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THE SLATED SCHOOL BOOK 

SILICATE BOOK SLATE STJMTAC* Pate, « February 2,, 1»; January 15, 1867; j 

EIk jii knee d ljp lEagfei) Saraguag^ 



A 



A 



PRACTICAL GRAMMAR: 



WORDS, PHRASES, AND SENTENCES 

ARE 

CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR OFFICES; 

AND 

THEIR VARIOUS RELATIONS TO ONE ANOTHER, 

ILLUSTRATED BY A COMPLETE SYSTEM OE DIAGRAMS. 



" Speech is the body of thought.* » 



By S.W.~ CLARK, A.M., 

PRINCIPAL OP CORTLAND ACADEMY, 

AUTHOR OP "FIRST LESSONS IN ENGLISH 6EAMMAE," " ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH 
LANGUAGE," " GEAMMATIC CHART." 

FOETIETH EDITION, REVISED. 



NEW YORK: 
k. S. BARNES & Co., Ill & 113 WILLIAM STREET, 

(CORNER OF JOHN STREET.) 
1868. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR AS A SCIENCE. 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR AS AX ART. 



OXj ARK ? SJ 

ENGLISH GRAMMARS AND ANALYSIS. 



Clark's First Lessons in EnglisSi Grammar. Design- 
ed for Beginners, and Introductory to the Practical Grammar. 
By S. "W. Clakk, A.M., Principal of Cortland Academy. 18mo, 
half bound. 

Clark's New Estglisli Grammar. A Practical Grammar, 
in which "Words, Phrases, and Sentences are Classified according 
to their Offices; and their various Eeiations to each other, illus- 
trated by a Complete System of Diagrams. 12mo, cloth 

A Key to Clark's Grammar, containing Diagrams of all 
the Sentences for Analysis and Parsing found in the Grammar. 

Clark's Analysis of tlie Englisn Language — with a 
Complete Classification of Sentences and Phrases, according to 
their Grammatic Structure. Designed as a Sequel to the En- 
glish Grammar. 12mo, half bound. 

Clark's Grammatic Cliart. Exhibiting the Analysis of 
Sentences, the Analysis of Phrases, the Classification and Modi- 
cation of "Words. Mounted. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S64, 

By S. W. CLAEK, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United State* for the Northern 
District of New York. 



PREFACE 



The Grammar of a-Languagc, Quintilian has justly remarked, is like 
the foundation of a building — the most important part, although out 
of sight, and not always properly valued by those most interested in 
its condition. 

In the opinion of many modern educators, there is a tendency, on 
the part of all, to neglect this important branch of English Education 
— not so much from a conviction that the science is not important, as 
that there is a radical defect in the common method of presenting it to 
the attention of the learner. This was the sentiment of the Author 
when, some fifteen years since, he was called to the supervision of a 
Literary Institution, in which was established a department for the 
education of Teachers. Accordingly, recourse was had to oral instruc- 
tion ; and, for the convenience of Teachers, a manuscript Grammar was 
prepared, which embodied the principles of the science and the Author's 
mode of presenting it. These principles and this method have been 
properly tested by numerous and advanced classes during the seven 
years last past. The manuscript has in the mean time, from continued 
additions, unexpectedly become a book. It has received the favorable 
notice of Teachers, and its publication has been, by Teachers, repeatedly 
solicited. To these solicitations the Author is constrained to yield, and 
in the hope and belief that the work will * ' add to the stock of human 
knowledge," or at least tend to that result, by giving an increased 
interest to the study of the English language, it is, with diffidence, 
submitted to the public. 

In revising the work for publication, an effort has been made to 
rendeT it simple in style, comprehensive in matter — adapted to the 
capacities of the younger pupil, and to the wants of the more advanced 
scholar. It is confidently believed that the Method of teaching 
Grammar herein suggested, is the true method. The method adopted 
by most text-books may be well suited to the wants of foreigners in 
first learning our language. They need first to learn our Alphabet — 
the power and sounds, and the proper combinations of Letters — tho 
definitions of words and their classification according to definitions. 



IV MtEFACE. 

But the American youth is presumed to know all this, and be able to 
catch the thought conveyed by an English Sentence ; in fine, to be 
able to use practically the language, before he attempts to study it as 
a science. Instead, therefore, of beginning with the Alphabet, and 
wasting his energies on technical terms and ambiguous words, he should 
be required to deal with thought as conveyed by Sentences. Accord- 
ingly, this introduction to the Science of Language begins with a 
6entence, properly constructed, and investigates its structure by de- 
veloping the offices of the "Words which compose it ; making the office 
rather than the form of a Word, determine the class to which it 
belongs. 

? As an important auxiliary in the Analysis of Sentences, a system of 
Diagrams has been invented and introduced in the work. It is not 
claimed for the Diagrams that they constitute any essential part of the 
Science of Language ; nor do Geometrical Diagrams constitute such a 
part of the Science of Geometry ; Maps, of Geography ; or Figures, of 
Arithmetic. \ But it will not be denied that these are of great service 
in the study of those branches. Experience has established their im* 
portance. % Let, then, the use of Diagrams, reduced as they are here, 
to a complete system, be adopted in the Analysis of Sentences, and 
their utility will become as obvious in the Science of Language, as it is 
in the science of Magnitude ; and for precisely the same reason, that 
an abstract truth is made tangible ; the eye is permitted to assist the 
mind ; the memory is relieved, that the judgment may have full 
charter of all the mental powers. 

Conscious that novelty, as such, should not bear sway in the inves- 
tigations of Science, the Author has been careful, neither to depart 
from the ordinary method of presenting the Science, for the sake of 
novelty, nor, from dread of novelty, to reject manifest improvements. 
The old Nomenclature is retained, not because a better could not be 
proposed, but because the advantages to- be gained would not compen- 
sate for the confusion necessarily consequent to such a change. But 
the terms purely technical have been introduced as a natural inference 
from facts previously deduced. Principles and Definitions are preceded by 
such Remarks as have fully established their propriety. The inductive 
method of arriving at truth has been followed throughout — with that 
it stands or falls. 



ADVERTISEMENT 

TO THE FIFTEENTH EDITION. 



In sending forth this revised Edition of the Practical Grammar, the 
Author takes occasion to render acknowledgments to his numerous 
professional brethren who have so favorably received the former 
•editions, and also to express his gratitude for the various criticisms 
which its use has suggested. Especially is he gratified that, with frank 
and faithful notices of the omissions and defects in the former Editions, 
there has been a unanimous approval of the System and Method herein 
adopted. Accordingly, the work has been rewritten upon the basis of 
the former Edition. 

In making the revision, an effort has been made to perfect the work 
in all its parts — to supply defects — to simplify the arrangement — to 
bring the various parts more fully in harmony with the system— and 
to adapt it more completely to Class Exercises. 

To Part I. important Additions have been made ; the Elements of 
Sentences have "been discussed more fully, and the Diagrams are made 
to render the Analysis of Sentences more perspicuous. Analysis dis- 
closes to the Student the right use of Words, according to established 
custom, thus furnishing the only appropriate key to the true Etymology 
of the Language. 

In Part IT. Etymology is so presented as to furnish a proper founda- 
tion for Syntax ; the several materials are adapted to their various 
positions in the stmcture to be reared. 

In Part III. careful attention has been given to make the other 
branches of the Science of Language subserve Syntax and harmonize 
with it. In this effort consists the great improvement in the Grammar 
as now presented ; the Analytical is made to accompany the Syn- 
thetical. 

Exercises in Criticism are inserted, in which common errors are 
noticed and corrected by proper references to Eules, Notes, and Obser- 
vations in the text. 

The extensive and constantly increasing circulation of the original 
work, encourages the hope that, with its present improvements, it will 
secure the desired approbation of a discerning public. 

Coktla^d Academy, Homer, N. Y. 



THE GRAMMATIC CHART. 



This Chart presents, at one view, the entire Etymology of the 
English language. It is useful chiefly in reviews and in etymological 
parsing. 

The large edition of the Chart may be used more profitably, as, with 
it, the whole class may follow the reciting pupil — all having their 
attention directed to the same thing, at the same time. In the 
absence of a large Chart, the small ones may be used — each student 
using his own. 

It will be noticed that the Chart does not give the Definitions of the 
Classes and Modifications of words ; but simply presents the principles 
of Etymology ; showing, for example, 

That a "Sentence" consists of "Principal Elements," and may have 
"Adjuncts." That the Principal Elements of a Sentence must be a 
"Subject," a "Predicate," and (if Transitive) an "Object." That 
the Subject may be a "Word," a " Phrase," or a " Sentence." That 
if the Subject is a Word, it is a " Noun" or " Pronoun" — if a Noun, it is 
* ' Common' ' or " Proper' ' — if a Pronoun, it is " Personal, " " Eelative,' ' 
" Interrogative," or " Adjective." That the Noun or Pronoun must 
be of the "Neuter," "Feminine," or "Masculine" Gender— of the 
"First," "Second," or "Third" Person — of the "Singular" or 
" Plural" Number — and that it must be in the " Nominative" Case. 

If the Subject is a "Phrase," it is a "Substantive" Phrase — and may 
be (inform) "Prepositional," "Participial," "Infinitive," or "In- 
dependent' ' — and may be ' ' Transitive' ' or l( Intransitive. ' ' 

If the Subject is a " Sentence," it is a " Substantive" Sentence — and 
maybe "Simple" or "Compound," "Transitive" or "Intransitive." 

Thus, a comparison of the Chart wit*k the General Principles, on 
pages 175-180, will readily suggest to the skillful Teacher the proper 
method of using it in review. 

The proper use of the Chart in Etymological Parsing is illustrated by 
Exercises, pp. 181-186. 



CONTENTS. 



PAKT I. 

PAQH 

Introductory Exercises 11 

General Definitions. 

Language — Spoken — Written 15 

Grammar — General — Particular 15 

Elements of Language — Letters — Words — Phrases — Sentences 16 

"Words — Classification , 17 

Phrases — Classification , 19 

" " Offices— Substantive 19 

" " " Adjective 19 

" " Adverbial 20 

" " " Independent 20 

" " Forms — Prepositional 20 

Infinitive 20 

Participial 21 

" Independent 21 

" Analysis . . . 21 

Sentences — Analysis 23 

" " Principal Elements 25 

" Adjunct Elements 27 

" " Exercises 29 

* c Questions for Review 35 

" Diagrams — General Rules 36 

' ' Classification 38 

" Questions for Review 47 

" Exercises in Analysis. 

1 ' Simple — Intransitive D 48 

" u Transitive 50 

'* Compound " 51 

Mixed 56 

" Complex 57 



viii clark's grammar. 



PAET II. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

PAOI 

Classification of Words— their Forms 69 

" Uses 73 

Nouns — Classification 73 

" Modification 75 

Gender 76 

Person . . , 78 

" " Number 78 

Case !.. 82 

Pronouns — Classification 88 

Personal 88 

" Relative 91 

1 ' " Interrogative , 92 

" " Adjective 93 

" Recapitulation „ 95 

Adjectives— Classification ,......, 97 

" Modification ..... 101 

" Exercises 103 

Verbs — Classification 107 

" Modifications — Voice 108 

Mode •.."., 109 

" " Participles Ill 

" Tense 115 

1 ' Recapitulation 117 

" Conjugation 1 20 

" Review 139 

1 ' Irregular — List 140 

M Unipersonal 143 

Adverbs 149 

* ' Classification 151 

" Modification 153 

Prepositions — List 156 

Exercises 160 

Conjunctions — List 162 

Exercises 164 

Exclamations 165 

Words of Euphony 166 

Words varying in their Etymology 167 

* * •' " Observations 170 



CONTENm IX 

PART ni. 

SYNTAX. 

TAQU 

Elements oe Sentences — Analysis « 175 

" Phrases " 178 

Exercises by the Chart— Sentences . . 181 

" " Phrases ...185 

Rule 1, — The Subject of a Sentence , 186 

" " " Word 187 

" ** Phrase 190 

" " V Sentence 191 

Eule 2. — The Predicate . 194 

" The Verb . . 195 

Mmber 195 

4t « Person 197 

" " Mode and Throe. . . T. 200 

" Voice 201 

41 4I Exercises . . 204 

Eule 3.— The Object— Word 208 

Phrase 213 

u *' Sentence 215 

" " Exercises 217 

Eule 4. — Pronouns— Personal. , „ ....... 219 

44 Relative . . . 221 

11 4i Interrogative .224 

Eule 5. — Pronouns — Adjective . .. . ........ 225 

" " Exercises. ... 228 

Eule 6. — Independent Case 229 

Adjuncts ... 232 

Eule 7. — Adjectives 235 

46 Qualifying 239 

4£ " Specifying 240 

Eule 8. " Possessive 242 

" " in Predicate 247 

Eule 9. — Adverbs , . ... . 253 

Eule 10. — Participles — as Nouns ...... 260 

" as Adjectives ..*... 264 

" " as Adverbs. 265 

" as Prepositions. 265 

u " in Predicate 265 

.** " Exercises. . . . ■ 267 



clakk's gbammab. 



PASS 



Rule 11. — Infinitive Verb , 267 

11 " Phrase 269 

Bule 12c — Prepositions 270 

Eitle 13. — Conjunctions 273 

Bule 14. — Exclamations 277 

Words of Euphony 278 

General Bules 279 

Becapitulation of the Bules of Syntax 280 



PAKT IT. 

PBOSODY. 

Marks of Punctuation 282 

Grammatical and Bhetorical Signs 288 

Composition — Prose — Verse 291 

Versification .294 

Figures : , , .298 

" Grammatical 299 

" Bhetorico-Grammatical. '. . . . . 300 

" Bhetorical 301 



APPENDIX. 

Letters — Their Forms, Roman,' Italic, Old English 305 

" " Capitals 306 

" Their Offices. 308 

44 Abbreviations « 309 






CLARK'S GUAM 




PUBLISHED BY A. 8. BA1! 



ATIG CHART. 




tiSk & BTJRR -NEW YORK 



PART I. 

INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES. 



1 ' God moves in a mysterious way, 
His wonders to perform ; 
He plants his footsteps in the sea 
And rides upon the storm." 



Quest. Of whom is something asserted in the lines above written ? 
Arts. Something is said concerning " God? 

What is said of God ? 
A. God " moves? 

How does God move ? 
-4. " In a mysterious way? 

u God moves in a mysterious way" — why ? 
A. " To perform his wonders" 

Concerning whom is something more said ? •# 

A. Something more is said concerning " God." 

Why do you think so ? 
A. Because, in this connection, " He" means God. 

What more is said of God ? 
A. He "plants? 

He plants what 9 
A, He plants " footsteps? 

He plants what footsteps ? 
A, " His" footsteps. 



12 ENGLISH GRAMMAK PAKT I. 

He plants his footsteps' — where ? 
A. " In the seaP 

What more is said of God ? 

A. He " rides. JJ 

He rides— where ? 
A, " TJpon the storm" 

In the lines written above> what is the use or office of the word 
"God" ? 
A. It is used to tell who " moves." 

What is the use of the word " moves" 9 
A. To tell what God does. 

What is the use of " in a mysterious way 1 * ? 
A. To tell how God, moves. 

What is the use of "his wonders to perform" ? 
A. To tell for what purpose God moves* 

What is the use of "He 17 ? 
A. To tell who "plants footsteps" and "rides." 

What is the use of "plants" ? 
A. To tell what " He" does. 

What is the use of " his" ? 
A. To tell whose footsteps. 

What is the use of "footsteps" ? 
A. To tell what He plants. 

What is the use of " in the sea" ? 
A. To tell where He plants footsteps 

What is the use of " rides" ? 

A. To tell what " He" does. 

What is the use of ' ' upon the storm' ' t 
A. To tell where He rides. 

Eemark. — The young Pupil has seen, in this exposition of the four 
lines written above, that words have meaning; and that when they are 
properly put together, they convey the thoughts of the person who 
wrote them, to those who read them. 



INTRODUCTORY EXERCISE8. 13 

The above may be used as an appropriate Model for the following 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES FOR ANALYSIS. 

1. " The | sun | rose | on the sea | ." 

2. " A | mist | rose | slowly | from the lake | / 

3. " The | night \ passed \ away | in song | ." 

4. "Morning \ returned | in joy | /' 

5. " The ' mountains \ showed \ their | gray | heads | ." 

6. "The | blue \face | of ocean | smiled \ ." 

7. "Day | declines | „" 

8. "Hollow | winds \ are | in the | pines | ." 

9. "Darkly | moves | each | giant | bough, \ 

O'er the sky's last crimson glow | ." 

10. " Nature's | richest | dyes \ 
Are floating \ o'er Italian skies." 

11. "A golden staff his steps supported." 

12. "The dying notes still murmur on the string." 

13. "A purple robe his dying frame shall fold." 

14. "At the heaving billows, stood the meager form of Car©.' 3 

15. " Oft the shepherd called thee to his flock." 

16. "The comely tear steals o'er the cheek." 

17. "The storms of wintry Time will quickly pass." 

18. "Thus in some deep retirement would Ipass 

The winter-glooms, with friends of pleasant soul. 

19. "Then comes the father of the tempest forth, 

Wrapt in thick glooms." 

20. "Thy bounty shines in Autumn, unconfined, 

And spreads a common feast for all that live " 

21. "Some in the fields ol purest ether play, 

And bask and whiten in the blaze of day." 

22. " On thy fair bosom, waveless stream, 

The dipping paddle echoes far, 

And flashes in the moonlight gleam." 

23. " Who can observe the careful ant, 

And not provide for future want." 

24. "Nature with folded hands seemed there, 

Kneeling at her evening prayer.' 7 



14 ENGLISH GKAMMAR PART lo 

25. < « The woods 

Threw their cool shadows freshly to the west." 

26. ' ' The clear dew is on the blushing bosoms 

Of crimson roses, in a holy rest." 

27. "Spring calls out each voice of the deep blue sky." 

28. " Thou 1 rt journeying to thy spirit's home, 

Where the skies are ever clear." 

29. "A summer breeze 
Paris the deep masses of the forest shade, 
And lets a sunbeam through." 

30. ' ' The pines grew red with morning, ' ' 

31. " Sin hath broke the world's sweet peace — unstrung 

Th' harmonious chords to which the angels sung/* 
S2. * And eve, along the western skies, 
Spreads her intermingling dyes J 1 

33. " The blooming morning oped her dewy eye." 

34. " No marble marks thy couch of lowly sleep ; 

35. But living statues there are seen to weep." 

36. "A distant torrent faintly roars." 

37. ' ' His gray locks slowly waved in the wind, 

And glittered to the beam of night." 

38. " Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield." 

39. " Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke." 

40. " How jocund did they drive their team afield !" 

41. " How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke i" 

42. '- The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, 

The swallow, twittering from the straw-built shed, 
The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn, 
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bedo" 



LANGUAGE— GRAMMAR. 1 5 



LANGUAGE. 

Definition I.— Language is any means of communi- 
cating thought, feeling, or purpose. 

Obs. 1. — Thoughts and feelings are indicated — 

1. By certain expressions of the features, by gestures, and by other 
physical acts. This is called Natural Language. 

2. By articulate sounds, or by written characters. This is called Arti- . 
ficial Language. 

Obs. 2. — Natural language is common to all intelligent beings, and 
is understood by all without previous instruction. — Smiling, frowning, 
laughing, weeping, are instances of natural language. 

Obs. 3. — Artificial language is invented by men. — Sounds are made 
to indicate thoughts by mutual or common consent. Generally, each 
nation has its peculiar language. 

Principle. — Artificial Language is 

Spoken and Written. 

Def. 2. — Spoken Language consists in vocal sounds, 
indicative of thought, of feeling, or of purpose. 

Def. 3. — Written Language consists in artificial charac- 
ters, so arranged and combined as, by common consent, to 
represent thought or emotion. 

Bem. — It is customary to give to eveiy science a name, by which it 
may be distinguished from other sciences ; accordingly, people have 
agreed to call the science which treats of Language 



GEAMMAE. 

Def 4. — Grammar is the science of Language. 

Obs. 1. — There are certain General Principles of Grammar which are 
common to all languages. — Hence the term General Grammar. 

Obs. 2. — But each particular language has some idioms and forms of 
construction peculiar to itself. — Hence the term Particular Grammar. 

Rem. — Every Particular Grammar should include all the principles of 
General Grammar, 



16 ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PART I. 

Def. 5 (a). — English Grammar is the Science which 
investigates the principles, and determines the proper con- 
struction of the English language. 

(5).— English Grammar is the art of communicating 
thought in appropriate words. 

Rem. — The articulate sounds of language are indicated by Letters. 

Def. 6. — -A Letter is a character used to indicate a 
sound, or to modify the sound of another letter. 
Examples. — A in hat, hate, hall, hart. 

Obs.— For observations on the properties and offices of Letters, see 
Appendix, Note A. 

Rem. — Letters are combined to form Words. 

Def. 7. — A Word is a Letter, or a combination of Let- 
ters, used as the sign of an idea. 

Examples. — God — mysterious — stood — slowly — Ah 1 — by —and, 
Rem. — Words are combined to form Phrases and Sentences. 

Def. 8, — A Phrase is a combination of words, not 
constituting an entire proposition, but performing a dis- 
tinct office in the structure of a Sentence or of another 
Phrase. 

Examples. — At midnight, in his guarded tent, 

The Turk was dreaming of the hour 
When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent, 
Should tremble at hispowen 

DeFo 9. — A Sentence is an assemblage of words, so 
combined as to assert an entire proposition. 

Examples. — 1. Night approaches. 

2. Day is departing. 

3. William is sleepy, 

4. Socrates was a philosopher, 

5. Virtue secures happiness. 

6. John and George have arrived. 

7. God created the heaven and the earth. 

8. " The dying notes still murmur on the string/' 



WOKDS — CLASSIFICATION. 17 



WOKDS. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

Remark.— In a Discourse, words are used— 

1 . As Names of beings, places, or things ; 

2. As Substitutes for names or facts ; 

3. As Qualifiers or Limiiers of names ; 

4. To assert an act, being, or state ; 

5. To modify an assertion or a quality ; 

6. To express relations of things or of thoughts ; 

7. To introduce or to connect Words and Sentences ; 

8. To express a sudden or an intense emotion ; or, 

9. For Rhetorical effect. 

Hence, by their uses — 

Words are distinguished as, 



1. Nouns, 

2. Pronouns, 

3. Adjectives, 

4. Verbs, 



5. Adverbs, 

6. Prepositions, 

7. Conjunctions, 

8. Exclamations, and 



9. Words of Euphony. 

Def. 10. — A Word used as the name of a being, of a 
place, or of a thing, is called 

A Noun. 
Examples. — God — man — sea — way — wonders — emotion. 

Def. 11. — A "Word used for a Noun, is called 
A Pronoun. 

Examples. — / — thou — he — she — it — who — what — that 

Def. 12. — A Word used to qualify, or otherwise limit 
a Noun or a Pronoun, is called 

An Adjective. 

Examples. — Mysterious [way]— his [wonders] — the [sea]. 

2* 



18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

Def. 13. — A Word used to assert an act, being, or state, 
of a person or a thing, is called 

A Verb. 
Examples. — [God] moves— [He] plants— [Day] declines. 

Def. 14. — A Word used to modify the signification of a 
Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier, is called 
An Adverb. 

Examples. — " A mist rose slowly from the lake." 
" The task was exceedingly difficult.* ' 
" He came between us very oft." 

Def. 15. — A Word used to express a relation of words 
to each other, is called 

A Preposition. 

Examples. — 1. "At midnight, in his guarded tent, 

2. The Turk was dreaming of the hour." 

Def. 16. — A Word used to introduce a Sentence, or to 
connect Words and Phrases, is called 
A Conjunction. 

Examples. — 1. " And I am glad that he has lived thus long." 
2. " God created the heaven and the earth." 

Def. 17. — A Word used to express a sudden or intense 
emotion, is called 

An Exclamation. 
Examples. — Alas I — oh ! — shocking 1 

Def. 18. — A Word used chiefly for the sake of sound, 
is called 

A Word of Euphony. 

ExampleSc — 1. " There are no idlers here." 

2. "Now, then 9 we are prepared to define our position. * 

3. " Even in our ashes live their wonted fires." 

Obs. — For observations on ' Words of Euphony" see Part II. 



PHRASES CLASSIFICATION. 1 9 

PHKASES. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

Remark. — Phrases are used as substitutes for Nouns, Adjectives, and 
Adverbs ; or they are independent in construction. Hence, by "their 
offices, 

Phrases are distinguished as, 



1. Substantive, 

2, Adjective, 



3. Adverbial, 

4. Independent. 



Def. 19. — A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the 
Subject or the Object of a Verb, or the Object of a Prepo- 
sition. 

Examples. — 1. " To be, contents his natural desire." 

2. " His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil 

power." 

3. "I doubted his having been a soldier" 

4. ' ' The crime of being a young man, I shall attempt 

neither to palliate nor deny." 

What ' ' contents his natural desire' ' ? 

" To be," — i. &, mere existence. 

" I doubted"— What? 

11 His having been a soldier/ 

' l The crime of "—What ? 

" Being a young man." 

Obs. — Substantive Phrases perform offices similar to those of Nouns 
and Pronouns. 

Def. 20. — An Adjective Phrase is a phrase used to 
qualify or limit the application of a Noun or a Pronoun. 

Examples. — 1. "The time of my departure is at hand." 

2. " Forgetting the things that are behind, I press forward." 
What "time" ? 

* l Of my departure." 

3. " The dishes of luxury cover his table." 
What "dishes" ? 

"Of luxury." 



20 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

Def. 21. — An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to 
modify the signification of a Verb, of an Adjective, or of 
an Adverb. 

Examples. — 1. " God moves in a mysterious way." 

2. ' ' He is powerful/or evil — impotent for good. ' ' 
• * ' God moves' ' — How ? 

" In a mysterious way." 
" Powerful" — In what respect ? 
4 'For evil." 

Def. 22. — An Independent Phrase is a phrase nol 
grammatically connected with any other element. 

Example. — " The hour liaving arrived, we commenced the exercises." 
Obs. — The office of an Independent Phrase is Logical, not Grammati- 
cal. Thus, in the sentence, '" The hour having arrived, we commenced 
the exercises," the phrase "the hour having arrived," indicates the 
time of commencing the exercises ; hut it is not joined to the word 
' * commenced' ' by any connecting word. 

Phrases are distinguished also by their forms, as, 

1. Prepositional, 3, Participial, 

2. Infinitive, 4. Independent. 

Def. 23. — A Prepositional Phrase is a phrase intro- 
duced by a Prepositiou, having a Noun or a Substitute as 
its object of relation. 

Examples. — 1 . " In a mysterious way . " "To me .' ' 

2. "A habit of moving quickly is another way of gaining 
time. ' ' a 

Def. 24. — An Infinitive Phrase is a phrase introduced 
by the Preposition to, having a Verb as its object of 
relation. 

Examples.— 1. " To love"—" To study"— 11 To be diligent" 

2. "We ought not to be satisfied with present attain- 

ments.'' 

3. " I sit me down a pensive hour to spend." 

Def. 25. — A Participial Phrase is a phrase introduced 
by a Participle, having an Object or an Adjunct. 
Examples. — " Scaling yonder peak, 

I saw an eagle, wheeling near its brow." 



ANALYSIS OF PHRASES. 21 

Def. 26. — An Independent Phrase is introduced by a 
N~oun or a Pronoun, followed by a Participle depending 
upon it. 

Examples. — 1 . " The cars having left, we chartered a coach/' 
2. * ' Thus talking, hand [being] in hand, 

Alone they passed on to their blissful bower.' ' 

' NALYSIS OF PHRASES. 

A Phrase consists of \ Prmci^al Elements and 
( Adjunct Elements. 

Def. 27. — The Principal Elements of a Phrase are the 
words necessary to its structure. 

Examples. — 1. "Rays | of limpid light | gleamed | round their 
path | ." 

2. " Birds sang | amid the sprouting shade [ /' 

3. M Manhood is disgraced | by the consequences \ of neg- 

lected youth | ." 

Def. 28. — The Adjuncts of a Phrase are the words 
used to modify or limit the offices of other words in the 
Phrase. 

Examples. — 1. u Rays | of limpid light | gleamed | round their 
path | ." 

2. ll Birds sang | amid the whispering shade | ." 

3. " See ! Winter comes | to rule the varied year | ." 

4. " With what an awful, world-revolving power, 

"Were first the unwieldy planets lanched along 
The illimitable void. ' ' 

The Principal Elements of a Phrase consist of 

The Leader and the Subsequent. 

Def. 29. — The Leader of a Phrase is the word used to 
introduce the Phrase — generally connecting its Subsequent 
to the word which the Phrase modifies or limits. 

Examples. — 1. " Like a spirit | it came, | in the van | of a, storm | ." 
2. " Enough remains | of glimmering light | 
To guide the wanderer's steps aright | ." 
8. " The previous question being demanded, | the debate 
closed." 



22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

Obs. — The Leader of a Phrase is commonly the first word in position-- 
but not always; Adjuncts may precede. [See the last example,] 

The Leader of a Phrase may be 



A Preposition, 
A Participle, 



The Preposition to, 
A Substantive. 



Examples. — 1. " I am monarch of all I survey ; 

My right there is none to dispute.' ' 

2. " Taking a madman's sword | to prevent | his doing mischief, | can 
not be regarded | as robbing him | ." 

3. " The evening star having disappeared, | we returned to tha 
castle." 

Def. 30. — A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, 
retaining the signification of its verb, while it also per- 
forms the office- of some other " part of speech." 

Obs. — For observations on Participles, see page 111. 

Def. 31. — The Subsequent of a Phrase is the Element 
which follows the Leader as its object of action or relation, 
or which depends on it in construction. 

Examples. — " At parting, | too, there was a long ceremony | in th, 
hall, | buttoning up great-coats, | tying on woolen comforters, | fixing silk 
handkerchiefs over the mouth and up to the ears, and grasping sturdy 
walking-canes to support unsteady feet. 11 

The Subsequent of a Phrase may be, 

A Word, A Phrase, A Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. A Word. — " Sweet was the sound, when oft | at evening's close \ 

Up yonder hill | the village murmur rose." 

2. A Phrase. — " A habit | of moving quickly, | is another way | o£ 
gaining time | ." 

3. A Sentence. — " The footman, in his usual phrase, 

Comes up with ' Madam, dinner stays. ' ' ' 

Obs. 1. — The Subsequent of a Phrase is sometimes suppressed. 
Example. — " These crowd around, to ask him of his health/' 



RECAPITULATION. 



23 



Obs. 2. — When any Element of a Phrase is suppressed, that part of 
the Phrase which is expressed — whether Leader, Subsequent, or Ad- 
junct — is to be regarded as the representative of the whole Phrase, and, 
in the analysis of a Sentence, it should be construed as the whole 
Phrase would be if fully expressed. 

Examples. — 1. " These crowd around" i. e., around him, 

2. " William will come home" i. e., to his home. 

3. ' ' Mary has come to school early, " i. e. , at an early hour. 

11 Around," as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb — for it is a 
representative of the Adverbial Phrase, around him. 

" Around," as an Element in the Phrase, is a Preposition. 

1 ' Home, "as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb — for it is a 
representative of the Adverbial Phrase, to his home. 

" Some," as an Element in the Phrase, is a Noun. 

11 Early " as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb — for it is a 
representative of the Adverbial Phrase, at an early hour. 

u Early," as an Element in the Phrase, is an Adjective, 



RECAPITULATION. 

Leader . . . 



Principal 
Elements. 



PHRASE. < 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



Subsequent . . 
Adjective . , . 
Adverbial . . . 



Preposition. 

Participle. 

Substantive. 

Word 
Phrase. 
Sentence. 

Word. 
Phrase. 
Sentence. 

Word. 

Phrase. 

Sentence. 



24 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 

SENTENCES. 

Remark. — A Sentence may- be resolved into its Elements. 

Def. 32. — The Elements of a Sentence are the parts 
which enter into its structure. 

Rem. — In the structure of Sentences, certain general principles are in- 
volved, which are common to all languages. 

1 . We have that of which something is declared. This is called the Sub- 
ject of the Sentence. 

2. There must be a word or words used to declare — positively, nega- 
tively, or interrogatively — something of the subject. This is called 
the Predicate. 

These two parts are essential to the structure of a Sentence. 

3. The Predicates of some Sentences assert acts which pass over to 
some person or thing. 

The names of such persons, places, or things are called Object 
Elements. 

4. There are often other Elements, used to qualify, to limit, or to 
modify the various parts of Sentences. These are called Adjunct Elements. 

The Parts of a Sentence are distinguished as 
Principal Elements and Adjunct Elements. 

DeFo 33.— The Principal Elements of a Sentence are the 
parts which make the unqualified assertion. 

Examples. — 1. Birds fly. 

2. The sun shines. 

3 . " The night passed away in song. ' ' 

4. " The mountains showed their gray heads." 

5. " Thy bounty shines in Autumn, unconflned, 

6. And spreads a common feast for all that live.' 

7. "The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

8. "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the 

earth. ' ' 






ANALYSTS AND CLASSIFICATION. 25 

Def. 34. — The Adjunct Elements of a Sentence are such 
as describe or modify other elements. 

Examples. — 1. " The | night passed | away \ in song." 

2. " The king | of shadows | loves | a \ shining | mark " 

3. " There \ in his noisy mansion, \ skilled to rule, \ 

4. The | village | master | taught | his \ little | school | * 

5. " Lend me your songs, ye nightingales." 

6. "0 Liberty ! I wait for thee." 

Rem. — There are still other words, which are neither Principal Ele- 
ments nor Adjuncts, — words which are sometimes used in connection 
with the Sentence, but which do not constitute an integral part of it. 
Hence, 

Def. 35. — Words accompanying a Sentence without 
entering into its structure, are called 

Attendant Elements,, 

Examples. — 1 " Lend me your songs, ye nightingales!" 

2. " Liberty i I wait for thee." 

3. " There are no idlers here." 

4. "I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend." 

5. " Even in our ashes live their wonted fires." 

6. " Friends , Romans, Countrymen! lend me your earSo" 

ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION. 

The Principal Elements of a Sentence are, 

The Subject, | The Predicate, | The Object. 

Obs. — Every Sentence must have, at least, one Subject and one Fred- 
icaie, expressed or understood. 

Def. 36. — The Subject of a Sentence is that of which 
something is asserted. 

Obs.— The Subject of a Sentence is always Substantive in its office ; it 
may be a Noun, or a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence used for a Noun 

EXAMPLES. 

a. A Noun. — 1. Birds fly. 

2. " Knowledge is power. ' ' 

3. " Truth crushed to earth, will rise again." 



26 ENGLISH GSfcAMMAR — PART I. 

b. A Pronoun. — 4. We come. 

5. They are satisfied. 

6. u They that seek me early, shall find me. 

c. A Phrase. — 7. " To do good, is the duty of all men. 

8. u His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil 
power." 

d. A Sentence. — 9. u At what time he took orders, doth not appear." 

10. " That all men are created equal, is a self-evident truth." 

Obs. A Subject of a Sentence having Adjuncts, is called a Modified 
Subject. 

Example. — " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

Def. 37. — The Predicate of a Sentence is the Word or 
Words that express what is asserted of the subject. 

Obs. — The Predicate consists of a Verb, with or without another 
Verb, a Participle, an Adjective, a Noun, a Pronoun, or a Preposition. 

EXAMPLES. 

a. A Verb only. — 1. Birds fly. 

2. Quadrupeds run. 

3. " Here sleeps he now alone." 
6. Two Verbs. — 4. We shall go. 

5. I do remember. 

6. "Ye shall not in the lofty pine 

Disturb the sparrow's nest." 

c. A Verb and a Participle. — 7. John was injured* 

8. Willie is reading. 

9. "Thou art perched aloft on the beetling crag." 

d. A Verb and an Adjective. — 10. James became poor. 

11. Warner is sleepy. 

12. " And the waves are white below." 

e. A Verb and a Noun. — 13. God is love. 

14. We are friends. 

15. " The proper study of mankind is man." 

/. A Verb and a Pronoun. — 16. It is I. 

17. .Who are you? 

18. " Thine is the kingdom." 

g. A Verb and a Preposition. — 19. Its idle hopes are o'er. 
20. That business has been attended to. 



ELEMENTS OF SENTENCES. 27 

Remarks. — The Predicate is varied not only in form, but also in its 
functions. 

1. It may assert an act — as, William walks. 

2. It may assert being — as, God exists. 

3. It may assert quality— as, Sugar is sweet. 

4. It may assert possession — as, " Thine is the kingdom/ ' 

5. It may assert identity — as, If is I. 

6. It may assert condition — as, Its idle hopes are o'er." 

7. It may assert change of condition — as, "His palsied hand 

waxed strong. ' ' 

Obs. 1 . — The term ' ' Predicate' ' has two applications — a Logical and a 
Grammatical. The Logical Predicate includes the Grammatical Predicate and 
its Object. Thus, in the sentence, 

"The king of shadows loves a shining mark," 
u Loves a shining mark" is the Logical Predicate ; 
" Loves" is the Grammatical Predicate. 

Obs. 2. — In Sentences that have no Objects, the Logical and the Gram- 
matical Predicates are identical. Thus, in the sentence, 
" The oaks of the mountains fall," 
11 Fall" is both the Logical and the Grammatical Predicate. 

Obs. 3. — The Modified Predicate includes the Grammatical Predicate and 
its Adjuncts. Thus, in the sentence, 

" Hollow winds are in -the pines," 
e - Are in the pines" is the Modified Predicate of " winds." 
1 ' Are ' is the Grammatical Predicate. ' ' 

Rem. — The Object of a Sentence, being distinct from the Grammati- 
cal Predicate, is properly regarded as a distinct Element in the structure 
of such Sentences as contain Objects. Hence, 

Def. 38. — The Object of a Sentence is the Word or 
Words on which the act, expressed by the Predicate, 
terminates. 

Obs. — The Object of a Sentence is a Noun, or a Word, a Phrase, or a 
Sentence used for a Noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

a. A Noun. — 1. John saws wood. 2. Birds build nests. 

3. " Shall joy light the face of the Indian ?*' 

b. A Pronoun. — 4. I have seen him. 5. Whom seekest thou ? 

6. " Oft the shepherd called thee to his flock." 



2S ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

c. A Phrase. — 7. " I regret his being absent." 

d, A Sentence. — 8. " The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God, 19 

9. " And God said, Let there be light." 

ADJUNCT ELEMENTS, 

An Adjunct Element may be 
A Wordy A Phrase, A Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

a. A Word. — 1. We were walking homeward. 
2. We shall arrive soon. 
8. " Darkly waves each giant bough." 

b t A Phrase. — -I, "We were walking toward home. 

2. We shall arrive in a short time, 
c. A Sentence. — 1. Students, who study, will improve. 

2. Students will improve, if they study. ' ' 

Rem. — Adjuncts are used to limit or describe tilings, or to modify acts 
or qualities. Hence, 

Adjuncts are distinguished as \ . 

{ Adverbial. 

Obs. 1. — Adjective Adjuncts, whether Words, Phrases, or Sentences, 
are such as answer to the questions, What ? What kind ? Whose ? 
How many ? etc. They are attached, in construction, to Nouns and to 
Pronouns. 

Obs. 2.— Adverbial Adjuncts — Words, Phrases, or Sentences — are such 
as answer to the questions, How? Why? Where? Whence? Whether? 
etc. They are attached to Verbs, to Adjectives, and to Adverbs. 

Obs. 3. — Words, Phrases, and Sentences, having no Grammatical con- 
nection with other Elements in a Sentence, often perform Adjunct offices, 
by limiting or modifying the application of other Elements. Such are 
properly called Logical Adjuncts. 

EXAMPLES. 

a. Words. — 1. Webster, the Statesman, is remotely related to Web- 

ster, the Lexicographer. 
2. Clary— Cassias M. — had more honorable benevolence 
than political sagacity. 

b. Phrases. — 1. " Napoleon having fallen, there is no more cause for 

alarm." 



ELEMENTS OF SENTENCES. 



29 



c. Sentences. — "It is possible that Anna will come." 

Rem. — The words "Statesman" and "Lexicographer" are used to dis- 
tinguish the two " "Websters ;' ' " Camus M." to distinguish which 
"Clay" is spoken of; the Phrase "Napoleon having fallen " to tell why 
there is no more cause for alarm ; and ' ' Anna will come, ' ' is a Sentence 
used to tell what is meant by the word " it." Hence, we have Gram- 
matical Adjuncts and Logical Adjuncts. 

RECAPITULATION. 



O 

H 
02 



Principal 
Elements. 



Subject 



Word « . 



( Noun. 



Predicate 



( Pronoun. 
Phrase Substantivec 

Sentence . . . Substantive. 

'•3 +3 another "F^rS. 
"^ § a Participle. 

pq 3 an Adjective. 



^ a Noun. 
a Pronoun. 



^ <* a Preposition. 



Object 






Noun. 



Word . . -s 

( Pronoun. 

| Phrase .... Substantive. 

[ Sentence . . . Substantive. 



Adjunct 

Elements. 



Word 



j Adjective. 
1 Adverb. 



Sentence i 4 d J e(xtive - 
^™; ( Adverbial. 



Logical 



Word. 






5^3 






Phrase . . .& 






§ ° 



■rt r3 ©' 



Sentence . 



> 

5^ go, 

«2 C3 5 t r 



3 






8 s 

-r-i r> 



3* 



SO ENGLISH GRALIMAR — PART I. 

EXERCISES IX ANALYSIS* 

SENTENCES WITHOUT ADJUNCTS. 

JBirds fly. 



( Birds X Ay J 

FIEST MODEL. 

(a.) 
Quest. Of what is something here said ? ' 
Ans. Something is said of " JBirds" 

What is said of ' ' Birds' ' ? 

A. They/y. 

These two Words thus placed, form what ? 
A. A Sentence, for they constitute " an assemblage of 
words, so arranged as to assert an entire proposition." 

(ft.) 

Birds fly. 
Quest. In this Sentence, for what is the Word "Birds' 7 used ? 
Ans. To teR what " fly." 

For what is the Word " fly" used ? 

A. To tell what " Birds" do. 

(c.) 
Birds fly. 
" Every Sentence must have a Subject and a Predicate" 

Quest. In this Sentence, what is the Subject ? 
Ans. "Birds" — for it "is that of which something is 
asserted." 

What is the Predicate ? 
A. " Fly" — for it " is the word that expresses what is 
asserted of the Subject." 

• Thus, analyze the following additional 



EXAMPLES. 



1. Fishes swim. 

2. Horses gallop, 

3. Lightning flashes. 



4. Mary is reading. 

5. Winter has come. 

6. Resources are developed. 



7. Lessons should have been studied. 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 31 

Eem. — In the last example, the four words " should have been stud- 
ied," constitute the Predicate of " lessons." 

Rem. 2. — The Pupil will notice that, when the Predicate consists 
of more than one word, the last word makes the Principal Assertion ; the 
other words perform subordinate offices. Thus, in Example 7, 
4 'Should" denotes obligation; "Should have" denote obligation and 
time ; i ' Should have been' ' denote obligation, time, and voice. These are 
subordinate to the principal assertion expressed by the word ''studied," 

John is sleepy. 

r\ John V is sleepy J 

SECOND MODEL. 

ANALYSIS. 

Subject " John." 

Predicate "is sleepy." 

Rem.— In a limited sense, a Verb may be said to qualify or describe 
its subject. 

Examples. — 1. John sleeps, 

Here, "sleeps" describes a condition of "John." 

2. John is sleeping. 

Here, " is sleeping " asserts a condition of "John." 

3. John is sleepy. 

In this Sentence, "is sleepy" asserts a condition of John as definitely 
as do the Words, ' ' is sleeping ; ' and the genius of the language requires 
the Word "sleeping" to be added to the Verb "is," in order to ex- 
press the fact intended ; so the other fact concerning ' ' John' ' requires 
the Word "sleepy" to be added to the Verb "is." The Sentence is 
not, sleeping John is — i e. , exists ; nor is the other, sleepy John is — i. e. , 
exists ; but ' ; John is sleeping, ' ' and ' ' John is sleepy. " " Sleeping' ' is a 
Participle, in predicate with "is." " Sleepy" is an Adjective, in pred- 
icate with "is." 

glf 3 Let the Pupil, in like manner, construe and place in Diagrams 
the following additional 



EXAMPLES. 



1. William is diligent. 

2. James was weary. 

3. Flowers are beautiful. 

4. Mountains are elevated. 



5. Velvet feels smooth. 

6. Robert has become poor 

7. I felt languid. 

8. Soldiers waxed valiant. 



9. " His palsied hand wax'd strong." — Wilson. 
10. " All earth-born cares are wrong." — Anon. 



32 



ENGLISH GRAMMAB PABT I. 



God is love. 



C God X " 



is love 



J 



THIRD MODEL. 



A Sentence 



ANALYSIS. 

The Subject— "God"........ 

The Predicate — " Is love". . . . 



. See Definition. 

. . See Definition^ 
. .See Definition. 



Note. — " God," is the name of a Beinp" — "Love," is the name of an 
attribute of that Being. " Is love," asserts a fact concerning God ; and 
that fact can not well be expressed witLout these two Words thus com- 
bined. 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 



1. We are slaves. 

2. Men are animals. 

3. Thou art Peter. 

4. John is [a] friend. 



5. Ye are benefactors. 

6. I am [a] student. 

7. William and John are brothers. 

8. We are friends and neighbors. 



Virtue secures happiness. 



c 



Yiriue 



X 



secures 



X 



happiness 







FOURTH MODEL. 

A Sentence. . . . <> .......<> ... « . . . .See Definition, 

ANALYSIS, 

The Subject—" Virtue" .See Definition. 

The Predicate — " Secures" See Definition. 

The Object — "Happiness" See Definition. 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 



1. Birds build nests. 

2. Clouds furnish rain. 

3. Science promotes happiness. 

4. Sin produces misery. 

5. Conscience demands obedi- 
ence. 

6. Napoleon obtained renown. 

7. Washington secured admi- 
ration. 



8. Howard alleviated suffering. 

9. Columbus discovered America. 

10. Fulton invented steamboats. 

11. David enlarged Jerusalem. 

12. Cassar conquered Gaul. 

13 John preached repentance. 

14. Master taught school. 

15. Students need instruction. 
1G. Railroads facilitate travel. 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 33 



SENTENCES WITH ADJUNCTS. 



" Our national resources are developed by an earnest 
culture of the arts of peace" 



<3§5§P 



FIFTH M0D2L. 



(«.) 

Quest. Concerning what is an assertion here made ? 
Ans. Concerning " resources." 

What is asserted of ' ' resources' ' ? 
A. Resources " are developed" 

What resources are developed ? 
A. "National" resources. 

What national resources ? 
A. " Our" national resources. 

How are our national resources developed ? 
A. " By an earnest culture of the arts of peace" 

By what culture ? 
A. By " earnest" culture. 

What earnest culture ? 
A. " An" earnest culture. 

"What special culture ? 
A. Culture " of the arts of peace." 

Of what arts ? 

A. u The" arts " of peace." 



34 ENGLISH GEA3DIAR PART I. 

(6.) 

Quest. In the above Sentence, what is the use of " our" ? 
Aiis. To define some particular national resources. 

What is the use of ' ' national' ' ? 
A. To tell what resources. 

What is the use of " resources" ? 
A. To tell xohat are developed. 

What is the use of ' ■ are developed' ' ? 
A. To tell what is said of resources. 

What is the use of " by an earnest culture of the arts of peace" ? 
A. To tell how resources are developed. 



Ques. What is the Modified Subject ? 
Ans. " Our national resources." 

What is the Modified Predicate ? 
A. " Are developed by an earnest culture of the arts of 
peace." 

What are the principal Elements of this Sentence ? 
A. " Resources are developed" They " express the un- 
qualified assertion." 

What is the Subject ? 
A. "Resources." It is the name of "that of which 
something is asserted." 

What is the Predicate ? 
A. " Are developed^ Those words " express what is 
affirmed of the Subject." 

What are the Adjunct Elements of the Sentence ? 
A. "Our" and "National" are Word Adjuncts of 
" Resources ;" and " by an earnest culture of the arts of 
peace" is a Phrase Adjunct of " are developed." 



ELEMENTS OF SENTENCES. 35 



QUESTION'S FOR REVIEW. 

PAGE 

15. What is Language ? ............. See Def. 1« 

What language is Natural ? — what, Artificial ?. . . . . . . . . . See Obs. 1. 

Artificial language is how distinguished ? 

What is Spoken Language ? . . See Def. 2. 

What is Written Language ? :.~ ..... „ See Def. 3. 

What is Grammar ? ......... See Def. 4. 

16. What is English Grammar ?. . ........ See Def. 5. 

What is a Letter ?— a Word?— a, Phrase f ..... . . See Def. 6, 7, 8. 

What is a Sentence? .See Def. 9. 

17. By their uses, how are Words classified ? 

What is a Noun ? — a Pronoun ? — an Adjective ? . .See Def. 10, 11, 12. 

18. What is a Verb?— an Adverb? — a, Preposition ? ..See Def. 13, 14, 15. 
What is a Conjunction ? — an Exclamation ? — a | « -yw i a 17 iq 

Word of Euphony ? j 

19. By their offices, how are Phrases classified? 

What is a Substantive Phrase? — an Adjective Phrase? .See Def. 19, 20. 

20. What is an Adverbial Phrase? — an Independent Phrase? . .Def. 21, 22. 
By their forms, how are Phrases classified? 

What is a Prepositional Phrase? — an Infinitive Phrase? . . .Def. 23, 24. 
What is a Participial Phrase? — an Independent Phrase? . . .Def. 25, 26. 

21. What are the Distinct Elements of Phrases ? 

What are Principal Elements of Phrases ? See Def. 27. 

What are Adjunct Elements of Phrases? See Def. 28. 

The Principal Elements consist of what ? 

What is the Leader of a Phrase ? — it may consist of what ? . .Def. 29. 

22. What is the Subsequent of a Phrase ? — it may consist of what ? . Def. 31. 

24. What are the Elements of a Sentence? — how distinguished?. .Def. 32. 
What are Principal Elements ? — what, Adjunct Ele- ) « -pv » 00 04 

ments ?. J * ' 

25. What are called Attendant Elements ? .See Def. 35. 

The Principal Elements of a Sentence consist of what ? 

What is the Subject of a Sentence ? — it may consist of what ? . Def. 36. 

26. What is the Predicate ? — it may consist of what ? See Def. 37. 

27. What is the Logical Predicate of a Sentence ? See Obs. 1. 

What is the Modified Predicate of a Sentence ? See Obs. 3. 

What is the Object f— it may consist of what ?. See Def. 38. 

28. Adjunct Elements may consist of what? 
Whs.e p"~ r 4xncal Adjuncts? 



36 



ENGLISH GKAMMAK FART I. 



DIAGRAMS. 

Eem. — The office of an Element in a Sentence determines its position 
m the Diagram, according to the following 

GENERAL EXILES. 

A. 

C 



J 



s 



~y- 



t^jzt' 



<Z3 ^^^& 




Wrc 



X 



B. 




G_2§ 



hz*=& 






J 



fex 



■£ 



Rule 1. — The Principal Elements of a Sentence are 
placed uppermost, and on the same horizontal line ; — as 
(1), (2), (3), Diagrams a and b. 

Rule 2. — The Subject of a Sentence takes the first 
place; — as, (l) and (10), Diagrams a, and (l), (6), and 
(25) b. 

Rule 3. — The Predicate of a Sentence is placed to the 
right of the Subject — attached; — as, (2), and (11), a, and 
(2), (7), (11), and (26), B. 



GENERAL RULES FOR DIAGRAMS. 37 

Rule 4. — The Object of a Sentence is placed to the 
right of the Predicate — attached; — as (3), a, and (3), (12), 
and (x), b. 

Rule 5. — An Adjunct of a Sentence is placed beneath 
the "Word which it limits or modifies — attached ; as, (4), 
(5), (6), (7), (12), (13), (14), (17), (18), (23), A, and (4), 
(5), (8), (9), (17), (18), (19), (20), (23), (24), B. 

Rule 6. — If the Adjunct is a Phrase, its Leader is at- 
tached to the Word which it limits; as, (15), (19), (25), 
a, and (15), (21), b. 

Rule 7. — If the Adjunct is a Sentence, it is attached by 
a line to the Word which the Adjunct Sentence limits ; as, 
the Adjunct Sentence within the dotted line (6), is attached 
by the line from (2) to (9), a, and (6 to 19 inclusive) is at- 
tached to (1), b. 

Rule 9. — A Logical Adjunct is placed beneath the 
Word which it describes, but not attached. [See page 
39.] 

Rule 9. — The Subsequent of a Phrase is placed to the 
right of its Leader — attached; as, (20 and 21) to the right 
of (19)— (26) to the right of (25)— (16) of (15), a, and (22) 
of (21)— (16) of (15), b. 

Rule 10.— -A Conju?ictio?i used to introduce a Sentence 
is placed above the Predicate of the Sentence which it in- 
troduces; as, (a), used to introduce the Sentence (1, 2, 3), 
a, and (9), introducing the Adjunct Sentence (10, 11), a, 
and (o), introducing the Sentence (1, 2, 3), b. 

Rule 11. — A Conjunction used to connect Words, 
Phrases, or Sentences, similar in construction, is placed 
between the Elements connected; as, (10), connecting (11) 
to (7), b. [See also Diagram) page 41*] 

i 



38 ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PAKT I» 

Rule 12. — A Relative Pronoun or a Possessive Adject- 
ive used to introduce an Adjunct Sentence, is attached to 
the " antecedent" by a line ; as (6) attached to (1) and ( x) 
attached to (22), b. 

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 

Remark . — Some Sentences assert the being, condition, or state of a per* 
©on or of a thing — or an act which does not pass over to an Object. 

Others assert acts which terminate on Objects. 

Some Sentences assert but one fact — others assert more than one. 

Some assert an Independent or a Principal Proposition — others a 
Secondary or a Qualifying Proposition. Hence, 

Sentences are distinguished as 

Intransitive or Transitive, 
Simple or Compound, 
Principal or Auxiliary, 

Def. 43. — An Intransitive Sentence is a Sentence that 
asserts condition, being, or state — or an act which does not 
terminate on an Object. 



EXAMPLES. 

4. God is love. 

5. Mountains are elevated* 

6. Fishes swim, 

7. "On some fond breast the parting soul relies.'* 

8c " Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight," 

9 " Satyrs and sylvan boys were seen 

Peepiug from forth their valleys green." 



1 William sleeps. 

2. Errors abound. 

3. Mary is cheerful 




breast ~*) 
(gome ^foncTj 

Obs v — An Intransitive Sentence contains one or more Subjects and 
predicates— but no Object. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 39 

Def. 44. — A Transitive Sentence is a Sentence that 
asserts an act which terminates on an Object. 

Examples. — 1. Virtue secures happiness. 

2. Industry promotes health and wealth. 

3. " I thank thee, Roderick, for the word." 

4. " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

5. "And the eye and the heart hailed its beautiful 

form." 




Obs. — A Transitive Sentence has at least one Subject, one Predicate, 
and one Object. 

Def. 45. — A Simple Sentence is a Sentence that asserts 
but one proposition. 

Examples. — L William sleeps. 

2. Mary is cheerful. 

3. Virtue secures happiness. 

4. " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 



( King Y loves 



v2s)M| 




shadow) 



Obs. — A Simple Sentence can have but one Subject, one Predicate, 
and — when Transitive — one 



Def. 46. — A Compound Sentence is a Sentence that as- 
serts more than one proposition. 

Examples. — 1. Anna and Mary study Latin. 

2 . Temperance elevates and ennobles man. 

3. Eobert studies Grammar and Arithmetic. 

4. " Slowly and sadly they climb the distant mountain, 

And read their doom in the setting sun. ' ' 

Obs. — A Compound Sentence has more than one Subject or Predicate 
Or Object. 



40 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 

Def. 4G (b). — In a Compound Sentence, the Principal 

Elements which are compounded are called Clauses. 

ObSc — The Compound Clauses may be, 

ZY ' V^ "\ 1- The Subjects only — Warner and Arthur 

\ «tudy ^Grammar) stu dy Grammar. 

2 The Predicates only — Warner studies 



( U > 



Warner J, c yr) zi Grammar^ an( j ?m Yes Grammar. 

• -w — -^ ) 3. The Objects only — Warner studies 

f Warner Y studies JT ( ^ ) ' Grammar and Arithmetic. 

4. The Subjects and the Predicates — War- 

C ' " IX " "ZZYZ \ ner and Arthur study and recite 

_ ( jg ] C ^ ) I Grammar ) ~ ff 

C XX J Grammar. 

5. The Subjects and the Objects — Warner 

-J and Arthur study Grammar and 

D Arithmeiic. 



r^rg 



ESQ 1 study I c t5 ) 



f Warner r 



6. The Predicates and the Objects — War- 

( <&. ) \~ ( v> ) ner studies and recites Grammar and 

X. > Arithmetic. 



7. The Subjects, the Predicates, and the 

eg* ) * (K) ^ (^^ ^ Objects — TFtf/vzer and Arthur study 

£- X 3 and recite Grammar and Arithmetic. 



Obs. — A Compound Sentence may have more than two clauses 

EXAMPLES. 

f Friendship V' \ Friendship, Love, and £V#& abound. 

11 Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen 
constitute the chief elements of organized 
matter." 




abound 



Rem— Sentences which have Compound Predicates often have 
Objects applicable to only a part of them. Hence, 

Def. 46 (c). — A Compound Sentence, having one or 
more Transitive, and one or more Intransitive Predicates, 
is called a Mixed Sentence. 



EXAMPLES. 

1. ' ; Time slept on flowers, 




— -j- ep I r ■ H and fe«< bis g ?MSS to 

Time j (g) |oj^gg) Hope „ 

1 j ) C . * iaS8 . ) Rem.— ' ' Slept* ' is Intran- 

l io l^ Hope ) T~SLJ sitivc; u lent" Is Transitive. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 



41 




5 



rejoice 



— - — —_ — _ — > ^ 9. The stars will then lift up 

£ ,, head O their heads and r^ce. 

Rem. — "Will lift" is 
Transitive ; "rejoice" is In- 
transitive. 

1 1 will never pant for public honors, 
Nor disturb my quiet with the affairs of state. ' ' 
4. ' ' Who c<m observe the careful a/z£, 
And not provide for future want." 

Def. 47. — A Principal Sentence asserts an independent 
or a principal proposition. 



EXAMPLES. 



Q A J^mortal J 



fupp 



vitals j 
ber ) 



J, 






warmed 



C 



X 



bear 



He 



Y hath brought Y captive* 
[toj ^ Eome) ( many^ 



A 3 

captives , ) °* 

many J 



A mortal disease was 
upon her vitals. 

" The run warmed a 

BEAR." 

"He hath brought 
many captives to 
Rome." 



Def. 48. — An Auxiliary Sentence is a Sentence that is 
used as an Element in the structure of another Sentence 
or of a Phrase. 



EXAMPLES. 



( disease Y was 



TEE7 



} 



( Caesar ffiad passedX Ru biconj 

(the ") 



fur 



The J 



~Y~ 



warmed 



X be r ) 



n^ 



(^ that ^warnis)(monarch) 



1. "A mortal disease was 

upon her vitals before 
Caesar had passed the 
Rubicon. ' ' 

2. "The fur that warms a 

monarch, warmed a 

BEAR. ' ' 

Remark. — "That warms 
a monarch" is an Adjunct 
of "fur." 



4* 



42 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 



C 




[Q ran 

\3 



many captives to 

Borne ) J ^^D Rome, 

^^r v7-7 fiii >r 5: n Whose ransom did the 

ansom J ^ did filLJ jT coffers J 

Whose ) (the) (gen) general coffers fill ' ' 



4. " Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening's close, 

Up yonder hill the village murmur rose. ' ' 

5. " The bounding steed you pompously bestride, 

Shares with his lord the pleasure and the pride.' 



>w" v • v 6. "I have a temple m 

1 1 ha ^e Y temple J every heart ZAatf owns 



~\ C * "5^^ my influence." 

Remark. — ' ' That owns 
my influence' ' describes 



Gs9 



f gratitude T should ascend J 

CQftl 



Gp 



7. " Oft as the morning dawns 

SHOULD GRATITUDE AS- 
CEND." 

£-> Eemark. — " Oft" modi- 

fies ' ' should ascend. " "As 



( morning^ dawns""") the morning dawns' ' limits 

C the ) "oft." 

8. "To him that wishes for me, I am always present." 

9. " These lofty trees wave not less proudly, 

That their ancestors moulder beneath them" 

Obs. — A Principal Sentence and its Auxiliary Sentences constitute a 
Complex Sentence. [See Examples 1, 2, above.] 

Rem. — An Auxiliary Sentence is an Adjunct of a Word, a Phrase, or 
a Sentence ; or it is used as a substitute for a Noun. Hence, 

Auxiliary Sentences are distinguished as 

Substantive, 
Adjective, and 
Adverbial. 



CLASSSFICATION OF SENTENCES. 43 

Def. 49.— A Substantive Sentence is used as the Subject 
or the Object of a Sentence ; or as the Object of a Phrase. 



EXAMPLES. 



^ — r-^ \s ' X A- l tiat good men sometimes 

f men "Xcommit JflarttT) [can be denied) commit faults, can not be 

(£ood) QwJ yV^T) denied." 




1. " Y 7 /^ $rood m^;i sometimes 



p oftab Xg^M 2. Much learning shows Aw 

Ztftte mortals know. 



( to) tell /(causesj movffiim) 
Uwhat) 



3. He refused to tell wZicrt 



4. " jP/*o£ aZZ 7?ze?i are created equals is a self-evident truth." 

5. " Yet Brutus says he was ambitious" 

Def. 50. — An Adjective Sentence is a Sentence that is 
used as an Adjunct of a Substantive, 



( He Y loveth Y soul J 1. "He that getteth wisdom 

| ___ f his Yown ^ LOVETH his OWH SOUL. ' ' 

( tbat"^Xgetteth)wisdom) 



CZJQ 




2. Them that honor me, I will 

HONOR. ■ ' 



V, / V i y 3. John is not able to tell 

Q2LT[^j^^P=^ wftat he knows. 

f h e~~y^ k nowiT^wh . . a J 



4. " That life is long which answers life's great end" 

5. " The man of wealth and pride 

Takes up a space that many poor supplied" 

6. " Here I come to tell ivh&t I do know J ' 



44 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 



Dj:f. 51. — An Adverbial Sentence is a Sentence that is 
used as an Adjunct of a Verb, a Participle, an Adjective, 
or another Adverb. 

EXAMPLES. 



c 



They 



kneeled 



') 



(before) 



( they X fought ) 



( Teacheis Y 



rejoice 



J 



( their j 



(when) 

1 



improve 



C 



Who 



XJD 




(^ here ^ 



C that ) 



1. "They kneeled before 
they fought. ' ' 



"Teachers rejoice when 

their pupils improve." 



3 . " Who is here so base that 
he would be a bondman T' 

Remark. — ' 'Base" de- 
scribes "who ;" "so" mod- 
ifies "base;" "that he 
would be a bondmen' ' lim- 
its "so." 



( he X would be bondman ") 

4. " Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails. " 

5. " How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood 

When fond recollection presents them to view." 

6. " These lofty trees wave not less proudly 

That their ancestors moulder beneath them." 
Oss . — A Sentence is sometimes a Logical Adjunct of some Word in a 
Principal Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 



c 



It 



X 



is possible 



J 



1. It is possible that ice mis- 
judge. 

See page 28, Obs. 3. 



( that ) 

Note. — " That we misjudge" is a Sentence, used to limit the appli- 
cation of the Word "it." Hence, the Sentence is an Adjunct of the 
Word. It is called a Logical Adjunct because there is no Grammatical 
connection between the two Sentences. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 



45 



RECAPITULATION OF DIAGRAMS. 
I. FOR SENTENCES. 

... a Simple Sentence — Intransitive, 
Example. — ' ' Landscape fades. ' ' 

school "1 a Simple Sentence — Transitive. 

— ■ J Ex. — " Master taught school." 

a Compound Sentence — Intransitive. 

Ex. — " Lark ascends and sings." 

a Compound Sentence — Intransitive. 
Ex. — " Wealth and freedom reign." 

v .a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 
Ex. — " We beheld moon and i 




I Spirit jb 



DC 



K 



M 

N 
N-n 



O-o 
P-P 

Q 



IDC 



DC 

IXZ 



.a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 
J Ex. — " Urn or bust can call breath/' 
. a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 
Ex. — " Liberty and union promote peace 
!) and safety. ' ' 

~\ . a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 
J Ex. — "State conforms and models life." 
.a Compound Sentenoe — Transitive. 
D Ex. — " Spirit unfurls light and wheels 
3 course." 

->. .a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 
j Ex. — " Wisdom and virtue elevate and 
ennoble man. ' ' 
a Compound Sentence — Transitive. 



G3 



~~\ Ex. — " Youth and beauty tread ring 
and shout raptures ." 

-^ ' .... a Compound Sentence — Mixed. 

-J Ex. — ' 'He breathes fragrance and sleeps" 

/ ; — Y *-) a Compound Sentence — Mixed, 

( Fruits ] i i _/ ^^ £ x# — << Fruits ripen and yield repasts." 

COMPLEX SENTENCES. 

the Principal Sentence. 

Ex. — "He loveth soul." 

C X" X ) Auxiliary Sentence — Adjective. 

Ex. — " That getteih wisdom." 

-TT~X^u5SY53iw) ™ • • • I; ~ ' ■ •,? e £ rinci P al Sentence. 
'V. - / V / Ex. — * Jue will make apology. 

..... .Auxiliary Sentence — Adverb. 

Ex. — ' ' If John has injured you. 

_ . a Sentence having a Phrase for its 

[ v x — ^discourages^ youth ^ Subj ect . 

^ s — ' * Ex. — u Finding fault discourages youth." 

... a Sentence having a Sentence for 

its Object. 

Ex. — " Man exclaims, they come." 



( He Y" loveth V" eotd ^ 



czxiczD 



46 

Leader— Subsequent 



ENGLISH GKAMHAB — PART I 

2. PHRASES , 



E 2 i In 



w: 



Java 



D 



L C P eaCe ") 
m : — s 



safety j 



a Prepositional Phrase — Simple 

Example, — " Of Java. ' ' 

a Propositional Phrase — Compound: 

Ex. — " In peace and safety." 

a Participial Phrase — Simple, Transitive. 



Gaining j( time ") Ex. — " Gaining time. ' ' 



T2- 



l 

|to[ dream ") 

| I an Infinitive 

[toJ^ give"^f gifts "") Ex . — il To give gifts . ' ' 



an Infinitive Phrase — Intransitive. 

Ex. — " To dream." 

an Infinitive Phrase — Transitive. 



TJ 



U2 



Y 



V. 



Story ") 
^being done) 



£ Boat ^) 

leaving lefQf wharf) 




. .an Independent Phrase. — Intransitive. 
Ex. — " Story being done/' 

an Independent Phrase — Transitive. 

Ex. — " Boat having left wharf." 

COMPLEX PHRASES, 

a Participial Phrase the Object of a 
Preposition. 
Ex. — " Of gaining time" 
Principal Phrase Prepositional, or Infin- 
itive, [itive. 
Auxiliary Phrase Prepositional, or Infin- 
Ex. — " On bed of sea-flowers" 
.a Participial Phrase, having a Sentence 

for its Subsequent. 
EXc — " Saying, tee ivill reply." 
. . .Adjunct Word — Adjective or Adverb. 
. . .Compound Adjunct. 

Eem. — 1. With the exception of the last two, the above Diagrams 
are adapted to the Principal Elements of a Sentence or of a Phrase. In 
the exercises which follow, these Elements are variously modified by 
Adjunct Words, Phrases, and Sentences. 

% The whole Predicate — consisting of one, two, three, four, and 
sometimes five words — is placed in one Diagram, as exhibited on the 
following pages. 




CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. 47 

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

PAGE 

38. Why are Sentences classified ? See Kemarkc 

How are Sentences classified ? 

What is an Intransitive Sentence ? See Def. 43, 

May Intransitive Sentences be either Simple or Com- 
pound ? See Obs. 

Make Intransitive Sentences Simple. 

Make " " Compound. 

39. What is a Transitive Sentence? . . . . See Dei 44. 

Make Transitive Sentences . . . Simple. 

Make c ' " Compound. 

What is a Simple Sentence ? . . . See Def. 45. 

Make Simple Sentences Intransitive. 

Make " " Transitive. 

What is a Compound Sentence f See Def. 46. 

Make Compound Sentences Intransitive. 

Make " " Transitive. 

40. What are Clauses of a Sentence ? . . See Def. 46 (b) 

What Elements in a Sentence may be compounded ? . See Obs. (1-7). 

Make Sentences having Compound Subjects. 

Make " " " Predicates. 

Make " " " Objects. 

How numerous may be the Clauses of a Sentence ? 

What is a Mixed Sentence f ...... See Def. 46 (c)„ 

Make Mixed Sentences— 1st Clause Transitive. 

Make " " 2d Clause Transitive. 

41. What is a Principal Sentence ? See Def. 47. 

What is an Auxiliary Sentence ? . . See Def. 48. 

42. What is a Complex Sentence ? , .'. See Obs. 

Make Compound Sentences. 

What are the offices of Auxiliary Sentences ? See B 

By their offices, how are Auxiliary Sentences dis- 
tinguished ? 

43. What is a Substantive Sentence ?■ See Def. 49." 

Make a Substantive Sentence that shall be the Subject of a 

Principal Sentence. 
Make a Substantive Sentence that shall be the Object of a 

Principal Sentence. 

What is an Adjective Sentence ? See Def. 50. 

Make Adjective Sentences. 

44. What is an Adverbial Sentence f See Def. 51. 

Make Adverbial Sentences. 



48 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 

Rem. — 1. In the following Exercises will be found Sentences of 
every grade — from the most simple to the most complex. The Teacher 
will find exercise for his judgment and discretion in assigning the Sen- 
tences to his pupils (for analysis) according to their several capacities. 

2. The Teacher will find it interesting and profitable to his Pupils to 
fissign to each at least one Sentence, to be placed in its appropriate 
Diagram — drawn on the black-board ex tempore, or on paper by appoint- 
ment at a previous recitation. 

simple sentences — Intransitive. 

1. " Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight" 

f landscap e jf fades J 

C the j f glimmering T (NowJ [on j— i^bT~^ 



the, 

A Simple Sentence — Intransitive , ....„.,.. . See Def. 4&- 

ANALYSIS. 

The Modified Subject ...-." The glimmering landscape." 
The Grammatical Subject " Landscape." 

The Modified Predicate . . . . " Xow fades on the sight." 
The Grammatical Predicate . . . . . . . . . - » . . . . " Fades." 

ADJUNCT ELEMENTS. 

sum (lm * j"The" a Word. 

Of the Subject, -j u G]immering „ 4 Word# 

n , , 7 t> t f S " Now" a Word. 

Of the Predicate, ] u Qn ^ gight „ % phrase> 

CONSTRUCTION. 

Elements. Office. Class. 

Now, tells when " landscape fades." Adjunct of "fades." 

Fades. tells what 11 landscape" does. Predicate of " landscape. 

The. tells what ' ' landscape. ' ' Adjunct of ' ' landscape. ' ' 

Glimmering, tells what l ' landscape. ' ' Adjunct of ' ' landscape. ' , 

Landscape, tells what " fades." Subject of " fades." 

On the sight, tells where " landscape /c/<fo." Adjunct of M fades " 



EXERCISES m ANALYSIS. 49 

Other Examples applicable to the same Diagram. 

2. The studious pupil | seldom fails in his recitation. 

3. The arrogant pedant | was quickly banished from the company. 

4. Such bright examples | seldom fail, ultimately, to please. 

5. That bright meteor | flashed brilliantly athwart the heavens. 

6. The young aspirant j never succeeded in his effort. 

7. Our brightest students | are also foremost in their sports. 

Let each Pupil make a Sentence adapted to the same Diagram. 



ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES, 

Principal Elements similar — Adjuncts dissimilar. 

8. " The big tear | then started from his eye." 

9. " Morni's/ace | brightened with gladness." 

10. " His aged eyes \ look faintly through tears of joy." 

11. " We | came to the halls of Selma." 

12. " We | sat around the feast of shells." 

13. " Fingal \ rose in his place." 

14. " The sword of Trenmor | shook by his side." 

15. " The gray-haired hero \ moved before." 

16. "On the pathway of spirits 

She wanders alone." 

17. " The song of the wood-dove has died on our shore." 

18. " And on the stranger's dim and dying eye 

The soft, sweet pictures of his childhood lie. ' ' 

19. "His hair falls round his blushing cheek, in the wreaths of 

waving light." 

20. " A flood of glory bursts from all the skies." 

21. " The long, bright days of summer quickly passed" 

22. " The dry leaves whirled in Autumn's rising blast." 

23. " The garden rose may richly bloom, 

In cultured soil and genial air, 
To cloud the light of Fashion's room, 
Or droop in Beauty's midnight hair." 

24. " On Horeb's rock the prophet stood, — 

25. The Lord before him passed; 

26. A hurricane, in angry mood, 

Swept by him, strong and fast ; 

27. The forest fell before its force ; 

28. The rocks were shivered in its course ; 

29. God was not in the blast." (See p. 258, Obs. 3,) 

5 



50 



ENGLISH GBAMMAE. PART I. 

simple sentences — Transitive. 
\. — "The king of shadows loves a shining mark.'"* 

murk 



C 



king 



| The j (ofl shadows 



i 

s 

J 



loves 



I shining 



A Simrilc Sentence— Transitive . ....«•-.•«•* .See Def 44, 

ANALYSIS. 

f The jStf^e^ . . . • « " King. 5 ' 

Principal Elements. < The Predicate . . . . » . . . " Loves.' 1 

( The Oft/ec* . " Mark." 

r ns*j ctiu- * ("The" .a Word. 

Of the Predicate, 

I "A" a Word. 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



0/*Ae Ofy'ec*, 



" Shining" ... .a Word. 



Elements, 
The, 
King, 

Of shadowSf 
Loves, 
A, 

Shining, 
Mark, 



Office. 
to tell what ' ' king. ' ' 
to tell who " loves mark." 
to tell what " king." 
to tell ichat the king does, 
to tell what " mark." 
to tell what " mark." 
to tell what the king "loves." 



Class. 
Adjunct of " king." 
Subject of " loves." 
Adjunct of " king." 
Predicate of " king. 1 
Adjunct of " mark.' 
Adjunct of " mark.' 
Object of " loves." 



Other Examples applicable to the same Diagram. 

2. The science of Geology illustrates many astonishing facts. 

3. A love for study secures our intellectual improvement. 

4. The habit of intemperance produces much lasting miser?/. 

5. A desire for improvement should possess all our hearts. 

6. The use of tobacco degrades many good men. 

7. A house on fire presents a melancholy spectacle. 

8. A man of refinement will adopt no disgusting habits. 

' Let each Pupil make a Sentence for the same Diagram, 



' Let the Pupil read only the Principal Elements of the above 
Sentences. Thus, 

Love secures improvement, 
Then let him add the Adjunct* to each word 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 51 

compound sextexces. — Transitive. 

1. "Knowledge reaches or may reach every home" 



X rea c hes V ^ \ 

Knowledge ) Tori f home ) 

A may resell > s ^ / 

T every j 



Pkincipal Elements 



f The Subject "Knowledge." 

) The 1 st Predicate." Reaches." 
1 The 2d Predicate ."May reach." 
[The Object "Home." 



( Of the Subject.., 
Adjunct Elements. •< Of the Predicate . 



Of the Object " Every." 

ADDITIONAL SEXTEXCES, 

Having the Prixcipal Elements similar in construction. 

2. " By thus acting, we cherish and improve both." 

3. " "W 'hose potent arm perpetuates existence or destroys. * 

4. " For which we shunned and hated thee before." 

5. " Hope, like a cordial, innocent though strong, 

Man's heart at once inspirits and serenes/' 

6. " Hence every state, to one loved blessing prone, 

Conforms and models life to that alone." 

7. " Mighty Alfred's piercing soul 

Pervades and regulates the whole" 

8. " Temperance fortifies and purifies the heart." 

9. " Bright angels viewed with wondering eyes, 

And hailed the incarnate God. ' ' 
10 " Who does not receive and entertain el polite man with still greater 
cheerfu'ness ?" 

11. " And oft that blessed fancy cheers, 

And bears my heart above." 

12. " That voice of more than Roman eloquence, urged and sustained 

the Declaration of Independence." 

13. " The pewter plate on* the dresser, caught and reflected the flame." 

* See K- y, pages 21 and 79. 



52 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 



1. u In the beginning, God created the heaven and the 
earth" 




^thej- 



) I the J 



Principal Elements. 



(The Subject "God." 

The Predicate " Created." 

( " Heaven" 
The Objects •< and 

/ " Earth." 



{Of the Subject 
Of the Predicate " In the beginning." 
Of the 1st Object "The." 
Of the 2d Object " The." 



Elements. 
' ' In the beginning, ' 
"God," 

"Created," 

The, 

Heaven, 

And, 

The, 

Earth, 



CONSTRUCTION. 

Office. 
tells when God "created." 
tells who " created heav- 
en and earth." 
tells what "God" did. 
tells what " heaven." 
tells what l ' God created. ' 
joins ' ' heaven and earth. ' 
tells what ' ' earth. ' ' 
tells what ' ' God created. ' 



Class. 
Adjunct of " created.' 

I Subject of " created." 

Predicate of "God." 
Adjunct of " heaven.' 

' Object of "created." 

' Conjunction. 
Adjunct of " earth," 

' Object of " created." 



additional examples, for the same Diagram 

2. William loves his study and his play with equal attachment. 

3. God, in the creation, has displayed his wisdom and his power. 
4 Men gather the tares and the wheat with equal care. 

5. We, at all times, seek our honor and our happiness. 

6, Students require of the teacher much instruction and some 

patience. 
7 He educated his daughter and his son at great expense. 



EXEKCISES IN ANALYSIS. 



53 



1. " Can storied urn or animated bust 

Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?" 




breath 
^thej^ fleeting 



ANALYSIS. 



{1st Subject "Urn." 
2d Subject "Bust." 
The Predicate « Can call." 
The Object u Breath." 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



Of the 1st Subject " Storied." 

Of the 2d Subject " Animated.' 1 

c « Back " 
Of the Predicate < u 



Of the Object j « 



To its mansion." 

The." 

Fleeting." 



ADDITIONAL SENTENCES, 

In which the Principal Elements are similar. 

2. "Illuminated reason and regulated liberty shall once more exhibit 

man in the image of his Maker. ' ' 
3". "The hunter's trail and the dark encampments startled the wild 

beasts from their lairs. ' ' 
4. " Their names, their years, spelled by the unlettered muse, 

The place of fame and elegy svpply. ' ' 
6. " Thy praise 

The widows' sighs and orphans' tears embalm." 

6. " Hill and valley echo back their songs." 

7. " Then Strife and Faction rule the day," 

8. " And Pride and Avarice throng the way." 

9. " Loose Revelry and Riot bold, 

In freighted streets their orgies hold." 
10. " Here Art and Commerce, with auspicious reign, 

Once breathed sweet influence on the happy plain." 
5* 



54: 



ENGLISH GEAMMAE PART I. 



1. " The Lord uplifts his awful hand^ 
And chains you to the shore? 




i jjj r 



Principal Elements. \ 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



The Subject "Lord." 

The 1st Predicate " Uplifts.' 

The 2a 7 Predicate " Chains.' 3 

The 1st Object " Hand." 

L The 2d Object " You." 



Of the Subject " The." 

Of the 1 st Predicate 



Of the 2d Predicate " To the shore." 

Of the 1st Object 



Of the 2d Object . 



" Awful.* 



ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES, 

In which the Principal Elements are similar. 

2. " He heard the King's command, 

And saw that writing's truth." 

3. " For misery stole me at my birth, 

And cast me, helpless, on the wild." 

4. ' ' That the page unfolds, 

And spreads us to the gaze of God and men. ' ' 

5. "Now twilight lets her curtain down, 

And pins it with a star." 

6. " They fulfilled the great law of labor in the letter, but broke it 

in the spirit." 
7 ' ' Then weave the chaplet of flowers, and strew the beauties of 

Nature about the grave." 
8. " He marks, and in heaven's register enrolls 
The rise and progress of each option there." 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 55 

1. " And the eyes of the sleeper waxed deadly and chill" 



( eyea X 



C the J loft 



^S 



deadly > 

waxed ( ( and ) 

chill ) 



sleeper) 



ANALYSIS. 



Principal j The Subject " Eyes." 

Elements. ( The Predicate . . " Waxed deadly and chill." 

tm% i ° fthe SubJeCt 1 "StL'dee^VlEe, 
Of the Predicate . 



Elements. 



Note. — The words "deadly" and " chill" describe " eyes," and 
are therefore Adjectives ; but they describe by making (in connection 
with " waxed") an assertion. Hence they are Adjectives in Predicate 
— they constitute a part of the Predicate. 

ADDITIONAL SENTENCES, 

Having Adjectives or Participles in Predicate. 

2. " Age is dark and unlovely." 

3. " Bloodless are these limbs and cold." 

4. " Now, therefore, he not grieved nor angry with yourselves.' ' 

5 . " I am perplexed and confounded . ' ' 

6. " They became agitated and restless." 

7. " Rude am I in speech, and little blest 

With the set phrase of peace." 

8. " What bark is plunging mid the billowy strife, 

And dashing madly on to fearful doom. ' ' 

9. " The wares of the merchant are spread abroad in the shops, or 

stored in the high-piled warehouses. ' ' 

10. "How finely diversified, and how multiplied into many thou° 

sand distinct exercises, is the attention of God !" 

11. " Contentment is serious but not grave." 

12. " The promises of Hope are sweeter than roses in the bud, and 

far more flattering to expectation. ' ' 

13. " For cold and stiff and still are they 

Who wrought thy walls annoy."* 

* "Wrought annoyance to thy walls. 



56 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 

1. " Time slept on flowers and lent his glass to hope" 



c 



slept J 

Time ) Qfcj^7fl° were ^ 



lent 



T2 



J^ glass J 



hope J 



Principal 
Elements. 



ANALY3IS. 

f The Subject " Time." 

( " Slept" Intransitive, 

The Predicates . •< and 

( " Lent" Transitive. 

[The Object......." Glass." 

f Of the Subject , 



Adjunct J Of the 1 st Predicate /'On flo w ars" . a Phrase, 
Elements. 1 Of the 2d Predicate." To hope". . .a Phrase- 
[ 0/ the Object. . " His" . . . . . . .a Word. 

ADDITIONAL SENTENCES, 

Adapted to the saint, Diagram. 

2. We sigh for change, and spend our lives for naught. 
S. William goes to school, and pursues his study with zeal, 

4. James stays at home, and spends his time at play. 

5. We shall pass from earth, and yield our homes to others. 

6. Fruits ripen in Autumn, and yield us rich repasts. 

Other Mixed Sentences, with variable Adjuncts. 

7. " For Spring shall return, and a lover bestow." 

8. u The waves mount up and wash the face of heaven/' 

9. "In silence majestic they twinkle on high, 

And draw admiration from every eye." 

10. " Its little joys go out one by one, 

And leave poor man, at length, in perfect night." 

11. " But the black blast blows hard, 

And puffs them wide of hope." 

12. " Wreaths of smoke ascend through the trees, 

And betray the half- hidden cottage." 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 57 

COMPLEX SENTENCES. 
1. THE AUXILIARY SENTENCES. — SUBSTANTIVE. 

1. " That all men are created eaual is a self-evi&erd 
truth:' 



( That ) 



Q men j ^ are " created ) 
\ ( ^ equal j y 




aj [- self-evident 



Principal 
Elements. 



ANALYSIS. 

( " That all men ) 

The Subject . . •< are created >■ a Sentence. 

( equal." ) 

™ -r> 7 . , j "Is" a Verb and 

^ The Predicate, . j u Tmth „ _ j- a Nquil 

!(9/* t7^ Subject .... 

analysis of the Auxiliary Sentence. 

~ „ (The fiw«fec« " Men." 

Principal Elements, -j The Pr J edicaUi « Are seated" 

. „ \ Of the Subject . . . . " All" . . a Word. 

Adjunct Elements, -j £ ^ ^^^ . M Equal< „* 

ADDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCES, 

Having Substantive Sentences for their Subjects. 

2. " ' lean not,' has never accomplislied anything," 
3. , " 1 1 will try' has done wonders." 
4. " That friendship is a sacred trust, 

That friends should be sincere and just, 
That constancy befits them, 

Are observations on the case, 

That savors much of commonplace." 



* A word substituted for the Adverbial rhrasc, " [wffli] equal [rigldsy 



58 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

1. " But Brutus says he was ambitious" 



c 




Brutus If says Y ( be ^ 



Principal 
Elements. 



f The Subject " Brutus" a Word. 

The Predicate. . ." Says" a Word. 

mi ^7. , ( "He was am- ) . 

JLne Object . . . . -j , . . „ >- a bentence. 

Adjunct Elements. — ISTone. 



ADDITIONAL COMPLEX SENTENCES, 

Having Substantive Sentences for their Objects. 

2. "Go to the raging sea, and say, ' Be still." 

3. " But tell not Misery's son chat life is fair.' 

4. " ' And this to me f he said." 

5. " Ceesar cried, ' Help me, Cassius, or I sink.' " 

6. %l While man exclaims, ' See all things for my use/' 

7. ' See man for mine,' replies a pampered goose." 

8. " ' Will you walk into my parlor V 

" Said a spider to a fly." 

9. "He knew not that the chieftain lay 

Unconscious of bis son." 

10. " He shouted hut once more aloud, 

* My father ! must I stay V " 

11. " We hustle up with unsuccessful speed, 

And in the saddest part cry, * Droll, indeed /" 

12. " Then Agrippa said unto Paul, 'Almost thou persuadest me to 

be a Christian.' " 

13. "A celebrated writer says, 'Take care of the minutes, and the 

hours will take care of themselves.' " 

14. " The little birds, at morning dawn, 

Clothed in warm coats of feather, 
Conclude that they away will roam 
To seek for milder weather. ' ' 

15. " I tell thee thou art defied/* 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS, 

AUXILIARY SENTENCES. ADJECTIVE. 

1. u But they that fight for freedom, undertake 

The noblest cause mankind can have at stake." 



59 




A COMPLEX SENTENCE. 
ANALYSIS Of the PRINCIPAL SENTENCE. 

w ( The Subject . . . . " They" ) G . , 

Elements \^ ^dicate « Wertake" . T ^ ye 
j^leme^ts. ^ The m j ect « Cause" . . o . , ) lransitlve - 

Of the Subject . j for f^J^w [ a Sentence. 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



Of the Predicate .. 

f"The" a "Word. 

"Noblest"..... a Word. 
" [That] man- ) 
kind can have >■ a Sentence, 
at .stake". . . . ) 



Of the Object .< 



The Predicate " Fight/ 

Of the Subject. 



ANALYSIS of the FIRST AUXILIARY SENTENCE. 

Pbisopal Elbm™. J 

Adjunct 
Elements, f Of the Predicate." For freedom", a Phrase. 

ANALYSIS 0^ tfo SECOND AUXILIARY SENTENCE. 

( The Subject. . . . ." Mankind." 
Principal Elements, -j The Predicate . . " Can have." 

( The Object . . . [That] understood. 



Adjunct 
Elements. 



Of the Subject .... 

Of the Predicate , . " At stake" .... a Phrase, 
Of the Object * 



60 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I, 

Thus analyze and place in the same Diagram the following 

ADDITIONAL SENTENCES. 

3. And students who love to study, merit the highest honors which 

teachers can give them. 

4. And actions which were founded in justice, produced the good 

results which we had in view. 

5. " But such as seek for truth shall find the richest boon which God 

to man can give." 
6e " And I who bleed for thee, 

Shall claim the brightest gift 
Which thou canst yield to me " 
7. " But he who wins at last, 

Shall love the very toils 
Which fortune round him cast*" 



THE ADJUNCTS VARY. 

8. " He that waiketh uprightly walketh surely." 

9. " There is something in their hearts which passes speech." 

10. " He is in the way of life that keepeth instruction." 

11. "I love the bright and glorious sun 

That gives us light and heat ; 

12. I love the pearly drops of dew 

That sparkle 'neath my feet. 

13. I love to think of him who made 

These pleasant things for me." 

14. ' c The boy stood on the burning deck, 

Whence all but him had fled : 

15. The flames that lit the battle's wreck, 

Shone round him o'er the dead." 

16. "I love to hear the little birds 

That carol on the trees. ' ' 

17. " Poverty and shame shall be to him that refuseth instruction." 

18. " Wisdom resteth in the heart of him that hath understanding/' 

19. M Understanding is a well-spring of life to him that hath it." 

20. " But the noblest thing that perished there 

Was that young faithful heart." 

21. " Thou hast #reen laurel leaves that twine 

Into so proud a wreath. 

22. Thou hast a voice whose thrilling tones 

Can bid each lite-pulse beat." (Page 2G9, Note 1.) 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 61 

23. " Around Sebago's lonely lake 

There lingers not a breeze to break 
The mirror which its waters make." 

24. " Cold in the dust this perished heart may lie, 

Bat that which warmed it once shall never die." 

25. "lie that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, 

shall gather it for him that will pity the poor." 

Let the Pupil place Sentence 25 in the subjoined Diagram 




1. " Our proper bliss depends on what we blame" 



( v blis9 T 

( Our X jggpcr ) 



depends 






. Sit 



D 



( we )( blamojl w ^ * 
A COMPLEX SENTENCE — THE AUXILIARY QUALIFIES A PHRASE. 

Elements. Offices. 

11 Our" Adjunct of " bliss/' 

" Proper" Adjunct of " bliss." 

" Bliss" Subject of " depends." 

" Depends" . Predicate of " bliss." 

"On what we blame" Adjunct of " depends," 

u ,- t „ C [That] Object of " on." 

' I [Which] Object of " blame." 

"We" Subject of "blame." 

" Blame" Predicate of "we." 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 

2. " What thou dost not know thou canst not tell." 

3. "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke." 
4 " Seek not to know what i? improper for thee." 
5. "But here I stand and speak what I do know." 



62 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 



AUXILIARY SENTENCES. ADVERBIAL. 

1. u And when its yellow luster smiled 
O^er mountains yet untrod, 
Each mother held aloft her child^ 
To bless the bow of GodP 



( And ) 




held 



•. ..,_ ( her J 



ster Y smiled Jl^V^^^- 



mountains ) \ 
( untrod ) / 




ANALYSIS of the PRINCIPAL SENTENCE. 
FIRST MODEL. 

•d ( The Subject . . . . . . " Mother" . . ) Q . , 

Principal t The ^4^ . _ .. Held „ _ . f Simple 

Elements. J The ^.^ o « Child „ ^ e J Transitive. 

f 0/ *Ae Subject . . " Each" . . . . . . a Word. 

f" Aloft"...... .... a Word. 

" When its yellow " 
^ /. 7 luster smiled o'er I a Sentence 

p Jj. \ mountains yet un- j (Adverbial), 

" To bless the bow ) -p, 

of God" j-arnrase. 

.a Word. 



Adjunct 
Elements. ' 



L Of the Object.... "Her" . , 



SECOND MODEL. 



Elements. Offices. 

li And" Introduces the Principal Sentence. 

" When its yellow luster smiled > Adjunct of „ heM „ 

O'er mountains yet untrod," j 

" Each" ....,•• ,.\, o . .Adjunct of " mother." 

" Mother" ...... ..... Subject of " held." 

" Held" <>> a .« 4 Predicate of «■ mother," 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSI8. 63 

" Aloft" Adjunct of " held." 

" Her" . . . . . . Adjunct of " child." 

"Child" ! . . .Object of " held." 

"To bless the bow of God" Adjunct of "held." 

ANALYSIS of the AUXILIARY SENTENCE. 

" When" . . . . . „ Introduces the Auxiliary Sentence. 

"Its" ......... .Adjunct of " luster." 

" Yellow". .Adjunct of "luster." 

" Luster" .Subject of " smiled." 

"Smiled" .Predicate of " luster," 

"O'er mountains yet untrod" ......... .Adjunct of "smiled." 

ANALYSIS of the ADJUNCT PHRASES. 

" To". .... .Introduces the Phrase— connects " bless" with " held." 

"Bless" Object of " to." 

" The'' Adjunct of " bow." 

" Bow" Object of "bless." 

"Of God" .Adjunct of " bow." 

"Of" Introduces the Phrase — connects " God" with "bow." 

"God"... Object of "of." 

"O'er" Introduces the Phrase — connects " mountains" with 

1 ' smiled. ' ' 

"Mountains" Object of "o'er." 

"Yet" .Adjunct of "untrod." 

" Untrod" Adjunct of " mountains." 



Thus analyze the following Additional Examples. 

2. " Wherefore is there a price in the hand of a fool to get wisdom, 

seeing he hath no heart to it." 

3. "Yet do I feel my soul recoil* within me, 

As I contemplate the dim gulf of death." 

4. "If we have whispered truth, 

Whisper no longer." 

5. " Speak as the tempest does, 

Sterner and stronger." 

6. " The hoary head is a crown of glory, if it be found in the way 

of righteousness. " 

7. "Their advancement in life and in education was such that each 

ought to have been a gentleman." 

* Page 269, Note I. 



64 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I. 

8. " The sweet remembrance of the just, 

Shall flourish when he sleeps in dust. ' ' 

9. " But, when he caught the measure wild, 

The old man raised his head and smiled." 

10. " There are sumptuous mansions with marble walls, 

"Where fountains play in the perfumed halls." 

11. " The earth hath felt the breath of spring, 

Though yet on her deliverer's wing 
The lingering frosts of winter cling." 



EXAMPLES 
Of Substantive, Adjective, and Adverbial Sentences, 




J 






55= 



UU J 



0^* Let the Pupil name the Sentence below adapted to this Dia- 
gram, and place it in an exact copy, written on the black-board. 

1. "If you would know the deeds of him who chews, 

Enter the house of God, and see the pews. ' ' 

2. ' ' The man that dares traduce because he can 

With safety to himself, is not a man. ' ' 

3. ' ' And, as I passed by, 1 heard the complaints of the laborers who 

had reaped down his fields, and the cries of the poor whose 
covering he had taken away." 

4. "The time must come when all will have been said that can be 

said to exalt the character of any individual of our race." 

5. "Mysterious are his ways, whose power 

Brings forth that unexpected hour, 
When minds that never met before, 
Shall meet, unite, and part no more." 

6. "My heart is awed within me when I think 

Of the great mir.vcle that btill goes on 
In silence round mc. ' ' 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 65 

7» "When we consider carefully what* appeals to our minds, and 
exercise upon it our own reason — taking into respectful con- 
sideration what* others say upon it — and then come to a con- 
clusion of our own, we act as intelligent beings." 

8. ' ' Before we passionately desire what* another enjoys, we should 

examine into the happiness of its possessor." 

9. ' ' With what loud applause didst thou beat heaven with blessing 

Bolingbroke, before he was what thou wouldst have him be !" 



promiscuous exa:mtles. 

1. "The troubled ocean feels his steps, as he strides from wave to 

wave." 

2. ' ' Beneath the spear of Cathmar rose that voice which awakes the 

bards. ' ' 

3. "As they sat down, one said to his friend on his right, 'We 

shall soon see who is who.' " 

4. ' ' He sunk to sleep 

With all the nameless shapes that haunt the deep." 

5. " Go to the mat where squalid Want reclines, 

6. Go to the shade obscure where Merit pine?, 

7. Abide with him whom Penury s charms control — 
And bind the rising yearnings of his soul, j 

8. Survey his sleepless couch, and, standing there, 
Tell the poor pallid wretch that life is fair." 

9. "It must be sweet, in childhood, to give back 

The spirit to its Maker, ere the heart 
Has grown familiar with the ways of sin. ' ' 

10. " Wheresoe'er our best affections dwell, 
And strike a healthful root, is happiness." 

11. "A man of refinement never has recourse to proverbs and vulgar 

aphorisms." 

12. " Across the ocean came a pilgrim bark." 

13. ' ' The bark of the trunk of the white oak is frequently variegated with 

large spots." 
11. " The wood of the young stocks is very elastic, and is susceptible of 
minute divisions. ' ' 

15. ** The flowers put forth in the month of May." 

16, "Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne, 

In rayless majesty, now stretches forth 

Her leaden scepter o'er a slumbering world." 

* Pages 92 and 222. f See Key, p, 35. 



6Q ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART I, 

17. " Vulgarism in language is a distinguishing characteristic of bad 

company and a bad education. ' ' 

18. " The wood of the silver fir is not much used as timber." 

19. " The hemlock spruce is not much esteemed for timber." 

20. " Milton "s learning has all the effect of intuition." 

21. " His imagination has the force of nature." 

22. " Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate." 

23. " And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man who was blind.'" 

21. " If a noble squire had conducted himself well during the period 
of his service, the honor of knighthood was generally con- 
ferred upon him at the age of twenty." 

25. " Another bright day's sunset bathes the hills 

That gird Samaria. ' ' 

26. ' ' One glance of wonder, as we pass, deserves 

The books of Time." 

27. " A fretful temper will divide 

The choicest knot that may be tied, 
By ceaseless, sharp corrosion. 

28. A temper, passionate and fierce, 
May suddenly your joys disperse 

At one immense explosion." 

29. " But no mere human work or character is perfect." 

30. " The profoundest depths of man's intellect can be fathomed." 

31. " In the loftiest flights of his imagination, he can be followed." 

32. " None of his richest mines are inexhaustible." 

33. ' ' Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty 

works were done, because they repented not." 

34. " That secrets are a sacred trust, 

That friends should be sincere and just, 

That constancy befits them — 
Are observations on the case, 
That savor much of commonplace ; 

35. And all the world admits them." 

36. " The dilatory caution of Pope enabled him to condense his sen- 

timents, to multiply his images, and to accumulate all that 
study might produce or chance supply. ' ' 

37. " Dryden often surpasses expectation — 

38. Pope never falls below it. " 

39. " Dryden is read with frequent astonishment-— 

40. Pope, with perpetual delight." 

Kem. — For the encouragement of Pupils who may not be able prop- 



EXEBCISES BS SENTENCES. 67 

erly to analyze the more difficult of the preceding Sentences, the fol- 
lowing Exercises are simplified — 

1. The Principal Elements of the Principal Sentences are printed in 

SMALL CAPITALS J 

2. The Principal Elements of the Auxiliary Sentences are printed in 
Lcd.c leliers ; 

3. The letters in the margin refer to the appropriate Diagrams (fcr 
the Principal Elements only) on page 45 ; 

4. The /cms and the offices of the Phrases are indicated by appropri- 
ate references. 

The American Flag. — J. E. Drake. 

B. When Freedom, from her mountain Leight,*6 
Unfurled her standard to the air, *b 

1. I. She tore the azure robe of night*& 

And set the stars of glory*a there ; 

2. I. She mingled with the gorgeous djes*a 

The milky baldric of the skies, *a 
And striped its pure celestial white 
With streakings*6 of the morning light \*a 
Then, from his mansion*^ in the sun,*6 

3. I. She called her eagle-bearer down, 

And gave into his mighty hand*6 
The symbol of her chosen land. *a 

Majestic monarch of the cloud, *a 
B. Who rear 'st aloft thy regal form, 

To .hear the tempest- trumpings loud, f b 

And see the lightning lancesfft driven, f b 
A. When strike the warriors of the storm, *a 
A. And rolls the thunder-drum of heaven, *a 

A. Child of the Sun,* to thee*6 'tis given, 

To guard the bannerf c of the free,*a 
To hoverfc in the sulphur smoke, *b 
To ward away the battle-stroke,fc 
And bid its blendingsfc shine afar,f b 
Like rainbows, *b on the cloud*6 of war,*a 

The harbinger of victory. *a \ 

* Prepositional Phrase. » t Infinitive Phrase. 

a Adjective Phrase. 6 Adverbial Phrase. c Independent Phrasa 



68 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART I. 

5 A. Flag of the brave, *a thy folds shall fly — 
The sign of hope and triumph*^— high. 
A. "When speaks the signal trumpet-tone, 

A. And the long line comes gleaming on, 

B. (Ere yet the life-blood, warm and wet, 
Has dimmed the glist'ning bayonet), 

6. M. Each soldier's eye shall brightly turn 
A. To where thy meteor-glories burn,*b 

A. And, as his springing steps advance, 

Catch war and vengeance from the glance \*b 

B. And, when the cannon-mouthings loud 
Heave, in wild wreaths, *b the battle-shroud, 

C. And gory sabers rise said fall, 

Like shoots*^ of flame*a on midnight's pall,*6 
7o A. There shall thy victor-glances glow ; 

8. A. And cowering foes shall shrink beneath 
A. Each gallant arm*Z> that strikes below 

That lovely messenger *b of death. *a 

Flag of the seas,*a on ocean's wave,*6 

9. A. Thy stars shall glitter o'er the brave fb 
A. When death, careering on the gale,*6 

Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail,*6 
A. And frightened waves rush wildly back, 
Before the broadside's reeling rack,*6 
10. C. The dying wanderer of the sea*a 

Shall look at once*5 to heaven and thee,*5 
And smile to see thy splendorsj-6 flyj b 
In triumph*6 o'er his closing eye.*6 

Flag of the free heart's only h.ome,*a 

By angel-hands*6 to valor*6 given, 
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome, 

And all thy hues were born in heaven :*6 
For ever*6 float that standard sheet ! 

Where breathes the foe but falls before us,*b 
With J Freedom's soil beneath our feet,*6 

And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us?*6 

$ See page 233, Obs. 7. See also Key, p. 45, 



11 


B, 


12. 


A. 


13, 


B. 


14. 


A. 



PAET II. 

ETYMOLOGY. 



Bemark 1. — In Part I. we have considered — 

1. The Structure of Sentences and of Phrases ; 

2. The Elements which compose a Sentence or a Phrase ; 

3 . The Classification of Sentences and of Phrases ; 

4. The Analysis of Sentences — Proximate and Ultimate. 

Rum. 2. — In our progress through Part I. we have seen, 

1. That the Proximate Analysis of a Sentence consists in resolving 

it into its immediate Constituent Elements. 

2, That the Ultimate Analysis of a Sentence consists in reducing its 

Proximate Elements to the Words which compose them. 

Hem. 3. — We have next to consider the history of Words — considered 
as ultimate Elements of Sentences — including 

1. Their Formation. 3. Their Classifications. 

2. Their Functions. 4. Their Modifications* 

The Science of Language embraces, 

1. Orthography — which treats of the Structure and 

Form of Words. 

2. Etymology — which treats of the Classification 

and Modification of Words. 

3. Syntax — wnich treats of the Relation and mutual 

Dependence of Words. 

4. Prosody — which treats of the Arrangement and 

Utterance of Words. 

Hem. — A true system of Analysis requires that the Functions of Words 
be discussed previous to the consideration of their Elements. Hence 
we have placed an outline of Orthography in the Appendix to this 
Work- 



70 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IX, 

CLASSIFICATION AND MODIFICATION OF WORDS, 

Words are distinguished by their Forms and by their 

Uses. 

1. THE FORMS OF WORDS. 

By their forms, Words are distinguished as 
Hadical or Derivative, 
Simple or Compound. 

Def. 52. — A Hadical Word is a word that does not 
derive its original from another word in the same lan- 
guage. 

Ex ample3. — Sun — cloud — rose — friend— chief— swif t— -j ust— sell. 

Def. 53. — A Derivative Word is a word derived from a 
Radical, by prefixing or adding one or more letters to it. 

Examples. — Sunny — swiftly — cloudy— sinful — selling — unconscious 
■ — roseate — friendly— justify— chieftain. 

Obs. — A Word that is Radical in the English language, may be a 
Derivative in the language from which it comes. 

Examples. — Conscience— optics— algebra — philosophy — signify. 

Def. 54. — A Simple Word is a word that is used sepa- 
rately from another word. 

Examples. — Have — brightly — freedom — parlor — music — study — times 
— patience — loved — cottage — peace — cold. 

Def. 55. — A Compound Word is a word that is made 
of two or more words combined. 

Examples. — Star-light — household- words— rose-bud — steam-engine 
— pencil-case — never- the -less — moon-beam — rail-road. 

Obs. — The parts of a Compound Word are printed as one word with- 
out space between them, or they are joined by a short horizontal line 
(-) called a hyphen. 

Examples {without the hyphen). — Overlay — underwrite — withstand — 
sometimes — nevertheless. 
u {with the hyphen). — Hour-glass — warm-hearted — praise- 

worthy. 



CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS. 71 

The Parts of a Compound Word are the Basis and the 
Adjunct. 

Def. 56. — The Basis of a Compound Word is the 
Principal Element in the word. 

Examples. — Race-horse — horse-race — hour-glass — sergeant-at-arms — 
father-in-la^v — aid-de-camp. 

Def. 57, — The Adjunct of a Compound Word is the 
part tha£ limits or modifies the Basis. 

Examples. — Race-horse — horse-race — hour-glass — jack-o' -lantern — 
father-in-law — aid -de-camp. 

Obs.— The Adjunct of a Word may be one Word or a Phrase. 

Examples. — One Word. — Man- stealer — race-horse — book-maker. 

A Phrase. — FaXher -in-law — aid-de-camp — will-o'-the-wisp. 

Rem. — Derivative and Compound Words have this distinction, viz. : 
Compound Words consist of two or more complete Words ; whereas, 
Derivative Words consist of one Word with Letters or Particles prefixed 
or attached. These Particles are called Prefixes and Suffixes. 

Def. 58. — A Prefix is one or more letters placed before 
a Radical, to form a Derivative Word. 

Examples. ■ — inform — degrade — overlook — undertake — mvolve — elect 
— absolve — perfect, 

Def. 59. — A Suffix is one or more letters added to a 
Word, to make it Derivative. 

Examples. — "Forming — graded — homely — goodness. 

Rem. — Words may have more than one Prefix or Suffix. Hence, 

Prefixes and Suffixes are distinguished as Simple or 

Compound. 

examples of simple. 



J 


y refizes. 


Suffixes. 


Absolve, 


Compose, 


Forming, 




Taken, 


Dissolve, 


Depose, 


Formation, 




Verbose, 


7?esolve, 


impose, 


Dangerous, 




RudeZy, 


Zteforin, 


/>etake, 


Coinage, 




Hopeful, 


Inform, 


Overtake, 


Goodness, 




Consular, 


Uniform, 


Undertake. 


Bigotry, 




Lambkin. 



72 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 



COMPOUND. 



Prefixes. 
Re con struct, 
Mis con ceive, 
In co herent, 

Un pre tending, 
Ir re vocable, 
Im per forated. 

Prefixes and Suffixes. 
Reducing, 
Dissolved, 
Conformable, 
Reconciliation, 
Transubstantiation, 
Indissoluble. 



Suffixes. 
Lone li ness, 
Might i ly, 
Fear less ness, 

Eight ful ly, 
Form a tion, 
Modi ri cation. 



Abnegation, 

Confinement, 

Substantial, 

Unconditionally, 

Disseminating, 

Conformability. 



The Radicals of Derivative Words are 
Separable or Inseparable. 

Dee. 60. — A Separable Radical constitutes a perfect 
Word, without its Prefixes or Suffixes. 



Reform, 
Deform, 
Inform, 
Conform, 



form. 



Adjoin, 
Conjoin, 
Enjoin, 
Unjoin, 



jetn. 



Def. 61. — An Inseparable Radical is not used as a dis- 
tinct word in the language, without the aid of its Prefixes 
or Suffixes. 



Collect, 

Delectable, 

Election, 

Recollect, 

Recollectinp 



I 



EXAMPLES. 



led. 



Advert, 

Convertible, 

Diverting, 

Inversion, 

Undiverted, 



vert. 



Note. — For an extended list of Prefixes and Suffixes, see " Derivation 
of Words" in Sanders' Analysis of Words. 



NOUNS — CLASSIFICATION. 73 

II, THE USES OF WORDS. 

By their uses, Words are distinguished as 

1. Noims, ) 

2. Pronouns, > Principal Elements in Sentences. 

3. Verbs , ) 



' a J t ' t Adjunct Elements. 



6. Prepositions, \ 

9. Words of Euphony, ) 

Def. 62. — A Noun is a Word used as the Name of a 
"being, of a place, or of a thing. 

Examples. — " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 
Obs. 1. — Nouns are names of 

1. Material things, as — Man — book— house — apples. 

2. Ideas or things not material, as — Mind — hope — desire — aversion—- 
remorse— joy . 

Obs.— Let the Pupil be careful here to distinguish a name from the 
thing named ; and remember that the name is the Noun. Thus, a house 
is a thing — the name of that thing is a Noun. 

CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS. 

Bemark. — Some Nouns are appropriated to individual persons or 
places, or to things personified ; others are general in their application, 
being used to designate classes or sorts. Hence, 

Nouns are distinguished as 

Proper and Common. 

Def. 63. — A Proper Noun is a name appropriated to an 
individual person or place, or to a thing personified. 

Examples, — Wiluam — Boston — Hudson — Oregon. 

" And old Experience learns too late 
That all is vanity below." 
7 



74 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Def. 64. — A Common Noun is a name used to desig- 
nate one or more of a class or sort of beings or things. 

Examples. — Man — book — conscience — feeling — landscape. 
" Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight" 

Obs. 1. — Some Common Nouns are the names of qualities. 

Def. 65. — An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality 
of a thing, and not of the Substance. 

Examples. — Goodness — meekness — impracticability. 

Def. 66. — A Collective Noun is a Noun that is Singular 
in form but Plural in sense. 

Examples. — Committee — assembly — army — tribe— clan — multitude. 
u The village master taught his little school." 

Def. 67. — A Verbal Noun is a ISToun derived from a 
Yerb ; being in form, a Participle — in office, a Substan- 
tive. 

Examples. — Beginning — gatherings — spelling — joining. 

1 'In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth." 

Obs. 1. — The Classification of Nouns as Common and Proper, is one 
rather of curiosity than of practical utility in the Science of Language, 

Obs. 2. — A Word is known to be a Noun, 
1st. By its being a Name. 
2d. By its performing a Substantive office. 

Obs. 3. — A Substantive may be, 

1. The Subject of a Sentence. 

2. The Object of a Sentence or of a Phrase. 

3. A Name or an Equivalent, independent in construction. 

But, 
Obs. 4.— A Substantive office may be performed by Words, by Phrases, 
and by Sentences. 



NOUNS MODIFICATION. (O 

EXAMPLES. 

1. By Words, Nouns. — 1. Paul the Apostle wrote an Epistle to Timothy, 

Pronouns. — 2. Was it you that introduced me to him ? 

2. By Phrases. — 3. " Taking a madman's sword, to prevent Ms doing 

mischief, can not be regarded as robbing him.'" 

3. By Sentences. — 4. "That all men are created equal, is a self-evident 

truth." 

5. " But Brutus says, he was ambitious." 

6. " There is no question as to which must yield." 

Hence, 

Obs. 5. — -A Noun is generally Substantive. But a Word commonly 
used as a Noun may become, 

1. An Adjective ; as, An iron fence — gold leaf. 

2. An Adverb ; as, Go home and come back. 

3. A Verb ; as, " But if you mouth it." 

Ous. 6. — A Substantive office is sometimes performed by words com- 
monly used — 

(a.) As Adjectives. — 1. " The good alone are great." 

2. " Nor grudge I thee the much the Grecians give, 

Nor, murm'ring, take the little I receive." — Dryden. 
(b.) As Adverbs. — 3. " 'lis Heaven itself that points out an here- 
after. ' ' — Addison. 
(c.) As Conjunctions. — 4. " Your if is the only peace-maker ; 

much virtue is in if." — Shakspeare. 
(d.) As an Exclamation. — 5. " With hark and whoop and wild 
halloo." — Scott. 



MODIFICATION OF NOUNS. 

Rem. — Some Nouns and Pronouns, by their form, by their position 
in a Sentence, or by their obvious uses, indicate — 

1. The sex — as male or female, or neither. 

2. The speaker, the being addressed, or the being or thing 

spoken of. 

3. The number of beings or things — as one or more. 

4. The condition, with regard to other Words in the Sentence, as 

(1.) The Subject of a Sentence. 

(2.) The Object of a Sentence or of a Phrase. 

(3.) Independent in construction. Hence, 



76 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Nouns are modified by Gender, Person, Number, and 

Case. 

GENDER. 

Def. 68. — Gender is the modification of sucli Nouns 
and Pronouns as, by their form, distinguish the sex. 

Def. 69. — Nouns and Pronouns that indicate Males are 
of the Masculine Gender. 

Examples. —Man — lion — ox — David — John. 

Def. 10. — Nouns and Pronouns indicating Females are 
of the Feminine Gender. 

Examples. — Woman — lioness— cow — Dollie — Jane. 

Def. 71. — Nouns and Pronouns that do not indicate the 
sex, are said to be of the Neuter Gender. 
Examples. — Book — pen — table — star — planet. 

Obs. 1. — Strict propriety will allow the names of animals only to be 
modified by Gender. 

Obs. 2. — Young animals and infants are not always distinguished by 
Gender ; as, "Mary's kitten is very playful — it is quite a pet with the 
whole family." 

' l Calm as an infant as it sweetly sleeps. ' ' 

Obs. 3. — Tilings personified are often represented by Pronouns of the 
Masculine or of the Feminine Gender. 

Examples.— -1. " Then Fancy her magical pinions spread wide." 

2. " Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope." 
S . " For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast, 
And breathed in the face of the foe as he pass'd." 

Obs. 4 . — Many Nouns which denote the office or condition of per- 
sons, and some others, are not distinguished by Gender. 
Examples. — Parent — cousin — friend — neighbor — teacher. 

Obs. 5. — Whenever Words are used which include both Males and 
Females, without having a direct reference to the sex, the Word appro- 
priated to males is commonly employed. 



NOUNS GENDER. 



17 



Examples. — 1. " The proper study of mankind is man.'* 

2. " There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart — 
It does not feel for man." 
But to this rule there are exceptions ; as, geese, ducks. 

The Gender of Nouns is determined 
1. By the termination ; as, 



3Iasc. 


Fern, 


3Iasc. 


Fern. 


Actor, 


Actress. 


Patron, 


Patroness* 


Administrator, 


Administratrix 


Prince, 


Princess. 


Author, 


Authoress. 


Protector, 


Protectress. 


Governor, 


Governess. 


Shepherd, 


Shepherdess, 


Heir, 


Heiress. 


Songster, 


Songstress. 


Host, 


Hostess. 


Tiger, 


Tigress. 


Hero, 


Heroine. 


Tutor, 


Tutoress. 


Jew, 


Jewess. 


Tailor, 


Tailoress 


Lion, 


Lioness. 


Widower, 


WidoWo 


2, By different Words; as 


> 




3Iasc. 


Fern. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


Bachelor 


Maid. 


Husband, 


Wife. 


Beau, 


Belle. 


King, 


Queen. 


Boy, 


Girl. 


Lad, 


Lass. 


Brother, 


Sister. 


Lord, 


Lady. 


Drake, 


Duck. 


Man, 


Woman. 


Father, 


Mother 


Master, 


Mistress. 


Friar, 


Nun. 


Nephew, 


Niece. 



3. By prefixing or affixing other Words ; as, 

Masc. Fern. 

Man-servant, Maid-servant. 

He-goat, She-goat. 

Cock-sparrow, Hen-sparrow. 

Landlord, Landlady. 

Gentleman, Gentlewoman. 

Note. — In the English language, less importance is attached to the 
Gender of Nouns than in the Latin, Greek, and other languages — the 
relation of Words in Sentences depending more upon position and less 
upon the terminations. Hence, in parsing Nouns and Pronouns, the 
Gender need not be mentioned, unless they are obviously Masculine or 
Feminine. 



7b ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART IL, 

PERSON. 
Rem — All Nouns are the Names of 

1. The persons speaking. 

2. The persons or things addressed. Or, 

3. The persons or things spoken of. Hence, 

Nouns and Pronouns are of the 

First Person, Second Person, or Third Person. 

Def. 72. — The name of the speaker or writer is of ike 
First Person. 

Examples. — "i, John, saw these things.' ' 
" We Athenians are in fault." 

Def. 73. — The name of a person or thing addressed, is 
of the Second Person. 

Example. — " Father, thy hand 

Hath reared these venerable columns ; th 

Didst weave this verdant roof. ' ' 

Def. 74. — The name of the person or thing spoken of^ 

is of the Third Person. 

Examples. — " The hero hath departed." 
1 * Honor guides his footsteps. ' * 

NUMBER. 

Rem. — Nouns by their form, denote individuality or plurality. 
Hence, 

Nouns are distinguished as 

Singular and Plural. 

Def. 75. — Nouns denoting but one, are of the 

Singular Number. 

Examples. — Man — boy— pen — book — mouse — ox. 

Def. 76. — Nouns denoting more than one, are of the 
Plural Number. 

Examples. — Men — boys — pens — books — mice— oxen. 

Obs. 1. — The Number of a Noun is usually determined by its form. 
The Plural of most Nouns differs from the Singular, by having an 
additional s. 






NOUNS NUMBER. 79 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Act, Egg, Book, Mastiff, Pen, Chair. 
Plural. — Acts, Eggs, Books, Mastiffs, Pens, Chairs. 

Obs. 2. — But a Noun whose Singular form ends in s, ss, sA, x, ch (soft), 
and some Nouns in and y, form the Plural by the addition of es. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Gas, Lynx, Church, Lash, Glass, Hero. 
Plural. — Gases, Lynxes, Churches, Lashes, Glasses, Heroes' 

Obs. 3. — Y final, after a Consonant, is changed into ie (the original 
orthography), and s is added. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Lady, Folly, Quality, City. 

Oldform. — Ladie, Follie, Qualitie, Citie. 

Plural. — Ladies, Follies, Qualities, Cities. 

Exception. — But Proper Nouns in y commonly form the Plurals by 
adding 5 to the y ; as, the two Livys — the Tullys. 

Obs. 4. — In the following Nouns, / final is changed into v, and the 
usual termination for the Plural is added : 



Singular 


Plural. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


Beef, 


Beeves. 


Self, 


Selves. 


Calf, 


Calves. 


Shelf, 


Shelves. 


Elf, 


Elves. 


Sheaf, 


Sheaves. 


Half, 


Halves. 


Thief, 


Thieves. 


Leaf, 


Leaves. 


Wolf, 


Wolves 


Loaf, 


Loaves. 







Other Nouns in / form their Plurals regularly. 

Obs. 5. — But most Nouns ending in fe are changed into ves. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Knife, Life, Wife. 

Plural. — Knives, Lives, Wives. 

Obs. 6. — Many Nouns form their Plurals irregularly. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular.— Man, Child, Foot, Ox, Mouse 

Plural.— Men, Children, Feet, Oxen, Mice. 



80 ENGLISH GRAMMAS — PART II. 

Obs. 7. — In most Compound Words, the basis only is varied to form 
the Plural, if its Adjunct Word precedes, or its Adjunct Phrase follows. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Fellow-servant, Ink-stand, Bace-horse, Camp-meeting, 
Plural. — Fellow-servants, Ink-stands, Kace-horses, Camp-meetings, 

Singular. — Father-in-law, Aid-de-camp, 

Plural. — Fathers-in-law, Aides-de-camp. 

Obs. 8. — But, if the Adjunct Word follows the basis, the Plural termina- 
tion is commonly attached to the Adjunct. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. — Arm-full, Camera-obscura, Ignis-fatuus, 

Plural. — Arm-fulls, Camera-obscuras, Ignis- fatuuses, 

Obs. 9. — In forming the Plural of Nouns having titles prefixed or 
annexed, custom is not uniform. 

There seems to be a propriety in regarding a name and its title as a 
Compound Noun ; as, Jonathan Edwards, John Smith, 3Iiss Bowen. 

If, then, it is decided which part of the Compound Word — the Name 
or the Title — is to be regarded as the Basis, and which the Adjunct, the 
Plural termination should be attached as directed in Obs. 7 and 8, 
above. Thus, Miss Bowen and her sister, two ladies unmarried, are 
Misses. " I called to see the Misses Bowen." 

"We purchase goods of the Messrs. Barber. 7 ' Here the titles consti- 
tute the Bases — the names, the Adjuncts. 

Again : Patterson the father and Patterson the son are two Patter- 
sons. They are both doctors. If we speak of them as men, we make 
the Name the Basis and the Title as Adjunct ; thus, " I visited the two 
Doctor Pattersons." But if we speak of them as Doctors, we make the 
Title the Basis, and pluralize it ; thus, " We employed Doctors J. & A. 
Patterson. ' ' 

Obs. 10. — Some Nouns have no Plurals. 

Examples. — Wheat — silver — gold — iron — gratitude. 

Obs. 11. — Some Nouns have no Singular. 

Examples. — Tongs — embers — vespers — literati — scissors. 

Obs. 12. — Some Nouns have the same Form in both Numbers. 





examples. 






Singular. — Apparatus, 


News, Wages, 


Sheep, 


Yermin, 


Plural. — Apparatus, 


News, Wages, 


Sheep, 


Vermin- 



NOUNS NUMBER. 8 1 

Obs. 13. — Some Nouns, having a Singular form, are used in a Plural 
sense. 

Examples. — Horse — foot — cavalry — cannon — sail. One thousand 
horse and two thousand foot — five hundred cavalry — fifty cannon — twenty 
sail of the line — and, for supplies, five hundred head of cattle. 

Obs. 14. — Some Nouns, having no Plural form to indicate Number, 
receive a Plural termination to indicate different species. 

Examples. — Wines. — " Most wines contain over twenty per cent, of 
alcohol." Tea. — <; The teas of the Nankin Company are all good." 

Obs. 15. — Many Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Nouns used in English 
composition, retain their original Plurals. Commonly the terminations 
urn, ms, and on, of the Singular, are changed into «, for the Plural ; x 
into ces, and is into es. 





EXAMPLES. 






Singular. — Datum , 


Genus, Criterion, 


Index, 


Axis, 


Plural. — Data, 


Genera, Criteria, 


Indices, 


Axes. 



EXERCISES IN GENDER, PERSON, AND NUMBER. 

J^** Let the Class give, 1st, the Gender— 2d, the Person — 3d, the 
Number of each of the following Names — always giving a reason for 
the modification, by repeating the Definitions. 



William, 


Boy, 


Town, 


Army, 


Ganges, 


Girl, 


County, 


Data, 


Andes, 


Aunt, 


Troy, 


Index, 


Cuba, 


Cousin, 


City, 


Question 



7^" Let Sentences be made, in which the following Words shall be 
in the Second Person. 

M)DEL. 

" Father, thy hand hath reared this venerable column." 
Father, Stars, Thou Heralds, 

Mother, Hills, You, Messengers, 

Sun, Rivers, Ye, Walls, 

Earth, Woods, Men, Floods. 

70T* Let other Sentences be made, having the same Words in the 
Third Person, after the following 

MODEL. 

" My Father made them all." 



82 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



■ Let the following Singular Nouns be changed to their Plurals, 
and placed in Sentences, — always giving the Rule for the change of 
Number. 

Fox, Ox, Son-in-law, 

Staff, Pea, Spoon full , 

Goose, Basis, Cousin-germ an, 

Mouse, Stratum, Knight-errant. 



Boy, 


Motto, 


Father, 


Hero, 


Man, 


Knife, 


Child, 


Hoof, 



MODEL. 

" The boys have accomplished their tasks." 
j^t* Let the Gender and Number of the following Nouns be changed 



and placed in I 


sentences. 






Man, 


Bachelor, 


Brother, 


Poetess, 


Boys, 


Lioness, 


Sons, 


Prince, 


Uncles, 


Geese, 


Sister, 


Tutor, 


Council, 


Cow, 


Maid, 


"Widower. 



MODELS. 

' ' Two women shall be grinding at the mill. ' ' 

" And the widows of Asher are loud in their wail." 



CASE. 
Bem. 1. — A Noun or a Pronoun is used — 

1. As the Subject of a Sentence. 

2. As a Definitive of some other Noun. 

3. As the Object of an action or relation, or 

4. Independent of other Words in the Sentence. 

Rem. 2. — These different conditions of Nouns, suggest their modifica- 
tions in regard to Case ; for Case, in Grammar, means condition. Hence, 






Nouns are distinguished as being in the 



Nominative Case, 
Possessive Case, 



Objective Case, 
Independent Case. 



Obs. — In the Latin, Greek, German, and many other languages, the 
Qises of Nouns are determined by their terminations. But, as English 
Nouns have no inflections, except to form Adjuncts, the Cases are determ- 
ined only by the offices of Nouns in Sentences. Hence, 






NOUNS — CASES. 83 

DeFo 77. — A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of 
a Sentence, is in the Nominative Case. 

Examples. — Animals run. — John saws wood. — Resources are developed 
" The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

Obs. 1. — The Subject of a Sentence may be a Noun, a Pronoun, a 
Phrase, or a Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. A Noun. — Virtue secures happiness. 

2. A Pronoun. — " He plants his footsteps in the sea." 

3. A Phrase. — " To be able to read well, is a valuable accomplishment." 

4. A Sentence. — " That good men sometimes commit faults, can not be 

denied." 

Def. 78. — A Noun or a Pronoun varied in its orthogra- 
phy, so that it may indicate a relation of possession, is in 
the Possessive Case. 

Obs. 1. — The Possessive is formed by adding an apostrophe and s to 
the Nominative. 

EXAMPLES. 

Kominative.-M.asi, Boy, "World, George. 

Possessive. — Man's, Boy's, World's, George's. 

"Then shall man's pride and dullness comprehend 
His action* s, passion's, being's, use and end." — Pope. 

Obs. 2. — In a few Words, ending in the Singular, with the sound of 
s or of c soft, the additional s is omitted for euphony. 

Examples. — " For conscience' sake." 

" Festus came into Felix' room." 

Obs. 3. — Most Plural Nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe only. 

examples. 
Kominative.— Horses, Eagles, Foxes. 

Possessive. — Horses', Eagles', Foxes' 

" Heroes' and heroines' shouts confusedly rise." 

Obs. 4.— The term Possessive Case is applied to Nouns and Pronouns, 
to indicate a peculiar variation of Words in respect of form ; and, be- 
cause this form commonly indicates a relation of possession, it is termed 
Possessive Case. But, 



84 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. 5. — Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case do not always 
indicate "possession or ownership." 

Children's shoes. — Here the word " children's" does not imply owner- 
ship. It simply specifies " shoes' 7 as to size. 

Small shoes. — Here "small" specifies "shoes" in a similar manner. 
"Small" and "children's" performing similar offices, are similar in 
their etymology. "Small" is an Adjective — "Children's" is an Ad- 
jective. 

Obs. 6. — A System of Grammar, having its foundation in the doctrine 
that Words and other Elements of Sentences are to be classified accord- 
ing to their offices — and that is the proper criterion — must class Possessive 
Nouns and Pronouns as Adjectives. 

Note the Exceptions to this Proposition, Obs. 9, below. 

Obs. 7. — Words commonly used as Nouns and Pronouns become 
Adjectives ivhenever their principal office is to limit or describe beings or things ; 
and they may have the form of the Nominative, of the Possessive, or of 
the Objective Case. 

EXAMPLES. 

Nominative Form. — A gold pen — a he goat. 

Possessive Form. — Wisdom's ways — thine enemy — ray self. 

Objective Form. — A gold pen — silver steel — them selves. 

Obs. 8. — When such Words are not used as Adjuncts, they are Sub- 
stantives, and. are found to be in some cases other than the Possessive, 
although they retain the Possessive form. [See Obs. and Examples 
below, p. 86. 

Def. 79. — A Noun or a Pronoun which is the Object of 
a Sentence or of a Phrase, is in the Objective Case. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. John saws wood, 

2. Science promotes happiness. 

3. " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

4. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 

5. " Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow." 

Def. 80. — A Noun or a Pronoun not dependent on any 
other Word in construction, is in the Independent Case. 

Obs. 1. — The Independent Case includes nouns used as the names ot 

persons addressed. 
Examples. — Liberty ! — " Friends, Romans, countrymen." 



NOUNS CASES, 8 5 

Obs. 2. — Names used to specify or define other names previously- 
mentioned, are in the Independent Case. 
Examples. — 1. Paul, the Apostle, wrote to Timothy. 
Here, " Paul" is the subject of " wrote ;" hence in the Nominative 
Case (see Def. 78). " Apostle-" designates which "Paul" is intended ; 
hence in the Independent Case. 

2. "Webster, the Statesman, has been mistaken by some foreign authors 
for Webster, the Lexicographer. 

Here, the Words " Statesman* and " Lexicographer 11 'are used to limit, 
define, and describe the two " Websters." Hence, 

Eem. — Words thus used are to be regarded as Logical Adjuncts. (See 
Parti., p. 28, Obs. 3.) 
Obs. 3. — Nouns used to introduce Independent Phrases, are in the In- 
dependent Case. 
Example. — The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 
Obs. 4. — Nouns and Pronouns used in predication with Verbs. 
Examples. — ' ' God is love. ' ' — ' ' It is I. " — " The wages of sin is death. ' * 
Hem. — The term Predicate Case is, by some grammarians, applied to 
Nouns and Pronouns in Predicate. 
Obs. 5. — Nouns and Pronouns used for euphony, titles of books, cards, 

signs, are in the Independent Case. 
Examples. — 1. ' ' The moon herself is lost in heaven. ? ' 

2. " Webster's Dictionary." — 3. " J". Barber, Son, fy Company.''* 
Obs. 6. — In the English language, Nouns are not varied in form to 
distinguish the Cases, except for the Possessive. The Case is always 
determined by its office. 

(1.) If it is the Subject of a Sentence, it is, therefore, in the Komi- 
native Case. 
(2.) If it is the Object of a Sentence or the Object of a Phrase, it 

is, therefore, in the Objective Case. 
(3 ) If it performs neither of these offices, and has not a Posses- 
sive form, it is not joined to any word going before in 
construction, and is, therefore, in the Independent Case. 
4.) If it has a Possessive form, or any other form, and limits or 
describes a being or a thing, it performs the office of an 
Adjunct, and is, therefore, an Adjective. 
Obs. 7. — Nouns and Pronouns in the Nominative or in the Objective Case 
are used Substantively. In the Independent Case they are used Substan- 
tively, or as Logical Adjuncts. (See Obs. 2, above.) In the Possessive Case 
they are oommonly used as Grammatical Adjuncts. 



86 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. 8. — Exception. — Nouns and Pronouns of the Possessive form, are 
sometimes used Substantively ; but, when thus used, they are in the 
Nominative, in the Objective, or in the Independent Case. 

EXAMPLE?, 

(a.) Nominative. — My book is new ; John's is old. 

Mine is little used ; yours is soiled. 

" Mine" "s the Subject of the Sentence ; hence in the Nominative Case,, 

(b.) Objective. — John is a friend of mine. 

"Mine" is the Object of the Preposition u of"; hence in the Objective 
Case. 

Note. — It is a mistaken notion of certain grammarians, that "mine," 
in the above example, is equivalent to " my friend," and must there- 
fore be "in the Possessive Case, and governed by friend understood." 

John is a friend of mine; i. e., he is friendly to me. 

Fred is my enemy ; but he is a friend of " my friend." 

Is " mine" equivalent • to " my friend" ? How the notion vanishes 
before the test ! 

(c.) Independent. —The book is mine; it was yours. 
"Mine" is used in Predicate with "is" ; hence in the Independent or 
Predicate Case. 



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 



PAGE 



What are the principal subjects discussed in Part I. ?. .See Rem. 1. 

What is Proximate Analysis of Sentences ? See Rem. 2. 

What is Ultimate Analysis ? See Rem. 2. 

What is the province of Part II. ? See Rem. 3. 

The Science of Language embraces what divisions ? 

70. In how many ways are Words distinguished f 
By their forms, how are Words distinguished ? 

What is a Radical Word ? See Def. 52. 

What is a Derivative Word ? See Def. 53. 

What is a Simple Word ? See Def. 54. 

What is a Compound Word ? See Def. 55. 

71. The Elements of a Compound Word are called what ? 

What is the Basis of a Compound Word ? See Def. 56. 

What is an Adjunct of a Compound Word ? See Def. 57. 

What is a Prefix ?— What is a Suffix ? See Def. 58-59. 

72. What is a Separable Radical ? .. . See Def. 60. 

What is an Inseparable Radical 7 See Def. 6L 



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 87 



PAGK 



73. By their uses, how are Words distinguished ? 

What is a Noun? See Def. 62. 

Wliat are their Classes f 

What is a Proper Noun 9 Give Examples See Def. 63. 

74. What is a Common Noun ? Give Examples See Def. 64. 

What is an Abstract Noun ? Give Examples See Def. 65. 

What is a Collective Noun ? Give Examples See Def. 66. 

What is a Verbal Noun ? Give Examples See Def. 67. 

What are the several offices of Nouns ? See Obs. 3. 

75. Wliat other Words perform Substantive offices ? 

Give Examples See Obs. 6. 

76. How are Nouns modified $ 

What Nouns and Pronouns are of the Masculine Gender ? . See Def. 69. 
What of the Feminine Gender ?— of the Neuter Gender ? . . See Def. 70-1. 
Are all Nouns modified by Gender ? See Obs. 1-4. 

77. How are the distinctions of Gender indicated ? 

78. What occasions the modifications of Person ? See Rem. 

What Nouns and Pronouns are of the First Person $ .... See Def. 72. 

What of the Secoud Person ? Give Examples See Def. 73. 

What of the Third Person ? Give Examples See Def. 74. 

What are the Modifications of Number ? 

What Nouns are of the Singular Number f Give Exs . . . See Def. 75. 
What Nouns are of the Plural Number ? Give Exs .... See Def. 76. 
How are Numbers indicated ? See Obs. 1. 

79. What Nouns add es to form the Plural ? See Obs. 2. 

80. How are the Plurals of Compound Nouns formed ? . . See Obs. 7, 8, 9. 

81. What is said of the Plural forms of Foreign Nouns ?. . . . See Obs. 15. 
Repeat the Exercises in Gender, Person, and Number, 

after the Models given. 

82. What does the term Case indicate ? See Rem. 2. 

How many Cases in English Grammar ? 

83. When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Nominative Case?.. See Def. 77. 
When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case ? . . . See Def. 78. 
How is the Possessive Case formed ? See Obs. 1, 2, 3„ 

84. The term Possessive Case indicates what ? See Obs. 4, 5. 

What office is commonly performed by the Possessive 

form of Words ? See Obs. 6. 

When do Words, commonly used a§ Nouns and Pro- 
nouns, become Adjuncts ? See Obs. 7. 

When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Objective Case ? . . . See Def. 79. 

When is a Noun or a Pronoun in the Independent 

Case? .See Def. 79. 



88 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



PAGE 



85. What is said of the variations of Nouns to denote 

Cases? See Obs. 7. 

86. When are Nouns of the Possessive form used Substan- 

tively ? See Obs. 9. 



PRONOUNS. 

Rem, — To avoid an unpleasant repetition of the same Word in a Sen- 
tence, a class of Words is introduced as Substitutes for Names. Hence, 

Djef. 81.— A Pronoun is a Word used instead of a 
Noun. 

Obs. 1. — As Pronouns are of general application, the Noun for which 
any given Pronoun is substituted, is commonly determined by the con- 
text — and, because it generally precedes the Pronoun, it is called its 

Antecedent. 

Obs. 2. — The Antecedent of a Pronoun may be a Word, a Phrase, or 
Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. A Word.— ^ James has injured himself ; he has studied too much." 

2. A Phrase. — " William's abandoning a good situation in hopes of a bet- 
ter, was never approved by me. It has been the prime cause of all 
his troubles. ' ' 

3. A Sentence. — " I am glad that Charles has secured a liberal education. It 
is what few poor boys have the perseverance to accomplish." 

CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS. 

Rem. — Some Pronouns, by their forms, denote their modification of 
Gender, Person, Number, and Case. 

Others relate directly to the Nouns for which they are used. 
Others, in addition to their ordinary office, are used in asking questions. 
Others describe the Names for which they are substituted. Hence, 



Pronouns are distinguished as 
Personal, 

Relative, 



Interrogative, and 
Adjective. 



PERSONxVL PRONOUN. 

Def. 82. — A Personal Pronoun is a Pronoun whose 
form determines its Person and Number. 



PRONOUNS DECLENSION. 



89 



Obs. — The Personal Pronouns are Simple or Compound. 

LIST. 

Simple. — I, thou, you, he, she, it. 

Compound. — Myself, thyself, yourself, himself, herself, itself. 

MODIFICATION. 

Rem. — Whenever one Word is used in the place of another, it is 
properly subjected to the same laws as the other ; this is true of Pro- 
nouns. Hence, 

Pronouns have the same modifications of Gender, Per- 
son, Number, and Case, as Nouns. 

Rem. — To denote these several modifications, some Pronouns are 
varied in form. This variation of form is called Declension. 

DECLENSION OF PEONOITNS. 
1. Simple Personal Pronouns. 





EIRST PERSON. 




Nominative. 


Possessive. Objective. 


Independent. 


Singular. — I, 


my, me, 


I or me.* 


Plural— We, 


our, us, 


we or us 


- 


SECOND PERSON. 




Singular. — You , 


your, you, 


you. 


Plural. — You, 


your, you, 
second person.— Solemn Style. 


you. 


Singular. — Thou, 


thy, - thee, 


thou or thee. 


Plural— Ye, 


your, you, 
third person . — Masculine. 


ye or you. 


Singular. — He, 


his, him, 


he or him. 


Plural— They, 


their, them, 
third person. — Feminine. 


they or them. 


Singular. — She, 


her, her, 


she or her. 


Plural— They, 


their, them, 
third person. — Neuter. 


they or them. 


Singular. — It, 


its, it, 


it. 


Plural— They, 


their, them, 


they or them. 



* Pronouns in the Independent Case commonly take the form of the Nominative, 
as, "O happy they /"— " Ah, luckless he /"— " It is I!* But they sometimes take 
the form of the Objective, as, "Him excepted."— " I found it to be him."— 
" Ah me /» 

8* 



90 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. 1. — From the above Paradigm, notice, 

1. That Pronouns of the Third Person Singular only are varied to 

denote the sex. 

2. That the Pronoun you is not varied to denote the Number. 

This is a modern innovation ; but the idiom is too well 
established to yield to criticism or protest. 

3. That the principal variations are made to distinguish the 

Cases. 

4. That, to distinguish the Persons, different words are employed. 

Obs. 2. — Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are commonly used 
"to specify or othwwise describe Nouns and Pronouns" ; and when thus 
used, they are therefore Adjectives.* They are placed here to denote 
their origin, and to accommodate such teachers as, by force of habit, are 
inclined to call them Pronouns in all conditions. (See Possessive Speci- 
fying Adjectives, p. 99.) 

Obs. 3. — Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are sometimes 
used Substantively, i. e., as the Subjects or the Objects of Sentences — 
the Objects of Phrases, or as Independent Substantives ; and when thus 
used, they are therefore Substantives. (See Adjective Pronouns.) 

EXAMPLES. 

Subject of a Sentence. — " My sword and yours are kin." — Shakspeare. 
Object of a Sentence. — " You seek your interests ; we follow ours." 
Object of a Phrase. — " Therefore leave your forest of beasts for ours of 
brutes, called men. ' ' — Wesley to Pope. 
i ' John is a friend of mine. ' ' 
Independent. — " Thine is the kingdom." 

"Theirs had been the vigor of their youth." 
Obs. 4. — The Pronoun it is often used indefinitely, and may have an 
Antecedent of the First, the Second, or the Third Person, of the Sin- 
gular or of the Plural number ; and sometimes it has no antecedent. 
Examples. — ' ' It is /." ' ' Was it thou f ' — Is it you ? 
It was John. — Was it the boys ? 
It snows. — It blows. — It seems. 

Obs. 5. — That for which a Pronoun is used, may also be a Phras* or 
a Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

A Phrase. — 1 . " It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing' ' 
A Sentence. — 2. M It remains that we speak of its moral effects." 

* See Webster's Grammar, p. 46. 



RELATIVE PKONOUNS. 



91 



RELATIVE PR OXO UN'S. 

Oef. 83. — A Relative Pronoun is a Pronoun used to 
introduce a Sentence which qualifies its own antecedent. 

Examples. — 1. The youth who was speaking, was applauded. 

2. We saw the man whom you described. 

3. " Mount the horse which 1 have chosen for thee." 

Obs. 1. — In Example 1, ''who" relates to "youth," and introduces 
the Auxiliary Sentence (" who was speaking"), whose office it is to de- 
scribe <; youth." 

The word " who" not only introduces the Adjunct Sentence, hut is 
also an Element in that Sentence — a Principal Element — the Subject. 

In Example 2, "whom you described," is an Auxiliary Sentence, 
used to describe or point out a particular " man" ; " whom' introduces 
that Adjective Sentence, is the object of " described," and relates to 
"man." 

LIST. 

The Words used as Relative Pronouns are, ivho, which, that, and what. 
Obs. 2. — The Words as and than are sometimes, by ellipsis, used as 
Relative Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1. " Such as I have, give I unto thee." 

2. " We have more than Jasart could wish." 
But, generally, on supplying the ellipsis, we may make those words 
supply the offices of Prepositions or of Conjunctions. Thus, 

1. "I give unto thee such [things] as [those which] I have." 

2. " We have more [things] than [those things which] heart could 

wish." 

Obs. 3. — Who is varied in Declension to indicate the Cases only. 
Which, that, and what, are not declined. But the word whose is also 
used as the Possessive of which. 



Nam. 


Pos. 


Obj. 


Indep. 


Who, 


Whose,* 


Whom, 


Who or whom. 


Which, 


Whose, 


Which, 


Which. 


That, 




That, 


That. 


What, 




What, 


What. 



* Whose is always a definitive, attached t<> Nouns, and may relate to persons of 
to things ; as, " Whose I am, and whom I serve." — ik Whose body Nature is, and 
God the soul." 



92 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Obs. 4. — Who is applied to man, or to beings supposed to possess 
intelligence. 

Examples. — He who studies will excel those who do not. " He whom 
sea-severed realms obey." 

Obs. 5. — Which and what are v applied to brute animals and to things. 
Examples. — The books which I lost. — The pen which I use, is good, 
■ — We value most what costs us most. 

Obs. 6. — Thai is applied to man or to things. 
Example. — " Them that honor me, I will honor." 

Obs. 7. — What, when used as a Relative, is always compc^d ; and 
is equivalent to that which, or the things which. 

The two Elements of this Word never belong to the same Sentence ; 
one part introduces a Sentence which qualifies the antecedent part of 
the same word. 

" Our proper bliss depends on what we blame." 

In this example, " what" is a Compound Relative, equivalent to the 
two words, thai which* Thai, the Antecedent part, is the object of 
"on;" "which," the Relative part, is the object of "blame." The 
Auxiliary Sentence, "we blame which," is used to qualify "that." 
[See page 43, last Diagram.] 

Obs. 8. — The Compounds, whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, what- 
ever, and whatsoever, are construed similarly to what. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Def. 84. — An Interrogative Pronoun is a Pronoun used 
to ask a question. 

Examples. — li Who will show us any good ? 
" Which do you prefer ?" 
" What will satisfy him ?" 

list. 

Obs. 1. — The Interrogative Pronouns are, 

Who applied to man. 

Which ) tjx xi_- 

_, Y applied to man or things. 

What ) 

Examples. — I. Who was John the Baptist ? 

2. Which will you have ? 

3. What can compensate for loss of character? 



ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 93 

Obs. 2. — A Sentence is made Interrogative, 

1. By a transposition of the Principal Elements — the Pred- 

icate being placed before its Subject. 

Examples. — Will you go ? 

11 Did Claudius waylay Milo ?" 

2. By the use of an Interrogative Pronoun. 

Examples. — " What will a man give in exchange for his soul?' 
" Who will show us any good ?" 

3. By the use of Interrogative Adjectives or Adverbs. 

Examples. — 1. W hich book is yours? 

2. < ' What evil hath he done ? 

3. "' How can ye escape ?' ' 

4. " Where shall we go ?" 

5. " Why will ye die?" 

Obs. 3. — The Antecedent — technically so called — of an Interrogative 
Pronoun, is the Word which answers the question. 

Examples. — Who gave the valedictory ? Wheeler. 
Whom shall we obey ? Our parents. 

Obs. 4. — A Word which asks a question is to be construed as is the 
Word which answers it. 

Examples. — Who has the book ? John [has the book]. 

Whose book is it ? [It is] William's [book]. 
" William's" describes "book" ; hence an Adjunct of "book." 
Whose" has the same construction ; hence an Adjunct of " book." 



ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 

Def. 85. — An Adjective Pronoun is a Definitive Word, 
used to supply the place of the Word which it limits. 

Example. — " Some [ ] said one thing, and some, another" [ ]. 

Obs. 1. — In this Example, "some" defines people (understood), and 
is, therefore, used Adjectively. It is substituted for the Word ' ' people, ' ' 
constituting the Subject of the Sentence ; hence it is used Substan- 
tively. But the Substantive being the principal office, the Word is 
properly called a Pronoun. Its secondary office being Adjective, it is 
properly called an Adjective Pronoun. 



94r ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Obs. 2. — An Adjective Pronoun always performs, at the same time, 
two distinct offices — an Adjective office and a Substantive office ; and it may 
have, at the same time, an Adjective and an Adverbial Adjunct. 
Example. — " The prof essedly good are not always really so." 
" Good" describes people (understood), thus performing an Adject- 
ive office. 

" Good" is the Subject of the Sentence ; hence a Substantive. 

As a Substantive, ' ' good' ' is limited by the Adjective ' ' the. ' ' 

As an Adjective, " good" is modified by the Adverb, "professedly." 

Obs. 3. — Words thus used are, by some grammarians, called "Pro- 
nominal Adjectives." We prefer the term, "Adjective Pronoun," 
because the Principal office is Substantive — the Adjective office being sec- 
ondary in the structure of Sentences and of Phrases. 

Obs. 4. — The following Words ase often thus used : 



All, 




Former, Neither, Such, 


Both, 




Last, None, That, 


Each, 




Latter, One, .These, 


Either, 




Least, Other, Those, 


Few, 




Less, Several, This. 


Most specify 


'ing, 


and all qualifying Adjectives may be thus used: 


Examples.— 


-1. ' 


; ' The good alone are great. ' ' 




2. ' 


" The poor respect the rich. 17 




3. 


1 ' One step from the sublime to the ridiculous. ' ' 



Obs. 5. — Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are used — in com- 
mon with other Definitives — Substantively, i. e., as the Representatives 
of Nouns, which it is their primary office to specify. They are then 
properly called Adjective Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1. " He is a friend of mine." 

2. " Thine is the kingdom." 

3. " Theirs had been the vigor of his youth.' 

promiscuous examples of adjective pronouns. 

1 . " Brutus and Aruns killed each other. ' ' 

2. " Thou shalt be all in all, and I in thee." — Milton. 

3. " They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by ff ties." 

4. " Teach me to feel another's woe, to hide the fault I see ; 

The mercy I to others show, that mercy show to me." — Pope. 

5. " Who are the called, according to his purpose." 



NOUNS — PRONOUNS — RECAPITULATION. 



95 



RECAPITULATION. 



Words are distinguished 
by their 



Nouns are . 



Pronouns are , 



Forms . 



and 



Uses. 



Proper 

or 
Common . 



-r, ,. , ( Separable. 

Radlcal | Inseparable. 



Derivative , 

Simple. 
Compound. 

Noun. 

Pronoun. 

Adjective. 

Verb. 

Adverb. 

Preposition. 

Conjunction. 

Exclamation. 



f Concrete. 
J Abstract. 
* " } Collective. 
[Verbal. 



( Prefix. 

\ Root. 
(Suffix. 

j Basis. 
' ( Adjunct. 



Personal. 
Relative. 
Interrogative. 
h Adjective. 



MODIFICATION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS, 



( Masculine. 

Gender -! Feminine. 

( Neuter. 



Nouns and Pronouns are 
modified by 



j First. 

Person ) Second. 

(Third. 



Number . . 



Case . 



j Singular. 
J Plural. 



f Nominative. 
I Possessive. 



Objective. 



{ Independent. 



96 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

PAGE 

88. What is a Pronoun ? See Def. 81, 

Why are Pronouns used ? See Rem. 

What is an Antecedent of a Pronoun ? See Obs. 1. 

Antecedents may consist of what ? See Obs. 2. 

Why are Pronouns classified ? See Rem. 

How are Pronouns classified ? 

What is a Personal Pronoun ? See Def. 82. 

89. How are Personal Pronouns distinguished? See Obs. 

How are Pronouns modified f 

Decline the Personal Pronoun. 

90. What Pronouns are varied in form to denote Gender ?. .See Obs. 1. 

For what are the principal variations made ? See Obs. 1. 

How do we distinguish the Persons of Pronouns? See Obs. 1. 

Why are Possessive Specifying Adjectives placed with 

Pronouns ? See Obs. 2. 

When are mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs used 

as Substantives ? and why ? See Obs. 3. 

Make Sentences having each of these Words as Subjects 

— as Objects — as Objects of Phrases — in Predicate 

with a Verb. 
What may be some of the different Antecedents of it ?. See Obs. 4. 

91. What is a Relative Pronoun ? See Def. 83. 

Give the List of Relative Pronouns. 

What is said of the words as and than ? See Obs, 2. 

Which of the Relative Pronouns are varied in form ?. .See Obs. 3. 

92. What are the peculiar uses of who, which, and that? .See Obs. 4, 5, 6. 
What is there peculiar in the use of the Word what ? . .See Obs. 7. 

What other Double Relatives have we ? See Obs. 8. 

What is an Interrogative Pronoun ? See Def. 84. 

Give the List of Interrogative Pronouns See Obs. 1 . 

93. Sentences are made Interrogative — how ? See Obs. 2. 

What is the Antecedent of an Interrogative Pronoun ? . .See Obs, 3. 
An Interrogative Pronoun is to be constructed — how ?.See Obs. 5. 
What is an Adjective Pronoun ? See Def. 85. 

94. What distinct offices are performed by Adjective Pro- 

nouns ? See Obs. 2. 

Why is the term Adjective Pronoun given to this class 

of Words? See Obs. 3. 

Give the List of Words most frequently used as Adjec- 
tive Pronouns See Obs. 4. 



ADJECTIVES CLASSIFICATION. 97 



ADJECTIVES. 

Rem. — As things possess individuality, and have points of difference 
from each other, so we have Words which point out and describe those 
things, and mark their differences from other things. Hence, 

Def. 86. — An Adjective is a Word used to qualify or 
otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun. 

Examples. — Good — amiable — the — our — earnest — falling — young — 
conscientious — correct — famous. 



A good boy. 

An amiable young lady. 

Our national resources. 



Falling leaves. 
Conscientious Christian. 
Correct expression. 



3. To express, incidentally, a condition, state, or act — as, loving 
friend — ivheeling orbs — injured reputation. Hence 

Adjectives are distinguished as — 

Qualifying Adjectives, 
Specifying Adjectives, and 
Verbal Adjectives. 

QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES. 

Def, 8*7. — A Qualifying Adjective is a Word used to 
describe a Substantive by expressing a quality. 

Examples. — Good — sweet — cold — honorable — amiable — virtuous. 



CLASSIFICATION. 
Rem. — Adjectives are used — 

1. To express a quality — as, good boy — red rose — sweet apple. 

2. To specify or limit — as, the book — thy pen — three boys. 



An honorable man. 
An amiable disposition. 
A virtuous woman. 



Some good fruit. 
Three sweet oranges. 
Much cold water. 



98 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

SPECIFYING ADJECTIVES. 

Def. 88. — A Specifying Adjective is a Word used to 
define or limit the application of a Substantive without 
denoting a quality. 

Examples. — A — an — the— this — that — some — three — my. 



A man of letters.^ 
An educated man. 
The question at issue. 
This road. 



That mountain in the distance. 
Some good fruit. 
Three sweet oranges. 
My enemy. 



Obs. 1. — Adjectives derived from Proper Nouns are called Proper 
Adjectives. 

Examples. — Arabian — Grecian — Turkish — French. 

Obs. 2. — Which, ivhat, and sometimes whose, when used as Adjectives, 
are called Interrogative Adjectives when they indicate a question. 

Examples. — 1. Which side will you take ? 

2. What evil hath he done ? 

3. Whose book is that ? 

Rem. — Adjectives may specify- 

1. By simply pointing out things — by limiting or designating. 

2. By denoting relation of ownership, adaptation, or origin. 

3. By denoting number, definite or indefinite. Hence, 

Specifying Adjectives are distinguished as— 

Pure Adjectives, 
Numeral Adjectives, and 
Possessive Adjectives. 






Def. 89. — A Pure Adjective is a Word used only to 
point out or designate things. 

Examples. — The — that — those — such — next — same — other. 



Thou art the man. 
That question is settled. 
Those books are received. 
11 Such shames are common. 



The next class. 

The same lesson. 

Other cares intrude. 

Any man may learn wisdom. 



ADJECTIVES NUMERAL. 99 

Def. 90. — A Possessive Adjective is a Word that de- 
scribes a being or thing by indicating a relation of owner- 
ship, origin, fitness, etc. 

Examples. — My — our — their — whose — children's — John's — 
Teacher's. 

My father — my neighbor. Children s shoes. 

Our enemies. Johns horse. 

Their losses are severe. Teacher s absence. 

2. ' ' my o f f e n s e is rank ; it smells to heaven ; 

3. It hath the primal, eldest curse upon it, 
A brother's murder." 

4. "He heard the king's command, and saw that writing's truth." 

Note. — A Possessive Adjective is generally derived from a Substan- 
tive, by changing the Nominative into the Possessive form. 
Thus : "He heard the king's command," is equivalent to, 
He heard the command of the king. 

Def. 91. — A Numeral Adjective is a Word used to do- 
note Number. 

Examples. — One — ten — first — seeon^ — fourfold — few— many 
Obs. 1. — Numeral Adjectives may be, 

Cardinal. — One — two — three — four. 

Ordinal. — First — second — third — fourth. 

Multiplicative. — Single — double — quadruple. 

Indefinite. — Few — many — some (denoting number). 

Obs. 2. — A and an, when they denote number, are to be classed as 
Numeral Adjectives. 

l Examples. — 1. " Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note." 
Not one drum was heard. 
2. " Not an instance is on record. " 
Not one instance is on record. 

VERBAL ADJECTIVES. 

Def. 92. — A Verbal Adjective is a Word used to de- 
scribe a Noun or a Pronoun, by expressing, incidentally, a 
condition, state, or act. 



100 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Obs. — This class of Adjectives consists of Participles, used primarily 
to describe Nouns and Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1. A running brook. 

2. A standing pond. 

3. I saw a boy running to school. 

4. Another standing by the way. 

5. ',- Scaling yonder peak, 

I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow. ' ' 

In this example the Sentence is, " I saw eagle:" and " scaling yonder 
peak," is a Phrase used to describe U T." "Wheeling near its brow,'' 
describes ' • eagle. ' ' Scaling and wheeling are Participles used to describe 
a Noun and a Pronoun— hence they are, in their office, Adjectives. 
(See Def. 86.) They describe by expressing (not in the character of 
Predicates, but), "incidentally, a condition, state, or act," of "I" and 
il eagle" — hence they are Verbal Adjectives. 

Rem. 1. — To render the classification more simple, I have preferred 
to class all Participles used chiefly to describe Nouns and Pronouns, as 
Adjectives — and, because they are derived from Verbs, and retain more 
or less of the properties of the Verbs from which they are derived, I 
use the term Verbal Adjectives. 

But Teachers who are unwilling to do more than simply to call 
them Participles, will not find it difficult to adapt their views to the 
plan of this work ; the Pupil being taught that — 

"Participles, like Adjectives, belong to Nouns and Pronouns." 

And, in the use of Diagrams — 

" Participles used to limit Substantives, occupy the same position as 
Adjectives. ' ' 

Rem. 2. — Participles used as Adjectives, commonly retain their verbal 
character, and, like their Verbs, may have Objects after them. Hence, 

Verbal Adjectives are distinguished as Transitive and 
Intransitive. 

EXAMPLES. 

Intransitive. — 1 . " He possessed a well-balanced mind. ' ' n 

2. " Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again." 

Transitive. — 3. " Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle." 

4. " We saw the children picldng berries'- 



ADJECTIVES MODIFICATION. 1 01 



MODIFICATION OF ADJECTIYES. 

Rem. — Most Qualifying Adjectives express, by variations in form, dif- 
ferent degrees of quality. Hence, 

Some Adjectives are varied in form to denote 

Comparison. 

There may be four degrees of Comparison, 

1 . Diminutive bluish saltish. 

2. Positive blue salt. 

3. Comparative bluer Salter. 

4. Superlative bluest saltest. 

Def. 93. — The Diminutive Degree denotes an amount 
of the quality less than the Positive. 

It is commonly formed by adding ish to the form of the Positive. 
Examples. — Bhieish — saltish. 

Def. 94. — The Positive Degree expresses quality in its 
simplest form, without a comparison. 

Examples. — Large — pure — rich — good — glimmering. 

Def. 95. — The Comparative Degree expresses an in- 
crease or a decrease of the Positive. 

It is commonly formed by adding er, or the Words more or less, to the 
form of the Positive. 

Examples. — 1. Larger — pure?- — richer — more common — less objection- 
able. 
2. " Richer by far is the heart's adoration." 

Def. 96. — The Superlative Degree expresses the greatest 
increase or decrease of the quality of the Adjective. 

It is commonly formed by adding est, or the Words most or least, to 
the form of the Positive. 

Examples. — 1 . Largest — purest — most ungrateful — smallest — upper- 
most 
2. " The purest treasure mortal times afford 
Is —spotless reputation . " * 
9* 



102 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. 1 . — By the use of other Words, the degrees of Comparison may 
be rendered indefinitely numerous. 

Examples. — Cautious — somewhat cautious — very cautious — unusually 
cautious — remarkably cautious — exceedingly cautious — too little cautious — 
incautious — quite incautious. 

Obs, 2.— Comparison descending, is expressed by prefixing the Words 
less and least to the Adjective. 

Examples. — Wise, less wise, least wise — ambitious, less ambitious, least 
ambitious. 

Obs. 3. — Most Adjectives of two or more syllables are compared by 
prefixing the words jmore and most, or less and least, to the Positive. 

EXAMPLES. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Careful .......... . . more careful most careful. 

Careful less careful least careful. 

Obs, 4. — Some Adjectives may be compared by either method speci- 
fied above. 

EXAMPLES. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Remote remoter remote^. 

Kemcte more remote most remote. 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON. 

Some Adjectives are irregular in comparison. 

EXAMPLES. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Good better best. 

Bad worse worst. 

Little less least. 

Many more most. 

Much more most. 

•p ( farther farthest. 

" \ further furthermost. 

q 1( j ( older oldest. 

* I elder eldest. 



ADJECTIVES IKREGULAB COMPARISON. 



103 



Obs. 5. — Some Adjectives want the Positive. 

Examples. — 1. After, aftermost — nether, nethermost. 
2. "He was in the after part of the ship." 

Obs. 6.— Some Adjectives want the Comparative. 
Examples.— 1. Top, topmost. 

2. "He stood upon the topmost round." 

Obs. 7. — Some Adjectives can not be compared — the qualities they 
indicate not being susceptible of increase or diminution. 

Examples, —Bound— square— triangular— infinite. 



EECAPITULATIOHo 



Qualifying 



Adjectives are distinguished as . . 



Specifying 



Verbal . 



Superlative. 
Comparative. 
Positive. 
Diminutive 

Pure. 

Numeral. 
Possessive. 

I Transitive. 
i Intransitive. 



EXERCISES. 

J0P* Let the Pupil determine which of the following Adjectives are 
Qualifying, which are Specifying, and which are Verbal. Of the Qual- 
ifying Adjectives, which can be compared, and how compared — of the 
Specifying Adjectives, which are Pure, which Numeral, and which Pos- 
sessive — of the Verbal, which are Transitive and which are Intransitive. 



Able, 


False, 


That, 


Forgotten, 


Bold, 


Good, 


Three, 


Standing, 


Capable, 


Honest, 


Tenth, 


Loving, 


Doubtful, 


Infinite, 


Twice, 


Admonished, 


Eager, 


Just, 


Several, 


Unknown. 



^t* Let the Pupil point out the Adjectives, Nouns, and Pronouns 
in the following Sentences, and name their classes and modifications. 
Let him be careful to give a reason for the classification and mod- 
ification of each, by repeating the appropriate definitions and obser- 
vations. 



104 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

1. Good scholars secure the highest approbation of their teacher. 

2. Some men do not give their children a proper education. 

3. A trifling accident often produces great results. 

4. An ignorant rich man is less esteemed than a wise poor man. 

6. The richest treasure mortal times afford, is, spotless reputation, 

6. " These dim vaults, 
These winding aisles, of human pomp or pride, 

7. Eeport not. No fantastic carvings show 

The boast of our vain race, to change the form 

8. Of thy fair works. Thou art in the soft winds 
That run along the summits of these trees 

9. In music : thou art in the cooler breath, 
That, from the inmost darkness of tke place, 

10. Comes, scarcely felt ; the barky trunks, the ground, 
The fresh, moist ground, are all instinct with thee." 



FIEST MODEL. 

These describes " vaults ;" hence an Adjective — for u a Word used 

to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is an 
Adjective." 
| " ... .Specifies ; hence Specifying — for " an Adjective used only to 
limit, is a Specifying Adjective." 

Dim qualifies "vaults ;" hence an Adjective — for M a Word used 

to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is an 
Adjective." 
" ... .Expresses a quality ; hence Qualifying — for "a Word used 
to describe a Noun by expressing a quality, is a Qualifying 
Adjective." 
Vaults ... is a Name ; hence a Noun — for ' ' the Name of a being, place, 
o? thing, is a Noun." 
44 s . .Name of a sort or class ; hence] common — for "a Name used 
to designate a class or sort of beings, places, or things, is a 
Common Noun." 
11 . . , Spoken of ; hence, Third Person — for u the Name of a person 
or thing spoken of, is of the Third Person. ' ' 

11 Denotes more than one ; hence Plural Number — for " Noun* 

denoting more than one, are of the Plural Number." 
" , . .Subject of the Sentence ; hence Nominative Case — for " the 
subject of a Sentence is in the Nominative Case." 
Winding . describes " aisles;" hence an Adjective — for "a Word used 



ADJECTIVES EXERCISES MODEL. 105 

J 

to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun, is an 
Adjective." 

Winding . describes, by expressing a condition ; hence Verbal — for ' ' a 
Word used to describe a Noun by expressing, incidentally, a 
condition, state, or act, is a Verbal Adjective." 

Human . .describes "pomp" or " pride ;" hence an Adjective — for "a 
Word used to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pro- 
noun, is an Adjective." 
11 ... Expresses a quality ; hence Qualifying — for ' ' a Word used to 
describe a Noun by expressing a quality, is a Qualifying Ad- 
jective." 

[It is profitable to repeat the Definitions until they become familiar ; 
after that they may be omitted — the parts of speech and the classes and 
modifications of the several Words being simply named, as in the fol- 
lowing exercise.] 

SECOND MODEL. 

1 1 No fantastic carvings show 
The boast of our vain race, to change the form 
Of thy fair works." 

Class. Person. Number. Case. 

No is an Adjective Specifying, limits " carvings. " 

Fantastic" Adjective Qualifying, qualifies " carvings." 

Carvings " Noun Common, Third, Plu. Nom. to ' * show. " 

The " Adjective Specifying, limits "boast." 

Boast " Noun Common, Third, Sing. Obj . of " show. " 

j^** The Teacher will abridge or extend these Exercises at pleasure. 
Then let four Sentences be made, each containing the Word good, so 
that, in the first, it will qualify the Subject— in the second, the Object 
— in the third, the Object of a Phrase attached to the Subject — in the 
fourth, the Object of a Phrase attached to the Object. 

In like manner use the Words amiable — honest — industrious — wise — this 
— some — loving — loved. Thus, 

lc That amiable young lady was at the lecture. 

2. We saw the amiable gentleman. 

3. The benefits of an amiable disposition are numerous. 

4. She possesses the advantages of an amiable temper. 



106 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II, 



ADJECTIVE PHRASES AND SENTENCES. 

Rem. — Things may be described not only by Words, but also by Phraset 
and by Sentences. 

EXAMPLES. 

Adjective Phrases. — 1. " The time of my departure is at hand. " 

2. si Night is the time for rest." 

3. " Turn, gentle hermit of the vale.' 

Adjective Sentences. — 1. " He that getteth wisdom, loveth his own soul." 

2. Mount the horse which I have chosen for thee. 

3. " Thou, whose spell can raise the dead, 

I>id the prophet's form appear." 



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

PAGE 

97. What is an Adjective ? See Def. 86. 

Why are Adjectives used ? See Rem. 1. 

For what various purposes are Adjectives used ? See Rem. 2. 

How are Adjectives distinguished f 

What is a Qualifying Adjective ? See Def. 87. 

98. What is a Specifying Adjective ? See Def. 88. 

What is a Proper Adjective ? See Obs. 1. 

What is an Interrogative Adjective ? See Obs. 

Sow are Specifying Adjectives distinguished? 

What is a Pure Specifying Adjective ? See Def. 89. 

99. What is a Possessive Specifying Adjective ? See Def. 90. 

Sow are Possessive Adjectives formed ? See Note. 

What is a Numeral Adjective ? See Def. 91. 

What is a Verbal Adjective ?...., See Def. 92. 

100. How are Verbal Adjectives distinguished? 

101. How are Adjectives modified? 

How many Degrees of Comparison may some Adjec- 
tives have ? 

When is an Adjective of the Diminutive form ? See Def. 93. 

When is an Adjective of the Positive form ? See Def. 94. 

When is an Adjective of the Superlative form ? See Def. 96. 

102. What is said of Comparison descending f See Obs. 2. 

When do we prefix a "Word to denote Comparison ? — See Obs. 3. 
What Adjectives are compared irregularly ? 

103. Are all Adjectives compared ? See Obs. 7. 



VERBS CLASSIFICATION. 107 



VEEBS. 

Rem. — As all things in the universe live, move, or have a being, we 
necessarily have a class of Y/ords used to express the act, being, or state 
of those things. Hence, 

Def. 97. — A Verb is a Word used to express the act, 
bsing, or state of a person or thing. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Rem. — The act expressed by some Yerbs passes over to an Object. 
Hence, 

Verbs are distinguished as 

Transitive or Intransitive. 

Def. 98. — A Verb is Transitive when it expresses an 
action which terminates on an Object. 

Examples. — John saws wood — God created heaven and earth. 

Def. 99. — A Verb is Intransitive when it expresses the 
being or state of its Subject, or an action which does not 
terminate on an Object. 

Examples. — Animals run — I sit — John is sleepy. 

Obs. 1. — Some Yerbs are used transitively or intransitively. 

Examples. — 1. " Cold blows the wind." 

2 " The wind blows the dust." 

3. ''It has swept through the earth." 

4. " Jane has swept the floor." 

5. " God moves in a mysterious way." 

6. " Such influences do not move me." 

Def. 100. — The Verbs be, become, and other Intransitive 
Verbs, whose Subjects are not represented as performing 
action, are called Neuter Verbs. 

Examples. — He is — God exists — We become wise — They die. 



108 ENGLISH GKAMMAR — PART II. 

LIST. 

Obs. — The Verbs commonly called Neuter are — appertain — be— become 
— belong — exist — lie — rest — seem — sleep. 



MODIFICATION OF VERBS. 

i Eem. — Verbs that denote action, have two methods of representing 
the action. 

1st — As done by its Subject — as, Clara loves Anna. 

2d — As done to its Subject — as, Anna is loved by Clara. 

Hence, 

Transitive Verbs have two Voices— 

The Active and the Passive. 

Def. 101. — A Verb in the Active Voice represents its 
Subject as performing an action. 
Example. — Columbus discovered America. 

Def. 102.— A Verb in the Passive Voice represents its 
Subject as being acted upon. 

Example. — America was discovered by Columbus. 

Obs. 1. — The same fact may commonly be expressed by either the 
Active or the Passive form. 

Examples. — William assists Charles. 

Charles is assisted by William. 

" William," the Subject of the Active Verb, becomes the Object of 
" by," when the Verb becomes Passive ; and " Charles," the Object of 
the Active Verb, becomes the Subject of the Passive. 

Obs. 2. — In the English language, the formation of the Passive Voice 
is less simple than in many other languages. Thus, the corresponding 
assertions, 

In Latin. — Doceo, in the Active Voice, has Doceor in the Passive. 

In English.— I teach, " " " " Iamtauyht " " 

Hence, the English Verb does not form its Passive Voice by an "inflec 
tion of the form of the Active," but by combining the Verb be, in iti 
various modifications, with a Participle of the given Verb. 



> The same fact stated. 



VERBS— MODE. 109 

EXAMPLES. 

Active. — To see, I love, They applaud, Man worships, 

Passive. — To be seen, I am loved, They are applauded, God is wor- 
shiped. 

Oes. 3. — Most Transitive Verbs may take the Passive form. 

Obs. 4. — A Verb taking the Passive form, becomes grammatically 
intransitive. The action is directed to no Object. The Subject receives 
the action. 

Obs. 5. — But few Intransitive Verbs take the Passive form. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. We laughed at his clownish performances.— (Active Intrans.) 

2. His clownish performance was laughed at. — (Passive.) 



MODE. 

Rem. — In addition to their primary signification, Verbs perform a 
secondary office— i. e., they indicate some attendant or qualifying ch% 
cumstances. This is indicated by the variations of the form of the 
Verb, or by prefixing Auxiliary Words. 

1. A Verb may simply express a fact. 

2. It may express a fact as possible, probable, obligatory, etc. 

3. It may express a fact conditionally. 

4. It may express a command or request. 

5. It may express the name of an act, or a fact unlimited by a Sub- 
ject. Hence, 

Verbs have five modes of expressing their signification— 



The Indicative, 
The Potential, 



The Subjunctive, 
The Imperative, and 



The Infinitive. 

Def. 103. — A Verb used simply to indicate or assert a 
fact, is in the 

Indicative Mode. 

Examples. — 1. " God created the heaven and the earth." 

2. " Rays of limpid light gleamed round their path." 
10 



110 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Def. 104.— A Verb indicating probability, power, will, 
ox obligation, of its Subject, is in the 

Potential Mode. 

Obs. — Words which may be regarded as signs of the Potential Mode, 
are, may — might — can — could — must — shall— should — will — would, either 
alone, or followed by the "Word have. 

Examples. — I may go — Ton might have gone — John should study — Mary 
can learn — It could not be done — John shall study. 

Obs. — Verbs in the Indicative and the Potential Modes may be used in 
Interrogative Sentences. (See p. 93.) 

Examples. — 1. ' ' Did Claudius waylay Milo V ' 

2. " May one he pardoned and retain the offense V 

Def. 105. — A Verb expressing a fact conditionally 
(hypothetically) is in the 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Example. — " If he repent, forgive him." 

Obs. — If, though, unless, and other Conjunctions, are commonly used 
with the Subjunctive Mode. But they are not to be regarded as the 
signs of this Mode, for they are also used with the Indicative and with 
the Potential. 

Examples. — 1. If the boat goes to-day, I shall go in it. 
2. I would stay, if I could conveniently. 

The condition expressed by "if the boat goes," is assumed as a fact 
—hence, " goes" is in the Indicative Mode. 

Note. — The Subjunctive Mode is limited to Auxiliary Sentences, 

Def, 106. — A Verb used to command or entreat is in 
the 

Imperative Mode. 

Examples. — 1 . "If /he repent, forgive him. ' ' 

2. " Come to the bridal chamber, Death !" 

Obs. — As we can command only a person or thing addressed, the 
subject of an Imperative Verb must be of the Second Person ; and, as a 
person addressed is supposed to be present to the speaker, the name of 
the Subject is usually understood. 

Examples. — Cry aloud — spare not. 



PARTICIPLES. Ill 

But it is often expressed. 

" Go ye into all the world. ' ' 

Def. 107. — A Verb used without limitation by a Sub* 
ject, is in the 

Infinitive Mode. 

Obs. 1. — The Preposition to, is usually placed before the Infinitive 
Verb. 

Examples. — 1. " To enjoy is to obey/' 

2, " I came not here to talk." 
Obs. 2. — But that Word is sometimes suppressed. (See p. 269). 
Example. — " Let me hear thy voice, awake, and bid her 
Give me new and glorious hopes. ' ' 

Obs. 3. — As a Verb in the Infinitive has no grammatical Subject, it 
can not be a Predicate. It is used, in combination with its Preposition, 

1. Substantively ; as — To do good is the duty of all. 

2. Adjectively ; as — The way to do good. 

3. Adverbially ; as— I ought to do good. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Hem. — In the three Sentences, 

1 . Birds sing, 

2. Birds are singing, 

3. Singing birds deMght us, 

the "Word ' ' sing' ' (in Example 1 ) is a Verb— used to assert an act of 
"birds." 

In Example 2, " singing " is derived from the same Verb ; and with 
the aid of the Auxiliary Verb li are," it makes the same assertion. 

In Example 3, " singing " does not assert, but it assumes the same act. 

The same signification remains in the three Words, while they per- 
form different grammatical offices. Hence, 

Dee. 108. — A Particijite is a Word derived from a Verb, 
retaining the signification of its Verb, while it also per- 
forms the office of some other "part of speech." 

Oes. — Participles are Derivative Words, formed from their Radi- 
cals — commonly by the addition of ing or ed. 

Examples.— Be. . . . .being. Love loving. . . . * .loved. 

Have. . .having. Walk walking . . . .walked. 



112 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Rem. — A Participle is used with or without an Auxiliary prefixed. 
Hence, 

d , V1 ( Simple or 

Jrarticiples are < - x _ 

( Compound. 

Def. 109. — A Simple Participle is a single Word de- 
rived from its Verb. 

Examples. — Loving, loved — having, had— being, been. 

Def. 110. — A Compound Participle consists of a simple 
Participle, with the Auxiliary Participles "having" or 
" being," or " having been." 

EXAMPLES. 

«. 7 { 1. Loving . . : .... o ... . . Fearing. 

Sm *> le \2. Loved Feared 

C 3. Being loved . . . .Being feared. 

„ -j J 4. Having loved Having feared. 

Lompoum. . . . < 5 Having been loved ? .Having been feared. 

( 6. Having been loving Having been fearing. 

Bem. 1. — In giving names to the different Participles, grammarians 
are not agreed. By different authors the Simple Participles are dis- 
tinguished as Present and Past, 
1 ' Active and Passive, 

I i Imperfect and Perfect, 

II First and Second, and by other terms. 

Rem. 2. — While none of the above names can be regarded as wholly 
free from imperfections, those first mentioned are perhaps less objec- 
tionable than others. Hence, 

Participles are distinguished as 

1. Present, 

2. Prior Present, 

3. Past. 

Def. 111. — The Present Participle is the Participle 
formed by adding ing to the root of the Verb, and com- 
monly indicates a present act, being, or state. 

Examples. — Being — having — loving — walking— doing — fearing. 

Obs, — When the Participle is used with a Yerb, the time is indi- 
cated by the Verb, and may be Present, Past, or Future. 



PARTICIPLES, 113 

Examples. — Present — I am writing letters. 
Past. — I was writing letters. 
Future, — I shall be writing letters, 

Def. 112, a,— A Past Participle is the Participle that 
is regularly formed by adding eel to the root of its Verb. 
Examples. — Lo ved — feared — hated — respected. 

Obs. 1. — The Past Participles of Irregular Verbs are variously formed. 
[See List.] 

Obs. 2. — The Past Participle may be used with a Verb indicating 
time, Present, Past, or Future, 

Examples. — Present. — I am loved. . . "William is seen. 

Past. — I was loved William was seen. 

Future. — I shall be loved William will be seen. 

Obs. 3. — The Present Participle is commonly Active in signification. 

Examples. — 1. A falling leaf. — 2. A fading flower. 

3. "Scaling yonder peak, 

I saw an eagle, wheeling near its brow." 

Obs. 4. — The Past Participle is commonly Passive in signification. 

Examples. — 1. Injured reputation. — 2. Lost opportunity. 
3. " Truth crushed to earth, will rise again." 

Obs. 5. — A Participle of an Active Verb, preceded by the Auxiliary 
having, is used actively. 

Examples. — 1. Having loved. — 2. Having lost a day. 

3. " The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises." 

4, Having seen the elephant, the rustic was satisfied. 

Obs. 6. — Preceded by the Auxiliary being, or having been, the Past 
Participle is usad passively <, 
Examples. — 1. Being loved, 

2. Having been censured for idleness, John resolved to 
be diligent. 

Bem. — The above and similar combinations of the Present Participle 
with the Past, indicate Prior Present Tense. Hence, 

Def. 112, b. — A Prior Present Participle is a Participle 
compounded of a Present and a Past Participle. 

Obs, 7, A Compound Participle may be Present or Prior Present- 
Active or Passive, 

10 s * 



114 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Examples, — Present. — Being loved Being seen. 

Prior Present. — Having loved Having seen. 

Active. \ Havin S loved Having seen, 

' 1 Having been walking . . . Having been seeing. 

Passive. \ Being loved Being seen - 

( Having been loved .... .Having been seen, 

Obs. 8. — The term Participle is given to these words because they 
participate in the offices of two "parts of speech" at the same time : — 
that of the Verbs from which they are derived, and also of Nouns, of 
Adjectives, of Adverbs, of Prepositions, of Conjunctions — in Predicate with 
Auxiliary Verbs, or to introduce Participial Phrases. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Noun (a). Singing is a pleasing exercise. 

(b). William maintains a fair standing in society, 
(c). "In the beginning, God created the heaven." 

2. Adjective. (d). A running brook — a standing tree. 

(e). Behold the goose standing on one foot. 

3. Adverb ...... (/). " Tis strange ; 'tis passing strange." 

(g). The task was exceedingly difficult. 

4. Preposition ...... (A). "I speak concerning Christ and the Church. 

(i). " Nothing was said touching that question." 

5. Conjunction (k). " Seeing we can not agree, the discussion may 

be dropped." 

6. Exclamation. , (Z). Shocking ! Astonishing I 

7. In Predicate (?ra). "Birds are singing — bees are humming." 

8. Leader of Phrase, (n). Wounding the feelings of others. 

(o). " Avoid wounding the feelings of others. ' ' 
(p). A habit of moving quickly, is another way of 
gaining time. 

Obs. 9. — Participles, like the Yerbs from which they are derived, are 
Transitive or Intransitive. 

Obs. 10 — A Participle used as a Preposition, must be Transitive. 
Example.—" I speak concerning Christ and the Church." 

Obs. 11. — A Participle used as a Noun, as an Adjective, or in Predi- 
cate, or as the Leader of a Participial Phrase, mag be Intransitive or 
Transitive. 



PARTICIPLES- TENSE. 115 

EXAMPLES. 

(a) Intransitive. 

1. Noun. . . . ." Scolding has long been considered ungenteel. 

2. Adjective . . " The curfew tolls the knell of parting day " 

3. Predicate. .." Spring-time of year is coming." 

(b) Transitive. 

4. Teaching Clara, is a pleasing occupation. 

5. " Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle.' 

6. "We are studying grammar. 

Obs. 12. — A Participle used as a Conjunction or as an Adverb must 
be Intransitive. 

Examples. — 1. "Wherefore is there a price in the hands of a fool to 
get wisdom, seeing he hath no heart to it." 
2. ' ' A virtuous household, but exceeding poor. ' ' 

TEXSE. 
Rem. — Generally the form of the Verb denotes not only the manner, 
but also the time, of the action or event expressed by it. Hence the 
distinction of Tense. 

Def. 113. — Tense is a modification of Verbs, denoting 
distinction of time. 

Rem. — Time is Present, Past, or Future: of each of these periods we 
have two varieties, represented by different forms. Hence, 

Most Verbs have six Tenses — 

Prior Past and Past, 
Prior Present and Present, 
Prior Future and Future. 

Def. 114. — A Verb in the Prior Past Tense denotes 
time past at some other past time mentioned, or implied 
Example. — I had already expressed my opinion. 
Obs. — Had, prefixed to a Participle, is visually the sign of this Tense. 

Def. 115. — A Verb intnejPas£ Tense denotes time fully 
past. 

Examples. — I wrote you a letter. — We walked to Troy. 
I saw an eagle. — David loved Jonathan 



116 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. — In Regular Verbs, the sign of this Tense is dor ed added to the 
root of the Verb. 

In Irregular Verbs, a distinct form is used. [See List.] 

Def. 116. — The Prior Present Tense denotes time past, 
but in a period reaching to the present. 

Examples. — I have completed my task. — John has returned, 

Mary has been prospered. — Thou hast destroyed thyself. 

Obs. — Have, hast, and has, are the signs of this Tense. 

Def. 117. — The Present Tense denotes time present. 

Examples. — Eliza studies. — Ellen is reading.— Clara can sing. 

Do you hear that bell ? — Emily may write that diagram. 

ObSo 1. — This is the simplest form of the Verb— the sign do is used 
to denote intensity, and in asking questions. 

Obs. 2. — Present Tense may be — 

1. Definite— as, I am writing. — William studies. 

2. Indefinite — as, Virtue is commendable. 

Def. 118.— The Prior Future Tense denotes time past, 
as compared with some future time specified. 

Example. — AVe shall have finished this recitation before the next class 
will come. 

Obs. — Shall have and will Jiave, are the signs of this Tense, 

Def. 119. — The Future Tense denotes future time, as 
compared with the present. 

Example. — James will return to-morrow — I shall see him. 

Obs. — Shall, in the First Person, and will, in the Second and Third, 
are the signs of this Tense. 

Rem. — Distinctions of time are not indicated with precision by the 
form of the Verb. This must be done by the use of Adjuncts. 

In the Potential Mode, the Tenses are quite Indefinite — one form 
being often used for another, [See p. 122.] 

The same remarks will apply to Participles— to the Infinitive, to the 
Subjunctive, and sometimes to the Indicative Mode. 



PARTICIPLES TENSE EXERCISES. 

RECAPITULATION". 



117 



Verb.- 



Transitive. 



Intransitive. 



( Active. 
( Passive. 
( Active. 
( Neuter, 



Indicative . 

Potential ... 1 

% I 

Subjunctive . -j 
Imperative . 

Infinitive . . . < 



Prior Past, 

Past, 
Prior Present, 

Present, 
Prior Future, 

Future. 

Prior Past, 
Past, 

Prior Present, 
Present, 

Past, 
Present. 

Present. 

Prior Present, 
Present. 



( Past, 

_ Participle . . J Prior Present, 
( Present. 



EXERCISES. 

'Let each Yerb and Participle in the following 
pointed out, and its Class and Modification given. 



Exercises be 



7. Willing to be taught. 

8. Having seen the teacher. 

9. Retire. 

10. Let us alone. 

11. Permit me to pass. 

12. Let me go. 



1. I wrote. 

2. Thou art reading. 

3. James may recite. 

4. Mary can study. 
5o Joining the multitude. 

Accustomed to study. 

13. It is pleasant to ride in a sail-boat. 

14. We are all fond of singing. 

15. Some are accustomed to sing by note. 

16. The young ladies ought to have attended the lecture. 

17. By teaching others, we improve ourselves. 

18. Being accustomed to study, we can learn that lesson easily. 

19. Having been censured for idleness, John has resolved to be 

diligent. 

20. By endeavoring to please all, we fail to please any. 



118 ENGLISH GEAMMAE PART II. 

21. " To be or not to be— that is the question/' 

22. « Spirit ! I feel that thou 

Wilt soon depart ! 

23. This body is too weak longer to hold 
The immortal part. 

24. The ties of earth are loosening — 

25. They will soon break ; 

26. And thou, even as a joyous bird, 
Thy flight will take 

To the eternal world." 

27. Go forth when midnight winds are high, 

And ask them whence they come ; 

28. Who sent them raging through the sky, 

29. And where is their far home ! 

30. "Mark the sable woods, 

That shade sublime yon mountain's nodding brow. 

31. With what religious awe, the solemn scene 
Commands your steps. 

32. As if the reverend form 
Of Minos or of Numa should forsake 

The Elysian seats, and, down the embowering glade d 
Move to your pausing eye." 

33 . "In the pleased infant, see its power expand, 

When first the coral fills his little hand ; 

34. Throned in his mother's lap, it dries each tear, 
As her sweet legend falls upon his ear ; 

35. Next it assails him in his top's strange hum, 
Breathes in his whistle, echoes in his drum ; 

36. Each gilded toy that doting love bestows, 
He longs to break, and every spring expose." 

37. " Could I forget 

What I have been, I might the better bear 
What I am destined to. 

38. I am not the first 

That has been wretched but to think how much 
I have been happier." 

39. "Truth crushed to earth, will rise again ; 

40. The eternal years of God are hers : 

41. But Error, wounded, writhes in pain, 
And dies amid her worshipers." 



PARTICIPLES^ — EXERCISES MODEL. 119 

Let the Yerbs and Participles on the preceding page be parsed ac- 
cording to the following 

MODEL. 

Crushed.. .. . .is [a Participle, from the Yerb crush/] used here to describe 

a condition of "Truth ;" hence, a Yerbal Adjective. 
Will rise . . . .asserts an act of " Truth ;" hence, a Yerb. 

" has no object ; hence, Intransitive. 

" simply declares ; hence, Indicative Mode. 

" denotes time future ; hence, Future Tense. 

Are asserts being of " years ;" hence, a Yerb. 

" has no object; hence, Intransitive. 

simply declares ; hence, Indicative Mode. 
1 ' denotes time present ; hence, Present Tense. 

"Wounded. ... is [a Participle, from the Yerb wound ;] used here to de- 
scribe a condition of " Error ;" hence, a Yerbal Adjective. 

Writhes .asserts an act of " Error ;" hence, a Yerb. 

M has no object ; hence, Intransitive. 

" simply declares ; hence, Indicative Mode, 

" denotes time present ; hence, Present Tense. 

1 i The surging billows and the gamboling storms 
Come crouching to his feet. ' ' 

Surging. ... .is [a Participle, from the Yerb surge;] used here to describe 

"billows;" hence, a Yerbal Adjective. 
Gamboling . .is [a Participle, from the Yerb gambol;] used here to describe 
"storms;" hence, a Yerbal Adjective. 

Come ... asserts an act of " billows" and " storms ;" hence, a Yerb. 

1 ' has no object ; hence Intransitive. 

" simply declares ; hence, Indicative Mode. 

" denotes time present ; hence, Present Tense. 

Crouching ... is [a Participle, from the Yerb crouch ;] used here to modify 
the act expressed by "come ;" 
" (it declares the manner of coming ;) hence, an Adverb by 

representation. [See p. 249, Obs. 5.] 

"In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth." 

Beginning . ..is [a Participle, from the Yerb begin;] used here as the 
name of an event ; hence, a Yerbal Noun. 

Created . . t . .asserts an act of " God ;" hence, a Yerb. 

act passes to objects (heaven and earth)— Transitive. 
11 simply declares ; hence, Indicative Mode. 

denotes a particular time past ; hence, Past Tense. 



120 ENGLISH GKAMMAK PAKT II. 



CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

Remark 1. — We have seen that most verbs are varied in form to de- 
note different modes and times of action or being. 

They are also varied to correspond with their subjects in Person and 
Number. 

The regular arrangement of the various forms of a Yerb is called its 
Conjugation. 

Rem. 2. — Verbs are varied by inflection of their Radicals, or by the 
use of different Radicals* Hence, in their methods of Conjugation, 

Verbs are distinguished as 

Regular and Irregular. 

REGULAR VERBS. 

Def. 120. — A Yerb whose Past Tense is formed by the 
addition of eel to the Radical, is Regular in Conjugation. 

Examples. — Present Tense. — I love, act, save, fear. 
Past Tense. — I love d, acted, saved, feared. 

Obs. 1. — Some Verbs, for euphony, drop the final letter of the 
Radical. 

Examples. — Love, loved. — Save, saved. — Recite, recited. 

Obs. 2. — Some Verbs, for euphony, double a final letter of the 
Radical. 

Examples. — Tan, tannedo — Transmit, transmitted. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Def. 121. — A Verb whose Past Tense is not made by 
the addition of d or eel to the Radical, is Irregular in Con- 
jugation. 

Examples, — Present Tense. — I am, see, do, hide, lay. 
Past Tense. — I was, saw, did, hid, laid. 

Rem. — Some Irregular Verbs arc not used in all the Modes and Tenses ; 
Hence. 



VERBS GLASSES, 121 

Def. 122. — A Defective Verb is a Verb that is not used 
in all the Modes and Tenses. 

LIST. 

Present — Can, may, must, ought, shall, will. 

Past. — Could, might, ought, quoth, should, would. 

Bem. — "We have seen [see Part L, p. 26] — 

1. That the Predicate of a Sentence must have at least one Verb. 

2. That it may have other Words. 

3. That in Predicates formed of more than one Word, the last 

Word constitutes the Principal Part of the Predicate, i. e. t 
makes the Principal Assertion. 

4. That the Principal Part- of a Predicate may be — 

A Verb. — I love. — I do see. 

A Participle. — I am loved: — I have seen. 

An Adjective. — John is weary. — Velvet feels smooth. 

A Noun. — We are friends. — He is a scholar. 

A Pronoun. — It is I. — Thine is the kingdom. 

5. That the Words prefixed to the Principal Part are Auxiliaries, 

and may he Verbs only, or Yerbs and Participles. Hence, 

Def. 123. — An Auxiliary Verb is & Verb that is prefixed 
to another Yerb or to a Participle, to distinguish tha 
Voice, Mode, or Tense of the Principal Verb. 

LIST. 

Always Auxiliaries. 

Present. — Can, may, must, shall. 
Past. — Could, might, should. 

Sometimes Principal Verbs. 

Present. — Am, be, do, have, will. ** 
Past. was, did, had, would. 

Obs. — These Words, when used as Auxiliaries, perform peculiar 
offices, thus, 

Be, with its various modifications, is used before a Past Participle 
to indicate the Passive Voice. 
11 



122 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST II. 

Can, may, must, shall (used to command), and will (signifying' 

volition), indicate the Present Tense of the Potential Mode. 
Could, might, should, and would, are the signs of the Past Tense 

Potential. 
Do is used in the Present Tense, Indicative-intensive form, 

Did " " Past Tense, 

I Had " " Prior Past Tense, " 

Have u u Prior Present Tense, Indicative. 

May have " " Prior Present Tense, Potential. 

Might have *< " Prior Past Tense, " 

Shall " " Future, Indicative {First Person). 

Will " il Future Indicative (Second or Third Person), 

Note,- — The Future and the Prior Future Tenses are placed in the 
Indicative Mode in conformity to the general custom of grammarians. 
A strict regard to uniformity and consistency would place them with 
their kindred forms in the Potential Mode, For, 

The ' ' Indicative Mode is that form of the Verb used to indicate or assert 
an act, being, or state." Now a thing future may be predicted, but 
can not be declared or asserted. We may declare a purpose or make a 
prediction. So may we declare the possibility of an act, or the obligation 
to perform an act. But these are done by a modification of the Predi- 
cate, called Potential Mode. 

In the Sentence u I shall go," we have asserted a prediction of an acfe. 
" 6i "I may go, " we have asserted a probability of an act. 

" " "I can go," we have asserted a possibility of an acu 

" I should go," asserts obligation to perform an act. 
11 1 might go," asserts liberty to perform an act. 
" I could go," asserts power to perform an act. 

Neither of the above assertions declares the performance of an act, 
They assert u probability, power, will, or obligation," but no actual event 

The Potential Present and Past alike assert a present probability, pre- 
diction, possibility, etc., of a future act or event. 

" I shall go if I choose," 

"I may go if I will," 

u I can go if I will," 

" I should go if I were invited," 

" I might go if I were invited," 

" I could go if I were invited," 



VERBS CONJUGATION. 



123 



EXERCISES. 
Showing the peculiar uses of Auxiliary Verbs. 

(i.) 







PREDICATE o 




Auxiliaries. 




Principal, 


2 


3 


4 


5 - 




have 


am 
been 








had 


was 

been 

be 

been 

be 

been 

be 






shall 
shall 
may 
may 

might 


have 
have 


- 


singing. 



might have been 
(2.) 



John , 







is 




has 


been 

was 




had 


been 


will 




be 


will 


have 


been 


may 




be 


may 


have 


been 


might 




be 



loved. 



might have been 



'Let the Pupil substitute for the Word "John" the following 
Subjects, and notice what changes in the various Auxiliary Verbs must 
consequently be made. Thus, 

I requires (am — have — shall — shall have.) 

Thou " (art — hast — hadst — wilt — mayst — mightst.) 

They " (are — have.) 

People " (are — have.) 

He " [no change.] 

Hence, 
Obs. — The practical object of the following Paradigms is to teach the 
Pupil what are the various changes in the form of the Predicate to 
correspond to the Subject, and to indicate the various Modes, Tenses, 
Persons, and Numbers. 



124 ENGLISH GEAMMAR — PART II. 

Paradigm of the Irregular Verb " Be." 

PRINCIPAL PARTS. 

Am, was, being, been a 

INDICATIVE MODE. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular Number. Plural Number* 

First Person ... . lam, We are, 

Second " ....!£ bouart ' (Ye are, 

( You are, ( You are, 

Third " .... He is. They are. 

PRIOR PRESENT TENSE. 

1. I have been, "We have been, 



2 j Thou hast been, 
' ( You have been, 
3. He has been. 




j Ye have been, 
( You have been, 
They have been. 


PAST TENSE. 

1. I was, 
n j Thou wast, 
' ( You was,* 
3. He was. 


"We were, 
j Ye were, 
j You were, 

They were. 


PRIOR PAST 


TENSE. 


1. I had been, 

o j Thou hadst been, 

' ( You had been, 
3. He had been. 




"We had been, 
j Ye had been, 
( You had been, 

They had been. 


FUTURE TENSE. 




1. I shall be, 
9 j Thou wilt be, 
*• I You will be, 
3. He will be. 




We shall be, 
j Ye will be, 
\ You will be, 

They will be. 


PRIOR FUTURE 


TENSE, 


1. I shall have been, 
o j Thou wilt have been, 
" ( You will have been, 
3. He will have been. 




We shall have been, 
j Ye will have been, 
j You will have been, 

They will have been. 


POTENTIAL 


MODB, 


PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
1. I may be, 
o j Thou mayst be, 

* ( You may be, 
3. He may be. 


Plural. 

We may be, 
j Ye may be, 
( You may be, 

They may be. 



* Some good writers use the Plural form of the Yerb {were) in addressing one 
person. 






VERBS CONJUGATION. 125 

PRIOR PRESENT TENSE, 

Singular, Plural. 

1. I may have been, We may have been, 

2 C Thou mayst have been, C Ye may have been, 

* ( You may have been, \ You may have been, 
3. He may have been. They may have been. 

PAST TENSE. 

1. I might be, We might be, 

2 ( Thou mightst be, (Ye might be, 

' ( You might be, \ You might be, 
3. He might be, They might be* 

PRIOR PAST TENSE. 

1. I might have been, We might have been, 

n C Thou mightst have been, C Ye might have been, 

' I You might have been, ( You might have been 
3. He might have been. They might have been 

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 







PRESENI 


TENSE. 




1. 

2. 

3, 


If I be, 
C If thou be, 
I If you be, 

If he be. 


PAST 


TENSE. 


If we be, 
(If ye be, 
} If you be, 

If they be. 


1. 

2, 

3. 


If I were, 
C If thou wert, 
( If you were, 

If he were. 






If we were, 
C If ye were, 
I If you were, 

If they were 



IMPERATIVE MODEo 

PRESENT TENSE. 

o ( Be thou, or C Be ye, or Do ye be, 

' ( Do thou be. (Be you, or Do you be. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 

Present Tense. . . . . . To be. 

Prior Present Tense. .... .To have been, 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. ............... Being. 

Past. . . . . . „ . . , . . Been. 

Prior Present. ........ s t Haviiig been. 

11* 



126 



ENGLISH GEAMMAE — PART IL 



FORMULA OF REGULAR VERBS. 

Transitive Verb — " Recite." 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

The Principal Parts of this Verb are — 

Present Tense ...*"....... .Recite* 

Past Tense . . q . =, =, , „ = „ ^ Recited. 
Present Participle „ . » „ » „ .ReciuVz^. 
Past Participle <> . „ » , <, Recitec?. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



Present Tense . . » . . » . . . „ . . Recite. 



Simple Form. 

1. I recite, 

9 C Thou recited, 



8. 



You recite, 
He recites. 



We recite, 
Ye recite, 
You recite, 
3, They recite. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Form. 



I am reciting, 
( Thou art reciting, 
I You are reciting, 

He is reciting. 



We are reciting, 
> Ye are reciting, 
I You are reciting, 

They are reciting* 



PRIOR, PRESENT TENSEo 



Singular. 



1. I have recited, 



2. 



C Thou hast recited, 



\ You have recited, 
3. He has recited 



Plural, 



. We have recited, 
C Ye have recited, 
" ( You have recited, 
. They have recited. 



I have been reciting, 
Thou hast been reciting, 
You have been reciting, 
He has been reciting. 



We have been reciting, 

!Ye have been reciti?ig, 
You have been reciting, 
They have been reciting. 



VERBS — CON J UG ATION. 



127 



-\ 



I recited, 
Thou recited^, 
You recited, 
He recited. 



PAST TENSE. 

Singular* 



Plural. 



We recited, 
' Ye recited, 
You recited, 
They recited, 



I was reciting, 
{ Thou wast reciting, 
\ You was or were reciting, 

He was reciting. 

We were reciting, 
C Ye were reciting, 
\ You were reciting, 

They were reciting. 



PPIOE, PAST TENSE. 



1. I had recited, 

2 C Thou hadst recited, 

' i You had recited, 
3 He had recited. 



Singular, 



Plural. 



1. We had recited, 
o C Ye A^d recited, 

" I You /ztfd recited, 
3. Thej- had recited. 



FUTURE TENSE. 



I shall recite, 
[ Thou ivilt recite, 
[ You will recite, 

He will recite. 

We shall recite, 
£ Ye will recite, 
I You will recite, 

They will recite. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



I had been reciting, 
( Thou hadst been reciting, 
\ You had been reciting, 

He had been reciting. 



We had been reciting, 
i Ye had been reciting, 
I You had been reciting, 

They had been reciting. 



I shall be reciting, 
C Thou wilt be reciting, 
I You will be reciting, 

He will be>r editing. 

We shall be reciting , 
£ Ye icill be reciting, 
( You will be reciting, 

They will be reciting. 



PEIOS FUTURE TENSE. 



Singular. 
1. I sftaZZ Acre recited, 
« C Thou rfZ have recited, 
£ You will have recited, 
3. He will have recited 

Plural. 
1. We shall have recited, 
2 C Ye will have recited, 

' ( You will have recited, 
Z. They icitt have recited. 



I shall have been reciting, 
C Thou ivilt have been reciting, 
I You will have been reciting, 

He will have been reciting. 



We shall have been reciting, 
Ye will have been reciting, 
You will have been reciting, 
They will have been reciting. 



128 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



POTENTIAL MODE. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



1. I may recite, 

n C Thou mayst recite, 

' ( You may recite, 
3« He may recite 

1. We may recite, 
2 (Ye may recite, 

' ( You may recite, 
3. They may recite. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE, 



I may he reciting, 
C Thou mayst be reciting, 
I You may be reciting, 

He may be reciting. 

We may be reciting, 
( Ye may be reciting, 
\ You may be reciting, 

They may be reciting. 



Singulars. 
1. I may have recited, 
o C Thou mayst have recited, 

' £ You may have recited, 
3. He may have recited. 

Plural, 
We may have recitec?, 
C Ye may have recited, 
£ You may have recited, 
They may have recited, 

PAST TENSE, 

Singular, 

I might recite, 
C Thou mightst recite, 
I You might recite, 

He might recite. 



I may have been reciting, 
i Thou mayst have been reciting, 
£ You may have been reciting, 

He may have been reciting. 

We may have been reciting, 
C Ye may have been reciting, 
\ You may have been reciting, 

They may have been reciting. 



We might recite, 
\ Ye might recite, 
» You might recite, 

They might recite, 



Plural. 



I might be reciting, 
C Thou mightst be reciting, 
( You might be reciting, 

He might be reciting. 

We might be reciting, 
£ Ye might be reciting, 
I You might be reciting, 

They might be reciting. 



PRIOR PAST TENSE. 



Singular. 

I might have recited, 
\ Thou mightst have recited, 
[ You might have recited, 

He might have recited. 

Plural. 
We might have recited, 
[ Ye might have recited, 
You might have recited, 
They might have recited. 



I might have been reciting, 
C Thou mightst have been reciting, 
\ You might have been reciting, 

He migM have been reciting. 



We might have been reciting, 
C Ye might have been reciting, 
( You might have been reciting, 

They might have been reciting* 



VERBS CONJUGATION". 



129 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE, 



1. If I recite, 
o C If thou recite, 
" I If you recite, 
3. If he recite. 



1. If we recite, 
9 ( If ye recite, 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 



Plural, 



3. 



If you recite, 
If they recite. 



If I be reciting, 
C If thou be reciting, 
I If you be reciting, 

If he be reciting. 

If we be reciting, 
If ye be reciting, 
If you be reciting, 
If they be reciting. 



{ 



PAST TENSE. 



Singular. 



1. Though I recited, 
2 $ Though thou reciter/, 
' I Though you recited, 
3. Though he recited. 



Plural. 

Though we recited, 
i Though ye recited, 
[ Though you recited, 

Though they recited. 



Though I were reciting, 
\ Though thou wert reciting, 
1 Though you were reciting, 

Though he were reciting. 

Though we were reciting, 
Though ye were reciting, 
Though you were reciting, 
Though they were reciting. 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
2 C Becite thou, or C Be thou reciting, or 

' I Do thou recite. \ Do thou he reciting. 

Plural. 

2 C Recite ye or you, or C Be ye recitm^r, or 

'I Do ye or you recite. \ Do ye be reciting. 

INFINITIVE MODE. 
PRESENT. 

To recite. To be reciting. 

PRIOR PRESENT. 

To have recited. To have been recitingo 



PARTICIPLES . 

PRESENT. 

Reciting. 

PRIOR PRESENT, 

Having recited. Having been reciting. 



130 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II> 



Paradigm of the Verb " Love." 

ACTIVE VOICE. PASSIVE VOICE. 



INDICATIVE MODE. 



PRESENT TENSE, 



1. I love, 

2 C Thou lovest, 

' I You love, 
3. He. loves. 

1. We love, 
2 C Ye love, 

' ( You love, 
3. They love. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



I am loved, 
( Thou art loved, 
I You are loved, 

He is loved. 



We are loved, 
C Ye are loved, 
I You are loved, 

They are loved. 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE. 



1. I have loved, 
o ( Thou hast loved, 
* I You have loved, 
3. He has loved. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



1. We have loved, 
2 C Ye have loved, 

' ( You have loved, 
3. They have loved. 



I have been loved, 
C Thou hast been loved, 
( You have been loved, 

He has been loved. 



We have been loved, 
\ Ye have been loved, 
[ You have been loved, 

They have been loved. 



1. I loved, 

2 C Thou lovedst, 

' I You loved, 
3. He loved. 



1. We loved, 
2 C Ye loved, 

' l You loved, 
3. They loved. 



PAST TENSE. 

Singular* 



Plural. 



I was loved, 
C Thou wast loved, 
( You was or were loved, 

He was loved. 



We were loved, 
[ Ye were loved, 
I You were loved, 

They were lovedo 



PRIOR PAST TENSE. 



Singular. 



1. I had loved, 

ey C Thou hadst loved, 

( You had loved, 
3. He had loved. 



I had been loved, 
C Thou hadst been loved, 
( You had been loved, 

He had been loved. 



VERBS CONJUGATION. 131 

Plural . 
1. We had loved, We had been loved, 

9 C Ye had loved, C Ye had been loved, 

\ You had loved, \ You had been loved, 
3. They had loved. They had been loved, 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Singular* 
1. I shall love, I shall be loved, 

o C Thou wilt love, C Thou wilt be loved, 

I You will love, { You will be loved, 
3, He will love. He will be loved. 

Plural. 
1. We shall love, We shall be loved, 

o ( Ye will love, £ Ye will be loved, 

' \ You will love, \ You will be loved, 
3. They will love. They will be loved. 

PRIOR FUTURE TENSE, 

Singular. 
1. I shall have loved, I shall have been loved, 

9 C Thou wilt have loved, C Thou wilt have been loved, 

* ( You will have loved, £ You will have been loved, 
3. He will have loved. He will have been loved. 

Plural. 
1, We shall have loved, We shall have been loved, 

n (Ye will have loved, C Ye will have been loved, 

' I You will have loved, ( You will have been loved, x 
3o They will have loved. They will have been loved, 



POTENTIAL MOCE. 

PRESENT TENSE 

Singular, 
1. I may love, I may be loved, 

2 C Thou mayst love, C Thou mayst be loved, 

' I You may love, \ You may be loved, 
3. He may love. He may be loved. 

Plural. 
1. We may love, We may be loved, 

2 C Ye may love, C Ye may be loved, 

* £ You may love, ( You may be loved, 
3. - They may love. They may be loved, 



132 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE, 

* Singular. 
I. I may have loved, I may have been loved, 

o ( Thou mayst have loved, C Thou mayst have been loved, 

' ( You may have loved, \ You may have been loved, 

3. He may have lovedo He may have been loved. 

Plural, 
1. "We may have loved, We may have been loved, 

o ( Ye may have loved, C Ye may have been loved, 

' ( You may have loved, ( You may have been loved, 

3 They may have loved, They may have been loved 

PAST TENSEo 

Singular, 
1, I might love, I might be loved, 

n C Thou mightst love, C Thou mightst be loved, 

\ You might love, \ You might be loved, 

3o He might love. He might be loved. 

Plural, 
1. We might love, We might be loved, 

« (Ye might love, C Ye might be loved, 

' ( You might love, ( You might be loved, 

3. They might love. They might be loved- 

PRIOR PAST TENSE, 

Singular. 
1. I might have loved, I might have been loved, 

n C Thou mightst have loved, C Thou mightst have been loved, 
' i You might have loved, l You might have been loved, 

3. He might have loved. He might have been loved. 

Plural. 
L We might have loved, We might have been loved, 

ey C Ye might have loved, C Ye might have been loved, 

' I You might have loved, ( You might have been loved, 

3 They might have loved. They might have been loved, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE, 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular* 
1 If I love, If I be loved, 

o C If thou love, $ If thou be loved, 

( If you love, ( If you be loved, 

3. If he love. If he be loved. 



VERBS CONJUGATION. 



133 



1. If we love, 
2 ! 



? j If ye love, 
* | If 



you love, 
If they love. 



1. If I loved, 
o j If thou lo\ ed, 
( If you loved, 
3. If he loved. . 

1. If we loved, 
o j If ye loved, 

' ( If you loved, 
3. If they loved. 



Plural, 



PAST TENSE, 

Singular. 



Plural. 



If we be loved, 
[ If ye be loved, 
I If you be loved, 

If they be loved. 



If I were loved, 
If thou wert loved, 
If you were loved, 
If he were loved. 



If we were loved, 
[ If ye were loved, 
( If you were loved, 

If they were loved. 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
2 j Love thou, or j Be loved, or 

' I Do thou love. ( Do thou be loved. 

Plural. 
o j Love ye, or 
' ( Do ye love. 



j Be ye loved, or 
I Do ye be loved. 



INFINITIVE MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



To love. 



To be loved. 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE. 

To have loved. To have been loved. 



PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT. 



Loving, 



Being loved. 



PRIOR PRESENT. 

Having loved. Having been loved, 

PAST. 

Loved. 
12 



134 ENGLISH GKAMMAR PART II, 

Synopsis of the Verb " Study." 

Active Voice. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 

First Person. 

DECLARATIVE FORM. DECLARATIVE FORM. — Negative. 

Present I study I study not, or I do not study. 

Prior Present. I have studied I have not studied. 

Past I studied I studied not, or I did not study. 

Prior Past I had studied I had not studied. 

Future I shall study I shall not study. 

Prior Future. .1 shall have studied. .1 shall not have studied. 



POTENTIAL MODE. 

Present I may study I may not study. 

Prior Present . I may have studied . . I may not have studied. 

Past I might study I might not study. 

Prior Past I might have studied. . I might not have studied. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 

Present ... If I study If I study not. 

Past , . If I studied If I studied not . 



IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Second Person. 
Present Study, or ) j Study not, or 



}.,.{; 



.Do thou study, [ 7 ' ° (Do not study, 



INFINITIVE MODE. 



Present To study Not to study. 

Prior Present. .To have studied Not to have studied. 



PARTICIPLES. 

Stmple Studying Not studying, or studying not. 

Compound Having studied Not having studied. 



! 



VERBS SYNOPSIS. 135 

Synoiosis of the Verb " Turn. 
Active Voice. 
INDICATIVE MODE. 
DECLARATIVE FORM. INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Present I turn Do I turn ? 

Prior Present. . .1 have turned Have I turned? 

Past I turned Did I turn ? 

Prior Past I had turned Had I turned ? 

Future I shall turn Shall I turn ? 

Prior Future. . . .1 shall have turned Shall I have turned ? 

POTENTIAL MODE. 

Present I may turn May I turn ? 

Prior Present ... I may have turned .... May I have turned ? 

Past I might turn Might I turn ? 

Prior Past I might have turned. . .Might I have turned? 



Synopsis of the Verb " Sell." 

Passive Voice. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 

Third Person. 

interrogative form. interrogative form. — Negative. 

Present Is it sold ? Is it not sold ? 

Prior Present. . .Has it been sold ?. , Has it not been sold ? 

Past Was it sold ? Was it not sold ? 

Prior Past Had it been sold ? Had it not been sold ? 

Future Will it be sold? Will it not be sold? 

Prior Future . . . Will it have been sold ? . . Will it not have been sold ? 

POTENTIAL MODE. 

Third Person. 

Present May it be sold ? May it not be sold ? 

Prior Present . .May it have been sold ?. .May it not have been sold ? 

Past Might it be sold ? Might it not be sold ? 

Prior Past Might it have been sold?. Might it not have been sold? 

* The Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive Modes are not used in Inter- 
rogative Sentences. 



136 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Paradigm of the Irregular Verb " See.'* 

DECLARATIVE FORM. INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MODE. 



1. I see, 
o J Thou seest, 
" ( You see, 
3. He sees. 



1. We see, 
„ j Ye see, 

' ( You see, 
3. They see. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular, 



Plural. 



Seel? 
j Seest thou ? 
( See you ? 

Sees he ? 



See we ? 
j See ye ? 
( See you ? 

See they ? 



Obs. — The above is the Simple form, which, in Interrogative Sentences, 
is not much used, the Intensive form being commonly employed. Thus, 



1. I do see, 

2 j Thou dost see, 

* ( You do see, 
3. He does see. 



1. We do see, 
o j Ye do see, 
"' j You do see, 
3. They do see. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 



Plural. 



Do I see ? 
Dost thou see 
Do you see ? 
Does he see ? 



Do we see ? 
\ Do ye see ? 
Do you see ? 
Do they see f 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE. 



1. I have seen, 
2 j Thou hast seen, 
"" ( You have seen, 
3. He has seen. 



1. We have seen, 
n (Ye have seen, 

' ( You have seen, 
3. They have seen. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Have I seen ? 
j Hast thou seen ? 
| Have you seen ? 

Has he seen ? 



Have we seen ? 
j Have ye seen ? 
( Have you seen ? 

Have they seen ? 



IRREGULAR VERBS PARADIGM 137 

past tense. — Simple Form. 

Singular. 

1. I saw, Saw I? 

o j Thou sawest, j Sawest thou ? 

* ( You saw, j Saw you ? 
3. He saw. Saw he ? 

Plural. 

1. We saw, Saw we ? 

2 J Ye saw, j Saw ye ? 

- " ( You saw, { Saw you ? 

3. They saw. Saw they ? 

past tense. — Intensive Form. 

Singular. 

1. I did see, Did I see ? 

2 j Thou didst see, 4 Didst thou see ? 

* [ You did see, | Did you see ? 
3. He did see. Did he see ? 

Plural, 

1. We did see, Did we see ? 

2 j Ye did see, j Did ye see ? 

J ' j You did see, ( Did you see ? 

3. They did see. Did they see ? 



PRIOR PAST TENSE. 

Singular. 
1. I had seen, Had I seen ? 

2 j Thou hadst seen, j Hadst thou seen 

J ' ( You had seen, ( Had you seen ? 
3. He had seen. Had he seen ? 

Plural. 
1. We had seen, Had we seen ? 

2 j Ye had seen, j Had ye seen ? 

' "j You had seen, j Had you seen ? 
3. They had seen. Had they seen ? 



POTENTIAL MODE. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
lo I can see, Can I see ? 

2 (Thou canst see, j Canst thou see ? 

* 1 You can see, j Can you see ? 
3. He can see. Can he see ? 

12* 



138 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



1. 

2. 



We can see, 
Ye can see, 
You can see, 
They can see. 



Plural. 



Can we see ? 
j Can ye see ? 
| Can you see ? 

Can they see ? 



PRIOR PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 
1. I can have seen, 
o j Thou canst have seen, 

' ( You can have seen, 
3. He can have seen. 



Plural. 

We can have seen, 
j Ye can have seen, 
\ You can have seen, 

They can have seen. 



Can I have seen ? 
j Canst thou have seen 
( Can you have seen ? 

Can he have seen ? 



Can we have seen ? 
J Can ye have seen ? 
( Can you have seen ? 

Can they have seen ? 



1. I could see, 
j Thou couldst see, 
( You could see, 

3. He could see. 



PAST TENSE. 

Singular. 



2. 



We could see, 
Ye could see, 
You could see, 
They could see. 



Plural. 



Could I see ? 
i Couldst thou see ? 
( Could you see ? 

Could he see ? 



Could we see ? 
Could ye see ? 
Could you see ? 
Could they see ? 



PRIOR PAST TENSE. 



Singular. 

I could have seen, 
j Thou couldst have seen, 
I You could have seen, 

He could have seen. 

Plural. 
We could have seen, 
j Ye could have seen, 
( You could have seen, 



Could I have seen ? 
j Couldst thou have seen ? 
j Could you have seen ? 

Could he have seen ? 



Could we have seen ? 
j Could ye have seen ? 
( Could you have seen ? 

Could they have seen ? 



Let the Pupil give the other Modes and Tenses of this Verb- 
ling to pp. 132-3 for corresponding declarative forms. 



-refer- 



VERBS MODIFICATIONS. 139 

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

*AGE 

107. What is a Verb 9 See Def. 97. 

How are Verbs distinguished 9 

What is a Transitive Verb ? See Def. 98. 

What is an Intransitive Verb ? See Def. 99. 

What is a Neuter Verb ? See Def. 100. 

108. What are the sub-classes of Transitive Verbs ? 

When are Verbs in the Active Voice ? 1 . See Def. 101. 

When are Verbs in the Passive Voice ?..--. See Def. 102. 

How is the Passive Voice formed ? See Obs. 2. 

109. What gives occasion for distinctions of Mode? See Rem. 

Name the different Modes. 

When are Verbs in the Indicative Mode 2 See Def. 103. 

110. When is a Verb in the Potential Mode ? See Def. 104. 

When is a Verb in the Subjunctive Mode ? , See Def. 105. 

When is a Verb in the Imperative Mode ? See Def. 106. 

111. When is a Verb in the Infinitive Mode f See Def. 107. 

What is a Participle ? .See Def. 108. 

112. What are the principal distinctions of Participles ? 

What is a Simple Participle? .See Def. 109. 

What is a Compound Participle f See Def. 110. 

How are the Simple Participles distinguished ? 

What is the Present Participle ? .See Def. 111. 

113. What is the Past Participle? See Def. 112. 

114. What various offices do Participles perform ? See Obs. 8. 

115. What is Tense ? — What Names are given to the Tenses ? 

Define the Prior Past Tense, and give Examples. . . . .See Def. 114. 
Define the Past Tense, " " See Def. 115. 

116. Define the Prior Present Tense, " " See Def. 116. 

Define the Present Tense, " " See Def. 117. 

Define the Prior Future Tense, " " See Def. 118. 

Define the Future Tense, " " See Def, 119. 

Give the various Tenses in the different Modes . . See Recapitulation. 

120. What does the term Conjugation indicate ? See Rem. 

How are Verbs distinguished, in Inflections ? 

What is a Regular Verb? See Def. 120. 

What is an Irregular Verb ? See Def. 121. 

121. What is a Defective Verb ? See Def. 122. 

What is an Auxiliary Verb ? See Def. 123. 

Give the various offices of the Auxiliary Verbs See Obs. 1. 



140 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



EXERCISES. 



(I.) 



Let the Pupils give the Class, Voice, Mode, Tense, Person, and Num- 
ber of the following Verbs — and complete the Sentences. 



1 . am writing a letter. 

2. are reading poetry. 

3. didst see the eclipse. 

4. had known duty. 

5. may feel the worm. 

6. ought to study. 

7. couldst have favored him 

8. thou love me. 

17, 

18. 



9. couldst love to study. 

10. has walked to Boston. 

11. hast wandered from home. 

12. shall learn wisdom. 

13. will improve in writing. 

14. could recite lessons. 

15. canst be false to any man. 

16. — — wish to see home, 
wilt have returned my books, 
shall have returned from Europe. 



(no 

Repeat the First Person Singular of each Mode and Tense of the fol- 
lowing Verbs : 



Am, 


Eat, 


Neglect, 


Receive, 


Arise, 


Fly, 


Need, 


Reject, 


Begin, 


Go, 


Owe, 


Select, 


Blow, 


Hold, 


Ought, 


Squander, 


Come, 


Know, 


Practice, 


Yoke, 


Cut, 


Lay, 


Purchase, 


Touch, 


Do, 


Lie, 


Quiet, 


Use, 


Drink, 


Make, 


Qualify. 


Wish. 



Repeat the Third Person Plural of the same. 

(m.) 
Let the appropriate Auxiliary Verbs be inserted in the blank spaces 
indicated. 

1. u Now the shades of night gone." 

2. " The bell's deep tones swelling." 

3. " The palace wrapped in flames." 

4. * ' How my heart encrusted with the world ! ' ' 

5. ' ' Everything in the life of such persons misplaced. ' ' 

6. " Science raise thee to eminence." 

7. " But I alone guide thee to felicity." 






IRBEGULAE VERBS. 



141 



8. " Ten years I allot to the attainment of knowledge." 

9. ' * A chieftain's vengeance thou feel. ' ' 

10. M The injuries of Fortune not affect the mind." 

(IV.) 

Let two Auxiliary Verbs be inserted in the following Sentences : 

1. John not gone to the river. 

2. We finished our task at five. 

3. The earth dissolved like snow. 

4. How we reconciled ? 

5. Who thought it? 

6. You fatigued. 

7. He ■ not frightened. 

8. You brought my letters. 

9. The boy been injured by it. 

10. No doctor made that man well. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Rem. — The following are the Irregular and the Redundant Verbs of 
the English language. 



Present. 


Past 


Present Participl 


4. Past Participle. 


Abide, 


abode, 


abiding, 


abode or abided.* 


Am or be. 


, was, 


being, 


been. 


Arise, 


arose, 


arising, 


arisen. 


Awake, 


awoke or awaked, 


awaking, 


awoke or awaked 


Bear, 


bore or bare, 


bearing, 


born. 


Bear, to) 

sustain, ) 


bore or bare, 


bearing, 


borne, 


Beat, 


beat, 


beating, 


beaten or beat. 


Begin, 


began or begun, 


beginning, 


begun. 


Behold, 


beheld, 


beholding," 


beheld. 


Belay, 


belayed or belaid, 


belaying, 


belayed or belaid. 


Bend, 


bent or bended, 


bending, 


bent or bended. 


Bereave, 


bereft or bereaved, 


bereaving, 


bereft or bereaved. 


Beset, 


beset, 


besetting, 


beset. 


Beseech, 


besought or beseeched,* beseeching, 


besought or beseeched.* 


Bet, 


bet or betted, 


betting, 


bet or betted.* 




* 


Obsolete forms. 





14^ 


ENGLISH G 


EAMMAE — PAET XI. 


Present. 


Past 


Present Participle. Past Participle. 


Betide, 


betided or betid,* 


betiding, 


betided or betid. 


Bid, 


bade or bid, 


bidding, 


bidden or bid. 


Bind, 


bound, 


binding, 


bound. 


Bite, 


bit, 


biting, 


bitten or bit. 


Bleed, 


bled, 


bleeding, 


bled. 


Blend, 


blended or blent, 


blending, 


blended or blent. 


Bless, 


blessed or blest, 


blessing, 


blessed or blest. 


Blow, 


blew or blowed, 


blowing, 


blowed or blown. 


Break, 


broke, 


breaking, 


broken. 


Breed, 


bred, 


breeding, 


breed. 


Bring, 


brought, 


bringing, 


brought. 


Build, 


built or builded,* 


building, 


built or builded.* 


Burn, 


burned or burnt, 


burning, 


burned or burnt. 


Burst, 


burst or bursted,* 


bursting, 


burst or bursted.* 


Buy, 


bought, 


buying, 


bought. 


Cast, 


cast, 


casting, 


cast. 


Catch, 


caught or catched,* 


catching, 


caught or catched.* 


Chide, 


chid, 


chiding, 


chidden or chid. 


Choose, 


chose, 


choosing, 


chosen. 


Cleave, 


clove or cleft, 


cleaving, 


cloven or cleft. 


Cleave, 


cleaved or clave, 


cleaving, 


cleaved. 


Cling, 


clung, 


clinging, 


clung. 


Clothe, 


clothed or clad, 


clothing, 


clothed or clad. 


Come, 


came, 


coming, 


come. 


Cost, 


cost, 


costing, 


cost. 


Creep, 


crept or creeped,* 


creeping, 


crept or creeped.* 


Crow, 


crowed or crew, 


crowing, 


crowed. 


Curse, 


cursed or curst, * 


cursing, 


cursed or curst.* 


Cut, 


cut, 


cutting, 


cut. 


Dare, 


dared or durst, 


daring, 


dared or durst c 


Deal, 


dealt or dealed,* 


dealing, 


dealt or dealed.* 


Di^ 


dug or digged,* 


digging, 


dug or digged. * 


Dive, 


dived or dove, 


diving, 


dived or diven. 


Do, 


did, 


doing, 


done. 


Draw, 


drew, 


drawing, 


drawn. 


Dream, 


dreamed or dreamt, 


dreaming, 


dreamed or dreamt. 


Dress, 


dressed or drest, 


dressing, 


dressed or drest. 


Drink, 


drank, 


drinking, 


drunk or drank. 


Drive, 


drove, 


driving, 


driven. 





IEJRE 


:gulau ylkes. 


Present. 


Past. 


Present Participle. Past Participle. 


Dwell, 


dwelt or dwelled,* 


dwelling, 


dwelt or dwelled.* 


Eat, 


ate or eat,* 


eating, 


eaten or ©at.* 


Fall, 


fell, 


falling, 


fallen. 


Feed, 


fed, 


feeding, 


fed. 


Feel, 


felt, 


feeling, 


felt. 


Fight, 


fought, 


fighting, 


fought. 


Find, 


found, 


finding, 


found. 


Flee, 


fled, 


fleeing, 


fled. 


Fling, 


flung, 


flinging, 


flung. 


Fly, 


flew, 


flying, 


flown. 


Forbear, 


forbore, 


forbearing, 


, forborne. 


Forget, 


forgot or forgat, 


forgetting. 


, forgotten or forgot. 


Forsake, 


forsook, 


forsaking, 


forsaken. 


Freeze, 


froze or freezed,* 


freezing, 


frozen or freezed.* 


Geld, 


gelded or gelt,* 


gelding, 


gelded or gelt. * 


Get, 


got or gat,* 


getting, 


got or gotten.* 


Gild, 


gilded or gilt, 


gilding, 


gilded or gilt. 


Girt, 


girded or girt, 


girding, 


girded or girt. 


Give, 


gave, 


giving, 


given. 


Go, 


went, 


going, 


gone. 


Grave, 


graved, 


graving, 


graved or graven. 


Grind, 


ground, 


grinding, 


ground. 


Grow, 


grew, 


growing, 


grown. 


Hang, 


hung or hanged, 


hanging, 


hung or hanged. 


Have, 


had, 


having, 


had. 


Hear, 


heard, 


hearing, 


heard. 


Heave, 


heaved or hove,* 


heaving, 


heaved or hoven.* 


Hew, 


hewed, 


hewing, 


hewed or hewn. 


Hide, 


hid, 


hiding, 


hidden or hid. 


Hit, 


hit, 


hitting, 


hit. 


Hold, 


held, 


holding, 


held or holden.* 


Hurt, 


hurt, 


hurting, 


hurt. 


Keep, 


kept, 


keeping, 


kept. 


Kneel, 


kneeled or knelt, 


kneeling, 


kneeled or knelt. » 


Knit, 


knit or knitted, 


knitting, 


knit or knitted. 


Know, 


knew, 


knowing, 


known. 


Lade, 


laded, 


lading, 


laded or laden, 


Lay, 


laid or layed, 


laying, 


laid or layed.* 


Lead, 


led, 


leading, 


led. 



143 



\ 



144 



ENGLISH GKAMHAK PART II. 



Present. 


Past. 


Present Participle. Past Participle. 


Lean, 


leaned or leant, 


leaning, 


leaned or lent. 


Leap, 


leaped or leapt, 


leaping, 


leaped or leapt. 


Learn, 


learned or learnt, 


learning, 


learned or learnt. 


Leave, 


left, 


leaving, 


left. 


Lend, 


lent, 


lending, 


lent. 


Let, 


let, 


letting, 


let. 


Lie, 


lay, 


lying, 


lain. 


Light, 


lighted or lit, 


lighting, 


lighted or lit. 


Loose, 


lost, 


loosing, 


lost. 


Make, 


made, 


making, 


made. 


Mean, 


meant or meaned,* 


meaning, 


meant or meaned.* 


Meet, 


met, 


meeting, 


met. 


Mow, 


mowed, 


mowing, 


mowed or mown. 


Mulct, 


mulcted or mulct,* 


mulcting, 


mulcted or mulct.* 


Outdo, 


outdid, 


outdoing, 


outdone. 


Pass, 


passed or past, 


passing, 


passed or past. 


Pay, 


paid or payed,* 


paying, 


paid or payed.* 


Pen, 


penned or pent,* 


penning, 


penned or pent.* 


Plead, 


pled or pleaded, 


pleading, 


pled or pleaded. ^ 


Prove, 


proved, 


proving^ 


proved or proven. 


Put, 


put, 


putting, 


put. 


Quit, 


quitted or quit, 


quitting, 


quitted or quit. 


Rap, 


rapped or rapt, 


rapping, 


rapped or rapt. 


Read, 


read, 


reading, 


read. 


Rend, 


rent, 


rending, 


rent. 


Rid, 


rid, 


ridding, 


rid. 


Ride, 


rode, 


riding, 


rode or ridden. 


Ring, 


rung or rang, 


ringing, 


rung, 


Rise, 


rose, 


rising, 


risen. 


Rive, 


rived, 


riving, 


riven or rived. 


Roast, 


roasted or roast, 


roasting, 


roasted or roast. 


Rot, 


rotted, 


rotting, 


rotten or rotted. 


Run, 


ran or run, 


running, 


run. 


Saw, 


sawed, 


sawing, 


sawn or sawed. 


Say, 


said, 


• saying, 


said. 


See, 


saw, 


seeing, 


seen. 


Seek, 


sought, 


seeking, 


sought. 


Sell, 


sold, 


selling, 


sold. 


Send, 


sent, 


sending, 


sent. 



IBKEGULAK TEEBS. 



145 



Present. 


Past. 


Present Participle. Past Participle. 


Set, 


set, 


setting, 


set. 


Shake, 


shook or shaked,* 


shaking, 


shaken or shaked.* 


Shape, 


shaped, 


shaping, 


shaped or shapea. 


Shave, 


shaved, 


shaving, 


shaved or shaven. 


Shear, 


sheared, 


shearing, 


sheared or shorn. 


Shed, 


shed, 


shedding, 


shed. 


Shine, 


shone or shined, 


shining, 


shined or shone. 


Show, 


showed, 


showing, 


showed or shown. 


Shoe, 


shod, 


shoeing, 


shod. 


Shoot, 


shot, 


shooting, 


shot. 


Shred, 


shred, 


shredding, 


shred. 


Shrink, 


shrunk, 


shrinking, 


shrunk. 


Shut, 


shut, 


shutting, 


shut. 


Sing, 


sung or sang, 


singing, 


sung. 


Sink, 


sunk or sank, 


sinking, 


sunk. 


Sit, 


sat, 


sitting, 


sat. 


Slay, 


slew, 


slaying, 


slain. 


Sleep, 


slept, 


sleeping, 


slept. 


Slide, 


slid, 


sliding, 


slidden or slid. 


Sling, 


slung, 


slinging, 


slung. 


Slink, 


slunk, 


slinking, 


slunk. 


Slit, 


slitted or slit, 


slitting, 


slitted or slit. 


Smell, 


smelled or smelt, 


smelling, 


smelled or smelt. 


Smite, 


smote, 


smiting, 


smitten or smit. 


Sow, 


sowed, 


sowing, 


sowed or sown. 


Speak, 


spoke or spake, 


speaking, 


spoken. 


Speed, 


sped, 


speeding, 


sped. 


Spell, 


spelled or spelt, 


spelling, 


spelled or spelt. 


Spend, 


spent, 


spending, 


spent. 


Spill, 


spilled or spilt, 


spilling, 


spilled or spilt. 


Spin, 


spun, 


spinning, 


spun. 


Spit, 


spit or spat,* 


spitting, 


spit. 


Split, 


split, 


splitting, 


split. 


Spoil, 


spoiled or spoilt, 


spoiling, 


spoiled or spoilt. 


Spread, 


spread, 


spreading, 


spread. 


Spring, 


sprung or sprang, 


springing, 


sprung. 


Stand, 


stood, 


standing, 


stood. 


Stave, 


stove or staved, 


staving, 


stove or staved. 


Stay, 


staid or stayed,* 


staying, 


staid or stayed.* 



13 



146 



ENGLISH G8AMMAR PART II. 



Present. 


Past. 


Present Participi 


f e. Past Participle. 


Steal, 


stole. 


stealing, 


stolen. 


Stick, 


stuck, 


sticking, 


stuck 


Sting, 


stung, 


stinging, 


stung. 


Stink, 


stunk or stank,* 


stinking, 


stunk. 


Stride, 


strode or strid, 


striding, 


stridden. 


Strike, 


struck, 


striking, 


struck or stricken. 


String, 


strung or stringed, 


stringing, 


strung or stringed. 


Strive, 


strove, 


striving, 


striven. 


Strow, 


strowed, 


strowing, 


strowed or strown. 


Swear, 


swore, 


swearing, 


sworn. 


Sweat, 


sweated or sweat, 


sweating, 


sweated or sweat. 


Sweep, 


swept, 


sweeping, 


swept. 


Swell, 


swelled, 


swelling, 


swelled or swollen. 


Swim, 


swam, 


swimming, 


swam. 


Swing, 


swung, 


swinging, 


swung. 


Take, 


took, 


taking, 


taken. 


Teach, 


taught, 


teaching, 


taught 


Tear, 


tore, 


tearing, 


torn. 


Tell, 


told, 


telling, 


told. 


Think, 


thought, 


thinking, 


thought. 


Thrive, 


thrived or throve, 


thriving, 


thrived or thriven. 


Throw, 


threw or throwed, 


throwing, 


thrown or throwed. 


Thrust, 


thrust, 


thrusting, 


thrust. 


Tread, 


trod, 


treading, 


trodden or trod. 


Wake, 


waked or woke, 


waking, 


waked or woke. 


Wax, 


waxed, 


waxing, 


waxed or waxen. 


Wear, 


wore, 


wearing, 


worn. 


Weave, 


wove, 


weaving, 


woven or wove. 


Wed, 


wedded or wed, 


wedding, 


. wedded or wed. 


Weep, 


wept, 


weeping, 


wept, 


Wet, 


wet or wetted, 


wetting, 


wet or wetted. 


Whet, 


whetted or whet, 


whetting, 


whetted or whet. 


Win, 


won, 


winning, 


won. 


Wind, 


wound or winded,* 


winding, 


wound or winded. 


Work, 


worked or wrought, 


working, 


worked or wrought 


Wring, 


wrung or wringed, 


wringing, 


wringed or wrung. 


Write, 


wrote, 


writing, 


written or writ. 



Obs. 1. — Words in the ab ;ve list, marked with a (*}, are not much 
used by modern writers. 



VEEBS UNIPERSONAL. 147 

Obs. 2. — A Verb often has a Preposition or other prefix placed before 
it ; the conjugation, however, remains the same. 

EXAMPLES. 

Take took taken. 

.Ms take mistook mistaken. , 

Overtake overtook overtaken. 

Misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood. 

Hem. — The class should repeat this list in concert — prefixing to each 
Verb one of the Personal Pronouns, iter the Third Person a Noun may 
be used— thus : * 

I write I wrote I have written having writte 

You tread you trod you have trod having trod. 

He sweeps .... he swept he has swept having swept» 

John does John did. John has done having done. 

Men sit men sat men have sat .having sat. 

Some hear some heard. . .some have heard. . .having heard. 

They see they saw they are seen ...... being seen. 

To the Transitive Verbs, Objects may be attached— thus : 

We saw wood. ... .we sawed wood we have sawn wood. 

Birds build nests . .birds built nests. . . .birds have built nests. 
John writes letters . John wrote letters . . John will write letters. 
Thou seest me . . . thou sawest me thou wilt see me. 

Other variations in these concert exercises may be profitable — such 
as placing the words now, to-day, etc., after the Present — yesterday, etc., 
after the Past Tense— and heretofore, recently, etc. , after the Prior Present 
— thus : 

I begin to-day I began yesterday . . I have begun recently. 

The wind blows now . the wind blew then . the wind has blown often. 
The bell rings often . .the bell rang lately . the bell will ring to-morrow. 
William writes now. . William wrote then . William will write often. 

UNIPERSONAL VEEBS. 

Def. 124. — A Verb used only as the Predicate of the 
Indefinite Pronoun " it" is called a Unipersonal Verb. 

Examples. — It snows.— It rains. — It seems. — It becomes.— It be- 
hooves. — It is evident. 

Methinks is an anomalous form of the Verb think. 



148 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 

Rem. — Let the Pupil give the Voice, Mode, Tense, Person, and Number, 
ef the Verbs in the following Sentences : 

1. Science strengthens mind. 

2. Do you see the large ship traversing the ocean by the force of 

the wind ? 

3. William has visited Europe. 

4. Have we exercised discretion ? 

5. I, John, saw these things. 

6. Did Washington secure renown ? 

7. Ye had accomplished purposes. 

8. I shall understand you. 

9. Will Warner study Greek ? 

10. Thou wilt not comprehend it. 

11. Ye will have accomplished much. 

12. We may receive instruction. 

13. Canst thou guide Arcturus ? 

14. Shall William accompany us ? 

15. I will study Greek. 

16. They are not appreciated. 

17. Could it not be accomplished? 

18. Mary might Iiave been misinformed. 

19. Wisdom should be honored. 

20. Thou canst not have been understood. 

21. Sevastopol could not have been taken, 

22. Meteors might have been seen. 

23. What should have been done ? 

24. Who can be trusted ? 

25. Have you been reading poetry ? 

26. Cora will be writing letters. 

27. Stephen could not have been giving attention. 

28. Might Clara have been admitted ? 

29. Boys had been reciting lessons. 

30. We will not be enslaved. 

31. Pupils might not have been giving attention. 

32. Caroline will have visited Syria. 

33. Hear me for my cause. 

34. Be silent, that ye may hear. 

35. Bid her give me new and glorious hopes. 



ADVKKBS. 149 



ADVERBS. 

Rem. — As actions are modified by circumstances, and as qualities 
vary in degree, so words expressing actions, and words denoting quali- 
ties, are modified by otber words, denoting time, place, degree, manner, 
came, etc. Hence, 

Def. 125.— A Word used to modify the signification of 
a Verb, an Adjective, or another Modifier, is called an 
Adverb. 

Obs. 1.— Adverbs may consist of Words, Phrases, and Sentences. 

1. A Word. — The very best men sometimes commit faults. 

2. A. Phrase. — " In the beginning , God created the heaven and the 

earth. ' ■ 

3. A Sentence. — " They kneeled before they fought." 

Obs. 2. — Adverbial "Words are of great utility in rendering the lan- 
guage concise and spirited, They are commonly substituted for Phrases* 

EXAMPLES. 

"Brilliantly" for. . . . " With a brilliant appearance. 

44 Solemnly" for "Ina solemn manner." 

44 Vainly" .for " In a vain attempt." 

44 Here" .for . . . . 44 In this place." 

44 Now" for 44 At this time." 

1. 44 Brilliantly the glassy waters mirror back his smiles." 
2 44 Solemnly he took the earthly state." 

3. 44 Vainly we offer each ample oblation." 

4. 4 4 Here sleeps he now. ' ' 

5. 4 4 The waves are white below." 

The waves are white below him. 

6. 4 4 Heat me these irons hot. " 

Heat for me these irons hot. 

7. ''Willie has come home — early." 

Willie has come to his home — at an early hour. 

Rem. — 44 Below" — "me" — "home" and 44 early," are substituted for 
Adverbial Phrases. [See Part I., page 23.] 

Obs. 3. — Words are also substituted for Adverbial Sentences. 

13* 



150 ENGLISH GRAMMAE PART II. 

Examples. — 1. "While there we visited the prison;" for, while we 

were at Auburn, we visited the prison. 
2. V Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains/' 

Obs. 4. — An Adverb often modifies a Phrase. 

Examples. — 1. We went almost to Boston. 

2. Wilkes sailed quite around the World. 

3 Engraved expressly for the Ladies' Garland. 

Obs. 5. —The Words which Adverbs properly modify are sometimes 
Understood. 

Example.— Thou canst but add one bitter woe 
To those [ J already there. 

Obs. 6. — Adverbs sometimes take the place of Verbs, which they 
modify, 

Examples.—" Off, off, I bid you." " To arms !" 

" Back to thy punishment, false fugitive !" 

Obs. 7.— Words generally used as Adverbs sometimes take the place 
Df Nouns, and hence become Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' Till then* ' — for, till that time. 

2. " From there" — for, from that place. 

3. " And I have made a pilgrimage .from far." — Hosmer. 

4. " Oh, let the ungentle spirit learn from hence 

A small unkindness is a great offense." 

Obs. 8. —Participles become Adverbs when they indicate the manner 
of an action, or modify a quality. 

Examples.— 1. " The surging billows and the gamboling storms 
Come, crouching, to his feet." [P. 249, Obs. 5.] 
2o " Now it mounts the wave, 

And rises, threatening, to the frowning sky. ' ' 

3. " 'Tis strange, 'tis passing strange ." 

4. " A virtuous household, but exceeding poor." 

Obs. 9. — A few words, commonly used as Prepositions, are sometimes 
u?^d Adverbially. 

Examples. — 1. " Thou didst look down upon the naked earth." 

2. " And may at last my weary age 

3. Find out the peaceful hermitage."— Mdton. 



ADVERBS— CLASSIFICATION. 151 



CLASSIFICATION" OF ADVERBS. 

Eem. — The classes of Adverbs are very numerous. The following 
are the most important : 

I. Of the Forms of Adverbs. 
Obs. 10. — Some Words are used almost exclusively as Adverbs ; such 
are Primitive Words. 

Examples. — Even— here— now— not— then— there. 

Obs. 11. — But most Words used as Adverbs are Derivative Words— their 
Kadicals being commonly used as Nouns or as Adjectives. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. From Nouns. — Always— nightly — hourly— aloft— ashore. 

2. From Adjectives.— Brilliant^ — lightly— sofUy — virtuousZy. 

Obs. 12.— Many Words, commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives, Prepo- 
sitions, etc, , become Adverbs by representation or substitution. 

Examples. — 1. " William rises early" — at an early hour. 

2. " You have come too late" — at too late a day 

3. " Warner will come home" — to his home. 

4. " He will return to-morrow" — on the morrow. 

5. " The captain had gone below"— below deck, 

6. " Is the agent within f — within the house. 

[See page 23, Obs. 2.] 

II. Of the Functions of Adverbs. 

Adverbs are commonly divided into two primary- 
classes : 

1. Adverbs of Manner, and 

2. Adverbs of Circumstance. 

Def. 126. — Adverbs of Marnier are those which ask or 
answer the question, How ? 

Obs. 1. — Adverbs of Manner are such as indicate— 

I. Affirmation —Ay— certainly — doubtless — surely — verily, etc 
2 Doubt. — Perchance — perhaps — possibly, etc. 

3. Mode. — Aloud— asunder— how— so— together— thus, et« 

4. Negation. — Nay — not, 



152 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Obs. 2. — Phrases and Sentences often indicate the manner of an act. 

EXAMPLES. 

Phrases. — 1. " God moves in a mysterious way. 11 
2. " Silence now 

L brooding like a gentle spirit o'er 
The still and pulseless world." 
5 3. " Omar had passed seventy-five years in honor and 

prosperity. ' ' 
Sentences. — 4. " He died as he lived — a devotee of mammon.' 

5. " There are departed beings that I have loved as I 
never again shall love in this world. 11 

Def. 127. — Adverbs of Circumstance are such as ask or 
answer the questions, When ? Where f Whether ? 
Whence f How much ? Why ? — indicating Time, Place, 
Degree, Cause. 

I. Of Time. 

Rem. — All Words used to ask or to answer the questions, " WhenP* or 
" Row often f" are properly called Adverbs of Time. 

Examples. — 1. Present. — Instantly — now — presently — yet, etc. 

2. Past. — Already — heretofore — hitherto — lately — yes- 

terday, etc. 

3. Future. — Henceforth — hereafter — soon, etc, 

4. Absolute. — Always — ever — never, etc. 

5. Repeated. — Continually — often — rarely — sometimes, 

etc. 
Obs. 1. — Phrases and Sentences also perform the office of Adverbs of 
Time. 

EXAMPLES. 

Phrases. — 1 . "In the beginning, G-od created the heaven and the earth. ' ' 

2. "The Christmas rose is in bloom during the month of 

January. ' ' 

3. "At midnight, in his guarded tent, 

The Turk was dreaming. ' ' 
Sentences. — 4. "And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man who was blind," 

5. "I think of the friends who had roamed with me there, 

When the sky was so blue, and the flowers were so fair 11 

6. " Ye that keep watch in heaven, as earth, asleep, 

Unconscious lies, effuse your mildest beams. ' ' 



Examples. — Mary went - 



ADVERBS — MODIFICATION. 153 

II. Of Place. 
Obs. 2. — All Words used to ask or to answer the questions, Where? 
Whither ? or Whence ? are classed as Adverbs of Place. 
Examples. — 1. In a Place. — Here — there — where ? etc. 

2. To a Place. — Hither — thither — whither? etc. 

3. From a Place. — Hence — thence —whence ? etc. 
Obs. 3. — Most Adverbs of Place are in the form of Phrases. 

' in the cars, 
from Rochester, 
through New York, 
to Norfolk, 
^via Baltimore. 
And many in the form of Sentences. 
Example. — " Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails." 
Obs. 4. — Words which ask or answer the questions, How much ? How 
far 9 To ivhat extent f — are classed as Adverbs of Degree. 

Examples. — Altogether — hardly — little — much — quite — merely — so 
— too — very, etc. 

Obs. 5. Words used to ask or to answer the questions, Why ? 
Wherefore ? etc. , are classed as Adverbs of Cause. 

Examples. — Accordingly — consequently — hence — therefore — where- 
fore, etc. 
1 ' Let others brave the flood in quest of gain. ' ' 
Obs. 6. — Adverbs used to ask questions are called Interrogative Adverbs. 
Examples. — Where have you been ? — How can we escape ? 

MODIFICATION. 

Some Adverbs are modified, like Adjectives, by com- 
parison. 

EXAMPLES. 

Pos. Comp. Superl. 

1 . By use of Suffixes Soon Sooner Soonest. 

2. " " Auxiliary Adverbs . .Wisely . . . More wisely- . .3to$t wisely. 

EXEECISES. 
70$^ Let the following Adverbs be classified and their Modification 
given • 

How, Already, In a moment, 

Not, Quickly, In flower, 

There, Vilely, O'er the ruins,, 

Soon, Eagerly, At pile. 



154 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 



3 Let the Adverbial Words, Phrases, and Sentences, in the follow- 
ing Examples, be pointed out and parsed after the following 

MODEL. 

1. "E'en now, where Alpine solitudes ascend, 

I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend; 
And placed on high, above the storm's career, 
Look downward, where a hundred realms appear. ' ' 

Now Modifies " sit" — denoting time; hence, an Adverb. 

itudes ascend S Modifies " SI t" — denoting place ; hence, an Adverb. 

Down Modifies " sit" — denoting place; hence, an Adverb. 

A TencT 6 h0UI t0 \ Modifies " sit"— denoting cause; hence, an Adverb. 
On high Modifies "placed" — denoting place ; hence an Adv. 

Above the storm's > Modifieg " p i ace d'' —denoting j^ace; hence an Adv. 
career j 

Downward Modifies "look" — denoting place ; hence, an Adv. 

Where a hundred ) Modifies "look"— denoting place; hence, an Adv. 
realms appear . J r 

2. " Earth keeps me here 
Awhile ; yet I shall leave it, and shall rise 

n fairer wings than thine, to skies more clear. ' ' 

Here Modifies "keeps" — denoting place; hence, Adverb of Place. 

Awhile Modifies " keeps"— denoting time; hence, Adverb of Time. 

On wings. . .Modifies "rise" — denoting means; hence, Adverb of Means. 
("On fairer wings than thine," is the Modified Adverb.) 

Than thine . Modifies "fairer'' — denoting degree; hence, Adverb of De- 
gree. 

To skies. .. .Modifies "rise" — denoting place ; hence, Adverb of Place. 
("To skies more clear," is the Modified Adverb.) 

More Modifies "clear" — denoting degree; hence, Adverb of De- 
gree. 

3 . " How much better satisfied he is ! " 

How Modifies "much ;" hence, an Adverb. 

Much Modifies " better ;" hence, an Adverb. 

Better Modifies " satisfied ;" hence, an Adverb. 

Obs. L — Let it be remembered that the term ' ' Adverbs' ' is applied to 
a distinct element in the structure of Sentences — that the function of 
that element may be performed by a single Word or by a combination 



ADVERBS EXERCISES. 155 

of Words, constituting a Phrase or a Sentence. In analyzing Sentences 
containing these three distinct forms of the Adverbial Element, we pro- 
ceed according to the Models given above. But, 

Obs. 2. — The Words composing an Adverbial Phrase or Sentence have 
also their distinct individual offices. Thus, the Adverbial Phrase, 
"Above the storm's career," consists of a Preposition, (above) — an Ad- 
jective, (the) — an Adjective, (storm's) — a Noun, (career). 

So also the Adverbial Sentence, " Where a hundred realms appear," 
' consists of a Conjunction, (where) — an Adjective, (a) — an Adjective, (hun- 
dred) — a Noun, (realms) — and a Verb, (appear). Hence, 

Obs. 3. — In Proximate Analysis, it is sufficient to discuss the Elements 
of Principal Sentences ; while, in Ultimate Analysis, each separate Word 
composing an Element, is to be parsed separately 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 

of Adverbial Words, Phrases, and Sentences, 

4. ' ' Noiselessly around, 

From perch to perch, the solitary bird 



5. ' ' How is it possible net to feel a profound sense of the responsible- 

ness of this Bepublic to all future ages." 

6. " In a moment he flew quickly past." 

7. " For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away" 

8. "Thy pencil glows in every flower ;" 

9. " Where Sense can reach, or Fancy rove, 

From hill to field, from field to grove, 
Across the wave, around the sky, 
There's not a spot, nor deep, nor high, 
Where the Creator has not trod, 
And left the footsteps of a God." 

"Eternal Hope ! when yonder spheres sublime 
Pealed their first notes to sound the march of Time, 

10. Thy joyous youth began— but not to fade, 
When all the sister planets have decayed : 

When, wrapt in fire, the realms of ether glow, 
And Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below, 

11. Thou, undismayed, shalt o'er the ruins smile, 
And light thy torch at Nature's funeral pile !" 



156 ENGLISH GRAMMAK PABT II. 



PKEPOSITIOXS. 

Def. 128. — A "Word used to introduce a Phrase, shoe- 
ing the relation of its Object to the Word which the 
Phrase qualifies, is 

A Preposition. 

LIST. 

A " Wild winds and mad waves drive the vessel a wreck." 

About. " We walked about town," 

Above. " There is a ferry above the falls." 

Across " Across the ocean came a pilgrim bark." 

Aboard, " They came aboard ship." 

Aboard of " We succeeded in getting aboard of her. ' ' 

After " He that cometh after me, is preferred before me." 

Against ' ' He that is not for me, is against me. ' ' 

Along " Winds run along the summits of their hills." 

Amid " We stowed them amid- ships. ' ' 

Amidst. " Amidst the mists, he thrusts his fists." 

Among " He became a great favorite among the boys. ' ' 

Amongst " We made diligent search amongst the rubbish." 

Around " The chill dews of evening were failing around me." 

As "He gives this as the latest news." 

Aslant "It struck aslant the beam." 

Astride " He sat astride the beam. ' ' 

As for " As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord." 

As to " As to that, I have nothing to say." 

At " He was at work at noon." 

Athwart "The dolphin leaped athwart her bows." 

Before "He stood before the people." 

Behind " She stood behind a rick of barley ." 

Below " The captain was below decks. ' ' 

Beneath " Beneath the moldering ruins the brave boy sleeps." 

Beside „ . . " Beside its embers, red and clear, he stood." 

Besides " There was a famine in the land, besides the first 

famine." 

Between " Between whom, perfect friendship has existed." 

Betwixt " There is no difference betwixt them." 

Beyond " Beyond all doubt, he is the man." 

But "All went but me." 



PREPOSITIONS LIST. 



157 



But for 

By 

Concerning 

Despite of 

Devoid of 

During 

Ere 

Except 

Excepting 

For... 

From 

From among .... 
From between. . . 

From off 

In 

Instead of 

In lieu of 

Into 

Like 

Near 

Next 

Nigh 

Notwithstanding . 

Of 

Off 

On 

Opposite 

Over 

Out of 

Past 

Per 

Previous to 

Respecting 

Round 

Since 

Save 

Saving 

Through 

Throughout 



And but for these vile guns, he would go." 

To sail by Ephesus." — t( They stood by the cross.'' 

Concerning whom I have before written." 

He will rise to fame, despite of oil opposition.' ' 

You live devoid of peace, ' ' 

This has occurred many times during the year.' ' 

Ere another evening's close, he had gone." 

All were invited except me." 

Excepting that bad habit, the teacher was faultless." 

For me your tributary stores combine." 

Playful children, just let loose from school." 

From among thousand celestial ardors." 

He came from between the lakes." 

This lady-fly I take from off the grass. ' ' 

In the beginning." 

Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir." 

She has that sum in lieu of dower." 

Into these glassy eyes put light." 

An hour like this may well display the emptiness of 

human grandeur." 
His residence is near the church." 
Plural nominatives should be placed next their 

verbs. ' ' 
Come not nigh me." 

Notwithstanding this, we remain friends." 
Of the arts of peace." 
He fell q^the bows." 

On a bed of green sea-flowers. ' ' i 

Our friend lives opposite the Exchange." 
High oer their heads the weapons swung." 
Out of the cooling brine to leap." 
We came past Avon." 
Twelve hundred dollars per annum." 
Previous to this, his character has been good." 
Nothing was known respecting him." 
He went round the parish, making complaints." 
Since Saturday he has not been seen." 
All, save this little nook of land." 
With habits commendable, saving only this — he 

chews tobacco." 
Walk through the maple grove." 
Nor once, throughout that dismal night." 
14 



158 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

Than ' ' Than whom none higher sat. ' ' 

Till "He labored hard till noon. ' ' 

To "We purpose to go to Rochester to-day." 

Touching " Touching these things, whereof I am accused." 

Towards " They returned towards evening." 

Under " Then they went under the cloud/' 

Underneath " And underneath his feet, he cast the darkness/' 

Unlike " Unlike all that I had ever before seen. ' ' 

I3n til " We shall not return until Saturday." 

Unto " Unto him who rules the invisible armies of eternity." 

Up " The whole fleet was sailing up the river." 

Upon .."He stood upon the highest peak." 

Via "This stage is for Buffalo, via Batavia." 

With " With cautious steps and slow." 

Within. " Peace be within these walls." 

Without " Without it, what is man ?" 

Worth " He possessed an estate, ivorthfive thousand pounds." 

Obs. 1. — The antecedent term of relation — the word which the 
Phrase, introduced by a Preposition, qualifies, may be 
A Noun. — The house of God. 

A Pronoun. — Who of us shall go ? — I care not which of you 
An Adjective. — It is good for nothing. 
A Verb, — We love to study. — We delight in improvement. 
A Participle. — Jumping from a precipice. 
An Adverb. — He is too wise to err." 

Obs. 2. — The antecedent term of the relation expressed by a Prepo- 
sition, is sometimes understood. 

Examples. — 1 . "0 refuge 

Meet for fainting pilgrims [ ] on this desert way." 

Note. — In the above and similar examples, the ellipsis of the ante- 
cedent word need not be supplied in parsing, unless the sense plainly re- 
quires it. But the Phrase may be parsed as qualifying the word which 
its Antecedent would qualify, if expressed. 

2. " Which flung its purple o'er his path to heaven. 1 

Here the Phrase " to heaven" properly modifies leading, or a word of 
similar office, understood. But "leading." modified by this Phrase, 
would qualify "path." Hence the Phrase, "to heaven" — as a 
representative of the whole Phrase ' ' leading to heaven" — may be attached 
to "path." 



PREPOSITIONS CLASSIFICATION 159 

Obs. 3. — Prepositions introducing Substantive and Independent 
Phrases, Lave no Antecedents. 

Examples. — 1. " As' for me and my house, we will serve the Lord/' 

2. " And, on the whole, the sight was very painful." — « 

Todd. 

3. "0 for a lodge in some vast wilderness." — Cowper, 

Obs. 4. — The Consequent term of relation may be, 
A Word. — " He stood before the people." 
A Phrase. — "Time, spent in receiving impertinent visits." 
A Sentence. — "And cries of ' Live for ever,' struck the skies." 

Obs. 5. — The Consequent term of relation — Object — is sometimes 
understood. 

Examples. — 1. " And the waves are white below- [ ]." 

2, " These crowd around [ ] to ask him of his health." 

Many grammarians call these Prepositions Adverbs, without giving a 
proper explanation. They are Prepositions, having their Objects under- 
stood. But, as the Phrases of which they form parts are always used 
Adverbially, the Prepositions — as representatives of their Phrases — are 
Adverbs. Hence, when thus used, each Preposition performs a double 
office— Prepositional, as leader of the Phrase — Adverbial, as representa- 
tive of the Phrase. 

Obs. 6. — The Preposition is often understood — generally when its 
Phrase follows Verbs of giving, selling, coming, etc. 

Examples. — 1. Mary gave [ ] me a rose — Mary give a rose to me. 

2. I sold [ ] Mr. Shepard my wheat — sold wheat to 

Shepard. 

3. William has gone from home to-day — he will come [ ] 

home to-morrow." 

4. These crowd around.— ^Mary gave me a, rose. 

■" Me" and " around" are — in the same sense, and by the same rule — 
Adverbs, viz. : as representatives of the Adverbial Phrases to which they 
severally belong. As words, simply "me" is a Pronoun — Object of to, 
understood : ' ' around' ' is a Preposition — showing a relation of ' ' crowd' ' 
and him, understood. 

Obs. 7. — Prepositions are sometimes incorporated with their Objects. 

Examples. — I go a- fishing. — He fell a-sleep. — Come a-board. 

Obs. 8. — Words commonly used as Prepositions are sometimes used 
in predication with Verbs 



160 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Examples. — 1. Its idle hours are o'er. 

2. That was not thought of. 

Obs. 9 — A Preposition commonly indicates the office of the Phrase 
which it introduces. 

In, on, under, above, etc . indicate a relation of place, including the idea 
of rest. 

( in the hall, 
Examples. — William's hat is Ion the stool, 

( under the tahle. 

From, to, into, through, out of, etc., indicate a relation of place, with the 
idea of motion. 

( from New York, 
Examples. — We came < to Boston, 

( through Springfield. 

Of, generally indicates a relation of possession. 

Example. — "The lay of the last minstrel" — the last minstrels lay. 

As, like, than, etc. , indicate a relation of comparison. 

Examples. — 1. " It is not fit for such as us 

To sit with rulers of the land." — W. Scott. 

2. " All great, learned men, like me, 

Once learned to read their A, B, C." 

3. "Than whom, earth holds no better man." 

During, till, since, etc. , indicate a relation of time. 

Examples. — 1 . l i We have vacation during the whole month of July. ' ' 
2. " Since Saturday, we have not seen him." 

But, as the kind of relation expressed by a given Preposition is not 
uniform, no perfect classification can be made. 

l^t* For other observations on Prepositions, see Part III. — Prepo- 
sitions. 

EXERCISES. 

1. Where streams of earthly joy ezhaustless rise. 

Of. . .Shows a relation of " streams" and " joy." Hence, a Preposition. 

2o "0 refuge, 

Meet for fainting pilgrims." 

For . . Shows a relation of ' ' meet' ' and ' ' pilgrims. ' ' Hence, a Preposition. 



PREPOSITIONS EXERCISES. 161 

5. "On the plains, 

And spangled fields, and in the mazy vales, 
The living throngs of earth before Him fall, 
With thankful hymns, receiving from His hands 
Immortal life and gladness. 

On Shows a relation of [existing understood, which qualifies] 

" throngs" and " plains and fields." Hence, a Preposition. 

In Shows a relation of [existing understood, which qualifies] 

* ' throngs" and " vales. " Hence, a Preposition. 
Of Shows a relation of ' ' throngs' ' and ' ' earth. ' ' Hence, a Prepo- 
sition. 
Before . . Shows a relation of ' ' fall' ' and ' ' him. ' ' Hence, a Preposition. 
With . . . Shows a relation of [worshiping, or some equivalent word 
understood, which qualifies] "throngs" and " hymns." 
Hence, a Preposition. 

.^^Let the Pupils point out the Prepositions, with their several 
Antecedents and Objects, in the following 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 

4. "The chief fault of Coleridge lies in the style, which has been 
justly objected to, on account of its obscurity, general turgidness of 
diction, and a profusion of new-coined double epithets." 

5. " Southey, among all our living poets, stands aloof, and ' alone in 
his glory ;' for he alone of them all has adventured to illustrate, in 
poems of magnitude, the different characters, customs, and manners 
of nations. 

6. To him, who, in the love of nature, holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various language : 

7. For his gayer hours 

She has a voice of gladness, and a smile 
And eloquence of beauty ; 

8. And she glides 

Into his darker musings, with a mild 
And gentle sympathy, that steals away 
Their sharpness, ere he is aware. 
14* 



162 



ENGLISH GEAJI1IAE PAKT II. 



coNjrnsrcTioNs. 

Rem. — It should be remembered that Prepositions connect words by 
shotting a relation. 

We have another class of Words, used simply to connect "Words and 
Phrases similar in construction, a'nd to introduce Sentences. Hence, 

Def. 1 29. — A Word used to j oin Words, Phrases, and Sen-/ 
tences, or to introduce a Sentence, is called a Conjunction, 

Example — Mary and Anna have perfect lessons because they study 
diligently. 

Rem. 1. — In this example, "and" connects "Mary" and "Anna" — 
two words having the same construction — and "because" introduces 
an Auxiliary Sentence. 

LIST. 



The following 


are the principal Words which 


are commonly used as 


*JVL1J UllV^tlUXlO . 

After,* 


Either, 


Likewise, 




Than,* 


Again, 


Else, 


Moreover, 




That, 


Also, 


Except,* 


Nay, 




Then,* 


Although,* 


For,* 


Neither. 




Therefore, 


And, 


Further, 


Nor, 




Though,* 


As,* 


Furthermore, 


Now, 




Thin, 


As well as,* 


Howbeit, 


Notwithstanding, * 


Unless,* 


Because,* 


However,* 


Or, 




When,* 


Before,* 


Howsoever,* 


Otherwise, 




Wherefore, 


Being,*. 


if,* 


Provided,* ' 




While,* " 


Besides, 


Inasmuch as,* 


Since,* 




Whilst, 


Both, 


In case,* 


So, 




Yet. 


But, 


Lest,* 


Still, 







Rem. 2. — A few other words are sometimes used as Conjunctions. 

Rem. 3. — The words in the above List, marked thus (*), commonly 
introduce Auxiliary Sentences. 

Obs 1. — Conjunctions used to introduce Auxiliary Sentences, and 
some others, constitute also an index or type of the office of the Sen- 
tences which they introduce. 

ExampleSc — 1. " If he repent, forgive him/' 

2. "As you journey, sweetly sing." 



CONJUKCTIONS. 163 

In these examples, " if ' renders its Sentence conditional— u as" indi- 
cates that its Sentence (" you journey") modifies 4i sing' in respect to 
time. 

Note. — When as, since, and many other Conjunctions used to intro- 
duce Auxiliary Sentences, are called, by some grammarians, Conjunctive 
Adverbs. " And the rest will I set in order when 1 come We are told 
that "when/' in the above example, is an Adverb of Time, relating to 
the two Verbs, " will set' and " come.'' 

We are also told (and properly) that Adverbs of time are those which 
answer to the question " when ?"* 

But does " when/" in the above example, "answer to the question 
when f Certainly not. Then it can not be an Adverb of Time. But 
the Auxiliary Sentence, "when 1 come," does answer to the question 
"when.'' It fells when *'I will set the rest in order. ' Hence the 
Sentence, "when I come/ is an Adverb of Time; and the "Word 
"when" — used only to introduce that Sentence — connecting it to 
"will set," is a Conjunction. [See the preceding observation.] 

Obs 2. — A Word used chiefly to introduce a Sentence is therefore a 
Conjunction, If the Sentence introduced by it is Auxiliary Adverbial 
in office, it may properly be called an Adverbial Conjunction. 

Let the Pupil remember that it is the Sentence that is Adverbial— not 
the Word used to introduce the Sentence, 

Obs. 3. — The Conjunction nor generally performs a secondary office — 
that of a negative Adverb 

Example. — " Man wants but little here below, 
Nor wants that little long. 

In this example " nor" introduces the Sentence, and also gives it a 
negative signification. 

The Conjunction " lest" has sometimes a similar construction. 

\ Example. — "Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty." 

Obs. 4.— Double Conjunctions. — Two Conjunctions are sometimes 
used to introduce the same Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. " It seems as if they were instructed by some secret 
instinct." 
2. " And yet, fair bow, no fabling dreams." 

As though, but that, and some other words, are often used as Double 
Conjunctions. 



164: ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 

Obs. 5. — But, when an Auxiliary Sentence precedes a Principal Sen- 
tence, the Conjunctions introducing them are not to be regarded as 
double, although they may be in juxtaposition. [See this Obs.] 

Obs. 6. — In addition to those Words properly called Conjunctions, we 
have other words used to introduce Sentences — as a secondary office 

Examples. — 1. " The grave, that never spoke before, 

Hath found at length, a tongue to chide. 
2. " We are watchers of a beacon, 
z Whose light must never die." 

Rem. 1. — " That never spake before," is an Auxiliary Sentence intro- 
duced by the word "that." 

The principal office of " that" is Substantive — the Subject of " spoke." 
Its secondary office is Conjunctive — introduces its Sentence and connects 
it with its Principal. 

Rem. 2. — In Example 2, the Word "whose" has a Principal office — 
Adjunct of "light" — and a secondary office — introduces its Sentence and 
connects it with its Principal. 

' [For other observations, the student is referred to Part III., Con- 
junctions.] 

EXERCISES. 

* ' God created the heaven and the earth. ' * 

" And" . . .Connects " heaven" and " earth." Hence, a Conjunction. 

1 ' Temperance and frugality promote health and secure happiness. ' ' 

"And" . . .Connects " temperance" and "frugality." Hence, a Con- 
junction. 
" And" . . .Connects "promote" and " secure." Hence, a Conjunction. 

1 ' And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill. ' ' 

" And" . . .Introduces a Sentence. Hence, a Conjunction. 

"And" , . .Connects " deadly" and " chill." Hence, a Conjunction 

* ' And hoary peaks that proudly prop the skies, 
Thy dwellings are. ' ' 

" And" . . .Introduces a Sentence. Hence, a Conjunction. 
," That". . .Is the Subject of "prop." Hence, a Substantive. 

It also introduces its Sentence, and connects it with 
"peaks." 



EXCLAMATION. 165 

11 My heart is awed within me when I think 
Of the great ^miracle that still goes on 
In silence round me. ' ' 
1 When" . .Introduces the Auxiliary Sentence. Hence, a Conjunction. 
" Its Sentence is Adverbial in its office. Hence, an Adverbial 

Conjunction. 
" When 11 is not an Element — i. e., it bears no part in the 
structure of its Sentence. It is neither a Principal Part, 
nor an Adjunct ; it primarily connects : secondarily., indi- 
cates the office of its Sentence. [See Obs. 1, above.] 
4 That" . . .Is the Subject of " goes." Hence, a Substantive. 

As a secondary office, "that" introduces its Sentence, and 
connects it with "miracle." 



EXCLAMATION. 

Def. 130. — A word used to express a sudden or intense 
emotion, is 

An Exclamation. 

Obs. 1. — Exclamations may consist — 

1. Of Letters— as, Of Oh! Ah! Lo ! 

2. Of Words — commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and 

Adverbs— as, Wo ! Strange ! Hark ! Really ! Behold ! 
Shocking ! 

3. Of Phrases — For shame ! 

4. Of Sentences— " 0, Ephraim ! How can I give thee up /" 

Obs. 2. — Exclamations are followed by 

Words — u 0, Liberty !" — "Ah, the treasure !" 
Phrases — " O, for a lodge in some vast wilderness !" 
Sentences — " 0, bear me to some solitary cell !" 

Hem. — The term Exclamation is preferred to Interjection, as being 
more appropriate to its office. 

Exclaim — " to cry out." This we do with the use of Exclamations. 

Interject — "to cast between." We very seldom cast these words 
between others — they are generally placed before other words. 



166 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART II. 



WOEDS OF EUPHONY. 

Def, 131. — A Word used chiefly for the sake of 
sound, or to change the position, accent, or emphasis of 
other Words in a Sentence, is 

A Word of Euphony. 

Examples. — 1. " I think there is a knot of you, 

Beneath that hollow tree." 
" There'' is used to allow the Predicate " «V to precede its Subject, 
11 knot." In this Sentence it is not used Adverbially. 

2. "I sit me down a pensive hour to spend." 
1 ' Me' ' is used to throw the accent on the word ' ' down. ' ' 

3. "These were thy charms, sweet village! sports like 

these, 
With sweet succession, taught e'en toil to please." 
IT en' ' is used to make ' ' toil' ' emphatic. 

Obs. 1. — Words of Euphony are such as commonly belong to some 
other ' ' part of speech. ' ' But they are properly called Words of 
Euphony when they do not perform their usual grammatical offices. 
They are, then, in their offices chiefly Rhetorical — being used, 

(1.) To render other Words emphatic. 

Examples. — 1. " Even in their ashes live their wonted fires." 
2. " The moon herself is lost in heaven." 

(2.) To change the position of the parts of a Sentence. 

Examples. — 3. " There are no idlers here." 

4. "Now, then, we are prepared to take up the main 
question." 

(3.) To preserve the rhythm in a line of poetry. 

Examples. — 5. " I sit me down a pensive hour to spend." 
6. " His teeth they chatter, chatter still." 

Rem. 1. — It is quite idle to call — as most grammarians do— the Word 
even, in Example 1, an Adverb, modifying " live ;" for its sole office is 
to render the Phrase ' ' in their ashes' ' emphatic. Such office is Rhetorical 
> — not Grammatical. 



VARIABLE OFFICES OF WORDS. 167 

Rem. 2.— To call the word "there," in Example 3, an " Adverb of 
Place," is manifestly absurd ; since the Verb "are" is modified by the 
Adverb " here," and hence can not, at the same time, be modified by 
a Word of directly the opposite signification. 

Rem. 3. — The same remark is also applicable to the word "then," 
in Example 4. 

Obs. 2. — Words are often transposed, lengthened, shortened, and in other 
ways changed for the sake of sound. [See " Euphony," in Part III.] 



WOEDS VAEYING IE THEIE ETYMOLOGY. 

Kem. 1. — Words are similar in Orthoepy when they are pronounced 
with the same sound of the same letter. 

Examples. — There, their — all, awl — ant, aunt. 

Kem. 2. — They are similar in Orthography when they are formed by 
the same letters, similarly arranged. 

Examples. — Read, read — ez'tract, extract' — wind, wind. 

Hem. 3. — They are similar in Etymology when they perform a similar 
office in the construction of a Phrase or of a Sentence. 

Rem. 4. — But it is plain that words similar in Orthoepy differ in their 
Orthography — and words of similar Orthography perform widely dif- 
ferent offices in different connections. 



* It should always be remembered by the pupil that the oefice of a word 
— not its shape — determines its Etymology. 

Obs. — Among the Words of similar Orthography that differ in their 
Etymology are the following : 

A Adj Webster wrote a Dictionary. 

A Prep Wild winds and mad waves drive the vessel a wreck, 

Above Prep He stands above us. 

Above. . . . Adv By the terms above specified. 

After Prep He that cometh after me is preferred before me, 

After Conj He came after you left. 

After Adj He was in the after part of the ship. 



168 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART II. 

As Prep To redeem such a rebel as me. — Wesley. 

As Conj Just as the twig is bent the tree' s inclined. 

As Adv Nature, as far as art can do it, should be imitated. 

*As Pron Such as I have give I unto thee. 

Before.. . .Prep He stood before the people. 

Before. . . .Conj They kneeled before they fought. 

Both .... Adj Situated on both sides of the river. 

Both .... Pron Lepidus natters both — of both is flattered. 

Both .... Conj And now he is both loved and respected. 

But Prep All but me were rewarded. 

But Conj I go — but I return. 

But Adv If we go,- we can but die. 

But Verb I can not but rejoice at his unexpected prosperity^ 

Ere Prep And ere another evening's close. 

Ere Conj And ere we could arrive [at] the point proposed. 

For Prep They traveled for pleasure. 

For Conj He can not be a scholar, for he will not study. 

Like Prep Nature all blooming like thee. 

Like Adj Like causes produce like effects. 

Like Verb We like whatever gives us pleasure. 

Like Noun. . . .We shall never see the like again. 

Near Adj At the near approach of the star of day. 

Near Prep We live near the springs. 

Near Adv Books were never near so numerous. 

Near Yerb. . . . .We shall near the light-house. 

Neither . . Adj He can debate on neither side of the question. 

Neither. .Pron We saw neither of them. 

Neither. .Conj The boy could neither read nor write. 

Next Adj The next generation. 

Next Prep Adjectives should be piaced next their substantives. 

Off Adj The off ox should keep the furrow. 

Off Prep William fell off the load. 

Only . . . .Adj . . . . .Love and love only is the loan for love. 

Only . . . .Adv Only observe what a swarm is running after her. 

Opposite . Adj On the opposite bank of the river. 

Opposite . Prep We stood opposite the Exchange* 

Past Adj A past transaction. 

Past Prep It was past mid-day. 

Round. . .Adj Like the round ocean. 

Round. . . Prep Flung round the bier. 

Still Adj Still waters reflect a milder lighto 

Still Adv. ..... Still struggling, he tries to stand. 



VARIABLE OFFICES OF WORDS. 169 

Still Conj Still, the reflection has troubled me. 

Still Noun The loafer lounges about the still. 

Since Prep Since yesterday, we have taken nothing. 

Since. . . . Conj Since I can not go, I will be contented her©. 

So Adj Solomon was wise — we are not so. 

So . 3 Adv So calm, so bright. 

So Conj " I'll say thee nay, so thou wilt woo. 

Than. . . .Conj She is more nice than wise. 

Than Prep Than whom, Satan except, none higher sat. 

Than. . . .Pron We have more than heart can wish. 

That Adj That book is mine. 

That Pel. Pron.. ." Him that cometh unto me, I will in no wise 

cast out." 

That Pron. Adj. . .Forgive me my foul murder ? that can not be. 

That Conj I am glad thai he has lived thus long. 

Then Adv Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains. 

Then Conj Then, I'll look up. 

Then Pron Till then. 

Till Prep They labored hard till night. 

Till Conj Till I come, give attention to reading. 

Till Noun He kept his money in the till. 

Until Prep From morn, even until night. 

Until Conj Until the day dawn. 

What . . . Adj At w hat hour did you arrive ? 

What . . .Bel. Pron. . . What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. 
What . . .Inter. Pron. What does it avail? 

What . . . Exclam What I is thy servant a dog ? 

Within. .Prep To inscribe a circle within a circle. 

Within.. Adj Received on the within bond, five hundred 

dollars. 

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME OF THE FOREGOING WORDS. 

As When this Word introduces a Sentence, it is properly called a 

Conjunction. 
Example. — " As^e journey, sweetly sing." 

When it introduces a Phrase, it is a Preposition, and is then 
generally equivalent to the Preposition for. 
Examples. — 1. " He gave me this as the latest news from the army." 

2. " I am always fearful lest I should tell you that for 

news with which you are well acquainted." 

3. " His friends were counted as his enemies. " — Sigoumey. 

4. " All mark thee for a prey." — Cowper* 

15 



170 ENGLISH GKAMMAR PART II. 

The above examples clearly indicate that as is sometimes a Prepo- 
sition. 

Hem. — Many grammarians insist that as, in the above and similar 
examples, "must be a Conjunction, because, in most cases, it connects 
words in opposition. 

The same is often true of other Prepositions. 

Examples. — 1. In the city of New York. 

2. " thy shadowy hand was seen 

Writing thy name of Death." — Pollock. 

We do not claim that these examples contain words precisely in 
apposition — as much so, however, as any words claimed to be connected 
by as. 

As is often used (by ellipsis of one or more words) as a Pronoun- 
[See Rem. on than below.] 

1. But. — This word, like most Conjunctions, is derived from a 
Saxon Verb signifying "except" — " set aside" — "fail," etc. [See 

Webster's Improved Grammar.] 

In the list above given, the Word retains its original signification 
and office. 

Example. — ' 1 1 can not but rej oice. ' ' 

Equivalent. — I can not fail — omit to rejoice. 

2. But is also used instead of the words, if it were not, or were it not 

Example. — " And but for these vile guns, he would himself have been 
a soldier." 

3. But sometimes supplies the places of a Relative Pronoun and a 
Negative Adverb. 

\. Example. — "I scarce can meet a monument but holds my younger." 

Equivalent — I scarce can meet a monument tJiat holds not my 
younger. 

Like . . . .When this word qualifies a Noun, it is an Adjective — when it 
represents its Noun, it is an Adjective Pronoun. But when 
it shows a relation of two words, it is a Preposition. 

Examples.— 1. "These firmies once lived, and breathed, and felt 
like us. 
2. " Yet all great learned men, like me, 
Once learned to read their A, B, C." 



VARIABLE OFFICES OF WORDS. 171 

Than . . .This word always expresses comparison, and comparison im- 
plies a relation. When this relation is expressed by Words, 
than is a Preposition. When it is expressed by Sentences, and 
when Words, Phrases, or Sentences are merely connected by 
it, it is a Conjunction. 

The use of it as a Preposition is sanctioned by good authority 
ancient and modern. 

Examples.— 1. " They are stronger than lions.' ' 

2. "Thou shalt have no other gods than me." — Com. Pr. 

3. " Their works are more perfect than those of men." 

Than always introduces a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence, which con- 
stitutes a second term of a comparison of inequality. 

Examples. — 1. "She is more nice than wise." 

"Than" connects words, and is therefore a Conjunction. 

2. " Than whom none higher sat." 

"Than" introduces a Phrase, and is therefore a Preposition. 

3. " We have more than heart could wish." 

Bem.— "Than" is the object of " could wish," and introduces the 
Sentence which limits " more," hence — by virtue of the ellipsis — it is a 
Relative Pronoun. Supply the words suppressed by ellipsis, and ' ' than' ' 
becomes a Preposition. 

Obs. 1. — Many words are used as Prepositions or Conjunctions, ac- 
cording as they introduce Phrases or Sentences. 

Examples. — 1. John arrived before me. 
* ' Before me' ' . . Is a Phrase, used to modify ' ' arrived ;" hence, Adverbial. 
"Before" Is a Preposition. 

2. John arrived before I did. 

"Before I did". Is a Sentence, used to modify "arrived;" hence, 

Adverbial. 
" Before" Is a Conjunction. 

3. John arrived as soon as I, 

" As I" Is a Phrase, used to modify "arrived ;" hence, Adverbial. 

4. John arrived as soon as I did. 

" As I did" Is a Sentence, used to modify "arrived;" hence, 

Adverbial. 

Obs. 2.— Of the many words thus used as Prepositions and Conjunc- 
tions, custom allows two— a* and than — to be followed by Pronouns in 
the Nominative form. 



172 ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PABT II. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' Thou art wiser than I. ' ' 
2. "Thou art as tall as I." 

Obs. 3. — But the Objective form is also used by our best writers. 

Examples — 1. " It is not fit for such as us 

To sit with rulers of the land."— IF. Scott. 
2. "Than whom none higher sat." — Milton. 

Worth. . .Worth indicates value — and value implies a relation — and 
relation of words is commonly expressed by a Preposition. 

Example. — " He possessed an estate worth five hundred pounds pei 
annum." 

Equivalent— "He has an annuity o/five hundred pounds." 
This word is used also as a Noun. 

Example.—" He was a man of great worth.'* 

Nor — composed of not and other— retains the offices of its elements. 

Example. — " Nor will I at my humble lot repine." 

Here "nor" being used to modify " repine" — is an Adverb of Nega- 
tion. But because it introduces a Sentence additional to a former Sen- 
tence, it is a Conjunction : like many other Conjunctions, it indicates 
the office of the Sentence which it introduces, making it negative. 



SUBSTITUTION OF ELEMENTS. 

Obs. — In the structure of Sentences, an Element of one form is often 
substituted for that of another. 

1. A Letter is substituted for a word. 
Example. — "lis strange. 



jT is strange J 



Rem. — Here " 'T," as an Element in the Sentence, is a representative 
of 'it," and is a Pronoun — Subject of the Sentence. Hence, in the 
Nominative Case. 

But "T," as an Element in the word " it," is a Letter — a Consonant 
— Mute — Subsequent to its vowel " Z" 

2. A Word is substituted for a Phrase. 



SUBSTITUTION OF ELEMENTS. 173 

Example 1. — These crowd around to ask him of his health. 



C These "V" 





crowd 




) 




aro. 








1 
1 
I 


X 


) 


1 


V 











Rem. 1 — " Around,' ' as an Element of the Sentence, is an Adverb of 
Place— being used as a representative of the Adverbial Phrase around him. 

1 ' Around, " as an Element of its Phrase is the Leader — a Preposition — 
showing a relation of " crowd" to him understood. 

Example 2. — Anna has gone home. 



J/T has gone ) 



X 



home j\ 

„UJ : / 

Rem. 2. — "Home," as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb of 
Place — being used as a representative of the Phrase to her home. 

"Home," as an Element in its Phrase, is the Subsequent — Word — 
Noun — Common — Objective Case — Object of to understood. 

Example 3. — Clara has come to school early. 



C Clara jf has' come J 



[to ] school) 



x 

U 



x )\ 

\xj ( early ) j 



Rem. 3.— "Early," as an Element in the Sentence, is an Adverb of 
Time — being used as a representative of the Phrase at an early hour. 

" Early," as an Element in its Phrase, is an Adjunct— Word— Adjec- 
tive — and limits hour understood. 

For further illustrations, see Obs. 5 and 6, page 159 ; see also page 
23, Obs. 1, 2. 

Rem. —A careful examination of the genius of the English language 
will disclose the fact, that a great majority of words perform at the 
same time two or more distinct offices — as individual and as represent- 
ative. The Rule to be observed in parsing is, that a word should be parsed 
first according to its representative office in the Sentence, then according to its 
individual office- 

15* 



PART III. 

SYNTAX. 



Bemark 1. — In Part II. we have given attention to the discussion 
of Words considered as Elements of .Language ; embracing — 

1. The Classification of Words, according to their offices. 

2. The Modification of such Words as vary their forms to correspond 

with changes in their offices. 

Rem. 2. — We have now to consider the Relations of the various Ele- 
ments of Language to one another, in the construction of Sentences. 

Def. 132. — Syntax treats of the construction of Sen- 
tences by determining the relation, agreement, and ar- 
rangement of Words, and of other Elements, 

General Principles and IfcEFiNrnoNs to be noticed in Analysis and 
Construction. 

I SENTENCES. 

I. A Sentence is an assemhlage of Words, so arranged as to express 
an entire proposition. 

( Principal Elements 
II. A Sentence consists of 1 and 

( Adjunct Elements. 

III. The Principal Elements of a Sentence are such as are used to 

make the unqualified assertion. 
7^°* Let each Pupil make a Sentence having Principal Elements 
only. 

IV, The Adjuncts of a Sentence are such Elements as are used to 

modify or describe other Elements in the Sentence. 

j^** Let each Pupil make a Sentence having Adjuncts. 

( The Subject, 
V. The Principal Elements of a Sentence are, ) The Predicate, 

*" ( The Object. 

VI. The Subject of a Sentence is that of which something is ass -rt&L 



176 ENGLISH GEAMMAE PART HI. 

YH The Predicate of a Sentence is the Word or Words that assert 
something of the Subject. 

YIIL The Object of a Sentence is that on which the act expressed by 
the Predicate terminates. 

jp^*> ]>,t. each Pupil make a Sentence, and name the Subject, the 
Predicate, and the Object. 

IX. The Subject of a Sentence may be ( 4 3T 0KD ' 

1 A Phrase, or 
X. The Object of a Sentence may be J j± Sentence 



4 Notoi } Proper. 
( Personal, 

) Relative, 



• Let each Pupil make a Sentence having a Word Subject 
Let each Pupil make a Sentence having a Phrase Subject. 
Let each Pupil make a Sentence living a Sentence Subject. 

Common or 
XI. A Word used as the Subject or the 
Object of a Sentence may be 

_ A Pronoun, \ Interrogative, 
( Adjective. 

^t- Let each Pupil make Sentences having for their Subject — 

1. A. Common Noun. 4. A Relative Pronoun. 

2. A Proper Noun. 5. An Interrogative Pronoun. 

3. A Personal Pronoun. 6. An Adjective Pronoun. 

( Masculine Gender, 
XII, Nouns and Pronouns are of the -] Feminine Gender, or 

( Neuter Gender. 

( First Person, 

XIII. Nouns and Pronouns are of the 1 Second Person, or 

( Third Person. 

XIV. No™ and Pko N o™s are of the j *£**£?* " 

J^** Let the Pupil make Sentences having Nouns and Pronouns of 
the different Genders, Persons, and Numbers. 

XV. The Subject of a Sentence is in the Nominative Case. 

XYI. The Object of a Sentence is in the Objective Case. 

' Another Verb, 
A Participle, 
XVII. The Grammatical Predicate j A Verb, with . An Adjective, 
of a Sentence is 1 or without ' A Noun, 

A Pronoun, or 
A Preposition. 

'Let the Pupil make Sentences containing Examples of each 
variety of Predicate mentioned. 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES. * 



177 



XVIII. 



A Verb in Predicate may m 
be in the 



Indicative 
Mode, 



Potential 
Mode. 



' Prior Past Tense, 
Past Tense, 

Prior Present Tejise, 
Present Terise, 

Prior Future Tense, 
Future Tense. 

Prior Past Tense, 
Past Tense, 

Prior Present Tense, 
Present Tense, 



Past Tense, 
Present Tense. 

Present Tense. 



XIX. 

XX. 
XXI. 

XXII. 

xxm. 



Subjunctive j 
Mode, ( 

Imperative j 
Mode, j 

Let the Pupil make Sentences having Verbs in each of the 
Modes and Tenses mentioned, 

( Person 
A Verb in Predicate must agree with its Subject in -J and 

( Number. 
[ Primary 
The Adjuncts of a Sentence are -j or 

( Secondary. 
Primary Adjuncts are attached to the Principal Parts of a 
Sentence or of a Phrase. 

Secondary Adjuncts are attached to other Adjuncts. 

f Words, 
Adjuncts may consist of \ Phrases, or 

( Sentences. 
Let the Pupil make Sentences containing Words Adjuncts. 
Let the Pupil make Sentences containing Phrases Adjuncts. 
Let the Pupil make Sentences containing Sentences Adjuncts. 

{Compar. 
Dimin. 

( Pure. 
Specifying, i Numer. 



XXXV, "Words, Phrases, and 
Sentences used as Ad- - 
juncts are 



Adjectives 



Adverbs, 



Verbal, 

Time, 
Place, 
Degree, 
Manner, 
Cause, 
_etc., eta 



I Trans. 
^ Intrans. 



178 ElStlLISH GRAMMAR PART III* 

( Intransitive or Transitive, 
XXV. A Sentence may be -j Simple or Compound, 

( Principal or Auxiliary. 

XXVI. An Intransitive Sentence has no Object. 
70t* Let the Pupil make an Intransitive Sentence. 
XXVII. A Transitive Sentence has an Object. 
0Ot* Let the Pupil make a Transitive Sentence. 
XXVIII. A Simple Sentence has all its Principal Parts single. 
j^f*" Let the Pupil make a Simple Sentence. 
XXIX. A Compound Sentence has some of its Principal Parts com* 

pound. 
70t- Let the Pupil make a Compound Sentence. 
XXX. A Principal Sentence asserts a Principal Proposition. 
XXXI. An Auxiliary Sentence asserts a Dependent Proposition. 
^^^'Let the Pupil make a Complex Sentence, and distinguish the 

Principal Sentence from the Auxiliary Sentence. 
XXXH. Conjunctions introduce Sentences and connect "Words, 

Phrases, and Sentences. 
XXXIIL A Preposition shows a relation of its object to the word 

which its Phrase qualifies. 
XXXIV. An Exclamation has no dependent construction. 
XXXV. A Word of Euphony is, in its office, chiefly Rhetorical, 

n. PHRASES. 

XXXVI. A Phrase is a combination of Words not constituting an 
entire proposition, but performing a distinct office in the 
structure of a Sentence or of another Phrase. 

( Principal Elements, 
XXXVII. A Phrase consists of } and 

( Adjunct Elements. 

XXXVIII. The Principal Elements of a Phrase are those words neces- 
sary to its structure. 
^^Let the Pupil make a Phrase having Principal Elements only. 
XXXIX. The Adjuncts of a Phrase are Elements used to modify cr, 
describe other Elements. 
70^** Let the Pupil make a Phrase having Adjuncts. 

XL. The Principal Elements of a Phrase are \ ™ e ^ EADER and 

| The Subsequent. 



PHRASES CLASSIFICATION. 179 

XLL The Leader of a Phrase is the Word used to introduce the 
Phrase — generally connecting its Subsequent to the Word 
which the Phrase qualifies. 
XLII. The Subsequent of a Phrase is the Element which follows the 

Leading Word as its Object. 
^§* Let the Pupil make Phrases and distinguish the Leaders from 
the Subsequents. 

(Adjective ) Words, 
XLM. The Adjuncts may consist of -j or >- Phrases, or 

( Adverbial J Sentences. 

^t* Let the Pupil make Sentences having Adjective Words — Phrases 

— Sentences. 

XLIV. A Phrase is] Transitive or 
/ Intransitive. 

XLY. A Phrase having a Transitive Verb or Participle as a Principal 

Element, is a Transitive Phrase. 

^I^Let the Pupil make a Transitive Phrase; 1. Participial — 2. 

Infinitive. 

XLYL A Phrase whose Subsequent is a Noun or a Pronoun, or a 

Verb or a Participle having no Object, is an Intransitive 

Phrase. 

. ^t* Let the Pupil make an Intransitive Phrase ; 1. Prepositional — 

2. Participial — 3. Infinitive — 4. Independent. 

( Prepositional, 

XLVIL A Phrase is, in form, ) ? A ^ 1 ^' 
' J ' J Infinitive, or 

( Independent. 
XL VIII. A Prepositional Phrase is one that is introduced by a Prepo- 
sition — having a Substantive Element as its object of 
relation. 
0^* Let the Pupil make a Prepositional Phrase. 
XLIX. A Participial Phrase is one that is introduced by a Participle, 
being followed by an Object of an action, or by an Adjunct. 
70^ Let the Pupil make a Participial Phrase. 

L. An Infinitive Phrase is one that is introduced by the Prepo- 
sition to — having a Verb in the Infinitive Mode as its 
Object of relation. 
J^t* Let the Pupil make an Infinitive Phrase. 

LI. An Independent Phrase is one that is introduced by a Noun 
or a Pronoun — having a Participle depending on it. 
pggt' Let the Pupil make an Lickpendent Phrase. 



180 ENGLISH GBAMMAK — -PART III. 

LIE. A Phrase is Compound when it has two or more Leaders or 

Subsequents. 
T^* Let the Pupil make a Compound Phrase — Compound Leaders — 

Compound Subsequent. 
LTIT. A Phrase is Complex when one of its Principal Parts is qualified 

by another Phrase. 
j^* Let the Pupil make a Complex Phrase. 
LTV, A Phrase is Mixed when it has one or more Transitive, and one 

or more Intransitive, Subsequents. 
^T* Let the Pupil make a Mixed Phrase. 

Eem. 1. — "Words combined into a Sentence, have a relation to each 
other — a relation which often determines their forms. The Principal 
Modifications of words, as treated in Part II. of this work, are those 
of form — and these forms vary according to their relation to other 
words. 

But the form does not always determine the office of words in a 
Sentence. 

I may say, " Frederick assisted James," 
and "James assisted Frederick." 

Here, although I use the same words and the same form of those 
words, I make two widely different assertions. The difference in the 
assertions in these examples is caused by the change of position of the 
"Words. Hence the laws of Agreement and Arrangement of words in 
the construction of Sentences. 

Eem. 2.— As Diagrams are of great sendee in constructing Sentences, 
by serving as tests of the grammatical correctness of a composition, 
they are inserted in Part HI. It is hoped that the Teacher will not 
fail to require the Class to write Sentences which shall contain words 
in every possible condition, and in every variety of modification. 
Young Pupils and beginners should be required to place the Sentences 
in Diagrams. 

EXERCISES IX THE ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. 

Bem. — Teachers will find the use of the blackboard of great service 
in the xinalysis of Sentences and of Phrases. 

Of the many Models for Analysis, used by successful Teachers, the 
following are given, in addition to those found in Part I. 

Fiest Model. 
"An hour like this may well display the emptiness of human 
grandeur." 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS BY THE CHART. 181 

ELEMENTS. 

The Modified* Subject ........ An hour like this 

mi t • a. t> j* \ may well display the emptiness of human 

The Logical] Predicate. ..... -j / randeur> 

The Modified^ Predicate. . . . . . .may well display 

The Modified Object the emptiness of human grandeur. 

ADJUNCTS. 

^ r ,1 <y t . , (An a "Word. 

Of the Subject | like this a Phrase. 

Of the Predicate, . . „ well a Word. 

nr 11 m- J *he a Word. 

uj me uoject -j of human grandeur >a phrase. 

Second Model. 
" How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood." 

Principal Elements. Modified Elements. Adjunct Elements. 

c t tta ,, j The scenes of my C The a Word. 

but>... focenes. . . -j childllood £ Of my childhood . a Phrase. 

Prr-d « Ar P dpar " i Are how dear to my C How a Word. 

rrcd . . Are dear, -j hear{ . £ To my heart a Phrase. 

Thied Model. 

"The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea." 

The Modified Subject. The Modified Predicate. 

" The lowing herd" " winds slowly o'er the lea." 

The Grammatic Subject. Its Adjuncts. The Grammatic Predicate. Its Adjuncts. 

=-»> {iSi-::"::;:::}^-- [ ^ le , 

EXERCISES ON THE CHART. 

Rem. 1. — The following Exercises will exhibit the proper method of 
using the Chart in Etymological Parsing. 

Rem. 2. — If the large Chart is used, the attention of the whole Class 
should be directed to it — one of the Students using a ' ' pointer, ' ' as he 
repeats the construction of each word, according to the formulas given 
below. 

Rem. 3. — It is well for beginners in Etymological Parsing to have 
the Sentence to be parsed first placed in Diagram on the blackboard. 
1 . Animals run. 



C Animals jT run ^j 

Animals. . . An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — Subject- 
Word — Noun — Common — Masculine Gender — Third Person 
— Plural Number — Nominative Case. 

* See page 25. t See page 26. 

16 



182 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Kun o . . An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element— * 

Predicate — Verb — Indicative Mode — Present Tense. 

2. Mary is reading. 

C Mary ^Y^ is reading ") 

Mary An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Subject — Word — Noun — Proper — Feminine Gender — 
Third Person — Singular Number — Nominative Case. 

Is reading An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element- 
Predicate — Verb and Participle — Verb is in the In- 
dicative Mode — Present Tense. 

Reading An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

used in Predicate with "is." 

3. He might have been respected. 

C^ He jf might have been Tespeeted J 

He An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Subject — Word — Pronoun — Personal — M asculin e Gen- 
der — Third Person — Singular Number — Nominative 
Case. 
Might have ) An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — • 
been respected J Predicate — two Verbs and two Participles — Verb is 
in the Potential Mode — Prior Past Tense. 

4. His palsied hand waxed strong. 

eiand jf waxed. strong J 
I jpalsTd ) 

His An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct— Primary — 

Word — Adjective— Specifying— Possessive. 

Palsied An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Primary — 

Word — Adjective — Verbal — Intransitive. 

Hand , .An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Subject — Word — Noun — Common — Neuter Gender — 
Third Person — Singular Number — Nominative Case. 

Waxed strong . An Element in the Sentence — Principal Elements- 
Predicate — Verb and Adjective— Verb is in the In- 
dicative Mode — Past Tense. 

Strong o An Element in the Sentence— Adjective used in Pre- 
dicate with ' ' waxed. ' ' 



EXERCISES ON THE CHAET. 



183 



5. That good men sometimes commit faults, can not be denied. 
(jThaT) ^X 

f men Ycomrait Y faults } X can bo denied ) 
{good) ( spinet's) J ^ not J 

That good men } An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

sometime > Subject — Sentence — Substantive — Simple — Trans= 

commit faults, ) itive. 

Can be denied. . . An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 
Predicate — two Verbs and a Participle — Verb is in 
the Potential Mode — Present Tense. 

Not An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Primary- 
Word — Adverb of Negation. 

6. He hears the thunder ere the tempest lowers, 

{^ *fe \ hears j [ thunder) 

CotT) LSsJ 

f tempest \ lowers ) 

He An Element in the Sentence— Principal Element- 
Subject — Word— Pronoun— Personal — MAscuLiNEGen- 
der— Third Person— Singular Number— Nominative 
Case. 

Hears An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Predicate — Yerb — Indicative Mode— Present Tense. 

The An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct— Primary — 

Word — Adjective — Specifying — Pure. 

Thunder An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Object — Word — Noun — Common— Neuter Gender — 
Third Person — Singular Number— Objective Case. 

Ere the tern- ) An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Primary— 

pest lowers. . . ) Sentence — Adverb — Intransitive. 

7. Too low they build who build beneath the stars. 

Q they X build ) 

1-*-^, I I low ) 

0^ 1 b " ild ) ^j) 

^enjr~stars~^) 

Too An Element in the Sentence— Adjunct — Secondary- 
Word— Adverb— of Degree. 



184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Low An Element in the Sentence— Adjunct — Primary — 

Word — Adverb — of Place. 

They An Element in the Sentence— Principal Element — 

Subject — Word — Personal — Masculine Gender — 
Third Person — Plural Number— Nominative Case, 

Build An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Predicate — Verb — Indicative Mode — Present Tense. 

Who build be- ) An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Primary — 

neath the stars ) Sentence — Adjective — Simple — Intransitive. 

Who An Element in the Auxiliary Sentence — Principal 

Element — Subject — Word — Pronoun — Relative — Mas- 
culine Gender — Third Person — Plural Number — 
Nominative Case. 

Build An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Verb — Indicative Mode — Present Tense. 

Beneath the ) An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Secondary — 



.} 



stars ) Phrase — Adverbial — Prepositional — Intransitive. 

8. ' ' Scali?ig yonder peak, 

I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow." 



scaling 



[ yonder J 



Y saw T eagle J 



wheeling ) 



L near i brow 



Scaling yonder i An Element in the Sentence — an Ad junct— Primary — 

peak ) a Phrase — Adjective — Participial — Transitive. 

I An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — • 

Subject — Word — Pronoun — Personal — Masculine 
Gender — First Person — Singular Number — Nomina- 
tive Case. 

Saw An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Predicate — Verb — Indicative Mode — Past Tense. 

An An Element in the Sentence— an Adjunct — Primary — 

Word — Adjective — Specifying — Pure. 

Eagle An Element in the Sentence Principal Element — 

Object— Word— Noun — Common— Masculine Gender — 
Third Terson— Singular Number— Objective Case. 



ANALYSIS OF PHRASES BY THE CHAET. 185 

Wheeling near ) An Element in the Sentence — an Adjunct — Primary — 

its brow ) Phrase — Adjective — Participial — Intransitive. 

Near its brow. . .An Element in the Phrase — an Adjunct — Secondary 
— Phrase — Adverbial — Prepositionaii — Intransitive. 
Eem. — In the analysis of a Complex Sentence (see Obs. p. 42), an 
Auxiliary Sentence is found to perform an individual office, and ac- 
cordingly it is parsed as one Etymological Element of the Principal Sen- 
tence. After it has been thus parsed, it should itself be analyzed, and 
the Words and Phrases of which it is composed, be parsed according to 
their respective offices. The same remark is applicable to Phrases. 
[See Exercise 7, above, and 2, below.] 

ANALYSIS OF PHKASES BY THE CHART. 

EXERCISES. 

1. In the beginning (a Prepositional Phrase), 



L* D jL beginning ~J 
I the J ; 



In An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — the 

Leader — a Preposition. 

The An Element in the Phrase — an Adjunct — Word — Ad- 
jective. 

Beginning . . . An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — the Sub- 
sequent — a Word — Noun — Object. 

2. u Scaling yonder peak" (a Participial Phrase) 



L 



scaling Y peak J 
\ yonder \ 

Scaling An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — the 

Leader — a Participle — Transitive. 

Yonder An Element in the Phrase — an Adjunct — Word — Ad- 
jective. 

Peak An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — the Sub> 

sequent — a Word — Noun — Object. 

3. " The time having arrived" (an Independent Phrase). 

time J 

- The J [ having arrived ) 

The An Element in the Phrase — an Adjunct — Word — Ad* 

jective. 

16* 



186 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART III. 

Time An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — the 

Leader — a Noun — Independent Case. 
Having ) An Element in the Phrase— Principal Element — the Sub- 
arrived. . . . ) sequent — a Participle — Intransitive. 

4. To bestow many favors (an Infinitive Phrase), 



|To ^ bestow ^ favors "J 
^ many J 7 



many ] / 

£o An Element in the Phrase— Principal Element — the 

Leader — a Preposition. 

bestow An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — a part 

of the Subsequent — a Verb — Infinitive Mode — Trans- 
itive. 

Many An Element in the Phrase— an Adjunct — Adjective. 

Favors An Element in the Phrase — Principal Element — a part 

of the Subsequent — Object— Word — Noun. 

Rem. — Exercises like the above are well calculated to prepare the 
Student for Exercises in Syntax ; and when he shall have learned the 
Rules of Syntax, ^he should combine the above Exercises with the ap- 
plication of those Rules. 

SYNTAX OF THE ELEMENTS OF SENTENCES. 

I. Of the Principal Elements. 
(1.) The Subject. 



( Subject X Y ") 

Rule 1. — The Subject of a Sentence must be in the 

Nominative Case. 

Obs. 1. — The Subject of a Sentence is always Substantive in its office 
[See p. 25, Obs. 2.] 

(A Word, 
Obs. 2. — The Subject of a Sentence may be -J A Phrase, or 

( A Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

1 A W d ■ ( a ) N° un • • •*■ " Virtue secures happiness." 

( (b) Pronoun. 2. " He plants his footsteps in the sea." 

2. A Phrase 3. " His being a minister, prevented his 

rising to civil power." 



ELEMENTS OF SENTENCES. 187 

4. " To give good gifts and to be benevolent, 
are often very different things." 
3. A Sentence 5. . " That all men are created equal, is a self- 
evident truth." 
Rem. — Whatever is peculiar to Pronouns, is discussed under the Rule 
for Pronouns. We now proceed to discuss what is common to Nouns, 
Pronouns, Phrases, and Sentences, considered as Subjects of Sentences. 

Obs. 3.— The Subject of a Sentence may be ascertained by its an- 
swering to the Interrogatives Who ? or What ? placed before the Pred- 
icate. Thus, in the Examples above — 

What " secures happiness?" Ans. — " Virtue." 

Who ' ' plants his footsteps in the sea V ' .Ans. — " He." 

What " prevented his rising to civil) . ., _^; \ • . . . *, 

Q , , > Ans. — His being a minister.' 

power r ) * 

What " is a self-evident truth ?" Ans. — " That all men are 

created equal. ' ' 
What, "are often different things ?". . .Ans. — " To give good gifts and 

to be benevolent." 

Rem. — In parsing Phrases and Auxiliary Sentences, the same Rules 
are applicable as those given for Word Elements. 

SUBJECT WORD. 
Obs. 4. — A Subject Word must be a Noun or a Pronoun. 

(a.) The Form oe the Nominative. 

Obs. 5. — Because English Nouns are not varied in form to denote 
the Case (except the Possessive), much attention is required in giving 
them their proper position in a Sentence. [See Remark 1, p. 178.] 

But when the Subject of a Sentence is a Personal Pronoun, the 
form indicates the Subject. 

(b.) Position of the Nominative. 

Note I. — In position, the Subject of a Sentence com- 
monly precedes the Verb. 

Examples. — 1. Animals run. 

2. Resources are developed. 

3. Virtue secures happiness. 

4. " The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

5. "The sword and the plague-spot with death strew the 

plain. ' ' 



188 ENGLISH GEAMMAK PAKT III. 

Exception 1. — In Interrogative Sentences, the Subject is placed after 
the Verb, when the Verb constitutes a complete Predicate. 

Example. — " Heeds re not the bursting anguish ?" 

Exception 2. — When the Predicate of an Interrogative Sentence 
consists of two Yerbs, or a Yerb and a Participle, Adjective, Noun, etc., 
the Subject is placed after the first word of the Predicate. 

Examples. — Is he injured ? — Is she kind ? — Is he a scholar ? — Must I 
leave thee ? 

Obs. 1. — But the Interrogatives, who, which, and what, used as Sub- 
jects, precede their Yerbs. 

Examples. — " Who will shpw us any good?" 

"What can compensate for loss of. character?" 
" Which shall be taken first V 

Exception 3. —The Subject follows the Predicate, or the first Word 
of the Predicate, in Declarative Sentences, when the Conjunction if, 
used to introduce a conditional or modifying Sentence, is omitted. 

Example. — " Dost thou not, Hassan, lay these dreams aside, 

I'll plunge thee headlong in the whelming tide." 

Exception 4. — When the word there is used only to introduce the 
Sentence. 

Examples. — I. "There is a calm for those who weep." 

2. ' ' There breathes not a sound, 

While friends in their sadness are gathering round. ' ' 

Exception 5. — When the Yerb is in the Imperative Mode. 

Example. — " Turn ye, turn te at my reproof." 

Exception 6. — By the poets and public speakers, for rhetorical effect. 

Examples.— 1 . ' ' Loud peals the thunder. ' ' 

2. " Perish the groveling thought," 

Obs. 2. — When one word includes in its signification many others, 
expressed in the same connection, the general term is the proper Sub- 
ject of the Yerb ; and the included terms may be regarded as explana- 
tory, and, therefore, independent in construction. [See Independent 
Case, p. 85.] 

Example. — " All sink before it— comfort, joy, and icealth.' f 

Some teachers prefer to supply the ellipsis — which is not improper. 

Obs. 3. — The Subject of an Imperative Yerb is commonly suppressed.. 

Example. — " [ ] Take each man's censure, but [ ] reserve thy 
judgment." 



SUBJECT PHEASE. 189 

Obs. 4. — But it is sometimes exnressed. 

Example. — " Go ye into all the world." 

Obs. 5. — It is sometimes accompanied by an explanatory word. 

Example. — ' ' Ye rapid floods, give way ." [See ' ' Independent Case. ' '] 

Note II. — Unnecessary repetition of the Subject should 
be avoided. 

Obs. 1. — This principle is violated in the following Example : 
"His teeth, they chatter, chatter still." 

Obs. 2, — But this practice is allowable, when necessary to a proper 
rhetorical effect. 

Examples. — Our Fathers, where are they ? And the Prophets, do they 
live for ever ? 

Obs. 3. — The agent of an action is commonly the Subject of the Sen- 
tence, but the agent of an action expressed by an Infinitive Verb, may 
be in the Nominative or in the Objective Case. 

1. Nominative. — I purpose to go. 

2. Objective. — I invited him to go. 

Ob3. 4. — The agent of an action expressed by a Participle is com- 
monly in the Possessive Case. 

Examples. — I heard of your going to Boston. 

John's joining the army was unexpected by his friends. 

Obs. 5. — But it may be in the Nominative, in the Objective, and in 
the Independent Case. 

EXAMPLES. 

Nominative.-—" Scaling yonder peak, /saw an eagle 

Objective. — Wheeling near its brow. ' ' 

Independent. — The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 

Bem. — Hence, the agent of an action can not always be regarded as 
the Subject of a Sentence. 

SUBJECT PHRASE. 
1. "To steal is base." 



steal~^) T is base J 



J^~ 



190 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAET III. 

2. " Writing letters constitutes my most agreeable employment," 



WrUing XTettere ) j^ constitutes jT em P 1 ' 

— S \ m yJl 



employment 



agr eeable J 
^ m ost, j 

Obs. 6. — A Subject Phrase constitutes one distinct Element in the 
structure of a Sentence, and should be construed and parsed in the same 
manner as a Subject Word. Thus, 

In Sentence 1, "To steal" is a Phrase — in form, Infinitive; 

in office, Substantive ; for it is 
the Subject of "is base." 

" Writing letters" is a Phrase — in form, Participial; 

in office, Substantive ; for it is the Sub- 
ject of " constitutes employment." 

Obs. 7. — After a Phrase as such has been parsed, it should be ana- 
lyzed, by resolving it into its constituent Elements. Thus, in the 
Phrase "to steal," "to" is a Preposition — the Leader of the Infinitive 
Phrase ; * ' steal, " is a Verb, Infinitive Mode — the Subsequent of the Phrase, 
and Object of the Preposition "to." 

And in the Phrase " writing letters," "writing" is a Participle — the 
Leader of the Participial Phrase ; ' ' letters' ' is a Noun — the Subsequent 
of the Phrase, and Object of the action expressed by "writing." 

Form of the Subject Phrase. 
Obs. 8. — The Phrases commonly used as Subjects of Sentences, are 
the Infinitive and the Participial — Prepositional and Independent Phrases 
being seldom thus used. [See Clark's Analysis, page 109, note.] 

Position of the Subject Phrase. 

Note III. — In Position, the Subject Phrase commonly 
precedes its Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. To do good is the duty of all men. 

2. Managing the household affairs now constitutes the sum 
of my employments. 

Obs. 1. — Exception. — The Subject Phrase sometimes follows its Pred, 
icate. 

Example. — "The sure way to be cheated is, to fancy ourselves mort 
cunning than others. ' ' 

Rem. 1. — "To fancy ourselves more cunning than others," is the Subject. 
"Is way," is the Predicate. 



SUBJECT SENTENCES. 191 

Rem. 2. — This position generally obtains, when the Indefinite Pro- 
noun it is placed instead of the Phrase. " £?' precedes, and the Phrase 
follows the Verb. 

Example. — It is the duty of all to do good to others. 

Rem. 3. — In parsing Examples like these, the Phrase is to be regarded 
as explanatory of the Pronoun it — used to define the Indefinite Word — 
and is, in its office, analogous to a Word used to explain a preceding 
Noun. [See Independent Case, Obs. 2, p. 85.] 

SUBJECT SENTENCES. 
" That I have taken this old mans daughter is most true. 

( That ) \ ^^ 

j f I j^have taken^ daughter ) Y is true ' 1 

^ man's j |N ^ t S 

Xthisj^oldY/ ^ most J 

Obs. 2. — In Examples like the above we have two Sentences — one, 
Principal, the other Auxiliary or Subordinate. The Auxiliary Sentence 
is an Element in the Principal — the Subject, and should be parsed 
accordingly. 

Thus, in the above Complex Sentence, the Principal Sentence is 
Simple, Intransitive, having one Subject — " That I have taken this dd man's 
daughter ;" one Predicate — "is true; 1 and one Adjunct — " most." 

Obs. 3.— After an Auxiliary Sentence has been parsed, as one Element 
tin its Principal Sentence, it should be analyzed by resolving it into its 
constituent Elements. Thus, in the Auxiliary Sentence given above, 

" That" Introduces the Sentence ; hence, a Conjunction. 

"I" Is the Subject of its Sentence ; hence, a Substantive. 

1 l Have taken" . Is the Predicate of its Sentence; a Verb and 
Participle. 

"This" Is an Adjunct of " man" ['s] ; hence, an Adjective. 

" Old" Is an Adjunct of "man' ' ['s] ; hence, an Adjective. 

"Man's" Is an Adjunct of " daughter ;" hence, an Adjective. 

1 ' Daughter' ' ... Is the Object of ' ' have taken ;' ' hence, a Substantive. 
Obs. 4. — The Subject Sentence is commonly — not always — introduced 
by the Conjunction " that." [See Examples below.] 

Position op Subject Sentences. 

Note IV. — A Subject Sentence is placed before its 
Predicate. 



192 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Examples. — 1. " That we differ in opinion is not strange." 

2. ' ' How he came by it, shall be disclosed in the next 
chapter." 

Obs. 1. — Exceptions, — When the Pronoun it is substituted for a Subject 
Sentence, the Pronoun precedes, and the Sentence for which it stands is 
placed after the Verb. 

Example. — "It is probable thai we shall not meet again. 11 

Obs. 2. — In parsing Sentences like the above, we are to parse "it" 
as the grammatical Subject of the Principal Sentence, and the whole 
Auxiliary Sentence as explanatory of the word l ' it' ' — a Logical Adjunct 
of "it." [See "Logical Adjunct," p. 29.] 

pM* Let the Class make Sentences, which shall be correct examples 
of the several Notes, Observations, and Remarks, under Eule 1. 

EXERCISES. 
EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 

1. There is no union here of hearts, 

That finds not here an end ; 

2. Were this frail world our final rest, 
Living or dying none were blest, 

3. Thus star by star declines, 

Till all are passed away ; 

4. As morning high and higher shines, 

To pure and perfect day : 

5. Nor sink those stars in empty night, 

But hide themselves in heaven's own light. ) 

MODEL. 

" Friend after friend departs. 1 ' 



Q Friend. Y d 



eparts 



yferj [' friend^ 
ANALYSIS. 

t> ^ 1T Pr^v^l^W — "Friend" ) Simple Sentence 
Principal Element j h&h*. . "departs." [ Intransitive. 

Adjunct Element. . j g'g Scale. \ " After Mend -" a Phrase - 

The Leader After a Preposition. 

The Subsequent Friend a Noun. 



EXERCISES. 193 



" Friend" l0) ,.. 4Ot .isan Element in the Sentence, 

Principal Element. 

Subject. 

Word. 

Noun. 

Common. 

Third Person. 

Singular Number. 

Nominative Case — according to 
Bule 1st. The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case. 

0^ Thus analyze all the Sentences in the foregoing and in the fok 
lowing "Examples," and parse the Subjects of each. 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 

1. "Re war ding and punishing actions by any other rule, would 
appear much harder to be accounted for by minds formed as he has 
formed ours." — Bp. Butler. 

2. " What time he took orders, doth not appear." — Life of Butler. 

3. "That every day has its pains and sorrows, is universally ex- 
perienced." 

4. " My hopes and fears start up alarmed." 

5. " Who shall tempt, with wandering feet, 

The dark, unfathomed, infinite abyss?" 

6. " Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note. 

7. " Not half of our heavy task was done." 

8. " Few and short were the prayers we said.'* 

9. "A chieftain's daughter seemed the maid." 
10. " Her satin snood, her silken plaid, 

Her golden brooch, such birth betrayed." 

Grammatic Fallacies. 
Rem. — Let the Pupils correct the errors of the following Sentences, 
and give the authority for every criticism, by a proper reference to 
Rule I. , or to Notes and Observations under the Rule. 

1. " His wealth and him bid adieu to each other." — Priestly. 

2. " My sister and me were both invited." 

3. " We have not learned whom else were invited," 

4. " Scotland and thee did each in other live." — Dryden. 

5. " Tell me in sadness whom is she you love." — Shakspcare* 

6. " Him I most loved fell at Gettysburg." 

17 



194 ENGLISH G12AMMAB — PART in. 

7o " Them are the boys we saw/' 

8. " The rustic's sole response was, ' Them's my sentiments.' " 

9o " Has thee been to the yearly meeting?" 

Ho The .Predicate. 

Q Subject. Y Predi cate. ~y ~) 

Eem. 1,— In a Sentence, it is the office of the Predicate to make the 
assertion. It declares existence, state, change, or an act, performed or 
received. 

Hem. 2. — A Predicate may consist of one Word or of a combination of 
Words. If of one Word, it must be a Verb. 

Robert studies. 
And, in addition, it may have 

A second Verb. Eobert does study a 

A Participle .Eobert is studying. 

An Adjective .Eobert is studious. 

A Noun ...... . Eobert is a student 

A Pronoun. „ . It is i— If I were you. 

A Preposition Its idle hopes are oer a 

It may also consist of two Verbs and one or more Participles, etc. 

We MIGHT HAVE WALKED We MIGHT HAVE BEEN LOVED. 

Obs. 1. — When a Predicate consists of more than one Word, the last 
constitutes the essential part of the Predicate. The other Words are 
Auxiliary, and are used to indicate Voice, Mode, Tense, and sometimes 
Person and Number. Thus, in the Sentence, " I may have been loved," 
the Word " loved" is the essential part of the Predicate — " been," is 
an Auxiliary, the principal office of which is to denote the Voice; 
11 have," denotes the Tense; "may," denotes the Mode. [See p. 123.] 

f Obs. 2. — Every complete Predicate must have a Subject, expressed 
or understood. 

VERBS. 

Rule 2. — A Verb in Predicate must agree with its Sub- 
ject in Number and Person. 

EeMo — This rule requires that the form of a Yerb be determined by 
its Subject. Strictly speaking, Verbs have no Number and Person. 
The term is used to denote a variation in the form of a Yerb to cor- 
respond with the Number arid Person of its Subject. Thus, 



VERBS — NUMBER. 195 

In the Singular Number, no Suffix is used for the First Person ; as, 
I walk. 

Est or st is added for the Second Person, solemn style . 

Example. — Thou walkest. 

S is added for the Third Person Singular ; as, John walks. 
In the Plural Number, Verbs are not varied to denote the Persons 
of their Subjects. 

Examples. — We walk — ye walk — they walk. 

NUMBER. 

Note I. — One Subject in the Singular Number requires 
its Verb to be in the Singular. 

Rem. — This note applies alike to Words, to Phrases, and to Sentences. 

examples. 

Word Subjects . ... 1. " Earth keeps me here awhile." 

2. " Knowledge reaches or may reach every home." 

Phrase Subjects . . .3. " My leaving home does not please you.'* 

4. " To dispute the doctor requires fortitude." 

Sentence Subjects i. .5. "That all men are created equal, is a self- 
evident truth." 
6. " How he came back again, doth not appear." 

^t* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " Where are you, my hoy ? Here I are." 

2. " He dare not call me coward." 

3. " I wonder at what thou says on that subject." 

4. ' ' And many a steed in his stables were seen. ' ' 

5. "There are pupils in this class, whose progress have been 

astonishing." 

Note II. — Two or more Singular Subjects, taken sepa- 
rately, require the Verb to be Singular,, 



Word Subjects . . 1 . " William or Warner has my knife . ' ' 

2. "Disease or poverty follows the lazy track of the 

sluggard." 

3 . * * My poverty, but not my will, consents. ' ' — Shakspeare 



196 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

4. ' ' Every phrase and every figure which he uses 
tends to render the picture more lively and com- 
plete." — Blair. 
Phrase Subjects. . .5. "Writing letters or reading novels occupies her 
evening hours." 

6. "To be or not to be, is the question." 

7. "To shoot or be shot, was my only alternative." 
Sentence Subjects. .8. " That my client aided in the rescue, or that he was 

present at the time of it, does not appear from the 
evidence adduced. ' ' 

^t* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. "Neither history nor tradition furnish such information.'' 

2. " Neither Charles nor his brother were qualified to support such 

a system." 

3. "Nor war nor wisdom yield our Jews delight." 

4. "He or his deputy were authorized to commit the culprit.' 

5. " For outward matter or event fashion not the character within.' ' 

Note III. — A Collective Noun, indicating Unity, re- 
quires its Verb to be in the Singular Number. 

Examples. — 1. " A nation has been smitten." 

2. "The Senate has rejected the hill." 
8 . " Congress has adj ourned. ' ' 

Exception. — The Logical Subject of a Sentence is sometimes the 
Object of a Phrase used to qualify the Grammatical Subject. Then, 
when the Object of the Phrase is plural in form, and indicates that the 
parts of which the number is composed are taken severally, the Verb 
should be Plural. 

Example. — A part of the students have left. 

Here " students" — the name of many taken severally — is the 
Logical Subject of "have left," and requires the Verb to be Plural, 
although "part," the Grammatical Subject, is Singular. 

Obs. 3. — But Nouns not Collective are not varied in number by their 
Adjuncts. 

Examples. — 1. " The progress of his forces teas impeded." — Allen. 

2. The selection of appropriate examples requires taste. 

3. "All appearances of modesty are favorable and pre- 

possessing. " — Blair. 



VERBS NUMBER. 197 

^B*- Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

{ 1. "A series of exercises in false grammar are introduced toward 

the end." — Frost's Grammar. 
\ 2. " The number of the names were about one hundred and 

twenty. ' ' — Ware s Grammar. 

3. "The number of school districts have increased since last year." 

4. "In old English, this species of words were numerous." 

5. " Have the legislature power to prohibit assemblies." 

6. ' ' Above one half of them was cut off before the' return of spring." 

7. " The greater part of their captures was sacrificed." 

8. " While still the busy world is treading o'er 

The paths they trod five thousand years before." 

9. " Small as the number of inhabitants are, their poverty is 

extreme." 
10. "The number of bounty-jumpers are enormous." 

Note IV. — One Subject in the Plural Number should 
have a Verb in v the Plural. 

EXAMPLES. 

Word Subjects. . . .1. "Wings were on her feet." 

2. "They that seek me early shall find me. 

Exception 1. — Nouns, Plural in form, often constitute the titles of 
books. Such names, used as Subjects of Sentences, require 'their Verbs 
to be Singular. 

Examples.— 1. " The ' Pleasures of Hope' is a splendid poem." 

2. " The ' Lives of the Martyrs' is now out of print." | 

Exception 2. — A Plural Subject, modified by a Phrase whose Subse- 
quent is the Logical Subject of the Sentence, and Singular in form, 
may have a Singular Verb. 

Example. — Two thirds of my hair has fallen off. 

Note V. — Two or more Subjects connected by and 
require the Verb to be in the Plural. 

EXAMPLES. 

Word Subjects. ... 1. " The vivacity and sensibility of the Greeks seem 
to have been much greater than ours." 
IT* 



198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

2. " Even as the roebuck and the hart are eaten.' 1 
Phrase Subjects. . . 3. " Chewing tobacco and smoking cigars disqualify a young 
man for mental improvement." — Cutcheon. 

4. "To spin, to weave, to knit, and to sew, were once 

a girl's employments ; 

5. But now to dress and catch a beau, are all she 

calls enjoyments." — Lynn News. 
Sentence Subjects. .6. " Read of this burgess — on the stone appear, 

How worthy he ! how virtuous ! and how dear /" — 
Crabbe. 

Exception 1. — Two or more Singular Subjects so intimately as- 
sociated in thought as to constitute a logical unity, may have a Yerb 
in the Singular Number. 

Examples. — 1. "The head and front of my offending hath this 
extent." — Shakspeare. 
2. il There is a peculiar force and beauty in this figure." 

— Karnes. 

Exception 2. — Two or more Singular Subjects preceded by the Ad- 
jectives each, every, or no, require the Yerb to be in the Singular Number. 

Examples. — 1. "Every boy and every girl was eager for the 
recitation." 

2. "Each day and each hour is fraught with conse- 

quences too momentous for human contem- 
plation. ' ' 

3. "No fortune and no condition in life makes the 

guilty mind happy." 

Exception 3. — Two or more Singular Subjects connected by and — 
one taken affirmatively and the other negatively — require the Yerb to 
be in the Singular Number. 

Examples. — 1. ' ' My poverty, but not my will, consents." — Shakspeare. 
2. ' ' His moral integrity, and not his wealth, makes him 
respected. ' ' 

Exception 4. — Two or more Singular Subjects, indicating the same 
person or thing, require the Yerb to be in the Singular Number. 

Example. — " The saint, the father, and the husband prays." 

^gt* Let the Pupils correct the following 
errors. 
1. "Two and two is four, and five is nine.'' 



VERBS PERSON. 199 

2. " The flax and the barley was smitten/ ' 

3. " The Mood and Tense is signified by the Verb." 

4. ' ' Every word and every member have their due weight and force. ' ' 

5. "Each day and each hour bring their portion of duty." 

6. "No law, no restraint, no regulation are required to keep him 

in bounds." 

7. " Prudence, and not pomp, are the basis cf his fame." 

8. " Not fear, but fatigue, have overcome him." 

9. ' ' The President, not the Cabinet, are responsible for the measure. '* 

Note VI. — A Collective Noun, indicating Plurality, 
requires its Verb to be in the Plural Number. 

Examples. — 1. " The people are foolish, they have not known me." 
2. "For the people speak, but do not write." 

Obs. 1. — Collective Nouns, which always require a Plural Verb, are 
the following : 

Gentry — mankind — nobility — people — peasantry. 

Obs. 2. — Those which may have Verbs in the Singular or Plural, 
according to the sense, are the following : 

Aristocracy — army — auditory — committee — congress — church — family — meet- 
ing — public — school — remnant — senate. 

PERSON. 

Note VII. — Two or more Subjects, taken separately 
and differing in Person, should have separate Verbs, when 
the Verb is varied to denote the Person of its Subject. 

Example. — You are in error, or /am. 

Obs. — But when the Verb is not varied to denote the Person, it need 
not be repeated. 

Examples. — 1. You or 1 must go. 

2. The doctors or you abe in error. 

Note VIII. — When the Subject of a Verb differs in 
Person or Number (or both) from a Noun or Pronoun in 
Predicate, the Verb should agree with its Subject rather 
than with the word in Predicate. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' Thou art the man. ' ' 

2. Clouds are vapor. 

3. A horse is an animal. 



200 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Obs. 1. — The young Pupil often finds it difficult to decide which of 
the two Substantives is the Subject and which the Noun in Predicate. 
The following test will decide this point : 

When one term is generic and the other specific, the former belongs in 
Predicate — the latter is the Subject. Thus, in Example 3, " animal" 
is a generic term — "horse" is specific. We can not say, an animal is a 
horse, for not every animal is a horse ; but every horse is an animal. 
Hence, "horse" is the Subject, and "animal" is in Predicate. [See 
Independent Case, p. 85, Obs. 5.] 

MODE AND TENSE. 

Note IX. — That Mode and Ten^e of a V^rb should be 
used which will most clearly convey the sense intended. 

Obs. 1. — A Verb used to denote a conditional fact or a contingency 
should have the Subjunctive or the Potential form. 

Examples. — 1. "Were I Alexander, I would accept the terms." 

2. "So would I were I Parmenio." 

3. " If we would improve, we must study." 

Obs. 2«— But if the condition is assumed as unquestionable, the Verb 
should be in the Indicative Mode. 

Examples. — 1 . "If thou hadst known. ' ' 

2. If John has offended you, he will make due apology. 

Note X. — That form of the Verb should be used which 
will most clearly express the time intended. 

Obs. 1. — In constructing Complex Sentences, the Tense of the Prin- 
cipal Sentence does not necessarily control the Tense of the Verb in the 
Auxiliary Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. " I said in my haste, all men are liars." 

2. "He ks been so long idle, that he knows not how to 

work." 

3. "Copernicus first demonstrated that the earth revolves 

upon its axis. ' ' 

4. " Those that seek me early shall find me." 

5. ' ' * And when we are parted, and when thou art dead t 

0, where shall we lay thee V his followers said." 

Obs, K — A proposition which is always true, or which includes the 



VERBS MODE AND TENSE. 201 

past, the present, and the future, should be expressed in the Present 
Tense. 

Examples. — 1. ' ' The lecturer demonstrated that the earth is round. ' ' 
2. "Did he say that the moon revolves from east to 

west?" 

Obs. 8. — The variations for the Potential Mode are rather variations 
of form than to indicate distinctions of time — this Mode being generally 
indifferent as to time. 

Example. — " 0, would the scandal vanish with my life, 
Then happy were to me ensuing death !" 

Obs. 4. — The Infinitive Present generally indicates indefinite time 
■ — the Finite Verb on which it depends commonly determines its 
Tense. 

Examples. — 1. " I went to see him." — Present in form, but Past in 
sense. 
2. "I shall go to see him. " — Present in form, but Future 
in sense. 

Obs. 5. — But generally, to indicate past time, the Prior Present In- 
finitive is used, except when the Infinitive follows Verbs denoting purpose, ex- 
pectation, wish, etc. 

Examples. — 1. "We ought to have gone. 

2. I purposed to write many days ago. 

3. I expected to meet him yesterday. 

j^h Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " I wish I was a gipsy." 

2. " If I was a teacher, I should give shorter lessons." 

3. "Take care lest the boat leaves before you shall get up. 

4. ' ' We have been expecting to see Eobert all last year. ' ' 

5. "The preacher declared that beneficence was not benevolence." 

Form or the Verb. 

N"ote XI. — That form of a Verb should be used which 
will correctly and fully express the fact intended. 

Common Errors. — 1 . ' ' There let him lay. ' ' — Byron. 

2. "To you I fly for refuge." — Murray, 
Corrected.— There let him lie.— T© you I flee for refuge. 



202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

^§*° Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " Kespectable farmers never lay down in the field." 

2. U I have no objection to your setting down occasionally." 

3. " While I was talking, Sarah raised up to leave the hall." 

4. "I expect you was out late last night." 

5. " William has been falling trees in the maple grove." 

Yoice. 

Note XII. — The form of the Active Voice is properly 
used when the agent of the action expressed is made the 
Subject of the Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. Columbus discovered America. 
2. Ca3sar invaded Gaul. 

Obs. 1. — The Passive form is used when the Object of the Act is 
made the Subject of the Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. America was discovered. 
2. Gaul was invaded. 

Obs. 2. — The Agent of the Action is made the Object of an Adjunct 
Phrase, when the Verb takes the Passive form. 

Examples. — Active Voice. — 1. William has solved the problem. 
2. Mary gave me a rose. 
Passive Voice. — 1 . The problem has been solved by William. 
2. A rose was given [to] me by Mary. 

Obs. 3. — Action is sometimes improperly predicated of a Passive 
Subject. 

EXAMPLES. 

You are mistaken. 
for . . . , You mistake. 

The house is building. 

for The house is being built. 

which means The house is be[com]ing built, i. e., people are at work 

upon it ; but the house does not act. 

7^M~ Let the Pupils correct the following < 

ERRORS. 

1. "The boy has been found fault with too much." 

2. "The old man thought he was not looked up to enough.' ' 



VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE. 203 

3. " Wheat is now selling for a dollar a bushel." 

4. " My predictions are now fulfilling." 

5. " The timbers are now hewing for a new bridge." 

6. " Here certain chemical mysteries were carrying on by the 

engineers." 

7. " My coat is now making by the tailor." 

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE. 

Note XIII. — A Verb which is necessarily Transitive 
requires an Object in construction, expressed or implied. 

Obs. — The appropriate Object of a Sentence should not be made 
the Object of a Phrase. 

Example. — "Transitive Verbs do not admit of a Preposition after 
them." — Bullion' a Grammar, p. 91, edition of 1847. 

Corrected. — Transitive Verbs do not admit Prepositions after them 
[to complete the Predicate] . 

Note XIV. — A Verb necessarily Intransitive should 
not have an Object, except by poetic license or for other 
rhetorical purposes. 

Example. — " I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend." 

Exception 1. — But a small number of Verbs are used Transitively 
or Intransitively. [See p. 107, Obs. 1.] 

Exception 2. — Some Intransitive Verbs may have Objects of their 
own signification. 

Examples. — 1. " I dreamed a dream that was not all a dream." 
2. "I have fought a good fight." 

Obs. 1.— Some Verbs, commonly used Intransitively, become Trans- 
itive by virtue of a Prepositional Prefix. 

Examples. — 1. John goes to school "goes" is Intransitive. 

2. John undergoes punishment. " undergoes" is Transitive. 

3. The tower looks well " looks" is Intransitive. 

4. The tower overlooks the city. ' i overlooks' ' is Transitive. 

Obs 2. — In such examples of Compound Verbs in Predicate, it is 
generally — not always — the Preposition in Composition that makes the 
Verb Transitive. 



204 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Obs. 3.— Verbs made Transitive by this use of Prefixes, can not ele- 
gantly be used in the Passive Voice. 

Examples. — 1. " John undergoes punishment. " — We may not say 
punishment is undergone by John. 
2. "The tower overlooks the city." — Nor, the city is 
overlooked by the tower. 

Obs. 4. — Prepositions not in composition, used with Intransitive Verbs 
to introduce Adjunct Phrases, are construed with the Predicate when 
the Verb becomes Passive. 

Examples. — 1. " The children laughed at him.' 7 — He was laughed at 
by the children. 
2. " We often thought of our friends at home." — Our 
friends at home were often thought of. 

£em. — Such expressions are not often elegant, and should be avoided 
when the same thought can be otherwise expressed. Thus, 
He was derided by the children. 
Our friends at home were often remembered. 

$Tote XV.— A Verb should not be used for its Parti- 
ciple in Predicate. 

Example. — James ought not to have went. 
Corrected. — James ought not to have gone. 

Note XVI.— A Participle should not take the place of 
its Verb. 

Example. — "The work is imperfect ; you done it too hastily." 
Corrected. — The work is imperfect ; you did it too hastily. 

Obs. — Parts of the Predicate of a Sentence may be omitted by 
ellipsis. 

1. The leading Word. 

" If [ ] heard aright, 
It is the knell of my departed hours/' 

2. The second Word. 

"They may [ ] and should return to allegiance." 
8. The whole Predicate. 

"While [ ] there we visited the Asylum." 
'* To whom, thus Eve [ ]." — Milton. 



YEEBS PARSING. 205 

1 Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " Julia is always chose first." 

2. " Ainsworth has spoke twice and has wrote once." 

3. " The hest apple was gave to Anna." 

4. " You ought not to have broke that chair.' ' 

5. "I seen you when you done it." 

6. " I had rather have did it myself." 

EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 

' c He maketh the storm a calm. ' ' 



"V maketh "y storm ^J 



^j x, calm ) 



ANALYSIS. 

C The Subject [not modified] . " He." 
Modified Elements. \ The Modified Predicate ... j Maketh [to hecome] 

( The Modified Object "the storm." 

( The Subject " He." 

Principal Elements. } The Predicate " maketh." 

( The Object "storm." 

( Of the Subject 

Adjunct Elements. . -j Of the Predicate . . . , [to become] "a calm." 

( Of the Object "the." 

Parsed by the Chart. 

He Is an Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

. Subj ect — Word — Pronoun — Personal — Masculine — Third 
Person— Singular Number — Nominative Case. 

Maketh Is an Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Predicate — Verb — Indicative Mode — Present Tense — 
Agreeing with its Subject " He" in the Third Person- 
Singular Number. 

The Is an Adjunct Element— "Word— Adjective — Specifying 

— Pure — and limits "storm." 

Storm Is an Element in the Sentence — Principal Element—. 

Obj ect —Word — Noun — Common — Third Person ■ — Sin, 
gular Number— Objective Case. 
[To become] | Is an Adjunct Element— Phrase — Adverbial — Infinitive 
a calm c . . ) — and modifies " maketh. 7 ' 

18 



206 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

A Is an Element in the Phrase — Adjunct — Word — Adjec- 
tive — Specifying — Pure — and limits "calm." 

Calm Is an Element in the Phrase — Subsequent— Word — 

Noun— Common — Third Person — Singular Number — 
"in Predicate" with become understood. 

Rem. — The above is the correct grammatical construction of the 
Sentence, and it is correctly parsed. But without the Adjunct Phrase 
"to become a calm," the word "maketh" could not properly have 
" storm" as its Object. " Storm" is the Object of the modified Predicate 
" maketh [causing to become] a calm." 

GRAMMATIC FALLACIES. 
Hem. — Let the Pupil correct the errors in the following Sentences, 
and give the authority for every criticism, by a proper reference to 
Rule 2, or to Notes and Observations under the Rule. 

1. " The rapidity of his movements were beyond example." — Wells. 

2. "The mechanism of clocks and watches were totally unknown." 

3. " The Past Tense of these Verbs are very indefinite with respect 

to time." — Bullion's Grammar, p. 31. 1840. 

4. " Everybody are very kind to her." — Byron. 

5. "To study mathematics, require maturity of mind." 

6. "That they were foreigners, were apparent in their dress." 

7. " Coleridge the poet and philosopher have many admirers." 

8. " No monstrous height, or length, or breadth appear." — Pope, 

9. " Common sense as well as piety, tell us these are proper." 

10. "Wisdom or folly govern us." — Fish's Grammar. 

11. "Nor want nor cold his course delay." — Johnson. 

12. " Hence naturally arise indifference or aversion between the par- 

ties." — Brown s Estimates. 

13. " Wisdom, and not wealth, procure esteem." — lb. 

14. " No company likes to confess that they are ignorant." 

15. "The people rejoices in that which should cause sorrow." 

16. "Therein consists the force and use and nature of language." 

17. "From him proceeds power, sanctification, truth, grace, and every 

other blessing we can conceive." — Calvin. 

18. " How is the Gender and Number of the Relative known?" 

19. " Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing." — Milton. 

20. "The Syntax and Etymology of the language is thus spread 

before the learner." — Bullion s Grammar. 

21. "In France the peasantry goes barefoot, and the middle sort 

makes use of wooden shoes." — Harvey. 



GRAMMATIC FALLACIES. 207 

22. " While all our youth prefers her to the rest." — Waller. 

23. " A great majority of our authors is defective in manner." — J". 

Brown. 

24. ' l Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven." 

25. " Nor he nor I are capable of harboring a thought against your 

peace. ' ' — Walpole. 

26. ' ' ' Neither riches nor fame render a man happy." — Day's Grammar. 

27. " I or thou art the person who must undertake the business."-^ 

Murray. 

28. "The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love." 

29. * ' Two or more sentences united together is called a compound 

sentence. ' ' — Day s Grammar. 

30. " If I was a Greek, I should resist Turkish despotism." 

31. "I can not say that I admire this construction, though it be 

much used." — Priestly s Grammar, p. 172. 

32. "It was observed in Chap. 3, that the disjunctive or had a 

double use." — Churchill's Grammar. 

33. "I observed that love constituted the whole character of God." 

34. "A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this was 

verse. ' ' — Murray. 

35. " Had I commanded you to have done this, you would thought 

bard of it." — J. Brown. 

36. "I found him better than I expected to have found him." 

37. " There are several faults which I intended to have enumerated. ' ' 

38. "An effort is making to abolish the law." 

39. "The Spartan admiral was sailed to the Hellespont.' ' — Goldsmith. 

40. " So soon as he was landed, the multitude thronged about him." 

41. " Which they neither have nor can do." — Barclay. 

42. " For you have but mistook me all the while." — Shakspeare. 

43. "Who would not have let them appeared." — Steele. 

44. " You were chose probationer." — Spectator. 

45. " Had I known the character of the lecture, I would not have 

went." 

46. "They don't ought to do it." — Watkins. 

47. " Had I ought to place ' wise in Predicate with ' makes f ' ' — Pupil. 

48. " Whom they had sat at defiance." — Bolingbroke. 

49. " Whereunto the righteous fly and are safe." — Barclay. 

50. " She sets as a prototype, for exact imitation." — Rash. 

Rem. — After correcting the above examples, the Pupil should 
analyze and parse them — using the Model given on p. 205, or those 
on pp. 183-4. 



208 ENGLISH GEAMMAE — PART III 

III. The Object of a Sentence. 

.Rule 3. — The Object of an action or relation must be 
in the Objective Case. 



( Subject. Y Predicate. Y Object. \ 

Examples. — 1 . ' l Virtue secures happiness. ' ' 

2. " Him from my childhood I have known/ ' 

3. " Them that honor me, I will honor." 

Obs. 1. — The Object of a Sentence may be — 

1. A Noun "Now twilight lets her curtain down^ 

2. A Pronoun. . . . And pins it with a star." 

3. A Phrase "I doubted Ms having been a soldier." 

4. A Sentence . . . ." But Brutus says, he was ambitious" 

(l.) OBJECT WORD. 

' ' Virtue secures happiness. 

C Virtue j. secures jT happiness /j 

Form of the Object. 
Obs. 2. — The forms of Nouns do not distinguish the Objective Case 
from the Nominative or Subjective. 

Note I. — Pronouns that are varied in form to denote 
the Case, should have their appropriate forms for the 
Objective. 

Examples. — 1. " Them that honor me, I will honor." 
2. "And must I leave thee, Paradise V 

70t* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. "They will not go without she and I." 

2. " Who did Gertrude marry ?" 

3. "Vain pomp and glory of the world, I hate ye." 

4. "I can not tell who I saw there." 

5. "I took it to be he who we had visited at Homer." 

Pem. — The Personal Pronouns and the Relative and the Interrogative 
who are the only Substantive Words that distinguish the cases by their 
forms. [See Declension of Pronouns, page 89.] Hence, 



OBJECT OF A SENTENCE. 209 

Obs. 3. — In constructing Sentences, special attention is required in 
giving to the Object of a Sentence its appropriate position. 

Position of the Object. 

Note II. — In position, the Object of a Sentence com- 
monly follows the Predicate. 



Examples. — 1. " Virtue secures happiness." 

2. "The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

Exception 1. — By the poets, and for rhetorical effect, the Object is 
often placed before the Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. — " Him, from my childhood, I have known." 
2. — " New ills that latter stage await." 

Exception 2. — A Relative Pronoun, being the Object of a Sentence, is 
placed before its Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. "Mount the horse which I have chosen for you." 
2. " We serve a Monarch whom we love — 
A God ivhom we adore." 

Two or more Objects. 

Obs. 4. — A Sentence may have two or more Objects when they are 
connected in construction by Conjunctions, expressed or implied. 

Examples. — I. "God created the heaven and the earth." 
2. " Now twilight lets her curtain down, 
And pins it with a star." 

Rem. — These are Compound Sentences. In Sentence 1, "heaven" 
and "earth" are Objects of the same Verb, " created." In Sentence 2, 
" curtain" is the Object of "lets," and "it" is the Object of "pins." 

Obs. 5. — The Objects of a Compound Sentence sometimes consist of 
different Words, indicating the same being or thing. 

Examples. — 1. "By this dispensation, we have lost a neighbor, a 
friend, a brother." 
2. ' ' Thus she addressed the Father of gods, and King cf 
men." 

Obs. 6. — But one Word used to limit the signification of another, 
can not be in the same construction ; and hence, the two Words are 
not Objects of the same Yerb, unless they are compounded and parsed 
as one Element. 

18* 



210 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART in. 

Examples. — 1. " We visited Naples, the home of our childhood." 
2. Have you seen Coleridge, the philosopher and poet ? 

Rem. — "Home' is a Noun, used to describe "Naples," not as an 
Adjective, but as an equivalent name of the same place. 

"Philosopher" and "poet" are Substantive appellations of the man, 
"Coleridge." 

[See " Logical Adjuncts" and "Independent Case," p. 85, Obs. 2, 8.] 

Obs. 7. — The Verbs appoint, call, choose, constitute, create, dub, elect, make, 
name, and proclaim, sometimes have two Objects — one direct, and the 
other indirect. 

Examples. — 1. They named him John. 



f They Y named ~Y him ^Joh^ 

2. The State Society elected North President, 

3. And chose Hoose Secretary. 

Rem. — In Example 1, "him" is the direct Object — " John" the remote 
Object ; and is, logically considered, a part of the Predicate — a title 
acquired by the action expressed by the Verb. The Verbs above given 
do not, in such examples, express the full Predicate, nor have we Verbs 
that can, unless, perhaps in the following example : 
"They dubbed him knight." 

Equivalent. — "They knighted him" 

Obs. 8.— A Verb which, in the Active Voice, is followed by a direct 
and a remote Object, retains the remote Object as a part of the Passive 
Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. He is named John. 

2. North was elected President. 

Rem.— This construction is analogous to that o/ a Substantive in 
Predicate with a Neuter Verb. 

Thou art Pete?' — He is John. 

Thou art — who? — Peter. He is named John. The word "Peter" 
completes the Predicate; the words "named John" complete the 
Predicate. 

Obs. 9. — The construction noticed in Obs. 7 should be carefully dis- 
tinguished from that in which a Verb is followed by two Objects — one 
of the Verb and the other of a Preposition suppressedo 

Example. — "They carried the child home." 



OBJECT OF A SENTENCE. 211 



( They )[ carried Y child J 

[x! borne ^ ( the ) 



Rem. — " Child" is the name of a young being, and, in this connec- 
tion, is the proper object of "carried." But "home" is a name 
applied to a habitation, a building, and "they" probably did not 
"carry" that. They carried the child to some place — and that place 
was its home. 

1. "He told me his history ."—He related to me his history. 

2. " I asked him his opinion. " 

3. "Our dear Joachim has asked me for my opinion." — MicheleCs 

Luther. 

4. "He gave me a book." — He gave a book to me. 

Rem. — In parsing examples like the above, the ellipsis should be 
supplied. Thus, "to his home" is an Adjunct of " carried." Hence, 
an Adverbial Phrase. 

"Home," as a Representative of the Phrase, is an Adverb. 

"Home," as an Element in the Phrase, is a Noun — Object of to 
understood. Hence, in the Objective Case. [See p. 172.] 

Obs. 10. — The Verbs make, esteem, regard, consider, elect, bid, dare, feel, 
hear, see, and some others, are often followed by an Infinitive Phrase, 
having its Preposition (and sometimes the Verb) understood. 

Examples. — 1. " Lorenzo, these are thoughts that make* man man." 
These are thoughts that make man [to be] man. 
2. " Teach them obedience to the laws." 

Teach them [to yield] obedience to the laws. 

Rem. — In examples like these, the second Noun or Pronoun is the 
Object of the Verb understood or used in Predicate with it. Thus, 
"man" is used in Predicate with "to be," or "to become," under- 
stood, and "obedience" is the Object of " yield." 

Examples. — 1. " Intemperance makes a man [to become] a fool." 

2. "He maketh the storm [ ] a calm. ' ' [See Diagram, 
p. 205.] 

Note III. — Intransitive Verbs have no Object. 

Examples. — I sit. — Thou art. — He sleeps. 

* The word make is generally thus used, when it signifies " to cause to be," "to 
cause to become." 



212 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. • 

Obs. 1. — But some Verbs, commonly used Intransitively, sometimes 
have Objects of their own signification. 

Examples. — 1. I have fought a good fight. — 2. We ran a race. 
3 . He sleeps the sleep of death 

Note IV. — A few Verbs may be used Transitively or 
Intransitively. 

Examples. — 1. The sun set in the west. 

2. He set the inkstand on the table 

3. Cool blows the wind. 

4. The wind blows the dust. 

Position of the Object. 

Obs. 1. — "When a Transitive Verb is followed by two Objects — one, 
the Object of the Verb, and the other the Object of a Preposition sup- 
pressed, the Object of the Preposition is placed between the Yerb and 
its Object. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' Mary gave me a pose. ' ' 
2. "Bring home my books." 

Rem. — "Me" is an abridged Adjunct of "gave" [see Adverbs by 
Eepresentation, p. 23], and is placed next its Yerb according to the 
Rule for the Position of Adverbs. [See p. 259.] 

Exception. — When the indirect Object suggests the important 
thought, or when it is the emphatic word in the Sentence, it is placed 
after the direct Object. 

Example. — "They carried the child home" 

Obs. 2. — But, when the Preposition is expressed, the direct Object is 
placed next its Yerb. 

Example. — "Mary gave a rose to me." 

OBJECT PHKASE. 

Note V.— Transitive Verbs may have, as their Objects, 
Substantive Phrases. 

Examples. — 1. " I doubted his having been a soldier. 9 



( I Y <i° u bted Jj 1 having been a soldier)' 

\^ ^-> 



OBJECT PHKASE. 213 

I doubted— what ? Not "his," nor " having" nor "been" nor "a," 
nor "soldier," but the fact asserted by the whole Phrase— "His having 
been a soldier." 

2. "His being a minister, prevented his rising to civil 
power. ' ' Prevented — what ? 

Obs. 1. Object Phrases are generally of the Participial Form, Prepo- 
Bitional and Infinitive Phrases being commonly used as Adjuncts, and 
Independent Phrases as Logical Adjuncts. [See p. 20, Obs. 1 ; see also 
Clark's Analysis, p. 115.] 

Obs. 2. — But Prepositional, Infinitive, and Independent Phrases may 
be used technically as Objects of Transitive Verbs. 

Examples. — 1. "The maniac repeated, ' on a bed of green sea-flowers,* 
during the interview. ' ' 
2. The damsel could not say "to be loving " without em- 
barrassment. 
Obs. 3. — Infinitive Phrases following Verbs, commonly indicate pur- 
pose or cause, and serve to limit the signification or application of Verbs. 
Such are properly called Adverbs. 

Examples. — 1. Pupils are allowed to read. 

2. Pupils appear to read. 

3. Pupils assemble to read. 

4. Pupils ought to read. 

5. Pupils begin to read. 

6. Pupils wish to read. 

Kem. 1.— In Sentences 1, 2, 3, and 4, the Phrase "to read" is plainly 
Adverbial, the Predicate Verbs being necessarily Intransitive. 

In the analysis of Sentences like 5 and 6, two sentiments obtain 
with prominent grammarians — 1, that "to read" is the Object of 
"begin" and "wish" [see Welch, p. 205, and others]; 2, that 
11 begin' ' and * ' wish' ' are here Intransitive Verbs. [See Brown, p. 496, 
and others.] On this point, Brown is manifestly in error. Most 
Transitive Verbs may have as their Objects Infinitive Phrases. [See 
Examples 5 and 6.] 

Obs. 4. — The Transitive Verbs having Objects expressed, are often 
limited by Infinitive Phrases. 

Examples. — 1. The teacher requested William to recite. 
2. I believe the milkman to be honest. 

Bem. 2. — "To recite" is a Phrase, Adjunct of "requested;" it limits 
the request. "William" is the Object of the modified Predicate 
* ' requested' ' to recite. 



214 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PAET in. 

" To be honest" is a Phrase Adjunct of " believe ;" milkman is the 
Object of the modified Predicate kt believe to be honest." 

Obs. 5. — This construction should be carefully distinguished from 
that in which the Infinitive Phrase is Adjunct of the Object. 

Examples. — 1. The general gave the order to fire. 



f general Y gave Y order J 



2. The subordinate manifested a disposition to dictate, 

3. Idle pupils manifest little anxiety to improve. 

4. "We have our various duties to perform." 

Rem. 3. — u To fire" limits "order;" hence, an Adjective. 

"To dictate" limits "disposition ;" hence, an Adjective. 

70§~ Let the Pupil place Sentences 2 and 3 in the given Diagram ; 
and vary the Diagram for 4. 

OBJECT SENTENCE. 

Note VI. — Many Transitive Verbs have as their Objects 
Substantive Auxiliary Sentences. 

Examples. — 1. " But Brutus says he was ambitious." 

2. "The ancient Russians believed that their northern 
mountains encompassed the globe. * ' 




Eussians Y believed j( ( mouDtains )( ericompassedj^ globe J 
L TheJLancientJ A ^LJ. J5§Z__ 

3. " Can you tell where my Highland laddie s gone?" 

4. "He hastily demanded why I came " 

5. "The village all declared how much he knew." 

6. "Did you but know to whom I gave the ring." 

Rem. 1. — The Pupil will notice that Sentences used as Indirect Objects, 
are introduced by a Word or a Phrase which constitutes, logically, the essen- 
tial part of the Object Thus in sentence 2, "that" stands for the whole 
Proposition. 

" Their northern mountains encompassed the globe." 

" The ancient Russians believed that." 

" My Highland laddie has gone" — can you tell where? 

11 1 gave the ring" — did you but know to whom. 



OBJECT SENTENCE. 215 

Bem. 2. — Still we are to regard the entire Auxiliary Sentence as the 
Grammatical Object of the Principal Predicate. 

Obs. 2. — This construction is to be carefully distinguished from 
Complex Sentences, in which the Object Sentences are introduced by 
the Double Relative what. 

Examples. — 1. " But here I stand and tell what I do know. 17 

2. " You have done what you should be sorry for." 

Bem. 3. — Here, " what I do know" is the modified Object of "tell." 
[See Diagram, p. 43.] 

Obs. 3. — By another construction, Auxiliary Sentences are placed 
after Predicates of Principal Sentences — not as Objects, but as Adjuncts 
of purpose, cause, etc. 

Examples. — 1. The pupil studies that he may improve. 

2. " And I am glad that he has lived thus long ; 

3. And [ ] glad that he has gone to his reward." 

Obs. 4. — Another construction makes the Auxiliary Sentence a 
Logical Adjunct of a Substantive. 

Examples. — "It is possible that we have r ^ ^yls — possible " S 

erred. ' ' i • 

[See ' ' Independent Case, ' ' and ' ' Inde ^ , ^ 

pendent Sentence," in place.] C we Xbave'erred) 

"We had strong suspicions that Warner had the ring." 

that") 




Warner ) ^ jjjjj j[ ring ^ 

Bem. — What were our suspicions? 

Ans. That Warner had the ring. 

Hence, " that Warner had the ring," is a logical Adjunct of " sus- 
picions," and in the Diagram is placed under, but not attached to, 
"suspicions." 

Obs. 5. — Sometimes a Principal Sentence is thrown in between the 
parts of an Objective Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. "Whose charms, me thought, could never fade." 

2. " This explanation, I doubt not, will satisfy him." 

3. ' { But confidence, he added, is a plant of slow growth." 



216 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

The Objects of Phrases. 

Rem. — Action is expressed by Verbs and by Participles. Relation is 
expressed by Prepositions. Hence, 

Obs. 1. — The Object of a Yerb or of a Participle, is the Object of an 
Action, and must be in the Objective Case. 

EXAMPLES. 

Infinitive Ve?°b. — "I came to bury Ccesar, not to praise him. 11 
Participle. — " He could not avoid giving offense." 

Obs. 2. — The Object of a Preposition is the Object of a Relation, indi- 
cated by the Preposition, and should be in the Objective Case. 

Examples. — 1. " For me your tributary stores combine. 11 

2. " The boy stood on the burning deck, 

Whence all but him had fled." 

3. " Than whom, Satan except, none higher sat." 

Note I. — Pronouns in the Objective Case should have 
their appropriate forms. 

Examples. — 1. " Did you but know to whom I gave the ring" 
2. "I call to thee with all my voice. ' ' 

Exception 1.— The Possessive form o'f Nouns and Pronouns is rarely 
used in the Objective Case. 

Example. — John is a friend of mine. [See p. 90.] 

Exception 2. — Adjunct Sentences, introduced by the Conjunctions as, 
before, than, till, etc., are often contracted into Adjunct Phrases — the 
Subjects of the Sentences becoming the Objects of Phrases, often with- 
out a corresponding change of form. [See page 172.] 

Obs. — The Objects of Phrases and Sentences may be Words, Phrases> 
or Sentences. 

Objects of Sentences. 

$^* Let the following Sentences be analyzed by the Chart, and 
parsed : 

Word Objects. — 1 . * ' There thou shalt find my cousin Beatrice." — Shaks. 

2. " His daring foe securely him defied." — MiUon. 

3. " The broom its yellow leaf hath shed."— Langhorn. 

4. l \ Did I request thee. Maker, from my clay, 

To mold me man ?' ' — Milton. 



OBJECTS OF PHRASES. 217 

Phrase Objects. — 5. " We may avoid talking nonsense on these subjects." 
6. "I doubted their having it." 
Sentence Objects. — 7. " They say, ' This shall be,' and it is." 

8. " Athens found that neither art nor science could avail 
against depravity of morals." 

11. Objects of Phrases — Infinitive. 

Word Objects. — 9. " How I love to see thee, 
Golden, evening sum" 
10. " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him." 
Phrase Objects. — 11. " He endeavored to prevent our being tossed about 
by every wind of doctrine. ' ' 

12. "It is difficult to doubt his having seen military 

service. ' ' 
Sentence Objects. — 13. " This goes to prove what strange creatures we are." 
14. "The Governor commands me to say, thai he has 
no further business with the Senate. ' ' 

Participial. 

Word Objects. — 15. " Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle." 
16. " Finding fault, never does any good." 
Phrase Objects. — 17. "By opposing your going to college, your father 

abridged your usefulness." 
Sentence Objects. — 18. * ' The ceremonies concluded by the doctor's saying, 
1 Gentlemen, we will resume our studies at seven to- 
morrow.' " 

Prepositional. 

Word Objects. — 19. " There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin.'* 

20. " You are a much greater loser by his death." 

21. " The n ation crowned with laurels veterans, scarred 

in service." 

22. " He suffers for them that have no hope." 

Maturin's Sermons. 
Phrase Objects. — 23. "In the matter of making and receiving presents, 
much discretion is required.' ' 

24. "I had no knowledge of there being any connection 

between them." — Stone. 

25. "To follow foolish precedents and wink 

With both our eyes, is easier than to think." 
Sentence Objects. — 26, " And all the air a solemn stillness holds — 
Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight. 
19 



218 ENGLISH GSAMMAJB — PAET in. 

QUESTIONS FOR EEVIEW. 



PAGB. 



208. Eepeat Kule III. — Make examples to illustrate it. 

The Object of a Sentence may consist of what ? See Obs. 1. 

"What Object Words are distinguished by their forms ?..See Obs. 2. 
What is the usual Position of the Object ? 

209. Mention the Exceptions, and give Examples. 

When may two or more words be Objects of the same Verb? 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 4 and 5. 

When may they not both be Objects of a preceding Verb f 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 6. 

What Verbs may have direct and indirect Objects? 

210. Make Sentences to illustrate Obs 7. 
What Passive Verbs may have Objects ? 
Make Sentences to illus Irate Obs. 8. 
Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 9. 

211. Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 10. 

212. What Verbs have no Objects? See Note IV. 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1. 

What Verbs may be used Transitively or Intransitively ? 

Two Objects, one of a Verb and the other of a Preposition sup- 
pressed, have what relative positions 9 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 2. 

What position have the Objects when the Preposition is' ex- 
pressed ? 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 3. 

213. What Phrases may be Objects of Sentences? 
Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1. 

215. Make a Sentence having a Sentence Object. 



GKAMMATIC FALLACIES. 

^t* Let the Pupil correct the following Sentences, giving the proper 
authority for each correction : 

1. " Let none touch it but they who are clean." — Sale's Koran. 

2. " None but thou, mighty prince, canst avert the blow." 

3. " None but thou can aid us." 

4. " No mortal man, save he, had e'er survived to say he saw." — . 

Scott. 

5. " We are alone ; here's none but thee and I." — Shakspeare. 

6. "Good Margaret, run thee into the parlor." — Shakspeare. 

7. "He loves he knowo act who." — Addison. 



PKONOUNS— PERSONAL. 219 

PEOXOUXS. 

Rule 4. — A Prononn must agree with its Antecedent 
in Person and Number. 

Note I. — A Pronoun should have a Singular form 
when it represents one Singular Antecedent. 
Example. — Eenry was quite well when I last saw him. 

Note II. — A Pronoun should have a Singular form 
when it represents two or more Singular Antecedents 
taken separately. 

Example. — " The oil of peppermint, or any other volatile oil, dropped 
on paper, will soon evaporate ; no trace of it will be left. ' ' 

Note III. — A Pronoun should have a Singular form 
when it represents a Collective Noun indicating Unity. 

Example. — I found the school more orderly than it had been under 
my administration. 

J0t* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. Let any pupil put this in Diagram if they can. 

2. If Clara or Anna will do it, they shall be complimented. 

3. " The congregation dispersed less orderly than it had assembled." 

4. Each pupil may select a sentence for themselves. 

5. " Every true believer has the spirit of God in them.'' — Barclay, 

Note IV. — A Pronoun should have a Plural form when 
it has one Antecedent indicating Plurality. 

Example. — Few men are as wise as they might be. 

Note V. — A Pronoun should have a Plural form when 
it has two or more Antecedents taken collectively. 

Example. — Mary and Anna always accomplish what they undertake. 

Note VI. — A Pronoun should have a Plural form when 
its Antecedent is a Collective Noun indicating Plurality. 

Example. — The committee were unanimous in every measure which 
they discussed. 



220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART III. 

^^ Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " No people can he free unless it is virtuous." 

2. t4 I sold my horse and buggy for less than it cost." 

3. "A people may he ignorant and happy; hut it can never he 

ignorant and prosperous " 

4. " Do not make so many erasures in your composition ; it makes it 

look badZy . ' ' — Preceptress. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Note VII. — The form of a Personal Pronoun should 
indicate its Person and Number. 

Obs. 1. — The Pronouns /and we denote the person or persons speak- 
ing or writing — " I," Singular — " we," Plural. But, 

Obs. 2. — " TPe" is used in the Singular by Editors and Emperors. 

Examples. — " We, Nicholas I., Emperor of all the Kussias " 

" We shall present our self as candidate at the next 
election." 
Obs. 3. — Thou is used in Solemn Style to denote a person addressed. 
Example. — " Thou didst weave this verdant roof." 

Obs. 4. — You was formerly limited to the Second Person Plural, hut 
is now used in the Second Person Singular and Plural. Its Verb is 
commonly in the Plural form. 

Examples. — 1. " You are come too late." 

2. You have accomplished your object. 
Obs. 5. — But it has sometimes a Singular form. 

Examples. — 1. " When you was here comforting me."— Pope. 

2. " Why was you glad ?" — BoswelVs Life of Johnson. 

Obs. 6. — The Pronoun "it" often has an Indefinite or undetermined 
Antecedent ; and may then represent any Gender, Person, or Number. 

Examples.— 1. "It snows. 7 '— 2. C1 It was my father.'' 

3. "It was the students." 

4. "A pleasant thing it is, to behold the sun. 7 ' 

Note VIII. — Pronouns of different Persons, used in the 
same connection, should have their appropriate position. 

Obs. 1. — The Second Person is placed first — the Third next, and the 
First last. 



PRONOUNS RELATIVE. 221 

Example. — You and James and /have been invited. 

Obs. 2. — But when a fault is confessed, this order is sometimes re- 
versed. 

Example. — " /and mi/ people have sinned." 

Obs. 3. — This position obtains also when we acknowledge a defeat 
or a common calamity. 

Example. — " Then I and you and all of us fell down, 

Whilst bloody Treason flourished over us. ' ' 

Note IX. — The Pronoun " them" should not be used 
Adjeetively. 

Incorrect — Bring me them books. 
Correct. — Bring me those books. 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Obs. 1. — A Relative Pronoun always performs a double office, and is 
used Substantively and Conjunctively. 

Example. — He who studies, will improve. 

"Who" relates to "he," and is the Subject of studies; hence, a 
Substantive . 

" Who studies," is a Sentence used to describe " he." 

"Who" introduces the Sentence ; hence, it performs the office of a 
Conjunction. 

Obs. 2. — Who and whom are applied to man. and to other intelligent 
beings ; which, to things ; that, to persons or to things." 

Examples. — 1. " He that attends to his interior self, has business." 

2. " Too low they build, who build beneath the stars." 

3. " He whom sea-severed realms obey." 

4. " The books which I had lost have been returned." 

5. " where is the patience now 

That you so oft have boasted to retain ?" — Lear, iii. 6. 
Obs. 3. — But the name of a person, taken as a name merely, or as a 
title, may be represented by the Relative which. 

Example. — Shylock — which is but another name for selfishness. 

Obs. 4. — When the Relative "what" is used substantively, it usually 
bears a part in the structure of two sentences at the same time. It is 
equivalent to "that which" or "the things which." The Antecedent 
part may be the Subject (a) or the Object (b) of a Principal Sentence, 
the Object (c) of a Phrase in that Sentence, or used in Predicate (d). 

19* 



222 ENGLISH GRAMMAK — PART III. 

The Consequent or Relative part introduces an Auxiliary Sentence, 
which qualifies the Antecedent, and may be the Subject (e) or the 
Object (g) of that Sentence, the Object of a Phrase (h), or used in Pred- 
icate with a Verb (i). 

C X ~z^ g" 1 1- "What reason weaves, by passion is un- 

CZZXZZ^f [3 I done. ' ' — Pope. 

c x^ ^—l ^ ) %' " Deduct what is but vanity." — Idem. 

3. ' l Each was favored with what he most de- 
lighted in." 

4. "It is not what I supposed it to be." 

Obs. 5. — What is sometimes a Simple Eelative. 

Example. — " And what love can do, that dares love attempt." — Borneo. 

Obs. 6. — Whoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever, and who (used for 
whoever), have a construction similar to what. 

Examples. — 1. " Whatever purifies fortifies also the heart." 

2. " Who lives to nature rarely can be poor." 

3. " Who lives to Fancy, never can be rich." 

Obs. 7. : — What, which, whatever, and whatsoever, are often used Ad- 
jectively. 

Examples. — 1. li What book have you?" 

2. " Whatever object is most dear." 

3. " Whatsoever things are honest." 

4. " Which hope we have." 

Obs. 8. — That is sometimes improperly used for the Eelative what. 

Example. — l( Take that is thine." 

Obs. 9. — What is sometimes substituted for an Adverbial Phrase. 

Example. — " What [in what respect] shall it profit a man ?" 

Obs. 10. — What is sometimes used as an Exclamation. 

Example. — " What ! Is thy servant a dog ?" 

Obs. 11. — The two words, but what — and also, but that — are sometimes 
improperly used for the Conjunction that. 

Examples. — 1. (i I did not doubt but what you would come." 
2. "I did not doubt but that you would come." 



PRONOUNS— RELATIVE. 223 

Corrected. — I did not doubt that you would come. 

Obs. 12. — The Eelatives than and as have Adjectives, or Adjective 
Pronouns, for their Antecedents. 

As, when a Relative Pronoun, has for .its Antecedent the word 
"such" — used Adjectively, or as an Adjective Pronoun. 

Than follows more, or some other Adjective, in the Comparative 
Degree. 

EXAMPLES FOE, ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 

1. " Nestled at his root 
Is Beauty ; such as blooms not in the glare 
Of the broad sun." — Bryant. 

2. c< We request such of you as think we overlaud the ode, to point 
out one word in it that would be better away." — Wilson's Burns. 

3. " He has less discretion than he was famed for having." 

4. " There is more owing her than is paid." — All's Well, i. 3. 

Position. 

Note X. — The Position of Relative Pronouns should 
be such as most clearly to indicate their Antecedents. 

Obs. 1. — When a Relative is the Subject or the Object of an Auxiliary 
Sentence, it should be placed next its Antecedent. 

Examples. — 1. "Can all that optics teach unfold 
Thy form to please me so V ' 
2. "The grave, that never spoke before, 

Hath found, at length, a tongue to chide." 

Exception. — Sometimes, for rhetorical effect, words of special im- 
portance may be placed between the Eelative and its Antecedent. 

Example. — " O, they love least that let men know their love." 

Obs. 2. — When the Eelative is the Object of a Prepositional Phrase, 
it comes between its Antecedent and the Auxiliary Sentence with which 
that Phrase is construed. 

Example. — " We prize that most for which we labor most." 

Eem. — "For which" modifies "labor" — " which" relates to "that." 

Obs. 3. — The Eelative that, used as the Object of a Preposition, is 
placed before the Preposition. Whom, which, and what, are placed after 
their Prepositions. 



224 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Examples. — 1. " I have meat to eat that ye know not o/." 

2. "Withhold not good from them to ivhom it is due." 

8. " The world in which we sojourn is not our home." 

4. "We could not learn for what he came." 

Obs. 4. — The Relative — when the Subject of a Sentence, or the 
Object of a Phrase — can rarely be omitted without weakening the force 
of the expression. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' For is there aught in sleep [ ] can charm the wise * 
2. "The time may come [ ] you need not fly." 

Obs. 5. — But the suppression of the Relative is allowed when it is 
the Object of a Sentence, or when the pocition of the words is such as 
to prevent ambiguity or weaken the expression. 

Examples. — 1. "History is all the light we have in many cases, 
and we receive from it a great part of the useful 
truths we have." 
2. " But they that fight for freedom, undertake 

The noblest cause mankind can have at stake." , 



INTERROGATIVES. 

Note XI. — Interrogative Pronouns are construed like 
Personal Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1. As the Subject of a Sentence — Who has the lesson? 

2. As the Object of a Sentence — Whom seek ye ? 

3. As the Object of a Phrase — For what do we labor ? 

Obs. 1. — The Interrogative force of such Pronouns is commonly sup- 
pressed when they introduce Substantive Auxiliary Sentences. 

Examples. — 1. We shall soon ascertain who has the lesson. 

2. Ye still refuse to tell whom ye seek. 

3. We scarcely know for what we labor. 

Obs. 2. — But the Principal Sentence may remain interrogative. 

Examples. — 1. " Who shall decide which shall have the premium?" 

2. How can you tell whom the teacher will reward f 

3. By ivhom did you learn for whom I voted ? 

Obs. 3. — The word which answers a question has a construction 
similar to that of the word which asks it. 



PRONOUNS ADJECTIVE. 225 

Examples. — 1. Whose book have you ? Mary's. 

2. What could I do ? Nothing. 

3. Where did y on see him ? In Rochester 

4. Whence came they? _F/w?i Ireland. 

Rem. — " Mary's' : specifies "book" — " in Rochester" modifies "did 
see' ' — " from Ireland' ' modifies ' ' came. ' ' 

Obs. 4. — The Interrogative what, followed by the Conjunctions though, 
if, and some others, commonly belongs to a Principal Sentence under- 
stood, on which the following Sentence depends for sense. 

Examples. — 1. ' ' What if the foot aspired to be the head V 

What [would be the consequence] if the foot, etc. 
2. "What though Destruction sweep these lovely 
plains?" 
What [occasion have we to despair] though Destruc- 
tion sweep these lovely plains ? 



ADJECTIVE PEOXOUXS. 

Rule 5. — Adjective Pronouns are substituted for the 
Nouns which they qualify. 

Note I. — When used as Subjects, each, either, neither ', 
this, that, and all other Adjective Pronouns indicating 
unity, require their Verbs to be in the Singular Number. 

Examples. — 1 . l i Each believes its own. ' ' 
2. Either is sufficient. 

Note II. — These, those, many, others, several, and other 
Adjective Pronouns indicating plurality, require their 
Verbs to be in the Plural. 

Examples. — 1. u These are the things which defile." 
2. " Those were halcyon days." 

Note III.— Any, all, like, some, none, more, and such, 
may have Verbs in the Singular or Plural, according as 
they indicate unity or plurality. 



226 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Examples. — 1. " None but the upright in heart are capable of being 
true friends." — Y. L. Friend. 

2. " None has arrived." 

3. "All are but parts of one stupendous whole.' ' 

4. " What if the field be lost ? All is not lost." 

5. " The like were never seen before." 

6. "Like produces like." 

7. i( Objects of importance must be portrayed by objects 

of importance ; such as have grace, by things 
graceful. ' ' 

8. Nestled at its root 

Is Beauty ; such as blooms not in the glare 
Of the broad sun, ; ' 

Obs. 1. — Qualifying and some Specifying Adjectives receive the 
definitive " the' before them, on becoming Adjective Pronouns. They 
may be qualified by Adjectives or by Adverbs, according as the thing or 
the quality is to be limited. 

Examples. — 1. " The good alone are great." 

2. "The professedly good are not always really so." 

3. " The much good done by him will not soon be for- 

gotten, ' ' 
" Professedly" modifies the quality ; hence, it is an Adverb. 
" Much" limits the things done ; hence, it is an Adjective. 

Obs. 2. — In the analysis of a Sentence, each, other, one another, and 
similar distributives, are properly parsed as single words. 

But, in strict construction the parts perform different offices. 

Examples. — They assisted each other. 

They assisted — each [assisted] the other. 

Obs. 3. — When two things are mentioned in contrast, and severally 
referred to by Adjective Pronouns— this and these, refer to the latter — 
that and those, to the former. 

Examples.— 1. " Here living tea-pots stand, one arm held out, 

One bent ; the handle this, and that the spout." — 
Pope. 

2. "Farewell, my friends ; farewell, my foes ; 

My peace with these, my love with those/' — Burns. 

3. " Some place the bliss in action ; some, in ease : 

Those call it pleasure ; and contentment these. ! ' 



PRONOUNS. 227 

EXERCISES. 

"He that gettetli wisdom, loveth his own soul." 



( He Y loveth Y soul J 

r * ■v-rr-rx'-—, — \ ( his Yown) 
(_ that J ( getteth^ isdom) v A ' 

A Complex Sentence. 

LOGICAL ANALYSIS. 

Modified Subject u He that getteth wisdom," 

Logical Predicate " Loveth his own soul." 

Grammatical Analysis. 

Principal Elements. Adjunct Elements. 

S-ubject " He" Of the Subject " That getteth wisdom" 

Predicate . . "loveth" Of the Predicate . . . 

( u IIis" 
Object "soul" Of the Object j "own " 

Parsed by the Chart. 

* He" Is an Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Subject — Word — Pronoun — Personal — Masculine 
Gender — Third Person — Singular Number — Nomina- 
tive Case. 
Rule 1. — " The Subject of a Sentence must he in the Nominative Case. 11 

That getteth) Is an Element in the Sentence — Adjunct Element — 
wisdom. ..) Sentence — Adjective — 'Transitive — and limits "He." 
Pule 7. — " Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns which they limit." 

" That" Is an Element in the Auxiliary Sentence — Principal 

Element — Subject — Word — Pronoun — Relative — 
Third Person — Singular Number — Nominative Case. 
Rule 1. — "The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case." 

"Getteth" ... .Is an Element in the Auxiliary Sentence — Principal 
Element — Predicate— Verb — Indicative Mode— Pres- 
ent Tense — agreeing with its Subject "that" in the 
Third Person — Singular Number. 
Rule 2. — "A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person and Number." 



228 ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PART III. 

* ' Wisdom' ' . . .Is an Element in the Auxiliary Sentence— Principal Ele- 
ment — Obj ect — Word — Noun — Common — Third Person 
— Singular Number— Objective Case. 

Rule 3.— " The Object of an Action must le in the Objective Case." 

"Loveth" Is an Element in the Principal Sentence— Principal Ele- 
ment — Predicate — Yerb — Indicative Mode — Present 
Tense — agreeing with its Subject "He" in the Third 
Person— Singular Number. 

Rule 2. — ' ' A Verb in Predicate must agree with its Subject in Person a?ici 
Number." 

"His" Is an Element in the Sentence — Adjunct Element — 

Word — Adjective— Specifying — Possessive — and limits 
' 1 soul. ' ' 

Rule 8. — u A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case, is used 
Adjectn 



Rule 7. — u Adjectives belong to Nouns which they limit." 

"Own" Is an Element in the Sentence — Adjunct Element — 

Word — Adjective— Specifying— and limits " soul." 

Rule 7. — Adjectives belong to Nouns which they limit.* 9 

i ' Soul' ' ...... Is an Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — 

Obj ect — Word — Noun — Common — Third Person — Sin- 
gular Number — Objective Case. 

Bule 3. — " The Object of an Action must be in the Objective Case.' 9 

The above is an appropriate model for the following 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 

1. The man who was present can give the particulars. 

2. The person whom we met appeared very much alarmed. 

3. I saw the wretch that did it. 

4. We saw the man whom you described. 

5. " Hesperus, that led ^ 
The starry host a rode brightest." — Milton. 

6. " Memory and Forecast just returns engage— - 

That pointing back to youth, this on to age." 

7 . ' l There is something in their hearts which passes speech. ' '—Story. 

8. " Behind the sea-girt rock, the star 

That led him on from crown to crown 
Has sunk." — Pierpont. 



NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. 229 

9. ' ' The mountain- cloud 

That night hangs round him, and the breath 

Of morning scatters, is the shroud 

That wraps the conqueror's clay in death. — Idem, 

10. "Mount the horse 
Which I have chosen for thee. — Coleridge. 

11. " Few be they who will stand out faithful to thee." — Idem. 
12 " For cold and stiff and still are they who wrought 

Thy walls annoy. ' ' — Macaulay. 

13. " Ishmael's wandering race, that rode 

On camels o'er the spicy tract that lay 
From Persia to the Red Sea coast." — Pollock. 

14. " The king granted the Jews which were in every city, to gather 

themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, 
to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people 
and province that would assault them." — Bible. 

15. " We have more than heart could wish." 

16. " My punishment is greater than I can bear." 



INDEPENDENT CASE. 

Rule 6. — A Noun or a Pronoun, not dependent on any- 
other word in construction, is in the Independent Case. 

Rem. 1. — As the grammatical Subject of a Sentence is limited to the 
Nominative Case of Njuus and Pronouns, so the Nominative Case is 
properly limited to the Subject of a Sentence. Hence the term 
"Nominative Case Independent" is inappropriate. 

Rem. 2. — The term " Independent Case" as applied to Nouns and 
Pronouns, indicates simply that they do not bear a part in the struc- 
ture of Sentences as integral Elements. 

This term includes the following six distinct conditions of Nouns 
and Pronouns : 

1. Names of persons and things addressed. "Appellatives." 

2. Explanatory words. " In Apposition." 

3. Leaders of Independent Phrases. "Case Absolute." 

4. In Predicate with Verbs. "Case after Neuter Verbs." 

5. Words of Euphony. 

6. Titles — and Exclamatory Words. 

These conditions are exemplified in the following Notes. 

20 



230 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Note I.— The name of a person or thing addressed is 
in the Independent Case. 

Examples. — 1. "Friends, Romans, Countrymen." 

2. " Come, gentle spring— ethereal mildness, come." 

Obs. 1. — In the last example the word thou, understood, is the proper 
subject of "come." The words "spring" and "mildness" are ad- 
dressed, and are independent in construction. [See p. 85.] 

Note II. — A Noun or a Pronoun, used to explain a pre- 
ceding ISToun or Pronoun, is in the Independent Case. 

Examples. — 1. Paul, the Apostle, wrote to Timothy. 

2. "Up springs the lark, shrill-voiced and shrewd, 
The messenger of morn." 

Obs. 1. — This Note applies also to Phrases and to Sentences. 

Examples. — 1. It is our duty to study. 

2. "It is possible that we have misjudged." [Seep. 
235.] 

Obs. 2 . — An Independent Noun or Pronoun is properly a Logical 
Adjunct when it is used to describe or limit another word. 

Examples. — Paul the Apostle. — Peter the Great. 

Kem. — "Apostle" describes "Paul," by limiting the application of 
that name to a particular individual. [See p. 85.] 

Note III. — A Noun or a Pronoun, used as the Leader 

of an Independent Phrase, is in the Indej)endent Case. 

I 

Examples. — 1. The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 

2. "Thus talking, hand in hand, alone they passed 
On to their blissful bower." Hand being in hand. 

Note IV. — A Noun or a Pronoun, used in Predicate 
with a Verb, is in the Independent Case. 

Examples. — "Thou art a scholar." — It is I. — " God is love." 
" He maketh the storm a calm." 

Obs. — A Noun or a Pronoun used in Predicate, may have the form 
of the Nominative or of the Objective Case. 



NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. 231 

Examples. — 1. " I thought it to be him." 

2. "It was not me* that you saw." 

3. "It was not I that did it." 

Rem.— This idiom is established by good authority —ancient and 
modern — and grammarians can not well alter the custom. 

" Nescire quid accident antequam natus es, est semper esse puerwm." 

"Not to know what happened before you was born, is always to be 
a boy. ' ' 

Here, "puerum" (boy) has the form of the Accusative Case (Objec- 
tive), and can not be in the Nominative. 

Note V. — A Noun or a Pronoun, used for Euphony, is 
in the Independent Case. 

Example. — " The moon herself is lost in heaven." 

Obs. — In this Note are properly included Nouns and Pronouns, re- 
peated for the sake of emphasis. 

Example. — "This, this is thinking free." 

Note VI. — A Noun or a Pronoun denoting the Subject 
of remark — the title of a book — used in address, or in ex- 
clamation, etc., is in the Independent Case. 

" Examples. — 1. u Our Fathers ! where are they, and the Prophets I do 
they live forever ?" 
2 . " Wright ' s Orthography. ' ' 

^t* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. " Me being satisfied, you ought to be so too." 

2. My being fatigued, John finished my task for me* 

3. I thought it to be he. 

4. It was not me that did it. 

5. It was not I that you saw. 

Obs. 1. — Adverbial Sentences are often elegantly condensed into 
Independent Phrases. 

examples. 
Sentence. — When the hour had arrived, we commenced the exercises. 
Phrase. — The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 

* Well-established custom requires the same Eule in English that is given in 
our Greek Grammars. "The Antecedent is sometimes put, by attraction^ in the 
case of the relative." 



232 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART III. 

Rem. I., - "When the hour had arrived" is a Grammatical Adjunct 
of "commenced," an Adverbial Sentence. " Hour' is the Subject of that 
Sentence ; hence, in the Nominative Case. 

Rem. 2. — "The hour having arrived," is a Logical Adjunct of 
"commenced," an Independent Phrase. "Hour" is the Leader of that 
Phrase ; hence, in the Independent Case. 

Obs. 2 — By a custom not to be recommended nor allowed, except 
by "poetic license," an Independent Phrase is sometimes preceded by 
a Preposition, which does not indicate a relation, nor properly connect 
it to an Antecedent. 

Examples. — 1. " With arm in arm, the forest rose on high, 
And lessons gave of brotherly regard." 
2. " Upon our horse becoming weary, we procured lodgings 
at a private house." 

Hem. 1. — " With" is not necessary to the grammatical construction 
of the Sentence — its affix being simply to preserve the rhythm. 

Kem. 2. — The use of " upon" is unnecessary and improper. 

Exercises in the Use of the Independent Case. 

1 . O Absalom ! my son, my son ! 

2. Lend me your songs, ye nightingales I 

3. How is it possible not to feel grateful for such benefits ! 

4. Other things being equal, we prefer a fruit-growing climate. 
5 Thou art the ruins of the noblest man 

That ever lived in the tide of time. 

6. Henceforth I never will be Romeo, 

7. John dislikes to be called an idle boy. 

8. That little indiscretion made him my enemy. 

9. His teeth they chatter still. 

ADJUNCTS. 

Note I. — Adjuncts belong to the words which they 
modify or describe. 

The Forms of Adjuncts 
Obs. 1. — Adjuncts may consist of Words, Phrases, or Sentences. 

Examples. — 1. A Word. — We were walking homeward. 

2. A Phrase. — We were walking toward home. 

3. A Sentence.—' 1 Let me stand here till thou remember it." 



ADJUNCTS— FOEMS OF. 233 

Note II. — In the use of Adjuncts, that form should be 
employed which will most fully convey the sense intended. 

Obs. 1. — Many Adjunct Words, Phrases, and Sentences are inter- 
changeable. 

EXAMPLES. 

Word Adjuncts. — 1. "An honest man is the noblest work of God/' 

2o " Dark days are remembered.' ' 

3 . ' ' The wind' s low sigh. ' ' 

4. James came to school early. 

Phrase Adjuncts. — 5. A man of honesty is the noblest work of God. 

6. Let him remember the days of darkness. 

7. The low sigh of the wind. 

8. James came to school at an early hour. 
Sentence Adjuncts. — 9. A man who is honest, is the noblest work of God. 

10. Days which are dark, are long remembered. 

11. The low sigh which the wind seems to make. 

12. James came to school while it was yet early. 

Obs. 2. — But this interchange of Adjuncts is not always admissible. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — " The time of my departure is at hand." 
Incorrect. — My departure's time is at hand. [See Obs. 3, p. 244.] 

Obs. 3. — Adjuncts are often Complex. One Adjunct Word may be 
qualified or limited by another Word. 

Examples. — 1. Two hundred dollars. 

2. The cloud's deep voice.— 3. The wind's low sigh, 
s. 4. — An Adjunct Word may be limited by a Phrase. 

Examples. — 1. "From the shore, eat into caverns, by the restless wave." 
2. " Wisdom is too high for a fool." 

Obs. 5. — An Adjunct Word may be limited by a Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. "He called so loud that all the hollow deep resounded." 
2. " Oft as the morning dawns should gratitude ascend." 
[See Diagram, p. 42, and Diagram 3, p. 44.] 
Obs. 6. — An Adjunct Phrase may be limited by a Word. 
Example. — Arthur went almost to Boston. [See Diagram, p. 254.] 
Obs. 7. — An Adjunct Sentence may be limited by a Word. 

Example. — " Not as the conqueror comes, 

They the true-hearted came." [See p. 254.] 
20* 



234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PAST III. 

The Offices of Adjuncts. 

Obs. 8. — Adjuncts may be attached to any of the five Elements of 
Sentences. 

1. To the Subject. ..." The king of shadows loves a shining mark." 

[See Diagram, p. 39.] 

2. To the Predicate. . " And ichen its yellow luster smiled 

O'er mountains yet untrod, 
Each mother held aloft her child, 
To bless the bow of God." 
[See Diagram, p. 62.] 

3. To the Object. .... " "They undertake the noblest cause mankind can 

have at stake." [See Diagram, p. 59.] 

4. To the Adjective. . . " The truly virtuous man is not regardless of 

his reputation. * ' 

5. To the Adverb. . . . " Wisdom is too high for a fool." 

1 ' Oft as the morning dawns should gratitude 
ascend." [See Diagram, p. 42.] 
Hence, 

Note III. — All Adjuncts of Substantives are to be parsed 
as Adjectives ; Adjuncts of Verbs, Participles, Adjectives^ 
and Adverbs, are to be parsed as Adverbs. 

Obs. — In addition to Grammatical Adjuncts, we have what may prop- 
erly be called Logical Adjuncts. These are commonly Substantives, 
independent in construction, yet serving indirectly to limit or nfedify 
other Elements. [See p. 29.] 

They may be Words, Phrases, or Sentences. 

EXAMPLES. 

Word. — Peter the Hermit resembled, in temperament, Peter the 

Apostle. 

Q Peter "Y resembled ) (~ Peter ~") 

( Hermit ^ { in J temperamen t) f Apostle ~) 
I the ) ( the ) 

Rem. — "Hermit" and "Apostle" are Nouns, yet serve to distinguish 
the two men named "Peter." 



ADJUNCTS OFFICES OF. 235 

Phrase.— It is not good for man to be alone. 



(? It X is g00d ) 



, r ■ HJ I for I — -^ 

| tt>J be alone J V> ^ 

What is not good for man ? To be alone. Hence, 

Rem. — The Phrase "to be alone' is a Logical Adjunct of "it.*' It 
indicates what is meant by that Pronoun, and may be substituted fur 
it — thus, To be alone, is not good for man. 

Sentence. — It is possible that ice mistake. 



f It Y is possible J 

f that ) 

C we y^ mistake ) 

Rem,— u That we mistake" limits the signification of the word " It." 
For further Observations on Logical Adjuncts, see "Independent 
Case," Part II., p. 85. 

ADJECTITES. 

Rule 7.— Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns 
which they describe. 

Obs. 1. — It should be remembered that any word whose most im- 
portant office is to specify, qualify, or otherwise describe a person or a 
thing, is, therefore, an Adjective. [See Def. 97.] A word which is 
sometimes or generally used as some other "part of speech," may, in 
certain connections, be used Adjectively; and when thus used, it is an 
Adjective. 

Examples. — An iron fence. — Working oxen. 

Rem. — Every Adjective having its Substantive understood, becomes 
Pronominal. [See Adjective Pronouns, p. 93.] 

Obs. 2. — An Adjective may consist of 



kZKZZJ ' ^ W° r d' — Th e recitation hour has arrived. 

S j-i i "^ ' A Phrase. — The hour for recitation has arrived. 

ID A Sentence. — The hour in which we recite has 
arrived. 




236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

ADJECTIVE WORDS. 
Obs. — Adjectives describe things in two distinct methods : 
1. As an ordinary epithet, in which the attribute is not asserted, 
but implied or assumed. 

Examples. — 1. A sweet apple. 

2. A few inhabitants. 

3. li Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne, 

In rayless majesty, now -stretches forth 
Her leaden scepter o'er a slumbering world.' ' 
1 2. By asserting the attribute with the aid of a Yerb or a Participle 

4. The apple is sweet. 

5. The inhabitants are free. 

6. The world is slumbering. 

7. ' ' This latter mode of expression falls short of the force 

and vehemence of the former." — -Murray. 

The Forms of Adjectives. 
Rem, 1. — Many words in the English Language are, primarily, Ad- 
jectives. 

Examples. — Hard— soft — sour — sweet — good — bad — old — young. 
Rem. 2. — But most words used as Adjectives are Derivative Words. 
Examples. — Arabian — virtuous — hope/wZ — masterZy — children' s 
Rem. 3. — Many Adjectives have the same form as the Noun. 
Examples. — A silver pencil — a gold pen — a stone bridge. 

Xote I. — That form of the Adjective should be used 
which is in accordance with reputable usage. 

Examples. — 1. A gold pen — not a golden pen. 

2. A silver pencil — not a silvery pencil. 

3. " Golden ears, though richly waving, 

Must, in harvest, fall." 

4. " The silvery tide will bear thee." 

Obs. 1. — Two or more Adjectives are often used as distinct Ad- 
juncts of the same Substantive. 

Examples. — 1. " The tall dark mountains and the deep-toned sea." 
2. il A temper, passionate and fierce, 

May suddenly your joys disperse, 
At one immense explosion. ' ' 



ADJECTIVES COMPARISON OF. 237 

Eem. — But the same Noun rarely has more than one Specifying Ad- 
jective. [See Specifying Adjectives below.] 

Obs. 2. — When two or more Adjectives belong to the same Noun, 
they may — 

1. Severally qualify the Substantive only ; or, 

2. One Adjective may belong to the Noun as modified by the other. 

Examples. — 1. "He was a tall, athletic, vigorous man." 

2. ' ' Lamartine acted a conspicuous part in the late French 
Revolution. ' ' 

Eem. — "Tall," "athletic," and "vigorous," are Adjectives — each 
standing in the same relation to the Word ' ' man. ' ' 

' ' French' ' describes or limits ' ' Revolution ; ' ' late' ' limits ' ' French 
Revolution." 

Obs. 3. — This construction should be distinguished from that in 
which the Adjective — and not the Adjective and Noun combined — is 
modified by an Adverb. 

Examples. — A very beautiful flower. — A long -neglected duty. 

Obs. 4. — A Possessive Specifying Adjective may be limited by another 
Adjective. 

Example. — "He heard the king's command, 
And saw that writing's truth." 

QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES. 
Comparison. 

Rem. — As things are equal or unequal, similar or dissimilar, we have 
words indicating those differences. 

Note II. — Care should be exercised in the choice of 
appropriate words to indicate Comparison. 

1. Comparison oe Equality. 

Obs. 1. — Two or more things, similar in any given quality, are com- 
pared by the use of the word As, placed before the latter term. 

Examples. — 1. John is as tall as James. 

2. Warner is not so fair as Arthur. 

3. "England can spare from her service such men aw 

him.'" — Lord Brougham. 



238 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Obs. 2. — The former term of trie Comparison of Equality may be pre- 
ceded by As or So, and sometimes by Such. [See Examples above.] 
As is commonly used in Affirmative Sentences. 
So is used in Negative Sentences. [See Examples above.] 

2. Comparison of Inequality. 

Note III. — In Comparisons of Inequality, when but two 
things are compared, the former term requires an Adjective 
or an Adverb of the Comparative Degree. 

Examples. — 1. "They are stronger than lions." — Taylor. 

2. " Their instinct is more perfect than that of man." 

Exception. — Some good writers employ the Superlative. 

Example. — "The largest boat of the two was cut loose." — Cowper. 

Obs. 1. — The second term of Comparison of Inequality is commonly 
introduced by the word Than. [See Examples above.] 

Obs. 2. — When the second term is a Substantive Word, Than is a 
Preposition. 

Example. — " Than whom, Satan except, none higher sat." — Milton. 

Obs. 3. — When the second term is a Sentence, Than is commonly a 
Relative Pronoun or a Conjunction. » 

Examples. — 1. " He has more than heart could wish. 11 

2. "And there are lovelier flowers, I ween, 
Than e'er in Eastern lands were seen." 
[For other Observations on Than, see "Conjunctions."] 

Obs. 4. — The second term of a Comparison may be suppressed when 
the sense is not thereby obscured. 

Examples. — 1. " We both have fed as well." 

2. "I have known deeper wrongs." — Mitford. 

Note IV. — Adjectives of the Superlative Degree are 
used when more tban two things are compared. 

Examples.— 1. " The richest treasure mortal times afford is spotless 
reputation." 
2. " Thou art the ruins of the noblest man 
That ever lived in the tide of time." 



ADJECTIVES COMPARISON OF. 239 

Note V. — Comparative and Superlative Adjectives re- 
quire different constructions. 

Obs. 1. — The Comparative Degree requires the former term to be 
excluded from the latter. 

Example. — Iron is more valuable than all other metals. 

Rem. — In this example, "Iron" is put as one term of Comparison, 
and "all oilier metals" as the other term — two things are compared. 
Hence, the Comparative form. 

Obs. 2. — The Superlative Degree requires the former term to be in- 
cluded in the latter. 

Example. — Iron is the most valuable of all the metals. 

Rem. — Here, u all the metals" are taken severally. " Iron" is taken 
from the list, and put in comparison with the many others — more than 
two things are compared. Hence, the use of the Superlative form. 

Note VI. — Adjectives whose significations do not admit 
of Comparison, should not have the Comparative or the 
Superlative form. 

Example. — John's hoop is much more circular than mine. 
Corrected. — John's hoop is much more nearly circular than mine. 

Note VII. — Double Comparatives and Superlatives are 
improper. 

Example. — In the calmest and most stillest night. 

Obs. — But Lesser is often used by good*writers. 

Example. — "The lesser co-efficient." — Davies* Algebra. 

Rem. — The Comparison of Adjectives is not commonly absolute, but 
relative. Thus, in saying This is the sweetest apple, I merely say that 
this apple possesses a higher degree of the quality than all other apples 
with which it is compared. 

J0t- Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. John is not as tall as James. 

2. William is so tall as his father, 

3. The magnolia is more beautiful as the althea, 
! 4. William's ball is rounder than mine. 



240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

5. Eve was the fairest of all her daughters. 

6. Eve was the fairest of all other women. 

7. Eve was fairer than all her other daughters. 

8. Nellie is the most loveliest of the girls. 



SPECIFYING ADJECTIVES. 

Note VIII. — Specifying Adjectives should be so used 
as clearly to signify the real intention of the speaker or 
writer. 

Bem. 1. — The peculiar province of Specifying Adjectives is to indicate 
the individuality of beings or things. Hence, 

Obs. 1. — Specifying Adjectives should be used before Nouns taken 
in a restricted sense. 

Examples. — 1. " The man of wealth and pride 

Takes up a space that many poor supplied." 

2. " He has betrayed the confidence of his friends.' ' 

3. " The truth of that proposition is self-evident." 

Bem. 2. — But Nouns may be restricted by the use of Phrases. 

Examples. — 1. "Love of virtue is exhibited in deeds of charity. 19 

2. ' ' Application to studies secures excellence in scholar- 
ship." 

Obs. 2. — Specifying Adjectives should not be used before Nouns 
taken in a general sense. 

Examples. — 1. " Man needs but little here below." 

2. " Confidence is a plant of slow growth." 

3. " Truth crushed to earth shall rise again." 

Obs. 3. — Specifying 'Adjectives should not be used before Proper 
Nouns. 

Examples. — Jackson was the more skillful general ; 
Webster, the greater statesman. " 

Bem. 3. — Proper Nouns are rendered Common by the use of Specify- 
ing Adjectives. 

Example. — Lincoln is the Washington of the nineteenth century. 

Note IX. — A Specifying Adjective should be repeated 
when its omission would occasion ambiguity or obscurity. 



ADJECTIVES — SPECIFYING. 241 

Obs. 1. — We properly repeat trie Specifying Adjective before two or 
more Nouns specifically distinct. 

Examples.— 1. Man knows neither the day nor the hour of his de- 
parture. 

2. The North and the South lines are parallel. 

3. "Bowen, the editor of 'The Teacher,' and the State 

Superintendent, will attend the Institute." 

Rem. — The omission of "the" before " State Superintendent" would 
imply that "Bowen" is the State Superintendent. 

4. The teacher and the pupil. 

5. "My poverty and not my will consents." 

Obs. 2. — We repeat the Specifying Adjective when two or more 
Nouns are joined in the same construction and taken severally — 
especially if a part of the Nouns are suppressed. 

Examples. — 1. We have sold the black, the bay, and the white 
horse. 

2. " The vain, the wealthy, and the proud, 

In folly's maze advance." 

3. The first, the third, and the fifth child were sons. 

4. " The honorable the Legislature of the State of New 

York." 

Note X. — Specifying Adjectives should not be repeated 
before different Qualifying Adjectives used to describe the 
same thing. 

Examples. — 1. An ignorant rich man is less esteemed than a wise 
poor one. 
2. " The North and South line is accurately drawn. 

pit* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. Oldest pupil in this class is not wisest. 

2. The proper study of the mankind is the man. 

3. The North and South lines run east and west. 

4. The past and present tense of that verb do not differ in form. 

5. The North and the South lines marked on the map are called 
meridians. 

21 



242 ENGLISH GKAMMAK — PART JIL 

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

Note XL — In the use of Adjectives that imply Num- 
ber, such should be employed as agree in Number with 
their Nouns. 

Examples.— A book — one book — three books. 

This book — that book — some books. 

Obs. 1. — But a Noun having two or more Adjectives differing im 
Number, may agree in Number with the one placed next it. 

Example. — " Full many a gem of purest ray serene." 

Obs. 2. — One Numeral Adjective may qualify another Numeral. 

Examples. — One hundred dollars — a hundred horses — four score years 
— two dozen oranges. 

Note XII. — A Substantive should correspond in form 
to the Number indicated by its Adjective, when the Ad- 
jective is necessarily Singular or Plural. 

Examples.— 1. "The field is two miles long and one mile broad." 
2. " These hands let useful skill forsake — 
This voice in silence die." 
Obs. — Exception. — A few Nouns are used technically or figuratively 
in the Singular Number, with Plural Adjectives. 

Examples. — A hundred head of cattle. — Fifty sail of the line. 
J0?* Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. Mary has not been at home this six months. 

2. The Ridge road is three rod wider than the Braddock's Bay road. 

3. The surveyor's chain is four rod long. 

4. Hence it is called a four rods chain. 

5. "William exchanged three pair of rabbits for ten dozen of eggs. 

POSSESSIVE SPECIFYING- ADJECTIVES. 

Rule 8. — A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case 
is used Adjectively. 

Examples. — Webster s Dictionary. — Our neighbor. 

Obs. 1. — The Possessive Case is a term applied by grammarians, with 
reference to the form of Notms and Pronouns. Nouns and Pronouns 



ADJECTIVES — POSSESSIVE SPECIFYING. 243 

in this Case do not always indicate possession ; and they may be in 
the Nominative, in the Objective, or in the Independent Case, 

EXAMPLES. 

1. The peddler deals in boys' caps and children's shoes. 

2. "And they both beat alike — only, mine was the quickest." 

3. " He is a friend of mine, and lives next door to Smith's." 

4. ' l Thine is the kingdom. ' ' 

Obs. 2. — The sign of the Possessive Case is not always annexed to 
the name of the Possessor. 

1. It may be transferred to an attribute following the name of the 
possessor. 

Examples. — 1. The Pope of Rome's legate. 

2. "Whether it be owing to the Author of nature's act- 
ing upon us every moment." — Bp. Butler. 

2. When two or more Possessives, immediately following each other, 
are alike applicable to the same word, it is attached only to the last. 

Examples. — 1. George, James, and William's father. 
2. A. S. Barnes and Co.'s publications, 

Obs. 3.— But the sign of the Possessive should be repeated when one 
Possessive is used to specify another. 

Example. — Gould's Adam's Latin Grammar. 

Obs. 4. — The sign of the Possessive should be repeated when the 
Possessives describe different things. 

Example. — "Heroes' and Heroines' shouts confusedly rise." 

Note I. — Possessive Adjectives describe Nouns and 
Pronouns, by indicating possession, fitness, origin, con- 
dition, etc., etc. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Boys' caps "Boys' " denotes the size of the caps. 

2. Webster's Dictionary " Webster's" denotes the author. 

3. " Heaven's immortal Spring shall yet arrive, 

And man's majestic beauty bloom again, 

Bright through the eternal year of Loves majestic reign." 

Obs. 1.— -A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case is often 
«quivalent to an Adjective Phrase. 



244: ENGLISH GKAMMAK— PAKT III. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. The people's will The will of the people. 

2. Webster's Dictionary A Dictionary written by Webster. 

3. Boys' caps Caps suitable for boys. 

4. " He heard the king's command. . .The command of the king. 

5. And saw that writing's truth." . .The truth of that writing. 

Obs. 2. — But they are not always equivalent. 

Examples. — 1. The lore of virtue is not virtue's love. 

2. The desire of leisure. . .is not leisure's desire. 
Hence, 

Note II. — Possessive Specifying Adjectives and Adjec- 
tive Phrases should not be substituted the one for the 
other when they are not fully equivalent. 

[See Examples above.] 

Obs. 1. — The laws of interchange of Possessive Adjectives and their 
kindred Adjective Phrases are as follow : 

1. When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase constitutes the 
Agent of an action, state, feeling, etc., implied in the Substantive limited, 
the Phrase and the corresponding Possessive Adjective are equivalent, 
and, therefore, interchangeable. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. The people's will The will of the people. 

2. The sun's rays The bays of the sun. 

3. Webster's last speech The last speech of Webster. 

2. When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase constitutes also the 
Logical Object of an action, state, feeling, etc. implied in the Substantive 
limited, the Phrase and the corresponding Possessive Adjective are not 
equivalent, and, consequently, can not be interchanged. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — " The doctrine of Divine sovereignty." 
Incorrect. — Divine sovereignty's doctrine. 

3. When the Object of the Prepositional Phrase may be the Logical 
Subject or the Logical Object of the action, state, etc., implied in the 
Substantive limited, the use of the Phrase generally occasions ambiguity, 
and is inadmissible without the addition of some other Element. 

Example. — "The love of God shall make their bliss secure." 



ADJECTIVES — POSSESSIVE SPECIFYING. 245 

Hem. — This may mean God's love to them or their love to God. 

Obs. 2. — If we intend the former, the ambiguity may be removed by 
the Phrase to them, placed after the word " God," or, if the latter, by 
the word their in place of the word " the.'' Thus, 

1. The love of God to them shall make their bliss secure. 

2. Their love of God shall make their bliss secure. 

Obs. 3. — Adjectives derived from Nouns and Pronouns in the Posses- 
sive Case, often retain their Substantive character, and may be qualified 
by other Adjectives. 

Example. — " He saw that writing's truth." "That" specifies 
' : writing. ' ' He saw the truth of that writing. 

■- Rem. — This observation is also applicable to other Adjectives de- 
rived from Nouns and to Numeral Adjectives. 

Examples. — 1 . " A cast iron hinge. ' ' l ' Cast' ' qualifies ' ' iron ; ' ' and 
"iron" is an Adjective. 
2. Two hundred dollars. "Two" specifies "hundred" 
and "hundred," thus modified, limits "dollars." 

Obs. 4. — A word in the Possessive form is often used to specify a 
Phrase. 

Examples. — 1. "Upon Mr. Talbot's being made Lord Chancellor. 11 
2. "From our being born into the present world.' 1 

Obs. 5. — In constructions like the above, the Possessive sign should 
not be omitted. 

Correct Construction. — All presumption of death's being the destruction of 
living beings, must go upon the supposition that they are compounded." 

Incorrect Construction. — 1. "Nor is there so much as any appearance 
of our limbs being endued with a power of moving, 11 etc. — Bp. Butler. 
2. "A fair wind is the cause of a vessel sailing. ' 

Rem. — In the last example, the author intended to say that wind is 
the cause of an act — an act expressed by the word "sailing." 

But he makes himself say that wind is the cause of a thing — a thing 
named by the word " vessel." 

Corrected. — Wind is the cause of a vessel's sailing. 

Obs. 6. — Possessive Adjectives are sometimes qualified by Sentences 
introduced by Relative Pronouns and by Phrases. 

21* 



246 ENGLISH GEAMMAE PAKT III. 

Examples. — 1. "How various his employments whom the world calls 
idle. ' ' — Wilson s Burns. 

2. "I have spoken of his eminence as a judge/* 

3. " Heaven be their resource who have no other but the 

charity of the world. ' ' 

Hem. — It is trie Substantive Element in the Possessive Adjective that 
is thus limited by the Auxiliary Sentence. Thus, "his" is equivalent 
to " of him :' ' and ' ' him ' is limited by the Sentence ' ' ivhom the world 
calls idle." 

Position of the Possessive. 

Obs. 7. — When the Possessive is used Adjectively, it is placed before 
the Noun or the Pronoun which it specifies. 

Examples. — 1. The widow's mile. 

2. The culprit's confession. 
. Our father and our mother. 

Obs. 8. — Like other Specifying Adjectives, rt precedes Qualifying 
Adj actives belonging to the same Noun or Pronoun. 

Examples. — 1. "The brook's bright wave." 

2. "The wind's low sigh." 

3. Our devoted father and our affectionate mother. 

Obs. 9. — Possessive Adjectives, in addition to their primary office, 
sometimes introduce Auxiliary Sentences. 

Example. — " All are but parts of one stupendous whole, 

Whose body Nature is, and God the soul." — Pope. 

Rem. — In this Sentence, "whose* is an Adjunct of "body," and it 
is used also to introduce the Adjunct Sentence, " Whose body Nature 
is, and God the soul." 

Obs. 10. — The Possessive Adjective is often the Logical Subject of a 
Participle. 

Examples. — 1. "I have an engagement which prevents my staying 
longer with you." 
2. "I allude to your inviting me to your forests." — Pope. 
Who invited me ? — you. 
This observation also applies to Substantives. 

Example. — The boy's mistake. Who mistook ? — the boy. 



ADJECTIVES IN PREDICATE. 247 

ADJECTIVES IN PREDICATE. 

Note III. — An Adjective, like a Participle, may be used 
in Predicate with a Verb, when the Verb requires its aid 
to make the assertion. 

Examples. — 1. * * His palsied hand waxed strong. ' ' 

2. •' Canst thou grow sad as earth grows bright f 

3. Vanity often renders man contemptible. 

4. Virtue always makes man happy. 

Obs. 1. — Many English Verbs contain the signification of such Adjec- 
tives in themselves. Thus, 

" Waxed strong" has its equivalent, strengthened. 

1 i Grows bright^ " " brightens. 

" Makes happy" " " happifies. 

Obs. 2. — But not all Predicate Adjectives have their equivalent Verbs. 
Thus, for the Predicate, ' ' renders contemptible, ' ' we have not the Verb, 
contemptibleize. 

Obs. 3. — Participles, like Verbs, sometimes require the use of Adjec- 
tives to complete the sense. Adjectives thus used are said to be "is 
Predicate. " 

Examples. — 1. "The desire of being happy reigns in all hearts." 

M. Her highest happiness consists in making others happy. 

Obs. 4. — Adjectives may be in Predicate — 

1. With Transitive Verbs — Active Voice. 

Examples. — 1. "They'll make me mad, they'll make me mad." 
2. "The study of science tends to make us devout." 

2. With Passive Verbs. 

Examples. — 1. "He was made wretched by his own folly." 

2. "The children were rendered miserable by the sins of 
the father. ' ' 

3. With Neuter and other Intransitive Verbs. 

Examples. — 1. "How dear to my heart are the scenes of my child- 
hood. ' ' 
2. " Be not therefore grieved nor angry with yourselves." 

4. With Verbs— Infinitive Mode. 



24:8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. ] 

Examples. — 1. " The study of science tends to make us devoid,' 

2. "Dost thou well to be angry f" 

3. "I own it made my blood run cold/' 

5. With Participles as Adjectives. 

Example. — "Falling short of this, we can not succeed." 

6. With Participles as Yerbal Nouns. 

Examples. — 1. " Her life was spent in making others happy." 

2. "Becoming angry at trifles is indicative of a weak 
mind." « 

Obs. 5. — This construction of the Adjective should be carefully dis- 
tinguished from that in which it is med as a representative of an Ad- 
verbial Phrase. ^ 

Examples. — 1. " Caled entered every day early and returned late." 

2. "The surging billows and the gamboling storms 

come crouching to his feet." 

3. "The mind was well informed, the passions [were] 

held subordinate, and diligence was choice." 

"Early" is substituted for at an early hour. 

"Late" " " at a late hour. 

" Crouching" " " in a crouching attitude. 

" Subordinate" " " in a subordinate condition. 

Hence, "early," "late," "crouching," and "subordinate," are to be 
parsed — 

1. As Adverbs — being used as representatives of Adverbial Phrases. 

2. But in the analysis of these Phrases, these words are to be parsed, 
in their individual capacity, as Adjectives, qualifying their Substantives 
understood. 

Rem. — For Substantives in Predicate, see "Independent Case" 

Form. 
Note IV. — Adjectives used in Predicate should not 
take the Adverbial form. 

examples. 
Incorrect. — 1. William feels badly to-night. 2. I feel sadly. 

3. How beautifully it looks ! 4. It appears strangely to me. 

Corrected. — William feels bad to-night- I feel sad. 

How beautiful it looks ! It appears strange to me. 



ADJECTIVES — POSITION. 24:9 

Bem.— It will be noticed that the Adjective in Predicate does not 
modify the Verb. It describes the Subject by the aid of the Yerb. 
Hence, 

Obs. 1. — Adverbs are not used as a part of the Grammatical Predicate. 

Obs. 2. — The Verb used in Predicate with an Adjective is sometimes 
suppressed. 

Examples. — 1. "No position, however exalted, could satisfy his 
ambition. ' ' 
•2. "A man may grow rich by seeming poor." 

Hem. — " Exalted" is in Predicate with u may be" suppressed. 
''Poor" u " "be," " 



Position of Adjectives. 

Obs. 3. — An Adjective Word is commonly placed before its Noun and 
after its Pronoun : an Adjective Phrase or Sentence after its Noun or 
Pronoun. 

EXAMPLES* 

Word. — I. An influential man. 
Phrase. — 2. A man of influence. 
Sentence. — 3. A man who possesses influence. 

Obs. 4. — But when an Adjective Word is limited or modified by a 
Phrase, it is commonly placed after its Noun. 

Examples. — 1. " Seest thou a man diligent in his busi?iess." 
2. " Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again." 

Obs. 5. — When the same word is qualified by two or more Adjec- 
tives., the one denoting the most definite quality should be placed 
next it ; and, when one Adjective specifies and the other qualifies, the 
Qualifying Adjective is placed next the Noun. 

Examples. — 1. An industrious young man. 

2. A large sweet apple. 

3. " Bound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea." 

Note Y. — An Adjective in Predicate is placed im- 
mediately after its Yerb or Participle. 



250 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART III. 

Examples. — 1. " Which maketh glad the heart of man." 

2. " Canst thou grow sad zz earth grows bright f" 

3. " His palsied hand waxed strong. 1 * 

4. * { And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill. 1 ' 
6. "How various his employments whom the world 

calls idle. ' ' 

Obs. 1.— Exception 1. — When the Verb is Transitive, its Object ;.s 
sometimes — not always — placed between it and the Adjective in 
Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. " Vanity often renders man contemptible " 
2. " Winter maketh the light heart sad*" 

Obs. 2. — Exception 2. — For the sake of euphony, for emphasis, or for 
rhythm, the Adjective is sometimes placed before the Verb. 

Examples. — 1. " Hard is my fate, cried the heart-broken stranger." 

2. " Bloodless are these limbs, and cold." 

3. '''Hard, hard, indeed, was the contest for freedom." 

Obs. 8. — This construction snould be carefully distinguished from 
that in which the Adjective qualifies the Object of the Verb. 

'Example.—** But we left him alone with his glory." 



EXERCISES IX REVIEW. 

PAGB. 

232.— What is an Adjunct 9 

What may be the forms of Adjuncts. 

1 . * ' A man tcho has talents, will succeed in business. ' ' 

Condense this by replacing the Sentence Adjunct by a Phrase. 

Replace the Phrase by an equivalent Word. 

Are all Adjunct Words, Phrases, and Sentences interchangeable? 
234. —What Elements of Sentences may be affected by Adjuncts ? 

How are Adjuncts of Substantives to be parsed ? 
235. — How are Logical Adjuncts commonly construed? 

Repeat Rule 7. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
In what distinct methods do Adjectives describe Substantives ? 
Is a Word used Adjectively in one Sentence, always an Adjective ? 
Wherein do Adjectives commonly differ inform from Substantives 
of similar signification ? 

236. -Repeat Note I.— Make Sentences to illustrate. 

What Adjectives are commonly used in Comparisons of Equality f 



EXERCISES IN KEYIEW. 251 

TABU. 

237. — What Word introduces the second term of the Comparison ? 
Supply the proper Words omitted in the following Sentences : 

2. ' ' Anna is — tall as Clarissa. ' ' 

3. "Rachel is not — tall as Mary." 

Repeat Note II. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
What Word introduces the second term of a Comparison of In- 
equality ? 

4. " Delia is taller— Isabella, but not fairer — Helen." 
Supply the proper Words in the above Sentence. 

238. — Repeat Note IV. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 

Correct the following Sentences, and give proper authority for 
each criticism : 

5. " Shakspeare is more faithful to the true language of 

Nature than any writer." — Blair. 

6. " Cibber grants it to be a better poem of its kind than ever 

was written." — Pope. 

7. "The Christian religion gives a more lovely character of 

God than any religion ever did." — Murray. 

8. "Of all other nations, ours has the best form of government. 

It is, of all others, that which most moves us." — Sheridan, 

239. — Repeat Note YII. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 

Correct the following errors by the Note, or by the Observations ; 
9. " Northern Spy is fine specimen of an apple." 

10. ' ' Lawrence is abler mathematician than a linguist. 

11. "The highest title in the State is that of the Governor." 

12. "Organic chemistry treats of the animal and vegetable 

kingdom. ' ' 

13. "The north and south poles are indicated on the map." < 

14. "Mary, widow of the late Col. Clark, and the mother of 

the Governor, resides with us." 

240. — Repeat Note VIII. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 

15. "Substitutes have three Persons; the First, Second, and 

the Third." — Pierce's Grammar. 

16. "In some cases we can use either the Nominative or Ac- 

cusative, promiscuously." — Adams Latin Grammar. 

17. "I doubt his capacity to teach either the French or English 

languages. ' ' 

18. " The passive and neuter verbs I shall reserve for some 

future consideration." — IngersolV s Grammar, 

19. " Julias a long and short sound." — Bfcknell's Grammar. 



252 ENGLISH GEAMMAK PART III. 

20. "The perfect participle and imperfect tense ought not to 

be confounded." — Murray. 

21. "There is, however, another, and a more limited sense." 

22. "Novelty produces in the mind a vivid and an agreeable 

emotion. "—Blair. 

23. "Jewell the poet and the professor of English literature 

has criticised it. ' ' 

241. — Repeat Note X.— Make Sentences to illustrate. 
Correct the following errors : 

24. "I have not been in London this five years." 

25. "If I had not left off troubling you about those kind of 

things." — Swift. 

26. "They are these kind of gods which Horace mentions." 

27. tl Many things are not that which they appear to be." 

242. — Repeat Note XL — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
Correct the following errors : 

28. " The wall is ten foot high."— Harrison's Grammar. 

29. "A close prisoner, in a room twenty foot square. " — Locke. 

30. "These verses consist of two sort of rhymes." — Formey. 

31. " "lis for a thousand pound. " — Cowper. 

Repeat Rule 8. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
Correct the following errors : 

32. "I have neither John nor Eliza's books." — Nixon. 

33. " James relieves neither the boy nor the girl's distress." 

34. "Which, for distinction sake, I shall put down severally." 

35. "King James translators merely revised former transla* 

tions . ' ' — Frazee' s Grammar. 

243. — Repeat Note I. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 

244. — Repeat Note II. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
Correct the following errors : 

3G. " The General in the army's name, published a declara- 
tion." — Hume. 

37. "The bill passed- the Lord's house, but failed in the 

Commons." 

38. " It is curious enough that this Sentence of the bishop is, 

itself, ungrammatical , ' ' — CbbbeW s Grammar. 

39. ' ' We should presently be sensible of the melody suffering. ' ? 

40. " This depends on their being more or less emphatic, and 

on the vowel-sound being long or short." 



ADVERBS. 253 

PACE. 

41. " Whose principles forbid them taking part in the ad- 

ministration of the government." — Liberator. 

247. — Repeat Note III.— Make Sentences to illustrate. 

248. — Repeat Note IY. — Make Sentences to illustrate. 
Correct the following errors : 

42. "The group of little misses appeared most lovely and 

beautifully. ' ' 

43. " Heaven opened widely her everlasting gates." 

44. " The poor-girl feels very badly about it." — Haivley. 

45. "The sight appeared terribly to me." 

46. " Did not Lois look most beautifully at the lecture V* 

ADVERBS. 

Rule 9. — Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and, 
other Adverbs which they modify. 

Obs. 1. — An Adverb may consist of a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence. 



EXAMPLES. 



Word. — 1. I shall go soon. t 80oll ) 

Phrase.— 2. I shall go in a short time. i D j .. ^ 

(aj (short) 
Sentence.— -3. I shall go ere day departs. C l X~^ a11 g° " ) 

(^ day y jepaiV) 
Obs. 2. — An Adverb may modify a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. f^IS^ X Indies ) 

1. William studies diligently. ( ^diligenti yj 

' < Diligently' ' modifies a Word. f Artbur v went ) 

2. Arthur went aZmos^ to Boston. Q Boston} 
44 Almost" modifies a Phrase. @m^n~~ 



( They ~*J{ came ^ 



S . " Not AS THE COXQUEPtOR COMES, 

They, the true-hearted, came." y™°' h ^ rte v ^ UjU s^ 

. I the J ^ i v 

' Not" modifies a Sentence. /(conqueror Y com esj } 



QheJ 

TnoT) 



22 



254: ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IIX. 

Adverbial Words. 
Note I. — In the use of Adverbs, that form should be 
adopted which is in accordance with the best authority. 

Obs. 1. — Most Adverbs are derivative words, and are generally formed 
by adding ly (formerly written lie— a contraction of like) to its 
Primitive. 

Examples. — 1. A just man will deal justly. 

2. A foolish man will act foolishly. 

Obs. 2. — "When an Adjective supplies the place of an Adverb, by 
representation, the Adjective form should be retained. 

EXAMPLES. ( house X* a8 . P ain ted) 

1. The house was painted green. L.. the ) jlxj x -y, 

2. Open thy mouth wide. y Xnreen) J 

Expanded. — 1. The house was painted with green paint. 

2. Open thy mouth to a wide extent. 
' { Green' ' and ' ' ivide ' are Adverbs by representation. 

Obs. 3. — This construction should be carefully distinguished from 
that of Adjectives in Predicate. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. The orange tasted sweet . . ■ ^ 

2. Velvet feels smooth. C or^ Y tasted , «weet ) 

3. Some deemed him wondrous wise. ^ 

4. The grass looks green. 
Incorrect. — 1. The orange tasted sweetly. 

2. Velvet feels smoothly. 

3. Some deemed him wondrous wisely. 

4. The grass looks greenly. 

Obs. 4. — The words which Adverbs properly modify are sometimes 
suppressed. 

Example. — ' ' Thou canst but add one bitter woe 
To those [ ] already there.' 7 
To those which are already there. 

Obs. 5. — Adverbs sometimes supply the place of Verbs which they 
modify. 

Examples. — 1. " Bach to thy punishment, false fugitive." 
2. " I'll away to the pleasant land." 



NEGATIVE ADVERBS. 255 

Obs. 6.— Many words, commonly used as Adverbs, often take the 
j&ace of Nouns, and become Pronouns. 

Examples. — 1. Till then — for till that time. 

2. From thence — for from that place. 

3. And I have made a pilgrimage from far. — Hosmer. 

4. " 0, let the ungentle spirit learn from hence, 

A small unkindness is a great offense." 

Obs. 7. — Participles become Adverbs whenever they indicate the 
manner of an action or modify a quality. 

Examples. — 1. " 'Tis strange, 'tis passing strange." 

2. "A virtuous household, but exceeding poor." 

Obs. 8. — But most Participial Adverbs have the suffix ly added. 

Examples. — 1. " He spoke feelingly on that subject." 

2. She conducted herself most lovingly throughout the 
play." 

Obs. 9. — Or they become Adverbs by representation. 

Examples. — 1. " Now it mounts the wave, 

And rises, threatening, to the frowning sky." 
2. " The surging billows and the gamboling storms 
Come, crouching* to his feet." 

" Come" in a " crouching" attitude. [See Obs. 2, above, also p. 23.] 

Obs. 10. — A few words, commonly employed as Prepositions, are 
sometimes used Adverbially. 

Examples. — 1. "Thou didst look down upon the naked earth." 

2. " And may, at last, my weary age 

Find out the peaceful hermitage," 

3. "Master Sir Philip, you may come in. v 

Negative Adverbs. 

3STote II. — But one Negative Word or Particle should 
be used in asserting a negative proposition. For, 

Obs. 1. — Two Negatives applied to the same act or quality make it 
affirmative. 

Examples. — 1 . ' ' Not without cause . ' ' 

2. "Such occurrences are not z/nfrequent." 

3. " Nor did he not perceive them." 



256 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Obs. 2. — Negative Prefixes in derivative words have the same 
force as Negative Adverbs. 

Examples. — 1. " He was not ^mindful of his obligations." 

2. " Such expressions are not melegant." 

3. " That costume would not be ^appropriate to the 

occasion." 

Rem. 1. — Such expressions have not always the full force of the 
corresponding afhrmative assertions, but serve to negative the neg- 
ative assertion. 

Obs. 3. — (a) Negative Adverbs are used primarily to modify Verbs. 

Examples. — 1. " They w&pt not. 

(b) To modify Adjectives." 

2. Not one of the family was there. 

3. "Not every one that saith unto me, ' Lord ! Lord V 

shall enter into the kingdom of heaven." 

4. " Not all that run a race shall win the prize." 

(c) To modify other Adverbs — Words, Phrases, or Sentences. 

Word. — 5. He is not generally in error. 
Phrase. — 6. " They died not by hunger, or lingering decay. 

The steel of the white man hath swept them 
away." 
Sentence. — 7. " Not as the conqueror comes, 

They, the true-hearted, came." 

Rem. — The influence of the Negatives, not, neither, etc., is often 
exerted on Nouns, Phrases, and whole Sentences. And, generally, 
when a Negative occurs in connection with other Adjuncts, the influ- 
ence of the Negative reaches the whole proposition, including the 
other Adjuncts. Thus, in Example 6, " not' ' modifies the phrase," by 
hunger or Lingering decay." And in Example 7, " not" negatives the sen- 
tence " as the conqueror comes." 

^^Let the word "not/' in Sentences 6 and 7, be parsed by a 
devote? of those systems of grammar that ignore the etymological 
offices of Phrases and of Sentences. Will he not also " ignore" conw 
mon sense ? Does k ' not' ' modify 5 ' died V ' Then they are still living V 

Obs. 4.— The Adverbs, yes, yea, no, nay, are independent in con- 
struction. 

Rem. — The relation of these words to others in the sentence or 
period is logical rather than grammatical. Their grammatical relation 
iB generally to Elements in Sentences suppressed. 



POSITION OF ADVERBS. 257 

Position of Adverbs. 
Note III. — The Position of Adverbs should be such as 
most clearly to convey the sense intended. 

Obs. 1. — Adverbs which modify Verbs generally precede a Single 
Verb in Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. "Man naturally seeks his own happiness/ ' 

2. " Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains.' ' 

Obs. 2, — When the Predicate consists of more than one word, th© 
Adverb is commonly placed after the first word in Predicate. 

Examples. — 1. "We can not honor our country with too deep a 
reverence." 

2. "I have always been an admirer of happy human 

faces." 

3. "I will never leave thee nor forsake thee." 

Obs. 3. — Adverbs modifying Adjectives are placed before their 
Adjectives. 

Examples. — 1. "We can not honor our country with too deep a 
reverence." 

2. " We can not love her with an affection too pure and 

fervent.'' 

3. " The very rich man can never be truly happy." 

4. ' ' The selfish moa can never be truly polite. ' ' 

Exception. — The word enough, vmd Adverbially, is commonly placed 
after its Adjective. 

Obs. 4. — Adverbs are placed "before other Adverbs which they 
modify .- 

Examples. — 1. " How lightly mounts the muse's wing." 

2. " Too low they build, who build beneath the stars." 

3. " Shepard's mill is driven partly by water and partly 

by steam. ' ' 

4. " They died not by hunger nor lingering decay." 

5. " Some work only for pleasure." 

Obs. 5. — Adverbial Phrases are commonly placed after the words 
which they modify. 

Examples. — 1. " There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin." 

2. " Time slept on flowers and lent his glass to Hope.'' 1 

3. "The firmament grows brighter with every golden 

grain" 

22* 



258 ENGLISH GRAMMAR-^-PART III. 

Obs. 6. — Adverbial Sentences are commonly placed after the words 
which they modify. 

Examples. — 1. ' ' The firmament grows brighter with every golden 
grain, 
As handful after handful falls on the azure plain" 
2s " And I am glad that he has lived thus long." 

Rem. — To the above rules for the Position of Adverbial Elements 
there are numerous exceptions. No specific rules can be given whl< h 
will always be applicable. The judgment and taste of the writer are 
required to decide as to the Position of all the Elements of Sentences. 

7^** Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. "A Christian should always act benevolent.' ' 

2. The fields look greenly. 

3. Some of the pupils looked sadly, and others looked gladly. 

4. Never bestow your favors grudging. 

5. Every one that runs a race shall not win the prize. 

6. Every one that does not run a race shall win the prize. 

7. I have been always a lover of children. 

8. Some only work- for pleasure. [So they never play for pleasure?] 

9. That hat was expressly made for me. 

10. ' ' The comparative degree can only be used in reference to two 
objects." — Brown s Grammar, p. 140. 

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

PAGE. 

253.— Repeat Rule 8. 

An Adverbial Element may consist of what ? 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 1. 

Adverbs may modify what sorts of Elements? 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 2. 

Repeat Note I. 

How are Adverbs, derived from Adjectives and Nouns, formed? 
254. — When may the Adjective form be retained? 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 3. 

"Cora feels happily to-night." 

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 3. [See also p. 249.] 

When are Participles used Adverbially ? 
255. — Make Examples adapted to Obs. 7. 

Make Examples adapted to Obs. 8 

Make Examples adapted to Obs. 10. 






EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 259 

Negative Adverbs. 

Page. 

255.— Repeat Note II. 

" I have not seen none of your books." , ; j 

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 1. 

" Warner was not unwilling to go to school." 

Make an equivalent Sentence. [See Obs. 2.] 

256. — What is there peculiar in the use of Negative Adverbs? 
Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 3. 

Position of Advekbs. 
257.— Repeat Note III. 

What is the usual position of Adverbial Words ? 

William studies commonly diligently very. 

Correct that Sentence by Obs. 1 and 4, 

" 1 never will disturb my quiet with the affairs of state." 

Correct that by Obs. 2. 

" The day was pleasant very, amd the wind fair exceedingly, 1 * 

Correct that by Obs. 3. 

What is the usual position of Adverbial Phrases^ 

Make Sentences to illustrate Obs. 5. 

258.-^What is the usual position of Adverbial Sentences ? 
Make Complex Sentences to illustrate Obs. 6. 

EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 

11 Sow dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood, 
When fond Recollection presents them to view." 

C~ scenes j[ are dear J 



v — ^ M - " - . ' fWhea) — \ ™ m 



V^n ^^) V my J \ 



f 



Recollectk mX presents * £__ them ) 



ANALYSIS. 



*^_ i7 ™™™ ( The Subject " Scenes" J Intransitive 

Principal Elements, j The p ^ dkate „ Are dear< „ J- Sentenck 

" * ,, « ,. . ( "The" A Word. 

Of the Subject. ... -j u Qf my childhood » A Phra ^ 



Adjuncts. ■ 



Of the Predicate . 



"How" A Word. 

"To my heart" A Phrase. 

" When fond Kecollection ) ASmten£Ct 
presents them to view. J 



260 ENGLISH GSAMMAH PART in. 

Parsed by the Chart. 

"How" An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Primary — ■ 

"Word — Adverb — of Degree. [Eepeat Eule 9.] 
"Dear" An Element in the Sentence — Principal Part — "in 

Predicate' ' — Adjective. [Repeat Note III. to Rule 7.] 
"To my heart". .An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Phrase — 

Adverbial — Prepositional — Intransitive. [ Repeat 

Rule 9.] 
" Are" An Element in the Sentence — Principal Element — in 

Predicate — Verb — Indicative Mode — Present Tense — 

agreeing in Person and Number with "scenes." 

[Repeat Rule 2.] 
"The' ' An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Word — 

Specifying — Pure. [See Rule 7.] 
"Scenes" An Element in the Sentence — Principal Part — 

Subj ect — W ord — Noun — Common — Third Person — 

Plural Number — Nominative Case. [Repeat Rule 1.] 

"Of my child-) An Element in the Sentence — Adjunct — Phrase — 

hood" ) Adjective — Prepositional — Intransitive. [Repeat 

Rule 7.] 
"pi 1 ?? ,? onc * ) An Element in the Principal Sentence — Adjunct — 
nresentsth ( Sentence — Adverbial-^ Simple — Transitive. [Repeat 
to view." . . . ) R- ULE ^.] 

Rem. 1. — For the Analysis of the Phrases, "To my heart," and " Of 
my childhood." see p. 185. 

Rem. 2 — The Auxiliary Sentence, "When fond Recollection presents 
them to view, ' ' may now be analyzed by the above formula, as a dis- 
tinct Sentence. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Rule 10. — A Participle lias the same construction as the 
" part of speech" for which it is used. 

I. Participles used as Nouns. 
Note I.— A Participle used as a Noun may be — 
1. The Subject of a Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. "The beginning of strife is as when one letteth out 
water." 



PARTICIPLES. 261 

2. " The plowing of the wicked is sin." 

3. " Taking a madman' s sword to prevent his doing mis- 

chief, can not be regarded as robbing him." 




2. The Object of a Verb. 

4. "I doubted his having been a soldier.'" 

5. "While you strive to hear being laughed at." 

6. " Taking a madman's sword to prevent Ms doing mis* 

chief, can not be regarded as robbing him.' 

3. The Object of a Preposition. 

7. " In the beginning." 

8. { ' Poverty turns our thoughts too much upon the sup- 

plying of our wants : Riches uvon enjoying our 
superfluities. ' ' — Addison. 

9. "Taking a madman's sword to prevent his doing 

mischief, can not be regarded as robbing him." 

Note II. — A Participle used as a JSToun^ i. e n as the 
name of an action, retains its Verbal character, and may- 
be followed by an Object when it is the leader of a Par- 
ticipial Phrase. 

Examples. -—1. "They could not avoid giving offense." 

2. ' ' Its excesses may be restrained without destroying 

its existence. ' ' 

3. Keceiving goods, known to be stolen, is a criminal 

offense. 

4. We have sacceeded in making a beginning. 

Eem. — "Giving offense" is a Substantive Phrase — Object of the Verb 
"avoid." "Giving" is the Leader of the Phrase. "Offense" is the 
Subsequent— Object of " giving." 

In Sentence 4, "Making a beginning" is a Substantive Phrase — 
Object of the Preposition "in." "Making" is the Leader of the 



262 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART III. 

Participial Phrase ; " beginning" is the Subsequent — Object of 
" making." [See also the preceding diagram.] 

03s. 1. — A Participle, being the Leader of a Participial Phrase, often 
has its Subject suppressed. 

Rem. — In Sentence 1, above, "they" is the implied agent of the 
action expressed by "giving." 

In Sentences 2 and 3, the agents of " destroying" and of "receiving" 
are neither expressed nor implied. 

In Sentence 4, "we" is the implied Subject of " making." 

Note III. — The agent of an action expressed by a Par- 
ticiple is sometimes expressed, and is generally in the 
Possessive Form. 

Examples. — 1. " "We have heard of his going to the Falls." 

2. "I doubted his having been a soldier." 

3. " Mr. Burton objected to his son's joining the army." 

Note IV. — The sign of the Possessive Case of Nouns 
and Pronouns, used as the Logical Subjects of Participles, 
should not be omitted. 

EXAMPLES. 

Improper Construction. — 1. "A fair wind is the cause of a vessel sailing." 
2. He opposed me going to college. 

Corrected. — 1. A fair wind is the cause of a vessel's sailing. 
2. He opposed my going to college. 

Obs. 1 — The Logical Subject of a Participle may be in the Objective 
Case only as the Object of a Preposition. 

Examples. — 1. " The plowing of the wicked is sin." 

2. "By the crowing of the cock, we knew that morning 

was nigh." 

Rem.— u Cock" is the Object of the Preposition "of," and is there- 
fore in the Objective Case. But it is also the Agent of the Action 
implied in the word "crowing ;" and is, therefore, the Logical Subject 
of the Verbal Noun " crowing." 

Obs. 2. — Phrases thus used as Adjuncts of Participles are sometimes 



PARTICIPLES USED AS NOUNS. 263 

equivalent to Possessive Specifying Adjectives, and, therefore, are in- 
terchangeable. 

Examples. — 1. The crowing of the cock. — The cock's crowing. 
2, ' ' We listened to the singing of the children. 
We listened to the children's singing. 

Obs. 3. — The Definitive, the, should be placed before a Verbal Noun 
\rhose Logical Subject is the Object of the Preposition of. 

Example. — "The plowing of the wicked is sin." 

Obs. 4. — The Definitive, the, should not be placed before a Yerbal 
Noun whose Logical Subject is in the Possessive Case. 

Example. — " You object to my plowing the garden so early." 

Note V. — A Participle used to introduce a Participial 
Phrase, has the same construction as the Phrase which it 
introduces. 



r w e J C made ^preparations) 
^Su9pecting)( treach ery ) (for ^ defending^ourselves) 
(tneJ W gjde ) 



1. " Suspecting the treachery of our guide, we made preparations for 
defending ourselves from any hostile attacks." 

Here u suspecting" and "defending* are Participles, each used to in- 
troduce a Participial Phrase ; but 

' ' Defending ourselves' ' is a Parti- 
cipial Phrase — Object of the Prep- 
osition " for." Hence, a Substan- 
tive Phrase. 

* ■ Defending' ' is the name of an 
act, Object of the Preposition 
' ' for. ' ' Hence, a Yerbal Noun. 



the treachery of our 
:" shows a condition of "we." 
Hence, an Adjective Phrase. 

* ' Suspecting' ' describes ' ' we, " 
by expressing incidentally, an act 
of "we." Hence, a Yerbal Ad- 
jective. 



2. Suspicious of the treachery of our guides, we made preparations 
for defense. 



" Suspicious' ' describes c ' we, ' ' by 
expressing a condition or state of 
"we." Hence, an Adjective. 



11 Defense" is a name, Object of 
the Preposition "for." Hence, a 
Noun. 



264: ENGLISH GKAMMAK PAKT III. 

II. Participles used as Adjectives. 



yjgcaling 



Y saw J eagle J 



salingY peak ^ LJ ^ wheeling ) 

( yonder ] I ) _ 

V ' ^ ea % brow ^ 

Note VI. — A Participle used as an Adjective belongs 
to a Noun or a Pronoun which it describes ; and may be 
modified by Adverbs. 

Examples. — 1 . 1 1 Whose visages 

Do cream and mantle like a standing pond." 

2. ' ' Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle 

Wheeling near its brow.' ' 

3. " We saw it plunging 'mid the billowy strife, 

And dashing madly on to fearful doom.'* 

Bem. 1. — ''Scaling yonder peak" is a Phrase — Adjunct of "I;" 
hence, Adjective. " Wheeling near its brow" is a Participial Phrase — 
Adjunct of "eagle;" hence, Adjective. "Near its brow" is a Prepo- 
sitional Phrase — Adjunct of "wheeling ;" hence, Adverbial. 

In Sentence 3, " 'Mid the billowy strife" is an Adjunct of " plung- 
ing." " Madly," and "on," and " to fearful doom," being Adjuncts 
of " dashing," are Adverbs. 

Obs. 1. — The Participle, used as an Element in an Independent 
Phrase, may be suppressed when the sense is not thereby rendered 
obscure. 

Examples. — 1. "Thus talking, hand [ ] in hand, alone they passed 
On to their blissful bower." — Milton. 
2. * ' Now, man to man and steel to steel, 

A chieftain's vd&geance thou shalt feel." 

Bem. 2. — It should be remarked, that such omissions of Participle* 
©ccur only when they have Adjuncts. 

Bem. 3. — In analyzing and parsing such Adjuncts, it is necessary to 
restore the Participles to which they belong. Thus, "in hand" is a 
Phrase — Adjunct of being, understood ; hence, an Adverbial Phrase. 
"To man" is an Adjunct of being opposed, understood. 



PARTICIPLES USED IN PREDICATE. 2G5 

III. Participles used as' Adverbs. 
. Note VII. — Participles used Adverbially, belong to 
Verbs, Adjectives, or Adverbs, which they modify. 

Example. — 'Tis strange ! 'tis passing strange. 

Obs. 2. — Participles are seldom used Adverbially without the termi- 
nation ly. 

Example. — " He spoke feelingly on that subject." 

IV. Participles used as Prepositions. 

Note VIII. — A Participle used as a Preposition shows 
a relation of its object to the word which its Phrase 
qualifies. 

Example. — " He said nothing concerning his temporal affairs" 

Obs. 3. — The young scholar often finds it difficult to determine 
whether a Participle is used as a Preposition or as an Adjective. His 
difficulties on this subject will vanish when he recollects that — 

1. A Participle used as a Preposition does not relate to a Noun or a Pro- 
noun — it generally introduces an Adverbial Phrase. 

2. A Participle used as an Adjective always relates to a Noun or a Pronoun 
— it generally introduces an Adjective Phrase. 

V. Participles used in Predicate with Verbs. 
Note IX. — A Participle used in Predicate asserts an 
act, being, or state, and may be modified by Adverbs. 

Example. — "We are anxiously expecting' to hear from William." 

Note X. — In the use or Participles in Predicate, the 
proper modification should be used. 

1. When an action is to be predicated of the Subject, 
i. 6., when the Subject performs the act, the Active Parti- 
ciple should be used. 

Examples. — 1. Henry is reciting his lesson. 

2. People are building the church. 

2. When the Subject is to be represented as receiving 
the action, the Passive Participle should be used 

23 



266 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART HI. 

Examples. — 1. Henry's lesson is being recited. 
2. The church is being built. 

Note XI. — The Participial Phrase should not be em- 
ployed when the use of the Infinitive Phrase would be 
more elegant. 

Examples. — 1. " If the case stands thus, 'tis dangerous drinking." 
Better. — If the case stands thus, 'tis dangerous to drink. 

2. "It deserves remarkmg." — Harris's Hermes. 
Bdter. — It deserves to he remarked. 

3. "He refused complying with the regulations." 
Better. — He refused to comply with the regulations. 

Note XII. — The Participial Phrase should be used in 
preference to a Sentence, or any other more complicated 
construction, which would express the same idea. 

EXAMPLES. 

Sentence. — 1. As I was scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle, which was 
wheeling near its brow. 

Complex Prepositional Phrase. — 2. On scaling yonder peak, I saw an 
eagle in the act of wheeling near its brow. 

Participial Phrase. — 3. Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle wheeling near 
its brow. 

Rem. — These Sentences are all grammatically correct ; but the last 
gives the sentiment fully, and has the advantage of being the most 
concise, and is therefore to be preferred. 

Obs. — The Logical Subject of a Participle may be suppressed only 
when the construction is sufficiently clear without it. 

EXAMPLES. 

Incorrect. — 1. "Having resigned his commission, the company was 
disbanded. " 
2. "Counting the women and the children, the company 
was ascertained to be too large for the accommo- 
dations." 
Correct. — 1. {a) He having resigned his commission, the company was 
disbanded. 
or (b) The captain having resigned his commission, the 
company ^-as disbanded. 



THE INFINITIVE VERB. 267 

Correct. — 2. (c) On counting the women and the children, the com- 
pany was found to be too large for the accom- 
modations. 
or (d) The women and the children being counted, the 
company was found to be too large for the accom- 
modations. 
er (e) Counting the women and the children, we found 
that the company was too large for the accommo- 
dations. 



EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 

'Let the errors in the following Sentences be corrected by a 
proper application of the Notes and Observations under Rule 9. 

1. "It requires no nicety of ear as in the distinguishing of tones, 

or measuring time." — Sheridan. 

2. " He mentions Newton's writing of a commentary." 

3. "The cause of their salvation does not so much arise from their 

embracing of mercy, as from God's exercising of it." 

4. "Those who accuse us of denying of it, belie us." — Bently. 

5. "In the choice they had made of him for restoring of order." 

6. "The Governor's veto was writing while the final vote was tak- 

ing in the Senate." 

7. "To prevent it bursting out with open violence." — Robertson. 

8. ' ' This must prevent any regular proportion of time being 

settled.' ' — Sheridan. 

9. " The compiler proposed publishing that part by itself." — Adams. 

10. " Artaxerxes could not refuse pardoning him." — Goldsmith. 

11. "They refused doing so." — Harris. 

12. " Entering the cars, the seats were found to be all occupied. " 



THE INEINITIVE VERB. 

Rule 11. — A Verb in the Infinitive Mode is the Object 
of the Preposition to, expressed or understood. 

Rem. — A Verb in the Infinitive Mode is commonly used as the Sub- 
sequent of an Infinitive Phrase. Hence, it is an Element, not in a 
Sentence, but in a Phrase. 

Obs. 1. — The Infinitive Verb partakes much of a Substantive charac- 
ter, generally expressing the name of an act, being, or state. 



268 ENGLISH GEAMMAK — PART m. 

EXAMPLES. 

We are prepared to act. 
Equivalent. *— We are prepared for action. 



( 


We 


I 


are 


prepared) 








[to J act }' 

ire prepared) 


( 


We 


I 






for 






action) 



Obs, 2. — The Infinitive Verb is never used as & grammatical Predicate; 
hence, it has no grammatical Subject. But it is often the logical Pred* 
icate of a Noun or a Pronoun, which may be in the Nominative or in 
the Objective Case. 

Examples. — 1. We love to study. 

2. We requested him to speak. 

Hem. — " We" the grammatical Subject of "love," is also the logical 
Subject of ' ' study. ' ' 

V Him,'* the grammatical Object of " requested," is the logical Subject 
of "speak." 

Note I. — Infinitive Verbs following the Verbs bid, but, 
dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and sometimes behold, 
have, help, know, observe, perceive, and some others, do not 
jequire the Preposition to, 

I Examples.— 1. " I plunged in and bade him follow." 

2. " He dares not touch a hair of Catiline." 

3. M Let me hear thy voice awake." 

4. " Clara helped me work that problem." 

5. "I can not but suspect that she assisted Cora too.' 

6. "I would not have you go to-day." 

7. " Necessity commands me name myself." 

Obs. 3.— The Infinitive Verb, with its Preposition, is often sup- 
pressed. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. "Some deemed him wondrous ( 6 anie Y ~ deemed X "*^"") 



wise. 



^ 



I yc wise ) 
2. " Intemperance makes a man f "7 " wondrous" ] 

a fool." l W ° D ° U - 8 J 

Obs. 4. — The Infinitive is sometimes elegantly used for other Modes. 

EXAMPLES. £— J £~ ~— s 

1. "I am to settle this business." — ^ 4 i ^-^ * 

Arthur. \£ ) ^ttleXbusines s) 

( this ) 



Equivalent — I must settle this busi- C I X must settle jf business^) 
neg& (this) 



THE IOTINITlYE VERB. 269 

Obs. 5. —The Preposition to should not be replaced by the Conjunc- 
" tion and. 

Incorrect — Try and do as well as possible. 
Corrected. — Try to do as well as possible. 

The Infinitive Phrase. 

Obs. 6. — The Infinitive Verb with its Preposition constitutes an 
Infinitive Phrase, and may be construed as a Substantive, an Adjective, or 
an Adverb. 

EXAMPLES. , j -~ 

1. u To be, contents his natural [ To l be )) ( contents"^ desire \ 

desire." ** ( hia-ft natural) ' 

2. We should make efforts to im- ( We )( 8 hould makeY "~efforts _\ 

prove. | '(to jimprove) ) 

3. William was invited to attend C ^m«n jfwas invited) 

lectures. [[to | attend"^ lectures ^j 

Obs. 7. — An Infinitive Phrase, used Substantively, may be — 

(a) The Subject of a Sentence. 

1. " To be able to read well, is a valuable accomplishment." 

(b) The Object of a Preposition. 

2. " We were about to retire." 

3. " Be so kind as to place t]iat in diagram." 

(c) A Logical Adjunct. 

4. " It is our duty to make good use of our time.^ 

Hem. — In the opinion of most grammarians, the Verbs love, desire, 
wish, expect, and some others, take Infinitive Phrases after them as 
Objects. [See pp. 213, 214.] 

Obs. 8. — An Infinitive Phrase, used Adjectively, may be the Ad- 
junct of — 

(a) The Subject of a Sentence. 

1 . "A constant purpose to excel marked his whole career." 

(b) The Object of a Sentence. 

2. William has made efforts to improve in speaking. 

(c) The Object of a Phrase. 

3. " He arrived in time to give his vote. 

(d) A Substantive in Predicate. 

4. That is the business next to be done. 

23* 



270 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

Obs. 9. — An Infinitive PJirase, used Adverbially, may be the Ad- 
junct of — 

(a) A Verb in Predicate. 

1. Will you allow me to place this in diagram ? 

(b) An Adjective in Predicate. 

2. We are ready to depart. 

(c) An Adverb. 

3. We were too late to take the cars. 

Obs. 10. — The Infinitive, like other Phrases, is sometimes inde- 
pendent in construction. 

Example. — And, to be plain with you, I think you the more unreason- 
able of the two. 

Obs. 11.- — The Infinitive Phrase often follows the Words as and than. 

Examples. -— 1. " An object so high as to be invisible." 

2. ' ' He said nothing further than to give an apology for 
his vote." 
Rem. — In the above and similar examples, as and than are to be 
regarded as Prepositions, having for their objects the Infinitive Phrases 
following. In like manner it sometimes follows other Prepositions, 
Example. — We are about to becite. [See Obs. 7, above.] 

PREPOSITIONS. 

Rule 12. — A Preposition shows a relation of its Object 
to the word which its Phrase qualifies. 
Obs. 1. — The Object of a Preposition may be — 

1. A Word. f time ^ is ) 
-The time of my de- (jr^ofj^^ KT=T) 

parture is at hand. ^[~my~^ ^ 

2, A Phrase. ( habit y is way ") 

"A habit of moving [±J [ of j,f ;^||^^ 

quickly is another v \grfAiy) v — 

way or gaining time.' ' r^S 

3. A Sentence. ( cries X^^""X *™** ) 

« ' And cries of ' live for i of jp™— ~ \ the ) 

ever' struck the M^ \ ■ ' 

skies." V_S) 

Obs. 2. — A Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence, being the Object of a 
Preposition, is, in its office, Substantive. [See "departure," "hand," 



PREPOSITIONS. 271 

"moving quickly," " gaining time," and "live for ever, in the 
Examples above.] 

Obs, 8.— Words which follow Prepositions as their Objects of relation 
are Nouns or Pronouns, and commonly have the Objective form. 

Rem.— For Exceptions, see p. 172. 

Obs. 4 a — But Words commonly used as Adjectives or Adverbs, often 
^become Objects of Prepositions, and are then properly parsed as Sub* 
•tantives, in the Objective Case. 

Examples. — 1. "He has faded from earth like a star from on high." 

2. John is a friend of mine. 

3. "As yet the trembling year is unconfirmed." 

BS , 5. — Scholars often find it difficult to determine the Antecedent 
term of a relation expressed by a Preposition — examples sometimes 
occur in which the relation of the Object of a Preposition seems to 
exist, not to any word, but to the whole Sentence. Generally, how- 
ever, this question can be settled by ascertaining which word is qualified 
by the Phrase introduced by a Preposition — that word is the Antecedent 
term of relation. 

Example. — "A fiood of glory bursts from all the shies.'* 

Rem. — Here the Phrase " of glory" specifies "flood ;" hence, "fiood" 
in the Antecedent term of the relative expressed by "of;" and the 
Phrase is Adjective. 

"From all the skies" modifies "bursts;" hence, "bursts" is the 
Antecedent term ; and the Phrase is Adverbial. 

Obs. 6. — Double Prepositions are sometimes allowed. 

Examples. — 1. " Out of every grove the voice of pleasure warbles." 
2. 4 '- There can be no question as to which party must 
yield. ' ' 

Obs. 7. — But two Prepositions should not be used, when one of them 
will fully express the sense intended. 

Examples. — 1. "Near to this dome is found a path so green." 
2. "Not for to hide it in a hedge." — Burns. 

Obs. 8. — A Preposition may be omitted when the sense is not thereby 
obscured. 

Examples. — 1. They carried the child home — to its home. 

2, He remained three weeks — during three weeks. 



272 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR— PART III. 



Obs. 9. — Position.— The proper place for a Preposition is (as its name 
implies) before the Phrase which it introduces. 

Examples. — I. "In dread, in danger, and alone, 

Famished and chilled through ways unknown." 
Obs, 10. — But, by the poets, it is often placed after its Object. 

Example. — " From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, 
Leaps the live thunder. ' ' 

Obs. 11. — And sometimes in colloquial style 

Example. — " You will have no mother or sister to go to." — Abbott ' 

Bem.— This idiom is inelegant, and not to be recommended. 

Obs. 12. — A Preposition commonly indicates the ofiSce of the Phrase 
which it introduces. 

Example. — See page 160. 

Obs. 13. — Many words commonly used as Prepositions are some- 
times employed, not as Elements of Phrases, but as Word Elements in 
Sentences. These are commonly Adverbs. 

Examples. — 1. " Come on, my brave associates." - 

2. " Lift up thy voice like a trumpet." 

3. "Down, down, the tempest plunges on the sea, 

4. And the mad waves rise up to buffet it." 

Note I.— Care should be exercised in the choice of 
Prepositions. 

Obs. 1. — The particular Preposition proper to introduce a given 
Phrase depends — 

1. Usually on the word which the Phrase is to qualify. 

2. Sometimes on the Object of the Phrase. 



Accommodate to. 
Accord with. 
Accuse of. 
Acquainted with. 
Ask of a person. 
" for a thing. 
Bestow upon. 
Boast of. 
Concur with — in. 
Differ from. 



examples. 
Die by violence. 
" of a disease. 
Diminish fron 
Dissent from. 
Insist upon. 
Made of a thing. 
" by a person. 
11 in a place. 
Abhorrence of. 
Agreeable to. 



Compliance with. 
Conformable to. • 
Difficulty in — with. 
Eager in—for. 
Need of. 
True to. 
Value upon. 
Worthy of. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 273 

Ob& 2.— When the second term of a Comparison is expressed by a 
Phrase — 

After a Superlative, the Preposition of is commonly used. 
After a Comparative, the Preposition than is commonly used. 

Examples. — Grammar is the most interesting of all my studies. 

Grammar is more interesting than all my other studies. 

Obs. 3. — When the second term of a Comparison of Equality is a Noun 
or a Pronoun, the Preposition as is commonly used— sometimes like is 
used. 

Examples. — 1 . "He hath died to redeem such a rebel as me. " — Wesley. 
2. ' ' An hour like this may well display the emptiness 
of human grandeur. ? ' 

Obs. 4.— Some writers improperly substitute the words for and with 
for as. 

Example. — " It implies government of the very same kind with that 
which a master exercises over his servants." — Bp. Butler. 

Obs. 5. — A Preposition and its Subsequent constitute a Phrase, 
generally constituting an Adjective or an Adverbial Adjunct. 

examples. 
Adjective Element. — 1. "The King of Shadows loves a shining mark." 
Adverbial Element. — 2. "Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to 



Bem. 1. — The Prepositional Phrase is also used as a Substantive 
Element in a Sentence. [See Clark's Analysis, p. 115.] 

Rem. 2. — In the analysis of a Sentence, a Phrase contained in it is 
to be parsed, first, as one distinct Element in the structure of its Sen- 
tence ; then the Phrase is to be analyzed, and each of its distinct Ele- 
ments pointed out. [See pp. 184-5.] 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Rule 13.— Conjunctions connect Words, Phrases, and 
Sentences, or introduce Sentences. 

EXAMPLES. 

Words. . . .1. "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the 

EARTH. ' ' 



274: ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART HI. 

Phrases. . .2. "To give good gifts and to be benevolent, are often 

different things." 
Sentences . . 3. '.* Thou art perched aloft on the beetling crag, 

And the waves are white below." 

Obs. 1. — Wards connected by Conjunctions have a similar construction. 

Examples. — 1. " God created the heaven and the earth/' 

2. " Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope." 

3 . "A great and good man has fallen. ' ' 

Rem. — "Heaven" and "earth" are alike Objects of "created." 
* ' Slept' ' and ' ' ] ent ' ' are Predicates of ' ' Time. " " Great' ' and ' ' good' ' 
describe "man." 

Obs. 2. — But they have not necessarily similar modifications. 

Example. — "Every teacher has and must have his own particular way 
of imparting knowledge." — McElligott. 

Rem. — "Has" and " must have" are Predicates of "teacher" — but 
they are not of the same Mode. 

Obs. 3. — Phrases and Sentences used as Elements in the structure of 
a Principal Sentence, have a similar construction when connected by 
Conjunctions. 

Examples. — 1. "He served his country in the cabinet and in the field." 

2. " To eat and to sleep, constitute the sum of his em- 

ployments." 

3. " While I am his and he is mine, 

I'm ever safe from ill." 

Obs. 4. — But Conjunctions may introduce Principal Sentences, with- 
out connecting them to any Word or Sentence in construction. 

Examples. — 1. " And who says this?" 

2. " That I have taken this old man's daughter is most 

true." 

3. "And I am glad that he has lived thus long. 

Obs. 5. — Conjunctions introducing Adjunct Sentences connect their 
Sentences to the Word modified by such Auxiliaries. 

Examples. — 1. " And, if I sought, • 

Think' st thou no other could be brought ?" 

2. "As ye journey, sweetly sing." % 

3. " How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood, 

When fond recollection presents them to view. ' ' 
[See Diagram, p. 261.] 



CONJUNCTIONS. 275 

Obs. 6. — But Auxiliary Substantive Sentences are simply introduced 
by Conjunctions. 

, Example. — 1. "That all men are created equal, is a self-evident 
truth. ' ' 
2. "He knew not that the chieftain lay 
Unconscious of his son. ' ' 
[See Diagram, p. 214.] 

' Ob3. 7. — The Position of Sentences often determines their connection, 
without the use of Conjunctions. 

Examples. — 1. " The time may come you need not run." — Thomson. 

2. " Milton ! thou shouldst be living at this hour — • 

[For] England hath need of thee." 

3. " But Brutus says, he was ambitious." 

Obs. 8. — Auxiliary Adjective Sentences are commonly introduced by 
Eelative Pronouns and by Possessive Adjectives derived from them. 

t Examples. — 1. " He who filches from me my good name, 

Eobs me of that which not enriches him. ' ' 

2. " Lo the poor Indian, whose untutored mind 

Sees God in clouds or hears him in the wind." 

3. "Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea." 

Obs. 9. — Conjunctions that introduce Auxiliary Adverbial Sentences, 
and some others, indicate the offices of the Sentences which they 
introduce. 

If Unless, etc., indicate condition. As, When, Before, etc., indicate 
time. For, Hence, Therefore, etc., indicate an inference or cause. But, Yet, 
Nevertheless, etc., indicate restriction or apposition. Nor, Neither, etc., 
indicate a negation. 

Examples. — 1. " If sinners entice thee, consent thou not." 

2. " Speak of me as lam — nothing extenuate, 

Nor set doivn aught in malice. ' ' 

3. " Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains." 

4. " I go, but I return." 

Exception. — The Conjunction when may introduce an Adjective Sen- 
tence that limits a Noun indicating time. 

Example. — Do you remember the time ivhen Lee surrendered to Grant 7 

Exception. — The Conjunction where may introduce an Adjective Sen- 
tence that limits a Noun indicating place. 

Example. — Is there some favored spox where mortals weep no more? 



276 ENGLISH GKAMMAR — PART III. 

Caution. — The words where and when are often improperly used for the 
Phrase in which. 

Incorrect. — "A limited monarchy is a government where the powers 
and duties of the monarch are limited by a constitution." 

Corrected. — A limited monarchy is one in which the powers and duties 
of the monarch are limited by a constitution. 

Obs. 10. — Conjunctions may be omitted only when the connection 
is sufficiently clear without them. 

Examples. — 1. " Unnumbered systems, [ ] suns, and worlds, 

Unite to worship thee ; 

2. While thy majestic greatness fills 

Space, [ ] Time, [ ] Eternity." 

Obs. 11. — The Adverb " how" is sometimes improperly used instead 
of the Conjunction "that." 

Example, — " She tells me how, with eager speed, 

He flew to hear my vocal reed." — ShenMone. 

Obs. 12.— Conjunctions sometimes introduce the remnant of a 
Sentence. 

Example.— Though [ ] afflicted T he is happy. 

Obs. 13. — Position. — The proper place for a Conjunction is before 
the Sentence which it introduces, and between the Words or Phrases 
which it connects. 

Example. — u And there lay the rider, distorted 'and pale, 

With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail." 

Obs. 14. — But in Complex Sentences, the Conjunction introducing 
the Principal Sentence is commonly placed first, and that introducing 
the Auxiliary Sentence immediately following. 

Example. — " And when its yellow luster smCed, 
O'er mountains yet untrod. 
Each mother held aloft her child 
To bless the bow of God." 

But to this rule there are exceptions. 

Examples. — 1. " They kneeled before they fought." 

2. " How vain are all these glories, all our pains, 

Unless good sense preserve what beauty gains." — Pope. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 277 

Corresponding Conjunctions. 

Obs. 15. — Many Conjunctions correspond to Adverbs, to Prepositions, 
and to other Conjunctions. 

As so " As is the mother, so is the daughter." 

So as " Mary is not so cheerful as usual." 

Both and u Both good and bad were gathered in one group." 

Either . . .or "Either you mistake, or I was misinformed." 

Not nor " Prepositions should not be inserted nor omitted 

contrary to general usage." 

Neither. . .nor "Neither Alice nor Caroline has been here to-day." 

Whether. or "I care not whether you go or stay." 

So that "He called so loud that all the hollow deep." 

Such that " My engagements are such that I can not go." 

If. then "If you will take the right, then I will go to the left.' ' 

Not only . but also. . * ' She was not only vain, but also extremely ignorant.' ' 
Though . . yet " Though man live a hundred years, yet is his life as 

vanity. ' ' 
Because .. therefore. " Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay 

down my life." 

Rem. — The Antecedent corresponding word is sometimes expletive. 
Obs. 16. — Double Conjunctions are sometimes used. 

Examples. — 1. " As though he had not been anointed with oil." 
2. " And yet, fair bow, no fabling dreams, 
But words of the Most High 
Have told why first thy robe of beams 
Was woven in the sky." 

Obs. 17. — But they may not be used when one of them would fully 
express the connection. 

Example.— " There would be no doubt but that they would remain." 
The word " but" is unnecessary and improper. 
7p^ Let the Pupils correct the following 

ERRORS. 

1. William is not as cheerful as usual. 

2. Either you mistake, else I was misinformed. 

3. Neither wealth or fame render a man happy. 

4. Prepositions should not be inserted or omitted contrary to gen&~ { 

usage. — Kent, p. 435. 

5. I can not doubt but that Robert will return. 

24 



278 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART in. 

EXCLAMATIONS. 

Rule 14. — Exclamations have no dependent con- 
struction, 

Obs. — Exclamations may be followed by Words, Phrases, or Sen- 
tences. 

Examples. — 1. " Scotia ! my dear, my native sail." 

2. "Wo ! wo ! to the riders that trample thee down."| 

3. "0 that I could again recall 

My early joys, companions all!" 

WORDS OF EUPHONY. 

Note. — Words of Euphony are, in their offices, chiefly 

rhetorical. 

Rem. — The Principles of Euphony are much required in the structure 
of all languages ; for Euphony, words are altered in form, position, 
and office — and they are, for Euphony, created or omitted. 

Obs. — Euphony allows — 

1. The Transposition of Words in a Sentence. 

Example. — " From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, 
Leaps the live thunder." 

2. The omission of a letter or syllable. 

Example. — " Hark ! 'tis the breeze of twilight calling." 

3. The substitution of one letter for another. 

Examples. — 1. Collect, for Collect. 

2. Syllogism, " Sunlogism. 

3. Immigrant, " /^migrant. 

4. The addition of a letter, syllable, or word. 
Example, — " It was his boundm duty thus to act." 

5. A word to be separated into parts, and another word inserted 
between them. 

Example. — " How much soever we may feel their force.' ' 

C. A word to be used not in its ordinary office. 

Examples. — 1. " And there lay the steed with his nostril at/ vide." 
2. " The more I see of this method, the better I ik it." 



GENERAL RULES. 279 

Position. 

Note. — Words of Euphony should be placed in their 
appropriate connection. 

Obs. 1. — In the following examples this principle is violated : 

1. "To think of others, and not only of himself." 

Here ' ' only' ' is used to render ' ' himself ' ' emphatic. A better 
position would be — " and not of himself only.' 1 

2. "Joyous Youth and manly Strength and stooping Age are 

even here." 
Better. — Joyous Youth and manly Strength and even stooping Age 
are here. 

3. " When our hatred is violent, it sinks us even beneath those we 

hate." 
r Better. — It sinks us beneath even those we hate. 

Obs. 2. — A Word repeated in the same connection is to be regarded 
as a word of Euphony. 

Examples. — " Down ! down ! the tempest plunges on the sea." 
'" l For life ! for life, their flight they ply. ' ' 

GENERAL RULES. 

1. In constructing a Sentence, such Words should be 
chosen as will most clearly convey the sense intended — 
regard being had also to variety and other principles of 

taste. 

2. In expressing Complex ideas, judgment and taste 
are to be exercised in the use of Phrases and Sentences, 
when they may equally convey the sense. 

3. That Modification of Words should be adopted 
which is in accordance with the most reputable usage. 

4. The relative Position of Words, Phrases, and Sen- 
tences should be such as to leave no obscurity in the sense. 

5. Involved Complex Sentences should not be used when 
Simple or Independent Sentences would better convey the 
sense. 



280 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART III. 

RECAPITULATION OF THE RULES OF SYNTAX. 
Rule 1. — The Subject of a Sentence — Noun or Pronoun. 

The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative 
Case. 

Rule 2. — Predicate of a Sentence — Verb. 

A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person and 
Number. 

Rule 3. — The Object of a Sentence or Phrase — Noun or Pronoun. 
The Object of an action or relation must be in the Ob- 
jective Case. 

Rule 4. — Pronouns. 
A Pronoun must agree with its Antecedent in Gender, 
Person, and Number. 

Rule 5. — Adjective Pronouns. 
Adjective Pronouns are substituted for the Nouns which 
they qualify. 

Rule 6. — Independent Case — Noun or Pronoun. 
A Noun or a Pronoun not dependent on any other word 
in construction, is in the Independent Case. 

Rule 7. — Adjectives. 
Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns which they 
describe. 

Rule 8. — Possessive Specifying Adjectives. 
A Noun or a Pronoun in the Possessive Case is used 
Adject ively. 

Rule 9. — Adverbs. 
Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs i 
which they modify. 

Rule 10. — Participles. 
A Participle has the same construction as the "part of 
speech" for which it is used. 



EXAMPLES FOB PARSING. 281 

Rule 11. — Verbs — Infinitive. 
A Verb in the Infinitive Mode is the Object of the 
Preposition to, expressed or understood. 

Kule 12. — Prepositions. 
A Preposition shows a relation of its Object to the 
word which its Phrase qualifies. 

* Rule 13. — Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions connect Words, Phrases, and Sentences, 
or introduce Sentences. 

Rule 14. — Exclamations. 
Exclamations have no dependent construction. 

additional examples tor parsing. 
[See Models on p. 261.] 

1. " He was stirred 

With such an agony he sweat extremely." — Penry VIII. , ii. 2. 

2. ' ' But it is fit things be stated as they are considered— as they 

really are.'*' — Bp. Butler. 

3. " He whose soul 
Ponders this true equality, may walk 

The fields of earth with gratitude and hope." — Wordsworth. 

4. "Before we passionately desire anything which another enjoys, 

we should examine into the happiness of its possessor." 

5. " They say, ' this shall be,' and it is, 
For ere they act, they think." — Burns. 

6. " My heart is awed within me, when I think of the great miracle 

that still goes on in silence round me." 

7. " Take good heed, 

Nor there be modest where thou shouldst be proud." — Young. 

8. " Ambition saw that stooping Kome could bear 
A master, nor had virtue to be free." — Thomson. 

24* 



PART IV, 

PKOSODY. 



Def. 1. — That part of the Science of Language which 
treats of utterance, is called Prosody. 

Obs. — Utterance is modified by Pauses, by Accent, and by the laws of 



PAUSES. 

Def. 2.— Pauses are cessations of the voice in reading 
or speaking. 

( Rhetorical and 
Obs. l.-Pauses are | GrammaticaL 

Obs. 2. — Ehetorical Pauses are useful chiefly in arresting attention. 
They are generally made after or immediately before emphatic words. 
They are not indicated by marks. 

Examples. — There is a calm for those who weep, 
A rest for weary pilgrims found. 

Obs. 3. — Grammatical Pauses are useful — in addition to their Ehe- 
torical effect — in determining the sense. 
They are indicated by 

MARKS OF PUNCTUATION. 

They are — 

The Comma 



The Period 

The Interrogation .... ? 
The Exclamation ! 



The Semicolon 

The Colon 

The Dash — 
Obs. 4. — In its Ehetorical office, 

The Comma requires a short pause in reading. 
The Semicolon, a pause longer than the Comma. 
The Colon, a pause longer than the Semicolon. 
The Period requires a full pause. 

The Dash, the Marks of Exclamation and Interrogation, require 
pauses corresponding with either of the other marks. 



PAUSES COMMA. ^83 

Hem. — In the use of Marks of Punctuation, good writers differ ; and 
it is exceedingly difficult for the Teacher to give Bules for their use 
that can be of general application. 

The following Kules are the most important : 

COMMA. 

Rule 1. — When more than two words of the same 
construction occur consecutively, the Comma should be 
repeated after each. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. "Veracity, justice, and charity are essential virtues." 
2. ' ' There is such an exactness in definition, such a perti- 
nence in proof, such a perspicuity in his detection 
of sophisms, as have been rarely employed in the 
Christian cause." — B. B. Edwards. 
Incorrect. — 3. "The dripping rock the mountain's misty top 

Swell on the sight and brighten with the dawn." 
4. Fame wisdom love and power were mine. 

Obs. — ^Exception. — The Comma is not placed between an Adjective 
and its Noun, although preceded by other Adjectives of the same con- 
struction. 

EXAIVIPLES. 

Correct. — 1. "David was a brave, martial, enterprising prince." 
2. "With that dull-rooted, callous impudence." 
Incorrect. — 3. "The tall, dark, mountains and the deep-toned sea." 
Ah ! how unjust to Nature and himself, 
Is thoughtless, thankless, inconsistent, man ! 

Rule 2. — The parts of a Complex Sentence should he 
separated by a Comma, when the Auxiliary precedes the 
Principal Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct.- — 1. " Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails." 

2. " If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him 
drink. ' ' 
Incorrect. — 3. " When the cock crew he wept '■ 
4. "As ye journey sweetly sing." 



284 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART IT. 

Rule 3. — An Adjunct Phrase or Sentence, ^ used to 
express an incidental fact, and placed between the parts 
of the Principal Sentence, is separated by Commas. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. " The grave, that never spoke before. 

Hath found, at length, a tongue to chide.' ' 
Incorrect — 2. " Truth crushed to ea,rth will rise again." % 

3. "Rise sons of harmony and hail the morn." 
Exception. — But when an Adjunct Phrase or Sentence which is indis- 
pensable in perfecting the sense, immediately follows the word which 
it qualifies, the Comma should not intervene. 



Correct. — 1. "Every one that findeih me, shall slay me." 

2. "Let school-taught pride dissemble all it can." 
Incorrect. — 3. "The fur, that warms a monarch, warmed a bear." 

Rule 4. — Words, Phrases, and Sentences thrown in 
between the parts of a Principal Sentence are separated 
by Commas. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. " Go, then, where, wrapt in fear and gloom, 
Fond hearts and true are sighing." 
2. " Now, therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide." 
Incorrect. — 3. " It is a clear lake the very picture ordinarily of repose." 

Rule 5. — A Phrase or a Sentence used as the Subject 
of a Verb requires a Comma between it and the Verb. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. To do good to others, constitutes an important object of 

existence. 

2. That we are rivals, does not necessarily make us enemies. 

Incorrect. — 3. * ' That all men are created equal is a self-evident truth. ' ' 

"His being a minister prevented his rising to civil 

power." 

Rule 6. — Words used in direct address should be 
separated by a Comma. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1, "Thou, whose spell can raise the dead, 
Bid the prophet's form appear." 



PAUSES— SEMICOLON. 285 

Incorrect. — 2. u Samuel raise thy buried head 

King behold the phantom seer !" 

Rule *1. — Adjunct Sentences, Phrases, and sometimes 
Words, not in their natural position, should be separated 
by a Comma. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. " Into this illustrious society, he whose character I have 
endeavored feebly to portray, has, without doubt, 
entered." 

2. " He, like the world, his ready visit pays, 

Where Fortune smiles." 
Incorrect. — 3. " To him who in the love of Nature holds 
Communion with her visible forms 
She speaks a various language. ' ' 

Obs. — An Independent Phrase should be separated from its Sentence 
by a Comma. 

Correct. — "Thus talking, hand in hand alone they passed." 
Incorrect. — " Captain Smith, having gone to sea his wife, desires the 
prayers of the congregation for his safe return." 

SEMICOLON, 

Rule 8. — The Semicolon is used at the close of a Sen- 
tence which, by its terms, promises an additional Sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. "The Essayists occupy a conspicuous place in the last 
century ; but, somehow, I do not feel disposed to 
set much store by them." 
. Incorrect. — 2. "It thunders but I tremble not 
My trust is firm in God." 

3. " "Wisdom is better than rubies, 

It can not be gotten for gold." 

Obs. — By many writers, the Semicolon is used to separate short 
Sentences which have not a close dependence to each other. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. "He was a plain man, without any pretension to pulpit 
eloquence, or any other accomplishment ; he had no 
gift of imagination ; his language was hard and dry ; 
and his illustrations, homely." 



286 ENGLISH GEAMMAE PART IT. 

Incorrect. — 2. " I had a seeming friend — I gave him gifts and he was 
gone 
I had an open enemy I gave him gifts, and won him — 
The very heart of hate melteth at a good man's love." 

COLON. 

Rule 9.— The Colon is used at the close of a Sentence, 
when another Sentence is added as a direct illustration 
or inference. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. " Let me give you a piece of good counsel, my cousin : 

follow my laudable example : write when you can : 

take Time's forelock in one hand and a pen in the 

other, and so make sure of your opportunity. ' ' 

Incorrect. — 2. "From the last hill that looks on thy once holy dome, 

I beheld thee, O Sion ! when rendered to Rome 

'Twas thy last sun went down, and the flames of thy 

fall 
Flashed back on the last glance I gave to thy wall." 
3. "The wicked flee, when no man pursueth but the 
righteous, are bold as a lion." 

Rem. — The Colon is not much used by late writers — its place being 
supplied by the Semicolon, the Dash, or the Period. 

PERIOD. 

Rule 10. — The Period is used at the close of a com- 
plete or independent proposition. 

Obs. — The Period is also used after initial letters and abbreviations. 

examples. 
Correct. — J. Q. Adams, LL.D., M. C. 
Incorrect. — A S Barnes and Co 51 John St N Y. 

DASH. 

Rule 11. — The Dash is used to indicate — 

1. An abrupt transition. 

2. An unfinished sentence. 

3. A succession of particulars. 



PAUSES INTERROGATION. 287 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. "They met to expatiate and confer on state affairs — to 
read the newspapers — to talk a little scandal — and so 
forth — and the result was — as we have been told — 
considerable dissipation." — Wilson s Burns. 
Incorrect. — 2. "Tome the 'Night Thoughts' is a poem on the whole 
most animating and delightful amazingly energetic 
full of the richest instruction improving to the 
mind much of it worthy of being committed to 
memory some faults obscure extravagant tinged 
occasionally with flattery." 

Obs. 1.— The Dash is often used instead of the Parenthesis. 

Example.— " As they disperse they look very sad — and, no doubt 
they are so — but had they been, they would not 
4 have taken to digging." 

Obs. 2. — Many modern writers use the Dash in place of the Semi- 
colon and the Colon — and sometimes with them. 

Example. — "Ye have no need of prayer ; — 

Ye have no sins to be forgiven." — Sprague. 

EXCLAMATION. 

Rule 12. — The mark of Exclamation is used after a 
Word, Phrase, or Sentence whose prominent office is to 
express sudden or intense emotion. 

examples. 

Correct. — 1. "Hark ! a strange sound affrights mine ear." 

2. "To arms ! — they come ! — the Greek, the Greek !' 

Incorrect. — 3. " my coevals, remnants of yourselves." 

4. "Poor human ruins tottering o'er the grave." 

INTERROGATION. 

Rule 13. — The mark of Interrogation is used after a 
Word, Phrase, or Sentence by which a question is asked. 

EXAMPLES. 

Correct. — 1. " "Why is my sleep disquieted?' 
2, Who is he that calls the dead ? 



288 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IV. 

Incorrect. — 3. "Is it for thee the lark ascends and sings.' ' 

4. " What pleasing study cheats the tedious day.'' 

Rem. — When the Interrogation or Exclamation is used, the Comma, 
Semicolon, Colon, or Period is omitted. 



GRAMMATICAL AND RHETORICAL SIGNS. 
Obs. — The signs used in writing are — 

1. The Apostrophe ' 

2. The Quotation " " 

3. The Hyphen - 

4. The Bracket [ ] 

5. The Parenthesis ( ) 

6. References * f 

7. The Brace [ 



(Rising ' 

8. Inflections 1 Falling * 

( Circumflex. . a 

9. Measures]^; 



10. Caret a 

11. Dieresis •• 

12. Index ^** 

13. Section § 

14. The Paragraph ^ 



Def. 3. — The Apostrophe (') is used to indicate the 
omission of a letter, and to change a Noun into a Possessive 
Specifying Adjective. 

Examples. — 1. " Hearts, from which 'twas death to sever ; 

2. Eyes, this world can neer restore." 

3. " How lightly mounts the Muse's wing." 

Def. 4. — The Quotation (" ") is used to inclose words 
taken from some other author or book. 

Example. — "Southey, among all our living poets," says Professor 
Wilson, " stands aloof and ' alone in his glory. 1 " 

Bem. — A Quotation quoted is indicated by single marks. 

Example. — [See the latter part of the last Example.] 

Def. 5. — The Hyphen (-) is used between two elements 
of a compound word. 

Examples. — Money-market— ink-stand — black-board. 

Hem. — It is also used at the end of a line, when the word is not fin- 
ished. [See this remark.] 



SIGNS — DEFINITIONS. 289 

Def. 6. — The Bracket [ ] is used to inclose a letter or 
mark given as an explanatory example, or a Word, 
Phrase, or Sentence thrown in by a reviewer, and not a 
part of the original sentence. 

Example. — "Mr. Secor found means to have Mr. Butler recom- 
mended to him [Lord Talbot] for his chaplain.' ' 

Def. 7. — The Parenthesis ( ) is used to inclose a Phrase 
or Sentence explanatory of, or incidental to, the main 
Sentence. 

Example. — " Come, my Ambition ! let us mount together, 
(To mount Lorenzo never can refuse,) 
And, from the clouds where pride delights to dwell, ' 
Look down on earth." 

Rem. — Modern writers often use the Dash for the same purpose. 

Example. — "The monotony of a calm — for the trade-wind had 
already failed us — was agreeably relieved yesterday by the neighbor- 
hood of two ships, etc." — Malcolm. 

Def. 8. — References (* f % §) direct attention to notes 
at the margin or the bottom of the page. 

Eem. — The letters of the Latin or Greek alphabets, and sometimes 
figures, are used for the same purpose. 

Def. 9. — The Brace (}) is used to include many species 

in one class. 

( Qualifying, 
Example. — Adjectives are distinguished as X Specifying, 

(Verbal. 

Eem. — By the old poets, the Brace was also used to join the lines of 
a triplet. 

Def. 10. — Inflections (" v ) indicate elevations or de- 
pressions of the key-note in reading. 

Examples.—' ' Do you go to Albany' V " I go to Utica\ ! ' 

25 



290 ENGLISH GKAMMAR — PART IV. 



Def. 11. — Measures. « 



r (-) indicates the long sound of a 
Syllable, as hate, mete, note. 

( v ) indicates the short sound of a 
Syllable, as h&t, met, n5t. 

Def. 12. — The Caret (A) is used between two Words, 
to indicate the place of words omitted and placed above 
the line. 

of mankind 
Example. — "The proper study A is man." 

Def. 13. — Dieresis ( •• ) is placed over the second of two 
vowels, to show that they belong to different syllables. 

Examples. — Preemption. — Coeval. — Reeducate. 

Obs. — The Hyphen is sometimes placed between the vowels for a 
similar purpose. 

Example. — Co-operate. 

Def. 14. — The Index (lalT*) is used to point out a word 
or sentence considered worthy of special notice. 

Def. 15. — The Section (§) marks the divisions of a 
chapter or book. 

Def. 16. — The Paragraph (%) is used when a new sub- 
ject of remark is introduced. 

Rem. — The sign of the Paragraph is retained in the Holy Scriptures ; 
but in other compositions the Paragraph is sufficiently indicated by its 
commencing a new line on the page. 

Def. 17. — Accent is a stress of voice placed on a par- 
ticular syllable in pronouncing a word. 

Def. 18. — Emphasis is a stress of voice placed on a par- 
ticular word in a Sentence. 

Obs.— This mark is indicated — 

1. In manuscript, by a line drawn under the emphatic word. 

2. On a printed page, by the use of Italic letters — CAPITAL 

letters are used to indicate words still more emphatic. 



COMPOSITION POETRY. 291 

COMPOSITION". 

Def. 19. — Composition — as the word implies — is the art 
of placing together words so as to communicate ideas-. 

Prose and Verse. 

In Prose Composition, Words and Phrases are arranged 
•with a primary reference to the sense. 

In Verse, the Sound and Measure of Words and Syllables 
determine their position. 

Obs. — Among the various kinds of Prose Compositions may be 
mentioned the following : 

Narrative, Descriptive, Didactic, Historical, Biographical. 

Verse. 

Def. 20. — Verse consists of words arranged in measured 
lines, constituting a regular succession of accented and 
unaccented Syllables. 

Obs. — Verse is used in Poetry. The different kinds of Poetry are— 
Lyric, Charade, Sonnet, 

Dramatic, Ballad, Pastoral, 

Epic, Epigram, Elegiac, 

Didactic, Epitaph, Madrigal. 

Def. 21. — Lyric Poetry is — as its name imports — 
such as may be set to music. It includes the " Ode" and 
the " Song." 

Obs. 1. — Lyric Poetry is of three kinds, the Ode, the Hymn, and 
the Song. 

Obs. 2. — The Ode is generally longer than the other kinds of Lyric 
Poetry, and is often irregular in its structure. 

Familiar Examples. — ' ' Alexander' s Feast, ' ' by Dry den. 
1 ' Ode on the Passions, " " Collins. 
1 ' Immortality ," " Wordsworth. 

^F* Let the Pupil give other Examples. 



292 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IV, 

Obs. 3. — The Hymn is shorter, and is arranged in regular stanzas 
adapted to sacred worship. 

Familiar Examples. — "The Psalms and Hymns" in general use in 
Christian congregations. 

Obs. 4. — The Song is also short, but is more varied in its stanzas, 
and is adapted to secular uses. 

Familiar Examples. — " Irish Melodies," by Moore. 

1 1 Songs, " " Barry Cornwall. 

T^t- Let the Pupil give other Examples. 

Rem. — English Lyric Poetry makes use of Bhyme exclusively. 

Def. 22. — Epic Poetry is a historical representation- 
real or fictitious — of great events. 

Rem. — Epic Poetry may employ either rhyme or blank verse. 

Examples. — Rhyme. — "Lady of the Lake," by Scott. 

il Curse of Kehama," " Southey. 
Blank Verse. — "Paradise Lost," " Milton. 

" Course of Time," " Pollock. 

* Let the Pupil give other Examples. 



Dee. 23. — Dramatic Poetry is a poem descriptive of 
scenes, events, or character, and is adapted to the stage. 

r\ T , . i j^ ( The Tragic and 
OBS.-It includes | TheCo ^ ic 

Examples. — Tragic. — " Othello," by Shakspeare. 

Comic.— 1 ' All's Well That Ends Well,' ' by Shakspeare. 

a Let the Pupil give other Examples. 



Def. 24. — Didactic Poetry is that style adapted to the 
inculcation of science or duty. 

Examples. — " Pleasures of the Imagination," by Akenside. 
11 Art of Preserving Health," " Armstrong. 

* Let the Pupil give other Examples. 



Def. 25. — The Charade is a short poem, usually in a 
Lyrical form, containing a Riddle. 



VERSIFICATION. 293 

Def. 26. — An Epigram is a witty poem, short, and 
generally abounding in ludicrous expressions. 

Example. — " Swans sing before they die ; 'twere no bad thing 
Should certain persons die before they sing." 

Def. 27. — An Epitaph is a poetic inscription to the 
memory of some departed person. 

Example. — ' ' Underneath this stone doth lie 
As much beauty as could die, 
Which in life did harbor give 
To more virtue than doth live." — Jonson. 

Def. 28. — Elegiac Poetry is that species used to com- 
memorate the death of some person. 

Examples. — "Lysidas," by Milton,. 
-Elegy," " Gray. 

Def. 29. — The Sonnet is a Poem devoted to the de- 
velopment of a single thought, in rhyming verse of a 
peculiar structure, and generally of fourteen lines. 

Def. 30. — The Madrigal is a Lyric Poem of an amatory 
nature, and of a lively species of verse. 

Def. 31. — Pastoral Poetry relates to rural life, and is 
generally a song. 

Examples. — "Kural Sports," by Gay. 

"The Falls of the Passaic," by Irving. 

Def. 32. — The Ballad is a Lyric Poem, of a Narrative 
cast, in a simple or rude style of composition. 

Example. — "Battle of Brunnenberg," by Ferris. 

Versification. 

Def. 1 . — Versification is the art of making verse — i. e., 
the proper arrangement of a certain number of Syllables 
in a line. 

25* 



294 ENGLISH GEAMMAE PART IV. 

Note. — There are two prominent distinctions in Verse, 

1. Blank Verse, 

2. Hhyme. 

Def. 2. — Blank Verse consists in measured lines 
usually of ten Syllables each, and which may or may not 
end with the same sound. 

Example. — il 'Tis midnight's holy hour ; and silence now 
Is brooding, like a gentle spirit, o'er 
The still and pulseless world. Hark ! on the winds 
The bell's deep tones are swelling ; 'tis the knell 
Of the departed year. ' ' 

Def. 3. — Rhyming Verse consists of measured lines, 
of which two or more end with the same sound. 



Rhymes successive. — "Thou bright glittering star of even! 
Thou gem upon the brow of heaven ! 
Oh ! were this fluttering spirit free, 
How quick 'twould spread its wings to thee !" 
Rhymes alternating. — " Oh ! sacred star of evening, tell 
In what unseen celestial sphere 
Those spirits of the perfect dwell — 
Too pure to rest in sadness here. ' ' 

Def. 4. — A line in Poetry is technically called a Verse. 

Example. — "And I am glad that he has lived thus long." 

Rem. — Verses are of different lengths. 

Def. 5. — A half verse is called a Hemistich. 

Example. — " I, too, will hasten back with lightning speed, 
To seek the hew*" 

Def. 6. — Two rhyming verses which complete the sense 
are called a Couplet. 

Examples. — 1. "Look round our world ; behold the chain of love, 
Combining all below and all above." 
2. " And more true joy Marcellus exiled feels, 
Than Ca3sar with a senate at his heels." 



VERSIFICATION. 295 

Def> ^ — -Three verses which rhyme together are a 
Triplet. 

Example. — " So fair, so sweet, withal so sensitive, 

Would that the little flowers were born to live, 
Conscious of half the pleasure which they give." 

Def. 8. — Four lines or more are called a Stanza. 

Example. — " Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear ; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

-KT TT -j -., ( Rhyming Syllables, or 

NOTE.-Verses may end with j Rh £ min | ^-^ 

Example. — " We come, we come, a little band, 
As children of the nation ; 
We are joined in heart, we are joined in hand, 
To keep the Declaration.' ' 

Rem. — In the above stanza, the first and third lines end with 
Khyming Words — the second and fourth, with Rhyming Syllables, 

Def. 9. — A collection of Syllables is called a Foot. 
Notk-A Foot may consist of | & S $£&. OT 

Def. 10. — Feet of two Syllables are the 

Trochee. . . .first long, second short .... — *-* 

Iambus . . . , first short, second long w — 

Pyrrhic . . < . both short ,...,... . . ^ w 

Spondee. . . .both long 

Feet of three Syllables are the 

Dactyl. . . . . one long and two short — ws^ 

Anapest.. . . ,two short and one long *-* w — 

Amphibrach .fast short, second long, third short, w - — w 
Tribrach - , . .three short ,....www 

Rem. — Most English Poetry is written in Iambic. Trochaic, or Ana- 
paestic Verse. 



296 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IV. 

TROCHAIC VERSE. 

I. Hexameter, or six feet. 

"On a | mountain | stretched be | neath a | hoary | willow, 

Lay a shepherd swain, and viewed the rolling billow.' ' 

2. Pentameter, or five feet 

u House him | like a | rattling | peal of | thunder." 

3. Tetrameter, or four feet. 

On the | mountain's | top ap | pearing, 
Lo, the sacred herald stands ! 

4. Trimeter, os three fed. 
" How I | love to | see thee, 
Golden evening sun." 

5. Dimeter, wor two feet. 
Rich the | treasure, 
Sweet the pleasure. 

6. Monameter, or one foot* 
Ringing. 
Singing, 

IAMBIC VERSE. 

1. Six feet. 

The praise | of Bac ] chus then | the sweet musi | cian sung.' 

2. Five feet. 

Oh, I | have loved | in youth's | fair ver | nal morn, 
To spread | ima | gina | tion's wild | est wing. 

8. Four feet. 
There is | a calm | for those | who weep, 
A rest | for wea | ry pil | grims found. 

4. Three feet. 
What sought | they thus | afar ? 
Bright jew | els of | the mine? 

5. Two feet. 

"I am | the grave." 

6. One foot. 
" My home." 



VERSIFICATION. 297 

AISTAP^STIC VERSE. 

1. Four feet. 

But we stead | fastly gazed | on the face | o> tbr dead. 

2. Three feet. 

" And I loved | her the more | when 1 heard 
Such tenderness fall from her tongue.' ' 

3. Two feet. 
" For the night only draws 
A thin veil o'er the day." 

DACTYLIC VERSE. 

1. Four feet. 

Come, ye dis | consolate, | where'er ye ] languish 

2. Three feet. 

Earth has no | sorrows that | Heaven can not | heal 

3. Two feet 
Free from anx | iety, 
Care, and satiety. 

4. One foot. 
Cheerfully, 
Fearfully. 

THE AMPHIBRACH. 

"There is a | bleak desert | where daylight | grows wear^ 

Of wasting its smiles on a region so dreary. ' ' 
"With storm-dar | ing pinion | and sun-ga | zing eye, 

The gray forest eagle is king of the sky." 
"There's pleasure | in freedom | whatever ] the season. 

That makes every object look lovely and fair." 

Obs. 1. — The first syllable of a verse is sometimes omitted, 

EXAMPLES. 

] " And there | lay the ri | der, distort | ed and pale, 

With the dew I on his brow I and the rust I on his mail." 



298 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART IV. 

Obs. 2. — A syllable is sometimes added to a line. 

EXAMPLES. 

"•Earth has no | sorrows that | Heaven can not | heal. 11 
" A guar | dian an | gel o'er | my life | presid | ing, 
Doubling my pleasures and my cares dividing." 

Obs. 8. — The different measures are sometimes combined in the 
same line. 

EXAMPLE3. 

"May comes, | May comes, | we have called | her long, 
May comes | o'er the moun | tains with light | and song ; 
We may trace | her steps | o'er the wak | ening earth, 
By the winds | which tell | of the vio | let's birth." 

Obs. 4. — Sometimes the last syllable of a line becomes the first syl- 
lable in the first foot of the next. 



1 ' On the cold | cheek of death | smiles and ro | ses are blend | ing, 
And beau | ty immor | tal awakes | from the tomb." 



FIGURES. 

Note. — Language is modified in its structure, style, and 
utterance by the use of Figures. 

Def. 1 — A Figure of speech is a licensed departure from 
the ordinary structure or use of a word in a Sentence. 

Obs. — Figures are employed to give strength, beauty, or melody to 
Language. * 

Grammatical or 



-vr ttt. ( Grammatic; 

KoTV.-Fz ff ures are -j RhetoricaL 



Def. 2. — A Grammatical Figure is a deviation from the 
ordinary form or office of a word in a Sentence. 

Def. 3. — A Rhetorical Figure is a deviation from the 
ordinary application of words in the expression of thought. 



VERSIFICATION. 299 

I. Figures modifying the Forms or Words 
These are called — 

Aphceresis, Synceresis, 

Prosthesis, Diceresis, 

Apocope, Syncope, 

Paragoge, Tmesis, 

Def. 4. — Aphwresis allows the elision of one or more 
of the first letters of a word. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. " 'Mid scenes of confusion." 

2. "And therefore thou may'st think my 'havior light." — JuMet. 

3. " What ! have you let the false enchanter 'scape ?" — Milton. 

Def. 5. — Prosthesis allows a syllable to be prefixed to 
a word. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. "Else would a maiden blush fopaint my cheek." — Juliet. 

2. " Let fall adown his silver beard some tears." — Thomson. 

3. " The great archangel from his warlike toil 

Surceased." — Milton. 

Def. 6. — Apocope allows the elision of one or more of 
the final letters of a word. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. "And that is spoke. . with such a dying fall." 

2. " Tho' the whole loosened Spring around her blows." 

3. "T' whom th' archangel." — Milton. 

Def. 7. — Paragoge allows a syllable to be annexed to a 
word. * 

EXAMPLES. 

1. " Without*^ trump was proclamation made." — Thomson. 

2. " Nor deem that kind??/ nature did him wrong." — Bryant. 

Def. 8. — SyncBresis allows two syllables to become one. 

Examples. — Extra session— ordinary session — extraordinary session. 

Def. 9. — Diceresis separates two vowels into different 
syllables. 

Examples. — Cooperate — reiterate. 



300 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART IV. 

Def. 10. — Syncope allows one or more letters to be 
taken from the middle of a word. 

Examples. — 1. " Or serve they as a flowWy verge to bind 

2. The fluid skirts of that same watWy cloud, 

3. Lest it again dissolve and show'r the earth.' ' — Milton. 

Def. 11. — Tmesis allows a word to be inserted between 
the parts of a compound word. 

Example. — " How much soever we may desire it." 

Obs. — Sometimes two figures are combined in the same word. 

Example. — " Ah I whence is that sound which now larums his ear ?" 

II. Figures modifying the Offices of Words. 
These are called 

RHETORICO-GRAMMATICAL FIGURES. 

They are — 

Ellipsis, Syllipsis, 

Pleonasm, Enallage. 

Hyperbaton. 

Def. 12. — Ellipsis allows the omission of one or more 
-words necessary to complete the grammatical construc- 
tion, when custom has rendered them unnecessary to 
complete the sense. 

Examples. — 1. " Thou art perched aloft on the beetling crag, 
And the waves are white below [ ].", 

2. " Unnumbered systems [ ], suns, and worlds, 

Unite to worship thee, 

3. While thy majestic greatness fills 

Space [ ], Time [ ], Eternity." 

Def. 13. — Pleonasm allows the introduction of words 
not necessary to complete the grammatical construction of 
a Sentence. 

Examples. — 1. "The moon herself is lost in heaven." 

2. "I sit me down, a pensive hour to spend." 



VERSIFICATION. 301 

Def. 14. — Syllipsis allows a word to be used not in its 
literal sense. 

Example. — " And there lay the steed, with his nostril all wide." 

Def. 15. — JEnallage allows the use of one word for 
another of similar origin, or the substitution of one modi- 
fication for another. 

Example* —"A world devote to universal wreck." 

Def. 16. — Hyperbaton allows the transposition of words 
in a Sentence. 

Example. — " His voice sublime, is heard afar." 

III. Figures of Rhetoric. 



They are— 






Smile, 


Antithesis, 


Vision, 


Metaphor, 


Metonomy, 


Paralepsis, 


Allegory, 


Synecdoche, 


Climax, 


Personification, 


Apostrophe, 


Anti-Climax, 


Irony, 


Interrogation, 


Alliteration, 


Hyperbole, 


Exclamation, 





Def. 17. — A Simile is a direct comparison. 

Example. — "The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold." 

Def. 18. — A Metaphor is an indirect comparison. 

Example. — "There is a tide in the affairs of men, 

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune." 

Def. 19. — An Allegory is an extended metaphor, by 
which a narration, real or fictitious, is made to convey an 
analogous truth or fiction. 

Example. — " Eternity's vast ocean lies "before thee ; 

There, there, Lorenzo, thy Clarissa sails ; 
Give thy mind sea-room ; keep it wide of Earth — 
That rock of souls immortal ; cut thy cord ; 
"Weigh anchor ; spread thy sails ; call every wind ; 
Eye thy great Pole-star ; make the land of life." 
26 



302 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART IV. 

Def. 20. — Personification represents inanimate things 
as being endowed with life and volition. 

Examples. — 1. "And old Experience learns too late 
That all is vanity below." 
2. " Joy has her tears, and Transport has her death." 

Def. 21. — Irony makes a sentence convey a meaning 
the opposite of its ordinary sense. 

Example. — " And we, brave men, are satisfied 

If we ourselves escape his sword." 

Def. 22. — Hyperbole exaggerates the truth. 

Example. — " With fury driven, 

The waves mount up, and wash the face of heaven, 1 " 

Def. 23.— -Antithesis contrasts two or more things with 
each other. 

Examples. — 1. " Zealous though modest, innocent though free." 

2. " By honor and dishonor, by evil report and good report, 
as deceivers, and yet true." 

Def. 24. — Metonomy puts one thing for another — 
The cause for the effect, 
The effect for the cause, 
The container for the thing contained, 
An attribute or quality for the thing or person. 

Examples. — 1. " Shall the sword devour for ever ?" 

2. "Thy hand, unseen, sustains the poles." 

3. "His ear is ever open to their cry." 

4. "I am much delighted in reading Homer" 

5. "He has returned to his cups again." 

6. "I'll plunge thee headlong in the whelming tide. 1 * 

Def. 25. — Synecdoc/ie puts a part for a whole, and a 
whole for a part. 

Examples. — 1. " "When the tempest stalks abroad, 
Seek the shelter of my roof." 
2. " Oh ! ever cursed be the hand 

That wrought this ruin in the land." 



VERSIFICATION. 303 

Def. 26. — Apostrophe is a sudden transition from the 
subject of a discourse to address a person or thing, present 
or absent. 

Example. — " This is a tale for fathers and for mothers. Young men 
and young women, you can not understand it." — JE. Everett. 

Def. 27. — Interrogation expresses an assertion in the 
form of a question. 

Examples. — 1. " Looks it not like the king V 

2. " He that formed the eye, shall he not see ?" 

Def. 28. — Exclamation expresses a sudden or intense 
emotion. 

Example. — "O liberty! O sound once delightful to every Koman 
ear!" 

Def. 29. — Vision represents past or future time as 
present to the view. 

Example. — "I see them on their winding way, 

About their ranks the moonbeams play." 

Def. 30. — Paralepsis is a figure by which a main truth 
is expressed incidentally, or with a professed effort of the 
speaker to conceal it. 

Example. — " Without alluding to your habits of intemperance, I would 
ask, how can you attempt to justify your present inattention to busi- 
ness and the neglect of your family?" 

Def. 31. — Climax is that form of expression by which 
the thoughts are made to rise by successive gradations. 

Example. — "He aspired to be the highest ; above the people, above 
the authorities, above the laws, above his COUNTBY." 

Def. 32. — Anti- Climax is the opposite of the climax. 

Example. — "How has expectation darkened into anxiety, anxiety 
into dread, and dread into despair." — Irving. 



304 ENGLISH GRAMMAR — PART IV. 

Def. 33. — Alliteration is the repetition of the same let- 
ter at the beginning of two or more words immediately 
succeeding each other. 

Examples. — 1. " Up the high. Mil he leaves a huge, round stone." 

2. " He carves with classic chisel the Corinthian capital 
that crowns the column.' ' 



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. 

PA SB. 

282.— What is Prosody? 

Name the different marks of punctuation. 

When is a Comma properly used ? 

When a Semicolon ? — a Colon ? — a Period ? 

When is a Dash properly used ? — an Exclamation 9 

When do we use a mark of Interrogation ? 
288. — Name the Grammatical Signs. 

What is an Apostrophe f — a Quotation ? — a Hyphen $ 

What is a Bracket ? — a Parenthesis ? — Reference marks 9 

What is a Brace ? — Harks of Inflection t — Measures ? 

What is a Caret ? — a Dieresis ? — an Index % — a Section ? 

What is a Paragraph ? — How are Paragraphs commonly indi- 
cated ? 

What is Accent ? — What is Emphasis ? 
291. — What is Composition ? — What are the varieties ? 

What is Prose f — Name the various kinds of Prose. 

What is Verse ? — When properly used ? 

Name and define the various kinds of Poetry. 
294. — What is Versification ? 

What are the distinctions of verse ? 

What is Blank Verse ? — What is Rhyming Vers'e ? 

What is a Verse ? — a Hemistich £— a Couplet ? 

What is a Triplet ?— What is a Stanza f 

What is a Foot f — A Foot may have how many Syllables ? 

What are the Feet of two Syllables ? — of three Syllables ? 

What is a Trochee ? — an Iambus ? — a Pyrrhic ? — a Spondee ? 

What is a Dactyl ? — an Anapest ? — an Amphibrach 9 — a Tribrach ? 

What measures are commonly used in English Poetry ? 
298. — What is a Figure of Speech? — Why are they used? 

What is a Grammatical Figure ? — a Rhetorical Figure ? 

Name the figures which modify the forms of Words. 



APPENDIX. 



Rem. — Orthography properly belongs to a separate branch of the 
Science of Language. The following Synopsis is given, chiefly to pre- 
sent the Author's views as to the proper method of presenting this 
subject. 

Def. — Orthography is that branch of the Science of 
Language which treats of Letters— their forms, their 
offices, and their combinations in the structure of Words. 

Obs. 1. — The English Language has twenty-six Letters, which are 
distinguished by their forms and by their uses. 

Obs. 2. — The various forms of letters are exhibited in the following 
table : 

Boman — Capitals. 
ABCDEFGHIJKLM 
NOPQBST'UVWXYZ 

Small. 
abcdefghijklm 
n op q r s t u v w x y z 

Italicj — Capitals. 
ABCDEFGHIJKLM 
N P Q It S T U V W X Y Z 

Small, 
a b c d e f g h % j k I m 
n o p q r s t , u v w x y z 

Old English — Capitals. 
Small. 

abc&efgfjtjftlm 
n o j> 3 x % t 'V to to v} 2 ? 

26* 



306 APPENDIX. 

Obs. 1. — Roman letters are in most common use in the English 
language. 

Italic Letters are used in words of special importance, and sometimes 
in Sentences. 

In the Sacred Scriptures, words supplied by the translators to com- 
plete the construction of Sentences according to the English idiom, are 
printed in Italics. 

(Dltr Unglfsf) Letters are used for variety or ornament— in title- 
pages, etc. 

Obs. 2. — The small, or "lower case," Letters are used in forming 
most Words, and constitute the appropriate form of letters now used 
in printed works — with the following Exceptions, which provide for 
the use of 

CAPITAL LETTERS. 

Rule 1. — A word should begin with a capital letter 
when it is the first word of a distinct proposition. 

Rule 2. — When it is a Proper Name, or a word imme- 
diately dervived from a Proper Name. 

Examples. — Boston — William — American . — Yermonter . 

Rule 3. — When it is a name or appellation of the 
Supreme Being. 

Examples. — God — Saviour — Holy Spirit— Lord — Omnipotent. 
Rule 4. — When it is the first word of a line of poetry. 

Example. — "Twinkle, twinkle, little star, 
How I wonder what you are ! 
Up above the world so high, 
Like a diamond in the sky." 

Rule 5. — When it is a principal word in a title of a 
book or office, and sometimes when it is a word of special 
importance, or used technically. 

Examples. — 1. " Willard's History of the United States." 
2. " Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful." 
3." "The Subject of a Verb should not take the place 
of the Object." 



CAPITAL LET1EES. 307 

Rule 6. — When it commences a direct quotation. 

Examples, — 1. "The footman, in his usual phrase, 

Comes up with ' Madam, dinner stays.' " 
2. " Wo to him that saith unto the wood, ' Awake.' " 

Rule 7. — When it constitutes the Pronoun "I" or the 
Exclamation " O." 

Example. — " 0, I have loved in youth's fair vernal morn, 
To spread Imagination's wildest wing." 

Rule 8. — When it is a Common Noun fully personified. 

Examples. — 1. "Sure I Fame's trumpet hear." — Cowley. 
2. "Here Strife and Faction rule the day." 

Obs. — Letters are of various sizes, and have their corresponding 
appropriate names. The varieties of type in most common use are the 
following : 

1. Pica.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV 
WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 

2. Small Pica.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQBSTIT 
VWXTZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 

3. Long Primer.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV 
WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstiiYWxyz. 

4. Bourgeois.— ABODEFGHIJKLM^OPQBSTUYWXYZ. ab 
cdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 

5. Brevier.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQKSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijk 

lmnopqrstuvwxyz. 

6. Minion.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ. abcdefghplmn 

opqrstuvwxyz. 

7. Nonpareil.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnop 

qrstuvwxyz. 

8. Agate.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuTWxyz- 

9. Pearl— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQKSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz. 

10. Diamond.— ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abodefghijklmnopqratuvvrxyz. 



308 APPENDIX. 

The Offices of Letters. 

Note. — Letters constitute the Elements of Words, and, 
like the Elements of Sentences and Phrases, are distin- 
guished as Principal Elements and Adjunct Elements 

Def. 1. — The Principal Elements of a Word are the 
Letters which indicate the principal sound. They are 
called Vowels. 

Examples. — a in mate — e in me — oi in toil — ou in scwnd — a in hat — 
e in met — ce in aphaeresis — ce in subpcena. 

Def. 2. — The Adjuncts of a Word are the Letters pre- 
fixed or added to the Principal Elements to modify their 
sound. They are called Consonants. 

Examples.— m in mate, me— t in mate, dme — I in toil, Zame — c in 
cider, cane— h in hat, hate — s in aphseresis, sound — v in vile, twelve — 
p in post, happy. 

Rem. — For convenience in articulation, most words are divided into 
Parts, called Syllables ; hence, 

Def. 3. — A Syllable is a whole Word, or such part of a 
Word as is uttered by one impulse of the voice. 

Examples. — Man — man-ly — man-li-ness — un-man-ly. 

Def. 4. — When a Word has but one Principal Element, 
it is pronounced by one impulse of the voice, and is then 
called a Monosyllable. 

Examples .*— Hand — fall — me — so — strength . 

Def. 5. — When a Word has tico Principal Elements, it 
requires two articulations, and is then called a Dissyllable. 

Ex amples . — Handsome — falling — strengthen — holy. 

Def. 6. — When a Word has three Principal Elements, it 
requires three articulations, and is then called a Polysyllable. 

Obs. 1. — Generally a Word has as many Syllables as it has Principal 
Parts. 



ABBREVIATIONS. . 309 

Obs. 2. — Two Letters may form one Principal Element of a Word 
"when they are placed together and combine to form one sonnd. 

Examples. — oi in toil — ou in sound — ai in fair. 

Obs. 3. — A Letter ordinarily used as a Vowel is sometimes added to 
a Syllable or a Word, to modify the Sound of other Letters, and is then 
an Adjunct. 

Examples. — e in time — y in they — i in claim. 

Obs. 4. — One Letter is often made to represent the Sound of another. 

Examples. — e represents a in they — e represents in her — i represents 
« in sir. 

Obs. 5. — In written Language, many Letters are used which are not 
sounded in spoken Language. Such are called Silent Letters. 

Examples . —Hymn — thum& — eight — -phthisic . 

Obs. 6. — -One or more of the Letters constituting a Word are some- 
times used as the representative of that word. These are called 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

The most common abbreviations are the following — 

A. C Before Christ from the Latin. .Ante Christum. 

A. B Bachelor of Arts " Artium Baccalaureus. 

A. D In the year of our Lord. . . . " Anno Domini. 

r -Master of Arts " Artium Magister. 

A. M — v in the year of the world. . . " Anno Mundi. 

( In the forenoon " . . . . Ante Meridiem, 

B. D Bachelor of Divinity " Baccalaureus Divinitatia. 

D. D Doctor of Divinity " Doctor Divinitatis. 

e. g For example " Exempli gratia. 

i. e That is.. " Id est. 

LL.D Doctor of Laws ■" Legum Doctor. 

L. S Place of the Seal " Locus Sigilli. 

Messrs Gentlemen French. .Messieurs. 

M. D Doctor of Medicine Latin. .Medicinse Doctor. 

MS Manuscript " Scriptum Manus. 

N. B Take notice " Nota Bene. 

p M J Afternoon " Post Meridiem. 

r. ivi -j p ostmasteri 

P. S Postscript " Post Scriptum. 

S. T. D Doctor of Theology " Sanctis Theologise Doctor. 



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