?), 72. 
maest, v. micel. 
maeSel, n., assembly, council, d. 

sg. 8 5 2 . 
maew, m., sea-gull, g. sg. 24 6 . 
mage, f. wk., kinswoman, g. 

sg. 43' 3 . 
magorinc, m., man, warrior, 

n. pi. 22 5 . 
mandrinc, m., fatal draught, 



a. sg. 23 



i3 



manian, W2, admonish, pret 
ptc. 3 66 . 



164 



d5to0$ari> 



mara, v. micel. 

maSelian, wa, say, tell, pret. 3 

sg. 3 85. 
ma5m, m., treasure, 55 13 . 
mcaht, f., might, power, %$ 2i j 

d. pi. 1 10 , 3 66 , 13 8 , 40 90 . 
meahtig, adj., mighty, 40 I2 . 
meahtlice, adv., mightily, 

comp. 40 62 . 
mearc, f., mark, march, border, 

territory, a. sg. 14 6 . 
mearclond, n., border-land, 

sea-coast, d. sg. 3 23 . 
mearcpaeS, m., path, path 

across marches, a. pi. 71". 
medwis, adj., half-witted, dull, 

d. sg. m. 4 10 . 
meldan, v. maeldan. 
mengo, f. indecl., crowd, mul- 
titude, a. sg. (?) 83 34 j d. 

10 12 . 
meodu, m., mead, a. sg. 20 12 . 
meodusetl, n., mead-seat, a. pi. 

6o9. 
Meotud, m., God, the Creator, 

3 54 > *7 l7 ig- sg. 83". 
meowle, f. wk., maiden, 4 s , 

25 7 , 61 1 . 
mere, m., sea, lake, a. sg. 

22 5 . 

merefaroS, m., sea-shore, d. sg. 

60 2 . 
merehengest, m., sea-horse, 

ship, i4 6 o 



merest ream, m., water-flood, 

a. pi. 669. 
rnesan, wi, feast, eat, 40 62 . 
micel, adj., great, much, 3 50 , 

28 12 , 3 1 23 ; wk. 40 92 j a. sg. 

f. 86*; neut. 37 3 , 86 3 j i. 3 45 , 

6 * <jq 4 ao23 42 74 76 80 . d 

pi. 39 2 (many) ; comp. mara, 

greater, 40 92 , lo5 j f. 17 4 , 

neut. 66 1 j a. sg. 39 4 j sup. 

msest, 3 39 . 
miclian, W2, increase, pret. ptc. 

83 23 j f. 20 20 . 
mid, prep. w. d., with (ac- 

compt.), 5 6 , 66, i 5 9, 4 6i,etc.; 

instrl. 5 12 , 6 4 , 26 13 , 27 4 , 28 2 , 3 , 

3n' 2 An 1 ^ i4 3o 35 aa6 

50 7 , 54 12 , 63 s , 66 IQ . 
mid, adv., included, as well, 

13 2 , 22 18 , 46 s . 
middangeard, m., mid-dwell- 
ing, the earth, world, 31 1 , 

32S 40 43 , 66* ; a. sg. 39' 9 , 

40 12 , 66 8 j g. 82". 
midde, f. wk., middle, d. sg. 

32 9 , d. pi. 8o5. 
midddelniht, f., midnight, d. 

pi. 8 9 7. 
midwist, f., presence, a. sg. 

938. 
milts, f., gentleness, favour, d. 

sg. 30 8 . 
min, poss. adj., my, 2 JI , 3 1 , 6 s , 

etc.; f., 7 1 4 , 79 8 , IO , neut. 82 '. 



dHos#an> 



165 



87 21 , 89 1 ; a. sg. m. 14 8 , 60 4 , 
82 14 ; f. 8 4 , 15 20 , 24 1 , 91 20 , 
938, neut. 4 3 , ", 21 6 , 258, 

6 5 3 , 765, g^ 9I 26. g< m . 
366,728, g 9 6. f. I? i, 5, 40 45 5 

neut. 18 4 , 25 10 ; d. m. 4 1 , 9 • 
20 2, 21, 26, 5 6n, 6 2, 70 &, 
772, 79 2j f. g", i 4 '8, 27^, 
4030, neut. 40 95 , 72 6 j n. pi. 
f. 7 4 , 6 , io 8 , neut. 40 XI ; a. 
m. 15 12 , 93 11 5 £ 11 7 , 20 12 , 

6 5 4 , 725, 28, 9313. d. 15". 
mislic, adj., various , 83 s , 55. 
mislice, adv., 'variously, 28 12 . 
missenlic, adj., various, d. pi. 

31% 32^. 
missenlice, adv., variously, 

6 7 '5. 
miSan, 1, conceal, 63 10 , 82 12 . 
(2) refrain from, hold back, 

w. d. pres. 1 sg. 8 4 . 
mod, n., #Z00*/, mind, spirit, a. 

Sg. 66; g. 2 7 < 4 ; d. Il6, 4 2'7, 
8 3 3 4 , 8 5 2 ;d. pi. 592. 
modor, moddor, f. , mother, y 2 , 

339, 412, 833,20. g . sg> 40 45, 



43 



i4 



mod3rea,m.wk., terror of mind, 

panic, 3 5 o. 
mSdwlonc, adj., proud-minded, 

haughty, f. 2 7 7 . 
m5dj? = modwynn, f., hearfs 

delight, a. sg. 89 7 . 
mon,man,m.,w^», 2 I2 ,36 4 ,37 3 , 



3 85, 43 t4, 8 3 34. g# sg . 36 io, 
59 14 ; d. 4 10 , 28 13 ; n. pi. 2 1 , 
i7 ir , 39 4 > 54 11 , 67^, i7, 93 7. 
a. i* 4 , 59 2 5 g- 3 5o > 22', 60 4 , 
71 16 , 76 4 , 82 12 , 93^3 . d. 18 2 , 



30 8 , 39 12 , 40^. 

(2) as indef. pron. one (like 

Germ, man), 35", 40 46 . 
mona, m. wk., moon, 66 2 . 
moncynn, n., mankind, d. sg. 

32°, 392, 4 q27. 

mondryhten, m., master, 

prince, d. sg. 55 l3 , 58°. 
monig, adj., many, n. pi. 30 8 , 

656; g. 66; d. 39*9, 938. 

agreeing with noun in pi., n. 

pi. 852; g. 4I 2, 8 3 4 ; d. 8S 

586. 
monna, m, wk., man, a. sg. 65 s . 
mor, m., moor, a. pi. 71". 
mot, prep., / may, pres. 1 sg. 3 l5 , 

73, I5 2o, 20 27, 82 s ; 3sg. 39 20 ; 

3 pi. i6 9 , 4o IQ 3 ; pres. opt. 1 

sg. 20 22 ; 3 sg. 31*3 5 pret. 

1 sg. 4° 35 , IO °; 3 sg. 5 3 r3 - 
moSSe, f. wk., moth, 47 x . 
mundbora, m. wk., protector, 

17 1 . 
mundrSf, adj., strong of hand, 

863. 
muS, m., mouth, ^z 9 ; a. sg. 8 T , 

17", iS 2 , 39 ,2 > 67 s , 76 4 ; d. 
246, 63 4 ; d. pi. 13 8 . 
muSleas, adj., mouthless, 609. 



i66 



«5los#ar]? 



N. 
na, 36 s = n5. 
naca, m. wk., boat, 58 s . 
naefde, 325 $ v. habban. 
naefre, adv. = ne sefre, never, 

5 ro ? 39 7 ? 20j 7I i6 ? g 7 3o. 

naegledbord, adj., <u>/M nailed 

planks, 58 s . 
naeglian, wi, 2, »<z/7, rivet, 

pret. ptc. 19 5 . 
naenig = ne senig, no one, none, 

8 3 6 ; w. g. pi. 29 13 j d. sg. 

m. 252, agreeing with a noun 

a. sg. m. 58 s . 
naetan, wi, afflict, oppress, pres. 

1 sg. 6 4 . 
nan, v. agan. 
naies, adv., not, not at all, 

26 17 . 
nama, noma, m. wk., name, 

23', 26 27 ; a. sg. 55 11 , 59 8 ; 

d. 58 r4 ,- a. pi. 42 s . 
nan = ne an, none, no one, 5 3 13 . 
nard, m., spikenard, g. sg. 

40^9. 
nathwser, adv., lit. / know not 

where, somewhere, 25 s , 62 s . 
nathwaet, indef. pron., I know 

not what, something, w. g. 

45S 54 5 > 61 9 , 91^5. 
ne, neg. particle, not, neither, 

nor, 3 r , IO , 39 10 , etc. 
neah, prep. w. d., near, follow- 
ing its case, 3 23 , 56 s , 60 1 . 



neahbuend, n., neighbour, d. 

pi. 252. 
near, comp. of neah, nearer, 

nearograp, f, tight grasp, 836. 
nearu, nearo, f , a narrow 

place, confinement, straits, 

position of danger, d. sg. 

nearwe, io 1 ; nearo we, 5 3 l3 5 

a. nearo, 61 6 , 62 s . 
nearu, adj., narrow, a. pi. 15 24 ; 

d. pi. 52 s . 
nearwian, w., confine, pres. 3 

sg. 25 10 ,- pret. ptc. 70 4 . 
neb(b), n., beak, nose, face, io r , 

« f j 3 1 6 , 34 3 i a. sg. 8o 4 j 

d. 898. 
nefa, m., nephew, 46 6 . 
nel(l)e, v. willan. 
nemnan, wi, name, call, 49 9 ; 

pres. 1 pi. 40 73 ; 3 pi. 24 7 j 

pret. 3 sg. nemde, 59 6 ; im- 

per. pi. 576. 
neol, adj., prone, low) down, 

21 1 , 83 6 . 
neoSan, nioSan, adv., from be- 
neath, down, below), io 1 , 25 s , 

31 20 , 61 6 . 
nergan, wi, save, 15 13 } pres. 

ptc. a. sg. m. 59 4 . 
neSan, wi, venture, 53 13 5 pres. 

3 sg. 2 5 5. 
nigan, 1, bend forward, pres. 

ptc. n. pi. 8 8 . 



<©io$0an? 



167 



niht, f., night, 29^ . a . sg. 39 7 i 

d. pi. 12 9 , 87 i6 } advbl. 5 14 . 
nioSan, v. neo8an. 
nis = ne is, v. wesan. 
niS, m., envy, hatred, spite, d. 

sg. 6\ 
niSas, niSSas, pi. m., men, g. 

57 6 } d. 26 27 . 
niSerweard, adj., downward, 

21 s 316, 34 3. 
niSsceaoa, m. wk., malignant 

foe, 15 24 . 
no, neg. adv., never, not, 6 4 , 

etc. 
noma, v. nama. 
nSwer, adv., nowhere, 31 4 , 
nSwiht, 11., nothing, a. sg. 

Il5. 

nu, adv., now, 14 1 , 26 15 , 40 1 , 
io2 , 42 l5 , etc. 

nyd, f., /£* r#»* iV, 42 s (see In- 
troduction, p. xxxix). 

nydan, wi, compel, drive, pres. 
3 sg. 62 s . 

nyde, adv., necessarily, 40 29 . 

nymSe, conj., unless, except, 
20 22 , 23 r6 , 25 s , 40 21 , 41 7 , 

nyt(t), adj., useful, 2 5 2 , 32^ 
54 7 , 55"» 58 5 } d. sg. f. 

Il5. 

nytt, f., #j*, d. sg. t5 nytte, 
aet nytte, 2 6 27 , 34 s , 499, 50 2 , 
696. 



O. 

5 = a, adv., ever, 54 9 . 
of, prep. w. d. y from, 3 7 , l6 , 56 , 
106, 10, i 4 i5, i 5 . 2> 1? b 9 22>2I> 

*3 I2 > 2 7 2 , 3 , 35 2 > 4° 79 , 5° 2 > 
62 7 , 72 4 , 5 , 76 6 , 89 10 , 91 l4 . 
ofer, prep. w. a. or d., over, i 7 , 
3 10 , etc. 

(2) along, through, 20 8 } 
hofer eorftan, over the earth, 
on earth, 35 XI ,4o 21 , 8 3 4, ,87 21 , 
93 io j sim. ofer foldan sceat, 

41 5 . 

(3) w. a., after, 6">. 

ofer willan, against (his) 

will, 29 io . 
ofer, m., bank, shore, n. pi. 2 2 7 . 
ofergongan, rd., come over, 

pres. 3 sg. 40 to . 
oferstigan, 1, rise above, pres. 

1 sg. 66 5 . 
oferswiSan, wi, overcome, 

40 20 } pres. 1 sg. 40 29 . 
ofost, of(e)st, f., hurry, haste, 

d. sg. 624 j d. pi. advbl. 

quickly, hastily, 40 11 . 
ofgifan, v, give up, abandon, 

pret. 3 pi. 9 1 . 
oft, adv., often, 4 s , 5 3 , etc. 
ohwonan, adv., from anywhere, 

35 8 - 
on, prep. w. d., in, on, i 7 , I2 , 

2 12 , 3 4 , etc. 

w. a., into, onto, towards , 



1 68 



^iostfan? 



(motion), i 2 , ", 2 7 , 3 s , etc.} 
following or separated from 
its case (ace), 3 13 , 6 7 , 20 29 , 

»5 8 , 79 4 > 87 l4 , 9* 24 > «sed 
adverbially (= prep, and ob- 
ject), 86 4 . 

on, adv., on, onwards, 62 s . 

onbugan, 11, bend, pres. 1 sg. 
23 s . 

(2) swerve, deviate, 3 lS . 

oncweSan, v, r^/>/y, ^/o;* an- 
swer, pres. 1 sg. 4 7 . 

ond, and, conj., ^»^, i 1 , etc. 

ondfenga, m., receiver, one 
who receives, g. sg. 61 7 . 

ondraedan, wi, dread, fear, w. 
refl. d. pres. 3 sg. 3 s3 . 

ondswaru, f., answer, a. sg. 

55 l5 - 
Snettan, v. onnettan. 
onfindan, 111, find out, discover, 

pres. 3 sg. 15 7 , 2 7 9. 
onga, m. wk., sting, dart, 2 3 4 . 
ongean, prep., against, opposite 

to, following its case, w. d. 

76 s , 89 s 5 w. a. 27 9 . 
ongietan, v, grasp, comprehend, 

59 io 5 pres. opt. 3 pi. 48 6 . 
onginnan, in, begin, set about, 

pres. 1 sg. 17 7 ; 3 sg. 28", 

3i9j pret. 3 sg. ongon, 9 3 , 

54 10 ; 3 pi. 22 8 . 
onhale, adj., secret, hidden, a. 

sg. f. 15 7 . 



onhebban, vi, lift, raise, pres. 

1 sg. onhaebbe, 30 7 . 
onhlidan, 1, uncover} 83 s3 . 
onhnigan, 1, bovu, bend, pres. 

3 pi. 30 7 . 
onhwyrfan, wi, turn round, 

pret. 3 pi. 72 2 j pret. ptc. 23 1 . 
onhyrian, wi, imitate, emulate, 

pres. 1 sg. onhyrge, 8 10 , 24 4 . 
onlicnes, f., likeness, a. sg. 



40 



37 



onlucan, 11, unlock, pret. 3 sg. 

42". 
onmedan, wi, presume, take 

upon oneself, pres. opt. 3 sg. 



55 



i5 



onnettan, onettan, wi, hurry, 

pret. 3 sg. 29", 54 7. 
onsittan, v, w. reflex, d. fear, 

15 23 . 
onsundran, adv., separately, 

7 i 6 - 

ontynan, wi, uncover, open, 
pret. 1 sg. 76 4 . 

on3eon, 1, contr. to be of serv- 
ice, w. d. 63 2 . 

*on)?inhan, m, thrive, prosper, 
pret. 3 pi. onftungan, 87 31 . 

onSunian, W2, swell with pride, 
be puffed up, 40 91 . 

onwald, m., might, d. sg. 4o l3 . 

onweg, adv., away, 396, 68 1 . 

onwendan, wi, change, pret. 3 
pi. 72 s . 



tiftosmy 



169 



5r, n., beginning, origin , a. sg. 

3 59 , 3 3 <°. 
ord, n., /0*»/ (of any kind), 

60 12 , l3 5 d. sg. 76 6 ; d. pi. 15 s 

(toes), 17 8 (darts), 
ordstapu, f., />0/»/, />r/V£, n. 

pi. 71 17 . 
orlege, n., w^r, //r//*, g. sg. 

3 59 - 
orlegfrom, adj., valiant in 

battle, a. sg m. 2o tS . 
orSonc, m., skill, craft, a. sg. 

77 7 ; d. pi. 69 s . 
orSoncbend, f., cunning band, 

d. pi. 42 l5 . 
orSoncpil, n., skilfully made 

point, 2 1 12 . 
oSberan, iv, bear away, pret. 

3 sg. 22 10 . 
oSer, num. adj. other, second, 

3 22 , neut. 2 1 12 , 40 86 } a. sg. 

m. 22 2 °; f. 397 ; g. sg. 69,- 

d. 3 4 ', 20 15 , 37 6 , 43", 53 s , 

10 > 8 3 6 > 9° 7 > i- n I0 i a. pi. 

49 5 i d. ill 

one of two, 42 9 , d. sg. 

52 s ; ofter . . . o$er, 56 7 < 
oSfergan, wi, carry off, 

i6' 7 . 
oSSaet, conj., until, 3 12 , 9 7 , IO , 

*3 8 > 53 4 > 7i 9 , 7* 2 > 9 Il3 « 
oSSe, conj., or, i l5 , 3 73 , etc. 
oSSringan, in, force, take 

away, 87 19 . 



owiht, adv., at all, by any 

means, 41 6 . 
oxa, m. wk., ox, 22 13 . 



paeSan, wi, traverse, travel 
through, pres. 3 sg. 5 8 9 j 
pret. 1 sg. 7 1 11 . 

pernex, 40 66 . See footnote to 
the passage. 

plegan, wi, play, 4.2*. 



rad, f., riding, d. sg. 19 7 . 

(2) the rune R, 58 lS (see 
Introduction, p. xxxix). 
radwerig, adj., weary with 

riding, or travelling, 20 14 . 
rsecan, wi, reach, extend, pres. 

1 sg. 66 7 . 
raced, n., house, hall, a. sg. 

52 1 5 d. 31 3 ; a. pi. i 6 . 
rad, m., counsel, 15 16 } g. sg. 

8 7 3 *. 
r sedan, wi, read, explain, solve 

(a riddle), pres. opt. 3 sg. 

59 16 j imper. 2 sg. 61 9 . 
raedelle, f. wk., riddle, a. sg. 

42 13 . 
rseping, m., captive, a. pi. 52 1 . 
rseran, wi, raise, pres. opt. 3 

sg. 3 73 ; pret. 3 sg. 556. 
raesan, wi, rush (upon), pres. 

3 sg. 258. 



170 



€>io0*an? 



r5ad, reod, adj., red, n. sg. 

wk. 26 15 5 a. sg. m. 25 s ; g. 

wk. 48 6 ; n. pl. f. n 2 ; i. sg. 

advbl. reade bewsefed, clothed 

in red, 70*. 
reaf, n., raiment, dress, d. sg. 

reafian, W3, rob, ravage, plun- 
der, pres. 1 sg. reafige, i 6 , 
i2««5 3 S g. 258, 652. 

rec, m., smoke, n. pi. i 6 . 

reccan, wi, reck, care for, w. 
g. pres. 3 sg. 76 s . 

reccan, wi, stretch. 

(2) tell, declare, imper. 



3* 



i3 



(3) rule, 40 35 ; pres. 1 sg. 



40 



33 



,55 



reccend, m., ruler, 40 3 . 

recene, adv., at once, straight- 
way, 3 9 28 . 

regn, m., rain, a. sg. 3 

regnwyrm, m., rain-worm, 
earth-worm, 40 70 . 

reod, v. read. 

reord, f., speech, language, a. 
sg. 24 s } d. pi. 8 1 . 

resele, f. wk., riddle, a. sg. 



39 



28 



restan, wi, rest, tarry, 3 73 $ 
pres. 1 sg. 93 2 ; w. reflex, d. 

«4 s . 

r€5e, adj., fierce, furious , i 3 , 
*%*> g- sg. m. 1 5*5. 



ribb, n., rib, g. pi. 32 s . 
rice, n., dominion, d. sg. 331. 
rice, adj., powerful, great, of 

high rank, rich, 4o 3 j g. sg. m. 

70 1 5 n. pi. 32 13 j d. 93 3 . 
ricels, n., incense, 40 24 . 
ridan, 1, ride, 3 32 , 2 2 2 j pres. 

ISg. 79 7 ; isg. 3 3 6, 5 8 3 , 79 7. 

pret. 1 sg. 9 1 12 1 3 sg. 

19 5 . 
rinc, m., man, warrior, 62*, 

73 2 , 6 3 <6(?) 5 a . p l. I4 .6. d# 

426. 
r5d, f., the Rood, Cross, g. sg. 

55 s - 
rodor, m., heaven, the sky, g. 

pl. 13 7 , 59 ' 6 ; d. 55 5. 
r6f, adj., valiant, bold, a. sg. 

19 7 ; n. pl. 57 3 . 
rose, f., rose, 40 24 . 
ruh, adj., hairy, rough, 25 s j g. 

sg. neut. ruwes, 61 9 . 
runstaef, m., rune, letter, n. pl. 

58 lS ; a. 42 6 . 
ryht, n., right, justice, equity, 

d. sg. 40 35 } on ryht, rightly, 

40 3 . 
ryht, adj., right, due, just, a. 

sg. m. 6z 4 ,• i. 5o 7 ,- n. pl. m. 

58^. 
ryman, wi, make room, clear 

the way, pres. 3 sg. 53 ro . 
ryne, m., running, course, a. 

sg. 83*. 



tfHofitfan? 



171 



rjfne, n., secret, mystery, mys- 
terious saying, a. sg. 48 6 . 
rynegiest, m., swift guest, g. 



sg- 3 



58 



rynemon, m., man of runes, 

sage, a. pi. 42 l3 . 
rynestrong, adj., strong in his 

course, 9 7 . 



sacan, vi, strive, contend, 67 10 . 
sacu, f. (or saecc), strife, con- 
flict, d. sg. 20 6 . 
sae, m. {., sea, 3 29 , 76 1 j n. pi. 

66 3 . 
saecc, f., strife, conflict, a. sg. 

»7 29 J g. 3 29 - 
saeccan (?), strive, contend, 

pres. 1 sg. 16 2 . 
saed, adj., .rate*/, weary, 5 2 . 
saegrund, m., bottom of the sea, 

a. pi. 2 10 . 
sael, n., hall, g. sg. sales, 52 2 . 
sael, m., time, occasion, g. sg. 

3 1 12 . 
saelwong, salwong, m., fertile 

plain, plain, a. sg. 193,- d. 3 2 . 
saene, adj., slow, sluggish, 33 s . 
saeweall, m., sea-wall, cliff, 

d. sg. 60 1 . 
sag, bundle, load (J), 80 5 . 
saga, v. secgan. 
salo, adj. ,sallow, dark-coloured, 

79". 



saloneb, adj., swarthy -faced, 

49 s - 
salopad, adj., dark-coated, n. 

pi. 57 3 . 
salwong, v. saelwong. 
samed, v. somod. 
sang, v. song, 
sar, adj., sore, comp. n. sg. f. 

sare, adv., sorely, 71 15 . 
sawan, rd., sow, pres. 3 sg. 

2 1 6 . 
sawol, f., /0#/, a. sg. 39 r6 j g. 

8 7 3S. 
sceacan, rd., move rapidly, fly, 

pret. 3 sg. 9 1 11 ; lietefton ge- 

rum sceacan, lets (me) go at 

large, 20 14 . 
sceam, m., white horse (J), a. pi. 

2 2 4 . 

scearp, adj., sharp, 3 41 , 62 «, 
69 4 ; n. pi. f. scearpe, 3 3 4 j 
a. pi. scearp, 69 4 \ d. pi. 3 s2 5 
sup. i. sg. 2 8 2 . 

scSat, m., sheet, cloak, gar- 
ment, d. sg. 9 7 , 44 2 . 

(2) surface, region, corner, 
a. sg. 41 5 j a. pi. 6y l6 i g. 
8 7 2 ?. 

sceawendwise, f. wk., play- 
ers song, or jesting song, a. sg. 
89. 

sceawian, w2, behold, observe, 



5 9 2 ; pres. 1 sg. sceawige, 40 



4o 



172 



^lostfari? 






scSo, cloud (?), 3 41 . 
sceotan, n, shoot, 3 s 4 . 
sceran, iv, cut, pres. 3 sg. 65 s . 
sceSSan, vi, injure, 43 s j pres. 

1 sg. 252 } 3 sg. 43" j pret. 

1 sg. scod, 2o lS , 71 14 . 
scieppan, vi, shape, fashion, 

pret. 3 sg. scopj 842 ; pret. 

ptc. sceapen, 20 ', 232. 
scildan, wi, shield, protect, 

pret. 3 pi. 87 17 . 
scin, n., spectre, goblin, n. pi. 

scinan, 1, s^/m, 40 103 . 

scip, n., j^//, 58 4 . 

scir, adj., shining, bright, jz 2 ° j 

a. sg. m. 58 4 ; n. pi. f. u 2 . 
scire, adv., clearly, brightly, 8 9 , 

3 1«. 

scotian, wa, j/^c/, pres. 3 pi. 

8cri6an, 1, go, wander, stalk, 
glide, pres. 3 sg. 35 7 ; pres. 
ptc. n. pi. neut. 3 s2 . 

sculan, prp., be obliged, pres. 
1 sg. sceal, / must, 3 l7 , 34 , 

65 68 A i IA 9 i4 i7 ic i2 
> >4> I 4> > > *5 > 

1 7 , i6«, 7 , 2026, 3 0> 3 8, 40 91 , 
63S 70 7 , 82", g 9 4, 935^ 8. 

3 sg. 27", 326, 3312, 375,398, 
16, 21, 42 8 ? 435> 8i*, 8 45> 
8 7 27 ; 3 pi. 8 7 l9 } opt. 3 sg. 
3 31 ; pret. 1 sg. 60 8 , l4 , 72 6 j 
3 sg. 618, 91 7 } 3 pi. 136. 



scur, m., shoaver, rain, d. pi. 

»7< 7 . 
scyppend, m., the Creator, 40 1 , 

IOI # 

se, seo (sio), Saet, def. art., the, 
*5 24 >i6 3 , 236, etc.jf. 9 9 , 2020, 
3 1 19 , 3» 6 , 39S 606, ", 6 7 < 9 , 
83 2 ° } a. m. 20 4 , 24 4 j f. 37 1 , 
38% 42^, 9I i8. neu t. 34 2 ;g- 
™. 47 5 , 55 7 > 59 9 > ,2 » i7 , 61 7 ; 
neut. 33 IO ,4i 3 , 4 > 4*"» 54 IO J 
89 9 ; d. m. 15 26 , 20 23 , 29 4 , 
37 6 j i. 28 2 , 3 ; n . pj # 2 6 l6 j 
a. 3 53 , 72, 22'°, 34 7 , 42"; 
d. i6 2 , 7228. 

se, seo (sio), Saet, dem. pron., 
he, she, that, 2", 27 9 , 38s, 

ao 93 96 A<3 5 i4 CQ 5 16 fi 7 i8 
4° > > 43 t > iy^j > °7 > 

70 6 , 80 7 , 87 34 , 9127 j f. 25% 
*8' 3 , 31 24 , 3* 14 , 33 I2 > 36 2 , 
39 l4 » 4i 9 , 5* 6 ; neut. 33", 
368, 39 24, AI 2, 8, 43 n t 453> 

47 S 53 2 > 6° IO > a. sg. m., 
23 13 , 91 13 j f. 3 10 , 29 9 j neut. 
i 2 , 3 35 , 57 > 4 IG (v. sylf), 168, 
i 7 5, 2 3 5, 2 7 9 , 44 5 , 472, 498, 

67 16 , 7i 9 , «3 32 J g- m. 3' 6 , 
2028,35, 55 7. f. 29 ,4, 36l 3. 

neut. 3 5 9 , 68, 9 , 1 1 5, j6\ 5, 

2310, 3I i5 f 32 i 2> 4I 4, g 3 3o. 

d. m. 13 10 , 15 29 , 43 6 , 60", 

6 9 <; f. 2 9 5, 5 65, 72 4 f g 7 3i. 

neut. 3 7 , 87 34 } i. 63'°; after 
comp. 9", ", I3 5, 6, I7 4 f 



tfHossatE 



173 



198, 16*, 2 °, ", 39 9 , 47 6 , 
87 14 , lS ; n. pi. 24 10 , 26 15 , 
35 IO > 4i 7 , 5* 3 > a. i**, 346, 
40 35 , 91" 5 g- 3 34 > 5 ,2 > »8 9 f 
39 l5 > 26 > 4° 89 > 4* 8 > 4^ 5 , 5* 5 > 
56", 656, 838, <5, 55, g 9 ro 5 

d. 26 s , 42 7 , 47 6 , 49 4 . 
sS, seo (sio), Saet, rel. pron., 
who, which, 20 5 , 2 3 6 , 40*, 22 , 
9o , 492, 516, 62 s , 82 s , 87 28 j 

f. 298, 3 1 5 , 34 2 , 408', 52 6 } 
neut. 40 32 , 69 , 55 t2 , 60 4 ; a. 
sg. m. 40 73 , 50 3 ; neut. 44 7 ; 

g. neut. 41 4 , 7 } d. m. 43 2 5 
pi. n. 26 23 , 57 2 j a. 4 9 7 ; g. 

g. 7 1 6 . 
w. antecedent omitted : 17 11 , 

he who, that which, 3 13 , 20 29 , 
55 ,5 j neut. i 12 , 3 36 , 17", 
21*5, 2312, 3310, 37 4 ? g^ 6, 

9 1 24 j a. sg. neut. 3 65 , 16 7 , 



49 



>6 . 



54"» 79° 5 g- sg. 5 5 



5 . 



pi. n. 72 3 5 a. 6 7 . 

sealt, adj. (?), salt, 92 s . 

searo, n., device, art, work of 
art, contrivance, a. sg. 32 s . 

d. pi. advbl. searwum, skil- 
fully, 296, 5 65, 8 3 48. 

searobunden, adj., cunningly 
bound, a. sg. neut. 5 5 4 . 

searoceap, m., ingenious ma- 
chine, curious object, $z 7 . 

searocraeftig, adj., skilful, cun- 

™ n g> 3 3 8 - 



searolic, adj., ingenious, curi- 
ous, 60 11 . 

searopil, m., skilfully made or 
pointed tool, g. pi. 89 2 . 

searosaeled, adj., skilfully tied, 

*3 l6 . 
searoSonc, m., skilful device, 

d. pi. 35 13 . 
searo5oncol, adj., expert, 

clever, n. pi. m. 40 97 . 
seaw, n., moisture, liquid, a. pi. 

3 47 - 
seax, n., knife, g. sg. 2 6 6 , 

60 * 2 , 76 6 ; d. 40 97 . 
secan, wi, seek, visit, % 2 t 16 2 , 

27", 9 1 9 ; pres. 3 sg. 1525, 

34 5 > 8 7 34 ; 3 pi. 931 2 ; pret. 

3 sg. 91*. 
secg, m., man, 4 s , 62 9 5 n. pi. 

4O 97 ; d. 4 84; g . 6jI- 

secgan, w 3 , say, 426, 558, 16. 
pres. 3 pi. 39 s 1 3 ; pret. 3 
sg. 338; imper. 2 sg. saga, 
i l4 , 2 12 , etc.,- infl. infin. 39 22 . 

sefa, m. wk., mind, understand- 
ing, d. sg. 60". 

segnberend, m., standard- 
bearer, warrior, g. pi. 40 20 . 

sele, m., hall, 84 1 ; g. sg. 13 4 ; 
d. 20 10 . 

seledream, m., hall-joy, mirth, 
d. sg. 63 1 . 

selest, adj., sup. of god, best, 
g. sg. wk. 41 3 . 



174 



(Slogan? 



sella, adj.,comp. ofg5d, better , 

a. pi. 12 4 . 
sellan, wi, give, endow, w. d. 
pers. pres. i sg. 12 5 ; pret. 
3 sg. sealde, 4 4 , 61 3 , 71 7 . 
sellic, adj., rare, wonderful, 
excellent, 3a 3 5 f. 32 s , 832^ 
a. sg. neut. 31 3 . 
semninga, adv., straightway, 

suddenly, 40 io . 
sendan, wi, send, pres. 3 sg. 
32, 49 5 ; 3 pi. 3 o5 j pret. ptc. 
n. sg. m. 1 ". 
seolfor, n., silver, g. sg. 5 s 4 j 

d. 20 IO , 67 18 . 
seolhbaeS, n., seal's bath, the 

sea, a. pi. 10". 
seomian, w2, lie upon, lie 

around, pres. 3 sg. 20 3 . 
s£on, v. contr., see, pres. 1 sg. 
5 3 ; pres. opt. 1 sg. sy, w. g. 
40 65 ; pret. 1 sg. 13 1 , 19', 
31 3 , 3 2 3 , 42S 51 1 , 52*, 53 1 , 
55S 59'» 6 4S 86*; pret. opt. 
3 pi. ? sawe (see note), 
8 3 3 '. 
settan, wi, set, put, pret. 3 sg. 

26 4 , 40 7 . 
seSeah, swaSeah, swaSSana, 
conj., nevertheless, 4 9 , 35 11 , 
39 27 > 58 11 , l3 , 65 1 , 867. 
Sid, adj., wide, broad, a. pi. 

m. 2 10 , 66 IQ . 
side, f. wk., side, 13 6 ; a. sg. 



n l3 , 692 j d. 71 r5 > 76 6 ; n. 

pi. 15 2 , 72 18 ; a. 80 5 , 85 7 . 
siex, num., six, 24 10 5 a. 36 7 . 
sigefsest, adj., sure of victory, 

comp. n. pi. 26 19 . 
sigor, m., victory, g. pi. 6 1 . 
sin, poss. adj., his, d. sg. m. 

58 t4 , 59 4 i *• 2 3 < 4 ;a. pi. m. 

3122 . d. 61 3 , 89 11 , 912. 
sine, n., treasure, 4 14 ; a. sg. 

20 6 , 55 4 ; d. 20 10 , 67 18 . 
sincfag, adj., adorned with 

treasure, 14 15 . 
sinder, n., dross, impurity, d. 

pi. 2 6 6 . 

singan, in, sing, 3i 3 jpres. 1 
sg. 8 2 j 3 sg. 692 } 3 pi 
7 8 . 

sittan, v, sit, 75 1 ; pres. 1 sg. 

*4 7 i 3 sg. 3 5 , 3i 12 ; 3pl- 8 8 j 
pret. 3 sg. 46 1 ; 3 pi. 85 1 . 

siS, adv., later, 60 8 . 

Si5, m., journey, course, a. sg. 
12, 291 4 , 8 4 3 j d. 52 7 , 642; 



a. pi. io 11 , 39 



16 . 



g- 



d. 32 s . 
sioTset, m., journey, 19 9 ; a. sg. 

82 14 ; d. 43 6 . 
siSian, W2, travel, 5 1 2 j pret. 

1 sg. 71 IO ; 3 sg. 26". 
si56an,adv., afterwards, then, 

9 9, 10 10 , 1522, 2 6 2 , 5 , ", 27 s , 

2 9 * 3 , 4 o9, 6i5, 63", 76 6 , 8 , 

88 7 , 91 13 . 



^lostfatT? 



175 



siSSan, conj., after, since, n 9 , 

y 27 , *3 6 - 
slaep, m., sleep , 40 30 . 
slaepwerig, adj., weary with 

sleep, a. sg. m. 4 5 . 
slepan, rd., sleep, pret. opt. 1 

sg. 40 9 . 
slit an, 1, slit, tear, shatter, 1 3 s ; 

pres. 1 sg. 12 1 ; 3 pi. %-j^ ; 

pres. ptc. n. pi. 16 6 . 
slioe, adj., hard, cruel, dire, 

g. sg. f. 3*9. 
slupan, 11, glide, 3 39 . 
smael, adj., narrow, slender, 72 18 . 
smeah, adj., penetrating, comp. 

9* s (0- 
smio", m., smith, 92'} g. pi. 

5 8 , 20 7 , 26 14 . 

snaegl, m., snail, 40 70 . 

snaw, m., snow, 80 10 . 

snel, adj., yw/V/fr, comp. n. sg. 



m. 40 



7o 



sniSan, I, cut, pret. 3 sg. z6 6 . 
snottor, adj., wise, clever, 
knowing, 83 s4 } n. pi. m. 85 2 , 

93 7 - 
snySian, w2, go along sniffing 

(i.e. with nose to the ground, 

like a dog), pres. 1 sg. sny- 

ftlge, 2 1 7 . 
•omnian, W2, collect, assemble, 

pret. ptc. 30 2 . 
somod, adv., together, i l4 , 16 2 , 

22 9 , 5 1 2 , 6o l3 . 



sona, adv., soon, at once, 16 6 , 

2 7 7 , 9, 63^, 86 4 . 
sond, m., messenger, 90 3 . 
sond, n., sand, d. sg. 2 7 , 60 7 . 
song, sang, m., song, a. sg. 

*4 6 i g- 57 3 - 
s55, n., truth, a. sg. 36 12 . 
soS, adj., true, just, righteous, 

3 54, 6 i, 39 2 5 }g . pi. 26" } d. 

3929. 
soScwide, m., /ra* speech, 

truth, d. pi. 35 13 . 
spsetan, wi, spit, pres. 1 sg. 

174, 23 s . 
sped, f., speed, success, 17 4 5 a. 

sg. 87 s4 j on sped, successfully, 

4 12 - 

speddropa, m., speed-drop (?), 
d. pi. 2 6 8 . 

spel, n., story, saying (2) rid- 
dle, a. sg. 4 12 . 

sperebroga, m. wk., spear- 
terror, a. pi. i7 4 . 

spild, m., destruction, d. sg. 
23 s . 

spor,n. , trace, track, d. sg. 87 34 . 

spowan, rd., succeed, pret. im- 
pers. w. g. 42 4 . 

spraec, f., speech, d. sg. 27 13 . 

sprecan, v, speak, 18 1 , 60 9 ; 
pres. 1 sg. 8 r ; sprice, 23 11 , 
43 l6 > 3 s g* spreceft, 20 33 5 
spriceft, 28 10 ; 3 pi. 93 9 j 
pret. 3 sg. 39 12 . 



176 



tiAosttarg 



spyrian, wi, make a track, 
trace, pret. 3 sg. 26 s . 

staef, m., staff, (2) letter of the 
alphabet, n. pi. 24 10 . 

staelgiest, m. , thievish stranger, 

47 5 . 
staepe, m., step, d. sg. 91 10 . 
stae6, n., bank, shore, d. sg. 

3 18 , 22 l9 j a. pi. 2 6 . 
staeSSan, wi, stay, hold in, 

pres. opt. 3 sg. 3 74 . 
stan, m., stone, 40 74 j d. sg. 2 7 $ 

a. pi. 1 69} d. 83« 
standan, v. stondan. 
stanhliS, n., stone-cliff, rock, n. 

pi. 3 26 . 
stanwong, m., stony plain, a. 

pi. 91 10 . 
staSol, Yd., foundation, seat, sta- 
tion, position, 2 5 4 , 7o 2 $ a. sg. 

47 5 , 8 7 25 - 
staSolwong, m., place of occu- 
pation, established place, d. 

sg- 34 8 - > 
stealc, adj., jte*/>, /$/£-#, n. pi. 

neut. 3 26 ; a. pi. neut. 2 7 , 91 7 . 
steap, adj., A/^A, 2 5 4 , 70 2 5 a. 

sg. m. 1 5 l8 , 80 4 } n. pi. m. 3 10 . 
stede, m., place, position, a. sg. 

44 3. 

stefn, f., voice, a. sg. 24 1 $ d. 
87, 14*8, 4 g3. 

stenc, m., smell, odour, a. sg. 
40 2 9 j d. 40 23 . 



steort, m., tail, i6 8 $ a. sg. 

587, g 2. d. 2I 4 . 
stcpan, wi, exalt, pres. 3 sg. 

50 8 . 
steppan, vi, step, go, pres. 1 

sg. 15 5 } pret. 1 sg. 73 5 5 3 

sg. 26*0, 5 4 2 , 9 i 2 9; 3 pi. 

22»9. 

stician, W2, stick, thrust, pres. 

3 sg. 12". 

(2) intr., stick, be fixed, 

pres. 3 sg. 8 9 3 } pret. 3 sg. 

6i5. 
stig, f., path, a. pi. 1 5 24 
stigan, 1, rise, pres. 1 sg 

3 pi. i 6 3 mount, climb, 22 s , 

91 7 . 
stille, adj., still, quiet, 3 10 , 7i , 

16 4 ; n. pi. 2 14 , 8 7 } a. 34 s . 
stille, adv., quietly, 3 25 . 
stincan, in, rise up, pret. 3 

sg. 29". 

(2) stink, smell badly, pres. 



3 7o. 



3 sg. 40 



32 



stiS, adj., stiff, strong, 44 3 , 70 2 j 
a. sg. m. i6 9 ;neut. 91 29 } 
g. sg. neut. 54S. 

stiSecg, adj. strong-edged, 
91 18 . 

stiSweg, m., rough path, a. sg. 



35 



stiwita, m. wk., householder (?), t = »- ■ 
d. pi. 3 10 . ^V 

stondan, standan, vi, stand, 



aioasan? 



177 



33 l3 > 34 8 , 49S 54 2 , 8 7 25 > 
pres. 1 sg. 25 4 , 87", 91 24 j 

3 s g- 40 61 ; 3 pi- iS 3 ', P f es. 
opt. 3 sg. 69 s ; pret. 1 sg. 

»7 I2 5 3 sg. 56 9 ; 1 pi. 87 l4 5 
pres. ptc. a. sg. m. 8o 8 ,- d. 
sg. f. 54 5 . 

(2) fall to the lot of, apper- 
tain to, pres. 3 sg. 93 4 . 

storm, m., storm, d. pi. 8 3 43 . 

strsel, f., arrow, a. sg. 3 s6 . 

strset, f., street, road, a. sg. 
15 18 . 

Strang, v. strong. 

stream, m., stream, flood, n. 
pi. 2 6 , l4 , 2 2 8 , 80 8 j a. 3 18 , 



7o f 9I 6. 



(2) water, fluid, g. sg. 
26 10 . 
streamgewinn, n., j/r//> 0/* 



waters, g. sg. 3 



26 



strengu, f., strength, 7 5 j d. sg. 



strengo, 27 



i3 



strong, Strang, adj., strong, 
i 3 , 3 35, 16 4 , 2 7 * 3 , 549, 62S 
9 ii°5 a. sg. m. 8 3 2 ; g. sg. 
wk. 47 5 j d. wk. 40 79 j n. pi. 
2 2 8 j d. 48 3 j comp. strengra, 
40 92 , 84 4 j neut. 40 23 . 

strfcdan, 11, plunder, pret. 3 pi. 

53 IO « 
stund, f. , time, moment of time, 

a. sg. 91 18 ; g. pi. 54 9 - 
d. pi. advbl. stundum, 'vig- 



orously, fiercely, exceedingly, 



2°. 



style, n., steel, 91 18 , 9 2 4 ; d. 



79 



sg. 40 
sty ran, wi, govern, pres. 3 sg. 



40 



1 3 



(2) hinder, restrain, pres. 
1 sg. II 4 . 

styrgan, wi, stir, agitate, 3 18 j 
pres. 1 sg. 2 9 , 3 70 . 

styrman, wi, storm, make a 
noise, cry aloud, pres. 1 sg. 
87. 

sue, see swylce. 

sum, indef. pron., one (of many), 
a certain, w. g. pi. 14 8 , 26 1 , 
76 4 j a. sg. m. 3 4 ; neut. 79 9 ; 
g. 47 3 } firistra sum, one of 
the bold, i.e. with bold com- 
panions, 72 23 ; agreeing with 
its noun, 3 33 ; n. pi. f. 10 8 j 
absol., some one, g. sg. 14 15 . 

sumor, m., summer, 87 s . 

sumsend, adj., rustling, rat- 
tling, pattering, a. pi. neut. 

347. 

sund, n., sea, water, d. sg. 



i4 



IO- 



sundhelm, m., water-covering, 

sea, 76 1 ; d. sg. 2 10 . 
sundor, adv., apart, separately, 

39 5 - 
sundorcraeft, m. , special power, 

a. sg. 39 3 . 



i 7 8 



tfilostfarE 






sunne, f. wk., sun, 66 $ , 92 s $ 

a. sg. 2 6 4 . 
sunu, m., j<?«, 40 72 , 83 10 ; a. sg. 

37 8 j n. pi. suno, 46 2 , 3 j g. 9 12 . 
suSerne, adj., southern, 6i 9 . 
swa, adv. , so, as, to such degree, 

in such way, 2 1 , 3 67 , 8 9 , 9 12 , 

II 6 , 2 25 , 2 I 2 , 2 2 6 , 24 2 , IO , 
2 7 * 296, 3311,405, i4 >25) 34 ? 
69, 4 g8, 49 9, 59 x 2 , 6l 4, 69 5, 

83 s2 , 87 31 ; swe, 9 6 ; swa 
some, similarly, even so, 15 2 , 
42 ri j swa . . . swa, as . . . 
as, 9 6 . 

conj., jo /^<2/, 60 16 } al- 
though, 6 4 , 2 2 l3 j swa . . . ne, 
unless, 87 3r . 
swaes, adj., (one* s) own, esp. 
of blood-relationship, n. pi. 

f. 46 3 5 g. 9". 

(2) dear, a. pi. 15 22 , 71 6 } 

g. 26". 

swaesende, n., food, refection, 

d. pi. 8 88. 
swaetan, wi, sweat, pres. 3 

pi. 3 « 
swaeS, n., track, footstep, 21 10 } 

a. sg. 2165 d. 15 25 , 74 1 j n. 

pi. 51 3 . 
swa5eah,swaSeana,v. seSeah. 
swaSu, f., track, a. sg. 93 12 . 
swe, see swa. 
sweart, adj., black, dark, 49 s j 

neut. 2i I0 j wk. 40 31 j a. sg. 



m. i2 l3 5 d. 40 94 , 7 1 IO 5 n. 
pi. m. 5 1 2 , 57 3 } a. 12 4 ; neut. 
3 47 j d. 1 7 7 $ sup. g. sg. wk. 

41 3 . 

sweartlast, adj., leaving a 

black track, 26". 
sweg, m., noise, din, crash, 

g. pi. 3 3 9. 
swelgan, in, swallow, inhale, 

w. d. or i. 14 15 , 17 7 ; pres. 

1 sg. 91 23 j 3 sg. 49 2 , 58^, 

8 1 2 5 pret. 3 sg. 2 69, 476. 
sweltan, 111, die, pres. 3 sg. 

swylteft, 3 54 , 37 s . 
sweora, m. wk., neck, 6$ 2 , 

72 18 5 a. sg. 85 6 . 
sweord, n. sword, 55 14 . 
sweorfan, iii^ scrub) rub f scour f 

file, pret. ptc. 2 8 4 , 8 9 2 . 
sweostor, f., sister, 7 1 4 j g. 

sg- 43 l4 > n - P 1 - *3 2 - 

sweotol, adj., manifest, evi- 
dent, n. sg. f. 39 3 j neut. 
21 10 j n. pi. neut. 13 4 . 

sweotule, adv., clearly, 24 10 . 

swete, adj., sweet, 40 58 . 

swetnes, f., sweetness, d. sg. 



40 



3o 



swifan, 1, sweep, glide, 32? $ 



pres. 3 sg. 12 



1 3 



swift, adj., swift, fleet, 3 72 , 
15 2 , 5 1 3 ; wk. 40^5 u. sg. 
m. 19 3 , 74 T j comp. n. sg. 
40 70 j neut. 66 3 , 84 s . 



«5io0$an? 



179 



swige, adj., silent, 3 11 , 84 1 . 
swigian, wz, be silent, pres. 3 

sg. 7 1 ; pret. 1 sg. 71 15 j 

pres. ptc. 48 4 . 
swimman, in, swim, pret. 1 

sg- 73 3 > 3 s g- 22l4 « 
swin, n., swine, 40 Io5 . 
swingere, m., whipper, scourg- 

er, 277. 
swinsian, w2, sing, make 

melody, pres. 3 pi. 7 7 . 
8wi5, adj., strong, comp. neut. 

4 o94j n> pi. l6 5. 

(2) comp. right (hand), n. 
sg. f. 60 I2 . 

SWi5e, adv., w. adjectives, 'very, 
exceedingly, 51 3 , 57 2 j w. 
verbs intensifying their force, 
6 8 , io 3 {deep), 19 3 {fast), 
2 6 4 {entirely), 32? (much), 
62 s , 93 12 ; sup. 83 28 , 93 7 . 

swlSfeorm, adj., violent, 3 72 . 

swSgan, rd., sound, rustle, 
pres. 3 pi. 7 7 . 

swoncor, adj., pliant, agile, 
graceful, a. sg. m. 19 1 . 

swylc, adj. pron., such, a. sg. 
6o» j f. 888; g. pi. i 9 9. 

swylce, adv., likewise, 6 9 , 20 3 , 
248, 4029, 6 Q) 95, 63^, 6 4 4 , 
83 10 } swylce sue, likewise, 

sylf, pron., reflex., self, d. sg. 
20 6 j w. pers. pron. in same 



case, expressed or omitted, my- 
self himself etc., n. sg. 2 6 28 j 
wk. 378, 62 3 , 79", 841 ; g. 
338 5 d. 66 io j n. pi. 576. 
sim., sylfes ftaes folces, 64 6 ; 
ftaet sylfe, likewise, 4 10 . 

sylfer, n., silver, d. sg. 14 2 . 

syllan, wi, give, 37 s . 

symbel, n., feast, d. sg. 31 12 . 

symle, adv., always, 37 s , 40 30 , 
64 , 67I 

syn, f., sight, a. sg. 32 s j d. 



94 



40 



tacen, tacn, n., token, sign, a. 

sg- 55 5 - 

(2) meaning, a. sg. 59 10 . 
tacnian, W2, indicate, pret. 

ptc. 63 14 . 
taecnan, wi, show, indicate, 

pres. 3 sg. 3* 6 , 516. 
tan, m., branch, d. pi. 53 2 . 
teala, teale, adv., well, 21 14 . 

(2) certainly, 1 5 16 . 
telg, m., dye, 26 15 . 
tSon, n., hurt, damage, a. sg. 

on teon, for (his) hurt, 50 3 . 
teon, 11, contr., drag, draw, 

pull, intr., go, return, pres. 3 

sg. tyhft, 34 4 , 62 6 j pret. teah, 

1 sg. 7 1 5 , 3 sg. 22 l3 . 
teorian,w2, tire, become weary % 

pret. 3 sg. 548. 



i8o 



(ftiossan? 



teran, iv, tear, bite, pres. i sg. 



21 



i4 



tid, f., ///«*, ^0«r, a. sg. 3 30 , 

73 2 ; d. pi. 39*, 5» 6 . 
til, adj., good, serviceable, 1 7 9 j 

g. pi. 2 6 23 . 

tila, adv., well, 48 2 . 

tillfremmend, m., well-doer, 
righteous man, g. pi. 59 7 . 

tillic, adj., good, capable, 54 s , 
63 s . 

timbran, wi, £«//</, pret. ptc. 
8 3 44 . 

to, prep. w. d., to (motion 
towards), 3 18 , 6 2 , 14 4 , etc. 

(2) for, for the sake of, 20 6 , 
*6 27 , 39^, 4 1 5, 49 9, 69 6. 

to f yre, at the fire, 11 11 j to 
feore, in (my) life,^.o 65 ; wearft 
to bane, became bone, 68 3 j to 
"Son, /o Ma/ degree, 40 l6 ; to 
ham, homewards, 34 4 ; w. 
dat. infin. 28 12 , 31 23 , etc. $ 
w. uninflected infin. (Bos- 
worth-Toller, s. v. in, 2) 
saecce to f rem man, to do battle, 
8 7 **. 

to, adv., stop . . . to, stepped 

"P> 54 2 - 
t6, adv., *00, w. adjectives, 2 2 6 , 

33 s - 

toberstan, in, to be rent asun- 
der, pres. 3 sg. 38 7 . 

tSgadrc, adv., together, 52 4 . 



togongan, rd., pass away, im- 
persl. w. g. rei d. pers. 23 10 . 

torht, adj., bright, n. sg. m. 
50 3 ; wk. 42^ a. 48*, 53*} 
d. pi. torhtan, 56 9 . 

torhte, adv., clearly, brightly, 

7 8 $ 59 7 - 
tosaelan, wi, happen amiss, 

fail, impersl. w. g. rei d. 

pers. pres. 15 25 , 16 5 . 
tosomne, adv., together, 3 39 . 
toS, m., tooth, a. sg., 58 s ; d. 

865 5 g. pi. 34 2 } d. 21 * 4 . 
toSringan, in, drive asunder, 

scatter, pres. 1 sg. 3 37 . 
tredan, v., tread, 13', " ; pres. 

1 s g- 7*5 3 s g- triedcS, i2 6 f 

trideft, 83^5 3 pi. 87 s } pret. 

1 sg. 7 1 11 . 
treow, n., tree, 53 2 , $6 9 . 
tu, num., /<uw, 15 4 , 36 6 , 63 s . 
tunge, f. wk., tongue, 79 s } a. 

sg. 5 8 8 }d. 4 8 2 . 
turf, f., /«r/; a. sg. i|«| d. 

tyrf, 40 25 . 
twegen, num., two, n. 42 IO , 

46 2 , 3 j f. twa, 42 l7 , 46 2 j a. 

m. 52 2 ; f. 42 1 , 69 3 , 80 5 , 

*$\ 5 > 7 > g- 39", 4* 9 i <*• 

46 1 , 50 2 , 6o l5 t 87 18 . 
twelf, num., twelve, 36 6 . 
tydran, wi, increase, be prolific, 

yf. d. pres. 3 sg. 83 s7 . 
tyhS, see tcon. 



(Slogan? 



181 



tyr, m., honour, glory , a. sg. 

26^3. 

B. 

5a, adv. conj., /^^», 9 3 , 22 s , IO , 

29 7 , etc. 

when, io 6 , 9 ; 40 7 , 47 2 , 

59 18 , etc. ; fta gen, v. gen. 
Saer, adv., //for*, where, there 

where, 3 s , 24 , 14 12 , 24 7 , etc. 
Saerinne, adv., therein, 46% 

Saes, advbl. g. of se, /0, /0 that 

degree, 1 ' . 
Saet, conj., consecutive, jo M^/, 



16 



I 2 , 3", 2 I 14 , 22 iy , 3O , 40 

9l , Io3 , 6o l4 , 72 6 , 83 41 . 

(2) final, //r# /, in order that, 

3 <5, 3 6' 2 , 4 o9, 35. 

(3) introducing a depen- 
dent clause, that, 4 4 , 5 s , u 6 , 
20 18 , 26 , 23 s , l3 , 25 7 , 27", 
33 I2 > 39' 4 > 47 3 > 608, 7 2 2 3. 

Sancian, W2, thank, rejoice, 
pret. 3 sg. 86 6 . 

5e, rel. pron. indecl., who, 
which, i« 5 , 2", l5 , 3 16 j 8 9 , 
2o 2 3, 25% 279, * 3 g5, 391s, 

26 Ao2 5 49 77 78 93 ,.,5 i4 

50 10 , 56 9 , 59 5 > r6 , 60", 618, 

67 18 , 69 1 , 5, 70 6, 7 2 28 , 80 7 , 
8 3 3 0> g ? 34 > 9 ,27 . a . I5 29 f 20^ 
3H 5 , 40^,9^ 41 4 , 43 i6 f 7a 4 > 

76 s } g. 32 12 j d. 20 21 , 87 14 ; 



n. pi. 2 '*, 5 < 2 , 1 3 10, 2 89, 34 6 f 
35'°, 39 i5, 4 2 7 , i\ 49 9, 656, 
7i 3 , 89 10 , 91 22 ; a. 3 s8 , 26 s j 
d. 3 34 j fie ic, 12 14 . 

5e, conj., that, because, 476. 

Seah, conj., yet, however, nev- 
ertheless, 6 8 , 93 10 . 

(2) although, 18 2 , 40 47 , ^ 
48 2 , 79 5 , 91 17 ; se fteah, yet, 
still, 4 9 , 35 11 (v. hwaeftre), 
39 27 ; deah, $e, ft. swa, #/- 
though, 13 6 , 40 27 , 83 s3 , 5o. 

Searle, adv. , severely. 
(2) abundantly, 71 8 . 

Seaw, m., custom, g. sg. u 8 . 

Seccan, wi, cover, 9 4 j pres. 3 
sg. 14 1 , 8o 9 j pres. opt. 3 sg. 
1 l4 ; pret. 3 sg. tfeahte, 45 4 , 
76 1 ; pret. ptc. fteaht, io 4 , 
16 3 . 

Secen, f., cover, d. sg. 8339 } a . 
pi. 45 2 . 

Segn, m., servant, 37 s , 49 4 , 
54 7, 86-; d. sg. + i,». 

Senden, conj., while, 12 2 , 
67 15 , 84 6 . 

SSnian, Segnian, W2, serve, 
w. d. pres. 3 sg. 21 14 , 43 s } 
3 pi. 50 6 . 

5eo, n., thigh, d. s. 44 1 . 

Seod, f., people, a. pi., 72 13 ; g. 

418. 

Seodcyning, m., king of people t 
g. sg. 67*. 



182 



®lo&my 



Seoden, m., chief, prince, mas- 
ter, g. sg. 45 5 }d. 2026, 58^ 
61 4 . 

Seof, m., thief, 47* j g. sg. 



72 



23 



Seon, 1, contr., flourish, pret. 

1 sg. "San, 7 1 8 . 
Seotan, 11, rush, resound, 3 8 4 . 
Seow, m., servant, 3 67 , 
SSowian, W2, serve, w. d. 

pres. 1 sg. fteowige, 12 15 j 3 

sg. 50 6 . 
Ses, Seos, Sis, dem. adj. & 

40 43 , 



pron., this, 31 1 , 32 1 , 



48 Si 76 A A i 



5 f. 7 4 , 57 1 



3r i4 An 3i 49 
5 > 4° > > 



,6 . 



neut 

sg. m. 

f. 39 17 , 26 , 40 1 , 2 ; neut. 40 78 



a. 



3 9^9, 40 7, 12 f 



5 22 . 



d. neut. 40 



79 



,>i. 



40 5 . 



Sicce, adj., thick, great, a. pi, 



36 



40 

Sicgan, v, take, receive, 89 



pres. 3 sg. 31 



i4 



Sincan, v. Syncan. 

Sindan, in, svuell, 45* ; pres. 

ptc. a. sg. neut. 45 s . 
Sing, n., thing, 39^ ; a. sg. 32*, 

45 5 J a. pi. 40 39 ; g. 40 36 . 
(2) court, meeting, council, 

d. sg. 67 1 ; ftingum . . . 5aet, 

in order that, 60 l4 . 
Solian, W2, endure, hold out, 

pres. 1 sg. ftolige, 91 21 j 3 sg. 

16 8 



(2) fail in, be deprived of 



27 



W. g. 20 
Son, instr., of sej to "Son, to that 

degree, 40 l6 . 
Sonan, adv., thence, 26 s , 29 10 , 



72 



27 



Sonc, m., thought, favour, on 
'Sonc(e), /or M* pleasure of, 

49, 20 26. 

Soncian, W2, thank, pret. 3 sg. 

887. 
Soncol, adj., thoughtful, vuise, 

2". 
Sonne, adv., conj., demonstr., 

then,! 2 , 63 , etc. ; relat., vuhen, 

i 3 , 8 , 2 8 , l4 , etc. 

after a comp. adj., //£#», 16 5 , 



*3 7 > 



39 4, 40 24 , 



26 28 3i 42 
> > > > 

9 2 2 , 



48 , etc., 66', *, 3, 8 4 3 , 

etc. j than (if), 40^. 
Srad, m., thread, 3 5 6 . 
Sriaegan, wi, run, rush, 19 3 . 
Srafian, w2, urge, stir, pres. 

3 sg. 3 4 - 
Srag, f. , time, season ? d. sg. 88 8 . 
advbl. d. pi. ftragum, some- 

times, at times, i 4 , 3 67 , 54^ 

8 4 4 . 
Sragbysig, adj., busy from time 

to time (?), 4 1 . 
SrSat, m., troop, press. 

(2) stress, blow, g. pi. 35 6 . 
Sreohtig, adj., enduring, perse* 

vering, comp. 84 4 . 



v^ 



^lossarv 



183 



Srimm, v. Srymm. 

Sringan, in, press on, force 

a way, 3 61 . 
Srist, bold, brave, g. pi. yz 23 . 
tirltS, v. SryS. 
Srowian, W2, suffer, pret. 1 sg. 



71 



*3 



Sry, num., three, 40 52 , 58 14 . 
Srymm, Srimm, m., might, 
power, renown, d. sg. 3 61 , 



40^. 

(2) a mighty person, g. pi. 3 4 . 
Srymfaest, adj., renowned, a. 

sg. m. 47I 
Srymful, adj., mighty, i 4 , 3 67 . 
SryS, SriS, f., force, strength, 

g. pi. 64 4 } advbl. d. pi. 

mightily, 37*, 86 2 . 
5u, pron., thou, 32 13 , 36", 39 28 , 

40 s ? ; d. sg. $e, 6o l4 . 
Sunian, W2, sound, resound, 

45 2 ; pres. 1 sg. i 4 . 
Surfan, prp., need, pres. 1 sg. 



15 



i7 



Surh, prep. w. ace, through, 
3*5, 61^ j 518^ e t c . 

Surhraesan, wi, rush through, 



pres. 1 sg. 3 



36 



Surst, thirst, 43 s . 

5 we ran, iv, forge, pret. ptc. 
89'. 

Syncan, Sincan, wi, seem, ap- 
pear, pres. 3 sg. 3 10 , 3 i i8 j pret. 
Suhte, 47 S 86 3 . 



Synne, adj., thin, small, a. pi. 



40 36 . 
Syrel, n.,hole, 44 s j a. sg. 15 21 , 

_7i». 
Syrel, adj., perforated, bored 

through, 89 s . 
Syrelwomb, adj., having a 

pierced stomach, a. sg. m. 

80". 
Syrran, wi, dry, pret. ptc. 28 4 . 
Syrs, m., giant, d. sg. 40 63 . 
Systru, f., darkness, d. sg. 47 4 ; 

d. pi. 3 4 . 
Sywan, wi, press, 3 18 , pres. 

3 sg. $y#, 12 8 , 21 s , 62 s , 63 6 . 

U. 
ufan, ufon, adv., from above, 

downwards, 3 17 , 55, 69, io 4 , 

36 s , 9 1 24 . 
ufor, adv. , comp. , higher, above, 

w. g. 40 88 . 
uhta, m. wk., dawn, early 

morning, g. pi. 60 6 . 
Ulcanus, m., Vulcan, g. sg. 



40 



56 



unbunden, adj., unbound, 23 15 . 
uncer, poss., adj., our (of two), 

n. pi. m. 87 18 , a. 6o l7 , see 

also under ic. 
undearnunga, adv., openly, 

4 2 2 . 

under, prep., w. d., under (rest) 
3 2 , 22 l5 , 36 s , etc. 



Z3 



1 84 



<£ios0ari? 



w. a., under, beneath (mo- 
tion towards) 2 2 , 3 64 , etc. 

under, adv., down, 21". 

underflowan, rd.yflouo beneath, 
pret. ptc. io 2 . 

underhnigan, 1, descend be- 
neath, w. a., 3 69 j pres. 1 sg. 
66 6 . 

undyrne, adj., known, evident, 

unforcuS, adj., honourable, 
good, true, 6z 2 . 

ungefullod, adj., unfulfilled, d. 
sg. f. 59 13 . 

ungesibb, adj., strange, unre- 
lated, d. pi. 9 8 . 

ungod, n., evil, a. 20 35 . 

unlaet, adj., restless, active, en- 
ergetic, 53 11 . 

unlytel, adj., large, great, 40 75 } 
a. sg. n. 82 11 . 

unrsed, m., folly, g. sg. 11 10 , 
27 I2 . 

unraedsiS, m., foolish journey, 
way of folly, a. pi. n 4 . 

unrim, n., countless number, a. 
sg. 43 8 . 

unrim, adj., countless, a. pi. 
neut. 6 3 . 

unsceaft, f., evil or monstrous 
creature, n. pi. 87 s2 . 

unsoden, adj., unboiled, 76 s . 

unstille, adj., restless, unquiet, 



unwita, m., ignorant person, 

fool, 4". 
up, upp, adv., up, upwards, 

3", 7o, io 9, 22 i9, 3311, 55^ 
9I 8 . 

upcyme, rn., upspringing, a. sg. 
3o9. 

upirnan, in, uprise, rush up- 
wards, pres. ptc. d. sg. wk. 



40 



56 



uplong, adj., upright, 87 12 , 
upweard,adj., upward, turned 

up, a. sg. m. nioftan up- 

weardne, upside down, 61 6 . 
user, poss. adj., our, 40 89 . 
ut, adv., out, outwards, 62 6 , 

91 16 . 
utan, adv., from without, 40 5 , 15 , 

40 47 , 53 , 7 2' 3 , 8 3 39 . 
ute, adv., outside, out of doors, 

4 2 2 . 

uttor, adv., comp., from withy 
out, 40 84 . 

W. 

wa, interj., woe ! w. g. rei, d 



pers. 1 1 



wac,adj.,<u^tf£, g. sg. neut. 45 x 
wacan, vi, be born, pret. 1 sg. 



20- 



wadan, vi, go, pass, pres. 1 sg. 

62 3 j pret. 3 sg. 22 15 , 9 1 6 . 
wsecan, wi, weaken, pret. ptc 

285. 



€>loS9avs 



185 



waeccan, wi, watch) wake, 

pres. ptc. a. sg. 40 8 . 
waed, f., garment, d. pi. 42I 
waed, n., water, a. pi. wado, 

z a - 

waeg, m., wall, d. sg. 13 4 } 

wage, 14 12 . 
wSg, (weg), m., wave, 3 20 ; 

d. sg. 2 8 , 10 10 , i6 x f 22 21 , 

waegfaet, n., water-vessel, a. 

pi. J37. 

waegn, m., waggon, 22 12 5 a. 

Sg. 2 2 9 j d. 2 1 8 . 

waegstaeS, n., shore, d. sg. 

22 2 , 

waelcrseft, m., deadly power, 
d. sg. 89". 

waelcwealm, m., death-pang, 
i 8 . 

wselgim, m., deadly jewel, a. 
sg. 20 4 . 

wselgrim, adj., slaughter-fierce, 
bloodthirsty, 15 8 . 

wselhwelp, m., slaughter- 
whelp, murderous dog, g. sg. 
15 23 . 

waepen, n., weapon, 3 s8 ; a. 

sg- 55 12 > d- pl. 3 52 > *° l7 - 
waepenwiga, m., armed war- 
rior, 14 1 . 
waSpnedcyn, n., male-kind, 

male, g. sg. 38 1 . 
waer, v. wer. 



waestm, wsestum, m., fruit, 
produce, offspring, 90 2 } d. pl. 
8 3 37. 

(2) growth, form, figure, 

a. sg. 3 1 5 . 
waet, adj., wet, 25 11 ; wk. 35 1 . 
waet a, m. wk., water, liquor, 

a. sg. 3 48 j d. 58 10 . 
waetan, wi, wet, soak, pres. 3 

sg. 12 10 ; pret. 3 sg. 26 2 . 
water, n., water, 53 s , 68 3 j 

g. sg. 22 12 } d. io 1 , 12 10 , 

26 3 , 91 23 . 
w«5an, wi, wander, hunt, 

pres. 3 sg. 34 5 . 
wafina, w2, wonder at, be as- 
tonished, pres. 3 pl. 83 41 . 
wagian, wi, shake, tremble, 

pres. 3 pl. 3 8 j pret. 3 pl. 

54 6 - 

waldend, n., ruler, master, 6 1 , 
20 4 , 236, 4o 8 9j g. sg. 40 < 4 . 

waldend, adj., mighty, power- 
ful, comp. 40 87 . 

Wale, f., Welsh (foreign) 'wo- 
man, slave, 12 8 , 52 6 . 

wamb, v. womb. 

war, waroS, n., sea-weed, 
40 49 ; d. sg. 2 8 . 

warian, wi, guard, pres. 3 sg. 
3 1 21 , 82 4 , 91 26 . 

wat, wast, v. witan. 

waS, f., wandering, roving, a. 
sg. 1". 



1 86 



<8A066m 



wawan, rd., blow, pres. 3 sg. 



4081. 
wea, m. wk., woe, misery, 

calamity, 5 6 5 5 a. sg. 7 1 l3 5 

g. pi. 87'°. 
wealcan, rd., roll, toss, pret. 

ptc. 2 4 . 
wealdan, rd., wield, rule, 

pres. 3 sg. 4 o5, 22; w. g. 

pret. 3 sg. 52 6 . 
Wealh, m., Welsh {foreign) 

man, slave, foreigner, a. pi. 

Wealas, 12 4 ; g. pi. Wala, 

71". 
weall, m., wall, 83 44 j g. sg. 

29 7 ; n. pi. 3 9 . 

(2) cliff", hill, mound, d. 

sg. 320 . a. pi. 34 5. 
weard, m., guard, attendant, 

guide, 2 1 4 . 

(2) ruler, g. sg. 13 7 . 
weardian, W2, keep, guard, 

8725. 

wearm, adj., warm, 4 7 . 
wearp, n., warp, a. sg. 35 s . 
weaxan, rd., grow, 54 10 ; 

pres. 3 sg. 40 26 ; 3 pi. 40 io2 ; 

pret. 1 sg. 87 1 ; pres. ptc. n. 

s g- 53 3 - 
wecgan, wi, move, bear, carry, 

bring, pres. 3 sg. 12 8 , 2i 5 ,8o 7 ; 
pret. 3 pi. 72 s . 
weder, n., weather, wind, 
storm, d. sg. 302. 



wefan, v, weave, pres. 3 sg. 

83 s2 ; pret. ptc, 4o 8S . 
wcfl, f., weft, woof, n. pi. 35 s . 
weg, m., way, a. sg. 1521, 

538, 62 3 j d. 36 1 , 68 3 , 6 9 5 ; 

a. pi. 3*6, 5 16. 
w€g, v. waeg. 
wegan, v, move, carry, bring, 

pres. 1 sg. 20 6 ; 3 sg. 32", 

50 3 , 70 6 , 7221 . 3 pi. I4 i4 . 

pret. 3 pi. 27 s j pret. ptc. 



21 



wel, adv., well, 6 7 , 50 s . 

(2) thoroughly, very, w. 

adj. 9 4 . 
wela, m. wk., wealth, ?67*°. 
wella, m. wk., well, source, 

fountain, a. pi. 38 s . 
wen, f., expectation, hope, pros- 

pect, 3 28 . 
wenan, wi, wten, believe, sup- 
pose, expect, 20 17 \ pres. 3 pi. 

z l i pret. 1 sg. 60 7 j w. g. 

pres. 1 sg. 5 4 . 
wend an, wi, turn, pres. 3 sg. 

7228; p re t. 3 S g. 59 5 5 pret. 

ptc. 59 19 . 
weorc, n., work, handiwork, 

9i 32 ; n. pi. 26 14 . 

(2) labour, toil, a. sg. 7 1 x3 ; 

g. 4* 4 , 54 xo - 
weorpan, in, throw, dash, 
hurl, w. d. of thing thrown, 
pres. 3 pi. 2 6 . 



#los#ari? 



187 



weorperc, m., thrower, z7 7 . 
weorS, adj., worthy, held in 

honour, 27 x $ cornp. 87 14 . 
we or San, 111, become, 50 10 5 

pres. 1 sg. 16 4 ; 3 sg. 15 14 ; 

3 pi. 2' 4 , 5 13 ; pret. 1 sg. 985 

3 sg. 39 l8 > 67", 683, g 2 s. 3 

pi. 72 3 . 

(2) as auxily. with pret. ptc. 
of another vb. making it pas- 
sive, 3 3l $ pres. 1 sg. 20 20 , 
pret. 3 sg. 53 5 ; pret. opt. 3 
sg. 83 30 . 

weorSian, wi, honour, adorn, 
pres. 3 sg. 20 10 ; pret. ptc. 
70 5 , 8324. 

wSpan, rd., weep, pres. 3 sg. 
70 5 ; pret. 1 sg. 91 19 . 

wcr, waer, m.,man, 46' ; g.sg. 
44'; n. pi. i 4 3, ", 229, 2 S 
306, 8 3 4 ', 85" ; g. P l. 18, 3 9 , 
26*8, 2914, 34S 47 3 > %z z t 

87265 d. 27s 31 4 , * 4 , 32", 

41 9 , 4* 16 . 
werig, adj., tired, w. d. 5 3 j 

w. g. 54 10 . 
wermod,m., wormwood, 40 60 . 
werSeod, f., people, a. pl. 

83 40 . 
wesan, anv., to be, 43 IO j pres. 

1 sg. 5S *5 2 , »7S etc. ; 3 



sg- 



iS'j 



i 7 9, etc. j 



w. 



neg. prefix, nis, 40 68 , 86 , 84 1 ; 
3 pl. sind, sindon, sindan, 



5S lo > 57*, 5« l4 . *5 6 > 663 . 
pres. opt. 3 sg. sy, 2 8 l3 

35 l4 > 39S l4 > 4o 24 , 27 , 6o 
79 5 , 83^5} sie 



i9 



41 9 , 67 

31 24 , 32 14 } pret. 1 sg. I4 X 
18 4 , 40 44 , 56 1 , 60 1 , 65 1 , a 
71 1 , 9, 90*5 3 sg. 92, i 3 5 

198, 226, 31 4 , 6 f 32^ 33 3 j 5 

3* 2 , 8 , 9 > 3 7 1 , 46 4 , 47 s , 5* 3 
5 25, 532, 11, 566, 9,603, 63x6 

642, 68 2 , ?Q 2 t 82', 87 s , 1 4 

pl. io 8 , 1 3 1, 33 4 , 4 6 6 , 523, 

8 7 29 5 opt. 3 sg. 3 67. 

(2) as aux. vb. w. pret. 

ptc. forming passive voice, 

pres. 1 sg. 2 4 9, 632; 3 pl. 

42*7 j pret. 3 sg. 59*8, 61 4 ; 

opt. 3 sg. 39*5. 

west, adv , westward, 29 ro . 

wic, n., habitation, dwelling- 
place, a. pl. 72, 1585 d. 87, 
49 4 , 7228. 

wicg, wycg, n., steed, 14 5 $ d. 
sg. 14 14 , 79 7 j n. pl. 2221 j a. 

22 9 } d. 22 3 . 

wicstede, m., dwelling-place, 
n. pl. 3 9. 

wid, adj., wide, a. sg. f. i8 3 . 

widdor, v, wide. 

wide, adv., far, widely, far 
and wide, i 11 , 3 3 7, 7i f yS f 
10 10 , 20 16 , 26 16 , 27 1 , 35", 
39*7, 582, 667, 7222> 8 2">, 
9127, 933 j a ii o^ver, +0" -, 



188 



0lo**ari> 



comp. wlddor, 9*°, 6o l7 , 

71 10 . 
wideferh, adv., forever, 39 8 , 21 . 
widgal, adj., wandering, rov- 
ing, d. sg. 20 5 ; comp. wid- 

g(i)elra, more extended, voider, 

4 o5i, 83. 
widlast, adj., far -wandering, 

19 6 . 
wido, 56*, v. wudu. 
wif, n., woman, wife, 25 ll , 

3 6 4 , 5 o5, g. sg. 36", 90 3 , d. 

20 32 , n. pi., 30 6 , d. pi. 25 x , 

4 6<. 
wifel, m., weevil, beetle, a. sg. 

4o73. 

wig, n., battle, war, a. sg. 5 3 , 



J 5 



23 



wiga, m. wk., warrior, 15 8 , 

S° l > 5 l6 > 7 1 28 , g- sg. 91 20 . 
wiht,wuht,wyht, f. n., wight, 
creature, being, 18 1 , 20 x , 2 3 2 , 
24S 251, 2 8» 3 , 29 7 , 3 1 4 , l9 , 

a4 > 3* 5 > ,4 , 33S 3 86 > 39S 
4 o87, 4 ,9, 69', 8i*, 831, 8 5 S 
882, a . sg . 411,291, 34 i, 36', 

37 1 , 3 8 S 39 26 , 5^ 2 , 5 82 > 
672, 68', 86', g. 29*4, 3 6' 3 , 
d. 56 s , n. pi. 42 16 , a. 57*, 
wuhte 5 1 l , wyhte, 42 l , g. 2 8 8 , 

39 l4 > 4* 8 , 8 3 4 . 

(2) indef. particle after a 
neg. (not, none) at all, a. 3 1 l4 , 
58 10 , 65 l , d. 47 6 , advbl. 15 23 . 



wiif, v. wif. 

wilcuma, m. wk. , pleasant com- 
er, welcome guest, or thing, 
g. pi. 8». 

wilgehleSa, m. wk., pleasant, 
familiar companion, a. pi. 

14 5 . 

willa, m. wk., will, desire, plea- 
sure, 78 1 , a. sg. 20 33 , 54 6 , 
6 3 7 » 7 2? > g- P 1 - 2 8 I( ?, d. pi. 
86 7 , 89", 91 2 . 

willan, anv. , will, wish, pres. 
"sg- 49 9 > 3 s g. 35 Il >39 5 >43 IO » 
l4 , 44 5 , 59 l6 , 76 4 , 8 9 9, 3 pi. 
16 7 , 26 18 , pret. 3 sg. 29 s , 
867. 

w. neg. pref. pres. 1 sg. 
nelle, 23 15 , 3 sg. nele, 15* 6 . 

wilnian, W2, desire, ask for, 
pres. 3 pi. 497. 

win, n., wine, d. sg. 14 17 , 42 l6 f 

46'. 

wincel, m., corner, d. sg. 45 ». 
wind, m., wind, 10 10 , 40 68 j 

d. sg. 14 14 , 16 1 , 30 1 , 40 8 *. 
windan, in, twist, turn, curl, 

pret. ptc. 28 s , 55 3 j n. pi. 

35 5, 4 o">4ja. 40". 
winnan, in, strive, contend, 

1 6* j pres. 1 sg. 3^, 67; 3 

s g- 3 l9 > P res - ptc. 2 8 , 3 48 # 

516; a. 56*. 
winBele, m., wine-hall, d. sg. 

54*. 



(glossary 



189 



winterceald, adj., wintry cold, 

4 7 - 
wir, m., wire, filigree, orna- 
ment, 20 4 ; d. sg. 26 14 , 7o5 j 

d. pi* 20 32 , 40 47 . 
wirboga, m. wk., bent wire, 

d. pi. 14 3 . 
wis, adj., wise, 32 14 , d. 31 24 . 
wisdom, m., wisdom, a. sg. 

93 9 5<1. *7 6 . 
wise, f. wk., sprout, growth, 

.— * a. pi. 65*. 

Wise, f. wk., manner, fashion, 
pi. characteristics, 'virtues, 
j6 l3 , 79 10 } a. pi. 11 8 , 20", 
69 s , 72 s , 29 , 8 3 7 ; d. pi. 31*, 

(2) melody, a. sg. 8 4 . 
wlsfaest, adj., wise, skilled, 

learned, 3 5 l4 ; d. sg. 28 13 ; 

g. pi. 6 7 l9 5 d. 41 9 . 
wisian, wi, guide, direct, pres. 

3 sg. 3 13 , 20 s , 2 1 2 . 
wisse, v. witan. 
wist, f., food, a. sg. 32" ; a. 

pi. 43 7 ; d. pi. 83". 
witan, prp., know, pres. 1 sg. 

« 5 t 35 3 , 43 r , 49S58 1 , 87* . 

1 Sg. 36"} 3 pi. 427; prct . 

3 sg. wisse, 54 1 ; pres. opt. 3 
sg. 4"; 1 pi. 36"; 3 pi. 39*. 

wite, n., punishment, torment, 
penance, 26 l7 ;a. sg. 23 6 . 

witod, adj. ptc, decreed, as- 



sured, certain, 15 6 , ", 20 24 , 

8 4 7 5 a. pi. 437. * 
wi5, prep., w. d., against, 3 20 , 

41, 16 1 , 2 , 27'°, 72 6 . 

(2) with) 20 27 , 39", 6o l4 j 

w. a., against, 42 l3 ; following 

its case, 16 9 . 
wiS, adv., against, 28 10 . 
wlitan, 1, look, pres. 3 sg. 91 32 . 
wlite, m., aspect, countenance, 

36", 70% 8 3 * 4 ; a. sg. 8 3 7. 
wlitetorht, adj., beautiful, g. 

pi. 70 3 . 
wlitig, adj., beautiful, 14 12 , 

17 10 , 83 19 ; a. pi. wk. 34 7 . 
wlitigian, W2, beautify, adorn, 

pres. 3 sg. 83 37 ; pret. ptc. 

3 1», 3 2 2 , 83^ 
wlonc, wlanc, adj., proud, ex- 
ultant, splendid, i4 r , 42 4 ; a. 

sg. m. 50 10 ; d. 79 7 ; n. pi. 

m. 306; a. i4 l7 jg- 59 l9 5 <*. 

17 10 . 
woh, n., crookedness, perversity, 

on woh, crookedly, 21 4 . 
woh, adj., crooked, 69* ; n. pi. 

neut. 39 24 j a. wk. n 8 ; d. 

w5um, 14 3 . 
wolcen, n., cloud, g. pi. 7 5 j d. 

83*5. 
wolcengehnast, n., battle of 

clouds, d. sg. 3 60 . 
wolenfaru, f., cloud-drift, mow 

ing clouds, a. sg. 3 71 . 



190 



<Sioft*an? 



worn, m., disgrace, 

(2) slander, abuse, a. sg. 

20 33 . 
womb, wamb, f., womb, 

stomach, 37 1 ; a. sg. 18 3 , 62 3 , 

8 5 5, 86' } d. 3 48, 363, 8 7 33 ? 

9 1 23 , *8. 
wombhord, m., treasure of the 

womb, 17 10 . 
won(n), adj., dark, lurid, 

livid, 3 20 , 40 Io7 , 87" ; wk. 

49 4 ; a. pi. neut. 40 41 ; d. pi. 

53 7 , 8716. 
wonfah, adj., dark, 52 6 . 
wonfeax, adj., dark-haired, 

12 8 . 
wong, m., /^, plain, 35 1 , 

40 5i f 83, 70 * . a . sg . 641 5 d. 

21 5 , 58*, 72 1 j n. pi. 66 5 ; a. 
12 2 , 82 io . 

(2) the earth, the world, 
d. sg. 31*1 
wonian, W2, diminish, pres. 1 



sg. 20 



33 



wonnsceaft, f., evil fate, mis- 
ery, a. sg. 91 20 . 

word, n., word, a. sg. 18 1 , 
20", 595, 939 ; d. 40 14 ; a. 
pi. 47*, 67* ;g. 32^ ; d. 4 », 

20 34 , 3 1*, 3514, 3926, 29, 
4 o7 3 , 476, 4 g3, 5516, 6o io, 
8 3 7, 54, ? g 3 53. 

wordcwide, m., speech, saying, 
a. pi. 60^. 



wordlean, n., word requital, 

g. pi. 79- 9 . 
world, woruld, f., world, a. 

sg. 40*, 83^. 
worldbearn, m., child of the 

world, man, g. pi. 8 3 32 . 
worldlif, n., earthly life, d. sg. 

4o87. 
woruldstrengu, f., world- 
strength, strength, g. pi. 26*. 
woS, f., sound, voice, song, d. 

sg. 8". 
woSbora,m. wk., sound-bearer, 

singer, poet, d. sg. 31 24 , 79*. 
woSgiefu, f., gift of song, 31*8. 
wracu, f., malice, enmity, d. sg. 

wraece, i 4 . 
wraed, f., bond, a. pi. 3 13 . 
wrsesnan, wi, change, pres. 1 

sg. 241. 
wraest, adj., strong, vigorous, 

comp. 40 26 . 
wrseste, adv., strongly, 40". 
wratt, f., ornament, decoration, 

d. pi. 3 1 2 , 32*. 
wrsetlic, adj., wondrous, curi- 
ous, fair, beautiful, 23% 31 18 , 

39 24 , 44 1 , 55 3 , 69S n. sg. f. 

331, 47*5 a. sg. f. 67*} g. 

wk. 59^; n. pi. neut. 26 14 ; 

a. f. 42S 5 1 1 . 
wraStlice, adv., wonderfully, 

elegantly, 36*, 40 6 , 85, m>, 

10 4 , 68*, 695. 



>? 



un^ 



#los0atT> 



191 



yj 



S 



wra5, adj., fierce, cruel, g. pi. 
40 41 , 70 3 } d. 14 17 . 

(a) bitter, com p. 40 60 . 
wraSscraef, n., den, a. pi. 



40 



4i 



wrecan, v, drive, 1", prcs. 3 
sg. 3 3 ; pres. opt. 3 sg. wraece 
i 2 , prct. ptc. 21". 

(a) avenge, 91 l9 j pres. opt. 
3 sg. wraece, 20 18 . 

wrecca, m. wk., exile, wan- 
derer, a. sg. 2 9 10, g. 398. 

wregan, wi, rouse, excite, 3 17 , 
pres. 1 sg. 3 71 , pret. ptc. 2 3 . 

wrenc, m., artifice, d. pi. advbl. 
cunningly, 8 2 . 

wrSon, 1 corttr., cover, pret. 3 sg. 
wreah, i 12 , wrah, 9 s , 26", 3 
pi. wrugon, 2 15 , 76*, 87 15 . 

wreSstuSu, f., support, founda- 
tion, d. pi. 40 2 . 

wrigian, wi, strive, push one y s 
way, pres. 3 sg. 21 5 . 

wriSa, m. wk., ring, a. sg. 59 s . 

wriSan, 1, bind, fetter, pres. 3 
sg. 50 5 , pret. ptc. 5 3 7 . 

wrixlan, wi, change. 

(2) discourse, 60 10 , pres. 1 
sg. 8*. 

wrSht,f. accusation, quarrelling, 

?72 l4 . 

wrStan, rd., break up the soil 

(of pigs), pres. ptc. 40 ro7 . 
Wudu,m.,avW (material), 40 48 , 



55 l6 » 56 5 , d. sg. io5, 87", 
9 1 23 , a. wido, 56*. 

(2) wood (forest), a. sg. i 8 , 
80 7 . 

(3) ship, 3**. 

(4) tree, 53 3 . 
wudubeam, m., forest-tree, g. 

pi. 87^. 
wudutreow, n. forest-tree, a. 

sg- 55 3 - 

wuhte, v. wiht, a. pi. 

wuldor, n., glory, 8 3 32 ; g. sg. 
66 7 j d. 30 2 . 

wuldorcyning, m., king of 
glory, g. sg. 39". 

wuldorgesteald, n. pi., glori- 
ous possessions, 26 16 . 

wuldorgimm, m., glorious 
jewel, 83 2S . 

wuldornytting, m., glorious 
usefulness, d. pi. 83 24 . 

wulf, m., wolf, g. sg. 9 1 27 . 

wulfheafedtreo, n. , wolf-head- 
tree, 55". 

Willi, f., wool, g. sg. 35 3 . 

wund, f., wound, d. sg. 91 19 ; 
n. pi. 59 l7 ; a. 5", 5 3 7 . 

wund, adj., wounded, 5 1 , 
89 2 . 

wundenlocc, adj., curly locked, 
26". 

wunderlic, wundorlic, adj., 
wonderful, strange, 87"$ f. 
18 1 , 20% 24% 25 1 , 2 9 7 5 a. 



192 



^iostfan? 



sg. f. 86 1 } comp. a. sg. m. 
31*. 
wundor, n., wonder, miracle, 
6 7 6 , 68 3 ; a. sg. 47 2 ;g- 6o'°; 
g. pi. 21 8 , 82' , 8 3 34 5 d. pi. 
advbl. yv\mdrum t <wonderfully 9 
35 1 , 3* 2 > 5°S 68S 83S ax, 

4o # 

wundorcrseft, m., wondrous 
mighty d. sg. 40 85 . 

wundorlice, adv., wonderfully, 
29*. 

wundorworuld, f., wondrous 
wond, a. sg. 39 l7 . 

wunian, dwell, pres. 1 sg. wu- 
nige, 84 6 , pret. 1 sg. 72 1 . 

(2) remain, continue, 40 8 , 
pres. 3 sg. 31 16 . 

wycg, v. wicg. 

wyhte, v. wihte. 

wyltan, wi, roll, turn, pret. 
ptc. 59 19 . 

wyn(n), f., joy, pride, if-, d. 
sg. 53 2 , d. pi. 40 Io7 . 

wynlic, ad)., joyful, delightful, 
40 26 5 n. sg. f. 3 1 l8 . 

wynnstaSol, m., joyous founda- 
tion, seat, or source of joy, 
90 3 . 

wynsum, adj., winsome, agree- 
able, 83*9,25. 

wyrcan, wi, work, make, con- 
struct, 15 18 , 72 rI , pres. 3 sg. 
378, 63 7 5 pret. 3 sg. worhte, 



40 6 , 89 , 54 6 , 88 5 ; pret. ptc. 

geworht, 69 s . 
wyrd, f., weird, fate, 472 ; g. 

pi. 35 9, 39 24. 
wyrdan, wi, destroy, injure, 

pres. 3 pi. 87 33 . 
wyrm, m., worm, 40 76 , 47 s j n. 

pi. 35 9 - 
wyrman, wi, warm, pres. 3 

sg. 12 10 . 
wyrnan, wi, refuse, pres. 3 sg. 

20 11 ; w. g. rei, 20 2 9. 
wyrs, adv., comp. of yfle, 

worse, 1 3 5 . 
wyrslic, adj., mean, vile, 

comp. 40 48 . 
wyrt, f., root, herb, a. pi. 34 s 5 

g. 70 3 j d. 5 12 , 34 7 . 

Y. 

yean, wi, increase, 30 9 $ pres. 

3 pi. 26 24 . 
yfel, adj., evil, bad, i. sg. 



40 



32 



yfle, adv., badly, 43 9 , 82 s . 
yldo, f., old age, 43I 
yldra, v. eald. 
ymb, prep. w. a., about, around, 



20 4 , 40 5 . 



(2) concerning, 33 s , 39 26 , 
following and separated from 
its case, 23", 43 16 . 
ymbclyppan, wi, embrace, 
405 3 5 pres. 1 sg. 40 l5 . 



dHos#ar£ 



193 



ymbhwyrft, m., universe, 

voorld, 40 42 5 a. sg. 40 7 , l5 . 

ymbwindan, in, surround. 



pres. 1 sg. 40 84 . 
yrnan, in, run , flow, 84 s . 
yst, f., //orwj d. sg. an yste, in 

storm, 53 10 . 
yS, f., wave, 60 6 5 a. sg. 51 5 ; 

73 4 jn.pl. 2^, 7 6* 5 a. 3 17 , 68 ; 



g. 2 2 , J 33 , 22 7 J d. IO 4 , l6 3 , 

77 7 . 
ySan, wi, devastate, ravage, 

70 7 . 
ywan, wi, shovo, display, pres. 

ptc. 3 sg. 55>5 } pret. ptc. 3 34 . 



zcfferus, m., xephyrus, 40 68 . 



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°ld English Riddles 

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I QUEEN'S PARK 

Toronto 5, Canada