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I /^o so^jj^jl^ 



adykWa 



GENIZA FRAGMENTS OF WRITINGS Ol 
II. SAADYA GAON AND OTHERS 



irv 

S. SCITRCHTER. M.A.. Liir.D 

.'iififiiiNj 111 I ! V i>r -ms jfc^tftH TUWta* 

E.j;ju>jiUV 0*- AMEBIC « 



CAMBIUB&E 



HF / S-QSO 



H^rs= 




HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LIBRARY OF THE 

Semitic Department 




SAADYANA 

GENIZA FRAGMENTS OF WRITINGS OF 
R. SAADYA GAON AND OTHERS 



» •■''•"-•■ * 
S. SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D. (Cantab.) 

PRESIDENl' OF THE FACULTY OF THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL 
SE3IINARY OF AMERICA 



CAMBRIDGE 

DEIGHTON AND BELL 

1903 



/f/C / SOS'O 



■mo^... 1, 19 J i 



f>:— i 



.^./ 



J 






HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 

UBRARY 



OXFORD : HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



TO MY MASTER 

LECTOR M. FRIEDMANN 

OF VIENNA 

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED 
IN GRATITUDE AND ADMIRATION 



PREFACE 

The fragments contained in this volume belong ^ 
with few exceptions to the Taylor-Schechter Col- 
lection of the University Library at Cambridge, 
England. The exceptions are fragments VII, 
XLIII, XL VIII. The first is in the possession of 
Judge Sulzberger, Philadelphia ; the two last are 
the property of Elkan Adler, Esq., M.A., of London, 
England. To these two gentlemen I tender my 
best thanks. I also acknowledge my indebtedness 
to the editors of the Jewish Quarterly Review, 
in which periodical almost the whole of the text 
originally appeared. 

The various fragments reproduced here, line by 
line and page by page, are provided with short 
introductions describing the MSS. and indicating 
the nature of their varying contents. But it must 
be remarked that these fragments were discovered 
at large intervals, and that they were published 
in the order of their discovery, so that it was 
impossible to preserve anything like a systematic 
arrangement. They may, however, be grouped 



VI PREFACE 

under the following headings, which the student 
would do well to observe in his examination of this 
volume. 

A. Remnants of lost books : — Nos. I, XI, XII, 
XV, XXVIII, XLIV, XLV, XLIX, L, LI, LIV, LV. 

B. Controversial matter :—II-X, XIII, XXXVIII- 
XLII, XLIII, XLVII, XLVIII. 

C. Responses and Letters :— XXX-XXXIV, 
XXXVI, XLVI, LII, LVI. 

D. Liturgy and poetical pieces : — XVII-XXVI, 
XXIX, XXXV, LIIL 

E. Colophons and extracts containing references 
to works of R. Saadyah:— XIV, XVI, XXVII, 
XXXVIL 

As the title "Saadyana" indicates, most of the 
fragments here presented to the student either date 
from the Gaon himself or have at least a bearing 
upon his life and works. But it should be remarked 
that the association of ideas and names sometimes 
suggested the insertion of matter coming from other 
authorities. Thus the polemic of R. Saadyah with 
Ben Meir, dealing largely with the question of the 
prerogative of the Palestine Schools and the expla- 
nation of certain passages in the anjn^ TjrniK, 
suggested the incorporation of the Abiathar con- 
troversy (Nos. XXXVIII-XLII, LIII, LIV), whilst 
the attack of the Gaon on Daniel ben Moses 



PREFACE vil 

Al Kumsi (No. XIII) justified the insertion of 
the latter s commentary to the Pentateuch (No. 
LV) as a sort of an appendix. Nos. XLIII and 
XLIV found their places in this volume because of 
the references to the Abiathar family occurring in 
the colophons of these MSS. In the responses of 
K. Sherira and K. Samuel b. Chofni (Nos. XLV, 
XL VI) we notice a certain anxiety about the 
removal of authority from the Babylonian Schools, 
a process of decentralization begun already with 
R. Saadyah, if not before ; only that the argument 
of the Gaon was directed against the prerogative 
of the Palestine Schools, whilst later generations 
questioned the authority of those over which the 
Gaonim presided. The fact again that R. Saadyah 
was the head of the School of Machseya suggested 
the including of Nos. XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVI a, 
in which this seat of learning is referred to ; whilst 
No. LVI was appended to this volume on account 
of the reference to R. Abraham nn"»t:;^n n^i:iD, possibly 
identical with the Rabbi of the same name mentioned 
in No. XXXV. 

There is no need to dwell on the importance 
of these documents. They will, I doubt not, be all 
welcome to the student of Jewish History, in spite 
of the various obscure passages they contain and 
the many shortcomings of the editor, who was 
anxious that the *' hidden light" of the Gaonim 
should no longer remain under a bushel. It thus 
only remains for me to repeat my thanks to Prof. 



Vlll PREFACE 

Bacher of Buda Pesth, Dr. Schreiner of Berlin, and 
Dr. Hirschfeld of London, for their assistance in the 
Arabic portions of this volume ; whilst I have also 
to record my obligations to Mr. Aldis, the Secretary 
of the Cambridge University Library, and Messrs. 
Baldry and Worman, oflScers of the same institution, 
who were all helpful to me in various ways in the 
preparation of the following pages for the press. 

S. SCHECHTER. 
Atigtcst, 1902. 



CONTENTS 



Fragment 






PAGE 1 


I ... I 


II 






7 


III 






13 


IV, V 






15 


VI 






22 


vn 






23 


VTTT 






24 


IX 






29 


X 






34 


XI 






37 


xn 






40 


xni 






41 


XIV 






42 


XV 






42 


XVI 






44 


XVII 






■ 45 


XVIII 






. 46 


XIX 






• 47 


XX 






• 47 


XXI 






• 48 


xxn 






. 48 



Feagment 

xxni 

XXIV 
XXV . 
XXVI 

xxvn 
xxvm 

XXIX 

XXX 

XXXI 

XXXII 

XXXIII 

xxxrv 

XXXV 

XXXVI 

XXXVI A 

XXXVII 

XXXVIII 

xxxrx 

XL 

XLI 

XLII 



PAGE 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
57 
58 
60 
60 
61 
62 

63 

74 

77 
78 
80 
105 
107 
III 
"3 



Fragment 






XLin . 


XTJV 






XT,V 






XT.VI 






XLvn 






XLVIII 






XTJX 







CONTENTS 




AGE 


Fragment 


PAGE 


114 


L 


• 133 


116 


LI 


• ^35 


117 


LII 


' 137 


121 


LIII 


. 140 


128 


LIV 


• 141 


131 


LV 


• 144 


132 


LVI 


• 147 




CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

The Library classification of the MSS. forming this volume did 
not take place till the first seven fragments were already printed. 
Mr. Aldis, under whose superintendence the classification was made, 
communicates to me that they bear now the following class marks : — 
I=T-S. 8K2; II=T-S. 10K3; IIa=T-S. 10K4; IP=T-S.8K4; 
III=T-S. 8 K 5 ; IV, IVa, IV^, V, and Va=T-S. 13 K 2. The frag- 
ment reproduced in the introduction to these Nos. (p. 15), beginning 
fDN^ ):^mH )b)y &c., bears now the class mark T-S. 8 K 8 ; VI=T-S. 
10K5; VIII=T-S. 8 K 6. 

P. I, n. I. Add Steinschneider's bibliographical article, "Saadia 
Gaon's arabische Schriften," in the Kaufmann-Gedenkhuch^ pp. 144- 

168.— P. II, 1. 5. inrnn, cf.Zunz's Syn. Poesie, p. 386.— P. 15. rhm:i'oh 

D^D3n. Perhaps a euphemism for D"»31"' 'u7 , but it is also possible that 
the writer thought of the passage in the Seder Olam, ch. xxx : 1*13037^ 

l^JTK on ib^«i ]vao fn'\'^i D"»N3:no D'»«U3n rn }K3 nj; mcr i< i?^^ 

D^oan nn yiDK^. The authority of the sages accordingly began about 
the commencement of the Sel. era. — P. 23 (Frag. VII). Cf. Epstein, 
Remie des J^tudes Juives, No. 88, pp. 230-336. — P. 25. "inDnDN3. 
Prof. Sigismund Frankel of Breslau writes to me that it is an 
Arabic word il^lo-lj, "und bedeutet mit Vorsicht (vorsichtigerweise)." 
A similar suggestion was made to me by Prof. Gottheil of New York. 
See also Bacher in the J. Q. i?., XIV, 471. -P. 52 (Frag. XXVI). 
Cf. Harkavy in the Hebrew periodical Hayekeh, 1894, p. 46. — P. 58 seq. 
(Frag. XXX, &c.). I remember having seen one of the following 
Responses edited by Dr. Harkavy more fully from some MS. in the 
Happeles, but this periodical is inaccessible to me now. — P. 61 
(Frag. XXXIII), 1. i. "Tia DH pnDNl. Probably corruption of nONT 
D^Oan. Ibid. «nijJenD read Kn^^CJIO. See Bdba Mezia, 103b.— P. 70, 
1. 21 R. ntn for ntn.— p. 73, 1. 24. \TWy>, see Zunz, ibid., p. 403.— 
P. 76, 1. 23. NJWr ID. See Aruch s. v. '•onTID and Levy s. W^mo. 
—P. 82, 1. 12 for Father (nx) read Third (^C^i>B^).— P. in, 1. 13 for 
Nathan read Shemorya.— P. 113, 1. 54 (on the verso). 733. Perhaps it 
is pia. Ibid. ni>n3 '133. Perhaps misread for ni>na 133.— P. 115, note, 



Xll CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS 

1. 4 for granddaughter read daughter.— P. 119, 1. 1 8. Cf. p. 124, 1. 85, 
which similarity of expression would suggest that R. Sherira was also 
the author of No. XLVIL— P. 133, No. LI. The words jyj^ * * HD^ji) in 
1. 8 make it clear that the writer was travelling from Babylon to 
Palestine. The words n"'iD (1. 11) and 0^< Hw (p. 134, verso, 1. i) 
would accordingly be decisive against the Gaon's authorship. — P. 135, 
No. LI, see J, Q. R,^ where Professor Bacher gives a full translation 
in German of this piece. 

Fragment XXXVIII, compare Ein neuerschlossefies Capitel der 
Judischen Geschichte, by Professor Bacher, in the J, Q, E.y October, 
1902, p. 79 seq. 

Fragment XL (Leaf i, verso), 11. 12 and 13, compare article "Zu 
Saadyana XLI," by Professor I, Goldziher, ibid., p. 7^, 



SAADYANA. 



Fragment T.-S. A, paper, size 1 7*7 x i3«5 cm. (writing 14 x 
lo-a), consists of a quire of two leaves, of which the middle 
pages are missing, and counts eighteen lines on each page ; 
written in a square, ancient Rabbinic hand, not later pro- 
bably than the eleventh century, and is divided into verses, 
and provided with vowel-points and accents '*like as one 
of the twenty-four sacred books." The importance of the 
MS., however, is to be found in the fact that it restores to 
us the initial pages of the Sepher ha-GcUui (^i^:n nso) by 
E. Saadyah as well as a portion, however small, of its later 
contents^. As is well known, there existed two versions of 
this work, the original Hebrew and an Arabic translation of 
it prepared by the Gaon himself. A part of the latter was re- 
covered by Firkowitz and edited by Dr. Harkavy 2, whilst the 
following four pages represent the original Hebrew. This is 
clear from the description given by the Gaon of the original 
work. According to it, the work commenced with the lines 
■133 Jp KnTO • • • ^i^an nsD nm ^, while there also occurred in 
it the expressions D^N^aon nn^ nrh and prn DVimi, all of 
which lines and phrases are found in our MS.^ The Gaon 

* See Graetz, vol. V, ch. x, about R Saadyah. For our purpose here it is 
enough to point out Dr. Harkavy's edition of the Arabic S. h.-G., forming a 
portion of his Siudien und Mittheilungen (p'^yi^vnh pT30> ^f ^33 ^-^3^ b. 

* Harkavy, ibid., pp. 150-180. 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 181, 11. 16-23. Cf. below, p. 4, 11. 1-7. 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 160, 1. ai. Gf. below, p. 5, 11. a and 3. See also 
Harkavy, ibid., p. 55, 1. 10, and note 41 to it. In accordance with these 
quotations \se should supply H*22^ after pin. 

B 



2 SAADYANA 

also tells that he spoke in the second chapter of his book 
of the number of years during which the gift of prophecy 
continued in the nation as well as of the date of the com- 
pilation of the Mishnah, which subjects indeed are dealt 
with in the second page of our MS.^ We know also that 
the Gaon spoke of himself in this book in the third person, 
a fact which brought on him the reproach of his antagonists, 
reminiscences, however, of which rather strange style are to 
be found in this fragment ^. A further subject of reproach 
was also the external form of the book, the author having 
divided it into verses and provided it with vowel-points 
and accents. This his antagonists maintained was done 
with the purpose of giving to his writings the appearance, 
and hence the importance, of Scripture ; as already 
mentioned above, and as can be seen from the facsimile 
accompanying, this is also the case with our MSS.* 

The condition of the fragment is on the whole fairly satis- 
factory, with the exception of leaf i recto, which, as it seems, 
was turned to the ground, and thus received a coating of 
mud, obliterating a great portion of the writing*. From the 
little I was able to read, the drift of the Gaon's thought was 
that Wisdom is the highest treasure, shining brighter than 
the brilliant stars ; that she is a sort of emanation from 
God, and is serving as the light of the soul. Then the Gaon 
passes over to manifestation of God's will as revealed to 
us through the Torah (1. 8 ?), the Prophets (1. lo), and the 
Hagiographa (1. ii), which have become our spiritual food 
(I. i^)' The last four lines, in their present mutilated 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 152, 11. 14-17. 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 190. Cf. our MS. below, p. 5 (leaf i verso), 11. 1-4 
and 1. 14. 

' Harkavy, ibid., p. 160, IL 15-18. 

* I have to express my thanks to my friend Mr. S. M. Harris, of 
Southport, who prepared for me from this page an enlarged photograph, 
which helped me greatly in the deciphering of this MS. 



SAADYANA 3 

and uncertain condition, give hardly any connected 
sense, and may perhaps have contained some words or 
phrase directed against her (Wisdom's) detractoi*s *• Of 
course, it is not impossible that our scribe had a defective 
copy at his disposal, or that he omitted matter seeming to 
him to be of a mere personal nature, and which he found 
repeated in another place. In the second page the Gaon 
expresses the opinion that the composition of the Mishnah 
began after the discontinuance of prophecy (leaf 2 recto, 
U. 5-9)9 whilst the gathering of the gleanings — which as 
mere details or branches of laws (L 10) could be entrusted 
to the nation as long as Israel remained in their country — 
commenced 500 years later, and received the name of 
Talmud (11. 14 and 15). In the last three lines the Gaon 
speaks of the princes, interpreters, and those having com- 
passion with the people (1. 16), who had the Lord's message 
to teach " Israel the Torah with a. perfect heart," when the 
MS. breaks off. Probably these lines were followed by 
a list of the names of the prophets and of the heads of the 
fathers, the bearers of Tradition. The last two pages, which 
probably formed a portioa of the third chapter of the 
S. h.-G., give us the Gaon's prayer against "the robbers 
of our people" (leaf 3, 1. 4), by which apparently his 
antagonist, the Head of the Dispersion, David b. Zakkai, 
is meant K R. Saadyah's appeal to " the God of judgment " 
may perhaps have some reference to the story according to 
which the quarrel between Ben Zakkai and the Gaon arose 
as a result of the latter's refusal to confirm an unjust 
verdict given by the former ^ 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 15a, 1. 10 mm maiiDm. Cfc also pp. 14a and 143. 

* Harkavy, ibid., p. 152, U. aa sq. 
' See Uarkavy, ibid., note 7. 



B 2, 



SAADYANA 



Sepheb ha-Galui. 

(Leaf I recto) 

[n]DiD D • • mtn [Di]Mn '^b^n nso nan 
n3inn[n] T\^t6Db pK nyiK on nin[v njox 

wi[w^] n[K^i] ni>VN wyi> ^3 * [n^]3 

niN p[ri3] [oe^jja nn[3iDn] d • • 5 

ninn n^ran «c^Q[n noi]K^ ir D[r] mna 
(?) inair i>3 b^Q3 • • n^a 3i> [xajno 

)biy ^3 (?) nannpn (?) nnNtJ' 

(?) win (?) DK^n (?) K^^srre^ vnon 

(?) mn • i> • • • "^K^ **» ^K'^a^Jj • • • • 'rrniKD ne^i 10 

^i>y Da • • • ♦ D^3\n33 • • • i3''j3i> ^3 

* iT^nK 3 ^D3c6 n^an 

>3V3 irnvn n (?)^n 

irsnv i>33 pro )J? 3p^i iyi *(?)nijn bv 
)y:2b WW1 (?) w>^n (?) ^d^ (?) i>3 (?) mnrn (?) nivo3 15 
• • • • iiD^S> Die^n 3in3 • • • • nc^ • • • • (?) Dnnin5> 

3^5 • • • • nij • loij m 

in5>cn:D .j^p bs nrox (?)••• (?) i^k 

* This noon was used by Ealir; cf. Zunz, Syn, Poesie des MittelcUters, 
p. 392. The letters in brackets are supplied after Harkavy, ibid., p. i8o, 
11. 16-33. 

* The sign of the letter o between the lines represents probably the 
word ranSo. 

' Cf. the \raHn 'd (Harkavy, ibid.), p. 58, 11. 8 and 9 • • • lams mm yn 

* Pointed n^TH. 

* Perhaps we should road njn. 



SAADYANA 

(Loaf I verso) 

^onD D^3e> ^hn ^ n^nth wins ^^ \-pi 

niK-a : oy Dyoa n^ae^ m^an nmi) 

nti^ pxn i>D3 )^a3 ^d ponn nx wnin 5 

ninD i>D iddn^ ra^^n ^nbi> jonn i^y 

(I) ^ liri? pvih rn^Di^ mp ^jd ip^nyn ne^N 

iK-ip^ pn nwi^D yiM nM6m nnyi>i 

nB« onai n«B^ :n:BtD ddb^ mk 

iri>« ntD3 d: mo wbd^ tn^n nipnn 

ITS w ni>hyn pao nvwn \Tni my 

d: DiMpn oniir^io 1^<"l^^ :P|pi)n 

^ niKo iron D^iB^i> Ditnp niDini non 

iJ^nY3«< nD« HD ^3 : peton fpn p 15 

oyn i>y nioi 3-vi i>>vtc i>3i pi^o i>3 

TDi^i) D^ni^N ni3KijD3 trnpao wmx 

nw i-ninn ntc dIjb' 33b loy hn 



(Leaf a recto) 

iniin n^e iDyi> nnn^ rmw dbb^t ^rhn 

w:v DiT^jy wnn^ DiTi>y i^dbid nw 

^ nnw :w^B^Bi5' yn nm3 i:^oy ^yia 

iniwDD nnn prn ^ro pox mi33n dvk 5 

oi>iy niyinn i^niw nnn nw ^:3 winc^ 

^ Perhaps allusion to Beraehoth, $ a, where the Torah forms one of the 
three nam ni3no which God gave to IsraeL 

« ReadSnc^. 

' See Harkavy, ibid., p. 195, note 6, for references. The 500 probably 
represent a round number. 

* The word preceding ^mffc was probably bm. C£ Harkavy, p. 169, L 22, 



6 SAADYANA 

npnyi Dnmv onmn ikdhj vpn hv^kid 
ni>an '^ yam i>3iNi ^:qo ^'- ntra b idiT 

'hif tnp^ loe^ n^n "^i^ya jn dni "djn aiD 
N3 nan nxr hk^ lotri^ « rrtnn t6 dn 

3i> ^a^n nm Dnnan i^yi • m n^wi^: 15 
TtaaiJiD riN niry ^ noip hnI^h ^^riNnp 
HN prn Mo^iina ivan^i ^3vnn 10!? nirp 
loy riN DiQB^i^ ^ynn Tn"»in nob!? '•t 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

ipinn ntTN nan ^qn pikd dqn nvip nI? "d 

i^op \T !?N nniyjn it yD3 niaab inn i^N 

nnc^ to bn y:ivb ' py ^oatD nae^ nipo 

nne^no ^di •'T m iionn ^3 idb^ n« enp 5 

nyn^ dm^jn '^ nnx ^a TN^5?aa N-'^n nnitr 

: ^Nie^ loy i>y non y\vh vh ^3 on^ ns 

ny\n nmin nnnai? id>dv m^3 ni^yn dn >^ 

innt< ^nN3i yr\\n)t^ niDD by '»nno3 ^i«i 

TnW hxB' M^N :Dibn ny wiN'»an ^d 10 

Tnoon nw Dn«n ba *D^i^iN *3 ^nyn ])0\>^ 

D^yn D^on ^a in^vbi innyb k3 nrrbvn 

\Ti :T3^y3 men nc^i nnw 

* In opposition to 'r» nnr, Isa. Iviii. 6. 

' Here we have a marginal gloss which is, however, faded. Perhaps it 
read lomna. 

* Perhaps allusion to Cfenesis Rabhah, XVI, 4, where the Torah (min 
'i3i irchrw mm) are the gold of the land of Genesis ii. la compassed by the 
Pison originating from the Eden (ibid., verses 10 and 11). 

* Pointed D'Vnti. 



SAADYANA 

r^m fwh 5|nnh 1nK:^c i>y innyo oy 15 
DtDipn**! nna i>3 Diyn^i ^'^ oy i>3n ayi^i nnn 
yb : nDNi> Dpwn jd ^ Dnai: iBm**! • Da 



II, II a, and U b. 

Fragment T.-S. H, paper, size 21x16 cm., consisting of 
one leaf, written on one side only, in an ancient hand 
with a strong turn to cursive. Some words are provided 
with the superlineal punctuation. 

Fragment T.-S. B, paper, size 20-5 x 15 cm. (large writing 
14*5 X 9*5), consisting of two leaves and written in a large 
square hand, but with a strong turn to cursive. Fragment 
T.-S. C, paper, size 18 x 13 cm. (writing 15 x 15-5), consisting 
of one leaf, and written in a square, rather small, hand, but 
also with a strong turn to cursive. The three fragments 
are divided into verses, whilst the two latter are also pro- 
vided with vowel-points and accents. They undoubtedly 
represent three MSS. of the Sepher ha-Moadim (Dnyiion nDD) 
of K. Saadyah, which work was marked by these character- 
istics ^. The text, edited by Mr. Elkan N. Adler and Mr. 
I. Broyd^, represents a fourth MS. of the same work, but 
all four MSS. overlap each other ^. My scanty knowledge 
of the subject does not allow me to enter upon any real 
comment of the controversy or to express any opinion 

* Pointed D^5t3. See Obadiah 12 'tq: Dva. Cf. RV. 

^ Harkavy, ibid., p. 212. For subsequent publications and literature 
bearing on the subject see among others M. I. L^vi, Revue des Jttudes 
JuiveSy XL, p. 261, and XLI, p. 229 sq. See also A. Epstein's essay 
containing a new edition of all the texts with introduction and notes, 
ibid., XLII, pp. 173-210. As many of my notes were written before 
the appearance of this article, I must refer the reader to it here in bulk, 
as I could not always disturb my MSS. to make particular references to it. 

^ See Revue des itudes Juives, XLI, p. 225 sq. See also n. 2 to pp. 9, 10, 11. 



8 



SAADYANA 



on the merits of the various MSS. This I must leave 
to specialists. But apart from the difference of opinion 
about certain calculations, was also involved the question 
of principle as to the ancient prerogative of Palestine in 
the fixing of the calendar which Ben Meir, the " Prince of 
the Holy Land," wished to reassert, and the Gaon thought 
had long ago become obsolete^. As it would seem, the 
controversy, though mild at first, was subsequently con- 
ducted on both sides with great bitterness, the aid of the 
secular arm was invoked, so that Ben Meir was submitted 
to torture ; but this is the fate of all minorities, whether 
orthodox or heterodox 2. 



Sepheb ha-Moadim. 



IL 



p^mtb max V • 



li^aniK^ YP N"ipi i^n • 

nw p|3n njHD mo idi^ nnir • 
}Q mw nan \o) ttnp 1^ p npno • 



on* • K' 

162 nx bb)^ niba 5 
nan :w'»nDnpi> yc^a 



rpioi> nan ViT i^Ni h^jn i^aa ita'^am i^nnx ijkwvi *vm ny:v n^ mps : oa te6n 
iai> i^aT ni^N c^N i>ai ;na npn^i) T»n nr oanx n-iwi wijaon n*^ uJ? 10 
T • • i^aa D^ann nu "^^b ^5wn mnn xin ^i^ii^Na Dvpa vb^ nx Nip^ 



' See Harkavy, ibid., ai2, as weU as Dr. Poznanski in the J. Q. R,, X, 
p. isasq. 

' See below, p. az (Text V a) and p. aa, note a. 

' See Ritme des it, Juives^ XLI, p. aa7, where Ben Meir is also called 
■pcnorf. 

* So in the MS. 

^ Probably DS3p3 for D!tp ; whilst Elul is chosen as one of the n^i Tn\ 
.Ct below p. II, 1. 15. 




SAADYANA 9 

i>33 )npbn i>^pn }a t6 ^o^a ntrj; nc^N ^33 nw n^r xi^i d'^khbh bi Mion 

^one^ 13 1313X1^ ivb moiy inp^v ^3 dk^ )b 2'*nr6 j^sn^ xi* "oi nni nn 

3in33 ^3 tr nip '•D^o irnuN laijm ne^N nn3n niK nxr :ii»i>nn'» ui n^ 

Dya D^Knnn "j^n tDn^nipai^ ion nnw k1>d thn dhd ^rrwin) hnvd^ Ni> 15 

naipn ^a by '•ye^nm ^j^db^h non »fn;; n3n3 vn^ i« pon^ ik p«btD^ 

D'»y3in pi^n niND n^oK^ n^K^i^Bn dv ny3i«i o^K^m hkd n^iy 

DV3 n^y^K^n3 Kvn nyi '•K^onn d^^ n^'vnD iin ny na"»pn '•3 :kw 

Nvn nyi po'^^'B' im'' nse^n }o nw m^a nyi ^pNT on^on ^e^irn 

ny v^nnDi v^n ny '•jb^ dv3 p«i>D^i pyij'* nnK dv3 n^y^trns 20 

mw ^neno nv nn ny DTonni? pi tDino i>y noy^ ^B^i^tr di^3 nvnon 

'^ToaciD nijN yi3B'n 3p:i niK^onb n^B^onn nivn iy db^i ^y^3in i)''b 

^y''3B>3 niyB^ mB^ h^db^ ^3 opn p «!> ntsiB^an n:B'3i :n6bi:n mB^s 

Da nKyi\n dk ^3B>n id mB^ naoB^ poi'B'^i npn^ i-^i yB^n inK^Ji 

p-no^ o'Tiyn ^mb^i nn\n dk naoi: tDapni mB^; B^ni? in noiB^a 25 

^B^3 nn Y? ^^ W^"^ HB^i'B^ bi^ p^inD'' tni :^B^Dnn p -i-^i yB^n 'ly 

o^D^i^B^ vn> pi 13 n-ii yB^ft bx nao^n dk in ton oa noiB^a nN3n ok 

i:^ni3N -ao riKt w :ro^T rP^ nSiten pi n3B^3 mB^ n:D^b 

■TIN p Da K^^S ^anr qb^'^n iaa''y3 n3 ^in niayoB^ Dn'^aio'Tpi) 

nB>N3 ftiroB^n bJ? nnK maaB^ mij^3Nn \i3Db 3nan nnoi^ tPioian 30 

•Tiy imn t6b D33 ij;i> ^« ^T»1 D3i> ^a1D^a Diana p lana naiDN3 iai> 

II a. (Leaf i recto) 
•inNI t^D inN DHD iT^B^ 

OBn : Dnnipai^ ■non 

Dyai pxi^^ ' Dya D^B^inn 

: Dnn'»3n3 vn> in p-^on^ 

by ta^n n^n 5 

D^B^DHi HNO naB^ Hiaipn ^a 

naiDBn n^B^^Bn dv ny3iNi 

' So in the MS. 

* The contents intervening between this word mtrj? and the word 13? in 
lino 26 is also to bo found in fragment II a, beginning on this pago and 
ending with 1. 13 on p. 10. 

» Pointed DTD. 




lO SAADYANA 

n^XTK^na win njn ^k^dh or lo 
Ty ' i^vnoi i^vn ny ^jty 

(Leaf I verso) 

pi ••D'TiD i>y 

• • neiD n''mn ny D'n^Dnni) 

Ty DK^Di ^ran i>^5>o niK^ 

n«^DNni> ^B^n dv nivn 

ni>K :yutrn 3D31 5 

nnniyon natra ooaK^ 

: Dpin p «i? ntDitj^ n^K^ni 

nn«!? fn niy^:^ n^o ^a 

Da n«v)\n 'ly ^:e>n p 10 

nn\n dk niaoia ibapni 

: 'ly p'TiD^ D^nyn ^:b^ • • ^ 
♦ »»♦»» 

(Leaf a recto) 

DD^K^i vriDianna 'onnan 
inDD nm nnn : wn i»3D 

* Pointed \rsmy Srsn, 

' From this word to Ta below, line 8 (p. ii), our text corresponds with 
If r. Adler^s Fragment in the Revue dee tt, Juivee, XLI, p. 827, whilst the 
whole of this leaf, recto and verso, beginning cn^-an and finishing trtn, 
and the one following correspond with the text of the next Fragment II b, 
recto (below, p. la), L zz to verso, 1. 14 (the word mn, p. 13). 



\ 



SAADYANA II 

0:1 'nu^B^ ^B«ii> D^o'»n nan 

nni> niyoTi ^nb li^aa nnx 
ti^hniD trip bv n^v mr^ 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

:rapyai na'in hni p'td "^^ w^nn ^d 

niDK^n rruyi Dpi nvb mix in>3^i 

nnpi> inK^ynn vh) rmD bJ? 

: n^Dn5> i?Dn nxo niia^x 

DP f jnni> na'T n^oyn iv • ^1 la 5 

ny3iNi> r\)^b no D^^^non 

iiDK'^i ui^D ma niTN Dnyt^ 

}D vaw b:i nx nyai* baia «!> 

b^i vmna ib.Ti ontvpo loip 

1BW p HK^ m no i>yi nr noi) 
nvyii 310 ^3 nw3 
iwi inDD i«-^p3 b)bt<2 DnK^a 15 



II b. (recto) 



nnn opi nye^ m 



' See the letter of R. Sherira Gaon about the ni^roi noD of the D^a^ttJMT. 
^ For the next fifteen lines (till the word «T2) see Mr. Adler's Fragment 
as above. 



12 SAADYANA 



\^b^ * * 2}) tfh noxi? • • pbn hnoN b)2} 
im^ D\ni?K N'T' ^h • tiTnii^uiiijy rht^ 5 
^"•••yv bv btin vh) am npK^ VN^'n^ i)y 

Dy «''t3nn^ inorGi iv^y • • bn '•nb hjd 

Tonb r\\ri: p'^b [D"'3]nn i)'»B^3nh 

nx niy ^inn'^i vvy nK vp^b) d'^j^n 10 

Dnyn DtD-'K^ vniaianna onnan 

nn^i : Nin bx i>3i) ^dni i)>w i>D Trna 

D"'yi>Dn nnni ne^y new b:^) mao nm 

'•K'Kii) D^DM nan -lao ijy o^aina 15 

on • • n^a cjNi nn^tr^n 
riN ni ^D3n t^ipa • • j d^n^d^ 

li^M nuN Ta ne^K }«vn ^^^y i^y 



(verso) 

: i>^iTO trip • • • • • mr: ani> niyoni 

^3 nnb li^an ^a ni^yo niy ihn^i 

inw im:^ tvcw i>3 napyai pnta 

N^ rxf^D bJ? -iiDtwi mayi op: Dvi> 

p«n ii?Dn nxo nnax nnpb ine^ynn 5 

no DO'^non bv Y^'^^b "^n'r ik : n'^onb 

nijD Kna ne^ inye^ nyn-ixi? nic^ 

P"»3r "^BD niroi bx mnm pnn p 
DnivpD loip^ i>3 wnnN i3^nnni> 10 
Dy vnu^nn lyn^ bai mn^ia ii>3iTi 
p rm nr no*t>yi nr noi^ orann tna^ 



SAADYANA I3 

^"h ^a^ty W K\r] nSD 1K-lp3 W?H2 

• f ••• ^ •••«•• • n^^j^n 15 
HK nw^i ••• e> •••(?) nrn ana: 

• • • niDip»n h^ (1) !!«♦•• 
• • • 3 'le^N n"»«[o 13] • • • • njitr 



ni 

Fragment T.-S. D, paper, size 19 x 14 cm. (writing 15 x 
10-5), consisting of one leaf written in an old square hand, 
and, like the former two, divided into verses and provided 
with vowel-points and accents. It is not quite clear what 
the point at issue is, but the reference to the Passover and 
the Day of Atonement would suggest that it formed a part 
of the Sepher ha-Moadim, though its style is rather different 
from that in which the two last fragments are written. 

(recto) 

p D^'iy vbv 'ryn * «v:n nynoa naon 

nwKn i>3n pani> oyn b:ib >i>} onnxn 

:Dyn yriD he^ao Dnni? -laon n^jro nx 

i^anDi^ pTwn '^^h laon pa: ^3 sti 

^^ ntn^ ^3 via^N i>^3K^ i>3 ab ^ini ^ py 5 

naTi :vnniK i>y o^i^iyiDn ik3 oai 'yi n<:k6 

D'^iy ly^o * 5>nni nma pa on^K np\^ 0*2} 
ayn^ ^IK • th'^iv p^v) ay bva a-rin Drye^ 
* (?) t^^nnaxn (1) D"»trnn vhk ' : aits t6 in^i 5>y 10 

' Perhaps by this is meant Babylonian David b. Zakkai. 

* Ezek. xxi. aS. ' See Prov. viii. 13. 

* Job ix. 97. ' See Job xxx. i, la. 

* See Isa. xxv. 5. ^ Psa. xxxv. 5. 

* The MS. is obliterated and torn in this place. Perhaps it is a corrup- 
tion of ur^TTW tai«n. The preceding word can also bo read onna 



14 S A AD Y AN A 

vniyn nx npna ni nnJ? mvp "i^dk^ 

•TiK : i>^n5>na ^-l1^o fni;y^ ••anin i>n 
n5>d 3itD bao pi MW3M '»iBn «in Ti-in 15 
Diiobn Dyvn dh^k^ nii?^3n D^npo yn 5>3 



(veiBo) 

: tDBKiD mom nmtj' nnp • didid ^iniy ^e^p 

vnnn ST^n ^3 'pyrn inoiK '»•» ybt^ 

Jj^axn ^3 ynn i3ik^5>d ppx^^ o^nm vnin^ntra 

DDon nnan ntrx D^:^prn :nv3i>Dij oi^'^n nx 

D>Mnn -in^ Dp!>n hn jn^ vi^ay ••ae^^ ^3 vi>y 5 

^DDB^ DHD '^^^a (?) Dana ^3 nam li^ inii^ 

V • D d1>w D^i^i Don ^3 ^p^ vbv ''• 

' DitD>p i>3 3wn ^3 1^ UIN^ D'^BHipon 

tDiae^ i5> iDK' Dyno vi^K 3npm : onna^i 

nr HN nr •m3^ invy3 ^3 W2^ nT2 ^'^ 10 

noK"" nao i>y orifcopa Dnia^3i n«D :n3 

13 n3K M3^« 5>3 wy^r nnipnn psD b ii> 

51tD i>3 13 31^ ini>ya n^^n nijn35> pi) 

nwB^ inNi3n ii"»nri ^bo ^iidk wnoni^n 

nn^ae^n D>«nan i5> noN^ ®:nnnK> ynn vh 15 

: DP ^3k5>d Tiann^ Tn2 nw wniK 



* See Deut xxxii 13. 

' Perhaps by this is meant the son and the brother of Ben Meir. Cf. 
Revue dea it. Juive^y XLI, p. aa6. 
' Job xxxi. 38. 

* Pointed rnn. Perhaps corruption of ncan ; cf. Isa. xxiv. 5. 

* Perhaps r^, but the sense of the verse is not clear to me. 

* Pointed rnjj, 

"* Pointed v^m. Perhaps originally >a'3')M (substance). 

* Pointed niDw vnonVrr. Perhaps corruption of TC«n wnnarrtn. 

* See Ps. zzzviii and Isa. xlvii. ii. 



SAADYANA I5 

IV, IV a, IVb, V, and Va. 

Fragments T.-S. E and F,and the two marked IVa and IV b, 
paper, size 15 x 19 cm. (writing 117 x i4'2). The leaves are 
torn off at the end, so that it is impossible to say what the 
original length was. Fragments E, IV a and IVb, consist of 
one leaf each ; fragment F counts two leaves. They are all 
written in the same cursive (Rashi) hand, and come from 
one MS., which probably represented a collection of letters, 
and perhaps also treatises bearing on the Ben Meir con- 
troversy. Besides these five leaves there was also discovered 
a sixth leaf coming from the same MS., and containing the 
following words : 3n33) • n^i ny nyi> pw xen^^i Dn^ 3t tt)m 
Dioan nb^i^th i^i ^bn nae^ non mrh dv 6^3 nne^a ^k^dh ova 
^nv)^ tll^K ^IDV p n'^^^VO. This, probably, formed the con- 
clusion of fragment E (IV) or IV a and IV b, of which there 
is strong reason to believe that they were written by the 
Gaon^. Fragment F (V and V a) was probably written by 
Ben Meir himself, addressed, as it seems, to a wavering 
adherent, warning him and others not to be intimidated 
by the threats of their antagonists, and holding himself 
up as an example of suffering for the truth. In this 
connexion it would also be interesting to reproduce 
the contents of another fragment composed by Ben 
Meir. The first lines correspond, making allowance for 
a few variants, with those published by Harkavy, p. 214, 
1. 14 to p. 215, 1. II, whilst the following lines in brackets, 
probably restore to us a portion of the missing page of 
Harkavy 's edition : — 

D^cni ••D D^jaij nnon D^:n nw b^ bv '^^ i>Ta^i \oh'^ i^'^^hk ih 

iK^ w^yoD i^mnni'i U'^m^ p nbr\:n nn^aa r\Y\2b) D'^jk' hmd f[bt^ 
D^r^DD vti^p^ iK^ y\r\bpv "I'ya nainoniji ny inb'^ai in^a vi>iDip 

* Perhaps the Ch\fre cmr ; cf. Zunz, Zur GwcAtcWe, p. 358. See also Zunz, 
LitercUurgeschichte der Syn, Poesie, p. 94, regarding the title Aluph in con- 
nexion with the Gaon*8 father. 

' These, together with VIII, probably represent the correspondence 
between him and Ben Meir to which he refers in the Sopher ha-Moadim. 



l6 SAADYANA 

by rh)vi:>n pODnD«» "x^ob) D'^ja \iv^ "^'rh r\\s^r]\^ '^ niainn piannh 
ni)^i)3i D"'Knip DV3 nc^N o'^an'^Ni d^pivd oy onnM lonh O'^aDc^ i>3 
i>^^B''• ^D3n D^aon d^vid D'»ynipn] D'^aoNan btn^ mnao o-aie^ 
DH'^B i>yi : D^aei d'^id^ Dnnyon D'^aionpn nnon jax Dipo oy D"»ann^n 
nn'^bv^ • D^aiB^-i i^ina a''K'ni> btn^o nit6 nien p« D'^apn^o n'^^v'^'on 
^3K *i^n noK pi5^ : D^apT '•a i>y nit^i' mvoi D^aii n3t5n''n now 
{j^nipn Ty o^bunn^ k^jk i^Nits^ i'K' tn^t^ r«^ f^^^n^ D'»apTD D^aaaon 
nn nnoB^ nNn^i^iy ^o ^'r in ^:^ ^:i^ naini ne^K ni^na innnaoi 

D^V ^?^n n**! HNnc^ D^D'' i^DK^ N^K Hiy «h py iTni D-i'enn"'n d^x 
jT'n a-inK'D i^ax 'ai pom i^Laa 'nan oi^iya yniwi birm na-ian nn'"»n 
"•3 ii nn^QH Dyo i'La'^ai nana b^ n"^^ n^ji nnoK^n npi^noa trrpon 
vomi Kin 'na cnpn yavc^ai iDyo «ani nain onynr man t6 nasn 
e^np»n nu nnoK^a «i>K jnDirtDi pDnaD la'^K btr\^ n« Dnai? D'»ain 
pai?yn la'^i-i idk' jyoi? nc^yi D'^onnn bv^ "iok'^k' p^v ^^^ on^a ^3 a'^nan 
ly^ n^Dri jov nnb \s^m lonn Dip© i>i>3K^i hd^jini in-*! naa^i loy 

[: fDNI }DK 1D5r (read ty»b) 

I will only remark that the words ni?^i>3i D^K"iip DVl ntrx 
D^aiC^ allude to Pirke d'Rabbi Eliezar, XLVI, according to 
which Moses, during the forty days on Mount Sinai, studied 
Bible by day and Mishnah by night. There is therefore no 
necessity for any emendation. 

IV. (recto) 

piQi>i5^ 1lr^nD anal nvw niNa^nDn i>ai y^nb n^na natrn m pnayo 
D^D^D) nac^N-iaiD ^a D'^ynv lanaxi oniK layn^i ona laaiann • * nty^i^K 'i ' 
K^N n^Ni n^N yiapi) '^i>n nacrn luy iTh t6 D^^p tripon nu iTnir 
li)^Nn nn^aai auxa ^li^n nu^ynij^ >ai) ^nic^ pxai ^job^ px ^oana 
niTa i^yi a^axn i>y na^^n nx onayo pao'^D hb^^jk' bv w^^b^ loa 5 

* Cf. Pinsker, Lik, Kadmmioth, p. 40 (text) mwnjo ^bni. By 'Wf^H S pD 
probably the well-known mr^bw Si 7^D (especially ch. 8, cf. M. L6vi, 
Revue des EL Juives, XL, p. 363, note 11) are meant. mw^nD would then 
have to be taken in the sense of paragraphs, not of a passage in the 
Mishnah. 



SAADYANA 1 7 

fODi Dnayo jrx nnx ^jn Dnnyo one d^^b^ hv naipnn i>xn j5>^Kn 
•Tn t6 y*M2 ni>n n^K^i nu^ty poi • * pn^DK' i>3n ono nnx a^KBf 

123-^ eiiDb KU^ nnDDir on Dipo CTM •p^D ny i^DN irin 33yn» piv 
pK3 «ijN n^^ y\Tv ynpi> ■i6rB''K nsn t6 i3i>i 'inK p m^vpa p^^noi lo 
ViT t6 \^M nn«K^ niB^n i>3 ^hd^b^ nK"ni iBn'^Tn w3'Vi>'iir ^nib^ 
m^K'^ n5)D nn\n nb -^aa no^ i>Kn{r> pK3 ii>^BKi DipDi>B^ WDts^i k^k 

n.riN b^20 nn** mK^Din fTnn> >i3 nl^m «!?« nu'^yb 

• • • • K wn^Ni i>^bi IT>^^ nay nniiT nn^yi^ 

ni^K^m nv^B^on b^) • D^notj^ 15 

t6^ p3) n^an ^3Mir pa 

(verso) 

rutra mir ^cnn ny^ap 'ntr^ pKi>ir w^nunD penini D''ni)iK^ vn D"»3ie^tnn 

D^3ir JO i>aK DiT^K pania vn ia'»Bij jnioa nia'^yn -^noa pK^pa vn kJ^b^ ^b5> 

'iB^ PN nDan oy ^jnp*^^ 'ib^ px i>K bao D'^oan noa ii^ naa man 

D^aip on naai nQ'» hd^ ia waianoK^ ny na iira^m iK^at^Di nia'»yn nioa 

D^yaipi D^ac^no bto^ px ^oan oai onai? man d^:b> nr i>aaa own 5 

Dn^ra ««DD Ki> nnx Dantrn ni'y ni^Nn D^iK^n bba nab) Dnai> D^enn 

rmni nnx npn D^inpno Dnyioni i^ip^n i>yi I'^iao f)y pacrnn n^n Piii>m 

ma b)pb^p w^xn xi^i nnw nyn» i3n^3 nnwa bbia hi:UK>nnK^ '^oao hnx 

B^tni> i5> n^n baa d^khh yiapi> )ii>nnn i^mx ^xnui nxra nvn^D xh 

to mn oawan nan i»y onnayi i.n^D on^^B^ noK^i ijniN n^avii> na'»65^ 10 

nair ono nnx px ohai nso i^^prn d:i nniaai> ly^anK^ D^^^pr nu^c^a ir^ 

nbti 'nc^ pKD D^Knn ny^api d^jb^ nn^y hxe^ij 5>aa "•b^^k lan^nsr 

Dnayo ijmNi wTa o^nuN a.n^o i^mx wi Da dhn 

toab wnD«; wanvn Ni>i anjo wob' xin Jjiaa (?)w:B^[in] 

Dnna'-yB^ ^a i^y pjkb' na'^B^ B^«n an 15 

pn^Dn K^N ru^Ki po^bc' nBnn 

irnuK Ta n^nB' 



* See Smtkadrinj 1 1 b, and })arallel passjigen. 

* Deat. xii. 5. For the Riibbinic passages see Sanhedririy ibid. 

C 



l8 SAADYANA 

, IV a. (recto) 

n2\^ \^tr\ n'^^btsm nmni • to^2 noi^pn p^oa Dwm '•ir^ona ntan n:\£^ 

naa nivn nnw nair Dva nbi3 n'^bc' wk^^k^ neriK^ fVDK' nae^a '•inra 

'»i^K6 nnT i3^s^ iynpi> p33 pK nnira T^^a1 naea lynpijD ii»r nay 

nair 3"»jn nivii? jn^ hdd nvo^ DnDi?K^ ynjw n^^K^ n^en Dn^iota 5 

piDD n^ii^vn nnsn; dk inD^^t^ n^^en pnoa n:ie^"\ n^K^ -vcKn dki 

n^'^^i?Kn piD3 n^i^ crn^Dn naitrKn yap^ ^idnh dni nacri >3n5?3 noDn jnr 

nivn nrw ni^ia n^n 5|5jk naij^ wnij^ tt'b^^is^ n^K^e^^nK'n .kv»3 o^D^bsr 

DnyK^n i^ai ijpipm )3K'D'»n •nn^y ^i>6rb nmai ijcr nny 1331 .pi>n 5j« f^ii 

iDrn. lyap!? c"in:^ }•« •in^ pi^nn^iij^aN nivn nnx ^{^ti ni>iD^nnrB^3K« iJ^xn) 10 

D^jfiT ^riK^ ni?Ni p3DD3 WK pNty n^^K^H trxn inaKn r3ai> inimi> «!>« 

nocrn bn 13DD t6 D^Jiiwin nnna i3''ni3K hd '♦^ao ony;:^ nynnK by 

. vsN h2H nrK^ trtn nna^yi • nr\>bv 1i»Di xi? wmxi n'^'\v^ i i>y k^k 

)DVD ini« pmn px fiiia nc^ni liixa p^j dnij^ osn nan bv pdddj 

D^i^n nS»N non dv y^a-i nv^nc^j dk pwi fnin ntwi ni^^D dk 15 
♦ • • ' \rm pnn hioi non dni mx pnn pK icvn 

i^B^ "imn m '»3 n3>K>^ c^bo ^3si> ynij 

ansB' :n3M v6) D^3i6r«nn p 

• . . p255^3 p^3 't)^3 J3J5 

(verso) 

njtr fjK' ntrni • T3f)3 ^anra nt^n i>y7 nn^a |d^3 bv t6t< Dn»iK vn «b 

D^-^^jn ib^ n)v^ m^ r\2^ nn nbMO nrw^^b n^n n^sy K'»n n'»B^>i'trn 

pncrn riN pni^^no 13nbo nnoi nicK bbsi i3"»ni ibi^ xin raea ^J'cya n^i 

p3rnn HK pN^no ijn pN ^i^crn n^n !?yi n^KO }d^: bv fni^i ri'^o« 

njB' inNSc' ntrn i>3tr T3i "tysrn oan noD i^b^ Dn''i?y p33 Ninir 5 

ib'o DN1 • 1DV3 iniN ynp pi^n fiapn niyc' i ^^"•5^ Dvn ni>i:5r -^n^yn 

nb DN1 • PTD3 D"»Bnn v^pb) '•K^i'crij mix nm pi?n iph niy-kT tri^rn 

nmj pN '»3nr dv3 my;:' e^ ny nen ^i^iii lu*^ niny;:'^ nii^n hm 

j*H^ n» '•B'^i'irij nnn3 nns pbn tr\v^ ^^ "inx nf^ia dki • i»to 

nnx pbn nivn -ihnd bax • naba nivn ny nb^^tra k^n lovn mix O'^yaip 10 

n^DN pac'n pa^ ^b nrn by ^^^snk' xnxh ^^n ^cva ynp:u' WNvr: Nb 



SAADYANA I9 

i3m« li^itrrwr iinjnr d^jc^i wpna nnir jid** ^i^tr ini ^y ptr i'ai nnoi 
nioi niDK }ujrn i>y «nnn nw onyapB^ iri<n «S fnjr:ap ^ dhm 
.ii-n fi^JK n^ir i'B' ntKna ic^ na-'K^ e^«n pun** • onye^ i i)y xi?* 
r\v2py\ ^n^^ nnaiyoi pbn nap niyK^ n* ^iw Dvi ni^i^tr nnoc^ 15 

f^iS' niyK^ n i Din ni^B^ p'^j nbiJi d^d^5> 

D3nu n-nocnc' «in p d«i '»e^Dnn n •••♦•• 

n:tr nniK ^enn nx onynp vh 

n)vn ni\p 

IVh. 

inps^ ^K^bir DV ^VTO pDQ Dipo nr ^«oi 5>^nnD «in dc^ pdbb^ 

nym« n nD«^ ^«i nb^n niDivyn ni:iinn i«n^i D^nnnn on-'ry 

p noiKH ••3 nnb d^d> i i^K^ niycn cd^ oiyo «i>« i>^33 tki^'^^vc^ 

n:pn t-«i orri^y «{?« noiy ohyn pKc^ nnD« n^ian k^i nyn xb 

[h^]c« n TDKK' nr^in^^n Dyt:ni •Dna k5jk iTii^n nnyicn 5 

' *' • ■ •'•D 5)60 crorn ni'^D ^p'^v "h r« *^noij hnoi iDva 

*^ • •• • •" • ii>«t:tr^ iro^ p^ "^nw niDi mr iTh vh un^i 

■ • *" •" '" ' • • • K }nn p« niytr e^ir^ny tiiii ne^ni nisi 

* • • •' •'•'•• • •' i^vnn b ta^j i>« n^e^ k5>i in« pnn 



(verso) 

nnv^^2^ ^ai? n^iD'b^ p nnx. ib\: dki • pTon ^iw diu n^y trn 
nmoij wi n dvd i pi^d!) y^i> n'^pbn ^tph n)vv xi d^d'^ n ^^dio 
niyi • iniK D*nn niycy k^ i^y nn" dk idki >B^Dn dv i^rnK? ^ 
nv^^ pbn lin onip nhii nfc<an n^tra xh nny na pK dki {?)nD«v 

v[\Db rr D^Jtr TiB^i? D'^p^n iynh niye^ li d^d^ .••..♦ 

^nvh n»Ki nnK^ dv n^arnK^ nni^b kh "•yiac^ 

' nhi^i nu'»y nxnn n^c^n b^ dki now n * • 

p nnx ni)i3 dki • on^'Dn ^m^ b ' * b * \ • * 

n'^pbn Svhh • * * lo 

^n-b .— 

* The first b of this word seems to have been corrected afterwards into :. 

C 2 



20 SAADYANA 

V. (Leaf I rectb) 

Di*3 noDn m nw nnw npin onbiD D^wipn apr ^33 i>«ntr»Twi 

imaa nr b ' '31 hnt po n^2 nnn iTni idki ron^n nn^v nna nBDDi> 
D^ijtax'DnN'i' oniDNi TioNn pn ina iriaij pii>^nni irocrx 

Dnya w^:d!> iiina nc^ ^'•iNhn nova' p nmb DDyoc^m hc^ao Tti) 

niT mny^ Dnio pxi ^b^dq3 nao vax iTnir iTjrn'DnKt^i onna 

• n«Tn n-ivn oanw ny'^^i^n * iq"»i noi 'nvD y^hd ^nr^:^ D^^ira pD i>DNi 

"►ovD pi>e^ inwn m xi^n d^j^h pa nobpi D'^i^n nain pne^yie^ dhidki 

nn • rrwion nnyai D'^jny mi oyn nnp^ idd3k^ Dnian D-witrn nnry 
nvtD nmi> Dnnjrnni * 'ai D^yw nn nmpn idd '^* 'iK^ roDDj D^yiy 

naini> D3nn»Kn ba^i? D3^an •ddh b 

mn^ir Dim ^jd^d r^bti^^^ •....•• 

nrai nra i^aa Dm • 15 

bnx -HTK' • • • -^ • • . . • 

DiT • • • • • • . . . 



(Leaf I verso) 

vh nD«3 D3^i>x i^nna) Dyta d^hn yni3K^ p{r^n^ Da"^in*a3 Mn'^sa ^^n1^< 

D3nK liDi'^ni D3nK wnn^Di iiaa pc^b Da^nnrx i«ai bvtDi t6^ moa 

nnrxn wa ik^k ny riDNn i>y D^noiy dhnk' onaio w^mi ^jn^c^ i^aa 

'no 'ip 'na 'aa D^y:ni npM ij^ny 'ne^ moy i^Jj^n Dni)ir nc^x niannxn 

p*Di '» ^pino nioi^ iJtK noNT xi) new 'sMn y^eno y^'a Dioy ^an^a pnN 5 

D^pi nnn i>y mm maa i>y maa ii> tj^oiM pxa icnNi immi innDtjw 

Dnai • D^D^yani D^anwn one^a >iO Dnp^ yir vmcn ^aiJ^ ns ii> 

* See Isa. iii. 34. 

' See Harkavy, p. 316, 1. r, and the editor's explanation of this word, 
ibid., p. 213. 

' See Trctctaie Shdbbaihj 75 b, for this phrase. But here it has probably 
the meaning of striking with some such instrument as a hammer to call 
the faithful to prayers. 

* See Harkavy, ibid., p. 233, text nnd notes. The fact that R. Saadyab'i^ 
father died in Joppa is new. ^ Isa. xix. 14. 



SAADYANA 21 

"JK^fi* 'Dan n^D^m • o^^ie^Kin D^nnnn i>3 nx o^i'oiDK' onan p)pn 

310 • Kn«^ vi>y iK^anK^ ^d rann *3Bd pya nii>3 ono^y ^a Dnnox 

aiNtti wi> Dnat5^i nnp ijdj; onaip i^i) xn i3"»ir ne^i jn «i^i mo w^p io 

D3nK «npi piD'^Di;:' onne^ >d Dniarw • ^li^n^ nnon vniK nn^i) 

mDH noNi nnjnD nno D^nrn nnn lan^oi^n nnan bv mjni ine 

noxn nnn i>yi p^on ii>DDi pbttidi niK^a nnwa noan D^aionp nna 

•i^'t) i>* 5|ii>^ra Ni) nDni? nJ? >wr\ iTh «ij 

• • * D^yiDi D'»nrn nn nnan 15 

•••;!« nnaair Dnnoto 

1D31 ^iyaa 



V a. (Leaf a recto) 

DariNPpn e^b3 nao oanipn nw^i oan^^ao bv pa^ ^loia ^a nnnarm 

D^Vn3 Mai mi irnnrN3 nan-'Nanij • • • • i^n pK M^nnrK nx 

mo nnnnK ^^ DnnoN^r noi • * Jjinc^ hk ni«ii> ^nidk' «id^ xh 

liTii^JK '^^ n« w tn^3 DD3ni>n onioK xin onana i3i>nnh "otn^b r\:xh^ 

^ ':i i:a-\in ybv "•a 'ae^ dk^h nin"^ bv n^^k u"^nj «!> Doi6r«"^n w^nuNe^ i3>«d 5 

naovy imon bn *'ai le^a yiir loy 'nai 'D^Dioa ni>«i aaia nbx 'nai 

i3Non DK noKn onanai • pin nii>^na on ni>Ka dk i^^^j^n d^dd niK^yi) 

^biK Dnnini aoioi? on-nrni nxra dji^ct dn my tjODia n^j nay nc^a 

iM** aion '^^1 pnra nt^na luw ^jx nncra }D^n Dn^cry d«i Mytrin 

nw«m i>tnB^ i^^hn i>i53a myiotrn lan ^a oniarni '^pan laa^ i^a nya 10 

D^a-Jn r\H na^n nar ^'r ira-i n;:iDi? onyT nSt • nv 5>aD oa^i^K nixa 

"^Mn paijya ism oa^i^y ono ixe^ • D^ann hh K^onni Non Dyam 

y^n Ki>^ Di^ir cT^ab oabi lai) aiocr Dy b b) lyoB' • • • i> 

Dn3D«n "lb wa n^k ^ii>n nann pNK' • • • 

DaTioi) pNB' i>ai> lynin 15 

Dniarm ♦ ^ay ♦ . . . . 

linD Tin • • • • 

• * I Sam. XV. 35. ' Ps. xliv. 23. * Pb. xx. 8. 

* a Cliron.xxxii. 8. * a Chron. xxx. 18. * 



22 SAADYANA 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

nm nnv y^'bv "^^y -ikv wn3« woo • n^cw • iok^ jyoi> ne^ nirxn pnni) 

nry\ni> w^k i^xni * ' d'-kjiij^h py '•n n^ nnno n'^^m n^itj^Ki onis-an 

D^nTien ^^tnp') pan nyc^ni '^^ bsn ino D^nrn nni d^hk wa'T'ii D3ni5r 5 
nn^K w^i>y no3i D3^wib^ i^y tkd nxo D3n«inryi nioipon b^^-^nJ^r^ 

wnrnK nh^a nn"»n ^a nwr ^y iai> w ^ik tDnnaii? on-vrn dhki ♦ p^o 

bi i:y^r *i3ni hk^b^^ li^nanx Dnaon ^> i3i?i Dai? «5> r^nv *ino ny ):i>n3:i 

wniK Dnvy^i •• itry D^j^ya aioa onw i:d» yiM nIj i3pi>n nr« ip* 

wij 'n«' Dnnno o^nn onan anyoe^ '»iBD noNn nm i;y nioyj ^ciJK' 10 

ei^Ni lanno ib^«i Dn^cryK^ nonn p Dab ac'n"' no na Dn"^i nnv iJ^i>y 

i3Bij^ i>a« ID • • * • [l]'^n3 «h li^nnx anjD njcra t6 laniea 

nii^nan nVNnn • ):b n-inaa 



paNncr Dnnnatr ^^ao 15 
Dvy 



K nniN Dna^c^nn 



i|':<c»*i)i.4(«* 



VL 

Fragment T- S. 10 K5, paper, size 2i«5 x 16 cm., consisting 
of one leaf, written in a square, Rabbinic chai-acter, with a 
strong turn to cursive. It comes from an ancient calendar, 
s, branch of literature strongly represented in our collection. 

^ This seems to be in contradiction to Text II b, leafs verso (p. ii), 11. 3 
and 4^ according to which they did not appeal to the king against Ben 
Meir. But our text here may have reference to a later stage in the 
deVeldpm)Bnt*of the tsontroter^. • • 

^ This .would. suggest that the Ks^ralites jiIsq were jn som^ way mixed 
up with this controversy, though it is possible that pr may be a, corrup- 
tion of nr, 

' See Harkavy, 209. The letter of Ben Meir there contains many terms 
and allusions to facts turning up again in our text. 



SAADYANA 23 

The matter reproduced here represents the verso of the 
leaf, and gives the fixing of the New Year and the 
Passover both according to the Gaon and Ben Meir. This 
fragment suffered greatly from age, and it is only through 
the aid of my friend the Rev. Dr. Brann, of the Breslau 
Seminary, who assisted me in reading this proof, that I 
was able to reproduce this interesting monument of this 
controversy. For this assistance, as well as for various 
other suggestions on the subject, I wish to recognize my 
indebtedness to him. 

Calendar. 

(verso) 

TND pi ^T nnyo '"21 pn • • • 

rEi nvnon ]2'\rh ijnn rr^ 3Q"^n i 

n^yUK^ nunnnn [n-i^^tr] rnaoriNi 

n^D^JB^ [(?) ii?D3i ptrn] 2bpnn n'w^ to 5 
nn^notc tr«ni onon i^nd p m^*v 

tmbnk. pwlch nnxTi n^«D pb noen 
o^i^n I55n niyir d ilj: nb^i> ng^n ib^^ 
e^DDt pfcoT:cin Kni?ni> "i^nd p5> njK^n b'n-i 10 
piD3 nn^noTic mr\^ pioD n^KD p nxc^y 
nnoTi nn'^nolc trx-^bi r'Da'lc n^No pi> noali jio 
(2 oynn) -liaTH '« ni> 01^ id^: 1% 
&) n)v^ '1 raotn dv ncn *ibw 

naolc TND pb mcrn c^^n 15 

VII. 

' Fragment, paper, size I4«3X9 cm. (writing io«2 x 6-5), 
consisting of two leaves, and written in a square band. 
This precious MS., originally coming from Cairo, belongs 



24 SAADYANA 

to the Hon. Judge M. Sulzberger, of Philadelphia, America, 
•who kindly placed it at my disposal, for which liberality 
I express herewith my best thanks. This text represents 
a letter directed against Ben Meir, and recalls strongly 
the contents of a fragment also cifcning from the Qeniza 
reproduced by Dr. Neubauer in this Review^. The 
two were probably composed by the same author (R. 
Saadyah?), if not representing two versions of the same 
composition. 

L£TT£B BEABING ON THE SaADYAH AND BeN MeIB 

Controversy (MS. Sulzberger). 
(Leaf z recto) 

Dgn n> ''b inM • loy ^an: oy 
Mnac' n ^Tax t6 wan p3 
DDnanN ^j''y njjiD ^^na3 n^ 

nnvna "idpij bp aai^n imn 
O'D^ Djrh DNni^K n«n-3 
^KhQ nyo * ^niog^ t^ksi 

^naNT p "fpb^v ^^ ^i)n« f» 
'^nbti noN^K^ • Dao ^nc^ia bv 10 

DariND ^ay^an k^ nvnoi 

n3T D3apr ^Dinan ^n3n3 15 
n3ic'n ^n^N"i «i>i ny\2b 

' IX, pp. 37 and 38. Cf. the expression na:, the allusion to aSna »nvna, 
and his reference to the nVian irkn, the my^r '^tni, and the D»Dib», with 
11. 3, 29, 34, and 35 of this text. See also Epstein, Eevue des itudea Juivesy 
XLII, p. 200 seq. 

^ It seems that the scribe wrote first rw and corrected it into tjn. ' 
' See Ps. xxxi. 23. * From orDir, 



SAADYANA 25 

(Leaf I verso) 

Tnn 3"^ na^D nxtn nym 

Dnina '•3 omaK an p ijnn^ 

|nna« nnp i^nk^^ vi>K 

btn^ pxn ^niy rmy ny ^3 
wn Oil • Dnyot:^ "iK^to 

Da^i^N airoij '•jI^kb? m 
^jniyi "^a lyn • oarmnij 

n^NO p ^3 n^ani • ^ n: bao 
Ni)i ♦ inon nv^?b acin 15 

♦ nhan b^nt d^aon nbi 

• : " 

(Leaf a i-ecto) 

• n-oi^n Dy pio D^o^nn Ijdi 
pDi'ty ii?D3i pcrn-^D mam 

• nnc^n "»K^5>d noam 
Dn^nniN ^oy "•nnw "33^ na 5 

• nnn«n nianDn nn bx 

♦ ntn nma ^noy dhk 
nxm nnan n« mai 

^ See aboufc these places Benjamin of Tudela, Itinerary, ed. Asher, pp. 50 
and 27, Heb. Text, and the notes to the English translation. 

^ I was unable to identify this place, but the name sounds Persian* 
* Originally by and subsequently corrected into or*. 



JZ6 SAADYANA 

hii) ^>'' ^a riN nrn bn) lo 

Jjaxij t6 Da noaa )^n 
nate^o T\)^b) ninirbi 

(Leaf 2 yerso) 

nitt^pM nb) D3D1PD3 

irnsb IBHDI i)KlB^ 

D3Dii>cr Dy Da^van 
Dvy^i hr D3Dii>Bn 5 

'any jKijy^x 

VIII. 

Fragment T-S. 8 K 6, paper, size 18 x I4'2 cm., consisting 
of one leaf, and written very close iji a cursive (Rashi) hand, 
but both paper and writing seem to be of a much earlier 
date than the fragments described above, p. 15 (IV a, b, V and 
V a). It is torn and mutilated in some places, but what 
remains is sufficient to show that it forins one of the letters 
bearing on the Ben Meir controversy. It is to be remarked 
that this MS. does not read regularly, the last line of recto 
being written on the back of the first line of verso. 

(recta) 

nDi^ b)y pxe^ 

^u\b b^y^ HN r« ^^^ •• n"^3iyDi naiiDKn nv2^ t6^ nDit^sn n\i^^ nb n H^n^ 
^ysh KM yup V2p dv» ^bt< nin noan hn Nvon tn ^a • nnt v:^P nnb ni?i» Dvao 

(])riaK3 fD^3 niji^ nox ni^Mni • nr nx nr innioe^ D^am ^3b^ u n^arn (1) 'moN 5 

^ Here follow a few Arabic lines, but experts who have examined them 
assured me that the^c have no bearing on the preceding matter. 



SAADYANA 27 

D^DM nvn-ixn rnaan -ibi^K^ nirn i>3 -»cni (?) nrn niow yK^ ^ ny ^Jtra 

ni?^nnn :nN? by iiTnu'^trn nmjrn nt?3i ihk pnn ps h'^oni yc' i ny 

pK niDa niDN pa^n p "ai^y ^^^ : o^Ji^rton mn pnniD D'':nnKn mm 

nn^yn niD2 ynv n%n Ni> ui^D ixnaK^ ^d piki : d^mh nmo -^py ii> lo 
^^crn n«3 %T r'ruN "•»'» i>3n Dvn w' '2 p^: nbi: dnc' "^at Ki>i rDiba 
i onip n^Nn d^dnt ^2 p^a nvdj nnaa ^d^ b^2 nv2 ^hf\^ yc^ nn 
y^ i '•\m D'^DNT i>3n ntrni iDva u lo^^pi? inatD ^i«"ii nrsbH tiDp\ v^ 
pni ira HM" hiK a }D"»3 nvna n»dj^ : Ninn Dvn p inimi> ^ikii : n-iDK nnxi * 
?nb pN :fna ncry no pn^n ni^Nn D'^ovni Dvn n nat^a m%nai d"*©^ n ne^n 15 
■ibiN i^N py^caK^ nyiD : jto nnx ik : Si>«i non ik n»ni n^''K niKi>D5> vhti nv 
K^c^ DnyiD D^iK' nirya i?Nie^ i>a ict iJ^i'K Q^anpn mtr 3 ^1na nam : p k^k 
JD nina aipn i f ^ p^a ih): me' non nun pnnb nh wt:' :mDK patma 
nm:i ran nn n k ^ p-'j nha ann nacn nae^a nnxi? ^jn-^c^ b immi niOK 
fD-'j nhj nnn naen • "•B^Dni> nnn^i nv Nr nc^n ni>u inn wen • ''^b^ 20 
nac^a inxb nnnji oynnn 'r p^3 ^i?i3 ainn wtr^ nae^b nmai Mi?pn n k** 
a r ni^n nha • • • •'c^i>{ri> nnnai kj k k 'a p^a n^a aann naen 
n:n : • ♦ • • n^ p-^a nha oann naen rm^rh nn^iai • odk^ 
yir i • ♦ • * • •en '»B^oni^ nmai ii>cy n i" p^a ni?ia nonn 
nirrx di ♦ • • • a po pa niox Di)p ihai ''^bvb nmai 25 
ytb ni) anp 1 • 5>Bn • i nye^a n"iDN onip p^ e^ oyo Dipo 
D^ae' na-\n n • • • D^ae^a o-'oan xa punn yd' n i> anp ine' • • ♦ 
n'D^2 D-'xan (l)ii'ap • • (])iat^ n^k pini ^anaeiD iok^ n^k^ k^x n • • 
nia^nan mn laa (?) lyiNB' • • • aa "nnoK nc« "a ib^n nac' a n by pT v 

nnyn "•a nbx bao (?) nan icna"* «bi vaaa n lay^ D'^aow fi^^y nnocna 30 
Yob^ r\)^vb (?)nre' D'^air niN-^pi onytr *i by n'aKnD wki mcK b • • • 
N nytr nbnnp netn ^ibioir (?)nDi5rB najr ba [ibojai pe^niCD 
natr bc' ncrn *ibiD ra'^i Di^a ia lo^-^pb inaia , 



! Not all the chiffres are provided with dots. Our copy follows 
the MS. 

2 The 1 in this word may also be read \ There is a great similarity 
between : and 3 and if rr and n, > and ^^ -| and -i. 



28 SAADYANA 

(verso) 

mmb -pv DipD b2y\ (l)ni3rBa (1) k '•Wn lynni yjr i ny f m**! * lynni ytr n p nxai 
pK • • nnK Dv nnv • r^^^c^ ^^^* "^^ny nxe^ ^a 5^ 5|« • • • jrr^u kvd: • • b 
in3T3 iDDB^ -"D 'n IK (1)3 wi yc^ f nnniyo mira • • \s^ ncn p) : mpo ii> 
iDBpm 'n IK '2 DV3 • • Bpn) v^ 'n nc^n n^io \t man n^rin '»B^ra n • • • 
ii>D3i pK^mo (?) ncny rw i^^dnb^ d'»d^ ri jiTj^n kvo: Dvn « icnpb (1) en 5 
}Ki^D IN iD^3 IK taaen (?) -jdit ^d hk • • kh -»ni^ : nnK dv m^on ruc^ pnK • pon 
^DU3 nw ^^ yno (?) rs^^i'^n • • • d riK ni>nnn i5> nra -jb'k^ ncn ik dk ik 

n^o WD ]D'*^ (?) D\^ (?) pn 5> u nna ^e^m : nbnn ni:^on bJ? ]*''' 

ania i'ly • • nno • ♦ • : hikd ncn n?n nnn ^3 vryi n\ni yc^ io 

pi>n iin ip dv pp^rnoK' D^oyD D^oann ^3 j*2n t6^ 10 

na pDi?cr ii> ncj^n ^in^e^ niaiyo tob^ ^3 : pewn pKi 

ii^ n^^K n Ta"»3 yp3:i i>pnn ^ 3i> ^^b^ iik ni>)D nt p bv 

jn^jin iB^ijK^ ': K i> non : n3«rn no }iTiu n2^2 vp^^i "o^ ^ 

ia y^a^ pi : nvirn io Iit:u "K^i^K^a ypaoi : nan n ih h^K ifn no 
^ihjK^ ntoiB^Q nacri nsrn pi : avn n k ^ mi)iDK^ n"\aiyD n^Kacr n^mn 15 
hi'Ki n»n "T^^Ni niK ni'iD ikvd^i : non w o^Dhs' ji'Dai pc^nno ViT rn 6 1 b 
D^o^ani tiTtW''p '•D'' pi ; D^nKn"'a ncTK nnaiytDn d^jb^h ^ne^a on^tDaroa 
njK^a yiK> pi hi idk i> nijiac^ nma^a n^^n^ nirna ynx^ pi ^nana iK^a 
ninoB' ntDicj^a nrj^aK^ ^ntrna ^k Kin oa ni 6 rh nc^n ni^iaK^ nmtra 
HTDn bv pi'^n^ n^cnn ni:^ na ^n^ : pnoa i^Joai pB^n"^D ^a lyoi? ni t: ii? ao 
^an K> r nao • aa 5 in^j'^a nae^a ypa:i nnnn 6 i^ pc^niD : nKin 
{n^impi innho i>i^Ki riDni i^^ki nnK p • liih n» in^au ^K^i^K^a tnpnoi 
*i^3tr noitra njjra p i?y -inv k^d hki : (?) nutrK^a in^a^aa^ nnoDi in^Datroi 
m^tDn bv p"iw D^cynn ri na i\t p b po^e^ iboai pe^nno ^a • lan i ^ ne^n 
' nain a:^ nao nop 16 tn-^ra "•y^a-ia ypa:i (?) n^pnn Kai> li^oa |ni5?Ki : nKtn 25 
vh^n i6 |n"'j''a nac^a iK^n^pi • kob^ (?) :ni) (?) oatr (?) aan fi in^j^a ••B^c'a ypaai 
j»B^i?t:^a ypaai tonn ik b p^a : lann • • b |n^:u ^jc^a ypaai ni n v mK 
iDinn in^ non :apn n: p^ya ^e^ona ypa:i opn nai n^^K :a^n io jn^jo 
napn k3 }n^i^a ^y^ana i^rnv^ ^"iJ^ n k^ 5>i^k n^ ii in^ra inxa )\nrp) 
: Dii>a IT ni3tDiKa yTi*" irK : ni^xn anann pan nc'K "^a i:yT ^a • • • 30 

' Tlio r is VU17 iiiiliiitiuct, liiiU luigUl iJ^u Ih) c* 



SAADYANA 29 



IX. 



Fragment T-S. 10 K 2, three leaves^, parchment, sizo 23 x 
16 cm., written in an old square hand of about the twelfth 
century. It represents portions of the polemical writings of 
R. Saadyah Gaon against the Karaites regarding the calen- 
dar question 2. The signature, "Abraham, the priest, the son 
of Amram '* (which is in a different hand), gives us probably 
the name of the owner ^ ; and ** Nathan b. Isaac of Sicily " 
was most likely the compiler. My identification, both of 
this piece and of others composed in Arabic, rests entirely 
on the Hebrew quotations occurring in them and in the 
colophons where such are to be found. I am in this 
respect only "looking through the lattice." My surmises 
were, however, in most cases confirmed by such Arabic 
scholars as Dr. Horwitz, of the Breslau Seminary, and 
Dr. Schreiner, of the Berlin Lehranstalt fiir die Wissenschaft 
des'Judentums, who wfere constantly ready with their help 
and advice, for which' I feel very grateful to them. My 
thanks are also duo to Dr. Hirschfeld, who kindly collated 
for . me the proofs with the MSS. He also drew my 
attention, to piece XVI, which he also copied for me. 
I have also to state that our MS. omits the diacritical 
points except on the V, which is the case in most Arabic 
MSS. To judge from other MSS., the Arabic text cannot 
be always free from clerical errors and corrupt passages 
which require emendation. But this must be left to 
Arabic students. The Gaon has aheady passed the pangs 
of one Geniza not without damage to the world, and he 
should not be doomed to the purgatory of another. This 
is my reason for including the Arabic texts in this article. 

' Leaf I recto, I. 4, and loaf 3 verso ; a verso, 11. 16-19. 

• See Graetz, V, 486 ; Weiss, Zur Geschichte der Tradition^ IV, 140 sq. ; 
and Pozuauski, J. Q. R.y X, p. 244 sq. and p. 260 sq. 

" Probably identical with the book collector of the same name given in 
Pinsker's Likkute Kadmonvjofh, p. 169. 



30 SAADYANA 

^ natrn 
y J Dnoy na jnan Dnnax 5 



n '•:tr i^y 



(Leaf I recto) 



(Leaf I verso) 



• • • 



yKiriDK i>w y^nras "»ijy nnnnp n^i psv«ii?« yono^ «!> >iijK W^d^ 
nnis3 5)^3 HT^ [pn]i nnoK ^5>y ^i^pii^K ppii?3»ijK li^w^ t6 on in Pj-'a 
Tt5^y» iH:i HD 3[«n3i>K] i^ip^ li^nai Dn'-i'K n^K^K Ni^y* 5i"»3 kJsi nn^a 5 

• 3py> ^n nnatr kI^i {j^xnoK i>K "hv r]r2v: Kvnn pn Ki> ni>K ^ ii '»^^ 

li^nai nn^^Ti p aye^ Dni> nn'^nnni npbi yoa p onij nvKa }« "i^y 

fe<i> pnwnn 5TS ^ipiK ii {j^ne^ 

• maiD nnmo ^inyi hx^ Ki> i^oK ♦ • 

fc;5> K5>i>K atma jk d^^ jk aa^ npi ii 10 

«»i pvn«5>Ki nwxcD^JK ^a D^«n raK[n] • • k 

nn:i»K nni nn5> D^cc^a av3 inan ^^^ Di?iy onra 

Knavj ^i^K rimn5>« y^^nen pni^x pnxna }«i n» ' }^n« niiia 

^^t:«aK Kn»i?6n »^i pnaKaioij^ ^t:Na« snaijjn »!> 5)«ne^i^ n^fjx 

ijip^j Knn> pa DKip Ki>a yoKpi^x nnni^K nbtivo mi pn:«yoi>K 15 

pa^fcoofjK ioi«p^ ifco JK1 ' ii '•^^ DW e^fco ^nan na vhn axnai^x 

pni>K ''5>y onjD k^w ^i«yn pyn^i nxpiK^JK )*ya ^a pni^x bv^^pt^ 

{bvCj nsani I'fppb^ ^d yp^ ic6k nto^ ^nn »n^n« «na ^i:iv(]r^ 

nprr ]v nyaiM ii>n pm^ b:) ry ni>ijK |«b pp^5>K "i^y ai>in nnatri>t5 

K^^a nnvKi b'vh^2 ik n«ny» nx'^xa npnn wtjnna n^^fe<^i 20 

5>fc<i>novKa ii?ncy b n-'T pa D«ip pa^Ka»5>K i>t:ta «i> pa^ 

' iZosA Hashanaj ai b. See also the Gan Eden by the Karaite Aaron b, 
Elijah, ch. 5, where this passage is also quoted against the Gaon. 
' Ps. xcii. 6. * Ps. oxix. 89, 90. • Jer. xxiii. 19. 



sAadyana 3r 

nsriD^K ^Q 5no 'anv iHai «p3^i ph^s' rarY^i n«33fj« jd tr^c^n^^ 

ii Y^ ^^^ "^'^n e^n'' ii »npK no n»Ki «np noiK i)ip hp^ n« 

br oi^i '•iioi'K ni»i>w ^^aii^K *idb^ki ih "i^y p^pni>K icni^K h^jq 

Tna '•D fK n3T» axnai^K n:3 Kja jki nnnDi>«i n»t;5>K p y«oiK 
piv npi ncsi^K nnax ddi "d nayn fNni« i>N n^xa rifc^piN^JN p 

(Leaf a recto) 

n»K n^K hp3 ^2 n^5>y ^vpni^K fe<yK w^dd^ fe<i» npiKi>» nnn nicK 

fo '•i'y fKnnyfc(i>K na^ vih no« kok^P) p^n i>ip kthi i^oy^ »d3 

• nn ann« kd ••bi nnfe<5>vi> n^yo^ ko ^d noi^i^K noK I'i'inD in 

pnKi nsro "ijK nci^^x h^dk too yo i)ii ry- rhbv^ tK 3«n:)i?K jo 

nfjiai Dno«pD Dn:D nvn jd p3> f« D-Jpr D^yn^^ on^^K 5i«v« 5 

^D n^itD }03 inD nnN^JKi nnii^K ^^pw p nvn p b^:^\ b''} b:: ^b 

• nnaa^ Ki>vnn:v ^Jj wciva n^D t(:iBv:K »d ^nm •fe<iDinan^« 

»o:w i>p:i5K ^D awnnsi^K t<inKn wnvp D'^h pn^K '•5'k '•yni nrabv^ 

• ii>Kp i?!^) • epfi nnai Dn onjK n^yi? i>ip^fc< »^n won 

i>3 nnK pni> ijk ij«3 dk )b n»K ow'^ann p »Dn i i?XK ii> xn 10 

n5j noi? ^fc<p Dh MB^ay nyi ncr» hid^d noye^ pi pn n*n 

nnn moi^n ^a hp^ ^ii ii> n»i5) k^^k d^^pt b\^ onictr iK^nsn^ 

nx nin? *it5^« Dyn i^K ^kiob^ -iok^i n»iK Kin nn na^^nJ^K 

nw nriD^ nw pa nw i^yin^ nx ••^^ n^tr^i ii pnK n^i nc^D 

lTOi>i> D^Jiy m nBni>tri> nb)v 'bp n^bv ainan i^ptr i^Kiotr 15 

nriD^ nna pnsa nna pn nna nK^> nna bv^'r^ 

nu^KD i>w-i nno wnt^n MnJ?t^ nan ii>Kp 'nna^Kicc^a nna 

• D^i^D ^^KiK^JK nni^ni^K »»kb nnan pn i>ynn> 5>Ki»tn pn^i 

•iDB' ^Kiipa bKicin v^nan pnw nirtD a^nai^K ^ipi? onoo i^ax 

• nnvy ^d nn:© nnwi bz ph nDsyi^K p on ^vh^ nni^ni^^i 20 

• KID f|i>D p i^no ijpai^K n^n ^d isi^n p Dnao nnsi b^ DsptD 

i yoD kdJ^d nna n^D wnKT Di> 5>ip^t< Kin ^d kjibvjk |ki 

DV DKV1 KVpnoK^K Knn ^^y idok dk^J^k ytwi^ nnihi 

^B nry nnK in n^K niB^a^K na jta kd^jb nyiio ^b niB^ai^K 

* Isa. xl. 6, 7. • JRosh Hashajmy P5 a. ■ Ibid. 



32 SAADYANA 

JjK^i^Da pn ^5>K n«vi i>»m ^tw nyo nas psf^xao^K div im nne^K 25 
nu vnipiDi ii>pD Jjd: my loi^K pi>«i nnts^^K n5>«n moK b'opb 
nb DKp i>K^i>t:a pn 'bv i^^^ Koi^s) • i?K^i?w pn 5>vk ^aai) ii>m 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

tDni>ip^ nnaw nnax hod i^np'' ^nn ma >5jy li^na nry^ im »id 
)!? n»w iK'xn ^y ipB'Ji 1SDDD noy iniK nxne^ p>3 niDi>ni>K ^a 
D^yoB^j D''i>nanK^ Tino) D'^aopi? D'^yoe^a D'^hianK' nnn n^j^ 
• wan xyoi wncna }»vyn ^ n»m 5?p d'^jdp b-'K^nj D^3opi> 5 

npKDi>K 3Dnn hpi^x xnn nne^ p wnxno '•a wnx npa wnnts^ 

• pn^K n5> p"»nnM b'^^ob^ n^ nviY'i niyan i^pxyi^K i^nno^ »d 
jm «»» '•K' '•a Kin «:a«nD ""a n6y po nn« jk ik'^ K^^a 

• K^^K WK'^noK nny }o nnp mx t<5>« nu'^yi^K Knni>K }d n-i?y 10 
!?« niyin n^K n"»ii!:n!5Ki Di^ai^K Kin p "•k^ na^p ^a i^iT k^i n^i>K 
>ijyi nana "»^yi n^i?K ^b pnanocfjK pn^K -^a w^ pa^fcO»ij« 

• |«3 fD KD "bv tK3 KM P''3i>K n^K^^K ^^'^bv K»aK1 nK^23K 

• pi m^^b^ ina noaa ^ivas pa Kaavi "»ni>K Jj^kH^jk Kai^ap 

D'»>W inrb^ ynriK p dkI^d^w noNai^K ma nbpy naxD 15 
n^^K nona axnai^K dh '^ Dii^tr an ^y laaynni ni pK it^n^^ 
K^ni^K fjHK pKipf)K Dnnibw k»i oi^^y p:iani>K ii>Kp ko H: a^na Kin 
5|DV p iTnyo ni?Kp kdo nxf^Kpo nii pnpnaijK nfjKp ko ycii inanw 
p |n3 nanKX na nbi'K yaa hn na'ricijK DKn 

n^JD pK •'S'^oi^K pny 20 

na wyj «» fjiK jk axnaf^K tnn v\bMO i?Kp ♦'»fjiK5>K n^JKpo^K 
'*bv PTT pnijK i>nK p ny^rai^K ;« ifjii "iK^yK^^K noK ^r^ 
nfconKij pann'' '»^iKnr K'-n^K '•i^y pT^ Dn:» pnai aKoni^K 
KD yoa nana }k aa"'a • K^ni^N aKA'^Ki? pinn^ '•i^im ascn^JK 
aWKa na^i^K ^b nnnsi^K [awnJnKijK p pnpnai^K nnnai 25 
}Ka nya kck -ni? aai pb i?^ nax pnf>K aaiai yaoa ik 
nxanK ^i?y i!?nKan^i> nninf>K i?nK p cj^vd^jk Kpn^K kd!? 
••Sy IK aKDn "i^y ^^i>n^K ni^i p • iDD-i? nimijK f>it: ^a ^K^yKl^K 

' Rosh Hasharutf 25 a, b. * Ps. xxxyii. 11. 



SAADYANA 33 

(Leaf 3 recto) 

n:^^n b'^bi nirysi ^e^-iipD p n"»nt: u^ok^^k' ny nc^n i^yi id": bv 

^jfc^p fKQ atiDh^x p^pnn >B »niw 3«3 ^n^K ^^R^^ii^K nnvi pni>K 
ni^a wBVi' Ntt i?non n^bv ^rw^no^ j« pn^K axnir br\\ Kiabxao 

•n^no) kod5j[k p ijsn^i yipn nxi^oi oipa D^an^ {hxi^K nnsan 

nyowfjK n • • N»i>K en njfco o'^oan^K *)vy ^d n«^K D^i> isD 
p b)2pbb KnaKDyriD^i noiNi>«n 5|t2^i>w nnvwi'^ noani^w 

y }n"»*y^ wxa dhjn D^D3n^« ^Jjy niyiK kd yp^ >bv kv^k n^ 
ns r^'i^no dvi ni^^ij ii>nD i^ya^ D^oanijK i^Kp nopi^K N^n '•i^y 

n-^Nv in p n3D^ kt «cn nDpi>i> mbo nyn dv) nij^Jj n«D p 

»vpn npi Kin ^s y^ajo ^« d»« ito Tyi^K jk ni) hp'' i>n n'b^ 15 

K^KO t^''n^K '»^y Dni^oy jsa 1^ ikt hdv ••d b Ki> Tyi>« npi 

• nnn Dn:)3»'» Sn ^>y5>K dv f^yn 5Tn> |y an^ np nx onyao^ 

•51VJ^i K»yo «nn p^nn^ jk wnxna ^a n6j p ^i^y nra 

"^y n^^yj «iiD wk niyT» ko i^KD^K "bv kv^k H^ KDtoi 

nnvra 5?'»KDD^«n nnnano^ }« n^mo nxm '•a '•i'K nopi?K nintr 

ni>mDi «nnnn ^ni^K nxoNi^yi^KV i?^«h^K nvn "nn ny«»3^K 

nxn^^K ^a pa** oi? [sa n^nv n^nv ••« tnipo cnipo php^ jk 

DiiDxb pyoD^ nai^K '•Jjk nintri^K lanvK niosi^K nnn i^Kyna^^ nSiD 

K'^n 'bv Twi'N Dn3"iijt:» jto ii?a ^nipo li^ip^i Dni3nnD"») 25 
hp"* }K Dnj3»^ j«a Pi"'3i or ^5j« dv p onian^ i3&a dJj nop^fc? 
•^a Dnn^"»KD» ""a nya3» "w hxi^K nsa npi "•^xni^K ^a K^nipo 

(Leaf 3 verso) 

iniKT lijKp ^K p n'b b)pb^ K^n ^'•'•n ^ibv^ nr\)b)n m ^JNhi'x Dvi>K 
ny EHipD iDii? ip-aon «!? n^'^m ^'ipn: bt^i^ i?3i pn nu 

* /?o.s/i Hashaiuj, 21 b. ^ Jbicl, 22 a. 



34 SAADYANA 

mn iy3 nibp^h ^n pn 'fpv 5>oy ^^oy "ni>K nn^i^K jk ib^ ^a 
• nvKi nv«i Dxb Kim kd*»i run ^k • • a«nn^ Kh i^iob^ 5 

Dnnni^D jk w5>p xoa idk^jk jk k^k na »od) ^xni 

WK^j i^wi'i' njK WD1V3 ^Kp »M R^J nnv^^ ntDpi^i^ 

DpB nn^n nnv pni^D^ kd^n nopi^N N^n '»i?y jn^o^x li 

p^p^ IN pny l^o i^fco^ xh n^y niN np n:N Dm^y nv kind 

bi NHNni IN d»k6n D«np nnroo in yanno n^^ )n, d^^o 10 

nn n^Na ^h iT^y n nd cj-^as ops ^nv jn dhdi^jod nd:k 

n)Nn ND T»3 NV^N DH i:n3 n^i^y i^vrhb nni>D> WNoan 

Dnwi:ii np) nsj^nDoijN mNp»i>N niNna li^xa"' nb^ n^y 

NM Nninan ^n^N nnxpoi^N mn ""^y «!?« mNni^ ii>np^ «{> 

sn^ no3) ntDw hni pxh ni33 nM n»3 Dipn no ^s wbvi 15 

n>M i>^h Ni^N Nin niD^n^N ••a ^nnir nd ^5>yi ii ann 

iDnp ^*ii5N n^Npo^JN nnx n*in omvp fxa nd^n n^N n'^aa 

yn-1 }N3 '•no yNcnaxijN npi ^w xnn ppnn> ••nn nn • • • • 

Dn^N hpi?N Nnn ixijoa ••b h^ nddi • ip'^^q ink^ r^a p 

Dnneaij nn-^n >ijy T'"'j;ni5N omvp }N3 li^i nivn nyxioa 
Nnn NjijiQ Dvi)N inpbt< N^n 2NnvN ^san n»3 ninc^x 

nrh)?^ niin nyxDai D3«m d^ni "!>« laxnn^ dhjn 
mpo vinN D-'Jiy Dyn {j^i ts^nipo noix pn n''3 irxn 25 
•»© nm Nn3i nd '•i>y }n-3 nv^n Kim •^tmpo 
npi ••« 'y^pbn N^n >i>y }n'»''y^ ini?N in wcvnbip nxDa 



Fragment T.-S. 10 K i, paper, two leaves, size 20 x 1 2 em., 
representiDg the remainder of a controversial tractate by a 
Karaite dii'ected against certain statements made by the 
Gaon K. Saadyah relating to the calendar question. 

* Bosh IlasJvmaj 25 b. * Ibid. 24 a. 



SAADYANA 35 

(Leaf I recto) 

t > Tab nK^ ijjn 
• 2^^^ nj;n|) n^hxi) rag?? 

D>B^i>N mm 5>M nps J^ysi lo 
nNiDNi^N mn in i'lp'* p i^ip 

ni>ijN N:iayn'» nb jxa RTK.ni? 

(Leaf I yerso) 

N^tJ^xi? mn D'»03ni>K t^J? inra 
n^»i>n^K^ nspinbw 7]:\tnD% ••a 
p wb ^ran^ nb^ D^ana mini 
b nnai^N mn ^a "c^ nDv!?N no^ 
wiai^NaD r\b\p'' no v^id:i irariN 5 
b)p Ny^Na pnJjN fTJN 

r:Nmi>N nna n'^NO ^a ni> i>VN i6 
fN in lijT -"a anoi^N jn i?Kp }n im. 
n^NDi 9\bti di331d:n i»j ^a «:DpN 
Tin H^'^bv nnx 5)^N3^ n!? n:D 10 
i> i)NP^ |n^Di>n DwaQjNi) nit: 
^Din^a idnI'ni pnv NomnNi^ 

* i^osft Ilaahanaj 21 b, ^ See Tosephta Rosh JTashanaf II, i. 

3 See Harkavy in his Appendix to Graetz, History (Hebrew translation), 

in, 495. 

D 2 



3^ SAADYANA 

« "hv ^Dn i>*h nrb d^p^ ?k 15 
pn rr^t<r)^ ukvk ip dhjn 

(Leaf a recto) 

li^oyD Kin ^i)y onaiann^ Ni> }n 5 

i-n>3i mtr»i?K ^D nnsn np no 

a ip ni?N ppna5>N mn jd 

n33 Nnm NonwiDa 

na3!>N Nnn n:v n!? r\:i6 ma 

N1N1 pKini^N ana tkd '•a 10 

mxa KinNi 5>vn ni? pa^ 

Dmai>KtD Din-ai pnv jn i>«p 
omta i>^h on^j ib-^p^ }«3 
nne^ p^^pn iT^ten^ laNVK np 15 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

n^e^D^JN '•a nai n»i ntrn 

na*T Dn3«ij naa5>K xnn ana** 

nao^N pi?n'» in ninK^i>ij pw jn 

K jxa TY'n mDi>« ninc^ n^xD^j 

« ana N»h nosy onpi^K 5 

iDpa ^nc^n >!?yi jd^^ "bv niobn 

>P«a5>N "^ijy Nni>«i5nN nim 

•►y^D^JK Nin nan sDa f«a ii>a 

Dni> ip^D^ p3Knn^ WNa ndIj 10 

ntrn "»i>y n^n nao^x i>K5'nK 

n^i^y njN Dyr n:^^ mn^ 



SAADYANA 37 

n^ob^ n^ne^ n^KD ^i>y nrb . 

XI. 

Fragment T-S. 10 F i, parchment, consisting of two leaves, 
size aox 17 cm., written in a square Rabbinical hand, and 
representing a piece of the Sepher jnpan nsD of R. Saadyah. 
Lines 10-20, leaf 2 recto, and the whole of leaf % verso 
correspond with the contents of the next piece, the colophon 
of which gives the name of the Gaon. 

(Leaf I recto) 

nonB^^K nnnn i«a po^^ ^^'^ pK pi • • • ♦ h 

• Kni**) xnnE^ »n:D liyn "•nK^i'a nnivni 

^D 5>y 5)K 6Dr6« ii?«pi •iy inx^n^ 3«n3^« h^^ 

nE^«3 i^^ noK na •nn*i5> nar nani) .Tsn pxts^ 

. *ii ftK bin IN D^xrp '•ni^ nxn "do nynn i^^y 5 

i>3 DTi>v» K^D rrm\ n^n none nnnn }kd 

IN3 jKB nm^n^K i^n no^in j« a:^ i>i none 

KtDi •p^bon^K nnni) xnii^in'' }« po^ nnivn 

nDr5>'» K^ Knvi>an^ n«D'» «!> nvk miin ffco 

«ai 'T'yi? Km )-ny n^^ne^ nyn Dani^n i>ip!> * k^b^ 10 

' n^n DE^ HNT ii>"K pnoiK pK 5inm nKT Dnni nK 

DK1 n-'^n ij"»vnij '•iKn dk inx pnoiK «!?« i>"vo 

TDN^JK nona |« nn*^ axnai'K |Ki> '^ * nioe iKi> 

nam nsr^a "h^ "^"^ noK na "a nbipf> k^d nij^n «5> 

D^yn K^D vi>y ^np^ nc^K lentD i?y TDini nnxn 15 

nam K^ 'ii nay" k^j Daionoi nm »!> oi^ipo 

Knvi>a nnvn h ii?y5> xnansv ni> 5)ip" i« \t 

nan ann oa nxn n« w T*n b^p N»a ni? ni^i^N 

* See Mechilta (ed. Friedmann), p. 93 a. 

' ^&a JbTeeto; 93 b^ see also 106 a.. ' Isa. xxzi. 4. 



38 SAADYANA 

ar »D D^D notion ^n^N niD«i?N mn p nnn 20 

(Leaf I verso) 

«Ti • • • • ri^n v6 '»n5>« ni»«i>K p nnn »di M^^jy 

nansx n«np»n ik ninc^a ik nnv »^k nh^d 

mn p ^nK payn^ k^^i •nro'^yo rh^P^ )k 

Ijn fya iK^J Ta«i?K DT^^n cj-'^ nD"'Dyi>K niDR^^K 

TWN ^y«n •'Q K^n ^no "-s a-^niy ^p Konip 5 

•wiion HDii^KB KD^N ••ijK mnt^i nypia noa ••b D^a 

DKn DKn KHH'' i'fc^pE) v^^« nni)^n kd ni> b'^pa 

• noKi?« mn Tiax po^ i>ni ni> i>va n^^n ^i>y . 
l^jnp bpi li^ap p miyi^K ^nnn ni^an np i>fe<pa 
. wn fe<h3D KiK nn Dnhpi? «'»k' mo-fjapiVDh 10 
K N^n nns'^m c^pan xi^oiK «nvn nny» Kp 
I ; nu^^n ndd nm rv^i^pb in« Kima nn^'^K^ nnnnnf> 

i? '•ya''» n^i? 6k nayo^J 'b n:n '•wd n'^i) 6k 

innK nnn nyT^ '»d itI? 6k Kin Knn nnyi) 

•►Kcpn '•KDp nnv nnn i^i? 6k '•nn nnyoij ""VDn 15 

TiKi^i) nDrKi>i>K DKnnK^K mn^ ^'^nn rac'K vh) 

KiKi *KD'»aK nnim»!?K wn noiK^ DKnnK yo 

TaK Ta w n^aK "bv nymi^K pn D^i^on nai 

t^nb nnKn non naKn on KnnnK^ Pibnvii'KpQ 

nnnK nnK^ kIj^Jj fii^n'' }k KnnnKX D^n ih 30 



I 



(Leaf 2 recto) 

n5> Ki^K nnK' n»iKn 'jn^K p Kn>a p5>n^ 

n"»ynDDi5K k»ki • }ni>K p Kn*a j^ii^n^ nKinK 

l^ni^Q i)KinKi>K p bm "^bv jnf'K p ni) y^^^ «^Q 

Dnhpi? }!•» -nn b2 Dps bip^Kn n5> onnv ^b 

'*:pD "»nytra 6kk^ Dan n»itr kqs nn 6k 5 

• nnnKi nn-'aan n^traa ntas ••yKn ••Kn Ki>^an n^b 

^ Baba Mezia^ 93 b. 



SAADYANA 39 

RDi's nyni nni^Koo ••b 5|^n^ j« k»ik yni» 

IK aa'-D Di)D^ jK ^NiKi J^KpriDK po^^JN nivn 

^JK ^nn 6n oan^JK J^ip^^ no^i^Dn ^3py» ^Kp^ 

>nn 'dki nm vi^y pi^ai^aD jniK nxn &3tra 
nninn ^nix na"»''n xi^ "-di^ i 6k ni'trD ••:« 15 

^"•Ki ^^'bv bpnb K^JK vi?y n^onni) nyiatr 
n'»aNi'K Diav n!? jk "•nnxi ^^c' Dip yn%< p 
nn^'^n n^'»pi nayi iTm^ t^'^t^p nb ^'hn kd 

nnai« -i^aa Dnxr^K Pii^nno^ Ni> jk ""nnKi 
nysaK oi? kd miN t6 v6^t<p nb ^bn wd ^bv 20 



(Leaf a verso) 

}« Ni>K nij^JK n'' pa n^na nxin nin ^d nS^ jkd 

oani^N 5>ipi> ni'Tn n"»i)y ddh^ n5> dskh^k 

n^5j nnyx!? ^^Ki>ipc^ n:K nan "ii nn nan 

K WD>bi> n''i> pe^ Kninan Knom Kn^an 

«a^i vrtD^^a ^nb an n^5> 6k a*n rvt^pb ntik 5 

KP w )nb an^ 'D^aiD ima i^n ^b '•an 

n-'i) DK i>a^Di> ••td li) n^h jaK >^ay noK pa 

D^pnv nmiKi ^an xan in'^nax vii) an 

nn^KD^p jy oani^K nncDK ndb * noe^n 

yanv }k aa^ D^p'^nv ninnsi D^aiiD im 10 

oawi^JK "hv i6 i^N»t^ "•i'y nrna mn jk nIjk 

kIji ppa** t6i Daini?K >q tt^ k5> Daxn^JK pa^5> 

• DDtroa hy i^n Ki> nhpi? • pj^n^ «h ^nn^ 

ir i^T ^aa Ntrn Ki> 

' Ba&a Mesia, 34 a. 

^ The source of this passage is unknown to me. 



40 SAADYANA 



XII. 

Fragment mai-ked T-S. 16. 69, pai-chment, two leaves, con- 
taining various matter written in different hands. The 
following piece, with the exception of the first line, is 
written in an ancient square hand with a turn to cursive, 
and probably represents a poHion of the jnpan nsD by 
the Gaon : — 

i?^Kin VD '•ND nb\^\^ ny b^)\s^ ""Uk 6« 

na^xDD ^a 5ii>n'' f« kd^k ynib kdi^i • t<^''M rrb 

nbD'* jK n«n«i 5j«pnDK pD-^i^K nnvK KiDi>a njr'ni 

nsn v^^^ ''^nn in ^« p^ iyo'bon i^ipi f'Kp'* t« ^^'Q 5 

••DV nn DK D^JiTD '•inn dki nrn vi^y ri>ibD jniK 

^pni? «55K vijy n-onn^ nyutj^ jniK nninn na'^^n xi' 

pSKn T3K i^K onr »!?« ^rin«i ••t^ Dip yniK p '•ki • vbv 

••nnKi nni?in n^pi nayi n'^an^ K5''»Kpin5> Pj^n ko 

fc^i^'-^p ni> 5i^n kd 'bv nna^ Taa onNnfj^ Pii^nno^ vhv^ 10 

•nu3 3wn ii?T ^D ni? jkb nya^K Di> kd nnvK »!? 

nha n^^y Dsn^ fc<i> wnf^K }k k^k • nbbv^ n^ pa 

n^^i? "^^MV^b '•••Ki'ipK^ nax wnn an nn Knn. in^K p^ 

n-Dpi? iHN in^o'^^jaij mi?pK^ nnnan ^niom Knnn 

D^nit: ima li^n jyoi? ^an wn in^i> nn n^'i? m im 15 

»^ n^'D 1^ n^i^v pK ""^^y noK lai • Kpiin mi) nn^ 

n'^b 6k ^an wn inna« )rb nn n^i? 6k Jj^^dJj 

p jy 6an !?K nnoDK kidd • noc^n dv^^^ niniK) 



SAADYANA 4I 

••nn^ vh) fpj^ K^ nMn ^d ^t n5> dskh Jjk p vh 

rhbt< lam nyni ^« DKanx n^M iii mnn »^i i^i 
xmioyo i? 5>nK ♦ • • • ^noo i? kv^ki Knnosn 

li^n nbi'K pa i>K an pK mni^xta jrcai 25 

na ♦ • • • • na i>M 

na b^ pya 

Kn • • • • * ""wya 

na^noi> nnyo 

^IDv ja n''!?]; n "•DrD5>« 30 



XIIL 

Fragment T-S. 8 K3, one leaf, paper, size 17 x 14 cm., 
written in a square hand with a turn to cursive. The MS. 
represents a fragment of a polemical work by the Gaon 
R. Saadyah against, the Karaite Daniel b. Moses Al Eumsi, 
of the eighth century, one of the first successors of Anan ^. 
As far as I remember nothing of the existence of such a work 
was known till now, whilst the sudden breaking off of 
our MS. makes it impossible to say what the special object 
of the Gaon's attack was. The recto of the MS. contains 
the following colophon: — 

Dnnai> nr ^nvD 

na [nan 

\n::7]n pa'' 

py pa nw 

(Leaf I vei'so) 

wcnn iiDtra 
inntxr* ny^n trxn nnyo an no noN naa 

* See Graetz, Geschkhie der Juden, V, p. 209, and Weiss, Zur Geschichte der 
Jiidischen TratdiUonf lY, p. 1 16, note 1 1, and the reference there to Finsker. 



43 SAADYAKA 

^an nK'K i:Nni?N nan nyin ^nnra ^3 wcnnp 
. ""W in^D ^K^ao lom imn^D li^Di^D now 
HK'D p ijN"»n iniN ^nnn ne^ nao tinto * • • 5 

B^KH njn 5in^i npni? n-^ij nx ^nna 

p niwi> ^nii^nrr ntrxa^ )Nnn nB^« 

D^i>5'yo ntw u t:^ "Dcip nrJi b^nh tin ^nNv[iD] 

pe^nn •nioann inno nt«» (?)D''tJi3 • • ny • • 10 

i>NnB^ '•ji nsB^ ^3 rcnpn'pK^ nx pno 13'':k ""a 

ninaa noofji n^ts* D"»*icr5 po bTi>y noxn p 

XIV. 

Fragment T-S. 8. 232, parchment, one leaf, size 14x16 cm., 
in a square hand, contains various jottings, of which the 
following has bearing on our subject. I doubt greatly 
whether this R. Saadyah is identical with the Gaon of this 
name. 

nna ^enp nnn ^a nan i^Jjann Di>rn"»i 
Dcn i>Knt:^ ynr '•^I'lay^ dk^ )Jpt)^h i^xne^ ono 
: Da-^nnB^ nxi oanionn nx ennnN 5 



XV. 

Fragment T-S. 6 F 2^, paper, one leaf,size 9 x 14cm., written 
in a cursive hand, representing the remainder of a work by 

^ The MS. is very faint in this place, and this word may also road Hnn. 

' Tills would suggest that Daniel also wrote a numTi 'c, but it may albo 
be a mere quotation from his Sepher fta-MizuJotk, 
.. * I Chcon. xxvii^ a5» . - . ^ 



SAADYANA 43 

E. Saadyah on the ** Classification of the Law under twenty- 
four Headings," with a commentary by R. Samuel b. Chofni. 
Perhaps the latter is in some way connected with the 
niVDH 'd attributed to the last Gaon of Sura ^. 

(recto) 

nn"»n»5'N Dxn rhi:iv ^^^^^ nw^bn n''Dan tan 
• DDp na nivc5>N n^s nop ^f ^dvsj^n nnyo ano 
: ^vf ^ifin p pfco 5>«i»e^ 3*i» i-n^DDro ^:y 
n33 ni>ip3 xnni nc^ ni«D xnao ^^^xi^K oopi^K 5 

i^nji mn }o mpiji rh)p^ sni nyK' nnin kh^ 
naaNifjK nivt:i>N ii?K ddp^jni : ninron "»nK' i>y lo 
DDpi>«i : 2^::T) t6 nhpa xnm indt b ^a 

(verso) 

r\blht< p b^i6ti ]v ^"1 bt<:: tan\ iKtDti'i' htnoo 

• 'bp) Dnh nfjipn noiyn ns^n dv ^i^N nnnn^N 

ni>ipn nvivaD^JK raKDNijN "nyyi i> i^onai 

nivoi^K ii>K DDpi>«i 5i rairn nnnoo nJ? • • nnaoi 

5|N:n t6 ni?ip3 Nini ikdd npi b:^ ^a nDTNi>i?K 5 

5^31 n^H ^nn ^^« nnxi oop ni)K DDpi>Ni DDpi?N xini 

DTOi ^nbn "^a i>Kpi jdwd nnnn bJp tr^i i^iK^x "•a 

na:«i5>N nivo5>N n5>N ddp^^ki : nv * • :p D^nyn i>Da 

nhpi sinnn pnv pnv ni^ipa Nim fico i^a ia 

^a no^Nii^K mvi:i?N h^« ddp^n) nyia n^yn k^ 10 

nhpn ni>^N n^a ^i^K in^xa ton) pvao ;ndd 

^ See Harkavy, iS^udten u. Ift^^AoZun^en, III, p. 5; about the 3Nro 



44 SAADYANA 

XVI. 

Fragment T-S. 6 F i, paper, twenty-six leaves, size 
13x9 cm., in a cursive hand. The contents of the MS* 
are mostly liturgical, except the following lines, extending 
over pp. 5 and 6, containing among others a passage from a 
work (?) of the Gaou on the various degrees of forbidden 
marriages ^. 

bv naivn ''»3ni?K b)p ]V p^Knpi^K fva bw 

nn^ }« 2mbv^ nipi^o T'»n mm 'nn 

nvK T«a D''NU3^« hp '•^» m n'^e^ mm 

[n]i.«n« n^K }in»^K nnao pa 5>t3i "-ij^k nn ^ns kd 

'oan '•-m bv koni nnm nm |y ni^ii "•ixr 5 

ohyn KniJK^ onip in nx mm^^K '»5>k nn n'^e^D 

nn-'o y'^n '»3n nai i^y nnivn i>«p Rnjya 

'wi tr« nyan v6 n-im^K n^wp KinKi 

'loan^K i^«p nnoijK ••& jkid^Ij pxi^DK^K w pK p 10 

mmn p nivD rae^i n^n npi>nn px p ^'r 

'wi niK^n nJ? jna '»'• ^a i«n mmi>K i^ipa kdJjk 

niK nnmi n: ••a n5>ip p« p ni« ik i«n ni>ip3 '•^y^ 

nnon nik ni«i ixn ^im \Hb ixn ni nn^ 

nijipa ni«ijK in i^n |k i^n nva k^hki myi^K ana 15 

Diijcn pna^JK in nivo n: ^a 

y^'na nono pw nnyo i:'»in i>Kp 

nnxi i^ai «mK^iya nit:noi?K D«D?Kijfi< 

311m Kni^iK nysD Nni "i3«ijK p ayxK 

'ji ne^np n^n t6 n-'s i?-p nynioDi^K 20 

min"* rivp riynoo "^n ncnpi>K mn p''n'» kooi 

n>ninijN 5jit3 i^ap xr^a jm no '^bv IB ixij 

i''ai iir^n riK i>ijnn {?« n-a i)Kp nivnoi^K y: n^Ki 

nynoDi? jwxi> rh^p mi>N p 3yv« Knni 

* See Weiss, Zur GescfUchte der Traditiofiy col. iv, p. 156, and references 
there to Pinsker, See also Poziianski, J. Q, R,, X, pp. 243 and 259.. 



JSAADYANA 45 

SijKi ipi ]6 ''^ ^bz mm mnijn nino 25 

mm n^ipio n"»iDni nainao jnw n^'a ^m 
anai «nnn»K )b ymb ^nbzp n5>K p ayvK 

B^K nc'K ^^i'K nivn»i?K t^jki nin ivhb aroT 

Dnb ijKni?« "hv Din b^k nt^^i Knmpo 
m^a ntTK 5>ki ma 5>Kp ni^bn ni^Ki xn^n k^k 35 

bJ?i^ ''bv onn moi^Ki inKi vht^ bJ:>v^ '^bv Din c^k 
3yvK "•m D3 innnn «{> Kn>a i>Kp mDfcai>« li^Ki 
pna nntDn npi khJj m:i>« jk^j nnbzp ^n5)« p 

3yvK >m 'ai aat^^n tti) nar nxi ma bn? niani^K 

i^nni^ }pi>3 moj yvh)^ ]^b onpn kd ro: p 

ponnn najiKS py« nn n k»3ki jkc^k 

p "'C' Kf>i ipi^a i<nni> D^i^a nm^K k»ki 

Diijcn ma^^« id ruu no:: 45 



XVIL 

Fragment T-S. 8 H 5, six leaves, paper, size 15 x 11 em., 
written in a cursive band, and representing the remainder 
of a liturgical MS. containing Piyutvni for the Passover. 
The following represents the recto, and a portion of the 
verso of the third leaf. 

(recto) 
^*f ^DVa ptoi> ^m |B1K 

■\d-id5>i pn5>py bpb\>b b? ay bv hkt 



46 SAADYANA 

: nDKi nr bv nr «npi 5 
n)vc\rh niK^a ^113 • • • • d kv*' 

niwni> D^c6tnDi D'^ain D-^phn 

nayitsiD dv c^Dini? k"»p nnn 10 
nnyoD lanao i>y lac^ loyr 

(verso) 



xvm. 

Fragment T-S. S B. 2, four leaves, liturgical, paper, size 
17x13 cm., written in a cursive hand. The following 
represents the verso of the second leaf (a primary Selicha 
to the Fast of Gedaliah) and the recto and verso of the 
third leaf: — 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

"»mKan n'»n • nxn ic^m '•t^a: nb2t< 

nKn5>K^3 Dvna wyn 'nNcn ary 

•Dpha ••jiaDK^ D'^annn D'»»n 5 

*npbn )]]2) mpD 1DDU1 

• Dp3 Dvn loi^a nc^K nn^c^ ^Jpr 

• Dp-'nK p n^hi r2 nny li^nin 

Dwn nn** y"^^^ ^^^ '^^^'^^ 

DuFi D'^Dnia pnn nn-ixn f?bK 10 

;pKn v^i'^'o mips n'^aavi 



SAADYANA 47 

(Leaf 3 recto) 

jrnn na^ inni ino ip ii nai^ 
'y3 n?\n jprn "bv n^n nnoon 

(Leaf 3 Terso) 

nnijnj5>i • niKoi) nan i:sni)K •»•» incnip 

"»D pK iwinai 'iiD npn pK 

yoK^ >D PK T^hnni •inT 

p3^ "•01 'i^D-jn ynv ^d ^d 5 

THJi^n ny nh"' ^di •i-ninniK 

n?po onaj ^di • Tm^i^BJ 

HTiii^yao niD 5>y noy ^di 10 

XIX. 

Fragment T-S. 8 H 3, paper, size 18x14 cm., written in 
a cursive hand, and reading as follows : — 

2pv^ pw n)y^ t^Nn nnyo nni w^d^j nepa 

Donoi t^Kn5> i^^^j j^c^jjid nn« inai> « Kin nnx 
^'131 '131 i>3» nn:i nii^nnn b:^ bv ni^yji niannn 5^3 bv 



XX. 

Fragment T-S. 8 H 6, paper, one leaf, size 18x16 cm., 
written in a square hand, and contains the colophon — 

5ij 5r nnyo li-'an riKii^v 

* See Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie, p, 95, No. 5. 



48 SAADYANA 

with the name of the owner 

whilst the verso reads — 

yrhnn •t'j^ ^ai nnon "•noc^ "'^'» 

XXI. 

Fragment T-S. 6 H i, the remainder of a collection of 
hymns, consisting of two leaves of a quire, of which the 
middle pages are missing, paper, size 14x10 cm., reproduces 
in the last two lines of leaf 2 verso the following words : — 

with which the MS. breaks offi 



XXII. 

Fragment T-S. 8 H i, consisting of six leaves, paper, size 
i5xiocm.y strongly cursive, probably representing a 
Machsor for the Day of Atonement. The following piece 
reproduces the contents of the first leaf, recto (beginning 
with the ninth line from the top) and verso. 

(recto) 



b^ n^^yo i3bm nnnK 
ni?an nni • nnK mnan «nK . 
'\ra^ nhnj • nnon nrnni 

^ See Zunz, ibid., p. 96, No. 6. ' Of. Zunz, ibid., p. 98. 



SAADYANA 49 

inat^ par coyn 

ci^iy -f^ non • * * • * n« ni>»3 

(verso) 

5)bm D-'Dnnn irn^JK ^-i? • ninety 

• irnc^nD npr^v *iko ^y 
rh)o * )rhM ddk nnx niw 5 ' 

ytra 5jy nniy • inhao jiy ^nioi 

cpn^ npnv • njiDxn D^ac^ 
3B^ip •nwT bi> (l)nKnv 

• n^nnn d-'kip v^p nK>np 10 

'^m:^:] b)'^:7] bwi nrho oytDB^ 
IDK^ i?y HNT nt:^ • KiiJni . 
i3-ni3 • • y Jjinon • nnno 

li>D {?«••• Kip: IDB^ "•a 

xxm. 

Fragment T-H. 8 H 4, paper, six leaves, size 16x10 cm., 
representing the remainder of a hymnal to Purim, wi'itten 
in an ancient square hand with a turn to cursive. The 
following piece forms the contents of the first leaf. 

(recto) 
E 



50 SAADYANA 

: }nc> ^n b^ bv ibr^ Kin nbc 133 5 
ni3i>DnNBi)^DP3n bin wn 
.3W roM nianni> i^aini tawn 
^D nxi ^i^y: N^J nr : snt 3p^3 

IK'K^i "»Ki>D : 3Kr naja aw win 10 

N^ Nin w iT : Dy-Di i^ai) 2b xb 

Dyni) ii> W3 : Dyyini> u^^d n^^y 

nay> vh : oy^cnn pin niM pb 

:DynTo sjid^ nJ) D-ian oniiTn iino 

: nw:n ^b vra '•b5> pnn ^d 15 

"•DD1D : n^rnjj nna or • ^wkj 

(verso) 

niai^D bv '•e^i^e^ oae^ ^ana ^anry 

in"»ii nnna nna : rv\srb'i^ ^p 

nonn miyn nnS : nanxni) 5 

^an nJ) ^ennp :n3ia nono nnin 5 ^^ 

'*2i : nafeo ^id3k^ oy wa I r 

: ro)bon ynro nhoi> n^oyn mam g 

nnp ^^K Dy nny '►naae^ 
Dy >i> Dip^ ^D : D^ycn niiaeiDi 
naon : D^yn oy av^n^i D'^yno 10 

: D^yni> wbn o^ynsn t»d^3 
: D^yiirytr ni>^ np^i pc'ira lion 

TB ':i 1^»5>K 
This i& followed by a hymn of B^iDir. 

XXIV. 

Fragment T-S. 8. 233, parchment, one leaf, size 13 x 
18 cm., written in a square hand, and representing the 
colophon of a liturgical work (containing private prayei*9) 
by R. Saadyah. 



SAADYANA 



P) i« 33n {jK Jpt^ rr^bv nD"»pn koi n-'s Kirann * • • 
* '• ]'n^'^^ bt< }6C nonp np ^:kq iT^jj; ^i^jjo po Hn2^ 
* * bt^ yvKiD ^B niariD iH y^oa ft<i ^mjoo Kin 5 

* • tb b\^ bn mn noen n:6C kikb n^aoN ro • • 

• ^\J? nijjv rvn oh HK^JKn bv^ nnax ""{jy pna • * • 
iDKpnoNi p^Kv t: i6i> nna t: ^5>y ^f>vn Di^i pa • • 

fc036C vh)^ pni bvi lae^ fwi tvd tivid 3^n«i 
• • • moi nf>f>6C nona awoi^K on ^>^^^^ 10 

na^moi^K dki ddi ^ni>K nirr {)« riKii^v 
• • nyD n'^'rh inar piu rrnyo i3un 
♦ • • lyn^ Ko ^vtnbn thirb 15 



XXV. 

Fragment T-S. 8. 234, parchment, one leaf, size 12 x 
10 cm. The recto contains a colophon written in a square 
hand of the year 1061, whilst the i^DSn on the verso is 
written in a rather different cursive hand. 

(recto) 

OD mpmh na^ 

nana ^nstr ^*^^ nTaai>K 
• • • 3 TH ^an ^a nnry 
n^DK^i D^af^K nyaiK n^^ 5 

I^jpK^K n^noa nn^x^f) 
yiac^aK' n-'trtrn mty 
ytyn ^:i^ n^a }ann^i 
E 2 



52 SAADYANA 

* • n^^ D"»j;wi ni[«»] lo 

D^3C^ ♦ • • 

(verso) 

in : «nD p ^i^tk ^nn v?J 'b ^i' H* Qni^i^K 

• • ♦ ' • nyDi K'rK oi^i^N nennvD jok nd 

• ♦ • PD^« ^D ^31 ni>^K n^^ i3« ^af>p ^d 



XXVI. 

Fragment T-S. 8. 235, parchment, one leaf, size 17 x 
15 cm., in a square hand, and has on the recto a colophon, 
and on the verso the well-known poem on the number of 
the letters of the Old Testament. The MS. seems decidedly 
of a very ancient date, and greatly guarantees the 
authenticity of this piece disputed by some scholars^. 

(recto) 

nnvD 1^31 fi>3vn 

[p]nT pii p niDH 5 
• * • iiin iprn irnn 

(verso) 

DKn nnyo pw W'ani' orQ 

pirv* n • * 3K "^i^y • • • py. ino n3^n»f>« 

•nsD (1)^ii ni^oa "»d 35 PjinK riy 

i>npn ^:pr ii?y diw ^r:3 p3o bm 5 

* Cf. reference in Landshuth's Amude ha-Ahoda, p. 299, but our text 
agrees with none of the editions. 



8AADYANA 53 

* ^31 1W3 min raAi • ^nnp iK^y 
* D^nan idd»^ Dnon • D-'nain v6 na 
tanina ^JOT nnD • u^^^ • • • • « r*^"'^^ 
inir nrh px •nmo ovy • • • • ♦ ♦ 

inn ptr«nn na5>D ♦ ♦ • * ^•^^pg t,^ j^ 
* niJvnD • pt^3 *inm a 



xxvn. 

Fragment T-S. 8 K i, paper, one leaf, size 17 x1a cm., 
written in a square hand with a turn to cursive. The recto 
represents the colophon of a codex once in the possession 
of a Head of the Dispersion, Daniel b. Solomon (about 1 165) 
of Bagdad, and afterwards (11 75) owned by Jacob b. Eli, 
probably a brother of Samuel b. Eli, the head of the school 
in the same place ^. The codex contained various pieces by 
the Gaon B. Saadyah and the Qaon K. Samuel b. Chofni. 

(recto) 

"N Hn)b} e^Ni ^x-'n • • • 5> 

ID n^'^M i?pT »n)b: e^n 

nen b)bH2 yj ^b p npjr i>D 'bn bpn^t^ 

ana r 'bv axnai^K «nn fenc^ 

13U11 irno pi^i^KH niBnoijK Kna 5 

axnai yai >»vq pw innyo 

: nb ^ mina nwno nyanxi *•*{>« 

* See Graetz, Chschichtef vol. VI, p. 276. 

' See Aruchy s. v. nra?, where it seems that R. Hai wrote a treatise on tlie 
rr»:rra Y'3. It is not known to me that R. Saadyah wrote on the bame 
subject. Cf. also Hdlachoih Gedohih, ed. Warsaw, 138 a sq. (beg. of Halachoth 
Bechoroth)f Midrash,. Lekach Tob (ed. Wilna), Numbers, 83 b sq.. 



54 SAADYANA 

NHDI Vii 3K p PW pan i>K1DC^ 
y3 ^VQ pwi> STTK niDnD^JN *B io 
'PK3 JPIDiT i>iODtr T^KH niKOD 

yii pw pan [^jkIicb^ xnsi^ijK ni>Kp» 

*aK y^bn ntbi< • • • » ^i^y iTb n^ p * * v 15 
nitD p^D naoD p I • • • 
i^Dnn nwo Ta in jron Dimi> 

prnn h^jd jdw 
ptni pm 20 

On the verso, which is written in a different band^ the 
first six lines run as follows : — 

(verso) 

'^bv noinD^K KKM^K nyow bap 

innts^ HDoa fK^^ni^K u\nb p tcrxon 

nb^H p rwpKBV^ pii'^^j) nnxna gw 

ni>aK p riKpNDvi pnjn nrya Dnb«i 5 

NiNV •Knnxia m-iao pny on 



xxvni. 

Fragment T-S. 12. 722, parchment, i leaf, written in 
square with a tendency to cursive* It comes from a codex 
representing the commentary of B. Saadyah to Isaiah. As 
we see from the colophon, dated 1031, the codex belonged 
at one time to Josiah the son of Aaron the son of Josiab. 
Another colophon above this in larger ornamental letters, 
but as I believe, of a later date, tells us that the codex was 
in the possession of Jacob son of Job. There are also 



SAADYANA 55 

written in contemporary Caroline minuscules the Latin 
words tdcio esaye prophete. Thifr is the first time I have 
found a non-Semitic title on a fragment coming from 
the Geniza. 

(recto) 

na nnnn 

• ♦ fiKa nnj?D i:^nn nia^n t\>w p'nnD nr 'idd 
* • ♦ * nann IiT'k^"' no paa in:p py ito iTDno 

♦ • Dm; i« innw^ iJ^an *iiDn rh^vor^ pnK td 

na^^n lODini n^w n^^a iidvx6 wioidd 

D^fii^K nyanx nae^ x^n ^av na^c^ rwnp^ 10 

• • • ^y [najnoa nn^v^i> nnxi o^yKni nwo yaen 

n • • • • • nnnM nioc^i nwr6 inar^ mpon 

iDBtrtD • • ♦ TiD5>i>i D"iDc^ nKT3 nnir^i pnh 

piv • • • • "thn pDp • • • • 31 roi^nai nnina 

B^ »i?n(?) 15 

(verso) 

5> n^ye^ nne 

iD« ♦ • f>i) nKi>vnDKi>N awn • [a] 

• ♦ • • :i) • • n • • 5> p noKfiijK aK3 ♦ • 

• • • « ni^K ni^^JK an n^i^yo mo, • • 
3^K «h tP'i^ wo Pfi Dfccn« • • 

• • • D NDK J naom D'^mi^N *inDni?N d" ; 
• • TNio ni>r3o khjk ^i?yi i^wi^K ^b nno • • 

N^v bn yanN ••& ib bn Kin nn'^if t« ^^^^ i?vn • 

i>yD i>« «nni k • * * m -n: noi i«iyN i^Ki nNi?« {jnd mw© i© nono 



56 



SAADYANA 



• • • • 



t23 b^ hkt; ^'^ ^D3K ij«fn nnxna ""a cjvi kd3i xna i>N Kin wa 

* • • ♦ oh i>3n nvi'»i *b^ ntj^y 'ip nya ^tr «p3 d^jq ii * 

• • • • b:i voax nwijK f>«i n^^1D i>Ki nno i^K fjr '•aanoD yxn • 
V K1D3K nxpK^JD bti n3N3 n« Kn5> nnno i>« i» nnc^no n 

13 vp i>«n yxniKi^fc^ pa"' nd^k b^ ixynoMi ixor "»ai fxa 

ba^ • • • Dnn ii>n "a ni^xp nod i^ip i?K dd« vd^jk mn ana i^N • 
••••?•• Jjya y« nyijNDD T:3 H^jya p3"» "»ijr«i>i> a:i nd3i 

• • ^ • • Dpa i>ipi>«3 Dni) n • • ' • nni nnNat^ no"»i>yn pD^ ik 

p) DiTO^ijyn ""a N^yi^N npni)> «5> n^n.jo nN^^N 

aayoi^K npnnn Ki>« jn ni> nai nd31 ^j31 ^n nn'i"' nnxnio • 

N»3i tDpa ijip i>«n i?i y'Da i'iy 5»3 Dn5> naxr b^ T'yi 5>Nt '3N3y b • 
ym i) 60 5>y) ^la i>y Tinx yn •paxa i^x pnn ""a nana ^a ^i • • 

• • ♦ • D y-Di naa^ p jNnnoa • y^o^h ni^n^j 60 yi ^ia i>y in 

• • • 5> xnn^ mv 5>n Nnn i>y:K jk ^iwyn ^li'Ki wy xh. ^vo vh 

• • • • i>K p «n^n3 nn:i ^3x )r\bi6^ bti nn^K y^o: • • 3 p axn 

• * • • : ^N |o D''3n i>K }N3 KIN ]'\b)p['] rwjjvn • • d pi> }k on 
DK^^K JjN ^ • • noi Nop ijKi Wki con ^K • • • V i>K3 n • • • }N nij-'no 

• • • 5j«3 nnnax d«v Noan i?K o^i* • bti nxi? • • nox • r • • Noa n^aon 
K tri:n i>K mx "a N-nni pi^ip^a b^i:3 ^jn m«3 «5) n^yi • • 

• ♦ • • w IK • • ^ • Daijb • • ptibc • • /^ Rn K^n jk!) ^ • • xin i>« anx p 

? fK ^:33^a ni) vnoD^ji? nnpi nv • • • • n inanij pnx • 

NV «D3K ]'*p ^JjddIjn I^< 5) pni • • • • Jjk Knn i?T «d ^n 

• • • bb^"* i i>KT'yi • • ivv * • • • i^a n • • • • Km DnnKi^vnoK 

• * bn noa^ '»5»y 5|K3> dkj nia i> • ♦ • nbx k • • • • ni^Kai^K 

yiH bt^ '•K nvp> iHi^a ivt^^o ik • ♦ • • kd • • Non i>3i 

• • • Nn»i nyai indt^k bip w^ ""^^ « i>a n * 

yiKD DKonK ^b mpKa Kja 5>n ^i^aa 

• pvj^ JjN ♦ • • K ^3 p3N • • • • i) i?)p nc^pi • • a t^ • • • 
* • • • nnx nam 



• • • • 



15 



as 



30 



35 



40 



^.^«^ 



SAADYANA 



57 



XXIX. 

Fragment T-S. 12. 723, paper, one leaf, size 26 x i6«5 cm. 
(writing 21x1 1*5), written in an ancient square hand, 
protably not later tKan the eleventh century. The writing 
is much faded in many places, but enough is left to show 
that it represents the remainder of a letter addressed to the 
Gaon R. Saadyah by a pupil of one of his disciples ^ 
The burden of the letter is, in its present defective state, 
impossible to ascertain. 



•^m* 



b'boD nibi D'^K^a pp» 

:5)DBnD D • • ♦ • 

5) • • •• i>3 nyn 

: q vhti^ bhrj 

^ • • n nN^jaj 

5)033 oanv^i 

jnmi bJpJ? noni 

imD3 Dya pKC^ naa 
iniooy k!) n^no b^ p 
^:d3 

n • • • • vJjK ^TT'DT 

•133101 nnc^ inD^JK^j ^noi^Ki 

n3^n: ^33 ii>Di> kit 

n3ino i>3 01 • • • 

131 ^hoi? iiy.1 b 

:i3i« inK i« • • • ^3 

13OT3 ^vnn ^vr^ni D3^crn dv3 

n;;*^:j*»n n^yuin pi • • 

• • cnw k!> .13 • ♦ ♦ ♦ 



(recto) 

ij"»i>y3 D^ny3e' ppro 

b'b^'i nD3 i?33 roii^o 

ij^ijyni> • • ^^3 nt^ • • 

: b'bM ^yi» mic^D 

HB'no Dwy 5 

piONn.i3 in> 

510i« • ny3 

510V3 • on • • • 

HOD ^iK ^:a mc' 

yiDI p (1) 1DK 10 

yii3 1131 c^ 

Kin JO KI1: Kin 

iniK7ii> ID • • ono ^oi^i 

n3v^n6C iiy« tk 

n[3iK]ijni • i«» ni3a 15 

n3y ^:niD)o i:dp |n 

n3 • • • ♦ K3 inTui 

• • • i) Dim • • • 

(1)13K • • • av3 • • • 3^ 

I3n m ]2T\b no idk^ )b 30 

I3yn^ i>K ^;j*Ki (])iye^ 

131 • • Dvo • • bv 

;ik6d n3D bv ivv 



* Below, verso 1. 3. 



58 SAADYANA 

(verso) 

^:iH aitr Dic^ nenm «!> (?)iBnTO3 0)nnn3n 
^iJUM KU^ in^un ""ivo ^tch n^^e^ 

wana n«r r^ • * * "'^k ptrb dhk^ 

"•i^n nw nnw '•:y»3 t^v • • • ib^ 

^inwn naoa nNion ^ts^en ""rpr ^eii^K 

• • • i>n pjntsn ^t^mo mo f>33i 

* '•enp mno nn i)w 
0)DKn nyaxiD n^a • • • v 
ni>i>K nonn nn • • i> • 

Tyi>B^ I • • i> • • na'»t5^ ^kt 5|Di^ p n^^iyo 15 
n • ♦ • wnn j • • • • d« • • n5> • n'^orro 
njn ^wp ^3 trim noan nana pen 
i^aKM noiD nnpi) • ♦ ns ncn noroi 
l5> trb^ i3niv Tirjr np^i w^oei) aie^m 
nwian ^^bdi man • • ib« mi^tr "»:dk ac 
nnoen nnwi niaai pvni d^m (i)nD oni 



XXX. 

Fragment T-S. 12. 724, two pages, size a6 x 18 cm., written 
in an ancient cursive hand, coming from a codex containing 
Responsa of the Oaonim. The following, closely written, 
begins at the fourteenth line from the top, and represents 
about half a page. A part of its contents is already known 
from the collection naicrn nyi^, No. 87. It will be seen 
that our text is the more complete one, and gives the 



SAADYANA 



59 



original version of this Responsum, whikt the other repro- 
duces merely an extract* 




6o SAADYANA 



XXXI. 

Fragment T-S. 13 G 2, paper, two leaves, the top broken 
away, now size 2,1x21 cm., square hand, representing the 
remainder of a codex of Responaa of the Oeonim. The 
following lines occur on the recto of leaf 2, whilst their 
contents closely recall those of Responsum 386 in the 
Teshuboth ha-Geonim, ed. Harkavy. The R. Nathan men- 
tioned liere is probably identical with Nathan b. Juda, the 
grand uncle ( Aluf) of the Gaon R. Sherira \ 

ax in3 n fjKpi • n''inyi?K onNm^JX n-^n^ Dnnn nhjo n b:^ jri ni^K 
IKnto i?i mo moi^xi d'tind nnnina n^inn bi urh)p b^ ra^e^n 

* * • ♦ •runo fiD3 (i)KniDD ni>K 



XXXIL 

Fragment T-S. 10 Gi, paper, five leaves, size 22x19 
cm., cursive, and representing a portion of Responsa of 
the Geonim. The following piece, forming a part of the 
contents of the third leaf, recto and verso, is marked as 
No. 61 (kd): — 

(recto) 

* n^oOT bi22 mptin nu annc^D pm nh 5>Ntwi kd 

• • • n!? Di ntryo u iTH DN1 n"'''t3i DN» i^T nnyo n» itri^a nr TtDe^ 

^an ^iKH «H pnn Npn Di niryo n'»3 n\i>i nrn jdd mvdk^ dki ]b 

♦ • • o ijtr ii"»DD nnDiy ^Km >Nni • Nnyotrn n-'b pan iB^nsm 

N^JK niBK ^^K innanj lac^ '»jbd nnyo 16 Dxna iK^ay NXo:n 5 
* • f Ncntr yao dkd |d nnx dnd pa*" np pNa n>nyD no OK'naae^ 

* See the letter of R. Sherira, p. 39 (ed. Neubauer), 
^ Sotaj 48 a. 



SAADYANA 6l 

nxno new n trDntr^tr TDirn nr i>3fc< nin'^an h^dd JjoB^tr no 

(verso) 

u^i^m '•0^3 nypnno k\ik^ n nypnai mi>3 nnon pKi monn ^©••a 

n^trxnn '•d^ n'^c^i nniVK^a inn^atr Kin nn Dib nn"»Dn n^Ki 

trniQDn mD3 iniK py^vDi v^m nvoyij nha^ nnn i?3 pxi xnia 

nNT 13 n^Dtrn mix jd nvd3 n>nK^ no 5)3tr n5?n n'^n nin d3 n^^ xfji 

xi^K n'^DK^ Kinn "•3ji> NiDD N^j SnD^Jijn ^n^*:! t:2 trnsDi 'wnn 5 

n"*! iincTDi n-na^ n«0Di>n ^«n»tr nb n^^nxn on^tj^ • • ono 
^a ^y piK Nvpjn nn i;dd Dii>3 Nv»a Ki>i n^oiy iniN i>t3'': srnpon 
D'»:3N nin-a ut:^ ^3Sd tdk^ nnyo no n^i? nxp xp ii) non • • • 

niytD nn pKi 



xxxin. 

Fragment T-S. 16. 310, paper, size 35 x 24 cm., one leaf, 
coming from a Responsa of the Geonim, and giving a 
quotation from the commentaries of the Gaon. There are 
in the Geniza other pieces like this, and as far as I was 
able to read them mperfidally, they come from Kabbi 
Samuel ben Chofni. 



• • 



21 m'l wn^sn i:3^vdi •xn^'D nan xm Ditw nn n*-!? ^Dn-'i? ntrx pay^j ^03 pi 
N3^n B^na Nnaac^ ^aj^n D^Jtrxn trinai? pao ♦ • • Ta i?if n • • • pw nnyo 

inr ^ipi:^ ni^D H\nrb ^D^b «nv'»» ^n ^bxi nno^^-^Nn 

(i)nnNtri in^^^«i "inn xn'-a N^iatrDa Nvnx n d'»ni 5 

•»«» pN Knx^D '•aa ptc n"*!? ^nD'^Di^vn^ • • ♦ ; 

aitsm ntr\n n^a nay'»iDi> ••j;a'»D ""an on nn ♦ ♦ 

* 6e«iw, 68 b. 



62 SAADYANA 



XXXIV. 

Fragment T-S. lo G 2, paper, eight leaves, size 21x17 cm., 
square writing with a turn to cursive, forming originally a 
part of codex oiResponsa of the Geonim. The following lines 
i*eproduce a portion of leaf 4 verso,and represent a responsum 
by B. Hal Gaon to the people of Segelmessa, in Africa, in 
which the name of R. Saadyah occurs. Some of its contents 
were already known from a quotation given by R. Isaac 
Abbamare in his Ittur ^. 



]y:^D) KiDD "n nan K'^vion cjk 6)« nniiT i pmo nijn nK^ won 

ntr n^NiD ik nino nam i>5jniD ^TiJ ^j^dni n"»NiD ^n p^opiiDn ny 5 

D inoB> D^an dkt ^vt nnyo nn id mni> pnne^n «o ji^ ^trpi 

1 xanaiD ik 5in oyo ••kd p^yn^ xi^i pnniD inoK^ D^ani pniD^ 

niD-K mom mi? Jj^nxn jko f^ yoe^ «ij pxi ncn^n «in xnoim 

Q^nan * • • • ^i? jtdk^ nJ) xanax pa^y nna^i no ]b ^'^b'^ onn laaimp lana 

nn y:^i Kai? y^ocr »h fn pnnio inoiy D'^nan kIj^n pniDK inotr 10 

payij pn ion D^ann ^xni nI^^n n^nD o^nan noK yi pwa nnyo 

)nb nan D^nann ••aiijc' won «o5>yn xanaDi pn payi? pni jni^^nK 

no^nt^ * • io« pniDK Q^no noxn }«oi o-no pi ayx ♦ • • 

• • pi KaKi nnnijrni ni^Ntrn NNn ir i^wne^ n'^n np^ax • • ^ • 

^ KnsDinn N^an ^nni i?T psa laanKij w^do 15 

' D^no pn Q-m pn Doam oon Dn« biK kd • 



^ See Mueller in his collection appended to the nwr»*n 'd, by R. Saadyah, 
p. 149, No. 19. Of. also Harkavy in the Hebrew periodical Happdes^ 11, 74* 
' Aboda Zara, 39 b. ' Shabbathj 90 b. 

* These dots are in the MS. 

* See Terunwth, chap. 9. Cf. Commentaries to nyi niv tie, § 13. 



SAADYANA 63 



XXXV. 

Fragment T-S. 8 J i , size 19 x 14-2 cm.(writing 14-5x1 1*3), 
consists of two quires, each numbering two leaves. It is 
written in a square Rabbinic hand, probably not later than 
the twelfth century. Their contents represent a panegyric 
of a head of the Academy of ^ njono, which fact suggested my 
giving them a place in this article, dedicated to the greatest 
master of this school. The style is strictly paitanic, both 
in its grammatical formations^ and its allusive diction^. 
It is also provided, as most Piyutlm are, with rhyme and 
acrostic. The latter, defective at the beginning, gives in 
the first piece, ny ny^ ^n^ n%n rjn * ni>3D ; in the second, 
beginning enotr dk (leaf i, v.), rh^:n njn rhyo in 1^31 DiraK 
ny ny ^n^ ; the third, beginning pk (leaf 2, v.), in wan nrrsM ; 
in the fourth, defective at the beginning, and commencing 
riNVD ^3 (leaf 3, r.), ^n^ nb'iyn m n^:i[D]; in the fifth, 
beginning nvnx (leaf 3, v.), Dmnx ; whilst the sixth, com- 
mencing with vbn, also defective at the beginning, 
(leaf 4, r.), nv3 n:iT n^n'' rh'on i)]n rh^o ratna. The Nun 
before nae^ formed probably the concluding letter of inan 
or |0N. As to the subject of this panegyric, only one thing 
is certain that it was, as already mentioned, composed in 
honour of the head of the Academy of iTDHID (or Sura?) 

^ This vocalization confirms the opinion of Lebrecht (quoted by Berliner 
in his BeitrSge zur GeagraphUj p. 46, n. a) that the correct pronunciation is 
Machseya, not Machasya. 

^ See the reference to Zunz, Syn, Poesie, in the notes to the text, to 
which many other words may be added, as nrvras, mion, rrnai, icc2f2, 
ncDiTC, ptt:op, &c. &c. 

' See e. g. leaf 2 verso, IL 15-21 ; leaf 3 verso, 1. 7 (nc for 
Israel), &c 

* In connexion with this eulogy it will not be uninteresting to repro- 
duce here contents to two fragments stored in the Colophon Bpx of the 
T-S. Collection; the one reading ]t2« ^Trrv^ iror narDTi rhsD*) F]nso ^« nnn, 
whilst the other m:j3n na^ttrn rin^D ttcicn D;na« n no^ See also 
Benjamin's Itinerary (ed. Asher), I, 48, the title nn»»n TD» 



64 SAADYANA 

"the broken down," which he will make terrible and 
mighty again ^, and which he will re-establish as the 
school of the religion ^ where certain portions of the Jewish 
civil law will be studied ^. The further details, as far as 
they can be gathered from this turgid style, and the many 
unintelligible lines, are that the lately installed head was 
the father of three sons, Baruch, Jannai, and Solomon*, 
and of two married daughters®. He had also brothers 
and sister's sons ®, who apparently were considered members 
of his own family. His wife, we further learn, was still 
alive, but rather advanced in years''^, whilst he also 
enjoyed the services of Abraham the priest®, the writer 
of this panegyric, who acted, as it seems, as his secretary, 
relieving his master in the performance of his heavy 
duties ®, who besides his teaching activity ^^ was also en- 
gaged in works of charity and lovingkindness ^^. Another 
servant of his was the priest Amram^^. It is further 

* Leaf r recto, 1. 8. 

* Ibid., 1. 9, mn na*«\ 

^ Ibid., U. 10-12. Gf . Taanithf 24 a and b, that in the days of Rab. Juda 
mn pp'wa '^'on bD, which circumstance may have repeated itself in the 
time of our writer. See, however, Weiss, Zur Oeschichte der Tradition^ 
III, p. 230. 

* Leaf I recto, 1. a, and leaf a recto, 1. as. 

* Leaf I recto, 1. as, nnuTDn ^nuji, also called c^aoa (leaf i verso, 1, 3), and 
probably the wives of the D*3nn mentioned in the same line. 

* Leaf I verso, 1. 3, and leaf a recto, 1. 34, leaf i verso, 1. 4, and leaf 9 
recto, 1. 25, suggest that one of these sisters was married to a man named 
Eli, the priest, whose son was a special favourite of our Rabbi. 

' Leaf I verso, 1. 18, and recto, 1. 19. 

' Leaf I verso, 1. 6, pDn omiw, and it is his name which turns up so- 
often in the acrostic. 

* Leaf I verso, 11. 7 and 8. 
*° Leaf I recto, 1. 9. 

" Leaf a verso, II. a^-zg ; leaf 4 recto, II. io-a6. 

" Leaf I verso, 1. 11, but the meaning of the text is rather obscure. It 
is not impossible that this Amram is introduced as the father of our 
Abraham. Perhaps I may here call attention to the following passage 
copied from a leaf representing the remainder of an eminent responsa : 
rmvi cv taa (?)D^rD >*:Dm p:nr:3 u^z ira-n Snan airr ';»3:n '12*31 Tizrry 
c^jEb iu:r:c a^aoi tcmS irsnM '0^ pw 'nh ^z>y^ n:m • nyiro pNt z:7rzz2 



SAADYANA 65 

clear that the jurisdiction of our Rabbi not only included 
the whole of Babylon, but also extended to the schools 
in the Christian countries; for he was ''the strength of 
the dispersion in Eabel and in Edom/' *' and his fame 
went through all the provinces ^." All this wide influence, 
generosity, and learning did not, however, protect our 
Babbi against the ill-will of his enemies, among which 
the people of m^bo were especially distinguished ^, but who 
were quite subdued by his authority and the force of his 
pen^ This last feature would especially apply to the 
Gaon R. Saadyah, who was particularly famous for his 
controversial skill, and who had especial merits in the 
restoration of the school of Sura*. Indeed, he was called 
to this chair with the especial purpose of bringing back 
to this seat of learning its ancient glory. The reference 
to Joseph may also include perhaps an allusion to the 
father of the Gaon, who bore this name*. But there is 
this objection, that no reference is made in this panegyric 
to R. Dosa, the only son of the Gaon, known to history. 
Another restorer of Sura was the Gaon R. Samuel ben 
Chofni, the last head of this great school®, but there we 
are confronted with, the similar difficulty that no mention 
is made of R. Hai Gaon, the son-in-law of the former. 



Dior '2n»a ^z'pn orraw p2-» npicn r6w?3 irr6« »:c^> naw^nn tcpiS 

|iy in'3. The impression conveyed by these lines is that the writer was 
a contemporary of R Hananel and R. Nissim, and may thus have been 
the secretary of R. Samuel b. Chofni. That again the secretary of the 
Gaon was as a rule a man of learning and enjoying an eminent position 
is clear from R. Sherira*s letter (ed. Neubauer) in which he mentions 
with pride the fact inDD nn "U'lH ^ntn. What speaks against the suggested 
identification is the omission of the title jm in the cited passage. 
^ Leafs verso, 11. 15, 16, and 2d ; leaf 4 recto, 1. 25. 

* Leaf I verso, 1. 10. 

* Leaf 3 verso, 1. 13 seq., and recto, 11. 11-16. 

* See Graetz, vol. V, p. 276. 

* Leaf 2 recto, 1. 15. 

* See Graetz, vol. VI, pp. i and 7 ; Harkavy, Studien und Mittheilungenf 
III, p. I, text and notes. 

F 



66 SAADYANA 

(Leaf I recto> 

'•Dnicn Dim ••m "w^ *avni •onaw wna i^Kis^ mn 
na'^tr'n mo no ro'^TTn nci^in '»n3^i inn uk 
:nTDyn Q^ya no 
•pl^ni n''5r:m Q^e^a^n tf»cnni> •cjt^y mn nyiK^n *niD 

• p^DDH n^ b^^ rnn nni? • p^sn ^Tnbn '\'V ni>na 
:nnyi ^j.npi) di!?c^ nitryb •p'^a i^a Toni? b^;) b^ y^vh 

• nviiyi nNni3 mpa noitri? • nmsn fr^oni^b inj nn5> 
tnnp^in mn wb^ pani? '•nyinoni pe^yn niic^ ^^b 

• naici mipn ynn:i yninn • njpnij r'!^^^ PQ^ LBtrcn 10 

p i>y •UKV no^i^s ^rna n'^^^i? Mmn ^a yT ij\n^K ^^'•i 

•nni»y T^n n«i nyi'n/jniK •nniov mn li? kni ny ny 15 
: mien T^nni^i i? nnnb • nnicn ^33 nnao ^^ai?© 
ijin:Di • nci^n no'^v iniar d:ii • noyn y^th T'lnx niar 
:miov nnitD3 lynr iT.t •no^ xi? ne^x dnt 
fjnnn xi? onpavi trn*''' b2 Dt^ne^ ♦i>na'' ni^yo^ ny t^3 nin 
tmna mh i^K cni^^nm '{jt n^j onus ^p^ t6 dijj; 20 
Nin • D^atro Nin oai inr-rtD "»nt:^ • D3n nnxi vjr D>Taa 
: HT'n ncn'^i nmaa oiin • on: i>y nnxi ina bv ^'^^ 
'^ •mnnm nyi:> \x\i ••aoiMi •nannsn nairitra nnK^an ^nen 

nc^nn ^^an iTnia ja: oai •n::'»nn n^«3 norn jyo^ 25 
HKtJ^a HDDy 7 n^?3 '•31 • T)^D:^y\ npciv n^i nm nnnia "»3 

' See Isa. vi. 6 and 7, but the allusion is not quite clear to me. 

* Ree Gen. xlix. 11. ' Jer. xxii. 17. 

* Denom. from 1^2?^. * Read n:n">in. 

' See Song of Songs, i. 3. Perhaps they had some Midrash on this 
verse suggesting the Dira pn"?, &c. 
' See Gen, xviii. 12. 



SAADYANA 67 

(Leaf I verso) 

:muT "ji? ^^n nu^D nyacn 'pntM pnr D^-n 
D'^jaani D'»:nnni n^^n«n ^oni> • JiTtiuio on ^dk^ pn^ 

*:nniDij nniND ino ntrx •inne^D pan Dnnnx ne^x 
•inmpan ntrxa }t:N3 Tps nnnyT "d ybv ^c^aJ n-jpj 

fn> ^oj? ry ana vanao np:^ ijeoa inacn^ irni^N pi) 
'^ : HTbo "B^JNi i^iiDiB^ r^ana • ^t:h^ i?VJ22 no ii> 10 
n^m^n • onoy pan ii?va naiDi> • on n^Don^ inxa nnDy 
: mn3 Mn i>K in5>np bi • onpi^ irya pnva 
nb yen) • n5K.btDn ovp^fi?^ * n5\S^n ohyi* wan T'nvh 
• m^i>yn nnnKi n^nnn niai^DDi • na^ban 

* : mn^ ^b n^iy D.Tra nriNi 15 
^^ah •D^a 1T1 nnn:a i^^on •d^^p inar wcn^ip D^t:^ 

: mmynn oc^a^ nnvyai • d'^mko i:n^ 0'*ai?» 
• pnwi i^^yoa ny^ir^ e^am • pnaNm iKoai? ry ni»y 
: mini na-^na nat ynra • pnn niy \n^ inna ng^ufji 
• Y'^i^^ bv Q''ow ^D^a • Y^r\2 noy^ i^kv«v nhi ao 
: miiTi> ncn mi>'» ntrx • pa n^aa in^a "m 
nibi^;i nnaii:iD 

•laoai mi«i> CT^iy q^idk Mnaa onixa n^i BnD5y dk • 
napK^o iri?K ^niiii?'»i nnsci •wae^n iri^x ni3ii>nn nya • 
• lapj nni«i nino ivop • ran ni«D ini ivn • 25 
nany Dnn^» in»an nnn Mnaa D^:ia3 bv vnii>yo p • 
iLDKi n nc^N D^i>S"iDn d:i •nanni nanK ii>aB^ htd • 

* See Zunz, Die synagogcUe Poesie, p. 391, sub bn, 
' See Ps. cxxviii. 3. Cf. recto, 1. 25. 

' See below, leaf 2 recto, 11. 24, 25. 

* Perhaps part. pass, from a denom. verb from Tcb. 

* Name of a place C?) . 

^ Seems to be modelled after Lev. Rdbbaj XXIX, 2. 
^ Corrected by the Gloss in 1. 22. 
F 2 



68 



SAADYANA 



(Leaf 2 recto) 

nstD3 nK^ VDtDiD mn !>3 nyn«n nxvo^ va^to e^a^ i^a nm 

nsM nit2ipn ii> mne^ pi> mDi> Q'^an^ imn nana 

• iByT»i li^r ii^i>y ^^Dn • • • • i>3 i>j; non nncD) 

J 1W1D niK'Si n'^e^i vn i u^e^ niD^P3 5 

1S^ly3 niDn« in"»Dv^i »iy« iTi>v • • ynr 

: layi^iT ninni> irn^i u^tD'*'* • • • •» nnp"' ^^2b'' niopn 
nsyn nina nMn n^«^ inno^ aiwoi wns^ moD 

: lean niniwij nini« itD^an • ii>^aiyni Q'-oan w la^e^n 

naav QB^xna naii?D p|"»jvi 

: iai>M in»B^ja na^i ipnxi 
: laijtr Danm lann Dn«rp 



:nsBn^ \tr\t2 vnv n^n 
MBayn nra nia« ne^^ 

•iDtoyna DiTi?« "•nm ^ai? 
ne^nn 'in«B6 nii?ay n^na 

T : T 

^^iBava nijsni> DnB^^tr mi^K 



• iap»n Dn«a D'»enp nen 

•laK^ *n:iDa nain n^ 

nnp vaa Q>TDn ynr 

iKoa VDvy P|Dr non ftci?n 15 

• laSn V2th vnuio nna 

na^^ ii:^aa vny nyi 

• ^"vi! HTn Dne> pb 

n^"*! in« iDDy omn 

^oyjl ub w inn id^ ao 

ipvv nyi? inna D^'^n 

)t^'y wv'\ ini>> vn^ 

»r)5} D^n; i3an t^^V 



^ See Zunz, ibid., pp. 382, 404. 
' See Zunz, ibid., p. 416. 
' See L6vy, D/ct sub rpt, 

• See I Chron. xxiv. 5. 

^ Perhaps allusion to Dan. iv. 10 and Job xxii. 4, thus meaning the 
angels in heaven, whilst miD refers to Israel. See Midrash to Song of 
Songs, vii. 3. 

® See AgadcUh Shir Hashirim, 1. 266, and notes to it on p. 54, about the 
virtues of the bones of Joseph. 

' See Gen. xlv. 27. 

• See Aboth, v. 5, D^DICS onov. 

• Perhaps wishing him T^^^ niip. 



SAADYANA 69 

' layni^ nib^jc nvn^n ^m • n>iv nnaa Tnx ^i^n 

♦ iDijini lonin vntc inyi? • in'^a^ tii«i vam '•ciny 
: iBji^ ^nbi> inyc' '•nniav njo; »{> wnn niy i^nh 

(Leaf a verso) 

•lesino^ in^33 D^ai^o ^nni ♦^ibj^ji I'lrytD^ ontr Dn^i>« 
' : iDV"'^ K^ i^i?^ ivr'» vh) ivn^ • la^^n^ ro in >'•• ^^ipi 

nn:n3 Ty»i •nijy:n jwai^a • • • • rhvn^ onnxo rnx 

: «i>s:n •••••• di ni^n i>y 5 

Dnn^i '^iiDannp nnnS^ • • • • • Qnii -o vninp^5ya 

: n^no i^n ni«sn ini>yi ♦ D"»njD:n vnn^a pTionh 
fly '•DB^i vwy VB3y nnfen • j^n« ^3i«3 vtrne^ ipm 



'inb^n^nb ncn naiy i>3i> cna p^i niy^tr p« ny 



:*ri^wi p5>fca pru DTntr ^:e^ ^mm 10 
"ly tr^iru B'^^ vnna srn^ni) : enipn n^yn yapn 

: n^^i?y xnw wen ^a • in^'* na^i? 
)^\n ^]b]r\ lob inixna • it:^y ^""n man nun 15 
: nb'bD nnon D^yl 13di • lom ozsinon vnvi^n i?vni 

•pn *ct:^jn ^pan ont^ni •py pn dik nyi^ onDi 
: ni^noij n^ni pn inpnvn • p&ci np''y n\T j^nxi^ niD^ 
• nann D'^ai'x n^v onp pi> • nncnon r\b)y\ n*.rn3 



' See Zunz, ibid., p. 420, 3, rjrn. 
' See Zunz, ibid., p. 418. 

3 Perhaps this word is meant as a plur. of cdi3, see Song of Songs, 
iv. 14. 

* So in the MS. as a sign that it has to be cancelled. See 1. la. 

* See Isa. vi. 13. The meaning of the next lines is not clear to me. 

* See Zunz, p. 384. Both this and the next line recall certain expres- 
sions in the Seder Abodah of Ben Abithur. 



70 SAADYANA 

♦ D»n "^ i>3pi wan Kjp • * DpntDarja K^ma ^i^n 
:ni>nn3 id3 pKi> ir^n •D»ni Doi>3 Mho «i> d«i 
nnnm • dw i^n n^iJp^o nom • Din^ i>3i> «in nw 35 

i3p K''!^ Q^no D'''':y noip niK^ noaio vin^i 
tnJjcB^ Dni> DniDnD n 'miD ouyi i)^D«D 



(Leaf 3 recto) 

D^pn ^D TT'ian «i) inipn nivi TinnK \sr> '»d n«D ^5>^a 

: ny.-i) ^b ny nf>KiDD 
i?p^pD ns^j p'' xh : i)pj xfji nnaj «»d: • bp?^ ^a Dhyi> 
: nyi)3^ K^na i>K ^anxa i^po^ i>ipD ^3 ♦ bpD ^b )m vh 
mn ♦ np''^ !?« -itw ••i^an n^n • npaon mn npinn nyn 
' "^P-'J *iDn ncrx I'^'^VD^ r]^rt • npy^ kJjb^ bynn 
in^i^nD :nyiT ^ni^nn ^3 npe^ kJj ibi>?iD nB^« ^kh run 

ibn«n Di^t:' i^oji • lonsK i?n« ii> yo^ • lanx '^ i:n on 
: nyin ••g^ nn«i> . ibnarp unn 5)ii:tri> . ibn:^? na vijy pj^on 
riK^ptrp pnea ny ^^^bn • nopn jidni pt^n toj; 
riK^PK^pi nn diin^d nnana * ' noDip n^o vnv in 

* See Zunz, ibid., p. 379 ; n'^iid, chapters of R. Eliezer, III (pyis nimw 
ninwi, &c.) ; and Gen, Babba, I, 4, 

' See Exod. iv. 19. ' See Deut. xzxii. 38L 

* This word may also be read con "«3S"i3. 

^ Perhaps in the sense of ibip in Ezek. xxvi. 9. 

* The MS. is rather faded in this place, and the word can also be read 
^byp. The sense of this and the preceding line is obscui'e to me, 

^ See Jer. vi. 6. 

* See Jer. xvli. 9. Of. Aruth CompUlum, VIII, 149. 



SAADYANA 71 

: nvn i«:icn mn n^B^ • » noiribi nbmb ii> n:^3yni 15 
ninan c^vm q^d^j^ nnitrt Tinaincn T^unn nnibt 
rpnj •«rt3a nbna ra ny Ty\:nbn b^2 innnN nnjnt 

♦T^cnM ^'^ nnin •^nB? reb la iidd •innb nc?^ 20 
'ptrcpo ijpD" t^d: 'pB^ Kin:^ Tjraa •poKO i?^ inna 
: nyn3> yy^b nua i^a : pon cm nrr^c^ niaa • * pojjjn mv^ lai^i) ni^^a 
pna^ ij^^n niv ^d • pio wa nvo • piyn i»Ki «Tn 5jw 

irtv^^^p Mn i>K in^i:^cDi 25 
inn^ • -iwo 1^033 T«D^ K^ ' nit«m iirtDC' ^k y\i^rv vh 

: nir^ i>aa '^ nny • nwa ^vah v^ ysA 
ntr« IV nvy n'»D^ •i>aNnn bv va^y d^e^ •S'av ba ikv D^■^i?Kn 
•i^aKir^p 30 

(Leaf 3 verso) 

• JjaKtD n iif.)iD2 ^a • ^n unnni? ia ib^i 
:niU3 {jaij v&^o pyi 
Dn^ • hea ry Tina ty ii> n^K6 • hay i>a^n ^iija%ni) ja^ 
• b^Djn 13D VD^a D^^ • i>iSEvi i)a\n v^na 

• nsnn 1^ }n^ )y*v icto • nenT cn^i>y itrDi ^ftm 

• HD^ bto^ DiT^nai • naein^ to naa:n vn« 
:nynsi> nni« hdc^k i>a naai> nsian ^b-^d a'^e^i 
^nar : D^cnon nn'.na D^y^ani • d''k6b^ ^3a vaai? n«T 

* See Moed Kaionj 9b. ' See Zech. ii. la (13^ ^^^)* 
' See R. Saadyah's poem on the number of the letters of the Bible. 

* See Zunz, ibid., p. 400 (psb^). 

* Perhaps allusion to iTrnntt? ^3^:3 ntnr, though it may be a mere cor- 
ruption of ^«jrn. 

* See Sukkj, 52 b, cn» ^TZi 'n c^n ']. 



72 SAADYANA 

nv'i) n»yi nD«n ac^i CB^i^cn 

• eDnn^ai on^M inba innpi • cnnaoDo D^ai'D nnnna 

• Qn^nas lyocai ontr^ m^^ • cnnwoi oniaiyo i^no 
onn^ayi dh^did cnnav * Drrniiia ^'w "W iw no 

• ni^^n n«en onci ^a «!« • nv-i«n fp^o ^3n« ^33n 

• ninDi Tni ni:^© n5^« • nrnpn nn'^no Dn« nn ^Knn 
nvivn njbjni inenn nvnn • nin^N ^P^doi raa-^oo m 

: n^3in3 niepan wnn Tn ^a 

ninan r»Kn nriBipn invp ijn ikvid on nvpo 
ann onSpDin Tonb "^^n Dinbb •inD''pD hdnt 

nto ona * nnna nonai pnx vnia • nns: nipoi ik^: pyo 

(Leaf 4 recto) 

ni^ ^vcp 5i*Djo t3yo ^3 Mie^ xi? vi?K 
onto : cniiD dwjt-i ni> i^y on '•a • cnoa «5>i mna oavana vd 

T 

3^iD ^3 • nn*.D nptrni n^oyo pnvn ♦ nnia jnna u^KTinai 
: nn^ it^nnn p nixn ne^xa • nnim jmn ^nsD 5 
na bJ? inncK • na^nfji oyai? w.b^ • naien ynn amx D)i>5r 
:naioi xi^a mn nna Kin Tjawo npino 
pi> Mvap mr^i? ^yi lai^n iT^jn 'ivam inwn '^ nmna 

nvviai? vbo im 'iv i^y '^ivao mn B^oaa 
m^yo 'mm k^oi: vh loy \hi 'mivi i^cna a^pnb e^n w 

* See Num. xxi. 15. ' See Jcr. xxiii. 29, 



SAADYANA 73 

5|DiKn ii) nnv nna pb • ' ^iDiai nnitryi? mvtD innino 
: PiDD nnoD nnno aio ^d • sjo^n Ni>i ^i^o^n n^npi) ppni 
nyo Nin • Di>03 "d n^y ni^oo ina • oi^po nt bJ? in^n p 

• iDi>3 DW vnono Q'^nn • tDfjsDi laiw dijdi 15 

: nroB^ dji naitD nany mira ♦ nao in'* va nni>D 
inD^b IT nnia ♦ !?»:'» fjai^ o^cnni lom • i>cn^i oin^ b bv «in 

• • t: tt 

Dt:ni> ♦aana onaa nmKo ywni> •aae^i) nw ino^e^i 20 
: ' 13 5>y trnino pvn 5>^vni) • aan ••riBf ko pdd 
jn^ ^31 *Di"a n:30 nni>:i pii^na *n)'^v noy ^a inrejr ny 
: n^y bt< n2b nbt^ b^ oyi •*d1"I3 iy b-jno vi b^"i5> 
Kin pm ♦ nryijNi ^w^ ijir^a n:^3 • nr xh i^K mira nor ^3T 

:nry3 Ni)5> y^eno na ^bb prno •nraNi jnsrp wh 25 
• onni Tino oipo 5>aa niTKi • onw baajr ni>ian ry «in 
: nnxi nv n^ i^y ny^irini> • onni tr^nnni m^Di?: nnwn 
♦nnx ^B^yo i>« i^i>3i insDJ ""a Tinya ivd«m vk^ naa 

(Leaf 4 verso) 

iT))2J? 'b^ T^n iDB^i D131 •ninB^5> '•^1 "iw u di^t p5> 

: pioy p)i:i}r\ nnni in« Nim • p\r2:b w^ onipo tra« t»^ 
M31QD wi^no ncTK D^ nnm t6 'wtatr b^k^ nt^N yv*i oyi" xi' 
nr-'yo irT> xi^i nar piid"» n5j 'li^a wn ik^n axn cni^ wi) 5 
)m^ • T»5ryi '•ay n^y^ an • n^c^ mi^ro i>a )bbnb «3 nn 

•niBi:i3 m^Nin Da^aa vmanai Tiiamoa pipn oanaa w m^ 

* His wares being sold first : see Baba BaJthrOy 22 a, «piD n^ TC^pa, 
2 See Eccles. xi. 2. ^ See Ps. cxxix. 3. 

^ See Ezek. xxvii. 24. 

* Perhaps allusion to Ps. xii. 9. Cf. Levy's I>ic^ sub di"0. 

* Perhaps denom. of y?. 



74 SAADYANA 

r'nismc' nnn^ mn^D^ nhb *nist:jn23 me^nS innnx nan 
lavBV •nwK^ mn»D m^ nih ^a 'max ynr ^a njn ]:rh nnn lo 

•py ^DB^ ny Ti>y non na: ^d 'j^nnn ini>nn ^e^i n?^ 
:p«n i>3D nic« ymxa ik V^ ""^n 1*^3^ ^^^'"^^ T^'^ «^* 
• D»nDi> ^Nni ••nc^ i^ noiKo • Doy in^« ntrx Kin ^iin 
jDC3i ^-nir Dy nstr «i>n 'Dcm b)v vh bv t^^moi '5 
)^2v ^yi •p3V myo ■•n^n niDi 'p^-Na '•pyn ""Jiy ^kti 
* : p3T> nnx nwa ^nnaa m • p:y^i loya w^n 
Dipyi ^naa k5j nw a-^nn 'mp on'^i^yi nnna j^> 
•Dip"»n i>3 im«T pb •Dip-i V'^bt^ ••"• nxn^a 
•vny D"'3K^m b2 n'^bp) n'^oyo •vnion ijai idddi oijiyn ant 20 
nn^ a^nnniji iry a^ta^ij 'inna i>NiOT ^rhn^ tki 
nni *ni'»py ii ••Kat pi i>i>sni nit^n ••n"' p *nn3 ncnx'^i na^i ne^a 
: mvn n!?! mm pK ik^dk^ ♦ anp ^a n:ii:«a "'• n^vho bn 
• tDycD "»i'»ya '•jk vi)D3 nan« dki • oya mppn inatr nivp rhn ;n 
: tDyi^n inx y^^ nia-ni * cyan i^N naoi ' n i>K w '^^nvif 25 
• pnni nin V3si?» w i?aD • pnv -i^iyca inm niir^ca mi?™ 

: pn^a vbv Tsc^n n^m n^ * P"!^^ c^iT'na iry }^k 
•a3B^ D« nna^ xh nn"» t6 inab *aDn imm nira niv 
:aaiai nawa nnrn it.« 'aacr !?« wan T^m ana 
• ncn 30 



XXXVI. 

Fragment T-S. 13 G i, parchment, two leaves, size 25 x 17 
cm., written in an old square hand, and representing the re- 
mainder of a codex of Responsa of the Geonim, The matter 
reproduced here represents leaf i recto, and the first twelve 

* See Song of Songs, viii. 7. 

'* See Jer. viii. 7. ' Zunz, ibid., p. 385. 

* See L6vy, sub ynj. * See Deut. xxxiii. 22. 

* Who reached the age of 120 : see Slphrcy p. 150 (ed. Friedmaun). 
' Perhaps corruption of my or 'ir. 



SAADYANA 75 

lines of the verso. Their contents axe partly known from the 
Besponsa of the Geonim pnv nr^, No. 17 (attributed to R. 
Sherira), which has served to historians as the main source 
for the history of the house of the exiliarch Bostanai^, 
but it will be found that our responsum was preserved in 
a more full and correct state than the former ; representing 
the family of MSS. of the Teshuboth Haggeonim to which 
R. Isaiah de Trani had access when he wrote n^oo iNn 
r\)y\:n ^2\^>) c^^wa &c.2 The name of the captured woman 
and her mother, and her three sons^ are also omitted in the 
editions. The most interesting &cts ai-e as already indicated 
that a grandson of iKnnK^ (L 14) or «DNnnK^ (1. 23) or 
NnKnntr (XXXVI a, 1. 5) has married the daughter of R. 
Chaninai^, and that the head of the Dispersion 2iakkai also 
derived his pedigree from the mixed marriage *. 

• See Graetz, Geschichfe, vol. V, pp. 1 19-124, and note 11 at the end of 
the book ; F. Lazarus in Brull's JahtMcher, vol. X, p. 27, and p. 84, 
Anm. I, and the references given there. 

' See Bnill, ibid., II, p. iii, note i. 

• See NOldeke, Geschichie d, Perser u, d, Arciber zur Zeit der Sasanideny p. 390, 
note a, and p. 433, about the name ^hti (1. 1 1, read |>n^a). With regard 
to the name "WJiMiw (1. 11, cf. also below, XXXVI a, 1. s i« ih\h\ Prof. 
N5ldeke, whom I have consulted on this point, thinks that we should 
correct it into ii>»13M'ti ^m » Izdundad = Jizdund&d (see Justi, Iranisches 
Namenlmchf p. 146). He also informs me that the three sons of Ghosrau II 
bore the names of nM«j:«nT3, n««73nia, iwnrro (see Justi, ibid., pp. 121 and 
196). The last name should read nKV;2>nio. For the reference to Justi 
I am also indebted to Prof. Noldeke, and I express herewith my best 
thanks to him for his kind instruction. 

^ Below, 1. 24 ; probably identical with the m321 Hatri 'n mentioned in 
the s"©, ibid. 

• This Zakkai is probably identical with the one mentioned by R. 
Sherira as moa ^wirrw n id 12 *ndi (p. 36), cf. Graetz, ibid., p. 420, whilst 
'iiH -Q ^«y:n occurring in some lists of the Heads of the Dispersion im- 
mediately after Bostanai is the same as 'HNII (XXXVI, recto, 1. 16) or 
"mH-Q (XXXVI a, recto, 1. 7) mentioned in our texts, cf. Lazarus, ibid., 
pp. 174 II and 176 VII. I must remark that there must be some gap 
before the word F|N1 (XXXVI, recto, 1. 21) ; nor is the meaning of the 
words >^3wm TD DO« ^n« (1. 23) clear to me. Perhaps we have here 
a corruption of j«nuin (XXXVI a, verso, 1. 4) - ROzbehan (Justi, 
p. 367). 



76 SAADYANA 

(recto) 

wiDK bvyi |K0 "•^KH OKI pKj pn« m^ tTOB^x jin5>>«ini 

Ko^ira K'^n pna kJjk^ Kni>^o «n K3ir3 }i> w-irpi ni^r rh^v^i 
nn'^n^ ns^vin oi^n ncDi? fco^« m^hm innsc^ 5>y m dk 5 
niJT nb^va inb^yi hot k^ khk^h p^n^i^n ony ^:m ni^^ir^ni 
K3 D« kIj^k Nn p K3"»ij inK^nn nn-n^j nij^nnai? pt'iA b^ 
no ^ixn rh nnnu^^ ni> pan n-i? wo nnxn ^nnse^ 5>y 
K^ «ni>^o Km niJT n^-ya in^j^ya n\^v niH r« i'VK nr r^v. 
n^i) mtr mnn n^'k^j '•wkhdu nni p n^jk np^y oi^iyo ni? nin 10 
nn«n«iji no^x }«Ta!?i n-i^nij nvnxn nNHKntx axoa p noy 
«nn «*.n bp^sn b^v^^ li^o n»y n« )b ons i^o noa n^no 
ann ny n^^jy w kIj p ••a i?y ^iki '•Kj^nouij xnn mi> men 
n« nne^ ^:n nn^n nro T»i?^Ni •TJT'nn n^^ini nir '•ai'K n3 hdt 
n^o ID) n':2 anao pnn rnj n^.m SiKc^j^'noi nxe^nwi 15 
^an3i nny3 "•^«ip3 pn^onp pn-nx Mxnni ^snon p3iopit< 
xh N^in ^aijo n3 nKiiKirxn pjyo nini onay amo pna 
p3«i''»y«ij pn nvp noN pan nnai mim rn iT^jy nbp 
K-5rj '•WKHDU '•an piTDyoi D^M ^HiD pn3 an^oiji br\p2 
Dny ^jaa nnn Ditri> nij3t3«i nxn^nrNij nnnne' n'.n «^ ^« ao 
51kV niir ni>^ya inij^^ya nsriy n^n xi? nnin> m nij3pi 
nini ^nia^D^ D^anp vns' Kniai^cai ^o^^je^a i^n^x prx 
r\2 «DKnni:^T nnn nn i?pK^ };'::r\ nnai Kixn? no do« ^nx 
an no la ^«ar pi«i pjKnii:^a«i? «ni)^o ko^k^s^ni "w^n an 
ib^p« »!> >ij>o ••3m mmija "»K^Nn3 op Nn^nn^^ na '•xiinx 25 
no«i Nnxpy xniaijon no 5i«r k^k^: >3a p^yi^ nbn pan na 
«"»5rj!j "»mprn« t6\ nnn ""a nnnnne^j oi^n nnin noa • • a 
an no na ^^bn itvbti an no xan mn nai xniD-'N nayoa 
pixn pw noS's an no ••op jo xya i^kd^^jik pn 5)K)oe^ 



* This agrees with the Maaseh Beth David, who speaks of D':3 (pi.). Of, 
Graetz, ibid., p. 414. 



SAADYANA 77 

(verso) 

wne^ niD >yi tb'i) Nin pn^.n p ]2n in« n) anai n-n anjo 

••^n it!? in3 ^T'•D^D pwi nmnc«i it:« ^2n nnme^n 

niJT n!>^y3 in^-ya ntriy Dn« pse^ «nb^D3 ni Tinxn 

Km ^n^nnKn '►ynr i:ni> n\n inpi DyT»D tj^ne si? na 5 

•iTcpi) Kin yoBi pHK an iT^m "wnoj a-n naiK^n 

KD"? nninDxa )r\nw hv xa d«k^ t^J? h'tid ^"►an wmw 

inv n: n'^'-n n oki nnn Ditri? hk^^jk^ '•^sa nb b'^atDon ny 

inv pKa ^3K na now Kae^ ^o pjyb pan lani ne^i^K^ 

miiT n ^nan iT^n tc^an^ ^nv p« pn^b nvina iTkt N-ani? 10 

iT«-\ K'»an^ inv pnxij nvina pa pn«a pa din cam 

^'D'-Dan nana nJpn pnv n 6k mn na iT^n n 6ni 

XXXVI A. 

Another version of the same responsum we have in 
Fragment T-S.8 G i, paper, representing the remainder of a 
different codex of Besponsa of the Geonim. The importance 
of the subject makes it desirable to reproduce the whole of 
it. It is only necessary to premise that the writing is 
of much later date than the preceding fragment. It begins 
in the middle of a line, and runs as follows : — 

(recto) 

HDtr mm nn^n mby Nae^ nnae^ 

••NDnan Nai^o iDia n:a p iKinNTN 

!?NycB^ ipD axoa na ncy n'^b namn 

}i>n onay '':r\i ninc^a jon m:a incNi 

HNc^nnji Kn^nnc^ p.n^De^ mm inj^a 5 
jina nayniTKi D^atsp inc^a imax 'jci 
-Napa injD-piKi pmnN nn^nai ^Nnon 
-Nn i^'itD^ n^m onay nn^na )n:mi\i^b 

* That is R. Natronai II b. Hilai, who was also known for his corre- 
spondence with scholars of Lucena in Spain. See Graetz, ibid., p. 248. 
*-' See Jehamothy 47 a. * Read noi. 



78 SAADYANA 

pnoKT pnn wn nim d'^jit no3 nprn 10 

nnnnK^ nin 123 ••••xn p>nD« k^k niM 

T • • ni K3^« mm ^5>-» ])b mn« • • • • 15 

'* *rh I • • nnK^on ny pj^K onny nptna 

K^ IK nD« p^nnK pmn« 

SK n • • ^DK pnoK mn nin 

(verso) 

DiK r«n. KNi nprn knt innstn p'^Di nnai> 

K^tri pK' i^Di ni:T ni>"'yi ini5"»ya nany 

Dmn iKK^Ji D'»jn i^n i^npn ii>^''y -nn ^iidi 

IKH'^nrn ^:n li^on p pnn mm nne^3 D-^e^j 

pmo ip^nK^i ^b-'D pnsi »i«nnB> ni 5 

nin y^r M^w !^wok^ nn noi «n«iK^n 

P''n5rn p-'^i pi«mK^3Ki> Nni>'»D sna np^y 

nnK^3 pn-'ynr }« nyi !?npn lij-'^y pn^o 

p^nni D^K"'K^: noa pnjo i»pi '•d^ 

nnn ••in '•ynafc^i? na p n^i^i Kn^^o feON-iJ 10 

p:n5r3Kn 

XXXVII. 

Fragment T-S. 13 K i, paper, one leaf, size 27 x 17 cm., 
written in a square hand, and representing the remainder of 
a catalogue of the library of Nathan b. Yeshun, probably of 
Cairo, in which various works of the Gaon are mentioned. 
It should be noted that I give this fragment only as a 
specimen of the fragments deposited in the box marked 
Catalogues, containing mostly lists, in all of which the works 

* Graetz, ibid., p. 172; cf. also Harkavy's Responsa oftlie Geoninij p. 357. 



SAADYANA 



79 



of R. Saadj^ah (and R. Samuel b. Chofni) are more or less 
represented. As they are sure to be edited soon in toto 
there is no need to enter into details hero. But I will 
draw the attention of the student to the catalogue- 
fragment marked A, having among others the following 
titles : — nc^ p bti""^! inDtr D'^taQsn . . . \in:i)r\ pnnB nncnn nna 
Dn-»3« nebx kdd pik^3 bn ixna jo ^oKni'w ^rhn ana—. . nar 
n«nn2K nwa— ^ovDi?« nn^noi^K D«n nn:i>n ^dtv^jn idid p 
51"ij«n '•Dvair« nn^noi?« D«n ana "d niaiD^« inei^K n«n-\nD« 
naK^y pxa PinyO/« ••dj p ^^i^n ntrao. In another fi-agment 
of the same kind I find among others also noted the 
work '^D p pyOK' no^D, which is of course identical with 
Ecclesiasticus. 

njy ana^« jo ••^nij« n^^v^i hk^: '^^ OK^a 
np^n fp:n jn: ni n» ncnp nH: niaa 6i miy 
•iavin nyic^ ii no p: iiaa p naa:ni 
nyiD Nil nii^n: niai?n ytDp i khjd 
na-noi^K Dv^ib n^yt^ n^oani D"»pn3i d^k'ji 5 
••cvaij na^« Toani pnyr^p nc^ ^nn noen^ 
niD nn« TDSjn ne a^nai b-tDDe^n ni^Ki TDsni 
ni>aKi nija« nnoD no a^nai mciobK 6KBi?«i 
jK»''6<ijK axnai mnoi hkdd nvnao n-o a^nai 
n*yn^ nai^n n'^Dsni ^dvd^ ar« TDsn n^si 10 
nya nyD^Ki mtr^K nya (?)nB^K a[Kn]a iTb at^nai 
^K^ctrn '»3a ni^jDi ^ovb^j nnoK ni?:© Tosni np-^v^K 
axnai KiT'DNyoi nnann nt:^ 'T'Deni iCiT:«yoi 
a«nai nv6J?^ i>iv«i n^bi^K ri>ani niij-a^i^K po ^^ 
axnai iKi>sfc<i?K a&jnai '•li^^n nsD ns a«nai n^nm^K 15 ^ 
n«n Kvv n-a afe<nai i^DrincfjN *^y ^ini^Ni in^J^^JK *i 
n-'B axnai Nni?ia xnnhn nnini?K e^n^iB ^i?y r 
D^ir: niD iTB axnai onain n^xi -lan-i ni^ao ^ 
tj^ yca^K li?Ti pnyt:p «npD nnini?Ni mtro 
NH^B jxi? Knnny nyop 20 

ni in • • iTB ana 



8o SAADYANA 



xxxvm. 

Fragment T-S. lo K 7^, paper, five leaves, size 20*5 x 15-5 
cm., is written in a late cursive hand, of the fourteenth 
century or even later. The letters run into each other, 
which circumstance makes the reading very difficult, 
whilst the MS. has suffered so badly from dampness, 
that many words and even whole lines are rendered 
almost illegible. Besides this, it would seem that the 
copyist was not always able to read the MS. at his 
disposal, which fact will account for certain gaps in the 
contents, as well as for several words that give no sense, 
and where it is clear that the scribe was only guessing ^. 

But though our actual MS. is of comparatively late date, 
it represents a copy of a document composed some centuries 
before. The title of this composition is nb''a» ("roll")^, a 
branch of literature in which Egypt seems to have been 
particularly rich^ But whilst as a rule the actors in the 
various Megilloth are represented by a Jew and a Gentile, 
the latter playing the oppressor, the DraTnatis Peraonae 
in our story are a Jewish priest, and a Jewish noble. The 
object of contention was, as it seems, the religious juris- 
diction over the Jews in Egypt and Palestine which 

* See e. g. p. 88, 1. i (man) ; p. 89, 1. 29 ; p. 96, 1. 10, and note i, &c. 

• See Rev. G. Margoliouth in the J, Q. JR., VIII, pp. 277 sq., and 
Dr. Neubauer, ibid., p. 544. 

' This Abiathar is undoubtedly identical with the one mentioned in 
the crusade document published by Dr. Neubauor in the J, Q, 22., IX, 
p. 28, where he is called pDn in*3w m'U?' tt:«i, who sent an open letter 
from n'Ja^nr: or Tripoly of the East (cf. Benjamin of Tudela's Itinerary 
(ed. Asher), I, p. 27, and notes to it). See also Bacher in the J, Q, 22., 
ibid., p. 358, and Eevue des Etudes JuiveSj XXX, p. 225. I note also that 
Fragment T-S, 24. 49 is signed by pw p j\w p pDn in^as. 



SAADYANA 8 I 

Abiathar, the author of this document ^ and his ancestorSj^ 
a representative priestly family of Palestine, claimed for 
themselves, whilst David b. DanieP the descendant of the 
House of David tried to bring them under his own authority. 
The struggle was one of long standing, having already 
commenced somewhere before 1054 when the two litigant 
parties were represented by Joseph and Elijah the priests, 
who also wore the title of Gaon (the latter was the father 
of Abiathar), on the one side, and by the Nasi, Daniel ben 
Azariah (the father of David) on the other side^. Joseph, 
who was bitterly persecuted by Daniel, who apparently 
was supported by the government, died 1054*, whereupon 

^ In a document belonging to Mr. E. N. Adler dated 1056 and written 
in Jerusalem occurs a ipy^ pw ro'ttr ttrtn no^ . . p jmn rrVw, who probably 
belonged to the same family ; whilst in a letter (T-S. 24. 26) addressed 
to a certain Abraham, dated 1131, from TM^^n tt^j in onsro pi:?, I find 
the following pedigree : «?«-» jnarr n^sD p p^Mi dvqw n'^ra? "i'» uwi i3"»iy 
jnDH ntTO i"»2 • 12 c^Dinn y'a? N"in fyo ^^ v dwi ncinn 2pr pw nyxa* 
nTtt?> ttrkn pan no'ju? pa 2py» p«a m^^ wwt pan in^« p apy» pna nyxa* w«t 
y'pT V tjnp «j«-»n • • • pis pD pi nu pan rpv yw apy' p«3. 

" See J.Q,R,, XIII, p. 221, where this David figures as bridegroom in 
a marriage deed of 1082. In another document again he is called 
bin^'> p« N'«}3 «*tt?3n Tn. The following testatum, copied from Fragment 
T-S. 20. 31 dated 1092, will not be uninteresting in this connexion : — 
p«a b«'3i w"io p r&an tt?>n tit NniTob© wt wn ^aa w?Dp pi «ana D«pn»« 
anaa HDTvch rjc'na n'aoi n^ai n^30 novpi vhrs^ pa^na mntn . . . Vkiid* ba n^3 
y7 pinu rjDV |a Dma« 'i rl pn:?* 'i p Dma« 'i ^nf^j? po\"im frn nnu? n» 
nttjo '1 TD 6 p vff)^ pns' 'i yl pwa n^Du? p3 «n liaS lann Tvsnw 'i p omaN 'i 
r|DV 6 p nbn n':w '1 w -jnao 'i p }na '■> Vi nob© 'i p apy» '1 nyroA pn^ 'i la 
monna i^a^nni 3d D3iBn % i^a pian oncw 'i ^ Dnia« '1 p n^ n>ara 'nb 6 
m?Q«j 'i p Dma« 'i 73 pi n»a p]dv 'i p Dnia« 'i ra pns* S p Dnia« 'i] pn^T 
'i nrn3n pnS:? '1 p nwa S w pn:i» 'i p rjcv 'i yj p«a h^otd p3 K*i na3 lann 
p n*jn n^ara 'i ^ r|DV 'i p ^"^n nVw 'i w "jnaD 'i p jna 'i "^i nobt? 'i p apy» 

'ira p pnn omaw 'ita n^ niDnn 55 caion ^bs 'i p pan onow '•^ 55 Dn-Q« 'i 

y3 pw: n^otj p3 lann n>yQ«j 'id p lann Dma« 'id n> n">Dnm [J: inabnn pn2i' 
a»< FjDV 'lu pan nnbt? S >"»bn pcbn la nbn f]Dv nma m3DVi ^m3i«r« «>n »ii 
^ na^^T^n. The reason for repeating the names given here in square 
brackets is not clear to me. 

» P. 88, 11. 9 and 10. * Ibid., 1. I2. 

G 



82 SAADYANA 

the latter exercised his functions as Nasi for eight years ^ 
without any further opposition. But after his death {1062) 
the priestly family came again into power, Elijah holding 
the office of Gaon for some twenty-three years ^. But two 
years before his death, which occurred in 1084^, Elijah 
'' gathered all Israel of the land of Tyros and of the Galil 
where " — probably with the purpose of forestalling any action 
which might be taken by his antagonists — " he ordained, 
with the permission of all Israel, his son Abiathar as 
Gaon, his son Solomon as the Father of the Court of 
Justice, whilst Zadok, the son of Josiah, was invested 
with the office of Father (m) *." This precaution, however, 
proved of no avail. For about 108 1 * David b. Daniel 
wended his way to Egypt where he soon found support 
in certain Jewish notables as well as in the govern- 
ment''^. The Nagid Meborach® and the head of the school 
Josiah Azariah the priest also befriended him, but he soon 
resumed the old feud and the hostilities began again in 

* P. 88, 1. 15. 

^ Ibid., 1. 16, including the year 1062 in which he was installed. 
» P. 89, 1. 23. 

* See the "o^-yp in the Kaufmann-Gedenkbuch (Hebrew Section, p. 57), 
where we again meet with this triady but where the Solomon bears the 
title of na»\c^n 2«. Cf. above, p. 60 (XXXI, L 2), and Teshuboth Haggeonim, ed. 
Harkavy, p. 359, with regard to the title of 2^. In connexion with the title 
question I may be permitted to give here the following names copied 
from a fragment written in an ancient hand T-S. : — b\ D*:nn Sai \\w 
mon ©NT rrrttr pixsri rh^v omaw ,TDD'»ttn tji J7^ D»3nn bo «?«"» "pn pns* 
bii m^y^^( ^jnt nann mirr ^nTtt?»n mon 'yynri rrmo ^rrriarn iniyon pBbn 

mim burw^ p« 1*33 mvnn n© bnan i^aan minnb. 

* Ibid., 1. 27, D^w 'ii m DnTCi. 

« Ibid., 1. 29, I cannot find a place naMSi. Perhaps we should read 
mM3T, a city in Egypt mentioned by Benjamin (p. 103) as having a large 
Jewish population. 

' P. 90, 1. I sq. 

* Ibid., 1. 5 : about the importance of Meborach cf. J. Q. B., XIII, p. 36. 
He was st^ll alive in 1098 ; cf. J, Q. i2., ibid., p. 116. 



SAADYANA 83 

which both Egyptian and Palestine communities were 
implicated. This state of things, with possible short 
intervals of truce, seems to have lasted till about 1093 ^, 
in which year David — probably as a counterblast to the 
claims of Abiathar — tried to have himself ordained in 
Fostat as the Head of the Dispersion ^. In this place our 
MS. drops the thread of the story and suddenly drifts into 
a Halachic discussion as to the rights and prerogatives of 
the Palestine authorities. But just as unexpectedly the 
story is resumed about the end of our document, where the 
writer, after abusing his antagonist and enlarging on the 
suffering of his own party, and paying a compliment to 
Meborach for his good offices on his behalf, breaks out in 
a triumphal song in which some phrases even of the blessing 
said after the reading of the Eoll of Esther on Purim are 
inserted; which shows that the struggle was at an end 
when our Megillah was written, which was the year 1084^ 
Divested of all personal recrimination and petty scandals 
usually attendant upon such controversies, the most of the 
contents of this Megillah may be described as a plea for 
the superiority of Palestine and its prerogatives over all 
other countries, and as thus forming in part a continua- 
tion of the old feud between R. Saadyah and Ben 
Meir. As Ben Meir, more than a century ago, Abiathar 
claims the privilege of fixing the calendar for the Nasi 
of the Holy Land, who in ancient times was alone in the 
possession of the calculation secret *. It was only in the 

* See especially Fragment XXXIX, 11. 4 and 5 nnti rot? ... 1^ rnowan? car? by. 
' See p. 91, 1. 35, and p. 9a, 1. 2 sq. From the words '.31 rraira dtdd.-t idi> 

it would seem that it was this step on the pari of David which gave most 
offence and called forth a reaction against him led chiefly by the w'tq: (1. 4), 
i. e. the miana 'ttrVo or the one next in rank to the Y'a^. 
^ See p. 103, 1. 19 sq., and p. 104, I. 8 and 1. 14. 

* P. 93, 1. ai, p. 95, 1. 22. 

G 2 



84 SAADYANA 

days of R. Juda the Saint, as he proceeds to argue, when 
schisms increased and striplings without the fear of God 
multiplied, that this Rabbi found it advisable to make all 
the sages and the Sanhedrin the depositaries of the Secret, 
which they teach to the whole of Israel according to the 
fixed rules of the Four Gates (nnre^ nynn«) from which 
they may not turn to the right or to the left^. But 
the important point is that the head of the Sanhedrin^ 
who is the head of the Teahiba, should sanctify the new 
moon in accordance with the calculation 2. On the other 
hand, his laying so much stress upon the antiquity of the 
calculation, and his statement that the discussion about the 
coming of witnesses for the appearance of the new moon 
(n''Kn) is only dating back from the times of Antigones of 
Soke, when the schism of Zadok and Baithas took place^ 
greatly recall some of R. Saadyah's stock arguments in hia 
polemics against the Karaites \ 

* p. 95, 1. 23, and p. 102, 11. 6-9. 

' P. 102, 1. 10. In this connexion the following lines takei; from a 
very ancient and faded fragment (T-S. 12. 728) representing the remainder 
of an Ordination Form will not be uninteresting : — 

• • • • D • • • ' bo p • • ni I • • • b 

• • • • ^1 ttJMD • • aVo "pC© • • • • ^ . • • • to3 ' • • * • • 

a by • • • nw* • • • • ba m^soo ^Tm^y m^vsz'n nan • • • • t3i 

noi W3«r»i r^tD^ no-irf m»ba ©hn n *rr "inD'ai m»i 

\DN"ib nn» i:n rt^oiv -pc© ... 'id «ja ivh . (?) pourn «7«"q Dixnn pn D"idt 

nvMr) vinN Niib DM33n m • • • b>nttn • • • »n • • ba n"pba 

a »noDnrr» 10 • • • t nbian «nt p by b» • • 

MD in in ' • • • b nro naiDon in-^yw' it • • 

«jiipD ©TpD oyn b3"i tjTipD "raw p n^a «?«! "jaa vn» 1 * * * 

^7v^Di^ ^inn iTn* 132b "poi n "no t: «J3 iw by ':« Tyo 

• • niban «?ki by pbin niabon 'lai by mDm bi • • j»w bTu* 

: yn 'nai '^s'b di 5 t? d ina D»niT»cn ib« » • • • 
The use of the formula \DTipo "ioi» "a «:«t (usually altered on the 
occasion tt?Tinn vy\vp see Rosh Hashana, 24 a) is significant. 
^ See p. 97, 11. 24 and 25, and above, p. 35 text and notes. 



SAADYANA 85 

Quite pecuHaa* to this controversy is the antagonism 
manifested between the two lineages, the priestly and the 
kingly or the Aaronite and the Davidic. It is the covenant 
with the seed of Aaron, says Abiathar, which is everlasting, 
never to cease, whilst the one with the House of David 
is conditionally depending on the obedience to God^. By 
such a succession, however, of such wicked kings as Ahaz, 
Manasseh, Amon, &o., they proved themselves unworthy 
of the confidence of God, " the oath (to David) was dese- 
crated,'' God's promise confined to the Messiah^. David, 
the descendant of all those evil doers of kings ^ is thus only 
a pretender, whilst he (Abiathar) derives his pedigree from 
B. Eliezer b. Azariah, Ezra, and Fhineas ^. 

The style of Abiathar is plain prose with occasional 
lapses into Fiyut^. Less satisfactory than his diction is 
his reasoning which is never convincing, whilst his quota- 
tions are inaccurate and his interpretation of them faulty. 
The fierce struggle under which the removal of the seats 
of authority takes place, is not, as a rule, particularly 
favourable to calm thinking and sound philology. But 
it is just this contest between the past and the future, or 
between sentiment and aspiration, which is of paramount 
interest to the historian, the one supplying him with facts,- 
the other with ideas. . 

^ P. 86, 1. 12 sq. 

' Ibid., p. 88, L 2 sq., and p. 87, 1. 28 rTr"»ntDn T^:hrfny\, L. 29 is unfortunately 
veiy much faded, but the general drift of thought seems to be that given 
in the text. Perhaps we should read after the word noban with which 
1. 29 commences '131 Mrro b22M\ iibo, 

3 P. 89, 1. 27, and p. 92, 1. 2. In the latter the text seems to be corrupt. 

* P. 89, L 25, and p. 104, 11. 13 and 2. 

* See p. 90, 1. 16 sq. and 1. 28 j p. 92, I. i sq. ; p. 103, I. 2d sq. ; p. 
104, 1. 4 sq. 



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SAADYANA I05 

XXXIX. 

Fragment T-S. 12. 729, paper, two leaves of a quire of 
which the middle pages are missing, size 23 x 13 cm., 
written in square characters with a turn to cursive, but 
of a much earlier date than Fragment XXXVIII, The first 
leaf represents a portion of the Abiathar MegiUahy and 
corresponds with the first nineteen lines of the preced- 
ing fragment. The varying readings of this fragment, of 
which there are many, are in all cases the more correct 
ones. The second leaf reproduces a few passages from 
the minor tractate Derech Erez Zuta. 

(recto) 

trr\ t^n 

p pw pDH nn"»nt< w"»jnK nnox rh'^yor] nxr 
rD>B^i>i "h T"» nt^ytr D^n Jjy 5)vt pw pi pw 
rmn rbyo ♦ nnx wt^ n"»'^K nn^a inpn j^nt* 5 

DiT^jy rrny • ♦ • d • ♦ • • '•na • nwi^w Dn«DO 
* rhr\:n "ii> ♦ ♦ ♦ din * ♦ na j.T^y v ni^ai • rmbnn 

an ♦ * ♦ t^ 3irD ai pN3i 10 

ro niM • innn 

♦ rx6 '»nu3i >ot^ tx\7\ ^ ^jk 

• • ♦ "Tiyncr to Ki> vn ^inv p|D3 nninD 

• • ycrn a'-ao ♦ rb\vh it nnn p lanvn DnoK^n 15 
pnn n^i> not* • Dnt< '»3ai> ni5>iT ana p5>nn> 

• • • n pm ani? ^a"*! nn iTi> not<i '»3'»3 yh 

^^3 xh\vb^ pna D'^^ioiyn Dnnn 

y w»3t^3 nnw inn nnram Dm 

• • • ♦ nrai w^du !•» yae^a ii>5>no n • • • • ao 



Io6 SAADYANA 

(yerso) 

yi^na mNn5> iwa^ nb) n-nai ^nnpn ninsenD 

nt<ini> IK iD^ iM2b nnin nm i)y naiyn 

ny^^n ijia Knp^ pM nn: mnna pnsh 

nra T"» nn nx ^3 • d^jk^ • • • r ncte oyni 

D«n u^rht^ Kin noK d * • • T« nnan man 

iDyi> ^3^D3 nnin iru i)KT«r^ ^t^jn V • of^y ibm 

n^iron nooi hbid ui? • • • v mm a^ro ^nib^ 10 

•j^DBK^ nv n^TD • • • inn • ♦ • n5> • • • pn^i) 

ni3n» yansi one^ can ^^rh 

onai ij^33 v^nh pn^ij • i3n"»: ji^iD • • • • nna 

nmiiw 'hti onsi iji>3n it5^n'»Bi njjo nnai 

K^^JKiD 61N i>«yDB^ n njrD3 na pe^ nnin^e^ 15 

Dnai ij5>3tD i>i5i ne^mj nninn nn^o nne^ 

i)ij3 nonnn p na nya onai i>i)3D ik^i^d 

nriN pt< Dnai i)b • oid jxvn pi npnn • • 

ni^nnpn ib^tc ni>D n>nni • tDnan pya 

nmai yi rhn^n rhv^ innio pnp ao 

XL. 

Fragment T-S. 8 J 2j, paper, four leaves, size 17 x 13 cm., 
written in a rather late (thirteenth or fourteenth century) 
cursive hand, and representing the remainder of a letter 
pleading on behalf of the jurisdiction of the Head of the 
Dispersion, who was a descendant of the House of David, for 
whom authority is apparently claimed over Babylon, Pales- 
tine, and Egypt ^. Probably the document was composed by 
David the son of Daniel, mentioned above, and was directed 
against the pretensions of Abiathar^. To this points his 

^ Leaf a verso, 1. 9 sq. 

' See aboye, Frag. XXXVIII, and of. this fragment, leaf 3 recto, 1. 1 aq. 
But it must be pointed out that Daniel is not mentioned as his father. 



SAADYAKA IO7 

complaint that he was in money difficulties, as well as his 
statement that he found support in the government \ whilst 
his address to the Daughters of Zoan ( = Fostat) ** to come 
and behold " the beauty put upon them and the might and 
glory fixed among them, contains apparently an allusion to 
his being ordained as Rosh Gola in this Egyptian city^. 

(Leaf I recto) 

i^mDa iDnoNnai D>Di>iy niv rw^h • • • 

'^nxni> vb"*^ now ^ nr\Th "^rmb n'»6rn iai)i 

\'yty*^p'\ r\^\rb D^ny di^ di'' W^P D^^e^ ^'o'^ry^ 

no3 Dnno nvnnN m'lDi eno"" xi? nivo 5 
i^^nom N^T nxn ^yxa ^yh N^onni *D^DyD 
i^nijno ^iIjk xn^i ^i^ptr^ ny ii"»nn\aD p«n 

nfrirh^ i3n> i>y innin i>nani> \:h i^nviMn 10 
ii^i>ni? nai i^nyv nit^^M i'»3ni>i wnnyo 

D^pnnD 1-13 n6r«i> tc^n D-'^n j^y ^a d^oni vidk 

nsna ii?tD ^iBi> D-'pipnn (?)D>n nnt nnp^i 15 
nnmi D"»piB^nn d • • * ^a * • n n"»Dnni D"»pne^n 

(Leaf I verso) 

D"»o^ inK D-'pny^ niD^«3 nc'K D'»p^nyn 
* • * ♦ Bi mm Tin ni>t<Dir3 "Tinri> ^'•0^1 

}D ntDna n^tK ^a ny i^nvno n^y 

^ See this fragment, leaf i yerso, L a and 1. ii sq. 

^ See this fragment, leaf 3 recto, 1. 17 sq. The pi:? maa are of course 
a pun on the p>:? mn (Song of Songs, iii. 11). 

' See Chaggigah, 15 b. 

^ See Friedmann*s Preface to his ed. of the Siphre, ch. ii. note 18, and 
Weiss, Zur Oeachichie der Tradition, III, pp. 187 and 230. 

* Read nwbnn. 



I08 SAADYANA 



pvDi n>n in^ pmnn iri>t< wbi 
nnpn nooe^ nni ikd^ "ly laitwo 

^a^ya non ia^i>y la^ni^K non nir^i>y 
nnainoD 5>k • • • n''"'Dri>K n^'^nai^^ 

(Leaf a recto) 

i^y i>na^i nn^ts^DO la^nyto n^on^ ni>i)K3 

ir»^an tDi»^ ina k^ nniD^o ^Dyao i^va 
i^NncT'' i'a ^yi )ybv niinm n^o^n 5 
nnai^DiD nya nin'»yni ni^Ntrn n^onni? 

niniD3 noani? ne^ nD ni^o Di>iy ny 

niminn ^bb^) nimaDn ^aa^t^ i>y laa^i^i^ 

onDD D-ibts^nij ninani? non "T^vpi pi> 10 

la^DDT i^yo '»oe^D p^^s^rh) la-^nvy 

manvn ni^K nhyon nn'»i^sn nnnnn 

niBasi nnxij ni^^i^y Kiia idnm 

nK^i naDD D^yan nya^i y^nn 

(Leaf 2 Terso) 

n^aai iDipo nx n^ Kin bb)^ i?)n 

Ni>n p^5>y niJanyo ^ann» n^Ni D^iay 
pvap^ ^i>M iD^a^Ki Dm nooia ^-^^ mn 5 
{ji^nn* i^K nnyi pwp^ ni^ine^ rsnai 
apy* nifcca nx ii> lin^ ne^ nneM nam 

^ Job zziv. 94. 



SAADYANA 109 

«ij DoiCTpn la^nuK '»d>di nniDi 

pi^n Dnvo pN3 ^nv nn''K'>5) iTh 

i^aoa pxi? nvin DnvtD ^jd njoi 

(Leaf 3 recto) 

crnpn mnD nnn tc^cr^i pw i^K^n 
innn nnioo nnn n-'nii^np nny 
D'^jotc^n D^iiKwn 5)133 D"»3^DDn innt<i 
; D>jiDv mic^ nwBD yDOD on'^Doi 5 

i^noy li^nnoB^ i^y nny D^^wn 

i:^yty^ niv pnt33n nivo bv nnv^n^i 

D"»'»n D"*©© ne^ nnicrnn nn^t^^m 

nnn^ani Dn''i''n nynp mn nai«K^ 10 

nant< 5)in naini CiT^i^nt* 5>y JT'itDJ 

n:"'Nnvn3^KV nanno i>in nwno 

Dn^i^y 5>iVNn nnnn nya tyiv ni^a 

Qn'»:''n ynpn mwn ninm 

)nDKi> ni>tr33ni mt'^b n^m be^m 15 

(Leaf 3 yerso) 

nriNT "»^"» r\H'o nyi ohy on^nnx 

^3 nin noyai>i nmon ntcai) nxr 

nnn: i^oy b^"»i nnvn nnry ^:h hSt 

p|iD ny niryi>i i>>yini> nnano nnns: 5 

njn ^^^ nv hk nyn: tni nnnn b 

^ See 5anAe(2n'n, 5 a, where it is proved from this verse (Gen. zliz. 10) 
that the authority of the Head of the Dispersion extends in certain 
respects also to Palestine. Ct the LeUer o/R, aherira Oaon, p. 27, 



no SAADYANA 

min^ pn nnnn nans Dityi>i D^i>ain lo 

nyni noan i>ip Dnni niyitr^ pina 
>^> Dy bn nnp ^ontD bv ^ivBvb 

(Leaf 4 recto) 

i>t<nty^i> nyiB^^ imv tn^ Qni^i my 

n>3i wncr nnyi imtcan p"'M 

T\tH) piTDi n^n ii"»nny n^^a ii>nwN 5 

nSmn wi innx n)b^rr\ noKni D'^jno 

viainD ii>KKn Dii>B^ VDnon nBiyi> 

mrni Dii^K^ mrw nanx dd^^^d ytD'^i) 

DDmi^ai'i DDni3yi> ni>iy on -ia^DV Ni>i 

Dy : '►j^ Dy nic^ nxen mie^nn ne^n 10 

open omiayi Dii>B^ npnxn hkw ^n 
bii>e^ ^a iy ny ^«n inDii oi^^y ny nmi 
D^^n HKiann ninph pinni> n)b\i^ 
u ^D nivi 11CD n>m nniynni> 15 

(Leaf 4 yerao) 

vnK nn^i dhi y^vh nvin Dnvo pN tci'n 

D'-ia bx D'^JB ^« lyn^ nt^i nn ina "fiDn '•dib^ 

m ^'^m DoiK^n rvDt 5>wni nhi nn 

p>nDNnDi nnipn r« ne^ D-'^nnxi? 

ni3D ^ne^n p dub^h Sipn b ityy^i e^mon 5 

03 p pj p yien^ ^D^D iK^y «!> ^a irDoa lac^i 

nb) nn ki nt^a^'K 'ai Kvm Dvn ny {jk^k^^ 



SAABYANA III 

^D^n In^on ^pi:i «{>'•« ni3D ne^ tcnry 

••nn iKH-pi pij^nri pi3"»Dt^ i:5d ycniT 

IN-inni nDiKi nt^yna n^^nmi noin ny 

irurT*"! T^HN iKn^ nK^ pKn !>« thI'k "•' 

nann^ no i^nnx nK^n^i^ int^n^ i5^pitD 

^onnnn i>3 em^na m^ nns TTinN 15 

XLI. 

MS. T-S. 20. 102, paper, one long strip of paper, 47 x 
18-5 cm., written in a semi-cursive hand and representing 
an autograph by R. Solomon, the head of the school, 
addressed to Ephraim b. !Nathan. No date is given in 
this letter, but it is safe to assume that this Solomon 
is identical with Solomon the son of Elijah and the 
brother of Abiathar^, ordained by the former as Father 
of the Court of Justice. Probably he succeeded his brother 
in the dignity of the Gaon, carrying on at the same time 
the feud of his predecessor for the supremacy in Egypt, as 
Elijah and Abiathar before him^. 

(recto) 

* • ; • • n nnnn onax nni no pii )^yp^) ^^ainxi inani la^nx bn 

Kn nnn^a ny\^v nnpya nyhv rnxK^^n '•nx nn^e^ 

nnnoi moiK nnanoa nnntrn nnna nn%n ntj^ nnn nnw n nvn 
n^nniK ^3 nnaiDi nnnia nnnrtDi nnio mniD»i NDtso nntr^Di ni>DiB 
prnno noa «{> inm noK^a nmryn Kim nn iddj i>3 potrni? nainan 5 

inm3 py innDc^ "nn inn^i'y nw n^^K i>3ni injr»«D^ nom jni ini>^'»N^ 

nanonij D-^n ^iin Jjx ihnv nnx nry i>K \t i^nion !?« nnaon lanao yi 

bx iHNV "•ijy np^ nKoi^i "laa i^iym nnryni? rei pNi n^r^p yn ^d 

^1K Kin riKV^ ntn a'^i^anij i>3iN xi' o^n ^axi nK^a'^n Tin px nitryi> no 10 

>K^i)5yn '•nx Dy ^ni>bai ina^K^ Dii^en innoB^^i ini»X'» pon ni>yn iTnn 

» See Arachon, 3a b. « See Above, Frag. XXXVIII, p. a, 1. 18. » Ibid. 



112 SAADYANA 

^»i i3«n nD DnDiN nue^ron nuKnon hn niv^\n n\^yn i>jn 

j^Dxnn ^^n prnnn nnxi Dnb Nnn onnn onnpn Dn^ion nijn D3»d 15 

ntyp'' vh^ ipy^ nai^D niots^i ii>D33 r\>7\> t<ini K^ip^ nao li^^^*^ ton o 

na^ non nnn p^i ncrp nyn "»3 runi? ni>i D"»niroi> Ni>N pr*!^ r« 
nna now ncr^Di nne^nD pn'^noi na i>hynn^ ni?^i>y pK^^no nnm ao 
i'lKK'i' DK r\o\i^ pi IT nntrnD in^»n^ hv Tom\y\ \2b noN"»i irron^ b^ 
• • anD nvjn Kin Dan n^ dki pao nnin naxn t<5> ^a Kin \rx2 mini iniK 
nnn^t^ nytra pe^b ini3n5> dk ""a i^i? pK *t<^n:D nmi «in «^n3 n«U3 dki 
HDNH "»N'»n3i> na dk inn i>85j n^e^p^ i>«i iD^i>3ni>i inioi? pK^i>n iroa nxia^a 
^{V)mo ^ DK'n bii'''n ""ijiiji Dinji yoe^ii ijinoii xe^i noa no wm pnyn 35 
n^y D^iyn nmi jyn i^K Np"» p niat< nox i>nN D"»v^»KiDn '»*di ni> i^y 
Dvn 13 ni DV31 p-'on ni di"* nr innao y^:n ^De^n i>iij*n Dipoa i>^D3 
ppin b i>y i3Dnnni nnm nao i^nvihi m ^npa nnyoa \hh2^ ^3«r 
rc^ni? D^K pa D^^no mi^K^oi an nmi nic' "anao i>a i>yi pK ^ppn 
nocr •T'ann jn: an no Dcra ana^ ntrK i^-'i'y ne^pin "fKDf> o DniNn 30 
lai) i>N avyj ^ai ri^K lOK^a ana^n anaon aicra ii> nnn new niv 

Dnn?iimt< oa iDvy n^ nipji> na Dnnni> b\i^m (l)y^Bn)D Sipa Dpi 
tmh\ hvn^^ npii>nD Jj-'tsni? d^^t^ d^k^^n DK^a nptj^ ^ppm i>a hv 

hvrw^ h^ h\yh^ K^paa lam^ prnnai nrya la'^Kai ne^a pi nano 

ii>yaa tn\6 a-'B^i pnn n^ nar pnn ijya nyni> lane^n^ yt5^n ^b^»ci 35 

mnon nKDi> niantsa p^yi^ ona D^iD^ni dv^k^h |o nnar nevi 

nann hv K^anan win inixn r^ prni^i }nDtci> m T'oyn neto 

HK^nn aoni) Doit^n D^jpr at^ioa nt^ya ntw pp^nn i^oo i^ 

Nin pnni> nNri> n^yn ini^n dki intern nnon in n^ nnvp ^an vi« 

NiSi i^mr^ "ni^iT n^ N^^nwi ^i^N bn aoN i^t< nDNi> ii> 7\>r\ anph 40 

♦ • K^P^ Ki>i Dam DNKIDI Dnno xenai i>«ne^i> nne^ Kin Da wn. 



^ Jer. xviii. 18. ' Bead D*v». 

' See Proverbs xxvi. 4, and cf. Shabhath, 30 b. 



SAADYANA II3 

^ni>ni> iDvyi? Dina** wi»n Dt^ ni> nvn ^ni^ni^ onvtD pNO b^ j^ik 
nan dm vnnDt ne^ ny N^ycnn Dvn inan '•nya noa m nam 45 
B^Ni> ini« nniji itid iniN nnpi> Jjai^ li? nt^ra inryi> ii> hnt hvt dk 
li>B^ Nin Dipon i^n^p^ nnjn vtopdo ynani> liipn T»ny nie^n 
nK^ n niK^i> nni03 mno >i5^i>B^n i^^nn pi ^^dd i? |tn3 
nnit^nn nNit^^n ntj^n nya nnar ne^Ni • ^ ie^:y iin\an i>Di 
•pna mm pbdi e^aiy i>3D pen i>Nwn ^nana dn h^jkb^h i>y nraio 50 
y)b^ tyhm TO)b\£r\ ninD nuynb i b' jru wan i>K ana nr anaoa 
• nvj nan* 
*a*na :3pv' pw na^e^* jrxn 'vn noi^B^ 

(verso) 

n!)ina \aa nann onsK am no to wmp^i i^^an nwa np*i> 
noK^ *ana ijaac^ innvan wennp innoK^ 

♦ • • • *^ yjjn 

xLn. 

Fragment Adler, paper, one leaf, size 15 X 19 cm., written 
in a square hand and dated from Jerusalem in the year 
1058. It represents a document in which a certain Joseph 
b. Shemariah, of Beroka(?), takes upon himself, on oath, not 
to speak disrespectfully either of the friends of the Nas'i 
Daniel or those of the priest Elijah, officiating at that time 
as the Father of the Court of Justice. This would point to 
a sort of compromise between the two pai*ties, probably 
imposed upon them by their followers for the benefit of 
the "holy Yeshiba," which could only have suflFered by 
these schisms. The leaders themselves, however, had not 
their hearts in this peace ; for, as is clear from Abiathar's 
Megillah, there never took place a reconciliation between 
Daniel and Elijah. 

I 



/ 



114 SAADYANA 

^nsTOK^ np'^2D ntw nn'o^ p ^idv wk '•Dxy bv n'^yo (]/:d •»•» (1) D-'oi^N^'* • ni^x i>K 

nonD nmo ••ninsKn yn» i^iK^i) nvi^i nun^i ntri^n li^nno di^yi? njn nrn dvto 

Dni?in D^c^n^ >aK^? jnar • ♦ ■•q nvax n^jk^i i?«nK^» dhk ni:n naoN xiren 

nyi jyDD n^nxK^i ip'^vb hri^n DiK^a onnnni n^nipn na^c^n fji>3 m 

n«i npr pw nn"»K^ Kvn i^n^n ^<"•B^J^ bt^^^^i ^^jhk ^nmx rw nmx nbvh 5 

ay }^npn« «^Kn nH:)^b wicri f'«nK^"» b ^k^ in n^n ax jnan ih^^n lion omx 

i5>''Nn D"»wnn i^i^D in^a» oni^Dn |o pmnxi nwKn nn'»N DiK^a iD'i>y phn 

ppn n-^^v^b mip ^wni i«i>^ onip p^n i>b D^ixn xh pvnn >Dvy i>y Tib"? 

t^ "•wni ^jniD i?D bitD"»3n idk' ni^nv "»^ Knijm naajn dot nnarnn nion ")1d: 

invpo IN li^^Nn D^^inn |o nnN ^N^n n"'D«i n''D^c d«i niooi^D n"»nyt5n ^nnooB^ 10 

^Di'' nw ^^ pK^i dv d-^hk^ nrn dv3i i^nan pnn^a ^it^ nprra '^^Nnn 

^i>Dn pjpn '•ne^an nntDtri? p^K^ ytj^ni pn^n hnd n^ni tca^N n^e^ pc^mon 

^i^DDi D'»3"'prn i>b ^Dvy i^y ••myni «i5-yi> tr^aoi n^n^n to b^ bv ne^Dn 

i>DNTi nnn D^K^n^a nrn inan Dnn:30 diot ^ppin nennpn na^K^n 

• — — i> — b 15 

XLIIL 

Fragment T-S. 8 Kii, paper, two leaves, 18x11 cm., 
written in a square band and representing the remainder of 
the DN3ni>N DTNii? 3Nn3 by A. Samuel Ben Chofni, which has 
quite disappeared since the days of R. Moses Al-Ashkar^ in 
the fifteenth century. The matter reproduced here forms 
.the contents of the first leaf; the second leaf contains an 
index of the said work on civil law (ni^lOO '•jn) which was 
divided into " gates " (D^ytr). There are as many as twenty- 
three "gates" before the MS. breaks off. One of its 
owners was Solomon, the priest, a grandson of Solomon 
the priest, styled Gaon. This colophon was covered over 
by another reading* iyi> '•n"» DnniN V'3 r\^ n:pDb. 

* Perhaps a corruption of Dvrrott?. This document is altogether 
carelessly written, having mistakes even in spelling. 

=* A corruption of '3w "nn, 

' See Studien und Mittheilungen, by Dr. Harkavy, vol. Ill, p. 6 g, and 
p. 35, note 93. Cf. also J, Q. R,, XIV, p. 31 1, list of Rabbi Samuel ben 
Chofiii's works by Rev. G. Margoliouth, p. 311. 

• This grandfather Solomon the Priest Gaon is probably identical with 



.jdi 



SAADYANA II5 

(recto) 

7i\ ^^ Cmp pHN 133 pw 

mi33 0)nKnpi> n^^^'ipnt^ no 

(?) ^ixyi'N TON TO^ia i^id na 

nn (?) nytD^JK no • • • • (1) pon 5 

Kvn pan n-'i^vo ir^nx 

nnx ncTN apy^ pw wk^ 

D^ni^Nn TO^K^ ^p^ ni>D 

nnpa n • • na nbnrb) • • • 

nr.Ni niw nnx p^n 10 

noiK' inai naio 

(verso) 

pan i)KiDB^ Njini wno n^i^Kn 
: py p3 Dni3 pw p in p pw 

N^j ni>N ^iai?N i>ni> Ni> ^ni?N Di>Nyi>K 

pni>N jN^ i>nyi>K Dawni^K jNnn^ 

Di>b^ td) n^Nip ^B nii^ N^J ni)N 

: Kn3N ^i>Nyni n^xb *b 



Solomon the son of Elijah the priest. Of. aboye, Frag. XXXVIII, p. 88, 
1. i8, and introduction to it, p. 80, note i. Mazliach the Priest is also 
mentioned in the colophon to Frag. XLIV, dating from about mi. Our 
Solomon here (the grandson), the contemporary of Mazliach's grand- 
daughter, must accordingly have flourished in the third or foui*th decade 
of the first half of the twelfth century. 



I 2 



Il6 SAADYANA 

XLIV. 

Fragment T-S. 8 F i, parchment, two leaves, size 20 x 14 
cm., written in an ancient square hand, and representing 
the remainder of a commentary to the tractate Yoma^ by 
R. Chananel b. Chushiel, of which the first page is here 
reproduced. Among the various owners which the codex had 
is also Elijah the priest, probably a grandson of the Elijah 
mentioned on Fragment XXXVIII^. He bought the MS. 
in mi. 

(recto) 

i>N33n i3nn tj^nan Kioin Knaoo mrt 

p pan ^rxb^ on ••K^wi^ vn"»ip • b)ii 
tD«tDDB3 hit pw nai pw JO pw 

ycmh \y^7h^ osi^D pv"i st' nnoe^i) 

nianij natii nijiw jd • • • aio }D'»d • • • '»b 

Nnaij^m \iah\^ NnyoK^ ^pidn^ji n"»Dn n 

pw p pw inan n"»^vo li^nxi) 10 
♦ • • r D-'Jiwn pi 
>i^n ijNiDt^ mpK» no 

^NiDB^ nn ijN3:ni? 15 

(verso) 

• NOV tjnn>a 
hna }n3 pK^natD onisan dvJj onip a-'o^ nyi'j^ 
i pna ni>"'nn ma naoDa Dnn pn h\2 n"»iD 
pa p5rnBD man nancri^ mi • • '•d"» nyae^ 
^D iTT-nn ••:& bw r\y^hb ur^nD nnan qnie^n 5 

* Seo also note 4 to Frag. XLIII. 



SAADYANA II7 

ipDin N^K^ nionN ^^3 D^inx ••b pi?!): ^{j^ n"»Q 

B'nn >b irNC^ ^ai? nKota pi>3pD p^Nt^ itraaa 

^ja myi> nn>ni ie^ nxDn nsipi nDTti^ nna 

VII iK^ n'T'n n'^in nna n\-i Dipo pnv lo 

Dva i>na ina c^nani? |onv ^i>^o 

nni> Dn>nnD man nx ^inityn jnai 

3^ ^ nyne^ iNxn t6 nxno i>nt< nnaoi 

• n)\i^h ^^ niv nrn Dvi ntry ne^wa nnna nai 
ma HK^ lij^N nitryi> i • ♦ • • > nn c^ n 6ni 15 
n^ijia KD^Ni Dniaa • • • • hk^d ii)"»K naai? 
na mv niv 5i^i>i 6k na Dniaan ova wnp 
minn npn nxr maa onn nai nn^^vi? ^^ mv D'»Kii>Da kdh 
Dniaan Dm hniv ko^ki • ^la ^^ niv ne^ 
niv pin p^mi ^^ mv ^mo K^yn nana km 20 
31 niK^i> na mm '•^ mv nan n^e^y ^:ah 
♦ • • np^i na la nnxi ^^ mv hk^n na ^oj 111831 
>Dp n'»6ryn Dniaan dv ^pia«5> ma i^i>t< 
Dva nan ni^aipn hniv 6ini ♦ n3^na mv 
• Djanp nw 3npni5 na nm i^Nic^^ >:3 r\H }niv 25 



XLV. 

Fragment T-S. 10 Ji,paper,twoleavesof a quire, of which 
the middle pages are missing, size ai x 14 cm., written in 
a square hand with a turn to cursive of the thirteenth 
century (?), and representing the remainder of a letter by 
R. Sherira Gaon, the father of B. Hai Gaon^. In its present 
defective state it is impossible to say with full certainty 
what the burden of the letter was, but as it would seem it 
formed a plea for the support of the Babylonian schools, which 
at that time of decentralization did not any longer receive 

* See leaf i recto, 1. 8. 



Il8 SAADYANA 

the pecuniary assistance to which they were accustomed*. 
He tells them that to be sure he was himself helpful in 
the " setting up of places " (that is establishing schools) in 
Israel of the West, but if the decay is once allowed to set in 
in the head (which is probably Purribeditha) the rest of the 
body is not less sure to degenerate^. We have thus in this 
document another instance of the struggle for authority 
which took place at the removing of the old centres. The 
next document is of the same nature, and it is this fact 
which suggested their insei-tion in this place, as an illus- 
tration of an historical phase already made manifest to us 
by the contents of Fragment XXXVIII. 

(Leaf I reoto) 

pKin^ mnD pmn^D nian^Di n^^ • • • • bid 
ny>n pm Tino ^a i:^Kmp "^^sh jnn'^i ^ii>:i 

nx D"»rniNi D"»pna D"»x;nipi nnnK hdod 5 

no niKni> ^nyn ny >nD ir:Di> D^n''Di>nn nx 
nuDi 5)^00 ci^DV nt^Ki DnnK^a Mob noi ijk^ 

hxtri) yn^ «i> nsTKi Dn^an Dicri^i Dnoi?!? npiK^ 10 

i^mx ij-^ijijiy ^DDi (1) ii"»pi)nDi ij-'antDDi 

nrn nnnn nx nnji> dh^j p^ni^i D^yiiD 

ir3N n^Di?n vn hk^ki i^nin DipD nx }pni>i 

i^mN inw pK^iy o>NnK^ non ^i-'ax ^nxi 15 

nnnn nx 33ni> ij^oyyi inx ptny ve^^y 

^33 in pnnn nnDi ♦ nninn ^lan n!? }yoi> 

i>Ki> pw i^Kct) nnn wxini nyvn iri>y 

T\b)y ):2 pKi irn^ 

' Leaf 2 recto, 11. 15-19. 

« See leaf i verso, 1. 16, and leaf a verso, 11. 3-7. 



SAADYANA II9 

(Leaf I verso) 

Dnmi D3^i>t< i^nna nw pm iinoi nana 
D^nana )T2in w-oyai i^n^e^ nnoi n^Kn 
py3o^ 13 • ♦ • Dnnaa^i ic^ ^nn Dn« ^a Daoy 5 
niDN^Joa 0)npDynn nninn nx pnry^ oann ••pin 
'^^n n^pn no Si ^tT)bn nv^o ^a nynwi 'naa 
N^^ai D33 Dnnnaii i^Nn^^^ ^niK^n oy anni> 
nnnn jpn^ nu^ ^v o^oy i^unn ne^xa Dan 
2w yno nnoiKi D''j3Dn riN nnnKi nia 10 
a^vnS ^onoy bv DT»y«i Dvap^i M^vni^N n^n 
3d nana Dipi^i nnph niaai> d^^dwi nn-pa 
pinvi inan •tdI^k' nnviK i>y nnviNi vnnK 
mar p pn on^ i>yi Dni^n \o nnai naiDn 
^DH^nK^ pi>ni> Dn^i^yi utrw r^«^ ^a n^^hd p 15 
ijayn mn p nanxa Daiiroin nsyxai 
i>a noa ona ciorn nud j^nx i^aa ^isrh n^ 
• i>^^«m nuxm n^ntcn ann tprn n« nnsan 



(Leaf 2 recto) 

pn nnDiD nvi xh * oann • ip^no 

D« pn nn ax 'ODob tko ii> o« ^dv • • d 

iTnn \b t<anx nyir ii> ox nnxa nnnv \rh 

niDv an^nn ii> anai pn n^a ax laooi 

TND 'n nowc^ai ♦ *nu nxvo n\BV w • an^nn 5 

n >n« p N^33m • nia-va aam • di> *^ ii>D 

^Nir nana i^i^y naai Dim naai? «a ye^in> 

iDty mm ytj^in^ n ii> jn^i inorni> ne^a^K 

* Neh. xiii. lo. ' Ibid. xiii. ir, 

' Ibid. xiii. 13. * See Solah, 49 b. 

' The source for the last four lines is unknown to me. 



I20 SAADYANA 

ni • ^ DK^ 335^1 i>nni> yir^n"' n iD'':ni «ann3i 

n3i>i> li-'iiDip ^x oann ni^Ko nnw nnx b 

vne^ mono onx pe^ pi •loipo i>K mnx 

on^nii^^KK^ Dn^nixmn nvnl? p5j'»n D3^ni3K 

• • D33n DHKi ♦ njnin nuo na^K^n p 15 

WDD DDK^nnna ^^r^ pnn hk DTi'^rro^ 

DD^nuK i«rnnn tkd ••a iniK oaaryai 

nahn mn nnxn itan^ ^k^m ni)>nnn 

D^K^3 i3ni>N i>Ni • njty i>y n^K^ ibd ♦ mom 

(Leaf 2 Terso) 

D noa n>arn nc^ nnx li^nux hn 

n^n jy nixav ^v dn3 no |r Dni^ dm 

jnoNn niDK dki ^A-'aij ^k in on^i ann Kin 

' —^bn nnwj na^B^^m oa^K^mo jinnir^^ 5 

l^KI DD^tDlK^ D3>B^n 33 HOn D3^K^n 

ihn ^iian K^nn nnxi ciian d5>b^i trxin nnc^ 

DK^i> nina iD''Kn n5>N3 lo^nni ij-^nx w wpn 

an^M laiji ♦ n>03ni)i innini>i Msii^N 

imn nx nnnm Damn Tinai Ds^ninN lo 

riK pKin jyoi? D^^nip^BD ):b n^ani 13b^5> 

nsDn 

n^K^^n 37 prn^ d:i D3 inai^nm nte^win 

* See KoTieleih JRabha^ I, 8 (§ 4), Jer. Nedarim, 40 a, SanA^drin, 39 b ; see 
also the Letter qf R. Sherira, p. 16. Ct Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten, 1, 389 8q. 
text and notes. 

^ See the Travels qfR, Peth<Khin, ed, Benlsch, p. 8. 

» See Gen. xix. 13. * Haggai i. 9. 



SAADYANA 121 

man irax n^n ninai? 16^ linuDi? «i> ^a 15 
Innin nin^i?) ••T'' nnai? o ni>«a me^p oa^i^x 

mivn nxn on run naSn^c^ nioN yaix 
Dipoa Nin niwni imo DipM Kin 20 

XLVL 

Fragment T-S. 28. 24, one long strip of parchment, size 
59 X 16 cm., written in a square hand but with a strong turn 
to cursive. It is defective at the beginning and the end, 
whilst the right margin has also suffered badly. The 
fragment represents a respon&u/m (probably autograph) of 
some great Rabbinical authority addressed to R. Shemariah 
b. Elchanan (of Alexandria), who flourished about the end 
of the tenth century^. In its present condition it is 
impossible to say who the writer was, but I may state that 
the (Jeniza possess various documents from which it is 
evident that Shemariah was the correspondent of the Gaon 
R. Samuel b. ChofuL We may thus attribute our fragment 
to this last Qaon of Sura. The Halachic contents of this 
reaponsuTn are of the usual kind addressed to and answered 
by the Geonim; but they are prefaced by an appeal for 
the support of the Kna^HD and a dissertation proving the 
authority of the Babylonian schools, even after the estab- 
lishing of new centres of learning in the west, which, like 
the preceding document, gives evidence of the strained 
efforts made by the last great representatives of the 
Babylonian schools to maintain the ancient seats of 
authority. 

* Sec recto, 11. 85 and 86, and c£ J.Q.R,, XI, p. 646, note a. 



r>2 

5 



122 SAADYANA 

(recto) 

• • • ♦ ^iK DVD n naa • ♦ 

• • tno ntn^ * • • tDBcro n^: noi • • • ♦ n: nar • • 
DnD^i> nib niD^n 5>x; i^o nn • • • d^ D'-iaoi iby n'b^pi:> i:mK • • anx 
•*Bnv^i D^D^i? 5invi> e^na noi ^p^i?i nin^i D[n]a ^iiii? "i^{r3"» d^^ok^dh }6i n 

nQ3i> pi>i>i ♦ • ♦ i>ut5> •T'^nh onnin nnah ^y niii i^Aanx n5n • • 

• iS-i^ nk nD3 py nia^ni ni^nnp DipM onan^ ^a onnya i^^n • • • 

• • • hiii^'* "imbp Knn"»nDn n\m ^a nyn^ nxn ^i3"»i^^ ii'K'i 6*5k^5 &3[^KtDn' 

• • • i'K-iK^'» be^ nan nb:2 i? p«^ "^^^'^^ ^2">^ ^^^ ni:anpi) • ♦ • d 

• • • ♦B^i nl?K i>3 nx D>n35r onx noi? D^ynv i^mx pKi nniK^n 3t5> 
Dit5> "ira-'jny i^K i3n''K^n3i • irnin nx • ♦ • n • • d ♦ 

• • (l)Dinn ij3 ^3 nni33 nxr n^ii xi? D^ny D3 • • • i?y pna -noij 
pKi Dn^j p^nv p ^a i>y piki on D-^pipno onnn • • ♦ 3n nwwtD • 
niK'nnD ^na pnnno vn D^itrNnn ^d dtiv dhki pnii» an ••so tibn n\ 
^Dbb n:hb Dovy n« D^pmn nipinn D-nyn ii?''BKi • iniyoK^ nIjb' na • 
nryi^K nb KJN:a • • i? "»33 «p n^n ^dk ni '•dk n i)rhn2 \3nD« ncrx ♦ • 
jiT^jy n\n li^'^aKi • '^n"»Ni m]}) n"»3» «nij^D yoK^x i^'-PK Njwai? irrtranx • 
niK'^B^jn |D bti'bo} pn nx na'^yK' or poyn ):h n^jn ne^x^ o^yaoi • • 

• K^nnD.n nuD iDxy yao kI? bx^i?©: pn pikk^ nnry p [nry]5^K n« p 

• • ♦ Dt5> HNn K^n^'n to dv^P^^oi D^K^ano vn nyvi n-^n mpoa mi • 

• ♦ • N pypan yenn^ n oa ij-'apn!? iDi>n{r nddh nry^x ni npinn p pn 

• • • c' liN T»D^Di WK in-'oi^n ii> )noK cannon n^na Dvn nvi mn^n no 

• n»K nriNn '•oi^jr hdk^ cnTn «b tj^nnon nui? ntrax ^ p ^a i>y pik 

ne^ D^ynr onNK' pa^yn i>Di nnan nnvi noai nn\n nnry p nry^N n • 

• • ^tuv iDvani nnry p nryi>K n Dpini ijN^5>»a pn nayna )^)2V2\s^ ^a 5>y P|te 
vjT'Dijnij noK nnry p * nryi>« n K^nno yot^K^ p^a *nonaa cniao n'^rxa 

-DV ni^K^ n^^yon dji • ••jod nnnxi? D^K^pao onxi D3Ti nnNn nnio n ♦ 
)b now tj^nnon n^n enn^n i>y i^NKn nii?n litv^b^ "^ '':3a i^^npnb i W mpoonn 
n^ n^i^nn ennnn nx i^ ni?yni rry bpi n^ tDK^a T^"*y ^^pi i^a^y oie^ 

• hnrm p)ptJ? ■•dv ^^''y nrn^K^ pvn Nn"» noK inyn n^K^njira^ (?) Kami o 
nn^B^n nx Dne^tD^i nyin no nx onnair t« d^^ r"i« ^"^did o'^anNn (?) lyoBi 
panv onxn ixni nj idj nip^ao dd^^o pxe^ ne^a^ ••« onx tD^i^na n^^'v^ • • 

* Dan. xi. 35. ' Isa. i. 18. 
^ Berachothf 16 a. Cf. Rabbinowicz, Kariae LectioneSy a. L 

* Seo Berachoth, 27 b and 28 a. ^ See Chaggigah, 3 b sq. 



10 



15 



H 



30 



SAADYANA I23 

min ""a cxnv dhki noai moa nnx ^y onnon dhk oa dki • pn 

nyiOK^ yDK^i> D'»wno D^JK^xnn vn ncrx^ pr\2)iD an '•do k^jk 

HM n^^xa nnoiK nan ^ji^'^nn y»ie^n ^a K^n nipDon mo isnoi? n ♦ • ^ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Kinn JKD DK1 niDnan i?K"»i'Da p pyoK^ pna n^i^n «nK n ""aD T»i) 35 

nnn ndk "i nx nvd nnNon noidd ^nyDtj^i? nno'^yK 

mpDHPiKi nuK n^n Dmnni'm py"»Do onan noa ^^'•1 *n3iK^D . ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

D^oan iK^nni li^ii ^nii^K^ Diiyo^ iB' nroD bai? nn^ae^ nr^^ 

DipDn KNni K\n i^aaa nnxn Dnoy n3'»3t5> lijacr Dipo i)Di5^ bn'w pn'»an ♦ • ♦ • 40 
N3Nn bn D3 • • • • bn t6n !?3[a ni] nian^ ^tbbn jvi Mn n^a naa bv m^v * * 

n-'ni PiK^ * • «ni5^"'aDn dk tri i^vim Nnt^aan dk nn na"'3B^ Knt5^ • ♦ • 

^K3n • * ♦ * Nan paor ♦ ♦ i< «!?« Ksn ndti xh Nan «o^n nb) t^)n^[ni] • • ♦ ♦ 

pDn^D la^JN • • ♦ • r\2'^^\i^n yi-'oi? nrB^\n ny^np nii wirnno on n 

naiDH Nnryi nnion k^^n i'«''ani «uan i^Nprn^ noaan ^in n^on ia^ 45 

• • • M D^Dann my 5i« 'nanni) oi^a oanar nioi^nn ^Dan nxK^i n^na f * • • 
pDnia ni?N i>3 n^oDnn pnn pin ni> • ♦ • d pin pmnao Dipon m»iy n • • ♦ • 

DanK^n ij^n dhni hi'^k^ 0) nnaa nnin ••i'ma niDipo • • 

li'^^y nK^N3 D3ni3DiN nnin • ♦ • a oa^b pw ppoy DDnnnoni 

bx nanu D-'-pn^ n^^N Nim r\b)y^ vht^ dhn pn'^'^n pNi t^ybv 50 

niDi^n TO "liin naoN^ paya irnun ijk' ne^:]) lanxo K^anh i'NK'i? 

anjD jnn anan naoNi n»"ii> n^oi?n pnaa onan i^ia'' no^ nI? n ♦ 

nycrn ynn din ncrsN '•nhv p pyoK^ n dnk' ••d i^y ^ini iiooa nr i>yi f ♦ • • • 

nS^n n''i>y Nnn no innin nn-'Vp nytJ^i nvip na^nn nye^n tj^nin 

n6yi 3^^ onnN n"» i)y rr'tj^ya \n2t6D jy\pDb^ lai^n pB^iy 55 

ic^ levy n't i?y n^trya jnrjN^t) laivn p^iy pNtr |»di • oai? •♦••*• • 

nn ti'^« fiN hiiifi ae^ }iTn^ i>y n^K^a nnnx wn^jdi iaan 

nD ini) • • • Q'^V'^Ni i>NyoK^ 13 nnyn pnn nn ^>aN dn n^o^nn 1 

(?) la^Dhy n • ♦ • na Naxn n cn lai? ♦ • • n • • • ^d^^p-n xin "»Nn^"» p • • • ♦ 
Ti^yai NHNanD n"«n n^y^^ xyni Nnaa nn 60 

* See Chviin, 50 a, 

' See MegUlakf 25 a. Cf. also Kethuboth, ma. 

* See Benjamin^s Itin^raryj pp. 67, 69, 73, and 74. See also Pethachia's 
Travels, p. 50 sq. 

* See Berachothy 35 b. 



124 SAADYANA 

• 

bv nninn non ^k^nd rht^ b in ^* ♦ • ppovK^ ny ♦ • • D"»D3n '•^''Di'n ♦ • • ♦ 

lijw ii'''K Dn^n ^xnK^ Dii^srai nnini? nnnaj nn-'c^^n ••Mn i>3 

13 JK' I'm p^ur t^n«i niwi inxvi ji^iif nbK^ naa la 

nyii? D^ny^ liJu <yni* niii^K^ ^3ibi i^ Dan "dk^b^i jie^' 65 

lia pi ' nninn poiy lae^K^i natJ^K^Ci^anv p^aoo pi>inr ^«nK^ 

^ '"• nninn iprn^ lyoij on^Jn D^jnan n3» r\rh Di>cnT uwi? iy 

ne^n ny:^ nnnn ani? D3>ninninn inxa d«i o^ynv onx ijdd nni . • \* • • 

nmni • ):b D-nijrn onx wion ••n Dni'^xn^ ncrxn lan^xn^ onmn p 

lanj ncTN niamon i^n mn tD3>ni:n3D ipoa^K^ '•a bv pjk '•n nnuoi 70 

• n»v Ni>i nDi"* i6 wnu nvo ninnnn yoi nnw p D3DipDi> irjionp • • • • 

• • • lynx nny ♦ nayi yots^ "^n irninnn pbpo DHK Torn 

nun ♦ ♦ ♦ • ♦ nyn nx e^N wain oai onovy nx on in'»nini nnn 

iK-n'^i nbn w-^nm nKnpi> rh)i} nnnn nnni vonn^ inninbi on^M 

ynns i^yi nn''K'\n Kin ^xna^^ nin ^y lonni iDini ny:]H2 pa 75 

ni:>N i:j'»nin n« icnan i>Ni on^r irhm ^ipf^b )b p««r nai^n^e^ 

••••(?) ni^n pi pnionn p D3v • • n Jjm mi^xtJ^a winoKn ♦ Dimr • • • • 

B^^ ••a lynn p ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ {> tDn'»)D^nn nniyn"" ]vi:b 'pa 

onn: nn:ji> i:n:i D3''nijnoi Da^niman ijiprn oai 

nin ♦ ♦ • ♦ yb on'^nnD b^ nn iivi innni D^D^cn nn 80 

D^ nnr p h^mJ? ^k^ ii'"»a'» vn^no i>3 Da 

^B^«n ns b^yni^ i:k pK D30k • ♦ • • ••a D3dip[d 

lyoi^ nK^3 T« i^iynin n^^N 

D«r ^y • ♦ • • cnoi^ on^o^ni yinp tj^nno b'' 

• [nn-K^]'' K^Nnn nnoK^ «:an i>''X«n 'T»a«n nnxn ♦ • • • «nn 85 

• ♦ • ♦ injw iK^N nanni? nar pnij« laan p • * • ♦ i> on • * ♦ ♦ 1:^ 

DD imini iniinn i>i:ni moan mn nan 

i>ip lan^ nuinns enn 

n^D • • • • ♦ 

* C^uZtn, 54 b. 

' See Gen. Edbhaj ch. 72, § 5. The quotation is not verbal 

' See 2 Chron. xxxi. 8. 



'.T 



• • 



SAADYANA I25 

(verso) 

♦ • * D3D nnx 

♦ • ♦ • p^yDt^n 

♦ • • N) • ♦ 31 

ciK n • • trn ntTK • • • • trn k5?k k hk^k '•31 

nna b ii'D^'>[> N^n n • 

• Di« '•JDnn pyDK^ nn^py n nm n^^ «^a « ♦ • b^ ^ ♦ • «n 
nia K:jn ii> ono «pn di^d ^i»nn pyoK^a nai^n ii> nd^>pi pnan 

• ♦ • • IK n • • • BDH nnw ihn i^an ni^ay pKi pvn 

n'T'ap K^i pKnn^p tj^e^ mpD b 

inn tnab •••••♦ n ♦ • • 

• • nr • • • • ^1? i>y ni? t^ bx penn^p vi)y rh p«tr i^^i 

K^3 nonoi nnlnfi nhfexn h^ny ^io f\m bv 

'nnatr ni>i nf nf ^hS ni63 ii?in 'fmi'^p n*nm bv 

ittDD p«K^ Dni6 ninii i?^n n<i< ^n6k^ • • • n ^p!?n3K^ ^b i?y p|ft 

• ap3 «3K^ xh onar k:k^ «5ji nia • • D^y • • ♦ • nny iid-'k 15 

• D^j-TiJi oniDD pm 'nn)nn i^a n^o ny • ♦ na >3ai p^^n ^^m 

• • • Dn>iaoi 13DD ni>i3B^ fn^Ni nnpi nnsi bnar nnx Di>iy 

• • : riNi pD fK^nani? pn n^a i>y b^ niNie^:n iniK i>Knt5>>i^ 
tr ^j^nj • • • • nnm n^a pm d'^didki ^pinei b^a^nai pnnmtrD 

• • b n'i:b h^J? nnnion ♦ • m i>y ^ki ^^n nf fti^ pnio 20 

• • nnin^ n ^dv n nan nfoD ibSnS hnf66 Kisii ni xa^ann Nin 

• Kn3b^n «ny»m neiDa pnown ^dv na nai^n ji? No^^pi mroo 
l^^lbDiJ K^j^b n^nc^i ttht^n «^ ninia nnfe hnfoiba nnibi ninaa 

p^ E^ D^narn bM i>i>a }n"»ia!> Ni>i napn pb pK niapam ^61* na nnfDoa 

.iriDK^ «Bnj nfoD ni^a nno^ pfeo piJti^ 6i« pano n pnn pane na 25 

iDNim nfeoi nay nf <nn tS^k nfy^ft n fnW na Kioi bn, ttnne^ nay 

nx mno pano ni> ii) noK yoB^ Np nay^n ik ni^^nnaij pantD ^ mi) «^ya^K 

ay Nnay^ abi ^63 nnfoo 6* «p lii^^nha^ nnoK ^«i nnhia id niapin n«1 

nro yoB' • • DKNp ni?*hna!? ffe"^^ n^ro yoiy wnyoM wpD»i D^n )b 

• *pantD na na5>n i^KiDc^ on nnin> ^an ok oxn pane 'na nai?n |ij 30 
bi:^ pnn p«i na^aoa nm noan y^am noan onip m^aoa a^i^aoB^ • • a;h 

^ Jebamothf 49 a. ' See Kiddusfiin^ 66 b. 

' Jehamoth, 14 a. ^ See JebamotA, 68 b, and ITidefusAm, 69 a* 

* Kiddushiriy 7a b and 73 a. * JTtdc/usAtni 69 a. 



126 SAADYANA 

• ii> No^v pn niv^3 D^^y» *•« noan ""pDy^ ^t6 inv nm nr •»n3 ni^KK^n 

• min'» n pm na i?y ^isi in lyanotJ^ 121 b^i «i>« nni^a nsntra )3"»k 

^31 nsn^ i>an ij'-nk^ nni: noi |ni3 pini nanK^a k !?« jn^n niv'^n px din 

niii nnao 6iN 5ni fi • • • 5 in^ic^^ ^in^ti' nii i?3i 65^nab • • • K^ In^awi 

i^ '•3 }nDn niD^« pa k'"'! o^'on ne^^jr on tD'»D • • • « noK^ pon cintj'i' c« 

N pnoNT i niy^a Kin nn nn'^a n^ nm b d«i piw • • wn nn D^i> 

b !?i« nni? hnitt niao NoiJn iN D^ij • ^ nnao lini? inift n-iao 

• • ♦ D<^ iJ^DD iN lin^ liiin pniK^ 16^* ^di^ n ftnf nn ♦ • • • ^65 phi 

• ^^66 D^^ bin f\\^b iiiifi m.v «6i?H ^« 6^^ b^btS pnie^ nie^ rnW 45 
yii f\r\f\i nxK^!? j^Dii nprie^ «>yi n^ ri^bn o^h rnf rritiy NiihOD 

• np^iiK' N^ya liDiND NJ^n rnf liitiy «nihD6 Nia^N ninn* p|Di^ in n^^ 

• ^nb • • J • ♦ ^ov in n^'nin n^jn • • i n^nta N^an nh^a ••yn n!? d^ndt 

• • • D«»ij ij^tDoi *nD n3"'aD3 !!?••• nn!? ni^tt nnao ninoi "i^no 

• • S pniK' lii^abi i^nb riM nhi? rnirt piiiK^ nanba ii>nb iTh pini 50 

• ♦ b'bb b^i? Nii N*Kp n!? liiii? hp^hK' p|bv ir\b N^jrp nin^a iiin^ n^b^ 

• • ♦ • ^^itv ^i^bnii m ^b^rii kn Jk^vp id ^bS^ ir/p iin^a nttrb 
Ntr^roi ny n^dIj imnE^i? n>i> ^yn-'o «!> pon nio'^x ma 

• • • • nna^ inx Ni> nna^o iTK^aaiD tc'iDn r\'b nxK^ ^nn |V3 na 

• • • i> iTN n''!? n>i>n hyd dik^ ^ni -iiy^a n"» pa^oi? n>i> ^i«D tw 55 

• mc^a i6H iTTiain n*" p^aw «i> '•xni ni^ na^ n^rain n^ nn pB^Di> 

• • ♦ 1 Nnsy pn pniann pi n-^i) ^asn iy n^jn Dni> npno Ni>i Dn^ 

• • ♦ nroi cnaDT {jnik^^ nn >«n lai^in iTnain n^ na p^aK3i Dn^ 

• N • ♦ NW^aDi • * pa^D^j b)y t6) man Nim xnoa ^dnd nrA^i ^anooi , 

• 1 3n nNnrnK^ no • • * un b^K^a ic6cn ):b^ d^dii nio^K^a n • • nny^ob 60 

• tj'i rh2)rh nraion to * ♦ • n ♦ • ijy • • • na'^aoi mai? Jjiy • • ♦ p * ♦ • im 
n i^na ba p^ani b^ jruK^Nni ntDn nvwo 

• * ♦ ♦ mvo ^Din Dnb N e^i> ina nn'»D3 ipi^oe^ 



* Pesachinif 21a, 27 b, and 28 a. 

' See MinacJioth, 96 b. Cf. also Jer, Pesachimj 29 b, regarding rmr TtsXi* 



SAADYANA I27 

• 1 pb onipo tri^^ nnv V? )b ntJ^a^K ••^tj^ ira xan 

n ^ • • ^ n^2p^ • * • • ^fjy •] • • • • a «im ny xno'^a ^ond "•ni 65 
55^33 ainan nivo ibsn anya nan niinn p nain nrn jdd nv» ^ 

• ♦ n^ ^3iij inK naia njpn li? pNi «in y^^ia '•an nay «b''Ni 
nrsDa Kim niK^ nriNai m^aoa ini di^^ji ni>nDn ^nai)i 

• nnp Dipoi) • • « • i3ii)n Tinn iii?n"' ik nic^^i? n:'»DDn p nxvi? 
Bi nac' anyn i^^dki n^^Bon D^ani? i?i3'» idio ^^^ )b ik^d^kct i^i? 70 

m'^BDi Di3^i> ii> niDK pinn dipd^j ipb nvm lovn oipo iniNi> r3ni> 
^D"* ntJ'^JthD nine m^aoa rii'so |^n «rjm natj^ onip d^o^ ntrijK*D 
np DipD^j i^in DK IN r\2^ Dnip d^o> rw^b^ nraoa dj^j d«i natri? 

• nt^b pipr irN n^^aon iina «im vi>y rac^ nriNai raa^ • • d ♦ • 

n naiK^ ir«i nuB^ hjd i>y loy pDiai w»3«m i3iij\n ima • • • 75 
•*in^ ^^""^ ^iN ^^''ijDa p pyDtr • • • • 

• nn n^'»nc'3i in^^N mtDwi nvnn inrx n^jm ^n^noo n^'^k^ pixni 
noyi D^^yn oni? pxtr npsn ^D3i nnhb^ n»i^ ni'D^ij poi^K^n nvni pn 
y D^'^Bi jn ii> noNi n^vn i>ioN ir nvn {j'^vn dn Dni> -icni jn • • ^1 
nvna nnn nvnn i^ya pi«i n3 pt nnNij nnprna ivnn n^am pD^e^ 80 

DIN nTiijvn p nyn i>yi poi^tj^n n-*© irri^n • • • • n^vnt^ pyoc^ 

• • • ntr po^yn i>3i nm "»^k^ nvn Dib nr nm» ynv ^j\>« 

• • • • HK' nnN D^Dyo nrraD piN-i oy pnntr "Tiy • • nc' • • 

• • n N^Ji in nnn n^n^ ncra^Ni cnt Nin • ♦ oi^ya n-in . • . . 
mr D:n nn: i>^vn Ni> • • • ir:N n^o i)i • • db^ • • d nIj • • ♦ • 85 

^1 Ka '»3N • • • • n ptD^JK^n na nn^ iI^^bn li? nDii> p 

Diyi M ^3N ^n"»M«r3i -ipsn ^d33 riK^i? • ♦ * n ♦ • nn 

• • pi -i> nnnno rrn • nvn ksik^ onyn v:dd Dipoi 

D • • B^ niyi n^D xh nay «!> b'nn) nnw n31 i>^vnb o'^^yan • • • 

• t6\i^ ? • • • i^^vni> ha^ p1^n mn n^k^ xni^nD KnaiD • • • • 90 
Ni>tr • • CD iTN^ni «i>i i«b DK pD^trn nn n^ dn yn> «{>••• • 

• • • • 



D ^^VD n3y • • 3 7]p nair rrn • ' • n ij^vm pyDK^ 

i^ p nn D''i>y3n ixw^w dk jd • • D^n f • • • • 

► • • nb'^H • • DO niN • • • • yn* Ni^n 



* Skabhathf 19 a. Cf. reaAu&otfc Haggeonim (ed. Lyck), no. 61, and i^esponM 
qf Mainwtiides (od. Leipzig), I, §§ 154-1561 



128 SAADYANA 



LATEST ADDITIONS. 

XLVn. 

MS. Adier, paper, one leaf, size 20«5 x i6«5 cm., written 
in an early cursive hand and representing, as far as I can 
judge, another fresh fragment of E. Saadyah's controversial 
lettei-s against Ben Meir. The text seems to be corrupt 
in places. The following lines were supplied to me by 
Mr. E. N. Adler, which he copied from an ancient list of 
books in his possession : — 

mina nianoi rrnyo i^ani? mb)i {jkmi rva ini 

Possibly the i^anoijK 3«nD is identical with the nioi^nn ''311 

attributed to the Gaon (see Weiss, Zur Oeschichie der 

Tradition, IV, p. 156). About the ny\r\2 ni:nD cf. above, 

Fragment XXVII. 

(recto) 

• • K^n ^b 63n lynpK^ no nn« pD'*!?^^ ]x *imb n!:>i3 dki M''">^^ 

"^^'^^ va n^tJ^nn hvk^ ppi?n «in onip nS^i ni^y n K^tr 

nu^y na px dki ana d:i : pD'-i'tj^ p-*© "imb ni^i: bxi pnon 

niiK'Kn nvKiD tboinn onip ni^i^i n^nn n:^2 tSt 

lynpts^ nnion pd^^jk^ p^o nnNi> ni?!: d«i P'T'dh "^m^ '^b'h^ 5 

pp^n lin Dnip i5ji31 nxan mcrn xh 'Tia''y ni pK dn D'^oan 

ppi?n n6nn onip if>i3i nn''y nMn n:^r\ iTh^ dki ara wi 

po''ijtr p^D nn«i) n^i3 dni pn-'on '•b^k^ ^i^^i^a nn^'W nyciD 

ppi^n ^ii Diip nhii nu'^y u k^''b> neri b '•jcr nytj^ ana iijn 10 

po>^B^ pD nnxi? ni?i3 dni pn'^on ^an Dva n^iirNn nyenD. 

' Very faded, and might also read pTH. 

* The Lamed is doubtful. It may also be a Kaph» 



SAADYANA 129 

ftinft onip ^b\:) in^y n tr'^e' nrn (1)^3 5n lyapcro nnn 
ro^^K^ p-'D imb nhj DNi jnon ^an ^b'b^ i^ nwo rpi>n 
nn^tj^ nysTD ppi^n nohh m^p ni^i^i nu^y u p« d«i ana 021 
lyapK^ mion {^"i^tj^ p^o nnx^ iha dni pnoa ""B^n 'b'hi 15 
'•i^'^ba nn^K'y nvc^ pP^n ii DTip ni>i3i nu^y ia px bsi an 
Dnycra ana *iiyi : po^i>K^ p-o int6 ni>i3 cki pioa ^tj^^cn 
nn-B^y nytro ppi^n ai oip n^i3i nu'^y ia tj^e^ ne^n i>a ii>ijn 
napK^o nnn po'^c:' P^o "^n^i? ni>i3 dki pn^on na^^a mn Dva 
n^yn^^n ny*^D ppbn Nvn mip ni?i:i nia^y ia K^:r ncrn i>a an 30 
DK1 ana d:i pio^i^K^ p^D -inxij ni>i3 dni pion nat^a nnx ova 
inN ^b^b nn^B^y nvm^ pp^n iionn DTip ni^iii nia^y na px 
an lyapK^ nnion : poi^cr p bv T'n^ ni?i3 d«i pnon hatra 
••b^ba nn^sry nytro ppi?n in Dnp ni>i3i iia^y u pnk' nc^n ta 
ncj^n i^a ana iiyi :po^i?K' p'»tD nnxi^ nhj dni pnon na'j^a •inN 25 
(?)a::' Dva n^ae^ nye^ nicft onip ni^oi lu^y n ly^^ 
nn^y ia tr'-K^ ntrn b an lyapK^ no 5>y nDDin pnoai "^^b^ nnK 
D«i ana Dai pnoai '•ir''bB' nnx ''lirh^ ova nTas?^ nye^ Dip ib):) 
"^^^'b^ nns ^K'^ijtr '•b'^b nn^'B'y ny^io n6nn mip T.a^y ia pN 
pnoai ^cy^on nnx -K^on Dvi> iniK nm ^(?)nvn p b n^n"» imoai 30 
nn"':?^ nyc^D nonn mip ni^iai nia^y na px dni ana dji 
^tron Dvi? ins nm p i^y n^n^ pioai ^K^i^tJ^ nn« ''li^^b^ '•i^^b 
nia^y na pN dni an lyapKio ^ai^^n pnoai ^K^^cn nnx 
"K^'^K^ nnx '•B^i'K^ ^i>^i>a nn^e^y nytj^o ppi^n nn Dnip li^iji . 

(verso) 

ana niyi pnoai ^tr^on nnx ^c^on dv5> inx nm p bv "i^n^ pioai 

natron nytro pp^n 3p nnx ni^iai nia^y nnaytr m^^a n\n dni 

niaoi? nij« i^a nw pnoai "b^I^k' nn« ^^b\y nvb mix nm ^:k^ Dva 

Dva n:iK^Nn nyt^ iii ny i!?i nae' • • i>iaan xn^K' na iniyta bv 

nn iDN^i ^yan ^^-i^a i^ nycrtD ai^pnn «in nn mi)iDi pnon "y^an 5 

n;*K^ .ionn ny i^i nitra i^iajn n\T pi pnon ^(?)nvnni> vddk^ 

nn^K^y nytro ri6n K'.n nn mhoi nm xb n^^K' ^^^i>a nn^B^y 

' Writing fnded ; but it looks as if a line was drawn through the word 
as a sign that it has to be cancelled. 
• Perhaps it reads nvmb. 

K 



130 SAADYANA 

nDN'* ntTw^ n^i nrio pik .Tmn dipd^ (?) ran (?) «b pK (?) iv noK^i '»K^^5r >^^b 

nnyiDH nx hhxh DniT^D nc^ i^xn^^ nvpoi^ oiai li'^n 0^:5^ tj^i>B'n 

D-K3n Dnyiion ns i^i^n^ tr^ "•33 nmi niyo nm nyt:5> epn k^k ni^xn 

n'j*K K^p D oya nyc!?) nnira o^an ^••*^Dnij ytj^a KtDn bjr Pi'»Dinh 

on^D^nn^ D^ODnni d^di^nhi D'^e'^cnn idd«:i ^3>iv pni ma c^d^ k^ 

n^oynb t«» p iN^an n^« nrn hn:n ^Jirao^ niK^];i> no lavjnai 15 

i?y n^«D p ana -t^n D^noan b nx lyni) bij ^ noK^i invy 

^^xn ^nx Dyn iinn vnnaN inD33 ^a iK^ax niyi nioipon ^« hnt 

n^yo HK D;nini) b^ b Tinn piri? invni? nrn naon n« aina^ 

i>3 '•3 cnw r\\\h\ niMtni)! on^onh cjid ^y1 n^^nno nrn tnd p 

pp^n ni nyK^ nn ninni nyn aipn im^vo- n^i^N hdji anD) DBion 20 

)ji nyK^ IK lih nipoa Maonn ik ni Dipon nbnn in *in Dipoa 

in^iB^ N^^i in'i?y laoD"' n^j 'ibipn mpon ip nye^ in ninn Dipoa 

(?)n i^aN D^jiK^Nnn ••sd n^i nxm nya u^d nid tnd p fa fna 

ne^ i'Nnt:''' \'a i?3 ima d^ivd ncn -ik^ noxn DnyK^ nynnx 

nyK> nnoDi nni nn Nvn pK^Nn nyt^ nniDO nijnon i>3a 25 

nnoDi n-Si niye^ \^^ ^^h^ ^w nnooi ini ni-ih ^jk^ 

irnnn iiii' DnoD n^^fco bspni iii Nvh ^yan ^w 

nnocn hn i:nr:i) nai?a nc^ycij nai^nn n^ji ntryoi? nai^nn 

ij^nnn lamo'^i) p o •np'»y \rb ^ nio^nn p p|n nJ^^n n^xn 

'•Ni'DK' m nnx r\'h N ni>ianbiab nanaipni? w^o^ hvf^'o^ m 30 

nivn nnip ni?i3 nn-^yn •'*5]id3 Nam nh^j'^d xn no yr* i^NioB'i' 

••crnQDi ^no y^" nI) NniDi n^i? 6n Ni> n^b cn nivn nnx in 

tbapni Nxijii Nih rini in NnN^annx >^^d ^naa ^nd pan 

* Very faded ; perhaps it reads ^iT^nn , cf. Isa. ix. 23. 

^ No dots on the Kaph and the Waw. The Ka^gih is altogether douhtfal, 
and may perhaps be taken for Teih ('£). 

' The Isun is doubtful. It may also read Pe (c). * Read TCa. 

' See iJos/i Hashana^ 20 b, and cf. the commentary of R. Channnnel on 
the margin (of the Wilna edition). See also Revue das Etudes Juices, XLII, 
p. 194 sq. 



SAADYAN'A. 131 

XLVIII. 

• 

Fragment T-S. 12. 725, paper, mutilated, present size 
20 X 13 cm., written in square characters of a very 
ancient date. It contains a reference to the n'^^W nyniK 
and probably had some bearing on the Ben Meir controversy. 
The verso contains, in a different band, passages from the 
minor Tractate Derech Eretz Zuta. 

(verso) 

c ' ' mr\ nD3 ^yv «apy ^m pxi? rwna 

^n i>y Ki> • • • ennn mTp2\ tj^^inn nu^jn rn'»:iB^ 
m i'*!!]^ pK i^yv^ i)D2 K^p3 irxi nn^ • • • • i^on • ♦ 
^«^Dt5> ^nm ^UK nax n^i?DK ni)w ni>i3i> n^^p * * * 5 

onm vm oijiyn nu«tDi nninn nn: Jjkiok^ nn • ' • 

^3n 'i^NiK^ j^nx ^ni>K^ nioi^nn DnoiK i:n 

■•jn tnipD now pi n^a cwn p nnoN xn^^n 

«nD -13 n^^n an dkt pytDK^ «5ji p pjn^ «i> yni? 10 

nvn p pb^nno cnnn niTyi> hmn p pi>^nnD 

njB^n nn pm^ un dk nnu^ya nenpno n^ 

or -ii^y nn« iJj^k now ^n>Nn nnu^ya nox 

uni NnN na 2pv [a]n bv D^en^JK^ Dioan i? 

iDipon acn^ nnx n i>3i • ♦ • b^ «ini b'^in nn« pai) 15 

ponn ^D« a • • ♦ ON am n^>n an nna «nar nn xa 

D^K^nn yaipn ^nnni) pi^enn pwi |iTnmi> pn^a 

.TNn «i>a na^yc' ^oi onye^ nyanxoi • • ib mh 

NNnC' IT 



* See Jer. T. i2os^ Has/wna, 58 a, b. 



K 2 



132 SAADYANA 



XLIX. 



Fragment T-S. la. 731, paper, one leaf, size 21 x 14 cm., 
written in Arabic characters, except the few words forming 
the title and written in square. It represents the remainder 
of a treatise by R. Saadyah Gaon, on the laws of niano^. 
To this fragment Dr. Hirschfeld drew my attention. I am 
also indebted to him for the collation with the MSS. of 
all the Arabic pieces contained in this article. 

(recto) 

^jj jji »:>^iii tj^ w«ii aj\ 

^h^^^ l^Ul jj^ ^j L-1 8. 

l^^3j V>J V^J ^ f^^ 
, y-J^l y^\M ^ ^^Ij ^;;^^^ c-^Ul ^JA tAi 

Uitf s.y^yi ooiy^ [^"i^ v^^' u^ (j^ i^ 

ilil^ 

(verso) 

* JilL ^^ ubVl uju ^ 

Ai ^^ ^jb^i »^-fila. JS^bjJi 060 jjlj 

^;tr J • • • ctV »^b V^ 



• See above, Fragment XXVII, text, 1. 10, text recto, IL 5- 
■ Writing at end of line faded away. 



JO. 



SAADYANA I33 

i# ^1j U^l »^ dil^ JU. ^U jJ'j 10 
el)^ JU o^ ^ J »^i *...i ^^^ W 



L. 

Fragment T-S. 12. 730, paper, two leaves, size 15x12 cm., 
and written in an old square hand. It represents a sort of 
diary of a Rabbi travelling to Babylon. It is not im- 
possible that we have in it the remainder of a work by 
R. Saadyah, who is known to have visited the Holy Land 
whence he probably emigrated to Babylon^; whilst the 
imitating of the Biblical style and the providing of the 
texts with vowel-points and accents was a favourite way 
of composition with the Gaon'^. Such evidence, however, 

is too slight to be decisive. 

(i recto) 

l^ytDO p|P.?'"« ™?5^ • * • D?^^ n?' ^^'^ 

: nj1'»an d^t ni^nb wp t^H? 

^^CB^iroN ^3 ^Y^) 

nc^npn ^ry\ • • • 3^ r^^y Knp? -iw h\'^in 
vnrti ^ih rt3nn nntoa ^ai> nnha "iw 5 

^3 Kv?*?^- ''^'^y^ 

"t DB^ [3^y : 

• • • • njnw rp3 nsf • • • nab^ vjB-rlK 
9 »9E> '3 



'ib ,0 



'SiiKXin n^jns ^ 'jik nn^ nnp : * 

• See J. g.i?., XIV, p. 7. 

' See HarkaTy, .SepAer Uaggoiui, pp. 150 and i6a. 



134 SAADYANA 

(i verso) 

pji-^B^'n ^nx n^a-^ • • • nsb\^b^ ^3'^^nin ^varri^K 

liij^n ^abK nn^bvn noin 

^jii)'Kt5''*i=i3ni tDnxo '»N3rt"'3 '•5nr^3 5 
^5^w ♦ • 1D>3^ BjDb ^Q • ♦ )pr% wfc^m ^nK^5^ 

|T V IT* I -; T ; "^ 

••j^ntDna im '•D'«-i)3 ^3 • ♦ • 5prbH ^nntia ^"nDnn 

^. : • : T \.-T T* - 'C-T':*-: 

^3W nisni ^"^35 n3Tij3 nx yoK^ '»^^ 
nriKi riDT fin'» V3'»iK ^idn^-^jki vj^nn-5>K 

T - T « : !• v: it; ' 2 : * .» t i pT 



(a recto) 

••3 Ki3i n«v ym wb nn« ip-^3 
^3 DV«1 ^ bV 

•I • T : 

njngp V 

n^K^Ks n^n^ D'^at:? d^d"* ('?):ii>no i^mwo 
p ♦ • ♦ ♦ n-i)K • ♦ • ♦ n^iB^K ^Kto "•n^i 

• - V t I 

nam ki^i b'^i ^d^mJ) nisK'b 

3-p ♦ ♦ 1 insipb nK3 D>i)Nyt3C^ nrnix 

VT 't J - I T : T - ; — V - •. *^ 

MiS3 nnto nDN*i Dn«3 pnd ^hk 
n^^y Dn»3 ntrx lii^n no ofib noSh 

T A" T V T , V -: ' V V - jy v t v >_ 



SAADYANA I35 

(2 verso) 

VI.'- • •• •••••.•- ,• • ~ <'T-: 

: H'n p|")n nayn npim 

|TT • • r j-:v : 

n n Wpc'Di 

D • • i^B^Kii y:^_ 

-iDp-hioDa ?i3Dp tj^i^^a 5 

-: 'v |T - I -: •!• • - T 

^j"*?! nnbin ^3 ra lob 2m 

pyt:K>-f3 b«\i)prfa pi'D^|3^bN"'i)iDi-|n 
Da n^»n"^nN-|3 21 p-'riDni :i>-"n"p 

•i-r IV- |T T - T r." A -: 'V 



LI. 

Fragment T-S. 8 K 12, paper, one leaf, size 18 x 12-5 cm., 
written in square letters with a strong turn to cursive, and 
representing what may perhaps be described as a sort 
of history of post-Biblical literature. The authorities men- 
tioned in it are Jose b. Jose of blessed memory ^, Yanai ''\ 
Eleazar (Kalir)^, the Head of the School (R. Saadyah)^, and 
Ben Sira and Ben Irai®. Professor Bacher, of Budapesth, 
who kindly supplied me with a rendering of this piece, 
also drew my attention to the Agron (ed. Harkavy), 
p. 56, where R. Saadyah gives a somewhat similar list of 
Paitanwi. I hope that this great scholar will give us 
soon a translation of this important document and ac- 
company it with the necessary comments. For the 

* Cf. Teshuloth Haggeonim, ed. Harkavy, p. 176 sq. 

' Recto, 1. 15. Cf. Zuuz, Literaiurgcschichfe der synagogalen Poesie^ p. 26 sq. 

3 Vorso, 1. 4. * Ibid., 1. 7. 

5 Ibid., 1. 17. « Ibid., 1. 20. 



136 8AADYANA 

services already done I express to him herewith my very 
best thanks. 

(recto) 

n>nv NH^ ax^i'* ^ni>K ^ODi>N pinv^k nnisi 

poai •»m!5n "by hnoNi bmioi^K oi^y xnai 
D"»Dni5N ijip-f li^n "SI PiNi^naNijNi pnanoi^N p3 5 
• N-ipn nj^ai? DN "3 iii i^jtN noanb y*^r\b 
)i\ "" nxn" pan tn lii ^iddd nj^^nn cn 

DIN nCTN pDI li>n 11J1 pBI pi) •'311DQ 

iNnno n^xi) ^inI^n DDpi^N p bi^ ]c tarr\ xo 

DDp:" Ni'^N im NDi nnxni r^^oni^N nip "i>N 

in biNi>N Niya xnvya i>VB> dndpn f 

2ViJ?t< myi>N n:b Nni? bxp^ ni>N i)NipNbN 

NnNON nijiDyo Nnj^i? nin^oijN D^wn ini 

p '»DV b)p br\D i?^) nxapD n^a t^n^J?) 15 
i3i iry nn^^^j'N Nni?N ni^i^nN i^no ^'r (?) "or 
anyi^N nib n^ioD" ni>N in i^N DDpi>Ni 
in D"i?i NBpD Nipoi^N >a nil nd ini rn^K 
onv^j^n T'siN Dn33 ni^on t6 ip3 -lye^ 
"n''K^ tntfh "•aoNn ip xi^Ni • * • i>aDi ip> 20 
^yoD ip NV'Ni • •'nn nvpn nJ) yn» dw 

(verso) 

V^obn ini i ^n ddp bio * •'Db^ n"«3rn ^cn 

ph nDNiN^JN Pii^Nno Nspi DD^D ma 

INni n:y niyn ixp>i niv^ btc^* f)ivbt< 

in ni^N DDpi>Ni • finyci^N "w> b)p i?n» 

NQPoi^N Dltbioi^N ini DVQ "•ODoi^N nyK^J^K 5 

INT^o in ni)N pny^N nmp^i nt:3i" ni^K 

na 51N fi? nryi)N i^ip bm inii nyc^i^N 

IN i^NpM bo nnuji) inynai oc^an nnaab 



SAADYANA I37 

r»^» JTN i6n Th)p n''63 p)^!^3 n^NnnoK 
i>NvnK i?^ '•jyDi • ^b DytD'' 5?3n i^m |mn lo 

5|^i>«n^K in sbn Dop i^Ni • Noi^yi^N p 
n«nN3nyNi kixin pana p • • pi p^dniq 
• Nonn^ai ^«n'»; pi xn-D p sj^jk nd3 20 



LIL 

Fragment T-S. 8 G a, paper, quire of two leaves of which 
the middle pages are missing, size 18x13 cm. The contents 
of the fii-st leaf agree more or less with a portion of respon- 
sum No. I of the D^aiwn nnvj^n (ed. Lyck), attributed to 
B. Hai Gaon, and refuting certain opinions of B. Saadyah 
with regard to the calendar. The contents of the second 
leaf seem to bear on the same subject, but I am unable to 
express any opinion with regard to the authorship. 

(Leaf 1 recto) 

"21^ panD3B^ pDon nr no ^aanx ):h cne^ 

o N-nnD» n^riND Kin -S cki xnn 

nr ^N Dnno ^ny^vrt iidb^ ^hnd 

noK^B^ nip^Bon ii>K b^ ^a ixn pbd 

n3-in DOia d^d^ ^jm Dipo i^aa 5 

DnnaT o^a^on cna u^^y D^'no 



138 SAADYANA 



nai^ra inoDnn 3''nn>n^ )m nr\2 
^3 main nijxinn noim nirpnn 

riN mx nipn «i>K N-ip^yo p^ao 
vr\>^2 o ^Nitr>b CN Nim nay hk^ 

•ly paK'nn ^yi 'D^'^v^i bv pQD xi^a 15 
r\)i^irh D'»D3nn iK'pai D^:"'Dn initk^ 

win 

jwy vm iHN p2*^nni nn-'n n"»Nn o 



(Leaf I verso) 

nc^tD^ nipn noNcra onp^y i>;; "TiDyi^ 

D^jicyNin D-'NOjn ^y^^n^n pi D^^iK^in 

D^D^ pKnytj^ nv^jjn ni^nno i^K-itr nx 

DV Dniaan dvi d-o'' ""JK^ rwna d''31d 

m-a ion: anjion ^y mix hddi ^hk 

no i?y nsDina jh^d n3^ ^^c^^1 10 

nvyy )2^n niaon nivo i>3Nn 
p«^yio 13N1 n injon ny*) d-'D^ 
nina i>y nsDinn anjo n^T xi) ^3 
pipn inn ijy mix D^n nDx-'K^ nhn 15 

ny^K^ ninan •vdn'' n^^ h^2 ixu''^^ 
DV "iiyi njDK' an:M «a ""a n»«^i 



SAADYANA I39 

(Leaf 2 recto) 

••ai ^ffi)p ^Kipo oniN iNip'' n^K 

"•3 bva "a p NM i^npi^N jnn nai>N3^ 
ni>ip Nmii li^n iv^ nii i»» Ni>D^ 5 
mv b^ DNi ni)^p) NtDn> «'»tr3 ne^x 

HMn HK^i^N ni?Np iNii» nnyi'K 
f)3 nop n^m i^oi^N .T^y in D^'bb 
^brx^ ii>i i'np N)!:i>D 'ji nnaeton 10 
TOi>i «nijip3 nvnny«i n^in 

^5>H '•hxi^K r])bibH n^^ii n» ^k ton^jk ]h 

nyno p-^aNi wn3 n'T»y3i?K 'iiSnbi^ 

5intri>N n^^JK Npnn ppnwi n^ybx 15 

••••^ ^3NT ni>ipn •T»-:n'' «^ n!)Kn |n 

>DKi3o irDKH N^) Dm^a iv i>Npi '•••^ b2^n 

(Leaf a verso) 

lasai Bnn« n^i D^nytsai onnK ^h 

S>Dyi in^K myn p inonno paoK 

^iD^i f*''Niai>N }D Nm^ai raNipi^N 5 

nSr Da 5|ki myi ^ayi nna naNmo 

in-1 "ai Dfii? nv3 ni^i 'ai onvna 

nOTi D'^ni'N DnbB^ ••3 ni>ipn ni>T 

panxa dh^^jk niK^« i^jd ai> n« 10 

b i^ya^ }K ^i>y lycaxi on^xn 

ni>^N NHina ••ni'x D^yiD^^K jd n^y 

ni>« ini nn-^yn nio i>y on^i^y 



140 SAADYANA 

ncN:n!:N '•i>y ipanx ni?N in ii>«i mini>K 
KM p3N"npi>Ni :rhH n^xa jy xiiyn 

Lm. 

Fragment T-S. 8 H 7, paper, two leaves, size 19 x 14011]., 
written in an exceptionally square hand, represents the re- 
mainder of a liturgical MS., containing, among other matter, 
hymns to KHinn nma. The (second) leaf, reproduced here, 
contains a reference to the Dnyir nyniN, playing an important 
part in the Ben Meir controversy. The first leaf contains 
also liturgical pieces, one of which has the heading ^Npirp^ 
y/^ i-vai>N, and commences D^Dl»yi> ^n^D^N noK. 

(recto) 

mv noi lenna ^in 
"h ny^enn •ic^np:) innc^a 
}^''N • iKHp ynn i:^»^ 
DHDiy Dn"'jKn inx^ Daii^Ni 5 

^••viD inn t3 • "iHK brD2 

D''prna n d n:2b 

nytrni onK^yi) (l)DVni 
niyK^ niK'y oTicn d^o^ 10 

D'^ytrni niN» ynen D-pipn 
ii ya"':c^ ♦ DV^n ntri?cn 

(verso) 

oniDon onyien (^) ny (1) • • d nm 

nnnon D'^ennn nynipi 

onon IK D^D^B' IK pnoa 

niTTO n^BTi 'ai cnn "»nD 

omi'^y nyac' ♦ n:nh neni' 5 

iK^y nv^nb nr ♦ n:D3 d3 



SAADYANA I4I 

•nun onytr nyanx i^y 
'31 ntr nm viD« ^b nai lo 

LIV. 

Fragment T-S. 8 H 8, paper, two leaves, size 18 x 13 cm., 
written in a square hand with a turn to cursive, and 
representing the remainder of a Hymnology to the y3li< 
n^^K^nB. The author is a certain Moses Hakkohen, and his 
emphasizing the prerogative of Palestine in fixing the 
calendar and the part the Kohen takes in it, makes it 
probable that he belonged to the pai-ty of Abiathar and 
his successors^. 

(Leaf I recto) 

nenen ]'^'^:^v^ \'\^:it Nim nD«> noNi> inv dn x^jk 
1VV1 "n^v ^31 Kniin nnryn n"* nrcrn nc^a 

^y^anni onnn n^^i^B^ n-^ni rr^n i>3i ^nuK Den ^dk^ 5 
jn^K 'Ti^t^y •'3 jy^i Nipon p nninn jd pioa nih 

^ Leaf 2 recto, 1. lo, and verso, 1. i. In connexion with the reference 
to the study of the Tosephta in the text the foUowing lines reproduced 
from a Sulzberger fragment will not be out of place : — 

NU* nwr? ma HH «tci31 nno 3n f]id ly 

ti:d d« in2i ^ »nrran N*ri2?i« 'm Knna i*> irnrn^ i3i i«?«i pnr: iir« n« 

m 131 i2ba r6y (? 'Vim) >^« n*3 nwison NncDinn »nVn mn« «n'-Q pa-i 'a^ «so» o wn 
>*ncDnn cnsoa icn (?)QD'n nMo*?:! i«?et! ansjo ^« \"i»a •^ttJKD'* nsa Dnn« ata nbr 133 
icTH "ly m "Q13 »npEnD3i ut2 nnTi "i\c« rvinEDinn niD3 nvso"* n>3 nn*n ntr« 
C3ni DhD2 TC^yi bano iwin ninccin mu® moD rro« 'nwarai ptJoi 1$ \-nin 
mn mwnci3n ^d o D»-uin o'troi n^n "»«?« nnDi33 rrom tpnrin nnw nnci30 
■\ttjy nxDibuj N^«7 « 'i »3n pp*!: maw nyaiw nV^nni p-rcn wm N*i«nM 'ii nnccino 

-ittTT mnV\c «ncD'»m Kop waaa ttotctd ]33"i »3'3 ^nocn nwnc'13 '3n3i pp'ia r.^H 

On the other side : — 

nniiisE3n rrnn^i i*j 3i dt3 Sin nV^j b':bM jcb ma^^n nw 



142 SAADYANA 

Dmo) NipN D^c^-'N nybi< ^jn oa xnnij •ririi 

D*ompm • f I 

^li^n apy"* ^aan iin^i) ^nn^t^ p bv^ 'I'ora 
law N»K^ ini m '»jni^ nnn ••mh^ iniNnni> 

D-TiDiDi D^nyoB^ D^ny-in ^a^yn ntrav dni 
w Danu^i? nn^B^a D^^aa nixni^ in3 ntrx n^N 15 

D"'3i?D non D'^K'K' Di?13 D:"»^:D ^3 DiTHN HN 

(Leaf I verso) 

A A 

(?) D'-CB^ ii in^n nc^^ nibnN nisi n^'** 
♦ nna Dai) )np dhk 

♦ 'rninn npin nxt 

nwabiN nnint^ nnyc^ ^ne^ n71 
♦ nD^cn noHN nna yhv^ inp'^i 10 

Di» nn pN n^N • Niiai bnabN nra 
• nniDN n^N^JD na riK'ya dni 

(Leaf 2 recto) 

: i^N-iK^'' ^np i>3 1}: i?Nian ♦ in^jdh na^ai *• i?N-itr"» riN 



moi 



bv mbn n^t i::^n * na^j'^yn iT^ nni?n 

* Does this apply to Alfasi's Code? 



SAADYANA I43 

• D''K^'inn cTNi D3i> nin crnnn 

• miyi ny b^2 i:u'^n pt^to • nju >x;nv ^•^ '•jn:D' 10 
: r\:2bn ^^nrh nJp Nin pK^xn ♦ n:2bn crnn njn lyoi^ 

icy yc^iN ini a-'ani n^yt:' n^T* nrn tnnz 

DM 

: n-axn c^^n nicir • 3>an ay nx ^)^ dhni • t3dd 

iyT» 16^X31 • nmoi^ in n-'ai n:2bn nm nniDO'" 
• m^oyni)! na^Dini) nn-'i^yi • nT^jni^ D'^iivd 15 

♦ niv^^b nxn npnn nx nnocn 

Dyi? niivD niiv * Knn» nanyo ni^no nii?"'i?y nii^' 
trnnna : nnx iDi>^ nnyitrm • t^^nipn 
: K^nip «npD oniN iNnpn n:r« 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

trnn v^"rp> on • nnintD px '•nw d^^idd' 

nn nn"" n!? ni^ia '•ne^vi ' nnniy» mtr lyapn 

: n-iin Nvn ivxo ^3 * nnna 

D03D n»3n • D"'J1B^1 D^Niip Hvnb D:3"'V 

Dnx;n nan lym jyoi) ♦ D''i'»i3i3VN neT;M 5 
: D>3iDN ntDiK^ pnv ""la wi ♦ dw3d nn dk 
• D'^acrn ••cnni> n>y> t6 D^nnpi nny '•i>iDa-' 
Dne^a lapni * D^:a i?y nuK inov Ni> nie^ 

: 0''3ttw ony -i) m^yNi • D^a^on n^jp^p n^'V^i'* 
u'^^'wtnb pD"'j3»i • Di?''3Nni) miyo onyi? n>c^yij iiv' 10 

: D^y ny i^Nne^ "»:ni) nnari) 

* incnp N''*«J^i '•a nnx • Nin tnipo oyn i>3 iN-ip' 

• Nin trnp o * inixn n^ Dn qni 
npinn inn dn nns^ li'i'n'' * ni2b B^nnn nnyn ini' 15 



144 SAADYANA 

: Dijncn cniN iKipn ntrN • onto mi?''V^ 

: nm'i^ •»"»'• "lay ntyo mnn 20 

LV. 

Fragment T-S. 16. 316, paper, a quire of two leaves, of 
which the middle sheets have gone, size 27 x 16 cm., and 
written in an ancient square hand. It represents the 
remainder of a commentary to Leviticus (I, i seq. and VII, 
21 seq.) by Daniel b. Moses. It is inserted here on the 
assumption that this Daniel may be identical with the 
Daniel b. Moses Al Kumsi against whom R. Saadyah wrote 
a treatise, who is also known to have written a com- 
mentary to certain portions of the Bible ^. 

(Leaf I recto) 

nnxi Nnp-1 troin inna 

(Leaf I verso) 

nnro nxi ain^ nbv^h ^d jn :nnp^ '•a di« :ne^ i>« nt'i 

• • • n rhv^ i6 ^"jyi :nmon Si ii n y bv^ "lyio i^nx ptro nna u^ 

nK'K ny nii'yni? i^iii ^b "3 jyDi? nniNo wm : onpo ana: vi>y 5>y • • • 

nnNi Dnnja nw vn n^e1 ]ini^ nxi naron nw iyi» hr\t< nx cnp 

D^Nii>o '•D^ nv^v nc^yj n!' niyi ni^iy nnpn T'ni nihy ni^yn p 5 
:]^ni^ riK iv nr-i33 na nsnn Nii^m :D'»Ni>cn Jj^ki nxDn no dv i>3 
ntTD np^i onK^i n5 ntr-ian Pjioni inx ncion Dva v:ni pnK \2ip nt 

HK^o rvvr^ y^) : vby naab intrnp^i na vin^i : natDn nx onn hk 
D^n ^3 mp p 3n33 vi^y i'yi nan ••a ynn nxD inxon r.Tp dio 

' See above, p. 41 (No. XIII) and p. 79 ncD p ^i<*n inEC * * * TCDin pnc. 



SAADYANA T45 

: p^^n n^5 n^ '•^'' in:3i ni^ ''^'' "riaa Nin x*bv P^ pyni pc^Dn nx lo 

6 '•^^ ^ir)i nD:D nyio i^nxa nn3 '»3 "lyio I^hnd ncro i?N «np dnh^k 

n^: p T'Di y^ D''ia nijnnp tidn ••a hd d3o :d3d anp^ "»d :yD nx 

'•^'•i) yi yi D'^nnr i^n'^a jnn nnx oa aina n^nn n^^Ni nnnpn xi? 

^ai? «h niiij t6) in n^'nni ncj^N py fyioi? n!? anp** liivni? '•n t^^S^-ib 

nan nnK ^a d^vtdi nnpi tj^Ni ^a :vynni unpi iK'Nnn fo pn iDia 20 
• • n 5)13 Kin nnan •'n ^nnroN p i^y :nai? nnr: mam noiyn "ini? nni? 
♦ ♦ »i? ::^5)o'^ mo «in man '•3 ncK'* d:"i :D6ra nnatin jd pn •ai'm 

1 nnxa P'tik' k^ni nnnn '•n np^i^D pK'^n mv riNtsn mi ni?y 

^ ntsp innN cyan hnai mna ^iiyijc^ ni?yn t^xn 25 

(Leaf 2 recto) 

{(••nn DN ""n nh DK '•n ^b'lN xh 

niDD^ \:\^i liDD NV* «i? ncj^n u i^BnaDn nx to'^Dya- ♦ ♦ ♦ • 

pniDi ni>? nn :«:^''::^ "ly d'^m iTn i^dnt nnhn inanan d« ♦ • 

Dn'^a uoo Pinai? ntrm '•i^no jtnpn jkh N'^vini? jyoi? Pi^tri 

:nanii npno ^62 d''D3 x'^nni? 1^ pnn^ hdi :i?in in yr ja o'lDni 5 

^n yn ^T'iT )b ]nJ? nnpn ncrx ni^yn my :nT nivon nr ninaxi 

t6 '•n yaa k^j nbyn niyi : trrp"* «ij Nin nnron ya"' xi? nr« b 

niny> IN innn lannD"* dn ne^n^ xi? noiji ni?yin d^id DK^aa "^n n^yin 

^nyini :irnp '^b::h niK^yi? li^n'' ^<i?^ Tnmn c^^p iTna dni :in 

D"»Nii)Di riNDn nt^^nn piiik^^ nnct^n cni :i^ dh ^n niDDij i^ni^ 10 

nnnnni nB^nnon :niann naxn ncr^ nnao i?ni :nnK^n n5r^« 

Vib) p^2 i?nnN nhi^n nc^t? nhoni :nnp»n inni? on iK^ya 

D''K^ «i> nn nt^N hndh nnaon no'^n'*'' nnnn nnt in tnaxa 

K^''N HNin pHN '•^n bJ? nn onnrn D'^annn bi? on idk' •T'l^y 

nnN TDpn^ t6^ unni? nr j'lon oni? tpon Dni> ni:n b :vnNn 15 

ma DN1 :min i^y dn nn p i>y ta^oi^rn nnr •'a^D i^no pip f^no 

L 



146 SAADYANA 

• ♦ • • npn ny Nini • • :bN'' i^nnp nva 3d npn nyi T^ P o'^o^trn 

: nsDJ rh'^bn (?) ^y ^j^n^ ni5^i?a ••a : npa ny i3D» m^ xi) no p by 20 

•nsDj npai tbx'' lianp Din 33 nnytj^ dv» Kim i^anp dvd 

*)DDJ N^ npan n : npn y i^cd n-'j^ Ni> na p by : nn» dv p ib 

Nini MDvn DV nan lopbi pb w na p by pbi nimpb nb''bn jo 

♦ • unpn D1U na nanji m^ byi :npn nyi npa p Dvan nnob 

(Leaf 2 verso) 

nv nnN nan xin no nrar Dvb in» wm 

DV nnx Nnn nb^b b:3N'» «in b:3N"' ijdo "nni:m nan 

• ♦ ♦ N Nnn nb''bn p baxn : inir nvo «in innr dv nnK Knn nb'ibn 

biDN -tr'^bB' DV Nin n-in»bi ^^^t^ dv» N*.n :nn^:i -nib ""ic^ or 
♦ n^^n'' xb '•t^^be^n ova vobir nir i\^2jd bax'' baxn dk a'a biaxb 5 

nnx ^j"'B^ b'^ba bax- Nini tbaN"" ijnnp ovn na ne^Na ""a nxni 

bax'' nnnji m^ p : npa ny i^dd n'^j^ «b 3a niD oatro ib npa 

DN1 t'^^irh^ w npa ny n"*:^ ^bi npn ny '•c^be^ b'^bi mnoo 

baN** ba^n c«i 3a :n*.iD tDSKia ib npa nnx '•K^bK^ Dvn bato 

nK^« "iK^ani i) t^^ ijiy vbaxi rnvT" ^b Kin bi3D '•K^be^n ova 10 

Duiar by xb kod baa nan '•a yn :baK^ xb ndd ban yr 

nyaib KDD Dir nmby biQ'» ^b '•a jia o'^^tDp D'^^^nsM o'^btDji 

nan '»a ynu :KDt: Dcrn ^bi yp^ Nipi nbnxb dji nbn^b dk n 

na xbn p -^a ynn nxrai : kdesd baa injyo ndd baa yr ne^ 

}^T^ nba^a ik n^DtD nona nban in nxDtD n^n nba^a in 15 

Y'^^ NDtDDn n^nai Notion mn e^pa nxra '•a ynn xbn :wdid 

D^NDCD xb^^ D'^anra xbi d'^sik^ ^j^d n^iOK^a «ooDn 

UDD oby^i NDD p'j^ nban in nan ""a nn xbn :Dn 

Nini 13DD nbyji n» aura yjin n»N Nb :DtrNi ndd Nim 

NDO Nini ij»D obyji NDD» Y'^^^ V^iin noN dn "^a :ndd 20 

:N»i30 baa i^nns n»d baa ya^ nc^N ne^ani nan p tOB'Ki 

baa i^nnQi Not: .baa yan "^a trsji nt^ob na nxnn Nbm 

Nb DJDN Nbn :NDDDn pK^ Nini ndd }*pc^ baa in tNOtDO 

p nov nir: D^'Dbcj^n naiD baN^ ni ♦ • c'S^a yain ba noN 



SAADYANA T47 



LVI. 

Fragment T-S. 8 J 3, paper, one leaf, size 17x13 cm., 
written in a square hand with a turn to cursive, and repre- 
senting the remainder of a letter written by a Gaon. 
Among others it contains also a reference to ni?13D Dmax 
nn"'K^n ; probably identical with Abraham, who plays such 
a part in document XXXV ^ 

(recto) 

ntrna^K' piD^-^3 tr'ipDn id^jn-'k^ )^pr\:^ D^trn 
in-» xi) T'N 1JN DNToni niNcr"*! xiK'^i ntr^N 

pn pc^ i?3i n^inn n dj nyivni? nr t^n^-^n 5 
nni> ii) "•IN pn "inic^ r\[»b) n^nni) miDn 

D^6r"»i D3T i?y Nh ii>n> i?y n^pn jtin'' i'Ni nr 
N'T' i>N 1i>'♦^a ie^: 16 dni ir^""]; "laji? iniNi'' 

ijana D^ranx ^a^i t^^iy i?3o Dnitsa 

mniDD nanxD nhao nn^in naita nin n pi 

nji3» -inn nNni> p^ao 2b 5r lan noN pi 

noin n^nin li? i?n in^nin^ n^^n::^ nann 15 

noin noin 1!? i>n "nirn^B^ io i?n'»p «h nam 

«B^n «h li? hh ^Dit^^D pjQ ii>^DN i^ia^ 

n-3i» Ni>i "»niniNi) iTa mD'^Kpn pi ndh vi>y 

ii> ncrsNC' b n» ni piy Kinnn D^ano 

^B'iN ^y Dsn: nnco i:^ni mo ^B^^xn nino^ 20 

^22 )1^V ^trJN 5>y DDHi )1'*V ^K'^ND inO 

«sa i n )hS2 ohyn i^a i>y Dsna li^ia ohyn 

* See introduction to Fragment XXXV, and below, verso, 1. 17. 



148 SAADYANA 

(verso) 

w^n n N Hi2bv ^b)^^ IDDHo xniija vn '•2^ "•^m 

D''i''pr ND''N iNDn no D"»j^pr 1^5t3^ dhk' dk 

nin:Dinn nx anN> rnxn ii> nn'^K' niK^'* Tn 5 
nb)vb nxn nn nm ohya nn:DinB^ pr ^ac^ 

N^^lr ^ijn nnain i^-apoh n'^aioi' 3itD nann 

innina D''jni:i D'^nk^idh nyi nroin ••^npoi 

i6p w i^n'^ax riK ni^fi • in^yn i^^ k^^n '•'» ^ki'' 
nxn-i vi:vi n^'crin i^rsn D^mn noxn nnrjn 
D'»n"»3"in b:i2 n^aiDi nni»i Dnpi ir ni^rb 20 
onniD • • * D^-ij^n i^non • Danina 

* See Arachinj 17 a, Shdbbath, 54 b, and Tamid^ 28 a. Cf. also Alfasi, Ba5a 
Jfftsja, chap. II, 17 a, ed. Wilna. 



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