Skip to main content

Full text of "Poles of Chicago, 1837-1937; a history of one century of Polish contribution to the city of Chicago, Illinois"

See other formats

a I B R.ARY 



The person charging this material is re- 
sponsible for its return to the library from 
which it was withdrawn on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 

Theft, mutilation, and underlining of books are reasons 
for disciplinary action and may result in dismissal from 
the University. 
To renew call Telephone Center, 333-8400 


L161— O-1096 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Poles of Chicago 


Copyright, 1937 



Printed iru U. S. A. 


.Tsr^ ^sr-. 206 

Poles of Chicago 

1837 — 1957 

A history of oneS> century 
of JLolisk contribution to 
the i^ity oj CsJiicago, Illinois 

Published by 


Chicago, Illinois 

2 5", 2 ^' 



The Poles in Chicago Page 1 

By Miecislaus Haiman 


Hundred Years of Economic Contribution of the Poles 

to Chicago's Progress Page 11 

By Thaddeus J. Lubera 


The Rise of Poles in American Politics Page 21 

By Robert F. Lessel 


^Chicago Poles Share in City Art History Page 29 

By Jane J. Palczynska 


Contribution of Americans of Polish Ancestry , 

to the Development of Music in Chicago Page 55 

By Hyacinth M. Glomski 


The Amateur Theatre Among the Poles Page 67 

By Natalie Kunka 

The Polish Stage in Chicago Page 90 

By Halina J. Majewska 

Polish Churches of Chicago and Vicinity Page 95 


Polish Contribution to Social Welfare in Chicago— 

I. Institutions Maintained by Poles of Chicago Page 115 

By Al. Bak 

II. Works of Chicago Poles in Other Social 

Welfare Organizations Page 120 

By Thaddeus Slesinski 

III. Poles on the School Board Page 124 

By Thaddeus Lubera 

/ IV. Polish Secondary Schools Page 128 

V. Polish Language Supplementary Schools Page 134 

By A. M. Skibinska 


Polish Days and Other Demonstrations 

of Civic and National Character Page 137 


Early Days of Sport Among Polish Americans of Chicagoland. .Page 145 

By Casimir J. B. Wronski 

Polish Organizations of Chicago Pa S e 148 


/ Thrift Among the Poles Pa ^ e 183 

\ By John P. Grzemski 

Biographies Pa ^ e 189 

IN conjunction with the celebration of Chicago's Charter Jubilee, the 
six hundred thousand Chicago citizens of Polish descent dedicate this 
book to the generations of the future, who shall, we believe, find in this 
account of a noble people a source of inspiration to keep alive forever the 
true spirit of I WILL. 

To all the people of Chicago and the metropolitan area, we hope that this 
publication will prove interesting and informative, revealing as it does a 
century of social, economic, educational, religious and political contribution 
by the Polish people to the continuous upbuilding of Chicago. 

Our efforts in the historical research and study of Polish immigration to 
Chicago have met with an appreciable degree of cooperation and some meas- 
ure of success, and we are confident that a sound beginning of a valuable 
history is herein presented. We trust that this nucleus, and by no means an 
exhaustive study, of that interesting subject will prove an invitation to 
further research and historical interpretation of the data concerning Poles 
in Chicago. 

Furthermore, we hope that this publication shall serve as a happy source 
of memories regarding the celebration of Chicago's Charter Jubilee. To the 
end that those memories may vividly be recalled in the years to come, we 
respectfully submit this volume of historical reminiscences. 

Chairman, Book Committee. 

August 8, 1937. 

Edward J. Kelly, Mayof> 





August 4, 1957 


It is a genuine pleasure to extend to 
you my cordial greetings on the occasion of 
Polish Day of Chicago 1 s Charter Jubilee* and 
to express my deep appreciation to your com- 
mittee for its splendid efforts toward making 
Polish Day an outstanding success. 

Cooperation of" the kind given by your 
group constitutes the very foundation for the 
remarkable success and progress Chicago has 
enjoyed during its 100 years existence as a 

In addition, countless individuals of 
Polish birth or extraction have, all through 
our history, most unselfishly lent their personal, 
influential and financial support to make Chi- 
cago the great city it is today. To these civic 
patriots of the past, and those who carry on their 
fine traditions in the present day, Chicago is 
truly grateful. 

I share with you today the just pride 
you feel in the accomplishments of Polish blood 
in this great metropolitan city. May your good 
work continue increasingly for generations to 

Dr. Waclaw Gawronslti, Consul General of Poland 







August 4, 1937 

On the occasion of the Chicago 
Centennial Charter Jubilee I desire to extend 
my heartiest congratulations and wishes for 
further growth and development of this great 
Metropolis, in which 500,000 citizens of 
Polish parentage are participating and con- 
tributing their share. 


Dr. '.Yaclaw Gawronski 
Consul General of Poland 

Consulate of Republic of Poland 

Paid JDiymalsKi 

,,65'S CHARUa , ff 

33 N. LA SALLE S' 
ROOM 1 z I £ 



Mayor Eowaro j. Kslly 


August 10,1937 


S«»»B5* A&AKOW*K« 

I?ka» *, S. Bass 
SteSsvKev. M*ok,:Thob. 

PAPt, BttTf «At«ltt 


M. it AIWA 1 

. Job* KoxtH-A 

AX3&tJi>£ Mjt*ABe»VIC2 

Lso*f C. Nret*, 

J<»*a>»T.. <&•»£** 

K«v. M. N. S-rjiasirasKj 
Mraox E. fttxc-zxmta 
La»-kb»c« F. Zrc«Bw-r 

The greet Polish Pageant of Sunday 
evening, August 8th, eosaaemo rating Chicago's 
Charter Jubilee, will long remain a source 
of great pride to all Americans of Polish 
origin and ancestry, It was a manifestation 
of patriotic and civic sentiment which has 
few parallels in the history of our great 

As a record of this event, as well as that 
■of other Polish contributions to Chicago in 
its century of progress, we dedicate this 
volume, "Poles of Chicago, 18S?-19S7 W , to the 
generation of tomorrow, $ 



. Pc 

Chairman; Polish Division 
Chicago f, s Charter Jubilee 

Poles of Chicago 



By Miecislaus Haiman 

The patriotic •feelings of the citizens of Illinois will never fail of being 
emplified in practice and sincerity towards the descendants of those he,v, 
who spent their blood and treasure in establishing our independence 


THESE were the words in which a committee of eminent citizens of Chi- 
cago appealed to their "Fellow Citizens of the State of Illinois" on be- 
half of the Polish exiles, who came to the city in the autumn of 1834 
with plans of founding a "New Poland" in this state. 

The exiles were delegates of two hundred thirty-five Polish officers and 
soldiers deported to the United States by the Austrian government after the 
■fated "November Insurrection" of 1830-1. The Congress of the United 
States voted to grant them a whole township of land in Michigan or Illinois. 
The exiles encouraged by the most friendly expressions of Illinoisans decided 
on the latter state. 

Plans for establishing a purely Polish colony in Illinois came to naught. 
Many technical difficulties intervened, but above all the Poles were too poor 
for the undertaking. 

This episode is the beginning of the history of the Poles in Chicago. One 
of the Polish emmissaries who resided here for some time in 1834, was 
Major Louis Chlopicki, nephew of Gen. John Chlopicki, hero of the Napo- 
leonic wars and the dictator of the "November Insurrection." 

Ever since 1834 Poles were present among the inhabitants of Chicago. 
Driven from their native country by foreign oppression, many of them fought 
on various battlefields of Europe "for our freedom and yours," until they 
found in this country the refuge and liberty which they vainly sought in 

Page 2 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

other parts of the world. Many others came to America on account of econ- 
omical reasons, being deprived of the means of livelihood in their motherland 
by hostile governments. The rapidly growing city of Chicago attracted many 
of them. 

In the first mayoralty election of the city in 1837, two Poles cast their 
votes : A. Panakaske of the Second Ward, and J. Zoliski of the Sixth Ward, 
both of them for William B. Ogden. After 1850, the Polish colony in Chicago 
began to grow rapidly. In 1852, Dr. Jacob Cert, the first physician from 
Poland, settled in the city. Another early Polish physician was Dr. Edward 
Hartwich (Harwitch) who resided here since 1856. The earliest leader of the 
Chicago Polish colony was Edward Wilkoszewski, (b. 1824, d. 1883), adjutant 
of Garibaldi in his early struggles for the liberation of Italy. 

At the time of the Civil war there were already about five hundred Poles 
in the city. They stood patriotically by their country during this crisis. 
About two hundred Poles from Illinois, many of them from Chicago, served 
in the ranks of the Union army. The 24th Illinois Volunteer Infantry and in 
the 16th Cavalry Regiments especially, contained large numbers of Poles. 
Captain Bernard F. Stampoffski, veteran of the Mexican war and "an old and 
widely known citizen of Chicago," organized Company F of the Ninth Illi- 
nois Cavalry. Edmund T. Hulanicki of Chicago rose from a private to the 
rank of Captain in the Twelfth United States Heavy Artillery, and his broth- 
er, Captain Thaddeus C. Hulanicki, commanded Battery L of the Second Il- 
linois Light Artillery. 

A very fine record was made by Captain Peter Kiolbassa (b. 1837, d. 1905) 
of the Sixth Colored Cavalry. While yet a boy he was one of the pioneers of 
the Polish peasant colonies! in Texas. At the beginnig of the Civil war he 
served in the Confederate army. Taken prisoner in one of the battles, he en- 
listed with the Union army and rose to the rank of captain. After the war he 
became a recognized leader of the Chicago Poles. It was he who helped to 
organized the first local Polish Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka in 1864, thus 
giving the Polish colony the beginning of organized life. 

The memorable fire of 1871 brought comparatively small losses to the Po- 
lish colony. The Rev. Jerome Kajsiewicz, C.R. (b. 1812, d. 1873) who was 
visiting the city at that time, left a vivid account of the fire. It is given here 
for the first time in the English language and differs somewhat in detail 
from other known accounts : 

"Geese saved Rome, but a cow destroyed Chicago. A Bohemian boy was 
milking a cow in a barn full of woodchips. The cow overturned a lamp and 
the chips became ignited. The wooden houses of the Bohemians burnt quick- 
ly. The wind changed at 9:30 p. m. and swept the flames toward the river, 
then drove them over the river toward the rich section of the city, situated 
between the two branches of the river and the lake. Had the wind not 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO ~ 1917 Pase 3 

changed, the whole wooden part of the city and the whole Polish colony 
would have been destroyed. Large stone edifices, like the courthouse, and 
the post oitice burned as if made of wood. Spirits, oil and other combustibles 
ignited. From the tower of our church (St. Stanislaus) I saw the fire like 
ocean waves surge high and then spread to the right and left. Whole blocks 
of houses were blown up by mines to arrest the onward rush of this flaming 
sea, but to no avail. The wind set fire to houses several blocks ahead. Many 
thought that the whole world was in flames. Some from terror, others 
through despair at their loss of all their possessions, jumped into the 'river or 
lake. The bridges caught fire and were opened in an effort to save them 
People crowded into the river tunnels in the dark (the gas supply was shut 
off). Wagons and people moved about in confusion. They formed a crying 
shrieking and cursing mass, wounding and trampling one another Thieves 
and pickpockets added to the chaos. Professional robbers from New York and 
other cities hastened by train in the hope of finding easy loot. When the pri- 
son caught fire, all inmates were released. Thieves masked as policemen and 
others acted as incendiaries. Several of them were hanged by citizens on 
lamp posts. The Chief of Police sanctioned this by printed announcements 
and Gen. Sheridan, who arrived later with troops from St. Louis, proclaimed 
martial law. As to our Poles from among nine members of the "Gmina " 
five were burned, Mr. Dziewior, father-in-law of Mr. Kiolbassa lost fiv~ 
houses; a number of Polish laborers also suffered losses. For some time they 
were housed in the Polish school and in the basement of the church. Air Ma- 
jewski, an emigrant of 1830, lost two children and three grandchildren- 
another Pole from Warsaw, two children. The Princes Sapieha, bankers' 
came through without a loss; the fire stopped several houses from their 
dwelling. One hundred thousand people, mostly Germans and Scandinavians 
on the North Side, lost their homes. The fire raged throughout an area four 
and a half miles long and a half mile wide. Eighteen thousand buildings 
among them 15,000 business houses, were destroyed. Losses were estimated 
at $300,000,000." 


Period from 1837 to 1872 

; Nevertheless, the indomitable spirit of I WILL pervaded all the citizens 
in their efforts to rebuild their stricken metropolis. The Polish element aided 
in these efforts in a very effective manner, rebuilding homes, erecting new 
ichurches, schools, stores and factories. 

The Poles are mostly Catholics and their desire to be served by their own 
priests was profound as early as the Civil war. The result of their efforts in 
this direction was the organization of the first Polish parish, the beautiful 
St. Stanislaus Kostka church, at Noble and Bradley streets, in 1867. The 
first rector of the parish was Rev. Joseph Juszkiewicz, but the greatest 

Page 4 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

expansion look place during the pastorate of Rev. Vincent Barzynski, C.R. 
(1838 — 1899). Under his leadership the parish grew into the largest Catholic 
parish in the world, and at one time it numbered approximately fifty differ- 
ent church societies, some of which contained as many as four thousand 
members. By 1899 St. Stanislaus parish alone numbered 50,000 members. 

In 1872, the second Polish parish, Holy Trinity, at Noble and Chapin 
streets, was founded, and from that time Polish Catholic parishes grew rap- 
idly in numbers, until at present there are forty-four within the city limits, 
besides religious communities of other denominations. 

The territory of these early parishes, St. Stanislaus Kostka and Holy 
Trinity, was the cradle of the Polish colony in Chicago, and although Poles 
now live in all parts of the city, it still remains the center of Polish life. 

Period from 1875 to 1937 

The political events and economic depressions in Europe in the last thirty 
years of the nineteenth century led to the influx of large numbers of immi- 
grants to our shores. 

The policy of Bismarck to exterminate the Polish element in Prussia; 
the various ukases of the czar of Russia; and the policy of indolence of Au- 
stria toward their Polish subjects caused a large number of the Polish people 
to emigrate to the United States. 

According to official statistics for 1873, there were 20,000 Poles in Chicago. 
Seventeen years later, Chicago had 52,756, but many Poles were classified 
then as Germans, Russians and Austrians, since Poland did not exist as a 
separate political entity. 

With the increased number of Poles in Chicago their activity, in various 
fields of civic life became more manifest and effective. 

In 1872, the first Polish weekly, the "Gazeta Polska," published by Wla- 
dyslaw Dyniewicz (b. 1843, d. about 1924), appeared in Chicago. John Ba- 
rzynski (1848—1886), brother of the Reverend Vincent, began publication 
of another weekly, the ''Gazeta Polska Katolicka," in 1874. Still another 
pioneer of the Polish press was Wladyslaw Smulski (1836—1897), with his 
"Gazeta Katolicka" and "Dzien Swiety." 

In 1890, Father Barzynski founded the Chicago Polish Daily News 
("Dziennik Chicagoski"), which has existed to this day and is the second 
oldest Polish daily in America. There are two other Polish dailies in Chi- 
cago : the "Dziennik Zwiazkowy" of the Polish National Alliance and "Dzien- 
nik Zjednoczenia" of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. Apart from these, 
many weeklies and monthly periodicals are published here. Among the 
pioneer editors who won prominence we find Stanislaus Szwajkart (1857- 
1918); Casimir Neuman (1843—1907), a commissioned officer of the Polish 
army in the insurrection of 1863; Stanislaw Osada (1869 — 1934). 

±8y7_-riP_QLES_pj CHICAGO — 1 93 7 Pave J 

Educational and Welfare Institutions 

Father Barzynski was responsible for another institution, St. Stanislaus' 
College, founded in 1891 and now known as Weber High School-the first 
Polish secondary school in the city. Besides the parochial schools in each of 
the parishes, there are now six high schools of various religious orders 
whose indefatigable labors have contributed so much to the advancement of 
the Polish element in Chicago. 

The oldest Polish hospital in the city, St. Mary's of Nazareth, founded in 
1894 and conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. St. 
Joseph's Home for the Aged was established in 1898 by the Polish Fran- 
ciscan Sisters of St. Kunegunda. St. Hedwig's Orphanage at Niles 111. was 
founded in 1910 by the Most Rev. Paul P. Rhode, bishop of Green Bay, Wis., 
then auxiliary bishop of Chicago. Consecrated in 1908, he was the first Ro- 
man Catholic bishop of Polish origin in the United States. 

Taking Part in Politics 

To Peter Kiolbassa belongs the honor of having been the first Po 1 e to suc- 
ceed in local politics. He was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1877 and 
subsequently held many offices. An inspiring proof of his sterling honesty 
was the fact that he was the first city treasurer (1891-93) to return the in- 
terest on city funds to the treasury, which was contrary to the old practice 
of keeping it for private use while in office. 

Following the lead of Peter Kiolbassa, the Chicago Poles took an ever 
growing interest in politics. Victor Karlowski, veteran of the Polish insur- 
rection of 1863 and of the French Foreign Legion in Algiers, was called to 
the legislature in 1885-6. August J. Kowalski was the first alderman in 1888. 
Max A. Drezmal. translator of several works by Sienkiewicz, was the first 
to be appointed to the board of education in 1894. Edmund Z. Brodowski 
(1852-1901), editor of the local weekly "Zgoda," was the first Pole to re- 
ceive a federal appointment as United States consul to Solingen, Germany, 
in 1897, a post he held until his death. The first to attain a judiciary bench 
was Joseph La Buy (1846-1916), a veteran of the Civil war, who was 
elected muncipal judge in 1912. Stanley H. Kunz was the first Chicago Pole 
to be elected to the state senate and to Congress. Many others rendered 
faithful service in the various posts in the city, state and federal administra- 

The first commanding figure among early Poles engaged in politics was 
John F. Smulski (1867-1928), a born leader, lawyer and banker, the first to be 
elected (1903) to the office of city attorney. In 1906, he was elected state 
treasurer and like Kiolbassa, proved his exceptional honesty by turning over 
the interest money to the state. 

Page 6 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Chicago — the Home of Nation-wide Organizations 

Because of its large Polish population and its central location, Chicago 
early became the home of the most important Polish organizations, espe- 
cially of nation-wide fraternal corporations. The oldest of these is the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, founded in 1873, now numbering 170,000 members. 
The Polish National Alliance, the largest Polish organization in the world 
and one of the largest fraternal incorporations in the country, boasts a mem- 
bership of nearly 300,000. The Polish Women's Alliance, founded by Steph- 
anie Chmielinska in 1898, has over 60,000 members. The Polish Alma Ma- 
ter, of which Rev. Francis Gordon was founder, has a membership of 15,000. 
The Polish Singers' Alliance, the Alliance of Polish Literary and Dramatic 
Circles, have their headquarters in Chicago, where you will find 1931 other 
associations— benevolent, cultural, professional, civic, social and athletic. 


Some Interesting Statistics 

In 1918, the population numbered 383,000 Poles, 29,630 of whom owned 
their own homes, valued at $335,000,000; 35,909 children were enrolled in 
the parochial schools of 38 Polish parishes with a property valuation of 
$10,383,000; and 4,098 Polish business establishments were listed. 

In 1928, the number of Poles rose to 424,735, with 33.767 owning their 
own homes, valued at $389,955,000; 52,221 children were enrolled in the 
schools of Polish parishes, increased to 41, with a property valuation of 
$24,560,000; and the value of Polish business property was listed at approxi- 
mately $29,000,000. 

According to the latest statistics, there are now over half a million people 
of Polish descent in Chicago, forming one of the largest nationalistic group in 
the city. For that reason Chicago is sometimes called the "capital" of Ameri- 
can Poles. The large nation-wide organizations, with their home offices in 
Chicago, exert a strong influence on Polish life in America, through their 
leadership in cultural and patriotic activities. 

Nearlv all Polish undertakings of consequence in this country either orig- 
inate in' or are directed from Chicago. Casimir Zychlinski (1859-1927), who 
for nearly two decades held the office of president of the Polish National 
Alliance;' Theodore Helinski (1854-1921), also an official of the Alliance; 
Nicodemus L. Piotrowski (1863-1932), also president of the Polish Roman 
Catholic Union and at one time city attorney, Bishop Rhode and John F. 
Smulski, were all recognized as Polish American leaders of national and, 
as in the case of Smulski, of international repute. 

The Poles saw in every war a possibility of freeing their native land from 
the oppressor. Their strong belief that the late World war would bring about 
a renascent Poland, is one of the reasons of their enthusiastic support of the 

j 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 p age 7 

United States government. The part played by them in the World war is 
thus described by Ignace Jan Paderswski, a genius of international fame : 

"No other nationality here in the United States has taken so active a part 
in the Red Cross campaign as the Poles. In proportion to their numbers they 
have been the largest contributors to this worthy cause. In one American 
city of 300,000 population $3,750,000 has been collected for the American 
Red Cross, which represents $12.50 per capita, which included a number of 
Amer'can miTionaires. The Polish population of the same city, 7.000 people, 
a'mcst exlusively belonging to the laboring class, contributed to the fund 
$160,000. which makes $23 per person. 

"From reliable sources it appears that in one mining district in Pennsyl- 
vania alone the poor Polish miners have subscribed $11,000,000 to the Third 
Liberty Lean. One single Polish bank in Chicago received over 15,000 Polish 
subscriptions exceeding $1,500,000. In every large city in America with Po- 
lish population the number of Polish subscribers has been very large, not- 
withstanding the fact that the number of Polish subscribers working' with 
large American concerns could not be taken into account. 
Chicago Poles in World War 

"The Polish boys were the first and most numerous to respond when the 
call to arms was sounded. Their willingness to enlist and fight under the 
American flag won repeated praise from the highest military authorities in 
this country. There is not one casualty list that does not contain some 
names of American soldiers of Polish birth who paid the supreme sacrifice 
on the battlefields of France. The average number killed exceeded twelve 
percent. And as there are not quite four percent of Polish people among the 
population of the United States this fact indicates that the Poles in that war 
were doing more than three times their share, that they were not one-hun- 
dred, but three-hundred percent American." 

The first Chicago boy killed in this war was a Pole, Peter Wojtalewicz 
of Company G, Eighteenth Infantry. His memory was honored by a special 
resolution of the city council. Two Polish boys one from Chicago, the other 
from Milwaukee, captured the first German prisoner taken by the American 
Army in France. Altogether about ten thousand Poles from Chicago served 
under the American flag on the battlefields of the World war. 

Ihe Polish National Committee, with headquarters in Chicago, under the 
leadership of Ignace J. Paderewski, John F. Smulski and Bishop Rhode, 
enlisted nearly all the American Poles in the cause of democracy. This Com- 
mittee formed the central body of Polish organizations throughout the coun- 
try, coordinating all Polish war activities. Besides doing their duty toward 
America in a "three hundred percent" way, the Committee also helped to or- 
ganize the Polish Army in France, the purpose of which was to fight for the 

Page 8 J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

freedom of Poland. About 25,000 American Poles, among them approxi- 
mately 3,000 Polish volunteers from Chicago, served in this army. Millions 
of dollars in cash and materials were collected by the Committee for the re- 
habilitation of Poland. 


Cultural Contributions 

The Polish element in Chicago contributed richly to the artistic advance- 
ment of our city. The earliest local Polish musician was probably Sylwester 
Lawinski, a very fine violinist, who opened a music store on State street, 
near 12th St., about 1866, and conducted it for many years. Another dis- 
tinguished Polish musician was Count Napoleon Ledochowski, pianist and 
painter, who settled here in 1870, and opened a Conservatory of Music. 
Among other Polish artists were Anthony Mallek (b. 1861, d. 1917), an able 
organist and composer, Agnes Nering (b. 1876, d. 1922) who won well de- 
served fame as a singer; and Thaddeus Zukotynski, an early Polish painter 
(b. ab. 1860, d. ab. 1910), pupil of the renowned Matejko. His beautiful 
murals and pictures still adorn many Polish churches in Chicago and vicinity. 
Sister Mary Stanisia of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, a contemporary 
Polish American artist, was a pupil of Zukotynski. Casimir Chodzinski (b. 
1861, d. 1919) was the sculptor of Kosciuszko's monument in Chicago and 
of Pulaski's in Washington, D. C. Felicia Benda Modjeska (b. ab. 1870, d. 
1936), was also a very fine Polish sculptress. 

The first Polish drama was performed in the city in 1873 by the "Gmina 
Polska," the second oldest Polish local society. 

The first book by a Polish author to be published in Chicago was "Poets 
and Poetry of Poland" by Paul Sobolewski (b. 1818, d. 1884), veteran of the 
Polish Revolution of 1831. This work, printed by Knight and Leonard and 
published for the first time in 1881, went through several editions and is 
still quite popular. Other local Polish writers wrote for the most part in 
Polish. Among them, Szczesny Zahajkiewicz (b. 1861, d. 1917), a highly 
talented poet, deserves special mention. Dr. Anna Wyczolkowska (b. 1870, 
d. 1929) published several works in the fields of psychology, both in Polish 
and English. She was also a talented musician. Several Polish free public 
libraries are maintained by various organizations. The largest, supported 
by the Polish National Alliance, contains about 20,000 volumes ; The Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, besides a library of 7,000 volumes, maintains the 
Polish Archives and Museum, initiated by its President Joseph L. Kania, in 
1935. This institution houses a large collection of material pertaining to the 
history of Poles in the United States. 

The Poles also contributed talent from beyond Chicago to ennoble the life 
of the city. In 1876, Henryk Sienkiewicz, the famous author of "Quo Vadis," 
visited the city. In his "Listy z Podrozy," (Letters of Travel) he left a very 

• 1837 — POLES OF C HICAGO— 19 37 Page 9 

enthusiastic, though brief, description of the city, then just rising from the 
ashes of the great fire. In 1878, Helena Modjeska (b. 1840, d. 1909), the great 
Shakespearean actress, performeed for the first time in Chicago, and was de- 
lighted with the city. "It was wonderful to hear Modjeska play," says Edgar 
Lee Masters in his reminiscences. Probably the first Polish traveling musi- 
cian to give a concert in the city was Henry Wieniawski (b. 1835, d. 1880), 
the famous violinist, who visited Chicago in 1872. Madame Marcella Sem- 
brich-Kochanska, brilliant opera singer, made her Chicago debut at the Au- 
ditorium about 1890 with great success. Ignace Jan Paderewski played here 
for the first time in 1891. He said at the time: "As to the cities of the Great 
West, Chicago is perhaps the most sensitively responsive to the charm of 
music." The famous singers, Jean and Edouard de Reszke, performed in a 
series of operas that same year. To them, according to Clara Leiser, their 
biographer, belongs the honor of inaugurating "The Golden Age of Music" 
in Chicago. In the last several decades other Polish musicians and singers 
have won acclaim and among Chicago contemporaries, there are many highly 
talented artists of Polish origin. 

This brief skeach on the Poles in Chicago is best summarized by the fol- 
lowing excerpts from one of the appeals issued recently by the Polish Com- 
mittee of the Chicago Centenary Day celebration, appointed by the Hon. Ed- 
ward J. Kelly, Mayor. 

"We, Poles, have played an important part in the life and growth of Chi- 
cago. We comprise the largest foreign nationality group here, and are 
splendidly organized. We maintain the greatest number of schools and 
churches of our own. We have a prominent place in business, politics and 
science. We have talented artists, excellent choirs, our own press and our 

"A very great part of Chicago was built by the Polish people. Numerous 
machines and implements, which are produced in the factories of Chicago, 
are the output of Polish workmen. There probably is not one public affair 
in which the Poles do not participate according to their ability. We are 
fulfledged and well deserving citizens of Chicago, entitled to all the privileges 
of citizenship." 


A. T. Andreas, History of Chicago, Chicago, 1886, 4 vols. ; Fremont O. 
Bennett, Politics and Politicians of Chicago, Chicago, 1886; Robert Fergus, 
Directory of the City of Chicago, 1839, Chicago, 1876; Robert Fergus, Di- 
rectory of the City of Chicago, 1843, Chicago, 1896; Paul Fox, The Poles in 
America, New York, 1922; John Gager, Chicago City Directory, 1857, Chi- 

Page 10 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

cago, 1856; Mieczyslaw Haiman, "Historja Udzialu Polakow w Amerykan- 
skiej Wojnie Domowej, Chicago, 1928; Mieczyslaw Haiman, Polacy w Ame- 
ryce, Chicago, n. d. ; E. H. Hall, Chicago City Directory and Business Ad- 
vertiser, 1855-6, Chicago, 1855; E. H. Hall, Chicago City Directory, 1854-55, 
Chicago, 1854; O. P. Hatheway and J. H. Taylor, Chicago City Directory 
and Annual Advertiser for 1849-1850, Chicago, 1849; Henry H. Hurlbut, 
Chicago Antiquities, Chicago, 1881 ; W. C. Jenkins, "Chicago's Pageant of 
Nations — Nearly Half a Million Poles," The Chicago Evening Post, No- 
vember 30, 1929; Ks. Waclaw Kruszka, Historja Polska w Ameryce, Mil- 
waukee, 1905, 13 vols. ; Clara Leiser, Jean de Reszke and the Great Days of 
Opera, New York, 1934; Lloyd Lewis and Henry Justin Smith, Chicago, 
The History of Its Reputation, New York, 1929; MSS, No. 424, V. of the 
Rapperswyl Library, Warszawa, Poland ; Edgar Lee Masters, The Tale of 
Chicago, New York, 1933; Helena Modejska, Memories and Impressions, 
New York, 1910; Anna Morgan, My Chicago, Chicago, 1918; Henryk Na- 
giel, Dziennikarstwo Polskie w Ameryce, Chicago, 1894; F. Niklewicz, Po- 
lacy w Stanach Zjednoczonych, Green Bay, 1937; J. W. Norris, Business Di- 
rectory and Statistics of the City of Chicago for 1846, Chicago, 1883 ; Stani- 
siaw Osada, Prasa i Publicystyka Polska w Ameryce, Pittsburgh, 1930 ; Sta- 
nislaw Osada, Historja Zwiazku Narodowego Polskiego, Chicago, 1905 ; Sta- 
nislaw Osada, Jak Si? Ksztaltowala Polska Dusza Wychodzcza w Ameryce, 
Pittsburgh, 1930; Charles Phillips, Paderewski, the Story of a Modern Im- 
mortal, New York, 1933 ; "Poles in Chicago," The Eleanor Record, Chicago, 
vol. XIX, Jan. 1933, No. 1; Poles in America, Their Contribution to a Cen- 
tury of Progress, Polish Day Association, Chicago, 1933 ; Przeglad Koscielny, 
Chicago, vol. V, 1918, p. 423; Mrs. Isaac D. Rawlings, "Polish Exiles in Illi- 
nois," Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1927; 
Publ. no. 34, Danville, 1927 ; Eugen Seeger, Chicago, Die Geschichte einer 
Wunderstadt, Chicago, 1892; Felix Seroczynski, "Poles in the United States," 
The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. X ; John Dawson Gilmary Shea, A Child's 
History of the United States, New York, 1872, vol. II, pp. 408-415! Henryk 
Sienkiewicz, Pisma, Warszawa, 1899, vol. IV, Dr. Mieczyslaw Szawlecki, 
Wychodztwo Polskie w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki, Lwow, 1924; An- 
thony C. Tomczak, "Four Hundred Thousand Poles," Tte Quarterly Maga- 
zine, Loyola University, Chicago, vol. XXIX, Autumn, 1930, no. 1 ; Anthony 
C. Tomczak, "The Poles in Chicago," Poland, New York. vol. XII, January 
1931, No. 1; Karol Wachtel, Dzieje Zjednoczenia Polskiego Rzymsko-Kato- 
lickiego, Chicago, 1913; Arthur L. Waldo, Stefania Eminowicz, Chicago, 
1937; A. M. Waterman, Historical Review of Chicago and Cook County, 
Chicago and New York, 1908, 3 vols. ; files of Polish newspapers of Chicago ; 
jubilee books of Chicago Polish parishes and institutions; grateful acknowl- 
edgement is given to Mr. Edgar Lee Masters of New York and The Mac- 
millan Company for their permission to ?'se copyrighted material. 



By Thaddeus J. Lubera 

THE scope of this topic presents, in view of limited time allowed, a dif- 
ficult if not too arduous an assignment. The research and evaluation 
of primary and secondary sources, scarce and limited as they may be, 
require at least two years of consistent and perseverant study — not a month 
or two. 

In view of these facts, the author presents a brief, perhaps too limited, a 
study of the economic contributions of the Americans of Polish antecedent 
to the growth of Chicago. 

Period from 1837 to 1865 

During the early stages of Polish immigration in Chicago, the Poles con- 
stituted chiefly an army of political exiles and workers seeking employment 
and settlement wherever it could be found. Their qualifications for business 
and industry consisted of good intentions, hard work, and vision, but lack- 
ing in capital and knowledge of language they met with handicaps in their 
efforts. Nevertheless, their success was apparent. 

Of course, the first thing they had to do was to get a firm footing in their 
new land, also establish homes, and accumulate surplus capital. Beginning 
cautiously, they started to use their working capital first in small enterprise 
and gradually expanded as they accumulated sufficient capital. 

During this period, we find Louis Karlinski, established in tobacco and 
cigar business at Lake and Dearborn Streets ; Henry Leibka, a chair maker, 
at Division and Branch street; Charles" Krosowski, saddle and leather busi- 
ness, at 39 North La Salle St., and Ferdinand Lubicki, a mason contractor, 
located on Wells and Van Buren Streets. 

By degrees, the Poles expanded commercially. Between the years of 1846 
and 1857, there were twenty-one business ventures in Polish hands. These 
ranged from cabinet works to confectioners, including lithography, clothing, 
shoe stores, picture frames and consulting engineering. 

Page 12 / 83 7 — POLKS OF CHICAGO— 7937 

The most active person in the economic development of Poles in Chicago 
in the years 1846 to the Civil War, was a land agent, Captain Bernard Stem- 
poffski, whose office was located at 73 W. Randolph Street. His effective 
guidance and advice in land values proved to be a source of aid to people 
who sought business counsel. 

Early Professional Endeavors 

During the first twenty to thirty years of the early Polish settlement in 
Chicago, there was a great scarcity of Polish professional men. The Polish 
immigrant in need of professional services had to resort to physicians and 
lawyers of other nationalities. This state of things was inevitable. Given 
necessary time, the Polish population gradually developed a class of business 
and professional men, brought up in our American atmosphere and trained 
in American institutions, wide awake, energetic and increasingly efficient, 
with qualities for service and leadership. Among the first were : Dr. Jacob 
Cerf, who settled in this city in 1852, followed by Dr. Edward Hartwich, 
who had lived in Chicago since 1856. Among other distinguished profes- 
sional men were : Count Napoleon Ledochowski, pianist, who settled here in 
1870 and founded a conservatory of music, also Sylvester Lewinsky a very 
fine violinist, who opened a music store in 1866, on State near 12th Street 
and conducted it for many years, and Alexander Fenesewski, consulting en- 
gineer, with offices at 238 N. Clark Street. 

Period from 1870 to 1900 

During this period conditions in Europe were becoming acutely intolerable 
for the Poles. There were economic, social, religious and political persecu- 
tions. In view of these conditions, thousands of Poles emigrated to the 
United States. The city of Chicago, a growing} metropolis, welcomed many 
of them. Thus bv 1873, there were 20,000 Poles in Chicago. 

These new immigrants were industrious and a very thrifty class of people. 
In their homeland, the Polish peasant's supreme ambition is to own a piece 
of land. When he comes to America, he brings that supreme ambition with 
him. He works, denies himself, and saves, in order that he may some day 
have a home of his own, and a patch of ground around that home. Conse- 
quently, the Poles are essentially home owners. By 1887, according to the 
Chicago Tribune survey at that time, the Poles in Chicago owned real estate 
valued at ten million dollars. 

Among the most prominent business ventures during this period were : 
Anton Klimek's Furniture Store, at 631 Noble St., Francis Paszkiewicz's 
General Store at 630 Noble St., coal business owned by Messrs. A. P. Behnke 
and Paul Drymalski, at North Avenue and Coventry Street, W. Szvmanski, 

• 1837 — PO LES OF C HICAGO-- 1937 Page 13 

general store established in 1877, a clothing store owned by F. Nowaczewski, 
located at 289 12th Street, near Halsted, Kaminski's shoe store, established 
in 1876, at 491 Milwaukee Ave., Bardonski's drug store, at 638 Noble St., 
Mikitynski and Anton gowinski furniture stores and others, too numerous 
to mention. All in all, the Poles in Chicago possessed ninety-three large busi- 
ness enterprises between the years of 1873 and 1895. These numerous stores 
operated by the Poles covered practically every branch of business, and some 
of the enterprises rivaled in variety, quantity, quality of stock and prices, 
some of the better known downtown stores. 

As time went on, a larger number would leave their factory jobs and go 
into business for themselves. Among the many who ventured into business 
endeavors were: Casimir Fritsch, undertaker, J. P. Kwiatkowski, house 
mover, August Kunkel, A. Sherman and others. 

The oldest Polish industry in Chicago is the clothing industry. It dates 
back to the Civil War when D. Wilkowski established the first clothing 
factory at 155 W. Lake Street. The cause of the rise is evidently to be looked 
for in the large demand for clothing at that time, as during the World War, 
and in the resulting high wages and big profits. Next in point of time, en- 
gaging the business attention of Poles is building and house moving, followed 
by brewing, the manufacturing of cigars, baking and meat marketing; in 
more recent years, groceries, meat markets, dram shops, photography, dairy 
business, furniture, haberdashery and women's clothing, the latter only to a 
small extent, up to 1900. As Polish business opportunities increased, so Po- 
lish population has been greatly stimulated and has taken big strides for- 


The Parish was an Aid to Business 

During this middle period, from 1865 to 1900, the Poles began to organize 
around their parishes and fraternal organizations. This fact had a significant 
economic effect. By 1867, the first Polish parish was established, Saint 
Stanislaus Kostka Church, at Noble and Bradley Streets. Obviously, then, 
the population shifted and became concentrated about the parish and for this 
reason, many of the early business establishments were located in the vicinity 
of the intersection of Milwaukee Avenue and West Division Street. In 1872, 
the second Polish parish, Holy Trinity, was founded, and, consequently, 
urgent demands for real estate and other branches of economic needs of the 
community were in evidence. With the development of parishes, there were 
established educational, charitable] and social institutions. These required a 
heavy outlay of money. Among the foremost were : Saint Stanislaus College, 
founded in 1891 ; Holy Family Academy for girls, founded in 1887 ; Saint 
Mary of Nazareth Hospital in 1894 and the Saint Joseph's Home for the 

p *g e I 4 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Aged in 1898. These were founded without any endowment, and from, the 
very start, were and are yet self-sustaining. 

Because of the increasingly large Polish population and its geographical 
location, Chicago during this middle period became the home of the most 
important Polish national and religious organizations. In 1873, the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union was founded, followed by the Polish National Al- 
liance in 1880, and the Polish Women's Alliance in 1898. Polish Felcons, the 
Polish Alma Mater and the Polish Businessmen's Association and others 

This rapid economic expansion of the Polish element between 1870 and 
1900, was temporarily halted by three depressions from which effects the 
entire country suffered, particularly the one in 1893. 

In predominant number, the Polish business man operated with a small 
capital and too frequently served only the local community trade, depending 
in large measure upon his people. The depressions caused a fall in trade due 
to lay-offs in the factories; hence, in some respects, business retrogressed 
and in a few instances failed. 

The Press Helps Business 

With the increasingly rapid growth of Polish population in Chicago the 
need for Polish newspapers became apparent. And in 1872, a weekly, the 
"Gazeta Polska" appeared in Chicago, followed by "Gazeta Polska Katolic- 
ka," in 1874. In 1890, Rev. V. Barzynski founded "Dziennik Chicagoski," 
others followed, "Dziennik Narodowy," "Dziennik Zwiazkowy," "Dziennik 

Ludowy" and "Dziennik Zjednoczenia," all dailies, as well as several week- 

These newspapers have made a significant contribution to the economic 
development among the Poles in Chicago. They have served richly by their 
editorial policies dealing with business; by their advertisements of trade, indi- 
cating values, locations of stores and guidance incident to business. These 
newspapers were of immense value to the purchaser, the buyer and the in- 
vestor, creating confidence, "business sense" and progress. 

Period from 1900 to 1918 

With the opening of the 20th Century economic conditions in the United 
States were progressing slowly but steadily. The Spanish-American War 
gave business some impetus, but the series of strikes and the various tariff 
policies were factors which caused uncertainties in the commercial world. 

The Polish business, industrial and commercial enterprises had, during 
the early period of the century, adjusted themselves easily to the trend of the 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 937 Page IS 

times, due to the conservative business characteristics which mark the Polish 

However, because of the large immigration to Chicago and the high birth- 
rate, the Polish population increased by large numbers. In 1918, it numbered 
383,000 in Chicago. This large group organized in thirty-eight parishes, with 
35,909 children in the parochial schools, and church property valued at 
$10,363,000, was an important factor in the city's growth. Significant of no- 
tice is the fact that by 1918 there were 4,096 Polish business industrial and 
commercial enterprises. Then, too, 26,630 Poles owned their homes, whose 
total value amounted to $335,000,000. In taxes alone on this property, the Po- 
lish people made a heavy contribution to Chicago's development. 

During the war, this national group, citizens and loyal supporters of Chi- 
cago's progressive plans, subscribed in huge number to Liberty Bonds, War 
Saving Stamps, Municipal and State Bonds. Their savings accounts and real 
estate investments ran well up in millions of dollars. 

Interesting to note is the fact that the young people of the Polish element 
developed at this time consciousness for economic progress. The result of 
this attitude was the large enrollment in high schools, academies, colleges, 
evening schools and universities in the commercial and professional courses. 
They sought advancement in the commercial world, primarily on their merit, 
knowledge of business principles and organization. Out of this zeal and in- 
terest there developed a number of large Polish commercial enterprises, such 
as wholesale meats, carpet manufacturing, flour mills, cartage contracting, 
building contracting, coal companies, automobile sales, laundry business, 
wholesale groceries and breweries. 

As a result of high wages during the World War and consequent greater 
accumulations of surplus capital as well as allurement of great business 
profits, the ten years from 1919 to 1929, witnessed a tremendous develop- 
ment of Polish business in Chicago. 

According to the statistics of 1928, the number of Poles rose to 424,725 ; 
there were forty-one Polish parishes and 52,221 children in parochial schools; 
the value of parochial buildings was $24,655,000; also significant of notice is 
the fact, that 33,767 Poles owned homes in Chicago, valued at $389,955,000; 
the value of Polish stores and factories was approximately $29,000,000. 

Moreover, the professional ranks among the Polish citizens of Chicago rose 
to 394; the local lodges numbered 1391 with assets over $200,000,000 in in- 
surance and cash. 

The Building and Loan Associations which were a great contributing fac- 
tor in the economic development of the Polish element in Chicago numbered 
115. These organizations loaned money to home investors and presented an 
opportunity, by nature of their plan, to thousands of citizens to save syste- 
matically each week, eventually making possible ownership of a home. These 
savings, in 1928, amounted to $366,720,000. 

Page 16 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

The number of Poles employed in the various commercial enterprises 
numbered 30,943 distributed in the following manner as indicated by the 
accompanying tables : 


(Statistics by St. Osada— P. R. C. U. Daily, June 2, 1928) 
Commercial Enterprises 

Table One 

Kind of Business No. Persons Employed Value 

Small stores 3000 3000 $900,000 

Pedlers 1000 1000 500,000 

Small grocers 1500 1500 1,200,000 

Large grocery stores . 1000 3000 2,500,000 

Meat markets 1000 2500 750,000 

Chain stores 45 150 150,000 

Sausage stores 300 1000 350,000 

Soft drink shops 1000 1500 1,500,000 

Shoe stores 175 250 825,000 

Furniture 40 120 1,500,000 

Men's clothing 10 25 350,000 

Dry goods 125 250 500,000 

Haberdashers 30 50 150,000 

Women's Apparel 35 150 200,000 

Book stores 3 15 75,000 

Flowers 50 75 250,000 

Music stores 3a 50 250,000 

Hardware— Paints 600 900 1,500,000 

Rugs — Linoleums 15 35 200,000 

Jewelry— Watches 35 40 200,000 

Drug stores 250 750 2,000,000 

Department Stores 4 20 250,000 

Total 10,247 16,380 $16,200,000 

This represents twenty-two various enterprises in which Poles invested 
their savings, and by and large succeeded. In reference to the chain stores, 
there is one firm of 45 stores, the Novak Meat Markets, operating annuallv 
with a capital of $150,000.00. 

Needless to say that during the depression of 1930 to 1934, these enter- 
prises had decreased in value and in number of employed. However, with the 
coming of the normal business cycle, they undoubtedly are showing a turn 
for the better and are "holding their own." 

The following table indicates another type of business establishments in 
1928 (figures in close approximation) : 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 17 

Table Two 

Kinds No. No. Employed Value 

Bakeries 500 1000 $400,000 

Restaurants 150 1000 120 000 

Tailor shops 1000 2750 350,000 

Shoe repairs 750 1000 750^000 

Painting contractors 150 500 

Beauty parlors 1000 2000 500,000 

Photographers 50 50 50000 

Undertakers 250 600 1,750,000 

Real estate offices 1000 3000 

Total 4850 11,900 3,900,000 

The tables indicates no value for painting contractors or real estate offices 
because of the relative flexibility of values involved. The data also indicate 
a large number of beauty parlors, all of which are operated by Polish men 
and women who previously were engaged in other establishments or worked 
days and studied evenings in recognized beauty culture schools. These young 
people left their factory and office jobs, and with small capital and desire to 
render satisfactory service, are successful in their venture. 

In the process of economic investments, the Poles having learned many 
sound business practices by experience and competition, decided to inau- 
gurate a policy of business expansion. This resulted in wholesale and co- 
operative trade policies, the number of which is indicated by the following 


Table Three 

Kinds No. No. Employed Value 

Miscellaneous 55 850 $2,845,000 

Automobile trade 20 250 

Printin £ - 75 250 1,200,000 

Miscellaneous wholesale 10 300 1 100 000 

Wholesale lumber 2 50 750 000 

Wholesale coal 4 150 l,5(X)!oOO 

Laundries 3 150 WoOO 

Milk dairies 6 400 1,000,000 

Casket manufacturing 2 100 500^000 

Cooperatives 5 72 510,000 

Corporations 1 70 50^000 

Total 182 2642 9,950,000 


Page 18 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

The cooperatives are partnerships based on common stock of shares bought 
by individuals. The five indicated by the table represent two clothing manu- 
facturing; two cleaners and dyers and one wholesale bakery, the Polish 
Grocers Baking Company. Other cooperatives are represented by the Illinois 
Cleaners and Dyers and Liberty Clothing Company. The corporation is rep- 
resented by the Chicago Cleaners and Dyers, a fast growing corporation. 
Items under miscellaneous and miscellaneous wholesale include all business 
not specifically mentioned. 

Decline of Values and Further Progress 

The so-called boom times from 1925 to December 1929, caused exagge- 
rated values to be placed on all economic goods. In the foregoing tables, in- 
dicating Polish industry in Chicago, the then current worth was estimated 
as per index of 1928. This index is no longer in operation, and in a'l proba- 
bility never again shall be used to gauge the value of economic goods. 

Living in a progressive metropolis such as Chicago, the Polish business 
and investing element were inspired by the spirit of time, and equally with 
their neighbors, found the stocks, mortgage and gold bond investments a 
lucrative field. But upon the crash of these and the closing of banks, the 
values of all investments declined swiftly. The orgy of foreclosures on homes 
and widespread unemployment brought financial plight to thousands of citi- 
zens, many losing their homes, savings and investments. It is difficult to 
ascertain the total losses by the Polish element, since no data are available 
at the present time. Nevertheless, with the indominable spirit of "I WILL" 
which so nobly characterizes Chicago, the Polish element as well as other 
citizens have faced the issues clearly and nobly. And with the aid of our 
splendid President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose humanitarian interests 
resulted in HOLC and other security laws pertaining to homes, investments 
and savings, many thousands of homes and millions of dollars have been 

In no small measure, our Mayor, Edward Kelly, deserves credit in making 
Chicago the splendid city that it is. His vision and interest in the welfare of 
all citizens and his efforts in placing the city on a sound finnacial basis, again 
presents, and perhaps more widely, the opportunity for the citizens of Chi- 
cago of the Polish ancestry to have another hundred years of unsurpassed 
economic development. 

The hundred years of economic growth of Chicago's citizens of Polish de- 
scent has been unequalled in the history of any other city in the world. Une- 
qualled in the sense that from a group of political exiles in 1834, who sought 
refuge in Chicago and other settlements in Illinois, there developed in a hun- 
dred years a potent social and economic force of over a half-million in num- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO —1937 Pagel9 

The rise from ninety-three enterprises in 1865, to 15,277 in 1928, em- 
ploying 30,757 people and valued at $29,575,000, represents Herculean effort, 
self-sacrifice and high intelligence— all this in spite of language, financial 
and other handicaps. 

The various Polish fraternal, loan savings organizations, the press, the 
home ownership, commercial and business enterprises and other assets, per- 
sonal and real in possession of the citizens of Polish antecedents in' Chi- 
cago, represent a value of over a half billion dollars. 

However, material things, though necessary in economic existence, do not 
compare with the moral and social values which the large number of Polish 
parishes, priests, nuns, societies, professional, humanitarian, educational, civic 
and welfare organizations represent. They are beacons of moral support, 
which, in the final analysis, represent the worth of any nation. 

Ostensibly then, the Poles are exceedingly proud of their social and 
economic contribution to the growth of this great metropolis of the Middle 
West, and pledge continued support of progressive civic and commercial 
projects in making Chicago the best city in the world in which to live, the 
best city in which to rear and educate children and the best city in which 
to make future investments. 



By Robert F. Lessel 

IN the eighties and nineties thousands came attracted to Chicago to seek 
better opportunity, to avoid the repressions of the Old World, to 
breathe the "air of the free," to grow, expand, unhampered by oppressive 
bureaucratic control. 

The immigrants worked hard. You found them in the foundries, railroad 
yards, steel mills, mines, tanneries and stock yards. 

This was a new country, expanding in all directions. It called for brain 
and brawn. 

Chicago was developing into the greatest railroad, wheat and meat center, 
into the most rapidly growing metropolis of the world. 

The Queen City-by-the-Lake was attracting thousands of people, who were 
willing to work hard, to lend their shoulder to the wheel of America's rap- 
idly growing industries. 

The climate suited the immigrant, for it was the same he had enjoyed in 
the old country. Times were hard in the nineties, but the air was permeated 
with the spirit of hope, filled with expectations of great things to come. 

And great things did come. Chicago put up the first skyscraper in the 
world. Its inventive genius, the greatest of the age, made factories hum; its 
farming implements, machines, meat products, its grain, were shipped to the 
four corners of the earth. Chicago became known throughout the world, be- 
cause it had the energy to create, to do things. Its spirit of I WILL gave 
impetus to the greatest commercial and industrial expansion, the oreatest 
cultural development of the ages. 

By the sweat of his brow, the Polish immigrant has contributed to Chi- 
cago's greatness. He first had to find employment, and then by hard work 
and thrift rear a family and build a home for himself. He built his own 
churches and schools, the latter of which resulted in considerable savings 
to the board of education of this city. He set about establishing his little 
shop and store to cater to the needs of his immediate community. 

Page 22 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

This done, he next proceeded to take active part in politics. He was handi- 
capped by his lack of the English language, but in this transitional stage, 
three factors contributed to awakening his interest in American politics. 

Civic Factors 

First, the local pastor would urge his parishioners to become naturalized, 
to vote in the elections, to put up candidates for public offices. 

Secondly, the various fraternal organizations, clubs and societies taught 
their members parliamentary rules of order; that their officers had to be 
elected by a majority, that they had to have a constitution and by-laws to 
abide by; that freedom did not mean unbridled individualism, which would 
result in disorder and chaos. Organizations, like the Polish National Alliance, 
the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the Polish Women's Alliance and many 
others, constituted a fine school of civics for the immigrant, besides offering 
fraternal insurance to their members. 

Thirdly, the Polish press called on their readers to take out their citizen 
papers, to organize themselves politically, to place their candidates in the 
field, to take their part in the government of their adopted country. 

The Polish editor of that transitional stage deserves special mention. He 
was so often looked up as the fountain-head of the foreign culture he rep- 
resented. He was called upon to prepare and direct plays for amateurs se- 
lected from the various clubs and societies, to prepare speeches for aspirants 
to political office who wished to address the voters in their native tongue, to 
arrange the various celebrations commemorating the foreign national events, 
to assist in arranging and conducting schools of civics and English, to trans- 
late from English into his native tongue, to write pocket dictionaries and 
textbooks, to give opinions on candidates for office, to teach the children 
born here their father's native language, the history of their land of origin, 
to foster literature and music, while in addition he often was a writer of 
feuilletons, short stories dealing with immigrant life in America, of verses 
and short plays, adapted to the Polish-American stage. 

Publishers and editors who stressed the importance of politics were : Rev. 
Francis Gordon, C.R., of the Chicago Polish Daily News, Ladislaus Smulski, 
W. Dyniewicz, Stanislaus Szwajkart, John J. Chrzanowski, Karol Piatkie- 
wicz, Edward Kolakowski, Kleofas Pettkoske, N. K. Zlotnicki, Joseph Przy- 
datek, Francis S. Bare, Stephen Kolanowski, Ludwik Lesnicki, Henryk Set- 
majer, Adam F. Bloch, Karol Szczerbowski, Henryk Lokanski, Franciszek 
Wolowski, John Wedda, St. Orpiszewski, Frank Openchowski and many 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICA GO— 1937 Page 2 3 

In general, the Polish editor rendered admirable service to the community. 
He acquainted the immigrant with the institutions of this country in the lat- 
ter's own language. He helped his countrymen to adapt themselves to Ameri- 
can conditions. He proved himself of wonderful help in such vital issues as 
the late war, the purchase of Liberty Bonds, the Red Cross drive, wherein 
he acquainted his readers with the wishes of the American people. It must 
be stated that the polish press at all times abided by the policy of the United 
States government. Conservative or liberal, the Polish newspapers were 
loyal to the American government. 

For the Polish immigrant, whatever may be the changed conditions in 
modern Poland, fully agrees with Mark Twain, who wrote in one of his 
works : "Unlimited power is the ideal thing when it is in safe hands. The 
despotism of heaven is the one absolutely perfect government. An earthly 
despotism would be the absolutely perfect earthly government, if the condi- 
tions were the same, namely, the despot the most perfect individual of the 
human race, and his lease of life perpetual. But as a perishable perfect man 
must die, and leave his despotism in the hands of an imperfect successor, an 
earthly despotism is not merely bad form of government, it is the worst 

The clergy, the press and civic pride pointed to the immigrant his political 
possibilities. He took to politics with alacrity. And naturally so, for did he 
not come from a nation that in the past had been a republic? That had 
formed a voluntary confederation with Lithuania and Ruthenia? That adopt- 
ed the famous Constitution of the Third of May one hundred forty years ago, 
a really democratic instrument that proved a veritable eyesore to such de- 
spotisms as Russia and Prussia? 

Taking Their Part in Municipal Government 

The history of the City of Chicago, which always has had the largest 
Polish American population in America, is typical of all other cities in the 
United States in which the Poles settled in large numbers. It was not until 
late in the 70's that Captain Peter Kiolbassa, a veteran of the Civil War, 
was elected a member to the Legislature of the State of Illinois. He was the 
first of Polish extraction to be elected to public office in Chicago. During the 
following decade, Stanley Kunz was elected to the Legislature and John 
Dahlman to the city council. In the nineties we find such names as August T. 
Kowalski, John Sherman, Stanley Kunz, John F. Smulski and few others, 
holding the office of alderman of Chicago. In 1891 Captain Peter Kiolbassa 
was elected city treasurer of Chicago. Previous to his election the interest on 

Page 24 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

public funds was the private perquisite of the holder of the office. Kiolbassa 
was the first city treasurer to place in the city treasury all of the interest 
earned on public funds. 

Max A. Drezmal in 1894 was appointed a member of the board of educa- 
tion. In 1903, John F. Smulski was elected city attorney of Chicago and 
re-elected in 1905 and held this office until elected in 1906, state treasurer of 
Illinois. He discharged the duties of these offices in a manner which reflected 
great credit upon him and won the praise of the public. During this decade 
Stanley Kunz served one term as state senator and John Derpa, Kleofas Pett- 
koske and John M. Nowicki were aldermen. Mr. Nowicki and Joseph B. 
Petlak served two terms in the state legislature. Albert Rostenkowski was 
state representative. John Czekala, Vincent P. Zwiefka, John Szymkowski, 
George Rozczynialski were aldermen at a later date. 

When Wilson was President 

It was not until the administration of President Woodrow Wilson that 
the American citizens of Polish ancestry took a more conspicuous part in 
public life. Frank W. Koraleski was elected a member of the board of asses- 
sors, Frank P. Danisch clerk of the municipal court, N. L. Piotrowski, be- 
came city attorney, John Prystalski, assistant corporation counsel and later 
assistant state's attorney, Julius F. Smietanka, member of the board of edu- 
cation and later federal collector of internal revenue and John S. Kowalski, 
chief examiner of the state building and loan department. 

Since that time, this element has steadily risen in political power and in- 
fluence. In 1922, Edmund K. Jarecki was elected county judge and has since 
been reelected three times. M. S. Szymczak, now governor of the federal re- 
serve board in Washington, was secretary to the county judge. Subsequently 
he was elected clerk of the superior court, which office he resigned to become 
city comptroller. The vacancy in the office of clerk of superior court was 
filled by Frank V. Zintak, who later was elected to that office. 

At a later date, Anthony Czarnecki was collector of customs for the Port 
of Chicago ; W. F. Hetman was assistant director of the state department of 
purchases and construction ; Frank Peska was city attorney, Louis Pinderski 
was an assistant state's attorney ; Frank Greshkowiak was assistant city 
prosecutor. Joseph LaBuy became a municipal judge, John Piotrowski a 
state representative, while John Szymkowski, Stanley Adamkiewicz, Ben 
Zintak, Max Adamowski, Frank Landmesser, John Lagodny were elected 

• J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 25 

The Poles are now well represented in the field of local and national 
politics. Beside the county judge, there are now two congressmen, Leo Ko- 
cialkowski and Leonard W. Schuetz. Peter H. Schwaba a superior court 
judge ; Walter J. LaBuy, John Prystalski and Stanley Klarkowski serve on 
the circuit court bench, while Roman E. Posanski a Calumet City judge 
in the circuit court of Cook County. Adam Bloch is clerk of the supreme 
court of Illinois. 

Benjamin S. Adamowski, Stanley H. Halick, Peter P. Jezierny, John C, 
Kluczynski, Edward J. Petlak, John A. Pelka, are state representatives. 
Peter P. Kielminski is state senator. 

Joseph Ropa (21st ward), Frank E. Konkowski (26th), Joseph P. Rosten- 
kowski (32nd), Z. H. Kadow (33rd), and Walter Orlikoski (35th), are al- 
dermen of their repsective wards. 

The elected ward committeemen are Frank V. Zintak (12th ward), Frank 
E. Konkowski (26th), Joseph P. Rostenkowski (32nd), John A. Szumnarski 
(35th), Casimir Gorny (32nd), Frank A. Peska (35th), Frank Kucharski 
(12th), A. L. Golusinski (22nd), Casimir Gorny (32nd). 

Paul Drymalski is a member of the board of tax appeals, while Joseph T. 
Baran is a sanitary district trustee, and Frank Bobrytzke is Cook County 
commissioner. Victor L. Schlaeger is clerk of the superior court. 

The municipal cout judges are Edward S. Scheffler, Stephen Adamowski 
and Michael G. Kasper, Leo Slaski state central committeemen. 

The above are elective offices. Americans of Polish ancestry have been ap- 
pointed to numerous offices, almost too numerous to mention. 

Among these are Stanley Adamkiewicz, timekeeper in the West Parks ; 
Benjamin Adamowski who, besides being state representative and majority 
leader, is master-in-chancery ; Dr. A. A. Borejszo, Illinois Emergency Relief 
physician; Lucian Borejszo, deputy bailiff; Stephen Carynski, member of 
the state central Democratic committee; Vincent Cieslewicz, building and 
loan examiner, state auditor's office; Anton Cichowicz, deputy sheriff; Ed- 
mund Cieslak, engineer of the sanitary district; Dr. Leon M. Czaja, superin- 
tendent of the Municipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium ; Dr. Edward Dombrowski, 
superintendent Chicago State Hospital. 

To continue the list, we find Frank Demski, acting police captain ; Joseph 
Deuka, assistant state's attorney ; Leo Dobrolewski, building and loan exam- 
iner ; Raymond Drymalski, assistant district attorney ; Dr. Francis A. Dulak, 
member of the board of health; Edwin M. Dyniewicz chief state statistician; 
Roman Gillmeister, captain of the fire department ; Eugene Gorski, assessor's 

Page 26 J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

office ; Martin Gorski, master-in-chancery, W. F. Hetman, state department 
of rehabilitation; Stanley B. Hintzke, attorney general's office; Chester Ja- 
gucki, engineer of the board af local improvements ; John T. Jarecki, with 
the securities commission of Illinois ; Frank Kaliszewski, with the clerk of 
the supreme court of Illinois ; Chas. Katyll and Walter Kempski, lieutenants 
of the fire department ; Victor Kleber, secretary and director of publicity 
with the mayor's office; Joseph Kobylanski, engineer with sanitary district; 
Joseph Kobrzynski, principal clerk of the sanitary district. 

Other office holders are Michael Konkowski, board of examiners, stationary 
engineers; B. J. Korzeniewski examiner, Torren's department, recorder's 
office; Stanley Kosinski, chief clerk, auto license department; August Ko- 
walski, chief clerk of the clerk of superior court; John Kowa'ski, budding and 
loan examiner; Julius Kowalski, building and loan examiner; John Koziczyn- 
ski, civil engineer, forest preserve department ; Frank G. Krause, minute 
clerk, superior court clerk's office ; William Krushing, lieutenant of the 
fire department; Victor Kula assistant state's attorney; Frank H. Land- 
messer, secretary, board of education ; Robert F. Lessel, building and loan 
examiner; William W. Link, vice president, board of local improvements; 
Joseph Lisack, member, industrial commission; Michael J. Lakofka, ap 1 
praiser, board of local improvements ; Dr. Parowski, superintendent of Illi- 
nois Eye, Ear and Nose Hospital. 

Then there are Edward Luczak, assistant probate court judge; Bernard 
L. Majewski, member, board of education; Walter Majewski, head appraiser, 
assessor's office ; Walter Meyers, lieutenant, fire department ; Matt C. Metier, 
junior engineer, board of local improvements ; W T . S. Miroslawski, assistant 
attorney general; Joseph Mucha, personal bailiff to Judge Schwaba; A. Emily 
Napieralski, civil service commission of Cook County; Felix Xowaczek, 
clerk, city comptroller's office ; Francis S. Nicki, mechanical engineer sani- 
tary district; Leon C. Nyka, member, state commerce commission; Walter 
F. Panka, chief clerk, criminal department of the municipal court ; Joseph 
Ropa, alderman and examiner of building and loan in state auditor's office; 
John S. Rusch, chief clerk of the election commissioners' office; Charles Pa- 
wlowski, acting police captain ; Anthony Prusinski, deputy coroner ; Joseph 
Romps lieutenant, fire department; John Schwaba, chief clerk, tax extension 
department, county clerk's office. 

Furthermore, there are Stanley Sekulski, street inspector; Frank Slowin- 
ski, state auto license department head clerk ; Alex Smietanka, city attorney ; 
Michael Sobyro, supervising clerk of the municipal court ; John Springer, as- 
sistant city treasurer; Bruno P. Pstrong, architect with the board of educa- 
tion; Ted Stypczynski, engineer, sanitary district; Joseph Szeszycki, battalion 

♦ J 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 27 

chief of the fire department ; John Szumnarski, ward committeeman, 35th 
ward and deputy bailiff ; Joseph Szymnarski, board of local improvements ; 
Paul Schweda, lieutenant of the fire department ; Charles Szymczak, assistant 
superintendent, municipal tuberculosis sanitarium. 

Final 1 y, we find Frank Tokarz Stanley Trzykucki, lieutenants of the fire 
department ; August G. Urbanski, assistant probate court judge ; Eugene L. 
Wachowski, assistant state's attorney ; Leo Walkowicz, water inspector, com- 
missioner of public works ; Stephen I. Witmanski, park commissioner ; Frank 
Witkowski, bookkeeper, superior court clerk's office ; M. C. Zacharias, city at- 
torney ; Joseph A. Ziemba, federal collector of ports; Anthony R. Zintak, chief 
clerk, city prosecutor's office ; Paul Zwiefka, battalion chief of the fire de- 
partment ; Vincent Zwiefka, secretary to the county judge. 

Space does not permit mention of all the Americans of Polish extraction 
employed in the various city, county and national offices, in the many ad- 
juncts to political office, such as social welfare, social security, penal insti- 
tutions, hospitals, etc. 

Our Youth Will Uphold Democratic Ideals 

One of the most encouraging signs of the times is the ever-increasing in- 
terest which the young people of both sexes, of Polish descent, are taking in 
public affairs and in politics. They realize the necessity of thorough organi- 
zation, proper political guidance, and clean and efficient administration. 

They are not afflicted with any inferiority complex. They are skeptical of 
any glib promise made by political, social and economic manipulators, for 
they believe President Roosevelt when he said : "The outlines of the new 
social order, rising from the disintegration of the old, are apparent." 

And turning to the youth of America, the President said : "You place em- 
phasis on sufficiency of life rather than a plethora of riches. People have 
learned that they can carry their burdens only by cooperation. Those words 
'freedom' and 'opportunity' do not mean a license to climb upward by push- 
ing other people down." 

The youth of the land will not be pushed down by the blunders of their 
elders. With their practical sense intensified through the hard knocks of the 
recent depression, they insist upon political and economic freedom. 

The new social order shall be a better one, built as it will be by young 
and willing hands. They young men and women of Polish extraction, since 
they add their American practical common sense to the ideology of their 
fathers, shall play a great role in the regeneration of America. Through 
their efforts this country shall be politically and economically free. It shall 
at least become a homogeneous nation, united in its Americanism, an exam- 

Page 28 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

pie to the rest of the world that all vital problems can be peacefully solved 
without resorting to bloodshed and fratricidal conflict. 

A House Divided Against Itself Will Fall 

This sentiment was ably expressed by Member of Board of Appeals, 
Paul Drymalski, at the last election when he spoke as follows from the 
WCFL broadcasting station: "Indeed, we are fortunate that we are Ameri- 
cans, that we live under a democratic system, where we have a free voice in 
the election of our officials. 

"In Spain there is bloodshed, because the citizens have ceased settling 
their national issues in a peaceful manner, through free elections, decided by 
a majority of the votes of the citizenry. 

"There, where democracy has perished, the people are strangled, oppressed 
by tyrants who have imposed their will against the will of the people." 

The American principle of settling our differences through the ballot is 
safe in the hands of our youth, who are the builders of a yet greater America. 



By Jane J. Palczynska 

POLISH art in Chicago burst forth in full glory with the building of the 
first churches. The masterly decoration of their interiors ranked equal- 
ly among the best in the land. The Poles had come to stay and many, 
many more would follow. From the very start there was a definite manifes- 
tation of the great cultural heritage they had brought with them. 

It was at this time that Thaddeus Zukotynski came to Chicago and gave 
of his genius to glorify the traditions of the Poles ; their deep faith and strong 
devotion to the Church, their intense love of their mother country and their 
sincerity in the desire to establish themselves permanently in their adopted 

Thaddeus Zukotynski 

Zukotynski came here in 1888 and worked in Chicago for a number of 
years. His frescos in the apse of the Saint Stanislaus' Church, the altar pieces 
in Saint John Cantius' and Saint Hyacinth's, the sacred pictures in Saint 
Hedwig's and the stations in the church of the Holy Cross, have left us a 
testimonial of his art which will excite admiration and devotion as long as 
his work can be preserved. 

During this time Zukotynski acquired for himself an enviable reputation 
and was considered one of the foremost artists in the domain of ecclesiastical 
painting in America. Both German and English papers were full of his 
praises. This truly great artist had not only gained recognition for his paint- 
ings in Polish churches, and only in Chicago, but he has to his great credit 
an altar piece in Saint Hedwig's in South Bend, Ind. ; an Adoration in the 
Chapel of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, and a number of magnificently 
painted windows of stained glass in Saint Michael's, in Milwaukee, Wis. ; 
sacred pictures in Saint Joseph's, in Logansport, Ind., some paintings in 
Mishawaka, Ind., and in Saint Mary's of the Woods, Indiana. 


St. Stanislaus 

In the following masterly description of what is considered Zukotynski's 
masterpiece we find evidence not only of the profoundness and skill of the 

Page 30 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

master, but also proof that Chicago valued and appreciated the contribution 
of her new citizens. 

It is like a beautiful sermon for those who read it today. 

Eliza Ellen Starr, a renowned artist, and directress of a School of Art, fa- 
mous for her lecture on Roman Art, in an article on "Christian Art as Mani- 
fested in Chicago Churches" in the "New World," wrote as follows : 

"A cheerless winter day, the wind whistling, dust, not snow, as we made 
our painful way through all the intricacies of the West Side, for our driver 
seemed ignorant even of the points of the compass, whereas the true way from 
our door to Noble and Ingraham streets is a direct and easy one. W T e were 
worn out with stopping before every 'Polish Church' but the one we were in 
search of: for this, we knew, contained treasures worthy of a pilgrimage 
harder even than the one Ave were making. At last our lively little companion, 
with her sharp eyes that read every sign on every shop, declared we were in 
the neighborhood of Saint Stanislaus Church, for "everything is named for 
him." She was right and soon our horses stood before a massive, grave edi- 
fice, with closed doors in front. There is a side door opening into a basement, 
but as we had nothing to do with basements, the pastoral residence must be 
found, and her light foot soon brought us the intelligence that we had only 
to drive the length of the church to find it. A courteous welcome met us at 
the very door and taking pity upon us, as it seemed, for our weariness after 
wandering two hours across all the railroad tracks and viaducts, we were 
kindly led through the house to the sacristy, through the sacristy into the 
sanctuary, there to make our thanksgiving for the happy termination of our 
woes : then led carefully into one of the pews near the center of the church, 
when the kind voice of the young priest said : "Here you can see the pic- 
ture," as if he knew it was the picture we had come to see. With this word 
of encouragement we lifted our weary eyes to see — what? Heaven? Yes, 
heaven : such a heaven as we have never seen in the old world or new ; such 
a heaven as we had never expected to see until our eyes should open, after 
a long purgatory, in that heaven where dwells "in light inaccessible and full 
of glory," the Eternal Father, the Eternal Son and the Eternal Holy Ghost ! 
We write this sentence deliberately, meaning every word we have written 
and intending to have it taken in its full and literal sense. We will now give, 
to the best of our ability, a description of this picture, only premising, that 
we of today see this picture fresh from the hand of the master, its color 
undimmed by time or our murky atmosphere ; since it must be conceded that 
much of the pleasure in looking at the European masterpieces is lost four, 
five and six centuries after the execution, owing to those changes in color 
no mortal care or skill can prevent. Our masterpieces on the apse of Saint 
Stanislaus is in all its freshness, and never, we repeat, have we ever seen 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 3? 

such celestial tints, such a glory of heavenly radiance, as came before us 
like a vision in that gloomy wintry day, in the dim church. There was no 
touching of electric buttons, no lighting whatsoever from without : for of 
this picture, as of the heaven of the Apocalypse, 'the Lamb was the light 

"Behold, then, Christ seated in His majesty, in His benignity in the upper 
center of this composition, while still above, so as to round the arch, are 
seen the Eternal Father and the Eternal Holy Ghost, all set in the intense 
light, of the Beatific Vision. On either hand of this Trinity of glory are 
groups of flying angels, carrying the emblems of our Lord's Passion : on 
the right the holy cross, on the left the lance, the crown of thorns and the 
nails, while three angels represent, symbolically, the merits which Poland 
has won in the sight of heaven by her fidelity to Christianity in the midst 
of dismemberment and suffering. 

"Thus far the upper and most radiant part of the picture ; but immediately 
in the foreground, with the radiance of the vision upon them, is the Blessed 
Virgin Mother Mary, in the plenitude of grace, of beauty, of joy; for our 
masterpiece is entitled "The Triumph of Christ," and she who shared to the 
full His humiliation, is now sharing to the full His triumph, and her adora- 
tion, is the adoration of joy. At her side is her virgin spouse, Saint Joseph, 
and that seraphic penitent, Saint Mary Magdalene, also Saint Joachim and 
Saint Anne ; opposite Saint John the Baptist, Saint Zachary, and Saint Eliza- 
beth. To his right, also, as we face the picture, loom up the grand forms of 
the prophets, of ancient worthies, and to be plainly distinguished among 
them are Adam and Eve., Noe, Melchisedeck, Abraham with Isaac and Jacob ; 
Moses with the tables of the law, and Aaron as high priest; Joseph of Egypt, 
Samuel with the phial of holy oil from which he annointed David in the 
house of his father Jesse at Bethlehem ; David as king and psalmist with his 
harp, repeating with transport his prophetic canticles ; Ruth with her sheaves 
of wheat gleaned in the field of Boaz ; while still in groups pressing forward 
to adore and praise the Christ for whom they prayed and longed are Samson, 
Joshua, Gideon, Judith with the head of Holofernes, Mordecai and Esther, 
and the valiant Maccabees ; all to be distinguished by something which in- 
dicates their story. 

"Turning to the left as we look at the picture the heroes of the Xew Law 
come before us like a conquering host. First the apostles, among whom the 
eye easily rests upon Saint Peter and Saint Paul and Saint John ; then the 
great Doctors of the Church, seated on a bench of clouds, give one of the 
most original features of the composition. Of these, nearest to the spectator 
is Saint Gregory the Great, in his tiara, with the triple pontifical staff held 
aloft like a banner with the right hand, in the left a book referring to the 
voluminous writings of this Pope; the rich cope enveloping the majestic 
figure, while the thin, worn, but inspired countenance, looks out on the 

Page 32 J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

world of which he was the spiritual sovereign, as Leo XIII, looks over the 
world today. Never has a Pope been more magnificently presented than 
Gregory the Great in this picture. Next to him the great scholar, Saint Je- 
rome, in his Cardinal's hat, an immense tome held by one hand on his knee, 
the serious face bearing the mark of his austerities in the desert and at 
Bethlehem. Then Saint Ambrose in his mitre, one hand grasping his crozier, 
the other extended as if discoursing deeply of our Lord, while next to him 
is Saint Augustine, also wearing the mitre, but with an inspired uplift of the 
face heavenward, and both hands extended toward our Lord, as if in an 
ecstasy of eloquence. Taken by itself, this bench of holy doctors is a wonder 
in art. Still further in the background is Saint Helen with the Holy Cross, 
Saint Stephen and Saint Lawrence, Saint Clement, Pope, Saint Cecelia and 
Saint Agnes, all martyrs, all with their symbols; Saint Paul and Saint An- 
thony, hermits. Then the army of the different religious orders bearing their 
banners, like a triumphant host, represented by their founders, like Saint 
Benedict, Saint Bruno, Saint Dominic, Saint Francis of Assissi ; the apostles 
of different nations, Saint Boniface, Saint Cyril, and Saint Methodius ; pop- 
ular saints like Saint Bernard, Saint Anthony of Padua, Saint Wenceslaus, 
Saints Vladimir, Adalbert and Stanislaus, Saint Hedwig and Saint Elizabeth 
of Thuringia, princesses ; Saint Hyacinth, Saint Thomas of Equin, Saint 
Theresa, Saint Catherine of Sienna, Saint Clara and near the foreground the 
great martyr, Saint John Nepomucene with his finger on his lips; Saint 
Vincent of Paul, Saint John Cantius, Saint Casimir, Saint Francis of Sales, 
Saint Josaphat, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, with his spiritual son and beloved 
saint of Poland, Saint Stanislaus Kostka, under whose invocation stand the 
walls in which this glorious work of art has been executed. 

"The bare enumeration of these personages from all ages, all countries, 
shows a master's hand which alone could arrange these groups in all their 
beauteous details, then marshal them like squadrons under a great admiral 
so as to give, in their perfect unity of conception, one sunburst of gladness 
a triumph indeed, before which all others will pale to the end of time. 

"But our artist had not completed his idea; and working as he was under 
the wise patronage of the 'Congregation of the Resurrection,' he was left 
perfectly free to follow out this idea. Not one straw was laid in his path, 
no consideration as to time or expense was allowed to trammel him. Others 
might have obliged him to copy one masterpiece or another, but our Con- 
gregation of the Resurrection knew that they had a master also, whose fresh 
compositions would make their church a place of pilgrimage, like the apses 
of the old world basilicas. Therefore, the high ceiling finished, he proceeded 
to paint his dado, precisely after the manner of that old mosaic worker, 
Jacopo Turrita, in the apse of Saint Mary Major, Rome. In the center is the 
Blessed Virgin laying her Divine Son into the arms of the youthful Stanis- 
laus ; the Virgin Mother of a ravishing loveliness as to countenance, of an 

• 1837 — PO LES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 33 

unspeakable benignity in her mien, as she holds toward the holy youth in 
her extended arms her Divine Child; and that Child extends both His own 
hands toward the kneeling Stanislaus ; not only kneeling, but with hands 
thrown upward to the Holy Child in a transport of joy, of devotion. The 
glory of heaven rays from the Mother and her Son; angels fill every space; 
but one angel supports, with his right hand, the ecstatic youth, in the other 
brings him a lily as the emblem of his innocence. The picture is one con- 
centrated rapture, such as Correggio loved to paint, and never did Murillo 
paint a more ecstatic vision than this one of Saint Stanislaus ; its execution 
as careful, its glowing colors passing off into as mystical shadows as 
either of these two masters ever achieved. 

"This group being the center piece, we see single figures standing in pairs, 
as upon a mullion window under one arch, those saints which Poland has 
honored for so many centuries, whom she does not forget amid the turmoil 
of our commercial civilization. To the extreme left as we face the sanctuary 
stands Saint Josaphat, Archbishop of Plotsk and martyr, with his archiepis- 
copal staff, wearing his pallium, and in the flower of his age, since he was 
only forty-four when he gave his blood for Poland; a story full of pathos 
and heroism. He is companioned by Saint Hyacinth, the Dominican, in his 
white habit and steel blue mantle; the so-called apostle of Poland, and the 
wonder worker, in his hand the book of the great teacher and preacher; 
both standing on a tesselated pavement. Next, Saint Stanislaus, the martyr 
Bishop of Cracow, Poland ; a magnificent figure in his mitre, bearing his 
episcopal staff and palm in his right hand, the left arm pressing to his heart 
the blessed sword of his martyrdom, while his face is turned in rapture to- 
ward heaven. His companion is Saint Adalbert of Prague, also a Bishop and 
also martyr ; in his right hand the palm, in the other the oar of a vessel with 
which he was first knocked down, then pierced with a lance. To the right of 
the central group, the two great apostles of Scythia, Slavonia and Bulgaria, 
brothers, whose record is to be found on the walls of the subterranean church 
of Saint Clement, Rome — Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the latter an artist 
who painted his pictures in a way to convert whole nations. Lastly, to the 
extreme right hand, Saint John Cantius, secular priest and professor of 
theology in the University of Cracow, on his head his doctor's cap or berret- 
ta, in his right hand his pen, his left resting on the volume open on his read- 
ing desk, the eyes turned toward the Blessed Virgin and her Son in the cen- 
tral picture. He is companioned by the beautiful young prince, Saint Casi- 
mir, his crown on his head, with his kingly mantle on his shoulders, a lily for 
his scepter, the right foot, the right hand slightly extended, with eyes lifted 
to heaven — stepping forth on the tesselated pavement of his palace like a 
spirit rather than a mortal. ..." 

The recognition and encouragement of such a master was one of the 
greatest and most priceless contributions of the Poles in Chicago. His in- 

Page 34 1837 — P OLES OF CHICAGO— 1 937 • 

fluence is alive today and there is evidence of its continuation. Prof. Zuko- 
tynski, a Polish count, with a studio in Munich, was one of Europe's fore- 
most painters of religious subjects. A pupil if Pilatti, an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer of Matejko, he gathered the knowledge of centuries, brought it here 
and passed it on to others. 

Sister Stanisia 

In 1920, Sister Stanisia, a Chicago artist nun of the Academy of Our Lady, 
Longwood, was commissioned to restore some of the precious frescoes of 

Sister Stanisia was born in Chicago. Her talent developed early and was 
recognized by Prof. Zukotynski, who proceeded to give her instructions. 
For seven or eight years she remained under his supervision and was well 
grounded in the continental methods and technique of her celebrated teacher. 
On his death so great was the progress she made, she was called upon to 
finish some of his work. 

As a nun, Sister Stanisia continued her art studies at the Chicago Art In- 
stitute. She studied with Ralph Clarkson, Frank C. Peyrand, John Norton 
and Albin Polasek. 

St; Stanislaus' Frescoes Restored 

As his most talented pupil, Sister Stanisia was entrusted, as one best 
qualified, to restore the frescoes of St. Stanislaus. 

To quote Karol Wachtel in translation, from an article in Dziennik Chicai 
goski (The Polish Daily News) of November 23, 1920: 

" . . . . Sister Stanisia worked long and conscientiously in the Church of 
St. Stanislaus ; the work entrusted to her, she executed with real piety. First 
of all she prepared a whole series of sketches of the paintings to be restored, 
and after having studied them in detail, undertook to repaint them. This was 
tedious and difficult work. Some parts of the paintings had to be gone over 
seven or eight times, and required great care and skill in order to retain 
faithfully, the characteristics of the original. 

"Sister Stanisia was most successful in the complete fullness of her under- 
taking. The restoration of the murals in the presbyterium and naves of Saint 
Stanislaus' is a great and beautiful achievement which brings her honor 
and associates her name and her art with the famous one of Zukotynski— a 
name that the Poles of Chicago will never forget. 

"The paintings gained remarkably in clearness. Their superbly beautiful 
colors came to life again, strangely harmonious, pleasing, peaceful, and yet 
strong and sure. That which the long years had sought to obliterate, emerged 

o 1837 — POL ES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page _3? 

again, as if alive and resurrected from behind the curtain of dust and smoke ; 
all the figures — so beautiful, so radiant, and so inspiring, are plainly and 
distinctly visible from afar, and the unity of the composition, especially the 
upper section above the presbyterium, stands out clearly and impressively 
in all its details " 

Sister Stanisia has been called upon to restore other Zukotynski paint- 
ings. Fresco painting, in which the design is drawn and painted on wet 
plaster is extremely difficult to preserve in its original state, and constant 
restoration is being made of some very famous ones. Among others, Sister 
Stanisia restored those at St. Hyacinth's and at Holy Cross Church. 

"Little Flower" 

When the Stehli Bros., a famous art firm of Zurich, desired an original 
conception of the Sacred Heart for reproduction in color and circulation 
throughout the world, they passed over the religious painters of Europe and 
commissioned Sister Stanisia for the work. C. J. Bulliet in an article in the 
Chicago Daily News of March 14, 1936, says : 

"Sister Stanisia is perhaps the most widely known of woman painters 
throughout the Catholic world, in the United States and Europe. She became 
internationally established when she exhibited four paintings at the religious 
art show in connection with the Eucharistic Congress in Chicago in 1925 — a 
painting of the "Little Flower," a portrait of Bishop J. F. Noll of Fort 
Wayne and two Madonnas. Commissions began coming to her immediately 
for altar pieces, devotional works, portraits and murals. 

"An early portrait of Cardinal Mundelein was hung in Staint George high 
school, Evanston and a later one exhibited in 1935 at the Davis Galleries, 
was commissioned for the College of Cardinals, Washington. Murals and 
paintings of her are in St. Luke's, St. Paul, Minn.; Adrian College, Michi- 
gan ; Mount Mary College, Milwaukee ; and St. Joseph's hospital, St. Marga- 
ret's church and Holy Cross church, Chicago. These are but several of the 
seventeen churches in which she painted." 

Mayor Kelly 

"But Sister Stanisia has not confined herself strictly to religious painting. 

A portrait of Mayor Kelly was unveiled with ceremonies at the Illinois 
Host House in July of the second summer of the fair, A Century of Progress. 
A portrait of Gov. Horner was seen by multitudes in the Hall of States at 
A Century of Progress and now hangs in the governor's executive mansion 
in Springield, Illinois. She has painted many hundreds of portraits; among 

Page 36 1837 — POLE S OF ■ CHI CAGO — 1937 ♦ 

them some of the most distinguished bishops, civic leaders and prominent 

R. A. Lennon, a newspaper interviewer, on a visit to her studio in com- 
menting on her work remarked :".... there is a finished harmony of com- 
position, an acute insight into character and a fine feeling for texture. This 
is particularly well shown in the detail of the clothing of the figures — in the 
brilliant sheen of shimmering silks and the lustrous softness of rich velvet." 
This feeling for texture stood Sister Stanisia in good stead when she 
painted Cardinal Mundelein in full regalia as Prince of the Church, and she 
has not hesitated, following painting tradition, to clothe her Madonnas rich- 
ly, as befits the Queen of Heaven. 

Following tradition too, just as her teacher Zukotynski who, when paint- 
ing the murals in Saint Stanislaus used live models-^Father Barzynski, the 
pastor and Mr. Czekala, a parishioner, to mention but a few — Sister Stanisia 
doesn't hesitate to use human models for her religious paintings. "The 
American Madonna," a work that has called forth much praise for its spir- 
itual quality, had as a model a Chicago girl. Raphael, it may be remembered, 
used for his Sistine Madonna a beautiful Roman girl, a daughter of a baker. 

While "The American Madonna" glorifies the Virgin Mary in an attitude 
of profound humility, nobility and grace, it also portrays and even im- 
mortalizes the ideal American girl in all her beauty, sanctity and idealism. 
Though this may have supplied the theme, Sister Stanisia has unquestiona- 
bly woven into it some of her own piety and her own devotion. Only one 
who possesses the innermost depths of piety would give us such a human, 
yet divine expression as is to be seen in the face of "The American Madon- 
na." This painting, called a "Prayer in Color," was exhibited at the Chicago 
University, Renaissance Society, Denver, St. Paul, Florida and California. 

A recital of her wordly honors is against the expressed wishes of Sister 
Stanisia, who is devoted first to her religious duties and afterward to her 
brushes and paints. While she will talk pleasantly and even with flashes of 
humor about her art aims, when it comes to personal matters she sidesteps 
her interviewers. It becomes necessary to go to the "records," chiefly news- 
paper clippings and exhibition catalogues, to learn facts about her. 

Fortunately, from the outset of her career, so interesting has she been 
from the "news angle" — a painter of unusually fine talent developing in the 
sheltered circles of a nunnery— that the records are fairly complete. 

The world is entitled to them, to the way of thinking of a sympathetic 
heathen like myself. Fra Angelico lived a sequestered life, too, but the eager 
biographers have been as curious about him as about the worldly minded 

Just as she still does secular portraits, so Sister Stanisia devotes a part 
of her studio time to landscape. "Beverly Hills on a Rainy Day" was a pleas- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 37 

ing impression carried away last summer by visitors to her big one-man 

In 1932, Sister Stanisia was awarded a silver medal in the international 
fair at Warsaw, capitol city of the Poland where Count Zukotynski, her dis- 
coverer, originated. 

Harriet and Walter Krawiec 

It is difficult to write about Harriet Krawiec alone, for her life and her 
work is closely associated with that of her husband. At the age of 14, Harriet 
was taken by her mother, Mrs. Korzeniewska, to the Academy of Our Lady 
for a course in painting under Sister Stanisia. Later she continued her art 
studies at the Art Institute. 

She is primarily a wife and mother, painting what is nearest at hand and 
in her leisure moments— mainly flowers and still life arrangements. Occa- 
sionally she paints the out-of-doors, but only that bit which she can see from 
her windows— just a little way down the street— or in her garden. She leaves 
to her husband the big out-of-doors, the horses, the fires, the circuses and 
the portraits. And yet she has kept pace with him as they gained recognition 
and honor through the years. 

In 1927 both gained recognition at the Art Institute of Chicago and have not 
only been represented in the exhibitions every year during the past ten years, 
but in 1935 were specially invited to have a one-man show. An entire room 
was filled with only their paintings — an honor rare indeed in Chicago. They 
are both members of the very select Chicago Galleries Association, which 
invites into its membership only outstanding artists of recognized reputation. 

In addition, 'their work was exhibited in the following important galleries 
throughout the United States: Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D. C. ; Car- 
negie Institute, with a selected group of thirty artists; National Academy, 
New York City; and in Philadelphia and Oklahoma City. 

Their paintings are found in special museums and private collections. One 
of Mrs. Krawiec's paintings is in the permanent state collection in the State 
Museum, Springfield, Illinois. The city of Chicago owns three of Mr. Kra- 

''If any two painters walk away with the show," said Eleanor Jewett in 
the Chicago Tribune on April 3, 1933, "they are Walter Krawiec and his 
wife, Harriet. Their progress in technique and manner has been matter for 
recognition during the last several years. Today, their achievement places 
them at the head of any important group of painters, no matter where found. 
Mr. Krawiec has become particularly interested in the possibilities of the 
circus as painting material. Mrs. Krawiec concerns herself with flowers and 
still life arrangements." 

Page 38 1837 — POLES OF C HICAGO— 1937 • 

Upon another occasion in the Tribune, on April 16, 1933, she wrote : 
"Harriet Krawiec is another of our persuasive painters. She has ability, 
sound technique and good craftsmanship. Her work is eminently fine. Her 
sense of design is beautifully developed and she injects a personal feeling 
into even the simplest of her conceptions which lifts them at once out of the 
commonplace. One can take nothing but pleasure in a closer acquaintance 
with her excellent modeling and perfect relationship of color." 

His Eminence, George Cardinal Mundelein of Chicago 

Several achievements of Mr. Krawiec deserve special mention. 

When, in 1934, His Eminence, George Cardinal Mundelein of Chicago, 
presented His Holiness, Pope Pius XI with a beautiful copy of his biography, 
"The First Cardinal of the West," it was made known that the illustrations 
in it were the work of Walter Krawiec. His Holiness, the Pope, had been 
kind enough to make a complimentary comment about both the work and 
the artist which Mr. Krawiec was much too modest to repeat to this writer. 
The illustrations, fifty in number, are beautifully matted and in the library 
at Mundelein, 111. 
Among the Greatest in the Land 

Walter Krawiec was represented in the official Century of Progress Ex- 
hibition of Paintings and Sculpture at the Art Institute by two of his works: 
"The Big Top" and "The Four Sorrels." 

"Chicago Art" 

The famous art critic, C. J. Bulliet, wrote as follows in the Chicago Daily 
News of April 15, 1933: 

"Walter Krawiec can paint other things besides circuses. But even if he 
couldn't he'd be an artist who must be reckoned with henceforth when 'Chi- 
cago art' is discussed. 

"His art has reached full maturity. Blunt honesty in observation and di- 
rect emphatic skill in recording what he sees are evident in his work. Kra- 
wiec has no 'isms' of technique to exploit, and apparently he is concerned in 
saying what he has on his mind as simply and forceful 1 }- as he can. He re- 
sembles a newspaper man who, after much experience, has given up all idea 
of being a 'journalist,' having much worth while to say that he cares no 
longer for the embroidery of the 'feature writer.' 

"In his circus scenes Krawiec pictures the American circus of today, a 
huge business enterprise, with much of the old romance gone out of it, but 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 39 

with a new glamour arising out of size and efficiency. He has no patience 
with the American imitators of the circus things of Renoir and his Paris 
contemporaries, who set the pattern for our 'moderns' in general. Xor in 
looking at the Ringling show today does Krawiec sentimentally recall the 
old Gentry 'wagon show.' His is the circus of 1932 (the last time he was on 
the lot), motor trucks and all. 

"Krawiec, Polish in origin, but twenty years in Chicago, makes his living 
as an artist for the Polish press, so it is no accident that he has a newspaper 
man's bluntness. 

''That he sees Chicago as keenly as he sees the circus is proven in some 
recent canvasses, scarcely dry, of the late great fire on Goose Island, whose 
embers are still smoldering after many weeks. 'Joseph Medill in Action' is a 
stirring record of a renowned fireboat helping subdue the flames from the 
water front. 'A Grain Elevator Fire' and '4-11 Alarm' are likewise of Chi- 
cago of today and not imitations of Paris or Berlin. 

"Krawiec has learned the paint language in which he expects to speak, and 
now he is concentrating on what he has to say. And what he has to say is 

St. John Cantius 

While Zukotynski was painting the altar piece in the Church of St. John 
Cantius, a little 12 year old boy watched spellbound — fascinated by the skill 
of the master as he brought life and depth into the shadows of the folds of 
the drapery of the Saint. That little boy is himself a renowned painter today 
and recalls the experience with evident emotion. But you have already 
heard his story! 

Tradition Continues 

Will the tradition so gloriously begun by Zukotynski continue? We sin- 
cerely hope it will and history alone will record who has been chosen by 
God to carry on. 

Theodore Roszak 

While these artists were taking an important part in the making of Chi- 
cago art history, another group of young Poles were attracting favorable 
attention in the art world. They were Theodore Roszak, Jan Fabian Szyna- 
lik, Anton Rogalski, Adam Szwejkowski, Walter Mazeski and Norbert Czar- 
nowski. The outstanding member in this group is Theodore Roszak. 

Page 40 1837 — POLES OF C HICAGO— 1937 • 

Born in Poland in 1907, he was brought here at the age of two. Later he 
studied for six years at the Art Institute of Chicago, spent a year in New 
York at the National Academy of Design and studied the theory of the art 
at Columbia. The Art Institute awarded Roszak seven scholarships, the 
most important being the "American Traveling Fellowship" ($250) in 1928 
and the "Anna Louisa Raymond Fellowship" ($2,500) in 1929 for travel 
and study in Europe. These grants enabled him to spend two years on the 
continent. He studied in Paris and travelled extensively in Germany, Italy, 
Czechoslovakia and Poland where he was tremendously impressed with the 
beauty of Krakow. 

Dr. Irena Piotrowska, of New York, a student of the history of art in Po- 
znan, Paris, Vienna and Rome, author of two volumes on Polish art, lecturer 
and critic, in the "New American" of June, 1934, writes about Roszak as 
follows : 

"Roszak did not work under any particular teacher in Europe. He studied 
by himself the ancient and contemporary masters. His own paintings of that 
period evidenced the maturing of the artist. He was already in full command 
of his individual form of expression, showing earnest thought and profound 
artistic feeling. 

"In those pictures one can see a wonderful blending of the influence of 
the old masters, particularly the Venetian masters of the XV and XVI cen- 
tury, with the results of a clever study of the masterpieces of modern French 
art. To the concise composition he learned from Piccaso, Roszak added the 
warmth of color proper to the old Venetians and the whole became imbued, 
under his skillful brush, with the quality of poetic sentiment that is such 
a characteristic trait of Polish art. Upon his return from Europe, Roszak was 
acclaimed as one of the most promising artist painters in the United States. 

Exhibits at Fair 

Roszak's art is undergoing another change since his return to America. At 
present he is intensely interested in the abstract style in painting. In the 
Century of Progress Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago, he was rep- 
resented in the division of Abstract painting by a work he cal'ed "Composi- 
tion Alastor." 

He endeavors to represent the spirit of contemporary America through the 
means of geometrical forms devoid of any interpretation of the phenomena 
of nature. 

The "machine" has become the symbol presiding over his conceptions. 
Forms created by machinery are bound to change in time the aspect of 
"reality" we have been used to. Roszak is trying to individualize these forms 
as objects of his art and to set off their meaning, thereby creating a "new 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 41 

reality." He is attempting a most difficult task, but his respective works in- 
dicate that this struggle for the adequate expression of a new ideal will 
achieve success. 

Roszak does not rest satisfied with his results in graphics, oil paintings 
and lithography, but has included sculpture in his activities. A truly creative 
artist never stops in his efforts to express his ideals. Reaching toward ever 
higher ideals is the essential characteristic of Roszak's genius. 

His work has been on exhibition in all the outstanding galleries of the 
United States. He is represented in the permanent collection in the Whitney 
Museum of Modern Art, New York City, as well as in many important pri- 
vate collections throughout the country. 

John Szynalik 

Another rising young artist deserving special mention is John Szyna- 
lik, who came to the United States in 1912 at the age of six years. He studied 
for three years at the Art Institute in Chicago and subsequently spent two 
years in Europe studying in Vienna, Prague, Paris, Milan, Florence and 
Krakow. While in Krakow, he painted a "Crucifixion" which is one of the 
best known of his works. It is remarkable for a high quality of expression in 
presenting the body of the Crucified and also for the perfect harmony of col- 
ors ; this work, submitted while he was still in Europe, won for the artist 
a special tribute at the Art Institute and the "William and Bertha Clussmann 

Upon his return in 1932, he resumed his studies at the Art Institute and 
within another two years — in 1934 was off again to study in Europe after 
having been awarded the "European Traveling Fellowship" ($2,500). This 
time he spent more time in Poland, and in the recent Exhibition by Artists 
of Chicago and vicinity at the Art Institute, Szynalik, still in Europe, was 
represented by two works — scenes from Poland. For one of these he was 
awarded the "Clyde M. Carr Prize." 

John Szynalik's genius is versatile. His range comprises landscapes, por- 
traits and larger compositions. He paints in oil and works at sculpture. 

Anthony Rogalski 

Anthony Rogalski, born in Poland, came here as a young boy. Although 
he has already gained much recognition and attention among Americans as 
a caricaturist and designer of marionettes, he has also exhibited some fine 
paintings in the Art Institute exhibitions. Rogalski is truly a creative artist. 
His work is strong in design and rich in strange color harmonies which often 
suggest the unearthly, yet are suitable to his unusual treatment of his sub- 
ject matter. His stirring "Crucifixion" created much interest in Chicago. 

Page 42 1837 — POLES OF C HICAGO — 1937 • 

Mrs. Frank Logan, well-known and very generous art patron in Chicago, 
has some of Rogalski's caricatures and water colors in her collection. Among 
them the one of himself and of Pilsudski appealed so much to the great Pa- 
derewski when he was a guest in her home that Mrs. Logan presented him 
with them to his delight. 

Adam Szwejkowski 

A native Chicagoan and trained in the Art Institute, Adam Szwejkowski 
has specialized in water colors, and was the only artist of Polish lineage who 
participated in the annual international exhibition of water colors in Chicago 
in 1934. His works are considered remarkable for their perfect technique and 
uncommon color values. His landscapes and pictures of the American coun- 
tryside are especially interesting. 

His ''Self-Portrait," done in oils, which was hung in the 1937 exhibition by 
artists of Chicago and vicinity attracted city-wide attention, and a brilliant 
future is being prophesied for him. 

Walter Mazeski 

Another native Chicagoan who has exhibited at the Art Institute on more 
than one occasion is Walter Mazeski. As a painter he is exhibiting an unusu- 
ally interesting personality. His work is individual in treatment and color 
harmony. He is also interested in sculpture. 

Norbert Czarnowski 

Norbert Czarnowski, creator of the "Nocturne" which was exhibited in the 
Art Institute in 1936, was born in Poland and came to Chicago as a young 
man of 18. During the war he joined the Polish army under General Hal- 
ler's command, and fought that his motherland might be free. He brought 
back some stirring sketches from that experience. His art training was re- 
ceived at the Art Institute ; his inspiration for his work, from the tragic his- 
tory of Poland, the persecution of his people which he himself experienced 
before he came here and his conscientious study of the masterpieces of the 
great Matejko. 

Czarnowski has done a number of murals and paintings for Catholic 
churches in Chicago, Milwaukee and Cleveland. He has done some outstand- 
ing work in portraiture. The portrait of his mother which was exhibited with 
the Polish Arts Club is one of the most sensitively beautiful things he has 
done. His painting of Emilia Plater, a great Polish woman, adorns a special 
room dedicated in her honor in the Polish Women's Alliance building in 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 43 

This summer, Czarnowski, Mazeski and Szwejkowski obtained from the 
Kosciuszko Foundation scholarships to study art in Poland. This opportunity 
was given them in recognition for creative work done on the decorations for 
the "Night in Poland" at the Drake Hotel in the spring of 1937. 


Three sculptors who have achieved recognition in this field are Anton Ro- 
szak, Adam Dabrowski and Stanley Krawiec. 

The Previewer in the Daily News of January 28, 1932, in his comment upon 
the thirty sixth annual Chicago Artists' Show at the Art Institute stated that 
the architectural composition, "Forms and Color" by Anton Roszak which 
had distinguished the recent Polish Show on the West Side, stands up well 
in this new company. 

Adam Dabrowski, a member of the Chicago Galleries Association and 
frequent exhibitor, has gained distinction for his fine wood carvings. Ex- 
quisite simplicity characterizes his Madonnas and other religious subjects. 

Stanley Krawiec, one of the newest to "arrive," exhibited two fine wood 
sculptures in the 1937 exhibition at the Art Institute. 


The achievements of the Chicago Poles in architecture should be treated 
more exhaustively. It would consist of a volume in itself. But since for the 
present purpose the writer has had to limit herself to recording achievements 
as evidenced by the appearance of their work in Art Institute exhibitions, 
mainly, we find but one name — that of Walter Stopa. 

In 1930 his project for a War Memorial which received special recogni- 
tion, was shown there. In 1933 he was awarded the Le Brune scholarship of 
$1,500 in architecture for travel and study in Europe for his project of a 
"Small Community Home." The latter was on exhibition in the Architectural 
Building in A Century of Progress. 

Chicago Poles Exhibiting Prior to 1927 

It is interesting to note that while eleven Poles received recognition and 
some of them achieved even great renown since 1927, very few Polish names 
appear in the catalogues before that! time. 

In 1888 and 1889 we find N. Ledochowski exhibiting water colors ; in 1895 : 
Mile. Kazimiera Dziekonska exhibiting pastels ; in 1916 Stanislaw Szukalski 
creating great interest with his sculpture — even received special recogni- 
tion for his work; and in 1921 Marylka Modjeska exhibiting etchings. 

Taoe 44 1837 — POLES OF CH ICAGO — 1937 • 

Stanislaw Szukalski 

One of the most dynamic individuals who appeared in the art world of 
Chicago and who made the city conscious of the Poles because of his work 
and theories, was Stanislaw Szukalski. Roger A. Crane in the editorial intro- 
duction to his "Projects in Design" states that he is either worshipped or 
condemned, never treated with indifference. His art may or may not please, 
but, expressing as it does, his vivid, imaginative, personality, it must be con- 
sidered in any study of present tendencies in art. 

Szukalski was born in Poland, December 3, 1895. His interest in plastic 
art became evident early in life, and at the age of eight he began carving in 
soft limestone, animals, birds and human figures. At fourteen he was admit- 
ted to the Krakovian Academy of Arts. His eccentric and defiant attitude 
became prominent when he was quite young, fighting desperately against 
the influences of his teachers and the rigid academic training, to preserve his 
individuality. The theories of art education which he voiced throughout his 
career have come to be common practice throughout the country in work 
with children in the field of creative art. 

In "Projects," Szukalski, the author, gave expression to his ideas on ar- 
chitecture and sculpture, as well as his philosophy. Here one finds nothing 
traditional, nothing conventional, nothing that is merely a following of other 
artists. His works, sometimes difficult to understand because of his peculiar, 
subjective symbolism, are always original and reveal his mastery. "His con- 
tribution to art," says R. A. Crane, "is his freshness and vigor, his ability to 
break aw T ay from the old and trite and to launch forth upon his own creations 
unshackled by tradition. His genius is creative, ranging from the simple but 
practical idea for a coin that will not roll into inaccessible nooks to unique 
plans for monumental skyscrapers and for entire cities. With unfettered 
imagination he developes fascinating and striking ideas which should surely 
have some effect upon the trends in architecture." 

The following excerpt from his "Projects in Design," published by the 
University of Chicago Press, will serve better to describe his ideas than 
anything else any one might say about him and his ideas. In describing a 
project for a monument to Mickiewicz, Szukalski writes : "Mickiewicz was a 
poet, but also something more than that — something like Moses to the lews. 
It is due to his work, chiefly, that the Polish nation had the endurance and 
will to survive." He describes and interprets the symbolism thus: "Mickie- 
wicz Feeding the National Eagle with His Blood." "He is the altar and the 
offerer. The rainbow forms a pole on which is the flag ; the Eagle comes 
from the flag. In the rear are seen hands in a cluster, a continuation of the 
pedestal ; the hands belong to those who fell before he came, and are thank- 
ing him for reviving the outraged people." 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Pa ge 45 

Whether or not one approves of Szukalski's art and theories, it must be 
admitted that his influence is in large part wholesome. Art may not follow 
his lead, but it must be somewhat freed and rejuvenated by his zeal. 

Polish Exhibitors from Out-of-Town 

Some Poles from cities throughout the country have exhibited in the Art 
Institute and private galleries, thereby adding to the richness of our civic 
cultural life. Most of them are of national importance. 

At the Art Institute : 

1. Walter Benda, New York, 

2. Leon A. Makielski, Detroit, 

3. Max Kalisz, Cleveland, 

4. Edward Lewandowski, Milwaukee, 

5. Henry Grabowski, Milwaukee. 

At private galleries : 

1. Max Wieczorek, Los Angeles — Chicago Galleries Association, 

2. Tade Styka, New York — Knoedler Galleries. 

Polish Works in Private Collections 

The following painters are represented in private collections which were 
shown at the Art Institute : 

1. Chlebowski— S. S. Costiyan Collection— Shown in 1893, '94, '95. "Scene 
in Cairo." 

2. Piotrowski, M. A.— A. A. Munger Collection— Shown in 1893, '94, '95. 
"The Polish Insurrection." 

3. Kowalski, A. W.— S. A. Kent Collection— Shown in 1894, '95. "Horses 
and Winter Landscape." 

4. Jaroszynski, J. — Emil Haas Collection — Shown in 1895. "Winter in 

5. Zak, Eugene — Permanent Art Institute Collection — Shown in 1926, '33. 
"The Shepherd." 

6. Garynska Wiktorya — -Permanent Art Institute Collection — Shown in 
1933. "Pieta"— woodcut. 

7. Skoczylas, Wladyslaw — Permanent Art Institute Collection — Shown in 
1933. "Polish Peasant" — woodcut; "Highland Brigands" — woodcut ; 
"Polish Town" — woodcut; "St. Christopher" — woodcut. 

Page 46 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Polish Artists from Europe at Art Institute 

The works of Polish painters are often included in the annual international 
exhibitions. In the Carnegie Internation, Michalak, Pautsch, Slendzinski and 
Bogdanska were seen on several occasions. The work of Ostoja-Chrostowski 
and Michal Bylina were seen in the international show of Prints and Etch- 

Citizens Sponsor Art Activities 

Inspired by a great pride in the cultural achievements of their motherland 
and desirous of sharing these with their new friends and neighbors, the Po- 
lish citizens of Chicago sponsored or aided the following activities: 

1. Exhibition of Polish Works — World's Columbian Exposition — 1893. 

2. Kosciuszko Monument — Erected in Humboldt Park — 1904. 

3. Exhibition of Contemporary Polish Art — Art Institute — 1921. 

4. Pulaski and Kosciuszko Memorial Tablets — Placed in Federal Building. 

5. Polish Art Exhibit— World's Fair Grounds— 1933. 

6. Historical Paintings in Organization buildings. 

Space will not permit going into great detail about these activities, spon- 
sored though they were by hundreds of thousands of Poles. 

Exhibition of Polish Works in 1893 

The Society of Polish Artists sent three delegates to the World's Col- 
umbian Exposition. They were George Tasnowski, Miecislaus Niedwiedzinski 
and Valery Brochocki. 

Paintings were hung in the west wing of the Fine Arts Building. A total 
of one hundred twenty-two paintings representing the work of fifty-nine art- 
ists were shown. Forty-one artists from Warsaw showed eighty-six works, 
fifteen artist from Krakow showed thirty-one, two artists from St. Peters- 
burg showed four works, and one Polish artist from Paris exhibited one. 

The following were the participating artists. The numerals represent the 
number of works of the given artist. 

7 works — Gerson, W. ; 6 works — Maszynski, J., Zmurko, F. ; 5 works — Al- 
chimowicz, K., Podkowinski, W., Stasiak, L. ; 4 works — Dukszynski, E., Ge- 
neli, M., Piotrowski, A.; 3 works — Ciaglinski, J., Garyer, M., Gramatyka, A., 
Kowsik, J., Kendzierski, A., Modenstein, D., Stankiewicz, L. ; 2 works — Ci- 
chocki, L., Damszowska, M., Goscinski, W., Maleszewski, T., Matejko, J., 
Mirecka, K., Pawlowski, G., Popiel, T., Poswikowa, B., Ryszkiewicz, J., 
Szwignicki, R., Tetmeyer, W. ; 1 work — Brochocki, W., Chelmonski, J., Go- 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 47 

scinski, W., Gryglewski, A., Guminski, W., Gwidzki, T., Sztencel, M., Jasin- 
ski, L., Kasiewicz, M., Kossak, S., Laremlaski, M., Ludacholski, L., Mal- 
czewski, J., Maslowski, S., Mroczkowski, A., Pawliczak, W., Piechowski, W., 
Pillati, X., Piotrowicz, I., Piontkowski, H., Piotrowski, W., Pruszkowski, 
W., Reyzner, M., Rosen, P., Styka, J., Swojnicki, R., Szyndler, P., Trem- 
bacz, M., Wisniewski, B., YV odzinowski, W., Zalewski, M. 

Kosciuszko Monument 

The project for the statue of Kosciuszko in Humboldt Park was initiated 
in 1886. The idea for the project was first discussed in the "Kosciuszko So- 
ciety" now Group Xo. 67 of the Polish Xational Alliance. 

A committee was organized to propose the project to the entire Polish 
colony and ask their support of the venture. A special committee of the fol- 
lowing members was empowered to act and solicit funds. They were : E. Z. 
Brodowski, Michal Majewski, Wladyslaw Smulski, Dr. Kazimierz Mido- 
wicz, Jan F. Smulski, Michal La Buy, Paul O. Stensland, Max Drzymala 
and Leon Szopinski. 

Kazimierz Chodzinski, a renowned Polish sculptor, was commissioned to 
execute the statue. 

The statue of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Polish patriot and American Revolu- 
tionary hero, was unveiled 'on September 11, 1904. This was one of the most 
imposing demonstrations ever witnessed here, with perhaps but one excep- 
tion — that of the Polish Day celebration at the Fair in 1893. A hundred thou- 
sand Poles from Chicago and all over the United States participated. 

Since this is a paper on Polish art history in Chicago, it may interest the 
reader to know more about the sculptor. 

Kazimierz Chodzinski 

Kazimierz Chodzinski, creator of the wonderful equestrian statue of Thad- 
deus Kosciuszko, was born in Poland in 1861. He studied at the Krakovian 
Academy of Fine Arts under the supervision of the immortal master, Jan 
Matejko. Having been successful in two art competitions, he exhibited sev- 
eral of his works in the Krakovian Art Salon when he was nineteen years of 
age. After completing his work in the Krakow school, he was given a schol- 
arship to continue his studies. He went to Vienna and worked under Lamsch, 
Hellmer and others. Shortly afterward he was awarded the "Xeuling Preiss" 
and the Ministry of Education award. His fame spread and he exhibited 
in many salons. He was considered one of the outstanding Polish sculptors. 

Page 48 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

Upon his return to Krakow he was kept busy with commissions. In addi- 
tion to other work, Chodzinski executed about one hundred figures for the 
Dominican Church in Krakow. 

In America, for a number of years, he has made a number of statues. 
Among the finest is one of Pulaski in Washington, D. C. for which he was 
commisioned by the government of the United States. 

Exhibition of Contemporary Polish Art 

The exhibition of works of art by contemporary Polish artists exhibited in 
America for the first time, was held in the Art Institute in 1921. 

The patrons were: Mrs. Felice Modjeska, Mrs. Julius Smietanka, Miss A. 
Emily Napieralska, Mr. Harold F. McCormick, Mr. Julius F. Smietanka, 
Mr. E. R. Graham, Mr. Henry K. Holsman, Mr. Joseph R. Noel, Mr. Casimir 
Zychlinski, Mr. Henry J. Reilly, Mr. Pierce Anderson, Mr. F. E. Davidson. 

The exhibition consisted of paintings and crafts from Poland. The follow- 
ing artists were represented: Z. Ajdukiewicz (2); A. Cleander (1); S. Fa- 
bijanski (7) ; A. Grottger (3) ; K. Jaroszynski (1) ; J. Kossak (3) ; J. Matej- 
ko (2) F. Trojanowski (1) ; L. Winterowski (1) ; T. Axentowicz (2) ; S. Da- 
niel (1) ; J. Falat (2) ; J. Graczynski (1) ; E. Knaus (1) ; Jules Kossak (1) ; 
P. Stachiewicz (9) ; H. Uziemblo (4) ; L. Wyczolkowski (22) ; B. Bartel (3) ; 
O. Dobrowolski (2) ; F. Gendzierski (3) ; J. Holzmuller (1) ; Adalbert Kos- 
sak (2) ; J. Kotowski (1) ; C. Swierkowska 1) ; T. Weiss (1) ; F. Zmurko (1). 

Mrs. Ralph Modjeska lent a group of paintings of Cwieklinski, F. Posow- 
ski, W. Kossak and L. Wyczolkowski. 

Mrs. Arthur Ryerson lent a collection of thirty-eight articles such as dolls, 
toys, shawls, textiles, etc., the work of Nina Alexandrowicz and Z. Piramo- 

The "Kilim School," Lwow, sent a gold woven carpet of the eighteenth 

Memorial Tablets in Federal Building 

In 1936 a committee of citizens and civic leaders, judges, representatives 
of fraternal organizations and editors with Mr. Paul Drymalski as general 
chairman and Mr. Anthony Czarnecki, honorary chairman, commissioned 
Jan Blechert, an artist from Poland, to make a bronze tablet in honor of 
Thaddeus Kosciuszko. This tablet was placed in the rotunda of the United 
States Court House with those representing La Fayette, and von Steuben. 

• 1837 — PO LES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 49 

In the same place, there is a tablet in honor of Casimir Pulaski, who was 
killed during the siege of Savannah. The tablet was erected in 1929, by Amer- 
icans who served in the World War on the 150th anniversary of his death. 
The tablet is beautiful in its simplicity. 

Mr. Anthony Czarnecki, under whose sole leadership the project was ini- 
tiated and carried through, obtained special permission from President Hoo- 
ver to have the tablet erected. For the first time in our history, and any- 
where in the country, permission was given to place a tablet inside a federal 

Paintings in Organization Buildings 

The fraternal organizations which have their headquarters in Chicago have 
commissioned artists to paint historical paintings and portraits for them. 
Michael Rekucki, a well-known painter from Nowy Targ, Poland, has done 
a number of paintings and portraits for the Polish National Alliance, and 
the Polish Roman Catholic Union. His painting of Wilson and Washington 
hang in places of honor in the Polish National Alliance. Some excellent por- 
traits can be found in the Polish Roman Catholic Union Museum. 

Mr. Kazimierz Majewski has a very strong painting of Pilsudski, in the 
Polish National Alliance Gallery. As artist on the staff of "Dziennik Zwiaz- 
kowy" (The Polish Daily Zgoda) he has produced a great number of unusu- 
ally clever and most dramatic cartoons. 

Paintings by Mr. Czarnowski and wood carvings of Mr. Adam Dabrow- 
ski adorn special rooms in the Polish Women's Alliance. 

Polish Arts Club 

One of the greatest and most significant contributions to the cultural life 
of the Poles in Chicago was made by the Polish Arts Club. Though in ex- 
istence only eleven years, it has a most enviable record of activities which 
has given appreciation, encouragement and support to the efforts of our 
young talent in the field of plastic arts, music, literature and dramatics. 

An idea suggested by Mr. Thaddeus Sleszynski at a chance meeting of 
several Chicago Poles at a concert at Ravinia Park in the summer of 1925, 
resulted in what is known as the Polish Arts Club. At the meeting on Feb- 
ruary 14. 1926, the constitution was adopted and officers elected. The fol- 
lowing are charter members: Helen Banko. Hazel Bruski, Mrs. C. Bucholz, 
Irene Chrzanowski, Anne Cierpik, Mrs. Stephanie D'Oreste, Hyacinth Glom- 
ski, Sophie Jaworowski, Stella Kobylanski, Dr. Harriet Kobrzynski-Hintzke 

Page 50 1837 — P OLES OF CHICAGO — J 93 7 • 

Dr. M. J. Kostrzewski, Irene Maszyk, Marie Mroz, Mary Onecka, Jane Pal- 
czynska, Frank Peska, Florence Praczukowski, Adele Radecki, Henrietta 
Rzeszotarski, Dr. J. O. Salach, T. Siesinski, Mrs. Amine Slesinski, Mrs. K. 
Sluszynska, Pearl Suchomski, Mrs. Vincent Torczynski, Alice Walczyk, Zella 
Wolsan, J. P. Zaleski, Mrs. H. Skudnig-Zalewski and Lawrence Zygmunt. 

Section chairmen and workers who have contributed much to the work of 
the club during this period are : Jane Palczynska, Norbert Czarnowski, Wal- 
ter Mazeski, Mrs. J. Shepanek-Ulis, Henrietta Rzeszotarski, W. W. Wieczo- 
rek, Dr. M. J. Kostrzewski, Sophie Warszewski, Anthony Milewicz, Dr. Zu- 
rawski, Irene Hinkelman, Hyacinth Glomski, Thaddeus Kozuch, Adele La- 
godzinski, Pearl Suchomski, Adele Radecki, Stella Kobylanski, M. Niedz- 
wiecki, Mrs. J'. J. Chrzanowska, Mrs. J. Karlowicz, Barbara Lisewski, Dusia 
Urbanowska; Mrs. W. La Buy, Mrs. J. B. Mix, Wanda Ankowska, Mrs. V. 
Glowacka, Mrs. M. J. Sienkiewicz, August Kowalski and John Konopa. 

Under the able leadership of the following presidents, the Polish Arts Club 
has made its contribution: Mr. Julius Szatkowski, Mrs. J. B. Zielinski, Mr. 
Max Drezmal, Mr. Myron Steczynski and Mr. W. W. W T ieczorek. 

Its purposes are : 

(a) Promoting fellowship between Polish Americans and Americans of 
other ancestries interested in the fine arts. 

(b) Providing and facilitating for its members common enjoyment of the 

(c) Popularizing the knowledge, appreciation and enjoyment of art and 

(d) Joint study of literature and other arts. 

(e) Making Polish art and literature better known in the United States. 

(f) Rendering moral and material aid to promising Polish and American 
writers, musicians, artists and students of the arts. 

The club has to its credit a number of achievements in music, literature 
and dramatics, which are being discussed in other articles in this book. We 
are concerned only with the achievements in the field of art. 

During the eleven years of its existence, the Polish Arts Club has ar- 
ranged eight annual exhibits of paintings, sculpture and graphics. With 
the exception of the one in 1933 which was held at the Hamilton Club down- 
town, and a Non-Jury show, all were held in the Home Bank building. Each 
showed the work of Chicago artists and in order to add variety and increase 
interest, a loaned collection of painting by artists from Poland was shown on 
two occasions. At another time the works of out-of-town artists were invited. 

The following Chicago artists of Polish lineage exhibited with the Polish 
Arts Club during the period spoken of. They were: Jerome Bielinski, Jan Ble- 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 51 

chert, L. Bodzewski, W. Bucholz, Norbert Czarnowski, Ksawery Centkow- 
ski, Warren G. Cook, K. Dabrowski, A. Dobos, M. Donarski, J. Drut, F. Du- 
rzynski, A. Dziurdzik, H. Glicenstein, Hyacinth Glomski, S. F. Grudewicz, 
Mrs. Mary Hellmuth, J. Jurewicz, Dr. M. F. Kalisz, Karl Kaczmarski, Mrs. 
Sliwinska-Kapturkiewicz, J. Karas, E. Karnowski, Joseph Kleczek, Harriet 
Krawiec, Walter Krawiec, S. Kwiatkowska, Kazimierz Majewski, Walter 
Mazeski, P. Porowski, Michael Rekucki, L. Rodowicz, Anton Rogalski, Theo- 
dore Roszak, J. Rusiecki, E. Rutkowska, Genevieve Shepanek-Ulis, Sister 
Mary Adeline, Sister Mary Hyacinth, Sister Stanisia, M. Swiatkowski, Adam 
Szwejkowski, John Szynalik, Frances Tarka and M. Witwicki. 

Sculpture was submitted by the following: E. Bobrowski, Ray Brown, 
Adam Dabrowski, W. Gawlinski, E. Grajewski, Dr. W. F. Kalisz, W. Ma- 
zeski, Jane Palczynski, Anton Roszak, John Szynalik, John Szaton and Alice 

Water colors were submitted by: K. Dombrowski, S. F. Grudewicz, A. 
Kurek, E. L. Micielski, Jane Palczynski, Anthony Rogalski, J. Rusiecki, 
Walter Stopa, Stephen Stecki and Adam Szwejkowski. 

Graphics were shown by: Ludwik Bodzewski, Jan Chmielewski, Warren 
C. Cook and J. Jablonski. 

In these eight annual exhibitions fifty-six of the exhibiting artists were 
Chicagoans and twelve from cities throughout the United States. These 
were: Painters— Max Wieczorek of Los Angeles, Leon A. Makielski, Bruno 
Makielski and Mrs. Martha Kosicka of Detroit, Henry Twardzik and Mrs. 
Federkiewicz of Boston, Edward Lewandowski and Henry Grabowski of 
Milwaukee, Gustaw Gwozdecki and Tade Styka of New York City, R. Tar- 
czynski of Orchard Lake, Frank Mysliwy and Martin Tolpa of South Chi- 
cago and Franciszek Olstowski of Matawan, N. J. sculptor, and H. Archacki 
of New York City and Jan M. Chmielewski of Philadelphia, graphic art. 
A total of three hundred thirty-eight works were shown in these exhibits. 

The loan collection in the exhibition in 1927 consisted of the works of well 
known artists of Poland. They were: Axentowicz, Adam Batycki, Chorem- 
balski, Cieckiewicz, Iwanowski, Lindeman, Mokwa, Nartowski, Pociecha, 
Ryszkiewicz and Wisniewski. 

The loan exhibition of 1929 contained works of many famous Poles. They 
were: Augustynowicz, T. Axentowicz, M. Borucinski, J. Falat, Kleczynski, 
J. Kossak, W. Kossak, W. Rapacki, Z. Rozwadowski, W. Skoczylas, W. 
Weiss, S. Wywiorski, Z. Orwicz-Orkan and Sechanowicz. 

With the exception of one Non-Jury Show in 1933, the eight exhibitions 
have shown only the works which were selected by a jury of recognized 
artists in the city. The juries of selection were: Minnie Harms Neebe and 
Clara A. Kruse, 1929-1931. In 1932, Albin Polasek, Claude Buck and Karl A. 

Page 52 1837 — POLES OF CHlCA GO J= J9} 7 • 

Buehr acted as the jury of selection and awards. In the 1933 exhibition which 
was held in the Hamilton Club, two juries of selection served: Conservative — 
Karl Buehr, Pauline Palmer, Charles Wilimovsky ; Modern — Enrico Glicen- 
stein, Flora Schoefeld and Rudolph Weisenborn. 

In recognition of the importance and value of the work being carried on 
by the Polish Arts Club, the fraternal organizations donated funds to be dis- 
tributed as awards in the exhibition in 1932. 

Prizes Awarded 

Polish National Alliance Prize, $100.00— Harriet Krawiec— "Mums." 
Polish National Alliance Prize, $75.00— Leon Makielski— "Mr. Max Colter." 
Polish Women's Alliance Prize, $50.00 — Adam Szwejkowski — For best 

group submitted. 

Polish Women's Alliance Prize, $25.00 — Michael Rekucki — "Siberian 


Most Meritorious Work in Painting 

Walter Krawiec — "Homage to Kosciuszko." 

Most Meritorious Work in Sculpture 

Jane Palczynska — "Henrietta." 

(The above artists being members of the exhibition committee were not in 
competition for prize awards). 

Honorable Mention 

Henryk Twardzik — "Landscape." 
John Szynalik — "Houses, Lobelsdorf." 

Work of the Plastic Arts Section 

During these years, the plastic arts section of the Polish Arts Club has ar- 
ranged for its members and guests monthly one-man shows and illustrated 
lectures on art in general. Upon the occasion of visiting lecturers passing 
through the city, special exhibits and lectures have been held. Marya Werton, 
of the International School of Art, brought a remarkable exhibit of Polish 
prints, toys and crafts, and delivered one of the most inspiring and illuminat- 
ing lectures on "Applied Art." Dr. Irena Piotrowska gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on "Polish Art." 

One of the most stimulating activities of this section which had far-reach- 
ing results was the organization and conducting of a sketch class for stu- 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 53 

In addition to the annual and special exhibits, occasional lectures and 
demonstrations, the Polish Arts Club has invited outstanding people to lec- 
ture to the entire membership. Among the number of lecturers who have 
appeared, the following spoke on art in particular, or culture in general : 
Samuel Putnam, art critic, Chicago Evening Post; Dudley Crafts Watson, 
artist and lecturer, Art Institute; Chas. Fabens Kelly, curator of Oriental 
Art, Art Institute; Alfonso Ianelli, sculptor; Rev. K. Pijanowski, famous 
dramatist; Rev. S. F. Lisewski, philologist, Notre Dame University, and 
Michael Rekucki, artist. 

In this review of the achievements of the Poles in Chicago, in the field of 
art, the writer has attempted to justify the important place given Polish art- 
ists by quoting recognized non-Polish authorities. 

She is aware that there is a necessity for further research in several re- 
lated fields. In the field of church sculpture and painting though artists like 
Mr. Zenon Lach, Mr. Markiewicz and A. Lesiewicz are well known to us 
by virtue of the superiority of work, the writer is aware that in the forty- 
three Polish parishes in the city, there must have been more Polish artists 
at work. 

There are a great number of Polish American artists in the field of com- 
mercial art which should also be studied. Among the best known we find 
Adam Wandrowski who designed posters for the Commonwealth Edison Co. 
and M. Swiatkowski who is with General Motors. 

Long as the article appears to be, it is too brief to do full justice to each 
of the topics considered, and to tell of the great help given promising young 
artists by individual members of the community through guidance and pur- 
chase of paintings. 

At best it is only as rapid and comprehensive a bird's-eye-view of a cen- 
tury of activity, as could be achieved for the present purpose. If any omis- 
sions occurred, they are due to lack of time or of luck in finding clippings, 
for the entire study submitted is based largely upon newspaper clippings, 
Art Institute Catalogues, personal interviews with artists, and as much ma- 
terial as was available in the Polish Roman Catholic Museum library, with 
the help of Dr. M. Haiman to whom the writer is much indebted. 



By Hyacinth M. Glomski 

HENRY Raymond Hamilton in his book "The Epic of Chicago" relates : 
"It is often said that Chicago owes its position as metropolis of the 
great Inland Empire to the genius and energy of its founders and 
first settlers. It is true that it does owe much to these pioneers ; indeed, if 
they had not been men of boldness and enterprise they never would have 
got to Chicago." And so history records that the Poles were represented 
among those hardy pioneers, for several of the votes cast for William B. 
Ogden, the first mayor of Chicago, were Polish votes. 

As was true of any of the pioneering groups that sought a haven in the 
New World, the first thoughts of the Polish immigrants were for means 
with which to provide for food and shelter. But as America assimilates 
the peoples who come to her from foreign shores, she imbues them with the 
spirit of opportunity and with a desire for the finer things in life, and so one 
finds the Pole yearning for that culture which has its truest expression in 
the fine arts. 

Music is classified as a pure art, and ranks high among the seven divisions 
of the fine arts. It is of music and of its relationship to the Chicagoans of 
Polish ancestry that the writer has concerned herself. 

The Poles' heritage in music is rich indeed. Perhaps no country in the 
world can compare with Poland in its wealth of folk music and in its color- 
ful andf rhythmic folk dances. There is a pathetic beauty and a sweet en- 
chantment in the folk tunes of Poland. And what may be the reason for Po- 
land cherishing music as one of her dearest treasures? 

For centuries Poland remained a battlefield and stamping ground for the 
warring nations of Europe, and then came a time when it was cruelly par- 
titioned and taken over by three nations. 

Is it any wonder, then, that the Pole, deprived of the opportunity of emo- 
tional expression in civic life, found music as an outlet culminating in the re- 
markable genius of Frederic Chopin? All of the immortal masterpieces of 
Chopin are descriptive of his love for the land of his birth. In the polonaise 
!he paints the glory and exaltation of Poland ; in the mazurka, the charm of 
peasant life; the valse pictures the beauty of the Polish country-side; and 
in the monumental sonata, Chopin presents the whole story of Poland, up t/> 

Page 56 J 837 — POLES O F CHICAGO— J 937 » 

the time of the partitions. In the first movement of the sonata Chopin pic- 
tures a peaceful and happy country. There are the gay and cheerful peasant 
dances. In the distance are heard rumblings of an approaching war gradu- 
ally becoming more distinct and finally resulting in a terrific combat. 
Then in the next movement Chopin presents the monumental funeral march 
which was written with his own country in mind, and in the last movement 
of the sonata, Chopin describes the mournful breezes sweeping and moaning 
over the graves of the fallen but loyal heroes. 

It is said that Chopin while on his death bed in Paris, kept near him an 
urn of precious soil from the country of his birth and that often he would 
ask to see it, knowing as he said : "I have a premonition that I shall never 
again see my native land." 

And it was this same everlasting yearning for freedom and righteousness 
that possessed the hearts of these pioneers from Poland and for which they 
sought in America the new land. 

Local Musicians 

Although history records that Polish Revolutionary exiles were the first 
to settle in Illinois in 1831, it was not until 1860 that there was any evidence 
of local Polish musicians. In the latter year, Sylvester Lawinski, who was 
an accomplished violinist, opened a music store on State street near Twelfth 
street and conducted the business for twenty-five years. 

The year 1867 marked the founding of the first Polish Roman Catholic 
Church in Chicago, St. Stanislaus' Church. St. Adalbert's Church was the 
next to be established in the year 1872, followed closely by Holy Trinity 
Church in 1873. 

The opening of these churches and schools meant the further development 
of music in the personalities of Peter Kiolbassa, Andrew Kwasigroch, An- 
thony Mallek, Emil Wiedemann, Bronislaw Rybowiak, Frank Nowicki and 
others. Peter Kiolbassa was the first organist and teacher of the initial 
Polish parish in America located in the city of Panna Marya, Texas. In 
1864 he came to Chicago and for a time was organist of St. Stanislaus' Church, 
relinquishing this position later for the field of politics and became in turn 
a member of the Illinois State Legislature and treasurer of the city of Chi- 

Andrew Kwasigroch came to America in 1872. In 1875 he served as or- 
ganist of Holy Trinity Church, and a year later became the organist of St. ] 
Stanislaus' Church, where he led a prominent and fruitful musical existence 
for many years. Emil Wiedemann assumed the organ duties and music di- 
rectorship of St. Michael's Church in South Chicago in 1892, and in 1896 
transferred his musical interests and abilities to St. Hedwig's Church. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICA GO — 1937 Page 57 

Perhaps the most outstanding of the pioneer church organists and direc- 
tors of music was Anthony Mallek. He wielded an important and far-reach- 
ing influence on the music of the Polish community during his twenty-three 
years of service as organist and teacher at Holy Trinity Church from 1893 
to 1916. 

During his busy regime he organized numerous choirs and choruses, wrote 
much fine music, and was director and president of the Polish Singers' Al- 
liance of America until his death in 1917. His encouragement in the field of 
music endeavor to young musicians resulted in success to many. Historical 
annals of Holy Trinity Church record a concert given in honor of the instal- 
lation of a new organ in 1909. At this concert Mrs. Harriet Smulski was 
soloist with the Holy Trinity Choir under the direction of Anthony Mallek. 

Ledochowski and Wieniawski 

In 1870 Count Napoleon Ledochowski, a great pianist and teacher, came 
to Chicago and founded a conservatory of music. Count Ledochowski was 
the son of Count Constantine and the grandson of Baron de Meneval, secre- 
tary to Napoleon. He graduated from the Sorbonne University, where he 
studied music under the instruction of one of Chopin's pupils. 

Count Ledochowski was most highly gifted as he was an able painter, as 
well as a capable musician. His paintings were exhibited at the Exposition 
Art Hall. He was an excellent singer as evidenced by the fact that the Apollo 
Musical Club of Chicago, the oldest choral group in the Middle West, com- 
parable with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in making history for Chi- 
cago, engaged him as a soloist for a number of their concerts. Surely, a 
gentleman, possessing the artistic culture such as that of Count Ledochow- 
ski, was able to impart a genuine and very productive musical training to 
the scores of young Chicagoans who were fortunate enough to come under 
his tutelage. 

Probably the first Polish traveling musician to give a concert in this city 
was Henry Wieniawski, the famous violinist, who visited here in the year 
The Polish Singers' Alliance 

May 13, 1889, was a very significant date in the development of the city's 
music, for on that day a group of Chicago Poles known as the Chopin Choir 
met and organized the Polish Singers Alliance of America. Chicago, as in 
so many enterprises during its one hundred years of existence, was able to 
claim the birth of this very significant movement. 

During the nearly fifty years of the existence of the Polish Singers Al- 
liance of America, two-hundred and forty-three choirs have applied for mem- 

Page ?8 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

bership. There are at present eighty-six very active choirs with a total mem- 
bership of more than four thousand very active members. From the initial 
efforts in Chicago it has spread nationally so that at the present time there 
are ten circuits as follows : 

Circuits one and two embrace choirs in the states of Illinois and Indiana; 
circuit three, Ohio; circuit four, Pennsylvania; circuit five, West Michigan; 
circuit six, central New York; seven, Eastern New York; eight, Western 
Michigan; nine, West New York; and ten, the New England states. 

Anthony Mallek, a very able organist and composer, was the first general 
choral director and president. The Polish Singers Alliance of America holds 
a national contest, concert and conference tri-annually. Each circuit conducts 
a contest and concert annually. There is a national general choral director, 
each circuit has a director and each choir has its own director. 

Circuit number one contains thirteen choruses under the general circuit 
direction of Zdzislaw Skubikowski. Five of the individual choirs or choruses 
of this circuit are directed by him. John J. Jakajtis, who is the director of 
Circuit number two, also directs five circuits and has been the director of the 
Dembinski chorus of Circuit two for thirty years. Walter Panka is the na- 
tional president. Zdzislaw Skubikowski is general musical director. Both of 
the named men are Chicagons. This movement is one of considerable impor- 
tance, for its present opportunities in the art of choral ensemb 1 e for thou- 
sands and also training in choral directorship and leadership are of inestima- 
ble value. 

In perusing the scores of programs the writer found a program recording 
a concert given by the Chopin and Wanda Choirs in the W. Templin Hall 
in South Chicago, Illinois on February 21, 1897. 

The organization and establishment of the churches of Immaculate Con- 
ception in 1882, St. Josephat's in 1884, St. Hedwig's in 1888, St. Michael's in 
1892, St. John Cantius' and St. Stanislaus' (Cragin) in 1893, and St. Salo- 
mea's in 1897, brought with it a furtherance of music in the personalities of 
the church organists and of the individual members of the numerous choirs. 
Ignace Jan Paderewski 

And now comes the year 1891 and the momentous visit to Chicago of the 
great Ignace Jan Paderewski, one of the greatest men mankind has ever 
produced, one of whom any civilization in any age would justly be proud. He 
played not only for Chicago, but for all of America, and in so doing placed 
the fine art of music and its character-building and cultural values on a 
higher plane than any musician has ever since been able to do. 

Paderewski's contribution to the development of music in Chicago and in 
America will never be adequately measured. It was he with his music and 
personal magnetism interwined that gave an impetus to pianists and music 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page ^ 

scholars, and so popularized the art of piano playing. And so the business 
of the music teacher flourished, and the sale of pianos increased by leaps 
and bounds. 

Paderewski's first American visit had brought him $95,000, his second 
$160,000, and his third $248,000! Americans marvelled! Here was a man who, 
all by himself and with his two hands alone, was able to earn more than a 
quarter of a million dollars in less than six months ! His audiences listened 
patiently and enraptured to his Beethoven renditions, and they shed tears 
over Chopin. Here was a man who through his personal magnetism could 
plunge common-place unmusical Americans so deeply into the voluptuous- 
ness of music. 

The writer remembers well the Paderewski concert in the Chicago Civic 
Opera House in 1932. Paderewski and his piano were on a stage built over 
the orchestra pit. Every seat in the house was occupied including the stage 
seats. There was a clamorous fringe of people on the outside who came too 
late to buy tickets. Here was a great musician and a great audience, and in 
times of depression, too! Upon Paderewski's entrance on the stage the au- 
dience rose as was usual. Then three hours of concert and two hours of en- 
cores and the audience remained unmoved! What a glorious tribute to the 
man and to the high art he represented ! 

Perhaps the words of Eugene Stinson, a Chicago music critic, may ex- 
plain this phenomenon: "Mr. Paderewski's playing never can be merely 
piano-playing and his music never can be mere music. It is a reassurance to 
the innermost heart of the human race." Or perhaps a quotation by Arthur 
W. Sewall of New: York in 1928, contained in Charles Phillips book entitled, 
"Paderewski— The Story of a Modern Immortal" may serve as an explana- 
tion : "Whatever the course of history 1 may have demanded of Paderewski as 
statesman, and however practically and brilliantly he may have responded 
to those demands, he will remain, for the vast majority of his American ad- 
mirers, the great musician. His place in their admiration and affection, is 
first, that of the master pianist, the conjurer with the magic of tones; and 
then that of the composer of strong individuality, tinged deeply with the 
color of his Polish nationality." 

Ignace Jan Paderewski played in Chicago for the first time in 1891 and in 
the same year the famous singers Jean and Edouard de Reszke performed 
here in a series of operas. It was these three famous musicians, who, ac- 
cording to the biographer, inaugurated "The Golden Age of Music" in Chi- 

Two years later came the World's Fair of 1893 and a copy of the program 
of the first "Polish Day" includes a concert given in Festival Hall on the 
World's Fair Grounds on October 7, 1893. The concert includes the appear- 
ances of the United Polish Singers of America under the baton of Anthony 

Page 60 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Mallek, of the St. Stanislaus' choir under the leadership of Andrew Kwasi- 
groch, and the Wanda and Chopin choirs with Anthony Mallek directing. 
Continuing up to the present day the numerous Chicago choirs and choruses, 
all members of the Polish Singers Alliance of America have given scores 
and scores of concerts each one a reassurance of the love for music in the 
heart of the American of Polish ancestry. 

Mrs. Agnes Nering, Mrs. Harriet Smulski and 
Mrs. Rose Kiolbassa-Kwasigroch 

An outstanding name which appears on a number of programs is that of 
Mrs. Agnes Nering. Born in the year 1876, Mrs. Nering during her lifetime 
won well deserved fame as a singer. Gifted with an unusually fine voice, to- 
gether with energy and perseverance, she became a noted concert singer and 
a brilliant teacher. Her home became a mecca for budding musicians, and 
many received from her the inspiration of the genuine beauty of song. She 
labored most untiringly in her chosen field until her untimely death at the 
early age of forty-six. It is interesting to know that her home which was the 
scene of so many musical triumphs has, since her passing, been used numbers 
of times for the presentation of the musical activities of the Polish Arts Club 
of Chicago, which was organized only a few years after her death. 

A name of outstanding importance in the music life of the Chicago Poles 
is that of Rose Kiolbassa-Kwasigroch. She was the daughter of Peter Kiol- 
bassa. Inheriting the culture and energetic enthusiasm of her noted father, 
she soon became a leader in the music circles of Chicago. She was a student 
of the world-famous opera stars, Edward De Reszke and Madame Sembrich- 
■Kochanska. She appeared in operatic arias under the baton of the great 
Theodore Thomas, founder and first conductor of the Chicago Symphony 
orchestra. At another time Mrs. Kwasigroch appeared in a recital together 
with the renowned actress, Helena Modjeska (Modrzejewska). She was solo- 
ist at the Holy Name Cathedral for many years. The then famous Cathedral 
quartet included Bruno Rybowiak, tenor, and Carl Formes, famous baritone, 
whose grandmother was a Pole. About thirty years ago Mrs. Kwasigroch 
organized a mixed and male quartet for the purpose of producing records in 
the Polish language. This body of young artists produced several recordings 
for the Victor Record Co., in Camden, New Jersey. The members of the quar- 
tet were: RAose Kwasigroch, soprano, B. Wawrzynska, alto, Bruno Rybo- 
wiak and St. Kuzniewicz, tenors, and Victor Schillo and Stanley Smoczynski, 

In the year 1907 one finds the record of a concert given at Orchestra Hall. 
The participating artists were Jadwiga Smulska, vocalist. Wladyslaw Flo- 
rjanski, vocalist and Jan Mallek, violinist. On Sunday, November 28, 1909, 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 61 

Mrs. Agnes Nering appeared in a grand concert at the St. Stanislaus' Audi- 
torium. October 30, 1915, marks the date of a concert sponsored by the 
Polska Rada Narodowa w Ameryce (''Polish National Council of America") 
in the Zjednoczenie Hall. Adam Didur, basso of the Metropolitan Opera 
Company was the featured artist, assisted by Eva Didur, vocalist, Wladyslaw 
Fifielski, pianist, and members of various church choirs under the baton of 
Aleksander Karczynski. 

The Polish Arts Club of Chicago 

Appropriately enough, during the past eleven years the great majority of 
concerts and musical events of much importance have been sponsored, fos- 
tered or patronized by the Polish Arts Club of Chicago. This club formally 
adopted its constitution on February 14, 1926, and began functioning most 
efficiently in the development of music by Americans of Polish ancestry in 
Chicago. The instigation for the organization of the Polish Arts Club was a 
series of gatherings, such as visits to the Art Institute of Chicago, attendance 
at opera and concert parties, and a memorial meeting which was held at Ful- 
lerton Hall on December 18, 1925, to pay honor to Wladislaw Reymont, win- 
ner of the Nobel prize for literature for the year 1934, and for Stephen Ze- 
romski, another noted Polish novelist. 

The Polish Arts Club and its activities is indeed a significant movement in 
the further development of music by the Chicagoan of Polish ancestry as 
the following paragraph will relate. Beginning with the wisdom and energy 
of its first capable music chairman, Anthony Milewicz, it has brought to the 
attention of Chicago a series of musical events of first importance. 

During 1926, the first year of its existence, the following musical enter- 
prises were arranged by this club: On April 11, Edmund Zygman presented 
a lecture on "Poland, as an Inspiration for Foreign Composers," illustrated 
on the piano by Hyacinth Glomski. Mr. Zygman pointed out the fact that 
Polish themes were used by Bach, McDowell, Wagner, Weber and other 
non-Polish composers. On May 16, a Polish Symphony Concert by the Co- 
operative Orchestra with Edmund Zygman as conductor was presented at 
Orchestra Hall by the Polish American Philharmonic Society of Chicago. 

The quotation from a lecture by Samuel Putnam delivered to the Polish 
Arts Club on May 16, 1926, carries an important thought to all Americans: 
"To me, being a good American means bringing to this melting pot of ours 
the very best and finest national and racial gifts that you possess, tossing 
them into the pot, so to speak, but, at the same time, preserving them being 
proud of them. And America, if she is wise, will cherish them and be proud 
of them, and the result will be a bigger, a more vital, a finer America, one to 
whom both native born and foreign born will be proud to belong." 

Page 62 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 

Since its inception, the Polish Arts Club has through its own efforts ar- 
ranged a number of concerts at Ravinia Park, Illinois, in cooperation with 
the management of the Ravinia Opera Company and has featured prominent 
musicians of Polish ancestry. The first of these programs was held in Ra- 
vinia Park on August 8, 1926. Ina Bourskaja, a member of the Metropolitan 
and Chicago Opera Companies, appeared in a repertoire of Polish songs, 
and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Eric DeLamar- 
ter played compositions by Paderewski, Moszkowski, Fitelberg and Borowski, 
the last named a Chicagoan. 


Dr. Felix Borowski 

Dr. Felix Borowski has been very prominent and successful in the music 
life of Chicago. Grove's "Dictionary of Music and Musicians" says of him: 
"Fe 1 ix Borowski came from distinguished Polish stock .... In 1896 he pro- 
duced his 'Russian Sonata,' which won strong commendation from Grieg, 
as also from Leschetizky, Sauer, Rosenthal and others. Its success led to a 
call to join the faculty of the Chicago Musical College as teacher of compo- 
sition beginning in August, 1897. Here he also taught the violin and lectured 
in music history. 

"In 1916, he succeeded to the presidency of the Chicago Musical College. 
In 1905 he also was the Chicago correspondent of the 'Musical Courier,' from 
1906 critic for the Chicago Evening Post and in 1909 to 1918 for the Record 
Herald. Since 1908 he has been the maker of the program notes for the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra." Truly, in recording the influences of per- 
sonalities in the musical development of Chicago the name of Dr. Felix 
Borowski must be placed high on the list. 

The writer remembers well an interesting anecdote which Dr. Borowski 
told her during the course of a private lesson in orchestration. Dr. Borowski 
related that at the time of the Polish Insurrection of 1863 his father migrated 
to England. However, so genuine a Polish patriot was he that upon his arrival 
in England he wrote Premier Gladstone that he intercede for Poland. Upon 
the appearance of the letter in the columns of "The Times," an English 
newspaper, a manufacturer offered gratis enough ammunition to supply an 
army of 100,000. And continued Dr. Borowski : "My father remained an ar- 
dent Polish patriot all the remaining days of his life." 

Dr. Glenn Dillard Gunn, the music critic, in commenting on the Ravinia 
Polish Day Concert of August 8, 1926, says: "It is the belief of the Poles, 
the Italians, the French, the Germans, and the Russians, that the artistic 
achievements of their countrymen form a significant part of their own pride 
of race and nation. I think the Poles are right .... I wish to congratulate 
the Poles for their pride in the music of their nationals." 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 63 

Significant Musical Activities 

The year 1927 was an unusually busy season, and included in the nu- 
merous musical activities are the following five very significant achieve- 

On March 10, 1927, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under the direction 
of Dr. Frederick Stock played a program of Polish music. The orchestra 
played compositions by Chopin, Paderewski and Scharwenka. Eleanor Kos- 
kiewicz, a young eighteen year old Chicagoan, winner of the Society of 
American Musicians, prize in the competioion for young American Artists, 
was the piano soloist of the evening. Dr. Felix Borowski took the baton to 
conduct the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in his own composition, "Youth" 
which composition had won for him a $1000 prize in a contest sponsored by 
the North Shore Festival Concert Company in 1923. 

On May 3, 1927, the Poles of Chicago, as a part of their celebration of 
Poland's independence offered for the first time in America the opera, 
"The Haunted Manor" by Stanislaw Moniuszko. Adam Didur from the Me- 
tropolitan Opera sang the principal bass role. Stefan Betlewicz from the 
Warsaw National Opera and Fyganiek, a member of the La Scala Opera, 
were also in the leading roles. 

On August 5, 1927, there was a second concert of Polish music at Ravinia 
Park and on December 16, 1927, Michael Wilkomirski, a gifted resident vio- 
linist, appeared in concert at the Studebaker Theatre. 

The year 1928 saw a third Polish Day Festival Concert in Ravinia Park. 
The soloists were the noted violinists George Szpinalski and Michael Wilko- 
mirski ; the pianist M. Ziolkowski and the Filharmonia and Filareci Singing 
Societies under the directorship of Bronislaw Rybowiak and A. M. Hess. In 
the evening of the same day Ina Bourskaja appeared with the Ravinia Opera 
Company in the leading role of "Carmen." 

On September 30, 1928, Andre Skalski appeared in a piano recital at the 
Midwest Athletic Club. Helene Morsztyn, a visiting pianist, played a piano 
recital in Chicago in 1928, the Skalski orchestra made its debut in a Chicago 
concert on November 21, 1928, and in the same year the Ravinia manage- 
ment sponsored another "Polish Day" program. 

The year 1929 brought another Ravinia concert to honor the music of the 
Poles and March 31, 1930, marked the'debut and concert of the Polish Sym- 
phony Orchestra at the Goodman Theatre, Casimir Jasinski conducting. Anne 
Cierpik, a resident sopranist, appeared in recital at Curtis Hall in the Amer- 
can Artists Series in December, 1930. August 17, 1930, brought another Ra- 
vinia concert to the attention of Chicagoans with Ina Bourskaja, Michael 
Wilkomirski and four Polish choruses participating. The concert on June 

Page 64 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

13, 1931, at the Illinois Women's Athletic Club revealed some new talent in 
the persons of Alice Baran, Adeline Preyss, Janina Laboda, Anthony Bek 
and Wanda Paul. The last named was the second young American of Polish 
descent to win the coveted prize offered by the Society of American Musi- 
cians in their quest for genuine talent. On September 14, 1931, Alice Baran, 
the third of the young Chicagoans of Polish ancestry, won the honor of ap- 
pearing as soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Jan Kiepura was 
in the same year engaged by the Chicago Civic Opera to sing a series of 
operatic roles. On November 3, 1931, he made a debut appearance in the 
opera La Tosca. 

On August 15, 1931, there appeared another in the series of Polish Day 
concerts at Ravinia Park. Glenn Dillard Gunn records in his music columns 
of the Herald and Examiner: "The Polish Arts Club of Chicago had the 
honor yesterday of assembling the largest audience that has gathered for a 
Ravinia National Concert this season." The soloists were Ina Bourskaja, 
Marek Windheim of the Metropolitan Opera Company, Marie Broniarczyk 
and Michael Wilkomirski. 

The concert of the People's Symphony on May 6, 1933, at Orchestra Hall 
under the baton of Jerzy Bojanowski, brought to light the high capabilities 
of another outstanding Pole. Jerzy Bojanowski had gained his experience in 
conducting the Warsaw Symphony Orchestra and the musical organizations 
in Lwow and Posen. Although he has been but a few years in America he 
has entered whole-heartedly into the orchestral and musical life of Chicago. 
The Polish Arts Club as promoters, arranged the Chopin Memorial Fund 
Concert at which the distinguished Dutch pianist Egon Petri played an all- 
Chopin recital on April 9, 1933, at the Drake Hotel. 

In the year 1934, the Polish groups in Chicago presented the opera "Hal- 
ka" by Moniuszko at the Civic Opera House. The year 1935 marked the 
seventy-fifth birthday of the distinguished world pianist, Ignace Jan Pade- 
rewski ; and the Poles of Chicago paid a tribute to their countryman by fos- 
tering two musical celebrations. One was the concert by the Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra under Dr. Frederick Stock's direction on October 31 and 
November 1, 1935. The Orchestra as a tribute to the genius of this great in- 
ternational musician played "Polonia" by Wagner, Paderewski's "Symphony 
in B minor," Opus 24 and "Polish Fantasie for piano and orchestra." In the 
last named number, 'Ernest Schelling, an American pianist of the first rank 
and one of the few pupils of Paderewski, played the piano concerto. 

The second celebration was sponsored by all Chicagoans of Polish ancestry 
and took the form of a concert at tne Auditorium Iheatre October 17, 
1935. Among those who performed on this occasion was the noted pianist, 
Zygmunt Stojowski, also at one time pupil of Paderewski. Mr. Zygmunt Sto- 
jowski, Edward Grabinski and Marie Broniarczyk also appeared on the pro- 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pag^g 

During the past two years there have been numerous and excellent con- 
certs. The Dana Ensemble appeared at the Studebaker Theatre in October, 

1936. On March 1, 1936, the Music Section of the Polish Arts Club presented 
a concert at the Polish Women's Alliance Hall commemorating the tenth 
anniversary of the founding of the club. Jadwiga Furmaniak, Karol Kosin- 
ski, Thaddeus Kozuch and Michael Wilkomirski appeared in solo roles. The 
last named was the fourth of the young Chicagoans to be awarded the prize 
of the Society of American Musicians, which brought with it an appearance as 
soloist with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The Plon Choir under the di- 
rection of Alexander Karczynski also participated in the program. 

Of more recent date, Wanda Paul appeared as soloist with the Illinois 
Symphony Orchestra on January 10, 1937, Valeria Glowacki sang the role 
of Michael a in Carmen with Chicago City Opera Company on February 
21, 1937, Alice Baran played in a piano recital on May 23, 1937, and the 
"Nowe Zycie" (New Life) Choral Society, directed by Z. Skubikowski, sang 
in the Grant Park concert series with Cavallo's Symphony Band on July 18, 

1937. The same afternoon a part of the concert at Ravinia Park was, through 
the efforts of the Polish Arts Club, devoted to compositions by Moniuszko, 
Rozycki and Tansman. 


Only Greatest Contributions Listed 

In the preparation and compilation of this article the writer has endeavored 
to record those interests which have contributed in the largest measure to 
the development of music in Chicago. Truly, there have been hundreds, 
yes, perhaps thousands of persons who have helped in the cause of finer mu- 
sic for Chicago, and in the concerts, programs and musical events that have 
been so very numerous. 

May the information and inspiration gleaned from these pages serve to 
spur the reader on to future endeavor and to an even greater and more 
glorious musical Chicago. 



By Natalie Kunka 

NO adequate estimate can be made here of the work or even sufficient 
mention be made about the workers in the field of amateur dramatic 
art, cultivated by the Poles of Chicago. Dramatic activities evolved 
with the parishes as a nucleus. Some parishes developed the art to a greater, 
others to a lesser extent : a few carried on and rose under capable leadership 
to standards of high artistic merit. The beautiful muse of drama was for 
ages a gentle handmaid of our mother the Church, who adorned her in vir- 
tues and truths and dogma and bade her serve her children with miracle 
plays, morality plays, passion plays and the inimitable Christmas plays, called 
JJaselka." The Polish parishes in Chicago utilized the services of this great 
muse to cultivate beauty, provide wholesome recreation, serve as a factor in 
moral growth, to foster the native language and culture, and to raise much 
needed funds. 

There are also many units operating independently of Church affiliation, 
but since the membership of these groups is recruited mostly from among the 
parishioners within whose confines these independent circles are operating, 
the parishes are justly proud of them. Moreover, there often is a fine spirit 
of cooperation, and in cases where alongside of them there is working a cir- 
cle established as a church unit, the rivalry for excellence is a wholesome 

This year marks the ten-year life span of the Alliance of the Polish Lite- 
rary Dramatic Circles of America. It was a dream come true when on March 
20, 1927 representatives of a number of circles, both parish and independent, 
met to bring into life a federation which would in time unite all the circles 
not only of Chicago but of other cities also, in order to establish friendly re- 
lations, encourage, and be of help to one another and to unite and cooperate 
in concerted effort where such effort is required. 

About the same time, another group of circles made an effort at consoli- 
dation into a cooperative combine, with objectives which were different in 
plan and scope, the "Zaprzyjaznione Kolka Dramatyczne." Its program of 
work, however, broke down under the test in about three years. They pre- 

Page 68 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

sented among others "Balladyna," Slowacki's great dramatic work, in De- 
cember, 1929. 

All the dramatic circles have struggled against the vicissitudes of time, 
clash of ambitions, and differences of opinions. Dramatic work, especially in 
the parish circles, was at its zenith about the year 1917, and declined in the 
post-war period. Interest was diverted to the motion picture screen, and 
drawn into the preoccupations of the social and civic reconstruction period. 
Now, besides the ever-mounting difficulties of sustaining themselves, they 
have a hard and belated problem on their hands: to pass on their heritage 
and their work to the rising generation. 

St. Stanislaus Parish Dramatic Circle 

Oldest of all, the St. Stanislaus Parish Dramatic Circle, organized in 1891, 
was fortunate in having for its director for many years the noted playwright 
and pedagog, Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, and later for some time, Dr. Karot 
Wachtel, editor and poet. Here worked from its early days Agnes Xering, the 
Polish community's greatest singer. This circle can show on its records that 
Helena Modjeska, the world famous actress, played with it at one time in the 
title role of "Jadwiga," a classic especially written for her by Zahajkiewicz, 
and then destroyed by the author, and in "Chlopi Arystokraci," by Anczyc, 
in the role of "Kogucina." 

From its beginning the circle had a fully equipped stage and a theatre, 
with a balcony running on all three sides, seating five thousand, which was 
larger than any other found in Chicago at that time, including the profes- 
sional theatres. It was larger than its present auditorium with a seating 
capacity of twelve hundred, which was erected after the old hall had been de- 
stroyed by fire about the year 1907. Local forces availed themselves of these 
facilities to produce classical drama on a large scale and of high artistic merit. 
Among the greatest plays produced were "Obrona Czestochowy," dramat- 
ized by Zahajkiewicz from "The Deluge" of Henryk Sienkiewicz, and "Dzieci 
Wdowy" also by Zahajkiewicz. Slowacki's "Mazepa," Fredro's "Dozywocie," 
Zahajkiewicz's "Perla Cylejska" and "Genowefa" and the latter s translation 
of Cornion's "Dwie Sieroty," were some of the other productions. Still active 
and playing roles when called upon, are John Xering, Vincent Jozwiakowski 
and John Czekala, who have been with the circle almost from its beginning 
and had the honor and distinction to play on their own stage with Mine. 
Modjeska. Others worthy of mention are Anthony Barwig, John Kondziorl 
ski, the late Agnes Xering, Rose Kiolbassa Kwasigroch and Francis Szat- 
kowski and Anna Xering-Jozwiakowski. 

Szczesny Zahajkiewicz was the oustanding leader among the literary fig- 
ures until about the year 1912 when work and ill health undermined his ca- 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 937 Page 69 

rer and useful life. He was a teacher, a prolific poet of distinction, as well 
as a playwright. In all he wrote about sixty plays. As ninety-five per- 
cent of Polish immigrants come from peasant stock, he based his plays on 
peasant life in Poland, and wrote them for local American consumption, 
mostly for amateur parish needs. Singing and music were interspersed. He 
also did many translations from French, English and other languages. Besides 
directing the St. Stanislaus Circle, he also gave services to other circles then 
extant. He wrote short articles for newspapers, and taught several subjects 
at the Holy Family Academy and St. Stanislaus College, now Weber High 

Providence dealt the Polish community a heavy blow when Agnes Xering 
died in the prime of her life in 1922. Her School of Vocal Art and Dancing, 
established after her return from her European studies under Mme. Schoen- 
Rene, Mme. Bellinciani and Mme. Lola Beeth, had given great impetus for 
the study of vocal art to the growing generation, and had instilled in it love 
for music. Born in Chicago, she was educated at the Holy Trinity school and 
the Holy Family Academy and was graduated in 1909 from the Chicago 
Musical College, winning the first prize and an award of a diamond medal. 
Afterwards, she spent several years of study abroad. With a group of artists 
she produced operatic extracts from "Madame Butterfly," "Faust" and "II 
Trovatore," and many minor operettas, always playing to overflowing audi- 
ences. Performances were also given in Milwaukee and other places. Sup- 
porting her in some of the casts were her husband, John Xering, Mme. Ja- 
dwiga Turalska, Vincent Jozwiakowski, Mrs. A. Gorna and John Kendzior- 
ski. Agnes X^ering was a fine coloratura soprano, Mrs. Turalski contralto, 
Mrs. Gorna soprano, Mr. Xering sang lyric tenor, Mr. Jozwiakowski and 
Kendzierski, basso. Besides conducting her own school, Mrs. X"ering also 
taught music at Holy Family Academy. She always contributed generously 
her time and talent to charitable undertakings. 

Dr. Karol Wachtel, as stated above, directed the St. Stanislaus dramatic 
circle for a shorter period. At that time editor of the Polish Daily News, he 
was a poet and a great amateur of dramatics and busied himself with the 
establishment of a permanent Polish theatre in Chicago, about the year 1915. 
He invited E. Kowalski, a professional European impressario, and in two 
months' time they staged "Djabel i Karczmarka" and "Karpaccy Gorale." 
Mr. Kowalski desired the group to travel. Mr. Wachtel relinquished his plans 
and decided to continue working with the amateur dramatic circle "Pro- 
mien," and enlisting outside talent where he could find it. Aided by J. Jakiel 
and E. Liljen, he gathered about himself this group of amateurs who did all 
the work for love of art, people who had a cultural, mostly European back- 
ground, but also some American-born, people busy with their occupations 
during the day. They staged Shakespearean plays in Polish : "The Merchant 
of Venice," "Taming of the Shrew," "Othello," Romeo and Juliet," "Twelfth 

Pa ge 70 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Night," "As You Like It," "Hamlet," "King Lear," and "Caesar," repeated 
a number of times in Chicago, Milwaukee and Cleveland. "The Merchant of 
Venice" was the most popular, played in succession ten times, mostly on 
Sundays, in the large St. Stanislaus hall. They also staged such masterpieces 
as Wyspianski's "Wesele," Mickiewicz's "Dziady," Rydel's "Zaczarowane 
Koto," also all the comedies of Fredro, the Polish Moliere ; among them 
"Sluby Panienskie," "Dom Kawalerow," and "Zemsta." Fidelity to required 
custom and staging was faithfully carried out, meticulous care given to the 
style of the 18th century. For the classic "Zlocista Gora" $700.00 was used 
for costumes and scenery. What money was made was used for philanthropic, 
cultural and humanitarian purposes, and to build a library. The "Promien, 
organized in 1901 and still operating, has ever adhered to the highest stand- 
ards of its calling and indeed cultivated "art for art's sake." They reached 
their highest achievements with K. Wachtel between the years 1915 and 
1921, doing very intensive work, studying several plays simultaneously and 
giving as many as twelve great dramatic masterpieces in a year. Some of the 
amateur actors who played with K. Wachtel were: Lucjan Borejszo. K. Jed- 
linski, K. Kasperek, Ludwika Uczciwek-Kasperek, J. Urbanski, L. Paluszek, 
M. Polek, Marja Dach-Kwiatkowska, Regina Wojtowicz, Zofja Jaworowska, 
F. Scholl and Victoria Wachtel. 

Working alongside of the older circle at St. Stanislaus church was the 
"Pope Leo XIII Musical Literary Society," organized in 1897 by Rev. Jos. 
Gieburowski, C.R. Attracting the younger element, it staged many fine 
plays such as "St. John Cantius," "Fabiola," "Wanda," and many others. 
Frank Czastka and Bernard Sztuka served as chairmen. Harry Szczodrowski, 
its present chairman, has filled the office for the last twenty years. Dr. John 
J. Liss and Max Brochocki were among the theatrical directors. Max Pruj 
sinski and Frank Brandt are long time active members of the circle. In 1917 
the circle celebrated its twentieth anniversary with a vaudeville. It was the 
year the parish celebrated its golden jubilee. The "Pope Leo XIII Circle" 
is still actively engaged in dramatic work. 

Holy Trinity Parish Dramatics 

At the Holy Trinity, the second oldest Polish parish in Chicago, interest in 
dramatic art was always keen and it took expression in various forms of 
dramatic activity. Among its amateur actors was found first-c 1 ass talent. At 
the turn of the century, Mme. Helena Modjeska observed the acting of 
George M. Rozczynialski, later alderman of the 33rd ward, and Michael 
Mroz before he became a missionary priest, and thought so highly of them 
that she asked them to travel and appear with her. Janet Milanowska Miller 
won a contest for the best chorus girl and became a professional musical 
comedv actress. It is of historical interest to note that the first dramatil 

I 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pa S e 71 

circle was organized in 1895 and included the Young. Men's Cultural Club 
and the young girls' "Flower of Freedom," these three rivalling to produce 
the greatest number of plays. At that time the "Friends of Youth" society, 
in later years known as "Federacja" and still later as "Osada," took into its 
program the promotion and coordination of dramatic and other cultural 
work, its other plank being social welfare. It initiated in 1899 the public lec- 
tures which proved so effective throughout, and it carried an evening school 
of courses in music, song, literature, and language. The groups doing 
dramatic work were for some years handicapped in not possessing accom- 
modations of a proper hall and stage. The school hall with a capacity of nine 
hundred was located in the basement. Since 1929 the large Holy Trinity 
High School auditorium, with a seating capacity of fifteen hundred and a 
fine modern stage, is used. 

The Literary Circle of Holy Trinity, organized in 1902 by Rev. Casimir 
Sztuczko, C.S.C., pastor and Brother Peter, C.S.C., pedagog and missionary, 
was exclusively devoted to literary dramatic work. It staged an innumerable 
number of classics and such masterpieces as "Poncya," "Lilla Weneda," 
Krasinski's 'Tridion," and Mickiewicz's "Dziady." One of its aims was self- 
improvement, and toward that end and for the benefit of the public it gave 
literary, dramatic programs, consisting of lectures, music, songs and playlets. 
The programs became very popular. Among the most active in the work of 
the circle were: Frank Peska, who directed "Quo Vadis" and "Lilla Wene- 
da," Walter Przybylski, Mrs. Anne Wojtalewicz Janiszewska, Mrs. Jadwiga 
Kossakowskajasinska, Stephanie Kisielewski-Niedzwiecki, F. Biegalski, J. 
Lukawski, T. Dylewski, Florence Praczukowski, M. Niedzwiecki, Mrs. Anna 
Jakowanis-Skibinska, and her sister, Mrs. Wanda Madigan, and Edmund 
Szyperski. About five years ago this circle declined and discontinued work. 
It was one of first to join the Alliance of Circles. 

With a new personnel and membership, the Holy Trinity Dramatic Circle 
came into existence five years ago. Organized by Rev. S. Jankowski, C.S.C., 
it has its own clubrooms at the Holy Trinity High School. Its first long play 
was the Passion Play written by its founder and dramatized by Rev. Fr. 
Luzny, C.S.C., who is author and scenario writer of several other plays. 
Rev. St. Gorka, C.S.C., dramatized "Quo Vadis." Very active with the group 
were Brzozowski and Kempski. Miss Lillian Gasiorek at present is president 
and Ed. Meller its director. 

Brother Theophil, C.S.C., one time director of Holy Trinity High School, 
was a great promoter of dramatic art. He made his own adaptation of the 
Passion Play. With his own group of amateurs from different societies, he 
staged many successful plays and travelled with the group to play in dif- 
ferent parish halls. For a time he was chairman of. the dramatic division of 
the Polish Arts Club. 

Page 72 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 19 37 • 

Established a little over a year ago and engaging in dramatic work is the 
Catholic Action Club with membership of about fifty young boys and girls. 
Every two or three weeks a program is given in the large school hall or in 
the high school auditorium. The programs are free to the public and are de- 
signed to be entertaining as well as instructive, featured with a lecture, vocal 
and instrumental music and a playlet at the end. The work of this circle is 
more serious in character than that of the Dramatic Club. The moving spirit 
of this club is Rev. St. Gruza, C.S.C. This club is assisted by singers of the 
different choirs of the parish, directed by Vincent Baluta. 

The musical forces of the many choirs were ever supporting the dramatic 
work of the literary circle and other clubs. Their director for almost forty 
years was Prof. Anthony Mallek named "The Father of Polish Song in 
America." He presented with local forces the operetta "Skalmierzanki," col- 
laborated with the dramatist S. Zahajkiewicz, and produced other operettas. 
A gifted composer, he left a good-sized library of his own vocal and musical 
compositions to his family. Among the operatic actors were M. Gutkowski, 
and Ignace Mroz. Anthony Mallek died in February, 1917, his friendly and 
magnetic personality never to be forgotten by those who knew him. 

At St. Hedwig's and St. John Cantius' 

In St. Hedwig's parish there is a group of young American born people 
with a membership of eighty who with great love cultivate the Polish lan- 
guage and drama. They were organized by Rev. St. Swierczek, C.R. in 1930 
and have given two and in some years three plays. Among the most success- 
ful were the "Jaselka" and "Dwie Sieroty." Mr. Kamedulski directs here al- 
so. Father Swierczek is the author of several plays, one of which is "Marja 
Opiekunka Sierot," presented with great success in 1934. The dramatic cir- 
cle is preparing to give his other play "Zwyci^ztwo Matki." In 1935 the club 
produced "Ofiara Spowiedzi §w.", translated from the English. Miss Marie 
Jankowski and Ben Michalak, its president, have been with the circle from 
its beginning. 

The Franklin D. Roosevelt Circle, organized this year, is composed of 
about fifty members, mostly all young people. B. Kozlowski, the organizer, 
was at one time president of the Alliance of Circles. This is their baby group 
and it operates in the vicinity of St. Hedwig's parish though not affiliated 
with it. 

In the St. John Cantius parish, the "Scatter Joy Club," organized about 
six years ago, engages in dramatic activities. One longer play a year is given 
in Polish. Lighter comedies and translations from popular English plays are 
favorites. "Xawrocenie Grzesznika," translated from the "Rosary," was very 
successful. Children are the best advertisers of plays they like. An average of 
three plays a year is presented. Rev. T. Klopotowski, C.R., pastor, is much in- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Pa ge 73 

terested in dramatic art, having formerly worked with the dramatic group at 
St. Hyacinth's. The old dramatic circle, organized shortly after the founding 
of the parish in the nineties, had clone effective, cultural work, given innu- 
merable plays and engaged many fine amateurs, among whom should be 
mentioned: Mrs. Antoinette Wasielewska Price, who won prizes as an elo- 
cutionist, her brothers Joseph and the late Thos. Wasielewski, Mrs. Jadwiga 
Mann Kilinski, and the late Joseph Korzeniewski. Mr. Bronislaw Rybowiak, 
organist, recently taken by death, was a long time director. Rev. S. Kowal- 
czyk, C.R., was a great promoter of dramatics and a great favorite with the 
young people. The circle ceased activities in the post-war period. 


Within the Confines of Holy Innocents' Parish 

The Ossolinski Dramatic Circle was organized in 1920 by Mr. Joseph Ste- 
fanik, also one of the three organizers of the Alliance of Circles, and it was 
in his hall that the organization meetings of the Alliance were held. The li- 
brary of the Alliance is located here, containing over six hundred works, 
mostly dramatic. J. Stefanik wrote and produced at the Holy Trinity audi- 
torium his "Legionisci z Wiejskiej Zagrody." S. Kilar also is author of 
some plays. Revmont's "Chlopi," and Kraszewski's "Chata za Wsia," the 
latter staged very elaborately at a cost of $1,300, were very successful. In 
1934, Mickiewicz's "Pan Tadeusz" was given as a free performance, all costs 
of producing it borne by the circle and the hall donated by the Holy Inno- 
cents' parish. In 1926 a large silver cup was won as first prize for the finest 
float in the 150th anniversary celebration of Kosciuszko's arrival in America. 
This trophy was sent to the National Fair in Poznan, Poland. Xot affiliated 
with the church, they operate within the confines of the Holy Innocents 
parish and there is a fine spirit of cooperation. Many business men belong to 
this circle. Zenon Kowalski received from circle members a ring with Al- 
liance of Circles emblem for work in the circle. Joseph Pacyna of the Alliance 
is a member here, Lucjan Prusiewicz and his three daughters are active 
members. Marian Marski directs the dramatic work. 

The "Third of May Dramatic Society" also meets in the Stefanik hall. Or- 
ganized in 1929, it had operated until 1933 under the name of "Zeromski's 
Circle." Ben Halick, its president, and Mary Skrzydlewski have been most 
active from its very beginning. "Trzy Wesela" was its greatest success. Their 
membership at present is about forty Mr. Lucjan Borejszo, one of the most 
energetic amateur actors who played in the Shakespearean dramas with K. 
Wachtel, is a former director of this circle. 
In Old Saint Stephen's 

In the St. Stephen parish confines there is an ambitious group, the "Pu- 
laski Circle," organized in 1932. It is entirely composed of young people 

Page 74 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

many of whom could not speak at all the Polish tongue but who have mast- 
ered it since they joined the circle. This cultural achievement is typical of 
work accomplished by many circles. Stanley Burkacki and John Micek, the 
first president, were the organizers. Albert Opiela is president now. The 
membership at present is one hundred. 

A much older group, working in the same neighborhood, the "Wolna Pol- 
ska," organized in 1913, has a fine history of achievement. They have pre- 
sented numerous classical plays among which "Zemsta Cyganow" was 
very successful. In their time they have contributed to many charitable pur- 
poses. They are now composed mostly of young people. E. Wojcik is one of 
organizers of the circle. He served as president of the Alliance of Circles. 
Paul Glab is president, Helen Gubala secretary. Other active members were 
B. Tragarz, John Anton, Miss E. Kasprzyk. This circle was one of the first 
to join the Alliance of Circles. They meet at Gdynia Gardens, 1223 Milwau- 
kee Avenue. 

Dramatics on the North-West Side 

The dramatic circle of the St. Hyacinth parish, organized in 1906, can show 
a history of fine art activity. Its director for almost twenty-three years, Jos- 
eph Kamedulski, author of plays, is one of the most capable directors of Chi- 
cago. S. Zahajkiewicz also directed here. "Renegat" and "Szalony Pomysl" 
were given among one hundred others, and it never swerved from its high 
ideals. Stanley Krzywonos, V. Rentflejsz, Wanda Obecna, V. Wi^ckowski, 
Fr. Urbanski, August Kochanski were some of the amateur players. Within 
recent years, Rev. Jerome Fabianski, C.R., present pastor of St. Stanislaus 
Bishop and Martyr parish, has done notable work here with a group of girls 
organized in the Apostleship of Prayer and calling themselves the "A. of P." 
Organized first in 1918 and reorganized by Father Fabianski, they now have 
a membership of four hundred, all young girls, and enthusiastically interested 
in dramatics and cultivation of the Polish tongue. At their meetings stage 
craft is studied. "Jaselka" were presented with great artistic skill. "Symbo- 
liczne Znaczenie Mszy Sw., written by Frank Fabianski, was given last 
year and the year previous with immense success. At the same time this 
group was active, Rev. Theodor Klopotowski, C.R., present pastor of St. 
John Cantius, also produced fine work with the "Unique Social Club," 
organized eleven years ago and composed of all young people who are 
staging one play a year. Translations from the English are successful. Three 
years ago they put it over Avith "We Wieczorniku" from the English "Upper 
Room." They were obliged to give repeat programs. 

Established in Avondale also is the Paderewski Circle, organized as an 
independent circle in 1934, by Walter Andrus. It is mostly composed of 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO —1937 Page 75 

young people who wish to cultivate Polish culture. To further this end a Po- 
lish book is read at their meetings, each of the members taking turns. Re- 
cently Slowacki's "Balladyna" was covered. The members plan to cooperate 
in translation of popular English plays into Polish and vice-versa. Helen Ku- 
raska, one of its members, is adept at writing poetry and members have to 
snatch it away from her to publish some of it in the Alliance publications. 
Pelagia Kuraska is president, Helen Kaszubska, general secretary in the 
Alliance of Circles, is active here. There are thirty-five members. 

The Joseph Kraszewski Literary and Dramatic Circle has been one of the 
first to join the Alliance of Circles and had done much to build it up. John 
Lysakowski, organizer of the circle in 1924 and its long time president, is the 
author of the play "Smierc Sieroty pod Krzyzem," given by the circle with 
great success. He has written several plays mostly for children. His son 
Thaddeus Lysakowski is president. Stella Aksamit is treasurer. This circle 
has been very active within its group. Once a month study clubs were held. 
Out of their own money they donated $357.20 for invalids and orphans of 
the war, and $628.23 for flood sufferers, old people's home in Chicago and 
other purposes. 

The "Milosc Ojczyzny" Dramatic Circle at present has one hundred thirty 
active members. Organized in 1918, in its nineteen years of existence they 
have given more than one hundred plays. Two big plays are produced a year. 
"Dzieci Wdowy" had met with greatest success. "Kominiarz i Mlynarz" was 
given repeat programs here and in Gary, Ind. Once a month a lecture is de- 
livered on Polish literature to members and guests. Kasper Sechman is presi- 
dent, Roman Filar secretary, and Henry Siemaszek treasurer. K. Sechman 
and Alexander Gorecki are most active and have been with the circle almost 
from its beginning. Walter Sokalski, its vice president, is director of the 
School of National Dance at the Alliance and assists in instruction of danc- 

Situated also in the St. Helen's parish territory is the Wyspianski Drama- 
tic Circle, about four years old, and composed mostly of young people. Mr. 
Bronislaw Cichon is president. Its membership has come mostly from the 
"Cadets of Saint Gregory," a Polish Roman Catholic Union group. 

The Saint Mary of Angels Parish Dramatic Circle, organized in 1900 and 
which a few years later changed its name to the Choral and Dramatic Circle, 
presented numerous programs and plays, some specially prepared for them 
by the scenario writer M. Brochocki, long time director of the club. "Kosy- 
nierzy," "Na Sybirze," """Nierozwaga" (Way Down East), and "Najgorszy 
Wrog" (Curse of Drink) were some of them. For a long time excellent plays 
were given by their strong Alumni Society, which is about twenty years old. 
Rev. Harry Klingsporn, C.R., is very interested in dramatic art. 

Page 76 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

In the St. Fidelis parish a dramatic circle was organized in 1928 by Joseph 
Grabowiecki, Aleksander Kamprowski and Joseph Panek. "Gorki Alderma- 
na," "Gora Piesn," "Ciocia z Ameryki" and "Lekcja w Pensjonacie," were 
some of the plays. "Koscioly i Rozwody" played here, had great success. 

In the St. Venceslaus parish of the northwest side the Dramatic Circle of 
Adam Mickiewicz was organized almost from the beginning of the parish, 
twenty-five years ago. The club consisted of about forty regular members 
and this number was augmented by honorary membership of all the impor- 
tant leaders and businessmen of the parish. This circle was one of the finest 
and most active bodies in the parish. Through almost all its years the office 
of president was held by Anthony Hartowicz, Edward Lemanski was secre- 
tary and Walter Ciesielski, treasurer. Two or three longer plays were given 
a year. The most important and successful was "Slowiczek," in which the 
main role was played by Agnes Nering, the famed singer. The circle discon- 
tinued after the World war. Father James Szprenga was its chaplain. The 
Goodfellowship Club, active for about eleven years, discontinued activities 
about three years ago and had Rev. E. Przybylski for director. It produced 
plays in Polish and English, -two each year. Among them was "Patsie" and 
"Dzieci Wdowy." Organized in 1937 the Bell Tower Club composed of all 
young people has a membership of two hundred. Their work is divided into 
departments, such as sports, Catholic action, drama. The chairman of the 
dramatic division is Mary Czekaj. Its president is Raymond Drzymalski. 
Its chaplains are Rev. Casimir Kuszynski, Rev. John Owczarek and Rev. 
St. Ryzner. Rev. T. Cazstka, the pastor, is a great promoter of dramatic art. 
He is co-organizer of the Polish American Historical Society in 1932, and has 
some of the historical pieces at his rectory. 

At the St. Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr parish a dramatic circle was or- 
ganized in 1910 by the Rev. St. Swierczek, C.R. This circle had at one time 
for director S. Zahajkiewicz who then had to resign on account of poor 
health. An average of three plays a year were given, of such proportions as 
"Chlopi Arystokraci" and "Ciotka Karola." They are directed at present by 
V. Rentflejsz and produce one long play a year. Rev. Jerome Fabianski, 
great promoter of dramatics, is pastor here at present. He trained a selected 
group of young people and produced with them his "Symboliczne Znaczenie 
Mszy Sw." (This play is different from the play of similar name given by 
Rev. A. Przypyszny at St. Roman's). 

In the St. James parish Dramatic and Social Circle, Miss Mary Ocwieja, 
one of its organizers, has done almost all the directing in the six vears of its 
existence. It has about seventy active members composed of young people 
between the ages 18 and 35. They have produced among others "Ciotka Ka- 
rola" and "Jaki Pan Taki Kram," the latter proving the greatest success. 
Their Alumni group organized this summer are taking over dramatic work 
also, and plan to produce plays in Polish and English. 

+ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 Page 77 

The Kosciuszko Circle, organized in 1933 in Bowmanville, is one situated 
farthest north, 5113 Lincoln Ave. Konstanty Neman, organizer, is its chair- 
man. It has produced a number of plays, not less than one a year. Among the 
most successful were "Swaty," and "Proszek i Pigulki." It has at present 
twenty-three active members. Miss Marie Andrzejewska is very active. For 
flood sufferers in Poland it donated $50.00 from its own funds. 

The J. Slowacki Literary and Dramatic Circle of St. Adalbert's 

The Julius Slowacki Literary and Dramatic Circle of St. Adalbert's parish, 
organized in 1907, was the first dramatic circle on the South Side engaging 
solely in dramatic work, and it is one of the oldest and best in Chicago. It 
had an uninterrupted, brilliant existence, and Mr. John S. Rybicki, one 
of its organizers, is still an active member. Its present chairman, Miss Vera 
Felinski was very active in organizing in 1928 the School of National Dances, 
served for two years as its chairman and as vice president of the Alliance 
of Circles. Its library is larger than that of any other circle, and equipped 
in about 1905, with an expensive collection of imported Polish books. The 
circle owes much to the zealous interest of its long time pastor, Rev. Casimir 
Gronkowski. In its past years it was directed by such men as S. Zahajkie- 
wicz, Rev. B. Szudzinski and Rev. C. Pijanowski. Its program of work re- 
quired a play to be given once a month ; later public entertainment was 
given quarterly with an assembled program of monologs which were a spe- 
cialty, music, singing and short plays. Once a month, however, within its 
own circle, debates were held on diverse subjects, mostly literary. Much en- 
joyed, these debates are reca 1 led now by many a prominent man in civic life. 
Two or three times a year a large performance was given, such as Slowacki's 
"Lilla Weneda," Fredro's "Consilium Facultatis," or "Gwaltu Co Sie Dzieje." 
"Proszek i Pigulki" was given five times in succession. Deserving special 
mention is the symposium given in November, 1936 by the circle to com- 
memorate a centenary of Peter Skarga, S.J., the Polish Jeremiah. Chester 
Niedzialek is vice president, Stephen Stelmachowski and Lydia Kempa sec- 
retaries, Eleanor Holda, treasurer. Mieczyslaw Kizior and Edward Gruca are 
very active in the circle, also Frank Kempa, Mary Lew, Adam Chmura. 

Father Pijanowski's Famous Passion Play 

The Rev. Casimir Pijanowski, who died prematurely in 1930, presented 
the spectacle of his Passion Play in the large St. Stanislaus Auditorium in 
the years 1922 and 1923, playing every Sunday during the entire Lenten sea- 
sons to an overwhelming house. He first had produced it with overwhelming 
success a year prior, in 1921, in the Sacret Heart parish. A deluge of requests 
induced Father Pijanowski to translate his Passion Play into the English 

Pa * e 78 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

tongue, and under the sponsorship of the Holy Name Society it was suc- 
cessfully produced in the large downtown Auditorium several times a week 
during the entire Lenten season of 1924, the proceeds given to charitable in- 
stitutions of Chicago. The vocal part was rendered by the famous Catholic 
Casino male chorus under the direction of Mr. Moos. Joseph Nowicki and St. 
Kuzniewicz were the only Poles in the chorus. Father Pijanowski wrote 
poetry published in various magazines, did a fine translation of Mickiewicz's 
"Oda do Mlodosci," published in "Free Poland." He wrote an extensive 
work, "Art and the Beautiful," and other essays. He translated into Polish 
"Proszek and Pigulski," a comedy based on American life. He encouraged 
members of the Polish Arts Club in their work, and frequently lectured there. 
He believed in the high mission of art, worked disinterestingly at a great 
personal sacrifice, and possessed the gift of inspiring others. 

"Dzwon Wolnosci," an independent unit, holding their meetings in the 
Pulaski hall in the St. Adalbert's parish, with Frank Marc, its president, is 
composed chiefly of the younger element, American-born. The circle is about 
five years old. Thaddeus Wojcik is secretary. They have averaged one play 
a year, and usually have attempted some lighter work. 

In Old Bridgeport 

In the historically old stronghold of Bridgeport, in the St. Mary of Per- 
petual Help parish, a charter was obtained by the "St. Cecilia Singing and 
Dramatic Club" in 1895, and this was perhaps the oldest and strongest dra- 
matic group at that time on the south side. Joseph Reich, organist of the 
choir, was also its dramatic director until about the year 1905. Until the parish 
hall was built and was ready for use, performances were given in the old 
Kaiser hall on Archer Avenue, in the Germania hall on Halsted Street and 
at the large Pulaski hall on 18th Street. The first play was "Zyd w Beczce." 
Plays were given three times a year, among those produced were "Chlopi 
Arvstokraci," "Jaskinia Potepienca." Most liked and successful were "Rzez 
w Krozach," given several repeat programs, and "Palka Madeja." Dr. Nicholas 
Stupnicki, Sr., author of "Rzez w Krozach," was director of this and several 
other plays given by the club. The circle owned a good sized library of books 
imported from Poland. A professional artist, Mr. Lis, executed the stage cur- 
tain, a masterpiece, "Przysiega Kosciuszki w Krakowie." Besides the organist 
and Dr. Stupnicki, the organizers of the club were John Kunka, the late Mr. 
Klukaszewski and Leon Barszczewski. The last named is still active, when 
called upon, for dramatic work of the parish. John Jasinski, the late Leonard 
Kunka, and Joseph Skrzypczynski were some of the other old-time amateur 
actors. Dramatic activities declined when organist Theodore Zamiara left the 
parish about 1917, and since 1921 the club has no longer engaged in its dou- 
ble role of choral and dramatic work. Exclusivelv devoted to the choral it 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 79 

nevertheless staged the comedy "Maciek Samson" about the year 1930 under 
the directorship of Father Przypyszny and the organist J. Zlotorzynski, a play 
which was repeated by the group in six different parishes. A drama that 
should be mentioned is "Ludgarda" given by the sodality girls and combined 
talent from other clubs, in 1932. 

Of historical interest is the fact that a year after the St. Cecilia Club, an in- 
dependent choral dramatic group "Zorza" was organized in 1896, with Mr. 
Czeslawski as its director. Among others, a Mr. Radkiewicz, veteran of 1863, 
was a member. The group operated for about twelve years. 

Its place was soon taken by the "Dramatic Choral Society of Helena Mo- 
drzejewski," organized in 1909 and existing to the present day. One large 
play is given yearly beside a fall concert. Within recent years they produced 
"Cud nad Wisla" and "Corki Aldermana." Jadwiga Turalski, the noted singer, 
is an honorary member and sings at their performances. In past years, Emil 
Wiedemann and John Kapalka had conducted the choral work. Dr. Urbano- 
wicz is the present director of the club, and Joseph Kaminski its president. 
The club is one of the most active and popular groups in Bridgeport. At pres- 
ent it has no less than seventy-five active members. 

Bridgeport had also its own separate dramatic unit, the "Adam Mickiewicz 
Dramatic Circle," organized in 1920 by Ignace Stuczynski, Stanley Kempara, 
Aniela Lukaszewska, Walter Skupien and Michael Skonieczny. Two and 
sometimes three plays were given every year, among the best were "Dymitr 
i Marja," "Genowefa" and "Dziesiaty Pawilion." Walery Hildebranski, its 
director, and Mr. Stuczynski, its president, were among those most active. 
The group discontinued work in 1934 when Stuczynski, its motivating force, 
was obliged to leave Chicago. The circle operated under very difficult cir- 
cumstances, but all other circles were having their hardest struggle as well, 
failing to receive the support they deserved. Meetings were held in the large 
Mickiewicz hall, which contains a library of about two thousand Polish books, 
to which an addition of two hundred books imported from Poland was made 
last year. The Mickiewicz circle had its own library of about one hundred fifty 
books. This circle was one of the first to join the Alliance of Circles. 

At the St. Barbara's parish, while Rev. Anthony Nawrocki was pastor, the 
St. Barbara's Dramatic Circle was organized in 1914 by Felix Raczynski, its 
president through all the years of its existence, until 1919. For a while they 
went under the name of Adam Mickiewicz circle. Bishop Stanislaus Bona, 
D.D., then assistant in this parish, was chaplain; Miss L. Zalewski president, 
Joseph Moskal, secretary, S. Kaniewski, director. Three to four plays were 
given a year, some of which were "Uncle Sam," "Hrabia Parobkiem u Kmie- 
cia" and "Ostatnie Trzy Ruble." They had about fifty members. Most active 
besides those mentioned were Frank Wiktor, J. Malecki, M. Hawilewicz, 
Miss R. Lisinska and Miss W. Konieczka. 

p ^ e 80 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

The Literary Circle "Swiatlosc," devoted solely to dramatic purposes, was 
organized in 1927 by Felix Raczynski and Rev. T. Kendziora. It was very 
active until 1931. They played, among others, "Quo Vadis." Vincent Bonk, 
Alphons Majewski, Celia Rutkowski were very active. 

When A. Wiedeman came to serve as organist in 1924, he reorganized the 
choir into the St. Barbara's Choir and Dramatic Circle, which subsequently 
presented two or three plays a year. Victor Kempski from the Holy Trinity 
parish directed many of the plays. "Gora Piesn," a musical performance, was 
one of the most popular. "Dziesiec Lat w Karczmie," which was given four 
repeat showings here and in other parishes, and "Kopciuszek" or "Cinde- 
rella," which was very elaborate, were both directed by Rev. S. Chyla. The 
most active in the work with the senior choir of this period were: Lenore, 
Chester and Edward Raczynski, Berenice Paweska, and Joseph Moskal. "Ma- 
cocha" was given in 1931, directed by V. Kempski. Two years ago, the 
operetta "Lekcja w Pensjonacie," and "Tajemnica Dziewczecia," were given 
by the Junior St. Cecilia Choir. "Dwaj Hultaje" and "Ulicznik Chikagoski" 
were given last year by the senior St. Barbara's Choir and Dramatic Circle, 
both plays directed by Edward Kulpit. From the younger amateurs, some of 
the most active were Anne Litke, Sophie Pozniakowski, Mary Radziewicz, 
and Jeanette Lis who for two years has been instructor of the dramatic work 
of the "Pictorial Players" at the House of Happiness, Anne Litke directing 
the "Beaux Arts" club in the same settlement house. 

At the St. Peter and Paul parish, there was a very active dramatic circle 
organized in 1929 by Rev. John Mszanowski, now pastor at St. Turebius 
parish. Plays were given twice a year. Most successful of all was "Macocha," 
repeated three times in the parish hall and twice at the Felician Sisters' Aca- 
demy. Other plays were: "Los Sieroty," "Tajemnica Spowiedzi Sw.", and 
from the lighter plays, "W Pogoni za Grzechem," and "Xiemiec Kosvnie- 
rem." Miss Salomea Paluch and Miss Catherine Sereda were very active 


In St. Anne's Parish 

The St. Anne's parish is traditionally a locus for dramatic work as the 
Rev. Casimir Slominski, former assistant at St. Adalbert's, was later, in 1902, 
the organizer and first pastor of St. Anne's. He wrote numerous plavs among 
them "Sw. Dorota." In more recent years, Rev. Rozak has done notable 
work with the St. Ann's Dramatic Circle which he organized about the year 
1929. He translated into Polish "The Fourth Commandment" and produced 
it with overwhelming success, giving many repeat programs. He staged 
"Kosciol i Rozwody" (The Divorce Question) with such enormous success 
that he was obliged to play it over two hundred times in the parochial hall 

« 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 81 

to the public from outlying neighborhoods, and then give it all over Chicago 
and the suburbs, which brought the number of times he gave the perform- 
ance to well over three hundred times. He travelled and played with the 
same group of players, the St. Anne Dramatic Circle, whose membership was 
composed of young people. The group had broken up when Father Rozak 
left to do missionary work. Lately, under the directorship of the Rev. Mac- 
kowiak a play "Ta Macocha" was given by combined amateur talent from 
the choir and the sodality. 

"Polskie Orly" is one of the youngest circles. Organized in 1935 it had 
joined the Alliance of Circles in 1937, only two months ago. It is composed 
of young American-born boys and girls. Anthony Krasniewski and his wife, 
treasurer of the circle, are very active. Stella Gancorczyk is secretary. Peter 
Kwit, director, and Jan Kowal, president. 

At the old church of St. Vencleslaus on De Koven Street, Rev. T. Sam- 
polinski stages dramatic performances with a group of amateurs selected 
from some three Polish parishes, as his own has only about seventy-five 
families. He had written "Wesele Sieroty" and "Wesele Ulana" and given 
both with about fifty amateurs on the stage. Miss Genevieve Motuga and 
Miss Mary Kula are very active workers. 

St. Casimir's and St. Roman's 

The dramatic circle "Orzel Bialy," in the St. Casimir parish has done mar- 
vellous work. It had for one of its ablest directors Father Vincent Nowicki. 
Organized in 1915 it now has a membership of two hundred, among whom 
are many professional men, business men and artists. Marja Gruszczynska. 
the operatic singer, who received a scholarship from Rosa Raisa and studied 
for several years in Milan, Italy, is one of its members. Within recent years 
they have produced Avith enormous success a translation by Mr. Dobrzanski 
from the English of "Dracula." It was played with such artistic skill that it 
compared favorably with its production by professional actors on the stage 
of the Blackstone Theatre. They were obliged to give many repeat pro- 
grams. One of the finest plays of the circle were the "Jaselka," a Christmas 
mystery play, interspersed with song and music, its annunciation scene and 
the presentation in the temple scenes were so admirable that they were pro- 
nounced worthy of best professional effort. A repeat program was given in 
the large Chicago Sokol hall, as the circle is handicapped in not possessing 
a large auditorium. This circle was first to sponsor Polish radio programs 
and Ferdynand Drzewicki was one of the first Polish radio announcers. Mary 
Data, another radio performer and active worker in dramatic art, is member. 
Thomas Cieszynski, one of its organizers, is its present chairman, the office 

Page 82 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

having been filled for many years by Bernard Czerwinski who greatly built 
up the circle. Frank Krol is vice president, Sophie Bednarz secretary. They 
issue their own monthly bulletin. 

The St. Casimir Literary Club was organized in the St. Casimir parish 
about six years ago. and though lately they have not been active as in the 
first three or four years of their existence, Rev. Raymond Zock, their director, 
is making big plans for the future. Rev. W. Nosal was their organizer, and 
with him for director the club had every month produced a program of as- 
sembled entertainment containing light dramatic sketches. They have now 
fifty members. Fr. Dziekanowski is president and Rose Walinska secretary. 

The St. Roman's parish is one of our younger parishes, yet it has done 
notable and noteworthy work in dramatics. "Kolka Mazowieckie" circle or- 
ganized in 1930, and "Kolko Jednosc" organized in 1933, composed entirely 
of older people produce longer plays requiring knowledge of Polish customs 
and tradition, the former having presented such classics as Kraszewski's 
"Chata za Wsia," and the latter such a masterpiece as Mickiewicz's "Dzia- 
dy" on a large scale. A group of younger people was organized by Rev. A. 
Przypyszny in 1933, the St. Roman's Dramatic Club, composed entirely of 
younger people who do not attempt heavy masterpieces but do lighter work. 
Father Przypyszny, one of our younger priests, made an adaptation into Po- 
lish of an old Spanish morality play of the sixteenth century, "The Mystery 
of the Holy Mass." He successfully produced it with the young amateur play- 
ers. They were obliged to give four repeat programs in their own parish, and 
in South Chicago, Maywood, 111., and Milwaukee, Wis. There exists a fine 
cooperation between the older and the younger groups. 

Great cultural work was accomplished by the Literary and Dramatic Cir- 
cle "Ognisko" of Brighton Park. Organized in 1925 by Anthony Guzdek, 
capably aided among others by Dr. Adam Wcislo and his brother Joseph 
Wcislo, it developed into a first-class dramatic unit. Weekly programs, com- 
prising lectures, debates, monologs, music, song and dance, were attractions 
for cultivating the heart and the mind. It staged many pretentious classical 
plays, such as in 1927 L. Rydel's masterpiece "Zaczarowane Kolo" in the 
Five Holy Martyrs auditorium, and repeated it on the north side in the St. 
Stanislaus auditorium, proceeds of which were donated to the x\lliance of 
Circles. They also presented comedy and vaudeville. "Ciotka Karola" ("Char- 
lie's Aunt") by Fredro was played seven consecutive times. The circle was 
the first in Brighton Park to initiate great anniversary celebrations, such 
as "Listopadowy," "Trzeci Maj," and "American Independence Day," and 
it held programs for great literary figures : Mickiewicz, Slowacki, Krasinski, 
Sienkiewicz, Wyspianski, Konopnicka, among others. The circle was one of 
the first to join the Alliance of Circles. Though forced by circumstances to 
suspend its work during the last three years its members are getting ready 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 93 7 Page 83 

to renew its activities. It was organized as an independent unit in the neigh- 
borhood of Five Holy Martyrs parish. 

The Five Holy Martyrs parish had its own circle. Organized in 1922 it en- 
gaged in dramatic work, among which the best being "Sw. Dorota," by Rev. 
C. Slominski, and directed by Father Chyla. It was active until 1930 after 
which its activities declined. Some operettas were produced in 1923 and 1924. 
In recent years Rev. E. Plawinski staged three musical plays in English, 
among which was "Blossom Time." This is one parish holding free NYA 
classes, among others with free piano instruction. 

Rev. Vincent Nowicki, now pastor at St. Pancratius parish in Brighton 
Park, is a great promoter of dramatic art, and any parish where he was sta- 
tioned profited by his interest. In his time he staged such large productions as 
"Quo Vadis" and "Boleslaw Smialy," In his present pastorate he organized 
a new dramatic circle and produced six plays in the last three years, among 
which outstanding were "Surdut i Siermiega" and "Macocha." Father No- 
wicki believes that through dramatic activities culture is spread, and civic 
leaders are born and made. Stanley Cichon is chairman of this circle. 

The St. Bruno parish efforts were made to establish a separate dramatic 
circle two years ago but were thwarted by adverse conditions due to the de- 
pression. This year it is confidently hoped, efforts will be successful. Never- 
i theless, one and sometimes two plays were given each year by combined 
talent from the choir, sodality and other societies. "Ciocia z Ameryki," di- 
1 rected by Rev. Ryzecki, and "Macocha," were given with success. Besides 
j a "Wieczor Rozmaitosci" or variety show, is given every year, including toe 
; dancing, acrobatics and the like. Mary Data, the radio star, is a very active 
leader in all dramatic activities. Rev. F. Modrzenski actively promotes dra- 
I matics. 

The Henryk Sienkiewicz Circle, organized in 1928 as an independent unit 
I operating in the St. Pancratius parish, was organized in response to an ap- 
peal made in the English sport section of one of the Polish daily papers. As 
it is composed chiefly of American-born youth, meetings were held three 
| times monthly for several years until the Polish language was mastered suf- 
I ficiently well to produce "Proszek i Pigulki," a play on contemporary Ameri- 
i can life, a translation from the English by Father Pijanowski. They were 
J engaged to give the same performance in Milwaukee, Wis., Lemont, Joliet, 
111., Whiting, Gary and Michigan City, Ind., besides giving four repeat pro- 
grams in Chicago. 

Proceeds were given to the parishes in whose theatre halls they played. 
One of prominent members is Dr. Siedlinski. Among the most active is 
f Walter Zolla, chairman and Leon Meger. "The Cheerful Liar" is in process 
of being translated by the club members into Polish. 

Page 84 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 937 • 

In Town-of-Lake notable work is done by the Casimir Brodzinski Circle, 
the oldest group solely devoted to dramatic work. Organized in 1912 in the 
St. John of God parish, and composed chiefly of its members, it operates as 
an independent unit. One of its organizers was Louis Nowakowski, later 
first president of the Alliance of Literary and Dramatic Circles. In its active 
years it presented sometimes as many as four plays a year. "Na Gruzach Ka- 
lisza," specially imported from Poland, was given with great success. Contri- 
butions were made from circle funds to flood sufferers in Poland and other 
charitable purposes. The circle owns a library of seven hundred books, housed 
at the Lubieniecki hall, but it will have its own building in the near future. 
John Kozubowski, one of the founders, is still officially connected. Leader- 
ship is passing into the hands of the young. Thomas Paczynski is president. 

In the St. Joseph's parish, the three choral societies of the Alliance of Po- 
lish Singers of America, are presenting plays also. "Lutnia," forty-seven 
years old, "Druzyna," thirty years, and "Filomeni," organized twenty-five 
years ago, give very successful dramatic performances. "Dziewcze z Chaty 
za Wsia" was given with great success. "Raclawice" was played to an over- 
flowing hall and given repeat performance. Dr. Edward and Stephen Urba- 
nowicz in the "Lutnia," Zygfryd Filisiewicz in the "Druzyna," and Stan. 
Frankiewicz, long time president of "Filomeni," deserve mention. The late 
John Gutkowski was a long time director, actor of the heavier roles, and an 
indefatigable worker in different clubs. Activities center in the Slowacki hall, 
which has recently enlarged its stage and is making artistic renovations on a 
large scale, owing to the interest of its manager, Frank Synowiec. There is 
housed one of the largest Polish public libraries of four thousand books. The 
central office of Young Men's Polish Alliance is located here. 

At the Sacred Heart church there is an ambitious active dramatic circle or- 
ganized in 1922 by Rev. S. Chyla, now pastor of St. Salomea parish. The pres- 
ent director is Rev. Leo Hinc. Among the most successful plays were "Cud 
nad Wisla," "Madej Zbojca," and "Ludgarda." "Ten Nights in the Bar- 
room," given some years ago in Polish, is remembered as worth-while by 
some parishioners. The play was repeated at the Felician Sisters' high school. 
In their times there have worked with the circle Rev. Walter Balcer, Rev. 
Joseph Mszanowski, and Rev. Ignatius Renklewski. Amonk the most active 
amateur players are Edward Adas, the president, Joseph Marzec, former 
president for eight years, Stanley Raszak and Louis Krolczyk. 

The South Chicago District 

The oldest dramatic unit in South Chicago is the St. Stanislaus Dramatic 
Circle of the Immaculate Conception parish. Organized by Father Stan. Ko- 
ralewski in 1911, it operated tinder the name of "Federacja" until 1917 when 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 85 

it was given its present name by Father Ed. Schuster. They averaged two 
major plays a year and produced among others "Dwie Sieroty" and "Dzieci 
Wdowy." Leo Wozniak is the present director of the club ; Edward Pieczyn- 
ski is among the most active, as well as: William, Andrew, and Max Pie- 
czynski, Casimir Urbaniak, Walter Brzozowski, and John Weglewski. Adam 
F. Bloch, clerk of the supreme court, is an honorary member. 

In St. Mary Magdalen's parish, two dramatic circles have been active to 
the present day. St. Edward's Circle, organized in 1915, staged two great 
masterpieces, "Quo Vadis" and "Boleslaw Smialy," when Rev. Vincent No- 
wicki was their director. Miss Sophia Wolska, one of the organizers of the 
circle, is still one of its most active workers. Casimir Grembowicz organized 
the St. Francis Circle in 1923 and was for many years its director. Among 
other p 1 ays they staged "Dwie Sieroty." Mrs. Kupska and Bernard Blumka 
are very active in the circle. Rev. A. Przypyszny has come here from St. 
Roman's parish and is greatly interested in promoting dramatic art. 

In the biggest parish in South Chicago, the St. Michael's, work along so- 
cial dramatic lines has received great stimulus in recent years. Rev. John M. 
Lange, Ph.D., the pastor, organized in February, 1936, the St. Michael Study 
club which is a Catholic Action group, similar to the one at Holy Trinity's. 
This club believes it was the first in the field among the Catholic Action 
clubs. Directed by Rev. A. Wycislo, they have produced an operetta "Lek- 
cja w Pensjonacie" and are preparing to give "Sunbonnet Sue" in English. 
There are one hundred members, boys and girls, a number too large for a 
study club to handle, so it will have to be divided along certain lines. The 
group has an orchestra and a glee club directed by eighteen-year-old Miss 
Louise Woszczynska. Twelve of its members teach catechism on Sunday to 
public school children. The club has a library of one thousand books. Meet- 
ings are held once a week, on Monday, with round table talks. During the 
last Christmas season unique tableaux on Our Lord's Nativity were presented, 
free to the public ; they were composed of twelve scenes dealing with the 
mysteries of the Christmas season, as Annunciation, Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Presentation in the Temple, etc. Pictures were selected and then re- 
produced with regard to costume and color and shown with artistic lighting 
effects. No words were spoken and while some scenes were still pictures, 
others engaged in pantomime. Father Wycislo also directed this performance 
and played to a capacity audience. John Kriza is president, Anthony Nowak 
librarian, Miss Charlotte Karpinski and Mr. Maslanka are among the most 
active members. 

In the earlier days of St. Michael's parish, there never was a separate 
dramatic circle, but an energetic group of combined talent of the different 
societies would present two or three plays a year, among these "Dwie Sie- 
roty," "Krolowa Jadwiga" and "Quo Vadis." On the honor roster of amateur 

86 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

players are the following: Rev. St. Rozak and Rev. Fr. Dampts before they 
took religious orders, Casimir Przybylinski, Ed. Osinski, Miss Frances Ratke, 
Miss Rose Bykowski, Miss Helen Hojnacki, Stefan Zaporta and Mrs. W. 

In St. Berenice's parish of South Chicago Rev. Cyril Kita, O.M.C., is pas- 
tor of one of the youngest parishes. Father Edmund Krolicki, O.M.C., is di- 
rector of dramatic activities. They average two or three plays a year, among 
which they staged "Wrozba Cyganki." 

At St. Turebius' parish, situated at Pulaski Road and 56th Street, the dra- 
matic circle "Kwiat Mlodziezy" was reorganized three years ago by Rev. 
Joseph Mszanowski, pastor. Peter Zdebski is director. Among the active 
members is Roman Kiellar. They have given plays twice a year, "Macocha" 
and "Slowiczek" among others. 

In Pullman, Illinois 

In St. Salomea's parish, of Pullman, the St. Salomea Social and Dramatic 
Club, organized in 1931 by Rev. Francis Modrzenski and renamed by its 
present director, Rev. Paul Mytys, the St. Joseph Dramatic Club, is doing 
very pretentious work. They engage in producing one long play every year 
and have met with the enthusiastic support of the public. They are obliged 
to hire the largest hall in the neighborhood, the Venetian Hall, where one 
thousand people attend. All plays are given in Polish. Last year they have 
produced "Dom bez Dzieci" ("Home without Children"), for adults only, 
by Father Mytys. They were obliged to give three repeat programs : in Ham- 
mond, Hegewisch and in another Chicago parish hall. Father Mytys wrote 
another play, "Rozwodka i Rozwody" ("Divorcee and Divorces"), also for 
adults only, which the circle is preparing to give next September. Rev. S. P. 
Chyla, the pastor, is a great patron of dramatic art. 

In Pullman also the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin parish circle was or- 
ganized in 1919 by the Rev. Theo. Langfort, the pastor, who also was its di- 
rector. It was doing very effective work until about 1928 after which it de- 
clined. It had given numerous plays. Among the most successful and one of 
which the parish is justly proud was the staging of "Sw. Genowefa" by Rev. 
Schmidt. "Sw. Elzbieta" and "Poncja" were also successful. In recent vears 
combined forces of several societies have given lighter classic plays of Fre- 
dro. Joseph Welminski, Zygmunt Haraburda and Kaz. Derwinski were 
among the old-time amateur actors. 


In Cicero, Illinois 

Father Langfort, while in the Our Lady of Czestochowa parish in Cicero, 
111., organized, 1912, a dramatic circle, which engaged in very spirited work, 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 87 

in socials, lectures, debates and plays — in fact, produced a playlet every 
month. Instruction and acquisition of culture were the object. At present the 
Sunshine Club is giving entertainments and engaging in dramatic work. 

In St. Valentine's parish, in Cicero, where Rev. B. Szudzinski, a dramatic 
art patron, is pastor, we find the St. Valentine Dramatic Circle organized in 
1930. They give one and sometimes two plays a year and made a success of 
"Dzieci Wdowy." Ignace Talentowski, organist, is very active in the work of 
the circle. 

The George Washington Circle in Cicero was organized in 1932 by Stanley 
Zienty, a director and correspondent of the Alliance of Circles. It was the bi- 
centennial year of George Washington's birth, and the circle arranged an 
elaborate program in joint honor of Washington, Pulaski and Kosciuszko, 
and held solemn Mass in the church. Representatives of the Polish consulate 
and of other organizations were present. Leon Walkowicz was the chief 
speaker of the evening. Mary Przywroznik is a very active worker; Robert 
Adamczeski is president. 

Uniting the cream of Polish American youth and the elite of the older 
generation into a closely knit organization, the Alliance of Polish Dramatic 
and Literary Circles of America constitutes one of the greatest aggregate 
cultural achievements of the Poles in Chicago. 

Organized a decade ago, on March 20, 1927 by Joseph Stefanik, Joseph 
Wiewiora and Joseph Pacyna, it began with fourteen circles. 

A recapitulation of the work of the Alliance of Circles brings out the 
following facts : 

In 1928, the "School of National Dance" was organized, as one of its de- 
partments. J. Malinowski is the instructor, Walter Sokalski the president 
of the school. Its dancers are in great demand for all occasions, such as 
celebrated in Ravinia Park, and Soldiers' Field. 

In 1929 their library containing now over six hundred thirty books was 

Memorial symposia in honor of Poland's great literary men were given: 

In 1930 for the poet Jan Kochanowski, in 1932 for Stanislaw Wyspianski, 
poet, novelist and painter, and in 1936 for Henryk Sienkiewicz on the 20th 
anniversary of his death. 

It published a book on Sienkiewicz which is very valuable as it contains 
contributions of prominent Americans (President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
E. M. House, Booth Tarkington), and also of Poland's great men (Ignace J. 
Paderewski, Gen. Joseph Haller and others). It was edited by its president, 
Leon T. Walkowicz; another book of smaller proportions was published in 
honor of Kochanowski, with some fine contributions, among them an article 
by Jozef Stemler. The two books were distributed on the author's anniver- 
sary celebration. 

Page 88 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

An elocution contest was held in 1936 in the Stefanik hall in which all the 
circles participated, holding first preliminary contests and choosing their best 
recitationists for the finals. The three best contestants will receive respect- 
ively a gold, a silver and a bronze medal as prizes at their coming jubilee 
banquet this year. 

In 1936 an award of two hundred dollars was tendered it, for outstanding 
constructive work by the Alliance of Poles in Foreign Lands. 

A contribution was assigned from their treasury for the mound in honor of 
Sienkiewicz being built in Okrzeja, Poland, the birth place of the author. 

Throughout the years it has sponsored joint presentation of plays, thereby 
strengthening the ties of understanding and friendship among the circles. 
Among others, masterpieces by L. Rydel, Count Fredro, Adam Mickiewicz, 
and Laczynski, were played. 

From among the circles who served Polonia in Chicago with splendid 
dramatic talent, but who function no more we may mention "Tysiac Wan 
lecznych," "Synowie Wolnosci" and the dramatic section of "Xowe Zycie" 

The Venerable Sisters, who quietly and obscurely accomplish the huge 
and vital task of educating our youth, prepare several programs and shows 
throughout the year, laying foundation for amateur dramatics in both the 
parochial school children and in the graduates of the four high schools 
conducted by them. The dramatic work they do requires much technical 
knowledge and skill in directing and producing. The Holy Family Academy 
conducted by the Nazareth Sisters, the Ressurrection Sisters Academy, the 
Our Lady of Good Counsel Academy of the Felician Sisters, and the Lourde's 
High School conducted by the Josephine Sisters, all give dramatic work an 
important place in their curricula. Orchestras are organized and able con- 
ductors hired as music and dancing form an integral part of a successful per- 
formance on the stage. 

The "Szkolki Doksztalcajace," or "Classes of Cultural Refinement,'' con- 
ducted by the Polish National Alliance are giving dramatic activities an im- 
portant place. One such, from "Ogniwo" group, supervised by Mrs. Edward 
Ganczewska in South Chicago, has eighty students, is very active, engages 
in dramatic work, filling a great need in the community. 

The Polish Arts Club, organized in 1926, has an ambitious dramatic sec- 
tion, of which Miss Barbara Lisewski is chairman. Among her predecessors 
who contributed much to the work of this section were Brother Theophilus, 
C.S.C., Joseph Piotrowski, Mrs. R. Grajewski Malinowski, Miss Dusia Urba- 
nowski and Miss Tess Hebel. 

The outstanding play presented by this group was "Adwokat i Roze" 
("The Attorney and His Roses"), by Szaniawski, a three act play which won 
the first prize in Warsaw, Poland, several years ago. The performance was 

1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 89 

repeated by popular request. Among other plays presented the past few 
years were "Pokoj Zawarty" ("Peace Declared") by Przybylski, "Banasio- 
wa" by Konopnicka, and "Zagloba Swatem" ("Zagloba the Matchmaker") 
by Henryk Sienkiewicz. The group has also presented one-act plays in the 
English language. 

Drama is too potent a factor not to be used with a purpose. In these 
troublesome times of vicious propaganda when entire nations are in danger 
of falling back into barbarism, drama should be a weapon of influence to be 
used not by artists alone, but fostered and promoted by leaders in social wel- 
fare, in youth movements, and by all who have the public good at heart. We 
need thinkers and we need workers. A conclusion obvious to all is the fact 
that dramatics thrive where there is a promoter and patron of the art. 
Another conclusion evident to all is that a great number, or most of our 
civic leaders and prominent men, were made on the stage of amateur dra- 
matic art. Amateur dramatics has offered to many the equivalent of a uni- 
versity education in liberal arts. 


On the Parish Circles: St. Stanislaus: Program "Balladyna," 1929, John 
Nering, I. Gorzynski on this and other parishes of the^ Resurrection Fathers; 
on Wachtel: Lucjan Borejszo; on Pope Leo XIII: J. J. Jakicic ; on Holy 
trinity : Rev. Casimir Sztuczko, C.S.C. ; program of Literary Circle, 1927, and 
golden jubilee book. St. Hedwig : Miss Marie Jankowski, St. John Cantius, 
Rev. T. Klopotowski, C.R., and Mrs. A. Price ; St. Hyacinth : Rev. J. Fabian- 
ski, Rev. T. Klopotowski, program "Balladyna," 1929, and S. Krzywo- 
nos ; Mary of Angels parish : Rev. Harry Klingsporn, C.R. and program Bal- 
ladyna, 1929; St. Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr: Rev. J. Fabianski and the 
program "Balladyna," 1929. Same program and office clerk for St. Fidelis 
parish; St. Venceslaus parish: Rev. Ryzner and L. Walkowiak ; St. James 
parish: Miss Mary Ocwieja ; Julius Slowacki : Anniversary program, 1937, 
Miss Vera Felinski, J. S. Rybicki ; on Rev. C. Pijanowski: Miss Isabel 
Pijanowski and Passion Play program of 1925 ; St. Mary of Perp. Help : Dr. 
N. Stupnicki, L. Barszczewski, J. Zlotorzynski ; St. Barbara parish: Miss 
Jeanette Lis, A. Wiedemann ; St. Peter and Paul : Father Petersen and Rev. 
J. Mszanowski; St. Anne: Rev. S. Derwinski and Rev. A. Przypyszny ; St. 
Casimir: Rev. R. Zock; St. Roman: Miss Helen Jachimiec and Rev. A. Przy- 
pyszny; Five Holy Martyrs: Msgr. Strzycki and Rev. Derwinski; St. Pancra- 
tius: I. Gorzynski and Rev. V. Nowicki ; St. Bruno: Rev. Ryzecki ; Sacred 
Heart: Rev. Leo Hinc ; Immaculate Conception: L. Wozniak and E. Pie- 
czynski; Mary Magdalene: Rev. A. Przypyszny and Mrs. E. Ganczewska ; 
St. Michaels : Rev. J. Lange, Ph.D.; St. Berenice, Rev. C. Kita, O.M.C.: 

Pa ge 90 183 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

St. Turebius: Rev. J. Mszanowski ; St. Salomea : Miss K. Rybinski ; Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin: Rev. T. Langfort; Our Lady of Czestochowa : 
Rev. T. Langfort ; St. Valentine : Assistant priest. 

Other Circles: "Promien": Ludwika Kasperek ; Ossolinski : Mrs. Stefanik, 
Miss Helen Kaszubska and program of 1930; Third of May: Mary Skrzy- 
dlewski and B. Halick ; Pulaski: Miss H. Kaszubska; Wolna Polska : Pro- 
gram "Jan Kochanowski" 1930 and Miss E. Wojcik, Paderewski Circle; 
Miss H. Kaszubski; Kraszewski : Bulletin Ogniwo, and program "Jan Ko- 
chanowski," 1930; Wyspianski: Mary Skrzydlewski ; Kosciuszko: K. Xey- 
man; Dzwon Wolnosci : L. Walkowicz ; "Zorza" : L. Barszczewski and J. 
Zarek; Modrzejewska : Mrs. A. Grabowski and jubilee program of 1929; 
Polskie Orly: Miss H. Kaszubska; Orzel Bialy: Miss H. Jachimiec, their 
bulletin December, 1933, and Rev. A. Przypyszny ; Ognisko : A. Guzdek, Dr. 
A. Wcislo, and program "Zaczarowane Kolo," 1927; Sienkiewicz : Bulletin 
"Ogniwo," Helen Kaszubska; Brodzinski : T. Paczynski and historical pam- 
phlet, 1927; Lutnia, Druzyna and Filomeni : S. Kiepura ; Washington: S. 
Zienty. History of the Alliance of Literary and Dramatic Circles: L. T. Wal- 
kowicz and program of the VIII Convention of 1936. Szkolki Doksztalcajace : 
Polish National Alliance, Ed. Placzek, secretary, and Mrs. E. Ganczewski ; 
Polish Arts Club : Pearl Suchomski, and program Jan Kochanowski, 1930. 


By Halina J. Majewska 

THE Polish theatre movement in Chicago began over a half century ago 
with amateurs playing in parish and community halls a repertory of 
folk and children's plays, often written by local dramatists. Their most 
active leader was Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, director, teacher and playwright, 
who for twenty years helped and encouraged the young groups until they be- 
came quite adept in their theatrical attempts. The music for these plays and 
even operettas was composed by Andrew Kwasigroch and Anton Mallek, 
organists of Chicago. 

The late Mr. Zdzieblowski and Mr. Jaks had also contributed their efforts 
in the field of amateur acting and playwriting. Even today their works are 
played by numerous dramatic societies here and in other Polish communities. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 91 

The "Teatr Polski" of Chicago 

In 1908 the better qualified amateurs organized an institution, called "The 
Polish Theatre of Chicago," under the direction of Zahajkiewicz and Karol 
Wachtel, and began their work with a very successful premiere of Zahajkie- 
wicz's "Muras" in the Garrick Theatre. Later the actors were paid and, al- 
though the salary was very small, it obligated them to more discipline and 
conscientiousness in their work. 

Affiliated with this semi-professional company was a school of drama, un- 
der the tutorship of Wachtel. Notwithstanding a three year period of an 
active and fruitful existence, the enterprise unfortunately was forced to dis- 
solve, due to financial difficulties and lack of supporting audiences. In spite 
of numerous hindrances, several enthusiasts decided to continue in their 
chosen art, and reorganized in the "Circle of Theatre Lovers," whose presi- 
dent was Wachtel and whose leading actors were : Stanislawa Dobrosielska, 
Wanda Chonarzewska, Gertruda Wieckowska, the deceased Mr. Kosmowski, 
Stanislaw Jachimski, Gustaw Zukowski and Tadeusz Eminowicz, the direc- 
tor. Their final endeavor came in 1910, when they leased the Crown Theatre 
for a short period during the summer season. Failing in this, the majority 
of actors began a professional career, which soon gave them a reasonable 
livelihood and in time carried them to considerable heights of renown among 
their countrymen. 

Other Amateur Associations 

Another amateur association that accomplished a good deal in cultivating 
the histrionic tastes of our audiences was the "Nowe Zycie Choral and Dra- 
matic Society," organized in 1907. In the second year of its existence "Nowe 
Zycie," gathering all its forces, presented Slowacki's immortal creation, 
"Kordjan," under the direction of Jan Kochanowicz. For twenty years the 
group produced numerous plays by leading authors and conducted a school 
of drama, after which period it confined itself solely to its choral proceed- 
ings. Among the most active in the theatrical activities of the society were 
Anna Brzozowska, Stefania Drozdowska, W^anda Chonarzewska, Gertruda 
Wachtel-Wieckowska, Miss M. Rzepczynska, Miss Z. Straszynska, Miss A. 
Lipowska, Miss A. Streich, Michael Sokolowski, Robert Lessel, Jan Repeta, 
Wladyslaw Brzozowski, Mr. A. Kochanski, Mr. W. Rawski, Mr. K. Witz, 
Mr. J. Tomaszewski, Mr. A. Boleslawski, Mr. F. Karczmarczyk, Mr. L. Ja- 
worski, Mr. A. Wojdygo, Mr. M. Marcinkiewicz, Mr. H. Cieszewski and 
the aforementioned Jan Kochanowicz. 

In 1908 a group of young men and women formed the musical and literary 
society, "Promien," for the purpose of disseminating Polish culture in Amer- 

Pfl g e 92 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

ica, through the medium of music and drama. Edward Zolkowski was chosen 
as the first president. These young people soon won recognition not only 
from the press, but from the Polish audiences for their admirable perform- 
ances of excellent plays written by Poland's best known authors, such as: 
Wyspianski's "Wesele," Slowacki's "Maria Stuart" and "Fantazy," Mickie- 
wicz's "Dziady," Rydel's "Zaczarowane Koto," works of Przybyszewski, 
Krzywoszewski, Fredro, Zulawski and several others. The success of a num- 
ber of presentations was in great measure facilitated by the cooperation of 
Karol Wachtel, his wife, Wika, Wanda Szponder-Lysakowska and Antoni 
Sobieniewski. Other amateur groups of that time deserving acknowledgement 
for their choice of repertory and artistic production were the "St. Stanislaus 
College Alumni," the Holy Trinity Literary and Dramatic Circle and like 
groups of many other parishes. 

Professional Groups 

The first professional Polish company appeared in 1910 in the 'Tola" 
theatre, owned and operated by Mr. Roth, who engaged the troupe with Mr. 
Czeslawski as its director. This enterprise, proving financially successful, 
encouraged the establishment of similar theatres throughout the city. Marcin 
Moneta remodeled his photographic studio into a miniature stage with a seat- 
ing capacity of two hundred, named it "Kosciuszko," and opened in 1911 
with a group of Polish actors, under the direction of Tadeusz Eminowicz, 
who left Chicago after a year to work in other cities. The first theatre con- 
structed for the particular purpose of employing a Polish stock company was 
the "Premier," built in 1912, whose owner was Mr. Jaworowski, director, 
Gustaw Zukowski. Presently, the theatre passed into the hands of Mr. and 
Mrs. Wrzesinski, and with Kazimierz Majewski as director, functioned suc- 
cessfully for over eight years. "Premier" was then sold to Anna Jachimska 
and she in turn transferred it to Wladyslaw Krassowski, who conducted it 
for the remainder of its existence. 

During the World War there were eight active Polish theatres in Chicago, 
each of them doing its share of propaganda and raising funds to aid a cause, 
whose triumph was the burning hope of a half million Polish population. 
Most of these exhibited moving pictures early in the evening followed by 
full length dramas as well as short one-act sketches. Shortly following the 
armistice, Polish companies began to lose their audiences and gradually 
declined, until after several final attempts the last theatre company was com- 
pelled to close its portals in 1929. 

Among the many, who trod the Polish stage in Chicago during its years 
of existence, several professional artists distinguished themselves by out- 
standing performance. Due to lack of space I mention only the most promi- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 93 

nent of these: Antoni Bednarczyk, Anna Brzozowska, Wanda Chonarzew- 
ska, Stanislawa Dobrosielska, the Jachimski family, Stanislaw Kajkowski, 
Tadeusz Kantor, Wladyslaw Krassowski, Eugenia Krassowska, Maria 
Kwiatkowska, Felicia Lichocka, Kazimierz Majewski, Marian Marski, Anna 
Pedicini, Wanda Szponder-Lysakowska, Waclaw Turchanowicz, Stanislaw 
Wachtel, Mr. Wojcicki, Wanda Zarska and Gustaw Zukowski. 

The Post- War Period 

Beginning with the post-war period Chicago became an important center 
for Polish American touring troupes, as well for artists coming directly from 
Poland, among whom the greatest was Wanda Siemaszkowa, a splendid 
actress who produced several fine plays during her sojourn here. 

Within the last years there has developed an extremely popular type of 
play, based on the life of the Polish peasant in America, usually written by 
the actor himself, and played to the satisfaction and enjoyment of large au- 
diences. Experts in this line are: Anna Pedicini, with "Mr. Ogorek," Broni- 
slaw Mroz, author of "Siekierki," and Tadeusz Kantor, creator of the widely 
known "Bartek Bieda." 

From time to time a small remnant of professionals, still faithful to 
their art, present to select audiences in school auditoriums plays of a higher 
literary value, under the direction of Lidia Pucinska, Antoni Bednarczyk, Ka- 
zimierz Majewski and Stefan Zielinski. These actors are now associated in 
a group of the Polish National Alliance, called "Scena Polska," organized in 
1934 by Marian Marski, Kazimierz Jedlinski and Kazimierz Majewski, and 
whose president is now Antoni Bednarczyk. 

To commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the professional Polish 
theatre in Chicago "Scena Polska" presented in September, 1936, Slowac- 
ki's "Mazepa," a classic of Polish dramatic literature, and presentd it well, 
in spite of many obstacles and unfavorable conditions. The goal of the so- 
ciety is eventually to build a Polish theatre in Chicago, where plays will be 
performed daily. To this end twenty percent of all the profits is deposited in 
a special fund, not to be withdrawn for any other purpose, unless the society 
dissolves, in which instance it is to be used for scholarshps. 

At present there exists a considerable number of amateur groups in Chi- 
cago, united in the "Alliance of Polish Literary and Dramatic Circles of 
America," consolidated ten years ago at the initiative of the "Ossolinski 
Circle." The "Alliance" arranges declamatory contests, conducts a school of 
Polish folk dancing and produces numerous plays among which the finest 
is Slowacki's "Balladyna," presented several years ago at the Stanislaus Au- 
ditorium. For their commendable work the circles received in 1936 the re- 
ward for drama offered by "Swiatowy Zwiazek Polakow z Zagranicy" 
(World Alliance of Poles Abroad). 

Pd * e 94 1837 — POLES O F CHICAGO— 1937 

In addition to the dramatic circles in the Alliance almost every Polish 
parish in Chicago had its own amateur groups, directed either by one of the 
clergy, organists, or by a prominent citizen of the parish. These are described 
in the article which follows. 

A striking fact among the younger Polish generation is the desire to join 
forces and work culturally and artistically by arranging the concerts, lec- 
tures, exhibits and plays. An example of such cooperation in the line of 
drama is the "Mlody Las," organized in February, 1937, and composed solely 
of talented young people, who have already given proof of their ability in 
producing their first play, Balucki's "Dom Otwarty" last June. The im- 
mediate aim of "Mlody Las" is to build a theatre and to cultivate the use of 
the Polish language in America. In time it may widen its scope to reach 
larger masses of Americans by translating dramatic works into the English 
language and possibly writing original plays in English, dealing with life 
among the Polish Americans. 

The influence of the Polish theatre upon our people is tremendously 
strong and important. For a half century it has been casting among them 
living words of love and devotion for the land of their forefathers, stirring 
thousands of hearts into being loyal and true Americans by being better 
Poles, faithful to the tradition and language of their fathers, thereby raising 
the cultural standards of a great city. 



Compiled from Albums 

St. Venceslaus Church, of DeKoven Street — Organized in 1864 

ORIGINALLY a Slovak church which was attended by early Polish im- 
migrants, the St. Venceslaus parish, mother of all Slavonian churches 
in Chicago, was first built on the north-east corner of Desplaines 
and DeKoven streets, one block east from the historical spot where Mother 
O'Leary's cow kicked over the lantern which started the great Chicago con- 
flagration, and the wind blowing north, this church was spared. Few Chi- 
cagoans realize what a wonderful gem in antiquity remains to be seen, in 
such a short distance from the loop. 

In 1867, an organ was purchased and has been in constant use ever since. 
John Geringer, the organist, who passed away July 4, 1932, had played this 
particular organ for sixty-years. Over fifty-four years ago, he sang at the 
open-air Mass at the laying of the cornerstone of St. Stanislaus Kostka 
church on Noble street, the first Polish Catholic church of Chicago. The pa- 
rochial school was begun in 1867 and Waclaw Maciejewski was the first 
teacher, to be followed by Marcin Kubina and John Geringer. In 1869, the 
Franciscan Sisters took over the school and have been conducting it ever 

Here lived the first Polish pioneers. Here lived the founders of the Polish 
National Alliance, creators of its constitution, Julius Szajnert, Maximilian 
Kucera, and here was held the first convention of the Polish National Al- 

Rev. j^ seph Molitor, the first pastor, was the spiritual guide of the parish 
for over forty years. Following his death in 1906, the Benedictine Fathers of 
Lisle, 111., managed the church until February 26, 1931, when Rev. Thomas 
M. Sampolinski, a secular priest, was appointed pastor. Under his pastorate. 
the parish has become preponderantly Polish. 

Page 96 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

St. Stanislaus Kostka Church — Organized in 1867 

During the period from 1850 to 1870, early Polish settlers welcomed the 
missionary father, Rev. Leopold Moczygemba, who made his visits at Eastei 
time. As early as 1866, the Society of St. Stanislaus was formed, and in 1867 
the little colony, comprising one hundred and fifty families petitioned the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Thomas Foley for permission to found a parish. 

This is the origin of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, the parent of all Polish 
churches in Chicago. At first the people were attended to by Rev. Szulak. 
Society of Jesus, and in 1869, Rev. Joseph Juszkiewicz was given charge of 
the flock. 

The year 1870 marked the advent of the Resurrection Fathers to St. Stanis- 
laus. Rev. Adolph Bakanowski was the first Resurrection priest and he con- 
tinued to serve the community until May 29, 1873. On September 18, 1874, 
Rev. Vincent Michael Barzynski, C.R., took over the pastorate, and he may 
well be called the first permanent pastor, for it was under his guidance and 
direction, and by means of his untiring efforts, labor and zeal, that the parish 
has become one of the best known among. Polish parishes,. not only in Amer- 
ica, but in Europe. Upon his death in 1899, he was succeeded by Rev. Jan 
Kasprzycki, C.R. The latter was followed by Rev. Francis Gordon, C.R. A 
disastrous fire occurred December 22, 1906, burning the school and hall (then 
the largest in the city) to the ground. 

The succeeding pastors were Rev. Stanislaus Rogalski, Rev. Stanislaus 
Siatka, Rev. Francis Dembinski, Rev. John Obyrtacz, Rev. Thaddeus Lig- 
man, Rev. John Drzewiecki ; the present incumbent is Rev. B. Lazarowicz. 

The school, conducted by the Sisters of Notre Dame, at one time num- 
bered nearly four thousand pupils. In 1908, the present school building, 
Sisters' home and auditorium were dedicated in elaborate ceremony, hon- 
ored by the presence of the Vice President of the United States, Charles 
Fairbanks, Most Rev. James Quigley, archbishop of Chicago, and Rt. Rev. 
Muldoon, D.D. At present St. Stanislaus Kostka parish number nearly fifteen 
hundred families in its congregational fold. The school attendance is over 
fourteen hundred, and the teaching covers a complete grammar system, with 
a department of higher grades in commercial classes. The forty-five fraternal 
aid and insurance societies existing in the parish have a total membership of 
over five thousand people. 

Old St. Stephen's— Organized in 1869 

St. Stephen's parish was founded and organized in March, 1869, by Rev. 
Stephen Maria Aloysius Barrett. After his death in 1889, he was succeeded 
by Rev. Dominic Francis Egan. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 97 

This parish is among the oldest in the city. A large and thriving parish for 
a long time, it gradually diminished to forty families, and to preserve this 
old landmark of Catholicity in 1916, after the death of Rev. Egan it was 
deemed advisable to form a mixed parish, many Polish families having set- 
tled in the vicinity of St. Stephen's church. The charge of reorganization was 
entrusted to Rev. Alexis Stanislaus Gorski. In 1919, the parish numbered 
about seven hundred families. Three hundred eighty-five children attended 
the parochial school, who are taught by Felician Sisters. 

The parish has grown by leaps and bounds under the pastorate of Rev. 
Stephen A. Bubacz, who is most popular with the younger element and who 
has attracted members from different sections of the city. 

Holy Trinity Church — Organized in 1873 

Founded in 1873, Holy Trinity parish had different priests (chiefly the 
Resurrection Fathers) at different times attending to its spiritual needs. 
Closed owing to certain misunderstandings, it was reopened June 5, 1893, 
and Msgr. Satolli, then visiting the United States, entrusted the parish to 
the Holy Cross Fathers. Rev. Casimir Sztuczko, C.S.C., was appointed pas- 
tor, which office he holds to the present day. 

A new school house was erected in 1894 according to plans made by John 
Wierzbieniec. The old church was getting too small to accommodate all. 
Hence, on April 2, 1905, the foundation for a new structure was laid. The 
ceremony of laying the corner-stone was performed by His Grace, Arch- 
bishop J. Quigley, in the presence of His Grace, Archbishop Francis Albinus 
Symon, on June 25, 1905, and the church was dedicated by the said Arch- 
bishop J. Quigley October 6, 1906. 

The newly constructed church, of mixed Romanesque style, drew many 
new parishioners, and the ranks of children swelled by the continual increase 
of fresh element. The thought of a higher education for their children caused 
the parishioners to get busy about organizing a high school. Thus, a property 
of Dyniewicz brothers, adjacent to the rectory, was bought in 1910 for $29,000 
and there the Holy Trinity high school was started in the same year. But the 
building proved too small for the purpose, and the parish acquired from the 
municipal authorities the old Kosciuszko school (public), situated on the 
corner of Cleaver and Division streets, where the high school course is con- 
ducted to the present day. The former high school building was remodeled 
to serve as a dwelling place for the brothers connected with the high school, 
among whom were such famous educators as Brother Peter, Brother Theo- 
philus, and others. A modern high school building was constructed in 1927. 

A new rectory was built in 1914, a new school structure in 1916 ; the school 
is conducted by Sisters of the Holv Familv of Nazareth. 

Page 98 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

St. Adalbert's Church — Organized in 1873 

St. Adalbert's was the first Polish parish south of Madison street. Immi- 
grants who selected the west side began to organize and in 1871 formed the 
first society known as the Society of St. Adalbert Bishop and Martyr and 
laid thereby the foundation for the present St. Adalbert's parish. 

Organized in 1873, it had Father Klimecki as its first rector; Father Do- 
minic Majer succeeded him and continued until 1878. Constantine Mallek 
acted as teacher and organist at the same time. Father Adolph Snigurski fol- 
lowed Rev. Majer as pastor, and failing health compelled him to relinquish, 
in 1884, his charge to Rev. John Radziejewski, who for two decades until his 
death in 1904, zealously looked after the welfare of his flock. The educational 
training was entrusted to Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth in 18S6; 
a new school building and a rectory were built. From this school many, who 
won distinction in life were graduated ; to mention a few, Rt. Rev. Paul P. 
Rhode, bishop of Green Bay, Wis., Julius Smietanka, Ignatius Dankowski, 
C. F. Pettkoske, A. Emily Napieralska, Dr. Leo M. Czaja. One of its pa- 
rishioners, namely John Wojtalewicz, was the first Chicagoan to sacrifice 
his life on the battle fields of France during the World war. 

After the death of Rev. Radziejewski, Rev. Casimir I. Gronkowski was 
placed in charge. In 1907, another school building was erected; in 1912 addi- 
tional land was bought, and the corner-stone of the new church was laid by 
the late Most Rev. J. E. Quigley, in presence of many priests and fifty thou- 
sand people. The church was finished in 1914, dedicated by Archbishop Quig- 
ley, His Excellency, the Apostolic Delegate, John Bonzano, sang Mass and 
Right Rev. Bishop Rhode, D.D., preached the sermon. The new church is 
almost a facsimile of the famous basilica of St. Paul in Rome. There are 
about one hundred societies, groups or circles belonging to this parish and 
over three thousand families. 

Immaculate Conception Church — Organized in 1882 

Rev. Francis M. Wojtalewicz has been pastor since September 25, 1905, 
of Immaculate Conception's, a parish organized in 1882, at Eighty-Eighth 
street and Commercial avenue, at South Chicago. Its property is now valued 
at $'350,000.00. Its first pastor, Rev. John Radziejewski, served to the end 
of June, 1884, and was succeeded by Rev. M. C. Pyplatz, July 16, 1884, and 
in 1890 Rev. F. M. Wojtalewicz was sent to help the pastor. 

In 1892, the parish was divided and St. Michael's church was established. 
Rev. Victor Zaleski became pastor on January 13, 1894, to be succeeded by 
the present pastor, Rev. Francis M. Wojtalewicz in 1905. The present church, 
school and rectory were erected under his supervision, and the property is 
clear of debt. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 99 

St. Mary of Perpetual Help Church— Organized in 1882 

There was before 1884, on Farrell and Lyman streets, a two-story structure 
which served the few Polish families in Bridgeport, for church, school and 
Sisters' home. In this frame building, Rev. Adolph Snigurski held the 
divine services for a year or two. His successor, Father John Radziejewski 
bought a block between Morgan and Mosspratt. Thirty-second street and 
Thirty- second place ; in the same year an old frame house and an old Pro- 
testant church were bought and moved from Halsted and Thirty-eighth on 
the premises. The parish was attended to by Rev. John Radziejewski and his 
assistant Rev. L. Moczygemba. In 1886, Rev. John Zylla was appointed by 
Archbishop Feehan as first regular pastor of St. Mary's of Perpetual Help. 
He built a brick pastoral residence in 1888, and in 1889 began building the 
stately brick church, which Avas finished in 1892, by Rt. Rev. S. Xawrocki, a 
skillful organizer and economic steward. 

On October 24, 1903, Archbishop Quigley consecrated the church — the 
first consecrated Polish church in the United States. Rt. Rev. Nawrocki built 
a three-story and basement brick school to accommodate the children and 
the sisters. Later he built, in 1903, a commodious house for the teachers. All 
this he paid for and burned the heavy mortgage. 

On Throop and Twenty-eighth, in 1910 he erected a sixteen-room school 
house, w T ith a very large hall in the basement. To complete the new St. Bar- 
bara's parish he furnished $50,000 for a new church and managed the same 
until it was finished and consecrated July 4, 1914, by Rt. Rev. E. Kozlowski, 
auxiliary bishop of Milwaukee. On March 4, 1917, the Most Rev. Archbishop 
George Cardinal Mundelein invested Fathed S. Nawrocki with the robes of 
Roman prelate. 

Another prelate, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thomas P. Bona, is the present pastor of 
St. Mary of Perpetual Help church. 

St. Josaphat's Church — Organized in 1884 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. G. Ostrowski is the pastor of St. Josaphat's church, 
established in 1884 by the Fathers of the Resurrection. 

Rev. F. Breitkopf was pastor from 1884 to 1885, Rev. K. Kozlowski from 
1885 to 1889, Rev. F. Lange, 1889 to 1914, Rt. Rev. Msgr. G. Ostrowski from 
1914 to the present time. 

The church and new school is of Romanesque style, built by Rev. F. 
Lange; the rectory by F. G. Ostrowski. The school, founded in 1884 by the 
Fathers of the Resurrection, is in charge of the Sisters of Nazareth. There 
are nearly a thousand pupils in attendance. 

Paee 100 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 937 

St. Joseph's Church — Organized in 1887 

Rev. S. Cholewinski is the pastor of St. Joseph's, located at the corner of 
West Forty-eighth and South Hermitage avenue. The founder of the parish 
was Rev. J. Radziejewski. At first but a mission ministered to by Rev. J. 
Zylla, of the St. Mary of Perpetual Help church, it had its first permanent 
pastor in Rt. Rev. Msgr. S. Nawrocki, 1889-1891. He was succeeded by 
Rev. V. Zaleski, who remained in charge until 1894, when Rev. M. Pyplatz 
was appointed. From 1908 to 1909, Rev. Louis Grudzinski administered the 
affairs of the parish. Finally, upon the Rev. M. Pyplatz's return and his sub- 
sequent resignation in 1910, Rev. S. Cholewinski, present pastor, was as- 
signed to take charge of St. Joseph's. 

Under his direction the new church was constructed. Romanesque in style, 
with about twelve hundred seating capacity, this splendid edifice was dedi- 
cated by Most Rev. Archbishop J. E. Quigley, September 28, 1914. The 
school, with the number of attendance about seventeen hundred, is in charge 
of Felician Sisters. The parish has a membership of seventeen hundred fam- 

St. Hedwig's Church — Organized in 1888 

Rev. Francis Uzdrowski, C.R., is the pastor of St. Hedwig's parish, oc- 
cupying one whole block on Webster avenue, between North Hoyne and 
Hamilton avenue. A start was made in 1888 by St. Hedwig's Society and 
Rev. Joseph Barzynski. The first services were held on December 8, 1888. 
Rev. Joseph Barzynski was pastor until February 7, 1894, and was then suc- 
ceeded by Rev. John Piechowski, C.R., who in 1908 was succeeded by Rev. 
John B. Obyrtacz, C.R. Rev. Obyrtacz remodeled the first church and school 
at a cost of $50,000, and in 1911, a combination school building and assembly 
hall, with a seating capacity of twelve hundred and eight class rooms, was 
built, costing about $80,000, and in 1916 an addition was built to the rectory, 
improving same. The buildings and equipment are valued at about $1,000,000. 

The school is in charge of Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth and has 
an attendance of nearly twenty-three hundred pupils. 

The pastors preceding Rev. Uzdrowski were Rev. S. Siatka, C.R.. and Rev. 
Francis Dembinski, C.R. 

St. Casimir's Church — Organized in 1890 

Founded in 1890, St. Casimir's was a combination school and church frame 
building, with Rev. F. Kroll the first pastor, 1890-1893. He was succeeded by 
Rev. A. Furman in August, 1893. A brick combination building was erected 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 Page_[0f 

in 1904 and 1905. The new church in Polish Renaissance architecture was 
started in 1917 and completed and dedicated by His Eminence. Cardinal 
George Mundelein, December 21. 1919. The seating- capacity is fourteen hun- 
dred ninety-nine. The number of families is about seventeen hundred. 

Rev. Stanislaus V. Bona. D.D.. succeeded Father Fnrman and acted as 
pastor from 1921 to 1932. A new school and Sisters' convent were con- 
structed. St. Casimir's. therefore, has two large schools with an attendance 
of seventeen hundred pupils. The school, for the first ten years, was in charge 
of the Sisters' of St. Francis, of Milwaukee, Wis. After that the Polish Sisters 
of the Resurrection took charge and continue till this day. A two-year com- 
mercial course is also given at this school. 

Rev. S. Bona was consecrated bishop by His Eminence George Cardinal 
Mundelein on February 25, 1932, and installed in his own diocese of Grand 
Island, Nebraska. Bishop Bona is the younger brother of Msgr. Thomas 
Bona, pastor of St. Mary of Perpetual Help parish. 

Bishop Bona was succeeded by Msgr. Anthony Halgas. on May 1. 1932, 
the former paster of St. Andrew's. Calumet City. Msgr. J. G. Mielcarek is 
the present pastor of St. Casimir's parish. 

St. Michael's Church, South Chicago — Organized in 1892 

St. Michael's parish, Eighty-third street and South Shore drive, South 
Chicago, was organized from a division of the Immaculte Conception parish. 
Rev. John Zylla organized the new parish out of a nucleus of about three 
hundred families, but he was soon succeeded by Rev. Adolph Xowicki : a 
large brick buiding on Eighty-third street and Brandon avenue was com- 
pleted in 1892, and the parsonage was built the same vear. 

Rev. A. Xowicki was succeeded by Rev. Paul P. Rhode who is now bishop 
of Green Bay, Wisconsin. During his incumbency the convent and the im- 
posing Gothic church were erected. Rev. Paul P. Rhode was elevated to the 
episcopal dignity in 1908, but he continued as pastor of St. Michael's until 
September 29, 1915, when he left to become bishop of Green Bay, Wis. 

To fill the vacancy arising from the promotion of Bishop Rhode, Rev. 
John M. Lange was called to take charge as pastor, September 26, 1915. 
His first great accomplishment as pastor was the enlargement of the school 
building in 1917. In 1925 an auxiliary school building, one of the most mod- 
ern, was erected, to accommodate the pupils of the higher grades and two- 
year business course. The number of pupils is nearly eighteen hundred; 
while the parish membership numbers about nineteen families. Xew altars 
were placed in the sanctuary, and art windows were installed in 1928, which 
year marked the silver jubilee of Rev. Dr. Lange's priesthood. 

Page 102 1 837 — POL ES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

St. Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr Church — Organized in 1893 

Founded in 1893 by Rev. Vincent Barzynski, C.R., St. Stanislaus B. and M. 
parish, up to the year 1901, existed in the character of a mission, there being 
no permanent pastor, ministered to by the Resurrection Fathers of St. Stanis- 
laus Kostka parish. On October 21, 1901, Rev. John Obyrtacz, C.R., became 
the first pastor of this church. He repaired the frame church, destroyed by 
fire, with a two-story brick building in Gothic style. 

In 1909, when Rev. Stanislaus Swierczek, C.R., became pastor, the parish 
had two hundred families and one hundred fifty children in the school. Since 
then, the number increased to one thousand, with nine hundred children at- 
tending the school which is under the direction of Franciscan Sisters of St. 
Kunegunda. In 1913, a parish hall, one hundred fifty by seventy-six, was 
erected, which contains meeting halls for societies and a large hall for enter- 
tainers and other parish necessities. The enlarged church has nine hundred 
twenty seats. 

Rev. J. Fabianski, C.R., is the present pastor of St. Stanislaus B. and M. 
church, which is located on Lorel, near Fullerton avenues, in the Cragin 

St. John Cantius Church — Organized in 1893 

Rev. Theodore Klopotowski, C.R., is the present pastor of St. John Can- 
tius parish which was organized in 1893, inasmuch as St. Stanislaus Kostka'i 
could not accommodate the great influx of Pohsh Catholics. 

Rev. Vincent Barzynski, C.R., appointed Rev. John Kasprzycki, C.R.. pas- 
tor of the new parish to be. A large plot of ground was secured at Chicago 
avenue, Carpenter and Fry streets, and the building of St. John Cantius 
church, of Roman style, was begun, to be completed and dedicated in 1S98. 

The parochial school was erected in 1903. Rev. J. Kasprzycki was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Eugene Sedlaczek, C.R., who constructed a new rectory. 
The next pastor was Rev. Stephen Dabkowski, C.R., to be succeeded by 
Rev. Stanislaus Rogalski, C.R., who built up the second part of the school. 
He was succeeded by Rev. John Kosinski, C.R., who died May 3, 1914. Rev. 
Stanislaus Siatka, C.R., was appointed pastor, March 4, 1915. He constructed 
a new and comfortable house for the school sisters and made many improve- 
ments in the parish buildings. 

More than fifteen hundred children attend St. John Cantius school, which 
is conducted by the Notre Dame School Sisters of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 103 

St. Hyacinth's Parish — Organized in 1894 

A Polish settlement in the vicinity of Milwaukee and Central Park avenue 
gave rise to St. Hyacinth's church, and a small wooden structure was built 
on that site in 1894, under the direct supervision of Rev. Vincent Barzynski, 
C.R. Rev. Simon Kobrzynski, C.R., celebrated in the new church for the first 
time on Christmas Day, 1894. Rev. John Piechowski, C.R., was appointed 
first pastor in 1895. Six months later he was succeeded by Rev. J. Giebu- 
rowski, C.R. ; in 1897 Rev. E. Sedlaczek was appointed pastor, to be suc- 
ceeded in 1899 by Rev. A. Babski, C.R. In 19C0, the church was moved to its 
present site, on George street, a brick rectory was built, and final'v, with 
the growth of the parish a combination church and school was approved and 
dedicated December 16, 1906. 

In 1907, the oM church was remodeled into class rooms for the ever in- 
creasing number of school children. In 1908, Rev. J. Szczypta, C.R., suc- 
ceeded to the pastorate. A new rectory was built in 1912. The parish num- 
bered eighteen hundred families, so it was divided, and a new parish, St. 
Yenceslaus', was organ: zed. In 1914. the old rectory on George street was 
enlarged and remodeled into a Sisters' Home. 

In 1915, Rev. J. Zdechlik, C.R., succeeded Father Szczypta, and made pre- 
parations to build a new, more spacious edifice of God. The corner stone was 
laid October 21, 1917 and b.essed by Rt. Rev. Msgr. Xawrocki. The sermon 
at this occasion was delivered by Rev. L. Zapala. The new church was com- 
pleted in 1920. Rev. J. Sobieszczyk, C.R., was appointed pastor in January, 
1920. The church was dedicated by His Eminence George Cardinal Munde- 
lein, October 17, 1921. The new school building was comp'eted in 1928, and 
the Sisters' Home was dedicated in 1928, by Rev. S. Swierczek, C.R. In Janu- 
ary, 193C, Rev. S. A. Kowalczyk, OR., succeeded Father Swierczek and has 
continued as pastor to th'.s da}-. The parish numbers over three thousand 
fam lies with e'ghteen hundred children attending the parochial school, con- 
ducted bv Sisters of Nazareth. 

S. S. Peter and Paul Parish— Organized in 1895 

Rev. A. S. Olszewski is the present pastor of SS. Peter and Paul's, or- 
ganized in 1895, and Rev. Paul P. Rhode, now bishop of Green Bay, Wis., 
was the first pastor. The church originally was located on Carlton street, be- 
tween 36th and 37th streets, and subsequent 1 }' moved to 3745 South Paulina 
street. In October, 1897, with the appointment of Rev. P. Rhode to the pas- 
torate of St. Michael's in South Chicago, Rev. Boleslaus Xowakowski was 
named pastor, to be succeeded by Rev. Maximilian Kotecki, December 24, 
1901, under whose guidance the present structures of church, school and 

Page 104 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

rectory were built. The new church was blessed on June 29, 1907. Among 
the prominent guests on that occasion was Mayor Carter H. Harrison. Dur- 
ing the International Eucharistic Congress held in Chicago in 1926, Rev. 
Adalbert S. Olszewski was host to the Most Rev. Bishops from Poland, 
Przezdziecki, Lukomski and Kubina. 

The school was built in 1908 and blessed on September 4, of the same year. 
Over eleven hundred children attend at the present time, Felician nuns be- 
ing in charge. The first alderman of Polish American extraction of the ward 
in which the church is located, was Ben. Zintak, a member of St. Peter and 

St. Mary of the Angels Church — Organized in 1897 

Rev. E. S. Brzezinski, C.R., is present pastor of St. Mary of the Angels 
parish, organized November 22, 1897, by Rev. Francis Gordon, C.R., for 
many years publisher of the Chicago Polish Daily News. Midway between 
St. Stanislaus' and St. Hedwig's, it is located at Hermitage-Wood-Cortland- 
Bloomingdale Road. The original structure contained the church, school, 
large and small halls. The new church, of Romanesque style, was begun on 
September 28, 1911, and is one of the grandest in the city. Rev. Francis Gor- 
don had been pastor from the beginning, with the exception of three years, 
1906-1909, when he was appointed pastor St. Stanislaus Kostka parish. 

The combination building was dedicated on December 10, 1899, and on the 
11th of December. 1899, the first mass was celebrated by Rev. Francis Gor- 
don. About twelve hundred pupils attend the school which is in charge of 
the Sisters of the Resurrection. The Sisters of this congregation own a build- 
ing in Hermitage avenue, which serves as a home for working girls. The rec- 
tory, located between the old and the new church, facing Wood street, is one 
of the finest in the city. 

Among the prominent laymen of the parish are County Judge Edmund 
K. Jarecki, Theophilus Gordon, Philip Sadowski, Henry Siwecki, Francis 
Urbanski, Thomas Malinger, A. A. Behnke, Joseph Witt, and others. 

St. Ann's Parish — Organized in 1903 

March 3, 1903, marks the organization of St. Ann's, located at 18th and S. 
Leavitt street. Under the leadership of Rev. Casimir Slominski, the site was 
selected and the corner-stone was laid in the same year. For eighteen years 
Rev. Slominski was pastor, to be succeeded by Rev. Joseph Kruszka. St. 
Ann's was the first parish to welcome the first cardinal of the West, George 
Cardinal Mundelein. 

Oxer eleven hundred eighty-six children attend St. Ann's parochial school. 
Rev. S. Derwinski is the present pastor of the parish. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page IPS 

St. Florian's Church — Organized in 1905 

Rev. Francis A. Kulinski is pastor of St. Florian's, 13145 Houston avenue, 
which was organized in 1905 by Rev. F. M. Chodniewicz. A school building 
was built in 1907, with four Franciscan Sisters taking care of about two 
hundred children. At present over five hundred children attend the school. 
In 1913, the parochial residence was built, while in 1916 the two story frame 
dwelling was improved to be occupied by school sisters, who used to live 
in the school building. The number of members is over three hundred. 

Holy Innocents' Church — Organized in 1905 

The founder and pastor of Holy Innocents' to the present day is the Rev. 
John Zwierzchowski. A frame church and a brick school serving formerly a 
Protestant congregation, located at Superior and Bickerdike street, were pur- 
chased to served the Poles settling in the vicinity. On October 9, 1905, with 
Rev. John Zwierzchowski appointed pastor, the buildings were dedicated by 
Archbishop Quigley amidst throngs of faithful from neighboring parishes. 

With the rapid growth of the parish, the church and class rooms soon 
proved too small, and the remaining lots of the block were purchased for a 
new church and a rectory. The church building of Mission style was blessed 
by His Grace, Archbishop Quigley, on October 20, 1912 ; it has a seating 
capacity of sixteen hundred. With crowded class rooms, it became necessary 
to construct a new school, with twelve class rooms and assembly hall, which 
was blessed in February, 1915. A permanent home for thirty-five sisters, was 
erected. Over two thousand children attend the parochial school. 

St. John of God Church— Organized in 1906 

Rev. L. Grudzinski, well known social worker, founder of the Guardian 
Angels Nursery and others, is pastor of St. John of God parish, founded in 
1906. The old church and the first rectory, now converted into the home for 
the local sisters, were begun by the organizer and first pastor, Rev. John 

With the death of Father Jendrzejek in September, 1909, the parish was 
then administered by Rev. Francis Karabasz until July 15, 1909, when the 
present pastor, Rev. Ludwik Grudzinski, was appointed to continue the work 
begun by Father Jendrzejek. On October 13, 1918, the corner-stone for the 
new stately, magnificent church, built in a beautiful Renaissance style, was 
laid; the handsomeness of the church is enhanced by its location which is in 

Paw 106 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

front of Sherman Park. The parish numbers nearly two thousand families, 
with about eighteen hundred children attending- the school which is under 
the care of Felician Sisters. 

Good Shepherd Church — Organized in 1907 

Located at 2719-2757 South Kolin avenue, Good Shepherd parish was or- 
ganized in 1907 by Rev. Alexander Jung, its first pastor. The first church 
was a wooden structure, now used as the parish hall. The first school was 
established by Father Jung in 1910, and placed in charge of Felician Sisters. 
In 1912, a combination church and school was built. With the death of Rev. 
Jung, Rev. Francis J. Wojciechowski was appointed his successor on No- 
vember 4, 1918. Father Wojciechowski enlarged the school from six class 
rooms to twelve, while the church was altered and newly decorated. Father 
Wojciechowski continues as pastor of Good Shepherd's. 

Five Holy Martyrs Parish — Organized in 1908 

In 1908, Rev. Joseph Kruszka, then pastor of Our Lady's church at Go- 
styn (Downer's Grove, 111.), was directed to organize a church in the Brigh- 
ton Park district, at 41st and Kedzie avenue. A new combination church 
and school was erected, the corner-stone laid and consecrated by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Rhode in May, 1909. Because of the nearness to factories, the parish 
was moved to Francisco, Richmond, 43rd and 44th streets, in 1919, a separ- 
ate church and school were built. 

Transferred to St. Anne's, Rev. Joseph Kruszka was succeeded in 1921 by 
Rev. James J. Strzycki, now a monsignor. Under his administration a new 
rectory, sisters' home, a new school building, with a hall and bowling .alley, 
and an additional small school building were erected. The school has an at- 
tendance of nearly eighteen hundred pupils, in charge of Franciscan Sisters. 

St. Francis of Assisi Church — Organizsd in 1909 

Rev. F. S. Jagielski is present pastor of St. Francis of Assisi parish, at 
4418 West Walton street. Organized in October, 1909, it had as its first pas- 
tor Rev. J. S. Pajkowski. A brick combination building was erected, and the 
corner-stone was blessed on December 19, 1909, by Bishop P. P. Rhode ; 
the church was blessed on July 10, 1910. 

The parish consists of about five hundred families and that many children 
attending the school which is conducted by the Sisters of Nazareth. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 107 

St. Barbara's Church — Organized in 1910 

Rev. S. Radniecki is pastor of St. Barbara's, at 2859 South Throop street. 
It was organized in 1910 by Rt.Rev. Msgr. Stanislaus Nawrocki, then pastor 
of St. Mary's of Perpetual Help, who. in 19C9, donated land for the proposed 
St. Barbara's church, school and other buildings, comprising twenty-four 
lots. Rev. Nawrccki was appointed pastor in 1910. A new church edifice was 
erected in 1914, and on July 4, 1914. Rt. Rev. Edward Kozlowski, auxiliary 
bishop of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, consecrated the church, which is of the 
Renaissance style, with a seating capacity of eighteen hundred. The school 
is a two-story and basement structure, with a large auditorium. The Sisters 
of St. Joseph are in charge of the school. There are about eleven hundred 
children in attendance. 

Rev. Francis Grzes succeeded Father Nawrocki (who died in May, 1918) 
and assumed duties of pastor on June 20, 1918. Under his direction the in- 
terior of the church was beautifully decorated, and also an addition to the 
school and a home for the priests were completed. 

Sacred Heart of Jesus Church— Organized in 1910 

In July, 1910, Rev. Francis J. Karabasz, then assistant pastor of St. Peter 
and Paul's, was directed to form a parish embracing the territory between 
41st and 47th streets, Ashland and Western avenues. He obtained a plot of 
ground at 46th, Lincoln and Honore streets. St. Joseph's, of which Rev. S. 
Cholewinski was pastor, was very helpful and permitted the first Mass of 
the new parish to be celebrated at 9 o'clock, on August 10th. 1910. in St. 
Joseph's church. 

On October 9, 1910, Bishop P. P. Rhode. D.D., blessed the corner-stone 
of the new church, and on March 19. 1911, first Mass was celebrated in the 
new building. May 28, 1911, the solemn blessing of the school building took 
place, Bishop Rhoce officiating. In September, 1911, school opened with about 
six hundred fifty pupils and nine Felician Sisters in charge. In May, 1913. 
more ground was bought and a Sisters' Home erected at a cost of $25,000. A 
new rectory was built in 1915. To accommodate the ever-increasing number 
of pupils, a new school annex, consisting of two class rooms, was added in 
1919. In 1921, all debts were cleared, and since then the parish is free of all 
encumbrances, being one of a few in the Chicago diocese to hold such an en- 
vious position. Rev. Francis J. Karabasz continues as pastor of the parish, 
which numbers one thousand families and over hundred children attending 
school, conducted by the Felician Sisters. 

Pag e 108 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

St. Mary Magdalene's Church — Organized in 1910 

St. Mary Magdalene's of South Chicago is the grateful offspring of Im- 
maculate Conception of B. V. M. parish. The corner-stone for the present 
church and school combination building was laid September 26, 1910. Rev. 
Edward A. Kowalewski was called to the pastorate of St. Mary Magdalene's 
on June 10, 1910. The blessing of the corner-stone was performed hy Rt. 
Rev. P. P. Rhode, D.D., while the sermon on that occasion was delivered by 
Rev. Francis Wojtalewicz, the steadfast sponsor of the new parish. First 
Mass was celebrated for the first time in the new church by Father Kowa- 
lewski on February 12, 1911; the sermon was preached by Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Thomas Bona. 

When the school was completed, the Felician Sisters were requested to 
take charge. 

Early in 1931, the administration of the parish was entrusted to Msgr. A. 
Halgas. In June, 1931, Rev. J. G. Mielcarek was appointed pastor, to be suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. J. Kozlowski, Ph.D., present pastor. 

Immaculate Heart of Mary Parish in Irving Park — Organized in 1912 

On August 3, 1911, a call for a general meeting was sent to all the Poles 
of this vicinity. In the organization of the parish two clubs: the Nicholas Co- 
pernicus and the Eliza Orzeszkowa, were instrumental in bringing the or- 
ganization of the parish to success. On June 13, 1912, an official order was 
approved opening a new Polish parish in Irving Park, and a rector was as- 
signed in the person of Rev. Raymont Appelt. The parish was named the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary. 

At first Masses were sung in a public school building at Byron and Al- 
bany streets. With the purchase of twenty-one lots, building activities were 
started. On September 29, 1912, the parish celebrated the consecration of the 
corner-stone. The ceremony was performed by Very Re r. Bishop Paul P. 
Rhode, bishop of Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

On New Year's day of 1913, Father Appelt celebrated he first Mass in 
the church. By 1924, a new church building was completed with a capacity 
of one thousand. On November 24, 1924, His Excellency Bishop Hoban con- 
secrated the new home of God. In course of time, the old building was trans- 
formed into a parochial school, and in 1928, a new building was completed 
to serve as living quarters for the Sisters of Nazareth, teachers of the local 
school. Stanley B. Mrozinski, an accomplished musician, is the local organ- 
ist, whose choirs are really a pride of the church. The Fchool organized in 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 109 

1913, has progressed steadily and numbers at present nearly four hundred 
pupils, taught by the splendid and very efficient Sisters of Nazareth. 

Rev. Charles Marcinkiewicz is the pastor since 1935. 

Transfiguration Church — Organized in 1911 

Rev. F. B. Prange is present pastor of Transfiguration parish, 2609 Car- 
men avenue, which was organized in Bowmanville on August 12, 1911, by 
Rev. Wojciechowski. The first Mass offered by Father Wojciechowski was 
celebrated in the Budlong School Hall, on August 23, 1911. A plot of ground, 
located at Rockwell, Carmen, Washtenaw and Winnemac streets, was pur- 
chased, and the laying of the corner-stone took place on the Feast of the 
Immaculate Conception, December 8, 1911. On July 14, 1912, the new church 
and school building was solemnly dedicated by the Most Rev. Archbishop J. 
E. Quigley. 

On November 10, 1918, Father Wojciechowski was transferred to Good 
Shepherd parish and his successor was appointed in the person of Rev. F. B. 
Prange. The school is ably conducted by Sisters of St. Joseph, of Stevens 
Point, Wisconsin, with over three hundred children in attendance. The par- 
ish numbers about two hundred families and is steadily growing. 

St. Venceslaus' Church, North-West Side— Organized in 1912 

Rev. Theodore Czastka is pastor of St. Vencleslaus, located on the north- 
wets side of the city, at 3400 N. Monticello avenue. The parish was organized 
by Rev. F. C. Scieszka in 1912. A small frame building donated by St. Hya- 
cinth's was moved to Lawndale avenue and served as church and school 
while the present combination building was being erected. On June, 1914, 
the building was completed and blessed by Rt. Rev. Bishop Rhode. 

The school is conducted by Felician Sisters, with over six hundred pupils. 

St. Helen's Parish — Organized in 1913 

Located at Oakley Blvd. and, Augusta Blvd., St. Helen's Parish was 
founded by Rev. P. H. Pyterek, with the assistance of Messrs. P. Ligman, 
J. Rushkewicz, Anthony Klodzinski, P. Bykowski and F. Strobot, under the 
direction of the late Most Rev. J. E. Quigley, on June 6, 1913. The corner- 
stone of the combination building was laid November 2, 1913, by Rt. Rev. 
Paul P. Rhode, D.D., and was dedicated by the Most Rev. James E. Quigley, 
August 29, 1914. Formal opening of school took place September 7, 1914. The 
Felician Sisters are in charge of the school from the foundation of the parish. 

Page J 10 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

With the growth of the parish it very soon became evident that the com- 
bination church and school building was inadequate, so in 1924, a new and 
larger combination church and school was built to accommodate all the new 
parishioners. The new church has a seating capacity of nine hundred per- 
sons. The old building was remodeled for school purpose, and it was soon 
necessary to remodel one of these buildings for a convent. It has a small 
chapel and occommodations for about forty nuns. 

St. Helen's has one of the best school bands which won honorary mention 
and prizes in competing with other parochial schoo 1 s; it was under the di- 
rection of Bandmaster A. E. Petrocelli. The organist, John Dendor, has five 
choirs under his direction, which are as follows : St. Helen's Senior Choir, St. 
Helen's Junior Choir, St. Ann's Married Ladies' Choir and two School Chil- 
dren's Choirs. 

The present pastor, Rev. P. H. Pyterek, was born on August 1, 1878. a 
short distance from the parish, was educated at St. Stanislaus parochial 
school, St. Ignatius' College, St. Mary's College, Kentucky, and St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore. He was ordained by Most Rev. J. E. Quiglev, March 
28, 1903. His parents were early immigrants, pioneers of the north-west side 

of Chicago. 

St. Ladislaus' Parish — Organized in 1914 

Rev. S. J. Czapelski is pastor of St. Ladislaus', located at 5432 W. Roscoe 
street. The parish was founded by Rev. F. C. Scieszka in 1914. On June 15, 
1915, Rev. A. Halgas was appointed pastor of the parish. 

About five hundred families belong to the parish, with about four hundred 
fifty children attending the parochial schoH Hiich is under the care of Sist- 
ers of the Holy Family of Nazareth. 

St. James Church, Hanson Park — Organized in 1914 

Rev. F. Marcinek is the present pastor of St. James. 2418 N. Mango ave., 
which was founded by Rev. W. S. Kukulski. Following his resignation in 
March, 1918, Rev. F. Marcinek, the present pastor, was appointed by Car- 
dinal George Mundelein. 

In 1919, a combination church and school building was erected. The school 
was established by the first pastor and remains in charge of Felician Sisters. 
There are about three hundred pupils attending- the school which has adopted 
the program of teaching prescribed by the school board of Chicago arch- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 111 

St. Constance Parish — Organized in 1916 

Located in the district known as Jefferson Park, St. Constance's was or- 
ganized in 1916, by Rev. Alexander S. Knitter, its present pastor. At first, a 
Protestant church located at Lawrence and Central avenues was purchased, 
remodeled and decorated. A new Roman Catholic church, the St. Constance, 
was dedicated on August 20, 1916, by Rev. Ludwik Grudzinski. 

With increasing numbers of the Polish people settling in this north-west 
side district, it became necessary to erect a combination church and school 
building at the site bounded by Ainslie, Marmora, Strong and Menard ave- 
nues. The new church was dedicated by His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, 
on October 8, 1917. A new rectory was built on the corner of Strong street 
and Menard avenue. The church and school building was enlarged in 1926, 
with additional classrooms and a large assembly hall. The former rectory 
was converted into a sisters' convent. A beautiful grotto of Our Lady of 
Lourdes on the premises is considered a masterpiece attracting many visitors. 
About eight hundred children attend the school which is in charge of the 
Sisters of Xotre Dame. 
St. Pancratius Parish — Organized in 1924 

Rev. Stanislaus Radniecki became pastor of St. Pancratius, organized in 
1924, in the district known as Brighton Park. First Mass was celebrated on 
March 6, 1924. The church is old building formerly occupied by Five Holy 
Martyrs' congregation. Additional lots were purchased, on which a modern 
building containing eighteen class rooms and an assembly hall was erected; 
also a sisters' home was built. The corner-stone was blessed by Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Thomas Bona in 1925 ; the completed school building was consecrated 
on May 9, 1926, by Most Rev. Bishop Suffragan Hoban. 

St. Pancratius parochial school has an attendance of over eleven hundred 
pupils and is in charge of Franciscan Sisters. 

Rev. V. J. Nowicki is the present pastor of*St. Pancratius'. 

Saint Roman Parish — Organized in 1928 

Rev. V. A. Belinski is pastor of St. Roman's parish, 2313 S. Washtenaw 
avenue, organized in the fall of 1928. It is an offspring of St. Casimir's parish, 
which could not adequately serve an increasing group of Poles, and so Rt. 
Rev. Stanislaus V. Bona, now bishop of Grand Island, Nebraska, deemed it 
necessary to establish another church at the western end of St. Casimir's. 

Rev. J. J. Kozlowski. Ph.D., was appointed pastor of the newly organizing 
parish and the corner-stone was laid by Very Rev. Anthony Halgas on April 

Pd g e 112 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

19, 1929. The solemn dedication of the church and school was performed by 
Rt. Rev. Bernard Sheil, suffragan bishop of Chicago. The boundaries of the 
parish are: Twenty-sixth street on the south, Western avenue on the east. 
Twelfth street on the north and Marshall Boulevard on the west. Over one 
thousand families are numbered as parishioners. 

The St. Roman school, in charge of the Teaching Sisters of St. Joseph, is 
of the most modern construction, with up-to-date equipment and facilities 
for educating its nine hundred fifty pupils. It contains a large auditorium, 
the scene of frequent dramas and social gatherings given under the auspices 
of the various parish sodalities, societies and clubs. 

Other Churches of Chicago and Vicinity. 

Other churches of Chicagoland are : St. Bruno's, 4749 S. Harding avenue, 
of which Rev. A. S. ,Gorski, Ph.D., is pastor; the St. Fidelis', 1406 North 
Washtenaw avenue, of which Rev. J. F. Zielezsinski is pastor; St. Broni- 
slawa's, 8708 Colfax avenue, Rev. Cyril Kita, O.M.C., pastor; St. Camillus', 
5430 South Lockwood avenue, Rev. B. J. Kasprzycki, pastor; St. Thecla's' 
6708 West Palatine avenue, Rev. F. C. Dampts, pastor; St. Turibius', 4115 
West 56th Street, Rev. J. C. Mszanowski, pastor. 

Assumption B. V. M. church of West Pullman, located at 123rd street and 
Parnell avenue, was organized by Rev. Koytek in 1903. He was succeeded 
by Rev. S. Cholewinski who completed the new school in 1907. His successor, 
Rev. L. Zuchola, completed the new rectory in 1913. In December of 1918, 
the present pastor, Rev. Theodore Langfort took charge and he built a new 
convent for the Sisters of Nazareth who teach the school attended by six 
hundred children. The parish numbers about three thousand members. 

Since May 22, 1913, Rev. H. Jagodzinski has been pastor of St. Cyrillus 
and Methodius, of Lemont, 111., which dates to 1882. On August 12, 1883, the 
corner-stone was laid by Rev. L. Moczygemba. On April 7, 1884, the first 
Mass was celebrated. The former pastors were Rev. S. Baranowski, Rev. J. 
Barzynski, Rev. M. Moziewski, Rev. C. Kozlowski, Rev. F. Scieszka, Rev. 
M. C. Pyplatz. Felician Sisters are in charge of the school which has an at- 
tendance of two hundred pupils. 

Rev. J. Schenke is pastor of St. Andrew's parish, founded in 1891 Calu- 
met City, formerly Sobieski, then West Hammond, 111. Rev. Francis Gordon, 
C.R., laid the corner-stone on October 27, 1891. Rev. Francis M. Wojtalewicz 
was the first pastor. The original frame church was levelled to the ground 
by a tornado on June 13, 1892. The new brick structure Was dedicated May 
14, 1893. The rectory and school house were soon erected. Rev. Francis Byr- 
gier was called to the rectorship in May, 1896; he remodeled the church and 
bought a pipe organ. New additions were made on the school, put in charge 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1 93 7 Page 113 

of Sisters of St. Francis, of Lafayette, Ind. Rev. Boleslaus Nowakowski was 
called as the next pastor. In 1908, Sisters of Nazareth were summoned to 
teach in the school. By 1914 a brick building was erected for the nuns as well 
as a large and massive school building. On Sunday, January 27, 1918, the 
church burned down due to defective electric wiring, to make way for the 
present beautiful edifice of God. 

Rev. W. Rzoska is present pastor of St. Mary of Gostyn, at Downers 
Grove, founded in 1891, and its first structure was erected by an old pioneer, 
Mr. Kostrzeski. The following were pastors of this parish : Rev. F. Wojtale- 
wicz, Rev. C. Slominski, Rev. B. Pawlowski, Rev. F. Chodniewicz, Rev. C. 
Wotypka, Rev. Szczygiel, Rev. A. Koytek, Rev. A. Jung, Rev. J. Kruszka, 
Rev. W. Warakomski, Rev. F. Prange, Rev. F. Repinski, C.R., Rev. L. 
Swiatkowski, C.R., Rev. S Koralewski. 

Rev. Felix J. Kachnowski is pastor of St. Stanislaus B. and M. parish, of 
Posen. 111., established in May, 1894, by Rev. Stanislaus Nawrocki. The 
priests formerly in charge of the parish were : Rev. Francis Kroll, Rev. Se- 
raphin Cosini, C.R., Rev. A. Koytek, Rev. L. Szczygiel, Rev. Peter H. Py- 
terek, Rev. John Robakowski. In March, 1911, the church was enlarged; 
Franciscan Sisters were invited to teach. 

St. Mary's of Czestochowa, Cicero, 111., was started by Rev. Casimir Slo- 
minski, May 30, 1895. Three frame buildings were erected the end of that 
year : church, hall and rectory. The following pastors were Rev. Leo. Wy- 
rzykowski and Rev. B. Czajkowski, who was appointed in July, 1904. In 1905 
a combination church and school building was built, to be followed by a con- 
vent, a new rectory, and the present church, of Gothic style, completed in 
1918. The parish has nearly one thousand families. The school is conducted 
by Sisters of St. Joseph. 

Rev. Stanislaus P. Chyla is pastor of St. Salomea's, 11816 Indiana avenue, 
in Kensington, founded in 1897 by Rev. F. Kroll, who was succeeded by Rev. 
K. Gronkowski. Under Father Jagielski the foundation for the church of a 
Semi-Gothic style was laid and completed under Rev. J. M. Lange, Ph.D. 
in 1912. The school has an attendance of nine hundred pupils who are under 
the instruction of the Polish Sisters of St. Joseph. Rev. Lange was succeeded 
by Rev. S. Pajkowski, Rev. F. Kulinski and Rev. T. A. Kendziora. 

Rev. J. Drzymala is present pastor of St. Isidore's, of Blue Island, Illinois, 
organized in 1900. Rev. Fr. Kroll and Rev. John Kasprzycki were early ad- 
visers, and subsequently Rev. C. Gronkowski was appointed first pastor of 
the newly organizing parish, really called into being by the "Polish Church 
and Building Society" under the protection of St. Isidore. This society gave 
a bazaar, September 24 — October 4, 1899, at Opera House, Blue Island, which 
brought the parish $1,200. The new church was blessed on Christmas Day,. 
1900, by Rev. Fr. Wojtalewicz and first High Mass was celebrated by the 

Page 114 1837 — POLES_OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

pastor, Rev. C. Gronkowski. His successors were : Rev. F. Kroll, Rev. Koy- 
tek, Rev. S. Szczygiel, Rev. P. H. Pyterek. In 1912, Rev. Pyterek enlarged the 
church and school. Felician Sisters took charge of the latter. Rev. Pyterek 
was succeeded by Rev. T. Czastka, the latter by Rev. S. Doberstein. 

Rev. S. J. Koralewski is pastor of St. Stanislaus B. and M. parish, in Kan- 
kakee, 111., founded in 1900 by Rev. Maximilian Kotecki, who was succeeded 
by Rev. F. Nowacki. Then followed : Rev. E. A. Kowalewski, Rev. F. G. 
Ostrowski, Rev. F. Feldheim, Rev. A. Koytek, Rev. B. J. Orlemanski, Rev. 
B. K. Szudzinski. Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth took charge of the 
parochial school which now has an attendance of three hundred children. 

Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thomas P. Bona in March, 1911, took charge of the mixed 
parish of St. Joseph's, established in 1902, at Cummit-Argo. A purely Polish 
parish developed in Argo, and Rev. H. Piepenkotter is the present pastor of 
St. Blase's, 6101 S. 75th avenue, Argo, Illinois. 

Rev. J. A. Grzezinski is pastor of Ho 1 y Rosary parish, of North Chicago, 
111., founded by Rev. John Jendrzejek in 1904. Father Jendrzejek was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. L. Grudzinski, Rev. August Koytek, Rev. John Lange, Rev. 
Fr. Ostrowski, Rev. T. Czastka. The school was opened by Rev. J. Jen- 
drzejek in 1905, and Rev. L. Grudzinski procured the Felician Sisters in 1908. 
The church was built by Rev. J. J. Jendrzejek in 1904, the school by Rev. 
John Lange, in 1909, and the parish house by Rev. Fr. Ostrowski in 1914. 

St. Valentine's, of Cicero, 111., of which Rev. B. K. Szudzinski is present 
pastor, was founded in 1912 by Rev. A. Halgas. He was succeeded by Rev. 
T. Langfort and Rev. S. Radniecki. Sisters of Nazareth are in charge of 
the school. 

Rev. P. P. Witmanski is pastor of Ascension parish, in Evanston, Illinois, 
founded in 1912. Rev. Wojciechowski at first attended the mission of which 
Rev. Felix Feldheim became pastor. Father Feldheim constructed combina- 
tion building and a rectory. The church was dedicated on June 8, 1913, by Rt. 
Rev. Bishop P. P. Rhode, D.D. Felician Sisters are in charge of the school. 

Rev. J. A. Grembowicz is pastor of St. John the Baptist parish, 158th street 
and Belden avenue, at Harvey, 111. It was organized in 1914, and Rev. D. Zenc 
was first pastor. The new church was dedicated May 9, 1915, and then Aux- 
iliary Bishop of Chicago, Rev. P. P. Rhode, officiated and preached the ser- 
mon on that occasion. With the death of Father Zenc, Rev. J. J. Strzycki was 
appointed pastor. Sisters of Nazareth are in charge of the school. 

The other out-of-town churches in Illinois are : St. Joseph's, Chicago 
Heights, Rev. Stanislaus Doberstein ; St. Thaddeus parish, Joliet, Illinois, 
Rev. J. Karabasz, pastor; St. Susanna's, 14935 Lincoln avenue, Harvey, 111., 
Rev. I. S. Renklewski, pastor; Holy Cross parish, Joliet, 111., of which Rev. 
Stanislaus J. Derengowski is pastor. 



I. Institutions Maintained by Poles of Chicago 

THE growth of the Poles of Chicago in number and influence has been 
characterized by a proportional growth in social problems and a con- 
sequent increase in the number of social institutions to take care of so- 
cial problems. The church, always a very prominent social factor, has been 
responsible for the founding and the maintenance of most of the existing wel- 
fare agencies. The Polish laity of Chicago has also figured vitally in social 
welfare work and is destined to become an even more prominent factor in this 
field than it has been heretofore. 

Institutions have been established to care for four general classifications 
of social problems : the sick, the aged, the orphaned, and the delinquent. The 
existing agencies are a tribute to the efforts of the Poles in the past and fur- 
nish a suitable criterion for future possibilities. 

Care of the Sick 

Medical, physical, and spiritual aid is being administered to the community 
by thousands of physicians, nurses, nuns, and chaplains — all native born 
Poles or of Polish extraction. To mention all of the medical and charitable 
institutions, large and small, conducted or supervised by Poles in the city of 
Chicago, or to relate all incidents of sacrifice on the part of individuals di- 
rectly or indirectly connected with them is literally impossible. A brief sur- 
vey will demonstrate, in part, the extent of the work covered. 

St. Mary's of Nazareth Hospital 

One of the outstanding medical institutions in the city of Chicago con- 
ducted by the Poles is St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital, founded and con- 
ducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. Originally it was a 
twenty-four bed hospital. In due course of time necessary additions were 
made. The hospital proper has been greatly increased in size. At the present 

Page 116 [837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 

time two hundred twelve patients can be cared for at one time. A nurses' 
home, a convent for the nuns, an extensive pathological laboratory, x-ray and 
pediatric departments, and a solarium have been added. Today St. Mary 
of Nazareth Hospital presents itself as an imposing medical structure inset 
in beautiful surroundings at the corner of Leavitt street and Haddon avenue. 
It is fully approved by the American College of Surgeons and approved for in- 
ternships by the American Medical Association. 

Although Poles predominate, thousands of patients of other nationalities 
and creeds are cared for annually in this institution. It has been self-sustain- 
ing since its conception. Donations from friends and aid from sympathetic 
auxiliary organizations have enabled the sisters to care for many worthy 
charity patients. 

The Guardian Angel Day Nursery Dispensary 

In 1914 a free medical dispensary was founded in conjunction with the 
Guardian Angel Day Nursery. It provides medical care for the poor who 
need such attention. With the exception of a very nominal charge for regis- 
tration and the necessary dressing and medicine no compensation is required 
for the medical attention received. If the patient is unable to pay for these 
necessities no charge is made. 

The dispensary is well equipped and ably conducted. There is a large wait- 
ing room, four consultation rooms, an x-ray room and a pharmacy. The staff 
is composed of three physicians, two pharmacists, and an optometrist. It is 
supervised by Dr. Stella Napieralski. 

Care of the Aged 

The St. Joseph Home for the Aged 

Since 1894 the Franciscan Sisters of Blessed Kunegunda have been con- 
ducting the St. Joseph Home for the Aged. The first home, a little cottage 
located on Chapin near Noble street, was founded by Mother Theresa, as- 
sisted by Mother Anna and Sister Angelina. Within a few months the orig- 
inal quarters proved too small and a larger home on Ingraham street, not 
far from the original site, became the haven for the aged. In 1897 land was 
purchased at Hamlin and Schubert avenues and a convent home erected 
the following year. The aged were housed in cottages adjoining the building. 
These new accommodations were made possible to a large extent through 
the aid given by Reverend Vincent Barzynski, C.R., one of the leaders in 
organizing and founding various parishes and institutions in the city. In 
1928 the old cottages were supplanted by a new modern building, erected 
at the corner of Hamlin and Ridgeway avenues, which at present houses 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 117 

about two hundred. Grouped about the Home on the two and a half acre plot 
are a chapel, the convent, and a novitiate for nuns. Both the St. Joseph Home 
for the Aged and the Mother Home of the Franciscan Sisters of Blessed Ku- 
negunda, are under the supervision of Mother Antonina, Mother General of 
the Community, who has devoted thirty-six years of her life to these institu- 

Of the two hundred inmates only about twenty percent provide for them- 
selves ; the rest are charity cases. Needs are met by donations from friends 
of the institution, funds raised by auxiliary and sympathetic organizations, 
and alms collected by the nuns. Some assistance has also been received from 
the Catholic Charities of Chicago. Medical aid has very often been given 
gratis by sacrificing physicians. The hardships of the nuns and of the aged 
inmates are too numerous to be recounted. The hand of merciful Providence 
has granted them succor a number of times in the past by a timely charitable 
donation to help them carry on their wonderful work. 


Care of Parentless Children 

The Poles have also provided for orphaned children, thrown upon the 
mercy of the world through the loss of one or both parents by death or other 
unfortunate circumstances. 

St. Vincent's Orphanage 

Since 1899 the Franciscan Sisters of Blessed Kunegunda have been con- 
ducting St. Vincent's Orphanage in conjungtion with their home for the 
aged at Hamlin and Schubert avenues. From its inception to the year 1911 
five hundred seventy-nine children found a home at this institituoin. The 
orphanage was a private institution supported by donations of friends and 
by alms collected by the nuns. 

St. Hedwig's Orphanage at Niles 

With the ever-increasing number of children the Vincentian orphanage 
proved inadequate. In order to insure proper physical and spiritual care 
of our clergy felt the need of a new and more spacious instiution for orphans 
of Polish ancestry. First effort in this direction were made by Bishop Paul 
Rhode, who summoned the pastors of the Polish parishes of Chicago. After 
a discussion the project was presented to Rt. Rev. J. Ouigley, then archbishop 
of the Chicago archdiocese, who approved the plan. It was carried out by a 
committee of representatives of various Polish parishes in the city. 

The supervision of the orphanage was entrusted to Rev. Francis Rusch, 
who was appointed by the bishop of Chicago. In 1911, a year after its found- 

Page 118 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

ing, sixty-three orphans were transferred from St. Vincent's Orphanage in 
Avondale to St. Hechvig's Orphanage in Xiles, Illinois. The institution has 
grown from one modst structure to ten modern buildings, including a gym- 
nasium, a chapel, an infirmary, a dining ha 1 l, dormitories, a laundry and en- 
gineering plant, a printery and a bindery. Its beautiful, ample grounds afford 
opportunity for healthy outdoor life in addition to indoor recreation. 

The desire of the authorities has been to provide a normal home life for 
the children. Educational opportunities and opportunities for specialization 
in trades, such as sewing, cooking, printing, cobbling and others, are pro- 
vided. From the age of two, when children are accepted by the institution, 
until such time when as young men and women they are able to provide 
for themselves, constant care is taken to prepare the children for their fu- 
ture by giving them the proper education, supervision, and training. At pres- 
ent approximately five hundred children are entrusted to the care of Rev. 
Francis Rusch, who, since its inception, has held the responsible position of 
supervisor of the orphanage. He is assisted by the Rev. Stanislaus Kwiek and 
Rev. Thaddeus Walega and fifty nuns of the Felician order. 

The financial burden of the institution is proportionately shared by the 
various Polish parishes of the Chicago Archdiocese. Various donors and or- 
ganizations have also aided in defraying expenses. Two separate corporations 
have been chartered in accordance with the state law, one to take care of 
the boys, known as the Polish Manual Training School for Boys ; the other 
of the girls, under the name of St. Hedwig's Industrial School for Girls. 

The Problem of Juvenile Delinquency 

The problem of juvenile delinquency, youthful transgressions of the ac- 
cepted norms of society, has ever engaged the attention of the Poles. To help 
Polish youth and to substitute good influence for the forces of evil, various 
organizations for young people have been formed throughout the Polish par- 
ishes of Chicago, co-operating with the C. V. O. movement, sponsored by 
Bishop Bernard Sheil. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, the Polish Alma Mater, the Polish Falcons of America and 
the Polish Women's Alliance, five outstanding Polish benevolent organiza- 
tions, are also carrying on an extensive youth program. Institutions which 
concern themselves with children and young people presenting special types 
of problems have also been established. 

The Guardian Angel Day Nursery and Home for Working Girls 

This institution located at 4600 South McDowell avenue was founded in 
1912 by Rev. Louis Grudzinski, pastor of St. John of God parish with the aid 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 119 

of Rev. Joseph Karabasz of the Sacred Heart parish and Rev. Stanislaus Cho- 
lewinski of St. Joseph parish. 

The nursery affords an opportunity for working mothers to have their chil- 
dren properly cared for and supervised during the day while they are at 
their place of employment. 

Many of the children have been left in the care of the nuns by parents who 
could not take care of them due to poverty. Many of these children have been 
left and completely forgotten by their parents. Babies and children of sick 
mothers have been cared for and furnished with food and clothing while the 
mother was bedridden. 

The Home for Working Girls shelters girls who are unemployed or home- 
less. Xewly-arrived Polish immigrant girls are gladly received and cared for. 
The purpose of this institution is to provide for the girls surroundings com- 
parable to a home. Classes in homemaking are conducted for the benefit of 
the girls by the nuns. The institution is able to take care of fifty girls. 

The combined institutions are under the management of Rev. Louis 
Grudzinski, their founder and most generous patron. He is aided in his 
work by the Franciscan Sisters of Blessed Kunegunda whose superior at the 
present time is Sister M. Perpetua. St. John of God, Sacred Heart and St. 
Joseph parishes contribute to their financial support. 

St. Elizabeth's Day Nursery 

This institution and the Guardian Angel Day Xursery are identical in 
nature and function. It was founded in 1904 at Blackhawk and Ashland 
avenue, through the efforts of Rev. Andrew Spetz, C.R. A. free medical 
dispensary was formerly conducted in connection with the nursery but was 
discontinued due to financial difficulties during the depression years. The 
work is carried on by Franciscan Sisters of Blessed Kunegunda under the 
management of Rev. Louis Grudzinski. 


The Polish Welfare Association of the Archdiocese of Chicago 

Well organized and equipped and with the greatest possibilities for com- 
bating juvenile delinquency is the Polish Welfare Association of the Arch- 
diocese of Chicago, founded in 1921 by members of the Chicago Society, a 
group of the Polish National Alliance. Although it is the youngest of the 
Polish welfare organizations, it is destined to be the most extensive and in- 
fluential in its work. 

The ever increasing instances of juvenile delinquency and the material im- 
poverishment of Po^s in Chicago presented a problem. It was evident that 
a determined effort was necessary to check and prevent juvenile delinquency 

Page 120 J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

and to better the social conditions generally among the Poles. Existing 
agencies were working under difficulties due to the handicap of language 
and lack of understanding of the nature, attitude, and nationalistic feeling and 
pride of the Poles. An agency which could successfully cope with these dif- 
ficulties was needed. The Polish Welfare Association was organized to meet 
the difficulties. A staff of trained workers was assembled and funds were 
raised. The organization worked in conjunction with social agencies con- 
cerned with juvenile delinquency and social problems in general and met 
with considerable success until the depression affected donations to such an 
extent that services had to be greatly curtailed. The outcome has been a 
sharp increase in social problems. Renewed efforts are being made to cope 
with the situation. 

An expansion program begun in August, 1936, is being put into operation at 
the present time. A program of systematic case work by trained workers, 
supplemented by volunteer work in the parishes, and observation in the 
various courts, particularly the juvenile, women's, domestic relations and 
boys' courts, is being evolved and put into effect. Continued efforts by the 
Poles directly concerned with the Association and generous support on the 
part of all the Poles in Chicago will insure an organization which will con- 
tribute immensely to the general social betterment of the Polish community. 

In spite of the number of social institutions founded by the Poles of Chi- 
cago, a grave need for additional social welfare organizations and an ex- 
pansion program for existing institutions still is apparent. The chief prob- 
lems of the day — juvenile delinquency and unemployment — will, it seems, 
continue indefinitely. It is along these two lines that the efforts of the pres- 
ent and future generations must be directed. 

Sources of information for the above article : Rev. Francis Rusch, chaplain, 
St. Hedwig's Orphanage, Niles, 111. ; Rev. Louis Grudzinski, pastor, St. John 
of God parish, director of Guardian Angel Day Nursery and St. Elizabeth 
Day Nursery ; Mother M. Antonina, Mother General of the Franciscan Sis- 
ters of Blessed Kunegunda; pamphlet commemorating the Golden Jubilee of 
the establishment of Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. 

II. Work of Chicago Poles in Other Social Welfare Organizations 

By Thaddeus Slesinski 

As far back as twenty-five years there has been a professional or scientific 
interest in the social problems of the Poles in Chicago by many who emanated 
from this nationality group. There was an awareness of the fact that the 
basic causes responsible for maladjustments and conflicts among the Polish 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 121 

immigrant group were not always understood by outside social agencies. Ef- 
forts were therefore made to meet these needs through educational and in- 
terpretative activities as well as through active participation as staff mem- 
bers of social agencies and through contributions to social service periodicals. 
As to the latter, an illustration in point is an article which appeared in "The 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science" for Janu- 
ary 1921, written by Thaddeus Slesinski which deals with the value of social 
workers speaking a foreign language : 

"They are familiar not only with the language but also with the traditions, 
customs and characteristics of their immigrant fathers. Most of them take an 
active part in the social and religious life of the foreign colonies, and at the 
same time participate in the activities of the larger community. They thus 
have points of contact which the American social workers can never hope 
to attain. 

"Because these young people are working through community agencies, 
they have an opportunity to view the problems of their own people from the 
standpoint of the community as a whole. They are specializing in the solution 
of problems arising from maladjustments, and thus they see ... . just what 
are the narrowing influences in our immigrant communities, that should be 
removed. Moreover, they feel that it is their duty to remain in these com- 
munities and by working from within them, to remove these influences. They 
appreciate that there is much that should be preserved and passed on as the 
heritage to future generations, that many activities must be continued along 
racial lines, and that the use of the foreign language is still necessary. But 
because they have gained a vision of the ultimate social goal they see the 
next steps that are to be taken to bring the foreign colonies into closer re- 
lationship with the larger communities of which they are a part." 

It was in the spring of 1913 that the Polish Social Workers' Club of Chi- 
cago was organized. Its purpose was to stimulate interest among the Poles 
in social problems and to improve the effectiveness of social workers in 
dealing with these problems. The first officers were: Miss Emily Xapieralska, 
president; Theodore Smergalski, vice president; John Skibinski, recording 
secretary; Thaddeus Slesinski, financial secretary; Mrs. Mary Kaletta, treas- 
urer and Rev. Andrew Spetz, C. R., advisor. 

The membership included a general secretary of a Polish fraternal organ- 
ization, a superintendent of a park district, a director of recreation centers, 
visiting and infant welfare nurses, case-workers in charitable and medical 
agencies, juvenile probation and school attendance officers, interpreters, 
school teachers and Roman Catholic clergy. 

Pa Ze 122 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

For several years meetings were heM once a month, each time at a dif- 
ferent educational or charitable institution. The head of the institution in 
which the meeting was held explained the work of the institution— a discus- 
sion usually followed which resulted in constructive suggestions for inter- 
preting the functions or program of the respective agency to the Polish 
American community which it aimed to serve. 

Repeated efforts were made to interest our young people in social service 
work. On one occasion an open meeting was held at St. Mary's Hospital, at 
which the superintendent of nurses, Sister Dolores, emphasized the oppor- 
tunities for constructive service in the nursing profession. The meeting 
proved effective judging from the number of young women who registered 
for the course in nursing. As a result of the interest aroused incident to the 
publcity given to meetings of the club a number of young men and women 
were stimulated to select social service work as a profession. 

The Polish Advisory Committee of the Northwest District of the United 
Charities was one of the best examples of a cooperative effort, initiated by 
members of the club. They felt that the United Charities should secure a bet- 
ter understanding of its work on the part of the Polish American community 
on the northwest side. The committee met semi-monthly to discuss treatment 
of the cases that were presented for its consideration. This committee helped 
other social agencies in the district in the organization of health and better 
housing exhibits and in the investigation of anti-social conditions. The pub- 
licity given in the Polish press helped to interpret the work of these organiza- 
tions to the Polish community. 

John Nering, who at that time was superintendent of the Chicago office 
of the Postal Telegraph Company, was chairman of the committee the first 
few years and was succeeded by Edmund K. Jarecki, now county judge. 
One of the most faithful workers of the committee was the Rev. Andrew 
Spetz, C.R., who served for many years as vice president of the juvenile 
Protective Association and also on the advisory committee to the judge of 
the juvenile court during its first few years. A full description of this and 
other cooperative efforts is given by the writer in two articles which appeared 
in "The Family" magazine for January and February, 1922. 

A number of the members of the Polish Social Workers' Cub made worth- 
while contributions in various executive positions in social work, through ad- 
dresses at meetings of civic and women's clubs, and through magazine arti- 
cles written on public welfare. 

Theodore Smergalski during his service as superintendent of recreation 
centers of the West Park System made an outstanding contribution to the 
Polish group as well as to the community at large by his intelligent and pro- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 123 

gressive administration as well as by his frequent addresses before groups 
and his writings for social service periodicals. Thaddeus Slesinski's contribu- 
tion is also noteworthy. As director of the Holstein Park Recreation Center 
he demonstrated the need for more attention to the health of children partici- 
pating in playground activities. The results of this experiment was given 
space in several articles in "Nation's Health" magazine for October, 1922 and 
May, 1924, also in the "Mind and Body" and m '"The Playground" magazines. 

Another member of the club, Dr. Florian Znaniecki, contributed to a bet- 
ter understanding of the problems facing social workers in the Polish com- 
munities of Chicago. Volume V of his monumental work (written in collabo- 
ration with Dr. William I. Thomas) "The Polish Peasant in Europe and 
America," based chiefly on conditions in Chicago, gives facts and makes rec- 
ommendations of permanent value to all interested in improving the condi- 
tions of our Polish American citizens. 

Several years ago the Polish Social Workers' Club was reorganized with 
Dr. Paul Fox, director of the Laird Community House, as president, and 
Miss Mary Midura, of the Polish Welfare Association, as secretary. The ob- 
jects of the club are: (1) To stimulate interest among the Poles in social 
problems; (2) to interpret the social needs of the Po 1 ish American com- 
munity to the community at large; (3) to emphasize the need of Polish so- 
cial workers in Polish communities; (4) to raise the standard of efficiency 
of Polish social workers. 

On the occasion of the Polish Week of Hospitality, during the Century of 
Progress International Exposition, the club called a conference on "Social 
and Economical Trends in Polish American Communities," held on Thurs- 
day, July 20, 1933. On the program was Dr. Clifford Shaw, head of the depart- 
ment of sociology, Illinois Institute of Juvenile Research, who gave an ad- 
dress on "The Neighborhood as a Unit in the Treatment of Juvenile Delin- 
quency." Dr. Paul Fox, director of Laird Community House, spoke on "The 
Attitudes of the Polish American Community towards Its Social Problems." 
M. J. Kostrzewski, M.D., discussed "The Challenge of the Times to the So- 
cial Worker." All three speakers discussed their particular subject with spe- 
cial reference to the Polish American community. An interesting discussion 
followed in which many of those present participated. 

As a result of the efforts of this group, young people have become inter- 
ested in preparing themselves for social work as a career, and the number 
of men and women of Polish extraction in this field has steadily increased. 
They are now found in every branch of public and private social service of 
Chicago. Because of their knowledge of the language, psychology and tradi- 
tions of their fathers, they have a very definite contribution to make not only 
to the agencies with which they are affiliated but to their own people and to 
the community at large as well. 

Page 124 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


III. Poles on the School Board 
By Thaddeus J. Lubera 

The citizens of Chicago of Polish ancestry have contributed immensely to 
the development of public education of Chicago. This contribution is in the 
form of service, share of taxation and cultural development. 

Preeminent in service without remuneration are nine outstanding citizens 
who have given their time, business and professional experience on the 
membership of the Chicago Board of Education. 

Max Drezmal 

Max Drezmal served as a member from July 6, 1894 to August 26, 1896. 
His training and experience were highly respected and his counsel widely 
sought. He rendered unusually effective service as a Chairman of Judi- 
ciary and Manual Training Committees; also as a member of Building and 
Grounds, Music, Compulsory Education, Drawing and Rules Committees. 

Upon his retirement, the Board of Education passed a Resolution, dated 
February 10, 1897, in which the following words of praise are found: "Mr. 
Drezmal's service and the fidelity with which he has discharged all duties 
imposed upon him during his term of service, merits the approval of the 
citizens of Chicago, as well as the esteem of his fellow members." .... "His 
industry and good judgment have always attended his efforts in behalf of 
Public schools." 


Walter Kuflewski 

Following Mr. Drezmal, Mr. Walter Kuflewski was appointed on July 9, 
1902 and continued in membership until May 22, 1907. On July 11, 1906, he 
was elected Vice-President and subsequently, member of School Manage- 
ment, Finance, also Building and Grounds Committee. 

Julius Smietanka 

Of distinguished legal training, wide civic attitude, experience and cultural 
background is Mr. Smietanka, whose exceedingly fine service from July 7, 
1909 to June, 1914, made him vice president, and subsequently president in 
1926, upon death of Colonel Ellicot in October. He was reappointed for a 
second term in 1923, terminating his service on April 18, 1927. 

Mr. Smietanka became in the course of twelve years Chairman of the Fi- 
nance Committee, as well as member of seven important committees. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 125 

In a resolution, adopted June 8, 1927, the following is stated: 

"In the capacity of Chairman of the Committee on Finance, as well as 
other Committees, Mr. Smietanka carried a trying burden of responsibility 
and devoted a large amount of time .... these demands upon his time have 
been met by him at considerable sacrifice to his professional and personal 
interests .... his particular attention to the absorbing duties of the Presi- 
dencv are evidence of his devotion to the welfare of the schools." 

Dr. Stephen R. Pietrowicz 

Dr. Pietrowicz was in service from June 24, 1914 to December 22, 1915. 
Unselfishly he devoted much time and energy as member of Finance, School 
Management, also Building and Grounds Committees. 

Upon his demise in 1936, the Board of Education honored him for his 
civic contribution to the public schools of Chicago, saying among many 
other things, in the resolution of January 29, 1936, the following: 

"Whereas, he served the cause of education and the interests of the chil- 
dren with completely unselfish devotion not only while he was officially a 
member of the Board, but at all times took a deep interest in its affairs. His 
life of unselfish service affords a splendid example to the public school chil- 
dren of today." 

Anthony Czarnecki 

Mr. Anthony Czarnecki became a Board member on June 18th, 1917, 
serving until October 25, 1918. These were war times, and Mr. Czarnecki 
distinguished himself nobly as a member of a Committee of Food Conserva- 
tion — an educational venture among school children in Chicago. Then, too, 
his membership on the Text Book Committee proved invaluable, also his 
wise counsel and initiative as member of Tax Collection and the Chicago- 
Cook County School of Boys Committee were exceedingly valuable. 

Dr. Victor R. Schiller 

A prominent physician and a civic leader, Dr. Schiller won a place on the 
Board of Education on May 13, 1925. His counsel on health matters and his 
business acumen were recognized by his appointment to the Chairmanship 
of the Health and Sanitation Committee and membership on the Rules and 
Finance Committees. 

His untimely death on August 30, 1926, was a serious blow to the civic 
and educational cause of Chicago. 

Page 126 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Dr. Boleslaus Klarkowski 

The citizens of Chicago of Polish ancestry have produced from their group 
several very outstanding men and women. Dr. Klarkowski's distinguished 
professional career, his business sense and interest in Chicago's welfare re- 
sulted in his appointment to membership of the Chicago Board of Educa- 
tion on May 26, 1919. 

His service as member of three very important committees, the School 
Administration, Health and Sanitation and the Building and Grounds, were 
of immense value. The health of school children in Chicago's public schools 
lias been on a high plane, and in no small measure, the service of Dr. Klar- 
kowski became apparent and felt in the health problems of our schools. His 
term ended on May 23, 1923, and eleven years later, Chicago lost one of its 
distinguished sons in the death of Dr. Klarkowski on August 22, 1934. 

In a resolution by the Board of Education, Dr. Klarkowski's services were 
highly praised in the following statement :".... his genuine interest in the 
welfare of children of Chicago, serves as an example to others." 

Boleslaus R. Kozlowski 

A business man of high caliber who became a member on November 24, 
1930, and who gave much time and valuable counsel. Mr. Kozlowski con- 
tributed greatly to the welfare of Chicago's schools. His term was short, 
but enviable in record. On May 13, 1931, he retired from the membership. 

Paul Drymalski 

If ever a school system needed sound business minds, it was during the 
recent depression, and Mr. Paul Drymalski's appointment, on May 11, 1933,1 
was most fortunate for the schools of Chicago. 

His many years of highly successful business experience, his calm, but ef- 
fective manner and sound judgment in matters of acute emergency became I 
quickly apparent. 

Without losing sight of the educational advantages and opportunities fori 
the children in Chicago Schools, Mr. Drymalski, as Chairman of the Finance 
Committee, devoted much time and energy in conjunction with budgets —■ 
always with an ideal to serve the schools within the revenues, hence, serve % 
the taxpayers, too. In this work, he distinguished himself nobly and was 
reappointed for a second term to the Chairmanship of the Finance Commit- 
tee. Other important Committee work claimed Mr. Drymalski's time; the 
General, Century of Progress, Leases and Budget Economies Committees,'] 
have benefited from his wise counsel in business and financial knowledge. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 127 

The citizens of Chicago lost an exceedingly valuable member of the 
Board of Education and the schools a real friend when he retired on Janu- 
ary 6, 1936, to assume duties as a member of Cook County Board of Appeals. 

Bernard Majewski 

The present incumbent, Mr. Bernard Majewski, was appointed member 
of the Board of Education on January 6, 1936. 

It is indeed most fortunate for the Americans of Polish ancestry in Chi- 
cago to have his caliber of man on the school board. 

This very efficient business executive has, in less than one year's service, 
contributed richly by his counsel, his fresh point of view in matters pertaining 
to the development of our schools ; his vision and constructive policies in 
harmony with the rest of the splendid group of members in the General, 
Budget and Lease Committees, make Mr. Majewski a most desirable person 
to represent the citizens of Chicago. Undoubtedly he shall leave, upon the 
expiration of his term, in April, 1940, a record of service from which the 
school system of Chicago shall benefit immeasurably and the Poles of Chi- 
cago will feel proud of his achievements. 

The Secretary of the Board of Education 

A man of considerable experience, ability and service is Mr. Frank Land- 
messer, who was elected Secretary of the Board of Education on October 
10th, 1934. 

The effective manner in which his office serves the public speaks highly 
of Mr. Landmesser's record. 

Material Contributions 

Materially, the large Polish population in Chicago, of over half a million, 
'possessing property valued according to 1928 statistics, of $339,955,000, aug- 
|mented by numerous stores and factories, valued at $29,000,000, have con- 
tributed immensely by their share of taxes to Chicago schools. 

Intellectual Contributions 

Intellectually, the contributions made by the Poles in Chicago to the pub- 
lic school system lie in professional and cultural spheres. 

The introduction of the Polish language and literature into Chicago public 
high schools presents an opportunity to all students to study a highly de- 
veloped civilization and language of an important nation and cultural con- 

Page 128 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 93 7 

tributions of citizens of Polish extraction in Chicago. This will lead to tole- 
rance, better social understanding, and, finally, to the increased qualities of 
better citizenship in service to our city, state and the nation. 

Professional Service 

In the professional service in the public schools of Chicago, there are one 
hundred sixty-two teachers of Polish descent. Among these, there are three 
principals, one assigned, Miss Angela Cylkowski, principal at the McCor- 
mick school; and two on the list, Mr. Thaddeus J. Lubera and Miss Hya- 
cinth Glomski. There are also : one assistant principal in the high school, 
Mr. T. J. Lubera, assistant at Wells high school; Miss Helen Klejnowska, 
assistant princpal at the Foster elementary school; Miss Jane Palczynski, 
high school art supervisor; Miss Hyacinth Glomski, chairman of the Fine 
Arts and Music Departments at Wright Junior College. The remainder are 
distributed in elementary and high schools. 

It is apparent, then, that the Polish contribution to public education in Chi- 
cago has been most impressive and exceedingly valuable. 

IV. Polish Secondary Schools 

Weber High School 

For the past forty-seven years, St. Stanislaus College, at present Weber 
High School, has been associated with the highest scholastic standards 
in the field of secondary school education. Many leaders in social, polit- 
ical, industrial and religious circles not only in Chicago but throughout the 
United States attribute at least in part the success in their chosen field to the 
education and general training they had received at this institution of higher 

In due course of time certain traditions and events of interest become as- 
sociated with important and historical institutions. Such traditions and events 
are highly interesting not only to those who are either directly or indirectly 
concerned with the institution but also to those who are and have been con- 
cerned with the problem of education universally. It is with this premise as 
a basis that the following rather sketchy chronological history of Weber 
High School has been prepared. 

The idea of founding this institution of higher learning first germinated in 
the mind of Rev. Vincent Barzynski, C.R., the peer of organizers and foun- 
ders of Polish parishes and institutions in Chicago, in the year 1874. Due to 
various difficulties, however, the idea did not become a reality until the vear 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 129 

A small wooden building, the first parochial school building of St. Stanis- 
laus parish, served also as the first school building for St. Stanislaus College. 
It was located at the corner of Noble and Bradley Streets. In the first year 
of its existence the school had an enrollment of twelve students. The first 
principal of the school was Rev. Joseph Halter, C.R., who acted in that 
capacity from 1891 to 1892. 

In the year 1892 Rev. Joseph Halter, C.R., was succeeded by the Rev. 
John Piechowski, C.R., as principal. 

In the year 1895 Rev. John Kruszynski, C.R., became principal of the 
school. It was during the time that he held this office that the school was 
transferred to new and much larger quarters at the corner of Division and 
Holt Streets (at present Greenview Ave.) In the same year i 1898) dormi- 
tories were opened for the convenience of out-of-town students. During the 
following year students' clubs, sports clubs, a library and an orchestra were 
organized and developed." In the year 1901 an alumni association was or- 

Rev. John Kruszynski, C.R., was succeeded as principal by Rev. J. Ko- 
sinski, C.R., who acted in that capacity from 1905 to 1909. \\ nen the latter 
left the institution in 19C9 to become the pastor of St. John Cantius parish, 
the office of principal was given to Rev. Ladislaus Zapala, C.R. It was dur- 
ing his time that the classical course was made a six-year course and was 
equivalent to a certain amount of university training necessary for a bache- 
lor's degree. Due to the expenses involved in having highly qualified instruc- 
tors and in providing the proper equipment for this advanced training it was 
decided some time later to drop the courses being taught on a college level 
and to conduct the institution as a secondary school. Day and evening 
classes in business courses were introduced in the year 1911. 

The year 1915 marked the silver jubilee of the founding of St. Stanislaus 
College. On February 10th of that year, the day of the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary, a solemn high mass was celebrated by Archbishop Joseph Weber, C.R., 
at St. Stanislaus Kostka church. The services were attended by two arch- 
bishops, two bishops, seventy-five priests, alumni students and hundreds 
of friends of the institution. In the evening of the same day a banquet at- 
tended by over six hundred people was held at the St. Stanislaus parish au- 
ditorium. It was attended by many notables, chief among whom was Carter 
H. Harrison, then mayor of the city of Chicago. 

Rev. Thaddeus Ligman, C.R., succeeded Rev. Ladislaus Zapala, C.R., as 
principal of St. Stanislaus College, 1920-1923. He was in turn followed by 
Rev. Leon Jasinski, C.R., who held the office of principal from 1923 until his 
death in February of the year of 1925. The sudden death of Rev. Jasinski, 
who was deeply mourned by all the students, resulted in the return of Rev. 

Page 130 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 937 

Ligman as principal. He served his second term in this capacity from 1925 
to 1931. It was during his tenure that the enrollment of students at one time 
reached almost five hundred. On March 15th, 1929, the first issue of the 
S. S. C. Record, a student publication, made its appearance. It was also in 
the year 1929 that a building was purchased at 1521-23 Haddon Avenue and 
transformed into a school building containing a very modern and thoroughly 
equipped gymnasium, modern chemical and physics laboratories and lecture 
rooms, and up-to-date cafeteria, and recreation halls for the students. The 
new building was named Francis Gordon Gymnasium, in honor of Rev. Fran- 
cis Gordon, C.R., a leader of the Resurrection Fathers in America for a great 
number of years. The old building located on Division street was named 
Weber Hall to commemorate the memory of Archbishop Joseph Weber, 
C.R., one of the outstanding members of the Congregation of the Resurrec- 
tion. The institution still was known as St. Stanislaus College. Gradually as 
time went on, however, it became known by its present name Weber High 

In March of the year 1931 Rev. Mitchell Starzynski became the principal 
of the institution. It was during his time that the Weber News, the official 
newspaper of the school, was instituted to replace the old S. S. C. Record, 
the old student publication which was discontinued due to financial difficul- 
ties. In spite of the financial adversities which not only the school but the 
world in, general had experienced the paper was again published in order to 
raise to the highest possible degree the educational standards, an objective 
which was at all times uppermost in the mind of Rev. Starzynski. 

In the year 1935 Rev. Anthony Mayer, C.R., was appointed principal and 
is acting in that capacity at the present time. In order to bring athletics 
within a striking distance of the educational standards attained by the school 
Rev. Mayer secured the services of Andrew Pilney, famous ail-American 
football star at Notre Dame to act as football coach and physical education 
instructor. It was also during the tenure of Rev. Mayer that the most ex- 
tensive and best planned program of intramural activities ever attempted at 
this institution or probably at any similar institution was successfully car- 
ried out. 

At the present time the institution numbers among its faculty thirteen 
members of whom nine are priests and four are laymen. The total student! 
enrollment is two hundred-fifty. The institution is a member of the North 
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. It is also recognized] 
by the University of Illinois and the state superintendent of public instruc- 

Sources of information: "Ksiega Jubileuszowa" (Jubilee Book) 1914-15;. 
school publications, annuals, newspapers, catalogues, etc. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 131 

Holy Trinity High School 

Holy Trinity High School was founded on the 8th of September, 1910, by 
the Rev. Casimir Sztuczko, C.S.C., pastor of Holy Trinity parish. 

As a high school that has continued always Polish and Catholic, it has as 
its aim the perpetuation of Polish culture, language and literature. 

In many ways it is similar to the public high schools of our city, except 
that it furnishes in its curriculum a sound religious background. It also 
parallels the history of all other Polish educational institutions, and is to 
them a sister school in policy and aim. 

The teachers and director of Trinity High are the teaching brothers of the 
Congregation of the Holy Cross, whose motherhouse is located at Notre 
Dame, Ind. The school is accredited by the University of Illinois, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of the State of Illinois, and the North Cen- 
tral Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

From September 1928, Trinity High is housed in a beautiful modern 
school building located at 1443 W. Division street. It contains a well-equip- 
ped laboratory, a beautiful large auditorium, a large library, a gymnasium, 
cafeteria, well-arranged and adequately lighted class rooms and a large recre- 
ation room. 

During its first years it was housed in a building purchased from W. Dy- 
niewicz at 1110 Noble street. In 1912 the o!d Kosciuszko public school build- 
ing was purchased at Division near Cleaver street. 

The beginnings of the school were very difficult, but under the direction 
of Brother Peter, C.S.C., the school prospered. From 1917 to 1920 Brother 
Maximus, C.S.C., directed the policies of the school and carried on along 
the sound foundations set by his predecessor. 

From 1920 to 1922 Brother Eligius, C.S.C., was principal, followed by 
Brother Theofil, C.S.C., who guided the school until 1928 when he was 
replaced by Brother Maximus, C.S.C. During this latter time the old school 
building became totally obsolete and the principal aided the Rev. Casimir 
Sztuczko, C.S.C, in planning for the new school building which was erected 
in 1928. 

The long list of graduates, men at present in all ranks of life, professional, 
and religious, testify to the sound training furnished during these long years 
by Holy Trinity High School. Among its graduates are clergymen, teachers, 
doctors, dentists, engineers, lawyers, chemists, druggists, musicians, ac- 
countants, and businessmen. These men will remember and cherish the 
memory of such teachers as: Brother Victor, Brother Bruno, Brother Xavier, 
Brother George, Brother Frederick, Brother Stanislaus, Brother Edward, 
Brother Arnold, Brother Maximus and Brother Theofil, and many others. 

Page 132 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Holy Family Academy 

The year 1885 marks the beginning of the existence of Holy Family 
Academy. The school is conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family 
of Nazareth, who shortly after their arnvel from Rome undertook the 
establishment of this institution. Located at 1444 West Division Street, in 
the thickly populated northwest section of Chicago, the Holy Family Acad- 
emy soon became the center of educational culture. 

Great indeed were the hardships suffered by the pioneer Sisters. Regard- 
less of the many difficulties and trials which beset any pioneering work, 
Mother Mary Lauretta Lubowidzka, then the Superior Provincial— the pres- 
ent Mother General of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth, through 
her untiring zeal, keen foresight, inspiring leadership, and persistent deter- 
mination, accomplished the seemingly impossible. 

On the site where the present Academy is located, the Sisters purchased a 
two-story brick building and the adjoining one-story frame structure. Even- 
ing classes were immediately organized for young women who were taught 
sewing, embroidery, and music. Classes in religion were conducted to pre- 
pare children for Holy Communion and Confirmation. The success of these 
various initial activities led to the opening of a day school and a boarding 
school for girls. 

With the introduction of a high-school department, a necessity for a larger 
building was felt. Despite the economic conditions which existed in the 
country during the year 1892, a new building was erected. With renewed 
energy and undaunted courage the work continued £o expand. The saintly 
Founders of the Community, Mother Mary Frances Siedliska, promoted the 
cause of education in every way possible. 

Year by year, the Holy Family Academy grew and continued to add to its 
curriculum until a well-rounded and balanced course of studies was devel- 

With the increased enrollment new difficulties arose, namely : the build- 
ing then occupied proved inadequate for the accommodation of the many ad- 
ditional students. To solve this problem the Sisters again decided to build so 
as to continue the work they so nobly began. Notwithstanding the huge ex- 
penditures involved, the erection of a new building was begun in 1925, and 
with the help of Divine Providence, the judicious counsel and kindly en- 
couragement of His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, as well as the 
generous support of friends and benefactors, the present institution was 
finally constructed. 

May 1st, 1927, was a day of triumph and glory for the Holy Family Aca- 
demy. Thousands of people manifested their endorsement of Catholic edu- 

• J 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page in 

cation by participating in the dedication of the new building. His Eminence 
George Cardinal Mundelein, assisted by a large number of clergy, blessed 
the new institution. 

This fireproof building, 187 by 125 feet, five stories high, accommodated 
about six hundred students, having available for study twenty-five class- 
rooms. Included among these are fully equipped laboratories making pos- 
sible a thorough scientific training in physics, chemistry, biology, and home 
economics ; a large and spacious study hall, recreation rooms, and a well 
equipped library containing invaluable scientific and literary w r orks, in Eng- 
lish, Polish and other languages. Independent of the study rooms is the 
large auditorium, under which is the white-tiled swimming pool, and ad- 
joining this, is the gymnasium. Above the auditorium is a beautiful chapel 
to which the pupils have constant access. Here in the presence of the 
Blessed Sacrament strength and faith, so necessary in the struggles of life, 
are sought. 

The course of study at the Holy Family Academy embraces all required 
subjects from the first through the eighth grade of elementary training, and 
the four years of high school in accordance with modern educational re- 
quirements, including also the teaching of religion and the Polish language. 
The Academy is accredited by the University of Illinois, by the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of Springfield, Illinois, and by the North Cen- 
tral Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. It is likewise affiliated 
with De Paul University. 


Good Counsel High School 

Ten years ago, in 1927, under the direction of the Felician Sisters the 
portals of Good Counsel High were opened for the first time to all 
young ladies desiring a thorough Catholic education. The purpose of 
this school is twofold: To train ideal Catholic women whose lives will be 
guided by Catholic principles and to impart a broad general culture. 

Good Counsel High is a boarding and day school. The buildings are set 
on a picturesque thirty-two acre campus. It is new, large, well ventilated 
and contains everything conducive to health, improvement, refinement and 
education of its students. 

The classrooms, study halls, recreation and dining hall, are all arranged 
with a view to comfort and convenience with a corresponding equipment 
for the cultivation of heart, intellect and the taste. 

The library and reading room is well equipped with material for general 
reading as well as with reference works, and students have access to them 
at any hour. Chemistry and biology laboratories, home economics and sew- 
ing classes are accommodated with all modern apparatus and appliances. 
The gymnasium also affords every means of physical education. 

Page 134 1837 — PO LES OF C HICAGO— 1937 • 

The scholastic standing is held amongst the highest. Good Counsel has 
been affiliated with the Catholic University of America. The school has full 
recognition of the department of public instruction, State of Illinois. Since 
January, 1930, it has been accredited to the University of Illinois, and in 
March, 1931, received membership in the North Central Association of Col- 
legs and Secondary Schools. In one decade of its existence in Chicago, Good 
Counsel has produced 263 graduates. Most of these have continued their 
education in institutions of higher learning. The school thus numbers 
amongst its alumnae pharmacists, prospective physicians, lay and religious 
teachers, nurses, secretaries, clerks, housewives, musicians, artists, dress- 
makers and other vocations and professions. 

The achievement of Good Counsel is really a development that has come 
through the zealous labors of the Felician Sisters and the loyal cooperation 
of all students, past and present. 

The school has an enrollment of approximately two hundred students 
with a trained teaching faculty of twelve Felician Sisters. 

The institution aims at giving a practical training and education on the 
most economic terms. It also promotes various student activities, to give 
the public every opportunity of taking responsibility and of exercising initia- 
tive and leadership. Its graduates attend practically every Catholic College 
in the city. 

V. Polish Language Supplementary Schools 
By A. M. Skibinska 

Although very tolerant to all foreign-born people, Americans are perpe- 
tually astonished of the Poles' desire to preserve the Polish language 
and culture among their offspring in America. Some even accuse them 
of clannishness, of hindering assimilation, of building their own communi- 
ties, centering their activities, and so on. 

It is a pleasure to correct these misapprehensions and to explain to 
our American friends and neighbors that the Polish language and culture 
hold endless fascination; not only are they interesting to the Polish immi- 
rant who naturally would wish to preserve Old World custom as much as 
possible, but to American-born generations as well. There is no element of 
compulsion in these schools; the children are proud to learn of their par- 
ents' country with its 600-year old culture, and fascinating history of 
knights, warriors and heroes who fought bravely for the independence of 
their country and then lived at peace with their neighbors when peace was 


(i) ^J ,v \ 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 13 > 

assured. The knowledge of this splendid heritage forms an excellent back- 
ground for civic pride and endeavor, making the American generations of 
Poles better citizens in their new homeland. 

In nearly every community where Polish people dwell those schools are 
conducted. The well-trained instructors often vary the two hours of study 
with folk songs and stories for the children who willingly forfeit a part of 
their week-end vacations to learn their mother tongue. 

The Polish National Alliance, a fraternal organization with an active, for- 
ward-looking youth movement, organized such schools twenty-nine years 
ago. Madame Mary Sakowska, a prominent woman leader and welfare 
worker, was the sponsor of this movement. In the year 1908 six schools were 
organized at such community centers as Kosciuszko Park, Davis Square, 
Eckhardt Park, Sherman, Mark White and Russell Community Centers. 
Pioneer teachers in this new field were Janina Dunin and Jadwiga Kras- 
sowska-Stopowa. Yearly attendance at these schools reached the total of 
one thousand pupils. In 1926 under the auspices of the Polish People's Uni- 
versity Center, and sponsored by a civil leader, Dr. Wladyslaw Koniuszew- 
ski, another school was founded. This was followed by various other centers 
with a unified program, and by the organizations of the teachers which cul- 
minated in the planning of the ''Polish School Day" in 1932 with sixteen 
schools participating in the program with an attendance of three thousand. 

The yearly school exhibits of peasant art draw visitors from all parts of 
the city and many an anspiring young artist has been awarded a scholarship 
to Poland to study the folklore of his forefathers. 

In any summary of the work of the Polish schools it is evident that the 
knowledge of the Polish language among the American-born youth has 
created a better contact with their parents who immigrated from oppressed 
Poland and settled here permanently, building churches, schools, newspapers, 
and community centers, but who never ceased to long for their newly freed 
homeland, the Republic of Poland. Knowing that they will not return to 
their native land, what is more natural than their desire to pass on to their 
children this proud and splendid heritage of culture and to make them re- 
alize that in making it a part of American culture they are adding to the 
latter rather than subtracting from its prominence? The immigrant genera- 
tion is happy to see their youth absorb Polish along with American culture 
and take pride in the homeland -of their forefathers, thus assured of their be- 
coming better and more contented citizens of America. 



PARADES, demonstrations and other celebrations of the occasion of na- 
tional or local events are characteristic of the American people. It is 
said that the American, usually conservative in his daily habits, will, 
on occasions meriting his special attention, dress like an admiral to lead his 
lodge in a parade. Whatever other merit there may result, there is no doubt 
that, this outward manifestation of civic loyalty and pride has a healthy ef- 
fect on the citizens' spirit of patriotism. 

The Poles in America adopted this "modus vivendi" as soon as there were 
enough of them settled in any community. In Chicago, the first great 
Polish demonstration was held in July, 1883 on the occasion of the second 
centennial of the relief of Vienna from the Turks by Sobieski. There were 
thousands in the parade and as the Polish banners passed by "the onlookers 
wept at the sight." 

Exactly ten years later, the Polish Day at the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition drew over a hundred thousand people to the vicinity of the Fine Arts 
Building where a concert of Polish music was given. This vast assemblage 
still stands as a record unequaled, though on the occasion of unveiling the 
Kosciuszko monument in Humboldt park in 1909 almost as many partici- 
pated in the ceremonies. 

There were, meanwhile and later, the annual Third of May parades and 
manifestations, participated in by thousands of Poles from various organiza- 
tions. During the World war public demonstrations were held on numerous 
occasions, and they did much toward unifying Polish thought and action in 
patriotic support of the American government and its Allies. 

After the war, Polish manifestations took on a civic turn. With the excep- 
tion of those on the visits of Gen. Joseph Haller and Bishop Cieplak, and the 
annual celebrations commemorating Polish victories, the Poles concentrated 
on so-called "Polish Day Festivals." They were annual demonstrations of 
civic consciousness, exhibiting in the most tangible way the Poles' acceptance 
of responsibility in matters of education and charity. As a means of raising 
funds, these festivals were the most effective yet attempted by any group of 
Poles' in Chicago. Starting in 1925 the Polish Day Festivals have donated 
more than $60,000.00 for educational purposes and to various charities. It 

Page J 38 




has provided scholarships for both boys and girls in such institutions of 
higher learning as the Polish National Alliance College, Cambridge Springs, 
Pa., Weber High School, Holy Trinity High School, Holy Family Academy, 
Felician Sisters' High School, Resurrection Sisters' High School. It has con- 
tributed to the library fund of the Polish Women's Alliance, and the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union. It has aided the Polish Singers' Alliance and the 
Falcons' Alliance. In its modest way it has advanced the cause of education, 
of culture, among the Polish people of Chicago. It has given practical knowl- 
edge to many boys and girls who otherwise would have been deprived of 
these privileges. 




Page 139 

Anxious about the social welfare of the Polish people, the directors of the 
Polish Day Festival donated to St. Hedwig's Orphanage and Industrial School, 
Polish Welfare Association, St. Joseph's Home for the Aged, Veterans of the 

Polish A r m y 
Guardian Angel 
Home for Girls, 
Copernicus Day 
N u r s e r y, St. 
Elizabeth Day 
Nursery, St. 
Adalbert's Day 
Nursery, Resur- 
rectionist Sis- 
ters Day Nurs- 
e r y, Chicago 
Society Auxil- 
iary Christmas 
Basket F u n d, 
and various 
othe r welfare 

The Polish 
Day Festival 
was initiated by 
the Chicago So- 
ciety during the 
presidency o f 
Leon Nyka, in 
1925. The first 
chairman, and 
the man who 
at once elevat- 
ed the Polish 
Day to the high 
standard it has 
maintained for 
many years, 
was Paul Dry- 
malski. He was 
c h a i r man to 

1927 when it ceased being an exclusive function of the Chicago Society and the 
Polish Day Association was formed, comprising all the large Polish organiza- 
tions with the idea of making it a community affair in all sense of the word. 


Paze 140 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Usually, the Polish Day Festival was held in Riverview Park, but on oc- 
casion other affairs were sponsored. On November 7th, 1932, a Polish Car- 
nival was held in the Civic Opera House in conjunction with the Carnival of 


Nations, sponsored by the Chicago Daily News. The affair had such great 
appeal that actually thousands of people were turned away because of lack 
of room. 

j 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 141 

In 1933, the Poles were invited to participate in A Century of Progress In- 
ternational Exposition. Under the chairmanship of Leon C. Nyka, the Polish 
Day Association responded with its Polish Week of Hospitality which for 
lavish entertainment, variety and originality had no equal. All week long 

there were receptions at the Congress Hotel and in most of the parishes. The 
climax was reached on July 22, when a pageant, "A Nation Glorified" was 
held on Saturday, July 22. Beginning with a gigantic parade of over thirty 
thousand people and forty-five floats down Michigan Boulevard, the Pageant 

Page 142 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

entered its second phase in Soldier Field. There were five thousand partici- 
pants and over 45,000 people witnessed the great spectacle depicting the.his-, 
tory of Poland. 

The , nation was in one of its greatest depressions at that time, yet during! 
the duration of the Chicago World's Fair the city prospered. Following that, 
the inevitable reaction was felt and the Poles like other people were forced 
to limit their activities. Except for the reception given the winners of the 


Gordon Bennett Baloon Race, Capt. F. Hynek and Lieut. Z. Burzynski, no 
demonstrations were held until, 1937. 

The hundredth anniversary of Chicago's Charter was an occasion for the 
Poles to demonstrate again , their interest in civic matters. A special com- 
mittee was appointed by Mayor Edward J. Kelly which included, Paul Dry- 
malski, chairman, Martin Gorski, vice chairman, Frank S. Bare, secretary, 
Joseph T. Spiker, treasurer and the following members of the executive com- 
mittee : Karol Piatkiewicz, Rev. M. Starzynski, C.R., Msgr. T. P. Bona, Leon 
C. Nyka, Marion G. Kudlick, Lawrence T. Zygmunt, Victor L. Schlaeger, 

1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 143 

Mrs. A. Milaszewicz, Walter Imbiorski, Myron Stenczynski, Judge Stephen 
Adamowski, J. J. Nikliborc, Leon Glenicki, John Konopa. 

On the night of Sunday, August 8th, a Polish Pageant was held, depicting 
a hundred years' of Polish contribution to the growth of Chicago. It was pre- 
ceded, bv a parade of five thousand people from uniformed groups, including, 
"Harcerze," Boy Scouts, "Wianki," Falcons, American army and Polish 
veterans, and numerous drum and bugle corps and bands. Thaddeus Czar- 
necki was the grand marshal and some fifty-two thousand people assembled 
in Soldier Field agreed that it was one of the most inspiring sights in the 
history of Chicago. 

The second part of the program was the Polish Pageant under the direction 
of Casimir Majewski and Ladislaus Krassowski. It was a lavish dramatiza- 
tion of the history of the Poles in Chicago, ending with the present Youth 
Movement in which the work and interests of the youthful element among 
the Poles in Chicago were demonstrated. Over five hundred people took 
part in the Pageant, representing almost all of the organization in Chicago 
and most of the Catholic parishes. 

The committee of the spectacle included Leon C. Nyka, chairman, Miss 
Jane Palczynska, vice chairman, Thaddeus Lubera, Miss Hyacinth Glomski, 
Mrs. J. Skibinska. To the latter belongs in a large measure the credit for 
planning the "script" of the Pageant. 

In conjunction with the Polish participation in Chicago's Charter Jubilee, 
this volume, "Poles of Chicago, 1837-1937" was planned. Leon Glenicki as 
chairman planned and carried out what can easily be claimed the first history 
of Chicago's Poles, listing much material based on original research and pre- 
pared in a scientific manner. 

Marking this first century of the Chicago's progress and the Polish con- 
tributions to that growth, the older generation can easily rest on its laurels 
with the assurance that it did what should have been done and left nothing 
undone. Its labors should be an inspiration to the younger Americans of Po- 
lish ancestry; its accomplishments should be an incentive. There is no 
doubt that continuity will be given to the series of civic demonstrations orig- 
inating with the Poles in the future. Much ground has been broken and the 
foundation has been laid for successful affairs. All that is necessay is health- 
ful cooperation which always spells success. 




By Casimir J. B. Wronski 

"V" . "T^ITH sport now being developed in every parish, by every Polish or- 
yy ganization it may be interesting to reminisce upon the early days 
of sport in the Polish settlements of Chicago. Of course, it will be 
impossible to mention the many baseball teams, sporting and athletic clubs, 
organized by Americans of Polish extraction in the various sections of the city. 
The St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, besides being the first Polish church in 
Chicago, has also the distinction of opening up the first gymnasium, the 
White Eagle Turners hall, for the benefit of its youth. There the youth con- 
gregated to develop muscle and to form the various athletic aggregations 
that made a great name in sport at the turn of the century. 

The Famous White Eagles 

Out of this athletic center the White Eagle Turners Football Team of the 
St. Stanislaus Kostka Church was organized in 1900. August J. Kowalski, be- 
sides being quarter back, was captain of the team. The other members were : 
John Szabelski, right end ; Max Orlowski, right tackle ; Albert Menkicki, 
right guard ; John Owczarzak, center ; John Ostrowski, left guard ; Joseph 
Muszynski, left tackle; Walter Muszynski, left end; Bernard Dombrowski, 
left half back; Peter Dombrowski, right half back; Frank Jendrzejek, full 
back ; Joseph Xiemiec, full back ; Walter Orlikoski, center ; Anthony Ko- 
walski, end. 

The White Eagles played Sunday football and they were undefeated in the 
years of 1900, 1901, 1902 and 1903. They defeated such strong aggregations 
as the Great Rubies, Maypoles, W r est Ends, Mohawks, Deerings, Second 
Regiment Armory Thistles, and were victorious in a practice game with 
the University of Chicago. 

One of the interesting features was that none of the boys, with the excep- 
tion of Kowalski and Jendrzejek ("Ginger"), had ever had any experience in 
football at high school or college. The signals were given in Polish which 
baffled the opposing players. 

Page 146 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

In 1904, the undersigned organized and managed the "Royals," a club com- 
posed of youth from Noble and Sloan streets. This baseball team was fol- 
lowed by the "Kosciuszko Colts" in 1906 and in 1908 the "Royal Colts" with 
Anthony Niemczewski. This team was unbeatable, going through the season 
without a loss and showing remarkable pitching strength. All season long 
Pitchers Frank Kenny and John Soder never yielded more than six hits per 
game. Their teammates were: Barney Brzozowski, Joe Porra, "Swede" Belt, 
"Kiddo" Orlik, Hank Nastali, Frank Swartz, Jimmie Ryan and Barney Fil- 
kowski. The Royal Colts defeated the American Giants, crack colored base- 
ball club, by a score of 4 to 0. 

The Polish Daily News did much to promote sport, with Joseph Andrew 
Lasecki as its first sports editor. He was instrumental in naming the dia- 
mond at Blackhawk street and Elston avenue "Polonia Park." Other excel- 
lent baseball aggregations followed such as the Elstons, Romeos, Oxfords 
Dicksons, Perfects, in the latter of which southpaw Johnnie Zwiefka starred 
in many a game. Paul Zwiefka, George Jendrzejek, Frank Kafora, were 
other baseball stars, some of whom became professionals. 

The White Eagle gymnasium developed an excellent basket ball team. 

Doctor Eddie Dombrowski, "Farmer" Froehlich, Andy Kucharski, "Mur- 
phy" Nowicki, Walter Smorowski were members of the team, whose ex- 
cellent play made the White Eagle Basket Ball Club champions of Chicago 
two decades ago. 

C. J. B. Wronski sponsored a bowling team in 1906, affiliated with the 
North-West Bowling League of which he was elected officer. The first Po- 
lish owned bowling alleys were opened in the former Schoenhofen Building, 
at Ashland and Milwaukee avenues, in company with Barney Filkowski. 

Filkowski was the first Polish bowler in America to bowl a 300 game. 
This feat he accomplished in the fall of 1908 in a match game against Jess 
Stasch of St. Paul, Minn. Two years later C. J. B. Wronski bowled a 300 
game on the old Schoenhofen drives. Due to good promotional work the 
establishment prospered and it was necessary to expand. The two old drives 
were torn out and four modern alleys were built at a cost of $3,500.00. The 
new place prospered in partnership with Felix P. Kroll and W T alter Wejne- 
rowski. They built the Universal Bowling Alleys at Milwaukee and North 
avenue, a place of seven modern alleys and twelve up-to-date billiard tables. 
So voluminous was the promotion and organization of leagues that it was 
necessary to build five more alleys and add eight more tables. The Universal 
Bowling Alleys and Billiard Hall became the largest and most modern recre- 
ation center in America. Billiard champions, "Cowboy" Weston, Frank Ta- 
berski and Frank "Fat" Kafora played on the Universal tables. Marian Czaj- 
kowski, known on the American stage as "The Great Lester," a champion 
trick pocket billiard player, also played here as well as the Pazdrych brothers, 
that famous vaudeville team of Parrish and Peru. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 Page 147 

In 1912 the Polish Alma Mater Bowling League, organized by Jos. Ziem- 
ba, Jos. Lasecki, Steve Kolanowski, John Smorowski, Sylvie Klosowski and 
Henry Siwecki, began rolling at the Universal. It was the first Polish frat- 
ernal bowling league in Chicago. The next year, an eight club "Polish Bowl- 
ing League" composed of teams from the largest parishes in Chicago, began 
its existence. The Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Polish Women's Alliance followed with their circuits at the Universal. The 
Knights of Columbus and many industrial establishments also followed the 
crowds with organized leagues of their own. 

It was in Wronski's place that the first newspaper-conducted bowling 
tournament was held in Chicago. The Evening Post was the sponsoring pa- 
per. About this time, George M. Rozczynialski, later alderman, was taken 
into partnership. Being the first Polish American citizen to win a national 
bowling championship, Rozczynialski easily added much prestige to the 
place in aiding promotion of leagues and furthering bowling among Poles. 

Many city, state and national bowling records were shattered on the Uni- 
versal drives. Alderman Jos. P. Rostenkowski's "Littau Ryes" bowled a three 
game average of 1103. This record stood for twenty years. "Wildfire" Billy 
Fuhl bowled a perfect score of 300, while Tony Liczmanski rolled a 263 three 
game league average. Walter "Crackers" Smorowski and Frank Kafora were 
setting the pace in the Universal Six Corner Bowling League, holding 200 
averages, being the first bowlers to reach that coveted mark. 

Many stars came from that famous recreation center. Among these was 
Frank "Fat" Kafora, called the "Prince of Bowlers," who won three city 
championships in one tournament, the team, the doubles and the all-events. 
Altogether Kafora won twenty-one championships, one of the best records 
in bowling history. Felix Gajewski, the diminutive bowler, won the First 
Chicago-American individual championship. He beat the best bowlers of the 
country in this classic. Frank Belt, Andrew Fojut, Peter Bezdon, Billy Fuhl, 
Frank Jerzyk, Walter Smorowski, Leo Gniot, Jos. Ziemba and the Jasinski 
brothers are also "grads" of the Romeo Recreation Rooms. 

At the Romeon Recreation Rooms, established by C. J. B. Wronski in 
1925, were staged the largest and best bowling shows in history of this sport. 
When the Herald and Examiner conducted its meet, there were twelve 
thousand one hundred bowlers participating, a record to this time. The 
North-West Manufacturing District held four tournaments on these drives. 
The 27th Annual Illinois Bowling Association tournament was conducted 
here. The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad held its classic there. 

Many baseball, bowling, volley ball, rowing, skating, hockey and fishing 
clubs were sponsored and managed from that amusement center. From 1925 
to 1932 the "Cedarshore Parks," a softball team, at Twin Lakes, Wis., won 
the Southern Wisconsin championship five consecutive times. Bud, Danny 

Page 148 1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 937 • 

and James Coffey, Walter Wieckowski, Leonard Spida, T. K. and C. P. 
Wronski, together with the battery of "Fat" Wronski and "Happy" Rut- 
kowski, formed the team. The feature game was a hotly contested affair 
played on the Aquilla Resort grounds, against "Frank A. Brandt's Under- 
takers." The Undertakers were buried by the Cedarshores, by a score of 2 
to 1. 

Volleyball, a winter pastime, brought additional laurels. Frank A. Brandt 
Al. Menkicki, Barney Brzozowski, Andrew Kucharski, John B. Brandt, Syl- 
vie Klosowski and C. J. B. Wronski formed the Old Timers Club at the Di- 
vision Street YMCA. The club won fourteen and lost only one game during 
the season of 1930-31. 

The Twin Lakes skating and hockey club developed some fine skaters. 
Swimming, too, developed some stars such as : Armella Ciemniecka, speed 
record holder at Twin Lakes, Wis. ; Danny Coffey, fancy diving champion ; 
Madeline Rossi, fourth place winner in the Chicago River marathon ; Thad- 
deus K. and Casimir P. Wronski, winners of first and second place in the 
American Red Cross life saving contest held at Forth Sheridan, 111. by the 
Citizens' Military Training Camp, which consisted of twelve hundred mem- 
bers. Excellent oarsemen were developed, such as : Frank Centella, Walter 
Kolasinski, Anthony Ciemniecki and Leo H. Rammel. 

These reminiscences do not pretend to be exhaustive by any means, for 
they deal mostly with sport as it developed in the near north-west section 
of the city. There were athletic clubs in every part of Chicago, to be sure. 
Their early efforts did much in promoting sport among the younger genera- 
tion. They set a mark for the younger elements to shoot at and their pioneer- 
ing contributed to the present development of sport throughout this me- 




THE Polish National Alliance owes its rise to the immigrant's longing for 
his native land, to his desire to preserve the Polish spirit and to or- 
ganize with a view to aiding Poland, at that time partitioned off among 
Russia, Prussia and Austria. \^ 

The men planning this organization of the scattered forces of Polish new- 
comers to this country, were mostly heroes of the Insurrection of 1863, ardent 
patriots, inspired by the imperishable dream of a free and independent Po- 
land. It was they who having finished their labors upon the constitution and 
by-laws of the proposed alliance, uttered these intensely patriotic words : 
''If we are to live, let us live for Poland, and if we are to suffer and die, let 
us do so for Poland ! Let us shake hands like brothers." These fraternal hand- 
clasps have been the symbol and slogan of the Polish National Alliance of 


Spiritual Founders of the Alliance 

But efforts to unify the Polish immigration date not only from the time 
of the Uprising of 1863, but from the November Insurrection of 1831 as well. 
For with the collapse of the latter revolt, Henry Kalusowski appealed to his 
compatriots in America: "An upright Pole shall never accept the greatest 
liberty in exchange for his Fatherland. We must surmount the obstacles, 
steadily resist any violence, scoff at superior force, bid defiance to the enemy." 

Kalusowski exhorted his compatriots to be self-reliant: "Alien friendship 
can only aid us ; unity shall make us independent and therefore suffices foi 4 
everything. Let us not reject friendship, let us value it, but let us rely only 
upon ourselves." 

Ap-aton Giller, one of the members of the National Government, seeking 
with the collapse of the January uprising new forces upon which to base a 
new fight for Polish independence, wrote to those planning the alliance in 
the United States as follows: "Loyal to the flag of our Fatherland, upon 
which are inscribed the slogans of freedom, independence and integrity of 
Poland, loyal to the traditions and faith of your fathers, with brotherly 
feeling in our heart, ready to support progress in science and civilization, — 

Page ISO 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 » 

strive through your Alliance members to maintain the spirit of love of Fath- 
erland, with which if the Pole is deeply imbued, he then is a shining exam- 
ple of courage, virtue, intellect and sacrifice and becomes a model of indus- 
trious, sensible and moral life." 

In response to this appeal of the spiritual founder of the alliance idea, 
under the leadership of Julius Andrzejkowicz, a meeting was called on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1880, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, whence an eloquent appeal 
was issued to the Poles of America to unite into one great organization : 
"We have here a point of support," it said in part, "we have here freedom of 
assembly, press and speech, we have the numbers, but we lack strength. 
Scattered, isolated, we are nothing, unable to help ourselves or our native 
land. But gathered and organized into a powerful Alliance, we shall not 
only uplift ourselves morally and materially, but create an important power 
which may be used for the good of our land of origin." 

Only six societies responded to this appeal, four from Chicago, one from 
San Francisco, and one from Shenandoah, Pa., and on September 20, 1880, 
the first organization meeting of the proposed Polish National Alliance was 
held, at which it was formally called into being. This little group was not 
discouraged by the small numbers represented, but set about increasing its 
membership and described the aims of the Alliance as follows : "To lay foun- 
dation for an institution that would work for the material and moral amelio- 
ration of the Polish element in the United States, by means of a reserve fund. 
To such institutions belong Polish homes, schools and all welfare organiza- 
tions . . . Protection of the Polish immigration . . . Adaptation of the immi- 
grant to American citizenship . . . Commemoration of Polish historic events." 

A death benefit department was introduced in order to insure quicker 
growth of the organization ; the sum of $500.00 to be paid upon the death of 
the member and $300.00 in the event of his wife's death. 

Actual Founders and the First Convention 

The founders of the Polish National Alliance were Julius Andrzejkowicz, 
John B. Blachowski, Julian Lipinski, John Popielinski, Julian Szajnert. Julius 
Andrzejkowicz, of Philadelphia, was the first censor elected July 17, 1880, 
at the meeting of delegates of the Polish societies in Chicago. His first mes- 
sage, dated Philadelphia, August 10, 1880, proclaimed the formation of the 
Polish National Alliance and that the date of the first convention of the duly 
incorporated organization would be announced by mail. At its founding on 
August 10, 1880, the Polish National Alliance had one hundred-nine members. 

The first convention was held September 15 to 18, 1880, in the parish hall 
St. Venceslaus (Polish-Slovek church), at the corner of De Koven and Des- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 937 

Page lSl 



■ :■..■■■■■■ 

plaines streets, near Jefferson and Clinton streets, in Chicago, Illinois. Julius 
Andrzejkowicz was chairman of the convention and Joseph Glowczynski its 
secretary. Maximilian Kucera was the first president of the Alliance and Ed- 

Page 152 

837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


Wice Censor 

Medical Examiner 


ward Odrowaz secretary. At first, annual and then biennial conventions were 
held, now they are held every four years. 

The second convention was held in 1881 in New York City, with nine so- 
cieties or groups and capital of $255.79. A sum of $659.00 was pledged by the 
delegates to establish their own organ. Thus the weekly "Zgoda" was estab- 
lished, which is still being published for the good of the organization. Also, 
certain steps were taken in agreement with the United States immigration 
office for a better protection of the waves of immigrants coming here at the 
time. The question of Polish independence was recognized by the central 
board when it issued an appeal to create a so-called national treasury. 

Bringing the Polish Question Before the World's Forum in 1910 

One of its greatest deeds was the calling of the "Polish Congress" to Wash- 
ington in 1910, on the occasion of unveiling the monuments of two Polish 
heroes in the national capital, Thaddeus Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski, the 
first of which was sponsored by the Polish National Alliance, the latter by 
the United States government. The congress aimed to discuss "the present 
situation of the Polish nation in Poland as well as abroad in every re- 
spect." . . . 

Officials of the United States government, headed by President William 
Taft, participated in the unveiling of these two monuments, while three army 
divisions marched by, followed by Polish uniformed societies and delegates 
of all Polish organizations in the United States, headed by the Polish National 
Alliance. This was an imposing spectacle which drew the attention of the 
world, and it is not to be wondered at that it was followed by protests from 
such foreign powers as Germany, Russia and Austria, which had participated 
in the dismemberment of Poland ; the government, however, paid no heed to 
these, and on May 14, 1910, four years before the World war the Polish con- 
gress adopted the following resolution : "Poles have a right to a separate in- 
dependent existence, and Ave consider it our sacred duty to strive to attain 
the political independence of our native land — Poland." 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 153 

The Alliance College 

Two years later occurred another great achievement of the Polish National 
Alliance, the founding of the P. N. A. High School and Technical Institute 
at Cambridge Springs, Pa., on October 26, 1912, with President William 
Howard Taft officiating at the opening. During the World war, the Students 
Army Training Corps were using the school grounds, while the technical high 
school turned over to the government trained technicians and workers. The 
then secretary of war, Newton D. Baker, wrote a warm letter of acknowledg- 
ment for the services rendered by the P. N. A. higher institution of learning. 

The outbreak of the World war found the organization prepared. Pro- 
vidence gave them a great leader, a man of great genius and heart, Ignace Jan 
Paderewski, whose leadership the Polish National Alliance was first to recog- 
nize and whom it aided in his efforts to realize Poland's independence. The 
other Polish organizations followed suit, and with President Woodrow Wil- 
son's thirteenth point calling for a free and independent Poland, the Poles 
hastened to enroll in the United States army 150,000 strong in order to fight 
in the cause of democracy. 

The Assets of the Organization 

Since its inception in 1880 to January 1, 1937, the Polish National Alliance 
has paid out death benefits amounting to $30,904,526.66. 

The Polish National Alliance College and Technical Institute at Cambridge 
Springs, Pa., is valued at $692,791.20. 

The total assets of the Alliance reach the imposing figure of $30,791,770.42. 
As to growth of membership, in 1880 the Alliance comprised nine groups or 
lodges, with one hundred eighty-nine members and $500.00 in the treasury in 
1881 ; as of January 1, 1937, it had nineteen hundred eleven groups with a total 
membership of 283,021, assets of $29,541,598.00, death claims paid in 1936 
amounting to $1,773,759.43, and welfare contributions of $284,966.00 for the 
same year — which is the highest figure of benefit paid for fraternals in 
the United States. The juvenile department, along with the ' narcerstwo" 
(similar to scout organizations), num- 
bered 66,279 children. 

The Alliance publications, that is, the 
official organ "Zgoda," mailed to two 
hundred thousand adult members every 
week, and the semi-official "Dziennik 
Zwiazkowy" ("Polish Daily Zgoda"), the 
greatest Polish daily in America, repre- 
sent as of January 1, 1937, a book value K PIATK i EW i C z 

Manager, Zgoda of $99,978,81. Editor - Z S oda 

PageJJ_4 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

For various national, patriotic, charitable, educational and other purposes, 
the Polish National Alliance has contributed as follows: 

For Kosciuszko monuments in Washington, D. C, and in Chicago, and 
celebrations in connection therewith, $85,303.84. 

For various commissions and departments, such as Polish Military, Polish 
Falcons, youth's department, women's section, and the like — the Alliance has 
expended $299,829.06. 

For educational purposes, such as the School Board and the Alliance Col- 
lege, Educational Department (scholarships, Polish supplementary schools), 
P. N. A. library in Chicago and the Kosciuszko Foundation, it has expended 

For distinctly Polish national purposes, such as the National Fund and 
Naturalization, Scout movement, the war-stricken of Poland, promoting sport, 
the Silesian plebiscite, the Ten-Million Dollar Fund, the May Contribution, 
National Treasury at Rappersville, the Polish army and the like, the Alliance 
has given out $1,621,785.41. 

The total expended by the Alliance for educational, charitable and patriotic 
purposes, as of January 1, 1937, amounts to $5,608,487.75. 

The above data represent the material and moral progress of the Polish 
National Alliance. It has been a most potent factor for good, working at all 
times for the political, social and economic amelioration of the people of 
Polish blood and extraction. During its fifty-seven years of existence, the Po- 
lish National Alliance has attained an envious record, a record of which 
Americans of Polish ancestry may well be proud. It has advanced the cause 
of Americanism with its unquestioned loyalty and patriotism, its love of 
democracy. America will never forget the effective aid rendered by the Polish 
National Alliance during the trying days of the World War. 


Reminiscences by Mary 0. Kryszak 

On May 22nd, 1898, several progressive Polish women on the north-west 
side of Chicago met in the residence of Mrs. Stefanra Chmielinska, to form a 
women's society for the promotion of patriotism and welfare among their 
own and to help the oppressed in their land of origin. They were the devoted 
immigrant element of those days, ready for extensive sacrifices toward the 
resurrection and freedom of their beloved Poland. 

They adopted the name of Zwiazek Polek (Polish Women's Alliance) for 
the society. Mrs. Stefania Chmielinska became the first president and later 
at frequent intervals held the same office. Their platform became so popular 
that soon two other societies were formed for the convenience of those who 

1 8 37 _ POLES OF CHICAGO— '937 

Pag e 155 









wished to join, and then it became necessary to create a central body with 
individual groups as units for mutual understanding. The name of the society 
was also adopted by the organization which since then has been known as 
the Polish Women's Alliance of America" (Zwiazek Polek w Ameryce). This 
laid the foundation for the largest Polish women's fraternal insurance body 
not only in the United States but in the world. 

Pa ge 156 1837 — POLES OF CH'CAGO — 1937 

As years went on, discussions were not always of the yes and no kind, 
but there was one mutual inner understanding — to restore Poland and with 
that aim in mind, all controversies were overcome and the organization con- 
tinued to develop until its membership figured 103,500 upon the books in the 
adult department and about 20,000 in the juvenile department. Of course, 
figures have changed from time to time due to economic conditions, but the 
inculcated spirit remained, of which we have proofs in the present young 
generations and everything points that it will continue to grow in the future 
with better educational facilities and travel contacts with the eld world. 

From the very beginning the organization had its own columns under the 
caption of Glos Polek (Polish Women's Voice) in the Dziennik Xarodowy, 
now out of existence, and in 1900 published its own monthly bulletin for a 
period of time, edited by Mr. Frank Wolowski. later probation officer in 
Cook county. Later, Glos Polek was edited by Mrs. Maria Setmajer and 
printed at W. Smulski's printing shop. In the spring of 1910, the first Polish 
Congress in America was held in Washington, D. C, in which several mem- 
bers of the board participated. 

At the 1910 convention held in the fall in Milwaukee delegates voted to 
publish their own weekly organ, a home magazine for fraternal purposes, 
and a woman editor was elected, Airs. Stefania Laudyn-Chrzanowska. At 
that convention one hundred-three groups were represented with a member- 
ship of 7,861. The delegates voted for a uniform table of rates and a com- 
mittee was appointed to work out such a scheme. The convention voted for a 
new spacious administration home and state vice presidents were confirmed. 
It was the eighth convention of the organization and the second one outside 
of Chicago. The first outside convention was held in 1908 in Cleveland, Ohio. 

All our conventions were numerously attended which showed deep interest 
especially of the married type, in fraternal, humanitarian, social and patriotic 
activities. They saw the need for it and wanted to do public service outside 
of their family life. It was a big undertaking to conduct a financial organiza- 
tion in the first decade of the 20th century, but the sturdy pioneers succeeded ; 
among them besides the organizers were Lucya Wolowska, Antonina Mar- 
quart (Fabianska), Leokadia Kadow and others. In 1902 the state charter 
was provided by the department of state and since then the membership grew 
continuously. Those who joined the organiztaion were at once willing to be 
taxed for national purpose and their regular contributions were for the Rap- 
persville Fund, with headquarters in Switzerland. That continued for several 
years until larger sums were required for the World War preparations, which 
indicated a change of Europe's map and the possibility of restoring Poland 
to its independence as a free republic. 

For many years a quota was contributed by each member ; besides, larger 
sums were gathered which grew into millions of dollars. Family expenses 
were curtailed to raise funds for the Polish National Committee in France, 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Pa ge 157 

with the illustrious author of Quo Vadis, Henryk Sienkiewicz, as president, 
and other zealous men and women among whom were Ignace Jan Paderewski 
and Madame Helena Paderewski, Mr. and Mrs. John F. Smulski, Mrs. Anna 
Neumann, president of the Polish Women's Alliance of America, and others. 

Extensive preparations were always made for our conventions. They were 
considered great occasions, opened always by solemn church devotion. The 
1931 convention held in Washington, D. C, at the suggestion of ^I'^ss A. 
Emily Napieralska, former president of the Polish Women's Alliance and 
honored with a reception for President and Mrs. Hoover, will be long re- 
membered. The Hoovers were vacationing, but left their summer camp to 
greet the five hundred delegates in the White House. For many it was a rare 
treat. The Polish ambassador, Dr. T. Filipowicz and Madame Filipowicz, 
entertained our delegates with a buffet luncheon in Polish style with most 
delicious snacks. That quadrennial convention, the sixteenth in order, placed 
our organization on equal footing with the leading insurance fratemals. 
Proper laws were adopted, new administration system installed and new cer- 
tificates issued with visible reserves, on which eligible members could draw 
loans. Other classes of insurance were adopted also for juveniles. 

"Youthful Membership" is our motto and much is being done to realize 
that aim. The younger women (called Pearls) in our groups are given every 
opportunity to hold office in the respective groups of the organization but 
deeper interest in that direction is yet to be seen. Last vacation, a summer 
course was conducted in our building by special tutors of girl scouts from Po- 
land who visited this country. The course was well attended and carried on 
in their respective territories during the year. Of course, some were handi- 
capped by the use of their native language which is not within their reach in 
all cities anymore, but they took a great liking to it and made most of the 
opportunity. Polish literature, history, culture, folk dances and folk songs, 
recreational activities, were subjects of the course. This year a similar course 
is being held but limited to local students only. It is for the purpose of cre- 
ating the national spirit, of acquainting the young people with culture and 
traditions and of promoting the welfare of the Alliance that these courses 
are conducted. 

With the aid of its educational fund, the organization has helped many 
girls and boys thru loans bearing no interest and thru direct scholarships in 
their academic and professional studies. Many appreciate the chance and re- 
turn the sums with gratitude. For the adult members the educational divi- 
sion prepares frequent readings on current events and literary subjects, copies 
of which are distributed to each Komisja (Council) for the benefit of their 
groups. There is also a large library of about seven thousand volumes of 
books by the best authors, which is free to members. A select travel library 
is in readiness for outside circulation at the request of its members, who pay 
only the cost of transportation. 

Page 158 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

The Juvenile Department, nearing its twentieth year, accepts girls from 
date of birth to sixteen years of age, upon proper recommendation. The girls 
are assigned into numbered Wianki (Garlands). These Wianki are subsid- 
iaries to the adult groups, under whose care they remain, supervised by a 
protektorka (Protectoress) for social and recreational functions. The older 
girls often furnish entertaining numbers on our programs for various occa- 
sions. They also march in different patriotic parades and in their beautiful 
red-white costumes make a verv fine showing. 

Much credit is due to the organization for its participation in erecting the 
Kosciuszko monument in Humboldt park. Almost one-half of the required 
funds were supplied thru the efforts of our members on the committee and 

The remodeling of the former home office building provided a beautiful 
large auditorium, the most elegant social gathering place in that area. In 
celebrating the dedication of the rebuilt home office, the first Polish Women's 
Congress took place there in 1933, when there were delegates and guests from 
all parts of the United States and from Poland. A gorgeous display of wom- 
en's handicraft and culinary art was viewed by thousands, which best evi- 
denced the skill and ability of our women. Polish women are thrifty and their 
greatest desire is to own their own home. They love to see their children in 
the forefront and will spare no means towards that end. 

When once convinced, they are staunch adherents of fraternal insurance 
as a good investment, and we find many being members of several organ- 
izations. Many will seek employment during the day so as to increase the 
family income. More than one million dollars has been paid by the organiza- 
tion in beneficiaries. 

The capital of the organization is close to $5,000,000 invested in real estate 
mortgages and bonds, approved by the state department. 

But we must not overlook our World War record. The administration of 
that period had grave responsibilities to perform. Our members were active 
in recruiting volunteers both to the American and foreign Allied armies. They 
knitted and sewed profusely for the American Red Cross, for the White 
Cross of Mme. Helena Paderewska, and other women's organizations, with 
supplies from the Polish National Department in Chicago. They also ar- 
ranged bazaars and worked in the Allies' bazaar. Everywhere one could see 
and feel the services of our diligent patriotic women, among whom were 
thousands of Service Star Mothers. Two thousand dollars were contributed 
for the first field ambulance on the Polish war frontier. 

Two tours to Poland have been conducted under the direction of the organ- 
ization: one in 1928 and another one is taking place this year. 

There are many one hundred percent members in the organization, which 
means that every female member of a family is a Zwiazek Polek member. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 159 

Among the members we find a good number of four generations in the ranks. 
We also find quite a number with an enrollment of twenty to twenty-five 
and more of their kin as members of the Polish Women's Alliance. 

Besides fraternal and civic work some districts are working on big proj- 
ects. The Chicago territory of six districts is presently engaged in establish- 
ing a home for the aged. The Xew Jersey district is quite advanced in plan- 
ning an old folks' home. The Wilkes Barre, Pa., or mining district, is ar- 
ranging for a private summer colony for children ; the Buffalo district sup- 
ports financially the Felician Sisters' academy for girls. Other districts are 
also active in local community, welfare and parish work. 

Xext year (T938) the Polish Women's Alliance of America will celebrate 
its fortieth anniversary. Our next quadrennial ( 1939) convention, will be held 
in Niagara Falls, X. Y. 

The present administration officers are: Mmes. Honorata B. Wolowska, 
president; Helena Sambor, vice president; Joanna Andrzejewska, general sec- 
retary; Victoria M. Latwis, treasurer; Salomea Jachimowska, Rose Petlak, 
Mary Lopacinska, Gertrude Potocka, Antonina Gawarecka, directors. 

Dr. Felicia H. Cienciara, chief medical examiner ; Barbara A. Fisher, coun- 
sellor ; Mary O. Kryszak, editor. 

State chairmen : Mmes. Angelina Milaszewicz, Region I — Illinois and Mis- 
souri; Mary Porwit, Region II— Pennsylvania ; B. Breclaw, Region III — In- 
diana; Rose Biedron, Region IV— New York and Erie, Pa.; Jadwiga Gibasie- 
wicz, Region V — Michigan ; Barbara Kluczynska, Region VI — Wisconsin ; 
Helena Jarzynska, Region VII — Ohio and West Virginia; Tekla Starzyk, 
Region VIII — Massachusetts; Frances Owsiak, Region IX — Connecticut; 
Mary C. Daneska, Region X — Xew Jersey, Xew York, Philadelphia, Mary- 
land and District of Columbia ; Anna Tutro, Region XI — Xebraska and Cali- 


The national order of Polish Falcons (Sokols) was established in Poland 
almost one hundred years ago, and is now rounding out fifty years of 
meritorious service in this country. The aims of its founders were: the 
fostering of brotherhood, discipline, subservience of private interests for the 
good of all, and equality of rights and obligations within the nation; to 
bring up coming generations, healthy in body, sound in mind, beautiful in 
character, lofty in ideals, and conscious of their duties as citizens of a free 
commonwealth. As an embodiment of these virtues the Falcon order selected 
for its patrons two characters : General Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the great hu- 
manitarian, brilliant soldier, and national hero of Poland, and Abraham Lin- 
coln, that great American statesman, martyr, and no less great humanitarian. 

Page 160 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

The Falcon Order develops strength, health and hardiness among its mem- 
bers by gymnastics, physical exercises, and supervised sports; it stresses 
national discipline, equality, and cooperation by calisthenics, mass drills, 
and competitive events ; it fosters the appreciation of nature by the study of 
nature, trees, birds, and flowers; it impresses the lasting qualities of char- 
acter and accomplishment by the study of the great minds of the world ; it 
instills patriotism by the study of the language and tradition of the land of 
its forefathers, the land of Boleslaw the Great, Copernicus, King John So- 
bieski, Kosciuszko and Pulaski, Chopin and Paderewski, Sklodowska-Curie 
and Joseph Conrad (Korzeniowski), Ignace Moscicki and the late Marshal 
Pilsudski, the immortal soldier and statesman of modern Poland ; it molds 
a most desirable type of American of upright character, loyal to his country, 
proud of his Polish ancestry. 

Cognizant of the inevitability of the last World War the Fa 1 con Order in 
America broadened its program to include military training during the period 
1911 to 1917 by establishing three military schools for officers, non-commis- 
sioned officers and first-class soldiers. When our beloved President and ben- 
efactor of Poland, Woodrow Wilson, issued a call for vokmteers in 1917, 
over seven thousand well trained Falcons responded. In the fall of that same 
year, when the national president of the Falcon Order in America issued a 
call for volunteers to fight for freedom of Poland, and was followed in a 
similar cry to arms by that illustrious son of Poland and citizen of the 
world, Ignace Paderewski, over five thousand Falcons, not subject to Amer- 
ican draft, joined a Polish military force which during the rest of the war 
covered itself with valor and glory. The Polish Army fighting beside the 
American army, and side by side with the rest of the Allies aligned against 
the Central Powers, gave Poland undeniable right to participate in the Ver- 
sailles Peace Conference from which emerged the modern Poland of today. 

After the rumble of the guns had ceased and peace settled over the trou- 
bled world, the Polish Falcons of America took up anew its great task of 
mouMing the younger generation into the highest type of manhood and Amer- 
ican citizenship, the aim of its founders, by conducting, day in and day out, 
physical culture, general education, gymnastics, and national and classic 
dance classes by Falcon aeries (clubs) spread in states mostly east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

The Falcons Order in America, which was originally organized in Chicago 
about fifty years ago, is divided into fourteen districts ; each district holding 
annually or biennially field meets and gymnastic festivals in which all nest 
classes of that particular district participate. The national field meets and 
festivals are held every three or four years in different parts of the country. 
Besides this, quite often individuals or classes most accomplished in this 
field of work, are sent abroad, especially to Poland, to take active part in the 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 161 

international Sokols' meets and lectures which are organized and conducted 
by highh' trained instructors abroad. 

Dr. T. Starzynski is supreme president, Mrs. M. Karpanty, vice president. 
Nests or aeries in the State of Illinois are within the boundary of District 2, 
whose officers are : President : Mr. J. Paluch ; Vice President : Mrs. A. Rut- 
kowski ; Secretary-Treasurer: Mr. A. Lamperski ; Instructor: Mr. A. Bu- 
dzynski ; Instructress: Miss G. Siwinski ; Assistant Instructor: F. Krzy- 


The main office of the Polish Falcons is in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Cir- 
cuit No. 2 in Chicago comprises fifteen hundred members. Organized in 
1888, the Sokol movement is patriotic, stressing physical improvement of 
youth and wholesome leisure activities. 

The officers of the Chicago group are : Frank Paluch, president ; Angeline 
Rutkowski, vice president; John Lamperski, drillmaster; Budzinski, Ger- 
trude Siwinski, instructors. 


The Polish Alma Mater of America was organized September 10, 1897, by 
the late Very. Rev. Francis Gordon, C.R., when a woeful lack of proper 
guidance and protection for the youth under eighteen years of age was evi- 
dent. The Polish Alma Mater was incorporated May 4, 1910. 

A fraternal life insurance society, welcoming to its ranks American citizens 
of Polish descent or extraction and professing the Roman Catholic faith, not 
only for the purpose of writing life insurance but also to associate themselves 
together under the guidance of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of Poland, 
for the following purposes : to transmit to America the cultural advantages 
of ancient Poland ; to keep the mother tongue of our mother country alive 
for the more rapid transmission of the good from the old to the new ; to 
indoctrinate the Poles in the United States with the spirit of America ; to 
teach thrift and self-support through fraternalism ; to foster the tenets of the 
Roman Catholic Church ; to encourage civic pride and patriotism, so as to 
build a better United States of America. 

The Polish Alma Mater issues American Experience certificates to adults 
in the following classes : ordinary whole life ; twenty payment life ; twenty 
year endowment. 

The society also operates a juvenile department with the following classes 
of insurance: term to age 18; ordinary whole life; twenty payment life; 
twenty year endowment. 

Page 162 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

The Polish Alma Mater increased in numbers in spite of many difficulties. 
At the end of the year 1936 the solvency was 109.12 due to the economical 
management of the governing board. 

The officers of the organization are as follows: Albert F. Soska, president; 
Rev. Bernard Szudzinski, chaplain; Rev. Thomas Drengacz, vice chaplain; 
Joseph E. Szpekowski, vice president; Constance C. Grabowiecka, vice presi- 
dent; John C. Kozlowski, secretary general; Walter J. Imbiorski, treasurer; 
directors : Joseph T. Lewandowski, Frank Poklacki, Wenceslaus Zielinski, 
Rose Barys, Helen Ratajczak, Helen Redlin, Andrew Murzyn, Joseph Wa 1 e- 
rowicz, Stanislawa Remblewska ; Andrew F. Kucharski, legal counsellor; 
Dr. S. Czajkowski, chief medical examiner. 



By Stanislaus Kuzniewicz 

The art of printing is, without question, one of the greatest factors of 
progress and civilization. The average man must realize that is is not only 
a means of, but culture itself. Without it there would be no popularized cul- 
ture in the thousands of its phases. 

Contemporary political, social and religious life developed and became 
further transformed only due to the exchange of human thought by means 
of the printed word. The entire technical progress and contemporary 
science are developed by means of printing. Wherever we look, whichever 
phase of life we take into consideration, the printed word appears a natural 
and necessary agent. 

Looking back more than forty years, when the young Polish immigration 
in Chicago had its hard days to live through, when the living conditions of 
Polish workers could hardly be envied — it is but proper to express deep 
appreciation to the Polish pioneer printers, first, to Jan Migdalski, who came 
to Chicago in 1889 and obtained a position of director of "Wiara i Ojczyzna' 1 
weekly, which was the predecessor of "Dziennik Chicagoski." Later he es- 
tablished his own print shop. In 1892, he issued an appeal to all brother 
printers in Chicago to form a trade society. The present association is his 
work, being in existence for over forty years. Jan Migdalski was an idealist 
and loved his fellow printers with all his heart. He succumbed to the "print- 
ers' illness" in 1897 upon his return from South Carolina. 

Next in line, who shared in the progress and welfare of the organization 
since its inception are: those deceased — Jan Olbinski (for many years secre- 
tary-treasurer of P. N. A. publication department), St. Zawilinski (later sec- 
retary general of that organization), A. Chonarzewski, A. Kolodziejski, Jan 
Grzeca, Piotr Liske, Jan Habrylewicz, Edward Reichel, Roman Neumann, S. 
Zloczewski and Jozef Kaleta ; and those still living and working at the 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Pag^J63 

trade: Jan Chonarzewski, W. Panek, A. Eichstaedt, E. Blachowski, F. Cien- 
ciara (pensioned), Peter Kotowski, Ed. L. Kolakowski, and A. Janecki, the 
present chairman of the association. 

The idea of forming the "Polish Printers' Union of Chicago" originated 
among the workers of the daily "Telegraf," (1892), and shortly after workers 
of "Dziennik Chicagoski," "Zgoda" and "Gazeta Katolicka" banded together 
in a trade society. The aim of the group was self improvement in the print- 
ing trade, arranging of lectures in all branches of science and printing tech- 
nique, the betterment of living conditions of its members and maintaining of 
sick benefit department. 

Later the society was disrupted due to difference of political opinion of its 
members. However, it did not cease its activities totally and finally became 
active again, after the reorganization on March 16, 1894. At a reorganization 
meeting the name of the society was changed to "Polish Printers Associa- 
tion" and its president was S. Zloczewski ; vice president, Julius Szczepanski 
(for many years foreman of Dziennik Chicagoski, now deceased) ; Jan Tar- 
kowski, secretary, and Jan Chonarzewski, treasurer. On the 5th of June, 1894, 
the association was incorporated according to the statutes of the State of 
Illinois. In May, 1895, due to the association's efforts a like body was formed 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in that period the Polish printers issued their 
own union label, which was entirely different from the current label of the 
international union. On the 19th of November, 1895, the association amalga- 
mated with the International Typographical Union and was given a new 
name, The Chicago Polish Typographical Union No. 358. In 1896 there were 
five Polish print shops under the jurisdiction of the union : "Dziennik Chi- 
cagoski," "Dziennik Polski," "Sztandar," "Gazeta Katolicka" and "Zgoda." 

The association participates in all Polish social activities. It contributed to 
the Asnyk school in Poland, to the erection of Kosciuszko monument in Chi- 
cago, the Polish Fund in Rappersville, Polish government bonds, Red Cross. 

On the 11th of June, 1897, the association separated from the international 
union and formed an independent Polish trade local and this situation ex- 
isted until the 27th of August, 1902, when it joined the international union 
again and was given the number of local 546. Jan Chonarzewski, who was 
ardent supporter of the I. T. U., was the man to whom credit is due for this 
accomplishment. Under his supervision the association published, for the 
first time, a trade paper, "Drukarz" ("The Printer"), containing twenty-four 
pages. Antoni Kolodziejski was elected first Polish delegate to the interna- 
tional convention at Hot Springs, Ark. (1911). The Polish colony of that 
city met our delegate with great ostentation. 

On November 20th, 1909, the second edition of "Drukarz" appeared 
under the direction of Ed. L. Kolakowski. It had thirty-two pages. It was 
given away with the compliments of the union to all who gathered at a 
musicale, given upon that occasion. 

Page 164 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 7937 • 

On the 14th of February, 1915, the association joined the Chicago local 
I. T. U. No. 16 and is still an integral part of that powerful trade union 
However, the association did not lose its social character and retained its 
sick benefit department. 

In November, 1921, a third edition of "Drukarz" was published, containing 
fifty-two pages. A fourth editition appeared in January, 1922, which con- 
tained elaborate technical and general articles. 

Today — all Polish union printers are members of the association. Michael 
Kaczkowski (Kenneth) was one of five delegates to the seventy-eighth in- 
ternational convention, held in Chicago in 1934. 

The association has nearly one hundred member, employed by the Polish 
daily papers, "Dziennik Chicagoski," "Dziennik Zwiazkowy" and "Dziennik 
Zjednoczenia," and by "Polonia" weekly of South Chicago, "American Cata- 
logue Printing Co.," "Alliance Printing Co.," and a few other of non-Polish 
character. Polish printers are well paid and enjoy everything that goes with 
good labor conditions. Shops are equipped with ultra-modern machinery, 
are well ventilated, and their working hours are shorter than in any other 
trade. There is amiable cooperation with the owners and managers of the 
shops. Besides being well paid, members working in the dailies get one 
week's paid vacation every year. Strictly union conditions prevail in all 

The fifth edition of "Drukarz" was published in 1934 on the fortieth anni- 
versary of the association, containing sixty-four pages, full of articles and 
reminiscences by the older and younger members, fine verses by W. Si- 
kora, an article pertaining to the printers' Home in Colorado Springs, by 
St. Kuzniewicz, and contributions of sympathetic persons, eulogizing the 
achievements of our association. The book was carefully composed and 
printed in the "Dziennik Zwiazkowy" print shop under the direction of 
Jan Chonarzewski, then foreman of the shop. High class enameled paper 
and "exquisite bindery work by Bojkowski Bindery make the book one of the 
finest thus far issued by the Poles in this country. 

Source of information for the above article: Editions of "Drukarz," and 
particularly the aforementioned book, suggested by the article of Jozef 
Trzcinski, who was chairman of the book committee. 


(Syndykat Dziennikarzy Polskich) 

The Polish Journalists Association was organized for mutual aid of its 
members. Mr. Frank S. Bare is president, Mrs. M. Dunin vice president, Dr. 
J. K. Orlowski, vice president, Charles Burke secretary, and Frank Scholl 


J 937 

Pa(ie J 65" 

(Formerly Polish Military Alliance) 

The Polish Military Alliance was organized on September 4, 1905, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, having for its purpose the transformation of all societies of a 
^^^^^^^^^ military nature, and especially those affiliated with our 

Polish parishes, and the creation from them of one 
organization of a pure 1 }' military character, in which 
the military spirit would prevail, and the training in 
military tactics and the perseverance of the Polish 
spirit for a mass movement to regain the indepen- 
dence of Poland. 

In March, 1909, the Alliance merged with another 
corps from Chicago, which corps had been in exist- 
ence since 1894. In the same year, the first conven- 
tion of the Polish Military Alliance was held, in St. 
Louis, Mo., and thanks to the energetic work of the 
membership extension committee, the membership 
roll of the Alliance — even before the outbreak of the 
World war — increased to four thousand members. 

The Alliance was one of the first organizations advocating the creation 
of a Polish Army unit to be attached to the regular U. S. Army. This being 
too slow a process, this Alliance takes pride that it originated the idea of 


Organizer of the 

Po'ish Military Alliance. 

m - % % % 0*" *> ' m> k ] A 

p a? e 166 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

establishing an exclusive Polish recruiting office in Chicago, which was pro- 
nounced a wonderful thing by the U. S. Army recruiting officials, and fully, 
sixty percent of the men enrolled at this office joined the colors in the reg- 
ular service, the Alliance having twelve hundred seventeen stars on its ser- 
vice flag. 

The Polish Military Alliance Battalion, tendered for State service in the 
Illinois Volunteer Training Corps, consisted of five hundred men, and due 
to a lack of legislative appropriations, subjected itself to great hardships to 
raise funds to equip its members. A fund was raised, and inspired by the 
stream of subscriptions to it, a second battalion was nearing completion 
when the war came to an end. 

To further prove its value, the members of the Alliance purchased $65,000 
Liberty Bonds, $59,000 Polish Bonds, $14,853.25 was subscribed to the Po- 
lish Defense Commission, hundreds of dollars worth of tobacco was shipped 
to the boys in the trenches, the first recruiting office in Chicago opened for 
the Polish army in France, ete. 

The above paragraphs record the history of the Alliance to the time of 
the World war, and evidence the enormous contributions made to Poland's 
successful fight to regain its long lost independence. Of this record the Po- 
lish Military Alliance feels supremely proud. Even if it did no other thing, 
and it has since accomplished many worthwhile deeds, its existence is just- 


By William W. Link 

The interest in public affairs of the early Americans of Polish descent in 
Chicago was mainly limited to the casting of votes for the most desirable 
candidates for office at the general elections. During that period they were 
chiefly interested in providing homes for their families, and, therefore, there 
was no evidence of any political unity of thought or group action among 
them until shortly prior to 1912. 

In the next decade we encounter their political activity gradually gaining 
momentum, and later increasing in velocity, so that by the time the Polish 
American Democratic Organization, Inc., of Illinois, first came into existence 
(1932), the citizens of Polish extraction had some semblance of a politically 
functioning organization. 

The Polish American Democratic Organization was formed chiefly through 
the efforts of the Hon. M. S. Szymczak (now Governor of the Federal Re- 
serve Board in Washington) who, together with a few other prominent: 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page 167 

Americans of Polish" extraction, foresaw the necessity of a united political 
body in order to obtain proper political recognition in proportion to their 
voting power. 

Mr. Szymczak, who held the office of General Superintendent of the For- 
est Preserve District of Cook County at the time, became managing director, 
while other prominent Americans of Polish descent, public office holders 
and businessmen, composed the staff of officers and the Board of Directors 
of the new organization. 

For a Proper Representation, and Recognition 

The chief purpose of the organization was to arouse greater political in- 
terest among citizens of Polish extraction to participate in the functions of 
government, to encourage non-citizens to become naturalized citizens, and 
to urge all to exercise vigorously their voting power as such. 

Through the concentrated and energetic efforts of this organization, the 
citizens of Polish extraction in Chicago and Cook County gained the major- 
ity of the present public offices and positions, elective and appointive, men- 
tioned in the article entitled "The Rise of the Poles in Chicago Politics," 
published elsewhere in this book. 

It may be stated here that during the existence of this organization not 
one elective office has been taken away from the Poles. 

The organization has proved that the Poles can obtain proper political 
representation and recognition if they remain solidly united. It has proved 
that old saying, "In Unity There Is Strength." 

It has succeeded in its purpose and as a resu 1 t, Polish immigrants became 
more and more eager to become citizens and to exercise their voting power. 
Citizens of Polish extraction who seldom or never voted, came out to the 
polls in greater numbers. 

Twenty Percent of the Total 

Now, fully 85 to 90 percent of the Polish registered voters participate in 
casting their ballots in the primaries and elections. The figures of the last 
registration of voters in Cook County clearly indicate the strength of their 
voting power. Out of 1,865,236 registered voters, nineteen percent or one- 
fifth of the total, are Polish voters. 

Maintaining a Bureau of Service 

Aside from the political activity engaged in, the Polish American Demo- 
cratic Organization renders service to the Polish people who call at its 

P aae 168 1 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

headquarters. It maintains offices not only during primary election cam- 
paigns, but throughout the year, and during its existence it has assisted 
thousands of Polish people in their individual problems, disinterestedly and 
without remuneration. 

It has satisfactorily interceded for thousands of relief complaints and mis- 
understandings, which are due largely to language difficulties. 

For the Good of the Public 

It has referred many, seeking medical care and attention, to our city, 
county or state institutions, depending upon the kind of treatment required. 

It has issued proper information and advice in hundreds of legal problems. 

It has assisted in the filling out of hundreds of applications for preliminary 
and final citizensh'p papers and has given proper information and advice 
on many questions concerning naturalization. 

It has assisted in the filling out of many applications for old age security 
pensions, for employment, for hearing on general real estate tax complaints, 

It has assisted in the proper filling out of thousands of applications for 
HOLC loans and has given proper information and advice pertaining to 

It has also properly referred matters pertaining to the health department, 
city bureau of water, board of education, veterans' compensations, licenses, 

All this is due to the untiring efforts of the organization since its forma J 
tion to the present time, and it has received the full support of the Polish 

The present officers of the Poksh American Democratic Organization are 
the Hon [ohn Prystalski, pres'dent; Bernard L. Majewski, vice-president 
and William W. Link, secretary and treasurer. The majority of the public 
office holders in the Democratic Part}- ard prominent business of Polish ex- 
traction are members cf the beard of directors and various committees. 

Its headquarters are located at 1420 Ashland Block, 155 North Clark 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. 


With a sincere desire to band the Polish dentists not only in Chicago 
but elsewhere in the United States "Stowarzyszenie Polskich Den- 
tystow w Ameryce" was organized and a charter was obtained datec 
May 22, 1908. The following dentists are said to be the organizers J 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pd«e 169 

the original Polish Dental Society : Dr. J. B. Zielinski, Si\, Dr. Rybsztat, Dr. 
Jankowski, and Dr. W. W. Nowacki, Dr. P. Wybraniec, Dr. W. Gorny. For 
several years Dr. J. B. Zielinski, Sr., was president of this organization. 

Due to the efforts of Dr. W. Koniuszewski and Dr. E. G. Urbanowicz the 
Polish Dental Society was organized of which, the said Dr. W. Koniu- 
szewski became president and Dr. E. G. Urbanowicz secretary. 

At regular intervals articles in the Polish language published in the Polish 
newspapers, dealing with dental topics, began to appear. These articles were 
not only well written but had much informative material about the teeth and 
mouth hygiene, presented in such form that it could be easily understood 
by the layman. Among the authors of these articles we find such men as Dr. 
\V. W. Xowacki, Dr. W. Koniuszewski, Dr. S. S. Gorny, Dr. H, Ordon, 
Dr. H. J. Urbanowicz, Dr. F. Pelka, Dr. E. G. Urbanowicz, Dr. F. Pelka, 
Dr. A. J. Marcinkiewicz, and Dr. J. P. Kobrzynski. 

A year after the reorganization a new administration was elected and this 
was composed of the following: Dr. AW \Y. Nowacki, president; Dr. J. A. 
Zabrocki, vice president; Dr. J.- P. Kobrzynski, secretary (at present Dr. Ko- 
brzynski is the president of the Polish Medical and Dental Association of 
America), Dr. A. J. Marcinkiewicz, treasurer and Dr. W. Koniuszewski, 

Under this new administration as under the old, articles continued to ap- 
pear in the Polish papers on dental topics and mouth hygiene. 

During the year 1920 after Poland regained her independence a National 
Polish Institute of Dentistry was established in Warsaw, Poland. Dr. W. W. 
Nowacki in a lengthy speech appealed to the Polish Dental Society that it 
create an educational fund and donate it to the Polish Institute of Dentistry. 
This fund was to be used partly to finance the education of talented and de- 
serving students of dentistry and partly for dental research by the Polish 
Dental Institute. 

During the oppressive times that the Republic of Poland was undergoing, 
the Polish dentists and physicians of Chicago joined hands to help the gov- 
ernment of Poland by forming a committee to sell Polish bonds to their 
fellow-practitioners. This committee was composed of the following: Dr. F. 
Wisniewski, Dr. W. A. Kuflewski, Dr. L. K. Kozakiewicz, Dr. J. Miodu- 
szewski, Dr. A. Zabrocki, and Dr. W. W. Nowacki. 

With the coming into existence of the Polish Medical and Dental Asso- 
ciation of America, in the year of 1928, the Polish Dental Society of America 
became the Polish Dental Society of Chicago, and with the Polish Medical 
Society of Chicago forms the Chicago Chapter of the Association. 

The present administration of the Polish Dental Society of Chicago is 
composed of the following members: F. G. Biedka, president; J. A. Hodur, 
vice president; E. S. Pacocha, secretary; S. J. Kurland, librarian. 

Page 170 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

Members: F. G. Biedka, Sophie Blasinski, Chester Bukowski, Stanley Bro- 
niarczyk, B. C. Duda, C. A. Frankiewicz, E. R. Frasz, T. A. Gasior, J. M. 
Gecewicz, B. T. Gobczynski, W. E. Goglin, A. A. Gordon, S. S. Gorny, T. J. 
Guzik, J. A. Hodur, C. P. Janicki, S. D. Jedlowski, R. M. Kaminski, J. V. 
Kleczewski, J. P. Kobrzynski, H. Kobrzynski-Hintzke, Jos. Kostrubala, M. 
F. Kostrubala, F. Kozlowski, W. J. Koziol, J. M. Krasniewski, S. J. Kurland, 
B. Lapp, S. A. Lasota, C. P. Lazarski, C. C. Lewandowski, C. S. Lisowski, F. 
V. Malachowski, L. Micek, C. J. Marcin H. Marcin, S. M. Mioduszewski, 
Edw. Nowak, T. Olechowski, E. J. Oleksy, E. S. Pacocha, B. B. Pawlowski, 
A. C. Peszynski, J. Ryll, C. J. Rogalski, C. J. Ross, W. T. Ruskowski, E. W. 
Sherry, V. E. Siedlinski, J. L. Smialek, W. Strozewski, B. M. Swiertnia, C. 
Stypinski, St. Tylman, J. C. Ulis, R. Walczyk, A. Wcislo, Edw. Wroblewski, 
J. W. Zielinski. 



Organized in 1927, at the Alliance College (of the Polish National Al- 
liance) at Cambridge Springs, Pa., the Polish Students and Alumni 
Association of America is the only organization of its kind in this 
country. Beginning its existence with ten clubs composing its membership, 
the association at present has over ninety fraternities, sororities, clubs and 
societies as affiliated members, and these last boast of more than three thou- 
sand young men and women of Polish extraction attending the various col- 
leges and universities throughout the land. The association, aided in its 
work by all of the Polish and Polish American organizations in the United 
States, with the Kosciuszko Foundation at New York being the leader and 
principal sponsor, has proved of immeasurable assistance to thousands of 
our young people striving to acquire an education, principally by awarding 
scholarships and scholarship loans. On the recommendation of the associa- 
tion, thirty-five of its members have visited and studied in the country of 
the White Eagle. By banding together our Polish American college and uni- 
versity students, the association has taught them the important lesson of 
co-operating to help themselves in all of their common problems. The of- 
ficers of the association are striving to inculcate into the members of the Po- 
lish American younger set the spirit embodied in the saying, "United, we 
stand; divided, we fall," to permeate all of their thinking and activity. 

In June, the President of United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was 
awarded the first "PSAA Medal of Honor, " just established, with the follow- 
ing inscription : "To An Outstanding Man, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, for his 
inspiration, courage and example to the youth of America, by the Polish 
Students and Alumni Association, 1937." The president and secretary were 
the guests of the President in the White House to make the presentation, 
which the Chief Executive received with genuine appreciation. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pane 171 

On July 2, 3 and 4, 1937, the La Salle hotel was the scene of the ninth 
national convention and tenth anniversary birthday party of the association. 
The Polish Students' Association of Canada, on petition, was enrolled as a 
member of the PSAA, thus increasing the scope of the activity of the last 
to an international basis. 

The PSAA is a member of the Polish Interorganization Council, the cen- 
tral, co-ordinating body for all of the Polish and Polish-American organiza- 
tions in the United States and this year is represented on the board of direc- 
tors by Arthur L. Korzeneski, president. 

"The New American," considered the leading monthly digest of Polish 
American life and culture, serves as the official organ of the PSAA. Floyd 
S. Placzek is the editor, and Stephen M. Eminowicz is the business manager. 
Adam J. Penar writes the PSAA page. 

The new national administration consists of Arthur L. Korzeneski, presi- 
dent ; Adam J. Penar, executive vice president;. J S. W. Grocholski, vice pre- 
sident for Canada; Chestera E. Niewinska, secretary; Irene M. Kaszeska, 
secretary; Alex W. Olszewski, treasurer and Eugene J. Majewski, national 
organizer. National headquarters are maintained at the Webster hotel, 2150 
Lincoln Park West, Chicago, 111. 


To preserve historical documents, bring to light forgotten data of the 
struggles of the pioneer Americans of Polish extraction and to en- 
lighten Americans with the past and present history of Poland, Leon 
T. Walkowicz organized the Polish American Historical Society in July, 
1934. Its charter members are: Rev. Theodore Czastka, rector, St. Vences- 
laus parish ; Richard J. Finnegan, editor, Chicago Daily Times ; Capt. Chaun- 
cey McCormick, Sister Stanisia, George F. Nixon, Jacob Blaszczyk, John 
Czech, Anna Neumann, Felice M. Walkowicz and Leon T. Walkowicz. 

Under the auspices of the Society a commemorative book was published on 
the 75th birthday anniversary of Ignace Jan Paderewski, containing therein 
comments of the most outstanding statesmen throughout the world. This 
book was sent to all leading libraries in the world. 

Besides the publication of the book the Society arranged an exhibit of 
collections of Ignace Jan Paderewski, such as letters, documents of his activi- 
ties in Poland's struggle for freedom, rare photographs, programs and pamph- 

Many noted people have visited the headquarters of the Polish American 
Historical Society at 1930 North Fairfield Avenue; among them were: Gen. 
Jozef Haller and "his son Eric ; Watt T. Cluverius, rear admiral, U. S. Navy; 

Page 172 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 • 

John Cudahy, former American ambassador to Poland with Mrs. Cudahy ; 
J. E. Barzynski, colonel, U. S. Army; Chauncey McCormick, General Frank 
Parker, Prof. Roman Dyboski, and hundreds of others from the United States 
and abroad. 


The object of the Pi Tau Gamma is to unite teachers of Polish descent for 
a mutual exchange of professional ideas, to advance cultural and pedagogical 
movements and to encourage and aid Polish men and women to enter the 
teaching profession and to promote the general welfare of Polish youth. Us 
organizers were: E. Simon, T. Lubera, Hyacinth Glomski, Jane Palczynski, 
Zella Wolsan, Mary Rupinski, S. Nalecz, V. Szubczynska, B. Koz'owski, 
F. Peska, L. Pinderski, Dr. P. Fox, Dr. W. Koniuszewski and Anthony Czar- 

It has a membership of seventy-four, was organized in 1929, is local in 
character, and the membership is divided into three classes: active, associate 
and honorary. All teachers are eligible for associate members, while persons 
of eminence in the field of education may become honorary members. 

The officers of the organization are: Jane T. Palczynski. president; Hya- 
cinth Glomski, vice president; John Sitkowski, corresponding secretary; So- 
phie Domzalski, recording secretary; A. Cylkowska, J. Klest, T. Lubera. Z. 
Wolsan, executive committee. 

(Centrala Klubow Polskich) 

Organized in 1936, the Centrale aims to propagate Polish culture among 
the Polish youth. It is national in character, composed of districts and num- 
bering seventeen clubs. Some of its organizers were John Kudelko, Michael 
Machala and W. Majewski. 

The officers of the organization are W. Majewski, president; Miss Xo- 
wicka, vice president; John Kudelko, secretary; S. Nowakowski, treasurer. 


(Zwiazek Klubow Malopolskich) 

( hganized in 1929, the Little Poland Clubs Alliance has for its purpose to 
aid Polish culture and extend financial help to the needy. It is national in 
character, with a membership of thirty-five thousand. Some of its organizers 
were Stanislaw Kolczak, Stanislaw Piotrowicz, Stanislaw Madziarz and Mar- 
tin Kozak. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 173 

It sent $500,000.00 to Poland for schools, churches, educational purposes. 
The officers of the organization are Stanislaw Piotrowicz, president ; Steph- 
anie Pochalski, vice president; M. Krakowski, secretary; Jan Burzawa, cor- 
responding secretary ; P. Klimek, treasurer. 


Organized in 1933, the Polish Students Federation aims to organize all 
students of Polish descent in high schools. Some of its organizers were 
Eugene Pawlowski, Zenobia Wolsan, Mrs. Koniuszewski. It numbers over 
one thousand members. 

The officers of the organization are : John Johnes, president ; Frances Da- 
nielczyk, secretary ; Roman Pucinski, treasurer. 

(Polski Uniwersytet Ludowy) 

Organized in 1909 by Dr. Szymanski, Dr. Wyczolkowska, Dr. Kalinowski, 
Dr. Zurawski, M. Sokolowski, Dr. Koniuszewski, the Polish People's Uni- 
versity purposes to spread Polish culture among adults, especially the work- 
ing class and to teach the Polish language to the youth. Lectures are given 
every Sunday, beginning with the first Sunday in Saturday. The officers of 
the organization are: Dr. Paul Fox, president; Paul Miczko, secretary; Igna- 
cy Kuzniewicz, treasurer ; educational directorate : Prof. S. Kozaczka, Prof. 
Szpunar, Mrs. Koniuszewska. 



The Polish National Alliance Junior League, composed of Chicago younger 
element clubs and societies of the Polish National Alliance, has been in ex- 
istence about five years. At present it has fifteen clubs which total about 
two thousand individual members. It is the only organization of its kind 
in America. 

Its purposes : To provide a practical means for the youth of the Polish 
National Alliance to meet and unite in promoting friendly cooperation. 

To develop by precept and example a more aggressive intelligent and ser- 
viceable membership in the Polish National Alliance and to provide a school 
for training leaders which will give the youth of the Polish National Alliance 
an opportunity to prepare for greater responsibilities and higher honors. 

To aid in organizing new younger element groups in the Polish National 
Alliance and to assist in educating and strengthening existing younger ele- 
ment groups, thereby creating good will and providing a means of forming 
enduring friendship. 

Page 174 1817 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 93 7 • 

To promote the benevolent, charitable and fraternal policies and objectives 
of the Polish National Alliance, such as those relating to Polish culture and 
traditions, education and enlightenment, social service, vocational guidance, 
employment and welfare work, recreation, social activities and athletics. 

The League is known for its educational work chiefly through the sponsor- 
ing of lectures by men outstanding in their line of endeavor or profession. It 
established in Chicago the true Polish tradition of presenting baskets to the 
poor at Easter time. 

The officers at present are: Vincentyn A. Rieger, president; Charles Odell, 
vice president; Victoria Zajaczkowski, vice president; Lottie Belinska, rec- 
ording secretary; Joseph E. Bonk, treasurer. 

The League is located in the clubrooms of the Polish Veterans' Home, 
1239 N. Wood street, where meetings are held every second Tuesday of 
the month. 


(Korpus Pomocniczy Stow. Armii Polskiej) 

Organized in 1930 by Miss Agnes Wisla and also all posts of Polish Army 
veterans, the Polish Auxiliary Corps extends aid to sick and unemployed 
veterans of the Polish army. It has over four thousand members, with na- 
tional headquarters in New York City. 

The officers of the organization are : Miss Zalewska, president ; Miss L. 
Zielinski, vice president; Miss Gierut, secretary; Mrs. Nowak, treasurer. 

(Klub Wielkopolan, Slazakow i Pomorzan) 

Organized in March, 1930 the Great Poland, Silesia and Pomerania Club 
welcomes as members men and women who came from the above provinces, 
formerly under German domination. Its aim is self-help and propagation of 
Polish culture. Local in character, it has over five hundred members. To the 
recently erected monument of Marshal Pilsudski in Poland it contributed 
soil from forty-eight states and three territories, John Cudahy, ambassador 
to Poland, officiating at the ceremony. 

The officers of the organization are: John S. Kozlowski, president; Broni- 
slawa Jezierski, vice president; Wladyslaw Jagielski, vice president; John J. 
Wroblewski, recording secretary ; Leokadia Kaszubowski, financial secre- 
tary ; Leon Czajkowski, treasurer ; Albert Fialkowski, sergeant-at-arms ; Leon 
M. Nowak, Frank Nowicki, Helen Snopek, directors. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 1 75 


Organized by Emil Wiedeman, Antoni Mallek, to cooperate professionally 
and serve in propagating church music and music of Polish composers. Local 
in character, it limits its membership to organists of Polish Roman Catholic 
churches in Chicago. 

The officers of the organization are : Emil Wiedeman, president ; Stanley 
Mrozinski, vice president; Jacob Pochniarz, secretary; Frank Pawlowski, 
financial secretary; Jan Dendor, treasurer; A. Karczynski, director. 


Organized September 28, 1938, upon the initiative of L. T. Walkowicz, past 
commander of Polish Veterans of the American Army, to aid and console 
veteran invalids of the World war. Active in its organization were Mrs. B. 
Wawrzynski, Mary Mysliwiec, Augenie Pawlowski, Olympia Makowski, 
Stephanie Kleber, Helen Szymanski, Victoria Siekierski, S. Wolska Mie- 
czyslawa Doranski, Mary Karczmarczyk, Stephanie Budnicki. 

The officers of the Polish Women's Legion are: Eugenie I. Pawlowski, 
president; Sophia Stoneski, vice president; Rosalie Pacion, financial secre- 
tary; Bronislawa Wolnikowa, recording secretary; Kunegunda Kanka, treas- 
urer'; Petronella Slobodecki, sergeant-at-arms ; Antonina Swiatek, color bear- 
er; Alexandra Kowalewski, assistant standard bearer; Josephine Listecki, 
Mary Kosinski, Sophia Kokot, directors. 


Organized in 1927, the Alliance of Polish Literary-Dramatic Circles has 
for its aim cultivation of Polish drama and language. J. Wiewiora, J. Pazyna, 
J. Stefanski were some of those active in effecting this alliance. It has a mem- 
bership of twelve hundred. 

The present officers are: L. T. Walkowicz, president ; Paul Glab, vice presi- 
dent; Helen Kaszubska, secretary; J. Stefanik, treasurer. 



To promote better understanding among lawyers of Polish birth or de- 
scent the Polish Lawyers Association was organized in December, 1931, and 
chartered in May, 1932. Active in its organization were Leon C. Nyka, Joseph 
I lisack Anthony Mazurk, L. A. Zygmunt, Stephen Adamowski, Frank 

Page 176 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Janiszewski, A. Urbanski, E. Scheffler, A. Kucharski, S. Werdell. It has 
one hundred seventy-five members. 

The officers of the organization are: Martin Gorski, president; Stephen 
Love, vice president; Julius A. Skrzydlewski, vice president; Stanley Wer- 
dell, secretary; Walter A. Kiolbassa, treasurer; Andrew F. Kucharski, 
Mitchell Kilanowski, Theodore A. Siniarski, Lawrence A. Zygmunt, gov- 

(Zwiazek b. Oficercw Armii Polskiej w Ameryca) 

Organized in 1923, with its headquarters in Chicago, the Polish Army Of- 
ficers' Alliance aims to maintain friendship through social activities ; to main- 
tain and perpetuate the ideals of freedom and democracy, for which the Po- 
lish army fought in France and later in Poland during the World war. A 
national organization with groups of former officers in many cities, it has 
over three hundred members, only former officers of the Polish army being 
eligible for membership. 

The officers of the organization are : Ignacy Jan Paderewski, honorary 
president; Gen. Joseph Haller, honorary president; Col. Chauncey McCor- 
mick, honorary chairman ; Lt. John K. Kostrubala, president ; Dr. St. Wie- 
trzynski, vice president; Lt. Waclaw W. Rzewski, secretary; Lt. Witold S. 
Bogucki, treasurer; membership committee: Lt. Witold H. Trawinski, Capt. 
S. Nastal, Lt. T. Lazarewicz"; welfare committee: Lt. AW Pytlowany, Capt. 
A. Trygar, Lt. R. Hanasz. 


Organized in February, 1926, the Polish Arts Club has as its objects: 
Promoting fellowship between Polish Americans and x-\mericans of other an- 
cestries interested in the fine arts ; providing and facilitating for its members 
common enjoyment of the arts ; popularizing the knowledge, appreciation and 
enjoyment of art and literature ; joint study of literature and other arts ; 
making Polish art and literature better known in the United States ; render- 
ing moral and material aid to promising Polish and American writers, mu- 
sicians, artists and students of the arts. 

Its membership includes musicians, artist painters, literary workers, teach- 
ers and citizens whose avocational interest is in one of the arts. The part 
the club has played during the past ten years in art and musical activities is 
described in the articles, "Chicago Poles Share in City Arts History" and 
"The Contribution of Americans of Polish Descent to the Development of 
Music in Chicago." Its main meeting place is at 2024 Pierce avenue. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Paee 177 

The officers of the club are: W. W. Wieczorek, president; Dr. M. J. Ko- 
strzewski, first vice president ; Jane Palczynski, second vice president ; Thad- 
deus Slesinski, general secretary; Adele Radecki, financial secretary; Irene 
Hinkelman, recording secretary; J. J. Chrzanowska, treasurer; Marie J. 
Sienkiewicz, editor ; Regina Bain, historian ; Anthony Milewicz, librarian ; 
Mrs. Chas. S. Dewey, Sr. Mrs. Louis J. Pachynski, John S. Rybicki, Myron 
E. Steczynski, Anthony Shepanek, directors; Anne Cierpik, Hyacinth Glom- 
ski, Valerian J. Fronczak, trustees; section chairmen: Barbara Lisewski, 
dramatics; Mrs. J. Karlowicz, literary; Thaddeus Kozuch, music; Mrs. Joseph 
C. U'lis, plastic arts; committee chairmen: Helen Narut Keckich. auditing; 
Mrs. Edw. H. Warszewski, house; Pearl Suchomski, membership; Mrs. 
B. J. Mix, social. 



Organized in 1889 to cultivate the singing of Polish songs and culture, the 
Polish Singers Alliance is national in character, composed of so many circuits 
and it was inspired by Anton Mallek and the Chopin Choir. In its ten districts 
it enjoys a membership of five thousand singers. 

The officers of the organization are : Walter Panka, president ; Eugenie 
Pawlowski, vice president ; Frank Wilga, general secretary ; James Kaczyn- 
ski, treasurer; Zdzislaw Skubikowski, general musical director. 



(Polskie Kolo Nauczycielskie w Szkolach Doksztalcajacych) 

Organized in 1931, the Polish Teachers' Circle aims to propagate the Polish 
language, folk 1 ore and literature among the young. Local in character, it had 
as its organizers Boleslaw Stachura, Ignacy Wroblewski, Helen Koniuszew- 
ska. All teachers of the Polish language are eligible for membership. 

The officers of the organization are: Paul Miczko, president; Otilia Gra- 
linski, vice president ; Felice Szczupak, secretary ; F. Kapanowski, treasurer. 

(Pomocnicze Stow. Pan Stow. Lekarzy Polskich) 

Organized in 1931 to aid in welfare work, the Polish Medical Association 
Women's Auxiliary is local in character, composed of sixty members. Wives 
and widows of Polish physicians are eligible for membership. Mrs. Tabenska 

Page ijg 1837— POLES OF CHICAGO — 193 7 J* 

aided in the growth of the organization, which originally was promoted by 
Mrs. Dulak, Mrs. Mix, Mrs. Kalisz, Mrs. Czeslawska, Mrs. Wawrzynska, 
and Mrs. Tabenska. 

The officers of the organization are: Mrs. Uznanski, president; Mrs. Ten- 
czar, secretary ; Mrs. Fudema, treasurer. 

(Polski Legion Weteranow Amerykanskich) 

Organized in 1921, the Polish Legion of America is patriotic and idealistic. 
It is national in character and some of its organizers were: M. Lorenz, J. 
Wojciechowski, K. Liszynski. 

The officers cf the major organization are Mieczyslaw Glod, commander; 
W. Zaleski, vice commander; Henry Lewandowski, secretary; Stanley Ha- 
lick, treasurer. 



(Korpus Pomocniczy Legionu Weteranow Amerykanskich) 

With its purposes humanitarian, the Polish Legion of American Veterans 
accepts Polish women interested in aiding American veterans of Polish de- 
scent, their wives, sweethearts. Interested in the organization of the legion 
were: P. Wawrzynska, Olympia Makowski, M. Mysliwiec, Mary Kaczmarek, 
Eugenie Pawlowski, Victoria Siekierski, Helen Szymanski. Meetings are 
held at 1670 N. Paulina street. 

The officers of the organization are: Anna Druzela, president; Katherine 
Gregierczyk, vice president; Boleslawa Malinowski, vice president; Mary 
Surgot, secretary; Katherine Pelepsz, treasurer. 


(Stow. Polsko-Amerykanskich Kupcow i Przemyslowcow) 

All business men, professional people, manufacturers are eligible for mem- 
bership in the Polish Businessmen's Association. It was organized in 1928 to 
promote business and industry among the Polish people. Frank Xurczyk, 
Ladislaus Sajewski, Felix Pietrowicz, John Buchaniec were some of its or- 
ganizers, and the association numbers nearly one thousand members. 

The officers of the organization are: Frank Nowak, president; Alexander 
Busch, Joseph Kowalczyk, Kinga Dziubak, Jan Jaworski, Mary Rabat and 
Peter W. Chmielewski, vice president ; Frank Xurczyk. secretary ; Joseph 
Liszka, treasurer; Frank Openchowski, editor; Ludwik Makowski. Anthony 

♦ 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pa#e 179 

Marnik, Stanislaw Mermel, Stanislaw Sikora, directors ; St. Pietrowicz comp- 
troller; Thaddeus Niemira and Edmund Szumnarski, legal counsel. 



Organized after the Eucharistic Congress of 1926, the Catholic Circle takes 
active part in Catholic festivities, reception of high church dignitaries, etc. 
Active in its organization were Rt. Rev. Monsignor Thomas Bona, Anthony 
Czarnecki, John Nering, Paul Drymalski, Julius Szatkowski, Lawrence Pry- 

It is composed of the clergy and prominent laymen, George Cardinal Mun- 
delein, Bishop Hogan, Bishop Sheil, Bishop St. Bona being honorary mem- 
bers. The officers of the organization are Moderator Very Rej. Stephen A. 
Kowalczyk, C.R. ; John Nering, president ; J. F. Szatkowski, secretary ! L. H. 
Prybylski, treasurer and an executive committee of six of whom P. Drymal- 
ski is chairman. 

(Korpus Pomocniczy Stow. Armii Polskiej) 

Organized in 1921 for mutual aid in comradeship by Dr. Pietrzykowski, Dr. 
Lenart, Michael Rudnicki, Bronislaw Zuk, Joseph Cwik the Polish Army 
Auxiliary Corps, national in character, numbers over twelve thousand mem- 

The officers of the organization are : Adam Trygar, commandant ; M. 
Prendzel, S. Podborny, vice commanders. 


Organized in 1922 by the Kipkowski brothers, M. Starsiak, and others, to 
extend mutual aid professionally, the Polish Musicians Club is local in charac- 
ter, with over one hundred members and headquarters at 1182 Milwaukee 
avenue. Jerzy Bojanowski, Arthur Rodzinski, James Petrillo, are honorary 

The board of executive includes Alexander Bonczkowski, president; Z. Fi- 
lisiewicz vice president; Alfred Larisch, recording secretary; Stanley Gofron, 

(Ekspozytura Krzyza Legionowego) 

Organized in 1924 by Alexander Hinkelman, Prof. Thomas Siemiradzki, 
Paul Kurdziel, B. Blazewicz, John Sienkiewicz, Eleanor Poradzinski, to serve 

Page 180 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

those who helped Pilsudski's legions, the Order of the Legion Cross consists 
only of those who are decorated with Pilsudski's Legion Cross. National in 
character, it comprises seven hundred members. 

The officers of the order are: Alexander Hinkelman, president; Thaddeus 
Fronczak, vice president; Eleanor Poradzinski, secretary and treasurer. 

(Zwiazek Obrony Narodowej) 

Organized in 1920 by B. Blazewicz, P. Bogdanski, to safeguard Polish cul- 
ture and defend the honor of Poland, the National Defense Alliance, with 
headquarters in New York City, has enrolled over five thousand members. 
The officers of the alliance are: BlasiusBlazewicz, president; W. Kozlowski, 
vice president; P. Bogdanski, general secretary and treasurer. 

(Kolo Odczytowe Pilsudskiego) 

Organized by A. Hinkelman and S. Rayzacher in 1919 to propagate the 
culture of Poland, the Pilsudski Lecture Circle has sponsored many lectures 
on educational subjects, widely attended by the public. It has a hundred 
members and its officers are : Dr. K. Zurawski, president ; Alexander Hin- 
kelman, vice president; J. Kaczmarek, secretary. 


The Polish Sea League ("Liga Morska"), organized in 1931, fosters the 
idea that Poland needs access to the sea and expansion of sea trade. It em- 
braces four districts Chicago, Detroit, New York and Philadelphia, with a 
membership of six thousand. Among its organizers were former consul Linda- 
Lipaczynski, Mrs. Piatkiewicz, R. Matuszczak. 

The executives of the league are: Alexander Hinkelman, president; Mrs. 
Mackowiak, vice president ; L. Kupferwaser, secretary ; Sophia Mazurewicz, 


The purpose of the Polish Engineers Association i^ to advance the profes- 
sional status of engineers and to stimulate interest in engineering. 

Organized in 1934 by Prof. Kozaczka. F. Nurczyk, Witold Kosicki, it has 
thirty members, with the present officers as follows: Lech Piasecki, presi- 

1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 181 

dent; Frank Wolosiewicz, vice president; Stanley Dlurzak, secretary; Steph- 
en Albinski, treasurer. 



The Polish American Commercial Club was organized by its present presi- 
dent, Anthony Marnik, and has one hundred members interested in extension 
of commerce and industry. 

(Zwiazek Mlodziezy Polskiej na Ziemi Waszyngtona) 

Organized in 1919 by John Sienkiewicz, now deceased, the Polish Youth 
A 1 liance in the Land of Washington now comprises four groups, with one 
thousand members. Joseph Wrobel is the president. 

(Polska Rada Miedzyorganizacyjna) 

All Polish organizations, such as the Polish National Alliance, Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Polish Alma Mater, Polish Women's Alliance, Polish 
Falcons, etc., enter into the Polish Interorganization Council, incorporated in 
1936, and national in character. 

It aims to co-ordinate the activities of American Poles the better to serve 
the interests of the United States, to defend the Polish name and cause, to 
co-operate with the World Alliance of Poles culturally, economically. Polish 
fraternal, social, educational organizations are eligible for membership in the 

The officers of the council are: Joseph Kania, president; John Romaszkie- 
wicz, vice president; Honorata W r olowska, vice president; Joseph Przyda- 
tek, secretary general ; Alexander Hinkelman, treasurer. 


This organization was formed in 1907, charter being dated January 30th, 
1928. The purpose of the Polish Borderlands Educational and Protective Al- 
liance is to aid in the education or Polish youth by furnishing them school 
supplies, books and to promoteathletic and physical training for the welfare 
of the younger Polish element. 

Page 182 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 ♦ 

With this purpose in mind the Polish Borderland Educational and Pro- 
tective Alliance was instrumental in sending more than fourteen hundred 
dollars to aid youth of the Polish borderlands. 

Officers of the Polish Borderlands Educational and Protective Alliance 
are: Leon T. Walkowicz, president; Mrs. Sabina Mulewski, vice president; 
Frank Jatczak, vice president; Miss Harriet Kossak, secretary and Mrs. 
Anna Neumann, treasurer. 


Organized in May, 1936, the Polish Women's Commercial Circle aims 
to encourage the Polish women to enter the field of business, acquire 
business training and take their proper place in the commercial and in- 
dustrial life of Chicago. To this end, the circle holds meetings at least once 
a month at the Wonderland Hall, 2940 Milwaukee Avenue, where lectures 
and instructions are given by prominent business men of Chicago. The circle 
is the only organization of its kind in this country. 

The board of officers follows: Zonia Bryll, president; Maria Kot, vice 
president; Katarzyna Kosiba, second vice president; Helena Schweiger, rec- 
ording secretary; Marta Ragan, treasurer; Stefania Piech, financial secre- 
tary; directors: Natalia Strzelecka, Lucy Wisniewska, Apolonia Dejewska, 
Marta Luka, Aniela Szewczyk. 



(Zwiazek Gorali) 

To propagate the folklore of the Polish Highlanders, the Polish Highland- 
ers Alliance, national in character, was formed in 1927. With their picturesque 
costumes, peculiar music and dances, they appear frequently at public appear- 
ances, adding a great deal of color to the social life of Chicago. Active in its 
organization were Henryk Lokanski, Anthony Zygmuntowicz, Dr. Jarosz ; it 
now has a membership of two thousand. 

The present officers of the alliance are Henryk Lokanski, president ; Karol 
Stach, vice president; Joseph Lopatowski, secretary. 



By John P. Grzemski 

"A nation which has not learned thrift, 
cannot survive." — Blaise Pascal. 

THE Polish people, as well as American people of Polish extraction, coi 
prise a powerful industrial group in this country. They are firm be- 
lievers in financial stability, both in business and in private life. Theii 
strongly developed sense of economy and their faith in financial organizaj 
tions which also proect their property and investments are proof of thi; 
statement. First among their organizations are the building and loan asso- 
ciations of Chicago, of which there are, at the present time, close to one hun- 
dred in existence. 

Polish industrial life had its beginning shortly after the great Chicago fire 
in 1871. It was at this time that a few small building and loan associations 
were organized for business by private individuals. These individuals, new- 
comers from Poland, had brought with them an excellent knowledge pertain- 
ing to the organization and management of building and loan associations 
and understood their operation thoroughly, for building and loan associations 
were well known throughuot England more than a century ago, and were al- 
ready well organized throughout Central Europe in 1845. 


The Building and Loan Association — 

A Home Investment Institution 

The newly organized building and loan associations created a widespread 
activity among citizens of Polish extraction, and were very instrumental in 
facilitating the purchase of real estate by the immigrants, who settled perma- 
nently in this country. 

The majority of the early immigrants came to the United States originally 
with the intention of remaining only temporarily, but upon learning of the 
prevailing conditions here, they became convinced that in this country they 
had a far greater opportunity to improve the general circumstances of their 

Page 184 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 • 

lives than in their own country, which, at that time, was torn into three parts 
and was ruled by three foreign sovereigns ; they decided to settle perma- 
nently. Therefore, they immediately began to stablish permanent homesteads 
and also to organize building and loan associations in which they placed their 
savings, to be invested in real estate. 

At present there are nearly thirty Polish Building and Loan Associations 
in Chicago. They are as follows : Avondale Building and Loan Association, 
Belmont Bldg. and Loan, Crown Bldg and Loan, Father Gordon Bldg. and 
Loan, Fifteenth Ward Bldg. and Loan, Fullerton Bldg. and Loan, Haller 
Bldg. and Loan, Jagiello Bldg. and Loan, Kosciuszko Bldg. and Loan, J. J. 
Kraszewski Bldg. and Loan, King Jagiello Bldg. and Loan, Northwestern 
Saving Bldg. and Loan, Orzel Polski Bldg. and Loan, Piast Federal Savings 
and Loan, Polish American Bldg. and Loan, Polish Union Bldg. and Loan, 
Pulaski Bldg., Loan and Investment Ass 'n., Pulaski Loan and Bldg. of the 
Sixth Ward, St. Francis Bldg. and Loan Ass'n., Second Federal Savings and 
Loan Ass'n. of Chicago, Seventeenth Ward Bldg. and Loan Ass'n., Thirty- 
eighth Ward Bldg. and Loan Assn'., AVachowski Albert Loan and Savings 
Co., Washington Polish Loan and Bldg. Ass'n., Webster Bldg. and Loan 
Ass'n., West Pullman Bldg. and Loan Association, Zgoda Bldg. and Loan 
Ass'n., Sixteenth Ward Bldg. Ass'n., Pilzno Bldg. Ass'n. 

f It is estimated that between 1880 and 1928, in Chicago and Cook County, 
the people alone possessed six percent of all the real estate emphasizing the 
keen sense of thrift and good management of the Polish immigrant. 

Real estate transactions passed through the building and loan associations, 
and for that reason every fifth family residing in the sections settled by Po- 
lish immigrants owned its own home, commodity store or some other busi- 

The contracts of real estate transactions made by building and loan asso- 
ciations show that the greatest activity in real estate, among the Poles, took 
place immediately after the World war. 

Prefer to Invest in Real Estate 

The Polish people in general have always preferred to invest their money 
in real estate rather than in some other investment department they knew 
nothing about. Although heavy losses were sustained when the value of real 
estate fell so heavily during the recent widespread depression, now that con- 
ditions are gradually improving, the real estate movement among citizens of 
Polish extraction is beginning to show considerable activity. This movement 
is, however, very gradual and carried on with extreme caution, for its suc- 
cess depends on the desire of the average citizen to own a home and its 
ability to satisfy this desire, and not on the expectations of huge profits. 

j 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Page ^ 

Every Pole has inherited a love for a piece of land he can call his own and 
for a home of his own, and this characteristic, reflecting the thrifty character 
of that country, has stood out very prominently in the life of the Polish peo- 
ple, especially in Chicago. 
Business Is on the Mend 

Without a doubt those who fully understand the management of building 
and loan associations, know from experience that these organizations have 
performed their work creditably, and they can see that economic conditions 
are steadily improving, that money is in greater circulation, and that busi- 
ness is, therefore, on a steady up-grade. 

That this is so, is confirmed by real estate agents, real estate departments 
of Chicago banks, federal loan banks, state banks, and the building and loan 
department of Illinois, at the head of which is Mr. Edward J. Barrett, auditor 
of public accounts of Illinois. 

In addition to this, the records of the city building department located in 
the city hall of Chicago indicate a marked increase in the issuance of build- 
ing permits, which means that there has been an increase in the earning 
power of the people. In other words, the more people we have employed, the 
more people we have earning money, and as a result, the greater the interest 
in real estate buying. 

The managers and officers of building and loan associations, fully aware 
of this, are preparing to reorganize so that they will be in full readiness 
properly to advise the peope who wish to invest in real estate. 

More prosperous times are coming, but not the times of wild speculation 
such as existed between 1923 and 1929. There will be fair dealing in real 
estate with fair profit. The building and loan associations will return to their 
former, well-established status, and in the future will again p 1 ay as important 
a part in Polish industrial and business life as they have done for over a half 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Pave 189 


The principal street and trading center 
of the first Polish settlement in Chicago 
was Noble Street. There, in the midst of 
Polish life and culture, Wladyslaw Dynie- 
wicz published his first weekly paper — 
the "Gazeta Polska," more widely known 
as the "Dyniewiczowka" — and also the 
"Tygodnik Literacko Xaukowy," both of 
these in 1873. 

Several years after the introduction of 
these two weeklies came the "Gazeta Ka- 
tolicka," printed by the Rev. Vincent Ba- 
rzynski and Wladyslaw Smulski, father 
of the late John F. Smulski, and a chil- 
dren's publication, "Dzien Swiety. This 
latter weekly was edited by Mrs. Eugenia 
Smulski and was very popular with the 

Through the years the steady flow of 
Polish immigrants increased the demand 
for Polish printing. Thousands of the 
works of popular authors were being re- 
printed and distributed throughout the en- 
tire nation. Besides this huge mail order 
distribution, an army of canvassers and 
agents took the publications of Dyniewicz 
and Smulski into the library of almost 
every Polish home. Polish books were be- 
ing offered as premiums for newspaper 
subscriptions, as birthday gifts, for gradu- 

The most popular authors, Kraszewski, Mickiewicz, Sienkiewicz, Orzeszkowa, Ro- 
dziewiczowna, and others, could be found in nearly every private library._ For the hard- 
working classes, to whom reading was a task, gatherings were held at which fluent read- 
ers charmed an appreciative, if less-gifted, audience. 

Theatrical books, many of them by local authors such as Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, Anto- 
ni Zdzieblowski, Jaksa, and later Karol Wachtel, found easy access to the publishers be- 
cause the numerous amateur dramatic clubs and societies formed an avid market lor this 
class of literature. Perhaps the greatest demand for Polish books came from the schools 
and parish libraries. The text books, dictionaries, and handbooks .published by the Smul- 
ski Publishing company, later the Polish Publishing company, and now the Polish-Ameri- 
can Publishing company at 1151 Milwaukee Avenue, provided considerable revenue to the 
publishers and were shipped in large quantities to all Polish settlements and schools. 

The restriction of immigration gradually stopped the flow of Polish bookreaders, be- 
cause the second generation born in America prefers to read English books magazines 
and newspapers. Perhaps the height of the publishing season was from 1890 to the 
World war; since then there has been a gradual decline in the demand for Polish-printed 
publications. With this decline the English translations of Polish authors and books 
on Poland written by English and American vititors have gained increasing popularity 
with the average reader. 

Helena Chrzanowska 

Helena Chrzanowska. 

Page 190 

J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 937 

WHITE EAGLE BREWING COMPANY, brewers of fine beers; located at 3655 
South Racine Avenue; its executives are: John Haracz, president; Fred Goetz, vice 
president; Frank A. Brandt, secretary and treasurer; employing from seventy-five to 
one hundred people; organized November 21, 1897 and originally located at 1709 South 
Ashland Avenue; directors: Marian Knutkowski, John Belter, George Szalski, Leon 
Niedzwiecki, John Haracz, Fred Goetz, Frank A. Brandt, John Kusper, Frank Daniel, 
Ignatius Mizerka; the oldest Polish brewing concern in the Central States; principal 
offices and brewing establishment located at 3735-37 South Racine Avenue and South 
May Street; incorporated in 1899, by John F. Czaja and Frances Czaja, his wife, and 
Adam Czaja, their son, Bernard L. Maciejewski and Anna Maciejewski, his wife, with 
a capital of $50,000.00; originally founded on the premises now known as Pulaski Hall, 
1709-15 So. Ashland Avenue, where it remained to 1907, when it became necessary to 
expand its quarters for the steadily increasing volume of business; in order to meet the 
requirements of the prospective brewing industry, the company increased its capital 
stock to $250,000.00 and purchased the buildings at its present location, immediately 
moved to its new quarters, constructed the necessary additional buildings for its bottling 
plant and garage; in January, 1934, the capital stock was again increased to $350,000.00 
and in November, 1936, to $450,000.00; the majority of the capital stock of the White 
Eagle Brewing Company is owned by tavern keepers, whose interest is to promote the 
sales of beer made by their own company and thereby to derive the dividends from its 
earnings and profits on a co-operative basis; the motto of the White Eagle Brewing Co 
is "Service and Quality"; all beers are brewed from choice domestic and imported hops, 
malt, rice and other brewing materials; all orders are filled promtly; the White Eagle 
Brewing Co. is known for its brewing of "White Eagle Lager, Bavarian Style, Chopin 
Malt, Bock and Allweiser beers, sold in barrels, halves, quarters, eighths, half gallons 
and "Steinie" bottles; White Eagle beers are made to your taste; John Haracz, presi- 
dent; Fred Goetz, vice president; Frank A. Brandt, secretary-treasurer; Alois J. Reis, 
brewmaster; directors: John Haracz, Fred Goetz, Frank A. Brandt, Leo J. Niedzwiecki, 
M. F. Knutkowski, John Kusper, Frank A. Daniel, Ignatius Mizerka and George Szal- 
ski; White Eagle Brewing Company, 3755 So. Racine Ave. all telephones YARds 7460. 


p II 

White Eagle Brewing Company, 3755 So. Racine Ave., Chicago, 111. 


1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 191 

BENJAMIN ADAMOWSKI, attorney-at-law ; born November 20, 1906, in Chicago, 
Illinois; son of Max and Mary (Wejnerowski) Adamowski; graduate of Lane Technical 
High School; De Paul University, LL.B., 1928; married September 30, 1933, to Kathryn 
Kaiser; member of the American, Illinois and Chicago Bar Associations; Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, Knights of Columbus, Polish National Alliance, Sigma Delta Kap- 
pa, Polish Lawyers' Association, Iroquois Club; member, Illinois General Assembly, 28th 
District; Democratic Majority Floor Leader. 

Page 192 




laundry and linen supply; located at 4244- 
50 Elston Avenue; Peter Kowaczek, pres- 
ident; Louis Koterski, secretary and 
treasurer; number of employees, fifty; or- 
ganized in May, 1919, in Chicago, Illinois; 
company was organized by Peter Kowa- 
czek (his biography appears on another 
page), Anton Majewski, now deceased, 
and Louis Koterski, as one of the first 
Polish linen supply and laundry enter- 
prises in the City of Chicago; incorpo- 
rated May, 1919; opened its doors for 
business on August 2, 1919; their delivery 
service at the time consisted of one 
Model T Ford; today they maintain a 
fleet of twelve International trucks; Louis 
Koterski has served as director for the 
past eight years and at present is secre- 
tary and manager of the said organiza- 
tion; Louis Koterski is member of the 
Polish National Alliance. 

Louis Koterski 

Elston Laundry, 4244-50 Elston Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1 937 

Page 193 

ANTON F. MACIEJEWSKI, treasurer and supervisor of Town of Cicero, Illinois; 
born January 3, 1893, at Anderson, Texas; son of Frank and Frances (Ciesielska) Ma- 

ciejewski; married No- 
vember 19, 1913, to An- 
na Kosobucka; resident 
of Cicero of over thirty- 
years; his first public 
office held was that of 
assistant county agent; 
elected to the office of 
treasurer and supervisor 
of the City of Cicero for 
the first time in 1931, 
re-elected in 1936; a 
leader of the Democra- 
tic party in Cicero, Illi- 
nois; through his influ- 
ence another American 
of Polish descent, F. 
Zdrojewski, was elected 
trustee of the City of 
Cicero — another step 
for which A. F. Ma- 
ciejewski is responsible 
in preserving law and 
order in that municipali- 
ty; through his efforts 
m a ny important im- 
provements have been 
brought about in Cicero, 
Illinois, such as, install- 
ing and improved water 
system, widening of 
many streets and boule- 
vards, remodeling and 
enlarging the city hall, 
and many others, too 
numerous to mention; a 
great influence in the 
Cook County Demo- 
cracy thanks to his 
training and experience; 
instrumental in calling a 
convention of leading 
Democcrats of Polish 
descent, which raised 
the political prestige of 
that element not only in 
Chicago and downstate but throughout the whole. United States; before the last national 
election was called to Washington, D. C, as one of the leaders of Illinois, to confer with 
President Roosevelt and National Chairman James Farley; his influence and efforts re- 
sulted in creating a special Polish division in connection with the Polish American Demo- 
cratic Organization of Cook County; for the past twenty-five years has conducted a 
wholesale coal business known as the Eagle Coal Company, located at 52nd Avenue and 
33rd Street, Cicero, Illinois; member of the Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Falcons' Alliance, Hawthorne Business Men's Association, Knights of 
Columbus, Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, Polish American Democratic Organi- 
zation of Cook County, Cicero Regular Democratic Organization. 

Pave 194 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

PETER KOWACZEK, funeral director; born in Chicago, 111., son of Joseph and Mary 
(Bloch) Kowaczek; attended St. H.edwig's Parochial School, Kosciuszko Public School, 

and graduate 
o f Worsham 
College; m a r- 
ried April 17, 
1907, to Clara 
D u m anowski; 
the children of 
this union are: 
Romaine Ko- 
waczek Sowka, 
Rosary College, 
A.B., Loyola 
M.A. ; Beatrice 
Clara Kowa- 
czek, Rosarv 
College, A.B., 
DePaul Uni- 
versity, College 
of Law, J.D.; 
Richard Peter 
Kowaczek, I Hi— 
n o i s Military 
School, Notre 
Dame Univer- 
sity, Ph. B.; 
member of the 
Polish National 
Alliance, Poksh 
Roman Catho- 
lic Union of 
America, Po- 
lish Alma Ma- 
ter, Polish As- 
s o c i a t ion of 
America. Chi- 
cago Funeral 
Director' Asso- 
ciation; Fune- 
ral Services As- 
sociation. Lo- 
gan Square 
Athletic Club, 
Country Club, 
Chicago So- 
ciety, P.N.A., 
Catholic Order 
of Foresters. 
St. Hyacinth's 
Parish Club, 
American Po- 
lish Men's Club of Avondale; in 1907 Peter Kowaczek succeeded his father in the under- 
taking business, the latter having conducted said business since 1892; organized Kowaczek 
Bros. Auto Livery, Inc., in 1916, which corporation built a service garage with a capacity 
of eighty cars; in 1919, organized the Elston Laundry and Linen Supply Company, the 
first Polish laundry and linen supply company in Chicago; he was elected as its first 
president and has served in that capacity ever since; also a trustee of St. Hyacinth's Par- 
ish; interested in civic affairs. Mr. Kowaczek was a leader among those who promoted 
the erection of Kosciuszko Park in Avondale and fought against naming it Bismarck Park. 
He resides with his family at 3630 George Street. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 195 

WALTER STANCZEWSKI, real estate broker; born May 21, 1878, at Chelm, Poland; 
son of Peter and Catherine (Zielinska) Stanczewski; attended St. Stanislaus Kostka Pa- 
rochial School 
' and Kosciusz- 
\ k o Public 
School; m a r- 
ried on June 
^ 2 8, 19 05, to 
; Louise Rybcin- 
| ski, and the 
children of this 
union are Ma- 
rion, Aurelia, 
C a m i 1 le — 
daughters, and 
; Louise Sobie- 
ray, grand- 
member of the 
Chicago Real 
estate Boards, 
National Asso- 
ciation of Real 
Board, Polish 
N a t i onal Al- 
1 i a nee, Polish 
Roman Catholic 
Union, Catholic 
Order of For- 
esters, Catholic 
■ Circle of Chi- 
\ c a g o, and 
s many others; 
\ one of the out- 
\ standing real 
1 estate brokers 
j of the North- 
| west Side, hav- 
1 ing been in the 
| real estate and 
1 insurance busi- 
\ ness for the 
| past thirty-one 
1 y e a r s; is 
I known as ex- 
I pert appraiser 
\ of real estate 
fin Cook 
1 County and 
| often been call- 
I ed to act in 
| that capacity 
: by local city 
; and county ad- 
'_^J ministrations, 
as well as by 
many building and loan associations, fraternal organizations investing heavily in real es~ 
tate; very active in local politics, a strong advocate of good government; his advice is 
■fidely sought in real estate and insurance matters; resides with his family at 1352 North 
Ashland Avenue. 

Page 196 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


ONE of the oldest business concerns in Chicago is the Chicago Title 
and Trust Company. Through direct succession to the business of 
several individuals, firms, and corporations engaged in the abstract 
and title business at various periods it dates back to 1847. 

James H. Rees and Edward A. Rucker, under the firm name of Rees and 
and Rucker was succeeded by Rees, Chase and Company, and later by 
Chase Brothers and Company. 

Another early abstracter was J. Mason Parker, who was succeeded in 
business by the firm of John G. Shortall and Company, which firm later 
became Shortall and Hoard. 

Other early abstracters were Jones and Sellers and J. H. Rees who, after 
disposing of his interest in Rees and Rucker to Chase Brothers and Com- 
pany, again entered the abstract business. 

Thus, in October, 1871, when the great fire laid waste to a large portion 
of the city and destroyed all of the official real estate records of Cook County, 
there were four abstract firms in business, Chase Brothers and Company, 
Shortall and Hoard, Jones and Sellers and J. H. Rees and Company. 

The story of how these pioneer abstracters saved their records from the 
fire is a drama in itself. Trucks and horses were not to be had. Those who 
were fortunate enough to own them were engaged in saving their own prop- 
erty and in some parts of the city the fire was much too hot to permit any 
living thing to survive. Tradition has it that only by commandeering a truck 
at the point of a revolver were the members of Chase Brothers and Com- 
pany enabled to get their books out of danger. Those that were saved were 
carried to the residence of Samuel B. Chase in Lakeview. Shortall and Hoard 
removed their records to Mr. Shortall's home on Prairie Avenue. The Jones 
and Sellers records were for the most part stored in fire-proof vaults and 
thus their volumes were safe from the fire except for some slight charring. 

The problem of restoring the old business records, or of establishing an 
entirely new set, was one which engaged the attention of all Chicago land 
owners immediately following the big fire. As a result of the situation a con- 
solidation of the existing abstract firms was concluded under the somewhat 
expanded title of Chase Brothers, Jones, Sellers, Shortall and Hoard. The 
combined books were moved to a store building on the north side of Lake 
Street between Peoria and Green Streets. After a time this firm turned the 
business and a lease of its books over to the newly organized firm of Handy, 
Simmons, Smith and Stocker. Shortly thereafter the business was moved to 

7jn7— PQrps OF CWCAnO— 1937 Page 197 

the basement of a building on Fifth Avenue, now Wells Streets, between 
Randolph and Washington Streets, directly across from the county record- 
er's office, which at that time was housed in a store building. The firm of 
Handy, Simmons, Smith and Stocker became, a little later, Handy, Sim- 
mons and Company, and this was followed by Handy and Company under 
which name the business was continued until 1887. In that year the Title 
Guarantee and Trust Company was incorporated to succeed to the business 
of Handy and Company. Four years later, in 1891, the Cook County Ab- 
stract and Trust Company was incorporated. Later in the same year the 
name of this company was changed to Chicago Title and Trust Company. 

The Security Abstract and Title Company was organized in 1895 as suc- 
cessor to Haddock, Vallette and Rickcords, an early abstract firm. In July, 
1901, this company was merged with the Chicago Title and Trust Company, 
and in September of the same year the Title Guarantee and Trust Company 
joined the combination under the present name of the Chicago Title and 
Trust Company. In 1905 the Real Estate Title and Trust Company was in- 
corporated and in 1912 was combined with the Chicago Title and Trust 
Company under the name of the latter. 

Today the Chicago Title and Trust Company is a large corporation with a 
capital of $12,000,000, a surplus of $6,000,000 and assets in excess of $40,- 
000,000. It is owned by some fifteen hundred stockholders and operated bv 
approximately sixteen hundred officers and employees. 

The services rendered by the Chicago Title and Trust Company are four- 
fold : the making of abstracts of title, the guaranteeing of real estate titles, 
the administration of trusts and the handling of escrows. The abstract plant, 
started in 1847, is complete in every detail and includes every item or matter 
in any way affecting the title to real estate since the formation of the county 
in 1832. The plant consists of various sets of indices to the public records, 
including not only the legal description of every parcel in Cook County but 
also matters affecting title to real estate as recorded in the Recorder's office. 

Other indices cover all suits in the several state, municipal and federal 
courts which may in any way affect real estate ; an index relating to persons, 
firms and corporations; record of a'l judgments rendered in the various 
courts which are liens on real estate; all insanity proceedings; all probated 
estates of deceased persons and guardianship proceedings of minors; all 
confirmed special assessments and sales for general taxes and special as- 

Nothing is of greater importance in the business, commercial and finan- 
cial life of Chicago than that comp'ete records of all real estate in Cook 
I County be available unfailingly ever} business day. Not once since the fire 

Page 198 1837 — POLES OF C HICAGO— 1937 • 

of 1871 has Chicago Title and Trust Company or its predecessor companies 
failed to open its doors at 8:30 every day with the records available within 
eight business hours. On occasions of great real estate activity it has fre- 
quently been necessary for the staff to work all night to insure the records 
being available in order that the buyers of real estate and lenders of money 
thereon may safely conduct their business. 

On some parcels of property the company may never have occasion to 
issue a title guarantee policy. The records must be kept year after year, 
however, so that should a title guarantee be requested the policy can be is- 
sued with a minimum of delay. 

Title guarantee policies are issued to owners of land, owners of leasehold 
estates, holders of certificates of sale in foreclosure proceedings, lenders of 
money secured by mortgages on real estate and others having any interest 
whatever in real estate. Such a title guarantee policy protects the person to 
whom it is issued against loss or damage resulting from difficulties in the 
title to the real estate covered by the policy. By the terms of the policy the 
company will defend an attack upon the title without expense to the policy- 
holder and will pay the loss, if any, which may be sustained by the policy- 
holder to the extent of the face amount of the policy. 

Chicago Title and Trust Company, by corporate succession, was the first 
trust company incorporated under the General Trust Company Act of the 
State of Illinois in 1887. 

There are two departments of the Trust Division: the personal trust de- 
partment, which acts in connection with the property of living persons turned 
over to it as trustee and deceased persons for whose estates the company is 
acting, and the corporate trust department which concerns itself with the 
fiduciary business of corporations. 

The Trust Division acts in such capacities as executor of and trustee un- 
der wills, administrator of estates of deceased persons who leave no will, 
administrator of estates of deceased persons who leave no will, trustee under 
living trusts and family settlements, trustee under trust deed securing notes 
or bonds, trustee to hold title to real estate, register and transfer agent of 
stock for corporations and liquidating land trusts for real estate properties 
in disaster or in process of foreclosure. 

The Escrow Department is a stake-holder in real estate transactions and 
other business settlements. It is a clearing house lor transactions involving 
two or more persons or interests. 

Escrow service is most often used where the seller of real estate deposits 
his deed and the prospective purchaser deposits his money. Such an escrow 
protects the seller and the buyer and is widely used in nearly all real estate 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 199 

Few Chicago firms have so long and so successfully maintained continuity 
of service as Chicago Title and Trust Company. Few technical organizations 
have so long and so honorable a tradition of service to inspire them. 

Continuity of service, experience, and knowledge cannot be maintained 
where the turnover of operating and managerial force is great. Particularly 
is this true in a technical business. A few of the officers and employees of 
this company have been in continuous service for more than fifty years. 
Many have records of over thirty-five years and a great many have served 
from fifteen to thirty-five years. 

These people know the business, know desires of patrons and perhaps, 
what is better, the sound methods of accomplishing such desires. In this 
manner traditions of service are created and continued. Men pass on but 
traditions survives. 


physician and surgeon; born June 27, 1889, in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, sen of Frank and Balbina 
(Koszewski) Dombrowski; graduated in 1914 from 
the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery of 
the Loyola University; volunteered for service 
overseas in 1917; went with General Hospital No. 
9 of the Lakeside Unit and was assigned duty in 
the British Medical Corps, Sixth London Field 
Ambulance; also served as laboratory instructor in 
wound bacteriology and surgery for the Medical 
Research Laboratories, A. E. F., Dijon, France; 
later transferred to the American forces, on duty 
at Mobile Hospitals 1 and 9, and at Camp Hospi- 
tal No. 119; out of his experience in the war and 
elsewhere, he contributed to medical literature his 
"Wound Bacteriology," recognized as one of the 
most valuable works on that subject; has written 
many other articles and reports which have been 
published in medical and surgical journals; special- 
ized in gynecology and abdominal surgery; was a 
member of the staff of St. Mary's of Nazareth hos- 
pital, instructor in gynecology at the Chicago Col- 
lege of Medicine and Surgery, and was assistant in 
surgery and pathology in the University of Illinois 
College of Medicine and Surgery; became associ- 
ated with the group of prominent specialists who 
founded the Wicker Park Medical Center, at 1550 
North Damen Ave., where some notable develop- 
ments in medical science have been carried out 
(here for the first time was carried on the syste- 
matic breeding and use of maggots for treatment 
of osteo-myelitis, thus adding an important chap- 
ter to medical history) ; member of the Chicago 
and Illinois State Medical Association, the Polish 
Medical Society, the Chicago Society of P.N. A., 

past commander Capt. Arthur Kelly Post, 339 American Legion, Commanders' Post. 

Elmhurst Country Club; in 1931, appointed a member of the Board of Health by Mayor 

Cermak; in 1935 appointed managing officer of the Chicago State Hospital; November 22, 

1920, Married Miss Rose Luczak of Chicago, now deceased. 

Page 200 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

PULASKI COAL COMPANY, coal, coke, wood, fuel, oils— wholesale and 
retail ; located at 3025 West 26th Street, Chicago, Illinois ; executives : Casi- 
mir Pazdan, president; Xavier A. Czonstka, secretary; J. H. Paprocki, vice 
president; Anton Knutkowski, treasurer; Albert Tuman, Joseph Kurland 
and John Pierzchala, directors ; number of employees : one hundred ; organ- 
ized in 1918, Pulaski Coal Company is one of the largest coal companies in 
Chicago; equipped with a 1 l modern devices, such as seventeen cement silos, 
it is able to furnish excellent quality fuel, the modernization of its plant 
costing over $150,000; employs chemical experts who test the heating units 
of fuel — whether it is coal, coke, wood or oil — only the best grade of fuel 
is purchased ; this utmost care on the part of the management to give its 
clientele the best grade of merchandise, coupled with quick, efficient and 
courteous' service, has secured for it an ever growing trade, so much so that 
now the Pulaski Coal Company serves fifteen thousand satisfied customers, 
selling sixty thousand tons of coal yearly ; pursuing a policy of inviting the 
public to visit its modern plant without any obligation is another factor that 
has won for it a host of friends ; thanks to excellent storage in silos, efficient 
service by chemical experts, Pulaski coal is one hundred percent fuel, clean, 
without any impurities and dust; the slogan of the company is "the best pos- 
sible coal on the market for the people of Chicago for whom there is nothing 
too good; Pulaski coal, for that reason, enjoys a wide popularity and satisfied 
customers are found not only among Americans of Polish extraction but 
among the rest of the city's population ; will examine your heating system 
(furnace, hot water or steam boiler) and will give expert advice what grade 
of coal to use in order to get the most heat. Just call ROCkwell 8200 and the 
firm will send an expert who will advise you as to ycur fuel needs. 


i 1 


Pulaski Coal Company, 3025 West 26th Street, Chicago, 111. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 201 



^ !$Mpi» ' 


May 31, 1887, witnessed the organization of THE POLISH PUBLISHING COM- 
PANY of Chicago. A 
group of patriotic -Po- 
lish priests of Chicago 
and other cities, de- 
voted to the United 
States, the land of 
their adoption, and 
zealous for the pres- 
ervation among the 
increasing number of 
Polish immigrants, of 
the glorious traditions, 
language and culture 
and their native coun- 
try, laid plans for the 
organization of an in- 
stitution that would 
foster that patriotic 
COMPANY was es- 
tablished for the pur- 
p o s e of publishing 
newspapers, books and 
periodicals in the Po- 
lish language. The or- 
ganizers, the Rev. 
Vincent Barzynski, 
C.R., the Rev. John 
Radziejewski, and the 
Rev. John Zylla, all 
three of Chicago, ob- 
tained a charter of in- 
corporation on July 14, 1887. The first Board of Directors was comprised of the following 
clergymen: The Rev. Vincent Barzynski, C.R. ; Chicago; the Rev. John Radziejewski, 
Chicago; the Rev. Hyacinth Gulski, Milwaukee; the Rev. Clement Rogozinski, Milwau- 
kee; and the Rev. Valentine Czyzewski, South Bend, Indiana. The first officers of the 
Company were: President, the Rev. John Radziejewski; Secretary, Mr. John Barzynski; 
Treasurer, the Rev. Victor Zaleski. The first publication issued by the Company was 
"Wiada i Ojczyzna" (Faith and Country); later followed "Kropidlo" (The Aspergillum) ; 
"Polacy w Amervce" (The Poles in America). 

The first issue of the DZIENNIK CHICAGOSKI (The Polish Daily News), the cur- 
rent publication, a vigorous and militant Catholic daily, appeared December 15, 1890. The 
DZIENNIK CHICAGOSKI is now successfully completing the forty-seventh year of 
its illustrious and useful existence. Its first editor-in-chief was the late Stanislaus Szwaj- 
kart. Its present editor-in-chief is the Rev. M. N. Starzynski, C.R., a graduate of the 
Gregorian University in Rome, and St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri. 

The officers of the Company for the year 1937 are: President, the Very Rev. Stephen 
A. Kowalczyk, C.R. ; vice president, the Very Rev. Edward S. Brzezinski, C.R.; secretary- 
treasurer, the Rev. M. N. Starzynski, C.R.; directors: the Very Rev. Francis S. Uzdrow- 
ski, C.R., and the Very Rev. Bronislaus Lazarowicz, C.R. 

THE POLISH PUBLISHING COMPANY for the entire fifty years of its existence 
has operated under the same address, 1455-1457 W. Division Street. Including its corres- 
pondents and advertising solicitors, the Company employs nearly eighty people. 

Despite the various crises, fluctuations of business, and other recurring difficulties, 
which it has experienced, the DZIENNIK CHICAGOSKI has stood stalwartly by the 
principles and objectives it has purposed to attain. The interests of the Catholic faith, 
traditionally the religion of Poles, the struggle for Poland's independence and her subse- 
quent restoration to the family of nations, the civic progress and social advancement of 
the Poles of America, and specifically, of Chicago, have ever found in the DZIENNIK 
CHICAGOSKI an ardent champion and defender. 

The DZIENNIK CHICAGOSKI is justly proud of its long list of accomplishments, 
and its chivalrous past is a pledge of its determination to carry on the lofty aims of its 
distinguished Founders. 

P^rrp ?H9 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

NOWAK, presi- 
dent N o w a k 
Milling Corp., 
Hammond, Ind.; 
born April 29, 
1885, in Poland; 
son of Albert 
and Mary 
('S z c z ukowski) 
Nowak; educa- 
tion: Mas ten 
Park High 
School, Buffalo, 
N. Y., 1902; mar- 
ried November 
21, 1910, to Ber- 
nice C e n t il li; 
Children: Max- Nowak Wal- 
lace (married to 
Robert G. Wal- 
lace, Jr., New 
York), Albert C. 
Nowak, Chicago, 
with Nowak Mil- 
ling Corporation, 
licensed air 
pilot. Member of 
the Chicago Ath- 
letic Club, South 
Shore C. Club, 
Chicago Board 
of Trade, Chica- 
go Society, P. 
N. A., Polish 
Union of Ameri- 
ca, Polish Ro- 
m a n Catholic 
Union; life mem- 
ber of Buffalo, 
Fine Arts Aca- 
demy and Buf- 
falo Public Li- 
brary; former 
president, Broad- 
w a y National 
Bank, Buffalo; 
former president 

Amherst National Bank, Buffalo; former president Clinton Bank of Buffalo; chairman 
American Bank, Lackawanna, N. Y.; merged the above banks in 1922 with the Marine 
Trust Company, Buffalo, N. Y.; also member of Buffalo Athletic Club, Buffalo Club, 
Park Club, Wannakah Country Club; residence: 6811 Crandon Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

lers of live stock feed, one of the pioneer manu- 
facturing companies in America; started in 1901 
by the father of Maxwell M. Nowak, president 
of the Corporation, it has gradually built up to 
one of the largest plants in the country; pioneer 
in the manufacture of feed in pellet form; in 
1929 imported machinery from England to make 
pelleting possible; in 1936 added a product, Soy-O-Cide, a spray for livestock — the only 
water type spray on the market; the plant occupies an area of seven and a half acres and 
is located at Hammond, Indiana, with a branch plant in Buffalo, N. Y. 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page 203 

A. EMILY NAPIERALSKI, vice president of the Civil Service Commission 
of Cook County; an executive of the Polish Women's Alliance as president 
and as secretary for twenty-five years; Miss A. Emily Napieralski inspired 
and originated many worth-while movements for the Polish woman of Chi- 
cago ; the history of her achievements would fill a book and would be most 
interesting reading; on this page we wish to mention just a few of her most 
important phases of her career. 

Miss Napieralski was born in the Polish parish of St. Adalbert's, one of the 
founders of which was her father, one of the outstanding Polish pioneers of 
the City of Chicago ; he was directly instrumental in organizing a half dozen 
Polish parishers in Chicago and also organized the Polish Youth's Association. 

Miss Napieralski is an intimate friend of many prominent personages, many 
times honored by offers of important political positions by men like Gov. 
Lowden, Gov. Emerson, Gov. Small and Gov. Horner ; at present Miss Napie- 
ralski is a member and vice president of Cook County Civil Service Commis- 
sion, to which she was appointed by the late mayor and friend of the Polish 
people of Chicago, Anton Cermak ; Mayor Kelly, also recognizing her excep- 
tional ability, appointed Miss Napieralski member of Chicago's Safety Coun- 
cil ; a progressive in politics, she has done much to solidify the position of 
the Poles in Chicago ; as to her work in the Polish field which she loved so 
well, here are a few facts worth mentioning : 

During the sale of Liberty Bonds it was due principally to Miss Napieral- 
ski's enthusiastic speeches that over a million dollars worth were sold to 
the Poles; Miss Napieralski with the Rt. Rev. Bishop Rhode and Mr. S. 
Adamkiewicz conceived the first Polish Defense Council; Miss Napieralski 
worked in perfect accord with that great musician and Polish patriot, Ignace 
J. Paderewski, and was decorated for her valiant service with the order of 
Polonia Restituta ; the Cross of the First Class was conferred on her by the 
then president of Poland, Ignace Moscicki ; she also received a papal decora- 
tion ;' through the efforts of Miss Napieralski the first Convention of Polish 
Women was held in the nation's capital, Washington, D. C. ; mass was 
celebrated by the papal delegate and on that occasion Miss Napieralski was 
invited by the President Herbert Hoover and his wife to the capitol and 
stood in the receiving line to greet the guests arriving; through the efforts 
of Miss Napieralski a beautiful Polish flag was presented to the City of Chi- 
cago and accepted by Mayor Thompson; she was also instrumental in ar- 
ranging two Polish Days at the Chicago Century of Progress ; Miss Napie- 
ralski truly epitomizes the Polish womanhood of Chicago and America and 
the Poles are justly proud of her leadership; Miss Napieralski was a member 
of the Women's Peace Conference at Hague in 1915 and her speech there 
received with acclaim. 

Paze 204 

1^7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

WILLIAM ZELOSKY, land developer and home builder; born May 8, 1867, at Gniew- 
kowo, Poland; son of Vincent and Antonia (Osmialowski) Zelichowski; attended gram- 
mar school; 
married in 1915 
to Mi 1 d r e d 
Warden; mem- 
b e r, Chicago 
Real Estate 
Board, North- 
west Side Real 
Estate Board, 
Tlinois Ath- 
letic Club, Lake 
Shore Athletic 
Club, Press 
Club and the 
Edge water 
Golf Club; 
came to this 
country from 
Poznan in 1880 
when only 13 
years of age 
and settled in 
Texas; there 
worked on cat- 
tle ranches 
where on the 
wide open 
spaces he de- 
veloped into 
manhood; the 
name Zelosky 
is derived from 
Ue Polish 
Zelichowski, a 
name naturally 
difficult of pro- 
nunciation by 
hence the sim- 
plified spelling 
of Zeloskv; the 
World's "Col- 
umbian Expo- 
sition of 1893 
was the mag- 
net that drew 
him to Chica- 
go. W o r k e d 
for the World's 
Fair Exposition 
and upon i t s 
close establish- 
ed himself in 
the land de- 
velopment and home buiMing business; since 1896, has devoted all his efforts to develop- 
ing raw farm lands into lively modern city communities; each tract of new land was first 
supplied with every modern improvement before Zelosky offered it to the public; his is 
the accomplishment of having built many communities that today would comprise a fair 
sized city in itself, the paviny of hundreds of miles of city streets and the dedication of 
hundreds of acres for schools, churches, parks and playgrounds; has devoted his life to 
providing his fellow-man with a prime necessity of life — a home. Many communities on 
the North, Northwest and West sides of Chicago are enjoying the benefits of his careful 
planning and experience. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 205 

PAUL DRYMALSKI was born on December 16. 1877, in Poznan, Poland. At the age 
of three he came to Chicago with his parents. His early education was obtained in St. 

Stanislaus P a r o c h ia 1 
School, the local public 
school and the Chicago 
Business College. At 
the age of 21, he estab- 
lished his own coal 
business, which in 1907, 
was incorporated as the 
Polonia Coal Company, 
and of which he is pres- 

Interested in Chica- 
go's welfare and pro- 
gress, Mr. Drymalski 
has taken very active 
part in all constructive 
civic affairs of this city. 
His consistent efforts 
J»j in this direction were 

recognized by Mayor 
Carter H. Harrison, 
who appointed him 
m ember of the 
Small Parks Commis- 
sion to which office he 
w a s reappointed for 
three consecutive terms. 
In May, 1933, Mayor 
Edward J. Kelly, rec- 
^ ognized Mr. Drymal- 

^^F ski's civic attainments 

and business proclivi- 

:i * ties in appointing him 

Wk to membership of the 

Wk Chicago Board of Edu- 

K cation, an honorary po- 

^ Jhjj^. sition. In December, 

\, „. B^k 1935. County Judge Ed- 

{ B|t}|i mund K. Jarecki ap- 

JfB Bfc^^ pointed him member of 

P mm Jm fctn the Board ot " Tax Ap ~ 

■ /! wRI flfcfe^ peals. To this position 

Jgjjg £i Hfe. by 1.207,208 votes — a 

remarkable tribute to 
his popularity, efficient service and sterling qualities. Mr. Drymalski is very active in chari- 
table, fraternal and social endeavors. He has been a member of the Executive Committee 
of the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Chicago since its inception. He also served 
in the capacity of director and treasurer of St. Hedwig's Industrial School for ten years. 
In recognition of his services in the field of social welfare, upon recommendation of His 
Eminence, George Cardinal Mundelein, he was awarded the Cross of Knight of St. 
Gregory, by His Holiness, Pope Pius XI. 

He is a member of the following fraternal and social organizations: Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish Alma Mater, Catholic Circle, the Knights 
of Columbus, and the Illinois Athletic Club, of which he is treasurer. 

In the organization for celebrating Chicago's Charter Jubilee. Mayor Kelly has honored 
Mr Drymalski by appointing him chairman of the Polish Division, a distinction truly 
deserved indeed. Mr. Drymalski was married on May 29. 1907. to Miss Susan Schweda. 
and the children of this union are Raymond, Alvin and George. The family residence is 
at 3650 North Harding Avenue. 

Page. 206 



JOHN B. PALLASCH. a pioneer settler of the North-West Side of Chicago; born at 
Kahsz, Pomeranian Poland, June 3, 1864, came to Chicago in 1883; in 1887 married Au- 
gusta Golonska, deceased December 26, 1919; since 1889 until his death, on April 29. 
1937, engaged in the real estate business; one of the first members of the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, of its oldest group Harmonia No. 4; one of the oldest members of St. 
Stanislaus Kostka Parish, and Holy Trinity Parish, Polish Cavalry, Sacred Name of 
Mary of the Polish Roman Catholic Union; out of ten children seven have survived: 
Valeria M. Grotowski, wife of Dr. Leon Grotowski, Attorneys Paul V. and Abdon M., 
Pallasch, Theresa Lewendowski, wife of Sigmund W. Lewendowski, Zachary G. Pal- 
lasch, realtor, Gervaise Pallasch and Adeline A. Keane, wife of State Senator Thomas 
E. Keane. 

PAUL V. PALLASCH. attorney-at-law; born January 22, 
1893, in Chicago, Illinois; son of John B. and Augusta (Go- 
lonski) Pallasch; education: Kosciuszko Public School, Tu- 
ley High School, Northwestern College of Liberal Arts. 
B.A. degree, , Northwestern University School of Law 
LL.B.; married January 5. 1921, to Natalie E. Sakowski. 
daughter of Theodore and Mary Sakowski, vice president 
and director of the Polish National Alliance; they have one 
child, Mary Jean Pallasch; volunteered to serve in the 
World war as enlisted soldier and officer; now lieutenant 
in the United States Army Reserve; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Chicago and Illinois Bar Associations, 
past vice president Polish Bar Association, vice president 
Polish American Club of Chicago; in law practice since 
1917, with offices at 2424 West Fullerton avenue. 

ABDON M. PALLASCH, lawyer; born July 28, 1898. in 
Chicago, Illinois; son of John B. and Augusta (Golonski) 
Pallasch; education: Kosciuszko Public School, Tuley and 
Schurz High Schools, Northwestern University School of 
Law; married November 23, 1921, to Pearl M. Szymczak; 
the children of this union are Alice Ruth. Grace Valeria', 
Abdon M. Jr., and Joan, admitted to bar April 22, 1922.' 
volunteered to serve in the World war in September of 
1918; member of Polish Lawyers Association, Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish Le- 
gion of American Veterans, Theodore Roosevelt Post No. 
4, Pulaski Post No. 86 — American Legion, Northwestern 
University Alumni Club; office: 1146 Noble Street. 

LASCH, real estate broker, 
insurance and investments; 
born September 6, 1902, in 
Chicago, Illinois; son of John 
B. and Augusta (Golonski) 
Pallasch; graduate of Ko- 
sciuszko Public School and 

Schurz High School; married September 12, 1923, to Helen 
Krzyzanowski, and the children of this union are Vivian D. 
and John B. Pallasch II; member Polish American Phar- 
macists' Association, Dr. Klarkowski Group No. 2792— -Po- 
lish National Alliance; one of the organizers of Youth's 
Circles of Commune No. 120. 



JmH THERESA L. LEWENDOWSKI. real estate and insur- 

^^■■■MHBfc4 nice, locahd at 1140 Noble street; born October 6, 1900, 

in Chicago, Illinois; daughter of John B. Pallasch and Au- 
gusta (Golonski) Pallasch; education: Kosciuszko Public School, Tuley High School 
and Gregg Business College; married November 27, 1924, to Sigmund W. Lewendowski' 
and the children of this union are Clement John, Pauline Augusta and Theresa Mary; 
member of the Oswiata Society of the Polish Women's Alliance; daughter and secretary 
ot John B. Pallasch, founder of the firm of J. B. Pallasch and Sons, since 1918 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Pcxge 207 

NATIONAL CORDIAL COMPANY, located at 2129-35 North Western Avenue; 
liquor rectifiers, wholesale liquors — Monastery Brand and Liqueurs; its founder, M. F. 

Struzynski left his na- 
tive Poland at the early 
age of 14 and in 1891 
arrived in the new land 
of promise, where he 
worked for his living; 
after several years of 
working at various 
jobs, he and his brother, 
with a capital of $5.00 
in cash and a barrel of 
wine, began manufac- 
turing a famous Polish 
cordial — a honey wine 
known as miod in Po- 
lish, answering the old 
English meed; in the 
year of 1905, under the 
name of Struzynski 
Brothers, a small store, 
opened at Oakley Ave. 
and Frankfurt Street 
(n o w Charleston ,St.) 
began the manufacture 
of cordials and wines; 
with the growth of busi- 
ness, two years later 
they w r ere forced to seek 
larger quarters and 
moved to Armitage 
Avenue and Leavitt 
Street, where they were 
located for over five 
years; the business kept 
expanding and still 
larger quarters were re- 
quired, so they moved 
to Leavitt and" Wilmot 
Avenue, where they 
conducted the business 
until 1917, when the 
prohibition act was en- 
forced; during the pro- 
hibition era the business 
was converted into the 
manufacturing of non- 
alcoholic beverages and 
fruit syrups; after the repeal of the prohibition act the business was again reorganized, 
and in 1933 was incorporated under the name of National Cordial Company; the of- 
ficers are as follows: M. F. Struzynski, president; Henry Struzynski, treasurer, and M. A. 
Osuchowski, secretary; -M. F. Struzynski is the father of Henry Struzynski, associated 
with him in 'the business for the past fifteen years; daughter Helen Struzynski is the wife 
of M. A. Osuchowski, secretary of the organization and general manager; M. A. Osu- 
chowski is the former assistant treasurer of the Polish National Alliance, incumbent for 
seven years; the company today is one of the largest Polish firms in the United States 
in manufacturing and rectifying business, employing seventy-five people in its plant and 
office, owning a fleet of six delivery trucks for the distribution of its merchandise; the 
business has now expanded to such an extent that its products are to be found in all 
communities wherein sales of liquors are permitted; to keep up with the continued growth 
of the business, the company has rcently acquired the property at 1725-27 W Division 
Street, a modern three-story reinforced concrete building, containing over 20,000 square 

M. F. Struzynski 

Page 208 J 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


THE Polish consulate in Chicago is doing great work fostering commer- 
cial relations between the two republic, America and Poland. It has 
helped to introduce Polish products in this country, while it has al- 
ways favored American made goods for export to Poland. 

The consulate general of the Republic of Poland had been established in 
Chicago by the Polish government on June 1st, 1920. 

For a short time the consular office was temporarily located in the Polish 
Women's Alliance building, which extended its hospitality. 

Mr. Zygmunt Nowicki was designated at the first consul general for the 
post in Chicago. Previous to his appointment he served as president of a 
district court in Poland, and was a prominent leader in the movement for 
Poland's independence. Together with Mr. Nowicki a staff of fifteen consular 
employees arrived from Poland. In addition to these, over thirty local Polish 
employees were engaged in Chicago. And so, during its first years of exist- 
ence the consulate general employed a large staff which numbered about 
fifty persons, as this was the period of extensive immigration from Poland 
and re-emigration to Poland. 

The first permanent offices of the Polish consulate were located at 1115 X. 
Robey St. (now Damen Ave.) and business was carried on at this address 
for five years. 

During the seventeen years the following consul generals were in charge: 
Zygmunt Nowicki, 1920-1923; Jerzy Barthel Weydentha 1 , 1923-1926; Dr. 
Zdzislaw Kurnikowski, 1926-1929; Dr. Alexander Szczepahski, 1929-1930 
(deceased) ; Tytus Zbyszewski, 1931-1934. The present consul general, Dr. 
Waclaw Gawronski, took over the management of the Polish consulate gen- 
eral in Chicago on November 1, 1934. 

Within its territorial competency the Chicago consulate general has juris- 
diction over twenty-eight western states: Arizona, Arkansas, California, 
Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mis- 
souri, Montana. Nebraska, New Mexico, Nevada, North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming, 
Alaska, Hawaiian and Philippine Islands. About 1,500,000 Polish citizens and 
population of Polish descent live on this large territory. 

Due to the decrease in immigration and re-emigration, and also because of 
necessary budget restrictions, the personnel gradually decreased until at 
present only fourteen officials are employed in the Chicago consular office. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 Pnoe 709 

In view of the extensive territory under its jurisdiction, honorary Polish 
consulates will be established within the near future in the western and 
southern states, and their principal task shall be to develop new commercial 
connections between Poland and the United States. 

The scope of work in the various departments of the Polish consulate gen- 
eral comprises the following activities : 

(1) Protection extended to the Polish citizens, 

(2) Legal representation of the interests of emigrants from America now 
residing in Poland, in personal and financial matters, 

(3) Commercial contacts, which during the last years have considerably 

(4) Development of cultural contacts between Poland and the United 
States of America. 

LEO M. CZAJA, M.D., physician and surgeon; born in Chicago, July 21, 1889; son of 
John and Frances (Staniszewski) Czaja; attended St. Stanislaus College, received his 

medical degree in 1911 from the medical department of the 
University of Illinois; in charge of the surgical work of the 
Frcthingham unit with the rank of major in the Serbian 
Army Medical Corps; remained in Serbia throughout the typhus 
epidemic and left in October, 1915, when the entire Serbian 
army had been withdrawn from the country; on Feb. 15, 1916, 
married Jul.'a Belohlavek; they have two sons — John and 
Tom; with the United States in the World war, volunteered 
his services in the Medical Reserve Corps and called to duty 
on December 26, 1917, promoted to captaincy; sailed for 
France, July 1918, with Base Hospital No. 11 of Chicago; 
whi 1 e with this hospital of one thousand beds, had charge of 
bone and joint surgery and was summary court officer for the 
organization; in December, 1918. ordered to Paris, with the 
American commission to negotiate peace; soon after, sent to 
Poland with the United States Food Administration Mission 
to Poland; transferred to Vienna to the diplomatic courier ser- 
vice of the American commission to negotiate peace and later placed in charge of the 
Vienna office; resumed practice in Chicago, 1922, devoting his time to diseases and af- 
flictions of bones and joints, largely of a tuberculous nature; for eight years member of 
the staff of the Home for Destitute Crippled Children, where he instituted maggot treat- 
ment for osteomylitis and tuberculosis of bones and joints; co-author of a paper on this 
subject, which was published in the Illinois State Medical Journal; member of St. Mary 
of Nazareth Hospital since 1913; past president of the staff of this institution; Fellow of 
the American College of Surgeons, Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surg- 
eons; member of the Clinical Orthopedic Society, the Chicago Orthopedic Society, Fellow 
of the American Medical Association, member of the Illinois State Medical Society, the 
Chicago Medical Society, the Polish Medical and Dental Association, past president of 
the Polish Medical Society of Chicago; member of several fraternal organizations; on 
October 7, 1935, appointed by Hon. Edward J. Kelly, Mayor of Chicago, to the office 
of general superintendent of the City of Chicago Municipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium. 

Page 210 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 93 7 

manufacturer; born March 31, 1892, in 
Chicago, Illinois; son of Bernard and 
Pauline (Zinda) Blaski; education: St. 
Hedwig's Parochial School, Bloom Town- 
ship High School; married Stella Iwicki, 
deceased; remarried August 5, 1926. to 
Violet Reptowska; children: Lillian, Eve- 
lyn, Emanuel, Loretta, John, Jerome, 
Robert, Marian, Bernard, Barbara; holds 
a private pilot's license and is now work- 
ing on an aeroplane on radically nev* 
lines, being a prolific mechanical inven- 
tor; also has on the market a film box 
used in practically every motion picture 
house in Chicago and is being introduced 
throughout the United States; co-inventor 
of numerous patents in the skylight in- 
dustry; president of Holy Name Society 
of St. Constance Parish. 

BEN P. BLASKI, skylight manufacturer; 
born May 20, 1890, in Chicago, Illinois; 
son of Bernard and Pauline (Zinda); edu- 
cation: grammar school, high school, In- 
ternational Correspondence Course of En- 
gineering; graduate United States Army 
Aeroplane Construction and Mechanic 
School; married June 16, 1920 to Bessie 
Sadlowski, they have three children: Rich- 
ard, Marian and Joseph; at the youthful 
age of eighteen already had charge of a 
sheet metal contracting concern in Argo, 
Illinois, in 1912; former instructor in me- 
chanics, drawing and pattern draughting, 
at Lane Technical High School, in Chica- 
go, Illinois, together with J. B. Blaski, 
is co-inventor and holder of over fifteen 
United States patents in skylights, widely 
used throughout the country; possessed of 
wide general knowledge of the building in- 
dustry and also in research work in elec- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 211 

BLASKI MANUFACTURING COMPANY, skylight manufacturing; lo- 
cated at 4132-38 Belmont Avenue; John Blaski, president; Ben Blaski, treas- 
urer; number of employees, 28; organized in 1921, it was originally located 
at 1911 North Leavitt Street; originators of manufactured standardized ven- 
tilating skylights. Before the advent of the Blaski Mfg. Co., all skylights 
were made to order, and therefore, expensive; the Blaski idea embraced a 
novel way in which skylights could be opened for ventilation and a standard- 
ization of sizes; this enabled manufacture of skylights in mass production 
with the use of modern dies and machinery, and to keep skylights in stock 
ready for use on any building; skylights thus produced were make of ma- 
terials three times as thick as ordinarily used and of a much better quality; 
completely openable for ventilation and of high quality materials and work- 
manship, the skylights made an immediate success and practically doubled 
the use of skylights wherever introduced — and no wonder, for they sold for 
lower prices than charged for the old type non-ventilating hand made sky- 
lights ; like any other product of merit, Blaski Skylights are widely imitated, 
but never equalled, for the Blaski Manufacturing Company are owners of 
many valuable patents covering all important features of ventilating skylight 
manufacture ; it is the largest manufacturer of ventilating skylights, with 
sales representatives in principal cities of the country ; they had contracts 
with Lincoln Park Board, State Line Generating Company (largest power 
house in the world), British American Export Company, General Motors, 
Polish Women's Alliance, St. Adalbert's Cemetery, Greyhound Bus Line, 
United States Post-Office, and many others throughout the United States of 

Page 212 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 



THE PASIER PRODUCTS COMPANY, INC., located at 1901-03 West Division St., 
Chicago, Illinois; sauerkraut and pickles; the executive of this corporation are: John 

Gawel, president; Leo Wis- 
niewski, treasurer; Frank 
We Icing, secretary; twenty- 
seven people are employed; 
organized in 1921, at its 
original location, 923 North 
Ashland Avenue, the busi- 
ness was begun on a very 
small scale, with merchan- 
dise bought and resold; en- 
tered into the manufacture 
of all products, chiefly sau- 
erkraut and pickles, in fact 
everything in the pickle 
line kraut produced at the 
kraut plant at Genoa City, 
Wisconsin, pickles at the 
pickle station at Crystal 
Lake, 111. and Genoa City; 
owners of the building at 
1901-03 W. Division Street, 
Chicago, 111.; at this address 
since the year of 1926; own- 
ers of a train of trucks to supply the trade quickly and efficiently; the business is grow- 
ing by leaps and bounds, so much so that the Pasier Products are becoming nationally 
known; efficiency of service, quality merchandise, are boosting its business to such an 
extent that "PASIER" is becoming a household word. 


the pasier products cojnc 


The Wicker Park Medical Center was organized On October 30, 1930, its purpose be- 
ing to establish a group practice among our Polish medical profession which would be 
thoroughly equipped with every modern therapeutic device to render the most efficient 
service to the community. Accordingly, the organization has installed comprehensive de- 
partments for Minor and Industrial Surgery, Roentgenography (X-Ray), Physio-Therapy, 
Pharmacy and Laboratory Diagnosis. 

The following conceived this idea and are actively associated with the organization: 
Dr. J. J. Boland, L. M. Czaja, Z. G. Czaja. E. F. Dombrowski, L. P. Kozakiewicz. A. M. 
Lazar, M. L. Krupinski, F. J. Tenczar, J. F. Tenczar, M. E. Uznanski, physicians and 
Drs. F. G. Biedka and J. J. Chapp, dentists. 

From amongst this group certain men have made noteworthy achievements in the med- 
ical field. Dr. E. F. Dombrowski was appointed managing officer of the Chicago State 
Hospital on October 1, 1933, and is serving in this capacity at this time. Dr. Leo M. 
Czaja became general superintendent of the Chicago Municipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium 
on August 1, 1935, a position he is now holding. 

In December, 1936, Dr. M. E. Uznanski was elected to the office of president of the 
Chicago Polish Medical Society and in the same month Dr. F. G. Biedka was elected 
president of the Chicago Polish Dental Society. Dr. M. L. Krupinski, in May. 1937, re- 
ceived the honor of the vice presidency of the staff of St. Mary's of Nazareth Hospital. 

The officers of the Wicker Park Medical Center for the year 1937 are as follows: Drs. 
J. J. Boland, president; J. F. Tenczar, vice president; M. E. Uznanski, treasurer; Z. G. 
Czaja, secretary; F. J. Tenczar, manager. 

It might be further stated that this institution is efficiently serving the needs of its 
community as evidence by its prosperous existence to this date, its contributions to the 
neighborhood and its employment of ten specialized assistants of Polish extraction. 

The staff for 1937 is: Medical and Surgical— Joseph J. Boland, M.D., Leo M. Czaja. 
M.D., Z.G. Czaja, M.D., Ed. F. Dombrowski, M.D., Leo P. Kozakiewicz, M.D., Mitchell 
L. Krupinski, M.D., A. Meyer Lazar, M.D., F. J. Tenczar, M.D., J. F. Tenczar. M.D., 
Matthew E. Uznanski, M. D. Dentists— John J. Chapp, D.D.S., F. G. Biedka. D.D.S. 
Roentgenologist — Carr. Technician — Miss L. Gawin. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 213 

XOSKI, Alderman of the 
35th Ward; for many years 
a coal merchant; born on 
Time 21, 1836, in Chicago, 
Illinois, the son of Louis 
and Constance (Mulzoff) 
Orlikoski; attended paro- 
ch'al and public grammar 
and high schools; married 
Ekanor Helen Sullivan, on 
November 11, 1929; be- 
longs to many professional, 
social, fraternal and civic 
organizations; elected al- 
derman of the 39th Ward, 
now the 35th, on April 6, 
1931; re-elected in 1933 and 
in 1935. 

JOSEPH P. ROSTENKOWSKI, alderman of the 32nd 
Ward; born September 15, 1892, the son of Peter and 
Katherine (Giersch) Rostenkowski; attended St. Stanislaus 
College, Metropolitan College; former senatorial commit- 
teeman, state representative of the 27th senatorial district; 
now, alderman of the 32nd ward for the past six years; 
ward committeeman for two years; delegate to the Na- 
tional Committee of the Democratic Convention; married 
on February 8, 1918, to Priscilla Dombrowski, sister of Dr. 
Edward F. Dombrowski, who manages the Chicago State 
Hospital; the children of this union are two daughters and 
one son — Gladys, Marcella and Daniel; member of the Po- 
lish National Alliance of America, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Polish Alma Mater, and many others; number of 
a family that have always taken active part in the social, 
political life of the community; his father, Peter Rosten- 
kowski, a pioneer Chicagoan, was director, president and 
then treasurer of the Polish Reman Catholic Union, and 
active in such organizations as the Polish National Council, 
Polish Central Relief Committee, Polish National Depart- 
ment, which collected funds to aid the war-stricken people of Poland and worked for the 
liberation of that country during the World War, his popularity is due to his great zeal 
exerted in behalf of his constituents; responsible for many improvements in his ward, 
such as clean streets and alleys; interested primarily in the youth, he is responsible for 
many vacant property converted to playgrounds, for soft ball, horseshoe pitching, etc.; 
active in his capacity as alderman, serving on many committees with distinction and soli- 
citude for the public welfart ; chairman of the aldermen's committee on schools, tire and 
civil service; other committee memberships: local transportation, utilities, license rail- 
way terminals, recreation and aviation, harbors, wharves and bridges. 

Pave 214 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

er in Chancery; born Octo- 
ber 30, 1891, in Chicago, Il- 
linois; son of Anton and Au- 
gustine Gorski; attended 
Chicago Law School; mem- 
ber of the Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic U n ion, Chicago 
Bar Association, Illinois 
State Bar Assocition, Po- 
lish Lawyers' Association; 
was appointed assistant 
state's attorney and served 
from 1918 to 1920; appointed 
master-in-chancery in 1929, 
a position he holds at pres- 

LINK, Vice President of 
the Board of Local Im- 
provements; born February 
12, 1884, in Poland, the son 
of John and Cecelia (Moncz- 
kowska) Link; graduated 
Medill High School, took a 
two-year engineering course 
at the Lewis Institute; mar- 
ried Frances Wisniewska, 
June 1, 1909, and the chil- 
dren of this union are Rob- 
ert, Helen, Oren, Genevieve, 
Chester; President of Board 
of Local Improvements for 
over two years; member of 
the Polish National Alliance,. 
Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Polish-American Democratic 
Organization since its incep- 
tion, Secretary of the Metal 
Workers' Organization, 
President for two wears of 
Master Japanners Associa- 
tion; former President Im- 
perial Japanning and Enam- 
eling Works for eighteen 
years, employing one hun- 
dred and ten persons. 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 215 

SKI, Captain in the Chi- 
cago Police Department; 
born January 26, 1879, in 
Poland, the son of Joseph 
and Frances Pawlowski; 
attended St. Stanislaus Pa- 
rochial School; married 
Rose Kowalski on Novem- 
ber 16, 1906, and the chil- 
dren of this union are 
Charles J.. Eleonora and 
Alice; member of the Po- 
lice Benevolent Associa- 
tion, S p a n i s h-American 
War Veterans, Polish Ro- 
man Catholic Union, Po- 
lish National Alliance, 
Lyons Club. Pulaski Club 
— Hanson Park, Polish- 
American Democratic 
Club; six years in the 
United States Army, hav- 
ing served during the 
Spanish-American war. 


of the Chicago Police; born May 23, 
1896, in Chicago, Illinois, son of Adam 
and Frances (Swoboda) Demski; attended 
St. Adalbert's, 1911, St. Ignatius College, 
1914; married Rose Zolecki, September 
21. 1921. and the child of this union is 
Francis H-. Demski, Jr.; member of the 
American Legion No. 207 Police Post, 
Polish National Alliance, Chicago So- 
ciety No. 1450, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Polish-American Democratic Club 
of Chicago, Chicago Police Benevolent 
Association, Polish-American Chicago 
Police Club; for five and a half years on 
the American stage, playing leading roles 
in Broadway successes. 

Pag e 216 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


located at 3156 South Morgan Street; lending money to members to become home own- 
ers; the executives 
are: Felix Lukaszew- 
ski, president; Anton 
Glomski, secretary; 

Stephen A. Gorski, 
assistant secretary; 
John Jasinski, vice- 
president; Frank Ko- 
stecki, treasurer; or- 
ganized in 1892, it 
was originally locat- 
ed at 1001 W. 32nd 
Street; employing six 
people, it is the 
largest Polish loan 
and building asso- 
ciation in the State 
of Illinois; its assets 
at one time were 
over three million 
dollars; all money 

loaned out on small homes; located in their own building; their office is open from 

9:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m. daily. 

West Division Street; manufacturers of caskets; the executives are: Stanley E. Giese, 
president; Alexander 
Busch, vice president; 
Max Giese, secretary; 
A. H. Novak, treasurer; 
M. A. Koop, sales man- 
ager; A. Kulesza, Sr., 
production manager; 
has fifty employees; or- 
ganized in 1918, orig- 
inally located at 1313 
West Division street; 
one of the stockholders 
of the present corpora- 
tion was engaged in the 
manufacture of saloon 
fixtures at the original 
location of the present 
factory; the passage of 
the Eighteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitu- 
tion of the United 
States automatically 
ended the demand _ for 
his product; according- 
ly, it was necessary for 
him to decide upon 
another product for 

which the machinery and equipment could be utilized; he outlined his plight to several 
of his friends; they thought that the manufacture of caskets would be a good business; 
these friends supplied the additional capital necessary to establish the new venture and 
became the original incorporators of the American Casket and Manufacturing Company, 
with its present location at 1313-23 West Division Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 217 

CASIMIR S. KOSTULSKI, corporation 
officer; secretary-treasurer of Dvvight 
Brothers Paper Co., 626 S. Clark St., Chi- 
cago, 111.; born February 16, 1891, at Po- 
znan, Poland; the son of Stanislaw and 
Rose (Strozewski) Kostulski; attended 
Chicago parochial schools, 1903; Chicago 
Public Schools, 1904; Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association of Chicago; Chicago Col- 
lege Preparatory School, 1916; Walton 
School of Commerce, Mid-Western School 
of Commerce and Loyola School of Com- 
merce, 1926; Chicago Kent College of 
Law, 1923. Degrees: Chicago Kent Col- 
lege of Law — Bachelor of Laws, 1922; 
Chicago Kent College of Law— Master of 
Laws, 1923; married Selma M. Schlei- 
chert, on June 9, 1915, with whom he has 
one son, Raymond C; member of the Chi- 
cago Society, group No. 1450 of the Po- 
lish National Alliance, American Bar As- 
sociation, National Association of Cost 
Accountants, Executives' Club of Chica- 
go, Union League Club, National Health 
Club, American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, Economics Club of Chi- 
cago; during the World war served as 
chief field auditor of the United States 
War Department, Department of Military 
Aeronautics — Financial Division. 

JOHN A. SIEROCINSKI, President of 
the Second Federal Savings and Loan 
Association; born June 24, 1894, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, the son of Aloysius and 
Valeria (Nowakowska) Sierocinski; at- 
tended St. Mary's Parochial School of 
Cicero, Illinois; Crane High School, 1917; 
De Paul University, 1924; American Sav- 
ings and Loan Institute for five years, of 
which he is graduate; the American In- 
stitute of Sociology; married Helen Na- 
polski, on June 2, 1915, and the children 
of this union are Lorraine, E. John Jr. 
Sierocinski; an authority on savings and 
loan matters, heading one of the largest 
Polish savings and loan associations in 
the State of Illinois; often called by pro- 
minent citizens and institutions to give his 
expert opinion on building and loan mat- 
ters; his favorite sports are fishing, hunt- 
ing and golf; president of the American 
Savings and Loan Institute; director of 
the Federal Home Loan Bank, Chicago, 
111.; president of the Crawford Business 
Men's League; chairman of the Troop No. 
316, Boys Scouts of America; member of 
the Cas. Pulaski Civic League, P. N. A., 
P.R.C.U., Knights of Columbus, Catholic 
Circle, Illinois Athletic Club, Holy Name 
Society, Polish-American Business Men's 
League, Society of Residential Appraisers. 

Paee 218 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1 937 

FRANK BOBRYTZKE, President of the 
Milwaukee Avenue National Bank, Frank Bo- 
brytzke and Co., Real Estate, National Milk 
Company, South Bend, Ind.; born October 10, 
1886, in Chicago, Illinois, son of Joseph and 
Anastasia (Boyk) Bobrytzke; attended St. 
Josaphat's Parochial School; married Agnes 
Lalowski October 16, 1907, who died July 1, 
1931; second marriage to Constance Moritz of 
Wilkes-Barre, Penna., June 26, 1935; the off- 
spring include Joseph J., Dorothy Bobrytzke 
Piszczek and Margaret; member Knights of 
Columbus, Catholic Order of Foresters, Po- 
lish Roman Catholic Union, Polish National 
Alliance, Chicago Society, Lake Shore Ath- 
letic Club, Dairymen's Country Club, Regular 
Democratic Organization, Polish American 
Democratic Organization, President of Na- 
tional Milk Company of South Bend, Ind., 
since 1930, Frank Bobrytzke and Co., Real 
Estate, director of the Milwaukee Ave. Na- 
tional Bank, Cook County Commissioner since 
1934, vice president of Municipal Tuberculosis 
Sanitarium, member of the Board of Health, 
1933-34; former Commissioner of Lincoln 

Park; organized the National Milk Co. of Chicago in 1903 and sold it to Bowman Dairy 

Company in 1929. 

SLOTKOWSKI SAUSAGE COMPANY, 2021 West 18th Street, Joseph Slotkowski, 
owner and president; one of the most famous manufacturers of Polish sausages in Amer- 
ica; from a tiny delicatessen store on Commercial Avenue in South Chicago, the business 
with the splendid help of his wife has steadily expanded, so much so that in 1935 and 
1936 Joseph Slotkowski had to build a $58,000 addition to his manufacturing plant; this 
extensive remodeling embraced all the types of improvements, among which the most 
important is the system of refrigeration designed by Joseph Slotkowski himself; this 
system is being rapidly adopted by other leading sausage manufacturers at this time; 
in the Slotkowski new plant the meat for sausage manufacture goes through each step 
of processing without waste motion — through the boning room, salting and chilling, the 
grinding, smoking, cooking, sanitary cooling, and refrigerating to proper degree of chill; 
his son, Leonard, age 20, is following in father's footsteps, his father predicting that "one 
of these days his son will take over where he leaves off." 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 219 

Z. H. KADOW, lawyer, al- 
derman of the 33rd ward; 
born August 26, 1884, in 
Chicago, Illinois, the son of 
August and Leokadia (Ja- 
recki) Kadow; attended St. 
Stanislaus Kostka College, 
Robert A. Waller High 
School, Northwestern Uni- 
varsity Law School; married 
Irene J. Korzeniewski, June 
8, 1920; member of the Chi- 
cago Bar Association, Illi- 
nois State Bar Association, 
Polish Roman Catholic Un- 
ion, Polish National All- 
iance, Knights of Columbus, 
Polish American Democratic 
Club, 33rd Ward Regular 
Demo cratic Organization, 
Rev. Barzynski C i t i z en s' 
Club, Logan Square Busi- 
ness Men's Association, Mil- 
waukee - Armitage - Western 
Business Men's Association; 
attorney for Pulaski Build- 
ing and Loan Investment. 

of the 21st ward; born May 18, 1903, in 
Chicago, Illinois; son of Kasper and So- 
phie (Mleczko) Ropa; attended Whittier 
Grammar School and St. Adalbert's Pa- 
rochial School; at the age of 14 it was 
necessary for him to help support an in- 
creasing family of which he was the old- 
est of seven boys but he continued studies 
by attending evening classes at Harrison 
High School, De Paul University and 
the Y. M. C. A.; married Nellie Nowak 
on February 22, 1930; they have one child 
Alice; member of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Regular Democratic Organization, Pol'sh 
Sokols, Wilno Society; director and as- 
sistant secretary of the Piast Building and 
Loan Association, Bishop Kettler Coun- 
cil, Knight of Columbus; active in all 
civic affairs, exceedingly popular his 
constituents, he bids fair to reach the 
heights in politics. Joseph Francis Ropa 
became alderman of the 21st ward to suc- 
ceed former alderman John Lagodny, who 
died in office in December. 1935. Member 
Polish National Alliance, Chicago Pioneer; 

Society, Polish Welfare Association. 

Page 220 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


city attorney of the City of Chicago; born January 20, 

1883, in Chicago, 111.; a son of Francis and Johanna 

(Kadow) Smietanka; attended the Gallistel School, 

1899, Chicago English High and Manual Training 

1902, and Northwestern University Law School, 1906; 

married Valeria Czeslawski on June 19, 1918, and the 

children of this union are Leonard and Adele; asso- 
ciated with the law firm of Smietanka, Johnson and 

Molthrop; members of said firm George E. Q. John- 
son, former U. S. district attorney and district judge, 

and Charles P. Molthrop, former circuit court judge of 

Cook County; at one time active in the service of the 

Depositors State Bank as vice president, 'trust officer 

and director; was a candidate for judge of the munici- 
pal court in 1931 at the time the late Anton J. Cer- 

mak was candidate for mayor of Chicago; although he 

obtained 543,000 votes he was defeated by several 

thousand votes; immediately, on April 10, 1931, Mayor 

Cermak appointed him city attorney of Chicago which 

position he still holds, showing effective work in re- 
ducing the number of judgments against the Ciiy of Chicago and holding down personal 
injury claims to the minimum; active in fraternal societies; on April 3, 1912 to "ether with 
Leo S. Mallek and F. A. Osuch, organized the Chicago Society of the P.N.A., of which he 
became its first chairman, Leo S. Mallek recording secretary and F. A. Osu:h financial 
secretary; appointed government appeal agent for Local Exemption Board No. 67 in 1918- 
active in civic organizations, former director in the Stock Yards Business and Civic As- 
sociation; member of the Chicago Bar Association, Pol'sh Lawyers' Association, South- 
west Lawyers Association, North American Union, Civil Legion, Chicago Society of the 
Polish National Alliance, Chicago Pioneers' Society, Polish Welfare Association 

IGNACY LENARD, Catering and Res- 
taurant business; born of Wojciech and 
Anna (Chmurko) Lenard, in Poland; edu- 
cated in Poland; married to Caroline Gra- 
bowska, and the children of this union 
are: Helena (graduate of the Immaculate 
Conception Academy in Poland), Jadwi- 
ga (also studying in Po 1 and). Thad- 
deus and Casimir (graduates of the St. 
Joseph's Convent at Chyrow, Poland); 
conducts the Lenard's Restaurant and 
fancy pastry business at 1166 Mihvaukee 
Avenue,, in partnership with Karolina 
Lenard; the restaurant, originally located 
at 1070 Milwaukee Avenue, catered to 
the volunteer recruits of the American 
army, the recruits of the Polish (Hal- 
ler's) army, the scene of many receptions 
and meetings, Liberty Bonds and Red 
Cross rallies, during the World War; the 
center of most important Polish Ameri- 
can activities; the best known and most 
popular Polish American restaurant in 
the city, attended by nearly all our pro- 
fessional and intellectual men and women. 
A beautiful hall above the restaurant is 
rented for dances, weddings and parties. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 221 


attorney-at-law; born January 6, 1882, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, son of Stanley D. and Antonina 
(Pinderski) Miroslawski; attended Avondale 
School, 1898, Jefferson High School, 1902, 
graduated Chicago Kent College, 1906; mar- 
ried Genevieve A. Kleczewski, aov. 19, 1^12, 
and the children of this union are: Mae Bea- 
trice, Henry S. and Grace G.; his father Stan- 
ley D. came to this country in 1870 and was 
one of the first legislators of Polish descent 
in Illinois; lineal descendant of a noble family, 
distinguished in the annals of Poland, the 
most famous being General Ludwik Miroslaw- 
ski, leader in the movement of 1830 to estab- 
lish a United States of Europe, who was aided 
in this by Adam Miroslawski, another disting- 
guished member of the family in the last cen- 
tury, a great explorer, discoverer of two is- 
lands in the Indian Ocean holding them for 
Poland as against the claims of France and 
England, and there establishing various enter- 
prises, the main being pearl fisheries, with 
which he was able to finance the insurrection 
of 1831, 1847; Witold Sigmund MiroslawskHs 
member of the Illinois Bar Association, Polish 
Lawyers' Association, Po 1 ish National Al- 
liance, Polish RomanCatholic Union, Polish Alma Mater, Polish American Democratic 
Organization, Pan-Slavic League, Slavic Alliance of America, Iroquois Club. 


""*****•* *^>f ^gSfe^i 


-* i 

« i 





J' P 729-35 MILWAUKEE AVE. *(P 

** CHICAGO. * 

. - . • ' - -. -^ - - 

manufacturing, located at 729-735 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; incorporated in 
June, 1903, it now employs thirty people and is managed by the following executives: 
Joseph Magdziarz, president; Martin Wojczynski, vice president and treasurer; Roman 
Grochowina, secretary; really organized in 1898 by a small group of Polish business men, 
originally to serve the Polish speaking people of Chicago and vicinity; five years later 
followed its incorporation with a capital of $25,000.00; due to the wonderful and loyal 
support of the Poles, this amount had to be increased to its present capitalization of 
$300,000.00; now one of the largest coffin and casket manufacturers in the state. 

Page 222 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

and throat specialist; born in Milwaukee, Wise., 
November 20, 1890, son of Stanley and Frances A. 
(Zinda) Dulak; graduated Marquette Academy, 
Milwaukee, 1908; Ph.G. Marquette University, 
1912; M.D. Loyola University, 1916; graduate 
study at Vienna University, 1922-23, married Wan- 
da J. Augustynowicz, of Chicago, November 14, 
1916; children: Francis Arthur, Robert Edward; 
began practice in Chicago, 1916; Associate in ear 
nose and throat department, Loyola University, 
clinic instructor and lecturer in opthalmology; lec- 
turer, Training School for Nurses of St. Elizabeth 
and previously Garfield Park Hospitals; Head of 
ear, nose and throat dept., St. Elizabeth Hospital, 
executive member) ; psychopathic commissioner of 
Cook County Hospital since 1922; chief medical ex- 
aminer of the Polish Alma Mater of North Amer- 
ica, Fraternal Insurance, 1916-28; member Exemp- 
tion Board No. 35, World war, member of P.N. A., 
P.R.C.U., Foresters, Illinois-Mississippi Medical 
Association, American Medical Association, Illi- 
nois State Medical Society, Chicago Medical So- 
ciety, Tri-State Medical Society, past president of 
the Polish Medical Society, Association of Vienna 
Physicians, Kiwanis International Clubs, Illinois 
Athletic, Physicians Fellowship. Member Chicago Board of Health, Chief Medical Ex- 
aminer of Polish National Alliance; formerly on Staff of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary. 
Recreations: golf, swimming, skating, bowling. Home: 2050 Humboldt Blvd. Office: 
1608 Milwaukee Avenue. 

Committeeman of the 35th Ward; born on 
June 22, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois; son of 
Peter P. and Julia (Nowakowski) Szum- 
narski; married Frances M. Arkuszewski« 
and the children of this union are: Geral- 
dine and Jack; member of the LaFayette 
Council of the Knights of Columbus, 
Modern Woodmen of America, Chicago 

Though young for one holding such an 
important position as Demicratic Com- 
mitteeman, Mr. Szumnarski has demon- 
strated unusual ability. Long active in 
politics he succeeded Leo Winiecki as 
committeeman upon the latter' s death. 
Since then he has maintained impregnible 
the party's strength in the ward. Mr. 
Szumnarski is extremely popular not on- 
ly with party workers both downtown 
and in his own ward, but also with the 
people he represents in his own com- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 7937 

Page 221 

JOSEPH A. SLUPKOWSKI, architect; born November 19, 1884, in Chicago. Illinois, 
the son of Fabian and Mary Slupkowski; attended Art Institute, Armour Institute and 

Central College; married Charlotte Sakowski, No- 
vember 27, 1917, and the children of this union are 
Raymond and Allan; employed by some of the 
more prominent architects of Chicago, namely: 
Mumdie and Jensen, Graham, Anderson Probst 
and White; also in the engineering department of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad; 
while in the employ of the above-mentioned ar- 
chitects, he prepared plans and drawings for such 
buildings as Consumers Building, Chicago, Fed- 
eral Reserve Bank, Chicago, and Union Trust 
Building of Cleveland, Ohio — all fire-proof sky- 
scrapers; employed for eight months by the Unit- 
ed States Government at Washington, D. C. as as- 
sociate engineer in 1935; in practice for himself in 
1921, with an office in the Palatine Building, Chi- 
cago; while in business for himself, prepared plans 
and supervised construction of such buildings as 
United Butchers Packing House, Holy Trinity 
High School, Francis Gordon Gymnasium, St. 
Joseph's Home for the Aged, and recently has 
prepared plans for the new office building of the 
Polish National Alliance in Chicago; has prepared 
plans for the construction of over one thousand 
various types of buildings in and out of Chicago; 
member of the Chicago Society of the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Illinois Society of Architects, Pinelands Country Club, and many others. 

MICHAEL TREMKO, Judge of the Mu- 
nicipal Courts of Chicago; born August 
21, 1892, at Taylor, Pennsylvania; the 
son of Jacob and Anna Tremko; attended 
public school, Taylor, Pa., St. Procopius 
High School at Lisle, Illinois, Loyola 
University Law School, from which he 
graduated in 1916; married Anne Bo- 
back October 5, 1917, and the children of 
this union are Edward, Norbert, Michael, 
Jr.; member of the Chicago Bar Associa- 
tion and the American Bar Association, 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, First Slovak Brother- 
hood of New Jersey, National Slovak 
Union of Pennsylvania, Regular Demo- 
cratic Organization, the 28th Ward Dem- 
ocratic Organization,, Slovak Citizens' 
Political Club of Cook County, Slovak 
Business Good-Will Club, Knights of 
Columbus, Loyal Order of the Moose. 

Page 224 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

at-law; born April 1, 1878, in Poland; son of An- 
thony and Mary (Lula) Koscinski; attended public 
school, 1894; St. Cyril and Methodius Seminary, 
1899; Detroit College of Law, LL.B.. 1902; married 
Frances Mikitynski, on February 17, 1909, and the 
children of this union are Marion F. and Leo. J.; 
member of the Polish National Alliance, Polish- 
American Bar Association, Polish Lawyers' Asso- 
ciation of Chicago, Sunny Brook Golf Club; at pres- 
ent general counsel of the Polish National Alliance. 

i fF 


Commissioner Public Vehi- 
cle License of Chicago; born 
December 17, 1893, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, a son of Theo- 
phil and Stanislawa (Sta- 
browska) Gordon; attended 
St. Mary's of Angels, 1907, 
St. Stanislaus College, 1912; 
married Cecelia M. Balcer, 
June 12, 1916, and the chil- 
dren of this union are Theo- 
pnil, Thomas Jr., Romona 
and Natalie; member of the 
Polish Alma Mater, Knights 
of Columbus, Polish Na- 
tional Alliance; appointed 
Commissioner of West 
Parks, January 30, 1933, by 
Henry riorner, Governor oi 
Illinois; following the parks' 
consolidation, received high- 
er appointment as cabinet 
member, Commissioner of 
Public Vehicle License De- 
partment, City of Chicago, 
from Mavor Edward J. 
Kelly, March 13, 1935. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Paze 22T 

binder; born December 3, 1913, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois; son of Charles and Kazi- 
miera (Szczypczyk) Bojkowski; attended 
Carl Schurz High School two years; one 
year at the Polish National Alliance High 
School at Cambridge Springs, Pennsylva- 
nia; married Eleanor Rzeszotarski on 
May 16, 1936; owner of the Ashland 
Book Bindery, one of the largest Polish 
institutions of its kind in Chicago — the 
outgrowth of a small department orig- 
inally connected with the Polish-Ameri- 
can Publishing Company. • Charles Boj- 
kowski, Sr., served his apprenticeship in 
the leading book binderies of Poland; 
upon his arrival in America Charles found 
employment with Mr. Dyniewicz's pub- 
lishing company, where he worked as 
foreman of the bindery; when John F. 
Smulski acquired the business from Mr. 
Dyniewicz, Mr. Bojkowski leased the 
book-binding department from him; in 
1918 he purchased it outright and adding 
more new machinery, established the Di- 
vision 'Book Bindery; in recent years the 
firm was reorganized and Mr. Chas. Boj- 
kowski, Jr., took over the active man- 
agement of the business; he is a member 
of the Binders' Union and Chicago So- 
ciety of the Polish National Alliance. 

gaged in automobile construc- 
tion; born December 19, 1895, at 
Krynica, Poland; attended a 
business college at Krakow, Po- 
land, and Berlin, Germany; mar- 
ried Regina Bienkowski; they 
have four children — Thaddeus, 
(student of law at De Paul), Eu- 
gene, John and daughter Jean- 
nette, assisting her father as sec- 
retary of the firm; in 1924, or- 
ganized the Adam's Auto Con- 
struction Company, Inc., which 
does repair work on trucks and 
cars for many leading firms, 
merchants and individuals in 
Chicago; the Adam's Auto Con- 
struction Company, Inc., is lo- 
cated at 4116-18 Belmont Ave., 
telephone KILdare 8453. 

Page 226 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


FRANK E. KONKOWSKI, attorney-at-law; born 
December 14, 1895, in Chicago, Illinois, the son of 
Frank and Rose (Kielczynski) Konkowski; at- 
tended St. John Cantius Grammar School, St. 
Stanislaus College, Marquette University, and Chi- 
cago Kent College of Law; member of the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union of America, Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Knights of Columbus, Phi Alpha 
Delta Law Fraternity, Allied Post of the Ameri- 
can Legion; alderman and Democratic committee- 
man of 26th Ward, second term; active and en- 
ergetic, has served on many committees in the 
City Hall, such as Consolidation and Reorgani- 
zation of Taxation; Local Transportation; Utili- 
ties; Local Industries; Judiciary; Building and 
Zone; Railway Terminal; active in many civic or- 
ganizations and very popular in the 26th ward of 
which he is alderman and ward committeeman; 
has raised the standard of his ward, so much so 
that his fellow-citizens are most grateful to him 
for his services and support him in all his meas- 
ures of civic improvement. 

FRANK ROUTH, commercial and illustrative photographer; 224 East On- 
tario Street; since 1918 in the business; had own studio in 1925, which he 
sold in 1929; returned into own business in 1934; his specialty is factory in- 
teriors and he does all model work for Chicago — for Models Registration Bu- 
reau in this city; does commercial photography for Crane Company, Com- 
monwealth-Edison, Bastian and Blessing Co., of Chicago ; for such New 
York firms as the Silk Magazine, Printer's Ink Magazine, and many others ; 
born November 27, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois; son of Fred and Josephine 
Rutkowski ; education ; parochial and public schools, business college ; does 
talking slide films in the field of sales promotion, for such firms as C. F. 
Pease and Co., and many others ; these talking slide firms are not moving 
pictures, but present merchandise accompanied by sales talks ; does test 
photos for the Hollywood film studios ; his artistic photography shows the 
subject real without retouching; his wife is an artist at make-up; by means 
of his photography, with and without make-up, many people have received 
contracts in Hollywood ; his wedding pictures represent artistry of the high- 
est type and for that reason his studio on the Gold Coast has attained great 
popularity with wedded couples ; his studio at 224 East Ontario, on the so- 
called Gold Coast, is thoroughly equipped, all modern in every respect, con- 
taining furnishings for parlor, bedroom scene, and all other homelike scenes. 

• 1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 Page_227 

THOMAS SKORUPA, horticulturist; born February 27, 1879, at Leki Dolne, Poland; 
son of Joseph and Catherine (Twardowski) Skorupa; graduated the National School of 
Horticulture, at Tarnow, Poland, March 31, 1900; employed by 
A. Denizot, Poznan, Poland, by Count E. Eanguszko, at Gum- 
niski, as senior assistant gardener, and 1904-05, at Emperor 
Francis Joseph's beautiful Schcenbrunn castle, Vienna, Austria; 
next called as instructor of the horticultural school ("Krajowa 
Szkola Ogrodnicza"), of which he is graduate; subsequently 
smploeyd by F. K. Czerwinski, of Cracow, as horticulturist and 
landscape architect; upon his arrival in America, 1905, worked 
from Washington, D. C. office of public buildings and grounds 
is division park foreman; there he earned an enviable reputa- 
tion as an experienced landscape architect; coming to Chicago, 
he took a YMCA course in surveying; passed an examination 
for the school board as head gardener and for the park system 
with high honors; as superintendent of the newly created North- 
west Park District, including Mozart Park, Kosciuszko Park, 
Kelvyn, Rutherford-Sayre, Kellog Tract, he developed the dis- 
trict into one of the most beautiful in the city; George H. Bradshaw, president of the 
Northwest Park District, in his letter dated Chicago, June 13, 1919, wrote as follows: 
"This is to certify that Mr. Thomas Skorupa has been associated with the Northwest 
Park System of Chicago, as general superintendent and manager for the past five years, 
during which time his services have been entirely satisfactory in every respect. He has 
had seven separate and distinct parks under his management, has seen to hiring of all 
his help, the laying out of the parks, the purchase of shrubs and equipment, the erection 
of field houses, as well as general supervision of all our field house activities. His general 
knowledge of trees, shrubs, flowers, and landscape work has been of great value to us, 
and the success of his achievements is seen through our park system, and is greatly ap- 
preciated by thousands of taxpayers in our vicinity. We put Mr. Skorupa to work upon 
the recommendation of Mr. Jens Jensen, who knows his ability, and praised him very 
highly, and we find we made no mistake in so doing. Our Parks and Field Houses speak 
for themselves, and skill of the man who created them. Sincerely yours, (Signed) George 
H. Bradshaw, president. 

CHICAGO FLOUR COMPANY, flour merchants, with offices at 1263 
North Paulina Street, Chicago, Illinois; telephone ARMitage 8787-8788; a 
partnership consisting of Alex K. Dombrowski and Henry F. Dombrowski, 
and organized in October, 1920; serves practically all Polish bakers in Chi- 
cago and vicinity and caters to the general bakery trade ; their code of fair 
practice and their ability to meet all conditions arising in the business have 
enabled Dombrowski Brothers, owners of the Chicago Flour Company, to 
expand and grow from year to year ; their long experience in business has 
made it possible to serve the trade with the choicest grades of flour at rea- 
sonable prices at all times. 

Page 228 

1 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

EDMUND K. JARECKI, County Judge, WALTER LA BUY, judge of the 
attended and was graduated from the Chi- ,-,. . n t n , n . l^J 

Circuit Court of Cook County ; born 

cago Manual Training School and Saint 
Stanislaus College. In 1908 he was gradu- 
ated with a degree of Bachelor of Laws 
from Northwestern University Law School. 

While engaged in the practice of law, 
he became interested in politics and was 
elected Alderman of the old Sixteenth 
Ward. In 1914 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Edward F. Dunne to fill vacancy in 
Municipal Court and in November of the 
same year was elected Judge of the County 
Court of Cook County, which office he still 
holds, having been re-elected in 1926, 1930 
and 1934. The work of the County Court 
includes Special Assessment Litigation, 
Litigation for the collection of Delinquent 
Taxes, especially real estate taxes, Adop- 
tion cases, Non-Support cases, and also a 
regular Common Law Calendar. 

Supervising all elections in Chicago and 
Cook County, Judge Jarecki has fearlessly 
stood for clean and honest elections. 
Throughout his term he has insisted on 
efficiency and economy in all of the work 
of the County Court. 

Judge Jarecki resides with his wife and 
three children (John, Marie and Virginia) 
at 1946 Armitage Avenue. 

His son, John, also a graduate of the 
Northwestern University Law School, is 
Securities Commissioner of the State of 

Judge Jarecki is a member of the Iro- 
quois Club, the Illinois Athletic Club, the 
Illinois and American Bar Associations. 
He is an honorary member of the Swedish 
Engineers Club. 

at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, Febru- 
ary 14, 1889, son of Jacob and Jose- 
phine (Olszewski) La Buy; came to 
Chicago in 1908 and attended De 
Paul University Law Department, 
which he graduated with a degree of 
LL.B., then Master of Law; admitted, 
to the Illinois State Bar in 1911; as- 
sistant to City Prosecutor N. L. Pio- 
trowski, who was appointed by May- 
or Carter H. Harrison ; a year late, 
took over the law practice of his 
brother, Joseph S. La Buy, who in 
1912 was elected municipal judge ; 
married to Helen Warszewski, a for- 
mer school teacher ; in 1930, elected 
Cook County Commissioner ; in 1933, 
elected Circuit Court Judge of Cook 
County, a position he holds at pres- 
ent and where he has made an en- 
viable record of speeding up law- 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 2 29 

PETER H. SCHWABA, judge of 
Superior Court of- Cook County; 

JOHN PRYSTALSKI, Judge of the 
Circuit Court of Cook County ; em- 

born at Stevens Point, Wisconsin ; 
son of Frank and Mary Schwaba ; 
brought to Chicago in 1877 and edu- 
cated in parochial schools, graduated 
from Stevens Point High School, 
Metropolitan Business College, Kent 
College of Law in 1913; admitted to 
practice in 1913 ; appointed assistant 
attorney general by Governor Dunne 
in 1914; appointed assistant attorney 
to the first Industrial Board under 
Governor Dunne in 1916; was elected 
judge of the municipal court in 1922 
and re-elected in 1925 ; elected judge 
of the Superior court in 1929 and re- 
elected judge of the superior court in 
1935; married on June 23, 1915, to 
Joann Kuchnowski, and the children 
of this union are : Joseph, Thaddeus, 
Orzelle, Anita, Peter H. Jr., John 
and Leroy ; family residence at 6149 
North Knox Avenue ; member of Po- 
lish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish Alma Mater, 
Knights of Columbus, Illinois Ath- 
letic Club, American Bar Associa- 
tion and Illinois State Bar Associa- 

ployed as a youth by the Pullman 
Company, he attended Kent College 
of Law, which he graduated in 1906 ; 
member of the Chicago Charter Con- 
vention, which worked on a new 
charter for the City of Chicago ; for 
many years member of the law firm 
of Felsenthal, Foreman and Beck- 
ruth ; assistant city prosecutor under 
Mayor Carter H. Harrison Jr. ; from 
1912 to 1920, he served as assistant 
state's attorney to Maclay Hoyne, 
where he made an enviable record as 
prosecutor in the criminal court ; in 
1927 appointed Master in Chancery, 
Circuit Court of Cook County ; ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of the Criminal 
Court of Cook County ; in 1933, 
elected to Circuit Court, and since 
1936, again in the Criminal Court, 
where he has been repeatedly praised 
for his law enforcement activities ; 
president of the Polish American 
Democratic Organization of Illinois ; 
member of many organizations ; re- 
sides with his family at 11317 Forest 
Avenue, in the Rosedale district. 

Page 230 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

TOBACCO COMPANY, located at 
2896 Milwaukee Avenue, engaged 
in wholesale candy and tobacco 
sales and distribution ; headed by 
Michael Bydalek, president; John 
Bydalek, vice president; Clarence 
Bydalek, secretary; employs eight 
people; organized September 1, 
1910, originally located at 1960 Au- 
gusta Blvd. ; the founder, M. Byda- 
lek, started the business by selling 
candy and tobacco with a horse and 
wagon ; the business has expanded 
to its present size — using three de- 
livery trucks, and later moving to 
4547 Milwaukee Avenue ; now lo- 
cated in its own building at 2896 
Milwaukee Ave., doing only whole- 
sale business and known as one of 
the largest dealers in its line. 

THADDEUS CICHOCKI TOUDOR, attorneyat-law ; born May 25, 1903, 
in Warsaw, Poland; son of Joseph and Mary (Czarnomska) ; graduated from 
Loyola University, with a degree of Bachelor of Laws, in 1927; married Alice 
Jaglowski ("Miss Chicago"), in 1935; was associated with the offices of the 
Polish Consulate of Chicago for nine years; regarded by many as the 
champion defender of the Polish youth in Chicago, an able barrister, eloquent 
pleader in the courts of justice; member of the Chicago Bar Association, 
Illinois Bar Association, American Bar Association, Polish Lawyers Asso- 
ciation, Lake Shore Athletic Club, and many others. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 231 

MARIAN EDWARD POMORSKI, commercial automobile bodies and wagons, re- 
modeling, painting and trimming; born at Kazimierz, Poland; married Sabina Loretta 

Karbowiak; they have one son, Raymond Lenard Pomorski; member of the Philomeni 
Choir, Polish National Alliance, Kiwanis, Commercial Auto Body Builders' Association; 
five years ago organized the MARION AUTO BODY COMPANY, Not Inc., located 
at 5921-25 South Ashland Avenue, telephone HEMlock 6161-6162, manufacturers of com- 
mercial automobile bodies and wagons, remodeling, painting and trimming; employs 
twenty-five men; first-class workmanship, efficient service, have earned for the firm an 
ever growing clientel, so that business is growing from year to year. 

JOSEPH DRESSEL, in the tire and supply business, wholesale and retail 
distributor ; born March 19, 1897, at Przasnysz, Poland ; son of Anthony and 
Marianna (Grudzinska) Dressel ; attended grammar school; married Sophia 
Janowicz, October 24, 1923, and the children of this union are Leonarda, Jos- 
eph and Adrianna ; member of the Polish National Alliance, Group No. 865, 
American Legion Post No. 226; organized in 1919 the CONTINENTAL 
TIRE AND SUPPLY COMPANY, Not Inc., wholesale and retail distribu- 
tor of tires and automobile accessories, of which he is sole proprietor ; em- 
ploys five people; is distributor for Firestone products; the Continental Tire 
and Supply Company is located at 1248 North Ashland Avenue, in the heart 
of the Polish community of the Northwest Side. 

Page 232 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

CHESTER W. KUBACKI, Chief Clerk in the office of 
County Recorder of Cook County, was born in Poland, No- 
vember 1, 1895; attended Chicago parochial and public 
schools and also Watson's 'Business College; entered the 
employ of Pullman Company, where he acted as timekeeper, 
bought all materials for the cabinet, wood mill and paint 
departments, had supervision oer seven hundred men, and 
learned the practical side of car manufacturing; during the 
World war he enlisted in the Third Division of the United 
States Regulars, becoming a member of the Seventy-Sixth 
Field Artillery, with which he participated in six major 
operations in France; Patrick J. Hurley, afterward secre- 
tary of war under President Hoover, was a second lieute- 
I ■ '< nant in his company, in 1922 called to a new department, 

jj now known as the license investigation department; as 
clerk in the city collector's office, he supervised the system 
K HI - J of files and accounting for the new department; entered 

the real estate business in 1924 in which he continued act- 
ively until 1928; later appointed chief clerk in the City Garage and subsequently was ad- 
vanced to the position of minute clerk in the superior court, where he continued until De- 
cember 15, 1932; the following day appointed chief clerk under Clayton F. Smith, county 
recorder of Cook county, and in this position yet continues; captain 55th precinct of 
the ninth ward, one of the four best precincts in the city which in the primary of 1934 
showed a vote of 426 democrats and 23 republicans; married Lottie Pagorek, June 28, 
1921; two children, Virginia and Chester C; loves all outdoor sports such as serve to 
build up health and strength in the youth of America, interested particularly in baseball 
and football; member of the Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Reg- 
ular Democratic Organization, Polish American Democratic Organization. 

KLAUS DEPARTMENT STORE, located at 2859-65 Milwaukee Avenue, John A. 
Klaus, owner, Edgar Grupe, manager; employs seventy-five people; founded in 1906 by 
John Klaus at 2861 Milwaukee Avenue; in 1921, his son John A. Klaus entered the 
business and became sole owner upon the death of the elder Mr. Klaus in 1928; he re- 
modelled and enlarged the store to twice its original size, purchased in January, 1937, 
the adjoining building at 2857-59 Milwaukee Avenue, the new store having a frontage of 
one hundred fifteen feet on Milwaukee Avenue and about four times the selling space the 
store had occupied in 1906; John A. Klaus is president of the Chicago Department Stores 
Buying Syndicate — a group of twenty outlying Chicago department stores, buying co- 
operatively to give better values to their customers, with offices in the Merchandise Mart; 
Mr. Klaus also served as President of the Avondale Chamber of Commerce during 1935 
and 1936. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Page 233 


photography, located at 879 Milwaukee 
Avenue; owned by Ladislaus M. and So- 
phia Rozanski; employ three people; estab- 
lished in 1913; specialising in wedding 
groups; studio modernly equipped; in busi- 

9 Mft^* U CAirCAflO 

ness over twenty-four years; have photo- 
graphed executives of all main Polish or- 
ganizations, leading events in Polish Amer- 
ican life, such prominent people as General 
Haller, Count and Countess Zamoyski, 
Prof. Dybowski, the poet Kazimierz Wie- 
trzynski, Rear Admiral W. Cluverius, U. 
S. N., tenor Jan Kiepura, Dr. Henryk Gru- 
ber, Captain Karol Henke-Grzeszyk, and 
many others; Ladislaus Rozanski received 
a silved medal for artistic photography at 
the General National Exhibition, held in 
1929 at Poznan, Poland — the only Polish 
studio in the United States so distin- 

ROMAN KOSINSKI, jeweler; born in 
Dembica, Poland, in 1879, came to Chicago 
as a boy of five; in 1905, married Lucille, 
daughter of the former alderman, John 
Czekala; owner of the oldest and most suc- 
cessfully conducted jewelry store on Mil- 
waukee Avenue, his place of business in 
the same block for the last thirty-four 
years; in conjunction with the jewelry es- 
tablishment, a completely and modernly 
equipped optometric office is operated by 
his eldest son, Dr. Henry F. Kosinski, who 
has been practising for the last ten years; 
the younger son, Roman Jan, is following 
the interests of his father in jewelry and 
attends the Northwestern University 
School of Commerce; Roman Kosinski, 
Sr., a fifty-three year resident, is proud 
not only of Chicago, but of the tremendous 
progress made by Poles within that city; 
he expresses his happiness at being here to 
celebrate Chicago's Charter Jubilee with his 

JOSEPH J. BARC, secretary general of 
the Polish Roman Catholic Union of 

born on June 
5, 188 9, in 
Poland, a son 
of Paul and 
K a t a r z yna 
(Gru d ecka) 
Bare; attend- 
ed school in 
L w o w and 
school at 
Rop czyce, 
Poland; mar- 
ried Karolina 
Czapka, May 
30, 1910, the 
children of this union being Antoinette and 
Helen; member of the Polish Roman Cath- 
olic Union, Polish National Alliance, Po- 
lish Alma Mater, Polish Union of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pennsylvania; most active in all 
civic affairs. 

MAX P. RAPACZ, professor of law at 
De Paul University; born in 1892 at Ar- 
doch, North Dakota; son 
of Andrew and Agnes (Fi- 
los) Rapac; graduated 
University of Minnesota, 
A.iB., 1916, M.A. 1917; 
Yale University, LL.B., 
1926, S.J.D. 1927; married 
Florence Mary Burke, 
June, 1932; five letter, 
track and cross country at University of 
Minnesota; member Sigma Delta Kappa, 
Pi Gamma Mu; World War veteran; 
sports: track and cross country, golf and 

ALVIN V. DRYMALSKI, associated with 
Polonia Coal Company since 1933; born 
January 18, 1912, in Chicago, Illinois; son 
of Paul and Susan (Schweda) Drymalski; 
attended De Paul Academy, graduated 
Notre Dame University with a degree of 
B.A.; member of the Chicago Society of 
the Polish National Alliance, Notre Dame 
Club of Chicago; treasurer of the Polonia 
Coal Company. 

Page 234 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

HENRY A. MORAWSKI, Attorney-at- 
Law; born May 22, 1888, at Rogowo, Po- 
land, of Marian and Victoria (Muszynski) 

Morawski; graduated College of Law, 1919, 
with a degree of LL.B.; married Rose 
Gross on July 14, 1915, and the children of 
this union are Marion and Marjorie; mem- 
ber of the Polish Lawyers' Association, Po- 
lish National Alliance. 

ADAM L. SZWAJKART, M.D., physician 
and surgeon, with offices at 2957 Milwau- 
kee Avenue; born September 16, 1894, at 
Lwow, Poland; son of Adam and Eugenia 
(Nowierska) Szwajkart; education: St. 
Stanislaus Kostka and St. Hedwig's Pa- 
rochial School; St. Stanislaus College; Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Medical Department; 
post-graduate work at Jagiello University. 
Cracow, Poland; married February 23, 
1928, to Helen Szczepanski, the children 
of this union being Christine and Adam; 
member staff Chicago Municipal Tubercu- 
losis Sanitaroum; member Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Polish Alma Mater. Polish Veterans" As- 
sociations, American Legion, Chicago 
Medical Society, Polish Medical Society, 
American Medical Association, Illinois 
Medical Society; ex-member staff of the 
University of Stephen Batory. Wilno, Po- 

HENRY JOHN BRANDT, attorney-at- 
law; born June 2, 1908, in Chicago, Illinois, 
son of Peter and Mary (Wanderski) 
Brandt; graduate of Kent College of Law; 
married on February 14, 1931, to Jean Jaz- 
drzyk, and they have one child, Geraldine; 
member of the Polish National Alliance, 
Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish 
Lawyers' Association; coach of the Holy 
Trinity High School and Polish Roman 
Catholic Union Cavaliers, national Polish 
basketball champions; champion of the Po- 
lish Lawyers' Bowling League. 

appraiser, with the County Assessor's of- 
fice; born April 1, 1895, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; son of Peter and Martha (Szudzln- 
ska) Czarnecki; attended St. Stanislaus 
School, 1909; graduate of St. Stanislaus 
College, 1913; married October 9, 1929, to 
Gertrude Wleklinski, and the children of 
this union are Geraldine and Barbara; 

member of the American Legion; Com- 
mander of Captain A. H. Kelly Post No. 
339, for two years; Area Chairman of the 
9th District; president of the St. Stanislaus 
College Alumni Association for the second 
year; member of the Benevolent Protective 
Order of Elks, Desplaines Lodge No. 1526, 
est. lecturing kni.uht; member of the 35th 
Ward Regular Democratic Organization; 
grand marshall of the Polish Pageant pa- 
rade in connection with the Chicago Char- 
ter Jubilee. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 235 

CIATION. Polish section under the juris- 
diction of Local 16, Chicago, Illinois, of the 
International Typographical Union. The 
Association was organized forty-three years 
ago, one of its objects being protection of 
its members, who in no small degree have 
contributed to the growth of Polish orga- 
nizations, business and industry among the 
people of Polish extraction in the City of 
Chicago. Furthermore, it aims to spread 
the use of the union label on all printing 
matter, guaranteeing skilled workmanship 
in correct idiomatic Polish. Demand this 
label on your printing matter: 

Board of executives: Al. Janecki, presi- 
dent; F. V. Szpila, vice president; L. Sur- 
giewicz, financial secretary; M. Formejster, 
treasurer; C. J. Iwanski, recording secre- 

of the Polish Alma Mater; born March 22, 
1896, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; son of Joseph 
and Mathilda (Gorzyn- 
ski) Imbiorski; attend- 
ed Holy Innocent Par- 
ochial School and St. 
Stanislaus College; 
married November 24, 
1920, to Mary Kon- 
czyk; they have one 
child, Walter J. Im- 
biorski, Jr.; director of the Polish Alma 
Mater for thirteen years; now treasurer of 
that organization; member of the Polish 
Alma Mater, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Catholic Circle, assistant secretary of the 
Copernicus Building and Loan Association, 
assistant chief clerk to the superior court 
clerk of Cook County; St. Raymond's 
Young Men's Club, Kelly Post of the 
American Legion; Chicago Society of the 
Polish National Alliance of America; mem- 
ber of the executive (ticket) committee of 
the Polish Division of the Chicago Charter 

*v*% «*•%-:■ 

***** ffl 

—^ JB 

■ ^J» 


m ^m 

Mm$$m. . : . :. vHSSH 

AUGUST J. KOWALSKI, chief clerk of 
the superior court; born on November 12, 
1880, in Chicago, 
111.; son of Au- 
gust and Frances 
(Schermann) Ko- 
walski; attended 
Wells School, 
1856, and North- 
W e s t Division 
High in 1900; 
married Blanche 
K w a s igroch on 
June 1, 1904; the 
children of this 
union are: Herb- 
ert, August, Evelyn; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Polish Alma Mater, Catholic Order 
of Foresters, Catholic Circle, Chicago So- 
ciety of North America, Polish American 
Business Men's Association; his grandfther 
on the maternal side was Anton Scher- 
mann, who came to Chicago on June 1, 
1851, practically the first Polish settler in 
Chicago. • 

retary of the Polonia Coal Company; born 
August 12, 1890, in 
Chicago, Illinois; son 
of Konstanty and 
P r a k seda (Klaszyn- 
ski) Glenicki; attended 
grammar school, high 
school, Lewis Insti- 
tute. Chicago Business 
College; married Au- 
gust 5, 1914, to Anna 
Dirschbacher; they have one child, son 
Warren; member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Polish Pageant — Chicago 
Charter Jubilee, also chairman of the Book 
Committee, Polish Division — Chicago Char- 
ter Jubilee; secretary of the Polonia Coal 
Company; vice president of the Chicago 
Dyers and Cleaners; treasurer Wood Real- 
ty Company; secretary James G. Hardy 
Linen Company; director Standard Coffin 
and Casket Manufacturing Company; di- 
rector Chicago Coal Merchants Associa- 
tion; member Knights of Columbus, Chi- 
cago Society, Polish National Alliance, Il- 
linois Athletic Club. 

Page 236 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

the West Park System of Chicago; elected 
president of the Polish 
Roman Catholic Un- 
ion, 1909; one of three 
delegates to the Grun- 
wald Memorial Celeb- 
ration, held at Cracow, 
in 1910; reelected pres- 
ident of Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, 1911, 
at Syracuse, N. Y.; 
during his tenure the 
new Polish Roman Catholic Union admin- 
istration building was erected; inspired 
writing of the first history of the Polish 
R. C. Union; in 1913, recommended the 
founding of the Polish Union Daily; be- 
came president of the Polish National 
Council, which published "Free Poland"; in 
1917, became alderman of the old 17th 
(now the 26th) ward; during his tenure, 
on the committee to receive the first Po- 
lish consul, Mr. Nowicki, the first Polish 
ambassador, Prince Lubomirski, General 
Haller, Archbishop Cieplak, Minister for 
Foreign Affairs Skrzynski, and man> 
others; in 1918 as member of the city coun- 
cil voted for equality for the Polish flag, 
which was adopted unanimously; in 1922, 
delegate to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention of Illinois. 


the manufacturing and retail sporting 
goods, located at 1630 Milwaukee Avenue; 
born December 19, 1906, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; son of Felix and Leokadia Osowski; 
a graduate of the Holy Trinity iHgh 
School, 1923; unmarried; member of the 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish Alma Mater, Liga 
Morska, Polish American Businessmen's 
Association; doing business as the North- 
West Sporting Goods Manufacturing Com- 
panl, 1628-32 Milwaukee avenue; specializ- 
ing in softball, baseball and basketball uni- 
forms, sweaters and football jerseys, also 
all types of jackets made in their own fac- 
tory; well known to the sporting element, 
enjoying such popularity that its business 
is growing by leaps and bounds. 

MUSIC COMPANY. Main store located 
at 1062-64 Milwaukee Avenue, in the heart 
of the Polish community of the North- 
West Side; organized on May 1, 1912, orig- 
inally located at 1218 West Chicago ave., 
enjoys a city-wide trade in furniture, radios, 
electrical appliances and musical instru- 
ments; from its modest beginning in 1909, 
it has grown to a large corporation, of 
which the executives are: J. Buchaniec, 
president; Frank Lekan, secretary and 
treasurer; K. Aniszewski, vice president; 
wide-awake businessmen, these executives 
follow modern business methods, adver- 
tising in the press and various radio sta- 
tions; their steadily increasing volume of 
business, their courteous, efficient service, 
quality merchandise offered at reasonable 
prices, have won them patronage not only 
in the city but throughout the state, Indiana 
and Wisconsin, and others. 

eral director and embalmer; born April 17, 
1879, at Manitowoc, 
Wisconsin, daughter 
of Jacob and Frances 
(Skiba) Wojowski; at- 
tended St. Mary's of 
Perpetual Help School 
and the Barnes School 
of Anatomy, Sanitary 
Science and Embalm- 
ing, from which she 
graduated in 1911; 
married Vincent Kaminski, Nov. 27, 1900, 
and the five children of this union are: 
Raymond (eceased), Louise, Anna, Vincent 
Jr. and Francis; she is a member of the 
Chicago Funeral Directors' Association, Il- 
linois Funeral Directors' and Embalmers' 
Association. National Funeral Directors' 
Association, Polish Women's Alliance of 
America, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Polish National Alliance, Women's Catholic 
Order of Foresters; to Mrs. Julian Wojow- 
ska Kaminska belongs the distinction of be- 
ing the first Polish woman in Chicago to 
hold ah Illinois State embalmers and Chi- 
cago City license; resides with her family 
at 1044 W. 32nd Street. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Pa ge 237 

MAX A. DREZMAL. Born in Poznan, 
Poland, October 2, 1867, came with his 
parents to Chicago in 
1868 where he has re- 
sided ever since; at- 
tended Polish parochial 
schools and public 
grammar and high 
s c h o o Is ; graduated 
from the Northwest- 
ern University Law 
School on June 11, 
1889 with high hon- 
ors; he received one-half of the first prize 
for scholarship and was selected as one of 
the commencement day speakers; subject 
of his oration was "The Partition of Po- 
land"; since his graduation he practiced law 
in Chicago; he served one term of three 
years as a member of the Board of Educa- 
tion of the City of Chicago, from 1894 to 
1897; he translated into English the last 
two novels of Henry Sienkiewicz, "Whirl- 
pool, and "In Desert and Wildnerness"; 
for six years he was president of the Polish 
Arts Club of Chicago; at present, he is a 
member of the Illinois State Board of Par- 
dons and Paroles; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Falcons. Chicago 
Art Institute, Field Museum, Illinois and 
American Bar Association. 

LAND OF WASHINGTON, a fraternal 
beneficiary socie- 
ty; a Polish wom- 
en's organization 
for the State of 
Illinois; besides 
issuing insurance, 
it supports all 
civic affairs work- 
ing for the better- 
ment of the Polish 
people; its board 
of officers con- 
sists of: Ewa Bi- 
c z e k, president; 
Jozefa Adamkiewicz, vice president; Anna 
Kosieracka, secretary general; Pelagia Zda- 
nowska, treasurer; Joanna Wietrzykowska, 
Jozefa Gorska, Katarzyna Jezierna. direc- 
tors; its main office is located at 1200 N. 
Ashland Avenue, Chicago, IlHnois, suite 
530-532-534, telephone BRUnswick 9048. 

FRANK A. BRANDT. Undertaker; born 
December 1, 1894, in Chicago, Illinois, a 
son of Peter and Mary 
(Wanderski) Brandt; 
attended St. Stanislaus 
Kostka School, 1906, 
Wells Public School, 
De Paul University; 
married Elizabeth Tro- 
janowski May 5, 1919, 
and they have two 
children, Dorothy and 
William; vice president 
of the Milwaukee Avenue National Bank, 
chairman of the executive committee, sec- 
retary and treasurer of the White Eagle 
Brewing Company, past director of the 
Polish Roman Catholic Union, where he 
was chairman of the Sports and Youth 
Committee; member of the Chicago Coun- 
cil on Foreign Relations, Elmhurst Coun- 
try Club, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Alma Ma- 
ter, Polish Association, Polish Union. 

B. F. CHAMSKI, attorney-at-law; born 
in Wilmington, Delaware, October 25, 
1890; attended 
Immaculate Con- 
ception Parochial 
School in South 
Chicago; received 
his LL.B. in 1923 
and LL.M. in 1924 
at the University 
of Detroit; mar- 
riedjune 24, 1913, 
to Martha Adam- 
ski; two children 
born of the mar- 
riage: Dolores 
and Gloria Jean; former state counsel for 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation in Mich- 
igan; now, general counsel for the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, his mother, Mrs. 
K. J. Chamski having been former lady 
vice president of that order; member Po- 
lish Roman Catholic Union, Detroit So- 
ciety, Polish National Alliance, Polish Fal- 
cons, Delta Theta Phi Law Fraternity, 
Knights of Columbus, Kiwanis North-West 
Town Club, Elmhurst Country Club, in all 
of which he has held various offices; mem- 
ber Michigan State Bar Association and 
Polish Bar Association. 

Page 238 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1 93 7 

ganized in 1919, originally located at 1738 

W. Superior Street. It then employed eight 
people and now is serviced by one hundred. 
Milk is delivered in all parts of Chicago 
and suburbs. It is the largest Polish milk 
processing and distributing concern in the 
city and perhaps in America. Its manage- 
ment rests in the able hands of S. W. Boy- 
da, president of the corporation, B. Boyda, 
secretary. The Boyda Dairy Company oc- 
cupies large quarters at 4224 West Chicago 
Avenue. Excellent service, first quality 
goods, courteous treatment of the public, 
are responsible for its tremendous volume 
of business. 

ANTON A. POCIASK. Funeral director, 
of 1335 West Chicago Avenue; born No- 
vember 4, 1895, in Chi- 
cago, 111., of Albert 
and Sophia (Ciesla) 
Pociask; attended St. 
John Cantius parochial 
school, International 
College of Sanitation 
and Embalming, which 
he graduated in 1917; 
married Stella Dubiel 
June 23, 1917; they 
Anton A. Jr. and Anto- 
inette; member of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Catholic Order of Forester, Security Bene- 
fit Association, Chicago Funeral Directors 
Association, Funeral Services, Associated, 
president Klub Niedzwiada, Klub Mala 
Klub Debica, Polska w Ogniu, P.N. A., Sy- 
nowie Wolnosci P.N. A., Dzwon Polski 
P.N. A., Holy Cross Society of P.R.C.U., 
Our Lady of Perpetual Help, P.R.C.U., St." 
Stephen's Society P.R.C.U., Clubs: Niena- 
dowki, Brzeziny, Lubzina, Nowy Kwiat, 
P.N. A. and Czarna; funeral director since 
January 1, 1919. 

have two children, 

THOMAS J. BRICKLER, born August 13, 
1913, Chicago, 111.; education: Wells Gram- 
mar School; Murray F. Tuley High, Crane 
Jr. College; Loyola University; student. 
Kent College of Law; organize and first 
president of Polish Falcons Youth Booster 
Club and Youth of Young Poland, P.N.A., 
first president Youth of Commune 120 P. 
N.A.; member Polish University Club; Po- 
lish Falcons Aerie No. 2; Polish Falcons 
Booster Club; Young Poland Lodge No. 
865, P. N. A.; Polish American Junior 
Democratic Organization, Cook County 
Young Democrats, and 32nd Ward Young 
Regular Democratic Organization; mem- 
ber cast Century of Progress Polish Pag- 
eant in 1933; resides at 1956 W. Division 

ERS, rug cleaning and retailers of rugs and 
linoleums; VINCENT ZYWIECKI, pro- 
prietor; begun May 11, 1917, as a rug 
cleaner store, it soon added linoleum and 
rugs in 1930, and due to steadily increasing 
patronage, the business was enlarged, so 
that it now comprises three stores, carry- 
ing a complete line of linoleums and rugs 

and doing its own cleaning at the same ad- 
dress; the first pick-up was made on a 
coaster wagon, then a horse and wagon 
were used, until now three modern fully 
equipped trucks are being used to carry on 
the business; the largest rug cleaning and 
linoleum store owned by a Polish indi- 
vidual in Chicago; all employess are of Po- 
lish descent and have been with the firm for 
the past nine years; business can be trans- 
acted in Polish by telephoning JUNiper 
5173; Vincent Zywiecki is a member of the 
American Polish Business Club of Avon- 
dale, Carpet Cleaners' Association and 
many others. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Paze 239 

and Educator; born September 18, 1899, in 
Budapest, Hungary; 
the son of Albert and 
Ludmila (Dropa) So- 
wa; attended Henry 
Clay School, graduat- 
ed June 23, 1916; St. 
Viator's College, June 
14. 1926; degrees: 
Bachelor of Laws, 
February 19th, 1932; 
Master of Laws, De- 
cember, 1932; Doctor, Civil Law, June 30, 
1933; Doctor, International Law, June 23, 
1934; married Berenice Lesniak, August 
23, 1936; Registrar Seminary Department, 
Chicago Law School; Assistant Treasurer, 
Illinois Savings Loan Association of Chi- 
cago, Illinois; Vice President Hegewisch 
Chamber of Commerce; Manager, Sowa 
Lumber and Millwork; Vice President, Or- 
der of Cahokia of Chicago, 111.; Chairman 
of Executive Committee of the Federation 
of Lodges of Hegewisch: Deputy Minute 
Clerk, Superior Court of Cook County; 
President Sowa Realty Company, Not Inc., 
member of St. Adalbert Lodge No. 270, 
Polish Roman Catholic Union, Sons of 
Liberty Lodge No. 624, Polish National 
Alliance, Delegate of Commune No. 24, 
P. N. A. 

JOHN NERING, superintendent Postal 
Telegraph-Cable Company (now retired, 
having been with that com- 
pany for 48 years); born 
December 5, 1871, at Szo- 
nowo, Poland; son of Ju- 
lian and Catherine (Win- 
ska) Nering; attended St. 
Stanislaus Kostka School; 
married to Agnes Wojta- 
lewicz (deceased Novem- 
ber 1, 1922), on June 22, 1898; president 
of the Catholic Circle of Chicago; presi- 
dent St. Stanislaus Kostka Church Choir; 
president Holy Name Society of St. Sta- 
nislaus Kostka Parish; member Dramatic 
Club of St. Stanislaus Parish; past presi- 
dent Polish Alma Mater; member Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Knights of Co- 
lumbus, Executive Club; Association of 

WALTER A. KIOLBASA, attorney-at- 
law; born April 11, 1910, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; son of John J. and 
Katherine (Lis) Kiolbasa; 
attended University of No- 
tre Dame, 1928-1932, de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts; 
De Paul University, 1932 
34, degree of Juris Doc- 
tor; member of the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Alma Ma- 
ter, Polish Lawyers' Association, of which 
he is treasurer, 1937; associated with Leon 
C. Nyka in the practice of law. 

VICTOR KLEBER, director of public re- 
lations of the city of Chicago; his father, 
Frank T. Kleber, was prominent in demo- 
cratic circles in central Nebraska; born in 
Humphrey, Nebraska, on April 6, 1892; at- 
tended and graduated high school in Oma- 
ha, Nebraska; during the World war, one 
of the first to enlist, serving first with the 
Medical Corps of the United States Army 
and later transferring to the Railway En- 
gineers; senior master engineer, he was 
cited in general orders by Commander-in- 
Chief General Pershing, and later in 1932 
was decorated with the Order of the Pur- 
ple Heart; also received the decoration of 
the Order of Zeal from the late King Nico- 
las of Montenegro for services rendered 
that country; married Miss Marie Mc- 
Naughton of Minneapolis, Minn.; general 
advertising and correspondence counsel 
with Butler Brothers of Chicago; later, ad- 
vertising and sales promotion manager for 
a large Chicago syndicate newspaper ser- 
vice; established his own Superior Adver- 
tising Service, appointed chief deputy by 
newly elected Coroner, Dr. Herman N. 
Bundesen, where he developed a new and 
effective policy of administration; next he 
handled the country towns campaign for 
State Senator Thomas J. Courtney in his 
race for the office of state's attorney of 
Cook County; the late Anton J. Cermak 
placed him in the position of director of 
public relations for the city of Chicago, a 
position which he has retained through the 
tenures of office of the late mayor Frank 
J. Corr and the present mayor, Edward J. 

Page 240 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1917 

casting and radio advertising; born Octo- 
ber 12, 1899, 
son of Wla- 
dysjaw and 
Anna (Bay- 
tel )Jaworow- 
ski education 
High School, 
19 18, and 
College, 1920; 
married on 
J a n u ary 28, 
1936, toAdele 
R a c zynski a 
r a d io singer 
and announcer of note; member of 
the Chicago Society of National Associa- 
tions, Group 1450 of the Polish National 
Alliance, North-West Town Kiwanis, Elm- 
hurst Country Club, La Porte Country 
Club; dean of Polish radio announcers, 
broadcasting over stations WCFL, WIND, 
WGES, WSBC and others; under the 
name of "Radio Results," he owns and 
operates the largest foreign language radio 
broadcasting service; special features hand- 
died by him: remote broadcast Heneral 
Haller's banquet at the Drake Hotel; Car- 
nival of Nations at the Congress Hotel; 
Polish Day, Soldier's Field, Century of 
Progress, in 1933; Polish Pageant, Chica- 
go's Charter Jubilee, Soldier's Field, Au- 
gust 8, 1937; son of one of Chicago's pio- 
neer businessmen; his pleasant voice and 
personality, the interesting variety of his 
programs, in which he is ably assisted by 
his accomplished wife, have won his radio 
hours a host of friends, while advertisers 
of all nationalities are only too willing to 
broadcast their wares through this medium. 

LUDWIG BEDNARSKI, caterer; born 
August 25, 1896, at Krzemowo, Poland; 
son of Michael and Antonina Bednarski; 
attended public school; married Veronica 
Poplacki, on December 5, 1934; they have 
one daughter, Janina; member of the Po- 
lish National Alliance, "Sokol Polski" (Po- 
lish Falcons' Alliance), Polish Alma Ma- 

BARBARA A. FISHER, attorney-at-law, 
1109 Noble Stret; born November 13, 1904, 
in Poland; daughter of Ni- 
cholas and Barbara Deni- 
bowski; attended St. Adal- 
bert's Parochial School, 
School, Holy Family Aca- 
demy, Tuley High School, 
Chicago Seminary of Sci- 
ence, Chicago Law School; 
married on December 16, 
1928, to Walter H. Fischer; they have one 
child, son Henry; member Polish Wom- 
en's Alliance, of which she is general coun- 
sel; Polish Roman Catholic Union; Polish 
Lawyers' Association. 


Lawyer; born August 18, 1864, at Smielin, 
Poznan, Poland, a son 
of John and Mary 
(Krzyzanowska) Dan- 
kowski; arrived in Chi- 
cago with his parents 
in March, 1872; at- 
tended St. Francis 
Grammar School, 1877, 
Lake Forest Universi- 
ty Chicago College of 
Law, 1894; married 
Philomena G. Schuster (since deceased) on 
September 7, 1884; the children of this 
union are Rev. Edward I. J. Dankowski, 
pastor of St. Simeon's Church, Bellwood, 
Illinois, former state chaplain, American 
Legion; Grand Aumonier 40 and 8 for Illi- 
nois, Lt. Col. in active Reserve U. S. Army. 
vice president Loyola Alumni Association; 
Chester J. Dankowski, attorney, associated 
with his father Ignatius in the practice of 
law; member of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Po- 
lish Falcons, Royal Arcanum, Knights of 
Columbus, 4th degree, Catholic Order of 
Foresters, National Geographic Society; 
Field Museum of Natural History, life 
member of the Art Institute of Chicago, 
Polish Bar Association, Illinois State Bar 
Association, Chicago Bar Association, 
American Bar Association; was associate 
judge of probate court of Cook County for 
eight years; downtown office located at 
111 West Washington Street, West Side 
office at 1702 West 17th Street. 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 241 

LEON C. NYKA, lawyer; born in Chi- 
cago, December 28, 1890; son of Anton 
and Mary (Junker) Nyka; 
educated De Paul Acad- 
emy, Chicago; LL.B. Illi- 
nois College of Law, De 
Paul University, 19 16; 
married Elizabeth Stargac- 
ki of Chicago, March 7, 
1916; practised in Chicago 
since 1916; member firm 
of Nyka and Kiolbasa; during World war 
served as Appeal Agent District No. 38, 
U. S. Selective Service; at present Assistant 
Illinois Commerce Commissioner, appoint- 
ed by Governor Horner; member of the 
National Rivers and Harbors Congress; 
member of United States Civil Legion; 
national president Loyal Roosevelt Army; 
former president Polish Lawyers' Associa- 
tion of Chicago; former president of Chi- 
cago Society; chairman of the Pageant, 
Chicago Charter Jubilee; president Polish 
Day Association and Polish Week of Hos- 
pitality during the Century of Progress, 
1933; member of American, Illinois and 
Chicago Bar Associations, Polish Lawyers' 
Association, Delta Theta Phi Law Frat- 
ernity; member Educational Committee Po- 
lish National Alliance; member Polish Ro- 
man Catholic Union, Knights of Columbus, 
Polish A 1 ma Mater; Elmhurst Country 
Club; recreations: golf, fishing. Home: 4857 
Cullom Avenue; office: 2756 N. Kimball 
Avenue and 160 La Salle Street, Chicago. 

December 17. 1910, in Chicago, Illinois, 
son of John and Catherine 
(Kolodziej) M a r c i nkie- 
wicz; education: Columbia 
Business College, graduate 
1927; De Paul University, 
A.B, 1933; University of 
George Washington, 
Washington, D. C, J.D., 
1931; president Delta The- 
ta Phi, law fraternity; president Alpha 
Chi; president Polish Club of De Paul Uni- 
versity; president Polish Students' Asso- 
ciation of America; member National 
Union Assurance Society, Knights of Co- 
lumbus, Chicago Society of the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance. 


selling drugs and chemicals, this pharmacy 
is one of the most popular in the city; or- 
ganized in 1901, it is managed by Herman 
Elich, president; Erna Elich, treasurer, and 
Robert Elich, vice president; the present 

owner, Herman Elich, and Robert Elich, 
his son, represent the fourth and fifth gen- 
erations of pharmacists of the same name; 
this store has been open day and night 
without ever closing its doors since 1910; 
it has advertised on the Polish radio hour 
for the past five years; it is located at 1576 
Milwaukee Avenue, corner of Damen Ave. 

sistant Judge Probate Court of Cook 
County; born August 
15, 1883, in Chicago, 
Illinois, son of Otto 
and Mary John Urban- 
ski; obtained his de- 
gree of Bachelor of 
Law, at John Marshall 
Law School; married 
Helen Jendrzejek, June 
8, 1910. and the chil- 
dren of this union are 
August G. Jr., Beatrice, Lauretta, and 
Gladianna; member of the Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Knights of Columbus, American Bar Asso- 
ciation, Illinois State Bar Association, Chi- 
cago Bar Association, Polish American Bar 
Association, Logan Square Athletic Club, 
Medinah Club of Chicago, and many 
others; his aged mother, still living, is a 
pioneer of Chicago, having lived here con- 
tinuously for seventy-three years, her fath- 
er Frank John having been one of the or- 
ganizers of the St. Stanislaus Kostka par- 

Page 242 



VICTOR L. SCHLAEGER, Clerk of the 

Superior Court of Cook County, Illinois; 

born December 

12, 1896, in Chi- 
cago, 111., of Leo 
S c h 1 a eger and 
Louise (Tuchocki) 
Schlaeger; gradu- 
ated Bowen High 
School and North- 
western Universi- 
ty School of Com- 
merce; married 
Victoria Grace 
M i 1 a s zewicz on 
S e p t e m ber 17, 

1923, and they have one child, Grace Louise 
Schlaeger; member of the Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
B. P. O. Elks, Fraternal Order of Eagles; 
active in all civic affairs of unquestioned 
popularity, he was elected by a great ma- 
jority in the election of 1936. 

ANTON CICHOWICZ, Chief Bailiff, 

Civil Branch, Sheriff's Office of Cook 

County; born June 

13, 1885, at Le- 
mont, 111., the son 
of Michael and 
Mary (Masloska) 
Cichowicz; attend- 
ed St. Cyrillus and 
M e t h o d ius pa- 
rochial School, at 
Lemont, 111., St. 
Adalbert's school 
and Morgan pub- 
lic school of Chi- 
cago, 1895; mar- 
ried Mary Niewierowska June 27, 1911, 
and the children of this union are Sister 
Mary Evedia of the Notre Dame Convent, 
Irene, Marie and Leonard; member of 
the 32nd Ward Regular Democratic Or- 
ganization, Thaddeus Kosciuszko Club, 
Church Commute, Polish Cavalry, in St. 
St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish; member of 
all leading Polish organizations. 

E. I. PACHYNSKI, insurance in all its 
branches; with offices at Room 1903 In- 
surance E change Building, 175 W. Jack- 
son Boulevard, telephone WABash 1120. 

born January 28, 1898, in Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin; a son 
of Jacob F. 
and Rose 
(Jeschke) Po- 
sanski; at- 
tended pa- 
rochial and 
schools, Uni- 
versity of 
Ph.B., 1924; 
U n i v e r itsy 
L a w School, 
JJD., 1925; 
Marque tte 
U n i v e r sity 
College of Law, LL.B., 1922; married Su- 
san E. Elrick on April 6, 1926; member of 
the American Bar Association, Delta Theta 
Phi, a national legal fraternity, Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Chicago City Club, Bene- 
volent Protective Order of Elks, Lodge 
No. 4; resides at 932 Golf Court, Calumet 
City, Illinois. 

KONSTANTY PAZIK, baker; born July 
25, 1883, at Mokrylas, Poland, son of Jos- 
eph and Anna (Kszy- 
na) Pazik; attended 
night school at Wells 
High and the Y. M. 
C. A.; married Alex- 
andra Pazik, they have 
three children: Virgi- 
nia (Holy Family Aca- 
demy, Schurz High 
and North w e stern 
Business College); 
Helen (Holy Family, Schurz and Wright 
Junior College); Clifford (Drummond, 
Lane Technical, Wright Junior, to con- 
tinue at University of Illinois); member of 
the Polish L T hlans, Polish American Club 
of Chicago, King Piast Society, Polish 
Bakers' Union and Polish Bakery Owners' 
Club; studied as an apprentice baker in De- 
troit, Mich., for over two years having 
come to the United States in 1904 and to 
Chicago in 1907; has owned his own bake- 
ry for the past twenty years. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 243 

M. V. KAMINSKI, D.D.S., Dentist; born 
March 19, 1911, In Chicago, Illinois, of 

Valentine and 
Mary (B u- 
dacz) Kamin- 
ski; received 
his degree of 
dental surg- 
e r y at the 
Chicago Col- 
lege of Den- 
tal Surgery 
of the Loyola 
University in 
1933; single; 
member of 
the American 
Dental So- 
ciety, Chicago 
Dental So- 
ciety, Polish Dental Society, Holy Trinity 
Choir, Holy Name Society, Group 20, Com- 
mune I of the Polish National Alliance, Pi 
Delta Sigma, Tau Kappa Nu, Literary and 
Dramatic Circle of the Holy Trinity Parish, 
Catholic Action, Polish University Club, 
National Society. 

JOHN A. SCHWABA, druggist; born 
June 24, 1883, at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, 
a son of Frank and Mary Schwaba; at- 
tended St. Stanislaus Grammar School, St. 
Stanislaus College, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Pharmacy Branch; married Cecelia 
Krolik, on November 28, 1906; they have 
two children, Mildred and Kinga; member 
of St. Hyacinth Society of the Polish Ro- 
man Catholic Union, Polish Youth Group 
of the Polish National Alliance, Sokol Pol- 
ski, Avondale Improvement Club, King 
John Sobieski Civic Club, Polish American 
Democratic Organization, Polish American 
Citizens' Club, Tonti Council Knights of 
Columbus, National Camp, Modern Wood- 
men of America; has resided and operated 
a drug store in Avondale, in the St. Hya- 
cinth's parish, for the past thirty years. 

ers of the Stack and Ryan Recreation 
Rooms; twenty-four alleys, cocktail lounge; 
located at 1133 Milwaukee Avenue; tele- 
phone ARMitage 3600. 

JOSEPH A. ZIEMBA, United States Col- 
lector of Customs; former superintendent 

of the Chica- 
go Municipal 
Sani tarium; 
born on 
March 15th, 
1889, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois, 
son of Thom- 
as and Anna 
( B a r n a s 
Z i e mba ; at- 
tended St. 
S t a n i s 1 aus 
College, 1903; 
married Do- 
micella Ro- 
sentreter, on 
June 25, 1913, 
children of this union being Eugenia and 
Loretta; member of the Polish National 
Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, 
Knights of Columbus, Polish American 
Businessmen's Association, President Po- 
lish Welfare Association; active in all civic 
affairs; resides with his family at 5459 Aga- 
tite Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

representative of the 27th district; born 
February 17, 1904, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois; son of Jos- 
eph and Rose (Nosek) Pe- 
tlak; education: Burr Pub- 
lic School, 1918; Lane 
Technical High School, 
1922; De Paul L T niversity; 
married July 11, 1925, to 
Josephine Cieslak, and the 
children of this union are Marguerite, Jo 
Anne, Joyce; member of the Polish Ro- 
man Cathloic Union, 32nd Ward Regular 
Democratic Organization; resides with his 
family at 1647 North Paulina street; tele- 
phone Humboldt 6439. 


artistic monuments and headstones; erec- 
tion at all cemeteries; Joliet office: 1905 
E. Cass Street, Joliet, 111., telephone Joliet 
2-1070; branch office: 6530 Milwaukee 
Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, telephone NEW- 
castle 4902. 

Page 244 

J 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

ALBERT F. SOSKA, fraternal organiza- 
tion, building and loan association, real 
estate and insurance; born 
April 16, 1883, at Danville, 
Pa.; son of Albert and 
Frances (Pachut) Soska; 
attended St. John Cantius 
Parochial School, St. Sta- 
nislaus College, studied 
philosophy at St. Jerome's 
College, Kitchener, Can.; 
married August 9, 1919, to Lillian J. Kon- 
czyk and the children of this union are: 
John W., Albert Jr., Rose M., Lillian A.; 
president of the Polish Alma Mater ("Ma- 
cierz Polska") from May, 1917 to date; 
treasurer Copernicus Building and Loan 
Association, chairman American Fraternal 
Congress; organizer and trustee, Immacu- 
late Heart of Mary Church; maintains a 
real estate and investment business under 
the name of A. F. Soska and Co., since 
1912; director executive committee Polish 
Inter-Organization Council. 

JOHN SCHWEDA, vice president of Po- 

lonia Coal Company, connected with the 
firm for the past twenty-seven years. 


chief deputy coroner of Cook County; born 

February 10, 
1901, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois; 
son of Stan- 
ley and Ursu- 
la (Wojtach) 
Prusinski; at- 
tended Saint 
Hedwig's Pa- 
r o c h i a 1 
School, Web- 
e r High, 
Loyola Uni- 
versity, and 
the Lewis In- 
stitute; u n- 
member of 
the Polish American Democratic Organiza- 
tion, Father Barzynski's Civic Club, at 
St. Hedwig's Parish; honorary member of 
the Polish branch of St. Jude's League; 
resides with his parents at 2029 N. Win- 
chester avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

State's Attorney of Cook County, Illinois; 
born August 15, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois, 
son of Albert and Constance (Korzeniew- 
ska) Wachowski; his father was a great 
organizer of building and loan associations 
on the South and South-West Side; at- 
tended St. Casimir's Parochial school, John 
Spry public school, Harrison High, and 
obtained his degree of LL.B. at De Paul 
University; married Rose Klawikowska on 
June 29, 1927, and the children of this 
union are Giles, Thomas and Doris; active 
in civic affairs, he is a member of the Po- 
lish Roman Catholic Union, Chicago So- 
ciety of the Polish National Alliance, Po- 
lish Lawyers' Association, the Regular 
Democratic Organization, the Polish-Amer- 
ican Democratic Organization, Sigma Del- 
ta Kappa, Pi Gamma Mu Honorary So- 
ciety; resides with his family at 2223 S. 
Ridgway Avenue; legal offices at 139 X. 
Clark Street and 3030 W. Cermak Road. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 245 

facturers of egg noodles and macaroni 
products; located at 
"jb^^ p 1834-36 West North 
"V% Avenue; organized on 

January 17, 1935, this 
company employs 
twenty-five people; the 
first and only Polish 
concern in the United 
States that manufac- 
tures the entire line of 
macaroni products and 
tgg noodles; in March, 1935, the daily 
capacity was three thousand pounds, the 
daily output fifteen hundred pounds; in 
June, 1937, the daily capacity was 16,200 
pounds, daily output 8,000 pounds; its rapid 
expansion is credited to the patronage of 
the Polish people through the Polish busi- 
ness men, while the quality of its merchan- 
dise has found favor with every nationality 
in cosmopolitan Chicago. 

EDWARD L. LUBEJKO, deputy clerk of 

the municipal court of Chicago; born 

March 26, 1904, the 

§ seventh of a family of 

nine; son of Stanislaus 
and Anna (Parmolo- 
jr wicz) Lubejko; his 

father was a pioneer 
business man of St. 
Adalbert's parish; edu- 
cated at St. Adalbert's 
gj ^^ X afttott parochial school. Com- 
mercial Art school, 
Bryant and Stratton Business College, 
studied law at the University of Illinois; 
active in athletics, coached boxing; active 
in the field of politics for the past thirteen 
years; acquired a great taste for literature 
and decorative arts, being keenly alive to 
philosophy and music; now in the employ 
of the city government, in the capacity of 
deputy clerk of the municipal courts of 
Chicago; residence: 1634 West 18th Place. 


lawyer; born August 14, 1891, in Chicago, 
Illinois; son of Joseph H. 
and Pauline M. (Gnarski) 
Zygmunt; attended St. 
Stanislaus Bishop and 
Martyr Parochial School; 
received his degree of 
LL.B. at DePaul Univer- 
sity, 1915; married Cecilia 
A. Piasecki on May 2, 
they have one son, Lawrence F. Zygmunt, 
Jr.; member of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Po- 
lish Alma Mater; Knights of Columbus, 
Polish-American Bar Association, Polish 
Lawyers' Association, Illinois Bar and 
Chicago Bar Association. 

COMPANY, located at Milwaukee and 
Ashland Avenues; one of the oldest and 
largest clothing stores outside of the Loop; 
opened its doors for business in the year 
of 1895; the business has been under the 
same management for all these years, and 
is now serving the second and third gene- 
rations of Polish Americans, who have 
helped to make Chicago one of the wonder 
cities of the world. 

JOHN A. KORNAK. Custodian of the 
County Building; conducts a real estate 
and steamship agency 
office at 2508 S. Sacra- 
mento Avenue; born 
October 9, 1890 in Po- 
land, son of Peter and 
Mary Ann Kornak; 
attended a parochial 
school, business col- 
lege; married May 10, 
1922, Veronica Jemio- 
la, the children being 
John, Norbert and Geraldine; member of 
the Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish Turners, Polish 
Union of North American Veterans of 
Foreign Wars of U. S. A., president of 
the Southwest Polish American Business 
Men's Association, Polish American Vet- 
erans' Club, 22nd Ward Democratic Or- 
ganization, active member of the Regular 
Democratic Organization. 

PATEK AND SONS, successors to Ko- 
zak and Patek, artistic granite and marble 
monuments, vaults and headstones; estab- 
lished 1895; located at 6723 Milwukee Ave., 
opposite St. Adalbert's cemetery, Niles, Il- 
linois, telephone Niles 9836. 

Page 246 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

EDWARD LUCZAK, attorney-at-law, as- 
sistant to the Judge of the Probate Court, 
born September 26, 1899, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois, of Joseph and 
Apolonia (Stanczew- 
ski) Luczak; attended 
the Hammond School, 
February, 1915, Har- 
rison Technical High 
School, June, 1919, De 
Paul University of 
Law School, June, 
1922; took a post- 
graduate course at 
Northwestern University, a two-year course 
in real estate at Y. M. C. A.; married Cor- 
nelia Thieda, November 25, 1931, they have 
one child Edward Luczak, Jr.; member of 
the Polish National Alliance, Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Knights of Columbus, Po- 
lish Democratic Organization of Cook 
County, 22nd Ward Democratic Club, 
White Eagle Dramatic Circle, Holy Name 
Society, Chicago Society PNA. 

JOHN M. FALASZ, attorney-at-law; ap- 
pointed chief factory inspector March 1, 
1936, by Governor Horner; born in Chi- 
cago, October 24, 1901, son of John and 
Thecla Falasz; attended Our Lady of Per- 
petual Help Grammar School in Bridge- 
port; the YMCA Preparatory School; No- 
tre Dame University; graduate of Chicago 
Kent College of Law, in June, 1930; admit- 
ted to practice in October, 1930; resides 
with his wife and son, John M. Jr., at 927 
West 31st Street. 

JOSEPH STEFANIK, properitor of Stc- 
fanik's Hall and Cafe, 1401 West Superior 
Street; born December 12, 
1890, at Dolina, Poland; 
son of Jan and Teresa 
(Mielnikwiecz) Stefanik; 
attended high school; 
married March 7, 1916, to 
Maria Antonowicz; two 
children: Joanna and Emi- 
ly; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Polish Alma Mater, Alliance of 
Polish Dramatic Societies; hobby: collect- 
ing rare editions of Polish literary works; 
a bibliophile of note. 

taker; funeral parlor at 4255 West Divisionl; 
Street, residence 1548 NJ 
Kolin Avenue; born Au-| 
gust 17, 1906, in ChicagoJ 
Illinois; son of Albert and! 
Mary (Ptaszek) KosslakJ 
high school and graduate! 
of Wortham Embalming! 
College; married Priscillal 
Scibiorski, June 2, 1934,1 
and they have one son, Louis A. Kolssak,! 
Jr.; member of General Sherman Council! 
No. 1434 Knights of Columbus, Chicagoj 
Society of the Polish National Alliance,! 
3-Cth Ward Polish Civic Club, Alma Mater, 
St. Joseph's Lodge No. 154; St. Stanislaus'] 
Society, No. 505 Polish Roman Catholic I 
Union; Kolaczyce Club, and many others. | 

dul), surgical and orthopedic appliances; 
located at 1562 Milwaukee 
Avenue; born July 10, 
1868, in Wilno, Poland; 
son of Michal and Eliza- 
beth (Danielewicz) Dia- 
dul; attended college at 
Wilno; married in 1893 to 
Josephine Zychlinski, and 
the children of this union 
are: Richard, Casimir, Thaddeus (asso- 
ciated with their father in the business), 
Thaddeus, attorney-at _ law; in the business 
for the past thirty-five years; came to this 
country when eighteen years of age, resi- 
dent of Chicago for the past fifty-two 
years; member of the Polish National Al- 
lance, Polish Welfare Association, Polish 
Business Men's Association, and many 


3004 East 88th Street, Chicago, Illinois. 
Stanley S. Marciniak, President; Anton 
Karas, Vice President; Victor L. Schlae- 
ger, Secretary; Louis Liberacki, Treasurer. 
Directors: Frank Rybicki, Louis Toma- 
szewski, Joseph Przekwas, Joseph Kop^ 
czynski, Joseph Wasik, Stanley S. Mar- 
ciniak, Anton Karas, Victor L. Schlaeger, 
Louis Liberacki. 

j 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1 937 

Pa ge 247 

music and choir master; born October 12, 
1888, in Poland, son of An- 
thony and Lucia (Chmie- 
lewski) Cieszykowski; stu- 
dent of the Institute of 
Music in Warsaw, Poland; 
post-graduate of the Chi- 
cago Musical College, 1923, 
where he obtained the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Mu- 
sic; since 1912 in Chicago, engaged as or- 
ganist and choir master; teacher of music; 
musical director of the "Wisla," "Kalina" 
and "Harfa" choirs; former general direc- 
tor of the Polish Singers' Alliance of the 
State of Illinois; now teaches and directs 
the "St. Cecilia" and "Druzyna" choirs; 
former general director of the Polish Unit- 
ed Choirs. 

keeper, 2074 North Leavitt Street; born 
October 15, 1882, in Po- 
land; son of John and 
Ludwika (Kalinowska) 
Czerwinski; married on 
October 24, 1904, to Ma- 
ryanna Lech; they have 
four children: Florian, 
Martha, Edward, Victoria; 
member Polish Roman 
Catholic Union, Polish National Alliance, 
Catholic Order of Foresters, Rev. Joseph 
Barzynski Club, Polish Alma Mater; in 
business for thirty-three years. 

CASMIRA J. SAJEWSKI, optometrist, 
at 1554 West Chicago Avenue; born March 
4, 1909, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; daughter of Wlady- 
slaw H. and Helena (Wy 
kowski) Sajewski; attend- 
ed Holy Trinity Parochial 
School, Carl Schurz High 
School, Northern Illinois 
College of Optometry; 
post graduate in Founda- 
tion Clinic; member of the Polish Wom- 
en's Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic Un- 
ion, Polish Optometrists' Association, Chi- 
cago Optometric Society, Illinois State 
Society of Optometrists; for nine years at 
the same address, 1554 West Chicago Ave. 


torney-at-Law; born April 27, 1888, in 
Buffalo, N. Y.; daughter 
of Teofil and Walentina 
(Ogorkiewicz) Fleming; 
graduated University of 
Buffalo, LL.B., 1909 when 
only twenty-one years of 
age; married to Dr. John 
A. Czachorski, June 28, 
1914, and the children of 
this union are John Francis, age 16, and 
Eugene John, age 21; favorite sports: 
gardening, motoring and golf; member of 
the Polish American Bar Association, Po- 
lish Lawyers' Association, Women's Bar 
Association, Polish Women's Alliance, Po- 
lish Alma Mater, Medical Auxiliary. 

cartoonist; attended Academy of Fine Arts 
in Warsaw, Poland, with 
Majewski, later both met 
in America, each unaware 
of the other's presence in 
this country; to celebrate 
thirtieth anniversary of 
stage work; also a car- 
toonist with many Polish 
papers in America. 

WENCEL F. HETMAN, real estate and 
insurance; state department of rehabilita- 
tion; born October 24, 1895; educated in 
parochial and public schools, in De Paul 
University; during the World War he vol- 
unteered and was assigned to duty at the 
quartermaster's department in charge of 
the army warehouse; advanced to the rank 
of first lieutenant; former president of the 
Legion Building and Loan Association, di- 
certor of the Pioneer Fire Insurance Com- 
pany; manufacturer and inventor of foot 
appliances; former assistant of purchases 
and construction for the State of Illinois, 
commissioner of special assignments for 
the West Park Board of Chicago; past 
commander American Legion Post No. 86 
and is reserve officer (captain) of the 
United States Army; member Forty and 
Eight Society, Army and Navy Club; mar- 
ried to Helen Marie Gordon and they have 
a son and daughter, Wencel F. Jr. and 
Mary Ann. 

Page 248 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


clothier and haberdasher; born September 

28, 1886, at Plock, Poland; 

^PPw son of Jacob and Ludwika 

f (Gorecka) Nosarzewski; 

! ~ / **'F attended parochial school 

i£ in Poland, Froebel Public 

^J^fl^«^ School in Chicago; mar- 

wiA ried ° ct ° ber 24 > i923 > to 

Irene Bardonski ; they 
have four children — Mary, 
Irene, Elizabeth, Louise; member of the 
Chicago Society of the Polish National 
Alliance, American Polish Business Men's 
Association, Avondale Chamber of Com- 
merce, Chopin Choir; in clothing manufac- 
turing business from 1912 to 1920; in retail 
clothing business from 1920 to date; owns 
Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, 111. 

OTTO E. GORSKI, retail meat dealer; 
born February 25, 1888, at Gdynia, Poland; 
son of Michael and Anna 
Boettcher) Gorski, at- 
tended grammar school; 
married on November 20, 
1907, to Martha Szafarkie- 
wicz, and they have the 
following children: Lillian, 
Frank (deceased) Theo- 
dore, Dorothy, Norbert, 
Pearl and William; president of the State 
Retail Meat Dealers' Association; presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce of Jef- 
ferson Park; member of the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union; in business since 1917. 

MARION I. AST, jeweler, 4618 S. Ash- 
land Avenue; born March 24, 1883, at La- 
dek, Poland; son of Igna- 
tius and Josephine (Hil- 
ger) Ast; attended gram- 
mar school in Poland; 
married January 15, 1913, 
to Josephine Sobierajska; 
they have three children — 
Felix, Regina and Bru- 
non; member, Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Unity Group No. 768, Po- 
lish Falcons, Polish Youth Alliance of the 
Land of Washington; proprietor of a jew- 
elry and Musical instruments store in the 
Stockyards District since 1909. 

JOHN P. GRZEMSKI, real estate and in- 
surance office, located at 2304 N. Western 
Avenue; born on Oc- 
tober 27, 1893, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois; son of 
Stephen and Frances 
(Chabowski) Grzem- 
ski; attended parochial 
school, Lane Technical 
high school, School of 
Telegraphy at Valpa- 
raiso, Indiana, married 
on June 6, 1917, to 
Clara Siuda, and the children of this union 
are Grace and Leonard; director of the 
Polish Roman Catholic Union, director of 
the Main State Bank, secretary of the Po- 
lish Building and Loan Associations 
League; secretary of the Northwestern 
Building and Loan Association, member of 
the Chicago Society of the Polish National 
Alliance; in real estate and insurance busi- 
ness since 1919; candidate for the treasurer 
of the Polish Roman Catholic Union in the 
coming convention in the fall of 1937. 

ALBERT J. DANISCH, proprietor Mrs. 
W. Slominski Badge and Banner Works, 
1025 Milwaukee Avenue; born April 13, 
1879, in Chicago, Illinois, son of Florian 
and Caroline (Rzepczyk) Danisch; educa- 
tion: parochial school and St. Ignatius Col- 
lege; married June 4, 1902, to Angela Slo- 
minski and the children of this union are: 
Dorothy, Paul (deceased), Mary (deceased), 
Frances and Joseph; business established in 
1872 by the late Mrs. W. Slominski, mother 
of Mrs. A. J. Danisch and wife of the late 
Stanislaus Slominski, leader among Polish 
Americans since the late sixties; Albert J. 
Danisch was captain of Company "C" of 
the Pulaski Volunteers; at one time post 
office clerk, clerk in Water Bureau, chief 
state examiner of building and loan asso- 
ciations in Cook County; member Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Knights of Columbus, Polish Fal- 
cons; president Polish Educational Aid So- 
ciety, secretary Holy Trinity High School 
Board and Holy Trinity High School 
Founders' Assiciation. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 249 

CHESTER JOHN ROSS, dentist; born 

July 21, 1900, in Chicago, Illinois; son of 

Casimir and Theresa (Xa- 

kiewicz) Rozmyslowicz; 

education: St. Adalbert's 
Grammar School, 1915; 
Harrison High School, 
1919; University of Chi- 
cago; D.D.S. degree re- 
ceived at Chicago College 
of Dental Surgery, 1925; 
married to Rose Lapkiewicz, June 28, 1930, 
and the children of this union are Dennis 
Richard and Renetta Elizabeth; hobbies: 
golf, fishing, bowling, music, pinochle; 
past president, Chicago Polish Dental So- 
ciety; president St. Hyacinth's Parish 
Bowling League; member of the Polish 
Medical and Dental Association of Amer- 
ica, Catholic Circle of Illinois; Chicago So- 
ciety of the Polish National Alliance; St. 
Hyacinth's Choir; American Dental So- 
ciety; Illinois Dental Society, Chicago 
Dental Society, Polish Alma Mater, Unique 
Social Club, St. Vincent de Paul Dramatic 
Circle, National Rivers and Harbors Con- 
gress, Psi Omega Fraternity, Jan Sobieski 
III Club, Avondale Improvement Club, 
Chicago Federation of Musicians, Local 
No. 10. 

CLEMENT L. PIONTEK, architect; 
born on November 15, 1889, in Chicago, 
111.; son of Frank 
and Frances 
(Matz) Piontek; 
attended St. James 
Grammar and 
High School; the 
Armour Scientific 
Academy and 
graduated the Ar- 
mour Institute of 
Technology with 
high honors; 
married Isabel 
Meclewski on No- 
vember 26, 1913, and the children of this 
union are Eugene and Richard; member of 
the Chicago Society of the Polish National 
Alliance, group 1450, Polish Roman Cath- 
olic Union, Polish Alma Mater; has de- 
signed many notable buildings in Chicago 
and enjoys a wide reputation as architect. 



B.S., F.A.C.S.; surgeon, son of Stanley and 
Bertha (Marquardt) War- 
szewski; education: Lane 
Technical High School, St. 
Ignatius College, Univer- 
sity of Chicago, B.S.; Rush 
Medical College, M.D., 
1917; fellow of American 
College of Surgeons; pro- 
fessor of surgery, Cook 
County Post Graduate School of Medicine 
and Surgery; clinical professor of surgery. 
Loyola University School of Medicine and 
Surgery; attending surgeon, Cook County 
Hospital; senior surgical staff, St. Mary 
of Nazareth Hospital; head of department 
of gynecology, St. Mary of Nazareth Hos- 
pital; professor of surgery, St. Mary Train- 
ing School for Nurses; married to Olym- 
pia Peszynski; member American Medical 
Association, Illinois and Chicago Medical 
Associations (Northwest Branch), Polish 
Medical Society. Physicians' Fellowship 
Club, Polish Welfare Association, Chicago 
Society, Polish National Alliance, Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Polish Arts Club. 

JOHN S. KONOPA, merchant of church 

and religious articles.located at 109 North 

Dearborn Street; born July 

Emmm 24, 1883, Morewood, Penn- 
sylvania; son of Andrew 
#i M and Catherine (Cylka) Ko- 
.*! nopa; attended parochial 
school and St. Stanislaus 
» ML College; married May 29, 
> J|fl 1907, to Anna A. Szatkow- 

^* m s k a ; they have four chil- 
dren: Dr. John F. Konopa, Loretta Cy- 
winski, Virginia and Annette; in church 
goods business since 1914; former secre- 
tary general of Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, two terms, and treasurer, one term; 
was special recruiting officer during the 
World War and under his supervision an 
unsurpassed record of voluntary enlistment 
was made in the United States; member 
of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, Chi- 
cago Society, Polish National Alliance, 
Polish Alma Mater, Polish Welfare Asso- 
ciation. Catholic Circle, Elmhurst Coun- 
try Club, Ecclesiastical Merchants Guild. 

Page 250 

7837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

estate broker; born June 16, 1903, in Lodz, 

Poland, son of 
Cyprian a n d 
Anna (Ligoc- 
ki) Wronski; 
attended St. 
V a 1 e n tine's 
School, which 
lie graduated 
in 1916; grad- 
uate of Holy 
Trinity High 
School, 1920; 
Bachelor of 
Science at the 
University of 
Nctre Dame; 
studied 1 a w 
at De Paul University; married Marie Koz- 
lik, October 6, 1928; member of the Chi- 
cago Society of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Chi- 
cago Club of Notre Dame, Delta Theta Phi 

of the Polish Roman Catholic Union of 

born March 
21, 1886, in 
Chicago, II., 
a son of Jos- 
eph and Mary 
attended p a- 
rochial and 
high schools; 
married S o- 
phie Michal- 
ska, on Au- 
gust 17, 1909, 
and the chil- 
dren of this 
union are 
John J. Olejniczak Jr. and Martha Olej- 
nicza Loboda; member of the Polish Ro- 
man Catholic Union of America, Polish 
Falcons Alliance of America, Polish Alma 
Mater, Knights of Columbus; active in all 
affairs working for the betterment of the 

ney-at-law; born October 23, 1899, son of 
Kazim ierz andj 
Elizabeth (Luka- 
szewicz) Wiczas; 
graduated St.] 
Stanislaus College, 
1918, LaSalle Ex- 
tension Universi- 
ty, A c c o u nt'.ng 
Department, 1920, 
N o r t h w e s tern 
University, Col- 
lege of Commerce. 
1920-1922. De Paul 
University, LL.B. 
degree in 1926; member of the Polish Alma 
Mater, Polish National Alliance, Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Knights of Colum- 
bus, Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity, Po- 
lish Lawyers' Association, St. Stanislaus 
College Alumni; examiner of titles, Tor- 
rens office, 1928-1929; assistant to general 
counsel of Polish Roman Catholic Union, 


(Not Inc.), cigar manufacturers, located at 
850 North Ashland Avenue; employing 
eight people; organized October 21, 1921, 
by John Misiowiec, Alex Bogdanowicz, 
John Miedzianowski and Walter Pytlowa- 
ny, this firm originally located at 1121 Mil- 
waukee Ave., at present is owned and 
operated solely by John Misiowiec; a lead- 
ing Polish cigar company, selling its prod- 
ucts in all parts of the United States; dur- 
ing the World War John Misiowiec served 
with distinction in the Polish army under 
command of General Haller. 

WICZ, M.D., physician; born January 14, 
1S88. in Poland, son of 
drew and Michalina Ale- 
xandrowicz; received a 
degree of B.S. at Loyola 
University, 1920; his M.D. 
degree at Loyola Univer- 
sity Medical College, in 
1925; internship at St. 
Francis Hospital, Blue Is- 
land, Illinois; member of the Polish Na- 
tional Alliance. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


JOHN BIALIKIEWICZ, theatrical cos- 
tumer and costume rental; born April 14, 
1873, at Wojnicz, Poland; 
son of John and Mary 
Bialikiewicz; owner of the 
Polonia Costume House, 
originally located at the 
same address — 1664 West 
Division Street; business 
begun in 1915; aided the 
presentation of benefit performances for 
the resurrection of Poland and Polish war 
sufferers; designed and furnished costumes 
for the first Polish operas presented in the 
Middle West; member of Group Xo. 481 
Polish National Alliance. 

SKI, pharmacist; born August 24, i877, 
in Chicago, Illinois; son 
of Victor and Josephine 
(Block) Bardonski; gradu- 
ate of Northwestrn Uni- 
versity School of Phar- 
macy, June 17, 1897; mar- 
ried' October 3, 1900, to 
Anna Czaja. and the chil- 
dren of this union are Isa- 
bella, Victor and Dorothy; his father, Vic- 
tor Bardonski, a Polish pioneer since 1872, 
first Polish druggist and owner of the first 
Polish drug store in Chicago; member of 
Polish Roman Catholic Union. Polish Na- 
tional Alliance, Chicago Retail Druggists' 
Association, Polish Druggists' Association, 
32nd Ward Democratic Organization, 
Fraternal Order of Eagles. 

KAZIMIERZ MAJEWSKI, director, was 
graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts 
in Warsaw, Poland; came 
to this country in 1909; 
was active in organizing 
the first Polish Theatre in 
Chicago • and has played 
upon the Polish stage in 
America for over twenty- 
five years; rated by the 
general Polish public as 
the outstanding Polish actor in this coun- 
try. Cartoonist of the Polish Daily Zgoda 
for over twenty years; also an adept por- 
trait painter and caricaturist. 

FRANK J. LASSA, plumbing and heating 
contractor, 4301 S. Whipple Street; born 
September 23, 1894, in Chi- 
cago, Illinois; son of John 
and Magdalene (Pawlak) 
Lassa; attended St. Ma- 
ry's Parochial School, 31st 
and Loomis St.; married 
June 23, 1919, to Cathe- 
rine Smarcz; they have 
two children. Frank, Jr., 
and Maryanna; in plumbing business since 
1907; member Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, chairman of Boy Scouts Division; 
president Brighton Park Civic Improve- 
ment Association, member Flanders Post 
American Legion, Plumbing Contractors' 
Association, Archer Avenue Business 
Men's Association; vice president Polish 
Democratic State Organization. 

THADDEUS V. ADESKO, attorney-at- 

law; born November 5, 1902, in Chicago, 

Illinois; pre-legal educa- 

Btion at University of Chi- 
cago, law degree from 
Northwestern University; 
admitted to the Bar of the 
State of Illinois in 1930; 
member of Chicago Bar 
Association. Illinois State 
Bar Association. Polish 
Lawyers' Association. Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Association of America, and 
Polish American Democratic Organiza- 
tion; residing with his wife, Clara, nee 
Rutkowski, and two children, Paul and 
Alice, at 2301 Marshall Boulevard. 


and accountant; born May 30, 1881, in Po- 

znan, Poland; son o* Bro- 

0nislaw and Wladyslawa 
(Radomska) Garbark; at- 
tended Chicago Seminary 
of Science. Chicago Law 
School; married to Mary 
Leszczynska in 1901; they 
have two sons. Edward 
and Eugene; member of 
the Polish National Alliance. Polish Busi- 
ness Men's Association, Chicago Society 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association. Elm- 
hurst Country Club. Lake Shore Athletic 
Club, and manv others. 

Page 252 

7837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 7937 

S. CHARLES BUBACZ, attorney-at-law; 
born December 16, 1895, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois; a son of Adalbert and 
Antonette (Wutkowski) 
Bubacz; attended St. Sta- 
nislaus Kostka School, 
graduate of Webster Col- 
lege of Law in 1921; mar- 
ried April 16, 1929, to Flo- 
rence Train, daughter of 
Dr. John A. Train, a re- 
spected physician of the North-West Side 
of Chicago, now deceased; member of the 
Delta Theta Phi (Webster Senate); Chi- 
cago Society of the Polish National Al- 
liance; Polish Roman Catholic Union; 
Chicago Bar Association, Illinois Bar As- 
sociation, Chicago Polish Bar Association 
Polish American National Bar Association- 
brother of Rev. Stephen A. Bubacz, pastor 
of Old St. Stephen's Church, one of the 
oldest parishes in the city. 

wrecking business; born May 25, 1911 i n 
Chicago, Illinois, son of Stanley J. and 'Ca- 
therine (Zmuda) Czerwiec! attended Co- 
lumbia College, of Dubuque, Iowa; married 
Clara Hybiak, September 27, 1936; member 
of the Polish National Alliance, Polish Ro- 
man Catholic Union, and many others. 
Joseph, Mrs. Frances Kurpiasz, Frank 
Bessie, John; in the wrecking and lumber 
business; born March 12. 1887, at Wie- 
wiorka, Poland, son of Joseph and Marv 
(Klecz) Czerwiec; married Catherine Zmu- 
da, September 20, 1908; member of the Po- 
lish National Alliance, Polish Roman Ca- 
tholic Union, Polish Falcons (Sokol), Klub 
Malopolska, Polish Merchants' Associa- 


partnership engaged in the wrecking and 
lumber business, with Joseph Czerwiec, 
president, and Stanley Czerwiec, treasurer;' 
located at 3654-3670 South Western Ave.| 
Chicago, Illinois; organized 1027, it em- 
ploys fifteen men, originally located at 
3654-3672 So. Western Ave.; the only ex- 
clusive Polish lumber yard in Chicago, em- 
ploying all Polish people and enjoying 
ninety percent of the Polish business. 


Matthew B. Morozowicz is the owner of 
the Lincoln Pho- 
tographic Studio, 
located at 2335-7 
W. Chicago Ave.; 
the son of Teodor 
Morozowicz, well- 
known touring 
photographer of Poland, who photographed 
Count Potocki's family and other notables 
at Kalisz, Poland; one 
of the leading studios 
in the city, it won the 
Blue Ribbon at the 
1936 State Convention 
and recogniton for its 
portraits accepted and 
displayed on exhibi- 
t i o n at the Chicago 
convention, held re- 
cently at Stevens Ho- 
tel; two sons, Richard and Leonard, inherit 
the love of photography from their father 
and grandfather. Matthew B. Morozowicz 
is a member of the Chicago Society and an 
executive of St. Helen's Business Men's 


M.D., physician and surgeon; born Janu- 
ary 11, 1877, in Chicago, 
Illinois, son Dr. Henry 
and Henrietta Xelowski; 
graduate of University of 
Illinois College of Phar- 
macy, Ph.G., 1896; Univer- 
sity of Illinois School of 
Medicine, M.D., 1903; Fel- 
low of American College 
of Surgeons, FACS, 1917; married Lina 
May .Bliss, June 18, 1907; they have a son 
and a daughter, Thad. Xelowski, Jr., and 
Mary Louise Xelowski; member Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Polish Medical Association; senior 
surgeon of St. Mary of Nazareth Hospi- 
tal, professor of gynecology — Nurses' 
School of St. Mary; former surgeon chief 
of Illinois General Hospital, former surg- 
eon People's Gas, Light and Coke Com- 
pany; office at Suite 409, 1200 North Ash- 
land Avenue, corner Division Street. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Page 253 

JOHN W. JARANOWSKI. The busiest 
man in Calumet City is Mr. Jaranowski, 
mayor of the town. Among the other ac- 
tivities which help to occupy his time is 
being commissioner of Cook County, presi- 
dent of the Calumet City Building Corpo- 
ration, president of Calumet City Chari- 
ty organization, vice president of the Calu- 
met City State Bank, president of the Calu- 
met City Welfare Association, member of 
the board of directors of the Calumet City 
Chamber of Commerce, a director in the 
Highway Commissioner's Good Roads As- 
sociation, chairman of the Board of trus- 
tees of the Moose. During the war he 
headed the local drives for Liberty Loans, 
the Red Cross and the Salvation Army. He 
has been instrumental in the establishment 
of the Calumet City Park system, the high 
school district and among the firmest ad- 
vocates of the establishment of a local for- 
est preserve. For eleven years he was high- 
way commissioner of Thornton and for 
seven years alderman from the Third Ward. 
He is head of the Public Construction Co., 
one of the largest industrial, road, sewer 
and construction firms in Northern Indi- 
ana. Founded twelve years ago with little 

capital by him, the firm is now doing a 
gross business of about $1,000,000 a year, 
employing three hundred fifty men. He is 
secretary of the Burnham Refrigerating 
Company of Burnham, Illinois. 

Born in Hammond, he attended school 
here as a boy and worked in the family 
truck garden. Then he worked for the 
Conkey plant, had a tea store route, and at 
twenty went into the teaming business and 
the next year founded the Illinois Coal and 
Material business which he sold out later, 
and at twenty-six organized the construc- 
tion concern. 

Mr. Jaranowski was married September 
13th, 1909, (twenty-eight years ago) to Sa- 
lomea Szczypinska and they have three 
children, Martha, Hieronim, and John Jr. 
Mrs. Jaranowski was appointed County 
Recorder in 1928 for a one year term—the 
only Polish woman ever to hold that po- 

In addition to other organizations, Mr. 
Jaranowski is a member of the Woodmar 
and Lake Hills Country Clubs, the Elks, 
Eagles and kindred organizations. His hob- 
bies are golf and duck hunting. 

Compliments of 

Page 254 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

AUGUST JOHN KORTAS, undertaker; 
born August 15, 1891, in Chicago, Illinois; 
son of John and 
Rose (Janowski) 
Kortas; education: 
Saint Stanislaus 
Kostka Parochial 
School, six years; 
Saint Stanislaus 
Kostka College, 
one year; North- 
western Business 
College two 
years; Worsham 
School of Em- 
balming; married 
October 6, 1914, to Wanda Szostakowski; 
they have three children: Eugene, Adele 
and Harry, member Polish National Al- 
liance; Polish Roman Catholic Union, Holy 
Name Society of St. Mary Magdalene Par- 
ish, El Dorado Pleasure Club. 

VICTOR A. KULA, attorney-at-law; born 
August 15, 1903, at Stevens Point, Wis- 
consin; son of Anton and 
Mary (Rostenkowski) Ku- 
la; graduated John Mar- 
shall Law School, 1924; 
post-graduate work at 
Northwestern University; 
married August 15, 1931, 
to Carrie Tokarz; they 
have one child, Mary Ann: 
hobbies and sports: fishing and hunting; 
member of the Illinois State Bar Associa- 
tion, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Bar Association, 
Chicago Society of the Polish National Al- 

STANLEY A. HALICK, auditor; born 
January 17, 1898, son of Mieczyslaw and 
. Mary (Forman) Halick; 

JPfPfe, married Angeline Kostkie- 

wicz, November 23, 1920; 
g> 9p m- t) they have one child, Rob- 

ert; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Po- 
lish Alma Mater, Knights 
of Columbus, Polish Le- 
gion of American Veterans, American Le- 
gion and many others. 

JOHN S. RUSCH, chief clerk of the Board 
of Election Commissioners; born July 9, 

1889, in Chi- 
cago, 111.; son 
of Anton 
R u s c h and 
Julia (Jun- 
k r o w s k a) 
Rusch; mar- 
ried Nettie 
P i ontkowska 
on June 15, 
1924 and have 
one child 
M ercedes 
Rusch; mem- 
ber of the 
K n i g h ts of 
Polish Roman 
Catholic Union of America, and the Ameri- 
can Legion; most active in the civic affairs 
of this municipality; resides with his fami- 
ly at 1938 West Garfield Boulevard. 


attorney-at-law; born August 1, 1907, 
in Chicago, Illinois; son of Joseph and 
Anna (Jendrzejek) Korzeniewski; educa- 
tion: Quigley Seminary, 1924; Notre Dame 
University, Bachelor of Arts, 1928; Har- 
vard University and Northwestern Uni- 
versity Law School, Doctor of Jurispru- 
dence, 1932; married February 6, 1937, to 
Loretta Dembski; member of the Polish 
National Alliance, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union, Knights of Columbus, University 
Civic League, Notre Dame Club of Chica- 
go, Richmond Gun Club. 

ter; born December 24, 1886, in Poland; 
son of Ludwik and Jose- 
phine (Dulcik) Bystrzyc- 
ki; attended grammar 
school in Poland; married 
1911 to Rose Podbielniak; 
children: Stanley, Pauline, 
Helen, Josephine, Chester, 
Virginia, Adeline, Joanne 
and Henry; member of 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters, Local 
199, twenty years; Polish National Al- 
liance, Group No. 9, fourteen years. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Pa ge 255 

JOSEPH CASIMIR ULIS, dentist; born 
March 19, 1905, in Chicago, Illinois; son of 
Casimir and Sophia Ulis; 
<*d$&A graduated Loyola Univer- 

\ sity, 1928; married Gene- 

3% ^ vieve Shepanek on Septem- 

ber 26, 1936; member of 
the American, Illinois and 
Chicago Dental Societies, 
Knights of Columbus, 
Mayslake Spiritual Coun- 
try Club, Polish Dental Club, Pi Delta Sig- 
ma Fraternity, Unique Social Club, Chi- 
cago Society of the Polish National Al- 
liance, Polish Roman Catholic Union, Po- 
lish University Club, Junior League, Po- 
lish Students' Association. 

LOUIS F. GLON, police officer, born in 
Chicago, Illinois, son of Joseph (deceased) 
and Agnes (Kalasa) Glon; 
attended St. Stanislaus 
Kostka School, North- 
western Business College, 
Lane Technical High 
School; married May, 1916, 
to Sophia Rylowicz, and 
the children of this union 
are Florence and Dorothy; 
on the police force for eighteen years; has 
four brothers with the City of Chicago 
Police Department; member of the Polish 
Roman Catholic Union, Polish Policemen 
Organization, Policemen's Benevolent As- 
sociation of the City of Chicago. 

JOSEPH G. MUCHA, secretary to Judge 
Peter H. Schwaba of the Superior Court, 
Chicago, 111.; born in Chi- 
cago, 111., son of Jacob and 
Lucille Mucha (both de- 
ceased) ; attended St. Sta- 
nislaus Kostka School, 
Burr High School, St. Sta- 
nislaus Kostka College; 
formerly with the Chicago 
Po 1 ish Daily News; with 
County Judge, E. K. Jarecki; with M. S. 
Szymczak, former clerk of the Superior 
Court, State of Illinois; vice president of 
the Polish Roman Catholic Union; mem- 
ber of the Pulaski Post American Legion, 
Polish Democratic Club of Illinois, and 
many other organizations. 

COMPANY is the outgrowth of a 
small typewriter ribbon business founded 
in 1883 by John T. Underwood. The busi- 
ness was expanded in 1895 with the acqui- 
sition of the Wagner Typewriter Company, 
and the company name was changed to the 
L T nderwood Typewriter Company. Under 
Mr. Underwood's able leadership, this com- 
pany grew from the infant to the leader 
of the industry, with offices in all the prin- 
cipal cities of the world. In 1927, the Un- 
derwood Typewriter was merged with the 
Elliott Fisher Company, which merger 
further increased the scope of the organi- 
zation. The Underwood Elliott Fisher 
Company has supplied business machines 
to many of the larger Polish organization 
in America and Poland. 

born December 1, 1892, in Chicago, Illi- 
nois, son of Louis and 
I Mary (Kaczmarski) Kud- 
I ' lick; graduate of John 
Marshall Law School — 
1916; married June 7, 1919, 
to Sophia Bieszke, and 
they have one child, Ma- 
rion George Kudlick, Jr.; 
member of the Chicago 
Bar Association; Elmhurst Country Club; 
Chicago Society of Polish National Al- 
liance; Knights of the Polish Roman 
Catholic Union; Captain Arthur Kelly 
Post of the American Legion; Northwest 
Town Kiwanis Club (Chicago). 

taker; 3658 Belmont Avenue, born August 
19, 1899, in Chicago, Illinois; son of Tho- 
mas and Rose (Schultz) Skaja: married 
Helen Chmura, January 25, 1928, and the 
children of this union are Dorothy, Lor- 
raine, Bernard Jr., Joseph and Thomas; 
Treasurer of the Illinois State Court Cath- 
olic Order of Foresters; member of the Po- 
lish Roman Catholic Union. Polish Union, 
Polish Businessmen's Association, Chicago 
Funeral Directors' Association, Funeral 
Service Association, chairman of the Avon- 
dale District Chicago Charter Jubilee. 

Page 256 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


caterer; born March 19, 1895, at Tarno- 
brzeg, Poland; the son 
of Franciszek and Te- 
kla (K a w e c k a) Mi- 
chalski; attended high 
school at Tarnobrzeg, 
Poland, Custer's Busi- 
ness Course in Chica- 
go, 111.; married Bal- 
bina Wichowska Nov. 
15, 1924, and they 
have two children, 
Stanislaw and Christina; member of the 
Polish National Alliance, Polish Business- 
men's Association, Polish Singers' Alliance, 
Chicago Society, St. Helen's 31st Ward 
Democratic Organization, Polish Cavalry 
of St. Stanislaus, Laudanski Banner, Thad- 
deus Kosciuszko Club of St. Stanislaus and 
many others; in 1922 he organized the 
OAZA CATERING, Inc., of 1250 Mil- 
waukee Ave., specializing in catering to 
weddings, banquets, etc.; the banqueting 
halls at the above address are the scene of 
many social activities; arranged four ban- 
quets in honor of General Haller, several 
affairs for the Kosciuszko Foundation, and 
took part in practically all most important 
affairs in Polish American social and civile 
life; Mr. Michalski's motto: "Good Food- 
Best Advertisement." 

CASIMIR J. B. WRONSKI, real estate; 
veteran promoter of baseball, bowling, vol- 

Hleyball, softball, swim- 
ming, rowing, skating and 
hockey among the Polish- 
Americans of Chicagoland. 
born March 3, 1888, at 
Gniezno. Poland, son of 
Joseph and Bronislawa 
(Kryger) Wronski. Edu- 
cation: Holy Trinity School, 1901; married 
On June 11, 1913, to Agnes Kotulla, and 
the children of this union are: Casicir 
Pulaski Wronski and Thaddeus Kosciusz- 
ko Wronski; member Polish National Al- 
liance, Group 122, Polish Roman Catholic 
Union No. 16, Polish Alma Mater No. 4, 
Business Men's Club of St. Stanislaus 
Kostka Parish, North West Fellowship 
Club, Y. M. C. A., Knights of Columbus. 

HIPOLIT PYTEREK, funeral director, 
with home located at 2614 East 87th St., 
South Chicago, Illinois, for 
the last ten years; partner- 
ship with Arthur Pyterek; 
organized in 1911, and 
originally at 8250 South 
Shore Drive; Hipolit Py- 
terek born August 2, 1866; 
graduated of Immeculate 
Conception School and of 
Worsham School of Embalming of Chica- 
go; married twenty-seven years to Agnes, 
and they have two children, Esther and 
Arthur; organizer of the Holy Name So- 
ciety of St. Michael's Parish, one of the 
largest young men's clubs in Chic/ago; 
member of the Polish Roman Catholic 
Union for thirty-five years, Polish National 
Alliance, twenty-seven years, St. Vincent 
De Paul Society of St. Bronislawa's par- 
ish of South Chicago. 

operator; born in Sambor, Poland, fifty 
years ago; learned the printing trade at 
the "Tygodnik Samborsko - Drohobycki" 
and came to this country as a journeyman 
thirty-three years ago; worked at "Wielko- 
polanin," in Pittsburgh, Pa., "Ameryka- 
Echo" in Toledo, Ohio, "Gwiazda Zacho- 
du" in South Omaha, Nebraska; Smulski 
Publishing Co.; his connection with Amer- 
ican Catalogue Printing Company dates 
back nearly twenty-five years; worked in- 
termittently as journeyman at "Dziennik 
Narodowy," "Dziennik Ludowy," "Dzien- 
nik Zwiazkowy," "Dziennik Zjednoczenia," 
and in several job shops in Chicago; mar- 
ried! Victoria Karwowska in 1915, now de- 
ceased; children: Sophia Szymanska, Sta- 
nislaus Jr. and Lucille; his hobbies are: 
singing, in which line, while a young man, 
he worked as a semi-pro, and gardening. 
He is still active in amateur singing clubs; 
this book was linotyped by him and made 
up in forms with the able cooperation of 
F. CZOSNYKOWSKI, born in Lwow, Po- 
land, October 1, 1892. He learned his trade 
at the "Drukarnia Ludowa" in that city; 
in 1915, he married Marja Matz; the chil- 
dren are: Olga and Sophie; he worked at 
Dyniewicz Publishing Co., before he joined 
the staff of journeymen of the American 
Catalogue Printing Company, one of the 
most modern Polish printing establish- 
ments in Chicago, which is located at 1231 
N. Ashland Avenue, and occupies the en- 
tire building. 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 






STANLEY GWIZDALSKI Recording Secretary 

EDWARD OKONIEWSKI Financial Secretary 








C^By^MUNT SowSrT 1 ™ 

DZIURGOT, WALTER nwVxuimcC; r7M1Mn „ 























1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 93 7 

Since 1873 

Wxt polish Btoan Nathalie Union of America 

has been a mighty factor in the Cultural, Religious, 
Political, Civic and Educational Life of Chicago 

Scholarships to Students 
Catholic Action Library 
Sports and Athletics 

Scouting and Daughters of P. R. C. U. 
Disability Relief 

Polish Union Daily — "Dziennik Zjednoczenia" 
Weekly— "Narod Polski" 

and its many other diversified* activities among our citizens of Polish birth or 
extraction, place it among the foremost Fraternals of our city. 

A cordial invitation is extended to all to visit our Museum and Archives — 
the only one of its kind in America — Historical, Educational and Interesting. 


984-986 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

The Executive Board of the Polish Roman Catholic Union 

Chaplain: Rev. Casimir Gronkowski, 1650 W. 17th St., Chicago, 111. 

Vice Chaplain: Rev. Paul Janeczko, St. Peter and Paul Church, Spring Valley, 111. 

Vice Chaplain; Rev. Joseph A. Maj, 291 St. Paul Avenue, Jersey City, X. J. 

President: Joseph L. Kania, 2239 Cortez St., Chicago, 111. 

Vice President: John Zielinski, 443 Hillside Ave., Holyoke, Mass. 

Vice President: Antonette Wlodarski, 1544 W. Garfield Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

Secretary General: Joseph J. Bare, 1800 W. 21st Place, Chicago, 111. 

Treasurer: Frank A. Brandt, 1251 Noble St., Chicago, 111. 

General Counsel: Stanley T. Kusper, 1808 S. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

High Medical Examiner: Dr. W. A. Dziuk, 7400 S. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Editor-in-Chief: F. S. Bare, 1126 Dobson Street, Evanston, 111. 

Directors for Chicago 

Stanley Babiarz, 2236 Cortez St., Chicago, 111. 

John E. Nikliborc, 5719 S. Sacramento Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Edmund J. Sadowski, 8312 Colfax Ave., South Chicago, 111. 

Casimir Derwinski, 12109 Parnell Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Frank A. Daniel, 5239 W. 29th Place, Cicero, 111. 

Joseph Niemiec, 2719 Parkside Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Angela B. Gorny, 5212 School St., Chicago, 111. 

Theresa Lewandowski, 11750 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Constance Czekala, 1839 Evergreen Ave., Chicago, 111. 


Out-of-State Directors 

Anthony A. Rutkowski, 1028 Wheelock Road, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Stanley P. Turkiewicz, 194 Townsend, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Stanley Faderski, 677 N. Main St., Pittston, Pa. 

Stephen S. Grabowski, 4211 Foster Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Casimir I. Kozakiewicz, 121 Derby St., Salem, Mass. 

John M. Weber, 401 S. Chester St., Baltimore, Md. 

John M. Marmurowicz, 1814 W. Windlake Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Stephen J. Desz, 107-69 Suthpin Blvd., Jamaica, L. I., X. V. 

Mary Kasprzak, 3437 S. 9th Place, Milwaukee, Wis. 

W. M. Duch, 61 Burritt, New Britain, Conn. 

Stephany L. Kolos, 3749 Frazier, Pittsburgh, Fa. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Polish American Democratic Organization of the 16th Ward 

5418 S. Ashland Avenue 

Stanley Strzelecki, President Frank Hyzy, Recording Secretary 

Adam Bialecki, 1st Vice President Ignatius Olenski, Financial Secretary 

Andrew Matecki, 2nd Vice President Jaroslaw Sitko, Sergeant-at-Arms 
Frank Kubaszak, Treasurer 

The Polish Regular Democratic Club of the 14th Ward 

Rep. J. C. Kluczynski, Chairman Joseph P. Winiarski, Financial Secretary 

Joseph Palka, President Frank Gajewicz, Treasurer 

Joseph Detloff, 1st Vice President John Jezewski, Sergeant- at- Arms 

Walter Koszola, 2nd Vice President _ . _ 

St. Kasprzyk, Jr., 3rd Vice President Executive Committee 

Charles Matecki, Recording Secretary Ted. Piasecki, Chairman 

John Sobieski, Assistant Secretary Fr. Sowinski, Vice Chairman 

Polish Regular Democratic Club of the 15th Ward 

John E. Nikliborc, President Henry Wojciechowski, Sec'y. and Corresp. 

Vincent E. Cieslewicz, Vice President Theodore Matykiewicz, Financial Secretary 

Joseph Lachowicz, 2nd Vice President W. Matykiewicz, Sergeant- at- Arms 
George Dybas, Treasurer 

7th Ward Polish Regular Democratic Organization 

Jack Przybylinski, Chairman Promotional Committee 

J. S. Jabczynski, Preident Henry Lenard, Chairman 

Mrs. J. Biskupski, 1st Vice President Joseph Staszewski, Vice Chairman 

Michael Bulawski, 2nd Vice President jack Przybylinski 

Floyd R. Palicki, Secretary Edmund Sadowski 

Anton Kamraczewski, Financial Secretary p au J Jasieniecki 

Joseph Zuchowski, Treasurer Joseph Chema 

Steve Mazurek, Sergeant- at- Arms Barney Kalka 

Frank Michalski, Sergeant- at- Arms Peter Krupa 

8th Ward Polish American Democratic Club 

Martin Hamera, President Directors 

Henry Rudnicki, Vice President John Podgornik 

John Bukowski, Financial Secretary Bruno Pachucki 

Anton Urban, Treasurer Frank Wisniowski 

Magdalene Hamera, Recording Secretary j onn Polakowski 

Joseph Wisniowski, Sergeant- at- Arms p au l Zadora 

Peter Grudzisz 

10th Ward Polish Democratic Club 

Victor L. Schlaeger, President Executive Committee 

John Bogacz, 1st Vice President John Koziczynski 

Richard Wachowiak, -2nd Vice President Martin S. Furman 

Frank B. Przybyla, Recording Secretary Julius Grask 

Anthony Sypniewski, Financial Secretary Anthony Sypniewski 

Martin S. Furman, Treasurer Richard Wachowiak 

John Szymanski, Serge ant- at- Arms Frank Sowa 

Victor L. Schlaeger, Ex Officio 
Wm. W. Powers, Committeeman 
Wm. A. Rowan, Alderman 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— '937 

PoLOrtm Co/ilCo 






Phone BRUnswick 2600 


Phone PENsacola 1200 

Distributors of: 






We KOPPERS The Standard 

Recommend ^^^g^Mf g— of Fuel 

and Sell ^^^^^*^J™ 1 Satisfaction 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

A Sign of Quality 




• Deep Rock fuel oils are of superior quality. Another 
thing! Deep Rock's conveniently located neighborhood 
bulk plants assure you prompt deliveries. 

• There's no guesswork whsn you patronize Deep Rock 
because fuel oil deliveries are made in metered trucks, 
which means you get every drop of oil you pay for. 
Next time you order, phone Deep Rock. 


Deep Mock Oil Corporation 


RANdolph 5600 

B. L. MAJEWSKI, Vice President 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Oberheide Coal Company 

• The Oberheide Coal Company is a definite part of the Polish 
life of Chicago. It has served the Polish people of the city for 
sixty-four years. 

• Mr. Christian Oberheide, founder of the company, was a 
Pole by adoption. He opened a small office and coal \ard on 
corner of Bradley and Noble streets in 1853. It was a Polish 
settlement at the time as it is today. The present location at 
1335 Potomac street is less than a half block from the original 
place of business. 

• Two members of the family, active in the business, have Po- 
lish wives. Both, have children. There is a girl by one marriage 
and three boys by the other. Two of the boys are now learning 
the business. These are Leonard and Wilbur. The children are 
proud of their Polish ancestry. 






brings You 

Unmatched qualify 
Quick deliveries 
Reduced breakage 
Full weight » » 

and the 





in Chicago 

j 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


Telephone ARMitage 1443 

American Catalogue 
Printing Co. 

Creators of Distinctive 



1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — J 937 


Consumers Company .... together with our more than 600 Polish 
employees .... takes pleasure in extending thanks to the thousands 
of Polish home owners who have so loyally given us their patron- 
age year after year. • We appreciate your business and we will 
strive to always merit it by giving prompt, courteous service, high 
quality and correct weight with the guarantee of complete satis- 
faction or your money back. • Since cold winter weather is only 
a few months away may we suggest that you order your supply 
of coal and coke NOW? .... TELEPHONE FRANKLIN 6400 

(onsumers (ompany 

^^^O F ILLINOIS ^^ * * 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

O'Malley 8C McKay, Inc. 


Michigan Fire & Marine Insurance Company 

Standard Surety and Casualty Company 

Ban\ers Indemnity Insurance Company 

Columbia Fire Insurance Company 

Sentinel Fire Insurance Company 



Telephone CENtral 5208-5209-5226 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 




Charles FiUmorris President 

Geo. F. Gets, Chairman, Board of Directors 

F. W. Barret Vice President 

C. J. Wagner Secretary and Treasurer 


Phone HARrison 2881 

1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Specialized Investment Service 


Individuals and Institutions 


E. W. Thomas and Company 


1 35 South La Salle Street, Chicago 
Telephone Franklin 2436 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 7937 





Has been the favorite fuel of 
thousands of Polish families 
in Chicago and suburbs for 
twenty-eight years 

Ask your dealer for the win- 
ter security, comfort and satis- 
faction you get when you buy 
authorised Consolidation Mil- 
ler's Creek Coal .... 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 









A. K. MORDUE, Resident Manager Chicago, 111. 

A. J. HAMPTON, Chicago Representative . . Chicago, 111. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— J 93 7 


Republic Coal & Coke Co 

General Offices 



Branch Offices 

Minneapolis - Indianapolis - Peoria 
Milwaukee - Detroit 

Milwaukee and Superior, Wis. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 




1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 




North Side South Side 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


Nasz wegiel i koks jest najlepszego gatunku — Ceny umiarkowane 

Spencer Bros. Company 
/ »» 



Genuine Koppers CHICAGO Coke 

Rejf. No. 34 






i * 




Dostarczamy rowniez mater jal budowlany, jako: 

4618-40 BELMONT AVE 

Telefon KILdare 0234 

She palish Alma 

Mattt nf (fthtrago 

• Organised on September 10, 1897, by the late Very Rev. Francis 
Gordon, C.R., to insure proper guidance and protection to the 
young people under 18 years of age, the Polish Alma Mater of 
America has grown steadily in membership and assets, so much so 
that today its insurance certificates are valued at 100 cents on the 
dollars. • Applications are accepted from both males and females 
from date of birth to age 60; maximum insurance issued, $5,000.00. 


Albert F. Soska, President Rev. Bernard Szudzinski, Chaplain 

Joseph E. Szpekowski, Vice President Rev. Thomas Drengacz, Vice Chapiain 

Constance C. Grabowiecka, Vice President John S. Kozlowski, General Secretary 
Walter J. Imbiorski, Treasurer 


Joseph T. Lewandowski Rose Barys Andrew Murzyn 

Frank Poklacki Helen Ratajczak Joseph Walerowicz 

Wenceslaus Zielinski Helen Redlin Stanislawa Remblewska 

Andrew Kucharski, Legal Counsellor Dr. S. Czajkowski, Chief Medical Eaminer 

1 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

S. S2YNALSKI, President 
L. GLENICKI, Vice President 

E. GLENICKI, Manager 

W. PAWI2A, Vice President 
J. KARLOWICZ, Secretary 

Established 1918 



For Quality Cleaning — We Call for and Deliver 


Phone SPAulding 8200 


Jewelers and Optometrists 
1246 Milwaukee Avenue 

Heretvith express their Appreciation 
to the Polish people of the City of Chicago 
for their patronage during the 
past sixty-five years. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Telephone ROCkwell 8500 

Douglas Dairy Company 

25 Years of Courteous Service and Quality Merchandising 

25 Lat (1912-1937) Grzecznej Ushigi i Zadowalniajacego Towaru 


Telephone IRVing 8056 LEO A. WACHOLZ 



Wacholz Heating Company 

Member, Chicago Master Steam Fitters Association 


Steam, Hot Water, Vapor and Vacuum Heating 
Systems Installed, Power Pipe Fitting 


J 83 7 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


We extend Greetings to the Polish People and 

Congratulations on Their Constructive Efforts in 

Ma\ing Chicago A Worth-While City 


Coal Company 

309 West Jackson Boulevard 
Chicago, 111. 

Best Wishes 

to my Polish American 


Judge Matthew D, 

Judge Matthew D. Hartigan 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

* * * 



Three Star Wet Wash Laundry, located at 4407-25 West Division 
Street ; Harry Szeklucki, President ; Charles Szczerbicki, Vice presi- 
dent ; Frank Szeklucki, Secretary and Treasurer ; number of em- 
ployees, 204; organized in 1924, originally located at 4407 West Di- 
vision Street ; business started with six trucks and twenty-five em- 
ployees ; now expanded to one of the largest laundries in the city ; 
founded by Stephen Szeklucki, its first president, now deceased, his 
sons now managing and keeping up the tradition and high standards 
of the firm set down by the founder. 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 





Proven by Millions 
of Satisfied Users 

On display at your 

nearest MAYTAG 

deakr or phone 

SEEley 2366 



Telephone IRVing 9379 


Plain and Ornamental 






1 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

The Most Modernly Equipped Beauty 
Salon on the Southwest Side 

ifflUTY Saloh 

Lafayette 2607 4310-12 Archer Ave. 

PALisade 2900 

PALisade 2931 


Parts for Every Make of Car 

Used Automobiles Bought 

Sold and Exchanged 

3656-3666 Milwaukee Avenue 




Funeral Dirtcors 
2246 West North Avenue 

Phone MONroe 1255 

838 N. Ogden Avenue 

Phone BRUnswick 6656 

Phone WABash 3804 






Suite 1425 
175 West Jackson Blvd. 

Day Phones: Armitage 8300-1-2-3-4-5 
Night, For. 2315, New. 0438, Went. 0493 



Repairs to Motors, Electrical Equipment 

Elevators and Controllers. Light and Power 

Wiring, Temporary Motors FREE 

While Repairing Yours 


1347-51 Bauwans St., Chicago 

Established 1914 

Telephone ALBany 9796 


Master Instructor 

in Piano and Theoretical 


2021 North Western Avenue 
2219 N. Sawyer Avenue 


Illinois College of Music and Dramatic Art 

Five Competent Assistants 

Mr. Julius Smietanka 

Dr. S. S. Gorny 

Mr. Wm. Terman 

Mr. Victor Kleber 

J 83 7 — POLES OF CWCAGO—1937 


of Service #x* 
to | 

Policyholders / 


We insure all members of the family 
including the baby from day of birth 

Home Office address since 1895—431 South Dearborn Street 

Chicago, Illinois 

Wm. J. Alexander, President Telephone HARrison 1996 

Phone IRVing 2700-01 

SALES, Inc. 

C. J. Tafel, General Manager 

Hudson . . . Terraplane 


Only Polish Dealer on the North 
or Northwest Side 


Tel. BRUnswick 6998-9 


Parlor Furniture 

Company, Inc. 

Established 1919 
Manufacturers of 



Factory -Showrooms 

1532-34-36 Elk Grove Ave. 8t 
1534-36 N. Lincoln Street 

Necr Lincoln St. and North Ave. 

W. SOKOLOWSKI, President 

3837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 



Steaks and Sandwiches 

Chicken Dinners 

Frog Legs 

3446 North Pulaski Road 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Phone KILdare 8689 


Where's Your House Key 



The Largest in Size 

and Lowest in Price 


in Chicago 

Funeral as Low as $110.00 
Complete Casket as Low as $25.00 

5325 W. Fullerton Avenue 

Phone Berkshire 2876-7 


European Sausages Our Specialty 

All kinds of Roasted Meats 

2912 Milwaukee Ave. Albany 6507 

3310 Lincoln Ave. Graceland 4050 


12 Alleys 

No Obstruction 

Phone LAFayette 7265 
Compliments of 


4306 So. Kedzie Ave. 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 

Compliments of 



Importers of 




1411-13 West Chicago Ave. 
Chicago, 111. 



Stephen I. Witmanski 





President, County Board 
Cook County 

Frank Nowak 

John Nowak 

Established 1908 



Licensed Roofers and 
Furnace Installers 

Office and Factory 
1926-1928 Fullerton Avenue 

Phone HUMboldt 4588 

1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


DIETS. We Specialize in 











666 W. Hubbard St., Chicago. 

All Phones SEEley 2261 





Office and Yard 

Grand and Campbell Aves. 

1837— POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


Compiled under the direction of 


Chairman of the Book Committee 

of the Polish Division— Chicago's Charter Jubilee 

Book styling, editing and indexing by D. M. KRZYWONOS 
Research by T. LUBERA and J. SKIBINSKI 
Business manager. LEO H. RAMMEL 

Price, one dollar per volume. 

1837-^ POLES OF CHICAGO — J 93 7 

Universal Grocery Company 

(Cooperative Grocers Organisation) 

3150 WEST 51st STREET 

Organized January 1, 1936, 

under the management of 


Compliments of 

Augusta and Paulina 
Service Station 

"A Service Station 
with a Reputation" 

1700 W. Augusta Blvd. 
Phone Brunswick 7868 

T. Byczkowski - B. S. Paszkowski 





Loo\ for the T^ame 



Phone MONroe 2472 

Compliments of 

Bernard Brozowski 


1369 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago 

Compliments of 

Mueller Brothers 


Our Motto: 

2139-41 So. California Avenue 

General Index 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 

Adamczeski, R. — 87 
Adamkiewicz, S.— 24, 25 
Adamowski, B. — 25 
Adamowski, M. — 24 
Adamowski, S.— 25, 143 
Adas, E.— 84 

Adoration Chapel, N. D.— 29 
Adrian College — 35 
Aged, Care of— 116 
Ajdukiewicz, Z. — 48 
Aksamit, S. — 75 
Alchimowicz, K. — 46 
Alexandrowicz, N. — 48 
Alliance College — 153 
Alliance of Dramatic Circles 

6, 67, 72, 75, 77, 79, 81, 82, 

84, 87, 88, 93, 94 
Alliance of Poles in Foreign 

Lands — 88, 93 
American Army — 7 
Anderson, P. — 48 
Andrus, "W. — 74 
Andrzejewski, M. — 77 
Andrzejewska, J. — 159 
Andrzejkowicz, J. — 150, 151 
Ankowska, W. — 50 
Anton, J. — 74 
Apostleship of Prayer — 74 
Appelt, Rev. R.— 108 
Archacki, H. — 51 
Arnold, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Ascension — 114 
Assumption B. V. M.— 112 
Assumption B. V. M., Dram. 

88, 93 
Augustynowicz, 51 
Axentowicz, T. — 48, 51 


Babski, C.R., Rev. A. — 103 

Bak, AL— 115 

Banakowski, C.R., Rev. A. 

Baker, N. D.— 153 
Balcer, Rev. W. — 84 
Baluta, V.— 72 
Banko, H. — 49 
Baran, A. — 64, 65 
Baran, J. — 25 
Baranowski, Rev. S. — 112 
Bare, P.— 22, 142 
Bardonski, 13 
Barrett, Rev., S.M.A.— 96 
Barszczewski, L. — 78 
Bartel, B.— 48 
Barzynski, C.R., Rev. J. — 

100, 112 
Barzynski, J. — 4 
Barzynski, C. R., Rev. V.— 

4, 5, 14, 36, 96, 102 103, 

115, 128 
Batycki, A.— 51 
Bednarczyk, A. — 93 

Bednarz, S.— 82 
Beeth, Mme. L.— 69 
Behnke, A. P.— 12 
Behnke, A. A.— 104 
Bek, A.— 64 

Belinski, Rev. V. A.— Ill 
Bell Tower Club— 76 
Bellenciani, Mme. — 69 
Belt, "Swede,"— 146, 147 
Benda, W— 45 
Betlewicz, S.— 63 
Bezdon, P.— 147 
Biedron, R. — 159 
Biegalski, P.— 71 
Bielinski, J.— 50 
Blachowski, J. B. — 150 
Blechert, J.— 48, 50 
Bloch, A. P.— 22, 25, 85 
Blumka, B. — 85 
Bobrowski, E. — 51 
Bobrytzke, F. — 25 
Bodrzewski, L. — 51 
Bogdanska — 46 
Bojanowski, J. — 64 
Boleslawski, A.— 91 
Bona, D.D., Rt. Rev. S.V.— 

79, 101, 111 
Bona, Msgr. T. P.— 99, 101, 

108, 111, 114, 142 
Bonk, V.— 80 
Bonzano, His Ex. J. — 98 
Borejszo, Dr. A. A. — 25 
Borejszo, L. — 25, 70, 73 
Borowski, F.— 62, 63 
Borucinski, M. — 51 
Borys, R.— 162 
Bourskaja, Ina— 62, 64 
Brandt, F. A.— 148 
Brandt, J. B.— 148 
Breclaw, B. — 159 
Breitkopf, Rev. F.— 99 
Brochacki, V. — 46 
Brochacki, M.— 70, 75 
Brodowski, E. Z.— 5, 47 
Brodzinski Circle — 84 
Broniarczyk, M. — 64 
Brown, R. — 51 
Brozowski, W.— 85, 91 
Bruno, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Bruski, H.— 49 
Brzezinski, C.R., Rev. E. — 

Brzozowska, A. — 91, 93 
Brzozowski — 71 
Brzozowski, B. — 146, 148 
Bubacz, Rev. S. A.— 97 
Buehr, Karl A.— 51, 52 
Bucholz, C— 49 
Bucholz, W.— 51 
Buck, C— 51 
Budzinski, A. — 161 
Building and Loan Assn. — 15 
Bulliet, C. J.— 35 38 
Burkocki, S. — 74 
Burzynski, Lieut. Z. — 142 
Bykowski. P.— 109 

Bykowski, R.— 86 
Bylina, M.— 46 
Byrgier, Rev. F.— 112 

Cadets of St. Gregory — 75 

Carnegie Institute — 37 

Carynski, S. — 25 

Catholic Action Club— 72 

Catholic Youth Org.— 118 

Cavallo's Symph. Orch.— 65 

Centella, P.— 148 

Centkowski, K.— 51 

Century of Progress Exposi- 
tion — 141 

Cerf, Dr. J.— 2, 12 

Chelmanski, J. — 46 

Chicago- American — 147 

Chicago Charter Jubilee — 142 

Chicago Cleaners and Dy- 
ers— 18 

Chicago Daily News— 35, 38, 
43, 140 

Chicago Evening Post — 53, 
62, 147 

Chicago Musical Col. — 62 

Chicago Polish Daily News — 
4, 104 

Chicago Society — 139 

Chicago Tribune — 12, 37 

Chicago University — 36 

Chlebowski — 45 

Chlopicki, Maj. L. — 1 

Chmielinska, S.— 6, 154 

Chmielewski, J. — 51 

Chmura, A. — 77 

Chodniewicz, Rev. P. M. — 
105, 113 

Chodzinski, C— 8, 47 

Cholewinski, Rev. S. — 100, 
107, 112, 119 

Chonarzewska, W. — 91, 93 

Chopin — 55 

Chopin Choir— 58, 60 

Choral and Dram. Circle — 75 

Chorembolski — 51 

Chrzanowski, I. — 49 

Chrzanowski, J. J.— 22, 50 

Churches — 95 

Chyla, Rev. S. P.— 80, 82, 84, 
86, 113 

Ciaglowski, J. — 46 

Cichocki, L. — 46 

Cichon, B.— 75 

Cichon, S.— 83 

Cieckiewicz — 51 

Cieminecka, A. — 148 

Cienciara, Dr. F. H.— 159 

Cieplak, D. D., Bishop — 137 

Cierpik, A.— 49, 63 

Ciesielski, W.— 76 

Cieslak, E.— 25 

Cieslewicz, V. — 25 

Cieszewski, H. — 91 

Cieszynski, T— 81 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


Circle of Theatre Lovers — 

Clarkson, R. — 34 

Cleander, A. — 48 

Coffey, "Bud,"— 147 

Coffey, "Danny,"— 147, 148 

Coffey, James — 148 

College of Cardinals — 35 

Commercial Trade Enter- 
prises — 17 

Conservatory of Music — 8 

Cook, W. G.— 51 

Copernicus Club — 108 

Corcoran Gallery — 37 

Cosini, C. R., Rev. S. — 113 

Crane, R. A.— 44 

Cwiklinski — 48 

Cylkowski, A. — 128 

Czaja, Dr. L. M. — 25, 98 

Czajkowski, Rev. B. — 113 

Czajkowski, M. — 146 

Czajkowski, Dr. S— 162 

Czarnecki, A.— 24, 48, 49, 125 

Czarnecki, T. — 143 

Czarnowski N. — 39, 42, 43, 

Czastka, F. — 70 

Czastka, Rev. T.— 76, 109, 114 

Czekaj, M. — 76 

Czekala, J.— 24, 35, 68 

Czerwinski, B. — 82 

Czeslawski — 79, 92 

Dabkowski, C.R., Rev. S. — 

Dabos, A.— 51 
Dabrowski, A. — 43, 49, 51 
Dabrowski, K. — 51 
Dach-Kwiatkowska, M. — 70 
Dahlman, J. — 23 
Dompts, Rev. P. — 86, 112 
Dana Ensemble — 65 
Daniel, S.— 48 
Daneska, M. C— 159 
Danisch, P. P. — 24 
Daniszowska, M. — 46 
Dankowski, I. — 98 
Data, M.— 81, 83 
Davidson, P. E. — 48 
Davis Galleries — 35 
DeLamarter, Eric — 62 
Dembinski, C.R., Rev. P. — 

96, 100 
Demonstrations, National 

and Civic — 137 
Demski, P. H.^25 
Dendor, J.— 110 
Derengowski, Rev. S. J. — 114 
Derpa, J.— 24 ,.<■ ■ 
1 >erwinski, , K. — 86 
Derwinski, Rev. S. — 104 
Denka, J.— ;25 
Didur, A.— 61, 62 
Doberstein, .Rev. S,— 114. 

Dobrolewski, L. — 25 
Dobrosielska, S. — 91, 93 
Dobrowolski O. — 48 
Dobrzanski — 81 
Dombrowski, B. — 145 
Dombrowski, Dr. E. — 146 
Dombrowski, P. — 145 
Donarski, M. — 51 
D'Oreste, S.— 49 
Dramatic Choral Society of 

H. Modrzejewska — 79 
Dramatic Circle of A. Mic- 

kiewicz — 76 
Drengaez, Rev. T. — 162 
Drezmal, M.— 5, 24, 50, 124 
Drozdowska, S. — 91 
Drut, J.— 51 
Druzyna — 84 
Drymalski, P. — 12, 25, 28, 48, 

126, 139, 142 
Drymalski, R.— 25, 76 
Drzewicki, F. — 81 
Drzewiecki, C.R., Rev. J. — 

Drzymala, Rev. J. — 113 
Drzymala, M. — 47 
Dukczynski, E. — 46 
Dulak, Dr. F. A.— 25 
Dunln, J.— 135 
Durzyuski, F. — 51 
Dylewski, T. — 71 
Dyniewicz, E. M. — 25 
Dyniewicz, W. — 4, 22 
Dziekanowski, F. — 82 
Dziennik Chieagoski — 4, 14, 

Dziennik Ludowy — 14 
Dziennik Narodowy — 14 
Dziennik Zjednoczenia — 4, 14 
Dziennik Zwiazkowy — 4, 14, 

153 '■ 
Dzien Swiety — 4 
Dziewior — 3 
Dziurdzik, A.- — 51 
Dzwon Wolnosci — 78 


Edward, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Egan, Rev. D. F. — 96 
Eligius, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Eminowicz, T. — 91, 92 
European Traveling- Fellow- 
ship — 41 

Pabianski, C.R., Rev. J. — 

74, 76, 102 
Pabijanski, S. — 48 
Factories, Wholesade and 

Cooperative — 17 
Fairbanks, C— 96 
Fajut, A.— 147 
Falat, J.— 48, 51 
Federacja — 71 

Federacja dm. Concep.) — 84 
Federkiewicz — 51 
Fechan, D. D.— 99 
Feldheim, Rev. F. — 114 
Felinski, V.— 77 
Penesewski, A. — 12 
Fifielski, W.— 61 
Pilar, R.— 75 
Filareci — 63 
Pilharmonia — 63 
Filipowicz, Dr. T. — 157 
Pilisiewicz, Z. — 84 
Filkowski, B.— 146 
Filomeni, (St. Joseph's) — 84 
Fisher, B. A.— 159 
Five Holy Martyrs — 106, 111 
Five Holy Martyrs Drama- 
tics— 83 
Florjanski, W. — 60 
Flower of Freedom — 71 
Foley, D. D., T.— 96 
Formes, C. — 60 
Fox, Dr. P. — 123 
Frankiewicz, S. — 84 
Frederick, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Friends of Youth — 71 
Pritsch, C— 13 
Froehlich, "Farmer," — 146 
Fuhl, W.— 147 
Furman, Rev. A. — 100 
Furmaniak, J. — 64 
Fyganiek— 63 

Gajewski, F. — 147 
Galusinski, C. — 25 
Gancarzyk, S. — 81 
Garyer, M. — 46 
Garynska, W. — 45 
Gasiorek, L.— 71 
Gawarecka, A. — 159 
Gawlinski, W.— 51 
Gazeta Katolicka — 4 
Gazeta Polska — 4, 14 
Gazeta Polska Katolicka — 4, 

Gendzierski, P. — 48 
Geneli, M.— 46 
George, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Geringer, J. — 95 
Gerson, W. — 46 
Gibasiewicz, J.— 159 
Gieburowski, C.R., Rev. J.— 

70, 103 
Gillmeister, R.— 25 
Giller, A.— 14!) 
Glenicki, L.— M3 
Glicenstein, H— 51, 52 
Glob, P.— 74 
Glomski, H.— 49, 51, 55, 61, 

128, 143 
Glos :Polek — 156 
Glowacka, A". — 50, 65 
Glowczynski, J. — 151 
Gmina — 3 


j 837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


Gmina Polska — 8 

Gniot, L.— 147 

Gonczewski, E. — 88 

Good Counsel High School — 

Gcodfellowship Club— 76 

Gcod Sheppherd's-rl06 

Gordon Bennett Baloon Race 

Gordon, C.R., Rev. F.— 6, 22 
96, 104, 112, 130, 161 

Gordon, T.— 104 

Gorecki, A.— 75 

Gorka, C.S.C., Rev. S.— 71 

Gorna, A. — 69 

Gorny, C— 25 

Gorski, Rev. A. S.— 97, 112 

Gorski, E.— 25 

Gorski, M.— 26, 142 

Goscinski, W. — 46 

Grabinski, E.— 64 

Grabowiecki, C. C— 162 

Grabowiecki, J. 76 

Grabowski, H. — 45, 51 

Graczynski, J. — 48 

Grahan, E. R.— 48 

Grajewski-Malinowski, R. — 

Gramatyka, A. — 46 

Grerr.bowicz, C. — 85 

Giembowicz, Rev. J. A. — 114 

Grephkowiak, F-— 24 

Gronkowski, Rev. C— 77, 98, 
113, 114 

Grottger, A. — 48 

Group No. 67, PNA— 47 

Gruca, E.— 77 

Grudewicz, S. F. — 51 

Grudzinski, Rev. L. — 100, 105, 
111, 114, lib, 119 

Cruszczynska, M. — 81 

Gruza, C.S.C., Rev. S.— 72 

Giyglewski, A. — 47 

Grzes, Rev. F.— 107 

Grzezinski, Rev. J. A. — 114 

Guardian Angel's Day Nurs- 
ery and Home for Work- 
ing Girls— 118 
Guardian Angel's Disp. — 116 
Guardian Angel's Nurs. — 105 
Gubala, H.— 74 
Guminski, W. — 47 
Gunn, Dr. G. D.— 62, 64 
Gutkowski, J.— 84 
Gutkowski, M. — 72 
Guzdek, A.— 82 
Gwizdzki, T.— 47 
Gwozdecki, G. — 51 


Haiman, Dr. If.—- 1, 53 

Halgas, Msgr. A.— 101, 108, 

111, 114 
Halick, B.— 73 
Halick, S.— 25 

Haller. Gen. J.— 42, 87, 137 

Halsman, H. K.— 48 

Halter, C. R., Rev. J.— 129 

Hamilton, H. R. — 55 

Haraburda, Z — S6 

Harrison, C. H.— 104, 129 

Hartowicz, A. — 76 

Hartwich, Dr. E.— 2, 12 

Hawilewicz, M. — 79 

Hebel, T.— 88 

Helinski, T.— 6 

Heilmer — 47 

Hellmuth, M.— 51 

Herald-Examiner— 64, 147 

Hess, A. M.— 63 

Hetman, W. F.— 24, 25 

Hildebranski, W. — 79 

Hinc, Rev. L.— 84 

Hintzke, S. B.— 26 

Hoban, D. D.— 108, 111 

Hojnacki, H.— 86 

Holda, E.— 77 

Holy Cross— 29, 35 

Holy Family Acadey— 13, 69, 
88, 132 

Holy Innocents — 73, 105 

Holy Name Society — 78 

Holy Rosary — 114 

Holy Trinity— 4, 13, 56, 57, 

llcly Trinity Dramatics — 70 

Hcij Trinity High School— 
71, 97, 131 

Holy Trinity Lit. Dram. Cir- 
cle— 92 

Holzmuller, J.— 48 

Hoover, H. C— 49, 157 

Horner, H. — 35 

House, E. M.— 87 

Rulamcki, E. T.— 2 

Hulanicki, Capt. T. C— 2 
Jlynek, Capt. F.— 142 

Ianelli, A.— 53 

Illinois Cleaners and Dyers — 

Illinois Inst, of Juvenile Re- 
search— 123 

Immaculate Conception — 58, 
98, 108 

Immaculate Conception Dra- 
matics — 84 

Immaculate Heart of Mary-- 

Imbiorski, W.— 143, 162 

Iwanowski — 51 

Jablonski, J. — 51 
Jachimowska, S. — 159 
Jachimska, A.— 92, 93 
Jachimski, S.— 91, 93 

Jagielski, Rev. F. S. — 106, 

Jaglowska-Tudor A. — 51 

Jagodzinski, Rev. H— 112 

Jagucki, C— 26 

Jakajtis, J. J. — 58 

Jakowanis-Skibinska, A. — 71 

Jakiel, J.— 69 

Jaks— 90 

Jankowski, M. — 72 

Jankowski, C.S.C., Rev. S — 

Jarecki, E. K.— 24, 104, 122 

Jarecki, J. T.— - 26 

Jaroszynski, J. — 45 

Jaroszynski, K. — 48 

Jarzynska, H. — 159 

Jasinski Bros. — 147 

Jasinski, C. — 63 

Jasinski, J.- — 78 

Jasinski, L.- — 47 

Jasinski, C.R., Rev. L.— 129 

Jaworowski — 92 

Jaworowski, S.— 48, 70 

Jaworski, L.- — 91 

Jediinski, K.— 70, 93 

Jendrzejek, F. — 145 

Jendrzejek, G. — 146 

Jendrzejek, Rev. J. — 105, 114 

Jerzyk, F.— 147 

Jewett, E.— 37 

Jfeuierny, P. P.— 25 

Jozwiakowski, V. — 68, 69 

Jung, Rev. A.— 106, 113 

Jurewicz, J. — 51 

Juszkiewicz, Rev. J. — 3, 96 

Juvenile Delinquency — 118 

Juvenile Protective Associa- 
tion— 122 


Kachnowski, Rev. F. J.— 113 
Kaczmarski, K. — 51 
Kadow, L.— 156 
Kadow, Z. H.— 25 
Kafora, F.— 146, 147 
Kajkowski, S.— 93 
Kajsiewicz, C.R., Rev. J.— 2 
Kaletta, M.— 121 
Kalisz,, M.— 45 
Kalisz, Dr. M. F.— 51 
Kaliszewski, F. — 26 
Kaliszewska, W. — 86 
Kalusowski, H. — 149 
Kamedulski, J.— 72, 74 
Kaminski — 13 
Kaminski, J.— 7 9 
Kamprowski, A. — 75 
Kania, J. L. — S 
Kaniewski, S. — 79 
Kantor, T.— 93 
Kapalka, J.— 79 
Karabasz, Rev. F.— 105, 107 
Karabasz, Rev. J.— 114, 119 
Karas, J. — 51 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


Karczmarczyk, F. — 91 

Karczynski, A.— 61, 65 

Karlinski, L. — 11 

Karlowicz, J. — 50 

Karlowski, V. — 5 

Karnowski, E. — 51 

Karpinski, C. — 85 

Kasparek, K. — 70 

Kasper, M. G. — 25 

Kasprzycki, Rev. B. J. — 112 

Kasprzycki, C.R., Rev. J. — 
96, 102, 113 

Kasprzyk, E — 74 

Kaszubska, H. — 75 

Katyll, C— 26 

Kawsik, J. — 46 

Kelly, C. F.— 53 

Kelly, E. J.— 35, 142 

Kempa, F. — 77 

Kempa, L. — 77 

Kempora, S. — 79 

Kempski — 71 

Kempski, V.— 26, 80 

Kendzierski, A. — 46 

Kendziora, Rev. T. A. — 80, 

Kendziorski, J. — 69 

Kenny, F. — 146 

Kiellar, R. — 86 
Kielminski, P. P. — 25 
Kisielewska - Niedzwiecki, S. 

Kiepura, J.— 64 
Kilim School — 48 
Kiolbassa, P.— 2, 3, 5, 23, 56, 

Kiolbassa - Kwasigroch R. — 

60, 68 
Kita, O.M.C., Rev. C. — 86, 112 
Kizior, M. — 77 
Klarkowski, Dr. B. — 126 
Klarkowski, S. — 25 
Kleber, V.— 26 
Kleczek, J. — 51 
Kleczynski — 51 
Klejnowska, H. — 128 
Klimecki, Rev. — 98 
Klingsporn, C.R., Rev. H. — 

Klodzinski, A. — 109 
Klopotowski, C.R., Rev. T. — 

72, 74, 102 
Klosowski, S. — 147, 148 
Kluczynski, B. — 159 
Kluczynski, J. C. — 25 
Knaus, E. — 48 
Knitter, Rev. A. S.— Ill 
Kobrzynski, J. — 26 
Kobrzynski-Hintzke, Dr. H. 

Kobrzynski, C.R., Rev. S. — 

Kobylinski, J. — 26 
Kobylinski, S.— 49, 50 
Kochanowicz, J. — 91 
Kochanski, A. — 74, 91 

Kocialkowski, L. — 25 

Kolakowski, E. — 22 

Kolanowski — 22, 147 

Kolasinski, W. — 148 

Kolko Jednosc — 82 

Kolko Mazowieckie — 82 

Konkowski, F. E. — 25 

Konkowski, M. — 26 

Koniuszewski, Dr. W. — 135 

Konopa, J. — 50, 143 

Koralewski, F. W. — 24 

Koralewski, Rev. S. — 84, 113, 

Korpanty, M. — 161 

Korzeniewski, B. J. — 26 

Korzeniewski, J. — 73 

Kosciuszko Circle — 77 

Kosciuszko Foundation — 43 

Kosciuszko Monument — 8, 47 

Kosicka, M. — 51 

Kosiewicz, M. — 47 

Kosinski, C.R., Rev. J. — 102, 

Kosinski, K. — 65 

Kosinski, S.- — 26 

Koskiewicz, E. — 63 

Kosmanowski — 91 

Kossak, A. — 48 

Kossak, J. — 48, 51 

Kossak, Jules — 48 

Kossak, W.— 48, 51 

Kossak, S. — 47 

Kossakowska-Jasinska, J. — 

Kostrzewski, Dr. M. J. — 49, 

Kostrzewski, M. J. — 123 
Kostrzeski — 113 
Kotecki, Rev. M. — 103, 114 
Kotowski, J. — 48 
Kowal, J. — 81 
Kowalczyk, C.R., V. Rev. S. 

A.— 73, 103 
Kowalewski, Rev. E. A. — 108, 

Kowalski, A. J. — 5, 23 
Kowalski, Aug. J.— 26, 50 
Kowalski, Ant. — 145 
Kowalski, A. W. — 45 
Kowalski, E. — 69 
Kowalski, J.— 26 
Kowalski, J. S. — 24, 26 
Kowalski,, Z. — 73 

Coytek, Rev.— 112, 113, 114 
Koziczynski, J. — 26 
T'ozlowski, B. — 72 
T'ozlowski, B. R. — 126 
'Tozlowski, D.D., Rt. Rev. E. 

99, 107 
tozlowski, J. C. — 162 
'tozlowski, Ph. D., Rev. J. J. 

108, 111 
Kozlowski, Rev. K.— 99, 112 
Kozubowski, J. — 84 
Kozuch, T.— 65 
Krai, F.— 82 

Kralczyk, L. — 84 

Krasniewski, A. — 81 

Krassowski, E. — 93 

Krassowski, W. — 92, 93, 1 13 

Krassowska-Stopowa — 135 

Kraszewski Lit. Dram. Cir., 

Krause, F. G. — 26 

Krawiec, H.— 37, 38, 51, 52 

Krawiec, S. — 43 

Krawiec, W.— 37, 38, 39, 51, 

Kriza, J. — 85 

Krolicki, O.M.C., Rev. E. — 86 

Kroll, Rev. F.— 100, 113, 114 

Kroll, F. P.— 146 

Kruse, C. A.— 51 

Krushing, W. — 26 

Kruszka, Rev. J. — 104, 106, 

Kruszynski, C.R., Rev. J.— 


Kryszak, M. O.— 154, 159 

Krzywonos, S. — 74 

Krzyzanski, F. — 161 

Kubina, M.— 95 

Kubina, D.D., Rt. Rev. — 103 

Kucera, M.— 95, 151 

Kucharski, A.— 146, 148, 162 

Kucharski, F. — 25 

Kudlick, M. G.— 142 

Kuflewski, W.— 124 

Kukulski, Rev. W. S. — 110 

Kuia, M.— SI 

Kula, V.— 26 

KulinsKi, Rev. F. A. — 105, 113 

Kulpit, E.— SO 

Kunka, J. — 78 

Kunka, L. — 7S 
Kunka, X.— 67 
Kunkel, A.— 13 
Kuriz, S. H.— 5, 23, 24 
Kupska — 85 
Kuraska, H. — 75 
Kuraska, P. — 75 
Kurek, A. — 51 
Kuszynski, Rev. C. — 76 
Kuzniewicz, S. — 60, 78, 162 
Kwasigroch. A. — 56, 60, 90 
Kwiatkowski, S. — 51 
Kwiatkowska, M.— 93 
Kwiatkowski, J. P. — 13 
Ivwiat Mlodziezy — 86 
Kwiek, Rev. S. — 118 
Kwit, P.— SI 

La Buy, J.— 5, 24 
La Buy, M.— 47 
La Buy, W.— 25, 50 
Laboda, J. — 64 
Lach, Z.— 53 
Lagodny, J. — 24 
Lakofka, M. J.— 26 
Lakowski, L. — 22 




Lamperski, A. — 161 

Lampsch — 47 

Landmesser, F.— 24, 26, 127 

Lange, Rev. F.— 47 

Lange, Ph.D., Rev. J. M.— 

85, 101, 113, 114 
Langfort, Rev. T. — 86, 112, 

Lasecki, J. A.— 146, 147 
Latwis, V. M.— 159 
Laudyn-Crzanowska, S. — 158 
Lawinski, S.— 8, 12, 56 
Lazarowicz, C.R., Rev. B. — 

Ledochowski, Count N. — 8, 

12, 43, 57 
Leibka, H.— 11 
Leiser, C— 9 
Leinanski, E. — 76 
Lemon, R. A. — 36 
Lesiewicz, A. — 53 
Lesnicki, L.— 22 
Lessel, R.— 26, 91 
Lew, M.— 77 

Lewandowski, E. — 45, 51 
Lewandowski, J. T.— 162 
Liberty Clothing Co.— 18 
Lichocka, F.— 93 
Liczmanski, T. — 147 
Ligman, P.— 109 
Ligman, C.R., Rev. T.— 96, 

Liljen, E.— 69 
Lindeman — 51 
Link, W. W— 26 
Lipinski, J. — 150 
Lipowska, A. — 91 
Lis— 78 
Lis, J. — 80 
Lisack, J.— 26 
Lisewski, B.— 50, 88 
Lisewski, Rev. S. F. — 53 
Lisinska, R.— 79 
Liss, Dr. J. J.— 70 
Listy z Podrozy — 8 
Literary Circle of Holy 

Trinity— 71 
Litke, A.— 80 
Logan, F.— 42 
Lopaeinska, M. — 159 
Lourdes High School— 88 
Lubera, T. J.— 11, 124, 128, 

Lubowidzka, M. L.— 132 
Luczak, E.— 26 
Ludacholski, L. — 47 
Lukaszewska, A. — 79 
Lukowski, M. Rev.— 104 
Lukowski, J. — 71 
Lutnia — 84 

Luzny, C.S.C., Rev. F. -71 
Lysakowski, J. — 74 
Lysakowski, T.— 74 


Maciejewski, W. — 95 
Mackowiak, Rev. — 81 
Madigan, W. — 71 
Majer, Rev. D.— 98 
Majewski — 3 
Majewski. A.— 80 
Majewski, B.— 127 
Majewski, K.— 49, 51, 92, 93, 

Majewski, M. — 47 
Majewski, W — 26 
Makielski, B.--51 
Makielski, L. A.— 45, 51, 52 
Makwa — 51 
Malczewski, J. — 47 
Malecki, J.— 79 
Malinowska, H. J.— 90 
Malinowski, J. — 87 
Mallek, A.— 8, 56, 57, 58, 60, 

72, 90 
Mallek, J.— 60 
Mann — Kilinska, J.— 73 
Marc, F.— 78 
Marcinek, Rev. F.— 110 
Marcinkiewicz, Rev. C. — 109 
Marcinkiewicz M. — 91 
Markiewicz — 53 
Marquardt, A. — 156 
Marski, M.— 73, 93 
Marzec, J.— S4 
Maslanka — 85 
Maslowski, S. — 47 
Masters, E. L— 9 
Maszynski, J. — 46 
Matejko— 8, 34, 42, 46 
Matejko, J.— 48 
Maximus, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Mayer, C.R., Rev. A.— 130 
Mazewska, W. — 50, 51 
McCormick, H. F.— 48 
Meger, L.— 83 
Meller, E.— 71 
Memorial Tablets— 48 
Menkicki, A.— 145, 14S 
Metier, M. C— 26 
Meyers, W. — 26 
Midura, M. G.— 123 
Micek, J.— 74 
Michalak — 46 
Michalak, B.— 72 
Micielski, E. L.— 51 
Mickiewicz — 44 
Mickiewicz Circle— 79 
Mickiewicz Dram. Circ— 79 
Mielcarek, Msgr. J. G.— 101, 

Mikitynski— 13 
Milanowska-Miller, J. — 70 
Milaszewicz, A. — 143, 159 
Milewicz, A.— 50, 61 
Milosc Ojczyzny Dram Circ. 

Mirecka, K. — 46 
Miroslawski, W. S. — 26 

Mix, J. B.— 50 
Mlody Las— 94 
Modenstein, D. — 46 
Modjeska, F. B.— 8, 48 
Modjeska, H.— 9, 60, 68, 70 
Modjeska, M. — 43 
Modjeska, R.— 48 
Modrzewski, Rev. F.— 83, 86 
Moczygemba, Rev. L. — 96, 

99, 112 
Molinger, T.— 104 
Molitor, Rev. J.— 95 
Moneta, M.— 92 
Moos— 78 
Moskal, J.— 80 
Moszyk, 1. — 50 
Motuga, G.— 81 
Mount Mary College — 35 
Mozewski, W.— 39, 42, 43 
Moziewski, Rev. M. — 112 
Mroczkowska, A. — 47 
Mroz, B.— 93 
Mroz, I. — 72 
Mroz, M.— 50, 70 
Mrozinski, S. B.— 10S 
Mszanowski, Rev. J. C— SO, 

84, 86, 112 
Mucha, J.— 26 
Mundelein, G. Cardinal— 35, 

36, 99, 101, 103, 104, 110, 

111, 132, 133 
Murzyn, A. — 162 
Musical Courier — 62 
Muszynski, J. — 145 
Muszynski, W. — 145 
Mytys, Rev. P.— S6 


Napieralska, A. E. — 26, 48, 

98, 121, 157 
Napieralski, Dr. S. — 115 
Nartawski — 51 
Nastali, H.— 146 
National Academy — 37 
Nawrocki, Rev. A.— 79 
Nawrocki, Msgr. 3.— 99, 100, 

103, 107, 113 
Nawrocki, Rev. V.— 81 
Neebe, M. H.— 51 
Nering, A.— 8, 60, 61, 6S, 69, 

Nering, J.— 6S, 69, 122 
Nering- Jozwiakow^ka, A. — 68 
Neuman, C. — 4 
Neumann, A. — 157 
New American — 40 
Neyman, K. — 77 
Nicki. F. S.— 26 
Niedzialek, C. — 77 
Niedzwiecki, M. — 50, 71 
Niedzwiedzinski, M. — 46 
Nikliborc, .1. E3. — 143 
Niemczewski, A. — 146 
Niemi'ec, J. — 1 15 
Noel, J. R.— 48 





Xoll, D.D., Rt. Rev. J. F.— 

Norton, J. — 34 
Nosal, Rev. W.— 82 
Nowacki, Rev. P. — 114 
Nowaczek, F. — 26 
Nowaczewski, F. — 13 
Nowak, A.— 85 
Nowak Meat Markets — 16 
Nowakowski, Rev. B. — 103, 

Nowakowski, L. — 84 
Nowe Zycie Choral Society, 

65, 88, 91 
Nowicki, Rev. A. — 101 
Nowicki, F. — 56 
Nowicki, J. — 78 
Nowicki, J. M. — 24 
Nowicki, "Murphy," — 146 
Nowicki, Rev. V.— 83, 85, 111 
North-West Bowling League, 

N. Y. A.— 83 ' 

Nyka, L. C. — 26, 139, 141, 

142, 143 

Obecna, W. — 74 

Obyrtacz, Rev. J.— 96, 100, 

Ocwieja, M. — 76 

Odrawaz, E. — 152 

Ogden, W. B.— 2, 55 

Ognisko — 82 

Ogniwo — 88 

Old St. Stephen's— 96 

Old St. Venceslaus Dramat- 
ics— 81 

Onecka, M. — 50 

Olstowski, F. — 51 

Olszewski, Rev. A. S. — 103, 

Openchowski, F. — 22 

Opiela, A. — 74 

Organizations — 149 

Orlemanski, Rev. B. J. — 114 

Orlik, "Kiddo,"— 146 

Orlikoski, W.— 25, 145 

Orlowski, M.— 145 

Orwicz-Orkan, Z. — 51 

Orpiszewski, S. — 22 

Orzel Bialy— 81 

Orzeszkowa Club — 108 

Osada — 4, 71 

Osinski, E. — 86 

Ossolinski Circle — 93 

Ossolinski Dramatic Circle, 

Ostoja-Chrostowski— 46 

Ostrowski, Msgr. — 99, 114 

Ostrowski, J. — 145 

Our Lady of Czestochowa 
Dramatics — 86 

Our Lady of Goo'd Counsel 
Academy — 88 

Owczarek, Rev. J. — 76 
Owczarek, J. — 145 
Owsiak, F.— 159 

Pacyna, J.— 73, 87 
Paczynski, T. — 84 
Paderewska, H.— 157, 158 
Paderewski, I. J. — 7, 9, 42, 

58, 59, 64, 87, 157, 160 
Paderewski Circle — 74 
Pajkowski, Rev. J. — 106, 113 
Palczynska, J.— 29, 50, 51, 52, 

128, 143 
Palmer, P. — 52 
Paluch, J.— 161 
Paluch, S.— 80 
Paluszek, L.— 70 
Panakaske, A. — 2 
Panek, J. — 75 
Panka, W. F.— 26 
Parentless Children, Care of, 

Parowski, Dr — 26 
Paszkiewicz, F — 12 
Paul, W.— 64 
Pautsch — 46 
Paweska, B.— 80 
Pawliczak, W. — 47 
Pawlowski, C— 26 
Pawlowski, G.— 46 
Pazniakowski, S. — 80 
Pedicini, A. — 93 
Pelka, J. A.— 25 
Peska, F.— 24, 25, 50, 71 
Peter, C.S.C., Bro. — 71, 97, 

Petlak, J. B.— 24 
Petlak, R.— 159 
Petri, E.— 64 
Petrocelli, A. E— 110 
Pettkoske, C. F.— 98 
Pettkoske, K. — 22, 24 
Peyraud, F- C. — 34 
Phillips, C— 59 
Piatkiewicz, K. — 22, 142 
Piccaso — 40 
Piechowski, C. R. Rev. J.— 

100, 103, 109 
Piechowski, W. — 47 
Pieczynski, A. — 85 
Pieczynski, E. — 85 
Pieczynski, M. — 85 
Pieczynski, W. — 85 
Piepenkotter, Rev. H. — 114 
Pietrowicz, Dr. S. R.— 125 
Pijanowski, Rev. C. — 53, 77, 

78, 83 
Pillati, X.— 34, 47 
Pilney, A.— 130 
Pilsudski, J.— 42 
Piontkowski, H. — 47 
Piotrowicz, I. — 47 
Piotrowski, A. — 46 
Piotrowski, Dr. I. — 40, 52 

Piotrowski, J. — 24, 88 

Piotrowski, M. A. — 45 

Piotrowski, N. L. — 6, 24 

Piotrowski, W. — 47 

Piramowicz, Z. — 48 

Pius XI— 38 

Plater, E.— 42 

Plawinski, Rev. E. — 82 

Plon, Choir — 65 

Pociecha — 51 

Podkowinski, W. — 46 

Poklacki, F.— 162 

Polasek, A.— 34, 51 

Polek, M.— 70 

Polish Alma Mater — 6, 14, 

118, 161 
— Alma Mater Bowling 

League — 147 
— American Historical Soc, 

— American Philharmonic" 

Society— 61 
— Army in Franc e — 7 
— Artists in Art Institute — 

46, 49 
—Arts Club— 42, 49, 61, 62, 

64, 65, 71, 78, 88 
— Bowling League — 147 
— Businessmen's Ass'n. — 14 
— Church and Bldg. Soc. — 113 
— Citizens Sponsored Art 

Activities — 46 
—Congress — 152, 156 
— Daily News — 146 
— Day Association — 139, 141 
—Day Festivals— 137, 139, 140 
— Exhibitions of Art in 1893, 

— Falcons Alliance — 14, 118, 

— Grocers Baking Co. — 118 
—Language Supplementary 

Schools— 134 
— Literary and Dramatic 

Circles— 67 
— Manual Training School — 

— National Alliance — 4, 6, 8, 
14, 22.. 95, US, 135, 147, 149 
■ — National Committee — 7 
— Out-of-Town Exhibitors — 

— Roman Catholic Union — 

4, 6, 8, 14, 22, US, 147 
— Singers Alliance — 6, 57, S4 
— Social Workers Club — 121, 

—Symphony Orchestra — 63 
— Trade and Commerce in 

Chicago — 16 
— Union Printers — 162 
— Women's Alliance — 6, 14, 

22, US, 147, 154 
— Welfare Ass'n. — 119 
— Works in Private Collec- 
tions — 45 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO— 1937 


Polskie Orly— 81 

Pope Leo XIII Music. Lit. 

Soc— 70 
Popiel, T.— 46 
Popielinski, J. — 150 
Porowski, P. — 51 
Porra, J.— 146 
Porwit, M. — 159 
Posanski, R. E. — 25 
Posowski, F. — 48 
Poswikowa, . — 46 
Potocka, G.— 159 
Prange, Rev. F. B.— 109, 113 
Premier — 92 
Previewer — 43 
Preyss, A. — 64 
Proczukowski, F. — 50, 71 
Promien— 69, 70, 91 
Prusiewicz, L. — 73 
Prusinski, A. — 26 
Prusinski, M.— 70 
Pruszkowski, W. — 47 
Prystalski, J.— 24, 25 
Przybylinski, C. — 86 
Przezdzieeki, Most Rev. — 104 
Przybylski, Rev. E.— 76 
Przybylski, W. — 71 
Przydatek, J.— 22 
Przypyszny, Rev. A. — 76, 79, 

82, 85 
Przywroznik, M. — 87 
Pucinska, L. — 93 
Pulaski Circle— 73 
Pulaski Monument — 8 
Uutnam, S— 53, 61 
Pyplatz, Rev. M. C— 98, 100, 

Quigley, Most Rev. J. — 96, 
97, 98, 99, 100, 105, 109, 117 

Radecki, A. — 50 
Radkiewicz — 79 
Radniecki, Rev. S.— 107, 111, 

Radziejewski, Rev. J.— 98, 99, 

Radzevvicz, M — 80 
Raczynski, C. — 80 
Raczynski, E.— 80 
Raczynski, F.— 79, 80 
Raczynski, L. — 80 
Rammell, L. H.— 148 
Rapacki, W. — 51 
Ratajczak, H.— 162 
Ratke, F.— 86 
Ravinia Opera Co. — 62 
Rawski, W.— 91 
Record-Herald— 62 
Red Cross — 7 
Redlin, H.— 162 

Reich, J.— 78 

Reilly, H. J.— 48 

Rekucki, M.— 49, 51, 52, 53 

Remblewska, S.— 162 

Renklewski, Rev. I.— 84, 114 

Rentflejsz, V.— 74 

Repeta, J.— 91 

Repinski, C.R., Rev. F.— 113 

Resurrection Sisters' Acada- 

my— 88 
Reszke, de Jean and Ed. — 

9, 59, 60 
Reymont, W .— 61 
Reyzner, M. — 47 
Rhode, D.D., Rt. Rev. P. P., 
5, 6, 7, 98, 101, 103, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 114, 117 
Robakowski, Rev. J. — 113 
Rodowicz, L. — 51 
Rogalski, A.— 39, 41, 51 
Rogalski, C.R., Rev. S.— 96, 

Romps, J. — 26 
Ropa, J.— 25, 26 
Roosevelt Circle — 72 
Roosevelt, F. D.— 87 
Rosen, P.— 47 
Rossi, M.— 148 
Rostenkowski, Z. — 51 
Rostenkowski, J. P. — 25, 147 
Roszak, A. — 43 
Roszak, S.— 84 
Roszak, T.— 39, 40, 51 
Roth— 92 

Rozak, Rev. S— 80, 81, 86 
Rozczynialski, G— 24, 70, 147 
Rozwadowski, Z. — 51 
Rusiecki, J. — 51 
Rusch, Rev. F.— 117, 118 
Rusch, J. S.— 26 
Ruszkiewicz, J. — 109 
Rutkowski, A. — 161 
Rutkowski, E. — 51 
Rutkowski, C— 80 
Rutkowski, "Happy" — 148 
Ryan, J. — 146 
Rybicki, J. S.— 77 
Pybowiak, B. — 56, 60, 63, 73 
Ryszkiewicz — 51 
Ryszkiewicz, J. — 46 
Ryzecki, Rev. — 83 
Ryzner, Rev. S.— 76 
Rzepczynska, M. — 91 
Rzeszotarski, H. — 50 
Rzoska, Rev. W.— 113 

Sacred Heart— 77, 107 
Sacred Heart Dramatics— 84 
Sadowski, P.— 104 
Saint Adalbert's— 56, 90, 98 
—Adalbert's Dramatics — 77, 

—Andrew's — 112 
— Anne's — 104 

— Anne's Dramatics — 80 

— Anne's Dramatic Circle — 

80, 81 
—Barbara's— 99, 107 
— Barbara's Choir and Dram. 

Circle— 89 
— Barbara's Dramatics — 79 
— Barbara's Dramatic Circle, 

—Blase (Argo)— 114 
— Bronislaus — 112 
— Bronislaus Dramatics — 86 
— Bruno's — 112 
— Bruno's Dramatics — 83 
— Camille's— 112 
— Casimir's— 100, 111 
— Casimir's Dramatics — 81 
—Casimir's Lit. Club— 82 
—Cecilia Club— 79 
— Cecilia Singing and Dram. 

Club— 78 
—Cecilia's Junior Choir— 80 
— Constance S. — 111 
— Cyrillus and Methodius — 

— Edward's Circle — 85 
—Elizabeth's Day Nursery— 

— Fidelis— 112 
— Fidelis Dramatics — 76 
— Florian' s — 105 
—Francis of Assisi — 106 
— Francis Circle — 85 
—George High School— 35 
— Hedwig— 29, 56, 58, 72, 100 
— Hedwig's Industrial School, 

—Hedwig's Orphanage — 5, 

—Helen's— 109 
— Helen's Dramatics — 75 
—Hyacinth's— 29, 35, 73, 103, 

— Hyacinth's Dramatics — 74 
— Isidore's — 113 
— James' — 110 
— James' Alumni — 76 
— James' Dramatics — 76 
—James Dram. Soc. Circ— 76 
—John Cantius — 29, 39, 58, 

72, 102 
—John of God's— 105 
—John of God's Dramatics— 

—John Baptist (Harvey) — 

— Josaphat's— 58, 99 
—Joseph's— 100, 107 
— Joseph's Dramatics — 84 
—Joseph's Dram. Club (St. 

Salomea's) — 86 
— Joseph's Home for Aged — 

5, 13, 116 
— Joseph's Hospital — 35 
—Joseph's (Chi. Heights)— 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


—Joseph's (Summit)— 114 

— Ladislaus — 110 

— Luke's35 

— Margaret's — 35 

—Mary of the Angels— 104 

— Mary of Angels Alumni — 

—Mary of Angels Dramatics, 

— Mary of Angels Dramatic 

Circle — 75 
— Mary of Gostyn — 113 
—Mary's Hospital— 5, 13, 115 
— Mary of Perpetual Help — 

99, 107 
—Michael's— 29, 56, 58, 98, 

—Michael's Dramatics — 85 
—Michael's Study Club — 85 
— Pancratius — 111 
— Pancratius Dramatics— 83 
—Peter and Paul's — 103 
— Peter and Paul's Drama- 
tics— 80 
— Roman's — 111 
—Roman's Dramatics — 82 
—Roman's Dramatic Club — 

— Salomea's — 58, 113 
— Salomea's Dramatics — 86 
— Salomea's Social Dramatic 

Club— 86 
— Stanislaus, B. M. — 58, 102 
—Stanislaus, B. M., Drama- 
tics — 76 
—Stanislaus, B. M. (Kanka- 
kee)— 114 
— Stanislaus, B. M. (Posen), 

—Stanislaus College — 5, 13, 

— Stanislaus College Alumni, 

— Stanislaus Dram. Circle, 

(Imm. Cone.) — 84 
—Stanislaus Kostka — 95, 96, 

— Stanislaus Kostka Drama- 
tic Circle — 68, 69 
— Stanislaus K., Soc. — 2 
— Stephen's Dramatics — 73 
— Susanna's — 114 
— Thaddeus*— 114 
— Thecla's— 112 
— Turibius'— 112 
— Turibiub' Dramatics — 86 
—Valentine's — 114 
—Valentine's Dramatics— 87 
—Valentines Dram. Circle — 

— Vehcleslaus — 109 
— Vencleslaus Dramatics— 76 
— Vencleslaus' (De Koven)— 

95, 150 
—Vincent's Orphanage — 117, 

Sakowska, M. — 135 
Salach, Dr. J. O. — 50 
Sambor — 14, 159 
Sampolinski, Rev. T. — 81, 95 
Sapieha, Princes — 3 
Scatter Joy Club — 72 
Scena Polska — 93 
Scheffler, E. S.— 25 
Schelling, E. — 64 
Schenke, Rev. J. — 112 
Schiller, Dr. V. R. — 125 
Schillo, V.— 60 
Schmidt, Rev. E. — 84 
Schlaeger, V. L. — 25, 142 
Schofeld, F.— 52 
Schoen-Rene — 69 
Scholl, F.— 70 
School Board, Poles on the, 

School of National Dance — 

75, 77, 87 
Schuetz, L. W.— 25 
Schuster, Rev. E. — 84 
Schwaba, J.— 26 
Schwaba, P. H. — 25 
Schweda, P. — 27 
Scieszka, Rev. F. C. — 109, 

Sechman, K. — 75 
Sechonowicz — 51 
Sedlaczek, C. R., Rev. E. — 

102, 103 
Sekulski, S.— 26 
Sembrich-Kochanska, M. — 

9, 60 
Sereda, C. — 80 
Setmajer, H. — 22 
Setmajer, M. — 156 
Sewall, A. W.— 59 
Shaw, Dr. C. — 123 
Sheil, Rt. Rev., B. — 112, 118 
Shepanek-Ulis, J. — 50 
Sheridan, Gen.— 3 
Sherman, A. — 13, 23 
Siatka, Rev. S.— 96, 100, 102 
Sick, Care of — 115 
Siedlinski, Dr. — 83 
Siedliska, M. F. — 132 
Siemaszek, H. — 75 
Siemaszkowa, W. — 93 
Sienkiewicz, H. — 8, 157 
Sienkiewicz, J. — 50 
Sienkiewicz Circle — 83 
Siwecki, H. — 104, 147 
Siwinski, G.— 161 
Skalski, A.— 63 
Skibinska, A. M.— 134, 143 
Skibinski, J. — 121 
Skoczylas, W. — 45, 51 
Skonieczny, M. — 79 
Skubikowski, Z. — 58, 65 
Skudnig-Zalewska, H.— 50 
Skupien, W. — 79 
Skrzypczynski, J. — 78 
Slaski, I,.— 25 
Slendzinski — 46 

Slesinska, A. — 50 

Slesinski, T.— 49, 120, 121, 123 

Sliwinska-Kapturowlcz — 51 

Slominski, Rev. C. — 80, 82, 

104, 113 

Slowacki Lit. Dram. Circle — 

Slowinski, F. — 26 
Sluszynska, K. — 50 
Smergalski, T. — 121, 122 
Smietanka, A. — 26 
Smietanka, J. F. — 24, 48, 98, 

Smoczynski, S. — 60 
Smorowski, W. — 146, 147 
Smulska, H. — 57, 60 
Smulski, J. F. — 5, 6, 7, 23, 

47, 157 
Smulski, W. — 4, 22, 47 
Snigurski, Rev. A. — 98, 99 
Sobieszczyk, C. R., Rev. J.— 

Sobieniowski, A. — 92 
Sobolewski, P. — 8 
Sobyro, M.— 26 
Social Welfare— 115 
Society of St. Stanislaus— 96 
Soder, J.— 146 
Sokolski, W. — 75 
Sokolewski, M. — 91 
Soska, A. F. — 162 
Sowinski, A. — 13 
Spetz, C.R., Rev. A. — 119, 

121, 122 
Spida, L.— 148 
Spiker, J. T. — 142 
Sport, Early Days of— 145 
Springer, J.— 26 
Stachiewicz, P. — 48 
Stanisia, Sister M. — 18, 34, 

37, 51 
Stanislaus, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 
Stankiewicz, L. — 46 
Starr, E. E.— 30 
Starzyk, T.— 159 

Starzynski, C.R., Rev. M. 

130, 142 
Starzynski, Dr. T. — 161 
Stasch, J.— 146 
Stasiak, L. — 46 
Stecki, S.— 51 
Steczynski, M. — 50, 143 
Stehli Bros.— 35 
Stefanik, J.— 73, 87 
Stelmachowski, S. — 77 
Stemler, J.— 87 
Stensland, P. O. — 47 
Stepczynski, T. — 26 
Stinson, E. — 59 
Stock, Dr. F.— 63, 64 
Stojowski, Z. — 64 
Stopa, W.— 51 
Strabat, P.— 109 
Straszynska, Z. — 91 
Streich, A.— 91 
Strzycki, Msgr. J. J.— 103 





Stuczynski, I. — 79 
Stupnicki, Sr., Dr. N. — 78 
Styka, J.— 47 
Styka, T.— 45, 51 

Suchomska, P. — 50 
Sunshine Club— 87 
Swartz, F.— 146 
Swiatkowski, C.R., Rev. L.— 

Swiatkowski, M. — 51, 53 
Swiatlosc— 80 
Swierczek, C.R., Rev. S. — 72, 

76, 102, 103 
Swierkowska, C. — 48 
Swojnicki, R.— 47 
Symon, Arch. F.— 97 
Synowie Wolnosci — 88 
Synowiec, F. — 84 
Szabelski, J.— 145 
Szajnert, J.— 95, 150 
Szatkowski, J. — 50 
Szatkowski, F.— 68 
Szaton, J. — 51 
Szczerbowski, K. — 22 
Szczodrowski, H. — 70 
Szczygiel, Rev.— 113, 114 
Szczypta, C.R., Rev. J.— 103 
Szeszycki, J. — 26 
Szkolki Doksztalcajace — 88 
Szopinski, L. — 47 
Szpinalski, G. — 63 
Szpekowski, J. E.— 162 

Szponder-Lysakowska, W. — 

92, 93 
Szprenga, Rev. J. — 76 

Sztencel, M. — 47 

Sztuczko, C.S.C., Rev. C. — 
71, 97, 131 

Sztuka, B.— 70 

Szulak, S. J., Rev.— 96 

Szudzinski, Rev. B.— 77, 87, 
114, 162 

Szukalski, S.— 43, 44 

Szumnarski, J. — 25, 27 

Szwajkart, S.— 4, 22 

Szwejkowski, A. — 51 

Szwignicki, R. — 46 

Szymanski, W. — 12 

Szymczak, C— 27 

Szymczak, M. S.— 24 

Szymkowski, J. — 24 

Szymnarski, J. — 124 

Szynalik, J.— 39, 41, 51, 52 

Szyndler, P.— 47 

Szyperski, E. — 71 

Taberski, F.— 146 
Taft, W. H.— 152, 153 
Talentowski, I. — 87 
Tarczynska, V. — 50 
Tarczynski, R. — 51 
Tarka, F. — 51 
Tarkington, B.— 87 
Tasnowski, G. — 46 

Teatr Polski — 91 
Tetmayer, W. — 46 
Theophile, C.S.C., Bro. — 71, 

88, 97, 131 
Third of May Dram. Soc. — 

Thomas, T.— 60 
Tokarz, F.— 27 
Tolpa, M.— 51 
Tamaszewski, J. — 91 
Tragarz, B. — 74 
Transfiguration — 109 
Trembacz, M. — 47 
Trojanowski, F. — 48 
Trzykucki, S.— 27 
Turalska, J.— 69 
Turalski, J.— 79 
Turchanowicz, W. — 93 
Tutro, A.— 159 
Twain, M.— 23 
Twardzik, H.— 51, 52 
Tysiac Walecznych — 88 


Uczciwek-Kasperek, L. — 70 
Unique Social Club — 74 
United Charities— 122 
Urbaniak, C. — 85 
Urbanowicz, Dr. E. — 79, 84 
Urbanowicz, S. — 84 
Urbanski, A. G. — 27 
Urbanski, D.— 50, 88 
Urbanski, F.— 74, 104 
Urbanski, J.— 70 
Uzdrowski, C. R., Rev. F.— 

Uziemblo, H. — 48 

Victor, C.S. C., Bro.— 131 


Wachowski, E. K— 27 
Wachtel, K.— 34, 68, 69, 70, 

73, 91, 92 
Wachtel, W — 70, 92 
Wachtel, S.— 93 
Wachtel-Wieckowska, G. — 91 
Wajdygo, A.— 91 
Walczyk, A.— 50 
Walesa, Rev. T.— 118 
Walerowicz, J. — 162 
Walkowicz, L.— 27, 87 
Wanda Choir, 58, 60 
Wandrowski, A. — 53 
Warakowski, Rev. W.— 113 
Warszewski, S. — 50 
Washington Circle — 87 
Wasielewski, T. and J.— 73 
Wasielewska-Price, A. — 73 
Watson, D. C— 53 
Watypka, Rev. C— 113 

Wcislo, Dr. A.— 82 

Wcislo, J.— 82 

Weber, C.R., Archbishop J.— 

129, 130 
Weber High School— 5, 128 
Wedda, J.— 22 
Weglewski, J. — 86 
Weisenborn, R. — 52 
Weiss, TV— 48 
Weiss, W— 111 z 

Wejnerowski, W. — 146 
Welminski, J.— 86 
Werton, M. — 52 
Weston, "Cowboy," — 146 
Whitney Museum of Art — 41 
Wieckowski, V.— 74, 148 
Wieckowska, G.— 91 
Wieczorek, M. — 45, 51 
Wieczorek, W. W.— 50 
Wiedeman, E.— 56, 79, 80 
Wieniawski, H. — 9, 57 
Wierzbaniec, J. — 97 
Wiewiora, J. — 87 
Wiktor, F.— 79 
Wilimovsky, C— 52 
Wilkomirski, M.— 63, 64, 65 
Wilkoszewski, E.— 2 
Wilkowski, D.— 13 
Wilson, W.— 153, 160 
Windheim, M.— 64 
Winterowski, L. — 48 
Wisniewski, — 51 
Wisniewski, B. — 47 
Witkowski, F.— 27 
Witmanski, S. I.— 27 
Witmanski, Rev. P. P.— 114 
Witwicki, M. — 51 
Witt, J.— 104 
Witz. K.— 91 
Wodzinski, W.— 47 
Wojcicki, 93 
Wojcik, E.— 74 
Wojcik, T.— 78 
Wojciechowski, Rev. F. J. — 

106, 109, 114 
Wojtalewicz, Rev. F. M. — 

98, 108, 112, 113 
Wojtalewicz, J. — 98 
Wojtalewicz, P.— 17 
Wojtalewicz-Janiszewska, A. 

Wojtowicz, R. — 70 
Wolinska, R.— 82 
Wolna Polska Dram. Circle, 

Wolowska, L.— 156 
Wolowski, F.— 22, 156 
Wolowski, H.— 159 
Wolsan, Z.— 50 
Wolska, S.— 85 
World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion— 137 
Woszczynska, L. — $5 
Wozniak, L. — 85 
Wronski, C. J. B.— 145, 146, 
1 17, 1 18 


Wronski, C. P. — 148 
Wronski, T. K. — 148 
Wrzezi nski — 92 
Wycislo, Rev. A.— 85 
Wyczolkowski, Dr. A. — 8 
Wyczolkowski, L. — 48 
Wyspianski Dram. Circ. — 75 
Wywiorski, S. — 51 





Xavier, C.S.C., Bro.— 131 


Young- Men's Cultural Club— 

Young Men's Polish Alliance, 


Zacharias, M. C. — 27 
Zahajkiewicz, S. — 8, 68, 72, 

74, 76, 90, 91 
Zak, E. — 45 
Zaleski, J. P.— 50 
Zaleski, Rev. V.— 98, 100 
Zalewski, M. — 47 
Zamiara, T. — 78 
Zapala, C.R., Rev. L.— 103, 

Zaporta, S.— 86 
Zaprzyjaznione Kolka— 67 
Zarska, W. — 93 
Zdebski, P. 86 
Zdechlik, C.R., Rev. J.— 103 
Zdzieblowski — 90 
Zenc, Rev. D. — 114 
Zerawski, S. — 61 
Zeromski, Circle — 73 
Zgoda — 5, 152 

Zielezinski, Rev. J. F. — 112 
Zielinski, J. B. — 50, 93 
Zielinski, W. — 162 
Ziemba, J. A. — 27, 147 
Ziolkowski, M. — 63 
Zintak, G. — 24, 104 

Zintak, F. Y. — 24 

Zlotnicki, X. K. — 22 

Zlotorzynski, J. — 79 

Zmurko, F. — 46, 48 

Znaniecki, Dr. F. — 123 

Zaek, Rev. R. — 82 

Zoliski, J.— 2 

Zolla, W.— 83 

Zolkowski, E. — 92 

Zorza — 79 

Zuchala, Rev. L. — 112 

Zukowski, G.— 91, 92, 93 
Zukotynski, T. — 8, 29, 34, 37 
Zurawski, Dr. — 50 
Zwiefka, J.— 146 
Zwiefka, P.— 27, 146 
Zwiefka, V. — 27 
Zwiefka, Y. P.— 24 
Zwierzchowski, Rev. J. — 104 
Zyehlinski, C— 6, 48 
Zygman, E. — 61 
Zygmunt, L. — 50, 142 
Zylla, Rev. J.— 99, 100, 101 


Adamkiewicz, S. — 236 

Adamowski, Ben. — 191 

Adesko, T. V. — 251 

American Casket and Mfg. 
Co.— 216 

Ast, Marian I. — 248 

Alexandrowicz, M.D., B. J.— 

Avon Rug and Carpet Clean- 
ers— 238 

Bare, J. J. — 233 
Bardonski, J. B. — 251 
Bednarski, L. — 240 
Bialikiewicz, J. — 251 
Blaski, B. P. — 210 
Blaski, F. M. — 210 
Blaski Mfg. Co.— 211 
Bobrytzke, F. — 218 * 
Bojkowski, Jr. C. — 225 
Boyda Dairy Co.— 238 
Brandt, F. A. — 237 
Brandt, H. J.— 234 
Brickler, T. J. — 238 
Bubacz, S. C. — 252 
Bystrzycki, A. J.— 254 

Chicago Title and Trust Co. 

Czaja, M. D., Deo. M.— 209 

Chicago Flour Co. — 227 
Czarnecki, T. J. — 234 
Chamski, B. F. — 237 
Cichowicz, A. — 242 
Continental Clothing Co. — 

Cieszykowski, L. A. — 247 
Czerwinski, A. — 247 
Czachorski, H. F. — 247 
Czerwiec, J. — 252 
Czerwiec Dumber Co.— 252 
Czerwiec, S. J. — 252 
Czosnykowski, F. — 256 


Dombrowski, M.D., E. F. — 

Drymalski, P. — 205 
Demski, F. H.— 215 
Dulak, M.D., F. A. — 222 
Dressel, J. — 231 
Drymalski, A. Y. — 233 
Drezmal, M. A. — 237 
Dankowski, I. F. — 240 
Dziurgot and Sons — 245 
Diadul, A. R.— 246 
Danisch, A. J. — 248 

Elston Daundry Co. — 192 

Free Polish Women in the 
Land of Washington— 237 

Fisher, B. A.— 240 
Falasz, J. M.— 246 

Gorski, M. — 214 
Gorski, O. E. — 248 
Gordon, T. S. — 224 
Glenicki, L. T. — 235 
Garbark, F. P.— 251 
Glon, L. F. — 225 
Grzemski, J. P. — 248 


Hetman, W. F. — 247 
Hallerczyk Cigar Co. — 250 
Halick, S. A.— 254 
Haller Bldg. and Loan Asso- 
ciation of So. Chicago — 246 

Imbiorski. W. J. — 23c 

Jarecki, E. K. — 228 
Jaworowski, Z. G. — 240 
Jaranowski, J. W. — 253 


Kowaezek, P. — 194 
Kostulski, C. S.— 217 
Kadow, Z. H.— 219 


1837 — POLES OF CHICAGO — 1937 


Koscinski, L. A. — 224 
Konkowski, F. E. — 226 
Kubacki, C. W.— 232 
Klaus Department Store — 

Kosinski, R. — 233 
Kowalski. A. J. — 235 
Kaminski, J. W. — 236 
Kiolbasa, W. A.— 239 
Kleber, v.— 239 
Kaminski, D.D.S., M. V. — 243 
Kornak, J. A. — 245 
Kolsaak, L. A. — 246 
Krassowski, L. — 247 
Konopa, J. S. — 249 
Kortas, A. J.— 254 
Korzeneski, B. F. — 254 
Kula, V. A.— 254 
Kudlick, M. G.— 255 
Kuzniewicz, S. — 256 

Lewendowski, T. L. — 206 
Link, W- W.— 214 
Lenard, I. — 220 
La Buy, W.— 228 
Lubejko, E. L.— 245 
Luczak, E. — 246 
Lassa, F. J. — 251 
Lincoln Photo Studio — 252 


Maciejewski, A. F. — 193 
Miroslawski, W. S.— 221 
Marian Auto Body Co.— 231 
Morawski, H. A.— 234 
Marcinkiewicz, Jr. J. — 241 
Majewski, K. — 251 
Mucha, J. G.— 255 
Michalski, S. J.— 256 


Nowak, M. M.— 202 
Nowak Milling Corp.— 202 
Napieralski, A. E.— 203 
National Cordial Co.— 207 
Northwestern Candy and 

Tobacco Co.— 230 
Nering, J.— 239 
Nyka, L. C— 241 
Northwestern Pharmacy, 

Inc.— 241 
Nosarzewski, W. J. — 248 

Olejniczak, J. J. — 250 
Osowski, T. F.— 236 
Orlikoski, W. J.— 213 

Polish Book Publishing Co.— 

Polish Publishing Co. — 201 
Pulaski Coal Co.— 200 
Pallasch, J. B.— 206 
Pallasch, P. V.— 20B 
Pallasch, A. M.— 206 
Pallasch, Z. G.— 206 
Pasier Products Co., Inc. — 

Pawlowski, C. — 215 
Pulaski Loan and Bldg. As- 
sociation of Sixth Ward, 
Polish Consulate — 205 
Prystalski, J.— 229 

Pomorski, M. E.— 231 
Polish Union Printers' Asso- 
ciation — 235 

Polonia Sewing Machine and 
Music Co.— 236 

Pociask, A. A.— 238 

Pachynski, E. I.— 242 

Posanski, R. E.— 242 

Pazik, K.— 242 

Petlak, E. J.— 243 

Prusinski, A. C. — 244 

Patek and Sons — 245 

Piontek, C. L. — 249 

Pyterek. H.— 256 

Rostenkowski, J. P.— 213 
Ropa, J. F.— 219 
Routh, F.— 226 
Rapacz, M. P.— 233 
Ross, D.D.S., C. J.— 249 
Rusch, J. S.- 254 

Stanczewski, W. — 195 
Sierocinski, J. A.— 217 
Slotkowski Sausage Co. — 218 
Smietanka, A. M.— 220 
Standard Coffin and Casket 
Mfg. Co.— 221 

Szumnarski, J. A. — 222 
Slupkowski, J. A.— 223 
Skorupa, T.— 227 
Schwaba, P. H.— 229 
Szwajkart, M.D., A. L.— 234 
Sowa, F. S— 239 
Schlaeger, V. L.— 242 
Schwaba, J. A.— 243 
Stack and Ryan— 243 
Soska, A. F.— 244 
Schweda, J.— 244 
Stefanik, J.— 246 
Sajewski, C. J.— 247 
Skaja, B. S.— 255 

Tremko, M.— 223 
Toudor, T. C.— 230 


Ulis, J. C— 255 
Underwood Elliott Fisher 

Co,— 255 
Urbanski, A. G.— 241 


Wronski, C. J. B.— 256 

Wiczas, S. C— 250 

Wronski, E. A. — 250 

Warszewski, M.D., E. H.- 

Wachowski, E. L.— 244 

Walewski and Tokarz — 243 

Washington Photo Studio- 

Waskowski, A. B.— 225 

Wicker Park Medical Cen- 
ter— 212 

White Eagle Brewing Co., 


Xelowski, T. Z.— 252 


Zelosky, W.— 204 
Ziemba, J. A.— 243