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July 2, 1896] 

Colleges incorporated in a teaching university have this 
opportunity. Originality of thought has fuller encouragement, 
and new educational methods have freer play than can possibly 
be the case in a college of which the students have no other 
avenue to a university degree than examination by a wholly 
external examining body like the University of London, however 
excellent be the conduct of its examinations. An atmosphere of 
intellectual independence is of the essence of true academic life. 
The true scholar must breathe it as his native air. And this is 
not the language of mere theory. It has its immediate practical 
application on the scientific side. The trained student of science, 
for instance, entering on manufacturing pursuits should do so 
with free inquiring eye, ready to believe that it may have been 
reserved for him to make a discovery of immense value to the 
industry to which he is devoting himself. I believe that this 
freedom of spirit is far more likely to be developed and fostered 
in a teaching university than in a college bound to teach on 
certain rigid lines laid down by an authority in which it has no 
part.” The first object of the founders of the University of 
Wales is to ensure that all students of the University shall receive 
good teaching and thorough training before proceeding to 
graduation. By this means the University will be made a real 
force for the advancement of learning in the Principality. 


Bulletin of the A?nei'ican Mathematical Society , vol. ii. No. 8, 
May 1896.—“The Arithmetisingof Mathematics” is an excel¬ 
lent translation, by Miss Maddison, of Bryn Mawr College, of 
an address delivered by Prof. Felix Klein, before the public 
meeting of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Gottingen, on 
November 2 of last year. In it Prof. Klein explains his position 
in regard to an important mathematical tendency which he 
remarks has for its chief exponent Weierstrass, whose eightieth 
birthday has been lately celebrated. This tendency he calls 
the arithmetising of mathematics. Like all the author’s ad¬ 
dresses, this one, now rendered easily accessible to English 
mathematicians, will repay study.—Next follow three carefully 
drawn-up reviews, viz. by R. A. Roberts, on a second edition of 
Darboux’s classic treatise, “ Sur une classe remarquable de 
Courbes et de surfaces Algebriques et sur la theorie des 
Imaginaires.” It is matter of regret, Mr. Roberts says, that 
the author has not devoted some more time to a subject which 
offered him once such a fruitful field for original investigation.— 
Then Prof. Bbcher examines in detail the “Treatise on Bessel 
Functions, and their Applications to Physics,” by Messrs. Gray 
and Mathews. He well shows that the writers have by their 
work filled a real gap in mathematical literature.—In his notice 
of Miss Scott’s “ Introductory Account of certain Modern Ideas 
and Methods in Plane Analytical Geometry,” Prof. F. N. Cole 
states it to be a minor excellence of the book that it is written 
in the English of English speaking and writing people, i.e. there 
are no abbreviations, and such like, which necessitate constant 
reference to a “ list of signs,” &c. Fie looks upon Miss Scott’s 
performance as a compact, scholarly work on the more accessible 
principles and methods of modern analytical geometry. “ It 
exhibits to a marked degree that genial breadth of treatment 
and conciseness which are associated only with mature scholar¬ 
ship and extensive and accurate information.” His summing- 
up of warm approval is that he knows of no introductory work 
which is better adapted, in the particulars he indicates, for the 
use of those who desire not merely to learn, but also to master 
geometry.—Prof. FI. B. Newson, in a note on “A Remarkable 
Covariant of a System of Quantics,” calls attention to a covariant 
of a system of n quantics in n homogeneous variables. He 
states two important geometric properties of this covariant which, 
pro tern ., he calls the Cremonian. (1) The Cremonian of U, V, 
and W is the locus of the point ( x ', y\ z ') whose first polars 
with respect to U, V, and W have a common point; the locus 
of these common points is, of course, the Jacobian. (2) The 
Cremonian of U, V, and W is also the locus of {x, y, z) the point 
of intersection of the polar lines of (**•', y', s'), with respect to 
U, V, and W, i.e. it is the locus of the point of intersection of 
the polar lines of the points on the Jacobian. The author gives 
other results of interest, and hints at an extension of the con¬ 
ception of the Cremonian to spaces of higher dimensions.—Much 
interesting matter is given in the Notes, and a list of recent 
publications fills up a big number of 44 pages, in place of the 
usual 32 pages. 

NO. 1392 , VOL. 54 ] 


Symons’s Monthly Meteorological Magazine , June. —The w orst 
gale of the nineteenth century in the English Midlands (con¬ 
tinued). A map is given showing the path of the storm from 
South Wales to Lincolnshire between n a.m. and 4 p.m. on 
Sunday, March 24, 1895. The average velocity of translation 
was about sixty miles an hour, and the disturbance appears to 
have been caused by a subsidiary depression formed over the 
souLh of Ireland, during a well-marked cyclone which lay over 
the northern parts of our islands on the same day. Great 
disaster was caused along its track, and fourteen deaths were 
reported. There were also more than a dozen cases of windows 
and gables being blown out , owing to the expansion of air 
inside the buildings during the passage of diminished atmospheric 
pressure.—Fog, mist and haze, by a Fellow of the Royal 
Meteorological Society. This is a continuation of the discussion 
raised in the preceding number of the Magazine (Nature, June 4, 
p. 118). The writer agrees generally with the definitions pro¬ 
posed, as a practical scheme, based on a correct view of the 
phenomena, but he thinks that the difference between fog and 
mist should not rest upon what can be seen with the naked 
eye—a test in which two persons would be very apt to disagree. 

Tiie enlarged issue of the Journal of Botany still continues 
to be occupied almost entirely with papers on descriptive botany, 
and chiefly relating to the flora of the British Isles. In the 
numbers for May and June, Prof. R. Chodat describes some 
new species of Polygala from South Africa ; and Mr. W. H 
Pearson a new liverwort, P/agiochi/a Stablcri, from Rydal. 

The papers in the Nitovo Giornale Botanico Italiano for 
April, and in the Bulletino della Societa Botanica Italiana, 
Nos. 2-4, relate almost entirely to the flora of Italy. In the 
former. Signor S. Sommier describes and figures an interesting 
hybrid between Ophrys bombylijlora and 0. tenthredinifolia. In 
the latter is an abstract of an article by Signor B. Longo, on the 
mucilage of the Cactacex. 

Bulletin de la Society des Naturalistes de Moscoti, 1895, No. 
3.—On considerable perturbations of atmospheric pressure in 
the year 1887, by B. Sresnewskij. A research into the relations 
between the said perturbations, the movements of cyclones, 
and the local weather predictions based on the study of the 
same ; as also their relations, both to the groups of areas of 
minimal pressure and to the distribution of temperature (in, 
German).—Materials for the Amphibia and Reptile fauna of the 
Orenburg region, by N. Zarudnyi. List of eleven species of the 
former, and fifteen species of the latter (Russian).— Aquila 
Glitchii , Severtsoff, a biological sketch, by P. Suschkin, in 
German, with two plates.—Note on Posidonomya buchi of the 
Balaclava schists in Crimea, by M. D. Stremoouchow, with a 
plate.'—On Russian Zoocecidite and their makers, by. Ew. H, 
Rubsaamen, based on a collection made by Madame Olga 
Fedchenko and her son Boris Fedchenko. No less than 120 
galls and their occupants from various parts of Russia and 
Caucasia are described. 



Royal Society, June 11.—“On the Relations between the 
Viscosity (Internal Friction) of Liquids and their Chemical 
Nature. Part II.” By Dr. T. Ii. Thorpe, F.R.S., and J. W. 

In the Bakerian Lecture for 1894 the authors gave an account 
of their work on the viscosity of some seventy liquids, and they 
discussed the interdependence of viscosity and chemical com¬ 
position. In order to render their investigation more complete, 
they have now made measurements of the viscosity of (1) a 
number of esters or ethereal salts, and (2) of ethers, simple and 
compound—groups of liquids, which with the exception of a 
single member, ethyl ether, have not hitherto been studied by 
them. The physicochemical relationships previously established 
made such determinations of special interest, for it was shown 
that one of the most striking of the various connections traced 
between chemical constitution and viscosity was the influence 
exerted by oxygen according to the different modes in which it 
was assumed to be associated with other atoms in the molecule. 
The influence which could be ascribed to hydroxyl-oxygen 
differs to a most marked extent from that of carbonyl-oxygen, 
and it appeared that ether-oxygen, or oxygen linked to two 
carbon atoms, had also a value which differed considerably from 
oxygen in other conditions. 

© 1896 Nature Publishing Group 


[July 2, 1896 


The details of the observations are given in precisely the same 
manner as in the first paper, and formulae of the Slotte type 
showing the relation between viscosity in absolute measure and 
temperature are calculated for each liquid. The general results 
of the observations are then discussed in the same manner as in 
the previous memoir. 

The conclusions relating to the graphical representation of 
the results may be thus summarised. Both ethers and esters 
give no evidence of molecular aggregation, and conform to the 
rules that:—• 

(1) In homologous series, the viscosity is greater the greater 
the molecular weight. 

(2) An iso-compound has a smaller viscosity than a normal 

(3) The more symmetrical the molecule of an isomeric com¬ 
pound the lower is the viscosity. 

As regards the esters themselves, it is noteworthy, where the 
comparison is possible, that:— 

(4) Of isomeric esters, the formate has the larger viscosity. 

As regards the algebraical representation of the results, it is 
shown that in the expression ri = C/(l + / 3 '+ yt 2 ), derived 
from Slotte’s formula ■ 

(1) In any homologous series, 6 and y increase as the mole¬ 
cular weight increases. 

(2) Of isomeric compounds, the iso-compound has the smallest 

(3) Ethyl ether, the symmetrical isomer, has smaller co¬ 
efficients than methyl propyl ether. 

(4) As regards normal isomeric esters, the formate has the 
largest, and the propionate the smallest coefficients, and the 
values of the acetate are larger than of the butyrate. 

The authors then deal with the relationships existing between 
the various viscosity magnitudes—the viscosity coefficient, the 
molecular viscosity, and the molecular viscosity work—(i) at 
the boiling point, and (2) at temperatures of equal slope, the 
slope adopted being that employed in their previous paper, 
namely, o - o 4 323, and values for the oxygen in three different 
conditions are given for each system of comparison in the same 
manner as in their first communication. 

Physical Society, June 26.—Captain Abney, President, 
in the chair.—Mr. F. Bedell read a paper on admittance 
and impedence. The author discusses the application of the 
method of “vector diagrams” to the solution of questions 
connected with alternating currents. lie shows how, by 
a consideration of the loci of the different lines on such a 
diagram, many problems which require for an analytical solution 
a lengthy investigation, may be simply and expeditiously solved. 
Mr. Blakesley asked the author what was his test of resonance ? 
Was it that the primary current and E.M.F. were exactly in the 
same or in opposite phase ? The term resonance was an acoustical 
one, and he did not see why it should be applied to one particular 
case in the electrical problem. Mr. Inwards asked what degree 
of accuracy the author had obtained. The author in reply said 
that if the applied E.M.F. and the current were brought into 
phase by means of a condenser in the secondary, then he called 
that a case of resonance. The agreement between the experi¬ 
mental and theoretical results was generally within from 1 to 
3 per cent.—Prof. S. P. Thompson read a paper on the 
properties of a body having a negative resistance. The author, 
after showing the consequences which would follow according to 
the laws of Joule and Ohm if we postulate the existence of a 
body having a negative resistance, goes on to show how the 
observations described by Messrs. Frith and Rodgers, in a paper 
read at a recent meeting of the Society, only prove that that 
part of the resistance of an arc, which is not constant, is a 
positive resistance that varies inversely as the current. Since it 
varies inversely as the current the term dR/dC will be negative, 
and so will the quantity C(dC)/dR, which is what they have 
tabulated as a negative resistance. That the resistance of the 
arc itself should vary inversely as the current is natural, for it 
may be regarded as a column of vapour, the cross-section of 
which is proportional to the current, and therefore increasing in 
its conductance in direct proportion to the current. There is no 
need even to suppose any (distributive) adjuvant E.M.F., which 
would be the other alternative to the suggestion they have made 
Mr. Swinburne asked if the numbers on which Messrs. Frith 
and Rodgers based their arguments were obtained by taking 
successive readings of a voltmeter. Prof. Ayrton said that what 
they maintained was, that if the arc acts as if it had a back 

NO. 1392 , VOL. 54] 

E.M.F. and a resistance, then the resistance is a negative 
quantity. In ordinary cases we do not know what really consti¬ 
tutes a resistance, but simply say that a circuit, in which electrical 
energy is being dissipated at a rate proportional to the square of 
the current, has resistance. If the loss is proportional to the 
first power of the current, then we say there exists a back E. M. F. 
Is it impossible to imagine a circuit in which a loss of electrical 
energy occurs proportional to the current, and a return of energy 
to the circuit proportional to C 2 ? If in a curve showing the 
relation between V and C you draw a tangent at any point, it is 
not the tangent of the inclination of this tangent which Messrs. 
Frith and Rodgers have called the resistance; it is another 
quantity, which they call the electrical dV/dC. In conclusion 
the author seems to have based his paper on three misconcep¬ 
tions : (1) That it had been claimed that a negative resistance 
could exist alone. (2) That the curves given by Messrs. Frith 
and Rodgers showed that the ordinates were inversely pro¬ 
portional to the current. (3) That what was measured was the 
geometrical d\ T /dC. Mr. Frith said that in a paper by Mr. 
Rodgers and himself, they had defined the resistance of the arc 
as the ratio dV/dA, where by dV/dA they meant, not what was 
ordinarily understood by this expression, but the value of the 
ratio obtained by superposing an alternating current for a direct 
current arc. In order to show that, in cases analogous with that 
of the arc, but in which the true resistance can be verified, the 
elect rical dV/dC obtained by superimposing an alternating current 
gives correct results for the resistance, some experiments have 
been carried out. In one case a glow-lamp was placed in series 
with some fifty ampere secondary cells, and a current sent through 
against the E.M.F. of the cells. The value obtained for the 
electrical d\ T /dC agrees very well with the value of the resistance 
obtained by dividing the P. D. between the terminals of the lamp 
by the current. At very low frequencies for the superimposed 
alternating current it is evident that the electrical oscillations 
would travel along the steady value curve, and this is clearly the 
meaning of the critical frequency observed with cored carbons, 
namely, that under the critical frequency the superimposed 
alternating current travels on the steady value curve, and over 
that frequency along the line joining the point on the curve and 
the instantaneous origin.—Mr. Frith exhibited a mechanical 
model of the arc which he has devised. This model 
consists of two rods of carbon dipping in two mercury 
cups which are traversed by the current. The current also 
passes through a solenoid which attracts an iron core attached to 
the carbon rods and draws them down into the mercury, thus 
reducing the resistance of the instrument. Hence it can be 
arranged so that the P. D. between the terminals decreases as 
the current increases. With this model it is found that, for 
superimposed oscillatory currents of such a frequency that the 
moving parts are not able to follow the changes in the current, 
the oscillations of the current and of P.D. are in phase, and the 
electrical dV/dC gives the resistance of the apparatus for various 
currents. Mr. Carter asked the author how on his vapour 
column theory he explained the difference in the behaviour of 
solid and cored carbons. Mr. Enright asked why it was absurd 
to suppose that a negative resistance could exist. Prof. Ayrton 
and Mr. Frith had made in their definitions certain restrictions ; 
it ought, however, not to be necessary to make any such 
restrictions. Mr. Blakesley asked if, since the title of the paper 
by Messrs. Frith and Rodgers was entitled the “ true resist¬ 
ance of the arc,” it was to be inferred, as the results given were 
negative, that a negative ohmic resistance existed in the arc. 
Prof. Thompson’s paper appeared to him (Mr. Blakesley) to be 
rather a mathematical than a physical paper. Prof. Rucker 
said that the discussion showed that considerable confusion 
existed, and that the introduction of the term negative resistance 
only tended to fog matters. It was entirely wrong to argue that 
because you have a quantity with a positive value, therefore a 
negative value must also be possible. As an example, take the 
case of mass. If you defined as a positive mass that which is 
attracted to the earth, and then found that cork when immersed 
in water was repelled from the earth, would you therefore say 
that cork had a negative mass? Is not “negative resistance” 
a term for which some equivalent could be found which would 
not lead to confusion ? Mr. Hovendon made some remarks on 
his experiments. The author in his reply said that he did not 
dispute the accuracy of the results obtained by Messrs. Frith 
and Rodgers, but it was the interpretation which they had given 
of their results to which he objected. Mr. Frith now makes a 
new reservation, namely, that the results depend on the particular 

© 1896 Nature Publishing Group 

July 2, 1896] 



way in which the increment of C and the decrement of V are 
made. He supposes that if the experiment is made in a parti¬ 
cular way a new slope is obtained which is proportional to what 
we call the true resistance, and hence gets a new definition of 
the quantity dVjdC* He (the speaker) endorsed all Prof. Ayrton 
had said as to the interest of the model exhibited. The question 
is, Is there anything in the arc which acts as a source of energy 
to the circuit, either as a negative resistance or as an adjuvant 

E. M.F. ? Mr. Frith’s experiments do not give us any hint as to 
the point where the negative resistance occurs, and the absence 
of any such energy-giving portion of the arc is rendered probable 
by the fact that the arc itself is hotter than the crater. In reply 
to Mr. Carter, the anomalies which occur with cored carbons are 
so great as to prevent any argument being based on their 
behaviour. The Chairman (Captain Abney) said that the mere 
fact that the quantity dV/dC had been defined in two distinct 
ways, showed that the definitions would have to be modified in 
some way. 

Zoological Society, June 16.—Sir William H. Flower, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., President, in the chair.—Mr. E. E. Austen 
gave an account of a journey undertaken by Mr. F. O. Pickard- 
Cambridge and the author up the Lower Amazons, on board 
Messrs. Siemens Bros, cable s.s. Faraday , for the purpose of 
making zoological collections on behalf of the British Museum. 
No terrestrial mammals were met with, but observations were 
made on the two species of freshwater dolphins {Inia geoffroy- 
ensis and Sotalia tueaxi , or S. jluviatilis), which are extremely 
abundant in the Lower Amazons. Among the birds, the only 
species of special interest collected were a little goatsucker from 
Manaos, referred provisionally to Nyctiprogne leucopygia , and a 
woodpecker ( Celeus ochraceus ), of which the British Museum 
previously possessed but two specimens. The reptiles and 
amphibians met with all belonged to well-known and widely dis¬ 
tributed forms, and the chief interest of the collections centred 
in the invertebrates. Among these Mr. Pickard-Cambridge 
made a large collection of spiders, including an extensive series 
of the large hairy Therephosidse, eleven species of which were 
pronounced to be new. An interesting collection of the nests of 
some of these forms was also obtained. Mr. Cambridge like¬ 
wise secured several specimens of Peripaius. Mr. Austen, who 
devoted himself chiefly to insects, obtained some 2500 specimens 
of different orders, of which it was expected that a fair propor¬ 
tion would prove to be new. Attention was drawn to some 
interesting examples of mimicry.—Mr. P. Chalmers Mitchell 
read a “ Contribution to the Anatomy of the Hoatzin ( Opistho - 
counts cristatus ).” He stated that from the characters of the 
alimentary canal, the hoatzin might be placed either between the 
sand-grouse and the pigeons, or between the Gallinoe and the 
Cuculidae. He described some interesting individual variations 
in the condition of the ambiens muscle, and referred to other 
points in the muscular anatomy.—Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., 
gave an account of the occurrence of Tomistoma schlegeli in the 
Malay Peninsula, and added some remarks on the atlas and axis 
of the Crocodilians.—A communication was read from Mr. W. 
Schaus containing notes on Walker’s American types of Lepi- 
doptera in the University Museum, Oxford.—Mr. Hamilton H. 
Druce read a paper entitled “Further Contributions to our 
knowledge of the Bornean Lyci'enidse,” in which he referred to 
about forty species of this family not hitherto recorded from 
Borneo. A number of these were new, and were now described 
by Mr. G. T. Bethune Baker and the author —Mr. F. G. 
Parsons read a paper on the anatomy of Petrogale xanthopus as 
compared with that of other kangaroos.—Dr. J. Anderson, 

F. R.S., communicated on behalf of Miss M. E. Durham some 
notes on the mode of swallowing eggs adopted by a South 
African snake, Dasypeltis scabra , as observed in the specimens 
now living in the Society’s Gardens, and illustrated by a series 
of drawings.—Mr. F. O. Pickard Cambridge read a paper on 
the spiders of the family Aviculariidse taken during the expe¬ 
dition up the Amazons previously described by Mr. Austen.— 
Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., read the description of a gecko 
which he proposed to refer to a new genus and species as 
Mimelozoon floweri , in honour of Mr. Stanley Flower, who had 
obtained the specimen at Penang. 

Royal Meteorological Society, June 17.—Mr. E. Mawley, 
President, in the chair.—Mr. H. Harries read a paper on 
Arctic hail- and thunder-storms, in which he showed that the 
commonly accepted opinion that hail- and thunder-storms are 
almost, if not quite, unknown in the Arctic regions is incorrect. 

NO. 1392 , VOL. 54] 

He had examined ioo logs of vessels which had visited the 
Arctic regions, and found that out of that number no fewer than 
73 showed that hail was experienced at some time or other. 
Thunder-storms were not so frequent as hail, but they have been 
observed in seven months out of the twelve, the month of greatest 
frequency being August. Mr. Harries is of opinion that the 
breeding-place of thunder-storms in these high latitudes is in the 
neighbourhood of Barent’s Sea.—A paper, by Mr. J. E. Cullum, 
on the climatology of Valencia Island, was also read. The 
observatory at Valencia, which is under the control of the 
Meteorological Office, is situated on the extreme south-west 
coast of Ireland, and is almost the most westerly point of 
Europe. Continuous records from self-recording instruments 
were carried on from 1869 until 1891, when the observatory was 
removed to Caherciveen, and the author gives the results of the 
observations for these twenty three years. 

Royal Microscopical Society, May 20,—Mr. A. D. 
Michael, President, in the chair.—Mr. E. M. Nelson exhibited 
and described a small portable microscope, which had been de¬ 
signed by Dr. Ross for the investigation of cases of malarial 
fever. The President said that the instrument seemed to be very 
compact, and in this respect would no doubt be found of great 
value. Mr. J. E. Ingpen wished something could be clone in 
designing microscopes of this kind to get them to fold up a little 
flatter.—Mr. J. Rheinberg’s paper, on an addition to the 
methods of microscopical research by a new way of optically 
producing colour contrast between an object and its back¬ 
ground, or between definite parts of the object itself, was read 
by Mr. Nelson. 

June 17.—The Rev. Canon Carr, Vice-President, in thechair, 
—Surgeon V. Gunson Thorpe, R.N., exhibited and described 
some Rotifera, preserved after Rousselet’s method, which he 
had collected whilst on the China station.—Lieut.-Colonel 
Siddons, R.A., exhibited and described a portable microscope 
which he considered met the suggestion offered by Mr. Ingpen 
at the previous meeting. —Mr. Conrad Beck read the report of 
the sub-Committee of the Council on screw-tools. 


Academy of Sciences, June 22.—M. A. Cornu in thechair. 
An expression for the skin friction in the irregular flow of a 
fluid, by M. J. Boussinesq.—Some properties of the primitive 
roots of prime numbers, by M. de Jonquieres.—On the caustic 
of an arc of a curve reflecting rays emitted by a .luminous point, 
by M. A. Cornu.—On the formation of gaseous and liquid hydro¬ 
carbons by the action of water upon metallic carbides. Classi¬ 
fication of the carbides, by M. H. Moissan. A rhume of the 
work done by M. Moissan and his pupils upon metallic carbides, 
together with some remarks on the geological bearing of the 
results.—Remarks on a work entitled “Microbial and animal 
toxins,” by M. A. Gautier.—Observations on Swift’s comet 
(April 13, 1896) made with the large equatorial at the Observatory 
of Bordeaux, by MM. G. Rayet, L. Picart and F. Courty.— 
Dr. Gill was elected a Corresponding Member in the Section of 
Astronomy in the place of the late Prof. Cayley.—On the zero 
of Riemann’s function £(s), by M. Hadamard.—On the X-rays, 
by M. C. Maltezos. Some theoretical considerations as to the 
possible nature of the rays.—An electrolytic method of de- 
silverising argentiferous lead, by M. D. Tommasi.— Magnetic 
anomaly observed in Russia, from a letter by M. Moureaux^ to 
M. Mascart. In the village of Kotchetovka (lat. 51°, long. 6° 8' 
east of Poulkowa) determinations of the magnetic elements at 
fifteen points within an area of one square kilometre gave values 
for declination varying between -t-58° and —43 1 for inclination, 
from 79” to 48°, and for the horizontal component, o'166 to 
0-589. The latter figure, which is the highest value of the 
horizontal component hitherto observed, was carefully controlled 
by six measurements at neighbouring points, from the results of 
which figures between 0 48 to 0-58 were obtained.—On the 
dark blue nitrosodisulphonic acid, by M. Paul Sabatier. By the 
action of cuprous oxide upon strong sulphuric acid containing a 
little nitrite, a deep blue colour is produced, the absorption 
spectrum of which is closely analogous to that produced by 
Fremy’s potassium oxysulphazotinate (nitrosodisulphonate). The 
same coloration can be produced by passing a current of ^nitric 
oxide mixed with air into sulphuric acid saturated at 60° with 
sulphurous anhydride.—On the preparation of aluminium alloys 
by a chemical reaction, by M. C. Combes. A mixture, of 
aluminium with a sulphide or chloride is heated till the reaction 

© 1896 Nature Publishing Group 


[July 2 , 1896 


commences. The heat evolved during the chemical action is 
sufficient to melt the alloy formed provided that there is a sufficient 
difference between the heat of formation of the metallic sulphide 
employed and that of aluminium sulphide. Alloys of aluminium 
with nickel, manganese, and chromium were prepared by this 
method.—On the action of phosphorus on some metallic chlo¬ 
rides, by M. A. Granger.—Measurement of heat of etherification 
by the action of the acid chloride upon the sodium alkylate, by 
M. J. Cavalier. A thermochemical study of the reaction be¬ 
tween phosphoryl chloride and sodium ethylate.—On the heat 
of combustion of acetal and monochloracetal, by M. Paul 
Rivals.—On the thermochemistry of the chloracetic ethers, by 

M. Paul Rivals.—Action of hydrazine upon the glyoxylic acids 
of the aromatic series, by M. L. Bouveault. The hydrazones 
obtained lose CO s at i8o°- 200°, giving nearly quantitative 
yields of the hydrazones derived from the corresponding alde¬ 

R(C 0 2 H).C = N - N = CR(CG 2 H) = 2 C 0 2 + R.CH:N - N:CH.R 

The yield of aldehyde, however, obtained by the hydrolysis of 
these hydrazones is not good.—On the constitution of inactive 
campholenic acid, by MM. Guerbet and A. Behai.—On the 
nutritive value of flour and on the economic consequences of 
excessive sifting, by M. Balland.—On the chemical mechanism 
of the reduction of nitrates in plants, by M. A Bach.—On the 
rational denaturation of alcohol, by M. G. Jacquemin. The 
addition of crude mercaptan to rectified spirit is suggested as 
a means of rendering alcohol unfit to drink, without interfering 
with its industrial applications.—On the deep borings at Charmoy 
(Creusot) and Macholles (Limagne), by M. A. M. Levy. The 
first of these borings showed a rise of i° C. for every 26 metres, 
the second (Charmoy) giving a rise of i° C. for every 14*16 
metres.—On the region of Diego Suarez (Madagascar), by M. R. 
Bourgeois.—On the relations which exist between the first 
segmentation groove and the embryonic axis in Amphibia and 
Teleostia, by M. E. Bataillon.—Tuberculosis experimentally 
shown to be attenuated by the Rontgen radiation, by MM. L. 
Lortet and Genoud. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, May 19.—The collections 
made by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in Western Somaliland and 
the Galla country, North-eastern Africa, in 1894, were presented 
to the Academy. Dr. Smith spoke of the physical features of 
the regions from which the specimens had been collected, and 
gave briefly some facts regarding the habits of the animals 
observed by him. The several sections of the collection were 
commented on by the specialists of the Academy. The mam¬ 
mals are of unusual interest because these alone have not been 
studied by authorities elsewhere. They embrace fifty genera and 
about seventy species represented by over two hundred speci¬ 
mens. Seven genera and twelve species are new to American 
museums. The collection, except the bats, which are being 
studied by Dr. Harrison Allen, is in the hands of Mr. Samuel 

N. Rhoads, who will furnish a detailed report on the material 
submitted to him. The birds have been studied by Mr. Bowdler 
Sharpe. One hundred and fifty specimens of about one hundred 
species have been given to the Acadamy, The insects embrace 
871 specimens. The Hymenoptera are being studied by Mr. 
Win. J. Fox, who has determined eight species heretofore un¬ 
described.—Mr. Henry A. Pilsbry made a communication on 
the fish-house deposits of New Jersey.—A paper entitled “ The 
Plantstonokrit, a centrifugal apparatus for the volumetric estima¬ 
tion of the food supply of oysters and other aquatic animals,” 
by Dr Chas. S. Dolby, was presented for publication. 

May 26.—A paper entitled “Catalogue of the species of 
Cerion, with descriptions of new forms,' 5 by Henry A. Pilsbry 
and E. G. Vanatta, was presented for publication.—Mr. Edw. 
Goldsmith reported that a specimen of supposed Guperite 
from Hawaii had proved on examination to be an amorphous, 
soluble sulphate of lime. It is deposited in association with 
sulphur on the margin of the Kilauea crater, and is either 
ejected from the volcano or formed by the action of the 
oxygenated sulphur water on associated minerals. — Prof. 
Edw. D. Cope described a new genus and species of whale¬ 
bone whale from the Miocene of the Yorktown epoch, under 
the name Cephalotropis coronatus. It was characterised by an 
elongation of the parietal and frontal bones, and establishes 
the relation of the group to the Zenglodonts.—Dr. M. F. 
Ball described a human exancephalic monster born about the 
seventh month, in which the brain, although extruded, was 
well developed 

NO. I392, VOL. 54] 


Books. —Fourteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 
1895, Part 1 (Edinburgh, Neill).—19th Annual Report of the Connecticut 
Agricultural Experiment Station, 1895 (New Haven). —Rheumatism, its 
Nature, its Pathology, and its successful Treatment: Dr. T. J. Maclagan 
(Black).—La Vie d’un Homme. Carl Vogt; W. Vogt (Paris, Schleicher).— 
Nitro-Explosives : P. G. Sanford (Lockwood).—Wayside and Woodland 
Blossoms: E. Step, 2nd series (Warne).—Geographical Journal, Vol. 7 
(Stanford).—Plants of Manitoba (M. Ward).—Coloured Vade-Mecum to 
the Alpine Flora for the use of Tourists in Switzerland : L. and C. 
Schroter, 5th edition (Zurich, Raustein).—Sport in the Alps: W. A. 
Baillie-Grohman (Black).—Micro-Organisms and Disease : Dr. E. Klein, 
new edition (Macmillan).—Macmillan’s Geography Readers, Book v. (Mac¬ 
millan).—A Concise Handbook of British Birds : H. K. Swann (Wheldon). 
Der Lichtsinn augenloser Tiere : Dr. W. A. Nagel (Jena, Fischer).—La 
Spectrom^trie : Prof. J. Lefevre (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).-—Le Nickel : H. 
Moissan and L. Ouvrard (Paris, Gauthier-Villars).—University Tutorial 
Series. Matriculation Directory (32, Red Lion Square).—Ros Rosarum, 
2nd edition (E. Stock).—The Scenery of Switzerland : Sir J. Lubbock 

Pamphlets. —U.S. Department of Agriculture Some Mexican and 
Japanese Injurious Insects liable to be introduced_ into the United States 
(Washington).—-On the Interpretation of Greek Music : C. Torr (Frowde). 

Serials. —English Illustrated Magazine, July (Strand).—Revue G6n6rale 
Internationale, No. 1 (Paris, Ollendorff).—Longman’s Magazine, July 
(Longmans).—Good Words, July (Isbister).—Sunday Magazine, July (Is¬ 
bister).—Lloyd’s Natural History. Butterflies : W. F. Kirby, Part 1 (Lloyd). 
—Chambers’s Journal, July (Chambers).—Natural Science, July (Page).—- 
Journal of the Chemical Society, June (Gurney).—J. C. Poggendorff’s 
Biographisch-Literarisches Handworterbuch, 3 Band, Liefg. t (Leipzig, 
Barth).—Ergebnisse der Meteorologischen Beobachtungen in Jahre 1895, 
Jahrg. vi. (Bremen).—Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol. xxvii. 
Part 1 (Calcutta).—Ditto, Palseontologia Indica, Ser. xiii. Vol. 2 : Ser. xv. 
Vol. 2, Part 2 (Calcutta).—Bulletins de la Society d’Anthropologie de Paris, 
tome septieme, (iv e . s^rie), 1896, fasc. i er (Paris).—M^moires de la Soci6t6 
d’Anthropologie de Paris, tome 2, (3 e s6r.) i 6 *" fasc. (Paris).—National Review 
July (Arnold).—Century Magazine, July (Macmillan).—Notes from the 
Leyden Museum, October 1895 (Leyden,Brill).—Contemporary Review, July 
(Isbister).—Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 24 Band, 1 Heft (Leipzig, Engel- 
mann).—Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist, July (Bemrose). 


The Cell-Theory.193 

A Romantic Naturalist.194 

Our Book Shelf:— 

Weber : “ The Spas and Mineral Waters of Europe ” 195 

Murche : “ Domestic Science Readers ”.196 

Munro : “ The Story of Electricity ”.196 

Letters to the Editor:— 

Zoological Publications.—Edgar R. Waite; Prof. 

G. B. Howes . •.196 

The Salaries of Science Demonstrators.—Charles 

Frederic Baker.196 

Halley’s Chart of Magnetic Declinations.—Thos. 


The Total Eclipse of the Sun. By J. Norman 

Lockyer, C.B., F.R.S.197 

The Kelvin Jubilee. 199 

The British Association Meeting in Liverpool.— 
Local Arrangements. By Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 199 

The Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory.200 

Boring a Coral Reef at Funafuti. By W. W. Watts 201 
Sir Joseph Prestwich, D.C.L., F.R.S. By H. B. W. 202 

Notes .203 

Our Astronomical Column: — 

Declinations of Fifty-six Stars.206 

Graphical Prediction of Occultations.206 

Mass of the Asteroids .... •.206 

Variable Stars.206 

Award and Presentation of the Rumford Premium 207 

Causes of Death in Colliery Explosions.207 

Individuality in the Mineral Kingdom. By Prof. 

Henry A. Miers, F.R.S. .208 

University and Educational Intelligence.212 

Scientific Serials.213 

Societies and Academies.213 

Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received.216 

© 1896 Nature Publishing Group