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VOL. I. 

DOWNEY & CO. Limited 



First Edition. London. Printed by A.M. for John Mynshew. 1 633. Folio. 

Second Edition. Dublin. Reprinted by the Hibernia Press Company. 18 10. 
2 vols. Svo. 


— — — - ^.2. 





Especially within the Province of Movnster, 


Then Lord President of that Province, and afterwards Lord Carew of CloptoN, 
and Earle of Totnes, &c. 


The Siedge of Kinsale, the Defeat of the Earle of Tyrone, and his Annie ; The Expulsion 
and sending home of Don Iuan de Aguila, the Spanish Generally with his forces ; 
And many other remarkeable Passages of that time are related. 

Illustrated with Seventeene Severall Mappes, for the better understanding 
of the Storie. 

Iuvenal. Sat. 10. 

Bellorum Exuvia, truncis affixa trophais 
Lorica, Sf fractd de Casside buccula pendens, 
Humanis mujora bonis creduntur : 



And part of the Impression made over, to be vended for the benefit of the Children 
of Iohn Mynshew, deceased. 



printed by gilbert and rivinoton, limited, 
■t. john's house. clerkenwell road. 





The Lord Deputy, and the Lord President's landing in Ireland — 
The Warrant for passing the Lord President's Patent — The 
Patent — The Lord Deputy and Council's Instructions to 
the Lord President 1 


The Earl of Tyrone in Munster, and his actions there — The 
White Knight Tyrone's prisoner — Florence MacCarty made 
MacCarty More, and Donell MacCarty displaced — The 
Lord Barry spoiled — Tyrone's Letter to the Lord Barry, 
with the Lord Barry's answer — Sir Warham Saint Leger 
and MacGuyre slain — Tyrone's return into Ulster . . 9 


The Lord President left Dublin — The Earl of Ormond taken 
prisoner by Owny MacRory O'More — A joint letter from 
the Lord President and the Earl of Thomond to the Lords 
of the Council in England — The manner of the Earl of 
Ormond's taken prisoner — The narrow escape of the Lord 
President, and wounding of the Earl of Thomond — The 
order taken for the settling of the country after the Earl of 
Ormond's disaster — The submission of Tho. FitzJames and 
Tho. Power 16 


The encounter of Her Majesty's forces with Florence MacCarty — 
The prey of the Brough taken — The state of the province 
of Munster when the Lord President came into it — The 
Lord Barry preyed — Redmond Burke defeated by Odwyre — 
Odwyre's country harassed by Redmond Burke . , .29 





Loghguyre preyed — The submission of Barrett and Condon — 
The submission of Florence MacCarty — Florence Mac- 
Carty's demands — The submission of Nugent — The Brough 
burnt by Pierce Lacy — Redmond Burke departed out of 
Cownologhe — Ten of the bonoghs slain by Sir Richard 
Percy — A letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 
MacCarty — The army sent out from Cork toward Limerick 
— The submission of the White Knight . . . .37 


Cahir Castle surprised by James Galdie Butler — A letter from 
James Galdie Butler to the Lord President — The rendering 
of the Castle of Loghguyree — Nugent's attempt upon John 
FitzThomas — Clanwilliam spoiled and burnt by the army . 53 


The submission of John Burke — The Castle of Ballitrarsny — 
O'Mulryan's country burnt and spoiled by the army — A 
letter from James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty — 
O'Sulevan More detained prisoner by the practice of 
Florence MacCarty — The plot contrived by the Lord 
President for the apprehension of James FitzThomas — The 
Lord President's letter to James FitzThomas — Five 
hundred men sent to lie in garrison at Asketon — Supplies 
of money, munition, victuals, etc. — The apprehension of 
James FitzThomas by Dermond O'Connor . . .62 


The country of Thomond harassed and spoiled by O'Donnell — 
Forces sent into Thomond — James FitzThomas set at 
liberty — Dermond O'Connor's letter to the Lord President 
— A letter from the Munster rebels to O'Donnell — Dermond 
O'Connor and the rebels agreed and reconciled — The Castle 
of Crome taken by the army — A joint letter from William 
Burke and Morroghe ny Moe O'Flagharly to the Lord 
President — A letter from Morroghe ny Moe O'Flagharly to 
the Lord President — A letter from James FitzThomas to 
Florence MacCarty 76 


The army encamped before Glyn Castle — The Knight of the 
Valley, upon safe conduct, spoke with the Earl of Thomond 
— The constable of Glyn Castle — His advice to the Earl of 
Thomond for his safety — A breach made and assaulted — 




A sally made by the rebels — The constable, etc., slain — The 
Castle of the Glyn won and the rebels put to the sword . 88 


Ward put into the castle of Glyn by the Lord President — 
Carrickfoyle rendered by O'Connor Kerry — Victuals and 
munition sent out of England into Munster — Maurice Stacke 
sent into Kerry — The bonoghs obtained the Lord President's 
passport to depart the province — Sixty of the bonoghs 
slain by the Lord Burke — The Lord President's return to 
Limerick — The Castle of Corgrage rendered — A garrison 
left in Askeiton — The Castle of Rath more rendered — A 
garrison placed at- Kilmallock — The rebels forced to raise 
the siege of Lyskaghan — Florence MacCarty's persuasions 
to the ward to quit Lyskaghan — Florence attempts again 
to corrupt the constable of Lyskaghan — A letter from 
James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty . . . .94 


The Lord President at Carrickfoyle — The castles of Lixnaw, 
Rathowin, and Tralee surprised by Sir Charles Wilmot — 
The bonoghs defeated by Sir Charles Wilmot — The death 
of Patrick FitzMaurice, Lord of Lixnaw — Florence Mac- 
Carty sent for by the Lord President, but refuses to come — 
A marriage practised by Florence for James FitzThomas — 
Letters and messages between Florence and Tyrone — An 
encounter between Captain Harvey and the White Knight's 
son — The White Knight's son defeated — The Knight of 
Kerry and the Lord of Lixnaw sue for protection — The 
Earl of Thomond left to command the garrison of Askeiton 
— Florence MacCarty continues his practice with Tyrone — 
Lands given by James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty 
— Donnell MacCarty taken in upon protection . . . 101 


The Castle of Mayne in Connologh taken — O'Maghon and the 
O'Crowlys protected — Cahir Castle rendered — Supplies of 
horses and money sent for Munster — Dermond MacOvven, 
O'Keefe, and MacAwley make suit to be received as subjects 
— The submission of the Knight of Kerry — James Fitz- 
Thomas and Pierce Lacy defeated by the Knight of Kerry . Ill 


The Castle of Ardart taken by Sir Charles Wilmot — Maurice 
Stack treacherously murdered — The prey of Kilkoe taken 
by Sir Richard Percy — A letter from James FitzThomas 



to Florence MacCarty — James FitzThomas defeated by the 
garrison of Kilmallock . . . . . . .116 


Supplies of foot sent from England — O'Sulevan More sent by 
the Lord Deputy to the Lord President — The Castle of 
Glancoyne surprised by Sir Francis Barkley — Florence 
MacCarty's wife and followers persuaded him to go to the 
Lord President — The young Earl of Desmond arrived at 
Youghal — A letter from Her Majesty to the Lord President 
— Her Majesty's letters patents for James FitzGerald to be 
Earl of Desmond . . 124 


The juggling of Florence MacCarty — Supplies of men and 
apparel sent into Munster — The submission of Florence 
MacCarty — A skirmish between the MacCarty and O'Lery. 
— O'Lery slain — A letter from Redmond Burke to the Lord 
President 134 


The Lord President sueth for a general pardon for the 
Provincials — The submission of Thomas Oge FitzGerald, 
and the rendering of Castle Mange — The Castle of Listwell 
besieged and taken — The Castle of the Dingle rendered . 142 


A letter from Cormock MacDermond to Tyrone — The Abbey of 
Ratho burned and forty of the bonoghs slain — One thousand 
bonoghs levied by Florence MacCarty — Connaught and 
Ulster men change their resolution for the invading of 
Munster : the cause — Dermond O'Connor murdered by 
Theobald ny Long Burke — A letter from the Earl of 
Clanricard to Theobald ny Long 148 


Sessions held at Limerick, Cashel, and Clonmel — The Lord 
President and the Earl of Ormond meet at Clonmel — 
Muskery, Quirk, and Arlogh burnt and spoiled by the 
army — The submission of the Burkes and the O'Briens — 
The narrow escape of James FitzThomas and Dermond 
MacCraghe, the Pope's Bishop of Cork — In what good 
estate the province of Munster stood — MacAwley preyed by 
Sir Francis Barkley — A marriage practised between the 




Lady Joan FitzGerald and O'Donnell, but prevented by the 
Lord President » .156 


The Mayor of Limerick fined and imprisoned, and a new 
Mayor elected — A letter from the Spanish Archbishop of 
Dublin to James FitzThomas — The Sheriff's men slain by 
Florence MacCarty — The Lord President persuades Florence 
to go into England — Florence seems to like the motion, and 
the use he made of it ... ... 163 


The Lord President advertiseth into England of the intended 
invasion of the Spaniards — Demands made by the Lord 
President for money, munition, victuals — A letter from Her 
Majesty to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, to pardon all such 
as the Lord President should nominate, certain persons 
excepted as incapable of pardon — A certain branch of the 
Lords of the Council's letters to the Lord President . .172 


Victuals and money arrived at Cork — One thousand foot and 
fifty horse to be sent out of Munster to the Lord Deputy — 
A letter from the Lord President to the Lord Deputy — The 
companies sent for by the Lord Deputy, and stayed by his 
directions — The effect of the Lords of the Council's letters 
to the Lord President, with an abstract of his letter to the 
Lords of the Council . . . . . . .177 


Connaught and Ulster men drawn to a head to invade Munster 
— A regiment sent by the Lord President into Connaught 
to assist Sir John Barkley — Walter Burke and Teg O'Brien 
slain — The Lord President with the remainder of the army 
comes to Limerick — The rising-out of the country com- 
manded by the Lord Barry drawn near to Limerick — The 

rebels distressed for want of victuals, and defeated 

Donogh MacCormock Carty slain — Redmond Burke's letter 

to the Lord President, with the Lord President's answer . 187 





Intelligence of Spanish invasion — The escape of Teg O'Brien, 
brother to the Earl of Thomond — Florence's preparations 
for munition and men — A letter from Tyrone to Florence 
— A letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord 
President — The report of Dermond MacAwly touching the 
coming of Ulster men into Munster 196 


James FitzThomas, the titulary Earl of Desmond, taken 
prisoner— James FitzThomas kept prisoner in the Lord 
President's house — His arraignment and condemnation — 
His relation presented to the Lord President — The Lord 
President's letter to Her Majesty — Two letters from 
James FitzThomas to the King of Spain — The causes of 
the rebellion in Munster as James FitzThomas alleged — 
Hussy's report of the causes of the rebellion in Munster . 204 


A letter from Her Majesty to the Lord President concerning 
base moneys — A proclamation concerning base moneys — 
Articles between Her Majesty and the Treasurer of War 
for Ireland concerning base moneys . . . . .224 


A regiment sent by the Lord President into Connaught — 
Intelligence of the Spaniards coming to Ireland brought to 
the Lord President sundry ways — James FitzThomas's 
report of Florence MacCarty — Dermond MacAwly's report 
of the Council held in Ulster for the Spaniards' landing . 227 


Florence MacCarty is by the Lord President committed to 
prison — A brief collection of Florence MacCarty's treasons 
and practices with the rebels, not touching anything 
formerly related . . . . . . . .231 


Dermond MacOwen, Teg MacDermond, and Moyle Mo O'Maghon 
arrested — Dermond MacOwen's answer to the Lord Presi- 
dent — Tho services which the Munster Regiment performed 
in Connaught under the conduct of Sir Francis Barkley . 253 





Six thousand men demanded by the Lord President to be sent 
into Munster to withstand the intended invasion of Spain 
— The Lord President's opinion sent to the Lords of the 
Council of the likeliest place where the Spaniards would 
attempt to land their forces in Ireland — The effect of the 
Lords of the Council's answer to the Lord President — A 
branch of the Lord President's letter to Master Secretary 
Cecil — A letter from Master Secretary Cecil to the Lord 
President — The intelligence had of the Spanish fleet coming 
to Ireland, and by him sent to the Lord President — A 
branch of Master Secretary Cecil's letter to the Lord 
President 257 


The cross accidents which happened to make the Lord Deputy 
offended with the Lord President — The Lord Deputy's letter 
to the Lord President— A satisfactory letter from the Lord 
Deputy to the Lord President 266 


Intelligence of the Spanish invasion — Two thousand foot sent 
to the Lord President — The Spanish fleet discovered at sea 
by Captain Love, whereof the Lord President advertised 
the Lord Deputy — The Lord President makes a journey to 
the Lord Deputy — The Lord Deputy and the Lord President 
meet at Leighlin — Sir Charles Wilmot advertiseth the Lord 
President of the discovery of the Spanish fleet at the 
mouth of the Haven of Cork — The Spaniards land at 
Kinsale — A proclamation made in Kinsale by Don Juan de 
Aquila to give contentment to the inhabitants — A list of 
the captains in the Spanish army — Don Juan's certificate 
into Spain after his landing at Kinsale . . . .274 


Second letter from Sir Charles Wilmot of the arrival of all the 
Spaniards in Kinsale — Debate in council what was meetest 
for the Lord Deputy to do — The Lord Deputy assented to 
the Lord President's advice — The Lord President's provi- 
dence — A dispatch into England of the Spaniards' arrival — 
The Lord Deputy goeth with the Lord President into 
Munster — None of the provincials of Munster adhered to 
the Spaniards at their first landing — The report of a master 
of a Scottish bark concerning the strength of the Spaniards 
— Captain Flower sent to view Kinsale — Directions given 
for the burning of the corn near Kinsale — A letter from the 



Archbishop of Dublin and Don Juan de Aquila to Tyrone 
and O'Donnell — The Lord Deputy, Lord President, etc., 
went to view the town of Kinsale — The Lord Deputy with 
the army marched towards Kinsale . 286 


The Lord President requireth the towns of Munster to send 
companies of foot to the camp — Don Juan de Aquila's 
declaration in answer to a proclamation published by the 
Lord Deputy and Council — The army encamped at Knock- 
robin, near Kinsale — The enemy attempted to disturb our 
quarter, but were repulsed — A skirmish between us and the 
Spaniards — Captain Button arrived with munition and 
victuals — A skirmish in the night, wherein twenty of the 
Spaniards were slain — The army encamped close to Kinsale 
— A prey of cows taken from the Spaniards . . .294 



Sir George Carew Frontispiece 

A Map of Munster To face page 1 

Earl of Ormond „ 17 

Rory Ogne „ 19 

Map of the Earl of Ormond taken prisoner . „ 25 

Map of Youghal ,, 27 

Map of Cahir Castle „ 53 

Map of Askeaton Castle ..... „ 63 

Map of Glin Castle 89 

Map of Carrickfoyle Castle „ 95 

Ground plan of Carrickfoyle Castle .... „ 97 

Map of Castle Mayne . . . . . . „ 111 

Map of Limerick Castle . ..... „ 157 - 

Map of Limerick . 187 

Map of the Siege of Kinsale „ 286 


The events of the sixteenth century in Ireland have, 
more than those of any other, determined the relations of 
this island with Great Britain. Subsequent Anglo- 
Irish history appears to have unfolded itself logically 
enough from the so-called " Tudor Conquest " of 
Ireland. Yet the history of the century in this, its 
Anglo-Irish aspect, in spite of all that has been 
written about it by Froude and others, is still very 
obscure. If the views advanced in this Preface and 
in the notes do not receive a ready acquiescence, though 
they are, I believe, amply sustained by the text of the 
book under consideration, it must be remembered that 
not until very recent years, with the publication of the 
State Papers for the period, have students been placed 
in possession of materials upon which to form a correct 
judgment. For myself I can say that I have ap- 
proached those materials with the sole object of learn- 
ing the facts as they actually were, and of discovering 
the conclusions to which they lead, conscious of no pre- 
possession or bias in any direction. In those vast 
masses of letters and public documents, chiefly letters, 
the whole life of the times, external and internal, is 
laid bare before us ; for the majority of those letters 
and communications were private, and never intended 
to meet the public eye. 

vol. i. a 



Pacata Hibernia is one of the most interesting 
and important monuments of Anglo-Irish history ; 
being the work of a man who himself participated 
in the events which he describes ; and from his own 
point of view describes those events with great frank- 
ness. Yet its full historical value can only be appre- 
ciated by one who has also studied the State Papers, 
and reads it in the light which that study yields. The 
Pacata embraces altogether only a period of less than 
three years, and is concerned only with events occurring 
in a single province — that of Munster. And yet, when 
rightly read, it will be found to throw much light upon 
all those convulsions, tumults, and rebellions with 
which Irish history in this century so teems. It com- 
mences with the joint entrance of Lord Mountjoy upon 
the Viceroyalty of Ireland, and Sir George Carew 
upon the Presidency of Munster in 1600, and ends 
with the suppression in 1603 of the Munster insurrec- 
tion, which was excited by the landing of the Spaniards 
at Kinsale. But its atmosphere, unlike that of any 
modern book treating of the times, is the atmosphere 
of the age ; in every sentence we breathe the air of 
the sixteenth century ; we are in the presence of 
actualities, face to face with real and actual men, can 
almost hear them speak, and feel around us the play of 
the passions and the working of ideas and purposes so 
characteristic of that age, so foreign to our own. Such 
an experience must bring enlightenment. Pacata 
Hibernia, once well read, is certain to produce a lasting 
effect upon the mind of the reader. The book deals 
with the stormy conclusion of a stormy century, the 
lurid sunset of one of the wildest epochs in our history. 

Whence arose those cruel throes and unexampled 
convulsions, that agony of bloodshed, of wars and 



massacres, and ruthless devastation, extending with 
hardly a break over a lapse of time which embraced 
three generations of men? In 1172 the high king of 
all Ireland, the petty kings and the Church accepted 
Henry II. as their lord. Thenceforward for some 
two centuries the kings of England governed Ireland, 
so far as the feudal system, modified here by Irish 
manners and customs, permitted a country to be 
governed by its acknowledged ruler. This state of 
things, owing to a variety of causes, chiefly the 
terrible confusions wrought in Ireland by the two 
Bruces, Eobert and Edward, was interrupted in the 
fourteenth century, and the authority of the kings of 
England as lords of Ireland reduced to the narrow 
dimensions of what is known as the Pale. Outside 
that small straggling and ever-shifting area the whole 
country was governed by independent Norman-Irish 
nobles and by Irish chieftains, who in their own 
language called themselves kings, and who in fact 
were kings. 

So when the Tudor dynasty succeeded the Planta- 
genet, the kings of England, though titular lords of 
Ireland, were so only in name. In fact, at the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century the Crown had 
hardly any power in Ireland. The country was 
governed by eight or ten great lords, under whom were 
from sixty to eighty minor lords ; dependent to some 
extent on the great ones, but practically independent 
within their own domains. Ireland was a nation of 
nations — the seat of nearly a hundred distinct govern- 
ments. Even in the Pale the Crown only maintained 
itself by committing the Government to the head of 
one of the great families ; usually the representative of 
the House of Kildare. This was a state of things 

a 2 



which could not last. So the Crown almost inevitably 
came into collision with the dynasts. The history of 
the century is the history of the wars between the 
Crown and the great lords — always Bex or Regina 
versus regulum or regulos — though the great issue was 
complicated by many minor issues, and religion too, 
and patriotism possibly helped to embroil the situation. 
The House of Kildare precipitated the controversy by 
seeking to wrest from Henry VIII. the government of 
the Pale, the only portion of Ireland which he even 
pretended to govern. In the collision that great 
house fell as ruinously as the House of Douglas fell 
before the King of Scotland, fell with a crash never to 
rise, and the noise of its great and quite unexpected 
do wnf ailing shook Ireland. The chieftains perceived 
that a new power had arisen in Ireland, a power too 
to which they were aware, traditionally, that their 
allegiance was due. Rejoicing, they hastened to wel- 
come it. In solemn parliament assembled they pro- 
claimed their Lord Henry no longer Dominus Hibernia3, 
but Rex, converting his shadowy lordship into an actual 
sovereignty. They swore themselves the King's men, 
accepted State titles at his hands, undertook to pay 
royal rents to keep his peace and follow his war, 
t: rising-out " with foot and horse to all his occasions. 

From the consequences of that solemn act neither 
they nor their successors, however they may have 
repented it, were ever able to shake themselves free. 
Thenceforward Ireland looked to the Crown as the 
lawful centre of order and authority and the fountain 
of honour. As for the chieftains, they still remained 
virtually kings, each man governing his own people, 
and with a gallows on his lawn to enforce observance 
of his will. 



Now, obviously, this state of things, so highly 
obnoxious to the genius of the century, could only be 
temporary and transitional. In one way or another 
it was necessary that this host of petty kings should 
be converted into ruled subjects, and, no other centre 
of authority showing itself, all those converging 
forces which were compelling the race towards unity, 
internal peace, and all those institutions, good and 
bad, which we collectively sum up under the term 
t( civilization," rallied round the power which the 
chieftains themselves had so solemnly acknowledged. 
A masterful king like Henry, endowed with a certain 
degree of common sense and a certain manly sympathy 
with men, might have guided the country bloodlessly 
through the great social and political revolution which ' 
was now inevitable, and the outcome of which could 
have been no other, in any event, than a chieftainry 
converted into a noblesse. 

From Henry's death we seem to see the State not 
steered or sailed, but drifting, labouring through seas 
of blood, not guided to its destination by a human 
understanding, but blindly reeling thither, driven by 
purblind elemental influences which, for want of a 
better name, we may call the genius of the age. From 
wars and rumours of wars thenceforward the island 
was never free, fratricidal wars, and such wars ! 
murderous, devastative, sparing neither the poor ' 
unarmed peasant, nor the bald head of the ancient, nor 
the bald head of the infant, nor the woman heavy with 
child. The Shane O'Neill wars and the Desmond wars 
are somewhat familiar to all readers, but to what 
extent the State embroiled itself with the chieftains 
and the chieftains resisted the State will be realized 
when I mention the fact that, in the time of which our 



text treats, there was no chieftain or considerable lord 
in the island who had not been at some time in his 
career out in action of rebellion. For the chieftains 
often gave as much as they got, and many of them 
had beaten the State and wrung their own terms from 
the Government by sword and fire, and oftentimes 
the Government shrank from the challenge and per- 
mitted the stripped and indignant chieftain to have 
his own way. Whence, as may be imagined, 
co nsequences ensued. Consider too the significance 
of such an entry as the following in our annals : — 

" Ulick, Earl of Clanricarde, Captain of the High 
Burkes, terribly at war this year with his brother 
Shane of the Clover, but both at peace with the 

Of the many insurrections and wars which the con- 
duct of this great controversy made inevitable, the most 
formidable and successful by far was that which was 
raised in 1593 by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and 
the great lords of the North. Tyrone worsted many 
times the Queen's armies in the North; notably in the 
Battle of the Blackwater. His ally, the celebrated 
Eed Hugh O'Donnell, repeated those victories in the 
West. In short the State was found quite unable to 
suppress Tyrone and the confederated lords who 
supported him. FitzWilliam, Lord Russell, Lord 
Burro wes, and the Earl of Essex, successive Viceroys, 
all failed. Then the Queen appointed Mountjoy as 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, and the President of Munster 
having been recently slain in battle by the southern 
insurgents, nominated Sir George Carew to the Pre- 
sidency of Munster, the province being at the time 
in full rebellion. It is at this point that the writer 
of Pacata Hibernia begins his very singular tale. 



Who wrote the book ? Thomas Stafford, who is 
responsible for the publication, only gave himself forth 
as Editor. The MS., he tells us, was found amongst 
Carew's papers after his death, with an intimation that 
it had been drawn up under Carew's direction, and 
with the aid of documents supplied by him. Internal 
evidence proves that it was not the work of mere 
scribes and secretaries working under Carew's super- 
vision. Pacata Hibeenia was plainly written by one 
man, a man who was through the Munster wars with 
Carew, who was very close to his person, and enter- 
tained for him a great and sincere personal admiration. 
It is the outcome of a single mind ; the uniformity 
of the style, the simplicity and unity of the point of 
view prove that. It is also the work of a soldier, not 
of a civilian ; of one to whom war was a trade, and who 
always treats of it with a soldier's downrightness and 
grim hard emphasis. Veracious, too, it is to an un- 
usual degree, though we must always make allowances 
for the man's point of view. Also, it was written 
shortly after the events, and long before its first publi- 
cation in 1636. The battle-smoke clings still to the 
pages — the wrath of the soldier fresh from scenes of 
blood burns there still. He still hates his foes ; ap- 
plauds anything and everything done for their 
destruction ; cannot see or even suspect that there was 
any good thing in any of them. A Lieutenant Thomas 
Stafford served under Carew, and is mentioned once 
only, at the storming of Dunboy. He was almost 
certainly the writer of Pacata Hibeenia. If so, 
what an amazing suppression of self! Consequently, 
the book has that interest and value which always be- 
longs to the writings of a man who was himself an actor 
in the events which he describes. Those events, too, 



led up to and include the Battle of Kinsale ; one of 
the grand turning-points in Anglo-Irish history. In- 
deed, it might well be reckoned amongst " the Decisive 
Battles" of the world's history. Had its event 
fallen out differently all Ireland would have joined the 
Spaniards ; for there was not in the island another 
Queen's army, nor the means of raising one ; and it was 
certainly the purpose of Spain to " entertain" the 
Irish nation, at the time extremely warlike and full of 
veteran soldiers, for the invasion of England, where a 
great Catholic party was ready to co-operate, and that, 
too, with the Queen on her death-bed. Spain could not 
have governed Ireland ; but Spain could very easily 
have formed into a great army for foreign service the 
multitude of first-rate soldiers with whom the island 

And yet Pacata Hibernia is by no means so valuable 
from the conventionally historic point of view, as for 
the light, often a most unwelcome light, which in a 
hundred ways it sheds upon the manners of the Irish 
nobility, chieftainry, gentry, and people of Ireland at 
this time, and upon the methods, policy, and personnel 
of Queen Elizabeth's Irish officials and military com- 
manders, of whom Carew may be regarded as quite the 
ne plus ultra in certain directions. When one passes 
from the pure and ardent out-pourings of the " Four 
Masters," in whose pages every Irish magnate, and 
even every conspicuous Englishman serving in the 
country, figures with something of the port of an 
ancient hero, to that Irish world or section of it which 
has been illuminated for us by Stafford's prosy but 
veracious pen, we are conscious of a sore sense of 
disappointment — nay, of dismay and even shame. The 
same tale of almost subterhuman baseness and wicked- 

Preface. xxv 

ness is revealed by the contemporary State Papers ; of 
a brutal soldiery, more like chartered stout-thieves and 
robbers than soldiers, murderers more than warriors ; 
of wily Machiavellian statesmen, most false and per- 
fidious, all, or almost all, familiar with the dagger and 
the bowl as short cuts to their ends ; of a native aristo- 
cracy, almost every man of whom had his price, frankly 
posting up that price in the secret market kept by the 
State for that vile traffick ; men whom no oaths could 
bind, or any public or religious principle control ; 
Earls, Barons, great territorial chieftains, belted 
knights, and high gentlemen offering for money or 
land to betray their cause and their comrades. Slowly 
but surely the monstrous criminality of the men of 
this age, evidenced by testimonies gradually accumu- 
lating as one pores over the contemporary monu- 
ments — usually letters written by their own noble- 
ignoble hands — rises before the mind of the amazed 
reader. For money or land there appear to have 
been few things to which even the greatest of them 
would not stoop ; stoop lower even than the basest 
men of our own time. From reputation after re- 
putation the perusal of these documents, now brought 
to light out of the dark archives of the State, strips 
away all the glamour and glitter, revealing not men 
greater than ourselves, but — at least as judged 
by modern standards of private honour and public 
principle — a great deal worse. Examples sufficient 
will be forthcoming in this work of Stafford's ; yet 
Stafford does not tell the worst. He does not tell, for 
example — apparently he did not know it — how Carew 
and the Lord Deputy of Ireland despatched James 
Blake into Spain, with instructions to poison his friend 
and associate, the brave and chivalrous Hugh Roe. 



Take now on the other hand a quite typical example 
of the ignoble depths to which our #< great gentlemen " 
would stoop for the achievement of their purposes. 
The reader will recognize his type in a great many of 
the southern territorial magnates with whom the text 
is concerned. Brian Ogue O'Rourke, of the Battle- 
axes, the O'Rourke, high lord of all Leitrim, is a 
character in the Pacata Hibernia. It was he who 
gained the brilliant victory of the " Battle of the 
Curlew Mountains " over Sir Conyers Clifford and the 
Queen's forces. In the " Four Masters " his appear- 
ances are always characterized by a certain greatness ; 
and from the pages of Pacata Hibernia he passes 
forth unscathed. Once I regarded him as one of the 
few stainless, simple, and heroic characters of the age. 
But, alas ! very few indeed are the reputations which 
can stand the fierce light shed by the letters recently 
unearthed from the archives. Brian Ogue was the 
eldest son of Brian na Murtha O'Rourke, Brian of 
the Ramparts, 1 of whom it was recorded that " a 
prouder man walked not the earth in his time." In 
1589 Brian na Murtha went into rebellion, recalling 
his son, Brian of the Battle-axes, from Oxford to 
join him. Brian Ogue (junior) fought in that war, 
and did some brilliant feats as lieutenant to his father. 
Eventually the old proud chieftain was taken prisoner, 
brought to London, and there beheaded at Tyburn. 
Hardly had his father's head fallen when Brian Ogue 
wrote a letter to the Privy Council, informing them 
that in his opinion 2 his father had met with a fit 
punishment for all his " fractiousness," and inviting 

1 There is a sketch of his character and career in the " Bog of 
Stars," by the editor. 

2 Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, April 3, 1592. 



the Government to appoint to his father's seignory 
such an excellent and dutiful young man as himself ; 
flattering his father's murderers (for as such, of 
course, he regarded them), in the hope that they would 
give him his father's land and rule. When the Queen 
aud Council, recalling the recent record of this young 
Oxonian, did not see their way to this, Brian Ogue 
became a chief pillar of the Tyrone rebellion. One is 
not surprised to find him afterwards proposing to 
betray the Catholic and dynastic cause to Sir Conyers 
Clifford, President of Connaught ; for the confederated 
chieftains were generally playing that game, being, as 
I have said, nearly all in the market. But the base- 
ness of this letter reveals the yet lower depths of 
ignominy to which our "great gentlemen " could 
descend in their dealings with the State. And the 
affair, too, exhibits a ludicrous aspect as well as a 
dismal ; for the young man had been quite as " frac- 
tious " as his father ; had preyed and burned far and 
wide ; and killed or half killed a sheriff among other 
feats. Indeed, I believe that since the publication of 
our sixteenth century State Papers, all well-informed 
Irishmen have ceased to look for patriotism or any 
sort of public spirit in any of these sixteenth century 
insurgent lords — save only in the chief ones, Tyrone 
and Hugh Roe. 

But then, in their own way, which was a different 
way, the statesmen and officials were just as bad, or 
worse. AYe shall find Carew in the following pages 
writing decoy letters, crammed with such phrases as 
" God," and " Christ," and " holy keeping," hiring a 
man to assassinate the brave Sir John of Desmond, 
and generally holding a market for assassins. In his 
private correspondence with Mountjoy we find him 



relating with glee how his creature, James Blake, 
tracked the brave Hugh Roe O'Donnell into Spain, 
and there poisoned him under the guise of friend- 
ship. 1 The phial of the cowardly was in as much 
request as the dagger of the bold. Ratcliff, Earl of 
Sussex, and Viceroy, sought to poison Shane O'Neill 
when Shane beat him in the field. Perrott, Viceroy, 
tried to poison Feagh MacHugh, the Wicklow chief- 
tain. Bingham suborned a cut-throat to kill the 
proud O'Rourke, lord of Leitrim. Mo ant joy em- 
ployed Thomas Fleming to assassinate O'Neill. Why 
multiply instances ? All the Viceroys and Presidents 
and chief military men sought to assassinate, or were 
willing, should the occasion arise, to assassinate insur- 
gent lords whom they were unable to conquer. 
Froude, who is not easily shocked, expresses a manly 
horror at that attempt to poison Shane O'Neill ; but 
comforts himself with the thought, to which he gives 
vehement expression, that only once was that short cut 
via Hell adopted by British statesmen. But Froude 
had a way of his own of reading State Papers ; and 
an extraordinary faculty for not seeing what he 
did not want to see. I do not impute unveracity — 

1 Carew to Mountjoy : " O'Donnell is dead, and I do think it will 
fall out that he is poisoned by James Blake, of whom your lordship 
hath been formerly acquainted. At his coming into Spain he was 
suspected by O'Donnell, because he embarked at Cork (under my 
authority) ; but afterwards he insinuated his access, and O'Donnell is 
dead. He never told the President in what manner he would kill 
him, but did assure him it should be effected." The italicized words 
are in cypher. — Carew MSS., October, 1602. 

Carew to Mountjoy : " James Blake of Gabcay. . . took a solemn 
oath to do service that should merit good opinion and reward. I 
applauded his enterprise ; whereupon he departed from me and is gone 
into Spain with a determination, bound with many oaihs, to kill 
O'Donnell. God give him strength and perseverance." May 28th, 



only reckless headlong reading and violent preconcep- 

When so many instances stand out we may con- 
clude, indeed must conclude, that the assassination of 
insurgent lords was a settled and fixed State method. 
Nor can we be at all sure that sixteenth century 
statesmen did stop with insurgent lords. Walter, 
Earl of Essex, father of Robert, whose ears the 
Queen caused to tingle, was, as he said himself on his 
death-bed, poisoned by English hands, presumably set 
to work by the husband of Amy Robsart. I believe 
the history of Europe in general in those times reveals 
the fact that assassination, as a safe and economical 
method of getting rid of inconvenient persons, was 
universally practised ; and that there was no occasion 
at all for Froude's elevated hands of pious horror 
relative to the poisoned wine which Master Smith of 
Dublin, by the direction of the Viceroy and consent of 
the Queen, administered to Shane O'Neill and his 

Nor can we defend these people by reference to con- 
temporary moral standards. These men were worse than 
the rest. Outside the little group of State initiates and 
their hired ruffians, there were few English or Irish 
gentlemen of that day who dreamed that such things 
were being done, or who, hearing of them, that they were 
done, would not have been struck with horror. The 
statesmen of the sixteenth century were worse than 
their contemporaries who were not statesmen; and, like 
all bad men, shrouded their proceedings in a cloak of 
darkness. The paper in which Carew relates the 
assassination of Hugh Roe was written in cypher. 
Had Cromwell and Ireton been educated in Tudor 
methods they would have poisoned Charles the First 



in prison ; written letters steeped in tears to all the 
courts of Europe ; and celebrated his obsequies with 
a splendid funeral. That was what Burleigh would 
have done. Henceforth we shall have to dismiss a 
great many of our conventional notions with regard to 
the men of Elizabethan times. Mr. Froude's picture 
of the upright, God-fearing, and civilized English- 
man contending against a flood of Celtic barbarism 
is doubly untrue, for the Englishmen were the reverse 
of saints ; and as for the flood of Irish barbarism, 
nothing is more evident on the very surface of our 
history than that, in the great controversy between 
the Crown and the dynasts, it was this very flood of 
Celtic barbarism which sustained and bore forward the 
'ship of State. In less metaphorical language the 
Crown, in all its struggles with the great dynastic 
houses, always had the majority of the Irish nation on 
its side. For the controversy was not at all England 
versus Ireland, but the Crown, plus the majority of the 
nation, versus the great lords. 

To read Pacata Hibernia aright it will be necessary 
to understand the nature of the controversy ; appre- 
ciate the motives and divine the instincts of those 
Irish forces, social, political, and military, which 
adhered to the Crown ; and by whose adherence, 
for of itself it was nought, the Crown emerged 
victorious from that long struggle, with all the 
dynastic Houses of the realm laid in ruins. 

For it is not a mere opinion but a fact, easily verifi- 
able, that the nation, as distinguished from the insur- 
rectionary lords, was always strong for the Crown. 
In the great Desmond rebellion, the Crown directed 
upon the Southern Geraldines not only the rest of 
Ireland, so far as it was liable to military service, but 



in Minister alone the two great and warlike nations 
of the Butlers on the East, and the ClanCartie on the 
"West, besides the Barries and a host of other minor 
septs. In fact, at the bidding of the Crown, all the 
rest of the South of Ireland flew upon the doomed 
G-eraldine like hounds upon their quarry. In the Shane 
O'Neill wars the Crown was able to direct upon the 
great northern insurgent not only the rest of Ireland, 
so far as it was liable to military service, but in Ulster, 
the Maguires of Fermanagh, the O'Donnell of the 
North- West, the MacDonalds of Antrim, and many 
other great Irish clans. In the greatest rebellion of 
all, that led by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, the 
Crown always held under its control, and was able to 
direct upon Tyrone some two-thirds, or even a great 
deal more, of the whole of Ireland. Never at any time, 
even at the highest height of the rebellion, was Tyrone 
able to count upon more than one- third of Ireland ; and 
to give Tyrone anything like this proportion of the 
superficies of the island, one must reckon in Munster 
as his, and the nature of the Munster rebellion will be 
sufficiently revealed in the following pages. With 
hardly a blow struck in the field, Carew, by mere 
policy, by letters, by private plausible chat, bribes, 
and generally the suaviter in modo, recalled to the side 
of the Crown the revolted lords and gentlemen of 
Munster. The Munster rebellion was, in fact, a mere 
emeute, a wild explosion ; which we flatter by describ- 
ing as a rebellion. Munster was never a portion of 
Ireland over which Tyrone exercised any real sway. 
The revolted lords of Munster had their own causes 
of complaint; but if it ever became a question whether 
the State or Tyrone should rule them, they were pretty 
well determined in their minds that it should not be 



Tyrone. This will be clearly perceived in the pro- 
gress of our tale. So if we deduct Minister, the area 
of Tyrone's rebellion will not at all represent a third 
of the superficies of Ireland — hardly a fourth. 

This commotion amongst the lords and gentlemen 
of Munster, in the midst of which Carew arrived, had 
no root in national principle or religious principle, and 
so yielded before Carew's soft words, his insidious 
messages, his assassinations, and his occasional vigorous 
action. After a decent interval the lords and gentlemen 
of Munster, though they had sworn on the Mass to 
O'Neill, came trooping back and renewed their oaths 
to the Queen on the Bible. The whole of this vile 
business — for vile it was, look at it how we may — is 
very fully and very vividly portrayed in Pacata 


Nor can it for a moment be suggested that the 
Royalist Irish were such only in seeming, and that 
their action was due to overweening military pres- 
sure on the part of the State ; for the State, apart 
from its Irish troops and supports, was nothing, .At 
the outbreak of the Nine Years' War the Queen's army 
of Ireland was less than a thousand men all told ; in 
fact, only 750. For the accomplishment of all its minor 
purposes the State relied on the " risings-out " of the 
country. Every noble, chieftain and considerable 
gentleman was assessed at so many soldiers, horse and 
foot, and by law or by treaty with the State was under 
the obligation of " rising-out " — as the phrase ran — 
with that force on receiving the Queen's summons. 
The Queen's muster-masters went through the land in- 
specting and reporting upon the condition of this 
feudal militia. The Queen not only permitted, but 
compelled her Irish subjects to carry arms, and be 



expert in their use. If anyone will reflect but for a 
moment upon this central fact of the situation, he will 
perceive that it is quite incompatible with the idea that 
Ireland was hostile to the Queen's Government, and 
only held down by stern military pressure from above. 
When a government not only permits but compels a 
nation to carry arms and arrange itself on a warlike 
footing, it appears to me to be proof positive that the 
government does not fear the nation ; and that the 
nation, though here and there breaking into sporadic 
insurrection, must be regarded as, in fact, friendly 
to its government. I am referring here only to the 
territorial lords and gentry, but the loyalty of the 
middle class, the mercantile interest of the island — 
a highly important and influential element in Eliza- 
bethan-Irish society — was even still more remarkable. 
For individuals of the territorial aristocracy, or com- 
binations of such, were perpetually in action of rebellion; 
the mercantile interest never, but very decidedly the 

Without exception the walled towns and cities, in- 
land and seaboard, held by the Crown in all those wars, 
including the Nine Years' War — Tyrone's war. It is 
useless to endeavour to upset this cardinal fact by 
reference to State Papers in which the disloyalty, etc., of 
townsmen is animadverted upon. The fact remains 
that not one of the walled towns, inland or seaboard, 
declared at any time in favour of any of the insurgent 
lords ; no more than did the walled towns and cities of 
the Continent when the same controversy of Crown 
versus the great feudal dynasts was being fought out 
there. And for the same reason. The walled towns 
represented commerce; and commerce cares little for 
right and wrong, but cares a great deal for peace, law, 

vol. i. b 



and order. The cause of peace, law, and order — of 
despotism, too, had men been able to see a little beyond 
their own noses — seemed to the mercantile interest to 
be bound up with the cause of the Crown. Europe felt 
that and so did Ireland. The walled towns went hotly 
with the Crown throughout the whole course of the 
controversy between the Crown and the territorial 
autocracies. Nor can it be pretended that they were 
coerced, for the walled towns were self-governing and 
self-defended. The townsmen manned their own walls 
and towers and held their own gates. Each had its 
own armed force, and every substantial burgher was 
a soldier, and owed his first duty to the town of which 
he was a citizen ; and in war-time all such towns sent 
forth their legal quota to fight for the Crown — never to 
fight for any great lord. Wherever the Crown walled 
in a village or permitted a village to be walled in, there 
a royalist 'point oVappui was at once established. 
Here is an instance — one out of many. In the time 
of Philip and Mary, Maryborough, in the Queen's 
County, was so walled in. At the same time the 
O'Moores, who were the clan-regnant of that territory, 
were destroyed or exiled. A little before the time at 
which our tale begins, Owny O'Moore, chief of that 
clan, broke out, conquered the county in all its borders, 
held it for some seven years, but never once could find 
an entrance into Maryborough. The Maryborough 
men, having walls and gates, were Queen's men. They 
closed their gates against the O'Moore and manned 
the ramparts. Were these Maryborough men fools ? 
The probability is that, like most shopkeepers and 
commercial men, they understood their own interests 
pretty well ; rather better than we at the distance of 
three centuries, and quite out of all that hurly-burly, 



can possibly understand them. The Maryborough 
men, like all the Borough men of Ireland, went with 
the Crown, repelled the advances of their own territorial 
great lord ; and, when the legal time arrived in each 
year, sent forth their quota of armed men to fight for 
the Crown, and war down the territorial great ones. 

Nor was the young O'Moore an unworthy candidate 
for their support. Here is his obituary notice from 
the " Four Masters " : — 

" Owny, son of Rory Ogue O'Moore, for a long 
time an illustrious renowned and conspicuous gentle- 
man, 1 was slain by the Queen's people, and his death 
gave a check to the valour, bravery, and courage of 
the Irish of Leinster and of all Ireland. He was the 
sole rightful heir of his territory ; and he gained the 
government of it, by the power of his hand and deter- 
mined strength of heart, from the grasp of foreigners 
and tyrants, who were reducing its former greatness 
for a long time before that, until he brought it under 
his own rule and control, and under the management 
of his officers and soldiers, according to the custom of 
the Irish, so that none of the towns of his patrimony 
were out of his possession except Maryborough only." 

This young chieftain figures in the remarkable scene 
with which Pacata Hibebnia opens. He is the princi- 
pal figure in the plate which accompanies it, straddling 
somewhat vain gloriously (so the unfriendly artist 
shows him), wearing a Spanish hat and feather and an 
ample Irish cloak. 

Indeed, the walled towns of Ireland were so hot for 
the Queen, that they frequently went beyond their duty, 
and voluntarily advanced large sums of money to the 

1 Of his father, Rory Ogue O'Moore, I have given a sketch in the 
" Bog of Stars," under the title of " The Outlawed Chieftain." 

b 2 



Government to aid its efforts for the suppression of 
insurgent great lords. So the Mayor and Burgesses 
of Waterford advanced £300 (some £4,000 of our 
money) to the Lord Deputy for the Queen's service, 
and at their own cost maintained the garrison of Dun - 
garvan. 1 Yet in all Waterford at the time there were 
probably not a score of Protestants. The men of 
Waterford at this time used to speak of their city as 
the " Queen's Bed-chamber." The town was Royalist, 
and proud of the fact. 

The walled towns of Ireland went with the Govern- 
ment, because they instinctively hated broils and 
hurly-burlies, and feared the tyranny of the con- 
tiguous earls and chieftains more than they feared 
the tyranny of the Crown. Frequently in the State 
Papers of the period we find these towns referred to 
as " the sheet anchor of the State." Sir Warham 
St. Leger, Vice-President of Munster, in one of 
his letters employs that common metaphor with a 
certain original emphasis. He describes the walled 
towns of Munster as M the sheet anchor of the Province 
which have holden true in all storms." In our own 
text we shall find all the towns of Munster sending 
their legal force of fighting men to swell the Queen's 
host encamped before Kinsale. 

We are not surprised, therefore, to discover amongst 
Carew's instructions a very particular one, that he 
should be most scrupulous and careful how he invaded 
any of the privileges of these strongly Royalist com- 
munities. For the State knew very well what a power 
in the land were these walled towns, and how much it 
owed to their loyalty. Indeed, without the support 
of the towns, without the free entrance into the realm 
1 Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1591-3, p. 445. 



which they supplied to the Imperial Government, and 
the prestige with which their loyalty invested the 
Imperial cause, the State could not have maintained 
itself for six months against Tyrone. The State did 
indeed meditate the overthrow of that independence 
which was enjoyed by the towns ; but prudently, 
we might say cunningly, postponed the execution of 
its purpose till stormy weather should abate, and till 
the ruin of the great dynastic families of the open 
country should have been accomplished. So our 
crafty Carew was profoundly respectful to the 
Sovereigns and Mayors and Portreeves of the walled 
towns of Munster while the territorial classes were 
in rebellion, and bullied them unconscionably when 
there was no great lord in Munster willing or able to 
" fire a shot against the Crown.' ' The loyalty of the 
cities and walled towns is a great cardinal historic 
fact in the history of the sixteenth century in Ireland. 

True it is, nevertheless, that the towns often did 
supply arms and munition to insurgents ; for commerce 
is always commerce — and commercial men then as now 
not always very nice in the methods by which they 
make money — and " the grey merchant,' ' as he was 
termed, creature of twilight and the dusk, knew the 
road very well between his town and the camp of the 
nearest lords who were " on their keeping " or "out 
in action." 

Nor again, when we read of the lord of a great 
territory being in rebellion, need we conclude that the 
hearts of his people were with him as he went into 
"the action." It was often very much the reverse. 
For his rebellion the lord had usually many excellent 
reasons, and went into action mainly in obedience to 
the great law of self-preservation ; for it was certainly 



the fixed and settled, if unavowed, policy of the State 
to drag down and destroy one by one all such poten- 
tates. Sometimes this purpose was accomplished in 
an open, above-board, uncensurable, and really states- 
manlike manner — as when under the famous instru- 
ment called "The Composition of Connaught," Sir 
John Perrott, the Viceroy, and Sir Kichard Bingham, 
President of Connaught, persuaded all the western 
chieftains to surrender their regalities, to become 
subjects, to pay a quit rent to the Queen ; and, instead 
of the old cuttings and spendings which they exacted 
upon the minor lords and freehold tenants, accept from 
them fixed composition rents in lieu of all such 
irregular services. The custom of tanistry was by this 
instrument quite cut off, and every man, whether lord 
or vassal, held his land as a Crown tenant in tail male. 
The minor lords and gentry were very well satisfied 
with all that, but the great ones soon repented. 
Hence wars — many wars. Sometimes the State pur- 
pose was accomplished by downright attack and 
invasion; as when the State in 1593 "went for" 
Maguire, Lord of Fermanagh. Sometimes it was 
accomplished with a diabolical craft and perfidy, as 
when Viceroy Fitz William journeyed down to 
Monaghan to instal a new MacMahon in the chieftain- 
ship of that territory, bringing with him the "prince 
designate," riding down into the North side by side 
with his murdered man, and on arrival trumped up 
against him some ancient " borderage," tried, con- 
demned, and hanged the expectant lord, and 
confiscated the whole territory. By fair means or 
foul the State was resolved to make away with 
all the chieftains, and as the foul were more 
economical, not involving war, often adopted the 



foul. But though the chieftain had usually most 
excellent reasons for his rebellion, many of his sub- 
ject gentlemen and freehold tenants had also on their 
side very excellent reasons for rebelling against him, 
and for joining with the Crown to effect his over- 
throw. It could have been agreeable to no man to 
see a troop of hungry, lusty young swordmen crowding 
into his house, eating and drinking him bare, pulling 
about his maid-servants, doing, saying, and looking 
many things of an unwelcome character, and swagger- 
ing away without a " thank you." A vast amount of 
this sort of tyranny and violence prevailed in all 
territories where a great lord and his retinue of hired 
warriors and warlike cousinry had the upper hand. 
Of any great lord's subjects a considerable proportion 
regarded him with infinitely more hatred than in our 
days the most oppressed tenants have regarded a 
rack-renting landlord. If the devil himself had come 
into Ireland in the sixteenth century offering to such 
victims of " tanistry " revenge for their wrongs, lands 
their very own to descend to their sons, light-fixed 
rents such as those paid by the gentlemen of Con- 
naught under the composition, viz., 10s. per plow- 
land, or a penny an acre, they would have joyfully 
followed him in the full assurance that he was no 
devil at all, but an angel of light and liberty. And 
then, the power which eventually did summon the 
minor lords and gentlemen of Ireland to throw off the 
yoke of the great ones — though many diabolical 
practices emanated from it — was, nevertheless, a power 
which, in Parliament after Parliament, all Ireland had 
recognized as the lawful source of sovereignty, 
the power to which the allegiance of all men was 
due. For them Elizabeth was not Queen of England 



but Queen of Ireland, declared to be such in divers 
Parliaments of the whole island. Of these, the last 
prior to the " Nine Years' War " was held in 1585, 
as full and fair a representation of the nation as could 
be desired. The " Four Masters " plainly regard it 
as such, pointing out how every great family in the 
island sent up a member to that Parliament. So when, 
at the Queen's summons, the feudatories of a chieftain 
revolted against him, and joined the Queen's invading 
forces, apart from all other private considerations 
such as I have touched upon, they believed that they 
were fighting for their lawful Sovereign. I am not 
contending that they were right in doing so, but only 
endeavouring to explain their attitude, and how they 
justified it to themselves in their own minds. Most 
of them had terrible private wrongs to avenge; all 
looked to escape from a position of uncertainty and 
insecurity, and to fling off a yoke which they regarded 
as intolerable. I have read of men who wept for joy 
when they learned that their lord was to rule them 
no more. 

When Boswell praised the felicity of feudal life in 
Scotland, Dr. Johnson replied, — 

" Nay, sir. That could not have been a happy 
state from which all men endeavoured to escape as 
soon as they had opportunity." 

This is a remark full of sagacity. It is amply 
justified by our own history. As the State advanced 
allies and auxiliaries in crowds rose up to welcome it ; 
men, too, who asked no nice questions as to the methods 
by which it was accomplishing its ends. Bingham, Pre- 
sident of Connaught, is a byword in our history for 
cruelty and ferocity ; yet for twelve years he warred 
down there every insurgent lord ; during which period 



lie did not receive a pound and hardly a soldier from 
England. Connaught herself bore Bingham on to 
victory. By Irish hands and Irish moneys he beat 
down and kept down in the West, " the tyranny of 
the great ones." 1 

Again, many of the chieftains held their Seignories 
by no Irish law or custom, but often by English law, 
and oftener still, sheerly by the strong hand. In 
support of this, take the following excerpt from a 
particularly able and well informed State Paper, 
drawn up indeed by the notorious Miler Magrath, 
Archbishop of Cashel, an ecclesiastical scapegrace, 
it is true ; but, as the whole Paper proves, a man 
thoroughly acquainted with the country. 

u Maguire," he writes, " is a man of great 
strength. . . . This Maguire thinks himself to be 
one of the best to keep his country of Fermanagh 
against any power in Ireland. But if Her Majesty 
have any cause against him there are many gentlemen 
of his name that think themselves to have as much 
right to the country as he. First, Conorough Maguire, 
who is the principal of the eldest house of that name. 
This Conorough has a great part of the country in 
his possession, and if he had the Prince's help would 
easily expel the other." 

Miler' s opinion was amply justified by the event ; 
for when the State invaded Fermanagh in 1593, 
besides divers other Maguires, this Conorough 

1 Sir R. Bingham to Burleigh : " He never troubled them at 
Dublin for one penny of money in his time." This is the burthen of 
at least a dozen of Bingham's letters, viz., " Connaught was self- 
supporting in my time." More particularly — " Connaught stood not 
your Majesty in anything during my time, but as well in war as in 
peace defrayed itself." — Sir R. Bingham to the Queen, October 22, 
1595, Calendar of State Papers, Ireland. 



Maguire (rede Conor Roe), " rose-out" with all his 
forces for the Queen, and did, " with the Prince's 
help," expel the reigning Maguire. 

In all the dynastic territories the same state of 
things prevailed; either the reigning dynast had no 
right to the chieftainship, or there was in the country 
at least one strong lord who sincerely believed he had 
a better. 

Take the case of the famous Hugh Roe O'Donnell, 
one of our national heroes — a very great name indeed in 
Irish history. In the same State Paper Miler examines 
Hugh Roe's position as chief of Tyrconnell, and points 
out that his chieftainship over O'Donnell-land was 
due to no just right claim or title, English or Irish, 
but sheerly to the strong hand. He adds that a 
certain " Hugh Duff O'Donnell has the ancientest 
right by the custom of the Irishry." This was 
quite true. I find it asserted in every State Paper 
having reference to the O'Donnellship ; and, in fact, 
Hugh Roe had to kill many of Hugh Duff's people 
before the latter would give hostages and yield sub- 

Again, Miler points out that if the question were one 
to be decided according to English law, Tyrconnell 
and its chieftainship belonged to the heir of a 
certain Calvach O'Donnell, an ally of the Queen in 
the Shane O'Neill wars, to whom the territory had 
been granted by patent in tail male ; and that with 
the Queen's countenance and support, this young man 
and his allies would expel Hugh Roe. Again Miler 
was right,for when in 1600 the State invaded Hugh Roe, 
Nial Garf, grandson of Calvach, " rose-out" for the 
Queen, and broke Hugh Roe's splendid career. I am 
not aware of any dynast of this period who held his 



chieftainship in accordance with Irish law, but of many 
who, like Hugh Roe, held it sheerly by the strong hand. 
All such had domestic foes ; subject lords whose title 
was better than theirs either by Irish law or English 
law. It will be seen at once what a task these men 
proposed to themselves when they confederated to 
resist the advance of the State. With the public 
opinion of Ireland against them, and surrounded as 
they each were by such multitudes of domestic foes, 
the resistance which they did make to the State is 
marvellous indeed, and argues the possession by them 
of the highest qualities — even if we should decline to 
attribute to them the virtue of patriotism or the 
crusading spirit. 

Regard them as what they in fact were, kings, and 
they will be perceived to be not worse than the 
breed, but better. Frederick the Great is the typical 
hero-king of modern Europe ; and Frederick the Great, 
while in war alliance with France, signed a secret 
treaty of peace with Austria. Frederick, I suppose, 
salved his conscience by the thought that he was 
Prussia. Our own traitor-lords, too, no doubt in their 
treacheries were thinking of their faithful followers as 
much as of themselves. 

Let us return now to Carew's dealings with the lords 
and gentlemen of Munster, and the marvellous ease 
with which he bribed, cajoled, or bullied them back to 
their allegiance. A little before Carew's arrival 
Tyrone had descended into the province with great 
power. The magnates generally confederated with 
him, and swore themselves as members of the Catholic 
league. Fear of the northern host was probably the 
impelling motive. It was no idle fear. Tyrone gave 
Munster one tremendous object-lesson in the conse- 



quences of standing by the Queen. Of the lords who 
would not join him, the captain of the Anglo-Irish 
nation of the Barrys, Viscount Buttevant, was the 
chief in name, power, and territory. Tyrone threatened 
him by letter. Barry replied with another which will 
be found in the second chapter of this work ; refusing 
to join Tyrone, and stating his reasons. It should be 
carefully perused for the motives influencing the 
Royalist Irish lords of that day. It will be found to 
be intrinsically the letter of a high-minded Irish gentle- 
man. At all events, Barry refused and defied Tyrone 
to do his best. 

Then Tyrone let loose his forces upon the Queen's 
man. Let the " Four Masters " tell the rest : — 

" O'Neill afterwards proceeded to Barry's country, as 
he was always acting in support of the Queen ; and the 
person who was at that time the Barry was David, son 
of James, son of Ricard, son of Thomas, son of Edmund. 
O'Neill remained in the country till he preyed and 
burned and ransacked it from one corner to the other, 
both plains and high ground, and smooth ground and 
rough ground, in such a manner that no one expected 
or imagined that it would be occupied or inhabited for 
a long time." 

It may be asked, by the way, how this sweeping of 
the Barry's country, as with a besom of steel and fire, 
differs at all, essentially, from that devastation of 
Desmond at the hands of the State, which has been 
treated as one of the great wrongs inflicted by England 
upon Ireland. 

We may indeed say — nay, must say — that for the 
State, the central authority, the self-appointed source of 
light and leadiog, to imitate the prevailing barbarous 
methods of warfare as practised here, showed a degree 



of criminality infinitely worse than that of the chief- 
tains, who knew no better. In a Sovereign and a 
Sovereign's Ministers we look for something widely 
different. But with such an example before us we 
cannot regard the agents of the Crown as devils, and 
the insurgents as mere victims of a savage tyranny. 
A great deal of cant prevails on this subject. If the 
viceroys and presidents slew non-combatants, women 
and children, if in their journeyings they diffused 
around them a zone of pestilence and famine, who 
sustained them in all that work of hell, who fur- 
nished forth their armies, nay, whose were the hands 
which were actually imbrued in all that innocent 
blood ? 

Though the Lord Barry and some others stood out 
against Tyrone, nevertheless the majority of the lords 
and gentlemen of Munster did swear to the Catholic 
confederacy of which Tyrone was head. But ere long 
they became less enamoured of the new order of things, 
when Tyrone revived in Munster the two most potent 
of all the southern autocracies, viz., the Earldom of 
Desmond and the great MacCartyship. The new Earl 
of Desmond and the new MacCarty More, if by the 
help of O'Neill and their own force they could fully re- 
establish those extinguished Seignories, and revive the 
old half -forgotten regalities incident to them, would 
become absolute uncontrollable lords of all Munster. 
This was not at all the consummation for which the 
minor lords and gentlemen of the Province werelooking. 
They did not like it at all, and, their oaths to Tyrone 
notwithstanding, began to cast about for decent 
pretexts for returning to their allegiance to the Queen. 
Why those high Seignories were hateful to them I shall 
presently explain more at large. That general hatred 



of the two great autocracies of Minister gave Carew a 
power over the minds of the gentlemen of Munster, 
which he proceeded to use with rare craft and cunning. 
The secret wish of all these small lords and gentlemen 
was to be quite free ; but if thej could not be quite 
free, as it soon became plain that they could not, then 
they had rather be under the Queen's government 
than under that of Tyrone's new Earl of Desmond or 
his new chief of Clan-Cartie, Florence, of whom we 
shall read so much in the ensuing pages. 

The second book of the Pacata Hibernia is taken 
up mainly with the doings of 0' Sullivan Bere, the last 
of the chieftains who held out against Carew. 
A portrait of this chieftain, a man of superior per- 
sonal qualities, derived from an original now in our 
historical portrait gallery in Dublin, will be found in 
the text. His chief seat was Dunboy, twice repre- 
sented in our plates, a place of considerable historic 
and latterly of romantic interest (vide Froude's " Two 
Chiefs of Dunboy"). O'Sullivan's country, which 
includes the picturesque region of Glengariffe, was a 
portion of the great Seignory of MacCarty More, 
high chief of the Clan-Cartie. His ancestors time 
out of mind had been feudatory to this lord. They 
paid him homage, they kept his peace and followed 
his war. They rendered him tribute, and the tribute 
was so great that the chieftain who paid it could be 
regarded as little better than a sort of land-steward 
to that mighty Mac, whose full Seignory embraced 
the western half of Cork and the southern half of 

"When I chanced upon the incidents of this enormous 
rent, set out in detail in the State Papers, it gave me, 
I think, the first clue to one of the chief causes which 



led to the overthrow of the great lords. The minor 
lords, ground down and tortured by such cruel rents 
and exactions as MacCarty More wrung from the 
O'Sullivans, hated the great ones and co-operated with 
the State for their overthrow. 

Apart from the natural desire of all men to escape 
from a master, we can guess how ardently 0' Sullivan 
must have desired to see that high Seignory of Clan- 
Cartie levelled with the dust. Now for many years 
before the entrance of Tyrone into the Province, the 
great MacCartyship had been in abeyance. As the 
State had overthrown the Earldom of Desmond in war, 
so by policy it had abolished the MacCartyship, all the 
MacCarty's subject lords aiding and abetting. Then 
the O'Sullivan Bere, released from that terrible weight 
of rent, sprang up like a bent sapling. He began to 
flourish, and even to become a great man, and Dunboy, 
always a strong fortress, however poorly provided in 
those lean days, grew famous. O'Sullivan Bere had 
his own gallows on his lawn, and rode about his moun- 
tainous principality like a king. His only fear was 
that the State might one day work down into his fast- 
nesses — deprive him of his kingship and all his various 
profitable regalities by land and sea. Of O'Sullivan, too, 
by the way, I have to tell the same tale as of Hugh 
B.oe and many other chiefs. He too, according to 
Irish law, was an usurper. He had invoked the aid 
of English law and of the Queen's Council in London 
to deprive his uncle of the chieftainship. So, like the 
rest, he had in his territory a domestic foe ready to 
strike for the Queen the moment that he should lapse 
into rebellion. The displaced chief was now only Sir 
Owen O'Sullivan of Carriganass. Of him and his sons 
we shall read a good deal in the second volume. 



In the light of this little bit of O'Sullivan history, 
consider what a wild team Tyrone undertook to drive 
when he came into Munster — 0' Sullivan glaring ask- 
ance at Tyrone's new MacCarty More, the tyrant, and 
Sir Owen of Carriganass glaring at 0' Sullivan the 
usurper. And such as was 0' Sullivan Bere, such too 
was 0' Sullivan More, and M'Gillacuddy of the Reeks, 
and O'Donoghue of the Valley, and O'Crowly, and a 
crowd of petty princes in whose eyes the M'Cartie- 
ship revived by Tyrone was an abomination. Then, 
remember that over all Munster a similar state of 
things prevailed, the small lords glaring at the great, 
and glared at themselves by indignant feudatories. 
No one but a man who had the power and, above 
all, the prestige of the State behind him could 
govern this host of petty kings, each animated by 
his own dynastic or egoistic notions, all as likely 
subjects for drill and discipline as a tubful of the 
very liveliest eels. 

On the insurgent side — the Catholic side — Tyrone 
was the State ; but the State in a most weak, inchoate, 
and rudimentary form. Tyrone knew very well that he 
could never govern Ireland till he should have pulled 
down again the autocracies which the necessities of 
his situation compelled him to set up wherever his 
victorious arms prevailed. That great man knew very 
well what he was about in every step which he under- 
took. Had he succeeded in overthrowing the Queen's 
Government, he would have taken in hand — he would 
have been compelled to take in hand — the overthrow 
and suppression of his own dynasts. So here in Munster 
he set up a sort of President of his own to represent 
the unborn State which was to succeed the State as 
hitherto known to Ireland. But Tyrone's President, 



of whom we shall presently read a great deal, was to 
the lords and gentlemen of Minister a President pour 
rire. They wronged him and laughed at him, and so 
he took to intriguing with Carew, whence ensued some 
very curious results, of which anon. 

I have had to enlarge, perhaps, to a tedious degree 
upon the motives affecting the Irish gentry, small and 
great, at this period, but otherwise it would be impos- 
sible to understand Carew's " pacification " of Munster. 

" But," some one will say, "the war against Elizabeth 
was in style and title a religious war. Tyrone was 
captain-general of the Catholic league, and his letter to 
the Lord Barry has certainly a very religious flavour. 
How came it that the gentlemen of Munster were not 
stouter in the cause of the religion which every one 
of them professed ? The answer is to some extent 
indicated in Lord Barry's reply to Tyrone. The laws 
against " Papists " were suffered to lapse to a large 
extent into a dead-letter condition, or revived only 
to meet political exigencies. That sort of tolera- 
tion, at which the authorities connived, and to 
which the Lord Barry refers, was fairly satisfying to 
the Royalist Catholic gentry, and permitted free play 
to those powerful instincts which led them to embrace 
the cause of the Queen rather than that of the great 
insurgent lords. I shall not here discuss or attempt to 
prejudge the question whether the great Northern 
lords were in rebellion for secular or religious reasons, 
or both, but I think it will be admitted by all readers 
of Pacata Hibernia that the gentlemen of Munster 
cared really almost nothing for the religious or 
patriotic issues involved, and that the only two great 
lords with whom we are concerned, Florence, captain 
of Clan-Cartie, and Tyrone's Earl of Desmond, though 

vol. i. c 


men of very different characters, were alike in this, that 
their policy and action was guided solely by dynastic 
considerations. Of the two the Earl will be found in- 
finitely superior to the chieftain in honour and every 
good quality, and is really a rather pathetic figure. 
Both these dynasts owed their position to Tyrone ; but 
it will be observed that while the chief of Clan-Cartie 
was playing fast and loose with his suzerain in the most 
disgraceful fashion, the new Earl's career was upright 
and honourable, down at least to the time of his fall. 

Possibly in this contrast originated a proverb which 
was, and perhaps still is, used in Munster — " with a 
Geraldine to the world's end ; with a MacCartie not to 
the turning of the lane. ,, This bit of Southern wisdom 
or wit, or perhaps sheer defamation, I heard from the 
lips of a peasant when I was a boy. I may mention 
another scrap of tradition derived from the same 
source. I asked the same man what sort of 
governors were those old chieftains. "The worst I" 
he replied with emphasis ; " Hang to-day and judge 
to-morrow ! " I recollect this speech as if I heard it 
yesterday, for it was of the nature of a shock. So 
when I came to read in the State Papers about the 
tyranny of the 11 Macs " and u O's," I was aware that 
it was an old acquaintance in a new guise. 

Some such tradition must have survived in Munster, 
for this Southern peasant certainly never learned his 
opinion from books and newspapers. 

And the Earl of Desmond, too, showed something 
more than the white feather in the end. He under- 
took for pardon and the restoration of his estates, to 
live afterwards as a true Queen's man, and at the 
head of his forces aid her in extirpating rebellion 
from Munster, and wage war on Tyrone and the 



leagued lords of the North, to whom " on the Mass 99 
he had sworn to be loyal. 

In Munster at least, however the religious aspect of 
the struggle may have affected the minds of the 
common people — and they did not count — no one 
can read this book without perceiving that the 
action of the lords and chieftains, great and small, 
and of all the considerable gentlemen, was at all 
points guided by secular motives of a highly personal 

So when Carew entered on his Presidentiad, 
and commenced his negotiations, all these men, 
though sworn to Tyrone, came trooping back, and 
swore again to the Queen. After Don Juan de 
Aquila had landed at Kinsale, and when the long- 
victorious Northern insurgent lords marched to meet 
him, they gave up the Queen's cause for lost, and re- 
volted again. When Tyrone and O'Donnell were 
defeated at Kinsale they returned to their allegiance. 
The war with 0' Sullivan Bere, which fills the second 
book, arose not from any loyalty on that chieftain's 
part to the Confederate cause, but owing to the fact 
that the Queen refused to pardon him. This lord, 
unluckily for himself, in one of his intercepted letters 
had passed some personal reflections on the Queen, 
and her Majesty, who expected every male subject 
to be in love with her, was relentless. Had the 
Queen pardoned him and promised him security 
in his lordship, O'Sullivan's sword would have been 
at her service, and he would have joyfully " risen- 
out" against any insurgent found in Munster or 
elsewhere. The mere fact that 0' Sullivan fought 
stoutly in defence of his lands and lordship really 
gives him no claim at all to be regarded in the light 

c 2 



of a patriotic chieftain. While in exile and in receipt 
of a pension from the King of Spain, he wrote to 
James L, whose anti-Catholic policy was in Ireland 
far more marked than that of Queen Elizabeth, pro- 
mising loyal obedience if the King would restore him to 
his estates. For myself I can say truly that I have 
been only too anxious to discover a chieftain animated 
by patriotism or religion. If there are any such I fear 
they will be rare ones, swimming desperately in the vast 
welter of conflicting personal and dynastic interests. 

" The policy of kings," wrote a famous professor 
of the art of king-craft, " is governed not by weak 
motions of the heart but by their interests. ,, And the 
sole excuse for these men's treacheries and double- 
dealings is to be found here or nowhere. They re- 
garded themselves as kings, and put the interests of 
their faithful and loving followers above temporal and 
even non-temporal considerations. 

To understand these men aright we must think 
ourselves out of the nineteenth century, and back into 
the sixteenth, nay, into the sixteenth largely qualified 
by the fifteenth, and that is no easy task. Men who have 
studied the condition of England during the " "Wars 
of the Roses " have, I believe, been similarly struck 
aghast at the treacheries, the tergiversations, the double- 
dealings of most of the English baronage during that 
struggle. All this, however, has been suppressed or 
glossed over in the popular histories, as too shameful 
to record nakedly, while the causes are too abstruse, 
not easily perceived, and not easily explicable. Then, 
remember that the thoughts of our chieftainry in the 
sixteenth century much resembled those of the 
English baronage in the fifteenth. Both, owing 
to their semi-kingly position and power, regarded 



public crises as they occurred from a highly personal 
point of view, and their action corresponded with that 
condition of mind. 

In Paoata Hibeenia we shall read a great deal about 
" bownoghs " or " bonoghs." A " bownogh " was a 
professional soldier, member of a class or caste too 
important and powerful to be passed over without 

It is a fact not generally known that the Queen's 
fighting men in every war were for the most part 
Irish. A good contemporary authority on the subject 
is the Hispano-Irish historian, Philip 0' Sullivan, 
whose father and whose cousin, the chieftain, played 
a considerable part in those wars. He, referring to 
the Queen's host on the eve of the battle of Kin sale, 
has these words, " lberni milites legionarii et auxiliares 
quorum virtute fretus Anglus locum tenebat" " The 
Irish waged soldiers and auxiliaries" (the "risings- 
out" or feudal levies) "by whose valour the 
English general maintained his position." No one 
can read the records of this period without per- 
ceiving that the military force, by which the so- 
called Elizabethan conquest was effected, was in 
fact supplied by Ireland herself. There was then 
in the country, below the lords and below the landed 
gentry, a large class of men born for war, a military 
caste. These men as scions, however remote, of the 
princely or noble houses, held themselves, by the law 
of their birth, precluded from industrial avocations. 
They called themselves gentlemen ; the state officials 
called them swordmen, but far oftener knaves and 
idle men. They were swordmen by profession, and, 
like other professional men, always on the look- 
out for employment ; and never very nice in their 



choice of causes. Good pay and good prospects of 
plunder were sufficient to gather them to any standard. 
When a chieftain rebelled he hired as many of these 
condottieri as he could maintain. From the same class 
the Government drew the only reliable and effective 
element in its armies. The Government might have 
hired them all and established a standing army, 
against which no chief or combination of chiefs could 
have stood up for six weeks. But the Government 
was terribly economical, only hired its men in troubled 
times, and then only for the job, usually a three 
months' hiring. When the job was finished the con- 
dottieri were disbanded and let loose over the country 
— to search around for fresh employment. So the same 
warrior fought one year for the Government and the 
next year against the Government ; just as modern 
barristers will take a brief for or against the Crown 
with equal readiness, and with as little thought that 
there is anything improper or dishonourable in so 
doing. Rebellion, in fact, had in those days nothing of 
the heinousness which we now attach to it. How 
could it, at a time when every great man in the 
island had been at some time or other in rebellion ? 
Rebellion was, in fact, little more than the mediseval 
mode of filing a Petition of Right against the 
Sovereign ; and even so late as the period at which we 
are now arrived, was hardly regarded in any other 
light by the Sovereign herself. One form of rebellion 
alone Queen Elizabeth never would really forgive, 
that which took the form of intriguing with the Court 
of Spain. That was " a horrible treason." In such 
a country, where rebellion was one of the dearest and 
oldest and most universally recognized rights of the 
aggrieved subject, professional swordmen hired them- 



selves to the chief or to the Crown as readily as one 
of his brethren abroad would sell his services to the 
Emperor or to a rebellious Elector. The Ireland of the 
sixteenth century was a very different country from 
the Ireland of the nineteenth ; and if we do not under- 
stand and realize the difference, we shall fall into 
errors not a few. 

In quiet times the Queen had hardly any waged 
soldiers at all in Ireland. For economy's sake the 
army was disbanded. When wars arose she hired the 
Irish condottieri in such numbers as were requisite 
for the service. They and the " risings-out " of the 
territories, i.e. the lords and the fighting men whom 
by law they were bound to furnish, did the fighting. 
The English portion of her armies was small in 
number and poor in material. It is true that a great 
many pressed Englishmen, seized by the sheriffs of 
counties, were from time to time despatched into 
Ireland in the hope of converting them into soldiers. 
But in vain. They fell sick and died, being unable 
to endure the hardship of active service, or they ran 
away, or their captains, with their eyes fixed on likely 
young Irishmen of the military caste, got rid of them in 
one way or another; so that English companies rapidly, 
often in the course of a very few months, became quite 
Irish, much to the satisfaction of their captains, who not 
unreasonably preferred trained, seasoned fighting men 
and sons of steel and powder to pressed yokels, vagrants, 
and village idiots, such as the sheriffs of the English 
counties were in the habit of sending to them, fellows 
who never before they arrived in Ireland had held 
in their hands any weapon more formidable than a 

The Mayor of Chester, who had the honour of for- 



warding these precious drafts, was perpetually com- 
plaining about them. Of one such draft, he writes : 
"many of them are diseased and many mad." Sir 
Eichard Bingham, President of Connaught, referring 
not to his own provincial army, of which more anon, 
but to the army of Ireland, has these words : " All 
the English companies are converted from English 
into Irish." 1 The majority of those pressed men 
seem to have been fitter for the hospital than the 
field. So the Mayor of Liverpool writes : " The return 
of sick and poor soldiers from Ireland has so infected 
the town, that a number of honest householders are 
dead and their houses dissolved." 

Some, not this present writer, may find a grim sort of 
satisfaction in thinking that men sent into Ireland to kill 
Irishmen, returned to kill Englishmen and lay waste their 
houses. Again we find that much-experienced warrior, 
Sir Eichard Bingham, referring with anger and chagrin 
to the " unserviceableness of the English companies." 2 

It might be imagined that Bingham had a special 
grudge against " English companies," though he was 
an Englishman himself, a Devonshire man ; but here 
is the muster-master of Ireland complaining of " the 
growing great weakness of the army owing to the 
runaways, of whom are many." 3 And the runaways 
were always English, for the Queen's Irish soldiers, 
being drawn from a warrior caste, were, while in her 
service, engaged in the work which they loved, indeed, 
the only work for which they were fitted. 

1 Calendar of State Papers, March 20, 1595-6. 

2 Sir R. Bingham to Burleigh, October 10, 1595. 

3 Sir G. Fenton to the Lord Deputy, 1595, p. 379, Calendar of 
State Papers. 

"We perceive that there are six whole companies of meere Irish 
in Connaught. Please reform this." — P. 219, ^.b. 1602. 

Privy Council to Mount joy, Carew Papers : "But it was not re- 

Preface. lvii 

Again, the Captain -General of the Queen's forces 
in Ireland appears with a worse complaint. "In 
two of the companies last sent over, there are not 
twenty men likely to prove good soldiers. The rest 
are poor old ploughmen and rogues." He refers also 
to the Lord Deputy's " desire to discharge the old 
companies and erect new, for good consideration." 1 
This meant that the Lord Deputy wished to make a 
clean sweep of the English companies and put sound 
soldiers of " this country birth " in their place ; and 
that, in the opinion of the writer, it was a " good " 
idea and should be considered. The bad soldiers ran 
away ; the good were killed or fell sick. 

One is not surprised, then, to read such passages as 
the following in the letters of the Queen's Irish com- 
manders in actual contention with the insurgent 
lords : "Our new soldiers for the most part could 
not tell how to handle their pieces, so that the cap- 
tains were driven to take away their bullets and 
powder and give them to the Irish." 2 

The writer of this letter was the President of 
Connaught. The Government had kindly endeavoured 
to stiffen his army of Connaught warriors with a few 
hundred of their pressed yokels, vagrants, and village 

formed and could not be reformed. Save by Irish hands, it was beyond 
the sphere of possibility to make head against Tyrone and his allies." 

" Bingham in his going to victual Bally mote had but three 
Briton companies amongst ten or twelve others. ... It is also very 
necessary that good choice be made of the men and horse sent over, 
lest they prove altogether unfit for service as the last." 

Sir J. Norreys, Commander of the Queen's forces, to Sir R. Cecil. 
— Calendar of State Papers, March 20, 1595-6. 

Mountjoy to Carew : " The Irish whereof we have many in every 
company." — September 15, 1601. 

" Of the new supplies, I think there be not ten of them that can 
shoot in a gun." — Mountjoy to Carew, Carew MSS., November 22, 

1 Sir J. Norris to Sir R. Cecil, September 10, 1596. 

3 Sir R. Bingham to the Lord Deputy, October 13, 1595. 



idiots, with the foregoing result. Bingham was nearly 
always at war with revolted chieftains, and, till Hugh 
Roe began to operate upon him, was always victorious ; 
but Connaught herself supplied him with all the 
fighting men that he required. In one of his letters 
written towards the close of his career he has these 
words : " I scarce ever had any help save from the 
Irishry of my province. " 

Now, when we put all these facts together ; the fact 
that the walled towns, inland and seaboard, stood by the 
Crown ; the fact that in the highest height of their 
greatest rebellion the confederated dynasts could never 
control more than a third of the island measured by its 
bare superficies ; the fact that the remaining two-thirds, 
more frequently three-fourths or four-fifths, always 
" rose-out " for the Queen ; the fact that the swords of 
the military caste to any extent to which the Govern- 
ment might choose to go in the matter of hiring were 
at the service of the State ; and the fact, patent in this 
book which I am editing, that a provincial governor 
could, without an army, reduce a province from 
rebellion to submission by mere policy and craft, it 
appears, to me at least, that the public opinion of the 
country, so far as it had any public opinion, must be 
regarded as being on the side of the Crown. If that 
be so, then we can better understand the mental 
condition of these nobles, chieftains, and gentlemen 
whom Carew bought and sold. In them public 
conscience was quite rudimentary, but such as that 
public conscience was, it urged them rather to support 
the Crown than support the insurgent confederacy. 

The insurgent lords made some show indeed of 
religion, and in their private letters written into Spain 
a very fair show of a desire to establish Philip in the 



Sovereignty of Ireland ; but tbeir real aim, that 
upon which their whole hearts and souls were set, 
was that of maintaining or of re-establishing their 
Seignories. One has to study their letters in order to 
perceive the curious old-world ideas by which most of 
them were animated. 

I have already referred to one of the great Northern 
insurgents as flattering his father's murderers in hope 
that they would confer upon him his father's Seignory. 
When eventually by the strong hand and external aid 
this aspiring youth did seize his father's high com- 
mand, I find him indeed, like others, professing a 
great regard for the Catholic cause and wonderful 
anxiety to make Ireland a Province of Spain — all clap- 
trap, as I do believe ; but here is an example of the 
class of things which I find that he did, or honestly 
promised to do : — 

" O'Kourke to the Lord of Killeen," i.e. the head of 
the house of Plunket. 

" Hearty commendations, to my remembrance it 
never happened but there was friendship and courtesy 
between your nation and mine," etc. etc. (Very com- 
plimentary to the Lord of Killeen.) " In brief I am to 
make suit to you this time of disturbance for the good 
horse you have, the which is accounted the best in this 
land of Ireland. For the same I will bind myself yours 
to command in everything I may, during life, and will 
warrant to save you and yours from all the nobility of 
Ireland, not doing you any hurt if this rebellion do 
endure this twenty years. Assuring you if you do not 
send the same horse I will try whether I be able to go 
with the help of my best friends to your house, where 
I will not in courtesy crave anything at your hands." 
1 Calendar of State Papers, 1595-6, p. 478. 



This young great lord, in spite of his Oxford 
education, was plainly of opinion that the Tyrone 
rebellion on the crest of which he had been borne into 
the chieftainship of all Leitrim, gave him leave to revert 
to antediluvian methods, and blackmail every peace- 
able and weaker neighbour within his reach. This 
letter will support what I have already written about the 
sixteenth century as largely qualified by the fifteenth. 
And yet now regard Brian Ogue only from the fifteenth 
century point of view, and he rises again in our esteem. 
We perceive in him a stirring young chieftain, a lad 
of mettle — for indeed he was no more than a lad — who 
Would not ignobly confine his ambition within the 
narrow confines of his patrimony, but would, by the 
strong hand and deeds of chivalry and derring-do, 
bring circumjacent nations under tribute, and fight 
" all the nobility of Ireland," if necessary, in defence 
of those who acknowledged his overlord ship. For this 
affair of the "horse" had such a significance. The 
letter to the Lord of Killeen was the letter not of a 
vulgar robber but of a " great gentleman." 

And such as was Brian Ogue such were nearly all 
these confederated lords. Try them by modern 
standards, their behaviour is revolting and contemp- 
tible. Try them by mediaeval, and something heroic 
and pathetic will be seen to emerge. The " Four 
Masters " found nothing to blame in their conduct, 
but everything to love and praise. Their point of 
view, however, was mediaeval — not modern. And I 
am here reminded too of the verdict of a Spaniard 
despatched by Philip to report on the condition of 
Ireland. " The Irish nobility," wrote this unflattering 
scribe, "be for the most part a very simple sort of 



If the reader thinks I have written too much by 
way of preface, I can only reply that I might have 
written a great deal more without passing beyond the 
fringes of the deep questions which the perusal of 
Pacata Hibernia inevitably suggests. 

As regards the agents of the Crown and the 
Royalists in general, I have to remark that, in spite of 
the disgraceful peculation of the former and the 
egoistic motives which too often animated the latter, 
there was amongst all a very real loyalty to the State. 
Carew, for example, could do a great many vile and 
disgusting, and a great many criminal things. Nor 
shall I quarrel with anyone who calls him an abomin- 
able scoundrel. But he was certainly loyal to his 
Queen, and endeavoured, to the best of his ability, to 
advance and safeguard what he conceived to be the 
interests of the State; while Tyrone's President of 
Munster, Dermot 0' Conor, seems to have cared 
nothing at all about the interests which he had been 
appointed to watch over and safeguard. The Queen's 
lieutenants were all loyal to her — Tyrone's proved all 
disloyal to him. 

On the insurgent side, however, we must render a 
most sincerely cordial tribute of admiration and 
respect to the perfect zeal and self-devotion of the 
Jesuits and Priests who. co-operated with the faithless 
lords of the Catholic league. These men, animated 
only by religious principle, faced all dangers, endured 
all hardships. Whoever else were time-servers, 
waiters on events, diligent worshippers of the main 
chance, these Priests and Jesuits were in deadly earnest. 
Hunger and cold, the dungeon and the scaffold, had no 
terrors for them. We shall meet some of them in the 
progress of this tale, notably James Archer, the Jesuit, 



and the Papal legate, MacEgan ; but of such noble and 
devoted servants of religion there were hundreds 
whose mere names we shall never hear. But enough, 
we can recognize their type, and rejoice to think that 
in the days of Florence MacCarty and of that high 
Captain of all the MacMahons who betrayed his cause 
and comrades at the Battle of Kinsale, apparently for 
" a bottle of whiskey," and of many another noble- 
ignoble high chief and " great gentleman,' ' Ireland, too, 
could even then produce men capable of devoting 
themselves body and soul to the cause which seemed 
to them to be the highest. 

11 Vivas for those who have failed ! 
And for those whose war-ships sank in the sea, 
And for those who themselves sank in the sea, 
And for all overcome heroes ! " 

In conclusion, I would direct the reader's attention to 
the rare literary excellence of Pacata Hibernia. The 
writer in his simple, though too pragmatical style, does 
really tell his story admirably. He has written a 
great book without being at all aware of the fact. Of 
literary art in a high sense he has no conception : 
for example, he cannot make us see anything. This 
serious defect is, to a considerable degree, atoned for by 
the plates, which are most entertaining and instructive, 
and probably the work of one who had been himself 
through the Munster wars, and seen the things which 
he depicted. 

I have to apologize for occasional references to a 
work of my own, " The Bog of Stars," which deals 
with the same period and treats of divers contemporary 
worthies who figure in our text, information concern- 
ing them not being elsewhere easily procurable. A 
re-perusal of the Preface after a study of the text 



might be recommended, for the opinions advanced here 
can only be rightly appreciated and some of the allusions 
fully understood by one who has read the book. 

More resolute students should read the Irish 
portions of Froude's " History of England," and 
Bagwell's " Tudor Ireland," especially the latter. 
But the best plan of all would be to study closely 
even one volume of the " Calendar of State Papers, 
Ireland," relative to this decade. I can promise such 
a student that he will get up from that task the 
possessor of many new ideas concerning Elizabethan 
Ireland, and also concerning Elizabethan England. 

In preparing this edition I have thought good to 
modernize the spelling, following in this respect the 
example of the editors of the State Papers, and also, 
still following that precedent, to retain the original 
spelling of the proper names save where a blunder on 
the part of scribe or compositor is plainly apparent : 
such blunders for example as Murrough of Lagherty 
for Murrough O'Flagberty, Teigue Keagh for Teigue 
Reagh (Teigue the Brown, or rather Tawny), etc. 

Also I have transferred to an Appendix certain 
verbose public documents which are almost quite 
unreadable save to the very keenest of historical 

The very interesting plates of the two former 
editions are reproduced here. But we print also 
some new ones, portraits of a few of the lords and 
chieftains who figure as characters in the book, 
photographed from paintings fortunately still sur- 
viving in public galleries, or as heirlooms in the 
families of their descendants. 

Standish O'Geady. 




The g reat Actions of worthie and eminent Persons , 
haue ever been estee7ned so powerfull for the instruction 
of succeeding times, that all Civill States haue made it 
their principall care \ to preserue and transmit them to 
Posterities for their Example and Imitation, The 
Meanes by which this is done, is History, a powerfull 
suggester and Recorder of Gods providence in publike 
Blessings and Judgements, the Mother of Experience, 
the Nurse of Truth, the common bond and ligature \ 
which unites present times with all ages past, and 
makes them one. To manifest this, if other Arguments 
fayle, the Examples of the greatest Emperors and 
Generals were sufficient, who in the midst of their 
Conquests, thought their publike dutie not discharged, 
if they imployed not some time, to leaue the immortall 
memory of their owne actions by zvriting to Posterities 
The omission of this hath bin a great defect of some 
vol. i. d 


The Epistle Dedicatorie. 

ages foregoing otirs, being the Middle times betweene 
learned Antiquitie and this latter age, wherein Lan- 
guage, Arts and Elegancie haue revived and flou- 
rished; In those times though there haue been many, 
Qui fecerunt scribenda, yet there were few, qui descri- 
berent facta. I dare not say that this our Age and 
Nation are guiltie of the like errour or negligence, in 
deciphering to the life the occurrences of our owne 
times and ajfayres by such as best knew, and faithfully 
would relate them ; A want of which many haue 
complained, btit few haue laboured to supply. That 
which I now in all humilitie present ', is your Majesties 
by many Titles ; First, from the subject matter, being 
the finall Dispersion of that cloud of Rebellion, which 
hath so long hung over that Kingdome of Ireland, 
which by tcndoubted title, and lawfull succession is 
descended to your Majestie, and that performed by the 
prudent fortitude of the English Nation, which your 
Majestie now so happily governes. Next, from your 
Majesties late faithfull Servant, the Earle of Totnes, 
whose Actions are not the least part of the Argument of 
this Historie, hee being at that time chief e Governour of 
the Province of Mounster, which was the Stage whereon 
the last and greatest Scene of that Tragedie was acted, 
and since advanced by your Majesties Roy all Father and 
your selfe to many Honourable Titles and Imployments 
of State, And lastly, from the Publisher, through 
whose hands nothing can passe, which to your Majestie 
is not justly due, both by common Allegiance, and 
particular Service. Pardon {gracious Soveraignc) 

The Epistle Dedicatorie. 


this presumption> in aspiring to so high a Patronage, 
and graciously accept this poore Tribute of Dutie and 
than kef ulnesse from him who hath eternally bound 

Your Sacred Majesties most 
faithfully devoted Subject, 
and Servant, 




OVT of a necessitie imposed by powerfull Oustome 
somewhat must bee sayd to you Reader, both to 
prevent mistakings touching the publishing of this 
Worke, and to prepare you with some unprejudicate 
affection to the reading thereof. The large space of 
time (thirtie yeeres and upwards) betweene the matters 
Acted, Written, and now published, may beget some 
wonder, in what obscure corner this Worke hath lyen 
all this while, without notice given or taken ; or if 
knowne, why so long kept from publike view. For 
answere heereto, understand indifferent Reader, that 
it was composed while the Actions were fresh in the 
memories of men, by the Direction and appoyntment 
of the Right Honourable Earle of Totnes (late de- 
ceased) then Lord President of Mounster, so often 
mentioned in this Historie. The Collection made, 
was by him first reserved for his owne private In- 
formation ; Secondly, preserved for the futherance of 
a Generall Historie of that Kingdome of Ireland, when 
it should please God to raise up some industrious 


To the Reader. 

Writer to undertake a compleat Description of those 
Affayres ; And lastly, out of his retyred Modestie, 
the rather by him held backe from the Stage of 
Publication, lest himselfe being a principall Actor in 
many of the particulars, might be perhaps thought, 
under the Narration of publike proceedings, to giue 
vent and utterance to his private merit and Services, 
howsoever justly memorable. He leaving the world, 
left it among his papers, where it was found by the 
now Publisher thereof, to whom they were bequeathed, 
and by whom it hath beene offered to the view and 
censure of divers learned and judicious persons : By 
them it hath been esteemed worthy the view of the 
world, that those of present and future times, who 
desire not to be strangers to what hath passed, and 
been acted at home, may receiue true Information 
heereby. In confidence, whereof, I presume that 
whether you bee English or Irish that shall reade this 
Historie, vou shall finde much matter of contentment 
to advance the Honour of both Nations : If English, 
behold the most dangerous and overgrowne Rebellion 
that ever was since the Kings of this Land were Lords 
of that Isle, suppressed by the puissant valour of by 
victorious Countreymen, and a powerfull Invasion of 
a braue and warlike Nation repulsed, and sent home 
to their Natiue Land : Or if you bee of that other 
Nation, you may obserue the loyall fidelitie of the 
greater part to their lawfull Prince, though animated 
to disloyaltie by the strongest perswasions of their 
Spirituall Pastor, with promises of heavenly reward. 

To the Reader. 


Heere also you may behold a fat all period given to the 
Rebellious Insurrections, under whose burthen that 
Countrey hath groaned some hundreds of yeeres, and 
a firme and assured Peace established to the comfort 
of them and their posteritie. And whether English 
or Irish, forget not (next after the right hand of the 
most High bringing mightie things to passe) to 
acknowledge the Prudence, Courage, and Felicitie of 
that late Soveraigne, who in her deepe and declining 
age, did seale up the rest of all her worthy Actes 
with this accomplishment, as if shee had thought that 
her taske would bee unfinished, and Tombe unfurnished, 
if there could not be deservedly engraven thereon, 
PAG ATA HIBEBNIA ; The lot whereof was cast, 
and fell happily on our side, by the prosperous successe 
of those Preparations and Encounters which befell 
this short time of about three yeeres, recounted by 
way of Annalls and Journalls in this present Narration ; 
whereto thou must adde the like acknowledgement of 
the Wisedome, care, and provision taken by our late 
Soveraigne of blessed memory King James, in the 
establishment not onely of peace, but also of good 
Lawes and Justice there flourishing, and continued by 
the Providence and Piety of our present Soveraigne 
King Charles, the true Inheritor of his renowned 
Fathers Yertues as well as Kingdomes. For the 
storie it self, it was collected, not out of flying 
rumours, and popular tales, but (as the Title promiseth) 
out of the carefull and diligent Observations of the 
principall Actors in the services there related ; And 


To the Reader. 

for the truth of their reports, I hope it shall receiue 
the approbation of many Honourable and Worthy 
Persons yet living, who may justly challenge a large 
portion of the honour atchieved in those Warres. 
But I will detaine you no longer, (Judicious Reader) 
but leaue to the use of what is heere presented, 
commending it and my self to your favourable 

T. S. 






The Lord Deputy, and the Lord President's landing in Ireland — 
The Warrant for passing the Lord President's Patent — The 
Patent — The Lord Deputy and Council's Instructions to the 
Lord President. 

The wars of Ireland 1 having received their origin and 
foundation in the north, proceeded like unto a strong 
poison, which having infected one member, without 
speedy prevention, doth spread the contagion over the 
whole body ; for the Irish perceiving the prosperous 
success of those first rebels, even beyond all expecta- 
tion and hope (of those that were ill affected), and that 
Her Majesty's forces had sustained many- disasters, 
which were never feared until they happened, the 
neighbour provinces of Connaught and Leinster, 
following the current of the present time, begin to 
dismask themselves of that cloak of subjection, which 
before they pretended, and to show themselves par- 
takers in that wicked action, and furtherers of the 
rebellion. And these being united in a strict com- 

VOL. I. 

1 1599. Tyrone's rehellion. 



Pacata Hibernia. 

bination, 1 did verily persuade themselves that it would 
be a matter very feasible to enable them to shake off 
the English Government, and to make themselves 
absolute commanders of all Ireland, if the chief Lords 
of Munster, with their friends and followers, would 
join with them, to banish the English out of that 
province. They did account that province to be the 
key of the kingdom, both by reason of the cities and 
walled towns (which are more than in all the island 
besides), the fruitfulness of the country, being reputed 
the garden of Ireland, and the commodious harbours, 
lying open both to France and Spain. They devised 
many plots, cast many projects, and used many per- 
suasions, to animate the provincials to begin to enter- 
prise. But currenti quid ojms est calcaribus? they were 
not so ready to yield reasons, as those were to hear ; 
and their ears no more open to hear, than their hearts 
to consent ; and their hands nothing backward in the 
execution thereof. 

The Earl of Essex at his being in Ireland with his 
army, made a journey into Munster, in hope to com- 
pose the troubles thereof ; all that he performed at 
that time was the taking of Cahir Castle, and receiv- 
ing the Lord of Cahir, and the Lord Roche, with some 
others into protection. Who after his departure did 
either openly partake, or secretly combined with the 
rebels again. 

Her Majesty being resolved to send a new Lord 
Deputy into Ireland, made choice of a worthy and 
noble gentleman endued with excellent parts, as well 

1 Ulster, Leinster and Connaught did not enter into a "strict 
combination." The major portion of Connaught held by the Crown, 
and in Leinster only Feagh MacHugh, O'Moore, Lord of Leix, and a 
few others joined the Catholic League. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of body as mind, Sir Charles Blunt, Lord Mountjoy. 
And at that time the Presidency of Munster being 
void, by the unfortunate death of Sir Thomas JNTorris, 
lately slain by the rebels, she made election of Sir 
George Carew, Knight, who was by his former 
services experienced in the Irish wars, to be the Lord 
President of that Province. The 23rd of February, 
these Lords embarked at Beaumaris, and upon the day 
following they landed at the head of Hothe, 1 lodging 
that night at the Lord of Hothe's house, and the next 
day they rode to Dublin, where, by the relation of the 
council, they found a miserable torn state, utterly 
ruined by the war, and the rebels swollen with pride, 
by reason of their manifest victories, which almost in 
all encounters 2 they had lately obtained. The Presi- 
dent, although he much desired to employ himself in his 
government, yet he was enforced to make a long stay in 
Dublin, as well to assemble the forces allotted unto him, 
by order out of England (to be in list 3000 foot and 250 
horse, which were dispersed in sundry remote garrisons), 
as to procure the dispatch of his instructions from the 
State, which is usual, and of sundry commissions 
under the great Seal of Ireland, which of custom is 
granted to every President, but especially the passing 
of his office (by virtue of Her Majesty's Warrant) 

1 Howth. Howth and Dalkey were the usual places of disem- 
barkation for Dublin. 

2 The career of the insurgent lords resembled that of Edward 
Bruce in Ireland in the fourteenth century. They conquered in the 
open almost everywhere, but they could not conquer the country. 
They could not storm the walled towns or take the strong castles, so 
their victories were hollow or led only to the devastation of undefended 
territories and the rapine of cattle. Students of Roman history will 
remember that the career of Hannibal in Italy was somewhat similar. 
He beat the Romans everywhere, yet he could not conquer the 

B 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

under the great Seal of that realm ; tlie copies of which 
warrant, letters patents, and instructions, I do here 
insert as ensueth. 

Her Majesty's Warrant. 

Bight trusted and well-beloved, we greet you well. 
Our province of Minister, in that our realm of Ireland, 
being without a principal officer to govern it, ever since 
the death of Thomas Norris, Knight, late President there; 
and the tumultuous state of that province requiring the 
government of a person of judgment and experience, ive 
have made choice of our servant, Sir George Carew, 
Knight, Lieutenant of our Ordnance here. To commit to 
him the charge of that part of our realm, as one ivhom 
ice know, besides his faithful and diligent endeavours in 
former services, to be well acquainted with the state of 
that of our realm {where he is a councillor), and with 
the condition and nature of that province. Wherefore 
we require you, immediately upon the talcing of our 
sivord, and chief charge of that our realm of Ireland, as 
our Deputy, according to our commission granted to you, 
to cause a commission to be made out under our great 
Seal of that our realm of Ireland, to the said Sir George 
Carew, of the office and charge of President of our pro- 
vince of Munster, in such manner and form as John 
and James Norris, Knight, or any other Presidents of 
that province have used to have, or with any such other 
clauses as you shall think that the present state of our 
affairs there doth require. Giving him thereby power 
to rule and govern our people in that province, with the 
advice of our Council there, according to such instructions 
and directions as have been given by us or our Council 
here, or our deputies of that our realm, or shall hereafter 
be directed to him, for the government of that province. 
The same his power to continue during our pleasure. 
And our further will and, pleasure is, that he receive 
towards his charges all such allowances, fees, profits, and 

Pacata Hibernia. 


entertainments of horse and foot, as Sir Thomas Norris, 
Knight, our late President, at the time of his death had ; 
the same to begin from the day of the date hereof, and to 
continue during our pleasure : and these shall be to you 
and to our treasurer for the payment thereof sufficient 
tvarrant and discharge. Given under our signet at our 
Manor of Richmond, the seven and twentieth day of 
January, in the two and fortieth year of our reign, etc. 

The Lettees Patents. 

Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queen of England, 
France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To 
all men to whom these presents shall come, greeting; 
whereas our province of Munster, in that our realm 
of Ireland, being without a principal officer to govern 
it, ever since the death of Sir Thomas Norris, Knight, 
late President there ; and the tumultuous state of that 
province, requiring the government of a person of 
judgment and experience. We have made choice of 
our trusty and beloved servant, Sir George Carew, 
Knight, Lieutenant of our Ordnance in our realm of 
England, and one of our Privy Council of our said 
realm of Ireland, and to commit to him the charge 
and government of that part of our realm, as one 
whom we know, besides his faithful and diligent 
endeavours in former services, to be well acquainted 
with the state of that our realm, and with the con- 
dition and nature of that province. Know ye, that we, 
reposing our trust in the wisdom, valour, dexterity, 
fidelity, and circumspection of the said Sir George 
Carew, Knight, of our especial grace, certain know- 
ledge, and mere motion, and according to the tenor and 
effect of our letters on that behalf, directed to our 


Pacata Hibernia. 

right trusty, and right well-beloved councillor, Charles 
Lord Mountj oy, Knight of the most noble Order of 
our Garter, and our Deputy-general of our realm of 
Ireland, dated at Richmond the seven and twentieth 
day of January, in the two and fortieth year of our 
reign, have given and granted, and by these presents 
do give and grant to our said servant George Carew, 
Knight, the office of our Lord President of our said 
province of Munster. Andthe said George Carew, 
Knight, our Lord President, and Governor of the said 
province by these presents, do make, ordain, and con- 
stitute, and to the said George, the government of the 
said province, and of our people there resident, do 
commit. And further, we do give and grant by these 
presents to the said George Carew, Knight, in and for 
the exercise and execution of the said office, all such 
authorities, jurisdictions, pre-eminences, dignities, 
wages, fees, allowances, and profits whatsoever, which 
John Norris, 1 Knight, or the said Thomas Norris, 
Knight, or any other president of that province have 
used to have, and with such other clauses (or articles 
of authority) as our said deputy shall think that the 
present state of our affairs there doth require, to be 
further granted unto him, the said George Carew, 
Knight. Giving him hereby full power and authority 
to rule and govern our people under that province, 
with the advice of our Council there, according to such 
instructions and directions as hath been given by us, 
or our Council here, or our deputies of that our realm, 
or shall hereafter be directed to him, for the govern- 
ment of that province ; to have, exercise, and enjoy 
the said office, to and by the said George Carew, 

1 This name is usually spelled Norreys in the' State Papers. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Knight, with other the premises, and all authorities, 
pre-eminences, wages, fees, entertainments, and 
profits to the said office belonging ; and all such 
allowances, profits, entertainments of horse and foot, 
as the said Thomas Norris, Knight, our late President 
of the said province, at the time of his death had or 
ought to have; the said allowances and entertain- 
ments to begin from the date of our said letters ; and 
the said authority and entertainment to continue 
during our pleasure. And where the said George 
Carew, Knight, in respect of our service in other 
places, may have occasion to be absent out of the 
said province of Munster, and that in such his absence, 
our pleasure is, that some meet person may be 
substituted to govern that province as vice-president ; 
we do therefore by these presents, by the assent of 
our deputy aforesaid, and according to the intent of 
our said letters, give full power and authority to the 
said George Carew, Knight, to appoint, choose, and 
substitute in his absence, such a meet and sufficient 
person, for whom the said George Carew, Knight, will 
answer, to be vice-president of the said province, and 
the said person, so appointed, chosen, or substituted, 
we do by these presents authorize to govern and rule 
the said province, in the absence of the said George 
Carew, Knight, to all respects and purposes as if the. 
said George were personally present, and might rule 
and govern, by the authority aforesaid. And if the 
said person so chosen, appointed, and substituted, 
shall chance to die, or shall not govern himself to the 
liking of the said George Carew, Knight, that then 
the said George Carew, Knight, shall from time to 
time, by virtue of these presents, during his authority 
and government aforesaid, choose, appoint, and sub- 


Pacata Hibernia. 

stitute a vice-president as aforesaid, to govern and 
rule the said province as aforesaid. And our further 
pleasure is, that the said George Carew, Knight, shall 
from time to time certify our said deputy, or other 
governor-general of this our realm, for the time 
being, the name and names of such vice-president, 
or vice-presidents, as shall be by him appointed, 
named, or substituted as aforesaid. Willing and 
straightly commanding all our officers, as well civil 
as martial, as all and all manner our loving subjects 
to be respectively aiding, assistant, and obedient in 
and to the said George Carew, Knight, or any autho- 
rized by, and under him as aforesaid, in the exercise 
and execution of the said office, as they will answer 
to the contrary at their peril. Although no express 
mention of the true yearly value, or certainty of the 
premises, or any part thereof, or of any other gifts, or 
grants, made by us, or any our noble progenitors, 
to the said George Carew, Knight, before the date 
hereof, be not expressed in these presents. Any sta- 
tute, act, provision, restraint, proclamation, law, use, 
or custom, to the contrary hereof, heretofore made, 
ordained, enacted, provided, used, or proclaimed, or 
any other cause, thing, or matter to the contrary 
hereof in any wise notwithstanding. In witness 
whereof we have caused these our letters to be made 
patents. Witness our Deputy-general at Dublin, the 
sixth day of March, in the two and fortieth year of 
our reign. 

[The instructions of the Deputy and Council which 
here follow will be found in the Appendix. — Ed.] 


The Earl of Tyrone in Munster, and his actions there — The White 
Knight Tyrone's prisoner — Florence MacCarty made Mac- 
Carty More, and Donell MacCarty displaced— The Lord Barry 
spoiled — Tyrone's letter to the Lord Barry, with the Lord Barry's 
answer — Sir Warham Saint Leger and MacGuyre slain — 
Tyrone's return into Ulster. 

A little before the landing of the Lord Deputy in 
Ireland (as is said) the arch-traitor Tyrone, to unite 
the rebels of Munster, and especially to confer with 
James FitzThomas, the titulary Earl of Desmond, and 
Florence MacCarty, at whose entreaty he made a 
journey into Munster ; those whom he found obstinate 
in rebellion he encouraged, from such as he held 
doubtful he took pledges, or detained prisoners ; of 
which last sort was the White Knight, and his son-in- 
law, Donogh MacCormocke Carty, whom in handlocks 
he carried away with him ; and whereas Donell 1 Mac- 
Carty, the Earl of Clancare's base son, had been by 
the MacCarties of Desmond advanced to the style, 
title, and authority of MacCarty More ; him he dis- 
placed, and in his room Florence 2 MacCarty was 

1 Clan-Carty. This gentleman is the hero of the tale entitled 
Kiegangair, in " The Bog of Stars." 

2 Florence MacCarty was one of the first gentlemen of the Clan 
Cartie gens. We shall read a good deal about him in the ensuing 
chapters. He married his cousin the Lady Eileen M'Carty, only 
legitimate child and heiress of the late Earl of Clan-Carty, who was 
M'Carty More and high chief as well as Earl. She was at the time 
a ward of the State and retained in a sort of captivity in the city of 
Cork. Florence found means of spiriting her off into the country 


Pacata Hibernia. 

surrogated, being a man, as he conceived, of far more 
use than Donell. Such as were, or reported good 
subjects, these he prosecuted with sword and fire; 
amongst others who felt his heavy hand, the Lord 
Barry was one, upon whom, when he could not work 
his desire to draw him into actual rebellion, by the 
persuasion of the provincial rebels, him he preyed, 
burned, and spoiled, to make it manifest that he was 
solicited to enter into rebellion ; both the letters of 
Tyrone, and the Lord Barry's answer, are here truly 
set down, the tenors whereof do ensue. 

Tyrone's Letter to the Lord Barry. 

My Lord Barry, your impiety to God, cruelty to 
your soul and body, tyranny and ingratitude both to 
your followers and country are inexcusable and in- 
tolerable. You separated yourself from the unity 
of Christ's mystical body, the Catholic Church. You 
know the sword of extirpation hangeth over your head, 
as well as ours, if things fall out other ways than well ; 
you are the cause, why all the nobility of the south, 
(from the east part to the west), you being linked unto 
each one of them, either in affinity or consanguinity, 
are not linked together to shake off the cruel yoke of 

and then married her. He was arrested for this offence and committed 
to the Tower. When Munster went into rebellion the Queen sent 
him back to Ireland with great honour, hoping that he would be a 
means of breaking the confederate league ill that province. Florence, 
finding himself between two such powers as the State and Tyrone, 
trimmed and played false to every one. The Queen gave him the 
vast estates of his father-in-law, the late Earl, and Tyrone made him 
high chief with regal jurisdiction. Hoping to please both, he failed 
to please either, and fell, unregretted. Though he is a by-word in 
Irish history, he does not seem much worse than the rest. 
Florence regarded the situation ouly from his own dynastic point of 

Pacata Hibernia. 

1 1 

heresy and tyranny, with which our sonls and bodies 
are oppressed. All those aforesaid depending of your 
resolution, and relying to your judgment in this com- 
mon cause of our religion and country, you might 
forsooth with their help (and the rest that are com- 
bined in this holy action) not only defend yourself from 
the incursion and invasion of the English, but also (by 
God's assistance), who miraculously and above all ex- 
pectation gave good success to the cause principally 
undertaken for His glory, exaltation of religion, next 
for the restoration of the ruins, and preservation of 
the country, expel them, and deliver them and us from 
the most miserable and cruel exaction and subjection, 
enjoy your religion, safety of wife and children, life, 
lands and goods, which are all in hazard through your 
folly and want of due consideration ; enter I beseech 
you into the closet of your conscience, and like a wise 
man weigh seriously the end of your actions, and take 
advice of those that can instruct you, and inform you 
better than your own private judgment can lead you 
unto. Consider, and read with attention and settled 
mind, this discourse I send you, that it may please 
God to set open your eyes, and grant you a better 
mind. From the camp this instant Tuesday, the sixth 
of March, according to the new computation. I pray 
you to send me the papers I sent you, as soon as your 
honour shall read the same. 


The Lord Barry's Answer to Tyrone. 

Your letters I received, and if I had answered the 
same as rightfully they might be answered, you should 
have as little like thereof as I should mislike or fear 

Pacata Hibernia. 

anything by you threatened against me (which manner 
of answer, leaving to the construction and considera- 
tion of all those that are fully possessed with the 
knowledge of the law of duty to God and man). You 
may understand hereby briefly my mind to your ob- 
jections, in this manner; how I am undoubtedly 
persuaded in my conscience, that by the law of God 
and His true religion I am bound to hold with Her 
Majesty ; Her Highness hath never restrained me for 
matters of religion, and as I felt Her Majesty's indiffer- 
ence and clemency therein, I have not spared to relieve 
poor Catholics with dutiful succour, which well con- 
sidered, may assure any well-disposed mind, that if 
duty had not (as it doth), yet kindness and courtesy 
should bind me to remember, and requite to my power, 
the benefits by me received at Her Majesty's hands : 
you shall further understand that I hold my lordships 
and lands, immediately under God, of Her Majesty and 
her most noble progenitors, by corporal service, and of 
none other, by very ancient tenure, which service and 
tenure none may dispense withal, but the true 
possessor of the Crown of England, being now our 
Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth. And though ye, by 
some overweening imaginations, have declined from 
your dutiful allegiance unto Her Highness, yet I have 
settled myself never to forsake her, let fortune never 
so much rage against me, she being my anointed prince, 
and would to God you had not so far run to such 
desperate and erroneous ways, offending God and Her 
M ajesty, who hath so well deserved of you, and I would 
pray you to enter into consideration thereof, and with 
penitent hearts, to reclaim yourselves, hoping that Her 
Highness, of her accustomed clemency, would be 
gracious to you, wherein I leave you to your own com- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


punction and consideration. And this much I must 
challenge you, for breach of jour word in your letter, 
by implication inserted that your forces have spoiled 
part of my country, and preyed them to the number of 
four thousand kine, and three thousand mares and 
gerrans, and taken some of my followers prisoners, 
within the time by you assigned unto me to come unto 
you, by your said word (if ye regard it), I require 
restitution of my spoil, and prisoners, and after (unless 
you be better advised, for your loyalty) use your dis- 
cretions against me and mine, and spare not if you 
please, for I doubt not with the help of God, and my 
prince, to be quit with some of you hereafter, though 
now not able to use resistance ; and so wishing you to 
become true and faithful subjects to God and your 
prince, I end, at Barry Court, 1 this twenty-sixth of 
February, 1599. 

While Tyrone was in Munster, a disastrous action 

happened, upon the day of February, Tyrone with 

his hellhounds being not far from Cork, Sir Warham 
St. Ledger and Sir Henry Power (who after the death 
of Sir Thomas ISTorris, Lord President of Munster, in 
the vacancy of a president, had been established com- 
missioners for the government of the province), riding 
out of the city for recreation to take the air, accom- 
panied with sundry captains and gentlemen with a 
few horse for their guard, not dreaming of an enemy 
near at hand, carelessly riding every one as he thought 
good, within a mile of the town, or little more, Sir 

1 The Irish Barries are descended from Philip de Barri, one of the 
more famous of the companions of Strongbow. They split into two 
clans, Barry Roe and Barry More. Of the latter, David Barry, Viscount 
Buttevant, was chief. They went with the State in the Desmond 

Pacata Hibernia. 

"Warham St. Leger, and one of his servants, a little 
straggling from his company, was, in a narrow way, 
suddenly charged by MacGuire, who with some horse 
(likewise dispersed) had spread a circuit of ground, in 
hope either to get some booty, or to have the killing 
of some subjects, they charged each other. Sir War- 
ham discharged his pistol, and shot the traitor ; and 
he was striken with the other horseman's staff in the 
head, of which wounds either of them died ; but none 
else on either side was slain. 1 Tyrone, 2 having dis- 
patched his business in Munster, turned his face to- 
wards Ulster. The Earl of Ormond, the Lord 
Lieutenant-general of Her Majesty's forces, with a 
competent army, was before him with a purpose to 
fight with him in his retreat. But by what accident 
he missed of his intention I know not, being a hard 
matter to fight with an enemy that is not disposed to 
put anything in hazard. He went through Ormond 

1 Philip O'Sullivan in his Historia Hibernim relates the incident 
in much the same way. He tells us that Sir Warham and MacGuire 
were the two best horsemen, equites or knights, on their respective 
sides, and that both longed ardently for a meeting. He adds that 
Mac Guire rode into camp before he fell, and that Mac Guire's war- 
horse after the death of his master refused to eat and died of 

This MacGuire was Hugh, a celebrated chief in his time. It was 
he who advised the government to fix the eric of the sheriff whom they 
were sending into Fermanagh. Curiously enough he owed his own 
chieftainship to a sheriff. While Hugh Roe O'Donnell was prisoner 
in Dublin Castle, Lord Deputy Fitz William visited Tyrconnell and 
appointed as sheriff Hugh Roe's illegitimate elder brother, Donal 
O'Donnell. This youth having large notions concerning the Shriev- 
alty, stepped across the borders of his own county and appointed Hugh 
MacGuire Captain of Fermanagh, said Hugh having no claim to the 
position. It was of this Mac Guire that Mangan sang, translating the 
eulogy of the chieftain's Irish bard, ** The memory of the lime-white 
mansions which thy right hand has laid in ruins keeps warm the 
heart of the hero. " 

2 1660. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

and stayed not until he had passed through a part of 
Westmeath, between Mullingar and Athlone. The 
Lord Deputy on the 5th of March had intelligence 
that he meant to pass through Westmeath. Where- 
upon with all the force he could possibly assemble he 
marched from Dublin, but his endeavour was fruitless, 
for Tyrone was passed before his coming. 


The Lord President left Dublin— The Earl of Ormond taken 
prisoner by Ovvny MacRory O'more — A joint letter from the 
Lord President and the Earl of Thomond to the Lords of the 
Council in England — The manner of the Earl of Ormond's taken 
prisoner — The narrow escape of the Lord President, and wound- 
ing of the Earl of Thomond — The order taken for the settling 
of the country after the Earl of Ormond's disaster — The sub- 
mission of Tho. Fitz James and Tho. Power. 

The Lord President having attended long at Dublin 
about his dispatches aforementioned (wherein he 
lost no time), upon the 7th of April, being accompanied 
by the Earl of Thomond, the Lo : Audley, Captain 
Boger Harvy, Captain Thomas Browne, Captain 
Garret Dillon, and some other captains and gentlemen 
with 700 foot and 100 horse. He took his leave of 
the Lord Deputy, who with all the councillors and 
captains then in the city (to do him honour) rode with 
him about two miles out of the town, and that night 
he lodged at the Naas, the next night at Catherlogh, 1 
and the day following he came to Kilkenny to visit the 
Earl 2 of Ormonde, being a nobleman whom he much 

1 Carlow. 

2 Black Thomas, Earl of Ormonde, Captain of the Butlers and a 
vory famous gentleman of the period. He was leader of the Queen's 
forces in the Desmond wars. Nor perhaps was he disinclined to 
rebellion on his own account if due cause were forthcoming. Once 
during the Yiceroyalty of Sir Henry Sidney he got into trouble with 
the State and was detained in London. His brothers leading all the 
Butler nation went into rebellion and stated that they did so by 
direction of the Earl. This was a game which was' frequently played 

Pacata Hibernia, 


respected, as well for the honourable parts that were 
in him, as for the long and familiar acquaintance 
which had been between them. After salutations and 
compliments were past, the Earl told the President 
that the next day he was to parley with the rebel Owny 
MacRory O'More 1 at a place about eight miles from 
Kilkenny, and he was desirous that the President 
would go with him, whereunto he easily assented ; 
the next morning being the 10th of April, according to 

at the time : the State arrested a chief ; then his clan rebelled, 
and the chief had to be enlarged and sent home to pacify them. 
Ormonde and Tyrone were good friends. Observe how Ormonde 
could not succeed in finding Tyrone while the latter was returning 
from Munster. I do not hereby desire to indicate that Black 
Thomas was disloyal to the State. But these potentates were 
certainly good friends, and friendship counted for a good deal in 
contemporary warfare. He was educated at the Court of Henry YIIL, 
and was playfellow and fellow pupil of Edward VI. Though a 
great Koyalist nobleman, he never forgot that he was also a great 
Irish gentleman. 

1 This young chief has been referred to in the Preface. He was 
the son of Rory Ogue O'Moore, of whom I have given a sketch under 
the title of "The Outlawed Chieftain," in "The Bog of Stars." 
Rory Ogue is the villain, as Sir Henry Sidney is the hero, of that 
quaint old Elizabethan book, Derrick's "Image of Ireland." When 
Rory Ogue was slain, his eldest son, Anthony, by abbreviation Owney, 
was under the care of Feagh MacHugh O' Byrne in the Wicklow 
highlands. Of Owney while still a boy and under old Feagh 's 
care Lord Deputy Fitz William wrote as follows : " Owney O'Moore, 
son of Rory Ogue, hath lately taken weapon " (been knighted). " He 
is a youth of a stirring spirit. The O'Moores look to him to be 
their captain." I rather think he was son of Joan O'Byrne, Feagh's 
sister, though in an annotated work in my possession I find him set 
down as a son of Margaret Butler, cousin-german of the Earl of 
Ormonde. When the Nine- Years- War broke out Feagh lent the boy 
a few soldiers and sent him forth to seek his fortune. The boy flew 
straight as a hawk on its quarry for Leix, or the Queen's County, the 
ancient patrimony of his House, in a few weeks cleared it from end 
to end, saving only the walled town of Maryborough, and for many 
years held it with the strong hand against all comers. Having con- 
quered Leix, the boy, stiffened with some auxiliaries from Ulster, de- 
scended into Munster and drove out all the undertakers, poor 
Spenser included, and effected " the overthrow " of the province. 
He was indeed " a lad of stirring spirit." Owny MacRory means, of 
course, Owny son of Rory. 

VOL. I. C 


Pacata Hibernia. 

the appoiDtraent, the Earl parleyed with the traitor, 
and was there taken prisoner. To the end the reader 
may truly understand the manner of that day's 
misfortune, behold the letter which the President 
and the Earl of Thomond sent to the Lords of 
the Council in England, wherein the same is fully 

A Joint Letter from the Lord President and the 
Earl of Thomond to the Lords of the Council. 

It may please your Lordships : Although I, the 
President, have by my letters advertised the Lord 
Deputy, the manner in what sort the Earl of Ormond 
was taken, which I think is by his Lordship sent unto 
you, yet, we think it our duties to make relation thereof 
unto your Lordships, and to make known unto your 
Honours how accidentally we were witnesses of his 
misfortune. On Monday, the 7th of April, we de- 
parted from Dublin, and upon Wednesday at night 
we came to Kilkenny, where we found the Earl of 
Ormond. In our company we had 100 horse, dis- 
persed in the country ten or twelve miles distant 
from us by the Earl's officers. As soon as we came 
unto him, he acquainted us, that he had appointed 
the next day to parley with Owny MacRory ; we told 
his Lordship that we would attend him. And I, the 
President, desired his Lordship that my 100 horse 
might be sent for to go with us, for his Lordship's 
better guard, which he refused, thanking me for my 
offer, saying that he had no need of them. The next 
day, being the tenth of this present, after dinner, his 
Lordship not having in his company above the number 
of seventeen horsemen (as his followers) armed, and 

Vol. L 

(Father of Ouney MacJBory.) 

To face page 19. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


not little above the like number of all sorts, whereof 
we were part, and the rest lawyers, merchants, and 
others upon hackneys, with no other weapons than our 
swords, rode out to the place of meeting, eight long 
miles from Kilkenny, called Corronneduffe, upon the 
borders of Ydough ; leaving his Lordship's own com- 
pany of two hundred footmen short (of the place of 
parley assigned) above two English miles. The place 
where we met with the rebels was upon a heath 
ground, descending towards a narrow straight, having 
on either side of us a low shrubby boggy wood, within 
three pikes' length (at the farthest) from the place 
where we parleyed, and the like distance from the 
straight aforesaid, the choice whereof we much dis- 
liked. Owny MacRory, when he came unto us, 
brought with him a troop of choice pikes, leaving in a 
little plain beyond the straight, within half Culvering 
shot of us, in our sight, all his gross, being in all to 
the number (as Redmond Keting, one of the rebels, 
did swear unto me, the President) five hundred foot 
strong, and twenty horse, whereof three hundred were 
bonoughes, the best furnished men for the war, and 
the best appointed that we have seen in this kingdom. 1 

1 Let this be a proof to the reader that the insurgent forces against 
which the Queen had to contend were anything but a disorderly 
rabble armed with skians and darts. They were armies in the strict 
sense of the word, horse, shot, heavy foot or pike men, and light 
foot or Kerne armed with swords and javelins. Most writers treating 
of this period represent valiant Englishmen chasing shaggy Irish 
Kerne through woods and bogs. According to such writers an 
insurgent army at this time was all Kerne. Kerne indeed played their 
part, but only their part. When a Queen's army went out, it had, too, 
its due proportion of Kerne. When Carew praises so warmly the 
troops of a minor lord, one can imagine what competent armies Tyrone 
and O'Donnell were able to bring into the field. Bonoughes or 
Bonnachts were hired soldiers, the Conottieri of the period. Of 
bonoughes we shall read a great deal as the tale runs on. 

The O'Moores were few at this time, Fate and the State and their 

c 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

At our first meeting, and so during the parley (which 
was appointed for some good causes best known to his 
Lordship), they stood (as they might) every one trailing 
his pike, and holding the cheek thereof in his hand, 
ready to push. The Earl himself was upon a little 
weak hackney, unarmed (as all we were that were 
about him), standing so near with the side of his 
hackney to the rebels, as they touched him. After 
an hour and more was idly spent, and nothing con- 
cluded, we and others did pray his lordship to depart ; 
but he, desirous to see that infamous Jesuit Archer, 1 
did cause him to be sent for ; as soon as he came, the 
Earl and he fell into an argument, wherein he called 
Archer traitor, and reproved him, for sending, 
under pretext of religion, Her Majesty's subjects into 

own inter-tribal divisions had beaten sorely upon them. Gallant 
Owney's predecessor in the chieftainship, Bryan O'Moore, according 
to his own account of himself had spent a long life and wasted his 
patrimony in fighting against the Queen's enemies, including his own 
people, the O'Moores. His father too, he adds, had spent himself 
upon the redoubtable Eory Ogue. See Calendar of State Papers, 
Ireland, 1593 a.d., p. 195, where Brian, afterwards the O'Moore, gives 
a full account of all his valiant doings in the service of the State and 
the singular reward which he had received for so much loyalty, 
for once when he visited London to u better himself in English 
manners," he was seized, clapped into prison and kept there with- 
out trial for two years. He had committed no offence. It suited 
the private policy of a great man to cover him up for a while. 
Rank injustices of this kind were common then. When Brian at 
last became free he went into " action," at which one does not feel 

1 James Archer, a native of Kilkenny, of an old Anglo-Irish family 
there. He moved ceaselessly around the South of Ireland, seeking to 
impart to the insurgent cause the fervour of a religious crusade. There 
were many men like Archer, and their co-operation was very service- 
able to the league. These men, unlike the chieftains, were in dead 
earnest. In the reign of James I. we catch a glimpse of Archer at 
Court, disguised like a gallant, cloaked, frilled, and feathered. Archer 
was a very accomplished person, a gentleman and a soldier. He will 
turn up from time to time in the course of the tale. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


rebellion. In this meantime the gross of the rebels 
had left their standing in the plain, and some crept 
into the shrubs aforesaid, and others did so mingle 
themselves among us, that we were environed, and 
stood as if we had been in a fair, whereof divers did 
advertise his lordship. And at last I, the Earl of 
Thomond, willed Owyne to put back his men ; and I, 
the President, desired his Lordship to be gone, for that 
I did not like their mingling with us ; wherewith, as 
his Lordship was turning his horse, at an instant they 
seized 1 upon him, and us two. His Lordship was in a 
moment drawn from his horse ; we had more hang- 
ing upon us than is credibly to be believed ; but our 
horses were strong, and by that means did break 
through them, in tumbling down (on all sides) those 
that were before and behind us, and (thanks be to 

1 I do not believe that such a high gentleman as Owney baited and 
laid this trap for the capture of the Earl. Philip 0' Sullivan relates 
that the Earl while rating the J esuit raised his staff as if to strike him, 
and that one of Owney's men to prevent the blow laid hands on the 
Earl, and that then the general tumult and fighting began. This 
account seems to tally with a portion of Carew's description of the 
affair, for he represents the Earl as storming violently at Archer. But 
in fact such parleys, occurring as they did between enemies, oftenissued 
in violence and slaughter, all the way down from that fatal parley 
between Hugo de Lacy and Tiernan O'Kourke in which Tiernan was 
slain. The party which got the worst of it in the ensuing tumult 
usually attributed treachery to the other, as Carew does here. 
Observe that the writers of • this letter are seeking to excuse their 
flight, perhaps their cowardice, and make all the due deductions on 
that account. Supposing that the young O'Moore was innocent of 
any treacherous purpose, as I believe he was, he might nevertheless 
with a sufficiently clear conscience retain his captives. The fight, 
seeing that it did arise, was a fair one. Had it gone against him, 
and had he, not the Earl, been taken, he certainly would have been 
retained by his captors. Some months later, having been ordered 
to do so by Tyrone, he set the Earl at liberty for a ransom. Archer 
used to declare that while Ormonde was a prisoner with the O'Moores 
he had converted him to Catholicism, but that he afterwards 
relapsed. The Earl was almost the only Protestant amongst the 
Butler nation. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

God) we escaped the push of their pikes (which they 
freely bestowed) and the flinging of their skians, 
without any hurt, saving that I, the Earl of Thomond, 
received with a pike a wound in the back. The Earl's 
horsemen (which were armed) were far from us, for 
every one was dispersed, and talking with particular 
rebels, about the bordering business, so as we do 
protest unto your Lordships, in all we were not above 
ten unarmed men near unto him, and as soon as the 
alarm was raised, every man of his followers came away, 
without looking behind him. After we had cleared 
ourselves (within a butt length at the most), we made 
halt, and called for the trumpet, and cried upon the 
Earl's men for a charge, but none stood by us, but 
Captain Harvey, Captain Browne, Master Comerford, 
a lawyer, and three of our servants, which was all the 
company that we had then, and all of us, without 
armour or other weapon than our swords, so as for 
want of more company, we were enforced by the 
enemy's shot to leave them the ground ; but we do 
assure your Lordships, the place wherein we parleyed 
was of such advantage to the enemy, that 500 foot 
would not have cared for 500 horse, and therefore (his 
Lordship having no foot with him) it was impossible to 
do the enemy any harm with horse : this treachery 
(for we must term it in respect of his Lordship's 
confidence in the valour of his own men, and also in 
his opinion that the enemy durst not show him this 
foul measure) was contrived by that villain Archer, 
and none was made acquainted with it, but Owny Mac- 
Rory, two Leinster men, and four bonnaghes, for if 
more had been trusted, there is no doubt but his Lord- 
ship should have had knowledge of it ; Owny MacRory 
laid his hands on me, the President, as they report, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and (next unto God) I must thank the Earl of 
Thomond for my escape, who thrust his horse upon 
him, and at my back a rebel newly protected (at my 
suite), Brien MacDonoghe Kevenaghe being a foot, 
did me good service, and wounded one of the traitors, 
that laid hands on the Earl of Ormond ; for the rest I 
must thank my horse, whose strength bore down all 
about him. On our side there was but one man slain, 
not above five hurt, whereof Pierce Butler (a kins- 
man of the Earl's) was one, who behaved himself 
valiantly ; and about fourteen taken prisoners ; and 
of the enemy was one slain, and a few hurt ; the 
prisoners were taken by their own negligence, who 
were grazing their horses. The taking of this great 
lord breeds unsettled humours in these parts, for all the 
gentlemen of the country (whereof some of them 
were his true followers) for want of a defender are 
wavering; others, which in their own dispositions 
were naught, and contained themselves as subjects 
but for fear of his power, are now at liberty, and we 
fear will shortly declare themselves. To keep them 
from present uproars, I, the President, did immedi- 
ately send for six hundred foot of the Munster com- 
panies, which were at Waterford, and the hundred 
horse, which were in the country, to the town of 
Kilkenny, which hath wrought good effect, and stayed 
the unsettled humours ; besides, thereby it did assure 
the Lady of Ormond, and her daughter, which other- 
wise had been subject to many dangers, so sorrowful a 
lady in all our lives we have not seen ; and do 
believe, that if it had not pleased God that we at that 
time had been there, she would hardly have under- 
gone those griefs that did oppress her; for besides 
the loss of her husband (in being prisoner with those 


Pacata Hibernia. 

rogues) she beheld the apparent ruin of herself and 
her daughter, and no less danger of both their lives ; 
the guard whereof she committed unto us, not being 
assured of those that serve her, for there is divers that 
pretend to be the Earl's heirs; first, Sir Edmund Butler, 
his second brother, which Sir Walter Butler, the Earl's 
nephew (whose blood is not attainted), 1 will not yield 
unto, because his uncle Sir Edmond is not restored in 
blood ; and the Viscount Mountgarret thinks that he 
ought to be Earl of Ormond, for many reasons which 
he pretends. This controversy could but breed great 
danger to the Countess and her daughter, for that 
either of those would be glad to possess themselves in 
the Earl's houses, and the doubt who is to succeed 
him breeds unsettled humours in the gentlemen of the 
country that be followers to the Earl, everyone addict- 
ing himself to the party they affect, whereby there is a 
general distraction, which would have broken out into 
a dangerous rebellion if the forces and we had not 
been here to keep them in awe ; besides, we did not 
neglect to send for all the lords and gentlemen in the 
country (that are of the best quality), and have 
temporized with them ; so as we hope, the dangers 
were like to ensue, will be for a time well appeased. 
Also understanding that Balliragget, a house of the 

1 Sir Edmund had been leader of the Butlers in that Butler rebel- 
lion already referred to. According to Sidney, when he killed English 
soldiers he used to stuff their uniforms with straw and set them up 
as butts to be fired at by his young warriors. 

The Butlers have a quite undeserved reputation for loyalty in 
Anglo-Irish history. On the only occasion in which they were 
wronged they showed themselves just as ready to rebel as any other 
clan. That they were usually on the side of the Crown arose only 
from the accideut of their position. Weaker than the Geraldines, they 
were forced to lean on the IState. They showed, themselves as rebel- 
lious as any when their loyalty was put to the same tost. 

Vol. I. To face pn<re 26. 


Pacata Hibernia. 25 

Lord Mountgarret's, in which there is a ward for the 
Queen, keep as a pledge for his loyalty, that the same 
was attempted to be won by the Viscount's sons, who 
are in rebellion; and immediately upon the Earl's 
taking, lay before it, in hope to starve the soldiers 
(for their last day's victuals was spent), I, the Presi- 
dent, did take up in Kilkenny, upon my credit, victuals, 
and with a strong convoy of horse and foot, have re- 
victualled it, for six weeks, whereof the Lord Deputy 
is advertised, praying him to be careful before that 
victual be spent ; and because that all things be con- 
tinued in good order ; we thought good to remain in 
Kilkenny, until the Lord Deputy should determine of 
some course, so to hold it for Her Majesty's benefit, 
the country's good, and the Countess and her 
daughter's safety ; wherein we were enforced to make 
large disbursements of our small stores, for dieting in 
that time of the horse and the foot troops, whereof I, 
the Earl, defrayed the charges of my own company of 
two hundred foot, and I, the President, of all the rest, 
during our abode there, which was eight days. In this 
meantime we, understanding that Mountgarret's sons 
(which are in rebellion) did come to spoil the country 
near to Kilkenny ; we sent out some part of our troops, 
who lighted upon some of their men ; and amongst 
them which they slew, there was one of the Butlers, a 
near kinsman to Mountgarret and a leader slain, and 
the traitors driven to their woods, being enforced to 
leave their enterprise. 

The sixteenth of this present, Sir George Bourchier 
and Sir Christopher St. Lawrence, sent from the Lord 
Deputy, came to Kilkenny, Sir George for chief com- 
mander of Her Majesty's forces there, and to take 
charge of the Countess, her daughter, and the Earl's 


Pacata Hibernia. 

houses, and Sir Christopher to be directed by him. 
The forces there left is two hundred foot of the Earl's, 
other two hundred foot of Sir Christopher's, thirty foot 
left in a ward in Mountgarret's house, called Balli- 
raggett, eighty-five horse (whereof fifty of the Earl's, 
five-and- twenty of St. Lawrence), and ten of Sir 
George Bourchier*s. Since the Earl's taking we kept 
the rebels from doing any hurt in the country, neither 
as yet is there in any rebellion in the same, but 
Mountgarret's sons, whose force is not such, but 
in our opinions (without they call strangers to assist 
them) Her Majesty's forces there are much too strong 
for them. The seventeenth we left Kilkenny, and came 
to this city, leaving Sir George Bourchier as afore- 
said. This accident hath withheld me, the President, 
from my peculiar charge, more than I purposed, but 
therein I hope your Lordships will hold me excused, 
being other ways so necessarily employed in these 
causes of so great importance ; whereof I humbly 
beseech your Lordships, in your wisdoms, to have due 
consideration. To-morrow we proceed in our journey 
towards Cork, from whence (with the rest of the 
Council there) we will advertise your Lordships, in 
what we find the province, not being able here to 
certify your Honours so particularly as then we may. 
So we humbly take our leaves. From Waterford, the 
eighteenth of April, 1600. Strange it was to con- 
sider how much this misfortune distracted the minds 
of sundry that before were inclined to subjection, and 
greatly animated the traitors to persevere in their wicked 
enterprises, which might evidently be seen in Pierce 
Lacy, a wise man and malicious traitor, who being but 
few days before upon the Earl's protection, promising 
great loyalty and much service, did presently relapse, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and became a more dangerous rebel than at any time 
before. But now leaving farther discourse of former 
occurrents, we will betake ourselves wholly to prose- 
cute the relation of such things as happened in 
Munster after the Lord President came to Water- 
ford, which was the sixteenth of April, for the prose- 
cution of the service in which province, by order out of 
England, the list, as aforesaid for Munster, was 
established to be three thousand foot and two 
hundred and fifty horse. After his repair thither, in- 
telligence came unto him that the titular 1 Earl of 
Desmond with the greatest part of his forces was re- 
maining not far from Youghal, about Drumfinin, with 
intent to give impediment unto him, and such com- 
panies as he had with him. Thomas Fitz James, 
bastard son of Sir James FitzGerrald, late Lord of the 
Decies, and Thomas Power, the Lord Power's cousin- 
german, the chief rebels in the county of "Waterford, 
receiving advertisement that the President was in 
Waterford, fearing peradventure lest some draft 
might be drawn upon them, and that themselves or 

1 By the Koyalist party nicknamed the Sugan Earl, i.e. the Earl 
of Straw. The real Earl of Desmond at this time was a boy prisoner 
in the Tower, son of Garret, the last rightful Earl. This titular Earl, 
a near relative of the late Earl, had fought for the Crown in the great 
Desmond rebellion. He was illegitimate. The task whieh Tyrone 
attempted, viz. to revive the collapsed and broken Earldom of Desmond, 
and with such materials, was really a hopeless one. The Geraldines 
and their subject lords obeyed the new Earl for a few months and 
then fell away to the State. Of that falling away, which soon became 
a rush and quite a sauve qui peut, we see the commencement in this 
chapter, in which Carew describes how the Geraldines of Waterford, 
without any pressure proceeding from him or from the State, came in 
to him and renewed their oaths of allegiance. The Earldom of 
Desmond was a creation of the Crown. Unlike a chieftainship, it had 
nothiDg to do with tanistry or election. So the gentlemen of the 
South failed to see the validity of the Sugan Earl's title. An Earl 
could not be elected, and Tyrone was no king that he could make 


Pacata Hibernia. 

followers might receive some great prejudice by means 
of the President's forces, made great instance by the 
Lord Power and Sir Nicholas Welsh, to be received 
into Her Majesty's protection, promising and protest- 
ing not only that they would reclaim themselves, and 
their followers, from committing any outrage against 
Her Majesty's subjects, but further, that they would 
endeavour to recompense and requite their former de- 
faults by some acceptable service. The Lord President, 
considering that the receiving of them and their de- 
pendents into protection would be a means both to 
weaken the traitor Desmond of some part of his 
strength, and to secure open the passage betwixt 
"Waterford and Youghal, which before was so kept, 
especially by them, that there was no way to send but 
by sea, upon the best assurance that could be got 
for their future loyalties, accepted their submissions, 
and granted protection both to themselves and their 
followers, since which time they have been good and 
loyal subjects. 


The encounter of Her Majesty's forces with Florenee MacCarty — 
The prey of the Brough taken — The state of the province of 
Munster when the Lord President came into it— The Lord 
Barry preyed — Redmond Burke defeated by Odwyre — 
Odwyre's country harassed by Redmond Burke. 

The twentieth of April the Lord President, accom- 
panied with the Earl of Thomond, the Lord Audley, 
the Lord Power, Lord of the Decies, Sir Nicholas 
Welsh, Sir Anthony Cooke, Sir Richard Masterson, 
Captain Roger Harvey, Captain William Taffe, Captain 
Richard Greame, Captain Fleming, Captain Gifford, 
Captain Dillon, Captain O'Reilly, and divers other private 
gentlemen, with eight hundred foot and one hundred 
horse, came that night to Dungarvan, where he found 
Sir George Cary, the treasurer his company, which the 
next morning he took along with him to Youghal. 
The two and twentieth he received advertisement of 
an encounter between Captain Flower, Serjeant- 
major of that province, and Florence MacCarty, the 
performance whereof was a,s followeth. 

Florence MacCarty, 1 notwithstanding the infinite 
favours and bounties which he had received from Her 
Majesty, being wholly Spaniolized, had possessed the 
minds of those in Carby and Desmond with a strange 

1 Created MacCartie More, that is to say, captain of his nation, by 
Tyrone during his recent visit to Munster, in a great assembly held 
at Innis-Carra on the banks of the Lee. Clan-Cartie included all Cork 
from the city westward, as well as the south of Kerry. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

opinion of his worthiness, and having combined with 
Tyrone and other rebels at his late being in Munster, 
did show himself in open action against Her Majesty. 
Whereupon the commissioners, Sir Warham Saint 
Leger and Sir Henry Power, sent Captain Flower and 
Captain Bostock into Carbery with twelve hundred 
foot and one hundred horse (which Flower com- 
manded in chief) to make prosecution against the 
rebels of those parts. In their way towards Ross, they 
burned and spoiled the country as they passed, and 
got the heads of thirty-seven notorious rebels, besides 
others of less note. Florence gathered together of the 
Provincials and Bownoghs (for so they called their 
waged men) to the number of two thousand or there- 
abouts, Dermond 1 O'Connor, as General (for so they 
termed him) of the Bownoghs. These being gathered 
to a head, attended their opportunity to give some 
blow to our forces, yet never did encounter them, 
until they were in their return within five miles of 
Cork. In the midway betwixt that city and Kinsale 
there is a ford and a bridge, over the river called 
Awneby. Here the rebels lay close in an ambush on 

1 Dermot 0' Conor, a scion of the house of 0' Conor Don. Tyrone 
left him in Munster to watch over his interests there, with an 
acknowledged control over all the bownoghs cessed upon the country 
and an unacknowledged position as overseer of the province. With- 
out the title, he was in fact Tyrone's President of Munster. But the 
lords of Munster did not wish to have any President or overseer of 
any kind, and Tyrone's lieutenant was unable to establish over them 
any authority. To justify themselves they complained to Tyrone 
that Dermod had oppressed them. Probably he had. In the six- 
teenth century every government oppressed. The lords and gentle- 
men of Munster could not understand how a stranger, a Connaught 
man, of low and mere military antecedents, could have any right to 
control them. So they resisted and flouted the Connaught man, who 
took hiR revenge, and at the same time consulted for his own interests, 
as we shall see. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


the north side of the river, in a glen between two 
hills, and also on the south side, in a scrubby 
wood near the river. The companies coming on, 
not thinking there to expect an enemy, marched 
scarce orderly, and but a few matches burning ; Cap- 
tain John Bostock, riding a good pretty distance 
before them, and past the bridge, espied the morians 1 
of some of the sunk ambush in the glen, presently 
retiring back gave notice of the enemy, and willed them 
to prepare themselves. The rebels, finding that they 
were discovered, presently arose and charged our men 
before they were well ordered ; Captain Flower, the 
commander, finding himself oppressed with numbers, 
drew to the walls of an old ruinous castle to the east- 
ward, near half a mile distant, for safety, in which retreat 
they being upon the point of routing, were charged 
home with both horse and foot. Flower, to prevent the 
danger, directed Lieutenant Lane, officer to Sir John 
Barkley, to lie in ambush under an old ditch, with a 
squadron of musketeers ; Carbry O'Connor, brother to 
Dermond aforesaid, came on with his company, 
following the execution of some of our men, until he 
fell into the ambush, where, hearing a volley of shot 
delivered upon them, Carbry, with other gentlemen, 
was slain. At which accident the rebels being 
amazed, the horse took the opportunity, and charged 
them with such resolution, as instantly they routed, 
and our men fell upon the execution of them. In 
which charge I cannot but particularly commend 
Robert Tent, Sir Anthony Cooks, cornet, who did 
behave himself with extraordinary valour. Besides 
Carbry O'Connor, ninety-eight were slain in the place, 
and near that number hurt, whereof divers afterwards 

1 Helmets. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

died. On our part, none of note hurt, but 
Greame, brother to Captain Richard Greame, and 
eight soldiers. Captain Flower (who did that day 
admirably well) had two horses slain under him, and 
received sundry wounds, both with sword and pike, 
and it was his fortune to encounter with Dermond 
O'Connor, at whom he discharged his pistol, which 
lighted upon his target, whereby he received no hurt. 
That night they marched into Kinelmekagh, and en- 
camped beyond the bridge of Balline Coursy, where 
they stayed with their hurt men two nights ; the 
third day, in the evening, they dispersed their com- 
panies to those countries where they had Bonaught. 

The same day Captain Francis Slingsby, Com- 
mander of the Lord President's foot company, and 
garrison at Kilmallock, where there was the Lord 
President's two hundred foot, Captain Clare's one 
hundred and fifty, twenty-five of Sir Anthony Cooke's 
troop, and twelve of Sir George Thornton's horse, 
drew forth in the night, part of that garrison, to 
take the prey of the Brough, a castle of Pierce Lacy's, 
but three miles from Kilmallock, to expect the coming 
forth of the prey to graze, which accordingly, about 
an hour after daylight, came forth, and they took it. 
Then presently, the cry being raised, three hundred 
foot, and fifty horse led by Pierce Lacy, skirmished 
with them for the space of six hours ; but seeing they 
could not prevail, they gave over the pursuit. There 
was slain of our men, but one horseman of Sir George 
Thornton's troop, and four or five of the Lord Presi- 
dent's foot hurt ; their losses were more, whereof 
Con O'Neale, 1 Tyrone's base son, was hurt. 

1 Con O'Neill, Tyrone's base son. A conspicuous figure in the 
war from the commencement. He and Owny O'Moore had pre- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


The three and twentieth, at night, the Lord Presi- 
dent lodged at Barriscourt, the Lord Barry's house, 
and the four and twentieth he came to Cork, upon 
the way being met by Sir Henry Power, the Commis- 
sioner of the province, and the captains that there 
were garrisoned. The first thing that the President 
intended (after he was come to Cork) was thoroughly 
to understand the state of the province, as then it 
stood; the greatest part whereof, although it was 
known to him before, yet he, calling the Council of 
that province together, desired to be certified by 
them in the particulars thereof, to the intent that he 
might address his actions accordingly. Sir Henry 
Power being sole Commissioner (since the death of 
Sir Warham St. Leger), reported the same much after 
this manner. 

I know not how more fitly to describe unto your 
Honour the estate of this province, than by comparing 
the same to a man that is diseased of a languishing 
and almost incurable sickness, the head so sore, and 
the heart so sick, that every member refuseth his 
natural office, insomuch that I dare boldly affirm, 
that, since the conquest of Ireland, this province of 
Munster was never more distempered than now it is, 
for all the inhabitants of the country are in open 
and actual rebellion, except some few of the better 
srot, who though themselves in their own persons 
attend the State, yet all their tenants, friends, and 
followers, yea, and for the most part either their sons 
or brothers, publicly professed in the devilish action ; 
as, for example, the Lord of Cahir, Cormocke Mac- 
Dermond, Lord of Muskry, Gerald Fitz James, Lord 

cipitated that Munster revolution in which the Undertakers were 
swept away. 

VOL. I. D 


Pacata Hibernia. 

of the Decies, MacCarty Keugh ; the computation 
and number of the rebels, how many they are, 
especially of the province, by reason that they are 
dispersed in so many several countries, and com- 
mauded by so many heads, we can give no certain 
judgment, but for strangers (meaning Connaught 
men that receive bonnaght amongst them), we are cer- 
tainly advertised from divers that are well acquainted 
with their affairs, that they are enlist five thousand 
men, which strength added to the rebels of that pro- 
vince, doth make them absolutely masters of the field, 
and Her Majesty's forces here garrisoned in the cities 
and walled towns for their safety (by reason of their 
weakness before your coming) were in condition little 
better than besieged. Furthermore, all this might 
seem more tolerable if the cities and walled towns 
were (in these times of extremity) a safe and well- 
assured retreat for them ; but all of them are so 
besotted and bewitched with the Popish priests, 
Jesuits, and seminaries, that for fear of their curs- 
ings and excommunications they are ready, upon 
every small occasion, to rise in arms against them, 
and minister all underhand aid and succour unto 
the rebels ; so that considering the generalty of the 
inhabitants that are in open rebellion, the infidelity 
of those that pretend subjection, the multitude of 
Connaught men that defend the action, and the little 
confidence that may be reposed in cities (by reason 
of their contrary religion), we may very well conclude 
that the estate of this province is like a man sick of a 
most dangerous and desperate disease. 

The Lord President having heard by former adver- 
tisements concerning the same matter, thus confirmed, 
he told the Council that he much doubted of any good 

Pacata Hibernia. 


success that could suddenly be expected, and the 
rather because his forces were far inferior to the 
rebels, being in list but three thousand foot and two 
hundred and fifty horse ; yet remembering the old 
proverb, that Ardua virtutis est via, and relying upon 
the justness of the war, more than upon the number of 
his forces, resolved to try the uttermost of his wit and 
cunning, without committing the matter to the hazard 
of fortune, to quench the fire that now raged with 
such extreme fury. 

The same day John FitzThomas, 1 accompanied with 
one hundred kern, or thereabouts, came into the 
Lord Barry's country, near Castle Lyons, and there 
took from him and his tenants a prey of three hun- 
dred cows and ten horses. 

The morrow following being the twenty-sixth, in- 
telligence was brought from Cormocke 2 Oge Carty, 
called by the English Charles Carty, son to Sir Cor- 
mocke MacTeg, that the arch-traitor Tyrone had 
sent letters to Florence MacCarty, to encourage both 
him and his adherents to persist in the action, assur- 
ing them that within one month, namely in May next, 
he would be with them again in Munster, and for that 
journey, his munition, victuals, etc., were already 

The twenty-seventh (as Dermond Odwire 3 informed 
the President by his letters) Redmond Burke with 
six hundred men entered into his country to burn and 
prey the same, which to effect, he divided his forces 
into three sundry parts. Odwire having assembled as 

1 Brother of the Sugan Earl. 

2 Cormac Junior, son of Cormac Senior, son of Teigue M'Carty ; 
Lord of Muskerry, i.e. of the Valley of the Lee. 

3 Dermot O'Dwyer, one of Ormonde's feudatory Irish barons in 

D 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

many men as that short warning would permit, fell 
upon one of the divisions aforementioned, which con- 
sisted of two hundred foot; of them he slew one 
hundred and twenty, and many hurt. In revenge 
whereof Eedmond Burke, 1 upon the sixth of May fol- 
lowing, having got as many men as he could assemble, 
entered the second time into the aforesaid country, 
where he slew man, woman, and child, burnt all the 
houses (castles excepted), and drove away all the 
cattle of the country. 

1 Son of Shane of the Clover, Baron of Leitrim, Co. Galway, son 
of Ricard, Earl of Clan Ricarde, a famous professional soldier. 


Loghguyre preyed — The submission of Barrett and Condon — The 
submission of Florence MacCarty — Florence MacCarty's de- 
mands — The submission of Nugent — The Brough burnt by 
Pierce Lacy — Redmond Burke departed out of Cownologhe — 
Ten of the bonoughs slain by Sir Richard Percy — A letter from 
James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty — The army sent out 
from Cork toward Limerick — The submission of the White 

The twenty-ninth, Captain Francis Slingsby drew 
forth one hundred and fifty foot and twenty horse of 
the garrison of Kilmallock (in the night), to take 
the prey of Loghguire, 1 five miles distant from his 
garrison, a place which much annoyed the passage 
between Kilmallock and Limerick. In the morning, 
when the cattle were put forth to graze, he took it. 
The ward, to recover it, sallied, but, after a short 
skirmish, being hopeless to do any good, with some 
loss returned. 

About this time also the Lord President began to 
give forth speeches of a journey that he speedily in- 
tended towards Limerick, with a purpose to burn and 

1 Chief seat of the Earls of Desmond. A singular bit of folk- 
lore concerning this lake has been published in the Revue Celtique. 
A man drowning in its depths suddenly found himself in a palace. 
He traversed it, but discovered no one there. At last he came to the 
kitchen. A bright fire blazed on the hearth, and beside the fire, 
warming himself, sat a salmon, j The salmon and the drowned man 
held a long and interesting conversation. Of course this curious fish 
was the Salmon of Knowledge which figures in so many Celtic 


Pacata Hibernia. 

spoil all the rebels' houses and corn, and to take the 
prey of the country near adjoining, through which his 
army should pass. "Whether it were the bruit of this 
journey, or the hard measure that he had lately re- 
ceived at the hands of the arch-traitors, Tyrone and 
Desmond, the White Knight (whose country lay near 
to the way as the army should march) sought by the 
means of Sir George Thornton, to be received into 
protection, promising to repair and recover the credit 
he had lost by his lewd and disloyal courses, which 
afterwards he performed accordingly, as shall be 
showed in its due place. 

About this time also "William Barrett, of Ballen- 
colly, and MacHawghe Condon, both chief 1 of small 
countries, submitted themselves to Her Majesty's 
mercy. But the principal mark which the Lord 
President aimed at, before his entrance into the field 
with his army, was to reclaim (if possible it might 
be) Florence MacCarty (before spoken of) from 
further pursuing those hateful and ingrateful courses 
which unadvisedly he had entered into. This he de- 
sired for divers reasons. First and especially for the 
service, which he foresaw might receive some good 
countenance by his subjection. Secondly, because (if 
he continued in action) of necessity he must be con- 

1 Barrett, lord of the castle, a district of Ballincollig. Condon, i.e. 
Patrick Condon, Lord of Condon's country, now a barony of the 
county. Condon had been in Desmond's rebellion. When he 
broke into Youghal his men shouted, " Condon above." He had 
been a fellow-prisoner along with Hugh Roe O'Donnell in Dublin 
Castle. The defection of these two lords was more important than 
our author represents. It showed how the wind was beginning to 
blow, and set other lords thinking. In fact we see here the commence- 
ment of the process which eventuated in the dissolution of the 
confederacy in Munster. In a short time we shall see the whole of 
this powerful combination come down with a rush, and become 
painfully aware of an atmosphere fetid with broken oaths. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


strained to employ a great part of his forces (which 
he thought both inconvenient and dangerous to be 
divided) to follow the prosecution of him and his 
accomplices. And lastly, a good opinion which some 
of his honourable friends in England, and himself 
also, had conceived of him. For these causes was 
the President moved earnestly to desire that this 
Florence might be stayed from further persisting in 
those exorbitant courses, and the rather because the 
said Florence had written letters unto him, which 
upon his way into Munster he received, that as soon 
as he should come to Cork, he would present himself 
personally to him, and do all his endeavours to ad- 
vance the service. All which being made known by 
the Lord President to the Earl of Thomond, he en- 
treated the said Earl and Sir Nicholas Welsh to join 
with John Fitz Edmonds, Florence's godfather (a man 
very famous in those parts for his learning and liberal 
hospitality in entertaining of strangers), to send a 
messenger to signify to Florence MacCartie that they 
were very desirous to confer with him about certain 
particularities concerning his own good. By his 
letter, remitted in answer of this message, he ap- 
pointed both a time and place for their meeting, which 
was accordingly performed. After more than two 
hours spent, and many oaths passed, as well by the 
Earl as Sir Nicholas Welsh, that the President had 
promised his safe return, with fearful guiltiness he 
came to Cork, and from thence to Shandon Castle 
upon the third of May, 1600, where the Lord President 
remained at that time, before whom, when he had 
presented himself, he made his submission upon his 
knees with many protestations of the sincerity of his 
heart, and the true loyalty which he always bare to- 


Pacata Hibernia. 

wards Her Majesty, desiring that he might be re- 
ceived into Her Majesty's favour, and he would serve 
her as faithfully and unfeignedly as any man in 
Munster. The Lord President reproved him very 
sharply for his traitorous behaviour, laying before him 
the odiousness and foulness of his faults, and the 
monstrous ingratitude towards Her Majesty, from 
whom he had received many great benefits and 
gracious favours. These speeches finished, the Presi- 
dent bade him to stand 1 up, when as both he and the 
Earl of Thomond, Sir Nicholas Welsh, and John Fitz- 
Edmund, did every of them very feelingly preach 
obedience unto him. His answer being very general, 
carried great show of loyalty and obedience at that 
time. Upon the next morrow he was called before 
the President and Council, who was again urged (by 
them all in general) not only to desist from pro- 
ceeding in evil, but with alacrity of mind to do some 
such service as might merit reward ; for assurance 

1 We shall be . the less surprised hereafter at finding a much 
smaller lord than Florence walking on his knees up to the belly of 
Carew's horse. But at the same time we must remember that 
kneeling before superiors was common at the time and very common 
in the middle ages, and that Ireland was still exceedingly mediaeval. 
The kings of England kneeled to the kings of France when they 
did homage for their French territories. Florence's own vassal lords, 
chieftains who at home were petty kings, kneeled to Florence. When 
I saw, as I did, poor people in the West of Ireland kneeling in a row 
before the hall-door of their landlord, the sight was simply disgusting. 
And yet it was from their own lords and high gentlemen that the 
poor peasantry had learned the practice. Consequently what looked 
like abject servility and the abdication of all manhood was really a 
social survival. The lords and gentlemen w r ith whom Carew had to 
do were bad enough in all conscience, but all the kneeling to which 
they were so prone must not have too much significance attached to 
it. Carew himself would kneel by the hour before the Queen, and 
lie prostiate too if he thought she would like it. In his letters he 
writes of kissing not the Queen's feet but u the shadows of her royal 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and performance whereof the President demanded 
his eldest son in pledge, for the avoidance whereof 
he used many colourable reasons, viz. : that it would 
cause the bonnoghs to forsake him, yea, and to drive 
him out of his country, erecting his wife's base 
brother 1 in his place ; that he had of long time tasted 
of miseries and wants ; that he had lately recovered 
his country of Desmond with great travel and 
charges, and therefore, like the burnt child, he feared 
to run into any such inconvenience as might cause 
his friends to relapse from him. Adding, moreover, 
that it was needless in them to exact any such thing 
at his hands, who was in his soul wholly addicted 
and devoted to Her Majesty's service. The weakness 
of these reasons were both wisely discovered and 
effectually answered ; but all that could be said was 
no more pleasing to him than is delightful music to 
deaf ears ; which being discerned, the President be- 
took himself to a new device ; for now he vehemently 
threatened (that leaving for a time all other services) 
a sharp prosecution of hostility, with fire and sword 
against himself, his tenants, and followers, should 
speedily overtake him upon his return into Desmond. 
Much was he amazed with this denunciation, and 
therefore, having made a short pause, answered thus : 
Since my needless pledge is so earnestly desired, I 

1 Donnell MacCarty, of whom we shall read a good deal. In him 
Carew had a Queen's MacCarty More ready-made to his hand should 
his relations with Florence become desperate. Remember that 
Donnell had been elected MacCarty More by the clan, but had 
been displaced by Tyrone, who preferred Florence. This Donnell 
was a veteran warrior and a man of spirit. He and Carew were always 
good friends, had probably been companions in arms in old troubles. 
One of Donnell's rebellions had a curious origin. A gentleman named 
O'Falvey killed Donnell's favourite hound, Kiegangair. Donnell paid 
O'Falvey a visit, hanged him, and then went into action. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

am content to leave my eldest son in Cork upon 
these conditions : That Her Majesty would pass unto 
me the country of Desmond, in as large and ample 
manner as before it was conveyed unto my father-in- 
law, the Earl of Clancare. Secondly, that she would 
give unto me the name and title of MacCarty More, 
or Earl of Clancare. Thirdly, that she would give 
unto me three hundred men in pay, for assuring my 
country from all that would offend it. These hyper- 
bolical demands were no sooner propounded, but 
absolutely rejected ; therefore he desired that licence 
might be granted unto him, to write to his honourable 
friends in England, to work for him the afore- 
recited conditions, which, without any great difficulty, 
was permitted. Lastly, the President questioned with 
him what he intended to do if these his desires were 
not satisfied ; thereupon he swore upon a book that 
he would never bear arms against Her Majesty's forces 
(except he were assaulted in Desmond), and that 
his followers should likewise abstain from actual 
rebellion ; and, further, that he would send him 
intelligence from time to time of the rebels' proceed- 
ings, and do him the best underhand service that 
possibly he could. Now had the President effected a 
great part of his desires, namely that by Florence's 
remaining in neutrality his forces might be wholly 
employed against James FitzThomas, who, being once 
slain or banished, it would be an easy matter to 
teach him to speak in a more submissive language, 
and forget to capitulate either for lands, title, or 
charge. Florence is now departed towards his 
country of Desmond, where, leaviug him in suspense 
betwixt doubt and fear, we will proceed in the acci- 
dents of Cork. 1 

1 Florence's patent for his wife's land had been made out and scut 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Now the President, discerning this war in Munster 
to be like a monster with many heads, or a servant 
that must obey divers masters, did think thus : that if 
the heads themselves might be set at variance, they 
would prove the most fit instruments to ruin one 
another. The two chief heads were the Sugan Earl 
(for so they called Desmond), commander of the 
provincials, and Dermond O'Connor, General of 
the bownoghs before mentioned. This Dermond 
O'Connor 1 was a poor man in the beginning of his 
fortune, and not owner of two plough lands in 
Connaught, his native country ; his reputation grew 
partly by his wife, who was daughter to the old Earl 
of Desmond, and partly by his valour, being reputed 
one of the most valiant leaders and best commanders 
amongst the Irish rebels. By means whereof he had 
now the command of fourteen hundred men in his own 

to Ireland, but was not yet issued, pending his behaviour. There was 
also a promise that if he behaved well the Earldom of Clan Cartie 
would be his. But when Tyrone came into Munster with such 
exceeding great power, Florence thought it safer to owe all to the 
puissant insurgent. 

This was the second stage in the dissolution of the confederacy. 
Florence's neutrality in the ensuing operations led every one to 
suspect that something was wrong, and the minds of the lords, 
already affected by the defection of Barrett, Condon, and the Geral- 
dines of Water ford, began to turn again to the State as the more 
likely to emerge victorious out of the struggle. It must be remem- 
bered, too, that though they had rebelled in a lively manner when 
young O'Moore descended into Munster, they had not at all anticipated 
that the rebellion would lead to the re-establishment of the great 
seignories, or to such a dismal ending as many thousands of domi- 
neering and fastidious Connaught warriors quartered upon them. 

1 Captain of Tyrone's considerable standing army in Munster. 
Really the only means of making the insurrection a success in the 
South would have been a loyal obedience by all the confederates to 
this man, who as Tyrone's lieutenant was the State in these quarters. 
But Florence and the Earl were far too high and mighty to submit 
to such a low man, a stranger, and a Connaught man, and even small 
lords like the White Knight and the Baron of Lixnaw regarded him 
with contempt while they trembled at his military power. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

bonaght, and, besides that, might strike a great stroke 
with the other, being by Tyrone, at his departure out 
of Munster, ordained chief commander of them all. 
This man did the President make choice to deal 
withal, for these reasons : First, because he knew 
that the said Dermond, being a mere mercenary, and 
serving in Munster only for pay, might be induced 
by large sums of money to serve the Queen as well 
as the rebels. Secondly, he had a very fit instrument 
whereby the more easily to work him to his will, 
namely his wife, who, being brought up some part of 
her time amongst the English, had not only learned 
the language, but stood reasonably well affected to 
the English government, and likely it was that she 
would use all her industry to advance the service, in 
hope that if it succeeded well it would prove a good 
step or ladder to procure the liberty of her brother 
James 1 Fitzgerald, son and heir to Gerald Earl 
of Desmond, slain (now prisoner in the Tower), and 
to raise his fortunes. Lastly, it was publicly known 
that the Sugan Earl would never do service upon 
the bownoghs, except he might have both the title 
and possessions of the Earl of Desmond confirmed 
unto him, 2 which Her Majesty would never condescend 
unto. Upon these grounds, in very secret manner, he 
provided and sent a fit agent to sound the inclination 

1 This boy, the true Earl of Desmond, was afterwards sent into 
Ireland by the State, with the same purpose as had led to the 
dispatch of Florence, and with similar promises. 

2 The Sugan Earl acted very straight through the whole war, down 
at least to the time of his arrest. And yet if he was ready to turn 
against Tyrone, break his oath and stand by the Queen on condition 
that she secured him in possession of the vast Desmond estates, he would 
not have been worse than the rest. As a fact he too in the end showed 
his real self. When arrested he wrote to the Queen offering to serve 
against Tyrone with his whole force if she would pardon him and secure 
him in his lands. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of the Lady Margaret, for so was Dermond's wife 
named ; and finding her fit to be wrought upon, the 
conditions should be propounded, viz., that if her 
husband would take Desmond prisoner, and deliver 
him into the hands of the President, he should incon- 
tinently receive one thousand pounds sterling ; and that 
he should have a company of men in pay from the 
Queen, and other conditions of satisfaction to her- 
self and her brother. The messenger was no sooner 
sent about these important affairs, but that another 
occasion offered itself unto the President, of no less 
moment than the former, to advance the service ; for 
immediately hereupon, one John Nugent, sometime 
servant to Sir Thomas Norris, late President of Mun- 
ster, pretending some wrongs and injuries to be offered 
unto him by the State, joined with the rebels, and 
became (to his power) the most malicious and bloody 
traitor in all these parts . At last, having as it should 
seem spit his poison, and spent his venom, sought 
to Sir Warham Saint Leger, and Sir Henry Power, 
the commissioners, to be received into protection; 
who more for fear of the hurt that he might do, 
than hope of the good that he would do, granted the 
same, until the Lord President's pleasure (who was 
now ready to depart from Dublin towards Minister) 
were further known. At this time therefore Nugent 
came to make his submission to the President, and to 
desire pardon for his faults committed. Answer was 
made, that for so much as his crimes and offences had 
been extraordinary, he could not hope to be recon* 
ciled unto the State except he would deserve it by 
extraordinary service, which, saith the President, if you 
shall perform, you may deserve not only pardon for 
your faults committed heretofore, but also some store 

4 6 

Pacata Hibernia. 

of crowns to relieve your wants hereafter. He pre- 
sently promised not to be wanting in anything 
that lay in the power of one man to accomplish, and 
in private made offer to the President, that, if he might 
be well recompensed, he would ruin within a short 
space either the Sugan Earl, or John FitzThomas, 
his brother. And indeed very likely he was both to 
attempt and perform as much as he spoke. To at- 
tempt, because he was so valiant and daring, as that 
he did not fear anything ; and to execute, because 
by reason of his many outrages before committed, the 
chief rebels did repose great confidence in him. The 
President having contrived a plot for James Fitz- 
Thomas (as is before showed), gave him in charge 1 to 
undertake John his brother. But because the matter 
might be carried without any suspicion, upon the next 
morrow, the Council being set, and a great concourse 
of people assembled, Nugent reneweth his suit for the 
continuance of his protection. But the President, 
rehearsing in public audience a catalogue of his mis- 
chievous outrages lately committed, told the Council 
that, having farther inquired, and better considered of 
man and matter, for his part he thought it an action 
of very ill example to receive unto mercy such a noto- 
rious malefactor. The Council were all of the same 
opinion, who reviling him with many biting and bitter 
speeches, and assuring him that if it were not for a 
religious regard, that was holden of the Queen's 
word, he should pay a dear price for his former mis- 
demeanour, and so, with public disgrace, was he dis- 
missed their presence. The promised submission of 
the White Knight, the jealousy which the rebels con- 

1 Observe the gay frankness with which this devilish business is 

Pacata Hibernia. 


ceived of Florence MacCarty by his coming to the 
President, and the President's journey being now 
blazed through the province, it caused Pierce Lacy, 
who all the time of the wars (until now) had kept 
a ward in the castle of the Brough, three miles from 
Kilmallocke, despairing to hold the same against Her 
Majesty's forces ; and knowing it was a convenient 
place for a garrison, plucked down some part of the 
castle, burnt the rest, and by the light thereof ran 
into the woods ; Redmond Burke also, with five hun- 
dred bonoghs, about this time, which was in the be- 
ginning of May, withdrew out of Connillogh, and 
kept himself for a little time about the borders of 
Ownhy, where being pressed with want of victuals, 
he intended to leave the province. The Sugan Earl, 
Pierce Lacy, and some other hearing of this sudden 
departure, dispatched messengers unto him, with 
earnest entreaties, and large promises, for increasing 
his bonnoght, if he would return, but to no pur- 
pose. The cause of this his unexpected departure was 
a traffic between him and the President, who did 
uphold him in certain faint hopes, about the obtain- 
ing of the Barony of Leitrim, 1 which he claimed as 
his inheritance ; for this is most true, that not long 
before this time, one Richard Burke, uncle to the said 
Redmond, wrote nnto the President, that his nephew 
would be very glad of his Lordship's favour, and that 

1 Redmund Burke, son of Shane of the Clover or Shane na 
Sheamar, Baron of Leitrim, son of Richard Sassenagh, Earl of 
Clanriearde. I relate elsewhere the causes which put Redmund into 
rebellion. The "White Knight and Redmund could not well agree in 
joint action, for Redmund once took the Knight prisoner, and led him 
out of the Province in hand-locks, and trotting like a horseboy beside 
Redmund while he rode. Many of the chief men of the confederacy 
hated each other. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

he would withdraw both himself and his bownoghs 
out of Munster, so that he would not send any 
forces to molest him in Connaught. Whereunto was 
answered, that it became not a governor, no, not a 
private subject, to make any such agreement with a 
man in his condition ; and farther that he might 
assure himself, that by strong hand he could never 
invest himself in the Barony of Leitrim, nor be in 
secure possession of his father's lands ; but if he 
would reclaim himself and do service to Her Majesty, 
the President would use the best friends that he 
had, either in England or Ireland, that his cause 
might be respected with all favour according to the 
equity thereof. 1 

Not long after the receipt of this letter, he left the 
county of Limerick, severed himself from the 
Munster rebels, and settled in Ormond, and Tirrell 2 
stayed not long behind, inwardly doubting some 
practice upon himself, but publicly pretending the 

1 Looking backwards now, we perceive what Carew had already 
accomplished without firing a shot, but solely by his Machiavellian 
methods, viz. : 

The Geraldines of Waterford, Condon, Barrett, and the White 
Knight recalled from the confederacy ; Florence quite neutral ; 
Redmund Burke and 500 disciplined soldiers seen out of the province ; 
the captain of all Tyrone's standing army in Munster corrupted and 
working for the State ; the whole formidable array of the bownoghs 
in consequence neutralized, and the Sugan Earl and John of Des- 
mond afraid of their nearest and dearest. If success be everything, 
Carew surely has done well. 

2 Richard Tyrrell, a famous captain of mercenaries and the next in 
rank to O'Connor in Tyrone's Munster army. Tyrrell's action and 
Redmund Burke's action show that even in Tyrone's standing army 
there was little of unity, cohesion, and military subordination. In 
fact a captain of mercenaries regarded himself somewhat in the light 
of a chieftain who had men but not land. He too, though a rover 
and professional man, was a small sovereign in his way. Like other 
sovereigns he consulted first for the interests of the State, and the 
State in his case was his company or group of companies. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


cause of his departure, for a mislike between him and 
Dermond O'Connor. The President hath given forth, 
ever since his first coming to Cork, that his army 
should be on foot in the way to Limerick, by the 
sixth of May, his intention being not to rise until 
the twentieth ; the bruit thereof caused the rebels' 
greatest strength to assemble together, who by the 
day assigned had united their forces in the great wood 
called Kilmore, between Moyallo and Kilmallock, 
near the place of Ballihawre, through which the army 
was to march. There they continued the space of ten 
days, attending continually, and hearkening daily 
for the President's coming. But finding that he 
stirred not in all this time (imagining that he durst 
not take the field at all), they dispersed their companies 
and departed every one into his own country. Here- 
upon" some thought that the President had altered 
his determination for going to Limerick, and intended 
to begin the prosecution in some other place ; others 
supposed that he would not venture out of Cork until 
he had received new supplies, which were daily ex- 
pected out of England. But both one and the other 
were besides the mark ; for by this stay (which from 
the beginning he determined) he saw divers com- 
modious opportunities might accrue unto him, as that 
hereby he should receive certain advertisement of the 
strength of the enemy that was to confront him, and 
also that it was impossible for them (any long time) 
to hold together, for divers wants which must accom- 
pany such an undisciplined and disordered multitude, 
by means whereof they would be constrained to break 
with their own weight ; wherein he nothing failed 
of his expectation ; for within a few days following 
they were all divided into so many places, and these 

VOL. I. E 


Pacata Hirernia. 

so far distant, that they could not speedily be reas- 

Upon the sixteenth of May, the President was 
advertised by Sir Eichard Percy, who was Governor 
at Kinsale, that by his horsemen in Kinalmekagh, 
whom he had sent to forage that country, ten of the 
bownoghs were slain, and a far greater slaughter had 
been made of them, if Florence MacCarty had not 
had some intelligence out of Kinsale of his intention, 
who gave the bownoghs warning of their coming, 
whereupon they fled, and dispersed themselves. 

Upon the seventeenth of May, James FitzThomas, 
the usurping Earl of Desmond, wrote a letter to 
Florence MacCarty, praying the aid of his forces, the 
copy whereof is here inserted. 

A Letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 

After my very hearty commendations, having 
received intelligence of your happy escape out of Cork, 
it was very joyful to me and many other your cousins 
and adherents here ; the fruit of your conference 
with the President, and the rest, I hope shall pur- 
chase ripe experience, and harvest of further know- 
ledge, to cut off the cruel yoke of bloody enemies, 
who daily study to work our perpetual destruction and 
exile. I am given to understand that they pretend a 
journey towards the county of Limerick ; I am gather- 
ing the best force and rising out of these parts, to 
resist their wicked desires. Redmond Burke is border- 
ing on the confines of Ormond, expecting to hear from 
me, if occasion of important service should require ; I 
have the other day received his letters signifying his 
constant service to be ready whensoever I shall send 

Pacata Hibernia. 


to him ; what news you have, with your best advice in 
all causes tending to our general service, I expect to 
hear, and if the President do rise out (as it is thought), 
I pray you, good cousin, slack not time, with your best 
force and provision of victuals, to prosecute him 
freshly in the rearward, as you respect me, the 
exaltation of the Catholic faith, and the ease of our 
country ; I look no excuse at your hands, which I 
pray to lay apart, wherein you shall further the ser- 
vice, and bind me with all my forces to second you at 
your need. I have retained Dermond O'Connor in 
Kerry two hundred soldiers this quarter besides the 
Clanshihies 1 and other bonoghs with the rising out of 
my country, so as I think I shall make up sixteen or 
seventeen hundred strong, well appointed, together 
with the force of Redmond Burke ; thus, for lack of 
farther novelties, I commit you to the blessed guiding 
of God. From Crome, the seventeenth of May, 1600. 

I am credibly informed that five Spanish ships are 
landed in the north with treasure, munition, and great 
ordnance, with a competent number of three thou- 
sand soldiers' pioneers and religious persons ; I expect 
every day advertisement in writing, and the coming 
up of Captain Terrell with the munition sent me by 
O'Neyle. I appointed your cousin Maurice Oge Fitz- 
Maurice Gerald to have the charge of Kierrycorrie ; I 
pray you afford him your lawful favour. 

Your most assured Cousin, 

James Desmond. 

1 The Clan Sheehy. They were a fighting tribe who came pro- 
fessionally into Munster in the middle ages, got lands there in return 
for services, and were still a race of professional warriors. I find com- 
panies of them under their captains fighting in various parts of 
Ireland. The MacSweeneys of Munster, a swarm from the parent 
hive in Tyrconnall, were another sept of a similar character. 

E 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

The same day Captain Gawen Harvy, who then had 
in Her Majesty's pay a man of war wherein for the 
payment of the army there was three thousand pounds 
in money, munition, victuals, and soldiers' apparel, 
set sail with direction for the river of Shenan, to 
meet the Lord President at Limerick. 

The President the twenty-first of May left Cork, 
and with his army encamped that night within three 
miles of Moyallo. 

The twenty-second they lodged within five miles of 
Kilmallock; the twenty-third the army came within 
a mile of Kilmallock, where the White Knight, accord- 
ing to his former promises, made his humble submis- 
sion unto the President, whereby the faggot 1 began to 
unloose which combined the rebellion in Munster ; but 
let us a little look backward. 

A faggot of which the twigs were not dead, but, each and all, as 
lively and self-willed as eels or adders. 


Cahir Castle surprised by James Galdie Butler — A letter from 
James Galdie Butler to the Lord President — The rendering of 
the Castle of Loghguyree — Nugent's attempt upon John Fitz- 
Thomas — Clanwilliam spoiled and burnt by the army. 

The President being at Youghal, in his journey to 
Cork, sent Sir John Dowdall (an old captain in Ire- 
land) to Cahir Castle, as well to see the same provided 
with a sufficient ward out of Captain George Blunt's 
company, as to take order for the furnishing of them 
with victuals, munition, and other warlike provision. 
There he left the eighth or ninth of May a sergeant 
with nine and twenty soldiers and all necessary pro- 
vision for two months, who notwithstanding, upon the 
three and twentieth of the same, were surprised by 
James Galdie, alias Butler, brother to the Lord of 
Cahir, and, as it was suspected by many pregnant pre- 
sumptions, not without the consent and working of the 
Lord himself, which in after times proved to be true. 
The careless security of the warders, together with the 
treachery of an Irishman, who was placed sentinel upon 
the top of the castle, were the causes of this surprise. 

James Galdie had no more in his company than 
sixty men, and coming to the wall of the bawn of the 
castle undiscovered, by the help of ladders, and some 
masons that broke holes in some part of the wall 
where it was weak, got in and entered the hall before 
they were perceived. The sergeant, named Thomas 
Quayle, who had the charge of the castle, made some 


Pacata Hibernia. 

little resistance, and was wounded. Three of the 
ward were slain ; the rest upon promise of their lives 
rendered their arms, and were sent to Clonmel. Of 
this surprise, the Lord President had notice when he 
was at Kilmallock, whereupon he sent direction for 
their imprisonment in Clonmel, until he might have 
leisure to try the delinquents by a marshal's court. 
Upon the fourth day following, James Butler, who 
took the castle, wrote a long letter to the President, 
to excuse himself of his traitorous act, wherein there 
were not so many lines as lies, and written by the 
underhand working of the Lord of Cahir, his brother, 
they conceiving it to be the next way to have the 
castle restored to the Baron. The copy of which 
letter here ensueth. 

A Letter from James Galdie Butler to the Lord 


Eight Honourable, — Hither came unto me yesterday 
my Lord my brother, accompanied with Mr. Patrick 
White, and Nicholas White of Clonmel, gent., and 
Mr. George Lea of Waterford, who treated with me 
(as they said), by your Honour's commission, what 
might be the causes why I should attempt the surpris- 
ing of the castle of Cahir, being kept as a garrison 
for Her Majesty. And albeit, my good Lord, I may 
not, nor will not justify what hath been done therein ; 
yet will I signify the truth (the which graciously being 
tempered with mercy), I doubt not to excuse whatso- 
ever hath been committed. And therefore, my Lord, 
first your Lordship shall understand, that where here- 
tofore, by youthful instigation, and, as I must confess, 
altogether without the privity of my Lord my brother 

Pacata Hibernia. 


aforesaid, I kept the said castle until the same was 
besieged by Her Majesty's forces, and battery laid 
thereunto, the which I made choice rather to forsake 
than stand to the defence thereof ; which action, my 
good Lord, was so much raised to my contempt, with 
the mouths of Her Highness' s enemies (whom I then of 
force obeyed), as they imagined nothing else would raise 
credit, but the gaining thereof again. The next that 
moved me to enterprise the same was, that public report 
was made in the name of the Archbishop of Cassell I 
(who is well known to be a professed enemy of my 
house) to have the keeping of the said castle. Thirdly, 
that it was also reported that the soldiers of late left 
in garrison therein purposed for want to sell the same, 
for a piece of money, unto John of Desmond, whom 
the country knoweth not to be my friend, for the late 
killing of many of his men, for which service my Lord 
of Dunboyne had only the thanks, being no more 
assistant thereunto than your Lordship ; and last, my 
good Lord, when I considered the apparent wrongs 
(as I thought) proffered unto both my brethren, that 
your Honour and the State would countenance their 
known and vowed enemies against them, and to make 
their grief the more corrosive to bestow upon them 
the chief and dwelling castle, of the one of them being 
Cnocknamma to my Lord of Dunboyne, which makes 
my poor brother to go in a manner a-begging, and 
my eldest brother's castle of Dorenlare upon Richard 

1 The notorious Miler Magrath, an ecclesiastic of whom one never 
reads any good save what is written with his own hand. I fancy he 
had dealings with Tyrone, for when Tyrone's son Con plundered 
Miler the Earl wrote a scolding letter to Con. It was intercepted 
and is now a State Paper. Miler absorbed a great deal of church 
property, which in the next generation Strafford compelled his sons, 
nephews and other beneficiaries to disgorge. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Power. These being the principal causes that raoveth 
this my desperate attempt, I pray may be construed 
as if your Lordship or any other gentleman were in 
my case, and do also request that your Honour, and 
all others, do suspend to condemn me of my dis- 
loyalty in mind, howsoever my youthful actions do 
deserve ; and that by example the same may the better 
appear, consider that having won the castle aforesaid, 
that unless it be such as by mischance were slain, I 
suffered not the blood of any other, nor any part of 
their apparel to be spilt or taken, but send them 
conducted to the next incorporate town ; and for Her 
Majesty's ordnance, that here hath been left, I could 
wish your Lordship had them, only that I know they 
must be removed by the force of many men, the which 
I dare not adventure to trust (as now I stand) ; but 
let your Honour be well assured, they shall be as safely 
kept as formerly they were, for Her Majesty ; unless 
your Honour or the State do drive me to do that I 
shall be unwilling. Forasmuch, therefore, my good 
Lord, as not only these, but many else the causes of 
the rebellion of this province, have hitherto and are 
well known to be for want of considerate justice and 
clemency of your predecessors, governors, showeth 
liberally the benefit of Her Majesty's proclamations, 
and gracious authority given you. And let the first 
example thereof be, to withdraw the castles of Daren- 
lare and Cnocknamma, aforesaid, from the possession of 
such, as the world do know, of pretended malice, to 
have sought them, and to be bestowed wheresoever 
your Lordship do think fit in justice they shall be 
given. And this much, my very good Lord, in excuse, 
and as the simple truth of the premises, I am bold to 
signify ; and now it resteth, I must complain against 

Pacata Hibernia. 


my Lord and brother, who as I suppose ought to main- 
taiu both me and the rest, whose wrongs hitherto 
proffered I will not forgive nor forget, having so 
sufficient a distress as now I have in possession, the 
which I purpose to keep until our controversy be 
decided by friends, or your Lordship or the State do 
determine between us ; holding the same with most 
assured safety to Her Majesty's use, and no hurt unto 
my country, and to your Honour's good liking, and 
not otherwise ; all the premises concluded and con- 
sidered, it resteth now only how I shall be maintained, 
which my good Lord is to be supplied, by that gracious 
entertainment, that Her Majesty hath, and doth be- 
stow, upon less faithful, more unable to do her service, 
and not so willing as myself. The which, in com- 
pany with the rest, I leave to your favourable con- 
sideration. Yet all these shall, not satisfy me, but 
that it may please your Lordship to forgive and forget, 
if in ignorance I have either spoken or written any- 
thing that might give you cause to be offended. And 
so, with my humble duty, I take leave, Caher, the 27th 
of May, 1600. 

Your Lordship's very assured to command, 

James Butler. 

The four and twentieth, the army encamped at 
the Brough, 1 where the President left a ward,- partly 
to offend the rebels of Loghguire, three miles distant 
from thence, and partly to open the way betwixt Kil- 
mallock and Limerick, which for two years' space had 
been impassable for any subject. 

The five and twentieth, the army passing near 

1 Bruff, co. Limerick. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Logbguire, which was as yet held by the rebels, the 
President attended with a troop of horse, rode to 
take a particular view of the strength and situation 
thereof, as also by what way he might most con- 
veniently bring the cannon to annoy the same. He 
found it to be a place of exceeding strength, by 
reason that it was an island, encompassed with a deep 
lough, the breadth thereof being, in the narrowest 
place, a caliver's shot over ; upon one side thereof 
standeth a very strong castle, which at this time was 
manned with a good garrison, for there was within 
the island John FitzThomas, with two hundred men 
at the least, which showed themselves prepared to 
defend the place. The President being approached 
within shot, to discover the ground, they discharged 
some twenty muskets at him and his company, but 
without any hurt done ; and, having effected as much 
as he intended at that time, they casting forth some 
reviling speeches, he left the place. That night the 
President came to Limerick; the army encamped 
within little more than a mile thereof. The three 
days next following, we bestowed in providing things 
necessary for the mounting and drawing of the cannon, 
the city being altogether destitute of necessaries 
thereunto, which at last with many difficulties was 
effected. Wherein the President showed himself to 
be a master in that faculty ; for cannoneer or other 
artificer (skilful in the mounting of ordnance) he 
had none, the smiths and carpenters were only 
directed by him ; according to the proportions he 
gave, they wrought, and in the end a demi-cannon 
was mounted, and drawn towards the gate of the 
city that leadeth to the island of Loghguire before 
named. The rebels within the castle receiving intelli- 
gence thereof, one Owen Grome, a stranger of the 

Pacata Hibernia. 


north (to whose charge John FitzThomas had com- 
mitted the custody of the castle), sent word, that, 
for his pardon and a competent sum of money, he 
would deliver it up unto Her Majesty's use. 1 The 
President, considering that many impediments would 
arise if he should attempt the taking of it by force, 
and that it must needs be chargeable to the Queen, 
cost the lives of many of his men, and a great delay 
for the prosecution of other services which he 
intended, accorded to his demands, and received the 
castle, the money (which was threescore pounds) being 
paid, by the President's order, by one Rowley, who 
lost the same to the rebels. Whilst these things were 
in handling, Nugent (whose promises to the President 
before we recited), intending no longer to defer the 
enterprise, attempted the execution in this sort. The 
President being past Loghguire, John FitzThomas, 
riding forth of the island towards the fastness of 
Arlogh, where most of his men remained, with one 
other called John Coppinger, whom he had acquainted 
with the enterprise, and as he thought made sure 
unto him, attended this great captain, and being now 
passed a certain distance from all company, permitted 
John FitzThomas to ride a little before him, minding 
(his back being turned) to shoot him through with his 
pistol ; which for the purpose was well charged with two 
bullets ; the opportunity offered, the pistol bent, both 
heart and hand ready to do the deed, when Coppinger 
at the instant snatched the pistol from him, crying, 
" Treason," wherewith John FitzThomas, turning him- 
self about, perceived his intent. Nugent, thinking to 
escape by the goodness of his horse, spurred hard ; 

1 Owen Grome, a mere professional soldier, perceiving that every 
one here was only in earnest about his own business, thought that 
he too might make a little hay like others while the sun shone. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

the horse stumbled, and he taken, and the next day, 
after examination, and confession of his intent, hanged. 
This plot, although it attained not fully the desired 
success, yet it proved to be of great consequence; for 
now was John FitzThomas possessed with such a 
jealous suspicion of every one that he durst not 
remain long at Loghguire, for fear of some other like 
attempt that might be wrought against him ; and 
therefore leaving the castle in the custody of the said 
Owen Grome (who, as before, kept it a very short time 
after), departed suddenly unto his brother's camp. 
Nugent in his examination freely confessed his whole 
intent, which was (as he then said) to have dis- 
patched John FitzThomas, and immediately to have 
posted unto the Sugan Earl, to carry the first news 
thereof, intending to call him aside, in secret manner, 
to relate the particulars of his brother's murder, and 
then to execute as much upon him also ; adding, 
moreover, that although they take away his life 
(which he would not entreat them to spare), yet was 
their own safety never the more assured, for there 
were many others, which himself perfectly knew, to 
have solemnly sworn unto the President to effect as 
much as he intended. This confession, being sealed 
with his death, did strike such a fearful terror into 
the two brethren, that James FitzThomas himself 
afterwards unto the President acknowledged they 
never durst lodge together in one place, or ever serve 
in the heads of their troops, for fear of being shot by 
some of their own men. 

Loghguire being now possessed for the Queen, and 
the army well refreshed, the President marched into 
Clan- William, a country of the Burkes,; 1 whereupon 

1 The Burkes of Clan- William in Limerick were an offshoot from 

Pacata Hibernia. 


one of the principal freeholders then in rebellion called 
John Burke, half brother to Pierce Lacy, desired to 
come unto the President, but no ear would be given 
to his request, until he had first testified his humble 
submission, whereof he made scruple, alleging that 
his conscience would not suffer him so to do, having 
before been taught by his instructors that it was sin- 
ful and damnable personally to submit himself unto 
Her Majesty ; his answer was much disdained, and he 
plainly told that he should never hope to be accepted 
for a subject, and receive the benefit thereof, except 
he would absolutely disclaim that rebellious opinion ; 
which he absolutely refusing, was sent away with this 
proviso : that although himself did fly into the woods, 
yet his castles, towns, and corn, which he could not 
carry with him, should be the next morrow destroyed^ 
which was not vainly meant, but truly performed, for 
by the noon of the next day, being the twenty-ninth 
of May, the army came upon his lands, many of his 
houses, some of his corn, and one of his castles fired. 
When a second messenger came to entreat that he 
might be admitted to make his submission ; whether 
it were that some Popish priest had granted him a 
dispensation, or that he would undertake himself to 
dispense with his conscience, rather than see himself 
ruined, is to me uncertain ; but sure I am, that this 
alteration was now wrought in him. Very unwilling 
was the President to accept him to mercy, which the 
day before he so unadvisedly refused ; yet being much 
importuned by his mother and others, who with weep- 
ing eyes entreated for him, and the rather that he had 
married one of Sir George Thornton's daughters, was 
inclined to admit him to his presence. 


The submission of John Burke — The Castle of Ballitrarsny — 
O'Mulryan's country burnt and spoiled by the army — A letter 
from James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty — O'Sulevan 
More detained prisoner by the practice of Florence MacCarty 
— The plot contrived by the Lord President for the apprehen- 
sion of James FitzThomas — The Lord President's letter to 
James FitzThomas — Five hundred men sent to lie in garrison at 
Asketon — Supplies of money, munition, victuals, etc. — The 
apprehension of James FitzThomas by Dermond O'Connor. 

The President, now on horseback, in the midst of his 
army, took occasion of speech with some of his com- 
manders ; when John Burke, bringing his brother 
Theobald Burke with him, alighted from their horses, 
and kneeling upon the ground, desired that their 
submission might be accepted. The President seeing, 
would not see them, and hearkening to the other, 
would not attend them, until (they creeping upon 
their knees by the horse's side) it was told unto him 
that two of the Burkes were there ; he, staying his 
horse, spent some time in reproving them for their 
rebellious obstinacy, and then (upon four sufficient 
sureties for their future loyalty) granted them protec- 
tion. The next day the army marched to a castle 
called Ballitrarsny, belonging to Moroughe Kewghe, 
one of the Brians, which stood near a great fastness, 
being very commodious, both to open the passage 
from Limerick to Cashel, and to hinder the rebels 
from coming out of Kilquige into Conniloghe. The 
rebels of the ward, as soon as they saw the army 

Pacata Hibernia. 


draw towards them, quitted the castle, which was 
not to be won but by the cannon ; and therein was 
found great plenty of grain, whereof some was largely 
bestowed amongst the troops of horse, some sent to 
Limerick by the soldiers, aud yet enough left to 
suffice the ward for one whole year. 

The day following, five hundred foot were sent into 
Ownhy, 1 inhabited by the O'Mulryans, a strong and 
fast country, all the inhabitants thereof being notori- 
ous traitors. This being burnt and spoiled by them, 
and divers traitors put to the sword, whereby the 
disorders in those parts were well corrected, the 
army, without any loss at all, returned again to 
Limerick, and within short time after, viz., at 
Likadowne, bordering upon Connilogh, Kilmallock, 
Limerick, and Askeiton, were bestowed in several 
garrisons, which are not so far distant but that upon 
every occasion they might be united again. At this 
time Florence MacCarty received a letter written unto 
him from James FitzThomas, the copy whereof here 

A Letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 

Cousin, — Your letters of the fifth of this present I 
received the eighth of the same, wherein you write of 
your sickness and the impediments that caused your 
soldiers to be slow in prosecuting our general action. 
In your former letters you write and vow that there 

1 Eedmund Burke, it may be remembered, found a lodging in this 
country during his passage northward. In fact Eedmund claimed it 
as a portion of his patrimony, and the inhabitants at all events seem 
to have regarded his claim as just. 

6 4 

Pacata Hibernia. 

hath been neither peace, trace, nor cessation confirmed 
between you and the President. I am informed by 
my particular friends, and also by a letter (inter- 
cepted) from the President to you, that some mitiga- 
tion of time is limited betwixt you and them, where- 
upon they depend, your assistance to be restrained 
from us. If this be thus, it is far contrary to that I 
hoped and much beyond the confidence reposed by 
O'Neal and myself in your vowed fidelity and service 
to God and our action. I perceive Donell MacCarty 
is raising head 1 in disquieting your country, the redress 
whereof consisted in your constant assistance to be 
bestowed ; the President, being not able to perform 
any service by land, hath appointed to come by sea to 
Askeiton, and some force out of Thomond towards 
the Grlin; all which by the divine providence of God 
shall be prevented. The causes of urgent affairs are 
very many, which required your presence and helping 
assistance, that, without your sound advice, can 
hardly be accomplished. And therefore, in regard of 
your fidelity, let me entreat yon (if your sickness be 
not apparently known to be so extreme) to lay all 
excuses apart, and to draw towards this country with 
so few or so many as you may possibly afford ; else 
you give us cause to think of some inward meaning in 
you, contrary to our general action. At your entreaty, 
and letters, I have discharged Dermond MacTirlogti, 
his son I will keep till that you and I do confer 
further of that cause. For Manus MacShihy's deal- 
ings, I will see redress if my offer be abused. I 

1 The chieftain who had been displaced by Tyrone. The Sugan 
Earl suggests to Florence that if he will not honestly aid him 
he will give Florence trouble by helping Donncll. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


understand you have apprehended Owen MacShihy ; 
I desire you to see him released, and restitution made ' 
of what he had taken from him; and if you can 
charge him for any offence to you, I will upon these 
my letters see him to be forthcoming, to answer his 
contempt ; I pray you delay not his release, for I 
have present occasion to employ him in service. And, 
thus expecting your present repair or speedy answer, 
I commit you to God. June ut supra. 

Your very loving Cousin, 

James Desmond. 

Whilst the President was at Limerick he had certain 
notice brought him that Florence MacCarty had a 
meeting in Connilogh with James FitzThomas and 
Dermond O'Connor, and there in a parley, because 
O'Sulevan More did refuse to contribute towards the 
bearing of his Bownoghs in Desmond, he contrived 
with Dermond O'Connor that he should lay hands 
upon him, but it must be done as it were by force, 
that it might appear to the world that it was against 
his will ; for O'Sulevan was his brother-in-law, having 
married his sister. Thus was O'Sulevan betrayed by 
his dear brother, and detained prisoner 1 by Dermond. 
And also there were at that time, by Florence's 
directions, the two brothers of O'Sulevan More, the 
two O'Donoghs, MacFinir's son, and others to the 
number of eighteen, delivered as pledges into the 
hands of Dermond, for bonnoght due unto him, which 

1 The two O'Sullivans, viz. O'Sullivan Bere and O'Sullivan More, 
resisted Tyrone's settlement of Munster. That settlement meant for 
them slavery and rack-rents, for they were hereditary vassals to 
M'Carty More, and in fact, liable to the payment of enormous 

VOL. I. 



Pacata Hibernia. 

Florence should have paid ; all which prisoners were 
sent by him unto Castlelishin. 

Before the President departed from Limerick, the 
Earl of Thomond invited him to the Castle of Bon- 
ratty. The same night that he was there, in the 
evening, Captain Gawen Harvie (who from Cork 
was embarked the very day that the President marched 
from thence with his army as aforesaid) came into 
the River Shannon to an anchor, at the mouth of the 
creek where the castle is seated. He brought with 
him, to the comfort of the whole army, money, 
munition, victuals, and apparel for the soldiers, which 
if it had not come in due time, it might have proved 
a hazard for the overthrow of that summer service. 
The next morning Captain Harvie was directed to go 
to the quay at Limerick, where after his charge was 
landed the President willed him to fall down with his 
ship, and to ride before the castle of the Glin, there 
to remain at an anchor until he with the army should 
present himself before it, and sent with him a demi- 
cannon, for the guard whereof certain soldiers were 
appointed under his charge. 

Much did it amuse the minds both of the Council of 
the Province and of all the commanders in the army 
to see the forces suddenly dispersed, at such a time, as 
for divers reasons they thought very unseasonable. 
The army for the numbers was strong, having received 
no disaster since their coming into the field, the time 
of the year (being now about the beginning of June) 
was most convenient to lie in camp ; whereas, if the 
service should be deferred until winter, the companies 
would be weakened both by death and sickness, and 
more difficulties should they find in the foulness of the 
weather, and deepness of the way, than in the sword 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of the enemy, whom now they did ardently desire to 
encounter withal ; yea, many there were that ceased 
not confidently to utter that they did now plainly 
perceive that though Her Majesty's charges were 
greatly enhanced by increasing the list in Munster, 
yet her service was likely to be no better followed 
than in the year last past. 

But that the true ground of this action may be 
discovered, we must have recourse to the prosecution 
of the stratagem that all this while had been in work- 
ing with Dermond O'Connor ; for after his wife, the 
Lady Margaret, had acquainted him both with the 
enterprise and conditions (which was not until the 
army was at Kilmallock aforesaid), he showed a good 
inclination to effect it, were it not for three difficulties 
that seemed to interpose themselves : First, the Presi- 
dent being altogether unknown to him, he demanded 
sufficient pledges to put into his hands, there to re- 
main until the conditions promised should be per- 
formed ; secondly, he wanted some show of reason, 
or colourable cause, to satisfy his co-partners in excuse 
of his action ; and lastly, he alleged that no opportu- 
nity could be found for the execution of the design so 
long as James FitzThomas remained with all the 
force he could possibly make six miles from the camp, 
to confront the President's army in his passage to 
Askeiton. For assurance of the conditions, the Presi- 
dent was content to deliver into his hands four 
pledges, which notwithstanding must be in such sort 
delivered by the one, and received by the other, as no 
suspicion might arise. The hostages agreed upon were 
Redmond and Brian, sons of Milerius 1 MacCraghe, 
Archbishop of Cashel, who himself had before been 

1 The name is usually written Miler M'Grath. 
F 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

a principal actor in the business, and Captain William 
Power, and John Power, 1 his elder brother, who like- 
wise had been employed in the action. These were 
made choice of because they might be free from the 
violence of Dermond O'Connor's men ; the Powers 
being foster-brethren to the Lady Margaret, and the 
Archbishop himself born in Ulster, a natural follower 
unto the arch-traitor Tyrone. Therefore that these 
four should make a journey from Kilmallock towards 
Kinsale, where Captain Poore's company were then in 
garrison ; and the time of their going being made 
known to Dermond O'Connor, he should lie with some 
of his forces in the pace of Ballihowre to intercept 
passengers, where these four should (as it were) by 
chance fall into his ambush ; and so they did, where 
Dermond O'Connor, although, for the reasons before 
mentioned, saved their lives, yet he could not restrain 
the fury of his men, that knew nothing of his purpose, 
but that they were stripped of their clothes and left 
almost naked. 

These being in this manner taken the eleventh day 
of June, they were presently carried to Castle Lyshin, 
seated in the great wood called Kilmore, seven miles 
from Kilmallock (where the Lady Margaret, his wife, 
then remained) ; and there straightly kept in irons 
until the ransom were discharged, which was given 
forth to be no less than two thousand pounds sterling. 

As soon as they were taken, James FitzThomas re- 
paired to Castle Lyshin, and instantly requested Der- 
mond that he might have the two Powers executed, 
for unto them he was an ancient enemy ; which Der- 

1 The Powers, rede de la Poer, were descendants of a famous 
Norman conquistador. The name, which' occurs frequently, is 
generally written Poore, and that is the correct pronunciation. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


mond would not assent unto, as well in respect of the 
great ransoms which he pretended to expect from 
them, as for giving of offence unto his wife, unto 
whose brother (then in the Tower of London) they 
were foster-brothers ; than which, in Ireland, there 
are no greater obligations of love. 

The first impediment being thus removed, care was 
taken to devise some show of reason to excuse this 
action to the Bownoghs (if they should be discontented) 
after the execution thereof ; which was disguised by a 
letter as written by the Sugan Earl from the Presi- 
dent; which, forasmuch as the contents thereof do 
manifest the invention, I have thought not unfit to be 
inserted in this present relation. 

The Loed President's Letter to James FitzThomas. 

Sir, — Your last letters I have received, and am ex- 
ceeding glad to see your constant resolution of re- 
turn to subjection, and to leave the rebellious courses 
wherein you have long persevered. You may rest 
assured that promises shall be kept ; and you shall 
no sooner bring Dermond O'Connor to me, alive or 
dead, and banish his Bownoghs out of the country, 
but that you shall have your demand satisfied, 
which, I thank Grod, I am both able and willing to 
perform. Believe me, you have no better way to 
recover your desperate estate than by this good 
service, which you have proffered ; and therefore I 
cannot but commend your judgment in choosing the 
same to redeem your former faults. And I do the 
rather believe the performance of it by your late 
action touching Loghguire, wherein your brother and 
yourself have well merited ; and, as I promised, you 


Pacata Hibernia. 

shall find me so just as no creature living shall ever 
know that either of you did assent to the surrender 
of it. All your letters I have received, as also the 
joint letter from your brother and yourself ; I pray 
lose no time, for delays in great actions are subject 
to many dangers. Now that the Queen's army is in 
the field, you may work your determination with 
most security, being ready to relieve you upon a 
day's warning. So, praying God 1 to assist you in 
this meritorious enterprise, I do leave you to His pro- 
tection this twenty-ninth of May, 1600. 

This letter was sent to Dermond O'Connor, which, 
when time should serve, he might show as inter- 
cepted by him ; and therefore what he did was 
imposed upon him by necessity, except he would 
suffer himself wittingly and willingly to be betrayed. 

These things thus contrived, there remained no- 
thing but to separate the reputed Earl from his 
strength, that no resistance might be made by the 
provincials, when he should be apprehended. This 
was not likely to be effected unless the President 
would divide his forces, and bestow them in several 
garrisons, as though they should leave the field for 
that summer, whereupon was judged that the rebels 
would likewise disperse themselves. And even so it 
came to pass, for they, understanding tbat the English 
army was now garrisoned (nothing suspecting that 
he would venture to send a garrison to Askeiton, 
without the countenance of an army), separated 
themselves into divers companies. The President had 
no sooner advertisement hereof, but he sent forth- 
with, under the conduct of Sir Francis Barkley, five 
1 Could Machiavellianism go beyond this ? 

Pacata Hibernia. 


hundred foot from Limerick by water, to go to 
Askeiton, which they might easily effect in a few 
hours, too short a time for them to assemble their 
forces to impeach their landing. By these means 
were they settled in garrison without any other 
difficulty than a light skirmish, the number of the 
rebels to give them resistance not exceeding two or 
three hundred at the most, which otherwise could not 
have been effected without much bloodshed. 

The seventh of this month of June, the President 
received intelligence from John Butler, a gentleman 
of the county of Tipperary, that the Earl of 
Ormond, for the ransom of three thousand pounds 
sterling, to be paid upon certain days agreed upon, 
was to be enlarged, and set at liberty by Ownhie Mac- 
Bory O'More, with whom he had been prisoner ever 
since the tenth day of April ; for the true payment 
of the same, twelve hostages, who were the eldest 
sons of the principal gentlemen in the country, were 
delivered into the hands of the said Ownbie. 1 It ap- 
peared that he was detained somewhat longer than 
was expected, for the assurance of his delivery came 
not unto the President's knowledge until the seven- 
teenth ensuing, at which time the Earl himself by his 
letters advertised him thereof. 

I must here crave a little leave to look back to time 
past, as well to relate by what means the army in 
Munster was from time to time enabled to subsist in 
this prosecution, as to show the acts and the pro- 
gress in the same. No man is ignorant that armies 

1 A short time after this the gallant Owny was slain, and his clan, 
left without a competent head, suppressed. Nay more, it was by 
law made penal for an 0' Moore to set foot in Leix. The O'Moores 
are the MacGregors of Irish history. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

of men's bodies cannot subsist unless they be con- 
tinually supplied with money, munition, and victuals, 
and especially in such a kingdom as Ireland is, which 
was exhausted of all means of those natures by the 
continuance of the rebellion, and particularly in Mun- 
ster, before the President came thither ; so that unless 
he had been carefully supplied with them out of 
England, no service could have been performed ; and 
herein I cannot but commend his care in demanding, 
as the Lords of the Council's readiness to effect the 
same. At his departure from the Court of England, 
he humbly prayed that against his coming into the 
province (for as you have heard he went by the way 
of Dublin) some proportions of money, munition, and 
victuals might be sent thither, whereof their Lordships 
were not unmindful, as by their letters dated the 
eight and twentieth of March last past may appear, 
wherein they certified the President that they had 
sent for the province of Munster nine thousand 
pounds in money, three months' victuals for three 
thousand foot and two hundred and fifty horse 
(which was the list of his army), and, as he desired, 
the one half of it was sent to Cork, aud the other 
moiety to Limerick. Also five lasts of powder, with 
lead and match proportionably, with two hundred and 
sixty-nine quarters of oats ; all which arrived in May 
following, the oats excepted, which came to Cork in 
April. Moreover, in the same month the soldiers' 
summer suits arrived at Cork. Further, as by their 
Lordships' letters to the President, dated the seven- 
teenth of June, they had sent, for the supply of the 
province, five lasts more of powder, with match and 
lead ; and that shortly afterwards there should be 
sent unto him ten thousaud pounds in money and 

Pacata Hibernia. 


two months' victuals for the army, the one moiety to 
land at Cork, the other at Limerick, as he had de- 
manded ; and for that they had here certified that 
the soldiers (having had by Her Majesty's favour 
their powder given unto them without any defalca- 
tion upon their entertainments) made unnecessary 
use of the same, and sometimes sold it to the Irish 
merchants and others, they required the President to 
let them know, and to take order accordingly, that 
they should not be allowed any expense of powder 
but in days of training or service only. 

But to return to Dermond O'Connor, who now 
perceiving that it was a fit time for his design, sent 
a messenger to the Earl of Desmond, for so he called 
James FitzThomas, desiring him to meet him at a 
place of parley upon the eighteenth of June, to con- 
fer about certain matters concerning the wars. 
James FitzThomas (as he since confessed to the Pre- 
sident) had received some secret intelligence of Der- 
mond's intent ; which although he did not absolutely 
credit, yet did it work some jealousy in him ; and 
therefore brought with him to the parley some two 
hundred of his foot : Dermond O'Connor brought 
one hundred and fifty Bownoghs. After some speech 
passed, among the chief, at last a controversy did 
arise between Moroghe MacShihy, marshal to James 
FitzThomas, and the marshal of Dermond, about 
such hides as were or should be killed in the army ; 
the one deriving his authority from Tyrone, the other 
from the Earl of Desmond ; in contention they grew 
warm, and Dermond so blew the coal that the 
kerns of the one, and the Bownoghs of the other, were 
ready to pass from words to blows ; much did the 
Sugan Earl labour to quiet this mutiny, which could 


Pacata Hibernia. 

not be thoroughly appeased until the companies 
on either part were severed and dispersed ; James Fitz- 
Thomas, willing to give all satisfaction to Dermond 
and the Bownoghs, made offer to dismiss his own 
men, which was willingly accepted by the other, and 
so sent them into the country near adjoining. They 
being departed, and the principals settled again to 
parley about the deciding of this controversy, the 
Bownoghs by Dermond's appointment drew near unto 
them. Then Dermond O'Connor laid hold upon 
James FitzThomas, and said, " My Lord, you are in 
hand." " In hand," answered he, " for whom, or for 
what cause ? " " I have taken you for O'Neale," said 
he, " and I purpose to detain you until I be certified 
of his pleasure, for yourself have combined with 
the English, and promised to the President to 
deliver me, alive or dead, into his hands ; and for 
proof thereof, behold," said he, "letters which were 
intercepted and brought to me (under the President's 
hand) to confirm the same," and therewithal pro- 
duced them. 

This colourable pretence gave a good satisfaction 
to the companies for the present ; and yet for the 
better content he gave Thomas Oge of Kerry, and 
two of the Clanshyhy's brethren, whom he took also 
at the same time, unto the chiefest of his captains 
to be reserved for their ransoms. 

Now James FitzThomas and the other prisoners, 
being mounted upon poor garrans, are conveyed 
through the fastness in Connilogh to Castle Lishin, 
where they were no sooner bestowed but Dermond 
O'Connor went presently unto another castle, called 
Balliallinan, belonging to Kory MacShihy, father to 
the two brethren of the MacShihies before mentioned, 
which he also took, and therein settled himself, and 

Pacata Hibernia. 


sent with all speed to Castle Lishin for his wife and 
the English pledges, which were there in hand-locks, 
leaving some sixteen warders to guard the prisoners ; 
these he removed from thence, either because they 
might more conveniently send some one of them 
with the relation of his doings to the Lord President, 
or for fear lest the friends and followers of the arch- 
traitor, Desmond, re-uniting themselves to his own 
Bownoghs, of whom he was very uncertain, taking 
part with them, they might join their forces, and at 
one push both rescue the prisoners that he had taken 
and also take himself prisoner and the four English 
pledges. To the intent, therefore, that he might not 
adventure all his substance in one ship, he divided 
them as before you have heard. 

These businesses thus contrived, Dermond O'Con- 
nor, upon the nineteenth of June, sent John Power 
(one of the pledges before spoken of) in all haste to 
the President at Limerick, with a message tending to 
this purpose : That if the Lord President would in- 
stantly gather all the forces he could make, and draw 
to Kilmallock, where the Lady Margaret should 
meet him, for the receiving of one thousand pounds, 
which were promised him upon the delivery of the 
prisoner, praying withal that the President would 
not move out of Kilmallock until she were come 
unto him, in the meantime he would keep him in 
safety and accommodate all things for the more assur- 
ance in the effecting of the business. 

To Kilmallock he came the next morrow, the twen- 
tieth of June, with one thousand foot and two troops 
of horse ; for a good part of his army was at that 
time gone into Thomond, to secure the same from 
O'Donnell, who was come far up into the country, 
and had taken many preys there. 


The country of Thomond harassed and spoiled by O'Donnell — Forces 
sent into Thomond — James FitzThomas set at liberty — Der- 
mond O'Connor's letter to the Lord President — A letter from 
the Munster rebels to O'Donnell — Dermond O'Connor and the 
rebels agreed and reconciled — The Castle of Crome taken by 
the army — A joint letter from William Burke and Morroghe 
ny Moe O'Flagharly to the Lord President — A letter from 
Morroghe ny Moe O'Flagharly to the Lord President — A letter 
from James FitzThomas to Florence MacCarty. 

This sudden coming of O'Donnell for Thomond was 
so secretly carried that the Earl of Thomond had no 
notice of it until he was come to the borders thereof ; 
he then, being at Limerick with the President, prayed 
him to lend him part of his army, to make head against 
the rebels ; whereupon his Lordship commanded the 
Sergeant-major, Captain Flower, and with eight 
hundred foot and sixty horse, to attend the EarL 
O'Donnell entered the country, and harassed all 
Thomond, even as far as Loopthead, and took all the 
preys of the country. Nevertheless he went not away 
scot free, for the noble Earl fought often with his 
forces, slew many of them, and never left them until 
he had recovered a great part of the cattle which 
O'Donnell had taken ; 1 and, upon Midsummer day, 
chased him out of Thomond. This sudden and unex- 
pected coming of O'Donnell, with such great forces as 

1 This was the second great foray made in O'Brien-land by the 
quick-journeying Hugh Roe. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


attended him, could never have been undiscovered if 
the next neighbours to Thomond, the inhabitants of 
Clanricard, had done their duties, through which 
country O'Donnell passed, and returned, without doing 
any hurt that ever I heard of. And so, leaving with 
this digression, it is time to speak of the success of 
the usurping Earl's apprehension. By this time it 
was suspected, and publicly noised abroad, that the 
Sugan Earl should be delivered to the President ; 
which rumour began first to be bruited in Limerick 
and Kilmallock ; and, as it always happens in that 
kingdom, from the towns the rumour is speedily con- 
veyed into the country ; which being no sooner heard 
than believed by the rebels, as well provincials, as 
others, they all combined themselves — John Fitz- 
Thomas, Pierce Lacy, and William Burke 1 being the 
triumviri of this league — to set the prisoner at liberty. 
With this determination they had gathered together, 
of Dermond's Bonoghs and provincials, some four 
thousand 2 men, near Castlelishin, in the great fast- 
ness of Conniloe, for there was this castle seated, 
with intent both to block up the way that the President 
should take in coming thither, and to constrain the 
ward to deliver the Earl. 

1 A brother of Kedmund. William, too, was a famous captain of 
bonoghs. He was the very last of these captains who stood by the 
Munster rebellion. In the second volume we will find him in the 
pay of O'Sullivan Bere. It is hard not to feel a strong personal sym- 
pathy for these brothers. They had a perfectly legal right to great 
estates, and were driven to adopt fighting as a profession because the 
cowardly Government feared to alienate the Earl of Clanricarde by 
doing them justice. 

2 Consider how powerful a combination that must have been in its 
prime which now, after such a breaking and scattering, could bring 
four thousand soldiers into the field. An army of four thousand was 
in those days a mighty host. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

The President being at Kilmallock as aforesaid, 
hourly expecting the coming of the Lady Margaret, 
stayed there from the twentieth to the twenty-sixth 
day, and in all that time he never heard from her 
or her husband ; upon the twenty-sixth the Lady 
Margaret came to him. She related that Castlelishin 
was besieged by the rebels : her cause of stay was the 
danger of the way. Immediately the President (not- 
withstanding the rest of his forces were not returned 
out of Thomond) purposed to raise the siege ; and the 
army being drawn forth, before they had marched an 
English mile upon the way, they met a messenger, who 
delivered unto them for certain, that James FitzThomas 
was rescued that morning, and himself did see him out 
of the castle. 

In Castlelishin, where James FitzThomas was pri- 
soner, Dermond O'Connor (with the ward) had left a 
priest, whose persuasions prevailed so much with 
O'Connor's men that they delivered the reputed Earl 
as aforesaid, but upon caution, as may appear by 
Dermond O'Connor's letters to the President, as fol- 

Dermond O'Connor's Letter to the Lord President. 

My good Lord, — It is so, that contrary to my direc- 
tions, and without my privity, my ward at Castlelishin 
was hardly set unto by the enemy, after the breach of 
the castle were constrained to yield to the surrender of 
the Earl of Desmond upon composition, viz. to receive 
as pledges from the said Earl, his son, and his receiver, 
one Gerald FitzNicholas, and the chief of the Walls 
or Faltaghs of Downmoylin, and John FitzThomas, 
brother of the said Earl, to be delivered into the hands 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of MacCarty More, or some other indifferent man's 
hands, as the said Earl and I shall agree. Hereof I 
thought good to certify your Honour (assuring the 
same upon my credit that this composition was made 
without my privity, as your Honour shall understand 
manifestly hereafter), to the end your Honour might be 
advised not to send the army, for fear of any mischance 
in respect of the greatness of the enemy's forces and 
fastness of their strengths, the Earl being enlarged ; 
all which I hope to bring to a worse case than they 
were in, and that in a short time, if I be well furthered 
by your Lordship ; the manner whereof I am ready to 
declare to your Honour as occasion shall serve ; for 
speedy effecting whereof, I pray your Lordship to send 
me your best advice by Captain Power, which expecting 
forthwith, I humbly take my leave. Balliallinan, this 
26th of June, 1600. 

Your Honour's to command, 

Dermond O'Connor. 

The reason which I conceive moved Dermond that 
he did not presently render him to the President was 
partly his fear that his money would be detained from 
him when the prisoner was once delivered, and there- 
fore he would be first sure of the same ; partly his 
overgreat confidence in his men, who he thought that 
they would not for a world have betrayed him as they 
did ; but, especially, I conceive that the danger of the 
way was the occasion of the protraction ; for un- 
doubtedly the man did mean to perform his promise 
sincerely ; and if the lady could have come sooner to 
Kilmallock, the titulary Earl had been brought from 
Castlelishin without any difficulty. 

Upon the seven and twentieth, Dermond O'Connor 


Pacata Hibernia. 

wrote to the President, praying to be excused that he 
did not come unto him, for the ways were too dangerous 
for him to pass until his brother, who was in Desmond 
with 400 men, came unto him, or that the enemy did 
scatter, or the President with his army should draw into 
those parts ; and in the meanwhile he would remain in 
the castle where he was ; and besought the President 
to send him a safeguard for himself, his followers, and 
goods, protesting his loyalty to Her Majesty, and 
promising to be directed by the President in whatso- 
ever it should please him to command. Within a few 
days after the delivery of the Sugan Earl (as afore- 
said), the Earl of Thomond, having intercepted a letter 
sent by the rebels of Munster to O'Donnell and his 
associates, did send the same unto the President ; 
whereby it may appear how much the taking of James 
FitzThomas did grieve them at the heart, which is the 
reason I do in this place insert the same. 

A Lettee from the Munster Rebels to O'Donnell. 

All hearty commendations from MacMaurice, and 
the rest undernamed, to O'Donnell, and the rest of 
the lords and gentlemen that are with him, letting 
you to understand that Dermond O'Connor hath played 
a lewd part amongst us here. He hath taken the Earl 
of Desmond, Thomas Oge, and the two sons of Rory 
MacShihy, together with their towns and castles* 
claiming in right of his wife the Earldom of Desmond. 
The Earl is as yet upon his hands, and the country is 
all preyed and destroyed, and Rory MacShihy, who is 
old and blind, is banished out of his town, leaving him 
bare, l t without anything, and his sons bound very safe 
and sure ; which act being considered by Con O'Neal, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and others, the gentlemen of Connaught, who were in 
the said Dermond's company, to proceed of treachery 
and falsehood by the said Dermond ; whereupon the 
said Con O'Neal and the rest of those Connaught men 
came unto us, bringing with them the said Rory's 
sons, for which we rest very thankful to them, and 
therefore we desire you to show them thanks likewise ; 
and that you should write unto the said Dermond, 
touching the enlargement of the Earl, and that he 
should take good pledges of the Earl, to be put upon 
the hands of the clergy, or some indifferent temporal 
persons, and he to set in the like, and your order, and 
the order of the clergy to pass between them, and we 
desire your present help. To that purpose Dermond 
is drawing the English armies to fetch the Earl with 
them ; we and the gentlemen of Connaught here are 
besieging the castle where the Earl lieth ; and seeing 
that the river of Shannon is passable, if it had been 
your pleasure to come to help us we would be very 
glad thereof, and yet if we can rescue the Earl, and it 
to be your pleasure, we will draw towards you ; here- 
upon send us present word, Castlelishine, the 24th of 
June, 1600. 

Your trusty friends, 

John Gerald, William FitzGerald, 

Thomas FitzMaurice, Dierby MaoCarty, 

Edmond Valley, Pierce Lacy, 

M. FitzThomas, MaoShihy. 
Patrick Lixnawe, 

The President being out of hope to get this haggard 
into his hands by these limetwigs, intending the pro- 
secution, which was to take place in the castles of the 
Glynn and Carrigfoile ; the one belonging to the 

VOL. i. g 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Knight of the Valley, the other to John O'Connor 
(commonly called O'Connor Kerry), both being seated 
upon the river of Limerick, and so to pass the moun- 
tains into Kerry. 

The President, having taken orders for all such 
necessaries as should be requisite in his journey, on 
the twenty-eighth marched to Limerick, the twenty - 
ninth (upon a letter which he received from Dermond 
O'Connor) into the heart of Conniloe, and encamped at 
a town called Killingery, fourteen miles from Limerick, 
being by him requested (who was now besieged by the 
enemy in the castle of Balliallinan) to relieve him with 
Her Majesty's forces. 

The President being advanced within three miles of 
the castle where Dermond O'Connor was besieged, the 
rebels understanding thereof, and fearing to be assailed 
by him, and loth that Dermond O'Connor should fall 
into his hands, to be employed in service against 
them, whose credit with the bownoghs was such that 
he could persuade them to what he listed, they re- 
solved to treat with Dermond, and, upon his oath of 
future faith, to take him again into their society, and 
to restore him to his former command. Dermond (as 
it should seem, fearing that relief would not come 
unto him in convenient time) accepted the offer, and 
rendered the castle and himself into their hands. But 
yet I could never hear that Dermond afterwards was 
had in any great estimation amongst them. This busi- 
ness being thus composed, they presently dislodged, 
with intent to give impediment to the army in their 
passage towards the Glynn. His Lordship being 
advertised of the reconcilement, directed his march to 
the Glynn ; and understanding that the castle of 
Crome, the Earl of Kildare's inheritance, which was 

Pacata Hibernia. 


not much out of his way, and held by a ward left 
therein by Pierce Lacy, which gave great annoyance 
to the subjects thereabouts, and comfort bo the rebels, 
being seated at the entrance into Conniloe, took it in 
his way ; upon the sight of the army the warders 
quitted the castle, and the President possessed himself 
thereof, together with some store of corn and other 
provision that was found therein. The last of June, 
the army marched through Kerry, a safe country, unto 
Askeiton, where it remained four days, in expectation 
of victuals that should come thither from Limerick by 
water. The 4th of July, the army rose thence, and 
marched to Ballintare, upon the mountain of Sleugh- 
logher, twelve miles from Askeiton ; the enemy, to the 
number of 3000, marching all that day in our view. 

Now did the President assure himself that this 
army of the rebels did only attend the opportunity 
for some place of advantage, where they might con- 
veniently attempt our forces ; and no doubt so they 
would have done if the fore-conceived jealousy and 
distrust between the provincials and bonoghs, con- 
firmed in them by the bones of dissension (that the 
President had cast forth amongst them), had not 
wrought in either of them a desire of nothing more 
than to be freed from the danger (reciprocally ap- 
prehended) each of the other, as might well appear 
by two letters (which this night were brought to the 
President) from the principal of the Connaught men ; 
the true copies whereof I have thought not unfit to 
be inserted in this present relation. 

84 Pacata Hibernia. 


A Joint Letter from William Burke and Moroghe 
ny Moe O'Flaherty to the Lord President. 

Commendations to your Honour. Forasmuch as 
we think your Honour willing to further augment 
your credit, in doing your princess service, we thought 
to make you acquainted that we are here in camp 
two thousand and five hundred Connaught 1 men. Yet 
we let your Honour to understand that we will not 
set upon you in any way, nor molest you on your 
journey, so that your Honour consider us with a 
piece of money, and give us your pass and safe 
conduct to depart this country ; not that we fear 
you or any other, but that we mean to do you no 
harm, so your Honour show us the like favour. You 
may well accept of this our proffer ; for it is a 
thing that others of your calling sought for, and 
could not obtain, although very desirous for the obtain- 
ing of it. Thus troubling your Honour no further, 
only expecting your speedy resolution, we commit you 

1 Dermot O'Connor, Tyrone's lieutenant, another Connaught man, 
not here, had 1400 men under his own immediate command, as a 
military following. Redmund Burke, another Connaught man, went 
out of the province leading 500. The tale of the honoghs, therefore, 
adds up to 4400 professional soldiers, almost all hailing from Con- 
naught ; we may fairly add another thousand for the killed and dis- 
abled in the internal bickerings which had never quite ceased, or in 
duelling, or who had died or run away. Shrinkage is an evil from 
which no army can be free. Connaught then, besides those who 
were still righting in her northern counties, sent out some 5000 men for 
the service in Munster. And all these were excellent soldiers, picked 
out man by man by their captains, captains whose fortunes depended 
on the excellence of their soldiers. Indeed there is a sound soldierly 
ring in this letter, also a very evident suggestion of the professional 
soldier. "A piece of money " is of course a figure of speech. So 
men at this time would say " a steak " when they meant a creacht of 

Pacata Hibernia. 


to God. From the Abbey of Feile, the third of July, 

Your friends to use during your friendship, 
William Burke, 


A Letter from Moroghe ny Moe O'Flaherty to the 
Lord President. 
My duty remembered, I commend me unto your 
Lordship. Whereas, about May last, I came hither in 
my galley out of Connaught, to draw home my people, 
soldiers, and followers into my native soil, there to 
live quiet, and under Her Majesty's subjection, where- 
upon I have had Her Highness's protection and pass- 
port for myself and them, and all other out of Con- 
naught that shall accompany me ; whereby ever since 
myself and soldiers have been so crossed and troubled 
by this country people, as they did not suffer me to 
depart from the Earl of Desmond ; I have thought 
good, therefore, in respect it is a thing belonging to 
the advancement of Her Majesty's service, to bring 
the number of one thousand persons, soldiers, and 
tenants to peace, to pray and desire your Lordship 
to grant me, and all such as I shall bring with me, 
your passport and safe-conduct through all your 
garrisons, and Her Majesty's subjects, as well in this 
country as in Thomond. And in so doing we shall 
pray, etc. And so I humbly take leave. Clan- 
morishkerry, this third of July, 1600. 

Her Majesty's true subject, 
If your lordship please, 

Moroghe ny Moe O'Flaherty. 

1 The name means Murrough of the Cows, na-m-bo. I believe 
that this Murrough was one of Grannaile's sons by her first husband 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Unto these letters the President deferred to return 
any present answer, as well because they should 
know that they who had attempted and performed so 
many outrages and rebellious practices against Her 
Majesty and her subjects should not so presently and 
so easily receive favour from the State ; as also they 
might have imagined (if he had instantly con- 
descended unto their demands) that he stood in fear 
of them, which might have made them more bold 
in attempting some enterprise upon his army. And, 
lastly, he conceived a hope that, to effect their longing 
desire of returning into Connaught, they would at 
last be glad to do service one upon another ; remit- 
ting therefore only this answer, that he despised their 
forces, and he knew they durst not interrupt his 
passage ; nevertheless at further leisure he would 
consider their demands. At this time James Fitz- 
Thomas wrote a letter to Florence MacCarty, which 
in this place I think good to insert. 

A Lettee from James FitzThomas to Florence 

My veey good Lord, — I was driven, through the 
treacherous dealings of Dermond O'Connor, to let 
the President and the English army pass into Glenn 
without any resistance ; and yet they are but thirteen 
hundred foot and one hundred and fifty horse. 
Dermond O'Connor did undertake that the Con- 
naught men should not meddle with them, nor take our 
parts, being the only encouragement of the English to 
venture this enterprise. But now God be praised, I 
am joining my forces with them, and do pray you to 
assist me with your forces, for now is the time to 

Pacata Hibernia. 


show ourselves upon the enemy, for they are but 
very few in number, and destitute of all relief, either 
by sea or land. If your Lordship be not well at 
ease yourself, let your brother Dermond, 1 and the 
chief gentlemen of your forces, come without any 
delay; assuring your Lordship that I will, and am 
ready to, show you the like against your need. Be- 
seeching your Lordship once again not to fail, as 
you tender the overthrow of our action ; even so com- 
mitting your Lordship to the tuition of God Almighty, 
I end. Portrinad, the fifth of July, 1600. 

Your Honour's most assured friend and Cousin, 

James Desmond. 

1 Dermot Maol (the bald), chief support of the confederacy in 
Mnnster after the battle of Kinsale. Shot in battle by his cousin 
MacCarty Keagh, Lord of Carberry. 


The army encamped before Glyn Castle — The Knight of the Valley, 
upon safe conduct, spoke with the Earl of Thomond — The 
constable of Glyn Castle — His advice to the Earl of Thomond 
for his safety — A breach made and assaulted — A sally made by 
the rebels — The constable, etc., slain — The castle of the Glyn 
won and the rebels put to the sword. 

The next morning, being the fifth of July, the army 
came unto the castle of the Glyn, distant from 
Ballintare but five miles, the rebels still marching 
within less than two English miles of us, but never 
offering any skirmish; where we found Captain 
Gawen Harvy (according to his direction) at anchor 
before the castle, where he attended our coming 
about fourteen days. The army was no sooner en- 
camped, but order was presently taken for unshipping 
the cannon, brought by water in a boat of the Earl of 
Thomond's from Limerick ; and that night entrenched 
ourselves before the castle, between it and the river. 
The day following, the ordnance (which was one demi- 
cannon and one sacker) was planted before the castle, 
without any resistance or the loss of any one man, by 
reason of a parley, that was purposely to that end 
entertained, during which the work was performed. 

The seventh, the Knight of the Valley, by a mes- 
senger from him to the Earl of Thomond, prayed a 
safe-conduct to the camp, which was granted ; he told 
the Earl that he desired to confer with the President, 
which he refused, without absolute submission to Her 

Vol. L 


To face page 89. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Majesty's mercy, whereunto he would not yield, but 
stood upon conditions, whereupon he was commanded 
to depart. He saw the cannon already planted, and 
his son, then a child, in the President's hands, ready 
at his will to be executed, being by himself formerly 
put in pledge for his loyalty ; then he desired to speak 
with the Earl of Thomond again, which was granted. 
But the Earl found his obstinacy to be such, that he 
disdained to have any long conference with him ; and 
so, being safely conveyed out of the camp, he returned 
to his fellow traitors, who were on the top of a hill, 
not far off, where they might see the success of the 

When he was gone, the same day towards the 
evening, the constable of the castle (who was a 
Thomond man born) sent a messenger to the Earl 
of Thomond, praying his Lordship to get a safe- 
conduct from the President, that he might come to 
speak with him, which being granted, he said in his 
discourse to the Earl : " My Lord, in the love I bear 
you, being your natural follower, I desired to speak 
with you, to the end that you may avoid the peril that 
you are in; for the Earl of Desmond, and the 
Connaught men, lodge not two miles from this place ; 
they are three thousand strong at least, and the Lord 
President may be assured that they will give upon his 
camp, for so they are resolved ; and in all likelihood, 
you will be there put to the sword, or driven into the 
river Shannon. " The Earl deriding these threats, 
advised him to render up the castle to the President, 
whereby his life and his fellows might be secured, which 
he with vainglorious obstinacy refused, and returned to 
the castle ; for a farewell, the President sent him word 
that since he had refused the Earl of Thomond's 

9 o 

Pacata Hibernia. 

favourable offer, he was in hope, before two days were 
spent, to have his head set upon a stake, which proved 
true (as you shall hear) before the castle was taken. 

The next day, when we looked that the cannon 
should begin to play, the cannoneer found the piece 
to be cloyed, and all the art and skill which either the 
smith or himself could or did use prevailed nothing. 
The President (who is a man that knows well to 
manage great artillery) commanded that the piece 
upon her carriage (as she was) should be abased at 
the tail and elevated at the muzzle as high as it might 
be ; then he willed the gunner to give her a full 
charge of powder, roll a shot after it, and to give fire 
at the mouth, whereby the touch-hole was presently 
cleared, to the great rejoicing of the army, which of 
necessity in attempting the castle without the favour 
of the cannon must have endured great loss. This 
particular I thought good not to omit, because it may 
be an instruction to others, whensoever the like 
accident should happen. The piece being thus cleared, 
the President, having the Knight of the Valley's eldest 
son (a child of six years old) in his hands, to terrify 
the warders, he caused the child to be set upon the 
top of one of the gabions, sending them word that 
they should have a fair mark to bestow their small 
shot upon ; the constable returned answer, that the 
fear of his life should not make them forbear to direct 
their volleys of shot to the battery ; for said he (in 
indecent terms not fit for me to write) the place is 
open where he was born, and the knight may have more 
sons. 1 The President not intending as he seemed 

1 Note the barbaric energy of this. But if the constable was 
nakedly savage in speech he was at least true to his trust. 

The Knight of the Valley, the White Knight and the Knight of 

Pacata Hibernia. 


caused the infant to be taken down from the gabion, 
knowing that the discharging of the cannon would 
have shaken the poor child's bones asunder, and then 
presently he commanded the battery to begin, and the 
small shot did so incessantly burn powder that the 
warders durst not stand to their fight, until a breach 
was made assaultable into the cellar under the great 
hall of the castle ; all this was done with the loss of 
only one man, a cannoneer. 

Then was Captain Flower commanded by the Presi- 
dent, with certain companies assigned unto him, 
to enter the breach, which he valiantly performed, 
and gained the hall, and enforced the ward to return 
into a castle close adjoining it, where, from out of a 
spite, they slew four of our men ; then he ascended a 
pair of stairs, to gain two turrets over the hall, in 
which attempt Captain Bostock's ensign was slain ; by 
the winning whereof they were in better security than 
before, and there were our colours placed ; and because 
it was by this time within night, Captain Slingsby 
(who was there with the President's company) was com- 
manded to make it good till the morning ; during which 
time, sometimes on either side, small shot played, but 
little or no harm done. About midnight, the constable, 
seeing no possibility to resist long, and no hope of 
mercy left, thought by the favour of the night to 
escape in a sally ; but the guards were so vigilant that 
they slew him and some others. Nevertheless two 
escaped; the rest, who were not slain, returned to the 
castle, and the constable's head was (as the President 

Kerry were all of the Geraldine sept. There was also a Black 
Knight, a title which had become extinct. Another curious title 
emanating from the Earls of Desmond was " Seneschal of Imokilly." 
The Lord of Imokilly was always called " the Seneschal." 


Pacata Hibernia. 

formerly had told him) put on a stake. Early in the 
morning the ward had got into the tower of the castle, 
where there was no coming to them, but up a narrow 
stair which was so straight that no more than one at 
once might ascend ; and at the stair foot, a strong 
wooden door, which being burnt, the smoke in the 
stairs was such that for two hours there was no 
ascending without hazard of stifling ; when the ex- 
tremity of the smoke was past, one of the rebels pre- 
sented himself and said, on behalf of himself and 
his fellows, that if their lives might be saved, they 
would surrender ; but before any answer was made he 
voluntarily put himself into our hands. The smoke 
being vanished, a musketeer, and to his second a 
halberdier, then Captain Flower and Captain Slingsby ; 
Lieutenant Power, Lieutenant to Sir Henry Power ; 
Ensign Power, Sir Henry Power's Ensign ; Lieutenant 
Nevill, Lieutenant to Sir Garrat Harvy, who was after 
killed in Connaught, seconded by others, ascended 
the stairs in file, where they found no resistance, 
nor yet in the upper rooms, for the rebels were all gone 
to the battlements of the castle, with resolution to 
sell their lives as dear as they could. Our men 
pursued the way to the battlements, whereunto there 
was but one door ; Captain Flower entered upon one 
hand, and Captain Slingsby upon the other ; the 
gutters were very narrow between the roof of the 
castle and the battlements. In conclusion, some were 
slain in the place, and others leapt from the top of 
the castle into the water underneath it, where our 
guards killed them. In this service eleven soldiers 
were slain, whereof one was an ensign, and one and 
twenty hurt, of which number the Sergeant-major (who 
served admirably well) was one ; he received three or 

Pacata Hibernia. 


four wounds, but none of them mortal ; there were 
also the Lieutenants of the Earl of Thomond and of 
Sir Henry Power hurt ; of the enemy (of all sorts) 
were slain eighty, or thereabouts, whereof twenty-three 
were natural-born followers to the Knight of the 
Valley, in whom he reposed greatest confidence. 

The reasons which moved the Knight thus obstinately 
to persist were partly the strength of the castle, which 
he (ignorantly) thought defensible against the cannon, 
and also the manifold oaths and protestations made 
unto him by his fellow rebels that with their whole 
forces they would give relief, and raise the siege, 
but how much he failed in expectation of the one, and 
they in the protestation of the other, you have already 
heard ; whereof if the protesters had had any feeling 
(of their promised faith) the provocation they had was 
great ; for they were eye-witnesses when the castle was 
assaulted and won. This castle is a place of great 
importance, and ever since the beginning of the re- 
bellion one Anthony Arthur (a merchant of Limerick) 
lay in it, as a general factor for the city, to vend 
commodities to the rebels. 


Ward put into the castle of Glyn by the Lord President — Carrickfoyle 
rendered by O'Connor Kerry — Victuals and munition sent out of 
England into Munster — Maurice Stacke sent into Kerry — The 
bonoghs obtained the Lord President's passport to depart the pro- 
vince — Sixty of the bonoghs slain by the Lord Burke — The Lord 
President's return to Limerick — The castle of Corgrage rendered 
— A garrison left in Askeiton — The castle of Rathmore rendered 
— A garrison placed at Kilmallock — The rebels forced to raise 
the siege of Lyskaghan — Florence MacCarty's persuasions to the 
ward to quit Lyskaghan — Florence attempts again to corrupt the 
constable of Lyskaghan — A letter from James FitzThomas to 
Florence Mac Car ty. 

The President was constrained to stay here five days 
after the taking of the castle, to place a guard therein, 
which was left to the charge of Captain Nicholas 
Mordant, with one and twenty soldiers, and to repair 
the breach and ruins made by the cannon, which being 
finished, he intended to draw the cannon to Carrick- 
foyle, five miles distant from the Glyn, which castle was 
held then against Her Majesty, as it was in anno 1580, 
and won by Sir William Pelham, the Lord Justice, under 
whom (at that time) the President was a captain of 
foot. But O'Connor Kerry, being advised hereof, 
desired a protection, and, for assurance of his future 
loyalty, offered to surrender his said castle, 1 to be kept 

1 Though we seem to be far enough away now from the heroic age 
of Ireland, I may mention that the O'Conors Kerry, so called to 
distinguish them from other O'Conor septs, , claimed descent from 
Fergus MacRoy and Queen Meave, two great figures of the heroic age. 
Ciar, son of Fergus, settled here and became ancestor of the Ciarree, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


unto Her Majesty's use ; his proffer the Lord President 
accepted, and a ward of Charles Wilmot's company 
was placed therein. 

The Earl of Thomond, in his good affection to the 
service, gave unto John O'Connor, during the wars, 
a castle and thirteen plough lands, for his tenants and 
himself to live upon, in Thomond, which was a better 
pledge upon him than any he could give ; nevertheless, 
after the Spaniards' landing in Ireland, this perfidious 
traitor relapsed, as hereafter you shall hear. 

About the middle of this month, there arrived, first 
at Cork, a small bark of five and twenty tons, laden 
with victuals ; and the day following, a greater 
quantity ; also three lasts of powder, with lead and 
match proportionable, which was a great comfort to 
the President and the whole army. 

Whilst these things were in doing, the President, 
to the end the rebels might be set on work in many 
places at once, employed one Maurice Stacke, a servant 
of his own, in Kerry (a native of that county) — a 
man of small stature, but of invincible courage — with 
fifty men ; who, confidently undertaking no more than 
he valiantly performed, surprised by scale a castle in 
the heart of the county called Liscaghan, appertain- 
ing to Master Edward Gray, an undertaker, put the 
ward to the sword, burnt Ardare and other towns, 
took some preys for the maintenance of himself and 
his company, and made good the place, until he was 
seconded by the coming of Sir Charles Wilmot, as 
after you shall hear. 

From the beginning of the war until this under- 

i.e. children of Ciar. Hence Kerry. At the date of the Norman 
invasion an 0' Conor was King of Kerry. Under Geraldine pre- 
dominance the O'Conors had shrunk to the dimensions here indicated. 

9 6 

Pacata Hibernia. 

taking of Maurice Stacke none of Her Majesty's forces 
had been seen in Kerry; the country was strong 
in men, and full of victuals, yet this undaunted spirit 
of Stacke would, with a handful of men, attempt the 
enterprise; still did the bownoghs (seeing their hopes 
in Munster to be frustrated) importune the President, 
by letters and messages, for his passport, to safe- 
conduct them into Connaught, promising there to live 
under Her Majesty's laws, as should become loyal 
and dutiful subjects ; which at last, upon mature 
deliberation, was granted unto them. 1 The Lord 
Burke, being either ignorant of what was done, or 
would not take knowledge of it, in revenge of his two 
elder brothers' deaths, who were slain by them, with 
the help of Limerick men, set upon their rear in Clan- 
william, as they were passing the Shannon, and slew 
sixty of them, besides divers that were drowned, and 
took some part of their prey. In this skirmish an 
alderman of Limerick called Dominick Roche, and a 
Protestant, was dangerously wounded with a musket 
bullet; among these bownoghs, Dermond O'Connor 
passed into Connaught. Whilst these things were 
thus in handling the President still remained at 
Carrickfoyle, expecting daily and hourly a ship of 
victuals, which had been coming from Cork thither 
since the beginning of June ; upon arrival whereof he 
purposed with the greatest part of his forces to have 
passed further into Kerry, and to have settled that 
part of the province. 

But the victuals, by reason of contrary winds, not 
being as yet come into the River Shannon, the 
thirteenth of this month he was constrained, for 
want thereof, to return to Limerick again. In which 
1 We are not told whether they got their M piece of money." 

Pacata Hibernia. 


return we, having marched through exceeding strong 
fastness, encamped the first night before the castle of 
Corgroge, seated upon the Shannon, belonging to 
Master Tren chard, the undertaker, and of strength 
sufficient to hold out against any force except the 
cannon. But the example of the Glyn was so fearful 
to the rebels, that upon the first summons they 
yielded the same with safety of their lives. And 
the President gave the custody of it unto Oliver 

The next day, the army marched twelve miles unto 
Adare, a manor house, belonging to the Earls of 
Kildare, wholly ruined by Pierce Lacy ; thence the 
President sent seven hundred foot and seventy-five 
horse to Askeiton, there to remain in garrison. 

The fifteenth, advertisement being given that the 
Castle of Rathmore (three miles out of the way to 
Limerick) was still held by the rebels, we came before 
it, which the Ward instantly delivered unto the 
President, whence he sent four hundred and fifty foot 
and fifty horse unto Kilmallock ; for it was well found 
that the greatest hope of the arch-traitor Desmond 
consisted in Conniloe, which by reason of the fertility 
of the soil, the strength of the country, and the in- 
habitants being all his natural-born followers, did 
yield him more command and relief than any part of 
the province besides ; these two garrisons therefore 
were placed at Askeiton and Kilmallock, that did so 
infest the rebels that resided in those parts that before 
the next winter was ended they were utterly wasted. 

The sixteenth, the President, with the rest of the 
army, came to Limerick, which was no sooner dis- 
persed and disposed in the manner aforesaid than the 
enemy drew their forces to Liscaghan, surprised (as 

vol. I. H 

9 8 

Pacata Hibernia. 

you have heard) by Maurice Stack and by him still 
possessed, despite the rebels ; the castle therefore they 
besiege, and placed an engine (well known in this 
country) called a sow 1 (to the walls thereof) to sap the 
same ; but the defenders did so well acquit themselves 
in a sally that they tore the sow in pieces, made her 
cast her pigs, and slew twenty-seven of them dead in 
the place; finding therefore that force would not 
prevail to effect their attempt they betake themselves 
to fraud. For the more cunning conveyance whereof, 
Florence MacCarty was employed as a principal 
instrument by FitzMaurice, who then, with two 
hundred foot and twenty horse, lay at Ardare, not 
half a mile distant from the castle. Within a few days 
after the former sally, the said Florence came to 
speak with the ward (commanded by Walter Talbot, 
in the absence of Maurice Stack) about some parti- 
culars concerning their own good ; who amongst other 
conference assured them that the President was gone 
to Cork, that most of his troops were defeated, and 
that it was impossible for them to expect aid before 
the next spring; all which notwithstanding, for the 
love he bare to the President, he would be glad to save 
their lives ; and if they would deliver up the place to 
him he would undertake to convey them iD safety to 
Carrickfoyle. Much did this smooth report distract 
some of the wards ; for they well understood that he 
had not showed himself in any overt action against 
Her Majesty since the President came into his govern- 
ment ; and although he did converse with the rebels, 
yet it might be that it was either to do some service 
upon them or else to draw them into subjection. 
But others, misdoubting, anguis in herba, resolutely 

1 A mantelet. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


answered that they would make good that place against 
all Irelaud until a second might come unto them ; 
then he began to terrify them with the strength of 
the enemy and weakness of Her Majesty's forces, 
reporting the one to be at the least seven thousand, 
and the other at the most two thousand five hundred ; 
but finding that this last attempt prevailed no more 
than the first assault, with some threatening speeches 
he departed to the Lord of Lixnaw. The next morn- 
ing Florence attempted the ward again, but they made 
answer as the day before ; then he proffered Walter 
Talbot, if he would render the place to him, he would 
give him sixty men in wages and a good horse ; but 
all his offers being rejected he went his way. 

Notice hereof being brought to the President, then 
residing at Limerick, he addressed himself in all speed 
towards Kerry, and set forward the three and 
twentieth of July ; but whereas (by reason of con- 
tinual rain that had lately fallen in great abundance) 
it was thought that the mountain of Sleulogher 1 was 
impassable for carriages, was constrained to take the 
way of Thomond. The forces which he carried with 
him were in list 1050 foot and seventy-five horse. 
These therefore marched to Kilrush, a place in 
Thomond, opposite Carrickfoyle, and, by the eight 
and twentieth of the same, all the foot, the troops, 
and baggage were transported, which in respect of 
the breadth of the river in that place, being at least 
one league and a half, was expedited beyond all 
expectation. In the speedy dispatch whereof much 
was attributed, and that worthily, to the Earl of 
Thomond, who provided boats and such other neces- 

1 A range of mountains dividing Kerry from Cork, Eecte Slieve 
Luachra, the Rushy Mountain. 

H 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

saries as his country could afford. The beginning of 
August James FitzThomas wrote to Florence Mac- 
Carty a letter, the true copy whereof followeth : — 

A Letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 

Cousin, — Yesterday I came over the mountain and 
brought with me the bonnoghs of Conelloe, the residue 
and force of the country I have left to keep their 
crets. I understand since my coming that Sir Charles 
Wilmot, with six hundred foot and fifty horse, is come 
to Clanmorris, and this night intends to be at Tralee. 
I have sent to the Knight and all the country presently 
to meet me to-morrow to resist their determination. 
And for your better furtherance and accomplishment 
of our action I am to entreat your Lordship, as you 
regard your own quiet and exaltation of the service, 
to make what haste you may, and speedily to yield 
us your helping assistance, for which we will rest 
thankful and most ready to answer your Lordship at 
your need. And thus referring the consideration 
hereof to your Lordship, I commit you to God. Primo 
Aagusti, 1600. 

Your Lordship's very loving cousin, 

James Desmond. 


The Lord President at Carrickfoyle — The castles of Lixnaw, 
Rathowin, and Tralee surprised by Sir Charles Wilmot — The 
bonoughs defeated by Sir Charles Wilmot — The death of Pat- 
rick FitzMaurice, Lord of Lixnaw — Florence MacCarty sent 
for by the Lord President, but refuses to come — A marriage 
practised by Florence for James FitzThomas — Letters and 
messages between Florence and Tyrone — An encounter between 
Captain Harvey and the White Knight's son — The White 
Knight's son defeated— The Knight of Kerry and the Lord of 
Lixnaw sue for protection — The Earl of Thomond left to com- 
mand the garrison of Askeiton — Florence MacCarty continues 
his practice with Tyrone — Lands given by James FitzThomas 
to Florence MacCarty — Donnell MacCarty taken in upon pro- 

The President, being come to Carrickfoyle, advertise- 
ment was brought that the rebels hastened to ruin 
their castles in Kerry. Wherefore the nine and 
twentieth he sent Sir Charles Wilmot (a very valiant 
and understanding gentleman) with the forces afore- 
said into Clanmorris, who without much difficulty, by 
reason of his sudden and unexpected coming, recovered 
the chief house of the Lord FitzMaurice, called 
Lixnaw, being formerly by him sapped and underset 
with props of timber, to the end that, whensoever 
any English forces should come into the country, at 
an instance (fire being set unto them) the castle should 
be ruined, which he rather wished than a garrison 
of soldiers should be lodged in it. But the sudden 
coming of Sir Charles prevented his intention. He 
surprised also, in the same manner, the castle of 


Pacata Hibernia. 

ftathowin, belonging to the Bishop of Kerry, into both 
which (being very convenient for service) he put 
sufficient guards, then rode with fifty horse to view 
Tralee, which was Sir Edward Denny's 1 house ; James 
FitzThomas had appointed one hundred and fifty 
bownoghs for the ruining hereof ; who, having almost 
fully finished their task, as they were busily employed 
about the undermining of certain vaults remaining 
after the rest unruined, Sir Charles Wilmot, with his 
fifty horse, as they came suddenly, so they ran 
violently, like a whirlwind (in fair weather), upon these 
rebels, killed two and thirty of them dead in the place, 
and recovered the arms of one hundred, who, by the 
means and favour of a bog and mountain near adjoin- 
ing, escaped with their lives, being frighted almost 
out of their wits. The second of August Sir Charles 
Wilmot returned to Carrickfoyle with his troops. 

In the meantime the President was advertised that 
the victuals which he expected from Cork were 
arrived at Carrighowlogh in Thomond, almost opposite 
the river Cassan in Kerry, whence they were trans- 
ported in boats up the Cassan to Lixnaw, four miles 
into the country, which service was performed by the 
aid of the Earl of Thomond's boats. 

The Lord FitzMaurice, whose name was Patrick, 
and father to Thomas Lord FitzMaurice, now living, 

1 Sir Edward Denny and Sir William Herbert were the two chief 
undertakers of the eounty. Their bickerings and mntual revilings fill 
many pages of the State Papers aDd are very amusing. The under- 
takers of Munster were as little united and fraternal as the chiefs. 
They could not combine, and when young O'Moore invaded the 
province they all cut and ran without striking a blow. They went to 
England and lived comfortably there while other men were recovering 
their estates for them. 


an obstinate rebel, bearing of our being at Carrick- 
foyle, fearing our neighbourhood, brake bis castle of 
the Beaulieu, seated upon the Shannon, two miles 
distant from Carrickfoyle, when he saw his chief 
house possessed by our forces, took such an inward 
grief, that the twelfth of this instant he gave up the 
ghost. The county of Kerry at this time was the 
best inhabited county in all Munster; but whoso- 
ever took the most pains in sowing, certain it is, that 
the garrisons, as they were shortly after placed, 
reaped all the profit of that harvest. 

The island of Kerry, an ancient and chief house of 
the Earls of Desmond, and of late belonging to Sir 
William Herbert, as an undertaker, together with 
many other castles in those parts, are (by the rebels) 
absolutely ruined, nearly upon the first bruit of the 
army's approach, which was an evident argument of 
their obstinacies. 

The President, upon his first coming into Kerry, hear- 
ing that Florence MacCarty was not then above tenmiles 
distant from him, about a parley with James Fitz- 
Thomas, wrote for him, to come and speak with him 
at Carrickfoyle, but he, remitting nothing but oaths 
and dilatory excuses, came not ; whereupon second 
letters together with a safeguard were dispatched unto 
him, but to those he returned no answer at all. This 
delaying, compared with the report of some protectees, 
who averred Florence to have entered into a new com- 
bination with James FitzThomas (and that he had 
sent in this month of August Owen MacEggan, a 
traitorly priest, into Spain), made the President not 
only doubtful of his former promises to him, but 
almost out of doubt that he would show himself 


Pacata Hibernia. 

again in open action ; which would bring to pass 
that his labours (like those of Hercules) should 
daily be renewed, new heads still growing upon 
this rebellious Hydra ; for the septs of the Carties 
themselves (with their followers and dependents) 
were known to be no less than three thousand able 
men; and to the intent that all these might more 
firmly unite themselves with the rest, which were no 
less than four thousand and five hundred strong, 
against Her Majesty. This Florence was now busy 
working a marriage between the Sugan Earl and the 
sister of Cormack MacDermond, Lord of Muskerry, a 
populous, a rich and a fast country. The President, 
having received advertisement thereof, left Sir Charles 
"Wilmot to prosecute the service in Kerry, and himself 
hastened his return towards Cork, there to work 
some means for the overthrowing the proceedings of 
this dangerous plot. 

The President, being returned as far as Limerick, 
certain notice was brought him that Florence had 
lately employed a messenger to Tyrone (as he pre- 
tended) for the release of O'SulevanMore, his brother- 
in-law ; but as the truth was, to procure aid from 
the north, to support the rebellion in Munster. 
Tyrone, by the said messenger, sent letters of com- 
fort and encouragement, as well to Florence as to the 
rest of the lords in that province, assuring them not 
only of succours from himself, but further, that the 
Spanish forces would land in Munster before Michael- 
mas next. These exorbitant courses of Florence gave 
a great impediment to the service ; for the President 
(as he would often say) did see him like a dark cloud 
over his head, threatening a storm, to hinder and 

Pacata Hibernia. 

disturb his proceedings. But we will leave Florence 
for a while busily employed in devising means how 
to procure aid, either from Spain or from the north, 
or from both, and betake ourselves to such other 
occurrences as happened about this time. Upon 
the sixteenth of August the Lord President came to 

The eighteenth, Pierce Lacy 1 wrote to the Presi- 
dent humbly beseeching him that he might be re- 
ceived into Her Majesty's gracious protection, promis- 
ing ever afterwards to remain a loyal subject; but 
withal he made certain demands, which were so much 
disliked by the President, that his suit was rejected ; 
for the President insisted upon a rule (which he never 
broke) that he would not give ear to any traitor that 
did capitulate. The twentieth he came to Kilmallock, 
remaining there but one day, to take assurance of 
certain gentlemen and freeholders that had lately sub- 
mitted themselves. 

The day following, at Kilmallock, the White Knight 
being there to attend the President, news was brought 
to him that divers of his people and followers were 
slain by 1 the garrison of Moyallo, commanded by 
Captain Roger Harvey. The President, careful to give 
him contentment (being . under Her Majesty's protec- 
tion), in his own presence examined the matter ; and 
there it was found that Captain Harvey having intelli- 
gence by a spy, who was his guide, of a notable traitor 
called John MacRedmond, and certain other traitors, 

1 The Lacies of Minister, a name Hibernicized as "Les," in which 
form it appears in the Four Masters, were descended from an ille- 
gitimate son of the famous conquistador Hugo do Lacy, Lord of all 
Meatb, i.e. the province of Meath. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

and their goods, which were reported to be near to 
Sir Walter Raleigh's lands, adjoining the White 
Knight's country, with seventy foot and four and 
twenty horse marched that night one and twenty 
miles from Moyallo ; and at the break of day, our 
men, thinking that they had been brought upon an 
enemy's town, set fire to a house, having some few 
people therein ; but an old soldier, knowing the place, 
told the captain that it was the White Knight's town ; 
whereupon he commanded his company to forbear 
committing any outrage, either upon the people or any 
of their goods. But the White Knight's younger son, 
John FitzGibbon, having suddenly gathered to him- 
self one hundred and sixty foot and eighteen horse, 
overtook Captain Harvey, who began to excuse the 
matter, telling him (as the truth was) that the guide 
whom he had there with him, to answer the fact, had 
brought him unwillingly upon that place ; and there- 
fore for the hurt unwittingly done he would make a 
large satisfaction. 

But the young man, following the advice of one 
Garret MacShane (who had lately been a notable 
traitor), thinking it not possible for so small a com- 
pany to resist his great force (without returning any 
answer), began presently to charge our men, whom 
they supposed without any great resistance to have at 
their mercy, and came up close to our foot, who, 
nothing dismayed, stood firm, expecting their charge ; 
but they not coming on, Captain Harvey advanced 
towards them and broke them instantly. In this con- 
flict were slain and hurt above sixty of their party, 
and among them Garret MacShane, the leader and 
procurer of the fight; of our men, some four were 

Pacata Hibernia. 


hurt, but none killed. Captain Harvey received a 
shot on his murrion, a blow with a pike upon his back, 
but escaped danger by the goodness of his buff coat, 
and had his horse slain under him. The White 
Knight, upon due knowledge hereof, condemned both 
his son and people for their folly in enforcing a fight, 
having no harm intended them; and confessed they 
were well lost. But yet, for his better satisfaction, 
the treacherous guide, who did upon a set purposed 
malice draw this draught, was, by the President's 
appointment, delivered over to the marshal, and pre- 
sently hanged. The three and twentieth the Lord 
President returned to Cork. 

Sir Charles Wilmot, having made his entrance into 
Kerry (as already you have heard), and there pro- 
ceeded so far as Lixnaw, made known to the Pre- 
sident that the rebels were exceeding strong in that 
country; the arch-rebel James FitzThomas being 
attended with five hundred bownoghs, besides the 
forces that the Knight of Kerry, Thomas Oge, and 
the gentlemen of the country could make. Here- 
upon the President, knowing that those parts were 
always affectionately addicted to the Earl of Des- 
mond, caused a footman of the young Earl's (who 
was shortly afterwards to come into Ireland), as the 
manner is, having his master's arms upon his coat 
before and behind, to show himself in most places 
of the country, that thereby they might be the 
better persuaded of his coming, and be a means 
to alienate their hearts from the counterfeit Desmond. 
The vigilant care that Sir Charles Wilmot used within 
his charge, having taken divers preys, and killed 
some of the rebels, together with this invention, 


Pacata Hibernia. 

caused most of the freeholders of that country to 
submit themselves, and seek from the governor Her 
Majesty's protection. The principal amongst these 
was William FitzGerald, commonly called the Knight 
of Kerry, who by messengers signified the great 
desire that he conceived to live a subject, and had 
present occasion to show some proof thereof ; for the 
Sugan Earl, coming about this time to the Dingle, 
the said knight would by no means receive him into 
his castle ; whereupon he ruined all the houses that 
were standing in the town, and so took his journey 
unto Castle Mange. Thomas PitzMaurice, the pre- 
tended Baron of Lixnaw, also now newly come to his 
barony by the death of his father, sought by means 
of his wife, who was sister to the Earl of Thomond, 
for the President's favour and Her Majesty's protec- 
tion. Both were promised upon condition that he 
would perform such service 1 as might in some good 
sort deserve the same ; but this he absolutely refused, 
because, forsooth, it stood not with his conscience 
nor with his honour, for these were his own words in 
a letter that he wrote to my Lord of Thomond ; and 
upon this answer the President rejected both the man 
and his suit. 

The affairs of Kerry succeeding so well with the 
governor, it was supposed that the reputed Earl of 
Desmond would not long remain in these parts, lest 
the protectees might offer him some false measure ; 
which, if it should happen, most likely it was that he 
would pass the mountain and shelter himself in 

1 The reader has doubtless remarked that Carew, ere he " took in " 
an insurgent, required him first to do a murder aud cut the throat 
of some comrade and associate. Something of this nature was no 
doubt proposed to the young Baron. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


the fastness of Conniloe, and therefore the Lord Pre- 
sident entreated the Earl of Thomond to stay with 
the garrison at Askeiton, both to do service upon 
such rebels as should lurk in those woods, as also 
to secure the goods of those that were newly become 
subjects ; for (as the manner of the Irish) had they 
lost but twenty cows, or ten garrans, they would 
have held it sufficient cause to have relapsed again. 
My Lord of Thomond therefore, lying there in 
garrison, received advertisement by certain spies 
whom he used that Florence MacCarty had assur- 
edly made a new combination with the arch-rebel 
Desmond, and had sent second letters to Tyrone about 
O'Sulevan More's enlargement ; but in truth the 
effect thereof was to implore aid of that Egyptian 
reed, to underprop their ruinous and almost rotten 

Of this new and late combination the Lord Pre- 
sident was also advertised by the Lord Barry, 
that James MacThomas, to assure Florence to him, 
did give him these lands and rents following, 
viz., the Queriny, Killaha, the rents of Beare and 
Ban try, the Beoves 1 of Carbry, Carrigroaghan and 
Ballinry, near unto Cork; all which Florence ac- 
cepted, and their place of meeting, where this agree- 
ment was made, was at K/ahinemroeg, bordering upon 
Slewlogher. Upon this intelligence the governor 
of Kerry, by direction from the President, received 
into protection Donnell MacCarty, natural son to 
the late Earl of Clancare, and brother to Florence's 
wife, whom the country in the beginning of this 
rebellion saluted MacCarty More, or chief Lord 

Beeves (?) 


Pacata Hibernta. 

of Desmond. But at Tyrone's late being in the pro- 
vince he was deprived of that promotion, and both 
the title and lands by him conferred upon the said 
Florence, wherefore they thought this man 1 to be a 
specially fit instrument, of whom there might be very 
good tise when the President should begin his pro- 
secutions against Florence. 

1 Now to be the Queen's MacCarty More. And it is worth re- 
membering that this Donnell had spent most of his life in rebellion 
of one kind or another. None of these Queen's candidate-chieftains 
came to anything like what they expected. When the war was over 
they got rewards of land but not chieftainships. It was really as im- 
possible to re-establish the chieftainships as to cause the Shannon 
to flow backwards. From centre to sea, Ireland was found to hate 
chieftains. The sons and grandsons of these Queen's candidates 
were the leaders of the next insurrection. 


Vol. I. 

To fac: pape 111. 


The Castle of Mayne in Coimologh taken — O'Maghon and the 
O'Crowlys protected— Cahir Castle rendered — Supplies of 
horses and money sent for Minister — Dermond MaeOwen, 
O'Keefe, and MacAwley make suit to be received as subjects 
— The submission of the Knight of Kerry — James FitzThomas 
and Pierce Lacy defeated by the Knight of Kerry. 

The rebel that next bordered upon this garrison 
of Askeiton was Garret FitzMcholas, and some few 
kerns that followed him, whom Sir Francis Barkley 
so haunted and hunted that he got from them all 
their prey, their own riding-horses, and at last the 
Castle of Mayne, held by them, wherein there was 
provision of corn for all that year. 

The President having disposed of his garrisons in 
such sort that they were lodged either in the rebels' 
countries or very near thereunto, sent unto them 
several letters willing the commanders to employ 
their companies at this time especially about the 
standing corn now ready for the harvest, to gather 
in for their own use what lay most conveniently 
for them, and the rest to destroy with man and horse, 
which was performed accordingly ; and this no doubt 
was one principal cause that they were unable to hold 
up their heads the next year ; for presently hereupon 


Pacata Hibernia. 

O'Maghon 1 and the O'Crowlys in Carbery sought to 
Sir Richard Percy, lying at Kinsale, that he would 
be a means to the Lord President for Her Majesty's 
protection ; which being granted, they remain loyal 
subjects with their tenants and followers until the 
landing of the Spaniards. In this interim the Lord 
President laboured with Cormack MacDermond, 
partly by promises and partly by menaces, to frustrate 
the intended marriage between James FitzThomas 
and his sister ; which at last with some difficulty was 
frustrated by causing the said Cormack to undertake 
for his sister's appearance whensoever he or the 
Council should call for her. 

Towards the latter end of this month of August the 
Lord Deputy writing to the President about some 
other occasions, it pleased him to remember Cahir 
Castle (which was lost as before you have heard), sig- 
nifying that he much desired to have that castle 
recovered from the rebels ; the rather because the great 
ordnance, a cannon, and a culverin being left there by 
the Earl of Essex were now possessed by the rebels. 
This item from the Lord Deputy spurred on the 
President, without further delay, to take order therein ; 
and therefore presently, by his letters, sent for the 
Lord of Cahir to repair to him, who (as before you 
have heard) was vehemently suspected to have some 
hand both in the taking and keeping thereof. The 
Baron of Cahir being come, the Council persuaded 
him to deal with James Butler (nicknamed James 
Galde), his brother, about the re-delivering thereof to 
Her Majesty's use; but his answer was, that so little 
interest had he in his brother (that the meanest fol- 

1 The O'Mahonies' country ran westward from Skibbereen, and is un- 
expectedly rich in castles. O'Crowley's country lay near Dunmanway. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


lower in all his country might prevail more with him 
than himself (for he was unwilling to have the castle 
regained by the State, except it might again be left 
wholly to him, as it was before the first winning 
thereof) ; which the President surmising, told him that, 
if it might speedily be yielded up to him, he would 
become a humble suitor to the Lord Deputy (in his 
behalf) for the repossessing thereof; otherwise he 
would presently march with his whole army into those 
parts, and, taking the same by force, would ruin and 
raze it to the very foundation ; and this he bound with 
no small protestations. Hereupon, Justice Oomerford 1 
being despatched away with the Lord of Oahir, they 
prevailed so far with young Butler that the castle 
upon the twenty-ninth following was delivered to the 
State ; as also all the munitions, and the great ord- 
nance conveyed to Clonmel, and thence to Waterford. 

The nine and twentieth the Lord President, among 
other things in his despatch made for England, adver- 
tised the Lords of the Council, that there was lately 
arrived at Limerick ten thousand pounds in money for 
the army in Munster ; and that also thirty-six horse 
for the supply of his horse troops, were landed at 
Cork; for which he gave their Lordships humble 
thanks. The horse sent were forty, but the conductor 
delivered no more than aforesaid. 

While these things were in handling it happened 
that a French bark arrived at Dingle laden with wine 
and some munition, which they sold to the rebels, and 
thereby ministered unto them no small relief, being 
before in great want thereof. Whereupon the Presi- 

1 Mr. Gerald Comerford, late Attorney-General of Connaught 
nnder Sir R. Bingham. The western chieftainry used to accuse 
hiin of being a great stirrer up of wars in those parts. 

VOL. I. I 


Pacata Hieernia. 

dent wrote his letters to the Lords of her Majesty's 
Privy Council, entreating that it would please them to 
procure Her Majesty's letters to be directed to her 
Ambassador Leger in France, to deal with the King 
for preventing such further mischiefs as might arise by 
his subjects merchandising with the rebels. 

The six and twentieth of this month, Dermond 
MacOwen, Lord of the country called Dowalla, 1 a man 
for wit and courage nothing inferior to any of the 
Munster rebels, by his letters directed to Captain Roger 
Harvy, bearing date the twenty-sixth aforesaid, made 
humble suit unto the President that himself, MacAwly, 
and O'Keefe, with all their followers, might be received 
into Her Majesty's gracious protection, promising, 
both for himself and them, thenceforward to continue 
and remain loyal and obedient subjects ; and for the 
performance of the same they would put in sufficient 
security, which humble suit the President not long 
after granted. 

Near the day before mentioned, William FitzGerald, 
the Knight of Kerry, in a very penitent manner sub- 
mitted himself to Sir Charles Wilmot, and received 
Her Majesty's gracious protection, protesting with 
many vows his future loyalty, whereof Sir Charles 
advertised the President, praying the confirmation of 
the same, which was upon sight of his letters granted. 
Four or five days afterwards, as Sir Charles lay with 
his forces before Ardart in Kerry, James FitzThomas 
and Pierce Lacy, with all the force they could make, 

1 Duhallow was the country of a sept of the MacCarties called 
MacDonough. The walls of a magnificent mansion near Kanturk 
still testify to the wealth and power of the MacDonough. Duhallow 
means the Black Alio, which was the ancient name of the Black- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


entered (by night) into the Knight of Kerry's country 
with full intention either to surprise his person or to 
spoil and burn his towns and corn, to his utter ruin. 
The knight, having some little foreknowledge of the 
storm at hand, as soon as they were entered into his 
country, fought with them, slew two of their chief 
leaders of the bownoghs, the one called Teg 0' Kelly, 
the other Walter MacCasielogh, 1 and with them six- 
teen others. The invaders, finding so ill a welcome, 
returned, not having gained so much as one cow. 

1 Probably MacCostello, a Norman-Connaught name. Costello de 
Angulo was founder of the sept. 


The castle of Ardart taken by Sir Charles Wilmot — Maurice Stack 
treacherously murdered — The prey of Kilkoe taken by Sir 
Richard Percy — A Letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 
MacCarty — James FitzThomas defeated by the garrison of Kil- 

Ardart for some nine days made good defence, and 
had burned with fireworks snch boards and timber as 
Sir Charles had placed against the wall of the castle 
for his men's safety as they undermined. But at last 
Sir Charles sent for a saker out of an Englishman's 
ship (which one Hill, the master, lent him), with pur- 
pose only to break open the door of the castle ; for the 
walls were too strong for so small a piece to offend. 
The rebels at the sight of the saker yielded. Sir 
Charles hanged the constable ; the rest of the ward, 
which was but eight, with the women and children, 
were spared. 

Towards the latter end of August, Maurice Stack, 
the brave undertaker before spoken of, was by Honore 
ny Brien, 1 wife to the Lord of Lixnaw, invited to dine 
with her in her husband's castle of Beaulieu in Kerrv ; 
at which time Donnell O'Brien, brother both to her 
and the Earl of Thomond, was then with his sister. 
Dinner being ended, the young lady desired to speak 
with the said Stack privately in her chamber, where, 

1 A woman's patronymic was Ni, a man's Qor Mac. So Honor Ni 
Brien but Donnell O'Brien. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


after a little time spent, and disagreeing about the 
matter then in speech, the lady cried out unto Der- 
mond Rewghe MacCormac, William O'Donichan, and 
Edmond O'Heher (being at the chamber door) : <c Do 
you not hear him misuse me in words ? " Whereupon 
with their skeans they instantly murdered him in the 
place. As soon as he was slain she sent to her hus- 
band and willed the murderers to repair to him. Of 
this barbarous and inhuman act some say that this 
lady was the principal agent, though some of her 
friends have since sought to excuse her. The Earl 
of Thomond upon the knowledge of it was so in- 
finitely grieved, and for the same held his sister in 
such detestation, that from that day forward to the 
day of her death, which was not many months after 
(as I think), he never did see her, nor could abide the 
memory of her name. But howsoever this worthy 
subject (more worthy than whom there was no one of 
Ireland birth of his quality) was thus shamefully 
butchered as you have heard. The Lord of Lixnaw, 
not satiated with his blood (traitorously and shame- 
fully shed), the next day after hanged Thomas Encally 
Stack, the brother of the said Maurice Stack, whom 
he had held prisoner a long time before. 

About the beginning of this month of September 
the garrison of Kinsale was driven into the field, and 
marched so far as Eosse Carbery, being commanded 
by Sir Richard Percy, and guided by Walter Cop- 
pinger, of Cork, upon hope of doing service there- 
about ; but being disappointed thereof, they marched 
beyond the Leap, and, coming suddenly to Kilcoe, 
they took there a prey of three hundred cows, which 
they brought in safety without any loss to Littertinlis, 
and thence they returned again to their garrison. 

u 3 Pacata Hibernia. 

The garrison of Kerry had by this time so galled 
the forces of the usurping Desmond that he found 
himself unable long to subsist, except Florence Mac- 
Carty, who had long played the Machiavellian ambo- 
dexter betwixt him and the Lord President, would 
now at last join with him in defence and support of 
the action; this did he importune by divers letters, 
but especially by one, which, because it containeth 
his estate at this time, together with other par- 
ticularities fit to be understood, I have thought 
good to insert the very words of his own letter as 
followeth : — 

A Letter from James FitzThomas to Florence 

My Lord, — Your letters I have received, and [the 
present time of service is now at hand, which by 
letters, nor any excuse so effectual, ought to be de- 
layed. And whereas you write that you intend to 
confer with the President and the Earl of Thomond, 
I marvel that one of your Lordship's acquaintance 
with their proceedings doth not yet know their en- 
ticing baits and humours to entrap us all within the 
nets of their policies. Your vow to God and this 
action, for the maintenance of the Church, and de- 
fence of our own right, should not for any respect 
be disregarded. You know that of long time your 
Lordship hath been suitor to the Queen and Council, 
and could not at any time prevail, nor get any likeli- 
hood of your settlement ; and now being duly placed 
by the assent of the Church, and us the nobility of 
this action, your Lordship should work all means 
possible to maintain the same. You know the ancient 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and general malice that heretofore they bare to all 
Irish birth, and much more they rave at this present, 
so it is very bootless for any of us to seek their 
favours or countenance, which were but a means to 
work our total subversion. Write to me effectually 
your Lordship's mind, and what resolution you pur- 
pose to follow, whereby I may proceed accordingly. 
This army is but very slender, for they are but six 
hundred foot and eighty horse. I am myself and 
EitzMaurice six hundred foot and some horse. We 
expect your Lordship's assistance, which we heartily 
desire, and not any further to defer us with letters, 
as you respect us and the service ; and whereas 
you write you have no force, your own presence, 
and the bruit of your coming, will much further 
the service, and dismay the enemy, etc. 2 Septem- 
ber, 1600. 

* Your loving cousin, 

James Desmond. 

Notwithstanding the importunity of these letters, 
together with his own inclination, yet Florence, 
finding that their divided kingdom could not long 
stand, would not in person join with them, but sent 
word to the White Knight by his daughter (Donogh 
MacCormock's wife) that rather than the action 
should fall to the ground he would himself make a 
journey into Spain, to entreat aid and assistance 
from the Pope and Spanish king ; but in the mean- 
time, the supposed Earl, being still pursued by Sir 
Charles, is constrained to abandon Kerry, to go to 
Conniloe, and so to Arlogh, 1 in which passage he 

1 The valley of the Arlo celebrated by Spenser, a deep picturesque 
glen under the Galtees in Tipperary. 

1 20 

Pacata Hibernia. 

sustained such a loss (as shall be said) which proved 
to him irrevocable. There was not left any man of 
esteem likely to defend the action, but Florence Mac- 
Carty (lately spoken of), who, having temporized all 
this while (to see this summer's prosecution), was 
grown by other men's examples to be more wise than 
honest, became now an intercessor to the President, 
with frequent letters and damnable oaths, that he was 
in his heart and intentions sincerely devoted to Her 
Majesty's service. 

The concurrence of this fortunate success promised 
a present reduction of the province, and an establish- 
ment thereof, in a settled quiet, and so no doubt it 
would have proved if the protectees had meant in their 
hearts as they professed with their tongues ; but it 
was far otherwise, for the President did at this time 
receive certain advertisement that the titular Earl> 
being driven to great extremity, and eagerly prosecuted 
in all corners, by the consent (in common council) of 
his associates, whereof some of them had never been in 
actual rebellion, and others lately protected, and seem- 
ing to forsake him (notwithstanding their pledges in 
Her Majesty's hands), have advised him partly for his 
safety, but especially to make trial what aid he could 
procure (out of Connaught and Ulster) to depart from 
thence, with confident promises that whensoever he 
should return with new forces, that then they would as 
constantly stand for him as heretofore. Whence by 
the way may be discerned the cankered disposition of 
their malicious hearts towards the English Govern- 
ment, who nothing regard the disease of their persons 
the loss of their goods, the hazard of their lives, and 
danger of their perjured souls, so that they may be 
able to continue in their action against Her Majesty ; 

Pacata Hibernia. 


hoping thereby that at length she would grow weary 
of her extreme charges, and by that means be driven 
to condescend to their own conditions and liberty of 
conscience ; wherein, although they were not disturbed 1 
at this time, yet can they not be satisfied without 
public allowance, and exercise thereof under the 
Romanish authority, which they strive to have 
supreme ; and what kind of subjection can be expected 
at the hands of any such Papists may appear, for that 
some of great quality in Munster did about the 
middle of this month purposely send certain priests to 
Eome to purchase absolution from the Pope for the sin 
that they committed in not entering into public 
hostility with the rest ; and because they saw that the 
queen could not be violently dispossessed of Ireland, 
did likewise entreat a dispensation from overt action, 
but yet to live unchangeably in the Catholic religion, 
and to be permitted in outward temporal obedience Her 
Majesty's subjects. Consider therefore, I say, the 
dutiful allegiance of these men, whose obedience 
depends upon the Pope's allowance. 

Sir George Thornton had in garrison at Kilmallock 
Captain Francis Slingsby, with the President's com- 
pany, Paul Arundle, with the Lord Audley's, Captain 
Dillon, and Captain O'Eeilly, with their foot companies, 
and Captain Greame with his troop of horse, to whom 
intelligence was brought upon Tuesday, being the 

1 Kecall Lord Barry's letter to Tyrone. It must be remembered, 
however, that this official toleration of the exercise of religion in a 
private or at least unostentatious manner was dne to the dispensing 
power of the Queen. It was absolutely impossible to enforce the 
laws respecting religion at this time. Had the attempt been made, 
the Royalist Irish would have gone over to the insurgents and the 
State tumbled down with a crash. The Royalist Irish, while devoted 
Catholics, held that Rome had no power or right to dissolve their 
allegiance to the sovereign. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

sixteenth of September, that the rebels, James Fitz- 
Thomas and his accomplices, were that day to pass 
from Conniloe to the huge fastness of Arlogh. Where- 
upon Captain Greame instantly drew forth with his 
troop towards the said fastness ; order being likewise 
taken that the foot should hasten after with all possible 
speed, Captain Greame, making extraordinary haste, 
suddenly espied their forces somewhat near the wood ; 
but before they could recover the same, he gave them 
a charge, and at the very first possessed himself of 
their carriage, and killed all those that guarded the 
same. Hereupon the rebels (having four colours) in 
defence of their carriage drew towards him and gave 
him a charge, which he answered with his horse ; and 
by this time a Serjeant of Captain Dillon's with some 
light shot, were come up, and delivered a volley in 
their teeth, which killed divers of them and slew 
Pierce Lacy's horse under him. Hereupon Captain 
Greame charged their battalion home to the colours, 
which they resisted ; but at his second charge he brake 
clean through them, and they betook themselves to 
running, and our men to killing; and surely had not 
our horse been over-wearied with their long foray 
before they came to fight, and our foot tired and out 
of breath to come up, there had not one man escaped 
alive. But, as it was, there were slain at this skirmish 
of the rebels at least one hundred and twenty, where- 
of one half were of their best men, amongst whom were 
Desmond's base son, Teg O'Kelly, and Hugh O'Kelly, 
captains of the bownoghs, whose heads were the next 
day presented to the President at Moyallo. There were 
(besides these) above fourscore dangerously wounded. 
We took from them one hundred and fifty pikes and 
pieces, besides many swords, targets, and skeans ; we 

Pacata Hibernia. 


got forty horses and hackneys, and at least three 
hundred garrans laden with baggage, to the value (as 
was reported) of five hundred pounds, together with 
all their prey of sheep and cows, except some that ran 
into the woods, being frightened by the cry of the 
people and noise of the shot and drums. 

The greatest loss that we sustained was in horse, for 
Captain Greame lost sixteen horse, the Lord Audley 
had a sergeant slain, and there were six more wounded 
but not mortally ; one of Captain Greame's troop took 
the arch-traitor Desmond's ensign, which the captain 
perceiving, he stooped down to reach the colours, but 
at an instant receiving a blow with a piece upon the 
reins of his back, was not able to recover them, being 
rescued by six pikemen. 

This disaster proved so fatal to the usurping Earl 
that although of the six hundred foot he brought with 
him four hundred still remained able to fight, yet could 
he never afterwards gather one hundred of these to a 
head ; for some got into Connaught, some into Ulster, 
and, in fine, every man to his own home, leaving 
the Earl to a desperate fortune, who now perceived 
that the provincials submitted themselves daily to the 
President, and the strangers returned into their several 
countries ; and that no aid approached either from the 
south or north, by sea nor land, was compelled, to- 
gether with John his brother, Maurice MacThomas, 
Pierce Lacy, and the Knight of the Glyn, to leave the 
country of Cork, and to fly into Tipperary and 
Ormond, and thence John FitzThomas hasteth to 
Ulster. 1 

1 These exiled Lords of Munster returned next year with Tyrone 
and O'Donnell. 


Supplies of foot sent from England — O'Sulevan More sent by the 
Lord Deputy to the Lord President — The Castle of Glancoyne 
surprised by Sir Francis Barkley — Florence MacCarty's wife 
and followers persuaded him to go to the Lord President — The 
young Earl of Desmond arrived at Youghal — A letter from Her 
Majesty to the Lord President — Her Majesty's letters patents 
for James FitzGerald to be Earl of Desmond. 

The Lords of the Council of England, by their letters 
bearing date the twenty-seventh, advertised the Presi- 
dent that there were six hundred foot in readiness to 
be sent to Cork, to supply the army ; and for that 
many soldiers daily arrived in England by passports 
from their captains only, they gave the President a 
straight charge to take order with all the maritime 
towns that no soldier should be transported out of any 
of them without a pass under his own hand and seal ; 
and the last of the same he had directions from their 
Lordships that good bonds with sureties should be taken 
upon all merchants of Ireland who traded with Spain 
or France, not only for their own good behaviours and 
loyalties, when they were beyond the seas, but to all 
such passengers as they should carry with them, 
which was presently put into execution. 

Dermond O'Connor at his late being in Munster 
had caused O'Sulevan More, a man above sixty years 
of age, and yet never known to be in actioD against Her 
Majesty, neither in James FitzMaurice's wars, nor in 

Pacata Hibernia. 


the old Earl of Desmond's, nor in this last rebellion — 
this man, I saj, Dermond O'Connor had taken 
prisoner, not without consent and counsel of Florence 
MacOarty, because he refused to paybonnaght to the 
Connaught men. Captain Tirrell by force or fraud (I 
know not which) took the prisoner from him and 
carried him into the north, who escaped out of the 
Ulster men's hands, was taken by Sir Theobald Dillon 
of Connaught, and presented to the Lord Deputy, by 
whom he is committed to the castle of Dublin until his 
estate should be further known ; and not long after 
he sent him to the Earl of Ormond, to be sent by him 
to the President, to be disposed of according to his 
discretion. He, being about this time come to Cork, 
raileth bitterly against Florence, ascribing both the 
beginning and continuance of his troubles to him, 
and relating to the Council such intelligence as he had 
learned in those parts where he had been detained, 
returneth into his own country. 

The arch-rebels, James FitzThomas FitzMaurice 
and the Knight of the Grlyn, not finding (as it should 
seem) the entertainment they expected in my Lord of 
Ormond' s country, or, rather, not intending at first 
to make any long stay there, but only that thereby 
the President might think them quite gone, and so 
make no further inquiry after them, did, in the begin- 
ning of this month of October, steal back into the 
county of Limerick, yet not so privily but the Presi- 
dent had intelligence thereof ; for it was signified to 
him the fourth of this instant, that Desmond was 
about Arlogh, having not above five in his company, 
and two of them came lately from the Pope, with pro- 
mise of succour, which came too late for his turn, as 
hereafter shall be shown. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

In the meantime our garrisons prospered so well 
that Sir Francis Barkley got the castle of Glancoyne 
in Connilogh, burning and spoiling great store of corn 
in those parts ; and Sir Charles Wilmot in Kerry pre- 
vailed so far that Oastlemange, held by Thomas Oge, 
and Listoell, defended by FitzMaurice, were the only 
two castles held against Her Majesty, which were 
both regained within a short time ; and Captain 
Flower, at Lysmore, wrought miracles against the 
rebels in those parts, as Sir Richard Aylward wrote 
to the President. But Florence MacCarty, notwith- 
standing his manifold letters, stuffed with abominable 
oaths, came not (as yet) to the President, nor indeed 
minded he to come (as it was reported), had not his 
wife 1 and some of his country in a manner compelled 
him thereunto ; for she refused to come to his bed 
until he had reconciled himself to Her Majesty ; 
saying that she knew in what manner her father had 
that Earldom from Her Highness ; and though she be 
not pleased to bestow the same wholly upon her, yet 
she doubted not to obtain some part thereof ; but if 
neither of these could be got, yet was not she minded 
to go a-begging either into Ulster or into Spain ; and 
to confirm this report it was certainly known that she 
with the help of her friends kept the castle of the 
Lough in Desmond by force from him. 

Her Majesty having evermore had a determination 
to send James FitzGerald, son to the late Earl of 
Desmond, attained in Ireland, and having found by 
experience that the attempt which Dermond O'Connor 
made in the apprehension of James FitzThomas was 
at his wife's suit, in hope thereby to obtain the 
restitution of her brother to his old title of Earl of 
1 The Lady Eileen. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Desmond, and also unto some state of the inheritance 
for his maintenance, did now resolve to put her 
determination into effect, hoping that his presence in 
Ireland would draw the ancient followers of the Earl 
of Desmond (his father) from James FitzThomas, the 
supposed Earl, and therefore releasing him out of the 
tower, where from his infancy he had been prisoner, 
she not only admitted him to her presence, but styled 
him Earl 1 of Desmond, and sent him conducted into 
Ireland by Captain Price, a sober, discreet gentleman 
and an old commander in the wars, who landed with 
his charge at Youghal the fourteenth day of October ; 
from thence he brought him to Moyallo to the Presi- 
dent, upon the eighteenth, where from Her Majesty 
he presented to his Lordship the young Earl, Her 
Majesty's letters, and letters patents under the great 
seal of England for his restitution in blood and 
honour ; both which letter and letters patents I think 
it not unnecessary to set down the true copies, which 
were as f olloweth : — 

A Letter from Her Majesty to the Lord 

Elizab. R. 

Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. We 
have now at last resolved to send over James Fitz- 
Gerald into Munster, after long debate with ourself 
what accidents might follow thereupon ; wherein, 

1 All policy, one might think, of the shady nature common at this 
time. And yet the revived Earldom of Desmond could never be 
really formidable— Ichabod, its glory was departed. So when the 
great Earldom of Kildare was revived it never again became a power 
in the land. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

although there might be many doubts to what he may 
be inveigled in times to come, yet that opinion which 
we conceive of his own good nature and disposition to 
gratefulness, for this high benefit which he receiveth, 
together with the orderly course which we intend 
shall be observed in the raising and disposing his for- 
tune, doth make us less doubtful of that mischief 
than we are for the present of some other scorn which 
we shall receive if, by our sending him over, and your 
resolution to restore him, no such effect should follow 
as might be answerable to that which is expected. In 
which consideration, although we know there are many 
of opinion that the way to draw greatest things by 
him were to raise him high at first (because it will 
make those cleave to him the faster), yet we will follow 
therein our own resolution, which is rather to proceed 
in such a case by degrees than in any sudden, without 
reasonable caution and reservation. For the first step, 
therefore, we have now sent him over by Captain 
Price, a trusty and discreet person, to deliver him 
safely into your hands ; whereas we know the keeping 
of him in any state of a prisoner would wholly over- 
throw the work and multiply the jealousies of those 
who judge all others by themselves, so in respect that 
you are in place where all circumstances are clearest 
known, and that the change of causes altereth councils, 
know this from us, that we shall never disallow it if 
you in your discretion find it necessary at any time 
that you do abridge him of any liberty or any favour 
now afforded him. For as we have much the rather 
assented to send him over and place him there, be- 
cause you have had your part in the counsel, so do we 
refer the managing of him to your discretion. For his 
maintenance during his abode there, there are but two 

Pacata Hibernia. 


ways, the one to bestow lands upon him with a habi- 
tation ; the other to maintain him out of our own 
purse with a pension. In the first there must be time 
to considerwhere to seat him ; for the second, because 
it is a thing that must be done, and that he must be 
maintained with a convenient attendance, that they 
may not scorn him, and that he hath one or two 
sisters, whom we had rather should depend upon him- 
self than be matched with any other that were ill- 
affected (whereof many there be that would be glad to 
fortify themselves by them) . "We do hereby give you 
order to pursue the numbers you have, and where you 
find any unprofitable captain that hath a weak band, 
that you do presently cashier the same, and to employ 
part of that charge, which was formerly bestowed in 
that band, towards the maintenance of him and his, 
as you shall see requisite, without further charging us, 
and the same to continue until we may see how to 
resolve of some convenient habitation for him, that 
they may see he is to be seated amongst them with 
a competent portion of living, where he may be a stay 
to our service. And now because we know the coun- 
try will think him unlikely to stead them that shall 
follow him, if they be not assured that he shall have 
the title, which is a matter they do so much affect to 
follow, we have herewith sent you a patent of his 
Earldom, to the intent that you may assure all that 
are diffident of our performance ; and yet we can be 
content they plainly do understand also that if they 
shall not actually and substantially perform those 
services which may deserve this extraordinary cle- 
mency, and give us cause to consummate the rest, we 
both can and will quickly recall all that is hitherto 
performed, for which purpose we do hereby command 
vol. l K 

i 3 o 

Pacata Hibernia. 

you to advertise us what is effected for him by this 
demonstrative act of ours, and then to receive our 
pleasure, before the patent be delivered out of your 
hands ; although for the present you may let it be 
shown to any such persons as you shall see cause to 
assure by view of the same, and thereby make them 
perceive how unjustly we have been slandered by those 
that should possess the world, that we have no desire 
or end but to extirpate as well the innocent as the con- 
trary of that nation, seeing that we are contented to 
raise the son of that father that had committed such 
notorious crimes. Forasmuch as we do hold it conve- 
nient that the Archbishop of Cassell should not be in 
any sort kept in extremity, we would have you con- 
vert ten dead pays of foot to his use, parcel of that 
hundred which is appointed to be cashiered for the 
maintenance of James Fitz Gerald ; wherein likewise 
we would have consideration held of poor, and some 
maintenance for the wife of Dermond O'Connor; all 
these allowances to be borne by the cashiering of that 
company and to be ordered according to your discre- 
tion, because we would not have apparent penury to 
surprise any of these that have entered so deeply, 
although the fruits are yet ungathered, which is the 
time when they must be further rewarded. We have 
likewise given order to the deputy to make an allow- 
ance of forty shillings a week to the Archbishop, in 
nature of dead 1 pays to preachers, in lieu whereof he 
may stay the pension of some other who is not so 
necessary to be provided for. Having now assented 
to do that you have advised, we leave it to be ordered 

1 A dead pay was the pay due to a person not forthcoming, or 
presumed to be dead. Miler M'Grath, who seems to fare so well in 
this business, was, in fact, the richest ecclesiastic in Ireland. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

according to your discretion, assuring you that we 
are still of opinion if you use not this patent well that 
they will be less greedy to dispatch any business for 
us than they would have been if we had not gone on 
so hastily with theirs. But we repose such trust in 
you that we think our honour and safety of that pro- 
vince in safe hands, for so much as faith and discretion 
can secure, to whom we render condign thanks for 
the good proof you have hitherto made of them both. 
The Bishop is not unfit to frequent the young gentle- 
man ; and, therefore, that credit which is fit let him 
have, and let your proof of his zeal excuse other of his 
indiscretions. Given at our Manor of Otlands the 1st 
of October, 1600. 

Ro. Cecill. 

It was thought by all men that the coming of 
this young lord into Ireland would have bred a great 
alteration in the province and an absolute revolt of 
all the old followers of the house of Desmond from 
James FitzThomas; but it proved of no such con- 
sequence. For the President, to make trial of the 
disposition and affection of the young Earl's kindred 
and followers, at his desire consented that he should 
make a journey from Moyallo into the county of 
Limerick, accompanied by the Archbishop of Cashell 
and Master Boyle, 1 Clerk of the Council, a person in 
whom the Lord President reposed much trust and 
confidence, and with whom he then communicated 
and advised about his most secret and serious affairs 
of that government. And to Master Boyle his Lord- 
ship gave secret charge as well to observe the Earl's 
ways and carriage as what men of quality or others 
made their address unto him, and with what respects 

1 Will be one day the famous Lord Cork. 
K 2 

1 3 2 

Pacata Hibernia. 

and behaviour they carried themselves towards the 
Earl, who came to Kilmallock upon a Saturday in the 
evening ; and by the way, and at their entry into the 
town, there was a mighty concourse of people, inso- 
much as all the streets, doors, and windows, yea the 
very gutters and tops of the houses were so filled with 
them, as if they came to see him whom God had sent 
to be that comfort and delight their souls and hearts 
most desired ; and they welcomed him with all the ex- 
pressions and signs of joy, every one throwing upon 
him wheat and salt, an ancient ceremony used in that 
province upon the election of their new mayors and 
officers as a prediction of future peace and plenty. 
That night the Earl was invited to supper to Sir 
George Thornton's, who then kept his house in the 
town of Kilmallock ; and although the Earl had a 
guard of soldiers, which made a lane from his lodgings 
to Sir George Thornton's house, yet the confluence of 
people that flocked thither to see him was so great 
that in half an hour he could not make his passage 
through the crowd ; and after supper he had the like 
encounters at his return to his lodging. The next 
day being Sunday, the Earl went to church to hear 
divine service ; and all the way his country people 
used loud and rude exhortations to keep him from 
church, to which he lent a deaf ear ; but after service 
and the sermon was ended, the Earl, coming forth from 
the church, was railed at, also spat upon by those 
that before his going to church were so desirous to 
see and salute him. Insomuch that after that public 
expression of his religion the town was cleared of that 
multitude of strangers, and the Earl thenceforward 
might walk as quietly and freely in the town as little 
in effect followed or regarded as any other private 

Pacata Hibernia. 


gentleman. The true relation I the rather make 
that all men may observe how hateful our religion 
and the professors thereof are to the ruder and 
ignorant sort of people in that kingdom. For thence- 
forward none of his father's followers (except some 
few of the meaner sort of freeholders) resorted unto 
him ; and the other great lords in Munster, who had 
ever been overshadowed by the greatness of Desmond, 
did rather fear than wish the advancement of the 
young lord. But the truth is, his religion, being a 
Protestant, was the only cause that had bred this 
coyness in them all ; for if he had been a Roman 
Catholic the hearts and knees of all degrees in the 
province would have bowed unto him. Besides, his 
coming was not well liked by the undertakers, who 
were in some jealousy that in after times he might 
be restored to his father's inheritances, and thereby 
become their lord, and their rents (now paid to the 
Crown) would in time be conferred upon him. These 
considerations assured the President that his personal 
being in Munster would produce small effects, but 
only to make trial what power he had. 1 

1 The writer does not correctly diagnose the situation, though 
doubtless he relates the facts exactly as they occurred. The Earl of 
Ormonde, Black Thomas, was a Protestant, yet Tipperary, all Catholic, 
once rose in rebellion like one man at the thought that he had been 
treated with injustice. The great Earldom of Desmond had got a 
great fall, and neither Tyrone nor the Queen herself could really set 
it up again. As compared with former Earls even the Queen's 
would be a Sugan Earl. 

Stafford's opinion, that "had the young Earl been a 
Catholic, the hearts and knees of the whole province would have 
bowed unto him, " is quite absurd. His father, Garret, the last of 
the great Earls of Desmond, was a Catholic, and the name 
of the Desmond still something to conjure with, yet the larger 
proportion of the province ran at the Queen's direction to drag him 


The juggling of Florence MacCarty — Supplies of men and apparel 
sent into Munstor — The submission of Florence MacCarty — A 
skirmish between the MacCarty and O'Lery. — O'Lery slain — A 
letter from Redmond Burke to the Lord President. 

The President attempted by his means the getting 
of Castle Mange, a castle of Her Majesty's, in which 
before, and at the beginning of the war, she had a 
ward surprised by the supposed Desmond, and left 
by him in the custody of Thomas Oge, as afore- 
said, which by his negociation with the said constable 
was at last rendered unto him, together with Pierce 
Lacy's two sons, who were kept as pledges therein ; 
and this was all the service that he did or could 
do during his abode in Ireland. And that work of 
his Florence MacCarty used all his wit and policy to 
prevent and overthrow ; for at the very instant 
when Thomas Oge, who had the keeping of Castle 
Mange and Pierce Lacy's sons as pledges therein, 
had faithfully assured the yielding up thereof, and 
of the aforesaid pledges to the Lord President, 
Florence, being then entertained by the President in 
his house at Moyallo, and as fast bound unto him 
by many benefits and favours, as Florence was by the 
9 strongest oaths and vows that any Christian could 
be obliged by, got some secret hint that Castle Mange 
was by Thomas Oge to be yielded up to Her Majesty ; 

Pacata Hibernia. 


who well foreseeing what reputation it would bring to 
Desmond, and how much it would make up towards 
the hastening of his own ruin, if that fort were 
once regained and an English garrison placed 
here, he presumed, and that in the President's own 
house, where he was so graciously used and enter- 
tained, to write his effectual and earnest letters 
to the said Thomas Oge, assuring him that Redmond 
Burke and Captain Tirrell were on their way with 
great forces to get Munster on fire again, dissuad- 
ing him from keeping his promise with the Presi- 
dent and the young Earl of Desmond, promising, 
and binding his promises with damnable oaths, that 
he would presently revictual the ward of Castle 
Mange for three months, pay them the arrears of all 
their wages, and that he would give Thomas Oge 
and his heirs for ever six plough-lands of his own 
inheritance, so he would not deliver up Castle 
Mange. And these letters were by the watchfulness 
of Master Boyle intercepted and delivered to the 
President. And thenceforward Florence knew his 
letters were intercepted and his treacheries more 
and more discovered. But all this while it was 
a world to see how Florence played fast and loose 
between the President and the Governor of Kerry ; 
for whenever the President sent to have him come 
to him, then he answered that he was within a few 
days to meet with the Governor of Kerry by a former 
appointment ; if Sir Charles sent for him, then he 
was shortly to repair to the President, and so deluding 
both he would come to neither. His stay was (as we 
have shown) because he proposed to stand out, and 
for that cause had the last month before planted, as 
it was reported, some number of bownoghs in his 


Pacata Hibernia. 

country ; but the Governor's people, upon one side, 
and his bownoghs on the other side, had by this time 
so harried and consumed his country that he found 
the same unable longer to maintain his mercenaries ; 
and therefore delayed with good words to gain longer 
time, for it was commonly spoken of among the 
protectees, and Captain Taff wrote so much to the 
President from Kilkenny that Eedmond Burke and 
Captain Tirrell, with all the forces they could gather 
in Connaught and Leinster, would make another in- 
cursion into Munster, so soon as the Lord Deputy 
should return from the North, which was expected 
very shortly, because the time of the year would breed 
many difficulties and inconveniences in his longer 
stay. Whether it were this bruit, or the hearkening 
after a ship to arrive in those parts, which might 
transport him beyond seas, that occasioned his 
dilatory excuses, I know not ; but sure I am that they 
proceeded not from any loyal or dutiful mind. 

The beggarly Earl, in the meantime, lurked in the 
woods with some two or three in his company, some- 
times in Arlogh, sometimes in Drumfinnin, but mostly 
in the county of Tipperary, where he had much 
kindred by his mother's side. The President had 
intelligence every day where he lodged the night 
before, but never until he was departed and had left 
the place ; not but that the country could have re- 
ported as well where he is as where he had been, but 
they were possessed with such a superstitious folly, 
and so terrified with the priests' thunderbolts of 
excommunication, that they judged him unavoidably 
damned that should ruinate such a principal pillar of 
the Catholic action. And FitzMaurice was in little 
better case ; for, although since liis return into 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Munster himself, with the Knight of the Glyn, had 
assembled some four score in the fastness of Clan- 
morris, who guarded their corn that should maintain 
them for the year following, yet Sir Charles Wilmot, 
marching twelve miles through their woods, being 
directed by a trusty guide, came suddenly upon them 
and slew sixty of them ; the two principals escaping 
very narrowly. After the killing ended they scoured 
the woods, and finding great store of corn therein, 
they burnt the same, and returned with the arms of 
all the dispersed kerns. Pierce Lacy had so well 
bestirred himself in his negotiation with those of 
Ormond and Ossory, that of Ormond and Ossory men, 
with the Purcels and O'Maghers, he had reinforced 
himself with five hundred men, and, being now joined 
with Redmond Burke, who had one thousand foot and 
sixty horse (as was credibly informed), drew their 
forces into 0' Carrel's 1 country, threatening daily to 
invade the small country of Limerick, which bordered 
upon them ; but their stay (as was reported) depended 
upon the return of John of Desmond, who was ex- 
pected with forces out of the North. But Tyrone was 
so well set a work, by the honourable, painful and 
prosperous proceedings of the Lord Deputy, that he 
had enough to do in defending his own country, much 
less could he spare any forces for other parts. 

1 O'Carroll's country was on the confines of Butler territory. 
Between 0' Carroll and the Earl of Ormonde there were continuous 
bickerings, small wars, and borderages. The Earl regarded O'Carroll 
as his vassal. This O'Carroll denied maintaining that he was a free 
man, subject only to the Queen. The Earl had for barons, time out 
of mind, many Celtic lords, O'Dwyer, the O'Kennedies — White and 
Black — MacEgan, O'Ryan, etc., generally as loyal to him as were his 
own Butlers. The position of these Celtic lords under the Earl was 
one of honour. The reigning O'Dwyer at this time was the Earl's 


Pacata Hibernia. 

In September last, mention is made that the Lords 
of the Council had promised to send to the President 
six hundred foot for the supplying of his army, which 
accordingly arrived at Cork, as appeareth by the 
President's letters written to their Lordships dated 
this five-and-twentieth of this month of October, 
and with them three hundred and fifty winter suits of 

But to return again to Florence MacCarty, after all 
the tergiversations before mentioned, and many others 
too tedious to be inserted, finding all his neighbours 
to have submitted themselves, and his own followers, 
so impoverished by the wars, desirous to do the like, 
was contented (tandem aliquando) to repair to the 
President, lying at Moyallo, bringing some forty horse 
in his company, and himself in the midst of his troop, 
like the great Turk amongst his Janizaries, drew to- 
wards the house the nine-and-twentieth of October 
like Saul, higher by the head and shoulders than any 
of his followers. 1 Upon his submission the President, 
as having forgotten all former matters, gave him kind 
entertainment, being indeed heartily glad of his pre- 
sence, hoping thereby that these wars of Munster were 
brought to a final end. To secure him therefore to 
the State, the President demanded his eldest son in 
pledge, who being unable to take so long a journey by 
the indisposition of his body (as Florence protested), 

1 This is the first bit of personal description with which the writer 
has favoured us. One would think that he was a blind man, so little 
does he tell us of the things we really desire to know. So one may- 
travel for hours through the State Papers without getting one glimpse 
of the men of whom they treat. From this point of view the Irish 
letter-writers are by far the best. Tyrone's superiority to every man 
of his time in Ireland is exhibited too in his letters, always good read- 
ing and sometimes charmingly graphic. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


he left two others, the one his base brother, who had 
spent many years in France, Spain, and Hungary ; 
and the other his foster brother, both of whom he had 
in very precious esteem. Florence requested that 
those pledges might suffice for the O'Sulevans, the 
O'Donoghes, the O'Crowlys, and O'Maghon Carbry ; 
but hereto the President would by no persuasion be 
drawn to condescend, and that especially for two 
causes ; the one was, that hereby he might draw from 
Florence this great rabble of dependents ; and the 
second was, because all of these being compelled to 
put in pledges for themselves, the Queen might have 
the stronger assurance of these wavering and slippery 

The province, being reduced to this pass (as you 
have heard), the Irish, having now no other enemy to 
oppugn, begin to go together by the ears amongst 
themselves, for certain of Donoghe Moyle MacCarty's 
(son to Sir Owen MacCarty Reughe) people, follow- 
ing the track of some cows that had been stolen from 
them into Muskerry, the O'Lerys 1 assembled them- 
selves to the number of one hundred or thereabouts, 
and following the Cartys, who were by this time 
returned into Carbery, at last overtook them, and with- 
out many words gave the onset ; the others stoutly 
resisted, between whom there passed a short but a 
sharp skirmish, wherein were slain O'Lery, the head 
of that sept, and ten others the chief of his family, 
with some more of less note, and of the Cartys, Finin 
MacOwen, his brother, dangerously wounded, with 

1 The O'Learys, a sept occupying the hill country about the sources 
of the Lee, where some of their castles are still seen. One of these 
bore the agreeable name of " Sweet Prospect," Castellum Jucundi 
Prospectus, as Philip O'Sullivan calls it. The hills and lakes of 
Inchigeela formed that agreeable prospect. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

some few slain of his part. Cormack MacDermond, 
Lord of Muskerry, much grieved with the slaughter 
of the O'Lerys, his followers, was an earnest suitor to 
the Council that he might be permitted to revenge 1 this 
loss upon the Cartys in Carbery. Some there were 
that thought it not unfit to accord his demands; 
because whichsoever party should prevail yet could not 
the Queen lose a good subject; but the President 
would by no means yield thereto, lest the hot persecu- 
tion of these particular grievances might kindle the 
coals of some further mischief in giving occasion of 
distaste to the now reconciled subjects. 

Redmond Burke, being weary of his vagabond life, 
living like a wolf upon everyone from whom he could 
take anything, or rather wittingly foreseeing the ruin 
and destruction of his confederates, who were in 
rebellion, of whose fortunes he was in all likelihood to 
be a partaker, wrote a letter to the President dated 
the thirtieth of October, which because it is but 
short I do here insert. 

A Letter from Redmond Burke to the Lord 

Right Honourable, — I doubt not the detestable and 
apparent wrong that the Earl of Clanricard hath done 
me is manifestly known to your Lordship already, as 
I need not larger to express it ; but this I am sure, 
that the toleration thereof, and that I would not other- 
wise been caused to run this course, and, if there were 
any hope of redress, that I would long ere this be a 

1 Shows how inveterate was the idea of private war. That right 
too was claimed and exercised in England later than is generally 

Pacata Hibernia. 


subject, and will now show myself worthy to be 
accepted, if I be entertained, and my father's lands, 
seized into your Honour's hands, till my title be tried. 
This country of Ely, being in your Honour's province, 
is a parcel to whom I make claim, wherein I would 
expect your Honour to right me first. And thus re- 
questing your Honour to accept my service, and 
favour my right, I take leave. From Ely, the 
thirtieth of October, 1600. 1 

Your Honour's as you please, 

Redmond Leiteim. 

The President, much disliking the tenor of his 
letter, as well for other reasons as for capitulating for 
the country of Ely O'Carrell, before he had by his 
service merited any favour, and, lastly, for the slight 
subscription, "Your Honour's as you please," re- 
turned him no answer in writing, utterly refusing any 
further traffic with him, it being his custom not to 
deal with traitors upon conditions. 

1 Observe how frankly this chief pillar of the confederacy points 
out that it was the land question, not the national or religious, that 
sent him into action. To the Barony of Leitrim in Clanricarde he 
had a most just claim. What claim he had to Ely other than that 
given by the swords and calyvers of his brave bonoghs, I don't 
know. Note how he signs his name as Lord of Leitrim. 


The Lord President sueth for a general pardon for the Provincials — 
The submission of Thomas Oge FitzGerald, and the rendering 
of Castle Mange — The Castle of Listwell besieged and taken — 
The Castle of the Dingle rendered. 

The province of Minister now growing to a peaceable 
state, the President, by his letters of the second of 
November to the Lords of the Council, humbly prayed 
that they would be pleased to move Her Majesty that 
a general pardon might be granted unto all the pro- 
vincials that desired the same, the lurking Earl, his 
brother John FitzThomas, Pierce Lacy, and two others 
of good quality (who are yet living) only excepted, 1 
for those he knew to be the most malicious traitors, 
and also Her Majesty's inclination was no way bent 
to extend her mercy unto them. The reasons which 
moved him to sue for this general pardon were princi- 
pally the multitudes of the protected persons, who, 
living from time to time upon protection, were not so 
assured to the State as they would be if they were 
pardoned, whereby the Government received much 

1 Of all the high lords and gentlemen of Munster who had sworn 
to O'Neill, these four only had not as yet betrayed the action, and of 
these four can we be sure that any would not have done so had they 
seen some way open of securing their interests by approaching the 
State. The two whose names are not given must have afterwards 
done Carew service and escaped out of the wars still men of property 
and position. So the writer does not care to stigmatize them by 
name. It may be surmised that the last day of " Ambodexter Florence " 
is now near at hand. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


impediment, and, besides, there were many poor 
women and children that had no ability to be at the 
charge of sning forth of their pardons ; and, lastly, 
it was much desired by the provincials themselves. 
Nevertheless he added this caution, that if any of the 
protectors did in this interim do any treasonable act, 
that the President, with some four or five of the 
Council of the province joined with him, might have 
power to deny them the benefit thereof, and also that 
priests, and Romish religious persons, who were the 
first inciters of the rebellion, and the continual 
fomenters of the same, should likewise be excepted. 
The opinion of the President had good allowance in 
England ; yet for some private respects of commodity 
to officers, as it may be imagined, the motion of a 
general pardon took not the effect desired ; but after- 
wards, as you shall hear, there was order given that 
all such as the President would recommend should 
have the favour to sue out their pardons. 

In the beginning of November, a strong castle in 
Connilogh, which was held by James FitzThomas, was 
surprised by our forces, so that he had no other castle 
at his devotion left but Castle Mange. 

The fourth of November, Thomas Oge FitzGerald, 
Constable of Castle Mange (for James FitzThomas), 
having ever had a better affection unto the young 
Earl of Desmond, James (lately sent by Her Majesty 
into Ireland, as hath been declared), upon the Earl's 
entreaty and persuasions came to Kilmallock and 
there made tender of the said castle unto the Earl, 
for Her Majesty's use. The Earl the next day 
brought him to Moyallo 1 to the President, where he 

1 Moy Alio, i.e. the Plain of the Alio, otherwise the Blackwater. 
Hence Mallow. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

made his submission, and direction was sent to Sir 
Charles Wilmot for the receipt of the said castle. 

Sir Charles Wilmot, knowing that FitzMaurice the 
Lord of Lixnaw had only one castle, called Listoell, 
wherein to shelter himself, finding no other means 
to compass the same, determined to besiege it, and 
intimated so much to the President by his letters, 
requesting his advice and allowance therein, who 
returned answer, that he desired nothing more than 
to have that castle got for the Queen, and, for the 
manner, left the managing thereof wholly to his dis- 
cretion. He settled before it upon the fifth of Novem- 
ber, attempting to get it by a mine ; in which, after 
he had wrought five or six days, and brought it 
underneath the castle wall, being ready to make a 
bed for the placing of the powder, suddenly the 
spring broke forth in such abundance that work 
became fruitless ; thereupon new ground was sought, 
which proved good ; the foundation of the castle 
was undermined as far as the middle of the cellar, 
which the ward perceiving, made humble suit to be 
permitted to depart with their lives, which Sir Charles 
absolutely refused ; but if they would simply sur- 
render themselves, the castle, and all things in it, to 
his discretion, he would then stay further proceeding 
in his work, otherwise they might look within very 
few hours to be blown up. The ward, which were 
eighteen in number, came forth, and upon their 
knees submitted themselves unto him, whom he 
caused to be apprehended. The women and small 
children he suffered to depart; of the weaponed men 
he hanged nine, so many of ours being lost at the 
siege, which continued more than three weeks ; the 
residue he detained, until he had ' acquainted the 

Pacata Hibernia. 


President with all these accidents, who gave present 
order for the execution of the rest ; for they had been 
all of them formerly protected, except one Sir Der- 
mond MacBrodie, a priest, whose life was saved upon 
this occasion. It chanced that within this castle, at 
the rendering thereof, there was, unknown to Sir 
Charles, the Lord of Lixnaw's eldest son, a child 
of five years of age. The warders, upon their 
coming forth, disarrayed this child of all his clothes, 
and, having besmeared his face with dust and dirt, 
committed him to an old woman, who, bringing the 
infant naked and disfigured at her back, conveyed 1 
him away without suspicion. Sir Charles, receiving 
advertisement of this escape, sent out some soldiers 
and some provincials, whom he most trusted, for 
the recovery of him, but in vain ; they all returned 
with lost labour. At last he bethought himself that 
peradventure some of the prisoners could direct him 
in the pursuit, and, questioning the priest concerning 
the child, he answered that he could best resolve him, 
for that himself had given direction to the woman 
where she should bestow the child till she might 
deliver him to his father. " Why, then," said Sir 
Charles, " will you not conduct me to him ? Know 
you not that it is in my power to hang you or to save 
you ? Yes, and I assure you, if you will not guide 
me to the place where he lies hidden, I will cause you 
to be instantly hanged. ,, The priest answered that 
it was all one to him, whether he died this day or to- 
morrow ; but yet if he might have his word, for the 
sparing of his own life and the child's, he would reveal 
his knowledge; otherwise the Governor might do his 

1 This child was ancestor of our Marquises of Lansdowne, who 
are also Barons of Lixnaw. 

VOL. I. 



Pacata Hibernia. 

pleasure. Sir Charles, though very unwilling to grant 
the priest's life, yet the earnest desire he had to get 
the child into his hands caused him to agree thereto. 
The priest, being put into a handlock, is sent with a 
captain and a good guard of soldiers about this 
business, who guided them to a wood, six miles from 
the castle, by reason of thick briars and thorns 
almost impassable, in the midst whereof there is a 
hollow cave within the ground, not much unlike, by 
description, Cacus's 1 den, or the mouth of Avernus, in 
which desolate place they found that old woman and 
this young child, whom they brought to the governor, 
and the priest and child were shortly after sent to 
the President. In this castle were got all the Lord of 
Lixnaw's goods, besides store of provision for the war, 
who were plentifully provided for six months with 
such kind of victual as the country yields ; and it was 
said that the Baron himself would have set up his 
rest in this castle, which he held impregnable against 
any force, the cannon excepted, but it would seem his 
heart failed him no less than his expectations. While 
these things were in doing, Sir Richard Percy drew 
his company forth from Kinsale into Kinalmekagh, 
and there took a prey of two hundred cows, and got 
the killing of some rebels. 

In the beginning of this month William Fitz- 
Gerald, the Knight of Kerry, came to the President 
with a letter in his favour from Sir Charles Wilmot, 
dated the thirtieth of October, wherein he witnessed 
for him that ever since he was received under pro- 

1 Tempora mutantur. A modern writer telling this story would 
treat that cave as a holy place, a shrine of love and loyalty. No age 
is romantic to itself. Stafford tells his tale as if this sixteenth century 
were the prosiest of all, and yet it was a century teeming with 
all the elements of high romance. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


tection he had demeaned himself not only like a 
good subject, in doing no harm, but that he had 
endeavoured to his uttermost to annoy the enemy 9 
and had lately in token of his obedience delivered 
unto Sir Charles his castle at the Dingle. This testi- 
mony wrought so much with the President that he 
used him very kindly, and returned him home with 
great contentment. 

Not long after the landing of the young Earl of 
Desmond in Ireland the minds of the provincials 
were much distracted, every one fearing what might 
be the success thereof. But after a little while it 
appeared that he was able to do but little. To the 
end that the reader might see that at first it did 
breed some distraction, I here insert a letter to 
Tyrone from Cormock MacDermond, the lord of 
the large country of Muskery, who was never per- 
sonally in actual rebellion, neither before nor after 
the Spaniards' arrival ; the copy of which letter 
came not to the President's hands until the latter end 
of the year 1602, and he then pardoned, wherein it 
doth evidently appear what cankered hearts the better 
sort of subjects bore to the Crown of England and 
the English Government. 1 

1 Cunning, not ' 1 canker," is what very evidently appears in this 
epistle. See next chapter. 


A letter from Cormock MacDermond to Tyrone — The abbey of 
Ratho burned and forty of the bonoghs slain — One thousand 
bonoghs levied by Florence MacCarty — Connaught and Ulster 
men change their resolution for the invading of Munster : the 
cause — Dermond O'Connor murdered by Theobald ny Long 
Burke — A letter from the Earl of Clanricard to Theobald ny 

A Letter from Cormock: MacDermond to Tyrone. 

I have received your letter of the twentieth of 
September, and do thank you for the great trust you 
repose in me, which by the help of God shall be by 
me discharged to the uttermost of my power; but 
the English have in these parts so much prevailed, 
by the sinister false dealing of the Connaught men, 
that the President hath taken pledges of most of 
the gentlemen and men of power in these parts. 
And, besides, we are so weak in men that we are out 
of necessity constrained to yield to the yoke of the 
English heretics, from which we pray God to deliver 
us, according to our heart's desire ; and therefore do 
hope you will bear with our present necessities, being 
ready at all times to obey your directions when you 
shall be able to send us help ; but because that we 
shall neither deceive you nor ourselves, we do pray 
you to send us word what numbers you will send 
us and by what time, that accordingly we may make 
ourselves ready to give you our best assistance. But 
of one thing I think good to give you particular 
notice, which is, not to put any confidence in any 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of Munster of the English Nation ; for whatsoever 
they profess or protest unto you they mean not to 
deal faithfully with us, but will forsake us in our 
greatest need. The news of these parts is that the 
son of Gerald the late Earl is arrived, to whom 
his father's old followers do much resort ; he is a 
heretic, yet, nevertheless, by the help of the English 
he will do us great harm. The right Earl of Des- 
mond is forsaken by all men, and not able to make head, 
and the less hope of his rising again by the coming of 
young James, who is the Queen's Earl, and hath a 
patent for his Earldom. I pray your speedy answer ; 
in the meantime I will dissemble with the President, 
who deals sharply with us. The letter which you sent 
with these to MacCarty More I have sent to him by 
a messenger of my own, who is lately agreed with the 
President ; and so we are deceived in him, and there- 
fore he is not to be firmly trusted with the command- 
ment of all the Clan Cartys. 

Coemook Carty. 1 

Sir Charles Wilmot in the meantime, marching to 
an abbey in Kerry called Ratho, near Lixnaw, as soon 
as his colours were descried, was fired at by the enemy 
that lodged there ; thence with his horse only he 
marched to Tralee, where he found one hundred 
bonoghs of the O'Kellys, among whom were Moriertagh 
MacShighy and three or four more of the lurking 

1 Even at this distance of time the reading of such a letter fills us 
with a feeling of almost personal shame, as a reflection on our com- 
mon manhood. Cormac, never once in action for the cause about which 
he writes so finely, was now, like so many others, hedging. Tyrone 
might win hereafter. He would like, for the sake of ultimate possi- 
bilities, just to have a foot, or even a toe, in Tyrone's camp. His 
Lordship of Muskerry was now an old man, and an old man who 
had spent nearly his whole life fighting for the Crown, labouring to 
establish in Munster what he hero terms " the yoke of the English 
heretics," and he had just sent his eldest son to be educated at Oxford. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

Earl's chief followers on horseback. Our horse 
charged them, the horsemen (by flight) saved them- 
selves, but of the foot there were slain about forty ; 
the rest, by the favour of a neighbouring bog and the 
mountain at hand, escaped, but all their arms were left 
to our shares. 1 

The perpetual juggling which Florence MacCarty 
continued towards the Lord President I have so often 
touched upon that it needs no other proof ; but for the 
better testimony of his ill affection to the State, even 
now when the Sugan Earl was in the state of a fugitive, 
hiding himself from the sight of men, Florence (as 
the Lord President was advertised from Sir Charles 
Wilmot) had raised one thousand bownoghs to be 
placed upon Desmond, four hundred upon Kerry, and 
six hundred upon Carbry, and concludes with these 
words, viz., Assuredly he purposeth to be a villain, 
though he could be contented to live in neutrality, as 
he doth, if he could carry it cleanly. Also at that 
time the Baron of Lixnaw, who was banished Kerry, 
was by him relieved in Desmond ; but observe well I 
beseech you this wavering and unsettled companion, 
who, not knowing which way either to be a subject or 
rebel, not many days afterwards (as shall be said) came 
to the President, with a smooth countenance full of 
loyalty, but inwardly the same man he had ever been. 

Nothing was more common now in Munster than 
a bruit of the strangers from Connaught and Ulster, 
coming to invade the province with two thousand 
men, and hereof the President received daily ad vertise- 

It will be remarked that the only fighting or stout work of any- 
kind done on behalf of " the action " in Munster was the work of the 
bonoghs of Connaught and the north. The "provincials," with all 
their clamour, and in spite of all their high-sounding names and titles, 
did nothing but treachery, while the poor bonoughs and their landless 
captains played on the whole a manly part. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

merit from the Earl of Thomond, the Lord Barry, 
Justice Comerford, and others; and, to verify the 
same, Pierce Lacy was come into the borders of Kil- 
quig, and had preyed Grlanogre, a town belonging to 
Sir George Bourchier, Master of the Ordnance, being 
a parcel of his Seigniory, and then in farm to Alexander 
Fitton ; this caused the President to assemble the 
greatest part of his forces at Killmallock, attending 
there to behold what should become of this cloud which 
threatened such a dangerous tempest, which at length 
vanished without any great disturbance ; for about the 
middle of this month they withdrew themselves into 
Ormond, within the liberty of Tipperary. The cause 
why they departed, before they had made any bonfires 
in Munster, which was their errand, as I have since 
learned, was twofold. First, because Redmond Burke 
could by no means be drawn into the province, being 
in expectation of great favour from the President, as 
appears by his letter sent about this time, which, 
because it is but short, and yet apparently declareth 
this truth, I thought not unfit here to be recited in 
his own words : — 

Eight Honoueable, — I would long ere this be a 
subject, and will now show myself worthy to be 
accepted, if I be entertained, and my father's lands 
seized into your Honour's hands till my title be tried. 
This country of Ely O'Carrell, being in your Honour's 
province, is a parcel whereto I make claim, wherein 
I would expect your Honour to right me first ; and 
thus requesting your Honour to accept my service, and 
favour my right, I take leave this ninth of November, 

Your Honour's as you please, 

Redmond Leitkim. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

The President, to hold Redmond, as I conceive, in 
some hope that he might not join with the northern 
forces then expected to come into Munster, returned 
him answer to this effect, that his demands seemed to 
be somewhat reasonable, and that he was very sorry 
that it was not fully in his power to accomplish his 
request. Notwithstanding there was no doubt, but 
upon his letters already despatched to the Council of 
England and to the Lord Deputy in his behalf, such 
order should be taken as he should hold himself 
well satisfied ; and surely whether the President dealt 
plainly, and bond fide with the said Eedmond, or 
whether he fed him with good words only (like a 
courtier) to serve his own turn, I know not ; but if I 
might deliver my poor opinion, I think him to have 
received some hard measure (I mean in respect of his 
father's lands), upon whomsoever the fault lieth ; — but 
to return. 

This Redmond, commanding the greatest part of the 
forces now assembled, depending this much upon the 
President's favour (as by his letter appeareth), could 
by no allurements of those Munster rebels be enticed 
to commit any outrage within that province. Another 
cause why these rebels thus assembled came no further 
up into Munster was because the wandering Earl, 
James FitzThomas, who should have given them bon- 
naght in the province, knowing that Lixnaw, Red- 
mond Burke, Pierce Lacy, and all of them were grown 
weary of the rebellion, and that the President had com- 
merce with all 1 those, durst not commit himself into 

1 From all the foregoing one would have thought that Pierce Lacy 
at the least was a stout and true-hearted champion of the action. 
Yet Pierce too, with his own land claims and agrarian grievances, we 
find now was in commerce with Carew. Pierce claimed to be Baron 
of Loughmoe, Co. Tipperary. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


tlieir power, they being so strong and he so poor and 
weak, fearing lest they should have delivered him, 
being the mark the President chiefly aimed at, to 
work their own peace. 

Dermond O'Connor, having now heard that the 
young Earl of Desmond, his brother-in-law, was 
arrived in Munster, according to the President's pro- 
mise to him made that he should come, was desirous 
that he should repair thither with intent to do some 
acceptable service for Her Majesty ; which being made 
known by the Lady Margaret, his wife, the Lord Pre- 
sident sent him a safe conduct for himself and his 
followers, and procured the like from Sir Arthur 
Savage, the chief commissioner in Connaught, and also 
from the Earl of Clanricard, to secure his passage 
through his country ; and for his better safety he sent 
a hundred foot to guard him as soon as he should 
enter into Thomond. He, being now past Clanricard, 
and coming to O'Shaffnessy's 1 country, within seven- 
teen or eighteen miles of Limerick, Theobald ne Long 
Burke, 2 who had a company of a hundred foot in Her 
Majesty's pay, notwithstanding all his safeguards, 
assaulted him, who, for his safety, retired into an old 
church, burnt it over his head, and, in coming forth 
from the same, he killed about forty of his men and 
took him prisoner, and the morning following cut off 
his head ; which being done, Theobald sent to the 
Earl of Clanricard for a protection, pretending that 

1 O'Shaughnessy's. 

2 Theobald Burke of the Ship. Son of Granuaile and Rickard-in- 
Iron, the MacWilliam, Chief of the Low Burkes, the Burkes of Mayo. 
Said to have been born on shipboard while his mother was returning 
from her historic visit to the Queen. He was now the Queen's Mac- 
William, Queen's candidate for the captainship of all Mayo, as his 
cousin Theobald of the Skulls was Red Hugh's. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

what lie did was done in revenge of his cousin the 
Lord Burke's death. But the Earl, disliking the 
action, instead of a protection returned him this 
letter ensuing : — 

A Letter from the Earl of Clanrioard to Theobald 
ne Long Burke. 

I do understand that you have yesternight as- 
saulted Dermond O'Connor and his company, which 
is both a very mighty impeachment of Her Majesty's 
word, in respect the gentleman had her gracious pro- 
tection and safe conduct from the Lord President of 
Munster and the Governor of this province for his 
safe passing, and a perpetual slander and abuse unto 
me and my posterity, considering the gentleman was 
seized in my country 1 and had my word at my very good 
Lord the Lord President of Munster's request, and the 
Governor of this province's direction, which I little ex- 
pected to be by you resisted, but rather imagined your 
coming into the country to do better service upon Her 
Majesty's enemies, which are daily threatening to 
come for us on all sides. But if in lieu thereof your 
services be to murder a gentleman that is drawn for 
good considerations tending the advancement of Her 
Majesty's service, contemn her gracious protection 
which he hath, and offer the Lord President of 
Munster, the Governor of this province, and myself, 
the mightiest wrong and abuse that may be, I take it, 
such a course as I do not doubt, yourself and your 
house to be thereby ever overthrown, and everlastingly 
live hopeless of any favour or kindness of me, except 

1 Observe the outleaping here of the fierce dynastic spirit. This 
lord had indeed formally surrendered his chieftainship and taken 
down his gallows, but retained still much of his old territorial 
prido, power and consequence. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


you take such apt and present course as to send the 
Sfentleman unto me released, and all the rest of his 
people, as many as you have in hand of them, with a 
full restitution of their goods ; otherwise think of me 
as the greatest enemy you have in this world, which, 
with the permission of God, I will make you and yours 
feel if you urge me thereto ; and so expecting to see the 
gentleman from you with expedition without hurt, I 
leave Doiehoway 1 the four and twentieth of October, 

Your very loving kinsman if you will, 

"Click Claxeicaed. 

Whilst Dermond was in rebellion he received no 
prejudice by Theobald ne Long ; but now being, as 
he knew, a man fast linked to the State, and able to 
perform extraordinary service, he is treacherously 
murdered to the great dishonour of Her Majesty, in 
violating her word, solemnly and advisedly given. 
The Lord President was exceedingly incensed against 
the actors, abettors, and procurers of this murder; 
writing his letter both to the Lords of Her Majesty's 
Privy Council in England, and also to the Lord 
Deputy and Council of Ireland, signifying how much 
Her Majesty's honour was blemished and the service 
hindered by this malicious and hateful murder ; who 
considering of the fact, besides sharp rebukes and 
reprehensions, the Lord Deputy was commanded 
presently to cashier and discharge him both of his 
command and entertainment. 

1 Probably a misprint for Loughray (Loughrea), the chief seat of 
the Earl. It is somewhat amusing to remember that this lord was 
once a mighty rebel himself, threatening to " make prey to the gates 
of Dublin." Ulick, son of Ricard Sassenagh, son of'Ulick of the 
Heads, first Earl of Clanricarde. 


Sessions held at Limerick, Cashel, and Clonmel — The Lord Presi- 
dent and the Earl of Ormond meet at Clonmel — Muskery, Quirk, 
and Arlogh burnt and spoiled by the army — The submission of 
the Burkes and the O'Briens — The narrow escape of James Fitz- 
Thomas and Dermond MacCraghe, the Pope's Bishop of Cork — 
In what good estate the province of Munster stood — MacAwley 
preyed by Sir Francis Barkley — A marriage practised between 
the Lady Joan FitzGerald and O'Donnell, but prevented by the 
Lord President. 

Notwithstanding the retiring of these rebels, as you 
Lave heard, the President thought it meet to spend 
some time in those parts before his army should be 
reduced. In consideration whereof, finding it ex- 
pedient, for furtherance of Her Majesty's service, that 
sessions of gaol delivery should be held, as often as 
conveniently they might, that the course of civil justice 
might again be renewed, whereunto of late years they 
had not been accustomed, the eighteenth of November 
his Lordship left Kilmallock and marched to Limerick, 
where he kept sessions, from thence to Cashel and 
so to Clonmel, in both which places he did the like, 
doing exemplary justice upon such rebels that had 
before been apprehended thereabouts. During the 
sessions held at Limerick (as aforesaid) the President 
sent a message to the Earl of Ormond, signifying to 
him his purposed coining to Clonmel, wherein also he 
besought his Lordship that if it might stand with his 
leisure and good liking it would please him to make a 
journey that way, to the intent that, upon their meet- 
ing, some conference might be had about divers 
particularities concerning the service. The Earl 

Pacata Hibernia. 


accorded both to time, and place, which was at 
Clonmel. The six and twentieth of November, 
amongst other matters there consulted betwixt them 
the President moved the Earl about some present 
order to be taken for the prosecution of those rebels 
that had (now for a good space) remained without im- 
peachment in the borders of Ormond in Tipperary ; 
and for so much as his Lordship peradventure had 
not sufficient forces to displant them, he offered his 
own service, with such companies as he had there 
assembled, being the greatest part of the army of 
Munster. The Earl, either unwilling to have the 
President set foot within his 1 liberty, or else desirous 
himself to have the sole honour of that service, did 
entreat the President to satisfy himself concerning 
that business, for he would undertake it, and within 
few days, to make them repent that ever they set 
foot within his liberty; which I think had immediately 
been performed had not the premature death of his 
most virtuous and honourable Lady (the lamentable 
tidings whereof were now brought him to Clonmel, 
oppressing his aged heart with immeasurable sorrow) 
caused the same for a time to be deferred. 

This service therefore thus undertaken by the Earl, 
the President, having received certain information that 
the Munster fugitives were harboured in those parts, 
having before burned all the houses and corn, and 
taken great preys in Owny O'Mulryan and Kilquig, a 
strong and fast country, not far from Limerick, 
diverted his forces into East Clanwilliam, and 
Mu skerry- Quirk, where Pierce Lacy had lately been 
succoured, and harassing the country, killed all man- 

1 Very likely. Most of Tipperary was a Palatinate under the 
jurisdiction of the Earl. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

kind that were found therein, for a terror to those that 
should give relief to renegade traitors ; thence we 
came into Arlogh Woods, where we did the like, not 
leaving behind us man or beast, corn or cattle, 
except such as had been conveyed into castles. The 
prosecution of this service was committed to the care 
of Captain Francis Slingsby, who had under his com- 
mand five hundred foot ; whereupon the Burkes and 
Briens, that inhabited those places, came all upon 
their knees, beseeching to be received into Her 
Majesty's gracious protection, and promising to do 
service upon any rebels that should hide themselves in 
those woods ; who putting in their pledges were re- 
ceived to mercy. 

In this journey it chanced there was a youth taken 
prisoner who had lately before been servant to the 
imagined Earl, who, being brought to the President 
and examined, took upon him to bring our forces to 
the place where his master was. The Earl of 
Thomond, Sir George Thornton, and Captain Roger 
Harvy with their companies, following the direction of 
this guide, were conducted to Lisbarry, a part of 
Drumfinnin Woods. No sooner were they entered 
into the fastness than presently the sentinels, which 
were placed in the skirt of the wood, raised the cry, 
which, as it should seem, roused the counterfeit Earl 
of Desmond and Dermond MacCraghe, the Pope's 
Bishop of Cork, who were lodged there in a poor 
ragged cabin. Desmond fled away barefoot, having 
no leisure to pull on his shoes, and was not discovered ; 
but MacCraghe was met by some of the soldiers 
clothed in a simple mantle, and torn trousers, like an 
aged churl ; and they, neglecting so poor a creature, 
not able to carry weapon, suffered him to pass unre- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


garded. Upon tliis end of the journey by the wise 
and painful proceedings of the President (God's bless- 
ing always accompanying the same) it came to pass 
that there was not one castle in Munster held out 
against the Queen. Nay, which was more, it was not 
known that there were five rebels in a company 
throughout the province, nor any one of note ex- 
cept those five lost sheep, the children of perdi- 
tion, James FitzThomas and his brother, Lixnaw, 
Pierce Lacy, and the Knight of the Glyn, who lay 
lurking in desert, uncouth, and unknown places ; 
yet notwithstanding there were divers vagabonds 
and loose people dispersed in sundry corners, for 
whom no man would undertake, that lived by stealth, 
and bad rogues, disquieting the good subjects, being 
the relics of the rebellion. 

The President by his letters dated the fifteenth 
signified to the Lords of the Council that now the 
province was so much overawed by Her Majesty's 
forces, that unless northern rebels came to infest 
it, or that the Spaniards did invade it, he was well 
able to contain the provincials in obedience ; and, 
although five hundred of his list were already cashiered, 
he would at any time lend the Lord Deputy one 
thousand foot to serve in Leinster, but with this 
caution (for countenance sake) that they might be 
ever, in estimation, of the List of Munster ; which 
if the reader do well observe, he shall find that the 
prosecution of the service in that province had suc- 
cesses beyond expectation ; for in May last, when the 
President first took the field, the rebels were no less 
than seven thousand strong, and now the subjects' 
cattle day and night lay abroad in the fields, no body 
of rebels united, and not one castle in all the province 


Pacata Hibernia. 

that did withstand Her Majesty. This was the work 
of God, and unto Him only it must be attributed. 

Her Majesty (as hath been said) did by her letters 
to the President command that one company of one 
hundred foot should be cashiered for the sustentation 
of the young Earl of Desmond and of others who 
were mentioned in that letter. The Lords of the 
Council likewise, by their letters bearing date the 
tenth of November, required the President to see the 
same performed, which being done accordingly (as was 
directed), the President, by his letters of the twentieth 
of this December, made an account how the partition 
was made. Now you must understand that although 
one hundred foot were discharged for the maintenance 
of the Earl and the rest, yet Her Majesty's meaning 
was not that more should be turned to that use than 
the ready money which was paid to the company 
yearly for their lendings, for their apparel was saved 
to Her Majesty ; the yearly lendings of one hundred men 
amount to no more than seven hundred and eighty- 
two pounds, two shillings, and ten pence. The Arch- 
bishop 1 of Cashel, who was a principal agent in 
stirring up Dermond O'Connor to make the attempt 
he did upon the titulary Earl, had, for his share, one 
hundred and twenty-one pounds, thirteen shillings, and 
three pence. John Power, who was one of the hostages 
(as hath been related), had thirty-six pounds, ten 
shillings ; the Lady Ellis, sister to the Earl, had 
thirty-three pounds, six shillings, and eight pence, 
which was as much as her other sisters formerly had 
in pension from Her Majesty ; the Lady Margaret, the 
Earl's sister also, and wife to Dermond O'Connor, in 
regard of her forwardness to have done the Queen 

1 Miler again. Sure to get his share of anything going, yea, clown 
to the last penny. Observe the "three pence." 

Pacata Hibernia. 


service, had a hundred pounds, and the remainder, 
which was five hundred and forty pounds, twelve 
shillings, and ten pence, was to the Earl's own use. 

About the eighteenth of the same, Sir Francis 
Barkley finding good cause and fit opportunity to 
plague MacAwley and his tenants, who, under pro- 
tection, relieved the heart-broken rebels with the 
garrison which he commanded at Askeiton, he 
harassed all the country of Clanowly, and took 
from thence one thousand cows, two hundred garrans, 
besides sheep and other spoil, and had the killing 
of many traitors, who harboured themselves in the 
bogs and woods thereof. 

Whilst the President was holding sessions at 
Limerick (as before) he received notice that Mary 
ny Shye, 1 one that had been an old servant to the 
Countess of Desmond, was in the town ; but he, 
suspecting her errand to have been no other but to 
see James the young Earl, seemed to tahe no know- 
ledge thereof, to make trial whether the said Earl 
would acquaint him with such letters or messages as 
should be brought from his mother. At the end of 
three days the Earl related to the President that 
such a woman was in town, whom he had seen that 
morning, and not before. The President answered 
that her repair to the town was known to him 
certain days before, but desired to be certified from 
him concerning the occasion of her coming ; who 
replied that her errand was to his sisters, the Lady 
Joan and the Lady Ellen, and especially to the Lady 
Joan, but himself had received neither letter, 
message, nor token by her. Whereupon the President, 

1 Sheehy. " Ny," as explained elsewhere, is the feminine patro- 
nymic. We would now write, Mary MacSheehy. * 

VOL. I. M 

1 62 Pacata Hibernia. 

suspecting some other cause of her coming, being so 
necessary a servant to the old Countess, caused her 
to be brought before him and the Council ; and upon 
her examination it was found that the special cause 
of her coming was to convey away the said Lady 
Joan to her mother, and from thence to O'Donnell, 
who had promised to consummate a marriage with 
her, and for the same purpose had himself written 
letters to O'Connor Sligo, her father-in-law (in being 
her mother's husband), to hasten her away. The Lady 
Joan, upon her examination, likewise confessed the 
same, but denied to yield any consent thereto 
without the advice of her brother, whom (as she 
said) she purposed shortly to have acquainted with 
this business. The old crafty Countess, understand- 
ing that this plot was discovered, pretended that 
her endeavours in seeking to effect this marriage 
tended to no other end but to reduce O'Donnell 1 to 
be a subject, although indeed there was nothing less 
meant. The President and Council upon the discovery, 
for preventing such further mischief as they foresaw 
might arise by this marriage, committed the Lady 
Joan to an alderman's house, and Mary ny Shye, 
the said Countess's servant, close prisoner in the gaol, 
till time and occasion should minister further oppor- 
tunity to deal in that affair of so great importance. 

1 Red Hugh's first wife was a daughter of Tyrone. Her he divorced 
ostensibly for barrenness. But I suspect the divorce coincided with 
a division of interests between those high lords. As Hugh got 
stronger he took his own dynastic course separate from Tyrone. 
Stafford's "crafty old countess" probably meant what she said. 
She had seen herself tragically the consequences of going against 
the Crown. Moreover, her husband, though at this time in enforced 
alliance with Red Hugh, was in heart a strong Royalist. He was 
knighted as Sir Donough O'Conor by Essex for gallant behaviour 
in the field. For further particulars see " Battle of the Curlew 
Mountains " in the " Bog of Stars." 


The Mayor of Limerick fined and imprisoned, and a new Mayor 
elected — A letter from the Spanish Archbishop of Dublin to 
James FitzThomas — The Sheriff's men slain by Florence Mac- 
Carty — The Lord President persuades Florence to go into England 
— Florence seems to like the motion, and the use he made of it. 

The country being now reduced to that outward 
obedience and conformity (as you have heard), the 
President and Council returned to Moyallo the thir- 
teenth of December, where they had some leisure to 
look in the corporate towns, whom they found to be 
principal aiders, abettors, and upholders of this un- 
natural rebellion, which proceeded partly out of malice 
to the State for matters of religion, but principally for 
their own benefit ; for in these turbulent times the 
greater part of the Queen's treasure sent over into 
this kingdom is expended by the captains and soldiers 
amongst them. Again, they issue their merchandise 
to the rebels (underhand) at very excessive rates and 
buy the country commodities at their own prices ; by 
reason whereof it was probably conjectured, upon 
good grounds, that the towns of Munster were more 
enriched within these three years of war than they 
were before almost in twenty years of peace. Another 
thing also at this time was noted in the towns, 
namely, that all the chief cities made choice of pro- 
fessed lawyers to be mayors, magistrates, and chief 
officers, and such as before were ringleaders of their 

m 2 

Pacata Hirernia. 

corporations. These prepensed elections, whether 
they were made for fear, lest they should be called to 
account for their former faults, both in assisting the 
rebels and resisting the soldiers, or to maintain the 
towns in obstinate superstition, which before was 
much augmented by these instruments, or for some 
other hidden cause, known only to themselves, I 
cannot certainly determine, but sure I am, it pro- 
ceedeth not from any loyal or dutiful disposition. 
Amongst these lawless lawyers thus elected there was 
one Geoffrey Gall way, Mayor of Limerick, a man that 
had spent many years in England studying the 
common laws, and, returning into Ireland about three 
years since, did so pervert that city by his malicious 
counsel and perjurious example that he withdrew the 
mayor, aldermen, and generally the whole city from 
coming to the church, which before they sometimes 
frequented. Moreover, about a year since there 
happened an affray in Limerick between the soldiers 
and some of the town, at which time this Gallway 
came to the then mayor, advising him to disarm all 
the soldiers, and told him that all their lives were in 
the mayor's hands and at his mercy, whereby a gap 
was most apparently opened by him to have induced 
a wicked and barbarous massacre upon Her Majesty's 
forces. With this man therefore did the President 
take occasion to enter into the lists, upon a manifest 
contempt offered unto his office and government, as 
followeth. It came to pass that a soldier of the Earl 
of Thomond's company was imprisoned by the said 
mayor for a supposed petty larceny of a hatchet. 
The President, being upon his journey against the 
rebels, who were now reported to have invaded the 
province, required to have the said' soldier delivered 

Pacata Hibernia. 


to him, that he might receive a present trial and 
punishment for his default, if he were found guilty, or 
else to repair to his colours and to go the journey. 
The mayor, before he would deliver the prisoner, 
desired that he might confer with his brethren. This 
being granted, he returned answer that it was not 
thought fit by the corporation to release the prisoner 
except his Lordship would make a warrant enjoining 
and commanding them so to do. The President and 
Council being assembled, a warrant was framed, 
signed, and directed to the mayor ;. but this warrant 
was deemed insufficient, and therefore desired to have 
the same amended in certain particulars, which with- 
out difficulty was yielded unto, and a second and a 
third framed according to the mayor's own directions ; 
and thus did he dally until he saw the President 
ready to leave the town, some part of the army being 
already upon the march, at which time the mayor 
came to the President and utterly rejected all those 
warrants, affirming that the authority given them 
by the charter sufficiently exempted them from the 
jurisdiction and command of the President and Council. 
The President, much scorning to be thus deluded and 
dallied withal, told the mayor that he would shortly 
find a time to call him to an account for his contempt 
offered, not against his person but against Her 
Majesty and her government established in the 
province ; who being now returned from the service 
(as you have heard), and abiding at Moyallo, directed 
his warrant to the said Gallway, commanding him 
upon his allegiance that he should immediately appear 
before him and a Council, at a day assigned, at 
Moyallo, to answer unto such things as should be 
objected against him on Her Majesty's behalf; where, 

Pacata Hibernia. 

making his appearance, lie was censured to live as a 
prisoner in a castle in the country, and not to come 
into the city of Limerick until he had paid a fine to 
Her Majesty of four hundred pounds sterling, which 
was designed for the reparation of Her Majesty's 
castle there, which sum was employed afterwards to 
that use; and, lastly, that a new mayor should be 
placed in his room. The townsmen presently sent an 
agent (as their manner is) to make suit unto the 
Council of England seeking to abuse their Lordships 
with counterfeit humility and false suggestions to get 
abatement either in whole or in part of this fine afore- 
said ; but therein they failed of their expectation, and 
having received a check for their proud contumacy 
against the President, they were commanded from the 

The one and twentieth of this month of December 
Sir Richard Percy sent sixty of his garrison at 
Kinsale into Kinalmekaghe, O'Maghon's country, to 
get the prey of the same, whereunto he was en- 
couraged by one who promised to guide them, so 
they should not miss all the cows in the same. 
Dermond Moyle MacCarty, Florence's brother, and 
Moylmo O'Maghon, the chief of his sept, having some 
intelligence of their coming, with three hundred foot 
and some horse assailed them, not doubting but to 
have cut all their throats ; for the space of two hours 
a good skirmish was maintained ; but the rebels, not 
finding the defendants to be chickens, to be afraid at 
the sight of every cloud or kite, with some loss (of 
slain and hurt men) soberly retreated. Of the 
garrison of Kinsale only two private men were hurt, 
yet they returned ill pleased for that they missed the 
booty expected. About this time the Spanish Arch- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


bishop of Dublin wrote to the lurking titulary Earl of 
Desmond, the copy whereof I do here verbatim relate, 
translated out of Latin. 

A Letter from the Spanish Archbishop of Dublin 
to James FitzThomas. 

My most Honourable Good Lord, — Having long de- 
sired a fit opportunity to write unto you, the same is now 
offered by Mr. John, whereof I am very glad that by 
such a most sure and faithful messenger I might open 
my mind to your Lordship ; as also to show that most 
certain and undoubted hope of aid is shortly to come. 
I would most willingly have come unto your Lordship's 
presence, which lately I have essayed, and doubtless 
would have done, unless I had been hindered by these 
lords, who told me that present and imminent dangers 
were to be feared in my journey, unless I had an 
army of soldiers to conduct me ; and now (but that 
there is a necessity of my returning into Spain) I 
would have come to you in the company of Master 
John ; but I hope that most speedily and most fortu- 
nately I shall return unto you again. In the mean- 
time I have pretermitted nothing which might tend to 
your profit, as well to our Catholic master, as any 
other whomsoever, which now also in Spain I will 
perform. I would therefore entreat your Excellency 
that you would be of a good courage together with all 
other of your faction ; and that you would fight con- 
stantly and valiantly for the faith and the liberty of 
your country, knowing and firmly hoping that the 
help of my Lord, the Catholic King, is now coming, 
which when it cometh, all things shall be prosperous, 
and will place you in your former liberty and security, 


Pacata Hibernia. 

that ye may possess your desired peace and tran- 
quillity. The Almighty conserve your Lordship in 
safety long to continue. From Donegal, the thirteenth 
of January, 1601. 

The province of Munster standing now in these 
good terms of obedience and conformity (as you have 
heard), the President thought good for the diminution 
of Her Majesty's charge to spare some part of those 
forces which at first were allotted to him for this 
service; and therefore, besides those five hundred 
which were of late cashiered by direction from the 
Lord Deputy, he was contented to spare one thousand 
more to be disposed for the wars of Leinster, or other 
places near adjoining, conditionally that they might 
remain upon the list of Munster, as well to countenance 
his proceedings as also that he might call them back 
upon any occasion if new broils should be raised ; and 
so in effect reduce the army of that province to fifteen 
hundred foot and two hundred horse. 

You heard before that the Earl of Ormond, upon 
conference with the President, undertook to drive 
Redmond Burke and the other rebels, his associates, 
out of his liberty of Ormond, within the liberty of 
Tipperary, which, although he oftentimes essayed to 
effect, yet it sorted not to his desired end until the be- 
ginning of this month of January, at which time he 
employed the Lord of Dunboyne, Sir Walter Butler 
his nephew, and Captain Marberry, with such forces 
as he had (of Her Majesty's and the country) to so 
good purpose that besides forty fighting men that were 
presently slain, and amongst them Thomas Burke, 
brother to the said Redmond, and the arms of thirty 
more got, they forced Redmond and all his company 

Pacata Hibernia. 


into the river Nore, being at that time very high, and 
there drowned seventy of his men with their arms, 
besides divers churls and all their baggage. Certain 
persons were also taken in this service, amongst whom 
were John Burke, brother to the said Redmond, who 
was shortly after executed in Kilkenny, and William 1 
Burke, another of his brethren, grievously wounded. 
But to return to the President's actions, who, desirous 
that the country might grow acquainted with the civil 
government whereunto of late it had been a stranger, 
thought it convenient that the sheriffs, being necessary 
officers for the State, should look into the country 
as well to find out such ill-disposed malefactors and 
idle vagabonds as were pernicious to the government 
as also to levy at reasonable rates such provisions as 
the country yielded and the garrisons wanted. For 
this cause John Barry, the Sheriff of the county of 
Cork, made a journey to some of Florence Mac- 
Carty's lands, who no sooner entered into his country 
(as he termed it) but presently he was resisted ; and 
before he could make his retreat, some of his men were 
murdered ; 2 the like measure was also offered to some 
of the garrison of Kerry, who had no sooner set foot 
beyond the Mang, a river that parts Kerry and 
Desmond, but they were instantly assaulted by 
Florence's followers, and two of his soldiers slain. 

The President, receiving advertisement of these 
malicious and traitorous , practices of Florence (still 

1 William recovered, and reappears as a strong captain of bonoghs 
in the President's wars with O'Sullivan Bere. 

2 Where the State acknowledged a chieftain, the chieftain ap- 
pointed his own officers and governed his country. In that country- 
officers of the State had no legal right of entry. Florence's people 
regarded him as M'Carty More, supreme captain of Desmond, andtjie 
unauthorized forcible entrance of any one an act of war. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

continued), was exceedingly desirous, according to 
directions sent him out of England, to get him into 
his hands, if it might be effected without putting the 
Queen to a further charge, which without some 
temporizing could not as yet conveniently be per- 
formed ; for Florence, finding himself to have 
notoriously incurred several breaches of his former pro- 
tection, wrote divers letters to the President in excuse 
of these facts, the same being stuffed (as his phrase 
was) with damnable oaths and execrable blasphemies 
that himself was never acquainted with the former 
slaughters, and that his people were strangely over- 
seen therein, who, mistaking the soldiers for the 
sheriff's men, and the sheriff's men for traitors, com- 
mitted those offences unawares. Answer was remitted 
by the President that the State was well persuaded of 
his loyalty and innocence touching these disorders, 
and therefore requested him very earnestly to make 
his repair to him, that he might by his presence and 
advice the better find out and punish those male- 
factors ; but by no means or ways could he be drawn 
forth from his strong country of Desmond before he 
had got his protection to be renewed ; a plain demon- 
stration of his guilty conscience. 

Not long after, upon his repair to the President, he 
moved him to go for England, laying before his judg- 
ment divers commodities that might thereby accrue 
unto him. First, he should prove these suggestions 
to be untrue which some of his enemies had buzzed 
into the ears of the Council of England, that he was 
an avowed enemy to the English government and a 
devoted friend in his heart to the Spanish King. 
Secondly, that by his own presence (with the Council) 
he might get that country of Desmond confirmed unto 

Pacata Hibernia. 


him, which he now held rather by courtesy than by 
right. And, lastly, that the Queen's Majesty might 
understand, out of his mouth, the present state of that 
province, to whose relation (as he verily thought) she 
would give attentive ear and credit. All this was 
urged to the end that the province might be rid of so 
dangerous a member, who was most likely to breed 
new commotions. This gentleman, smelling the Pre- 
sident's drift, pretended himself to be most willing, 
and for that purpose would return into Desmond, and 
when his necessaries were provided he would speedily 
proceed in his journey for England. Within certain 
days after he sent messengers unto the President 
signifying to him that the country of Desmond was so 
poor and beggarly that it could not possibly afford him 
means for such necessaries as he needed for his journey, 
who therefore requested his Lordship's letters to the 
chief gentlemen of Carberry that they would be con- 
tributors to him in a business that did so nearly con- 
cern him. All this being granted 1 and effected, he 
neither went forward nor did he purpose at all 
to go, as the sequel of his doings manifestly declared. 

1 This is an example of what is known in English history as 
a " benevolence," and was common in Ireland. A chieftain wanting 
money for an emergency, wrote to his principal gentlemen to sub- 
scribe. Bishops and presidents and great people in general were, 
adepts in this art of sponging. In the present affair, wily Florence, 
desiring to extend his MacCarty Moreship over Carberry, uses the 
President as a means of colouring future progress. In Connaught, 
the Attorney-General's house, a thatched house, by the way, was 
destroyed accidentally by fire. He forthwith instituted a general 
" benevolence " to make good the loss. 



The Lord President advertiseth into England of the intended invasion 
of the Spaniards — Demands made by the Lord President for 
money, munition, victuals — A letter from Her Majesty to the 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, to pardon all such as the Lord Presi- 
dent should nominate, certain persons excepted as incapable of 
pardon — A certain branch of the Lords of the Council's letters to 
the Lord President. 

The President having (as is said) reduced Munster 
to good terms of obedience, and had promised to lend 
the Lord Deputy at any time one thousand foot for 
the service of Leinster ; yet he still insisted that they 
might remain as part of the list of Munster ; and to 
that end upon the thirteenth of January he wrote to 
the Lords of the Council in England. Also he 
advertised their Lordships that undoubtedly the 
Spaniards would invade Ireland, for testimony where- 
of he sent to them many advertisements which came 
to him out of Spain ; and that many Romish priests 
and friars, which are the forerunners of mischief in 
this country, were lately come into Ireland, to no 
other end than to withdraw the hearts of Her 
Majesty's natural subjects from her to the Spaniard. 
Also for prevention of future mischief, that he might 
not be unprovided (if the kingdom were invaded), 
although he should have no more than fifteen hundred 
foot left in the province, when he had sent the one 
thousand promised to the Lord Deputy, yet he 
humbly desired the lords that they would be pleased 

Pacata Hibernia. 


(until Michaelmas next following) to continue the 
victuals to be sent for Munster, as formerly was 
accustomed, that is for three thousand two hundred 
and fifty, and for the same reason of innovation, he 
besought them to send unto him five lasts of powder 
with match and lead, two thousand shovels and 
spades, five hundred pickaxes, and fifty crows of 
iron ; and lastly that they would be pleased to send a 
competent sum of money for the soldiers to live upon ; 
for until the expectation of the coming of the 
Spaniards were past he would preserve his victuals 

I formerly recounted to you that the President, by 
his letters of the second of November, humbly 
besought their Lordships that a general pardon might 
be granted for the reasons then alleged, which, as it 
seemeth, had good acceptance in England, as by Her 
Majesty's letter to the Lord Deputy, dated the one 
and twentieth of December, may appear, which came 
to the President's hands the nineteenth of January ; 
the true copy of which letter is here inserted. And 
also, for the Lord Deputy's farther discharge, a 
draught of a warrant, to be passed under the 
Great Seal of Ireland, was sent unto him by Her 

A Letter from Her Majesty to the Lord Deputy 

of Ireland. 

Elizabeth R. 

Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. 
We understand, by such advertisements as we have 
received from our President of our province of 
Munster, that it will be very expedient for the reduc- 


Pacata Hibernia. 

ing of our subjects, dwelling in that our province, to 
a settled obedience, to grant unto them our general 
and gracious pardon, thereby to remove from them 
all suspicion of impeachment for their former offences, 
whereunto the greatest part of them have been 
violently carried rather by the power of the arch- 
traitors than by any wilful defection in their loyalty ; 
we being therefore, in our princely clemency, graciously 
pleased to accept the humble submission of such our 
subjects within that province as have not out of 
their desperate and disloyal hearts entered into this 
horrible action of rebellion against us, do think meet, 
and hereby do will and authorize you, that from time 
to time you cause such general and particular pardons 
to be passed in due form of law, under our Great 
Seal of that our realm, to all and every the inhabitants 
of that province, of what condition or estate soever 
they be, either by ample words of our general pardon 
(as we understand hath been granted to some counties 
in Connaught upon like occasions) or by particular 
names of peculiar persons, as by our said President 
and Council, or two of them with the President, shall 
be desired of you, excepting out of every pardon such 
persons, and inserting such conditions and limitations 
for our service, as by our said President and two of 
our Council shall be thought requisite. And to the 
end our people, wasted with the misery of these wars, 
may not be pardoned with expenses in the obtaining 
their pardons, or putting in security for our peace, in 
causes where it may be needful, our gracious pleasure 
is, that the fees of our seal, and all other officers' fees 
in these cases of our affairs, shall be either wholly 
remitted, or so moderated by you and our Council 
there, that our subjects may have cause the more 

Pacata Hibernia. 


dutifully and gladly to embrace our princely clemency 
and bounty in this our gracious and free pardon. 
Nevertheless such is our detestation of the treasons 
and horrible murders committed in this rebellion, that 
for a perpetual memory in every such pardon, either 
general or special, there shall be an express exception 
that the same extend not to pardon James Fitz- 
Thomas, usurping the title of Earl of Desmond, John 
his brother, Pierce Lacy, the Knight of the Valley, nor 
Thomas FitzMaurice, son to the late Baron of Lixnaw, 
who are known to have been the ringleaders to many 
monstrous and unnatural outrages ; neither shall our 
pardon be available to any of the servants and 
followers of the persons so excepted, unless those 
servants and followers shall fully and absolutely sub- 
mit themselves to our President and Council of that 
province, or to some of them, to be bound with sureties 
for their future loyalty within twenty days after 
public proclamation made of this our gracious pardon. 
And for the doing hereof, these our letters shall be 
your sufficient warrant and discharge. Given under 
our signet at our palace of Westminster this one and 
twentieth of December, one thousand six hundred, in 
the three and fortieth year of our reign. 

And at that time he received a letter from the Lords 
of the Council, agreeing in substance with that of Her 
Majesty to the Lord Deputy. Wherefore I hold it 
needless to set it down at large, only I will recite the 
first part of it, whereby it is manifested how agreeable 
the President's proceeding was, as well to Her Majesty's 
liking as to their Lordships'. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

A Branch or the Lords of the Council's Letters to 
the Lord President. 

After our very hearty commendations to your 
Lordship. "We have received your letters, bearing 
date the second of November, whereby you have made 
us an orderly relation of the state of that province, 
whereof we have informed Her Majesty, who hath com- 
manded us to give you notice of her most gracious 
acceptation of your endeavours, in the whole course 
of your proceedings, as that which hath proved greatly 
to her honour and the advancement of her service ; 
wherein, as we have been always ready to perform 
the best offices, in respect of your discreet proceedings 
towards us in all things, so it doth not a little content 
us, for the love we bear you, to be messengers of Her 
Majesty's favour towards you, than which we know 
you can receive no greater comfort, etc. From the 
court at Whitehall, the fourteenth of December, 1600. 


Victuals and money arrived at Cork — One thousand foot and fifty- 
horse to be sent out of Munster to the Lord Deputy — A letter 
from the Lord President to the Lord Deputy — The companies 
sent for by the Lord Deputy, and stayed by his directions — The 
effect of the Lords of the Council's letters to the Lord President, 
with an abstract of his letter to the Lords of the Council. 

The five and twentieth the President advertised tbe 
Lords that there was arrived out of England, at Cork, 
a proportion of victuals and money, and in the same 
dispatch he humbly besought their Lordships, for that 
the province was in a manner by the long war 
thoroughly wasted, and that the horse, having nothing 
but grass to sustain them, grew weak and unservice- 
able, that they would be pleased to send, with the best 
expedition, four hundred quarters of oats, which 
should be defalcated upon the horsemen's entertain- 

Upon the thirteenth, the President received letters 
from the Lord Deputy, praying him to send for the 
service of Leinster one. thousand foot, whereof the 
companies of Sir John Barkley and Sir Garret Harvy's 
to be part, and with them Sir Eichard Greame's troop 
of horse. According to this direction, he assembled 
them at Clonmel and gave the command of them unto 
the Lord Awdley ; and, as they were ready to march, 
he received advertisement from the Earl of Thomond 
that a body of more than three thousand men of Ulster 
and Connaught were presently to enter into the 

VOL. I. n 


Pacata Hibernia. 

province ; whereupon he wrote to the Lord Deputy 
this ensuing letter, making stay of the Lord Audley 
until he should receive answer thereof. 

A Letter from the Lord President to the Lord 


It may please your Lordship, I am so infinitely 
distracted between the earnest desire I have to satisfy 
your Lordship's commandments, and the present 
dangers which I see hang over this province ; if I 
should observe, as that I stand amazed, what counsel 
to take, being in myself wholly addicted to obedience, 
and by necessity (in a manner) enforced to pause upon 
the same, until I may receive your Lordship's answer 
to these, and then without farther protraction I will 
be ready accordingly to observe your commandments ; 
wherein I humbly pray your Lordship deliberately to 
advise, being (as I take it) especially material for the 
furtherance of Her Majesty's service. The next day 
after I received your Lordship's letter of the seven 
and twentieth of January (being the thirtieth of the 
same), for the better expediting of your directions I 
addressed several warrants to the captains residing 
nearest to me, commanding all of them to meet at the 
towns of Clonmel and Fetherd by the sixth of this 
month, there to receive such further directions as the 
Lord Audley, who I have appointed to command them, 
should direct. The list consists of one thousand and 
fifty foot and Sir Richard Greame's horse. Sir Garret 
Harvy lies so far remote in Kerry that I could not 
conveniently in so short a time draw him to the rest. 
Wherefore, for that particular I humbly pray to be 
excused ; and for Sir John Barkley's company (who 
are part of the list above-said) I have directed them 

Pacata Hibernia. 179 

by warrant, according of your Lordship's former 
pleasure signified unto me, before the receipt of your 
Lordship's last letters, to repair into Connaught, but 
have now countermanded them, and do hope they are 
not yet passed. Thus your Lordship may see my 
willingness to obey your directions, which I did as 
gladly and affectionately as your Lordship can desire. 
But, since having this day received these enclosed 
letters from the Earl of Thomond and Master Comer- 
ford, I do make humbly bold to present the consider- 
ation of them unto your Lordship's wisdom, before 
I do thoroughly accomplish your commandments, 
wherein my hope is, that your Lordship will both give 
me thanks and hold me excused ; because the public 
service doth violently urge me unto it. In my judg- 
ment I am persuaded that this intelligence is true, 
drawn thereunto by many and sundry the like adver- 
tisements from all parts and persons, lately reconciled, 
whereof I could send your Lordship bundles of papers 
of divers men's relations, and now confirmed in the 
same by these enclosed letters, which, as your Lord- 
ship sees, threaten the present disturbance of this 
province, not yet well settled. Yet nevertheless, that 
it may appear unto your Lordship that I am not back- 
ward to accomplish anything which your Lordship 
shall require, I do yet continue (though not without 
some hazard to this province if these Northern forces 
should presently invade us) to send the companies 
aforesaid to the rendezvous before mentioned, with 
directions to remain there until your Lordship shall 
return me your pleasure in answer of these, and then 
what you shall prescribe unto me I will dutifully and 
carefully effect, assuring myself that your Lordship 
will have such a special regard to the state of this 

n 2 

180 Pacata Hibernia. 

province that you will not withdraw them but upon 
certain knowledge of the untruth of this intelligence. 
Bat as a councillor (to speak my opinion) if your 
Lordship can otherwise follow the prosecution in 
Leinster without calling forces hence it were very 
expedient to forbear the same, until this cloud be past, 
which cannot long hold in suspense ; for all the 
danger is between this and the end of next month, after 
which time, until the cattle be strong, and give milk, 
there is little doubt. All which humbly referring to 
your Lordship's better consideration, I rest. Moyallo, 
the second of February, 1600. Gr. 0. 

Not many days after, the Lord Deputy by his letters 
so well approved of the reasons why the President 
stayed the Lord Audley that he thanked him for it, 
and willed him to make head against the rebels' 
descent, and hereafter when they might be better 
spared, then he prayed him to send them unto him. 

The Effect of the Lords of the Council's Letters to 
the Lord President. 

January 28th, the Lord President received'letters of 
great comfort from the Lords in England, saying that 
they were exceedingly glad to see that in so short a 
time he had reduced the province to such terms that 
he could endure the cashiering of five hundred foot 
and spare the Lord Deputy one thousand more of his 
list, which was an evident demonstration of his 
labours well spent in the service ; and that his hold- 
ing of assizes and sessions, so long disused, was a 
manifest sign of a new life in the province ; that they 
had written to the Lord Deputy to call Theobald ne 

Pacata Hibernia. 


long Burke in question of the murder of Dermond 
O'Connor, and had required him to see it punished ; 
that notwithstanding Her Majesty's pleasure was 
signified unto him that James FitzTbomas, his brother 
John, the Baron of Lixnaw, the Knight of the Valley, 
and Pierce Lacy, should not be received to mercy upon 
any condition, but to be left, as children of perdition, 
unto destruction, yet, considering how long rebels 
may continue by underhand friendships in Ireland, she 
was pleased that the Lord President should have 
power, if he saw cause to induce him thereunto, to 
accept of the last three, but with this caution, that 
they should be pardoned for life only, and not until 
they had performed some signal services which might 
merit such gracious favour. Lastly, they admonished 
the President to carry a strict hand upon the com- 
missaries of the musters ; for by certificate from 
Dublin they understood that they were very slack in 
their duties. 

The President, knowing that it was a matter of no 
less moment to retain and keep the provincials in 
subjection and good order than it was at first to 
reduce them hereunto, employed now a great part of 
his time in devising such courses as might secure 
them from a future revolt, and therefore first resumed 
into his own hands all power of protecting, and then 
protested never to renew any protections, already 
granted, whereby they were constrained to use all 
celerity and haste in obtaining their pardons. Inso- 
much that within less than two months, namely, 
before the end of February, the President had recom- 
mended above four thousand by name to the Lord 
Deputy for pardons, who had all put in such pledges 
or other caution as by the state of the province was 


Pacata Hibernia. 

thought convenient, which indeed was such and so 
warily taken, as no governor in former times had ever 
done the like ; all which notwithstanding, the Presi- 
dent could not satisfy himself in the safety of the one, 
and so consequently in the security of the other, so 
long as their pledges were remaining in the cities of 
Cork and Limerick, the places of their custody not 
being of sufficient strength, the keepers many times 
negligent or corrupt in their charge, and the citizens 
so partial that they had rather help to convey them 
into the country than to retain them within the city ; 
for prevention whereof the President became a humble 
suitor to the Lords of the Council in England that 
they would be pleased to give commandment that the 
pledges of greatest moment might, by an order from 
them, be commanded to the Castle of Dublin, which 
should not he anything chargeable to Her Majesty, 
and yet very profitable for the State ; as also that 
they would be pleased to give commandment to all 
such undertakers 1 that hold land within the province 
that they should make their immediate repair unto 
their seigniories, that thereby the country might be the 
better furnished with English upon any occasion ; as 
also that Her Majesty might from them receive their 
rents in some part of that immeasurable treasure 
which was expended in these wars. 

And, lastly, being fully assured of a Spanish inva- 
sion, in all his dispatches for England, he put the 
lords in mind of it, sending unto them the intelligence 

1 The undertakers who were to reap the greatest fruits from the 
successful prosecution by the State of these wars were apparently all 
living comfortably in England. At the first storm-symptom they all 
ran. In their letters I find them perpetually complaining of their 
rent. It was a penny an acre. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

he had, and, for that he would not be taken unpro- 
vided, he continually in all his letters besought 
supplies of victuals and munition. And, for that in 
his last dispatch he had entreated a large proportion 
of victuals, now in this of the sixth of March he for- 
bare the same, requesting only five lasts of powder 
and four hundred quarters of oats. 

The young Earl of Desmond, having been tenderly 
brought up in England, and not well agreeing with 
the manner and customs of Ireland, and also seeing 
how much he was deceived in his hopes, supposing 
that all his father's followers would have relied upon 
him, and obeyed his directions ; whereof, finding little 
or no appearance, desired the Lord President to give 
him leave to go into England, whereunto, for the reasons 
aforementioned, the President easily assented ; for in 
all the time of his being in Ireland no one rebel did 
for his sake submit himself to Her Majesty, Thomas 
Oge of Kerry only excepted, who at his request sub- 
mitted himself and rendered Castle Mange (whereof 
he was constable) by James FitzThomas's assignment 
into Her Majesty's hands, as formerly hath been 
declared. But it may be truly supposed that wit and 
necessity did persuade him to submit and render the 
castle as he did ; for Sir Charles Wilmot had so 
blocked him up with garrisons that he was in fear of . 
starving ; and if he had not taken the opportunity 
offered upon the Earl's motion he was in danger to 
have lost both his life and it. This I write not to 
upbraid the Earl, or to lessen him in anything; for I 
must confess he was too good to live amongst such 
traitorly followers, and no man living had a more 
willing desire to serve Her Majesty than himself ; but 
the truth is that this was all the service which he did 

Pacata Hibernia. 

or could do during his abode in Munster, whence he 
embarked the two and twentieth of March, and landed 
at Miniade in Somersetshire, and so to the Court of 
England, where after a few months he died. The 
letters-patents which Her Majesty had granted for his 
restoration the President never delivered to him, 
where in my opinion he did discreetly, and according 
to his directions, for they were sent unto him by Her 
Majesty with caution not to deliver them except he 
saw sufficient cause so to do, and that his services, or 
services done for his sake, should merit the same, of 
both which there was but weak and slender perform- 

In this first book the reader may behold in what a 
confused state the province of Munster was when 
the Lord President entered into his government ; in 
the first year whereof these memorable incidents 
happened : the unfortunate death of Sir Warham St. 
Ledger ; the departure of Tyrone out of Munster ; the 
taking of the Earl of Ormond by the rebels; the 
defeat of Florence MacCarty ; the loss and recovery 
of Cahir Castle ; the submission of the White Knight ; 
the recovery of the island and castle of Loghgier ; 
the bold attempt of Nugent, and the effects which 
followed thereof ; the burning and spoiling of West 
Clanwilliam and O'Mulryan's country; the taking 
and escape of James FitzThomas, the titulary Earl of 
Desmond ; the siege and winning of the Glyn ; the 
freeing of the province of 2500 bownoghs ; O'Donnell's 
harassing of Thomond ; the encounter betwixt Captain 
Roger Harvy and the White Knight's son ; the plant- 
ing of garrisons in Kerry ; the perpetual jugglings of 
Florence MacCarty ; the taking of the Castle of 
Listoell in Kerry ; the defeat (by the garrison of 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Kilmallock) given to the Sugan Earl; the poor and 
distressed estate he was driven unto ; the submission 
of Dermond MacOwen, Lord of Do walla, and sundry 
others ; the coming into Munster of the young Earl 
of Desmond ; the submission of Florence MacCarty ; 
the rendering of Castle Mange ; the murder of Der- 
mond O'Connor ; the burning and spoiling of 
East Clanwilliam and Arlogh ; the quiet settling 
of the province, and the restoring the civil govern- 
ment. Whosoever with indifference will consider how 
much was done in such short time must acknowledge 
it to be beyond expectation, and say that God fought 
for us, and directed our counsels, otherwise it was 
not to be hoped for ; and had not the coming of the 
Spaniards given new interruptions the work of 
Munster had been thoroughly finished, the province 
fully reduced to a settled peace, and in all likelihood 
so to have continued. 




Whereby that Country was reduced to Subjection and 




Connaught and Ulster men drawn to a head to invade Munster — 
A regiment sent by the Lord President into Connaught to 
assist Sir John Barkley — Walter Burke and Teg O'Brien slain 
— The Lord President with the remainder of the army comes to 
Limerick — The rising-out of the country commanded by the 
Lord Barry drawn near to Limerick — The rebels distressed for 
want of victuals, and defeated — Donogh MacCormock Carty 
slain — Redmond Burke's letter to the Lord President, with the 
Lord President's answer. 

The prosperous successes of last year promised 
fair hopes that the malice of the war was spent 
and that the province would within a short time be 
reduced to a settled conformity; but the malicious 
practices of the Irish Papists had so far enraged the 
Pope and the King of Spain against our Sovereign 
Mistress and her good subjects, the professors of the 
true religion (whom the Romanists falsely term 


Pacata Hibernia. 

heretics), that in this year 1601 the province of 
Munster was not only set in a raging flame, but the 
whole kingdom was endangered to be torn from the 
Crown of England. But God in His great mercy 
fought for His servants, and made this intended mis- 
chief to be the break-neck of the rebellion through- 
out the kingdom, and, consequently, the peace 
and tranquillity which by the goodness of God we 

About the latter end of March, 1601, intelligences 
were brought to the Lord President, and letters in- 
tercepted, whereby it probably appeared that forces 
from Ulster and Connaught were in preparing, by 
the way of Thomond, to pass into Munster, under the 
conduct of Redmond Burke, Captain Hugh Mostian, 
and Con O'Neale (Tyrone's base son), with about two 
thousand men (besides Munster' s fugitives), to relieve 
the lurking Earl ; but although the circumstances of 
that relation proved to be untrue both in the 
leaders and number of men, yet that smoke did arise 
from some fire ; for presently hereupon Redmond 
Burke and Hugh Mostian, with eight hundred Con- 
naught men, and Teg O'Rwrke, John FitzThomas, 
Donogh MacCormock, and Pierce Lacy, with seven 
hundred of the North, came through Connaught ; 
Sir John Barkley, governor in the absence of Sir 
Arthur Savage, being constrained to give way to their 
greater force. Likewise the Baron of Lixnaw and 
Teg Rewgh MacMaghon were busy providing 
galleys to come by sea, and the O'Maylys and 
O'Flaghertys had a purpose, with six hundred men, 
whom they had already furnished, to invade Kerry. 
The President, having received certain intelligence of 
all these preparations, principally set on foot to dis- 

Pacata Hibernia. 

turb his government, first dispatched away one 
thousand foot, under the command of Captain George 
Flower, serjeant-major of that province, with direction 
to march forward in all haste into Connaught, to join 
with Sir John Barkley, that they might do some good 
service upon the rebels at their passage over the 
Shannon, which of necessity they must hazard before 
they could come into Munster. 

The nine and twentieth of March Captain Flower 
rose out of Limerick, and that night lodged at Quyn 
in Thomond, had notice that the enemy had advanced 
into Thomond to spoil the same, having the assist- 
ance of Teg, son and heir to Sir Tirloghe O'Brien, 
who went into action not above three days before. 
The serjeant-major, discovering their forces, came up 
close to them, and when he began to fight they began 
to run, whom, notwithstanding, he so well pursued, 
with my Lord of Thomond's company, that they 
slew and hurt divers of them, and, amongst the rest, 
Walter Burke, son to the Blind Abbot, 1 was slain, 
and Teg O'Brien (now mentioned) received a mortal 
wound, whereof within three days after he died. 
Besides these forces by land the President also made 
certain provisions by sea for preventing Fitz- 
Maurice with his O'Maylys and O'Flaghertys from 
coming into Kerry ; upon which occasion there 
was a tall merchant lately come with apparel 
for the army into the river of Limerick together 
with certain small boats, well victualled and manned, 

1 After the voluntary suppression of the MacWilliamship of Mayo 
the Burkes repined, and elected "the Blind Abbot," who, by the way, 
was neither an abbot nor blind, to be their new captain. Bingham 
waged war upon him forthwith, suppressed him, and in the war cut olf 
his right foot. Bingham had a poor opinion of the Blind Abbot • 
called him " a doting old fool." 


Pacata Hibernia. 

commanded to attend about the mouth of the 
Shannon to do service upon such rebels as should 
appear upon that coast ; all of which being notified 
in the country, the enemy, finding his purpose frus- 
trated of transporting his army into Kerry that 
way, retired into a strong fastness in Tough - 
kinalehin, betwixt Clanricard and Thomond ; Her 
Majesty's forces lodging as near them as possible. 
The President also himself, with all the rest of his 
forces except the garrisons of Kerry, followed as far 
as Limerick, as well to give countenance to the other 
companies that attended the rebels as also to be 
ready upon the first alarm to intercept or interrupt 
them if by any device or chance they might escape 
the forces in Connaught; and because the enemy 
should be desperate of any help and assured of 
strong resistance in the province the President took 
order that all the chiefs of every country should 
assemble themselves at Galbally, in the county of 
Limerick, and bring with them the best forces they 
could of horse and foot, together with victuals 
for ten days, to attend such directions as they 
should be commanded by the Lord Barry, who was 
appointed General of the Provincials. What service 
they would have done if occasion had offered I know 
not ; but, sure I am, although they did somewhat 
exceed the time limited before they were assembled, 
yet at last there were gathered thirteen 1 hundred foot 

1 This was the rising-out of Munster, the legal military service 
which the lords and gentlemen were bound to yield to the State 
for war within the province. Observe that all over Ireland the 
Queen's governors and captains had this militia force at their disposal 
wherever rebellion did not prevail. Queen Elizabeth not only per- 

Pacata Hibernia. 

and one hundred and twenty horse of the county of 
Cork only, with great alacrity as seemed of doing some 
acceptable service. In the meantime Sir John Barkley 
layeth so hardly to the rebels, still keeping within 
their fastness, that they could not possibly get any 
prey of the country, but were constrained from the 
thirtieth of March to the thirteenth of April to feed 
upon garrans' flesh and such unsavoury meat. After- 
wards, being half-starved, and altogether past hope of 
O'Donnell's coming to their relief with more forces, 
they stole away in the night and drew into O'Mad din's 
country. Our men, perceiving their rising, pursued 
them and held them fighting all night, and in the 
morning found that we had slain many of them ; yet 
by break of day they had recovered another strong 
fastness, wherein Sir John Barkley, though often 
essaying, could not annoy them. After two days, 
being distressed with like want as before, they were 
forced to dislodge again in the night. Our forces 
pursued them at the heels and, coming close up to 
them, put them to rout and forced them over the Sucke, 
a deep river, wherein they lost two hundred men with 
the most part of their munition and baggage. In this 
service there were lost and hurt of our men one and 
twenty, but not any of note, except Neville, Sir Ger- 
rard Harry's lieutenant, only. The rebels were so 
terrified in this prosecution that such as escaped the 

mitted the Irish to be armed, but compelled them to be armed, and 
her muster-masters or their deputies went through the country to see 
that the risings-out of the lords and gentlemen were properly armed, 
having good swords, not " butchers' knives," and calyvers fit for 
soldiers to shoot out of, not i( birding-pieces." There is a great 
significance in these facts. "When one power enslaves another it dis- 
arms the vanquished nation, but the Queen compelled the Irish lords 
and gentlemen to maintain armed forces. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

river sought not to unite themselves again. Teg 
O'Rwrke 1 retired into his country, Redmond Burke 
went to O'Donnell, John FitzThomas to Tyrone, and 
the meaner sort dispersed into sundry places, and 
Hugh Mostian with his company rested himself in 
O'Connor Roe's country. In one of the aforesaid 
skirmishes in O'Shaffnessy's 2 country, upon the seven 
and twentieth of March, Donogh MacOormock (afore- 
mentioned) was slain, being lately enlarged by Tyrone 
to set a fire in Munster. These affairs thus accom- 
plished with good success, although not fully so good 
as was both promised and expected, Captain Flower, 
with his regiment, returned the one and twentieth of 
April to Limerick. 

Ever since the President's first coming into Munster 
there had been (as formerly you may observe) secret 
traffic held between the Lord President and Redmond 
Burke, the pretended Baron of Leitrim. Burke's ends 
were to have the President to assist him for the re- 
covering of his father's lands against his uncle, the 
Earl of Clanricard, and the President held him on 
with good words and messages for two respects : the 
one for keeping him from joining with the rest of the 
bownoghs in Munster, the other to procure him (if he 
might possibly work him to it) to do some signal 
service upon the rebels. Redmond, still pursuing his 
desires, when Captain Flower was in Connaught with 
the Munster forces as aforesaid, writes this letter here 
inserted to the President, and the answer to it was as 
followeth : — 

1 Teiguo O'Rourke, a famous captain of mercenaries, younger 
brother of Brian of the Ramparts. There is extant a contract of service 
between him and O'Donnell and Tyrone, very interesting. 

2 O'Shaughnessy. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Redmond Burke's Letter to the Lord President. 

Honourable Lord, — Having heretofore complained 
to your Lordship of the inestimable wrongs that are 
offered me, which, seeing your Honour cannot redress 
here, I would request your Honour (in respect that I 
specially mean not to disturb any place under your 
Lordship's or the Earl of Thomond's jurisdiction) not 
to be a means to stop me from demanding my right, 
or pursuing it in this sort, seeing by right or law the 
State pleaseth not to satisfy me ; and assure your 
Honour, if yourself had any power to minister equity 
betwixt Her Majesty's subjects, the fame of the hon- 
ourable worth and equity your Lordship doth carry 
would not only alien me to loathe this kind of life, but 
also very many unspecified others. And thus request- 
ing your Lordship to draw your forces for the defence 
of your Lordship's charge, which otherwise might 
suddenly revolt, if they had any aid by sea or land, 
as very many they expect ; which, if your Lordship 
wrong me not, I will stop to my best endeavour, I 
betake your Honour to God. From the camp, the 
twelfth of April, 1601. 

Your Honour's loving friend, 

Redmond Leitrim. 

The Lord President's Answer. 

I have received your letter on the twelfth of this 
instant, and am glad to find by the same that the life 
you now lead is odious to you. I do wish that the 
feeling of your duty may increase in that manner in 
you that you would make yourself capable of the 
Queen's mercy, which is far more infinite than your 

vol. 1. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

transgression hitherto hath been ; of which royal dis- 
position of hers, the examples of the offenders in this 
kingdom are plentiful and apparent. The pretence 
you make in your continuance in action is the wrongs 
done unto you by your uncle, and to enable him farther 
to suppress you utterly you add here to that arch- 
traitor Tyrone, and forsake your duty to your sovereign, 
refusing her laws (by which you may be righted) with 
opinion to be repossessed by the strength of his sword. 
Your youth may somewhat excuse your error, but, 
believe me, you shall neither be Baron of Leitrim, nor 
possess your father's inheritance, by the aid of that 
perfidious traitor, who I know hath not the power for 
long to support this rebellion ; and, if he had, yet 
yourself and all the English race of Irish birth are as 
odious to him as now we are, that are natural English. 
If his power were able to make him monarch of 
Ireland, the Burkes, with all of English descent, must 
look for no other than assured extirpation. I am sure 
you are of discretion sufficient to conceive as much as 
I write, wherefore I need insist no longer upon the 
same. To be short, if you will follow the way which I 
do by this messenger prescribe you, you may make your- 
self capable of the Queen's mercy and find both means 
and friends to obtain justice. The request you make 
to me to forbear sending forces to annoy you, and in 
so doing that you will spare Munster and keep others 
from harming the province. If I were but an ordinary 
subject, and not an officer to the Queen, I neither 
might nor would make any such contrast with you, 
and therefore much less may I hearken to any such 
motion, being an officer of that quality as I am ; and 
do marvel that you would require me to juggle with 
my prince, whom I wish that you did serve with the 

Pacata Hibernia. 


like faith and duty as I do. I do wish that your 
estate were such that I might show you friendship. If 
you persevere in rebellion I hold you lost and in a 
condition with them who have made themselves 
irreconcilable. What I leave unwritten I refer to 
this bearer, Limerick, this fourteenth of April, 1601. 
Your loving friend when you are 

an obedient subject, 

G. C. 

This answer of the President's could not be very 
pleasing to Redmond, for it plainly manifested that 
his purpose was not to do him any courtesies until he 
had done something that might deserve his friendship 
and Her Majesty's grace. Nevertheless it seems that 
there were some hopes for him to feed upon in the 
messages sent which he did not write, or else Burke 
could not have been contained from harming Munster 
as hitherto he was. To conclude, he fed him with 
fair language and threats ; and sure I am that the 
President made his advantage by it. 


Intelligence of Spanish invasion — The escape of Teg O'Brien, brother 
to the Earl of Thomond — Florence's preparations for munition 
and men — A letter from Tyrone to Florence — A letter from 
the Lords of the Council to the Lord President — The report of 
Dermond MacAwley touching the coming of Ulster men into 

I must desire the reader to excuse me if I do a little 
break the rule of the progress of this story in looking 
back some few days, for that which precedeth of the 
incidents of Captain Flower's service in Connaught 
did so necessarily depend one after the other that I 
was forced to continue that relation until this return 
to Limerick, which made me forbear to speak of Sir 
Henry Dockwray, 1 who upon the seventh of this 
instant, April, wrote to the Lord Deputy (as his Lord- 
ship advertised the President) that Hugh Boy, who 
was a man of good estimation and very intimate with 
O'Donnell, assured him that the Spaniards would this 
year invade Ireland with six thousand men, and would 
land in some part of Munster, and that three of the 
chief towns (which must be Cork, Limerick, and Water- 
ford, for they were the chiefest) had promised to 
receive them, and that Florence MacCarty, by the 

1 A Queen's commander who had landed in Tirconnall and 
entrenched himself in Derry. Supported by many powerful lords 
there hostile to the O'Donnell, he was waging successful war on 
Hugh Roe. Amongst others was Nial Garf, who brought a third of 
Tyr-Connall to his assistance. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


necessity of the time only, had submitted himself to 
the President, but upon the Spaniards landing he 
would assuredly come to them with all the force he 
could make. 

The six-and-twentieth of April, the President 
leaving at Limerick, and near to it, twelve hundred 
foot and fifty horse for the guard of those borders, 
returned towards Cork ; and the seven- and- twentieth, 
the next day following, he heard that Teg O'Brien, 
brother to the Earl of Thomond, having been a long 
time prisoner in Limerick, by the corruption of his 
keeper, made an escape. Immediately he wrote to 
the President protesting his loyalty to Her Majesty, 
professing to do service, such as should merit favour ; 
humbly besought him, not desiring any protection, 
that he might remain with his Lordship. The Presi- 
dent granted his request, and withal sent him a 
protection, which, in another letter to Richard Boyle, 
the Clerk of the Council, he besought. The reason 
which moved the President to grant his request was 
the absence of the Earl of Thomond, then in England, 
that, during the same, the county of Clare might be 
freed from bonfires ; but now for a time we must 
leave the President in Cork, and return to Florence 

You heard before that Florence had a cutting (as 
they call it) upon Carberry, towards his charges in 
the pretended journey for England, but employed all 
the same, and whatsoever more he could procure, to 
another end ; for about this time he provided a bark, 
which he freighted with hides, tallow, and such 
commodities, committing the care and trust thereof to 
some of Kinsale, by whom the said merchandise should 
be transported beyond the seas, and, in lieu thereof, 


Pacata Hibernia. 

munition and habiliments of war should be returned, 
and delivered to him in the Harbour of Valentia. 
Moreover, about the same time, he earnestly solicited 
aid from the neighbouring provinces, to resist Her 
Majesty's forces ; and for the same purpose wrote a 
letter in Irish (which was read by James Welsh, by 
whose relation I received this light) to one in Ormond 
called Cahir MacShane Glasse O'Mulryan, desiring 
that he would levy for him six hundred foot in 
Leinster, which if he could not, then to procure 
Redmond Burke to come with so many to his aid, 
and, if he failed likewise therein, to deal with Captain 
Terrell to the same effect, and he would pay them 
upon the country of Desmond. Lastly, Donogh Mac- 
Cormock, called MacDonogh, his agent with Tyrone, 
laboured so much at his hands, and that so earnestly, 
that he procured a letter from Tyrone, the contents 
whereof were as folio weth, as translated from the 
Irish : — 

A Letter from Tyrone to Florence MacCarty. 

Our commendations to you, MacCarty More, I 
send shortly unto you according to our trust of 
you, that you will do a stout and hopeful thing 
against the pagan beast, and thereupon our army is to 
go into Munster, and, with the will of God, we consent 
unto you, and will that you believe not any word from 
us for ever, before we write again unto you ; for you 
shall see trouble enough in England, by Englishmen 
themselves, so that there shall be easiness of suffering 
their wars at May next in respect of that it is now. 
And since this cause of Munster was left to you (next 
under God), let no weakness or imbecility be found in 
you, and the time of help is near you, and all the 

Pacata Hibernia. 


rest. From Dungannon, the sixth of February, 1601, 
stilo novo. 


The army mentioned in this letter was the same 
which now you heard of, taking their journey by the 
way of Connaught, which, as may appear both by the 
examination of James Welsh and the contents of 
these letters, were solicited and sent principally by 
the means, promises and procurement of Florence, 
he being then and before under protection, the breach 
whereof he nothing esteemed. But ceasing farther 
to rake in the filthy channels of his malicious 
practices, like maladies incurable, lest it should be 
loathsome to the reader, I will lead him abroad 
into the open air, to behold the hunting, rousing, and 
fall of a great stag, which was afterwards sent into 
England to Her Majesty, and by her received as a 
most acceptable present, although it was not God's 
will that she should live to reward the chief ranger. 

About the middle of May, the Lord President 
received a letter from the Lords of the Council in 
England, which bore date the eight- and- twentieth of 
April, which, for the reader's better understanding 
how the affairs of Munster did suit with the direc- 
tions and Councils in England, I think it meet to be 
inserted : — 

A Letter from the Lords op the Council to the 
Lord President. 

After our very hearty commendations to your 
Lordship. Although we have before this time 
acquainted you with Her Majesty's gracious accepta- 
tion of your service, because we know you had no 


Pacata Hibernia. 

greater object than to deserve Her Majesty's grace 
and favour ; yet now we will forbear to touch upon it 
at this time, because Her Majesty gives you notice of 
it with her own hand, and for the present only let you 
know what care we have taken to satisfy all your 
demands for Her Majesty's service, because it may 
appear unto you, seeing you do orderly and carefully 
give us an account of your proceedings, that we will 
in no sort neglect such things as you in your discre- 
tion hold fit or necessary. We have therefore first, 
by Her Majesty's command, sent you a supply of 
munition, according to your request ; we have likewise 
given order for victuals in good proportion, although 
it seemeth to us, by the certificate of the victualler, 
that you were better stored at your writing than you 
knew for. We have also given order for oats to be 
presently sent you ; and because you have so good 
use of a ship for transporting victuals to and fro, 
besides the service she may do in mastering those 
barks and boats which offend the coast, we have sent 
Captain Harvy with a good ship for that purpose. 
And now that you may know what letters we have 
intercepted out of Spain, concerning those brutes 
which we perceive are spread of Spanish succours, you 
shall receive the copies of three letters, whereof we 
have the originals, which were committed to the 
charge of Peter Strong, of Waterford, whose ship 
and goods were taken in Falmouth, where they were 
put in by storm. One of them comes from the 
Governor of the Groyne, another from a friar that 
resideth with him, the third from one Sennock, who, 
as it seemeth, being unwilling to have Tyrone deceived, 
showeth him truly how little reason they have to 
trust to any of the Spanish succours as they expect ; 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of these you may make such use as you think good. 
As concerning your desire to know what shall become 
of the Lady lone of Desmond, we think you should do 
well to set her at liberty again as she was before, 
referring the care of her well-being to some of her 
sisters, that may have an eye over her. We do also 
require you still to see that Her Majesty's forces, 
being now so much diminished, may not be spent in 
maintaining private men's castles and houses, but 
where those places are of use for Her Majesty's 
service. Lastly, concerning the fine imposed on the 
Mayor of Limerick, for which we find you had so just 
occasion, we wish you in no wise to remit it, but 
rather to bestow it upon the repair of Her Majesty's 
castle there, which as it seemeth will serve to so good 
purpose for Her Majesty's service. And so we bid 
your Lordship very heartily farewell. From the 
Court at Whitehall, the 28th of April, 1601. 

Your Lordship's very loving friends, 
Thomas Egerton, C. § Ro. Cecill, 
Tho. Buckhuest, Joh. Fortescue, 

W. Knowles, I. Herbert. 

The eight-and-twentieth day Dermond MacAwly, 
who was lately come out of Ulster, and daily con- 
versant with the traitors of Munster, and acquainted 
with all their proceedings and counsels, by mediation 
of friends, made his repair to the President, and, 
being examined whether they intended to come again 
with new forces into the province, he affirmed that at 
his departure from them they were ready to come 
away, and particularized what munition and money 
every one of them was furnished with by Tyrone, 
viz. — 


Pacata Hibernia. 

The Lord of Lixnaw 

John FitzThomas 

Pierce Lacy 

Mac Donogh 

Redmond Burke 

Teg 1 O'Rwrke 



Powder barrels 


Lead, one sow- 


Match, fathoms 


Money . 

. £14 



Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 


Match, fathoms 

Money . 

. 10 ii. 



Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 



Match, fathoms 

Money . 

. 8 li. 



Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 



Match . 

Money . 

. 12 li. 


. 150 

Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 


Match . 


. 500 li. 


. 150 

Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 


Match . 

Money . 

. 500 li. 

1 This name, of frequent recurrence, is spelt Tadhg in Irish, latterly 
Anglicized as Teigue. 

Pacata Hibernia. 203 
From O'Donnell to 

Teg Rewgh 



Powder barrels 


Lead, sows . 



Match, fathoms 


. 40 li. 


James FitzThomas, the titulary Earl of Desmond, taken prisoner — 
James FitzThomas kept prisoner in the Lord President's house 
— His arraignment and condemnation — His relation presented 
to the Lord President — The Lord President's letter to Her 
Majesty— Two letters from James FitzThomas to the King of 
Spain — The causes of the rebellion in Munster as James Fitz- 
Thomas alleged — Hussy's report of the causes of the rebellion in 

There was no man of account in all Munster whom 
the President had not oftentimes laboured about 
the taking of the reputed Earl, still lurking secretly 
within this province, promising very bountiful 
and liberal rewards to all, or any such as would 
draw such a draught whereby he might be got 
alive or dead ; every man entertained these proffers, a 
being resolute in performing the same service, although 
they never conceived any such thought ; but at last it 
happened after this manner. The Lord Barry, having 
one hundred men in pay from the Queen, employed 
them many times about such service as either the Pre- 
sident should command or himself thought requisite ; 
and namely, about the fourteenth of May, knowing that 
one Dermond O'Dogan, 1 a harper dwelling at Garryduff, 
used to harbour this arch-rebel, or else upon occasion 

1 O'Duggan. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of some stealth that had been made in his country, the 
thieves making towards this fastness, his soldiers 
pursued them into this wood, where, by good fortune, 
this supposed Earl and two of the Baldons and this 
Dermond were gathered together, being almost ready 
to go to supper ; but, having discovered these soldiers, 
they left their meat and made haste to shift for them* 
selves. They were no sooner gone out of the cabin but 
the soldiers were come in, and, finding this provision 
and a mantle which they knew belonged to James 
FitzThomas, they followed the chase of the stag now 
roused ; by this time the harper had conveyed the 
Sugan Earl into the thickest part of the fastness, 
and himself and his two companions of purpose 
discovered themselves to the soldiers, and left the 
wood with the lapwing's policy, that they being 
busied in pursuit of them, the other might remain 
secure within that fastness, and so indeed it fell out ; 
for the soldiers, supposing that James FitzThomas 
had been of that company, made after them till even- 
ing, by which time they had recovered the White 
Knight's country, whence, being past hope of any 
further service, they returned to Barry Court and in- 
formed the Lord Barry of all these incidents. On 
the next morning, the Lord Barry, glad of so good a 
cause of complaint against the White Knight, whom 
he hated, hasteth to the President, and, relating to him 
all these particulars, signifieth what a narrow escape 
the arch-traitor had made, and that if the White 
Knight's people had assisted his soldiers he could not 
possibly have escaped their hands. Hereupon the 
White Knight was presently sent for, who, being 
called before the President, was rebuked with sharp 
words and bitter reprehensions for the negligence of 


Pacata Hibernia. 

his country in so important a business, and was 
menaced that for so much as he had undertaken for 
his whole country, therefore he was answerable both 
with life and lands for any default by them made. 
The White Knight, receiving these threatenings to 
heart, humbly entreated the President to suspend his 
judgment for a few days, vowing upon his soul that 
if the said Desmond were now in this country as was 
averred, or should hereafter repair thither, he would 
give the President a good account of him, alive or 
dead, otherwise he was content that both his lands 
and goods should remain at the Queen's mercy ; and 
with these protestations he departed, and, presently, 
repairing to Sir George Thornton, he recounted to him 
the sharp reproofs which he had received from the 
President. Sir George, finding him thus well nettled, 
took hold of the occasion and never left urging him to 
perform the service until he had taken his corporal 
oath upon a book that he would employ all his en- 
deavours to effect the same. As soon as he was re- 
turned to his house he made the like moan to some of 
his faithf ullest followers, as he had done to Sir George 
Thornton ; and to stir up their minds to help him in 
the peril he stood, he promised him that he could bring 
him word where James FitzThomas was, he would 
give him fifty pounds in money, the inheritance of a 
plough-land to him and his heirs for ever, with many 
immunities and freedoms. One of his followers, who 
loved him dearly, compassionating the perplexity he 
was in, said, " But would you indeed lay hands upon 
James FitzThomas if you knew where to find him ? " 
The Knight confirmed it with protestations. M Then 
follow me," said he, " and I will bring you where he 
is." The White Knight and he, with six or seven 

Pacata Hibernia. 


more (whereof Redmond Burke 1 of Muskery- Quirk wa3 
one), presently, upon the nine-and-twentieth of May, 
took horse and were guided to a cave in the mountain 
of Slewgort, 2 which had but a narrow mouth, yet deep 
in the ground, where the caitiff Earl, accompanied 
only by one of his foster-brothers called Thomas 
Ophegie, was then lurking. The White Knight called 
James FitzThomas, requiring him to come out and 
render himself his prisoner. But contrarywise he, 
presuming upon the greatness of his quality, coming 
to the cave's mouth, required Redmond Burke and the 
rest to lay hands upon the Knight (for both he and 
they were his natural followers), 3 but, the wheel of his 
fortune being turned, with their swords drawn they 
entered the cave, and, without resistance disarming 
him and his foster-brother, they delivered them bound 
to the White Knight, who carried him to his castle of 
Kilvenny, and presently dispatched a messenger to Sir 
George Thornton to pray him to send some of the 
garrison of Kilmallock to take charge of him, which 
employment was committed to the care of Captain 
Francis Slingsby, who, marching with his company to 
Kilvenny, had the prisoner delivered to him, and thence, 
with as much expedition as might be, the White Knight, 

1 This was the follower who loved the White Knight dearly. 
Observe he was not a Geraldine, but a Burke. The immediate 
entourage and life-guard of a chieftain consisted usually of foreigners. 
It was held that members of the Clan, inasmuch as they might be 
affected by the internal feuds and jealousies, would be less reliable. 
It is laid down in the Brehon laws that the king's guard should consist 
of strangers or purchased slaves. 

2 Slewgort. I wish some one would search for and discover this 
historic cave. 

3 There is something noble in this final appearance of the Des- 
mond. The scene would make a fine subject for a historical picture. 
James FitzThomas, the Sugan Earl, was said to have been the hand- 
somest man of his time. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Sir George Thornton, and Captain Slingsbj brought 
them to the President, then residing at Shandon 
Castle, adjoining Cork. But how the White Knight 
performed his promise to his servant it may be doubted, 
though he had one thousand pounds given him from 
Her Majesty for the service. 

The President, having thus got his long desired 
prey, not venturing to have him kept in the town, ap- 
pointed him lodging and a keeper within Shandon 
Castle, where himself then remained, and there held 
him in irons until he was sent into England, which 
was yet deferred, for the President, being informed by 
the Queen's learned Council that if he should die before 
his arraignment the Queen could not be interested in 
his lands, but by Act of Parliament, and also his 
brother John was not debarred by the law from the 
title, which this pretender holdeth to be good in the 
Earldom of Desmond. 

When the White Knight had delivered his prisoner, 
James FitzThomas, into Captain Slingsby's custody, 
he said to him " Now the horse is yours, take care and 
charge of him." And in conference with Captain 
Slingsby told him how much it grieved him that the 
Lord President should suspect him to be a reliever of 
James FitzThomas, contrary to his protestation of 
service to Her Majesty and to him ; and to make it the 
better appear what infinite prejudice he had received 
by his means. For first, at the coming of Tyrone into 
Munster, James FitzThomas, having some jealousy, 
and not without cause, that fhe White Knight would 
quit the confederacy and humbly seek Her Majesty's 
gracious favour, acquainted Tyrone with it, who there- 
upon apprehended him and willed him either to put in 
his son John as pledge of his perseverance, or else he 

Pacata Hibernia. 


must detain him prisoner ; which the White Knight 
being neither able nor willing to perform, committed 
him to the custody of Redmond Burke, who carried 
him out of the country, making him lackey it by his 
horse's side on foot like a common horse-boy ; and 
that, in his absence, his country being thus distracted 
for want of a head, the Earl of Ormond came with 
some forces preying, burning, and spoiling most part 
of his country ; and that he was forced to pay unto 
Redmond Burke two hundred pounds ransom after 
three months' imprisonment with his ill-usage, con- 
cluding that it might well be believed he had small 
cause to do those favours to James FitzThomas which 
were suspected, considering he had received those 
harms and losses from him, who was never able to re- 
pair him of the least part thereof. But it may well 
be conceived that the White Knight had not, until he 
was so pressed by the President, made any diligent 
inquiry after him ; and that if he had more timely 
sought it he might sooner have effected it. 

Captain Slingsby, having now the prisoner and the 
whole house and keys committed to his charge and 
keeping, setting his guards and sentinels both within 
the house and without, as was fitting for the guard of 
so welcome a prisoner, went to where the said James 
was to be his watch that night, and, judging a man in 
his case not capable of any favour from Her Majesty, 
as being the principal cause of all the rebellion of 
Munster, though otherwise none of the bloodiest 
enemies, could take no comfort in discourse, was silent 
by him, not willing to grieve him with discoursing 
on that which he thought could not be pleasing to 
him, until James FitzThomas himself first ministered 
occasion, who, having had some notice what Captain 

VOL. i, p 

2 IO 

Pacata Hibernia. 

Slingsby was, after some compliments began in some 
sort to extenuate, though not to excuse, his former 
faults to Her Majesty, how he was forced to take that 
title upon him, otherwise his brother John would not 
have been so nice in the accepting ; and that he never 
shed any English blood in the first insurrection, nor 
suffered any to do that he could withhold (though 
many of his followers did not so piously observe it), 
but with the best respect of humanity caused them to 
be sent out of the country to the next coast towns with 
the least offence that might be ; and therefore hoped 
Her Majesty, who had extended her clemency to far 
greater crimes (though it was his hard fortune to be 
so eminent a man in that action), would now retract 
nothing of her wonted goodness and mercy ; intimat- 
ing withal his father to be elder brother to Gerrot, Earl 
of Desmond, who by the power of his mother a second 
wife was disinherited, and her son, though a younger, 
received and acknowledged for Earl of Desmond. 
With these and other discourses they spent the whole 
night until it was day, when they made ready to go 
to Cork to the Lord President to deliver the prisoner. 

Upon these reasons the prisoner, at a sessions 
holden in Cork for that purpose, was indicted, 
arraigned, convicted, and adjudged to be executed as 
a notorious traitor ; which being done, the President 
advertised all the proceedings to England, and desired 
that he might be sent to the Tower of London, there 
to remain in prison ; humbly praying that his life 
might be spared, in policy of State ; for whilst he 
lived his brother John could not make any pretext to 
the Earldom ; whereas, on the contrary, he being dead, 
it was very probable that the rebels would set him up 
for a new idol in his place ; whereof what incon- 

Pacata Hibernia. 

2 I I 

veniences might ensue was apparent. These reasons 
are subject to every man's understanding that hath 
common sense ; and, therefore, no marvel that the 
Lord President should light upon them. Behold here 
what the captive Earl himself doth say concerning 
that point, who, being prisoner in the President's 
house, having the favour to have paper and ink, upon 
the third of June, one thousand six hundred and one, 
wrote this which ensueth ; humbly entreating the 
President to send it to Her Majesty, or to the Lords 
of her Council in England, which he performed in his 
next dispatch. 

The relation of James of Desmond to the Eight Honourable Sir 
George Carew, Lord President of Munster, most humbly beseech- 
ing your Honour to certify Her Majesty and the Lords of her 
most Honourable Council of the same. Hoping, in the Almighty, 
that Her Highness of her accustomed clemency and mercy, by 
your intercession, will take most gracious and merciful considera- 
tion thereof, to the end that Her Majesty's Eealm of Ireland 
shall be better planted and maintained in good government by his 
release. The third of June, 1601. 

First it may please your Honour to consider that this 
action at the beginning was never pretended, intended, 
nor drawn by me, nor my consent ; but by my brother 
John and Pierce Lacy, having the oaths and promises 
of divers noblemen and gentlemen of this province 
to maintain the same, and not ever consented unto by 
me until Sir Thomas Norris left Kilmallock and the 
Irish forces camped at Rekeloe in Connologh, where 
they stayed five or six days ; the most part of the 
country combining and adjoining with them, and 
undertook to hold with my brother John, if I had not 
come to them. The next sessions (before these pro- 
ceedings) at Cork, Sir Thomas Norris arrested me in 
person there for my brother, he being then suspected 

p 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

by him, and intended to keep me in perpetual prison 
for him until I made my escape by this, the intent of 
Sir Thomas Norris being known, the fear and terrifi- 
cation thereof drew me into this action ; and had I 
been assured of my liberty, and not clapped into 
prison for my brother's offence, I had never entered 
into this action. Further, I was bordered with most 
English neighbours, of the gentlemen of this province ; 
I defy any English that can charge me with hindering 
them, either in body or goods ; bufc as many as ever 
came in my presence I conveyed them away from time 
to time. 

Also it is to be expected that the Spanish forces are 
to come into Ireland this summer, and O'Neal will 
send up the strongest army of northern men into 
Munster with my brother John, the Lord of Lixnaw, 
and Pierce Lacy ; and when they are footed in 
Munster the most part of the country will join with 
them. Preventing this and many other circumstances 
of service, the saving of my life is more beneficial for 
Her Majesty than my death. For it may please Her 
Majesty to be gracious to me, I will reclaim my 
brother, the Lord of Lixnaw, and Pierce Lacy, if it 
please Her Majesty to be gracious to them, or else so 
diligently work against them with Her Majesty's 
forces and your directions that they shall not be able 
to make head or stir in Munster at all ; for, by the 
saving of my life, Her Highness will win the hearts in 
general of all her subjects and people in Ireland, my 
own service, and continuance of my alliance in dutiful 
sort, all the days of their lives. 

Further, I must humbly beseech your Honour to 
foresee that there are three others of my sept and 
race alive ; the one is in England, my uncle Garret's 

Pacata Hibernia. 

son James, set at liberty by Her Majesty, and in hope 
to obtain Her Majesty's favour, my brother in Ulster, 
and my cousin Maurice FitzJohn in Spain, wherewith 
it may be expected that either of these (if I were 
gone) by Her Majesty's favour might be brought in 
credit and restored to the house. It may therefore 
please Her Majesty to be gracious to me, assuring to 
God and the world that I will be true and faithful to 
Her Majesty during life ; by which means Her 
Majesty's Government may be the better settled; 
myself and all others my alliance for ever bound to 
pray for Her Majesty's life long to continue. 1 

But afterwards, being examined by the President 
and the Provincial Council, he added some other 
reasons for taking arms against Her Majesty, which in 
due place shall be mentioned. In the dispatch which 
the President made into England upon his apprehen- 
sion he wrote a letter to Her Majesty, as followeth : — 

The Loed President's Letter to Her Majesty. 

Sacred and Dread Sovereign, — To my unspeak- 
able joy, I have received your Majesty's letters 
signed with your royal hand, and blessed with an 
extraordinary addition to the same, which although it 
cannot increase my faith and zeal in your Majesty's 
service, which from my cradle (I thank God for it) 
was engraved in my heart, yet it infinitely multiplies 
my comforts in the same ; and wherein my endea- 
vours and poor merits shall appear to be short of 

1 It may have been imagined from his action hitherto that this 
Sugan Earl was animated by high national or religious purposes. 
But nothing can be plainer than that secular, territorial, and personal 
objects were what he aimed at. We may assume, then, that in all 
Munster there was not one considerable lord who honestly joined in 
" the Action." 

214 Pacata Hibernia. 

such inestimable favours, my never-dying prayers for 
your Majesty's eternal prosperity shall never fail to 
the last day of life ; but when I compare the felicities 
which other men enjoy, with my unfortunate destiny 
— to be deprived of the sight of your Royal person, 
whichmy heart with all loyal affection (inferior to none) 
evermore attends, I live like one lost to himself, and 
wither out my days in torment of mind, until it shall 
please your sacred Majesty to redeem me from this 
exile, which, unless it be for my sins, upon the knees 
of my heart I do humbly beseech your Majesty to 
commiserate, and to shorten the same as speedily as 
may be, since my time of banishment in this rebellious 
kingdom (for better than a banishment I cannot 
esteem my fortune, that deprives me from beholding 
your Majesty's person), although I have not done as 
much as I desire in the charge I undergo, yet to make 
it appear that I have not been idle (I thank God for 
it), I have now at length, by means of the White 
Knight, got into my hands the body of James Fitz- 
Thomas, that arch-traitor and usurping Earl, whom 
for a present, with the best conveniency and safety 
which I may find, I will by some trusty gentleman 
send to your Majesty, whereby I hope this province 
is made safe from any present defection. And now 
that my task is ended, I do in all humility beseech 
that in your princely commiseration my exile may 
end, protesting the same to be a greater affliction to 
me than I can well endure ; for as my faith is un- 
divided, and only professed (as by divine and human 
laws the same is bound) in vassalage to your Majesty, 
so doth my heart covet nothing so much as to be ever- 
more attendant on your sacred person, accounting it a 
happiness to me to die at your feet, not doubting but 

Pacata Hibernia. 


that your Majesty, out of your princely and royal 
bounty, will enable me by some means or other to sus- 
tain the rest of my days in your service ; and that my 
fortune shall not be the worse in that I am not any 
importunate craver ; or yet in not using other argu- 
ments to move your Majesty thereunto than this, 
Assai dimanda qui ben serve e face. So most humbly 
beseeching your Majesty's pardon in troubling you 
with these lines, unworthy your divine eyes, do kiss 
the shadows 1 of your Royal feet. From your Majesty's 
City of Cork this third of June, 1601. 

I may well term him a notorious traitor, because 
he was, within one year before his apprehension, the 
most mighty and potent Geraldine that had been of 
any of the Earls of Desmond, his predecessors. For 
it is certainly reported that he had eight thousand 
men well armed under his command at one time, all 
which he employed against his lawful sovereign ; and 
secondly, a notorious traitor, because he sought to 
bring a most infamous slander upon a most virtuous 
and renowned prince, his Queen and mistress, with 
his false suggestions to foreign princes ; and not- 
withstanding that her name was eternized with the 
shrill-sounding trumpet of triumphant fame for the 
meekest and mildest prince that ever reigned, yet 
was he not ashamed, so far as the rancour of malice 
corrupted his venomous heart to inculcate into the 
ears of the Pope and Spanish King, that she was 
more tyrannical than Pharaoh and more blood- 
thirsty than Nero, But because I may be thought 
to feign these allegations to aggravate his treasons, I 
will, therefore, for satisfaction of the readers, set 

1 The sublime of courtiership surely. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

down the very words of two of his letters, bearing 
one date, which he sent to the King of Spain. 

A Letter from James FitzThomas to the King op 


Most Mighty Monarch, — I humbly salute your 
Imperial Majesty, giving your Highness to under- 
stand of our great misery and violent order where- 
with we are of long time oppressed by the English 
nation. Their government is such as Pharaoh 
himself never used the like; for they content 
not themselves with all temporal superiority, but 
by cruelty desire our blood and perpetual de- 
struction, to blot out the whole remembrance of 
our posterity ; as also our old Catholic religion, 
and to swear that the Queen of England is 
supreme of the Church. I refer the consideration 
hereof to your Majesty's high judgment ; for that 
Nero in his time was far inferior to that Queen in 
cruelty. Wherefore, and for the respects thereof, 
high, mighty potentate, myself, with my followers 
and retainers, and being also requested by the 
bishops, prelates, and religious men of my country, 
have drawn my sword and proclaimed war 
against them for the recovery, first, of Christ's 
Catholic religion, and next for the maintenance of 
my own right, which of long time hath been wrong- 
fully detained from me and my father, who by right 
succession was lawful heir to the earldom of 
Desmond ; for he was . eldest son to James, my 
grandfather, who was Earl of Desmond; and for 
that- uncle Gerald, being the younger brother, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


took part with the wicked proceedings of the Queen 
of England, to farther the unlawful claim of su- 
premacy, usurped the name of Earl of Desmond in 
my father's true title ; yet notwithstanding he had 
not long enjoyed his name of Earl when the wicked 
English annoyed him, and prosecuted wars, that he, 
with the most part of those that held of his side, was 
slain, and his country thereby planted with English- 
men. And now, by the just judgment and providence 
of God, I have utterly rooted those malapert bows 
out of the orchard of my country and have profited 
so much in my proceedings that my dastardly enemies 
dare not show their faces in any part of my country, 
but having taken my towns and cities, for their refuge 
and strength, where they do remain (as yet were 
prisoners) for want •oi means to assail them, as 
cannon and powder which my country doth not yield : 
having these wants, most noble potentate, I have 
presumed with all humility to address these my 
letters to your High Majesty, craving the same of 
your gracious clemency and goodness to assist me 
in this godly enterprise with some help of such 
necessaries for the wars as your Majesty shall think 
requisite ; and, after the quiet of my country, satis- 
faction shall be truly made for the same, and myself 
in person with all my forces shall be ready to serve 
your Highness in any country your Majesty shall 
command me. 

And if your Majesty will vouchsafe to send me a 
competent number of soldiers I will place them in 
some of my towns and cities, to remain at your 
gracious disposition till such time as my ability shall 
make good what your Majesty shall lend me in 
money and munition ; and also your Majesty's high 


2l8 Pacata Hibernia. 

commission under the broad seal for leading and 
conducting of these soldiers according to the 
prescript order and articles of martial discipline, as 
your Majesty shall appoint me, and as the service 
of the land shall require. 1 praise the Almighty 
God I have done by His goodness more than all my 
predecessors ; for I have reclaimed all the nobility 
of this part under the dutiful obedience of Christ's 
Church and mine own authority, and accordingly 
have taken pledges and corporal oaths never to 
swerve from the same ; and would have sent them to 
your Majesty by this bearer but that the ship was 
not of sufficiency and strength to carry so noble 
personages, and will send them whensoever your High- 
ness please. So there resteth nothing to quiet this 
part of the world but your Majesty's assistance, 
which I daily expect. Thus, most mighty monarch, 
I humbly take my leave, and do kiss your royal 
hands, beseeching the Almighty of your Majesty's 
health and happiness. From my camp the fourteenth 
day of March, 1599. 

Your Majesty's most humble 
at all command, 

James Desmond. 

Another Letter from James FitzThomas to the 
King of Spain. 

Your Majesty shall understand that the bearer 
hereof, Captain Andrew Roche, hath been always 
in the service of the Queen of England, and hath 
performed her manifold services at sea, whereby 
he had great preferment and credit, and being 

Pacata Hibernia. 


of late time conversant with Catholics and teachers 
of divine instructions that were sorry for his lewd 
life, made known to him the danger wherein his 
soul was ; so that by their godly persuasions he was 
at that time reclaimed and subverted to be a good 
Catholic, and to spend the residue of his life in the 
defence and service of the Church ; since which time 
of reconcilement he was to repair to your Majesty 
with his ship and goods, as is well known to your 
Highness* s Council, who confiscated that ship to 
your Majesty's use; himself being at that time 
stricken with extreme sickness that he was not 
able to proceed in the voyage ; and when his com- 
pany returned into Ireland they reported that the 
Lantado wished rather his person than the ship, 
which made him fearful ever since to repair thither, 
till he should deserve his freedom by some worthy 
service to your Majesty. 

The heir apparent to the Crown of England had 
been carried by him to your Highness but that he 
was betrayed by some of his own men, and thereby 
was intercepted and himself taken prisoner, where 
he remained of long, till by the providence of God 
and the help of good friends he was conveyed into 
Ireland to me in a small boat ; and leaving these 
occasions to your Imperial Majesty, and being as- 
sured of his trust, faith, and confidence towards me, 
have committed this charge into his hands ; the rather 
for that I understand your royal fleet is directed 
for England this year, to the end he may be a 
leader and conductor to them in the coast of England 
and Ireland, being very expert in the knowledge 
thereof, and in the whole art of navigation. And 
thus with all humility I commit your Highness to the 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Almighty. From my camp the fourteenth of March, 

Your Majesty's most humble 
at all command, 

James Desmond. 

Consider, I beseech thee, gentle reader, into what 
proud arrogancy and audacious insolency this arch- 
traitor was elevated, like a vapour on a sunshiny day 
when blind fortune laughed upon him ; the Queen 
a tyrant, the English all cowards, the cities and 
walled towns all his, and the Munster nobility 
subdued under his authority ; was there ever a rebel 
so far transported with ambitious presumption be- 
yond the limits of reason? Was it not sufficient 
for him, like cursed Shimei or black-mouthed railing 
Rabshakeh, to revile the Lord's anointed, but he 
must challenge her territories, her cities, her people, 
and her nobility (whom she and her ancestors had 
created) to be his own, who had no portion nor 
inheritance in any part thereof, being the imp of a 
born bastard. But surely I must persuade myself 
all this was permitted by the unsearchable sapience of 
the all-seeing Deity, who, even as He caused proud 
Lucifer to be thrown from the chair of highest 
majesty (whereunto he presumed) into the lowest 
dungeon of dark obscurity, for ever to be tormented, 
so did he suffer this aspiring Absolom to mag- 
nify himself in the height of vain-glory, ut lapsu 
graviore mat, that being thrown headlong down 
from the pinnacle of ambition, he might for ever be 
pointed at as an exemplary mirror for all insolent 

"Whilst he remained prisoner in Shandon the 

Pacata Hibernta. 


President thought good to send for him oftentimes, 
before himself and the Council, and there to examine 
him upon such particulars that they thought most 
material for the advancement of the present service. 
And, amongst the rest, they questioned him concern- 
ing the original causes and principal motives that 
induced this late rebellion in Munster ; he answered 
that the foundation principally was religion, then 
the undertakers encroaching upon gentlemen's 
lands, the fear of English juries passing upon Irish- 
men's lines, the taking notice of slight evidence upon 
such arrangements, the general fear conceived of 
the safety of their lives by the example of the exe- 
cution of Redmond FitzGerald and Donogh Mac- 
Cragh, and the great charge which was yearly 
exacted for Her Majesty out of every plough-land 
within the province, called the composition-rent; 
and because these his pretences do not much vary 
from the allegations (surmised) by Oliver Hussy, a 
schoolmaster, a most pernicious member in this 
traitorous combination, I have thought fit to inter- 
pose the same in this place. This Hussy, therefore, 
examined upon the same interrogatories, answered as 
f olloweth ; 

First, the country was, much against its will, 
driven to pay composition to the Queen for three 
years upon certain covenants. These covenants 
were not observed on Her Majesty's part, nor yet 
the composition ceased at the determination of the 
said term. Wherefore they thought the compo- 
sition would not only be continued, but also aug- 
mented from time to time at the pleasure of their 
superiors till they should be weary of their lands. 
Many new and extraordinary ways were sought out 


Pacata Hibernia. 

in concealments, and such like, to the great discomfort 
and fear of landlords and freeholders. 

The extortions and unlawful dealings of sheriffs 
and other like officers to rob the countrymen of their 
goods ; for they used to keep many courts for gain 
and not for justice ; they used to bring many writs 
from Dublin for very small causes ; they used to buy 
old caveling titles, to receive bribes for not going 
to poor gentlemen's houses, and other like incon- 

The continual vexation by processes from the 
spiritual Court, where by fines and bribes, to save 
men's consciences, they were greatly grieved, and 
especially by the High Commission. 

The manner of execution of Donogh MacCragh and 
Redmond FitzGerald and seeking of Thomas Fitz- 
Maurice's blood greatly discomforted them, fearing 
that all of their lives were in like danger. 

The several examinations of these two, being both 
deeply engaged in the action, I have therefore inserted 
in this present relation. First that the world may be 
satisfied upon what weak pretexts and imaginary 
conjectures the rebellion was grounded. And 
therefore the former scandalous suggestions which 
Hell had devised and the Pope's damned legate had 
forced against Her Majesty were the more abominable. 
And, secondly, that those officers that should succeed 
in governing this kingdom might carefully shun and 
warily avoid all bribery, corruption, and partiality, 
that the exclaiming mouths of these discontented 
people may be altogether shut, or else, opening the 
same, they may spew out nothing but their own shame. 
But to proceed. 

About the beginning of this month of June the 

Pacata Hibernia. 


President received gracious letters from her sacred 
Majesty, wherein she acknowledged her thankfulness 
for his services and signified her pleasure to him 
concerning base moneys, and withal she sent the 
proclamation and the articles between her and Sir 
George Cary, knight, treasurer of Ireland, touching 
the exchange for the alteration of the said moneys, 
all which do here ensue. 


A letter from Her Majesty to the Lord President concerning base 
moneys — A proclamation concerning base moneys — Articles 
between Her Majesty and the Treasurer of War for Ireland 
concerning base moneys. 

A Letter from Her Majesty to the Lord President 


Your loving Sovereign, 

Elizabeth R. 

Trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well ; 
although we have foreborne, when we intended to 
have made known unto you by some express testimony 
from ourself, our acceptation of your services, yet we 
have given particular charge to our Council that they 
should in our name make you perceive our liking of 
your proceedings, in such sort as you might not 
conceive that either the report of them came not to 
our ears, or that you served a prince not willing to 
acknowledge the good merits of her servant. But 
now that cause is ministered unto us to give charge 
unto you of other matters specially concerning our 
service, we thought it convenient to encourage you 
to that which followeth by thanksgiving for that which 
is past, and by assuring you by our own letters that 
as you have not deceived our expectation of your 

Pacata Hibernia. 


sufficiency, or our trust reposed in your faith, so will 
not we be wanting on our part to manifest how 
acceptable these things are unto us whensoever we 
find them in any one whom we have conferred trust 
in employment. The matter that now we think meet 
to acquaint you with is that having found by long 
experience that the using of sterling moneys in the 
payment of our army there and for our other services 
doth bring marvellous inconveniences both to that 
realm and to this ; and that the wisdom of all our 
progenitors (for the mosfc part) did maintain a 
difference between the coins of both realms (that in 
Ireland being ever inferior in goodness to that of this 
realm) ; howsoever, by error of late crept in it, hath 
been otherwise tolerated to the infinite loss of this 
kingdom, our moneys being out of that realm trans- 
ported into foreign countries for lack of merchandise, 
we have thought it reason to revive the ancient course 
of our progenitors in that matter of moneys, and 
have caused a coin proper for that our realm of Ireland 
to be stamped here of such a standard as we find to 
have been in use for the same, and do now send a great 
quantity thereof thither by our treasurer at wars to be 
employed for the payment of our army, and for other 
uses, and the same do authorize by our proclamation, 
and decry all other moneys. In the establishing of 
which course, as we doubt not but our deputy and 
Council there will, as they are by us commanded, 
proceed according to such directions as we have given 
them ; so because the province whereof you have 
charge is a place of most traffic of any other of that 
kingdom, and therefore in it, it is most likely that 
merchants at the first show of such an innovation will 
for private respects be most opposite ; we have thought 

VOL. I. Q 


Pacata Hibernia. 

it fit to give you particular notice of this our purpose, 
and to require you to use all your authority and your 
judgment likewise towards our people there, as well 
of the towns as others, to make this new course 
pleasing and well liking to them, upon such reasons 
as are contained in our proclamation, publishing the 
same, and as you may gather touching the same out 
of such other matters as have passed from us to our 
deputy and Council there, or between us and our 
treasurer for Ireland concerning this matter, whereof 
we have given order that herewith copies shall be sent 
unto you by which you will be sufficiently instructed 
of apparent reasons to lead us to do it, although 
it be a matter which we need not make gracious with 
any reason at all, being merely dependent of our 
prerogative to alter the standard of our moneys at our 
pleasure. Wherefore, though we nothing doubt of 
your forwardness to further whatsoever we find reason 
to command, yet we require you in this thing, as a 
matter which we would have well founded in the first 
establishing, to give all attention of it as well by your 
own actions as by assisting our treasurer and his 
deputies in uttering these new moneys and bringing 
in all others according to the course of our exchange, 
which, by our proclamation, you may perceive that we 
have instituted to make the matter better accepted of 
our people. Given under our signet at our Manor of 
Greenwich this sixteenth day of May, one thousand 
six hundred and one, in the three-and -fortieth year of 
our reign. 


A regiment sent by the Lord President into Connaught — Intelligence 
of the Spaniards coming to Ireland brought to the Lord Presi- 
dent sundry ways — James FitzThomas's report of Florence 
MacCarty — Dermond MacAwly's report of the Council held in 
Ulster for the Spaniards' landing. 

The affairs of Minister thus digested, the President, 
according to the Lord Deputy's directions, expedited 
(with munition and victuals) one thousand foot into 
Connaught, under the command of Sir Francis 

The list of the captains and companies was as 
followeth, viz. : — 


Sir Francis Barkley . 

. 100 

Sir Richard Percy 

. 150 

Sir Gerrard Harvy 

. 150 

Sir Edward FitzGerald 

. 100 

Sir John Dowdall 

. 100 

Captain John Bostock 

. 100 

Captain George Kingsmill . 

. 100 

Captain George Blunt 

. 100 

Captain William Power 

. 100 

Besides fifty horse under the command of Captain 
Eichard Greame; which regiment was sent to give 
countenance to the service of Ballyshannori,*intended 

Q 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

by Sir Henry Docwray, although the President was 
very loth to spare them at this time, for the rumour 
of Spanish preparations for Ireland, which had been 
secretly whispered all this spring, was now strongly 
conceited and confidently believed by all the Irish ; 
and, moreover, certain advertisement hereof was 
daily brought to the President from the Irish mer- 
chants' factors in Spain, from the priests in Italy to 
the Irish lords, from the English in France to their 
private friends, all of them agreeing in one ; add here- 
unto the constant asseverations of James FitzThomas, 
the titulary Earl, then a condemned prisoner, who, 
after his apprehension and condemnation, being often 
examined, was still confident of the Spaniards' com- 
ing ; and, being demanded his cause of knowledge, 
answered that the Spanish Friar, Don Matheo de 
Oviedo, whom they call Archbishop of Dublin, did 
assure him of the King's pleasure therein, and to 
hasten the same he took his journey from Spain in 
February last, leaving great store of plate and other 
riches for a pledge behind him. 

And being farther examined concerning Florence 
MacCarty, he answered that the said Florence did 
ever by sight (or otherwise) acquaint him with what 
the President wrote unto him, and did continually 
swear, protest, and give all outward assurance never 
to desist in this action, but to persevere therein to the 
end ; and that the Spaniards and rebels of Ulster did 
build their principal hopes of Munster upon himself 
and Florence MacCarty ; all this was also verified by 
certain intelligence which the Lord Barry received 
from Dermond MacAwly lately come from the North, 
the effect thereof was thus. When the Spanish Arch- 
bishop was to return into Spain in February last there 

Pacata Hibernia. 


was a Council held in Ulster by Tyrone O'Donnell, 
the said Bishop, and all the chief traitors of those 
parts, John of Desmond, Lixnaw, Pierce Lacy, 
Donogh MacCormock and this Dermond MacAwly, 
being called thereupon. The chief matter debated in 
this consultation was, what place of Ireland was the 
most convenient where the Spanish forces should 
make their arrival ? It was without much difficulty 
or gainsaying resolved that for all respects Munster 
was the fittest province to be invaded. Then there 
remained to consider what place in that province they 
should first attempt ; and concerning this point the 
Munster men were required to deliver their opinions. 
Pierce Lacy began and urged certain reasons why he 
thought it most requisite for them first to gain 
Limerick and plant there, because the provinces of 
Connaught and Leinster were near at hand to minis- 
ter aid to the Spanish army, and Ulster was not far 
distant, being also the place most remote from 
England, especially for shipping. All the rest being 
induced by these reasons to subscribe unto his 
opinion. Donogh MacCormock stood up and with- 
stood this counsel, saying that MacCarty More (from 
whose mouth he said he spoke it) upon mature delibera- 
tion advised their coming to Cork ; for the taking of 
that place would be of most importance, as well for 
the countenancing of the action (where the President 
most resided) as the magazines of victuals and muni- 
tions were placed there, and also it being a far better 
outlet than the river of Limerick, the city weaker and 
sooner forced ; and, lastly, in landing there they 
should border upon Barry, Roche, Cormock, MacDer- 
mond, and MacCarty Reugh ; all of whom, for fear of 
their estates, were partially affected to the English, 


Pacata Hibernia. 

and, by that means, either constrain them to join with 
them in the action, or else to make their country and 
people a prey to the army. After long disputation 
the counsel of Florence delivered by Donogh Mac- 
Cormock was most applauded, and so they concluded 
to land the Spanish army in the river of Cork. 


Florence MacCarty is by the Lord President committed to prison — 
A brief collection of Florence MacCarty's treasons and practices 
with the rebels, not touching anything formerly related. 

Upon these and many other reasons that shall here- 
after be alleged, the President thought that he could 
not possibly accomplish a service more acceptable to 
Her Majesty, or profitable for the State, and more 
available to divert the Spanish preparations, than to 
commit to prison and safe custody the body of this 
Florence, which was accordingly effected about the 
beginning of June, one thousand six hundred and one, 
a man so pernicious and dangerous to the State, who 
had sundry ways broken his several protections. Upon 
his apprehension 1 (which was in Cork) the President 
took present order that search should be made in the 
palace (his chiefs house in Desmond) and other places 
of his abode for all such letters and writings as could 
therein be found, whereby was discovered such a sea 
of rebellious and traitorous practices that Her Majesty 
and her Honourable Council, being acquainted there- 
with, thought good that he should be sent into 
England with the arch-traitor titulary Earl of Des- 
mond, James FitzThomas. The conduct of these 

1 Carew broke his own protection on this occasion, technically at 
least, though not without apparent justification. This is the last of 
" ambodexter " Florence. Had this chief played a bold straight 
game he should have been able to beat Carew without any assistance 
from any one. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

two firebrands of Minister upon the fourteenth of 
August, 1601, was committed to the charge of Sir 
Anthony Cooke, who brought them to the Tower of 
London, where they yet remain. But forasmuch as 
this Florence hath, since his commitment, insisted 
upon his justification, complaining of hard measure 
offered him by Her Majesty and her officers, I am 
therefore constrained, though much against my will, 
for the satisfaction of all indifferent men, well-wishers, 
and confutation of all malicious cavillers, to lay open 
briefly (as I may) his whole carriage and conversation 
since his late landing within this kingdom, forbearing 
to insist upon such points as have already been touched 
in this relation. Thou mayst be pleased therefore to 
understand, gentle reader, that the rebels of Munster 
being grown to such an exceeding strength as you 
have heard, and amongst these Donnell MacCarty, 
Florence's base brother-in-law (one of the chief), Her 
Majesty thought good to diminish their forces with 
sparing as much blood and expending as little treasure 
as conveniently might be, and, therefore, knowing that 
Florence MacCarty was better beloved in the country 
then Donnell, having made many solemn vows, and 
taken many voluntary oaths, for his continued loyalty, 
was dispatched into Ireland in the month of May, 
1599 ; and to the end he might be the more en- 
couraged, and better able to do Her Highness service, 
it pleased Her Majesty to direct her favourable letters 
to Robert, Earl of Essex, then Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, authorizing him to give order for letters 
patents to be made, containing an effectual grant to 
the said Florence MacCarty, and Ellen his wife, and 
to the heirs-males of their bodies lawfully begotten, 
of all the country of Desmond and such other lands 



thereof he had any estate of inheritance ; but withal 
authorizing the said Lord Lieutenant and Council to 
stay these letters patents in the hamper or deliver them, 
according as they should see cause, in the proof they 
should make of the behaviour of the said Florence. 
Xow that you may see in what dutiful manner he re- 
quited this trust, in what grateful manner this kind- 
ness, and in what religious manner these oaths, I will 
recite a part of the examination of J ohn Anias, taken 
before Sir Nicholas Welsh and Justice Comerford, 
which may explain the same, the thirteenth of Octo- 
ber, 1600. 

He saith that, in May last, Florence Mac C arty sent 
one Maurice More to him, wishing him to repair to his 
lodgings at Cork, and that Florence was desirous to be 
acquainted with him ; whereupon he came to Florence, 
and, in Florence's chamber, he, the said Florence 
(none other but they two being present), said that he 
understood that this examinee was an engineer and one 
that had skill in devising and erecting fortifications, 
and that he would willingly employ him in the like. 
Anias, demanding of Florence what or where he would 
have his works raised, he answered at Dunkerran, 
wherein he might upon any occasion of extremity 
defend himself and James FitzThomas against the 
English, and also wherein he might give succour to 
such Spaniards as should come to their aid, etc. 

"WTiereby the indifferent reader may perceive with 
what prepared hatred and prepensed malice this 
gallant was effected, even in this first scene of his 
devilish tragedy ; that there might be no indecorum 
his subsequent proceedings were in all points corres- 
pondent to these timely beginnings ; for, having now 
left Cork, and got footing in his (supposed) country 


Pacata Hibernia. 

of Desmond, lie wrote several letters to the gentlemen 
near adjoining, namely the O'Sulevan, MacFinnin, the 
two O'Donoghs, and others, to assemble at a time and 
place appointed to create him MacCarty More ; and 
whosoever he was that refused to come he persecuted 
as his mortal enemy; and hereof Owen O'Sulevan 
(eldest son to Sir Owen O'Sulevan, deceased) had 
woeful experience ; for upon his absence from his meet- 
ing he caused the bonoghs (which he had now enter- 
tained) to prey and rob the said Owen and some of 
his tenants, taking one John Oge prisoner ; and when 
the said Owen made suit to him for release of the 
prisoner, he answered that he would keep him as his 
pledge, to be true to him as MacCarty More, to follow 
his war and keep his peace. But when he found that 
this course would not establish and secure to him that 
dignity and high title after which he so greedily gaped, 
he solicited Tyrone by frequent letters and impor- 
tunate messengers to come to Munster, pretending 
many furtherances that thereby should arise to the 
Catholic cause, but desiring the same chiefly to his 
own end, that he might be by him and the Romish 
clergy saluted MacCarty More ; and therefore Tyrone 
coming into the province about the first day of 
March, Florence posted with all speed to his camp, 
and the fourth of the same he combined with him, and 
was sworn upon a Mass book to be true to Tyrone 
and prosecute all hostility and cruel war against the 
English: ex examinatione Owen O'Sulevan. And to 
the intent it may appear that this was no feigned or 
counterfeit narration of Owen O'Sulevan you shall in 
part perceive by his own letters written to Donogh 
Moyle MacCarty upon this occasion. This Donogh, 
whether grown weary of the wars or for some other 

Pacata Hibernia. 


cause I know not, determined to continue himself and 
his followers in subjection ; and for the same cause 
had submitted himself to Sir Warham St. Ledger and 
Sir Henry Power, Commissioners appointed for the 
government of that province until the coming of Sir 
George Carew to be President. Florence MacCarty, 
either to advance the Catholic cause, or else desirous 
that all his neighbours should run with him to the like 
excess of riot, joining with Owen MacEggan, a Popish 
priest and most infamous rebel, and O'Donevan, sent 
letters to the said Donogh MacCarty as followeth : — 

The Lettee. 

Cousin Donogh, — We have us commended to your- 
self and to your brother Florence. I have, I assure 
you, taken the pains to come hither to Tyrone not so 
much for any danger of my own as to save the country 
of Carberry from danger and destruction, which, if it 
be once destroyed, your living, in my opinion, will 
grow very scarce. These two gentlemen, your brother 
O'Donevan and Owen MacEggan, are very careful 
with me of your good. Therefore if ever you will be 
ruled by us, or tender the wealth of yourself and your 
country, we are hereby earnestly to request you to 
come and meet us to-morrow at Cloudghe ; and so, 
requesting you not to fail hereof in any wise, to God's 
keeping I commit you. O'Neal's camp at Iniscare, 
Martii 2, 1599, subscribed. 

Your very loving friends, 

Florence MacCarty, 
Owen MacEggan, 
Donnell O'Donevan. 

Tyrone, finding that Florence was not only forward 

2 3 6 

Pacata Hibernia. 

in his own person but also a fartherer of others, making 
new proselytes the children of perdition, as well as 
himself, by the consent of all the Popish Bishops, 
Friars, and Jesuits, and all the Irish nobility there 
assembled, created him MacCarty More, using in this 
creation all the rites and ceremonies accustomed 
amongst the ancient Irish. 

Tyrone, having left the province in the latter end 
of March, this new MacCarty More did so well re- 
member his vows made to Tyrone (although he quite 
forgot those that he formerly made to Her Majesty) 
that in the very next month, namely in April, 1600, he 
used all his policy, power, and industry to defeat the 
Queen's forces, under the command of Captain Flower; 
but because I have formerly touched upon his pro- 
ceedings therein I will not trouble the reader again 
with vain tautologies and needless repetitions. 

In the month of May immediately following, by the 
importunate mediation of the Earl of Thomond and 
John FitzEdmonds, he came to the President at Cork, 
but he had no sooner left the town than he sent 
present word to the arch-rebel James FitzThomas as 
well of his particular proceedings with the President 
as of all such intelligence (as he could possibly under- 
stand) to give impediment to the service, all which 
may appear by a letter remitted from the said James 
to him, the true copy whereof here ensueth : — 

James FitzThomas's Letter to Him. 

My good Lord and Cousin, — Your letters of the 
eighteenth of May I received the five-and-twentieth 
of the same, wherein you relate the manner of your 
proceedings with the President at Cork, and also of 
his determination towards the west of my country. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


I thank God I prevented that which he expected here, 
for all the good pledges of the country are committed 
to Castle Mange, for their constant behaviour in this 
our action. The President with his force is come to 
Limerick, and intended presently to draw towards 
Askeiton, where I purpose with my army to resist 
him. I pray you the better to further the service, and 
the more to cool the bloody desire of our enemy ; let 
me entreat you to put into effect the meaning of my 
last letters, by drawing your forces to join with me 
here, which, being done, I doubt under God to per- 
form service that shall redound to the general quiet of 
our country ; and so, referring the due consideration 
hereof to your Lordship's careful usage, I commit you 
to the most Mighty. From the camp at Adare this 
first of June, 1600. 

Your very loving Cousin, 

James Desmond. 

In the aforesaid month the said Florence sent Teg 
O'Holloghan 1 and Donogh Offally to Owen O'Sulevan, 
using many strong motives and forcible persuasions 
to him that he should join with them in action against 
Her Majesty, assuring him that all the O'Sulevans 
would presently show themselves publicly for the 
Catholic cause if they might perceive that he would 
partake with them, and afterwards, James FitzThomas 
after being taken prisoner by Dermond O'Connor 
towards the latter end of this said month, Florence 
came in person to his rescue to Castle Lyshin. 

Also Owen O'Sulevan, being with Florence Mac- 
Carty at the palace, heard him say that he had almost 
as willingly die as come under the English Govern- 

1 O'Hoolahan. 

2 3 S 

Pacata Hibernia. 

ment, and persuaded all those he spoke with to be 
obstinate in action, telling him how long Ireland 
had been tyrannically governed by Englishmen. All 
which O'Sulevan aforesaid related to the President, 
and thereto took his corporal oath the one-and- 
twentieth of March, 1600. 

In July, he, taking upon him regal authority within 
Desmond as MacCarty More, sent first to Donnell 
Ferrers to be sheriff of that country, persuading him 
that it would be very beneficial to him, which the said 
Donnell refused, answering that he would not take 
that authority upon him except he could show him a 
warrant from the President authorizing him to make 
such election, as he knew the like heretofore granted to 
the Earl of Clancare in the time of trouble ; where- 
upon he appointed another, named Muriertagh Mac- 
Teg, to the same office. Ex examinations Donnell 

In August Sir Charles Wilmot first planted his 
garrisons in Kerry, and how glad this dissembling 
hypocrite was of his neighourhood, besides his own 
manifold letters sent to Sir Charles full of " God 
damn him " if he were not heartily glad of his good 
success here, you shall perceive partly by the ex- 
amination of the said Ferrers, hdec verba. When the 
President in August, 1600, settled garrisons in Kerry, 
Florence caused the castle of Killorglan, appertaining 
to Master Jenkin Conway, undertaker, to be burned, 
fearing lest Sir Charles Wilmot should plant himself 
there, and when, as the Governor afterwards placed 
this examinee therein, he sent some of his kerns and 
took all his prey, threatening to pull them all out by 
the heels, having no other quarrel against him but 
only because he repaired the same castle. He also 

Pacata Hibernia. 


relieved tlie Knight of the Valley at his house of the 
palace ; and after the said Florence was protected by 
the President he relieved likewise Thomas FitzMaurice 
the Baron of Lixnaw, and ceased his bonoghs in 
Desmond ; but more plainly by examination of James 
Welsh taken the tenth of May, 1601, as folio weth : — 
When James FitzThomas was in Kerry, in Sep- 
tember last, Florence MacOarty persuaded him to 
remain there, promising him all the aid that he could 
give him, and being in his departure towards Arlogh 
he sent Thomas Oge after him, praying him to return 
and he would bring him to the killing of Sir Charles 
Wilmot and the garrison of Tralee that was with him, 

And when he saw that James FitzThomas would 
not follow his counsel but would needs go to take 
Arlogh Mountains for his refuge he wrote a letter in 
Irish (which the said James Welsh read) directed to 
Cahir MacShane Glasse O'Mulryan in Ormond, desir- 
ing him to levy for him in those parts six hundred 
foot, which if he could not do, then to procure Redmond 
Burke to get so many for him ; and, if he failed, then 
to deal with Captain Tirrell, and that he would pay 
them upon Desmond. About this time also he sent a 
traitorous message to the White Knight by his 
daughter, MacDonogh's wife, together with a cunning 
letter written in Irish and translated as folio weth : — 

A Letter from Florence to the White Knight. 

Damnation, I cannot but commend me heartily to 
you, as bad as thou art, and do also most heartily 
commend me to your wife and to your two sons. I 
would be very glad to speak with you for your good ; 

240 Pacata Hibernia. 

and because I cannot speak with you myself, yet I 
would have you in anywise credit your daughter 
Mistress MacDonogh concerning me, and to believe 
from me whom she sends or what she sends you word 
of by a trusty messenger. I would have you to deter- 
mine about Pierce Oge, and that I may speak with 
you, I mean about Gortnetoberd, of Tullylease, send 
word to Pierce and Dermond of the day with him, 
and send me word, and I will come without fail. In 
the meantime I leave you to God. Palace, this seven- 
and- twentieth of August, 1600. 

Your assured loving friend, 

Florence MaoCarty. 

This letter was delivered and expounded to the 
President by the White Knight. Pierce Oge, before 
mentioned, was Pierce Lacy ; the message which he 
sent by MacDonogh' s wife was to reprove him for 
his submission to the Queen and to incite him to enter 
again into rebellion, and if he would not be advised 
by him, and himself not able to maintain the action, 
that he proposed to agree with Donnell MacCarty, his 
brother-in-law, and to leave the country of Desmond 
and the followers in his hands, and to embark for 
Spain to procure and hasten the long-expected aid. 
In October, after many and infinite dilatory excuses 
and protracted delays, he submitted himself to the 
President, putting in such pledges as before you 
have heard, and received a protection for ten days, 
before the expiration whereof, he earnestly laboured 
Cormock MacDermond about the marriage betwixt 
the arch-rebel James FitzThomas and his sister, pro- 
mising to the said Cormock all the lands that he had 
in Carberry, and undertaking that the said Earl should 

Pacata Hibernia. 


farther give to him such portions of lands as should be 
to his own content, so that he would consent to this 
marriage and join in this wicked combination. 

The next month divers means were made to Thomas 
Oge, Constable of Castle Mange, by the Governor of 
Kerry and the young Earl of Desmond (lately come 
out of England) about the delivery of that castle to 
Her Majesty's use. Florence, receiving notice hereof, 
made many journeys to the said Thomas Oge, urging 
him with forcible persuasions not to relinquish the 
said castle to the English, promising that he would 
undertake upon his own charge and peril to see him 
furnished with victuals and all other necessaries from 
time to time whereof he should stand in need ; and 
when he perceived an inclination in the said Thomas 
Oge, notwithstanding his persuasions, to yield the 
castle, he essayed, by a crafty wile, to have conveyed 
away the two sons of Pierce Lacy, who were held as 
pledges for James FitzThomas within that castle; 
but the plot being frustrated (by mere accident) the 
children and castle were within a short time after 
delivered to the State. 

When Sir Charles Wilmot came into Kerry with 
Her Majesty's forces, Florence MacCarty (as Thomas 
Oge upon his examination confessed) entreated James 
FitzThomas to make the war there, whereto he 
assented. But James could not persuade the bonoghs 
to it. Also after that Dermond O'Connor had enter- 
prised the taking of James FitzThomas, he then pro- 
mised him to enter into open action of rebellion, and 
to that end he solicited Dermond MacOwen, Mac- 
Awley, O'Keefe, MacFinnin, Owen MacTeg Carty, 
and others. And when Tyrone was in Munster, 
Florence decided him to make it known to the King 
vol. 1. r 


Pacata Hibernia. 

of Spain that he would serve him faithfully ; for the 
assurance whereof the said Florence wrote a letter to 
the King and gave it to Tyrone to be sent into Spain ; 
and also took his corporal oath to perform his pro- 
mises; whereupon Tyrone styled and confirmed him 
MacCarty More. He also told the said Thomas Oge 
that if the Spaniards did not land by May next he 
would go into the North, and thence into Spain. 
And after James FitzThomas was broken he told this 
examinant that if James could get forces out of Ulster 
the said Florence would join with him. Further, 
Florence enticed Cormock MacDermond to enter into 
rebellion and marry his sister to James FitzThomas, 
who should give to him Kerry, whereby his eldest son 
should marry Cormock' s daughter, and Cormock' s 
eldest son to marry his daughter, who in marriage with 
her would give Carrignesse with twelve plough lands ; 
which marriage he proposed for their firmer union in 
their rebellious enterprise ; aud that he had laden a 
bark with Irish commodities to be sent beyond the 
seas, which should return him munition, etc. Many 
other treasonable actions and traitorous speeches 
acted and spoken by the said Florence the same 
Thomas Oge related to the Lord President, which 
for brevity's sake I have omitted, which was taken at 
Moyallo by the President in January, 1600. 

The President, not holding himself sufficiently 
assured of Florence with his two pledges, his base 
brother and kinsman, still importuned the bringing of 
his eldest son, according to his promise upon his first 
protection ; he, having no pretext for his longer stay, 
sent to Owen MacTeg Mergagh in Desmond to carry 
his said son to Cork, there to be left as a pledge for 
him. Within a few days after this message was sent, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Florence, receiving advertisement from Tyrone of 
certain Spaniards landed in the north, and hearing 
continual rumours of northern forces to infest the 
province, dispatched a messenger to the said Owen 
MacTeg Mergagh to make stay of his son for a longer 
time, viz., until he might perceive what would be the 
issue of those preparations ; but before the messenger 
could come, the said Owen was with the child upon 
his way, and come to Cork before the said messenger 
overtook him, but had not as yet delivered the child 
out of his own custody ; wherefore, receiving this 
countermand, he secretly conveyed the child out of the 
city, and returned with him again to Desmond, where 
he was kept as before, until Florence had seen that 
neither Irish nor Spaniards appeared to his aid, 
succour, and comfort. 

In the month following, namely, in January, he 
sent divers letters to Tyrone and other of his fellow 
traitors in the north, and from them received several 
answers, whereof some part chanced to come to our 
hands, which we will here insert ; and first there doth 
offer itself one letter written by Donogh MacCormock 
to the King of Spain, in the name of Florence Mac 
Carty, the tenor whereof was as folio weth : — 

A Letter from Donogh MacCormock in the.Namb 
of Florence to the King of Spain. 

Having received direction from the Earl of Clan- 
Care, I would not omit this opportunity, at the 
departure of the Archbishop of Dublin, and Don 
Martin de La Cerda, to make known to your Majesty, 
how the said Earl hath written to your Majesty by 
two or three ways ; but, understanding that these 

b 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

letters came not to your royal hands, lie hath now 
again written by me to your Majesty, making offer as 
well of his person and lands as of his vassals and 
subjects to your royal service ; humbly beseeching 
your Majesty to receive favour and aid him with 
your power and liberal hand, seeing there is no other 
that can and will assist us better against these heretics 
in this holy enterprise. From Donegal the fifth of 
January, 1601. 

Your Majesty's loyal vassal to kiss 
your royal hands, 

Donogh Carty. 

This letter, as it should seem, was originally written, 
and the copy sent to Florence, by one Thomas Shelton, 
who wrote herewith other letters to him of his own as 
followeth : — 

A Letter from Shelton to Florence MacCarty. 

My Honourable Lord, — By direction of the Lord 
Archbishop of Dublin, and at the request of Mac- 
Donogh (your agent here), I did write a letter 
addressed to the King of Spain, subscribed by him, 
in which was signified how, by your direction, he had 
made offer of your service to His Majesty ; the copy of 
which letter goeth here enclosed. What the news and 
hopes of Spain are, the bearer will fully inform you. 
This only rests : that is, I have ever desired to serve 
your Lordship, so, finding now the opportunity of 
this bearer, I would not omit so fit an occasion to kiss 
your honourable hands and signify that respect I have 
ever borne towards you. God preserve and assist you 
in all your designs, that we may live to see accom- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


plished by you these things whereof your noble begin- 
nings give an assured hope. Donegal, January the 
sixth, sub. 

Your most affectionate friend, 

Thomas Shelton. 

He received also at the same time other letters in 
Spanish (thus Englished) from the said Archbishop, 
subscribed, To the most Excellent Earl, Florence Mac- 

A Letter from the Spanish Archbishop of Dublin 
to Flore soe Mac Carts'. 

Right Honourable Lord, — God is my witness that 
after my arrival in Ireland, having knowledge of 
your Lordship's valour and learning, I had an extreme 
desire to see, communicate, and confer with so 
principal a personage ; but the danger of the way 
would not permit me. I am now departing into Spain, 
with grief that I have not visited those parts ; but I 
hope shortly to return into this kingdom, and into 
those parts, to your satisfaction; and be assured that 
I will perform with His Majesty the office that a 
brother ought to do that he should send from Spain. 
Because by letter I cannot speak any more, I leave 
the rest until sight. The Lord have your Lordship 
in His keeping according to my desire. From Donegal 
the sixteenth of January, 1601. 

Yo Mateo Arcobispo de Dublin. 

After all this, namely in February next following, 
the said false-hearted Florence wrote certain letters 
to O'Donnell, the contents whereof may be gathered 
by the answer that the said O'Donnell remitted in 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Irish thereto, and therefore I have thought good to 
remember the same (translated) in this place : — 

O'Donnell's Answer. 

Our commendations to you, MacCarty : "We have 
received the letter you sent the fourteenth of October, 
and we swear, by our word, that you are no less 
grieved for that you see us not than we ourselves, and 
it was not more your mind to have aid, than ours to 
send unto you if we could, for the great trouble it 
would be to ourselves, to intend you ; and by your 
hand, there were not many in Ireland more of the 
mind than mine own person to have gone to visit you, 
had not the strangers neighboured upon my country, 
and (as you know) my country lying on the sea, and 
they having the secrecy thereof to do their en- 
deavours, to conquer what they may upon the same, 
which they would not do upon a country not lying 
upon the sea. You shall receive what news of 
Spaniards came to these parts by John FitzThomas 
and Donogh MacCormock, and whatsoever they 
brought with them we impart with you, and do 
provide for the same, men to send unto you if 
they may be had. Our commendations to Patrick 
Condon, and to the rest of our friends in those parts. 

Your very assured friend, 

Hugh O'Donnell. 

The Earl of Thomond, at the request of the Lord 
President, sent a priest, called Teg MacGillipatrick, 
as a spy into Ulster, to learn what news he could get 
among the rebels there. He returned the one-and- 
twentieth of February, 1600, and came to the Lord 
President, at Moyallo, reporting that, at his being 

Pacata Hibernia. 


at Donegal in the Christmas holidays, Tyrone, 
O'Donnell, and most of the Northern captains being 
there present, made a new combination to continue 
the rebellion ; at which assembly the Spanish Arch- 
bishop of Dublin was present, then ready to depart 
for Spain, with sixteen Irish priests in his company. 
For the better assurance of their confederacy, the 
Sacrament was solemnly received by them all. At 
the same time, Teg MacGillipatrick (the priest 
aforesaid) saw a letter of Florence MacCarty's, 
lately sent to Tyrone by a messenger of his own, 
which he heard read openly, the contents whereof 
were, that he protested he was not fallen from them, 
but had made a peace with the Lord President of 
Munster until May next, and that then he was at 

One Dermond MacCarty, a kinsman and dependent 
upon Florence, and by him (as is supposed) sent into 
Spain, where he continued his intelligencer many 
years, and by the Spaniards called Don Dermutio 
Carty, wrote a letter to his master Florence, dated at 
the Groyne, the ninth of March, 1600. A long letter 
in Spanish, the material points whereof are thus 
abstracted and Englished : — 

That he was glad to hear that his Lordship, upon 
the fifteenth of December last, was landed at Cork, 
after his eleven years' restraint in England, whereof 
three of them in the Tower of London ; that his 
imprisonment was not for marrying the Earl of Clan- 
Care's daughter without leave, as was pretended, but 
upon suspicion which the State had of his loyalty, 
which he understood by letters written from the Lord 
Deputy and Treasurer of Ireland to the Queen (which 
were intercepted and brought into Spain), wherein 


Pacata Hibernia. 

it was suggested that he, having so many kinsmen, 
friends, and followers, and himself (who was known 
to bear affection to Spaniards) it were fit he were 
betrayed ; and that this only was the cause of his eleven 
years' restraint. Wherefore he advised him not 
to put any confidence in the English, for if they 
once again lay hold upon him they would never 
enlarge him. 

He advised him to certify His Majesty how much 
he was his servant, what towns and places he could 
put into his hands, what number of men of war he 
could serve him withal ; and if he could surprise 
Cork he should be well supplied by the King of 

That he might send his letters (written to the 
King) to Don Diego Brochero (who is a great favourer 
of the Irish nation, and in great credit with the 
King), by which means they would be safely delivered, 
as also his letters to him for the solicitation of his 
business. That within three days he might send 
him answer from the Groyne, which he could not do 
to O'Neal and O'Donnell, who were so far off in the 
north of the kingdom, and advised him to write to 
them that they in like manner should direct their 
letters to Don Diego Brochero ; but if he would not 
write to him he would advise with Don Diego, and 
repair himself unto him into Ireland. 

Lastly, he hoped that the King of Spain would the 
next spring send an army into Ireland. 

It would be too tedious to set down at large all the 
manifest proofs of Florence's juggling treasons ; 
wherefore I will, for brevity's sake, relate but a few 
more abstracts of letters and examinations which here 

Pacata Hibernia. 


The thirteenth of May, 1600, Florence received 
letters from Tyrone, wherein he prayeth him that 
he would constantly persevere in the Catholic cause, 
as he had promised ; that aid should come unto 
him from the north by Lammas next ; that he had 
written in his favour to the King of Spain, com- 
mended his service, and prayed the King to give him 

Tyrone wrote to both the O'Sulevans, requiring 
them to give obedience to Florence ; for he had com- 
plained of them — Tyrone threatening the said 
O'Sulevans 1 that if they did not obey him, as they 
ought, he would with his forces come into Munster 
to destroy them : dated the thirtieth of October, 

Tyrone to Florence, dated the seventeenth of April, 
1600, that, according to the trust and confidence he 
had in him, and his confederates in Munster, they 
should fight valiantly against the English, whereto 
they were bound in conscience and for their country's 

Another from Tyrone to Florence MacCarty, dated 
the second of May, 1600, wherein he signifieth to 
him the arrival of the Pope's Archbishop of Dublin, 
and of present aids from Spain ; he thanked God that 
the Earl of Ormond is taken ; he incited him to enter- 
tain as many bonoghs as he can against their 
enemies ; that he hath acquainted the King of Spain 
of his service, unto whom he hath sent his son Henry 
O'Neal, and that he would shortly send him aid. 

Garret Lis ton, of Skehanaghe, in the county of 

1 And the O'Sullivans had the fate of the Lord Barry before their 

Pacata Hibernia. 

Limerick, gentleman, being examined upon oath said 
that Florence MacCarty met with James Fitz 
Thomas at Belaghafenan, two miles from Castle 
Mayne, where James challenged him for not coming 
to him with his forces to fight with the Lord President 
as he had promised, whom, after he had with smooth 
language pacified, he protested solemnly, and took 
his oath in the presence of James FitzThomas, Mac- 
Awlif, Thomas Oge, Muriertagh MacSbihy, John 
Klicke and this examinee, that he would continue 
with James FitzThomas in this action. And 
although James should give over the rebellion, which 
he termed a just war, yet he himself would keep life 
in it so long as he could get any to follow him, etc. 
This examination was taken by the Lord President the 
twentieth of August, 1600. 

Another from O'Neal to Florence dated the sixth 
of February, 1600, wherein he exhorteth him to 
serve valiantly against the Pagan beast ; that before 
he wrote to him again he should see trouble enough 
in England itself ; and that year, May ensuing, the 
wars of Ireland would be easy ; and for that the 
cause of Munster was left to him, he wished that no 
imbecility should be found in him, and that the time 
of help was near. 

Florence MacCarty's wife told Sir Charles Wilmot 
that her husband's heart was malicious to the State 
and that he would never come in but upon necessity, 
and that all he did intend or make show of to the 
President was but to gain time. 

Shily, wife to O'Sulevan More, and sister to 
Florence MacCarty, in September, 1600, speaking 
with the Lord President, exclaimed upon her brother 
as the cause of her husband's imprisonment with the 

Pacata Hibernia. 251 

rebels, and praying his advice and help for his 
enlargement. He told her there was no way to obtain 
his liberty but to give his oath and promise to enter 
into action of rebellion, and persuaded her to give 
him that advice. 

Thomas Oge, being examined, said that Florence 
MacOarty told him, upon the delivery of his first 
pledge, that if all the children living were in Her 
Majesty's hands for his loyalty, or any other follower, 
he would lose no opportunity, if Tyrone were able 
to assist his enterprise with any sufficient forces, or if 
Spaniards did land. 

James FitzThomas, upon the eighteenth of June, 
1601, being examined by the Lord President, said 
that Florence MacOarty ever acquainted him with 
all that passed between him and the President, and 
continually swore and protested that he would 
persevere in the action to the end ; and that the 
principal hopes of the Spaniards and Ulster rebels 
were built upon the help and succour of himself and 
Florence MacOarty. And to what purposes he 
employed himself in the times immediately following, 
until the time of his imprisonment, may be gathered 
as well by that which hath heretofore been delivered 
as by the examination of one Gillernow O'Kelly, a 
Connaught man, taken by Sir Francis Barkley, who, 
being deposed, said that Florence MacOarty sent his 
letter and promise to Tyrone to give bonogh to 
Redmond Burke and six hundred men upon Desmond 
and Carberry, and himself, with one thousand more of 
his own, would meet the said Redmond Burke in 
Arlogh ; and at the same time he saw four-and- 
twenty letters written by Tyrone, directed to Florence 
and the traitors in Munster. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

You have already perceived that this cunning 
hypocritical traitor hath written letters to the arch- 
traitors James FitzThomas, Tyrone, and- O'Donnell ; 
and besides hath sent, or at least procured letters to 
be sent, to the King of Spain, moving and entreating 
him to invade Her Majesty's kingdom ? And now for 
a perclose of all you shall behold (Ne quid desit ad 
summam impudentiam), that he might equal, if not 
exceed, the most impudent and barbarous traitor, his 
letters sent to his holy Father the Pope, the contents 
whereof are as followeth : — 

[For the text of the letter see Appendix. — Ed.] 

I will not trouble the intelligent reader with any 
long commentary upon this plain text ; but will only 
demand one question, whether that man who shall 
suggest that Her Majesty's subjects are in worse case 
than the Christians under the Turks, that her 
Majesty's government is more tyrannical than that of 
the Egyptian Pharaoh, that shall prefer a supplication 
to the Court of Rome to have his anointed prince 
excommunicated as a heretic and disposed as a 
usurper — whether this man may be adjudged to carry 
a loyal heart to that prince, or deemed worthy to 
live in that commonwealth. For my own part I 
cannot suppose his leprosy like that of JSTaaman, 
which may be cleansed with washing seven times in 
Jordan, but like that of Gehazi, which will stick to 
him and his posterity for ever, and that he may 
ingeniously confess with ever-cursed Cain, Peccata med 
majora sunt quam condonari queant — my sins are 
greater than can be forgiven. But fearing lest this 
digression will be as tedious to thee in reading as it 
hath been unpleasant to me in writing, I will now 
proceed in my purposed relation. 


Dermond MacOwen, Teg MacDermond, and Moyle Mo O'Maghon 
arrested — Dermond MacOwen's answer to the Lord Presi- 
dent — The services which the Munster Eegiment performed in 
Connaught under the conduct of Sir Francis Barkley. 

The Lord President, notwithstanding all these intelli- 
gences of Spanish succours, had conceived a good 
hope that so soon as the present state of the province 
should be known in Spain, namely, that the chieftains 
were apprehended and the rest generally appeased, 
it would be a good means to divert the intended 
preparations ; and yet farther to secure the pro- 
vincials, so far as the wit of man could devise, he 
called a general sessions of gaol delivery in Cork, to 
be holden about the eight-and-twentieth of July, 
whither all the freeholders in that country were to 
make their repair, where he intended to lay hold of 
all such persons as had been most pernicious in the 
former wars and were likely to prove most dangerous 
in aftertimes. These were principally four, Dermond 
MacOwen Carty, alias MacDonogh, who was a 
partaker in the petition to the Pope's sanctity ; 
another, Teg MacDermond Carty, brother to 
Cormock, Lord of Muskerry ; the third, Moyle Mo 
O'Maghon, chief of that sept of the O'Maghons in 
Kinalmekeghe ; and the fourth and last was Dermond 
Moyle MacCarty, brother to Florence MacCarty, so 


Pacata Hibernia. 

much spoken of. The three former, making their 
appearance at the sessions, were apprehended and 
committed prisoners to the gentleman porter; the 
fourth, knowing himself guilty of many treacherous 
practices plotted by his brother Florence, durst not 
venture within the city walls, but kept aloof in 
Carberry till he heard how the others sped, and then 
conveyed himself into the North amongst his fellow 
rebels. 1 

I may not here omit to relate to you a passage 
which passed between Dermond MacOwen aforesaid 
(the first of the aforementioned) and the Lord 
President. When Dermond was first taken in upon 
protection he swore and protested that he would 
remain a good subject. " But," said the President, 
?' what if the Spaniards invade Ireland, what would 
you do then ? " " Your Lordship puts me," said he, 
"to a hard question; for if that should happen, let 
not then your Lordship trust me or the Lords Barry 
and Roche or any other whatsoever that you have 
best conceit of, for if you do you will be deceived." 
This was plain dealing, and in divers it proved true, 
as hereafter you shall hear. 

Upon the determination of these sessions aforesaid, 
namely, in the beginning of August, the President 
dispatched his letters to the Lord Deputy and the 
Council at Dublin signifying the restraint of these men 
and the reasons inducing him thereto ; for they all, 
being men of turbulent spirits, discontented minds, 
and ill-affected to the English government, could not 
but prove very dangerous to the state in these 
doubtful times, foreign invasions being daily expected ; 

1 Returned next year with the Northern Lords. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


and, although they had lately submitted themselves, 
yet it was sufficiently made known to him, as well by 
the confession of the condemned titulary Earl as from 
others of good credit, that it proceeded not from any 
loyal or dutiful disposition, but by the necessity of the 
time being constrained, and by the Popish priests, 
being licensed, they were content for a time to live in 
subjection, being no longer able to hold out in 
rebellion. But notwithstanding, he determined to 
proceed, either in the retaining or releasing of them, 
as he should be directed by their graver wisdom. 
The Lord Deputy and Council approved his pro- 
ceedings, referring the further pursuit of these affairs, 
together with all other matters within his government, 
to his own discretion. 

You have formerly heard how Sir Francis Barkley 
was sent with a regiment into Connaught ; and 
although I confine myself to speak chiefly of the 
services of Munster, yet this regiment, being still upon 
the list of Munster, I do not think that I shall err 
in setting down any deed of note which it performed. 
The ninth of August, Sir Francis, with his troops, 
lodged at Alphine, 1 in the County of Roscommon. 
The morning following, it being dark and misty, 
O'Donnell, O'Rwrke, Tirrell, and the traitorous 
confederates, being fifteen hundred foot and three 
hundred horse, quartering not far from us, pre- 
sented themselves close to our camp. Sir Francis 
Barkley, finding that his store of ammunition was but 
weak, resolved not to fight ; but the enemy, growing 
bold upon our slackness, pressed so boldly upon us 
that we were forced to draw out. For two hours 

1 Elphin. 

256 Pacata Hibernia. 

there was a hot skirmish, wherein our men served 
exceedingly well, forcing them to retire to their 
quarters. Of our side there was lost a gentleman of 
Captain Kingsmill's company, and four-and-twenty 
were hurt. Of the enemy as many as eighty were 
slain and hurt. 


Six thousand men demanded by the Lord President to be sent into 
Munster to withstand the intended invasion of Spain — The 
Lord President's opinion sent to the Lords of the Council of 
the likeliest place where the Spaniards would attempt to land 
their forces in Ireland — The effect of the Lords of the Council's 
answer to the Lord President — A branch of the Lord Pre- 
sident's letter to Master Secretary Cecil — A letter from Master 
Secretary Cecil to the Lord President — The intelligence had of 
the Spanish fleet coming to Ireland, and by him sent to the 
Lord President — A branch of Master Secretary Cecil's letter to 
the Lord President. 

The Lord President from time to time certified 
as well the Lords of Her Majesty's Privy Council 
in England as the Lord Deputy and Council at 
Dublin of all such intelligences that he received, 
and probabilities that he conceived, of the Spanish 
preparations; yet it was long before he could 
induce them to conceive any such thing. But 
now, at last, even as a vehement and violent tem- 
pest sometimes resoundeth in the air for a good 
space before it f alleth, and the nearer it approacheth 
the more palpably and sensibly is perceived, such 
was this tempestuous storm of the Spaniards' in- 
tended invasion, which was now so universally 
sounded from all places that it was generally ex- 
pected both in England and Ireland ; and for this 
cause the President earnestly solicited the Council 
of England that six thousand men might be 

VOL, I. 3 

2 5 8 

Pacata Hibernia. 

levied for this service ; whereof two thousand to 
be sent presently to Waterford, and the rest to 
be in readiness, at an hour's warning, to make speedy 
repair to the sea-coast upon the first notice of this 

The President also thought fit to deliver his opinion 
to the Lords of the Council as to what places within 
the province were most likely for the Spaniards to 
attempt and most necessary for Her Majesty both in 
policy and in honour to defend ; for to prevent their 
descent on any place where themselves thought meet 
was by him deemed impossible. But it was to 
be presumed that they would attempt such a 
place as should be honourable for them to gain 
and disadvantageous for Her Majesty to lose ; and 
therefore he thought that their descent would most 
likely be at Limerick, Waterford or Cork. As 
for the other towns, they were neither worth their 
labour to win nor Her Majesty's charges to de- 
fend. Limerick was far seated within the land, 
neither could they disembark thence without 
an easterly wind, which, being rare, it was not 
likely that they would hazard their fleet upon 
such disadvantage. Waterford, though weak and 
commodious for them, was so near to England, 
and especially lying so conveniently for Her 
Majesty's forces within that kingdom, the Deputy 
on the one side, and the President on the other, 
being so near at hand, that it was not likely that 
they would land there. Cork, therefore, he sup- 
posed to be most convenient for them to assail, 
and most necessary for Her Majesty to defend, for 
these reasons. First, because those that had been 
the greatest dealers about this invasion in Spain, 

Pacata Hibernia. 


namely one Dermond MacCarty, a near kinsman 
to Florence, called by the Spaniards Don Durmutio, 
advised (as aforesaid) Florence by letters, which 
were intercepted, to surprise Cork; secondly, the 
said Florence advised the Spanish Archbishop, 
by his agent Donogh MacCormock, as you have 
heard, that Cork was the fittest place for this de- 
sign ; whereunto Tyrone and all the northern 
rebels subscribed. Lastly, Her Majesty's maga- 
zines of victuals, munition and treasure, being 
there in great quantities, could not without infinite 
trouble and great danger be removed; besides 
if they should be removed, either to Limerick or 
Waterford, neither of those was altogether secure, 
yet it would give an apparent testimony of fear 
conceived of their coming which would not only 
amaze the best affected subjects through the pro- 
vince, but give occasion to the rest generally to 
revolt. For these reasons the President thought 
fit to assemble all the forces within the province 
(which were then but 1300 foot and 200 horse 
in list) at Cork or the places near adjoining, for the 
manning and making good of that city, which in it- 
self, by its natural situation, was very weak and of 
small defence. 

The Lords, by his letters understanding his 
resolution, by their letters dated the twentieth 
of July (which he received in August following) 
wrote to him to this effect, that they would 
presently send to him 2000 foot for his sup- 
ply; that they would not direct him what he 
should do if the Spaniards landed, leaving it to 
his own judgment, as occasion should be offered; 
saying, further, that where by his own letters they 

s 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

perceived (whereunto all men's judgment did agree 
with him) that Cork was a weak town, and not 
tenable against a powerful enemy, they thought 
fit to give him this general rule, that in case he 
should see such forces arrive, applying themselves 
to a place of weak defence, which in his judg- 
ment must in the end be carried, that nothing can 
be more pernicious to Her Majesty's cause, and 
therefore he should not do well to venture his 
small forces where they, with Her Majesty's pro- 
visions, were sure to be lost, howsoever he might 
peradventure think to dispute it for some few 
days. But the President, to make good his resolu- 
tion, answered their Lordships, and maintaining 
the same (as by his letters of the sixth of August 
may appear), wherewith the Lords rested satisfied, 
and left him to his own judgment, wherein it 
seems he did not err, for their intention of 
landing at Cork proved true (as hereafter shall 
appear), whereof, for farther testimony of the same 
all the letters which were sent from Spain to 
Don Juan de Aquila, after his landing in Ireland, 
were directed to Cork, which is an evident argu- 
ment that Cork was their design, and that in 
Spain it was conceived that Don Juan was possessed 
of it; and also at the same time he wrote to Mr. 
Secretary Cecil upon the same subject, his very 
words being as follows : — " The resolution I held, 
I still hold, which is to defend and keep Cork ; 
the reasons, in my letters to the Lords, I have 
at large discoursed ; if Her Majesty shall relinquish 
any of her walled cities, as I am advised to do, 
all will be lost and a general revolt will ensue, 
wherefore it were better to put; something in hazard 

Pacata Hibernia. 


than apparently to lose all. The town I know 
to be infinitely weak, but many hands are a strong 
defence, and when the 2000 aids shall come the 
enemy shall find it a tough piece of work to 
gain it. As to removing the Queen's magazines 
of victuals, munition, and treasure, as some 
advise, into the country, I know no place capable 
of it, nor yet is there any means of carriage, 
especially in this harvest time, to convey it away 
between this and Michaelmas, and to send it by 
sea must be either to Waterford or Limerick, 
which, as far as I know, may prove no less 
dangerous than at Cork, no man certainly knowing 
where the enemy will make his descent. But if 
the worst should happen, that the town must 
be lost, the treasure, at least, shall be saved, 
and the rest the enemy shall never enjoy. The 
razing of Shandon is to no purpose, for every 
hill and ditch near the town commands the 
city no less than it ; the defences of earth, which 
by my directions are in making, are only made 
to win time ; and I have so provided that the charge 
of the workmen is borne by the town and country, 
the Queen's expenses being no more than the 
use of her shovels, spades, pickaxes, and wheel- 
barrows, etc." 

Now we may see how true a prophet the President 
was, that the Spaniards would invade Ireland; 
but, like Cassandra, until this time could never 
be believed, which proceeded out of the defects 
which both the Lords in England and the Lord 
Deputy of Ireland had of good intelligence whereof 
the President was better stored than either of 
them. Of the undoubted likelihood of their coming 


Pacata Hibernia. 

Sir Robert Cecil, Her Majesty's secretary, wrote to 
the President as follows : — 

A Letter from Master Secretary Cecil to the 
Lord President. 

Sir George Carew, — On Wednesday last certain 
pinnaces of Her Majesty's met with a fleet of Spaniards, 
to the number of fifty sail, whereof seventeen are 
men-of-war, the rest being transport-ships, as by this 
note enclosed doth appear, which my intelligencer sent 
me at their going out. These ships cannot be but for 
Ireland, from which coast the storm kept them, unless 
it should be said that the king will land them in the 
Low Countries, which I will never believe he durst 
venture, knowing how long we have expected them, 
and have fourteen good ships out, which, if you com- 
pare with the note enclosed of his, you shall find that 
we might be ashamed to suffer his fleet to land so 
quietly, and our fleet in the tail of them ; but what is 
more certain to confirm my opinion ever for Ireland, 
this proportion is fit for Ireland ; there it may work 
mischief ; and, besides, those who met them saw them 
set their course from the mouth of the sleeve, where 
they were on "Wednesday, straight for Ireland, and, as 
I verily think, they will fall for Limerick ; for in Spain 
it was advertised me that their rendezvous was for 
the Blaskys, 1 which, you know, are on that coast about 
the Dingle or the Ventry. Lastly, if they had meant 
to have come hither they would have been here before 
this time, being on Wednesday at Scilly, and the wind 
having been south-west since, fair. If, therefore, 
they be not in Ireland, they are certainly put about 

1 TheBlaskets. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


to Spain again ; but that I dare not hope. Now, sir, 
what my Lord Deputy and you shall do there, is not 
our parts to tell you, only we desire you to propound 
us possible things and then shall you have them. 
Two thousand we .have sent already into Munster — 
at least the want of wind hinders them in the embark- 
ing ports. If we know once where they are landed, 
then must you also tell us where you will have us 
second you ; for if you look for our supplies to come 
to you in the west side of Munster or south parts, then 
can we put them by sea more properly and land nearer 
the parts of Accon than to send them to Dublin or to 
Cork ; but all this to you must be referred, to whom 
I wish as great happiness as I wish to my own heart. 
And so I end from the Court of Windsor this twelfth 
of August, 1601. 

Your loving and assured friend, 

Robert Cecil. 

Feom Lisbon the Five-and-Twentieth of July, 1601. 

Here, at Lisbon, there are about two hundred sail 
of ships, out of which number five-and-forty only are 
selected for transportation of soldiers. 

The number of soldiers is six thousand, whereof 
three thousand are here kept aboard the ships lest 
they should run away ; the other three thousand are 
coming from Andalucia and those parts in a fleet of 
ships and galleys, under the conduct of the Adelan- 
tado's son to Lisbon. 

The ships which carry the soldiers are of the 
burthen of one hundred, one hundred and fifty, and 
not above two hundred tons. The Spaniards refuse 
greater ships of the east countries, which are stayed 


Pacata Hibernia. 

at Lisbon, and make choice of the smallest vessels they 
have for their purpose. 

Of their five-and-forty sail of ships, seventeen sail 
only are fitted for men-of-war, whereof eleven of 
them are but small ships, the other six being galleons, 
the Saint Paul, the Saint Peter, the Saint Andrew, 
and three smaller galleons of the King's, whose names 
I know not. 

For the manning of their ships fifteen hundred 
sailors were sent hither out of Biscay. 

The Marques of Sta. Croce goeth admiral in the 
Saint Paul ; Sibiero, alias Seriago, vice-admiral in the 
Saint Peter. They make account to be ready by the 
end of July, and ride with their yards across. 

The two ships of Dunkirk, which have remained 
long at Lisbon, make ready to come away with the 

By this letter it appears that they in England now 
were awake and confident of the Spanish invasion ; 
until which time, notwithstanding the President's 
daily calling upon them for men, munition, and 
victuals, they gave a deaf ear; also he received 
another of the same date, a fragment whereof I think 
it not unnecessary to relate, as well to show the 
assurance which was held in England of the invasion 
as the tender care Her Majesty's principal secretary 
had of the President, and of the dear affection he 
bore him. 

• ••••• 

My dear George, — Now will I omit all the petty 
particulars of many things, because the great storm 
which I presume is fallen upon Munster drowns all 

Pacata Hibernia. 


my petty cares and wounds my soul for care of you, 
of whom I know not what to expect, but as a lost 
child ; for though I know you are not so mad as to 
run to the enemies' mouths, with a dozen persons in 
comparison ; yet I am desperately afraid that the 
provincials should betray you ; even those I mean 
that must or will seem to be principally about you, 


The cross accidents which happened to make the Lord Deputy 
offended with the Lord President — The Lord Deputy's letter to 
the Lord President — A satisfactory letter from the Lord Deputy 
to the Lord President. 

As is formerly related, Sir Francis Barkley, being in 
the province of Connaught with one thousand foot 
and fifty horse of the list of Munster ; when the 
President sent him thither, among other instructions 
which he gave to Sir Francis was that he should not, 
upon any direction, go out of that province until he 
first heard from him. The reason which moved him 
to insert this clause in his instructions was the confi- 
dent assurance he had of the Spanish invasion. But 
yet, to prevent the worst, lest the Lord Deputy might 
peradventure command him to march into Ulster or 
Leinster, he presently dispatched a letter to the Lord 
Deputy, signifying to him what direction he had given 
to Barkley, and the reasons that moved him to it, 
beseeching his Lordship to allow thereof. But see the 
mischief: before the President's letters came to the 
Lord Deputy's hands, he had sent Captain Henry 
Cosby with a peremptory command to Sir Francis 
Barkley to march to Ballyshannon in Ulster. Sir 
Francis, being perplexed what course to take, at last 
resolved to obey his instructions, hoping that the 
Lord President would be able to make his peace with 

Pacata Hibernia. 


the Lord Deputy ; but so slow and negligent was the 
President's messenger (which afterwards was excused 
by sickness) that the Lord Deputy had received Sir 
Francis Barkley's refusal before he had knowledge of 
the President's letters, wheveupon he stormed at the 
President and dispatched presently his letters to the 
Lords of the Council, complaining of the President, 
not sparing to tell them that rather than he would 
undergo so great an indignity by any man that served 
under him he would quit his government. And at the 
same time it fell out so crossly that another incident 
did no less move the Deputy to be enraged than the 
former ; for of the two thousand supplies which were 
to come into Munster, the President, to give content- 
ment to many worthy men who without charge had 
followed t him in the former services, had obtained 
from the Lords in England that six hundred of them 
should be bestowed upon such as he should make 
choice of to be their captains ; this, added to that 
aforementioned, so much increased his Lordship's 
indignation against the President, whereunto many ill 
disposed, to increase the flame, gave fuel, that his 
Lordship wrote this ensuing letter to the President. 

The Loed Deputy's Letter to the Lord President. 

My Lord, — As I have hitherto borne you as much 
affection, and as truly as ever I did profess it to 
you, and, I protest, rejoiced in all your good successes 
as mine own, so must you give me leave, since I 
presume I have so just cause, to challenge you of 
unkindness and wrong in writing to England that 
in preferring your followers Sir Henry Dockwray 
hath had more power from me than yourself ; 

268 Pacata Hibernia. 

and, consequently, to solicit the Queen to have 
the nomination of some captains in this kingdom. 
For the first, I could have wished you would 
have been better advised, because upon mine honour 
he never, without my special warrant, did appoint 
but one, whom I afterwards displaced, and I do 
not remember that, ever since our coming over, I 
have denied anything which you have recommended 
to me with the mark of your own desire to obtain it ; 
and in your province I have not given any place, as 
I think, but at your instance. For the other, I think 
it is the first example that ever any, under another 
General, desired or obtained the like suit. And al- 
though I will not speak injuriously of your deserts, 
nor immodestly of my own, yet this disgrace cannot 
make me believe that I have deserved worse than any 
that have been Generals before me. But since it is 
the Queen's pleasure, I must endure it, and you choose 
a fit time to obtain that or anything else against me. 
Yet I will concur with you in the service as long as it 
shall please Her Majesty to employ us here ; but, 
afterwards, I doubt not but to give you satisfaction 
that I am not worthy of this wrong. The Council and 
myself, upon occasion of extraordinary consequence, 
sent for some of the Companies of Munster out of 
Connaught when we heard you were to be supplied 
with two thousand out of England, but we received from 
them a flat denial to come and the copy of your letter 
to warrant them therein. If you have any authority 
from the Queen to countermand mine, you may very 
well justify it, but it is more than you have vowed to 
me to have when I, before my coming over, protested 
to you, that if you had I would rather serve the Queen 
in prison than here. My Lord, these are great dis- 

Pacata Hibernia. 


graces to me, and so conceived, and I think justly, 
by all that know it, which is and will be very shortly 
all Ireland. My allegiance and own honour are now 
engaged with all my burdens to go on in this work, 
otherwise no fear should make me suffer thus much ; 
and what I do it is only love doth move me to it. 
For I know you are dear to one whom I am bound to 
respect with extraordinary affection. And so, my 
Lord, I wish you well, and will omit nothing, while 
I am in this kingdom, to give you the best content- 
ment I can, and continue as, 

Your assured friend, 


In the meantime, before these storms came to the 
President's knowledge (for he had not yet received the 
Lord Deputy's sharp letter), hoping that the time of 
the Spaniards' coming would admit Sir Francis's regi- 
ment some loDger absence, sent him word to march to 
Ballyshannon or elsewhere (as it pleased the Deputy), 
and withal by his letters he acquainted his Lordship 
of his directions, and beseeched his Lordship to have 
a care of Munster, which he was nowise able, his 
places of garrison guarded by his small forces remain- 
ing, to confront Tirrell and the Ulster aids, then ready 
to enter into it, much less to defend the cities of Cork, 
Limerick, and Waterford against the Spaniards, whose 
arrival he daily expected. After this second dispatch 
to the Lord Deputy the President received his Lord- 
ship's thundering letters ; but when the Lord Deputy 
by his answer saw how much he was mistaken, and 
had well considered upon what good ground the 
President's instructions were given to Sir Francis 
Barkley, and also that he had retrenched the same 


Pacata Hibernia. 

before he knew that his Lordship had sent for them ; 
and that although he had got the favour to bestow 
six of the companies that came out of England he 
knew that they could stand no longer than he pleased, 
and so left them to be disposed of at his will, he not 
only blamed himself, but wrote a satisfactory, kindly 
letter to him, which, to show the good nature of that 
nobleman, I think I should do him wrong if I did 
not relate it : — 

A Satisfactory Letter from the Lord Deputy to the 
Lord President. 

My Lord, — If my letter did express some more than 
ordinary passion, I will now desire you, if you have 
any opinion of my judgment or honesty, to believe me 
that at that time I had so much reason to be so moved 
as I presume, when I next speak with you, I shall 
induce you to confess, that my expostulation did 
neither proceed from undervaluing you nor overvalu- 
ing myself, private respect to my own end, vanity in 
desire of pre-eminences, nor lightness, nor evil nature 
in quitting slightly so worthy a friend ; and if I can 
further persuade you by the effect it took with me, I 
protest the miserable tragedy of those I held here my 
dearest friends, the unkindness I took by their show- 
ing themselves my most mortal enemies, the danger 
that I knew they brought my fortune into, nor any- 
thing which hath been much that hath happened to 
me since my coming into this kingdom, did ever so 
much move me as this, and the circumstances that 
accompanied it; the which being unfit to be trusted 

Pacata Hibernia. 


either to paper, or at least to this passage, I will re- 
serve for my own defence till I speak with you or may 
send a more safe and assured messenger to you, and so 
leave my case sub judice, but in the meantime absolve 
you from any wrong or unkindness you have done me, 
with this assurance, that the desire you show to give 
me satisfaction hath and shall increase that affection 
I have borne you ; and in the world you shall not find 
for ever hereafter a more just and sure friend, and 
this much for your own sake, but for his unto whom I 
know you are so dear I am so much in my heart a 
servant to the worthiness that he hath showed in his 
kindness to me, that if he should desire me to trail 
a pike under a far meaner friend to him than you 
I would do it willingly, because my fortune doth 
otherwise so little enable me to show my thank- 
fulness to him ; and this I do not write out of 
my base observation of his fortune, but upon my 
Christianity I do acknowledge him to have deserved 
more of me than all the world besides, and I do 
truly think him to be the most honourable man 
that ever, in this unworthy world, my fortune was to 
have anything to do withal. And, therefore, noble 
Lord, of all these things I will write as I have read in 
my dunses of logic, sustine pro nunc. Only I beseech 
you dispose of the companies and all things else to 
your liking, which shall be, I assure you, to mine ; 
but to the great trouble I have in hand I must confess 
was never more puzzled in my councils, for many just 
respects ; but especially by an intelligence I have re- 
ceived this day. And if I would, like Diogenes, take 
a candle in my hand to seek a wise man in this king- 
dom unto whose judgment I would trust to assist mine 
in the case in question, I know not where I should 


Pacata Hibernia. 

find any except it be you ; and therefore, if it be 
possible, send me word where I may speak with you 
presently, though I come as far or farther than Kil- 
kenny, for I would fain resolve with you of all, and 
jointly with you make a present despatch into England. 
I pray dispatch a speedy messenger, though it be a 
horseman, and I will leave all things so that I will be 
prepared to go on a sudden, and so I commit you to 
God, whom I beseech to send us a happy meeting. 
The fifth of September, 1601. 

Your most assured friend, 


"What an opinion of wisdom and worthiness the 
President had now gained by his painful and politic 
proceedings I cannot but remember, the same being 
acknowledged by so many and worthy persons of Her 
Majesty's Privy Council ; for if that be vera laus which 
proceeded a viro laudato ; or if that rule of Aristotle 
be true 9 viz., that thing is justly to be preferred quod 
a pluribus and sapientissimis approbatur, then may I 
without flattery conclude that his deserts were honour- 
able, and his wisdom was in such great esteem that 
his counsels were so well allowed of the Lords of the 
Council that never doubt was made of them, and all 
things concerning that province were left to his 
discretion, as occasions with their circumstances hap- 

Lastly, the Lord Deputy, whose judgment was 
second to none for the prosecution of the war in 
Ireland, being now mightily distracted betwixt the 
Northern prosecutions and the Spanish preparations, 
did write to the President that there was no man that 
could so well assist him in this doleful case, and upon 

Pacata Hibernia. 


whose judgment he would so much rely in all that 
kingdom as upon his, and therefore requested him 
earnestly to repair speedily to Kilkenny, near to his 
province, for so far would he come to meet him. 

1 The friendship now formed between the Viceroy and Carew gave 
an enormous advantage to the Royalist cause in the next struggle, 
that which was precipitated by the Spanish invasion. It supplied 
unity of action to the Royalists. All through the Nine- Years' War 
the State enjoyed an advantage over the insurgents in this respect, 
enhanced by the fact that the State was then a tyranny. The in- 
surgent lords of Ulster worked together harmoniously enough at the 
commencement, and yet there was on their side even then no centre of 
supreme authority. Tyrone himself could take no important step 
without as he said himself consulting his " confederates," which meant 
stormy parleys of chieftains, publicity, and in the end action, trimmed, 
clipped and emasculated to please all the jealous confederated lords. 
Treason, too, had all along been at work amongst them, and what 
treason could do and what traitors there were then are shamefully 
revealed in Pacata Hibernia. Munster is now subject everywhere to 
Carew. Yet when he entered the province he had no more than 
three thousand men under his command, while the insurgents held 
most of the country and castles, and could bring some sixteen thousand 
men into the field. Carew's Machiavellianism, diabolical and dis- 
gusting as it was, would have ended in nothing had it not been for 
the corrupt material on which he brought it to play. And observe, 
too, that while every man opposed to him was false to his cause, Carew 
to as true to his. 

VOL. I. 



Intelligence of the Spanish invasion — Two thousand foot sent to the 
Lord President — The Spanish fleet discovered at sea by Captain 
Love, whereof the Lord President advertised the Lord Deputy 
— The Lord President makes a journey to the Lord Deputy — The 
Lord Deputy and the Lord President meet at Leighlin — Sir 
Charles Wilmot advertiseth the Lord President of the discovery 
of the Spanish fleet at the mouth of the Haven of Cork — The 
Spaniards land at Kinsale — A proclamation made in Kinsale 
by Don Juan de Aquila to give contentment to the inhabitants 
— A list of the captains in the Spanish army — Don Juan's 
certificate into Spain after his landing at Kinsale. 

The President addressed himself forthwith to attend 
his Lordship, but was suddenly stopped by a double 
occasion. First, Sir Francis Barkley, being at Galway 
with one thousand foot and fifty horse of the Munster 
forces, sent him word that a Spanish ship was landed 
at Sligo, which brought assured news that six thousand 
men were assembled in Spain ready to be embarked, 
and with the first wind to come for Ireland, which 
caused him to recall the said Sir Francis Barkley again 
into Munster and Sir Charles Wilmot from Kerry, and 
to take order for the two thousand supplies that were 
now landed out of England ; and, before he could fully 
determine these affairs, there arrived one Captain 
Thomas Love at Crook 1 Haven, in the west of Ireland, 

1 In the original the word is " Corke Haven," but it is plain from 
the context that Crookhaven is meant. A great number of the 
peasantry in this neighbourhood bear the name of Love, possibly 
descendants of this same captain. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


who sent him word by letter dated the thirteenth of 
September, that he had been upon the coast of Spain 
in a small man-of-war, and had descried five and forty 
sail of the Spanish fleet at sea, to the north of Cape 
Finisterre, standing to the northward, by which he 
conjectured that they shaped their course for Ireland ; 
whereupon the President sent a speedy dispatch to 
the Lord Deputy, being then at Kilkenny, certifying 
his Lordship by what sudden occurrences he was 
diverted from his intended journey, who, receiving 
notice thereof (having for a short time reposed himself 
there), returned towards Dublin. These rumours 
being now noised throughout Ireland, every man was 
in daily expectation of the Spanish fleet, and no sooner 
could a ship appear upon the coast but presently it was 
supposed to be a Spaniard ; but none appeared before 
the seventeenth of the same month, which, the Lord 
President perceiving, and that the winds were still 
contrary, and the weather very stormy and tempes- 
tuous, remembering how earnestly the Deputy solicited 
his company, for causes very important, appointing 
Sir Charles Wilmot Governor of Cork, and having set 
all things in good order as the time would permit, not- 
withstanding the indisposition of his body, being very 
much distempered at that, time with long and weary 
journeys, made towards the Deputy, and, through 
weakness, not able to pass beyond Leighlin, 1 there he 
stayed, advertising the Lord Deputy, who was then at 
Rheban, of his being there, which was the nineteenth 
of September. His Lordship, being very glad of 
his coming when he least expected his company, 
repaired to him. After congratulations his Lord- 

1 Leighlin Bridge. There was a strong fortress here, defending the 
passage of the Barrow. 

T 2 


Pacata Hibernia. 

ship consulted with the President about such 
services as he thought most necessary at that time, in 
which consultation they spent some hours ; and that 
night they went to Kilkenny, both of them being 
lodged by the Earl of Ormond in his house. The 
morrow, being the twentieth of that month of Sep- 
tember, towards night, the sovereign of Kinsale sent a 
messenger to Sir Charles Wilmot, then in Cork, with 
letters importing that there was a fleet of five and 
forty ships discovered from the Old Head of Kinsale, 
and that they were past the river of Kinsale, bearing 
towards the harbour of Cork ; the inhabitants likewise 
at Cork Harbour brought him word that the said fleet 
was discovered before that Haven's mouth, and ready, 
as they thought, to put into it. Sir Charles inconti- 
nently dispatched a horseman with letters to the Presi- 
dent, who came to him the three- and-twentieth, and 
also sendeth for all the forces of the province and 
gentlemen of the country to repair to him. The 
Spaniards, being close at the Haven's mouth, the 
wind suddenly scanted, whereupon they tacked about 
and made for Kinsale. Within the town, Captain 
William Saxey's company lay then in garrison ; but 
because the town was of small strength, unable to 
withstand so powerful an enemy, order was given by 
Sir Charles Wilmot that they should quit the same 
and retreat to Cork. Upon the three-and-twentieth 
of this instant the enemy landed their forces in the 
Haven of Kinsale, and marched with five and twenty 
colours towards the town. Upon their approach the 
townsmen, not being able to make resistance (if they 
had been willing thereto), set open their gates and 
permitted them, without impeachment or contradiction, 
to enter the town, the sovereign, with his white rod in 

Pacata Hibernia. 


his hand, going to billet and cess them in several 
houses, more ready than if they had been the Queen's 
forces. 1 

To encourage them to persevere, to banish fear, and 
to win their love by gentle and mild usage, Don Juan 
de Aquila, the Spanish General, promised this which 
ensueth, published the same, and confirmed it with 
his hand and seal, which is thus Englished. 

a proclamation made in klnsale by don juan de 
Aquila, to give Contentment to the Inhabitants 

op KlNSALE. 

We, Don Juan de Aquila, 2 general of the army 
to Philip, King of Spain, by these presents do promise 
that all the inhabitants of the town of Kinsale shall 
receive no injury by any of our retinue, but rather 
shall be used as our brethren and friends, and that it 
shall be lawful for any of the inhabitants that list to 

1 The reader has no doubt already remarked Carew's animus against 
the towns, in spite of their singular and never- failing loyalty to the 
Crown. It was, in fact, the purpose of the State to assail the great 
privileges of the towns and reduce their pride. The execution of 
that purpose was only postponed. A tyranny is by its nature jealous 
of all forms of freedom, and it must not be forgotten that the State 
at this time was a tyranny, a tyranny which grew worse and worse 
till the English people could endure it no longer. 

2 Don Juan de Aquila, by Stafford as a rule called Don John, was 
a very brave, upright, chivalrous, and loyal gentleman, and surely a 
most excellent soldier. The command of this expedition had been 
offered by Philip III. to other Spanish generals, who, however, de- 
murred to its proposed strength of 4000 men. They asked for 8000. 
Don Juan accepted the responsibility with the smaller number. 
Subsequently Philip did appoint a much larger fleet and army for the 
Irish venture, but before Don Juan sailed was obliged to dispatch 
half to the Azores to convey home a plate fleet coming from the Indies. 

In Don Juan's proclamation we have an agreeable intimation that 
something resembling civilized warfare did prevail in the world at 
this time. 

Pacata Hibernia. 

transport, without any molestation in body or goods, 
and as much as shall remain, likewise without any 

Don Juan de Aquila. 

For testimony that the forces with the said Spanish 
General were no less but rather more than is reported, 
I thought it not impertinent, for the reader's better 
satisfaction, to set down the names of all the com- 
manders, officers, and captains that landed with him 
at Kinsale, and afterwards : — 

The Names of the Spanish Commanders and 

Don Juan de Aquila, Maestro del Campo General. 

Don Francisco de Padilla, Maestro del Campo. 

Don Antonio Centeno, Maestro del Campo. 

Captain Don Pedro Morijon. 

Captain Francisco de Pinuoll. 

Captain Pedro Munnez de Xaer. 

Captain Miguel Caxa de Cuellar. 

Captain Andres Leal. 

Captain Don Luis de Vela. 

Captain Don Gomez de Vargas. 

Captain Don Pedro Zuazo. 

Captain Saint Vincente. 

Captain Don Gasper de Guevarra. 

Captain Diego Gonzales Sigler. 

Captain Marcos de Porras. 

Captain Cascarro. 

Captain Don Filippo de Camonde. 

Captain Pedro de Chauves. 

Captain Don Diego de Viezina. 

Captain Luis de Carrera. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Captain Francisco de Muniosa. 

Captain Pedro Enriques de Tejada. 

Captain Don Christovall de Ayala. 

Captain Juan Ymonez de Carata. 

Captain Alonso de Zaramelle. 

Captain Don Pedro de Campo. 

Captain Luis Diaz de Navarra. 

Captain Alonso de Motina. 

Captain Diego Palomeque. 

Captain Maldonado. 

Captain Josepho Escobar. 

Captain Antonio de Tufo Italiano. 

Captain Orlando Italiano. 

Captain Christovall de Cardenosa. 

Captain and Quartermaster Miguel Briena. 

Captain Diego de la Villa. 

Captain Hernando Borragan. 

Captain De Campo. 

Captain Francisco Ruiz de Vellasco. 

Captain Pedro de Saavedra. 

Captain Graneros. 

Captain Andreas de Arve. 

Captain Albornoz. 

Captain Martin Ruyz, Sarjento Mayor. 
Captain Luis de Aquila, Sarjento Mayor. 
Pedro Lopes de Soto, Veador y Contador de la 

Juan Ocho a Devasterra, Contador de la Artilleria. 

Diego Ruyz de Salazar, Pagador. 

After Don Juan was landed and settled in the 
town of Kinsale, by shipping which returned he sent 
into Spain a relation of his present estate, which is as 
followeth, translated out of the original under his own 



A discourse of the estate wherein Don Juan de Aquila doth remain, 
with the appointment of such things as he advertiseth to be 
needful for his succour and good effect of his voyage ; translated 
out of a Spanish discourse. 

On the first of October lie arrived at the Haven of 
Kinsale, and, the day following, Don Juan landed all 
his soldiers ; whereof forming two squadrons he 
marched towards the said town, out of which there 
issued fifty foot and forty horse, who, leaving the 
place free, went towards the town of Cork, the per- 
sons of better sort 1 going with them, with all their 
goods ; whereupon there were presently sent in two 
companies, and the day following entered all the rest 
of the army and lodged there, to the end to shelter 
the troops and munitions under cover, although with 
great straightness, the place containing not above two 
hundred houses. 

The seat and foundation of Kinsale is in a side of a 
river, environed in hills, and without any kind of 
defence, 2 insomuch that Don Juan is of the mind, if 
the enemy should come to quarter himself near his 
front, to try his fortune, because otherwise he should 
not be able to make good the place. 

There were disembarked two field-pieces and two 
demi-cannon, leaving the rest of the artillery un- 
landed, not having ammunition sufficient for so much 
artillery, for the powder and match which remains is 
little, and the greater quantity came wet, as well as 

1 It must be remembered that to all political and martial intents 
the Ireland of this day, both in town and country, consisted only of 
" the better sort," the common people did not count at all. When 
the better sort fled to Carew, it meant that Kinsale stood in line 
with her walled sisters of the south. 

2 Save walls built before the invention of artillery. See the well- 
walled and becastled little town in the plate of the Battle of Kinsale. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


not to be encumbered with so much artillery without 
horses to draw it, since with the next succours may 
be sent ammunition enough. 

There is, in the middle of the Haven of Kinsale, a 
certain almost an island, 1 on which it seemeth good to 
Don Juan to have a fort made, to secure and defend 
the Haven ; yet is there no convenient place to do it 9 
for, on the part that looks towards the place, an arm 
of the sea divides it from the land, continued some- 
what upwards into the land, without having pinnaces, 
boats, or other means to cross it; and for that the 
town Kinsale is of so great a seat, and open in so 
many parts, and so weak that it is needful to have 
half the troops in guard at least, whensoever they 
should be forced to draw out to some good effect, 
which notwithstanding would not be in good security, 
the place (almost an island) not having sufficient 
water, nor is there any place of those adjacent that 
yieldeth means to fortify it, so that it is necessary to 
go elsewhere for it, having here nothing to make 
cisterns or pinnaces for a passage, or to bring bavins 
and faggots, the river being somewhat farther up- 
wards into the land. 

He sent to tell Don Diego Borchero that because 
the way remained so ill he should assist him before 
he went in causing to be disembarked the biscuit, 
and, afterwards, that all the boats should make three 
or four voyages for bavins or gabions, whereof he had 
great need. The river, as aforesaid, being somewhat 
far above, he answered that he could not attend to 
this or disembark the biscuits 2 which came in the hulk 

1 The literal translation of peninsula. 

2 P. 0. Sullivan always translates biscuit as biscoctus panis, i.e. 
twice-baked or double-baked bread. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

which were there, but to return presently, and so with 
great haste caused the munitions to be landed, which 
they left upon the shore, without account or reason ; 
the accounter, the steward of the artillery, remaining, 
who would not undertake to account for it ; and such 
was the haste that on the dirt and ooze of the shore 
they were ill handled and wet as if the enemy had been 
already playing with their artillery on their ships. 
So soon as Don Juan had lodged himself in the place 
he dispatched to the Earls several times advising them 
of his arrival ; yet in nine days that passed until I was 
dispatched into Spain they received no answer. The 
distance from Kinsale to the place where the Earls 
abide is seventy-five leagues. The naturals of the 
country report the forces of the Earls to be much less 
than was given out to us, and that the enemy doth 
hold them in with forts. The enemy have drawn 
together all their cattle and corn, and with their cavalry 
break the mills, and because we have no horse they 
presume to come every day up to our walls, not being 
able to avoid or hinder it, notwithstanding our sallies 
against them ; insomuch that from without we receive 
neither flesh nor any other thing except some few 
cows from the poor people of the place, which they 
sell the rather to us because we pay them what they 
demand, yet within a few days there would be no 
flesh had by reason of the English, who have en- 
grossed and gathered the crets together, 1 and burned 
the houses of the naturals. 

1 Another indication of civilized warfare. The State in Ireland 
would, under similar circumstances, have requisitioned everything, 
and paid, if at all, less than the market price. The State Papers 
contain many complaints under this head. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


Don Juan doth procure to draw from the country 
people by love and rewards all that he can ; yet, with all 
this, findeth no assistance from them, neither dare they 
declare themselves, and the greater part have no will, 
seeing the small forces which have been landed ; but, 
seeing that there are more, they will be still coming, 
and some of them receive pay, it is very requisite to 
pay them and arm them — because till now many of 
them are passed to the enemy. 

Since the writing of this by Don Juan de Aquila 
there came a spy from Cork, where the enemy doth 
join together, who saith that the Viceroy had already 
together more than four thousand foot and four or 
five hundred horse, and that the Queen of England 
had received advertisement of the coming of the 
Spaniards into Ireland, whereupon great preparations 
were made for expelling them. The soldiers who 
were disembarked marched to the number of three 
thousand and four hundred, besides those who came 
in a hulk, now arrived three leagues from hence, but, 
making a squadron of them, there was a less number 
found, so that it is thought fit to take the first muster 
with much rigour, taking note of the boys and such 
besides of the rest as are besognies, 1 who, not knowing 
the use of their pieces, nor how to discharge them, 
are drawn out to exercise their arms daily ; many fall 
sick, and are already more than one hundred. It is 
fit that the succour which His Majesty meaneth to send 
should be dispatched with speed, because the enemy 
may have power to engage the places which Don Juan 

1 It will be presently perceived into what first-rate soldiers Don 
Juan, by his Spanish methods, converted these " boys and besognies " 
(i.e. raw recruits). 


Pacata Hibernia. 

hath designed to fortify. It should be a matter of 
great importance, and the whole of horse, 1 by reason 
of the difference of the cavalry which cometh out of 
England and that of the Earls, for all that can be 
levied in Ireland or that they have are small horses, 2 
and the soldiers are unarmed, who only fight with half 
pikes and saddles without stirrups. 

Of powder and matches, as is aforesaid, there is 
small store, so that it is necessary to send some good 
quantity, together with lead, because there passed but 

Biscuit and some wine are necessary for the sus- 
tenance of our troops, because there came not such 
a quantity of biscuit as His Majesty commanded, and 
was not more than for two months or little more. 

It is likewise convenient that there come a great 
sum of money, for it imports much to pay well, for 
want whereof, there rise no disorders, that of friends 
we gain not enemies. 

That others may come in the place of the accounter 
and overseer that brought us to the Groyne. 

It is convenient to send two doctors, because there 
is none in the regiment of Spaniards. 

Likewise that an auditor-general be sent to serve 
here, because there is none. 

It behoveth also to send carpenters and smiths, 
or farriers, being very necessary. 

1 The original has " the whole for horse," which is meaningless. 
Don Juan seems to ask for the whole of that body of horse which he 
had been promised, giving reasons. 

2 The Irish war-horse of this day was really a fine animal, and is 
warmly praised by Dymok in his treatise on Ireland, and by other 
contemporary writers. He was, however, rather lighter and swifter 
than the horses imported from England. For. the Irish war-horse, 
saddle without stirrups, and general equipment of an Irish knight, 
circa 1580, see the plates in Derrick's " Image of Ireland." 

Pacata Hibernia. 


And that His Majesty be served, that there might 
remain here three or four ships to give advice of 
whatsoever shall succeed, there being none left here 
at present. 

• ••••• 

The next day after Don Juan was landed Sir 
Charles "Wilmot sent Captain Francis Slingsby with 
his foot company and Sir Anthony Cook's horse with 
directions to take the best view he could of their 
fleet and forces, who, at his coming thither, found 
them possessed both of the town of Kinsale and of 
the castle of Eincorran near it ; and, to bid him 
welcome, they drew forth a company or two of foot, 
and a skirmish for a little space was entertained, 
wherein there were some hurt but none slain. 
Captain Slingsby, having performed his directions, 
returned to Cork. 


Second letter from Sir Charles Wilmot of the arrival of all the 
Spaniards in Kinsale — Debate in council what was meetest 
for the Lord Deputy to do — The Lord Deputy assented to the 
Lord President's advice — The Lord President's providence — 
A dispatch into England of the Spaniards' arrival — The Lord 
Deputy goeth with the Lord President into Munster — None of 
the provincials of Munster adhered to the Spaniards at their 
first landing — The report of a master of a Scottish bark con- 
cerning the strength of the Spaniards — Captain Flower sent 
to view Kinsale — Directions given for the burning of the 
corn near Kinsale — A letter from the Archbishop of Dublin 
and Don Juan de Aquila to Tyrone and O'Donnell — The Lord 
Deputy, Lord President, etc., went to view the town of 
Kinsale — The Lord Deputy with the army marched towards 

At the instant when Sir Charles Wilmot's letters of 
the Spaniards' arrival came to Kilkenny, which was 
upon the three-and-twentieth of September as afore- 
mentioned, the Lord Deputy, the Earl of Ormond, 
the Lord President, Sir Richard Wingfield, Marshal 
of the Army of Ireland, and Sir Robert Gardiner, the 
Chief Justice, were in council advising what course 
was to be taken if the Spaniards should land ; but 
now Sir Charles Wilmot's letters gave them cause to 
advise what should be done, they being landed ; and 
to confirm the same, while they were in council second 
letters came from Sir Charles Wilmot and the Mayor 
of Cork that the Spaniards had quitted the harbour of 
Cork and were all at an anchor in the Haven of Kinsale. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


The question was then what the Lord Deputy should 
do. The Earl of Ormond, the Marshal, and the Chief 
Justice were of opinion tnat he should do well to 
hasten to Dublin and there assemble his forces 
together ; and, whilst they were drawing to a head, 
to give orders for supplies of victuals and munitions 
to be sent to Cork; and that the president should 
presently be dispatched into the province to defend 
the city of Cork until the Lord Deputy came to his 
relief, wherein all expedition was to be used, for the 
reasons were that if the Lord Deputy presented him- 
self in the province with small forces it would 
encourage the enemy and put distrust and fear in the 
provincials who were either well affected or neutral. 

The President's advice was opposite to theirs, be- 
seeching the Lord Deputy to go presently into 
Munster, although he had no more than his page 
with him ; " for," said he, " if the provincials shall 
see that you turn your back towards them they will 
conceive it proceeds of want of force, and then 
undoubtedly a general revolt will ensue, but when 
they shall see you personally amongst them that 
doubt will be removed ; and, besides, the army, now 
dispersed, will make more haste after you than they 
would do if you attended their coming to Dublin. " 1 

1 The soundness of Carew's counsel was justified by the event. 
It was an undoubted assurance of the wavering mind of the Munster 
lords to see the Viceroy, without the loss of a day, riding south to 
meet the Spaniards. These lords, true to the egoistic motives which 
alone influenced them, were ready to rise for whichever party showed 
itself the stronger. Boldness and promptness on the part of the 
Viceroy were exceedingly necessary at such a crisis. We must re- 
member the immense power and prestige of Spain at this time. 
Most men believed that if Philip were really in earnest about Ireland 
he would have little difficulty in brushing it clean of all hostile 
influences. Without being at all in love with Spain, an Irish lord, 


Pacata Hibernia. 

The Lord Deputy inclined to the President's counsel ; 
" But," said he, " what should I do there, not being 
able to maintain the army with victuals for the space 
of a week or to furnish it with munitions, of both 
which there is no remain in the magazines in Dublin ? 99 
The President willed him to take no care for those 
wants, for he would furnish him and the whole army 
for two or three months, which, indeed, he was able 
to do, for he had spared the expense of victuals, not 
consuming so much as a biscuit for more than six 
months, giving the soldiers money, and, having been 
ever confident of the Spaniards' arrival, had procured 
good supplies of munitions, which were frugally and 
sparingly issued. The Lord Deputy, like unto one 
that was overjoyed with such unexpected provisions, 
rose from his chair, embraced the President, and said 
that if he had not been more than provident that him- 
self did not know what to have done, and that his 
honour had been endangered and ascribed to him 
what he well deserved. 

In conclusion, the four-and-twentieth the marshal, 
Sir Henry Davers, and Sir John Barkley were dis- 
patched into Leinster and to Armagh to assemble the 
army and to bring it with all possible expedition into 
Munster, and letters were dispatched to Sir Charles 
Wilmot to be well upon his guard, and dispatches 
sent into England by Captain John Roberts of the 
Spaniards' arrival. All things being thus ordered 
doubt was now made how the Lord Deputy could be 
conveyed safely to Cork, being attended by no other 
than his household servants in that dangerous time, 
which was satisfied by the President, who had then 

eager only for the preservation of his estates in that storm, would 
naturally waver and be uncertain. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


with him there one hundred horse, and for the furnish- 
ing of the Lord Deputy's house at Cork with stuff 
and utensils he undertook the care. The same day 
the Lord Deputy, the Lord President, and Sir Robert 
Gardiner departed from Kilkenny, and the same night 
they lodged at Kilkenan, Lord Dunboyne's house, the 
next night at Clonmel, the six-and-twentieth at Glan- 
oger, Lord Roche's house, and the next day following 
they came to Cork. 

Now are we come to the siege of Kinsale, a place 
ordained wherein the honour and safety of Queen 
Elizabeth, the reputation of the English nation, 
the cause of religion, and the Crown of Ireland 
must be by arms disputed ; for upon the success of 
this siege these great and important consequences de- 
pended. And here the malice of Rome and Spain, if 
they had prevailed, would not have ceased, for their 
purpose extended itself, Ireland having been conquered, 
to make it their bridge to have invaded England, the 
conquest and ruin whereof were the main mark 
whereat they aimed. 

It was generally expected that upon the first landing 
of the Spaniards the greatest part of Munster would 
have presently relapsed and have declared itself 
Spanish ; but the President had so well established 
the province by apprehending all the principals whom 
he mistrusted, and by taking good pledges of the 
rest, that when the Lord Deputy came to Cork he 
presented to him all the men of living and quality 
in the province, who stood firm until the coming 
of supplies to Castlehaven, as hereafter you shall 

The eight-and-twentieth the Lord President 
brought to the Lord Deputy the master of a Scottish 
vol. 1. u 


Pacata Hibernia. 

bark which came from Lisbon, who confidently 
reported that the Spaniards, when they were em- 
barked for Ireland, were six thousand strong ; 1 and the 
same day we heard that none of the Irish had re- 
paired to Kinsale to tender their service to the 
Spaniards but only some dependents of Florence Mac- 
Carty's, and that Don John and his captains were 
much grieved that Florence 2 was sent prisoner into 
England, of whose restraint they understood nothing 
until they were arrived. And also we were advertised 
that at Kinsale five and thirty ships arrived with Don 
John, and that the rest of his fleet were driven into 
Baltimore, having in them seven hundred soldiers, and 
that they brought with them sixteen hundred saddles, 
hoping, as they were promised, to find horses in 
Ireland, and a great surplus of arms to furnish the 
Irish ; and the companies with Don John for the most 
part were old soldiers taken from the garrisons of 
Italy and the Terceras, 3 and there were but a few 
besognies amongst them. 

The same day Captain George Flower (Sergeant- 
Major of the province of Munster) was sent with 
certain companies to view the town of Kinsale to see 
what countenance the enemy did hold. He no sooner 
approached the town than the Spaniards sallied ; our 
men beat them into the town and were so eager in the 
pursuit that they came to the port and would have set 
fire to it if Flower had not drawn them off. In this 
skirmish we had some men hurt, and the enemy both 

1 Less than five. 

3 Florence came once too often to Carew. Had Florence been 
true to Tyrone, Irish history might have been different. Had he 
been true to the Crown, he would have lived and flourished as Earl 
of Clancarty and the greatest nobleman in Ireland. 

3 The Azores. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


slain and hurt. Also the same day certain companies 
were directed to march into Kinaley to burn and spoil 
all the corn in that country and within five miles of 
Kinsale, and to command all the inhabitants in those 
parts to bring their cattle on this side of the river of 
wneboy 1 and Cork, whereby the enemy should want 
relief near to them. 

To hasten the coming of Tyrone and O'Donnell 
the Spanish Archbishop of Dublin and Don Juan de 
Aquila wrote to them as folio weth : — 

A Letter from the Archbishop of Dublin and Don 
Juan de Aquila to Tyrone and O'Donnell. 

Pervenimus in Kinsale, cum classe & exercitu, Regis 
nostri Philippi ; expectamus vestras excellentias 
qualibet hora, veniant ergo quam velociter potuerint, 
portantes equos, quibus maxime indigemus, & jam 
alia via scripsimus. Non plura. Valete. 

Frater Matheus Archiepiscopus Dublinens. 2 

1 The river of Awneboy, frequently referred to, is the Bandon 
Kiver, Bandon Fl. (i.e. Flumen) of the Plate. As to the skirmish in 
which Captain Flower distinguished himself, it will be remarked, as 
we proceed, that Stafford represents his own side as victorious in 
every tussle under the walls, yet the Spaniards all through seem to 
have held and made good their outworks, trenches, and artificial 
defences. P .0. Sullivan relates that of the two parties in these numer- 
ous extra-mural conflicts, the Queen's people suffered most, and the 
" Four Masters " that there was a great deal of slaughter on both 
sides. Mountjoy, however, could not have lost more than a few 
hundred altogether in battle, yet he lost the appalling total of 6000 
in the siege. 

2 Translation : — " We have arrived in Kinsale with the fleet and 
army of our King Philip. We are awaiting the arrival of your 
Excellencies any hour you please to come ; come then, as speedily 
as possible, bringing horses, of which we stand most in need. We 
have already written to you by another way. I say no more at 
present. Fare you well. 

" Brother Matthew, Archbishof of Dublin." 

U 2 

292 Pacata Hibernia. 

Aqui estamos quardando a vuestras senorias illus- 
trissimas, como largamente otra via hemos escritos. 
A dios 12 Octob. 1601. 

Don Juan de Aquila. 
Excellentissimis Dominis 
Don O'Neal and O'Donnell. 1 

This day the Lord Deputy, the Lord President, and 
Council, with divers others, went to Kinsale to take 
a view thereof, and found at their coming thither that 
the shipping had newly left the harbour, and were 
under sail for Spain, so that they saw nothing further 
was to be done till the coming of the forces. 

The third of October Sir William Fortescue with 
his company of foot, and Sir Benjamin Berry with the 
Lord Deputy's, came to Cork. 

The marshal, who was sent from Kilkenny to draw com- 
panies out of the pale, came this day with Sir George 
Bourchier to Cork, where at that time remained the 
Lord Deputy, the Lord President, Sir Robert Gardiner, 
and Sir Nicholas Walsh, Councillors, expecting them 
and others ; Sir John Barkley came that day also. 

" We are here awaiting your most illustrious Highnesses, as we 
have written at large another way. 

"Don Juan de Aquila. 
" To the most excellent Lords O'Neill and O'Donnell." 

P. O. Sullivan relates that from the moment of landing dissensions 
prevailed between the Archbishop and Don Juan. 

Philip, like the Queen, and indeed like all absolute monarchs, 
hampered his men of war with councillors and advisers. All such 
regard their generals with a certain suspicion, Mountjoy as a com- 
mander was checked by his council, several of whom, mere lawyers, 
mounted guard over him even at Kinsale, and with ill consequences 
too to the service. No tyrants like to give their generals and pro- 
consuls a free hand. 

This was the main cause of the prolonged agony of the Tudor con- 
quest of Ireland. The Tudor princes, especially Elizabeth, feared 
their Irish viceroys. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


The companies came to Cork that Sir John Barkley 
had brought with him. 

Sir Henry Davers, who was sent for the forces 
about Armagh, came to Cork with Sir Henry Folliet, 
Captain Blany, and divers other captains. 

Master Marshal and Sir John Barkley with some 
horse and foot went to Kinsale to view a fit place to 
encamp in. 

The companies that Sir Henry Davers went for 
came this day to Cork. Some horse and foot sent 
forth to keep the Spaniards from victuals. 

Two Frenchmen were voluntarily taken that ran 
away from the Spaniards, who confessed their 
numbers to be three thousand five hundred, besides 
those that were not yet come in. 

It was resolved to take the field, but no great 
ordnance came yet to enable us thereunto. 

The weather fell out so rainy that it was unfit to 

The Lord Deputy left Cork and encamped with the 
army at a place called Owneboy, 1 five miles from 
Kinsale. The artillery, munition, and victuals which 
were to come from Dublin were not yet arrived ; yet 
was it thought fit, being thereof supplied by the 
President's store, to take the field rather than the 
country should discover those wants and so fall 

1 Now Augh na bwee, in later times the site of a great annual 
horse fair. 


The Lord President requireth the towns of Munster to send companies 
of foot to the camp — Don Juan de Aquila's declaration in 
answer to a proclamation published by the Lord Deputy and 
Council — The army encamped at Knockrobin, near Kinsale — The 
enemy attempted to disturb our quarter, but were repulsed — A 
skirmish between us and the Spaniards — Captain Button arrived 
with munition and victuals — A skirmish in the night, wherein 
twenty of the Spaniards were slain — The army encamped close 
to Kinsale — A prey of cows taken from the Spaniards. 

The Lord President, in his providence, before the 
army was ready to march to Kinsale acquainted the 
Lord Deputy (which he well approved) that he had 
sent to the cities and great towns of Munster that all 
of them, according to their proportions, should send 
companies of foot from their several corporations 
to strengthen Her Majesty's army, which they 
accordingly, but with some grudging, did. This he 
did not for any opinion he had to receive fruit by 
their services, but their being in the camp -was a good 
pledge upon the towns, in these doubtful times, for 
their better loyalties, the Lord Deputy not being able 
to spare any companies to secure them. 

The Lord Deputy and Council, before the army 
marched from Cork, doubting, as they had good 
cause, that the priests would leave no practices 
unattempted that might animate or confirm the Irish 
in their rebellion, thought it necessary to give notice 

Pacata Hibernia. 


to the world how unjust the pretended causes were 
that the Irish had taken arms against their true 
anointed sovereign ; and also how unjustly the same 
was maintained by the Pope and the King of Spain, 
which by proclamation was divulged in the city of 
Cork ; in answer whereof Don Juan de Aquila, as 
soon as it came to his ears, likewise proclaimed this 
declaration, or apology, in Kinsale, and dispersed 
copies thereof into sundry places, the tenor whereof 
ensueth : — 

Don Juan de Aquila's Declaration in Answer to a 
Proclamation Published by the Lord Deputy 
and Council, Translated out of the Latin. 1 

" Don Juan de Aquila, general of the war, and the 
Catholic King of Spain's chief commander in God's 
war, which is made in Ireland for defence of the 
faith. To all the Irish Catholics living in Kinsale, 
the city of Cork, and in all other villages, cities, and 
castles, wisheth health in him who is the true 
happiness. There is come unto our ears a proclama- 
tion, or certain libel, made in the city of Cork, in the 
name of the Deputy ; which because it containeth many 
untruths and such things as offend the ears of honest 
men, lest they may lead and seduce the minds of 
simple men into errors and turn them from the truth, 
I am compelled to show their falsehood, to lay open 
the truth, and in few words to signify the pretence 
and intention of our most excellent King Philip in this 
war, which is, with the apostolic authority, to be 
administered by us ; and (to speak the truth) I could 

1 This document bears internal evidence of having been drawn up 
by the Archbishop. 


Pacata Hibernia. 

very easily retort upon them those reproaches which 
they object to us, and make them lose the pleasure 
which they have taken in ill-speaking by hearing of 
the like ; notwithstanding, we will not, like weak and 
unarmed women, go to reproachings, but, setting 
these things aside, answer to those that are objected 
with sound truth and Christian modesty. 

u First of all, ye feign that we would lead away the 
pretended subjects of the Queen of England from their 
obedience, to bring them under our yoke, which is a 
very untruth ; for we endeavour not to persuade 
anybody that he should deny due obedience (according 
to the word of God) to his prince. But ye know well 
that, for many years past, Elizabeth was deprived of 
her kingdom and all her subjects absolved from their 
fidelity by the Pope, unto whom He that reigneth in 
the heavens, the King of Kings, hath committed all 
power, that he should root up, destroy, plant, and 
build in such sort that he may punish temporal kings, 
if it shall be good for the spiritual building, even to 
their deposing, which thing hath been done in the 
kingdoms of England and Ireland by many popes, viz. 
by Pius Quintus, Gregory the Thirteenth, and now by 
Clement the Eighth, as it is well known ; whose bulls 
are extant amongst us. I speak to Catholics, not to 
froward heretics, who have fallen from the faith 
of the Koman Church ; seeing they are blind leaders 
of the blind and such as know not the grounds of the 
truth, it is no marvel that they do also disagree from 
us in this thing. But our brethren, the Catholics, 
walking in the pureness of the faith, and yielding to 
the Catholic Church, which is the very pillar of the 
truth, will easily understand all those things. There- 
fore it remaineth that the Irish, which adhere to us 

Pacata Hibernia. 


do work with us nothing that is against God's laws 
or their due obedience, nay, that which they do is 
according to God's word and the obedience which they 
owe the Pope. 

" Secondly, ye affirm that we Spaniards go about to 
win the Irish with allurements and feigned flatteries, 
which is a thing far from our nature, and that we do 
it but for a while ; that after we have drawn the 
minds of simple men to us we might afterwards, 
exercising our cruelty towards them, show our bloody 
nature. the immortal God ! Who doth not 
wonder at your bitter and inexpressible cruelty and 
your boldness showed in these words ? For who is it 
that doth not know the great cruelty which you 
English have exercised, and cease not to exercise, 
towards the miserable Irish ? You, I say, go about to 
take from their souls the Catholic faith which their 
fathers held, in which consists eternal life ; truly you 
are far more cruel than bears and lions, which take 
away the temporal life, for you would deprive them of 
the eternal and spiritual life. Who is it that hath 
demolished all the temporalities of this most flourishing 
kingdom but the English? Look upon this and be 
ashamed. Whereas, on the other hand, we, com- 
miserating the condition of the Catholics here, have 
left our most sweet and happy country, Spain, that 
is replenished with all good things, and, being stirred 
with their cries, which pierce the heavens, having 
reached the ears of the Pope and our King Philip, they 
have, being moved with pity, at last resolved to send 
to you soldiers, silver, gold, and arms with a most 
liberal hand, not to the end they might, according as 
they feign, exercise cruelty towards you, Irish 
Catholics, but that you may be happily reduced (being 


Pacata Hibernia. 

snatched out of the jaws of the devil and free from 
their tyranny) to your own pristine ingenuousness, 
and that you may freely profess the Catholic faith. 
Therefore, my most beloved, seeing that which you 
have so many years before desired and begged for with 
prayers and tears ; and that now, even now, the Pope, 
Christ's vicar on earth, doth command you to take 
arms for the defence of your faith, I admonish, 
exhort, and beseech you all — all, I say, unto whom 
these letters shall come — that as soon as you possibly 
can you come to us with your friends and weapons. 
"Whosoever shall do this shall find us prepared, and 
we will communicate to them those things which we 
possess. And whosoever shall (despising our whole- 
some counsel) do otherwise, and remain in the obedience 
of the English, we will persecute him as a heretic and 
a hateful enemy of the Church even unto death.' 1 

The army rose and marched within half a mile of 
Kinsale, where they encamped under a hill (having 
not means to entrench) called Knockrobin. Captain 
Morgan came out of England, and Jolly the master 
gunner from Waterford, whither some shipping was 
come from Dublin with part of the provisions, but 
forced to stay there, the wind being southerly, some 
few shot offered to disquiet the camp, but were soon 
beaten back with very little disturbance. 

The army lay still there, many places viewed to 
sit down fitly before the town, but the artillery not 
yet come, no place was agreed upon. 

Another offer made by the enemy to disturb the 
camp that night, much greater than the former ; but 
being readily answered, were soon repelled without 
hurt on our side. 

Pacata Hibernia. 


We lay still there expecting the provisions ; some 
slight skirmishes in viewing of the town. Sir John 
Barkley was this night appointed to give an alarm 
to the town, who beat in all the guards without the 
town into their trenches. 

This night one thousand of the Spaniards (or, as 
some that came from them say, fifteen hundred) were 
come to the top of the hill near the camp to cut off 
some of the scouts or guards, or to attempt something 
upon that quarter ; but being discovered by a party 
of ours, not much exceeding two hundred, that was of 
purpose sent out to lie between the town and our 
camp, commanded by Sir John Barkley, who had with 
him Captain Morris, they set upon them, killed four 
dead in the place, divers hurt, took some arms, and 
other good spoil, and beat them back to the town 
without loss of any of our men, and not above three 

Cormock 1 MacDermond, chief lord of a country 
called Muskerry, coming with his country rising-out 
to show them to the Lord Deputy, was on his return 
directed to march hard by the Spaniards' trenches, 
which they had made upon the hill without the town, 
for their guards, which he was willed to do the rather 
that the Spaniards might see the Irish serve on our 
sides. For this purpose were good seconds appointed, 
yet out of sight of the enemy. The Irish at first went 
on well, and beat the Spaniards from their ground to 
the townward, but according to their custom soon fell 
off ; by which means a horseman, called Courcy, of 
the 2 Lord President's, who had charged two Spaniards 

1 This gentleman, was one of the minor captains of Clan-Cartie, and 
lord of all the Lee Valley. He was grandfather of that Lord Muskerry 
who figures so conspicuously in the Cromwellian-Irish wars. 

2 These, observe, were not regulars, but M the rising-out " or feudal 


Pacata Hibernia. 

upon some advantage, was engaged and unhorsed 
before lie espied himself in danger ; which Sir William 
Godolphin seeing, who had the command of the Lord 
Deputy's troop, charged one way upon their whole 
numbers, and Captain Henry Barkley, cornet of the 
same troop, another way at the same instant, and, 
notwithstanding their many shots, drove them out of 
their trenches, rescuing the horseman and horse ; and, 
to the marvel of all the beholders (considering the 
multitude of shot made at them, even upon the edge 
of the trench), came off without hurt, save only one 
horse killed, and one man slightly shot. Of the 
enemy were killed four, left dead in the place, and 
divers were seen carried off, besides many others hurt. 

Captain Thomas Button, who had the wafting of 
the victuals with munition from Dublin with the 
Queen's pinnace, the Moon, arrived at Cork, and came 
to the Lord Deputy at the camp, signifying the rest 
of the shipping was coming from Dublin that had lain 
at "Waterford. He was that night sent away to bring 
his ship about into the harbour of Kinsale, and with 
Captain Ward's ship, which was directed to accom- 
pany him, whom we were forced to make use of 
before to guard that victual and munition in Oyster 
Haven which we had brought with us from Cork, they 
were willed to try if they could annoy the castle of 
Rincorran, seated close upon the harbour, and 
possessed by the Spaniards. But after they had 
spent many shot upon the castle, and found they did 
them little hurt, their ordnance being but small, they 
lay still only to keep the harbour, that neither the 

levy of the Yalley of the Lee. Irish regulars under the direct com- 
mand of the Queen's captains are not treated as Irish by our 

Pacata Hibernia. 


castle nor the town might be relieved by water, which 
was the chief cause of their sending thither, and which 
Captain Thomas Button, notwithstanding many at- 
tempts made by the Spaniards and natives, very 
valiantly to his high commendations performed. 

We had news of the shipping that came after Cap- 
tain Button from Waterford that they were put into 
the harbour at Cork, who presently had direction to 
work about to another creek, called Oyster Haven, 
lying between Cork and Kinsale, whence they might 
more commodiously unload their artillery and pro- 
visions, for the speedy use of the army. 

We resolved to rise and lie before the town ; but 
the shipping being not yet come with the artillery and 
other necessaries, that day was spent in dispatching 
into England and making all things fit to remove. 
This night Captain Blaynie and Captain Flower were 
sent out with five hundred foot upon discovery that 
the Spaniards were drawn out of the town, and so lay 
ready for them if they had come towards our quarter, 
but they came not on. 

The army was ready to rise, but, the weather 
falling out very foul, direction was given to dislodge. 
Four natural Spaniards came this day from the enemy, 
choosing rather to put themselves upon the mercy of 
the State than to live under the tyranny of their own 
commanders, who the next day were sent to Cork. 
This night Sir John Barkley went out with some three 
hundred foot, having with him Captain Flower, 
Captain Morris, and Captain Bostock ; out of these 
were chosen sixty pikes and targets, to be the better 
undiscovered, who fell into their trenches, beat them to 
the town, and fell into the gate with them. They killed 
and hurt above twenty of the Spaniards between the 


Pacata Hibernia. 

inner and the outer gate, and returned having but three 

The army dislodged early and encamped on a hill 
on the North side before Kinsale called the Spittle, 1 
somewhat more than musket shot from the town, 
and there entrenched strongly. When we sat down 
we discovered that the Spaniards had got a prey of 
two or three hundred cows and many sheep, which 
were (on an island as it seemed) upon the south side 
of the town beyond the water, which we could not 
come at but by sending eight or nine miles about, 
where there was a neck of land to go into it. Captain 
Taffe, being sent with horse and foot, used such 
expedition in that business that he attained the place 
before night, and by a hot skirmish recovered the 
prey, save only some two hundred cows that the 
Spaniards had killed, although they were under the 
guard of a castle, called Castle Ny Parke, 2 which the 
Spaniards had manned to defend the cattle. 

1 In the neighbourhood of many Irish towns will be found a place 
called " the Spittle," i.e. hospital, the site of some suppressed hospital 
of the Knights of St. John. 

2 "The Castle of the Field," situate on that " almost-an-island " 
referred to in Don Juan's despatch. There is a plate of the new 
fort which Carew afterwards built here, unluckily not of the mediaeval 




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