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Jiiiiet)l! Bifkin*, 


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Keeper of Uie Herbarium oi the Unifenity of DaUin, and 
Phkfessor of Botany to the B07BI DaUin Society. 


VOL. I. 


Synopsis, No. 1 to 97. 





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K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., V.PX.S., etc., etc., 
fitrector of tfyt Vm^kI ^tactitni of ftcfo, 





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In issuing the first part of this work, on the Ist of January, 1846, it was 
proposed that it should comprise figures and descriptions of all known 
British Marine Algse. The number of species enumerated in the Synopsis 
is 888, of which 378 are figured on the 860 plates contained in these 
volumes. The remaining ten unfigured species are either altogether obscure 
and uncertain, or else are of such rarity, that I have been unable to obtain 
specimens of them. Of the genera Ectocarjms, Polysiphonia, Ceramium, 
CaUitkamnian, dadopAora, and EtUeromorpha, of which several are now 
introduced for the first time to the British list, some few distinct-looking 
forms, preserved in my own and other herbaria, remain unfigured for fmrther 
examination, and possibly some that may eventually rank as species. I am 
aware that already several of them have received names in the ' Species 
Algarum' of Kiitzing, but I have hesitated adopting them, from a well- 
grounded fear, that in doing so without a very careful examination of 
specimens of all ages, I should only open the door to a flood of spurious 
species, and convert the study of these plants into a mere effort to arrange 
and describe soUtary or deformed specimens. Every student of marine 
botany must know that the Algse, more than most other plants, sport (as 
the gardeners, phrase it) into endless varieties, sometimes on account of 
circumstances in their habitat, and sometimes from reasons unknown to 
us. Halymenia ligulatay Oelidium comeum, and many others which might 
be named, put on so many forms, that a botanist, unfamiliar with them or 
judging merely from dried specimens, could scarcely avoid making every 
form a distinct species. And why should we deny an equal latitude to 
our old friend Ceramium rubrum, which some modem botanists would 
divide into almost as many species as there are individuals ? I have never 
been quite satisfied of the propriety of separating C, botryocarpwm, the only 
new species of this group on which I have ventured; but had I fol- 
lowed the wishes of some of my correspondents, I should have spUt C. 
rubrum into at least a dozen. I felt, however, that in doing so, I should 
be preparing so many puzzles for those that may come after me, and that 
instead of the author of a future Fhycologia having to tell that his pre- 
decessor had left him but ten species which he had been unable to 
ascertain, my successor would have at least a hundred to lay at my door. To 
avoid such a consummation, I have abstained from much species-spUtting 
which has been suggested to me, and perhaps have sometimes erred, but, 
as I think, on the safer side, by over-caution. In a few cases, in the 
genera Ectocarpus, Cladophoray and Enteromorpha, where I have used 
some latitude, I have possibly gone in some cases too far. Tor these sins 
I entreat a charitable criticism on the same grounds of excuse offered by a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


lively Quaker when reproved, by a graver brother, for his witticisms : 
" Friend, if thou knew how much I keep in, thou wouldst not find fault 
with what I let out/' And if you, dear Critic, could know the number of 
puzzling forms of Algae which in the course of the last five years have 
passed through my hands, and which I have had to reduce to their specific 
types, you would judge leniently of my mistakes, where I may have been 
deceived by such forms, and wrongly proposed them as new species. 

Whatever may be my errors in this respect, I have the satisfaction to 
know that the study of British Marine Botany has been fostered and ex- 
tended by this work; and this, to an author who feels a personal interest 
in his subject, is the best reward for his labours. A progressive taste has 
shown itself for these plants, in the large increase of collectors within the 
past five years, and in the number of my correspondents since the monthly 
issue commenced. Many new species have been discovered, and several 
others added to the British list ; and several, which had not been gathered 
for many years previously, have been rediscovered, some in new habitats, 
and some in their old, but lost, stations. Very few of these discoveries 
or additions have been made by myself, but are due to the zeal of my cor- 
respondents, a majority of whom, familiar as I am with their handwriting 
and friendly feeling, are personally unknown to me. 

To those kind correspondents I would now return my most grateful 
thanks. Their number is too great to particularize every name, and I dare 
not trust myself with naming many, lest I might accid^tally omit some 
valued friend ; — but there are a few to whom I cannot omit a further ex- 
pression of gratitude for their unwearied assistance, and the essential 
service they have rendered to me. And first I would express my deep 
obligation to my invaluable friend Mrs. Griffiths, to whose contributions 
almost every page of these volumes bears witness, and without whose 
assistance many rare species could not have been properly illustrated. To 
my kind Plymouth friends, the Rev. Mr. Hore, Dr. (Docks, Mr. Eohloflf, and 
Mr. Boswarva, I am indebted for many hundreds of beautifully preserved 
specimens. To Miss White and Miss Turner I owe almost all my ac- 
quaintance with the Algae of the Channel Islands, and the latter lady has 
added more .than one new species to our list. To Rev. Mr. PoUexfen 
and Dr. M^ain I am indebted for Orkney Algae ; and to Miss Warren, 
Miss Ball, Miss Gifford, Miss Cutler, Mrs. Gktty, Mrs. Gulson, Mrs. 
Hayden, Rev. Dr. Landsborough, Dr. Dickie, Mr. Ralfs, Rev. Mr. Cress- 
well, &c., for specimens of the rarer Algae of their respective neighbour- 
hoods; and to these, and all other kind friends, whether enumerated in this 
place or in the body of the work, I would now record my obligations of 
gratitude for their liberal communications and sympathy. 


Trinity Ck)llege, Dablin. 
July 80, 1861. 

Digitized by 




(Olive Seaweeds.) 

Order 1. Fuoacea. Oiwe-eoloured, inarticulate ieaweedSy wkoie spores are 
contained in epherical eaoitiei qftheflvnd. 

* AvMoemte atalied. 
L Saboassun. Branciee bearing ribbed leaves. Air-veeeeU simple. 
n. Halidbys. Frond linear, pinnate, leafless. Air^ceeeeh plonlocolar. 

* * Air-veeeeU tmmened in ike fronds or none. 
HL Ctstossiba. Root scutate. lirond much branched, bushy. Beeeptaclee 

IV. Ptcnophtcus. Boot branching. Frond cylindrical. Receptaclei cellular. 

v. Fucus. Boot scutate. Frond dichotomous. Beceptadea small, filled with 
muoos, traversed by a net-work of jointed threads. 

VI. HiMANTHALiA. Boot scutatc. Frond cup-shaped. Beeepiaclee very long, 
strap-shaped, diohotomously branched. 

Order 2. SpoBOOHNACEiS. Olive^olouredy inarticulate aeaweeds, who9e 
spores are attached to external^ jointed jfilaments^ which are either free, 
or compacted togeiher into knob-Uke maeeee, 

* Sporee attached to pencilled JUamenis. 
Vn. Dbskabestia. Frond solid, distichous, filiform, or flat. 
VLli. Abthbocladia. Frond filiform, nodose, traversed by a jointed tube. 

* * Sporee in knob-like receptaclei, 
CL Spobochnus. Beceptaclee lateral, stalked. 
Z. Cabpomitba. Beceptaclee terminal. 

Order 3. Laminabiaceje. OUoe-coloured, inarticulate eeaweede, whose 
spores are euperficialy either fomwng cloud-like patches, or covering the 
whole surface qf the frond. 

XI. Alabia. Stipitate. 5i^^ ending in a midribbed leaf . 

Xn. Laminabia. Stipitate. iSl^^ ending in a ribless leaf. 

Xin. Chobda. Frond leafless, cylindrical, hollow ; the cavity interrupted by 
transverse partitions. 


Digitized by 



Order 4. Dictyotace^. Olive-coloured, inarticulate seaweeds, whose spores 
are superficial, disposed in definite spots or Unes (sorij. 

♦ Boot coated with wooUy fibres, frond fiai, 

XIV. CuTLERiA. Trond ribless, irregularly cleft. Sori dot-like, scattered. 
Spores pedicellate, containing numerous sporules. 

XV. Halisebis. ¥rond midribbed. 

XVI. Padina. Irond ribless, fan-shaped, concentrically striate. Sort linear, 
concentric, bursting through the epidermis. 

XVII. ZoNAEiA. Trond ribless, lobed, concentrically striate. Sori roundish, con- 
taining spores and jointed threads. 

XVIII. Taonia. Irond ribless, irregularly deft, somewhat fan-shaped. Sori 
linear, concentric, superficial, alternating with scattered spores. 

XIX. DiCTYOTA. Jrorid ribless, linear, dichotomous. Sori roundish, scattered, 
bursting through the epidermis : or, (on distinct plants) scattered spores. 

* * BMt a minute naked disc. Frond cylindrical, branched. 

XX. Stilophoba. J^res concealed among moniliform threads, which are col- 
leoted into convex, wart-like sori. 

XXI. DiCTYOsiPHON. Spores irregularly scattered, solitary, or in dot-like sori, 
not accompanied by moniliform threads. 

XXn. Stbiaria. I^ores in dot-Uke sori, ranged in transverse lines. 

* * * Boot naked. Frond unbrancked, cylindrical, orJkU. 

XXIII. PuNCTABiA. Frond flat, leaf-like. 

XXIV. AsPEBOcoocus. Bvnd membranaceous, tabular, either cylindrical or 
compressed. Spores in dot-like sori, mixed with a few jointed threads. 

XXV. LiTOsiPHON. Ihmd cartilaginous, filiform, sub-solid. I^jores scattered, 

Order 5. CHOBDABiACEiE. Olive-coloured seaweeds, with a gelatinous or 
cartilaginous frond, composed qf vertical and horizontal filaments inter- 
laced together. 

* Frond cylindrical, branching. 

XXVI. Chobdabia. Axis cartilaginous, dense; filaments of the circamference 

XXVn. Mesogloia. Axis gelatinous, loose ; filaments of the circamference 

* ♦ Frond either tuber-shaped, or crustaceous and spreaikng. 

XXVIII. Leathesia. Frond tuber-shaped. 

XXIX. Ralpsia. Frond crustaceous. 

* * * Parasites, consisting of densely t9{fted filaments, connected at the base, free above. 

XXX. Elaghista. Filaments pencilled, rising from a tubercular base, composed 
of vertical fibres. 

XXXI. Mybionema. Ttifts cushion-like ; filaments rising from a flat base, com- 
posed of decumbent fibres. 

Order 6. Ectocabpace^. Olive-coloured, articulated, filtform seaweeds, 
whose spores are (generaUy) external, attached to the jointed ramuli. 

* Frond rigid; each articulation composed of numerous cells. 
XXXTI. Cladostephus. BamuU whorled. 

Digitized by 



XXXTIf. Sphac£Laria. Hamuli distichous, mostly pinnated 

* * Frond Jlacad; each arHculaiion/ormedofa smgle cell. 
XXIIV. EcTOCAJLFDS. Ffond branching; ramuli scattered. 

XXXV. Mybiotbichia. Frond onbranched ; ramuli whorled, and tipped with 
pellocid fibres. 


(Red* or Brown-red Seaweeds.) 

Order 7. Bhodomelagbjb. Bed or brown-red 9eaweedSi with a leafy or 
JUiformy areolated or articulated frond^ composed qf p<jlygonal cells. 
Fruit double : Conceptacles(oeramidia) exlemaX ovate or urn-shaped, with 
a terminal pore, and containing a tuft of pear-shaped spores : 2. Tetra- 
spores immersed in distorted ramuliy or contained in proper receptacles 
{called here stichidia). 

* Frondflattened, pinnaiifid, 

XXXVI. Odonthalia. 

♦ ♦ IhmdfU^orm, wholly inarticulate. 

XXXVn. BrHODOMELA. Branches coated with minute, irregular cells. Jpices 
not involute. 

XXXVIII. BosTBYCHiA. Branches dotted ; the surface cells quadrate. Apices 
strongly involute. 

XXXIX. Eytiphl£a. Branches transversely striate, at short distances. 

* * ♦ Frond filiform^ partially or generally articulate. 

XL. PoLYSiPHONiA. Articulations of the ramuli two- or many-tubed. Tetra- 
spores in distorted ramulL 

XLI. Dasta. Articulations of the ramuli single-tubed. Tetraspores in lanceolate 
pod-like receptacles (Stichidia). 

Order 8. Ladrenciace^. Bose-red or purple seaweeds^ with a cylindrical 
or compressed, rarely flat, linear, narrow, areolated, inarticulate, or con- 
stricted and chambered, branching frond, compost qf polygonal cells. 
Pruit double-. 1. Conceptacles (ceramidia) external, ovate, with a ter- 
minal pore, and containing a tuft of pear-shaped spores : 2. Tetraspores 
scattered without order among the surface cells of the branches and 

* Frond soUd. 
XLII. BoNNEMAisoNiA. Rosc-rcd, excessively branched, distichous; ramuli 
subulate, acute. 

XLni. Laueencia. Purplish, yellowish, or reddish, pinnatifid or pinnate ; ra- 
muli obtuse. 

♦ ♦ Frond (at least the branches) hollow. 

XLIV. Citrysymenia. Frond neither constricted nor chambered. 

XIjV. Chyloclapia. Frond (at least the branches) constiicted at intervals and 

Order 9. CoRALLiNACEiE. Bigid, articulated, or crustaceous, mostly calca- 
reous seaweeds, purple when recent, fading on exposure to mUh-white, 
composed of cells in which carbonate of lime is deposited in an organized 
form. Tetraspores ttffted, contained in ovate or spherical conceptacles 
(ceramidia) furnished with a terminal pore. 

* Sec also Uhacea and Oscillatoriacea among the Green Alga?. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


* Frond JUiform^ articulated, 
XLYI. CoBALLiNA. Frond pinnated. Ceramidia terminal, simple. 

XLVII. Jania. Frond (in ike Brit, species) dicliotomoas. Ceramidia tipped with 
two horn-like ramuli. 

♦ * Frond cruataceous orfoUaceow, not articulated. 
XLYIII. Melobesia. Opake, stony ; crustaceous, foliaceous, or shrubby. 
XLIX. ? HiLDENBEANDTiA. Cartilaginous (not stony), incrusting rocks. 
L.? Hapalidium (iOit^^r.). Minute, crustaceo-membranaceous, hyaline, composed 
of a single stratum of cells radiating from a centre. 

Order 10. DELESSEBiACE-fi. i2o«y or purple-red or blood-red eeaweeda, 
with a leafy y rarely filiform^ areolated^ inarticulate frond, composed of 
polygonal ceUs. Leaves delicately membranaceous. Fructification 
double : 1. Conceptacles (coccidia) external or haJf-immersed, hemisphe- 
rical, usually imperforate, containing, beneath a membranous pericarp, 
a tuft of filaments, whose cells are finally changed into spores. 2. Tetra- 
spores in distinctly d^ned son, either scattered or confined to proper 
leaflets (sporophylla). 

LI. Delessebia. Mrmd leafy, of definite form, with a percurrent midrib. 

LII. NiTOPHYLLUM. I^ond leafy, irregularly lobed, without midrib. 

LIIL Plocamium. Frond linear, compressed, distichously much branched; ra- 
muli pectinate, acute. 

Order IL "RHODYMENiACEiE. Purplish or bloodied seatoeeds, with an ex- 
panded or filiform, inarticulate frond, composed qf polygonal cells; oc- 
casionally traversed by a fibroso-ceUular axis. Superficial cells minute, 
irregularly packed, or (rarely) disposed in excentric filaments. Fructi- 
fication double: 1. Conceptacles (coccidia) external or hay-immersed, 
globose or Itemispherical, imperforate, containing, beneath a thick pericarp, 
a mass of spores, on a central placenta. 2. Tetraspores either dis- 
persed indefinitely, or forming cloud-like patches. 

* Frortdfiat, leaf -like, dichotomous, or palmate. 
LIV. ? Stenogeamme. Conceptacles linear, rib-like. (Sori definite.) 
LV. Rhodymenia. Conceptacles hemispherical, scattered. 

* * Frond compressed or terete, shrubby, much branched. 
LVL Sph^eococcus. Frond linear, two-edged, distichous, traversed by an 

obscure midrib. 
LVIL Geacilakia. Frond filiform (rarely compressed or flat), irregularly 
branched ; the central cells very large. 

LVIU. Hypnea. Frond filiform, irregularly branched, traversed by a fibro- 
cellular axis. 

Oedee 12. CEYPTONEMiACEiE. Purplish or rose-red seaweeds, with a fili- 
form or (rarely) expanded, gelatinous or cartilaginous frond, composed, 
wholly or in part, of cylindrical cells, connected together irUo threads or 
filaments. Axis formed of vertical, periphery of horizontally excerUric 
filaments. Fructification double: 1. Conceptacles (faveUidia), globose 
masses of spores immersed in the frond, or in swellings of the brandies. 
2. Tetraspores variously dispersed. 

Sub-order 1. Coccocaepe^. Frond solid, dense, cartilaginous, or homy. 

FaveUidia in semi-external tubercles or swellings qf the frond. 

Digitized by 



LIX. Gratsloupia. Piimated, flat, membranaoeo-cartilagiiioas, of very dense 
structure. FaveUidia with a pore. Tetrasporea scattered. 

LX. Gblxdium. Piimated, compressed, homy, of veiy d^ise stmcture. Faoel- 
lidia in swollen ramnli, imperforate. Tetraapores in son. 

LXI. GiGARTiNA. Frond variously branched, cartilaginous ; its flesh composed 
of anastomosing filaments, lying apart in firm gelatine. FaveUidia in ex- 
ternal tubercles. Tetraapares contained in dense, immersed aari. 

Sub-order 2. Spongiocarpeje. Frond aoUd, dense, cartUapinous, or homy, 
FaveUidia fof aeoeralj imperfectljf known. Waort-like swellings (or ne- 
mahtecia) composed of JUaments, sometimes changed into tetraspores ; 
sometimes into spores. 

LXn. Chondrus. Frond flabeUiform, dichotomously deft, cartilaginous ; of 
very dense structure. Tetraspores in definite, immersed sori. 

LXni. Phyllophora. Frond stipitate, rigid-membranaceous, proliferous ; of 
very dense structure. Tetraspores in superficial son, or in proper leaflets. 

LXIV. Petssonblia. Frond depressed, expanded, rooting by the under surface, 
concentrically zoned. Tetraspores contained in superficial warts. 

LXY. Gyunogongrus. Frond filiform, dichotomous, horny, of veiy dense 
structure. Tetraspores in superficial warts. 

LXYI. PoLTiDES. Root scutate. Frond cylindrical, dichotomous, cartilaginous. 
FaveUa contained in external, spongy warts. Tetraspores cruciate, im- 
mersed in the branches. 

LXVn. FuRCELLARiA. Eoot branching. Frond cylindrical, dichotomous, car- 
tilaginous. FaveUa immersed in the pod-like swollen extremities of the 
branches. Tetraspores similarly immersed, transversely zoned. (For correct 
analysis, see Tab. CCCLVII. J,) 

Sub-order 8. Gastrocarpe^. Frond gelatinoso-membranaceous, or fieshg, 
AoUoWy or of lax texture toithin. FaveUidia immersed in the central sub- 
stance qf the frond, very numerous. 

LXVni. DuMONTiA. Frond cylindrical, tubular. FaveUidia immersed in the 
waU of the frond. Tetraspores also immersed, cruciate. {For corrected 
analysis, see Tab. CCCLVII. B,) 

LXIX. Haltmenia. Frond compressed or flat, gelatinoso-membranaceous, the 
membranous surfaces connected by a few slender, anastomosing filaments. 
FaveUidia attached to the inner face of the waU. 

LXX. Ginannia. Frond cylindrical, distended, traversed by a fibrous axis ; the 
waUs membranaceous, connected with the axis by horizontal filaments. Fa- 
veUidia attached to the walls. 

LXXI. Kallymenia. Frond expanded, leaf-Hke, carnoso-membranous, soUd, 
of dense structure. FaveUidia pimply, half-immersed in the firond, and 
scattered over its surface.^ 

LXXII. IriDjEA. Frond expanded, leaf-like, thick, camoso-coriaceous, solid, of 
dense structure. FaveUidia whoUy immersed. 

LXXIII. Catenella. Frond tubular, branched, constricted at intervals into 
oblong pseudo-articulations ; the tube travereed by a few filaments. 

Sub-order 4. GLQiocLADiEiE. Frond loosely gelatinous; the f laments qf 
which it is composed lying apart from one another, surrounded by a 
copious gelatine. FavelJidia immersed. 

LXX IV. Cruoria. JF>(w^ crustaceous, skin-like. 

Digitized by 



LXXV. Naccaria. Frond filifonn, solid, cellular ; the ramuli (only) composed 
of radiating, iree filaments. 

LXXVI. Gloiosiphonia. Frond tubular ; the walls composed of radiating fila- 

LXXVII. Nemalbon. Frond filiform, solid, elastic ; the axis composed of 
closely packed, vertical filaments ; the peripheiy of moniliform, free, hori- 
zontal filaments. 

LXXVin. DuDBESNAiA. Frond filiform, solid, gelatinous ; the axis composed 
of a net-work of anastomosing vertical filaments ; the peripheiy of monili- 
form, free, horizontal filaments. 

LXXIX. Cbouania. Frond filiform, consisting of a jointed filament (axis), 
whorled at the joints with minute, multifid, moniliform, free, horizontal fila- 
ments (or ramelli). 

Order 13. Ceeamiace^. Rose-red or purple seaweeds, with a filiform frond, 
consisting of an articulated^ branching fUament, composed of a single 
string qf cylindrical ceUs^ sometimes coated with a stratum of smaller 
polygonal ceUs. Fructification double : 1 . Favellse, berry-like receptacles, 
with a membranous coat, containing numerous angular spores. 2. Te- 
traspores, attached to the ramuli, or subimtnersed in their substance, 

LXXX. Ptilota. Frond compressed, inarticulate, distichous, pectinato-pinnate. 
FaveUa stalked, involucrate. 

LXXXI. MiCBOCLADiA. Frond filiform, .inarticulate, dichotomous. Favella 
sessile, involucrate. 

LXXXn. Cebamium. jj^hm^^filiform, articulate, dichotomous; the nodes opake. 
Faoella sessile, mostly involucrate. Tetraspores immersed or subinunersed. 

LXXXni. Spybidia. Frond filiform, inarticulate ; the branches clothed with 
minute, setiform, articulated ramelli. Favella stalked, involucrate. Tetrch 
spores sessile on the ramelli. 

LXXXIV. Gbipfithsia. I^nd articulated, dichotomous, or clothed with 
whorled, dichotomous ramelli. FavelUe involucrated, sessile, or stalked. 
Tetra^}ores sessile, on whorled ramelli. 

LXXXV. Wbangelia. Frond articulated, pinnate. FavelUe terminal, involu- 
crated, containing tufts of pear-shaped spores. Tetraspores sessile, scattered. 

LXXXYI. Seibospoba. Frond articulated. Tetraspores disposed in terminal, 
moniliform strings. 

LXXXVII. Callithamnion. Frond (at least the branches and ramuli) arti- 
culate, mostly pinnate. Favella terminal or lateral, sessile, without invo- 
lucre (except in C, Tumeri) Tetraspores sessile or pedicellate, scattered. 


(Grass-green* Seaweeds.) 

Order 14. Siphon ace^. Green, marine, or fresh-water Alga, composed qf 
continuous, tubular, simple, or branched filaments (elongated cylindrical 
cells), free, or variously combined in cylindrical or expanded fronds. 

LXXXVIII. CoDiUM. Filaments combined into a spongy, frond. 

LXXXIX. Bbyopsis. Filaments free, pinnated. 

* A few Ulvacea and Oscillatoriacea are purple. 

Digitized by 



XC. Vaucheria. FUametUs free, dichotomous or irregular. 

Order 15. CoNFERVACEiE. Oreen, marine, or fresk-wUer Alga, compoBed qf 
arUculated filaments, simple or branched, free or impeded by geiatme. 
Cells cgUndrical, truncate. 

Sab-order 1. Conferve^. Filaments free, destitute qf gelatine. 

XCL Cladophora. Mlaments tufled, branched. 

XCU. Bhizoclonium. Filaments decombent, subsimple, emitting a few root* 
like branches. 

XCm. Conferva. Filaments nnbranched. 

Sub-order 2. CHiETOPHOREiE. Filaments united in submembranaceous or 
gelatinous fronds; ceUs often tipped with bristles. Sporangia external. 

XCIY. OcHLOCH^TE. Frond disciform. Filaments radiating from a central 
point, prostrate, irregularly branched ; each cdl produced above into a 
rigid, inarticulate bristle. 

Order 16. IJLVACEiE. Oreen, or rarelg purple, marine or fresk^mater Algm, 
composed qf small polygonal cells, forming expanded membranes, or mem- 
bnmous tubes; very rarely imranged in filaments. 

XCV. Enteromorpha. JV-ojm^ tubular. 

XCVI. XJlva. Frond fi&i, green. 

XCVU. PoRPHTRA. Frond fiat, purple. 

XCVni. Banoia. Frond filiform (mostly), purple or pink. 

Order 17. OsciIiLatoriacb-«. Oreen or blue, rarely purple, marine or 
(more frequently) fresik-water Alga, composed </ continuous, tubular, 
simple, or rarely branching fUaments, which are either free or invested 
with gelatine, Endochrome annulated, at length separating into lenU- 
eular sporidia. 

Sub-order 1. BrvuLARiEiE. ^laments united together into a solid gelatinous 
or cartilaginous frond. 

XCIX. BiVULARiA. Filaments not sheathed. 

C. SoHizosiPHON. Filaments sheathed ; the sheath multifid. 

Sub-order 2. Oscillatoriea. Filaments tufted or stratyied,free. 

CI. ScHizoTHRix. Filaments rigid, in branching bundles, at length splitting. 

Cn. Calothrix. Filaments short, tufted, fixed at the base only. 

cm. Ltmobta. Filaments elongate, decumbent, flaccid. 

CIV. MiCROCOLEUs. Filaments needle-shaped, several enclosed together in 
membranous or gelatinous sheaths. 

CV. OsGiLLATORiA. Filaments needle-shaped, straight, or slightly curved, short, 
heaped together in gelatinous strata, oscillating. 

CYI. Spirulina. Filaments spirally twisted, lying in a mucous stratum, vividly 

Order 18. NosTOCHACEiE. Oreen, fresh-water or rarely marine Alga, com- 
posed qfmonU/tform filaments, lying in a gelatinous matrix. CeUs glo* 
bose or oval. 

CVII MoNORHiA. A single filament enclosed in a convoluted gelatinous and 
branching frond. 

Digitized by 



CVlll. SPHiSROZTGA. FUametUs free, separate, naked. 

CIX. Spermosira. FUamerUs free, separate ; each enebsed in a veiy delicate, 
membranous, filiform tube. 

Order 19. Talmellace^. 

Sub-order. HoRMOSPOREiE. Cells contained in coftfervaid, simple or branch- 
ing iulmlar filaments. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Order 1. FUCACEiE. 


1. vvlffare; stem filiform, alternately branched; leaves lanceolate, serrated, 

strongly ribbed, glandular; air-vessels on compressed stalks, spherical, 
pointless ; receptacles axillary, unarmed. (Tab. CCCXLIII.) 

2. bacdfienimi leaves linear-lanceolate, very narrow, without pores; air-vesseb 

spherical, mucronate. (Tab. GIX.) 


3. riUquosa; branches linear ; air-vessels compressed, linear-lanceolate, slightly 

constricted at the septa, mucronate. (Tab. LXVI.) 


4. ericold«» j stem short, bearing numerous decompound branches, which are 

densely clothed with short, spine-like ramuli ; air-vessels small, solitary ; 
receptacles armed. (Tab. CCLXV.) 

5. grsavlata I branches bulbous at the base; receptacles elongate, without 

mucro. (Tab. LX.) 

6. barbata; branches bulbous at the base; receptacles short, mucronate. 

(Tab. CCCLX.) • 

7. HoBnienlacea; branches slender, rough with hard points, repeatedly dicho- 

tomo-pinnate ; air-vessels small, one or two together ; receptacles minute, 
smooth, linear-lanceolate. (Tab. CXXII.) 

8. fibrosa; branches slender, bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnules set with setaceous 

ramuli ; vesicles elliptical, solitary or in pairs ; receptacles very long, set 
with spine-like processes. (Tab. CXXXIII.) 


9. tabereolatiis. (Tab. LXXXIX.) 


10. reslctdosiui j frond flat, midribbed, dichotomous, entire ; air-vessels in pairs 
or absent ; receptacles turgid, temainal. (Tab. CCIV.) 

11. eeranoidas; frond plane, conAoeo-membranaceous, entire, midribbed, without 
vesicles, dichotomous, with lateral narrow, dichotomous, fastigiate, fertile 
branches. (Tab. CCLXXI.) 

12. serratiui) frond flat, midribbed, serrated, without air-vesseb. (Tab. XLVII.) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


13. nodoBiuij frond compressed, dichotomo-pinnate ; branches strap-shaped, 
attenuated at the base, remotely toothed and here and there swelling into 
oblong air-vessels, wider than the frond ; receptacles lateral, ovate, stalked. 
(Tab. CLVIII.) 

14. Wackaiij cylindrical or compressed, dichotomous; air-vessels elliptical, 
solitary ; receptacles lateral, st^ed, pendulous, near the base of the dicho- 
tomous branches. (Tab. LII.) 

1 5. canaliciilatiiB ; frond narrow, channelled, without midrib or air-vessels, 

dichotomous. (Tab. CCXXIX.) 


16. loreaj frond top-shaped; receptacles repeatedly forked. (Tab. LXXVIII.) 



17. Ufi^idata; flat, obscurely midribbed, repeatedly pinnate; pinnse and pin- 

nulae opposite, lanceolate. (Tab. CXV.) 

18. acttleataj branches compressed, slender, bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnae and pin- 

nulse alternate, margined with subulate spines. (Tab. XLIX.) 

19. TiridU; frond filiform, repeatedly pinnate; pinuss and pinnulse capillary, 
exactly opposite, patent. (Tab. CCCXII.) 


20. TlUowu (Tab. LXIV.) 


21. peduncnlatiiB $ stem undivided ; branches lateral, simple ; receptacles eUip- 
tical. (Tab. LVI.) 


22. Oabrene; irregularly dichotomous, linear, narrow, flat, midribbed; 
branches here and there constricted. (Tab. XIY.) 



23. esciaenta; frond lanceolate; midrib narrow, cylindrical; leaflets linear- 
oblong or wedge-form. (Tab. LXXIX.) 


24. digltata; stipe cylindrical or compressed, elongate; lamina deeply cleft 
into many linear segments. (Tab. CCXXIII.) 

24.* Var. stmophyUa, Tab. COCXXXVIII. 

25. bnlbo«a| stipes flat, with a wavy margin, twisted at the base, rising 

from a hollow, warted tuber; frond deeply deft into linear segments. 
(Tab. CCXLI.) 

26. longicmrUii stipes very long, slender at the base, hollow and inflated 
in the middle, tapering to the apex; lamina undivided, membranaceous, 
oblong. (Tab. CCCXXXIX.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


27. Mcekarina 3 stem filiform, solid, expanding into a cartilagineo-coiiaoeous, 
lanceolate firond. (Tab. CCLXXXTX.) 

28. WvHitte 5 stipe short, subcompressed, gradually expanding into a linear- 
lanceolate, delicately membranous, undivided frond. (Tab. CXCII.) 

29. PMciaj stipe very short, setaceous, ending in a membranaceous, wedge- 
shaped or lanceolate frond. (Tab. XLY.) 


30. flam 5 frond filiform, very long, not constricted at the joints. (Tab. CVII.) 

31. losMatarim; frx)nd membranous, constricted at distant intervals, the in- 
terstices inflated. (Tab. CCLXXXV.) 

Order 4. DICTYOTACE^. 


32. mn^OMM } polymorphous, flabelliform, irregularly clefl ; lacinis acute, at- 

tenuate. ^AB. LXXV.) 


33. polypodioldes } frond dichotomous, entire ; spots of fructification linear, dis- 
posed along the midrib. (Tab. XIX.) 


34. Pavonia. (Tab. XCI.) 

85. eollaris; procumbent, coriaceous, attached by the under surface; upper 
surface emitting cup-shaped, membranaceous, orbicular frx)nds, firinged 
round the margin. (Tab. CCCLIX.) 

36. vanrolai procumbent, attached by fibres from the lower surface, membra- 
naceous, variously lobed; lobes free, rounded. (Tab. CCCXLI.) 


37. ttamaiiaj frond broadly wedge-shaped, deeply and irregularly cleft longitu- 
dinally ; spores in wavy transverse lines, with intermediate scattered spores. 
(Tab. I. Dictyota atomaria) 


38. didiotomA; frond regularly dichotomous, the upper segments narrower. 
(Tab. cm.) 


39. rUsodes; subsoHd, much and irregularly branched; the lesser divisions 
dichotomous, attenuated ; wart-like fructification densely covering the 
branches and ramuH. (Tab. LXX.) 

40. Lyni^byKij frond tubular, distended, dichotomous, with rounded axils, 
much attenuated upwards; ramuli forked, capilUuy; son subdistant, in 
transverse lines. (Tab. CCXXXYH.) 


41. ftwdcuUceu.. (Tab. CCCXXVL) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42.'attennata; branches and ramuli mostly opposite, tapering to each ex- 
tremity. (Tab. XXV.) 


43. latifbliaj oblong or obovate, pale green, blunt, suddenly tapering at the 

base into a minute stipe. (Tab. VIII.) 

44. plaataginea) frond brownish-olive, cuneate at the base. (Tab. CXXVUl.) 

45. tenni»»ima J frond sublinear, very thin and transparent. (Tab. CCXLVIII.) 


46. comin'eBBiui ; frond compressed, flat, linear-lanceolate, obtuse ; son oblong. 

(Tab. LXXn.) 

47. Tumerij stipe filiform, suddenly expanding into an inflated, obtuse, deli- 
cately membranaceous, bag-like frond. (Tab. XI.) 

48. ecliinatus | cylindrical or davate, much attenuated at the base. (Tab. CXCIV.) 


49. ptuiSlltuij fronds filiform, very long, clothed with pellucid hairs; spores 
scattered. (Tab. CCLXX.) 

50. Iiaminarise ; fronds short, stellately tufted, smooth, transversely banded, 
bands close together; spores scattered. (Tab. CCXCV.) 



51. flaf^lliformis ; branches lateral, subsimple, filiform, naked; peripheric fila- 

ments club-shaped. (Tab. CXI.) 

52. divaricataj irregularly divided ; branches subdichotomous, flexuous, having 
short, very patent, forked, scattered ramuli ; peripheric filaments capitate. 
(Tab. XVn.) 


53. ▼ermiculariaj frond unequally distended, clumsy; branches irregularly 
pinnate, worm-like, thickened in the middle ; ramuli copious. (Tab. XXXI.) 

54. CSWffitlialaaaj frond slender, equal; branches scattered, filiform, long, 
simple, nearly bare. (Tab. CCCXVIII.) 

55. vireacensj frond filiform, gelatinous; branches long, slender, villous; 
ramuli numerous, patent, short, linear, obtuse. (Tab. TjXXXTI.) 


56. tubwiformiaj fronds at first stuffed with cottony fibres, at length hollow. 

(Tab. CCCXXIV.) 

57. Berkelcyi J dark brown, depressed, solid. (Tab. CLXXVI.) 


68. ▼errucoaa, Aresch. ; frond orbicular, adhering by its whole under surface, 
warted in the middle. (Tab. XCVIII. R. deusta) 
{Balfiia deusta, J. Ag., founded on the ori^al Zonaria deusla of Agardh, 
is a different species.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



59. ftieiedla; tufts pencilled ; filaments long, attenuated upwards ; articulations 
once or twice as long as broad. (Tab. CCXL.) 

60. flaccida ; tufts pencilled ; filaments long, flaccid, much attenuated at the 

base, the lower articulations half as long as broad, the upper of equal 
length and breadth. (Tab. CCLX.) 

61 . cnrta j filaments very short, club-shaped, rather rigid, rising from a tubercle ; 
articulations as long as broad ; spores pear-shaped. (Tab. CCCXXXII.) 

62. steUvlata; tufts veiy minute, stellate; filaments tapering at the base, 

slightly clavate, obtuse; articulations twice as long as broad, uniform. 
(Tab. CCLXI.) 

63. »cutnUtai filaments short, rising from an oblong, convex, shield-like tu- 
bercle, composed of densely packed, dichotomous fibres ; articulations 2-3 
times as long as broad; spores oblong. (Tab. CCCXXIU.) 

64. pnlvinatai tufts very minute, globose; filaments much tapered to both 
ends, the basal joints 3-4 times, the middle li, the apical as long as 
broad. (Tab. XXVIH. ^. E, aitenuata,) 

65. veliitiaaj spreading in thin, indefinite velvety patches; filaments very 
minute, filiform ; spores elliptical, pedicellate. (Tab. XXVIII. B,) 


66. straiifiilans; patches convex, confluent; vertical filaments clavate, densely 
set ; spores obovate, on short stalks, rising from the decumbent filaments. 
(Tab. CCLXXX.) 

67. Iieclanclierii $ patches orbicular, thin at the edges, convex in the centre; 
spores on long pedicels. (Tab. XLI. A.) 

68. pimctiformc; patches globose; spores affixed to the vertical filaments, near 
their base. (Tab. XLI. B.) 

69. cUTatomj very minute, rather convex; filaments clavate, mostly bifid; 
spores obovate, pedicellate, affixed to the filaments. (Tab. CCCXLVIII.) 



70. TerticillAtiui | branches slender ; ramuli mostly forked, subdistant, r^;ularly 
whorled. (Tab. XXXIII.) 

71. »pongio«ii»5 branches thick and clumsy; ramuli mostly simple, irregulariy 
whorled and densely imbricated. (Tab. CXXXVIH.) 


72. fiUelnaj shaggy at the base; stem slender, irregularly divided; branches 

lanceolate, erecto-pateut, bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnae erect; pinnules multifid; 
all the axils very acute and narrow. (Tab. CXLII.) 

73. Sertnlaria; slightly shaggy at the base ; stem weak and slender, irregularly 
divided; branches linear, horizontally patent, tripinnate; pinnae divaricate; 
pinnules multifid ; all the axils very obtuse and wide. (Tab. CXLIII.) 

74. acoparU ; coarse and of large size, shaggy at the base ; upper branches 
once or twice pinnated ; pinnae erecto-patent, awl-shaped, the lower ones 
pinnulate. (Tab. XXXVII.) 

* Incorrectly spelt Elachistea in the body of the work. 

Digitized by 



75. pliimoM I filaments naked at tlie base, long, irregularly divided, inarticu- 
late; branches pectinato-pinnate ; pinnae opposite, closely set, simple. 
(Tab. LXXXVII.) 

76. cirrhosaj parasitical, naked at the base; filaments short, densely tufted, 
jointed throughout, simple or divided ; branches pinnate ; pinnae opposite 
or irregular, of unequal length. (Tab. CLXXVIII.) 

77. fnsca; densely tufted, capillary, distantly and irregularly branched ; branches 
very erect, subsimple ; ramuli few, scattered, club-shaped or three-pronged ; 
articulations twice as long as broad. (Tab. CXLIX.) 

78. radicaasj filaments erect, or decumbent and rooting, sparingly branched; 
branches simple, scattered, erect, naked ; spores clustered, sessile, globose. 
(Tab. CLXXXIX.) 

79. racemoMi spores pedunculate, in compound racemose, lateral clusters. 

(Tab. CCCXLIX.) 


80. silieoloBiui i tufts soft, yellowish-olive ; filaments veiy slender, excessively 
branched ; ultimate branchlets alternate ; propagula stalked, subulate, atten- 
uate to a fine point. (Tab. CLXII.) 

81. amphibiiui) tufts short, soft, pale olive; filaments subdichotomous ; ramuli 
scattered, subulate ; articulations twice or thrice as long as broad ; pro- 
pagula linear-attenuate, mostly sessile. (Tab. CLXXXIU.) 

82. feiie»tratu» } pale olive-green, very slender, in small tuft« ; branches alter- 

nately and laxly decompound; articulations twice or thrice as long as 
broad; propagula stalked, at first davate, afterwards elliptic-oblong, 
obtuse. (Tab. CCLVn.) 

83. ftuiciciilatiui ; tufts oUvaoeous, dense ; branches set with alternate or secund 
fascicles of minute, secund ramuli ; propagula sessile, secund, dose together, 
ovate-acuminate or subulate. (Tab. CCLXXIII.) 

84. Hincksin ; tufted ; filaments irregularly branched ; branches flexuous, set 
with secund ramuli which are pectinated along their upper side ; utrides 
conical, lining the inner fEUje of the ultimate ramuli. (Tab. XXII.) 

85. tomentosiis ; filaments interwoven into a sponge-like, branching frond; 
ramuli few ; propagula stalked, linear-oblong or fusiform, obtuse. 
(Tab. CLXXXII.) 

86. criidtiiBi filaments long, decumbent, stratified, sparingly branched; 
branches subsimple, distant ; ramuli few, patent ; spores globose, scattered, 
sessile ; articulations twice or thrice as long as broad. (Tab. CCCXXX.) 

87. posilliui; filaments tufted, interwoven, sparingly branched; branches 

distant, patent; ramuli few, divaricating; spores roundish-oblong, sub- 
sessile, frequently opposite. (Tab. CLIII.) 

88. distortus | filaments densely matted, angularly bent, flacdd and fragile ; 
branches divaricated, alternate or secund ; ramuli horizontally patent, re- 
curved, obtuse ; spores obovate, subsessile. (Tab. CCCXXIX.) 

89. IiaadsbnrsU ; tufts intricate, small; filaments tenadous, zigzag, divari- 
cately much branched; branches bristUng with spine-like horizontal 
ramuli; articulations shorter than broad; dissepiments veiy narrow. 
(Tab. CCXXXni.) 

90. littoralisi tufts dense, interwoven, olive-brown; filaments coarse, much 

branched; ultimate branchlets patent, alternate or opposite; propagula 
forming oblong swellings in the branches. (Tab. CXOvII.) 

Digitized by 



91. lon gllittctM ? tufls large and feathery; filaments robnst, excessively 
branched, decompoimd ; branches mostly opposite, with short, spine-like 
ramuli ; articulations as long as broad ; propagola very long, linear-lan- 
ceolate, terminating the branches and ramuli. (Tab. CCLVIII.) 

92. granvliMRisj olive, robust, slightly entangled; branches free, repeatedly 
divided ; lesser branches and ramuli opposite, spreading ; spores dliptical, 
dark-coloured, sessile. (Tab. CC.) 

93. sphfleropbonui; filaments densely tufted, much branched ; upper branches 
patent, opposite or in fours, having opposite, patent ramuli ; spores globose, 
sessile, opposite one to the other, or to a branchlet. (Tab. CXXYI.) 

94. brachitttus) branches opposite or quatemate, spreading; ramuli opposite, 
patent; propagula forming oblong swellings in the nodes of the lesser 
branches. (Tab. IV.) 

95. Merten^} distichous; branches opposite, of unequal length, closely set 
with short, slender, opposite ramuli ; spores binate, immersed in the ra- 
mulL (Tab. CXXXH.) 


96. clav«ldrmi»| frond davate; ramuli gradually longer upwards. (Tab. CI.) 

97. ffliformis; filiform, slender, beset at irregular intervals with oblong clusters 

of short ramuli. (Tab. CLVI.) 




98. dMitate; frond irregularly pinnate; branches deeply pinnatifid; ladni® 
alternate, sharply toothed toward their truncate extremiti^. (Tab. XXXIY.) 
(Tke colour on the plate is incorrect. This plant is of a deep bloodied 

colour when growing ^ hut becomes dark on exposure to tke air,) 


99. Ijcopodioldesi divided near the base into several, long, simple branches, 

which are densely set with multifid, slender ramulL (Tab. L.) 

100. mnhtameti; much branched; branches irregularly decompound, and clothed 
with pinnated branchlets mixed with scattered subulate ramuli ; pinnules 
subulate. (Tab. CCLXIV.) 


101. •corploldwi; frond flexuous, forked ; branches bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnae and 
pinnulffi patent; apices strongly rolled inwards. (Tab. XLVIII.) 


102. i^iMurtrold«»| frond terete; lesser branches pectinato-pinnate, the pinnae 
secund, with their tips inflexed. (Tab. LXXaV.) 

103. compUaa»»| brown-red, compressed, pinnate or bi-tri-pinnate; pinnules 
subulate, erect; axils very acute. (Tab. CLXX.) 

104. thojoldM) stems terete, erect, alternately branched; branches erect, vir- 

Digitized by 



gate, pionulate or bipinnulate, the pinnules short ; capsules sessUe. (Tab. 

105. firutfouloM; stems terete, diffuse, branched from the base; branches 
divaricating, pinnato-dichotomous, with short multifid ramuli; axils rounded ; 
capsules s^sile. (Tab. CGXX.) 


* Primary tubes 4-5 ; frond distinctly jointed throughout. 

106. urcaoUtai rigid, setaceous, fiill-red, loosely bundled; branches dichoto- 
mous, with scattered patent or reflexed ramuli ; articulations 8-5 times 
as long as broad ; dissepiments pellucid ; capsules pitcher-shaped, constricted 
at the mouth. (Tab. CLXVII.) 

107. Formosa; flaccid, exceedingly slender, full red, densely tufled ; branches 
dichotomous, with scattered, patent ramuli; articulations 5-10 times as 
long as broad ; dissepiments .pellucid ; capsules pitcher-shaped, constricted 
at the mouth. (Tab. CLXVIII.) 

(P. siricta^ Harv. Man. p. 83, seems to be the young of this species ?) 

108. pnWi»«taj densely tufted; filaments creeping, throwing up erect, irregu- 
larly dichotomous stems, whose branches bear a few short, recurved ramuli ; 
articulations 3-4 times as long as broad ; capsules urn-shaped, stalked. 
(Tab. Cn. B.) 

109. fibrmtai setaceous below, attenuated and capillary above, flaccid, gela- 
tinous, alternately branched, with dichotomous, pencilled lesser branches, 
whose tips are remarkably fibrilliferous ; axils patent; articulations of 
the bran ches 4-6 times longer than broad ; capsules ovate, stalked. 
(Tab. CCVm.) 

110. spinvloMi} articulate throughout ; rigid, branched from the base, branches 
divaricate, decompound ; ramuli short, spine-like, spreading ; articulations 
as long as broad, three-striate. (Tab. CCCXX.) 

111. Riehardsonij stem cartilaginous, setaceous; branches alternate, long, 
divaricated, set above with very patent, straight, forked ramuli ; articula- 
tions 2-3 times longer than broad, veiny ; tubes 5 ; capsules sessile, broadly 
ovate. (Tab. X.) 

112. QriffithBiana ; stem alternately branched, rigid; branches subsimple, with 
dichotomous or alternately multifid pencilled, slender ramuli ; articulations 
once and half as long as broad, 3-4-striate ; siphons four primary, with 
four external, secondary ; capsules sessile. (Tab. CCXXVIII.) 

118. alonireliaj setaceous, rigid below, flaccid above, dichotomous, with very 
patent axils ; upper branches decomposed into multifid, pencilled, rose-red 
ramuli ; articulations about as long as broad, 2-3-striate, the tubes very 
wide and dissepiments pellucid; capsules ovate, stalked. (Tab. CXLYI.) 

* * Primary tubes 4 ; stem and branches subopake^ or inarticulate, 

114. eloniata > robust, cartilaginous, irregularly divided ; ramuli pencilled, ca- 
pillary, multifid, attenuated at base and apex ; articulations once and half 
as long as broad, those of the stem and branches reticulated with veins ; 
siphons four. (Tab. CCXCII. and CCXCIII.) 

115. vloUceai brown-red, purple, or sanguineous; stem inarticulate, veiny, 
robust, alternately branched ; branches decompound, feathery, the ultimate 
ramuli very slender, multifid, fibrilliferous ; articulations of the ramuli two- 
striate, 2-4 times as long as broad ; capsules ovate. (Tab. CCIX.) 

Digitized by 



(P. Grevillu, Hanr. Man. ed. 2. p. 86, I now consider to be merely a 
variety of this species, more sanguineous than usual.) 

116. Oarmichmeliaiuii stem inarticulate, percurrent, flexuous, rigid; branches 
lateral, divaricating; ramuli scattered, very patent, spinoso-multiiid, articu- 
late ; articulations as long as broad, three-striate. (Tab. CCCXIX.) 

117. fibrfllosai pale straw-colour or brown; stems inarticulate, marked with 
sinuous veins, robust, much branched ; branches articulated near the apices 
only, beset with slender, finely divided, articulated ramuli ; tips copiously 
fibnllose; articulations rather longer than their breadth; siphons four. 
(Tab. CCCJI.) 

* * * Primary tubes 7 ; stem tnarHculate. 

118. BrodiKi; stems inarticulate, robust; branches virgate, clothed with pen- 
cilled, multifid, flaccid, articulated ramuli ; articulations of the ramuli 3-4- 
striate, longer than broad ; siphons seven ; capsules ovate, pedicellate. 
(Tab. CXCV.) 

* * * * Primary tubes 6-7 ; Jrond jointed throughmt. 

119. Tariega**! brownish-purple, setaceous, rigid below, flaccid and capillary 
above, dichotomous, the lower axils patent ; branches decompound ; lower 
articulations very short, middle twice as long as broad, each marked with 
three broad, oblong cells, separated by pdlucid spaces ; siphons 6-7 ; 
capsules ovate, stalked. (Tab. CLV.) 

***** Primary tubes 8-20 ; frond jointed throughout. 

120. obacuraj densely matted, short; filaments creeping, throwing up erect, 
simple, secund branches; articulations short. (Tab. CU. A) 

121. simvlaiis; slender, bushy, branched from the base; branches patent, de- 
compoundly but irregularly pinnate ; ramuli subulate ; articulations once 
and half as long as broad ; siphons about twelve ; capsules ovate, sessile. 

122. vSiipnneenM} robust, rigid, and rough with broken branches below, much 
branched and flaccid above; branches decompoundly pinnate; ramuli 
subulate ; lower articulations short, upper once and half as long as broad ; 
siphons about twenty; capsules sessile, ovate. (Tab. CCLXXVII.) 

123. afinis; filaments elongate, rigid below, flaccid above; branches naked at 
the base, multifid and decompound pinnate above ; ramuli very erect, su- 
bulate ; articulations multistriate, the lower 2-3 times as long as broad, 
upper gradually shorter ; siphons about sixteen. (Tab. CCCIIl.) 

124. subnUfera; setaceous, flexuous, irregularly much branched; branches 
alternately decompound, spreading, the lesser divisions virgate ; ramuli 
scattered,' subulate, patent; siphons about thirteen. (Tab. CCXXVII.) 

125. atrorubescens . setaceous, dark brownish-red, rigid, alternately bracnhed ; 
branches long, very erect, once or twice compounded ; ramuli scattered, 
tapering to base and apex, simple or divided ; articulations of stem 2-3 
times as long as broad, of branches shorter, many-striate, the striae curved ; 
siphons about twelve; capsules broadly ovate. (Tab. CLXXII.) 

126. fareeUata; filaments elongated, flexuous, dichotomous; axils broad, 
rounded; ramuli multifid; articulations 3-5 times longer than broad. 
(Tab. 711.) 

127 fastiifiafta; rigid, setaceous, dichotomous, fastigiate; articulations shorter 
than their breadth ; siphons 16-18. (Tab. CCXCIX.) 


Digitized by 



128. parasmca; distichous, rigid, slender, full red, bi-tri-pinuate ; pinnules 
closely set, alternate, subulate, acute ; articulations about as long as broad, 
each marked with 3 or 4 broad, hexagonal cells, separated by pellucid 
spaces ; capsules ovate, stalked. (Tab. CXLVII.) 

129. by»«oide«5 stems rigid, setaceous, distichously pinnate ; branches patent, 
decompound, clothed with dichotomous single-tubed byssoid ramelli ; arti- 
culations variable in length ; siphons seven. (Tab. CCLXXXIV.) 


130. cocdnes) stems robust, rough with hair-like fibres, distichous; branches 
bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnae multifid, single-tubed, their articulations as long as 
broad. (Tab. CCLIII.) 

131. ocellatai stems subsimple; ramelli quadrifarious, dichotomous, erecto- 
patent ; stichidia linear-lanceolate, tapering to a point. (Tab. XL.) 

132. Arlnuicola i irregularly much branched ; ramelli quadrifarious, dichotomous, 
patent or divaricate, scarcely attenuated ; articulations 2-4 times as long as 
broad ; stichidia elliptic-oblong, mucronate ; capsules urceolate, with a long 
cylindrical neck. (Tab. CCXXIV.) 

133. Tennataj decompoundly pinnate ; ramelli quadrifarious, exceedingly slender, 
many times dichotomous, much attenuated ; articulations 5-6 times as long 
as broad; stichidia pedicellate, ovoid, much acuminate; capsules ovate- 
urceolate. (Tab. CCXXV.) 



134. asparairoidMi frond compressed; capsules stalked, opposite the cilia. 
(Tab. LI.) 


185. pinnatifida) frond compressed, bi-tri-pinnate, the divisions alternate; 
ramuli linear, erecto-patent, simple or lobed. (Tab. LV.) 

136. cnspitoaa; cylindrical or subcompressed, narrow, repeatedly pinnate, pyra- 
midal ; branches and ramuli erecto-patent, scattered, distichous or spreading 
on all sides, truncate, scarcely tapering at the base. (Tab. CCLXXXVI.) 

137. obtoaai cylindrical, repeatedly pinnate ; branches patent ; pinnae and pin- 
nulse mostly opposite, the ultimate pinnules very short and obtuse. 

138. dasjrphjlla ; cylindrical, decompoundly pinnate or irregularly branched; 
branches erecto-patent ; ramuli much attenuated at the base, scattered, very 
obtuse. (Tab. CLII.) 

139. tenniaaimaj frond terete; branches long and virgate, clothed with very 
slender, short ramuli, which taper at each end. (Tab. CXCVIII.) 


140. clavelloaaj repeatedly pinnate ; ramuli lanceolate, attenuate. (Tab. CXIV.) 

141. rosea; pinnate or bipinnate; branches elliptic-oblong, compressed; pinnae 
opposite, blunt. (Tab. CCCI. and Tab. (JCCLVIII. A,) 


142. oraUai frond terete, branching, solid; branches clothed with simple, ellip- 
tical, jointed, tubular ramuli ; capsules spherical. (Tab. CXVIIL) 

Digitized by 



143. kmHIbrmIs) pjramida], erect, with a leading stem, which is distended, 
constricted at distant intervals, and whorled with articulato-constricted 
branches; ramuli opposite or whorled, moniliform; capsules globose. 
(Tab. CXLV.) 

144. reflexa; dull purple; lower branches cylindrical, arched, attaching them- 
sel?es by discs; secondary branches moniliform, spindle-shaped; ramuli 
few, scattered ; capsules globose. (Tab. XLII.) 

145. parrnUi slender, irregularly branched; ramuli scattered; branches con- 
stricted at short intervals; capsules conical, with a prominent orifice. 
(Tab. CCX.) 

146. aitlcnlatai frond tubular, strongly constricted throughout as if jointed, 
much branched, di-trichotomous, fastigiate; the upper branches often 
crowded; capsules obtusely conical. (Tab. CCLXXXIII.) 



147. oAdnalLi J upper articulations slightly obconical, round-edged, their upper 
angles blunt. (Tab. CCXXII.) 

148. (elongataj " the lateral shoots of the branches slender and subulate, with 
long, cylindrical articulations." — Johnst, LUk. p. 221.) 

1 have seen no specimen of this, and have consequently been obliged to 
omit figuring it. 

149. ■q timmat a 5 upper articulations obconical or obcordate, compressed, two- 
edged, their upper angles sharp and prominent. (Tab. CCI.) 


150. mbcBs; articulations cylindrical, unarmed, about four times as long as 
broad. (Tab. CCLII.) 

151. cor nicnlata ; articulations of the branches obconical, compressed, their 
upper angles sharp and prominent. (Tab. CCXXXIV.) 

* Ihmd thick and stony ^ branched or incrusting. 

152. poIjmorplMt; attached to rocks, encrusting, thick; the surface smooth or 
tuberculated ; ceramidia minute, depressed. (Tab. CCCXLV.) 

153. calearea; unattached, shrub-like, much branched ; branches slender, spread- 
ing, tapering to a blunt point. (Tab. CCXCI.) 

154. fitseicnlmtai frond unattached, roundish or lobed, stony, much branched, 
fastigiate; branches solid, short, thick and crowded; apices depressed. 
(Tab. LXXIV.) 

♦ ♦ Frond thin^ foliated, free or partial^ attached to rocks. 

155. affiriciliwrmis 5 frond unattached, globular, hollow; foliations papery, 
erect, lobed and sinuated. (Tab. LXXIII.) 

156. Uchenoldeii } attached to rocks, free at the margins, foliaceous, variously 
lobed; foliations spreading, imbricated; ceramidia conical, prominent. 
(Tab. CCCXLVI.) 

• ♦ ♦ Frond minute^ parasitic. 

157. m«mbraiMice»| minute, dot-like, very thin, at length confluent; ceramidia 
one or two, depressed. (Tab. CCCXLVII. A.) 

Digitized by 



158. fuinoMi minute, irregular in outline, rather thin, pallid, with 2-3 promi- 
nent ceramidia. (Tab. CCCXLVII. B,) 

159. ▼errocatai thin, expanded, irregularly lobed, pallid, dotted over with 
minute, pimply ceramidia, (Tab. CCCXLVII. C.) 

160. pnstulatai thick, duU purple or green, oblong, incrusting; ceramidia 
numerous, large, prominent, conical. (Tab. CCCXLVII. i>.) 


161. rubra. (Tab. CCL.) 


162. Phyllactidium, Kiitz.j^ flabelliform, variously lobed, colourless. (LUho- 
cyatis Allmanniy Tab. CLXVI.) 

Common on Algae round the British coasts ; and, according to Kiitzing, 
found abundantly in the Mediterranean and in New Holland. Our figure 
represents the young plimt, which afterwards becomes much more lobed 
and expanded. 



163. saii«riiine»s stem short, cartilaginous, bearing oblong, transversely veined, 
entire, undulate leaves ; veinlets opposite. (Tab. CLI.) 

164. ■inuoaaj stem branched, bearing oblong or ovate, deeply sinuate or pin- 
natifid, toothed, pennate-ribbed leaves ; nerves opposite. fTAB. CCLIX.) 

165. alatai stem dichotomous, decompoundly branched, winged throughout 
with a narrow, membranous, pennate-nerved lamina. (Tab. CCXLVfl.) 

166. angtuitUiBlmaj frond very narrow, compressed, two-edged, distichously 
much branched, destitute of membrane. (Tab. LXXXIII.) 

167. Hypogloasum; frond linear-lanceolate, repeatedly proliferous from the 
midrib with leaflets of similar form ; leaflets acute. (Tab. II.) 

168. macifoliaj frond linear-oblong, repeatedly proliferous from the midrib with 
leaflets of similar form ; leaflets round at the apex. (Tab. XXVI.) 


169. pimctatumi frond very thin and delicate, nerveless, more or less regularly 
dichotomous, rose-red ; axils rounded ; son large, oblong, scattered over the 
whole surface. (Tab. CCIL and CCHI.) 

170. HUliKj fr6nd thicldsh, veiny toward the base, roundish, irregularly cleft; 
segments oblong, obtuse ; son very minute, dot-like, densely scattered over 
the surface of the frond. (Tab. CLXIX.) 

171. Bonnemaisonii frond shortly stalked, fan-shaped, variously deft; seg- 
ments wedge-shaped ; spots of granules minute, roundish, scattered over the 
surface. (Tab. XXIII.) 

172. Gmelinij frond crisp, stipitate, veined at the base, fan-shaped, vaguely 
cleft; segments broadly wedge-shaped, waved, and curled; son linear, 
marginal (Tab. CCXXXV.) 

173. laceratnmi frond subsessile, rigidly membranous, traversed by branching 
veinlets, dichotomous ; segments linear or cuneate, waved at the margin, 
obtuse ; sori oblong, marginal. (Tab. CCLXVII.) 

Digitized by 



174. Tendeolors stipiiate; frond fan-shaped, drcomscribed, snbdidiotomoaa or 
irregolarly cleft, veinless, incrassated at the base; segments rounded. 
(Tab. IX.) 

im. PLooAmuM. 

175. coeeinenm) frond narrow, piano-compressed; ramoli subulate, secund, 
3 or 4 consecutively ; pectinate on their inner edges. (Tab. XLIV.) 



176. laterroptai stipitate, membranaceous, flabelliform, dichotomously deft; 
apices obtuse ; oonceptades forming a nerve-like line through the centre of 
each lobe. (Tab. CLVII.) 


177. Ufidai thin and semitransparent, dichotomous; segments linear or cu- 
neate ; apices obtuse ; tubercles mostly marginal, sessile ; tetraspores trans- 
versely zoned. (Tab. XXXIl.) 

178. Udaiata; frond thickish, subopake, bright red, flabelliform, deeply deft; 
segments wedge-shaped, obtuse ; mai^ curled and fringed with minute 
processes in which the tubercles are imbedded. (Tab. CXXI.) 

179. Palmettaj stipes cylindrical, elongate, expanding into a fan-shaped, rose- 
red, dichotomously cleft frond ; segments linear, with rounded interstices ; 
margin entire, flat ; tubercles sessile, marginal or scattered ; sori elliptical, 
solitaiy in the expanded apices. (Tab. CXXXIV.) 

180. ciistataj fan-shaped, membranaceous, deeply laciniate ; segments dilated 
upwards, repeatedly divided; lesser divisions laciniate at the ends and 
often fimbriate ; tubercles spherical, marginal, sessile. (Tab. CCCVII.) 

181. ciliataj frond thick, subopake, dull purplish-red, shortly stipitate, lanceo- 
late or forked, irregularly pinnated with lanceolate or bifid segments; 
margin friuged with subulate processes, in which tubercles are imbedded. 
(Tab. CXXVII.) 

182. j^bataj frond thickish, flaccid, dull red, linear-lanceolate, cirrhose at the 
apex, pinnatifid ; margin and often the disc beset with filiform processes. 
(Tab. CLXXV.) 

183. palmatai frond coriaceous or membranaceous, dull purple, broadly wedge- 
shaped, irregularly deft, palmate or dichotomous, sometimes laciniate, and 
very narrow ; margin flat and even, simple or winged with leaflets ; sori 
doud-like, dispersed. (Tab. CCXVII. and CCXVIIl.) 


184. coroBo pi feling | much branched; branches alternate or subdichotomous, 
multifid ; lacinise acute, fringed with cilia ; tubercles in the marginal dlia. 
(Tab. LXI.) 


185. multlpartttai frond flat, tender, purplish-red, deeply deft, irregularly 
dichotomous or fingered ; brandies Hnear-wedge-shaped ; tubercles conical, 
very prominent, scattered plentifully over the segments. (Tab. XV.) 

186. eompremmm ) frond succulent, brittle, subcompressed, irregularly branched; 
branches long, tapering ; tubercles prominent, ovate, scattered. fTAB. CCV.) 

Digitized by 



187. conteroldes ; frond fiKform, cartilaginous, irregularly branched or sub- 
simple ; branches elongate, slender ; tubercles scattered, sessile, roundish, 
subacute. (Tab. LXV.) 

188. erecte; fronds many from a common disc, short, erect, filiform, sparingly 
branched ; tubercles globose, clustered ; tetraspores contained in terminal, 
lanceolate, pod-like ramuli. (Tab. CLXXVII.) 


189. pnrpmtuiceiui i purplish-red, excessively branched, bushy; branches 
alternate; ramuli multifid, attenuate; tubercles immersed in the ramuli. 
(Tab. CXVI.) 



190. filidnaj frond narrow, tapering, once or twice pinnated; pinnae flexuous. 
(Tab. C.) 


191. comeomi distichous; branches linear, narrowed at each end, pinnate or 
bi-tri-pinnate ; pinnules opposite or alternate, patent, obtuse. (Tab. LIII.) 

192. cartilag^eiim ; several times pinnated; pinnae and pinnulae erecto-patent, 
with rounded axils, linear, obtuse. (Tab. CCCXXXVII.) 


193. piatUlata; frond compressed, stipitate, flabellately branched; branches re- 
peatedly forked,' with rounded axils, naked or pinnated with short, horizontal 
ramuli ; tubercles solitary or in pairs, on the ramuli. (Tab. CCXXXII.) 

194. acicularisj cylindrical, irregularly branched, between pinnated and dicho- 
tomous ; branches divaricating ; ramuli few, recurved, subulate ; tubercles 
scattered on the branches. (Tab. CIV.) 

195. Teediii frond flaccid, flattish, linear, acuminate, repeatedly pinnate ; pinnae 
horizontal, set with horizontal, spine-like ramuli. (Tab. CCLXVI.) 

196. mamiUo«»; frond fan-shaped, dichotomous, plane, channelled; segments 
wedge-shaped ; tubercles roundish or ovate, pedicellate, scattered over the 
disc of the frond. (Tab. CXCIX.) 


197. cri«ira«5 frond stipitate, thickish, cartilaginous; the segments wedge- 
shaped, variable in breadth ; apices emarginate ; ssila obtuse ; sori elliptical 
or oblong, scattered. (Tab. LXIII.) 

198. If orreg^ciui ; frond linear, dichotomous, flat, dull red; axils patent; 
apices rounded ; favellidia minute, imbedded in the substance ; nemathecia 
scattered over both surfaces. (Tab. CLXXXVIl.) 


199. ruben* j stipe short, expanding into the cuneate base of a narrow, ob- 
scurely midribbed, rigid, blood-red frond, which is repeatedly proliferous ; 
tubercles scattered over the surface, wrinkled. (Tab. CXXXI.) 

200. membranifolia} stem filiform, elongated, branched; branches expanding into 
broadly wedge-shaped, or fan-shaped, dichotomous dull purple laminae ; tu- 
bercles on short stalks, rising from the stem or the laminae. (Tab. CLXIII.) 

Digitized by 



201. BrodiKi; stem filiform, branched; the branches tenninating in forked, 
membranous leaflets, proliferous at the extremity ; tubercles sessile on the 
tips of the seg:ments. (Tab. XX.) 

202. p«lm«ttoides ; root a wide-spread disc ; stem filiform, expanding into an 
oblong or cuneate, simple or once-forked, rose-coloured frond; sorus 
soMtaiy, transverse, elliptical, immersed below the apex of the frond. 
(Tab. CCCX.) 


203. ]>abfi i frond membranaceous, orbicular or lobed, attached by the whole 
of its onder surface. (Tab. LXXI.) 

Lxv. aTMVoaoNaBxxs. 

204. OrifiUhste} dichotomous, fastigiate ; warts surrounding the stem. 
(Tab. CVm.) 

205. plicatas; homy, dark purple, entangled, wiiy, irregularly branched; 
branches of various lengths, forked, with very wide axils ; warts oblong, 
irregular, scattered. (Tab. CCLXXXYIU.) 


206. rotnndM. (Tab. XCV.) 


207. lit«tl«U*». (Tab. XCIV. and CCCLVH. J,) 


208. fimsormifl | frond undivided, attenuated to each extremity, pinnated with 
long, simple, tapering branches. (Tab. LIX. and CCCLYII. JB.) 


209. Hcnlate; frond compressed or flat, irregularly dichotomous or palmate; 
the segments attenuated. (Tab. CXII.) 


210. fmre«Ilate| cylindrical, tender, uniformly dichotomous; apices obtuse. 
(Tab. LXIX.) 

lxxi. kallymbnia. 

211. r«itformis| stipe short, terete, suddenly expanding into a roundish or 
irregularly deft, blood-red frond. (Tab. XIII.) 

212. Biilyji I stem compressed, gradually expanding into an obovate or cuneated, 
dull red lamina. (Tab. CXXUI.) 

218. •doltai frond obovate. (Tab. XCVII.) 


214. OFimtU; root creeeping; steins vaguely branched ; interoodes lanceolate 
or elliptical, four times as long as broad. (Tab. LXXXYIII.) 


215. pellitm. (Tab. CXYH.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

xxym SYNOPSIS of the species. 


216. l^riCT^ii frond filifonn; branches alternate, repeatedly divided, attenuate; 
ramuli spindle-shaped, quadrifarious. (Tab. XXXVIII.) 


217. c»iilll«A«. (Tab. LVII.) 


218. mnltifidiim ; frond dichotomous, slightly branched, dull purplish-red; the 
axils rounded. (Tab. XXXVI.) 

219. Fvrpvreiuns stem undivided, attenuate at the base and apex; branches 
lateral, scattered, tapering, naked or having a second series of similar 
branchlets. (Tab. CLXI.) 


220. coednea; rosy red, irregularly much branched; branches moniliform, at- 
tenuated upwards, decompound. (Tab. CCXLIV.) 

221. diT*rlc«t»5 pale red, excessively branched; branches horizontal, once or 
twice pinnated; ramuli divaricating. (Tab. GX.) 


222. •ttennat*. (Tab. CVI.) 

Order 13. CEKAMIACE^. 


223. pluDioMbi cartilaginous, decompound ; secondaiy branches bi-tri-pinnate ; 
piniWB and pinnulse opposite, the latter subulate, inarticulate, but traversed 
by a jointed midrib ; favellse involucrate, pedicellate. (Tab. LXXX.) 

224. sericMis flaccid; the pinnulse articulate, formed of a single row of cells. 
(Tab. CXCI.) 

iixxxi. miobooladia. 

225. cUad«loM. (Tab. XXIX.) 

♦ Smooth; frond uniformly coloured throughout, 

226. rubmmj robust, gradually attenuated, irregularly dichotomous with 
lateral, forked or multifid ramuli ; apices hooked inwards ; articulations 
unarmed, coloured; tetraspores whorled, immersed; favellse involucrate, 
on the lateral branchlets. (Tab. CLXXXI.) 

227. botryoearpnm s filaments brooked at the base, robust, attenuated, irregu- 
larly dichotomous, with crowded, lateral, mostly simple ramuli ; apices 
straight; articulations coated with cells, unarmed; dissepiments con- 
stricted ; tetraspores whorled, immersed ; favellse terminating the lateral 
branchlets, involucrate. (Tab. CCXV.) 

(The so-called "/owZ^ep" of the text (under PI. CCXV.) are diseased 

♦ ♦ Smooth ; nodes coloured, intemodes colourless, 

228. deeurre&Bi robust, attenuated, dichotomous, with lateral dichotomous 

Digitized by 



brenchlets; apices hooked inwards; internodes partially clothed with 
coloured cells, which extend firom the nodes, but leave a colourless band 
in the centre of each intemode. (Tab. CCLXXVI.) 
229. Besloni^cbampsli ; subsetaceous, attenuated, irregularly dichotomous, with 
or without lateral ramuli ; apices straight, spreading ; internodes colourless, 
the lower thrice as long as broad, upper very short ; dissepiments purple, 
scarcely swollen ; tctraspores whorled. (Tab. CCXIX.) 

280. diaphanma) filaments setaceous, attenuated upwards, irregularly dichoto- 
mous, with short, lateral, dichotomous ramuli ; internodes colourless, the 
lower long ; nodes swollen, coloured ; tetraspores whorled in the nodes ; 
favellae subterminal, involucrate. (Tab. CXCIII.) 

231. gracOUmiim ; excessively slender, very flaccid, dichotomous, with minute, 
flabelliform, dichotomous, lateral ramuli ; internodes colourless, long ; nodes 
opake, purple ; favellse on the lateral ramuli, with a spreading involucre. 
(Tab. CCVI.) 

232. »trictiim J capillary, dichotomous, all the divisions straight and erect, with 
narrow, acute axils ; apices slightly incurved ; internodes colourless ; nodes 
(smooth or haiiy) opake, purple ; favellae near the ends of the branches, in- 
volucrate ; spores erumpent, whorled. (Tab. CCCXXXIV.) 

233. nodo«mtt| capillary, rigid, dichotomous, fastigiate; axils very patent; 
articulations pellucid, 4-6 times as long as broad ; dissepiments swollen ; 
tetraspores erumpent, on the outer edge of short ramuli ; favellse near the 
tips of short ramuli. (Tab. XC.) 

234. fastif^Utnm I capillary, flaccid, dichotomous, level-topped, rosy; axils 
acute ; internodes pellucid, 4-6 times longer than broad, the upper short 
and coloured ; nodes coated with cells, not swollen ; favellse subterminal, 
involucrate. (Tab. CCLV.) 

* • * Nodes armed with spines or prickles, 

235. flabelHiperQin I setaceous, attenuated upwards, flabellately branched, ir- 
regularly dichotomous, with lateral, forked ramuli ; the internodes clothed 
with coloured cellules; apices nearly straight; nodes contracted, each 
armed on the outer edge with a single, minute, subulate, coloured, 3-jointed 
prickle ; tetraspores erumpent, whorled round the joint. (Tab. CXLIV.) 

236. eddonotmn j dichotomous, fastigiate, with pellucid internodes ; apices 
involute ; nodes armed with numerous, slender, scattered, subulate, colour- 
less, 1 -jointed prickles; tetraspores soHtfery, erumpent, on the outer edge 
of the node; favellse subtended by several, strongly incurved ramuli. 
(Tab. CXLI.) 

237. acmnthonotmn 5 dichotomous, fastigiate, with pellucid internodes; apices 
strongly involute ; nodes armed on the outer edge with a single, robust, 
broadly subulate, coloured, three-jointed prickle; tetraspores erumpent, 
whorled round the node ; favdlse subtended by a short ramulus. 
(Tab. CXL.) 

238. cfliatnm; dichotomous, fastigiate, with pellucid internodes ; apices strongly 
involute ; nodes whorled with several robust, subulate, 3-jointed prickles ; 
tetraspores alternating with the prickles ; favellse subtended by two or three 
ramuli. (Tab. CXXXIX.) 


239. fflmmentosai irregularly branched, subopake; branches set with setaceous 
ramuH. (Tab. XLVI.) 


Digitized by 



♦ Branches set with short rameUi. 

240. eqfdsetifblia j stems robust ; branches whorled througbout with closely im- 
bricated, incurved, many times forked ramelli. (Tab. LXVII.) 

241. •implidfilnm ; stems slender, irregularly branched, whorled with imbri- 
cated, straight, once-forked ramelli. (Tab. CCLXXXVII.) 

242. barbataj dichotomous, slender; upper articulations emitting opposite or 
whorled, byssoid, dichotomous, short ramelli, to which the tetraspores are 
attached; favdke stalked. (Tab. CCLXXXI.) 

♦ * Stems dichotomous, naked. 

243. Deroniensis ; very slender, flaccid, dichotomous, the lower axils wide, the 
upper very acute; articulations cylindrical, 7-8 times as long as broad; 
involucres of tetraspores whorled round the dissepiments of the branches. 
(Tab. XVI.) 

244. oorallina; dichotomous, gelatinous ; articulations pear-shaped, the ultimate 
ellipsoid; involucres sessile, those with tetraspores whorled round the 
branch, with favell® lateral (Tab. CCXIV.) 

245. secondiflora; filaments ultra-setaceous, irregularly dichotomous; axils 
acute ; branches fastigiate, obtuse, not tapering ; articulations cylindrical, 
2-4 times as long as broad, with a very wide border. (Tab. CLXXXV.) 

246. aetaceai filaments setaceous, straight, rigid, di-trichotomous ; axils very 
acute ; branches gradually attenuated to a point ; articulations cylindrical, 
5-6 times as long as broad ; involucres, of both kinds, pedunculate, lateral. 
(Tab. CLXXXTY.) 


247. miUtifidai stems setaceous, jointed, pinnate or bipinnate ; ramuli opposite 
or whorled, pinnato-multifid. (Tab. XXVII.) 


248. Orfffithalaiuu (Tab. XXI.) 

* Ramuli opposite. 

249. Plnmvla; stems dichotomous, articulated; each articulation bearing a pair 
of short, recurved plumules, pectinated on their upper margin. (Tab. 

250. cmciatnmi densely tufted, subdichotomous, articulate ; branches furnished 
at each joint with two or four, opposite or quatemate, short, pinnated ra- 
muli ; tetraspores elliptical, at the base of the ramuli. (Tab. CLXIV.) 

251. floccoaum; capillary, very flaccid, remotely branched; branches alternate, 
articulated, every joint bearing a pair of minute, opposite, spine-like ramuli ; 
tetraspores elliptical, pedicellate. (Tab. LXXXI.) 

252. Tnmerij filaments rising from creeping fibres, simple or compound, once 
or twice pinnated with opposite, spreading ramuli ; articulations of the 
main filaments 5-10 times as long as broad ; tetraspores clustered, ra- 
cemose or corymbose ; faveUce involucred, stalked. (Tab. CLXXIX.) 

253. barbatnm j irregularly branched ; branches alternate, subsimple, naked, or 
pinnulated with minute, opposite, spine-like ramuli ; articulations twice as 
long as broad. (Tab. CLXV.) 

Digitized by 



254. Phuaai minnte, rising from creeping filaments; stems erect, simple or 
branching ; branches naked below, pinnated above ; pinnae erect, opposite, 
dose; tetraspores globose, on short processes of the pinnules. (Tab. 

* * 8tem» shrubby, robusty more or less opake, Ramndi aUemate, 

266. artmicuUi stems shrubby, opake, naked below, robust, much branched ; 
branches densely set on all sides with minute imbricated plumules ; ultimate 
pinnules simple or forked, recurved, their articulations twice as long as 
broad ; tetran>ores globose, lining the inner face of the pinnules. (Tab. 

256. BroAsii stem subopake, veiny, obscurely jointed, slender; branches 
lateral, patent, closely set with quadrifarious secondary branches ; plumules 
simply pinnate, the pinnee sometimes ramulose at the tip ; tetraspores oval, 
sessile near the tips of the pinnules ; favellte bilobed, on the secondary 
branches. (Tab. CXXIX.) 

257. i«t*«gouttm J outline of the frond ovate; stem thick, setaceous, opake, 
veiny, set with ouadrifarious, lateral branches ; penultimate branches arti- 
culate, set with short, alternate, level-topped plumules ; pinnules incurved, 
constricted at the base, suddenly acuminate, their articulations once and 
half as long as broad; tetraspores very minute, oval, subterminal. (Tab. 

258. Iw arhi a tfim ; character of C, tetragonum, except that the lowermost plu- 
mules are reduced to subulate ramuH ; and the pinnules are not constricted 
at base, and taper gradually (not suddenly) at the apex. (Tab. GXXXYII.) 

259. tetricum; rigid, shrubby ; stem and branches robust, shaggy below, plu- 
mulate above ; plumules crowded, simply pinnate ; pinns acute, tapering 
at the base, ereoto-patent ; articulations twice or thrice as long as broad ; 
tetraspores dliptical, minute, sessile on short lateral processes of the pinus. 

260. Book«ii; stem setaceous, nearly opake, pinnatedly much branched; 
branches decompound, spreading, flexuous, densely plumulate ; plumules 
naked below, pinnate or sub-bipinnate above, the pinnae horizontal or diva- 
ricating, ramulose at the tips ; articulations 2-3 times as long as broad ; 
tetraspores numerous, sessile on the pinnules. (Tab. CCLXXIX.) 

* * * Main stems slender y evidenlfy jointed; branches decompound-pinnate, 
BamuU aUemate, 

261. ffOMUBi much and loosely branched; secondary branches long, flexuous, 
distichotwly plumulate ; plumules lax, simply pinnate ; pinnae long, spread- 
ing, curved ; articulations 4-5 times as long as broad ; tetraspores elliptical, 
secund, four or five on each pinna. (Tab. CCXXX.) 

262. bj — oi<1iiin ; exceedingly slender, and flaccid, decompound; plumules 
long, flexuous, pinnate or sub-bipinnate; articulations of the branches 
eight, of the ramuli four times as long as broad ; tetraspores one or two, 
sessile near the base of the pinnules. (Tab. CCLXIl.) 

263. pe lf pi mum I tufts globose ; filaments slender, much branched, secondaiy 
branches distichously plumulate ; plumules long and narrow, simply pinnate; 

Cae short, simple, spine-like, patent ; articulations 4-5 times as long as 
d; tetraspores globose, lining the inner face of the pinnae. (Tab. 

264. v^arpmmc9DM, 8m. B. Bot. t. 2465. {Unknown to me.) 

Digitized by 



265. fasciculatum J plumules long, erect, linear-obovate, truncate; pinnse 
flexuous, the lower simple, appressed, the upper erecto-patent, ramulose 
near the tip ; articulations of the branches veiny, thrice, of the ramuli once 
or twice as long as broad, with contracted dissepiments. (Tab. CCCVIIl.) 

266. Borrerii much branched, subdistichous, slender; bi-anches set with 
plumules which are bare of ramuli in their lower half, and simply pinnate 
in their upper ; pinnae patent ; articulations of the branches 2-5 times, of 
the pinnae twice, as long as broad ; tetraspores roundish, sessile on the 
inner face of the pinnules. (Tab. CLIX.) 

267. affin*? much branched and bushy; stem veiny; secondary branches long, 
densely plumulate ; plumules very narrow, simply pinnate ; pinnae short, 
erect, the upper longest, crowded at the tips ; articulations of the branches 
3-4, of the pinnae once and half as long as broad ; tetraspores solitary, 
super-axillary. (Tab. CCCXXXI.) 

268. tripinnatam ; distichous, capillaiy, decompound-pinnate; plumules ob- 
ovate, tripinnate above ; the lower pinnae short and abortive ; each pinna 
having at its axil a minute pinnule ; tetraspores oval, lateral on the axillary 
pinnules. (Tab. LXXVIl.) 

269. gpacillimumj distichously branched, fan-shaped; stems capillary, decom- 
posito-pinnate ; plumules bi-tri-pinnate ; articulations of the stem 3-4, of 
the pinnae 2-3 times as long as broad ; tetraspores terminating the ultimate 
pinnules. (Tab. V.) 

270. thojoidetim; capillary, distichously decompound, and repeatedly pinnate; 
plumules bi-tri-pinnate, lanceolate; articulations variable; tetraspores on 
the tips of the ultimate pinnules. (Tab. CCLXIX.) 

• « • « Stems articulatis; branches and ramuli dichotomoua. 

271. corymboBnmj setaceous below, byssoid above, excessively branched; 
lesser branches repeatedly dichotomous, level-topped ; ramuli many times 
forked ; articulations of the branches 8-10 times as long as broad ; tetra- 
spores solitary and axillary, sessile. (Tab. CCLXXII.) 

272. spongiosvm; stems robust, opake and veiny; branches quadrifarious, 
thickly clothed with dichotomous ramuli ; axils patent ; apices bifid ; ar- 
ticulations of the branches swollen at the joints, twice or thrice as long as 
broad. (Tab. CXXV.) 

273. pedicellatumi setaceous, pellucid, jointed throughout, irregularly divided; 
lesser branches dichotomous; apices very obtuse; articulations several 
times as long as broad; tetraspores stalked, pear-shaped, axillary. (Tab. 

♦ * ♦ ♦ * OfsmaU size and densely tiffted, or minuie parasites, 

274. RoUiilj widely spreading, densely tufted; filaments very short, subdicho- 
tomous ; branches very erect, straight, simple ; articuktioiis twice as long 
as broad ; tetraspores oval> dustered, on short subterminal, corymbose ra- 
muli. (Tab. CXX. B.) 

275. fiorldnlmni tufls very dense, globose, fastigiate; filaments slender, di- 
chotomous ; branches very erect, straight, simple ; articulations thrice as 
long as broad; tetraspores ovd, on short secund pedicels, along the 
branches. (Tab. CXX. ^.) 

276. meiMMjarpnmj rising from creeping filaments; stems erect, subsimple; 
branches alternate, very erect, naked or nearly so ; articulations 4-5 times 
as long as broad ; tetraspores elliptical, on long, simple or forked, lateral 
pedicels. (Tab. CCCXXV.) 

Digitized by 



277. spanrami parasitical, minute, scattered; filaments tufted, sparingly 
branched ; branches simple, spreading, unequal ; articulations Si-3 times as 
long as broad. (Tab. CCXCVH.) 

278. IHvieaiij rose-red, minute, tufled, much branched; branches curred; ra- 
muli longish, crowded toward the axils of the secondary branches'; tetra- 
spores on the axillary ramuli, stalked. (Tab. CCCXIV.) 

279. vipgatulnmj rose-red, minute, tufted, much branched; branches long and 
straight, alternate or secund; ramuli from eveiy joint, short, obtuse, 
mostly secund ; articulations thrice as long as broad ; tetraspores scattered. 
(Tab. CCCXIII.) 


Order 14. SIPHONACEiE. 


280. Bwm; frond spherical, hollow. (Tab. CCXC.) 

281. mdhmrmkMi frond forming a yelyety crust on the surface to which it 
adheres. (Tab. XXXV. ^.) 

282. ampliibiiuiii fronds minute, erect, cylindrical, simple or nearly so, obtuse, 
aggr^ated in widely spreadiiig strata. (Tab. XXXV. B.) 

288. tMMntosQmj frond dichotomous. (Tab. XCIII.) 


284. phuBosa; branches naked below, closely pinnated above the middle ; pinnae 
subdistichous. (Tab. III.) 

285. bypnoidesi slender, very much branched; ramuli capHlaiy, ramellose 
towards the tips, irregularly inserted. (Tab. CXIX.) 


286. mbmarinaj tuiled, dichotomous, fastigiate; sporangia numerous, lateral, 
sessile, ovate or lanceolate. (Tab. CCCL. B,) 

287. marinai tufted; branches few, long, obtuse; sporangia solitaiy, obovate, 
pedicellate, lateral. (Tab. CCCL. A.) 

288. TefaitlBai filaments creeping; branches short, erect, fastigiate, woven into 
a velvety stratum ; sporangia globose, solitary, lateral, on short stalks. 
(Tab. CCCXXI.) 

Order 15. CONFEEVACE^. 


289. Browniii tufts cushion-like, dense, fastigiate; filaments interwoven, flex- 
uous, slightly branched; branches subsunple; articulations thickened 
upwards, 4-5 times as long as broad. (Tab. XXX.) 

290. repens | tufts dense, globular ; filaments rooting below, slightly branched ; 
branches erect, sub-simple ; ramuli few ; articulations (^Imdrical, 10-20 
times as long as broad. (Tab. CCXXXVI.) 

291. pelliicld»s rigid, erect, setaceous, dark green, di-trichotomous ; axils of 

Digitized by 



the branches yery acute ; dissepiments only at the forking of the branches 
and ramuli ; articulations very long. (Tab. CLXXIV.) 

292. rec t m n g nl a ri ai filaments loosely tufted, setaceous, rigid ; branches opposite, 
horizontal, distant, set with short, opposite, very patent ramuli ; articula- 
tions 2-3 times as long as broad. (Tab. XII.) 

293. Macallmaas filaments setaceous, rigid, flexuous, loosely bundled, much 
branched ; branches alternate, very patent ; ramuli short, recurved, simple, 
obtuse ; articulations twice or thrice as long as broad. (Tab. LXXXIV.) 

294. Hntchinsitt; filaments setaceous, rigid, crisp, glaucous-green, flexuous, 
loosely tufted ; ramuli erecto-patent, simple or pectinulate on the inner face ; 
apices very obtuse ; articulations 2-3 times as long as broad. (Tab. 

295. difFosa; filaments subsetaceous, loosely tufted, rigid, full green, flexuous, 
much branched; branches distant, irregularly subdivided, or subdichoto- 
mous, ramulose above ; ramuli simple, secund ; articulations 3-4i times as 
long as broad. (Tab. CXXX.) 

296. nndai rigid, slender, straight, dull green, sparingly dichotomous ; branches 
few, scattered, appressed; articulations many tmies longer than broad. 
(Tab. CCCLI.) 

297. mpestrisi capillary, rigid, dark green, straight, bushy; branches erect, 
crowded, densely clothed with appressed, opposite or alternate ramuli ; ar- 
ticulations 3-4 times as long as oroad. (Tab. CLXXX.) 

298. Ueterireiuij much branched, bushy, yellow-green; branches crowded, re- 
peatedly divided, flexuous ; ramuU secund, blunt, of few articulations ; ar- 
ticulations of the branches six times, of the ramuli thrice, as long as broad. 
(Tab. CXC.) 

299. flemoMj capillary, tufted, flexuous, pale green, much branched; branches 
set with curved secondary or tertiary branches, which are pectinated with 
short, simple, secund, curved ramuli ; articulations 3-4 times as long as 
broad. (Tab. CCCLin.) 

300. cradlis | filaments veiy long, capillary, flexuous, silky, much branched, 
yellow-green; main branches angularly bent; ramuli pectinate, secund, 
much attenuated, elongate; articulations 3-5 times longer than broad. 
(Tab. XVIII.) 

301. Balliana; filaments very long, extremely slender and soft, grass-green, 
excessively branched ; penultimate branches virgate and set with slender, 
secund, short ramuli ; articulations of the branches eight to ten times, of 
the ramuli six to eight times, as long as broad. (Tab. CCCLYI.) 

802. Rndolphiaaai filaments Tcry long and slender, flexuous, soft, much 
branched, yellow-green; branches irregular; ultimate ramuli very long, 
pectinate, patent; articulations many timesl onger than broad. (Tab. 

303. r e fra c u $ filaments capillary, bright green, very much branched ; secondary 
branches quadrifarious, repeate^y divided; branchlets closely set and 
widely spreading ; ramuli pectinated ; articulations twice or thrice as long 
as broad. (Tab. XXIV.) 

304. albidai tufts dense, elongate, silky or spongy, soft; filaments exceedingly 
slender, decompound ; branches patent, the upper ones frequently opposite ; 
ramuli opposite or secund; articulations 4-5 times as long as broad. 
(Tab. CCLXXV.) 

305. laaosai filaments slender, short, yellow-green, forming dense, globular 

Digitized by 



toils ; branches yirgate, erect, subdistant, straight, alternate ; rimnli few, 
scattered ; axils very acute ; lower articulations twice, upper six times as 
long as broad. (Tab. VI.) 

306. vncUlis; tufts short, spongy, divided; filaments flexuous, sparingly 
branched, interwoven and rooting ; ramuli secund, distant ; articulations 
twice as long as broad. (Tab. CCVII.) 

307. •rctei tufts very dense, starry, bright green; filaments matted at the base, 
much branched ; branches straight, crowded, very erect ; ramuli appressed ; 
articulations in the older parts once or twice as long as broad, in the 
younger many times longer. (Tab. CXXXV.) 

308. gUncMcens; tufts dense, glaucous green; filaments veiy slender, dgsag, 
much branched ; branches erect, lesser ones pectinate, with very erect, dose- 
set, straight, elongated ramuH; articulations thrice as long as broad. 
(Tab. CXCVI.) 

309. Meats; densely tufted, dark green; filaments ri^d, curved, irregularly 
divided ; branches zigzag, decompound, the lesser oranches arched, or in- 
curved and falcate, ramulose on their inner faces ; ramuli blunt; articulations 
3-4 times as long as broad, with a dense endochrome and pdlucid dissepi- 
ments. (Tab. CCXVI.) 

310. MagdalenK; filaments capillair, blackish -green, short, decumbent^ 
matted together, slightly branched, angularly bent; branches divaricate, 
dichotomous ; ramuli few, falcate ; articiQations three to four times as bng 
as broad. (Tab. CCCLV. A,) 

311. Q«*tF«5 filaments short, dingy green, capillary, matted together, densely 
tufted, dichotomous, flexuous, with few ramuli ; articulations once and half 
as long as broad. C^ab. CCCLV. B,) 

312. flaTMcons} forming pale yellowish strata; filaments slender, sparingly 
divided, subdichotomous, flexuous ; ramuli long, alternate or secund ; ar- 
ticulations 8-9 times as long as broad. (Tab. CCXCVIII.) 

313. fractej tufts entangled, often floating, dull green; filaments rigid, dis- 
tantly branched, subdichotomous, with wide aiuls ; ramuli few, alternate or 
secund; articulations 3-6 times as long as broad, at length elliptical. 
(Tab. CCXCIV.) 


314. rfparinmj slender, pale green, flaccid, angularly bent; articulations about 
twice as long as broad. (Tab. CCXXXVIII.) 

315. CMparji} filaments extremely slender, pale, interwoven, curved and bent; 
angles emitting root-like branches; articulations 2-6 times longer than 
br^; endoclm>me granular. (Tab. CCCLIV. B.) 

♦ Decumbent, straHfied, 

316. ■renicolaj threads soft, extremely fine, matted, ver y p ale green; articula- 
tions once and half as long as broad. (Tab. CCCLIV. ^.) 

317. arenoMt; filaments slender, stndghtish, rigid, forming wide strata; jomts 
3-5 times as long as broad. (Tab. LIV. C.) 

318. litoreai filaments thick, rigid, crisped, loosely bundled, dull green; arti- 
culations once and half as long as broad, here and there swollen in pairs 
and discoloured. (Tab. CCCXXXIH.) 

Digitized by 



819. Idnmai filaments yery thick, of great length, curled, rigid, loosely 
bundled; articulations as long as broad. (Tab. CL. A) 

320. sutoria ; filaments setaceous, long, flexuous, dark green ; articulations once 
and half as long as broad. (Tab. CL. B,) 

321. toituoaaj filaments rigid, slender, curled, interwoven in spreading strata; 
joints twice or thrice as long as broad. (Tab. LIV. A,) 

322. implexai filaments very slender, rather flaccid, forming entangled, bright- 
green strata ; joints as long as, or longer than broad. (Tab. LIY. j9.) 

♦ * Hxed by the base, ti^d. 

323. Melaironivmi filaments erect, straight, robust, slightly tufted, stiff and 
wiry, dark green; joints twice as long as broad. (Tab. XCIX. A,) 

824. nreaj filaments fixed, long, setaceous, tufted, straight, harsh, brittle, 
yellow-green; joints as long as broad. (Tab. XCIX. B.) 

825. colUbenss filaments long, straight, tufted, variable in diameter, gelati- 
nous and flaccid, seruginous green ; articulations as long as broad, with 
dense, granular endochrome. (Tab. CCCXXVII.) 

826. banf^oides; filaments long, slender, soft, lubricous, wavy; articulations 
twice as long as broad, containing at maturity a dense green mass ; dissepi- 
ments broad and pellucid. (Tab. CCLXVIII.) 

327. VounifaiMii filaments short, tufted, nearly straight; articulations once or 

twice as long as broad ; dissepiments contracted. (Tab. CCCXXVIII.) 
828. cUnd ert lna, Berk. Gl. Br. Alg. t. 13. f. 1. {Unknown to me.) 

329. Hyetrlx. (Tab. CCXXVI.) 

Order 16. ULVACE^. 


880. comncopisei gregarious, small; fronds stipitate, suddenly dilated, at 
length torn, plaited a^ the margm. (Tab. CCCIY.) 

881. intestinalis s simple, davate, at length inflated, tapering much to the base. 
(Tab. CLIV.) 

882. eompressa j branching, compressed, more or less compounded ; branches 
subsimple, obtuse, much attenuated at the base. (Tab. CCCXXXV.) 

883. Ii inkl a n a j cylindrical, reticulated, very pale, membranaceous (rigid when 
dry), much branched ; branches alternate, spreading. (Tab. CCCXLIV.) 

884. erectaj frond cylindrical, filiform, slender; branches erect, opposite or 
alternate, all attenuated to a point ; ramuli capillary, erecto-patent ; cells 
rectangular, filled with endochrome. (Tab. XLIII.) 

885. cUthrataj cylindrical, filiform, slender, reticulated, much branched; 
branches decompound, spreading, set with divaricated, spine-like ramuli. 
(Tab. CCCXL.) 

886. ramvloM; frond subcompressed, irregularly branched; main divisions 
long and subsimple; lateral branches curved and tvristed, everywhere 
clothed with short, divaricated, spine-like ramuli. (Tab. CCXLV.) 

887. Hopkirldi J frond byssoid, excessively branched ; branches erect, attenuate, 
bearing scattered, subulate ramuli ; reticulations very large, each areole con- 
taining one or two minute grains. (Tab. CCLXIII.) 

Digitized by 



338. percanM; capillary, oitangled, simple, compressed, sobsdid, reticulated; 
cells quadrate, two or more in the breadth of the frond; eododirome 
filling the cell. (Tab. CCCUI.) 

339. Balfi^s capillary, simple or neariy so, snbsolid, largely reticulated ; areoles 
large, hyaline, %-4 in the breadth of the frond, each containing a bright- 
gie^i grain of endochrome. (Tab. CCLXXXII.) 


340. l a tk i rfm a ; frond broadly orate or oblong, membranous, frdl-green. 
(Tab. CLXXI.) 

341. Irtictiica; frond very delicate, at first saccate ; then cleft to the base into 
numerous ladniated flat segments. (Tab. CCXLIII.) 

342. Idnsai frond linear-lanceolate, undulate. (Tab. XXXIX.) 


343. Udnlatai frond deeply and irregularly deft. (Tab. XCII.) 

344. ▼olgMiBj frond simple, lanceolate, wavy. (Tab. CCXI.) 

844.* P. »it«Mrfa,Ag.— Carm. Hook. Br. Fl. t. ii. p.310. {Unknown to me,) 


345. fwrneoprnpfsn^i stratum brownish-purple; filaments long, simple, decum- 
bent, here and there constricted ; granules several in each transverse band. 
(Tab. XCVI.) 

346. Pilaris i filaments very minute, erect, simple, straight, compressed, purple ; 
grains two or three in each transverse band, globose, sometimes solitary. 

347. ceranlcolai filaments parasitical, very slender, elongate, rosy ; articula- 
tions once or twice as long as br oad, l ongitudinally striate ; the endodirome 
at length globular. (Tab. CCCXVII.) 

348. canMfty Dillw. t. 84. {Unknown to me.) 

349. (?) clesaiui } filaments minute, dichotomous, with wide axils ; granules 
binate, in a single row. (Tab. CCXLVI.) 



350. pUeata; fironds gregarious, gelatinous, plaited, often hollow and at length 
ruptured, duU dark green ; filaments waw, associated in dichotomous series. 
(Tab. CCCXV.) 

351. atrms globose, minute, very firm and smooth, glossy, black-green; fila- 
ments densely packed. (Tab. CCXXXIX.) 

352. aFpUaata, Carm. in Hook. Br. El. vol. ii. p. 392. {Unknown to me.) 

353. nltida; frond subgelatinous, lobed and plaited, hollow, lubricous, dark 
shining green. (Tab. LXVIH.) 


354. '^•iT«ii». (Tab. CCCXVI.) 


355. Orwwwelliij tufts pulvinate; filaments very slender, fastigiate, collected 
into branching bundles. (Tab. CLX.) 


Digitized by 




356. confervicola; filaments short, tufted, glaucous green, opake, blunt, rigid, 
nearly straight. (Tab. CCLIV.) 

357. miKHwr, Ag. — Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 367. (Unknown to me) 

358. luteolai filaments exceedingly minute, slender, scattered, filifonn, obtuse, 
hyaline or containing light green endochrome. (Tab. CCCXLII.) 

359. scopnlomm; stratum velvety, dirty green; filaments flexuous, subulate, 
subattenuate, simple. (Tab. LVIII. B,) 

360. fMciciilatai stratum widely spreading, velvety, dark green; filaments 
straight, subulate, attenuated, fasdculately pseudo-branched. (Tab. 

361. pannosai filaments long, much curled, and densely interwoven into lamel- 
lated tufts or honey-combed strata; endochrome filling the tube, dark 
green, densely annulated. (Tab. LXXVI.) 

362. ■emiplena) filaments long, slender, tough, flexuous, densely interwoven in 
lamellated tuft»; endochrome glaucous, frequently interrupted, leaving 
parte of the tube empty. (Tab. CCCIX.) 

363. Hydnoides; patches widely spreading, dark green; filamente flexuous, 
decumbent, their tips cohering in rigid, erect, tooth-like fascicles ; border 
rather wide. (Tab. CCCVI.) 

364. c«spitnl« I tufts convex, soft, cushioned, blackish-green ; filamente densely 
packed, flexuous, obtuse, not attenuated ; border narrow. (Tab. CCCV.) 

* Tube conHnuous ; endochrome cylindrical^ imperfectly annulated, 

365. majiisciiU; strata of large dimensions, blackish-green; filamente thick, 
bundled, twisted, obtuse ; endochrome densely annulated. (Tab. LXII.) 

366. fbrmsinea; filamente slender, flaccid, forming a stratum of a verdigris- 
green colour, which at length changes to pale chestnut. (Tab. CCCXI.) 

* * Tube impeffectly articulated; endochrome distinct^ annulated, with pel- 
lucid interspaces, 

367. Oarmichaeliii filamente very long, thickish, curled, grass-green; tube 
imperfectly jointed. (Tab. CLXXXVI. A.) 

368. specioMt; filaments very long, thick, flagcid, straight, at length curled, the 
margin slightly crenate, yellow-green, glossy when dry ; tube imperfectly 
jointed. (Tab. CLXXXVI. ^.) 

369. flmccai filamente short, tufted, nearly straight, occasionally proliferous, 
articulated ; articulations shorter than their bi^eadth ; endochrome at length 
much contracted. (Tab. CCC.) 

370. CuUerbe; exceedingly slender, soft, articulated; articulations as long as 
broad, the endochrome at length spherical. (Tab. CCCXXXVI.) 


371. «affi^tf6rmi»| sheaths snake-like, simple, decumbent, tapering to one ex- 
tremity ; striae distant. (Tab. CCXLIX.) 


372. litioralUi j stratum vivid green ; filaments thick, dark green, curved ; striee 
conspicuous, closely set. (Tab. CV. A.) 

373. »nb«al»a, Ag.— Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 376. (Unknown to me,) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


374. spinJiB; stratum membranaceons, dark green, not very lubricouB; fila- 
ments slender, spirally twisted, densely interwoven. (Tab. CV. B.) 

375. nigrowidiaj stratum very dark; filaments pale green, with obtuse, 
curved apices; striae distant, half the diameter of the filament. (Tab. 
CCLI. A.) 

376. «iilmlilormi»j stratum seruginous-green ; filaments bright green, subnli- 
form; strise distant i-f the diameter of the filament. (Tab. CCLI. B.) 

377. Hi«ign<« I stratum blacldsh-brown ; filaments brown, very thick, their apices 
obtuse, slightly oblique and ciliated ; strise very dose. (Tab. CCLI. C.) 


378. tcnuisaimai stratum very lubricous, sruginous; filaments densely spiral, 
very slender, flexuous. (Tab. CV, C.) 

379. HutchiMl*, Kiitz. (Unknown to me.) 

Order 18. NOSTOCHACEi^^:. 


380. mtricat*. (Tab. CCLVI.) 


381. Carml ch ft ftl li ; spores oblong, twice or thrice as long as broad, next the 
connecting cell. (Tab. CXIII. A,) 

382. Thwaitesii; spores elliptical, once and a half as long as broad, distant 
from the ciliated connecting cell. (Tab. CXIII. B.) 

383. BitKwnrij spores numerous, elliptical, twice as long as wide, com- 
mencing nearest the connecting cells, which are smooth and subquadrate. 
(Tab. CLXXIII. A.) 

384. Berkeleyaiia; spores large, twice the width of ordinary cells, oblong, half 
as long again as wide, brown when mature, two on each side the connecting 
cell, which is spheroidal. (Tab. CLXXHI. B.) 

385. BiJ«i, Thw.— Harv. Man. ed. 2. p. 233. (Not figured.) 


386. litorea; filaments nearly straight; cells very short, compressed, closely 
packed ; spores elliptical, not wider than the cells. (Tab. CXIII. C.) 

387. Hsrveyanai filaments much curved, composed of ceUs nearly as long as 
broad ; spores exactly spherical, almost twice the diameter of the cells ; 
connecting cells subquadrate, rather longer than wide, and of the same 
width as the ordinary cells. (Tab. CLXXIII. C.) 

Order 19. PALMELLACE^. 

ex. H0BM08F0BA. 

388. ramo«*j branched; endochrome radiated. (Tab. CCXIIL) 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Ala&ia escnlenta 23 79 

Ajrtlurocladia villosa 20 64 

Asperococcos compressus .46 72 

echinatns .. 48 194 

Tumeri 47 11 

Bangia camea 348 

ceramicola 347 317 

dUaris 346 322 

elegans 349 246 

fosoopurporea . . . 345 96 

Bonn^naiflomaasparagoides 134 51 

Bostiycbia scorpioides . . . 101 48 

Biyopsis bypnoides 285 119 

plumosa 284 3 

Callitbamnion affine 267 331 

arbuscola.. 255 274 

barbatum.. 253 165 

Borreri 266 159 

brachiatmn 258 137 

Brodiffii ... 256 129 

byssoideom 262 262 

corymbosum 271 272 

araciatum . . 250 164 

Daviesii ... 278 314 

fascicolatum 265 308 

floccosum . . 251 81 

floridulum . 275 120 

giacillimuin 269 5 

Hookeri... 260 279 

Syn Plate. 

Callithainnion mesocarpum 276 325 

pedicellatum 273 212 

Pluma .... 254 296 

Plumula... 249 242 

polyspermum 263 231 

purpurascens 264 

roseum 261 230 

Bothii .... 274 120 

sparsom ... 277 297 

spoDgiosum 272 125 

tetragonum 257 136 

tetricmn... 259 188 

thuyoideum 270 269 

tripinnatum 268 77 

Turneri ... 252 179 

virgatulum. 279 313 

Calothrix csBspitula 364 305 

confervicola 356 264 

fasGLColata 360 58 

hydnoides 363 306 

luteola 358 342 

mucor 357 

pannosa 361 76 

scopulorum .... 339 58 

semiplena 362 309 

Carpomitra Cabrera 22 14 

CateneUa Opuntia 214 88 

Ceramium acanthonotum . 237 140 

botryocarpum . . 227 215 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Syn. Plmte. 

Ceramium ciliatum 238 139 

decurrens 228 276 

Deslongchampii 229 219 

diaphanum ... 230 1 93 

echionotum ... 236 141 

fastigiatum ... 234 255 

flabelligerum .. 235 144 

graciUitnum ... 231 206 

nodosum 233 90 

rubrum 226 181 

strictam 232 334 

Chondrus crispus 197 63 

Norvegicus 198 187 

Chorda filum 30 107 

lomentaria 31 285 

Chordaria divaricata 52 17 

flagellifonnis . . . 61 111 

Cbrysymenia davellosa . . 140 114 

rosea 141 301 

Cbylodadia articulata 146 283 

kalifonnis . . . 143 145 

ovalis 142 118 

parvula 145 210 

reflexa 144 42 

Cladopbora albida 304 275 

arcta 307 135 

Balliana 301 356 

Brownii 289 30 

diffosa 295 130 

falcata 309 216 

flavescens 312 298 

flexuosa 299 353 

fracta 313 294 

Gattyte 311 365 

glaucesceDS .. 308 196 

gracilis 300 18 

HutcbinsisB .. 294 124 

Isetevirens 298 190 

lanosa 305 6 

Macallana ... 293 84 

Magdalense . . 310 355 

nuda 296 361 

pellucida 291 174 

rectangularis . 292 12 

refracta 303 24 

Sjm. Plate. 

Cladopbora repens 290 236 

Eudolpbiana . 302 86 

rapestris 297 180 

uncialis 306 207 

Cladoste^Aus spongiosus . 71 138 

verticillatus .70 33 

Codium adbserens 281 35 

ampbibium 282 35 

Bursa 280 290 

tomentosum 283 93 

Conferva area 324 99 

arenicola 316 354 

arenosa 317 54 

bangioides 326 268 

dandestina 328 

collabens 325 327 

implexa 322 54 

Linum 319 150 

litorea 318 333 

Melagonium 323 99 

sutoria 320 150 

tortuosa 321 54 

Youngana . ... 327 328 

Corallina elongata 148 

officinalis 147 222 

squamata 149 201 

Crouania attenuata 222 106 

Cruoria pellita . . . ^ 215 117 

Cutleria multifida 32 76 

Cystoseira barbata 6 360 

ericoides 4 265 

fibrosa 8 133 

fcBniculacea ... 7 122 

granulata 6 60 

Dasya arbuscula 132 224 

cocdnea 130 253 

ocellata 131 40 

venusta 133 225 

Delesseria alata 165 247 

angustissima . . 166 83 

Hypoglossum . 167 2 

ruscifolia 168 26 

sanguinea .. . 163 161 

sinuosa 164 259 

Desmarestia aculeata .... 18 49 

Digitized by 




Syn. Plate. 

Desmarestia ligulata 17 115 

viridis 19 812 

Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus 41 326 

Dictyota alomaria 37 1 

dichotoma 38 103 

Dudresimia cocdnea 220 244 

divaricata 221 110 

Domontia filiformis 208 59 

Ectocarpus amphibius ... 81 183 

brachiatos ... 94 4 

crinitus 86 330 

distortus 88 329 

^sdculatos .. 83 273 

feneskatus ... 82 257 

granulosus ... 92 200 

Hincksiae 84 22 

Landsburgii . . 89 233 

littoralis 90 197 

longifiructus . . 91 25S 

Mertensii 95 132 

pusillus 87 153 

siliculosus 80 162 

sphserophoTUS . 93 126 

tomentosus ... 85 182 

Elacbista curta 61 332 

flacdda 60 260 

fucicola 59 240 

pulyinata 64 28 

scutulata 63 323 

stellulata 62 261 

velutina 66 28 

EnteromoTpha clathrata . . 335 340 

compressa . 332 335 

comucopise 330 304 

erecta 334 43 

intestinalis 331 154 

HopkirkiL. 337 263 

Linkiana . . 333 344 

percursa .. 338 852 

Balfsu.... 889 282 

ramulosa.. 336 245 

Fucus canaliculatus 15 229 

ceranoides 11 271 

Mackaii 14 52 

nodosus 13 158 

Sjm. Plftto. 

Fucus serratus 12 47 

vesiculosus 10 204 

Furcellaria fastigiaU 207 94 

Gelidium cartilagineum .. 192 337 

corneum 191 53 

Gigartina acicularis 194 104 

mamillosa 196 199 

pistillata 193 232 

Teedii 195 266 

Ginanma furcellata 210 69 

GbiosipLonia ci^illaris . . 217 57 

Gracilaria compressa 186 205 

confervoides ... 187 65 

erecta 188 177 

multipartita . . . 185 15 

Grateloupia filicina 190 100 

Griffithsia barbata 242 281 

ocHrallina 244 214 

Bevoniensis . . . 243 16 

equisetifolia . . . 240 67 

secundiflora ... 245 185 

setaoea 246 184 

simplicifilum .. 241 287 

Gjmnogongrus GiiffithsisB 204 108 

plicatus . . 205 288 

Halidiys siliquosa 3 66 

Haliseris polypodioides ... 33 19 

Halymenia ligulata 209 112 

Hapalidium Phyllactidium 162 166 

Hildenbrandtia rubra 161 250 

Himanthalia lorea 16 78 

Hormospora ramosa 388 213 

Hypnea purpurascens . . . 189 116 

Iridsea eduUs 213 97 

Jania comiculata 151 234 

rubens 150 252 

Kallymenia Dubyi 212 123 

reniformis . . . 211 13 

Laminaria bulbosa 25 241 

digitata 24 223 

Fascia 29 45 

longicruris 26 339 

PhyUitis 28 192 

sacchariua 27 289 

Laurencia csespitosa 136 286 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Syn. Plate. 

Laurencia dasyphylla .... 138 152 

obtusa 137 148 

pinnatifida 135 55 

tenuissima 139 198 

Leathesia Berkeley! 57 176 

tubenfonnis ... 56 324 

Lithocystis AUmanni .... 162 166 

Litosiphon Laminarise ... 50 295 

pusillas 49 270 

Lyngbya Carmichaelii . . . 367 186 

CutlerisB 370 336 

ferruginea 366 311 

flacca 369 300 

majuscula 365 62 

speciosa 368 186 

Melobesia agariciformis . . 155 73 

calcarea 153 291 

farin08a 158 347 

fascicnlata .... 1 54 74 

lichenoides 156 346 

membranacea . . 157 347 

polymorpha ... 152 345 

pustulata 160 347 

vemicata 159 347 

Mesogloia Griffithsiana . . 54 318 

yermicularis ... 53 31 

viresoens 55 82 

Microdadia glandulosa . . . 225 29 

Microcoleus anguiformis . . 371 249 

Monormia intricata 380 256 

Myrionema davatum .... 69 348 

Leclancherii . . 67 41 

punctifonne . . 68 41 

strangulans .. 66 280 

Myriotrichia davseformis . 96 101 

filiformis ... 97 156 

Naccaria Wigghii 216 38 

Nemaleon multifidom ... 218 36 

purpureum . . . 219 161 

Nitophyllum Bonnemaisoni 171 23 

Gmelini.... 172 235 

Hilliffi 170 169 

laceratum .. 173 267 

punctatum.. 169 202 

versicolor . . . 174 9 

Syn. Plate. 

Ochlochaete Hystrix 329 226 

Odonthalia dentata 98 34 

Oscillatoria insignis 377 251 

littoralis 372 105 

nigroviridis . . 375 251 

spiralis 374 105 

subsalsa 373 

subulifonnis . . 376 251 

Padina Pavonia 34 91 

Peyssonelia Dubyi 203 71 

Phyllophora Bro'diaei 201 20 

membranifolia 200 163 

pabnettoides . 202 310 

nibens 199 131 

Plocamium coccineum ... 175 44 

Polyides rotundas 206 95 

Polysiphonia aflSnis 123 303 

atrorabescens 125 172 

Brodiaei 118 195 

byssoides ... 129 284 

Canmcliaelianall6 319 

elongata 114 292 

dongella ... 113 146 

fastigiata . . . 127 299 

fibrata 109 208 

fibriUosa ... 117 302 

formosa 107 168 

furoellata . . . 126 7 

^ Grmllii..,, 115 

Giiffithsiana. 112 228 

nigrescens . . 122 277 

obscura 120 102 

parasitica . . . 128 147 

pulvinata ... 108 102 

Eicbardsoni . Ill 10 

simulans 121 278 

spinulosa... 110 320 

gtricta 107 

subulifera .. 124 227 

urceolata ... 106 167 

variegata ... 119 155 

violaoea 115 209 

Porpbyra laciniata 343 92 

miniata 344* 

vulgaris 344 211 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



9jn, Plate. 

Ptilota plomosa 223 80 

sericea 224 191 

Panctaria latifolia 43 8 

plantaginea 44 128 

tenmssinia .... 45 248 

Fycnophycos tubercolatus 9 89 

Balfsia verracosa 58 98 

Hhizoclonimn Casparyi ... 315 354 

riparium... 314 238 

Ehodomela lycopodioides . 99 50 

subfosca 100 264 

Shodymenia bifida 177 32 

cOiata 181 127 

cristata 180 307 

JDbata 182 175 

ladniata 178 121 

palmata .... 183 217 

Palmetta.... 179 134 

Rivularia applanata. 352 

atra 351 239 

nitida 353 68 

pHcata 350 315 

Rytiphbea complanata . . . 103 170 

fraticulosa 105 220 

pinastroides . . 102 85 

thnyoides 104 221 

SaigassQin bacdferam ... 2 109 

vidgare 1 843 

Schizosiphon Warreniffi .. 354 316 

Schizotbrix Cresswellii . . 355 160 

Seirospora Gnffitbsiana . . 248 21 

Spermodra Harveyana . . . 387 173 

litorea 386 113 

Syn. Plate. 

Sphaoelaria drrbosa 76 178 

filicma 72 142 

fuaca 77 149 

plumosa 76 87 

raoemosa 79 349 

radioans 78 189 

sooparia 74 37 

Sertularia. ... 73 148 

SpbeeroooocoB ooronopifolius 184 61 

SpbflBrozyga Berkeleyana . 384 173 

Broomei 883 178 

Carmicbaelii . 381 113 

Balftii 385 

Thwaitesii .. 382 113 

Spiiulina Hutcbinaiie .... 379 

tenmssima 378 105 

Sporocbnus peduncolatus . 21 56 

Spyridia filamentosa 239 46 

Striaria attenoata 42 25 

Stenogramme interrapta . . 176 157 

Stflopbora Lyngbysei .... 40 237 

rbizodes 39 70 

Taonia atomaria 37 1 

XJlva Lactuca 341 243 

latisaima 340 171 

Linza 342 39 

Vaucberia marina 287 350 

submarina 286 350 

velutiQa 288 321 

Wrangelia moltifida 247 27 

Zonaria coUaris 35 359 

parvula 36 341 

Reevb and Nichols, Printen, Heathcock Court, 414, Strand. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by 



VOL. I. 

{The tynonymet care printed in Italia.) 


AgtaMa adhBrens, Cabrera ... 85 ^. 

dlchotoma^ Cabrera 93 

Agarum eseulentum, Bory 79 

AglmophfUum Bwmemaiaoni, Endl. . . 23 

Alalia esculenta, Grev 79 

Akytmidinm buUatum, Lamx 68 

Alsidium icorpuddes, J. Ag 48 

Anabmna marina, Breb 113 A, 

Arthrodadia viUosa, Duby 64 

Asperococcus buUotus, Lamx 11 

compressus, Griff, ... 72 
m^owM /3, Dnby. ... 11 

Tumeri, Hook 11 

Bangia atrthpurpurea, Ag 96 

fasco-purpurea, X^^d 96 

Johnstoni, Grev 54 5. 

venicolor. Kg 96 

viridis, Oed 54 ^. 

Batracho9permumattenuatumfion, . . 106 

Bdonia torulosa, Cann 113 A. 

Bonnemaisoiiia asparagoides, Ag. . . 51 

Bostricliia scorpioides, MarU 48 

Bryox>si8 Arhuscula, Ag 119 

hypnoides, Lamx 119 

Lyngby(jn, FL Dan 3 

pluinosa,Ag 3 

By39U9 purpurea, Sm 120 B. 

CaUithamnion floccostun, Aff 81 

floridulum, Aff, . . . 120 A. 

gracillimum, Aff 5 

muUifidum, Kg 27 


CaUithamnion nodulosum. Kg 106 

Flumula, Lyngb 81 

PoUexfenii, Harv. ... 81 
purpureum, Harv. . 120 ^. 

Kothii, Lynffb 120 ^. 

seirospermuMy Griff. . . 21 

iripinnatum, Aff 77 

versicolor, Harv 21 

Calothrix fasciculata, Aff 58 ^. 

pannosa, Aff 76 

scopulorum, Aff 68 ^. 

Carmichaelia attenuata, Grev 25 

Carpomitra Cabrerse, Kg ^ . . . 14 

Catenella Opnntia, Grev 88 

Ceramium asparoffoides, Eoth 51 

CasuarifUB, DC 27 

diaphanum, ft Wyatt. . . 90 

equisetifolium, DC 67 

JilameTUoBum, Ag 46 

FUum, Roth 107 

incurvum, DC 85 

nodosum, Griff. & Harv. . 90 

oceUatum, Ag 40 

pennaium, Oed 87 

Plocamium, Roth 44 

plumosum. Roth 80 

riffidtdum. Griff. & Harv. . 9 

scoparium. Roth 37 

tvherculomm. Roth 69 

verticillatum, DC 33 

verticillatum, Dud 27 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ChtBtoderma pellituniy Kg 117 

Ch€etophora mtdtifida. Hook 36 

peUita, Lyngb 117 

venfiiculata. Hook 31 

Chatopteris plumosus, Kg 87 

Cheetospora JFigghii^ Ag 38 

Chondria clavellosa, Ag 114 

Opuntiay Ilook 88 

ovalis, Ag 118 

pinnatifiday Ag 55 

purpurascens, Grev 59 

Chondrotkamnion clavellomm^ Kg. . . 114 

con/ertum, De Not. . 114 

Chondrus Brodiaiy Grev 20 

celticus, Kg 63 

crispus, Lyn^fb 63 

GriffithauB, J. Ag 108 

incurvatuSy Kg 63 

multipartita, Grev 15 

polymorphs, Lamx 63 

Chorda FUum, Lamx 107 

tomentom, Lyngb 107 

Chordaria divaricata, Jg 17 

Mlum, Ag 107 

flagelliformis, Jg Ill 

muUifida, Lyngb 36 

Opuntla, Spr 88 

rhizodeSy Ag 70 

rotunda. Hook 95 

Chrysimenia clavellosa, J. Ag 114 

Chylodadia clavellosa, Hook 114 

ovalis, Hook 118 

reflexa, Lenotm 42 

Cladophora Brownii, Ilarv 30 

ghmerata, y, llass 30 

gracilis, Griff, 18 

lanosa, Kg 6 

Macallana, Harv 84 

rectangularis, Grif. .... 12 

refracta, Kg 24 

Rudolphiana, Kg 86 

Cladostephus Myriophyllum, Ag. . . 33 

verticillatus, Ag 33 

fFigghii, Spreng 38 

Coccotylus BroduBi, Kg 20 

Codium adhserens, Ag 35 ^. 

amphibium, Moore 35 j&. 

elongatvm, Ag. 93 

filiforme, Mont 93 

lineare, Ag 93 

tomentosum, Stack 93 

Conferva serea, Dillw 99 5. 

antejmina, Bory 99 -ff. 

arenosa, Carm. ....... 54 C 

atro-purpurea. Both 96 

brachiata, Sm 4 

Brownii, BiUw 30 

cancellata, Roth 67 

Ceratophyllum, Roth 33 

Crouani, Chauv 12 

crinita, Ruch 25 

equisetifolia, Lightf. 67 

JUiformis, Fl. Dan 59 

floccosa, Fl. Dan 81 

Jhridula, Dillw 120 ^. 

fusco-purpurea, DiUw 96 

gracilis. Griff. 18 

gracilis, Widf. 70 

Griffithsiana, Sm 46 

hnbricata, Huds 67 

implexa, BiUw 54 -S. 

intertexta. Roth 102 A. 

intricaia, Grev 54 j5. 

Kaneana, Me' Calla 86 

lanosa. Roth 6 

majuscula, Dillw 62 

M.ehL^m\\m,Weh.^Mohr. ^^ A, 

multifida, Huds 27 

myriophyllum. Roth 33 

pennata, Sm 87 

puhinaia, Br 30 

pulvinata. Roth 120 B. 

purpurea, Dillw 120 B. 

rectangularis, Griff 12 

refracta. Roth 24 

rhizodes, Ehr 70 

Rothii, Turn 120 j5. 

Rudolphiana, Ag 86 

scoparia, Linn 37 

scopulorum, Web. & Mohr. 58 5. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Conferva squarrosa, Oed 50 

tortuosa, Dillw 54 ^. 

tUotkriXy Lyngb 54 ^. 

verrucosa, Sm 70 

verticillata^ Lyngb 33 

villosa, Huds 64 

violacea, Eoth. . ; 120 ^. 

CoraUopsis dichotoma, Subr 69 

Croaania attenuata, /. Ag 106 

Cruoria deusta, Aresch 98 

pellita, J^ies 117 

Cutleria multifida, Grev 75 

Cgfnaduse luberculala, Dne 89 

Cf/sloclonium purpuraceum. Kg 117 

Cystoseira foeniculacea, Grev 122 

granulata, Ag 60 

siliquosa, Ag 66 

Dasya ocellata, Harv 40 

simpliciusctUaj Ag 40 

Delesseria angustissima, Griff. .... 83 

bifida, Lamx 32 

Botmemaisom, Ag 23 

Brodi<Bi, Lamx 20 

coccinea, Ag 44 

dentala, Lamx 34 

edulis, Lamx 97 

Jilicina, Lamx 100 

glandulosa, Ag 29 

Hypoglossum, Ag 2 

Flocamium, Ag 44 

ruscifolia, Lamx 26 

Desmarestia aculeata, Lamx 49 

ligulata, I/imx 115 

Desmia aculeata, Lyngb 49 

ligulaia, Lyngb 115 

Dickophyllum dickotomvm, Kg 103 

implexum. Kg 103 

vulgare, Kg 103 

Bictgopteria elongata, Lamx 19 

polgpodioidesy Lamx ... 19 

Dictyota atomaria, Grev 1 

ciliata, La?nx 1 

dichotoma, Lamx 103 

implexa, Lamx 103 

lineolata, Grev 25 

Dictyota multifida, Boiy 75 

Pavonia, Lamx 91 

penicUlata, Lamx 75 

zonata, Lamx 1 

Budresnaia divaricata, /. Jg 110 

Domontia iiliformis, Gr 59 

incrassata, Lamx 59 

triquetra, Lamx 69 

Ectocarpus brachiatus, Harv 4 

cruciafus, Ag ; . . 4 

Hincksiae, JTarv 22 

Elachistea attenuata, Harv 28 ^. 

pulvinata, ffarv 28 ^. 

velutina, Fries 28 ^. 

Elaionema viUosum, Berk 64 

Enccelium bullosum, Ag 11 

Enteromorpha clathrata, /9. Grev. . . 43 

erecta, Hook 43 

JSnhgmenia reniformis. Kg 13 

Fistularia erecta, Grev 43 

Fucus acicularis, Wulf. 104 

aculeatus, L 49 

aruginosus. Turn 15 

alatus, y, Turn 83 

albidus, Huds 65 

ambiguHS, Clem 19 

amphibius, Huds 48 

asparagoides, Woodw 51 

atomarius, Gm 34 

bacciferus. Turn 109 

bifidus. Good. & Woodw 32 

bifitrcatus, With 89 

Brodupi, Turn 20 

CabrertP, Clem 14 

ccespitosus. Stack 53 

caspitosus. Stack 88 

capillar is, Huds 57 

caprinus, Gunn 95 

camosus, Schm 97 

cartilagitmis, Huds 61 

ceranoides, Gm 63 

clavellosus, Turn 114 

coccineus, Huds 44 

concatenatus, L 60 

cofifervoides, L 65 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Fucus comeus, Huds 35 

coronopifoliud,Good.kV( oodw. 61 

cnnalis, Turn 53 

crispalus, Oed 63 

crispus, L 63 

dentatuSy L 34 

dulcis, Gm 97 

edulis, Stack 97 

elongatm, L 78 

esculentua, L 79 

Fascia^ Oed 45 

fastigiatus, lluds 94 

fastigiatuSy L 95 

Jilamento»my Wiilf. 46 

JilicinuSy Lightf. 55 

Jilicimay Wulf. 100 

fiUfommy Huds 63 

Filumy L 107 

Jimbriatmy Gm 79 

flagellarisy Esper 65 

flagelliformiSy Fl. Dan Ill 

fnabilis, Clem 46 

fiingulam, Oed 98 

furcellatuSy L 94 

glanduhsuSy Soland 29 

granaimy Turn 15 

granulatuSy L 60 

GriffithauBy Turn 108 

herbaceuSy Huds 115 

hypnoideSy Desv 53 

HypoglosaoideSy Stack 2 

HypoglossuMy Woodw 2 

incunmSy Huds 85 

laceruSy Stack 63 

Lactucdy Esp 97 

ligulatuSy Lightf. 115 

^««, L 78 

longiaaimuSy Gm 65 

lumbriccdisy Gm 94 

lycopodioideSy L 50 

Mackaii, IVr» 52 

memhranaceuSy Stack 19 

nvembranifoliuSy With 63 

mucronatuSy Turn 60 

mnUifidu9, Huds 55 

Fucus muUipartituSy Clem 15 

muscoideSy L 49 

fiatanSy Esper 109 

nodicaulisy With 60 

nodosnSy y, Ag 52 

Oputttiay Good. & Woodw. . . 88 

Osmundu, Gm 55 

ovalis, ^M<fls 118 

palmatuSy /3, Lightf. 97 

patency Good. & Woodw. ... 63 

PavoniuSy L 91 

pedunculatusy Huds 66 

pinastroides, Gm 85 

pinnatifiduSy Gm 55 

pinnatifduSy Fl. Dan 34 

pinnatuSy Huds 58 

pinnatuSy Gunn 79 

Plocamiumy Gm 44 

plmnosuSy L 80 

polymorphuSy Lamx 68 

polypodioideSy Desf. 19 

purpurmcenSy Huds 116 

pusilluSy Stack 53 

radiatuSy Good. & Woodw. . . 95 

rmiformisy Turn 13 

repenSy Lightf. 88 

rhizodeSy Turn 70 

rotundmy Gm 95 

rmcifoliuSy Turn 26 

SargassOy Gm 109 

scorpioideSy Gm 48 

sedoideSy Good. & Woodw. . . 118 

serratus, X 47 

sUiculosus, Stack 66 

sUiquosuSy L 66 

«^ZZffM Stack 63 

r«wfo, Esp 107 

teresy Good. & Woodw 79 

tetragonusy Grood. & Woodw. . 79 

tomentosuSy Huds 93 

tuber culatuSy Huds 89 

ttiberculatuSy Lightf. 116 

vermicularisy Gm 118 

verrucomSy Huds v. 65 

verticillatusy Wulf. 33 

Digitized by 




Tucus JTu/gJui, Turn 38 

Fuxcellaria fastigiata, Lamx 94 

lycopodioides, Ag 50 

hmbricalis, Kg 95 

hmbricalis, Lamx 94 

rotunda, Lyngb 95 

Oastridium claveUosum, Lyngb 114 

Jiliformey Lyngb 59 

Opuniia, Lyngb 11 

ovale, Grev 118 

Gastridium purpurascens, Lyngb. ... 114 

Gastroclonium ovale. Kg 118 

€relidium coraeum, Lamx 63 

coronopifoUum, Lamx. ... 61 

neglectum, Bory 100 

pmnatifidum, Lyngb 55 

rostratum. Griff. 83 

Oigartina aciculans, Lamx 104 

ceqnUarU, Lamx 57 

clavellosa, Lamx 114 

canfervoides, Lamx 65 

JlagelUformis, Lamx Ill 

Griffithsia, Lamx 108 

lubrka, Lyngb 57 

lycopodwides, Lamx 50 

Opuntia, Lamx 88 

pedunculata, Lamx 56 

piloM, Lamx 88 

pltuutroides, Lyngb 85 

purpurascens, Lamx 116 

rotunda, Lamx 95 

vermicularis, Lamx 118 

Ginannia furcellata, Mont 69 

Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Carm 57 

Gracilaria confervoides, Grev 65 

moltipartita, /. j4ff 15 

poUfcarpa, J. Ag 16 

purpurascena, Grrev 116 

Grateloupia filicina, Jg 100 

porracea. Kg 100 

Griffithsia Devoniensis, Harv 16 

equisetifolia, Ag 67 

muUiJida, Ag 27 

nodulosa, Ag 106 

Gymnogongrus Griffitbsdfie, Mart. . . 108 

Halarachnion ligulatum. Kg 113 

Halidiys siliquosa, I^fngh 66 

Haliseris dichotoma, Spreng 103 

polypodioides, Jg 19 

HahgloBtum GrijffUhnanum, Kg. ... 72 

HalopUkgs pinastroides. Kg 85 

Halurus equisetifolius. Kg 67 

Halymenia edulis, Ag 97 

elongaia, Ag 112 

JUtfomUs, Ag 69 

furcellata, Ag : . . 69 

Halymenia ligulata, Ag 112 

Opuntia, Ag 88 

purpurascens, Grev 59 

rentformis, Ag 13 

Helkothamnion scorpioides. Kg 48 

Helminthocladia vermicularis, Harv. 81 

mrescens, Harv. ... 82 

Helminthora muU'^da, Kg 36 

HUdenbrandtia rubra, Menegh 98 

Himanthalia lorea, Lyngb 78 

Hormoceras nodosum. Kg 90 

Hutchinsiajilamentosa, Ag 46 

furcellaia, Ag 7 

obscura, Ag 102 ^. 

ocellata, Ag 40 

pulvinata, Ag 102 ^. 

Hypnea confervoides, J. Ag 65 

purpurascens, Harv 116 

Hypoglossum ruscifolium. Kg 26 

Woodwardii, Kg 2 

Iridaea edulis, Bory 97 

reniformis, Bory 13 

Kalymenia reniformis, /. Ag 13 

Laminaria cuneata, Suhr 45 

debUis, Ag 45 

esculenta, Lyngb 79 

Fascia, Ag 45 

ligulata. Hook 115 

papyrina, Bory 45 

Lamourouxia turgidula, Bonn. ..... 7 

Laurencia pinnatifida, Lamx 55 

Linkia punctiformis, Lyngb 41 J9. 

LUhopkyUnm decussatum, Phil 73 

expamum, Phil 73 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


LUhotkamnium crassum, Phil . . . . r . 74 

Lomentaria Opuntia, Gaill 88 

ovalis, Endl 118 

pygnuBa^ Duby 42 

reflexa^ Chauv 42 

Lophura lycopodioideSy Kg 50 

Lyngbya crispa, Ag 62 

majuscula, ffarv 62 

Melobesia agariciformis, Harv 73 

decussata, Endl 73 

expansa, Endl 73 

fasciculata, Harv 74 

Mertemia tripinruita, Grat 77 

Mesogloia affiniSy Berk 82 

attenuata, Ag 106 

Balani, Carm 36 

capUlaris, Ag 57 

divcmcata. Kg 17 

divarictdat Ag 110 

^acUis, Carm 82 

Jlomemanm, Suhr 82 

Httdsoni^ Ag 112 

Hudsoniy Harv 110 

7nonUiformi8y Griff. 106 

muUifida, Ag 36 

vermicularis, ^^ 31 

\'irescen8, Carm 82 

Zostera, Aresch 82 

Microcladia glandulosa, Grev 29 

Milkpara agariciformis. Pall 73 

coriacea, L 73 

decussata, Ellis 73 

fasciculuta, Lam 74 

tortuosa, Esp 73 

Myclonium furcfUaiMm, Kg 69 

Myriactis pulvinata, Kg %^ A. 

Myrionema Leclancherii, Harv. ... 41 ^. 
punctiforme, Harv. ... 41 -S. 

veluiinum, Endl 28 ^. 

Myriotricliia clavaeformis, Harv. ... 101 

Naccaria Wigghii, Endl 38 

Nemalion luln^icum, Duby 36 

multifidum, /. Jg 36 

Nitopbyllum Bonnemaisoni, Orev. . 23 

versicolor, Harv 9 


Nullipora agariciformis, Blainv .... 73 

fasciculata, Blainv 74 

Odonthalia dentata, Lyngb 34 

Oscillatoria scopulorum, Ag 58 -B. 

littoralis, Carm 105 A. 

spiralis, Carm 105 B. 

subsalsa, Harv 105 B, 

Padina atomaria, Mont 1 

deusta. Hook 98 

Mediterranea, Bory 91 

Pavonia, Lamx 91 

phasiana, Bory 1 

Peyssoneba Dubyi, Crouan -71 

Phycolapaihum dehile. Kg 8 

Phycoseris Linza, Kg 39 

Phyllacantha Bory ana. Kg 60 

Pbyllopbora Brodiaei, /. Ag 20 

Physactis lobata. Kg 68 

Physocaulon Mackaii, Kg 52 

Plocamium amphibium, Lamx 48 

asparagoides, Lamx 51 

Binderianum, Kg 44 

coccineum, Jj/ngb 44 

fenestratum, Kg 44 

Zyngbyanum, Kg 44 

plumosum, Lamx 80 

vulgare, Lamx 44 

Plocaria multipartita, Endl 15 

polycarpa, Endl 15 

Pollicipora agariciformis, Ehr 73 

Polyides Griffithsia, Gaill 108 

lunibricalis, Ag 95 

rotundus, Grev 95 

Polysiphonia fiircellata, Harv 7 

tnacrocarpa, Harv. . . 102 ^. 

obscura, /. Ag 102 A. 

pulvinata, Spreng. . . 102 .S. 
Eicbardsoni, Hook. . . 10 

Porpbyra laciniata, Ag 92 

umbilicalis, Ag 92 

Ptilota plumosa, Ag 80 

Punctaria latifolia, Grev 8 

Pycnopbycus tuberculatus, Kg 89 

Ralfsia deusta, Berk 98 

Rhodymenia bifida, Grev 32 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BhodjmemBL fiofyearpoy Grev 16 

rem/armU, Hook 13 

rosircUaj J. Ag 83 

Rhodomela detitata, Ag 34 

lyoopodioides ulg 50 

jnnastroideSy Ag 85 

scorpioides, Ag 48 

Hkynckococcu* coronopi/olius, Kg. . . 61 

Rivularia,*«ttflte, Berk 68 

Leclancheriiy Chauv. ... 41 ^. 

«««j/Wii, Web. & Mohr. . 36 

nitida, Ag 68 

Opuntia, Sm 88 

vermiculaia, Sm 31 

Zofiene, Mohr 82 

Rytiphlaea pinastroides, Ag 85 

SarcophgUis lobata?. Kg 13 

Sargassum bacciferum, Ag 109 

Scyiockloria nitida, Harv 68 

Scytosiphon erectm, Lyngb 43 

FUum, Ag 107 

oUvascenSy Carm 25 

Seirospora Grriffithsiana, Harv 21 

Solema attmuata, Ag 25 

clathratay var. Ag 43 

crUUcL, Ag 25 

Lmza, Ag 39 

SpernuUochmu rhizode^y Kg 70 

Spermosira litorea, Kg 113 C. 

Sphacelaria duticka, Lyngb 37 

plumosa, lAfngb 87 

scoparia, Lgngb 37 

scoparioides, Lyngb, ... 37 

velutina, Grev 2S B. 

Sphaerococcus acicularig, Ag 104 

bijidus, Ag 32 

Brodiai, Ag 20 

confervoideSy Ag. I . . 65 

comeuSy Ag 53 

coronopifolius, Ag. . . 61 

erispMy Ag 63 

GriffUh»ia, Ag 108 

muUipartUtta Ag. ... 15 

polgcarpMy Grev. ... 15 

putpurascena, Ag. . . . 116 

Sphaerozyga Carmichaelii, ffarv. . 113 u^. 


Sphffirozyga Thwaitesii, Harv, . . 113 i?. 

Spirillum rupestre, Hass 105 i?. 

Spirulina tenuissima, Kg 105 C, 

Spongtocarpua rotundus, Grev 95 

Spongodium commune ^ Boiy 39 

tomentommy Lamx 93 

Sporochnus aculeatuSy Ag 49 

Cabrera, Ag 14 

ligulaius, Ag 115 

multifiduSy Spreng 75 

pedunculatm, Ag 56 

rhizodeSy Ag 70 

villosus, Ag 64 

Spyridia cramuscuUiy Kg 46 

iilamentosa, Harv 46 

nudiuscukiy Kg 46 

setaceoy Kg 46 

Stilophora crinikiy Ag : . . 25 

rbizodes, /. Ag 70 

Striaria attenuata, Orev 25 

Sigpocauhn scopariuMy Kg 37 

Stypopodium atomariumy Kg 1 

Trentepohliajloridula, Harv 120 ^. 

purpurea, Ag 120 ^. 

BotAiiy Ag UOB, 

Trichocladia vermiculariSy Harv. ... 31 

virescens, Harv I 82 

Tylocarpm Orifithsiay Kg 108 

tentaculatu9y Kg 108 

Ulva articulata, fi, Huds 88 

aUmariay Woodw 1 

aUenuata, Nac 25 

cucuUata, Cav 91 

dichotoma, Huds 103 

edulia, DC 97 

filiformis, Wahl 59 

furcellaia. Turn 69 

interrupta, Poir 69 

laciniata, Lyngb 92 

Ugulaia, Woodw 112 

lingulata, DC 2 

Linza, L 39 

multifida, Sm 75 

Favoma, L 91 

plumosa, Huds 3 

polypodioides, DC 19 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Ulva rubens, Huds 110 

rubra, Huds 112 

aerrata, DC 1 

Tumeri, Dillw 11 

umbilicalis, Sm. 92 

Wbrmskioldia Hypoglo8mm, Spreng. 2 

ruscifoUay Spreng. ... 26 

Wrangelia multifida, /. Ag 27 

Zonaria atomaria, Ag 1 

demta, Ag 98 

dichotoma, Ag 103 

lineolatay Ag 2< 

muUifida, Ag 76 

Naccariana, Ag 25 

Pavonia, Ag 91 

Digitized by 



VOL. n. 

{7%e tjfnonjfMit arepritUed m ItaUet.) 

JetmOocenu SkutUetPorihianumy Kg. 140 

JSffOffropUa simplex, Leuorm 236 

AglnophfUMm GnteUm, Mont 235 

jff*«i«F, Mont 169 

ocelkUum, Mont 203 

puncUUwn, Mont. 202, 203 

AlnSam iatuisnmum. Kg 198 

Asperoooocns edimatus, Oreo ^94 

fisMosus, UooV 194 

rMffosus, LamouT 194 

verwucularu, Moore. . . 194 

BoryMa cUitda, Grat 139 

diaplana, Grat 193 

CamUpJutris ciliata. Kg 127 

jubaia. Kg 175 

Callithamnion barbatum, Aff 165 

Borreri, Aff 159 

boirtftiam,J)e'ifot... 212 

brachiatum, Bon. . . . 137 

BiDdiaei, iTarr 129 

clavatum, Ag 212 

corallinum, Lyngb. . . 214 

craciatum, Aff 164 

gramdatumy Harv. . . 137 

GreviOei, Harv 231 

Harveyanum, J. Ag. . 137 

pedicellatam, Ag. . . . 212 

FerreymondiiyJhihy. , 212 

polyspermum, Ag. . . 231 

pumUumy Harv 164 

purpurascenty Johnst. 231 

r^eiUy Lyngb 179 

Callithamnion roseom, Zyngh 280 

roMemHy Grev 231 

semmudumy Ag 159 

spongiosum, Harv. . . 125 

tetragonum, Ag 136 

tetricum, Ag 188 

Turneri, Ag 179 

variabUey Ag 179 

CalophgUu lacmiaUiy Kg 121 

Cahthrix CreisweUuy Harv 160 

Ceramimn acanthonotum, Carm 140 

Agardhiannm, Gr^. 219 

axillarey'DC 181 

botryocarpum, Orif 215 

Boucheriy Duby 224 

BroduBiy Ag 195 

ciliatnm, Duel 139 

cirrhoiumy Hook 178 

clavagerum, Bon 212 

confervoidesy Both 162 

Deslongchampii, CAauv. . 219 

Besmazieriy Crouan 185 

diaphanum, Both 193 

echionotum, /. Ag 141 

ehngatuniy Both 181 

JUicinumy Grat 142 

flabelligerum, /. Ag 144 

gigarlinum, Both 232 

gracillimum, Qr^. 206 

ndniatumy Ag 159 

nodulosumy Duel 181 

pediceUatuMy Ag 212 

Digitized by 




Cemmum pinnuUUum^ Ag 159 

repen8y Ag 179 

ro*«<»», Both 230 

rubrum, ^ff 181 

tecundatunty Lyngb 181 

nliculomm, Ag., 162 

tetroffonum, Ag 136 

tetricum, Ag ,. . 188 

iometUosum, Ag 182 

Tum€n,Bjoih 179 

virgatumy Roth 181 

JFulfeni, Both 220 

Ckatophora atra, Ag 239 

Berkeleyi, Grev 176 

Chantrantia tomeniaaa, Endl 182 

Chondria daiyphyUa, Ag 152 

kaltformis, Ag 145 

ob^usa^ Ag 148 

paroula^ Ag 210 

tenuisntna^ Ag 198 

Chondros mamillosM, Grev. 199 

memhrcmifolvMy Grev 163 

norvegicus, Lx 187 

ruhensy Lyngb 131 

Chordaria paradoxa, Lyngb 237 

Chylocladia kalifonnis, Hook 145 

parvula. Hook 210 

Cladophora arcta, Kg 135 

centraUsy Kg 135 

Mus&yHarv 130 

Mcai&,Harv 216 

glaucescens, Gr^. 196 

Hutchinsiae, ffarv 124 

Isetevirens, Kg 189 

pellucida. Kg 174 

repens, J.Jg 236 

rupestris, Kg 180 

uncialis, Harv 207 

vaucheriajbrmu. Kg. . . 135 

Cladostephus spongiosus, Jg 138 

laxus, Fl. Dan 138 

Conferva arbuscula, Dillw 224 

arcta, Dillw 135 

atro-rubescenSy Dillw 172 

<Ww,Dillw 172 

Conferva Borreri, Sm 159 

Brodiaiy Dillw 195 

capUlariSy Huds 150 J. 

centralis, Lyngb 135 

ciliata, EU 189 

cirrkosa. Both 178 

corallina, Linn 214 

crassa, Ag 150 J, 

denudata, Dillw 172 

diaphana, Lightf. 198 

(ft^iwfl, Both 180 

dUtanSy Ag 130 

ferrugineay Ag 240 

Jlbratay Dillw 208 

fatuUty Both 194 

flocculoaay Ell 181 

fuckolay Velley 240 

ftmay Huds 149 

geniculatay Ell 214 

glauctty Both 180 

glaucescens, Griff. 196 

granulosa, Sm 200 

EutcMnsia, Dillw 124 

intertexta. Both 178 

intestinaliSy Both 154 

latevirenSy Dillw 190 

linum, Both 150 J. 

litoralis, Linn 197 

Mertensii, Sm 182 

nigra, Huds 172 

nodulosa, Huds 198 

nodulosa, Lightf. 181 

obtusangtday Lyngb 288 

oUvacea, Dillw 189 

parasitica, Huds 147 

patens, Dillw 167 

pediceUata, Dillw 212 

peUucida, Huds 174 

pennata, Huds 178 

perreptans, Cann 238 

pUosa, Both 189 

radicans, Dillw 189 

repens, Dillw 179 

repens, J. Ag 236 

riparia, Both 238 

Digitized by 




Conferva rotea, Sm 230 

m^, Huds 181 

rupestrisy L 180 

9etacea, EU 184 

sUiculosa, Dillw 162 

^poMffiosa, Huds 138 

sutoria. Berk UO B, 

ieneUa, Dmw 179 

tetroffona. With 136 

tetricay Dillw 188 

tomenio$ay Huds 182 

Mulosa,Kxids 181 

Tumeri, Dillw 179 

undalis, Fl. Dan 207 

urceolaia, Dillw 167 

vaucheriaformiSy Ag 135 

virgaia. Both 180 

CoraUina oHgUca, Ger 222 

canncukUa, L 234 

officinalis, X 222 

squamata, Park 201 

Cystoseira abrotantfoliay Ag 122 

^Uicon, Ag 122 

fcBuiculacea, Greo 122 

fibrosa, Ag 133 

Dasja arbuscula, Ag 224 

ffuichmsia, Harv 224 

venusta, Harv 225 

Delesseria ciUaru, Lx 121 

ciliata,Lx 127 

FerrarH, Bon 123 

GmeUnif Lamour 235 

EUUa, Ghrev 169 

interrwptay Ag 157 

laciniata, Grev 121 

oeeUata, Lx 203 

palmata, Lx 217, 218 

Pahnetta, Lx 134 

pundiUa, Ag 202, 203 

rubenSy Lx 131 

sanguinea, Lx 151 

Mlvoides, Hook 202 

Diplodroimum platUagineum, Kg. . . 128 

DumonUa Calvadoniy Lx 161 

EchmoceroB cUiatumy Kg 139 

Ectocarpus amphibius, Harv 138 

brachiaiuBy Ag 126 

compactuSy Ag 197 

ferrMgineuSy Ag 197 

granulosus, Ag 200 

Landsburgii, Harv 233 

litoralis, Lyngb 197 

Mertensii, Ag 132 

pusiUus, Orig^. 163 

silicu]osus, Lyngb 162 

sphaerophorus, Carm, . . 126 

tomentosus, Zyngb 182 

Elachistea fiidcola, Fr 240 

EnomUum echinatuniy Ag 194 

Lynghyanumy Grev 194 

Enteromorpha intestinalis, lAnk, . . 154 

EuMiii atray Kg 239 

FUtularia intestinalis, Grev 154 

Fucodium canaUculatuMy Ag 229 

Fucus abrotan\foUuSy L 122 

abrotanoidesy Gm 183 

aheolatusy Esp 199 

baccatuSy Gm 133 

balticusy Ag 204 

bifidusy Huds 134 

buUatuSy MuU 217 

canaliculatus, L 229 

canaliculatusy 0, Huds 199 

caprinus. Mull 217 

ceranoideSy Lightf. 199 

cUiatuSy L 127 

crispatuSy Stack 121 

crispus, Esp 121 

crispuSy Huds 131 

cristatuSy y. Turn 170 

dasgpkyUuSy Woodw 152 

delicatulusy MuU 218 

Devoniensisy Grev 187 

digitatuSy L 223 

discorSy L 122 

distichusy Lightf. 204 

divaricatus, L 204 

dulcisy Gm 217 

echinatuSy Stack 199 

epiphyllusy Fl. Dan 131 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Fucus excisus, L 229 

foeniculaceus, L 122 

Jlbro9UB, Hads 133 

JmbriatuSy Huds 163 

fiuticulo9U9y Wulf. 220 

gigariinns, L 282 

granatui, Lx 203 

hirsutuBy L 188 

hyperboreus^ Gunn 223 

ir^tuBy L 204 

jubatu8,Q,hVf 175 

yfcaZt/omw, G.&W 145 

laciniatuSy Huds 121 

linearis, Huds 204 

mamillosui, G. & W 199 

memhrantfoliuB, G. & W 163 

minicUuSy Fl. Dan 121 

nodosus, L 168 

norvegicu9y Gunn 187 

obtusuSy Huds 148 

ocellatus, Lx 203 

(Eden, Esp 232 

ovinus, Gunn 217 

palmatu8, L 217, 218 

Falmetta, Esp 134 

pectinatm, Gunn 191 

FhgUUis, Stack 192 

piatilleUus, Gm 232 

plumosus, ft Turn 191 

polymorphu8y Lx 199 

prolifer, Lightf. 131 

ptilotus, Gunn 191 

punctatus. With 202, 208 

rubens, L 131 

rM^«w, Esp 271 

sanguineus, L 151 

samiensis, Mert 218 

sericeus, Gm 191 

setaceus, Huds 218 

Sherardi, L 204 

soboliferus, Mull 218 

«/wraZM, L 204 

tenuissimus, G. & W 198 

ukoides. Turn 202 

vertidUatus, Lightf. 145 

Fucus vesiculosus, L 204 

volubilis, L 204 

Crastridium kaltfbrme, Lyngb 145 

partnUum, Grev 210 

Gigartina compressa. Hook 205 

dasyphyUa, Lx 152 

erecta. Hook 177 

kaliformis, Lx 145 

mamillosa, Ag 199 

pistillata, Jg 282 

tenuisskna, Lx. 198 

Gongroceras DesUmgchampU, Kg. . . 219 

Gracilaria compressa, Oreo 205 

erecta, Chrev 177 

Grammiia peucedanoides, Bon 155 

rigidtda, Bon 221 

JFulfeniyBon. 220 

Griffithsia corallina, ^g 214 

crassa. Kg 185 

intermedia, Lenorm 185 

secundiflora, /. Ag, 185 

setacea, Ag 184 

Hqfgygia digitata. Kg 223 

HaUdrys nodosa, Lyngb 158 

Hahpteris filicina. Kg 142 

Halymenia ciliaris, Gaill 121 

ciliaia, Gaill 127 

Dubyi, Chauv 123 

laminarioides, Bory .... 128 

ocellata, Duby 208 

palmata,K% 217, 218 

Palmetta, Gaill 134 

soboltfera, Ag 218 

Ilormoceras diaphanum. Kg 193 

gracillimum. Kg 206 

Hormospora ramosa, Thw 213 

Hutchinsia Agardhiana, Ag 172 

atrorubescens, Lyngb. ... 172 

badia, Ag 172 

Brodicn, Lyngb 195 

denudata, Ag 172 

fruticulosa, Ag 220 

Mcestingii, Lyngb 147 

parasitica, Ag 147 

patens, Ag 167 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Hnickimma pemcdlata^ Ag 196 

nMifera, Ag 227 

urceolata, Ag 167 

variegaia^ Ag 155 

molacea, Ag 209 

JF%ffem,K% 220 

Ilea iMie$UmdU», GailL 154 

Iridaa Dubyi, Lenorm 123 

Jania eorniculata, Lamour 234 

KaDymenia Babyi, Harv, 123 

Laminaria digitata. Lop 223 

pUmiagmeay Ag 128 

PhylHtis,!* 192 

8Unoloba,J)€i 223 

Lamrenda eatpUoaa, Lx 152 

qfOHOtpermay Lx 148 

dasypliylla, Grev 152 

gelatinosa, Lx 148 

Mricata^ Lx 148 

UUea, Lx 148 

obtusa, Lx 148 

tenuissiina, Qrev 198 

Leathesia Berkeley!, Haro 176 

Imekia atra^ Lyngb 239 

hemispierica. Sebum 239 

Lithocystis Allmanni, ffarv 166 

Lomeniaria haUfcmm^ Gaill 145 

panmlay Zan 210 

paiau. Kg 145 

sqttarroaa^ Kg. 145 

Lyngbya CanmcbaBln» Marv .... 186 J, 

cfitpay Cann 186 A, 

specioea, Carm 186 B, 

MattoearpM mamiUonu^ Kg 199 

Metogloia purpmrea^ Harv 161 

Myriotrichia filiformis, Harv 156 

Nemaleon porpureum, Ckauv 161 

Nemastama Duiyi, J. Ag 123 

Nitopbyllum Gmelim, Grev 235 

HiHiff, Grev 169 

oeellaiumy Grev 203 

punctatum, Grev 202 

Mivoideum, Hook 169 

Oddocbaete bystrix, Tkw 226 

OneoUfhu norvegicui^ Kg 187 


OroOalUa nodom, Dne 158 

FekeHa e<maUeuUda, Dne 229 

Fhlebothammom roseum, Kg 230 

polgfpenmiMy Kg. . . 231 

ietricum. Kg 188 

PhgUaca$Uhafi>r(m, Kg 133 

PhyUopbora membranifolia, Ag. ... 163 

rub^is, Grev 131 

FhfmottuUm nodonn, Kg 158 

Plocammm eridatim, Endl 170 

elegant, Bory 191 

Plocaria compreuoy Lx 205 

erecta, EndL 177 

Polysipbonia Agardkuma^ Grev. . . . 172 

atrornbesoeiLB, Grev . . 172 

hadioy Grev 172 

BrodisBi, Grev 195 

cruiaia, Harv 170 

demidata, Gi«v 172 

elongella, Harv 146 

fibrata, Harv 208 

formosa, Suhr 168 

fimUeuloeay Spr 220 

gracilii, Grev 168 

Griffitbsiaiia, Harv, .. 228 

paraaitica, Grev 147 

pateiUy Harv 167 

peitcedanoidee, Mont. . 155 

sabnlifera, Ag 227 

tMgoideey Harv 221 

urceokta, Grev 167 

variegata, Ag 155 

violaoea, Grev 209 

JFuifimi, Ag 220 

Porpbyra vulgaris, Ag 211 

purpurea, Ag 211 

Unearie, Ghrev 211 

Ptilota elegans. Kg 191 

plumoMy ft Ag 191 

sericea, Gm 191 

Punctaria plantaginea, Grev 128 

Ebizodonium riparium, Kg 238 

Bbodymenia ciliata, Grev 127 

jubata, Grev 175 

laciniata, Grev 121 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Bhodymenia membrantfolia, Harv, . . 163 
palmata, Grev, . . 217, 218 

Palmetta, Grev 134 

8o6ol{fera, Grev 218 

Bivolaria atra, Both 239 

Bytiphkea oomplanata, Jff 170 

fruticulosa, Harv 220 

thuyoides, Harv 221 

Schizothrix Cresswellii, Harv 160 

Scytosipkattjistulosus, Lyngb 194 

iatettinaUa, Lyngb. . . . 154 

paradoxus, Fl. Dan. ... 237 

Solenia Bertoloni, Ag 154 

ifUestinalis, Ag 154 

Sphaodaria drrhosa, Jp 178 

filicina, J^ 142 

fusca, J^ 149 

hypnoides, Ghrev 142 

pennata, Lyngb 178 

oUvacea, Ag 189 

radicans, Harv 189 

sertolaria, Bon 143 

nmpUciuscula, Ag 142 

Spharocoecui ciUatus, Ag 127 

compres8Wy Ag 205 

erectus, Grev 177 

gigarUnus, Ag 232 

juhatm, Grev 175 

lacifdaius, Lyngb. . . 121 

lichenoides, Grev 205 

mamUlosus, Ag 199 

membranijbliua, Ag. . 163 

norvegicM, Ag 187 

SphaBTOCoccus pahnatus. Kg. . . 21 7, 21 8 

Palmetta, Ag 134 

rubens, Ag 131 

Samiensis, Hook. . . 218 

soholjferus. Kg 218 

Sphserozyga Berkeleyi, Thw. . . . 173 B, 

Broomei, Thw 173 -^. 

Spennatochttus paradoxus, Kg 287 

Spermosira Harveyana, Thw 173 C 

Spongiomorpha uncialis. Kg 207 

Sporochnus rhizodes, p, Ag 237 

Stenogramme interrupta, Mont 157 

Stilophora Lyngbysei, /. jig 287 

Striaria GreviUeana, Pxn 237 

Teiraspora intestinalis, Desv 154 

Tremella henU^herica, Linn 239 

Ulva caprina, Gunn 217 

fatulosa, Huds 194 

inteatinalis, L 154 

lactuca, Sm 171 

latissima, lAam 171 

palmata, DC 217 

plantaginea. Both 128 

planiaginifolia, Wulf. 128 

punctata. Stack 202 

purpurea, Botb 211 

8obol\fera, Lyngb 218 

JFormskioldia ocellata, Spr 203 

punctata, Spr 202 

sanguinea^ Spr 151 

Zonaria plantaginea, Ag 128 

Zggnema Utoreum, Lyngb 238 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



{The synomfmes are printed in Hakes.) 


Agardkia Bursa, Cabrera 290 

Aglmop^Uum laceraiumy Mont. . 267 

Aglaiozoma parmda, Zan 341 

repians, Kg 341 

Alcyomum BursOyJj 290 

Aplonema bangioides, Hass 268 

AtperocauUm coccineus, Grev. . . . 253 

Asperococcua castaneum, Carm. . . 285 

Laminariay J. Ag. . 295 

pumUuSy Carm 270 

Bangia ceramicola, Ckauv 317 

ciliaris, Carm 322 

elegans, Chauv 246 

ZaminaruBy Lyngb 295 

Bursa marina^ Bauhin 290 

Callithamnion affine, Haro 331 

arbuscula, Lyngb. . 274 

byssoideum, Am, 262 

cocdneum, Lyngb. 253 

corymbosum, Ag. . 272 

Daviesii, Lgngb. . . 314 

&sciciilatuin, Harv. 308 

floridulumy Lyngb. 297 

Hookeri, Ag 279 

lanosum, Harv 279 

mesocarpiim, Carm. 325 

Huma, Ag 296 

Plumula, Lyngb. . 242 

, PUimula ft Lyngb. 294 

sparsum, Harv. . . 297 

spinosum, Harv. . . 279 



Callithamnion thuyoideum, Ag. . 269 

tripinnatumy Harv. 269 

versicolory Ag. . . . 272 

virgatulum, Harv. 313 

CallophyUis cristata, Kg 307 

Calothrix csespitula, Harv 305 

confervicola, Ag 254 

hydnoides, Carm 306 

lamellatay Harv 309 

luteola, Grev 342 

melaleucOy Carm 342 

semiplena, Ag 309 

Ceramium brachygoniumy Lyngb. 292 

ceramicolay Ag 317 

corymbosum, Ag 272 

decurrena. Kg 276 

elongatumy Both 292 

fastigiatum, Harv. . . 255 

fastigiatumy Roth. . . . 299 

hirsutumy Roth 253 

Hookeriy Ag 279 

moUe, Roth 284 

patenSy Grev 253 

Plumay Ag 296 

Plumula, Ag 242 

simplicifilumy DC. ... 287 

strictum, Kg 334 

versicolor, Ag 272 

Chatophora marina, Ag 324 

Chlorosipkon Laminaria, Harv. . 295 

pusillus, Harv 270 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Chhroiiphon ShuHlewortkianuSy Kg. 285 

ChondracatUAus Teedii, Kg 266 

Chondria artictdatay Ag 283 

Chondrus Broduei fi, Grev 310 

laceratus, Lyngb 267 

ChordA JistuloM, Zanard 285 

lomentaria, Lyngb 285 

Chordaria viridu, Ag 312 

Chiysymenia OrcadeMU, Harv. . . 301 

rosea, Harv, 801 & 358 A 

Chylocladia articulata, Orev. ... 283 

kaHfonnis et y . 348 B 

Cladophora albida. Kg 275 

Balliana, Earv 356 

flavescens. Kg 298 

flexuosa, Griff, 853 

fracta. Kg 294 

Gattyae, Harv 355 B 

MagdalensB, Harv. 355 A 

nuda, Harv 351 

nrocladia ft Kg 353 

Codium Bursa, Jg 290 

Conferva area ft Dillw 327 

albida, Huds. 275 

arbu»cula,Ji,BT 274 

arenicola. Berk 354 A 

bangioides, Harv 268 

barbata, Sm 281 

breviarticulata, Suhr. . . 260 

by88oide8, Sm 284 

ceramicola, Lyngb 317 

claihraia, Roth 340 

coccinea, Huds 253 

collabens, Kg 327 

compreaaa. Both 335 

coj^fervicokiy Dillw. . . . 254 

corymboMy Sm 272 

curta, Dillw 332 

2>at)iem, Dillw 314 

dioaricaia. Both 294 

ehngata, Huds 292 

JibrUlosa, DiUw 302 

Jiacca, Dillw 300 

fiacciday Dillw 260 

flavescens, Wyatt 294 


CoDi&Tfdi flavescens. Both 298 

foeniculacea, Huds 326 

fracta, Fl. Dan 294 

fucoides, Huds 277 

Atr^,rLDan 294 

Hooken, Dillw 279 

isogona, Sm 328 

linum, Harv 333 

litorea, Harv 333 

Tiigrescens, Huds 277 

nuda, Harv 351 

obtusa, Ag 260 

paradoxa, Dillw 340 

Pluma, Dillw 296 

^ZtfwkWfl, Ellis 253 

Phimula, Ellis 242 

polymorpha, L 299 

scutulata, Sm 323 

steUulata, Harv 261 

thuyoides, Sm 269 

Tumeri, Sm 242 

vagabunda, Huds 294 

Youngana, DiUw 328 

CoralUna rubens, Ellis 252 

Corynephora marina, Ag 824 

Oryptopleura laoerata. Kg 267 

Cystoseira ericoides, Jg 265 

barbata, Ag 360 

Dasya coccinea, Ag 253 

spongiosa, Ag 274 

Delesseria alata, Lx 247 

lacerata, Ag 267 

ainuosa, Lx 259 

Desmarestia viridis, Lx 312 

Besmotrickum Laminaria, Kg. . . 295 

Bickloria viridis, Grev 312 

Dictyosiphon fosniculaceus, Orev, 326 

Diphstromium plantagineum. Kg. 248 

Dudresnaia coccinea, Bonnem. . . 244 
Dumontia filiformis, Orev. ... 357 B 

Ectocarpus crinitus, Carm 330 

distortus, Carm 329 

fasciculatus, Harv. . , 273 

fenestratus, Berk. ,. 257 

longifructus, Harv. . . 258 

Digitized by 




Elachista breviarticulaia, Aresch. 260 

curta, ArescA 332 

flaccida, Jresch 260 

scutulata, IMy 823 

steUulata, Grj^. 261 

Mlmus coecmeus. Gray 253 

Enteromorpha dathrata, Grev, . . 340 

claikraia y, Grev. 245 

compressa, Chrev, . 335 

Cornuoopise, iTooir. 304 

Hopkirlrii,if'aiZia 263 

Linkiana, Orev, . . 344 

percursa, Hook. . . 352 

Balfsii, Harv, ... 282 

ramulosa. Hook. . 245 

Mstularia compressa, Ghrev 335 

Fucus alaiua, Huds 247 

arHculaiu8,Ug\it!. 283 

barbaius. Turn 360 

bul6osus,nudia 241 

Bursa, Turn 290 

byuoides, Good. & Woodw. 284 

capeims, Gm 337 

cartUaginem, L 337 

oeranoides, L 271 

co^fervoidea, Huds 264 

crenatiUy Gm 259 

cnspaiuSf Huds 267 

cristatus, L 307 

disiichus, Esp 271 

enditn^rfoUus, lightf. 267 

ericoidesy L 265 

fomiculaceusy Gm 360 

ffigariinm, Fl. Dan 307 

^bridus.'DC 286 

laceratua, Gm 267 

lano9us,L 299 

membramfolius, var. roseus. 

Turn 310 

natoHSy Turn 343 

palmatuBy Gm 241 

Palmetta, var., Esp 259 

pUcatuSy Huds 288 

poU/scMdea, lightf. 241 

roam, Fl.Dan 259 


Fucus rubetUy Huds 259 

saeckarimuy L 289 

HlagimoideSy Esp 265 

sericeuMy var.y Esp 288 

9eiaceu8yYf\iif. 264 

MMMOMM, Good. & Woodw. 259 

w^fitscusy Woodw 264 

iubtiUay Turn 826 

UmaricifoUuty Huds 265 

J^edUy Eoth 266 

oorto^M, Good. & Woodw. 264 

vertieohry Gm 337 

wr««», Fl.Dan 312 

Fureellaria fastigiata, Lx 357 A 

Gklidium cartilagineum, OaiU, . 337 

concatenatuniy Lx 337 

versicolory Lx 337 

Gigartina articulatay Lx 283 

plicatoy Lx 288 

subfiucoy Lx 264 

Teedii, Lx 266 

viridisy Lyngb 312 

Gongroceroi fastigiatumy Kg. ... 255 

9trictumy Kg 334 

Oonioirickum ceramicolayKg. 317, 322 

Griffithsia barbata, Ag 281 

simplidfilum, jig. ... 287 

Gymnogongrus pHcatus, Kg. . . . 288 

Hqfgygia digitata, var.y Kg 338 

Halerica ericoides. Kg 265 

Haligema bulboMy Dne 241 

Halurus simplicifilumy Kg 287 

Hildenbrandtia Nardiy Zan 250 

rubra, Meneg. . . 250 

Hormidiumflaccuniy Kg 300 

HormoceroB decurrenSy Kg 276 

Hormotrichum bangioides, Kg. . . 268 

coUabetUyKg 327 

flaccumy Kg 300 

isogonuMy Kg. . . . 328 

Founganumy Kg. . 328 

HutchvMia byssoides, Ag 284 

coccineoy Ag 253 

elongalay Ag 292 

fastigialoy Ag 299 

Digitized by 




Uutchimia fibriUom, Ag 302 

fucoides, Hook 277 

lubrica, Ag 302 

nigrescena^ Lyngb. . . 277 

pUom, Nacc 302 

Ruchingeri, Ag 292 

Hypoghssum alatum. Kg 247 

Ilea compressay GaiU 335 

Jania mbens, Lx 252 

Lamarckia Bursa ^ Olivi 290 

Laminaria Belvisii, Ag 241 

bulbosa, Ag 241 

conica, Bory 338 

digitata, var. steno- 

phylla 338 

latifolia, Ag 289 

longicniris. Be la Pyl. 339 

ophiura, Bory 339 

saccharina, Lx 289 

LaurcDcia coespitosa, Lx 286 

hybrida, Lenorm 286 

pinnatijida yy Grev. . . 286 

Leathesia diformia, Aresch 324 

marina, Endl 324 

tuberiformis, Gray ... 324 

Leibleinia caapitulay Kg 305 

confervicola, Eudl 254 

luteola. Kg 342 

purpurea. Kg 254 

semiplena, Kg 309 

Lichen corrugaius, Dickson 315 

Linkia clavata, Carm 348 

Litosiphon Laminariae, Harv 295 

pusillus, Harv 270 

Lomentaria articulata, Lyngb. . . 283 

Lophura cymoM, BLg 264 

Lyngby a esnigrtwow, Ag 311 

CutlerisB, Harv 336 

ferruginea, Ag 311 

flacca, Harv 300 

lutescens, Lieb 309 

aemiplena, Ag 309 

subsaUa, Carm 311 

Melobe&ia calcarea, Ell. el Sol. . . 291 

farinosa, Lx 347 B 


Melobesia lichenoides, Harv. ... 346 
membranacea, Lx, . 347 A 
polymorpha, Harv. . . 345 

pustulata, Lx 347 D 

verrucata, Lx 347 C 

Mesogloia coccinea, Ag 244 

Griffithsiana, Orev. . . 318 
Microcoleus anguiformis, Harv. . 249 
milepora caUarea, Ell. &Sol. . . 291 

lichenoides, Borl 346 

polymorpha, L 345 

Monormia intricata, Berk 256 

Mynonem^ 6reviarliculatum,^iidl. 260 

clavatum, Carm 348 

stellulatum, J,A^. .. 261 

strangulans, Crrev. . . 280 

Nitophyllum laceratum, Orev. . . 267 

Nostoc marinum, Ag 324 

Nullipora calcarea, Johnst 291 

yra^Zw, M*Calla 291 

polymorpha, Johnst. . . 345 
Oscillatoria cor^ervicola, Ag. ... 254 

insignis, Thw 261 C 

nigro-viridis, Thto, 251 A 
subuliformis, Thw. . 251 B 

Padina coUaris, Grev 359 

parvula, Grev 341 

omphalodes, Mont 359 

reptans, Crouan 341 

Padinella parvula, Aresch 341 

PMebolhamnion arbuscula, Kg» . 274 
corymbosum. Kg. 272 
Hooken,Kg..., 279 
spinosum. Kg. . . 279 
versicolor. Kg. . . 272 
Phycocastanum bulbomm, Kg. . . 241 

Phycophilaflaccida, Kg 260 

Phyllophora palmettoides, /. Ag. 310 

Brodim ft H 310 

Polysiphonia affinis, Moore .... 303 
byssoides, Grev. . . 284 
Carmichaeliana,£rflrt?. 31 9 
Chalarophlaa, Kg. . 292 

clavigera 292 

divaricata, Carm. . . 319 

Digitized by 


TO VOL. 111. 


Polysiphonia divergens. Kg 278 

elongata, Gret. 292, 293 

fastigiata 299 

fibrillosa 302 

fucoides, Grev 277 

nigrescens, Grev, . . 277 

rosea, Grev 292 

Ruchingeri, J. Ag. . 292 

simulans, Harv 278 

spinulosa, Orev. ... 820 

ynnulosa. Griff. ... 278 

Polysiphonia stenocarpa. Kg. . . . 292 

Panctaria tennissima, Orev 248 

undulata, J. Ag 248 

Ehizocloniam Casparyi, Harv, . 854 B 

Rhododemm Brummondii, Harv. 250 

Rhodomela snbfusca, Jg 264 

Rhodymenia cristate, Grev, .... 307 

Teedii, Grev 266 

Rivalaria plicate, Carm 315 

tubertfonmsy Sm 324 

veriicillaia, Sm 244 

Saccorhiza hUbosa, Be la Pyl. . . 241 

Sai^assum vulgare, jig 343 

Schizosiphon Warreniae, Gasp, . , 316 

Scytonema effusum, Carm 311 

Agdnoides, Carm 306 

ScgUmpJkon clatkratus, Lyngb. . . 340 

compressus, Lyngb. . 335 

compressusy, Lyngb. 352 

Jllum, var.y Ag 285 

fceniculaceus, Ag. . . . 326 

UppuroideSy Lyngb. . 288 

ifUesiinalis y, Lyngb. 304 

lameniaria, End!. . . . 285 

paradoxus, Y\ Dan. . 340 

Soienia ckUkrata, Ag 340 

compressa, Ag 335 


Soienia /Mcata, Boiy 286 

iniestinaUi y, Ag 304 

percursa, Ag 352 

Sphacelaria racemosa, Grev 349 

Spharococcus cariilagtMeus, Ag. . . 337 

crutatM, Ag 37o 

plicatut, Ag 288 

tubJksctUy Hook. . . 254 

Teedii, Ag 266 

Spongiies ealcarea. Kg 291 

polymorpka, Kg 345 

Spongodium Bursa, Lx 290 

Sporochnus viridis, Ag 312 

Symploca kgdnoides. Kg 306 

Tremella dermis, L 324 

TretUepohlia DaviesUy Harv 314 

sparsa, Harv 297 

Tricholhamnvm coccineum. Kg. . . 253 

Tylocarpus pUcaiuSy Kg 288 

Ulva articulata, Huds 283 

bulboaa, DC 241 

clathrata, Ag 340 

compressa, L 335 

intesHnalis y, Ag 304 

lactuca, L 243 

plantaginifoUa, Lyngb 248 

ramulosa, Sm 245 

uncinata, Mohr 245 

Vaucheria dichotoma ft Lyngb. 350 B 
marina, Z^d. ... 350 A 
submarina, Berk, . . 350 B 

velutina, Ag 321 

fTormskioldia alata, Spr 247 

lacera, Spr 267 

sinuosa, Spr 259 

Zanardinia protoigpus, Nard. ... 359 

Zonaria coUaris, Jg 359 

parvula, Grev 341 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



V/ HH a-1 etlrfh. 

Digitized by 


Ser. MfiLANOSPERKBifi. Fam. Fueea, 


Gen. Chail Frond furnished with distinct^ stalked^ nerved leaves^ and 
simple^ axiUary^ stalked air-vessels. Receptacles smaU^ linear^ tnber- 
cnlated, mostly in axillary dusters^ cellular^ pierced by numerous 
pores, which communicate with immersed, spherical conceptacles, 
containing parietal spares and tufted antheridia. Sabgassum 
(Rumph.), — a word formed from the Spanish sargazo, the name 

% given by navigators to floating Sea-weed. 

Sasgassuh vulgare*, stem filiform, smooth, alternately branched; leaves 
linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate (verv variable in breadth), 
serrated, stronglv ribbed, copiously glandular ; air-vessels on com- 
pressed stalks about their own len^h, spherical, pointless ; recep- 
tacles axillaiy, dichotomous, tuberculose, unarmed. 

Saboassum vnlgare, Ag, 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 3. Ag. 8gU. p. 298. Orev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 2. t. 2. Hook. Br, Fl. vol. ii. p. 264. ffarv. Man. ed. 1. p. 17. 
ed. 2. p. 15. /. Ag. 8p. Alg. p. 842. 

Fucus natans (in part), Tum. Hist. t. 46. 8yn. p. 48. Sm. Bng. Bot. 
t. 2114. 

Hab. Cast ashore, drifted bv oceanic currents from warmer latitudes. 
Cast on the shores of the Orkney Isles, Dr. P. Neill. (Near Fal- 
mouth? Hudson.) 

Geoob. Distb. Atlantic Ocean, abundant on tropical and subtropical coasts. 
Shores of North America, as far north as Lcmg Island Sound. Coasts of 
Spain and Portugal. 

DsscB. Boot a conical disc. Fronds tufted, from one to three feet in length, 
having a leading, mostly undivided, stem set throughout with alternate, 
spreading branches, the lowest of which are longest. Stem and branches 
narrow, filiform or snbcompressed, smooth (destitute of rough points), 
somewhat flexuous. Leaves coriaceous, an inch or two in length, from a 
quarter to half an inch in breadth, oblong or linear-lanceolate, sharply 
serrated, the surface dotted over with mudferous pores or glands, strongly 
nerved. Air-vessels spherical, about as large as a pea, pointless, borne on 
compressed stalks about as long as themselves, and springing from the 
lower part of the jpetiole of the leaves. Beeeptaeles in dichotomous (mnoid 
tufts, springing with the air-vessels from the petioles, (^lindrical, tnbercu- 
lated, usually much shorter than the subtending leaf, sometimes elongated 
and filiform, and many times forked. Colour a foxy olive. SuMance 
opake and tough. 

One of the stray waifs of tropical climes^ which are occa- 


Digitized by^ 

sionally brought to our shores by the great north-eastern current 
of the Atlantic, and which have no proper claim to admission 
into our Flora. Though the present species has had a place in 
British works for nearly a century, I have never seen a (so 
called) British specimen, and have made my figure from an 
American example. 

Fig. 1. Branch of Saimjassum vulgaee : — the natural size, 2. A leaf, with 
vesicl and receptacles. 3. A broader leaf: — the two last somewhat mag- 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


PI. rue 

Digitized by dOQgi^ 

Ser. Mblanospesmks. Fam. Fuetm. 

Plate CIX. 


Qen.Chab. Frond fdrnished with distinct^ stalked^ nerved leaves, and 
simple^ axiOaiy^ stalked air-vessels. Seceptacles smsJl, linear^ tnberca- 
lated, mostly in axillary clusters^ cellnlar^ pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed, spherical conceptacles containing 
parietal spares and tufled antieridia. Sargassum (EumpA.)--^ word 
formed from the Spanish sargazo, the name applied to the floating 
sea-weed observed by navigators. 

Sargassum hacciferum ; stem cylindrical, slender, much branched, flexuous; 
leaves linear, serrated, mostly without mudferous pores; air-vessels 
abundant, spherical, on. cylindrical stalks, commonly mucronate. 

Sabgassum baociferum, Ag, 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 6. Ag, Sgtt, p. 294. Sprena. 
Sgsi. Feg. vol. iv. p. 320. Orev. Alg. Brit. p. 8. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. u. 
p. 264. Harv. Mtm. p. 17. 

FuctJS baedferom, Turn. Hid. t. 47. Sm. E. Bot. 1. 1967. 

Fucus natans, E^per^ Ic. vol. i. p. 49. t. 23. 

Pucus sargasso, Gmel. Hist. ISic. p. 92. 

Hab. Occasionally cast on the British coasts, but not a native of our 
waters. Orkney Islands, Dr, P. Neill, Shore of Castle Eden Dean, 
Durham, Mr, W. Backhouse. 

Gboor. Bistr. Tropical and sub-tropical ocean, throughout both hemispheres, 
always found floating on the surface of the sea. 

Descr. Fronds a foot or more in length. Stems growing in all directions from 
a central point, forming globular, floating tufts, cylindrical, filiform, slender, 
flexuons or angularly bent, twice or thnce divided ; branches long, simple, 
alternate, flexuous, pinnated with alternate leaves. Leaees two to three 
inches long, one to two lines wide, Hnear-lanceolate, tapering to either ex- 
tremity, destitute of mudferous pores, serrato-dentate, with irregularly 
distant divaricating sharp teeth, furnished with a strong, percurrent midrib. 
Vesicles spherical, with or without a mucro, borne on short, cylindrical 
stalks in &e axils of the leaves, one or more in each axil. FrucUficaUon 
unknown. Colour, when growing, a pale transparent greenish oHve ; when 
dry, dark brown or black. Substance between cartila^ous and coriaceous, 
bntUe when recent. 

This plant, the weU-known Sargasso or gulf-weed, has clearly 
no claims to be admitted to the British Flora, but having already 
been introduced into other works, 1 figure it, though obliged to 
make my drawing, from a foreign specimen. 

The branch shown in the figure is part of a specimen picked 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

up at sea, in the great floating bank of gulf- weed which extends 
at the westward of the Azores from the twentieth to thirty-sixth 
degree of north latitude. Another similar, but smaller bank, 
occurs, according to Humboldt, a short way west of the Bahamas, 
and between the twenty-second and twenty-sixth degrees of lati- 
tude. IVom the first of these, probably, the specimens which 
occasionally reach the British coasts, are detatched and carried 
northward by the great current that sweeps along the eastern 
shores of the American continent, and crossing the Atlantic in a 
hig)i latitude, at length dissipates itself on the north^n coasts of 
Europe. The Sargasso is not the only vegetable production 
which it brings to Shetland and Orkney. Tropical woods, and 
seeds are still more frequently brought, and occur all along the 
west of Ireland, where yet I have never known an instance of 
Scayassmn having been found. 

Saiyasmm bacci/entm has been observed in the most distant 
parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, throughout the tropics 
and within a moderate distance of them, and always floating ; it 
is therefore unfortunate that the ancient name natam, has not 
been preserved to this species, to which it is most apfdicable. In 
the great Atlantic bank it is found in ridges from ten to twenty 
yards wide, and of indefinite length, stretching across the sea. 
In this situation it continues to grow luxuriantly, and appears to 
multiply itself by off-sets, at first accidentally broken off, aad 
immediately establishing themselves as independant plants. A 
great variety of marine animals from Crustacea, downwards, 
inhabit its branches, but I observed no parasitical Algs on any 
of the specimens picked up. The list of animal species would 
affiwrd subject for a small volume, but v^y few of them ane of a 
strictly parasitical nature. 

Fig. 1. Saroassum baccipertjm; a brancli: — of the natural size. 2. A leaf 
and muticous vesicle. 3. A mucronate vesicle : — sUghUy magnyied. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

8er. Meunospbhmss. IVon. Ftteea. 

Plate LXVI. 

Gen. Chas. Frond compressed^ linear^ pinnated with distichons branches. 
Air-vessels lanceolate^ stalked^ divided into several cells by transverse 
partitions. Receptacles terminal^ stalked^ cellular^ pierced by nume- 
rous pores^ which communicate with immersed spherical canceplacles, 
containing paridal spores and tufted atUheridia. Haledets (Lyngb,) 
— ^from 4Xff, the sea, and ^^, an oak. 

Haudrts siliquosa; branches linear^ very narrow; air-vessels compressed, 
linear-lanceolate, slightly constricted at the septa, mucronate. 

Halidbts siliquosa, Lyngd, Hifd. Dan. p. 87. Orec, Alg. BrU. p. 9. 1. 1. 
JBTooit. .Brt^. i7. voL ii. p. S66. Wyaity Alg.Danm.VLO.h^. Harv.mMack. 
Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 168. ffarv. Man. p. 19. Endl. Srd SuppL p. 30. 

Cystoseiba siliquosa, Ag, 8p, Alg, vol. i. p. 72. Ag, 8gst. p. 287. Spreng. 
Sgst. Veg, vol. iv. p. 317. Orev. Fl. Edm, p. 285. 

Fucus siliquosus, Zm». 8p. PI. p. 1829. SgiL Nat. vol. ii. p. 716. Fl. Lapp. 
p. 365. Gi». iTw^. p. 81. t. 2. B. J7. 2)«i. 1. 106. Huds. Fl. Ang. ^. bl^. 
Ligktf. Fl. Scot. voL ii. p. 921. With. voL iv. p. 88. Good. <md Woodw. 
m Idtm. Trans. voL iii. p. 124. E. JBot. t. 474. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 8. t, 5. 
Turn. Syn. vol. i. p. 60. Hist. 1. 159. JSqfcr, Ic. Fuc. t. 8. 

Fucus siliculosus, Stack. Ner. Brit. i. 11. 

Has. On rocks and stones in the sea, at and below half tide leveL Peren- 
nial. Winter and Spring. Common on the shores of the British 

Geogb. Dist. North Sea, and Northern Atlantic. 

DisTB. Boot, a large, conical disc. Fronds, from one to four feet long or more, 
linear, compressed, two-edged, from one to two lines in breadth, flexuous, 
mostly undivided, distichously pinnate or bi-pinnate. Pifma alternate, erecto- 
patent, issuing with an obtuse axil ; the lower ones much lengthened, and 
either naked below, dr frunished with a few small branchlets and air-vessels, 
pinnate, or bi-pinnate above, the smaller divisions set with alternate vesicles 
or with recq)tacles ; the upper pinnsB gradually shorter, more simple, and 
better frunished than the lower, and generally terminating in racemes either 
of vesicles or of receptacles. Air-vessels linear, oblong, or lanceolate, sup- 
ported on slender stalks, and tipned by a linear mucro of various length, 
frt)m a quarter inch to an inch and a half, and which sometimes bears at its 
apex a receptacle. The air-vessels are externally marked with transverse, 
constricting lines, very visible when dry, which correspond to internal septa 
dividing the hollow inside into numerous distinct chambers, through 
which nm several longitudinal threads. Beceptacles either forming racemes 
at the apices of the branches, or terminating the mucrones of the vesicles, 
lanceolate, subacute, on short stalks, distichous, compressed, frirnished with 

Digitized by 


numerous pores communicating with the immersed concqptade9 or spore- 
chambers. These latter are spherical, and contain numerous oblong, simple, 
dark-brown spores, mixed with tufts of branching filaments bearing bright 
orange anthencUa. Colour, when young, a greenish olive, in age becoming 
a rich brown. Substance veiy tough and leatheiy. 

One of the handsomest of the British Fucea and common on 
all our shores. It is subject to little variation, except in size. 
When growing in shallow water, or in tide pools near high water 
mark, it becomes stunted in its habit, having the branches more 
closely set, and bushy, and every part proportionably smaller and 
narrower. This state constitutes the var. /8. of authors. 

The genus HaUdrySy founded by Lyngbye, is well distinguished 
from all other Facem by the curious structure of its air-vessels. 
These compound air-vessels are confined to the present individual, 
and to the beautiful Fticm osmundacem of Turner, a native of the 
West coast of North America. In this latter species the struc- 
ture is shghtly different, and the vesicles are much constricted at 
the joints, like strings of beads. The whole habit, however, is so 
very similar to that of our H. siliquosa, that I cannot but con- 
sider it as properly a member of the same natural genus. 

Fig. 1 . Halidbts siLiciTJOSA ; Portion of a branch : — the natural me. 2. Lon- 
gitudinal section of an air-vessel. 8. Transverse section of a receptacle, 
with its immersed conceptacles, containing spores and antheridia. 4. Spores : 
— all more or less magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



W.H.H. lel wifti. 

Digitized by G00gl(*-*'^^^ 

Sei. Mblakospebx&s. Fam. Fueea. 

Plate CCLXV. 


Gbn. Chail firtmd HindL branched^ occasiondlj leafy at Uie base ; branciet 
becoming more slender upwards^ and containing strings of simple 
air-vessels within their substance. .S^c^^/d# terminal^ small, cellular, 
pierced by numerous pores, which communicate with immeraed, 
spherical coneepiaeles, containing parietal spares and tufted autheruUa. 
CrsTosEtKA {Ag.), — from Kvtrm, a bladdery and <rripa, a chain ; because 
the air vessels are often arranged in strings. 

CiSTOSiiBA ericaidds; stem, thick, woody, short, cylindrical, beset with 
nomerous, slender, filiform branches, variously divided, and denseh 
clothed with small, spine-like, awl-shaped ramuli; air-vessels small^ 
solitary beneath the apices of the branches ; receptacles cylindrical, 
armed with awl-shaped processes. 

Ctstoseiba ericoides, Jg, 8p, Alg, vol. i. p. 62. Ag, S^si. p. 281. Spreng. 
SgU, Feg. vol. iv. p. 31(5. Grev, Alg. Brit. p. 4. Hook, Br. Fl. vol. ii. 
p. 265. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hih. part 3. p. 167. Harv. Man. p. 18. Endl. 
Srd Sh^l. p. 30. /. Ag. Qen. d 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 221. 

Halbbica ericoides, Kut^. Fkgc. p. 354. 

Fucus ericoides, 8p. pi. p. 1631. Oood. and Wood, in Linn. Trans, vol. iii. 
p. 130. £. Bot. 1. 1968. * Turn. Hist. t. 191. 

Fucus tamariscifolios, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 576. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 44. t. ll. 
Tnm. 8yn. Fuc. p. 88. {exd. sgn. Gmel.) 

Fucus selaginoides, Espery Ic. Fuc. vol. i. p. 69. t. 31. (excl. syn. Qmel.) Oood. 
and Wood. Linn. Trans, vol. iii. p. 132. Turn. Sgn. p. 85. 

Hab. On marine rocks, near low-water mark and in tide-pools. Perennial. 
Summer and autumn. Frequent on the shores of the south of 
England and south and west of Ireland. Yarmouth Beach, Mr. 
Turner. Port Bush, Antrim, Mrs. Ovens. 

Gsoon. DisTB. On the Atlantic shores of Europe and the north of Africa. 

Descu. Boot a large conical or flattened disc. Frond generally solitary, twelve to 
eighteen inches in length, rising with a cylindriod stem nearly half an inch 
in diameter. This stem is four to six inches long, and either simple or forked, 
or having four or five main divisions, which support numerous slender, 
crowded, bitripinnated branches. Branches as thin as wnip-cord, decompound, 
all the divisions alternate and distichous, densely set with short, spine-like 
ramuli or leaves, each of which has a gland-like pore on its back, near the 
base. Air vessels few and small, oblong, placed usually in the terminal 
brandilets just below the base of the receptacle. Receptacles formed in the 
apices of all the branches, oblong, cylindrical, becoming nodose, always 
armed with spine-like ramuli, similar to those that clothe the branches. 
Spores obovate, with wide borders. When growing, under water, the frond 
reflects beautifbl prismatic colours, which are lost when it is lifted into the 
air : — the colour is then a yellowish olive. On being dried the frond turns 
black, and shrinks considerably. Substance tough and leathery. 

Digitized by 


This is one of the most beautiful of the British species of 
Cystoseira^ especially when seen growing under water. It then 
appears clothed with the richest tints of blue and green, more 
like those phosphorescent gleams that flash from the lower marine 
animals than any vegetable colours. As each twig waves to and 
fipo in the water the hues vary, and sometimes, when the light 
falls partially on a branch, some portions seem covered with sky- 
blue flowers, while others remain dark. All these beautiful tints 
perish when the plant is removed from the water. Hie specific 
name ericoides, or heath-like, alludes both to the brilliant colouring 
and the shrubby character of the frond, which is covered with 
small ramuli resembling the leaves of a heath. 

C. ericoides is common on the southern shores of our islands, 
and becomes gradually less frequent towards the north. It has 
been once found on the coast of Ayrshire by the Rev. D. Lands- 

Fig. 1. Cystoseiba ebicoides : — of the natural me, 2. Beoeptade and vesicle, 
botli fonned in the apex of a branch. 3. Section of a conceptade, showing 
the spores and antheridia. 4. A spore : — aU more or less magnified. 

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Plate LX. 


GfiN. Cha£. Frond much branched^ occasionally leafy at the base ; branches 
becoming more slender upwards^ and containing strings of simple 
air-vessels within their substance. Receptacles terminal, small, cellular, 
pierced by numerous pores, which communicate with immersed sphe- 
rical eonceptacles, containing parietal spores and tufted antheridia. 
Cystosbiea {A^,) — ^from Kwms, a bladder^ and inipd, a chain ; because 
the air vessels are generally arranged in strings. 

Ctstoseiba granulata ; stem cylindrical, covered with elliptical knobs, each 
of which bears a slender, repeatedly divided, dichotomo-pinnate, fili- 
form branch, irregularly set with scattered, awl-shaped, thorn-like 
ramuH; air vessels small, two or three together in the upper part of 
the branches ; receptacles elongated. 

Ctstoseiba granulata, Ag. Sp. Jig. vol. i. p. 55. Syst. p. 282. Grev. Fl. Fdm. 
p. 285. Grev, Alg. Brit. p. 5. t. 2. HooL Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 265. Ilarv, 
wilfocir.J7.iri*. parts, p. 167.^l. Harv. Man. 
p. 18 . Fndl. Srd Suppl. p. 30. 

Fucus granulatus, Lin. Sp. PI. p. 1629. Fl. Dan. t. 591. Turn. Hist. t. 251. 
E. Bot, t. 2169. Hook. Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 94. Lyngb. Hgd. Dan. p. 58. 

Fucus ooncatenatus, Un. Sp.Fl. p. 1629. Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 574. Lightf. 
Fl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 923. Clem. Ess. p. 310. VeUey, PI. Mar. t. 2. f. 1. 

Fucus mucronatus. Turn. Syn. vol. i. p. 78. 

Fucus nodicaulis, With. vol. iv. p. 111. 

Phyllacantha Boryana (?), Kiitz. Phyc. Gen. p. 355 (and probably several 
other species of PhyUacantha, Kiitz.). 

Hab. In rocky basins left by the tide, at and below half-tide level. Peren- 
nial. Summer. Not uncommon on the shores of England and Ireland. 
Aberfraw, Mr. Rolfs. Hare in Scotland? Jersey, Miss White. 

Geoqk. Distk. Shores of Europe from Norway to Spain. 

Descb. Bx)ot a depressed, conical disc. Stem cylindrical, two to four lines in 
diameter, and from two to ten inches in length, more or less densely covered 
with quadrifarious, elliptical knobs, each of which produces a branch, several 
inches to a foot or more in length. Branches filiform, slender, much divided 
in a manner between dichotomous and alternately pinnate ; the smaller 
branches twice or thrice compound. Air-vessels innate in the branches, 
often below an axil, or two or three together in the alternate branchlets, 

elliptic-oblong. Axils obtuse. Famuli scattered along the receptacles and 

branches, small, spine-like, acute. Receptacles lanceolate, imequally tubercled. 

Subsiance leathery, homy when dry. Colour a dear oUve-green, in age 

becoming brown or foxy. 

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From the other British species of Cysioaeira, except firom 
C. barbata, which has probably no claim to be admitted as 
British, C, granvlata may be readily known by the knob-like 
bases of its branches, a character at all times obvious. Like its 
congeners it is exceedingly bushy, forming a submarine shrub, 
and I have been forced, in making such a figure as would detail 
its botanical characters, to represent a specimen with most of its 
branches cut ofi*. Had I attempted more, it would only have 
produced a confused mass of twigs. 

C, granvlata is of frequent occurrence on the shores of England 
and of Ireland, but appears to be rare in Scotland. It generaUy 
grows in a very scattered manner, but is sometimes gregarious. 
Like others of the genus its stems afford a grateful resting place 
to a host of marine animals, sponges, &c., and are often com- 
pletely clothed with a thick incrustation of animal life. However 
annoying this may be to the collector of specimens, who can 
rarely, if ever, find a clean-stemmed Cgstoseiray it must be 
admitted that these parasites add much to the picturesque beauty 
of a Cystoseira grove, their brilliant colours and starry forms 
looking like clusters of flowers peeping out from the branches. 
When seen, under a favourable light, in a clear tide-basin, the 
effect is highly beautiful. 

The genus Cystoseira, in its most restricted sense, even after 
the removal of the extensive group now forming Blossevillea, Dne., 
still contains a considerable number of species, natives, for the 
most part, of the warmer regions of the temperate zones. Many 
are found in the Mediterranean ; indeed, the greater part of the 
Fucea found in that sea belong to this genus. They are inter- 
mediate, as well in geographical position as in distinctive cha- 
racter, between the tropical Sargasso, which they resemble in 
the structure of their fruit, and in habit ; and the Fuci of colder 
waters, with which they agree in the position of the fniit and 
vesicles. Through Blossevillea there is a direct passage into 
Sargassum ; the connection with Fucus is more remote, and runs 
through some minor genera, natives of the Southern Ocean. 

Rg.l. Cystoseiea gkanulata: — natural size, 2. Section of a receptacle: 
— magnified. 8. Spore: — higUj/ magn^ed. 

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Set, Melamosfxkhes. F&m. Fueea. 

Plate CCCLX. 


Oen. Chab. Urond much branched^ occasionally leafy at the base; 
branches becoming more slender upwards^ and contaming strings of 
simple air-vessels within their substance. Receptacles terminal^ small^ 
cellular, pierced by numerous pores, which communicate with im- 
mersed, spherical eonceptacles, contaming parietal spores, and tufted 
antheridia. Cystoseiea {Ag.), — ^&om Kvims, a bladder, and atipa, a 
chain ; because the air-vessels are often arranged in strings. 

CrsfrosEiEA barbata ; stem cylindrical, covered with small, elliptical knobs, 
each of which bears a very slender, many times dichotomo-pin- 
nated, filiform branch; air-vessels lanceolate, one or two together; 
receptacles small, elliptic-oblong, mucronate. 

Ctstoseira barbata, Ag. Sp, Alg. vol. i. p. 57 ; 8gst. p. 283. Qrev, Alg, Brit. 
p. 6. Hook. Br. M. vol. ii. p. 265. Harv. Man. ed. 1. p. 18 ; ed. 2. p. 17. 
/. Jg. Sp. Jig. vol. i. p. 223. 

Fucrs barbatus, Oood. et Woodw. Litm. Trans. voL iii. p. 128. Ti^m, Sgn. 
p. 80 ; Hist. t. 250. 8m. E. Bot, t. 2170. Stack. Ner. BrU. p. 83. 1. 14. 

Fucus foeniciilaceus, Gm. Hist. t. 2 A. f. 2 (!). Huds. Fl. Aug. p. 575. 

Hab. Bocks between tide-marks. Said to have been gathered by Hudson 
in Devonshire ; but has not been recently found. 

Geogr. Distb. In the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Black Seas. Brest, fide 

Descb. Stem about as thick as a swan's quill, simple or branched, tnmcate, 
densely clothed with lateral branches. Branches rising from slightly in- 
crassated bases, filiform, veiy slender, unarmed, decompound, repeatedly 
pinnate, the lesser divisions dichotomous. Vesicles, when present, nume- 
rous, elongate, eUipsoidal or lanceolate, two or more together forming a 
chain in the branch. Beceptacles terminating the dichotomous ramnli 
linear, of small size, 1-2 lines long, or rarely 3-4 lines, tuberculated, un- 
anned, or rarely with one or two spine-hke processes, mucronate; the 
mucro subulate. Colour brownish-oHre, becoming very dark in drying. 

The figure here given has been prepared chiefly from a speci- 
men collected at Catania in Sicily, and given me, many years 
ago, by Professor Gussone. I have seen no British specimen, 
nor am I av^are that any authentic evidence is on record of the 
finding of this plant on the British coast, although it is mentioned 

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as an undoubted native of Devonshire by Hudson, Stackhouse, 
and other early writers on these plants. Hudson says of it, " in 
DevomA pamm/' and Stackhouse gives " Devonshire and S.W. 
coast '' as the station, but adds, '' This species is rare, and has 
occasioned mistakes among our English botanists, who, after the 
example of Gmelin, have given it the trivial name of P/ceniculaceuSy 
which appears, by the LinnaBan herbarium, to be a very different 
species," &c. Both these authors quote Gmelin's figure, which. 
Turner observes, " is so characteristic '* of his F. barbatus " as 
to take away all doubts as to the species." The last-named 
author, however, adds, "How far P. barbatus is really entitled 
to a place in the British Flora I own I entertain much doubt. I 
never saw a specimen gathered on our shores ; and in Devon- 
shire, where Hudson is stated to have gathered it, I have been 
fortunate enough to enjoy the advantage of correspondents, who 
would have been Uttle likely to have left it unnoticed." This 
was written upwards of thirty years ago, since which time no 
part of England has been more zealously or more successfully 
explored (as these volumes bear ample evidence) than the coasts 
of Devonshire and Cornwall, but no one has met with a scrap of 
this plant ; wherefore I fear it is but too evident that it has no 
daim to a place in this work. 

Pig. 1. Ctstoseiba b abb ATA ; brancli : — the natural sUe. 2. Dichotomoas 
ramulus : — magnified. 3. A reoeptade and air-vessel : — ^rathar more moff- 

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riaf* CXXi 

Digitized by VjOOQI 

^ -D,..,, ■ 

Sa. Melanospbbx££. Fam. Fucea. 

Plate CXXII. 


Gen. Chae. Frond mach branched, occasionally leafy at the base ; branches 
becoming more slender upwards, and containing strings of simple 
air-vessels within their substance. Receptacles terminal, small, cellu- 
lar, pierced by numerous pores, which communicate with immersed, 
spherical conceptacles, containing parietal spores, and tufted antheridia. 
Cystoseera {Ag.), — bom icvtmsy a bladder and o-cipA, a cAain ; because 
the air-vessels are often arranged in strings. 

CYStosEiBJi/csmculacea; stem compressed; branches long, slender, rough 
with hard points, repeatedly dichotomo-pinnate ; air-vessels small, 
soUtary or two together, elliptical oblong, placed near the tips of the 
branches ; receptacles minute, smooth, Unear-lanceolate. 

Gystoseiba fceniculacea, Grev. Jig, Brii, p. 6. ffoQk Br» FL voL ii. p. 265. 
Wyatiy Alg, Danm. no. 51. Harv. Man. p. 18. 

Cystoseiba discors, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 62. Ag. Syd. p. 284. Spreng. 
St/st. Feg. vol. iv. p. 317. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. p. 51. Endl. Srd Suppl. 
p. 30. Menegh. Alg. Ital. and Dalm. vol. i. p. 83. Mont. Fl. Alger, p. 17. 
Kuiz. FAgc. Gen. p. 358. 

Cystoseiba abrotanifoUa, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 63. Ag. Syd. p. 284. 
Bpreng, Syd. Feg. vol. iv. p. 317. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. p. 52. Endl. Srd 
Suppl. p. 30. Menegh. Alg. Ital. and Balm, vol, i. p. 92. Mont. Fl. Alger. 
p. 19. Kutz. Fhyc. Gen. p. 357. 

Fucus foenicukceus, lAnn. Sp. Fl. p. 1629. Turn. Hist. p. 252. 

Pdcus discors, Lmn. Syst. Nat. p. 717. Turn. Syn. p. 70. Esper, Ic. t. 26. 
Stack, Ner. Brit. t. 17. K BoL t. 2181. Lamour. Ess. p. 17. 

Fucus abrotanifoHus, lmn, Sp. Fl. p. 1629. Huds. Fl. Angl. p. 575. Stack. 
Ner, Brit, p. 86. t. 14. Turn. Syn, p. 66. E. Bot. t. 2130. Lamour. 
Ess. p. 18. 

Hab. Growing on rocks, in tide pools, near low -water mark. Perennial. 
Summer. Southern shores of England, in 8ever^j)laces. Sussex, Evd- 
son. Sidmouth and Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths. Weymouth and Isle of 
Wight, Stackhouse. Jersey, Miss White and Miss Turner. 

Geogb.Distb. Atlantic shores of England, from the south of England to 
Spain. Mediterranean Sea. 

Descb. Root a thick, hard, conical disc. Fronds one to two feet long, much 
branched. Stem four to six inches long, as thick as a goose quill, rough in 
the upper part, with spine-like prominences. Branches numerous, lateral, 
altemate, one to two feet long, filiform, rough with spinous processes, 
especially below ; the older ones naked at base, pinnated above, with an 
ovate outHne. Finna twice or thrice divided in a mixed altemate and 
dichotomous manner, slender, containing small, elliptical air-vessels below 
their forldngs. The branches of yoimg plants, and occasionally of the 

Digitized by 


younger parts of the stem in old plants, are flat and leaf-like, bi-pinnaie ; 
the pinnules furnished witli a midrib, and muciferou^ pores, with a crenate 
or subdentate margin, and varying from a line to two or three lines in breadth. 
Receptacles one or two lines long, simple or forked, smooth, subtorulose, 
lanceolate, terminating most of the upper pinnae of fertile specimens, and 
frequently subtended by vesicles. Colour dark in the stem ; a pale olive in 
the brandies. Substance between coriaceous and cartilaginous, brittle wben 

I follow Turner, and all succeeding British writers, in uniting, 
under the common nome/ceniculacea, the Fueus discars and F, 
ahrotanifolim of Linnaeus, which continental authorities, without 
exception, retain in the rank of species. So far as a judgment 
may be correctly formed from dried specimens, I fully agree with 
Mr. Turner, that " each shape passes into the other by gradations 
so imperceptible that no line can be drawn between them "; and 
this excellent author further remarks, that in separating it into 
distinct varieties, he has rather yielded to the feeling of weakness 
than followed the dictates of his judgment ; fearing that if he 
did otherwise, he might be accused of presumption, or even of 
a worse motive, in refusing to find characters sufficient even for 
varieties, where other botanists have had no hesitation in laying 
down such as constitute species. I have not myself had much 
opportunity of examining the Uving plant, but I place impUcit 
reUance on the accuracy of the observations made during many 
years familiarity with this species, by my often mentioned friend 
Mrs. Griffiths, who states that such specimens as grow in deep 
water, where they are seldom or never exposed by the tides, 
constitute the F, discors of authors, especially if collected in 
summer, at which season they are extremely luxuriant, with 
broad leaves and large air-bladders ; and that fronds which are 
developed in shaUow tide-pools, or collected late in autumn or 
winter, being more branched, and having narrower leaves, make 
the F. ahrotanifolim. On the depth of water, or difference of 
season, therefore, depend all the characters on which it has been 
attempted to erect two species. 

Cystoseika fceniculacea : — qf the natural size, 2. Portion of a leaiy branchlet. 
3. Air-vessels and receptacles. 4. Transverse section of a receptacle : — 
more or less magnified. 

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I*l<ff,' CXWJIJ 

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Ser. Melanosferhks. Fam. Fucea. 



Gen. Chax. Frond much branched, occasionally leafy at the base ; branches 
becoming more slender upwards, and containing strings of simple 
air-vessels within their substance. Recept^icles terminal, smaU, cellu- 
lar, pierced by numerous pores, which communicate with immersed, 
spherical conceptacles, containing parietal spores, and tufted antheridia. 
CysTOSEiRA {Ag,)y — from /cvorw, a bladder and crcipA, a chain ; because 
the air-vessels are often arranged in strings. 

Cystosetra fibrosa \ stem woody, compressed, very much branched; 
branches slender, alternately bi-tri-pinnate, pinnules furnished with 
linear, setaceous, acute ramuli ; vesicles elliptical, solitary or in pairs, 
immersed in the smaller branches, remote from the apices ; receptacles 
linear, very long, more or less clothed with setaceous ramuli. 

Gtstoseiea fibrosa, Ag. Sp. Alg, vol.i. p. 65. -^^. /%«^. p. 285. Spreng, 
Sgst. Veg. vol. iv. p. 317. Orev. Jig. Brit. p. 8. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. 
p. 266. Hart), in Mack. Fl. ffib. part 3. p. 168. Harv. Man. p. 19. Wyatt, 
Jig. Danm. no. 52. Fndl. Srd Suppl. p. 30. Fl. Ban. 1. 1902. 

Phyllacantha fibrosa, KiUz. Phyc. Gen. p. 356. 

Fucus fibrosus. Buds. Fl. Jng. p. 675. Chod. and Woodm. in lAnn. Trans. 
vol. iii. p. 137. JTith. vol. iv. p. 87. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 80. 1. 14. Turn. 
/%». vol. i. p. 93. Turn. Hist. i. 209. E. Bot. i. 1969. Lamour. Fas. p. 18. 

Fucus abrotanoides, Gmel. p. 89. Esper, p. 65. t. 29. 

Fucus baccatus, Omel. p. 90. t. 3. f. 2. Ftper, Ic. p. 108. t. 54. 

Fucus setaceus, Huds. Fl. Jng. p. 675. 

Hab. On rocks, near low-water mark and in tide-pools; also in 4-16 
fathom water. Perennial. Summer. Frequent on the shores of 
England and of the north, west, and south of Ireland. Not found in 

Geoge. Diste. Atlantic shores of Europe, from England to Spain. 

Desce. Boot a large, hard, conical expansion. Fronds mostly solitary, from 
two to three feet long, or more, very bushy, and excessively branched. 
Main stem as thick as a swan's quill, simple, or once or twice branched, 
from six inches to a foot in length, furnished throughout with alternate, 
subdistichous slender branches, accompanied by more or less numerous, 
Hnear, simple or forked, narrow leaves, which are ftimished with a mid-rib 
and attenuated to each extremity. Branches from one to two feet in 
length, as thick as small twine, somewhat compressed, gradually attenuated 
from the base to the apex, but without any swelling at the base, more or 
less naked below, and rough with the remains of broken ramuH, closely 
pinnated above with alternate, distichous branchlets, which in like manner 
are pinnated with a second, and these with a third series of branchlets, 

Digitized by 


gradually becoming smaller and more slender. In the last series^Vhich 
are more or less clothed with setaceous simple or forked ramuli, from a 
quarter inch to upwards of an inch in length, are imbedded one or two 
elliptical vesicles firom one to two lines in diameter. The receptacles ter- 
minate most of the lesser branches of fertile specimens, and are often 
much produced : when young, they are clothed with setaceous ramuli, ex- 
actly as the barren pinnules, but become more or less naked in an advanced 
state, and at length torulose. They contain numerous conceptacles, of the 
usual structure. Substance woody in the stem, coriaceous and tough in the 
branches. Colour a yellowish olive green, becoming black in drying. 

This is the largest and finest of the British Cj/stoseira, and 
when grown under circumstances favourable to its full deve- 
lopement, it is a very handsome plant. Our figure represents 
only the lower part of a stem, and one of the branches. To do 
full justice to the frond would require a folio plate. 

The principal stem near its base, and some of the lower 
branches, which are shorter and more simple than the rest, pro- 
duce numerous simple or forked linear, mid-ribbed leaves, one 
of which is represented at fig. 2. These are borne nearly in the 
order of the usual ramuli, but sometimes more densely inserted, 
and almost fasciculate. 

From C. ericoides, with which only among British species it 
can be confounded, C, fibrosa may always be known by its more 
slender branches, the large size of its air-vessels, and the very 
long, filiform receptacles clothed with setaceous ramuU ; nor does 
it exhibit, when growing, those brilliant rainbow tints for which 
C ericoides is so remarkable. It is by no means so commonly 
clothed with animal parasites as our other species, but is fre- 
quently infested with ElacJdstea fiaccida, a plant which I be- 
lieve to be pecuhar to it. 

Fig. 1. Cystoseira fibrosa. 2. One of the leaves : — hoth qfthe natural size, 
3. Receptacles and vesicle : — slighthf magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



V/ H :{ :^A c\ 

Digitized by VjOOQP^^'^ ^^£ 

Sei.MKLAiiosPEBMKS. 'Ftoa.Fueea. 

Plate LXXXIX. 


6zN. Chae. Soot composed of branching fibres. Frond cylindrical^ dicho- 
tomous. Air-vessels, when present, innate, simple. Receptacles ter- 
minal, cellular, pierced by numerous pores, which conmiunicate with 
immersed, spherical conceptacles, containing, in the lower part of the 
receptacles, parietal, simple spores, and in the upper, tufted antheridia. 
Pycnophycus [Kiitz,), — ^from irv«^f, thick, and ^iw, a sea-weed. 

Ptcnophtcus tuberculatus. 

Pycnophycus toberculatos, Kutz, Phyc. Gen, p. 359 (1843). 

Cymaduse tuberculata, Dne, Ann. 8c. Nat,, 1845. p. 12. 

Fucus tobercolatus, Hud9, Fl. Ang. p. 588. Good, and JToodw. in Linn. 
Trams, vol. iii. 198. Turn. Syn, Fuc, vol. ii. p. 505. Turn, Hist, t. 7. 
Esper, Ic, Fuc, vol. ii. p. 20. 1. 121. F, Bot, t. 726. Lamour. Ess, p. 20. 
Stack, Ner. Brit, append. Ag. Sp, Alg, vol. i. p. 98. Ag, Sgst, p. 279. 
Spreng. Syst. Feg, vol. iv. p. 316. Grev. Alg, Brit. p. 18. Hook, Br. Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 269. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. ^art 3. p. 169. Harv. Man. p. 21. 
WyaU, Alg, Danm. no. 103. Endl. Srd Suppl, p. 29. 

Fucus bifurcatus, JTOk, vol. iv. p. 109. 1. 17. f. 1. 

Hab. In rock-pook left, on the recess of the tide, near low-water mark ; 
never growing in places which are dry at low-water. Perennial. 
Summer and autumn. Severalplaces on the coast of Cornwall, Hud- 
son, Stackhouse, Turner, &c. Ilfracombe, Bishop Goodenough. Bill 
of Portland, Mr. Bryer. North of Ireland, Br. Scott (sec Twm.). 
Abundant on the west coast of Ireland, in several places, from Gal- 
way to Ck)rk. Jersey, Miss White and Miss Turner. 

GsooR. DisTB. Atlantic shores of Prance and Spain. Coast of Barbary, Web, 
and Mohr, Cape of Good Hope, Bowie and W, H. H. 

Bescr. Rooty formed of branching fibres, which extend in patches from one to 
several feet in diameter, over the surface of the rock. Fronds 12-20 inches 
long, as thick as a goose-quill, cylindrical, erect, quite simple for the dis- 
tance of from four to eight inches from the root, then forked ; and after- 
wards repeatedly, but irregularly, dichotomous, one of the arms of the fork 
being longer and stronger than the other, so that eventtially the frond 
often appears as if alternately branched. Axils obtuse, rounded. Vesicles 
firequently absent ; when present, generally innate in the ultimate branches, 
or immediately below one of the upper forkings. Beceptacles terminating 
the branches, from a prolongation of which they are formed, simple, cylin- 
drical, obtuse, composed internally of compact cellular tissue; the cells 
polygonal. They are, when ripe, tuberculated, each tubercle pierced by a 
pore, beneath which is placed a spherical conceptacle. In the lower part of 
the receptacle, the conceptacles contain numerous parietal, simple, elliptical 
spores, narrowed at their lower end ; in the upper part, they are destitute 
of spores, but filled with tufts of branching filaments, to which antkeridia 
arc attached. Colour, when growing, a clear olive, more yellow, and semi- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

transparent in the receptacles ; when diy, black. Sub$Umce tough, between 
coriaceous and cartilaginous ; brittle when diy. 

There is something so peculiar in the habit of this species, so 
different from that of the other members of the restricted genus 
FucuSy that it seems, even at first sight, to have claims to be re- 
garded as belonging to another genus. Its branching root, and 
cylindrical firond are very obvious distinctions, but they are not 
the only ones. When we come to examine its receptacles more 
closely, we find, that not merely are they (so to speak) moncecious, 
each receptacle containing the two kinds of coriceptacles, while 
in Fueus they are dicecious ; but, their cellular structure is widely 
different, those of the present individuals agreeing much more 
nearly with the receptacles of HalidryB, than of Fucub proper. 
And it is next to Halidrys that Kiitzing has placed it in his 
arrangement ; and in my opinion, very properly. 

There is also a striking affinity between the present genus 
and Xiphophoray Mont., and a nearer analogy, as it appears to 
me, than with Himanthalia, with which the learned founder of 
the former has ably contrasted it. In Xiphophora as in Fycno- 
phycm, we have the terminal segments of a dichotomous frond 
converted into receptacles, which receptacles are in both cases 
moncecious ; and the most striking difference between the genera 
is, that in Pycnophycm there is an obvious Une of demarcation 
between the frond and the receptacle, while in Xiphophora the 
receptacles are confluent with the upper branches. Possibly 
Fucm conJluen8, Br., may have a similar structure in essential 

This plant has a wide range, being found at the Cape of Good 
Hope, as well as on the shores of southern Europe and of North 
Africa. In the British Islands, it is much more common in Ire- 
land than in England, being abundant along our western coasts, 
at least as far north as Galway. Whereabouts in " the north of 
Ireland " Dr. Scott met with it, we are not told, but no one has 
found it recently on the shores of Ulster. 

Fig. 1. Pycnophyctjs tubeeculatus : — of the natural nze. 2. A spore. 8. 
Cross section of a segment of a receptacle, showing a conoeptade cut open, 
containing parietal spores. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


TlitU CCJV. 

V.' H H d«l »«. Ijth 

Digitized by 


Ser. Melanosfkui E^. Fam. Fucoidea. 

Plate CCIV. 


Gen. Chab. Frond linear, either flat, compressed or cylindrical, dichoto- 
mous (rarely pinnated), coriaceous. Air-vessels when present, innate, 
simple. JReceptacles either terminal or lateral, filled with mncns 
traversed by a net-work of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores 
which communicate with immersed, spherical ccmceptaclesy containing 
parietal yoores or arUheridia, or both. Fucus (i/.),— ^vicw, a sea- 

Fuccs vesiculous; £rond flat, coriaceous, thick, linear, dichotomous, quite 
entire at the margin, mid-ribbed; air-vessels globose or elliptical, 
mostly in pairs (often absent) ; receptacles tui^a, elliptical, ovate, or 
lanceolate^ terminal. 

Fucus vesiculosua, lAm, Sp, PI, p. 1626. Um, Fl, Lap. p. 366. Huda. 
Fl, Jng. p. 576. Lighif. Fl, Scot. p. 904. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 3. t. 2. and 
p. 12. t. 6. Haper. Ic. p. 35. 1. 12. 13. and p. 160. t. 83. 84. FeUey, t. 
1. mih. Bot vol. iv. p. 84. Gunn. Fl. Norv. vol. i. p. 48. Rotky Fl. 
Germ. vol. iii. p. 442. Turn. Syn. p. 117. Turn. Hist. t. 88. Lamour. 
Ess. p. 18. E. Bot. t. 1066. Lyngb. Hyd. Ban. p. 3. t. 1. Ag. Sp. Alg. 
voL i. p. 87. Ag. Syst. p. 276. Greo. Orypt. Fl. t. 319. Greo. Alg. Brit. 
p. 12. t. 2. Booh. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 267. Wyatt, Alg. Banm. no. 162. 
Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 168. Harv. Man. p. 20. Kutz. Fhyc. 
Gen. p. 351. t. 33, 34, 36, 36. Fndl. Srd. Svppl. p. 29. Mont. Fl. Canar. 
CeU. p. 139. Mont. Fl. Algier. p. 21. Harv. in Bot. Beechey, p. 163 and 406. 

Fucus divaricatus, Um. Sp. PI. p. 1627. Ligh^f. Fl. Scot. p. 909. E^. 
Ic. 1. 11. 

Fucus inflatos, Unn. ^. PI. p. 1627. Lightf. Fl. Scot. p. 910. 

Fucus spiralis, lann. Sp. PI. p. 1627. Stack. Ner. Brit. t. 5. E. Bot. 
1 1685. Fl. Ban. t. 286. Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 577. Ughtf. Fl. Scot. p. 911. 

Fucus volubilis, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 577. 

Fucus Sherardi, Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 72. 1. 13. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. p. 46. 

Eucus linearis, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 578. 

Fucus distichus, Idghtf. Fl. Scot. p. 912. (not of Linn.) 

0. subecodatus; very small, densely tufted, with an indistinct mid-rib, and 
destitute of vesicles. 
Fucus balticus, Ag. /&. Bot. t. 516. Grev. Orypt. Fl. 1. 181. 

Hab. On rocks and stones left exposed at low water ; also on artificial 
piers and quavs in sestuaries, extending up rivers as long as the water 
remains sensibly brackish. Perennial. Summer and winter. Very 
abundant on the British coasts. /3. in salt marshes, occasionally 
flooded. Near Dunstafl&aich Castle and Isle of Kerera, Mr. Maughan. 
Appin, Ca^t. Carmichael* Arran, Sir W. J. Hooker, Bute, Dr. 
GreviUe. Baldoyle and Roundstone Bay, (bearing fructifications), 
Mr. M'CaUa, 


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Geoge. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. Mediterranean 
Sea. Baltic. The Icy Sea. White Sea. Icehnd. Greenland. Nova 
Zembla. Spitsbergen. Califomia. Sitcha and Sachalin. Siberia at Ochotsk 
and Kamtskatka. Canary Islands. South Brazil (?). Cape of Good 
Hope (?), Ihklon, 

Descb. Soot, an expanded, conical disc. Fronds from two inches to two or 
three feet in length, and from a line to nearly an inch in breadth, flat, 
furnished with a strong, compressed, percurrent mid-rib, many times 
dichotomous, sometimes spirally twisted; the margin very entire. -^*r- 
vesaeh generally in pairs, one at each side of the mid-rib, spherical or oval, 
their size varying with the breadth of the frond, formed at uncertain 
intervals along the segments. Receptacles terminal, turgid, and fiiU of lax 
mucus, variable in form, elliptical, ovate, or linear-lanceolate, sometimes 
forked, dioecious ; those producing spores, of a greenish-olive colour ; those 
with antheridia, a more or less bright orange yellow. Substance thicldsh 
and very tough. Colour, a dark olive, paler in the younger parts. 

The commonest and one of the most widely diflftised species of 
the restricted genus Fucus. It abounds along the shores of the 
Northern Atlantic, extending even to the tropica, and is said to 
have been found in the Southern portion of that Ocean, but the 
Southern localities want confirmation. In the Pacific, it has 
been collected on the N. West coast of America. 

As may be judged by the numerous synonyms, this is rather a 
variable plant, but the variations may be summed up in a few 
words. The first and most obvious is in size ; some specimens, 
fully grown and in fruit, being not an inch in length, while 
others extend to several feet. The dwarfish individuals, con- 
stituting our var. /8, grow in brackish water and in muddy places. 
Other varieties are destitute of air-vessels ; or have the air-vessels 
of a lengthened figure : and others vary in the shape of the 
fructification, the receptacle being sometimes globose, sometimes 
eUipsoidal, and sometimes spindle-shaped. Lastly, the fix)nd is 
fi^quently spirally twisted. On characters such as these, the 
eiffhf book-species, quoted as synonyms, have been constituted. 

Fucus veaiculosus is largely used in the manufacture of kelp ; 
and also yields mannite in considerable quantity. In the north 
of Europe, when the vegetation of the land ceases, or is covered 
with snow, it furnishes an abundant winter fodder for cattle, 
which regularly visit the shores, at the retreat of the tide, in 
search of it. Various are the uses to which the Icelanders and 
Greenlanders apply it, as Linnaeus and others inform us. 

Fig. 1. Fucus vESicuLosus ; a branch. 2. A pair of lanceolate receptacles: — 
both of the natural size. 3. Section of a spore-bearing receptacle. 4. Spores 
and paraphyses from the same : — both magnified, ^ 

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^.HH.del etlitk. 

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Ser. Mblanosfxrhe^. fern. Fucea. 

Plate CCLXXI. 


Gen. Char. Frond linear, either flat, compressed, or cylindrical, dichoto- 
mons (rarely pinnated), coriaceous. Air-vessels, when present, innate, 
simple. Receptacles either terminal or lateral, filled with mucus, 
traversed by a net-work of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed, spherical conceptacles, containing 
parietal spares, or aiUheridia, or both. Fucus [L.), — ^from iftvuos, a 

Pucus ceranoides; frond plane, coriaceo-membranaceous, linear, subdi- 
chotomous, entire at the margin, midribbed, without vesicles ; lateral 
branches narrower than the frond, repeatedly forked, level-topped, 
bearing fruit in their apices; receptacles spindle-shaped or bifid, 

Fucrs ceranoides, Z«w. JS^. PL p. 1626. Ft. Lapp. p. 366. Stack. Ner. Brit. 
p. 71. 1. 13. Good, and JFoodie, Linn. Trans, vol. iii. p. 149. Turn. Syn, 
Fuc. voL i. p. 186. Turn. Hist. t. 89. Engl. Bot. t. 2115. Lyngh. Hyd. 
Dan. p. 5. Ag. Sp. Jig. vol. i. p. 98. Jg. Syst. p. 277. Orev. Alg. Brit. 
p. 14. Hook. Br. M. vol. ii. p. 267. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 168. 
Harv. Man. ed. 2. p. 19. Wyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 154. /. Ag. Gen. et Sp. 
Alg. vol. L p. 209. Kutz. Phyc. Un. p. 352. Sp. Alg. p. 690. 

FccDS distichus, Espery Ic.Fuc. vol. ii. p. 62. 1. 139. {excl. syn.) 

Hab. On rocks and stones between tide-marks ; seldom, except in places 
where fresh- water streams enter the sea; often in land-locked bays, 
and estuaries. Perennial. Spring and summer. Many places from 
Orkney to Cornwall. 

Geoob. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe, most frequent in the north. East 
coast of North America. 

Descr. Boot a conical disc. Frond from one to two feet in length, much di- 
vided in a manner between pinnate and dichotomous, the original branching 
heing dichotomous, and becoming more or less pinnated by the growth 
of lateral branches; consisting of a midribbed, linear, coriaceous, but 
thin, membrane, perfectly entire at the edges and destitute of vesicles. 
The main branches are from a quarter of an inch to half an inch or 
more in breadth, and always about twice as broad as the lateral branches : 
they are distantly and pretty regularly forked, with patent, obtuse or 
emargmate apices. The lateral branches are alternate, or sometimes 
secund, springing from the sides of the main division ; they are narrow, 
closely and repeatedly forked, level-topped, and as it were corymbose. 
Receptacles small, terminating the lateral branches, fusiform or doubly 
fusiform and forked, swollen, gelatinous within, and acute or acuminate. 
Substance much thinner and more transparent than in F. vesiculosus, but 
nevertheless coriaceous. Colour a greenish or brownish olive. 


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This species, in many respects, resembles F. vesiculosus, with 
some varieties of which it has been occasionally confounded; 
but it has many characters by which it may at all times be 
known, independently of the absence of vesicles, — ^which cha- 
racter is too variable to be depended on, for in many forms of 
F. vesicuiosus vesicles are wanting. F. ceranoides may be readily 
known by its much thinner and more transparent substance, and 
by containing a less quantity of saline matters ; so that it dries 
much more rapidly when removed from the water, and requires 
far less steeping in fresh water when specimens are prepared for 
the Herbarium. 

The usual habitat of this species is in places where a good deal 
of fresh water mixes with the sea ; but it is by no means confined 
to such places. I have gathered specimens on exposed parts of 
the shore, where no fresh water flowed in. In the Loch of 
Stennis, Orkney, where the water is but fedntly brackish, a very 
narrow variety is abundant. The greater the amount of saltness 
in the water the broader is the frond, but in no case is the 
substance so thick and leathery as in i^. vesiculosus. The lateral 
fructification is very characteristic of this species, but is not 
essential, for there is a variety of F. vesiculosus figured by 
Dr. Greville having also lateral fruit. 

Fig. 1. Fucus CEBANOiDES : — the natural size. 2. Section of one of tlie 
conceptacles, from the receptacle, containing spores and paranemata: — 

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/'/.//, TA/// 

eevr ^r»ir 

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Ser. Melanospesmva. Fam. Fucea. 

Plate XLVII. 


Gen.Chak. Frond'^ediy either flat, compressed, or cylindrical, dichotomous 
(rarely pinnated)^ coriaceous. Air-vessels, when present, innate, 
simple. Receptacles either terminal, or lateral, filled with mucus 
traversed by a network of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed spherical conceptacles, containing 
parietal spores, or antheridia, or both. Fucus (Z), ^vicor, a seaweed. 

fvcus serralus ; frond plane, dichotomous, mid-ribbed, serrated, without 

air-vesseb; receptacles flat, terminating the branches, serrated. 

Pucus serratus, Xwwi. Sp, Fl. p. 1626. Fl. Lap. p. 365. FL Suec. p. 430. 
Huds. Fl, Aug, p. 576. Ughif. Fl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 902. Stack. Ner. Brit. 
p. 2. 1. 1. Turn. Syn. vol. i. p. 110. Hist. t. 90. E. Bat. i. 1221. lyngb, 
Hyd. p. 5. 1. 1. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 95. Sgst. p. 278. Hook Fl, Scot. 
pwt 2. p. 95. Grev, Fl. Edin. p. 284. Alg. Brit. p. 15. Hook. Br. Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 267. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 169. Wgatt, Alg. Danm. 
no. 2. Fttdl, 3. Suppl. p. 29. Kiitz, Phgc. Gen. p. 352. 

Hab. On rocky sea shores, clothing the rocks at half-tide level. Perennial. 
Winter and Spring. Very common. 

Geogb. Distb. Atlantic coasts of Europe from Norway to Spain. Baltic Sea. 
Greenland, Lgngh. Coast of Piedmont, AUioni (doubtful). 

Desce. Root a hard, conical disc. Frond from two to six feet long, and from 
half an inch to two inches in breadth, linear, traversed by a strong, thick 
mid-rib, regularly dichotomous, the margin sharply serrated, or occasionally 
ladniated. Mid-rib thickened at the forking. Vesicles none. Receptacles 
flat, terminating the branches, of which they are merely prolongations, 
slightly altered in structure, and containing numerous immersed conceptacles 
communicating with external pores. These conceptacles are spherical, hollow, 
and seem to be formed by an inflexion of the periphery of the frond. In 
some individuals they produce from all parts of their inner surface, nume- 
rous obovate spores, which finally separate into eight distinct sporules, and 
are surrounded by filamentous processes. In other individuals the place of 
the spores is occupied by tufts of much-branched, jointed filaments, which 
produce an abundance of elliptical cellules, filled with numerous, bright- 
orange, vivaceous corpuscles or zoospores^ which eventually issue from their 
cases and swim about, with a rapid motion, resembling the voluntary move- 
ment of animalcules. These cellules are called antheridia, and their con- 
tained zoospores supposed to fulfil the office of pollen. They are never 
found on the same plant as the spores, the species being strictly dioecious. 

liccus serratm abounds on all the Atlantic shores of Europe, 
and probably extends to the eastern shores of America, but is not 
found, according to J. Agardh, in the Mediterranean Sea, although 

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mentioned by Allioni. It does not appear to extend to the 
Pacific, nor to be found in the Southern Ocean. 

It presents some varieties, chiefly distinguished by the greater 
or less breadth of the frond, and the depth of the serratures. 
I have chosen one of the most common states for illustration. 
In the variety integerrimv^ of Turner, the marginal serratures 
are very shallow, and sometimes obsolete, but always suflSciently 
marked to prevent the species being mistaken. In his variety 
latifolius, the upper branches are very much wider than the lower, 
sometimes nfore than two inches broad, and remarkably rounded, 
not unlike the webbed feet of some waterfowl ; and in Greville*s 
variety laciniatus, the serratures are very deeply cut, " and cleft 
or laciniate." 

Messrs. Decaisne and Thuret, who first discovered the zoospores 
above described, of which they have given a most interesting 
account in the * Annales des Sciences Naturelles ", divide the 
Agardhian genus Fucus into several genera, of which F, serratus, 
F. nodosus, F. canaiiculatus, and F. tuberculatm respectively 
are the types, and which they distinguish chiefly by the spores 
containing eight, four, two, or one sporules ; a minute character 
which accompanies some differences in natural habit, and might 
be resorted to were the genus Fucm of great extent. But in so 
small a genus it appears scarcely necessary to burden the science 
with so many new names. 

To observe the zoospores in motion, fresh specimens, collected 
in winter or early spring, having orange-coloured receptacles, 
should be removed from the water, and left to dry partially. 
As the surface dries, there will exude from the pores of the re- 
ceptacle, drops of a thick, orange-coloured liquid, which, on being 
placed imder a microscope and moistened with salt water, will 
be foimd to be composed of innumerable antheridia, from which 
will issue troops of zoospores, which, the moment of their libera- 
tion, commence those strange animal motions which have so much 
puzzled philosophers to reconcile with vegetable life. 

Fig. 1. Fucus SERRATUS : — natural Size. 2. Transverse section of the receptacle, 
showing two coticeptacles. 3. Spores from the same. 4. A cluster of antke- 
ridia. 5 . An antheridium containing zoospores , some of which have escaped ; — 
all magnified. 

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Digitized by 


/... ( I \7Jl 

Digitized by 


Ser. MelanospbbhejB. Fam. Fueea. 

Plate CLVHI. 


Oen. Chab. Frond linear, either flat, compressed, or cylindrical, dichoto- 
mous (rarely pinnated), coriaceous. Air-vessels, when present, innate, 
simple. Receptacles either terminal or lateral, filled with mucus 
traversed by a net- work of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed, spherical conceptacles, containing 
parietal spares, or atUieridia, or both. Fucus (i/.), — ^from ^ww, a 

Tvcvs nodosus ; frond compressed, without distinct rib, leathery, sub- 
dichotomous ; branches strap-shaped, somewhat pinnated, attenuate at 
base, remotely toothed, here and there swelling into oblong air-vessels ; 
receptacles k^ieral, ovidie, stalked, springing from the axils of the mar- 
gined teeth. 

Fucus nodosus, Xww. J^. Ph p. 1628. Fl, 8uec. p. 431. Fl. Lapp. p. 366. 
Lii^ktf. Fl. Scot vol. ii. p. 918. Huds. Fl, Ang. p. 584. With. vol. iv. p. 84. 
Stack. Ner. Bnt. p. 35. 1. 10. Fl. Dan. 1. 146. R Bot. t. 670. Esper, 
p. 25. t. 7. and p. 118. t. 60. Qm. Hist. 1. 1. ^. f. 1. Turn. Syn. p. 252. 
Turn. Hist. i. 91. Zamour. Ess. p. 19. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 85. Ag. Syst. 
p. 275. Hook. Fl. Scot. part. 2. p. 94. Orev. Fl. Edin. p. 284. Spr. Syst. 
Feg. vol iv. p. 316. Orev. Alg. Brit. p. 16. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 268. 
Wyatt, Alg. Dmm. no. 154. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 169. 
Harv. Man. p. 21. Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 29. 

Halidrts nodosa, lAfngb. Hgd. Ban. p. 37. t. 8. 

Physocaulon nodosam, Kutz. Phgc. Oen. p. 352. 

OzoTHALLiA Vulgaris, Dne. in An. Sc. Nat. 1845. p. 13. 

Hab. Growing on sub-marine rocks and large boulder stones, from ordinary 
high-water mark to half-tide level. Perennial. Winter and Spring. 
Yery common. 

GsooE. DisTR. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. 

Descb. Boot a hard, conical disc, one or two inches in diameter. Fronds tufted, 
from two to four or six feet in length, from a quarter to half an inch or more 
in width, compressed, two-edged, thickened into an obscure rib in the 
middle, especially in older parts, linear, once or twice forked at considerable 
intervals, remotely toothed at the margin. From the axils of the teeth 
spring lateral, distichous branches similar to the main frond, toothed and 
again once or twice pinnated with smaller branches, which are either simple 
and lanceolate or euneate and forked ; or furnished, in place of branchlets, 
with soUtary or tufted receptacles. All the divisions of the frond are very 
much attenuated at base, and more or less acute at the apex. Vesicles one 
to two inches long, oval-oblong, formed at intervals in the principal stem 
and branches ; rarely absent. Beceptacles springing from the axils of the 
marginal teeth, ovate, raised on slender stalks, from half an inch to upwards 
of an inch in length, bright yellow when ripe, two or more often issuing 

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from the same point. These contain, in some individuals, antheridia^ affixed 
to branching threads ; in others, globose spores, which at length separate 
into four sporules. Substance exceedingly tough and leathery. Colour a 
dull, olive-green ; which becomes black in drying. 

This is the largest of the British species of the restricted genus 
Fucm, and by far the toughest and most rigid. Its substance is 
thicker and denser than that of any of the others, and its frequently 
pinnated habit, and remarkably large vesicles, added to the ribless 
frond, afford strong marks of distinction. When in fructification, 
the great abundance of the clear yellow receptacles contrasts 
agreeably with the colour of the other parts of the frond. Like 
most other submersed plants this varies in luxuriance according 
to the depth at which it grows : specimens near high- water mark 
being short and bushy, often exceedingly crowded in branches, 
and thickly covered with fruit ; while those produced near ordi- 
nary low-water are drawn out to a great length, with more 
distant branches. The older authors founded varieties, which 
are scarcely worth noticing, on these differences. 

Fucus nodosm is almost always more or less infested with 
Polydphonia fasti^iatay which forms globose tufts of a rich 
brown colour on various parts of its fronds. This parasite is not 
confined to the present species, however, but may often be seen 
on old stumps of F. vesictdosus, to which it generally attaches 
itself near the root only. 

F.nodosus is one of those largely used inthe manufacture of Kelp, 
which it yields in considerable quantities. Oystermen sometimes 
employ it to cover their oysters, though F. serratm is more gene- 
rally employed for that purpose. In Scotland this plant is called 
Sea-Whistles \ and boys make whistles of the larger air-vessels, 
according to Lightfoot, by cutting them across near one end. 

Fig. 1. Fucus NODOSUs ; portion of a frond — of the natural size. 2. Segment 
of a receptacle : — MUghthf magnified, 8. A spore : — highhf magn^ied. 

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PfH/^ /JL 

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Ser. MBLANOSPEBXEiB. Fam. Fucea. 

Plate LII. 

Gen. Chab. Frond linear^ either flat^ compressed^ or cylindrical^ dichotoinous 
(rarely pinnated)^ coriaceous. Air vessels, when present^ innate^ 
simple. Receptacles either terminal^ or lateral^ filled with mucus tra- 
versed by a net-work of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed spherical couceptaclesj containing 
parietal spores, or ontAeridia, or both. Fucus (Z), ifwMg, a seaweed. 

Fucus Maciaii; frond cylindrical or subcompressed, slender, much 
branched; branches dichotomous ; air vessels elliptical, solitary; re- 
ceptacles lateral, lanceolate, ovate, or forked, stalked, pendulous, scat- 
tered, near the base of the branches. 

Fucus Mackaii, !Fum. Hist. t. 52. 8m. E, Bot, t. 1927. Lam. Ess. p. 20. 
Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 87. Eook. M. Scot, part 2. p. 95. Qrev. Alg. Br. 
p. 17. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 268. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 8. 
p. 169. Harv. Man. p. 21. Orev. in Phyc. vol. i. p. 465. 

Fucus nodosus, y. Mackaii, Ag. Sgst. p. 275. 

Physocaulon Mackaii, Kutz. Phyc. Gen. p. 352. 

Hab. Muddjsea shores, usually in land-locked bays, and among boulders. 

Perennial. April and May. Birterbui Bay, Cunnemara, Mr. /. T. 

Machay. (1805). Loch Seaforth, Lord Seaforth. Arasaig, Mr. 

Borrer. Loch Coul and Kyle Scough, Sutherland, Messrs. Borrer 

and Hooker. East coast of Skye, and head of Loch Duich Messrs. 

Hooker and GrevUle. 

GBOG&. DiSTB. North of Europe. Baltic sea, Areschoug. 

Descb. Fronds growing in globular tufts the size of a human head or larger, 
many fronds radiating from a subcentral point, but without obvious root or at- 
tachment. Fronds 6-1 2 inches long, from half a line to two lines in diameter, 
cylindrical or subcompressed, cartUagineo-coriaceous, rather brittle, ribless, 
with a short, simple or forked main stem, from which issue, without much 
regularity, numerous long, repeatedly dichotomous or occasionally trichoto- 
mous branches, which gradually taper to the apices, where they are often 
less than a quarter of a line in diameter, and are beset throughout their 
length with more or less frequent, lateral, simple, or forked, patent ramuli. 
Aanls patent, rounded ; apices blunt. Vesicles from a quarter to half an 
inch in length, two lines wide, few, occurring generally below the forkings 
of the longer branches ; sometimes wanting. Receptacles lateral, borne by 
slender p^undes issuing irregularly from the sides of the branches near 
their base, pendulous, lanceolate, or bilobed, or somewhat ovate, yellow, 
containing numerous spherical conceptacles, frill of roimdish spores, each of 
which separates at maturity into four spondes. Colour a dull olive. Sub- 
stance when dry somewhat homy and translucent. 


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Fucus Mackaii was discovered in the year 1805, on the western 
coast of Ireland, by Mr. James Townsend Mackay, author of the 
Flora Hibernica', in honour of whom the species has been 
named by Mr. Dawson Turner in his great work, the ' Hiatoria 
Fucorum \ For a long time the fructification remained undis- 
covered, and, consequently, a doubt rested on the validity of the 
species, the resemblance, in many respects, to a dwarfed variety 
of Fucua nodosus suggesting a probabihty that it was only a form 
of that plant. No doubt the connection between these plants is 
very strong, yet the difference in ramification is so great, and the 
constancy of character observed in Fucus Mackaii in many widely 
distant localities in which it has been abundantly found, is so 
remarkable, that added now to distinctions, afforded by the posi- 
tion of the fiiiit, its characters are better established. Still, its 
habitat is anomalous, and it may be urged that the peculiar 
characters originate in this habitat. The Fuci in general are at- 
tached by scutate roots to rocks and stones ; Fucus Mackaii in- 
variably Kes unattached, resting in its place, by its own weight, 
on mud, gravel, or amon^ loose boulders. In such situations it 
flourishes firom year to year, and fiiiits abundantly. 

The finit was first observed by Dr. Greville in the autumn of 
1842, in the collection of Mrs. Captain Maynard at Stanraer, to 
whom it was communicated by Dr. Lindsay fix)m the Isle of Skye. 
More recently, in the Spring of 1846, Mr. Mc' Calla found an 
abundance of specimens in fiructification, which is, probably, 
produced every year, but from the early season at which it is 
formed, when few botanists have an opportunity of seeing the 
plant, unless resident near its place of growth, the firuit has 
hitherto escaped detection. From a fine specimen, communi- 
cated to me by Mr. Mc' Calla, in a fresh state, my figure has been 
taken, and I have since (in June) had the pleasure of gathering 
fine fruiting specimens in the Sound of Skye. The pendulous 
receptacles, produced at the bases of the main branches, and 
the contrast between their clear greenish yellow, and the oliva- 
ceous colour of the fix)nd, have a very pretty effect. 

Fig. 1. Fucus Mackaii : — natural tize. 2. Transverse segment of a receptacle. 
3. A spore. 4. portion of the net-work from the centre of the receptade : 
— aU higMy magnified. 

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Piatt ccmz. 

% * 


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Ser. Mblamobpebios. Fam. Pneea. 

Plate CCXXIX. 


Gen. Chaiu Frond linear, either flat, compressed, or cylindrical, dichoto* 
moos (rarely pinnated), coriaceous. Air-vessels, when present, innate, 
simple. Beceptacles either terminal or lateral, filled with mucus 
traversed by a net-work of jointed fibres, pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed, spherical conceptades, containing 
parietal spares or aiUAeridia, or both. Fucus (Z.), — ^from <t^Kos, a 

Fucus eanaUeulatus ; firond linear, narrow, channelled on one side, without 
mid-rib or air-vessels, dichotomous; receptacles terminal, bipartite. 
Fucus canalicolatus, Lmn. Sfyti. Nat, voL ii. p. 716. M, Don, t. S14. Om, 
md. p. 78. 1. 1. A. f. %. UgW' ^. -Sbo<- P- ^17- ^«%. 1. 1. Wlik. 
voL iv. p. 99. Tutm. 8yn. p. 24d. Turn. Ski, t. 8. dm. E. Bot. t. 828. 
Lmnmr. En. p. 20. I^ntfi, Hyd. Dan. p. 6. t. 1. Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. 
p. 96. Jg.8y9t.^,%l^. Hook. m. Soot. 1^%. p. 96. Orev. Fl. Edm. 
p. 284. Grev. Alg. BrU. p. 18. Hooi. Br. Ft. vol. ii^. 268. Harv. in 
Mack, Fl. Eib. part 8, p. 169. Harv. Man. p. 21. Wyatt, Alg. Damn. 
no. 102. Kitti. Phfc. Gen. p. 352. 

Fucus exeisos, Lmn. Sp. PI. p. 1627. Mamt. p. 508. Fl. Lapp. p. 366. 
Gimn. Fl. Norv. vol. i. p. 96. 

Fblvstia canaliculata, Dne. An. 8c. Nai. 1845, p. 12. 

FuoODiUM canaliculatum, /. Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. L p. 204. 

Hab. On rocky sea-shores, between high-water mark and half-tide level. 

Perennial. Summer and autumn. 
Geogb. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. 

Descb. Boot, a conical expansion, half an inch or more in diameter. F^nda 
densely tufted, from two to six inches or more in height, one to two or three 
lines in breadth, nearly of equal breadth throughout, deeply channelled on 
one side, and rounded on the other, many times dichotomous in a tolerably 
regular manner ; the apices generally bifid. Beceptacles terminating the 
branches, narrow-cuneate, either deeply cloven or bipartite, swollen, tuber- 
cular, containing numerous immersed conceptades. Spores elliptical, at 
length separating, by a transverse division, into two sporoles. Substance 
veiy tough and leathery. Structure dense. Colour, a dear olive when young, 
becoming brownish or foxy in old age, the reoeptades at length greenish- 

This species begins to vegetate on the very edge of high-vf^ater 
mark, often in places where it is only wet by the spray. In such 
situations it attains a dwarfish size, seldom reaching more than an 
inch or two in height, but the specimens sometimes arrive at 

Digitized by 


maturity and produce fruit. Between this, its extreme limit, 
and the level of half-tide, the main crop is developed, the fronds 
attaining a greater size with the increasing depth of water ; but 
beyond half-tide we rarely, if ever, meet with Fucus canalicu- 
latus. It evidently requires by its organization, exposure to the 
atmosphere for a considerable period each day. Unlike most of 
its congeners it rarely covers wide spaces of rock, but more com- 
monly grows in scattered tufts in places where, cm the recess of 
the tide, the water rapidly drains off. It thus shows, in all its 
habits, a peculiar adaptation for drought, and its tough and close 
texture admirably fit it for long resisting the drying effects of 
sun and air. StUl, it oftm becomes quite dry and crisp in a hot 
sununer's day, and yet recovers life and flexibility on the return of 
the tide. None of our marine plants are less variable in charact^. 
Its channelled stem is always recogmsable, and its ramification, 
if the frond be not injured, is invariably dichotomous. In cases of 
accidental injury, however, the wounded parts become proliferous 
and throw out numerous branches without order, converting such 
specimens into dense bushes. 

Fig. 1. Fuous CANALICULATUS : — qf ike mUurol size. 2. Part of areoqitacle, with 
its immersed conceptacles. 3. Section of pcniioa of the same, one of the 
ooDceptacles cut through. 4. A spore. 5. Some of the filaments which 
accompany the spores :---aZ^ more or les$ highly magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. Melai^osfesmex. Fam. Fucea. 



Gen. Char. Frond top-shaped. Receptacles very long, strap-shaped, re- 
peatedly forked, springing from the centre of the frond, filled with 
mucus traversed by jointed fibres, and pierced by numerous pores, 
which communicate with immersed spherical concepiacles, containing 
either parietal spores, or (in distinct individuals) antieridia. Uiman- 
THALiA {Zynffb.) — from Ifios, a strap, and BdXos, a brasicA (or ^> the 

UucANTHALiA lorea ; frond top-shaped, at length cup-shaped, stalked ; re- 
ceptacles repeatedly dichotomous, tapering more or less at the apex. 

HiHANTHALiA loTca, Lyuffb, Ifyd, Dan, p. 36. t. 8. Orev. Fl. Edin, p. 285. 
GaUi, in Diet. So, Nat. vol. 63. p. 357. Orev. Alg. Brit. p. »0. t. 8. Hook. 
Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 269. JFyatt, Alg. Lanm. no. 3. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. 
part 8. p. 170. Hart. Man. p. 22. KUtz. Fkyc. Gen. p. 851. Endl. Zrd 
Suppi, p. 29. 

Fucus loreus, Linn. Stfst. Nat. vol. ii. p. 716. Gm. vol. ii. p. 1382. Huds. 
Fl. Ang. p. 583. Ligh^f. Fl. Scot. p. 920. Fl. Dan. t. 710. With. Ar. 
voL iv. p. 96. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 87. 1. 10. E. Bot. t. 569. Turn. Syn. 
Fue, vd. ii. p. 246. Hist. t. 196. Lamour. Ess. p. 19. Ag. Sp. Alg. 
vol. i. p. 98. Ag. Syst. p. 280. JSpreng. Syst. Feg. vol. iv. p. 816. 

Fucus elongatas, lAnn^ Sp. Fl. vol. ii. p. 1627 {excl. syn. Moris). Syst. 

vol. iL p. 716. Gm. vol. ii. p. 1881. Gm. Hist. Fuc. p. 103. (excl. syn. 

Fucus longo angusto crassoque foUo, Raii. Syn. p. 43. n. 11. 
Fucus fungis affims, RaU. I. c. p. 43. n. 15. 

Hab. On rocky sea shores, near low water mark. Annual? Winter and 
spring. Common. 

Geogr.Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe from Iceland (Mohr.) to Portugal 
(Brotero). Eastern coast of North America. 

Descr. Root scutate Fronds tufted, when young narrow obconical, graduaUy 
becoming wider above, and finally being top-shaped, depressed in the 
centre, with an expanded circular rim, thus becoming shghtly cup-shaped, 
or pezizaeform. Receptacles springing from the centre (i.e. the apex) of the 
cup-like frond, varying in length from two to ten, or according to some 
authors, to twenty feet; from a quarter to half an inch in width, compressed, 
linear, repeatedly dichotomous, tapering at the apices into more or less 
acute points. Internally these receptacles are filled with a watery gelatine 
traversed by confervoid filaments. Their outer coat is firmly cellular, and 
pierced by numerous pores beneath each of which is formed a small sphe- 
rical chamber or conceptade. The fructification is dioBcious. In some 
individuals the conceptades contain tufts of antheridia, attached to branching 
filaments, similar to those of Fucus. In others they contain, immersed 

Digitized by 


among oonfervoid filaments, tliree or four large, roundish, oUye-coloured 
spores, which divide internally at maturity into four sporules. Colour, a 
dark oHve, occasionally pale yellowish. Substance coriaceous. 

This well-known plant, wluch, with some schooling, we have 
contrived to bring within the narrow compass of our plate, is 
very common on most of the rocky Atlantic coasts of Europe 
and North America, but is not found in the Mediterranean. 

Authors are at variance as to its duration ; Turner and Car- 
michael asserting that it is 9^ perennial \ Greville and Mrs. Grif- 
fiths that it is annual. Certain it is that the plant appears to 
reach to its full growth within the year, and that vast multitudes 
of fronds then decay ; while their receptacles are detached, and 
drift ashore in tangled strata. Possibly some survive to a second 
season, and throw out new receptacles ; for I am unwilling to 
set aside the evidence of so close an observer as the late Captaui 
Carmichael, who declares that he has seen old fix)nds which bad 
shed their first receptacles, throw out others, which latter fre- 
quently spring, according to the same authority, from some ex- 
centric point of the disc. I have, I must add, repeatedly and in 
vain sought for instances of this second growth, and am therefore 
disposed to regard the species as being, under common circum- 
stance, an annual, — granting that it may occasionally be biennial, 
from the influence of local causes. 

The common name is Sea Thongs, of which the lengthy Greek 
by which it is known to botanists is nearly a literal translation. 
It is used in the manufacture of Kelp, in which salt it is said to 
be rich, though inferior in this respect to some of the true Fuci. 

Fig. 1. HiMANTHALiA LOKEA, a small specimen: — the natural size. 2. Gross 
section of the receptacle. 3. Enlarged view of a conceptacle : — in iiiu. 4. 
A spore, containing four sporules, and surrounded by hyaline filaments. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

W:! H o-^»ti.t>i 

Digitized by VjQO^lC 

8er. Mel&nospeahe^. Fam. Sporochnoidete. 

Plate CXV. 


Qbn. Chaa. Fr&nd linear, either filifOTin, compressed or flat, distichously 
branched, cellular, traversed by an internal, single-tubed jointed 
filament ; producing, when young, marginal tufts of byssoid, branching 
fibres. Fructification unknown. — ^Desmarestia {Lamour,), in honour 
of A. G, Desmarest, a celebrated French naturalist. 

Desmabestia ligulata'y frond flat, with an obscure mid-rib, repeatedly 
pinnate; pinnee and pinnulse opposite, linear-lanceolate, tapering 
towards both extremities. 

Dbsmakestia ligulata, Lamour. Ess. p. 25. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 37. t. 5. 
Hook, Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 273. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 172. Harv. 
Man. p. 26. Wyait, Alg. Banm. no. 55. Endl. Zrd Suppl. p. 28. KiUz. 
Phyc. Gen. p. 343. 

Desmia ligolata, lAfngb. Eyd. Ban. p. 83. t. 7. 

Spobochnus hgulatus, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 158. Ag. Sgst. p. 261. Grev. 
Fl. Edin. p. 287. Spreng. SysL Veget. vol. iv. p. 330. 

Laminabia Ugulata, Hook. Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 99. 

Fucus ligulatus, Light/. Fl. Scot. p. 946. t. 29. Turn. Sgn. p. 99. Turn. 
Hid. Fuc. t. 98. Sm. E. Bot. 1. 1636. 

Fucxis herbaceas, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 582. 

Hab. On the rocky bottoms of sub-marine tide-pools, near low water 
mark ; and at a greater depth. Annual. Summer. Not uncommon 
on the shores of the British Islands from Orkney to Cornwall. Jersey. 

Geogb. Distb. European Atlantic, from the shores of the Foeroe Islands to the 
coast (A France. Cape Horn, Br. Hooker. 

Descb. Boot a large conical expansion, half an inch broad. Fronds from two 
to six feet long or more, with a short, cylindrical, cartilaginous stem from 
half a line to a line in diameter, which soon becomes compressed, and at 
the distance of an inch or two from the base passes into the flat, Hnear, 
undivided frond, which gradually widens to its middle, and from thence is 
attenuated to the apex ; this primary frond is from one to four Hnes wide, 
furnished with a more or less evident mid-rib. and closely pinnated, at 
distances varying from an eighth of an inch to upwards of an inch, with 
opposite, distichous branches. Branches very variable in length, the long 
and short ones mixed together without order; the smaller ones simple, 
from half an inch to an inch long, resembhng lanceolate leaves ; the larger 
pinnate or bipinnate, all the divisions being of a lanceolate form, but varying 
much in relative breadth in different specimens, sometimes not one third of 
a line in breadtlj, sometimes three or four lines. All the pinnules are 
margined with minute spine-like teeth, which in youni; individuals produce 
tufts of dehcate, branching, jointed fibres. Fructification unknown. Sub- 


Digitized by 


stance at first cartilaginous, firm and elastic, but soon, on removal from the 
water, becoming flaccid. Colour, when growing, a clear olive brown, soon 
becoming verdigris green in the air, and when preserved in the herbarium 
usuaUy a yellowish olive. 

A very elegant plant, one of the most beautiful of our olive ' 
coloured Algae, and not uncommon on any of the British shores. 
It was first described by Lightfoot in his ' Flora Scotica/ where 
an excellent figure is also given. With a perfect regularity in 
its branching, and in all the lesser details of its habit, there is so 
much diflference in the relative breadth of the frond, that speci- 
mens from diflferent parts of the coast have a very opposite 
aspect. In some the branches are broader than our larger 
figure represents, and these approach the narrower forms of the 
exotic jD. herhacea, whose broader varieties have branches as wide 
as the laciniae of a Laminaria ; in others the frond is so narrow, 
that, as Mr. Turner well observes, such individuals may, at first 
sight, be mistaken for luxuriant fronds of D, viridis, whose 
narrower varieties are as delicate as the finest Conferva. One 
would scarcely expect this close connection by comparing merely 
typical states of these three species, but by an extensive suite of 
specimens the approximation may be very clearly shown, but it 
never arrives at the point where one absolutely passes into the 

Desniarestia ligulata is widely distributed in the Northern 
Atlantic, and probably as common on the American as the 
European side, though we have as yet no evidence of the fact. 
In the southern hemisphere I am only aware of its having been 
found at Cape Horn, where Dr. J. D. Hooker dredged, from a 
considerable depth, specimens in all respects similar to British 
individuals. This fact is the more interesting because the same 
locaUty furnishes another closely analogous, but perfectly distinct 
species, i). Eossti, which, but for the presence of the true 
D. ligvlata, one would be inclined to regard as its representative. 

Fig. 1. Desmarestia ligulata, part of a frond. 2. A branch of a narrower 
individual : — both of the natural size, 3. A cross section of the lower part 
of the frond : — magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


/'/a/, X/JX 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Ser. Mei.anospebi(ss. Fam. SporoeAnoidea. 

Plate XLIX. 


Gen. Chab. Frond linear, either filiform, compressed, or flat, distichously 
branched, cellnlar, traversed by an internal, single-tubed, jointed fila- 
ment; producing, when young, marginal tufts of byssoid, branching 
fibres. Fructification unknown. Desmakestia (Lamour.) — ^in honour 
of A. G. Deamarestj a celebrated French naturalist. 

Desmabestia aculeata ; stem short, cylindrical, bearing numerous slender, 
elongate, flattish, irregularly bi-tri-pinnate branches ; pinnse and pin- 
nulse alternate, tapering at the base, filiform, either fringed with oppo- 
site tufts of bright green fibres, or margined with erect, awl-shaped, 
alternate, distichous spines. 

Desmarestia aculeata, Lam. Em. p. 25. Orev. Jig. Brit. p. 38. t. 5. f. 2, 3. 
Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 273. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 1 72. Wyatt, 
Alg. Danm. no. 158. Earv. Man. p. 26. Fndl. 3rd Suppl. p. 28. Kutz. 
Fkyc. Gen. p. 343. t. 26. f. 1. 

Desmia acoleata, Lyngb. Hyd. Dan, p. 34. t. 44. B. 1. 

Spobochnus aculeatus, Jg. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 151. Ag. 8yd. p. 259. Hook. 
Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 96. Grev, Fl. Edin. p. 287. 

Fxjcus aculeatus, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1632. Huda. Fl. Ang. p. 586. Light. Fl. 

Scot. p. 924. Fl. Ban. t. 355. Stack. Ner. Brit. p. 24. t. 8. Turn. Syn. 

vol. ii. p. 262. Turn. Hist. 1. 187. 
Fucus muscoides, lAnn. Sp. PI. p. 1630. ffuda. Fl. Ang. p. 590. 

Hab. On rocks and stones in the sea., near low-water mark, and at a greater 
depth. FerenniaL Common on the shores of the British Islands; 

Geoob. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe, from North Cape to Spain. Shores 
of Piedmont, AlUoni (but omitted by /. Agardh in his Alg. Medit.). 

Descb. Boot a hard disc. Frondi l-:3, to 6 feet in length, undivided, or 
branching from a short distance above the base, preserving throughout a 
nearly eqiial breadth of half a line, compressed, more or less angularly 
flexuous, bearing along their whole length alternate lateral branches, the 
lower of which are longest, the rest gradually shorter upwards. I/noer 
branches repeatedly compound, bearing one, two, or three sets of distichous, 
alternate, erect or erecto-patent lateral branches ; upper ones gradually less 
and less compound, and those near the apex quite simple. Occasionally 
two branches spring from the same point, at the same side of the stem ; 
and more rarely, two of the lesser branches are found opposite to each other. 
Tn an early sti^ of growth all the branches are clothed, at intervals of 
about a line, with opposite pencils of finely divided, repeatedly pinnate, 
byssoid, articulated fibres of a beautiful yellow-green colour, which appa- 
rently originate in the jointed thread which runs through the centre of the 
frond. These fibres soon fall away, leaving the stems and branches naked, 
and then alternate, subulate spmes are developed at intervals of two to four 

Digitized by 


lines along the margin. Occasionally spines and filaments are to be found 
at the same time, the former being slender and weak. Substance cartila- 
ginous when young ; very rigid when old. Colour, at first, pale greenish 
olive, finally, foxy brown. 

At different stages of its growth this plant presents such oppo- 
site appearances, that a young botanist may readily mistake, for 
two species, forms which depend entirely on age, and which have 
deceived even Linnaeus himself. When young, the whole frond 
is of a tender substance, bright green colour, and beautifully 
fringed with filaments ; when old, it is coarse, brown, naked, 
and thorny. In plants of the second year, such as our figure 
represents, these characters are often found combined in the 
same specimen, in which the older parts of the frond are naked 
and spiny, the younger shoots being green and clothed with 
pencilled filaments. No finctification has yet been observed on 
this, or any other, species of Desmarestia, 

In the Southern Ocean a closely allied species was found at 
Cockbum Island, lat. 64° 13' S., by the officers of the ^Erebus ' 
and * Terror', nearly at the southern hmit at which they observed 
a marine vegetation. It appears to be identical with B. media^ 
Ag., a species originally found at Unalascha, in Russian America, 
and differs from D, acideata in having the branches generally 
opposite or nearly so. It, indeed, presents characters almost 
exactly intermediate between Dichloria viridis and D. acideata ; 
so much so, that I do not think the genus Dichloria can be 
retained as distinct from Deamareatiay notwithstanding the ab- 
sence of confervoid filaments. 

Fig. 1. Desmarestia aculeata ; a small plant : — natural size. 2. One of the 
byssoid fibres. 3. Transverse section of the frond. 4. Longitudinal semi- 
section of the same : — magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


piau cccin 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

r B f o V u . iin p 

Ser. MsLANOSPBRMBA. Fam. Sporochnoidea. 

Plate CCCXII. 

Gen. Char. Frond linear^ either filiform^ compresaed, or flat, distichoosly 
branched, cellular, traversed by an internal, single-tubed, articulated 
filament ; producing, when young, manual tufts of byssoid, branching 
fibres. Desmaeestia [Lamowr.), — ^in honour of A. 6. Desmarest, a 
celebrated French naturalist. 

Desmarestia vindis; frond cylindrical, filiform, repeatedly pinnate; 
pinnsB and pinnulse capillary, exactly opposite, patent. 

Desmaeestia viridis, Zamaur, Ess. p. 25. Endl, Zrd SuppL p. 28. Harv, 
Mm. ed. 2. p. 24. KuU. Ph^e. Oen. p. 844. KiUz, Sp. Ag. p. 570. 

DiCHLORiA Yiridis, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 39. t. 6. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 274. 
irarp.ttii/ac*.J?7.JK*.part 8.p.l73. JFyait, Alg. Danm. ^o. b6. J.Ag. 
Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 164. 

Sporochnus viridis, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 154. Ag. JS^si. p. 259. Orev. Fl. 

Bdm. p. 287. 
Chordaria viiidis, Ag. Syn. p. 14. Hook, Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 98. 
GiGARTiNA viridis, Lyngb. Syd. Dan. p. 44. 

Pucus viridis, Fl. Dan. t. 886. Esper, Ic. Fuc. i. 114. Slack. Ner. Brit. 
t.l7. 2Wti. ^. vol. ii. p. 397. Turn. Hist. i. 91. E.Bot.i.l^^^. 

Hab. In the sea, growing on stones and the larger al^ between tide- 
marks, and below low-water mark. Annual, opring and early 
summer. Not uncommon. 

GsoGB. DisTR. Atlantic shores of Europe and America. Northern Pacific, and 
Southern and Antarctic Oceans. 

Dbscr. Root a scatate disc. Fronds from two to three feet in length, filiform, 
from a quarter to half a line in diameter at the base, gradually attenuated 
upwards to an extreme fineness, excessively branched, having an ovate 
outline, the lower branches long, the upper gradually shorter. All the 
branches, and every one of the lesser divisions, down to the most minute 
ramalus, are exactly opposite and distichous ; the larger divisions patent or 
nearly horizontal, the lesser gradually more erect. In a young state the 
branches and ramuli terminate in excessively fine, articulated, confervoid 
filaments, which gradually become coated with cells, and thus opake ; the 
confervoid filament being then encased, and changed into the axis of the com- 
pound frond. Structure densely cellular, with large air-cells dispersed through 
the cellular substance ; the axile filament very slender. Colour, when growing, 
a deep brown-olive, or " foxy," quickly becoming verdegris-green when re- 
moved from the water. Substance soft and flaccid, soon decomposing. 

Digitized by 


There is no British alga with which this beautiful plant can well 
be confounded. The extreme delicacy of its capillary ramuli, 
the constantly exact opposition of all its parts, from the primary 
branches to the most minute of the decompound ramuli (the last 
of which are much finer than the most slender hair), and the ver- 
satile colour, are all marks which peculiarly belong to Desmares- 
tia viridis. Old and weather-beaten fronds, which have lost the 
more delicate ramuli, have something the aspect of Didyosiphon 
fceniculaceuSy but may at once be distinguished by the opposite 

At Fig. 2 I have represented the magnified appearance of one 
of the growing points of the young frond, showing the gradual 
coating of the confervoid frame- work (or skeleton) of the frond. 
It will be seen that all the younger portions consist of a simple 
string of cells, or articulated filamenty and that in the lower part 
these cells are coated by a stratum of much smaller cellules. As 
the growth proceeds these external coats are constantly increased, 
while the original central skeleton may still be traced, through all 
the branches, and even in the stem, a section of which is seen 
at Mg. 3. 

2). viridis is very widely dispersed through the colder zones, 
both north and south, and increases in luxuriance as it ap- 
proaches either pole. 

Fig. 1 . Desmaeestia viridis : — the natural size. 2. A growing apex of a 
young branch : — highly magnified, 3. A transverse section of the stem : — 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


PLu. Lxn 

. •^■^''* '■'•( 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. MsLAifOSFKBiFBiE. Fam. Sporochnoidea. 

Plate LXTV. 

Gen. Chajr. Frond filifonn, cellular, with an articulated, tubular axis, 
nodose; the nodes producing whorls of delicate, jointed filaments. 
Fructification', pedicellate, moniliform pods, borne on the filaments, 
and containing, at maturity, a string of elliptical spores. Abthkocladia 
{JDuby) — ^from ^pop, 2^ Joint, and ickados, a branch. 

Abthrocladia villosa. 

Abthroolabia villosa, Duby, Mem. Ceram. p. 18 (1832). /. Ag, Alg, Medit, 
p. 43. Endl. Zrd Suppl. p. 25. Kiltz. Phyc Gen, p. 344. 

Elaionema yillosum, Berk. Glean, p. 49. 1. 19. f. 8 (1888). Harv. Mm. 
p. 28. 

Spoeochnus yillosus, Aff. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 155. Ag. Syst p. 260. Grev, 
Alg. Brit. p. 42. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 274. Wyatt, Alg. Bmm. no. 105. 
Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 8. p. 178. 

Conferva villosa, Buds. Fl. Aug. p. 603. With. vol. iv. p. 141. F. Bat. 
i. 546. Dillw. Coftf. t. 37. Both. Cat. Bat. vol. iii. p. 814. 

Hab. On submarine rocks, shells, &c., and on Zostera, in four or five 
fathoms water, rare. Annual. Summer and Autumn. Southern 
coasts of England, not uncommon. Yarmouth, Tv/mer. Anglesea, 
Rev. H. Davies. Frith of Forth, Mr. HaseU. Ardthur, Capt. Car- 
michael. Wicklow, W. H. H. Malahide, and Carrickfergus, Mr. 
M<fCalla. Jersey, Mis9 White aud Miss Turner. 

Oeogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. Baltic sea. Mediterranean sea, 
(very rare). 

Dbsor. Boot, a minute disc. Fronds several from the same base, from six 
inches to nearly three feet in length, very slender, once, twice, or thrice 
pmnated ; the pinnae distant, opposite, or rarely alternate, patent, simple or 
again pinnated with similar, simple pinnules ; all the branches frimished at 
intervals of from half a line to a line, with minute, knob-Uke swellings which 
produce whorls of very deUcate, byssoid, repeatedly pinnate jointed fila- 
ments of a pale green colour. The substance of the frond is traversed by a 
wide tube, about one third of the width, which is divided by transverse septa 
into joints or chambers, whose length is rather less than their breadth, and 
four or five of which interpose between every whorl of filaments. This 
tube is surroimded by a row of large cellules, aud these again by several 
rows of smaller ones, which gradually diminish to the circumference. The 
substance when quite fresh is cartilaginous, but it soon becomes flaccid. 
Fructification ; minute, articulated, limceolate pods (stichidia) borne along 
the sides of the whorled filaments ; at first short, finally much lengthened, 
moniliform, and containing, at maturity, in each joint, an oval ^>ore of an 
ohve colour, which at length bursts through the membrane and falls away. 
In drying it adheres firmly to paper. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

This elegant plant, which was fonnerly included in the genus 
Sporochnus, was, nearly at the same time, by M. Duby in France, 
and by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley in this country, proposed as the 
type of a distinct genus. M. Duby's name, having the priority 
of a few months, is here adopted. Of the propriety of constituting 
a new genus in this instance, there can be no question, both the 
structure of the frond, and the nature of the fructification being 
very unhke that of the Sporockni, There is, indeed, a much 
closer connection with Desmarestia, both in habit and in struc- 
ture, and it is very probable that the fruit of Desmarestia may 
prove to be analogous to that of the present genus. At a first 
glance the difference in the structure of the frond between Des- 
marestia and Arthrocladia appears considerable, but a closer ex- 
amination removes much of the dissimilarity. A jointed tube 
runs through the centre of both fronds ; in the Desmarestia, in 
the form of a slender filament ; in the Arthrocladia of a wide 
tube. The confervoid filaments are of the same nature in both 
genera, and the branching of the fronds identical. The great 
difference lies in the comparative density of structure. 

Dr. Greville mentions that Mr. Hasell, the discoverer of A. 
villosa in Scotland, observed that " fresh specimens when spread 
upon paper, rendered it transparent, as if it had been touched 
with oil ; but in a very short time the transparency quite disap- 
peared." This property is not peculiar to this species, but exists 
also in young specimens of Desmarestia ligtdata, and i). herbaceUy 
and perhaps of others of the family, and affords another evidence 
of the strong natural connection of these plants. Another com- 
mon point of resemblance consists in their soon becoming fiaccid 
and changing to a verdigris green colour on exposure to the 
atmosphere, and then causing the rapid decomposition of any 
other delicate Alga in contact with them. This is common to 
all the Sjporochnoidea. 

Fig. 1. Aethbocladia villosa : — natural size, 2. Part of a branch, showing 
a whorl of filaments. 3. Longitudinal section of the frond. 4. A trans- 
verse section of the same. 5. Pods of fructification : — more or less highly 

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Ser. I^IelanospeshejV. Fam. Sftorochntndea. 

Plate LVI. 


Gen. Chab. Frond filiform^ solid, cellular, the axis more dense. Fructu 
Jication ; lateral, crested, stalked receptacles composed of horizontal, 
branching iSlaments whorled round a central axis, and producing 
obovate spores. Crest deciduous, consisting of byssoid, jointed fibres. 
— Sporochntjs {Ag)y <nr6pos, a seed, and x^^> wool-, because tufts of 
fibres accompany the fructification. 

^^o^JCiCWX\5S pedunculatus ', stem undivided ; branches lateral, long, simple, 
horizontal ; receptacles elliptical. 

Spoeochnus pedunculatus, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. 1. p. 149. Sy^t. p. 259. Gret, 

Alg, Brit. p. 41. t. vi. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 274. Harv. in Mack. Fl. 

Bib. part 3. p. 173. Wgatt, Alg. Banm. no. 104. Harv. Man. p. 27. 
Endl. Zrd Suppl. p. 28. KUtz. Phyc. Gen. p. 342. 

GiGARTiNA pedunculata, Lam. Ess. p. 48. 

Fucus pedunculatus, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 587. With. vol. iv. p. 120. Stack. 

Ner. Brit. p. 110. t. 16. E. Bot. t. 545. Turn. Sgn. vol. ii. p. 367. 

Turn. Hist. 1. 188. 

Hab. On submarine rocks, shells, &c., near low water mark, and at a greater 
depth ; rare. Annual. Summer and Autumn. Eastern and southern 
coasts of England. Anglesea, Rev. H. Bavies. Preston Pans, Frith 
of Forth, Mr. Hasell. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. Killmey, W. H. H. 
Belfast Bay, Mr. W. Thompson. Malahide, and Boundstone Bay, 
Mr. Mc^ Calla. 3eTsey,Miss JFhite. 

Geoge. Diste. Atlantic shores of France. British Islands. 

Desce. Root a small disc. Stem 6-18 inches long, as thick as hog*8 bristle, 
cylindrical, smooth, perfectly simple, furnished throughout its length with 
numerous lateral branches, at distances of from one to four lines asunder. 
Branches three to six inches long, half the diameter of the stem, gradually 
tapering to a fine point, quite simple, hke the stem, the whole margined 
throughout with receptacles. The receptacles are at first sessile and- wart- 
like, gradually they become stalked, the stalk varying,x at different ages, 
and in different specimens, from a quarter of a line to nearly two Imes 
in length. They are of an oblong-elliptical, or, finally, spindle form, and 
are crowned with a pencil of delicate byssoid, simple, jointed fibres a 
quarter of an inch in length, and finflUy deciduous. Their stnicture con- 
sists in a slender cellular axis, round which dichotomous, jointed, hori- 
zontal filaments are whorled. To these filaments the narrow obovate spores 
are attached. Substance cartilaginous, tender, becoming more rigid in the 
stem. The structure is cellular, the cells of the centre and those near the 
surface being minute ; the intermediate ones large, lax, and polygonal. 
Colour when fresh, a clear olive, drying to a yellow green, and becoming 
brown in age. "When young the plant adheres closely to paper in diying. 

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Sporochnus pedunculatuSy though found in several widely sepa- 
rated places on the Enghsh and Irish coasts, is nowhere very 
common, and thus recommends itself by its rarity, as well as its 
beauty, to the collector. Few objects, indeed, are more attractive 
to the eye of a botanist than a fine frond of this species, as it 
waves its feathery branches in the water ; but were the use of the 
dredge more general with algologists, this, and many other deep 
water plants, would, probably cease to be regarded as of rare 
occurrence; and we should be better acquainted with their 
habits, and the exact localities which they frequent. Most of the 
specimens now collected, are washed up by the tide, frequently 
in an imperfect, or decaying condition ; or picked out of fisher- 
men's nets, in the meshes of which they get entangled and torn. 
If raised by the dredge they would not only be found more per- 
fect, but in far greater plenty. 

Hudson was the first to describe this species, in his * Flora 
Anglica.' It is of rare occurrence on the Continent, and has not 
been found out of Europe. Agardh regards as a distinct species, 
a Spanish plant which closely resembles it, and which differs 
chiefly fi-om our S, peduncdatus, in the form of the receptacles. 
It is not improbable that this also may be found on our southern 

The genus Sporochnm, as now restricted, contains four or five 
species, none of which, except the present, have yet been found 
in Britain. They are natives of the warmer parts of the Tem- 
perate zones of both hemispheres, where they inhabit deep, quiet 
bays. Those of New Holland are of a much larger size than 
our British species, but have a very similar habit. 

Fig. 1. Sporochnus pedunculatus:— ^A« fuUural me. 2. Keceptacles of 
different ages. 3, A filament from the same. 4. A transverse section of 
the stem : — aU magnified. 

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Ser. MBLANOSPBKUEiE. Fam. S^ocknoidea. 

Plate XIV. 

Gen. Chak. li^ond linear, dichotomous, flat and mid-ribbed (or filiform), 
olivaceous. Fructification, mitriform receptacles terminating the 
branches, composed of horizontal branching filaments whorled round 
a vertical axis and producing elliptic-oblong seeds. Cabpomit&a — 
from Kofmhs, fruit, and idrpa, a cap or mitre-, mitre-fruit. 

Carpomitba Cabrera*, frond irregularly dichotomous, linear, narrow, flat, 
mid-ribbed; branches here and there constricted. 

Carpomitra Cabrerae, Kutz. Phyc. Gen, p. 843. 

Sporochnus Cabrera, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 156. Syit. p. 260. Orev. Syn. 

p. xl. Harv. in Mack, Fl, Hid. part 3rd. p. 154. Man, p. 28. Fndl, 3rd 

Suppl, p. 28. 
Fucus Cabrera, Clemente Ess. p. 313. Turn. Hist. Fuc. 1. 140. 

Hab. Extremely rare. Beach at Youghal, 1888, Miss Ball. 

Geogr, Djstb. Cadiz, Clemente, South of Ireland. 

Desc. Boot a shapeless tuber. Stems 6-8 inches high, much branched in an 
irregularly dichotomous manner, flat, more or less distinctly mid-ribbed, 
coriaceo-membranaceous. Branches erect, with acute axils, distichous, 
alternate, narrow below, becoming rather broader upwards, here and there 
constricted, the apices truncate and often discoloured. Colour a light brown. 
The frond consists of two sti-ata ; the inner composed of large, colourless, 
polygonal cells, through which the immersed mid-rib runs ; the outer, toge- 
ther with the mid-rib, of very minute coloured cells in a single layer. Fruit 
formed upon the thickened apex of the mid-ribs of the branches, mitriform, 
minutely capitate, having a central, densely cellular, cyUndrical axis round 
which branching, horizontal articulated filaments are whorled. The lower 
joints of these filaments are slender, the upper beaded, and the terminal 
joint — which contains minute bodies, probably the remains of spermatozoa — 
oblately elliptical. Spores pedicellate, linear eUiptical, borne toward the 
base of the whorled filaments. 

The phanerogamous Flora of Ireland includes so many plants, 
natives of Spain and Portugal, that it ought not to excite sur- 
prise when a Spanish sea-weed occurs on our coasts. And yet, 
specimens of C. Cabrera having never been found but once, and 
then only washed on shore, we may be allowed to entertain the 
fear that this interesting plant is not truly the growth of our 
shores, but wafted hither, as extra-European productions some- 
times are, by the force of currents. Even should this be so, it is 

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well to record the circumstance by a figure representing one (rf 
the specimens picked up on the Irish coast, for which, among 
many others, the University Herbarium is indebted to the libe- 
rality of Miss Ball, a lady who has done much to illustrate the 
Irish Cryptogamic Flora, The present plant is in many respects 
the most interesting of her discoveries, should it eventually be 
established as a British species. Even on the continent, as far 
as we know, it is an extremely local and rare species, and is the 
only member of the genus to which it belongs which occurs in 
a northern latitude. 

The name Carpamitra is proposed by Kiitzing for those species 
of the Agardhian genus Sporochnus which have terminal, sessile 
fruity namely C. Cabrera and C. inermis. With the latter species 
I am imacquainted, except by Turner's figure, and am not quite 
sure that it is a congener ; but another species {C. HaHseris, 
Harv.) recently described by Dr. Hooker and myself, is closely 
related to C, Cahrerm, fix)m which it chiefly differs in having a 
frond nearly as wide and as distinctly ribbed as Haliseris poly- 
podioides. It is a native of New Zealand. We thus have a new 
instance, interesting because occurring in so limited and peculiar 
a genus, of analogous forms inhabiting similar climates of the 
northern and southern hemisphere. 

C. Cabrera was fiirst described by Clemente in his list of 
Spanish Algae, published 1804, being named by him " in honour 
of one of his fellow-labourers in the investigation of the botany 
of Spain, Don Antonia Cabrera, Canon of the Church of Cadiz, 
and it must be allowed," continues Mr. Turner, " that he has 
chosen for his friend a curious plant." — ^There is no British Alga 
with which the student can well confound it. Some very narrow 
varieties of Dictyota dichotoma faintly resemble it, but it requires 
a very shght examination to distinguish it from them. 

Fig. 1. Cabpomitra CABHER-fi : — natural size, 2. Part of a branch, showing 
the barren and fertile apices. 3. View of the surface of the frond. 4. Trans- 
verse section of a branch. 5. Beceptade of fruit. 6. Transverse section 
of the same. 7. Yerticellate filaments, and spores from the same: — all 

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Ser. MtXANOSPEKHEiE. Pam. Laminariea. 

Pj,ate LXXIX. 


Gen. Chab. Boot fibrous. Frond stipitate, membranaceous, furnished with 
a percurrent, cartilaginous midrib ; the stipes pinnated with ribless 
leaflets. Fructificatumy an oblong sorus, formed of pyriform, vertical 
tetraspores, and situate in the accessory leaflets. Alabja {Grev,), — 
from ah, a loingy in allusion to the winged frond. 

Alaxul esculenta ; frond elongated, lancex)late, entire; rib narrow, cyUn- 
drical; leaflets linear-oblong or cuneate. 
Alaeia esculenta, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 25. t. 4. Hook. Brit. Fl. vol. ii. p. 271. 
Harv. in Mack. FL Hid. part 3. p. 171. fFyatt, Alg. Dmm. no. 203. 
Harv. Mm. p. 23. Post, and Rupp. p. 11. 1. 17. Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 28. 
KiUz. Pkyc. Gen. p. 347. t. 32. f. 1. 

Lauinabia esculenta, Lyngh. Hyd. Dan. p. 23. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 110. 
Syit. p. 269. Hook. Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 98. Grev. Fl. Edin. p. 282. 
La Fglaie, Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. iv. p. 178. t. 9. f. D-F. Spreng. Syst. Veg. 
vol. iv. p. 826. 

AoABUH esculentum, Bory. Diet. Class. Nat. Hist, vol. ix. p. 194. 

Fucus esculentus, linu. Mont. p. 135. Fl. Dan. p. 364. Syst. Nat, vol. ii. 
p. 718. GtneL Syst. Nat. vol. ii. p. 1389. Fl. Dan. i. 417. Lighif. Fl. 
Scot. vol. ii. p. 938. t. 28. Huds. Fl. Aug. p. 578. With. vol. iv. p. 93. 
Turn. Syn. Fuc. vol. i. p. 104. Turn. Hist. t. 117. Fng. Bot, t. 1759. 
JSsper. Ic. Fuc. voL ii. p. 30. 1. 126. 

Fucus fimbriatus, Gm. Hist. Fuc. p. 200. t. 29. f. 1. 

Fucus tetragonus, Good, and JFoodw. in Linn. Trans, vol. iii. p. 140. 

Fucus teres, Good, and Woodw. in Linn. Trans, vol. iii. p. 140. 

Fucus pinnatus, Fl. Norv. vol. i. p. 96. 

Fucus scoticus latissimus edulis dulcis, Maii. Syn. p. 46. n. 30. 
Has. Fringing precipitous rocks, at low-water mark. Perennial. Winter 
and spring. Abundant on the shores of Scotland, and of the north 
and west of Ireland. Cumberland, Hudson. Anglesea and Isle of 
Man, Bev, H. Davies. Durham and Northumberland, Winch. Corn- 
wall, Turner. North coast of Devonshire, Mrs. Griffiths. Weymouth, 
Stackhause. Orkney, Rev. Mr. Clomton. 

Geogb. Distb. Abundant in the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic. Iceland, 
Lynghye. Northern Pacific. Sitka. Kamtschatka. Atlantic shores of 
France, Lenarmand. 

Descb. Bwt consisting of several radiating, cylindrical, branching and grasping 
fibres. Stem as thick as a small goose-quill, naked in its lower part for the 
length of 2-4 inches ; then pinnated with leaflets for 1-3 inches more, and 
finsdly terminating in the midrib of the frond. Lecfiets numerous, 2-4 inches 
in length, and from a quarter to half an inch in breadth, rib-less, filiform at 
the base, gradually widening upwards, generally obtuse. Frondy when fully 
grown, from 3-20 feet in length, and from 2-8 inches in breadth, mem- 
branaceous, entire, splitting obliquely towards the midrib, linear or lanceo- 
late, tapering to each extremity, the surface perforated with minute pores, 
producing tufts of fibres. Fructification forming an oblong, reddish brown, 


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thickened sorus, on both surfiaces of the leaflets, consisting of a vast number 
of narrow-pyrifonn, stipitate, vertical «pore», closely packed together, and 
each separating at maturity into four sporules, in a cruciate manner. Colour 
a transparent yellowish olive. 

This beautiful plant, which is scarcely known on the southern 
coasts of England, abounds on all the Atlantic shores of the 
British Islands, and extends throughout the whole of the north- 
em Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The roughest water seems to 
be most favourable to its existence, and I observe that it. reaches 
its greatest size and most luxuriant growth on some of the most 
exposed parts of our western coasts. Yet the delicate membrane 
of its leaf is easily torn, and in large specimens is very rarely 
found free from laceration. 

It appears to be perennial ; the new growth being produced at 
the base of the leafy-frond, as observed by Mrs. Griffiths in all 
the LaminariecB. This portion is always of a much paler colour 
than the old, and soon after the commencement of the growing 
season, the line of demarcation becomes distinctly visible : and 
when it has progressed for some time, a contraction takes place at 
the base of the old leaf, which gradually increases till the latter 
falls, and a new frond is formed. The renewal of the leaflets 
appears to be conducted in a similar manner. 

HhQ fructification commonly to be met with on full grown 
specimens, consists of innumerable slender spores, closely packed 
together, which according to Dr. Joseph Hooker, are compounded 
of four sporules, divided by two lines, crossing at right angles. 
The same close observer has discovered similar tetraspores in 
many others of the Zaminariea, in which, previously, the spores 
were supposed to be simple. 

Alaria esculenta is eaten in some parts of Scotland, and 
Ireland, as well as in Iceland, and the Fceroe Islands. For this 
purpose the midrib, stripped of its membrane, only is used. It 
has a sweetish taste, but is rather insipid. In Scotland it is 
called Badderlocks or Hen- Ware ; and in Ireland, according to 
Dr. Drmnmond, Murlins. 

Four other species, all nearly allied to this, are known to 
botanists. They are natives of the northern shores of North 
America, and of Asia. 

Fig. 1. Alaria esculenta; a small specimen: — of the natural size, 2. A 
leaflet with a somis: — sUghily magnified, 3. Section of the sorus. 4. 
Some of the spores removed : — highly magnified. 

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Set. MEL^ospEBit&B. Fam. Zammariea. 


Gen. Chae. H'ond stipitate, coriaceous or membranaceous, flat, undivided 
or irregularly cleft, ribless. Fructification ; cloudy spots of spores, 
imbedded in the thickened surface of some part of the firond. Lami- 
NABiA {Lamour,), — from lamina, a thin plate, in allusion to the flat 

liAKDrABiA digitata ; stem long, woody, cyhndrical, gradually tapering 
and somewhat compressed upwards, expanding into a lechery, 
roundish-oblong frond, deeply deft into many linear segments. 

Laminaeia digitata, Lamour, Ess, p. 22. Lyngb, Hyd, Dan, p. 20. Ag, 8p, 
Alg, vol. i. p. 112. Ag, Syst. p. 270. Qrev, Alg, Brit. p. 27. Hook, Br, Fl. vol. 
ii. p. 271. ffarv. in Mack, Fl, Hih, part 3. p. 171. Harv, Man, p. 28. JFgatt, 
A^, Banm, No. 156. Endl, Zrd. St^l. p. 27. Post, and Rupr. t. 12. /. Ag. 
8p, Alg, vol. i. p. 134. 

Laminaeia stenoloba, Be Lap, Terr, Neuv, p. 55. 

Hafqtgia digitata, Km, Phyc. Gen, p. 346. t. 30. and 31. 

Fucus digitatus, Lkm, Mant, p. 134. Fl. Ban, t. 392. Stack, Ner, Brit, p. 5. t. 

3. Esper.p, 99. t. 48, 49. Huds, Fl. Angl, p. 579. LigUf, Fl. Scot, p. 935. 

With, 4. p. 98. Unn. Trans, 3. p. 152. Turn, Syn. p. 207. Turn, Hist. 1. 162. 

Fucus hyperboreus, Qimn, Fl, Norv, 1. p. 34. t. 3. 
Hab. On rocks in the sea., beyond the reach of the tide, extending to the 

depth of about fifteen fathoms. PerenniaL Winter. Abundant 

on the shores of the British Islands. 

Geoge. Diste. The Icy sea, and Northern Atlantic, from Norway to Spain, 
and from Greenland to the shores of Massachnssetts (at least). Kamts- 

Desce. Boot, a conical mass composed of numerous, stout, branching fibres, each 
of whose branches ends in a flattened disc which takes a strong bold of the 
rocky bottom. Stem from two to six feet long, cyhndrical, soHd, in large 
specimens upwards of an inch in diameter near the base, gradually tapering 
upwards and becoming compressed towards the summit, where it passes into 
the base of the frond. Frond from one to five feet long, and from one to 
three feet in breadth, deeply deft; from the apex nearly to the base into an 
uncertain number of linear, strap-shaped, acute or obtuse segments. Fruc- 
tification dark coloured, doud-hke patches, seen on old fronds, consisting 
of a stratum of innumerable, minute, angular, dark-coloured spores, concealed 
beneath the surface cells. Substance in the stem woody, but flexible, hard 
and homy when dry ; in the frond, leathery. Structure cellular -, the cells 
of the central portion of stem and frond veiy minute ; those of the peripheiy 
larger ; in the frond quadrate, with spherical air-cells at intervals. Cdlour, 
a fine dear olive, becoming darker in age. 

VOL. II. 2 

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A well known plants the common Sea-girdles or Tangle^ which 
grows to a large size on all rocky coasts. Our figure may 
appear a caricature to persons acquainted only with the 
plant in the state in which it is usually cast ashore^ but I have 
purposely selected a specimen to illustrate its very curious 
mode of growth. The root and stem are perennial, but the 
many-cleft leaf is renewed every season and the old one cast off. 
Our specimen represents the nearly perfectly formed leaf of the 
present season and the base of the leaf of last year adhering to 
the tips of its segments. The mode of growth is as follows : 
As soon as the existing frond has served its purpose and begins 
to grow brown, a.n expansion conunences between its base and 
the apex of the stem. This expansion continues to increase in 
length and breadth till it has attained a considerable size. We 
have then a large ovate lobe at the apex of the stem, separated 
by a deep constriction from the old frond. As yet this lobe is 
quite entire ; but after a while longitudinal splits, commencing 
near its margin, and continuing towards its centre begin to 
appear. These widen and lengthen by degrees, and at last the 
outer ones reach the decaying base of the old frond ; a rupture 
ensues, and the tip of the new segment is free. This process is 
continued, until, when many segments have thus been formed, 
the connection between the old leaf and the now nearly perfect 
new one is so much weakened, that the former adheres by a very 
small surface, and is soon cast off altogether. Our figure is taken 
from a specimen in which this is about to take place. 

This mode of growth appears common to all the Laminariae, 
in many of which Mrs. Griffiths has been the first to observe it ; 
and I take this opportunity of expressing my warmest thanks to 
that lady for a magnificent suite of the present species, exhibiting 
the growing frond in all stages of its developement. 

Fig. I. Plant of Laminaeia digitata, (small), just before casting the frond of 
the previous season. 2. Young seedling plant : — hoik qf the natural me. 
3. Section of the frond, with spores and air cells in sUu. 4. Spores : — both 

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Ser. MELANOSPEaiTBiE. Pam. Laminariea. 




Lahinaria digitata atenophylla ; whole plant dark brown ; stipes slender, 
flaccid, glossy, becoming compressed or flattened upwards ; lamina 
wedge-shaped and tapering at base, much longer than the stipe, di- 
gitate, its segments few, and very narrow. 

Hafgyoia digitata, var. stenophylla, KiUz, Sp, Alg, p. 577. 

Laminaria ooDica, Boryy Diet. CI, d'HisL Nat, vol. ix. p. 190. 

Hab. Common round the shores of the Orkney Islands, and the North of 

On Plate CCXXIII. I have figured a small specimen of the 
ordinary form of L. di^tata, and given a detailed description of 
the species ; and I here figure an equally small specimen of 
what is either a remarkable variety of that species or entitled 
to specific distinction. My attention was first drawn to it by 
my friend the liev. J. IT. Pollexfen, who directed me to some 
excellent remarks on these LaminaricB, furnished by Rev. C. 
Clouston, of Orkney, to * Anderson's Guide to the Highlands 
and Islands of Scotland.' 

The diflferences between these varieties are so marked, that 
the Orkney kelp-men have assigned peculiar local names to 
each, calling the ordinary L. digitata (Plate CCXXIII.) Cuvy, 
and the form here figured Tangle, I extract the following 
contrasted characters of each firom Mr. Clouston's memoir : — 

" Boot, The fibres of the root of the Cuvy (Z. digitata vera) are arranged in 
longitudinal lines or rows, not whorls ; while the fibres of the Tangle (L, d, stem- 
phyUa) have do order at all. This arrangement of the fibres is particularly 
evident, as the plant is frequently thrown on shore, having all except the stumps - 
worn away by friction. 

" Stipee. The Uipea of the Cuvy scarcely ever exceeds four or five feet in length, 
while its circumference near the root is sometimes seven inches. It is so stiff as 
to stand up almost perpendicular two-thirds of its height ; but droops at the top 
from the weight of the frond. It is surrounded by a rough bark as thick as 
pasteboard, which may be separated from it. Colour light brown ; much in- 
fested with parasitical plants, particularly the PtUota plumosadXidi R.palmata, or 
Dulse. It tapers much towards the top, but retains its round figure till it 
spreads immediately into the frond. The lower eud tastes very salt, and is not 
eatable. The stipes of the Tangle, on the contrary, frequently attains the length 

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of eight or ten feet, while its circamference seldom exceeds four inches. It is 
^0 flexible as to lie prostrate on the rocks ; has a smooth polished surface, and no 
bark that can be separated, at least easily ; colour very dark brown or black ; 
rarely hurt by any parasitical plant : the top is considerably flattened some time 
before it expands into the frond, and the lower end tastes 9weet^ and is much 
eaten by some people. 

" Frond. The frond of the Cuvy is thicker, shorter, and the segments more nu- 
merous and clustered, than in the Tangle. That of the Cuvy swells into blisters 
by steeping in fresh water, while the frond of the Tangle bleaches white ; but the 
great distinction in this part, and the one which m^es this plant so valuable, 
is, that the Cuvy annually throws off the old leaf, and acquires a new one, while 
this has never been observed in the Tangle." [Here foUows an account of the 
shedding of the old fronds ; the history then proceeds.] " The situations in which 
the two plants grow are also very different ; the Cuvy growing so far out in the 
sea that the highest limit can only be approached at the lowest stream tides, 
and from this it runs into the ocean, as far as the eye can penetrate, and pro- 
bably much farther ; while the Tangle may be approached at ordinary tides, 
and forms a belt between the Cuvy and the beach. The general aspect also 
differs. The stems of the Cuvy stand up like a parcel of sticks, and the leaves 
wave from them like little flags ; while the Tangles lie prostrate on the rocks, 
the leaves mingle together, and form a darker belt round the shore. Six or 
eight feet is reckoned a good length for a Cuvy, while Tangles may be found 
from twelve to twenty feet." — Andersotis Guide, ed. 1. p. 721, 722. 

I can bear witness to the accuracy of most of the above 
observations, having had, last summer, an opportunity of seeing, 
in the neighbourhood of the Giants' Causeway, both plants 
growing in profusion, and each retaining its peculiarities. The 
Tangle is strikingly obvious, from its dark colour, on the white 
limestone-rocks near Dunluce Castle, where it forms a clearly 
defined fringe round the bases of the cliffs. I have traced it 
from a few inches to many feet in length, and found it retain 
its form, and colour, and glossy, flaccid stipe ; and so far as 
my opportunities of judging allow me to form an opinion, I am 
disposed to regard it as a good species. But perhaps a more 
careful observation, and comparison, may be necessary before 
this be definitively settled, and for the present I leave it as a 
form of L. digitata ; recommending the varieties of that species, 
on all parts of the coast, to the study of observers. In drpng 
the colour becomes olive. 

In Mr. Edmondston's * Flora of Shetland' (p. 54), the trivial 
name digitata is appUed to the plant here figured ; while the 
ordinary Z. digitata (or Cuvy) is called L. Cloustoni^ Edm. 

Tab. CCCXXXVin. A very young, and a more advanced specimen of 
X. d. stenophyUa. Fig. 1. Small portion of a full-grown, compressed 
stipes : — all the figures the natural size. 

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Set. MELANOSPEBHXiB. Fam. Laminariea. 

Plate CCXLI. 


Gen. Chab. Frond stipitate, coriaceous or membranaceous^ flat^ undivided 
or irregularly deft^ ribless. FructiJicaHon ; cloudy spots of spores^ 
imbedded in the thickened surface of some part of the frond. Lami- 
NABiA (Lamowr,), — ^&om lamina, a thin plate^ in allusion to the flat 
frond. ^ 

Laminabia btMom ; stem flat, with a waved margin^ once twisted at the 
base, rising from a roundish, hollow, warted tuber ; frond oblong, 
deeply cleft into many linear segments. 

Laminaria bulbosa, Lamour. Ess, p. 22. Ag. Syn, p. 18. Lyngb. Hyd, Ban, 
p. 21. Hook, FL Scot, part 2. p. 99. Jg. Syst, p. 271. Jg. 8p, Alg. 
voLi. p. 114. Ghreo.Alg.Bnt,^,%^, J3bo^. J5r. iY. vol. ii. p. 271. Earv, 
in Mack. Fl. Hid. part 3. p. 171. ffarv, Man, p. 24. Wyait, Alg. Lanm, 
no. 4. 

Laminaria Belvisii, Ag. Sp, Alg, voL i. p. 116. Ag. Syst, p. 271. 
Saccorhiza bulbosa, De la Fyl. Fl. Ter. Neuv. p. 23. /. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. 

p. 137. 
Haligenia bulbosa, Dne, Ess, p. 50. Endl, Srd. Suppl. p. 27. 
Phycocastanum bulbosum, Kutz. PAyc, Gen, p. 346. 

Pucus bulbosus, Huds, Fl, Angl, p. 579. lAnn, Trans, vol. iii. p. 153. Turn. 
^;*.p.212. Esp€r,Ic.i.\n. E.Bot.i.M^^. Turn, Hist. t.Ul. 

Fucus polyschides, Ligh(f. Fl. Scot. p. 936. With. vol. iv. p. 97. Stack. 
Ner. BrU. t. 4. 

Pucus palmatus, Qmel. t. 30. 

Ulva bulbosa, DC. Fl. Fr. vol. ii. p. 16. 

Hab. On rocks at low-water mark, and to the depth of 10-15 fathoms. 
Perennial. Autumn. Abundant on the British shores. 

Geogr. Distr. Shores of Europe from Norway to Spain. Ferroe Islands. 
Coast of Guinea, Pal. de Beauoois. 

Descr. Booty in the young state of the plant, composed of several clasping 
fibres, gradually perishing as the frond increases in size, and its place sup- 
plied by a hollow tuber which originates at a higher point on the stem. 
Stent at first slender and filiform, half a line in diameter and an inch in 
height, with a small dilatation like a collar a little above its middle ; grad- 
ually becoming broader and quite flat, till, in large specimens, it is four or 
five feet long, and two or three inches wide, with the margin very much 
waved and curled. In these full-grown specimens, the co/^r-like swelling 
becomes dilated into a boUow tuber, from four inches to a foot in diameter, 
rough with wart-like or cylindrical fibrous projections. The portion of the 
stem below the tuber is either absorbed or perishes, and roots issue from 
the lower surface of the tuber to supply the place of the original holdfast : 
thus a new base is provided for the frond. Frond in young specimens 
membranaceous, oblong, or ovate, undivided ; when full-grown coriaceous, 


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thick, from three ta six feet in length, oblong, cloven into innumerable 
narrow, ribbon-like segments. Spores abundantly formed in the wavy 
margin of the stem, but not confined to this portion of the frond. They 
originate in the cells immediately beneath the surface, and are closely 
packed together, vertically, in large cloud-like son ; they are at first linear- 
davate, at length elliptical ; their perispore drawn out at base into a slender 
stipe. Colour a dear, brown olive ; greenish when young. Substance more 
tender than in Z. diffUata. 

This is the largest British species of the LaminarietBy its frond 
in some instances forming, when spread out on the ground, a 
circle twelve feet in diameter. Its common name is FurbelowSy 
and its aspect must be familiar to most visitors of the searshore. 

In modem systems it is generally separated from Laminariay 
and no less than three generic names have recently been proposed 
for it, of which Saccorhiza, having the priority in publication, 
has been adopted by Prof. J. Agardh in his recent work. L. 
btdbosa differs somewhat, in habit, from other Laminariay and 
may perhaps be allowed to form a separate generic group ; but 
the chief diagnostic character insisted on by the upholders of the 
change is not valid. It is asserted that the spores are confined 
to the frill of the stem. It is quite true that here they are most 
abundant ; but they also occur in effiised patches on the lamina, 
as in other Laminariea. 

I am indebted to my friend John Nuttall, Esq., of Titoor, for 
the specimen here figured, which is singularly characteristic of 
the full-grown plant, and yet of so small a size as to come easily 
into a quarto plate. 

Fig. 1. Lamimaeia bulbosa ;* a small, but fully formed specimen : — of the 
natural size, 2. Section, with spores, in sUu : — magwfied, 3. Spores, of 
various ages : — MghUf magnified. 

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Ser. MEL&NoePERHES. ¥am. Laminariea. 



G£N. Chab. Frond stipitate^ coriaceous or membranaceous^ flat^ undivided 
or irregularly cleft, ribless. Fructification, cloudy spots of spores, 
imbedded in the thickened surface of some part of the frond. Lami- 
NARiA {Lamour.), — ^from lamina, a thin plate, in allusion to the flat 

Laminaria longicruris; stipes very long, slender at the base, hollow and 
inflated in the middle, and gradually tapering to the apex; frond 
undivided, ovato-lanceolate, membranaceous, obtuse. 

Laminaria longicruris, De la Pyl. An, Sc. Nat, vol. iv. p. 177. t. 9. f. A. 
M, Ter. Neuv. p. 41. Fast, f Ruppr. TUustr, p. 10. /. J^, Sp, Alg, 
vol. i. p. 135. Kiitz, Sp, Alg, p. 576. Harv, Ner, Bar, Amer, t. 6. 

Laminaria ophiura, Bory, Diet. Class, vol. ix. p. 198. 

Hab. Cast ashore. Island of Sanday, Orkney, Mr. George Firth (1838), 
fide Rev, J. H, Pollexfen. Coast at Gamnie, BanfEshire, Rev, G, 
Harris (May 1850), fide Prof. Dickie. Ayrshire coast. Rev. B. 
Landshorough (July 1850). Near Dunluce Castle, county Antrim, 
W. H. H. (August 1850) : — all the specimens much worn, and 
covered with barnacles. 

Geogr. Distr. Northern Ocean, at Spitzbergen, Vahl, Baltic Sea, /. Agardh. 
Newfoundland {Be la Pglaie), and common along the American shore as 
far south as Cape Cod, fF, H, E. Bahama Islands, Chautin, Kamt- 
schatka, PosteUs and Rupprecht. 

Descr. Root of numerous, slender, and much branched clasping fibres, issuing 
at irregular intervals from the lower part of the stipe. Stem from eight to 
twelve feet in length, very slender at the base, and there soUd, gradually 
widening upwards and soon becoming hollow ; at length, toward the middle 
widened to upwards of an inch in diameter, thence tapering to the apex, 
and terminating in the broadly cuneate base of the lamina. Lamina, when 
full grown, six to eight feet in length and from two to three feet in width, 
oblong-lanceolate or oval, very much waved at the margins and obtuse 
at the apex, of thinner substance than in L. saccharina. Colour of the 
stem yellowish-brown, of the lamina a beautiful pale greenish-olive. 

This is a very distinct and beautiful species, and one of the 
largest of the genus, the frond being frequently as large as a 
moderately-sized table-cloth. It abounds along the coast of 

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North America, as far south as Boston Bay, and is of particularly 
large dimensions, and in great abundance, in the deep harbour 
of Halifax. It would seem also, from its other recorded habitats, 
to be generally dispersed through the Arctic Sea. But what are 
its claims to a place in the British flora? At present they are 
extremely doubtful — all the specimens which have been found 
being merely the stipes, covered with barnacles, and deprived of 
both root and leaf. The hoUow stipe, tapering to both ends, is, 
however, so remarkable that no mistake can be made in identifying 
the specimens. The question simply is, where were these spe- 
cimens grown ? By their colony of barnacles they must have 
been long adrift, and most probably they were wafted either 
from the shores of Greenland or the more distant American 
coasts, swept by the Gulf Stream. To us, therefore, they come 
with no better claim on our charity than the equally drifted 
fronds of Sargamm. But I am not without hope that future 
observations, in the bays of Shetland or Orkney, may establish 
a clearer title ; for if Z. ImgicTuriBht truly a native of the Baltic, 
as Agardh assures us, there is nothing improbable in its vege- 
tating in our most northern bays. In general aspect it resembles 
Z. saccharintty but the frond is proportionally broader and more 
blunt, and of thinner substance; while the very long stem, 
hollow and somewhat swollen in the middle, will always afford 
a clear mark of distinction. Our figure is taken from a speci- 
men collected at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Fig. 1. Laminaria longigburis : — OH a reduced scale, qf an inch to a foot. 
2. A portion of the hollow stem : — the natural size. 

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W.H.H.ail etlitk. 

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PUte CCLIinZ. 

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Preifric E.ecve.imj). 

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Ser. MzLANOSPERHEA. Fam. Laminariea. 



Gen. Char. Frond stipitate, coriaceous or membranaceous, flat, undivided 
or irregularly cleft, ribless. Fmctificatian, cloudy spots of spores 
imbedded in the thickened surface of some part of the frond. La- 
MiNAEiA {Lamour.), — ^from lamina, a thin plate, in allusion to the 
flat frond. 

liAiONABiA saccAarina; stem cyKndrical, filiform, expanding into a carti- 
laginous or submembranaceous, lanceolate, undivided frond. 

Laminabia sacchariDa, Lamour. Em. p. 22. Lyngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 21. t. 5. 
Jg. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 117. Ag. SyBt. p. 272. Hook. M. Scot, part 2. p. 98. 
Grev. Ft. Edin. p. 282. Orev. Alg. Brit. p. 82. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 272. 
Wyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 54. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 1 71. Harv. 
Man. ed. 2. p. 30. Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 27. /. Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 134. 
Kutz, Phyc. Gen. t. 24. f. 1 . Kutz. 1^. Alg. p. 574. 

Laminabia latifolia, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 119. Ag. Syd. p. 272. Orev. 

Alg. Brit. p. 34. Port, et Bupp. p. 10. KiUz. Syat. Alg. p. 575. 
Fucus saccbarinus, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1630. Fl. Lapp. p. 364. Gm. Hist. Fuc. 

p. 194. t. 27 & 28. Huds. Fl. Angl. p. 578. Ughtf. Fl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 940. 

Good, et JToodw. Linn. Trans, vol. iii. p. 1 51. Turn. Syn. vol. ii. p. 198. 

Turn. Hist. 1. 163. Fsper, Ic. Fuc. vol. i. t. 24, 56, & 57. Stack. Ner. 

BrU. t. 9. E. Bot. 1. 1376. Fl. Ban. t. 416. 

Hab. Attached to rocks and stones near low-water mark, and to the 
depth of five to ten fathoms. Perennial. Very common all round 
the coast. 

Geogb. Distb. Abundant in the Northern Ocean, extending round the world. 
Atlantic shores of Europe, as far as the south of France, and of North 
America as far as the Chesapeake (at least). 

Descb. Boot consisting of several dichotomously branched, clasping fibres, ex- 
tending from the base of the stem in a conical form, and fixed to the rock 
by discs or fibrils from their lower surface. Stem sometimes a few inches, 
sometimes several feet in length, from a quarter to half an inch in diameter, 
cylindrical, compressed above, and dilating into the base of a terminal, 
simple lamina. Lamina from one to six or even ten feet in length, and 
from two to twelve inches or more in breadth, lanceolate, acute or obtuse, 
sometimes much acuminated at the point ; ovate at base when young, or 
more or less cuneate, rarely attenuate ; the margin sometimes nearly flat 
and even, sometimes undulate or very much curled ; the centre thicker and 
more opake than the rest of the frond, and sometimes strongly rugose, with 
wavy transverse ribs, sometimes furrowed longitudinally at one surface of 
the frond and ribbed at the other, or variously bullated. Fructification ^ 
according to Turner, occupying irregularly shaped spots, in the centre of 


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the leaf, from half an inch to an inch in width, and of yarious lengths 
sometimes extending uninterraptedly throughout the frond, at other times 
broken without order. Substance varying, according to the circumstances 
under which the plant has been developed, from cartilaginous and coria- 
ceous, which are most common, to delicately membranaceous. Colour of 
the leaf a deep olive, now greenish, now brownish, clear, semitransparent 
and glossy. As in all the Laminaria, new growth in the frond takes place 
between the apex of the stem and base of the leaf, the upper portion of the 
leaf continually dropping off after the new portion is developed. 


Every visitant of the sea-shore must be familiar with one 
form or other of this common plant, which forms a belt, about 
low-water mark, round all our rocky shores, where its long 
ribbon-like fronds wave gracefully in the water. It is by no 
means confined, however, within these limits, but grows in water 
from five to ten fathoms deep, attached to shells and stones, 
when rocks are not to be had. In such situations it often ac- 
quires a very large size. The vaiiety called by Agardh Z. latu 
folia delights in deep water, especially in sheltered bays and 
coves protected from the ocean by small islands. In many 
such places on the west of Ireland and Scotland, where the 
water is dear as crystal, the beautiful broad leaves of this 
variety may be seen growing luxuriantly several fathoms below 
the boat in which the observer is sailing over them. 

A species with a simple frond and very long stem (Z. Umffi- 
cruris), in many respects resembling L. MCoAarina, but readily 
distinguished by the stem becoming hollow, and increasing in 
diameter upwards, abounds in the Northern Ocean, and should 
be watched for on the shores of Orkney and Shetland. 

Fig. 1. Laminaria sacchabina, a small specimen : — the natural dse. 2. Thin 
slice : — magnified. 

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Ser. MsLANOSFERMEiE. Eam. Laminariea. 



Gen. Chab. Frond stipitate, coriaceous, or membranaceous, flat, undivided, 
or irregularly cleft, ribless. PrucHfication ; cloudy spots of spores, 
imbedded in the thickened substance of some part of the frond. 
Laminaeia (Lamour,), — from lamina, a thin plate, in allusion to the 
flat frond. 

Lahinaria piyllUis; stipe short, subcompressed, gradually expanding 
into a Imear-lanceolate, delicately membranaceous, undivided frond. 

Laminabia phyllitis, Lam, Ess, p. 22. Lpigh. Hyd, Dan, p. 23. Ag. Sp. 
Jiff, voLi. p. 121. Jg, Sy8t,ip,21S, ^eng, 8yd, Veg. vol. iv. p. 325. 
Gtw, Alg, Brit, p. 34. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 272. Earv. in Mack. Fl, 
Hib. part 3. p. 171. Mndl, Srd Suppl, p. 27. KiUz, Phyc, Gen. p. 345. 

Laminabia saccharina (young 8iaie\ Eook. Fl, Scot, part 2. p. 98. 

Laminabia saccharina, var. attenuata, Grev. Fl. Edin, p. 282. 

Fucus phyUitis, Stack. Ner, Brit. t. 9. Turn. Syn. p. 193. Turn, Hist, t, 164. 
F, Bot, i, 1331. Fsper, Ic, 1. 149. 

Fucus phyllitidis folio, BaU, Syn. p. 40. 

Hab. On rocks and stones, in pools left by the tide; also in four or flve 
fathoms water. Biennial P Summer. Not unconmion. Coast of 
Dorsetshire, PuUeney. Portland Head and Tenby, Stack Aouse. Sid- 
mouth and Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths. Yarmouth, Mr. Wigg. Coast of 
Sussex, Mr. Borrer. Orkney, Rev. J. H. PoUexfen and Br. M<fBain. 
Frith of Forth and Stafia, Dr. GreviUe. Ardrossan, B>ev. D. Lands- 
borough. Lame, Mr. Templeton. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. 
Howth and Balbriggan, Miss Gower. Kingstown, Mr. T. N. Cole. 

Geoqb. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe, from Norway to France. 

Desob. Root consisting of thick, branching, and clasping fibres. Stem, an inch 
or two in length, slender, cylindrical below, becoming compressed upwards, 
and gradually widening into the much attenuated base of a linear lanceolate 
frond. Frond from six or eight inches " to three or more feet in length, 
and one to six inches in width," (Grev,) delicately membranaceous, flat, or 
slightly waved at the margin, imdivided, tapering much, and gradually to 
each extremity. IHctification, I have not seen. Substance thin, but 
tough, glossy, and more or less perfectly adhering to paper. The frond is 
traversed internally by a double stratum of large air-ceUs, whose walls, as 
well as the surfaces of the frond, are composed of minute cellules. Colour, 
when quite fresh, a clear, brown-oUve, soon changing in fresh water to 
green, which is also the colour of dried specimens. 

This plant has been observed by botanists from a very early 
period, and almost invariably kept distinct from L, saccharina, 


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its nearest ally, by every author who has written on the subject 
of Phycology. Dr. Greville, who at one time united it with Z. 
saccharina, has, in his last work, restored it to a place in the 
system, remarking: — "I cannot but express some doubt re- 
garding the claim of this beautiful Alga to be considered as 
distinct from the preceding species (Z. saccharind). The more I 
have studied it in a growing state, the less am I tempted to 
speak positively on the subject. Upon the whole, however, I am 
rather incUned to think it a true species. Having traced it from 
its earliest appearance to its fiill size, I can testify that its 
characters are preserved in every stage/' I believe that most 
observers have, at one time or other, shared in the doubts thus ex- 
pressed by Dr. Greville, and many may be disposed to go further 
and reject Z. phyllitis from the Kst altogether. Among these 
I must mention Mrs. Griffiths, who has repeatedly stated to me 
her opinion that no good marks exist between Z. phyllitis and 
saccharina, but that the former is merely the young of the latter. 
In adopting a contrary view, I have not acted hastily or without 
comparing specimens of the young of both plants. Very recently 
my friend Mr. Cole has laid before me a series of specimens of 
both, tracing the growth of Z. saccharina upwards, from the 
height of half an inch to a fiill development, and a similar set of 
yoimg plants of Z. phyllitis. And I must admit that, though 
there is a close resemblance, there is a clear distinction at alf 
ages between Uving plants: Z. saccharina being thicker, of 
darker colour, and with a more abrupt base than Z. phyllitis^ 
whose deUcately membranous nature, and strictly lanceolate form, 
are preserved to a very large size. The latter also very rapidly 
changes colour in fresh water, while the former may be preserved 
for some hours in that medium. 

Having said so much, I submit the matter to the investigation 
of my fellow-students, and shall be glad to be favoured with an 
expression of their opinions. 

Fig. 1. Laminaeia PHYLLITIS; small specimens : — of the natural size, 2. Portion 
of the surface. 3. Section of the frond : — doth highly magnified. 

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Set. MsLAiiospxRHEiE. Fam. Laminariea. 

Plate XLV. 


Gen. Char. Frond stipitate, coriaceous or membranaceous, flat, undivided 
or irregularly cleft, ribless. Fructification ; cloudy spots of spores, 
imbedded in the thickened substance of some part of the frond. 
Laminaria {Lamour,) — ^from lamina, a thin plate, in allusion to the 
flat frond. 

ItAMiSKKSA fascia, Ag.; stem very short, setaceous, gradually expanding 
into a membranaceous, broadly-oblong, wedge-shaped, lanceolate, or 
linear frond. 

Laminaria fascia, Ag. Syn. p. xix. Ag, 8p, Alg. vol. i. p. 1 22. Syit. p. 273. 
Wyatt Alg, Dorm, no. 157. Harv. Man. p. 25. E. Bot, SuppL t. 2845. 
Hook.fil. Fl. Ant. ined. Mndl, Srd SuppL p. 27. 

Laminaria debihs, Ag. Spec, vol. i. p. 120. Sgat. p. 273. Grev. Crypt t. 277. 
Grev. Alg, Brit. p. 35. t. v. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 272. Harv. Man. p. 25. 
Fndl.SrdSuppl. p. 27. 

Laminaria cuneata, Suhr. 

Laminaria papyrina, Bory. in Diet. Claw d* Hist. Nat. vol ix. p. 189. 

FucTJS fascia, Fl. Dan. t. 768. Turn. Syn. vol. i. p. 186. Both. Cat. Bot. 
vol. ii. p. 161. 

Hab. On sand-covered submarine rocks and stones in the sea, near low- 
water mark. Annual. Summer. North of Lreland, Mr. R. Brovm, 
(Turner). Carrickfergus, Jfr. IJww^fe^. Western Islands of Scotland, 
Mr. Chalmers. Lame, Br. Brummond. Antrim coast, Mr. D. Moore. 
Sidmouth and Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths. Mounts Bay and Salcombe, 
Mr. Rolfs. Malahide, -Sfr. Jlf<?'C5:i/&. Saltcoats, i&jt?. jD. ia«d!yiew(w^i. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe from Norway to Spain. Mediterranean 
Sea, C. Agardh. Falkland Islands, Lyall. 

Descr. Root a small disc. Stem as thick as hog's bristle, one to foiu* lines in 
length, cylindrical at the base, compressed in its upper half, and gradually 
widening into the cuneate base of the frond. Frond very variable in form, 
two to twelve inches long, and from a quarter of an inch to an inch and a half, 
or two inches, in breadth, sometimes abruptly cuneate at base, sometimes 
much attenuated, either lanceolate, oblong or linear, or oblong-ovate ; in 
some cases remarkably obtuse, in others tapering to a more or less acute 
point, or rarely somewhat lobed at the apex, waved or flat at the margin, 
membranaceous, smooth, rather glossy. Colour varying from a greenish to 
a brownish ohve, sometimes bright, sometimes very dingy. Fruit unknown. 
Cellules of the interior of the frond narrow-oblong, twelve-sided, pellucid ; 
those of the surface very minute, arranged in areoli, four cellules in each 

The first notice of this species occurs in the ' Flora Danica,' 

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in which work a figure is given which coincides in most characters 
with the narrower and browner of our figures, and on which 
is grounded the idea of the Laminaria fascia of Agardh, and 
succeeding authors. In Greville's ' Scottish Crypt. Flora * ano- 
ther figure, resembling our broadest form, is represented under 
the name of Laminaria debUiSy a name first proposed by Agardh 
for specimens sent to him from the coast of Spain. At first 
sight these forms appear to be abundantly distinct, the long 
strap-shape of one contrasting with the broadly ovate form of the 
other. But the slight importance to be attached to such varia- 
tions becomes at once evident to any observer who collects the 
plant in any quantity, on its native rock, and to whom specimens 
ranging firom the broadest to the narrowest, occur in the same 
locality. From a very extensive suite of specimens from several 
parts of the coast, and of all shapes and sizes I have selected a 
few for illustration, in which a gradation of form is well shewn 
firom the broad, abruptly stipitate L, debUis to the ribbon-like 
L. fascia. In uniting these under one specific head, I, of course, 
preserve the trivial name which was first proposed. 

Specimens gathered at the Falkland Islands, by Dr. Lyall, are 
identical with some of the British varieti^ ; and with the L. 
cuneata, of Suhr, which is obviously a transition plant, having a 
broadish frond, with a long cuneate base. 

Fig. 1. Laminaeia fascia, different varieties : — natural me. 2. Part of the 
frond : — magnified, to shew the surface cellules. 3. Section of the same, 
showing the internal structure. 

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n.( yff. 

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Ser. MKLANOSPERHEiB. Faiu. Dietyotea. 

Plate CVII. 

Gsn.Chaa. Boot scutate. IVond simple, cylindrical, tubular; its cavity 
divided by transverse, membranous septa, into separate chambers. 
Fructification ; a stratum of obconical spores, much attenuated at the 
base, covering the whole external surface of the frond. Among these 
are found elUptical antheridia (?). Choeda [Stack.) — a cord. 

Cnoaj)Afilum; frond cartilaginous, lubricous, clothed with pellucid hairs, 
filiform, very long, tapering to each ex^emity, not constricted at the 

Chorda filmn, Lamour. Ess. p. 26. lAfngb. Hyd. Dm. p. 72. 1. 18. Hook, 
in Fl. Lond. N.S. t. 204. Orev. Alg, Brit. p. 47. t. 7. Hook. Br. Fl. 
voL ii. p. 276. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hid. part 3. p. 174. Harv. Man. 
p. 86. Wyatt, Alg. Banm. no. 159. Kiitz. Phyc. Gen. p. 884. t. 29. 

Ohobdakia filum, Ag. Syn. p. 13. Hook. Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 98. 

ScYTOSiPHON filum, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 161. Ag. Sgst. p. 257. Orw.Fl. 
Edin. p. 288. S^eng. Syst. Veg. vol. iv. p. 828. Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 25. 

Fucus fihun, Linn. Sp. FL p. 1681. Stack. Ner. Brit. i. 10. Turn. Hist. 
t. 86. JEng.Bot.i.2^Bl. 

Fucus -tendo, Fsper, Ic. t. 22. 
Gebamium filmn, Bothy Cat. Bot. vol. i. p. 147. 
Var. /3. tomcntosa ; of small size, more densely clothed with coloured, olive 
or green hairs. 
Ghobda tomentosa, Lyng6. Hyd. Dan. p. 74. 1. 19. 

Has. On rocks and stones in the sea, commencing within tide marks, and 
extending in stiU water to the depth of ten or fifteen fathoms. An- 
nual. Summer and Autumn. Very abundant on the shores of the 
British Islands. 

<Oeo6b. DisTB. Abundant throughout the North Atlantic, on the shores of 
Europe and America. Coast of Brazil. Also in the North Pacific, at 
Sitka, Unalaschka and Kamtschatka. 

Descb. Boot, a minute disc. Fronds tufted, one to twenty, or in still water 
even forty feet in length, scarcely twice as thick as a bristle at the base, 
gradually increasing in thickness to the middle, and there from a quarter 
to half an inch in diameter, and again gradually diminishing toward the 
apex, which is of equal tenuity with the base, cylindrical, hoUow, divided 
at short intervals, by very thin membranes, into chambers or joints, which 
are not visible extenially, very lubricous or sUmy, clothed at an early stage 
with veiy dense, slender, gelatinous filaments, which g^erally disappear as 
the plant advances to maturity, but may sometimes be found on old plants. 
Substance cartilaginous and firm, veiy tough when recent. Frttctification 
covering the whole surface of old plants, consisting of obconical, vertical 
spores, supported on long pedicels, by which they are fixed to the outer 


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stratum of cellular tissue. Mixed with these are found numerous, narrow, 
elliptical, transversely striate bodies, which may be antheridia. The walls 
of the frond are formed of several rows of hexagonal jointed longitudinal 
filaments, combined together : the inner of which are of large size, with 
long joints, the outer very minute and densely packed together. 

Few persons can visit the coast without becoming familiar 
with this common plant, which is to be found in greater or less 
perfection on all our shores. But it is in quiet land-locked bays, 
with a sandy or somewhat muddy bottom, and in from three to 
six fathoms water that it reaches its greatest size. In such places 
it frequently forms extensive submarine meadows, so dense as 
seriously to aflTect the passage of boats, and to endanger the life 
of the unfortunate svranmer who may chance to become en- 
tangled in its sHmy cords, which when growing have conside- 
rable tenacity. The smaller variety, which is by some authors 
considered a distinet species, occurs between tide marks. Were 
it erf uniform size, and always distinguished by a denser and 
brighter coloured covering of filaments, its rank might, perhaps, 
be acknowledged; but I have found it impossible to fix its 
limit in either character. It is connected by insemible grada- 
tions with the common form. Some of the most distinct looking 
individuals of this variety which I have seen, I owe to the kind- 
ness of Mr. Ralfs, who procured them at Penzance. 

The fructification of this plant is more like that of the Lami" 
tiariea than of any Dictyotea, vrith the exception of the Antarctic 
genus Adenocystis, which difiGers from Chorda more by habit than 
any carpic character. Through C. Lomentariay if that plant reafly 
be a congener, there is a connection with Asperococcmy and so 
with the other Didyotea, Still I am incUned to think, notwith- 
stmiding the different habit, that the present plant is properly a 
member of the Laminaria group, in affinity as well as in habitat. 
What I have called antheridia, which I find abundantly mixed 
with the true spores, are perhaps what were first observed by the 
late Capt. Cannichael, and are figured from his sketch in the 
' Flora Londinensis.' 

Fig. 1. Chobda filum, both varieties, young plants : — of the natund size. 
2. A longitudinal semi-section of the frond. 8. The frond unrolled. 
4. Transverse section of the wall of the frond. 5. Longitudinal section 
of the same. 6. Spores. 7. Antheridia (P): — aU more or lew nutgni/ied. 

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imp . 

Ser. MELANOSPERMEiE. Fam. Laminariea. 



Gen. Char. Hoot scutate. Frond simple, cylindrical, tubular; its cavity 
divided by transverse membranous septa, into separate chambers. 
Fructification, a stratum of obconical spores much attenuated at the 
base, covering the ivhole external surface of the frond. Among these 
are found elliptical antheridia. Chorda [Stack,), — a cord. 

Chorda lomentaria; frond membranaceous, constricted at distant inter- 
vals, the interstices inflated. 

Chorda lomentaria, Zynffb. Hyd, Dan, p. 74. 1. 18. Gree, Alg, Brit, p. 48. 
. Eook, Brit. M. vol. ii. p. 276. Harv, in Mack, Fl, Hib, part 3. p. 174. 

Harv. Man, p. 35. ed. 2. p. 32. JFyatt, Alg, Danm, no. 6. E, Bot, Suppl, 

t. 2902. /. Ag, Alg, Medit, p. 45. 

Chorda fistolosa, Zanard, 1^, Alg, Adr, p. 87. 

ScYTOsiPHON lomentaria, Sndl, Zrd Suppl. p. 25. /. Ag. Spec, Alg. vol. i. 
p. 126. 

ScYTOSiPHON filum, var. y, Ag. Spec, Alg. vol. i. p. 162. Ag, Syst, p. 257. 

SoLENiA fiiscata, Bary, Mor&, no. 1485. 

AsPEROGOCCus castaneus, Carm, Eook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 277. 

Chlorosiphon Shuttleworthianus, Hiitz. Phyc, Gen, p. 301. 

Hab. On rocks, stones, and the smaller Algae, in tide-pools. Annual. 
Summer and autumn. Abundant on the shores of the British Islands. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe from Norway to Spain. Mediterranean 
Sea. Shores of North and South America. Japan. Southern and Antarctic 

Descr. Boot a minute, naked disc. Fronde from eight to twelve or eighteen 
inches in length, tapering at the base to the diameter of horse-hair, at- 
tenuated upwards, either to a bluntish or a very fine point, from two to 
four lines in diameter at the greatest breadth, cylindrical, constricted at 
irregular intervals and furnished with a transverse septum at each constric- 
tion. The walls of the tube are composed of a thick layer of large, poly- 
gonal cells, of which the outer ones are gradually smaller ; on the outside of 
which, forming the periphery, is a stratum of radiating, close-packed, moni- 
liform filaments. These are only found in their full development in mature 
specimens. Colour a brownish or greenish oUve. Substance membrana- 
ceous and soft, adhering closely to paper in drying. 

A common plant, of little beauty, widely dispersed through 
the temperate oceans of both hemispheres. In a young state 
no septa are visible externally, the frond being filiform. In this 


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condition it is sometimes a little difficult to distinguish specimens 
of Chorda lomentaria, from narrow ones of Aaperococcm echi- 
natus, except by their more chestnut colour and more polished 
surface, and Capt. Carmichael has described such individuals 
under the name of A, castaneus. 

Authentic specimens of Kiitzing's CUoroaiphon SAutiletoortAia' 
nm, obligingly communicated to me by that author, appear to me 
to belong to the very youngest state of the {wresent plant. They 
were collected by Mr. Shuttleworth in the West of Ireland, 
where our Chorda is abundant. 

Fig. 1. Fronds of Chorda lomentabia, of various ages; — the natural 9ize. 
2. Transverse section of the frond. 3. Small portion of the same : — more 
highly magnified. 

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Ser. Melanobpeeue^. Fam. BictyoUa. 

Plate LXXV. 


Gen. Chae. Boot clothed with woolly fibres. Frond flat or compressed, 
caitikgineo-membranaceoos, ribless^ somewhat fan-shaped^ irregularly 
deft or dichotomous. Frtictijication, dot-like tufts of pedicellate 
utricles, scattered over both surfaces of the frond; each utricle con- 
taining several spores. Antheridia on distinct plants^ linear, trans- 
versely dotted, sessile on the sides of minute tufted filaments, occu- 
pying the position of true sori. Cutleria {Grev,), — ^in honour of 
Miss Cutler, of Sidmouth, a distinguished British Algologist. 

CuTLEEiA nmltifida; frond thickish, polymorphous, flabelliform, irregularly 
cleft into numerous narrow laciniee; axils very acute; apices atten- 
uated, pencilled. 

CuTLEEiA multifida, Orev, Alg. Brit. p. 60. t.lO. Eook. Br, II, vol. ii. p. 281. 
Wyatt, Alg. Dmm, n. 61. Harv. in Mack, FL Hid, pt. 3. p. 177. Harv, 
Man. p. 29. /. A^. Alg, MedU, p. 40. Menegh, Alg, Ital, et Dalm, p. 201. 
Endl, Srd Supjpl, p. 25. Kutz. Thyc. Gen, p. 339. Biclde, Ann, Nai, Hist, v 
14. p. 168. 

ZoNABiA multifida, Ag. Sp, vol. i. p. 135. Sgst p. 267. 

DicTYOTA penicillata, Zamour, in Deso. Jowm, Bat, vol. ii. p. 41. Lamour, Ess, 
p. 58. Ag, Sp, Alg. vol. i. p. 139. 

DicTYOTA multifida, Boryy Moree, p. 75. no. 1756 
Sporochnus multifidus, Spreng. Syst, Veg. vol. iv. p. 329. 
Ulva multifida, 8m, Eng. Bot. 1. 1913. 
Hab. On rocks and shells in the sea, in 4-15 fathoms water. Annual. 
Summer and autumn. Bare. Yarmouth, Mr, Turner and Mr. Wigg. 
Seaton and Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths. Sidmouth, Miss Cutler. Brighton, 
Mr. Barret. Plymouth, Rev. IF. S. Eore. Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins. 
Ballycotton, Miss Ball. Kilkee and Wicklow, W. H. H. Round- 
stone Bay, Mr. Md Calla. Not found in Scotland ? 

GsoQR. BiSTR. Coasts of England and Ireland. Atlantic shores of France and 
Spain. Mediterranean Sea. 

Descr. Root an expansion, densely coated with woolly, jointed, branching fibres. 
Frond from two to twenty inches in length, having a broadly wedge-shaped 
or fan-shaped general outline, but very variable in its minor divisions. The 
base is always broadly wedge-shaped, tapering into a short stem from a 
quarter to half an inch in length. The frond expands upwards, and is then 
often cleft into numerous wedge-shaped lobes, each of which is repeatedly 
and very irregulariy incised from the apex downwards, the ultimate laciniss 
being gradually narrower, and the apices acute. In some specimens the 
whole frond is deft nearly to its base into narrow, irregularly dichotomous 
ribbons, from half a line to a line in breadth ; in others the lacinise are from 
half an inch to an inch broad, and do not extend below the middle of the 
frond. In some the apices are regularly fastigiate, and the outline nearly 
circular ; in others they are of very various length. When in a perfect state 
the apices terminate in pencils of delicate jointed filaments (fig. 4), and a 
net-work of similar, but branching, filamentts cxleuds over the whole surface 

of the frond, closely investing it ; and to this net-work the fructification is 
attached. Fructification^ of two kinds, on distinct individuals ; 1, pedi- 
cellate, oblong utricles, each containing about eight spores, clustered in 
minute tufls, which are plentifully dispersed over both surfaces of the frond, 
appearing like dots to the naked eye. 2, sausage-shaped or linear, obtuse 
antheridia (?) attached to tufted filaments and scattered, like the utricles, 
over the whole frond. They are densely zoned with dotted lines. Substance 
cartilaginous, at furst crisp, but becoming flaccid ; and then, on pressure, 
closely adhering to paper in drying. Colour a foxy olive. Structure veiy 
lax, the cells of the interior being few, of great size, and colourless. 

Cutlma mvltifida was discovered at Yarmouth by Mr. Dawson 
Tiirner, in August, 1804, and first described in English botany 
by Sir J. E. Smith. Although found on many parts of our 
coasts it is still considered a rare species, partly, perhaps, from its 
place of growth being beyond the limit of ordinary tides. Occa- 
sionally, after stormy weather, it is washed up in some plenty. 
The most abundant habitat yet discovered, is at Roundstone Bay, 
where, last summer, Mr. Mc' Calla dredged a large quantity in a 
remarkably fine state. 

This beautiful plant was selected by Dr. Greville to comme- 
morate the services rendered to British Botany by Miss Cutler, 
of Sidmouth, whose explorations of her neighbourhood have 
amply earned " the highest compliment that one botanist can 
bestow on another." No genus can be more distinct, and few, 
among the DidyotecB, have a more delicate or curious structure. 
The fruit is very remarkable. The antheridia, described by 
Dr. Dickie in the ' Annals of Natural History ', I have only ob- 
served on a specimen sent me by Miss Cutler many years since, 
but similar bodies appear to be commonly borne by the exotic 
C. adspersa, on my specimens of which species I can find no 
other fruit. They bear a striking resemblance to the silicular 
fruit of Ectocarpus, and perhaps are organs of a similar nature. 

Four species of Cutleria are described, with three of which 
only am I acquainted. Our C, midtijida is found on all the 
coasts of southern Europe ; C. laciniata (which I only know by 
name), on the French coasts ; and C. adspersa and pardalia in 
the Mediterranean. The two latter are very like each other, if 
they be really more than varieties of one species, but both are 
abundantly distinct from C. muUifiday though evidently belonging 
to the same natural genus. 

Fig. 1. CcTLERiA MULTIFIDA : — natural size, 2. A sorus of utricles attached 
to a fragment of the frond. 3. Utricles, separated. 4. Apex of a lacinia. 
5. Antheridia. 6. Transverse section of the frond. 7. Longitudinal section : 
— all more or less highly magnified. 

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Ser. MEiANOSPEKHSf. lam. Biefyotea. 

Plate XIX. 


Gen. Chae. Soot, a mass of woolly filaments. Frond flat, linear, mem- 
branaceous, with a mid-rib. Fructification : ovate spores, forming 
distinct son, or groups, mostly arranged in longitudinal lines. Grev, 
Haijseris — from iXr, the sea, and <rfp«p, endive. 

HaTiTseris polypodioides ; frond dichotomous, entire at the ma^in, plane; 
spots of fructification linear, disposed along the mid-rib. 

HALiSERispolypodioides, ^^.>^.^^. vol.i. p.l42. iS^«^. p. 262. ^mg.Syst, 
Veg. voLiv. p. 328. Greo, Alg. Brit, p. 64. t. 8. Hook, Br, Fl, vol.ii. 
p. 283. Mack, Ft, Hih, part 3. p. 178. Wyatt, Alg, Banm, no. 12. Harv, 
Man, p. 30. Kutz, Phyc, Gen, p. 340. t. 23. Mont. PI, Cell, Canar. p. 148. 

DiCTTOPTERis polypodioides, Lamx, Joum, Bot. p. 19. sec, Ag. 

DiCTTOPTEBis elongata, Lama. Z. c. p. 18. sec. Ag. 

Fucus polypodioides, Be^. Ft. Atl, vol. ii. p. 421. Lamx.Bict, p. 32. t. 24. f. 1. 

Fucus membranaceus, Stack, Ner. Brit. p. 13. t. 6. Turn. 8yn. Fuc, voL i. 
p. 141. With. vol. iv. p. 93. E. Bot. 1. 1758. Turn, Hist, t. 87. 

Fucus ambiguus, Clem, Ess. p. 310. 

Ulva polypodioides, Bee. Fl. Fran. vol. xi. p. 15. 

Hab. On rocks and stones in the sea, from two to five fathoms. Perennial. 
Summer and Autumn. Bare. Several places along the southern 
shores of England, where Mr, Stackhouse first gathered it. Shields, 
Mr. Winch, MUtown Malbay, W,H.H, (1831). Toughd, Miss 
Ball. Eoundstone Bay, Mr, Mc*Calla. Jersey, Miss White; Miss 

Gbogr. Distr. Atlantic and Mediterranean shores of Europe. North of 
Africa, Berf. Ceylon, Herh. Linn. South Africa, Ecklon. Bahia, Martins, 
Canary Islands, very rare, Bespreaux. 

Descr. Bjoot a callous disc, densely covered over with finely divided, tough, 
matted fibres. Fronds growing in tufts, 4-12 inches high, about half an 
inch wide, linear, several times dichotomous, the axils patent, traversed by 
a dark coloured, filiform mid-rib, which is very strong below, and becomes 
gradually thinner upwards. The apices of the segments are obtuse or 
emarginate, in which case the tip of the mid-rib is forked. The margin is 
flat, and entire. The membrane of the frond is rather rigid, thin, and 
tears with great facility in an obKque direction from the margm to the 
mid-rib, and the lower parts of frdl grown fronds are very generally much 
lacerated. Not unfrequently proliferous shoots are produced, especially 
from old, weather-beaten plants, at points along the mid-rib. Fructifcation 
of two kinds has been observed, on distinct individuals. The first and 
regular kind consists in oblong sori or groups of elliptical spores lying 
dose at either side of the mid-rib ; the second in scattered single spores (?) 
of larger size than the former, dispersed over the frond. Colour, a clear 
olive-green, with a tinge of yellow ; becoming foxy in age, and darker in a 
dry state. SmeU when freshly gathered, strong and disagreeably pungent. 

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The subject of the present plate, though in some degree known 
to Linnaeus, who confounded it with Fucus distichtcSy was first 
clearly described by Desfontaines in 1798, under the name oiFucus 
polypodioides \ and in 1801 figured by Mr. Stackhouse in the first 
number of his " Nereis Britannica," under that of Fucm memhra- 
naceus. The former appellation, which alludes to the resemblance 
which its fructification bears to that of a Polypodium has been 
generally adopted. As may be seen by the number of stations on 
record, this plant is widely distributed over the warm parts of the 
world. In the British Islands it is decidedly rare, and chiefly foimd 
on the southern and western shores. It does not appear to be found 
in Scotland. In the south of Europe it is common, especially in 
the Mediterranean, and has been brought from the tropics of 
either hemisphere. I have not seen Cape specimens, but Ecklon 
is reported to have gathered it in Algoa Bay. 

Mrs. Griffiths, who first discovered the scattered spores, finds 
occasionally specimens in which the frond is marked, in the place 
usually occupied by the son, with brown, wavy, map-like lines 
enclosing spaces which are usually more transparent than the rest 
of the frond. They probably indicate a diseased state of the fruit- 
producing cells. 

Several other species of Haliseris are now known, all natives 
of warm latitudes, and aQwith much the same habit. Some have 
thick, almost coriaceous fronds ; and others are much more tender 
and deUcate than the European species ; some have serrated, and 
others crisped margins ; but the mode of branching is similar in 

Fig, 1. Halisebis poltpodioides, with sori. 2. A segment, with scattered 
spores : — natural size. 3. Portion of a frond with scattered spores. 4. Por- 
tion of a frond with a sorus. 5. Spores from the sorus : — aU more or leu 
higMif magnified. 

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TcO? . JLCl 

V'/ir B . d-l ^^tliLlL 

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Ci OOgeve 


Ser. MxLANOsPBKiuSiB. Fftin. Dietyotea. 

Plate XCI. 

Obn. Ghab. Boot coated with woolly fibres. Frond flat^ ribless^ fAn-sbiped^ 
marked at r^alar distances with concentric lines^ fringed with arti- 
culated filaments; apex involute. Fructification, linear, concentric 
sori, bursting through the epidermis of the frond, containing at matu- 
rity, numerous obovate utricles or tetraspores, fixed by their base, and 
containing four sporules. Padina — a name invented by Adanson, 
who has not explained the meaning. 

Padina Patweia; frond between membranaceous and coriaceous, broadly 
fan-shaped, entire or deeply deft, powdery on its outer surfiM^; 
ccmcentoic lines numerous. 

Padina Payonia, Zamour. Diet. Clou, tPHiit, Nat. vol. 12. p. 589. GaiU, 
ikct, Hixt, Nat. vol. 53. p. 371. Qrev. Alg. Brit. p. 62. t. x. Hook. Br. 
fl. vol. ii. p. 281. Harv. Man. p. 80. JFyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 11. /. jfy. 
Alg. Medit. p. 39. Endl. Srd Skippl. p. 25. Menegh. Alg. Ital. and Bairn. 
p. 239. Montg. Hist. Cuba, p. 67. CeU. Conor, p. 145. Alger, p. 38. 

Padina Mediterranea, Bory, Morlcy p. 75. Montag. Crypt. Alg. n. 79. 

DiOTTOTA Favonia, Lamour. Ess. p. 57. 

ZoNABiA Pavonia, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 125. Ag. Sgst. p. 268. Sjpreng. 
Syst. Feg. vol. iv. p. 326. Kutg. PJiyc. Qen. p. 341. t. 22. f. 1. 

Ulva Pavonia, Unn. Syst. Nat. p. 719. Bsper. App. t. 4. E. Bot. 
t. 1276. Berf. Fl. Atlant. vol. ii. p. 428. Both. Cat. vol. ii. p. 240. 
vol iii. p. 322. 

Ulva cucullata, Cav. Ic. vol. iL p. 73. 1. 191. f. 2. E. 

Fucus Pavonius, Linn. Sp. Fl. voL ii. p. 1630. Wvlf. Crypt. Ag. p. 83. 

Hab. On rocks in shallow pools, at half-tide level. Annual. Summer and 
autumn. Several places along the southern coasts of England; abun- 
dant at Torquay. Jersey, Mi98 White and Miss Turner. 

Geoob. Distb. Atlantic shores of France and Spain. Yeiy abundant in the 
Mediterranean. Tropical, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. 

Descb. Root, an expansion, densely coated and cushioned with woolly filaments. 
Fronds tufted, two to five inches in height, cuneate and attenuate at the 
base, broadly fan-shaped upwards, simple, or deft firom the summit into 
several lobes, which as they increase in size, gradually acquire a fan-shaped 
outline, the apical margin being circularly curved. The whole frond of 
young plants, and the several lobes of those further advanced, are, when 
growing, curled round into funnel-shaped cups. At distances of one to 
two lines the frond is marked with concentric bands, along each of which 
a firinge of orange-coloured articulated filaments, of extreme tenuity, and 
about two hnes in length, extends. These, which originally have clothed 
every band or zone, are seldom found perfect, except on the two or three 
uppermost, and on the marginal one ; falling away as the firond advances, 
llie margin at the siunmit of the frond is strongly rolled inwards ; the 
outer or lower surface, is covered, more or less perfectly, with a white, 
chalky powder ; the inner, except for the fringes of filaments, is smooth, 
and of a yellowish' oUve, reddish towards the base, and greenish toward the 
apex. Substance thickish, subcoriaceous below, delicately membranous 

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above, liighly reticulated. Fruct^ieaium, linear lines of dark coloured 
spores, formed beneath the epidermis, along the concentric zones, at length 
bursting through the coating of the frond, which forms a permanent indu- 
sium to them. At maturity the spores contain four sporules. 

A very remarkable plant, abundant in the Tropical Ocean, and 
reaching its northern hmit on the southern shores of England, 
without exhibiting any depauperation from cHmate. The British 
specimens are fully as large as those from warmer latitudes, 
and as well coloured. This being the case, one would naturally 
expect that it may yet be discovered further north. There is 
indeed a tradition, resting on the authority of Dr. Cargill, quoted 
by lightfoot, that it was once gathered at Aberdeen, but it has 
not been found in Scotland in modern times, and I fear there 
has been a mistake : yet it is difficult to imagine what could have 
been mistaken for it, so different in appearance is it from all 
other Algae. 

Probably this is the only genuine species of the genus, as now 
restricted ; the tropical forms which have been described being 
mere varieties of this type. Our British P. parvula must be 
separated, and has been made the type of a peculiar genus by 
Areschoug; while P.? deusta, Hook., now constitutes the genus 
JRal/sia. Several of the GreviUian species, which differ consi- 
derably in their fructification from P. Pavonia, now l(»in the 
restricted genus Zonaria, J. Ag.; a very natural group, but not 
very happily named, for they are nmch less regularly zoned than 
the Padina. 

So singular a species as this is could not fail to be observed at 
an early period, and notices of it occur in Bauhin, and other 
early writers. An excellent account is given by Ellis, accom- 
panied by a figure with very correct dissections, in his celebrated 
work on Corallines, into which he has introduced it, not on the 
supposition of its animal nature, but from the elegance of its 
form, and singularity. Its general resemblance to the expanded 
tail of the Peacock, has been noticed by all authors. When 
viewed growing under water this resemblance is peculiarly 
striking, the fringes of capillary fibres which adorn it, decompo- 
sing the rays of hght, and giving rambow colours to the surface. 

Fig. 1. Tuft of Padina Pavonia. 2. A frond separated and expanded :—6otk 
qf the nuiural nze. 3. Segment of the frond, showing involute apex ; 
capillary fringe ; and yonng and old sori. 4. Apex and fringe. 6. Ver- 
tical section. 6. Portion of a sorus, 7. Tetra^wres : — all more or less 
highly nuynyied. 

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'■fi »{.:■ 1*1 %'. ^ :, 

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Set. MsLANOSPKRlOiB. FuD. DietgotM. 


Gbn. Ghab. Soot coated with woolly fibres. Frond flat, ribless, fim-shaped, 
entire or varionsly cleft, marked with concentric lines ; the cells of 
the snr&ce radiating. Margin fringed. FrucHfieaUon, roundish ot 
irr^olar, scattered sari, bursting through the cuticle of both surfaces 
of the frond, consisting^ at maturity, of numerous spores nestling 
among jointed threads. Zonama {Ag.), — ^from i»wri, a girdle or zone. 

ZoNAKiA eoUofis ; " frond procumbent, coriaceous, orbicular, or cuneate and 
variously lobed, from its upper surface emitting cup-iAaped, membra- 
naceous fronds ; the under surfitce rooting, densely stupose.'' /. Ag. 

ZoNARiA coUaris, Ag, Sp, Alg. ygI. i. p. 127. Ag, 8gst p. 264. /. Ag. Alg. 
MedU. p. 38. JEndi. Zrd Stippl p. 25. KiUz, Sp. Alg. 666. 

Padina ooUaris, Orev. 8gn. part xliv. Menegh. Ital. p. 245. MotU. Alger, 
p. 83. 

Padina omphalodes, Mont. Orypt. Alger, p. 16. No. 168. 

Zanabdinia piototypns, Nardo.'^(fide Meneg.y §rc.) 

Hab. (Washed ashore.) Granville Bay, Jersey (May 1851). Miss 

Turner. (Very rare.) 
Geoor. Distb. Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. West Indian Sea. 

Desgb. " The primary frond, when mature, is ooriaceoos in colour and substance, 
widely spreading, famished with a dense wooUy coating on its lower surface, 
by which it strongly adheres to rocks ; the upper surface is smooth, and 
variously plaited loDgitudinally ; but by the action of the waves and of 
animalcules is mostly very much torn and lobed. From the upper surface 
of this primary frond rise cup-shaped secondary fronds, fixed by a very short 
stipes, in the dried plant resembling an umbilicus, and with the limb 
fringed with filaments. The youngest of these secondary fronds are 
smaller than peas ; the fall-grown about the height of the cap-shaped fronds 
of HinumthaUa ; all are delicately membranaceous, entire, and easily torn. 
The fringe of hairs that crowns the frond is formed of the free apices of the 
longitucUnal strings of cells of the frond. Fruit unknown." /. Ag, 

This most interesting addition to the Channel Nereis, was 
recently found on the shores of Jersey, by Miss Turner, to whom 
I am indebted for the specimens here figured, and which I re- 
joice to be able to include in the present work. They were 
" quite firesh/' Miss Turner informs me, " when picked up ; 

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lying among other Algae on the sand in Granville Bay ; they had 
a saucer-like shape, which they have lost in pressing." They 
consist merely of the secondary fronds, accidentally torn fix)m the 
firmly attached primaries, which may possibly be reached by 
dredging on the coast. I have compared them with specimens 
of the Mediterranean plant received from J. Agardh, and the 
agreement is very perfect. There can, therefore, be no doubt of 
the indentity of the species. 

Never having seen the primary frond, I give the specific cha- 
racter and description nearly in the words of Agardh ; and our 
upper figure (fig. 1) is an attempted restoration of the flattened 
specimen, more faithfully represented at fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. ZoNAEiA coLLAEis : — the natural iize. 2. One of the fronds of the 
same opened out : — thejiatural size. 3. Apex of frond, with its fringe. 4. 
Filaments from the fringe : — both magnified. 

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PI all CCCXLi 


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Ser. MELAKosPERHEiC. Fam. Dietyotea. 

Plate CCCXLI. 


Gen. Chae. Root coated with wooUy fibres. Frond flat, ribless, fau- 
shaped, entire or variously cleft, marked with concentric lines ; the 
cells of the surface radiating. Fructification, roundish or irregular, 
scattered sori, bursting through the cuticle of both sur&ces of the 
frond, consisting, at maturity, of numerous t^^res^ nestling among 
jointed threads. Zonama {Ag,), — from {awn;, 2k girdle or zone; be- 
cause the frond is usually transversely banded. 

I^JHASiK parvula ] frond procumbent, attached by fibres issuing from its 
lower siurface, membranaceous, suborbicular, variously lobed ; lobes 
free, rounded, scarcely marked with concentric lines. 

ZoNABiA panrula, Orev, Crypt. Fl, t.360. J.Ag.Sp.Alg, vol. i. p. 107. 
Earv, Man. ed. 2. p. 88. 

Padina parvula, Grev. Alg, Brit, p. 63. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 282. Harv. 
Man. ed. 1. p. 31. 

Padina reptans, Crouan. 

Padinella panrula, Aresch.Fug. vol. ii. p. 260. t. ix. f. 1-3. 

Aglaiozonia parvula, Zanard. Sag. p. 38. Kutz. Sp. Alg. p. 566. 

Aqlaiozonia reptans, Kutz. I. c. 

Has. On stones and nullipores near low-water mark, and especially on 
nuUipore banks in 4-15 fathoms water. Perennial ? Summer. Dis- 
covered by Miss Cutler, on sandstone tidal rocks near Sidmouth. 
Miltown Malbay, near low-water mark; and Roundstone, on the 
nullipore bank, W. H. H. Bute, Rev. B, LandsborovgA. Probably 
all round the coast, in deep water. 

Geogb. Distk. British and French Atlantic coasts. Baltic Sea. Adriatic. 

Desgb. Boot P Fronds procumbent, spreading over the rocks or surface of the 
nullipore in circular patches, like a lichen^ closely attached by means of 
numerous fibrils or rootlets which issue from all parts of the lower surface ; 
when young roundish, and dightly lobed, the lobes rounded ; as the plant 
advances the lobes become elongate, somewhat linear, from a quarter to 
half an inch in width, simple or subdichotomoualy divided, with rounded 
axils ; apices always rounded, and broader than the inferior portion of the 
lobe, thus aflfecting a fan-shaped form. Margin somewhat wavy, free from 
the rock. Substance membranaceous, brittle, and not adhering to paper. 
Surface reticulated with small cells, which are arranged in slightly radiating 
longitudinal lines, the cells at the base of the lobe being small and close- 

VOL. III. 2 D 

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pressed, those above them wider and longer, quadrate and nearly twice as 
long as broad : again, the apical cells are always short while the frond is 
in a growing state, as it increases by successive additions to the outer 
margin. FiMU simple or forked, taking hold of the rock by discs at their 

This is not an uncommon plant on various parts of our coast, 
though frequently overlooked, owing to its hiding in crevices, or 
creeping through the much-branched stony nullipores. When 
occurring on rocks near low-water mark it is broader, less 
branched, and of paler colour than when dredged from deeper 
water. I am not able to detect satisfactory characters by which 
to separate the Padina reptans of Crouan, for specimens of which 
I am indebted to M. Lenormand. 

No one, in this country, has met with fructification, which 
seems only to have been found by Dr. Areschoug, in Sweden. 
He finds spores collected in imdefined largish sori, near the base 
of the frond. 

Fig. 1. ZoNARiA PAEVULA : — the noiurol size. 2. Part of a firond : — magwfied. 

3. Small portion of a lobe, to show the longitudinal, radiating lines of cells. 

4. A smsdl part of the same, with undeveloped apical cells : — \%glihi mag- 
nified, 5. Fibrils : — Mghly magnified. 

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FLcUe I. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. Mblakospermrs. Fam. Dictyotea. 

Plate I. 


Gen. Chab. Root, a mass of woolly fibres. Frond flat, membranaceous, 
ribless, reticulated, dichotomous or irregularly cleft. Fructification 
consisting of scattered or clustered somewhat prominent seeds on both 
sur&ces of the frond. 

DiCTYOTA atomaria ; frond broadly wedffe-shaped, or somewhat fen-shaped, 
deeply and irregularly cleft longitudinally; seeds forming waved trans- 
verse lines, wilii intermediate broken ones. 

DiCTTOTA atomaria, 6rev, Alg. Brit. p. 58. Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 280. 

JKyatt, Alg, Danm, no. 60. Endl, Srd Suppl, p. 24. Marv, Manual, p. 32. 

/. Jff. Alg. Medit, p. 37. Menegh, Alg, Ital, vol. i. p. 229. 
DiCTYOTA zonata, Ixmour, Es. p. 57. 
DiCTYOTA ciliata, Lanumr. Es, p. 58. 
ZoNARiA atomaria, Ag. 8p, Alg, vol. i. p. 128. Ag. Syst, p. 264. Orev. Fl, 

Edin, p. 298. Gray, Br, PI, vol. i. p. 341. 
Padina atomaria, Montag, Fl. Conor. PI, Cell. p. 146. 
Padina phasiana, Bory, Fl. Pelop. p. 75. 
Sttpopodium atomarium, Kiitz. Phyc, Gen. p. 341. 
Ulva atomaria, Woodw. in Linn, Trans, vol. iii. p. 53. Fng, Bot. t. 419. 
Ulva serrata, IkCand, Fl, Fran, vol. ii. p. 11. JEncycl, Bot, vol. viii. p. 166. 

Hab. On marine rocks, rare. Annual. Summer. At Cromer, Mr. Wigg. 
Corton and Gunton, Mrs. Fowler. Worm's Head, Glamorganshure, 
Mr. DiUwyn. Coast ofDevon, Mrs. Griffiths. Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 
Frith of Forth, Br. Greville. Ballycotton, coast of Cork, ifiw Ball. 

Geogb. Distb. West Indies, Lamouroua. Canary Islands, rare, Desprhux. 
Mediterranean Sea, Agardk. German Ocean. Atlantic Coasts of France 
and Spain. 

Desc. Boot, a broad mass of woolly, entangled, brown fibres. Fronds clustered, 
from 3 to 12 inches long, and from h«& an inch to 3 inches wide, delicately 
membranaceous, translucent, pale olive-green above, becoming darker to- 
wards the base, glossy, broadly wedge-shaped, variously deft from the apex 
downwards, sometimes very much jagged, never quite entire ; the lateral 
margins either entire or ciliato-dentate ; the tips of the lacinisB truncate. 
Seeds disposed in dark brown wavy transverse bands, running across the 
whole frond, at intervals of less than an inch, the spaces between more or 
less densely mottled with broken Hues or irregular spots of seeds. 

This beairtafiil plant was discovered towards the end of the 
last centuiy by Mr* Lilly Wi^, on the coast of Norfolk, and first 
published in the third volume of the Idnnsean Transactions by 

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Mr. Woodward, whose paper was read December 2nd, 1 794. In 
1797 a figure of it appeared in the "Enghsh Botany," notwith- 
standing which in 1804 in the Ust of Spanish Algae appended to 
Clemente's " Essai sur les varietes de la vigne, " &c., and again 
in 1805, in De CandoUe's 'More Franfaise' we find two new 
names bestowed upon it. Since then, as will be seen from the 
above synonymes, (and we have not quoted aU) authors have suffi- 
ciently exercised their fancy and invention in re-naming it. Of 
the newer names, Boiy's ''phasiana " is the most appropriate, the 
brown bars on the fix)nd reminding us of the plumage of a phea- 
sant, and could we with propriety adopt any, it would be this one. 
But in justice to the original describer, i&d following Agardh and 
most recent authors we adhere to the specific name imder which 
it was first made known. 

Though widely distributed along the shores of the Northern 
Atlantic fix)m the tropics to lat. 56° north, it is nowhere very 
common. Specimens fix)m Dominica, given to me by Dr. Greville, 
are of a darker colour than British ones, and much more regularly 
banded, the broken bars, which generally cover the spaces be- 
tween the perfect bands, being very few. In England it is com- 
pletely a summer plant, reaching its perfection in July and decay- 
ing before the end of September, at which season it has lost its 
glossy surface, rich colours, and much of its deUcacy. Its re- 
mains are then coarse, almost coriaceous, dirty brown and ragged, 
and would scarcely be taken by a stranger to be the same species. 

While it agrees with others of the genus Bidyota in the struc- 
ture of the fix)nd and in the fructification, it exhibits in general 
habit an approach to Padina, or perhaps more nearly to the re- 
stricted genus Zonaria, J. Ag., and has been referred by Mon- 
tague as well as by Bory to the former genus. I admit that it 
is a transition species, especially resembling Padina in the banded 
arrangement of its seeds, but notwithstanding minor difierences, 
the aggregate of its characters, in my opinion, compel us to refer 
it to Dictyotuy unless with Kiitzing, we cut the knot by construct- 
ing a new genus for its home. 

Fig. 1. DiCTYOTA ATOMAKiA : — natural size, 2. Portion of sorus. 3. Seeds 
in situ. 4. Seeds removed : — magnified. 

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PI rnt 

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Ser. Mblanospekmsa. Ftna. Die^otea. 

Plate CIII. 

Gen. Chab. Boot coated with woolly fibres. Frond flat, menibranaceous^ 
ribless, reticulate, dichotomous or irregularly cleft. Fructification, 
scattered clusters of spores formed beneath the cuticle, through which 
th^ finally burst; or, on distinct plants, solitary spores irregularly 
dispersed over the surface. Dictyota {Lamx.) — ^from hucrvov, a net-y 
because the surface is reticulated. 

Dictyota dicAotoma; frond r^ularly dichotomous, linear; s^ments cu- 
neate at the base, erect or erecto-patent, gradually narrower towards 
the apices, axils rounded. 

Dictyota. Hehotoma, Lamour. Ess, p. 68. Orev. Alg. Brit, p. 57. 1. 10. Hook. 
Br. 71, vol. ii. p. 280. Earv, in Mack. M, Hib, paH 8. p. 177. WyaU, Alg. 
Dmm, No. 10. Ham, Mm, p. 32. Dvby. Bat, OaU, p. 964. Menegh. Alg. 
Ital. and Balm. p. 224. Endl, Srd. Suppl. p. 24. Mont. Fl, Alg. p. 30. 

ZoNAMA dichotoma, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 133. Ag. Syst, p. 266. ffook. Fl. 
Scot. vol. ii. p. 90. Grev. Fl. Fdin, p. 297. 

DiCHOPHYLLiUM vulgare, Kiitz. Phyc, Gen. p. 337. t. 22. II. f. 1-4. 

DiCHOPHYLLiUM dichotomum, Kiitz. I. c. p. 338. 

Hausebis dichotoma, ^eng, Sgst. Veg. vol. 4. p. 328. 

Ulva dichotoma. Ends. Fl, Ang, Ed, vol. ii. p. 668. (ed. vol. i. p. 476.), 
Lightf. Fl, Scot. p. 976. t. 34. WUh. vol. iv. p. 124. Eng. Bat. t. 774. 
I^b. Hffd. Dan. p. 31. t. 6. C. 

Var. fi. intricata; frond very narrow, much branched, twisted and entan- 
gled, Grev. 

Dictyota dichotoma, fi, intricata, GretJ, Alg, Brit, p. 68. Menegh. Alg, Ital, 

Dictyota implexa, Lamx, I. c, J, Ag, Alg. Medit. p. 37. Mont. Fl. Alg, p. 30. 

DiCHOPHYLLiUM implcxum, Kutz. Fhgc, Gen. p. 338. 

Has. Parasitical on various Algse; also growing on rocks and stones in 
tide-pools near low-water mark, and at a greater depth. Annual. 
Summer. Both varieties common on the British Coasts. 

GsooB. DisTB. Abundant throughout the Atlantic Ocean, extending from the 
shores of Norway to the tropic. Southern Ocean, Western Shores of South 
America ; Cape of good Hope ; New Zealand. 

Descr. Boot small, coated with fibres. Fronds several from the same base, from 
three to twelve inches in length, from •}• to ^ an inch in breadth, cuneate at 
base, afterwards nearly linear, very many times divided in a regularly 
dichotomous manoer ; segments generally veiy erect, with narrow interstices, 
occasionally more or less spreading. Substance delicately membranaceous, 
Colour olivaceous towards the tips. Fruct^ication ; oval clusters of spores, 


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oorered at an early age with a vesicular membrane formed by a blistering 
of the cuticle, fixed by their bases, obovate, with a wide limbus, and 
finally parted into four sporules. 2. (on distinct plants) solitary, roundish 
spores (?) scattered among the cells of the surface. — ^Var. p. is veiy much 
narrower, about a line in diameter at the base, and not a fourth of a line 
above, dark brown, coarser in substance, with more patent axils, and 
frequently spirally twisted. 

A very common plant, the most widely dispersed of the genus 
to which it belongs, being fomid along the shores of the greater 
part of the temperate ocean, and also in many intertropical 
locaUties. As might be expected, it varies considerably according 
to the circumstances under which it grows, though without any 
respect to climate, the most opposite varieties being frequently 
found on the same shore. The variations appear to result merely 
from the depth of water at which the plant grows, and the degree 
of exposure to waves and currents to which it is subjected. In 
rock-pools near high-water mark and to half-tide level the narrow 
variety, which sometimes is mudi narrower and greatly more 
intricate than our figure represents, is the commoner. Near 
low-water marie in rock-pools, and among the LaminaruB in 
sheltered bays, the broad variety occurs, of which the average 
size is represented in the figure ; but some specimens in my 
Herbarium, gathered by Miss Hincks, at Ballycastle, on the 
coast of Antrim, are very much wider and proportionably less 
compound, and bear a considerable resemblance to the tropical 
D. Schroderi, 

The narrow variety, especially when spirally twisted as it 
commonly is, looks very like a different species, and is regarded 
by several continental authors as such. But it is merely distinct 
in its extreme forms. Intermediate specimens connect it abso- 
lutely with the broader individuals, and differences in relative 
breadth are the most uncertain of all characters, especially among 
the leafy marine plants. The diameter of cylindrical kinds is 
more constant. 

Pig. 1. DiCTYOTA DiCHOTOMA, var. a. 2. The same, var. :— both of ike natu- 
ral iize. 3. Portion of the frond with a vertical view of a sorus. 4. A ver- 
tical section of a sorus. 5. A spore. 6. Portion of the frond, with scattered 
spores : — all modified. 

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Plat, IXX 

Digitized by ViOOQIC 

Ser. Rhodosperue^. Pam. Bktyotea. 

Plate LXX. 


Gen. Char. Root a small, naked disc. Frond filifonn, solid or tubular, 
brauched. Fructification, convex, wart-like son scattered over the 
surface, composed of obovate spores nestling among moniliform, ver- 
tical filaments. Stilophora (/. Ag,), — ^from crriXiy, a point or dot, 
and ^op€», to bear; in allusion to the dot-like fructification. 

Stilophora rhizodes; frond subsoUd, much and irregularly branched, the 
branches subdichotomous, attenuated ; ramuli scattered, forked; fruc- 
tification densely covering the whole plant. 
Stilophora rhizodes, /. Ag, Linn, vol xv. p. 6. EncU. Srd Suppl. p. 26. 
Spermatochnus rhizodes, Kiitz, Phgc, Gen. p. 335. 

Sporochnus rhizodes, Ag. Sp. Alg, vol. i. p. 156. Ag. Sgst. p. 260. Spr. 
8y»t. Veg. vol. iv. 829. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 43. t. 6. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. 
p. 275. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 173. Wyatt, Alg. Banm. no. 5. 
Harv. Man. p. 27 (excl. var. /3.). 

Chordaria rhizodes, Ag. 8gn. p. 15. Lgngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 52. 1. 13. 

Fucus rhizodes. Turn. Hist, t 285. 

Conferva rhizodes, Ehr. in Herb. 

Conferva gracilis, Wu^f. Crypt. Aquat. no. 23. 

Conferva verrucosa, E.Bot. 1. 1688. 

Ceramium tuberculosum. Roth, Cat. Bat. vol. ii. p. 162. vol. 112. 

Hab. Near low water mark, growing either on rocks, or parasitically on 
other Algse. Annual. Summer. Southern shores of England, frequent. 
Common on the eastern, southern, and western shores of Ireland. 
Belfast Bay, and Strangford Lough, Mr. W. Thompson. Jersey, Miss 
White and Miss Turner. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. Baltic Sea. 

Descr. Root, minute, scutate. Fronds soUtary, or tufted, from six inches to two 
feet, or more, in length, cylindrical, filiform, much and irregularly branched, 
sometimes pretty regularly dichotomous, sometimes with a leading stem bent 
in a flexuous or zigzag manner, and furnished with closely set, alternate 
branches, which are more or less regularly dichotomous. In some specimens 
several of the branches are secund, and plentifully beset with short, simple, 
or forked ramuli ; in others the branches are bare and but little divided. In 
all varieties the axils are obtuse, and the apices taper to a more or less fine 
point. The fructification is very densely dispersed over the whole firond, giving 
the branches a warted or knotted aspect. The warts are either hemispherical 
or oval, and consist of radiating, beaded, clavate, simple filaments, among 
which obovate spores, with wide borders, and narrow, tapering bases are 
found fixed to the surface of the frond. In a young state the frond is quite 
solid, composed of roundish or subhexagonal ceUs, the outermost of which 

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are gradually smaUer ; in age the centre becomes more or less hoUow. Sub- 
stance when fresh, cartilaginous, but if kept long, becoming very gelatinous 
and slippery, giving out in fresh water, considerable quantities of slimy 
matter. Colour yellowish brown, either drying to an olive, or retaining 
much of its original hue. 

Hitherto, in British works, the plant here figured has been 
regarded as a species of Sporochntis. It is now removed, ac- 
cording to the views of all recent continental authorities, to the 
Didyotea, in which family it constitutes the type of a new 
genus. If we compare its fructification with that of Aspero- 
cocctiSy or of Functaria, we shall be satisfied that its true place 
in the system cannot be very far apart from these genera. The 
difference, indeed, is more in the nature of the frond, and the 
general habit, than in the fructification. From the true Spo- 
rochniy one of which we have figured at PL LVI. the fructification 
of the present plant essentially differs, the position of the spores, 
their form, and the nature of the filaments that accompany them, 
being quite dissimilar. 

The var. ^. of British authors is now regarded by Professor J. 
Agardh as a distinct species, called by him Stilophora I/ynghyei. 
I have some hesitation in admitting it to the rank of a species 
notwithstanding its peculiar character, and the great abundance 
and uniformity of its production, wherever it occurs ; and it has 
been found from the south of Ireland to the Orkneys, everywhere 
preserving the fistular stem, divaricated branches, and attenuated 
ramuli. It is always found in deeper water than the normal 
form, and always in land-locked bays, and these modifying causes 
I have hitherto believed, produce the variations. It is, however, 
at least a well-marked variety, and, as such, deserving of a figure 
and description, both which I purpose affording it in a future 
number of this work. 

Fig. 1. Stilophora rhizodes: — the natural size, 2. Part of a branch. 3. 
Transverse section of the same. 4. Section of a sorus. 5. Spores: — aU 
more or less higUy magnified. 

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■.H.Ii a:-; .tl ^flu. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. MBLAifOSPBBHKas. Fam. Die^otea. 



Gen. Chab. Boot a small, naked disc. Frond filifonn, soUd or tubular, 
branched. Fructification, convex, wart-like sori scattered over the 
surface, composed of obovate spores nestUng among moniliform, 
vertical filaments. Stilophoba (/. Ag,) — from cmXiy, di point or dot, 
and ^pcco, to hear ; in allusion to the dot-like fructification. 

Stilophoba Imghgai; frond tubular, at length distended, much branched, 
the branches dichotomous, spreading, with wide, rounded axils, much 
attenuated toward the apices; ramuHscattered, forked, capillary; sori 
subdistant, disposed in transverse lines. 

Stilophoba Lyngbyiei, /. Ag, Symb. vol. i. p. 6. J^, Alg. vol. i. p. 84. Endl. 

8rd SuppL p. 26. 
ScTTOSiPHON paradoxus, Fl. Dan. 1. 1595. f. 2. 
Spebmatochnus paradoxus, Kiitz. Ffyc, Oen, p. 336. 
Chobdabia paradoxa, Lgngb. Uyd, Dan, p. 53. 1. 14. 
Steiabia Ghrevilleana, FoUeaf, MS, 

Spobochmijs rhizodes /3 paradoxa, Ag, 8p, Alg. vol. i. p. 167. Orev, Alg, 
Brit, p. 43. Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 276. Harv. Man, p. 27. 

Hab. In land-locked bays, and estuaries, on a muddy and sandy bottom, 
in 4-10 fathom wf^. Annual. Summer. Several places on the 
shores of Scotland and Ireland, abundantly. 

Gbogb. Distb. Baltic Sea. Atlantic Coasts of Europe. Mediterranean Sea. 

DssGB. Booty a small disc. Fronds from two to four or six feet in length, from 
one to two lines in diameter at their widest part, but tapering to a capillary 
fineness towards the apices, usually tufted, and sometimes covering the 
ground in continuous patches that spread over several square yards. Stem 
very much branched m a dichotomous manner, becoming irr^ular by the 
occasional suppression of one of the arms of the fork ; the divisions widely 
spreading, with very broad, rounded axils ; the forks distant below, gra- 
dually nearer towards the apex. The lower part of the stem becomes, in 
age, much distended, with a wide cavity and thin walls, the whole of the 
central cellular substance dying out ; in younger parts it is more sohd. 
WartB of fiructification more distant than in S. rkizodea, and placed in trans- 
verse, slightly spiral bands, containing obovate spores attached to club- 
shaped paranemata. Colour a pale, testaceous brown, olive toward the tips, 
and be(x>ming greener in drying, especially after the specimen has been 
steeped in fresh water. Substance when recent crisp, and very brittle ; 
soon becoming flaccid and somewhat tough, giving out mucus. It closely 
adheres to paper. 

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Hitherto this plant has appeared in British wcnrks as a variety 
of S, rhizodesy figured at Plate LXX, and notwithstanding its 
different appearance, when typical specimens of each are under 
examination, it is not without hesitation that I admit the present 
to be specifically distinct. Those who are acquainted with the 
difference in aspect assumed by marine plants, according to the 
depth of water at which they grow, will best understand my 
doubts ; remembering that the typical S. rhizodea grows within 
tide-marks, and 8. Lyn^byai at a considerable depth, beyond the 
reach of the tide. And the differences between the two are pre- 
cisely of the nature of those caused by deep water. If we regard 
sizCy we must remember that Aaperococcua Tumeri in tide pools 
is seldom more than six inches long ; and that when growing 
with our 8. Lynghydsiy which it frequently accompanies, it has 
fronds three or four feet in length and proportionably broad. 
So also Gracilaria confervoides, which grows to six or seven feet 
in length in deep water. The distention of the frond in 8tilO' 
phora and the attenuation of the branches likewise increase with 
depth. On the whole, therefore, the characters typical of our 
8. Lyngbycei become more strongly marked as the depth of water 
increases, and appear to me greatly to depend on locahty. It is 
for this reason that I am inclined to question its right to be con- 
sidered a species, distinct from ;S'. rhizodea. 

Fig. 1. Stilophoba LTKOBTiEi ; — ^part of a frond, ihe natural iize. 3. Segment 
of a branch. 8. Cross section of the same. 4. Section of a wart. 5. Spove 
and paranemata, from the same ; — all modified. 

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JFlate. CCCim. 

W HB LdctiitV 

X%mr% & irick«l«.w{ 

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Ser. MELANOsPERHXiE. Fam. Dictfotea. 


Gen. Crab. Root a small, naked disc. Frond filiform^ tabular^ branched; 
its walls composed of several rows of cells, of which the inner are 
elongated, and connected in longitudinal filaments ; the outer small, 
polygonal, forming a membrane. Fruciification, solitary or aggre- 
gated naked ytores, scattered irr^ularly over the sur£Eu;e. Dictto- 
siPHON (Orev.), — ^from ducrvop, a net, and vujmv, a tube; because the 
frond is hollow, and has a netted surface. 

DiCTYOSiPHON /(Bniculaceus ; frond setaceous, very much branched; 
branches capillary, decompound; ramuli subulate, alternate or scat- 
tered, rarely opposite. 

DiCTYOsiPHON foemcolaceus, Orev. Jiff. Brit. p. 56. tab. viii. Hook. Br. Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 279. Wyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 205. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. 
part 3. p. 176. Harv. Mm. ed. 1. p. 32. ed. 2. p. 40. /. Ag. 8p. Alg. 
voL i. p. 82. Kiitz. S^. Alg. p. 485. Aresch. Phyc. Scand. p. 147. t. 6, 
7,8 (in part). F. Bat. Suppl. t. 2746. 

ScYTOSiPHON foBniculaceus, Ag. ^. Alg. vol. i. p. 164. Ag. Sgst. p. 258. 
lyngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 63. 1. 14. 

FuGUS subtilis, Turn. Hist. t. 284. 

CoNFBEVA foeniculacea, Huds. Fl. Angl. vol. ii. p. 594. Light. Fl. Scot. vol. ii. 
p. 981. 

CoNFEBVA marina foBniculacea, Dill. Hist. Muse. p. 16. t. 2. f. 8. 

Hab. In rock-pools, between tide-marks, either on stones, or growing pa- 
rasitically on other Algse. Annual. Spring and summer. Common 
on the coast. 

Geogb. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe and of North America. Baltic Sea. 

Desgr. Boot a very small disc. Stem from six inches to one or two feet 
or more in length, varying from a quarter to hal f a line in diameter, gene- 
rally undivided, but densely furnished throughout its entire length with 
lateral branches. Branches long, similar to the stem, and excessively 
branched in a very irregular manner. Sometimes the secondary branches 
are very densely set, capillary, elongated and simple, or nearly so. Some- 
times they are short, curved, and twice or thrice divided. Commonly they 
are decompound and busby, plentifully furnished with subulate, acute ramuli, 
which are either scattered or rarely opposite. When young, the whole 
frond is densely clothed with pellucid, jointed hairs. It is at first solid, 
but the central cells, which are much ho'ger than the rest, are also weaker 
and soon perish, leaving the stem and branches fistular. The walls of the 
tube are composed of several layers of longitudinally connected cylindrical 
cells, of which the inner ones are elongate, the rest gradually shorter ; the 


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cells of the superficial layer (or epidermis) being short and either square or 
polygonal. S^es scattered freely over the branches. (On some indivi- 
duals I have observed aggregated spores, forming scattered clusters or son.) 
Colour a pale olivaceous, becoming darker in age and on being dried. 
Substance membranaceous and soft, closely adhering to paper in drying. 

A common inhabitant of tide-pools, and not inelegant, espe- 
cially when clothed with the fine soft hairs which cover its 
surface closely, when in a young and vigorous state, before it has 
suffered from the wear and tear of its short existence. 

I beUeve by most British algologists this plant is regarded as 
sui yeneria, entitled to a clear place in our system of arrange- 
ment, and properly referred to the Dictyotea. But a distin- 
guished Swede, Areschoug, regards it unhesitatingly as an abnor- 
mal state of ChordariaflaffelliformiSy in which the horizontal fila- 
ments of the periphery have not been developed, and he states 
that he has found specimens having some of the branches with 
the structure of Chordaria, and some with that of Bictyosiphon. 
This is a subject worth examining, but requiring a very careful 
and accurate observation. 

It is also possible that we have two species, or perhaps more, 
confounded under this name. I possess specimens collected on 
the west of Ireland some years ago, having rather a different 
habit from ordinary forms, and differing in having their spores 
collected in clusters, as in Striaria^ but not disposed in trans- 
verse bands. To these I once gave the MS. name of D.fraffUis, 
which is adopted by Kiitzing, in his recent * Systema Algarum.' I 
have deferred noticing these specimens hitherto, ixom an un- 
willingness to multiply doubtful species. 

Fig. 1. DiCTTOSiPHON PCBNICULACEUS : — the natural size. 2, Portion of a 
branch : — sUffhtly nutgnified, 8. Small part of the same, with firuit and 
some hairs. 4. Longitudinal section of the stem. 5. l^ansverse section 
of a young branch. 6. The same, of an older branch, now become hollow : 
— aU kigM/y magnified. 

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Set. MEL&KosFSKHEiE. Fam. Dictyotea. 

Plate XXV. 


Gen. Cha:r. Hoot a small, naked disc. Frond tubular, membranaceous, 
continuous, branched. Fructification; groups of naked, roundish 
spores, disposed in transverse lines. Steiabia — ^from the spores 
being arranged in transverse stria or lines. 

Stmakia attenuata ; branches and ramuli mostly opposite, tapering to each 

Striaria attenuata, Grev. Crypt. Fl. {Syn.) p. 44. Alg. Brit. p.55. t.9. Hook, 
Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 279. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hid. part 3. p. 176. JFyaU, 
Alg. Danm. no. 160. Meneg. Alg. ItaX. et Balm. p. 157. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. 
p. 41. Fndl. Srd Suppl. p. 26. Kutz. Fhyc. Gen. p. 336. t. 21 . f. 2. Harv. 
in Hook. Joum. Bot. vol. i. p. 298. Mc'CaUay Alg. Hib. no. 18. 

ScYTOSiPHON olivascens, Carm. M8S. 

Carmichaelia attenuata, Grev. 8c. Crypt, t. 288. 

ZoNARiA Naccariana, Ag. MSS. Nac. Fl. Fen. vol. vi. p. 94. Alg. Adr. p. 82. 

ZoNARiA lineolata, Ag. in Diar. Ratiab. 1827. Ag. Alg. Bur. t. 40. 

Stilophora crinita, Ag. Aufzdhl, p. 17. Nac. Fl. Fen. vol. vi. p. 94. Alg. 
Adr. p. 88. 

SoLENiA crinita, Ag. 8yst. p. 186. 

SoLENiA attenuata, Ag. Syst. p. 187. 

Ulva attenuata, Nac.Fl. Fen. vol. vi. p. 72. Alg. Adr. p. 54. 

DiCTYOTA lineolata, Grev. 8yn. pi. xliii. 

Conferva crinita, BmcK. Fl. Ven. p. 269. 

Has. Parafiitical on the smaller Algae, generally growing beyond the tide 
range. Annual. Summer. Appin, Cojat. Carmichael. Bute, Dr. 
GrevUle. Belfast Lough, Br. IhvMmond. Strangford Lough, Mr. 
W. Thonijmn. Torbay, Mrs. Griffiths; Miss Cutler. Roundstone 
Bay, Mr. M(fCalla. Devonport, Mr. Ralfs; Rev. W. S. Bore. Pen- 
zance and Ilfracombe, Mr. Ralfs. 

Geogr. Distr. Shores of British Islands. Coast of Sweden, Areschoug! 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Desc. Boot a small, scutate disc. Fronds tufted, 3-12 inches long, or more, 
firom half a line to one or two lines in diameter, tubular, tapering to each 
extremity, furnished at short intervals with branches similar in form, but of 
rather less diameter than the main frond, which are again beset with smaller 
ramuli. Branches and ramuli mostly opposite, sometimes in threes, rarely 
scattered, patent, all much constricted at their insertion, and produced at 
their apices into very fine, setaceous points. When in Jiructification, the 
branches, in all parts of the frond, are marked, at spaces of half a line 
asunder, with transverse rings or hasids composed of clusters of roundish 

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spores, lying exposed on the snr&oe of the membrane, and slightly promi- 
nent, among which are occasionally seen a few short filaments, sinular to 
those that accompany the spores in several other Dictyotea, Substance of 
the frond delicately membranaceons, closely adhering to paper in drying. 
Colour a pale olive. Reticulations of the frond large, quadrate. 

As far as the British Flora is concerned, the merit of having 
discovered this plant belongs to the late talented and indefati- 
cable Captain Carmichael of Appin, who detected it upon the 
west coast of Scotland, in the year 1825 or 1826. In 1827 a 
figure of it appeared in Dr. Greville's * Cryptogamic Flora'; in 
1831 it was discovered in Ireland, and in 1833 added to the 
Flora of Devonshire. But if the very numerous synonymes de- 
tailed above, and many of which I have transferred from the ex- 
cellent work of Meneghini, all belong, as there is Uttle doubt, to 
oiu* plant, it was first observed in the Mediterranean Sea, where 
it appears to be not very uncommon, in several places. Not a 
little remarkable, as connected with its Mediterranean habitat, is 
the fact that so far from its appearing to delight in warm latitudes, 
the specimens from Scotland and from the north of Ireland are 
in every respect stronger and more luxuriant than those found 
on the Devonshire coast. Other circumstances, exclusive of cli- 
mate, probably influence the growth of this, as of many other 
Algae, very considerably. Of these the principal appear to be 
shelter, a quiet sea bottom, and a considerable deposit of alluvial 
matter. In such localities as Belfast and Strangford Loughs the 
largest specimens I have seen have been found. One of these, 
in the possession of Dr. Drummond, is considerably larger than 
that represented in our figure. 

A second species of this genus, S.fragtlu, J. Ag. will probably 
be foimd on our shores. The specimens which I possess, so 
named by Prof. Agardh, are not in a sufficiently perfect state to 
enable me to form a decided opinion as to their specific character. 

I regret that our plate has been printed in too dark an ink, 
an error which was not perceived till the impressions had been 
struck off. 

Fig. 1. Stbiaeia attbnuata ; natural size. 2. Portion of a branch. 8. A 
portion of the membrane, with a sorus. 4. Spores from the sorus : — all 
more or less magnified. 

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rhi/r /'/// 






y~' A 

^^ iSL:&-a 

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Ser. MBLAN0SPERH£iG. Fain. Dictyotete. 

Plate VIII. 


Gen. Chak. Frond undivided, membranaceous, flat, ribless, with a naked, 
scutate root. Fructification scattered over the whole frond in minute 
distinct dots, composed of roundish prominent seeds intermixed with 
club-shaped filaments. Punctabia — ^from punctum, a dot', the fruit 
being in dots, scattered over the surface. 

Punctabia latifolia ; frond oblong or obovate, suddenly tapering at the 
base, pale olive green, thickish, gelatinous and tender. 

Ptnctabta latifolia, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 52. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 278. 

Mack. FL Uib. vol. iii. p. 176. Harv. Man. p. 33. JFyatt. Alg. Danm. no. 9. 

/. Jg. Alg. Medit. p. 41 . Endl. Brd Suppl. p. 25. Meneg. Alg. Ital. p. 174. 
Phycolapathum debile, Kutz. Fhyc. Gen. p. 292. t. 24. II. (in part). 

Hab. Eocks and stones in the sea. Annual. Summer. Sidmouth and 
Torquay, Mrs, Griffiths, Near Belfast, Dr, Brummond. Islay, Mr. 
Chalmers, West of Ireland, frequent, W. H, H, 

Geogb. Distb. British Islands. Mediterranean sea, in several places, /. Agardh. 
Trieste, Herb. Hooker I 

Desc. Root, a flat naked disk. Fronds generally forming large tufts, 8-16 inches 
long, 1-3 inches wide, oblong or lanceolate, flat or more or less curled or 
wavy, generally obtuse at both extremities, occasionally tapering, when in 
perfection deUcately membranaceous, semitfansparent and somewhat gela- 
tinous, but becoming in advanced age thicker and coarser, always of a very 
pale olive-green colom*. Dots of fructification minute, roundish, thickly 
scattered over both surfaces. It closely adheres to paper if gathered in an 
early or middle stage of growth, but specimens collected later in the year 
will not adhere to paper in drymg. 

This species was founded in 1 839 by Dr. Greville, in his ad- 
mirable 'Algae Britannicae,' on specimens communicated by 
Mrs. Grifl&ths and Dr. Drammond, and has since been detected 
in tolerable plenty on several of our coasts. It is probable that 
by earlier botanists it was confounded with P. plantaginea, to 
which some of its varieties make a near approach in form, and 
with which it is often found associated in the same pool. I have 
specimens of both species gathered side by side by Mrs. Griffiths, 
who observes, that " P.plantaginea is much thicker than P. latu 


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folia, the meshes of the reticulations longer, and the dots of 
fructification more oblong." " It is much easier," adds this 
acute observer, "to see the difference than to describe it in 
words." The most obvious difference lies in the colour ; — P. plan- 
taginea being of a clear dark brown ; F, latifolia always very 
pale. P. plantaginea also is usually much narrower, and greatly 
more tapering, truly cuneate at the base, and much less wavy ; 
but I possess specimens as broad and as httle tapering below as 
many referred to P. latifolia. Nor am I very confident, after an 
attentive comparison of a multitude of specimens, whether there 
is any absolutely distinguishing character between the two except 
colour y if that be admitted as sufficient. Late in the season P. 
latifolia becomes as coarse and thick as P. plantaginea, and will 
not in the least adhere to paper. A specimen, from Trieste, in 
Sir W. J. Hooker's herbarium is identical with those from Devon- 
shire ; but Dr. J. Agardh states that his Mediterranean specimens 
are thicker than British ones : it is therefore obvious that the 
substance varies as much in the Mediterranean as I have observed 
it to do in our seas. 

The genus Punctaria is exactly analogous among Dictyotese to 
Ulva in Ulvaceae, and so closely do its species resemble the Ulvae 
in form and substance, that without reference to fructification, 
or without a close examination of the structure of the frond, a 
yoimg botanist might sometimes confound the species of one genus 
with those of the other. It requires also a careful examination 
to distinguish at all times between Laminaria debUia and Punc- 
taria latifolia, the form and colour of both being nearly identical. 
The Laminaria is, however, to the naked eye, more glossy and 
adheres much less firmly to paper ; and its structure, instead of 
being reticulated is closely cellular. 

Fig. 1. PuNCTAEiA LATIFOLIA : — natural me. 2. Base of the frond and scutate 
root ; — magnified. 3. Portion of the frond, showing the reticulated struc- 
ture, and spots of fructification, vertical view ; — magn^ied, 4. Sorus, lateral 
view; — mag '^ ' 

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n . cxTiirr . 


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Ser. Melanosperheji. Tsia. IHetyotea. 

Plate CXXVni. 

Gen. Chae. Frond undivided, membranaceous, flat, ribless, with a naked, 
scutate root. Fructification scattered over the whole frond, in minute, 
distinct dots, composed of roundish, prominent spores, intermixed 
with club-shaped filaments. Punctabia (Grev.), — ^from punctum, a 
dot; the fruit being in dots, scattered over the surface. 

Vv^cnuAXiA planta^inea; frond lanceolate or obovato-lanceolate, cuneate 
and gradually attenuated at base, bro¥mish olive, coriaceo-membra- 

PuNCTAEiA plantaginea, Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 53. t. 9. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. 
p. 278. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 175. Earv. Man. p. 33. Wyatt, 
Atg. Danm. no. 206. Endl, Srd Suppl. p. 25. 

DiPLOSTBOMiUM plaDtagineum, KiUz. Fhyc. Oen. p. 298. 

ZoNARiA plantaginea, A^. S^. Alg. vol. i. p. 138. Ag. Syst. p. 268. Spreng. 
Sgst.Feg. vol. iv. p. 32*6. 

Ulva plantaginea, Both, Cat, Bot, voL ii. p. 243 and vol. iii. p. 326. F. Bat. 
t. 2136. 

Ulva plantaginifoha, Wuif. Crypt, no. 3. Lyngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 31. t. 6. 

Laminakia plantaginea, Ag. Syn. p. 20. 

ELab. On rocks and stones, between tide-marks, and in rocky tide pools ; 
occasionally on Algw. Annual. Spring and summer. Not uncom- 
mon on the English and Irish coasts. Frith of Forth, J)r. Greville. 
Orkney, Sev. /. H, Follexfen. Calf Sound, Orkney, in four fathom 
water, lAent. Thomas and Br. Mc Bain. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. 

Descr. Root small, scutate. Fronds densely tufted, from four to twelve inches 
in length, varying in breadth from less than a quarter of an inch to more 
than two inches, lanceolate or ovato-knceolate, more or less tapering to an 
obtuse or subacute point, cuneate and very much attenuated below, passing 
by insensible gradations into a minute, setaceous stem. In a young state 
both surfaces of the frond are clothed with exceedingly tender, subgelatinous, 
transparent filaments, which give it a peculiarly soft feel, and make the 
substance appear much thicker than it really is. These gradually wear off 
as the plant attains its full size. The colour varies from a deep oUve to a 
reddish brown. The surface of the frond is beautiftdly areolated, the larger 
cells of the interior being seen through those of the outer coat. Dots of 
fructification, scattered over the whole surface, very minute, somewhat ob- 
long, consisting of several eUiptical spores, occasionally accompanied by a 
few short filaments. Roundish spore-Hke organs (antkeridia ?) are found on 
the same plants that produce the regular fructification. They are of larger 
size than the true spores, irregularly placed, depressed, pale coloured, and 
contain a granular matter. 

2 C 

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By contrasting the figure here given with our representation 
of P. latifolia at Plate VIII. , the difference between typical forms 
of these plants will be readily seen, the present being characterised 
by its dark colour, cuneate base, and more lanceolate general 
outline. I wish it could be said that such characters admitted of 
no approximation to their opposites. But though specimens may 
be collected in plenty in which these peculiarities can clearly be 
seen ; yet it must be admitted that other individuals are fre- 
quently found which show them in a more or less weakened 
state, and approach in greater or less degree to some of the forms 
of P. latifoliay so that, on the whole, I am disposed to consider 
these species as not permanently distinguishable from each other. 
If we take merely the extreme forms of each, such an opinion 
will appear strange, but it is not arrived at without consideration, 
and a careful comparison of a great number of specimens from 
different locaUties, and collected at different seasons of the year. 
Nevertheless, as many botanists think differently, and among 
them my accurate and experienced friend Mrs. Griffiths, I deem 
it right to retain both species in this work, and to give, of each, 
such figures as will clearly point out the characters severally 
attributed to their typical conditions. 

Fig. 1. PuNCTABiA PLANTAOINEA; plants: — of the natural size. 2. Portion of 
the surface, with a«on«. 3. Portion, with antheridia? 4. Section of the 
frond : — all magnified. 

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A..B.B> JuTgrp. 

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Ser. MBLAMOSFBKUEiS. Fam. Dietyotets. 



Gen. Chab. Frond undivided, membranaceous, flat, ribless, with a naked, 
scutate root. Fructification scattered over the whole frond, in minute, 
distinct dots, composed of roundish, prominent spores, intermixed 
with club-shaped filaments. Punctaeia {Grev.), — ^from jpunctum, a 
M; the fruit being in dots, scattered over the surface. 

PuNCTABiA ienumima; frond sublinear, very thin, transparent. Grev. 

PuNCTAKiA tenuissima, Grev, Alg, Brit. p. 54. Kooh Ft. vol. ii. p. 279. 
Marv, Man, p. 34. 

. PuNCTARiA undulata, /. Ag. Spec, vol. i. p. 72. 

Ulva plantaginifolia, Lyngh, p. 81. t. 6. (fide J. Ag,) 

DiPLOSTBOMiUM plantagincum. Kg, Fhyc, Gen, p. 298. 

Hab. Parasitical on Zostera marina, Chorda filum, &c. near low-water 
mark. Annual. Summer. Bute, Dr, Greville, Appin, Captain 
CarmickaeL Near Dublin, W.H.H.; probably common. 

Geoge.Distb. Atlantic Shores of Northern Europe, Baltic Sea. North West 
Coast of France. North America. 

Desce. Fronds, 2-8 inches long, 1-3 Hnes wide, very densely tufted, covering 
the plant on which they grow with innumerable slender wavy ribbons, 
tapering to the base and apex, but linear for the greater part of their length, 
sometimes ending bluntly ; the margin waved or curled, and either entire, 
or remotely and irregularly toothed. Colour , a very pale shade of brownish 
olive, or horn-colour, sometimes hyaline. Substance exceedingly thin and 
delicate, adhering to paper. iS'i^rtfe^ure beautifully areolated. JV»t^ unknown. 

Two species of Punctaria have already appeared in this work, 
and the one now figured completes the representation of the 
British kinds. The present species has never been found in a 
state of fruit, and hence some botanists (among others my valued 
friend Mrs. Griffiths) regard it as the yoimg of some other species; 
perhaps of P. latifolia, with which its substance more nearly 
agrees, than with that of P.plantaginea, But its great difference 
in form seems to forbid such an opinion being hastily adopted, 
particularly as young P. latifolia may be found of much smaller 


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size and with a broader and more ovate frond. I rather think 
that this ignorance of the finiit arises from imperfect observation. 
The plant does not seem to be found all round the coast, and 
where it has been observed has been in places only occasionally 
and hastily visited by botanists ; and though I have myself 
gathered it in my immediate neighbourhood, I must plead guilty 
to having neglected to watch its growth from the commencement 
to disappearance. Capt. Carmichael, a very close observer, was 
persuaded of its distinct character ; and I have specimens from 
North America and the Baltic closely resembling those from our 
own shores. 

According to the younger Agardh the synonyme Zonaria 
tenuissima, Ag., quoted by Greville belongs rather to Laminaria 
fascia; for which reason the Swedish Algologist has substituted 
the name undulata for that here adopted. 

Fig. 1. PuNCTABiA TENUissiMA; growing on Chorda JUmm: — natural nee, 
2. Small portion of the membrane .- — magn^ied. 

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Set. MELANOSPBBMEiE. FaiD. Dictyoita. 

Plate LXXII. 


Gen. Char. Frond, unbranched, tubular, cylindrical, or rarely compressed, 
continuous, membranaceous. Eooi naked, scutate. Fructification 
scattered over the whole iBrond, in minute distinct dots {sori), composed 
of roundish, prominent spores, mixed with club-shaped filaments. 
AsPEROCOCCUS, — corruptly formed from cu^er, rov^A, and kokkos, a 

AsPEROGOCCUS compressus; frond compressed, fiat, linear-lanceolate, obtuse; 
dots of fructification oblong. 

AsPEROCOCCUS oompressus, Oriff, MSS, Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 278. Wyatt, 
Alg, Doiim, no. 8. Harv, Man. p. 34. /. Ag, Alg, Medit, p. 41. Menegh, 
Alg, Ilal. p. 164. t. 4. f. 1. JEndl, %rdSuppl, p. 26. 

Haloolossum Griffithsianum, KiUz, Phyc, Gen, p. 340. 

Has. Parasitical on Algse, beyond low water mark ; usually cast on shore. 
Annual. Summer. Sidmouth and Torquay, Mrs, Crriffiihs, Mounts 
Bay, Mr. Ralfs, Falmouth, Miss Warren, Jersey, Miss Turner, 

Geogr. Distr. Southern shores of England. Mediterranean Sea. Cherbourg. 
Cape Finisterre. Cape of Grood Hope, JF. H. H, 

Descr. Rooty a small disc. Frond, from six to eighteen inches in length, and 
from a quarter of an inch to an inch and a half in breadth, attenuated at 
the base into a setaceous stem from a quarter to half an inch long, thence 
nearly linear upwards for the greater portion of its length, and again fining 
off towards the blunt point. Some specimens are nearly lanceolate, and 
much narrowed at the extremity ; others are more nearly linear, and very 
blunt. The frond, though very much compressed, so as to be quite flat, is 
in reality tubular, but the sides of the tube are closely appUed together, 
and here and there united by slender, colourless, jointed filaments. The 
surface cellules of the frond are minute ; but those coating the inner face 
of the tube are very large, distended, and hyaline. Fructification is always 
abundantly produced. The sori are oblong, very densely scattered, and of 
larger size than in A, Tumeri, The Colour varies from a pale yellowish to a 
full olive-green, occasionally brownish in age. The substance is tender, 
somewhat gelatinous, and the plant in drying, adheres perfectly to paper. 

An interesting plant, curiously connecting the genus Aspero- 
coccus and Punctariay having a frond nearly intermediate in cha- 
racter between that of these genera, but possessing rather more 
of the structure of the former. It was discovered by Mrs. 
Griffiths in the year 1828, at Sidmouth, and should it ever be 

T 2 

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made the type of a new genus, as proposed by Kiitzing, his spe- 
cific name, Griffithsianmriy may very deservedly be adopted. At 
present I prefer leaving it in AaperococcuB, from its very close 
affinity both with A. echinatm and A. TumerL 

It appears to be of not unfrequent occurrence in the Mediter- 
ranean, several stations being recorded. I possess a fine specimen 
from Catania, given me by M. Gussone ; and I have gathered 
very large specimens at the Cape of Good Hope, much larger 
than any others that I have seen. It is very rare along the 
Atlantic coasts of France and Spain, as I am informed by M. 
Lenormand, who has kindly sent me a specimen gathered at 
Cherbourg ; and may probably occur in North Africa, but I have 
not received any specimens from that coast. In the British Seas 
it has as yet, only been found along the southern shores of Eng- 
land, and in the Channel Islands ; but it is not improbable that 
it may yet be discovered on the Irish coast, where so many 
southern forms reach their northern limit. 

Fig. 1. AsPEBOCOOGUS COMPBESSUS: — tke natural size. 2. A transverse section 
of the frond. 3. Portion of the same : more highly magnified 4. Portion 
of the membrane, viewed vertically. 5. Vertical section of a sorus: — mare 
or less highly magnified. 

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Ser. Melanospbrm£*. Fam. Mdyotea. 

Plate XI. 


Gen. Chail Frond unbranched, tubular, cylindrical or rardy compressed, 
inflated, continuous, membranaceous. Boot naked, scutate. Fructifica- 
tion scattered over the whole iBrond, in minute, distinct dots, composed 
of roundish, prominent seeds, intermixed with club-shaped filaments. 
AsPBROCOCCUS — corruptly formed from a^er, rough, and k6kkos, a 
seed ; because the dots of seeds are mixed with bristle-like filaments. 

AsPEROCOCCUS Tiimeri ; frond inflated, cylindrical, obtuse, oblong or club- 
shaped, suddenly contracted at the base into a short stem, thin and 
membranaceous ; dots of fructification minute, roundish. 

AsPEROCOCCUS Tumeri, Hook. Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 277. JTyatt, Alg. JDmm, 

no. 59. ffarv, in Mack, Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 175. Harv. Man. p. 34. 
AsPEROCOCCUS bullosus, Lamour, Fss. p. 62. t. 6. f. 5. Grev, Alg, Brit, p. 51. 

Endl, Zrd Suppl. p. 26. /. Jg, Jig, Medit, p. 41. Menegh, Alg, Ital. et 

Balm, p. 166. 
AsPEROCOCCUS rugosus, ^ bullosus, Bub. Bot. GaU, vol.ii. p. 956. 
Enccelium bullosum, Jg. 8p, Jig, vol. i. p. 146. Sy%t. p. 262. Spreng, Sgd, 

Veg, vol. iv. p. 328. Kutz. Phyc. Gen, p. 326. t. 21. f. 1. 
Gastribium opuntia, Lgngh.Hyd. Ban. p. 71. 1. 18. 
Ulva Tumeri, BiUto. — . Eng, Bot, t. 2570. 

Has. In the sea, on stones and the larger Algse, on Zostera, &c., often 
growing in 4-5 fathoms. Annual. Summer and Autumn. Coast of 
Sussex, Mr,Borrer. Devonshire, Mrs, Griffiths, Bantry Bay, Miss 
Hutchins. Appin, Copt. Carmichael. The " Murrough " at Wicklow, 
W. H. H. (1833). Strangford Lough and Clew Bay, Mayo, Mr. W. 
Thompson, Boundstone Bay, Galway, Messrs, W. Thompson, R, BaU, 
and E, Forbes (1840). Howth. Miss Ball. Ireland's Eye andLambay, 
Mr. B. Ball. Abundant on the Kerry Coast, Mr. W. Andrews. 
Dingle and Valentia, W. H. H. Jersey, Miss White. 

Geogr. DisTR. Atlantic coast of Europe, from Norway (Zgngb,) to Spain. 
Baltic Sea. Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. Southern Ocean, Jgardh, 

Desg. Bjoot a minute scutate disc. Fronds commonly from 6 to 12 inches in 
length, and from half an inch to an inch and a half in diameter, but occasion- 
ally 16 to 42 inches in length and from 2 to 4 in diameter, suddenly con- 
tracted at the base into a thread-Uke stem, which varies from ^ to •}• an 
inch in length, inflated, bag-like, and of nearly equal breadth throughout, 
sometimes club-shaped, very obtuse, here and there occasionally contracted, 
delicately membranaceous and subtransparent, pale oUve or inclining to 
fawn colour. When young the frond is greenish oUve with a soft and sub- 
gelatinous feel and adheres to paper, but older specimens are harsher, of 
rather thicker substance, and will not adhere to paper in drying. Dots 
of fructification very minute, roundish or oblong, sometimes confluent, 
densely scattered over the surface, composed of dark-coloured, elliptical 
spores lying on the surface of the frond, among which, in greater or less 


Digitized by 


abundance, spring short, simple, or slightly branched, jointed filaments. 
The structure of the membrane, as shown at fig. 8, is very beautiful. The 
outer surface of the frond is composed of slightly inequilateral, 4- or 5-sided 
ceUs with thick walls, and containing a granular, pale-olive endochrome. 
These are internally strengthened by a lattice-work which lines the whole 
frond, whose meshes are 12-16 times as large as the cells of the membrane. 

We are not informed by whom this species was first observed. 
The honour rests between Miss Hutchins and Mr. Borrer, by each 
of whom it was found in different localities early in the present 
century, and named, by Dillwyn, in honour of Mr. Dawson Turner, 
the distinguished author of the * Hiatoria Fucorum! Unfortu- 
nately Mr. Dillwyn delayed for several years the pubUcation of 
the species, and it first appeared under this name in the volume 
of English Botany for 1813 ; in which same year, Lamouroux, 
unaware of the long-conferred manuscript name, published it as 
a new species, conferring upon it the specific name buUoma^ by 
which it is still universally known on the continent. It is a 
question which specific name has the priority inpublication, and in 
an ordinary case I should feel bound to follow the majority — ^who 
have decided in favour of Indlosm, — ^but I am unwilling, without 
better grounds, to deprive the Father of modem Phycology of a 
well-merited compliment; and I therefore follow Hooker in 
retaining the specific name earUest proposed — though not pub- 

AaperococcuB Tumeri appears to deUght in land-locked muddy 
bays, where it grows to the gigantic size mentioned in the des- 
cription. Specimens upwardb of three feet in length, have been 
dredged by Mr. Thompson in Strangford Lough. I have seen 
individuals not much inferior in the little harbour of Dingle, and 
in the long, deep channel which divides Valentia firom the main- 
land. When growing in deep water its favourite habitat is on 
the stems and leaves of Zoatera. Specimens gathered within the 
tide range are of much smaller size, not more than a few inches 
in length. Except in size it is subject to Uttle variation. It 
may always be known firom A. echinatua by its greater deUcacy 
of texture, more evident reticulations, paler colour, and more 
obtuse and inflated frond. 

Fig. 1. AsPEBOCOCCUS Tubneri. 2. Small section magnified, showing the 
spots of fructification, yertical view. 3. Fragment more highhf magnified, 
to shew the internal net-work. 4. One of the spots of fruit, viewed laterally. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Platf. CZCIV. 

"V H.H dr-i ,1 h'Ji 

Digitized by 


Ser. Mblanosvbkhks. Fam. Lictgotea. 

Plate CXCIV. 


Gen. Char. Frond unbranched, tabular, cylindrical, or rarely compressed, 
continuous, membranaceois. Fructificoitian scattered over the whole 
frond, in minute, distinct <fo& {sori) composed of roundish, prominent 
spores, mixed with club-shaped filaments. Aspeeococcus {Lamour.), 
corruptly formed from asper, rough, and kokkos, Vk fruit or seed. 

KsBVSiXiCOGCJS^ echinatuB ; frond cylindrical, obtuse, or acute, much and 
gradually attenuated to the base. 

AsPEROOOCCUS echinatus, Qrev, Alg. Brit, p. 60. t. 9. Hart), Man. p. 35. 
Endl. Srd Suppl, p. 26. 

AsPEROCOGCUS fistulosus, Hook. Br, M. vol. ii. p. 277. WyaU^ Alg, Danm, 
no. 7. Earv, in Mack, Fl, Hib, part 3. p. 175. 

AsPEROcoccus rugosns, Lamour, Ess, p. 62. 

Enc(ELIUM echinatum, Ag, 8p. Alg, vol. i. p. 145. Ag, Sgst, p. 261. Spreng. 
Sgst. Feg, vol. iv. p. 328. KiUz, Fhgc, Gen. p. 336. 

Enccelium Lyngbyanmn, Gret), Crypt, t, 290. 

ScYTOSiPHON fistulosus, I^fugb. Hyd, Dan, p. 66. 

ScYTOsiPHON filum, var. fistulosum, Ag, Sp, vol. i. p. 163. Ag. Syst. p. 258. 

Ulva fistulosa, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 569. E.Bot. t. 642. Hook. Fl. Scot, 
part 2. p. 92. 

Conferva fistula. Both, Cat, Bot. vol. iii. p. 169. 

Var. ^. frond setaceous, filiform, twisted. 

AsFEROGOCCTJS cchinatus, ^. vermiculaiis, Ha/rv, Man, p. 35. 

AsPEROCOccus vermicularis, Moore^ Ord, Surv, Londonderry, Bot, p. 9. 
Wyatt, Alg, Danm, no. 207. 

Hab. On stones, &c., between tide marks. Annual. Summer and autumn. 
Common on the British shores. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic coasts of Europe and America. Southern Ocean, at 
Lord Auckland's Islands, Dr, Hooker. 

Descr. Boot, a small disc. Fronds densely tufted, from twen^ to a hundred 
growing from nearly the same point, varying from two inches to two feet 
in length, and from half a line to half an inch in diameter, very much and 
very gradually attenuated at the base, and more or less tapering upwards, 
sometimes ending abruptly in a blunt point, sometimes acute, and much 
drawn out, cyUndrical, bag-like, here and there irregularly somewhat nar- 
rowed, or sUghtly constricted. FructificaMon densely sprinkled over the 
whole frond, forming minute, prominent, rough dots, composed of densely 
packed, vertical filaments, among which the spores are concealed. In a 
young state the frond is clothed with long, pellucid fibres. Substance 
membranaceous, soft; when young, slimy, adhering to paper. Structure 
reticulated, the membrane composed of large, lax cells. Colour oUve, more 

Digitized by 


or less brown ; when young greenish. /3. differs in being much more slender, 
and generally is a parasite on other small Algae. 

A very common, but we camiot say a very beautifal plant ; 
one of the least highly organized of the family to which it 
belongs, and the coarsest in its mode of growth. The only 
variation to which it is subject is the size, and the more or less 
tapering extremities. The size varies so greatly that very good 
observers have contended for two species, the smaller one of 
which we retain as a variety, although it passes so insensibly into 
the larger form that no distinct limits can be assigned between 
them. From A. Tameri (PL XL) this is at once distinguished 
by the thicker substance, darker colour, tapering base, and by 
being only moderately inflated. The former species is also re- 
markable for the bluntness of its fix)nd. The present more nearly 
resembles A. compressus, (PI. LXXIL), some ill-coloured and 
narrow examples of which have very much the outline and general 
aspect of A. ecAinatm, and can scarcely be known from it except 
by the character of compression : a character whose distinctness 
is greatly lost in the dry state. 

Other specimens frequently are met with which resemble 
Chorda lomenfaria, even to the extent of being here and there 
constricted. The fructification affords the best mark of dis- 
tinction from puzzling forms of the latter. 

Fig. 1. AsPEBOGOGOUS ECHiNATUS ; frouds : — qf the tudurol me, 2. Portion 
of the tube, with aori : — moffnified. 3. Section of the membrane and sorus : 
— kiffhly magnyied. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^PleUe CCLJZ. 

\V.H.H,a^l.e^ litL 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. MsLAiroBPEBJCBiB. Fam. IHetyoiea. 

Plate CCLXX. 


Gen. Chail Frond unbranched, cylindrical, cartilaginous, subsolid, at 
length tubular, composed of several rows of cells; the surface areo- 
lated. Fructification 'y soUtary or aggregated naked spores, scattered 
irregularly over the surface of the frond. LrrosrPHON {Harv.), 
from Xtr^r, slender or mecm, and <r/<^»y, a tvhe. 

LrrosiPHON pusilhs', fronds tufted, thread-shaped, very long, equal in 
diameter throughout, reticulated, clothed with peUucid hairs ; spores 

LiTOSiPHON pnsillus, Harv, Man. Ed. vd. ii. p. 43. 

Chlobosiphon pusillas, Harv, in Phyc, Brit.yol, i. p. 10. Kutz, 8p. Alg. p. 484. 

AsPEBOOOCCUS pusillus, Carm. in Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 277. JFyaU, Alg, 
Damn. no. 58. ffarv, in Mack, Fl. Sib. part 3. p. 175. ffarv. Man. Ed, 
vol. i. p. 35. /. Ag. Qtn. et Sp, Alg. vol. i. p. 78. 

Has. Parasitical on Ghobda filum. Annual. Summer. Common all 

round the coast. 
Geoob. Distb. Shores of Europe. 

Descb. Fronds very densely tufted, dothing the plant on which they grow in 
continuous series for the space of several feet, completely concealing the 
surface and spreading on aU sides equally ; from two to four inches long, 
as thick as hog's bristle, straight, or more commonly variously waved or 
twisted. When young the whole frond is beset with slender, byssoid, arti- 
culated fibres, like those found in Myrioirichia. These gradually wear 
away, and then the fronds become more twisted and less lubricous. In 
young plants the frond is nearly sohd, composed of several strata of cells, 
the inner ones of which are large and empty, the outer gradually smaller, 
and those of the two or three external rows (constituting the periphery) 
filled with granulated endochrome. The central cells first perish, and the 
plant becomes tubular, but the tube does not seem to have r^^ularly de- 
fined limits. The surface under the microscope appears reticulated with 
quadrate cells, which are disposed in longitudinal lines. Among these cells 
one is here and there larger and more prominent than the rest, containing 
a darker-coloured endochrome : these are supposed to be the spof es, and no 
other fructification has yet been observed. Substance somewhat cartila- 
ginous, but soft and lubricous, closely adhering to paper. Colour at first 
a greenish, afterwards a brownish olive. 

The old fronds of Chorda JUum are frequently infested, towards 
the close of summer, with the parasite here figured, which 
changes them into shaggy ropes, soft and slippery to the touch. 

Digitized by 


When placed in water the innumerable thread-like fronds of the 
Litosiphon stand out from the Chorda, and spread in all direc- 
tions round it, like the hairs of a bottle-brush. 

This plant was orginally noticed by Capt. Carmichael, who 
called it Asperococcm pimllus, a name by which it has been 
generally known to succeeding botanists; although all have 
admitted that its claim to be regarded as a species of Aaperococ- 
cm was, to say the least, very doubtfid. In the list of species 
appended to the first volume of this work I called it Chlorodphon, 
supposing that it must be the plant called by Kiitzing Chloro- 
siphon ShuttleworthianuSy a name given by that author to an Alga 
gathered by Mr. Shuttleworth, on the West Coast of Ireland. 
I made this reference after reading the description in Kiitzing's 
work, but a subsequent conoanunication with that author showed 
me that I had committed an error, for a specimen of Mr. Shut- 
tleworth's Alga kindly sent to me by Professor Kiitzing, proves 
to be that young state of Chorda lomentaria, to which Carmichael 
gave the name Jsperococcus castanem. In these circumstances 
it becomes necessary to bestow a new name on the present plant, 
and I have chosen one appUcable in a double sense. 

As a genus it seems to come nearest to Didyosiphon, from 
which it obviously diflfers in having an unbranched frond. I am 
not at all satisfied respecting the nature of the so-called spores, 
but no other fructification has yet been discovered. 

Fig. 1. LiTOSiPHON PU8ILL13S, growing on Chorda JUumi — of the natural me, 
2. Part of a young frond. 3. Part of an older frond, with spores. 
6. Quarter of a transverse section of the frond: — more or leas highty 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by 


FlaU CCXCr. 


T • 







« * 

1 \ 







F. Reeve, iiap. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. Melanospbbhks. Fam. Dict^tea. 

Plate CCXCV. 

Gen.Chae. Frond unbranched^ cylindrical, filiform, cartilaginous, sub- 
solid, at length tubular, composed of several rows of cells; the 
surfece areolated. Fructification solitary or aggregated, naked spores, 
scattered irregularly over the surface of the frond. Litosiphon 
(Harv.), — ^from \itos> slender, and <n<l>wp, a tube. 

Litosiphon Zaminaria; fronds stellately tufted, short, cylindrical, blunt, 
slightly tapering at the base, smooth (or hairy toward the apex), 
transversely banded, the bands close together ; spores scattered, or 
several in each transverse band. 

Litosiphon Laminarise, Harv. Man. ed. 2. p. 43. 

Desmotbichum LaminarisB, Kiilg. 8p. Alg. p. 470. 

Chlobosiphon LaminarisB, Earv. inPhyc.Brit, vol.i. p. x. {list of species.) 

Bangia Laminariae, Zytiffb. Hyd, Ban. p. 84. t. 24. Ag. Syat. p. 75. Eook. 
Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 316. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Bib. part 3. p. 241. Earv. Man. 
ed.l. p.l72. 

AsPEUOcoccus ? Laminarise, /. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 79. 

Hab. Parasitical on the fjx)nds of Alaria esculenta, common on that plant 

in the summer and autumn. Annual. 
• Geogb. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe. 

Descb. Fronds from a quarter to half an inch in length, cylindrical, slightly 
tapering at the base, then of ueiEurly equal diameter upwards, and ending in 
a blunt point, smooth, or beset toward the summit with slender pellucid 
fibres, at first solid, becoming hollow in age from the perishing of the 
central cells. Structure built up of two or three or more layers of con- 
centric cells ; those of the outer circle, or peripheiy, about as long as broad, 
placed tier above tier in regular circles, so that the frond appears as if trans- 
versely striate or banded. The cells sometimes separate into four smaller 
cells, which occupy the space of one large cell. Spores ? scattered, one or 
more in each transverse band, each spore formed from a cell of the band, 
become enlarged and prominent. Colour, when young, a clear olive, be- 
coming brown in age. Substance soft, adhering to paper. 

This poor little plant has been sadly tossed about among bota- 
nists from one part of the system to the other, nor is it yet very 
certain whether it will be allowed to bear the name under which 
it is now described, or whether that must be changed into 
Desmotrichum. Should it be found, on comparison, to agree in 

Digitized by 


structure \(ith the other species so named^ our genus Litoaijphouy 
which has been formed to include the present plant and the 
Asperococcus ptisilltis, Carm. (PI. CCLXX.), must probably be 
given up. By Kiitzing these plants are, however, widely sepa- 
rated, A. pusillus being associated with the CAlorosipAon ShutUe- 
worthianuB of that author, a production which I regard as merely 
the very young state of Chorda lomentaria. I cannot consent 
to separate these parasites, which appear to me to have a close 
relationship and similar structure. 

By its first discoverer our L. Laminaria was placed in Bangiay 
which was then a common receptacle for any fiUform plant 
marked with transverse, closely-set bands of cells. Here for a 
long time it was suffered to remain unmolested, though almost 
every author who subsequently described it agreed in pro- 
nouncing that it had no natural affinity with the type of the 
genus Bangia, and was even referable to a different Series or 
great division of the Algae. StDl no one, till recently, took any 
active step in the matter. Many years ago, Mr. David Moore 
remarked the affinity of Bangia ? Laminarice with Asperococcus 
pimlluSy and suggested the propriety of forming a genus for 
their reception, a suggestion which I recorded with approbation 
in the first edition of the Manual (p. 173), but did not then 
adopt. Mr. Moore is therefore properly the originator of the 
present generic group, to which I have now merely given a 

Fig. 1. Portion of the frond of Jlaria esculenia, with tufU of Litosiphon 
LaminabIjB growing on it : — the natural size, 2. Tuft of fronds. 3. Apex 
of a frond. 4. Base of the same. 5. Part of the middle portion of the 
same : — all more or less highly magn^d. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

Set. MBLANOSPEBHEiE. Fam. Ciordariea. 

Plate CXI. 


Gbn.Chae. ProTid filiform, much branched, cartilagmous, solid. Axis 
composed of densely packed, longitudinal, interlaced, cylindrical fila- 
ments; the periphery, of simple, club-shaped, horizontal, whorled 
filaments, and long, byssoid, gelatinous fibres. Fructification obovate 
spores, seated among the filaments of the periphery. Chordasia 
{Ag,), — ^from chorda, a cord. 

Chokdaria flagelliformis ; firond subsimple, furnished with closely-set, 
long, simple, filiform branches, ramuli very few or none; filaments of 
the periphery club-shaped, the terminal ccJlule large or small. 

Chord ARIA flagelliformis, Ag, Syn, p. 12. I^ftigb, Hyd. Dan. p. 51. 1. 13.- 
Ag. Sp. Alg, vol. i. p. 166. Ag. Syst. p. 256. Hook. M. Scot, part 2. 
p. 98. Qrev. Fl. Edin. p. 288. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 44. t. 7. Hook. M. 
Brit. vol. ii. p. 275. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 183. Harv. Man. 
p. 45. JTyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 57. KiUz. Phyc. Gen. p. 332. i. 27. f. 3. 
Endl. Zrd Suppl. p. 23. 

GiGARTiNA flagelliformis, Lamour. Ess. p. 48. 

Fuous flagelliformis, Fl. Ban. t. 660. Turn. Syn. vol. ii. p. 335. Turn. Hist. 
t. 85. Sm.E.Bot.i. 

Bab. On rocks and stones in the sea, between tide-marks. Aimual. 
Summer. Common on the shores of the British Islands. 

GsoGR. DisTR. Abundant on the Atlantic shores of Europe, from Iceland to 
France. Eastern coast of North America. Cape of Good Hope. 

Desgr. Eoot a minute disc. Fronds tufted, fi^m six inches to two or three feet 
in length, preserving throughout an uniform thickness, of about half a line, 
furnished with a simple or sparingly forked stem, which is densely clothed 
firom its base to its summit with lateral branches, which issue at distances 
varying firom a tenth to half an inch. Branches firom six to twenty inches 
long, cord-like, perfectly simple, and generally naked ; but now and then 
fdrnished with a few, filiform, often secimd ramuli, widely distant firom each 
other. In the young plant, the branches are very short, the stem often 
developing to its full extent, while the branches are rudimentary, in Which 
state it may readily pass for a different species. Spores abundantly pro- 
duced in the full-grown plant, formed at the base of the peripheric fila- 
ments. The structure of the axis is very dense and firm, composed of 
closely combined interlacing filaments. The filaments of the periphery vary 
in form as the plant advances in age ; when young, they are club-shaped, 
but in age more or less capitate. Colour very dark brown. Substance 
cartilaginous, with a slimy coat. It closely adheres to paper, which it 
stains of a rusty ooloor. 


Digitized by 


A very common plant in the North Atlantic, but strangely 
misunderstood by early writers, who confounded it with GracUa- 
Ha confervoides ; a mistake which, with modem microscopes, it 
would be impossible to fall into. It was first clearly defined as 
a species, in the * Flora Danica,' and was afterwards made the 
type ^f a distinct genus, which in modem systems, represents a 
separate family, widely parted fi'om that to which G. confervoides 
belongs. The only resemblance between these plants is, that 
both have long, and often simple branches. Neither in stracture^ 
in substance, or in colour, is there any identity. 

The fiructification, which was first described by Turner, has 
been overlooked by many authors, and yet it is not unfrequently 
produced. I have generally found an abundance of spores in 
full-grown plants, gathered in the months of July and August. 
They may most easily be elicited by compressing a small part of 
a branch between two pieces of glass, and appear to exist in 
equal numbers in all parts (rf the plant. 

At Plate XVII. we have represented the only other British 
species of Chordaria yet discovered. By comparing the figure 
now given, with that plate, the differences and resemblances will 
be readily appreciated. In younger plants of C. flageUiformia 
the filaments of the periphery are exactly club-shaped ; in more 
fully grown individuals, the terminal cellule is larger, and more 
resembles that of C, divaricata than I formerly supposed. But 
the difference in ramification is so great that there can be no 
difficulty in discriminating between these species. 

Fig. 1. Chord ABiA flagelliformis : — of the natural size, 2. Part of a cross 
section of the frond. 3. Longitudinal section of the same. 4. Filaments 
of the periphery and spore. 5. A spore removed. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Set. MELANOSPERUEiE. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate XVII. 

Gen. Chab. Frond filiform, much branched, cartilaginous, solid. Axis 
composed of densely packed, longitudinal, interlaced, cylindrical fila- 
ments ; the periphery, of simple, club-shaped, horizontal, whorled 
filaments, and long, byssoid, gelatinous fibres. Fructification obovate 
spores, seated among the filaments of the periphery. Chokdaria — 
from chorda, a cord*, because the branches resemble small cords. 

Chordaria divaricata; frond irregularly divided; branches divaricate, 
subdichotomous, flexuous, furnished toward the apices with short, 
very patent, mostly forked ramuli ; filaments of the periphery capitate. 

Chordaria divaricata, Jff, 8i/n. p. 12. 8p, Alg, vol. i. p. 165. Sy%t. p. 256. 

Mesogloia divaricata, Kiitz. Fhyc, Gen, p. 332. 

Hab. Annual. Autumn. Thrown up from deep water, at Carrickfergus, 

near Belfast, Mr. M(fCalla. Oct. 1845. 
Geogr. Distr. Baltic Sea, Agardk, Belfast Lough. 

Descr. Frond 1-3 feet long, not a line in diameter, forming globular tufts, 
the branches spreading in all directions from a centre; very irregularly 
divided. Some specimens are nearly dichotomous from the base, with 
distant forldngs, four or five inches asunder, naked, or having a few short 
ramuli near the tips. Others have a short leading stem, fimiished with 
very numerous, divaricating, lateral, secund or alternate branches, which 
are more or less regularly dichotomous, and beset with short, patent, forked 
ramuli. Others again, as our figure represents, have a much longer leading 
stem, giving birth to excessively numerous branches spreading at right 
angles, and furnished throughout with equally spreading lesser branches 
and ramuli. The surface of the whole frond is slim^, and clothed with 
long, byssoid, gelatinous fibres, which spread in all du'ections, and, when 
the plant is floating in the water, add greatly to its apparent diameter. 
These are imperfectly preserved in a dry state. Colour oUve, much paler 
than in CflageU^ormit, The filaments composing the periphery are slender, 
scarcely davate, the articulations, all but the terminal one, which is very 
large and globose, being nearly cylindrical. Spores affixed to the bases 
of the filaments of the periphery, obovate, bright oHve, plentiful on our 

Chordaria divaricata was first described by the elder Agardh 
in 1817, and until its recent discovery on the Irish coast was only 
known to inhabit the Baltic Sea, and even there was considered a 
rarity. Mr. Mc'Calla to whom we owe the Irish locality, found 
it thrown up in great plenty, last October, along the shores of 

Digitized by 


Belfast Lough, the habitat extending seemingly for miles. Baltic 
specimens, as described by Agardh, are only a few inches in 
length ; and such are some that I owe to the kindness of Dr. 
Areschoug, of Gottenburg. Our Irish plants, on the contrary, 
are comparatively gianU ; the tufts being often two or three feet 
in diameter. I have been forced to select a small one for illus- 
tration, but the character of larger plants is very similar. In aU 
respects, except lux\uiance, the Irish and Baltic plants are 

The branching is sufficiently Tmlike that of C, fiagelliformis^ 
resembling much more closely that of Stilophora rhizodes, to 
which outwardly our plant bears a very great resemblance. But 
besides a diflference in habit, it is well distinguished from C. 
Jlagelliformis by the shape of the filaments of the periphery which 
in that species are club-shaped, while in this they are slender, 
but terminated by a large globular cellule. In this respect there 
is a resemblance to a Mesogloiay but the structure of the axis is 
exactly that of Chordaria. 

Fig. 1. Chobdabia DiVABiCATA : — natural size, 2. Longitudmal section of 
the frond, showing part of the axis. 3. Transverse section of ditto. 
4. Filaments of the periphery, and a spore. 5. Spores removed : — all 
more or less magnified. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ser. MELANOSPEBHEiS. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate XXXI. 


Gen. Chae. Frond filiform^ much branched, gelatinous. Ads composed 
of loosely packed, longitudinal, interlaced filaments, invested with 
gelatine ; the periphery of radiating, dichotomous filaments, whose 
apices produce clusters of club-shaped, moniliform fibres. Fructifica' 
tion, obovate spores, seated among the apical fibres. — ^Mesogloia {A^.), 
from fi€<ror, the middle; and yXotor, viscid; in allusion to the gela- 
tinous axis. 

Mesoolgia vermicularis ; frond unequally distended, clumsy; branches 
irr^ularly pinnate, thick, worm-like, fineari-fusiform; ramuli copious, 
long, flexuous, resembling the main branches. 

Mbsogloia vermicularis, Jg, Syn. p. 126. Ljfngb, Hyd. p. 190. t. 65. Jg, 
SysL p. 61. Harv. in Book. Br. M, vol. ii. p. 387. WyaU, Alg. Danm. 
no. 100. KiUz. Phyc. Gen. p. 332. t. 27. f. 1. Menegh. Alg. Ital. et Balm. 
p. 279. Endl. Brd Suppl. p. 23. 

Trichocladia vermicularis, Harv. in Mac.Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 186. 

Helminthogladia vermicularis, Harv. Gen. S. A. PI. p. 397. Harv. Man. 
p. 45. 

BivuLARiA vermiculata, E.Bot. 1. 1818. 

Chatophora vermiculata, Hook, Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 75. 

Hab. On rocks and stones in the sea, about half-tide level. Annual. 

Summer. Common. 
Gbogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. Mediterranean sea. 

Descr. Eoot small, discoid. Fronds tufted, 1-2 feet high, gelatinous, flaccid, 
but elastic, with a leading stem, which is either simple, or but sUghtly 
divided, somewhat flexuous, unequally distended and constricted at intervals, 
tapering to the base and apex, and beset throughout its length with very 
numerous, close, lateral branches. Branches similar in form to the stem, 
of various length, patent, or horizontal, more or less clearly pinnate, or 
furnished with alternate subdistichous or quadrifarious lesser branches, 
mixed with short tooth-like ramuli. Stent and main branches clumsy, from 
two to five lines or more in diameter, more coriaceous than others of the 
genus. Ultimate branches simple or forked, tapering to an obtuse point ; 
all the axils rounded. Filaments of the axis loosely interwoven; their 
joints pear-sbaped or cylindrical: — ^those of the periphery dichotomous, 
with globular joints; ultimate fibres about five in a cluster, their joints 
gradually larger from the base upwards, containing granular matter. Spores 
elUptical-obovate, sessile. Colour muddy olive, ydlowish, or brown. 

This species, the best known and earliest described of the 
genus, as now restricted, appears to have been first noticed by 


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Dr. Drummond, who discovered it cast on shore at Lame, in 
August, 1806 ; — unless, as Dr. Amott supposes, it be the Ulva 
rubens of Hudson, a synonyme which I think better referable to 
Dtidremaia divaricata. 

It is common on many parts of the coasts of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, and is found in the Isle of Jersey by Miss 
White ; but appears to be, in some districts, less common than 
M, virescens. This, Mr. Ralfs remarks, is the case about Pen- 
zance, in Cornwall, and on the Welsh Coast. It is frequent in 
Torbay, and in other localities of the south of England; and 
very abundant on the west and south-west coasts of Ireland. In 
the north-east of Ireland, where it was first noticed, Mr. Thomp- 
son finds it in profusion, and has observed, among heaps of sea- 
weed cast on shore " the partiality of the Idotea astrum, Leach, 
for the gelatinous Mesoffloia vermiadaris, plants of which it had 
very much eaten, leaving the other Algae, of which there were 
many species in the heap quite untouched." 

I have given the Mediterranean station on the authority of 
Professor Meneghini, who has received it from Venice and from 
Trieste. It is omitted by Agardh in his Algae Mediterraneae. 

M. vermicularis may be considered . the type of the genus 
Mesogloia, as now defined by J. Agardh, consisting of that por- 
tion of the older genus to which I formerly appUed the name of 
Trichocladia, subsequently changed into Helminthocladia. When 
I proposed M, midtifida of Agardh, as the type of the restricted 
genus Mesogloiay I was not aware that that species is identical 
in structure with Nemcdeon of Tozzetti. To Nemaleon, M. mzel" 
tijida is therefore now referred ; M. Hudsoni (of British authors) 
and M. coccinea to Dudresnaia ; and M, moniliformis^ Griff, to 
Crouania. Respecting the proper place of M. purpurea, Harv. 
I am at present doubtful. 

!Fig. 1. Mesogloia vebmiculabis, (small specimen): — natural me, 2. Por- 
tion of the filaments, axial and peripherical, of which the frond is composed. 
3. Apex, with its 9pore^ and cluster of ultimate fibres : — fnagnified. 

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W.H.H .iel Pt'lit: 

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Ser. Melanosperme-«. Fam. Chordariece. 


Gen. Char. Frond filiform, much branched, gelatinous ; the axis com- 
posed of longitudinal, subsimple, interlacing fibres, invested with 
gelatine ; the periphery formed of radiating, dichotomous, coloured 
filaments. Fructification : ovate or elliptical, olivaceous spores, at- 
tached to the filaments of the periphery. Mesogloia {Ag,)y — ^from 
lutros, the middle, and yKoMs, viscid; from the gelatinous axis. 

Mesogloia Oriffithsiana; frond slender, equal throughout; branches 
alternate or irregular, filiform, long, simple, nearly bare of ramuli. 

Mesogloia Griffithsiana, Qrev, MS, Hook, Br, Fl. vol. ii. p. 387. JFyatt^ 
Alg, Danm, no. 48. Harv, Man, ed. 2. p. 47. Kutz, Sp, Alg, p. 545. 

Hab. In rock-pools between tide-marks, rare. Annual. Summer. 
Livermead, Torbay, Mrs. Griffiths. Sidmouth, Miss Cutler, Round- 
stone, Mr, M'Calla, 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. 

Descr. Root a small disc. Fronds growing in tufts, filiform, about a line in 
diameter, and from twelve to eighteen inches in length, with a percurrent, 
undivided stem, set throughout with long, spreading, slender branches, 
which are mostly simple and often naked, or having a very few spreading 
or divaricating branchlets scattered at irregular iptervals. When the plant 
is in a growing state it is clothed with colourless, horizontal fibres, spread- 
ing from every portion of the stem and branches, and making them look, 
when seen under water, of much greater diameter than they really are. 
In age the axis decays, and the branches become hollow. The filaments 
of the periphery are closely set, club-shaped, and beautifully beaded. The 
spores are obovate, and raised in short pedicels. Colour a rather pale 
olive-green, becoming greener in fresh water. Substance gelatinous, flaccid, 
slippery. In drying, the frond shrinks considerably, and adheres closely 
to paper. 

This species bears a striking resemblance in its ramification to 
Chordaria flagelliformis, but is always of a much paler colour, 
and the microscopic structure very different; the axis being 
much less dense, and the substance more gelatinous and tender. 
Still there is a considerable similarity in stracture, and evidently 
an aflBinity, through this species, between the two genera. 

M, Griffithsiana worthUy bears the name of its discoverer, so 


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often mentioned in the pages of this work, who has added so 
many original observations on the British Algae to the common 
stock, and has been the first to notice so many new species. 
More recentiy this plant has been gathered on the shores of 
Heligoland in the Baltic, and also on the northern coasts of 
France. It is nowhere very common. 

Fig. 1. Mesogloia Griffithsiana : — tke uaiural size. 2. A p(»rtion of a 
branch : — sUghUjf tnagmfied, 8. One of the colourless fibres. 4. Trans- 
verse section of the stem. 5. A spore and one of the filaments of the 
periphery : — cXL more or less higkfy tmuptified. 

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Ser. MsLAirosPKKHAfi. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate LXXXII. 


Gen. Chae. Frond filiform, much branched, gelatinous. Axis composed 
of loosely packed, longitudinal, interlaced filaments, invested with 
gelatine ; the periphery of radiating, dichotomous filaments whose 
apices produce clusters of club-shaped, moniliform fibres. Fructifica- 
tion, obovate spores, seated among the apical fibres. Mesogloia 
{Ag.) £rom ^Wf, the middle; and yXoidf, viscid; in allusion to the 
gelatinous axis. 

MosooLOiA virescens; frond filiform, gelatinous; branches long, slender, 
villous ; ramuli numerous, patent, short, linear, obtuse. 

Mesooloia virescens, Carm, Alg. Appin. ined. Hook. Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 387. 
Wyatt, Alg, Danm. no. 49. Berk, Ql, Alg, t. 17. f. 2. 

Mesogloia affinis, Berk, 01, Alg, 1. 16. f. 2. 

Mesogloia Homemanni, Suhr, ? Kutz, Phycy Gen. p. 332 ? 

Tkicholadia virescens, Harv, in Mack. Fl, Hib, part 8. p. 184. 

Helminthocladia virescens, ffarv, Man, p 46. 

p, Zostericola ; frond brownish, simple, with a few short branches. 

Mesogloia gracilis, Carm, Alg, Appin, ined. Berk, 01, Alg, t. 17. f. 1. 
Endl. 3rd 8uppl, p. 23. 

Mesogloia Zosterse, Aresch. 

EivuLAEiA Zoeterae, Mohr. in Weber, Beitr, vol. ii. p. 367. Lyngb, Hyd, 
Ban. p. 194. t. 66. 

Hab. On rocks, stones, and Algse, at half-tide level. AnnuaL Spring 
and Summer. Common. West of Scotland, Carmichael, Rev, J). 
Landsborough, Sfc. North of Ireland, Mr. W. Thompson. West, 
south, and east of Ireland, abundant. South coast of England, Mrs. 
Griffiths, 8fc. p, parasitical on Zostera, at Appin, Capt. Carmichael. 
Boundstone Bay, Mr. Mc'Calla. 

Geogb. Distb. Northern shores of Europe. Baltic Sea. Atlantic coasts of 

DsscE. Root scutate. Fror^ from four to twelve or fourteen inches in length, and 
from half to nearly a line in diameter, cylindrical, filiform, equal in diameter 
throughout its extent, with an undivideid stem, densely dothed with lateral 
branches. Branches issuing at short distances from each other, sometimes 
as long as the stem, sometimes half as long, and in var. p, very short, 
patent, resembhng the main stem, and like it having numerous, lateral, 
simple or forked, patent secondary branches. Every part of the frond 
appearing villous to the naked eye from the great length, and httle density 
of the stratum of filaments, which form the periphery. Tii'&^G filaments are 
irregularly dichotomous or somewhat fascicled ; their divisions moniliform. 

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and of equal diameter throughout. Colour a yellowish or greenish olive. 
Substance tender, gelatinous and slippery. Fruciification, elliptical spores 
attached to the bases of the filaments of the* periphery. Our variety, ^, 
regarded by some authors as a distinct species, only differs in being of 
smaller size, with less compound ramification ; there is no microscopic cha- 
racter to distinguish it. 

An abundant species, on all our coasts, from the north of 
Scotland to Cornwall, and subject to Uttle variation except in the 
amount of its ramification. Sometimes the branches are even 
more densely set than our figure represents ; often they are more 
distant, and occasionally the &ond is very much less divided. In 
the variety ff. especially, which grows on the leaves of the Zostera, 
the main stem seldom exceeds three or four inches in length, and 
its branches are frequently rudimentary. 1 do not think, how- 
ever, that it has sufficient characters to found a species upon. 

The appearance of a branch of this species under the micro- 
scope is very beautiful, owing to the great length, and full greenish 
olive hue of the filaments composing the periphery, which are set 
in a looser gelatine than in any other of our British kinds, and 
give the frond a singularly villous appearance, to the naked eye. 
In this respect it differs from M. Griffithsiana which is of a much, 
firmer and more compact substance. 

The Meaoghia affinis, of Berkeley, would appear, by the figure 
and description, to be only the young of M, virescem; and 
though I have not seen M, Hornemanniy Suhr., yet the descrip- 
tion given of it by Kiitzing, accords so well with specimens of 
M. virescenSy communicated to me by Senator Binder, of Ham- 
burgh, from Heligoland, that I have no hesitation in considering 
it a synonyme. 

Fig. 1. Mesogloia vieescens : — ofUie natural size. 2. Portion of the frond : — 
slightly magmjied. 3. Filaments of the periphery, and some of those of the 
axis -.—highhf magnified. 

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FiiLtc cccjzn. 


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Ser. Mblanospbemb^. Fam. Ciordariea. 



Gen. Char. Frond globose or lobed^ fleshy, composed of jointed, colour- 
less, dichotomous filaments, issuing from a central point; their 
apices, which constitute a fleshy coating to the frond, coloured and 
tufted. Fructijicationy oval or pyriform sporea, concealed among 
the coloured apical filaments. Leathesia (S. F. Gray), — in honour 
of the Eev. 0. fi. Leathes, a British naturalist ; and who first com- 
municated this plant to Sir J. £. Smith. 

Leathesia tuberiformis ; fronds olivaceous, tuberous, when young stuffed 
with cottony fibres, at length hollow. 

Leathesia tuberiformis, S. F, Qray^ Nat. Ar. Br, PL vol. i. p. 301. Harv, 
Man. ed. 2. p. 48. 

Leathesia marina, Endl. Brd Supp. p. 23. KiUz. 8p. Alg. p. 643. /. Jg, 
Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 52. 

Leathesia difformis, Aresch. Entm. Phyc. Scand. p. 154. t. 9. f.B. 

CoRYNEPHORA marina, Ag. Sgst. p. 24. Harv. in Hook. Br. M. vol. ii. 
p. 890. Harv. Man. ed. 1. p. 46. JFgati, Alg. Danm. no. 149. Qrev. 
Orypt. Scot. t. 58. Harv. in Muck. Ft. Hid. part 8. p. 184. 

Ch^tophora marina, lyngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 193. t. 66. 

NosTOC marinum, Ag. Diap. p. 46. ei Syn. p. 133. 

Tremella difformis, Linn. Syat. Nat. p. 714. Hwi9. Fl. Ang. vol. ii. p. 565. 

WUh. vol. iv. p. 82. 
RivuLARiA tuberiformis, E. Bot. 1. 1956. 

Hab. Between tide-marks, on rocks, corallines, and the smaller Algae ; 
very common. Annual. Summer and autumn. 

Geoor. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe. Baltic Sea. East coast of North 
America. Cape of Good Hope, common, W. H. H. 

Descr. Fronds when growing on Algae scattered or solitary, when on rocks 
usually heaped together and much crowded, forming wide-spreading tuber- 
culated masses, very variable in size, from tiiat of a pea to that of a large 
walnut. When young, the interior of the tuberous fix)nd is stuffed with 
weak, empty, didbotomous, cobweb-like fibres, rising from the base and 
radiating in all directions, but as the outer wall extends, these gradually 
perish, and the plant becomes a hollow ball. The lowermost cells of the 
cobwebby fibres are veiy long and slender ; the upper ones become 
gradually shorter and wider, and are two-homed, or somewhat half-moon- 
shaped, a new cell springing from eao]i cusp ; those which adjoin to the outer 
wall are small and globose. The outer wall is formed of closely-packed, 
moniliform, club-shaped, vertical filaments, lying in a transparent jelly; 
each filament formed of several spherical cells containing ohvc granules. 
Spores pyriform, sunk among the club-shaped peripheric filaments, with 

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which they appear to be homologous. Colour a brownish olive. Sub- 
stance cartilaginous. In drying this plant shrinks considerably, and 
closely adheres to paper if pressed. 

Common on all our rocky shores^ first appearing about April 
or May in the form of little, pea-like buttons, attached to small 
Algae, or grouped in clusters on the surface of rocks and coral- 
lines, and, as the season advances, gradually acquiring size ; the 
fronds becoming hollow and cohering in masses. In its young 
state it constitutes, according to Areschoug, the CorynqpAkea 
haltica of Kiitzing. Not having seen any specimen of the plant 
80 named, I am unable to decide the question. 

By most continental authors the specific name marina is 
adopted for this plant, a name which I find for the first time 
in Agardh's Dispositio Algarum Sueda, published in 1811. 
Areschoug alone adheres to the older Linnaean name difformis, 
and if either of these be adopted, the latter is surely preferable, 
not merely from its elder birth, but because it expresses a 
natural character of this deformedAoo'km^ or double-faced plant, 
while marina applies alike to every species of the genus, and 
even of the family {Chordariece) to which it belongs : — so that 
one might as well talk of a marine sea-toeed as of a marine 
Leathesia, 1 adopt the name selected by the founder of the 
genus, and which dates from 1809 {E, JBot. 1. 1956), because 
it well expresses the aspect of the plant, — " like a cluster of 
small potatoes," — and is at least two years older than marina. 
It is strange that Sir J. E. Smith should have overlooked the 
Tremella difformis of Linnaeus, if that plant were rightly taken 
up by Hudson and Lightfoot. 

Fig. 1. Leathesia tubebipormis, in various stages : — the natural size, 
2. Portion of a longitudinal slice, stowing the dense coloured outer wall, 
or crust, and some of the cobwebby fibres. 3. Apices of the cobwebby 
fibres, and some of the dub-shaped filaments. 4. Some of the same, with 
spores : — all more or leas highly magnified. 

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P/a,', C-LXaTJ. 

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iSer. Melano8P£khe£. Fam. Ciordariea. 

Plate CLXXVI. 


Gen. Chak. li^ond globose or lobed, fleshy, composed of jointed, colourless, 
dichotomous filaments, issuing from a central point; their apices, 
which constitute a fleshy coating to the frond, coloured and tufted. 
Fmciification; oval spores, attached to the coloured tips of the fila- 
ments. Leathesia {Gray), — in honour of the Bev. Mr. Leathes, a 
British naturalist. 

Leathesia Berkeleyi: fronds dark brown, depressed, fleshy, solid; fila- 
ments densely packed. 

Chjstophoba Berkeleyi, Grev. in Berk, GL Alg. 1. 1. fig. 2. Harv. in Hook. 
Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 890. Wyatt, Alg. Danm, no. 231. Harv. Man, p. 123. 

Hab. On submarine rocks, between tide marks ;' exposed at low water. 
Annual. Summer. Torquay, Bev. if. /. Berkeley. Tor Abbey rocks, 
Mrs. Wyatt. Rocks at Kilkee, Co. Clare (1833); Miltown Malbay; 
and Valentia, Kerry, W. H. H. 

Geogr. Distr. South of England and West of Ireland. 

Pescr. Fronds gregarious, one or two inches in diameter, firpm a quarter to half 
an inch in thickness, convex, but depressed, irregular in form, dark brown, 
fleshy, soft, somewhat elastic, not gelatinous to the touch, solid at all 
periods of its growth. Filaments very densely packed, dichotomous, 
composed of three kinds of cells ; the ceUs of the lower part cylindrical or 
shghtly pyrifonn, several times longer than their diameter ; those of the 
middle portion bead-like, oval, partially coloured ; those of the terminal 
branchlets, which are irregularly branched and densely compacted together, 
very short and full of dark-oUve endochrome. Fruit unknbwn. In drying, 
the plant shrinks considerably, and partially adheres to paper. 

A small plant, naore curious than beautiful, first noticed by 
the Rev. M. J. Berkeley on rocks at Torquay, from which loca- 
lity I have received specimens gathered by Mrs. Griffiths and 
Mrs. Wyatt. On the west coast of Ireland it is plentiful in 
several places and probably is pretty generally distributed along 
our shores, being overlooked on account of its being often nearly 
of the colour of the rock on which it grows, and resembling, in 
its fleshy appearance and feel, the collapsed body of the common 
Actinia. The Irish specimens (from which, in a living state, our 
figure is taken) appear to be identical with those published by 
Mrs. Wyatt, and agree very well with the description of the 


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plant given by Mr. Berkeley, so far as outward resemblance may 
be trusted. But the magnified figure of that author is very 
unlike that now given ; nor have I been able to detect the long 
diaphanous points to the filaments which he describes. Still 
I am inclined to regard our plants as identical. 

From the common Leathesia tuberiformis {Corynephora marina, 
Ag. and Brit. Fl.), L. Berkeleyi difiers in being at all times of a 
dense and solid substance (not, as L, tuberiformis, at first floe- 
culent within, and then hollow), in its different colour, and more 
depressed form. In all the essential characters, if my analysis, made 
from the recent plant, may be depended on, the two plants agree 
in structure. I therefore remove L. Berkeleyiy which was at 
first placed in Chatqphora, to the present genus. The name Cory- 
nephora under which these plants have been hitherto known to 
British botanists must be laid aside, being too like, both in sound 
and sense, to CorynepKorus, Palis., a genus of Grasses ; and 
that now revived was proposed for the typical species in 1821, 
three years earlier than Agardh applied Corynephora to it. 

Pig. Leathesia Bbekbleyi ; cluster of fronds x—qf the natural nze. 2. Ver- 
tical section of a frond : — moderately magnified. 3. Some of the filaments 
of which it is composed -. — Mgkly magnified. 

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Rcc^e imp 
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Ser. Melanospebu&s. Fam. Chordariea ? 

Plate XCVHI. 


Gen. Chae. Frond coriaceo-crustaceous, fixed by its inferior surface, orbi- 
cular, concentrically zoned; composed of densely packed, vertical, 
simple filaments. Fructijicatian ; depressed warts, scattered over the 
upper surface, containing obovate spores fixed to the bases of vertical 
filaments. Ralfsia {Berk.), — ^in honour of John Ra^s, Esq., of 
Penzance, a most acute and accurate botanist, whose discoveries among 
the minute Algs, especially the Diatomacea, have thrown great light 
on that little known branch of botany. 

BiALFSiA deusta. 

Bi^LFSiA deusta. Berk, in Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 

HiLDENBBANDTiA rubra, Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 26 (nee. syn. Berk.; nee. Menegh,). 

Cruobia verrucosa, Aresch. 

Padina? deusta. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. S81. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hid. 
part 8. p. 178. Harv. Man. p. 81. 

ZoNARiA ? deusta, Jg. Syn. p. 40. Jg. 8p. Jig. vol. i. p. 132. Ag. Sgat. 
p. 265. I^fngb. Hgd. Dan. p. 19. t. 5. 

Fucus fungularis, Oeder. Fl. Norv. vol. ii. p. 107. Fl. Ban. t. 420 (excl. 

»yn. Imperati.). 

Has. Common on the rocky shores of the British Islands, between high- 
water mark, and half-tide level ; from Orkney to Devonshire. Peren- 
nial. Winter. 

Geoor. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe from Iceland to France. Baltic Sea, 
Aresch. Kamtschatka and Unalascna, Tilesius. 

Descr. Fronds spreading over the surface of rocks in crustaoeous, lichenoid 
patches, from one to six or more inches in diameter ; when young, orbicular, 
out becoming very irregular in outline when old, marked, more or less evi- 
dently, especially towards the margin, with concentric striae or bands, about 
a line asunder. The surface of the frond in young specimens is nearly flat 
and even, but in fall grown individuals it is much corrugated, and covered 
more or less with wart-like prominences ; and very old plants present an 
exceedingly rugged surface, in which all traces of concentric stnse are lost. 
The structure of the frond is veiy dense and opake, but thin, vertical slices 
exhibit an arraogement of the cellules into vertical dosly packed filaments, 
strongly glued together. Thefructificalion consists of scattered warts, com- 
posed of vertical, easily separable filameots, to whose bases are attached 
obovate, simple spores. Colour a dark, coffee-brown, becoming darker in 
drying. Substance between leatheiy and crustaceous, flexible. 

This singular production more nearly resembles, to the naked 


Digitized by^ 

eye, a crustaceous Lichen, than an Alga, but its structure and 
fructification prove it to be widely cMerent from any Lichen. 
There is a curiously close resemblance, both in the habit, the 
structure of the frond, and the outward character of its fruit, 
between Balfaia and PeysoneUia ; yet, according to the received 
notions of arrangement, these plants must be referred to opposite 
parts of the system. They are, however, closely analogical forms, 
in the families to which they respectively belong. Except for 
the colour, and the different formation of the spores, there 
would be little to distinguished them. 

Balfsia deusta is a very common species throughout the 
Northern Atlantic Ocean, and probably extends along most of 
the shores of Europe, North Asia, and North America ; though 
not yet recorded from the. latter. Its crustaceous habit may 
often cause it to be over-looked, 

Endlicher has confounded it with the very different EUden- 
brandtia rubra (which is also conmion on the British coast); and 
Areschoug has, still more unhappily, put it into the same genus 
as Cruoria peUita, with which, in structure, it has very little 
connection. The resemblance between these is purely external. 

The fructification of Balfsia is either very rarely produced, or. 
80 difficult to find, owing to its obscurity, that it is rarely seen. 
It was first observed, I believe, by Dr. Johnston, who commu- 
nicated the specimens to Mr. Berkeley, by whom they were des- 
cribed. Though myself familiar with this plant for many years, 
I had never seen the fruit, until I received fertile specimens from 
Dr. Dickie of Aberdeen, and from these I have made my analysis. 
On the west coast of Scotland and of Ireland this plant is exces- 
sively abundant, and its patches reach a large size. Devonshire 
specimens, communicated by the Rev. Mr. Cresswell, are much 

Fig, 1. Balfsia deusta, young and old fronds : — qfike natural size, 2. Ver- 
tical section of the frond. 3. Filaments of which the frond is composed. 
4. Spores, among the filaments of a wart. 5. A spore and its fdaments, 
separated : — all more or less highly magn^ied. 

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I^late cm. 

^V.IJ.K ael.ol hth. 

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Ser. MBLANOSPERMEiE. Fain. Chordariea. 

Plate CCXL. 


Gen. Ghab. Frond parasitical, consisting of a dense tuft of free, simple, 
articulated, olivaceous filaments, rising from a common tubercular base, 
composed of vertical branching fibres closely combined into a cartila- 
ginous mass. Fructijicationy pear-shaped spores attached to the base 
of the filaments, concealed in the tubercle, and frequently accom- 
panied by paranemata. Elaohistea {Fries), from cXaxtora, the least-, 
from the small size of these plants. 

'Eaji!cmsrs!^Kfucicola ; tuffcs pencilled ; filaments elongate, flaccid, membra- 
naceous, attenuated upwards ; articulations once or twice as long as 
broad ; tubercular mass spherical. 

Elachistea fucicola, Fries, M. Scan, p. 317. Aresch, Pug, t. viii. f. 6-7. 
/. Ag, Sp, Alg, vol. i. p. 12. 

Mybionema fudcolum, Endl, 3rd. SuppL p. 23. 

Phycophila fucorum, and P. Agardhii, KUtz, Phyc, Gen. p. 330. 

CoNVEBVA fudcola, FeUey, PI, mar. No. 4. DUlto, CoT^f, t. 66. Lyngb, Hyd. 
Dan, i, 50. Ag. Syst, p. 103. Harv. in Hook, Br, Fl. vol. ii. p. 354. Harv. m 
Mack. Fl, Hib, part. 3. p. 227. ffarv. Man. p. 131. Wyatt, Alg, Danm, 
no. 192. 

CoNFEKVA ferruginea, Ag, Syst. p. 103. 

Hab. Parasitical on Fuais serratus and F, vesictdosus. Annual. Summer 

and Autumn. Common. 
Geogr. Diste. Atlantic shores of Northern Europe. Baltic Sea. 

Descb. Filaments forming brush-like tufts, an inch, in length, rising from a 
hemispherical, cartilagmous tubercle, which gradually increases in size as 
the plant advances in growth. This tubercle is composed of numerous 
dichotomous, articulated, vertical filaments, issuing from a common point, 
beneath the surface of the Fucus on which the parasite grows, and radiating 
in all directions. After several forkings the tips of the branches terminate 
in a cluster of linear club-shaped fibres or paranemata, three or four of which 
spring from each apex, and among these, which constitute the periphery of 
the tubercle, are attached both the spores, and the lox^JUaments which form 
the brush-Uke tuft. Filaments an inch bug, scarcely tapered at the base, 
much attenuated to the apex ; the articulations once and a half to twice as 
long as broad. Spores at first club-shaped, then pyriform, and at length 
ellipsoidal. Colour olive-green, becoming brown or foxy. 

This is the largest species, the longest known, and the com- 


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moTiest of the genus Elaclmtea. It infests Fucm vesicuhsus and 
R serratm almost wherever these plants grow, and may be 
found nearly at every season. At its first appearance it forms a 
minute pencil of greenish filaments rising from a scarcely per- 
ceptible tubercle. As it grows larger, the colour changes to 
brown, and the tubercle increases much in size, and at length 
becomes a button, attached by a central point. It then falls 
away and the plant perishes. The growth of other MacKistea 
is very similar. 

By J. Agardh this genus is placed in Ectocarpea, but, in my 
opinion, incorrectly. The structure of the tubercle, in which the 
spores are lodged, is precisely that of the Chordariea, and did 
this tubercle constitute the whole plant, no doubt Professor 
Agardh would associate the genus with the latter family, for the 
whole stracture of this part is analogous to that of Leathesia, and 
the nature and position of the spores the same. But then there 
are the long pencilled filaments composing the largest part of the 
frond ; and these are very unlike anything found elsewhere in 
ChordariecBy while they closely resemble the threads of an Ecto- 
carpus in structure. Taking these filaments for the frond, Agardh 
would be correct in referring the genus to Eciocarpea, But, to 
my mind, the tubercle^ as it contains the fructification, must be 
regarded as the most essential part of the structure ; theflamenis 
as an accessory part ; and therefore I am of opinion that the 
genus is best placed in CAordariea. 

Fig. 1. Tufts of Elachistea fucicola, growing on Fucus venculosua; — tJke 
natural size, 2. Part of a branching filament of the tubercle, with its para- 
nemata, and excurrent filaments, one of which is bent back, the others cut 
off. 3. Portions of one of the excurrent filaments. 4. Paranemata and spore. 
5. Spores in various stages of advancement; — all magnified. 

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Ser. Melanospebhe£. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate CCLX. 


Gen. Chae. Frond parasitical, consisting of a dense tuft of free, simple, 
articulated, olivaceous filaments, rising from a common tubercular 
base, composed of vertical, branching fibres, closely combined into a 
cartilaginous mass. Fructification, pear-shaped spores attached to 
the bases of the filaments concealed in the tubercles, and frequently ac- 
companied by paranemata. Elachistba (Fries), — from (KaxKrra, 
the least ; &om the small size of these plants. 

Elachistba flaccida ; tufts pencilled : filaments elongate, flaccid, mem- 
branaceous, much attenuated to the base ; the lower articulations half 
as long as broad, the upper of equal length and breadth ; tubercle 

Elachistba flaccida, Jresck. — /. Jg. Gen, et Sp, Alg, vol. i. p. 12. JJaro. 
Man. ed. 2. p. 50. Fr, Fl, Scan, p 317. Fnff. Bot. t. 2912. 

Elachistba breviarticulata, Aresch. in Linn. vol. xvi. p. 234. t. 8. f. 5. 

Phtcophila flaccida, KUtz. Phyc. Gen. p. 330. 

Mybionbma breviarticulatum, Endl. SrdSuppl. p. 23. 

CoNPBKVA flaccida, Dillw. t. G. ffarv. in Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 355. Harv. 
in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 227. Harv. Man. ed. 1. p. 132. JTyait, Alg. 
Damn. no. 292. 

CoNPBBVA obtusa, Ag, Byst. p. 101. 

CoNFBRVA breviarticulata, Suhry in Flora 1831, p. 32. t. 4. f. 36, «,y, z. 

Hab. Parasitical on Cystoseira fibrosa, common. Aimual. Summer and 

Gbogb. Diste. Atlantic coasts of France and England. 

Dbsce. Tubercle small, one to three lines in diameter, hemispherical, very firm, 
composed of moniliform, dichotomous fibres densely compacted together, and 
not easily separable. From the tips of the fibres composing the tubercle 
spring the fQaments, which are half an inch long, or something more, 
tapering extremely at the base, then rapidly widening to the middle, from 
which they taper very gradually to the upper extremity. Arliculalions in 
the lower and middle parts of the filament not quite half as long as broad, 
in the upper part as long as, or rather longer than, their breadth ; the apex 
obtuse. Between the filaments spring numerous linear clavate paranemata, 
tapering to the base, and gradually swellmg upwards ; these have oval arti- 
culations, about thrice as long as broad. S^es lodged among the parane- 
meta, obovate, on slender, short pedicels, dark olive. Substance flaccid 
and soft, readily adhering to paper in drying. Colour a pale greenish oUve, 
sometimes yellowish or foxy. 

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A very common parasite on Cystoseir a fibrosa, whose branches 
are rarely found free from the olive-colom'ed soft pencils of this 
little plant. In size and appearance to the naked eye there is 
much resemblance to Machistea fudcola (Tab. CCXL.), except 
that the colour is generally greener, and the length of the 
tufts rather less; but under the microscope these species are 
very readily known from one another. E. flaccida is remark- 
able for the shortness of its articulations, in proportion to their 
breadth throughout the lower and middle portions of the fila- 
ments, and for the gradually increasing length of the cells towards 
the apices. The filaments, also, taper exceedingly at the base ; 
and the tubercle from which they originate is of very much 
smaller size than in E. fudcola. 

Fig. 1. Tufts of Elachistea flaccida growing on OyBtoseira fbrona. 2. 
Vertical section of part of a frond, showing a portion of the tubercle, with 
paranemata and spores, and part of two filaments. 8. Apex of a filament. 
4. Spore, with its paranemata -. — aU magnified. 

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Ser. MSLAMOSPEBUBA. Vtaa. Ciordariea. 



Gen. Char. H^ond parasitical, consisting of a dense toft of free, simple, 
articulated, olivaceous filaments, rising from a common tubercular 
base, composed of vertical, branching strings of cells, closely ccnn- 
bined into a cartilaginous mass. Prmtification, pear-shaped ^^e9 
attached to the bases of the filaments concealed in the tubercles, and 
frequently accompanied by paranemata. Elaohistea {Fries) j — ^from 
cXaxMrra, the least ; from the small size of these plants. 

Elachistba cwrta ; filaments very short, tapering to the base, obtuse,. 

pencilled, rather rigid, rising from a tubercle ; articulations about as 

long as broad ; spores pynform, on long pedicels ; paranemata linear- 


Elaohistea carta, Aresch. in Litm, vol. xvi. p. 284 P Harv. Man, ed. 2. p. 50. 

CoNPBEVA curta, BiUw. t. 76. A^. Syst. p. 108. Harv. in Hook, BrU, Fl, 
vol. ii. p. 355. Harv, Man, ed. 1. p. 182. 

Hab. On Fud, between tide-marks. Annual. Summer. At Swansea, 
Mr. L. W. DiUwyn. (Not found recentiy.) 

Geogk. Distb. 

Desce. Titflsnomuity from one to three lines in diameter, with an evident tu- 
bercular base. Filaments linear-club-shaped, very slender below, and 'gra- 
dually widening upwards, ending in a blunt point. Paranemata filiform, 
composed of slender cylindrical cells, and tipped with a pyriform coloured 
cell. Articulations of the filaments about as long as broad, coloured. 
Spores large, pear-shaped, on longish stalks. Colour a brownish-oUve, or 
foxy. Substance rather rigid. The plant does not adhere to paper. 

This species has long been in doubt, and notwithstanding the 
figure and description now given, my doubts are not fully re- 
moved. By Dillwyn, who first described E, cu/rta, it is said to 
be conmion in the neighbourhood of Swansea, and probably not 
rare elsewhere ; yet no one has met with it of late years. I have 
repeatedly brought home the battered stumps of E.fucicola in 
the belief, always dissipated by the microscope, that I had met 
with E. curta ; and my only acquaintance with the latter is from 

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an examination of a poor specimen preserved in Sir W. J. 
Hooker's Herbarium. The accompanying figure has been pre- 
pared from that specimen. 

Fig. 1. Elaohistea cueta: — the natural 9iee. 2. Small part of the toft: — 
magnified, 8. A sporCy and four of the paranemata : — kighlAf magnified. 

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Set. Mblanospebmks. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate CCLXI. 


Gen. CflAK. Frond parasitical, consistiDg of a dense tuft of free, simple, 
articulated, olivaceous filaments, rising from a common tubercular 
base, composed of vertical, branching fibres, closely combined into a 
cartilaginous mass. Fructification, pear-shaped spores attached to the 
bases of the filaments concealed in the tubercle, and frequently ac- 
companied by paranemata. Elachistea {Fries), — from Ikaxurra^ 
the least', from the small size of these plants. 

Elachistea stellulata; tufts very minute, stellate; tubercle composed of 
large cells; filaments short, tapering to the base, linear club-shaped, 
obtuse ; articulations about twice as long as broad, uniform ; parane- 
miata with short articulations. 

Elachistea stellulata, Or^. M88. Aresch, Pug, in Lum, vol. xvii. p. 261. 
tab. 9. f. 4. Harv. Man. ed. 2. p. 51. 

Mtbionema stellulatum, /. Jg» et Qen. Sp, Alg, vol. i. p. 49. 

Conferva stellulata, Harv, Man, ed. 1. p. 132. 

Hab. Parasitical on Dictyota dichotoma. Annual. Summer. Torquay, 

Mrs. Griffiths. 
Gbogb. Distb. Not observed out of England. 

Desor. Tttfts exceedingly minute, scarcely half a line in diameter, appearing 
like dark brown specks, dotthig over the surface of the IHctyota, and under 
the microscope resembling miniature echini. Tubercle well developed, com- 
posed of dichotomous strings of large, colourless cells. Erom the terminal 
cell of each string the filaments and paranemata arise. Filaments a quarter 
of a line in length, linear-davate, gradually tapering from the obtuse apex 
to the base the articulations of neany uniform size, all being from once and 
a half to twice as long as broad, constricted at the joints. Each articulation 
contains a bag of rather dark coloured endochrome. Paranemata very 
numerous, springing with the filaments, and about one-third as long, with 
veiy short articulations, club-shaped. Spores unknown to me. They are 
figured by Dr. Areschoug as obovate-oblong. 

This minute and microscopically beautiful little plant was dis- 
covered some years ago by Mrs. Griffiths on the old fronds of 
Dictyota dichotoma, and first described in the first edition of the 
Manual of British Algae. I have not seen any other specimens 
than those originally collected by Mrs. Griffiths, who met with 
the parasite infesting several specimens of the Dictyota ; nor am 
I aware that any other observer has noticed it in Britain, or that 

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it has been detected elsewhere. The Alga on which it grows is 
so very widely scattered that our Elachistea ought, probably, to 
have a place in many distant floras, but its minute size has 
hitherto been its protection. It looks so much like the fructi- 
fication of the Dictyota, when carelessly examined with the 
naked eye, or with a lens of small power, that it may often be 
passed over as such ; and I was once disposed to think that it 
might be merely a diseased proliferous state of that fructification. 
This opinion I have long abandoned, and recognised this produc- 
tion as a parasite, and true member of the genus Machistea. 
In this latter point, however, I am at issue with my friend 
Professor J. Agardh, who places E. atellulata in the genus Myrio- 
nema. As far as size and outward characters go, such a position 
seems natural, but it wiU be found on closer inspection, that the 
filaments here are of two kinds, exactly as in Machistea, and that 
they spring not from decumbent, adnate filaments, as in Myrio- 
nema, but from erect, radiating ones, compacted into a little 

Fig. 1. Fart of a frond of Dictyota dichotoma, infested with the Elaghistea : — 
of the naiural size. 2. Some of the tufts on a portion of the membrane : — 
moffnified, 3. Vertical section of apart of tuft, most of the filaments 
removed : — hiffMy mapiified. 

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8er. MBLAMOSPSSHBiE. Vam. CAordariea. 



Gen. Chab. Frotid parasitica], coDsisting of a dense tuft of &ee, simple, 
articnlated, olivaceous filaments, rising from a common tubercular 
base, composed of vertical branching fibres, closely combined into 
a cartilaginous mass. Fnictification, pear-shaped spores attached 
near the bases of the filaments, concealed in the tubercle, and fre- 
quently accompanied by paranemata. Elaohistea (Fries), — ^&om 
^Xaxurrti, the least; from the small size of these plants. 

Elachistba scutulata ; filaments short, rising from an oblong, convex, 
shield-like tubercle, composed of densely packed, branching fibres ; 
articulations twice or thrice as long as broad ; spores oblong. 

Elaghist£A scutulata, Du^, Bot. Gall. vol. ii. p. 972. ffarv. Man, ed. 2. 
p. BO. KiUz. Syst, Alg, p. 540. /. Ag. 8p, Alg, p. 11. 

CoNFEEVA scutulata, Eng, Bot. t. 2311. Harv, in Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. 
p. 355. Harv, in Mack, Fl. Hih. part 3. p. 227. Harv, Man, ed. 1. p. 132. 
ed. 2. p. 60. Wyatt, Alg, Danm, no. 223. 

Hab. Parasitical on the thongs of HimanthaUa lorea. Annual. Summer 

and autumn. Very common. 
Geoge. Diste. Shores of Europe. 

Besce. Tubercles forming oblong swellings on the thongs of HimantkaUa, from 
half an inch to one, two, or more inches in length, and from a quarter to 
nearly half an inch in thickness ; sometimes extending along the edges of 
the thong, sometimes occupying its surface, or wholly clasping it round. 
The tubercle is of a very soHd, cartilaginous consistence, composed of 
extremely closely packed, dichotomous, hyaline filaments, whose cells are 
somewhat pyriform: it continues to grow in thickness as the plant ad- 
vances to maturity. The apices of these branching filaments, at the outer 
edge of the tubercle, bear dosely-packed paranemata, and long, free, peni- 
cillate filaments ; with ^H)re8 concealed among the paranemata. Penicil- 
late-filaments cylindrical, their celb nearly empty below, toward the apex 
filled with an oUve-coloured granular fluid. ArticulaUons about thrice as 
long as broad. Spores oblong, very obtuse at both ends, borne on long 
pedicels. Substance cartilaginous, with a slimy surface. In drying the 
plant shrinks considerably, and under pressure adheres to paper. 

This curious parasite, quite an interesting object under the 
microscope, is found wherever HimanthaUa lorea {8ea4hongi) 
abounds. It frequently completely covers the long, strap*shaped 

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reoeptade of that plant for the space of several inches, forming 
swellings of a dark colour and very slippery surface. 

By Prof. Kiitzing this species alone is retained in the genus 
Elachistea, the other species of authors being placed by him 
either in PhycophUa or in Myriactis. There are some minor 
differences of structure observable among these plants, chiefly 
as respects the composition and degree of development of the 
tubercular base, but there is so close a resemblance in habit, and 
such an identity of nature running through the whole, that I am 
unwilling to cumber the science with additional generic names. 

Pig. 1. Shields of Elachistea scutulata on part of a thong of Hmanihalia 
lorea : — the natural me. 2. Vertical slice of a portion of the tuberde, and 
of the surface of the nurse-plant. 3. Small portion of the same, showing 
the ihort filaments (or paranemata); a spore; and one of the long fila- 
ments, &c. : — MgUy moffn^ied. 

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Ser. MsLANOSFBSH&iG. Fam. Chordariea ? 

Plate XXYHI. {A). 


Gen. Char. Parasites composed of simple, vertical, or radiating, jointed 
filaments, issuing firom beneath the surface-cellules of other Algae ; 
the lower part of the filaments hyaline and compacted together into 
a tubercle, the upper-half coloured (olive), free. Spores oblong, 
mostly stalked, afiBxed to the bases of the free portion of the filaments, 
or to the tubercular base. Elachistea (Buby) — seemingly from 
iXdxurra, the least. 

Elachistea attenuata; tufts very minute, globose; filaments fusiform, 
much attenuated toward botn ends, the basal joints 3-4 times, the 
middle once and a half, the apical about as long as broad; spores 
linear-obovate, subsessile at the base of the filaments. 

Hab. Parasitical on the fruiting branches of Cystosdra ericoides. Annual. 

Summer and Autumn. At Elberry Cove, Torbay, Sep. 1844, Mrs. 

Griffiths and W.H.H. 

Geogb. Distr. South of England. 

Descr. Tufts half a line to nearly a line in diameter, spherical, originating in a 
minute tubercle, which extends its roots (or bases of its filaments) into the 
substance of the Cystoseira, MUments from a quarter to nearly half a 
line in length, thickened in the middle, tapering greatly to either end, 
obtuse, jointed. Lower artictclations nearly colourless, slender, cylindrical, 
3-4 times longer than broader; middle articulations sub-eUiptical, con- 
tracted at the dissepiments, once and half as long as broad, containing a 
bag of bright ohve granular endochrome ; upper articulations gradually 
shorter upwards, and gradually moniliform towards the apex. Spores 
abundantly produced at the base of the filaments, narrow obovate, dark 
oHve, with a wide limbus. 

In a delightful excursion, made in the autumn of 1844, in 
company with my valued Mend Mrs. Griffiths, to visit the habi- 
tat of Giffartina Teedii at Elberry Cove, we observed that most 
of the fronds of Cystoseira ericoides, which grows in great luxu- 
riance on an exposed rock in the cove, were infested with the 
minute parasite here represented. The size and shape of the 
filaments readily distinguish it from any of the British Elachistea ; 
but in these characters it agrees with U. rivularia, Suhr., from 
which it is chiefly distinguished by the globose form of the tuft. 
E. rivularia, which also inhabits Cystoseira, and will probably 


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be detected in this country, is described as being effiised, in the 
manner of E. velutina. 

. Fig. 1. Branchlet of Cystoseirck ericoidea infested with JElackisiea aMmwda : 
— fuUural me. 2, Fnigment ci the same, slightly magnified. 8. Portion 
of the Ulachiatea. 4. Tubercular base of the same, in its position. 5. A 
filament and spore : — all magwfied. 

Plate XXVEI. {B). 


£lachistea velutina ; spreading in thin, indefinite, velvetfy patches ; fila- 
ments very minute, equal in diameter throngfaout, dissepiments slightly 
contracted ; joints ODce, to one and a hdf times as long as broad ; 
spores elliptical, pedicellate, affixed to the lower part of tiie filaments. 

Elachistea velutina. Fries, Flor. Scan, 317. Areack, in lAamaa, voLxyI. 
p. 235. t. 8. f. 9. 

Mtrionsma yelutinum, Endl. Srd Suppl, p. 23. 

Sphaoelaria? velutina, Qref), Crypt, Fl, t. 850. Harv. in Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. 
p. 825. Harv, in Mack, Fl, Hi6. part 3. p. 181. Harv. Man, p. 39. 

Has. Parasitical on Himanthalia lorea, frequent. On Fucus serratus, Br. 

Greville. Shores of the British iblancU. 
Geogb. Distb. Atlantic coasts of Europe ; probably common. 

Descb. Forming dark olive, velvetty patches of indefinite extent on the surface 
of the fud affected, rooting in their substance. Filaments about a line in 
height, linear, obtuse, coloured, except at the very base, simple, or occa- 
sionally forked at a joint or two above the base. Articulations once, or 
twice as long as broad, slightly contracted at the dissepiments. Spores 
eUiptical or oblong, or somewhat obovate, dark olive, with a wide limbus, 
supported on slender pedicels, which are evidently contracted filaments. 

Elachiatea velutina was first observed by Dr. Greville who 
published an excellent figure of it in the sixth volume of his 
' Cryptogamic Flora*. It occurs commonly on the long strap- 
shaped receptacles of Himanthalia lorea ; but I have not seen it 
on Pucm serrattis. Mr. Ralfs, who finds it abundantly on the 
Himanthalia, remarks that it very frequently accompanies E. 
scuMaiay and often so closely resembles that species that it 
becomes difficult to distinguish them, except by the form of the 
spores. Usually, however, E. scuivlata is readily known by 
occurring in raised, oval, shield-like patches. 

B, Fig. 1, Fragment of HimantbaUa lorea infested with Elachistea velutina : — 
natural size, 2. Lateral sectional view of a portion of the Elachistea, in 
situ. 3. Portion of the same. 4. Filaments m fruit, detached : — more or 
less magnified. 

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Ser. MKLANOSPE&MEiE. Fam. Chardariea, 

Plate CCLXXX. 


Gen. Char. Mmxii^ patimtes, consisting of a mass of shorty erects simple^ 
jointed filaments^ which spring from a thin expansion formed of 
decumbent^ cohering filaments^ spreading in patches on the surface 
of other Algse. Spores oblongs affixed either to the erects or to the 
decumbent filaments. Mtrionema [Grev,), — ^from ftvpios, numberless, 
and yijfJM, a thread. 

Mtrionema strangulans ; patches convex, confluent, brown; the vertical 
filaments clavate, densely set; spores obovate, on short stalks, 
attached to the decumbent filaments. 

Myrionema strangulans, Qrev, Orypt, Fl. t. 300. Harv, in Hook, Br. Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 391. Harv, in Maek, FL Hib, part 3. p. 223. Harv. Man. ed. 2. 
p. 61. J. Ag. in Gen. and 8p. Alg. vol. i. p. 48. Kiitz. Sp. Alg. p. 540. 

Uab. Parasitical on the fronds of various Vhce and EwteromorpAa. 
Annual. Summer and autumn. Common. 

Geogr. Distr. Probably widely dispersed. 

Descr. The parasite first appears in the form of a dark brown stain, spotting 
the Ulva on which it grows, and at this stage consists of little more than 
an imperfect membrane composed of prostrate filaments. As it advances 
in growth the erect filaments are developed : the spots become convex, and 
gelatinous, and the plant is matured. It then, when growing on the cylin- 
drical fronds of an JEnieromorpka, completely invests the stem, forming a 
collar round it. Under the microscope, loolang vertically on the parasite, 
the whole appears like a soft cushion, composed of innumerable brown dots 
set in a gelatinous matrix. These dots are the tips of the erect filaments, 
and the proper structure may be seen either by making a thin transverse 
slice, or by bruising the frond between two flat pieces of glass. The little 
plant will then be resolved into its component parts. JS^res of large size, 
obovate, pedicellate, rising from the prostrate filaments, generally abundant. 
Articulations of the erect filaments about once and a half as long as broad, 
contracted at the joints, containing an olive endochrome. 

In our first volume are figured (Plate XLI.) two species of 
Myrionema, a genus founded by Dr. Greville for the reception 
of the curious and beautiful little parasite here represented. 
M. stranffulans abounds on all our coasts, and will always afford 
the possessor of a microscope an interesting subject for exami- 
nation. The dark brown specks on the fronds of EnteromorphcB 

M 2 

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and Ulv(B^ which look like incipient decay, are very often cansed 
by the growth of our parasite, and their colour wiU direct the 
most unexamining eye to them. I have generally found the 
plant in a perfect state in smnmer and autumn, but specimens 
may be found at most seasons. 

Fig. 1. Part of a frond of Enteromorpka, infested with Mt&ionema stran- 
GULANs : — ike natural nze, 2. A frond of the Myrionema, seen vertically. 
3. Transverse section of the same. 4. Filaments and spores : — all more or 
less highly magnified. 

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Ser. Melanospeuuba. Fam. Chordariea. 

Plate XLI. (J). 

Gen. Chae. Minute Parasites, consisting of a mass of short, erect, simple, 
jointed filaments, which spring from a thin expansion formed of de- 
cumbent, cohering filaments, spreading in patches on the surface of 
other Algse. Spores oblong, affixed either to the erect, or to the 
decumbent filaments. Myrionema {Grev,) — ^from fivpios, a thousand, 
and vrjiia, a thread. 

Mybionema Leclancherii i patches orbicular, thin, and with few vertical 
filaments toward the edges, convex with crowded filaments in the 
centre; spores on long pedicels affixed to the decumbent filaments, 
Bivtjlaria Ledancherii, Chauv, — see. Lenorm, in liU. 

Hab. On decajdng fronds of Rhodymenia pahnata, probably common. 

Annual. Autumn. Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths, Down coast, Mr, W, 

Thompson, 1835. 

Geogr. Distr. Shores of Europe. 

Descr. Patches from a line to a quarter of an inch or rather more in diameter, 
orbicular, or slightly irregular in form, composed at first of decumbent 
filaments radiating from a centre, and spreading on the surface of the 
Rhodymenia, closely cohering together into a thin membranous expansion, 
which is finely serrated at the edges. As the plant advances to perfection, 
vertical filaments, closely set together, spring in the centre of the patch, 
where they form an wmboy and gradually are developed outwards, becoming 
shorter and shorter as they approach the edge. Beyond this umbo a wide 
margin, destitute of vertical filaments or with a few scattered short ones, 
extends. Spores obovate, on long pedicels, or on the apices of abbreviated 
filaments. At other times — ^and, indeed, more firequently — some of the 
vertical filaments are found altered into lanceolate pod-like bodies, repre- 
sented at fig. 4, jointed, but seemingly destitute of sporaceous matter. 
Colour olive brown. 

In Autumn the jfronds of the common Dulse {Rhodymenia pal- 
mata) in passing to decay are commonly found covered with 
roundish olive spots, which, by a hasty observer may be over- 
looked as being nothing more than incipient mortification. By 
placing a small portion of such a spotted frond under the micro- 
scope, the beautiful parasite here figured is brought to hght. It 
was first pointed out to me by Mrs. Griflaths in 1845, who found 
it very plentifully at Meadfoot, near Torquay, and who received 
specimens identical in every respect from M. Lenormand under 

Digitized by 


the name here quoted. I am not aware whether it has been 
published by Chauvin. It is nearly related in structure to M, 
sirangulans but differs something in habit, forming a much larger 
and thinner spot on the fucus. 

A, Fig. 1. Portion of tlie frond of Ithodymenia palmata with Myrionema LecUm- 
cherii growing upon it : — natural size. 2. Myrionema Leclancherii. 3. Por- 
tion of the same. 4. Filaments from the same. 5. Filaments and spores 
tf» iUu : — all more or lew magnified. 

Plate XLI. {B). 


Myeionem A punctiforme ; patches globose ; filaments tapering to the base ; 
spores Imear-obovate, aflBxed to the vertical filaments near their base. 
Myrionema punctiforme, Harv. in Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 391. Man. p. 124. 

LiNKiA punctiformis, Lyngb. Hyd. Ban. t. 66. Carm. Alg. App. ined. cum 

Hab. Parasitical on the Florideae. Annual. Summer and Autumn On 
CArysimenia clavellosa, at Appin, Capt, CarmickaeL On Ceramium 
rudrum, at Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths. 

Geogb. Distr. Shores of Europe. 

Descr. Fronds or patches very minute, half a line or less in diameter, flattish 
or globose, composed of vertical threads radiating firom a small base. FiUi- 
ments slightly tapering to the base, with joints twice or thrice as long as 
broad. Spores sessile near the bases of the erect filaments, very narrow in 
proportion to their length, and much attenuated at the base. 

This httle parasite is obviously nearly akin to M. Leclancherii^ 
from which its globose fronds or patches, and more narrow spores 
distinguish it. It comes nearer to M. strangvlans, but differs 
in the position of the spores. The only specimens which I 
have seen were collected by Mrs. Griifiths several years ago. 
They were found on Ceramium rubrum, which they covered nearly 
as closely as the warts of fructification cover Stilophora rhizoden. 
Probably, if looked after, it may be found on many of our coasts. 
It was added to the British Flora by the late Capt. Carmichael, 
of Appin, whose many discoveries in minute botany have ren- 
dered his name familiar to most algologists. 

B. Fig. 1. Ceramium rvbrum with Myrionema punctiforme parasitical upon it : — 
natural size. 2. Branch of the same. 8. Vertical section of part of the 
Myrionema. 4. Filaments with spores. 6. A Spore: — all more or less 
highly magnified. 

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\ u l\ 1; 

^1 1/^ 


Y' ' 

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Set. MsLANOSPBBHKs. Fam. Chordariea. 



Gen. Ghab. Minute parasites^ consisting of a mass of shorty erect^ simple^ 
jointed filaments^ which spring from a thin expansion formed of de- 
cumbent^ cohering filaments^ spreading in patches on the surface of 
other Algae. Spores oblong, afBxed either to the erect or to the de- 
cumbent filaments. Mtbioneha {Orev.), — from iivpios, numberless, 
and yijH^f a thread. 

TAYBJOnnsMA clavatum ; ^^veiy minute, rather convex; filaments davate, 
mostly bifid ; spores obovate, pedicellate, affixed to the filaments.'' 

Mtbionema davatom, ffarv, in Hook, Br, Fl. yol. ii. p. 891. Earv. Man. 
ed. 2. p. 51. Kutz. 8p, Alg. p. 540. 

LiNCKiA davata, Carm. Alg, App. ined, cum Ic, 

Hab. On a thin purple cartilaginous crust, probably a Ferrucaria, which 
covers the pebbles at the half-tide level. Autumn. Appin, Copt. 
Carmichael, who adds, '^The parasite is so much of the colour of the 
crust, it requires a microscope to detect it.'' 

Of this carious little parasite I know nothing more than is 
learned from the above short description, which, with the two 
upper figures of our plate, is copied from Capt. Carmichaers 
manuscripts. The lower figure is added as an enlarged repre- 
sentation of a portion of the middle figure. I am indebted to 
the Rev. M. J. Berkeley for a sketch, copied from the original by 

Fig. 1. Mtbionema clavatum, growing on a dark-coloured crust, upon a 
quartz pebble : — ^ natural size, 2. The Myrionema filaments : — magm- 
fied, 3. A barren and fertile filament: — more higMg magw^ed. 

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Ser. MblanospebhejB. Fam. Sphacelariea. 

Plate XXXIII. 


Gen. Char. Fronds inarticukte, rigid, cellular, whorled with short, jointed, 
subsimple ramuli. Fructifieation ; elliptical utricles, furnished with 
a limbus, pedicellate, borne on accessory ramuli. Cladostephtjs {A^,) 
— ^from Kka^£, a branch ; and wi^^s, a crown. 

CLM>09fT!E2WSSverticUlatus', branches slender; ramuli mostly forked, regu- 
larly whorled, the whorls at short intervals. 

Cladostephus verticillatus, Ag, Syn. Introd. p. xxv. I/yngh, Hyd, Ban, p. 102. 
t. 30. Hook. Fl. Scot. vol. ii. p. 89. Orev. Fl. Edin, p. 312. Harv, in 
Hook, Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 322. IFyatt. Alg, Beam. no. 82. Ham. in Mack. 
Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 179. Harv. Man, p. 36. 

Cladostephus myriophyllum, Ag. Syst. p. 169. Ag. 8p, Alg. vol. ii. p. 10. 
Endl. Srd Suppl. p. 24. KUtz. Fhyc. Gen. p. 294. t. 18. f. 1. /. Ag. Alg. 
MedU. p. 30. 

Cebamium verticillatmn, BC. Fl. Fr. vol. ii. p. 39. Bucluz. Fss. p. 49. 

Conferva verticillata, Lightf. Fl. Scot. p. 984 (1777). Huds.Fl. Ang. p. 658. 
^^.^rr. voLiv. p.l33. BUlto. (h^f. F. Bot. t. HIS md 2421 . 
f. 2. Both. Cat. Bot. vol. iii. p. 309. ? 

Conferva myriophyllum. Both. Cat. Bot. vol. iii. p. Jl2. 1. 12. f. b. (1806). 

Conferva ceratophyllum. Both. I. c. p. 811. 

Fucus verticillatus, Wu^f. Crypt, no. 15. 1. 1. 

Hab. On rocks, stones and corallines, within the influence of the tide. 
Perennial, fruiting in winter. Very common on the British Shores. 

Oeoor. Distr. Atlantic and Mediterranean shores of Europe, abundantly. 
Cape Frio, Brazil, Tilesius. 

Descr. Frond ultra-setaceous, 3-10 inches high, irregularly dichotomous, or 
subtrichotomous, rigid ; branches erecto-patent, slender, shghtly incurved, 
famished throughout their length, at distances of one or two lines, with 
whorls of short ramuh. Bamuli jointed, 1-2 lines long, inflexed, furnished 
near the apex with one or two diverging tooth-like ramelli, thus appearing 
forked. Joints about as long as broad, longitudinally striate, each stria 
consisting of numerous cellules. In winter most of the whorled ramuh fall 
away, and the surface of the frond becomes clothed with irregularly disposed, 
slender ramuH, densely imbricated, of less diameter than those of the sum- 
mer, with joints once and half as long as broad, and bi-tri-striate. These 
produce an abimdance of lateral, pedicellate utricles, which we regard as 
the proper fruit of the plant. The apices of the simuner ramuli are fre- 
quently distended, and sphacelate, and contain a dark mass, which may be 
possibly also connected with reproduction. Colour dark ohve. 


A well known species, abundant on most of the shores of 


Digitized by^ 

Europe, and foand according to Martios, in ftazfl. It was 
originaDj described br Ligfatfoot, whose excdknt spedSc name 
I letain in preference to that ci Both, conferred neazir thirty 
jeais sahseqnentlv, and which is aniversalhr adopted on the ohi- 

What are described as fruiting ramnfi, and re{Rcsented in our 
plate at fig. 6, are regarded br Italian anthors, the aocorate and 
acnte Meneghini indoded, as a parasitical plant, which De No- 
taris has named Sjpiatefaria Berfiama. Meneghini in his ' Algae 
Italiane e Dabnatidie ' enters largdr into this question, and zea- 
lously defends the parasitical theoiy; r^arding these ramnli as 
analogous pn)dnctions to the Elackistea vdmtiMa, which no one 
supposes to belong to the jdant that it infests. The case of the 
so called Spiacelaria BertioMa is, however, widely diffo^nt. 
Unlike the Elaciisteay which infests more than one species of 
distinct genera, of a different famOy of Algae from that to which 
it bdongs ; the E, Bertiama is only found on the Qadostephi ; 
but on these it is constantly ]Ht)duced at a particular season of 
the year. It, moreover, has the same structure as their stem, 
and certainly is not merely attacked to the surface, but springs 
from a prolongation of the peripheric cells , and above all the 
fruit which it bears is exactly what, from analc^, we should ex- 
pect on the Cladostepkiy and, if this be not their fruit, no 
other has been observed, unless the granular mass within the 
tips of the whoried ramuli can be called so. These facts, and 
others that might be adduced, compel me to form a contrary 
opinion to that defended by Mene^iini ; and in this opinion I am 
supported by Mrs. Griffiths, to whom I owe my first acquain- 
tance with these fruit-bearing ramuli, and by the Rev. Mr. 
Berkeley whose judgment, on all such subjects, is of great 

Fig. 1. CuLDOSTEPHTS VEKTiciLLATUS : — natural tize. 2. Portion of a brandi. 
3. Hamuli. 4. Apex of the same. 5. Spkacdate apex, of another ramn- 
Itu. 6. Accessory fruiting ramuli. 7. Utride in situ. 8. Portion of a 
tnmsf eree section of the stem : — dU wunt or leu magmfed. 

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piafc rxxwii/ 

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Ser. MELANOSPBEMRfi. Fam. Ectocarpea, 


Gen. Chae. Fr(mds inarticiilate, rigid, cellular, whorled with short, jointed, 
subsimple ramuli. Fructification*, eUipticle utricles, furnished with 
a limbus, pedicellate, borne on accessory ramuli. CiiADOSTEPHUS 
{Ag.), — KkaJbosy a branchy and otc^^f, a croum. 

Cladostbphus spongio8tis; branches thick and clumsy; ramuli mostly 
simple, sometimes forked, irregularly whorled and densely imbricated.' 

Cladostephus spongiosus, Ag. Sysi, p. 168. Ag, Bp, Alg, vol. ii. p. 12. 
Harv, in Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. 822. Harv. in Mack. Fl. ffib. part 3. p. 180. 
ffarv. Man. p. 86. JTyatt, Jig. Danm. no. 169. J. Ag. Alg, Medit. 
p. 80. Fndl. Srd Suppl. p. 24. 

Cladostephus \axaa,Fl. Ban. 1. 1955. f. 3. (?) excl. syn. 

CoNPEBVA spongiosa. Ends. Fl. Aug. p. 596. Ughtf. Fl. Scot. p. 983. 
With. vol. iv. p. 132. Dillw. (hnf. t. 42. F. Bot. t. 2427. % 1. 

Fucus hirsutus, Linn. Mant. p. 134. Esper, t. 28. 

Hab. On rocks and stones in the sea, between tide marks, and at a greater 
depth. Perennial. Winter. Common on the shores of the British 

Geogb. Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. Mediterranean 
Sea. Cape Horn, Dr. Hooker. 

Descb. Boot discoid. Fronda from three to four inches high, thicker than 
bristle, irregularly branched, or somewhat dichotomous, the branches 
flexuous, patent, thickened here and there, more or less divided, and 
densely clothed throughout with short jointed setaceous ramdli. BameUi 
from half a line to a line in length, incurved, simple, or with a forked point, 
attenuated at the base, acute, densely crowded together in very close whorls. 
These ramelli are more or less deciduous in winter, at which season the 
frond is covered with others of less size, straighter, and perfectly obtuse, 
which produce the fructification. This consists of stalked, elliptical utricles, 
or spores, disposed along the sides of the ramelli, and either opposite to 
each] other or irregularly scattered. Joints of the ramelli shorter than 
broad, dotted, composed of several layers of minute cells. Colour dull 
brown, or dirty ohve green. Substance of the stem woody. It does not in 
the least adhere to paper in drying. 

Cladostephus spongiosm, the earliest described species of the 
genus, diflfers]from C. verticillatus, already figured at PI. XXXIII., 
of our first volume, more by its smaller size, more clumsy and 
somewhat flexuous branches, and more closely imbricated ramelli, 
than by any more definite character. The distinction in the ra- 

Digitized by 


melli, noticed in the specific phrase by most authors^ is not 
constant, for these are often forked in the present species, though 
more usually simple. The colour is darker than that of C. ver- 
ticiUatus, and, on the whole, the present is a much less elegant 
plant. The accessory ramelli, which constitute the Sphacelaria 
Bertiana of Italian writers, are found on this species equally as 
on C. verticiUatus. The figure of Dillwyn which represents ovate 
capsules, discharging spores through a terminal pore, appears to 
be incorrect ; at least, I have never seen anything similar in the 
multitudes of specimens which have passed through my hands. 

C. sponffiosus is a very conunon plant throughout the northern 
Atlantic, growing on rocks and stones between tide marks, and 
is also found in the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas. Dr. Hooker 
collected spedmens at Hermite Island, Gape Hc^n, whidi ofier 
no character by which they can be distinguished fsom individuals 
of British growth. 

Fig. 1. Cladostephus spongiosus : — if ike natttnU nm. 2. Apex of «iie of 
the branches. 8. BamellL 4. Fertile ramelli, produced in winter. 5. 
Spore or utride, in sUu : — aU more or leu mofnified. 

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rUtte CXLII 

h. J-: c^ 

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Ser. MELAMOSFEaHK£. Fam. Ectocarpece. 

Platk CXLII. 

Gen. Chak. Filaments jointed^ rigid^ distichously branched^ pinnated; 
rardy simple or snbdichotomous. Ajpiees of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark granular mass. Fructification ; ellip- 
tical utricles (or fvpores) furnished with a limbus, borne on the ramuli. 
— Sphacjblabia {Lyngb.), <T<f>aK(kosi gangrene, alluding to the withered 
tips of the branches. 

Sphacblaeia filicina; frond shaggy at the base, slender, irregularly 
branched; branches lanceolate, erecto-patent, bi-tri-pinnate; pinnae 
alternate, erect; pinnules multifid, lanceolate; axils all very acute 
and narrow. 

Sfhacelabia filidna, Jg. Sgst, p. 166. Jg. 8p. Alg. vol. ii. p. 22. JJarp. in 
Hook. Br, Fl. vol. ii. p. 323. Mont. Crypt. Alg. no. 24. Menegh. Alg. Ital. 
et Dalm. p. 324. ffarv. Man. p. 37. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. p. 80. Endl. Zrd. 
Suppl. p. 23. Mont. Fl. Alg. p. 41. Wgatt, Alg. Banm. n. 170. 

Sphacelaria hypnoides, Orev. Scott. Orypt. Fl. t. 348. 

Sphacelabia simpliduscula, Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. ii. p. 81. 

Haloptebis fihdna, KUtz. Phyc. Oen. p. 292. 

Cebamium filiomum, QrateL Joum. Med. vol. iv. p. 38. 

Hab. On rocks and nullipores near low-water mark, and at the roots of 
Laminaria, &c. Very rare. Perennial. Fruiting in "Winter. Plymouth, 
Mr. Sconce. Dfracombe, Mrs. Griffiths and Mrs. Hare. Salcombe, 
Mrs. Wyatt. Jersey, Miss Turner and Miss White. Mount's Bay, 
Comwail; and Holyhead, Anglesea, Mr. Raifs. Belfast Bay, Mr. 
W. Thompson. Youghal, Miss Ball. Kinsale Harbour, Dr. J. B. 

Geogb. Distb. Atlantic shores of France and Spain. Mediterranean Sea. 

Descb. Fronds two to four inches high, slender, more or less clothed at the 
base with curled brown fibres, irregularly and sparingly divided ; branches 
distichous, erect, often bearing at their summit numerous lesser branches 
displayed like a fan; sometimes naked, sometimes regularly pinnated 
throughout. Branches linear-lanceolate in outline, the uppermost and 
lowermost pinnae generally shorter, those in the middle longer, with now 
and then two or three of much greater length than those immediately 
adjoining. Pinna alternate, erecto-patent, bi-pinnate, or tri-pinnate below, 
with two pinnules constantly given off from the upper side of the rachis 
before any issue from the lower side. Pinnules issuing at every second 
joint, very erect, at first simple and subulate, afterwards pinnato-multifid, 
their ultimate divisions subulate and appressed. Ihwtification pro- 
duced on the young pinnules while yet simple, a single obovate spore 
forming in the axil of the pinnule. Articulations half as long as broad, 
multi-striate ; the strise less evident in the younger parts of the frond. A 
cross section of the stem shows four large central cells, destitute of endo- 
chrome, surrounded by numerous, coloured cellules. Colour a more or less 
greenish olive. Substance rigid, scarcely adhering to paper. 

Digitized by 


There are few more beautiful plants among the filiform Algae 
of our coasts, and not many more rare than the subject of this 
plate, which, though found in several distant localities is no 
where abundant in Britain. It is, indeed, a species of the south 
of Europe which finds its northern limit in our seas, where it 
does not reach much more than half the size that it attains in 
the Mediterranean. Specimens from the shores of Italy are 
nearly as large and bushy as S. scqparia, but much more slender in 
all their parts. Our British individuals, except those from Jersey, 
are so feeble, and have so diflferent an aspect, that Dr.Greville, 
who first figured them in his beautiful Cryptogamic Mora, regards 
them as belonging to a diflferent and peculiar species, which he calls 
S. hypnoidea, A careful comparison with numerous continental 
specimens from various quarters has led me to an opposite con- 
clusion, the diflferences appearing to me to be merely such as may 
be fairly referred to climate. The Mediterranean specimens of 
Grateloupia JUicina are quite as unlike the British ones as those 
of the Mediterranean Sphacelaria Jilicina are to ours. There is 
no difference in the microscopic characters of the ramuli, or in 
their disposition, if the specimens have respectively been collected 
at the same season. Between the winter and summer states of 
this species, however, the diflferences are so great, that Agardh 
formerly constituted them two species, his S, simplictuscula, 
which has its pinnules subsimple, being the winter state of 
8. JUicina. A similar diflference between the summer and winter 
appearance of 8. scoparia has already been pointed out. Indeed, 
so great is the variableness of aspect which specimens at diflferent 
ages present, among the SphacelaricB, that, as Meneghini well 
remarks, the greatest caution should be exercised by authors 
who propose new species ; and the plants should be watched in 
their place of growth from their first appearance to maturity. 
But this is often no easy matter, especially with such rare plants 
as the present. Since our plate has been prepared Miss Turner 
has conununicated from Jersey a magnificent specimen,' fully as 
large as one from the south of Europe, and covered with fructi- 
fication. I regret that it is too late to add a representation of 
the spore to the analysis already given. 

Fig. 1. Sphaoelauia pilicina : — the ruUural size, 2. A branch. 3. A pinna. 
4. Cross section of the stem. 

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Tlate^ CXLUL 

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Ser. Mblanosfbkhe£. Fam. Ceramiea. 

Plate CXLIII. 


Gen. Char. Filaments jointed, rigid, distichously branched, pinnated ; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark, granular mass. Fructification', ellip- 
ticle utricles (or spores) funiished with a limbus, borne on the ramuli. 
Sphaoelaria {Lyngh,), — from (r<l>€Kako9, gangrene, alluding to the 
withered tips of the branches. 

Sphaoelaria Serttdaria; frond slightly shaggy at the base, weak and 
slender, irregularly branched ; branches somewhat lanceolate or linear 
horizontally patent, tripinuate; pinnse alternate, divaricate; pinnules 
very patent, multifid; axils all very obtuse and wide. 

Sphaoelaria Sertularia, Bonrtem. spc, Lenorm, in Herb, 

Sphaoelaria filicina /3. patens, Hart). Man. p. 37. 

Hab. Parasitical on various Algae, in from four to fifteen fathoms water. 
Very rare. Pereimial. Brighton Beach, Mr. Borrer. Torbay, 
and other places on the South Coast, Airs, Griffiths, Isle of Wight, 
Miss Kirkpatrick, Jersey, Miss H, M, White. Carrickfergus, Mr. 
M'Calla. Boundstone Bay, W.H.H. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of France, South of England, and Ireland. 

Descr. Fronds about an inch, rarely two inches high, very slender, growing in 
irregular, somewhat matted patches or tufts, among the branches of other 
Algse, more or less connected at base by curled brown fibres, more or less 
regularly pinnate, or somewhat naked below and producing at the apex 
numerous branches spreading like a fan. Branches linear, linear-lanceolate, 
or oblong, closely tripinuate throughout, the pinnae very unequal in length, 
long and short ones sometimes alteraating ; at other times most of the cen- 
tral pinna} are of equal length, those near the top and bottom being much 
shorter. Fiuna horizontally patent, alternate, bipinnate below, more or less 
tripinuate above, the two lowermost pinnae given off from the upper side of 
the rachis before any issue from the lower. Finmdes issuing at every 
second joint, horizontally patent or divaricate, pinnato-multifid, their ulti- 
mate divisions linear, obtuse, patent. Articulations about as long as broad, 
3-4-striate, the striae less nmnerous in the younger parts; the ultimate 
ramuli mono-siphonous. Colour an olive-green. SvLstance rigid, scarcely 
adhering to paper. The apices of the branches are frequently much pro- 
duced, sphacelate, containing a dark coloured granular mass. 

It is, I allow, with some hesitation that I offer a figure of the 
present plant as anything more than a deep-water variety of 
Sphaoelaria JUicina, analogous to somewhat similar varieties of 
several other Algae, individuals of which, when growing at a more 


Digitized by 


than ordinary depth differ as much from their normal state, and 
in a very similiar manner, as the present does from S. filicina. 
Persons accustomed to dredging must be familiar with states of 
PlocamiMm coccineum, Dasya coccinea, &c., which are more slender 
than the normal form, irregularly branched, with very patent 
branches and ramuli, and which are usually found entangled 
with other Algae, to which they are attached by hooked processes, 
different from their true roots. The plant here figured has always 
appeared to me to be a simliar state of S.Jilicina, nor am I yet 
convinced that it ought to be regarded as any thing more. Other 
observers are, however, of a different opinion, and among them 
Mrs. Griffiths, who has repeatedly gathered both plants, and con- 
siders the constantly parasitic habit of the 8. 8ertularia, its small 
size, and very patent branching, to afford sufficient distinctions. 
In the plate here given I have taken pains to represent all these 
characters in sufficient detail to be readily contrasted with S.Jili- 
cina figured in the last plate, and having done so I must submit 
the decision to the judgment of my fellow students. At any rate 
there are quite differences enough to constitute an excellent 
** cabinet 9pecies^\ 

I am not aware in what work Bonnemaison has published this 
plant. My knowledge of his synonyme is due to M. Lenormand 
who has obligingly communicated a specimen from the north of 
France under the name here adopted, and who informs me that 
it is frequently cast on the French coast entangled with the un- 
cinate variety of Plocamium coccineum. 

Fig. 1. Sphacelauia Sertulaeia ; of the naturalize. 2. A branch. 3. A 
pinna. 4. Apex of a pinna, with some of the smaller pinnules. 

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Ser. MELANOSFEKUEiG. Fam. Sphacelariea. 

Plate XXXVII. 


Gen. Char. Filaments jointed, rigid, distichously branched, pinnated; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark granular mass. Fructification; ellip- 
tical utricles^ famished with a limbus, borne on the ramuli. Spha- 
CELABIA [Lyngb.) — from oi^cXof, gangrene, alluding to the mthered 
tips of the branches. 

Sphacelaria scoparia; olive or dark brown, coarse, the lower part shaggy 
with woolly fibres ; upper branches once or twice pinnated ; the pinnse 
erecto-patent, awl-shaped, alternate, the lower ones pinnulate. 

Sphacelaria scoparia, L^^b. Hyd. Ban, p. 104. t. 31. B, Jg, Sgst, 
p. 167. Ag. Syat. Alg. vol. ii. p. 19. 6rev, Fl, Edin, p. 313. Harv, in 
Hook, Br, M, vol. ii. p. 3^3. Ham. f» Mack, Fl, Hih, part 3. p. 180. Harv, 
Man, p. 37. JFyatt. Alg, Danm, no. 361. Ag. Alg. MedU, p. 29. Endl. 
Zrd 8uppL p. 23. Meneg, Alg. Ital, et Dalm, p. 344. 

Sphacelaria disticha, Lyngb, /.<;. p. 104. t. 31. A, Ag, Sjp. Alg, vol. ii. 
p. 26. ffarv, in Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. p. 323. 

Sphacelaria scoparioides, Lyngb, I, c, p. 107. t. 32. C, Ag. Sysi. p. 165. 
Ceramitjm scopariuin. Both, Cat, Bot. vol. iii. p. 141. Ag. Syn. Hook, Fl, 
Scot, part. 2. p. 86. 

Conferva scoparia, Linn. Sy%t, Nat. vol. ii. p. 720. Huds, Fl. Angl, p. 595. 

Light/, Fl, Scot. ]^. 2%!. ^»^A. vol. iv. p. 131. Lill^o, Conf. t &2. E.Bot. 

1. 1552. 
Conferva marina peimata, DiUen. t. 4. f. 23. 
Stypopodium scoparimn, Kiitz,Phyc, Oen, p. 298. 1. 18. f. 2. 

Hab. On submerged rocks, within and beyond the influence of the tide. 
Generally distributed along the coasts of the British Islands; most 
common in the south. 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic coasts of Europe from Norway to Spain. Baltic and 
Mediterranean Seas. Canary Islands, JTebb, Cape of Grood Hope, JF, H, H, 

Descr. Booty and lower part of the stems invested with a thick coating of woolly 
fibres. Stems 2-4 inches high or more, shaggy, robust, either much and 
irregularly divided, or subsimple, densely set with quadrifarious, pinnate or 
bi-pinnate branches, which spread from the summits of the main divisions 
in oroad, brush-like, rigid tnfts. Pinna either short, simple, and spine- 
like or elongated, and again pinnulate. Joints longitudinally striate. A 
section of the stem and its accessory fibres (fig. 5), exhibits an elegant lace- 
work of square cellules in the centre of the stem, and of each separate fibre. 

So different from each other are the summer and winter states 

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of this plant that the accurate Lyngbye may well be forgiven for 
considering them to be distinct species. Few persons on inspec- 
tion of our plate, would suppose that the bushy and broom-like 
upper figure, was identical in species with the feathery plant re- 
presented below ; even their microscopic characters are widely 
dissimilar. Yet, observation, the true test of species, has traced 
the one form into the other ; and I possess a suite of specimens 
communicated by Miss Cutler and Mrs. Griffiths, which clearly 
demonstrate the transition. 

Sphacelaria scoparia has been long known to botanists, having 
been noticed by Bauhin, and figured by Dillenius in his admi- 
rable work. It is very common on the several coasts of Europe, 
both Atlantic and Mediterranean, and probably extends to other 
tropical shores besides those of the Canary Islands. I have 
gathered it in two localities at the Cape of Good Hope. Further 
south, its place is taken by an analogous form {8. funicularis, 
Mont.), which is found at the Auckland Island, and in New Zea- 
land, in which Island some other remarkable Sphacelaria occur. 
Of these the most curious is 8, hordeacea, whose branches are 
tipped with spikes of utricles, subtended by ramuU, and closely 
resembling miniature ears of barley. Other species of the genus 
inhabit every zone, from North Cape to Cape Horn ; but tropi- 
cal algae have been, as yet, so imperfectly investigated, that it is 
premature to assert to which zone the maximum of the genus 
belongs. At present the evidence is in favour of the temperate 
zones of the northern hemisphere. 

Professor Kiitzing has, in his ' Phycologia Generalis,' constituted 
8, scoparia the type of a distinct genus, and 8.filicina that of 
another. The grounds of such separation are, in my opinion, very 
insufficient to warrant the dismemberment of so natural and well 
defmed a group as the Sphacelaria of Lyi^gbye appear to be. 

Fig. 1. Sphacelaria scoparia ; in summer : — natural size, 2. Branchlet of 
the same : — magnified. 3. 8. scoparia ; in winter : — natural size. 4. Branch- 
let of the same. 5. Cross section of the stem, surrounded by accessory 
fibres : — magnified. 

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Set. Mklahospekuea. f am. 8pAacelarie/B. 



Gen. Chab. Filaments jointed, rigid, disticliously branched, pinnated; 
rarely simple, or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark, granular mass. Fructification ', ellip- 
tical utricles, furnished with a limbus, borne on the ramuli. Spha- 
CELABIA [Lyngb.)i — from o-^^cXor, gangrene, alluding to the withered 
tips of the branches. 

^vnissEiABiLplumosa'. filaments naked at the base, elongated, irre^arly 
branched, inarticulate; branches pectinato-pinnate ; pinnae opposite, 
simple, very long and closely set. 

Spuacelaeia plumosa, Lyngh. Fl. Ban. p. 108. t. 30. Jg, Syst. Jig. p. 166. 
Jg, 8p. Alg. vol. ii. p. 24. Grev. Fl. Edin. p. 313. Hart>. in Hook. Brit. 
FL vol. ii. p. 324. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. partiii. p. 180. Harv. Man. 
p. 38. JTyatt, Alg. Banm. no. 300. Endl. Zrd Suppl. p. 23. 

CH-fiTOPTERis plumosus, Kutz. Phyc. Gen. p. 293. 

Cbeamium pennatum, Fl. Ban. t. 1481. Roth. Cat. Bot. vol. iii. p. 133. 
Ag. 8yn. p. 68. 

CoNFEEVA pennata, 8m. E. Bot. t. 2330 {the l^ hand figure). 

Hab. On rocks, near low-water mark, and at a greater depth. Perennial. 
Beachy Head, Mr. Borrer, Frith of Forth, Sir J. Richardson and 
Dr. Greville. Wicklow, JT. H. H, Belfast Bay, Mr. W. Thompson. 
Near Caernarvon, also at Ilfracombe, and Land's end, Mr. Ralfs. 
Howth and Balbriggan, Miss Gower. Orkney, Rev. J. H. Pollerfen. 
Kilbride, Major Martin. 

Geoge. Diste. German Ocean, along the shores of Denmark and Norway. 
Baltic Sea. Greenland, Fabricius (see Lyngb.). 

Besce. Root minute, scutate. Fronds tufted, from two to four or six inches in 
length, setaceous, naked below, irregularly much branched above. Branches 
alternate or secund, or frequently fasciculate, several growing from the 
wounded apex of an older branch, one or two inches long, simple, erecto- 
patent, closely pectinate throughout their whole length with slender articu- 
lated ramuli. Ramuli patent, from one to three lines in length, opposite, 
issuing from eveiy joint of the branches, parallel to each other, and of 
equal length, either quite shnple or occasionally pectinato-pinnate in their 
• upper half. Apices of the branches frequently sphacelate. Main stem opake, 
not obviously jointed ; branches more translucent, jointed, the joints shorter 
than their breadth, longitudinally striate, and marked with a dark-coloured 
spot ; joints of the ramuli about once and a half as long as broad, similarly 
marked. Colour oUvaceous, or occasionally rusty. Substance rigid, not 
adhering to paper in drying. 

By earlier writers this beautiful species was confounded with 


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S. cirrAosa, of which it was considered to be a luxuriant variety, 
and in * English Botany ' both are represented on the same plate. 
Mr. Borrer was, I believe, its first detector in this country, and I 
am indebted to him for one of the original specimens, gathered 
at Beachy head. From S. cirrhosa it may always be known, by 
the different structure of the stem, the closer and more regularly 
pectinated ramuli, and the greater size. 

S.plumosa appears to be peculiarly a northern plant, for 
though first observed on the south coast of England, it is by no 
means common there, nor are the specimens more than half the 
size of that represented in our plate. Further north, it is much 
more frequently met with, and becomes much more luxuriant. 
Our figure is taken from a Welsh specimen, and those collected 
by Sir. J. Richardson, at Colvend, in Dumfrieshire, are still more 
beautifully feathered with long ramuli. The Continental stations 
are all, it will be observed, from the north of Europe. I am not 
aware of its being found on the French coast. 

In substance and general habit, 8, plumosa has very much the 
appearance of a Sertularia, and is almost as rigid. By Professor 
Kiitzing it is made the type of a separate genus, on account of 
the structure of its stem being a little different from that of the 
typical species ; but the difference does not appear to me to be 
sufficiently great to warrant the dismemberment of so natural a 
group, unless it were further borne out by a difference in fructi- 
fication. But the fructification of this, as well as of seveiul 
others of the SphacelaricBy is unknown. 

Fucus rudia of Esper (Ic. Fuc. t. 27), which is said to be & 
native of the shores of England and France, is referred by 
Lyngbye to Sphacelaria plumosa, but if intended for this plant 
it is indeed a very rude representation of it. Esper's figure much 
more nearly resembles a faded piece of Ballia JBrunonts, a native 
of the Southern Ocean ; but is said to have been drawn from a 
specimen received from Normandy. 

Pig. 1. Sphacelauia plumosa : — of the natural iize. 2. Segment of a branch. 
8. Portion of one of the pectinate ramnli. 4. A cross section of the stem: 
— aU more or leu kighUf magnified. 

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Ser. Melanospekue^. Fam. Ectoearpea. 



Gen. Chae. lUamenU jointed^ rigid, distichously branched, pinnated; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark, granular mass. Fructification} 
elliptical utricles (or spores), borne on the ramuli. Sphacelama 
(Lyngh>)y from (r<t>aK€\ost gaingrenCy alluding to the withered tips of 
the branches. 

Sphacelasia cirrAosa; parasitical; filaments naked at the base, short, 
densely tufted, simple or branched, jointed throughout; stem, or 
branches, pinnate ; pinnae opposite, alternate, or irregular, of unequal 
length ; utricles sessile or shortly stalked, scattered, globose. 

Sphacelaeia cirrhosa, Jp. Syst, Alg, p. 164. Ag, Sp. vol. ii. p. 27. Harv. 
in Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 324. JFyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 171. Harv. in 
Mack. Fl. Hih. part 3. p. 180. Harv. Man. p. 38. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. 
p. 29. Fndl. Zrd Suppl. p. 24. Oreo. Crypt, t. 317. Kg. Fhyc. Oen. p. 292. 

Sphacelaeia pennata, Lyngb. p. 105. t. 81. (exd. var. p.) 
Ceeamium cirrhosum, Hook. Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 86. 
Conferva marina perbrevis villosa et cirrhosa, IHU. Muse. t. 4. f. 21. 
Conpeeva cirrhosa, Both. Cat. vol. ii. p. 214. vol. iii. p. 294. 
CoNFEEVA intertexta, Both. Cat. vol. i. p. 188. t. 3. f. 6. 
CoNFEEVA pennata, Huds. p. 604. DiUw. i. 86. K Bot. t. 2330 (right- 
hand Jigure). Fl. Dan. i. 1486. f. 2. 

Hab. Parasitic on the smaller Algse, between tide marks. Perennial? 
Summer. Very common. 

Geooe. Diste. Abundant on the Atlantic and Mediterranean shores of Europe. 

Desge. Filaments from a quarter of an inch to one or two inches in length, 
slender, forming globose, dense tufts, very variable in the amount of ramifi- 
cation. Some of the smaller varieties are but slightly branched, the 
branches irregularly pinnate. In others the main filament is repeatedly 
divided, the branches closely set, spreading, short in the lower part of the 
frond, elongated above, once or twice piunate. Finna closely set, opposite 
or alternate, erect or spreading, mostly simple and naked, sometimes pin- 
nulated, veiy irregular in length, but gradually becoming shorter to the 
tips, slightly tapering. Apices frequently sphacelate. Joints visible in all 
parts of the stem and branches, at distances asunder equal to about the 
diameter of the frond, longitudinally striate. Utricles globose, scattered 
along the pinnae, either sessile or raised on short stalks. Colour olive ; 
becoming a foxy brown in age. Substance rigid, not adhering to paper in 

Here we have a very common and very variable plant, which 
puts on several distinct looking forms, according to the locality 

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in which it may grow ; but, on a careful examination of num^xxis 
specimens of these varieties now before me, I cannot fix on any 
characters which appear of specific value. My friend Mr. Hore 
finds that the utricles or spores of the small variety which com- 
monly grows on Desmarestia aculeata are borne on little stalks, 
while in the common form represented in our plate they are 
mostly sessile ; and this character, were it constant, would afford 
a readily appreciable mark of distinction. But when making 
the sketch for the magnified ramulus (fig. 4) taken, without 
selection, fix)m a specimen of the common form, I observed that 
though the spores are often nearly sessile, there is frequently a 
short pedicel. And when any disposition to form a pedicel exists 
in so variable a plant as this, its amount must be most uncer- 
tain. The spore is to be regarded morphologically as an abbre- 
viated ramulus ; where the whole ramulus is converted into a 
spore, that organ will be sessile ; but when a part only is so 
changed, it will be stalked. 

This species was once confounded with 8. plumosa^ but differs 
from that beautiful plant in habit and size, in its jointed main 
filaments, and in being far less regularly pectiiiato-pinnated, 
with proportionally shorter pinnules. Being a very common 
plant, it was among the first of the genus observed by botanists, 
and is figured in the Historia Muscorum of Dillenius, under the 
specific name here preserved. By Hudson it was subsequently 
CBSkA pennata^ a name adopted by succeeding authors until the 
older one was restored by Roth. 

Fig. 1. Sphacelaeia cibehosa; tufts; — of the natural size, 2. Part of the 
stem and pinnated branches. 3. Apex of a branch with ramuli. 4. 
Hamulus with utricles. 

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Ser. MsumosFEKuxM. Fam. Ectocarpea. 

Plate CXLIX. 


Gen. Char. Filaments jointed, rigid, distichoDsly branched, pinnated; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark granular mass. Fructijication ; ellip- 
tical utricles (or spores), borne on the ramuli. Sphacelabia [Lyngb,), 
— from o^kiiffXoy, gangrene, alluding to the withered tips of the 

Sphacelabxa fusca ; filaments densely tufted, capillary, brown, distantly 
and irregularly branched ; branches long and simple, bearing a few 
clavate or three-forked, minute ramuli ; articulations twice as long as 
broad, marked by a transverse band; spores globose. 

Sphacelabia fusca, Ag. Sp, Alg. vol. ii. p. 34. Harv, in Hook, Br, Ft, 
vol. ii. p. 324. Harv, Man, p. 38. 

Conferva fusca, HtAds. M, Ang, p. 602. With. vol. iv. p. 141. DiUio, Conf, 
t. 95. 

Hab. On rocks and stones, between tide marks. Very rare. Anglesea, 
Rev, Hugh Davies. Newton Nottage, Glamorgan, Mr, W. W. Young. 
Worms Head, and other places in Gower, Mr, IMlwyn, Sidmouth, 
Mrs, Griffiths, St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall, Mr, Rolfs, 

Geogb. Distb. Shores of Wales and South of England. 

Descb. Fronds one to two inches high, forming dense penciUate tufts, very 
slender, irregularly branched in an alternate or spuriously dichotomous 
manner ; branches oflen secund, very erect, long and simple, of equal dia- 
meter throughout. Hamuli very few, scattered, minute, attenuate at the 
base, club-shaped, or furnished immediately below the apex with three, 
divergent, thorn-like, somewhat horizontal processes. Articulations about 
twice as long as broad, composed of several cells, and marked with a brown 
transverse band in the centre. Spores, according to Dillwyn, globose, 
scattered, sometimes stalked. Substance rigid, not adhering to paper. 
Colour a dark chesnut brown. 

Dillwyn, on whose authority the Sphacelari,a fusca chiefly 
rests, gives several stations for it, on the coast of Wales, where 
it would seem to be pretty common. But except a single speci- 
men sent to me several years ago by Mrs. Griffiths, and another 
more recently received from Mr. Ralfs, I have seen nothing of 
the plant ; nor am I aware of any other author having found it. 
It may or may not be the Conferva fusca of Hudson, whose 

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account is too brief to fonn a decided opinion upon. Never 
having seen a specimen of Mr. Dillwyn's plant, I am not even 
sure of his synonym, though the magnified portion of his figure 
is sufficiently like the specimen I have drawn from. Still, his 
saying that the plant is " from three to five inches long/' a size 
greatly above that of my specimen, throws a doubt on the re- 

As a species, S. /iisca (or what I take for it) will rank next 
S. cirrAosa, from which it differs by its irregular branching, by 
the remarkable cruciform scattered ramuli, and something in 
colour and in the length of the joints. S. cirrhosa is parasitical 
on other Algae ; but too little is yet known of the histoiy of S, 
fusca to say that it is not so. No foreign author appears to be 
acquainted with the plant; Agardh having adopted it on the 
authority of DiDwyn's figure. 

Fig. 1. Sphacelaria fusca : a tuft: — of the naiural tize. 2. A filament. 3. 
Portion of the same, with one of the three-forked ramuli : — both magmjied. 

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W \[ H uc; .-L iitK . 

P'-.cP^'i.- ,^, \R^,s-, 

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Ser. Mglanospbbuba. Fam. Eetoearpea. 


Gen. Char. Filaments jointed^ ngid^ distichously branched^ pinnated ; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Ajnces of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark, granular mass. Pructifcation ', 
elliptical utricles (or spores) furnished with a limbus, borne on the 
ramuli. Sphacelabia (Lyngb.), — from <T<\>aKt\oiy gcmgreney alluding 
to the withered tips of the branches. 

Spuacelaria radicans'y filaments erect, or decumbent, sending out a few 
fibrous radicles from the lower part, sparingly branched ; branches 
alternate, simple, very erect, straight, bare of ramuli ; utricles clus- 
tered, sessile, globose. 

Sphacelaria radicans, Harv, in Hook, Br, FL yoI. ii. p. 324. Harf), in 
Mack. Fl, Hib. part 3. p. 181. Harv, Man, p. 39. JFytdt, Jig, Damn, 
no. 210. 

Sphacelaria cirrhosa, i simplex, Ag, 8p. Alg. vol. ii. p. 29. 

Sphacelaria olivacea, Ag, 8p, Alg, vol. ii. p. 30. Harv, in Hook, Br, Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 324. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hib, part 3. p. 181. Harv. Man. 
p. 39. Kutz. Phyc. Gen, p. 292. Endl, Zrd Suppl p. 24. 

Conferva mdicans, BUlw. Swpp. p. 57. t. C. E. Bot. t. 2138. 

Conferva olivacea, DUho. Sup, p. 57. t. C. E, Bot, t. 2172. Hook, Fl. 
Scot, part 2. p. 83. 

H AB. On sand-covered rocks, between tide marks. Perennial ? Autumn. 
Bare. Bantry, Miss Hutckins. Dunmore, Waterford, Miss A, 
Taylor, Orkney, Messrs, Hooker and Borrer, Appin, Copt. Carmi- 
chaeL Torbay, Mrs, Griffiths. Hfracombe, Land's End, and Mount's 
Bay, Mr. Rolfs. 

Geogr. Distr. Iceland. Baltic Sea. Heligoland, Binder \ Coast of France, 
CAauvin 1 

Uescr. Booty decumbent, irregularly branched fibres, matted together. Filaments 
capillary, from half an inch to an inch in length, erect, or decumbent, 
forming dense, irregular tufts spreading over the rocks in patches of various 
extent, seldom fastigiate ; generally, owing to the unequal height of the 
filaments, having a ragged appearance. Branches few, irregular, either 
alternate or secund, straight, simple, very erect, destitute of ramuli, but 
frequently emitting root-like fibres from their lower part, articulated 
throughout. Articulatiom rather shorter than the diameter, longitudinally 
striate. Apices obtuse, seldom sphacelate. Utricles, or spores, abundantly 
produced along the sides of the upi)er branches, globose, scattered or 
clustered together, sessile, with a narrow pellucid border, and containing 
a dark sporaceous mass. Colour a dull greenish olive, preserved in drying. 
Substance rigid, rather harsh, not adhering (or but very slightly) to paper, 
dull, and without gloss. 

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A minute species, one of the least developed of the genuine 
members of the genus, and more remarkable for its rarity than 
its beauty. It was originally discovered in the neighbourhood 
of Bantry, by the late Miss Hutchins, and first described and 
figured in the appendix to Dillwyn*s Conferva, About the same 
time specimens slightly difiering in character, were gathered in 
Orkney by Messrs. Hooker and Borrer, and received the name 
of olivacea : and thus two species have generally been recognised. 
A careful comparison of the characters attributed to each, with 
an examination of specimens from several localities, has satisfied 
me that the differences do not warrant the retention of two 
species, and I consequently here unite the S, olivacea of authors, 
to the older S, radicans. The form to which the name olivacea 
was given, is rather more erect, and less disposed to thmw out 
radicles than common ; but there are no other characters by 
which it can be distinguished. I speak of the S. olivacea of 
British authors ; the plant so called by Lyngbye appears to be 
somewhat different, and is either a distinct species or a state of 
S. cirrhosa. 

Fig. 1. Tufts of Sphacelaria radicans : — of the natural sise. 2. Filaments : 
— magnijied. 3. Apex of a fertile branch : — more highly magn^ied. 

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h i 

1/ 01"^ 

f ./I// 

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Set. Melanosperue^ . Fam. Ectocarpea. 


Gen. Char. Filaments jointed, rigid, distichously branched, pinnated ; 
rarely simple or subdichotomous. Apices of the branches distended, 
membranous, containing a dark, granular mass. Fructification^ ellip- 
tical utricles (or spores), borne on the ramuli. Sphacelaria (Lyngb.), 
— from <r4>aK€\of, gangrene, alluding to the withered tips of the 

Sphacelaria racemosa ; " an inch in height, tufted, olivaceous, somewhat 
rigid, the fronds dichotomous; articulations equal in length and 
breadth; capsules oval, racemose, pedunculate.^' Grev, 

Sphacelaria racemosa, Grev. Scot. Crypt. FL vol. ii. t. 96. Grev. Ft. Edin. 
p. 314. Harv. in Hook. Br. FL vol. ii. p. 325. Harv. Man. ed. 1. p. 39. 
ed. 2. p. 57. J. Ag. Bp. Alg. vol. i. p. 31. Kulz. Sp. Alg. p. 466. 

Hab. In tide-pools ? Very rare. Frith of Forth, opposite to Caroline 
Park, Sir John Richardson, 

Geogr. DiSTR. Only found in the above locaHty, and there only once (about the 
year 1821). 

Descr. " Plant tufted, about an inch in height, of an oHve-green or ohve-brown 
colour. Frond filiform, somewhat rigid, 3-4 times dichotomous, the dicho- 
tomies acute. ArticulaMons equal in length and breadth, diaphanous to the 
base. Summits of the branches not sphacelated m my specimens, but 
somewhat dilated and hyaline, as in many other species previous to the spha- 
celation making its appearance. Fructification^ oval capsules, surrounded 
by a very narrow pellucid border, pediceUate, and arranged in a racemose 
manner, on a common jointed peduncle. Racemes suberect, arising from 
various parts of the frond." — Grev, Scot. Orypt. I. c. 

In this species we have the remarkable fact, occasionally met 
with in all departments of natural history, of a species distin- 
guished by strongly marked characters having been seen but once, 
and that in very small quantity. The tuft from which Dr. Gre- 
ville's figure, and the above description, which I have transferred 
from his work, were taken, has also served me in making the 
drawing for the plate now given, having been kindly placed in 
my hands for that purpose by Dr. Greville, with the liberal per- 

VOL. III. 2 F 

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mission to abstract a fragment of the precious relic, to be pre- 
served in the Dublin Herbarium. The singular grape-like fruc- 
tification at once marks the species, and on the specimen found 
almost every thread had mor.e or less numerous clusters. So 
that it fortunately happens, that a small specimen of this rarity 
is as characteristic as a much larger would be, — ^no small advan- 
tage, when a half-crown would cover all the specimens at pre- 
sent known to botanists. Dr. Greville has repeatedly sought it 
in vain in the spot on which the solitary tuft was picked up by 
Sir J. Richardson, previous to his first and memorable Arctic 

Fig. 1. Tuft of Sphacelakia BACEMOSA : — the natural size. 2. Upper portion 
of a frond : — magnified, 3. Apex of a branch, with branches of spores ; and 
4, one of the pedicellate spores : — more highly magnified. 

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J'fa/t CLXIl 

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Ser. MELANosPEEMEiE. Fam. Eeioearpea. 

Plate CLXII. 


Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
Fruit either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spares), 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
[Lyngb,), — ^from tKros, extemaly and KOfmos, fruit. 

Ectocarpus Hliculosua ; tufts yellowish or pale olive green, gelatinous, 
soft ; filaments very slender, excessively branched ; ultimate branchlets 
alternate or secund, attenuated ; utricles stalked, subulate, attenuated 
to a fine point. 

Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ipiffb, Hyd, Dan, p. 131. t. 48. Jg. 8yst, p. 161. 
Orev. Fl, Edin. p. 314. Jg, 8p. Jig, vol. ii. p. 87. Sarv, in Hook. Br. 
Fl. vol. ii. p. 325. ffarv. in Mack. Fl. Hib. part 3. p. 181. Harv. 
Man. p. 40. Wyatiy Alg. Danm. no. 172. /. Ag. Alg. Medit. p. 26. 
JBndl, Zrd Suppl. 21. KUU. Phyc. Gen. p. 288. 

Ceramiuh siliculosum, Ag. 8yn. p. 65. Hook. Fl. Scot part 2. p. 86. 

Ceramium confervoide8, Hothy Cat. vol. i. p. 151. t. 8. f. 8. and vol. iii. p. 148. 

Conferva siliculosa, LUlw. Syn. no. 112. t. E. Sm. Eng. Bot. t. 2319. 

fi. longipes; stalks of the utricles very long. 

Has. Parasitical on various marine Algse, between tide marks, and in 
three to four fathom water. Annual. Spring to Autumn. Very 
common, p. at Jersey, Miss White, 

Geogr. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. Mediterranean 

Descr. Filaments from three to eighteen inches long, densely tufted and exces- 
sively branched, very slender, the main branches more or less entangled 
together, in old specimens especially, into slender rope-like bundles, the 
lesser branches free, spreading on all sides, long, and set with featheiy 
branchlets furnished with lateral byssoid ramuli. Branches and ramuli 
alternate, or subsecund, issuing at acute angles; the latter long, and 
tapering to a point. Joints from once and a halif to twice as long as broad, 
pellucid. Utricles broadly subulate, or somewhat lanceolate, closely trans- 
versely striate, tapering to a fine point, and occasionally produced at the 
apex into a hyaline filament. In our var. fi. (fig. 4, 5.) the utricles are 
borne on very long stalks, but not otherwise different. Substance veiy soft, 
somewhat gelatinous, soon decomposing, closely adhering to paper in 
drying ; sometimes more harsh and coarser. Colour vaiying firam olive 
green to yellowish or brown. 

This is one of the commonest species of Ectocarpm in the 

* Erroneously printed reticulosus, in the list given at the end of our first 

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waters of Europe, and is more generally dispersed than most 
others of the genus. Formerly it was confounded with E, litto- 
ralis, and is still, by many botanists, regarded as merely a state of 
that species. The branching and general habit of the two plants 
are very similar. JE. siliculosus is, however, usually more slender, 
more gelatinous, softer, and more feathery in its ramification. 
A more absolute distinction lies in the diflFerence of the Jruif, 
which is here a lanceolate pod, while in E. littoralis one or more 
spores are immersed in the branches, where they sometimes 
form strings. Those who regard the two plants as states of one 
species, affirm that the pod-like fruit of the present is merely a 
secondary fruit, proving nothing. This view, after as careful 
consideration as I can give the subject, 1 am not disposed to 
adopt, at least, not until some more convincing arguments shall 
be brought forward, than its advocates have yet offered. 

The specimen of which a magnified portion is represented at 
fig. 5, and on which our var. fi is founded, was sent to me from 
Jersey by Miss White. In its general aspect and in ramifica- 
tion, it resembles the common F. siliculosm, but is remarkable 
for having its pods raised on very long peduncles, or, in other 
words, terminating the branches and ramuli. I am not aware 
that this variety has been previously noticed, nor have I seen a 
second specimen of it. Whether it be one of the one hundred 
and thirty new species of Ectocarpm which, I am informed. Prof. 
Meneghini has proposed, I am unable to say, not having received 
the Fifth Part of that author's work. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCARPCS 8ILICUL08US : — of the natural me. 2. A branch of var. «. 
3. Utricles from the same. 4. A branch of var. j3. 5. Utricle from the 
same : — aU more or less highly magnified. 

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Ser. MBLANOSPsauBie. Fam. Edoearpea. 



Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
Fruit either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores) 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
{Lyngb.)y — ^from €ktos, external, and KOfmos.Jmit. 

Ectocarpus amphihiiis; tufts short, loose, soft, pale olive; filaments very 
slender, subdichotomous ; ultimate branches alternate, spreading; 
articulations two or three times longer than broad ; utricles (?) linear- 
attenuate, spine-like, mostly sessile, scattered. 
Ectocarpus amphibius, Harv. Fhyc, vol. i. p. x. 

Hab. In muddy ditches of brackish water, near the coast. Tide ditches, 
communicating with the Avon, below Bristol. Mr. G. H, K. Thwaites, 
Geogr. Distr. 

Descr. Filamenis 2-3 inches long, very slender, flaccid, forming small, indefi- 
nite tufts, growing on the mud, or attached to various substances, vaguely 
branched in a manner between dichotomous and alternate ; the lesser divi- 
sions mostly alternate, erecto-patent, not much divided, nor remarkably 
attenuate. Ramuli scattered, thom-Uke, at length frequently changed into 
exceedingly long, sessile, opake, sporaceous bodies, evidently analogous to 
the utricle of Ectocarpus siliculosus, and of a character intermediate between 
these and the immersed fructification of U. littoralis. Articulations of the 
main branches twice or thrice as long as broad, pale oUve, pellucid, mostly 
marked with a few irregular bands of more soUd endochrome. Colour 
fading in the Herbarium, and becoming greener. In drying, it closely 
adheres to paper. 

The occurrence of an Fctocarpm in brackish water, though not 
without precedent, deserves to be recorded, and it is more on 
that account, than because I am certain of the present plant being 
a good species, that I give it a place in this work. It wiU be 
seen that its characters border very closely on those of JE, silicu- 
losus, from which the usually sessile fructification and the attenu- 
ated form of this part chiefly distinguish it. The resemblance is 
so striking that one is almost disposed to the belief that our U. 
amphibius may be only E. siliculosus altered by growing in water 
which contains a very small quantity of salt. Mr. Thwaites, to 
whom I am indebted for a beautifully mounted specimen, and 
who also had the kindness to communicate fresh specimens, 

VOL. II. a 

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gathered it in ditches near Bristol, into which the tide flows. It 
will probably be found to occur in similar situations elsewhere. 

Pig. 1. EcTOCAEPUS AMPHIBITJS ; a tufl : — (^ the natural me. 2. A branch : 
— magnified, 3. Fertile ramuli : — highl/jf magnified^ 

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Ser. MiLAKOSFEUtXA. Earn. Eetoearpea. 

piATB ccLvn. 

Qek. Ghab. Frond cspQsjj, jointed^ olive or brown, flaccid, single-tabed, 
without longitudinal striss. Bruit either spherical or elliptical, external 
or imbedded spores; or lanceolate, linear, or conical nUcules (pod- 
like bodies) ; or granular masses formed in consecutive cells of the 
branches. Ectocabpus {Ijt^b.), — ^from dcror, Kopwos, extemal/ruU. 

EatocAKBVS fenestratus ; pale green, very slender, forming small tufts; 
filaments not much branched; branches distant, alternate, famished 
with a few long and simple, alternate ramuli; articulations of the 
branches twice or thrice as long as broad, pellucid; siUcules staJked, 
scattered, at first clavate, then elliptic-oblong, obtuse, densely striate 
transversely, and cross-barred, dark brown. 
Ectocabpus fenestratus, Berk, in Herb, Qrjff, M88, Harv, Man. Bd, 2. p. 58. 

Hab. Salcombe, Mre. Wyatt, Annual. May. 

DssoB. KUtmenU forming small tufts, very slender, one or two inches high, not 
veiy much branched; the branches lying apart and somewhat featheiy, 
alternate, repeatedly divided, all the divisions erect, the ultimate ramtdi 
prolonged and straight. Articulatione variable (as in all the genus), usually 
in the middle part of the stems twice or thrice as long as broad, ftdl of a 
pale olive, translucent endochrome, with a very few grains dispersed through 
it ; in the upper part gradually shorter. SiUcules pedicellate, at first club- 
shaped and narrow, afterwards becoming eUiptic-oblong, or somewhat 
fusiform, but always veiy blunt at each end. 'When ftdly ripened they are 
dark coloured, marked with closely set, transverse and longitudinal striae, 
which mark the surface with sinall, square reticulations, like a mosaic 
pavement, or the lattice of a window ; an appearance alluded to in the 
specific name. Colour, pale greenish olive. Subitance flaccid, dosely 
adhering to paper. 

The characters by which this plant is distinguished from 
others of the genus — namely, simplicity in branching and the 
peculiar form of the silicule, — ^appear sufi&ciently well marked ; 
and we may therefore hope that we have here the foundation of a 
good species which will be detected in other localities, and in 
greater abundance than has yet been the case. At present I 
have only seen a single small specimen, or rather half a speci- 
men, for the tuft that I owe to the kindness of Mrs. Grifl&ths 

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is cut in two : — and Mrs. Wyatt has only met with it once. This 
is, however, not to be wondered at, if we consider the extremely 
local nature of many species of Ectocarpm, and that Saloombe, 
the habitat of our novelty, is a considerable distance fix)m the 
discoverer's ordinary abode. In appearance E.feneatraius is 
not unlike many specimens of E. siliculosuSy but the form of the 
silicule is very different ; and in this character there is a much 
nearer approach to E. tomentosus, a species, which in all other 
respects, is widely different from E.fmesiratus. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCAEPUS PENBSTEATU8 ; 8 tuft : — the natural size. 2. Portion of a 
filament : — magnified, 3. Small part of the same, with two ripe silicoles. 
4. Apex, with two young silicoles : — both highly magnified. 

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Ser. Mblanospekue^. Fam. Ectoearpea. 



Gen. Chab. Mlaments capillary, jointed, olivaceous or brown, flaccid, 
without longitudinal stria. Fruit either spherical or elliptical, ex- 
ternal or imbedded spores ; or lanceolate, linear, or conical siUcules 
(pod-like bodies) ; or granular masses formed in consecutive cells of 
the branches. Ectooabpus {Lyngb.)^ — ^firom crros, napwos^ external 

^ciocAXPJjs fasciculatus ; tufts olivaceous, dense; main filaments not 
much divided ; the branches distant, set throughout with alternate 
or secund fascicles of subulate ramuli ; the ramuli generally secund 
in each multifid fascicle; silicules sessile, secund, close together, 
ovate-acuminate or subulate. 

EcTOCARPUS fasciculatus, ffarv, Man. ed. I, ^.40; ed. 2, p. 59. Wyatt, 
Alg. Banm, no. 302. KiUz. Fhyc, Up. p. 288. 1^. Alg. p. 451. /. Agardhy 
Sp. Jig. p. 22. 

Uab. Between tide-marks, on the larger Algse; most commonly on Lami- 

naria digitata, 
Geooe. Distr. Atlantic shores of Europe and North America. 

Descr. Filaments densely tufted, from three to six or eight inches long, some- 
what entangled together at the base into ropy bundles, free and feathery 
above, less branch^ than in most others of the genus, but nevertheless 
repeatedly divided. The ramification is irregular, between alternate and 
dichotomous, and the lesser branches especially are often flexuous or an- 
gularly bent. They are distantly branched, with patent axils, and famished 
along their whole length with short, multifid ramuh, crowded together ; 
not strictly fasciculate, it is true, but appearing so to the eye and to a 
moderately powerful lens. The ramuh are in truth secund, closely set, and 
often overlapping each other, a ramulus rising from each successive articu- 
lation of the penultimate branchlet. Jriiculatums about twice as long as 
broad, containing a dense endochrome, with a wide border. Silicules very 
abundant, varying much in length, ovate-acuminate or subulate, very acute, 
densely striate transversely. Colour when young a deep, greenish olive, 
becoming pale and at length foxy in age. Substance membranaceous, soft, 
closely adhering to paper in diymg when the plant is young — ^much less 
adhesive when old. 

An exceedingly common species, easily recognized by the 
dense ramuli which appear to the naked eye to be tufted, but 
which are really only closely placed, and secund on the penulti- 
mate branchlcts. The favourite habitat of E.fasdculatm is on 

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the expanded fix)nds of Lam, diyitata, where it often fringes the 
segments in continuous tufts, but it is not confined to that plant, 
but is conunonly found also on Z. btdbosa and on Elmantkalia 
loretty and others of the larger fucoid Algse. Whenj^ung and 
well grown it is a very handsome species, but soon becomes 
coarse and ropy, and towards the close of the season is very much 
infested with Diatomaceous parasites. 

I have received numerous specimens from correspondents in 
North America, in which country this would appear to be one 
of the most abundant of the genus. 

The silicules are generally strictly sessile, but vary in form 
fix)m linear-subulate to nearly ovate-acute. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCABPUS FASciGULATUs : — ike natural me* 2. Brandi with fasci- 
culate ramuli. 3. Brauchlet with silicules : — both magnified. 

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Set. Melanospebmbje. Fam. Ectoearpea. 

Plate XXII. 


Gen. Char. Filaments capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single- 
tubed. Fruitj either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles, borne 
on the ramoli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocakpus — ^from 
iierds, cxtemal, and Kapir6s, fruit. 

EcTOCABPUS nincksicB ; tufted, dark olive ; filaments irregularly and dis- 
tantly branched; branches flexuous, furnished with secund ramuli 
pectinated on the upper side; utricles conical, sessile, lining the inner 
face of the ultimate ramuli. 
EcTOCARPUS Hincksiee, Harv, Man. p. 40. 

Hab. Parasitical on Laminaria bulbosa. Annual. June. At Ballycastle, 
Miss Hincks. Torbay, Mrs, Griffiths; Mrs, Wyatt. Aberdeen, 
JDr. Dickie. Plymouth, Bev, W. S. Eore, Mounts Bay, Cornwall, 
abundant, Mr, Rolfs, 

Geogr. Distr. British Islands. 

Descr. FUamenta 1-2 inches high, dark olive, somewhat rigid for the genus, 
(the substance very similar to that of E. littoralis), irregularly and rather 
distantly branched, not matted together. The branches are furnished in the 
upper part with secund spreading or somewhat recurved ramuH, which bear 
on their inner faces a second series of closely set, subulate ones ; the com- 
pound ramulus resembling a Httle comb. Utricles conical, sessile, produced 
along the inner face of the ramuH, one rising from almost every joint, giving 
to the ramulus the appearance, under a lens of low power, of being serrated. 

My first knowledge of this species was from a solitary specimen 
gathered in 1840, by Miss Hincks, daughter of the venerable and 
respected Dr. Hincks, of Belfast. Though I had then seen but 
one specimen, yet so striking were its characters that I did not he- 
sitate to describe it forthwith as a new species ; and I had much 
pleasure in dedicating it to its discoverer, to whom I am indebted 
for many beautiftdly prepared and judiciously selected specimens 
oiAlgcey and from whose explorations of our northern shores much 
more novelty may be expected. 

Miss Hincks found her specimen on " one of the Laminariae," 
but neglected at the time to notice which. The uncertainty of 
habitat is, however, cleared up by Mr. Ralfs, who finds that in 

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June, at Mounts Bay, Cornwall, the stems of L, bulhomy are 
almost exclusively infested with this rare plant. I did not find 
this to be the case last summer at Valentia, where E.fasciailatus 
was the prevailing parasite, nor has any other observer found 
E. HincksicB in similar abimdance. Nevertheless it is, perhaps, 
not uncommon, but without a careful inspection may be over- 
looked. A pocket lens is, however, amply sufficient to detect it, 
the comb-like, often scorpioid, ramuli affording an obvious charac- 
ter. When growing, as it sometimes does, mixed with E, sUicu- 
losuSy the brighter and more glossy, and softer threads of the lat- 
ter may be readily discriminated. 

I shall look forward with interest to its occurrence on the 
Continent. It ought to inhabit most of the Atlantic shores of 
Eiux)pe, but I cannot find any description that agrees with it. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCABPUS HiNCKSiiE: — tmtural size, 1. A portion of a filament. 
3. A pectinate ramulus. 4. Joints of the main filament. 5. Fertile ramulus. 
6. The same, after the discharge of the sporaceous matter : — all more or 
leu high^f magnified. 

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m ^ -'> 


H' 4^'- 




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Sen MELAN0SFEKJt£«. Fam. Edocarpea. 


Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, «ingle-tubed. 
Fruit either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or upores) 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocajipus 
[Lyngb.), — from €«Tt>£, external, and KopfKoty fruit. 

EcTOCARPtrs tomentasus; filaments very slender, flexuons, irregularly 
branched, interwoven into a dense, sponge-like, branching frond; 
utricles stalked, linear-oblong, obtuse. 

EcTOCABPUS tomentosus, Lyngb, Hyd, Dan. p. 132. t. 44. Ag, Sytt p. 163. 
Ag. 8p. Alg. vol. ii. p. 44. Grev. Orypt. Fl. t. 316. Harv, in Hook, Br, 
Fl. vol. ii. p. 826. Harv, in Mack, Ft, Ei6, part 3. p. 181. Wgatt, Jig, 
Danm, no. 37. Fndl, Srd Supjfl. p. 21. KiUz, Phyc, Oen, p. 290. . 

Ceramium tomentosum, Ag. Sgn, p. 64. Hook, Fl. Scot, part 2. p. 86. 

Chantbansia tomentosa, Fndl, drdSupp, p. 21. 

Conferva tomentosa, Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 594. Idghif. Fl, Scot, p. 982. 
Wm, Br. PI. vol. iv. p. 130. DUUo. Brit. Coiff. t. 56. Both. Cat. vol. iL 
p. 180. and vol iii. p. 147. 

Hab. Parasitic on Fucus vesiculosus, HimanthaUa lorea, and other Algse, 
between tide-marks ; occasionally on rocks and stones. Frequent on 
the British coasts. Annual. Summer. 

Geogb.Distb. Atlantic shores of Europe and America. Ca^'Eom, Dr. Hooker. 

Descb. Spongy fronds (composed of innumerable densely matted filaments) 
from one to eight inches or more in length, sometimes half ah inch in 
diameter below, usually much less, commonly from half a line to one or 
two lines, very much branched ; branches alternate or irregular, filiform, 
crowded, simple, or bearing a second or third series of lesser branches ; 
when spread out in the water beautifully feathered with the free portion of 
the filaments of which they are composed ; collapsing, on removal from the 
water, into a spongy subgelatinous mass. FHamenU very slender, equal, 
flexuons, very urr^^ularly branched, the branches patent or divaricating, 
alternate or secund, often very short. Articulation twice or thrice as long 
as broad, more or less pellucid. Utricles linear-oblong, or somewhat ellip- 
tical, obtuse, borne on Uttle stalks, rising from all parts of the lesser 
branches. Colour varying from a pale olive green to a rusty brown. Sub- 
stance soft, and somewhat gelatinous ; closely adhering to paper in diying. 

From all the British species of Ectocatpus this is at once dis- 
tinguished by a remarkable difference in habit, the filaments 
being aggregated together, intertwined, and even firmly com- 
pressed into a branching fix)nd, which at first sight is not unlike 
the spongy frond of a Codium. In some specimens this character 

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is much more strongly developed than in others, the branches in 
them being singularly rope-like -, while in an opposite variety the 
tips of the filaments and their lateral divisions are so nearly free 
that the plant assumes quite a feathery aspect. 

On diiferent parts of the coast this species differs mu(^ in size. 
It appears to flourish best in the north, especially in muddy, land- 
locked bays. Some specimens gathered by Dr. Greville in Staffisi 
and lona , and figured in that author's admirable Crypt. Flora, are 
exceedingly luxuriant ; and I possess others from Carrickfergus 
of nearly equal beauty. The colour, too, is subject to much 
variation, but this is probably dependent on age, becoming more 
and more rusty as the season advances. 

U. tomenio9U8 was among the earliest of the genus noticed by 
botanists. It is described in the Historia Muscorum of Dillenius, 
and rudely figured at Tab. 8. f. 13. of that great work. Such at 
least is the . opinion of Dillwyn : but Agardh refers the descrip- 
tion and figure to his K compacttis, a plant which, to judge by 
the specimens which I have seen, is only an old and matted 
state of jK littordis. 

Fig. EcTOCARPUS TOMENTOsus : — qf the ntUutol me, 2. A smtdl part of the 
fibrous frond : — magnified, 8. Portion of a filament : higkkf magnified. 

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Ser. MsLANOSFBRMEiE. Fam. Edocarpea. 

Plats CCCXXX. 


Gen. Chae. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tnbed, 
without longitudinal striae. Fruit, either spherical or elliptical, ex- 
ternal or imbedded spores', or lanceolate, linear, or conical sUicles 
(pod- like bodies) ; or granular masses formed in consecutive cells of 
the branches. Ectocaepus {Lyngb,), — ^from cicTof, Kofmos, external 

EcTOOABPUS crinitus; filaments decumbent, forming extensive stratified 
tufts, sparingly branched; the branches subsimple, distant, elon- 
gated; ramuii few, patent; spores globose, scattered, sessile; arti- 
culations twice or thrice as long as broad. 

EcTOCABPUS crinitus, Carm. Alg, Jpp. M88, Harv, in Hook, Br, Fl, vol. ii. 
p. 326. Harv. Man. ed. 1. p. 41. ed. 2. p. 60. 

Hab. On muddy sea-shores. Annual. Summer. Bare. Appin, Capt. 

Carmichael. Watermouth, Devon, Mrs. Oriffiths. 
Geogb. Distb. 

Descb. Filaments from two to six inches long, forming widely spreading, fleecy 
tufls, which lie prostrate on the mud, at the recess of the tide, and fre- 
quently cover wide spaces. Filaments sparingly branched (for the genus), 
the branches long, distant, and subsimple, spreading at wide angles, 
mostly alternate, rarely opposite. Eamuli few, distant, scattered, diva- 
ricate or patent, short. Articulations twice or thrice as long as broad, 
containing a pale olive, rather watery endochrome. Spores (which I have 
only seen in a young state) globose, scattered, sessile. Colour a pale olive, 
becoming greener siter the plant has been dried, in which state it adheres 
to paper. Substance soft and membranaceous. 


I am but imperfectly acquainted with this species, vrhich I 
have only seen in a dry state ; and though I have repeatedly 
examined several parts of specimens collected by Capt. Carmi- 
chael, I have not been able to detect the fructification described 
by him; save in a single instance that I chanced upon the 
young spore represented at fig. 3. The nearest affinity of 
E. crinitus seems to be with E.pusUlus, which has a nearly 


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similar ramification, but is a smaller plant, and almost always 
found with firuit. 

Fig. 1. Tuft of EcTOCARPDs GRINITU8 : — the natural me, 2. Farts of two 
filaments : — magmfied, 8. Small portion with a ramulus and young spore : 
— kighhf magnyied. 

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Ser. MELANOsPEBJiEiE. Fam. Ectocarpea. 

Plate CLIII. 


Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tabed. 
Fruit either spherical, eUiptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores), 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
{Lyngb,)y — ^from €«TOf, external, and Kofmoi, fruit. 

Ectocarpus ptmllus; filaments tufted, interwoven, sparingly branched; 
branches distant, very patent, flexuous, bearing a few, irregular, 
patent, flexuous ramuli ; spores roundish-oblong, subsessile, frequently 

Ectocarpus pusillus, Grif. in Wyatt. Alg. Lmm. no. 212. Harv, Man, p. 41, 
E, Bot. Suppl t. 2872. 

Hab, Parasitical on several of the smaller Algse. Annual. Bare. Torquay, 
Mrs, Griffiths. Land's End, St. Michaers Mount, and Ilfracombe,. 
Mr, Rolfs, 

Gbogr. Distr. South Coast of England. 

Descr. Filaments forming intricate, more or less interwoven tufts, from three 
to six inches in length, resembling " pale-brown wool ;" slender, subsimple 
or sparingly branched, flexuous or somewhat zigzag, of equal diameter 
throughout, obtuse. Branches few, distant, very patent, very unequal in length, 
variously curved, obtuse, naked, or having a few very patent or horizontal, 
obtuse, unequal, scattered ramuli. Spores generally abundant, scattered 
over the filaments, roundish-oblong or sessile or subsessile, very eUiptical, 
frequently opposite. In some cases the empty spore-case, after it has 
discharged the spore, alters its form, acquires joints, and seems to 
elongate into a ramulus. Articulations of the principal branches rather 
longer than broad, filled with granular fluid, contracted at the joints. 
Substance membranous, void of gloss, adhering, but not veiy closely, to 
paper in drying. Colour ^ when young, greenish oUve, becoming gradually 
a pale brown. 

One of the least beautiful forms of the genus, but not without 
interest, as a connecting link between the simpler and more 
branching species. It was first found by Mrs. GriflSths in the 
year 1835, and first made known to botanists in the excellent^ 
and often quoted, 'Algae Danmonienses ' of Mrs. Wyatt. It 
grows on several of the smaller Algae, which it clothes with 
shaggy flocculi, compared by Mrs. GriflBths to tufts of " pale- 
brown wool.*' In drying it sometimes assumes a green colour. 

The nearest species, among British plants at least, to which it 

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approaches, is the E, crinitus of Carmichael, a little-known plant, 
having a very similar mode of branching and general habit ; but 
differing in its greener colour, larger size, and more especially in 
the form of its fruit, and in the locality in which it is found. 

Ectocarpns ptmllm^ has not, that I am aware, been noticed 
anywhere save on the south coast of England, but it is one of 
those unobtrusive plants, if I may so call them, which, unless 
closely looked for, are easily over-looked; and as it has few 
beauties to recommend it to the mere gatherer of " pretty things," 
it may often be neglected as not worth notice, or as being some 
other plant in an imperfect state. It is no easy matter, at all 
times, to recognize the different Edocarpi by the naked eye, and 
this accounts for so many species of this genus being passed over 
by persons who are unaccustomed to the microscope. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCARPUs PU8ILLUS ; growing on OoraUina officinaUs : — of the 
natural size. 2. Portion of a filament, in fruit : — magnified. 2. Portion of 
the same : — more highly magnified. 

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Set. MsLAifOSPKBUEJS. Fam. Ectocarpea. 



Gen. Ghab. Fronds capillaiy, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed, 
without longitudinal striae. Fruit, either spherical or elliptical, ex- 
ternal or imbedded spores-, or lanceolate, linear, or conical sUicles 
(pod-like bodies); or granular masses formed in consecutive cells 
of the branches. Ectocaepus {Lyngb,), — from €ictos, KOfmos, external 

EcTOCARPus distortus; filaments very much branched, matted together, 
dark-brown, angularly bent; branches spreading at very obtuse 
angles, alternate or secund ; ramuH horizontally patent or recurved, 
scattered, short, spine-like, obtuse; spores obovate, sessile or sub- 

EcTocAEPUS distortus, Carm, Jig. Jppin, M8S, cum Ic, Hano, in Hook, Br, 
Fl. vol. ii. p. 326. Earv, Man. ed. 1. p. 42. ed. 2. p. 60. 

Has. Parasitical on the leaves of Zostera marina. Annual. Sommer 
and autumn. Appin, Ckipt, Carmickael (1824), Rev, D, Lands- 
borough (1850). 

Geogb. Diste. 

Desce. Tt^fts from four to eight inches long or more, very dense and full ; the 
threads of which they are composed closely matted together and inextri- 
cable. Filaments very much branched, and in a veiy irregular manner 
between alternate and dichotomous ; the branches spreading at very wide 
angles, forming almost rounded axils, and bent at intervals in a zigzag 
manner. Lesser branches either spreading at right angles or recurved. 
Ramuli scattered freely along the branches, divaricating, short, spine-like, 
but obtuse. Articulaiums pretty uniformly as long as broad, enclosing a 
square mass of dark-coloured endochrome, the waUs of the cells thick, 
leaving wide colourless dissepiments. Spores (which 1 formerly examined 
on one of Capt. Carmichaers specimens, but which I have not succeeded 
in finding on the one now figured) obovate or eUiptical, scattered, sessile 
or slightly stalked, dark brown, with a pellucid lunbus. Colour a deep 
chestnut-brown. Substance membranaceous, and very brittle, if moistened 
after having been dried. The plant imperfectly adheres to paper. 

In a former number, under E. Landsburffii (Plate CCXXXIII.) 
I have pointed out the marks of distinction between that species 
and the present, its nearest ally. A comparison of the two 
figmres will now enable the student to appreciate the characters 

VOL. III. 2 A 

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of these plants, and, I hope, to discriminate between them. 
E. LandsJmrgii is not only more thorny in aspect, but is of a 
far more rigid substance, and much less transparent : nor does 
it grow in large densely interwoven tufts like E. distortus. 
Both species appear to be of rare occurrence. 

The figure now given has been prepared partly from an 
original drawing by Garmichael, and partly from one of his 

Fig. 1. Toft of EcTOCABPUS DiSTOKTUS : — the naUaral nze, 2. Portion of a 
filament, to show tlie branching : — moffuified. 3. Small fragment of the 
same t — kighly magnified. 

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Mcite. CCJUnL., Jitli. 

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Ser. MELAMOSPESUKat. ■ Fam. Ectocarfea. 



Gen. Chae, Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
Fruit either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores) borne 
on the ramnli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocabpus {Lyngb.), 
— from €«Tw, external, and Kafmos,/ruit, 

EcTOCABPUS LandAwrgii ; filaments dark-brown, tenacious, intricate, 
much branched; branches irregularly forked, divaricated, zigzag, 
bristling with numerous short, spine-like, horizontal ramuli; articu- 
lations shorter than broad, the endochrome filling the cell, and 
recovering its shape on being moistened, after having been dried. 

Hab. Dredged in deep water, in land-locked bays; rare. Annual. 
Summer. Lamlash, Isle of Arran, Rev. B. Landsborough. Bound- 
stone Bay, Qalway, W. K H. 

Oboob. Distb. Shores of Scotland and Ireland. 

Descb. FHaments capillary, one or two inches in length, densely entangled in 
small tofts, or rolled together in masses, irregularly much branched, of 
about the same diameter from the base to the apex. Branches spreading 
at very wide angles, dichotomous, or alternate, the lesser divisions very 
patent, horizontal, or recurved. Bamuli short, spine-like, horizontal, simple, 
or forked, not hfdf a line in length, now thinly, now thickly scattered over 
the branches, rarely opposite. Articulations shorter than broad, filled by 
a coloured bag; the dissepiments and border very narrow. Substance 
tenacious, membranous, not closely adhering to paper, and not affected 
by long steeping in fresh water. Colour^ a dark brown. 

The first specimens which I received of this curious little 
plant were dredged by my Mend the Kev. D. Landsborough in 
Lamlash Harbour, a circumstance which I record in the specific 
name ; pleased with the opportunity thus afforded me of con- 
necting Mr. Landsborough's name with the botany of an island 
whose history and natural beauties it has been to him a labour 
of love to illustrate by his pen.* 

The ramification of our E. Landsbwrgii so nearly agrees with 
that of E, distortus, Carm., that I felt disposed, at first, to 
r^ard it as that species. But a careful comparison of both 

* Arran, a poem in six cantos ; and Excursions to Arran, with reference to 
the natural history of the island. By the Bev. D. Landsborough : — Edinburgh, 

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plants, placed side by side on the table of the microscope, has 
convinced me of their perfect distinctness. In E. distorim the 
endochrome is small, leaving wide, dissepiments and colourless 
borders ; the substance is exceedingly tender, and the branches 
break up into innumerable firustules when re-moistened. In fact, 
it is impossible to trace the ramification from the extreme rotten- 
ness of the moistened frond. In E. Landshwrgii on the con- 
trary, the endochrome completely fills the cavity ; the dissepi- 
ments are mere lines ; and the substance is exceedingly tough, 
and may be kept in fresh water for hours or days, without 
injury. These characters appear to me sufficient. We must 
also bear in mind that E. distortm is a littoral species, while our 
new species has only beeu found by dredging in deep water. It 
appears to be of rare occurrence. Mr. Landsborough found 
only a few small tufts ; nor was I much more fortunate in col- 
lecting it at Roundstone. It is satisfactory to know, however, 
as establishing the character of the species, that the specimens 
from the west of Ireland agree in all respects with those from 

Fig. 1. EcTOCABPUs Landsburgii: — 0/ the natural size, 2. A branching 
portion. 3. Part of the same. 4. Transverse section of the stem : — all 
more or leu MghUf magnified. 

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mite cxcvir 

W.H H del ftlirti . 

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Ser. MsLANOSPSKiCBiE. Fam. Ectoearpece. 

Plate CXCVII. 


Gen. Chab. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
Fruit either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores) 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocaepus 
[Lj^ngb.), — ^from c/crof, external, and Kapnos^ fruit. 

Ectocaepus liloralis; tufts dense, interwoven, olive-brown or foxy; fila- 
ments coarse, much and irregularly branched, the ultimate branchlets 
patent, alternate, or rarely opposite ; masses of fructification imbedded 
in the substance of the branches, in the form of oblong swellings. 

EcTOCARPUS litorahs, Lyngb. Hyd. Dan. p. 130. t. 42. (excl. var. )9.) Ag, 
Sp. Alg, vol. ii. p. 40. Harv. in Hook, Br, M, vol. ii. p. 325. Harv. in 
Mack, Fl. Hib, part 3. p. 181. Harv. Man. p. 40. TTyatt, Alg. Danm. 
no. 129. Kutz. Phgc. Gen. p. 289. Endl. 3rd Suppl. p. 21. 

EcTOCABPUS compactus, Ag. 1^. Alg. vol. ii. p. 41. 

Ectocaepus ferrugiueus, Ag. Sgst. p. 163. Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. ii. p. 43. 
KiUz. Fhyc. Gen. p. 289 (?) 

Conferva Utoralis, Linn. Sp. FL p. 1634. Huds. Fl. Ang. p. 594. Lightf. 
Fl. Scot. p. 979. ITith. Br. Ar. vol. iv. p. 130. Both, Cat. Bot. vol. i. 
p. 152. DiUw. Cof^. i. 81. E. Bot. t. 2290. 

Hab. Parasitical on Fuel and Laminaria, within and beyond the influence 
of the tide. Annual ? At all seasons. Very common on the British 

Geoor. Distr. Abundant throughout the Northern and Atlantic Oceans. 

Descr. Filaments from six to twelve inches long, densely tufted, coarse, ex- 
cessively branched, and often bundled together and matted into inextri- 
cable fascicles. Branches spreading, very irregularly inserted, usually 
alternate or scattered, sometimes, especially the smaller ones, opposite, 
repeatedly divided, of unequal length and composition. Famuli scattered, 
or somewhat fascicled, usually dtemate, erecto-patent, filiform, slightly 
tapering. Articulations about as long as broad, or a little longer. Masses 
o{ fructyication formed at intervals in the substance of the smaller branches 
and ramuh, oblong, more or less elongated, consisting of swellings, twice 
the diameter of the filament, dark-coloured, and transversely striate. Colour 
when younff, a greenish olive, becoming more and more brown, and even 
foxy, or reddish in old age. Substance soft, but not gelatinous, closely 
adhering to paper in drying, and not recovering well on re-immersion. 

Oue of the commonest of the British Algae, and \iddely dispersed 
aloug the shores of the ocean of most temperate countries, its 
specific name Utoralis is peculiarly applicable. Nor is this shore 
plant at aU particular in choosing the substances to which it 

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adheres, or the depth of water where it vegetates. It equally 
infests the Fuci, which grow between tide-marks, covering with 
a shaggy brown fleece those that occur near high-water mark, 
and those that prefer a deeper level ; and the Laminarue that 
are never exposed to the air. It thus extends nearly throughout 
the whole belt occupied by sea plants. Nor is it confined to 
open sea shores ; it frequents estuaries, and ascends tidal rivers 
for a considerable distance, growing either on Fucus vesiculosus 
or on submerged wood-work, and even on mud. Towards the 
close of the summer the tufts become detached, and float about 
in large masses, and at length are stranded in broad belts along 
the coast. On these, decaying under the atmosphere, Captain 
Carmichael first detected the curious S^harozyya Carmickaelii 
already figured in our first volume. (PI. CXIII.) 

I have no hesitation in uniting the K cornpactm and B./erruffi- 
nem of Continental authors, with our E. litoralis. The characters 
attributed to those forms depend on age, and are gradually as- 
sumed as the plant passes its maturity and tends to decay. In 
the first stage of its decline it frequently becomes much matted 
into ropy strings, and thus becomes K compacttis ; and eventually 
assumes a rusty colour, and becomes E.ferruginem. 

Fig. 1. Tuft of EcTOCABPUs LiTOEALis gTowing on a fragment of luau «er- 
ratuB : — of the natural me, 2. Part of a fertile branch. 3. Kamuli firom 
the same : — both magnified in different degrees. 

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FlaU CCnW. 

W H H lei ft iith 

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Ser. Melanosfekkks. Fam. Eotocarpea. 



Gen. Chae, FUaments capillary^ jointed, olivaceous or brown, flaccid, 
without longitudinal strisB. Fruit either spherical or elliptical, ex- 
ternal or imbedded spores ; or lanceolate, linear, or conical silumles 
(pod-like bodies) ; or granular masses formed in consecutive cells of 
the branches. Ectocabp us (Lyn^b.), — from €ktos, Kofmos, external 

EcTOCAKPUS longi/ructus ', tufts large, branching, the divisions feathery; 
filaments robust, excessively branched, branches mostly opposite, the 
lesser ones set with short, spine-like, opposite or rarely alternate 
ramuli; articulations as long as broad; siUcules very long, linear- 
lanceolate, attenuate, densely striate transversely, terminating the 
principal branches and ramuli. 
EcTOCABPUs longifiructas', Harv, Man, Ed, 2. p. 61. 

Hab. Parasitical on Algse between tide-marks. Skaill, Orkney, Mrs. 

Descb. Tttfta six or eight inches long, much branched and feathery. FUawenii 
robust, not much entangled, excessively divided, the branches and ramuU 
very generally opposite, sometimes alternate, spreading at wide angles. The 
smaller branches are furnished with numerous, opposite or alternate, short, 
spine-like ramuli, and mostly end in the veiy long siUcules which are so 
striking a feature in this plant. These silicules are very much longer than 
the branchlet that bears them, and taper from the base to the apex, which 
is very acute or acuminate : they are closely netted with longitudinal and 
transverse lines. ArtictUatioM of the stem and branches about as long as 
broad, or a little longer. Colour, a greenish ohve. It closely adheres to 
paper in drying. 

I here figure an Ectocarpua from Orkney nearly related to 
E, litoralis, rather than to E. siliculoaus, and differing chiefly in 
the greater luxuriance of the frond, and the different form of the 
fructification. The fructification of our present plant, however, 
must be regarded more as an exaggeration of that of E. litoralis 
than as essentially different. In E. litoralis the apices of the 
branches grow out beyond the portion converted into fructifica- 
tion, and the latter therefore appears as if it were immersed in 

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the branch ; here when the ramuli are fertile the whole of the 
upper portion of the ramulus becomes the fruit. Such a cha- 
racter, if constant, would very well serve for a specific diagnosis, 
but its constancy has yet to be tested. Our E. lonffifructua rests 
at present upon a solitary specimen preserved in the herbarium 
of the Rev. J. H. Pollexfen, of Clapham, to whom I am indebted 
for my knowledge of this plant, and who has allowed me to 
abstract one of the lateral branches of his specimen. Persons 
visiting Orkney would do well to look carefully after the Ecto- 
carpi^ among which many more forms may yet be noticed. The 
characters of these plants cannot always be detected by the naked 
eye, nor are they easily recognisable except when in fiructification. 
I am fully sensible that it is unsafe to propose new species &om 
an inspection of individual specimens, but there are cases in 
which this course may safely be taken ; and it will be remem- 
bered that Edocarpus Hincksia is an instance of a species 
founded, like the present, on a solitary specimen picked up by a 
lady, but which, in a short time, was ascertained to exist on 
many distant shores, and which is now well established. I hope 
the present experiment may be equally successful 

Eig. ] . EcTOOABPUS LONGIFEUCTU8 : — the natural nse. 2. A branch 
nified. 8. SOicoles from the same : — higMy magnified. 

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TlaU CC. 

\V H H del et litiv 

Imtc. BadhuL k £#**« iz!^ 

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■Ser. MxLANOSFEBU&fi. Fam. Entocarpea. 

Plate CO. 


Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
FruU either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores) 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
(Lyngb), — ^from cjctoj, external, and Kopnos, fruit. 

Ectocarpus granulosus', filaments olive, the principal divisions slightly 
entangled ; branches free, feathery ; the lesser branches and ramuU 
opposite, spreading ; utricles eUiptical, dark coloured, sessile on the 

Ectocarpus granulosus, Ag, Syst. p. 163. Ag. S^. Alg, vol. ii. p. 45. Harv, 
in Hook, Fl. Brit. vol. ii. p. 326. Harv. in Mack. Fl. Hid. part 3. p. 182. 
Mdl. Srd Suppl. p. 21. Harv. Man. p. 42. JFyatt, Alg. Danm. no. 38. 

Conferva granulosa, F. Bot. t. 2351. 

Hab. On rocks ; also on Corallines and various other Algae, in rock-pools 
between tide marks. Annual. May and June. Not uncommon on 
the English and Irish coasts. 

Geoor. Distr. Heligoland. Coast of France. 

Descr. Rooty a small disc. Filaments more or less densely tufted, capillary, 
from four to eight or ten inches long, much branched, with more or less of 
a principal, undivided stem, furnished with lateral branches of imequal 
length, so that the habit is often virgate. The chief divisions somewhat 
matted together, but all the lesser ones free and distinct, standing out on 
all sides, in a feathery manner. Lesser branches and ramuli very generally 
opposite, sometimes alternate, spreading at wide augles, unequal, long and 
short intermixed together without order, somewhat attenuated. Apices 
rather acute. Articulations about as long as broad, faintly striate longitu- 
dinally. Utricles abundantly scattered on the ramuli, elliptical, dark- 
coloured, with a narrow limbus, sessile on the upper faces of the ramuH. 
Colour, when quite fresh, a clear oHve, becoming green in fresh water, and 
oft^n yellowish as the plant increases in age. Substance soft, but not gela- 
tinous, adhering to paper in drying. 

A well-marked and large growing species, originally discovered 
by Mr. Borrer, and first described and figured in English 
Botany. It is by no means uncommon on various parts of 
the coasts, usually growing on the smaller Algae in tide-pools, 
though occasionally flourishing on the fronds of Laminaria. The 
opposite branches and ramuli, bearing dark-coloured elliptical 
utricles on their upper side, readily distinguish this plant from 
any of its British congeners. The species, which most nearly 


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approach it, are E. spharcfphorus and K brackiatus, but both 
these differ in fiructification. In some varieties the ramuli are 
not regularly opposite. It is frequently a difficult matter to 
trace the affinity of such wayward forms ; and possibly one or 
two species, now confounded with K (/frannlosus^ may eventually 
be separated. 

Fig. 1. Tuft of EcTOOABPUS GBANTJL0SU8 :---</ the natural size. 2. Portion of 
a fertile branch. 8. Eamuli and utricles from the same : — both moffttj/ied 
in d^ereiU degrees. 

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riafe CWM 

r.^.tLV" 1- 

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Ser. Melanospbbhea. Fam. Eciocarpea. 

Plate CXXVI. 


Gen. Char. Frond capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single-tubed. 
Fruil either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or stpores), 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
(Lyngb.)^ — ^from c#cto^, external, and Kofmos, fruit. 

Ectocarpus spAaropiorw ; filaments slender, short, densely tufted, much 
branched ; upper branches patent, opposite or in fours, bearing patent, 
opposite ramuli; spores globose, sessile, either opposite to each other, 
or to a branchlet. 

EcTOCABPUS sphserophoras, Carm. Jig, Appin, ined. Harv, in Hook, Br, 
Fl. vol. ii. p. 826. Han), in Mack, M, Hib, part 3. p. 182. Harv, Mm, 
p. 42. Wyaity Alg, Danm, no. 173. 

Ectocarpus brachiatus? Ag. 8p, Alg. vol. ii. p. 42. 

Hab. Parasitical on the smaller Algse, between tide-marks. Annual. Sum- 
mer. Bare. Appin, on Cladophora rupestris, Capt, Carmichael, 
Sidmouth and Torquay, on PtUota sericea, Mrs. Griffiths. Bantry 
Bay, Miss Hutchins, Land's End, Mount^s Bay, ifiracombe, and 
Milford Haven, all on Ptilota sericea; Menai Bridge, on Cladophora 
rupestris, Mr, Rolfs, In a narrow, darkened chasm, on east side 
of Eda, Orkney, parasitical on Ptilota sericea, and Clad, nipeslris, 
Lieut, F. W. L. Thomas and Dr. McBain. 

Geogr. Distr. British Islands. Baltic Sea ? 

D£SCR. FUaments densely tufled, capillary, one to three inches high, straightish, 
the tufts somewhat spiry ; main threads somewhat matted together, the 
branches free, many times divided. Lesser brauches short, opposite, or in 
fours, very patent, furnished at distant intervals with pairs of short oppo- 
site spine-like ramuli. Apices attenuated but not very acute. Spores 
spherical, dark ohve, with a pellucid border, sessile, borne on the sides 
of the branches, and opposite to each other or to a ramulus ; each spore, 
in feet, occupying the normal position of a ramulus, and substituted for 
one on fertile specimens. Articulations about as long as broad, semi- 
transparent, with a few large grains. Colour oUvaceous, or rusty, or yel- 
lowish-brown. Substance flaccid, closely adhering to paper, wholly without 
gloss when dry. 

This species was first observed by the late Capt. Carmichael, 
on the western shores of Scotland, about the year 1824 ; since 
which period it has been detected in many other localities between 
Orkney and Cornwall, but is nowhere a common plant, and where 
it does occur, it is " not diflFiised ", as Mr. Ralfs well observes. 

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" throughout the bay, but is confined to the space of a few rocks, 
on which it forms, as it were, a colony, or is gregarious." It 
appears by no means indifferent to what plant it attaches its 
fronds, being very generally found growing on PtUota sericea, 
though frequently also on Cladophora rupeatris. I am not aware 
that it ever infests any other Algae. 

The nearest affinity is with E. brachiatua (PL IV.), from 
which it is most readily known by the difference in the fiuit, the 
spores being in that species lodged in swellings or enlargements 
of the smaller branches in the axils of the opposite ramuli ; and 
in this being formed by a metamorphosis of the ramuli them- 
selves. My friend. Professor Kiitzing, strongly urges that this 
difference indicates, not a different species, but a different con- 
dition of the same species : in like manner as the two modes of 
fructification found in the Floridem are not to be regarded as 
specific characters. There is something, certainly, still to be 
cleared up respecting the fructification of the Ectocarpi, to recon- 
cile the varying appearances which the organs of reproduction 
assume in different species. Nevertheless I am disposed to 
retain the present species distinct from E. brachiatuSy at least, 
until their identity be proved ; because, independently of fructi- 
fication, there is a difference in aspect, more readily seen than 
described in words, and because they are found as parasites upon 
different Algae. Both species have been collected and observed 
by very accurate botanists, who do not find them intermixed, 
and are firmly persuaded that they are essentially different. 

Dr. J. D. Hooker brought from Cape Horn an Ectocarpus {E. 
geminatus, Hook. fil. et Harv.) closely resembling our E. spharo- 
phoruSy and also forming spores by an alteration of the ramuli ; 
but its spores are of a conical, not spherical, form. It would be 
very interesting should future observations detect this analogous 
species on the shores of the Shetland Islands. 

Fig. 1. EcTOCABPUS sPHiEKOPHORUS ; a tuft : — of the natural size, growing on 
a fragment of Ptilota sericea, 2. Portion of a brancL 3. Bamuli, with 
spores : — doik magnified. 

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Ser. Melanosfkahba. Fam. Eetoearpea, 

Plate IV. 


Gen. Chae. Filaments capillary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, single 
tubed. Fruit -f either spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate capsules borne 
on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. 

EcTOCAKPUS brachiatus ; frond finely tufted, feathery, much branched; the 
branches free, opposite or quatmiate ; ramuli opposite, spreading ; cap- 
sules imbedded m the branches, forming oblong swelling situated on 
the lesser branches or in the axils of two opposite ramuh. 

EcTOCABFUS brachiatus, Harv, in Hook, Br, Fl, yoL ii. p. 326. Man. p. 42. 

Wyatt. Alg, Danm. no. 174. 
EcTOCARPTJS cruciatua, Ag, Sp. Alg, voL iii. p. 44. Bndl, Zrd Suppl, p. 21. 
CoNFEBYA bracbiata, JBng, Bot, t. 2671. 

Hab. Bare. At Cley, on the coast of Norfolk, in ditches of brackish wa- 
ter, among Enteromorpka comjoressa, 1808, Sir W. J. Hooker', in the 
sea, growing on Rhodomenia palmata, at Torquay, Mrs. Griffiths, 
Toughall, July 1837, Miss BaU. Lambray, 1838, Mr. W. Thompson. 

Geogb. Distb. Only known on the coast of England, and east and south of Ireland. 

Desc. Frond 2-4 inches high, finely tufted, wavy and feathery ; the main stems 
slightly entangled, excessively branched, all the branches and branchlets 
opposite or quatemate ; the lesser branches generally naked below, but fur- 
nished in their upper half with one or two pair of opposite spreading 
ramuli, which are m like manner furnished with similar snialler ones. Cap- 
sules immersed in the joints of the branches, often containing a double or 
bipartite mass, usually situate at the nodes of the branchlets. Colour a 
ptde olive green. 

There is some confusion in the history of this plant, which is 
one reason why I give it an early figure in this work. In the 
year 1801, Mr. Dawson Turner, and in 1808, Sir W. J. Hooker, 
found in ditches of brackish water by the sea side on the Norfolk 
coast a plant of which a figure and description appeared in the 
'English Botany' under the name of Conferva brachiata. That 
figure evidently represents a species of Bctocafpm^ having opposite 
branches and immersed firuit. The Norfolk plant has not been 
found of late years, and no specimen now exists in Sir W. J. 
Hooker's Herbarium. The English Botany plate consequently re- 
mamed for many years the only record of the species, until Mrs. 

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Ghiffiths discovered in Torbay a plant possesing apparently the 
leading or essential characters of the Norfolk one, but growing 
in the open sea and always as a parasite on Rhodomenia palmata. 
Meanwhile Agardh described a new Ectocarpus brachiatus^ a native 
of the Baltic, and conferred the name E. cruciatus on the E. Bot. 
species. The name brachiatus no doubt belongs to the Norfolk 
plant, and if the Torbay individuals now figured and described, 
and of which excellent specimens have been published in Mrs. 
Wyatt's " Al^a Banmoniensis " are essentially different, a new 
name should be conferred on them ; and Agardh's E, brachiatus, 
if it be not the same with E. spharophorus, Carm., might be 
called E. Agardhianus. 

Pig. 1. EcTOCABFUS BKACHIATUS : — ttoturol me. 2. A portion of tlie frond : 
— magnified, 3. Apex of a branch. 4. Fragment, to show the imbedded 
fimit : — more highly magnified. 

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]'h,te c\\\n 

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Ser. MELANOSPERMEiE. Fam. Ectocarpea, 

Plate CXXXII. 


Gen. Char. Frond capiUary, jointed, olive or brown, flaccid, siiigle-tnbed. 
Fruit either •spherical, elliptical, or lanceolate utricles (or spores) , 
borne on the ramuli, or imbedded in their substance. Ectocarpus 
[Lyngb,)f — ^from ticrhs, external, and KOfmhs, fruit. 

Ectocarpus Mertensii ; distichous ; branches opposite, of unequal length, 
linear, mostly undivided, closely set, throughout their whole extent 
with slender, subulate, opposite ramuli; joints of the stem longitudi- 
nally striate, transparent, with a central coloured band, rather shorter 
than their breadth ; spores binate, imbedded in the ramuli. 

Ectocarpus Mertensii, jiff. Sp, Alg. vol. ii. p. 47. Hook, Br, Fl. vol. ii. 
. p. 327. Wyatt, Jig. Danm, no. 130. Harv, Man, p. 43. Endl, 3rd 
SuppL p. 21. 
Conferva Mertensii, KBot, t. 999. IHllw, Conf, SuppL p. 79. 

Hab. On mud covered rocks and stones, near low-water mark and at a 
greater depth. Annual. April and May. Rare; but pretty gene- 
rally distributed. Yarmouth, Mr, Wigg. Coast of Durham, Mr, W. 
Backhouse, Torbay, Mrs. Griffiths, Salcombe, very fine, Mrs. 
Wyatt, Sidmouth, Miss Cutler, Marazion and Ilfracombe, Mr, Ralfs, 
Mount Edgecumbe, Plymouth, Rev, W, S, Hore and Mr, Rohloff, 
Bantry Bay, Miss Hutchins, Dredged in Strangford Lough, Mr. 
W, Thompson, Howth, Br, Coulter, Cove of Cork and Malahide, 
T^. II, H, Carrickfergus and Eoundstone Bay, Mr, M<f Calla, 
Orkney, Rev. J, II, Pollexfen, 

GEO^iR. DisTR. British Islands. Atlantic shores of France. 

Descr. Fronds densely tufted, but not in the least matted together. Stems from 
two to six, or more rarely twelve inches in length, nearly or entirely simple, 
closely furnished from the base to the apex with distichous, opposite, erecto- 
patent, lateral branches, which are of very unequal length, long and short 
being indiscriminately mixed together. These primary branches are, in 
large specimens, furnished with a second or third series, also very unequal 
in length, but none of them long, so that the general outline of the main branch 
is narrow. Both primary and secondary branches are pectinated, at every 
joint, with a pair of opposite, subulate, patent ramuh, which in young 
specimens terminate in a long, hair-like acumination, that drops off at a 
later period of growth. Joints of the stem rather shorter than broad, with 
a central band ; those of the ramuli very many times shorter than broad, 
each formed of several cellules. Spores immersed in the subulate ramuli 
about the centre, growing in pairs, separated by a transparent line, each 
spore of a half ellipsoid shape, dark oKve. Colour, when young, a clear 
brown olive, becoming foxy when old, and acquiring a greenish shade, if 
dried after some steeping in fresh water. Substance flaccid. The plant 
closely adheres to paper. 

1) 2 

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This charming plant, one of the rarest and most beautiful of 
the filiform marine Algae, is one of the many interesting disco- 
veries which we owe to Mr. Lilly Wigg, of Yarmouth, who first 
gathered it in the year 1799. It was named by Mr. Turner in 
compliment to the late celebrated Professor Mertens, of Bremen, 
" as well to bear testimony to his unwearied zeal and extensive 
knowledge of the confervoid Algae, as in token of private 
respect "; and, though not the discoverer of this species, it can- 
not be questioned that the compliment was very appropriately 
and justly paid. No botanist of his day, with the exception of 
Mr. Turner himself, was so deeply skilled in the study of marine 
botany, as Professor Mertens. 

Edocarpm Mertensiiy from the date of its first discovery to 
the year 1834, was found in such small quantities that it was 
known to very few botanists, except by the figure in ' Eng. Bot.' 
In that year it was gathered by Mrs. GriflSths, Miss Cutler, and 
Mrs. Wyatt, in three stations on the Devonshire coast, and in 
considerable plenty ; and, more recently, it has been detected in 
many localities by various collectors. In land-locked harbours, 
such as Salcombe, it attains a very large size, some of Mrs. 
Wyatt's specimens being upwards of a foot in length. In more 
exposed places it seldom exceeds three or four inches. It is in 
greatest beauty in April and May, at which time its fronds 
are glossy, beautifully feathered and of a clear olive ; later in 
the season it becomes browner, and looses much of the feathery 
appearance. In some respects it exhibits *a transition to Spha- 
celariay proving the close connection which exists between that 
genus and EctocarpuB, and the little necessity there is for 
placing them in different families, as is now done by Continental 

Fig. 1. EcTOCARPUS MfRTENsii : — of the natural me, 2. Upper portion of a 
branch. 3. Fertile ramuli, with the immersed, binate spores. 4. Apex of 
a young ramulus, ending in a fibre : — M more or Usb highly magnified. 

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8er. tixLUHoatvaaam. Fam. Edoearpta. 

Plate CI. 

Gen. Char. FUametUa capillaij, flacdcl^ jointed (simple), beset with quadri- 
fiurioos, simple, spine-like ramnli, clothed with byssoid fibres. Pruc- 
tifieatian, elliptical utricles (or spores f) containing a daric-coloored 
sporaceons mass. MTBioTRiCHiA {Ha/rv,), — from pApms, a tiauscmd, 
and &pii, a Aair. 

Mtbiotbichia elavaformis; stem densely Inset with qnadiifiunous ramuli, 
which gradually increase in length mun the base upwards, giving the 
frond a dub-shaped figure. 

Myriotbichia daysformis, Harv, in Hook, Jowm. Bot, vol L p. 300. 1. 188. 
Hart), in Mack. Fl, Hid. part 8. p. 182. ITyaU, Alg. Damn. no. 131. Harv. 
Man, p. 44. JShidL Zrd Sujppl. p. 24. 

Hab. Parasitical on Chorda lometUaria. Annual. Summer. Bantrj Bay, 
Miss Hutching. Torouay, Mrs. Griffiths. Cable Island, near YougluJ, 
Miss Ball. iNorth of Irdand and BaUantrse^ Ayrshire, Mr. W. Thorny- 
son. Howth and Balbriggan, Miss Gower. Mount's Bay, Cornwall, 
Mr. Baifs. Falmouth, Miss Warren. Jersey, Miss While. 

GsoGB. DiSTB. British Islands. 

DssCB. Fronds tufled, half an indi or rather more in length, flacdd, subgela- 
tinous, simple, Ihiear-dayate, dark oliye brown, surrounded by colourless 
fibres. Prunaiy thread articulated, bare of ramuli bdow for a short dis- 
tance aboye the base, upwards densely beset with patent simple quadri&rious 
ramuli, the lowermost of which are yery short or merely rudimentary, the 
uppermost gradually longer and those toward the apex firequently producing, 
in old specimens, a second series near their tips. From the apices and 
sides of the ramuli, and from the lower part of the stem, spring innumerable 
dender, byssoid, colourless, long-jointed fibres, which greatly increase the 
bulk of the plant, and impart to it the peculiar softness. Articulations of 
the stem, and ramuli shorter than theur breadth. Utricles dli^ticd, or 
somewhat ovate, sessile on the main threads, occupying the position of a 
ramulus, haying a pelludd limbus and containing a diurk-coloured sporaceous 
mass. Colour dark oliyaceous brown. 

This carious little parasite, which, in some seasons, is not 
uncommon on the fronds of CAofda lomentaria^ though far less 
conmion than the closely-allied M.^i/brmis, was discovered by 
Miss Hutchins about the year 1808, a circumstance unknown to 
me when, in 1834, 1 published it as a novelty in the ^ Journal of 
Botany. To the majority of botanists it was then indeed new. 

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for no notice had been taken of Miss Hutchins's specimens in 
' Eng. Bot.'; and no other observer had collected the plant until 
Mrs. Grijfiths^ in 1833^ gathered the spedmens which were 
described by me. 

In the account which I first published respecting it, I regarded 
it as more nearly aUied to Ectocarpua than to any other genus, 
an opinion to which I still adhere, although Endlicher has placed 
it nearer to Clado8tephu8^ to which its quadrifarious ramuli bear 
some resemblance. In the bug hyaline fibres which plentifully 
doth it in every state, it is distinct from both. These /^e» I 
formerly described as being forked ; on a more careful examina- 
tion I cannot detect this character. They appear to issue indis- 
criminately from the apices, and the lateral sides of the ramuli. 

In the outline of the frond there is much resemblance to Dasy- 
dados davaformis, a curious Mediterranean Alga belonging to 
Siphonea ; but the structure is very widely different. 

Fig. 1. A frond of Chorda lomentaria infected with tufU of MTKiOTBicmA 
CLAViEFORMis : — the natural me, 2. A tuft of MyrioirkJUa cUmtforms. 
3. Two fronds, of different ages. 4. A section showing a utricle, subtended 
by a ramulus, and some of the hairs which clothe the latter v^^aU more or 
les8 fnofffUfied, 

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Ser. MELANOSPEEHEiE. Fom. Ectocarpea. 

Plate CLVI. 


Gen. Chae. Fronds capillary, flaccid, jointed, (simple) beset with quadri- 
farious, simple, spine-like ramuli, clothed with byssoid fibres. Fructi- 
fication ; ellipticle utricles (or spores) containing a dark-coloured mass. 
Myeiotrichia [Harv,), — from /Avpws, a thousand, and Bpi^, a hair. 

MYBiorrBiCKLLjili/ormis; stem filiform, slender, often flexnous or curled, 
beset at irregular intervals with oblong clusters of short, papillaeform 
Myriotbichia filiformis, Harv, Man. p. 44. fFyatt, Alg, Danm, no. 213. 

Hab. Parasitical on Chorda lomentaria, often accompanying M, clava- 
formis. Annual. Summer. Not uncommon on the English and 
Irish shores. 
Geogb. Diste. British Islands. 

Descr. Fronds an inch or more in length, very slender, densely clothing the 
fironds of Chorda lomentaria^ tufted, flexuous, simple, fiHfomi, at intervals 
' appearing thickened or knobbed ; the knobbed portions formed of exceedingly 
dense, short, papillaeform ramuli. Both the ramuli and the main stems 
emit numerous, long, simple, colourless, byssoid fibres. Articulations 
shorter than broad, filled with dense, granular matter. Spores spherical, 
with a hyaUne pericarp, variously scattered along the main filament. Colour 
varying from a yellowish oHve to a pale brown. Substance tender, and 
more or less gelatinous, closely adhering to paper, and usually glossy when 

A comparison of the figure here given, with that of M, clava- 
formis at Plate CI., will best show the diflerences between these 
two plants. It will be seen that while in the former tBe ramuli 
regularly increase in length from the base upwards so as to give 
the frond a club-shaped, or very slender pear-shaped outline ; in 
this they preserve nearly an equal length in diflferent parts of the 
frond, and are collected into oblong clusters, separated by spaces 
bare of ramuli. In all other respects the two plants closely 
resemble each other, and as they are frequently found intermixed 
on the same frond of Chorda lomentaria^ I formerly regarded the 
present as merely a state of M, clavaformis. The merit of 
having correctly distinguished these closely allied species is due 
to Mrs. Griffiths, who first pointed out the peculiar characters 
of both. 


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M. Jiliformis is much the most abmidant species, imd is, 
indeed, very generally to be found clothing the Chorda, when the 
latter grows in small shallow pods, exposed to strong sunlight. 
In such localities almost every frond of Chorda lomentaria is 
converted into a soft, cylindrical brush, from the multitudes of 
these little parasites, clothed vdth their gelatinous, transparent 
hairs, which, while the plant remains in the water, stand out on 
every side, keeping each little filament free of its neighbour. 
When drawn into the air, the whole falls together in a gelatinous 

In the list of British Algse given at the conclusion of our first 
volume, the names Edocarpm simplew, Ag., and E. villum, Harv., 
occur. Since that list was printed I have made a more careftd 
examination of the specimens on which these names were im- 
posed, and fear that both are referable to young states of M. 
Jlli/ormi9. Never having seen an authentic specimen of Agardh's 
B, simplex, I cannot take it upon me to pronounce his plant to 
be identical with the Jersey plant so named by me ; but judging 
fix)m the description given by that author, I think it very pro- 
bable that his plant is the same as ours, and therefore to be 
regarded as a synonyme of M. Jiliformis, In strict priority, should 
this opinion be established, the specific name " simplex " would 
belong to our present species, but as this word denotes a cha- 
racter common to the genus, it seems undesirable to adopt it for 
a species. 

Fig. 1. A plant of Chorda lomentaria infested with Myriotrichia filiformis : 
— of the natural size. 2. Fronds of the latter: — magnified, 8. Small por- 
tion of a frond — hiffkly modified. 

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