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Poles in America 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO 
A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



A COMMEMORATIVE SOUVENIR BOOK 

COMPILED AND PUBLISHED 
ON THE OCCASION OF THE 

Polish Week of Hospitality 

JULY 17 TO 23 

A Century of Progress 
international exposition 

1933 



POLISH DAY ASSOCIATION 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Foreword 



In CONNECTION with the celebration of the Polish Week of 
Hospitality in Chicago during July 17th to 23rd, this souvenir 
book is published to serve as a lasting memorial to the many 
fyiends and supporters of this momentous demonstration. 

J THE millions of non-Poles in America, both in Chicago and 
elseivhere, — it is hoped that this book will serve to, indicate the 
contributions of the Americans of Polish descent to the progress 
of this country. By recounting a bit of the history of Poland, 
the history of the Poles in America, and, more particularly, the 
phenomenal growth of the Polish contingent in Chicago, it is 
hoped that the Poles shall have gained many new friends among 
those who have never fully appreciated the place of the Pole in 
America. 

J THE Poles of America, and the countless numbers of them, 
who came to Chicago to take part in this manifestation of Hos- 
pitality, — this book is designed to renew in their hearts the 
pride which is distinctively theirs, that they are of Polish descent, 
and that they compose that racial category in the melting pot of 
America which has so largely, though perhaps not so conspi- 
cuously, contributed to instilling in American institutions the 
ideals of patriotism, sheer hard work, and love of God, home and, 
country, which characterize the native Pole. 

1 HERE can be no doubt that the visitors to Chicago during this 
week are deeply impressed with the scope and grandeur of the 
spectacle of this Polish Week of Hospitality, planned, arranged, 
and produced by the Poles of Chicago. But it shall have been in 
vain if these visitors will have nothing more to take back with 
them but memories. To the end, then, that those memories may 
be easily recalled for years to come, this book is specially planned. 

l' IN ALLY, to the four hundred thousand Poles of Chicago, who 
have so generously contributed to the growth of Chicago, and 
who have been so zealously interested in helping to make a suc- 
cess of A Century of Progress Exposition in general, and the 
Polish Week of Hospitality in particular, this book is respect- 
fully dedicated. 

ANTHONY C. TOMCZAK, Editor 



[2] 



f 151 



♦ 



Crreetings 



♦ 




N ITS efforts to knit more closely the bonds of fel- 
lowship between Americans of Polish descent and 
Americans of other descents, the Polish Day Asso- 
ciation of Chicago has sponsored this Polish Week 
of Hospitality in conjunction with A Century of 
Progress Exposition. This is by all means appro- 
priate, for 1933 marks a century of progress not 
only for Chicago, but also for the history of the Poles 
in this country. It is our hope that the importance of Polish 
contribution to the development and progress of this country be 
recognized by our fellow- Americans. To that end is directed the 
Polish Week of Hospitality. 

To visitors, and especially to visitors of other than Polish 
descent, we want this week to be truly all that its name implies. 
We want you to feel welcome with us; we want you to sense a 
bit of the cordiality and hospitality that is inherent in Polish 
countrymen. 

We have tried to make the Polish section of this Exposition 
memorable for its exhaustive display of Polish culture, science, 
industry, commerce, and the fine arts. We sincerely hope that 
we shall have successfully conveyed to you our message of 
good will. 

To those who have so generously given of their time and 
energy in making this Week a success, we cannot adequately 
express the full depth of our gratitude. But perhaps its very 
success is sufficient reward. 

LEON C. NYKA, President, 

Polish Dav Association. 



[3] 




Greetings 



■ ■''■''■- .'■ AtJx*iiJtó 



HENRY HORNER, Governor of the State of Illinois: 

"/ am glad to learn that the Polish Day Association, in connection 
with the Polish Week of Hospitality, is publishing a souvenir book in 
which will be recounted some of the great contributions of the Poles in 
America to the Century of Progress. 

"In all fields, whether historical, political, cultural or industrial, the 
Poles have played an important part in the progress of our city, state 
and nation. It is, therefore, only fitting and proper that you celebrate 
your contributions to A Century of Progress and commemorate the 100th 
Anniversary of Poles migrating to this country in large groups for per- 
manent residence. 

"Please accept my congratulations and my sincere and good wishes 
for the success of your Polish Week of Hospitality. 

"Yours very truly, 

"HENRY HORNER, 

"Governor of the State of Illinois." 



EDWARD J. KELLY, Mayor of the City of Chicago: 

"Fellow Citizens of Polish Extraction: 

"It is with real pleasure that I extend to you my official greetings 
and my congratulations on your Week of Polish Hospitality. 

"The contributions of your people to A Century of Progress have 
been many. In every field of endeavor, the Polish people have distinguished 
themselves by their energy, courage, intelligence and enterprise. 

"Your willingness to cooperate with all in the progress of our city 
and our nation has been outstanding . It is therefore, a fitting tribute to 
your nationality that you observe this week as Polish Week of Hospitality. 
I congratulate your organizations on staging this huge and laudable 
project. 

"In the name of Chicago, I extend my hearty greetings to your 
people from other cities and bid them welcome to our midst. 

"With my very best wishes for bountiful success in your under- 
taking, I am 

"Earnestly yours, 

"EDWARD J. KELLY, 

"Mayor, City of Chicago," 




GIFFORD PINCHOT, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania: 

"/ am delighted to give my heartiest greetings to all Americans of 
Polish extraction who are attending the World's Fair, during the 'Polish 
Week of Hospitality.' America will never forget the contributions which 
the Polish people have made to her history. 

"I hope that the Polish Day Association will have real success in 
its program. 

"With all good wishes and much appreciation, 

"Sincerely yours, 

"GIFFORD PINCHOT, 
"Governor." 

[4] 




Greetings 



RUFUS C. DAWES, President, A Century of Progress: 

"We have learned with pleasure that the Polish Day Association 
will publish a commemorative souvenir book entitled "Poles in America, 
Their Contribution to A Century of Progress", and that this book xviii be 
issued in connection with the Polish Week of Hospitality from July 17th 
to July 23rd. 

"We feel greatly interested in this book inasmuch as it xviii under- 
take to record the contributions of Poles to the development of the United 
States, and particularly tvill treat of the great service rendered by the 
large population of Polish descent who have taken such an important part 
in the building of Chicago. 

"We congratulate you upon undertaking a work so important 
and so timely. 

"Yours very truly, 

"RUFUS C. DAWES, 
"President, A Century of Progress." 






TYTUS ZBYSZEWSKI, Consul General of Poland: 

"The 'Polish Week of Hospitality' as a name, reflects the character- 
istic qualities of the Polish Nation, which find perfect expression in the 
old proverb 'Gość iv domu, Bóg w domu,' ('A guest at home means the 
Lord at home'). A Pole lives in brotherly spirit with all people of good 
will. 

"The symbol of this idea tvill not only reflect Polish traditions in this 
country, but will also testify as to the contribution of Poles to American 
life. 

"On this happy occasion of "A Century of Progress," the Poles, 
welcoming guests from near and far, step on the threshold of their new 
home with the traditional Polish sentiment of hospitality in their hearts, 
and give clear testimony that the Polish population in the United States 
is vitally interested in the common welfare and brings to American 
culture the contribution of old Polish traditions. 

"In accepting the invitation to be honorary Chairman of the Executive 
Committee, I ivas positive that the collaboration with the POLISH DAY 
ASSOCIATION would be, as heretofore, a great pleasure for me. It was 
indeed! Following closely the activity of the Executive Committee, and 
the various committees, I have had the opportunity to admire once more 
the splendid organization of this Association, and the devoted and untiring 
work of all its members. 

"I sincerely believe, therefore, that this activity will result in a 
brilliant success, and I desire to express to the Executive Committee, and 
to all members of the POLISH DAY ASSOCIATION, my congratulations 
and best wishes. May this great enterprise constitute a further step in 
the development of the Polish- American people, and may it contribute 
still more towards the strenghtening of the ties of friendship and mutual 
understanding between this great country and Poland. 

"All guests and friends at the 'Polish Week of Hospitality' are heartily 
welcome! 

"TYTUS ZBYSZEWSKI, 

"Consul General of Poland." 

[5] 













Pat 

Dr. Joseph J. Adamkiewicz a 


rons 

. Dr. and Mrs. Leon Grotowski 






Mr. and Mrs. Stan. Adamkiewicz 


Mr. and Mrs. Ewart Harris 






Mr. and Mrs. Steve Adamowski 


Mr. and Mrs. Royal W. Irwin 






Mr. W. J. Andrzejewski 


Dr. and Mrs. C. P. Janicki 






Hon. Mr. and Mrs. Fr. Bobrytzke 


Hon. and Mrs. Edmund K. Jarecki 






Mr. Steve J. Barrett 


Mr. Theodore Jaszkowski, Jr. 






Mr. and Mrs. Joseph J. Barc 


Mr. and Mrs. John F. Jayko 






Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Behan 


Mr. and Mrs. Albert Kaiser 






Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Bonk 


Dr. E. J. Kapustka 






Hon. Joseph Burke 


Judge and Mrs. Michael G. Kasper 






Mr. and Mrs. Stephen R. Carynski 


Mr. and Mrs. Joseph N. Kaszeski 






Mr. John A. Cervenka 


Hon. James J. Kelly 






Mr. and Mrs. M. Cichoszewski 


Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Kempa 






Mr. and Mrs. P. W. Chmielowski 


Mr. and Mrs. Theophile A. Kempa 






Chicago Industrial Finance Corp. 


Hon. Otto Kerner 






Mr. and Mrs. William J. Corrigan 


Judge and Mrs. S. H. Klarkowski 






Dr. and Mrs. Leo M. Czaja 


Mr. Sylvester Kłosowski 






Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Czapiga 


Congressman Leo Kocialkowski 






Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Czerwiński 


Dr. and Mrs. Edmund A. Kokot 






Mr. and Mrs. Albert J. Danisch 


Mr. Stephen Kolaski 






Mr. Jack Diamond 


Ald. Frank E. Konkowski 






Mr. and Mrs. John Dolazinski 


Mr. and Mrs. John S. Konopa 






Mr. and Mrs. Stan. Dolazinski 


Mr. and Mrs. Leopold Koscinski 






Dr. and Mrs. Edw. F. Dombrowski 


Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Koskiewicz 






Mr. Max A. Drezmal 


Mr. and Mrs. August J. Kowalski 






Mr. and Mrs. Paul Drymalski 


Dr. and Mrs. Leon P. Kozakiewicz 






Dr. and Mrs. Francis A. Dulak 


Mr. and Mrs. Frą.nk G. Krause 






Edward's Flower Shop 


Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Kucharski 






Judge and Mrs. E. I. Frankhauser 


Mr. and Mrs. Marion G. Kudlick 






Mr. and Mrs. F. Phil Garbark 


Mr. and Mrs. Stan. J. Kuflewski 






Dr. B. T. Gobczynski 


Mr. Walter Kuzba 






Mr. Felix Gontarek 


Judge and Mrs. Walter La Buy 






Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Gordon 


Ald. and Mrs. John J. Łagodny 






Hon. Geo C. Gorman 


Miss Adele Lagodzinski 






Dr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Gorny 


Hon. and Mrs. John Lesinski 






Mr. Martin Górski 


Mr. Ernest Lilien 






Mr. Richey V. Graham * 


Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Lisack 













[6] 



Patrons 



Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Love 

Mr. John H. Lyk 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard L. Majewski 

Dr. and Mrs. A. J. Marcin 

Mr. William D. Meyering 

Mr. and Mrs. Casimir E. Midowicz 

Mr. and Mrs. Roman L. Modra 

Dr. T. A. Modzikowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman R. New 

Hon. Denis J. Normoyle 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Novak 

Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell M. Nowak 

Mr. and Mrs. Leon C. Nyka 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund J. Odalski 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Olejniczak 

Dr. Edward J. Oleksy 

Dr. Joseph C. Orłowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Pachynski 

Mrs. Clara M. Pałczyński 

Mr. and Mrs. Clemens Piontek 

Mrs. N. L. Piotrowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Revell 

Mr. Marion H. Ritter 

Dr. and Mrs. C. J. Rogalski 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. Roman 

Mr. and Mrs. John Romaszkiewicz 

Dr. and Mrs. C. J. Ross 

Mr. and Mrs. John S. Rybicki 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Sambor 

Dr. A. Sampolinski & Sampolinski Jr. 

Hon. Kickham Scanlan 

Hon. Edward S. Scheffler 

Hon. and Mrs. Peter H. Schwaba 

Mr. John A. Slupikowski 



Dr. J. L. Smialek 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius F. Śmietanka 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert F. Soska 

Mr. and Mrs. P. C. Srutwa 

Hon. John J. Sullivan 

Dr. and Mrs. A. E. Szczytkowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Theo. J. Szmergalski 

Dr. and Mrs. N. F. Szubczynski 

Mr. and Mrs. Jos. T. Szuflitowski 

Mr. and Mrs. M. S. Szymczak 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis J. Tenczar 

Dr. John F. Tenczar 

Dr. and Mrs. G. J. Tilley 

Captain and Mrs. Peter Tomchek 

Dr. and Mrs. V. F. Torczynski 

Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Trzebiatowski 

Mrs. Harriet Turalski 

Mr. and Mrs. S. S. Tyrakowski 

Unique Social Club 

Rev. Peter P. Walkowiak 

Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Walkowiak 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Waynne 

Mr. Emil Wiedeman 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo J. Winiecki 

Miss Wanda Wojcieszak, N. Y. 

Dr. and Mrs. J. P. Wojtalewicz 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Wróbel 

Mr. Geo A. Zabriskie 

Mr. and Mrs. John S. Zaleski, 

Hon. T. Zbyszewski, Con. G .R. P. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. A. Zdrojewski 

Mr. and Mrs. Sig. Zielezinski 

Hon. and Mrs. Frank V. Zintak 

Mr. and Mrs. L. F. Zygmunt 



[7! 



Donors 



Dr. Julia L. Bauman, Holyoke, Mass. 

Dr. F. G. Biedka 

Mr. Tadeusz Cichocki Toudor 

Mr. J. W. Doncer 

Mr. and Mrs. Leon Dyniewicz 

Mr. Walter A. Dziuk 

Dr. and Mrs. C. A. Frankiewicz 

A Friend 

Dr. and Mrs. T. A. Gąsior 

Mr. Geo. A. Gillmeister 

Mr. and Mrs. Roman Gillmeister 

Grupa 223 Z. P. w A., Torrington, Conn. 

GR. 2711 Z. N. P., JOHNSONBURG, PA. 

Dr. and Mrs. J. Hodur 

Holy Family Academy Alumnae 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Jabłoński 

Mr. and Mrs. John Jackowski 

Mr. and Mrs. Joz. Janiga 

Mr. and Mrs. M. S. Jarmoc 

Prof, and Mrs. Alex. Karczynski 

Mr. and Mrs. L. P. Kopczyński 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Kozioł 

Dr. and Mrs. S. A. Lasota 

Dr. C. S. Lisowski 

Dr. and Mrs. M. W. Majchrowicz 

Mr. Ladislaus J. Marchinski 



K Dr. S. J. Mintek 
New City Packing & Provision Co. 
Rev. A. S. Olszewski 
St. Peter and Paul Society, Gr. 28 S. J. U. 
Dr. and Mrs. B. Placek 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Romaszkiewicz 
Dr. and Mrs. W. T. Ruskowski 
Dr. Thaddeus P. Sakowski 
Mr. and Mrs. John Schweda 
Dr. V. E. Siedlinski 
Messrs. Leonard & Francis Siemiński 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Siemiński 
Dr. Thaddeus Stokfisz 
Dr. and Mrs. W. Stroszewski 
Hon. Robert M. Sweitzer 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Tops 
Tow. Kr. Jadwigi, Gr. 213 Z. P. w A. 
Tow. Jedność Polek, Gr. 119 Z. P. w A. 
Tow. Los Angeles, Gr. 541 
Tow. Matki Boskiej, Gr. 181 Z. P. w A. 
Tow. H. Modrzejewskiej, Gr. 124 Z.P.A. 
Miss Sophia Warszewski 
Mr. Frank D. Winski, Conn. 
Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Zakrzewski 
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Zurat 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Zwiepka 



[8] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

ACTIVE COMMITTEES 

of the Polish Week of Hospitality 



EXECUTIVE 

HON. TITUS ZBYSZEWSKI, Con. 

Gen. of Poland, Honorary Pres. 
LEON C. NYKA, President 
'•AUL DRZYMALSKI. 
M. S. SZYMCZAK, 
F. X. ŚWIETLIK. Censor P. N. A. 
J. ROMASZKIEWICZ. Pres. P.N. A. 
.1. J. OLEJNICZAK. Pres. P.R.C.U. 
MISS A. EMILY NAPIERALSKA, 

Pres. Polish Women's Alliance, 
A. SOSKA, Pres. Pol. Alma Mater 
A. GALL, Censor, P. U. of U. S., 

Vice-Presidents 
JOHN J. ROMAN, Secretary 
AUGUST J. KOWALSKI, Treas. 

FINANCE 

n. L. MAJEWSKI. Chairman 
F. BOBRYTZKE. Co-Chairman 
I,. H. PRYBYLSKI 
HENRY A. REVELL 

INVITATION 

MARION G. KUDLICK. Chairman 
DR. J. P. KOBRZYŃSKI. Co-Chair. 
MISS A. H. WLEKLINSKI. Sec. 
STAN. KOSIŃSKI. Classification 
MRS. W. DULAK, Ladies' Reception 
HON. EDMUND K. JARECKI, 

Men's Reception 
MRS. HELEN CZACHORSKI, 

Organizations and Clubs 
HON. LEONARD W. SCHUETZ. 

Out of Town 
JOHN S. KONOPA. Parishes 
MRS. JULIUS F. ŚMIETANKA. 

Patrons and Patronesses 
DR. STEPHEN S. GORNY, 

Professional and Business Men 
DR. EDWARD DOMBROWSKI. 

Public Officials 
MISS REGINA GRAJEWSKA, 

School Teachers 
W. PARADZINSKI, Student Org. 

TICKET, HEADQUARTERS 

AND ORGANIZATION 
F. PHIL GARBARK. Chairman 
NORMAN R. NEW. Co-Chairman 
ANTHONY ZGLENICKI, 

Buttons and Tickets 
M. C. ZACHARIAS. Concessions 
ED. ZGLENICKI. Headquarters 
L. H. RAMMEL, System and Budget 

WAYS, MEANS AND 
PLANNING 

MAXWELL M. NOWAK. Chairman 

J. F. ŚMIETANKA. Co-Chairman 

W. J. ANDRZEJEWSKI 

LUCIAN BOREJSZO 

STANLEY W. BOYDA 

PETER W. CHMIELOWSKI 

JOSEPH L. CYZE 

DR. JOHN A. CZACHORSKI 

DR. LEON CZAJA 

THOMAS C. GORDON 

J. P. GRZEMSKI 

FRANK H. JANISZESKI 

STANLEY KUSINSKI 

FRANK A. KWASIGROCH 

DR. STEPHEN R. PIETROWICZ 

JOHN SCHWABA 

ANTHONY C. SHEPANEK 

S. TYRAKOWSKI 

LEON WALKOWICZ 

LEO WINIECKI 

ALFONS A. ZDROJEWSKI 

A. ZYGMUNTOWICZ 

CAPT. PAUL ZWIEFKA 



PAGEANT AND 
SPECTACLE 

E. J. ODALSKI, Chairman 
MISS JANE PAŁCZYŃSKI, 

Co-Chairman 
MISS LAURETTA BORIS, 

Co-Chairman — Dancing 
W. BARANOWSKI. Carpentry 
CLEM PIONTEK, Costumes 

F. SYNORACKI. Drum Corps 
M. G. JAHNS. Electrical Effects 
F. P. DUFFIELD, Fireworks 

A. A. HINKELMAN, Floats 
ANTON R. ZINTAK. Parades 
SIGMUND ZELINSKI, Properties 
WALTER MAZESKI, Scenery 

SOUVENIR BOOK 

ANTHONY C. TOMCZAK. Editor 
Z. J. ODALSKI, Advertising Mgr. 
MISS ZELLA WOLSAN 
J. S. SKIBIŃSKI 
THAD. LUBERA 

LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 

JOHN RYBICKI, Chairman 
MISS VERA FELIŃSKI 
MRS. IRENE FRANKIEWICZ. 
JOHN NERING. Co-Chairmen 
JOHN A. TROIKE. Secretary 
DR. C. J. ROSS, Treasurer 

TRANSPORTATION 

HON. F. V. ZINTAK, Chairman 
S. W. DUBINSKI. Co-Chairman 
WALTER IMBIORSKI, Autos 
FRANK J. TOMCZAK, Bus Lines 
FRANK G. KRAUSE, Guides 
CAPT. PETER TOMCHEK, Police 
JOHN SLUPIKOWSKI. Railroads 
JOHN S. ZALESKI. Steamship 
WALTER PANKA, Tours 

ATHLETIC AND SPORTS 

T. J. SZMERGALSKI. Chairman 

STEPHEN LOVE. Co-Chairman 

A. S. WENGIERSKI 

MICHAEL J. LAKOFKA 

HENRYK ARCHACKI 

FRANK KEMPA 

PAUL PALLASCH 

S. OBRZUT 

DR. B. SADOWSKI 

GEO. GILLMEISTER 

JOHN I. CZECH 

DR. M. W. MAJCHROWICZ 

EDWARD PISZATOWSKI 

CONTEST 

Z. G. JAWOROWSKI. Chairman 

MRS. EDWARD A. KLAFTA 

MICHAEL RUDNIK 

WALTER KRAWIEC 

MRS. ANTHONY J. WŁODARSKI 

HOUSING, PARKING AND 
DECORATING 

L. F. ZYGMUNT, Chairman 
JOHN KRYPEL. Co-Chairman 
EDW. KIRSTEN, Chrch Services 
J. ROSTENKOWSKI, Decorations 
DR. J. J. LISS, Eleemosynary Inst. 
STEPHEN RAJEWSKI, Hotels 
CARL HEJNA, Parking 
JOHN PELKA, Public Information 
MARIE MROZ 



MUSIC AND CHOIRS 

S. KŁOSOWSKI, Chairman 
MISS ADELE LAGODZINSKI, 

Co-Chairman 
ALEX KARCZYNSKI. Choirs 
THEO. GULIK, Concerts 
MISS I. ZELINSKI, Music Contests 



PERMANENT EXHIBITS 

PAUL DRZYMALSKI. Chairman 
MAX DREZMAL, Co-Chairman 
MRS. HELEN CHRZANOWSKI, 
MRS. ELEONORA DEKA 
CHESTER HIBNER. 
MRS. CLARA PAŁCZYŃSKI, 
MRS. HELEN SAMBOR. 

Co-Chairmen of Epic of America 
DR. STANISLAUS CHYLIŃSKI, 

Historical Data 
JOHN E. NIKLIBORC, 

Dramatics and Dancing 



PROGRAM AND 
ENTERTAINMENT 

STEVE ADAMOWSKI, Chairman 
J. F. KOSKIEWICZ, Co-Chairman 
LOUIS TOPS. Amusements 
PHIL F. GINSKI. Audit System 
EDWARD BIELKY, Commissary 
LEO ZGLENICKI, Contests 
G. ALLEN, Daily Program— Adults 
MRS. MARY PACHYNSKI, 

Daily Program — Juvenile 
FRANK NOWAK, 

"Farewell Riverview Party" 
DR. M. SKRENTNY, Golf 
DR. ED. CZESLAWSKI. 

Medical Service 
C. MIDOWICZ, Social Functions 



PUBLICITY 

HON. P. H. SCHWABA, Chairman 
W. F. WALKOWIAK, Co-Chairman 

Editors 

FRANK BARC 
MRS. MARIE KRYSZAK 
KAROL PIATKIEWICZ 
JOSEPH PRZYDATEK 
ADAM URBANEK 

W. ORZELSKI. Polish Papers 
A. L. BALASSA, 

Posters, Stamps. Buttons 
DR. FRANCIS DULAK, Radio 
JOHN GORDON, Theatre 



SECTIONS 

S. ADAMKIEWICZ, Chairman 
JOHN NERING. Co-Chairman 
A. URBAŃSKI, Halls and Speakers 
JOHN KOZICZYNSKI, 

Parades and Contests 
PETER KOWACZEK, Avondale 
JOSEPH RUSCH. Brighton Park 
MARTIN GÓRSKI. Bridgeport 
STANLEY POTEREK, 

Cragin and Hanson Park 
JOS. L. LISACK, Downstate 
WM. LINK, Far North West 
A. M. SAMBOR, Indiana Towns 
A. KUCHARSKI, Near North West 
L. PACHYNSKI, South Chicago 
HON. JOHN J. JARANOWSKI, 

Suburban Towns 
R. KOWALEWSKI. Town of Lake 
JOHN A. KORNAK. West Side 



[9] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2|5 



The Polish Day Association— 

A Force for Good in the Community 

By Leon C. Nyka 



IN the "Polish Day Annual" of July 21, 
1929, I wrote that charity, in its 
widest sense, is the relief of the poor and 
suffering. It should not attempt to relieve 
destitution, for that is the work of the 
state ; nor should it provide the necessaries 
of life, for that is the work of the in- 
dividual. It should confine itself to pro- 
viding the material and moral conditions 
for the growth and revival of self-respect 
and independence. It should aim at pre- 
vention and at the removing of causes 
rather than at the remedying of affects. 

The Polish Day Association has set for 
itself the following objects: (1) to ar- 
range, organize, and conduct an annual 
festival to be known as the "Polish Day", 
and thereby to obtain funds for charitable 
and educational purposes; (2) to initiate, 
organize, and promote any other legiti- 
mate means to obtain funds for charitable 
and educational purposes; (3) to receive 
by gift or donation any money or property 
for charitable or educational purposes. 

The Association votes money only to 
organizations or institutions which have 
for their object charity or education, and 
which extend aid to persons of Polish ex- 
traction; are located and operate in the 
City of Chicago, and County of Cook; are 
not self-supporting or have not the means 
to raise sufficient funds for their own op- 
eration ; will at least once a year render to 
the Association a report of the expendi- 
ture of money, requested by this Associa- 
tion ; and support the Association in its ef- 
forts by rendering some active service. 

Since its inception in 1926, The Polish 
Day Association has donated over $55,000 
for various charitable and educational 
purposes. This is a very modest sum, but 



it must not be forgotten that the influence 
of the Association has been a great moral 
force for good in the community. 

The Polish Day Association has been the 
first to reduce the problem of social better- 
ment to a practical one of dollars and 
cents, and to exhort other organizations 
not to waste time in numerous meetings 
and conferences, but to do actual work in 
helping the needy in an efficient, practical 
manner. Our motto is that deeds speak 
louder than words. Accordingly, our Asso- 
ciation has inspired a host of experienced 
social workers to devote themselves to the 
social, political, and economical ameliora- 
tion of the Polish immigrant and his chil- 
dren, exclusively. 

It was the "Chicago" Society of the Pol- 
ish National Alliance that conceived the 
idea of celebrating a "Polish Day". Their 
idea has grown to such proportions and 
has captured the minds of the Polish com- 
munity to such an extent that it became 
a separate corporation, including among 
its members the leading officers of the 
Largest Polish organizations, such as the 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish Women's Alliance, 
as well as the members of the "Chicago So- 
ciety" of the Polish National Alliance, the 
Polish Professional Clubs, etc. 

Since 1926 the Polish Day has been ce- 
lebrated in Riverview Park. Mr. Paul 
Drymalski was chairman of the Polish 
Day in 1926; Mr. Edward J. Prebis, in 
1927, and 1928; Mr. M. C. Zacharias in 
1929; Mr. August Kowalski, in 1930; 
there was no Polish Day in 1931 ; Mr. Leon 
C. Nyka in 1932. 

In November, 1932, the Polish Day As- 
sociation arranged a Polish Carnival in 



[10] 



& 

the Chicago Civic Opera House, which was 
the second complete sell-out in the history 
of the Opera House. 

In December 1932, Major Felix 
Streyckmann, chairman of the Foreign 
Language Division of "A Century of 
Progress" called on the Polish Day Associa- 
tion, to make arrangements for a Polish 
Day at the World's Fair grounds. In Jan- 
uary, 1933, Leon C. Nyka was elected 
chairman and the Polish Day was voted 
unanimously to become a "Polish Week of 
Hospitality," July 17th to 23rd, at A Cen- 
tury of Progress International Exposition, 
under the auspices of the Polish Day As- 
sociation of Chicago. 

Hon. Titus Zbyszewski, Consul General 
of Poland, was chosen honorary president, 
while the executive committee consists of 
Leon C. Nyka, president; Paul Drymalski, 
M. S. Szymczak, Frank X. Świetlik, John 
Romaszkiewicz, Miss A. Emily Napieral- 
ski, John J. Olejniczak, Albert Soska, and 
Andrew Gall, vice-presidents; John J. 
Roman, secretary; and August J. Kowal- 
ski, treasurer. 

The chairmen of the various committees 
are : Stanley Adamkiewicz, sections ; Steve 
Adamowski, program and entertainment; 
Paul Drymalski, permanent exhibits; F. 
Phil Garbark, tickets, headquarters and 
organization; Z. George Jaworoski, con- 
tests; Sylvester Klossowski, music and 
choirs; Marion G. Kudlick, invitation; B. 
L. Majewski, finance; Maxwell M. Nowak, 
ways, means and planning; Edmund J. 
Odalski, pageant and spectacle; John S. 
Rybicki, local organization; Hon. Peter H. 
Schwaba, publicity; Theodore Szmergal- 
ski, athletic and sports; Hon. Frank V. 
Zintak, transportation; Lawrence F. Zyg- 
munt, housing, parking and decoration. 

Commemorating the landing of the first 
Polish Pilgrims in this country (reads the 
preamble to the constitution of The Polish 
Day Association) , and as a fitting means 
of expressing our loyalty, thanksgiving 



THE POLISH DAY ASSOCIATION 



2fS 

and devotion to the country, whose citizen- 
ship we enjoy, we annually designate a 
Polish Day. 

Upon that day Americans of Polish ex- 
traction, as citizens vitally interested in 
their community welfare, individually and 
through their organization, assemble at a 
designated place and voice their apprecia- 
tion of the rights and privileges of Amer- 
ican citizenship, their pride in the history 
and achievements of this nation, and 
pledge themselves to foster the ideals of 
freedom and liberty which Kościuszko and 
Pulaski helped to establish in this country, 
and to perpetuate all that is best in Polish 
life and culture as a contribution to an 
ideal American citizenship. To these ideals 
the Polish Day is dedicated. 

To my mind there can be no finer ideals ; 
and what is more important, the Polish 
Day Association has ever tried to live up 
to them. At every opportunity, we have 
emphasized the necessity of charity and 
education in order to adjust our people to 
their social environment. 

Due to the prevailing depression, the 
needs for charity and education are 
greater than ever. Many of our people are 
impoverished; they are unemployed; they 
have lost their modest fortunes; they are 
now dependent on public charity. 

As I have said, the question of unem- 
ployment, of relieving this wide spread 
destitution, is the work of the state. We, 
in our modest way, can only call on our 
people to keep the faith, to carry on, as ill 
fortune cannot clog our steps forever. 

But our people have the faith ; the hope 
that springs eternal in the Polish breast 
resulted in a free and independent Poland. 
That same undying hope in the breast of 
the Polish immigrant and his children will 
result in better days to come, and we re- 
gard this great undertaking, this Century 
of Progress Exposition, as a bold move to 
usher in a new era for all the citizens of 
this great Republic. 



[11] 




[12] 



The Polish Week of Viospitality 

At A Century of Progress International Exposition 



DURING the week of July 17 to 23, 1933, 
the Poles of Chicago are sponsoring a 
Polish Week of Hospitality under the direction 
of the Polish Day Ass'n, as representative of the 
Committee on Nationalities in A Century of 
Progress. During this week the Poles will 
manifest their strength as a national group and 
at the same time will recall the inestimable 
contribution the Poles have made to A Century 
of Progress, as expressed in culture, science, 
industry, music, the arts, and American insti- 
tutions in general. Although activity on the 
Fair grounds proper will be limited to Satur- 
day, July 22, there will be events constituting 
the official program of the Polish Week of 
Hospitality each day beginning Sunday, July 16. 



The official program is as follows: 

Sunday, July 16: The Polish Roman Catholic 
Union will celebrate its sixtieth anniversary 
by a Solemn Mass at St. Adalbert's B. and M. 
Church, where its first society was organized. 
Banquet in the evening at the Hotel Morrison 
for its officers, directors, members and friends. 

Monday, July 17, morning: Registration of 
guests at headquarters in the Congress Hotel, 
downtown district, Chicago, and in the north- 
west side Polish Day Headquarters, 1200 N. 
Ashland Avenue. The Polish Medical, Dental 
and Legal Societies of America will commence 
their conventions, which will continue through 
Tuesday, and partly Wednesday, culminating 
with a dinner-dance at the Congress Hotel on 
Wednesday evening. The Congress of Polish 
Women from all over the world will also meet 
on Monday and Tuesday as will various other 
associations coming into Chicago. 

Monday afternoon, at 4:30: the Consul Gen- 
eral of the Republic of Poland at Chicago will 
give a reception and tea at the Drake Hotel. 

Monday evening: Concert by the Chicago 
Philharmonic Orchestra, Richard Czerwonky, 
conductor, under Cukor management. Profes- 
sor George Bojanowski will be guest conductor, 
in a special all-Polish program; Mr. Michael 
Wiłkomirski, violin soloist; choir of one thou- 
sand mixed voices: Auditorium Theater. 



Monday evening: Junior League of the Po- 
lish Welfare Association will conduct an eve- 
ning of hospitality with a reception, entertain- 
ment, and dancing, at the Knickerbocker Hotel, 
for all members, friends, and visitors. 

* * * 

Tuesday, July 18, evening: Polish Arts Club 
reception and program at the Fauntleroy So- 
ciety Club, 2024 Pierce Avenue. 

* * * 

Wednesday, July 19: Golf Tournament, 
Luncheon, Card Party and Dinner Dance at 
the Lincolnshire Country Club, Crete, Illinois. 

* * * 

Thursday, July 20: Reception, program, and 
tea by the Polish Women's Alliance of America, 
tendered to guests at their home-office, 1309 
N. Ashland Avenue. Also on Wednesday and 



^^^1 






i 


1 






i 


1 

1 

1 


BpS^*** - * 












3 
■i 


i-, 

— — 



Hall of Science at night 



[13] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Thursday, the parishes and various organiza- 
tions will have their individual parish parties, 
and will entertain their visitors by sight-seeing 
trips of the boulevards, parks, universities, edu- 
cational institutions, industrial plants, churches, 
Polish centers, newspapers, fraternal home- 
offices, and neighboring towns. 

* * * 

Friday, July 21: Excursion lake trip to Mi- 
chigan City, Indiana, where a reception will be 
given by the Poles of that city. 

Friday has also been designated by the citi- 
zens of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as "Polish 
Day", the mayor of that city having appointed 
an official committee. Visitors to Chicago are 
invited to spend the day in Milwaukee, where 
a reception will be given. 

* * * 

Saturday, July 22: The official Polish Day 
at A Century of Progress Exposition grounds, 
commencing with a parade in the morning. 
Various organizations and church groups will 
meet north of the Chicago River, and east of 
Michigan Avenue, at 11 :00 A. M., and arrange 
their floats and groups for the parade. At 
12:00 o'clock the parade will start, and it is 
expected that by 2:00 P. M. all of the groups 
will be in the World's Fair grounds participat- 
ing in the musical and dancing festivals, po- 
pularity and beauty contest, the various attrac- 
tions of the Exposition itself, and those ar- 
ranged by the Polish Week of Hospitality 
Committee. 

At 8:00 P. M. the gigantic Pageant and Spec- 
tacle at Soldier's Field will begin, with an 
opening scene of a village in Poland. This cla- 
mactic event will portray and commemorate the 
100th anniversary of Poles migrating to this 
country in large groups for permanent re- 
sidence; the 150th anniversary of Great Bri- 
tain's treaty and acknowledgment of the United 
States of America as an independent nation, 
and of the promotion of the hero of two hemi- 
spheres, Tadeusz Kościuszko, to the rank of 
Brigadier-General of the Continental Army; 



the heroism and sacrifice of General Casimir 
Pulaski in the Revolutionary War; and the 
250th anniversary of the defeat of the Moslems 
by King John Sobieski of Poland at the gates 
of Vienna, saving Western culture, civilization, 
and Christianity. 

As the opening scene of this huge spectacle 
unfolds, you will behold a village in Poland . . . 
a country road, flanked by quaint cottages, 
rustics in their native costumes of picturesque 
"zukmanas" and "zupans" and gay be-ribboned 
dresses. There will be revealed the folk-life of 
Poland. A chorus of one thousand will sing 
folk-songs, accompanied by a band of one 
hundred. More than three hundred persons 
will participate in the whirlwind dances of the 
"Krakowiak" and the "Mazur". 

As the field is being cleared of the village 
scenery, a parade of organizations will take 
place, in which will participate fifty floats de- 
picting the contribution of the Poles to the 
progress of the world. During the parade of 
organizations, two thousand Polish National 
Alliance Boy Scouts will render a Polish and 
American flag drill, followed by a demonstra- 
tion of Infantry, Artillery, Navy and Marine 
Maneuvres. 

Then comes the collosal feature, "A Nation 
Glorified". This part of the program has 
taken months to prepare and rehearse. It will 
be the greatest event of its nature ever attempt- 
ed by Poles in America, and comparable to the 
grandest spectacles ever attempted by any 
group. Since a special program has been pre- 
pared to supplement this feature of the spec- 
tacle, no attempt will be made here to depict 
in words the grandeur and beauty thereof. 



Sunday, July 23: Special participation in 
church services in the morning at all Polish 
Parishes. A Grand Finale and get-together at 
Riverview Amusement Park, Western and Ros- 
coe, in the annual event sponsored by the Polish 
Day Association. 




The Electrical Group viewed from Lagoon 



Hall of Science viewed from Lagoon 



[14] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2|5 

Today, commemorating a Century of Prog- 
ress, the Poles of Chicago, are sponsoring a 
program consisting of an entire Polish Week 
of Hospitality. The Poles are ready to show 
to the world, and to America in particular, that 
they are a live and industrious group, com- 
manding attention and respect. 

Forty years ago, at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion in Chicago, in 1893, the first "Polish Day" 



— S|S 

was inaugurated. More than that, it proved to 
be the first real demonstration of Polish 
strength in the city of progress. Through the 
kindness of Mr. John Schweda, who has in 
his possession an original copy of the program 
of that first "Polish Day", that program is 
here reprinted, for comparison with the pro- 
gram of the Polish Week of Hospitality, forty 
years later: 



-»J«-»-*Jf-»-«J»-»-*Jc -•-♦^♦♦-»*< 



fj 




Gktebrattmt nf '*$ nltatj lay' 



FESTIVAL HALL 
WORLD'S FAIR GROUNDS, CHICAGO, ILLS. 

Qa/midty, 0o&&* Z/A, SS0Ą 



s 



PART FIRST. 

Polonaise of May 3rd Kurpiński 

Prof. Czapek's Orchestra. 
Kosciuszko's War Signals Wroński 

Prof. Czapek's Orchestra. 
Opening- Address by the President of "Central Committee" 
and Introduction of the Presiding Officer. 

Cantata Żeleński 

United Polish Singers of America with Orchestra, under 
the Leadership of Prof. A. Mallek. 

Introductory Address by the Presiding Officer 

Hail Columbia 

Popular Songs Urbanek 

St. Stanislaus Children's Choir with Orchestra under the 
Leadership of Prof. A. Kwasigroch. 

PART SECOND. 

Address Hon. C. H. Harrison 

Overture "Halka" Moniuszko 

Prof. Czapek's Orchestra. 

Oration Dr. C. Midowicz 

Polish Hearts 

St. Stanislaus Choir with Orchestra under the Leadership 
of Prof. A. Kwasigroch. 

PART THIRD. 



E) 



Oration 

The Spirit of the Palatine Grossman 

Choir IX. Wanda and Chopin's Choir with Orchestra, 
under the Leadership of Prof. A. Mallek. 

The Awakening of the Lion Kontski 

Prof. Czapek's Orchestra. 

In Volynia Dembiński 

United Polish Singers of America and St. Stanislaus 
Choir with Orchestra under the Leadership of 
Prof. A. Mallek. 

God Save Poland 

The PuWic with Orchestra. 



n t. . » . * . * . » . » . < t > » » . * » * « « . » * * « » « > t < » >t- » * » * » 't' • >t< 



"Zgoda," 574 Noble St., Chicago, 111. 

[15] 



. : ..»«♦- 



POLKS IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Golf Tournament 

Wednesday, July 19 

ON WEDNESDAY of the Polish Week of Hospitality a golf tourna- 
ment, combined with a cards and dancing party, will be held at the 
beautiful Lincolnshire Country Club, Crete, Illinois, south of Chicago. 
The prizes for golf will be so distributed as to give players of all ranks 
an opportunity to win. There will be door and table prizes for cards. 
After golf and cards, there will be a dinner and dancing on the club's 
beautiful outdoor dance pavillion overlooking Deer Lake. 

Donors of prizes, to whom we extend our thanks, are as follows : 



ALDONA PHARMACY 

AMERICAN MAIZE PRODUCTS CO. 

AMERICAN TOWEL & SUPPLY CO. 

CONRAD BADZMIEROWSKI 

DR. M. J. BADZMIEROWSKI 

JOHN HANDYNIA 

S. BARTECKI PHARMACY 

ZYGMUNT BASIŃSKI 

CONGRESSMAN HARRY BEAN 

S. T. BRADEL 

JOHN J. BREHM & SONS 

MICHAEL F. BRISKI 

JOSEPH BUTTNY 

JOSEPH CEGIELSKI 

STEPHEN CIESIELSKI 

CONGRESS HOTEL 

CONTINENTAL SHOE CO. 

JAMES P. CROWLEY 

ANTHONY CZERWIŃSKI 

DR. FRANK DULAK 

FERNALD MFG. CO. 

ANTHONY FORTUNA & SON 

JAMES FRANTA 

S. J. GORCKI PHARMACY 

HON. SHELDON W. GOVIER 

ALD. BRYAN HARTNETT 

FRED HAWKINS, INC. 

HERMAN & MANDIS 

S. HOJNACKI PHARMACY 

HOJNACKI PRINTING CO. 

DR. STANLEY F. JAGMIN 

CASIMIR JANICKI 

HON. JOHN JARANOWSKI 

HON. EDMUND K. JARECKI 

JOSEPH KACZOWSKI 

HON. MICHAEL G. KASPER 

EDWARD KIRSTEN 



REP. JOHN KLUCZYNSKI 

CONGRESSMAN LEO KOCIALKOWSKI 

ALD. FRANK KONKOWSKI 

ROMAN KOSIŃSKI 

MAX KOSZUTA 

BOLESŁAW KOZŁOWSKI 

JOSEPH KUSH 

HON. WALTER J. LA BUY 

LENARD RESTAURANT 

LEWICKI PHARMACY 

LINCOLNSHIRE COUNTRY CLUB 

JOSEPH MAKARSKI & SON 

MIDLAND DAIRY 

EMIL R. MOTZNY 

MAXWELL M. NOWAK 

FRANK C. PATKA 

PEACOCK HAT SHOP 

REP. EDWARD J. PETLAK 

S. PIETRZYKOWSKI PHARMACY 

W. M. PROGL SUPPLY CO. 

ROMAN FURNITURE CO. 

RUSCH BOTTLING WORKS 

JOSEPH SPIKER 

STERLING BEVERAGE CO. 

STRAND DRUG STORE 

FRANK J. SZYKOWNY 

CAPT. PETER TOMCHEK 

JOHN WARCZAK 

WICKER PARK MEDICAL CENTER 

W. WIECZOREK DRUG CO. 

DR. S. F. WIETRZYNSKI 

WOLF FURNITURE CO. 

VIKING ELECTRIC CO. 

REV. JOHN ZIELEZINSKI 

B. J. ZINTAK 

HON. FRANK V. ZINTAK 

M. J. ŻURAWSKI PHARMACY 



Committee in Charge: 
DR. MATTHEW J. SKRENTNY, Chairman JOSEPH KOSTANSKI, Vice-Chairman 

JOSEPH WOJDYGO, Secretary 
EDWARD GLOMSKI JOHN JACOBS 




Lincolnshire Country Club 



Outdoor Dance Pavillion 



[16] 




i?/rx#£ '<»£''«£-■ 



^4 S/zo/tf History of the Settlement and Rise 
of the Poles in the United States 

[Editor's note: The facts here collected are for the most part a sum- 
mary translation of M. Haiman's "Polacy w Ameryce" (The Poles in 
America) — Chicago, 1930, a most exhaustive study. For convenience the 
material is not footnoted, and general reference for authority is hereby 
made to the other works by Mr. Haiman, viz., (English titles) "From the 
Past of the Poles in America"; "A History of the Participation of the 
Poles in the American Civil War"; and "Poles Among the Pioneers of 
America"; and to Rev. Wacław Kruszka' 's comprehensive history of the 
Poles in America. Credit is due for work on this article, to Mr. J. S. Ski- 
biński, and Miss Zella Wolsan.J 



THE year 1933 indeed marks a cent- 
ury of progress for the Poles in 
America. Although, as will be pointed out 
here, the history of the Poles in America 
goes back much further than the begin- 
ning of the last century, it was in the 
, years 1833 and 1834 that the Poles really 
began to immigrate to this country in 
"what might be considered large numbers. 
It is true, the largest groups came in the 
latter part of the century. But from 1833 
on, after the Insurrection of 1831 in Po- 
land, the century of progress actually 
began. Soon associations were formed, 
individuals became leaders in America, 
and in general it gradually became a fact, 
the subject of recognition and apprecia- 
tion, that the Poles in America were de- 
stined to play a most important part, as a 
national group, in the development and 
progress of their adopted country. 

The history of the Poles in the United 
States is a long and glorious one, dat- 
ing back, as it does, to the times before 
Columbus, and numbering among its 
leaders countless great Americans. As far 
back as 1475 a Polish mariner, Jan of Kol- 
no, sailed the Atlantic for the King of Den- 
mark and is said to have reached Labrador 
and to have explored the Atlantic sea- 
board as far south as the present coast of 
Delaware. 



The Poles with John Smith at James- 
town in 1607 distinguished themselves as 
skilled and industrious craftsmen and, 
when occasion arose, as intrepid warriors 
against the Indians. Moreover, it was 
these same Poles who waged the first war 
for democracy in the New World, although 
it was a war involving no violence or blood- 
shed. The occasion arose in 1619, when 
the House of Burgesses met in Jamestown 
for the first time, and all those who were 
not Englishmen were refused the right to 
vote. The Poles thereupon declared a strike 
until such time as they were accorded the 
same freedom to which they had grown ac- 
customed in Poland. Concerning this strike 
The Court Book of the Virginia Company 
of London writes as follows (July 31, 
1619): 

"Upon some dispute of the Polonians res- 
ident in Virginia it was now agreed that 
they shall be enfranchised and made as free 
as any inhabitant there whatsoever. And 
because their skill in making pitch and tar 
and soap-ashes shall not die with them, it 
is agreed that some young men shall be put 
unto them to learn their skill and knowledge 
therein — for the benefit of the country 
hereafter." 

In New Amsterdam the Poles were 
counted a distinct asset to colonial life 
from the very first. Peter Stuyvesant 
made every effort to induce them to settle 
in New Holland so that they might not 



17 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



Ms — 

only assist in the cultivation of the soil, 
but that they might also give aid in de- 
fending the colony against the British. 
Furthermore, in 1659, the Dutch brought 
from Poland the learned professor, Dr. 
Alexander Charles Kurcyusz (Curtius), 
who founded an academy for their chil- 
dren in New Amsterdam, the first insti- 
tution of higher learning in what is now 
the city of New York. 

In 1662 a Polish nobleman, Olbracht 
Zaborowski by name, settled in New Am- 
sterdam and later acquired large areas of 
land on the Passaic river, in the northern 
part of New Jersey. Having learned the 
Indian tongue, he often acted as an inter- 
preter, and by his kindness won over the 
sympathy of the Indians. According to the 
family traditions of the Zabriskies (angli- 
cized from the Polish Zaboroivski) , James, 
the eldest of the five sons of Olbracht, is 
said at the age of seven to have been seized 
by an Indian chief. Because of their 
friendship for the father, the Indians en- 
treated him to let the boy stay in their 
camp until he had learned the Indian 
tongue, in order to continue the friendly 
relations between the whites and the red- 
skins. Olbracht later became one of the 
first judges in New Jersey. He died in 
1711, at Hackensack, New Jersey, leaving 
a line of descendants now found in various 
parts of the country. The Zabriskies are 
to this day one of the most eminent fam- 
ilies in the United States. 

We find several Polish names among 
those who had left the Colonies in order 
to trade with the Indians farther west. 
One of these, John Anthony Sadowski, in 
1735 had reached the western frontier of 
Ohio and established the present site of 
Sandusky, Ohio, as a trading post, having 
thus preceded the white settlement of Ohio 
by a hundred years. Sadowski was killed 
by the Indians in Virginia, where he had 
settled with his family after his numer- 
ous trips to the west. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2§S 

His two sons, James and Joseph, dis- 
tinguished themselves in the history of 
the State of Kentucky as companions of 
Daniel Boone. They were among the first 
to enter that unknown region. James Sa- 
dowski helped in surveying land in Ken- 
tucky in 1773. In 1774, both brothers with 
about forty men sailed the Monongahela 
and Ohio Rivers and camped at the spot 
where Cincinnati, Ohio, now stands. From 
there they crossed to Kentucky and found- 
ed Harrodstown, now known as Harrods- 
burg, the oldest town in Kentucky. The 
settlers had constructed their homes and 
planted grain when, warned by Daniel 
Boone of a threatened raid, they were com- 
pelled to return to Virginia. 

James Sadowski refused to accompany 
the others. He built a boat and boldly left 
for the south. He sailed the Cumberland, 
Ohio, and Mississippi rivers and reached 
New Orleans, whence he returned to Bal- 
timore. Thus, he was the first white man 
from the English colonies and the first pio- 
neer after the French and Spanish to trav- 
erse these rivers. James and Joseph then 
settled permanently in Kentucky. James 
wrote a history of his unusual adventures, 
but this work was lost. 

In short, Polish settlers were found in 
each of the thirteen Colonies. In Delaware, 
then New Sweden, there were Poles as 
early as 1650. There were Poles in Penn- 
sylvania during the times of William 
Penn. Paul Mostowski of Warsaw even 
strove to found a New 7 Poland in the south- 
ern states about 1776, but his plans came 
to naught. 

Among these early Polish settlers were 
men of science. Charles Blaszkowicz, for 
instance, a surveyor in the English serv- 
ice, drew a map (of the coast line of New 
England) which is admired even to this 
day. 

The history of Poland itself is bound up 
economically and politically with that of 
the United States. Virginia and Mary- 



[18] 



2§£ 

land, in the latter half of the seventeenth 
century, enjoyed a measure of prosperity 
thanks to exports of tobacco to Poland, as 
well as to other European countries. In 
this connection, it is interesting to note 
that when the war between Poland, and 
Sweden and Russia, put an end to this 
commerce about 1700, Virginia and Mary- 
land experienced a period of depression. 
During her independent history Poland 
was known as the "granary of Europe;" 
but when she fell as a result of the perfidy 
and greed of her powerful neighbors, 
America became the successor of Poland 
in respect to the grain trade supremacy. 

Politically Poland continued to be of aid 
to the Colonies, directly or indirectly; for 
example, her bloody war with the Swedish 
king, Charles X, enabled the English to 
seize New Sweden with ease. 

The last king of Poland, Stanisław Aug- 
ust, was always friendly to the Colonies 
and condemned the English system of "tax- 
ation without representation." In his let- 
ters he praised the work of George Wash- 
ington. In turn, Washington sympathized 
with Poland, and when the latter adopted 
the famous Constitution of the Third of 
May, he praised it very highly. He said: 
"I wished always to Poland well, and that 
with all my heart." 

Early American poets, among them Joel 
Barlow and David Humphreys, penned 
poems in honor of King Stanisław August 
and the Polish Constitution. Humphreys, 
friend of Thaddeus Kościuszko, thus lam- 
ented the fall of Poland in one of his poems, 
in 1804: 

"...We to Heaven our unavailing vows 
For Poland raised — besought Heaven's 

righteous Lord, 
To rend the wreath from Austria's, 

Prussia's brows, 
And break of baneful leagues the threefold 

cord..." 

Concerning Kościuszko there is little 
need to write at great length. Who is there 
who does not know of his brilliant accom- 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IN AMERICA 



plishments at Saratoga which resulted in 
the surrender of Burgoyne? Of his forti- 
fication of West Point? Of his humanity 
and kindness even to the prisoners of war? 
Of his work with General Greene in the 
army of the south where his mastery of 
engineering and his knowledge of strategy 
stood him in good stead? Of the recogni- 
tion of his accomplishments by Congress 
and of his immense popularity with the 
people of this country as well as with the 
citizens of his "first fatherland," Poland? 
And finally, of his unceasing efforts to 
bring freedom to all people of all classes, 
in connection with which Thomas Jeffer- 
son once said: "He is as pure a son of 
liberty as I have ever known, and of that 
liberty which is to go to all, and not to the 
few and rich alone." 

Upon Kosciuszko's death, General Wil- 
liam H. Harrison spoke of him in Congress 
as follows: "His fame will last as long as 
liberty remains upon the earth . . . And if, 
by the common consent of the world, a 
temple shall be erected to those who have 
rendered most service to mankind, if the 
statue of our great countryman, Washing- 
ton, shall occupy the place of the 'Most 
Worthy,' that of Kościuszko will be found 
by his side, and the wreath of laurel will 
be entwined with the palm of virtue to 
adorn his brow." 

Hardly less familiar is the story of Cas- 
imir Pulaski and how he came from Tur- 
key where he was living in exile after par- 
ticipating, like Kościuszko, in uprisings 
against the Russians; how he came to 
Washington recommended by Benjamin 
Franklin as "an officer famous through- 
out Europe for his bravery and conduct in 
defense of the liberties of his country"; 
and how he saved the American troops 
from complete rout at Brandywine and 
Warren Tavern. 

Pulaski reorganized the American cav- 
alry and later organized his private legion 
which he equipped and fed with the assist- 



19 



POLES IN AMERICA 



2§S 

ance of his private fortune. With this le- 
gion he prevented the siege of Charleston, 
and later led it, together with the Amer- 
ican and French cavalry, against the Brit- 
ish at Savannah, Georgia, where he was 
fatally wounded on October 9, 1779. 

On the occasion of the sesqui-centennial 
of his death, President Hoover said of him : 

"The memory of that young Polish noble- 
man who joined the forces of the American 
colonists and who fought valiantly from the 
time he joined the staff of General Wash- 
ington until he was wounded in the siege of 
Savannah, will always remain dear to the 
hearts of American citizens, and their sin- 
cere recognition of his service in the war 
for American independence will never die". 

Besides Kościuszko and Pulaski, there 
were other Poles who took part in the war 
for American independence. The most fa- 
mous of these was Maurice Beniowski, who 
as an associate of Pulaski fought the Rus- 
sians in Poland. Exiled to Siberia, he es- 
caped to France and proposed to King 
Louis XV the establishment of a colony in 
Madagascar. The king gave his consent 
and Beniowski became governor of the col- 
ony ; he so won over the populace that they 
made him their king. In 1776 he left for 
America to aid the Colonists but was seized 
by the English at sea and committed to 
long imprisonment in England. In 1779 
he succeeded in being freed, and coming 
to America, he joined the Pulaski Legion 
a few days before the siege of Savannah. 

Beniowski attempted to create a sepa- 
rate legion on the Pulaski plan, but the 
war soon ended, and he returned to Mada- 
gascar where he was murdered in 1786. 

John Zieliński, a relative of Pulaski, 
who came with him to America, served 
with him and distinguished himself as a 
lieutenant and captain; he perished Sep- 
tember 25, 1779, in an engagement at the 
siege of Savannah. 

Among other Polish officers who fought 
at Pulaski's side, were Matthew Rogowski, 
who later wrote memoirs of the War for 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 

Independence; Charles Litomski, who later 
fought under Kościuszko in Poland, and 
Michael Kowacz, killed at the battle of 
Charleston, South Carolina, May 11, 1779. 
The Poles fought not for money or any 
material considerations, for the Colonies 
were poor, but because of their love of 
freedom. Of them John A. Joyce, an Amer- 
ican poet, wrote: 

"Polish heroes in their might 
Fought in freedom's holy fight, 
BrilLant as the stars of night, 
To maintain the pure and right!" 

Nor did the Poles begrudge financial 
aid to the new American republic. Among 
the financiers to help America was Peter 
Stadnicki, a descendant of Polish immi- 
grants to Holland, a rich and influential 
banker of Amsterdam. He was the first 
to show faith in the stability of America 
by buying up the bonds issued by the Colo- 
nies during the war. He sold the issues in 
Europe in influential circles and thus won 
confidence for the United States in the 
powerful countries of Europe. Stadnicki 
for some time was the leading banker of 
the United States in Europe. He was re- 
spected for his sterling honesty and bus- 
iness acumen. 

He also helped colonize the western parts 
of New York and Pennsylvania. Together 
with several Dutch bankers under the 
name "The Holland Land Company," he 
purchased 5,000,000 acres of land, which 
they subdivided and sold to colonists. Thus 
Stadnicki had the honor of populating por- 
tions that now belong to the richest in the 
Union. 

With the partition of Poland, many 
political exiles flocked to America. Kaje- 
tan Wengierski, a Polish poet, was eager 
to visit the new country and meet Wash- 
ington. He toured the whole of the then 
known United States and left an interest- 
ing description of his travels. 

Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz came to the 
States in 1797 with Kościuszko, whose ad- 



20 



& 

jutant he was. Niemcewicz is one of Po- 
land's famous poets. Like Wengierski, 
Niemcewicz visited the various parts of 
the new country and was the first Pole 
to reach and describe Niagara Falls. He 
undertook this trip on horseback, clearing 
his path through the forests with an axe. 
He also visited George Washington at 
Mount Vernon, where he was hospitably 
entertained for two weeks. This visit he 
beautifully described in verse in his letter 
to his friend, Karol Kniaziewicz, in which 
he mentioned Washington as shedding a 
tear over the unfortunate lot of Poland. 

Niemcewicz settled in Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, where he devoted himself to farm- 
ing. Through his wife, Susan Kean, he 
was related to the most prominent Amer- 
ican families of the day. He wrote the first 
Polish biography of George Washington. 

Poles also participated in the second 
American war with England in 1812. The 
aged Kościuszko gave his aid in this war 
also. He wrote a text-book on artillery for 
the benefit of the Americans, who, grate- 
ful for his valuable advice, called him "the 
father of the American artillery." 

The Polish Revolution of 1830 brought 
to the United States a considerable and 
abiding contingent of Poles, mostly soldiers 
and members of the lower nobility. Part 
of Napoleon's Polish Legion had been dis- 
patched to San Domingo, whence such as 
did not perish miserably or return to 
Europe came to the United States. A con- 
siderable number of Poles were in the 
American armies, fighting the Seminole 
Indians in the South. Among Americans 
of that time enthusiasm in Poland's cause 
ran high, and the tourist who visits the 
Polish National Museum at Rappersvil, 
Switzerland, can see many tokens of sym- 
pathy sent to the struggling Poles by their 
American admirers. In 1835 there existed 
a "Polish National Committee in the 
United States," whose members were 
prominent Americans, and whose presi- 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IN AMERICA 



& 

dent, as we learn from a pamphlet printed 
in Philadelphia, September 30, 1835, was 
M. Carey. The number of Poles in the 
United States must have run up to thou- 
sands, if we may judge from the frequent 
allusions to the various groups in the 
American Press of the time. American 
sympathy took concrete form when Con- 
gress made the Poles a grant of thirty-six 
sections of land, and surveyed two town- 
ships for them near Rock River, Illinois. 
A number of veterans of the Revolution 
of 1830 organized the "Stowarzyszenie 
Polaków w Ameryce" (Association of Poles 
in America) in New York. An appeal 
dated New York, March 20, 1842, calls 
upon all Poles in America to affiliate with 
an organization recently effected at the 
home of the Rev. Louis Jezykowicz, 235 
Division Street, New York. "To die for 
Poland" was the watchword of the organ- 
ization, which, according to a brochure 
printed in Paris, elaborately commemor- 
ated the Revolution of 1830, at the Stuy- 
vesant Institute, New York. Poles from 
Boston, Baltimore, Utica, Philadelphia, 
and Niagara, were present at the celebra- 
tion, and many distinguished Americans 
and foreigners, as well as various Scan- 
dinavian, French, and German societies 
participated. In 1852 probably the second 
Polish organization in the United States J 
was founded, "Towarzystwo Demokraty- J 
czne Wygnańców Polskich w Ameryce" 1 
(Democratic Society of Poles in America),! 
an ardent anti-slavery organization. In" 
1854 it numbered over two hundred mem- 
bers, but there are no records of its act- 
ivities later than 1858. The Poles coming 
throughout this period of political immi- 
gration were persons of culture, and were 
freely admitted into American Society, 
which looked upon them as martyrs for 
liberty. 

These exiles in many instances played 
an important role in the cultural develop- 
ment of their communities. Thus, Adam 



21] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



Kurek, a well known composer, was the 
first to organize musical bands composed 
of wind instruments. Julian Fontana, 
friend of Frederick Chopin, also disting- 
uished himself as a musician. Henry Dmo- 
chowski-Sanders was the famous sculptor 
of the Pulaski bust in the Capitol of the 
United States. Alexander Sengteller and 
Alexander Raszewski were prominent en- 
gravers. Joseph Podbielski translated 
many Polish masterpieces into English. 
Paul Soboleski, a poet and journalist, be- 
came the brilliant translator of "The Poets 
and Poetry of Poland." Adam Gurowski 
wrote many books on science. Among the 
prominent physicians were Louis Szpaczek 
and R. Thomain of New York and Henry 
Kallusowski of Washington, D. C. Colonel 
Casimir Gzowski was the famous engineer 
of Canada who built the first bridge across 
the Niagara. Joseph Truskolaski was a 
land surveyor in Louisiana and Utah. Cap- 
tain Charles Radzimiński helped stake out 
the American-Mexican boundary. Leopold 
Boeck founded the first polytechnic school 
of America. Joseph Karge, Arthur Gra- 
bowski, Joseph d'Alfons and many others 
distinguished themselves as professors. 
Major Henry Głowacki, of Batavia, N. Y., 
became a well-known attorney. Dr. Felix 
Wierzbicki acquired fame with his work 
on California, the first published book in 
San Francisco, now very rare and eagerly 
sought by enthusiastic bibliophiles. A. Ja- 
kubowski, having mastered the English 
language in six months, wrote beautiful 
poetry, but due to his despair over the 
tragic plight of Poland, did not live long 
enough to acquire lasting fame. Many of 
these Poles became federal workers and 
officials in Washington; others disting- 
uished themselves in various other fields, 
and all aided in the development of the cul- 
tural background of young America. 

The Poles were also active politically. 
They helped in the annexation of Texas to 
the United States. In the Texan revolt 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

against Mexico in 1835 a number of Polish 
soldiers took active part. Several Poles 
were killed in the famous massacre of Col- 
onel Fannin's company at Goliad, Texas, 
and one of them, the gallant Piotrowicz, 
was in command of the artillery. In the 
war with Mexico, 1846-1848, among the 
Poles who distinguished themselves were 
Capt. Charles Radzimiński, Capt. Napo- 
leon Koscialkowski, Sergt. lgnące Szumow- 
ski, and many others. 

The political exiles from Poland did 
their best to spread the truth about Poland 
among the Americans. In 1842 they be- 
gan to publish in New York Poland — His- 
torical, Literary, Monumental and Pic- 
turesque, the first periodical published by 
Poles in America. Casper Tochman espe- 
cially rendered great service in acquaint- 
ing America with Polish history and liter- 
ature; in 1840-1844, he delivered through- 
out the United States over a hundred lec- 
tures on Poland. Through his efforts sev- 
eral state legislatures adopted resolutions 
laudatory of Poland. For instance, the 
legislature of the State of Connecticut 
adopted the following on May 12, 1842: 

"Resolved, that in all conflicts between 
the tyrant and the oppressed, our best 
wishes are due to the latter, and are espe- 
cially extended to the Polish nation, whose 
history is bright with examples of heroism, 
and whose noblest warriors have fought by 
the side of our Fathers, in the great cause 
of American freedom. 

"Resolved, that in this manifesting our 
emotions of pity and indignation for the 
cruel wrongs which have been suffered by 
Poland from the armed robbers of the 
north, we but echo the feelings of the whole 
American people". 

The exiles began to organize into asso- 
ciations of self-help and mutual aid, espe- 
cially in the city of New York. The most 
famous of these was the Democratic So- 
ciety of Polish Exiles in America. The 
most eminent Polish leader of those days 
was Dr. Henry Kalussowski, who devoted 
all his energy to organize the Poles scat- 



22 



4s 

tered throughout the United States, in or- 
der that they might aid their unfortunate 
native land. 

Among the clergymen of that early per- 
iod we find Father Norbert Kossak, Jesuit, 
who came here about 1800; the saintly 
Father Boniface Krukowski, 1820; Father 
Francis Dzierozynski, superior over the 
Jesuit missions of America, 1820-1848. 
Father Gaspar Matoga, who came to the 
United States in 1848, and completed his 
studies at Fordham, was the first Polish 
priest to be ordained in the United States. 
The Polish exiles were too widely scattered 
to form a Polish settlement and parish in 
these early days. 

Following the nationalistic movement of 
1846-1848, many more Poles came to 
America to escape political persecution. 
The most famous of these was John Tys- 
sowski, dictator of the Cracow rebellion of 
1846, and later a prominent official of 
Washington. In 1848, the attempts to at- 
tain liberty by force again engaged the 
sympathy of the American people who ar- 
ranged huge demonstrations for Poland. 
Among the new Polish settlements made 
in that year was the one in New Orleans, 
Louisiana. 

Following the unsuccessful uprising of 
1863, more Poles came to the land of the 
free, bringing with them their love of free- 
dom, and their profound cultural back- 
ground. 

During the Civil War more than 4,000 
Poles served in the Union Army, and more 
than 1,000 in the Confederate Army; that 
is one-sixth of the total estimated Polish 
population. 

A week after Lincoln's proclamation 
calling for 75,000 volunteers, Gen. W. 
Krzyżanowski organized one of the first 
companies in Washington, D. C. Major A. 
Raszewski assembled two Polish companies 
of the 31st regiment of the state militia of 
New York. At first they wore Polish uni- 
forms and were called the Polish Legion, 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IN AMERICA 



2§S 

although that name was officially borne 
by the 58th regiment of the state infantry 
of New York. 

When in the beginning of the war the 
State of Missouri was inclined to favor 
the Confederacy, Polish volunteers from 
St. Louis helped to keep it under the Stars 
and Stripes. The Poles of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
under Maj. Maurice Wesołowski, organ- 
ized their own company in the 28th regi- 
ment of the state infantry. The greatest 
number of Poles serving in the Union 
ranks came from New York, Missouri, 
Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin. 

By singular coincidence, among the first 
victims of the war on either side were 
Poles. Thaddeus Strawiński, an 18-year 
old student and son of a Polish exile, per- 
ished during the Confederate attack on 
Fort Sumpter which started the war; he 
is the first recorded victim of the struggle. 
The first Union officer to fall on the field 
of battle was Captain Constantine Błędow- 
ski on May 10, 1861, at St. Louis. He was 
one of those deserving patriots who had 
saved Missouri for the Union. 

There were about 165 Polish officers in 
the Union army and several score in the 
Confederate troops. Over 500 Poles died 
fighting to preserve the Union and about 
100 perished for the Confederate cause. 

The Confederacy had many friends in 
Europe; France and England were espe- 
cially sympathetic to the Southern states 
and clandestinely aided their cause. At 
that time the Poles abroad were groaning 
under the oppressive heel of Russia and 
their insurrection of 1863 was an attempt 
to throw off the foreign yoke. France and 
England, the very powers hostile to the 
United States, were most sympathetic to 
the Polish cause. Napoleon III, the French 
emperor, appealed to all the civilized pow- 
ers to defend oppressed Poland. Prussia 
and the United States declined to intervene 
— Prussia out of hostility to the Poles, the 
United States out of respect for the Mon- 



23] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



roe Doctrine. This aloofness, however, 
caused great rejoicing in Russia, where 
a belief was professed that the Polish 
cause could not be just inasmuch as the 
most democratic country in the world re- 
fused to render aid. In order to deter Eng- 
land and France from active support of 
the Poles, the Russian czar sent a large 
fleet to the United States where it was 
welcomed with great enthusiasm. The 
threat was effective, and the European 
powers agreed to preserve neutrality in 
the Polish insurrection as well as where 
the Confederacy was concerned. 

General Vladimir Krzyżanowski was 
the most famous Pole in the Civil War. 
From a private he rose to the rank of a 
general and distinguished himself by his 
valor and able leadership. Born in Po- 
land, in 1824, he worked while a student 
for the Polish cause. Compelled to leave 
his home because of his political activities, 
he came to America and by dint of hard 
labor and study became an engineer. At 
first employed by the railroads, he later 
settled in Washington, D. C, and became 
a merchant. 

In 1861 he organized a company of mili- 
tia in Washington, soon became captain, 
major, and finally, colonel of the 58th in- 
fantry of the New York militia. This regi- 
ment included many Poles and for that 
reason was called the Polish Legion. 

Gen. Krzyżanowski distinguished him- 
self in many battles. After the battle at 
Cross Keys, June 8, 1862, he was given 
the rank of brigadier; and for his gallant 
part in the battle of Bull Run, August, 
1862, President Lincoln appointed him 
general. The Senate, however, failed to 
ratify the appointment. 

In the bloody battle of Chancellorsville 
(May, 1863), when the Confederate gen- 
eral, "Stonewall" Jackson, executed a sur- 
prise attack which threw the Union ranks 
into confusion, Krzyżanowski alone main- 
tained his brigade intact and by his valor 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



— M 

aided in holding Jackson. At Gettysburg 
(July, 1863) he again distinguished him- 
self, and thereafter despatched to Tennes- 
see, he took part in many engagements and 
executed several difficult marches. 

Krzyżanowski was beloved by his men 
because he shared the common lot of a sol- 
dier, never grumbled, was always kindly, 
humane, and sympathetic; they followed 
his orders blindly. Upon the termination 
of the war the officers and soldiers of his 
brigade presented him with a beautiful 
saber inscribed: "Officers and soldiers of 
the 2nd brigade, 3rd division, 2nd corps, 
to their beloved commander, this token of 
respect." He was showered with many 
other presents for his valor and knightly 
virtues. 

Moreover, he was also known for his 
humanity in the treatment of the enemy. 
In 1864, he was in supreme command of 
Bridgeport, Tennessee, on Confederate ter- 
ritory, master of the life and property of 
the inhabitants, yet when he was leaving 
for another assignment, the Southerners 
sincerely regretted his departure. 

With the end of the war Krzyżanowski 
was honored by Congress, for his most dis- 
tinguished service, with the brevet of brig- 
adier-general. When in 1867 the United 
States purchased Alaska from Russia, 
Krzyżanowski was appointed its first gov- 
ernor. There he laid the foundation for 
the American administration. Later he 
was a federal official in Panama and New 
York. He died in New York on January 
31, 1887. General Carl Schurz, United 
States senator and secretary of the treas- 
ury, pronounced a beautiful eulogy at his 
funeral : "A son of a distant land, dearer 
to me than everything else, mindful of her 
misfortunes." Krzyżanowski wrote of him- 
self in his "Memoirs of My Stay in Amer- 
ica," "I have always fought for an idea, 
for freedom and independence." 

One of the best cavalry officers in the 
Union army during the Civil war was a 



24 



2§5- 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IN AMERICA 



& 

at Princeton University. The "National 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography" says 
of him that "by reason of his fine scholar- 
ship, his amiable qualities, and his rare 
gifts as a teacher, he became one of the 
best known educators of his time." He 
died suddenly December 27, 1892, when 
sailing from New Jersey to New York, 
sincerely mourned by both American and 
Pole. 

Besides Krzyżanowski and Karge, there 
were other Poles who aided in maintaining 
the Union whole and inviolate. Among 
these was Captain Alexander Bielaski, ad- 
jutant to General McClellan, who at Bel- 
mont, Missouri, November 7, 1861, dis- 
mounting from his injured horse, seized 
the Union flag and with a cry led his sol- 
diers to the attack. He was killed instant- 
ly. "A braver man never fell on a field 
of battle," wrote General Logan, while 
General McClellan reported: "His brave- 
ry was only equalled by his fidelity as a 
soldier and patriot. He died making the 
Stars and Stripes his winding sheet. Hon- 
ored be his memory". 

Poles were also pioneers in the signal 
corps, the eyes and tongue of the army. 
Here we find Lieut. Julius S. Krzywo- 
szynski and Capt. Joseph Gloskowski, who 
rendered many a service to the Union 
army. In 1864, Gloskowski participated 
in the bold expedition to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, the capital of the Confederacy, to 
rescue Union prisoners. Many war re- 
ports name him for "meritorious service 
and gallant conduct." 

As army engineers, several Poles re- 
ceived honorable mention. Lieut. Ladis- 
law A. Wrotnowski, engineer on General 
Weitzel's staff, died a heroic death at Port 
Hudson, Louisiana, May 27, 1863. Capt. 
W. Kossak distinguished himself on Gen- 
eral Grant's staff. General Sherman 
praised him for his plan of the battle of 
Shiloh, calling the plan "the best I have 
ever seen," and his fortification at the 



Pole, General Joseph Karge, like Krzyża- 
nowski, native of that part of Poland un- 
der German domination. He fought in the 
insurrection of 1848, and, eager to escape 
the Prussian persecution, he left with his 
brother for America in 1851. Once he had 
mastered the language, he established a 
school that became famous in New York. 
He volunteered for service in the Union 
army and became lieutenant-colonel in the 
first cavalry regiment of the State of New 
Jersey. He trained this regiment and took 
part in many engagements. At Barnett's 
Ford, August 7, 1862, he helped save the 
Army of Virginia from annihilation by 
Jackson and aided in the defense of Wash- 
ington from Confederate attack. He was 
wounded at Brandy Station, August 20, 
1862. Again he distinguished himself at 
Aldie, October 21, 1862. Hampered by his 
wound, he was compelled to retire, but in 
the beginning of 1863 he again became 
active and organized the second regiment 
of New Jersey, of which he became colonel. 
When General Lee threatened to invade 
New Jersey and the Northern states, the 
governor appointed Karge supreme com- 
mander of the cavalry within the state. 
Lee, however, defeated at Gettysburg, was 
compelled to return south. 

Karge was sent to the south-west to 
fight the many small Confederate contin- 
gents that carried on a guerilla warfare. 
There he took part in many engagements, 
traversing on horseback the States of Miss- 
issippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and 
parts of Arkansas and Louisiana ; he sailed 
the Mississippi from St. Louis to New Or- 
leans ; he marched thousands of miles, cap- 
turing soldiers and horses and ammunition 
on the way. He was universally praised 
for his work, and a grateful Congress, for 
his valorous and distinguished service, 
commissioned him brigadier-general. 

With peace declared, Karge returned to 
his profession and for 20 years was pro- 
fessor of foreign languages and literatures 



[25 



»!*- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

called him "an officer of the highest grade 
of merit." Sulakowski planned a Polish 
army of 30,000 to be composed of the exiles 
of the Polish insurrection of 1863, but 
the Confederacy had no means to trans- 
port that number from Europe, and his 
plan came to naught. Lieutenant Colonel 
Hipolit Oladowski was an inseparable as- 
sistant and adviser to the famous Con- 
federate general Braxton Bragg. Capt. 
Peter K. Stankiewicz was a brilliant of- 
ficer of the artillery, in command of a bat- 
tery from Tennessee. Leon Jastremski, 
later mayor of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 
rose to a captaincy from the ranks. 

Even the Polish women played an im- 
portant part in the Civil war. Sister Ve- 
ronica, of the Sisters of Mercy, (nee Klim- 
kiewicz and related to Kościuszko), work- 
ed for some time in the military hospitals. 
At the battle of Gettysburg she recognized 
her own brother in a seriously wounded 
confederate soldier to whom she was giv- 
ing water. Klimkiewicz regained his 
health. Sister Veronica celebrated the 
diamond jubilee of the taking of her mo- 
nastic vows in 1930, in Baltimore, Md. 
She died the same year. Her sister, also 
a Sister of Mercy, worked as a nurse dur- 
ing the Civil war. Similar work was done 
in the South by Mrs. Sosnowski, of Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, widow of a Polish 
officer who took part in the insurrection 
of 1831 in Poland. 

Following the Civil war there followed 
a huge emigration from Poland, for econ- 
omic reasons. Before the war the immi- 
grants were political exiles, who had left 
Poland because of the persecutions of Rus- 
sia and Prussia. Now the immigrant 
came to the land of opportunity to better 
himself economically, to work hard and 
save for a home of his own. 

True, there were some Poles who were 
attracted by the gold rush in California 
and came here in 1850. But the main 
stream of immigration started when the 



siege of Corinth, Mississippi, "very excel- 
lent." 

Capt. Louis Zychliński was a gallant of- 
ficer, who in his account of the Civil war 
wrote: "I have lived solely for the future 
of my native land, and I fought for Amer- 
ica, tens of times looking death boldly in 
the face as became a Pole." Ladislaw 
Leski was adjutant to General McDowell, 
commander of the Western army. George 
Sokalski and Theophilus Michałowski 
were well known officers of artillery. 
Capt. Edmund Zalinski, as a youngster of 
16, joined the Union army and became 
adjutant to General N. A. Miles. For his 
bravery he rose from a private to the rank 
of an officer. After the war he was pro- 
fessor in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and acquired fame as an in- 
ventor of war machinery. 

Peter Kiolbassa, first Polish teacher in 
Texas, and later city treasurer in Chicago, 
like Zalinski, rose from the ranks and be- 
came captain in the Union army. 

Others to be mentioned for their distin- 
guished service were: Joseph Smoliński, 
of New York; Lieut. Charles Borowski, of 
Buffalo, killed at Plain Store, Louisiana, 
in 1863; Capt. Maurice Kraszynski of 
Connecticut; Capt. Edmund T. Hulanicki, 
and his brother, Capt. Thaddeus C. Hula- 
nicki, of Illinois; Capt. Edward Antoniew- 
ski, of New York, killed at Gettysburg; 
Capt. Gusta ve Radecki of Massachusetts; 
Col. Emil Schoening, of New York, and 
many others. 

Among those who sided with the Con- 
federacy were Gen. Casper Tochman, fa- 
mous for his numerous lectures on Poland, 
who organized a Polish Brigade at New 
Orleans, Louisiana. A number of Poles 
from the South joined this contingent, but 
Tochman soon after resigned. One of the 
officers of the Brigade was Col. Vincent 
Sulakowski, a famous engineer, who plan- 
ned the fortification of the coasts of Texas 
and Louisiana. Gen. J. B. Magruder 



26 



2§S 

small tradesman, the laborer, the farmer 
of Poland, decided to leave for the land of 
the free. The peasantry, unable to make 
any headway in the old country, and un- 
able to own their own land, resolved to 
leave for America in order to acquire 
economic independence, and better op- 
portunities for themselves and their child- 
ren. 

The immigrants brought with them 
their clergymen, and thus the church be- 
came the nucleus of the many settlements 
in this country. Since the immigrants 
were ever religious, never forgetting 
church or God, the parish linked them in 
one group which enabled them to survive 
more easily. 

The oldest Polish parish in America is 
that of Panna Maria, Texas, begun by the 
Rev. Leopold Moczygemba in 1851. In 
1854 he invited some hundred families 
from Upper Silesia (German Poland), 
who made their way through the difficul- 
ties of the Texas prairie and wilderness, 
exposed to wild animals and venomous 
snakes, to fever and elemental storms, and 
to the ill-will of the natives. Nothing 
daunted, they constructed a little church 
for their priest and their little huts on the 
prairie and became successful pioneers in 
a new country. 

By 1855 we find in the north the first 
Polish farming community at Polonia, 
Wisconsin, and soon after one at Paris- 
ville, Michigan, and then many others. 
The many thriving farming communities 
attracted other farmers from Poland, so 
much that today 10 percent of the Polish 
population in America, or about 400,000, 
live on the farms, especially in New Eng- 
land, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Il- 
linois, Indiana, Missouri, Pennsylvania, 
the Dakotas, Iowa, Arkansas and Nebras- 
ka. As farmers they proved themselves 
efficient; for instance, in New England 
they supplanted the Yankee farmer who 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IN AMERICA 



was unable to eke out a living on the 
scanty soil. 

But the laboring class as well was at- 
tracted to the land of Washington, and 
the bulk of the Polish immigration, num- 
bering some 3,500,000, settled in towns 
and cities, in the many industrial centers 
of the United States. In Chicago, there 
are some 60 Polish parishes, with about 
400,000 citizens of Polish extraction. 
Other large Polish settlements are found 
in Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Buf- 
falo, Pittsburgh, and New York. 

The Poles of the German partition were 
the first to start this mass immigration 
to America. They had been compelled to 
fight the French in the Franco-German 
war of 1870, and as a reward were being 
subjected to a ruthless form of Prussian- 
ization. To escape this repression of the 
Polish tongue and to better themselves 
economically, they began to flock in great 
numbers to America. They were followed 
by the Poles of the Russian partition and 
finally by Austrian Poles. The huge im- 
migration was stopped only by the war in 
1914. 

The following statistics prove the rapid 
growth of the Polish invasion of America : 

In 1860, there were in the United States 
some 30,000 Poles and about 10 Polish set- 
tlements; in 1870 the number was 50,000, 
with 20 settlements in Texas, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri and 
Pennsylvania (in Chicago alone there were 
some 10,000 Poles with 25 clergymen) ; 
in 1875 they numbered about 200,000, 
with 50 parishes, and 300 settlements; in 
1890 there were 1,000,000 immigrants, 
150 parishes, 125 Polish parochial schools, 
150 priests; in 1900 we find 2,000,000 
Poles, with 800 settlements and over 400 
parishes; in 1910 they numbered 3,000,- 
000, 530 parishes, 330 schools, and over 
700 Polish clergymen ; at present you find 
about 4,000,000 Poles, over 800 Polish 
parishes, 530 schools and 1100 clergymen. 



27 



&• 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



souri. Now there are over 100 Polish 
periodicals, among them 15 dailies, all per- 
forming effective educational work among 
the Poles in the United States. 

The loyalty and patriotic spirit of the 
Pole has never been questioned; in fact, 
Polish patriotism has been pointed out as 
a model by American writers for other 
immigrants to follow. The Pole partici- 
pated in the Spanish-American war in 
great numbers. And when the World war 
broke out, the United States government, 
with President Woodrow Wilson at its 
head, knew that it could depend on the 
Pole to do more than his share. Governor 
W. Kohler of Wisconsin once spoke as fol- 
lows: 

"I was astonished to read recently that 
out of the first 100,000 volunteers who res- 
ponded to the call of the President for ser- 
vice in the world war, 40,000 were of Polish 
descent, and that the Polish people consis- 
tently supplied volunteer enlistments far 
out of proportion to the number of Poles 
living in th.s country". (Stevens Point, 
Wis., at the unveiling of a monument to 
Pulaski, October, 11, 1929). 

"Among the good qualities which charac- 
terize the Poles, are several which are so 
outstanding that they cannot but make a 
strong impression. Among these I would 
mention a strong and sincere religious 
faith; an intense love of home; a tending 
on coming to this country to acquire citi- 
zenship as soon as possible ; a noticeably 
keen interest in performing the duties of 
citizenship, and despite their peace-loving 
character, a remarkable readiness to res- 
pond to the national call in time of war." 

The first American soldier to fall in 
France was of Polish descent. Poles of 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and other points 
were among the first victims of the war. 
Two Polish boys, one of Milwaukee, the 
other of Chicago, were the first to capture 
a German prisoner. 

lgnące Jan Paderewski, in his Detroit 
speech of August 26, 1918, in the most 
critical period of the World War, uttered 
the following memorable words: 



Thus the colonization of America was 
furthered by the Polish farmer, the pio- 
neer, the laborer, and the miner, who 
found here their long-sought freedom, and 
in return gave their hard labor, their un- 
stinted devotion and loyalty to the Stars 
and Stripes. As the immortal Paderewski 
said in one of his speeches : 

"The Poles in America are hard-working 
people, contributing by their efficient and 
conscientious labor to the development of 
natural resources and to the progress of in- 
dustry and growth of American prosperity. 
They are not rich, they are just making 
their honest living. Out of four millions of 
them not one is a millionaire, and yet they 
are fulfilling their duty imposed upon them 
by circumstances with loyalty, determina- 
tion and enthusiasm." 

Polish immigrants are bound together, 
first of all, as we have seen, by their 
churches, their parochial schools; then by 
their associations and their press. Among 
their associations are such country-wide 
fraternal organizations, as the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, the Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, the Polish Women's Alliance, the 
Polish Falcons' Alliance, jointly number- 
ing some 750,000 members. Besides these 
there is a host of dramatic, literary, sing- 
ing, social and athletic societies all over 
the country. 

The Pole is taking care of his own, 
with his numerous orphanages, old people's 
homes, hospitals, and charitable organiza- 
tions. The Polish Welfare Association of 
Chicago is doing notable work for delin- 
quents, cooperating effectively with the 
courts and other social agencies of the 
state. 

The Polish press has done great work 
in adapting the immigrant to the political 
institutions of the United States, in crys- 
tallizing public opinion in favor of good, 
efficient government. The first Polish 
paper published in America was the 
"Echo Polskie" (Polish Echo) started in 
1963; the "Orzeł Polski" (Polish Eagle) 
appeared in 1870 at Washington, Mis- 



28 



&- 



HISTORY OF THE POLES IX AMERICA 



Paderewski succeeded in uniting all 
Polish organizations with a view to plac- 
ing the Polish Question before the Amer- 
ican and world forum. He inspired the 
formation of the Polish relief for the war- 
stricken in Poland and of the Polish Natio- 
nal Department to further effective as- 
sistance to America and to the Polish 
Cause through the spoken and written 
word, through contributions, and through 
the organization of a Polish army which 
fought by the side of the Allies on the 
western front in France. The Polish Fal- 
cons' Alliance furnished most of the vo- 
lunteers to that Polish army, whose 
"presence on the Western Front," as the 
then Secretary of War Newton D. Baker 
expressed it, "was a stimulating and in- 
spiring sight." The Poles distinguished 
themselves in many battles in France and, 
later, in Poland. 

It can readily be seen there, that the 
Poles are an asset in every community in 
which they settle. They are loyal, hard- 
working ; they find all forms of racketeer- 
ing and exploitation distasteful. Even 
amid the prevailing depression when so 
many of these have lost all they possessed, 
they refuse to lend a favorable ear to the 
so-called radicals, communists, with their 
vapid attacks on established government. 

America found the Pole the first to heed 
her call in times of war; in this depres- 
sion, which is another kind of war, she 
finds the Pole the main stabilizing in- 
fluence of the country. The Poles say that 
"America is not the land we live on, or 
the land we live from, but the land we live 
in." They are here to stay and contribute 
for more than their share to the continuity 
of America as the greatest Republic of all 
ages. 



"No other nationality here in the United 
States has taken so active a part in the Red 
Cross campaigns as the Poles. In propor- 
tion to their number they have been the lar- 
gest contributors to this worthy cause. In 
one American city of 300,000 population 
$3,750,000 has been collected for American 
Red Cross, which represents $12.50 per 
capita, which included a number of Amer- 
ican millionaires. The Polish population of 
the same city, 7,000 people, almost exclu- 
sively belonging to the laboring class, con- 
tributed to the fund $160,000, which makes 
$23.00 a head. 

"From reliable sources it appears that in 
one mining district in Pennsylvania alone 
the poor Polish miners have subscribed 
$11,000,000 to the Third Liberty Loan. One 
single Polish bank in Chicago received over 
15,000 Polish subscriptions exceeding 
$1,500,000. In every large city in America 
with Polish population the number of Pol- 
ish subscribers has been very large, not- 
withstanding the fact that the number of 
Polish subscribers working with large 
American concerns could not be taken into 
account. 

"Of all the groups of people of foreign 
birth living in th's great country, our Polish 
boys were the first and most numerous to 
respond when the call to arms was shouted. 
Their willingness to enlist and fight under 
the American flag has won repeated praise 
of the highest military authorities in the 
country. There is not one of those mourn- 
ful casualty lists that does not contain some 
names of American soldiers of Polish birth 
fallen on the glorious battle-fields of France. 
The average number killed exceeds 12 per 
cent. And as there are not quite 4 percent 
Polish people among the population of the 
United States, this fact indicates that the 
Poles in this war are doing more than three 
times their duty, that they are not 100, but 
300 per cent American. 

"The proud descendants of those illus- 
trious pioneers who laid the foundation of 
Jamestown, and who arrived on the May- 
flower could have shown no finer record. 

"Conscious of their value, valor, supreme- 
ly loyal and grateful, the Poles will continue 
to perform all duties toward America. They 
will perform them in time of war, in time 
of peace, and always without fear or with- 
out reproach." 



29 J 




THADDEUS KOŚCIUSZKO 

1746—1817 



30 






Y^osciuszko in the \Jnited States 



ON February 12, 1746, in the Palatin- 
ate of Brzesc — at present called the 
Palatinate of Polesie, Poland — in that 
part of the Polish Commonwealth, known 
at that time as the Grand Duchy of Lithu- 
ania, was born Thaddeus Kościuszko, the 
son of a notary known and respected for 
his honorable and ancient family and for 
the virtue of his private character. The 
environment of the boy was one of probity 
and domestic virtue. Freely and intim- 
ately he went among his father's serfs, 
learning thus that strong love for the peas- 
antry which later inspired the laws he 
urged upon his country. His early steps 
in learning were guided by his mother, a 
woman of great force of character and 
practical capacity. This home schooling 
ended with his father's death during the 
child's thirteenth year. He was then sent 
to the Jesuit College at Brzesc, where he 
proved diligent and revealed a marked 
talent for drawing. 

In 1765, a youth of nineteen years, he 
was entered in the Corps of Cadets, other- 
wise called the Royal School, at Warsaw. 
In reality this was not a military academy, 
but military training played an important 
role in the curriculum. It was, above all, 
a school for patriotism. As a cadet Koś- 
ciuszko was marked not only by ability but 
by a fine perseverance and fidelity to duty. 
And in Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski, 
commander of the school and a cousin of 
the king, he found a friend and a protector. 
At this time Kosciuszko's mother died, and 
with her death began the financial dif- 
ficulties which pursued him without res- 
pite throughout his life. 

In 1769, having left the school with the 
rank of captain, and having received the 



King's Stipend, he left Poland to pursue 
his studies abroad. Once in France he at- 
tended the school of engineering and ar- 
tillery at Mezieres — and possibly the Ecole 
Militaire in Paris. The French theory of 
fortification engaged his closest attention 
and when, in 1774, he returned home, he 
had acquired great skill in military en- 
gineering. But under the conditions pre- 
vailing in Poland shortly after the First 
Partition, 1772, there was little opportun- 
ity for his talents; a commission in the 
reduced army was to be had only by 
purchase, and Kościuszko was without 
funds. 

Observing no chance to serve his country, 
Kościuszko again left Poland, pledging his 
share of the parental estate, as security 
for the loan which enabled him to journey 
to Paris. Here the newly arrived intel- 
ligence of the outbreak of hostilities in 
America kindled his imagination, and he 
determined to go to the aid of America — 
a Polish knight in the cause of liberty. 

In the summer of 1776, Kościuszko ar- 
rived in America at his own initiative and 
at his own expense. Pending the decision 
of the Board of War upon his application, 
he found employment at Philadelphia, in 
the construction of fortifications against 
the expected attack by the Delaware. This 
gained him his commission from Congress, 
October 18, 1776, as an engineer in the 
Continental service with pay of sixty dol- 
lars a month, and the rank of colonel. In 
the spring of 1777, he joined the North- 
ern Army, where his ability as an engineer 
was of invaluable use in the campaign a- 
gainst Burgoyne. His fortification at Van 
Schaick and elsewhere, his able judgment 
in the choice of battlegrounds, contributed 



31 



POLES IN AMERICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



III 

much to the skillful retreats and the firm 
stands of the Continental Army before 
Burgoyne's rash advance. He was or- 
dered by General Gates to erect the forti- 
fication in the defense of Saratoga, and 
his task was accomplished with great bril- 
liancy and speed. 

With justified pride Poles regard the 
role played by their national hero in the 
victory at Saratoga, a victory which won 
for America not only a campaign but 
France's recognition of her independence. 

For long the question of the defense of 
the Hudson had been of paramount import- 
ance ; the brief respite gained by the defeat 
of Burgoyne rendered this a favorable mo- 
ment to render it impregnable. West Point 
was chosen for its commanding position, 
and its fortification was finally confer- 
red, over the head of the French engineer, 
Radiere, upon the Pole. "Mr. Kościusz- 
ko," wrote McDougall now in command 
of the Northern Army, to Washington, 
"is esteemed to have more practice than 
Colonel Radiere, and his manner of treat- 
ing the people is more acceptable than that 
of the latter." Little is now left of the 
fortifications, but the monument erected 
to his memory by American Youth will re- 
main a grateful tribute forever. That 
America today can regard West Point 
with pride is, in large measure, due to Koś- 
ciuszko who first suggested for a national 
military school the spot where it now 
stands. 

In the summer of 1780, General Gates 
requested Washington to transfer Koś- 
ciuszko to the South, where the army was 
now under his command. But before the 
Pole was able to reach him, his old friend 
had been defeated at Camden — deprived 
of his command, and General Nathanael 
Greene — after Washington the finest gen- 
eral in the Continental service — had been 
appointed his successor. While awaiting 
Greene's arrival, Kościuszko spent some 
time in Virginia among the planters. He 
saw there the negroes at close quarters and 



— M 

was brought face to face with the Negroes 
in slavery. It was then that, with his keen 
suspectibility to every form of human suf- 
fering, he acquired that profound sym- 
pathy for the American negro, which 
seventeen years later, was to dictate his 
parting testament to the New World. 

Kościuszko was present through the 
whole campaign of the Carolinas and was 
regarded with strong affection and admi- 
ration by General Greene. True to his 
ideals, at the battle of Eutaw Springs, he 
restrained a carnage which outraged his 
feelings, and he is said personally to have 
saved the lives of fifty Englishmen. When 
the campaign changed to one of guerilla 
warfare, he fought as a soldier, not as an 
engineer. At length Charleston fell. And 
on December 14th, 1872, the American 
army entered the town in a triumphal pro- 
cession, in which Kościuszko rode with his 
fellow-officers, greeted by the populace 
with flowers and cries of "Welcome". 

Peace soon followed. 

Kościuszko had fought for six years in 
the American army. Nathanael Greene 
best sums up what the Pole had done for 
America and what he had been to his 
brother-soldiers. "Colonel Kościuszko be- 
longed" — wrote Greene — "to the number 
of my most useful and dearest comrades in 
arms. I can liken to nothing his zeal in 
the public service, and in the solution of 
important problems, nothing could have 
been more helpful than his judgment, vig- 
ilance and diligence. He was fearless of 
every danger. He never manifested de- 
sires or claims to himself, and never let 
opportunity pass of calling attention to 
and recommending the merits of others." 
Congress, in 1783, belatedly conferred up- 
on Kościuszko the rank of Brigadier-Gene- 
ral with an acknowledgment of its "high 
sense of his long, faithful, and meritorious 
service." 

In the fall of 1784 Kościuszko reached 
his native country. A great wave of ef- 
fort — a nation's magnificent effort to save 



32 



& 

herself by internal reform, which culmi- 
nated in the Constitution of the 3rd of 
May, 1791 — was sweeping at that time 
over Poland. 

For the next twelve years he remained 
in Europe — through the infamous parti- 
tions of Poland and the many battles 
fought in connection therewith. It was in 
1794 that Kościuszko was seriously 
wounded in the battle of Maciejowice and 
was taken prisoner by Russia, not to be 
released until two years later. 

On the 19th of December, 1796, Koś- 
ciuszko left St. Petersburg with his friend 
and fellow-prisoner Julian Ursyn Niem- 
cewicz and a young officer, Libiszewski, 
who eagerly offered to serve the maimed 
Kościuszko till he again reached America. 
He carried Kościuszko from carriage to 
church, distracting his sadness by his ad- 
mirable playing of the horn and by his 
sweet singing. In good time the party ar- 
rived in Stockholm, where Kościuszko 
was greeted with enthusiasm. From there 
he passed on to Gothenburg to await a ship 
for England. On May 16, 1797, the Poles 
embarked and after a three weeks' passage 
landed at Gravesent and thence to London, 
staying at the Sablonniere Hotel, Leicester 
Square. 

The Gentleman's Magazine announced: 
"Kościuszko, the hero of freedom is here.'' 
The whole of London made haste to visit 
him : Politicians, men of letters, the beau- 
ties of the day and the rulers of fashion, 
all alike thronged to his rooms. To Walter 
Savage Landor, then a mere youth, the 
sight of Kościuszko awakened a sympathy 
for Poland that he never lost, and to which 
English literature owes one of his Imagin- 
ary Conversations. More than half a cen- 
tury later he looked back to the moment 
in which he spoke to Kościuszko as the 
happiest of his life. The Whig Club pres- 
ented Kościuszko with a sword of honour; 
the Duchess of Devonshire pressed upon 
him a costly ring, which went the way of 
most of the gifts that Kościuszko received 



KOŚCIUSZKO IN THE UXITED STATES 



2§g 

— he passed them on to his friends ; tokens 
of admiration and counted for nought in 
Kosciuszko's life; now they were the mer- 
est baubles to him who had seen his 
country fall. In the portrait that without 
his knowledge Cosway painted, said by 
Niemcewicz to resemble him as none other, 
we see him lie with bandaged head in an 
attitude of deep and sorrowful musing. 

Bristol was at that time the English 
port of sailing for America and it was 
there that, after a fortnight's stay in Lon- 
don, Kościuszko betook himself, passing a 
night in Bath on the way. He found in 
Bristol old friends of American days, and 
now was the guest of one of them, at that 
time United States Consul. A guard of 
honor received him, processions of the 
townsfolk flocked to catch a glimpse of the 
hero, a military band played every evening 
before the Consulate, and he received as 
the gift of the City a handsome silver serv- 
ice. One who visited him here records his 
impression of a soul unbroken by misfor- 
tune, by wounds, poverty and exile; of an 
eagle glance, of talk full of wit and wis- 
dom. 

The journey down the Avon to where 
Kosciuszko's ship lay at anchor was a 
triumphal progress. He was accompanied 
by Engish officers in full dress, by the 
American Consul and hosts of well-wish- 
ers. All heads were bared as he was car- 
ried on board. The whole length of the 
river handkerchiefs were waved from the 
banks. Farewell resounded from every 
rock and promontory, where spectators had 
crowded to see the last of the Polish hero. 
Boats shot out from the private dwellings 
on the waterside, laden with flowers and 
fruits for the departing guest. Not a few 
men and women boarded the ship and ac- 
companied Kościuszko for some distance 
before they could bring themselves to part 
with him. 

The ship had sailed on June 18, 1797. 
For two months Kościuszko and his Polish 
companions tossed on the Atlantic, on one 



33 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



occasion near shipwreck. Philadelphia 
their destination, they reached on August 
18, 1797. Claypole's Advertiser, for Au- 
gust 19, 1797, reported: 

"In the ship Adriana, Captain Lee, arrived 
here last evening, from Bristol, came passenger, 
that illustrious Defender of the Rights of Man- 
kind, the brave but unfortunate Kościuszko, the 
Polish General, accompanied by two Polish 
Gentlemen. On the arrival of the vessel at the 
Fort, the Commander of the Garrison, being in- 
formed that the veteran General was on board, 
welcomed him by a Federal Salute; and when 
the vessel came to anchor in our harbor, the 
Sailing Master of the Frigate had its Barge 
manned with eight Masters of Vessel, and 
waited upon the General to take him on shore. 
On his landing, he was received with three 
cheers. And, as a further mark of popular re- 
spect for this great character, the citizens in- 
sisted upon drawing him to his lodgings. The 
General appears to be in good spirits, but has 
suffered very materially from his wounds and 
inhuman imprisonment. We trust, however, he 
will long live to enjoy in these peaceful shores, 
that Liberty and Happiness, which he assisted 
in fighting for, but which he fought in vain to 
obtain for his native land. We understand the 
General is personally known to most of the 
characters in our Revolution." 

On August 23, 1797, Kościuszko wrote 
to General Washington at Mount Vernon : 
"By sending packet delivered to me by 
Lord St. Clair for you, I have the honor 
to pay my respects not only to my Chief 
commander, but to a great man whose emi- 
nent virtues to his country rendered him 
dear to every feeling breast." And eight 
days later Washington from Mount Ver- 
non replied, congratulating Kościuszko on 
his safe arrival and welcoming him to the 
land "whose liberties you had been instru- 
mental in establishing." "No one," he 
continues, "has a higher respect and vene- 
ration for your character than I have and 
no one more sincerely wished, during your 
arduous struggle in the cause of Liberty 
and your country, that it might be crowned 
with success. But the ways of Providence 
are inscrutable and mortals must submit. 
I pray you to believe that at all times, and 
under all circumstances, it would make me 
happy to see you at my last retreat, from 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP" PROGRESS 



— w* 

which I never expect to be more than twen- 
ty miles again." Kościuszko was however 
never able to visit his commander at Mount 
Vernon. 

Yellow fever prevailed at Philadelphia 
at this time, so Kościuszko with his poet- 
friend Niemcewicz, journeyed on to New 
Brunswick, the home of General Anthony 
Walton White. Later he proceeded to New 
York, where he was the guest of General 
Gates at Rose Hill, where he remained un- 
til September 29, 1797. Before leaving 
New York, he received from Congress a 
grant of five hundred acres in recognition 
of his military services. This property 
was located on the extreme western border 
of the United States military lands, on 
the east side of the Scioto River, in Perry 
Township, Franklin County, Ohio, the site 
of the present City of Columbus. After a 
short visit in Elizabethtown, he returned 
tc the home of General White in New 
Brunswick where he remained until No- 
vember 28. Kościuszko, whose convales- 
cense was slow, spent nearly all his time 
reclining on a sofa, sketching and paint- 
ing in water color and India ink. From 
General White's home Kościuszko repaired 
to Philadelphia and took residence on 
2nd Street. Bevies of visitors and admir- 
ers again surrounded him, and Kościuszko 
drew into great intimacy with Thomas Jef- 
ferson, at this time Secretary of State. Jef- 
ferson wrote to Gates: "I see Kościuszko 
often. He is the purest son of liberty a- 
mong you all that I have ever known, the 
kind of liberty which extends to all, not 
only to the rich." On January 23, 1798, 
Congress authorized the Secretary of the 
Treasury to issue to Kościuszko a certifi- 
cate of indebtedness of $12,260.54 with 
interest at six per cent., from January 7, 
1793, to December 31, 1797. The final 
settlement of the account was made by a 
payment amounting to $15,227.87. 

Some time in March, 1798, a packet of 
letters from Europe was handed to Koś- 
ciuszko. His emotion on reading the con- 



34 1 



2fS 

tents was so strong that, despite his crip- 
pled condition, he sprang from his couch 
and stepped without a helping hand to the 
middle of the room. "I must return at 
once to Europe," he said with no explana- 
tion. Jefferson procured his passport to 
France under the name of Thomas Kan- 
berg and, with only Jefferson's knowledge, 
with no word either to Niemcewicz or to 
his servant, Stanislaus, for both of whom 
he left a roll of money in his cupboard, he 
sailed for France. Before embarking at 
Baltimore he gave Jefferson his power of 
attorney and wrote out the will in which, 
more than half a century before the Civil 
War, the Polish patriot advanced the 
cause of emancipation: 

"I, Thaddeus Kościuszko, being just in my de- 
parture from America, do hereby declare and 
direct that should I make no other testamentary 
disposition of my property in the United States 
thereby authorize my friend Thomas Jefferson 
to employ the whole thereof in purchasing ne- 
groes from among his own as any others and 
giving them liberty in my name in giving them 
an education in trades and otherwise, and in hav- 
ing them instructed for their new condition in 
the duties of morality which may make them 
good neighbors, good fathers or mothers, hus- 
bands or wives and in their duties as citizens, 
teaching them to be defenders of their liberty 
and country and of the good order of society and 
in whatsoever may make them happy and use- 
ful, and I make the said Thomas Jefferson my 
executor of this. 

"T. Kościuszko, 
"5th day of May, 1798." 

There was difficulty in putting this 
testament into effect as Jefferson was of 
advanced age at the time of Kosciuszko's 
death. It was never carried out; but in 
1826 the legacy went to found the Colored 
School at Newark, the first educational 
institute for negroes in the United States, 
and which bore Kosciuszko's name. 

By the end of June or early in July, 
1798, Kościuszko reached Paris. His ar- 
rival centered upon him the gaze of the 
whole world. Sympathy with himself and 
the Polish cause he heard expressed upon 
all sides. At the news of his return the 



KOŚCIUSZKO IN THE UNITED STATES 



2§S 

Polish Legions awakened to renewed life. 
He negotiated at length with the Govern- 
ment of France for France's help in the 
restoration of Polish independence. This 
was promised him many times, but his 
cautious request for guarantees was never 
complied with. When Napoleon was pro- 
claimed First Consul, Kościuszko, mis- 
trusting him, commenced to withdraw 
from relations with him or his officials. 
After the disastrous expedition of the 
Polish Legions to San Domingo, Kościusz- 
ko severed all relations with him. 

But Kosciuszko's intercourse with his 
American friends did not slacken. In 1800, 
at Paris, at the request of General William 
R. Davie, then envoy from the United 
States to France, Kościuszko prepared in 
French his Manoeuvres of Horse Artillery 
and published. This was done in the same 
1808, General Davie requested the United 
States Military Philosophical Society of 
West Point to have the Manual translated 
and published. This was done i n the same 
year and Colonel Williams, the translator, 
presented President Jefferson with a copy 
of this work, the first upon its subject to 
be published in America. 

At this period, Kościuszko became 
acquainted with a Swiss family by the 
name of Zeltner and moved to their home 
at Berville near Fontainebleau. The name 
Zeltner will ever arouse gratitude in the 
Polish heart; beneath the roof of these 
friends Kościuszko found the hospitality 
and domestic charm which gladdened his 
declining years and only death ended. 

Napoleon, in 1806, from Berlin, now 
summoned Kościuszko to assume the lead- 
ership of the revolting Poles. But the 
former Polish Commander-in-Chief had 
little faith in the fortune of the Emporor 
and none in his promises. He declined to 
obey the call, and remained in Paris. 

In May, 1815, Russia, Austria and 
Prussia signed an agreement for a new 
partition of Poland. An autonomous King- 



[35 



2§s- 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 

to gladden his heart, Kościuszko died. 
Even in his loneliness he was faithful to 
Poland — her purest soul and the greatest 
of Poles. And his greatness was greatest in 
that it was not his own personal greatness 
merely ; it was the greatness of Poland. 

Kosciuszko's body now rests in the Wa- 
wel Cathedral in Cracow, where lie Po- 
land's kings and her most honored dead; 
but his heart is in the Polish conquerors. 
To his memory, three years after his 
death, the nation raised a monument per- 
haps unique of its kind. Outside of Cracow 
towers the Kościuszko Hill, fashioned by 
the hands of Polish men, women and chil- 
dren, bringing earth in the battlefields 
where Kościuszko had fought. The act is 
typical. To this day the name of Thaddeus 
Kościuszko lives in the hearts of the Polish 
people, not only as the object of their pro- 
found and passionate love, but as the sym- 
bol of their dearest national aspirations. 
His pictures, his relics, are venerated as 
with the devotion paid to a patron saint. 
Legend and music have gathered about his 
name. 



dom of Poland was, it is true, to be formed, 
with the Tsar as King, but it would be but 
a small part of the true Poland. Provinces 
that remained under Russian rule were 
severed from the kingdom and incor- 
porated wholly with Russia. Kościuszko 
heard these things. In dismay he wrote to 
the Tsar. In vain he waited for an answer. 
Then, openly, as to the Tsar he could no 
longer write, he appealed to Czartoryski, 
in denunciation of the Tsar's betrayal, but 
in vain. Kościuszko refused all offers of 
office and honor in the newly partitioned 
Poland. He felt that his very presence, 
even, would lend sanction to the New 
Partition. He chose therefore a voluntary 
exile. Not desiring to live in a Bourbon 
France, he settled in Switzerland with the 
devoted Zeltners in Soleure. 

Here, in serene communion with nature, 
among eternal mountains, in unceasing 
meditation upon the future of Poland, he 
spent the two last years of his life. And 
here, on the sad autumn evening of Octo- 
ber 15, 1817, far from his Fatherland, 
though close in spirit, among strangers, 
with not a Polish face nor a Polish word 



♦♦ 



86 




-■-^-■^mm 



Pulaski, Wero of Two Continents 

By Anthony F. Zaleski 



THE celebrated Count 
Casimir Pulaski, 
better known to us in 
America as Brigadier 
General Casimir Pulaski 
of revolutionary fame, 
was born in Winiary, Po- 
land, on March 4th, 
1748. He was the eldest 
son of Count Joseph Pu- 
laski, a venerable old 
man, who belonged to the 
Polisn nobility. The fa- 
ther was the chief magis- 
trate of Warech and was 
noted for his knowledge 
of jurisprudence. 

General Casimir Pu- 
laski was educated for 
the bar also, and received his early mili- 
tary training as a youth in the guard of 
Charles, Duke of Courland. He was in the 
castle of Mittau when it was besieged by 
15,000 Russian soldiers. 

In order better to appreciate the spirit 
which animated General Pulaski, the ac- 
tivity and zeal in the defense of justice 
and human liberty which prompted him 
to come to a strange land, where he was 
unknown, and whose customs and lan- 
guage he did not understand, to fight for 
these cherished principles, it is fitting for 
us to refer to his part in the struggle for 
liberty in his native country. 

One of the foulest deeds ever recorded 
in history was the violent dismemberment 
of Poland by her three treacherous neigh- 
bors between 1772 to 1795. A nation then 
one-fifth larger than France in area, and 
containing a population of 20,000,000 




CASIMIR PULASKI 



people, was ruthlessly 
torn asunder, its people 
subjugated and politi- 
cally annihilated under 
a sham pretext of preser- 
ving law and order in 
that country. This cata- 
strophe did not come 
about all at once, but 
gradually through inter- 
nal dissensions fomented 
by Poland's enemies and 
their intermeddling in 
the internal affairs of 
the Polish government, 
which was then a pre- 
cocious democracy sur- 
rounded by an insidious 
autocracy. Poland's sys- 
tem of electing kings and her famous con- 
stitution of May 3, 1791, of which Edmund 
Burke said, "It was the most pure . . . 
public good which has ever been conferred 
on mankind," were indications of her 
liberal and constructive government in 
that period. 

When Stanislaus Poniatowski, the pup- 
pet of Catherine of Russia, was elected by 
the Polish deputies under the impending 
threat of the Russian army who surround- 
ed the Polish Diet at the time of the elec- 
tion, and he became a mere tool in her 
hands for the execution of her will in Po- 
land, such patriotic and gallant Poles as 
Count Joseph Pulaski realized that it 
was time to arouse the spirit of their 
countrymen and to do the only honorable 
thing that a self-respecting person could 
do under the circumstances — resort to 
force to resist the calamity and humila- 



37 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2fS 

tion at any cost. He was then about sixty 
years old, and he divulged to his three 
sons a plan conceived by himself and other 
nobles of the nation to forestall the ene- 
mies of his country and form an organiza- 
tion to effect its rescue from the inevitable 
fate that it was headed for. Such an or- 
ganization was created in the town of 
Bara in Podolia, about twenty miles from 
the Turkish border, and was known as the 
famous Confederation of the Bar. 

Suffice it to say here that for four years, 
under the most trying conditions and the 
greatest adversity, this patriotic organi- 
zation fought against overwhelming odds 
to oust the enemies of Poland, chiefly the 
Russians, from their country. But all 
their efforts proved fruitless. The aged 
Pulaski died in prison ; one of General Pu- 
laski's brothers was killed before his eyes, 
as he himself says, by the enemy; the 
youngest brother was taken into captiv- 
ity; and many of his countrymen were 
doomed to misery. 

General Casimir Pulaski, with whom 
we are concerned, was the leading spirit 
of his countrymen in this unequal struggle 
to preserve his nation intact. He fought 
bravely, tenaciously, with the unremitting 
zeal of a young man then but twenty-five 
years old. Heedless of his own safety, 
always leading his men into sallies against 
the enemy, which was much more power- 
ful than his poorly equipped army, and 
much larger in size, he made repeated 
stands against the Russians, especially at 
the famous monastery of Częstochowa, 
saved it on several occasions from pro- 
longed sieges, and would probaly have suc- 
ceeded the last time had it not been for 
the assistance given the Russians by Fred- 
erick the Great of Prussia. 

"Never was there a warrior," says the 
historian Ruhlieri, "who possessed great- 
er dexterity in every kind of service. En- 
dowed by a peculiar gift of nature, 
strenghtened by exercise, he was always 



— & 

the first to charge in person, with an in- 
trepidity which inspired his followers to 
imitate his example." Benjamin Frank- 
lin, in introducing him to Washington, 
writes: "Count Pulaski, who was a Gen- 
eral of the Confederates in Poland, and 
who is to join you, is esteemed one of the 
greatest officers in Europe." 

Casimir Pulaski not only lost his father 
and brothers in this glorious attempt to 
save Poland from the first of her ignoble 
partitions, but his estates were confis- 
cated and he was proscribed by King Sta- 
nislaus and had to flee to Turkey. Soon 
thereafter Russia, Prussia and Austria, 
in their zeal for the ostensible good of Po- 
land, agreed to help themselves to large 
portions of her territory, and had the 
effrontery to convene the Polish Diet and 
under duress compel it to sanction the 
beginning of what Henry Wharton called 
"the most flagrant violation of national 
justice and international law which has 
occurred since Europe emerged from bar- 
barism." 

Soon thereafter, in 1772, Count Casi- 
mir Pulaski issued his memorable mani- 
festo, in which he said in part : 

"I am not astonished that the enemies 
of my country, resolved on her ruin, 
should direct their shafts against those 
who most firmly resist their impetuosity, 
and that they should regard as such the 
brave Poles, whom they have sacrificed 
and who are still repelling their most cru- 
el attacks. . . . My destiny was clear when, 
at the age of twenty-one, far from yield- 
ing to the amusements of youth, I regard- 
ed every moment as lost which was not 
employed in repelling the enemies of my 
country. ... I have endeavored to mark 
my course by an invincible fortitude. Nei- 
ther the blood of one of my brothers, which 
was shed by the enemy before my eyes, 
nor the cruel servitude of another, nor the 
sad fate of so many of my relations and 
compatriots, has shaken my patriotism. . . 



38 



1% 

I believe I have proved, by four years' 
service, that I have not been influenced 
by interest or a false point of honor. . . . 
I declare before God, before the republic 
of Poland, and before all the powers of 
Europe, that my heart is an utter stranger 
to crime. It has never entered my imagi- 
nation to attempt the life of any person 
to whom has been assigned, in any man- 
ner whatsoever, the government of the 
nation, or to avenge the wrongs of my 
country in any other way than that of 
open war." 

Perhaps no better insight into the stur- 
dy character of the illustrious Pulaski, 
known and revered both in Europe and 
America, could be given than the above 
excerpt from his manifesto. We are not 
surprised to hear a man of his lofty type 
later on, in August of 1779, state to the 
Continental Congress: "I could not sub- 
mit to stoop before the sovereigns of Eu- 
rope, so I came to hazard all for the free- 
dom of America, and am desirous of pass- 
ing the rest of my life in a country truly 
free and of settling as a citizen to fight 
for liberty." 

From Turkey Pulaski wended his way 
to Paris. ''Across the Atlantic," says 
Henry Williams, Esq., on the laying of 
the cornerstone of the monument to his 
memory at Savannah, on Oct. 11, 1853, 
"came to him the tidings that the people 
of another hemisphere had bid defiance to 
oppression and were arming for the 
struggle. The sound stirred the heart of 
Pulaski like the voice of a battle trumpet. 
It was a struggle for liberty. It was his 
cause, whoever the people and whereever 
the scene of conflict. Fate forbade him 
to achieve the independence of his own 
country, and true to the noble impulses of 
his soul, he came to aid in establishing 
that in America." 

"He saw," says Jared Sparks, in his 
American Biography, "a new field opened 
for vindicating with his sword the same 



PULASKI, HERO OF TWO CONTINENTS 



2§£ 

principles, the same rights of mankind, 
the same unchangeable laws of justice, as 
those for which he had wielded it with so 
much courage and singleness of purpose 
in his own country." 

Benjamin Franklin writing from Paris 
to General Washington on May 29, 1777, 
says: "Count Pulaski, of Poland, an of- 
ficer famous throughout Europe for his 
bravery and conduct in defense of the 
liberties of his country against the three 
great invading powers of Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia, will have the honor of deliver- 
ing this into your Excellency's hands." 

We can readily s.ee and understand why 
men like General Pulaski and his famous 
countryman, General Kościuszko, who al- 
so covered himself with undying glory in 
the Revolutionary War, were not soldiers 
of fortune, nor waifs thrown to the sur- 
face of troubled waters by the love of 
adventure and quest of money or emolu- 
ment, no matter what the cause might be 
that they were fighting for. These men 
fought long and hard to establish the prin- 
ciples of liberty and justice on their own 
soil, they were imbued with this spirit in 
their own cause, for their own country, 
and it was only natural that when they had 
given their best for these sacred ideals 
without success against tyrants and intri- 
guing despoilers of humanity, they should 
hear the shot fired at Lexington that was 
"heard round the world" with an eager 
ear, and should be willing to come to a 
foreign strand, although they neither un- 
derstood the language nor were familiar 
with the customs of this strange people 
on another continent. The principles of hu- 
man liberty and justice are essentially 
the same in every clime and they were 
eager to resist a mighty empire that was 
trying to wrest them from a struggling 
people, a people whose slogan was "Give 
me Liberty or give me Death." 

Like his famous compatriot, General 
Kościuszko, who when he appeared before 



[39] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 

layed the progress of the British and thus 
enabled the army of Washington to retreat 
in an orderly way and to save their bag- 
gage. 

In describing Pulaski's activities at this 
battle Jared Sparks states: 

"At Brandywine Pulaski, as well as La- 
fayette, was destined to strike his first 
blow in the defense of American Liberty. 
Being a volunteer and without command, 
he was stationed near General Washing- 
ton till towards the close of the action, 
when he asked the command of the Gen- 
eral's body guard, about thirty horse, and 
advanced rapidly within pistol shot of the 
enemy, and, after reconnoitering their 
movements, returned and reported that 
they were endeavoring to cut off the line 
of retreat and particularly the train of 
baggage. He was then authorized to col- 
lect as many of the scattered troops as 
came in his way, and employ them accord- 
ing to his discretion, which he did in a 
manner so prompt and bold as to effect 
an important service in the retreat of the 
army, fully sustaining by his conduct and 
courage the reputation for which the world 
had given him credit. Four days after 
this event he was appointed by Congress 
to the command of the cavalry, with the 
rank of Brigadier General." 

The historian Ramsay says: 

"At Brandywine Pulaski was a thun- 
derbolt of war, and always sought the post 
of danger as the post of honor." 

When Congress on Sept. 15, 1777, elect- 
ed Pulaski "Commander of the Horse 
with the rank of Brigadier," he became 
the highest ranking officer of the cavalry, 
and had under his command four regi- 
ments of cavalry, under the immediate 
commands of Colonels Bland, Baylor, Moy- 
land and Sheldon. It must be said that 
during the early part of the Revolution- 
ary War the cavalry did not take much 
of a part in the warfare, that the Colonists 
did not seem to realize the importance of 



Washington, and was asked by him what 
he could do, answered in a quiet way, "Try 
me and see", Pulaski did not wait for any 
appointment from Congress, but on hear- 
ing that the enemy was attacking Wash- 
ington's forces, hastened to join them as 
a volunteer. 

On August 25, 1777, Pulaski addressed 
a communication to John Hancock, Pres- 
ident of Congress, which is his first letter 
in English. In it he states: 

"I have Dought it not my Duty to stay 
here any longer, in as much as I have 
hear: that his Exy Genl. Washinkton is 
gon to meet the Enemy; wherefore I will 
go to the Army, it is I can not do much, 
but Hover I will shew my good will." 

General Pulaski landed in America a- 
bout the middle of July, 1777, and after 
presenting his letters to Washington and 
Congress, waited for Congress to take ac- 
tion. But restless and eager to aid our 
cause as he was, he did not wait for offi- 
cial cognizance. Captain Bentalou, an 
able officer who fought under Pulaski un- 
til he died and was wounded along with 
Pulaski at Savannah, Ga., writes: 

"The inherent ardor of his warlike spir- 
it, his habits of activity, and the desire 
of efficiency serving the cause which he 
had so warmly embraced did not permit 
him to wait for the decision of Congress 
on his application — but he immediately 
joined the army." 

It so happened that General Pulaski 
and his friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, 
another distinguished officer, struck their 
first blows for American Independence at 
the battle of Brandywine on Sept. 11, 
1777. Washington was bent at this time 
on opposing the advance of General 
Howe's army northward towards Phila- 
delphia. At Brandywine Washington's 
Army was repulsed, and a large part of 
it might have been captured had it not 
been for the masterly aid given by Pulaski 
at the head of a cavalry squad, who de- 



40 



& 

this unit, said to be the "eye of the army," 
and did not know much about opposing 
cavalry attacks successfully. Until the ad- 
vent of Pulaski the highest rank the caval- 
ry division had was that of colonel, and 
such regiments as did exist were not able 
to do much, for the reason that they were 
often scattered on detail and reconnoiter- 
ing work for the generals and the army; 
and besides, there was not so much open 
warfare being conducted. 

Pulaski was a great horseman; he be- 
lieved in a strong cavalry, and was ex- 
perienced in cavalry fighting from his 
warfare carried on in Poland. Dissatis- 
fied with what he considered the deplor- 
able condition of the American cavalry, 
which prevented him from doing effective 
work on a large scale, he continually urged 
Washington and Congress to strengthen 
this branch of the army. He drew up 
and presented to Washington several plans 
for its reorganization, made various es- 
timates and regulations, and was strong 
for disciplining his men and horses. Al- 
ways restless and active, he wanted to be 
in the thick of the battle and produce re- 
sults. 

In his memorial to Washington of Dec. 
19, 1777, Pulaski advances a cogent argu- 
ment for the building up of the cavalry, 
which must appeal to every thinking per- 
son: 

"The advantages that would arise from 
a Superiority in Cavalry are too obvious 
to be unnoticed. It may be further ob- 
served that during this War the Country 
will daily become more open and clear of 
woods and fences, consequently better a- 
dopted to the maneuvres and service of 
the Cavalry. While we are Superior in 
Cavalry, the enemy will not dare to ex- 
tend their force, and, notwithstanding we 
are on the defensive, we shall have many 
Opportunity of attacking and destroying 
the enemy by degrees, whereas if they 
have in their power to augment their Ca- 



PULASKI, HERO OF TWO CONTINENTS 



valry, and we suffer ours to diminish and 
dwindle away, It may hapen that the loss 
of a Battle will terminate in our total de- 
feat. Our army once dispersed and pur- 
sued by their horse will never be able to 
rally ; thus our retreat may only be cut off, 
our baggage lost, and principal officers 
taken, and many other events occur not 
less fatal. 

"Your excellency may be assured that 
the good of the service is my constant 
study, but the Weak State of the Corps I 
Command renders it impossible to per- 
form every service required. Nay my re- 
putation is exposed, as being an entire 
stranger in the country the least accident 
would suffice to injure me, but notwith- 
standing, I cannot avoid hazarding every- 
thing that is valuable in life." 

After the battle of Brandywine General 
Pulaski saved the army of Washington 
from a sudden surprise that might have 
proven fatal at Warren Tavern on Sept. 
16, 1777. At the head of his cavalry, 
while reconnoitering he came upon a whole 
army of the British near Warren Tavern. 
He harrassed the enemy, thus impeding 
their progress, and hastily gave the infor- 
mation to Washington, who then prepared 
to meet the enemy. He also was in the 
battle of Germantown, and spent the win- 
ter at Trenton. 

Washington spent the winter with the 
army at Valley Forge. There was a great 
scarcity of food for the men and forage 
for the horses, and Washington ordered 
General Anthony Wayne and Pulaski to 
go to Haddonfield, near Camden, to look 
for supplies in that part of the country. 
The British upon learning of this fact sent 
a force of 1,200 men to capture either 
Wayne or Pulaski. 

The opposing forces met at Haddon- 
field. Pulaski at the head of his little 
troop of cavalry was everywhere alert, 
charging the enemy with spirit and effect. 
His own horse was shot from under him, 



41 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



2fS 

and he personally took seven prisoners. 
General Wayne in making his report of 
the battle praised Pulaski very highly, 
saying that he ''behaved with his usual 
bravery." 

However, still dissatisfied with the con- 
dition of the cavalry of which he was in 
command, and with the fact that his pleas 
for the reorganization and strengthening 
of the same were apparently unnoticed, 
and feeling the lack of cooperation from 
his officers, who did not like to be sub- 
jected to the authority of a foreigner, Pu- 
laski resigned his command in the early 
part of March, 1778, and asked Wash- 
ington and Congress to give him leave to 
organize an independent corps, known la- 
ter as the famous "Pulaski Legion." Con- 
gress, upon the recommendation of Wash- 
ington, resolved on March 19th that an in- 
dependent corps be established by Count 
Pulaski, consisting of 68 horse with lances 
and 200 light infantry, and that he retain 
the rank of of Brigadier General. By Oc- 
tober of that year he had recruited 330 
men for his legion. "The scheme of in- 
dependent legions," says Sparks, "seems 
to have been first suggested by Pulaski; 
and it proved of the greatest importance 
in the subsequent operations of the war, 
and above all in the southern campaigns. 
Lee's and Armand's legions were formed 
upon a similar plan." 

While on a visit to Bethlehem, Pa., in 
April of 1778 Pulaski asked the Moravian 
nuns, whose convent was located there, to 
make a special banner for his legion. This 
was done, and the banner delivered about 
May, when he again was there. Long- 
fellow has immortalized the making and 
the presentation of the banner in his 
"Hymn of the Moravian Nuns at the Con- 
secration of Pulaski's Banner," but ac- 
cording to information received from the 
Pennsylvania Archives, (Pa. in Rev. II) 
and other sources, the transaction was 
simply a business affair, and the flag was 



-sis 



paid for by Pulaski. Subsequently it was 
presented to the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety. 

The contention that it was purchased 
and paid for by Pulaski is supported by 
the information that he spent his own 
money to help equip his legion. In his ad- 
dress to Congress on Sept. 17, 1778, he 
states: "... I have expended sixteen thou- 
sand dollars at least of my own." And 
again in his memorable letter of August 
19, 1779, to Congress, reproaching Con- 
gress for its lack of appreciation for his 
services and efforts, he says : "... you 
must be sensible also, that I did not Come 
to America destitute of Resources, to be 
a burthen on you ; That I have a Letter of 
Credit on Mr. Moris; and that I was 
known by almost Every foreigner of Char- 
acter." It is estimated that Pulaski ad- 
vanced $50,000 of his own money in form- 
ing and equipping his legion. 

The Pulaski legion saw action at Egg 
Harbor, N. J., on Oct. 15, 1778, where it 
repulsed a surprise attack on the infantry 
under the command of De Bosen, who was. 
betrayed by a traitor of the name of 
Juliet, and also at Osborn's Island, where 
the legion drove back the enemy in con- 
fusion, but was checked after a bridge had 
been destroyed by the retreating foe. 

The Pulaski Legion spent the winter 
around Minisink in New Jersey, where 
the hostile attitude of the Tories and In- 
dians required their presence for the pro- 
tection of the frontiers, and on Feb. 2, 
1779, Congress resolved that Count Pu- 
laski march with his Legion to South Ca- 
rolina to join General Lincoln, then in 
command of the southern campaign. Con- 
gress also made provision for enlarging 
the corps. 

In pursuance to the resolution of Con- 
gress that he march south, Pulaski with 
part of his force reached Charleston on 
May 8th. Three days later the remainder 
of the legion arrived. On his way to Char- 



[42] 



& 

leston Pulaski heard that General Provost 
of the British forces was coming up from 
Georgia. On the 11th the latter crossed 
the Ashley River at the head of 900 men, 
and scarcely had he landed when Pulaski 
made an assault upon the advance lines. 
He kept up a sharp skirmish, but was 
finally forced to retreat on account of the 
superior numbers of the enemy. He then 
planned on drawing the enemy into an 
ambuscade, but his infantry, eager to get 
into action, gave his strategy away. 
Sparks says: "His coolness, courage, and 
disregard of personal danger were conspi- 
cous throughout the encounter, and the 
example of his prompt and bold attack had 
great influence in raising the spirits of 
the people and inspiring the confidence 
of the inexperienced troops then assem- 
bled in the city." 

Pulaski by appearing before the Gov- 
ernor and Council of Charleston, who 
were ready to capitulate and surrender 
the city to the British, by his plea and ad- 
vice, ably assisted by General Moultrie 
and Colonel Laurens, persuaded them to 
reject any offer of submission, and the 
same night General Provost, who had 
heard that General Lincoln was marching 
to Charleston with 4,000 men, retreated 
across the river. 

Savannah, Ga., was a stronghold of the 
British, and it was the intention of Gen- 
eral Lincoln to besiege the city and drive 
the enemy away. On the 3rd of Septem- 
ber, he received information that Count 
d'Estaing was off the coast with a large 
fleet and that he wold join General Lin- 
coln in an attack upon the city. The lat- 
ter left Charleston with his army for Sa- 
vannah, and Count Pulaski and General 
Mcintosh were sent ahead of the main 
army to attack and harass the British out- 
posts. Pulaski dispersed a detachment of 
British at Ebenezer with his dragoons, 
and likewise was sent by General Lincoln 
to attack a party of the British that had 



PULASKI, HERO OF TWO CONTINENTS 



& 

come up the Ogechee River and landed be- 
low the ferry. He suddenly fell upon the 
enemy, forcing them to retreat and taking 
a number of prisoners. 

The armies of the French under d'Es- 
taing and the American forces came to- 
gether at Savannah about the 16th of Sep- 
tember. A siege was begun, but the ene- 
my was strongly entrenched and refused 
to give ground. Finally, becoming weary 
of the prolonged siege and fearing for the 
safety of his vessels, Count d'Estaing re- 
quested that the city be attacked by storm. 
General Lincoln consented to this plan 
with some hesitation, believing that if the 
siege were kept up the enemy would be 
forced to surrender or to evacuate the city. 

On October 9th the order was given out 
that the ramparts of the British were to 
be taken by storm. The plan of the as- 
sault had been carefully gone over, and 
orders were issued as to the manner of at- 
tack and the points to be assailed. The 
cavalry of the French and American was 
under the command of Pulaski, and he 
was to charge the embattlements, follow- 
ing up the infantry, who were to storm 
the right of the British lines. 

The attack was made as planned as to 
time and the center of attack, but a soldier 
who deserted the American forces after 
the scheme and order were given out in- 
formed the enemy, who massed their 
troops at the points of expected attack, 
and by a deadly, galling fire, repulsed the 
assailants. Count d'Estaing, instead of 
taking a circuitious road to get to his point 
of attack, endeavored to cross directly 
over a swamp. He was caught between a 
deadly cross fire, and havoc was wrought 
among his men. 

Pulaski, seeing the apparent confusion 
and realizing that all was not well, drove 
up at the head of his cavalry to where the 
French were, to reinforce and encourage 
them, thinking that he might be able to get 
to the rear of the enemy through some 



[ 43 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



opening. Dashing madly ahead into a 
withering flame of shot and shell, he him- 
self was struck in the groin by a swivel 
shot and fell from his horse mortally 
wounded, to be picked up later and carried 
away. Count d'Estaing was also wounded. 

Major Rogowski, one of Pulaski's of- 
ficers and also a Pole, who was in the 
heroic charge, states in his description of 
the battle : 

"For half an hour the guns roared and 
blood flowed abundantly. . . . Imploring 
the help of the Almighty, Pulaski shouted 
to his men forward, and we, two hundred 
strong, rode at full speed after him — the 
earth resounding under the hoofs of our 
chargers. For the first two moments all 
went well. We sped like knights into the 
peril. Just, however, as we passed the 
gap between the two batteries, a cross fire, 
like a pouring shower, confused our ranks. 
I looked around. Oh ! sad moment, ever to 
be remembered, Pulaski lies prostrate on 
the ground." 

Pulaski was carried away by his sol- 
diers and placed on the American brig 
Wasp, and put under the care of skilled 
French surgeons, who vainly endeavored 
to remove the bullet and save him. Gan- 
grene had set in, and as the ship pulled 
out of the harbor for Charleston, Pulaski 
expired, and the stench from his wounds 
was so bad that he was deposited in a 
watery grave on the 11th day of October, 
1779, at the age of 31 years. 

When the Wasp pulled into the harbor 
of Charleston with her flag flying at half 
mast and it became known that the gal- 
lant Pulaski was dead, the city took on an 
aspect of general mourning. The Gover- 
nor, the Council of the State and the citi- 
zens united to pay tribute to their youth- 
ful defender, who shortly before by his 
bravery and advice had saved them from 
an ignominous surrender. Resolutions 
were passed, public ceremonies were held, 
and a day was designated for the holding 



— 2f£ 

of his funeral obsequies. Three French 
and three American officers carried his 
bier, followed by the horse that Pulaski 
rode, with all the trappings, armor and 
dress that he wore. The procession was 
large and imposing, and a chaplain of the 
army delivered a fervid eulogy over the 
departed officer. Congress, on being ap- 
prised of Pulaski's death, resolved "that 
a monument be erected to the memory of 
Brigadier Count Pulaski." 

Thus ended the brilliant career of the 
illustrious and gallant officer, a heroic 
figure on two continents, who had written 
to Col. R. H. Lee on August 13, 1778: 
"Honor and true desire of distinguishing 
myself in defense of Liberty was the only 
motive which fired my breast for the 
cause of the United States," and who had 
written to Congress on September 17, 
1778 "I am a Republican whom the love 
of glory and the honor of supporting the 
Liberty of the Union drew hither." 

The citizens of Savannah, Ga., erected a 
monument to the memory of Pulaski in 
Monterey Square, which was completed in 
1854. The resolution of the Continental 
Congress providing that a monument be 
erected to his memory was not carried out 
until 1910, when the 57th Congress of the 
United States provided for the erection of 
a bronze equestrian statue in Washington 
at a cost of $50,000. This monument, to- 
gether with one erected by the Polish Na- 
tional Allance of America in memory of 
Thaddeus Kościuszko, was unveiled dur- 
ing the month of May, 1910. 

The Honorable A. L. Brick, who ap- 
peared before the Committee in Congress 
urging the erection of the monument in 
Washington, said: 

"Pulaski died as he had lived, a noble 
and undaunted warrior, fighting the bat- 
tles of Liberty and of the Republic. . . . 
He sacrificed himself, all the years of his 
young life, his fortune, his ancestral dig- 
nity, his lofty spirit, his splendid gen- 



44 



Ms 

ius, and all his earthly hopes, for Liberty, 
Justice and Humanity. For these things 
he gave all he had — his martyred life." 

In the American Military Biography 
containing the lives and characters of the 
officers of the Revolution who distin- 
guished themselves in achieving our na- 
tional independence, the author says: 
"Perhaps a braver man than Pulaski never 
drew a sword," and in describing his 
death at Savannah, "Thus fell, in a most 
bold and daring achievement, the distin- 
guished Polish patriot and hero, in the 
cause of American Liberty; his memory 
is entitled to our veneration, as his life 
forms an item in the price of our Inde- 
pendence." 

It is only proper and just that America 
and grateful people enjoying the blessings 



PULASKI, HERO OF TWO CONTINENTS 



2§g 

of liberty, peace and prosperity should re- 
call the life of this great man and pay tri- 
bute to his valor and chivalry. He left 
the Old World and came to this continent 
to help establish, as the immortal Lincoln 
said, "a new nation, dedicated to the propo- 
sition that all men are created equal." He 
gave his last full measure of devotion to 
that cause, and four millions of his coun- 
trymen residing in the United States re- 
joice with the American nation, of which 
they are a part, that Pulaski and that 
other illustrious Polish patriot, Thaddeus 
Kościuszko, and other distinguished men 
of Polish blood stood by the cradle 
of American Independence and helped to 
lay the foundation for a new government 
in the New World, dedicated to the prin- 
ciples of human liberty and justice. 



♦:♦♦:♦ 



45 




vohn*lho tiunL 



JOHN III SOBIESKI 
KING OF POLAND 

1674 1696 



46 



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A Hi^ory of Poland, Old and New 

(Editor's Note: It is hoped in this article to present some general in- 
formation concerning the historical background of Poland as a nation in 
order that the contributions of the nation to civilization may be more 
properly appreciated. Some attempt is also made to point out the remark- 
able progress made by the New Poland since its re-birth, so to speak, 
fifteen years ago. The material has been gathered from several sources, 
including, particularly, "Poland — History, Culture, Civilization", 
published by the Polish School Children's Committee in Warsaw, 1932. 
Opinions and evaluations of historical facts are for the most part those 
of the editor, while credit for assistance in compilation and editing is 
due to Mr. J. S. Skibiński and Mr. Thaddeus Lubera.) 



IT is indeed significant to note that the 
year 1933 marks not only a century of 
progress for the Poles in America, and 
the sesqui-centennial of the elevation of 
Kościuszko to the rank of Brigadier- 
General in the American Revolutionary 
Army, but also marks two hundred and 
fifty years since the happening of one of 
the greatest events in European history. 
It was in 1683 that King John Sobieski 
of Poland defeated the Turks at Vienna 
and saved Europe from invasion, which, 
if tolerated unchecked, would eventually 
have overrun all of Western civilization. 
Perhaps it would suffice to analyze com- 
pletely that event to show the contribu- 
tion of Poland to the civilized world in 
general. But to do merely that would be 
to overlook the full story of the nation 
which, starting from humble beginnings, 
expanded, by union and conciliation — not 
by violence and oppression — to become one 
of the leading nations of Europe, but in 
time, fell at the hands of oppressors — 
only to rise again, after almost one hun- 
dred and fifty years of oppression, to be- 
come again one of the foremost nations 
of the world. 

It is indeed difficult to include in the 
short space of an article such as this, all 
the factors and elements that tell the com- 
plete picture of Poland. Those who know 



the facts about the past of Poland, as com- 
pared with the present remarkable prog- 
ress made by the re-born Poland that we 
know today, can do nothing short of mar- 
vel at the dramatic story recounted. 

A nation with leaders such as the vener- 
able Copernicus, the memorable Chopin 
and Mickiewicz, the indomitable Piłsud- 
ski, and the world-famous Paderewski, 
shall, in the memory of civilized man, ne- 
ver perish. Rather, it shall continue to 
exist and contribute to the progress of 
man in every field of human endeavor as 
it has done in the past. 

Geographically, Poland occupies the 
central position of Europe. It lies mid- 
way between the most northerly and most 
southerly points of Europe, the North 
Cape and Crete, and nearly midway be- 
tween the westerly point of Ireland and 
the most easterly point of the Ural Moun- 
tains. Thus settled on the gangway be- 
tween the west and east of Europe, the 
Poles became geographically selected as 
the middlemen of civilization. Geogra- 
phical conditions imposed on them the 
task of receiving the civilization of the 
West and transmitting it to the East. 
Western and Eastern culture met and 
combined. Poland became the admixture 
of distinctly different characteristics. The 
result of this admixture, by the reciprocal 



[47] 



POLKS IN AMKKK'A 



action of these influences, was that a dis- 
tinctive color and zest was given to life in 
that country. 

Rightly then, the Polish geographer, W. 
Nałkowski, calls Poland the genius loci, 
for its transitional character. 

As might thus be expected, Poland has 
been the melting-pot of Europe, forming, 
in 1569, the first voluntary confederation 
of independent powers in Europe, that 
between Poland, Lithuania and Ruthenia. 
There was neither coercion or conquest. 
Germans, Jews, Lithuanians, Armenians, 
even Italians, all found ready refuge in 
Poland. 

But let us turn back the pages of his- 
tory and see the beginning of this nation, 
so great, and yet so dramatically humbled. 

As early as the fourth or fifth century 
B. C, the Slavic tribes, of whom the Poles 
are direct descendants, seem to have ap- 
peared for the first time in Europe. With- 
in a millenium they had settled the im- 
mense stretches of land between the Black 
Sea and the Baltic and from the Volga to 
the Elbe rivers. There are, however, no 
certain historical data relating to Poland 
till the end of the tenth century. 

It was in 966 that Prince Mieczyslaw's 
conversion to Christianity was hastened 
through his marriage to Princess Dom- 
browka, the daughter of Bolesław, prince 
of Bohemia, where the Gospel had already 
a century before been taught by Cyrillus 
and Methodius, Greek monks from Thes- 
salonica. 

During the eleventh century Poland 
grew in size and power. At the beginning 
of the twelfth century, the Slavonic tribe 
of Pomeranians was converted to Chris- 
tianity, and their land, stretching from 
where Stettin now stands, to Danzig, was 
united to Poland, which established her- 
self firmly on the Baltic coast. 

Prince Mieczyslaw's son, Bolesław, the 
first prince to call himself king, stands in 
the foremost rank of Polish conquerors 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

and rulers. He truly earned the title of 
Chrobry (mighty) since his reign was one 
continuous warfare, a fact which evinces 
his prodigious energy and activity. He 
was not less eminent, however, for his wis- 
dom than for his vigor; and his ceaseless 
struggles and endeavors resulted in the 
formation of a vast kingdom extending 
from the Baltic to the Carpathians, from 
the Elbe to the Bug. 

In 1138 the dying king, Bolesław, made 
the fatal mistake of dividing Poland a- 
mong his sons. As a result the powerful 
kingdom was split into several principali- 
ties. Neighboring pagan tribes repeatedly 
invaded Poland. To stop these invasions, 
Conrad, duke of Mazovia, the province 
where Warsaw is now, in 1226 invited the 
Teutonic Knights of the Cross, an order 
established in Palastine during the Cru- 
sades, to come to Poland to convert the 
pagan Prussians to Christianity. The 
knights arrived. Conrad settled them in 
Pomerania as his vassals. The knights 
exterminated the Prussians and brought 
colonists from Germany whom they set- 
tled in Prussia. Thus was founded the 
present Eastern Prussia as a fief of Po- 
land. 

Meanwhile strange and dreadful news 
overawed Europe; rumors of murders 
and atrocities committed by hosts of small, 
yellow, noseless, slant-eyed, bowlegged 
horsemen, advancing like an avalanche 
and leaving only sky and earth behind 
them, caused the deepest horror. People 
called the Tartars, creatures from hell. 
They were in fact Mongolian barbarians 
led by Ghengis Khan. They conquerred 
Russia and overran Central Europe. 

Christianity shuddered and the Poles 
proclaimed a Crusade, but owing to the 
lack of unity the Western Powers did no- 
thing to repulse the onslaught of the bar- 
barians. It was left to the youngest son 
of the West to fight alone the attack of 
the East. Henry the Pious, Duke of Si- 



48 



2§£ 

lesia, a descendant of Piast, met the Tar- 
tars at Lignica in 1241. Henry and all 
of his knights died like heroes on the 
battlefield, but saved the Western world, 
for the driving power of the Tartars was 
spent and they retreated to the depths of 
Mongolia, retaining, however, their rule 
over Russia for two centuries. The battle 
of Lignica was one of the most decisive in 
the world's history and the Polish knights 
saved Europe from the barbarians for the 
first time. Well Poland deserved the title 
"Bulwark of Christendom." 

During the thirteenth century great cul- 
tural and economic development was made 
in Poland. Agriculture was improved, 
towns, monasteries and churches were 
founded and the largest salt mine in the 
world, at Wieliczka near Kraków, was dis- 
covered by Kinga, a Polish queen. 

Meanwhile the Teutonic Knights, pro- 
fiting by the weakness of Poland, now di- 
vided into principalities and increased 
their dominion. From Eastern Prussia 
they invaded the left bank of the Vistula, 
and captured Danzig in 1308, massacring 
many of its inhabitants, then exclusively 
Polish. These Knights made constant 
raids on Lithuania, plundering and killing 
the natives, with the result that pagan 
Lithuania began to hate the very sight of 
the Cross. 

In 1333 King Casimir ascended the 
throne and with him the star of Poland 
rose to unprecedented heights. Casimir 
was the first lawgiver, scholar and archi- 
tect. He founded the University in Kra- 
kow in 1364. At that time only one uni- 
versity existed in Central Europe — that of 
Prague. There were no universities yet in 
Germany and Austria. He also promul- 
gated the Statute Laws of 1347. In his 
humanity and benevolence, Casimir gave 
in Poland refuge to the Jews, persecuted 
and driven out at that time from most 
European countries. The Jewish quarter 
in Krakow is still called "Casimir." He 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



Ms 

was the only king to whom the instinct of 
the Polish people gave the name of 
"Great." It was given not to a conqueror 
but to him who gave the country the first 
legal code, the first university, who loved 
the poor and was surnamed "king of the 
peasants." 

He died in 1370, at the age of sixty. 
With him ended the Piast dynasty which 
united all the Polish tribes, gave them 
Christianity, and Western culture, and 
created a national consciousness and cul- 
ture. Dying without a direct heir, Casi- 
mir bequeathed the throne to his nephew, 
Louis, King of Hungary, whose successor 
was Jadwiga, one of the most remarkable 
women in the history of Europe. So great 
was her devotion to duty, that she sacri- 
ficed for it the inclination of her heart. 
Bethroted to the young and handsome Wil- 
liam of Austria, she consented to marry 
the semi-savage duke of Lithuania, Ja- 
giełło, who was much older than herself, 
for the sake of converting pagan Lithu- 
ania to Christianity and uniting it to Po- 
land. The Lithuanians hitherto hating 
Christianity, personified to them so far 
by the rapacious Teutonic Knights, who 
killed more than baptized, now volun- 
tarily received baptism from the hand of 
the good, beautiful Jadwiga. The baptism 
of Lithuania and her union with Poland 
took place in 1386. That union continued 
voluntarily between the Poles and Lithu- 
anians until 1795, when the partitions of 
Poland were effected. 

The Teutonic Knights lost all pretext 
for their expeditions against Lithuania 
after that country became Christian. The 
Knights could no longer pass for defenders 
of the Cross and draw subsidies in cash 
for conversion of pagans, since there were 
no pagans left for them to convert. The 
Teutonic Knights therefore did everything 
in their power to break the union of Po- 
land and Lithuania. Seeing that their 
efforts were futile, they declared war on 



49 ] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



Poland. It was the mere instinct of self- 
preservation that had, at last, brought 
the Poles and Lithuanians together a- 
gainst their common enemy. Crafty in 
diplomacy, valiant in warfare, the Knights 
were one of the strongest military organi- 
zations of Europe and proved a most 
formidable foe of the united Poles and 
Lithuanians. 

One of the greatest battles in history 
was fought at Grunwald on July 15, 1410, 
the Knights suffering a crushing defeat, 
their power broken forever. In 1466 they 
had to abandon all their possessions on 
the Baltic coast except Eastern Prussia, 
held by them under the suzerainty of the 
Polish crown. In 1525 the last Great 
Master secularized the Order and pro- 
claimed himself hereditary duke of Prus- 
sia, a vassal of Poland. 

Under the reign of the descendants of 
Jagiełło (1386-1572) Poland grew larger 
and larger by free unions of peoples, and 
at the end of the sixteenth century she had 
become the largest State in Europe, and 
in manner other than by force of con- 
quests. Moral force, prestige of her laws, 
and her liberties, drew to Poland these 
foreign territories, Lithuania, Livonia, 
and Ruthenia. While throughout the six- 
teenth century religious wars were tor- 
menting Europe, in Poland there was at 
no time religious persecution or inquisi- 
tion, and neither absolutism nor despo- 
tism of rulers. The Polish citizen res- 
pected the king as a moral authority but 
he had no fear of the king, for he never 
thought that his sovereign would harm 
him in any way. There never was in Po- 
land a shadow of that byzantism and 
servility in intercourse with the monarch, 
that existed in similar relations in Europe. 

Meanwhile another scourge from the 
East threatened Europe, by the invasion 
of the Ottoman Turks. After the fall of 
the Byzantine Empire in 1453, Poland was 
predestined to be always the first to re- 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§g 

ceive the shock of Turkish invasions in 
Europe. During the fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries Poland con- 
stantly shed blood in repulsing' the on- 
slaughts of the Turks, in those clays the 
greatest military power in the world. At 
last King John Sobieski dealt a decisive 
and crushing blow upon the power of the 
Turkish Empire. Turks were beseiging 
Vienna in 1683 and all Christendom im- 
plored the Polish king to rescue the men- 
aced world. On the twelfth of August of 
that year the combined armies of the 
Christians, with Sobieski at their head, 
smashed the Turks under the walls of 
Vienna and saved Europe from the bar- 
barians for the second time. The two 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of this 
singular victory is being celebrated this 
year. 

In the sixteenth century, Poland gave 
to the world the founder of modern astro- 
nomy, Nicholas Copernicus, a scholar of 
the University of Krakow. Up to his time 
scientists believed that the earth was mo- 
tionless. The treatise of Copernicus on 
"Rotation of Heavenly Bodies" appeared 
in 1543, the year of Copernicus' death. The 
Polish astronomer had no telescope, and 
worked with nothing but his clear eyes and 
astute mind, coupled with the courage of 
maintaining a belief which, in those days, 
was considered not only revolutionary in 
science, but actually heretical. 

John Sobieski was the last of Poland's 
great warriors and conquerors, the last of 
Europe's knights in the true sense of the 
word. After his death the Republic's power 
steadily declined through ceaseless dissen- 
sions among the nobility and through in- 
terference of Russia and Prussia. Through 
the reigns of the two Saxon electors that 
followed him, Augustus II and III (1696 
1763) Russian influence became very 
marked, and eventually, under Stanisław 
Poniatowski (1764-1795), the last king of 
Poland, and through the crafty policy of 



[50 



ais 

Czarina Catherine, completely guided the 
destinies of Poland. 

During the two centuries that preceded 
the Partitions in the late 1700's, Poland 
fought constantly to repulse the invasions 
of the Turks, Swedes, and Russians. Those 
wars weakened the country considerably. 
Yet the internal condition of the nation 
was relatively happy, for Poland had no 
era of that somber link between the Middle 
Ages and the modern constitutional state 
called "enlightened absolutism." The 
transition from the medieval organization 
into the modern parliamentary state was 
brought about with astonishing rapidity 
in Poland. The principle expressed by 
Thiers in 1831 that "the king reigns but 
does not govern" had already been applied 
in Poland in 1607. 

Although owing to her unsatisfactory 
geographical position, with open, exposed 
frontiers, the Poles had to lead many wars 
— and good fighters they were too, as the 
exploits of the Polish cavalry prove, the 
"Winged Hussars" famous in history — 
yet the Poles abhorred war. When in the 
seventeenth century, Europe was going 
through a military reorganization, form- 
ing regular armies, improving weapons, 
reviving strategy, Poland did not let her- 
self be drawn into that current and con- 
tinued her policy of not maintaining a 
large army in times of peace. War could 
be declared only by parliament and not by 
the king alone. So it was in Poland at a 
time when the absolute European monar- 
chies had armies that were forced to go to 
war by a single word from the sovereign. 
Absolutism never existed in Poland and 
never could a Polish ruler proclaim the 
omnipotence of the iron fist. 

Poland appeared a model of constitu- 
tional freedom to the rest of Europe. At 
that time there were but two great na- 
tions — England and Poland — which en- 
joyed parliamentary government. 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



-2§5 



By the middle of the eighteenth century, 
all the neighboring Powers were throwing 
themselves successively on Poland, which, 
exhausted economically by many wars, 
was now entering upon the darkest and 
unhappiest era of her history. Without a 
capable ruler, the country now gradually 
began to fall apart. Yet the people of the 
nation, as a whole, understood the need of 
improving the internal condition of the 
Polish Commonwealth in that strange 
eighteenth century full of such contrasts 
as the awakening of instincts of liberty 
and of the most rigid despotism. The cor- 
ruption of the Court and magnates was 
not greater than that which disgraced all 
the European courts throughout the eight- 
eenth century ; the private life of the great 
lords was neither better nor worse than 
in the West; the morals of the Polish no- 
bility were not below the average of 
Europe. On the other hand, the peasant 
of Poland, exempt from heavy taxes and 
from compulsory military service, was 
better off than in France, and much bet- 
ter off than in Russia or Prussia, as can 
be inferred from the constant immigration 
of Russian and Prussian peasants into 
Poland. 

With capable and efficient leadership, 
the Polish nation was undoubtedly able to 
rise again, by its own strength, to its pre- 
vious greatness with its high democratic 
ideals. In fact, this appears to be precisely 
the reason why the other Powers united 
in their efforts to prevent it. They were 
afraid of that spirit of freedom, ever alive 
in the Polish nation. Russia and Prussia 
resolved to maintain the state of weakness 
and chaos in Poland, because they coveted 
her land: Frederick II of Prussia wanted 
to annex Eastern Prussia and Danzig, 
while the Russian Czarina Catherine II 
strove to bring nothing less than the whole 
of Poland under her dominion. 



51 



POLES IN AMERICA 



In 1764 Catherine succeeded in putting 
her canditate, Stanisław Poniatowski, on 
the throne of Poland. Stanisław, though 
weak and without much dignity, was 
nevertheless animated with a zeal for re- 
form. He was a great protector of science 
and art, and beautified Warsaw with many 
delightful buildings, of which the palace 
of Łazienki still remains the most charm- 
ing spot of the Polish capital. 

Outwardly Poland was still a strong 
country, extending in 1770 from the Baltic 
coast almost to the Black sea, an area of 
280,000 square miles, the third in the list 
of European countries as regards size. 

Meanwhile the Russian ambassador in 
Warsaw grew so powerful and bold that 
he dared to arrest in the capital itself, 
those Polish deputies who opposed the de- 
sires of the Russian czarina. Poland did 
not endure all this tyranny in a passive 
mood. Supported by France, the Confed- 
eration of Bar, a military league, was 
formed to evict the Russian troops who had 
installed themselves in Poland in times of 
peace. That Confederation was headed by 
Casimir Pulaski, the future hero of the 
American War of Independence. The Con- 
federation failed, and Pulaski went to 
America where he met a glorious death 
in the battle of Savannah in 1779. 

Russian and Prussian troops invaded 
Poland and in 1772, the first partition of 
that country took place. Frederic II took 
Pomerania and Poznania, leaving Danzig. 
Russia took the eastern provinces of Po- 
land, Austria the southern ones. Every- 
thing augured that this partition was not 
going to be the last. 

Most nations, in such an hour of su- 
preme agony would have lost both head 
and heart. But not so Poland, who at once 
began stupendous internal reforms: the 
first ministry of public education in the 
world was established in 1773, the treas- 
ury and army were organized, and litera- 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

ture, science and art received a powerful 
stimulus. 

For the purpose of guarding against fur- 
ther attacks, the "Perpetual Council" was 
formed. While the attention of Russia was 
temporarily drawn elsewhere, the Council 
received into its fold men who were unsel- 
fishly concerned about the welfare of Po- 
land. The Council discharged its functions 
wisely. Commerce and the various indus- 
tries were beginning to develop. Progress 
was evident in all fields of endeavor. 

Poland was gradually extricating her- 
self from the arms of the Russian despot, 
and national enthusiasm ran high, when 
the memorable Constitution of the Third 
of May was proclaimed to the nation in 
1791. That day has since been the Polish 
National Holiday, just as the 4th of July 
is in America. There is nothing more glo- 
rious nor more tragic in history, than the 
promulgation of this Constitution by a free 
people on the eve of doom. 

The leaders in this novel and exceed- 
ingly progressive movement were Stani- 
sław Małachowski, Hugo Kollontay and 
Ignatius Potocki, men of sterling worth 
and capacity. The Constitution of the 
Third of May established absolute religious 
toleration and made every citizen equal 
before the law. It established a hereditary 
limited monarchy. It mitigated the system 
of serfdom which in time was to be abol- 
ished entirely. It did away with all class 
distinctions and extended franchise to the 
towns. The "liberum veto", a policy by 
which one member could disrupt the pro- 
ceedings of the Diet, was forever abolished. 

Russia well feared the growing import- 
ance of regenerated Poland. What with 
founding an hereditary dynasty and car- 
rying out the articles of the Constitution, 
designated by Russia as "a dangerous nov- 
elty", Poland, it was feared, might once 
more become a considerable power. Rus- 
sia, however, had not long to wait for an 



[52] 



& 

opportunity to interfere with the progress 
of Poland. 

The answering blow from the autocra- 
cies came with the second partition of Po- 
land in 1793. The Czarina Catherine at 
once restored serfdom in the provinces she 
took from Poland. Frederic William of 
Prussia annexed Danzig and a vast tract 
of western Poland. 

The Constitution, a most progressive bit 
of legislation, drew the attention of the 
liberal thought of the world. The Consti- 
tution, says Sir James MacKintosh in his 
"Account of the Partition of Poland", con- 
firmed the rights of the established church, 
together with religious liberty, as dictated 
by the charity which religion inculcates 
and inspires. 

It established an hereditary monarchy 
in the electoral house of Saxony, reserving 
to the nation the right of choosing a new 
race of kings in case of the extinction of 
that family. The executive power was 
vested in the king, whose ministers were 
responsible for its exercise. The legisla- 
ture was divided into two houses, the Sen- 
ate and the House of Deputies, with re- 
spect to whom the ancient constitutional 
language and forms were preserved. The 
necessity of unanimity was taken away, 
and with it those dangerous remedies of 
confederation and confederate diets which 
it had rendered necessary. 

Each considerable town received new 
rights, with a restoration of all their an- 
cient privileges. The burgesses recovered 
the right of electing their own magistrates. 
All their property within their towns was 
declared to be inheritable and inviolable. 
All of the offices of the state, the law, the 
church, and the army, were thrown open 
to them. 

The ancient privilege of the Polish no- 
bility, that they should not be arrested till 
after conviction, was extended to the bur- 
gesses. The only mode of raising the lower 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



-2t5 



class was to bestow on them a share in the 
honor and estimation immemorially held 
by the higher. Such institutions must have 
gradually blended these hitherto discord- 
ant orders into one mass. The barriers 
which separated the different classes of 
society would have been broken down. The 
wisdom and liberality of the Polish gentry, 
if they had not been defeated by atrocious 
and flagitious enemies, would, by a single 
act of legislation, have accomplished that 
fusion of the various orders of society, 
which it required the most propitious cir- 
cumstances, in a long course of ages, to 
effect, in the freest and happiest of the 
European nations. 

Having thus communicated political 
privilege to hitherto disregarded freemen, 
the Diet of Poland did not neglect to pave 
the way for the final communication of 
personal liberty to serfs. The Constitution 
extended to all serfs the full protection of 
law, which before was enjoyed by those of 
the royal demesnes; and it facilitated and 
encouraged voluntary manumission, by 
ratifying all contracts relating to it — the 
first step in every country towards the 
accomplishment of the abolition of slavery 
— the highest of all the objects of human 
legislation, but, perhaps, also that to which 
the road is steepest and most difficult. 

The effect of this glorious revolution was 
not dishonored by popular tumult, by san- 
guinary excesses, by political executions. 
So far did the excellent Diet carry their 
wise regard to the sacredness of property 
that, though they were in urgent need of 
financial resources, they postponed till 
after the death of present incumbents the 
application to the relief of the State of the 
income of those ecclesiastical offices which 
were no longer deemed necessary for the 
purposes of religion. History is doing 
justice to that illustrious body, and holds 
out to posterity, as the perfect model of 
a most arduous reformation, that revolu- 



[53] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



tion which fell to the ground from no want 
of wisdom on their part, but from the ir- 
restible power and detestable wickedness 
of their enemies. 

There is nothing more glorious or more 
tragic than the promulgation of this Con- 
stitution by a free people on the eve of 
doom. 

After the second partition in 1793, a 
wave of patriotic ardor swept over Poland. 
General Thaddeus Kościuszko, the hero of 
the American War for Independence, 
hastened to Krakow and summoned the 
people to arms. Hosts of peasants armed 
with scythes answered Kosciuszko's call. 
Ill disciplined and poorly equipped, the 
peasants took by assault batteries of Rus- 
sian field guns and routed the enemy at 
Racławice, on April 24, 1794. Catherine 
of Russia sent a large army to fight Ko- 
ściuszko and at Maciejowice the two forces 
met on the tenth of October, 1794. Kościu- 
szko dashed into the thickest of the fight. 
Three horses were killed from under him, 
and bleeding from many wounds, he was 
taken prisoner. With him fell the inde- 
pendance of Poland, and as the poet Camp- 
bell says, "freedom shrieked when Kościu- 
szko fell." Kościuszko was cast into a dun- 
geon in St. Petersburg. 

It was not until two years later, in 1796, 
after Catherine's death, that her son, Paul 
I, entered Kosciuszko's cell uttering these 
words: "I have come to restore your lib- 
erty." Seating himself by Kosciuszko's 
side, there then ensued the remarkable col- 
loquy between a Czar and a hero of Polish 
freedom : 

"I have always pitied your fate," said 
the Czar, "but during my mother's rule 
I could do nothing to help you . . . You are 
now free." 

Kościuszko replied, "Sire, I have never 
grieved for my own fate, but I shall never 
cease to grieve for that of my country." 



Kosciuszko's request for the release of 
all prisoners of the Rising, now scattered 
in Russia and Siberia, was granted by 
Paul, who in turn required of him and the 
leading Poles an oath of allegiance to him- 
self. Kościuszko reluctantly took this step 
for on it hinged the opening of prison gates 
to twelve thousand fellow-Poles. 

Kościuszko soon left for America, and 
then to Switzerland, where he died in 1817, 
without ever seeing his beloved Poland 
again. 

In 1795, while Kościuszko languished in 
a Russian prison, the third partition was 
carried out by Russia, Austria, and Prus- 
sia. Poland had ceased to exist as an inde- 
pendent state. 

"The Partition of Poland," said Lord 
Eversley, "although remote and indirect, 
was the essential cause of the Great War. 
The partition overthrew European equili- 
brium, introduced the victory of violence 
and the principle, 'Might is right.' : 

Talleyrand, a great diplomat of the nine- 
teenth century, said : "The partition of Po- 
land was worse than a crime — it was a 
folly." 

Napoleon wished to re-establish Poland. 
The Poles believed in his promises. Not so 
the aged Kościuszko, who distrusted the 
French Caesar. Napoleon himself said 
later at St. Helena: "My greatest error 
was in not having revived Poland." After 
Napoleon's fall, the Congress of Vienna 
made the Czar of Russia constitutional 
king of Poland, united to the Russian Em- 
pire. But the arrangement did not work, 
and in 1830 the Poles rose to make them- 
selves independent of Russia, only to be de- 
feated in the attempt. The second revolu- 
tion occurred in 1863. With great effort 
the Czar suppressed it again, and bloody 
reprisals followed, tens of thousands of 
Poles being shot and exiled to Siberia. 
From then up to the Great War, Poland 
was treated like a conquered country, no 



54 



2§S 

efforts being spared to extirpate the Po- 
lish tongue and spirit. 

But the Polish Spirit carried on. Their 
country was dismembered, but the Poles 
never gave up hope. They clung to na- 
tional life by singing their hymn, "Poland 
is not yet lost", the first stanza of which 
reads : 

While we live she is existing, 
Poland is not fallen; 
We will win with swords resisting, 
What the foe has stolen. 

And they not only sang their patriotic 
airs, but they also prayed. In fact, the 
Polish national hymn was a prayer for 
Polish independence. National hymns are 
indicative of a people's ambitions and as- 
pirations. The English hymn, "Rule, Brit- 
tania," at once expresses Britain's desire 
to dominate the seas. The German hymn, 
Deutschland Ueber Alles, strikes an 
aggressive chord in every verse. But the 
Polish hymn does not breathe the desire 
to rule the seas or to hold the four corners 
of the earth in subjugation; it contains a 
supplication to the Lord to restore Poland : 

O Lord, Thou hast to Poland lent Thy might 
And with a Father's strong, protecting hand 
Hast given fame and all its glory bright, 
And through long ages saved our Fatherland. 
We chant at Thy altars our humble strain, 
O Lord, make the land of our love free again ! 

And then came the Great War. Poland 
became the battlefield of Eastern Europe. 
Over 600,000 Poles were conscripted in the 
German army, an equal number in the 
Austrian, and 1,300,000 in the Russian 
military machine. The Frenchman, the 
Englishman, the Belgian, and the Russian, 
had each the consolation that he was de- 
fending his respective country. But the 
Pole, fighting in the Austrian, Prussian, 
or Russian army, was fighting in the in- 
terest of his oppressors. 

The Grand Duke Nicholas, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the Russian army, is- 
sued a proclamation to the Poles in which, 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



-2§5 



as a return for their loyal support of Rus- 
sia, he promised a re-creation, under Rus- 
sian sovereignty, of the kingdom of Po- 
land, with practically the boundaries it 
had had before the Prussian-Austrian- 
Russian partition, "free in her religion 
and her language" and "autonomous." 

Later Warsaw, the capital of Poland, 
fell into the hands of the Germans, who 
likewise made a bid for Polish sympathy 
by creating a Polish "kingdom." But the 
Poles were not jubilant as they felt that 
the Polish capital had simply passed from 
the hands of one enemy into those of an- 
other. 

"The fall of Warsaw," the Poles stated 
to the press of the world on August 16, 
1915, "is another link in the endless chain 
of misery, persecution, and national cala- 
mity engulfing the innocent Polish people 
for the last 150 years. 

"When those who dismembered Poland, 
robbed her of her heritage, and used every 
means to exterminate her people, shall have 
made restitution, when wrongs shall have 
been righted, when Warsaw becomes the 
capital of a free and independent Poland, 
when the last footprint of the invaders 
shall have disappeared, then will come the 
time for the Poles to rejoice all over the 
world." 

The Poles, then, pursued a policy of 
watchful waiting, for they distrusted both 
the Prussian and Russian oppressor. 
Through Henryk Sienkiewicz, the famous 
author of Quo Vadis and many historical 
novels, they rather turned to America, 
"the conscience of the world," to the en- 
lightened opinion of the whole world to 
make right, upon the termination of the 
Great War, an historical wrong. 

They began to busy themselves with or- 
ganizing relief for the Polish war-stricken. 
Through the Polish Armageddon, the Rus- 
sian, Austrian and German armies were 
sweeping like a huge avalanche, destroy- 



55 ] 




MARSHAL JOSEPH PIŁSUDSKI 



56 




57] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



aSs — 

ing everything in their wake. The Polish 
children were deprived of food, clothing 
and shelter. The Poles could not escape, 
hemmed in as they were in the terrible 
maelstrom of w T ar. Starvation and pest- 
ilence faced them, caught as they were in 
the throes of war. Their homes and farms 
were afire, everything of value to them 
was destroyed by the ruthlessly efficient 
machinery of warfare. The tragedy of Bel- 
gium was as nothing compared with the 
terrible plight of Poland. 

But in this predicament Poland had a 
most wonderful mouthpiece in one of her 
most illustrious sons, a citizen of the world 
and yet an ardent patriot, a musical genius 

— lgnące Paderewski. Paderewski, the 
wizard of the pianoforte, could not play 
because he heard the cries of his wounded 
countrymen constantly in his ears. It was 
an impressive illustration of the nearness 
of musical art to genuine depth of feeling 

— an art which can never be given its 
proper interpretation unless it comes from 
the heart. He typified the tortured soul of 
the Polish nation in a most eloquent 
manner. 

Paderewski stilled the piano, but he was 
most indefatigable in organizing relief for 
the war-stricken, in crystallizing public 
opinion in favor of Poland's right to na- 
tionhood. A diplomat of the first rank, a 
wonderful orator in several languages, he 
swayed men powerful in the councils of 
the Allies. 

In America, President Wooclrow Wilson 
set aside the first day of January, 1916, 
as a day for relief work on behalf of Po- 
land, and pointed out that Poland "asked 
nothing for herself but what she had a 
right to ask for humanity itself." Later, 
this great American humanitarian and 
statesman proclaimed a "free and inde- 
pendent Poland, with access to the sea" 
as one of the conditions of peace. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2§g 

Paderewski did more than speak and 
beg for Poland; he backed up his brilliant 
work with a military deed, for in America 
and Western Europe he was instrumental 
in organizing an army which under Gen- 
eral Haller fought side by side with the 
Allies against Germany. 

In Poland proper, however, the Poles 
from the very start had a nucleus of their 
own national army. That achievement of 
historical significance was due to Joseph 
Piłsudski, heir of the traditions of Kościu- 
szko and Pulaski. He had suffered im- 
prisonment and exile under the Czar for 
his patriotic activities and organized the 
Polish Legion for the hour of national 
liberation. On August 4th, 1914, the Po- 
lish Legion headed by General Piłsudski, 
left Krakow with the Polish flag aloft to 
fight the Czar. General Piłsudski taught 
his countrymen self-reliance, to help them- 
selves to the land that was rightfully 
theirs. 

At last the dreams of many generations 
became fulfilled. On November 11, 1918, 
the independence of Poland was proclaimed 
in Warsaw. Marshal Joseph Piłsudski was 
made Chief of State, and lgnące Paderew- 
ski became prime minister of Poland. 

There now began the difficult process 
of rebuilding the country, shattered and 
exhausted by four years of war. Poland 
had hardly set her house in order when 
in 1920 the menace from the East, Bol- 
shevized Russia, began an insidious war 
against Western civilization. Again Po- 
land appeared in her traditional role of 
the bulwark, the champion of Christian 
Europe, of Western civilization. 

The Bolsheviki invaded Poland. At the 
walls of Warsaw a terrific battle ensued, 
one of the decisive battles in the history 
of the world. Indeed had the Bolsheviki 
won, the whole of Europe might have been 
engaged in class warfare, and amid the 
general unrest and chaotic conditions con- 



58 



ais 

sequent upon the late war, the Soviets had 
a wonderful chance to foist their Godless 
system upon the rest of Europe. 

But gallant little Poland stood in the 
way of this threatening Sovietization, just 
as in the past she had stood in the way of 
the Mohammedan conquest of Europe. 
The "Miracle of the Vistula" occurred on 
August 15, 1920, when the Poles, led by 
Piłsudski, routed the Bolsheviki and saved 
Western civilization and democracy for 
the third time. Several heroic American 
aviators, of whom three were killed, served 
as volunteers in the Polish Air Force. They 
are buried in Lwow, with a beautiful 
monument erected in their memory. 

The Poles then devoted their energies to 
rebuilding and rehabilitating their coun- 
try. Once more America came to their aid 
and the American Relief Committee, un- 
der Herbert Hoover, rendered invaluable 
help by feeding and clothing the poor vic- 
tims of the war. 

And now, when New Poland has not 
fully reached her fifteenth year of age, 
how does she look and compare with her 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



mature sisters, the other countries of the 
world? 

Occupying an area of almost 150,000 
square miles, the sixth largest state in 
Europe, after Russia, France, Spain, Ger- 
many, and Sweden, Poland has a popula- 
tion of over thirty two million inhabitants, 
of which 72 per cent live by agriculture, 
10 per cent by industrial occupations, 3 
per cent by commerce, and the rest in the 
various professions. 

All is not play in Poland. It never was. 
In hard work, enterprise and practical in- 
itiative Poland has always outshone many 
other countries. Mining began in Poland 
in the eleventh century, a unified monetary 
system came into being in the fourteenth 
century, postal service in 1583 (before 
France and England), and cooperative so- 
cieties, the boast of modern times, existed 
in Poland already in 1715. 

The natural resources of Poland com- 
prise coal, oil, iron, lignite, salt, potassium, 
zinc and lead, and the mining of those 
minerals goes on now at full speed. The 
Polish zinc mines are the second largest in 




Statue of Woodrow Wilson in Poznań, in Wilson Park, donated by PadereN/vski 
Group is excursion party from America in 1932. 



59 




BIRD'S EYE 
VIEW OF 
COAST 



GDYNIA 



RAILWAY 
DEPOT 




60 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



2fS 

Europe. As a coal mining country, Poland 
ranks fifth in the world. Poland supplies 
20 per cent of the world's crop of potatoes, 
and is, after Russia, the second producer 
of hemp in the world, and a leader in the 
production of beet sugar. The president 
of the Republic, lgnące Mościcki, a dis- 
tinguished engineer himself, created in 
1930 one of the largest factories of nitrates 
and fertilizers in the world, that at Mosci- 
ce, near Krakow. 

The Polish Railway system, entirely 
ruined during the war, is now one of the 
best in Europe, with locomotives and cars 
of Polish make, models of design and com- 
fort. Air traffic comprises sixteen prin- 
cipal lines, connecting all parts of Poland. 

Gdynia, the chief port of Poland on the 
Baltic, is a modern miracle. As late as 
1924 a fisherman's village with 500 in- 
habitants, Gdynia is now a modern town 
of 50,000 inhabitants, with several excel- 
lent hotels, a yacht club, boulevards and 
a remarkably attractive railway station. 
It hums with activity. It is a city of the 
future. In the whole world it has no equal. 
It is a living embodiment of the spirit and 
vitality of the New Poland, happy that 
she has now a strip of seacoast. 

The progress in education has been no 
less remarkable, 16.5 per cent of the na- 
tional budget being spent on public edu- 
cation. There are now more than 30,000 
primary schools, 800 high schools, ten 
higher academies, and six universities — 
established for the most part since the 
w T ar, which destroyed many thousands of 
the school buildings in Poland. 

Warsaw, Krakow, Vilno, Lwow, and 
Poznań, are the other large cities deserv- 
ing mention. But the real life of the people 
in Poland is not urban. The peasant is 
the typical Polish character, embodying 
today as much of the traditional back- 
ground and custom as his forefathers did 
for centuries back. It is hard to describe 



-2§5 



these features in general terms. A most 
remarkable book, however, has been writ- 
ten to convey the actual story of the life 
of Polish peasants. "The Peasants," trans- 
lated in several languages, written by Lad- 
islaus Reymont, the Nobel laureate, de- 
scribes specifically the province of Łowicz, 
west of Warsaw, and gives a picture of 
peasant life that is exceptionally beautiful 
and real. 

The Polish peasant is one of the most 
commonsense, practical men in the world. 
He is strong, both physically and morally, 
and is always cheerful. He is essentially 
a tiller of the soil. There is an inborn 
courtesy in these children of nature. When 
you meet a peasant he always removes his 
hat and says, "Blessed be the Lord Jesus 
Christ." The reply is, "For ages and ages." 

Peasant weddings are elaborate affairs, 
especially in the district of Krakow. Young 
men, comparable to the American "best 
man" and the ushers, mounted on spirited 
chargers, dressed in costumes of black and 
red, with hats adorned with peacock 
plumes, arrive at the house of the bride. 
Then follows the ancient custom of bear- 
ing away the bride. She is seized and 
bundled into a carriage, and hastened 
away to the church, where the ceremony 
takes place. After that there is a dance, 
and unusual gayety and happiness. 

Christmas Eve is the greatest occasion 
of the year. Before the cloth is laid the 
table is covered with a layer of hay, to 
symbolize Christ's lowly birth. Christmas 
carols, called "Kolendy" are sung. The 
children wait the observance of one custom 
with impatience — the "Jasełka," or the 
story of the manger, observed during the 
week between Christmas and the New 
Year. 

At Easter, with the customary "swien- 
conka," the peasants celebrate the Resur- 
rection in a style which is not only reli- 



61 




62 



2§£ 

giously appropriate, but also delicately 
beautiful. 

But it is by no means to be inferred 
that the Polish peasant is as simple a char- 
acter as these facts would lead one to be- 
lieve. Rather, the inexhaustible vigor and 
the dormant strength of the Polish peasant 
masses, stifled during the century of for- 
eign oppresion, have been awakened when 
Poland became free. Indeed the New Po- 
lish peasant, while preserving his colorful 
tradition, now becomes enlightened, prog- 
ressive, intensely patriotic and nationally 
conscious. It might even be said that in 
him lies the future of Poland. 

Of the famous people of Poland, whose 
renown embraces the world, no European 
novelist has been more read in America 
than Henry Sienkiewicz, the author of 
"Quo Vadis," or Joseph Conrad, who, born 
and bred in Poland, became one of the 
greatest English writers. No actress has 
had greater fame than Helena Modjeska. 
No musician is better known than Pade- 
rewski. Only one woman was ever made 
a professor at Sorbonne, that university 
in France which for seven hundred years 
has exerted great influence over Europe. 
That woman is Marie Sklodowska-Curie, 
born in Warsaw, the discoveress of radium. 

But the most famous of contemporary 
Poles is Marshal Joseph Piłsudski. He 
will symbolize forever the New Poland, 
just as George Washington is the incar- 
nation of American Independence. Pił- 
sudski is the man of destiny, the leader 
and teacher, the guardian and guide of 
Poland. A military genius, he saved Po- 
land and Europe from Bolshevism, re- 
pulsing the Soviet hordes in 1920. A great 
statesman, he rescued Poland from chaos 
and inspired his people with courage and 
confidence in the great future of their 
native land. 

This survey of the history of Poland, 
modest as it is in scope and size, makes 
no claim to bear comparison with numer- 



A HISTORY OF POLAND, OLD AND NEW 



2§S 

ous and excellent works written about Po- 
land by many distinguished authors. It 
will have achieved its purpose, however, 
if some of its readers should become suf- 
ficiently interested in the history, culture, 
and civilization of Poland, to read the 
eminent works which appeared on Poland 
in the English language, and the treasures 
of Polish literature translated into Eng- 
lish. 

Of the books on Poland written in Eng- 
lish, the following among others, can be 
suggested : 

Humphrey, G., "Poland the Unexplored"; 

Gardner, M., "Poland, a Study in National 
Idealism", and "Adam Mickiewicz, the Na- 
tional Poet of Poland"; 

Norman, V., "Poland, the Knight Among 
Nations"; 

Kellogg, C, "Jadwiga, Queen of Poland"; 

Kelly, E. P., "The Trumpeter of Krakow", 
"The Blacksmith of Vilno", and "Mazurka of 
Dombrowski" ; 

Lord D Abernon, "The Eighteenth Decisive 
Battle of the World" ; 

Lord Eversley, "The Partitions of Poland"; 

Augur, "Eagles Black and White", and "A 
Bulwark of Democracy"; 

Dyboski, Roman, "Outlines of Polish His- 
tory", "The Peasant in Polish Literature", 
and "Modern Polish Literature"; and 

Zieliński, T., "The Peasant in Polish Liter- 
ature". 

As regards the masterpieces of Polish 
literature, the excellent English transla- 
tions of the following books give an insight 
into the soul of Poland, making delightful 
reading besides: 

Sienkiewicz's immortal Trilogy, "With Fire 
and Sword", "The Deluge", and "Pan Mi- 
chael", which takes us back into the seven- 
teenth century ; 

Reymont's "Peasants", a story of tillers of 
the soil ; 

Mickiewicz's "Pan Tadeusz", an epic un- 
surpassed by any in the world's literature; 

The "Ashes" of Żeromski, which describes 
the epoch of Napoleon in glowing colors; 

"The Un-Divine Comedy" of Krasiński, a 
prophetic vision of Bolshevism given almost 
a hundred years before its advent; and 

The "Memoirs of a Polish Revolutionary 
Soldier" by Marshal Joseph Piłsudski, which 
reveal the ideal of a patriot who devoted all 



[63] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



Ms — 

his life to the re-conquest of his country's 
freedom. 

Those interested in international politics 

would profit by reading the following: 

Count Skrzyński, "Poland and Peace" ; 
Askenazy, S., "Danzig and Poland; and 
Weinstein, J., "Upper Silesia, a Country of 
Contrasts". 

Those fond of fairy tales would enjoy: 

Konopnicka, Marie, "The Brownie Scouts"; 
and 

Szczuczka, Kossak, "The Troubles of a 
Gnome". 

Every year several books of Polish 
authors are added to the list of those 
translated into English. It is through its 
literature that the soul of a nation is 
studied best. Such reading might more- 
over dispel not a few errors and miscon- 
ceptions. As Poland has been wiped off 
the map of Europe for over a century, 
such misconceptions are particularly 
abundant about Poland. Some of the con- 
ventional views of Poland need revision. 
So far Poland is not on the tourist's trail 
and she is not much of a self-advertiser. 
She is not known to foreigners as well as 
are some of the other European countries. 

Yet Poland deserves to be known to 
every cultured person, for she has given 
her full share to the cultural treasure of 
the world ! While cherishing their glorious 
traditions, the Poles look ahead and not 
backward, and sincerely wish that the his- 
tory of their past be recalled only to com- 
pare it with the illustrious development 
which is their hope of the future. Having 
regained what was theirs, they ardently 
desire that peace should reign forever in 
their land, and that they may henceforth 
devote all their energy and efforts to prog- 
ress, and to the service of their country 
and of mankind. 

Before concluding this survey of Po- 
land, it would not be amiss to point out 
certain elements of similarity between the 
history of Poland and that of the United 
States. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— M* 

Poland, in her prime, never suffered un- 
der the weight of despotism. It is true she 
had her kings, but their power was as lim- 
ited by the Diet as that of the King of 
England is today limited by the Parlia- 
ment. Poland was a republic (though one 
of landed aristocracy) at a time when the 
rest of Europe, with the exception of Eng- 
land, was groaning under an autocratic 
form of government. Poland was never an 
invader. Such neighbors as Lithuania and 
Ruthenia, as we have seen, of their own 
accord joined their lot to that of Poland. 
The Poles resorted to force and weapons 
in defense of their rights only when all 
else failed. 

It is almost needless to reiterate the 
parallel attitudes of the builders of the 
United States, so strikingly are they sim- 
ilar. Just as this country now champions 
the cause of freedom and justice whenever 
necessary, and even engaged in a war to 
make a world safe for democracy, Poland 
fought the Moslem invasion, defending 
Europe against the barbarism of the East. 

The Constitution of the Third of May 
in 1791 completed the democratization of 
Poland. An event of this kind in other 
parts of Europe would undoubtedly have 
been attended by a series of outbreaks and 
revolutions; in Poland this new political 
renaissance was occasioned by demonstra- 
tions of a most peaceful character, at least 
on the part of the Poles. Similarly, the 
United States brings about political 
changes by way of the ballot rather than 
the bullet. 

Poland and America, we repeat, are 
kindred spirits. Neither are militaristic; 
both are religiously tolerant; both love 
freedom and respect the rights of neigh- 
bors ; both frown upon attempts to foment 
class warfare. Let us hope that their joint 
ideals will yet make the world truly safe 
for democracy. Then we shall know that 
the Great War, with its innumerable sac- 
rifices, was not fought in vain. 



64 



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The Poles in Chicago 

By Anthony C. Tomczak 



THE rise of the Poles in Chicago has 
been as steady as it has been phenom- 
enal. When in June, 1859, Anthony Sma- 
rzewski (Schermann) visited that city to 
consider settling there, little did he think 
that the people of his nation, in the course 
of but three or four generations, would so 
rapidly immigrate and expand as to head 
the list of foreign populations in what is 
proving to be the third largest city in the 
world. He could not foresee then that his 
mother country not only would regain her 
independence, but would look with pride 
on the progress made by her sons in Am- 
erica. It was surely beyond his imagina- 
tion to think that by the time of his death 
in 1900 the Poles in Chicago would have 
become so numerous as to necessitate the 
erection of some twenty churches wherein 
they might find outlet for their religious 
fervor. Such thoughts may have been fan- 
tastic dreams of his, but hardly serious 
concepts of probability. 

The eighty years that followed his first 
visit to Chicago are so packed with details 
of the phenomenal expansion of the Poles 
that it is hardly possible to delve any 
deeper into the facts than to give their bare 
outline. Moreover, there are so many 
phases of the story of the Poles in Chicago 
that to try to discuss thoroughly even one 
would require more space than the limita- 
tions of this article permit. 

Spasmodically during the first few 
years, and steadily after 1890 or so, the 
immigration of Poles to Chicago was like 
a prelude to a story of progress. It was 
some time, however, before other Chicago- 
ans began to realize the increasing impor- 



tance of that group in their city. Even to- 
day, it is hard for the average Chicagoan 
to appreciate the magnitude of the Polish 
population there. 

Nothing very definite is known of what 
happened between Anthony Schermann's 
first visit in 1850 and more than ten years 
later, when small groups of soldiers fight- 
ing in the Insurrection of 1863 set out for 
America and found their way to Chicago. 
About this time, too, came Poles from ear- 
lier settlements in Texas, among others 
being Peter Kiolbasa, destined to be the 
chief figure in the organization and de- 
velopment of the Poles in Chicago, and 
Father Leopold Moczygemba, the first 
Polish priest in Chicago. More settlers 
came after the inauguration of Bismarck's 
anti-Polish policy during the 70's, which 
drove out some 30,000 Poles from Prussian 
Poland. After that, the numbers that came 
in gradually increased until there were 
52,000 foreign-born Poles in 1890, and 
250,000 in July, 1903! This latter figure 
includes, in addition to foreign-born Poles, 
children of the second generation. The 1930 
census places the figure well over 400,000. 

When one studies these figures and con- 
siders the fact that the bulk of this popula- 
tion has been accumulated within not much 
more than sixty years, it is not hard to un- 
derstand why the Poles in Chicago should 
feel proud of their standing there and why 
the descendants of pioneer settlers still 
living there should revere their ancestors 
not merely as pioneers, but as the fathers 
of a city of Poles. Surely 400,000 may be 
called a veritable city. Nor is it necessary 
to search long and far for people who have 



65 



POLES IX AMERICA 



2§S 

been eye-witnesses to early Polish settle- 
ment there, or for sons and daughters of 
the very men who planted the seed of Po- 
lish life and thought there. Almost every 
Pole has heard of Peter Kiolbasa, who from 
the time he first came to Chicago in 1864 
until he died in 1905 gave unceasing co- 
operation to the development of almost 
every major Polish enterprise, leaving be- 
hind him the record of a career such as 
would give credit to the noblest of Amer- 
icans. He was even more than a Pole, for 
he served as captain in the Union Army 
during the Civil War, was a sergeant in 
the Police Force of Chicago from 1867 to 
1869, was elected City Treasurer in 1891, 
and held other civic offices, including that 
of Alderman, Building Commissioner, 
Commissioner of Public Works, and Cus- 
toms Officer. 

Kiolbasa, together with Schermann, 
John Arkuszewski, John Niemczewski, and 
Paul Kurr, in 1864 organized the St. Sta- 
nislaus Kostka Society, through the efforts 
of which, five years later, the first Polish 
parish was organized under the name St. 
Stanislaus Kostka. In 1874 there came to 
Chicago Rev. Wincenty Barzynski, who 
was pastor of the church until his death in 
1899. He, like Kiolbasa, took a most active 
part in the expansion of the Polish colony 
and in the development of numerous or- 
ganizations which exist until this day. His 
brother, John Barzynski, was also active 
in such work, having in 1875 founded a 
weekly the Gazeta Polska Katolicka. He 
was the father of Mrs. Julius Śmietanka, 
the wife of one of Chicago's most eminent 
Polish lawyers today. 

The Gazeta was taken over by Władys- 
ław Smulski, whose son, John F. Smulski, 
elicited so much admiration for his noble 
work in Chicago as a banker and active 
citizen that his death in March, 1928, was 
a distinct shock to the thousands of friends 
he had made. After having founded in 1906 
the North-Western Trust and Savings 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Bank, he was elected in succession Alder- 
man, City Attorney, President of the West 
Park Commissioners, and State Treasurer. 
But his chief glory lies not in banking or 
in politics, but in the sincere hard work he 
performed during and after the Great 
War. With untiring energy he made sev- 
eral trips to Poland, and with Paderewski 
and Woodrow Wilson, accomplished in 
large measure the liberation of Poland. He 
founded and was president of the Polish 
National Council (Polski Wydział Naro- 
doivy), and personally financed the pur- 
chase of thousands of Polish Bonds. He is 
the only person to whom Chicago has ever 
paid the supreme honor of dedicating a 
memorial program in his name. Paderew- 
ski himself came to Chicago to pay his 
respects. 

As Kiolbasa fostered the early major 
civic endeavors, and as Father Barzynski 
guided the religious activities, so Paul So- 
bolewski cared for the intellectual and cul- 
tural development of the Poles in Chicago. 
The author of "Poets and Poetry of Po- 
land," he was devoted to the cause of edu- 
cation among the Poles, going so far as to 
travel from house to house in order to keep 
the people in touch with the news of the 
day. He was a school teacher, writer, news- 
paper editor, phrenologist, dramatist, and 
veteran of the insurrection of 1830. He 
died in 1882. 

The name of Dyniewicz, still well known 
in Chicago, was at one time on the lips of 
every newspaper-reading Pole. Gazeta Pol- 
ska, the first Polish newspaper in Chicago, 
founded in October, 1873, by Władysław 
Dyniewicz soon became so full of the per- 
sonality of the editor that the sobriquet 
Gazeta Dynieivicza soon grew to be the 
commonly accepted name of the paper. 
August J. Kowalski, the first Polish Alder- 
man (1888), Stanley Kunz, together with 
John F. Smulski, were prominent civic 
leaders; while the names of Śmietanka, 
Wirkuszewski, Haremski, Nowaczewski, 



66 





AUGUST J. KOWALSKI, SR. 
Civic Leader 



WŁADYSŁAW DYNIEWICZ 
Editor and Publisher 





JOSEPH SCHIKORA 

Civic Leader 



VICTOR BARDONSKI 
Druggist 



67 



POLES IX AMERICA 



Czaja, Kaczemski, Zaremba, Zarowski, 
Doszynski, Mikitynski, Warszewski, Bar- 
donski, Ratkowski, Wieczorowski, La Buy, 
Majewski, Tomaszkiewicz, and Krzybi- 
niewski should be recalled as generous con- 
tributors to the pioneer cause in Chicago. 
The list is by no means complete. Un- 
doubtedly there are countless others, prob- 
ably many far more active than some of 
those mentioned. 

It is evident that it would be almost im- 
possible to trace even generally the phe- 
nomenal growth and expansion of the Po- 
lish colony. Within a few years after the 
first parish has been opened, another was 
necessary and still others, because as Chi- 
cago grew, so expanded ever more broadly 
the extent of the Polonia. They moved 
south, northwest, west, farther and far- 
ther south, even north, until by the time 
the century had closed there were thriv- 
ing Polish settlements in almost all sec- 
tions of the city. A continual influx of 
immigration, coupled with the Pole's na- 
tural desire to own his own home, are pos- 
sible explanations of this rapid expansion. 
The Pole's sincere patriotism and devotion 
to God and to country is no less zealous 
than is his love of home and family. This 
is an important consideration when study- 
ing this expansion, for upon observation, 
it becomes evident that the Poles ac- 
complished this not with the help of other 
nationalities in the city, but rather in spite 
of them. It must be remembered that 
many Polish people even in several of the 
earlier censuses, were not considered as 
Poles at all, but rather as Russians, Ger- 
mans, or Austrians, depending on which 
part of Poland they had left. It was not 
until the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 
that they made the other nationalities rec- 
ognize their strength and magnitude, when 
in a huge parade of 10,000 they celebrated 
in grand fashion the first so-called "Polish 
Day" that Chicago had ever seen. It was 
the forerunner of the present annual Pol- 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

ish Day, an event which each year grows 
more elaborate and imposing. Unfortu- 
ately, occassional instigations and racial 
prejudices of foes of the nation would 
bring the Poles into disrepute, only to be 
quelled at other times by the religious zeal 
and earnest patriotism which they so con- 
sistently expressed. Soon they became very 
active in civic matters and in organiza- 
tions of their own, and within a few years 
Chicago was faced with the fact that not 
only was there a group known as Poles, 
but that group was actually the largest 
in the list of foreign populations. When 
the Great War broke out, the Chicago 
Poles contributed thousands of loyal men 
who gradually but surely were becoming 
true and patriotic Americans. When Po- 
land regained her independence in 1919 
there were more than 300,000 people in 
Chicago whose ancestors' dream had come 
true, and whose inborn love of their moth- 
er country had not yet died. 

Nor have these large numbers been 
wanting in progress and the initiation of 
well-known institutions. Probably the 
foremost in such list of their successes was 
the North - Western Trust and Savings 
Bank, organized in 1906 by John F. Smul- 
ski and John F. Przybysz (Prebis), until 
recently the largest bank outside of the 
downtown district of Chicago, and prob- 
ably the largest distinctly Polish bank in 
the country. There are many flourish- 
ing business institutions established and 
directed by Polish managements. St. Ma- 
ry's Hospital, St. Hedwig's Orphanage, 
and St. Joseph's Home for the Aged are 
Polish. St. Stanislaus College, Holy Fam- 
ily Academy, Holy Trinity High School, 
Resurrection High School, and Good Coun- 
sel High School are a few of the institu- 
tions of secondary education. Seventeen 
banks in Chicago were until recently di- 
rected by Polish officers. There are sixty- 
seven Polish Roman Catholic churches. 
There are nearly two hundred practicing 



68 





-_ij 



JOHN F. SMULSKI 
Banker and Civic Leader 



STANISŁAW SZWAJKART 
Editor 





JOHN SCHERMANN 
Son of First Settler 



MICHAEL WOJTECKI 
Jeweler 



69 



POLES IN AMERICA 



2§S 

Polish lawyers, 160 physicians and 120 
dentists. Dziennik Chicagoski, Dziennik 
Związkowy and Dziennik Zjednoczenia 
are the three Polish daily newspapers. 
Scores of weekly and monthly publica- 
tions are also prominent. 

It must not be supposed, after an ex- 
amination of such a list of business suc- 
cesses, that the Poles had let the commer- 
cial element of life blot out the aesthetic 
one. On the contrary, the numerous har- 
mony groups and dramatic and literary 
societies organized in the early days of 
settlement show that even then, when 
countless pioneer problems had to be dealt 
with, the Poles still found time and place 
for the expression of their aesthetic na- 
tures. Moreover, today the activities of 
the Polish Arts Club, and of numerous 
parish dramatic societies, and the encour- 
agement of scholarship among the youth, 
all point to the Poles' keen appreciation of 
the finer things in life. Very early in the 
seventies and eighties they had already 
organized choirs and little theaters. Ever 
since October, 1891, when the St. Stanis- 
laus Parish Dramatic Circle was organ- 
ized, progress and expansion has been ev- 
ident in theatrical lines, and recently the 
dramatic circles of all the parishes in the 
city combined their best talent to stage 
a stupendous presentation of Slowacki's 
"Balladyna". The untiring efforts of such 
men as Karol Wachtel, Antoni Zdzieblow- 
ski, and S. Zahajkiewicz to promote the 
cause of the Polish Theater can always be 
recalled by the dramatists of the early 
days. Today there are amateur dramatic 
and musical groups budding everywhere. 
Individuals, too, have gained reknown. No 
one can ever forget the beloved song-bird, 
Agnes Nering, who died but a few years 
ago. The quality of Ina Bourskaya's sing- 
ing may be judged by her present success 
with the Chicago Civic Opera Company, 
while Andre Skalski's Orchestra is arous- 
ing the attention of all the music critics. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



3§S 

In literary lines, tco, have the Poles been 
active, the scores of publications being 
representative examples of their achieve- 
ments. 

But it is an infinite task to trace all the 
achievements of the Poles in Chicago; it 
is hard even to decide where to begin. The 
consolation in the task rests only in the 
fact that the same conclusions are de- 
duced from whatever facts are considered. 
Like Poles everywhere, the Poles in Chi- 
cago are instinctively clannish. It is this 
nature that is in large measure respon- 
sible for the numerous organizations 
founded at various times in their history 
in Chicago. Though religious, civic and 
national motives may have provided the 
immediate causes for most of the groups 
formed, it is interesting to study the Polak 
za Polakiem (A Pole for a Pole) attitude 
so evident even in their relations tod^y. 
The Gmina Polska, organized in 1866, t|he 
Polish Roman Catholic Union in America, 
in 1874, the Polish National Alliance in 
1880, the Sokols in 1893, the Polish Alria 
Mater in 1897, the Polish Women's Al- 
liance in 1905, and other organizations 
like nature and scope, all are represents 
ative of the social nature of the Pole ii^ 
Chicago. From the very beginning the 
Poles grouped together and acted in bodies. 

A queer paradox is observed in this re- 
spect. For clannish though they may be, 
they are still divided among themselves. 
While distinctions and policies are not very 
sharply drawn, there is nevertheless an 
intense rivalry and competition between 
organizations and between commercial 
houses. True, several successful attempts 
have been made in the way of conciliation 
and consolidation; yet try as they may, 
the Poles have not yet fully appreciated 
the value of perfect organization and 
union. Politically they are in large num- 
ber Democratic, though representative Re- 
publican leaders are well known. The high- 
est elective office held is that of County 




RT. REV. PAUL RHODE 
First Polish Bishop in America 





REV. WINCENTY BARZYNSKI, C. R. 
Pastor and Civic Leader 



ADAM SZWAJKART 
Physician and Surgeon 



71 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



2§S 

Judge, ably filled during the past eight 
years by Edmund K. Jarecki, who, ex- 
officio, is the head of the election machine- 
ry of the city. M. S. Szymczak, as City 
Comptroller, is a member of the Mayor's 
Cabinet. There are two Polish Congress- 
men from the Chicago area, two members 
of the State Senate, two members of the 
State Legislature, and seven judges in the 
City courts. Five out of fifty aldermen are 
Polish, and several other more or less im- 
portant city elective positions are held. In 
general it must be said that the ratio of 
the political representation of the Poles in 
Chicago is considerably lower than that of 
a few other nationalities. Whether the 
cause of this lies in their inability to fill 
the offices or in their lack of skill in ma- 
nipulating the intricate workings of pol- 
itics is a question that cannot be answered 
too readily or hastily. It is a problem that 
has confronted Polish Chicagoans for the 
past two decades. The importance of the 
Poles is gradually becoming recognized, 
however, and from present indications 
their political future is bright. 

Another characteristic of the Poles that 
is easily deduced from a study of their 
progress and expansion in Chicago is their 
homeloving nature and their desire to save 
and to settle. The value of Polish-owned 
property runs well into millions, while the 
large number of building and loan associa- 
tions (60) prove with figures and statis- 
tics that the Pole respects the value of 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



money. It was his instinctive urge to 
"own his own home" that made the early 
settler move into newer and farther sec- 
tions of the city, and is probably the prim- 
ary cause of the Poles' extensive disper- 
sion throughout the great midwestern 
metropolis today. 

Thus the Poles in Chicago have multi- 
plied from a few to 400,000. Thus they 
have become the leaders of the foreign 
population here, and the center of the Po- 
lish population in the Middle West. Their 
contribution to the life and interests of the 
city is gradually becoming recognized. 
Their importance in civic and social affairs 
is appreciated and considered as a serious 
factor by other nationalities. Polish-Chi- 
cago society has become a milieu of prog- 
ress. It has had a good start, but its prob- 
lems of the future still remain great. It 
must define more clearly the various prob- 
lems implied in its relations to Chicago, 
invent new methods of developing and con- 
centrating its social and economic powers, 
find new ways of raising its prestige and 
of increasing its influence on Chicago life. 
It is not too optimistic a statement to pre- 
dict that the Poles can easily fulfill this 
task. For them the days of pioneering are 
over. They are ready now to profit by the 
experience of their fathers and grand- 
fathers who settled here, and are anxious 
to participate in the American common- 
wealth. Chicago is watching the progress 
of its 400,000 Poles. 



72 



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T/z£ Polish Contribution To America 



By Thaddeus Hoinko 



IT IS not right but it is entirely natural 
that those people in America whose 
families have been here long enough to 
have forgotten their coming should be in- 
clined to look upon newcomers of these la- 
ter days as people who have come empty- 
handed for what they can get here. Espe- 
cially is this the case when as often hap- 
pens, the strangers are themselves ignor- 
ant of the heritage of their fatherland and 
of what they do bring as their share in the 
upbuilding of their new home. 

Polish immigrants to the United States 
have been largely of the peasant or labor- 
ing classes, ignorant, through no fault of 
theirs, of Polish history and tradition and 
of the rich culture of their native land. 
During their years in America they have 
been working quietly, faithfully at their 
simple tasks, not realizing what their work 
has meant to this country, what a real part 
they have been playing in the material 
development of this new land, nor how they 
might further contribute spiritually by 
transplanting to this new soil the seeds of 
their old culture. 

The time has come, however, when 
through education they are awakening to 
a realization of their own worth and might 
as participants in the work of building this 
great American edifice. To contribute to 
the process of this self-realization, the 
author has summed up in this article what 
to him are the important achievements to 
the Poles in America. 

It is of interest to learn that the first 
known Polish settlers reached the colony 
of Virginia in September, 1608, or twelve 
years before the Mayflower. These "Po- 
landers" were not adventurers looking for 



a good time, but steady, capable workers 
who were especially brought over by the 
Virginia Company in order to develop the 
industries of the new country. To quote 
from the record of the Virginia Company 
of July 31, 1619: " . . . and because their 
(the Poles) skill in making pitch and tar 
and sope ashes shall not die with them it 
is agreed that some young men shall be 
put unto them to learn their skill and 
knowledge therein for the benefit of the 
country hereafter." 

Captain John Smith, the leader of the 
Virginia Colony, thus characterizes the 
settlers: "They never did know what a 
day's work was, except the Dutchmen and 
the Poles and some dozen others." In these 
days of opulence and migth it is well to 
record that Polish carpenters and artisans 
were among the first to lay the material 
as well as the moral foundations for the 
future American Commonwealth. 

The next contribution, more widely 
known and more important, of Polish blood 
and genius to the cause of independence 
took place about one hundred and fifty 
years later. Several Polish officers, among 
whom Thaddeus Kościuszko and Casimir 
Pulaski were the outstanding ones, came 
to this country "not for the pleasure" to 
quote Paderewski, "of fighting the Eng- 
lish, but for the noble joy of contributing 
to the glorious conquest of human liberty." 
If it had not been for Casimir Pulaski's 
heroic charge during the Battle of Brandy- 
wine the outcome of that encounter would 
probably have been disastrous to the Amer- 
ican army. Similarly, Kosciuszko's genius 
had a great deal to do with the victory of 
Saratoga, which played such a decisive 



73 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



part in the American campaign. Only 
these two Polish names have been regis- 
tered on the popular roster of fame, though 
many more shed their blood both in the 
Revolutionary War and in the Civil War. 
Among the latter are Victor Kochanowski, 
the Polish officer who raised two regi- 
ments in New York and took part in thirty- 
two battles, and General Krzyżanowski, 
whose valor and service in the Battle of 
Gettysburg are especially mentioned in 
official dispatches. According to data com- 
piled by Mr. M. Haiman, approximately 
5,000 Poles served in the Union Army, of 
whom one hundred and sixty were officers. 

In listing these items on the balance 
sheet of the Polish contribution, the finan- 
cial aid of Haym Solomon to the cause of 
independence should not be overlooked. Re- 
cent researches show that he, a wealthy 
Polish Jew and a friend of Kościuszko and 
Pulaski, who spent many an hour at his 
home, was financially back of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. Thus Polish genius, blood, 
and money helped to establish the inde- 
pendence of this country. 

This is the item thought of mostly when 
the Polish contribution is considered. Un- 
doubtedly it is of great importance. Yet, 
however paradoxical it may seem, there 
is an item of the Polish contribution 
usually entirely overlooked, which in the 
opinion of the writer is of still greater in- 
trinsic value. This is the cumulative con- 
tribution of the four million Poles in this 
country. This human item is the greatest 
gift that Poland has given America. Some- 
one may remark that the American Poles, 
as a class, have been mostly laborers and 
farmers. True enough. But they arrived 
in this country, like the Polish carpenters 
and pitch makers of Virginia and the Po- 
lish soldiers of the Revolutionary time, at 
the crucial moment in the development of 
the American Commonwealth — at the 
time of laying the foundations of the new 
industrial empire. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

Governor Ritchie of Maryland in his 
address of December 29, 1927, before the 
American Historical Association rightly 
attributed the phenomenal growth of this 
country in wealth and influence to the 
"new immigration," of which the Poles 
constitute a large percentage. Governor 
Ritchie said in part: "We have been re- 
ceiving full-grown or at least nearly adult 
workers, and so have escaped in consider- 
able measure the heavy cost of raising, edu- 
cating, and feeding them through infancy 
and childhood, and the economic loss of in- 
fant mortality . . . The United States could 
not have grown as it has from establish- 
ment of its sovereign independence to our 
own time had not the adult man-power of 
Europe — Continental Europe as well as 
the insular Europe — crossed the Atlan- 
tic, become animated with patriotism for 
its new-found home, and loyalty to our 
flag, and helped develop the resources of 
this continent." 

You find Polish workmen in the textile 
mills of Manchester, in the coal mines of 
Pittsburgh, in the steel works of Gary, in 
the great factories of Ford, in the lumber 
camps on the Pacific coast ; you find them 
in Minnesota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Michi- 
gan. It is they who are reclaiming the 
abandoned and bankrupt farms of New 
England, whose native sons have sought 
the easy money and bright lights of the 
cities. They are the spiritual descendants 
of the pioneer fathers who first cleared 
the stony soil of New England. They are 
intelligent, persevering, honest, and 
thrifty. According to Professor Niles Car- 
penter of the University of Buffalo, the 
Poles as a group among the skilled work- 
ers, with the probability rating of .37, are 
in the lead of every other group, including 
the native whites of native parentage. 
Henry Ford, discussing "machines and 
men" makes a special reference to the 
Poles. "The suggestions (as to improve- 
ments) come from everywhere," he says. 



74 



2§S 

"The Polish workmen seem to be the clever- 
est of all the foreigners in making them." 

This great army of labor, in which the 
Poles play an important role, has won for 
this nation the first place in the industrial 
life of the world. Only by means of their 
humble but indispensable qualities, be- 
cause of their sweat and Titanic work, 
could this country achieve such an unpre- 
cedented level of prosperity and might. 
And not only because of that — this great 
army of peaceful fighters has actually 
paid with its own blood for the comfort 
and higher standard of living in this coun- 
try. In 1925, 10,537 men died as a result 
of industrial accidents, whereas the total 
number of deaths in the American Army 
during the Great War was only 77,000. 
The number of men killed in the mines 
alone during the period 1906-1925 was 
over 49,000. Much of this was Polish 
blood. These vital facts should be kept in 
mind when the contribution to American 
life is under discussion. 

The Pole is not only a great asset econ- 
omically, but also socially is splendid ma- 
terial for good citizenship. These are not 
empty words. Some of his characteristics 
have been shown before. Let us list a few 
more. He is religious, though tolerant of 
other people's beliefs. He is sanely conser- 
vative, and, as the Department of Justice 
knows well, Bolshevik teachings find very 
poor response from him here as they do in 
Poland, in spite of the proximaty of the 
contagious spot. Today he is a laborer tied 
by the force of circumstances to factories 
and mines; with a secret desire, however, 
to buy someday a piece of land and culti- 
vate it lovingly, as his ancestors have done 
since time immemorial. Tomorrow he will 
undoubtedly rise to a much higher level in 
the social scale of the nation. Ample evi- 
dences of this evolution are plainly dis- 
cernible today. 

Due to the similarity of the historical 
development of Poland and that of Ame- 
rica the Poles resemble closely the Ameri- 



THE POLISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA 



)k 



can type, in spite of the differences of race 
and language. Major Charles Phillips, 
member of the Red Cross Commission in 
Poland, has this to say of these national 
parallels: "This same Poland had from 
the earliest times a great enthusiasm for 
freedom in almost every branch of life ; the 
principle of sovereignty of the nation, call- 
ing the citizens to participate in the res- 
ponsibilities of government, the conception 
of the state as not a thing existing for it- 
self but as an instrument serving the well- 
being of society; aversion to absolute mo- 
narchy, standing armies and militarism; 
disinclination to make aggressive wars, 
but a remarkable tendency to make volun- 
tary unions with neighboring peoples ; and 
finally, hers was the first experiment on a 
large scale with a federal republic, down 
to the time of the United States. When we 
realize such facts as these concerning Po- 
land, we know nothing can ever blot from 
them that glow of democratic idealism 
which makes the Pole what he is, a true 
brother of the American. In the love and 
championship of human liberty the Pole 
and the American are one. . . . Perhaps 
that is the reason that Poles have always 
made good American citizens." 

When the trying days of the Great War 
arrived, the Poles were among the first to 
make their offering. They took a live, act- 
ive part in all national campaigns, whether 
for the various Liberty Loans, for the Red 
Cross, or for other patriotic and charitable 
objects. "In one city of 300,000 inhabitants, 
among whom were several millionaires, 
the contributions to the Red Cross were 
$3,750,000, or $12.50 per capita, while 
the Polish population of 7,000, almost ex- 
clusively laborers, gave $160,000, or $23 
per capita. Of the various groups of people 
of foreign birth or extraction living in this 
country, the Polish boys were the first and 
the most numerous to respond to the call 
to arms. There was not a casualty list in 
the War that did not contain the names of 
American soldiers of Polish birth. Indeed, 



75 



POLKS IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M — 

while the Poles constitute only 4% of the 
population of the United States, 12% of 
those who died in the War were Poles. Ac- 
cording to official statistics there were al- 
most 300,000 men of Polish extraction in 
the American Army, irrespective of those 
who formed the large Polish army which 
fought in France and was recruited there." 

The American Pole has successfully 
overcome great obstacles in a strange land. 
He has contributed greatly to the upbuild- 
ing of his new nation. His children, born 
on this soil, feel not less American than 
those who ''preceded them by the briefest 
interval as the lives of nations go." This 
new rising class of Americans of Polish 
descent is beginning to produce in increas- 
ing numbers business and professional men 
of whom the country may be proud. One 
of the most prominent bankers in Chicago 
was the late John Smulski, the president 
cf the largest Polish bank; and Clarence 
Dillon, of Dillon, Read & Co., and Ben- 
jamin Winter of New York are of Polish 
descent. They are also beginning to show 
live interest in American politics, having 
to their credit such clean and efficient rep- 
resentatives of the Law as Judge Jarecki 
of Chicago and Chief Justice Robert von 
Moschzisker of Pennsylvania. Like all true 
Americans they love sports, and have given 
birth to a number of stars, for Niemiec, 
Lomski and Poliski are of Polish blood. 
However, the Poles do not limit their love 
of sports to grand stand applause, but as 
the 30,000 members of "The Falcons", a 
Polish athletic association, testify, take a 
general active part in athletics. 

If the above seems not to prove that the 
Polish contribution has been of "cultural" 
character, bear in mind that the man who 
works with his hands indirectly contributes 
to culture, first in increasing the material 
prosperity of the country, and secondly in 
leaving others free from drudgery to de- 
velop in other ways. However, the Poles 
have furnished America with several out- 
standing, even world-famous, names in the 



— Hi 

purely "cultural" field. The great Mod- 
jeska, beloved of all America, was a Pole. 
In the opera we have Jean de Reszke, 
Adam Didur and Ina Burskaya; on the 
stage and screen, Pola Negri, Gilda Gray, 
Florentine Gosnova and Nydia D'Arnell; 
the orchestra leaders Leopold Stokowski 
and Arthur Rodziński of the Philadelphia 
Symphony and Thaddeus Wroński of De- 
troit; the pianists Joseph Hofmann, Jo- 
seph Rubinstein, Mieczysław Muentz, Sig- 
ismund Stojowski and T. Jarecki ; and Bro- 
nisław Huberman and Paul Kochański, 
world-famous violinists; as well as Mar- 
cella Sembrich. Likewise, among Polish 
painters are W. T. Benda, G. Gwozdecki. 
Leon Makielski, Mrs. K. Kosicka, Krawiec, 
Kaczmarski, Tade Styka, and Joseph Si- 
gall; the sculptors Olstowski, Szukalski 
and A. Dombrowski are also Poles. There 
are so many, especially in the field of art, 
who are of Polish birth or descent that it 
is practically impossible to mention more 
than a few of their number. 

A pioneer in aeronautical education in 
America is Professor F. Pawłowski of the 
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. 

Then there is Ralph Modjeski, son of the 
great actress, who has been well known as 
an engineer for many years. His later 
achievements, which include the bridge 
across the St. Lawrence at Montreal and 
the Delaware Bridge at Philadelphia, have 
placed him at the head of the bridge build- 
ers of the world. 

Of one of the greatest living Poles, Pa- 
derewski, there is no need to remind you, 
and of what he has meant to America in the 
forty years since he first played here. Al- 
though he is not particularly identified 
with America, yet, as President MacCrec- 
ken of Vassar says, "the music of Pade- 
rewski, the literature of Reymont and 
Sienkiewicz, and the science of Madame 
Sklodowska-Curie" (all Poles) are in real- 
ity "contributions to the world mind," and 
as such have played their part in develop- 
ing American culture. 



76 



2§5- 



THE POLISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA 



-ats 



With such a record as this American 
Poles are justified in feeling proud of their 
contribution to American civilization. 
From inarticulate immigrants they are be- 
coming conscious citizens of this country; 
they are losing their inferiority complex 
and beginning to realize that they are co- 



builders and consequently co-owners of 
this great American Commonwealth. They 
are becoming truly American, because, as 
Theodore Roosevelt said, it is not religion, 
not origin, not race, that makes an Ameri- 
can, but character and achievement. 
(Reprinted from "Poland" Magazine) 



♦ ♦ 



77 




w 



HERE are two kinds of people on earth today, 

Just two kinds of people, no more, I say. 

Not the saint and the sinner, for 'tis well understood 

The good are half bad and the bad are half good; 

Not the rich and the poor, for to count a man's wealth 

You must first know the state of his conscience and health ; 

Not the humble and proud, for in life's little span 

Who puts on vain airs is not counted a man. 

Not the happy and sad, for the swift flying years 

Bring each man his laughter, and each man his tears. 

No! the two kinds of people on earth that I mean 

Are the people who lift and the people ivho lean. 

Wheree'er you go you will find the world's masses 

Are always divided in just these two classes; 

And oddly enough, you will find, too, I ween, 

There is only one lifter to twenty who lean. 

In what class are you? Are you easing the load 

Of over-taxed lifters who toil down the road? 

Or are you a leaner, who lets others bear 

Your portion of labor and worry and care? 



— Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 



%%%$fi 



78 



." "''. . . .' '■''. :■■ ■ .■'"'■'■. 'v ".";",- v'v""'^" y^?~V ■ . . . . .■''•••"•, ,'.'", 






T^he Pole in America 

By ANTHONY C. TOMCZAK 



THE average American citizen con- 
siders the Pole in America as merely 
another foreign immigrant, who either 
dissatisfied with conditions in his native 
country, or else in search of land, where 
success and good fortune pour forth as 
from a cornucopia, comes here and adds 
to the ever-growing category known in 
America as "foreign population". 
Charges against the Pole, especially those 
preferred by such as profess knowledge 
of Polish history, are not numerous, 
but still are serious and frequent. 
A common misconception is that Polish 
people in general are normally opposed 
to culture and to the finer things in 
life. Others charge an alleged indifference 
to things political in this country. It is said 
also that the Poles are unable to self- 
govern, that they are by nature indepen- 
dent and self-seeking, and that their 
achievements in science and the arts are 
merely accidental and not representative 
of the people as a whole. 

The origin of these charges is based 
neither on reason, observation, nor concen- 
trated study of fact. Enemies of the nation 
managed to circulate such illusory ideas 
abroad in attempts to foster their own 
cause and to discourage outside support in 
Poland's long struggle for independence. 
Before going into the refutation of these 
charges, it would be well to generalize for 
a moment on the topic of immigration and 
immigrants in the United States. Patriotic 
and well-meaning American citizens who 
would have immigration laws made more 
strict and the "scum and offal" of Eur- 
ope's population kept out of this country, 



so that their theory of "America for Am- 
ericans" may be carried out more effica- 
ciously, fail to realize that the entire po- 
pulation here consists of foreigners, and 
that it is only a question of at how recent 
a date the immigrant or his forefathers 
came to this country. Everyone living in 
these United States, with the one exception 
of the native Indian, is, by definition, a 
"foreigner". Whether Americans care to 
admit it or not, the fact remains that 
foreign populations founded this country, 
nursed it in its infancy, helped it grow, 
developed it, and still continue developing 
it. The parcelling out of credit for pro- 
gress, and of course responsibility for re- 
trogression in this country, unlike any 
other country in the world, involves merely 
a consideration of which of the several 
foreign nations whose emigrants settled 
here did most along these lines. 

Once this fact is realized, that every 
American can be regarded as a "foreigner" 
— even descendants of the Mayflower par- 
ty, that would-be cradle of true American- 
ism — the road to clearer understanding, 
to cooperation, and to harmony between 
and among the various nationalities will 
soon be approached and finally appreci- 
ated as the immediate aid in the formation 
of a world government, where all men are 
brothers and racial and nationalistic pre- 
judices are unknown. 

The test of the true American citizen is 
the answer to the question : What does he 
add to the general welfare of the country 
by his presence here? If it can be shown 
that a particular foreign group adds no- 
thing, it is logical to assert that members 



79 



POLES IN AMERICA 



of that group do not make good American 
citizens. On the other hand, if a nation can 
be proved to have contributed renowned 
men and women whose superior intel- 
lectualities have aided the world in her 
eternal march of progress; if a nation can 
be demonstrated as possessing ideals of 
government, of religion, of patriotism, and 
of fidelity, charity, and love; if a nation 
can be spoken of as the native country of 
men and women whose contributions to 
music, literature, and the other arts have 
revolutionized whole nations and con- 
tinents; if the people of a certain foreign 
group actually do add to the general wel- 
fare of the country they have adopted as 
their own, it is not to much to say that men 
and women of such a nation are capable of 
making good and true American citizens. 
And if any foreigner in America is worthy 
to pass the test it is the Pole. 

Those who hold the belief that Poles are 
normally adverse to culture and the finer 
things in life either have a wrong idea of 
what culture and these finer things really 
are, or else for their conclusions on obser- 
vations gleaned hurriedly and without due 
consideration of the fact that the process 
of inductive reasoning has its faults. If 
"culture" is to be understood as pedantic 
ostentation in society — as pretentious 
though false like of social extravagance — 
as haugthy disdain of those lower on the 
social ladder; and if the "finer" things in 
life are to be understood as leisure, exor- 
bitant gambling, and the eternal gluttony 
for more and more of that god that makes 
possible these "finer" things — money, the 
charge that Poles are opposed to "culture" 
and "finer" things in life must be admit- 
ted. It may appear that the writer is a 
cynic and contends that there is no culture 
in the world. On the contrary, in this mod- 
ern age of intellectual development there 
truly is a real culture — not the one that is 
flaunted in the tabloids and brings a mis- 
nomer to the age in which we live, but one 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



that lives forever in the halls of science, 
art, music, and literature, and in the 
hearts of men who really know what makes 
up true hospitality. It is exactly this latter 
culture that is as inborn in the Pole as is 
his love for country and for God. To hold 
that Poles are opposed to the social aspect 
of culture is untrue. Perhaps they do not 
stage grand affairs (where the hospitality 
is forced and artificial) as often or as pre- 
tentiously as others do, yet one thing is 
true — friend and stranger alike is always 
welcome and cordially greeted at the Pol- 
ish home, humble though it may be. 

The alleged indifference to things poli- 
tical is not really an indifference at all, but 
rather a curious lack of success in the 
attainment of public offices. Of course, 
many high offices in the country, state, and 
city are held by Poles. But the proportion 
to the population is considerably below nor- 
mal. The cause is a certain failing of the 
people to realize the intricate technique of 
modern political machinery. Once a can- 
didate of theirs is proposed they will do 
all they can to back him even to the extent 
of overlooking, or at least being indifferent 
to, the rest of the offices to be filled. The 
result is inevitable: other nationalities, 
anticipating lack of support by the Poles, 
will in return offer none for the Polish can- 
didate. It is sad that such a lack of under- 
standing and of cooperation exists, for the 
Pole's nationality consciousness eventually 
brings on his own defeat. It is wrong to 
conclude therefore from the number of of- 
fices they hold that Poles are not interested 
in politics. Rather, they are almost too in- 
terested. 

The charge, extremely prevalent in the 
past, that Polish people do not know how 
to govern themselves, is gradually growing 
obsolete, due to the splendid showing the 
men of that nation have made as an in- 
dependent country since the end of the 
Great War. At the close of fourteen years 
of a most successful era of their history 



80 



& 

they have demonstrated to the world what 
they really can do in the way of bringing 
harmony and peace out of a maelstrom of 
discontent caused by more that a hundred 
and fifty years of oppression, tyranny, and 
despotism. Those who labor under the con- 
viction that the Poles are unable to govern 
themselves would do well to study the pro- 
gress these people have made since the re- 
establishment of their existence as an in- 
dependent nation. 

The Polish immigrant has been the ob- 
ject of considerable accusation on the part 
of certain Americans who assert that the 
Pole, once he settles here, immediately 
takes on an air of independence and self- 
sufficiency, and is almost immediately af- 
fected with the desire for making more 
money. His independence and self-suffi- 
ciency, strange though they may seem, are 
only natural, for he realizes the average 
American's dislike of the foreign immi- 
grant and justifiably tries to get along, not 
necessarily in spite of the American, but 
without his aid. And if the immigrant ris- 
ing into affluence, turn out to be less anx- 
ious to improve his mind than to make more 
and more money, that is a failing which — 
it is rumored — is not quite uncommon 
among the population of purely American 
descent. 

Morever, those who would assail the 
Polish immigrant in America apparently 
overlook the genuine contribution he makes 
to American civilization, among others 
being (as summarized by Dr. Roman Dy- 
boski in a recent address) a great variety 
of national temperament, character and 
mentality, the peasant's habit of sheer 
hard work and discipline, and his religion. 

Finally, the charge that the Pole's 
achievements in science, music, art, litera- 
ture, etc., are merely accidental and not 
representative of the people as a whole is 
no different than the charge that might be 
prof erred against men of any other nation- 
ality. If a nation produces a certain num- 



THE POLE IN AMERICA 



ber of exceptionally brilliant men and the 
vast majority of others she endows with 
but mediocre intellectualities, it is hardly 
justifiable to conclude that the achieve- 
ments of those more brilliant men do not 
mirror the whole nation. Perhaps one ex- 
planation of the origin of the charge lies 
in the fact that those who make it either do 
not appreciate the greatness of hundreds 
of others of that nation, of whom they have 
heard little or nothing, or else a natural 
patriotism on their own part causes them 
to boast of their own heroes and to blind 
themselves to some extent to the achieve- 
ments of men of other nations. Most people 
have heard of Pulaski, Kościuszko, Sobie- 
ski and Paderewski, and are led to believe 
that four or five is about the number of 
great men Poland has produced. Those who 
share the illusion of this idea would find it 
interesting and intellectually uplifting to 
study the lives and deeds of such men as 
Mickiewicz, Słowacki, Sniadecki, Lelewel, 
Jagiełło, Batory, Bolesław Wielki, Mieczy- 
sław, Skarga, Czartoryski, Krasiński, Ko- 
chanowski, Krasicki, Lenartowicz, Rey, 
Modjeska, Nering, Pol, Sienkiewicz, Rey- 
mont, Conrad, Prus, Twardowski, Zaleski, 
Curie-Sklodowska, Copernicus, Piłsudski, 
Styka, Dyboski, and countless others. 

Perhaps to the average American reader 
this list of names means nothing more than 
so many unpronounceables, and an appre- 
ciation of each individual's greatness is 
clouded by z's and s's. To go into detail 
showing just what each contributed to 
Poland and to the world of culture in 
general would tax both the patience of the 
reader and the confines of this volume. 

Happily, clearer understanding and ap- 
preciation of the Pole's position in Am- 
erica is on the increase. The men and wo- 
men of that foreign group are gradually 
clearing and removing the mistaken no- 
tions that other people were wont to enter- 
tain about them. The charges, so surrepti- 
tiously planned by people eager to gain 



81 



POLES IN AMERICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2fS 

their own ends, are slowly falling away and 
leaving clear the road to mutual friend- 
ship and peace between the Polish im- 
migrant in America and Americans them- 
selves. 

Poles are everywhere rising into prom- 
inence in politics, science and the profes- 
sions, and America seems to have begun 
to take them seriously, for recognition of 
their merits is no longer a hope and happy 
dream, but a realization. With the nation 
re-born in Europe, Poles in America have 
taken on a new confidence and hope that 
some day, soon, it will be as great a mark 



— >U 

of distinction for a person to say that he 
is a Pole as it is to say that he is an Amer- 
ican. 

Americans are a grateful people, and 
the Americans of Polish descent are no 
exception. The Poles have given America 
contributions characteristic of no other 
nation. America, in turn, has learned to 
appreciate the advantageous features of 
being a nation composed of various racial 
elements, and has at last turned its in- 
terest to a study of the factors that are 
important in this supremely important 
phenomenon of race and culture blending. 



♦:♦♦:♦ 



82 



Poland's Contribution in Art 

By Samuel Putnam 

[The folloiving is a lecture delivered before the Polish Arts Club of 
Chicago. It is reprinted, by permission, not only for its factual material, 
on the subject, but also for its very enlightened approach to the subject 
of the contribution of foreign nations to the melting pot of America. It 
appeared originally in the Chicago Society News. — Ed.] 



IT IS not, I assure you, merely with the 
intention of paying you the public 
speaker's usual pretty opening compliment 
that I begin by telling you I am very sin- 
cerely glad to be here this afternoon. I am, 
and have always been — ever since I can 
remember — intensely interested in the 
life, particularly the intellectual, cultural, 
spiritual — and artistic life, of other na- 
tions and other races than my own. The 
possession of such an interest has always 
appeared to me to be a badge of mental 
and moral vitality, if we may employ the 
word, "moral", in its larger, etymologic 
sense, as implying that expansion and 
growth of the spirit which comes from a 
knowledge of the mores, or the manners 
and customs, of other peoples in life, 
thought, and art. 

The French have a word which precisely 
describes this interest. They call it "curio- 
site". It is our word, "curiosity", only our 
word does not have quite all the meaning 
packed into it that the French have suc- 
ceeded in putting into theirs. The posses- 
sion of this curiosite is, I have found, a 
very common trait among Europeans. In- 
deed, it is, perhaps, their distinguished 
trait. And the lack of such a curiosity, in 
a very great degree, on the part of my 
own fellow-countrymen, for example, is, 
as I sense the matter, a grave reproach. 

In an older nation, such a condition 
would indicate a lack of vitality, a grow- 
ing in upon one's self and a deliberate 



walling-out of external influences such as 
characterized the Chinese and, for hun- 
dreds of years, the Japanese, even though 
these races had a culture of their own 
which they had brought to a very high 
degree of perfection. 

The American is too often inclined to 
lack this interest in the life, especially the 
higher life, of other nations. In his case, 
it is due, I believe, not to decadence — for 
that is out of the question ; we are not yet 
200 years old — but, rather, to immatur- 
ity, to a certain childish self-centeredness, 
self-sufficiency and self-complacency. In 
this respect, I am not, I fear, and have 
never been, exactly, a good American — 
a "one hundred percent American", if you 
choose, with a manifestation of the very 
quality I have been condemning, to call 
it that. 

We see this attitude carried to extremes 
in such infantile exhibitions as the Ku 
Klux Klan. The Klan and a number of 
other similar "one-hundred-percenters" 
are even endeavoring to enforce allegiance 
to "one language", as they say, meaning, 
of course, the English language. They are 
opposed, they loudly tell us, to the teach- 
ing of "foreign lingos" in our free and 
American public schools. 

That, needless to say, is reducing the 
thing to an absurdity. If any such "ideal" 
could be carried out — and, understand 
me, I put quotation marks around the word 
"ideal", when I use it in any such connec- 



83 




JOHN MATEJKO 
Painted by the artist himself 



84 



& 

tion as this — it would mean, not the pro- 
duction of a hundred percent American 
nation, but the ultimate reduction of that 
or any other nation which should be so 
foolish as to try the experiment in this, 
the twentieth century, to a less than half 
of one percent efficiency. It would mean 
the final extinction of the nation or race 
that adopted any such policy. 

Fortunately, the ideal of our Ku Klux 
brethren is quite as impracticable as are 
all the other shibboleths of these grown- 
up children who love to amuse themselves 
by parading around in white nightgowns 
to the light of bonfires. It simply cannot 
be done ; the time for any dream like that 
is past; we are living now in the day of 
the League of Nations or, at least, of a 
World Court — but we mustn't get into 
politics! 

For myself, as I started out to say, I have 
never been a good American, if this is what 
being a "good American" means. Person- 
ally, I do not believe that is what it means. 
Perhaps, I have my own definition of a 
good American. As a matter of fact, 
I have ; and I am going to try to give you 
that definition this afternoon, striving at 
the same time to show you what being 
a good American means, what it may be 
made to mean, to the foreign-comer to our 
shores, whether he belong to the immediate 
first, the second, or even the third genera- 
tion. 

For my own part, I agree on the cultural 
side with the Emperor Charles V, who, 
I believe it was, once remarked that "As 
many languages as a man knows, so many 
times is he a man." Every time I learn 
a new language, I always feel a very deep 
enrichment of my personal life; I feel as 
if I had discovered a new world or, at any 
rate, an entire new continent. And I like 
to know not merely the superficial aspect 
of this new country which I have just dis- 
covered. I like to settle down in it, live in 
it for a while and really come to know it, 
below the surface. I like to learn what its 



POLAND'S CONTRIBUTION IN ART 



2§S 

people are thinking and, above all, how 
they feel — for feeling is, after all, so 
vastly more important than thought in 
this world. I like to know what they are 
doing in literature, music, painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, drama — all the seven 
arts, whatever those seven may be. 

My own interest has come to center very 
largely in the graphic and plastic arts — 
the plastic arts, if you choose to employ 
one term which will serve to distinguish 
them from the other arts — painting and 
sculpture, in particular. I hope, however, 
that my interest is not limited to any one 
field. As to the plastic arts, I have only 
recently become interested in those of Po- 
land, the country which most of you here 
this afternoon claim as your own, at least 
by inheritance. I had known, of course, 
Poland's music, and I have become more 
and more familiar, of recent years, with 
that great literature which has sprung, 
and is still springing up in Poland — with 
the work of Ladislaus Reymont and other 
writers, including a number of the younger 
men. But my acquaintance with Polish 
painting is, as I have said, of compara- 
tively recent birth. I have made, during 
the past few weeks, an intensive study of 
Polish painting in the nineteenth century, 
and I have become more and more inter- 
ested of late, in that great art movement 
which, based upon the peasant theme, is 
springing up with such spontaneity and 
force in the great art schools of Warsaw, 
Cracow, and elsewhere. 



Before taking up, specifically, the ques- 
tion of Polish painting, I should like, if 
you will permit me, to go back and take 
up the line of thought with which we 
started — namely, the value of an intel- 
lectual, spiritual, and aesthetic under- 
standing between nations, an understand- 
ing in which, as I see it, the arts play so 
tremendous a role. I have given you, 
I hope, even though briefly, some idea of 



85 ] 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



2§S 

my idea of what being a good American 
means, from the native-born American's 
point of view. I should like now to discuss 
the same question from the point of view 
of the American of foreign birth or foreign 
descent. 

What can you, whom we Americans call, 
a trifle too glibly, the "foreign element " 
of what we term our "melting pot" — 
what can you bring to this same melting 
pot? For we must assume that you wish 
to bring, as well as to receive. That, it 
seems to me, is one of the great prevalent 
misconceptions on the part of both native 
and foreign-born, for which the native- 
born are to blame. We instill into the 
foreign-born citizen's mind the idea that 
it is America who brings all the gifts, that 
he is merely to receive. We teach him to 
forget, as speedily as possible, his native 
country, his native background, his native 
language, literature and arts. Even the 
use of his native tongue is discouraged. 
Learn English? Certainly. I believe that 
any one owes it to himself to learn the 
language of the land in which he proposes 
to spend the balance of his days. But does 
that mean that he must, of necessity, for- 
get and forego that other language which 
he learned from the cradle up? Person- 
ally, I do not believe so. I, for one, do not 
believe that is what being a good Amer- 
ican means. What, then, does it mean? 

To me, being a good American means 
bringing to this melting pot of ours the 
very best and finest national and racial 
gifts that you possess, tossing them into 
the pot, so to speak, but, at the same time, 
preserving them, being proud of them, 
saying: "See, America, these are the gifts 
we bring you." And America, if she is 
wise, will take those gifts; she will cherish 
them and be proud of them ; and the result 
will be a bigger, a more vital, a finer 
America, one to which both native-born 
and foreign-born will be proud to belong. 
It ought to mean, in time, truly the great- 
est nation in the world — and this from 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

no narrow jingoistic point of view — if 
only those marvelous ingredients which 
are cast into the melting pot are not melted 
down but are, rather, mixed and stirred 
in. This is the dream that I see. This is 
what being a good one hundred percent 
American means to me. 



But too frequently — only too frequently 

— this is not what happens. There is, 
I firmly believe, such a thing as becoming 
too good an American, if you know what 
I mean — or, rather, perhaps we should 
say, becoming a good American too quickly. 
That is the thing we want to avoid. The 
second generation, especially, is all too 
likely to be ashamed of its heritage; and 
so, we find the younger ones resorting to 
a species of camouflage, in an effort to 
disguise or to conceal the fact that its par- 
ents were foreign-born. 

Take the Italians, for example, simply 
for the reason that I happen to be more 
familiar with them. The Italians have a 
great past. In literature, they have Dante. 
Boccaccio, Tasso, Ariosto, Petrarch. In 
painting and sculpture, they have Michal- 
angelo, Raphael, Titian, Leonardo da Vinci 

— and how many others! We have much 
to learn, they have much to teach us from 
that past. Not only that, the Italians are 
an older race, with, in many respects, a 
far mellower and wiser civilization than 
ours. Why, even the hunky on the rail- 
road, who we so contemptuously refer to 
as the "dago" or the "wop" — even the 
hunky has a simple, homely proverb which 
is, in itself, a superb piece of social criti- 
cism. "America," he says, "donne senza 
colore, frutti senze sapore" — (America, 
women without color, fruits without fla- 
vor). Take that succulent proverb, you 
hundred-percenters, translate its spiritual 
implications into terms of citizenship, and 
you have a contribution. 

But what does the second generation 
give us? Do they give us anything of their 



86 



2§S 

literature or their art? Do they give us 
any of that deep social and spiritual criti- 
cism which would be so valuable? They 
do not. 

The boy and the girl, the young man 
and the young woman, are too keenly in- 
terested in becoming, as soon as possible, 
the typically American flapper and shiek. 
They are only too likely to become ashamed 
of the old folks. They do not want to know 
anything of their ancestral language, lit- 
erature, or art. They pride themselves on 
being "American." That, again, is what 
I mean by "camouflage." 



My acquaintance with Polish Americans 
is more limited, but I have been told the 
same condition prevails with them. Not 
long ago, I was admiring Polish handi- 
craft, that wonderful work which the Po- 
lish peasants produce, and I was told by 
a Polish-American gentleman that in many 
homes, these objects which are really 
works of art — such, for example, as your 
wonderful kilim — are shoved out as soon 
as possible to make way for bright and 
shiny new "American" furniture, in most 
cases flimsily made and utterly inartistic. 
That, it seems to me, is little less than a 
tragedy. 

It is with such considerations as these 
in view that I look upon your organization, 
the one represented here today, as a move 
in the right direction — in the direction 
of conserving the best of what the Polish 
race has to bring to America. It is a move 
toward that internationalism, that cultural 
cosmopolitanism which is' or should be the 
educated man's birthright, and which, at 
the same time, is by no means incompatible 
with a true, intelligent patriotism — for 
there is, I think, such a thing as an intel- 
ligent patriotism. Baudelaire, probably 
the greatest art critic, if not the greatest 
critic of the 19th century, in one of his 
essays speaks of "that divine grace of cos- 
mopolitanism." "I demand of every man," 



POLAND'S CONTRIBUTION IN ART 



2§S 

he says, "that he shall have thought a little 
and traveled a little." 

For, if the words are rightfully under- 
stood, thought is travel, and travel is 
thought. I have often wished that we 
might have here in Chicago a cosmopolitan 
club of some sort, not for any purpose of 
uplift or anything of the sort, but simply 
as a meeting place where the intelligent 
members of all races might gather, for 
the mutual intellectual and cultural ben- 
efits which they would gain. It may be 
a peculiar fact, but I always feel more at 
home with the European than I do with 
the American, simply because he is, I have 
found, more likely to possess that curiosity, 
that "divine grace" of which I have spoken. 
And so, you can see that I really mean it, 
when I tell you that I am glad to be with 
you this afternoon. 

The only danger, if you will permit me 
to say this, in such an organization as 
yours appears to me to be the possibility 
of its degenerating into a mere social af- 
fair, an excuse for a periodic get-together 
on the part of its members. This is too 
often the case, and when that happens, the 
organization may become not only futile, 
but actively harmful. We have in Chicago 
enough of such social organizations in the 
name of art. There would be no point in 
adding to the number of the stillborn. 

What then, one may ask, should be the 
object of a society such as vours? That 
object, it seems to me, should be to do all 
in your power to familiarize first vour- 
selves and then your fellow non-Polish 
descent American citizens with the gifts 
which Poland has to offer in all the arts 
— for I judge from the program which 
you have already initiated that it is your 
purpose to devote your attention not to 
any one art but to all. 



But, some one may say, art is no longer 
national; it has become, or is fast becom- 
ing, international. This may be, and 



POLES IN AMERICA 



doubtless is, more or less, true. There may 
be something of a paradox here, but that 
paradox, like all paradoxes, can be solved. 
Indeed, I sometimes think that the para- 
dox is the highest form of truth, and that 
the philosopher might take as his motto: 
first resolve the problem into a paradox; 
then solve the paradox. 

Art today is at once national and inter- 
national. It is international in the sense 
that the old narrow barriers have been 
broken down and that a national painting- 
such as that which once flourished in Hol- 
land, for example, with its "Dutch inter- 
iors", in Spain or in Italy, is now prac- 
tically impossible. It is international to 
day in the sense that Paris is the real cap • 
ital of the painting world, as Rome, Flor- 
ence, and Madrid once were. If Paris is 
the art capital, it is for the reason the 
French art happens to be the best art at 
the present time. And here, it is interest- 
ing to note that France is the only country 
todav which may be said really to possess 
a national school, a national painting. This 
is significant. The French national school 
has become, in a manner, the international 
school. 

Yes, art is more international than i! 
ever was before, but it remains, neverthe- 
less, intensely national and racial. I re- 
call once hearing John Alden Carpenter, 
our Chicago composer, remark that, as he 
saw it, the three prime requisites of every 
work of art were: first, that it should be 
the natural outgrowth of tradition of the 
past; second, that it should be of its age; 
and third, that it should be deeply rooted 
in its native soil. 

Roots, as a matter of fact, individual, 
racial, and national, are something we 
could not escape if we would. And it is 
a significant fact that the world's great- 
est artists are those who have sunk their 
roots deepest into the soil of their birth. 
One might mention by way of example, 
the great English novelist, perhaps the 
greatest living artist in words, Thomas 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— agg 

Hardy. Hardy, in his art, scarcely stirs 
outside his own little shire or county of 
Wessex. The expatriate, the man without 
a country, is, it is to be noted, almost in- 
variably sterile to a degree. That was the 
trouble with Henry James, to take the case 
of an American writer, and with Sargeant, 
to take an American painter. Whistler, 
of course, was a great artist, but even 
transplanted, he remained to a remark- 
able degree an American, and it is inter- 
esting to speculate as to what his develop- 
ment would have been, had he remained 
in America. 



So, don't be afraid, then, of being na- 
tional in your appreciations of art. And, 
moreover, don't be ashamed if your own 
native or near-native country has, per- 
haps, not so much to show in the field of 
any one particular art as have other coun- 
tries. It is no disgrace to say that a na- 
tion or a race has no national or racial 
art. There is, in such a case, almost al- 
ways a very good reason. If there was 
for centuries no Jewish painting, it was 
on account of the second commandment, 
the commandment interdicting the making 
of graven images. There was no Swedish 
painting up to the 16th century, but today 
there is a very distinct Scandinavian, even 
an Icelandic school. Indeed, the criticism 
now is that all Scandinavian painters paint 
alike. There is, today, no Scotch painting 
as a national manifestation. It has been 
denied even that there is a British school. 
British painters, some say, but no British 
painting. Just as there were for years, 
Polish painters and yet, no painting that 
might be termed Polish. There was an 
Italian painting, once, and a Spanish 
painting, but there is no national art in 
either of these peninsulas today. 

Here we may remark, parenthetically, 
that there is no absolute and crying need 
for an artist to be this or that in his work. 
The first and principal thing is that his 



M 

work should be good, that it should be art. 
Nevertheless, as has been said, I do not 
believe the artist any more than any other 
human being, can escape his roots. The 
better, the deeper, and more sincere that 
work is, the more his national or racial 
background is likely to creep out. And, 
just as in the case of contemporary French 
art, art is always most vital, most likely 
to become international and of the world, 
when it is most truly national. 



As to painting in Poland, it did not 
really begin to make its appearance as a 
national phenomenon until the end of the 
nineteenth century, in the year 1897, to 
be exact, with the foundation of "Sztuka", 
or the Society of Polish Artists. Never- 
theless there was painting in Poland many 
hundreds of years earlier. As far back 
as the fifteenth century, Poland produced 
a master sculptor in Wit Stwosz, a friend 
of the great astronomer, Copernicus. There 
are records of a meeting between Stwosz 
and Copernicus in the city of Cracow, the 
ancient art capital of Poland. 

Among early Polish painters, one might 
mention : 



POLAND'S CONTRIBUTION IN ART 



Among the important names one should 
mention in this period, before the forma- 
tion of Sztuka in 1897, are those of Grott- 
ger and Matejko. Grottger, born in 1837 
and dying in 1867, expressed Polish sen- 
timent at the time of the last insurrec- 
tion, while Matejko is doubtless well known 
to you all as the great historical painter, 
coming after the insurrection, who de- 
picted Poland's past and who has been re- 
ferred to as the "Polish Michelangelo." 

There was a time, about the end of the 
eighteenth century, when it seemed that 
Poland was developing a national art, and 
historians of art sometimes refer to this 
as the Stanislaus-Auguste period, or at 
least they have thought they could dis- 
tinguish a "Stanislaus-Auguste" style. 
This, however, coming just before the dis- 
memberment and partition of Poland, was 
no more than a flicker. 

Up to the end of the eighteenth century, 
art, by the constitution of the Polish state, 
had been definitely relegated to the com- 
mon people, which means the peasantry. 
It was Poland's political troubles, the sad 
state of the country, divided as it was be- 
tween Russia on the one hand and Ger- 
many and Austria on the other, which re- 
tarded the development of a Polish art. 
Polish artists, when they did appear, had 
to go, usually, to Germany or Austria to 
study and exhibit. This had a bad effect 
on their art, for the reason that it sub- 
jected them to the influence of the Ger- 
manic school in painting, which is not the 
best in the world. What taste of true mod- 
ernism they got was through the Germanic 
filter, coming from the school headed by 
Max Lieberman, who at the best remained 
an impressionist and the disciple of Manet. 
When they exhibited, too, Polish artists 
were compelled to surrender their national 
identity. Officially, there was no such 
country as Poland, and so, they had to 
appear as Russian, German or Austrian 
artists. 



Smuglewicz 


1745-1807 


Oleskiewicz 


1777-1830 


Orłowski 


1777-1832 


Stachowicz 


1768-1835 


Stattler 


1800-1882 


Suchodolski 


1797-1875 


Michałowski 


1800-1855 


Rodakowski 


1832-1894 


Kaplinski 


1826-1873 


Kossak 


1824-1906 


Luszczkiewicz 


1828-1906 


Gerson 


1831-1901 


Chlebowski 


1835-1884 



Among the names which we find in Po- 
lish painting at the end of the 19th cen- 
tury are: Siemiradzki, Brandt, Gierymski, 
Bilińska, Pochwalski, Podkowinski, Lentz, 
Zmurko, Stachiewicz, and Pruszkowski. 



89 



POLES IN AMERICA 



This, however, had one good effect. It 
made the young artist, who was at the 
same time a patriot, strive to express the 
Polish character of his art in his painting 
and so led to the development of a na- 
tional painting. 

Meanwhile the true flame of art was 
being preserved by the peasants, that class 
which is the backbone and sinew of any 
nation. Simple and unspoiled artisans, 
they were often very fine artists. 

If Poland's political ills have prevented 
her from conceiving and creating a style 
— proper to herself, the genius of the race 
has, nevertheless, had play in the only 
place it could express itself, that is, in 
popular art — that art where the profound 
soul of a country lives and sings, where 
forms are born spontaneously, for the sole 
pleasure of the eyes far from the too-often 
damnable theories of aesthetes. 

It is, then, to those treasures to be found 
in the peasant's mountain hut — to wood 
carvings, ceramics, embroideries and naive 
paintings — it is to such sources as these 
that Poland is turning today in her effort 
to create a national art. And Poland ought 
to have much to offer the world. Situated 
as she is between the East and the West, 
she may turn to the Occident for her in- 
tellectual point of view but it is from the 
near Orient that she draws her taste for 
a barbaric and decorative splendor. 

Decoration has been the keynote to Po- 
lish art in the past, and it is on this mo- 
tive, the genuine peasant theme, that the 
new art is being built. This new art really 
begins with the organization of Sztuka. 
The formation of this society marks the 
end of the Germanic and the beginning of 
the modern French influence. The former, 
the Germanic influence, was a bad one, 
for the reason that it led usually to paint- 
ing with a thesis symbolic, historic, anec- 
dotal painting, etc. This accounts for the 
great popularity of these themes in Polish 
painting of the nineteenth century. From 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Paris came a new motive — a more purely 
artistic, certainly a more modern one. 

Much of this influence came from Cheł- 
miński, who was born in 1850 and died in 
1914. He was a poet of the brush, a land- 
scapist and an extremely sensitive artist. 
He worked, by preference, in Paris, where 
were to be found at the same time other 
young Polish painters including Stanisław- 
ski, Wyspiański, Mehoffer, Axentowicz, 
and the sculptor Laszczka. These were all 
students from the Cracow academy. From 
Chełmiński and his associates came the 
idea of Sztuka, though the real organizer, 
creator and moving spirit was Stanisław- 
ski. Other founders who should be men- 
tioned, all of whom, by the way, are, I be- 
lieve, still living, were Fałat, Malczewski, 
Piotrowski, Tetmajer, and Wyczolkowski. 

At this time, Cracow was the intellectual 
and artistic capital of Poland. In 1887, 
Falat, who was a brilliant aquarellist, be- 
came director of the Academy of Fine Arts 
of Cracow. His first step was to call the 
young artists just mentioned from Paris 
to become professors in the Cracow school. 

The principal founder of Sztuka was, 
as has been stated, Stanisławski. Sztuka 
now [1933] is more than thirty years old. 
During the three decades of its existence, 
it has performed an invaluable service to 
the cause of Polish art — more, probably, 
than is ordinarily to be expected of any 
organization. In this respect, it can only 
be compared, perhaps, with the Society 
of Independent Artists in France. Today, 
it is true, some of the younger men are 
denying it, but that always happens; that 
is one of the privileges of forward-looking 
youth. At least seven years of the life of 
the society fell within the period of war. 
That is one fact to be taken into consider- 
ation. In view of that fact, it has accom- 
plished wonderful results. 

These results were shown in the recent 
exposition of decorative and industrial arts 
in Paris. There, the Polish exhibit made 
the most smashing impression of any. It 



90 



2§s 

was, indeed, according to report, prac- 
tically the only one that did stand out. 
Marvelous progress was displayed, parti- 
cularly, in the development of a national 
decorative art, based on the peasant mo- 
tive. This new art, which has sprung up 
during the night of war and the struggle 
for political freedom, comes out of the 
schools of Cracow and Warsaw, the old 
and the new, the political and the intel- 
lectual capitals of Poland. Cracow was 
the ancient center of artistic life, but its 
place is now being disputed by Warsaw. 
In these cities, remarkable courses of in- 
struction are being given, especially in the 
school at Cracow, under the direction of 
Prof. Karl Homolacs. 



All this may well give us a very real 
hope that Poland at last is developing a 
truly national art of its own. Let me urge 
you, the members of the Polish Arts Club 
of Chicago, not only to familiarize your- 
selves with the history of Polish art in the 
past, but to keep abreast as well as you 
can with the new developments. They are 
likely to be both interesting and import- 
ant. Poland, after all, has no more than 
begun to utter its word in paint. The Po- 
lish artist today, for the first time, finds 
a free and undismembered Polish state. 
The barriers at last are down, and he is 
free to express himself in his own terms 
and to be just as Polish as he likes. How 
Polish will he be? Suppose we wait and 
see. 

Meanwhile, there are things right here 
in Chicago to which such an organization 
as yours well might turn its hand. One 
of your objectives, not to say one of your 
duties, should be, it seems to me, the en- 
couragement of any Polish artist whom 
you may find close to home. You have one 
Polish painter here in the city of whose 
work I propose to see more within a very 
short time. I refer to Mr. Rekucki. 



POLAND'S CONTRIBUTION IN ART 



Then, there is Miss Salcia Bahnc, who 
is, many of us believe, the most important 
artist now working in Chicago. She is, 
I believe, the only painter of more than 
local proportions whom we are sure of be- 
ing able to call our own. Miss Bahnc is, 
as I have said before, nothing if not Po- 
lish in her art. You will also find a great 
deal more than that. Miss Bahnc is just 
beginning to come to the full maturity of 
her powers. She is going to do big things 
within the next ten years. Watch her and, 
more, help her all you can, in any way you 
can. As to how you might help her, I will 
leave that to your judgment. 

There is one point I would make in 
closing, and that is one which takes us 
back to our starting point. I have urged 
you to be proud of your artistic heritage. 
I would urge you also, in accepting that 
heritage which we native-born Americans 
have to offer you, not to surrender your 
right — for it is a right — to criticism. 
Don't be afraid to criticise either Amer- 
ican life or American art. I am one of 
those who believe that criticism, when criti- 
cism means speaking the truth at all costs, 
is always valuable ; and I also believe that 
what this country, and Chicago as much 
as any part of it, needs above all things 
is just a little sincere honest-to-God fear- 
less criticism of this sort. Don't be misled 
by or become one of the Pollyanna chorus. 
The Pollyannas, young and old, male and 
female, those who go about interminably 
preaching their silly, childish gospel of un- 
diluted sweetness and light, are the worst 
enemies Chicago and America has today. 

It is all right to talk about our "wealth 
of native talent," but if that phrase is a 
living lie, then whoever utters the state- 
ment is just a plain liar and nothing else. 
The true good citizen and good American 
is the one who, realizing the lack or poverty 
of native talent, goes out to do what he 
may to foster the growth of such a talent. 
That, once more, is what I understand by 



91] 



*!*- 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



intelligent patriotism, and that, as I view 
the matter, is one of the best services such 
an organization as yours could possibly 
render this or any community. 

In conclusion, I want to thank you for 
inviting me here to talk to you this after- 
noon. It has been a very real and great 
pleasure and will remain one of the occa- 



— 2§S 

sions of my life to which I shall look back 
with pride. I have a vast respect for that 
great little nation, the long-suffering Po- 
land of old, and I can only hope for her 
that her artistic history of the future will 
be as brilliant as has been her political 
history and her glorious fight for freedom 
in the past. 



♦>♦:♦ 



92 



Poles and Their Aptitude to American Politics 



By M.S. SZYMCZAK 



OF the various racial elements which 
enter into the making of this nation, 
the Polish element, with many exceptions, 
must be considered among the latest. The 
immigrants from Western and Northern 
Europe preceded them. The Irish emi- 
grated en masse during the Famines of 
the 40's; the Germans emigrated during 
and after the Revolution of 1838 and the 
Scandinavians, being seafaring people, 
probably emigrated because of their spirit 
of adventure. Together with the Bohem- 
ians, they were well established, economic- 
ally, and exerted considerable influence, 
politically, before the Poles began to ar- 
rive in large bodies. Though a great ma- 
jority of them were denied the right of 
suffrage at home by the partitioning pow- 
ers which ruled their native land, they 
readily adapted themselves to their new 
environment and eagerly adopted Amer- 
ican citizenship. The interest of the first 
Polish settlers in public affairs seemed to 
be limited to casting their ballot for the 
most desirable candidates for office at the 
general elections. They did not at that 
time seek public office. Their energies 
appear to have been devoted to providing 
homes for their families, organizing pa- 
rishes and establishing schools for their 
children. 

The history of the City of Chicago, 
which always has had the largest Polish- 
American population in America, is typical 
of all other cities in the United States in 
which the Poles settled in large bodies. It 
was not until late in the 70's that Captain 
Peter Kiolbassa, a veteran of the Civil 
War, was elected a member to the Legis- 
lature of the State of Illinois. He was 



the first of Polish extraction of any prom- 
inence to be elected to public office in Chi- 
cago. During the following decade, Stan- 
ley Kunz was elected to the Legislature 
and John Dahlman an alderman. In the 
nineties we find such names as August J. 
Kowalski, Stanley Kunz, John F. Smulski 
and few others holding the office of Alder- 
men of Chicago. In 1891, Captain Peter 
Kiolbassa was elected City Treasurer. Pre- 
vious to his election the interest on public 
funds was the private prerequisite of the 
holder of the office. Mr. Kiolbassa was 
the first City Treasurer to turn over to 
the City of Chicago all the interest earned 
on public funds. He died a poor man. 
Max A. Drezmal in 1894 was appointed 
a member of the Board of Education. In 
1903 Mr. John F. Smulski was elected 
City Attorney of Chicago and re-elected 
in 1905 and held this office until elected 
in 1906 State Treasurer of Illinois. 
He discharged the duties of these offices 
in a manner which reflected great credit 
upon him and won the praise of the public. 
Following the precedent established by 
Captain Kiolbassa, he was the first State 
Treasurer to turn over to the State all the 
interest on State Funds. During this de- 
cade Stanley Kunz served one term as 
state Senator and John Derpa and John 
M. Nowicki were aldermen. It was not 
until the administration of President 
Woodrow Wilson that the American citi- 
zens of Polish ancestry took a more con- 
spicious part in public life. Frank W. 
Koraleski was elected a member of the 
Board of Assessors; Frank P. Danish, 
Clerk of the Municipal Court; Edmund 
K. Jarecki, Alderman and Municipal Court 



93 ] 



& 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— $s 

elected to that office and the Hon. Leo Ko- 
cialkowski. Anthony Czarnecki, a veter- 
an in the ranks of Republican workers is 
the Federal Collector of Customs. 

This much for Chicago and Illinois. 

The Polish American voters in Milwau- 
kee have for more than forty years played 
an importatnt part in local politics. They 
have filled many important positions. The 
first congressman of Polish descent came 
from that city. He was the Hon. J. C. 
Kłeczka, who is now acting as a Judge of 
a Court of Record of Milwaukee County. 
For over two decades the office of City 
Comptroller has been continuously filled 
by the Hon. Louis Kotecki. There is no 
doubt that the present highly creditable 
condition of that city's treasury is due to 
his careful and wise administration of that 
office. Captain Piasecki is the postmaster 
of the city. In addition there is John C. 
Kłeczka, a Circuit Judge; Thaddeus J. 
Pruss, Civil Judge; Frank A. Krawczak, 
City Clerk; Dr. Frank J. Schultz, Coroner; 
Peter Brzonkala, Deputy Coroner; Leon 
M. Gurda, Building Inspector; Joseph L. 
Bednarek, Assistant City Attorney; A. P. 
Gawroński, Assistant District Attorney; 
John L. Grunwald, Mayor's Secretary; 
Alois Nowicki, Deputy County Auditor; 
Anthony Kempa j, Deputy Registrar of 
Probate; Mrs. A. Jackowska Peterson, 
City Civil Service Commission; Sylvester 
Koszewski, County Civil Service Commis- 
sion; Walter P. Celichowski, Member 
Board of Trustees of County Institutions ; 
Joseph Michalski, Supervisor; Albert Ja- 
nicki, alderman; Frank Boncel, alderman; 
John A. Schultz, alderman ; Felix Lassa, 
alderman ; Mrs. Mary Krysiak, Assembly- 
woman; Martin Fronzkowiak, Assembly- 
man; Max J. Golasinski, Assemblyman; 
Leonard A. Fons and Walter Polakowski, 
Senators; John Banachowicz, member Fire 
and Police Commission; Frank Muschan- 
ski, Member of the Library Board; Leon 
S. Kosak, Jury Commissioner; Stanley E. 
Piasecki, Manager of County Airport; 



Judge; Joseph LaBuy, Municipal Court 
Judge for two terms; Albert Nowak and 
Stanley Kuflewski, County Commission- 
ers. Among the appointees we find Frank 
Rydzewski and Anthony Czarnecki, elec- 
tion commissioners; N. L. Piotrowski, City 
Attorney; John Prystalski, Assistant Cor- 
poration Counsel and later Assistant 
States Attorney; Julius F. Śmietanka, 
Member of the Board of Education, and 
later Federal Collector of Internal Reve- 
nue. 

Since that time, this element has steadi- 
ly risen in political power and influence. 
On the bench we have had the Hon. Ed- 
mund K. Jarecki, elected County Judge 
three times; the Hon. Peter Schwaba, 
Judge of the Municipal Court and now 
Judge of the Superior Court; Hon. John 
Prystalski, Chief Justice of the Criminal 
Court; Hon. Stanley Klarkowski, Judge of 
the Circuit Court; Hon. Edward Scheffler 
and Hon. Michael G. Kasper, Judges of 
the Municipal Court. The office of the 
Clerk of the Supreme Court of Illinois is 
held by Adam Bloch, while Frank V. Zin- 
tak is the Clerk of the Superior Court of 
Cook County, and Walter LaBuy is serv- 
ing as County Commissioner. Many hold 
appointive offices — such as, Miss A. E. 
Napieralski, County Civil Service Commis- 
sioner; Mr. B. J. Majewski, Member of the 
Chicago Public Library Board; Mr. Paul 
Drzymalski, Member of the Board of Edu- 
cation; Mr. Frank Bobrytzke, Member of 
the Lincoln Park Board. The writer has 
been honored by the present and late city 
administrations with the office of City 
Comptroller. A. M. Śmietanka is City At- 
torney. Joseph Lisack is a member of 
the Illinois Industrial Commission; Max 
A. Drezmal, a member of the Illinois Board 
of Paroles; Joseph Nowicki, State Fac- 
tory Inspector, etc. 

In the field of national politics in Chi- 
cago there are at present two congressmen, 
the Hon. Leonard Schuetz, who was twice 



94 



POLES AND THEIR APTITUDE TO AMERICAN POLITICS 



Arthur Czerwiński, Calendar Clerk Civil 
Court; John Wesołowski, Captain of Po- 
lice; Louis Mazurek, Captain of Sheriff's 
Office; Joseph Domachowski, Chief Moth- 
er's Pension Fund; Stanley Jewasinski, 
Deputy Clerk Civil Court; Dr. W. Zmyś- 
lony, County Physician; Albert J. Bana- 
szynski, Circuit Court Clerk; B. A. L. 
Czerwiński, Member of County Appraisal 
Committee ; Paul Gurda, Lieutenant of Po- 
lice; Anthony Rosołek, Park Commissio- 
ner; Stanley Schultz, Member of School 
Board; John Westfahl, Member of School 
Board; B. E. Hibner, Congressman's Sec- 
retary; as well as many others. 

In Detroit, Polish American citizens 
have made remarkable political progress. 
They boast of three congressmen, the Hon. 
George C. Sadowski, the Hon. John Lesin- 
ski, and the Hon. John Dingell. Quite 
a number of state and county positions 
are now held by them. The city of Ham- 
tramck, Michigan, has many public of- 
ficials of Polish extraction. 

In the state of Washington a descendant 
of Poland, the Hon. Marion A. Zionchek 
was elected to Congress, while the Hon. 
Frank Piekarski of Pittsburgh was re- 
cently appointed by Governor Pinchot of 



2§S 

Pennsylvania, County Judge of Allegheny 
County. 

I regret that the limited space at my dis- 
posal will not permit me to enumerate all 
other political successes of voters of Polish 
descent for the good of these United States. 
Suffice it to say that their political influ- 
ence is steadily growing and is felt over a 
wider and ever-increasing area, in states 
such as New York, Pennsylvania, Connec- 
ticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jer- 
sey, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, 
in fact, in almost every state of the union. 
Their total vote is estimated at more than 
2,000,000 in the country and about 200,000 
in Chicago and its metropolitan area. 
Their spirit is harmonious — their ideal is 
Americanism — their purpose is to serve as 
a whole for the good of all the elements 
constituting the citizenry of the United 
States. 

One of the most encouraging signs of 
the times is the ever-increasing interest 
which the young people, of both sexes, of 
Polish descent are taking in public affairs 
and in politics. They realize the neces- 
sity of thorough organization, proper pol- 
itical guidance, and a clean, and efficient 
administration. 



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Poland's Intellectual Contribution 

By Anthony J. Zieliński 



REPUBLICANISM spells political ad- 
vancement; it denotes intellectual 
progress; it bespeaks a higher degree of 
civilization. A republican government has 
ever betokened a higher intellectual plane 
of the people possessing it. A republic be- 
longs to the people. A republican people 
take an active interest in the government. 
This they cannot do without having 
reached a certain mark in intellectual prog- 
ress. A republic supposes civilization. "As 
despotism," says Moltke, (in his "Account 
of Affairs and of the Social Conditions of 
Poland"), "is the only form of government 
for barbarians, so republicanism is the 
only form of government for people highly 
civilized, for it connotes activity of the 
people in the government and capability 
which follows education." 

Poland was a republic when other na- 
tions were rigid monarchies. Poland had 
a relatively perfect system of national re- 
presentation which was in conformity with 
her advanced political development. Po- 
land had a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives as early as the latter part of 
the fourteenth century. She had her minor 
diets where representatives were chosen. 
Already at that early period the Polish 
government presented the closest proto- 
type of the American government. It 
would be inconsistent to charge Poland 
with intellectual inability and admit her 
institutions which suppose high civiliza- 
tion. In the time of the Partitions Poland 
effected a political reform which aston- 
ished the world for its vigorous intellect- 
uality. 



Poland has not only given birth to indi- 
viduals such as won enviable fame in every 
department of science, and have proven 
constructive builders of civilization, but 
even during the time of her Partitions, in- 
stituted the commission of education, the 
first of its kind in Europe. These were no 
ordinary marks by which Poland displayed 
her intellectual strength. The intellectual 
vitality of the Poles, however, is classically 
brought out in their life after the Parti- 
tions. To successfully resist such dena- 
tionalization measures as the Poles have 
resisted chiefly through their spiritual and 
intellectual vigor, to create a literature 
such as they have created after the fall of 
their country, and when the enemy had 
taken every measure to destroy them, to 
give birth, in their crucial hour, to the 
world's foremost geniuses of the age — 
was to show their intellectual vigor and 
their right to self-government — it was to 
display their vitality which shall ever keep 
tnem immune from destruction from with- 
out. 

Had Poland occupied the territory 
France, Spain, or Southern Germany 
occupy, she would have contributed to the 
early civilization not less than did they. 
Poland, however, had the misfortune to be 
too far away from the center of civiliza- 
tion and too near the Eastern barbarians 
who made constant irruptions into Poland, 
and who naturally made the Poles devote 
their time to warfare rather than to intel- 
lectual pursuits. Today's civilization is the 
ancient civilization of Greece and Rome, 
Christianized by the Church. Rome was its 



97 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 

center. Naturally people who were nearer 
its center, or people over whom the Roman 
dominion had once extended and naturally 
left its imprint of higher civilization, re- 
ceived it sooner than those who were far- 
ther removed from it. Italy, Southern Ger- 
many, France, and Spain, were the first 
beneficiaries of that civilization which only 
at a later period was to embrace Poland, 
and still later, Northern Germany, Prus- 
sia, and Lithuania. Poland was not only 
too far from the center of the Roman, but 
likewise the Byzantine, civilization which 
had never reached Poland. 

While other countries, then, had de- 
veloped powerful organizations, while Ger- 
many produced the immortal personage, 
Charlemagne, and was the fortunate re- 
cipient of the full benefit which resulted 
from the civilization he gave, Poland was 
still a country where legends were told and 
primitive civilization obtained. 

The open boundaries of Poland brought 
many a hurt and national misfortune to 
the Poles. Poland was left unprotected by 
nature. Her boundaries offered no na- 
tural barrier to hinder the enemy from in- 
vading and ravaging the country. Poland's 
geographical situation was extremely hurt- 
ful to her civilization. No other country 
was so exposed to the Huns and the Tar- 
tars, the Turks and the Muscovites, as was 
Poland. Self-preservation was the all-im- 
portant question of the Poles particularly 
from the ninth up to the sixteenth century. 
Education and learning, which admirably 
developed at a later period, were for a long 
time constantly interfered with by the 
ceaseless incursions of the Asiatic hordes. 
It is known that Poland took no part in 
the Crusades as she had her crusades right 
at her Eastern door. She had to stay at 
home to keep back the barbarous East from 
invading the West, while Western Knight- 
hood battled for the Holy Land. "Europe 
forgetful, heedless," says Michalet, "no 



— 2|S 

more appears to know the supreme danger 
which threatened it in the last decades of 
the Middle Ages and from which it was 
saved." 

No justice can be done to the early in- 
tellectual progress of Poland without re- 
calling her territorial position, which had 
been altogether ungenial to the cultivation 
of letters. Poland appeared late as a na- 
tion, and the Poles were too much taken 
up with defensive wars to have any great 
leisure to devote themselves to writing. 
"When Europe," says Michalet, "chattered 
idly, disputed over Indulgences, lost itself 
in subtleties, these heroic guardians were 
protecting it with lances. In order that the 
women of France and Germany might 
peacefully spin their distaff and their men 
study their theology, the Poles, keeping 
sentry, only a step from the barbarians, 
were on the watch, saber in hand. If per- 
chance they fell asleep, their bodies would 
remain at the post, their heads would go 
to the Turkish camp." 

"Poland," says Marius Ary Leblong, "at 
all times had to be maintained in arms 
while others had plenty of leisure for de- 
velopment; through historic necessity she 
remained well after the Middle Ages a 
chivalrous nation of Knight-errants who so 
valiantly kept watch in the face of Eastern 
anti-Christian barbarians that she could 
in a noble presumption, command the re- 
spect of Europe, as she guarded the indi- 
vidualism of her heroic warriors." To 
ward off the East from the West was Po- 
land's principal mission, and she faithfully 
fulfilled it at the expense of her intellectual 
progress. 

When Dr. James J. Walsh in his "Thir- 
teenth, Greatest of Centuries," says: "Cas- 
imir, besides giving laws to his people, al- 
so founded a university for them and in 
every way encouraged the development of 
such progress as would make his subjects 
intelligently realize their own rights and 



98 



2§S 

maintain them, apparently foreseeing that 
thus the king would be better able to 
strengthen himself against the enemies 
that surrounded him in Central Europe," 
he outlined both the early intellectual en- 
deavors of Poland, and the adverse circum- 
stances under which that country labored 
from the very start. 

Still, Poland did her share. While Eng- 
land had her Oxford; while France as- 
tounded the world with her Paris, Poland 
already possessed her Krakow. 'The 
Poles," says Van Norman ("Poland the 
Knight Among the Nations"), "owe the 
career and great achievements of many of 
their foremost men to the venerable Jagiel- 
lonian University. One of its graduates, 
the most illustrious in half of a thousand 
years, belongs to the world . . . Poland has 
developed, cultured and civilized, long be- 
fore the three-headed dragon appeared, 
and she was weary of waiting for her 
rather uncouth neighbors to catch up with 
her intellectually, socially and in almost 
all the other arts of civilization — the poli- 
ter arts ... It was the University of Kra- 
kow that meant to Central Europe what 
Paris meant to France and Oxford to Eng- 
land. At that time there were but a few 
universities in Europe, and it was the Uni- 
versity of Krakow that ever since its foun- 
dation by Casimir the Great in 1364 proved 
to be the main nursery of intellectual out- 
growth and inspiration in that part of 
Europe." 

In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fif- 
teenth centuries, despite her geographical 
drawbacks, Poland displays an intellectual 
progress that is relatively conspicuous. As 
far back as the twelfth century, Poland 
possessed well regulated schools attached 
to her many churches and cathedrals. 
Many of them became famous. They were 
generally maintained by the Church. At 
that period Poland fostered learning by 
establishing schools and founding the uni- 



POLAND'S INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION 



& 

versity. She gave birth, in the 13th century, 
to men like Gallus and Martinus Polonus. 
They were the first representatives of the 
Polish literature, who rose to high prom- 
inence in the then world of letters. Mar- 
tius Polonus' chronicle of the Popes and 
Emperors was considered a famous book, 
and was extensively printed three hundred 
years after it had been first published. 
A noted literateur was Vincent Kadłubek, 
bishop of Czarnków and archbishop of 
Gnesen, who won fame for his political 
writings. Others became famous for their 
literary achievements, as Długosz, the cele- 
brated historian and John Ostroróg, who 
achieved remarkable success in political 
science. Another was Zbigniew Oleśnicki. 
He was a scholar by excellence. Versed in 
political science, he was a leading states- 
man. A master of literature, he raised the 
standard of Polish learning and left his 
influence upon the literature of Europe. 
He brought to Poland works of ancient 
authors, invited noted professors to the 
University and encouraged education in 
a thitherto unprecedented way. 

The sixteenth century was a century of 
scientific movements. It produced the 
greatest scientists. Nearly every leading 
nation claims one or few eminent scholars 
in that movement. Poland did her best 
keeping abreast with every constructive 
movement that was set on foot in Europe. 
While other countries laid claim to such 
men as Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, and New- 
ton, Poland produced her Copernicus, the 
astronomer by excellence. 

It was this noted astronomical reformer 
who definitely placed the earth among the 
solar planets, and who by his celebrated 
work, De Orbium Coelestrium Revolutio- 
nibus, revolutionized the whole science of 
astronomy by building a new and solid 
foundation for modern astronomical stu- 
dies upon which they firmly rest today. 
Copernicus was a native of Poland ; Brud- 



99 



POLES IX AMERICA 



zewski was his professor, and the Uni- 
versity of Krakow his Alma Mater. Co- 
pernicus was the most illustrious, but not 
the only representative of mathematics and 
astronomy in Poland at the epoch of the 
Humanities. Had Poland no other scholar 
but Copernicus, no other institution of 
learning than the University of Krakow, 
she would be entitled to be counted with 
the intellectual nations in the world. Po- 
land could well afford to discard all her 
scholars of the sixteenth and every other 
century but Copernicus, and present him 
to the world as an exponent of her culture 
and learning. 

The Reformation produced in Poland, 
as in other countries, many noted eccle- 
siastical writers and controversialists. The 
best known among them were Wujek, the 
translator of the Bible into Polish; Kro- 
mer, and Hosius, who became famous both 
for his work "Confessions of Christian 
Faith" and because he was chosen to pre- 
side at the Council of Trent. At this time, 
too, flourished the great Polish Jesuit 
Skarga, the champion of Polish patriotism 
and literature. 

The Polish literature and civilization of 
the sixteenth century developed under a 
four-fold impetus: the political movement 
of the early development of the Polish de- 
mocracy ; the scientific movement ; the Re- 
formation; and, particularly, Humanism, 
of which Poland became a virile and re- 
sourceful participant. The nation of Mic- 
kiewicz and Sienkiewicz kept abreast with 
other nations despite geographical disad- 
vantages, along the line of intellectual 
progress. The success it achieved in the 
time of the humanistic movement bore 
evidence of an enlightened people, no less 
so than did similar success, achieved by 
neighboring nations, manifest their intel- 
lectual aptness. 

The University of Krakow had already 
for a length of time attracted students 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2|S 

from foreign lands and possessed such 
noted theologians as John Kanty, Nicholas 
of Błonia, Boner, and such philosophers as 
John of Glogow; lawyers, such as John 
Edogt, Benedict Hesse, and astronomers 
such as Adalbert of Brudzewo and Coper- 
nicus. But it was not until the age of the 
Humanities that it rose to an international 
prominence. Professors from foreign 
countries considered it an honor to occupy 
seats at the Polish University, where they 
found an untrammeled field for literary 
activity. It appeared that the University 
developed a surplus educational prosperity, 
to which it had to give an outlet by dif- 
fusing it in minor schools and colleges. 
Secondary schools, each possessing a re- 
spectable faculty, were founded in large 
numbers. In many cases, competent pro- 
fessors from Krakow were assigned seats 
in the colleges and minor institutions of 
learning. 

Humanism found in Poland a fertile 
substratum of intellectuality and produced 
a rich literary progress. It tested the in- 
tellectual power of the Poles and found it 
resourceful and responsive. Budny and 
Krowiecki, Rey, the noted prose writer, 
and Bielski, the master of didactic poems 
and satires are telling exponents of the 
literary progress of the Poles at this time. 
In political science Cornecki, perhaps, be- 
came the most prominent. It was in the 
age of the Humanities, too, that Poland 
boasted of her renowned Kochanowski, 
only surpassed by Mickiewicz, whom the 
celebrated Goethe called the "Poet Lau- 
reate of the World." This was the golden 
age of Poland's intellectual reassertion. It 
was when the intellectual renaissance held 
sway in Europe that Poland merited her 
intellectual franchise which stood proof 
against the denationalization measures 
that were enforced against her after the 
Partitions and which today justly vindi- 
cates the restoration of her right to self- 
government. 



100 



& 



POLAND'S INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION 



2§S 

world-wide interest. Statesmen, historians, 
and essayists spent much time and energy 
explaining the causes that led to so unique 
an historical event as was the downfall of 
Poland. What strikes one, however, is the 
fact that from no source came the accusa- 
tion that Poland's fate was the result of 
an intellectual incompetency of the Poles 
regarding the administration of state. 
Those who tried to justify the Partitions 
of Poland, would not forego quoting it in 
support of their contention. But they could 
not deny a fact the entire world knew. 
They could not trace the downfall of Po- 
land to intellectual stagnancy at a time 
when the Four Years' Diet framed the 
Constitution of the Third of May, 1791, 
when Poland achieved a political reform 
that has in relation to time and circum- 
stances never been achieved by any nation, 
when her constitution was awarded the full 
endorsement of the leading statesmen of 
the time for its high political genius and 
practicability. Men like the Potockis, 
Adam Czartoryski, Małachowski, and oth- 
ers, who framed the Constitution of the 
Third of May, were recognized statesmen. 
They were classical exponents of Polish 
patriotism, statesmanship and education. 

Poland at the time of the Partitions was 
a true political body. Her subjects enjoyed 
legal and social equality. Then, no less 
than centuries before, Poland showed every 
evidence of an enviable culture, of strong 
literary and political efforts and of a deep 
conviction to patriotic duty. 

The strength of a nation is best gauged 
by the obstacles it overcomes in struggling 
for existence. This is eminently true of 
the Polish nation which was given the se- 
verest test and found not wanting. Both 
during and after the partitions Poland 
showed a steady intellectual progress, and 
in recent times, under the very torrent of 
anti-Polish measures, Poland has every 
reason to claim an intellectual standard 



Russia, Prussia, and Austria, in their 
sorry attempt to justify their crime of 
dividing Poland, proclaimed to the world 
that Poland fell of her own weakness. The 
world might have been deceived by this 
Machiavelian lie, had not the phenomenal 
intellectual assertion of the Poles after the 
Partitions told a different story. After the 
dismemberment of their country, the Poles 
have shown an intellectual vigor to sur- 
prise the world. "In spite of the difficul- 
ties under which the Polish literature la- 
bors owing to a dismembered country, the 
amount of it that appears is very large. 
There are four active centers, — Krakow, 
Lwow, Warsaw, and Poznań. Many edi- 
tions of old and most forgotten Polish 
authors are being issued under the patron- 
age of the University of Krakow. A num- 
ber of excellent reviews, fully up to the 
English and German standards, are is- 
sued." (Nevin 0. Winter, "Poland of To- 
day and Yesterday," p. 137.) 

Van Norman (op. cit.) presents the Po- 
lish intellectual life from another view- 
point. "In industry, in agriculture, in the 
arts and sciences, in education, in wealth 
and numbers, the Poles are progressing. It 
is impossible to kill a people that has a will 
to live. The commercial spirit has touched 
them and they have adapted themselves to 
it as one more weapon wherewith to pre- 
serve their sense of national unity and im- 
prove their condition and prospects. A 
strong middle class is developing among 
them. Today, the young and well-educated 
generation of Poles have largely replaced 
Jews and Germans. Polish merchants, 
bankers, lawyers and engineers are now 
in the majority. In the words of a famous 
Polish historian: 'In 1800 we prayed to 
be allowed to live; in 1900 we know that 
we shall live.' " 

Poland's division and apportionment 
among her neighbors was an historical 
event without a precedent. It aroused a 



[101] 



3?«- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§S 

in due time it would prove an irrefutable 
argument in favor of the restoration of 
their freedom and their right to self-gov- 
ernment. The intellectual reassertion of 
the Poles after they had been reduced to 
political slavery, was not short-lived, or 
such as denotes a spontaneous outburst, 
and subsides after a time. It had continued 
in the face of the most repressive anti- 
Polish measures, as a stigma to the usurper 
and a protest against the unreasonableness 
of the Polish subjection. 

The Poles clearly realized the power of 
education as an offset to national annihila- 
tion. The commission of education did 
laudable work. The reformation of schools, 
starting from the Academy of Krakow 
clown to the last elementary village school, 
wrought a constructive influence upon the 
literary activity of the Poles at this time. 
The political reform produced learned vol- 
umes of political discussion. This was an 
ill-boding period in the political life of Po- 
land, but an encouraging period in her 
literature. Poland had reached a golden 
period of intellectual progress rather than 
stood at the brink of a political crisis. A 
nation which is able to produce the very 
flower of poets and writers under such 
political conditions as were those of Po- 
land under foreign rule, can hardly be 
charged with intellectual deficiency. The 
institution of the Society of Friends of 
learning in Warsaw; the opening of the 
new University of Warsaw, the University 
of Lwow, the Volhynian Lyceum, and nu- 
merous minor institutions of learning were 
some of the sources that disseminated 
knowledge in Poland shortly after the Par- 
titions. Many of them became famous and 
their influence is felt to this day. They 
were represented by such men as Niemce- 
wicz, a friend of Kościuszko and a sojourn- 
er in America for many years, and known 
for his success in imitating Scott and By- 
ron; Morawski, who translated Byron; 



that is on a par with that of any other 
people. Under the depression of the first 
Partitions, the Poles made the noblest at- 
tempt at a radical reform. They soon in- 
stituted the commission of education, 
which had the distinction of being the first 
of its kind in Europe. The government 
took education into its hands. This too, was 
an advanced measure, as it was only later 
that other countries copied it from Poland. 
The commission was headed by such men 
as Poniatowski, Czartoryski, Zamojski, 
and Potocki. Some of them became later 
the authors of the Polish Constitution. It 
created wholesome influence on education 
not only in Poland, but in Europe at large. 
It established a public school system, and 
thanks to its untiring activity, the Univer- 
sities of Krakow, Wilno, and others, were 
given that educational impetus that justly 
gained for them the merit of true centers 
of learning. High schools sprang up in the 
larger towns and elementary schools were 
built in large numbers. The military 
schools at Warsaw became renowned. The 
Commission prepared the Polish mind for 
the framing of the Constitution, which to 
this day remains a monument to Polish 
statesmanship. Even in peaceful time, the 
commission of education would constitute 
the finest example of the intellectual vigor 
of the Poles. But it must be remembered 
that they found themselves equal of its 
establishment in the very turmoil of polit- 
ical disquiet, and all the intriguery of the 
Prussian and Russian aristocrats. 

With the consummation of the Third 
Partition- Poland ceased to exist as a pol- 
itical entity. Yet it was after the Parti- 
tions that the Polish nation produced a 
marvelous growth of literature, asserting 
thereby to the world that it had not ceased 
to be a nation. It clearly demonstrated 
that intellectual deficiency could never be 
laid to the Poles as a cause that contributed 
to their downfall. It rather showed that 



[ 10* 



Ms 

Kozmian; Linde; Mickiewicz, the greatest 
Polish poet ; Lelewel, who achieved notable 
fame as historian. 

Poland became a vigorous participant 
in the Romantic movement that appeared 
in Europe shortly after the Partitions. 
Mickiewicz was the chief exponent of the 
Polish Romanticism. From his time on the 
Polish literature struck a purely national 
key. At this time, Poland apparently de- 
veloped a surplus literary energy and gave 
birth to her three great poets, Mickiewicz, 
Słowacki, and Krasiński. They were not 
ordinary talents, but literary geniuses 
with international reputations. They were 
noble and rare exponents of Polish culture. 
Mickiewicz especially, who is not unfitly 
called the Polish Goethe, deserves special 
comment. His celebrated sonnets and his 
Wallenrod, exhibit the unusual versatility 
of mind which characterizes him, the great- 
est Polish poet. His Pan Tadeusz, a na- 
tional epic, is a recognized masterpiece. 
The chair he held at the University of Paris 
brought enviable credit to the Polish cul- 
ture. 

The Polish literature reached the height 
of perfection even while the country suf- 
fered the most abject slavery. Rome pro- 
duced the flower of her literature while in 
political prosperity. Spain and England 
gave birth to their greatest literature while 
their political conditions were at their best. 
But Poland gave utterance to her great 
Romantic song in the turmoil of political 
adversity. The age of the Romantic move- 
ment in Poland need not feel ashamed at 
the age of the Humanities. The Polish lit- 
erature and the Polish intellectual develop- 
ment has made a tremendous headway for 
the last century and more. What appeared 
to be insurmountable difficulties the en- 
emy endeavored to place in its way, have 
failed to arrest its growth. A chance re- 
view of the Polish philosophy, poetry, mu- 
sic and art, in recent years, bring to mind 



POLAND'S INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION 



1% 

such names as lgnące J. Paderewski, Hen- 
ry Sienkiewicz, Helen Modjeska, Sembrich- 
Kochanska, Curie-Sklodowska, the first 
woman to occupy a chair at the Sorbonne; 
Wyspiański, Kasprowicz, Konopnicka, 
Prus, Reymont, Lutosławski, Brueckner, 
Fathers Pawlicki and Morawski, Askena- 
zy, Struve, Libelt, Trentkowski, Lelewel, 
Klaczko, Korzon, Golochowski, and Bade- 
ni. Fr. Pawlicki's "History of Greek Lit- 
erature" is considered a classic of an em- 
inent type. Odyniec won a name for his 
translations of Scott, Moore, and Byron. 
Kasprowicz was a noted Shakespearean 
translator. 

Every literature has a note of national 
individuality and the Polish literature of 
the Post-Partitional period possesses a 
character which is vainly sought in any 
other literature. It is the note of spiritual- 
ity, or idealism, which is peculiar especial- 
ly to the Polish poetry of this time. After 
the Partitions the Poles lived an ideal ex- 
istence, which depended on her poets to a 




[103 



POLES IN AMERICA 



2§S 

degree unprecedented in any history save 
that of ancient Greece. The Polish poets 
taught the people their history, aims and 
ideals that could be learned in no other 
way under the iron rule of the usurpers. 
The Poles have never parted with the idea 
that they have ceased to be a nation. They 
have considered the period after the parti- 
tion as a mere suspense in their political 
life. They remained firm in their belief 
that it would not be long before they re- 
gained their freedom and independence. 
For this kind of political philosophy the 
Polish poets are principally to be thanked. 
They inspired the nation with new courage 
and perseverance. They instilled into the 
people their sacred right of being and self- 
explication. They endeavored to explain 
the working of Providence. They strove to 
prepare the nation to pass bravely their 
Via Dolorosa. They taught that the Poles 
had yet a mission to perform, and that 
Providence tried them in preparation to 
its fulfillment. 

"Great as is the literature of Poland 
from an artistic point of view, it stands 
on another plane that of literary value 
alone. In the first half of the nineteenth 
century, the Polish poets rose as the na- 
tional teachers and moral leaders. They 
spoke to the people held in bondage by the 
bitterest facts of life, of the hope that 
would save them. The youths of Poland 
were prohibited from learning their na- 
tion's history, her spirit, her aims in the 
ordinary channels. They were taught, 
therefore, of the poets who taught them the 
lessons of devotion and self-immolation for 
a native country ; whose writings kept alive 
the fires of patriotism, the Polish ideality 
and moral health, in young souls beset by 
peril. The national literature was no mere 
art, an element disconnected with the deep 
things of life, written for recreation or 
relaxation. It spoke straight to a stern 
purpose. It was a weapon, and as power- 
ful a weapon as any that she could have 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2§g 

chosen, in the cause of Poland. In this 
light the Polish poets regarded the poetry 
they gave their people. The literature they 
brought forth is, said Mickiewicz, speak- 
ing in the College of France, 'above all 
things true.' Poland's poets were more 
than her poets. They were her patriots." 
(Gardner, "Poland," p. 32.) It was then, 
to give the nation spiritual nourishment 
which would tend to compensate for the 
loss of their political independence that 
this kind of poetry was created. It may 
have been too idealistic and of little use to 
the actual restoration of freedom to Po- 
land. But it manifested the versatility of 
the Polish mind, the depth of the Polish 
soul, and the strength of the Polish hope 
— it showed the native intellectuality of 
the Polish race. "This period of the Polish 
nation rent with struggle as regards her 
political nation brought forth not only 
Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest of Polish 
poets, but so noble a band of singers in- 
spired by sorrow, as to be justly reckoned 
the Golden Age of Poland's literature . . . 
Mesyaism inspired the Polish nation with 
a literature which for artistic beauty, pas- 
sionate religious feeling, and deep pathetic 
power ranks with the finest production of 
European letters." (Gardner, Amer. Cath. 
Q. Rev. XXXI, 121.) 

In more recent years, the Main School 
and the "Macierz" the Poles under Russia 
founded, shows how anxious they were to 
seize every opportunity to acquire educa- 
tion. The Main School did not exist long 
as the Russian government took care to 
suppress it very early. 

In 1905, during the short spell of free- 
dom Russia allowed the Poles, the latter 
set on foot a sweeping educational move- 
ment under the auspices of the "Polish 
Macierz". It existed only two years when 
the Russian government suppressed it. The 
extent and the ability with which it was 
managed are evident from the result it 
attained in that short space of time. Ac- 



104 



POLAND'S INTELLECTUAL CONTRIBUTION 



& " 3fS 

cording to Russian reports, the committees est positions in the Imperial cabinet, while 



that worked in the interest of the Macierz, 
reached the number of more than seven 
hundred. They had a membership of 12,- 
000. Polish schools under the Macierz 
numbered 630,000 Polish children. But, 
unfortunately, the Prussian influence in 
the court of the Czars, which has been 
brought to light during the war, prevailed 
upon the dupish Russian government to 
put a stop to its noble work. 

What would Poland's contribution to 
knowledge be, under normal conditions, 
can be appreciated from the way the Po- 
lish mind expressed itself in Poland under 
Austria. With their schools practically 
suppressed under Russia, and with the ban 
the German government put on the use of 
the Polish language in schools and assem- 
blies, Krakow and Lemberg, under the 
more lenient Austrian rule, became the 
main centers of the Polish literary activity. 
There the Polish intellectual life came com- 
pellingly to the fore in all its phases. Popu- 
lar education was advanced under the aus- 
pices of the universities. Scientific re- 
search resulted in the contribution of many 
volumes of useful and practical knowledge, 
while the literary and artistic life de- 
veloped in a way to compel the favorable 
attention of the world. Polish schools in 
Galicia, free from the ban of the Prussian 
and Russian type, turned out fruitful 
sources to supply the fund of human knowl- 
edge. Works of old masters and standard 
reviews were edited with the best results. 
Book-shelves in the public libraries became 
heavy with books by Polish authors. 

The Polish administration of Galicia and 
the access Poles had to governmental posi- 
tions in the Austrian Empire gave them 
a chance to exercise their political skill as 
they were not able to do in Russia and 
Germany, where they had every official 
position closed against them. Such men as 
Goluchowski and Badeni rose to the high- 



Dunajewski reorganized the finances of 
the Austrian Empire. 

The Poles carried, along with their 
traditions, the intellectual aptness that 
characterized their forefathers. Wherever 
they would settle, their intellectual life 
would soon create an impression. This is 
especially true of the Poles in America, 
both because here they settled in large 
numbers, and because they found free 
America an unhampered field for self- 
expression. The Poles came to America 
comparatively late. America was well 
colonized by people of other nationalities 
when the Poles, persecuted in their coun- 
try, resolved on seeking the shores of the 
free country. It was not long, however, 
before they won a literary distinction, that 
is, relatively, on a par with that of those 
nationalities that started to colonize the 
country. American writers of note have 
been generous in giving endorsement to the 
intellectual accomplishment of the Poles in 
this country. 

Poles in America are proud to mention 
such of their countrymen as Julian Boeck, 
a noted educator- who laid plans for the 
first polytechnic institution in the United 
States. He won distinction in many other 
ways, and was honored by President Grant 
with an educational commission. Zalinski 
distinguished himself during the Civil War 
and is the inventor of the pneumatic tor- 
pedo gun. Dr. H. Kulosowski, who also 
served in the Civil War and made an en- 
viable name, filled many important posi- 
tions. They possess such institutions of 
learning as the Seminary in Detroit; St. 
Stanislaus College, Holy Trinity High 
School, Holy Family Academy, Good Coun- 
sel High School, and Resurrection Aca- 
demy, in Chicago; St. John's College in 
Philadelphia; and colleges at Erie, and 
Cambridge Springs, Pennsylvania; Pula- 
ski, Wisconsin ; and Kitchener, Canada. 



105 



*!«■ 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Poland today possesses schools and uni- 
versities that rank with any school and 
university in the world. The University 
of Krakow needs no comment; the Polish 
Academy of Science in Krakow stands pre- 
eminent in lettered Europe. It is a scienti- 
fic body of the highest standard. The John 
Casimir University of Lemberg forms in 
conjunction with the University of Krakow 
the main spring of Polish intellectual act- 
ivity, while the remaining institutions of 
learning in what formerly constituted the 
Kingdom of Poland such as the Theological 
Seminaries in Posen, the University of 
Warsaw and the thickly dispersed colleges 
in Galicia bid fair to become the educa- 
tional standard of the Polish people. Po- 
land of today has individuals to represent 
her culture who are geniuses of interna- 
tional repute. Modjeska is still fresh in 
the mind of the world and especially in that 
of America. In philosophy the Poles are 
proud to mention Lutosławski, the greatest 
living commentator on Platonic philosophy. 
In science, the discoverer of radium, Mme. 
Curie-Sklodowska ; in literature Henry 
Sienkiewicz; in music, Paderewski. It is 
such exponents that the Polish culture pos- 
sesses today and they are in keeping with 
what leading writers of the day have to 
say of the Poles. They call them "One of 
the most cultured and most active races 
possessing a literature and civilization 
superior to that of their neighbors — Prus- 
sians, Austrians and Russians." "The Po- 
lish race, to those who are acquainted with 



it, is the subtlest and most delicate and 
one of the noblest and most heroic races of 
Europe." "This marvelous people (the 
Polish) are the most intellectually gifted 
in the world, and have produced the sweet- 
est music, the best musicians, the finest 
artists and writers. They are the most 
imaginative and cultured race in Europe." 

Poland, then, despite her ungenial geo- 
graphical situation and blightful political 
conditions she suffered since the time she 
appeared among the family of nations, left 
all along indelible traces of intellectual 
progress. She left them before the Univer- 
sity of Krakow rose to prominence. She 
left them particularly in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, when Poland was 
called the most civilized country in Europe. 
The Poles could perhaps produce no strong- 
er proof to show that they had not ceased 
to be a nation one and undivided, than their 
inherent intellectual vitality, which has 
kept, and ever shall keep them immune 
from assimilation. 

The intellectual competency of the Po- 
lish race had always constituted a strong 
protest against its subjection to foreign 
rule. It admittedly proved an unsolvable 
problem to the usurpers who swore to de- 
nationalize their Polish subjects. Now, 
with her regained independence, Poland 
has entered upon a new career; she js 
rising from her long, forced sleep. The na- 
tions of the world are now convinced that 
Poland is justly entitled to the restoration 
of her freedom and independence. 



♦♦ 



106 






Polish Music and Opera 



By Anna Cierpik 



THE heroic songs of the Poles describ- 
ing the victories over the Tartars and 
Cossacks, and the saddened voice of the 
people since the first partition of Poland 
were used by the Polish composers to 
portray the mental and emotional life of 
the people. This inner life and emotion, so 
distinctively different from what has been 
expressed by other composers, is a charac- 
teristic of the Slavonic type, and domi- 
nates the master works of the Poles. 

In Polish music are found forbidden 
progressions of intervals, such as augment- 
ed seconds, diminished thirds, augmented 
fourths, diminished sevenths and minor 
ninths. The harmony is distinguished by 
successions of chords presenting no logical 
contradiction, and yet at variance with 
established usage. The melodic construc- 
tion (from movement to rest) is exactly 
the reverse of that practiced in other lands. 

It is evident, therefore, that the tradi- 
tional formulas of the middle ages were 
not acceptable to the Polish composers, for 
the temperament of the Slav does not 
tolerate oppression nor even restraint. 
While the attention of music students in 
other countries was centered on the artifi- 
cial application of the principles of har- 
mony, Polish musicians' without disdain- 
ing the rules of counterpoint, showed a 
freedom of form and variety of rhythm 
exclusively Slavonic and particularly 
Polish. 

Music that is typically Polish is the 
polonaise, the mazurka and the krakowiak. 
The polonaise is one of the most character- 
istic manifestations of the art of music in 



Poland. The germ of it may be recognized 
in the motive of the old Christmas song, 
"W zlobie lezy". In the rhythm and the 
finale of this old dance of striking original- 
ity is found the music which resounded 
at the pompous feasts of the old Polish 
lords and at the court of the kings. 

The exact date of the invention of the 
polonaise is not known. The court must 
have been its birthplace. Karasowski tells 
us that tradition assigns to the polonaise 
the following origin: — "When the dynasty 
of the Jagellonians died out, Henry of 
Anjou, son of Catherine de Medicis, was 
in 1573 elected King of Poland. The follow- 
ing year he received the representatives of 
the nation in solemn state at Cracow 
Castle. The gentlemen with their wives 
slowly filed before the king, keeping step 
to an accompaniment of music. Every time 
a foreign prince was elected to the throne, 
this ceremony was repeated, and from it 
was gradually developed the national 
dance of the polonaise. It became a politic- 
al dance." 

Chopin, attracted by its striking rhyth- 
mical capabilities and imbued with the 
deepest national sympathy, animated the 
dry form of the old polonaise with a new 
and intensely living spirit and changed it 
from a mere dance into a glowing tone- 
picture of Poland, her departed glory, her 
many wrongs, and her hoped for re- 
generation. 

Karasowski divides his polonaises into 
two classes. The first group is character- 
ized by strong and martial rhythm, and 
may be taken to represent the feudal court 



107 ] 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



of Poland in the days of its splendor. The 
second group is distinguished by dreamy 
melancholy and forms a picture of Poland 
in her adversity. 

Liszt wrote thus of the polonaise: — "In 
this form the noblest traditional feelings 
of ancient Poland are represented." 

The polonaise is the true and purest 
representation of Polish national charac- 
ter. The melody of the polonaise is some- 
times simple, but its rhythm is somewhat 
martial and of a war-like spirit. It is 
solemn and possesses great fascination. 
The conclusion suggests the stately man- 
ners of the Middle Ages. Written in triple 
time it is grave, but gaiety is not debarred. 

The krakowiak is a lively dance in 2/4 
time in which the principal rhythmic ac- 
cent falls on the unaccented beat of the 
second measure. 

It is born of the people. Written in 
double time its movement is quick and 
bright. 

The Polish peasants dance it in the na- 
tional costume, which adds to the pic- 
turesque appearance of the dance. Added 
to this are often satirical couplets, which 
the dancer sings to his partner. 

The poems of Miaskowski (1622) prove 
that the krakowiak originated in the 17th 
century. 

The mazurka, or mazurek, comes from 
the palatinate of Mazovia in which War- 
saw is situated. Some mazurkas are sung 
only, while others serve for dancing. Like 
the polonaise, and the krakowiak or kolo- 
myjka, it requires room and plastic grace. 
Aside from grace it calls for dash, heroism 
and chivalry. The % tempo of the ma- 
zurka is full of caprice and gaiety. The 
rhythm which calls for quicker notes on 
the first count is punctuated by the clink- 
ing and clattering of spurs as heel clashes 
with heel in mid-air. The strong accent 
of the second beat is emphasized by the 
loud thud of boots striking the ground. 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



— 2fS 

Add to this the swift springs and sudden 
bounds, the whirling gyrations and dizzy 
evolutions and you have a dance which, 
clothed in its national grace, cannot be 
seen outside of a Polish salon. 

The first mazurkas date from the lute 
players of the fifteenth century. They 
were of popular composition and were of 
simple construction with two repetitions 
and a prelude or retournelle. The music 
was a kind of improvization of the village 
fiddlers and the words were in praise of 
the simple life. They are exceedingly num- 
erous. Some treat of history, others of the 
rustic life, dancing or love. Poets of re- 
nown composed words for them which were 
set to music by celebrated composers. The 
mazurka is the true national song of Po- 
land, the embodiment of the national char- 
acter. Chopin made it popular in Europe 
and Polish opera drew on it to consider- 
able extent. He penetrated most deeply in- 
to the national sanctuary, and his melan- 
choly genius has made more than one ten- 
der heart weep and vibrate. 

Liszt says, "Coquetteries, fantasies, ele- 
gies, emotions, passions, conquests, strug- 
gles upon which the safety of favors of 
others depend, all, all meet in this dance." 

In the study of Polish opera we find that 
Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last 
king of Poland, had an enormous influence 
on the development of this branch of mu- 
sic in Poland. His reign saw the opening 
of the modern era which is characterized 
by the appearance of the National Polish 
Opera. 

The poetic and literary movement at the 
end of the eighteenth century created the 
Polish opera. During the creative period 
of Eisner and Kurpiński, national opera 
became the most perfect expression of the 
musical art in Poland. 

Mathew Kamienski's opera, "The 
Wretched Made Happy", which was pre- 
sented in 1778 as the first Polish opera, 



108 



ais 

forms an epoch in the history of Polish 
music. He was forty-four years old when 
this work was produced under the patron- 
age of Stanisław August Poniatowski. It 
was in 1776 that the king, learning that 
a number of cadets in his corps had good 
voices and could sing acceptably, expressed 
a desire to hear them. To satisfy his wish, 
a well known writer, Rev. Bohomolec, 
wrote a one-act comedy, "The Wretched 
Made Happy", in which some of the num- 
bers were to be sung. For some reason 
the comedy was not played, but appeared 
in print and fell into the hands of Kamień- 
ski, who after writing the music to the 
songs, decided to have it produced. Mont- 
burn, an operatic manager to whom the 
work was submitted- recognized its value 
but would not undertake to place it on the 
stage till it was enlarged to the size of a 
two-act operetta. This was done by Bogu- 
sławski, while Kamieński wrote the addi- 
tional musical numbers. Thus in May, 
1778, the first Polish opera was produced. 

Kamieński made use of many national 
rhythms and though the spirit of the Ita- 
lian school is strongly marked throughout 
his works, the impression is on the whole 
decidedly national. Other works by him 
are "Sophy, or Country Wooing," a favor- 
ite which was played in many cities, "Vir- 
tuous Simplicity", "A Country Ball", "The 
Nightingale", and "Tradition Realized". 

It is to Bogusławski that the advance- 
ment of Polish national opera should be 
accredited. Kamieński owes his success to 
Bogusławski who made many efforts to 
produce his operas. 

Kamieński was succeeded by Stefani, 
who followed the German style and the 
fashion of the French comic opera. The 
new and original element was found in 
the employment of popular themes. The 
subjects were taken from peasant life. A 
fine example of this is the opera "Krako- 
wiaks and Mountaineers", which was pro- 
duced in March, 1794. It was received 



POLISH MUSIC AND OPERA 



2§S 

with immense favor, was applauded for 
a century, and serves to this day as a model 
for composers. Stefani made use of the 
incisive rhythms of the krakoiviak, the 
noble strains of the polonaise, the merry 
swing of the mazurek, and the tender rus- 
tic wedding-song. By imbuing his own 
works with a thoroughly local spirit' Ste- 
fani surpassed his predecessor. 

Stefani wrote a number of other operas, 
including "Grateful Subjects", "Enchant- 
ed Tree", and "Old Hunter". He died in 
1829 having lived and worked in Poland 
for over fifty-eight years. 

The ideas of Kamieński and Stefani 
were taken up by J. Eisner, the teacher 
of Chopin, and by C. Kurpiński, who were 
the creators of the first historical Polish 
operas. Eisner composed several operas 
which met with great approval. 

The libretto to the opera "Krakowiaks 
and Mountaineers", which was originally 
a one-act opera, was extended to cover a 
second-act, and eventually a third. The 
music to the second act was written by 
Kurpiński, a composer of great creative 
ability and a master of orchestral coloring 
whose works, influenced somewhat by Ros- 
sini, are of high dramatic merit. 




[ 109 



POLES IN AMERICA 



M — 

In the period from 1781 to 1819 a few 
minor composers contributed toward the 
development of opera in Poland. Among 
these are Joseph Deszczynski, who is 
known as the composer of several comic 
operas. In Francis Mirecki we see the 
strong influence of the Italian school. He 
left several operas, including "The Gyp- 
sies", "The Castle of Kenilworth", and 
"A Night in the Apennines". The opera 
"Montbar" was the composition of Ignace 
Dobrzyński, who waited twenty-three 
years before the opera was finally pro- 
duced. With Victor Kazynski came the ro- 
mantic opera "The Wandering Jew", 
which was first produced in Warsaw. Os- 
car Kolberg also wrote an operetta or two. 

After this period of thirty-eight years 
a master is found in the field of Polish mu- 
sic. It is the genius of Stanisław Moniu- 
szko, who was born in 1819. His period 
of creative work marks a fruitful period 
for Poland. His opera, "Halka," which is 
now so well known, was produced in War- 
saw in 1846. Moniuszko loved the simple 
strains of the people and introduced them 
into his compositions. With a skill pecu- 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— & 

liarly his own, he produced effects with 
so light and yet so firm a hand that the 
productions of his operas, "Halka," and 
"Flis," became instantly great successes. 

Moniuszko was only twenty-eight years 
old when he composed "Halka," but as a 
composer of opera he had here reached his 
zenith. The later operas cannot compare 
with the creativeness of "Halka." Moniu- 
szko marks a new epoch in the development 
of Polish opera. 

From Moniuszko to the present time we 
find a number of operatic composers. 
Michael Wielhorski left at his death an 
incomplete opera, "The Gypsies." Louis 
Grossman left "The Fisherman of Paler- 
no" and "The Wojewoda's Ghost," which 
have met with success in the chief cities of 
Europe. 

Ladislas Żeleński is accredited for the 
operas: "Conrad Wallenrod," "Janek," 
"Goplana." Żeleński has had repeated suc- 
cesses of these operas. Gustave Plater is 
also attributed with having written an 
opera. Henri Jarecki is best known for his 
operas, "Wanda," "Hedwidge," and "Bar- 
bara Radziwiłł." 

The great name of Ignace Paderewski, 
brings to us his opera "Manru" which has 
been produced in the Metropolitan Opera 
of New York City. Alexander Martin 
wrote two operas, while Casimer Hofmann, 
the father of Josef Hofmann, the noted 
pianist, wrote the opera "Children of a 
Siren." Hofmann also wrote the third act 
of Stefani's opera "Krakowiaks and Moun- 
taineers." 

There have been countless other Polish 
musicians, both in the past and present, 
and both in Poland and America, too many, 
in fact, to list in a short summary such 
as this, by no means complete. It is suffi- 
cient, however, if the reader recognize at 
least the fact that there is a distinctive 
Polish music, expressed by world-famous 
Folish musicians. 















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FREDERIC CHOPIN 





I 110 




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A Century of Progress International Exposition 

Chicago — 1933 



(In the following pages are several views of the International Exposi- 
tion being held in Chicago in 1933, and in which the Poles are participat- 
ing with a Polish Week of Hospitality, July 17th to 23rd.) 




Airplane view of A Century of Progress showing the buildings North of 23rd Street 



1111 



POLES IN* AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

sis & 




Night view of A Century of Progress, showing the famous Sky-Ride. 



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A complete airplane view of A Century of Progress. 



[112] 



A CENTURY OF PROGRESS INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION — CHICAGO, 1933 

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Court of the Hall of Science 





Chinese Temple 



Illinois Host Building 



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POLES IX AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



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Federal Building and Hall of States 





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Old Heidelberg Inn 



General Motors 



[114] 



A CENTURY OF PROGRESS INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION — CHICAGO, 1933 




"Enchanted Island" — a Wonderland for Children 



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Maya Temple 




Jotins-Manville 



115 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

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Shedd Aquarium, Sears-Roebuck, Illinois Host Building, and Avenue of Flags 




South View of Hall of Science 



116 



A CENTURY CF PROGRESS INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION — CHICAGO, 1933 

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Agricultural Building 





Chrysler Building 



Firestone Building 





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Home Planning Hall 



Model Home 



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POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP" PROGRESS 



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Travel and Transport 



Hall of Religion 



118 



To The Reader: 



THE publication of this book was made possible through 
the generosity of the patrons, donors, and advertisers 
whose names appear in this book. It is clear that by reason 
of their support of this project, so important and so timely, 
these persons and firms are deserving of your patronage. 
When patronizing them, please mention this book. It will be 
an acknowledgment of appreciation to them for their support, 
and at the same time an encouragement for further support 
of similar projects. 



Do Czytelników: 

TTTYDANIE tej kosztownej książki uskutecznionem zo- 
V V stało jedynie dzięki łaskawemu poparciu patronów, ofia- 
rodawców, i byznesistów, których nazwiska lub firmy znaj- 
dują się w tej księdze. Gdy pomyślimy jak ważną rolę może 
odegrać zaznajomienie obconarodowców z polską sprawą za 
pośrednictwem tej książki, to zrozumimy jak wielką przysługę 
uczynili dla tej sprawy ivszyscy wspomagający wydawnictwo 
jakiemkolwiek płatnem zamieszczeniem. 

W ogłoszeniach znajdziecie najrozmaitsze interesy, w któ- 
rych możecie być obsłużeni, z zadowoleniem. Będziemy bardzo 
ivdzieczni wszystkim czytelnikom gdy potrzebując jakiejś 
usługi, porady, lub kupując artykuły codziennych potrzeb, 
udadzą się najpierw do lekarzy, dentystów, prawników i kup- 
ców, tych, którzy dopomogli temu wydawnictwu, zaznaczając 
wyraźnie czemu przychodzą do nich. Gdy się przyzwyczaimy 
popierać tych, którzy nas popierają, nie będziemy mieć trud- 
ności w otrzymywaniu od nich dalszego poparcia w przy- 
szłości, w postaci ofiar lub ogłoszeń. 



[119 



& 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



WE BEGIN 



OVER four years ago, in 1929, a plan was 
conceived to unite the retail grocers of Chi- 
cago into a cooperative organization. It 
originated with Mr. A. A. Zdrojewski and 
was based on his many years of experience 
in the wholesale and retail distribution of foods. 

The idea was presented to four retail grocers — Messrs. 
A. Janik, M. Jurek, A. Nalepka, and P. Gorczyca. Their 
own past experience and vision of the future convinced 
them that such an organization was an absolute neces- 
sity if the individual grocer expected to stay in business. 

Like true missionaries, they went out into the retail 
grocery field to sell the idea to other grocers. Prejudice, 
ignorance, and a misconception of business conditions, 
were the obstacles that had to be surmounted. However, 
the thoroughness of the plan, the necessity for an organ- 
ization, and the sincere interest of these men to help 
others, strengthened their courage that carried thefm 
through many months of the most trying work. 

Their's was an idealistic dream. Its realization meant 
not only the accomplishment of an arduous task, but also 
the creation of an opportunity for every grocer, large 
or small, to share in the benefits of cooperative buying 
and unified merchandising. Competition would be met 
and the domination of the large chain organizations in 
the grocery field, would be checked. 

It was in December, 1930, that the plan was put into 
actual operation. A large warehouse at 24th Place and 
South Western avenue was opened, to serve as a base 
for supplies. At the same time, two hundred members 
displayed the "Midwest Stores" signs above their stores. 

The enthusiasm and the cooperation of the members 
made the MIDWEST GROCERY COMPANY practic- 
ally an instantaneous success. As each day passed, it 
marked another step in the fulfillment of the plans of 
the organizers. What was accomplished in the past two 



120 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



'& 



WITH 



and one-half years has been written in bold figures into 
the books of the Company. Today, the capital is nearly 
three times the original sum. From weekly sales of a 
few thousand, the business of the warehouse has grown 
to over one and a quarter millions annually. 

As volume increased, it was necessary to enlarge the 
warehouse space. The MIDWEST GROCERY COM- 
PANY now occupies two buildings with a floor capacity 
almost double the first quarters. Over three hundred 
grocers have benefitted by joining our cooperative. They 
are its owners. For their accommodation, it has been 
necessary to provide such facilities that as many as ten 
freight cars of merchandise can be unloaded daily, in 
addition to the numerous auto trucks that deliver their 
cargoes to these warehouses. 

While we, the members of the MIDWEST GROCERY 
COMPANY and owners of "Midwest Stores" join with 
other citizens in celebrating the Chicago "CENTURY 
OF PROGRESS" we cannot help but feel that we too 
have added a commendable effort to preserve an equal 
opportunity for the individual grocer and have made it 
more possible for him to assume and fulfill his duties 
as a citizen of Chicago! 



MIDWEST GROCERY COMPANY 

A. Janik, President 
M. Jurek, Vice-President 
A. Nalepka, Treasurer 
/. Skowroński, Secretary 

DIRECTORS 
/. Wasify P. Gorczyca 

P. Czaczka E. Zaborsky J. Snarski 
A. A. Zdrojewski, General Manager 



121 



History of St Constance Parish 




O 



VERY FIRST CHURCH 



N the extreme 
Northwest side 
of Chicago, in 
the district known as 
Jefferson Park, are 
the bounds of St. 
Constance Parish. It 
was organized in 
1916 by Rev. Alexan- 
der S. Knitter, its 
present pastor. For 
some time prior to 
the organization of 
the Parish, the need 
of a Polish church 
was greatly felt. In 
order to accomplish this, the first 90 families pledged 
their loyal efforts to support the church in Jefferson 
Park. This brought about the purchase of a Protestant 
church located at Lawrence and Central Avenues. Im- 
mediately the edifice was remodeled and decorated, — 
altars, pews and all other necessary church parapher- 
nelia were purchased. The church was dedicated to the 
Greater Glory of God on August 20th, 1916, by Rev. 
Ludwig Grudziński, together with a great number of 
clergy, enthusiastic parishioners and their friends from 
adjoining parishes. During the alterations Masses were 
said at the residence of Valentine Wachowski, at Law- 
rence and Long Aves. 

The continuous Northwest trend of the Polish people 
and the enticing surroundings of the district of Jeffer- 
son Park, attracted such great numbers of Polish people 
that the need of a larger church was demanded. Per- 
mission to purchase the present site bounded by Ainslie, 
Marmora, Strong and Menard Avenues w'as procured by 
the pastor from His Eminence, George Cardinal Mun- 
delein, Archbishop of Chicago. A combination church 
and school building was erected, and after its com- 
pletion, was dedicated hy His Eminence, Cardinal Mun- 
delein, on October 8th 1917. First Holy 
Mass was offered to God for his grace 
and benevolence by the Rev. Alexander 
S. Knitter, and an appropriate sermon 
was delivered by Rt. Rev. Mgr. Stanis- 
laus Nawrocki. 

E'ventually, the rectory was built on 
the corner of Strong Street and Menard 
Avenue. The church and school building 
was enlarged in the year of 1926, by add- 
ing thereto additional classrooms and 
a large assembly hall. The present rec- 
tory was erected in 1929, the former 
was converted into a Sisters' convent. 
The church premises are adorned hy a 
beautiful grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes, 
Which is considered a masterpiece at- 
tracting many visitors. 

The Sisters of Notre Dame were en- 
trusted with the teaching of the chil- 
dren. The first Sister Superior was 



Rev. Sister M. Waltrudis. The Parish school expanded 
to such an extent that it is now in charge of twenty 
nun teachers, with Sister M. Thylla, as their Superior. 
About 700 children attend the school. A commercial 
class was founded in 1932, its first enrollment numbered 
46 students, who were in charge of Sister M. Remigia. 

Church choirs increased with the growth of the parish. 
The pastor obtained the services of Mr. Conrad W. Pa- 
welkiewicz, to assume the duties of organist and director 
of the church choirs. He is serving well in this capacity 
since 1926. 

The parish in its short existence was honored by visits 
from many prominent church dignitaries. Especially 
during the Eucharistic Congress at Chicago, Rev. A. S. 
Knitter, the pastor, was host to Bishops Kubina, Lukom- 
ski and Przezdziecki, all visitors from Poland. 




REV. A. KNITTER 

Rev. Alexander S. Knitter was born on July 19th, 
1884, in Chicago. He received his grammar school edu- 
cation at the St. Stanislaus Kostka School, continuing 




RECTORY 



122 



HISTORY OF SAINT CONSTANCE PARISH 




SISTERS' CONVENT 



CHURCH AND SCHOOL BUILDING 



his college education at St. Stanislaus Kostka College. 
He enrolled at the St. Bonaventure Seminary, Allegheny, 
N. Y., for his theological studies. He was ordained in 
1909 by Archbishop James Quigley, and celebrated his 
first Mass at St. Stanislaus Kostka Church on June 6th. 
1909. He Was assigned to St. Joseph's Church as assist- 
ant. Within a short time he was transferred to St. Adal- 
bert's Parish, where he remained as assistant for six 
years. On July 6th, 1916, he assumed the duties as pastor 
of the St. Constance Parish. The parish grew from 90 
families to 1,000 families under his guidance and good 
management. 

The pastor is assisted in his work by Rev. Edward 
Schuster, who was born in Chicago, Illinois, on June 
13th, 1892. He completed his grade school in St. Adal- 
bert's Parish, then finished his high school course at 
St. Ignatius College, and from there entered the St. 
Francis Seminary, at St. Francis, Wisconsin, where he 
received his philosophy and theology degrees and or- 
dained a priest on June 7th, 1917, by His Eminence, Car- 
dinal Mundelein. Rev. Edward Schuster after his ordina- 
tion served as assistant in the Immaculate Conception 
Parish of South Chicago; St. Mary's of Cicero, Illinois; 
and St. Ann's of Chicago. He is a capable, hard-working 
priest respected by his pastor and parishioners. 

The parish is known for its social events, mostly spon- 
sored by societies now existing. The following societies 
were organized in the Parish: 

Polonia Club, Felix Nowaczek, president; F. Kamiński, 
recording secretary; 500 members. 

Holy Name Society, A. Wasko, president; W. Ciecko, 
recording secretary; 150 members. 

St. Constance Choir, W. Sperka, president; W. Ciecko, 
Kendzior, recording secretary; 50 members. 

Boy Scouts, Troop No. 1827, Felix Nowaczek, com- 
mander; S. Schultz, scoutmaster; 32 members. 

Ladies Auxiliary Society, Mrs. F. Sadowska, president; 
Mrs. A. Kamińska, recording secretary; 50 mem- 
bers. 

Ladies Rosary Sodality, Mrs. M. Szymczak, president; 
Mrs. Smith, recording secretary; 225 members. 

Young Ladies Rosary Sodality, Miss Marie Wodniak, 
president; Miss G. Sperka, recording secretary; 
140 members. 

Third Order of St. Francis, Frank Krefta, president; 
83 members. 



St. Vincent De Paul Society, M. Sadowski, president; J. 
Czarnik, recording secretary; 12 members. 

Church Ushers, P. Matuszak, president; 14 members. 

St. Lawrence Society, Z. P. R. K., S. Godzich, president; 
M. Januchowski, recording secretary; 60 members. 

St. Constance Social Club, Dr. P. Borowinski, president; 
Miss M. Wodniak, recording secretary; 80 mem- 
bers. 

Casianir Sypniewski Society, P. N. A., P. Kolbus, presi- 
dent; T. Krysiak, recording secretary; 65 mem- 
bers. 

St. Hedwig's C. O. of F., Mrs. H. Krawiec, president; 
Miss Pszczolinska, recording secretary; 25 mem- 
bers. 

St. Constance Ct. No. 98, Alma Mater, Joseph Krawiec, 
president; Joseph Kowaczek, recording secretary; 
27 members. 

The General Committee is aided by the presidents of 
the various societies in the parish and the following 
individual committees: 

Frank A. Blaschke. Chairman; Joseph Kowaczek, Vice- 
Chairman; Mrs. Florence Sadowski, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Anna Marski, Felix Nowaczek, Secretary. 

Program and Entertainment Committee — Rosary Sodal- 
ity: — M. Wodniak, Pres.; V. Blaschke, Ev. Bobritzki. 

Holy Name Society: — Al. Wasko, Pres.; P. Matuszak, 
W. Balejko. 

Ticket Committee — Ladies' Auxiliary: — M. Lach, Chair- 
man; A. Kamiński, K. Bobritzki. 

Invitation, Committee — Constance Social Club:- — Ch. 

Czekaj, Chairman; H. Kamiński, Miss. S. Kobielski. 
Contest Committee: — Mrs. M. Lach, Chairman, Al. 

Wasko, D. Górski. 
Housing and Decorating Committee — Polonia Club of 

Jefferson Park: — W. J. Matwij, Chairman; Fr. 

Kamiński, K. Szott. 

Boy Scouts Committee — Throop 1827: — St. Schulz, 

Scoutmaster. 
Choir Committee — St. Constance Choir: — Con. Pawel- 

kiewicz, Organist; W. Sperka, Pres. 

Athletic Committee: — Al. Wasko, Pres.; C. Czekaj, 
V. Blaschke, Ang. Lach, H. Kamiński, E. Bobritzki. 

Album Committee — St. Constance Church Ushers: — P. 
Matuszak. Pres.; J. Blaszczyk, Joseph W. Czarnik, 
Conrad W. Pawelkiewicz. 



123 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2§5 2§S 



PHONES: KILDARE 3800 — PALISADE 1660 

Joseph F. Kowaczek 

funeral director 





(LADY ASSISTANT) 



BEAUT IFUL C HAPEL 

Limousines 
For All Occasions 



OUR MOTTO: 
Service and Courtesy 



5776 LAWRENCE AVE. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



CONGRATULATIONS ! 

To the Polish Community of Chicago — and all 
those people who have been such important 
factors in the success of Polish Week and the 
Polish Exposition at the Century of Progress 
— our sincere congratulations! Truly the results 
of your efforts represent the Progress that has 
been contributed by you to Chicago. 

For over Ą0 years Klee Bros. & Co. 
have served the Polish Community of 
Chicago with quality apparel for men 
and boys. We invite you to visit our 
2 conveniently located stores. They are 
easy to reach and you will find plenty 
of competent Polish speaking sales- 
people to serve you. 

Open Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday Nights 



KLEE BROS. & CO. 

Milwaukee Avenue at Irving Park Boulevard 
and Cicero Avenue 

(2 STORES) 

Belmont Avenue at Lincoln Avenue 
and Ashland Avenue 



QUALITY 



SERVICE 



KLECZEWSKI'S BAKERY 

JOHN H. KLECZEWSKI 

4784 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
CHICAGO PENSACOLA 3887 



PHONE: PALISADE 5270 



Quality Meat 

Is a Family Treat 

MICHAEL'S MARKET 

5603 LAWRENCE AVE. CHICAGO 



PALISADE 7975 



J. S. MAJEWSKI 

CONFECTIONERY 

Cigars and Cigarettes 

5601 LAWRENCE AVENUE 



124 



8§5- 



HISTORY OF SAINT CONSTANCE PARISH 



■2§5 



American Aid to Poland 
ter the War 



Afti 



Though Poland has contributed much to 
the United States in the way of a cultural 
and traditional background, the fact must 
not be overlooked that Poland, too, has 
been the recipient of countless favors and 
life giving aid by the United States, espe- 
cially in the year 1919, the first of Po- 
land's new existence as a nation. These 
contributions have been chiefly of two 
types — political intervention to secure the 
national independence itself, and financial 
aid and actual distribution of food and 
clothing, from the lack of which destitute 
Poland presented the paradoxical picture 
of a country re-born and yet starving to 
death. 



Poland was assured of its nationhood 
when President Wilson uttered those mo- 
mentous words: "Statesmen everywhere 
are agreed that there should be a united, 
autonomous and independent Poland." 
President Wilson spoke for oppressed na- 
tionalities because "we, Americans", as he 
stated, "are the clearing house for the sym- 
pathies of mankind — the debtors to man- 
kind to see that we square policies with 
human liberty everywhere." 



With Poland on the map, the United 
States government next proceeded with 
another great humanitarian act: the re- 
victualment of Poland in 1919, and finally 
with the extension of credit and loans to 
the renascent country. 



In 1919, the Kellogg-Grove investiga- 
tions and conferences with Polish officials 



PHONE KEYSTONE 8452-3 

ELSTON LAUNDRY CO. 

P. KOWACZEK, President 
L. KOTERSKI, Secretary and Manager 

Quality Work & Service at Minimum Cost 

4244-50 ELSTON AVENUE 



TELEPHONE PENSACOLA 4503 

JOS. GONIVA 

HARDWARE - PAINTS - GLASS 

Household Goods and Electrical Supplies 

3631-33 NORTH CENTRAL AVENUE 

CHICAGO 



STOCKER'S PHARMACY 

CARL, STOCKER, R. Ph., Prop. 

5772 HIGGINS AVENUE CHICAGO 

Phone Pensacola 1218 and 3905 



Tasty Pastries 
Weddings — Parties Our Specialty 

KRISPY ROLL BAKE SHOP 

5948 LAWRENCE AVENUE 
JOHN W. GAZINSKI, Prop. TEL. AVE. 9521 



TELEPHONE KILDARE 6193 

ROMAN PIGULSKI 

Dealer in Best Quality of Meats 
4252 MILWAUKEE AVE. CHICAGO 



FOR 



DEPEND ON 



KILDARE 
, 3440 



125 ] 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



revealed not only that vast stocks of food 
were needed, but that no time at all could 
be lost in delivering them. 

In such a critical situation it was im- 
possible to wait even for a settlement of 
finances before starting food on the way, 
and it was essential to rush all the prelim- 
inary arrangements for transport and de- 
livery. Fortunately food ships were soon 
in European ports for just such emergen- 
cies. Herbert Hoover having started sup- 
plies from America even before the in- 
vestigations began. The first three ships, 
carrying cargoes of wheat flour shipped 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



from Rotterdam, reached Danzig on Feb- 
ruary 17, 1919, and by midnight of the 
eighteenth the first train of forty cars with 
six hundred tons of flour had crossed the 
German-Polish border at Illowa to reach 
Warsaw the next day. By February 22 
all three ships had unloaded, and during 
February fourteen thousand tons of food 
reached Poland. 



PALISADE 2872 

MONTROSE BAKERY 

JOSEPH GOSZCZYŃSKI 
4355 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

CHICAGO 



TELEPHONES: KILDARE 6036 AND 6794 

JEFFERSON PARK 
PHARMACY 

P. BRYKOWSKI, R. Ph. G. 

"Oldest Community Drug Store" 

OPTOMETRIST 



4817 MILWAUKEE AVE. 



CHICAGO 




WEST SIDE AWNING CO., Not Inc. 

Truck Covers - Canopies - Porch Curtains - Canvas Goods 

1500 W. OHIO ST. TEL. HAYMARKET 5916 



MIKE'S FLOWER SHOP 

Flowers For All Occasions 

6506 MILWAUKEE AVE. NEWSASTLE 0040 



Frank Sieracki, Prop. 



Bus. Ph. Kildare 9500 



THE LOCKWOOD 
MEAT MARKET 

4219 N. LOCKWOOD AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



The revictualment of any country after 
four years of war is difficult, but Poland 
was a special case with individual prob- 
lems which complicated the task a hundred- 
fold. 

Its frontiers were still undetermined; 
wars were still fought on its borders. In 
spite of its strong national impulse to in- 
dependence, the country was divided in 
habits of thought, in background and ex- 
perience by its long years of separation in 
three parts under three alien governments 
and by the fact that, especially on its bor- 
ders, it contained people of various races 
and religions. In towns and cities laborers 
were idle, depressed, and hungry. Agri- 
cultural production was negligible, while 
the continued battles on the frontiers fur- 
ther prevented recuperation and increased 
the number of homeless people- 
Money and credit were almost non- 
existent in the new state, and with rail- 
roads disorganized, communications and 
trade with adjoining countries cut off, and 
the main port of entry, Danzig, in the 
hands of a hostile people, supplies could 
not be delivered and reconstruction begun 
without the intervention of outside agen- 
cies as mediators between Poland and her 
neighbors. 



Theoretically, the Food Mission of 1919 
was to deliver food to the Polish govern- 
ment which in turn was to distribute it to 
the people, but in reality it was necessary 
for those who were delivering food to take 



[Continued on page 130] 



126 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 




ST. HEDWIG'S CHURCH 



World's War the members of the parish 
complied with the urgent request of our 
Government by contributing generously to 
the National cause, buying liberty bonds, and 
furnishing a numher of volunteers to the 
American and Polish Armies. 

Septemher 1, 1920 the Rev. S. Siatka, C. 
R., former pastor of St. John Cantius, where 
his extraordinary sucess had been noted and 
marked, became authorized pastor of St. 
Hedwig's. His ease of manner, his quiet re- 
pose, his likable qualities of heart and soul 
won him many friends during his stay at the 
parish. He worked most ardently to collect 
the necessary funds for a modern school. 
During his administration the attendance 
figured approximately 3,000 pupils who are 
under the watchful and competent super- 
vision of forty teachers from the Congrega- 
tion of the Sisters of the Holy Family of 
Nazareth. 

Since September, 1923, the parish is 
conducted plausibly by the Rev. Francis 
Dembiński, C. R., the former efficient ad- 
ministrator of St. Stanislaus Kostka. During 
his time the church belfries have been con- 
structed with new bells in them, the in- 
terior and the exterior of the church re- 
modeled, and the entire parish property re- 
paired and renewed. 



THE growth of St. Hedwig's Parish under the Rev. Vincent Barzya- 
ski's adminis. ration was strikingly effective. The task of organiza- 
tion had been a stupendous one. Numberless difficulties arose from 
time to time which had not been anticipated and these had toi be met 
and solved. 

St. Hedwig's Parish situated on the Northwest side of the city, was 
founded in 1888 by a zealous and profoundly religious Polish patriot, the 
Rev. V. Barzynski. With the never ending cooperation of St. Hedwig So- 
ciety, the first church was erected. It was a two stories high combination 
building, comprising the church and the school. It was named in honor of 
the Silesian patron saint of the auxiliary society. On Dec. 4, 1888 St. Hed- 
wig's Church was dedicated by the Rt. Rev. Patrick A. 
Feehan Archbishop of Chicago. 

From 1888 to Feb. 7, 1894 the Rev. V. Barzynski 
performed the duties of a first pastor. He was succeeded 
by the noble minded and a diligent administrator, Rev. 
John Piechowski, C. R. Under his administration the 
Catholic life and interests of the Parish have been ad- 
vanced incredibly. In education, in works of charity, in 
cultural developments, in social welfare and betterment, 
Father Piechowski was unsurpassed. In 1898 he encour- 
aged the construction of a magnificent new church, de- 
signed in the Roman Style, having a capacity of 1500 
seats. This crowning achievement of Rev. J. Piechowski's 
gigantic undertaking amounted to $175,000. 

In 1909 Rev. John B. Obyrtacz was appointed pastor 
of St. Hedwig's. Under his intelligent and industrious 
leadership, the growth of the parish went forward enor- 
mously. The evidences of his zeal were the enlargement 
of the school, and in 1912 the construction of an audito- 
rium which can hold 1200 people. By necessary conse- 
quence, in 1916 the old rectory was reconstructed so as 
to accommodate seven priests. 

During this flourishing administration, 1913, the 
parish had celebrated its Silver Jubilee and during the 




ST. HEDWIG'S PARISH SCHOOL 



[127] 



»!*■ 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



-& 



Shop ivith Confidence Where Price, and 
Cheerful Service is Ahvays Assured 

Trade Here and Save 



midwest 



St 



ores 



Best — Quality — Always 
SCHULTZ BROS. 

PROP. 

2118 North Damen Avenue 

PHONE HUMBOLDT 6846 
We Guarantee Everything We Sell 



The reverend pastor who is a modest, humble, intel- 
lectual, and deeply pious religious, labors with unwearied 
diligence to decrease the enormous parish debts. The large 
measure of success is due to his sWeet and peaceful dis- 
position. During these crucial times, he puts his person- 
ality at the disposition of his distressed parishioners. 

His assistant priests are: Rev. Stanislaus Siatka, C. 
R., Rev. S. Swierczyk, C. R., Rev. H. Gryczman, C. R., and 
Rev. L. Long, C. R. The lay ibrothers are: Bro. J. Sojda 
and Bro. R. Jaszczyński. 

The parish premises located near Webster and Hoyne 
Avenues embrace one square block of 112,922 sq. feet, 
representing a huge sum of $1,000,000.00. 

The story of the progress of St. Hedwig's Parish is 
without parallel and one that fairly staggers the imagina- 
tion and challenges the credulity. It is a story of devotion 
unstinted, of service that is Christlike in its patience and 
obedience, of love and loyalty, and generosity that is truly 
marvelous. There is no more sturdy a Polish Catholic 
group in all the world and none among whom the faith 
is more live or alert; none where love for Pastor is more 
devoted and where humble submission and filial love tor 
the Vicar of Christ is so much a part of the life and 
times of its people. 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 7054 



E. A. STRASZYŃSKI 

BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY 

Wedding and Party Cakes a Specialty 



2054 WEBSTER AVE. 



CHICAGO 



\ 




Telephone Armitage 4630 Licensed Embalmer 

Joseph Wojciechowski 

Undertaker and Funeral Director 

AUTOMOBILES FURNISHED 
FOR ALL OCCASIONS 

Free Use of Chapel 



2129 WEBSTER AVENUE 



CHICAGO 



128 







?* •**» -a^ 














iSj 4, 



l 





fc|5' 



3SM 



a sma// section of the 

territory served by 

POLONIA 






I hirty-six years ago 
POLONIA started serving 
Chicago's Northwest Side with de- 
pendable fuel. 

Seven years ago in order to keep pace with 
the expansion of the great Northwest Side, we 
built our second plant and thus insured a con- 
tinuance of that customer satisfaction for which 
POLONIA is so well known. 

Today we are serving thousands of homes— 
a veritable city within a city. 

In the future POLONIA will keep pace 
with progress as it always has in the past. 



{ m 




President 

POLONIA COAL COMPANY 






fh> 



■Efe 
I 



% '». 



ft 



SIS' 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Wear Clean Clothes... 

Your wearing apparel, when cared for 
properly, lasts longest. Send your dresses, 
spring coats, suits, hats, gloves, etc., to 
us for the finest of naphtha cleaning and 
expert finishing. 

Phone Spaulding 8200 
3251-53 FULLERTON AVE. 

OFFICERS: 



S. SZYNALSKI, Pres. 
J. KARŁOWICZ, Secy 
A. KNAP, Treasurer 
L. GLENICKI, Vice Pres. 
W. PAWYZA, Vice Pres. 
S. J. JANECKI, Mpr. 



"The Most Reputable Cleaning Plant 
on the Northwest Side" 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 1227 

A. SCHIFFMANN, Pres. 
A. WEAR, Sec'y and Treas. 



CARL SCHIFFMANN 
LUMBER CO. 

DEALERS IN 

Lumber, Lath Shingles, Posts, 
Mouldings, Wall Board, etc. 

1638-52 MILWAUKEE AVE. 

ED. WEAR, Manager CHICAGO 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 126] 

upon themselves responsibilities in rela- 
tions with other governments, in finance 
and even in local distribution, which nor- 
mally would not have been theirs. The 
story of revictualment and relief is thus 
a tale of the constant, active contacts of 
the Food Missions, the American Relief 
Administration, and the various Allied and 
American technical missions with even the 
minor details of Poland's life in 1919 and 
the succeeding years. 



Danzig (Gdansk) was clearly the best 
inlet to Poland for food supplies, but be- 
cause it was a city desired by Poland as 
an outlet to the sea, the relations between 
the Poles and the Germans were so strained 
that the port could not be used without 
the intervention of Allied authorities. Per- 
mission for its use was secured in January, 
1919, through the Permanent Committee 
of the Supreme Council of Supply and Re- 
lief. The next step was to investigate the 
port for its technical facilities, the pos- 
sibility of mines in the vicinity, and the 
draft and number of ships that could be 
accomodated; and to arrange with Ger- 
man and Danzig authorities for the guar- 
antees and assistance to be given in un- 
loading the food and guarding and trans- 
porting it to the Polish border. This was 
done in January by American officers of 
the Food Mission, who soon realized that 
while the port was ideal in many respects, 
the political situation was such that they 
must use the greatest tact in availing 
themselves of its facilities and must act 
as mediators between the Germans and the 
Poles in every detail of the operation. 

Quite as important, however,, as the 
machinery of transportation was the ques- 
tion of the attitude of the inhabitants of 



[Continued on page 132] 



[130 



Ikr 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



& 



JEDEN Z NAJLEPSZYCH I NAJZASŁUZEŃSZYCH 




PROF. EMIL WIEDEMAN. SENJOR ORGANISTÓW POLSKICH 



siebie uwagę kapel, chórów i orkiestr, nad 
któremi objął niebawem kierownictwo. Wkrót- 
ce też, bo w roku 1886-tym, uzyskał pierwsze 
stanowisko organisty w par. Niepokalanego 
Poczęcia Najśw. Marji Panny w So. Chicago. 

Po paru latach pobytu w So. Chicago, 
wyjechał na krótko do Buffalo, na stanowisko 
organisty w par. Św. Wojciecha, paczem wró- 
cił do So. Chicago na poprzednie swoje stano- 
wisko; następnie był przez 4 lata organistą w 
par. św. Michała, w So. Chicago. 

W roku 1896 objął stanowisko organisty 
w par. św. Jadwigi w Chicago i od tej pory, 
t. j. przez 37 lat bez przerwy spełnia godnie 
swoje zadanie, ku zupełnemu zadowoleniu, 
kolejno zmieniających się księży proboszczów 
i parafjan. Dyryguje dwoma chórami doro- 
słych, chórem dziatwy i orkiestrą. 

My członkowie i członkinie Chórów Jad- 
wigowskich jesteśmy dumni z swego dyry- 
genta, posiadającego powszechną sławę naj- 
lepszego organisty i cieszącego się ustaloną 
opinją wielkiego muzyka, kompozytora, in- 
struktora i kierownika. 

Korzystając z okazji pragniemy złożyć 
Mu życzenie serdeczne: długich lat życia, sił 
do pracy i większego jeszcze uznania, na 
które w zupełności, Drogi Nasz Dyrygent, 
zasłużył. 

CHÓR ŚW. JADWIGI NR. 1. 

FELIKS BARTNICKI, Prezes 
HELENA WIŚNIEWSKA, Wice-prezeska 
WŁADYSŁAW KOSTECKI, Sekr. Fin. 
PRAKSEDA JAKUBOWKA, Sekr. Prot. 
ALEX BRZEZIŃSKI, Kasjer 
WŁADYSŁAW POREDA. Bibliotekarz 
WŁADYSŁAWA KASPRZAK, Bibliotekarka 
ZENON MUCHOWICZ, Marsz. 
STANISŁAWA GRZĘDZICKA, Marsz. 
KAZIMIERZ BURZYŃSKI 



DO najwięcej zasłużonych i szanowanych profesorów 
organistów polskich w Ameryce, należy niewątpli- 
wie, długoletni nasz dyrygent i profesor Emil 
Wiedeman. 

Przejęci czcią i miłością dla niego niniejszą stroni- 
cę Pamiętnika Polskiego Wystawy światowej w Chicago, 
za zgodą wszystkich członków poniżej wymienionych 
chórów Jemu poświęcamy. 

Najznakomitszy nasz dyrygent prof. Emil Wiedeman. 
urodził się dnia 10-go marca 1862-go roku, w miejscowości 
Skurcz, w Wielkopolsce. Mając lat 20 przybył do Amery- 
ki i osiedlił się w Chicago. 

Posiadając niezwykłe zdolności muzyczne, okazywane 
jeszcze w Polsce i głos sympatyczny, odrazu zwrócił na 



STEFAN MAJEWSKI 
MAŁGORZATA SZCZEPANIAK 
MARJA SOŁTYS 



Delegaci do 
Połączonych 
Chórów 



CHÓR ŚW. JADWIGI NR. 2. 
WŁADYSŁAW KONCZYK, Prezes Hon. 
EMIL WIEDEMAN, Prezes 
BRONISŁAWA GRZELECKA, Wice-prezeska 
TEOFILA WARZ, Sekr. Fin. 
ZOFIA WENCEL. Sekr. Prot. 
ROZALIA KOSIŃSKA, Kasjerka 
WŁADYSŁAWA SIWAK, Bibliotekarka 
JULIA PIOTROWSKA ) 

EMILIA SOKULSKA [ Marszałkowie 

KLARA ROZMIAREK 



[131] 



&- 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



III 



TEL. HUMBOLDT 0809 



P„ 



John Xoklenkowski 

UNDERTAKER 
anrfEMBALMER 




2058 WEST WEBSTER AVE. 



Corner Hoyne Avenue 

CHICAGO 



JOSEPH MAGDZIARZ, President 
ROMAN GROCHOWINA, Secretary 
LEON WOJCZYNSKI, Vice-Pres. & Mgr. 
MARTIN WOJCZYNSKI, Treasurer 

TELEPHONE MONROE' 1807-1808 

Standard 

COFFIN & CASKET MFG. CO. 

Representatives 
MARTIN WOJCZYNSKI, 
LEO WOJCZYNSKI, JR. 

Directors 
MICHAEL WOJCZYNSKI, 
JOHN J. STEPHANY, 
LEON ZGLENICKI. 

729-35 Milwaukee Avenue 

Corner N. Carpenter Street 
CHICAGO 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 130] 

Danzig towards this delivery of large 
quantities of food across German territory 
to Poland. Germany was as yet receiving 
no food from abroad, and while conditions 
in Gdansk were far better than in Poland, 
the Danzigers were not sufficiently well 
fed to view with equanimity the shipment 
of large quantities of food to their enemies 
across the border. The Americans, in 
choosing the base for their operations, se- 
lected the Freihafen Basin because, among 
other reasons, a high wire stockade sur- 
rounded it, with its docks, tracks, ware- 
houses and offices, and ''rendered the 
American docks and ships easily defensible 
in case of riots." 

By the end of March the Vistula had 
been opened to relief shipments, by barge 
to Warsaw, and the month of April saw 
fifty-two thousand tons of food pass 
through Danzig for Poland. The arrival 
of these first shipments in Poland pro- 
duced no miracle of recovery, but its effect 
was notable. 

It was, in the first place, the first de- 
livery of any kind of supplies to Poland 
after the war and tangible evidence of 
America's intention to stand by the new 
state in its struggle for existence. Conse- 
quently the delivery of food greatly 
strengthened the hand of the Government 
in preserving order at a time when dis- 
order was born in the desperation of 
hunger. 

And because food was delivered first in 
towns and cities where the greatest emer- 
gency existed and workers were almost at 
the end of their hope and patience, it gave 
an impetus to the revival of industry, be- 
sides saving the lives of many of an agra- 
rian population who were facing actual 
starvation at the beginning of 1919. 



[Continued on page 134] 



[132] 



&' 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



-2§5 



JOHN CZEKAŁA, President 
JOHN GAVIN, Vice President 



J. P. GRZEMSKI, Secretary 
2304 N. Western Avenue 



S. S. TYRAKOWSKI, Vice Pres. 
C. WACHOWSKI, Treasurer 



Polish-American League of the Building & Loan Assotiations 



OP ILLINOIS 



DIRECTORS 

J. T. JASIŃSKI 

P. JEZIERNY 

T. KALISZ 

J. S. KOZŁOWSKI 

J. LACHCIK 

A. MYSOGLAND 

F. L. MAJKA 




OFFICERS: 

A. NIEDBALSKI 
F. NOWAK 
W. OKOŃ 
T. PODRAŻA 
S. POCHOCKI 
I. SCIGALSKI 



CHICAGO, ILL. 
SOME OF THE PROGRESSIVE MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE 

Jefferson Park Bldg. & Loan Assn. Ncrthw'tem Sav. Bldg. & Loan Assn. 



4841 Milwaukee Avenue 
OTTO E. GÓRSKI, President 
ARTHUR J. KOWALSKI, Secretary 

Sacramento Ave. Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

2405 South Albany Avenue 
JOSEPH RENKIEWICZ, President 
HENRY J. APIDA, Secretary 

Kościuszko Bldg. & Loan Assn. No. 3 

1624 West 18th Street 
IGNATIUS FRASZ, President 
STANLEY S. POCHOCKI, Secretary 

Zgoda Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

1924 South Leavitt Street 
W. ADAMCZYK, President 
JOHN GAWIN, Secretary 

Webster Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

2006 Webster Avenue 

ANTHONY J. DEMBSKI, President 

GREGORY A. NOWICKI, Secretary 

J. I. Kraszewski Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

1811 South Ashland Avenue 
C. F. PETTKOSKE, President 
LEON V. DOMAN, Secretary 

St. Floryans Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

3154 East 133rd Street 
ALBERT SOWA, President 
FRANK G1NALSKI, Secretary 

Piast Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

1710 West 21st Street 
JOSEPH MIKUŁA, President 
KASPER ROPA, Secretary 

Mickiewicz Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

8905 Commercial Avenue 
S. J. DUDEK, President 
JOSEPH WALCZAK, Secretary 



2304 North Western Avenue 
STANLEY GRZEGOREK, President 
JOHN P. GRZEMSKI, Secretary 

Irving Park Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

3951 North Spaulding Avenue 
IGNATIUS ROPATA, President 
ALBERT NIEDBALSKI, Secretary 

Fifteenth Ward Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

2004 Webster Avenue 

FRANK KONCZYK, President 

WALTER OKON, Secretary 

Legion Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

1141 North Damen Avenue 
THOMAS S. GORDON, President 
WALTER OKON, Secretary 

Krakow Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

2702 South Kildare Avenue 
ANTON PLOTKOWSKI, President 
LOUIS A. KAMIŃSKI, Secretary 

General Sowiński Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

2925 South 49th Avenue, Cicero, III. 
MARTIN PIETRZAK, President 
FRANK K. MILLER, Secretary 

Public Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

8415 Marquette Avenue 

BOLES GRUDZIŃSKI, President 

W. M. MANISZEWSKI, Secretary 

Pulaski Bldg. Loan & Invest. Assn. 
1313 Noble Street 

JOHN KENDZIORSKI, President 
JOHN CZEKAŁA, Secretary 

General Pulaski Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

13358 Brandon Avenue 

CHAS. MOTKOWICZ, President 

C. A. KOCHAŃSKI, Secretary 



Polish Crown Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

1372 Ingraham Street 

S. JANKOWSKI, President 

MARTIN S. LEWANDOWSKI, Secretary 



[133] 



2§5" 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



-ale 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 132] 

In general the presence of imported 
foodstuffs and the evidence that the sup- 
ply would continue tended to stabilize 
prices, bring out hoarded stocks, and dis- 
courage profiteering. A secondary result 
of the food delivery, but one of great im- 
portance to the hungry, ill and poor, was 
that by opening the way into Poland and 
proving that transportation difficulties 
were not insurmountable, the American 
Relief Administration assisted other so- 
cieties and agencies to bring relief in vari- 
ous forms. In February and the spring 
months, the American Red Cross, the Jew- 
ish Joint Distribution Committee, the Brit- 
ish and American Friends, and others, sent 
units to Poland. The American Relief Ad- 
ministration acted as transport agency for 
most of them during 1919, and they estab- 
lished a variety of relief programs, large 
and small, which were of the greatest value 
to Poland in the succeeding years. 

Actually, there was no country in 
Europe, not even in Austria, in which the 
Americans found conditions more confused 
or the need greater than in Poland. It 
should be remembered that when the Food 
Mission reached Warsaw on January 4, 
Paderewski had been there only three days 
and his conferences with Piłsudski, from 
which the new government emerged, were 
still going on. Very naturally this govern- 
ment, struggling to unite a long-divided 
people, immediately found itself in a fi- 
nancial tangle which was even more com- 
plicated than that of the defeated powers. 
For all of Poland's finances had been tied 
up with those powers, and with Russia. 

In short, Poland and the other liberated 
states of Eastern Europe and the Baltic 
could not mobilize the resources to pur- 
chase and deliver the food necessary to 

[Continued on page 136] 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 7956 

26 Years in Business 

STANLEY LORENZ 

QUALITY MEATS 

AND HOME MADE SAUSAGES 

We Deliver 



2156 ARMITAGE AVE. 



CHICAGO 



Tym, co pracują dla 
sprawy Polskiej 
życzy powo- 
dzenia 

Dyrektorka Zjednoczenia 

Polskiego Rzymsko 

Katolickiego. 




PHONE ARMITAGE 4683 A. KOSIBA, PROP. 

NAJWIĘKSZY SKŁAD POLSKI ŻELASTWA 
Założony od roku 1920 

Logan 

Hardware & Paint Store 

Household Goods, Wall Paper, Paint, Glass, 
Electrical and Gas Supplies 

2408-10 PULLERTON AVENUE 




TEL. HUMBOLDT 6258 

MICHAEL 
PRZYBYŁA 

First Class 

MEAT MARKET 

Fresh, Smoked and 

Salted Meats 
Poultry in Season 

2075 NORTH 

WESTERN AVE. 

CHICAGO 



[134] 



M' 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



'ft 




John P. Grzemski 



ONE of the energetic social, patriotic and political workers of 
the younger generation is Mr. John P. Grzemski, who con- 
ducts a Real Estate and Mortgage office at 2304 N. Western 
Ave., Chicago, Illinois. He is a member of the Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish National Alliance, Polish Alma Mater 
and others. Director of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, Sec- 
retary of the Polish American Building and Loan League, Sec- 
retary of the Northwestern Saving Bldg. & Loan Ass'n., Secre- 
tary of the Rev. Joseph Barzyński Club of St. Hedwigs Parish, 
and officer of Circuit 54 of the P. R. C. U. 






K : i 



[135] 



sis 



POLKS IX AMERICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



FIFTEENTH WARD 
BUILDING & LOAN ASS'N 



Incorporated 1898 



Officers and Oirectors 
Frank Konczyk, President 
William Tamoj, Vice Pres. 
Walter Okon, Secretary 
Anthony Czerwiński, Treas. 
John Poklenkowski, Director 



Casimir S. Wiczas, Attorney 



Leo Jaworowski, Director 
Jos. Andrzejewski, Director 
Victor Gerke, Director 
William Serirot. Director 
John Honk. Director 



2004 WEBSTER AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 3609 

POLONIA DAIRY COMPANY 

SELECTED DAIRY PRODUCTS 
903-907 NORTH WINCHESTER AVENUE 
ANTHONY DUDA, Prop. CHICAGO, ILL. 



OPEN ALL NIGHT 

Northwestern Pharmacy inc. 

HERMAN ELICH, R. Ph. 

1576 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

Corner Damen Avenue (Robey Street) 



HUMBOLDT 0987 



CHICAGO 



St. Hedwig's Dramatic Circle 

Bernard F. Michalak, Pres. 
2159 NORTH WESTERN AVENUE 



Bb» "^fcJB 




F~* 'I 


Compliments of 


K * ■" *\ -^m 


Z. H. Kadow 




Alderman of the 


m^m 


33rd Ward 


WkK^9 





M 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page I'M) 

check famine and maintain internal stab- 
ility. Moreover, it soon appeared that 
though the three Entente Powers had un- 
dertaken responsibility for 60 per cent of 
the provisional relief program (Great 
Britain 25 per cent; France 25 per cent; 
Italy 10 per cent and the United States 
the remaining 40 per cent), they were ac- 
tually not in a position to carry out these 
obligations they had assumed. If the nec- 
essary relief was to be given the United 
States had to provide the greater part of 
both supplies and finance. 



PRIEBE PRINTERS 

Jos. A. Przywarski, Prop. 
1644 CORTLAND ST. HUMBOLDT 6195 

[136] 



On November 9, 1918, Hoover had writ- 
ten to President Wilson suggesting that 
Congress be asked to appropriate a sum 
of money to be used as a revolving fund 
for European relief. This request resulted 
in a bill appropriating $100,000,000 "for 
the relief of such populations in Europe 
and countries contiguous thereto, outside 
of Germany, German-Austria-Hungary, 
Bulgaria and Turkey as may be deter- 
mined upon by the President" ; the bill 
passed the House and the Senate and was 
signed by the President in Paris on Feb- 
ruary 24, 1919. On the same day Wilson 
issued an Executive Order, designating 
the American Relief Administration, un- 
der the directorship of Hoover, to admin- 
ister the relief and authorizing the Amer- 
ican Relief Administration to employ the 
United States Grain Corporation as the 
agency for the purchase and transport of 
supplies. 

The Appropriation Act solved the major 
problem of financing relief in those states 
in which it was applicable. It was espe- 
cially important to Poland, for it made 
available vital food credits which she other- 
wise would have been unable to obtain. The 



[Continued on page 138] 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 

2§S 2f« 



Choose Your Company 

When buying Insurance insist on a strong reliable com- 
pany. Your agent can furnish you with a policy of the 

(feat American 

Jttaitrattr? (Uomjiatuj 

Nnu $łark 



INCORPORATED 1872 



CAPITAL $ 8,150,000.00 

ASSETS $47,900,459.74 

POLICYHOLDERS SURPLUS §20,161,342.41 



City Office 
TELEPHONE WABASH 2145 

SUITE A 1 146, 175 WEST JACKSON BLVD. 

CHICAGO 



C. R. STREET, Vice-President 

M. E. MORIARTY, Manager City Office 

S. P. STEPHANY, Special Agent 



For an agency appointment get in touch with 
S. P. Stephany, special agent. 



(We Write all forms of Insurance except Lije) 



[137] 



2§5- 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-ale 



TEL. BRUNSWICK 1098 

J. CZERWIŃSKI 

FANCY GROCERY AND MEAT MARKET 
Fifteen Years in This Business 

2144 N. LEAVITT STREET, CHICAGO 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 1963-1948 

DUBINSKI'S PHARMACY 

A. Dubinski, R. Ph., Prop. 

A Veteran of Piłsudski Legion and Polish Army 

2116 N. LEAVITT ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE BRUNSWICK 7366 

KAZ. WOJTAS 

WHOLESALE— RETAIL 

EUROPEJSKI WYRÓB WĘDLIN 
HOME MADE SAUSAGE SPECIALTIES 

2012 ARMITAGE AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



Brunswick 6998-6999 



Show Rooms at Factory 



Perfect Parlor Furniture Co. inc. 

WHOLESALE ONLY 

Manufacturers of Quality Upholstered Furniture 

1532-4-6 ELK GROVE AVENUE 



Near Lincoln St. and North Ave. 



CHICAGO 



J. C. BURGRAFF 

FLORAL SHOP 

FLOWERS FOR WEDDINGS, FUNERALS, ETC. 

2321 N. WESTERN AVE. ARMITAGE 4629 



SZCZEPAN WAJDA 

European Style Sausages 

Wholesale and Retail 

2245 N. WESTERN AVE. ARMITAGE 8725 

DR. WM. LAMBRECHT 

Optometrist 
1958 MILWAUKEE AVENUE, at Western 

40 Years in Same Location PHONE HUMBOLDT 6221 



DR. FRED W. AHLERS 

DENTIST 
1958 MILWAUKEE AVE. BRUNSWICK 6707 

AT WESTERN AVENUE 

[ 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued on page 136] 

American Relief Administration could 
now accept the obligations of the Polish 
Treasury, and the full American revictual- 
ment program was assured. 

Realizing that the assurance of conti- 
nued American assistance on a large scale 
would greatly strengthen the new govern- 
ment, Hoover immediately telegraphed to 
Paderewski that the stream of food from 
America would continue to flow in in- 
creasing volume. To this announcement 
Hoover added this personal message: "It 
is now four years since I first attempted 
in cooperation with yourself to secure the 
international organization of systematic 
relief to Poland, and, late as the day is 
and as great as the suffering of Polish 
people has been, yet I witness this day with 
no little personal satisfaction. It marks 
a good omen in the road of realization of 
Polish aspirations to which you have de- 
voted your life." 

Paderewski replied on March 15 : "Your 
beautiful message touches me profoundly. 
I certainly remember all your noble efforts 
four years ago to assist my country and 
shall never forget your generous endeavor- 
ing, alas! frustrated by the merciless at- 
titude of our common foe. It is a privilege 
for any man to cooperate in your great 
work, and I highly appreciate the honor 
of having my name in a modest way asso- 
ciated with yours in the present relief of 
Poland. The activity of Colonel Grove and 
his staff is beyond praise, goods of higher 
quality arriving daily, and thousands of 
people, after four and a half years of ter- 
rible suffering, realizing at last what 
whole nutritious bread is. In behalf of the 
government I beg to offer you most sin- 
cere thanks and with the deepest personal 



[Continued on page 140] 



138] 



2$S 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



-& 



was organized June 1919 by Stephen Grzemski, Jos. Konewko, and J. P. 
Grzemski. 

The Northwestern Saving Building and Loan Association has its offices 
at 2304 N. Western Avenue. It is one of the strongest and best managed As- 
sociation in the City and on February 7th 1933 was admitted to the Federal 
Home Loan Bank System. 

This Association Pays 5% dividend on all Classes of Savings. 



STANLEY GRZEGOREK, President 
KAZ. MADAY, Vice President 
J. P. GRZEMSKI, Secretary 
P. P. PLUCIŃSKI, Treasurer 
A. S. GRZEMSKI, Asst. Secy. 
M. TREMKO, Attorney 



DIRECTORS 



S. GRZEMSKI 
J. KONEWKO 
J. P. GRZEMSKI 
S. GRZEGOREK 
K. MADAY 



P. PLUCIŃSKI 
A. S. GRZEMSKI 
J. M. WASILEWSKI 
LEON KREMPEC 



JOHN R. TONDROW 



JOHN F. IGLEWSKI 



WALTER OKON 



John R. Tondrow 

Building and Loan Auditors 



TELEPHONES : 
ARMITAGE 4002 
KILDARE 5630 
LAKE VIEW 4785 



CHICAGO 



1625 GRACE STREET 



ILLINOIS 



[139] 



*!*■ 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



J. A. POPIELSKI 

Dialer in Wholesale and Retail 

FRESH, SALT AND SMOKED MEATS 
AND GROCERIES 

1856 HERVEY STREET 
PHONE HUMBOLDT 3155 



EDWIN F. KEIL 

MEATS 
Hotel - Restaurant - Institution - Supplies 



l!i:»l AUMITACE AVE. 



BRUNSWICK 9083 



ARMITAGE AUTO STATION 

ESTB. IMS 

Storage, Washing, Expert Service 

We Use Sinclair Products Exclusively 

VISITORS WELCOME 

2212-14-16 ARMITAGE AVENUE 

J. F. KURTZER, MGR. 



Where Quality Costs Less 

WALTER WINIECKI 
FLOWER SHOP 

Funeral Designs, Wedding Flowers and Bouquets 
Our Prices Are Lower Because We Have No Branches 



2141 CORTLAND STREET 



NEAR LEAVITT STREET 



CHICAGO 



Dr. T. M. LARKOWSKI 

Physician and Surgeon 



2000 N. LEAVITT ST. 



BRUNSWICK 3456 



SHAFER'S DRY GOODS 

2060 NORTH DAMEN AVENUE 



BRUNSWICK 0649 



CHICAGO 



The Home of the Famous Wedding Photographs 

EDWARD FOX - Photographer 

2003 MILWAUKEE AVE. HUMBOLDT 0890 
This is my only studio 

ANTONIK BROS. 

FURRIERS 

Furs Made to Order, Remodeled, Repaired and Cleaned 
Fur Storage in Bank Vaults 

2901 MILWAUKEE AVE. PH. ALBANY 2633 

2ND FLOOR CHICAGO, ILL. 



2|S 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 138] 

gratitude, I remain, devotedly yours, I. J. 
Paderewski." 



The American Relief Administration's 
place in the revictualment has been indi- 
cated: it was to be a cooperative effort 
with the Poles in charge of the actual dis- 
tribution of food, and the Americans as- 
sisting with technical advice. For it was 
the stated policy of the Director-General 
of Relief that the revictualment program 
should encourage the initiative of the peo- 
ple concerned in the use and development 
of all local resources. The aim of the re- 
victualment was not simply to save as 
many individual lives as possible, but to 
hasten Poland's return to a normal econo- 
mic life. 

Among the first gifts to Poland in 1919 
from American organizations was a ship- 
ment of used clothing and shoes which had 
been consigned for relief in Belgium. This 
was given by the Commission for Relief 
in Belgium ; the first shipment was of 460 
tons, and three smaller consignments fol- 
lowed, which were distributed in the Dą- 
browa and Katowice mining districts un- 
der direction of Colonel Goodyear of the 
Allied Coal Mission. 

The Jewish Joint Distribution Commit- 
tee in January, 1919, supplied funds for 
the purchase by the Grain Corporation of 
half the million dollar cargo of a gift-ship 
to Poland, the Westward-Ho. The Polish 
National Department, of which John F. 
Smulski was president, donated the other 
half, and the American Relief Administra- 
tion delivered the supplies and arranged 
for their distribution in cooperation with 
Dr. Boris D. Bogen of the Jewish Distri- 
bution Committee and Dr. Smykowski of 
the Polish Relief Committee. The ship- 



[Continued on page 142] 



[140] 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 

2t5 — -ft 



Ladies Club of Queen Hedwig of St. Hedwig's Parish 

Located at Webster and Hoyne Ave. in Chicago, 
was organized the 27th day of January 1921; by 
Rev. Father Stanislaus Siatka, C. R., who was the 
Rector of this parish at that time. This Club has 
150 members active, not only in the parish but 
also in political affairs of the country in general. 

The administration is as follows: 

REV. FATHER FRANCES DEMBIŃSKI MRS. ANNA LUDTKA, Rec. Secretary 

C. R., Chaplain MRS. SALIE WIŚNIEWSKI, Fin. Sec. 

MRS. MARIE SNIEGOCKI. President MRS. MARTHA ZAKRZEWSKI, Treas. 
MRS. VERNIE WIDOWSKI, Vice Pres. 

MRS. V. SPYCHAŁA MRS. ROSE BARYS MRS. H. KRYSZEWSKI 

MRS. WLADYS BALIŃSKI MRS. WANDA KAMKA Committee 

Conductors 



The Rev. Joseph Barzynski Citizens Club 
of St. Hedwig's Parish 

was organized July 18th, 1909, by Rev. J. B. Obyrtacz. 

The object of this Club is to assist the Pastor in 
the Welfare Work of the Parish and the School. 

The Club, through its members, is active in the 
political affairs of the Community. 

The present administration is: 

REV. F. DEMBIŃSKI, Chaplain 
STAN. LORENZ, President JOHN P. GRZEMSKI, Secretary 

ANT. KOSIBA, Vice President JOS. WOJCIECHOWSKI, Treasurer 

S. SNIEGOCKI FRANK SCIBIOR STAN. PARZYCH 

STAN. FERANSKI Master of Ceremony Custodian 

ANT. CZERWIŃSKI JOHN NOWOSIELSKI PIOTR GAL 

Advisors Mar. I IGNACY KIEŁBASA 

STANLEY ONOPA Flag Bearers 

Mar. II 



[141] 



ty- 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



ty 



PHONE ARMITAGE 9000 

M. FAIKEL 

HALL TO RENT FOR ALL OCCASIONS 
2128 N. LEAVITT ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cor. Custer St. 



Tow. Kr. Władysława Jagiełły 

GR. 2206 Z. N. P. 
Założone 4 Kwietnia, 1932, w Chicago, 111. 



A. PASTERNAK, Prez. 
T. MRÓZ, Wice-Prez. 

B. JANACZYK, Wice-Prez. 
J. MODZEJEWSKI, Sekr. 



B. Z. ŁACZYŃSKI, Sekr. F. 
T. PIECYK, Sekr. Małolet. 
J. KOWALSKI, Kasjer 
W. SZERMIŃSKI, Chorąży 



Telephone Brunswick 6148 

NATIONAL CORDIAL CO. 

Quality Cordials, Extracts and Fruit Syrups 

M. F. STRUŻYŃSKI I SYN, właściciele 

2129 NORTH WESTERN AVENUE 
CHICAGO 



Frank E. Kamka 

UNDERTAKER AND EMBALMER 

Lady Assistant 

Automobiles Furnished for All Occasions 



2121 WEBSTER AVE. 



HUMBOLDT 0403 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 5489 

STAR PAINT & HARDWARE 

2151 N. ARMITAGE AVENUE 
JOHN C. KOŁODZIEJ CHICAGO 

JEDYNA POLSKA PIEKARNIA NA MARJANOWIE 

CORTLAND BAKERY 

JÓZEF JANKIEWICZ, właściciel 

TORTY, HERBATNIKI I MAKÓW NIKI 

SMACZNE PIECZYWO I CHLEB 

Wypiekane Dwa Razy Dziennie 

1810 CORTLAND ST. BRUNSWICK 5795 

PHONE ARMITAGE 6929 

Maday's Paint & Hardware 

"WE MAKE KEYS" 
2000 N. HOYNE AYE. CHICAGO 



Corner Armitage Avenue 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 140] 

merit was distributed without distinction 
as to the creed of the beneficiaries. 

The American Red Cross also sent sup- 
plies and workers in February, 1919. The 
first shipment of supplies reached Cracow 
about the middle of the month, and was 
distributed by Captain Nowak of the 
American Relief Administration, as Red 
Cross representatives had not then ar- 
rived. Their first unit reached Warsaw 
March 3, on a sanitary train, and by April 
first they had a base at Kowel with 58 
cars of supplies and 140 personnel. 

It w'as agreed that while the American 
Relief Administration cared for the im- 
portation of all supplies and carried on 
the government revictualment campaign, 
the Red Cross would devote itself to medi- 
cal and children's relief. However, food 
was the first essential in Poland at this 
time, and so the Red Cross opened soup 
kitchens, as well as dispensaries and health 
centers. Later the American Relief Ad- 
ministration took over children's relief, 
and the anti-typhoid campaign of 1919-20. 
They distributed considerable used clothing 
during this year and at one time had three 
active units in the Eastern Districts en- 
gaged in feeding, clothing relief, and med- 
ical work. 



"The Friends" (British and American 
Quakers) also sent relief workers to Po- 
land soon after the country was opened to 
such missions. They came primarily for 
health and typhoid relief, settled in a few 
localities and turned their hands to what- 
ever was needed in any particular com- 
munity. Their first station was opened at 
Zawieście, in southwest Poland, August 
20, 1919, where they engaged in various 
forms of relief, distributing American Re- 



[Continued on page 144] 



[142] 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



& 


ats 


COMPLIMENTS 




Pioneer Fire Insurance Co. 




of America 




GENERAL INSURANCE 




29 SO. LA SALLE ST. 
Chicago, 111. 




CENTRAL 6390-6391 


JOHN B. BRENZA, Sec'y 
AUSTIN J. O'MALLEY, State Agent J. J. McKAY, Underwriter 





Compliments^of 



Clayton r . Omith 

Recorder of Deeds 




[143] 



$A 



POLES IN AMERICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-3|5 



SUCCESS To Polish 

33rd Ward Polis 

ANTH. -I. DEMUSKI. Pres. 

212H N. Damen Ave. 
LOUIS J. WOJTYŁA 

Vice President 
FRANK WITKOWSKI 

2nd Vice President 
ALOIS YACTOR. Rec. Sec. 

2048 Charleston St. 
PAUL ARENDT. Fin. Sec. 
ANTH. PLUCIŃSKI, Treas. 



Week of Hospitality 

h-American Club 

SYLVESTER TOMCHEK 
Sergeant-at-Arms 
DIRECTORS 
JOHN C. LASKE 
WM. LIPKA 
MITCHEAL SADOWSKI 
WM. MAZUREK 
KONSTANTY PAZIK 

ADVOCATE 
C. H. KORDOWSKI 




TELEFON BRUNSWICK 2373 

Ludwik W. Wojtyła 

Przedsiębiorca Pogrzebowy 
Re gist rowan y Balsamator 

Wynajmuje Automobile 
na Wszelkie Okazje 

2109 WEBSTER AVENUE 

(Naprzeciw kościoła Św. Jadwisii) 



Bakery Goods For All Occasions 

KARL KOSARY 

INTERNATIONAL BAKERY 
2227 N. WESTERN AVE. HUMBOLDT 8866 



BERNARD KLARKOWSKI 

First Class Delicatessen and Grocery 
2303 N. WESTERN AVE. ARMITAGE 3962 



A. GURAK 



First Class Grocery and Meat Market 
2040 LYNDALE AVE. TEL. ARMITAGE 0076 



PHILLIP FIDLER 

H. O MADAJ, Mgr. 

Manufacturer of Caps and Hats 
2045 MILWAUKEE AVE. HUMBOLDT 0753 



DR. MICHAEL J. KUTZA 

Physician ;mrf Surgeon 

OFFICE 1941 NORTH WESTERN AVENUE 
Office Hours. 11 to 1 and 6 to S l'. M. 

PHONE ARMITAGE 7675 



Hellmuth Prescription Pharmacy 

.7. A'. Hellmuth, Mgr., Registered Pharmacist 

GRADUATE IN PHARMACY 

2252 N. WESTERN AVENUE, COR. COYNE ST. 
PHONE HUMBOLDT 3022 CHICAGO 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 142] 

lief Administration food in the children's 
relief campaign. 

It must not be forgotten that Great Brit- 
ain, in spite of four years of financial 
strain and her war loans to allies, allo- 
cated about $8,000,000 to Poland, a large 
part of which was devoted to the payment 
of ocean freights on American cargoes and 
to railway material, the remainder to de- 
liveries of food, clothing and hospital sup- 
plies. 

France contributed no food, having none 
to spare. Her aid to Poland was military 
— the sending of a strong military mission 
to help Poland maintain her position on 
several fronts, notably the Russian, and 
the granting of credits for military sup- 
plies in a country in which war persisted 
long after Western Europe had settled 
down to its troubled peace. 



America with her great program of re- 
lief has earned the undying gratitude of 
the Poles. The revictualment campaign 
had carried Poland over the immediate 
post-war food crisis and was the first step 
in the long process of economic readjust- 
ment. It saved thousands of lives; it un- 
doubtedly saved the Government, which 
could not have carried on and created any 
semblance of order with famine in its 
cities. The revictualment program had al- 
ready led to activity in child-feeding, cloth- 
ing distribution, sanitary and anti-typhus 
relief, and finally into various cooperative 
efforts in economic reconstruction, so that 
in the fall of 1919, though revictualment 

[Continued on page 146] 



FOR 



DEPEND ON 



KILDARE 
, 3440 



[144] 



*!*- 



THE EIGHTH POLISH PARISH IN CHICAGO 



-2|5 




BOYDA DAIRY CO. — 



THE CHOICE OF DISCRIMINATING CHICAGO. 

Dependable, Every Day Safety. 
Absolute Cleanliness. Rich, Wholesome Flavor. 



H 



MILK 
: A I_T H ! 




ZDROWE — SMACZNE, NAPOJE "BON TON" ZASPOKOIŁY PRAGNIENIE SETKOM TYSIĘCY 

DLACZEGO NIE SPRÓBOWAĆ I PRZEKONAĆ SIĘ? 
BON-TON BEVERAGE INC. telefon monroe 4987 



[145] 



Ik- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 144] 

was over, Poland was not left to struggle 
on alone, but continued to receive friendly, 
disinterested aid from abroad for several 
years. 

Of all the measures initiated by the Di- 
rector-General of Relief to avert famine 
and preserve social order in Central and 
Eastern Europe, revictualment was widest 
in scope and most important in its imme- 
diate effects. But revictualment did not 
stand alone. It depended in some degrees 
on other activities which were supplement- 
ary to it. These concerned economic func- 
tions of the new states of vital importance 
to their industrial life and essential to the 
distribution of relief: inland transport; 
the exchange of commodities; the produc- 

[ Continued on page 150] 



Young Men's Club of Saint 
Hedwig's Parish 

Al. J. Małkowski, Pres. 3331 N. HAMLIN AVE. 



KTO BYŁ NA 

WYSTAWIE 

CHICAGO- 

SKIEJ 

A NIE BYŁ 


TEL. HUMBOLDT 
5614-5639 

Restauracji 


"L 


,enarda" 




1160-70 




Milwaukee Ave. 


TEN NIE 




WIDZIAŁ 
WSZYST- 
KIEGO 


PUNKT ZBORNY 

OŚCI 
WYSTAWOWYCH 

1 INTELIGENCJI 
CHICAG OSKIEJ 




SMACZNE OBIADY 
KOLACJE I PIWO 
CIASTKA, TORTY 
I MAZURKI 


■ ■ 


DUŻA SALA 
DO WYNAJĘCIA 



ESTABLISHED 
1921 



PHONE 
HUMBOLDT 3582 




THE PASIER PRODUCTS CO. 

Manufacturers 
PICKLES, SAUERKRAUT, VINEGAR 

Mustard, Horse Radish, Catsup, Olives, 
Pickle Relishes, etc. 

FACTORY AND GARDENS 

GENOA CITY, WIS. 

OFFICES AND FACTORY 

1901-03 West Division Street 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

J. GAWEL, President 

L. WIŚNIEWSKI, Treasurer 

P. KONOPKA, Secretary 



L. BRZUSZKIEWICZ 

MEAT MARKET 
2135 LYNDALE ST. TEL. ARMITAGE 2317 



SANSONE BROS. 

MUNICIPAL MARKET 
2083 MILWAUKEE AVE. HUMBOLDT 0745 



ARMITAGE RESTAURANT 

M. WOJTAS, Prop. 

Home Cooking Our Specialty 

Service With a Smile 

2014 ARMITAGE AVE. HUMBOLDT 8799 



THE ROSE 
DEPARTMENT STORE 

20G0-62 MILWAUKEE AVE., HUMBOLDT 2151 
CHICAGO 



Compliments of 

CAPITOL SERVICE STATION 

JOHN RESKE 

4164 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 



[146] 



& 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2§S 



(Five Holy Martyrs' Parish) 



Parafja Sw. Pięciu Braci Polaków 

i Męczenników 



1 

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KOŚCIÓŁ PIĘCIU BRACI POLAKÓW I MĘCZENNIKÓW 

Było to w roku 1908, dnia 3go listopada, kiedy Wiel. 
Ks. Józef Kruszka, ówczesny proboszcz parafji Najśw. 
Marji w Gostyniu (Downers Grove, III.), odebrał pole- 
cenie listowne od Najprzewiel. Ks. Arcybiskupa Quig- 
ley'a aby się zajął zorganizowaniem parafji w Brighton 
Parku, mającej swe centrum około 41ej i Kedzie Ave., 
pod wezwaniem ŚŚ. Pięciu Braci Polaków i Męczenni- 
ków. Nie trwało długo a Wiel. Ks. Kruszka zaczął pierw- 
sze nabożeństwa odprawiać w publicznej szkole Davis 
z braku innego stosownego budynku. Rozpoczął budowę 
kombinacyjnego gmachu szkoły i kościoła razem, w roku 
1909 kiedy to w maju tego roku Najprzewiel. Ks. Biskup 
Rhode przybył poświęcić kamień węgielny. Po ukończe- 
niu budowy tak na jesień Wiel. Ks. Proboszcz rozpoczął 
na stałe odprawiać nabożeństwa we własności para- 
fjalnej. 

Z powodu bliskości fabryki i braku miejsca stosownego 
na rozbudowę posiadłości kościelnych na nakaz Najprze- 
wiel. Ks. Arcybiskupa obecnego Kardynała Mundeleina, 
Ks. Kruszka zmuszony był przeprowadzić lokację parafji 
do obecnej siedziby między 43cią i 44tą na Francisco 
i Richmond ulicach, gdzie w roku 1919 rozpoczęto i 
ukończono budowę kościoła osobnego i szkoły. 

Pa świętach wielkanocnych do parafji przybył na pro- 
boszcza w roku 1921 po przeniesieniu Ks. Kruszki do 
parafji św. Anny, Wiel. Ks. Jakób J. Strzycki z Phoenix, 
111. Podczas gospodarowania Wiel. Ks. Strzyckiego wy- 
budowano plebanję, dom Sióstr, nową szkołę na Fran- 
cisco ulicy (ze salą i kręgielnią) i dodatkową małą 
szkółkę. Obecnie w szkole paraf jalnej znajduje się 1,750 
dzieci pod dozorem Czcigodnych Sióstr Franciszkanek. 

Obecnem proboszczem parafji jest Wiel. Ks. Jakób J. 
Strzycki, któremu w pracy duszpasterskiej dopomagają Zjednoczonych. 



Wielebni i XX. Edward Plawiński,, 
Edward Madaj i Paweł Mytys. Ko- 
mitet parafjalny stanowią panowie 
Marcin Kutas i Wal. Balachowski. 

Komitet parafjalny "tygodnia 
polskiej gościnności" stanowią: p. 
Albert V. Tenczar, prezes; Jan Ci- 
choszewski, kasjer i Mikołaj Strzy- 
cki, sekretarz. Inne komitety są 
jak następuje: komitet zabaw i 
programów, Anna Kopera, Józefa 
Borucki, Marja Pankros, Zofja 
Chmiel i Rozalja Gulczyńska; ko- 
mitet biletów: Władysława Meger 
i Jan Rolla; komitet kontestów: 
Anna Kopera; komitet muzyki: 
Franciszek Niedźwiecki, Antoni 
Bodnicki i Piotr Cieśla; komi- 
tet zaproszeń: Jadwiga Rolewicz i 
Marja Nowak; komitet rydwanu i 
pochodu: Antoni Bodnicki, Franci- 
szek Niedźwiecki ; komitet sposobów 
i planów: Jadwiga Chojnacka, Jó- 
zef Gumiński, Franciszek Socha, 
Jan Doniek i Helena Czarnik; ko- 
mitet reklamy: Stanisław Pankros, 
Marja Myszkowska i Józef Dybała; 
komitet atletyki: S. Frankowski, 
Anna Piarowska i Władysław Bo- 
rucki; komitet lokalów: Walenty 
Balachowski i Wiktorja Cieśla; 
komitet transportacji: Adam Wal- 
czak, Franciszek Pawlak; komitet książki pamiętnikowej: 
Stanisław Marcinkowski. Piotr Chamot, Józef Jaszczak. 
Karol Geisler, Józef Gumiński i Karol Moczarski; komi- 
tet kontestu: A. Kopera i Józef Gumiński. 

Przy parafji skupiają się następujące towarzystwa: 
Starszy i Młodszy Chór Św. Cecylji pod dyrekcją p. Kla- 
rencjusza Rybowiak, Bractwo Dzieci Marji, Bractwo 
Dziewic Różańcowych, Bractwo Niewiast Różańcowych, 
2 oddziały skautów, Trzeci Zakon Św. Franciszka, To- 
warzystwo Najśw. Imienia Jezus, oddział mężczyzn żo- 
natych, oddział młodzieńców i oddział chłopców szkolnych, 
Tow. Św. Teresy, Tow. Św. Anny, Tow. Królowej Korony 
Polskiej, Tow. Serca Marji, Tow. Św. Doroty, Tow. Św. 
Agnieszki, Klub Pani Skłodowskiej, Stowarzyszenie A- 
lumnatu Szkoły Parafjalnej, Kółko Dramatyczne, Tow. 
Św. Jakóba, Tow. Wszystkich Świętych, Tow. Jana 
Chrzciciela Osada Zjednoczenia Nr. 60 i Klub Obywatel- 
ski Brighton Park Civic and Improvement Association. 
W obrębie parafji również skupiają się połączone towa- 
rzystwa "Domu Polskiego" składające się z następują- 
cych tow.: Tow. Wolność Św. Jana, Tow. Majowa Ju- 
trzenka, Tow. Kazimierza Królewicza, Tow. Wolne Polki. 
Parafja ŚŚ. Pięciu Braci Polaków i Męczenników 
wzięła czynny udział w Polskim Tygodniu Gościnności 
rozpoczynając tydzień ten przyjęciem gości w niedzielę, 
dnia 16go lipca b. r., w Auditorjum parafjalnem, boga- 
tym programem oraz zabawą taneczną na którem wy- 
brano w konteście popularności Królową Parafji, która 
reprezentowała paraf ję w konteście głównem w dniu 
polskim. W pochodzie w dniu polskim parafja wystawiła 
oryginalny rydwan przedstawiający odrodzenie i zmar- 
twychwstanie Polski, wskutek pośrednictwa Stanów 



[147] 



2tS- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



M 



JOS. S. GUMINSKI, 

President 
B. S. PATZKOWSKI, 

Vice President 
N. STRZYCKI, 

Secretary 
F. LASSA, 

Treasurer 
W. BALACHOWSKI, 

Sergeant at Arms 




DIRECTORS 
J. CICHOSZEWSKI 
L. B. KUNKA 
W. MARCINIAK 
C. MOCZARSKI 
J. BARAN 



HE Brighton Park Civic and Improvement Ass'n. was organized through 
the influential leadership and zealous work of the Rev. James J. Strzycki, 
pastor of Five Holy Martyrs Parish, who solicited the assistance of active 
civic minded citizens of the community for the purpose of organizing the 
citizenry for the protection against unjust taxaton, the installation of the 
highest ideals of American citizenship in its members, the promotion of 
community goodfellowship and all general improvements to beautify the 
district so as it may be a pleasant place to live in. Many improvements 
of major importance have been realized and accomplished through the 
efforts of this association which has been an inspiration to other citizens to interest 
themselves in the betterment of this district. The membership consists of over 500 
home owners and tax payers. This organization meets every first Monday of the 
month at the Five Holy Martyrs Auditorium, located at 43rd and Richmond streets. 



f 


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KOMITET POŁĄCZONYCH TOWARZYSTW 

DOMU POLSKIEGO W BRIGHTON PARK 

4607-15 SOUTH MOZART ULICA 

,OM POLSKI został wybudowany w roku 1919 w dzielnicy Brighton Pai - k przez 

połączone towarzystwa i dobrze myślących obywateli tejże dzielnicy, który 

służy jako siedziba miejscowych towarzystw w sprawach polskich, na obchody 

narodowe, zabawy, uroczystości i wszelkie zgromadzenia w sprawach polskich ideowych. 

Towarzystwa należące do "Domu Polskiego" są następujące: 

Klub Obywatelski Demokratyczny "Silver City" 

Tow. Św. Kazimierza Królewicza, Grwpa 1338 Z. N. P. 

Tow. Majowa Jutrzenka, Grupa 193 Związku Polek w Ameryce 

Tow. Wszystkich Świętych, No. 902 Z. P. R. K. 

Tow. Matki Boskiej Królowej Korony Polskiej 

Tow. Św. Jadwigi, No. 2Ą, Wolne Polki na Ziemi Washingtona 

Tow. Św. Agnieszki, No. 110, Macierzy Polskiej 

Administracja Połączonych Towarzystw na rok Światowej Wystawy 1933 składa się 
z następujących: W. Panfil, prez.; J. Hojnacka, wice prez. ; F. Niedźwiecki, sekr. prot. ; 
S. Bonkowska, sekr. fin.; J. Malec, kasjerka; J. Dybała, F. Jabłoński i M. Grencholc, 
radni; M. Klaus, marszałek; A. Wiewiurkiewicz, L. Grajek i M. Tomaszewska, chorąży. 
A. Piarowska, zarządczyni Domu. 



[148] 



8§5- 



PIVE HOLY MARTYR'S PARISH 



'J§5 



Towarzystwo Sw. Jana Chrzciciela 



NR. 914 ZJED. POL. RZ. KAT. 



1 


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OWARZYSTWO Św. Jana Chrzciciela, No. 913 Z. P. R. K., zostało założone 
dnia 15go Października, r. 1915, jako stowarzyszenie patrjotyczne w celu 
pielęgnowania ducha narodowego i obowiązku walczenia o niepodległość 
Polski. Założycielami Towarzystwa Św. Jana Chrzciciela byli następujący 
obywatele: Konstanty Hilicki i Aleksander Narel. Pierwsze posiedzenie 
Tow. Św. Jana Chrzciciela odbyło się 15go Października, roku 1915, na 
którem przewodniczył Konstanty Hilicki. W skład obecnej administracji 
wchodzą: Józef Więzień, prezes; Antoni Myśliwiec, wice prezes; Jan Jaku- 
bowski, sekretarz protokółowy; Piotr Cieśla, sekretarz fin.; Wojciech Klimczak, kasjer; 
Franciszek Potempa, sekr. dla Małoletnich; Andrzej Gryga, marszałek; Jan Potyrała, 
marszałek; Ks. Prób. Jakób Strzycki, kapelan; Walenty Bajzer, chorąży; Jan Macho- 
wicz, chorąży; Franciszek Skilondz, Jan Myśliwiec, dyrektorzy; Jan Stachyra, odźwier- 
ny. Towarzystwo liczy obecnie 235 członków i członkiń. W gronie swem ma Towarzy- 
stwo 40 Kupców i Przemysłowców. 



ST. CECILIA SENIOR CHOIR 

of the Five Holy Martyrs Parish 

HE St. Cecilia Senior Choir is a parish institution, which dates back to 
the early days of the establishment of the Five Holy Martyrs Parish. It 
has always stood in the forefront in allegiance to the parish's ideals and 
best traditions. It has always fulfilled its lofty ideal of cultivating and 
festering ecclesiastical and national music, in a most praiseworthy manner. 
The faithful and untireing work of this youthful group of music lovers 
has borne fruit, so that today the Choir is recognized on all sides as one 
of the best in parish circles. Being an organization of young men and 
women, full of youthful energy and enthusiasm, it has not followed the 
beaten path of dull and monotonous repetitions either in its rendition of church music 
or national music, but has blazed the trail to newer and better things. That progressive 
spirit has led it to undertake tasks which generally are not associated with the work 
of amateurs. The last annual concert was a proof of that, when the choir and its 
soloists rendered the difficult "sextette" from the opera "Lucia". As a fitting inaugural 
for the parish celebration of the "Century of Progress" the choir presented on June 
4th a two act comic operetta by Geoffrey Morgan and Frederic Johnson called the 
"Sunbonnet Girl". The presentation won unstinted praise from every quarter. Again 
the choir by its work has placed itself in the front ranks of parish choirs. 

As was stated, the membership of the choir is composed of young men and young 
women recruited from the confines of the parish. Miss Helen C. Wojtecki is president, 
Miss Rosalie Krajewski, vice president, Miss Helen Krupa recording secretary, Miss 
Angela Abram financial secretary, Mr. Joseph Guminski, treasurer, Mr. Henry Jacko- 
wiak, sergeant at arms, Mr. Joseph Kornecki, asst. sergeant at arms, Mr. Clarence 
Rybowiak, director, and Rev. Edward Plawinski, chaplain. 



1 


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[149] 



&' 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



BRACTWO NIEWIAST 
RÓŻAŃCA ŚW. 

iv Paraf ji Św. Pięciu Braci 
Polaków i Męczenników 

Założone zostało 1908 r. przez Wiel. Ks. Józefa Kruszkę 
Organizatorkami były Marja Panek i Katarzyna Wójcik. 

Przełożoną była Leokadja Promińska. 



Tow. Matki Boskiej Królowej 
Korony Polskiej 

Założone zostało dnia ligo Czerwca, 1911 r. 

Założycielkami były panie: J. Wagner, M. Ciesielska i ś. p. 
J. Wójcik. Tow. liczy przeszło 460 członkiń i wzrasta dzień 
za dniem. Zarząd obecny stanowią panie: J. Rolewicz, prez. ; 
A. Kłus, wice prez.; M. Myszkowska, sekr. prot.; A. 
Piarowska, sekr. fin.; M. Kucharska, kasjerka; J. 
Hojnacka i M. Bielska, radne; L. Maćkowiak, mar- 
szałkini; A. Korzeniowska, K. Wyza i M. Tomaszew- 
ska, chorążynie. Posiedzenia odbywają się w 1-szy 
poniedziałek miesiąca w Po'skim Domu Wolności, 
4615 South Mozart street. 



TOWARZYSTWO MAJOWA 
JUTRZENKA 

Grupa 193 Z. P. A. 
Założone zostało dnia 8go Czerwca, 191Ą r. 

Założycielkami były panie: K. Kwiatkowska, J. Rolewicz, S. 
Bąkowska. M. Piątkowska i A. Fetter. Istnieje również 
Wianek przy tej Grupie. Obecny zarząd składa się: W. Mar- 
cinkiewicz, prez. ; M. Kucharska i A. Korzeniowska, wice 
prz. ; K. Witkowska, sekr. fin. ; M. Myszkowska, sekr. prot. ; 
J. Rolewicz, kasjerka; A. Hencińska i A. Łakomska, radne. 
Siedziba Tow. jest w Domu Polskim w sali "Wolność." 
Posiedzenia odbywają się w Domu Polskim. 



TOW. "WOLNOŚĆ" 

Pod Opieką Św. Jana No. 1 

Założone w miesiącu Marcu, 1925 roku w sali ob. 
W. Woźniaka, w dzielnicy Brighton Park, gdzie 
obecnie odbywają się posiedzenia w każdą drugą 
niedzielę miesiąca. Obecny zarząd stanowią: W. 
Panfil, prez.; F. Hojnacki, wice prez.; J. Ig. Hoj- 
nacki, sekr. prot.; J. Berczyński, sekr. fin.; W. 
Woźniak, kasjer; A. Maćkowiak, marszałek; A. 
Wiewierkiewicz i A. Madaliński, radni. 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 146] 

tion and distribution of fuel. The meas- 
ures which Hoover and his associates put 
into effect were not conceived as cures that 
would restore the injured economic system 
to normal health, but as first aid treat- 
ment which would save the system from 
bleeding to death from its wounds. 

For instance, Major T. R. Ryan left 
Paris for Gdansk and Warsaw to become 
transportation expert for the American 
Relief Administration Polish Mission and 
to serve as United States representative on 
the Allied Railway Mission to Poland 
which the Communications Section had de- 
cided to establish under the chairmanship 
of General Hammond (Great Britain). 
Major Ryan recommended to the Supreme 
Economic Council the immediate assign- 
ment to Poland of 2,000 Armistice cars 
and 100 locomotives and later provision of 
5,000 cars and 300 engines. The Mission 
assisted in the procurement of consider- 
able rolling stock through the U. S. Liquid- 
ation Board, began negotiations to secure 
150 locomotives on credit from the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, and interested itself 
with good effect in technical and operating 
matters. In addition to their part in these 
specialized activities, the American mem- 
bers of the Polish and other Central Euro- 
pean Railway Missions effected the ex- 
change of contracts between Poland and 
her neighbors, which could not have been 
brought about without American interven- 
tion. 

The fuel situation was straightened out 
by the Allied Coal Commission under the 

[Continued on page 152] 



S. M. LACH 



Brighton Lighting Fixture Co. 

Electric Light Fixtures 

Electric Wiring- for Light and Power 

3980-82 ARCHER AVE. LAFAYETTE 3437 



[150] 



&- 



FIVE HOLY MARTYR'S PARISH 



"2§5 



LAFAYETTE 5660 





$M 




Pafiirf 



Wholesale and Retail 

Pure Dairy Products 



3314-18 WEST 47TH STREET 
CHICAGO 



Frank P. Bauer Marble Co. 

4320-40 MELROSE STREET H 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Interior Marble Work 

A FEW OF OUR RECENT INSTALLATIONS 

Little Company of Mary Hospital 
Holy Name Rectory 

Benedictine Chapel, Mundelein 
Faculty Bldg., Mundelein 

Cudahy Memorial, Loyolla University 

Administration Bldg., Resurrection Cemetary 



President 
FRANK P. BAUER 



Representative 
JOSEPH F. KOSKIEWICZ 



[151] 



&- 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



'& 




Th. Lafayette 422S 
Day & Night Service 

Joseph 
Pacholski 

Undertaker and 
Embalmer 

Autos to Let for 
Weddings, Christen- 
ings, Funerals and 
all other occasions. 

2620 W. 47th ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



TOW. SODALICY 
ŚW. TERESY 

Przy Paraf ji Pięciu Braci Pol. i Męcz. 

Zostało założone przez Ks. Prób. J. Strzyckiego 
8go maja, 1929 roku w sali parafjalnej. Pierwszy 
zarząd składał się jak następuje: M. Panek, prez. ; 
J. Borucka, wice prez.; W. Rochowiak, sekr. prot. ; 
G. Cholewińska, sekr. fin. 



TOW. ŚW. KAZIMIERZA 
KRÓLEWICZA 

Grupa 1338 Z. N. P. 

Założone dnia ligo Lutego. 1911 roku, przez następujących 
członków: St. Włodarczyk, J. Kierkowski, J. Malec, F. 
Klimkiewicz, Wł. Derdziński. Posiedzenia odbywają, 
się w Polskim Domu "Wolność". Obecny zarząd sta- 
nowią: S. Marcinkowski, prezes; J. Skóra, wice prez.; 
I. Hojnacki, sekr. prot.; T. Wiertelak, sekr. fin.; S. 
Weinert, skarbnik; W. Gruszczyński, marszałek; J. 
Berczyński i F. Jabłoński, radni; P. Piekarski, cho- 
rąży. 

Posiedzenia odbywają się w każdy 3ci piątek miesiąca 



TOW. ŚW. DOROTY 

No. 508 Z. P. R. K. 

Zorganizowane około 1923 roku. Panienki i młode mężatki 
stanowią członkostwo tego Tow. Gertruda Przybylska, prez. ; 
Helena Juchniewicz, wice prez.; Aniela żelazo, sekr. 
prot.; Kat. Połoniec, sekr. fin.; Flor. Ligocka, kas.; 
Ks. Edw. Pławiński, kapelan. 

TOW. ŚW. JADWIGI 

Grupa 2Ą Wolne Polki na Ziemi Washingtona 

Tow. skupia się w Domu Wolność. Zarząd obecny: J. Role- 
wicz, prez. ; T. Malinowska, wice prez. ; K. Witkowska, sekr. 
prot.; M. Lassa, sekr. fin.; W. Marcinkiewicz, kasjer- 
ka; Franciszka Nowak i Sławek, radne. 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 150] 

presidency of Col. Goodyear. The Coal 
Commission aimed to improve the produc- 
tion and distribution of coal in the coal 
mines of Poland, while a few months later 
the American Technical Mission was en- 
gaged in assisting the Poles to secure 
proper equipment for the mines. 



In plain figures, the expenditures for 
Polish relief, as of February 25, 1919, 
amounted to $178,729,932.16. The Con- 
gressional Appropriation of February 25, 
1919, included for General Relief, $63,- 
191,316.61, and for Children's Relief, $6,- 
025,316.61 ; U. S. Army Liquidation Bond 
Sales, $59,365,11.97; U. S. Grain Corpo- 
ration Sales, $24,353,590.97; European 
Children's fund, $16,769,305.53; Amer- 
ican Relief Administration — Warehouse, 
Draft, and Bulk Sales, $1,315,644.79; Con- 
tribution of Food by Polish Government, 
$7,619,280.26; Donation of Warehouse 
Space by Polish Government, $90,000.00. 

Relief furnished to Poland under the 
Congressional Appropriation of February 

[Continued on page 154] 



FELIX SADOWSKI 

Prowadzący Skład Rzeźniczy i Groserji 
w tej dzielnicy 9 lat 

2451 W. 45TH ST. TEL. LAFAYETTE 1383 



TOW. SERCA MARJI 

Nr. 880 Z. P. R. K. w A. 

Założone dnia 16go Maja, 1915 roku, w parafji Pięciu Braci 
Pol. i Męczenników, przez panie: A. Lipińska i A. Smagacz. 
Istnieje również przy Tow. Oddział Małoletnich. 
Obecny zarząd stanowią: M. Pankros, prez.; J. Bo- 
rucka, wice prez.; L. Strenk, sekr. fin.; E. Madaliń- 
ska, sekr. prot.; M. Ciesielczyk, kasjerka; Z. Dzie- 
wiecka, R. Panek i A. Czerniak, opiekunki kasy; A. 
Smagacz, K. K'abacka .marszałkinie; M. Grzyb, A. 
Olszewska i M. Botina, podchorążynie; A. Klich, 
sekr. Wydz. Mał.; Ks. J. Strzycki, kapelan; Dr. W 
Kutas, lekarz. 



[152] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 




1883 Orl 1933 



The Catholic Order of Foresters 

Joins With Our Polish People in Promoting 
Their Week of Hospitality 

THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS, THE RECORD, THE SPLENDID 
FINANCIAL POSITION OF THIS ORGANIZATION, ENDORSED B^ 
THE HIERARCHY, CLERGY AND THE STATE INSURANCE DE- 
PARTMENTS, MERIT YOUR CONSIDERATION AND AFFILIATION. 

THOS. R. HEANEY THOS. H. CANNON 

High Secretary High Chief Ranger 

Fifty Years of Honest, Successful Insurance Management 

CATHOLIC ORDER OF FORESTERS 

ORGANIZED MAY 24, 1883 

ADULT AND JUVENILE DEPARTMENTS 
EIGHT FORMS OF INSURANCE CERTIFICATES 
$54,200,747.64 PAID IN DEATH CLAIMS, CASH 
SETTLEMENTS AND TOTAL DISABILITY BENEFITS 
$28,000,000.00 INVESTED IN GILT EDGE SECURITIES 
YIELDING FIVE PER CENT INTEREST 
$120,000,000.00 INSURANCE IN FORCE 

OPERATING ON THE 
AMERICAN EXPERIENCE FOUR PER CENT TABLE 

Catholic Parish Branches in 28 States of the Union 

and in all the Provinces of Canada 

ADDITIONAL BRANCHES WILL BE ORGANIZED ON APPLICATION 

ADDRESS— HIGH COURT OFFICE 

30 NORTH LA SALLE STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



[153] 



2§5- 



POLES IX AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Compliments of 

JOHN RUSCH 

CHIEF CLERK 

OF THE ELECTION COMMISSIONERS 

CITY HALL, CHICAGO 



VIRGINIA 0918 

NICK GASPEROWICZ 

GROCERY AND MARKET 
4600 SACRAMENTO AVENUE 



TEL. LAFAYETTE 6890 

J. A. CICHOSZEWSKI 

HOME BUILDER AND FINANCE CO. 

NOT INC. 

4256 SOUTH RICHMOND STREET 

Corner 43rd Street 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



ROMAN KORPUSIŃSKI 

Wife's Maiden Name Helen Venta. Owners of 

MEAT MARKET AND GROCERY 

4600 SOUTH TALMAN AVENUE 

operated by them during A Century of Progress, 
1933, at Chicago, Illinois. 



LAFAYETTE 1333 

MIDWEST STORE 

WALTER MARCINIAK 

Grocery and Meat Market 

Arrived in 1913 — 15 Years in Business 

4607 SOUTH WHIPPLE STREET 



IN A RUSH CALL 

RUSCH BOTTLING CO. 

Jos. Rusch, prop. 

3430-32-34-36 SOUTH ASHLAND AVE. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

2 PHONES: LAFAYETTE 0992-0993 

Keep Cool With Rusch Beverages 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 152] 

25, 1919, amounted to 277,428.1 metric 
tons, including the following commodities: 
wheat flour, cereal flour, wheat grain, rye 
grain, beans, peas, rice, pork products, 
lard, lard substitute, condensed and evap- 
orated milk, sugar, cocoa, miscellaneous 
food, cotton, soap, and clothing. 

Food relief furnished to Poland by the 
European Children's Fund and the Amer- 
ican Relief Administration Warehouse 
Sales amounted to 64,797.7 metric tons. 

Relief donated by the Polish Government 
amounted to 51,642.6 metric tons, includ- 

[Continued on page 162] 



LAF. 7690 

ANDREW KROZEL 

Groceries and Delicatessen 
4750 SOUTH ROCKWELL STREET 

CHICAGO 



NEIGHBORHOOD BAKERY 

WŁADYSŁAW ZBIEGIEŃ, Właś. 

Interes Istnieje 12 Lat w Dzielnicy Brighton Park 

4504 SOUTH SACRAMENTO AVENUE 
TELEPHONE LAFAYETTE 4059 



TELEFON LAFAYETTE 4628 

FRANCISZEK SERAFIN 

Hurtowny Dostawca 

Cukierków i Czekoladek 
4558 ARCHER AVENUE 



Ph. Lafayette 4480 Day and Night Service 

FRANK C. PATKA 

UNDERTAKER 

AUTOS TO HIRE FOR ALL OCCASIONS 

4358 SOUTH RICHMOND STREET 

CORNER 44TH STREET CHICAGO 



[154] 



Ms- 



poles IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Związek Polskich Kółek Literacko-Dramatycznych w Ameryce 

ALLIANCE of POLISH LITERARY and DRAMATIC CIRCLES of AMERICA 



Administration : 

John E. Nikliborc, 

President 
B. J. Kozłowski, 

Vice-Pres. 
Cathryn M. Urban, 

Vice-Pres. 
Walter M. Zolla, 

Sec. General 
Edward Wójcik, 

Treasurer 
John Micek, 
Genevieve Urban, 

Sarg. at Arms 

Librarian 
B. Stachura, 

Editor. 




Honorary Chaplains : 

Rev. J. Strzycki 
Rev. C. Gronkowski 



Directors: 

Mae Labno 
Jos. Pacyna 
Leon Meger 
L. Prusiewicz 
B. Czerwiński 
Louise Dadal 
F. Piechowska 



— An Organization of Polish-American Youth whose Aim and Purpose is to weld Polish and American Culture. — 



The Polish Army Veterans' Auxiliary 

The Auxiliary Corps of the Polish Army Veterans Association was organized during the 
convention of the Polish Army Veterans Association in Detroit, in May of 1932. 



The delegates to this convention discussing the 
absolute necessity of caring for the sick, the in- 
valids and the really needy veterans of the Polish 
Army, realized their inability to undertake this 
task alone, and knowing that neither the Polish 
Organizations nor the public at large were in 
readiness to assume such work, decided to organ- 
ize the Auxiliary Corps in many cities of the 
United States. 

The Auxiliary has an administration independent 
of the Polish Army Veterans Association and is 
not subject to its executive ruling. Each Post is 
responsible for its administrative management to 
its own District and the Administration of the 
Auxiliary Corps — but cooperates to the fullest ex- 
tent with the local posts of the Polish Army Vet- 



erans' Association in doing the utmost for the 
unfortunate ones, who lost their health and in 
many instances their morale, and were left to fate. 
After leaving Poland, the Polish government dis- 
charged its obligations toward these men. The 
United States government, on the other hand did 
not feel bound nor indebted to them, as they did 
not fight under the American banner. 

For these reasons the Auxiliary Corps takes the 
place of Government aid, replaces family and 
friends to those who have lost their dear ones and 
is for many a medium, interceding their cause 
with the Polish people, so they should not be for- 
gotten by them who were instrumental in sending 
them across to fight for the freedom of the land 
of their fathers. 



DISTRICT No. 1: ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN, INDIANA & MISSOURI 

A. E. WISŁA, pres. H. WASILEWSKA, vice pres. I. RACZYŃSKA, seer. 

H. MODRZEJEWSKA, vice pres., A. LEONARSKA, vice pres. L. ZALEWSKA, treas. 



[155] 



a!«- 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Tow. Wszystkich Świętych 

No. 902 Zjednoczenia Polskiego Rzymsko-Kał . 
Pod Opieką Boskiego Serca Jezusa 

było zorganizowane dnia 20g - o lipca, 1915, przy 
paraf j i Pięciu Braci Polaków i Męczenników 
w Brighton Park. 
Organizatorami tegoż towarzystwa byli : Józef 
Jankowski i Jan Rolla. Obecni urzędnicy: Felix 
Zienkiewicz, prezes; Józef Wronkiewicz, wice pre- 
zes; Stanisław Przybylski, sekr. prot. ; Stanisław 
Pankros, sekr. fin.; Jan Rolla, kasjer; Adam Wal- 
czak, Nikodem Waszylewski, radni; Stanisław 
Cieśla, marszałek. 



OSADA NO. 60 

Z. P. R. K. iv Brighton Park 

Założone przez Tow. należące do Zjednoczenia Pol. 
Rzym. Kat. dnia 16go Stycznia, 1924 roku. Do 
Osady obecnie należy 10 towarzystw odbywając 
swe posiedzenia w Sali Pięciu Braci Pol. i Męcz. 
Administracja na rok 1933 składa się: Ks. J. 
Strzycki, kapelan; F. Niedźwiecki, prezes; W. Me- 
ger, wice prezes; L. Budzyń, sekr.; J. Rolla, ka- 
sjer; J. Stachyra, marszałek. 



ODDZIAŁ ŚW. AGNIESZKI 

Nr. 110 Macierzy Polskiej w Ameryce 

Oddział ten założony został dnia 2go Marca, 1919 roku, 
w parafji Pięciu Św. Braci Polaków i Męczenników na 
Brighton Park. Zarząd teraźniejszy jest jak następuje: 
Jadwiga Chojnacka, prez. ; Juljanna Malec, wice prez. ; 
Helena Czarnik, sekr. prot. : Wiktorja Cieśla, sekr. fin. ; 
Katarzyna Wyza. kasjerka; Anna Nowak, I radna; Stani- 
sława Bonkow.ska, II radna ; Magdalena Klaus, III radna ; 
Julianna Włodarczyk, I marszałkini ; Anastazja Hrycyna, 
II marszałkini ; Anna Gruszczyńska, chorążyni ; Karolina 
Kalemba, Antonina Bucka, pod-chorążynie ; Marjanna To- 
karska, odźwierna. 



TELEFON LAFAYETTE 4840 

ANDRZEJ BEDNARCZYK 

PROWADZI INTERES 

"DOMU GOŚCINNOŚCI" 
2857 WEST 43RD STREET 



■jk 



PHONE LAWNDALE 0778 



ALOIS SALAMOWICZ 

POGRZEBOWY I BALSAMATOR 

Wygodna Kaplica 

Automobile na Wszelkie Okazje 

2806 SOUTH KOLIN AVENUE 



TOW. ŚW. JAKÓBA 

No. 1054 Z. P. R. K. 

Zorganizowane pod dyrekcją Ks. Proboszcza Jakóba 

Strzyckiego 19go kwietnia, 1927 roku 
Grupa składa się z samej młodzieży sportowców, 
którzy zdobyli pierwszy szampionat w ligach Zje- 
dnoczenia w piłkę metowa i piłkę koszykową,. Za- 
rząd składa się: Józef Drzewiecki, prez.; A. Szurnął, 
wice prez.; Z. Dziubski, sekr. fin.; F. Chwierut; sekr. 
prot.; W. Borucki, kasjer; J. Paschke, marsałek; Ks. 
J. Strzycki, kapelan; P. Nowak, sekr. odziału mał<> 
letnich; J. Chwierut, J. Stec, J. Bednowicz,' radni. 



TELEPHONE SUPERIOR 5632 

C. AND A. CAFETERIA, Inc. 

1207 NORTH DEARBORN STREET 

OPEN EVERY DAY FROM 7 A. M. TO 8 P. M. 
SUNDAYS 8 A. M. TO 8 P. M. 

KNOWN FOR DELICIOUS HOME COOKED FOOD 
CHARLES KOSIŃSKI, Pres. 



Życzenia od 

TOW. MIŁOŚĆ POLEK 

Grupa 500 Zw. Pol. iv Am., Thompsoyiville, Conn. 



KEYSTONE HARDWARE AND PAINTS 

FRANK PAWŁOWSKI, Prop. 
5646 S. KEDZIE AVE. PH. PROSPECT 7441 



Towarzystwo Najśw. Imienia Jezus 

Oddział mężczyzn żonatych — Założono roku 1926 w 
Parafji Św. Pięciu Braci Polaków i Męczenników 
Ks. Paweł Mytys, kapelan; Franciszek Socha, prezes; 
Józef Wlekliński, wice prezes; Jan Doniek, sekretarz 
protokółowy; Mikołaj Strzycki, sekr. fin.; Kazimierz 
Kramarz, kasjer; Walenty Balachowski, marszałek. 



TOWARZYSTWO ŚW. ANNY 

Grupa 2368 Związku Narodowego Polskiego 

Założone roku 19:25. Obecny zarząd: A. Kopera, prez; J. 
Bubacz, wice prez.; W. Gulczyńska, sekr. prot.; J. Mikołaj- 
czyk, sekr. fin. ; G. Gulczyńska, sekr. małoletnich ; G. Modal, 
kasjerka. 



J. MACHOWICZ 

Grocery and Market - Fruits and Vegetables 
4600 S. RICHMOND ST. LAFAYETTE 7632 



CZY CIERPISZ NA BOLEŚCI REUMATYZMOWE? 

Enero Kapsułki są najnowszem lekarstwem 

na reumatyzm. Piszcie do: 

ENERO DRUG COMPANY 

4460 SOUTH KEDZIE AVENUE 
P. JUMBALA, Właś. CHICAGO, ILL 



[156] 



St. Hyacinth 
Parish 



The history of 
St. Hyacinth par- 
ish dates back to 
the year 1894 
when a group of 
Polish families 
from St. Stanis- 
laus K. Parish had 
settled in the vicin- 
ity of Milwaukee 
and Central Park 
avenues, where an- 
other group, hostile to the faith of their ancest- 
ors, has endeavored to undermine their faith by 
organizing and erecting a Polish National Inde- 
pendent Church. The threatened heresy, how- 
ever, was nipped in its infancy by the courageous 
and zealous Rev. V. Barzynski, C. R., who 
succeeded in purchasing the property of the in- 
cipient heretical church. 

The forty families immediately decided to 
build a church and a school at the corner of 
Milwaukee and Central Park avenues, on the 
site of the present defunct Second Northwestern 
Bank. 

The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated 
in the new church for the first time on Christ- 
mas Day, 1894 by the Rev. Simon Kobrzyński, 
C. R. 

The Reverend John Piechowski, C. R., was 
appointed the first pastor in 1895. After six 
months, Father Piechowski, C. R., was trans- 
ferred to St. Hedwig Parish and the Rev. J. 
Gieburowski, C. R., took charge of the parish. 
The Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth were 
given charge of the school. 

[ 




The Church, Rectory. Sisters' Home and School of St. Hyacinth Parish 

Two years later, in 1897, the Rev. E. Sedla- 
czek, C. R., was appointed pastor, and remained 
until 1899 when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
A. Babski, C. R. 

In 1900 the church, a wooden structure, was 
transferred to the present site. A year later a 
brick rectory was built for $9,352.00. 

In 1902 a combination wooden structure was 
added, which was to serve as a school and lodge 
hall. 

In 1903 it was decided to build a more spa- 
cious edifice, a combination church and school. 
However, the plans were not approved of by the 
Archbishop Quigley until 1905. The estimated 
cost of the edifice was S65,000. The foundation 
for the new school and church was laid in the 
spring of 1906 and the building was dedicated 
December 16th, by Archbishop Quigley. At that 
time the parish numbered 797 families. 

In 1907 the old church was remodeled into 
class rooms for the ever increasing number of 
school children. In 1908 the Rev. A. Babski, C. 
R., who was in charge of the parish for nine 
years, was transferred to St. Hedwig Parish, 
■ n 1 was succeeded by the Rev. J. Szczypta, C. R. 

157] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



sis 



In 1912 a new rectory was built at Wolfram 
street. The parish numbered 1,800 families, so 
it was divided, and a new parish, St. Wenceslaus, 
was organized. The boundary line was Belmont 
avenue. In 1914 the old rectory at George street 
was enlarged and remodeled into a Sisters' 
Home. 

In 1915 the Rev. J. Zdechlik, C. R., succeeded 
Father Szczypta, C. R., who after 6i/ 2 years in 
office was transferred to St. Hedwig Parish. 

In 1917 Father Zdechlik, C. R., blessed the 
soil upon which the present church was to be 
erected. The corner stone was laid October 21st, 
and blessed by the Rt. Rev. Msgr. S. Nawrocki. 
The sermon at this occasion was delivered by the 
Rev. L. Zapała, C. R. The new church was com- 
pleted in 1920. In January, 1920 the Rev. J. 
Sobieszczyk, C. R., succeeded Father Zdechlik, 
C. R. 

The first Holy Mass in the new church was 
celebrated August 17, 1921. The church was 
dedicated by His Emin. Card. G. Mundelein, 
October 17, 1921. 

The new school building was begun in 1926, 
and completed in 1928. The Sisters' Home was 
dedicated privately on Christmas Day, 1928, by 
the Rev. S. Swierczek, C. R. In January, 1930, 
the Rev. S. A. Kowalczyk, C. R., succeeded 
Father Swierczek, C. R., as pastor. As assist- 
ants to the Pastor at present the following 
priests are stationed at St. Hyancinth : Rev. C. 
Guziel, C. R., Rev. J. Samborski, C. R., Rev. T. 
Kłopotowski, C. R., Rev. J. Fabianski, C. R., and 
two brothers: Stanislaus Gliński, C. R., and John 
Bogatko, C. R. 

The parish at present numbers over 3,000 fam- 
ilies, whose 1,800 children attending the paro- 
chial school are taught by 36 Sisters of Nazareth. 
Mother M. Fidelia is the present Superior. 

The following societies are flourishing in the 
parish : Sodalities or Confraternities of the Holy 
Rosary for Men, Women, Girls and Children, 
Apostleship of Prayer, Third Order of St. Fran- 
cis, Holy Name Society, Sodality of St. Therese, 



and besides these, two Choirs under the direction 
of the organist, Mr. Stanislaus Czerniakowski, 
Parish Welfare Clubs, Parochial School Alumni 
Ass'n., Unique Social Club, Dramatic and Lit- 
erary Circle, St. Vincent de Paul Society in co- 
operation with the Charity Society of the La- 
dies under the Patronage of Our Lady of Per- 
petual Help, the C. Y. O., and a number of groups 
of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish Al- 
ma Mater, Order of Foresters, Polish Women's 
Alliance of America, and others. 

Polish Week of Hospitality Committee 



REV. S. KOWALCZYK, 
Official President 

3636 Wolfram St. 

JOHN SCHWABA, 

President 

3600 Diversey Ave. 

THEODOR JASZKOWSKI, 

4101 Oakdalc Ave. 

JOSEPH SCHWARTZ 
2nd Vice-President 

2853 N. Hamlin Ave. 

AGNES WIŚNIEWSKA, 
Rec. Sec'y 

2740 N. Ridgevjay Ave. 

CHAS. LUKA, 
Treasurer 

3601 Diversey Ave. 



Tel. Spaulding 6611 



Tel. Spaulding 7185 



Tel. Palisade 1414 



Tel. Spaulding 6554 



Tel. Spaulding 0208 



Tel. Spaulding 6880 



Chairmen of the Committees 

Decorations P. Kowaczek 

Program and Entertainment J. Kamedulski 

Music S. Czerniakowski-W. Wiśniewski 

Publicity J. Gorzynski-S. Linkiewicz 

Ticket K. Luka - L. Rogowski 

Contest W. Dymarkowska 

Reception J. Marcinkiewicz 

Floats V. Najdowski 

Financial K. Sobieska 

Transportation F. Tomczak 

Athletic A. Bak 

Lodging F. Krzykowski 

Souvenir Book Dr. Ciudaj - Wróblewski 

Ways and Means.... F. Tomczak - A. Kloska - T. Piskorz 
Automobile F. Walczyk 



[ 158 j 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 
*fi9 +AX 



■7JS 



DROGICH NAM GOŚCI 

PRZYBYWAJĄCYCH DO CHICAGO 

NA POLSKI TYDZIEŃ GOŚCINNOŚCI 

WITA 



ZJEDNOCZENIE 

Polskie Rzymsko - Katolickie w Am, 

Pod Opieką Boskiego Serca Jezusa 




j^CZŁONKÓW 170,000^7 
L ZASOBÓW $13,000,000.00 S 

i Zaprasza 

w Progi Swych Nowych Biur w Budyniu Zjednoczenia 

984-986 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

Prosimy Prosimy Prosimy 



JAN J. OLEJNICZAK, Prezes 

KS. B. F. CELICHOWSKI, Kapelan 

JÓZEF L. KANIA, Wice Prezes 

KLARA PAŁCZYŃSKA, Wice Prezeska 

WŁ. J. PRZYBYLIŃSKI, Sekr. Gen. 

JÓZEF J. BARĆ, Skarbnik 



[159] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2§S 2§g 



for modern funerals at low cost 



Peter Kowaczek 



/ 



uneral director 



3630 GEORGE STREET 

FREE USE OF CHAPEL 
PHONE SPAULDING 6630 CHICAGO, ILL. 




BELMONT 7924 



MARIE SMART SHOP, Inc. 

MRS. MARIE E. HESS, Prop. 

Where Style Predominates in 

Exclusive Children's and Infants' Wear 

Ladies' Lingerie, Hosiery and Accessories 



2962-64 MILWAUKEE AVE CHICAGO 



PHONE SPAULDING 7665 



CHICAGO 



FRANK KUREK 

Manufacturer of the Best European 
Sausage and Smoked Meats 

3635 DIVERSEY AVENUE 



[160] 



NORTHWEST 
CHICAGO'S BIGGEST 
DEPARTMENT STORE 

...WELCOMES 

You to the... 

CENTURYo/ PROGRESS 

("Chicago World's Fair") 

LOGAN 

DEPT. STORE 

Milwaukee- Diversey- Kimball 



M5- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

AS 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 



Polski Tydzień Gościnności 

TO MANIFESTACJA 

UDZIAŁU POLONJI AMERYKAŃSKIEJ 

W WYSTAWIE CHICAGOSKIEJ 

W Manifestacji Tej Wezmą Też Udział 

POLACY Z KRAJU KTÓRZY PRZYBĘDĄ 
Z WYCIECZKAMI URZĄDZONEMI PRZEZ 

LINJĘ GDYNIA-AMERICA 

Jedyną Polską Transatlantycką Linję Okrętową 

CIESZĄCA SIC ZASŁUŻONEM POPARCIEM CAŁEGO WYCHODZTWA 



LIN JA GDYNIA AMERICA 



315 SO. DEARBORN ST. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



J* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 



PHONE MONROE 7330 ALL DEPARTMENTS 



UNITED BUTCHERS PACKING CO. 




Packers, Provisioners and 
Commission Merchants 



United Brand Hams, Bacon 
Lard and Sausage 



1152-1154 FULTON STREET 

CORNER RACINE AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



[161] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



'$ 



American Aid to Poland 
After the War 

[Continued from page 154] 

ing such commodities as flour, rice, peas 
and beans, pork products and sugar. 

Sales to the Polish Government in 1919 
by the United States Army Liquidation 
Board from surplus army stocks in France 
comprised 107,126 metric tons. 



Walter J. 

Orlikoski 

Alderman 
35th Ward 

CHICAGO 




Private Ambulance 

Free use of our Chapel Equipped with Organ 

Automobiles for all Occasions 



CHAS. C. LUKA 



UNDERTAKER 
AND EMBALMER 



3601 DIVERSEY AVE. CHICAGO 

PHONE SPAULDING 6880 



PHONE SPAULDING 6694 

H. R. SADOWSKI AND SON 

LICENSED EMBALMERS AND 
FUNERAL DIRECTORS 



3642 GEORGE STREET 



CHICAGO 



FRANK WEIMAN 

Grocery and Meat Market 
2901 NORTH SPRINGFIELD AVENUE 



Store Tel. Albany 6507 



Res. Tel. Avenue 5665ETAO 



JAN NIKLEWICZ I SYN 

Europejski Wyrób Wędlin 
2912 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

RÓG DRAKE STREET CHICAGO, ILL. 



JOHN S. KLECZEWSKI 

BAKERY 



3056 MILWAUKEE AVE. SPAULDING 7646 



Poland will never forget the year 1919. 
She had regained her political independ- 
ence, to be sure; but her children were 
hungry and starving, and her whole eco- 
nomic life was not yet organized and co- 
ordinated. 

The timely action by the United States 
Government saved millions of lives, and 
the Poles are grateful. The Polish immi- 
grants here in America too, know how to 
be grateful, for they are loyal to the Stars 
and Stripes, ready to defend this great 
Republic against those who preach sub- 
versive principles, against those who would 
overthrow the very structure upon which 
this country is founded. America and Po- 
land, both imbued with a humanitarian 
spirit which will be misunderstood only by 
selfish elements, may yet bring order out 
of the present social and economic chaos 
in the world. They are kindred spirits, and 
the bond of their friendship shall never be 
severed. 

[THE END] 



COMPLIMENTS OF 

BENJAMIN S. ADAMOWSKI 

DEMOCRATIC 

STATE REPRESENTATIVE 

OF THE 

25TH SENATORIAL DISTRICT 



[162] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



THE FAIR, for over 57 years one of Chicago's leading 
department stores, takes this opportunity to extend 
best wishes to the Polish- American citizens of Chicago . . . 
and a warm welcome to all the Polish visitors to A Century 
of Progress. We are deeply conscious of the part that the 
Polish people have played in the destiny of Chicago and the 
entire nation . . . deeply conscious and deeply grateful. 

E cordially invite all visitors to A Century of Progress 
to visit and shop at The Fair 3 Stores. 



W 



A Great Store in a Great City 



State, Adams and Dearborn Streets 
Oak Park— Lake at Marion St. Milwaukee Ave. at Wood St. 



MILWAUKEE AVE. STORE 



THE ONLY 
POLISH 

ABC 

DAILY 

IN CHICAGO 



POLISH DAILY ZGODA 

DZIENNIK ZWIĄZKOWY 

Published by THE POLISH NATIONAL ALLIANCE of U. S. A. 

1406-08 WEST DIVISION STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Telephone All Departments — BRUNSWICK 8700 



LARGEST 

POLISH 

CIRCULATION 

IN CHICAGO 

AND 
SUBURBS 



Only in a Polish Newspaper may be found Vital News of Polish Life 



The Polish Daily Zgoda, in its field is not a foreign 
language publication — but a "native language" 
newspaper. Because it is the one readable newspaper 
for the man and woman born to speak the Polish 
language. 

The Poles must read the news about their own 
life — social and commercial — and the only place they 
find this news is in their favorite Polish newspaper. 
That is why they read it so religiously and are 
guided largely by its editorial policies and opinions. 

The English language metropolitan dailies print 
little or no news about the life of the more than 
half a million Polish population of Chicago. — That 
is why — Only in a Polish newspaper may be found 
Vital News of Polish life. 



This reader interest extends to the advertising 
matter as well. The Poles regard advertising in 
their newspaper as a direct invitation to them to buy 
the merchandise advertised. It makes them feel their 
patronage is desired and appreciated, and accord- 
ingly they respond with whole-hearted enthusiasm. 

CHICAGO is the— 

SECOND LARGEST POLISH CITY 

in the WORLD. 

A four hundred million dollar market — 

The largest single racial concentration of dollars 

in Chicago. 

THE POLISH DAILY ZGODA is the medium of 

entry to this vast market. 



1933 is the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Year of the Polish Daily Zgoda 



[163] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2§S 2fS 



Compliments of 




3660 N. KILBOURN AVENUE 

(Grayland Station) 

PHONES KILDARE 3206-3207 

S. J. KWASIGROCH 
J. J. WOJTALEWICZ 
J. V. SCHEFFLER 
F. J. MIKOŁAJCZAK 



A Complete Drug Store Prompt Delivery 

PRESCRIPTION SERVICE 

Filled by Careful Registered Pharmacists 

SCHWABA'S PHARMACY 

JOHN SCHWABA, R. Ph. 

3600 DIVERSEY AVE., Cor. No. Central Pk. Av. 
PHONES: SPAULDING 71S5-71S6 



TELEPHONE SPAULDING 7974 

F. SZALIŃSKI 

EUROPEAN HOME MADE SAUSAGES 
2978 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 



BELMONT 1195 

JOHN MARCINKIEWICZ 

"BUFFET" 

Variety of Good Beers 
Light Lunch 

3534 DIVERSEY AVE. CHICAGO 



POLSKA APTEKA 

JAN C. MORACZEWSKI 

REGISTROWANY FARMACEUTA 

Weteran Członek S.W.A.P. 

2858 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

W AVONDALE 
STACJA POCZTOWA NA MIEJSCU 



TEL. SPAULDING 9649 

LOUIS MASTALARZ 

OAKDALE INN 

2924 NORTH CENTRAL PARK AVENUE 

Avondale's Most Beautiful Buffet 



MIL-MONT BAKERY 

B. KUBIAK, Prop. 
"THE BAKERY THAT SUITS EVERY TASTE" 

2989 MILWAUKEE AVE. SPAULDING 0922 



AVONDALE BAKERY 

Wm. J. Kleczeivski, Prop. 
2921-23 MILWAUKEE AVE. Spaulding 7065 



CENTRAL PARK HALL AND BUFFET 
J. R. WARSZINSKI, JR., Prop. 

3600 WOLFRAM ST. TEL. SPAULDING 7348 

Corner Central Park Avenue 

FRANK WALKOWIECKI 

Grocery and Meat Market 
2959 N. HAMLIN AVE. Tel. Spaulding 6856 

JOSEPH C. BRONARS 

Certified Public Accountant 
2257 N. SAWYER AVE. TEL. CAPITOL 0971 

STANLEY AUGUSTYN 

Groceries, Smoked Meats and Fruits 

3601 WOLFRAM ST. PH. SPAULDING 7382 

VINCENT NAJDOWSKI 

MEAT MARKET 
3020 MILWAUKEE AVE. SPAULDING 7320 



[164] 



,; . .; ;; ■?. .. ,; ,.■ ;,■ .; ,; '.; ,; .. 








PYTEREK, 
PASTOR 



REV. F. 
CZARNY 



SAINT HELEN'S PARISH SCHOOL 



Saint Helen's Parish 



St. Helen's Parish, Polish is located at Oakley Blvd. 
and Augusta Blvd. with a frontage of 362 feet on Augusta 
Blvd. and 104 feet on Oakley Boulevard, where church is 
to be erected. It was founded by Rev. P. H. Pyterek, with 
the assistance of Messrs. P. Ligman, J. Rushkiewicz, 
Anthony Kłodziński, P. Bykowski, and F. Strobot, under 
the direction of the late Most Rev. J. E. Quigley, June 6, 
1913. 

When the parish was founded the services were held 
at Columbus Public School, Assembly Hall, Augusta and 
Leavitt St. from Sunday July 13 1913 to' Ash Wednesday 
February 25 1914, when services were held in the Church 
Hall of the new building to Easter Sunday April 12, 1914 
when first Mass was said in the new church. The corner 
stone of the combination building was laid November 2, 
1913, by Rt. Rev. P. Rhode, D. D. and was dedicated by the 
Most Rev. James E. Quigley, August 29th, 1914. Formal 
opening of school took place September 7, 1914. Confirma- 
tion was administered for the first time by His Eminence 
George Cardinal Mundelin during his Grace's cannonical 
Visit on May 22, 1918. When the property was bought 
there were but two buildings on the premises one of 
which is at present used as a rectory and the other to be 
remodeled for a convent. The combination Church, School 
and convent building with basement hall, school style lo- 
cated at Augusta St. Near Western Avenue was designed 
and built by Worthmann & Steinbach Architects & F. 
Klajda, General contractor It Has a frontage of 125 Feet 
and a depth of 120 feet. From the time the church and 
school were built the Parish grew and very soon it be- 
came evident that the combination church and school 
building wasentirely inadequate to the needs of the new 
Parish so in the year of 1924 a new and larger combina- 
tion church and school was built to accommodate all the 



new parishioners. The new Church has a seating capacity 
of 900 persons. The old building was remodeled for school 
purposes, and as the Sisters lived in cramped quarters 
over the class rooms it was necessary to remodel one of 
the buildings on the premisses for a convent. It has a 
small chapel and accommodations for about forty Nuns. 

The present pastor Rev. P. H. Pyterek was born 
August 1-st, 1878, a short distance from the parish, was 
educated at St. Stanislaus Parochial School St. Ignatius 
College, St. Mary's College, Kentucky and St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore. He was ordained by Most Rev. 
James E. Quigley, March 28, 1903. He was appointed 
assistant at Immaculate Conception Parish and St. 
Joseph's Polish Parish and took charge of Polish Missions 
at Posen and Blue Island, Illinois from July 1-st, 1906 to 
June 6, 1913. 

The various assistants at the Parish were: Rev. C. 
Marcinak, Rev. P. Sobota, Rev. T. Smyk, Rev. I. Ren- 
klewski, Rev. E. Sonnenfeld, Rev. F. Dampts, the pres- 
ent assistants: Rev. L. Sychowski and Rev. F. Czarny. 

The Felician Sisters are in charge of the school from 
the foundation of the parish. The school is under the care 
of the sisters whose Superioress is the Vev. S. M. Adjuta. 
St. Helen's has one of the best school Bands which won 
honorary mention and prizes in compeating with other 
parochial schools; it is under the direction of Bandmaster 
A. E. Petrocelli. The organist Mr. John Dendor has five 
choirs under his direction in the parish they are as 
follows: St. Helen's Sr. Choir St. Helen's Junior Choir, 
St. Ann's Married Ladies Choir and two School Children 
Choir. 

During the World War the members of the parish 
complied with urgent request of our government by 
contributing generously to the nations cause by buying 



[165] 



M- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



■jk 




MR. E. A. 

KIRSTEN 
President of 

Committees 



MR. J. 
DENDOR 
Organist 



INTERIOR OF ST. HELEN'S CHURCH 



Liberty Bonds and furnishing in members of Volunteers 
to the American and Polish Armies. 

With all of these celebrations and activities this year in 
Chicago, the Parishioners are also colebrating the Thirt- 
ieth Anniversary of the ordination of the Pastor Rev. P. 
H. Pyterek, and the Twentieth Anniversary of the found- 
ation of the Parish. 

The present Parish Committee are Edward A. Kir- 
sten, and Thomas Kozioł. 

Among the various organizations, societies and Build- 
ing and Loans Associations who helped to make the Po- 
lish Week a success at The Century of Progress Exposi- 
tion are: 

King Casimir the Great (Men's) and 

Queen Wanda (Ladies) Clubs 

St. Helen's Society, Gr. 762 P. R. C. U. 

St. Emily's Society, Gr. 763, P. N. A. 

Catholic Order of Foresters (Ladies) 

St. Peter's Court, No. 927 

Polish Alma Mater, St. Ann's Society 



Married Ladies Sodality 

St. Joseph's Society, Men's Sodality 

Young Ladies Sodality 

St. Vincent De Paul Society 

Holy Name Society 

King John Sobieski Society, Gr. 1533. P. N. A. 

Queen Hedwig Society, Gr. 525, P. W. A. 

Free Polish Women In The Land of Washington 

Society, Gr. No. 51 
Osada P. R. C. U. No. 119 
St. Wyspiański Dramatic Circle, Group No. 30, A. 

P. L. D. of A. 
Cadets of St. George Society, Gr. 402 P. R. C. U. 
St. Therese of Infant Jesus Society 
Jastrzabki Club 
Sons of Poland Society, Gr. 191, Polish Union, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Polish Business Men's Club, St. Helen's Parish 
St. Helena Bldg. & Loan Association 
Providers Bldg. & Loan Association 



The various committees of men and women of St. Helen's Parish who took an active part in the Polish Week of 
Hospitality held in Chicago from July 17 to July 23, 1933 at the Century of Progress International Exposition: 



REV. P. H. PYTEREK. Pastor 
REV. L. SYCHOWSKI 
REV. F. CZARNY, Treasurer 



MR. E. A. KIRSTEN. President 

MR. A. RUTKOWSKI, Vice President 

MR. P. L. SZCZERBICKI, Secretary 



Mrs. 


F. Firan 


Mrs. T. Tryba 


Mr. 


A. 


Tyrcha 


Mr. 


J. 


Dendor 


Mrs. 


W. Kirsten 


Mrs. S. Kula 


Mr. 


J. 


Malek 


Mr. 


J. 


Chuchro 


Mrs. 


M. Miekieszewicz 


Miss M. Bieschke 


Mr. 


J. 


Labiak 


Mr. 


A. 


Chuchro 


Mrs. 


S. Budzban 


Miss M. Kozioł 


Mr. 


C. 


Jasiński 


Mr. 


T. 


Pierdos 


Mrs. 


M. Bomba 


Miss G. Bieschke 


Mr. 


L. 


Skurski 


Mr. 


F. 


Kula 


Mrs. 


M. Groszewska 


Miss S. Nowak 


Mr. 


A. 


Bolda 


Mr. 


S. 


Kulak 


Mrs. 


J. Budzban 


Miss F. Klonder 


Mr. 


P. 


Bolda 


Mr. 


L. 


Wozny 


Mrs. 


A. Przybyło 


Miss M. Palka 


Mr. 


T. 


Podraża 


Mr. 


F. 


Budzban 


Mrs. 


H. Szczerbicki 


Mr. F. Grott 


Mr. 


S. 


Sokol 


Mr. 


J. 


Sadowski 


Mrs. 


J. Górski 


Mr. Zieliński 


Mr. 


R. 


Krawczyk 


Mr. 


J. 


Lucarz 


Mrs. 


B. Raichel 


Mr. J. Czaja 


Mr. 


J. 


Ochab 


Mr. 


A. 


Bielech 


Mrs. 


V. Lepianka 










Mr. 


J. 


Rutkowski 



[166] 



SAINT HELEN'S PARISH 



& 






$ 






COMPLIMENTS 






3 1ST WARD 


DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION 






EDWARD J. KAINDL 
Ward Committeeman 


J. T. FREEDMAN N. A. WATERLOO 

Sanitary District Trustee State Representative 






THOMAS P. KEANE 
Alderman 


ISIDORE BROWN A. M. KAINDL 

President State Representative 





PHONE ARMITAGE 3378-3379 

KIRSTEN FUNERAL 
SERVICE 

Modern Chapel 
1006 NORTH WESTERN AVENUE 

NEAR AUGUSTA BOULEVARD CHICAGO 



IMPERIAL BAKING CO. 

Wholesale — Retail 
BREAD, ROLLS, CAKES and PASTRIES 

1021-25 NORTH DAMEN AVENUE 



-'S* ft 





/ o 



1 Bskdlzo 



nir<a 

Pod Każdym Względem 



Rozpocznijcie teraz używać 

ucco - herboLene 



Radość i szczęście zapanuje u was w domu, gdy używać będziecie żela- 
zowe wino Ucco-Herbolene. Jest to najlepsze lekarstwo na choroby 
krwi i żołądka. Krew utrzymuje nas przy życiu. Właśnie Ucco Herb- 
olene wzmacnia żołądek, podnieca apetyt, przyspiesza trawienie, uspo- 
kaja nerwy, usuwa z organizmu ludzkiego nadmiar tłuszczu, a więc 
odtłuszcza kobiety i mężczyzn. Jedna łyżeczka Ucco Herbolene w ciągu 
10 minut uśmierza kurcze żołądkowe. Gdy użyjecie od 2 do 3 butelek 
Ucco Herbolene to usuniecie wyrzuty skórne, pryszcze, a skóra staje 
się miękka, przyjemna w dotknięciu, ciepła, biało-różowa niby krew 
i mleko. Kobiety stają się piękne, zdrowe, pełne radości i życia, a zaś 
osłabieni mężczyźni odzyskują nanowo siłę i zdrowie i szczęście. Pa- 
miętajcie, że już przed wiekami poeta Jan Kochanowski powiedział: 
"Szlachetne zdrowie — Nikt się nie dowie, 
Jako smakujesz — Aż się popsujesz." 

Więc nie czekajcie aż się Wam zdrowie zepsuje zupełnie. Kupcie sobie butelkę Ucco 
Herbolene zaraz dziś. Butelka kosztuje tylko dolara, a butelka podwójnej wielkości 
tylko dolara i pół. Lekarstwo to zrobione jest przez doświadczonego aptekarza i che- 
mika, podług recept najsławniejszych profesorów — i jest gwarantowane. Dostaniecie 
je w każdej aptece. Pytajcie się o prawdziwą i oryginalną U-C-C-O-Herbolene wyra- 
bianą przez Universal Medicine Co., 1901 Hervey Street, telefon Brunswick 3508. 

CpCf |A| KIA ftpCDTA Kto przyśle sześć godeł namalowanych na wierzchu opako- 
•rtWHLUlI \J* Cn I r\ wa nia na każdej malej lub dużej butelce "Ucco Herbolene", 
tam którędy butelkę wyjmuje się z opakowania, ten dostanie darmo prześliczną srebrną, tackę 
wytłaczaną w piękne wzory i widoki lub prześliczny sznur perełek na szyję. Pod tern godłem 
napisane są słowa po angielsku: "New Package Desing adopted 1931". Przysyłajcie wprost 
do wytwórcy. 

UNIVERSAL MEDICINE COMPANY 

1901 HERVEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, TELEFON BRUNSWICK 3508 
= UCCO HERB-BOLENE JEST GWARANTOWANE = 















FOR 



DEPEND ON 



KILDARE 
, 3440 



[167] 



aic- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



'2§5 



JOSEPH MAGDZIARZ, President 
ROMAN GROCHOWINA, Secretary 



LEON WOJCZYNSKI, Vice-Pres. & Mgr. 
MARTIN WOJCZYNSKI, Treasurer 



TELEPHONE MONROE 1807-1808 

Standard 

COFFIN & CASKET MFG. CO. 

729-35 MILWAUKEE AVE. 



CORNER N. CARPENTER ST. 
CHICAGO 



REPRESENTATIVES 
MARTIN WOJCZYNSKI 
LEO WOJCZYNSKI, JR. 



DIRECTORS 

MICHAEL WOJCZYNSKI 

JOHN J. STEPHANY 

LEON ZGLENICKI 



Start to Save Now in 

St. Helena Bldg. & Loan Assn. 

Existing for 20 years, under State control and during 
that time has paid Million Dollars to the members. 

Office: 2351 AUGUSTA BLVD., or at Parish Hall, every 
Monday evening. 

Theo. L. Skweres. Pres.; J. F. Rushkiewicz, Sec'y ; Wm. t'. 
Gillmeister, Vice Pres. ; P. J. Bolda, Treas. ; Jos. A. Ko- 
walski, Ass't Sec'y ; T. Podraża, And. Pierdos, L. Wozny 
and Arthur Rushkiewicz, Directors ; P. P. Mindak, Attorney. 



FRANK A. KUTA 

Attorney at Law 
1001 NORTH WESTERN AVENUE 

Corner Auirusta Boulevard — 2nd Floor 



TEL. BRUNSWICK 1345 



CHICAGO 



PHONE BRUNSWICK 79G2 

ANTHONY J. SZYDŁOWSKI 

RAINBOW ROOFING CO. 

NOT INC. 
GRAVEL AND READY ROOFING 

Tile, Slate and Gutters 
1415 N. WESTERN AVE. CHICAGO 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 7770 

HOME BAKERY 

JOS. SADOWSKI, Prop. 

Cakes for Weddings and Parties a Specialty 

1018 N. WESTERN AVE. CHICAGO 



PHONE BRUNSWICK 8965 



K. & J. WITEK 

We Specialize in Wedding Dresses and Veils 

Goxvns — We Have the Latest Modes 

Made for All Occasions 



2138 W. CHICAGO AVE. 



CHICAGO 



TEL. BRUNSWICK 5298 

LOUIS KIEŁBASA 

FIRST CLASS MEAT MARKET 
European Sausages Always Fresh 

955 N. WESTERN AVE. 



[168] 



&' 



SAINT HELEN'S PARISH 



lii 



Our Bread, Assorted Pies and Cakes 
Are Just Lilce Mother Used to Bake 

NEW SANITARY BAKERY 

ANTHONY KRASZEWSKI, Prop. 

1002 N. WESTERN AVE. HUMBOLDT 7784 



PIONEER PHARMACY 

C. A. JAKUBEC, Ph. G. 

Prescriptions Our Specialty 
959 N. WESTERN AVE. HUMBOLDT 0479 



CAMPBELL PHOTO STUDIO 

EDWARD M. BIESCHKE, Prop. 

Photographer For All Occasions 
2522 W. DIVISION ST. HUMBOLDT 0192 

PHONE HUMBOLDT 5534 

LEO C. KAWCZINSKI 

UNDERTAKER 

910 N. WESTERN AVENUE 

Automobiles for all occasions CHICAGO 

B. M. PIECUCH 

Gents' Furnishings 
1818 W. CHICAGO AVE. BRUNSWICK 5272 

M. SADOWSKI 

Hams, Bacons, Lard and Sausage 
2258 WALTON ST. PHONE MONROE 7330 



ANDREW BIELECH 

MUSICIAN 
2247 THOMAS ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



LINCOLN PHOTO STUDIO 

M. B. MOROZOWICZ, Prop. 
Photographer of your community 

2316 WEST CHICAGO AVE., near Western Ave. 
Phone BRUNSWICK 3938 



LOUIS P. MANN 

CO A TS— SUITS— DRESSES 
The store for quality merchandise at lowest prices 
1258 MILWAUKEE AVE. ARMITAGE 2929 



DR. JOSEPH F. KONOPA 

Physician and Surgeon 

1628 W. DIVISION STREET 

TELEPHONE, ARMITAGE 6145 




A Chicago Institution 

Whenever downtown drop in to 
Pixley & Ehlers Restaurants 

they are under the 

Polish Management of 
MR. ANTHONY C. SHEPANEK 

Main Office 
64 EAST LAKE STREET 

Other Locations 



18 EAST VAN BUREN ST. 
20 S. CLARK ST. 

32 S. CLARK ST. (Arcade) 

33 W. MADISON ST. 

34 N. WELLS ST. 
68 EAST LAKE ST. 
73 W JACKSON BLVD. 

CHICAGO 



180 N. WELLS ST. 

205 S. WABASH AVE. 

206 W. JACKSON BLVD. 
333 W. MADISON ST. 
808 W. MADISON ST. 
1606 W. MADISON ST. 



J 



AMES DAVIS 

Unfading 
WALL PAPERS 



1400-1406 MILWAUKEE AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



[169] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



CHICAGO'S FINEST 
BAKERIES 

WE POSSESS A DESERVED 

REPUTATION FOR THE 

BEST BAKERY GOODS 

IN CHICAGO 

New Century 
Bakeries 

3645 IRVING PARK BLVD. 
3332 MILWAUKEE AVE. 

PHONES IRVING 0036 



KLECH 

PROPRIETOR 
(SYL. KLECZEWSKI) 



COMPLIMENTS 



of 




CLEANERS AND DYERS 

ESTABLISHED 1900 



1721-27 Milwaukee Avenue 

ALL PHONES HUMBOLDT 1350 



COMPLIMENTS 



OF 



Wieboldfs 

MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
STORE 




SAVE $ 5 00 N& 

MOTOR ANALYSIS \f 

By Factory Trained Experts \ 

ON WEIDENHOFF MOTOR ANALYZER 

Visit Our Motor Clinic — Everybody 

Welcome 

Complete Motor Car Service 

FRED HAWKINS, Inc. 

2241 SOUTH WABASH AVENUE 



Use Our Parking Stations — 

Safe, Fireproof Buildings — 

Walking Distance to Main Entrance 

of CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2241 S. WABASH AVE. 50 CARS— 5 BLKS. 

2245 S. PRAIRIE AVE. 125 CARS— 2 BLKS. 

2340 S. INDIANA AVE. 250 CARS— 3 BLKS. 

2036 S. PRAIRIE AVE. 60 CARS— 3 BLKS. 



FRED HAWKINS, Inc. 

Chrysler — Plymouth New Car Department 

2240 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 

ALL PHONES CALUMET 4235 

Member P. N. A. and Chicago Society 



[170] 



Saint Koman Parish 




The St. Roman Parish is one 
of the youngest Polish congrega- 
tions in the diocese of Chicago; 
it was organized in the fall of 
1928. 

Because of the enormous terri- 
tory and the large group of Poles, 
who number over 10,000 souls in 
the Douglas Park district, the St. 
Casimir's Church, despite the 
valiant efforts of its priests, 
could not adequately serve so 
large a congregation. The Right 
Reverend Stanislaus V. Bona, 
now Bishop of Grand Island, 
deemed it therefore necessary to 
establish another church at the western end of his parish. 

The Reverend John J. Kozłowski, Ph. D., was appointed 
by diocesan authority as the pastor of the new parish. 
Plans for the new church-edifice were made and the con- 
struction of suitable buildings was immediately begun. 

Amid jubilation and with appropriate 
ceremony the corner-stone was laid by 
the Very Reverend Anthony Halgas on 
the nineteenth day of April, 1929. The 
solemn dedication of the church and 
school was performed by the Right Rev- 
erend Bernard Sheil, suffragan bishop 
of Chicago. 

The following boundaries of the par- 
ish were established by ecclesiastic 
authority: Twenty-sixth Street on the 
south. Western Avenue on the east, 
Twelfth Street on the north and Mar- 
shall Boulevard on the west. 

Under the direction of its energetic 
and beloved pastor the parish is stead- 
ily increasing in number and has on its 
records over one thousand families as 
regular parishioners. In the near fu- 
ture it will be numbered among the 
largest Polish Parishes in Chicago. 

The St. Roman School, in charge of 
the Teaching Sisters of St. Joseph, is 
of the most modern construction and 
boasts of entirely up-to-date equipment 
and facilities for educating its nine 
hundred and nineteen pupils. 

The school building contains a large REV. 



UlllŁto. 



SAINT ROMAN CHURCH AND SCHOOL, 




auditorium, the scene of frequent 
dramas and social gatherings 
given under the auspices of the 
various parish sodalities, societies 
and clubs. Among the most im- 
portant of these may be named: 
The Married Ladies Sodality, The 
Holy Name Society, The Young 
Ladies Sodality, The Social Club, 
The Friendship Circle, St. Therese 
Society, The Alumni Association, 
The Mazovian Dramatic Circle, 
The New Poland Society, The 
Tertiaries of St. Francis, The 
Sodality of Our Lady of Często- 
chowa, Dzielne Polki, The Apostle- 
ship of Prayer, "Unity" Dramatic Circle, The Polish 
Workmen, Kosynier of Pulaski and St. Vincent de Paul 
Society. 

The parish choirs were organized by the well-known 
singer, Mary Gruszczyński, who in 1930 won The Rosa 
Raisa Award in a national contest and 
at present resides in Milan, Italy. The 
choirs are making further progress un- 
der the able direction of James Boch- 
niarz, organist. 

The parish takes pride in the fact, 
that in the four years of its existence 
it added six workers to the Vineyard 
of the Lord: two priests, the Reverend 
Julius Gilewski and the Reverend Ed- 
ward Radwański; and four nuns. At 
present it has eight young men prepar- 
ing for the priesthood, several young 
ladies in the novitiate of various con- 
gregations of nuns and a very large 
number of high-school and college 
students. 

The Reverend Doctor Kozłowski is 
assisted in his arduous work by the 
Reverend Joseph Walczak and the Rev- 
erend Aloysius Przypyszny. Messers 
Stephen Sendziak, Frank Osysko, John 
Gniadek, Lawrence Krawiec, Joachim 
Kotlinski, Michael Owczarz, Peter Mon- 
ika and John Mamrot serve as Parish 
Trustees and Committee. 



DR. J. J. KOZŁOWSKI 

[171] 



& 



SAINT ROMAN PARISH 



-& 



LAWNDALE 7545 JOSEPH B. JACHIMIEC, Prop. 

ESTABLISHED 1927 

Twenty -Fourth Street 
Press 

COMMERCIAL & SOCIETY PRINTING 

Advertising Circulars — Programs — Stationery 

2734 W. 24th STREET 



SAINT ROMAN'S CHOIR 

Organized in 1928 

ADMINISTRATION: 

President John Bonk 

Vice-President Irene Buszkiewicz 

Secretary Marion Wojtowicz 

Financial Secretary Agnes Śmigielski 

j Lottie Kucik 
Librarians I Antoinette Mika 

vMary Wodarczyk 

Sargeant at Arms Stanley Tenerowicz 

Organist James Bochniarz 

Chaplain Rev. Joseph Walczak 



TOW. M. B. RÓŻAŃCOWEJ 

w Parafji Św. Romana 
Założone 14go października r. p. 1928 
w Chicago, 111. 
Założycielka była pani Marja Balaban. Obecnie Tow. 
liczy przeszło 300 członkiń. Z okazji Wystawy świa- 
tów. j w Chicago, zasyłamy serdeczne życzenia Po- 
lonji chicagoskiej. 

ZARZĄD 
K. BAJEK, Prezeska 
J. WAWRZYNIAK, Wice Prezeska 
V. MAJDER, Sekr. Pin. 

D. KOCHA, Sekr. Prot. 
A. BALLA, Kasjerka 

K. KONKOLEWSKA, Radna 
M. KROCZKA, Marszałkini 

E. ZIELIŃSKA, Marszałkini 



Na Romanowie 

TOW. NOWA POLSKA 

GRUPA 736 Z. N. P. 

Założone dnia 15go listopada, 1905 roku 

ZARZĄD 
JAN KIEŁBASA, Prezes 

JÓZEF NAJMAN, Wiceprezes 

ANNA BARTOSIAK, Wiceprezeska 

EDWARD LEWANDOWSKI, Sekr. Fin. 
JAN SOBOŃ, Sekr. Prot. 

JÓZEF GAJDA, Asst. Sekr. 
JAN KARGOL, Kasjer 



KÓŁKO DRAMATYCZNE 
MAZOWIECKIE 

NA ROMANOWIE 

Założone dnia 30go listopada, roku 1930, pod opieką 
M. B. Korony Polskiej, Chicago, Illinois. 



PHONE ROCKWELL 2573 

A. S. ZARZYCKI I SYN 

POLSCY POGRZEBOWI 

Bezpłatna Kaplica 

Automobile na Wszelkie Okazje 

2955 WEST 25TH STREET 



ROCKWELL 9208 ROCKWELL 9209 

Marshall Square Wet Wash Laundry 

POLSKA PRALNIA 
Kompletne Wykończanie Wszelkich Usług 

2617-19-21 WEST CERMAK ROAD 

T. F. JANISZEWSKI W. KOSTRZYCKI 

A. H. KOZŁOWSKI CHICAGO, ILL. 



MUELLER BROS. LAUNDRY 

2139-2141 S. CALIFORNIA AVENUE 
PHONE LAWNDALE 2528 



WM. C. BOEHM 

Hardware — Paints 

2755 W. CERMAK RD. (22-nd ST.) 
ROCKWELL 1080 



BRONISŁAW KAMIŃSKI 

GROCERY 

2859 WEST 22nd PLACE CHICAGO, ILL. 



TOWARZYSTWO HETMANA 
STEFANA CZARNECKIEGO 

Grupa 676 Z. N. P. 

Założone dnia lOgo stycznia, 1904 roku 

w Chicago, Illinois 



[172] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 
jfg — 2|£ 



Ą 


Telephone 
HUMboldt 4530 
Res. ARMitage 1154 




J± VENUE CAFETERIA 

1250 Milwaukee Avenue 

Two large, redecorated halls, for banquets, 
dances and other occasions 


U 




Wesela, Bankiety oraz Bankiety Prymicyjne 
Przyjmujemy po Calem Chicago i Okolicy 


Dwie Duże Oddzielne Ulepszone i Odnowione Sale 


na Zabawy Taneczne itp. Okazje 


S. J. MICHALSKI, 
Właściciel 




DOŚWIADCZONA OBSŁUGA 





North-West Sporting Goods Mfg. Co, 

TEODOR F. OSOWSKI 

1628-30-32 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Największa Polska Firma Przyborów Sportowych, 
Harcerskich itp. W Ameryce 

DOSTARCZA MUNDURY I PRZYBORY 

Związkowi Narodowemu Polskiemu 

Zjednoczeniu Polsko-Rzymsko Katolickiemu 

Sokolstwu 

C. Y. O. przy polskich paraf jach — i wielu innym. 



THE LARGEST POLISH SPORTING GOODS AND UNIFORM MFG. COMPANY IX THE COUNTRY 



[173] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Telephone Armitage 1443 



American Catalog Printing Co 

<J i i tile to and ^/Jinaetó 



1231 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 

(Entire Rear Building) 



(Taetł-JL 



atjer- 



Jóó. «y. d)on/i 



Phone Humboldt 2348 and 2349 



ILLINOIS 

CO-OPERATIVE 
CLEANERS & DYERS 

ASS'N — INC. 
2712-2718 ELSTON AVE. 



Powyższy zakład zbudowany został 
funduszem Polskich Krawców, któ- 
rzy prowadzą własne interesy i 
wszelkie prace czyszczenia i farbo- 
wania oddają do swego zakładu. 

JÓZEF WOJKOWSKI, Prezes 
ALEX KUBAK, Wiceprezes I 
MATHEW DOŁGOPOL, Wiceprezes II 
JAKÓB WOJKOWSKI, Sekretarz 
SIMON MICHALIK, Kasjer 

DYREKTORZY: 



JOSEPH WIENER 
FRANK MAZUREK 



JERRY CHUHAK 

JOHN TOBIASZ 



TOWARZYSTWO DZIEWIC 
RÓŻAŃCOWYCH 

Zorganizowane roku 1929 dnia 8go grudnia. Helena 
Turek, prezeska; Marja Białas, wice prezeska; Geno- 
wefa Pyrek, sekr. prot. ; Leokadja Tanga, sekr. fin.; 
Stanisława Shway, skarbniczka. 

TOW. NAJŚW. IM. JEZUS 

Szczepan Sendziak, prezes; Michał Konkolewski, wice 
prezes: Franciszek Kudłacz, sekretarz protokółowy; 
Józef Pogorzelski, sekretarz finansowy; John Bajek, 
skarbnik. 



Office and Residence Phone: LAWNDALE 8025 

DR. JOHN L. PIECZYŃSKI 

Physician and Surgeon 
3058 CERMAK ROAD 



MIDWEST STORE 

Pierwszorzędny Sklep Spożywczy 
2658 WEST 23RD PLACE 



BAUER'S 
WALLPAPER & PAINT STORE 

Interior Decorating — Exterior Painting 
2855 W. CERMAK RD. PH. ROCKWELL 2983 



[174] 



its- 



SAINT ROMAN PARISH 



'2$£ 



PHONE BERKSHIPvE 3187 

Smoke Valpo and Pulaski Cigars 

VAL. W. POTEREK 

and SONS 

THE LARGEST POLISH 

MANUFACTURERS, WHOLESALERS 

AND JOBBERS 

of Cigars, Cigarettes, Tobacco and 
Smoking Articles in Chicago 

2140 N. LOREL AVENUE 



FRANK RAKOWSKI JOSEPH CISLAK 

TELEPHONES: KEDZIE 2188-2189 

SERVICE DAIRY PRODUCTS 

WHOLESALE 

Cream and Butter 

4510 FILLMORE STREET CHICAGO 



HEARTIEST WISHES 

from 

CLERK OF SUPREME COURT 
OF STATE OF ILLINOIS 






[175] 




FOR BETTER SHOES 

AT 

LOWER PRICES 



TRY 




!h©e §>t@3F( 



Located at 

1653 WEST CHICAGO AVENUE 
1268 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
4713 SOUTH ASHLAND AVENUE 
6356 SOUTH HALSTED STREET 
3461 WEST 26TH STREET 
4111 WEST MADISON STREET 
3167 LINCOLN AVENUE 
678 BROADWAY, GARY, IND. 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Phone Armitage 1 498 



Binders of this Book 

Ashland Book Bindery 

High Grade Book and Commercial Binding 



1231 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 



3rd Floor Rear Building 



C. BOJKOWSKI, Jr. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



FOR 43 YEARS 

Polish households in this 
country have used 

TRINER'S 
BITTER WINE 




TRINER5 ! 

.BtTTERWINE 



and found it always reliable as a sure 
and quick relief in cases of constipa- 
tion, gases, poor appetite, indigestion, 
headaches, sleeplessness and other 
troubles connected with stomach dis- 
orders. It cleans the intestines, re- 
moves all poisonous waste matter and 

tones up the entire system. 



tuxrn 
JlTTER-WlNC. 




f 




TRINER'S KALA-FORNIA 
TONIC 

made with muscatel wine, without laxative 
ingredients, is a splendid tonic for shattered 
nerves. Its ingredients, peptones and iron, 
will give you back the joy of living. 

At all druggists 

JOSEPH TRINER COMPANY 

1333-45 S. ASHLAND AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



HEMLOCK 1672 

STRAND PHARMACY 

Prescription Specialists 

5460 SOUTH KEDZIE AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Joseph N. Kaszeski, Member of Chicago Society 



DR. S. F. SPERA 

Dentist 
2200 MARSHALL BLVD. LAWNDALE 6486 



EDWARD ŁUCZAK 

Adwokat 
3028 WEST CERMAK RD. 



Phone Lawndale 0548 



Hours: 2 to 4 P. M.— 7 to 9 P. M. 



DR. J. H. ŁUCZAK 

Physician and Surgeon 
3028 WEST CERMAK RD. 



KOCHAŃSKI BROS. 

Suits, Overcoats and Uniforms Made to Order 
1319 N. ASHLAND AVE. BRUNSWICK 4353 



[176] 



^$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$^ 



St. Stanislaus Y^ostka Parish 

The first Polish Roman Catholic Congregation organized in Chicago 



IN 1867 the Polish pioneers of Chicago conceived the 
idea of organizing the first Polish parish. Tradition 
shows that they understood perfectly well what a 
wonderful influence parish life exerts on the social and 
nationalistic aspirations of the average immigrant who, 
in the strange surroundings of an adopted country, can- 
not help but lose all contact with the beloved land o'f his 
forefathers. These farsighted men and women realized 
that a church in which they could worship God in the 
beautiful tongue of their ancestors would be a bulwark 
against sinister forces, a fortress wherein the ideals of 
their mother country and the Faith of their fathers would 
be perpetuated. God evidently blessed their noble project, 
for in 1S69 they began to erect a humble church, a 
wooden structure, unostentatious and plain. 

The first pastor of the newly created parish was the 
Rev. Joseph Juszkiewicz. His successor was Father 



Adolf Bakanowski, C. R., a member of the Congregation 
of the Resurrection. June 18, 1871, became a memorable 
day for the Poles of Chicago, for on that day Bishop 
Foley D. D.. assisted by five priests, dedicated to the 
Most High the new place of worship. The ceremony was 
edifying as it was inspiring. 

A few months after this significant event a terrible 
misfortune visited the City — the great Chicago Fire. 
Although this tragic conflagration did not destroy the 
parish buildings, many of the good people of St. Stanis- 
laus Kostka congregation who had built their homes 
beyond the Chicago River, on the north side, suffered 
the loss of all their property and belongings. 

Imbued with the spirit that made Chicago the marvel 
city o'f the world, these honest children of toil, under the 
leadership and inspiration of their pastor, Father Vincent 



MOTHER OF ALL POLISH PARISHES IN CH ICAGO— CRADLE OF THE 
POLISH ORGANIZATIONS OF AMERICA 




The Church of St. Stanislaus Kostka, the Auditorium, Sisters' Residence, School 

Rectory and Gymnasium, occupying entire city block at Noble, Ingraham 

and Bradley Streets, opposite Pulaski Park, Chicago. 

[177] 



J§5- 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



THKIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



-ais 



Barzynski, C. R., proceeded in 1S76 to build one of the 
largest and most beautiful churches in Chicago. It was 
completed and dedicated in 1S77, and it stands today as 
a noble monument to his and their devotion to God and 
country. Then a tine school building was erected contain- 
in u class rooms for 3000 pupils and an assembly hall with 
a seating capacity of 4000. To finish the work of the 
organization, the education of the children was entrusted 
to the Sisters of Notre Dame. 

After the untimely death on May 2nd, 1899, of the 
beloved Father Vincent Barzynski. C. R., the following 
members of the Congregation of the Resurrection served 
as pastors: Rev. John Kasprzycki, C. R., Rev. Francis 
Gordon C. R., Rev. Stanislaus Rogalski, C. R., Rev. Fran- 
cis Dembiński, C. R., Rev. John Obyrtacz, C. R., Rev. 
Stanislaus Siatka, C. R.. Rev. Thaddeus Ligman, C. R. 
and the present incumbent. Rev. John Drzewiecki, O R., 
who has built the new Rectory and Parish office com- 
pleting therewith the group of modern structures of the 
parish. The Rev. Pastor is assisted in his work by Fath- 
ers John S. Ratajczak, C. R.. Edward Golnik, C. R., Joseph 
Pruszynski, C. R., and Gregory Palubicki, O R. 

The only severe setback visited upon the parish 
occurred at Christmastime in 1906. The big school house 
and the Sisters' residence were entirely destroyed by 
fire, fortunately, without any loss of life. 

The year 1908 is unquestionably one of the most 
memorable in the annals of our parish. It is marked by 
the dedication of the present splendid School building, 
Sisters' Home and Auditorium, a very elaborate event, 
honored by the presence of the Vice-President of the 
United States, Charles Fairbanks, and such distinguish- 
ed prelates as the Most Rev. James Quigley, Archbishop 
of Chicago, and the Rt. Rev. Muldoon, D. D. 

Today, the noble church of our parish, and the other 
parish buildings, harmonize eloquently in every detail, 
and unequalled as to convenience and construction, lift 
their shoulders into the sky and look with pride and 
affection upon the community of Polish descent that so 
nobly dedicates itself to the greater glory of God here 
on earth. 

St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish numbers approximately 
1500 families in its congregational fold. The present 
school attendance is 1435, and the teaching covers a 
complete grammar system, with a department of higher 
grades in commercial classes. 

The 54 fraternal aid and insurance societies existing 
in the parish have a total membership exceeding 5,000 
people. 

The civic, charitable and social work of the parish 
is in charge of the PAROCHIAL COMMITTEE consist- 
ing of Mr. John Nering, Mr. Stanislaus A. Pufundt, Mr. 
Roman J. Grochowina Mr. Stanislaus Samborski and Mr. 
Anthony Cichowicz. 



Foremost among the societies and clubs carrying on 
the everyday activities of St. Stanislaus Kostka Congrega- 
tion are the following organizations: 

The St. Vincent DePaul Charity Conference, 

The Holy Name Society, 

The Society of the Little Flower, 

The Thaddeus Kościuszko Citizens Club, 

The Ladies Club of Queen Dąbrówka, 

The Brotherhood of St. Joseph, 

The St. Cecilia Parochial Choir, 

The St. Stanislaus Kostka Dramatic Circle. 

The St. Stanislaus Kostka School Alumni Ass'n and 

The White Eagle Turner Society. 

THE ST. STANISLAUS KOSTKA PARISH AUXILIARY 

FOR THE POLISH WEEK OF HOSPITALITY 

AND OTHER EVENTS AT A CENTURY 

OF PROGRESS EXPOSITION: 

Rev. John Drzewiecki, O R., Pastor and Hon. Chair- 
man, 
Rev. John S. Ratajczak, C. R., Chaplain, 
Mr. John Nering, Chairman, 
Dr. John V. Grzybowski, Vice-Chairman, 
Mr. Edward J. Firling, Secretary, 
Mr. Joseph Grabowiecki, Treasurer, 

The following members of the Auxiliary have served 
in its Sub-Committees, for the Souvenir Book of the Fair, 
Program and Entertainment, Tickets, Contests. Music and 
Choirs, Invitation, Floats and Parade, Finance. Ways, 
Means and Planning, Athletics and Sports, Transporta- 
tion and for Housing and Parking: 



Bessie Bassenhorst, 
Caroline Bawelek, 
Edmund Bawelek , 
Frances Bieschke, 
Helen Bobrowski, 
Irene Brodziński, 
Mathias Bykyowski, 
Martha Ciemniecki. 
John Czekała, 
Constance Czekała. 
Anna Czubak, 
Bernard Drabanski, 
Mary Drabanski, 
Rose Dukes, 
John Fafinski, 
Francis Gorynski, Jr., 
Francis Górzyński, 
Joseph Grabowiecki, 
John Grzywa, 
Henry F. Gudel, 
Vine. Jozwin Jozwiakowski, 
John Kaliszewski, 
Evelyn Kfingsporn, 
Francis Kortas, 



Stanislaus Malinowski. 
Mary Mrochim, 
Joseph G. Mucha, 
Lucille M. Mucha, 
Henry J. Niemczyk, 
Salome Panek, 
Loretta Polinski, 
Stanislaus A. Pufundt, 
Peter Rostenkowski, 
Stanislaus Samborski, 
Boniface Sitkiewicz, 
Stanislaus Skibiński, 
Jerome Szczodrowski. 
Mary Szczodrowski, 
Sophia Szpakowski, 
Cecilia Train, 
Elenore Witorski, 
Albert Wójcik, 
Francis Wójcik, 
Frank Wójcik, 
Edward Wojtuś, 
Alex. Zakroczymski, 
Helen Zulinski. 



[178] 



afe- 



SAINT STANISLAUS KOSTKA PARISH 



POZDROWIENIE 

DLA 

POLONJI Z CAŁEGO ŚWIATA 

ZEBRANEJ PODCZAS 

POLSKIEGO TYGODNIA GOŚCINNOŚCI 
NA WSZECHŚWIATOWEJ WYSTAWIE 



K A Y EL 



FABRYKANCI 



KAYEL and UNIVERSAL CEMENT BURIAL VAULTS 

4619-4621 ROSCOE STREET CHICAGO 



BRUNSWICK 2585 

KAROL ZULINSKI 

POLSKI POGRZEBOWY 

Naszym głównym celem jest zadowolenie naszą obsługą 



1457 BLACKHAWK ST. 

blisko Holt St. 

CHICAGO 



[179] 



ais 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-$ 



"Success 



To Polish Week 



of Hospitality 



> > 




LEO KOCIALKOWSKI 
Member of Congress 



EIGHTH CONGRESSIONAL 
DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS 




J. MAKARSKI & SON 
Funeral Directors 

No charge for Chapel 

No distance too far 

No funeral too small 

No difference which Church or Cemetary 

No difference what hour of day or night 

Always at your service. 

1123 Noble Street 

ARMITAGE 1921 



TEL. ARMITAGE 1517 - ARMITAGE 2117 



J. B. PALLASCH AND SONS 

Real Estate, Loans, Fire Insurance, 
Foreign Exchange and Steamship Agency 



1146 NOBLE STREET 

ESTABLISHED 1892 CHICAGO, ILL. 



TEL. ARMITAGE 2117 - ARMITAGE 1517 
RES. 1144 NOBLE STREET 

TELEPHONE ARMITAGE 4843 

ABDON M. PALLASCH 

Attorney at Law 

1146 NOBLE STREET 

CHICAGO 



[180] 



a§5- 



SAINT STANISLAUS KOSTKA PARISH 



Jk 



DEPENDABLE FUEL MERCHANTS 



1873 - 



1933 



Our 60th Anniversary 

OBERHEIDE COAL COMPANY 



^ERHEIDE 



PHONE 

Brunswick 

3300 



L Makes Warm. Friendi 
1335 BRADLEY STREET 

CHICAGO 



Polska Fabryka Trumien 

AMERICAN CASKET 
and MFG. CO. 

1313-23 W. DIVISION STREET 

BRUNSWICK 6020—6021 

Prócz Olbrzymiego Wyboru 
Trumien Poleca: 

Dla Paraf ij : 

WSZELKIE URZĄDZENIA KOŚCIELNE 

JAK OŁTARZE, KONFESJONAŁY, 

AMBONY, ŁAWKI ITR 

RYSUNKI NA ŻĄDANIE. 

URZĄDZENIA BIUROWE, APTEK, 

SKŁADÓW ITD. 

Po szczegóły zgłosić się osobiście lub pisać: 

American Casket and Manufacturing Company 

1313-23 West Division Street, Chicago, Illinois 



LEONARD RUTKOWSKI, 

Prezes 
A. H. NOWAK, 

Wice-Prezes 
KAZ. SZCZEPKOWSKI, 

Skarbnik 
THEO. GIESE, 

Sekretarz 



ANTONI KULESZA, 
Dyrektor i Zarządca 

MARTIN A. KOOP, 
Dyrektor i Sales Mgr. 

ALEX BUSCH, Dyrektoi 

J. P. ROSTENKOWSKI, 
Dyrektor 

JÓS. MAŁ.ŁEK, Dyrektor 



TEL. HAYMARKET 8982 

LA HILDA 

VERY MILD 

HALLERCZYK 
CIGAR COMPANY 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Grade Imported and Domestic 
CIGARS 

Jedna z Największych Polskich Fabryk Cygar 
Egzystująca 12 Lat 

Na zamówienie wysyłamy cygara do wszystkich 
miast w Stanuch Zjednoczonych 

JOHN MISIOWIEC 



850 N. ASHLAND AVENUE 

CHICAGO 



[181] 



POLKS IX AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



PHONES BRUNSWICK 3G61— 9797 



THE V. BARDONSKI 

JOHN B. BARDONSKI, R. Ph. G., Prop. 

PRESCRIPTION DRUGGIST 

Pierwsza Polska Apteka W Chicago 



1256 NOBLE' STREET 
PHONE BRUNSWICK 2623 



PH. ARMITAGE 2934 LADY ASSISTANT 

B. DRABANSKI 

UNDERTAKER 

Free Use of Chapel 



1410 N. ASHLAND AVE. 



CHICAGO 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 0068 

PASTEURIZED MILK AND CREAM 

PROGRESS DAIRY CO. 

INCORPORATED 

1634-36-38 NORTH GIRARD STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A. ZEROWSKI M. BULKIEWICZ 



1266 MILWAUKEE AVE. 

Exclusive Women's Wear 
For Over 32 Years 



FURS, COATS, DRESSES 
WEDDING OUTFITS 



\\\u// 




PHONE ARMITAGE 3038 



ROMAN KOSIŃSKI 

DIAMONDS, WATCHES AND JEWELRY 

DR. HENRY F. KOSIŃSKI, Optometrist 
Eyes Examined — Glasses Fitted 

1039 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

Near Noble Street 



PHONE ARMITAGE 2416 

THE ECCLESIASTICAL 
GOODS COMPANY 

(The Eee Gee Co.) 

CHURCH GOODS, RELIGIOUS ARTICLES, 

BANNERS, BADGES, PICTURES, 

FRAMES and NOVELTIES 

984-986 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

JOHN S. KONOPA, Pres. CHICAGO 



WELCOME 
TO THE CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

THE HOME OF GOOD FOOD 

ANNA'S GOOD EATS 
RESTAURANT 

Soo Terminal Building 
531 ROOSEVELT ROAD 



s 


. A 


BRODZIŃSKI 

UNDERTAKER 

Ms 


Automt 


>bilcs 


Furnished for All Occasions 




Free Use of Modern Chapel 


1317 


NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 




TEL. 


BRUNSWICK 2767 



[182] 



SAINT STANISLAUS KOSTKA PARISH 



M5 




COMPLIMENTS OF 



Prima 
Company 

Brewers of 

America's Finest 
Beer 



PHONE MOHAWK 2300 



fe 



..^ 



[183] 



&' 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-aSs 




(|I5 Ijriiielbenj 

BEER 

M I LWA U K E E 



ORDER A CASE DELIVERED TO YOUR HOME 



CHICAGO BRANCH 



1500 HOLT ST. 



BRUNSWICK 3600 



TELEPHONE BRUNSWICK 8339 

UNITED NOVELTY 
MFG. CO. 

Importers, Carnival Supplies, Decorations, Silver 

and Gold Jubilee Novelties and Items, Paper 

Hats, Novelties, Party Favors, etc. 

10S0 MILWAUKEE AVE., CHICAGO, ILL. 




PHONES BRUNSWICK 3661-9797 

ANTHONY J. JAKUBOWSKI, 
R. Ph. G. 

BLACKHAWK PHARMACY 
1459 BLACKHAWK ST. CHICAGO 



Phone Humboldt 1180 



Open Day and Night 



POLONIA GARAGE 

VINCENT KUNIEJ, Prop. 

Expert Auto Repairing, Overhauling, Towing Service, 

Battery, Starters, Generators and Ignition 

Brakes Relined, Washing, Polishing, Simonizing and 

Greasing — Straightening Body and Fenders 

All Work Guaranteed 

1706-08-10 WEST NORTH AVENUE 



POLISH RADIO ADVERTISING 
BRINGS BIG RESULTS 

For Information Address: 

Z. GEORGE JAWOROWSKI 

ROOM 508—1166 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
15 Programs Now On The Air 



PHONE ARMITAGE 2113 

MEYER DAVIS CO. 

FLOOR COVERINGS 

Wall Paper, Paints, Varnishes, Brushes and Glass 

1003-07 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
CHICAGO 



Compliments of 

HALPERIN'S 

"BETTER FOOD" 

MILWAUKEE, NORTH AVENUE 
and DAMEN AVENUE 



[184] 



l%- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



■J§5 



Points of Interest in the History of the Polish cental Society 

of Chicago 



JUST how many years previous to 1908, there existed 
the feeling among the Polish Dentists in Chicago 
that there should be an organization of the Polish 
Dentists, is uncertain. However, there was that strong 
urge to create such an organization in the hearts of our 
pioneer Polish Dentists who felt that by means of such 
a group they could strive to increase the knowledge of 
dentistry among its membership along technical, prac- 
tical and theoretical lines; to elevate the dental profes- 
sion in the Polish Public opinion and simultaneously 
ameliorate the welfare of the members; to co-operate 
with the medical profession and to a certain degree with 
registered pharmacists; to spread the knowledge of 
mouth hygiene among the Polish element and thus raise 
their standard of health. 

With a sincere desire to band the Polish Dentists not 
only in Chicago, but elsewhere in the United States 
"Stowarzyszenie Polskich Dentystów w Ameryce" was 
organized and a charter was obtained dated May 22, 
1908. The following Dentists are said to be the organ- 
izers of the original Polish Dental Society; Dr. J. B. 
Zieliński, Sr., Dr. Rybsztat, Dr. Jankowski and Dr. W. 
W. Nowacki, Dr. P. Wybraniec, Dr. W. Gorny. For 
several years Dr. J. B. Zieliński, Sr., was president of 
this organization. 

For some unknown reason the Polish Dental Society 
became dormant for a year or two immediately prior 
to the year of 1917, when several well meaning and earn- 
est Dentists felt that the Polish Dental Society should 
be active. With this in mind due to the efforts of Dr. 
W. Koniuszewski and Dr. E. G. Urbanowicz the Polish 
Dental Society was reorganized of which, the said Dr. 
W. Koniuszewski became President and Dr. E. G. Ur- 
banowicz, Secretary. Just as soon as this new admin- 
istration came into office a very active press committee 
in co-operation with the officers began its work, and 
thru the media of the Polish newspapers of Chicago, 
called on the Dentists throughout the United States to 
join the new Society. 

At regular intervals articles in the Polish language 
published in the Polish newspapers, dealing with dental 
topics began to appear. These articles were not only 
well written but had much informative material about 
the teeth and mouth hygiene, presented in such form 
that could be easily understood by the laymen. Among 
the authors of these articles we find such men as 
Dr. W. W. Nowacki, Dr. W. Koniuszewski, Dr. S. S. 
Gorny, Dr. H. Ordon, Dr. H. J. Urbanowicz, Dr. F. 
Pelka, Dr. E. G. Urbanowicz, Dr. A. J. Marcinkiewicz, 
and Dr. J. P. Kobrzyński. 

A year after the reorganization a new administration 
was elected and this was composed of the following: 
Dr. W. W. Nowacki, Pres.; Dr. J. A. Zabrocki, Vice 
Pres.; Dr. J. P. Kobrzyński, Sec'y., (at present Dr. 
Kobrzyński is the President of the Polish Medical and 
Dental Association of America, which has its Sixth 
Annual Convention in Chicago this year, July 17, 18, 19), 
Dr. A. J. Marcinkiewicz, Treasurer and Dr. W. Koniu- 
szewski, Librarian. This new administration made an 



appeal through the Polish press that all Polish Dentists 
not yet members of the Society, become such by joining 
at their earliest convenience. 

Under this new administration as under the old, ar- 
ticles continued to appear in the Polish papers on dental 
topics and mouth hygiene. Aside from this purely pro- 
fessional activity, the Society was also interested in the 
Polish Nationalistic affairs and took an active part in 
the "Kongres Polski" which met in Detroit in 1918. In 
the "platform" the Society declared itself to be loyal to 
the United States; sympathetic to the Allies; and will- 
ing to support to the best of its ability the Polish Army 
in France, and was in favor of the creation of the new 
Poland with a democratic form of government similar to 
that of the United States or France. 

During the year 1920 after Poland regained her in- 
dependence a National Polish Institute of Dentistry was 
established in Warsaw, Poland, Dr. W. W. Nowacki in 
a lengthy speech appealed to the Polish Dental Society 
that it create an educational fund and donate it to the 
Polish Institute of Dentistry. This fund was to be used 
partly, to finance the education of talented and deserv- 
ing students of Dentistry, and partly for dental research 
by the Polish Dental Institute. 

During the depressive times that the new Republic of 
Poland was undergoing, Polish bonds were being sold 
in the United States and elsewhere, by means of which 
Poland was able to borrow money for reconstruction 
purposes following the World's War. The Polish Den- 
tists and Physicians of Chicago joined hands to help 
the government of Poland by forming a committee to 
sell Polish bonds to their fellow-practitioners. This 
Committee was composed of the following: Dr. F. Wiś- 
niewski, Dr. W. A. Kuflewski. Dr. L. K. Kozakiewicz, 
Dr. J. Mioduszewski, Dr. A. Zabrocki and Dr. W. W. 
Nowacki. 

With the coming into existence of the Polish Medical 
and Dental Association of America, in the year of 1928, 
the Polish Dental Society of America became the Polish 
Dental Society of Chicago, and comprising with the 
Polish Medical Society of Chicago, the Chicago Chapter 
of the Association, and has been since an active Chapter. 

In recent years, the Polish Dental Society of Chicago, 
like most of the other organizations in the country be- 
came less active due to the economic conditions. This 
Society however, is alive and active due principally to 
the strong and active administrations that it had during 
the last few years and it is able to show much activity 
along the professional and social lines. It is only hoped 
that in the near future the many Dentists of Polish 
extraction in and about the city of Chicago would show 
interest enough to identify themselves with this Society, 
and let it be the means of cementing many ties of pro- 
fessional friendship and work for the common good. 

The present Administration of the Polish Dental So- 
ciety of Chicago is composed of the following members: 
Dr. 'C. J. Ross, Pres.; Dr. J. C. Ulis, Vice Pres.; Dr. J. 
M. Gecewicz, Sec'y.; Dr. A. Wcisło, Treas.; Dr. J. Hodur, 
Librarian. 









MEMBERS 










F. 


G. 


Biedka 


J. A. Hodur C. S. Lisowski 


A. 


C. Peszy n ski 


W 


. Stroszewski 


C. 


A. 


Frankiewicz 


S. D. Jedlowski L. T. Micek 


C. 


J. Rogalski 


B. 


M. Stwertnia 


T. 


A. 


Gąsior 


E. J. Kanser F. V. Małachowski 


C. 


J. Ross 


J. 


C. Ulis 


J. 


M. 


Gecewicz 


H. E. Kobrzynski-Hintzke C. J. Marcin 


W 


. T. Ruskoivski 


A. 


Wcisło 


B. 


T. 


Gobczynski 


J. P. Kobrzyński S. M. Mioduszeivski 


E. 


W. Sherry 


J. 


W. Zieliński 


W 


. E 


. Goglin 


S. J. Kurland T. Olechoivski 


V. 


E. Siedlinski 






s. 


S. 


Gorny 


S. A. Lasota E. J. Oleksy 


J. 


L. Smialek 







[185] 



2§£ 



POLES IX AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



lU 




LISOWSKI 

Pogrzebowy 

Ma Nową Kaplicę (Chapel) 
do Użytku Darmo 

1137 NOBLE ULICA 
Tel. Armitage 3271 




MARTENS CLOAK CO. 

(INC.) 

1280 MILWAUKEE AVENUE CHICAGO 



JOHN BIALIKIEWICZ 

Then triced Costumes to Rent for All Occasions 

1664 W. DIVISION ST. TEL. ARMITAGE 8681 



AMBULANCE SERVICE 



CHAPEL SERVICE 



EMIL R. MOTZNY 

Undertaker 
1041-43 NOBLE ST. PH. ARMITAGE 3480 

Near Milwaukee Avenue 



KRYNICA RESTAURACJA 

Znana Polska Kuchnia 
1118 N. ASHLAND AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 

WIECZOREK'S PHARMACY 

1174 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



PH. BRUNSWICK, 3G43 



J. ZWIERZKO, Prop. 



HOME MADE SAUSAGE 



Warsaw Style 
1453 N. ASHLAND AVE. 



CHICAGO 



Compliments of 

STANLEY C. DZIEWULSKI 



EARL'S CLOAK COMPANY 

Ladies' Wearing Apparel 

1330 MILWAUKEE AVENUE CHICAGO 



JOSEPH DŁUGOSZ 

Grocery, Fruits, Vegetables 
1501 N. ASHLAND AVE. BRUNSWICK 8823 



Compliment 
of 

J. P. ROSTENKOWSKI 

ALDERMAN 32 WARD 

1339 NOBLE ST. BRUNSWICK 3306 



PEOPLES DAIRY 

MICHAEL KOMATOWSKI 
1647 N. PAULINA ST. ARMITAGE 3201 



S. SOWIŃSKI 

Czyszczenie, Farbowanie i Reperacja 

1117 NOBLE ST. TEL. ARMITAGE 8573 

CHICAGO 



NOBLE FLORISTS 

ROSE DUKES & SON, Props. 

Flowers for Weddings, Funerals etc. 

1121 NOBLE ST. ARMITAGE 2834 



ARTHUR CWIK 

HARDWARE, PAINTS, GLASS, BRUSHES 
Wallpaper. Kitchen Utensils and Electric Supplies 

1400 N. ASHLAND AVE. ARMITAGE 3203 



WALTER B. MAJEWSKI 

Roofing and Sheet Metal Works 
1415 N. ASHLAND AVE. BRUNSWICK 2615 

Compliments of 

EDWARD J. PETLAK 

STATE REPRESENTATIVE 
27th Senatorial District 



W. DZIEWULSKI 

Grocery and Meat Market 

1405 NOBLE ST. PHONE ARMITAGE 4155 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Compliments of 

PHILIP and 
FRANCIS RENKOSIAK 

BUTKIEWICZ PAINT & HARDWARE CO. 

Paints, Wall Paper, Glass, Hardware & Cutlery 
1403 NOBLE ST. PHONE ARMITAGE 6000 

DR. A. WARCHALOWSKI 

OPTOMETRIST 

1608 MILWAUKEE AVE. BRUNSWICK 6640 



[186] 



& 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION* TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Saint Adalbert's Parish 




ST. ADALBERT'S CHURCH 
REV. C. D. GRONKOWSKI, PASTOR 

AFTER the last insurrection in Poland, 
. 1863-1864, a very large immigration 
of Poles settled in Chicago. A great num- 
ber of them selected the West Side and 
founded their homes on 17, 18, 19 and 20th 
streets, between what is now known as 
Laflin and Hoyne avenues. This was the 
first settlement South of Madison street. 
From here the Poles began to move further 
West and South. They began to organize 
and in 1871 formed the first Society known 



as the Society of St. Adalbert Bishop and 
Martyr and laid thereby the foundation 
for the present St. Adalbert's Parish. 

This second oldest Polish Parish and 
perhaps also the second largest in the City 
of Chicago, was organized in the year of 
1874. Its first church was built on the 
corner of 17th and South Paulina streets 
and Reverend H. Klimecki was its first 
Pastor. The present Church was erected 
in the year of 1914 by the present Pastor, 
Rev. Casimir Gronkowski. Since the be- 
ginning of the Parish there were five (5) 
Pastors and seventy-three Assistants as- 
signed to it. The small school building was 
replaced by a large four story structure 
with eighteen (18) classrooms, and in the 
year of 1908, another large school build- 
ing with sixteen (16) rooms was added 
to the Church property located on one-half 
square block. At the present time there 
are nineteen hundred (1,900) children at- 
tending the school, while during the Golden 
Jubilee year, there were two thousand 
seven hundred eighty-nine (2,789) chil- 
dren in school. Ven. Sisters of Nazareth 
are teaching the children since the year of 
1885, prior thereto the children were 
taught by Messrs. Wendzinski, K. Mallek, 
J. Wróblewski, Fr. Zabka, Fr. Byrgier, 
who were ably assisted by Mesdames P. 
Kniola, A. Donarska, J. Lehman and A. 
Nowicka. There are now forty-two (42) 
sisters teaching and also taking care of the 
nursery founded by the Rev. Casimir Gron- 
kowski. The first Sister Superior was Sis- 
ter M. Frances. Sister Superior M. Isa- 
bella is now in charge of the school. 

The new Church is almost a facsimile 
of the famous basilica of St. Paul in Rome. 
It is 195 feet in length and 113 feet in 
width and 65 feet in height. The two tow- 



[187] 



»!*- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



■ik 



ers are each 1S6 feet high. The 
interior is 175 feet long, the 
width of the nave 65 feet, and 
the height 65 feet with a seat- 
ing capacity for 1,800 persons. 

The Replica of the famous 
Michael Angelo's "Pieta" at St. 
Peter's in Rome is in this 
Church. 

It is known for its beautiful 
all carrara marble work. The 
marble used was personally se- 
lected by Rev. Casimir Gron- 
kowski. 

The organ is considered to be 
one of the choicest of W. W. 
Kimball Company with an echo 
organ above the main altar. 

The St. Adalbert's Parish was 
the seat of all of the activities 
in the forming of the history of 
the Poles of Chicago. Here was 
founded the Polish Roman 
Catholic Union of America, the 
Polish National Alliance, the 
Polish Women's Alliance, the 
Sokol Polski — Falcons. It is 
known for its patriotism and lo- 
yalty to the United States of 
America and also to her mother 
country. During the World's 
War it was one of the first to 
go over the top in the purchase 
of the United States Liberty 
Bonds and later on, in the pur- 
chase of the Bonds of the Re- 
public of Poland. One of its pa- 
rishioners, namely, John Wojta- 
lewicz, was the first of the citi- 
zens of Chicago to sacrifice his 
life on the battle fields of 
France. 

The first parochial School 
which was recognized by the 
Board of Education of the City 
of Chicago was the School of 
St. Adalberts' Parish. Messrs 
Wendzinski and Rudnicki publ- 
ished the first Polish newpaper 
in St. Adalbert's Parish. 

There are about 100 societies, 
groups or circles belonging to 
this parish and over 3,000 fam- 
ilies. 




MAIN ALTAR— ST. ADALBERT'S CHURCH 



Att. Jan S. Rybicki, 
President 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 
Rev. Casimir Gronkowski, Honorary President. 



Att. St. Kusper, 
1-st Vice-Pres. 



Aid. John J. Łagodny, 
2-nd Vice-Pres. 



Marja Lew, 

Secretary 



Stan. A. Behnke, 
Treasurer 



MEMBERS OF VARIOUS COMMITTEES 



Ignacy Frasz 
Pani Elż. Jankowska 
A. Desecki 
Józef Barć 
Stanisław Mermel 
Kleof. F. Pettkoske 
Kasper Ropa 
St. Raczkowski 
Juljan Sadowski 
Pani Marja Slaska 
Józef Szponder 
Weronika Felińska 
Jan A. Stanek 
Franciszek Kot 



Pani Stefanja 
Chmielińska 
Marja Rybicki 
Jadwiga Górecka 
Gertrude Suchomska 
Zofja Wiercioch 
Wlad. Andziewicz 
Pani Anna Kopicka 
Lottie Kowalska 
Dr. Jan Gecewicz 
A<1 w. Ad. Sadowski 
Kazimierz Frasz 
Dr. .1. Gardzielewski 
Marja Lubejko 



Aniela Łagodna 
Dr. Allen Peszynski 
Józef Mermel 
Blandyna Kusper 
Weronika Kowalska 
Dorota Maciejewska 
Witold Prusinowski 
Władysław Hosanna 
Malg'. Malczewska 
Marja Niedźwiecka 
Helena Sadowska 
Klara Muchowska 
Karolina Lew 
Kazimierz Wójcik 



Jan Pastorek 
Agnes Kowalski 
Marja śniegowska 
Stanisław Roman 
Zof. Stelmachowska 
Leok. Wydrzyńska 
Józef Chudak 
Raphaela Żurawski 
Marcin Kubiak 
Marja Więzień 
Antoni Górecki 
Marjan Knutkowski 
Klara Gardzielewska 
Wacław Majchrzak 



Edward Frasz 
Franciszek Kempa 
Fran. Krajewski 
Stanisław Wojtecki 
Edmund Lubejko 
Jan Kusper 
Alojzy Ropa 
Franciszek Frasz 
Józef Jeleń 
St. świech 
Alex. Kopicki 
Anastazy Lubejko 
Wiktorja Pacocha 
Julja Kaczmarek 



Apolonja Szudarska 
Anna Knutkowska 
Lucja Wiśniewska 
Walerja Malicka 
Szcz. Nowakowski 
Jan śniegowski 
Marja Szudarska 
Leokadja Zylewicz 
Anastazja Balcer 
Marja Derezińska 
Cecylja Słomińska 
Józef Hosanna 



[188] 



$ 



SAINT ADALBERT'S PARISH 



M 



GENERAL INSURANCE 

Bezpieczne Skrzynki Depozytowe (Zabez- 
pieczone przed pożarem. Strzeżone A. D. T. 
Systemem Alarmowym) 

$3.00 ROCZNIE 

Wysyłka Pieniędzy do Polski w Dolarach 
Pocztą lub Kablem 

Sprzedajemy Karty Okrętowe na 
wszystkie Lin je 



Płacimy gotówką za kupony procentowe 
od Bondów Polskich 



Wyrabiamy Pieniężne Przekazy 
Kolektujemy pieniądze za hipoteki i noty 



Wyrabiamy wszelkie legalne papiery 



PŁACIMY 4 PROCENT 

od oszczędności składanych na nasz nowy 
plan "O", na który można wpłacać dowolną 
sumę, w każdym czasie 

W DOMOV SPÓŁCE BUDOWNICZO- 
POŻYCZKOWEJ 

która jest członkiem 

FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK 



Dajemy pierwsze pożyczki hipoteczne na 
realności. Udzielamy najchętniej po- 
życzki do sumy $1000.00. 



Biuro Spółki udzieli chętnie wszelkich infor- 
macji pod adresem: 



WEST SIDE INVESTMENT & FINANCE CO. 

1618 WEST 18th ST. PHONE CANAL 0045-0045 




If its the religious goods line you are looking for 

H. GÓRECKI 

has the most complete one. 
CHRISTMAS WAFERS (OPŁATKI) 

IMPORTED FROM POLAND OUR SPECIALTY 



WHOLESALE 

Mission displays 
beautifidly arranged. 

1144 MILWAUKEE AVE., 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



RETAIL 

Largest variety 

of pictures and frames. 

ARMITAGE 4447 



[189] 



&- 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 




N ajserdeczniejsze Życzenia Składa Całej Polonji na 

W ychodztwie 

TOW. BUDOWNICZO - POŻYCZKOWE 

"PIAST" 

BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION 

1700 WEST 21ST STREET, CHICAGO 



Kapitał Zakładowy 
$10,000,000.00 



Członek — Federal Home Loan 
Bank System 



W tym roku światowej Wystawy, Spółka PIAST jest dumną z tego, że prowadzi interes 
przez 22 lat nieustannie naprzód i służy akcjonarjuszom szczerze i sumiennie; z pierw- 
szą myślą i zamiarem przyniesienia korzyści na pieniądze oszczędzone, a przedewszyst- 
kiem żeby był kapitał zawsze pewny i bezpieczny. 

Spółka PIAST prosperowała i prosperuje, a to można zawdzięczać urzędnikom i dy- 
rektorom, którzy starannie i uczciwie pracowali, a mianowicie panu K. Ropa, który 
jest sekretarzem od założenia i jest jeden z założycieli tej Spółki. 



ZARZĄD: 

LUDWIK STANASZEK, Prezes 
JÓZEF MIKUŁA, Wice Prezes 

DYREKTORZY: 



KASPER ROPA, Sekretarz 
JÓZEF SPONDER, Kasjer 



WŁADYSŁAW ZIELIŃSKI 
JÓZEF F. ROPA 
JÓZEF BARĆ 
MICHAŁ WLEZIEŃ 



STANISŁAW W. ROPA 

FRANCISZEK KLIMALA 

HENRY CZEKAJSKI 

CZESŁAW J. DANKOWSKI, Adwokat 



JÓZEF JAROSZ 
ALOJZY MLECZKO 
JÓZEF JELEŃ 
JAN BIERNAT 



NAJODPOWIEDZIALNIEJSZA SPÓŁKA NA WOJCIECHOWIE 



%A 



rfAYf 



*e€wae 



3f. 0$mw/ł 



TELEFON CANAL 2032 

STANISŁAW MERMEL 

SKLEP MUZYCZNY 

1800 WEST 18TA ULICA 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



MARCIN KUBIAK 

FARBY, OLEJE, SZKŁO, PĘDZLE, TAPETY 

I PRZYBORY DLA MALARZY 

Najstarszy Skład na Wojciechowie 

Członek Komitetu Wystawy Dzielnicy Wojciechowa 



1723 W. 21ST ST. 



TEL. CANAL 0178 



TEL CANAL 5465 NOTARJUSZ PUBLICZNY 

Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia Całej Polonji Składa 

K. ROPA & SON 

Biuro Realności i Pożyczek 

ASEKURACJA DOMÓW I SPRZĘTÓW DOMOWYCH 

Kupujemy, Sprzedajemy i Zamieniamy 

Domy, Loty i Farmy 

(Długoletni Sekretarz Spółki Piast) 



1710 W. 21 ULICA 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



[190] 



&■ 



SAINT ADALBERT'S PARISH 



'& 



N. A. LUBEJKO 

FUNERAL DIRECTOR AND EMBALMER 
AutomobHes Furnished for All Occasions 

1709 W. 18TH ST. TEL. CANAL 1246 

A. SUCHOMSKI 

Dry Goods and Shoes 

1758 WEST 18TH STREET 
Najlepsze PIWO na Wojciechowie 

WINCENTY HAJNOS 

Polska Gospoda 
1801 W. 17TA UL. DOBRE PIWO 

Życzenia Całej Polonji 
Składa Adwokat 

CZESŁAW J. DANKOWSKI 



FRANCISZEK KOT 

Grosernia i Skład Delikatesów 
— na Wojciechoivie ■ — ■ 

1651 W. 21-SZY PLACE 



EDWARD L. LUBEJKO 

Dzielny Pracoivnik z Dzielnicy Wojciechowa 
1634 W. 18-TY PLACE 



DR. J. M. GECEWICZ 

Dentist 
1624 W. 18TH ST. TEL. CANAL 4213 

WALTER J. MENDRALSKI 

PHARMACIST - CHEMIST 

WALTER J. MENDRALSKI l„ . . 

JEANETTE MENDRALSKI (-Registered Pharmacists 

1658 W. 18TH STREET, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia 
Składają Całej Polonji 

MARJA I KAROLINA LEW 

Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia 
Składa Całej Polonji 

JAN KUSPER 



1827 W. 17TH ST. 



CANAL 3885 



Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia Składa, Całej Polonji 
ADWOKAT 



C. S. FRASZ 



CANAL 7172-7173 



PARK VIEW LAUNDRY 

"Our Work Satisfies Customers 
That Are Hard To Please." 



1727-31 WEST 21ST STREET 
GIVE US A TRIAL 



Compliments of 

KAPPER'S 

Oldest Establishment in St. Adalbert's Parish 

Dry Goods, Gent's Furnishings 
General Merchandise, Shoes 

1757-59 WEST 18TH STREET 

Corner Wood 



Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia Składają 

Józef i Stefanja Sponder 

Całej Polonji 

Sierżant Policji w Biurze Prokuratora Powiatu 
Cook. Czynny działacz w komitecie Tygodnia 
Gościruiości przy Paraf ji Świętego Wojciecha. 

1823 W. 21SZA UL. CHICAGO, ILL. 



Mieszkanie i Biuro: 

1808 SOUTH ASHLAND AVENUE 

TELEPHONE CANAL 7030 

STANISŁAW T. 
KUSPER 

Adwokat 
1924 SO. LEAVITT STREET 




MRS. L. C. GARDZIELEWSKI 

Mortician and Licensed E mb aimer 
1700 S. PAULINA ST. PHONE CANAL 0652 



[191] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2§5 a§£ 




J\ 



JOS. P. KWIATKOSKI — FRANK J. KWIATKOSKI 



Jos. P. Kwiatkoski 
& Son 

BRICK AND FRAME 

House Movers and Raisers 



Buildings Raised and Moved Anyivhere 
and Everywhere 



26TH ST. AND FRANCISCO AVE. 

TELEPHONE ROCKWELL 1541 



RAVENNA HOTEL BUILDING 
N. E. COR. DIVISION & LA SALLE STS., CHGO. 
One of the largest buildings moved without inter- 
fering with the business of the hotel. 
A Perfect Job! 



YARDS AT 2846-48-50-52-54-56-58—2900-2-4 
WEST 26TH STREET 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



-The Only POLISH FURRIERS IN THE LOOP" 

STEPHEN RAJEWSKI, President 

ADAMS FUR COMPANY 

Manufacturing Furriers 

also 

REMODELING— REPAIRING 

STORAGE— CLEANING— GLAZING 

STEVEN'S BUILDING 
17 N. STATE STREET ROOM 1420 

-Phone DEArborn 3666 Chicago, III. 



FULTON MARKET GRILL 

856 FULTON STREET 

Northeast Corner Peoria Street 

HOME COOKED MEALS 
AT ALL HOURS 

Special Attention Given to Private Parties 

J. S. WASELA 

PROP. 



TELEPHONE CANAL 0180 

OPILA PAPER COMPANY 

(Not Inc.) 

PETER OPILA, SR., Proprietor 

WHOLESALE 

PAPER AND WOODENWARE 
2008-12 S. ASHLAND AVE. CHICAGO 



Najstarsza Polska Drukarnia w Chicago 

Założona w roku 1SS2 

C. F. PETTKOSKE, właściciel 

Tel. Canal 0662 1718 S. Ashland Ave. 



SERDECZNE ŻYCZENIA 

ELŻBIETA JANKOWSKA 

Wice Prezeska Z. P. R. K. 
1727 W. CULLERTON UL. 

PAULINE APPAREL SHOP 



1654 W. 18TH ST. 
PAULINE MUCHOWSKI 



TEL. CANAL 1899 
CHICAGO 



Tow. Anny Chrzanowskiej 

Grupa 137 Związku Polek w Ameryce 
Chicago, Ul. 



[192] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

Sffi 2|S 

Sacred Heań of Jesus Parish 




On the first day of 
July 1910, Rev. Fran- 
cis J. Karabasz, then 
Assistant Pastor at 
St. Peters and Pauls 
Church, received an 
appointment from The 
Most Rev. Archboshop 
James E. Quigley D. 
D., to organize and 
become Pastor of a 
new Parish, under the 
patronage of THE 
SACRED HEART OP 
JESUS, embracing the 
territory between 41st 
& 47th Sts., Ashland 
and Western Aves. 

He began work at 
once and obtained a 
plot of ground, con- 
sisting of 18 lots with 
5 cottages, for which 
$26,187.50 was paid. 
The people of the 
locality were then 
notified', and a Parish 
meeting called at the 
neighboring St. Jo- 
sephs Church, where 
a Parish Committee 
was selected, and 
plans outlined for the SACRED 

future. 

With the consent of 
the Rev. S. Cholewiń- 
ski, Pastor of St. Josephs Church, the First Mass of the new 
Parish, was celebrated, at 9 o'clock, on August 10-th, 1910, 
in the Church of St. Joseph. 

About the middle of September, ground was brokem for a 
combination school and Church building, to cost approximatly 
$71,000.00, and on October 9th, Bishop P. P. Rhode D. D., 
blessed the corner stone. 

After a private blessing of the building by the Pastor, Rev. 
F. J. Karabasz, on March 19th 1911, the First Mass was 
celebrated in the new edifice. 

Bishop P. P. Rhode D. D. was the officiating minister, at 
the Solemn Blessing, on May 28-th 1911. 

The Sacrament of Confirmation, was for the first time 
administered in the new Parish, on July 4th 1912, by Bishop 
P. P. Rhode D. D. 

In September school opened, with 9 Felician Sisters in 
charge. 

The first Mission, from Nov. 2nd — 11th, 1912, was con- 
ducted by the Franciscan Fathers of Pulaski, Wise, with 
great success. 

In May, 1913, more ground was bought, and a Sisters 
Home erected at a cost of $25,000.00. The new Parsonage, 
at the same cost, was built in 1915. 

As the number of families increased, the number of class 
rooms became insufficient, necessitating the erection of 
another school building in 1919, at a cost of $27,000.00. 



HEART OF JESUS PARISH CHURCH AND 
4600 So. Honore St. 



In the year 1921 all 
debts on the Parish 
buildings were clear- 
ed, and since then the 
Parish is free of all 
encumberences, being 
one of a few in the 
Chicago Diocese, to 
hold such an envious 
position. 

At present there 
are 1,000 families in 
the parish, and 1,100 
children att ending 
school, which is con- 
ducted by 19 Felician 
Sisters. 

The Pastor to the 
present day is the 
Rev. F. J. Karabasz, 
who is at present be- 
ing assisted in admin- 
istering the spiritual 
needs of his people, 
by the Rev. Lad. F. 
Balcer, and Rev. Leo 
Hinc. 

In the parish dur- 
ing its existence there 
were organized seven 
Church Sodalities; 
nine Polish Roman 
Catholic Union; four 
Polish National Alli- 
ance; and three Polish 
Alma Mater societies. 
The Catholic Order of Foresters, and The Free Polish 
Women's Alliance, have a society here. There is also in 
the Parish, a Literary and Dramatic Circle, and the Holy 
Name Society. 

Rightly, therefore, the SACRED HEART OF JESUS 
PARISH, is a splendid asset, in the achievements of the 
Poles and Polish Americans, in this country, the glorious 
U. S. A. 

The General Committee, from the Sacred Heart of Jezus 
Parish, for the Polish Week of Hospitality, at The Century 
of Progress, appointed by the Rev. Pastor, was composed of 
Mr. Jos. Knieczka, Mr. Vine. Ptocki, Mr. Jos. Kukulski, and 
Mr. Ant. Zygmuntowicz. 

The Local Committee, co-operating and deserving of 
special mention for their work, was made up of the fol- 
lowing: — 

Rev. Lad. F. Balcer, Chairman; Mr. Frank Obirek, Secre- 
tary; Mr. Joseph Konieczka, Mr. Joseph Kukulski, Mr. Vine. 
Potocki, Mr. Ant. Zygmuntowicz, Mr. Stan. Gofron, Mr. Louis 
Królewczyk, Miss Anna Radon, Miss Flo Demski, Miss 
Helen Cyrwus, Miss Cath. Marusarz, Mrs. Mary Macejak. 



SCHOOL 







Sacred Heart Rectory 




[193] 



2§K' 



POLES IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRES; 



-ate 



STATE 1942 



RES. YARDS 0032 



THOMAS E. KLUCZYNSKI 

Attorney at Law 

SUITE 726 CONWAY BLDG. 
Ill W. WASHINGTON ST. CHICAGO 



PHONE WENTWORTH 3184 

FAMOUS SAUSAGE CO., Inc. 

STANLEY J. ORŁOWSKI, 
Manager 

"The More You Eat— 
The More You Want" 

HOME MADE SAUSAGE 
BOILED HAMS, ETC. 

903-905 W. 59TH ST. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 




LEONARD WOLNIAK 



ANNA WOLNIAK 



WOLNIAK 

FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

Free use of modern chapel and organ music — Private 

ambulance — Auto service for all occasions — - 

Day or night 

4604 SO. LINCOLN ST. 
PHONE LAFAYETTE 2586 



SAVE MONEY 

20% discount allowed on all bundles 
brought in and called for 

LEADER LAUNDRY CO. 

1633-47 W. 43RD ST. ALL PH. YARDS 4800 
The Home of the "No Fade" Process of Washing 



PH. BOULEVARD 3990 



RES. PH. HEMLOCK 2787 



DR. F. WOJNIAK 

Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat 
4649 SOUTH ASHLAND AVENUE 



JOSEPH MAZUREK 

Grocery and Meat Market 
4354 S. HONORE ST. VIRGINIA 0206 



Z. BASIŃSKI 

FURNITURE 

Best Quality at Lowest Prices 

1701-03 W. 47TH ST. TEL. BOULEVARD 1751 



JOHN JASIŃSKI 

Watch milker, Jeweler and Musical Instruments 
4629 S. ASHLAND AVE. BOULEVARD 1222 



JOSEPH KUKULSKI 

Halls lor Weddings and Dances 
4512 S. MARSHFIELD AVE. YARDS 4255 



JACOB GRZYWNA 

Soft Drink Parlor 
4358 S. WOOD ST. LAFAYETTE 2731 



STANLEY KUREK 

Soft Drink Parlor 
4300 SOUTH ASHLAND AVENUE 



JASIŃSKI SCHOOL of MUSIC 

Director of Polish-American Symphony Orchestra 
4629 S. ASHLAND AVE. BOULEVARD 1222 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



CUTLERY 



MARYAN I. AST 



Watchmaker and Jewelry 
4618 S. ASHLAND AVE. Tel. Boulevard 0595 



Mr. and Mrs. Frank Chlebek 

SOFT DRINK PARLOR 
4324 S. MARSHFIELD AVE. YARDS 2522 



Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Kalafut 

SOFT DRINK PARLOR 
4103 S. ASHLAND AVE. BOULEVARD 8989 

Mrs. Marcjanna Kubecki 

Candy Store 
4636 S. MARSHFIELD AV., BOULEVARD 5622 



DR. C. SOBIERAJSKI 

Dentist 
4600 S. ASHLAND AVE. BOULEVARD 9136 



Dr. Edmund T. Bartkowiak 

Physician and Surgeon 
1757 W. 47TH ST. RESIDENCE ENG. 3842 



[194] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



CONGRATULATING CHICAGO 



ON ITS 100TH BIRTHDAY 



A Century of Progress 

WE ARE PROUD TO BE A PART OF CHICAGO 

PULASKI COAL CO. 

3025 WEST 26TH STREET 

TELEPHONE LAWNDALE 3063 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Wholesale and Retail Distributors 
of Coal— Coke and Fuel Oils 




OUR POLICY ASSURES YOU 
QUALITY - WEIGHT and SERVICE 

OFFICERS and DIRECTORS 



KAZIMIR PAZDAN, President 
JOSEPH KLAK, Vice President 
ALBERT TUMAN, Director 



XAVIER CZONSTKA, Secretary 
JOSEPH KURLAND, Treasurer 
JOHN STEFAŃSKI, Director 



[ 195 ] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2fS 2§S 



i^o/npu'/?ieft/h cJ 



Jo /u i U liióluLóAi 




COMPLIMENTS OF 

ANTON ZYGMUNTOWICZ 

Director of the Polish Rom. Cath. Union 

4321 SOUTH MARSHFIELD AVENUE 




& W INM£N$CLOTH1N£ V 

AND LADIES COATS 



^^ CLOTHING HOUSt" iv: 

,-.' Milwaukee t' Ashland Avenues' "v 




JOZEF WIŚNIEWSKI 

Hodowca rasowego drobiu, królików, roślin ogro- 
dowych — Prezes Wydawnictwa Ilustrowanego 
miesięcznika "Przebudzenie Farmerskie" (w Chi- 
cago) — wysyła na zamówienie swoje pro- 
dukty, oraz przybory i książki rolnicze, oświato- 
we i powieściowe. 
BOX 68, ANACONDA, MONTANA 



ROMANOW PRINTING SHOP 



13 



J. ROMANOW, Prop. 
STANISLAUS STREET 



New York Mills, N. Y. 



Dial 6-1161 



[196] 



Mf$flft$$t$$t$lllfl$$f$ll$l$$flll$f$$$$$flf$$$$$li$$$ff-|ltllf$$I^W^^ 






%0$ffiffl$#$#MtWWIfl$IM 



$^^^^$$$$$$^^ 



History of St. Michael's Archangel Church 




St. Michael's Church 

THE history of St. Michael's Parish dates back to the year 
of 1891, when a group of men, members of the Immaculate 
Conception Church, until then, the only Polish Church in 
South Chicago, realized the convenience of another parish in this 
section of the city. The block between 82nd and 83rd Sts., bounded 
by South Shore Drive and Brandon Ave. was bought for a sum 
of $14,700.00. Upon its inception the new parish numbered a con- 
gregation of approximately 300 families. 

A temporary chapel was built immediately under the supervision 
of its first Pastor Rev. Adolph Nowicki, who was assigned here 
on February 2nd, 1892. The men and women of the Parish com- 
bined in the construction of the Chapel, and in a week's time it 
was completed : and so from February until September of that 
year, the faithful worshipped God in a Chapel. 

Rev. Nowicki, in the meantime, began planning the construction 
of a permanent Church and School, and in September of that same 
year, the corner stone for a stone and brick edifice was laid, and 
the building completed in due time. 

On October 31st, 1897, Rt. Rev. Archbishop Feehan appointed 
Rev. P. P. Rhode as the next Pastor of St. Michael's Church. Rev. 
Rhode added new life and efforts to the struggling parish, aiming 
to take off the heavy burden of existing debts, and with the help 
of his assistants, things began looking brighter, and the parish grew 
so much, so that the church was getting too small and again a 
larger church was talked about. This came to pass when on Novem- 
ber 3rd, 1907 another corner stone was laid, and in less than 
two years — on May 23rd, 1909, to be exact — the present edifice 
was dedicated. This building is of Gothic Style with a pointed 
steeple — one of the highest in our City. 



The community and parish life progressed beautifully under 
the pastorate of Rev. P. P. Rhode. No one, however, dreamed that 
this Parish will go down in golden letters in the history of America, 
for on June 17th, 1908 the tidings came that the Rev. P. P. Rhode 
was to become the first Polish Bishop of America. On July 29th 
the consecration was performed by the Rt. Rev. Archbishop Quigley 
at the Holy Name Cathedral. The Rt. Rev. P. P. Rhode continued 
as Pastor of St. Michael's Church until September 29th, 1915 when 
he left to become Bishop of Green Bay, Wis. 

The third Pastor, and now its incumbent, the Rev. John Lange, 
Ph. D., then took over the reigns. The environments were not new 
to Father Lange as he had acted as Assistant Pastor here some 
time previously. 

The Rev. John Lange, Ph. D. was born in Chicago on April 
15th, 1878. and received his elementary education at the St. Stan- 
islaus' Kostka School. After completing the grammar school he 
enrolled at the St. Ignatius College. In 1898, the Archbishop sent 
him to Rome to study Theology) and Philosophy. After completing 
the course, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
and ordained to the priesthood on October 28th, 1903 by the Vicar- 
General of Rome, Cardinal Respighi. In September 1904, the Rev. 
Dr. Lan^e returned to Chicago, and served for a while as assistant 
at St. Michael's, later as Pastor at North Chicago, 111. and St. 
Salomea's in Chicago, respectively, and finally at St. Michael's in 
South Chicago. 

His first great accomplishment as Pastor of St. Michael's was 
the enlargement of the school building which was completed in 1917. 

In 1925 the need of larger teaching quarters was again felt, 
and an auxiliary school building — one of the most nodern was 
erected. This building accommodates the pupils of the higher grades 




Most Reverend Paul P. Rhode, D. D. 
Former Pastor of St. Michael's Church 



[197] 



&■ 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



and the Two-Year Business Course. The number of pupils at St. 
Michael's School at this time is 1800. The parish membership 
numbers about 1900 families. 

Under Rev. Dr. Lance's pastorate new altars at a cost in round 
figures of $17,000, were placed in the Sanctuary of the church. 
These are also of Gothic style to conform to the architecture of 
the church. 

The year of 1928 marked the Silver Jubilee of Rev. Dr. Lan<re':; 
priesthood, which fact was commemorated by the installation ot 
Art Windows in the Church at a cost of $25,000.00. The most prom- 
inent donors towards these being, Mr. Frank Koncikowski who 
donated a sum of $1,000.00. Mrs. M. Stelmaszek one of the oldest 
parishioners, is also a generous contributor toward the church, hav- 
ing donated a Statue, and also an elaborate Monstrance at a cost 
of S2.000.00 in memory of her son Walter, killed in the World War. 

Assisting at St. Michael's at present are the Reverend : Anthony 
Gawrych, Boleslaus Niec, and Michael Kaja, who by their devotion 
and love of duties, have been helpful in conducting the affairs 
of the parish. Under their supervision nineteen societiess and several 
clubs flourish in the parish. The Boy's Club consisting of 800 youths 
is very active in the various departments of sports under the 
zealous guidance of Rev. B. Niec. In the fall of the year 1931 
a St. Vincent De Paul Conference was organized by Rev. A. Gaw- 
rych and during the depression all families in need were fully 
taken care of. 

The Parish also has a splendid choir of 250 voices under the 
able leadership of Mr. Jos. Matejko. Organist, who has been serv- 
ing the parish for nearly ten years. 

The Polish Week of Hospitality Parish Committees were or- 
ganized by Dr. Adam Mioduski, who acted as the Chairman, and 
with the co-operation of the Secretary, Miss Mary Zuchowski, and 
the splendid support of Mrs. Agnes Pawlicki, as Treasurer, and 
of the various committees, the work was conducted satisfactorily. 



lit 




Rev. J. M. Lange, 
Present Pastor at St. Michael's Church 



Submitted 


by: 


Mrs. 


Marie A. Dudkiewicz 


Mrs. 


Agnes Pawlicki 


Mrs. 


Magdalene Przybylinski 


Mrs. 


Veronica Sadowski 




COMMITTEE 



TEL. SOUTH CHICAGO 3036 



Gold Cup 

Baking 

Co. 

S. MICHAŁOWSKI, Prop. 



8357-59 SAGINAW AVENUE 
SOUTH CHICAGO 



GLOBE LIFE INSURANCE 
COMPANY OF ILLINOIS 

A Legal Reserve Company 

"CLAIMS PAID ON SIGHT" 

431 S. DEARBORN ST., CHICAGO, ILL. 
All Phones HARRISON 1996 

POSE BARRY DIETZ, President 



STEVENSON - BENKO CO. 

QUALITY WHOLESALE GROCERS 

9138-40 BALTIMORE AVENUE 
SOUTH CHICAGO 



[198] 



POLES IX AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION" TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2|S 2§S 



Pozdrowienie 

od 

Warszawskiego 
Bufetu 



Rozmaite Napoje — Przekąski — i Polska Obsługa 

Polski Pawilon — Enchanted Island 

Na Wystawie Stuletniego Postępu 
POD NASTĘPUJĄCYM ZARZĄDEM: 

JOHN W. JARANOWSKI 
JOHN PŁYN 
GEORGE SZALSKI 
LEONARD DLUZAK 
DELMAR GEE 



[199] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



■M 



Compliments 
of 

JOHN W. JARANOWSKI 

MAYOR 
CALUMET CITY, ILLINOIS 



S. CHICAGO FURNITURE CO. 

FURNITURE, STOVES AND RUGS 

8847-51 COMMERCIAL AVENUE 
PHONE SOUTH CHICAGO 3095 



MR. L. BUCKNER 



MR. M. GINSBURG 



COMPLIMENTS OF 

DR. M. YALOWITZ 

DENTIST 
9036 COMMERCIAL AVENUE 



FRANK KUŹNIAR 

Undertaker 

8256 SOUTH SHORE DRIVE 
Phone: SOUTHSHORE 1206 



Standard Coal & Coke Company 

(NEW YARD) 

F. J. Ziółkowski 

8757 BALTIMORE AVE., SO. CHICAGO 
PHONE SOUTH CHICAGO 1538 



Towarzystwo Króla Stanisława 
Leszczyńskiego 

Grupa 280 Związku Narodowego Polskiego w Am. 
Założone dnia 3go Stycznia, 1909 

Kazimierz Frenzel, prezes ; Franc. Jankowski, wice prezes ; 
Mateusz Włodarski, sekr. prot. ; Stan. Szlandirbach, sekr. 
fin. : Lon Lizik, Franc. Tomaszewski, Winc. Kasiorek i 
Walenty Nowacki, radni. 



LITTLE - JONES COAL CO. 

SHIPPERS OF QUALITY COAL 

310 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



TOWARZYSTWO ZGODA 

Chuja 327 Zw. Nar. Pol. 

Założone dnia 6go czerwca, 1896 roku 

w South Chicago, 111. 

JAN NOWICKI, Prezes 



OSADA No. 107 

ZJEDNOCZENIE POLSKO - RZYMSKO 
KATOLICKIE 

W Paraf ji Św. Michała Archanioła 

SOUTH CHICAGO, ILL. 



TOW. ŚW. MICHAŁA ARCH. 

Grupa Zjednoczenia No. 267 
JAN SZCZECHOWIAK, Prezes 
A. PŁAWIŃSKI, Wice Prezeska 
ST. LAOHAJCZAK, Sekretarz Prot. 
ED. SZCZECHOWIAK, Sekr. Fin. 
M. MAKOWSKI, Kasjer 



TOW. MATKI BOSKIEJ 
CZĘSTOCHOWSKIEJ 

No. 266 Z. P. R. K. w Par. Św. Michała Arch. 



PHONE SOUTH CHICAGO 5528 

Towing — Day and Night Service 

UNIVERSAL AUTO REPAIR SHOP 

GUARANTEED AUTO REPAIRING 
Cars Washed and Greased 

8836-38 MACKINAW AVENUE 
BIANCHI & LOPEZ CHICAGO, ILL. 



STANLEY TROJANOWSKI 

Furniture — Hardware — Paints 
Electrical & Plumbing Supplies 

8402 BURLEY AVE. Phone SO. CH'GO 1493 



"WEGNER'S BALL ROOM" 

Na Michałowie w South Chicago 

JOS. WEGNER, Właściciel 

8333 BRANDON AVENUE 



Compliments of 

BUDA STANICH 



8850 MACKINAW AVE. 



S. CHICAGO, ILL. 



"THE HIGHWAY" 

MARTIN SOBIERAJSKI, Prop. 
South Chicago 0761 

8305 BURLEY AVE. SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 



[200] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



MACIERZ POLSKA 

w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki Północnej 



POLISH ALMA MATER 

OF THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A Fraternal Life Insurance Society 

Organized September 10, 1897 Incorporated May 4, 1910 

Welcoming to its ranks American Citizens of Polish Descent or Extraction 
and Professing the Roman Catholic Faith 



Issues American Experience Certificates in the following classes: 

ORDINARY WHOLE LIFE TWENTY PAYMENT LIFE 

TWENTY YEAR CUMULATIVE LIFE 



Operates a Juvenile Department with the following classes of insurance. 

TERM TO AGE 18 ORDINARY WHOLE LIFE 

TWENTY YEAR CUMULATIVE LIFE 



OFFICERS 



REV. THADDEUS LIGMAN, Chaplain ALBERT F. SOSKA, President 

ELEONORĘ DEKA, Vice President DR. JOHN J. LISS, Vice President 

PAUL HADAMIK, General Secretary JOHN S. KOZŁOWSKI, Treasurer 

DIRECTORS 

WALTER IMBIORSKI FRANK POKLACKI HELEN RATAJCZAK 

LEON MEGER ANDREW MURZYN ROSE BARYS 

PAUL NAWROT MARY RUTKOWSKA BERNICE TOBOLSKA 

CECELIA MAZURKIEWICZ 

ANDREW F. KUCHARSKI, Legal Adviser 
DR. STANLEY IMBIORSKI, Medical Examiner 



GENERAL OFFICES 
643-45 Milwaukee Ave. Telephone ARMiiage 4374 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



[201] 



215 • 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



STANLEY WOJCIECHOWSKI 

Soft Drink* - Cigars 
8356 BURLEY AVE. PH. SAGINAW 2775 

CHICAGO 

Compliments of 

CASCADE LAUNDRY 



7930 S. RACINE AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



SMIT & YOUNG STUDIOS 

Photographers 
9035 COMMERCIAL AVE. SO. CHICAGO 2157 



S. WILIŃSKI 



Soft Drinks and Cigars 

3001 EAST 83RD STREET 

Ph. So. Chicago 0562 So. Chicago, III. 

Compliments of 

CALUMET AUTO REPAIR 

Harry and John Orbick, Prop. 
8501 COMMERCIAL AVE. CHICAGO 

PHONE SAGINAW 3759 

J. KRZEMIŃSKI 

Expert Tailor and Furrier 
3214 EAST 83rd STREET CHICAGO, ILL. 

A. GREMBOWICZ AND SON 

Grocery and Meat Market 
8409 BAKER AVE. SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 

SO. CHICAGO 7983 SO. CHICAGO 7980 

So. Chicago Auto Parts, Inc. 

NEW AND USED PARTS FOK CARS 
9302-04 Commercial Ave. 7934 So. Chicago Ave. 

TELEPHONE SAGINAW 0189 

SOUTH CHICAGO HOTEL 



3213 EAST 92nd STREET 



CHICAGO 



TOW. GEN. KOŚCIUSZKI 

Grupa 684 Z. N. P. 
w South Chicago, III. 

Compliments 

McDERMOTT BREWERY 



SAGINAW 0470 



"PHILLIPS 66" 



MILLER-EGLIN 



8437-51 COMMERCIAL AVE. 



CHICAGO 



■ik 



ANTON RUSIN 

8839 EXCHANGE AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



JOSEPH KOZŁOWSKI 

8370 BAKER AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Office Phone- South Chicago 0579 Res. Phone: Resent 0654 

AURELIUS T. SIEMIANOWSKI, M. D. 

Surgeon 

Offices: 8759 COMMERCIAL AVE.— 8413 BURLEY AVE. 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



ISLAND QUEEN 

Chicken and Steak Dinners 

FREE FISH EVERY FRIDAY 

92 ST. & CALUMET RIVER REGENT 2132 

JUST EAST OF EWING AVENUE 



K. ZIELIŃSKI 



Sof Drinks & Cigars 
3300 BUFFALO AVE. SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 



TELEPHONE SOUTH CHICAGO 7364 

GDYNIA LUNCH ROOM 

Louis Tomaszewski, Prop. 
8817 COMMERCIAL AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



SO. CHICAGO PRODUCE CO. 

Corner Mackinaw, 92nd and Harbor Ave. 
JOE OPPENHEIM PHONE SAGINAW 6957 

PHONE SOUTH SHORE 1573 

GEO. S. MADAY Florist 



. . . "Say It With Flowers" . . 

2622 E. 83RD STREET 

Corner of Saginaw Avenue 



CHICAGO 



STREETER COAL COMPANY 

Coal and Building Material 
83rd ST. & ESCANABA AV. S. SHORE 0330 



Compliments of 

TONY'S PLACE 

8500 COMMERCIAL AVE., SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 



TOW. KRÓLOWEJ JADWIGI 

Grupa 682 Związku Nar. Pol. 
iv South Chicago, III. 



MR. JOHN J. HULAK 

Soft Drinks and Cigars 
8302 MACKINAW AVE., CHICAGO. SAG. 7450 



[202] 



alfi- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



Greetings 



The Polish Lawyers' Association of Chicago, an organiza- 
tion created for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a 
higher standard of legal ethics and public service, does hereby 
wish the Polish Week of Hospitality Committees success in their 
undertakings — and all the visitors during the Polish Week of 
Hospitality a pleasant stay in our wonderful city. 



Following are the members of the Polish Laioyers' Asso- 
ciation: 



Michael S. Adamczyk 
Steve Adamoivski 
Benja m in A damowsk i 
Thud. V. Adesko 
Frank Arlt 
Sophie Blaszczynski 
Stanley E. Basiński 
Harry M. Biedka 
Anna R. Bogusiewicz 
K. B. Czarnecki 
Helen Fleming-Czachorski 
Pius Cegielski 
A. B. Chrzanowski 
Paul M. Cocot 
C. S. Cherpeck 
Stephen R. Carynski 
I. F. Dankowski 
Frank Derdzinski 
Henry Dankowski 
Joseph Depka 
Chester Dankowski 
Edward F. Dankowski 
Raymond P. Drymalski 
Walery J. Fronczak 
Barbara Fisher 
Stanley Fijal 
Edward E. Fleming 
Frank Greskowiak 
Michael Gadek 
Martin Górski 
Roman Gerlach 
John F. Holte 



Eugene C. Jachimowski 
Frank H. Janiszeski 
William Jaskowiak 
Hon. Edmund K. Jarecki 
Jerome W. Jurewicz 
Lester Jankowski 
Marion G. Kudlick 
Andreiv F. Kucharski 
Mitchell Kilanowski 
Z. H. Kadow 
Thaddeus Kufleivski 
Victor Kula 

Hon. Michael G. Kasper 
Stanley T. Kusper 
Frank E. Konkowski 
Joseph F. Kula 
Hon. S. Klarkowski 
L. A. Koscinski 
Edw. Kuszewski 
Joseph L. Lisack 
John Lyk 
Stephen Love 
Wenzel J. Love 
Hon. Walter J. La Buy 
Joseph La Buy 
Edivard P. Łuczak 
Anthony B. Mazurk 
Albert M. Mysogland 
Henry A. Morawski 
Frank Mach 
Clarence C. Majeski 
August Mroz 



Chester W. Makowski 
Leon C. Nyka 
Thaddeus Niemira 
B. E. Nowogrodzki 
Ediv. J. Prebis 
Hon. John Prystalski 
Roman E. Posanski 
Paul V. Pallasch 
Wenzel A. Pelz 
Edward R. Piszatowski 
Henrietta Resotarski 
John S. Rybicki 
Stanley T. Rywniak 
William J. Remus 
George P. Rohocki 
Alex Śmietanka 
Maximillian St. George 
Theodore Szmergalski 
Hon. Edw. S. Scheffler 
Julius F. Śmietanka 
Theo. A. Siniarski 
Thaddeus Cichocki Toudor 
August G. Urbański 
Bogumił J. Woscinslci 
Stanley Werdell 
Casimir Wiczas 
Walter A. Witowski 
Joseph Wayne 
Edward J. Warren 
Casimir R. Wachowski 
John S. Węgrzyn 
Lawrence F. Zygmunt 



[203] 



& 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



English Literature in Poland 

A COMPLETE edition of Shakespeare 
in 12 volumes was recently published 
in Poland — edited by Roman Dyboski. 
The plays, which are prefaced by a fine 
study of Shakespeare by L. Bernacki, were 
translated by the best Polish writers. Pro- 
fessor Dyboski prefaced each play with 
a critical study. 

This edition has developed the influence 
of Shakespeare, always very strongly 
marked in Poland. Even at the end of 
the 18th century Hamlet had been trans- 
lated by Bogusławski from the French 
adaptation of LeTourneur, and had a great 
success. Since then all the Polish romantic 
poets have worshipped at the shrine of the 
great Elizabethan. 

It is interesting to note in this connec- 
tion that one of the finest studies of Ham- 
let in the world was written by Stanislaus 
Wyspiański, the greatest of recent Polish 
poets . 

There has always been a strong move- 
ment in Poland in favor of English art 
and literature. "The Honeymoon" by Ar- 
nold Bennet had been presented at the 
Theatre Polonais in Warsaw. The Cracow 
Theatre was the first on the continent to 
present Bernard Shaw's "Candida" and 
others. 



DR. A. S. MIODUSKI 

CHIROPODIST 
FOOT SPECIALIST 

9036 COMMERCIAL AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Compliments of 

FRANCIS B. KROL, M. D. 

5100 SO. RACINE AVE. 



PHONE SAGINAW 4254 

WALTER WENCLAWSKI 

Soft Drinks and Cigars 
8401 BAKER AVE. SOUTH CHICAGO, ILL. 



MICHAEL JANICKI 

GROCERIES AND MEATS 

Fruits and Vegetables 

8800 BUFFALO AVENUE 

PHONE SAGINAW 7400 CHICAGO, ILL. 

ROMA CLUB 

We Specialize in Italian Spaghetti and Ravioli 

9247 COMMERCIAL Ave. (2nd) Floor 
PHONE REGENT 5983 



PHONE SAGINAW 2775 

STANLEY WOJCIECHOWSKI 

Soft Drinks — Cigars 
8356 BURLEY AVENUE CHICAGO 

STAN. SZLAUDERBACH 

3346 MOSSPRATT STREET 
YARDS 0981 CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE: SO. CHICAGO 9770 

JOSEPH MOLL 

Soft Drinks — Cigars 
13358 HOUSTON AVE. HEGEWISCH, ILL. 



Compliments 

WALTER BOROWIECKI 

8701 BUFFALO AVE. 
W. KIL 

Jedyny Polski Krawiec na Michałowie 

CLEANING. REPAIRING. PRESSING, DYEING 
SUITS MADE TO ORDER 

TEL. REGENT 4355 8114 BURLEY AVE 



Compliments of 

V. F. ADAMSKI 



2758 E. 83 STREET 



SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 



HUNDING'S 
DUTCH MAID CHEESE 

HUNDING DAIRY CO. 



F. WOSZCZYNSKI 

Soft Drinks and Cigars 
8386 BAKER AVE. SO. CHICAGO, ILL. 



[204] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

Parafja Sw. Pankracego 

w Dzielnicy Brighton Park 

Całe nasze życie wychodźcze już od zarania tworze- 
nia się osiedli wychodźczych — skupiało się przy para- 
fjach polskich. 

Parafja polska zawsze była i jest tym ośrodkiem 
przy którym skupia się całe tentno naszego wychodźczego 
życia. 

Gdzie tylko znalazła się garstka Polaków, tam zaraz 
myślano o założeniu polskiej parafji, niezważając na 
trudności z jakiemi nieraz musiano walczyć. 

Polacy zawsze żyli w przekonaniu, że nie samem chle- 
bem człowiek żyje — że do uzupełnienia życia, do wycho- 
wania dzieci w wierze ich ojców, do zachowania mowy 
polskiej, potrzebny jest polski kościół, polski kapłan i 
polska szkoła. 

Tak też było i w parafji Św. Pankracego. Po przenie- 
sieniu się parafji Pięciu Św. Braci Męczenników na po- 
łudniową stronę dzielnicy — Polacy zamieszkali w obrę- 
bie dzisiejszej parafji św. Pankracego, natychmiast za- 
częli starania o założenie nowej parafji. 

A chociaż ówczesne starania nastręczały wiele trud- 
ności, to jednak na czele stali dzielni i wytrwali obywa- 
tele, jak: Stanisław Gudyka, Kaz. Abram, Antoni Kotar- 
ba, Nikodem Pawlak, Wlad. Smyt i wielu innych, któ- 
rych starania chociaż po dłuższym czasie, bo dopiero 
w cztery lata później zostały uwieńczone zupełnem sukce- 
sem, i za pozwoleniem ówczesnego arcy-biskupa, a obec- 
nego Jego Eminencji Kardynała Mundeleina została za- 
łożona nowa parafja w roku 1924. 

Proboszczem nowej parafji został mianowany przez 
wyższe władze kościelne czcigodny i zacny kapłan pa- 
trjota ks. Stan. Radniecki, ówczesny proboszcz parafji 
św. Walentego w Cicero, Ul. 

Pierwsza msza św. została odprawiona dnia 9go marca, 
1924 roku. Od tej chwili wiele w parafji zmieniło się 
na lepsze. I gdyby nie osławiona depresja, niezawodnie 
na miejscu starego budynku w którym dawniej mieścił 
się kościół Pięciu Św. Braci Męczenników i do dziś od- 
prawiają się msze św. parafji św. Pankracego — stanąłby 
wspaniały kościół, co zresztą jest jedynem pragnieniem 
zacnego proboszcza jakoteż i wiernych parafjan. Nie- 
stety w parafji naszej skupia się lud roboczy, który 
został sromotnie dotknięty klęską bezrobocia i dziś nawet 
najwspanialsze plany musiały uledz zwłoce, lecz tylko 
zwłoce gdyż lud nasz ufny w pomoc Boga i własne siły 
niezawodnie dokona rozpoczętego dzieła, na chwałę Boga 
i pożytek ludziom. 

Tymczasem nadmienić wypada, że od czasu powstania 
naszej parafji, pomimo różnych przeciwności w postaci 
ciężkich czasów — dzięki naszemu dzielnemu proboszczowi 
i Jego umiejętnemu kierownictwu zostały zakupione 
grunta na których zbudowano nową szkołę z 18 klasami 
i piękną salę. 

Jak również obok szkoły dom dla sióstr nauczycielek. 
Poświęcenia kamienia węgielnego dokonał ks. prałat 
Tomasz Bona, w roku 1925. Natomiast ceremonji po- 
święcenia wykończonej szkoły dokonał najprzewielebniej- 
szy biskup sufragan Hoban dnia 9go maja, 1926 roku. 

Budową nowej szkoły również kierowali miejscowi 
Polacy w osobach pp. Leona Strzałki jako architekta 
i Fran. Zintaka, obecnego klerka sądu wyższego jako 
budowniczego". W obecnym czasie do szkoły par. św. Pan- 
kracego uczęszcza przeszło 1,100 dzieci, gdzie pod wzoro- 




Ks. Proboszcz Stanisław Radniecki 

wem i umiejętnem kierownictwem sióstr Franciszkanek 
jako nauczycielek, dzieci kształcą się nietylko w nauce 
powszechnej ale w wierze ojców i mowie polskiej. 

Parafja nasza w czasie swego istnienia gościła także 
wiele dostojnych gości, jak: arcy-biskupa Cieplaka, bi- 
skupa Dubowskiego, biskupa Kubinę i wielu innych. 

Parafja nasza prowadzi także bardzo intenzywną pracę 
dobroczynną, szczególnie w ostatnich czasach bezrobocia, 
wiele opuszczonych rodzin znalazło opiekę w parafji. 

Brak miejsca nie pozwala na wyszczególnienie doko- 
nanej pracy od czasu istnienia parafji, nadmienić jednak 
należy, że hasło "Z polskim księdzem polski lud" było 
zawsze żywem odzwierciedleniem w życiu parafjan św. 
Pankracego. Ks. proboszcz St. Radniecki już po krótkim 
pobyciu w parafji zaskarbił sobie serca parafjan i dziś 
cieszy się ogólnem zaufaniem ale wierny lud otacza go 
jak największą czcią, jako swego kapłana, patrjotę i 
przodownika. W pracy parafjalnej dzielnie mu pomagają 
ks. wikary Ludwik Hanzel oraz miejscowy organista p. 
Szczepan Sieja. W ich zbożnej pracy nad dalszem rozwo- 
jem parafji szczęść im Boże. 

Za kom. historji par. św. Pankracego — JÓZEF KŁAK 



Komitet Tygodnia Polskiej Gościnności na Wystawie świa- 
towej w Chicago, 111., w parafji św. Pankracego, do którego 
zarządu wchodzą następujące komitety — Wojciech Siwek, 
prez.; Aniela Lipińska, wice-prez.; Jan Ucherek, sekr.; Zo- 
fja Suda, kas. Komitet Przyjęć: Józef Klak, Józef Ucherek 
i Apolonja Kmak. Komitet Biletów: Fran. Kędzior, Fran. 
Kędzior, Jr. i pani Hołda. Komitet Pamiętnika Historji Pa- 



ivcuz.nyi , oi. i pełni nuiud. rs.unuit;c i amicilllKa xiisioiji Jra- 

rafji. Józef Kłak, prez. Komitet Kontestu: Wiktorja Nowak, 
Karolina Kosińska. Kontestantki: Emilja Hołda i Włady- 



sława Kosińska. Komitet Muzyki i Chórów: Pan S. J. Sieja. 
Komitet Rydwanów: Antoni Zientak, pani Marczyk. Komi- 
tet Finansów, Sposobów i środków: Ludwik Cycoń, Zofja 
Suda i pani Węgrzyn. Komitet Reklamy: Aniela Lipińska, 
Jan Ucherek, Wojciech Siwek. Komitet Sportów: Fran. Kę- 
dzior, Jr., Józef Kędzior i Adam Lipiński. Komitet Tran- 
sportacji i Komitet Kwater: Wojciech Siwek, Jan Leja i 
Marta Siwek. Komitet Dekoracji: Jan Ucherek, Fran. Kędzior 
Jr. i Adam Lipiński. 



[205] 



ais- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Sfc 



MIDLAND DAIRY 

ALL MILK PRODUCTS 

Fresh and Sanitary 



3314 W. 47th St. 



Chicago 




Greasing JSy Experts 



JOHN SPITLIS, Prop. 

4050 ARCHER AVENUE 



VIRGINIA 2121 



AMERICAN EAGLE DAIRY 

JOSEPH RZEZNIKIEWICZ, Prop. 

All Milk Products Fresh and Sanitary 



3034 W. 40TH ST. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



TELEFON LAFAYETTE 5811 

FRANK J. LASSA 

SANITARY PLUMBING AND STEAM FITTING 

REPAIRING PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO 

Zaciąga Także Parowe i Wodne Ogrzewanie na Łatwe Spłaty 

POLSKI PLUMBIARZ W BRIGHTON PARK 

Rezydencja i Skład Plumbiarski 

4301 S. WHIPPLE ST., blisko Archer Avenue 



TOW. ŚW. FRANCISZKA 

Oddział 128 Macierzy Polskiej 
w Paraf ji Św. Pankracego 

Założone dnia 15go Stycznia, 1925 roku. Założycielami byli : 
Franciszek Haraf, Bartłomiej Hołda i Stanisław Kaczmar- 
czyk. Pierwszym prezesem był Andrzej Oleksy. Obecnie 
liczy 72 członków. Obecna administracja: Ks. Stanisław 
Radniecki, kapelan: Józef Kędzior, prezes; Stanisław Mar- 
tyka, wice prezes : Franciszek Kędzior, sekr. prot. ; Franci- 
szek Haraf. sekr. fin. ; Bartłomiej Hołda, kasjer. 



Towarzystwo Pięciu Świętych Braci 
Polaków i Męczenników 

Gr. 1460 Z. N. P. w Dzielnicy Brighton Park 
Założone dnia 14go października, 1809 roku. Założy- 
cielami tegoż Tow. byli: Jan Wójcik, Albert Rucki, 
Józef Wójcik. Obecna administracja 1933 roku składa 
się z następujących członków: Andrzej Oleksy, prez. ; 
Józef Witowski, wice prez.; Stanisław Martyka, sekr. 
prot.; Józef Jendras, sekr. fin.; Wojciech Rucki, kas. 



Tow. Matki Boskiej Dobrej Rady 

Grupa Ą9ta Wolne Polki na Ziemi Washingtona 

Założone zostało 9go marca, 1924 roku. Założyciela- 
mi były: Zofja Suda, Teka Ziomek i Rozalja Labno. 
Obecnie liczy 196 członkiń. Obecna administracja 
jest: Zofja Suda, prez.; Rozalja Labno, wice prez.; 
Karolina Pękała, sekr. prot.: Wiktorja Nicoś. sekr. 
fin.; Katarzyna Pękała, skarbniczka: M. Koperniak, 
M. Tanderak i F. Połaniecka, opiekunki kasy; S. Sła- 
by, F. Słabniak, marszałkinie; Stefanja Kubicka, odź. 



TELEPHONE IRVING 1411-1412 



LINCOLN MFG. CO. 

High Grade 

MACHINE PRODUCTS 



SCREW 
2617-25 FLE 



CHICAGO 



PHONE LAFAYETTE 1291 We Deliver 

M. F. BRISKI 

HARDWARE - PAINTS 
Factory Supplies - Electric Supplies 

4342 ARCHER AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



TOW. NARODOWE 

Grono Orła Polskiego 
w Dzielnicy Brighton Park 



QUALITY MEAT MARKET 

Jos. Kttsh, Prop. 
2821 W. 59TH ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



Towarzystwo Gabryeli Zapolskiej 

GRUPA 330 Z. P. W A. 
I WIANEK LAUROWY NO. 58 



FELIX SERWA 

GROCERY AND MEAT MARKET 
3343 W. 38TH STREET CHICAGO 



[206] 




The Polish American 
Businessmen 's Association 




THE Polish people consolidated themselves into the 
Polish nation more than a thousand years ago, 
and maintained it until 1795. Then for 123 years 
they were subjugated to Russian, German, and Austrian 
imperialism. In 1918 they regained their independence. 

When America declared her independence, she 
numbered three million souls, while Poland at that 
same time numbered thirty million. 

Originally Poles, as Kościuszko, Pulaski and their 
comrades, emigrated to America to avoid political per- 
secution. After the revolt of 1831, following the perse- 
cutions of Bismarck, the flower of Polish citizenry was 
scattered over all of Europe and reached America. 

After 1863 the enemies of Poland began the persecu- 
tion of Polish people to such an extent, that there com- 
menced a wholesale emigration from all the partitioned 
sections of Poland — the Russian, the Prussian, and the 
Austrian. There was prosperity and a promise of choice 
positions on Polish soil for the Russian, the German, the 
Austrian, and the Jew, but there was nothing for the 
Pole, which was tolerable. 

These are the reasons why we now have five million 
citizens of Polish origin on American soil. 

They are but laborers for the time, but in their veins 
flows the blood of their forefathers, who for thousands 
of years knew how to govern themselves and others, 
and lost this supremacy only because they were too 
ideally noble. It was in Poland that the first Ministry 
of Education was instituted. Poland as a republic, guard- 
ing the freedom of religion, speech, and civic privileges, 
was surrounded by kings, emperors and czars, to whom 
this liberty was distasteful, because their own people 
began to demand similar liberties, and therefore they 
fell upon Poland and divided her. 

These five million Poles are a great treasure to 
America. They are pure gold, whose luster has been dim- 
med for the time by 123 years of slavery. 

America is like a gorgeous bouquet, and the various 
nationalities are the flowers making up this bouquet. 
The Polish flower has not yet developed; it is but a bud. 
The life-giving juices feeding this bud are being con- 
ducted through the Catholic Church and the Polish Or- 
ganizations, but presently a new force, vitally powerful, 
will commence to enliven it; that force which vitalizes 
America — the force flowing from trade and commerce. 



Five million Polish-Americans constitute a huge mar- 
ket, representing a daily turnover of five million dollars, 
or a yearly one of nearly two billions. This comprises the 
domestic Polish-American market. The net profits derived 
from serving this market represent a sum of two hund- 
red million dollars. And here lies our purpose: that these 
profits be utilized in the employment of professional in- 
structors for the purpose of bringing out in Americans 
of Polish extraction their hidden talents, their back- 
ground of 1000 years of varied experience. 

Such personalities as Sobieski, Piłsudski, Paderew- 
ski, Modrzejewski, Marie Curie-Sklodowska and many 
millions of others, indicate what powers lie dormant in 
our Polish-Americans. 

We desire to be and shall be useful, valued and res- 
pected not only by our own kind, but by all other Am- 
ericans as well. For there is no other nation in the 
world, which has shed more blood for its own and other 
people's freedom, than has the Polish nation. 

Our Association is working in this general direction. 
It groups the participants in the life of the commercial 
world, unifies them, promotes understanding by means of 
the radio hour, trading stamps, and works for the 
development of their knowledge by means of a Com- 
mercial School. Our Association calls out to all Polish- 
Americans to support Polish-Americans in order that 
means be obtained whereby capable instructors be 
found, to acquaint our businessmen with every phase of 
American life; and that through these means they may 
become usefully valuable not only to themselves, but to 
all of this great American nation. 

JOHN F. CZARNIK, President 
MICHAEL DZIEDZIC. Treasurer 
STANLEY E. BASIŃSKI, Secretary 

Vice-presidents: 
ZONIA BRYLL 
KINGA DZIUBAK 
STANLEY SIKORA 
THOMAS SMIDOWICZ 

JOHN BUCHANIEC, Commissioner of Finance 
JOHN JAWORSKI, 

Commissioner of P. A. B. A. Trading Stamps 
W. W. WIECZOREK, 

Commissioner Chicago School of Commerce. 
SOPHIA JAWORSKA, President Ladies Auxiliary 
FELIX PIETROWICZ, Comptroller 
FRANK NURCZYK, Manager. 



[207] 



&■ 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



LAFAYETTE FLORIST 

Leo Landowski 
4224 ARCHER AVE. PH. LAFAYETTE 3261 



JOSEPH KLAK 

3618 SOUTH KEDZIE AVENUE 
Telefon Lafayette 2016 



TOWARZYSTWO ŚW. ANNY 

Grupa 2244 
Związku Narodowego Polskiego 



WALTER RUSIN 

Grocery and Meat Market 

2908 W. 40TH ST. CHICAGO 

Lafayette 9776 



TOW. MARJI KONOPNICKIEJ 

Grupa 36 W. P. na Z. W. 

Założone dnia 26go Marca, 1916 roku 

TOWARZYSTWO MATKI 
BOSKIEJ OSTROBRAMSKIEJ 

Grupa 1Ą9 Związku Polek w Ameryce 
Założona dnia Igo Stycznia, 1912 roku 

STANLEY MAKOS 



Soft Drink Parlor 
4057 S. ALBANY AVE. 



CHICAGO 



WILLIAM HASNER 



Florist 
3956 S. CALIFORNIA AVE. 



CHICAGO 



ADAM VINCENT LIPIŃSKI 

Ph. G. 



3731 SO. KEDZIE AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



Drs. Wietrzynski and Sadlek 

Physicians and Surgeons 
4303 ARCHER AVE. LAFAYETTE 7665-7666 

WE MAKE WARM FRIENDS 

One Day Service We Call For and Deliver 

WESTERN BEDDING 

Specialists in Renewing Mattresses and Feather Quilts From 

Your Own Feathers — Also Stitch Patch Quilts 
5216 S. WESTERN AVE. TEL. PROSPECT 1931 



Girls of the Ballet 



RARBARA ABLOY 
HARRIET. ABRATOWSKI 
LEE ABRATOWSKI 
STELLA ADAMCZYK 
FRANCES ADAMIEC 
LAUR. A. ADAMKIEWICZ 
HARRIET. J. ADAMOWICZ 
HELEN M. ADAMOWICZ 
EVELYN ADAMOWSKI 
BERNICE ADAMS 
HELEN ANDREWS 
IRENE ANDREWS 
ESTELLE BABICZ 
FELICIA BABICZ 
KASIMIRA BACHER 
BERNICE BAGIERSKA 
HERRIET E. BAGIŃSKI 
VIRGINIA BAGIŃSKI 
ROSALIE BAK 
ANN BALABAN 
LORETTA I. BALCER 
NATALIE M. BALCER 
PHYLLIS BALCZYNIAK 
SOPHIA BALICKA 
SOPHIE BALSEGA 
EMILIE BALUN 
HELEN J. BANKO 
DOROTHY BARDONSKI 
CASIMIRA BARTOSIAK 
ESTELLE BARGIEL 
MARY BAS 
SOPHIE BATOR 
HELEN BEDNARSKI 
STELLA BERNCIX 
BERNICE BERNASZ 
HAR. C. BETLEJEWSKI 
MARGAR. BETLEJEWSKI 
SOPHIA BETLEJEWSKI 
HELEN C. BETLEJEWSKA 
HELENA BICHNIEWICZ 
FLORENCE BICONAT 
MARIE H. BIEDKĘ 
GERTRUDE BIELARZ 
FLORENCE BIELAT 
ROSE BIELAWA 
SOPHIE BIELAWA 
VIOLET BIELAWA 
HELEN BIELESKI 

[Continued 



PEARL BIELESKI 
MARY BIENIA 
FLORENCE BIERNAT 
STEPHIE BIERONSKA 
BERNICE BIERUT 
JOAN BIERUT 
LOURETTE BIESCHKE 
VIRGINIA BISBEE 
JEAN BISS 
CLARA BLASZYNSKI 
SOPHIE BLAWUT 
EVELYN BOBRITZKE 
THEODOREA BODNICKI 
STELLA BODZINSKI 
WANDA BOGOWICZ 
MARIE BOGUS 
VICTORIA BOLEK 
LILLIAN BOLESKI 
WANDA BOLESKI 
ESTELLE BORGOL 
HARRIET BOYDA 
AGNES BOZEK 
ANNE BOZEK 
VICTORIA M. BRATKO 
IRENE BRODZIŃSKI 
NATALIE BRYCZEK 
E. BRZDENKIEWICZ 
ESTELLE BRZEZICKA 
CAMILLE BRZEZIŃSKA 
GERTRUDE BRZEZIŃSKA 
IRENE BUBATZ 
LILLIAN BUDZUSKA 
IRENE BUKOWSKI 
WANDA BUKOWSKI 
ISABELLE E. BUKOWSKI 
EUGENIA BULAT 
ESTELLE BURGUL 
ESTELLE BURNEYKO 
ARONA BUSCH 
BETTY BUSH 
MARY BUSH 
VERNA CELAREK 
HELEN CHLEBOS 
WANDA A. CHROMCZAK 
JEAN CIASTO 
VERNIE CUDZILO 
MARIE ĆWIKLIŃSKI 
ANGELINĘ CYGAL 



o*n page 210] 



BRIGHTON COAL CO. 

INC. 

3719 S. KEDZIE AVENUE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

TEL. LAFAYETTE 9456-7-8 



TOW. KADETÓW POLSKICH 

GRUPA 1816 ZW. NAR. POL. 
J. P. Wróbel, prezes; Józef Obrzut, wice-prezes; Jan 
Matula, sekr. fin.; Franciszek Bober, sekr. prot.; W. J. 
Wójcik, kasjer. Dyrekcja: Fr. Skruba, Karol Obrzut, 
Bron. Wójcik. 



GMINA 139 ZW. NAR. POL. 

iv Dzielnicy Brighton Park 



Wita wszystkich Związkowców i Związkowczynie 
oraz wszystkich Rodaków przybyłych z okolicy 
na Polski Tydzień Gościnności. 

Obecny zarząd Gminy: St. Cichoń, prezes; Ap. Kmak, 
wice-prezes; Ig. Domino, 2 wice-prezes; Józef Wójcik, 
sekr. prot.; Jan F. Wróbel, kasjer; Jakób Kłus, marsz. 



[208] 



«r3* *£»45>r <« ■■ »> •*-•►»■• 



<« ■• >» <« •' »> • 



45* 4#«M 4#4^ ^rM- 4©"3^ ~£"r>r < 4> ' »> < < & • »> • 



•t^t ^ < (;»^^>;• ■! <>^> > •Kr*r>r ■!<!■* *v>y * 
■ rvr-r>r r<7»*>r *rfr-r>r 4<>*r> ^^r * 



S. 'S. Pćfe^ tf^ Paul Parish 




S. S. Peter and Paul's Church, 3745 South Paulina Street 

Rev. Adelbert S. Olszewski, Pastor ; Rev. Jos. Mszanowski and 
Rev. Fr. Nogajewski, assistants. Mr. Math. Blenski, organist. 

THIS parish was organized A. D. 1895. The first 
church was located on Charlton St. between 36th 
and 37th Sts. The Rev. P. Rhode, now bishop of Green 
Bay diocese, was the first pastor and the building 
committee consisted of Messrs. James Hebel, Rudolph 
Krefta, Michael Dopka, Jos. Detlaff, A. Grzybowski, 
Anth. Rzeppa, Aug. Hebel, Frank Labuda, Frank Mysz- 
ka, Chas. Kwasigroch, Frank Czerzakiewicz. 

Among the first members of the newly forming parish 
at that time, were: Stan. Cegielski, Mich. Nowakowski, 
Adam Majer, Ign. X Mrs. Andrzejewski, Jos. Wesołow- 
ski, Fran. Czerwiński, James Andrzejewski, Anthony 
Wika, Andrew Zintak, Fran. & Mrs. Brzeski, Jos. Hebel, 
Jos. Stasiak, Mary Wesołowski, Adelbert Pruchniewski, 
Chas. Kwasigroch, Fran. Cylkowski, James Hersztowski, 
Fran. Drankiewicz, John Putlak, Paul Jedlowski, John 
Rak, Jos. Rak, Martin Rak, Martin Sendra, Casim. Brą- 
giel, Mrs. Siwek, Andrew Labuda, Jos. Zająkała, Michael 
& Mary Pawlik, Jos. Wolski, Fran. Frankowski, Aug. 
Laga, John & Mary Butny, James Gawczyński. 

In October 1897, the Rev. P. Rhode, was appointed 
pastor of St. Michael's Church in So. Chicago and the 
Rev. B. Nowakowski became pastor of St. Peter and 
Paul parish. After him came, on Christmas Day of the 
year 1900, the Rev. Maximilian Kotecki and under his 
guidance, the present structures of the Church, School 
and rectory were built. The new church was blessed on 
June 29, 1907. Among the prominent guests on that 



occasion, was the Mayor of Chicago, Carter Harrison 
and during the International Eucharistic Congress held 
in Chicago A. D. 1926, on the feast day of S.S. Peter & 
Paul, the present pastor Rev. Adelbert S. Olszewski, 
was host to the Most Rev. Bishops from Poland, Prze- 
zdziecki, Lukomski and Kubina. 

About 350 young men of this parish were in active 
service during the World's War and 64 joined the Polish 
Army in France. 

On the War heroes list of this parish are the names 
of: Jos. Musielak, Fran. Nowakowski, Ladis Bogdano- 
wicz, Peter Krzemiński. During the pastorship of Rev. 
M. Kotecki, the following priests were acting as asssist- 
ants: Rev. J. Wyszyński, Rev. Fr. Karabasz, Rev. J. 
Robakowski, Rev. Wac. Warakomski, Rev. Leo Wyrzy- 
kowski, Rev. St. Radniecki, Rev. Fr. Tyrcha, Rev. L. 
Rzóska Rev. S. Bubacz, Rev. Jos. Karabasz, Rev. Ign. 
Mazurowski, Rev. Fr. Krakowski, Rev. Tad. Nowak, 
On February 14, A. D. 1925, the present pastor took 
charge of the parish with the Rev. Tad. Nowak, present 
pastor of St. Isidore's church, Blue Island, 111. Continuing 
the list of assistants at this parish, were: Rev. John 
Zeleziński, Rev. Aug. Koytek, Rev. Albert Janiszewski, 
Rev. Alois Szczerkowski. 

The teachers in SS. Peter and Paul School, are the 
Felician Sisters. The present school structure was 
blessed on Sept. 4, 1908. Over 1100 children attend at 
the present time. The first alderman of Polish-American 
extraction of this Ward and Member of this parish, 
was the Hon. Ben. Zintak. On the list of committees for 
the Polish Week of Hospitality are the following: 

KOMITET Z PARAFJI ŚW. PIOTRA I PAWŁA: 
Ksiądz Proboszcz Wojciech Olszewski, Przewodniczący 
Ksiądz Józef Mszanowski, Kapelan 
Ksiądz Franciszek Noyajewski, Wice-Kapelan 
Pan Wojciech Fuk, Prezes 
Pani Józefa Benben, Sekretarka 
Pan Józef Piątek, Kasjer 

REPREZENTACJA PARAF JI : 
Pan Bronisław Zintak Pan Grzegorz Kordaś, 



Pani Juljanna Berent. 



Marszalek pochodu 



KOMITET BILETÓW: 
Pani Józefa Benben, Przewodn./'am W. Rzeszutko 
Pani M. Kobylska Pani K. Korecka 

Pani A'. Kolecka Pani M. Pyra. 

KOMITET PAMIĘTNIKA: 
Pan Franciszek Pas 

KOMITET R YD W A N U : 
Ksiądz Prot>oszcz Wojciech Olszeirski. 
Pani W. Kawa, 
Pani Eleonora Szuszkiewicz. 

KOMITET PRASY: 
Ksiądz Józef Mszanowski. 

KOMITET POPULARNOŚCI: 
Panna Anna Szuszkiewicz, 

Panna Stanisława Rzeszut 
Panna Anna Golis. 



[209] 



2|S 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



ASHLAND INN 

Sandwich Shop 

Beer on Draught 

Tables for Ladies Try Our Cigars 

3400 SOUTH ASHLAND AVENUE 
PHONE LAFAYETTE 8829 

ROSE PALUCH, Mgr. 
CLEM JAVIOR, Mgr. 



POLISH - AMERICAN 

BUILDING AND LOAN 

ASSOCIATION 

3663 SOUTH PAULINA STREET 
CHICAGO 



"WOT TC EXCLUSIVE QUALITY 

W VJLJ\ " WEDDING PHOTOGRAPHS 

For Over 25 Years at 
1945 W. 35TH ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



Phone Lafayette 7733 Hours 9-12— i:i0-5— 6.30-9 

DR. B. J. WARCZAK 

Dentist 
3701 S. PAULINA ST. CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE LAFAYETTE 1055 

LEO J. KOZICKI 

THE GRAEMERE PRESS 
1854 W. 35TH ST. CHICAGO 



WAL. RZESZOT 

Grocery and Meat Market 
3251 S. PAULINA ST. CHICAGO 



FRANK SIWEK 

COAL AND ICE -GENERAL HAULING 
3405 S. MARSHFIELD AVE., Tel. Lafayette 8468 

RESIDENCE PHONE ROCKWELL 9641 
2240 SOUTH MARSHALL BOULEVARD 

B. E. NOWOGRODZKI 

Attorney at Law 
3202 W. 55TH ST. TEL. HEMLOCK 7000 



Girls of the Ballet 

[Continued from page 208] 



GENEVIEVE CYGAN 
MILDRED CYWIŃSKI 
ELIZ. CZACHORSKI 
CECILIA CZAJKA 
MARIE CZAJKA 
IRENE CZAJKOWSKA 
IRENE CZYKA 
CLEMENTINE CZYRNEK 
MARIE F. DANIELS 
MARIE DASCH 
ANT. DASZKOWSKA 
VERNA DATA 
LILLYAN DEARIE 
FRANCES DEBIAK 
FRANCES DELAHOME 
LAURA DEMBSKI 
ANNA DIAKÓW 
LEE DIANA 
CHAR. DOBRASIELSKA 
OLYMPIA DOBRZAŃSKI 
STELLA DOLIŃSKI 
HAR. W. DOMACHOWSKI 
MARY DOMAGALSKI 
HARRIETTS A. DOMANUS 
MARY DRABINSKI 
GEN. DRELICHARZ 
ELEANORE DRWENSKI 
JOSEPHINE DRZAL 
WANDA DRZAL 
HELEN DRZEWICKI 
MELANIA DUBINSKI 
ZENOBIA DUBINSKI 
HARRIET DURAY 
ROSE DURAY 
ELEANORE DWORAK 
HELEN DYKTON 
MARY DYRKACZ 
JOSEPHINE DZIEDZIAK 
H. C. DZIERZGOWSKI 
STEPHANIA W. EGIEL 
ELEANORE ELBAOR 
MARY ENGEL 
HARRIET FALAT 
JOSEPHINE FELDMAN 
ANN FELCYN 
ESTELLE FERENC 
MARIE FERENC 
BERNICE FIGURA 
MARIE FIOLEK 
HELEN FLOREK 
ESTELLE FRANCZAK 
FRANCES FRANKĘ 
MRS. C. A. FRANKIEWICZ 
I. AND R. FRANKIEWICZ 
JANIS FRANKOWSKI 
ELIZABETH FRZENIA 
MARY FURTAK 
JOSEPHINE GADZINSKI 
FLORENCE GAJEWSKA 
EUGENIA GALASZ 
MARY GALASZ 
JANE GALZKIEWICZ 
GENEVIEVE GALLA 
HELEN GARBACZ 
CLARE GARDZIELEWSKI 
JANNINA GASIOREK 
ESTELLE GAWLIK 
JEAN GAWLIK 
HELEN GAWRON 
HELENĘ GIERLASIENSKI 
ELEANOR GIERSZEWSKI 
IRENE GIERSZEWSKI 
GENEVIEVE GLADYCH 
PRIGILLA GLENICKI 
MARIE GLIWA 
MARY GŁOGOWSKI 
VERONICA GLOWICZKA 
CELIA GLOYAWSKI 
ALICE & FLORENCE 

GONGOLA 
ESTELLE GONYL 
EDYTHE A. GOSIEWSKI 
ROSE GÓRSKI 
ADELINE GOZDOWSKI 
IRENE GRONCZEWSKI 
EMILINE J. GRUSZECKI 
MARIE GRUSZKA 
G. GRYKOSKI 
ROSALIE GRYKOWSKI 
BILLVIAN GRYZŁO 
CECELIA GRZANEK 
HELEN GRZYBOWSKI 
JEAN GRZYBOWSKI 
ELEANOR GULIK 
HELEN GULIK 



LUCILLE GURZYNSKI 
PAULINE HAUSNER 
MABEL HETMAN 
MARIE HOWANIEC 
WANDA HUJAR 
MISSES L. & I. HIBNER 
HELEN HYNEK 
ELEANORE HOLATA 
REGINA IWIŃSKI 
ANN JACHIM 
HELENA JAGIELSKA 
ALICIA JAGLOWSKI 
LOTTIE JAGÓDKA 
HELEN JAKUBIEC 
HENRIET. JAKUBOWSKI 
FLORENCE JANICKI 
M. JANICKI 
EMILY JANIS 
IRENE JANIS 
M JANIS 
JANE JANSKI 
MARY JANUKOWICZ 
CASIMIRA JANUS 
GERTRUDE JAPF 
JOAN JARECKI 
PEARL H. JARKO 
JADWIGA JARMULOWICZ 
IRENE JARMUSZ 
IRENE JAROSIŃSKI 
PHYLLIS JAROSIŃSKI 
ANNA JAROSZ 
MARIE JARZYNSKI 
JOSEPHINE JASKULSKI 
EMILY JASNOWSKI 
JOAN JASTRZEMBSKI 
HELEN JAWOROWSKA 
EMILIE JELEŃ 
FELICIA JOZEWSKI 
MARY JEZIOR 
STEFANJA JURCZAK 
ROSE KACZMARCZYK 
VALENTINA KAJDER 
HELENA KAJKOWSKI 
IRENA KAJKOWSKI 
SYLVIA KAMIŃSKI 
VALENTINE KAPELAK 
ANNE KAPROWSKI 
B. KARBOWSKI 
ANN KARCZEWSKI 
ESTHER KARWACKI 
CLARA KASPER 
FELYCYA KASZUBA 
VIOLET KASZUBA 
MARGARET KAZMERSKI 
WANDA KAZMIERSKI 
VERA KELP 
ALICE KIERKOWSKI 
FLORENCE KIERKOWSKI 
FRANCES KIJOWSKA 
JOSEPHINE KIJOWSKA 
FLORENCE KILINSKI 
VIRGINIA KINOWSKI 
ESTELLE KIOŁBASSA 
ALICE KLAJDA 
JEAN KLESTA 
REGINA KLEST 
ROSE KLIMCZAK 
SYLVIA KOBIELSKA 
EVELYN KOBBY 
ELEANORE KOKOSZKA 
STEPHANIE KOŁACZ 
HELEN KOLENDA 
WANDA KOLENDA 
SOPHIE KOMENDANT 
SABINA KONDRATOWICZ 
VICTORIA KONIECZNA 
VICTORIA KONRAD 
IRENE KOPCZYŃSKI 
ANNA KOPROWSKI 
JEAN KONIA 
HARRIETTE KONOPKA 
ELEANOR KOSIŃSKI 
NATALIE KOSKIEWICZ 
MARTHA KOWALSKA 
WANDA KOWALSKA 
CASMIRA KOWALSKI 
FELICIA KOWALSKI 
IRENE KOWALSKI 
LILLIAN KOZA 
FELICIA KOZINOR 
ALICE KOZŁOWSKA 
KAS. KOZŁOWSKA 
JEAN KRAMER 
ETHEL R. KRAPPE 



[Continued on page 212] 



[210] 






S©®SSa&©©8s©S®S®@KSs©®5 






' > U - ■ 



Good Shepherd Parish 

2719-2757 S. Kolin Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



Good Shepherd Parish was established by the 
Most Rev. Archbishop James E. Quigley in the 
year 1907. His Grace appointed Rev. Alexander 
Jung as its organizer and first pastor, who was 
then pastor of St. Mary's Church in Downer's 
Grove, Illinois. In the early part of that year, 
the founding of Good Shepherd Parish was 
sponsored by Rev. Alexander Jung with the 
assistance of several well supporting settlers, 
also members of the society of Good Shepherd 
of P. R. C. U. of A. The newly organized Parish 
was made of the Eastern part of St. Mary's of 
Częstochowa Parish, of which Rev. Bro. Czaj- 
kowski, was and is pastor, and of the Westerly 
part of St. Casimir's Parish of which the Rev. 
A. Furman was pastor. 




GOOD SHEPHERD CHURCH 

The first church in Good Shepherd Parish 
was a wooden structure, now used as the Parish 
Hall. The first school was established by Father 
Jung, in 1910, and placed in charge of the Feli- 
cian Sisters. In 1912 a combination brick 
Church and School was built. 

After the death of Rev. Jung, in 1918, the 
Rev. Francis J. Wojciechowski, pastor of the 



Transfiguration Church in Bowmanville, Illi- 
nois, was appointed his successor by his Emin- 
ence George Cardinal Mundelein on Nov. 4, 1918. 

Shortly after his appointment, Father Woj- 
ciechowski aided by the generous and whole- 
hearted cooperation of his parishoners, saw to 
it that the school was enlarged from six class- 
rooms to twelve, and the church alternated and 
newly decorated. 

During his pastorate, Father Wojciechowski 
was assisted in looking after the spiritual wel- 
fare of his congregation by the following 
priests; Rev. John Peterson, Rev. Anthony Ry- 
decki, Rev. Jos. Lechert, and Rev. Julius Gi- 
lewski, the present assistant. 

The following societies have aided the pastors 
in the organization and development of the 
Parish: Good Shepherd Society P. R. C. U. Gr. 
No. 494, St. Cecilias Choir, Ladies Rosary 
Society, Young Ladies Sodality, St. Veronica's 
Society P. L. A. No. 84, St. Marys of Częstocho- 
wa Society P. R. C. U. of A. No. 487, St. The- 
resas Society, Free Poland Society, P. N. A. 
Gr. 1574, Star of Freedom Society P. N. A. Gr. 
2340, Foresters of Good Shepherd Parish, 
Casimir Pulaski Civic League, Ladies of Good 
Shepherd Club; St .Hedwig's Choir, Holy Name 
Society, The Boy Scouts of America, Troupe 
No. 316, Harcerstwo of P. N. A., St. Vincent 
DePaul Society, St. John's Alter Boys Club. In 
1929 the above groups have been united into 
one body and charted as Federation of Societies 
of Good Shepherd Parish. 

Two well-established and ably directed Loan 
Association namely KRAKOW BUILDING AND 
LOAN ASSOCIATION, and GOOD SHEP- 
HERD BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIA- 
TION, have financially aided the development 
of this parish. 



[211] 



& 



POLKS IN AMERICA 



Til KIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



C cc/nyccc/ JLuiizu 

RAKOWSKI BROS. 

Producers of 
High Grade Dairy Products 

Wholesale and Retail 



The Crawford Dairy lias been in the .Milk and 
Cream retailing for twenty-five years. 

In its first fifteen years of npcnitinii, it was under 
the supervision of Mrs. Catherine Rakowski with the 
co-operation of her four sons, Frank, Thmas, Stan- 
ley ami Anion. 

During tlii-i period the business was developed 

and put on sound b:;sis. 

Shortly after Uiis Mrs. C. Rakowski gave the bus- 
iness to her sons as a reward for their faithfulness 
and untiring aim of success. The slogan of this 
dairy is Quality, Cleanliness and Service. 

At the present time it is under the progressive 
management of Stanley and Anton Rakowski. 



2742-44 SOUTH KILDARE AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

TELEPHONE LAWNDALE 8332 



F. L. MAJKA & CO. 

Realtor for almost a quarter cen- 
tury, act i re member in Chicago 
Real Estate Board, a'so Board 
of Fire Underwriters. Special- 
ist in all lines of Insurance. 



Trades all kinds of properties and farms. 
Loans Negotiated and Examination of Titles. 

4300 W. 26TH STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 




Residence Phone 


Office Phone 


YARDS 2018 


BOULEVARD 5990 


GEORGE E. 


MOCNY 


GENERAL INSURANCE 


Fire, Tornado, Plate Gh 


tss and Automobile 


Warsaw Building and 


Loan Association 


Falasz and Szarmach, Attorneys 


953 WEST 31ST STREET 



PETER NAPOLSKI 



2726 S. KOLIN AVE. 



LAWNDALE 3227 



Girls of the Ballet 

[Continued from page 210] 



JEAN KRAWZYNSKI 
ANGELINĘ KROCZKA 
WANDA KRZANOWSKI 
WANDA KRZANOWSKI 
MARIAN KSIĄŻEK 
SANDY KUBECKA 
MARYA KUFLEWSKI 
EMILY KUKLEWICZ 
JEAN KUKLEWICZ 
NATALIE KUKUŁKA 
STELLA KULBIEDA 
LUCILLE KULIK 
MARIE KURAS 
GERTR. JOAN KURCAB 
IRENE KUREK 
MARY KURPIEL 
MARY KUS 
REGINA KUTZ 
IRENE KUZMIERSKI 
CAS. KWIATKOWSKA 
CECILIA KWAŚNIEWSKA 
ESTELLE KWILINSKA 
MARIE KULAWIAK 
CECEL. M. KULCZEWSKI 
ANNA KULIGOWSKI 
HELEN KUTYNA 
HELEN LABEDZ 
ANTOINETTE W. LACH 
MARIAN LACHCIK 
LOUISE LAFIN 
OLGA LAGODZINSKA 
PEARL LAKONE 
ALBIE LALIM 
ANGELINĘ LASIOWSKI 
LOUISE LASZKIEWICZ 
JULIA LEI5DA 
VICTORIA LEECH 
LILLIAN LEMPA 
SALLY LENCZYNSKI 
ROSALIE LENTEK 
EVELYN LEWANDOWSKI 
GENEVIEVE LIGAJ 
MARIE E. LINKIEWICZ 
MISSES H.W.L.F.LIGMAN 
RERNICE LIPIŃSKI 
JEAN LISOWSKI 
EUGENIA H. LISS 
ESTELLE LITWIN 
ESTELLE LITWIN 
ELINOR LOIKE 
AUDREY LOWE 
FLORENCE LUKAS 
J. and Z. ŁUKASIK 
IRMA LUKE 
JESSIE ŁUSZCZ 
PETTY LIPSY 
MARY LIPSY 
C. and H. MACIASZAK 
HELEN MADAJ 
IRENE MADAJ 
L. MARCINKIEWICZ 
HERNIE MAGES 
HELEN MAKOWSKI 
SABINA MAKOWSKI 
DR. F. MAŁACHOWSKI 
HELEN MALACKA 
BONIA MALINOWSKI 
LILLIAN MALIŃSKI 
MAMIE MANIAK 
E. MARCINKIEWICZ 
H. & A. MARCINKIEWICZ 
A. MARKIEWICZ 
EUGENIA MARKIEWICZ 
MARIANNA MARQUARDT 
HELEN MARKIEWICZ 
PEARL MARSHALL 
MARY MARSZAL 
PHYLLIS MARSZALEK 
PHYLIS MARSZAŁEK 
HELEN MARTYNOWICZ 
GENEVIEVE MARZEC 
IRENE MASALSKI 
EMILIA MAŚLANA 
WŁADYSŁAWA MAŚLANA 
LILLIAN MATONEK 
CECELIA MATUSIAK 
JOSEPHINE MATUSZEK 
WANDA MATUSZEWSKA 
IRENE MATUSZEWSKI 
JOSEPHINE MATWIJ 
IRENE MATYKIEWICZ 
E. MAZURKIEWICZ 
HELEN MELNICK 
MARY MELNICK 



MYRTLE MEYER 
GERTRUDE MICHAELS 
LILLIAN MICHAELS 
BERENICE MICHALIK 
STELLA MICHALIK 
MARTHA MICHALSKI 
VIRGINIA MICHALSKI 
ADELA MIERKIEWICZ 
ANNA MIERKIEWICZ 
JENNIE MIKULSKI 
HELEN MILEWSKI 
IRENE MILEWSKI 
HELEN MIRECKI 
AGNES V. MISCINSKI 
WANDA MLEKO 
WANDA MOCEK 
L. MORKOROWSKI 
HARRIET MOTIKA 
LOREL MROCZKO 
HELEN MROCZYNSKI 
GENEVIEVE MROZ 
MARIE A. MROZ 
LILLIAN MUSZYŃSKI 
HELEN MYCEK 
ADELE NAJDOWSKI 
DOROTHY NAJDOWSKI 
MARTHA NALEPA 
BRONISŁAWA NALES 
WANDA NAPORA 
IRENE C. NAPIENTEK 
IRENE NASALSKI 
STEPHANIE NOWACKI 
JEANINE NELSON 
STEPHANIE NIEMIEC 
VIOLET NIEPONSKI 
WANDA NIEPONSKI 
MADELINE H. NOVAK 
BERNICE NOWAK 
IRENE NOWAK 
LEONA NOWAK 
VICTORIA NOWAK 
HELEN NOWAKOWSKI 
SYLVIA NOWAKOWSKI 
CHESTERA E. NIEWINSKI 
ANNA NOWAK 
EVELYN NOWAK 
SOPHIA NOWAK 
ALICE NOWOTARSKI 
C. OBERMEYER 
JEAN OBERMEYER 
LORRAINE OBLOY 
G. OLEJNICZAK 
NANCY OLEJNICZAK 
JEANNETTE OLEKSY 
BERNICE OLINSKl 
ROSE ORŁOWSKI 

E. M. L. OSTASZEWSKI 
PEARL OSTROWSKI 
ANNE OWCZARZ 
MABELINE OWCZARZ 

F. AND H. PACHUCKA 
MARCIA PACHYNSKI 
IRENE PALIGA 
CELIA PALKA 
FLORENCE PARCHIM 
LUCIA PAŁCZYŃSKI 
SYLVIA PAŁCZYŃSKI 
E. W. PARUSZKIEWICZ 
EUGENIA PASIERBSKI 
HELEN PATER 
HELEN PAWLING 
ZONIA PAWŁOWSKI 
BETTY PAZDON 

ANN PAZDZIORA 
LILLIAN PAZDZIORA 
FRANCES POKALA 
EMILY PEKUS 
FLORENCE PENKALA 
EDWINA PERLINSKI 
OLYMPIA PESZYNSKI 
LEE PETLAK 
FRANCES PIJANOWSKI 
VALERIA PILICHOWSKI 
VICTORIA PILICHOWSKA 
MARIE and JULIA PITERA 
WANDA S. P1WINSKI 
MARTHA PŁATEK 
JULIA POCKRON 
AGNES PODBIELSKI 
ANNA PODRAŻA 
MAE PODRAŻA 
FLORENCE POLINSKI 
HARRIET POLINSKI 
LILLIAN POLNIASZEK 
DOROTHY POLSKI 



[Continued on page 216] 



[212] 




History of St Casimir Parish 



ST. CASIMIR'S Parish, one of the 
largest Polish parishes on the south- 
west side of the city was founded in 
1890. In the beginning a frame building 
served as church and school. The first 
pastor was Rev. Francis Kroll, 1890-1893. 
The church committee comprised : John 
Rosiński, the first secretary, James Brod- 
nicki. John Bona, Victor Pijanowski. An- 
ton Kaja. Anton Tokarski, and Anton 
Eichstaedt. 

Rev. Adalbert Furman succeeded Father 
Kroll and served as pastor from 1893 to 
1921. Under Father Furman with the 
earnest cooperation of his parishioners a 
large combination brick church and school 
was erected in 1904 and 1905. The seating 
capacity of the church was 965. The cor- 
nerstone of the building was laid by Bishop 
Muldoon on Pentecost Sunday r , 1905. In 
1917 the building of the present church 
was begun, and it was completed in 1919. 
This beautiful edifice in Polish Renais- 
sance Architecture stands on the corner 
of West Cermak Road and South Whipple 
Street. It has a seating capacity of 1,500. 
It was dedicated bv His Grace Archbishop 
Mundelein on Dec* 21, 1919. The cost of 
the edifice is $185,000. 

Rev. Stanislaus V. Bona, D. D., suc- 
ceeded Father Furman and acted as pas- 
tor from 1921 to 1932. Under Rev. Bona 
a new school and Sister's Convent were 
constructed. St. Casimir's, therefore, has 
two large schools with an attendance of 
1.700 pupils. The Sisters of the Resurrec- 
tion are in charge, with Sister Mary Mon- 
ica as Superioress. A former Superioress, 
Sister Mary Dominica is now on the ad- 
visory board of her Order and is stationed at Rome. 
St. Casimir's also conducts a two year commercial 
course. 

An outstanding joyous event in the history of this 
parish was the elevation of Rev. S. Bona to the bishop- 
ric. He was consecrated Bishop by His Eminence George 
Cardinal Mundelein on Feb. 25, 1932, and installed in 
his own diocese of Grand Island, Xebr., on March 8th 
of the same year. Great festivities marked these two 
memorable events. Bishop Bona is the younger brother 
of Msgr. Thomas Bona, pastor of St. Mary of Perpetual 
Help parish. 

Bishop Bona was succeeded by the present pastor, 
Msgr. Anthony Halgas, who began his work as pastor 
of St. Casimir's on May 1, 1932. He was formerly Pas- 
tor of St. Andrew's parish, Calumet City, where a beau- 
tiful Roman church stands as a monument to his zealous 
efforts. He is assisted by the following priests: Rev. 
Leon Czyl, Rev. Ignatius Macholz, Rev. John Peterson, 
and Rev. Raymond Zock. The organist is Prof. Bruno 
Kujawski. The church trustees are Mr. Xavier Czonstka 
and Mr. Casimir Pazdan. The parish numbers now about 
2,500 families. 

St. Casimir's parish under its pastor, Msgr. A. Hal- 
gas, did everything in its power to make the Polish 




ST. CASIMIR CHURCH 



Week of the Century of Progress a marked success. 
Sixty societies, religious and national, have delegates 
and committee members. The officers in charge are Mr. 
John A. Kornak, president; Mr. Anthony Formanek, 
secretary; Mr. Bernard Czerwiński, treasurer; Mrs. 
Frances Falkowski, vice-president; Mr. Casimir Pazdan. 
Mr. F. Drzewicki, Mr. Frank Perz, and Mr. Victor 
Pijanowski. executive committee. 

We conclude this brief history of the parish with what 
will always remain a loving memory and a pride to all 
St. Casimir's, the list of our war heroes, our young men 
who gave up their lives for their country. They are 
as follows : 



Stanislaus Świder 
Francis Klawikowski 
Peter Kempka 
Stanislaus Kiełbasa 
Alexander Szemrak 
Ladislaus Laskowski 
Maximilian Spikier 
John Lis 
Michael Sajna j 
Alexander Nowacki 
Leon Sajnaj 



John Wierzbicki 
Stanislaus Ostrowski 
John Dulski 
Holeslaus Inilski 
Fe.lix Niedziałkowski 
rtdam Faltynski 
Anthony Smoczyński 
S anislaus Srebrny 
Michael Pawłowski 
Stanislaus I.oj 



[213] 



Iti- 



POLKS IN A.MKUICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



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[214] 



8tfi- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



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Parafja Świętego Józefa w Chicago 

St. Joseph's Parish 

Parafja Św. Józefa, mieszcząca się u zbiegu ulic W. 48 i So. 
Hermitage, należy do starszych parafij polskich w Chicago. 

Pierwszymi Polakami, którzy osiedli w tej dzielnicy, byli Pa- 
weł i Agnieszka żuławscy. Zamieszkali oni tu w r. 1877. Napływ 
Polaków był następnie tak duży, że wkrótce Ks. J. Radziejewski 
założył tu polską parafję i zakupił grunt pod obecne budynki para- 
fjalne, oraz postawił skromny kościółek. 

Zrazu parafja św. Józefa była misją, którą obsługiwał Ks. J. 
żyłła, proboszcz parafji M. B. Nieustającej Pomocy. 

Pierwszym stałym proboszczem był Ks. Prałat S. Nawrocki, 
który zarządzał parafją od r. 1889 do 1891. Zbudował on plebanję. 

Po nim nastąpił ks. Wiktor Zaleski, który pozostawał tu do 
r. 1894, kiedy miejsce jego zajął ks. M. Pyplatz. Ks. Pyplatz wybu- 
dował szkołę i spłacił dług na plebanji. W r. 1908 chwilowo zastę- 
pował go na probostwie Ks. L. Grudziński. 

W r. 1910 Ks. Pyplatz zrezygnował z probostwa i wówczas za- 
rząd nad parafją objął Ks. S. Cholewiński, obecny proboszcz. 

Dzięki niezmordowanej pracy Ks. Cholewińskiego i ofiarności 
parafjan zbudowany został wspaniały nowy kościół, który Ks. 
Arcybiskup Quigley poświęcił 28 września 1914. 

Do szkoły parafji św. Józefa uczęszcza obecnie 1685 dzieci. 
Szkoła posiada 26 klas. Uczą w niej S.S. Felicjanki, znane ze swej 
ofiarnej pracy. Sióstr jest 29. 

Parafja liczy 1700 rodzin. Istnieje w niej wiele różnych towa- 
rzystw. 

Ks. Proboszczowi J. Cholewińskiemu pomagają w pracy trzej 
asystenci: Ks. Piotr Witmański, Ks. J. Ostrowski i Ks. W. Ku- 
kulski. 

Parish Committee of the Polish Week of Hospitality 

REV. STANISLAUS CHOLEWIŃSKI, Honorary President 

ANTHONY OLEJNICZAK, President 

FELIX KUBIAK, Vice-President 

ANTONINA WŁODARSKI, Vice-President 

SIMON E. KIEPURA, Secretary 

VICTOR LESNIEWICZ, Treasurer 




Kościół Sw. Józefa 



Julius Słowacki Library Society in Town of Lake 




In the year of 1902 on the 28th day of December, 
16 Polish societies organized a library which they later 
called Julius Słowacki Library Society in Town of Lake, 
for the m aintenance and education of the Polish people. 

Starting with 30 books in 1902, rapid development in 
its 31 years of existence have brought the capacity to 2,000 
books, it is now one of the largest libraries on the south side. 

The building has several small and one lagre hall for 
the use of the public, it was acquired in the year 1914. 

The library is located in its own building at 48th and 
Paulina streets, Chicago, Illinois. It is open on Tuesdays 
and Fridays from 7 P. M. to 9 P. M. 



DIRECTORS 
DAMAZY HOJNACKI 
PETER P. NOWAK 
K. J. KARASKIEWICZ 
ANTONINA WŁODARSKA 
MAŁGORZATA APPELT 
ROSE KOŚCIELNIAK 
STEPHEN CHRUŚCIŃSKI 
MARYAN PECZKOWSKI 
EDWARD TRZESNIEWSKI 



ADMINISTRATION 
ANTON OLEJNICZAK, President 
KLARA DRZEWIECKA, Vice President 
JAKUB KACZYŃSKI, Financial Secretary 
STAN. BANDURSKI, Recording Secretary 
ADAM WRÓBEL, Treasurer 
JAN DRETKIEWICZ, Hall Manager 
ANTONINA KIEPURA, Librarian 
JOSEPH GRZELINSKI, Sergt.-at-Arms 



[215] 



Ste- 



rol, ks IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-ais 




MR. JOSEPH GÓRSKI 

Born Feb,. 19, 18GG, in Strzelno- Poland. Came 
to Chicago June 5, 1882, and ever since resides 
in Town of Lake. Member of St. Joseph Lodge 
No. 440 P. N. A., Society of Sacred Heart of 
Jesus No. 92 P. R. C. U., Foresters of St. Hed- 
wig's No. 918 C. O. O. F., Polish Falcons No. 37. 



MRS. AGNES GÓRSKI 

Maiden name Pluciński, born Jan. 21, 1869, in 
Szubin, Poland. Came to Chicago May 10, 1885. 
Died May 11, 1932 and resided in Town of Lake. 
Member Polish Women's Alliance of America, 
Polish Falcons No. 100, W. C. O. F. St. Cornelia 
Ct. No. 122. 



SOCIETY OF SACRED 
HEART OF JESUS 

No. 92 P. R. C. U. 
Founded 1891 Members 255 

OFFICERS FOR 1933: 
Felix Kubiak, President 

Michael Andrzejewski, Vice President 

Joseph Olejnik, Fin. Sec. 
Michael Iciek, Rec. Sec. 

Wacław Kozłowski, Juv. Sec. 

Andrew Cichocki, Treasurer 

Board of Trustees 
J. Adamowski E. Kubiak W. Kozłowski 



POLISH YOUNG MEN'S 
ALLIANCE 

on Washington's Land 
Founded by Stan. Łempicki 1894 

Home Office 1700 W. U8th St. 
Joseph Cieślak, President 
Stephen Chruściński, Vice Pres. 
Catherine Smuskiewicz, Vice Pres. 
Francis Gilewski, Gen. Sec. 

Anthony Olejniczak, Treasurer 

DIRECTORS 

Victor Lesniewicz Martin Łukowski 

Cecelia Mrozinski Charlotte Jencmionka 




Girls of the Ballet 

[Continued from page 212] 



ALFREDA POMYKĄLSK1 
C. PORANKIEWICZ 
CONNIE POWALOWSKI 
ANN PRICE 
HARRIET PROKESZ 
VERONICA PROROK 
SOPHIE PRUCHNK'KI 
HENRIETTA PRUSKK 
ADELINE PRZYBYŁO 
CAROLYN PRZYBYŁO 
HELEN PRZYBYŁO 
M. and H. E. PRZYBYŁO 
CECILIA PRZYBYŁO 
CELIA A. PRZYDRYGA 
IRENE PUCIATY 
MARIE PULLA 
JEANNETTE PYBROSKi 
BERNICE PYRC 

[Continued on 



SOPHIE and JEAN PYREK 
G. AND I. PACH 
■JOSEPHINE RACZNIAK 
HELEN RACZYŃSKI 
SOPHIE RACZYŃSKI 
MARY RADZIEWICZ 
ROSE ROGUS 
SOPHIE RAK 
IRENE RAKOWSKI 
HENRIETTA RAMMKL 
LORETTA RAMMEL 
VIRGINIA RAMMEL 
VIOLA REISEL 
BABE REJER 
JEANNETTE RESKE 
P.ERNICE REVELL 
ADELINE ROGOWSKI 
JOAN ROGOWSKI 

page 218] 




HENRY A. PATKA 

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[216] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 
& ■ & 

Parafia Niep. Pocz. N. M. Panny w South Chicago III 



Parafja Niep. Po- 
częcia N. M. Panny 
w So. Chicago, 111., 
z o r g a ni zowana w 
pierwszych miesią- 
cach 1882-go roku 
przez Ks. Jana Ra- 
dziejewskiego, jest 
pierwszą polską pa- 
raf ją w tej dzielnicy 
miasta Chicago. Na- 
stępcą Ks. Jana Ra- 
dziejewskiego był 
Ks. Michał C. Py- 
platz, zarządzał pa- 
rafją od 16go lipca, 
1884 roku, do końca 
roku 1893-go. Po 
nim proboszczował 
Ks. Wiktor Zaleski 
od początku 1894-go 
raku do 20go wrze- 
śnia, 1895 roku. W 
dniu tym przybył do 
parafji nowy pro- 
boszcz w osobie Ks. 
Franciszka M. Woj- 
talewicza. Zabudo- 
dania parafjalne, t. 

j. kościół, szkoła, plebanja i dom sióstr, zostały zbudo- 
wane pod kierownictwem nowego proboszcza, który też 
dzięki hojnej ofiarności parafjan spłacił kompletny dług 
parafjalny w roku 1909-ym. Kościół ma blisko 1,200 
siedzeń; w szkole jest 22 klas oprócz biura, bibljoteki 
i oficyny lekarskiej ; na piętrze znajduje się obszerna sala 
dla użytku parafjan. Kierowniczką szkoły przez szsreg 
lat była Siostra M. Georgia z zakonu Św. Józefa z Ste- 
vens Point, Wis., jej też niezmordowanej pracy zawdzię- 
cza parafja wysoki poziom naukowy w tej uczelni; dodać 
wypada że obecna kierowniczka w osobie Siostry M. Ka- 
sildy stara się troskliwie iść śladem swej poprzedniczki. 
Dzieci w szkole jest 999. Parafja w toku swego bytu 
miała zaszczyt gościć u siebie Ks. Arcybiskupa Symona, 




Ks. Franciszek M. Wojtalewicz 



Ks. Arcybiskupa Piotra Bourgade z Santa Fe, Ks. Arcy- 
biskupa Jana Cieplaka, Prezydenta Stanów Zjednoczo- 
nych W. H. Taft'a, pana Prezydenta Ignacego J. Pade- 
rewskiego, Generała Józefa Hallera, Ks. Biskupa P. P. 
Rhodego i Ks. Biskupa Edwarda Kozłowskiego. 

W życiu politycznem wymienić wypada: Marcina Wio- 
rę, Jana Derpę i Marcina S. Furmana jako byłych rad- 
nych miasta Chicago, oraz obecnie urzędującego p. Ada- 
ma Bloch jako sekretarza Sądu Najwyższego stanu Illi- 
nois. 

W pracy społecznej i narodowej zasługują na wyszcze- 
gólnienie: Marja Paczyńska, Agnieszka Podbielska, Mar- 
ta Żolińska, Pelagja Zdanowska, Ludwik J. Paczyński, 
Franciszek Wańtuch, A. F- Perliński i Leon Woźniak. 

Chóry parafjalne 
od ostatnich lat jede- 
nastu są pod zdol- 
nem kierownictwem 
organisty miejscowe- 
go, pana Franciszka 
Szpajer. 

Do Komitetu para- 
f jalnego należą Mar- 
cin S. Furman i Lu- 
dwik J. Paczyński. 

Młodzież nasza w 
znacznej liczbie bra- 
ła udział w wojnie 
światowej dając do- 
wód swego przywią- 
zania tak do przy- 
branej ojczyzny — 
Stanów Zjednoczo- 
nych jak i do ojczy- 
zny swej — Polski. 

Proboszczem para- 
fji jest dotąd Ks. 
Franciszek M. Woj- 
talewicz a w pracy 
pasterskiej dopoma- 
gają mu Księża Wm. 
J. Paschke i Szcze- 
pan Kowalski. 




Kościół Niep. Pocz. N. M. Panny 



Zarząd Tygodnia Polskiej Gościnności w Parafji Niep. Poczęcia Najśw. Marji Panny 

w South Chicago 



Aleksander Perliński, Przew. 
Jan Marczewski, Wice-Prezw. 
Klementyna Kolenda, Wice-Przew. 
Marja Lisowska, Sekr. 
Franciszek Wańtuch, Kasjer 



W Kwaterze Głównej z South Chicago są następujący : 
Ludwik Paczyński, A Ciesielski, 

Przew. Okręgowy na S. S. w Kom. Muzyki 

Jan Koziczyński, A. Urbanek, 

Przew. Głów. Kom. Parady Kom. Reklamy 



KOMITETY: 



Komitet Parady, Muzyki i Rydwanu: 
P. Wańtuch, Przew. S. Gwiazdowski A. Maciejewska 
J. .Marczewski K. Adamczyk M. Natywa 

Komitet Pamiętnika: 

Marya Kopczyńska. Przew. Klementyna Kolenda 

Agnieszka Zielińska Pelagja Zdanowska 

Komitet Programu i Zabaw: 

S. Gwiazdowski, Przew. 

A. Postelanezyk A. O'Rourke 

K. Bielawska F. Wańtuch 



Komitet Reklamy: 



M. Lisowska, Przew. 



J. Harmacińska 



A. Podbielska 



Komitet Kwater i Transportacji: 
H. Markowski, Przew. 
K. Henciński L. Sienkiewicz A. O'Rourke 

A. Zielińska A. Maciejewska A. Lesnikowska 

Komitet Biletów i Kontestu: 
A. Podbielska, Przew. 



H. Swieboda 
I. Gryniewic.z 
J. Mezyd!o 



B. Wańtuch 
S. Ostrowska 



B, Michałowski 
A. O'Rourke 
K. Mizgalska 

Komitet Sportu: 

K. Henciński, 1'rzew. 

J. Wańtuch ,T. Marczewski 

H. Markowski S. Gwiazdowski 



[217] 



2§5- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



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W SOUTH CHICAGO 

W. SKOWROŃSKI, Prezes 

J. NOWICKI, Wice-Prezes 

M. SOBCZYŃSKA, Wice-Prezeska 

S. ZAWIDLŃSKI, Sekretarz 

H. ŁYK, Sekretarz Finansowy 

M. WIECZORKOWSKI, Kasjer 



COMPLIMENTS 

AMERICAN MEAT 
MARKETS 

Inc. 

JOHN E. SKOWROŃSKI, President 

LAWRENCE J. KOBZA, Sec. and Treas. 

LOUIS KOBZA, Vice Pres ; dent 

SOUTH CHICAGO, ILL. 



WILLIAM A. ROWAN 

Alderman 10th Ward 
SOUTH CHICAGO, ILL. 

OFFICE: 9211 EWING AVENUE 
TELEPHONE REGENT 0642 



Girls of the Ballet 

[Continued from page 21(i] 



STEPHANIE ROGOZIŃSKI 
JEAN ROSZKO 
ANNA RULIG 
ELLA RUSIECKA 
CECELIA RUSIN 
NORA RUSINEK 
CECELIA M. RUTKOWSKI 
CHRISTINE RYDZEWSKI 
C. RZEPCZYNSKI 
WAwDA RZEPKA 
VIOLA SADOWSKI 
BERTHA SAFRANSKE 
J. J. SAJEWSKI 
HARRIET N. SANCZUK 
JEAN SANDAC 
HELEN SAWICKI 
M. SCHOENTHALER 
STEPHANY SCHONBORA 
MARIE SCHROEDER 
COLLETTE SCHULTZ 
HELEN SCHULTZ 
LORETTA SCHULTZ 
MILDRED SCHWABA 
HELEN SCISLOWSKI 
MARYLA SETMAJER 
MARIE SHARFINSKI 
MARGARET SHEREN 
MRS. L. C. SHLODOWSKI 
ANN SHOE 

alice sienkiewicz 
Frances Sienkiewicz 
anna silitis 
gertrude sindowski 
frances sipulski 
jean skaczdopole 
joan a. skorzewski 
bernice skrundz 
lillian skrzypczak 
rose skrzypczak 
helen skrzypek 
lottie skrzypek 
helen f. skudnik 
sophie skudnig 
josephine skuta 
victoria słowik 
helen l. smiejkowski 
jean smizinska 
marie smolicka 
marie smuda 
estelle sniezek 
marie sobernia 
carrie v. sobieraj 
emilia sobocińska 
emily sobon 
estelle sobon 
mercedes spiker 
helen spyra 
zosia srednicka 
helen a. stach 
frances stadulski 
w. staklasa 
julia stanke 
tillie stanke 
betty stankowicz 
jean stanislawiak 
helen stanny 
rose starszyk 
josephine starybrat 
andzia stefanowicz 
delphine sterkiewicz 
loretta sterkiewicz 
s. sterkiewicz 
josephine stokłosa 
sofia stokłosa 
marian strumin 
lorraine strzałka 
harriet styrkowicz 
harriet suchomski 
dorothy sukerman 
ella sukerman 
helen suki 
jean sullen 
jean swastek 
henrietta swem 
sophie swiader 
marilyn swiniuch 
laura d. sypin 
adelaide sypniewski 
catherine szawica 
a. szczepanik 
frances szczepanik 
sophie szczudło 
wanda e. szczupaj 
joan szmyk 



BETTY ANN SZPAK 
FELICIA SZPAK 
JENNIE SZPONDER 
ANNE SZUFNAROWSKA 
E. SZUFNAROWSKA 
ANN D. SZULCESKI 
GENE SZULCZYNSKI 
MARIE SZYMAŃSKI 
MAE SZYNISZEWSKI 
MARIE TAPOR 
LEONA TABIASKO 
HELEN TARALA 
MARIA TARALA 
EDITH THOMPSON 
MłRY THOMPSON 
LUCY TOM\SZEWSKA 
ADELE A. TOMASZEWSKI 
SOPHIA M. TOMCZAK 
BERNICE TOSZEK 
M. B. TROJANOWSKI 
VIRGINIA TROJAN 
JEAN TROKA 

E. TRUSZCZYŃSKI 
HARRIET TURNO 
GENEVIEVE TUREK 
AMELIA TWORCZYNSKI 
JEAN TYSZKA 

OLGA UŁANOWSKI 
IRENE URBAŃSKI 
EMILY WACHOWICZ 
GERTRTTDF, WACHOWSKI 
L. E. WACHOWSKI 
MARTHA WAGNER 
ANN WALCZAK 
BERNICE WALOR 
ANNA WALSKOU 
OTILIA WALIJSKA 
CELIA WAPNIARSKI 
HARRIET WARCHAL 
VIRGINIA WARDZIŃSKA 
^MILY H. WARZECHA 

F. WARZECHA 
MARY WASIELEWSKI 
STEPHANIE WAYNE 
ESTELLE WĘGLARZ 
IRENE WENDERSKI 
MAE WESTKA 
IRENE WIECZOREK 
ALICE WIECZORKOWSKI 
F. WIECZOROWSKI 
JEAN L. WIELGUS 
HELEN WIELGUS 
IRENE WILK 

MARIE WILK 
WANDA WILK 
T. WINCHESTER 
THERESE N. WIRTEL 
C. WIŚNIEWSKI 
IRENE WITZ 
JOSEPHINE WLEZIEN 
GENEVIEVE WLECH 
LOUISE WNOROWSKI 
C. WOJCIECHOWSKA 
F. WOJCIECHOWSKI 
HELEN WOJCIECHOWSKI 
L. WOJCIECHOWSKI 
L. WOJCIECHOWSKI 
ESTELLE WÓJCIK 
JOSEPHINE WÓJCIK 
ANNABELLE WOJDILA 
ANNE WOJTAS 
JEAN WOJTAS 
MAE WOJTUŚ 
ALICIA WOLSON BROWN 
MARY WROHLEWSKI 
TILLE WRÓBLEWSKI 
BERNICE WROCŁAWSKI 
JOSEPHINE WSOL 
AMELIA WYRZYKOWSKI 
GERTRUDE WYSOCKA 
ELSIE WYSOCKI 
IRENE WYSOCKI 
JOSE WYSOPAJ. 
H. S. YARMULOWICZ 
GERTRUDE ZABLOSKI 
GENEVIEVE ZADLO 
WANDA M. ZADLO 
HELENA ZADARA 
MARIE ZAJAC 
STEPHANIE ZAJAC 
ANNA ZAKRZEWSKA 
ELEANOR ZALEWSKA 
LILLIAN ZAPALA 
MARIE ZAWACKA 



[Continued on page 226] 



[218] 










-■' i' - i//-.; ■": ;:\ rj 



Pulaski Region of America 




Standing: J. Mach, Color Sergeant; F. Piechowska, Comm. Auxiliary Units; J. Wojtalik, Director; A. Brzost- 
ko, Vice President; W. Podrazik, Treasurer; T. Grandys, Director; A. Sikorski, Comm. State of Illinois; A. Wojta- 
lik, Hon. Commander. Seated: S. Snopek, Vice Commander; G. Mitera, Director; V. J. Poklacki, President; 
S. Tylicka, Vice President; W. J. Andrzejewski, Gen. Sec. 




PULASKI Legion 
formerly known 
Military Alliance of 
organized in the year 



F. ODYMALA 

Nat'l Commander 



city of Chicago, its object being to 
unite Polish-American Military Socie- 
ties into a new kind of an organization, 
not for profit, but to aid the sick 
members and provide for the burial of 
the dead members. Its mission is to 
preach loyalty and love for this govern- 
ment of adoption in appreciation for 
the Freedom, Liberty, and Equality 
that this country offered. 

In consolidating these numerous and heretofore un- 
attached units of uniformed societies throughout this 
country, it was decided that it shall be a military organ- 
ization exclusively, whose members would be loyal to the 
principles of the government of the United States, who 
enlisting in the ranks of this organization place them- 
selves at the call of this country. 



of America, The organization has an enviable record in the World 

as the Polish War and prides itself to be one of the first to offer its 

America was services to our late President Wilson, as a unit imme- 

of 1909 in the diately upon declaration of war against Germany. Fully 

60 per cent have joined the colors in the regular service, 

establishing an exclusive Polish recruiting office in 

Chicago, organized in the city of Chicago, with the 

authority of the Military Committee of Illinois State 

Council of Defense, a Battalion of over 500, of the 

Illinois Volunteer Training Corps. These being but 

some of its creditable and patriotic achievements of the 

past. 

At the National Convention at Chicago, 111., in the 
year of 1932, the organization has changed and adopted 
the name of Pulaski Legion of America. At this con- 
vention a program of activities interesting to the younger 
generation has been adopted. The Central Office is 
located in its own building at 1418 Emma St., Chicago, 
111., phone number Humboldt 4925. 



[219] 



ais 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



BESSEMER STORE 

J. K. WALKOWIAK. Prop. 

DRY GOODS AND SHOES 
9000-9002 COMMERCIAL AVE. So. Chicago 7721 



Publishers oi the Polish-American Weekly in the Calumet Distric 

POLONIA PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Printers and Publishers 

URBANEK BROS.. Props. 
TELEPHONE SOUTH CHICAGO 2301 

8723 COMMERCIAL AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



WALCZAK BROTHERS 

Real Estate 

LOANS. INSURANCE NOTARY PUBLIC 

8905 COMMERCIAL AVE. S. CHICAGO 6331 

SOUTH CHICAGO 



SCHMIDT & CO. 

CLEANERS and DYERS 

8537-41 COMMERCIAL AVENUE 

ALL PHONES REGENT 1710 



J. MACIEJEWSKI 

BAKERY 

r06 COMMERCIAL AVE. SO. CHICAGO 

PHONE REGENT 566Ą 



OSADA NO. 7 P. R. C. U. 

E. SADOWSKI, Pres. 

J. MARSZEWSKI, Scc'v 

F. WAŃTUCH, Trcas. 



DR. A. E. KACZALA 

DENTIST 
9036 COMMERCIAL AVE. REGENT 0300 



Heartiest Wishes from 

ADAM F. BLOCH 

CLERK OF SUPREME COURT 
STATE OF ILLINOIS 



BARNEY'S 



Paints - Wall Paper - Glass - Mirrors - Pictures 

Window Shades 

8848 COMMERCIAL AVE., SOUTH CHICAGO 

TEL. SAGINAW 1272 B. PERKOWSKI. Prop. 



Central Tire and Battery Service 

E. P. KACZALA, Prop. 

8712 COMMERCIAL AVE. S. CHICAGO 1497 



H. STERN 



Dry Goods and Shoes 
8482 COMMERCIAL AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



J. KOPCZYŃSKI 

First Class Bakery and Confectionery 
2832 E. 87TH ST. TEL. SAGINAW 1047 



I. SOBOCIŃSKI 

Grocery and Meat Market 
8501 COLFAX AVE. SO. CHICAGO 7010 



STANLEY S. MARCINIAK 

BEER PARLOR 

8704 ESCANABA AVE. S. CHICAGO 6563 



L. LIBERACKI 

MID-WEST STORE 
1700 ESCANABA AVE. S. CHICAGO 2146 



COMMERCIAL FLORIST 

Flowers for All Occasions 
5747 COMMERCIAL AVE. SAGINAW 8535 



WEINBERG BROTHERS 
CLOTHING COMPANY 



SOUTH CHICAGO 



JULIUS L. GRASK & SONS 

FAMOUS M. H. and ROYAL TROPHY CIGARS 
8633 COMMERCIAL AVE. S. CHICAGO 0398 



S. M. TOMCZAK 

Beer Parlor 
8755 SAGINAW AVE. TEL. S. CHICAGO 2494 



DR. J. B. MARCINIAK 

ROZYNEK BUILDING 
8800 COMMERCIAL AVE. REGENT 4576 



A. WYSOCKI 

BAKERY 
8656 MANISTEE AVE. SO. CHICAGO 2496 



South Chicago Cleaners 

FURRIERS 
8845 COMMERCIAL AVE.— PH. REGENT 2674 



LOUIS J. DERYBOWSKI 

Metal Ceilings and Furnaces 
2842 E. 87TH ST. PHONE SAGINAW 7030 

SOUTH CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



[220] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 




S. J. PIJANOWSKI, Pres. 



S. J. PIJANOWSKI 
ESTABLISMENT 

The establishment of S. J. PI janowski 
is located at 2219 So. Whipple street, 
Chicago, where it has been a place of 
service for more than 32 years. Phone 
Rockwell 294.") and Crawford 7450. While 
it is one of the older establishments of 
the city, in reference to the age of the 
building, it is quite in keeping with the 
demands of this modern ;ige. This is due 
to the fact that Mr. Pijanowski lias been 
continuously alert to the present day 
needs and has met them as presented. 



The excellent furnishings and splendidly 
arranged funeral home are marks of 
taste and artistry. 

s. .1. Pijanowski was born in Jadviga, 
Grand Duchy uf Poznań (W. Ks. Poznań- 
ski.) Poland, on December 31, 1869. He 
came t" Chicago on entering the United 
States, when he was 12 years of age, in 
1881. For 52 years he has been a resident 
and most of the time a progressive 
business man of Chicago. 

He was married in 1892 and has been 
a resident at his present location foi 12 
years. Mr. s. .1. Pijanowski is the father 
• if nine children, four sons and five 
daughters. He has the distinction of add- 
ing to bis household four sons-in-law 
and two daughters-in-law. 

The first venture into business by .Mr. 
S. .1. Pijanowski was the furniture in- 
dustry which he followed for about nine 
years, catering to some extent to the 
funeral profession as a liveryman at the 
same time. This business was successful, 
but Mr. S. .1. Pijanowski felt that the 
funeral profession offered him a better 
opportunity to serve his people. 

With a desire to fit himself for this 
profession he attended the Hennessey 
School of Embalming and was graduated 
in 1899. He was granted an embalmer's 
license, number 891. 

Although a funeral director and ent 



balmer, Mr. s. .1. Pijanowski continued 
as a liveryman, serving the funeral pro- 
fession with liver) requirements, in 1911, 
hi toundi .1 i In- 1 1. K. Garage at 2908-10 
West 22nd street, Chicago. This estab- 
lishment, which is ;i t present Largely 
e.| by two sons, Walter and Flor- 
ian, is also a member of the Undertaker 
and Uvery Association. Later Mr. s. .1. 
Pi :.< >h,v\ ski saw Ilu- opportunity and 
started Die Active Service Auto Station, 
which specializes in servicing and wash- 
ing funeral cars, ;i t 3814-22 West Har- 
rison street, also 3815-23 Fifth avenue. 
This -out is in charge of two 

sons, Staniej .md George, under the 
guidance of the senioi partner, S. J. 
Pijanowski. 

s. J. Pijanowski has lived a creditable 
life. II in business and ready 

to serve. He has contributed three estab 
llshments, which are successfully func- 
tioning, to iin citj of Chicago. More 

than that, he has so led in making 

men and women of his children who are 
his partners in business. Possibly the 
greatest dream of .> couple, embarking 
on th, -■■:, of matrimony, is that their 
sons and daughters may qualify to be- 
come partners and finally owners of the 
business builded by tin- parents to sup- 
port l hem and bring them to the full 
staturi of men and women. 



LARGEST 

AUTOMOBILE STATION 

IN THE CITY 

32 Experienced Automobile Workers at Your Service at All Times 

Your Car Thoroughly Washed in l') Minute* 

CAPACITY 500 CARS I >.\I I.V 

Have Your Car Greased in the Largest Lubricating Palace in Chicago 

1.1 Racks with 10 Experienced Oilers and Greasers Always Ready 

Active Service Automobile Station 

3814-22 W. HARRISON STREET 3815-23 FIFTH AVE. 

Phones : Van Buren 5765 and 1814 



We Also Specialize in Rain Proof Finish Body Polishing 




[221] 



POLES IX AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 
*!* & 




tssftSk 



WHOLESOME 




O 



T\ 



A 



G 




S 



r^ 







o 




If 
111 






O 



4914-24 S. Loomis St. 1528-30 W. Ohio St. 

Boulevard 5047 Haymarket 1323 

STEPHEN I. WITMANSKI, President 



[222] 



The Polish Associated Yederal Employees 



T?ROM a log cabin, known as the Kinzie resi- 
■*• dence in 1831, to the present massive United 
States Post Office Building at Van Buren and 
Canal Streets in 1933, constructed at a cost of 
$21,000,000, A CENTURY OF PROGRESS in 
postal business is shown. This is the contribution 
of the Federal Government to the rapid growth 
and increase in wealth and business to the city 
of Chicago. 

Beginning with a weekly mail service in 
March, 1831, by a man on horseback, the cost 
of a single letter was $15. A daily mail service 
was established in 1837, and in 1846, it moved 
in the Presidential class. The Government build- 
ing was built in 1860, on the spot where now 
stands the First National Bank. 

The population increased rapidly, from 100 in 
1831, to 20,000 in 1860, a short span of 30 years. 
In 1871, with a population of 325,000, Chicago 
took its place as one of the greatest cities of the 
United States, and with the engaging egotism 
of youth, challenged St. Louis and Cincinnati 
for the supremacy of the West. 

The present Post Office Building in Chicago 
is the world's largest; contains every conve- 
nience and detail for the handling of mail that 
is possible for human ingenuity to provide. It 
daily handles approximately 6,500,000 letters 
and some 250,000 packages of parcel post out- 
going, in addition to 80,000 sack of papers and 
parcel post received at Chicago. 

Since the day the first Polish emigrants set 
their feet on American soil, they immediately 
became active by taking a live interest in the 
welfare of their adopted country. It is only 
natural that because of their keen interest in 
the daily life of America, Poles are found in al- 
most every branch of the Government service, 
be it elective or appointive, legislative or admin- 



istrative. Not only in Chicago, but in the whole 
of the United States, Poles have successfully 
held and fulfilled positions of great responsibil- 
ity with the government. 

Forty years ago there were but four men of 
Polish extraction in the Government service. 
Today we have over 800 in Chicago alone, many 
of whom hold key positions. 

Alert to the duties and responsibilities of Po- 
lish support of all Civic, State and National 
endeavors and enterprises, it was with the great- 
est enthusiasm that a group of Polish employees 
of the Chicago Post Office, called together by 
John J. Roman, met on March 19, 1933, and 
laid the Foundation of the Federal Section of 
the Polish Week of Hospitality at A Century 
of Progress. 

At this meeting, without a single vote of dis- 
cord or dissension, it was decided to organize 
as Federal employees of the government, not 
only for the duration of the Exposition, but per- 
manently. 

With this firmly established, a temporary ad- 
ministration was selected to further organiza- 
tion plans, in the personnel of: Frank Kwasi- 
groch, President, Gabriel Wleklinski, Vice-Pres- 
ident, and Walter Kamiński, Secretary. A con- 
stitution and name for the organization was 
formulated and adopted at the meeting of April 
9, 1933. The name adopted was the "Polish 
Associated Federal Employees." 

The temporary officers named above were 
now voted as permanent, and additions were 
made of John Wichlacz, Treasurer, Edward Eck- 
mann, Financial Secretary, and Sylvester Pu- 
fundt, Sergeant at Arms. 

The Polish Associated Federal Employees 
have entered into the spirit of A Century of 



[223] 



POLES IN AMERICA 



& 

Progress, and The Polish Week of Hospitality, 
sponsoring and building an historical Float, de- 
picting Sergeant Edward S. Younger, a Pole 
and member of this Organization, reenactmg 
the scene of October, 1921, at Chalons-Sur- 
Marne, France, when he selected the American 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



— 2f! 

Unknown Soldier, now lying in Arlington Ce- 
metery, Washington, D. C. 

To the people of all nations the Polish Asso- 
ciated Federal Employees extend the heartiest 
Welcome to Chicago, A Century of Progress and 
The Polish Week of Hospitality, Julv 17 to 23, 
1933. 



CHARTER MEMBERS 



Adamczyk, Mary C. 
Adamik, Theodore 
Bagiński, S. H. 
Bakula, Stephen 
Baniewicz, Polikarp 
Bednarz, Walter J. 
Behrendt, J. A. 
Blackowski, Anthony L. 
Bukowski, John 
Block, Edward 
Bojanowski, Alex 
Borowak, C. S. 
Brandys, Frank J. 
Braum Anna 
Brochorski, J. J. 
Broeski Wm. 
Bubula, Jacob 
buraczewski, adolph 
Burski, Chester 
Chodera, Paul 
Chilewski Chas. 
Cislak, Stanley 
Cierpka, John N. 
Czubek, Bernard 
Dabkowski, John 
Dankowski, Joseph 
Demski, George 
Dombrowski, Stanley S. 
Dzieszulski, Michael 
Eckmann, Frank J. 
Eckmann, Edward 
Fafinski, Julius 
Feltych, Anthony 
Fetro, Edward 
Florek, Anthony 
Galuska, Theodore 
Gaura, Stanley 
Gawron, Michael 
Gburczyk, Frank A. 
Giersch, Peter J. 
Glembovski, Michael 
Glod, Mieczysław 
Golec, Joseph 
Gnutkiewicz, Frank 
Golinski, Barney 
O-omomski Theodore S. 
Gongola, Florence 
Gnacinski, Philip L. 
Grabowski, John T. 
Gregory, John 
Gregory, Joseph 
Gregorowicz, Casimir 
Gremka, Sylvester 
Gronowski Stephen 
Grzegorek, Thaddeus 



Grzywna, Frank 
Gwadz, Frank 
Hosinski, Joseph 
Inda, Vincent 
Jakus, M. 
Janik Vivian 
Jaskowski, Walter 
Jaszkowski, Anthony 
Jaszkowski Theodore, jr. 
Jaszkowski, Walter J. 
Kaczorowski, William 
Kaitis, Stanley 
Kalusa, John 
Kamiński, Walter F. 
Kania, Henry S. 
Kania, John 
Kania, Lucia J. 
Kania Stanley 
Karasiewicz, N. A. 
Karp, Stanley 
Kicul, John 
Kierzek, Alexander 
Kikulski, Joseph P. 
Kiolbassa, Anthony 
Kipkowski, Roman H. 
Kipkowski, M. N. 
Kislewski, Roman J. 
Knirko, John 
Kołodziej, Paul 
Konieczka, Stanley 
Konkiel, Joseph 
Komorowski, Clara A. 
Kopański, Frank 
Kralski, William J. 
Kosiński, Anna H. 
Kosiński, Frank 
Kosiński, Stanley 
Kowalski, August 
Kozakiewicz, Stanley 
Krerowicz, Rufin E. 
Kula, Stanley 
Kurzawski, Benjamin 
Kusek, Walter 
Kwasigroch, Frank A. 
Lagodzinski, George 
Lejman, Constantine 
Lew Carolyn M. 
Liberko, Frank 
Liberko, John W. 
Lipkowski, Sophie 
Lisewski, Stanley 
Lonaski Victoria 
Łosiński, Edmund 
Łosiński, Henry 
Lucas, Reginald J. 



Luka, John D. 
Lukaski, Henry 
Lange, Madeline 
Maciejewski, Walter 
Malinowski, Stanley 
Marcinski, Sophie 
Marek, Joseph 
Meyers, J. Francis 
Michałek, Walter 
Mikołajczyk, William E. 
J/ikolajczyk, Stanley 
Miller, J. J. 
Myslinski, John S. 
Nawrot, Harry 

NlEMCZEWSKI, EDW. J. 

Niemczyk, Joseph A. 
Niemyski, Tomasz 
Nowak, Frank 
Nowicki, Joseph 
Nowicki, Jeanette 
Oczko, John T. 
Orzech, F. Joseph 
Panek, Joseph 
Pawłowski, Margaret M. 
Pietraszewski, Casimir 
Pochowski, Frank E. 
Pochowski, John V. 
Potrzebowski, Stanley 
Prebis, Zdislaw 
Prusakowski, Clara A. 
Pufundt, Sylvester 
Purzycki, Zachary 
Rammel, Frank 
Ratkowski, John 
Renkau, Stanley 
Roman, John J. 
Sadowski, Zygmunt 
Safranski, Myrtle E. 
Samborski, Stanley 
Sarna, Thaddeus 
Schultz, Leo F. 
Shepton, Frank 
Sienda, Frank 

SlERACKI, ALOYSIUS 

Sierosławski, Frank V. 
Skudlarski, Chester 
Skudlarski, Genevieve 
Skummer, John A. 
Slovick, Alex S. 
Slovick, Stanley 
Smiskol, Edmund 
Sobeski, Louis 
Stawicki, Theodore 
Stefański, August 
Strenski, Theo. 



Stratynski, Leo P. 
Strzycki, F. Nicholas 
Strzyszyk, Walter 
Szczepanek, Felix 
Szczurek, Sigmund 
Szulgit, Anthony 
Szymaniak, John 
Szymański, Walter, Jr. 
Tamillo, Frank J. 
Tamillo, Leonard J. 
Tomczak, John W. 
Trzebiatowski, John F. 
Turek, Andrew 
Tybur, Stanley 
Tyrakowski, A. C 
Vandego, Walter 
Velek Sophia 
Wachowski, George 
Wajda, Joseph 
Walczak, Leonard 
Walkowiak, Frank J. 
Warner, Anthony 
Wartalski, Stephen 
Wasieleski, John E. 
Wawrzyniak, Stanley 
Wegloski, John J. 
Welzant, John F. 
Wiatr, John J. 
Wichlacz, John E. 
Wiechecki, Ignatius 
Wicklatz, Martin S. 
Wilczewski, Casimir 
Wiśniewski, Harriet 
Wiśniewski, Zygmunt 
Wisowaty, Leonard 
Wleklinski, Gabriel T. 
Wójcik, John 
Wojtos, John T. 
Woliński, Anthony 
Wos, Albert 
Wosikowski, Felix 
Wróblewski, Ludwig 
Wozniak, Rose C. 
Younger, Edward S. 
Zachciał, Joseph 
Zalesinski, Stanley 
Zawilenski, Stanley 
Zdelski, Joseph 
Zembron, Stephen 
Złotnicki, Henry 
Żukowski, Stanley 
zurkowski, ollie 
Zych, William 
Zywicki, Frank 
Zywicki, John 



♦ ♦ 



[224] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 
ifS " 2§S 

ST. MARY OF NAZARETH HOSPITAL 




ST. MARY OF NAZARETH HOSPITAL, CHICAGO, ILL. 1120 N. LEAVITT STREET 
CONDUCTED BY THE SISTERS OF THE HOLY FAMILY OF NAZARETH 



SINCE 1894, this renowned institution is gathering the 
well-deserved fruits of its noble labors carried on in 

the service of the sick, regardless of nationality or 
creed. In majority, nevertheless, it is patronized by Poles 
from throughout the city and suburbs. From the day of 
its dedication, the St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital has met 
all the requirements of the medical science by affording 
thoroughly equipped departments and with the coopera- 
tion of the Staff, consisting of physicians competent in 
the various specialties, as well as in general practice. 
Uninterrupted recognition and approval is granted an- 
nually this institution by the American Medical Associ- 
tion, the American College of Surgeons and by the local 
and Federal authorities. 

The increasing number of patients necessitated 
erection of the South Annex in 1914. That same year, the 
Nurses' Home was completed, adjoining the northern 
section of the main 'building. By 1926, a convent home 
for the hospital Sisters was realized. As the need for 
more improvements and more space has again grown 
obvious, a seven-story North Wing arose in 1931, that 
at present the total bed capacity is 300. The last addition 
expanded the surgical department into five more opera- 
ting rooms, allowed for a convenient, modernistic labora- 
tory and X-Ray departments, opened three floors of 
private rooms for occupancy, devoted one entire floor 



to the Pediatric department and another to doctors' 
offices and consultation rooms. The solarium is an inter- 
esting feature of this new wing, comprising all of the 
seventh floor. In fact, nothing is wanting to provide the 
best treatment and efficient service. During the past 
year there were to 4,000 patients admitted. 

St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital has been since its 
establishment without any founded endowment; from 
the very start it was self-sustaining. Occasional dona- 
tions from generous friends helped the Sisters to care 
for many worthy charity patients. The Women's Aux- 
iliary and the Junior Auxiliary contribute in large part 
a greatly appreciated assistance. 

The School of Nursing, conducted in connection with 
the hospital, has the advantage of practical experience 
with a three-year course of instruction, approved by the 
State Department of Registration and Education. The 
School is accredited by other States, so that registration 
by reciprocity facilitates matters for nurses who desire 
to practice outside of Illinois. The Nurses Alumnae 
Association tends to upkeep the relations between the 
institution and its graduates, and as a body represents 
the hospital prominently, being actively interested in 
the functions of a number of Graduate Nurses Associa- 
tions and accupying Public Health offices. 



[225 ] 



& 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



jM 



SEXTON SERVICE 



offers you 



a The only nationally advertised brand of foods prepared ex« 
clusively for the institutional market, 

a The securit) of endorsement by all the leading trade associa- 
tions in the institutional field in the United States. 

A The facilities of the only wholesale grocer)' company oper- 
ating plants in the two principal American markets — Chicago 
and New York. 

a As rendered by Americas largest distributors of number ten 
canned foods, a distinctive service on a complete assortment of 
quality foods packed in this institutional size container. 

a Home recipe pickles, relishes and conserves from Sexton 
Sunshine Kitchens delicious and appetizing. 

a Carefully selected coffees — blends resulting from years of 
careful study— roasted fresh daily at Chicago and Brooklyn. 

A Special quotations based on major purchases of exclusively 
institutional merchandise — sharing with you the advantages of 
a greater buying power 



J2H - N SEXTON 



&-co. 



Edtlutits Quality Food's 



CHICAGO 



BROOKLYN 



EDWARD 

A. GEOGHEGAN 

WHOLESALE 
GROCERY 

4944 SOUTH UNION AVENUE 

PHONE BOULEVARD 6730 



Girls of the Ballet 



[Continued 

SOPHIE ZWACKA 
SOPHIA ZAWADA 
HERNICE ZWADZKI 
ADELLE ZAWAL 
ALICE ZARZYCKI 
IRENE ZAWAL 
MARY ZAWIŚLAK 
IRENE ZBIESZKOWSKI 
MARIE ZDANOWSKA 
JOSEPHINE ZIOBRO 
LOTTIE ZIOBRO 
IRENE ZIAKO 



from page 218] 



SABINA ZIARKO 
JANET ZIEJA 
MRS. M. ZIELIŃSKI 
CATHERINE ZIEMBA 
EUGENIA ZIEMBA 
LORETTA ZIEMBA 
JANE ZIEMSKI 
HELEN ZINDZIAN 
JOSEPHINE ZIÓŁKOWSKI 
F. AND H. ZMUDA 
ANNA ZYBURT 
STELLA ZYDLO 



ALEX GORDON 

Idaho Potatoes 

201 SOUTH WATER MARKET 
PHONE MONROE 1860 



PRICE - QUALITY - SERVICE 

IRA I. FISHER, Inc. 

Wholesale 
FRUITS - VEGETABLES - POULTRY 

ALL PHONES ROOSEVELT 3800 
26 SOUTH WATER MARKET CHICAGO 



LEROY H. RYBSKI BARNEY RYBSKI 

COMPLETE AUTO SERVICE 

NORTH WESTERN SERVICE 
STATION 

1000 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 

Corner Augusta Boulevard 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 3949 



CHICAGO 



DURAND McNEIL HORNER 
COMPANY 

Distributors of 

NONE SUCH - CLOVER HILL - BLOSSOM 
BRANDS 

of Quality Foods 

Supplying the Hosjntal, Hotel, Club, Restaurant 
and Retail Grocery Trade 



251 EAST GRAND AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



[226] 



MS- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-$ 



ST. MARY MAGDALENE PARISH OF SOUTH CHICAGO 



St. Mary Magdalene parish is the grateful offspring of the 
Immaculate Conception of B. V. M. parish. When the corner 
stone of the present church and school combination building was 
laid September 26th, 1910, Father Francis Wojtalewicz's long- 
cherished hope of having near, a neighbor to the northwest, was 
realized. 

The Right Reverend James Quigley D. D., Archbishop of 
Chicago, appointed the Reverend Edward A. Kowalewski to the 
pastorate of St. Mary Magdalene parish, June 10th 1910. Father 
Kowalewski performed his task of organizing the new fold so 
enthusiastically and so well, that, only three months after his 
appointment, he had the happiness of witnessing the blessing of 
the corner-stone of the new parish building. That ceremony was 
performed by the Right Reverend P. P. Rhode D. D., the first 
bishop of Polish origin in America. Very appropriately too, the 
sermon on that occasion was delivered by the Keverenu .b'rancis 
Wojtalewicz, the steadfast sponsor of the new parish. 

The Holy Sacrifice of Mass was offered for the first time 
in the new church by Father Kowa'ewski Feb. 12th, 1911. The 
first sermon was preached by the Rt. Rev. Monsignor Thomas 
Bona. 

From that date, the history of St. Mary Magdalene's is a 
record, of the tireless zeal of Father Kowalewski for the glory 
of God and for the spiritual and material welfare of the people 
intrusted to his care. 

"When the school was completed, the Felician Sisters were 
requested to take charge. Their faithful work is best shown by 
the fact that the parish boasts a fully accredited school. 

Mr. Ladislaus Maniszewski, has served the parish long and 
well as organist and choir director. His tenure of office dates 
from September, 1912. Under his guidance not only the major 
choirs, St. Mary Magdalene's and St. Hedwig's, but also the 
school children ha e learned to appreciate and to love the tradi- 
tional church songs of the Polish people. 

During a fruitful pastorate of over twenty years, Father 
Kowalewski had been assisted by the Revs. Vincent Nowicki, 
B. J. Kasprzycki, A. Socha, J. Peterson and A. Sampoliński. 

Early in 1931 the administration of the parish was entrusted 
to Monsignor A. Halgas, with Fathers S. Derwiński and B. Niec in assistance. 

Since June, 1931, the present pastor, Rev. J. G. Mielcarek and the Revs. B. Karpowicz and T. Wesołowski, 
assistants, have been in charge. 




V. REV. MONSIGNOR J. G. MIELCAREK 



Tow. ŚŚ. Apostołów Piotra i Pawła 

No. 18 Zjedn. Pol. Rzym. Kat. w Am. 
pod opieką Boskiego Serca Jezusa 

Istnieje 40 lat. Liczy 417 członków. Silne finansowo. 
Piotr Garoleski prezesem 26 lat. Wład. Tabolski, 
wice prezes; Woj. Szafrański, sekr. prot.; Wład. Gła- 
żewski, sekr. fin.; Woj. E. Mocny, kasjer; Czesław 
Dybicz, sekr. małoletnich; Mich. Szafrański, Fr. Ma- 
zurkiewicz i Wład. Kaczmarek, radni; Ks. Prałat 
Bona, kapelan. 



VICTORY 1143 VICTORY 1144 

LEMONT DAIRY COMPANY 

RETAIL AND WHOLESALE 

PASTEURIZED MILK AND CREAM 

Fresh Butter and Buttermilk Churned Daily 

840 WEST 31ST STREET 
J. SKRZYPCZYNSKI, Prop. CHICAGO 



DITTMANN AND COMPANY 
Butter and Eggs 

125 NORTH UNION AVENUE 
HAYMARKET 7012 



Życzenia Zasyła 

ZARZĄD CENTRALNY 
LEGJONU PAŃ 

Przy Polskim Legjonie Weteranów 
Amerykańskich 

ANNA DRUZELA, Nacz. Prezeska 
BARBARA MALINOWSKA, Isza Wice Prez. 
STANISŁAWA MUCHO, 2ga Wice Prez. 
MARYA SZURGOT, Sekr. Jen. 
KATARZYNA PELETZ, Kasjerka 
ZOFJA DERENGOWSKA, Korespondentka 

DYREKTORKI 
AGNIESZKA KLESZYK 

STANISŁAWA TERLIKOWSKA 
MARJA MAJDECKA 

JÓZEFA HARBUS 

MARJA DOMINIAK 



[227] 



s!s- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Polacy . 



t 



WWWWWWWWWWHWWWWWWWHWWWWWW 



Wszyscy bez wyjątku, zrodzeni w Stanach Zjednoczonych, 

czy też w Polsce, zarówno mężczyźni i niewiasty, 

jakoteż całe rodziny z dziećmi 




ŁĄCZCIE SIĘ W SZEREGACH NAJWIĘKSZEJ 
ORGANIZACJI POLSKIEJ 



Którą Jest 



300,000 
CZŁONKÓW 



ZWIĄZEK 



$25,000,000 
ZASOBÓW 



NARODOWY POLSKI 

od pięćdziesięciu z górą lat stoi na straży polskości. Brał udział w każdej 
działalności na rzecz niepodległości; budzi ducha, nawołuje do pracy nad 
młodzieżą i świeci przykładem, prowadząc i zasilając szkółki języka pol- 
skiego, kolegjum, udzielając stypendjum młodzieży uniwersyteckiej; ostat- 
nio wprowadza szkołę obywatelską dla szerokich mas młodzieży naszej 
—HARCERSTWO — dla tej działalności nazywanym jest ogólnie: 

Ostoją Polskości - Przyszłością Wychodźłwa 

Stały i niezmieniony kierunek ogólno-narodowy nadany przez założycieli, 
zgromadził w Związku liczne członkostwo oddane sprawie polskiej, oddane 
organizacji; zgromadził potężne zasoby majątkowe, które pozwoliły na 
wprowadzenie nowoczesnych certyfikatów ubezpieczenia, na pomoc człon- 
kom w sumie z górą miljona dolarów w pożyczkach na certyfikaty. Jest 
przeto Związek 

Największą Solidną Polską Instytucją 
Ubezpieczeniową 



PO INFORMACJE PISZCIE: 

ZWIĄZEK NARODOWY POLSKI 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

ZAPISZ SIE DO ZWIĄZKU NARODOWEGO POLSKIEGO 
ZAPISZ SWE DZIECI DO HARCERSTWA ZWIĄZKU NAR. POLSKIEGO 



[228] 



&. 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



.& 




JTWARDZ1K B.ZAWIL1NSKA M.TOMASZKIEWICZ F. GŁOWA 




C. HIBNER 

wice-Prezcs 






M.MILEWSKA 
Wice-Prezeska 



J. SPIKER 
Skarbnik 




Prezes 




B- MENCZYNSKA 



A.S.SZCZERBOWSKI 
S.DWORAK Sekretarz Jen. 






LK.WERWINSK1 



S.ZAWIUNSKI G.PIWOWARCZYK 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2§S ■ 2§S 

Zawiązek Narodowy Y*olski 



JAK sama nazwa wskazuje, Związek jest zrzeszeniem 
Polaków, których stosunki polityczne, albo eko- 
nomiczne zmusiły opuścić Kraj rodzinny i szukać 
sposobności życiowych w tym kraju, który sam wywal- 
czywszy niepodległość, konstytucją swą zagwarantował 
wolność i równość osobistą tak swym obywatelom, jako- 
też przybyszom. 

Związek Narodowy Polski założonym został w okre- 
sie ogólnego przygnębienia Narodu Polskiego, który po 
przegranej z Rosją wojnie o niepodległość w roku 
1863-cim jęczał pod krwawą zemstą zwycięzcy. Zemsta 
za poryw wolności objęła również zabór pruski i austrja- 
cki, w których nastał ucisk ekonomiczny. W tych wa- 
runkach naród polski wyrzucał całe masy emigracji po- 
litycznej i zarobkowej, która skierowywała się przewa- 
żnie do Stanów Zjednoczonych, a której w latach 80-tych 
19-go stulecia liczba dochodziła do pól miljona. 

Emigracja ta, nie znająca tutejszego języka, przerzu- 
cona w odmienne warunki kulturalne i obyczajowe, 
zmuszona była skupiać się w celu samopomocy w swoich 
dzielnicach, tworzyć własne parafje, szkoły i towarzyst- 
wa. Już przed rokiem 1880 polskich towarzystw bratniej 
pomocy, lub kulturno-narodowych prowadzonych oddziel- 
nie było bardzo wiele, rozrzuconych po wszystkich cen- 
trach przemysłowych lub rolnych różnych Stanów. Po- 
wszechnie jednak odczuwano, że drobne te i luźne towa- 
rzystwa nie przynoszą ani członkom, ani całemu ogółowi 
emigracyjnemu, takich korzyści moralnych i materjal- 
nych, jakieby można było osiągnąć, przez połączenie się 
w jedną potężną organizację pod jednym, wspólnym za- 
rządem. Rozpoczęta w tym kierunku działalność została 
zrealizowaną przez przewidujących przyszłość założycieli 
w dniu 10-go sierpnia 1880 r„ w mieście Philadelphia, 
Pa. Pierwsza Konwencja kilkunastu Towarzystw, we 
wrześniu 1880 roku zebranych w Chicago, utrwaliła byt 
Związku Narodowego Polskiego, określając jego cel, 
który w streszczeniu krystalizuje ideję zespolenia ludu 
polskiego na Wychodźtwie. 

Od tego czasu Związek stopniowo wzrasta i rozsze- 
rza swą działalność na wszystkie stany, w których za- 
mieszkuje ludność polska. Ze wzrostem liczbowym 
członkostwa, wzrasta również Związek majątkowo, w 
ciągu pierwszego półwiecza istnienia dochodząc do 300 
tysięcy członków, skupionych w 1900 Grupach, podzielo- 
nych terytorjalnie na 182 Gmin i 26 Okręgów. Grupy 
Związku mają charakter bratniej pomocy w wypadku 
choroby, lub śmierci członka, zaś poza ubezpieczeniem 
1 wspólnym ideowym kierunkiem prowadzą autono- 
miczną działalność w dowolnym zakresie kulturalno- 
narodowym. 

Ze wzrostem Związku rozszerza się również działal- 
ność w kierunku spełnienia ogólnych celów, mianowicie: 
Związek zakłada bibljoteki, czytelnie, szkółki języka pol- 
skiego, z biegiem zaś czasu buduje własne kolegjum w 
Cambridge Springs, Pa., w którem przygotowuje mło- 
dzież do uniwersytetów krajowych, pomaga również 
zdolnej, a uboższej młodzieży do osiągnięcia wykształ- 
cenia, udzielając jej stypendjów przez swój Wydział 
Oświaty. 



Dzięki tej działalności Związku, tysiące wykształ- 
conej młodzieży związkowej zajmuje stanowiska wyższe 
we wszystkich dziedzinach życia społecznego i ekono- 
micznego tego kraju. 

W roku 1932-gim Związek przeprowadził ekspery- 
ment, prawdopodobnie pierwszy ze wszystkich innych 
organizacyj bratniej pomocy, mianowicie: próbę wycho- 
wywania młodzieży Związkowej przez organizację mło- 
dzieży, zbliżoną do znanego w świecie sposobu wycho- 
wania, jakim jest skauting, tak zwane w polskim języku 
"Harcerstwo". 

Próba ta udała się nadzwyczajnie i dzięki prezesowi 
Związku p. J. Romaszkiewiczowi po roku istnienia, stoi 
już w szeregach harcerskich 30 tysięcy dziatwy w wieku 
szkolnym, a setki młodych ludzi powyżej 21-go roku ży- 
cia kształci się na instruktorów i przodowników. 

Związek Narodowy Polski, będąc w posiadaniu nad- 
wyżki w swych funduszach rezerwowych, ulepszył certy- 
fikaty ubezpieczenia starych członków i wydał w roku 
1932-gim nowe Certyfikaty ubezpieczenia ze wszystkimi 
nowoczesnymi przywilejami. Certyfikaty ubezpieczeniowe 
Związku gwarantowane są 25-cio miljonowetni zasobami. 

W działalności swej w celu skupienia i podniesienia 
żywiołu polskiego w Stanach Zjednoczonych, Związek 
nie zapomniał o Macierzy. W okresie wojny światowej, 
gdy zabłysła nadzieja niepodległej Polski, zrobił to, co 
mógł, aby Macierzy przyjść z pomocą, tak w celu wy- 
walczenia niepodległości, jakoteż odbudowy państwa ze 
zgliszcz wojennych. 

Związek Narodowy Polski stoi na 11-em miejscu 
wśród 188 amerykańskich organizacyj ubezpieczenio- 
wych, pod względem majątkowym, zaś na 6-tem miejscu 
pod względem wzrostu majątku w roku 1932, ze sumą 
$1,890,492.65 przyrostu. 

Cyfry te, jakoteż liczba członków ubezpieczonych, 
stawiają Związek Narodowy Polski na poczesnem miej- 
scu wśród największych amerykańskich organizacyj u- 
bezpieczeniowych. Ma więc Związek za sobą zasługi na 
polu narodowem, potężne liczbą członkostwo, odpowie- 
dnie zasoby i ulepszony system ubezpieczenia, aby wię- 
ksza część Polonji znalazła się w jego szeregach, wszy- 
scy przeto Polacy, lub osoby polskiego pochodzenia nie 
powinni szukać opieki u obcych, gdy mamy własną, bo- 
gatą organizację, prosperującą lepiej aniżeli wiele ob- 
cych. 

ZARZĄD Z. N. P. 
Urzędnicy: 

F. X. ŚWIETLIK, M. MILEWSKA, 

Cenzor, Wiceprezeska, 

DR. H. PAWŁOWSKI, A. S. SZCZERBOWSKI, 

Wicecenzor, Sekretarz Jen. 

./. ROMASZKIEWICZ, J. T. SPIKER, 

Prezes, Kasjer, 

C. HIBNER, DR. ST. F. WIETRZYŃSKI, 

Wiceprezes, Lekarz Naczelny, 

Dyrekcja: 
ST. DWORAK M. TOMASZKIEWICZ 

F. GŁOWA J. TWARDZIK 
B. MENCZYŃSKA I. W ERWIN SKI 

G. PIWOWARCZYK B. Z AW I LIŃSKA 
A. SOBOTA S. Z AWI LIŃSKI 



[230] 



J§5- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



'III 



U A& J/ cuóS ^/CcaioaC Q^cc/c/r 



o/ L^ś/'i 



'/ 



oicaao 



ic/< 



/taatifjcc/ ULuau&l ~y, /óyU 



An organization of Polish physicians and surgeons in Chicago 
and vicinity for the betterment of their material status and pro- 
fessional development; theoretical and practical study of the 
science and art of medicine; to uphold the spirit of good fellow- 
ship, tolerance, unity and professional ethics among the Polish 
physicians and surgeons. 



LEO M. CZAJA, M. D. 
President 



JOS. F. SOKOŁOWSKI, M. D. 
Vice-President 

CHARLES C. BUCZYŃSKI, M. D. 

Financial Secretary 



ARTHUR A. THIEDA, M. D. 
Secretary 

TADEUSZ M. LARKOWSK1, M. D. 
Treasurer 



MEMBERS: 

M. J. BADZMIEROWSKI, M. D. 

A. BALCERZAK, M. D. 
S. J. BECKETT, M. D. 
C. C. BUCZYŃSKI, M. D. 
F. H. CIENCIARA, M. D. 
L. M. CZAJA, M. D. 
Z. G. CZAJA, M. D. 
P. F. CZWALINSKI, M. D. 

E. F. DOMBROWSKI, M. D. 
C. R. DUBIEL, M. D. 

F. A. DULAK, M. D. 
W. A. DZIUK, M. D. 
J. GARDZIELEWSKI, M. D. 
L. GROTOWSKI, M. D. 
W. F. KALISZ, M. D. 

B. C. KOLTER, M. D. 
J. F. KONOPA, M. D. 
J. J. KORWIN, M. D. 
M. J. KOSTRZEWSKI, M. D. 
L. P. KOZAKIEWICZ, M. D. 
M. L. KRUPIŃSKI, M. D. 
W. A. KUFLEWSKI, M. D. 
O. M. LATKA, M. D. 
T. M. LARKOWSKI, M. D., F. A. O S. 

T. Z. XELOWSKI, M. D. 



J. H. ŁUCZAK, M. D. 
B. J. MIX, M. D. 

A. MOZAN, M. D. 
J. M. NOWAK, M. D. 
F. OSTROWSKI, M. D. 
S. W. PAROWSKI, M. D. 
J. PIETROSKI, M. D. 

B. PIERZYNSKI, M. D. 
S. R. PIETROWICZ, M. D. 
A. REYMONT, M. D. 
F. SADOWSKI, M. D. 
A. S. SAMPOLINSKI, M. D. 

C. SOBIERAJSKI, M. D. 
J. F. SOKOŁOWSKI, M. D. 
J. STUPNICKI, M. D. 
L. S. SZUMKOWSKI, M. D. 
L. TABENSKI, M. D. 
F. J. TENCZAR, M. D. 
J. F. TENCZAR, M. D. 
A. A. THIEDA, M. D. 
J. A. TRAIN, M. D. 
M. E. UZNANSKI, M. D. 
E. H. WARSZEWSKI, M. D. 
S. WITKIEWICZ, M. D. 



[231] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA -- THEIR CONTRIBUTION' TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Pensacola 2425 

HESPEL 
BROS. 

Manufacturers 
of Shades - 

A tunings 

and Tontine 

Dealers 

Shade Cleaning 
Our Specialty 

Dominick De Schepper, Prop. 
3359 MILWAUKEE AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 

Near Crawford Ave. 




Dine and Dance 



Open All Night 



WARSAW RESTAURANT 



Beautiful Beer Roof Garden 

We Serve Delicious Sandwiches 

With a Good Stein of Beer 
Hall for Parties and Banquets 

820 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 

PHONE HAYMARKET 9223 Near Chicago Ave. 



-sic 



B. J. WĄSOWICZ C. GRABOWSKI 

Established 1913 

THE ALLIANCE PRESS 

PRINTERS 

Printing of Every Description 

1102 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 
Armitage 0737 



WE SPEAK POLISH 
Compliments of 

E. BANKES & CO. 

The Best Coffee, Tea and Butter 
That Money Can Buy 

51 Years of Honest Service 




MONROE 6172 

MID-WEST STORE 

GROCERY AND MEAT MARKET 
SMOKED MEATS, FRUITS, VEGETABLES 

1436 W. SUPERIOR ST. CHICAGO 

CHARLES INDELAK, Prop. 



PHONE BERKSHIRE 2891 



ADOLF GRYCZEWSKI 

GROCERY AND 
MEAT MARKET 



5852 DIVERSEY AVENUE 



CHICAGO 



Bus. Brunswick 6085 



Home Berkshire 4239 



UNITED MEAT MARKET 

Joseph Witkowski, prop. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



2061 MILWAUKEE AVE. 



CHICAGO 



TEL. ARMITAGE 8766 JOSEPH CMIEL, Pres. 



WEST SIDE DAIRY CO. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Pure Pasteurized 

MILK AND CREAM 



917-23 N. LINCOLN ST. 



CHICAGO 



ROZANSKI'S DRUG STORE 

877 MILWAUKEE AVENUE 

Prescription Druggist 

B. J. ROZANSKI, REGISTERED DRUGGIST 



F. T. S 



andwich Shop 



For a Real, Honest Bite and Beer 
1182 MILWAUKEE AVE. ARMITAGE 0364 
T. KULA CHICAGO, ILL. 



[232] 



8§5" 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-J§5 




ZAŁOŻONA 1890 ROKU 



ZASADY I CELE UNJI POLSKIEJ 

W STANACH ZJEDNOCZONYCH PÓŁNOCNEJ AMERYKI 



DAP T OT07Y7NA oto łiasl ° * wytyczne założyciela dzisiaj potężnej orga- 
J ' aizacji ś.p. Najprzew. Ks. Prałata Dominika Majera. 



UNJA POLSKA 



posiada 3 rodzaje 
ubezpieczenia: 1) 
Opłacane ubezpieczenie przez całe życie; 2) Opła- 
cane ubezpieczenie na 20 lat i 3) Opłacane ubez- 
pieczenie w 20 latach. Ubezpieczenie życiowe do- 
chodzi do sumy $2,000, a oprócz tego wspomaga 
swych członków w kalectwie, w chorobach nieule- 
czalnych i w starości. 



UNJA POLSKA 



UNJA POLSKA 



posiada Oddział Mło- 
dzieży, w którym 
ubezpiecza dzieci od urodzenia do 16 roku życia, 
poczem przechodzą one do Wydziału Starszych. 
Młodzież swą otacza szczególną opieką, a setkom 
ubogich lecz zdolnych uczni i uczennic udziela 
stypendjów. 



posiada miljonowe ka- 
pitały. Interesy jej 
prowadzone są wzorowo, umiejętnie i uczciwie. 
Kapitały swe pożycza członkom, na budowę ko- 
ściołów i szkół paraf jalnych. Wspomaga hojnie 
sierocińce i instytucje polskie i nie odmawia ni- 
gdy ofiar na cele narodowe i potrzeby Ojczyzny. 



UNJA POLSKA 



jest inkorporowaną 
na prawach stanu 
Pennsylvania i jest organizacją ABSOLUTNIE 
pewną, pod ścisłą kontrolą rządu. Wypłaca po- 
śmiertne natychmiast bez zwłoki, co mogą po- 
świadczyć tysiące wdów i sierót po ubezpieczo- 
nych zmarłych członkach UNJI POLSKIEJ. 



ZARZĄD GŁÓWNY UNJI POLSKIEJ W STANACH ZJEDNOCZONYCH 

PÓŁNOCNEJ AMERYKI 
911-917 MINERS BANK BUILDING, WILKES-BARRE, PA. 



A. J. GALL, Cenzor 
WIKTOR WILUSZ, Wice-Cenzor 
REGINA A. GRAJEWSKA, Wice-Cenzorka 
PRZEW. KS. PRAŁAT ST. SZPOTAŃSKI, 

Kapelan 
KS. N. S. SOSNOWSKI, Wice-Kapelan 



ZYGMUNT GRABOWSKI, Doradca Praw. 



MARJAN PODGÓRSKI, Prezes Zast. 
WIKTORJA MOCHELSKA, Wice-Prezeska 
S. W. WARAKOMSKI, Sekretarz Gen. 
TOMASZ TALARSKI, Wice-Sekretarz 
JAKÓB DEMBIEC. Kasjer 
DR. F. J. KRAJEWSKI, Lekarz Naczelny 



DYREKTORZY : 

KS. R. A. WIĘZIOŁOWSKI 
ANTONI MURAWSKI 
IGNACY GÓRNY 



REWIZORZY: 

FRANCISZEK PODKUL 
WACŁAW J. BUJNO 
ANDRZEJ LOFERSKI 



WICE-PREZESI I WICE-PREZESKI NA STANY: 



JAN TYBURSKI, Na Wschodnią Penn. 
B. W. LASKOWSKI, Na Zachodnią Penn. 
AMELJA LASKOWSKA, Na Zach. Penn. 
MACIEJ RYBA, Na Stan New Jersey 
FRANCISZEK JASIŃSKI, Na Stan Mich. 



BENEDYKT KNAPCZYK, Na Stan 111. 
JÓZEFA BIAŁAS, Na Stan Illinois 
WŁADYSŁAW RADECKI, Na Stan Minn. 
FRAN. P. KAWA, Na Stan Nebraska 
WAL. JENDRZEJCZAK, Na Stan Wis. 



[233] 



*!«■ 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



sis 



A Polish University in 1364 

One of the oldest universities of the world is 
that in the city of Cracow, Poland. The Uni- 
versity of Cracow had its beginning in the year 
of 1364, when Casimir the Great founded a li- 
brary. In two decades it became a university. 

Soon forced to close its doors, the university 
was reorganized in 1400 by Jagiełło, hence Its 
present name, the Jagellonian University. Thus, 
a hundred years before the discovery of Amer- 
ica, Poland boasted of a higher institution of 
learning. Copernicus, the first to propound the 
heliocentric theory, spent three years at the 
university. 



TEL. KEYSTONE 3732 



ROMAN J. GROCHOWINA 

Wholesale Dealer in 

SMOKED AND BOILED MEATS, HAMS, 
BACON, LARD, SAUSAGES, ETC. 



3908 NORTH CENTRAL PARK AVENUE 



Najserdeczniejsze Życzenia Zasyła Całej Połonji 

F. A. KOZYRA 

właściciel 

Home Made Meat Products 

1704 S. PAULINA UL. TEL. CANAL 2864 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Wielka Hurtownia Własnego Wyrobu 
Wędlin na Wojciechowie 



STANLEY'S STAR MARKETS 

5917 LAWRENCE AVENUE 

AVENUE 0002 

5924 IRVING PK. — 6039 IRVING PK. 

PENSACOLA 5093 — AVENUE 3343 

6706 BELMONT AVENUE 

AVENUE 8708 
STANLEY MAJEROWICZ, Owner 



CRAGIN DRY GOODS STORE 

ADAM S. KUSHEMBA 
Ladies' and Men's Furnishings — Children's Wear 

5504 FULLERTON AVENUE 

PHONE BERKSHIRE 1319 CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE BERKSHIRE 4942 



CHICAGO 



KOSTANSKI DRUG STORE 

J. E. KOSTANSKI, R. Ph. 
Prescriptions Compounded by Registered Pharmacist 

6001 DIVERSEY AVENUE 

CHICAGO 



OFFICE: KEYSTONE 0914 



RES.: IRVING 2734 



ALBERT NIEDBALSKI 

Home Builders 

REAL ESTATE— LOANS— INSURANCE 

Building Management — Renting — Titles Examined 
Notary Public 

3951 N. SPAULDING AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



L. F. ZYGMUNT & CO. 

INC. 

BONDS AND MORTGAGES 

Safety Deposit Vaults and Insurance 

2300 NORTH LOREL AVENUE 
BERKSHIRE 2628 CHICAGO 



TOWARZYSTWO KRÓLA 
JANA III SOBIESKIEGO 

Gr. 221 Unji Polskiej w S. Z. P. Am. 

Założone 12go Maja, 1912 



GELLER'S ROYAL, INC. 

Cloaks, Suits, Dresses, Furs 
1326 MILWAUKEE AVE. HUMBOLDT 4757 



A. E. WISLA'S 

Art Shop 



5505 BELMONT AVE. 



AVENUE 9011 



STELLA'S DELICATESSEN 
Roman and Stefania Sławiński 
5822 DIVERSEY AVENUE 



[234] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 





Rev. Raymond Appelt, Rector 



History of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish in Irving Park 



THE Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish in Irving Park is one 
of the foremost Polish outposts organized to carry on the 
religious and patriotic activity of this community. 
It was this motive that led the early pioneers to organize the 
congregation into a parish. The first steps toward this splendid 
work were undertaken by: the late Felix Górski, as president 
of the committee ; N. L. Piotrowski, Walter Hoffman, Albert Soska, 
now president of Polish Alma Mater ; and John S. Helwig. In addi- 
tion, the following families have aided extensively : John Liske, 
W. Nona, Jacob Marach, John Kielczyński, John Czerwiński, Fr. 
Rrcniec and Anthony Zyman and others, who have earned a word 
of commendation. 

The early movement of organization was commenced on August 
3, 1911, with a call for a general meeting to all the Poles of this 
vicinity. 

During the period of organization, there were formed two Clubs ; 

the Nicholas Coper- 
nicus and the Eliza 
Orzeszkowa, the first 
composed of men, the 
second of ladies of 
Polish descent, resid- 
ing in Irving Park. 
The purpose of these 
two organizations was 
to solidify the mo- 
tives, concentrate the 
efforts and affect the 
result, mainly, to suc- 
cessfully organize a 
Polish parish. 

Work 1 progressed 
as initiated, and on 
the 17th of September, 
1911, His Excellency, 
the late Archbishop 
Quigley, approved the 
petition, but not un- 
til the Spring of 1912, 
through the influence 
of the late Rev. Fr. 
Lange, tangible re- 
sults were forthcom- 
ing. In the meantime, 
the faithful were un- 
relenting in their ef- 
forts and a wide cam- 
paign of fund-raising 
began. 

On June 13, 1913, 
an official order was 
approved, opening a 
new Polish parish in 
Irving Park, and what 
was more elating, a 
rector was assigned 
in the person of Rev. 
Raymond Appelt. The 
parish was named. 
The Immaculate Heart 
of Mary. 




Rev. Jos. Drzymała, Assistant 



Up to the time when buildings were completed, Masses were 
sung in a public school building, at Byron and Albany Streets. 
A new life, and a new enthusiasm pervaded the little group of 
pioneers, all working in unison to accomplish the purpose for 
which they set out. 

The rector, with the committee, being people of foresight and 
intelligence, purchased twenty one lots, and, on the first day_ of 
August, 1912, building activities were started. On Sunday, of Sep- 
tember 29, 1912, the parish celebrated the consecration of the 
foundation stone. It was a holiday indeed, one with abundance of 
reverence, cheer and hope. The ceremony was performed by the 
Very Rev. Bishop Paul P. Rhode, now Bishop of Green Bay, Wis. 
diocese. 

The work on the construction was taking on a visible shape, 
and on New Year's day of 1913. Father Appelt, the rector, celebrated 
the first Mass in the new church. 

The parish grew, and by 1919 the faithful began to realize 
that a new and a larger church was needed. The spirit and zeal 
was of such caliber that by 1924 a new church building was com- 
pleted, with a capacity of 1000. On November 24. 1924 His Excel- 
lency, Bishop Hoban, consecrated the new Home of God. 

With the progress of time, the old building was transformed 
into a parochial school and a complete organization of this parish 
was realized. 

In 1928, a new building was completed to serve as living quarters 
for the Sisters of Nazareth, who are the teacherss in the local school. 

In addition to the arduous work performed by the pastor, the 
following priests served as assistants to the rector. Rev. John 
Kendziora, Rev. St. Derwinski, Rev. Valentine Belinski, Rev. Aloy- 
sius Szczerkowski, Rev. Raymund Ploszynski and at present, Rev. 
Joseph Drzymała. 

Something must be added to the social and cultural progress of 
this splendid parish, as in religion, so in the field of culture, this 
community showed efforts. In music, the first organist was the 
late John Netzel ; followed by John Malinowski, who was succeeded 
by the present organist, Stanley B. Mrozinski, whose choirs are 
really a pride to this church. 

The school, organized in 1913, has progressed steadily and numbers 
at present 310 children, taught by those splendid and very efficient 
Sisters of Nazareth. 

Social life, has in this parish been, and is, of the most desirable 
type. There exist fifteen societies with various affiliations as to 
the national Polish organizations, but the uppermost motive of 
them all is to aid the parish in every possible way. 

The following is the list of said societies with the names of 
their respective presidents: — Copernicus Club — Mr. Walter Im- 
biorski, Pres. ; Eliza Orzeszkowa Club — Mrs. Antonette Helwig, Pres. ; 
Ladies' Rosary Sodality — Mrs. Anna Kielczyński, Pres. ; St. Felix 
P. R. C. U.— Mr. John W. Pavis, Pres. : St. Walerya P. R. C. U — 
Mrs. Walerya Górski, Pres. : St. Raymond Y. M. S. — Mr. Eugene 
Górski, Pres. ; St. John the Baptist P. A. M. — Mr. Bernard Górski, 
Pres. ; St. Rita Y. L. S. — Mrs. Mary Neumann, Pres. : Young 
Ladies Rosary Sodality — Miss Leona Ulatowski, Pres. ; Star of 
America P. W. A. — Mrs. Frances Izbaner, Pres. ; P. A. M. Club — 
Mr. Bolesław Marcinek, Pres. ; Students Club — Miss Rosalyn No- 
wak, Pres. ; Sacred Heart Sodality — Mrs. Antonina Ropata, Pres. : 
St. Vincent a Paulo Society — Mr. Stanley B. Mrozinski, Pres. : and 
three well trained choral organizations (Senior, Junior and Boys). 



[235] 



POLKS IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 
& ■ & 



TEOFIL T. GULIK, STANISŁAW GOFRON, 
Prezes Sekretarz Finansowy 

TEODOR ADAMOWICZ, SYLWESTER KŁOSOWSKI 
11 ice Prezes Kasjer 

BRONISŁAW WROCŁAWSKI, BOLESŁAW WIŚNIEWSKI, 
Sekretarz Protokółowy Marszałek 

^ Musicians c 



MEMBER 



CHICAGO FEDERATION OF MUSICIANS LOCAL NO. 10 

^ V^ 

^ THE AMERICAN FEDE*^° 



E 



XTENDS 



ITS APPRECIATION TO ALL THE POLISH ORGANIZATIONS FOR 

THEIR UNDERSTANDING AND LOVE OF MUSIC AND FOR 

THEIR PATRONAGE TO ORGANIZED MUSICIANS 



OUR PROFESSIONAL AMBITION HAS ALWAYS BEEN 

AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE TO SERVE THE PUBLIC 

WITH THE VERY BEST OF ARTISTIC TALENT 



Success to the Polish Week of Hospitality! 
Sucess to All Efforts of its Sponsor the Polish Day Association! 



Polish Musicians Club 

1182 MILWAUKEE AVENUE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

TELEPHONE BRUNSWICK 4859 






[236] 



The Polish Firemen's Organization 

Among the outstanding Polish firemen must be remembered the 
names of Alexander Kepeto and the Szeszycki family. 

Alexander Kepeto, captain, was the first Polish officer in the Chicago 
Fire Department. He died in 1911 while on duty in a huge elevator fire.. 

Charles Szeszycki, captain, retired in 1926, after thirty-eight years in 
service. In 1930 he was appointed fire chief of the Chicago State Hospital. 

Victor Szeszycki, battalion chief, brother of Charles, died in 1931. 

Joseph F. Szeszycki, captain, son of Charles, served in the United 
States Marine Corps during the World War, and became a first lieutenant 
there. He is chairman of the publicity committee of the present or- 
ganization. 

Paul F. Zwiefka, was active in sports, having organized the Firemen's 
Base Ball Club. He is president of the Polish Firemen's Organization, 
Polish Week of Hospitality. 

Roman P. Gilmeister, lieutenant, is secretary of the organization's 
participation in the Polish Week of Hospitality. 

Walter F. Kempski, lieutenant, Treasurer. 

Stanley Przykucki, lieutenant. 

Members of the Chicago Fire Dept. 



Mr. Louis M. Barana 
Mr. Albert J. Bartik 
Mr. John 0. Bartik 
Mr. Laddie Bartunek 
Mr. Barney Bogacki 
Mr. Joseph Bogan 
Mr. Henry W. Bogosh 
Mr. George Boharski 
Lieut. August Borda 
Mr. Chester Burnoski 
Mr. Joseph W. Colek 
Mr. Stanley A. Cehista 
Mr. Frank S. Chojnacki 
Mr. Florian P. Chwalisz 
Mr. E. M. Ciesielski 
Mr. Felix A. Cincoski 
Mr. Joseph. P. Cinko 
Walter G. Ciosek 
C. Czerwiński 
Antone M. Cwik 
Mr. August Czernewski 
Mr. Edward S. Czerwiński 
Mr. Theodore Czerwionka 
Mr. Edward Done sky 
Mr. Bernard Dorsch 
Mr. Paid P. Duszyński 
Mr. S. F. Duszyński 
Mr. Michael Figiel 
Mr. R. E. Fomowski 
Mr. Wm. Grabowski 
Mr. Roman Grabowski 
Mr. Joseph Grabowski 



Mr 
Mr 
Mr 



Lieut. R. P. Gillmeister 
Mr. Andrew Truty 
Mr. John Guminski 
Mr. Simon Handzik 
Mr. Anton Jabłoński 
Mr. R. A. Jabłoński 
Mr. S. J. Jabłoński 
Lieut. B. Jankowski 
Mr. A. J. Janowski 
Mr. Anthony Jansky 
Mr. John Jedinak 
Mr. John J. Kacirek 
Mr. Wm. B. Kaczmarek 
Mr. Jerome Kalina 
Mr. George E. Kapłanek 
Mr. Peter Kasigroch 
Lieut. Walter F. Kempski 
Mr. Frank J. Kiecal 
Mr. Charles Klecasky 
Mr. Robert Klasek 
Mr. Joseph Kiecka 
Mr. Walter Knowski 
Mr. Stanley Kotecki 
Mr. Joseph B. Konvalski 
Mr. Denis Kosup 
Mr. Anthony S. Kryzan 
Mr. S. B. Krzyżanowski 
Mr. Frank J. Kubek 
Mr. Frank A. Kunz 
Mr. Alex J. Kuśnierz 
Mr. Walter Kuszynski 
Mr. Alfred Link 



Mr. Emil Luschinski 
Mr. Vincent L. Małek 
Mr. Albert Manarek 
Mr. George W. Martineh 
Mr. Frank Matyk 
Mr. Stanley Mazurek 
Mr. James F. Marek 
Mr. John Morek 
Mr. Joseph Morek 
Mr. Stanley Mosiński 
Mr. Edward Morzynski 
Mr. August J. Muza 
Mr. Joseph J. Muza 
Mr. Clarence O'Barski 
Mr. Stanley Pavlak 
Mr. John Peterka 
Mr. Walter P. Pinkosky 
Mr. John V. Placek 
Mr. Alfred A. Plaszezyk 
Mr. Robert Pokorney 
Mr. Peter A. Popeck 
Mr. Jacob M. Pozdol 
Lieut. Stanley Przykucki 
Mr. Barney Rose 
Mr. John R. Rszcznski 
Mr. Louis M. Russm 
Mr. John J. Sałata 
Mr. Frank Santor o 
Lieut. Paul J. Schweda 
Mr. James F. Sedlacek 
Mr. Alfred Segneir 
Mr. Frank E. Sikora 



Mr. Ladislaus Sklenicka 
Mr. Joe Romps 
Mr. Henry Siezak 
Mr. George F. Smolik 
Mr. Michael J. Stachura 
Mr. Alex L. Staszewski 
Mr. Frank Struzina 
Mr. Walter Sulkowski 
Mr. Edward Superczynski 
Mr. John Surchik 
Mr. Edward M. Sczech 
Capt. Joseph F. Szeszycki 
Mr. John W. Szostakowski 
Mr. August Tadra 
Mr. Frank Tokarz 
Mr. William Tomaszewski 
Mr. Andrew J. Truty 
Mr. Stanley Walnicki 
Mr. Peter J. Wosik 
Mr. Thomas Wawrzyniak 
Mr. Frank J. Wencek 
Mr. Peter J. Wiśniewski 
Mr. Fred Witarowsky 
Mr. Joseph Wojciechowicz 
Mr. Stanley Woliński 
Mr. Frank J. Wróblewski 
Mr. John P. Zmich 
Mr. Joseph S. Ziółkowski 
Mr. John S. Zurkowski 
Capt. Pauł Zwiefka 



[237] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Szczere Życzenia składa firma 



1 



1651 W. Chicago Ave. 






Meble, Radja oraz Sprzęty Domowe 



♦!♦ 



Monroe 7320-732 



♦ 



Słuchajcie Polskiej Godziny Rittera ze Stacji WCFL (970 Kil.) 

w Piątki o godzinie 8:30 do 9:30 i w Niedziele od 

1 : 30 do 2:30 po południu 



[ 238 ] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

Sis ■ >!* 






Act U cittz <J/ Leslie a€ ^ en £et~ 



1530 NORTH DAMEN AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



MEDICAL AND SURGICAL 

JOSEPH J. BOLAND, M. D. MITCHELL L. KRUPIŃSKI, M. D. 

LEO M. CZAJA, M. D. A. MEYER LAZAR, M. D. 

EDWARD F. DOMBROWSKI, M. D. FRANCIS J. TENCZAR, M. D. 

LEON P. KOZAKIEWICZ, M. D. JOHN F. TENCZAR, M. D. 

MATTHEW E. UZNANSKI, M. D. 



DENTIST ROENTGENOLOGIST 

JOHN J. CHAPP, D. D. S. EDSON W. CARR, M. D. 



PHARMACIST 

MARION F. LIGMAN, R. Ph. G. 



TECHNICIANS 



MISS LILLIAN GAWIN MISS DOROTHY SCHWIDERSKI 

MISS ANNE WILLSON 



COMPLETELY EQUIPPED FOR DIAGNOSIS, X-RAY, LABORATORY 
AND PHYSIOTHERAPY 



[239] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 






...a warm welcome 
of true hospitality 
together with the 
courteous services 
of our three Stores 

To the Visitors 

and Many Friends 
of Chicago's Polonia 




Chicago & Ashland 26th & Turner 



18th & Paulina 



[240] 



mm 


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''■■■■ "■}■'.'' 


:^:,: 


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.<*-V^v 


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History o/Sż. Ann's Parish 







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Rev. Joseph Kruszka, the Pastor 








■►WW-tf^WT^f"" 



School and Church — St. Ann's Parish 



IT WAS in the year 1903 in the early spring month — March the 
3rd — that the parish of St. Ann, located at 18th and S. Leavitt 
Street was organized. 

A group of fine sterling Catholic men including such pioneers 
as Musialowicz, Radziszewski, Dulski, Tyrakowski, Górecki and Wi- 
chłaczyński assisted the new pastor of St. Ann, the Rev. Casimir 
Słomiński, in the difficult work of selecting the site, gathering funds 
and planning the church buildings. In June of the same year the 
corner stone was laid. 

And thus began a parish — at times proud of its achievements, at 
times struggling with human frailties, but always moving ahead. 
For 18 years Rev. Słomiński ruled his people and his parish. Then 
when the work of years was beginning to tell — the beloved pastor 
resigned and was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Kruszka, who with his 
priests Rev. Stanislaus Rozak, Mathew Cieplak and Joseph Maćko- 
wiak is carrying on the work for God and man at St. Ann Parish. 

To St. Ann falls the unique honor of being the first Polish parish 
to welcome the first Cardinal of the West, George Cardinal Munde- 
lein. It prides itself in its patriotic spirit of subscribing to over 
$200,000 worth of Polsh bonds, the greatest in any Polish parish. In 
1923 the dramatic group of St. Ann Parish under Rev. Stan. Rozak 
made history in producing an original play "Kościół a Rozwody" to 
over 300,000 people in over 200 distinct performances. This success 
was followed by another play "Czwarte Przykazanie" which also has 
been produced over 160 times. The Mr. John Czekan, Anna Lewan- 
dowska and Edward Bielicki were everywhere acclaimed as the out- 
standing actors of the amateur stage. 



St. Ann parish has the great honor to consider Rev. F. Kuliński 
a chaplain in the great World War as one of its assisting priests. 
At present over 1,186 children attend its school. 

It is the only Polish parish that has a "Holy Hour of Adoration" 
every Friday evening. It also prides itself in a Sodality of young 
women numbering over 600, a number of groups of the Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish National Alliance, Polish Women's Alliance, 
Foresters, Holy Name Society, Holy Rosary, Polish Union and other 
Sodalities Confraternities and Societies. The St. Ann Parish is 
also known for its activities in all patriotic affairs. 

Polish Week of Hospitality Committee of St. Ann's Parish 

Rev. Joseph Kruszka, Chaplain ; Steven S. Tyrakowski, President : 
John Buczek, Vice President: Genevieve Mikuła, Secretary; Albert 
Kogut, Treasurer ; John Zych, Grand Marshal : Jacob Twardzik, 
Chairman of Commune 87 of the P. N. A. ; Joseph S. Zientek, Chair- 
man of Circuit 28 of the P. R. C. U. 

Committees 

Program — S. D. Hejna, A. Brodziński, Frank K. Ciosla. Music — 
H. Trela, S. Węgrzyn, K. Reczek. Tickets — Miss M. Mocadlo, S. Ma- 
ruszak. Miss G. Mikuła. Floats — P. Węgrzyn, J. Jachimiec, J. Wę- 
grzyn. Financial — W. Łukaszek, J. Zych, F. Mączko. Publicity— J. 
Buczek, J. Stelmach, S. Slemplinskl. Lodging — J. Reczek, J. Mączko, 
K. Światek. Souvenir Book — J. Bonk, Mrs. A. Dalski, Mrs. W. 
Twardzik. Transportation — W. Dubiel, J. Kołodziej, A. Kulczycki. 
Ways and Means — J. J. Dulski, J. Brzozowski, J. Qawln. 



[241] 



te- 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



& 




Związek Polek w Ameryce 

Wita Miłych Gości i Uczestnikoiv Tygodnia Polskiej 

Gościyiności Podczas Wszechświatowej Wystawy 

Stulecia Postępu (World's Century 

of Progress) 

Zapraszamy wszystkich do zwiedzenia, Domu Związku Polek iv Ameryce, tego Ogniska Kobiet 

Polskich na Wychodźtwie. Wierne odziedziczonej zasadzie polskiej gościnności że Gość w Dom, 

Bóg w Dom. 

ZWIĄZEK POLEK W AMERYCE to największe — najbogatsze i najpopularniejsze zrzeszenie 

Kobiet, Panienek i Dziatwy Żeńskiej — posiadające za sobą bogatą historję działalności tv kierunku 

kutturalno-narodowym. 

KOBIETA DO KOBIECEJ 
ORGANIZACJI 

Tam gdzie Matka tam i Córki 

Łączmy się i idźmy razem 

dla wspólnego dobra 

ZWIĄZEK POLEK W AMERYCE 
daje najlepszą gwarancję solidności 
Organizacji, dotrzymując zawsze 
swych zobowiązań. Ubezpieczać się 
można od sumy $100.00 do $3,000.00— 
opłaty miesięczne są nadzwyczaj przy- 
stępne. 

Członkinie Związku Polek korzystać 
mogą z wszelkich przywilejów jak 
z usług Wydziału Oświaty i bibljoteki, 
która zasila członkinie nasze dziełami 
pióra najprzedniejszych polskich pi- 
sarzp — jak i z tygodniowego Organu 
"Głos Polek". 

ZWIĄZEK POLEK W AMERYCE 
posiada piękną salę AUDYTORJUM 
na występy, bale, obchody i różne 
okazje. 

Poza ubezpieczeniem i pracy na niwie 
narodowej i humanitarnej Związek 
Polek w Ameryce zawsze pracuje 
w kierunku podtrzymania ducha, kul- 
tury i ideałów polskich przeważnie 
w młodzieży tu zrodzonej. Zapisujcie 
zatem Panie wasze córeczki i same 
jednoczcie się pod Sztandarem Związ- 
ku Polek w Ameryce. 
Zapisywać można do Działu Małolet- 
nich (Wianków) dziewczątka od uro- 
dzenia do lat 16 do sumy $500. Nie 
pomińcie zapisania córeczek swych do 
organizacji gdzie będą się obracały 
w atmosferze swej narodowości — i 
i gdzie czuć i myśleć po polsku nie 
przestaną. 




DOM ZWIĄZKU POLEK W AMERYCE 
1309-1315 N. Ashland Ave., Chicago, III. 



[242 ] 



sis 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



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Siedzą od lewe.i ku prawej: Helena P. Czachorska, Prawnik Z. P.: Wiktorja M. Latwis, Sekretarlea (Sen.; A. E. Napieralska, Prezeska 
Get'.: Helena Sambor, Wiceprezeska; Joanna Andrzejewska, Skarbniczka Gen. Stoją od lewej ku prawej: Dr. F. Cienciara, Lekarz Nacz.; 
Ag. Lenard i Antonina Mussor, Dyrektorki; Marja O. Kryszak, Redaktorka ; Ant. Gawarecka, Sal. Jachimowska i Rozalja Petlak, Dyrektorki. 



Czterdzieści lat wstecz, podczas Wystawy Kolumbijskiej, w ro- 
ku 1893-cim Polki-Amerykanki rzuciły pierwsze ziarno na glebę Orga- 
nizacyjną, aby wspólnie sprawnie działać w sprawach całe wychodź- 
two obchodzące, dla podtrzymania naszych ideałów związanych z Oj- 
czyzną naszą i ażeby ten węzeł łączności nigdy nie był zerwany, i 
ażeby wzbudzić ten żar w duszach przyszłych pokoleń, jakim pałały 
ku Ojczyźnie pierwsze pionierki. 

Patrjotyzm kierował szczególnie pobudkami tych kobiet, czuły że 
bez Organizacji trudno coś większego dokonać, a tu serce polskie 
bolało bo zaczął się już dość poważnie zakradać szowinizm pośród 
młodszego pokolenia. 

Przeto w roku 1900 Maja 22go. w murach sali Pułaskiego przy 
South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, powołano do życia Związek Polek, 
dzięki staraniom przeważnie kobiet z dzielnicy Wojciechowa, jak : 
Stefanji Chmieliskiej i jej matki, G. Laudynowej ; Marji Rokoszowej, 
K. Nawrockiej i wielu innym. Kobiety te pragnęły CZYNU na wido- 
czni życia społecznego. Ubezpieczenie na życie miało być cementem 
któryby z małych cegiełek stworzył wielki, silny gmach dla idejowej. 
ratunkowej i patrjotycznej pracy. Dzięki należytemu pojęciu i 
szczęściu jakiemto zrzeszenie kobiet obdarzone było i w późniejszych 
urzędniczkach. Organizacja ta promienie swe rozsyła daleko i szeroko. 

Już dnia 12go Czerwca, 1898, odbył się pierwszy Sejm Związku 
Polek w sali Pułaskiego. Delegatek obecnych było 24. Nabożeństwo 
Sejmowe odbyło się w kościele Św. Wojciecha. Obecna Prezeska A. 
E. Napieralska jako małoletnie dziewczę już wówczas kroczyła w 
przednich szeregach z bukietem kwiatów jak to było zwyczajem. 
Delegatkami na ten pierwszy sejm były : Genowefa Żółkowska, Dr. 
M. O. Kaczorowska, Bron. Pływaczek. Bron. Wleklińska. A. Okoń, 
M. Sołtysiak, Bron. Wawrzyńska, Wal. Bujewska, Marja Gulcz, E. 
Tokarska. E. Schleichert, W. Krenz, A. Nowicka, A. Kula, A. Do- 
rańska, W. Świniarska, L. Wołowska, S. Chmielińska (tyle wykazuje 
nam historja). 

Związek Polek odbył dotąd 16 sejmów. Co drugi sejm odbywa się 
w Chicago. Pozatem odbywały się w miastach : Cleveland, Milwaukee, 
South Bend. Buffalo, Detroit, Wiikes-Barre i Washington. Na pierw- 
szym sejmie było reprezentowane 8 grup z liczbą członkostwa 264, 
a na ostatnim w Washingtonie reprezentowanych było grup 657 
z liczbą członkostwa 52,717. 

Zważywszy, że do Związku Polek wstępować może tylko pleć 
żeńska, przeto Organizacja ta wprost olbrzymio wzrosła. 

Organizacja Związek Polek w Ameryce w ciągu swego 35-letniego 
istnienia miała tylko trzy prezeski generalne: Stefanją Chmielińską, 
Annę Neuman i obecną od 18 lat A. E. Napieralska. 

Sekretarkami generalnemi były: Ant. Fabiańska, Łucja Wołowska, 



Marja Fałkowska. A. Emilja Napieralska, Joanna Andrzejewska i 
obecnie Wiktorja M. Latwis. 

Skarbniczkami : Leokadja Kadow, Łucja Wołowska i obecna 
Joanna Andrzejewska. 

Pierwszą kobietą adwokatem w Związku Polek jest pani Helena 
Fleming-Czachorska, od roku 1914 i obecnie. 

Pierwszym lekarzem Związku Polek była Dr. Dowiat-Sass : drugim 
Dr. Marja Orglert-Kaczorowska (25 lat) a obecnie lekarzem jest Dr. 
Felicja Cienciara. 

Pierszym redaktorem "Głosu Polek" (organ Ziązku Polek) był 
p. F. Wołowski, potem panie Iwanowska, J. Michalska. Setmayerowa, 
S. Laudyn-Chrzanowska. Zofja Jankiewiczowa. Dr. M. O. Kaczo- 
rowska a obecnie od 12 lat jest Marja O. Kryszak. 

Dyrektorki częściej się zmieniały. 

Obecnie Związek Polek liczy przeszło 60,000 kobiet w wieku od 
17 do 60 lat, na ubezpieczenie od $100.00 do SI, 000. 00. Na ostatnim 
sejmie uchwalono przyjmować na ubezpieczenie do sumy $3,000.00. 
W Oddziale Małoletnich t. z. "Wianki" jest przeszło 12.000 panienek 
od jednego roku do 16 lat. 

Majątek Związku Polek w Ameryce wynosi przeszło Trzy Miljony 
Dolarów. W dodatku do te-ro Dom Organizacyjny (z piękną salą 
na różne okazje) wartości $140,000. 

W dniach 17-18 lipca, w Domu tym znanym jago Ornisko Kobiet 
Polskich na Wychodźtwie. odbędzie się Pierwszy Kongres Kobiet 
Polskich, ze współudziałem innych zrzeszeń, do których kobiety na- 
leżą. Głównym celem Kongresu jest poznanie swoich walorów kultu- 
ralnych, stosunek nasz do społeczeństwa i wytknięcie sobie kierunku 
w pracy nad zachowaniem narodowości naszej dla przyszłych pokoleń 
w Stanach Zjednoczonych. 

Od roku 1910 czyli od ósmego sejmu w Milwaukee Związek Polek 
w Ameryce ustanowił wice prezeski stanowe, które od ostatniego sej- 
mu zwane są Prezeskami stanowemi. Skład tych pr< zesek stanowych 
jest następujący : Honorata B. Wołowska, na Zachód. Penna. : Ja- 
dwiga Gibasiewicz, na stan Michigan : Barbara Kluczyńska, Wiscon- 
sin ; Anna Klarkowska, Illinois : Antonina Hon. Indiana : Marja 
Porwit. Wschód. Penna.: Helena Jarzyńska, Ohio: Rozalja Biedroń, 
New York ; Dr. Jułja Bauman. Massachusetts : Franciszka Owsiak, 
Connecticut; Anna Tutro, Nebraska; Marja C. Daneska, New Jersey. 

W roku 1928 pod przewodnictwem prezeski A. E. Napieralskiej 
odbyła sie Pielgrzymka Związku Polek do Polski ze współudziałem 
przeszło 700 osób. Była to wycieczka do zabytków starej Ojczyzny, 
która w sercach zwłaszcza młodszej generacji wskrzesiła miłość ku 
ziemi skąd rodzice ich ród swój przeważnie wywodzą. 
.MARJA O. KRYSZAK. 

Redaktorka "Głos Polek". 



[243] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



♦!♦ 



P. G. BAKING CO. 

J. KOWALCZYK, Właściciel 
Zawsze i wszędzie żądajcie tylko 

POLSKI CHLEB 

1352-56 WEST HURON STREET 
TELEFON MONROE 5447 



PHONE BRUNSWICK 7868 

AUGUSTA AND PAULINA 
SERVICE STATION 

GREASING— WASHING 
TIRES TIRES REPAIRED TUBES 

STANDARD OIL PRODUCTS 
Red Crown — -Ethyl — Stanolind — Polarine — Iso-Vis 

1 700 W. Augusta Boulevard 

M. BYCZKOWSKA & SON, Props. 
The Station That Service Built 



TELEPHONE MONROE 3365-3366 


JOSEPH DOMKO AND CO. 


Wholesale Grocers 


1219-21-23 CORNELL STREET 


CHICAGO 



GAPINSKI 

PRESCRIPTION PHARMACY 

JOHN GAPINSKI, R. Ph. 

814 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



GROCERY & DELICATESSEN 

STANLEY J. KABAT, Prop. 

BAKERY GOODS 
ERUITS AND VEGETABLES 

We Specialize in Home Made Sausages 

840 NORTH DAMEN AVENUE 
TELEPHONE ARMITAGE 7572 



DEWEY E. KLEIN SALES CO. 

FOOD PRODUCTS 

Distributors of Frozen Fruits and Berries 
Canned and Dried Fruits, Vegetables, Fish 
Nutmeats and Preserves, Pickles, Olives 

Soap, Soap Powder, Wheat Starch, Sal Soda 



Office 
662 W. GRAND AVE. 



Phones 
MONROE 0817-0818 



OB. STANISŁAW A. BEHNKE, 

urodził się dnia Igo maja, 1864 roku w Poznańskim, 
uczęszczał do szkfił w Rogoźnie. Rodzice jego, Mar- 
cin i Józefa, przybyli wraz z rodzina do Ameryki w 
w roku 1880 i osiedlili się na Wojciechowie. Młody 
szesnasto-letni Stanisław zaczął pracować jako po- 
mocnik w składzie kolonjalnym (groserni), i od tego 
czasu stale w tym interesie pracuje, który prowadzi 
w lokalu 

S. A. BEHNKE GROCERY 

1759 WEST 17TA ULICA 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

NAJSTARSZY GROSERNIK NA WOJCIECHOWIE 
Najdzielniejszy Pracownik oraz Skarbnik Głównego 
Komitetu Dnia Polskiego w Dzie-nicy Wojciechowa 



TEL. MONROE 6122 

S. WENC 

Skład Damskich Ubioroiv 
FUTRA NASZĄ SPECJALNOŚCIĄ 

1501 W. CHICAGO AVE. CHICAGO 



T. PAWŁOWSKI— A. PAWŁOWSKA, Właściciele 

EUROPEJSKA LECZNICA 

Leczenie Chorych Najnowszymi Sposobami Jako to: • — ■ 

Masowaniem, Elektryką, Gorącem Powietrzem, Kąpielami 

Ziołowemi i t. p. — Kąpiele Zwyczajne 

Pani Paivlowska do Obsługi Pań 
923 WILL STREET HAYMARKET 0249 

Od 8ej rano do 9ej wieczorem 



niONE ARMITAGE 5031 

B. Nagawiecki & W. Pawlus 

FIRST CLASS MEAT MARKET 

AND HOME MADE SAUSAGES 

Telephone Orders Given Prompt Attention 

1759 WEST DIVISION STREET 



[244] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

2f& 2$S 



ONE OF CHICAGO'S LARGEST LAUNDRIES 



JL WET WASH -JL, 

* LAUNDRY C 

STEFAN SZEKLUCKI, President 



. . .ALWAYS AT 
YOUR SERVICE 



ALL PHONES ALBANY 7002 



4407-25 W. DIVISION ST. 



[245] 



tt- 



POLKS IX AMERICA - THEiR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Najstarszy i Najpopularniej- 
szy Zakład Fotograficzny 

na Wojciechowie 

M. J. JASKÓLSKI 

1G34 WEST 18TA ULICA 

TEL. CANAL 3720 

CHICAGO. ILL. 





Office and Chapel Day and Ni:^ht 

Tel. Canal 4611 Service 

Res. Rockwell 4499 

COMPLIMENTS FROM 

Walter M. Andziewicz 

Funeral Director and Embalmer 

Active member on Polish Week Committee 

of St. Adalbert's Parish 

Modern Chain! 

1941 W. Cerniak Rd. (22nd) Str. 



Najserdeczniejsze życzenia 
Zasyła Wychowanek Woje 'ech owa 

JAN A. STANEK 

Właściciel Drukarni 
THE STANEK PRESS 

2123 W. 18 UL. CANAL 453 




Phones: Canal 5735-5736 



Bezpłatna Kaplica 
Dla Użytku 



Serdeczne Życzenia Składają Całej Polonii 

ALEX A. KOPICKI h SON 

POGRZEBOWI 



1655 W. 17th STREET 
1701 W. 21st STREET 



CHICAGO 



TOW. SERCA MARJI 

No. 68 3 Zjedn. Pni. Rzym. Kat. 

Założone 3go kwietnia, 1925 roku przez An'ele Li- 
pińską Jadwigę Gawlik i Zofię Suda. Liczy człon- 
kiń 120. Administracja w czasie Wystawy 1933 r.: 
Anie a Lipińska, prez.; Jadw. Gawl'k, wice prez.; 
Karolina Kosińska, sekr. prot.; Zofja Suda, śekr. fin.; 
Karolina Kalisz, kas.; A. Maniak, M. Tanderak i K. 
Kędzior .dyrektorki; M. Skorodyńska i A. Murawska, 
marszałkinie; M. Tanderak, K. Kędzior i M. Myśli- 
wiec, chorążyna : A. Budzyńska, sekr. wydz. mało- 
letnich; Ks. St. Radniecki, kapę an. 



PHONE MONROE 5805 

DR. L. S. SZUMKOWSKI 

Lekarz i Chirurg 
1610 W. CHICAGO AVE. 



M 



TEL. BOULEVARD 3059 



A. SIKORSKI 



Dealer in Fancy Grocery and Meat Market 

Fresh, Salt and Smoked Meats, Poultry and Game 

in Season - Butter and Eggs - Teas and 

Coffees a Specialty 

In liusiness 12 Years 

3225 WALL STREET CHICAGO 



PEACOCK BRIDAL SHOPPE 

J. Z. JAWORSKI, Prop. 

1530-32 MILWAUKEE AVE., HUMBOLDT 4873 



COMPLIMENTS OP 

ASHLAND HOME BAKERY 

1114 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 

Telephone Humboldt 5632 



A. LENARD 



Grocery and Meat Market 
1520 W. HURON ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



JOHN SŁONINA 

Grocery and Meat Market 
1801 WEST ERIE STREET 



DR. and MRS. B. G. DUDA 

1518 WEST CHICAGO AVENUE 

JÓZEF PIECH 

Domowy Wyrób Wędlin 
916 N. ASHLAND AVE. TEL. MONROE 7091 

JOSEPH NIEDZIELA 

Grocery and Meat Market 
731 NOBLE STREET CHICAGO, ILL. 



CHICAGO MEN'S WEAR 

J. BARABAS 
1725 W. CHICAGO AVE. HAYMARKET 8863 



JOSEPH and MARJA KUREK 

Grocery Store 
845 NORTH ASHLAND AVENUE 



[246] 



2lc- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



S|5 



Unijnych Drukarzy Polskich 

w Chicago 



Stow. 



POLISH UNION PRINTERS ALLIANCE 




TOWARZYSZENIE Unijnych Drukarzy Polskich w Chicago 
istnieje przeszło czterdz.eści lat; zorganizowane zostało bowiem 
w r. 1892 — i w tym czasie zdobyło sobie obywatelskie stanowisko i zawsze 
spełniało ważną rolę w życiu zorganizowanej pracy. 

Po kilku latach nieczynności Stowarzyszenie zostało ponownie powo- 
łane do życia na posiedzeniu, w sobotę, dnia 4-go marca, 1933 r., na którem 
wybrano nowy Zarząd, a za cel powzięto "Silny i skonsolidowany blok 
zorganizowanych polskich drukarzy", pod jurysdykcją Lokalu 16-go 
I. T. U., dla zabezpieczenia bytu polskich drukarzy i drukarń unijnych 
w Chicago, oraz agitacji za znaczkiem unijnym. 

ZARZĄD: 

Antoni Chonarzewski, Prezes F. Cienciara, Wice-Prezes 

W. Sikora, Sekr. Prot. L. Surgiewicz, Sekr. Fin. M. Formejster, Kasjer 



C. Iwański A. J. 

F. Czosnykowski 



KOMITET 

Olszewski 



WYKONAWCZY: 

M. Kaczkowski 
W. 



T. Augustyn 
Małecki 



Andrzejewski Marjan 
Augustyn Tadeusz 
Blachowski Edward 
Bolsiewicz Jakób 
Bulwicki Ed. 
Chonarzewski Antoni 
Chonarzewski Jan 
Cienciara Feliks 
Cieślewicz Józef 
Czeropski Sam 
Czosnykowski Ferdynand 
Dąbrowski Wincenty 
Decka Jan J. 
Eichstaedt Antoni T. 
Fabian Jan 

Formejster Mieczysław 
Ginczewski Bolesław J. 
Głowacki Franciszek 
Gongola Bennet 
Góra Eugenjusz 
Górski Bernard S. 
Górski Józef W. 
Heliński Win. 
Hubrich Stanisław 
Iwański Czesław 
Jacek Al. 
Dziejowski Jan 



CZŁONKOWIE: 

Janecki Alojzy 
Kaczkoivski Michał A. 
Kasperek Kazimierz 
Keszycki St. 
Kosiński Karol 
Kotowski Piotr 
Kowalski St. 
Krawczewski Rudolph 
Kukaivski B. R. 
Kuhna Ludwik 
Kuźnicki B. J. 
Kuźniewicz St. 
Lipiński Max A. 
Małecki Władysław 
Magiera Ed. 
Mastalerz Józef 
Mroź Edward 
Mroź Józef J. 
McKeel Piotr 
Niedziałkowski W. J. 
Nurczyk Franciszek 
Olszewski Andrzej J. 
Panek Władysław Juljan 
Patraszewski Antoni 
Piekoś Tadeusz 
Pinderski Franciszek 
Pluciński Cz. 



Rechcygiel Kazimierz 
Rudziński J. W. 
Sikora Władysław 
Skiermański Michał 
Slisz Józef A. 
Świercz Bruno A. 
Surgieivicz Lucjan 
Szczepański Jan M. 
Szczepański Józef W. 
Szopiński Jan 
Szpila Frank V. 
Szutiak W. 
Szymczak Kazimierz 
Tadda Antoni A. 
Trzciński Józef 
Wasilewski F. X. 
Wąsowicz Bartłomiej 
W erbachowski Leonard J. 
Wilczyński K. 
Winger t Marjan 
Winiarski Jan 
Wojtowicz Karol 
Wolszczak Stanisław 
Wyka St. J. 
Zamek Ch. 
Zaivół Kazimierz 
Zygowicz Stanley 



[247] 



POLES IN AMERICA - - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Chicago Society 

Group 1450 of the Polish National Alliance 

{Organized April, 1912) 



The membership of the Chicago Society 
extends its greetings to the visitors during 
the Polish Week oi Hospitality, and wishes 
the Polish Day Association success in its 
endeavor. 

The Chicago Society has been active in ar- 
ranging Orphans' Outings and Parties; 

Raising Funds for Educational Purposes; 

Sponsoring the organization of the Annual 
Charity Ball, Polish Welfare Association, 
and Polish Day Association; 

Furthering the cause of Goodfellowship and 
Fraternalism, and 

Fulfilling its obligations in the Civic and 
Political life of Chicago. 

The Chicago Society is also active in the 
entire program of the Polish Week of Hos- 
pitality. 



[248] 



*• 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OP PROGRESS 



-2t5 



Choirs participating in the spectacle 



JÓZEF HANDKE 
STAN. KLEKOWICKI 
WITOLD HANDKE 
TADEUSZ JAROSZ 
ANDRZEJ KUBALA 



EUGENJA ROZBICKA 
MONIKA ZARNECKA 
MARJA BLYN 
GUSTAW DRZEWICKI 
JOZEFA STRUG 



"Chopin s" Choir 

Chór "Chopin" Nr. lszy Z. Ś. P. w Am. 

CHARLES ZABICKI ZYG. WAWSZKIEWICZ JAN RAFALSKI 

ADOLF URC FRAN. JANOWIECKI J. JANOF 

JÓZEF WIELBACKI FRAN. TERLIKOWSKI A. MUCZYNSKI 

STAN. WOJCIECHOWSKI STANISŁAW REMBOWSKI TAD. WAWSZKIEWICZ 

WLAD. BRUDZIŃSKI C. GRABOWSKI W. WRZESIŃSKI 

"Philharmony" Choir 

Chór "Filharmonja" Nr. 20 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



MARJA ROGINSKA 
KAZIMIERA BIELSKA 
STANISŁAW NEUMAN 
STEFAN BAJERSKI 
WANDA KRYGOWSKA 



IRENA WIECZOREK MARJA MALACHA 

NARCYZ ORŁOWSKI KRYSTYNA NEUMAN 

LEON SZPACZEK ZOFJA WOJTKUNSKA 

WALENTYNA PIASECKA IZYDOR WOJTKUNSKI 

ZOFJA POWELL OLGA RABĘ 



E. WRZESIŃSKI 
WLAD. AMBROZEWICZ 
STEFAN MILKA 



MARJA KAMIŃSKA 
ANIELA DALUGA 
HELENA SMIEJKOWSKA 
WLAD. WRÓBLEWSKI 
W. KRAWCZYK 



<< 'i 



'Link" Choir 

Chór "Ogniwo" Nr. 21 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



JADWIGA ŁYSAKOWSKA 
FLORENTYNA CIEZADLO 
ANT. GRUSZCZYŃSKA 
HENRYKA BATOR 
ANNA ROGAL 
ZOFJA LELITO 
MARJA SWIDERSKA 



ANTONINA FUGIEL 
HELENA TOKARZ 
HELENA MALYSA 
WALERJA PALAT 
STELLA LASKO 
WŁADYSŁAWA BIELA 
EMILJA BALIS 



HELENA SZCZEPAŃSKA 
ELEONORA PIASECKA 
HELENA DZIADOWIEC 
GENOWEFA ZARAZA 
ALFREDA SUSABOWSKA 
JANINA BRYK 
C. GOSZCZYŃSKA 



JANINA SZKODLICZKA 
STEF. TOPORKIEWICZ 
EWELINA MALICKA 
FLOR. RUBINKOWSKA 
JOZEFA KORCZOSKA 
MICHALINA KORCZOSKA 
MARJA KROZEL 



ADELINA WRÓBEL 
MILLIE SKODNIKA 
MARJANNA BURNOG 
WLAD. ZIENTARA 



ZOFJA CHUDZICKA 

IRENA ZAJĄCZEK 

IRENA JANICKA 

IRENA ZABICKA 



"Halka" Choir 

Chór "Halka" Nr. 29 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



KONST. SIENKIEWICZ HELENA MAKOWSKA BALBINA DĄBROWSKA KŁEM. OBERMEYER 

NATALJA ZAK HENRYKA MULEWSKA BAZ. MIEKISie-.VJ.CZ JANINA OBERMEYER 

IZABELA ROGACKA TEKLA KLENART JADWIGA ABRATOWSKA DOROTA ORZECHOWSKA 

ALICJA PERZANOWSKA EUGENJA PAWŁOWSKA MARJA MROŹ ZOFJA WOJTASIK 



WLAD. GAJEWSKA 
KAZIMIERA PŁOZY 
MARTA GUTOWSKA 
JANINA DEMBIŃSKA 
BRON. SŁOWIKOWSKA 
MARJA HOJNAR 
ANNA REMBOWSKA 



"Kalina" Choir 

Chór "Kalina" Nr. 93 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



ADALJA RYLL 
ZOFJA KWAPISZ 
MARJA PIOTROWSKA 
L. A. SOWIŃSKA 
STEFANJA PIECH 



ANASTAZJA NOWAK 
FRANCISZKA WÓJCIK 
KLARA SAWICKA 
MARJA SOBOTA 
ANNA STASZAK 



JOZEFA KORZENIOWSKA JOZEFA SOMES 



ANTONINA RYDECKA 



JOZEFA GRUSZECKA 



JOZEFA GLADECKA 
KLARA KRÓL 
DONATA KONOPKA 
I. A. CIESZYKOWSKA 
ALFREDA PAKAN 
REGINA NARKIEWICZ 
KAZIMIERA JURCZYN 



FIL. KWIATKOWSKA 
GENOWEFA GOLANKA 
ADELA GŁUCHOWSKA 



"Warsawiaris" Choir 

Chór "Warszawiaków" Nr. 96 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 

FRAN. ŁUKASZEWICZ MARJA SNIEGOWSKA 



M. BUCZYŃSKA 
B. JABŁOŃSKA 
ALICJA MARSHALL 



"Women's Alliance" Choir 

Chór "Związek Polek" Nr. 108 Z. ś. P. w Am. 



FRANCISZKA ZIENKO 
JADWIGA SMOLIŃSKA 
A. ANDRZELCZYK 



REGINA PIWINSKA 
AMELIA SZLAK 
MARJA PRUSINSKA 



HELENA ZALESKA 
STEFANJA SIPIORA 
MELANJA DOMBROWSKA 



HELENA WYDRA 



"Drużyna" Choir 

Chór "Drużyna" Nr. 139 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



HENRYKA KALINOWSKA 
HELENA MIELCAREK 
STEFAN MIELCAREK 
IRENA BRODA 
JOANNA GRYNTKIEWICZ 
ROZALJA KMIOTEK 
ALICJA KLONOWSKA 
JOZEFA GRYNTKIEWICZ 



JADWIGA KUCZNIA 
GENOWEFA MROŹ 
TEODOR KACZYŃSKI 
K. GRYNTKIEWICZ 
WŁADYSŁAWA KMIOTEK 
IRENA MATYKIEWICZ 
JOZEFA KACZYŃSKA 
IRENA MAKOWSKA 



ADELA MANIAK 
STAN. KWASIGROCH 
LUDWIK MIELCAREK 
MARJA STOGINSKA 
CZESŁAW STOGINSKI 
BOLESŁAW KACZYŃSKI 
JAKOB KACZYŃSKI 
STAN. ADAMKIEWICZ 



ALDONA SIENKIEWICZ 
WANDA MAKOWSKA 
STAN. CIESIOLKIEWICZ 
FELIKS KACZYŃSKI 
WŁADYSŁAW BACHÓRZ 
WŁADYSŁAW MAGIER 
HENRYKA MANIAK 
KAZIMIERZ CYWIŃSKI 



ZYGFRYD FILISIEWICZ 
LEONARD KALINOWSKI 
STEFANJA MROŹ 
SABINA HEJNA 
DR. M. DEPLEWSKI 
STEF. ADAMKIEWICZ 
ADELA MARCJAN 



"Harp" Choir 

Chór "Harfa" Nr. 140 Z. ś. P. w Am. 



JULJA MIGAŁA WANDA GOGOLEWSKA 

EUGENJA LACH MARJA SERWINSKA 

JOZEFA RUBIKOWSKA CHARLOTTE KRAWIEC 



JULJA KRAMARCZYK FLOR. ZAWITOWSKA 
SONIA BRANDENBURG MARJA KONIECZKA 
WLAD. GOGLEWSKA FLORENTYNA BALIS 



[249] 



MARJA ZAWISTOWSKA 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA - THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Choirs participating in the spectacle 



"New Life" Choir 

Chór "Nowe Życie" Nr. 143 Z. ś. P. w Am. 



J. K. WIECZOREK 
WŁADYSŁAW RYGIER 
M. MARCINKIEWICZ 
JOZEF KUZEN 
JOZEF TRELA 
JAN DRWAL 
ANDRZEJ ZYCH 
ALBIN AUGUSTYN 
STANISŁAW JURCZAK 
JAN PEPERA 
MAKS. GAWORSKI 
JAN DANIELEWSKI 
JAN KIELA 



M. BRZEZIŃSKI 
NIKODEM WIKARSKI 
KAZIMIERZ WIKARSKI 
CZESŁAW CHMIELEWSKI 
MIECZYSŁAW KUICH 
WLAD. RUTKOWSKI 
ADAM PALICKI 
KAZ. OBUCHOWICZ 
STANISŁAW OMIATEK 
ADAM KAYANKA 
TEOFIL KONIECZNY 
DJONIZY LEJMAN 
HENRYK OLSZEWSKI 



JOZEF ZWIERZKO 
TADEUSZ GASIOREK 
FRANCISZEK WILGA 
JAN RYZINSKI 
W. K. ZALESKI 
I. MUSZYŃSKI 
JOZEF PAKOSZ 
JAN ŚLUSAREK 
FRANCISZEK JARECKI 
MIECZYSŁAW KOSIŃSKI 
FRANCISZEK JAWORSKI 
JAN KLIZICKI 
PIOTR PISULA 



STANISŁAW MAGDZIARZ 

BRONISŁAW BRZEZIŃSKI 

HENRY SIENKIEWICZ 

JAN SUCHECKI 

JAN KOSIŃSKI 

JOZEF PIETRUSZEWSKI 

JOZEF KRUSIŃSKI 

MAKS. ŁUKOWSKI 

K. WASILEWSKI 

S. GRABARCZYK 

N. POGORZELEC 

MAKS. BAGIŃSKI 

S. LEWANDOWSKI, JR. 



S. LEWANDOWSKI. SR. 
EDWARD PERKOWSKI 
JEROME LASZKOWSKI 
ERWIN SKRZYPCZAK 
W. PIASECKI 

E. WINGERT 
V. CIUPIDRO 
STAN. SIENKIEWICZ 
WŁADYSŁAW STYSZKO 
JAN SIENKIEWICZ 
JOZEF WIJAS 

F. KARCZMARCZYK 



"Echo" Choir 

Chór "Echo" Nr. 174 Z. ś. P. w Am. 



HELENA MAJ WALERJA MAJ PELAGJA CZAJKA ANNA KASPER ZOFJA GÓRSKA 

MARJA WOJCIECHOWSKA ZOFJA ŚMIETANKA MAL. DUMALSKA AGNIESZKA WACHOWICZ HELENA ZULAWINSKA 

HENRYKA MEINHART LEOKADJA UZUMECKI ELEONORA MISIOWIEC JOZEFA ZWIERZKO JANINA REICHEL 

B. KAMIŃSKA CECYLJA UZUMECKI JADWIGA ROTER EWA LISEWSKA JAD. TOBIASIEWICZ 



"Morning Star" Choir 

Chór "Jutrzenka" Nr. 209 Z. Ś. P. w Am. 



WŁADYSŁAWA WÓJCIK LEOKADJA DEMBOWSKA IZABELA GŁOGOWSKA 
ELEONORA WÓJCICKA JOZEFA KOTERLA JANINA GŁOGOWSKA 

STAN. GUZOWSKA MARJA PASZKOWSKA JULJA KARASZ 



LUCJA SHILKA 
HELENA BOŻEK 
BRONISŁAWA BOŻEK 



ELEONORA POREMBSKA 
JANINA CHMIELECKA 



'Filomen s" Choir 

Chór "Filomeni" 



KATARZYNA DYBAS 
FRANCISZEK GŁOWACKI 
ZENON GIELICZ 
WŁADYSŁAW ZABIEREK 
JOZEF WUNDRACH 
STEFAN URBANOWICZ 
BOL. KAZMIEROWICZ 
STEFAN CHMIELEWSKI 
JAN L. WUNDRACH 
FRANCISZKA NIZINSKA 
EUGENJA NOWICKA 
JADW. KWIATKOWSKA 



BRON. ANDRZEJEWSKA 
WIRGINJA ALAKSIEWICZ 
SYLVIA OKOŃ 
MARJA MIELZYNSKA 
STAN. PLONKOWSKA 
KATARZYNA PROMINSKA 
KAROLINA GLOWSKA 
GERTRUDE GLOWSKA 
ANAST. WLOSZCZYNSKA 
WALERJA PAJKOS 
EMILJA BALUN 
GENOWEFA TUREK 



ZOFJA WRÓBEL 
KLARA MIELZYNSKA 
ZOFJA OSTROWSKA 
LUD. TRZESNIEWSKA 
STAN. KWIATKOWSKA 
GENOWEFA BRENEK 
MARJA WUNDRACH 
M/VRJA GORCZAK 
LEOKADJA GORCZAK 
SEW. MARCINKOWSKA 
TERESA WOLNIAK 
ZOFJA PANEK 



EDWARD TRZESNIEWSKI 
ROZALJA ROSOŁEK 
IRENA GŁOWACKA 
JADWIGA KROLEWCZYK 
BRONISŁAWA TROIKE 
MELANJA RAJEWSKA 
SABINA RAJEWSKA 
STANISŁAWA BAK 
EWELINA GŁOWACKA 
KAROLINA SYNOWIEC 
FRAN. GÓRZYŃSKA 
ROZALJA DREZDZION 



W. KUCIŃSKI 
JAN LEWANDOWSKI 
JAN J. CISZEWSKI 
STANISŁAW CISZEWSKI 
DR. E. URBANOWICZ 
W. RAKOWSKI 
MARCIN DYBAS 
STAN. FRANKIEWICZ 
EUGENJUSZ RAJEWSKI 



NATALJA DRZEWICKA 



"Filaret's" Choir 

Chór "Filareci" 

BRON. JAKUBOWSKA 



HELENA PACIOREK 



KORNELIA BRZEZIŃSKA 
JÓZEFINA BUKOWSKA 



"St. Louis, Mo." Choir 

Chór z St. Louis, Mo. 

ANNA LUPINSKA 
KATARZYNA SZCZUKA 



MARJA WACHOWIAK 
MARJAN WACHOWIAK 



ST. KOZIK 
J. JACHERA 



Bolesław Dembiński s Choir No. 2, P. S. A. 

Chór Bolesława Dembińskiego Nr. 2 Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



J. BOGOWICZ 
W. SINIARSKI 



ŚMIETANKA 
MIAZGA 



AUG. PELZ 



F. ZAREMBA 



Bolesław Dembiński' s Choir No. 18 P. S. A. 

Chór Bolesława Dembińskiego Nr. 18, Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



ADAM W. CIESIELSKI ANT. REWERS 
JOHN R. WIŚNIEWSKI B. LOTKOWSKI 
ALBIN WEGNER MICHAEL JANICKI 

ROBERT JASIENIECKI A. F. NOWACKI 
SYLVESTER WITKOWSKIA. F. PERLINSKI 
B. A. MOJŻESZ ANDREW BRZEZIŃSKI 



RAYMOND OLECH 
HARRY POWALSKI 
M. SREDNICKI 
F. SWIERKOWSKI 
ALEX SIFKOWSKI 
M. J. BLOCH 



[250] 



JOSEPH WIELOSINSKI A. P. PIECZYŃSKI 

JOHN R. PUCHALSKI ANT. SYPNIEWSKI 

J. J. SIENKIEWICZ WALTER MAZUREK 

B. GRACZYK JOHN A. KOZICZYNSKI 

FOSTER SWIERKOWSKI FRANK WOLSKI 

ED. OSKIERKO 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



■M 



Choirs participating in the spectacle 

Lyre Choir No. 80, P. 5. A. 

Chór Lira Nr. 80, Z. Ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 

EDWARD MIAZGA HENRIETTA SUROWIEC CECILIA KWIATKOWSKI JULIA JACHERA LILLIAN SINIARSKI 

JANINA JAKAJTIS HERBERT GOEBIG ROZALIA CZERNIK EUGENE WRÓBLEWSKI HELEN MARYNOWSKI 

RYSZARD WRÓBLEWSKI S. A. WRÓBLEWSKI HELEN S. BIEDRONSKI HELEN KROL HELEN ZACHARSKA 

JAKUB TRZASKA MARY CZERNIK BRON. ZACHARSKA OLYMPIA POLEDZIEWSKI 

JAN WAŃTUCH EUGENIA SŁAWIŃSKI PAUL. HRYCZKIEWICZ MARIE SUMILAS 



JOS. KALISZEWSKI 



Chopin's Choir No. 122, P.S.A. 

Chór Chopina Nr. 122, Z. Ś. P. w Am., Gary, Ind. 

IRENE KRALIS 



CAROL KALISZEWSKI 



Helen Modrzejewski 's Choir No. 136, P. 5. A. 

Chór Im. Heleny Modrzejewskiej Nr. 136, Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



J. KOWALSKI JOE SANDECKI 
REGINA PATERKIEWICZ WANDA MIGAŁA 

IRENE PAWELA WLAD. KRÓLCZYK 

MARY KOLSKA WLAD. ZALEWSKI 

ANNA MICZYNSKA STANISŁAW DOMECKI 

JOZEF KAMIŃSKI BRON. KUZNIEWICZ 

ALEX SIENKIEWICZ ANNA GOLAB 



SABINA PATERKIEWICZ FLOR. MAZURKIEWICZ JOSEPH M. KRZEMIŃSKI 



MARTHA KWEDLO 
MARY SEROCKA 
ZYG. RZESZOTARSKI 
STELLA KWILINSKA 
MARIE ZAWACKA 
ANNA SEROCKA 



SOPHIE KORENKIEWICZ WOJCIECH MERSKI 
JEAN BUCHTA STANLEY RUSIN 

MARGE MICZYNSKI J. RAJKOWSKA 

GENEVIEVE GOLAB H. CIESIOLKIEWICZ 

IRENE PARUSZKIEWICZ S. CIESIOLKIEWICZ 
WLAD. NIEDZWIECKI 



JOZEFA MOLL 
GERTRUDE SANOCKI 
HELENA PIASKOWA 
FRANCES BIS 
MARIE WADOWSKI 
MARY HARACZ 



5/. Moniuszko' s Choir No. 155, P.S.A. 

Chór Im. St. Moniuszki Nr. 155, Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



VALERIA LENCKOS GENEVIEVE PSZYHODA HELEN MISTARZ MAY PODGÓRNY 

VALERIA KAPERA WALTER SUROWIEC STELLA E. KRAWCZYK HELEN ZIELIŃSKI 

HELEN CHRZANOWSKI MARIE SZERLAK TOMASZ JENDO MARY WOJCIKIEWICZ 

MARION PIETRASZEK JAN MŁYNARCZYK TEODOR JUST 

BERNICE MICHAŁKA ANTONI ZAJĄC JOZEF MISTARZ 

HELEN ŁUKOWSKI W. SZYMAŃSKI JULIA ŁUKOWSKA 



Liberty Choir No. 158, P.S.A. 

Chór Wolność Nr. 158, Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



FRANCES RATKĘ 
FRANK GŁOWACZ 
STEVE KOCHANOWICZ 
ROSE GULGOWSKI 
ISABELLE GULGOWSKI 
SOPHIE GARBATOWICZ 
PEARL GANCZEWSKI 
EDWARD GANCZEWSKI 
WALTER SZYMAŃSKI 



AGNES REKOWIECKI JOE WAŃTUCH 

CECILIA SUPERCZYNSKIMIKE JABŁOŃSKI 



ANTOINETTE BELL 
IGNACY LEŚNIEWSKI 
HELEN MAŁECKI 
CHARLOTTE MAŁECKI 
IRENE NIEDZWIECKI 
MARY RYDZEWSKI 
CELIA WANKOWSKI 



JOSEPH RYBOWIAK 
SOPHIE JECHIM 
VICTORIA LACZYNSKI 
SALLY LACZYNSKI 
MABEL MIELCAREK 
VINCENT SIERZEGA 
JAN PIETRZAK 



JANINA WATUCH 
J. J. JAKAJTIS 
MAE C. PANKA 
EMILY SOBOCIŃSKI 
ANDREW KIELAR 
GERTRUDE KOSTANSKI 
CASIMIR JARONSKI 
PHYLLIS KOSTANSKI 
JOSEPHINE STARYBRAT 



APOLONIA JUST 
JANINA WYSOCKI 
IRENE WYSOCKI 
JOHN RYDZEWSKI 
IRENE NASALSKI 
LOTTIE NIEDZWIECKI 
JOZEF KOWALSKI 
JAN MARCZEWSKI 
ANNA KOZŁOWSKI 



C. WABNIARSKA 
M. BARON 
M. GALSZYNSKA 
L. JARVIS 



Currie-Sklodowska's Choir No. 161, P. S. A, 

Chór Skłodowskiej Nr. 161, Z. ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



ANNA TWARDA 
JADWIGA JASTRZEMB 
VICTORIA SZAFRAN 
MARY LUCINSKA 



KATE TRZOS 
SOPHIE MAZON 
KATE MAZUREK 



ROSE MAZUREK 
JOZEFA SLOTA 
KATE UKLEJA 



J. KOSOWSKA 
HATTIE JASTRZEMB 



JEAN KĘDZIERSKA 
STELLA KĘDZIERSKA 
VIC. RZEPCZYNSKA 
ROSE JAKUBOWSKA 



Laura Choir No. 173 P.S.A 

Chór Laura No. 173, Z. ś. P. w Am., Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

GERTRUDE KARP STELLA WERBILA HELEN OSTASZEWSKA FELICIA MILASZEWSKA 

LOTTIE NOWAKOWSKA SOPHIE GUZOREK SOPHIE KORYTKOWSKA W. MILASZKWSKA 

VIRGINIA NOWAKOWSKABERTHA WIECH OLGA CHMIELEWSKA G. PADOWSKA 

SOPHIE BANASIAK VALERIA KRÓLIKOWSKA 



lgnące Paderewski' s Choir No. 166, P. S. A. 

Chór Im. I. Paderewskiego Nr. 166, Z. Ś. P. w Am., Indiana Harbor, Ind. 



IGNACY TURON VINCENT RAFALSKI 

JOZEF BIELAK ALEX CZAJKOWSKI 

STAN ZABOROWSKI JOHN KORYTKOWSKI 

ANTONI OSTASZEWSKI JAKOB SALAMONSKI 



B. F. SZCZEPKOWSKI 
MAX WOJTOWICZ 
JOSEPH KARP 
STAN. JADES 



[251] 



STAN. DURALSKI STAN. BIELAK 

WALTER PĘDZIWIATR HARRY PISARSKI 

EDWARD RACZKOWSKI JOZEF WIECH 

ANTON BUILEK JOZEF BIELAK 



&■ 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-$ 



Choirs participating in the spectacle 



St. Adalbert's Choir No. 187, P. S. A. 

Chór Św. Wojciecha Nr. 187, Z. Ś. P. w Am., Whiting, Ind. 



WLAD. J. OLSZEWSKI 

ROSE SKOWROŃSKI FRANK BOCZYK 

MARIE CHRUSTOWSKI JEAN BAZARKO 
ELIZABETH BONCELA VICTORIA STANISZ 
ANTOINETTE KUBACKI EDWARD BANASZAK 
MARY WALCZAK FLORENCE WEGNER 



MARTHA WAWRZYNIAK JOSEPH BANASZAK 
EDWARD ZENCKA 
JEAN KRAPP 
THERESA WYSOCKI 



SOPHIE DYBEL 
F. J. DUDZIK 



JOS. WAWRZYNIAK 
W. E. BACZYK 
ANTONI A. GUZEK 
JOZEF DUDZIK 
JAN MACIESZ 
JOHN BANASZAK 



THOMAS BANASZAK 
VICTOR BANASZAK 
JOZEFA BAZARKO 



ZOFJA WOLSKA 
G. POGORZELSKA 
HELEN HOJNACKA 



Halina Choir No. 192, P. 5. A. 

Chór Halina Nr. 192, Z. Ś. P. w Am., Chicago, 111. 



E. OSOWSKA 
W. MAJORCZYK 
W. MILLER 



K. RYBOWIAK 
J. LORENT 
K. PRZYBYSZ 



M. RACINSKA 
DELPHINE OSOWSKA 
E. BOYDA 



HELEN KNEIZ 
EDWINA TAŃSKI 



PAROCHIAL CHOIRS— CHÓRY PARAFJALNE 



"St. Helen's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Heleny" 



GENOWEFA KALUZA 
ZENOBIA ŻÓŁTOWSKA 
HELENA POCHRON 
ANNA POCHRON 
STANISŁAWA CHORAZAK 
STANISŁAWA LABIAK 
JOZEFA RZYMEK 
LEOKADJA ZBYLUT 
LMILJA LEPIANKA 
ADELAJDA KOZIOŁ 
WIKTORJA DOROSZ 
ADELAJDA DOROSZ 



WANDA MUSIAŁ 
JADWIGA PIASECKA 
ROZALJA KLICK 
LUCJA KORCZYK 
MARTA DOMASZEK 
CZESŁAWA WACKONIS 
STEFANJA SZPUNAR 
HELENA WODNIAK 
FLORENTYNA SZYPER 
DOROTA DOMASZEK 
ANIELA POPŁAWSKI 
CHARLOTTE JACKOWSKA 



jozefa swietek 
gene zuwal\ 
-iNna mem\s:-;yk 
helena madej 
anna rzymek 
regina roman 
julja chucfro 
charlotte styczeń 
stella nowak 
gertruda bieschke 
sylvia groszewska 
jozef zurad 



MIECZYSŁAW ZUBER 
STANISŁAW PURCHLA 
ANNA PURCHLA 
STANISŁAW CHUCHRO 
ANDRZEJ KLICH 
KONSTANTY KORCZYK 
JAN LABIAK 
STANISŁAWA LABIAK 
KATARZYNA TARGOSZ 
WŁADYSŁAW BIELICH 
HENRYKA LEJMAN 
FRANCISZEK BOKSA 



JAN KLICH 
CZESŁAW JASIŃSKI 
STANISŁAW KULAK 
JOZEF SWIONTEK 
WŁADYSŁAW POKSZYK 
HELENA SIPIORA 
MARJA PIERDOS 
LOUIS SKORSKI 
CZESŁAW TRAWINSKI 
ANNA OLECH 
JOZEFA LEWICKA 
FRANCISZKA SZYMURA 



HELENA SADOWSKA 
ROZA KACZMAREK 
KLARA MUCHOWSKA 



"St. Adalbert's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Wojciecha" 



EMILJA KREZALEK 

ROZA ZAJA 

JANINA KARBOWSKA 



MARJA DERERZYNSKA ELŻBIETA HUDAK 



MARJA SZUDARSKA 



CECYLJA BEHNKE 



ANASTAZJA BALCER 
LEOKADJA ZYLEWICZ 
JAN PASTOREK 
KAZIMIERZ PŁONKA 
ANTONI GRYGIENS 



ELEONORA HOŁDA 
LUCJA KACZMAREK 
CHESTER WALASZEK 
KAROLINA M. LEW 
MARJA LEW 



MARJA BALASIEK 
MARJA BULKOWSKA 
CHESTER SŁOMKA 
KAZIMIERZ WÓJCIK 



"St. Stanislaus' " Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Stanisława Kostki" 



MONIKA SKIBIŃSKA 
HELENA WISZOWATA 
FLORENTYNA JASIŃSKA 
IRENA MALINOWSKA 
IRENA SERSZEN 
TERESA JANKOWSKA 
JOANNA ŁOBODZIŃSKA 
ELEON. ŻMUDZIŃSKA 
MARJA SESKO 
MARJA ZIMNA 



ZOFJA WADAS 
KLARA NOWAK 
KLARA LASOTA 
FLOR. WICHLACZ 
BERNARDYNA STRAUBY 
IRENA LASINSKA 
EMILJA LASINSKA 
GERTRUDA SZYMAŃSKA 
AGNIESZKA WILK 
MARJA WILK 



KATARZYNA WILK 
MARJA KARNOWSKA 
FRAN. BORKOWICZ 
EMIL SCHMIDT 
JAN FAFINSKI 
HENRYKA GORYNSKI 
RAJMUND BIERNAT 
ELŻBIETA FAFINSKA 
M. BARTODZIEJ 
PAULINA GOLINSKA 



E. SKIBIŃSKI 

STAN. SKOBINSKI, JR. 

STEFANJA BUDZIK 

Z. WIERZCHOWSKI 

WIKTORJA SKONIECZNY 

J. HADUCH 

FRAN. ZIERKIEWICZ 

WLAD. ZIERKIEWICZ 

EUGENJA KURESZEK 

LOTTIE KRYŚ 



MARJA PUSIATA 
TESSIE LOSIK 
ALICJA GROCHOCKA 
EWELINA WISZOWATY 
BRONISŁAWA WÓJCIK 
STEFANJA KRZEMIŃSKA 
ANTONINA SMIDEWICZ 
FRAN. MOCZULEWSKA 
ELŻBIETA BIENIASZ 
HENRYKA M. SKIBIŃSKI 



"St. Josephat's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Józefata" 



FRANCISZKA PULSHA 
FRANCISZKA JEŻEWSKA 



GERTRUDE DUDA 
MARTA KLATT 



IZABELA WASZKIEWICZ 
GEORGE KLEBBA 



"St. Pancratius' '' Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Pankracego" 



GENOWEFA ZIELIŃSKA STELLA KRZYSTOFJA 



JADWIGA WYSOCKA 



WANDA WRÓBLEWSKA JOZEFA GOLEMBIEWSKA JAN MICHALIK 



MARJA PRZYBYŁOWICZ ROZA BIELA 

BRONISŁAWA RYBA HELENA ABRAMOWICZ 

ROZALJA LIPIŃSKA JOZEFA STACHURA 

GENOWEFA KUBICKA FRANCISZKA JACHIM 



ANTONI MICHALSKI 



JOZEFA ZIELIŃSKA GENOWEFA REPEL 
LOTTIE CEBULSKA ROZALJA WITEK 

HELENA KOZŁOWSKA FRANCISZKA WORTEL 



WŁADYSŁAW WIDŁAK KLARA LIPIŃSKA 



IRENA WYSOCKA 



ANNA CEPA 



ANNA WIERCIOCH 
KATARZYNA DZIERDZIK 



LEOKADJA WYSOCKA MARJA KONICKA 



[252] 



&• 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



-& 



Choirs participating in the spectacle 



JOZEFA RZEMINSKA 
HELENA SZCZEPANEK 
FRAN. PAWLIKOWSKI 
STEFANJA LOBECK 
JOZEFA SENTYRZ 
ROZALJA MADURA 
HELENA WOJNICKA 
FRANCISZKA LOBECK 
MARTA PODBORNA 



"Holy Innocents ' ' Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Młodzianków" 



ZOFJA SEKUNDA 
MARJA STALMACH 
LEOKADJA WITEK 
EDWARD BACHARA 
ANTONI MATEJKO 
ALEKSANDER ZGODA 
ANDRZEJ BRYK 
MARJANNA FLORCZAK 
WŁADYSŁAW PLEŚNIAK 



EDWARD ZGODA 
FRANCISZEK MATEJKO 
BRONISŁAWA SWIETON 
ROMAN HOJANCKI 
KLARA NASTEK 
HELENA SKONIECZNA 
DOMICELA KISIELEWSKA 
MARJA H. KOZA 
SEWERYNA KONIECZNA 



EDWARD KWILAS 
JOZEFA NOWAK 
JULJA TALAGA 
EMILJA KRUPPA 
BRONISŁAWA SŁOWIK 
STEFANJA SZARLEJ 
KONSTANCJA KRUPPA 
LEOKADJA LIZEK 
AGNIESZKA MISCINSKA 



HELENA NOWAK 
MARJANNA MARKOWICZ 
WANDA KOSKA 
FRANCISZEK BISEK 
STEFANJA MATEK 
ROMAN KARWOWSKI 
STEFANJA KULBIEDA 
STANISŁAWA PODBORNA 



'St. Hyacinth's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Jacka" 



JADWIGA ADAMOWICZ 
KAROL WRÓBLEWSKI 
DOMINIKA BALCER 
ANTONINA BALCER 



EDNA BURSKA 
ROZALJA SLUPKOWSKA 
MARJA CIUDAJ 
ZOFJA KRYSZTOWIAK 



DR. HENRYK CIUDAJ 
EWELINA BEDNAREK 
JOZEF WRÓBLEWSKI 
HENRYK WRÓBLEWSKI 



PAULINA MAKOWSKA 
JADWIGA MINDAK 
BENEDYKTA RETZOK 
STANISL. WRÓBLEWSKI 



L. PAWŁOWSKA 

K. CZARNECKA 

W. SUCH 

F. BIDERMAN 

J. WENDOLOWSKI 

S. GODZICKA 

L. WOJEWODA 

H. GUSTEK 



JAN WOJTON 

W. KLUK 

M. FILAR 

B. TRUSZKOWSKA 

A. MIROCHA 

A. MARCINEK 

J. CZAPLICKA 

H. JANISZEWSKA 



'Holy Trinity's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Trójcy" 



A. PRYKA 

N. TERLIKOWSKA 

E. NAMYST 

A. JURUSZYK 

S. DUDA 

ZOFJA SZAFLARSKA 

WŁADYSŁAW GUSTEK 

STANISŁAW KENDZIOR 



ELEON. POKORZYNSKA EUGENJA KROLL 
ESTELLE ZAPALA FLORENT. MARCHEWKA 

HELENA GRUSZECZKA WŁADYSŁAW BAKER 
AURELJA JANKOWSKA WERONIKA GONDELA 
GERTR. BOROWINSKA STEFANJA SYGNATUR 
ANTONETTE SLOCIK 
EMILJA KOZAK 
A. WENDOLOWSKA 



'Immaculate Heart of Mary" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Niepokalanego Serca Marji" 



ALICJA RUDNIK LEOKADJA BART 

MARJANNA POZNAŃSKA STANISŁAW WÓJCIK 
STANISŁAW POZNAŃSKI JOZEF WÓJCIK 



WANDA KOZŁOWSKA 
LORETTA DOMEK 



GENE LUBAWY 
HARRIETT DMOCH 



EUGENIUSZ MROZINSKI ROZA SOSKA 



MARJA MOLL LEONARDA ULATOWSKA 

ESTERA BAUMGART M. LUTERA 



V. BARTODZIEJ 



HARRIETT KOZŁOWSKA HARRY WALINSKI 



LEOKADJA SOSKA 



"St. Hedwig's" Choir 

Chór Parafji "Św. Jadwigi" 



MAGD. SZCZEPANIAK 
STAN. GRZEDZICKA 
LEOKADJA SZYMAŃSKA 
ZOFJA ULIASZ 
JOANNA MISKIEWICZ 
GENOWEFA KRUPA 
WŁADYSŁAW KRUPA 
WERONIKA SWIGON 



JACK LODYGOWSKI 
SALOMEJA KAMIŃSKA 
FRANCISZKA KAMIŃSKA 
WLAD. KASPRZAK 
FRANCISZKA BALIŃSKA 
ZYGM. MARCISZEWSKI 
LEOK. MIKOŁAJCZYK 
PELAGJA SHILKA 



DOROTA JABŁOŃSKA 
LORETTA GONDEK 
WŁADYSŁAW POREDA 
PRAKS. JAKUBOWSKA 
EDWARD BORA 
JEROME PAWELA 
LEOKADJA GIENKO 
ZENON MUCHOWICZ 



MARJA JAKUBOWSKA 
ELZ. JAKUBOWSKA 
HELENA WIŚNIEWSKA 
LEONARD KOSTECKI 
JADWIGA TURALSKA 
M. GRZEDZICKA 
KAZ. BURZYŃSKI 
WILLIAM KONCZYK 



FELIKS BARTNICKI 
ANNA GUREK 
KAZIMIERZ BARTNICKI 
CZESŁAWA WROŃSKA 
ALEX BRZEZIŃSKI 



DIRECTORS OF CHOIRS 



Dyrygenci Chórów 



F. NOWICKI 

GA3RJEL CHRZANOWSKI 

MR. GULIK 

I. A. CIESZYKOWSKI 



JAN KOSIŃSKI 
ST. MROZINSKI 
DR. E. URBANOWICZ 
DR. S. URBANOWICZ 



A. SKALSKI 

DR. M. WACHOWIAK 

K. DENDOR 

EMIL WIEDEMAN 



MR. PRUSINOWSKI 
ST. SKIBIŃSKI 
K. USZLER 
SZCZEPAN SIEJA 



A. KARCZYNSKI 

MR. K. CZERNIAKOWSKI 

W. BALUTA 



FOR 



DEPEWD ON 



KILDARE 
, 3440 



[ 253 ] 



sts 



POLKS IX AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



& 



Telefon VICtory 7200 



^QUALITY ^ 



V 



>ACftV^ 



^ 



Polska Wytwórnia 
i Hurtownia 

NAJLEPSZYCH 

WYROBÓW 
MASARSKICH 

dowożonych do wszystkich części miasta i 
okolicy pod pieczęcią "GOOD QUALITY" 




Firma ta zatrudnia wielu dostawców w ca- 
łem mieście, przeto wszędzie należy upo- 
minać się o jej wyroby — REAL QUALITY. 
Jednym z długoletnich dostawców i teraz 
współwłaścicielem jest znany Polonji Pan 
Józef Strzeszewski, który dzięki dostawia- 
niu prawdziwych wyrobów tej firmy zdo- 
był sobie zaufanie u wszystkich odbiorców. 

Do Pana Strzeszewshiego Telefon 
PROSPECT 88 5 J, LUB VICTORY 7200 

2710 POPLAR AVENUE 

Telefon Victory 7200 CHICAGO, ILL. 



CZERWIEC WRECKING 
LUMBER COMPANY 




PIERWSZY 

POLSKI 

SKŁAD 

NOWEGO 

I UŻYWANEGO 

Budulca 

Budujemy 

i Rozbieramy 

Domy 

Faktem jest, że wszel- 
ki budulec używany 
dotąd byt tylko w 
obcych rękach. Teraz 
nadarza się sposob- 
ność dostać od Pol- 
skiej Firmy używa- 
ne okna, drzwi, oraz 
wszelki materjał bu- 
dowlany — cegłę, drze- 
wo, pokrycie dachów, 
wanny, itp. Floring 
plastic boards. 



3658-64 SO. WESTERN AVE. 

BLISKO ARCHER AVE. TEL. VIRGINIA 0458 



TELEPHONE PULLMAN 3086 



M. A. PISARSKI 

Funeral Director 




AUTO LIVERY 
739-41 Michigan Avenue 

KENSINGTON 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



[254] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



Compliments of 

DEMOCRATIC WARD COMMITTEEMAN 
NINTH WARD 



U ovi&h ^Jtcauial ^JJemoclatic i^tua 

HON. PRES. 

HON. JOHN C. KLUCZYNSKI 

Rep. in General Assembly 4th Sen. Dist. 

OFFICERS 
J. BOGACZYK, Pres. 
J. WINIARSKI, Fine. Sec'y. 
V. CIESLEWICZ, Rec. Sec'y. 
J. DETLAFF, Treas. 
S. SEKULSKI, Pres. Executive Comm. 

HEADQUARTERS— 5111 SO. ASHLAND AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



[255] 



m- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



PHONE CANAL 1700 




BIEN MOTOR SALES 

V. BIEN PROPRIETOR 

Dodge Brothers Motors Ca?-s and Trucks 
and 
Plymouth Cars 

1700-8 S. ASHLAND AVE. 

J. F. GROSSER, Sales Manager 



A. G. 

SHOE STORE 

ANTON GORYWODA, Prop. 




4322 ARCHER AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



ARCHER AVENUE 
BIG STORE 

4187-91 ARCHER AVENUE 
Lowest Prices - Better Merchandise 

Hosiery - Underwear 

DRY GOODS - MEN'S FURNISHINGS 

Children's Wear and Shoes 

DOUBLE STAMPS TUESDAY AND FRIDAY 



PHONE DEARBORN 3666 ROOMS 516-17 

STEPHEN RAJEWSKI LEON CHILOWSKI 

"The Only Polish Furriers in the Loop" 



ADAMS FUR SHOP 

MANUFACTURING FURRIERS 

Storage - Repairing 
Remodeling, Cleaning and Glazing 

115 S. DEARBORN ST. CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE PULLMAN 1785 

JOE POCHRON 

Beer Tavern 
119TH AND INDIANA AVENUE 

1 Block East of Michigan Avenue 
PULLMAN, CHICAGO 



FRANK BIEDROWSKI 

Midwest Grocery and Meat Market 

12035 INDIANA AVENUE 
PULLMAN 5209 CHICAGO, ILL. 



PHONE COMM. 2394 



CHAS. JANKOWSKI 

Operator of the Famous 
Harbor Fruit Markets 

13309 BALT. AVE. - 11901 SO. MICH. AVE. 



TRADE AT THE 

AVENUE DEPT. STORE 

11301 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 



PHONE PULLMAN 9331 

DRAIN-RITE PRODUCTS CO. 

Manufacturers of 
Cold Water Drain Pipe Solvent 

11912 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 

S. J. OSTROWSKI 



Free Fish Every Friday 

J. WRÓBLEWSKI 

LUNCH ROOM 

We Deliver Beverages of All Kinds 

120 EAST 118TH PLACE CHICAGO, ILL. 

PHONE PULLMAN 4455 



[256] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

aSs ■ & 

Parafja Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej 




DNIA 27-go Marca, 1892 roku, odbyło sie pierwsze zebra- 
nie obywateli zamieszkałych w Hawthorne, w ce.u 
omówienia potrzeby założenia parafji polskiej w tej 
dzielnicy. Przy ścisłem obrachunku, przekonano się, 
iż w Hawthorne mieszkało wówczas 86 rodzin polskich, mię- 
dzy tymi około 100 osób samotnych. 

Trwało to do stycznia, roku 1895, kiedy na serjo zabrano 
się do założenia polskiej parafji. Dnia 30-go maja, roku 1895, 
Ks. Kazimierz Słomiński mianowany został pierwszym pro- 
boszczem. W miesiącu sierpniu, 1S95 roku, rozpoczęto budo- 
wę nowego kościoła. W niedzielę, dnia 18-go września, 1895 
roku, odbyło się poświęcenie nowej świątyni Pańskiej. 

Po ustąpieniu Ks. Kazimierza Słomińskiego z probo- 
stwa, urząd ten objął Ks. Leon Wyrzykowski który parafją 
Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej zarządzał aż do roku 1904. 

W roku 1904 mianowany był proboszczem nasz obecny 
Ks. Proboszcz Bronisław Czajkowski. On zaraz na pierwszym 
miejscu zajął się sprowadzeniem Sióstr Zakonnych w celu 
nauki dziatwy, i w sierpniu tego roku za zezwoleniem 
Siostry Prowincjałki, kilka Sióstr Nauczycielek z Zakonu 
Sióstr św. Józefa przybyło na miejsce. W styczniu, 1905 ro- 
ku, nowy gmach szkolny rozpoczęto budować. Nadmienić 
tu wypada że Kamień Węgielny pod ów budynek kombina- 
cyjny, t. j. szkołę i kościół, poświęcił J. E. Ks. Arcybiskup 
Szymon, który wtenczas bawił na wizycie w Stanach Zjedno- 
czonych. Poświęcenia tego dokonano w lipcu, 1905 roku. 
Zaś dnia 24-go grudnia, kiedy ten budynek ukończono, po- 
święcony został przez J. E. Ks. Arcybiskupa Quigley'a. 

W roku 1908 pobudowano dom dla Sióstr Zakonnych. 
W roku 1914 spłacono wszystkie długi parafjalne i w doda- 
tku zakupiono sześć lot, które miały służyć na miejsce pod 
nową świątynię Pańską i plebanię. W roku 1917 ukończono 
budowę nowej plebanii. 

Pamiętnym dla parafjan i w dziejach naszego miasteczka 
jest dzień 29-go października, 1917 roku. Poświęcony bowiem 
został tego dnia kamień węgielny pod nową świątynię Pań- 
ską pod wezwaniem Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej, przy 
4S-my Court i 30-tej ulicy. 

Dnia 10-go marca, 1918 roku, obecna wspaniała świąty- 
nia Pańska, zbudowana w stylu gotyckim została poświęcona 
przez J. E. Ks. Arcybiskupa Jerzego W. Mundeleina, (teraz 
Kardynał). Dnia 23-go marca, 1918 roku rozpoczęto odprawiać 
nabożeństwa na stale w nowym kościele. Koszta budowy 
nowego kościoła, oraz zakupno sprzętów kościelnych, wyno- 
siły $132,000. Stary kościół zamieniono na ośm k'.as szkol- 
nych. Do szkoły parafjalnej obecnie uczęszcza około 900 
dzieci obojga płci, pod nadzorem Sióstr Nauczycielek ze 
Zgromadzenia Św. Józefa, których razem jest 18-cie. Pro- 
boszczem od ostatnich 29-<ciu lat jest obecny Ks. Bronisław 
< 'zajkowski. 



!^**vś£ 



[257] 



Ms- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



2& 




Z. GEORGE JAWOROWSKI 

Radio Announcer for the 

Evans Fur Company 



"Purchase Your 

Fur Garments 

Direct From the 
Makers and Save 
the Middleman 's 
Profit as Much 

as 50%" 

"Thousands of Polish and American 
Women Have For Years Purchased 
Their Furs From This Highly Rep- 
utable Firm of Manufacturers. They 
Have Obtained The Finest Quality 
In Materials and Workmanship Made 
In The Newest Fashions. Every 
Garment Is Definitely Guaranteed In 
Writing That It Will Wear Perfectly 
and Give Lasting Satisfaction. 




ADELE WALTON 

Soloist on the Radio Program 

of the Evans Fur Company 



WHEN YOU DECIDE TO PURCHASE A FUR GARMENT, VISIT 
THE FACTORY SHOWROOMS OF CHICAGO'S BEST-KNOWN FURRIERS." 

EVANS FUR COMPANY 

The one place where you can buy furs with confidence 
162 NORTH STATE STREET 3RD FLOOR OF THE BUTLER BUILDING 



MRS. F. S. MALICKI 

Undertaker and Embalmer 



1737 W. 17TH ST. 



TEL. CANAL 1610 



PHONE PULLMAN 7121 

A. ROBERT PAKULAZ 

Lawyer 
11443 S. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 



PHONE LAWNDALE 2825 



Notaty Public 



JOHN A. KORNAK 

REAL ESTATE, LOANS AND INSURANCE 

Steamship Ticket Agency 
2508 SOUTH SACRAMENTO AVENUE 



BRANCH OFFICE 
5257 ROSCOE STREET 



PHONE KILDARE 7S26 




W. TOMASZEWSKI 

PLUMBING CONTRACTOR 

1710-12 S. ASHLAND AVE. 
CANAL 5J,78 




4177-83 ARCHER AVE con RICHMOND ST 



2536- 40 W 63 rd ST & MAPLEWOOD AVE*. 



Manufacturers of High Grade 
• Parlor Suites 

41 79-85 Archer Avenue 
2536-40 West 63rd Street 

We Also Specialize in Refrigerators, 
Washing Machines and Radios 



[258] 



&- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



M 



"Dziennik Chicagoski 



yy 



KOŃCZY się lat czterdzieści i trzy, gdy po 
raz pierwszy ukazał się w Chicago "Dzien- 
nik Chicagoski". 

Czterdzieści i trzy lata temu pisał "Dziennik 
Chicagoski" : 

"Nie zamierzamy służyć bezwzględnie żadnej 
partji, a zajmując stanowisko bezstronne, za- 
mierzamy wykazywać błędy i zalety różnych 
partyj. Jeżeli zasad partji demokratycznej bro- 
nimy i bronić zamierzamy, to nie czynimy tego 
dlatego, jakobyśmy byli ślepemi narzędziami tej 
partji, tylko dlatego, iż widzimy w jej obecnych 
zasadach korzyść dla interesów Polaków w Sta- 
nach Zjednoczonych. 

"Nie idzie zatem, ażeby nasz Dziennik stanow- 
• czo już nazywano "demokratycznym". Że ma- 
my pewne wyrobione zdanie polityczne, nie zna- 
czy jeszcze, iż partji służymy. Przypuśćmy bo- 
wiem, iż platforma republikańska będzie zdrow- 
szą i dla interesów naszych korzystniejszą. Wów- 
czas bezstronnie i bezinteresownie będziemy ją 
gotowi popierać, a błędów partji demokratycz- 
nej wcale nie zamierzamy usprawiedliwiać, ani 
milczeniem pokrywać. 

"Podobnie rzecz się ma z innemi sprawami 
obchodzącemi emigrację naszą na ziemi ame- 
rykańskiej. Staraniem naszem będzie zupełnie 
bezstronnie i przedmiotowo nad takiemi spra- 
wami się zastanawiać i nigdy nie zasłużyć na 
zarzut, jakobyśmy rozmyślnie i niesłusznie jedno 
poniżali, a inne wywyższali. 

"Zasady stałe, któremi kierować się będziemy, 
w kilku słowach dadzą się wyrazić; ceniąc wy- 
soko Konstytucję Stanów Zjednoczonych, któ- 
rych jesteśmy obywatelami, sądzimy, iż żywy 
udział powinniśmy wziąć w publicznem życiu 
kraju. Uważamy go za wielką rzeczpospolitą 
utworzoną z różnych narodów miłujących wol- 
ność i brzydzących się knutem i niewolą; my zaś 
specjalnie, Polacy, nie za gości tej rzeczypospo- 
litej winniśmy się uważać, tylko za część jej skła- 
dową równie ważną, równe prawa i obowiązki 
względem niej mającą, jak jakikolwiek inny na- 
ród tu reprezentowany. Jako tacy, winniśmy ży- 
wy brać udział w jej życiu politycznem i wespół 
z innemi narodami dbać o jej rozwój, potęgę 
i nieskazitelność, a zatem pracować nad usuwa- 
niem tego, co w niej jest złem i nad wprowa- 
dzeniem tego, co za dobre uznawać nam każe 
sumienie. 

"A czy to przeszkodzi być nam dobrymi Po- 
lakami? Bynajmniej. Jeżeli Irlandczycy w Euro- 



pie z rozrzewnieniem i radością dowiadują się o 
wielkich wpływach i powodzeniach ich rodaków 
za oceanem i nieraz z tego korzystają materjal- 
nie i politycznie; jeżeli Niemcy europejscy z du- 
mą opisują powodzenie i wpływy swoich 'kul- 
turtragerów' w Ameryce, to Polacy w starym 
kraju korzyści nieobliczonych, i materjalnych 
i politycznych tylko wtedy mogą się od nas tu 
spodziewać, jeżeli zdołamy odznaczyć się jako 
obywatele tej wielkiej Rzeczypospolitej i udział 
w jej życiu publicznem weźmiemy: jeżeli z je- 
dnej strony nie odosobnimy się i nie zaskorupi- 
my sami w sobie uważając się tylko za gości te- 
go kraju, i jeżeli, z drugiej strony, znowu nie 
utoniemy w tern wielkiem zgromadzeniu naro- 
dów wynaradawiając się lub, jak się tu wyraża- 
my, amerykanizując się. 

"Służąc Stanom Zjednoczonym jako prawi o- 
bywatele, służyć możemy Polsce. Trzeba tylko, 
abyśmy umieli być dobrymi obywatelami i do- 
brymi Polakami. 

"Ażeby służyć dobrze krajowi, potrzeba mieć 
odpowiednie uzdolnienie i wyrobione zasady mo- 
ralne. W szkołach zyskuje się pierwsze, drugie 
zaś w kościele. 

"Polacy przywykli zawsze czerpać zasady mo- 
ralne w prawdach religji katolickiej: toż i dzien- 
nik polski innych zasad uznawać nie będzie. Wy- 
stępować przeciw burzycielom i nieprzyjaciołom 
porządku społecznego, wykazywać podstępne 
machinacje i prostować fałsze rozsiewane przez 
wrogów praw Boskich i ludzkich musi być rów- 
nież jednem z zadań Dziennika." 

Takie hasła głosił, takie zadania sobie posta- 
wił "Dziennik Chicagoski" przed czterdziestu i 
trzema laty i takim pozostał wierny po dziś dzień. 

Dobro całego społeczeństwa miał Dziennik 
zawsze na względzie i mieć będzie w dalszym 
ciągu. Daleki był i daleki jest od zacietrzewio- 
nego partyjnictwa, gdyż wie, że ono jest szko- 
dliwe tak dla naszych interesów w Stanach Zje- 
dnoczonych, jak i dla interesów Polski odrodzo- 
nej. We wszystkich sprawach kieruje nim dobra 
wola. której przyświeca liczenie się z interesem 
Polski oraz interesem Wychodźtwa według naj- 
lepszego rozumienia. Stąd pozwala sobie nie- 
kiedy zganić to i owo, lecz nigdy w celu doku- 
czenia komuś, tylko w celu przekonania go, że 
jest w błędzie, lub że się myli. 

Na posterunku tak pojmowanej służby "Dzien- 
nik Chicagoski" będzie trwał nadal. 



[ 259 ] 



J§5- 



POLES IN AMERICA 



THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 



ik 



PHONES: BRUNSWICK 6525-6526 

NORTH-WESTERN 
PACKING CO. 

INDORSED BRAND 
FOOD PRODUCTS 

1001 MILWAUKEE AVE. CHICAGO 



Compliments of 

BUTTNY'S DRUG STORE 

Use Buttny'8 Stu-Mix Mixtures 
for All Stomach Ailments 

4200 SOUTH MAPLEWOOD AVENUE 
PHONES LAFAYETTE 1675-1671 CHICAGO 



Get the SOUVENIR 

BOOK for Yourself 

MAIL $1.25 

POLISH DAY ASSOCIATION 

1200 N. ASHLAND AVE. CHICAGO, ILL. 



JOSEPH JONIEC 

DAIRY PRODUCTS 



10505 CORLISS AVE. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



FRANK HODOROWICZ 

HARDWARE STORE 
11823 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 

AMERICAN SPRING AND WIRE 

SPECIALTY CO. 

2754-56 WEST SUPERIOR STREET 

S. P. DYBA CHICAGO 



KULIG'S DAIRY 

All Milk Products Fresh and Sanitary 
11742 PRAIRIE AVE. CHICAGO 



The Polish Dances 



THE polonaise, known also as the slow 
or marching dance, is a slow glide, 
which in ancient Poland was danced at 
court functions. Chopin made use of this 
form of musical composition, especially in 
his famous Polonaise in A-major. Ogiń- 
ski, Kurpiński and Moniuszko also wrote 
splendid polonaises for dancing. 

The mazur, a lively dance consisting of 
leaps and slides and of numberless figures, 
written in 3 /± or % tempo, is one of the 
most popular in Poland. 

The krakowiak, written in two-fourths 
time, is known and popular throughout 
Poland. It is a graceful but rapid dance, 
sung by the dancer, songs quickly to be 
taken up by the rest of the participants. 

The polka, a whirling dance of great 
popularity, is really of Czech origin ; based 
on it is the polka galopka, even more rapid 
than the polka. 



THE HOME STORE 

11802-4-6 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 



JOS. FILIP LUMBER COMPANY 

Lumber and Roofing Paper 

2530-2538 W. 21st ST. TEL. LAWNDALE 0940 



DR. J. M. KRASNIEWSKI 

DENTAL SURGEON 
3051 W. 22ND STREET CHICAGO, ILL. 



BRIDGEPORT WET WASH LAUNDRY 
C. F. FRENZEL, President 

1024 W. 31ST ST. BOULEVARD 3041 



PHONE HUMBOLDT 4095 OPEN SUNDAY 

THEODORA BRZOZOWSKI 

FLORIST SHOP AND GREENHOUSE 
2321-33 HAMILTON AVENUE CHICAGO 

SOUTH CHICAGO POTATO CO. 

POTATOES AND FINEST FRUITS 

We Deliver 

8728 COMMERCIAL AVE. SAGINAW 9207 



[260] 



POLES IN AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

sis ■ — - & 




The Town of Cicero 

STATE of ILLINOIS 



IN the year 1857 Cicero was a vast tract of level 
prairies, six miles in length from North to South, 
six miles in width from East to West. The eastern 
boundary, naturally the western limit of the City of 
Chicago, was known even at that early date by the 
name it bears today; Western Avenue, the northern 
boundary, North Avenue, the southern boundary, Thirty- 
ninth Street, and the western boundary a wagon road 
bearing no name in 1857, but now known as Harlem 
Avenue. 

Three roads, the South-west Plank road (the present 
Ogden Avenue) beginning at the ficticious land-mark 
called "The Bulls Head", present corner of Ogden 
Avenue and Randolph Street, extending in a south- 
westerly direction to Hinsdale; the Sand Ridge road 
beginning at the present corner of Riverside Drive and 
Twenty-second Street, running north-east to Twelfth 
Street and Austin Boulevard; and Pennsylvania Avenue, 
now Lake Street, by far the most important of all, run- 
ning in a north-westerly direction to Elgin, at the time 
a thriving village; these were the only means of travel 
in Cicero in 1857. 

Two railroads entered Township Thirty-nine in the 
year 1857, the Chicago and Galena Railroad, predecessor 
of the Chicago and Northwestern on the North, and the 
Chicago, Alton and St. Louis, changed later to the 
Chicago and Alton, on the extreme south. 

Early in the year 1857 pursuant to a petition of the 
enterprising citizens of Township Thirty-nine, the County 
Clerk of Cook County posted a notice within the town- 
ship requesting the people of that locality to organize a 
government. 

By a unanimous vote a town government was or- 
ganized co-extensive with the territorial boundaries of 
Township Thirty-nine to be known as the Town of 
Cicero, the name having been suggested by one of the 
electors. Officers for the ensuing year were also elected 



at that meeting, nine of the fourteen becoming Town 
officials. 

From the year 1859 to 1867 Cicero gradually grew 
in population until it reached a total of 3,000 in 1867. 

Until the year 1867, Cicero was merely a township. 
Through the efforts of an enterprising Ciceronian, the 
State Assembly passed an act to incorporate Township 
Thirty-nine as the Town of Cicero giving it all the 
powers, under the city and village act previously given 
to incorporated towns. This charter was similar to all 
other charters in the State relating to Towns. 

Cicero has now reached the stage of being classed 
as one of the largest and most important communities 
in the State. It has the distinction of being the largest 
incorporated town in the country. 

Within its narrow limits it has a representation of 
every nationality in the world. Its citizens are thrifty 
and industrious. It is a distinctly home owning com- 
munity. 

Its present population today is estimated over 
80,000, seventy-five per cent of which are Czecho- 
slovakian people, who have their representatives in the 
present administration. 

The President, Board of Trustees, and the people of 
the Town of Cicero extend to all the visitors of the 
World's Fair a cordial invitation to be the guests of our 
town during their visit here and take advantage of all 
accommodations prepared for them. 

Present Town Officials are as follows: President 
Joseph G. Cerny; Clerk, Jerry J. Viterna; Collector 
Rose Cuchną; Assessor, Henry Schwarzel; Supervisor, 
Anton F. Maciejewski; Trustees, James Sedlacek, Frank 
Novak, Fred J. Loyda. Nicholas Hendrikse; Police Ma- 
gistrate, Henry J. Sandusky; Chief of Police, Michał So- 
lar; Justices of the Peace: John P. Sverak, E. Turek, 
Frank Christenson, S. Wyza, F. Weil, Frank J. Broz, 
Supt. of Water. By John P. Sverak. 



OFFICIALS OF THE TOWN OF CICERO, ILL., IN 1933 






A. J, Maciejewski, h. B. Schwartzel, _„_,_ T ,,..„,. 
Supervisor and Assessor Je " y J - % , ' 

Treasurer Town Clerk. 



Treasurer. 








Mrs. Bose Cuchną, James Sedlacek, prank J. Broz, 

Town Collector. Trustee. Supt. of Water. 



Joseph G Cerny, 

President of the 
Town of Cicero. 





Nicholas Hendrikse, 

Trustee. 



Michael Solar, 
Chief of Police. 



Fred J. Loyda, 

Trustee. 



Trustee. 
Frank J. Novak, 



[261] 



A Complete Summary of Polish Parishes and Educational, Religious and Char- 
itable Institutions in the Archdiocese of Chicago, including data as of May 1, 1933, 



Pupils 
Parish Clergymen in School 

St. Adalbert 5 1,680 

St. Anne 4 1,114 

Assumption of B. V. M 2 557 

St. Barbara 3 957 

St. Bronisława 4 480 

St. Bruno 2 602 

St. Camillus 1 304 

St. Casimir 5 1,750 

St. Constance 2 646 

St. Fidelis 3 605 

Five Holy Martyrs 4 1,697 

St. Florian 1 760 

St. Francis of Assisi 1 388 

Good Shepherd 2 400 

St. Hedwig 5 2.180 

St. Helen 3 1,340 

Holy Innocents 4 1,845 

Holv Trinity 7 2.170 

St. Hyacinth 5 1,704 

Immaculate Conception 3 1.141 

Immaculate Heart of Mary 2 308 

St. James 2 889 

St. John Cantius 4 1,165 

St. John of God 4 1.479 

St. Josaphat 5 856 

St. Joseph 4 1,671 

St. Ladislaus 2 515 

St. Mary of the Angels 3 950 

St. Mary Maerdalene 3 963 

St. Marv of Perpetual Help 4 1.668 

St. Michael 4 1,883 

St. Pancratius 2 930 

St. Peter and Paul 3 1,271 

St. Roman 3 873 

Sacred Heart 3 1,031 

St. Salomeą 2 477 

St. Stanislaus Kostka 6 1.435 

St. Stanislaus Bishop and Mar. 4 1218 

St. Stephen 2 232 

St. Thecla 1 255 

Transfiguration 1 147 

St. Turibius 1 194 

St. Wenceslaus 3 691 

St. Wenceslaus CDekoven St.)...l 145 

St. Blase (Areo) 2 358 

St. Isidore (Blue Island) 1 269 

St. Andrew (CMumet City) 3 731 

St. Joseph (Chicago Heights)...! 332 



Teachers 

42 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
24 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
10 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

23 Sisters of St. Joseph 

10 Felician Sisters 
12 Felician Sisters 

7 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
45 Resurrection Sisters 

20 Notre Dame Sisters 
12 Sisters of St. Joseph 

31 Franciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda 
17 Franciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda 

6 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
9 Felician Sisters 
45 Sisters of the Holy Family of Naz. ; 2 Brothers 

24 Felician Sisters 
29 Felician Sisters 

41 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

32 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
22 Franciscan Sisters of St. Joseph 

9 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

17 Felician Sisters 

25 Notre Dame Sisters 

27 Felician Sisters 

16 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
29 Felician Sisters 

11 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
20 Resurrection Sisters 

19 Felician Sisters 

37 Sisters of St. Joseph 

35 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

20 Franciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda 

18 Felician Sisters 

18 Sisters of St. Joseph 
22 Felician Sisters 

8 Sisters of St. Joseph 

28 Notre Dame Sisters 

24 Franciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda 

6 Felician Sisters 

7 Resurrection Sisters 
4 Sisters of St. Joseph 
4 Felician Sisters 

16 Felician Sisters 
4 Sisters of St. Francis of Mary Immaculate 

9 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 
6 Felician Sisters 

15 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

8 Franciscan Sisters 



[262] 



PO LES IX AMERICA — THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

8§5 2§g 

Pupils T , 

Parish Clergymen in School 1 eacher8 

St. Mary of Częstochowa (Cic.)3 828 19 Sisters of St. Joseph 

St. Valentine (Cicero) 2 253 6 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

St. Mary of Gostyń (Dow's. Gr.) 1 81 2 Felician Sisters 

Ascension (Evanston) 1 265 6 Felician Sisters 

St. John Baptist (Harvey) 1 477 8 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

St. Susanna (Harvey) 1 257 6 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

Holy Cross (Joliet) 1 193 4 Sisters of St. Francis of Mary Immaculate 

St. Thaddeus (Joliet) 1 388 8 Felician Sisters 

St. Stanislaus (Kankakee) 1 123 4 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth 

St. Cyril and Methodius (Lem.).l 182 6 Felician Sisters 

Holy Rosary (North Chicago). ..2 450 12 Felician Sisters 

St. Stanislaus (Posen) 1 214 4 Felician Sisters 

60 Parishes— 158 Clergymen— 48,967 Pupils in School— 1,044 Teachers. 

VARIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

St. Hedwig's Orphanage — 700 children — 2 clergymen — 52 Felician Sisters — (Niles, Illinois). 
St. Joseph's Home for the Aged — 166 residents — 1 clergyman — 16 Franciscan Sisters of Saint 
Kunegunda 

St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital — 4,333 patients during the year — 1 clergyman — 100 Sisters of the 
Holy Family of Nazareth — Connected with the hospital : St. Mary of Nazareth School of 
Nursing — 75 students. 

HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 

Holy Trinity High School for boys — 11 Brothers of Congregation of the Holy Cross — 238 students. 
Weber High School for boys — 5 Resurrection Fathers — 6 Brothers — 6 lay teachers — 264 students. 
Holy Family Academy for girls — 1 clergyman — 46 Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth — 3 lay 
teachers — 360 students. 

Resurrection High School for girls — (Norwood Park) — a boarding school — 50 Resurrection Sis- 
ters — 22 Novices — 23 Postulants — 1 lay teacher — 112 students. 

Good Counsel High School for girls — a boarding school — 1 clergyman — 11 Sisters (Felician) — 2 
lay teachers — 172 students. 

RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

Novitiate of the Resurrection Fathers — 4 clergymen — 17 novices — 3 postulants — 3 brothers. 
General Motherhouse of the Franciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda — 1 clergyman — 316 Sisters — 65 
Novices — 30 Postulants. 

Novitiate of the Resurrection Sisters (Norwood Park) — 50 Sisters — 22 Novices — 23 Postulants. 
Novitiate and Training School of the Felician Sisters — 2 clergymen — 702 Sisters — 21 Novices — 
28 Postulants. 

Motherhouse of the Holy Family of Nazareth Sisters, (Desplaines, 111.) — 1 clergyman — 613 Sisters 
— 76 Novices — 15 Postulants — 15 Aspirants. 



[263] 




Thanks must be expressed to the patrons, donors, 
and advertisers appearing in this book, and to the 
hundreds, nay, thousands, of persons cooperating in 
making the Polish Week of Hospitality a success. 

The Committee is further grateful to the numer- 
ous firms and persons cooperating in various other 
tvays. In this respect the following firms are par- 
ticularly deserving of mention: Marquette Motor 
Truck Service, Fullerton Motor Truck Service and In- 
ternational Harvester Company. 

Finally, the press, both Polish and English, is de- 
serving of credit for their generous support of this 
project: Chicago Daily News, Chicago Daily Tribune, 
Chicago Daily Times, Chicago Evening American, 
Chicago Herald and Examiner, Polish Daily "Zgoda", 
Polish Daily Neivs, Polish Union Daily, and the numer- 
ous community and suburban weeklies in the vicinity 
of Chicago. 

THE EDITOR. 



'347 PRINTED BY THE POLISH DAILY ZGODA, CHICAGO, ILL.