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SCIENCE 


A  WEEKLY  JOURNAL   DEVOTED  TO   THE   ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE,  PUBLISH- 
INQ  THE  OFFICIAL  NOTICES  AND  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  AMERICAN 
ASSOCIATION  FOR  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE. 


NEW  SERIES.     VOLUME  XIX. 


JANUARY -JUNE,  1904. 


NEW  YORK 

THE  MACMILLAN  COMPANY? 

1904 


THE  NEW  ERA  PRINTING  COMPANY, 

41  North  Queen  Street. 

Lancaster,  Pa. 


CONTENTS  AND  INDEX. 


N.  S.    VOL.  XIX.  — JANUARY  TO  JUNE,  1904 


The  Names  of  OorUributora  are  Printed  in  Small  Capitals. 


A.,  J.  A.,  Palmer's  Index  Generum  Mammalium, 

498 
Academies,  Int.  Assoc,  of,  930 
Adams,  J.,  Vegetable  Balls,  926 
Adaptation,  Organic,  C.  W.  Habgitt,  132 
Aeroplane,  Wright's,  269;  H.  H.  Clayton,  76 
Agricultural  Colleges  and  Exper.  Stations,  E.  W. 

AlXEN,  61 
Agriculture,  Department  of,  635 
Albino  Brook  Trout,  C.  R.  Pettis,  867 
AT.T.F.y,   E.    W.,  Assoc.   Am.   Agric.   Colleges   and 

Exper.  Stations,  61 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Sci- 
ence, President's  Address,  1;  Botany,  11,  165; 
Proceedings  of  the  St.  Louis  Meeting,  C.  S. 
Howe,  81;  Chemistry,  88,  441;  Geology  and 
Geography,   121,   178,  521;   Mathematics  and 
Astronomy,  161,  401 ;   Physics,  201 ;  Zoology, 
210;  Membership,  257;   Social  and  Economic 
Science,  281 ;  Mech.  Sci.  and  Engineering,  321, 
361;    Anthropology,    449;    Philosophical    So- 
ciety, 713 
Ames,  J.  S.,  Experimental  Physics,  A.  Kundt,  730 
Amitosis   in   the   Egg   Follicle   Cells   of   Insects, 

V.  F.  Kellogg,  392 
Analysts,  Public,  R.  0.  Bbooks,  465 
Andrews,  W.   S.,   Fluorescence   and   Phosphores- 
cence, 435 
Animal  Behavior,  A.  W.  Weysse,  965 
Anthropological     Society     of     Washington,     W. 
Hough.  27,  70,  149,  381,  457,  616,  660,  699 
Anthropology,  and  Psychology,  N.  Y.  Acad.  Sci., 
J.  E.  Lough,  106,  335,  578,  890,  95Q;  at  the 
Am.  Assoc.,  G.  H.  Pepper,  449 
Arnold,   R.,  Marine   Pliocene  and   Pleistocene   of 

San  Pedro,  Cal.,  J.  C.  Merriam,  540 
Astronomical  and  Astrophysical  Soc.  of  Am.,  W. 

S.  Eichelberger,  296 
Astronomy,  Physics  and  Chemistry  at  the  N.  Y. 
Acad,  of  Sci.,  C.  C.  Trowbridge,  226,  582,  825 
Atkinson,  G.  P.,  Convocation  Week,  431 
Audition,  Tests  of,  I.  M.  Bentley,  929 
Australasian  Association,  P.  Marshall,  536 

B.,  F.  A.,  The  Term  '  Bradfordian,'  434;  Titles  of 

Papers,  702 
Bauey,  E.  H.  S.,  Convocation  Week,  341 
Bancroft,  W.  D.,  Convocation  Week,  264 
Banks,  N.,  Notes  on  Entomology,  470 
Barometer,  the  Word,  J.  C.  Shedd,  108 
Baskerville,  C,  Elements,  Verified  and  Unveri- 
fied, 88 ;  Titles  of  Papers,  702 ;  Thorium,  892 
Bauer,  M.,  Mineralogy,  G.  F.  K.,  823 
Beal,  W.  J.,  Convocation  Week,  797 
Beecher,  Charles  Emerson,  W.  H.  Dall,  453 


Behr,  Hans  Hermann,  A.  Eastwood,  636 
Belgian  Antarctic  Expedition,  W.  H.  Dall,  656 
Bell,  A.  G.,  Multi-nipple  Sheep,  767 
Benjamin,  C.  H.,  Smoke  Prevention,  488 
Benjamin,  M.,  Convocation  Week,  310 
Bentley,  I.  M.,  Tests  of  Audition,  959 
Bessey,  C.  E.,  Botanical  Notes,  36,  315,  768,  868, 

963;  Convocation  Week,  429 
Bessey,  E.  A.,  Organization  und  Physiologic  der 

Cyanophyceenzelle,  E.  G.  Kohl,  260 
Bigelow,  F.  H.,  The  New  Cosmical  Meteorology,  30 
Bigelow,  M.  a..  Biology  at  the  N.  Y.  Acad,  of  Sci., 

307,  503 
Bigelow,  S.  L.,  The  Modem  Laboratory,  641 
Binet's  L'ann^  psychologique,  E.  B.  Delababre, 

298 
Biological,  Society  of  Washington,  F.  A.  Lucas, 
26,  70;  W.  H.  Osgood,  546,  615,  700,  857; 
Survey  of  Waters  of  S.  Cal.,  C.  A.  Kofoid, 
505;  Station,  Bermuda,  E.  L.  Mark,  C.  L. 
Bristol,  709;  Laboratory  of  Bureau  of  Fish- 
eries, 770 
Biologists,  American,  Strictures  on,  L.  Stejneger, 

371 
Biology,   and  Mtedicine,   Exper.,   Soc.   for,   W.   J. 
GiES,  104,  459,  828;  Acad.  Sci.  and  Art,  Pitts- 
burg, F.  S.  Webster,  191,  585,  827,  N.  Y. 
Acad,  of  Sci.,  M.  A.  Bigelow,  307,  503 
Blain,  Jb.,  a.  W.,  Mich.  Ornithological  Club,  108 
Blakeslee,  a.  F.,  Zygospore  Formation,  864 
Botanical,  Notes,  C.  E.  Bessey,  36,  315,  768,  868, 
963;  Club,  Torrey,  F.  S.  Eable,  71,  309;  M. 
A.  Howe,  793;  T.  E.  Hazen,  824;  Society  of 
Washington,  H.  J.  Webbeb,  71,  337;  Cabl  S. 
ScoFiELD,  823;  Garden,  Missouri,  237;  Work 
in  the  Philippines,  516;  Society  of  America, 
1).  T.  MacDougal,  888 
Botany,  Twentieth  Century,  B.  T.  Galloway,  11; 
at  the  Am.  Assoc,  F.  E.  Lloyd,  165;  Crypto- 
gamic,  of  Harriman  Expedition,  L.  M.  Un- 

DEBWOOD,  917 

'  Bradfordian,'  The  Term,  F.  A.  B.,  434 

Bbadley,  H.  C.,  Zinc  in  Certain  Invertebrates,  196 

Braj^neb,  J.  C,  Convocation  Week,  386 

Brazil,  in  Ancient  Cartography,  O.  A.  Debby,  681 

British  Association,  771 

Bbitton,  N.  L.,  The  Honeysuckles,  A.  Rehder,  145 

Bbooks,  a.  H.,  Geological  Society  of  Washington, 

24,  304,  459,  502,  544,  733,  794,  856,  921 
Bbooks,  R.  O.,  'Public  Analysts,'  465 
BuBBiLL,  J.  H.,  Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  820 

C,  T.  D.  A.,  Palmer  Hall,  Colorado  College,  475 
Cameron,  F.  K..  Soil  Investigation,  343 
Carnegie  Institution,  37,  238,  268,  596,  965 


'0 


> 


IV 


SCIENCE. 


POOKXK 
L  IKJ 


^\' 


Case,  E.  C,  Nature  Study,  560 

Castle,  W.  £.,  Sex  in  Bees  and  Ants,  389 

Castle  and  the  Dzierzon  Theory,  W.  M.  Wheeusb, 

587 
Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature,  66,   147,  334, 

860,  886 
Cattell,  J.  McK.,  Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  814 
Cephalaspis  and  Drepanaspis,  C.  R.  Eastmait,  703 
.Chapman,  F.  M.,  The  Case  of  William  J.  Long,  387 
Chemical  SSociety,  of  Washington,  A.  Seidell,  25, 
69,  306,  429,  583,  618,  758;  American,  N.  C. 
Section,  C.  D.  Habbis,  67;  New  York  Section, 
H.  C.  Sherman,  68,  227,  618,  696,  923;  North- 
eastern Section,  A.  M.  Comet,  191,  339,  547, 
619,  698,  796;  Cornell  Section,  W.  C.  Geeb, 
858 
Chemistry,  Inorganic,  Notes  on,  J.  L.  H.,  270,  394, 
513;  at  the  Am.  Assoc.,  G.  B.  FRANKroBTEB, 
441 
Chemists,    Official    Agricultural,    Association    of, 
116;  Technical,  Training  of,  J.  B.  F.  Hebbes- 
HOFF,  T.  J.  Pabkeb,  M.  C.   Whitakeb,  W. 
McMuBTBiE,  E.  Hart,  W.  A.  Notes,  C.  F. 
Chandleb,  a.  a.  Notes,  H.  P.  Talbot,  W.  J. 

SCHIEFFELIN,    H.    SCHWEITZEB,    M.    ToCH,    M. 
T.  BOOEBT,  561 

Chittenden,  F.  H.,  Economic  Zoology,  F.  V.  Theo- 
bald, 65 
Cincinnati,  University  of,  and  its  Presidency,  X., 

661 
Clabke,  J.  M.,  Convocation  Week,  231 
Clatton,  H.  H.,  Wright's  Aeroplane,  76 
Clements,   F.   E.,   Insert  Botanical   Laboratoiy, 

F.  V.  Coville  and  D.  T.  MacDougal,  885 
Clemson  College  Science  Club,  F.  S.  Shiveb,  263, 

382,  586,  660 
Cockebell,  T.  D.  a.,  Coccidae  of  the  British  Isles, 

R.  Newstead,  501 
Cockebell,  W.  P.,   Rubber-producing  Plant,   314 
Cohen,  S.  S.,  Biographic  Clinics,  G.  M.  Gould,  694 
Cole,  F.  N.,  Am.  Math.  Soc.,  101,  462,  792 
College  Entrance  Requirements,  J.  G.  Needham, 

650 
Colorado  College,  Palmer  Hall,  T.  D.  A.  C,  475 
Comet  a  1904,  E.  Hates,  833 
Comet,  A.  M.,  Northeastern  Section  Am.  Chem. 

Soc,  191,  339,  547,  619,  698,  796 
Concilium  Bibliographicum,  802 
CoNBADi,  A.  F.,  Odoriferous  Secretions,  393 
Convocation  Week,  41;   E.  L.  Nichols,  192;  W. 
Le  C.   Stevens,   192;   J.  S.  Kingslet,   194; 
J.  L.  Howe,  228;  H.  W.  Wilet,  230;  J.  M. 
Clabke,  231;  O.  T.  Mason,  232;  T.  W.  Rioh- 
ABDS,  263 ;  W.  D.  Bancboft,  264 ;  C.  W.  Hab- 
gitt,  265 ;  C.  H.  .Hitchcock,  266 ;  J.  H.  Long, 
309;  M.  Benjamin,  310;  J.  E.  Russell,  311; 
C.  M.  WooDWABD,  312;  E.  F.  Nichols,  340; 
E.  H.  S.  Bailet,  341;  T.  C.  Hopkins,  341; 
T.  H.  Macbbide,  342;  C.  S.  Howe,  383;  J.  C. 
Bbanneb,  383;  C.  W.  Stujcs,  384;  C.  J.  Heb- 
BiCK,  385;  C.  E.  Besset,  429;  G.  F.  Atkin- 
son, 431;   W.  JP.  Holland,  433;  W.  F.  Ga- 
NONO,  463;  A.  H.  Fobd,  464;  W.  N.  RiCE,  648; 
A.   HoLLiCK,   620;    E.   P.   Felt,   622;    W.   J. 
Beal,  797 
Cook,  O.  F..  Metcalfs  Evolution  Catechism,  312; 
Natural  Selection  in  Kinetic  Evolution,  549; 
Cotton  Boll  Weevil,  862 
Corpuscles,  Elliptical  Human  Red,  M.  Dbesbach, 
469;  A.  Flint,  796 


Cotton  Boll  W-eevil,  O.  F.  Cook,  862 
CouLTEB,  J.  M.,  Degrees  for  Scientific  Wor 
Coville,  F.  v.,  and  D.  T.  MacDougal,  Oesert  ] 

ical  Laboratory,  F.  E.  Ci^ments,  885 
CowLES,  H.  C,  Ecology  in  1903,  879 
Cbew,  H.,  The  Teaching  of  Physics,  481 
Cbook,  a.  R.,  Excursion  of  Geol.  Soc.  of  Ame: 
Cbowell^  J.  F.,  Atmospheric  Nitrogen,    197 

cial  and  Economic  bcience  at  the  Am.  J 

281;  Students  at  German  Universities,  I 
Cunningham,  J.  T.,  Morgan  on   Bvolutioi] 

Adaptation,  74 

Dall,    W.    H.,    Charles    Emerson    Beecher, 

Belgian  Antarctic  Expedition,  656;    Nai 

gsan  or  Epigsean,  926 
Dall,  W.  H.,  Tertiary  Fauna  of  Florida,   I 

Pilsbbt,  613 
Da^'enpobt,  C.  B.,  Color  Inheritance  in  Mice, 

Wonder  Horses  and  Mendelism,   151 
Davis  B.,  Gravitational  Constant  and  Consi 

of  Ether,  928 
Davis,  W.  H.,  Natural  and  Unnatural  History 
Davis,  W.  M.,  Geography  in  the  United  St; 

121,  178 
Davison,  Alvin,  J.  P.  McM.,  22 
Dean,   B.,  Traquair  on  Lower  Devonian    Fie 

64;    Evolution  and  Adaptation,   T.   H.    2 

gan,  221;  Palsospondylus,  W.  J.  Sol  las 

I.  B.  J.  Sollas,  425;  An  Early  Letter  by 

marck  and  Geoffrey,  798 
Death  Gulch,  F.  W.  Tbaphagen,  632 
Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  W.  Tbelease,  D 

JoBDAN,  C.  R.  Van  Hise,  J.  McK.  Cattj 

J.  M.  Ooulteb,  J.  H.  BuBBiLL,  809 
Delababbe,  E.  B.,  L'ann^  psychologique^  A.  Bi: 

298 
Dellenbaugh,  F.  S.,  Water  Supply  of  the  '. 

Grande,  505 
Dennett,  W.  S.,  The  Eye,  919 
Debby,  O.  a.,  Brazil  in  Ancient  Cartography,  ( 
Discussion  and  Correspondence,  29,  74,  108,  1 

192,   228,   263,   309,  340,   383,  429,   463,   5 

548,  587,  620,  061,  702,   737,  760,  796,  8 

860,  892,  926,   952 
Dbesbach,  M.,  Elliptical  Human  Red  CorpuscI 

469 
DwiOHT,  T.,  LeDouble  on  the  Cranial  Bones,  S 

Eable,  S.  F.,  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  71,  309;  I 

form  of  Nomenclature  of  the  Fungi,  508 
Eastman,   C.   R.,   Recent   Zoopaleontology,   39 

Cephalaspis  and  Drepanaspis,  703 
Eastwood,  A.,  Hans  Hermann  Behr,  636 
Ecology,  Principles  of,  W.   F.  Ganong,  493; 

1903,  H.  C.  Cowles,  879 
Edison  Medal,  835 
Efficiency,  Mental,  and  Health,  R.  IVIacDgugal 

893 
Eichelbeboeb,   W.    S.,   Astronomical  and  Astn 

physical  Soc.  of  Am.,  296 
EiOENMANN,  C.  H.,  Leptocephalus  of  the  Conge 

Eel,  629 
Electrochemistry,  Advance  of,  J.  W.  Richards,  90 
Electron  Theory,  896 
Elements,  Verified  and  Unverified,  C.  Baseebvuu 

88. 
Eliot,  President,  612,  657 
Elisha  Mitchell  Scientific  Society,  A.  8.  Wheeleb 

429,  687,  760 
Elbod,  M.  J.,  Resources  of  Montana,  777 


NbW   SKK1JC8. 

Vol.  XIX 


n 


SCIENCE.. 


Energetics  and  Mechanics,  F.  Slate,  510 
Engbebg,   J.   C,   Skew   Frequency   Curves,   J.   C. 

Kapteyn,  575 
Entomology,  Notes  on,  N.  Banks,  470 
Erythrocytes,  Elliptical  Human,  A.  Flint,  796 
Ewell,  E.  E.,  595,  741 

Fakrand,  L.,  Aboriginal  American  Basketry,  0. 

T.  Mason,  538 
Felt,  E.  P.,  Convocation  Week,  622 
Finches,  Wild,  Rearing,  W.  E.  D.  Scott,  551 
Fish  New  to  Florida  Waters,  H.  M.  Smith,  314 
Fisheries,  Bureau  of  Wood's  Hole  Laboratory,  F. 

R.  SUMNEB,  241 
Flint,  A.,  Elliptical  Human  Erythrocytes,  796 
Fluorescence  and  Phosphorescence,  W.  S.  Andrews, 

435 
Flying  Machine  in  the  Army,  E.  W.  Sebbell,  952 
FoBD,  A.  H.,  Convocation  Week,  463 
'  Formation,'    Misuse    of,    by    Ecologists,    F.    H. 

KInowlton,  467 
Fossil  Fishes  in  the  Am.  Museum,  437 
Frankfobter,  G.  B.,  Chemistry  at  the  American 

Association,  441 

Gale,  H.,  Minnesota  Acad,  of  Sci.,  855 
Galloway,  B.  T.,  Twentieth  Century  Botany,  11 
Ganong,  W.  F.,  Society  for  Plant  Morphology  and 

Phjrsiology,    413;    Convocation    Week,    463; 

Principles  of  Ecology,  493;   Vegetable  Balls, 

591 ;  Writings  of  Wm.  J.  Long,  623 
Geeb,  W.  C,  Cornell  Section  of  the  Am.  Chem. 

Soc.,  858 
Geographic  Congress,  International,  472 
Geography  in  the  United  States,  W.  M.  Davis, 

121,  178 
Geological,  Society  of  America,  Excursion  of,  A. 

R,  Crook,  197;  Society  of  Washington,  A.  H. 

Bbooks,  24,  304,  459,  502,  544,  733,  794,  856, 

921 ;  Journal  Club  of  Mass.  Inst.  Tech.,  G.  F. 

LouGHLiN,  307,  586,  736;  Survey,  354 
Geology,  and  Geography  at  the  American  Assoc. 

and  Geological  Soc.  of  Am.,  G.  B.  Shattuck, 

521 ;  and  Mineralogy,  N.  Y.  Acad,  of  Sci.,  E. 

0.  HovEY,  106,  580,  617,  858,  891 ;  of  Harri- 

man  Expedition,  I.  C.  Russell,  783 
Geometry,  Non-Euclidean,  G.  B.  Halsted,  401 
German  Universities,  Students  at,  J.  F.  Cbowell, 

594 
Gibbons,  E.  E.,  The  Eye,  W.  S.  Dennett,  919 
Gies,  W.  J.,  Soc.  for  Exper.  Biol,  and  Medicine, 

104,  459,  828 
Gilbert,  G.  K.,  Mont  Pel^  Spine,  927 
Gill,    Thec,    The    Encyclopedia    Americana    on 

Ichthyology,  675 ;  *  Horses '  not  Horses,  737 ; 

Non-education  of  the  Young  by  Parents,  861 
GoLTJ>,  G.  M.,  Right  and  Left  Eyedness,  591 
Gould,  G.  M.,  Biographic  Clinics,  S.   S.  Cohen, 

694 
Gravitational    Constant    and    Constants    of    the 

Ether,  B.  Davis,  928 

H.,  J.  L.,  Notes  on  Inorganic  Chemistry,  270,  394, 

513 
Hall,  A.,  The  Lunar  Theory,  150 
Halsted,  G.  B.,  Non-Euclidean  Greometry,  401 
Haegitt,  C.  W.,  Organic  Adaptation,  132;   Con- 
vocation Week,  265 
Harriman'  Expedition,  I.  C.  Russell,  862 
Habris,  C.  D.,  N.  C.  Section,  Am.  Chem.  Soc,  67 


Harris,  R.  A.,  Measurement  of  Tides  at  Sea,  704 
Hay,  O.  p.,  Soc.  of  Vertebrate  Paleontologists  of 

America,  253 
Hayes,  E.,  Writings  of  Wm.  J.  Long,  625;  Comet 

a  1904,  833 
Hazen,  T.  E.,  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  824 
Hedgoock,  G.  G.,  Rhizoctonia,  268 
Heilpbin,  a.,  The  Pel6e  Tower,  800 
Hebbeshoff,  J.  B.  F.,  and  Othebs,  The  Training 

of  Technical  Chemists,  561 
Hebbick,  C.  J.,  Zoology  at  the  Amer.  Assoc.,  210; 

Convocation  Week,  384 
HiLGABD,  E.  W.,  Soil  Work  in  the  U.  S.,  233 
Hitchcock,  C.  H.,  Convocation  Week,  266 
Holland,  W.  J.,  Convocation  Week,  433 
Holland,  W.  J.,  Moth  Book,  L.  O.  Howabd,  188 
HoLLiCK,  A.,  Convocation  Week,  620 
Hopkins,  C.  G.,  Soil  Investigation,  626 
Hopkins,  T.  C,  Onondaga  Acad,  of  Sci.,  262 ;  Con- 
vocation Week,  341 
*  Horses '  not  Horses,  Theo.  Gnx,  737 
Horticultural  Varieties  of  Common  Crops,  W.  J. 

Spillman,  34 
Hough,  W.,  Anthropological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, 27,  70,  149,  381,  457,  616,  660,  699. 
HovEY,  E.  O.,  Geology  and  Mineralogy,  N.  Y.  Acad. 

Sci.,  106,  580,  617,  868,  891 
HowABD,  L.  O.,  The  Moth  Book,  W.  J.  Holland, 

188;  Mosquitoes,  F.  V.  Theobald,  333 
Howe,  C.  S.,  Proceedings  of  St.  Louis  Meeting  of 

Am.  Assoc.,  81;  Convocation  Week,  383 
Howe,  J.  L.,  Convocation  Week,  228 
Howe,  M.  A.,  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  793 
Hyatt,  James,  J.  J.  Schoonho\ten,  635 
Hume,  A.,  Science  Club  of  Univ.  of  Mississippi, 
759 

Ichthyology,   Encyclopedia  Americana   on,   Theo. 

Gill,  675;  D'  S.  Jobdan,  767 
Indian  Tribes  of  California,  C.  H.  Mebbiam,  912 
Inheritance,  Color,  in  Mice,  C.  B.  Davenport,  110 
Ion  Action,  A.  S.  Loevenhabt,  J.  H.  Kastle,  630 
Iowa  Academy  of  Science,  H.  W.  Nobbis,  790 

Japanese  Brain,  Heavy,  E.  A.  Spitzka,  899 
Jefb'erson,  M.  S.  W.,  Scaurs  on  the  River  Rouge, 

150 
Jones  H.  C,  Wilhelm  Ostwald,  P.  Walden,  821 
JoBDAN,  D.  S.,  Loach  from  Nanaimo,  634;  Ichthy- 
ology in  the  *  Encyclopedia  Americana,'  767 ; 
Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  810 

K.,  G.  F.,  Geology  of  Economic  Minerals,  F.  Miron, 

261 ;  Mineralogy,  M.  Bauer,  823 
Kahlenbebg,  L.,  Chemie,  W.  Ostwald,  854 
Kapteyn   J.    C,    Skew   Frequency   Curves,   C.   C. 

Enobebo,  575 
Kastle,  J.  H.  and  A.  S.  Loevenhabt,  Ion  Action, 

630 
Kellogo,  V.  L.,  Amitosis  in  the  Egg  Follicle  Cells 

of  Insects,  392 
Kent,  Wm.,  Metric  System,  767 
Kinetic  Evolution,  O.  F.  Cook,  549 
KiNOSLEY,    J.    S.,    Convocation    Week,    194;    The 

Mark  Anniversary  Volume,  455 
KiBKWOOD,  J.  E.,  Onondaga  Acad,  of  Sci.,  584,  619, 

925 
Knowlton,    F.    H.,    Misuse    of    '  Formation '    by 

Ecologists,  467 
KoFOiD,  C.  A.,  Biol.  Surv.  of  Waters  of  S.  Cal.,  505 


VI 


it'CIENCE. 


[CX>N'nBNTS 
INDICX 


Kohl,   E.   G.,   Organization   und   Physiologic   der 
Cyanophyceenzelle,  £.  A.  Bessby,  260 

L.,  F.  A.,  Paleontological  Notes,  436 
Labor  Problem,  H.  T.  Newcomb,  46 
Laboratory,  The  Modern,  8.  L.  Bioelow,  641 
Lamarck  and  Geoffroy,  an  Early  Letter  by,  Bash- 
ford  Dean,  798 
Lane,  A.  C,  The  Metric  System,  389 
Langfobd,  G.,  Science  Club  of  Wellesley  Col.,  339 
Leaves,  Palisade  Tissue  and  Resinous  Deposits  in, 

E.  N.  Transeau,  866 

LeDouble  on  the  Cranial  Bones,  T.  Dwioht,  302 
Lee,  F.  S.,  Allgemeine  Physiologic,  M.  Verworn, 

189;  Physiology  in  the  Int.  Catalogue  of  Sci. 

Literature,  886 
Lenheb,  v.,  Science  Club,  University  of  Wiscon- 
sin, 149,  339,  620,  759,  832 
Leptocephalus  of  the  Conger  Eel,  C.   H.  Eigen- 

MANN,  629 
Levees,  Outlets  and  Reservoirs  in  the  Mississippi 

Valley,  R.  S.  Taylob,  601 
L^vy-Bruhl,  L.,   Positive   Philosophy  of   Auguste 

Comte,  L.  F.  Ward,  376 
LiNDSEY,  E.,  Reddish-brown  Snowfall,  893 
Lloyd,  F.  E.,  Botany  at  the  Am.  Assoc,  165 
Loach  from  Nanaimo,  D.  S.  Jordan,  634 
LoEVENHART,  A.  S.,  and  J.  H.  Kastle,  Ion  Action, 

630 
Long,  J.  H.,  Convocation  Week,  309 
Long,  Wm.  J.,  Science,  Nature  and  Criticism,  760 
Long,  Wm.  J.,  Writings  of,  W.  M.  Wheeler,  347 ; 

F.  M.  Chapman,  387;  W.  F.  Ganong,  623; 
E.  Hayes,  626 ;  W.  H.  Davis,  667 

Lough,  J.  E.,  N.  Y.  Acad,  of  Sci.,  Anthropology 

and  Psychology,  106,  335,  678,  890,  950 
Louohlin,  G.   F.,  Mass.  Institute  of  Technology 

Geol.  Journal  Club,  307,  586,  736 
LooMis,  E.  H.,  Noyes  on  Physical  Science,  102 
Lucas,  F.  A.,  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 

26,  70 
Lunar  Theory,  A.  Hall,  150 
Lyon,  E.  P.,  Rhythms  of  COj  Production  during 

Cleavage,  350 

M.,  Anatomy,  Human,  in  the   Int.   Catalogue  of 

Sci.  Literature,  147 
M.,  C.  E.,  Light  Waves,  A.  A.  Michelson,  380; 
Literature  of   the  Spectroscope,   A.   Tuckeb- 
MANN,  380 
Macbride,  T.  H.,  Convocation  Week,  342 
MacDougal,  D.  T.,  Botanical  Soc.  of  America,  888 
MacDougall,  R.,  The  Sense  of  Time,  707;  Mental 

Efficiencv  and  Health,  893 
Magruder,  W.  T.,  Mech.  Sci.  and  Engineering  at 

the  American  Association,  361 
Mark,  E.  L.,  Bermuda  Biological  Station,  709 
Mark,  E.  L.,  Anniversary  Volume,  J.   S.  Kings- 
ley,  465 
Marshall,  P..  Australasian  Association.  636 
Mason,  O.  T.,  Convocation  Week ;  232 ;  Blackening 

of  Teeth,  926 
Mason,  O.  T.,  American  Basketry,  L.  Farrand,  638 
Mathematicnl  Society,  American,  F.  N.  Cole,  101, 
462,  792;  Snn  Francisco  Section,  G.  A.  Mil- 
ler, 148,  855 
Mathematics,  and  Astronomy  at  the  Am.  Assoc, 
L.   G.   Weld,    161 ;    and    Engineering,   C.   A. 
Waldo,  321 


Mechanical  Science  and  Engineering  at  the  . 

Assoc.,  W.  T.  Magbudeb,  361 
Medical  Association,  American,  961 
Meltzeb,  S.  J.,  Vitalism  and  Mechanism  in  £ 

ogy  and  Medicine,  18 
Mendelism  and  Wonder  Horses,  C.  B.  Dayenf 

151 
Mebbiam,  C.  H.,  Indian  Tribes  of  California, 
>1£BBIAM,  J.  C,  Marine  Pliocene  and  Pleistoc 

of  San  Pedro,  Cal.,  R.  Arnold,  540 
Mebbitt,  E.,  American  Physical  Society,  330, 
Metcalf,  M.  M.,  Mutation  and  Selection,  74 
Metcalf's  Evolution  Catechism,  O.  F.  CooK,  31 
Meteorology,  The  New  Cosmical,  F.  H.  Bigel 

30;   Current  Notes  on,  R.  DeC.  Ward,   '. 

236,  353,  395,  555,  740,  801 
Metric  System,  A.  C.  Lane,  389;  W.  Le  C.  5 

VENS,  534;  W.  Kent,  767;  A.  G.  Webster, 
Michelson,  A.  A.,  Light  Waves,  C.  E.  M.,  380 
Michigan  Academy  of  Science,  R.  Pearl,  787 
Miller,  D.  C,  Physics  at  the  Am.  Assoc.,  201 
Miller,  G.  A.,  San  Francisco  Section  of  the  2 

Math.  Soc,  148,  855 
^NfiLLS,  W.,  Comparative  Psychology,  745 
Minnesota,   Seaside   Station,   67G;    Acad,    of    6 

H.  Gale,  855 
MiNOT,  C.  S.,  Elizabeth  Thompson  Sci.  Fund, 
Miron,  F.,  Geology  of  Economic  Minerals,  G. 

K.,  261 
Montana,  Resources  of,  ^I.  J.  Elrod,  777 
Morgan,  T.  H.,  on  Evolution  and  Adaptation, 

T.  Cunningham,  74;  B.  Dean,  221 
MosELEY,  E.  L.,  Ohio  State  Acad,  of  Sci.,  736 
Museimis  and  Popular  Culture,  610 
Mutation  and  Selection,  M.  M.  Metcalf,  74 

Namatogtcan  or  Epigsan,  W.  H.  Dall,  926 

National  Academy  of  Sciences,  698 

Natural    and   Unnatural   History,   W.   H.   Da\ 

667 
Nature  Study,  E.  C.  Case,  550 
Nebraska  Academv  of  Sciences,  R.  M.  Wolco 

925 
Needham;  J.  G.,  College  Entrance  Requiremei 

650 
Newcomb,  H.  T.,  The  Labor  Problem,  46 
Newcombe,  F.  C.,   Research   Club,  University 

Michigan,  73,  791 
Newstead,  R.,  Coccidae  of  the  British  Isles,  T. 

A.  Cockerell,  501 
Nichols,  E.  F.,  Convocation  Week,  340 
Nichols,  E.  L.,  Convocation  Week,  192 
Nitrogen,  Atmospheric,  J.  F.  Crowell,  197 
Nomenclature,  of  Fungi,   F.   S.  Earle,  508;   ] 

rors  in,  B.  G.  Wilder,  798 
NoRRis,  H.  W.,  Iowa  Acad.  Sci..  790 
Noyes  on  Physical  Science,  E.  H.  Loomis,  102 

O.,  H.  F.,  Recent  Zoopaleontology,  35,  270 

Observatory,  U.  S.  Naval,  154 

Ohio.  State  Acad,  of  Sci.,  E.  L.  Moseley,  73 

Teachers  of  Mathematics,  796 
Onondaga  Acad,  of  Sci.,  T.  C.  Hopkins,  262;  J. 

KiRKWOOD,  584,  619,  925 
Ornitliological  Club,  Michigan,  A.  W.  Blain,  J 

108 
Osborn,  H.  F.,  Karl  Alfred  von  Zittel,  186 
Osgood,  W.  H.,  Biological  Society  of  Washingtc 

546,  615,  700,  857 


Nbw  skkies».1 
Vou  XIX.     J 


SCIENCE. 


Vll 


Ostwald,  Wilhelm,  P.  Walden,  H.  C.  Jones,  821; 
Chemie,  L.  Kahlenbebo,  854 

Palache,  C,  Mineralogy  in  the  Int.  Catalogue  of 

Sci.  Literature,  334 
Paleontological  Notes,  F.  A.  L.,  436 
Palmer's  Index  Generum  Mammalium,  J.  A.  A., 

498 
Parasite  of  Yellow  Fever,  H.  W.  Robinson,  29 
Pearl,  R.,  Mich.  Acad,  of  Science,  787 
Pel^  Club,  566;  Tower,  A.  Heilprin,  800;  Spine, 

G.  K.  Gilbert.  927 
Pepper,  G.  H.,  Anthropology  at  the  Am.  Assoc., 

449 
Pettis,  C.  R.,  Albino  Brook  Trout,  867 
Philosophical  Society,  of  Washington,  C.  K.  Wead, 

23,  226,  428,  646,  660,  735,  796,  922;  Amer- 
ican, 541,  713 
Physical,  Society,  Am.,  E.  Merritt,  330,  542;  E. 

B.  Rosa,  888;  Laboratory,  National,  708 
Physics,  at  the  Amer.  Assoc,  D.  C.  Miller,  201; 

Teaching   of,   H.   Crew,   481;    College,   J.   S. 

Stevens,  832 
Physiology  in  the  International  Catalogue  of  Sci- 

entihc  Literature,  F.  S.  Lee,  886 
PiLSBBY,  H.  A.,  Tertiary  Fauna  of  Florida,  W.  H. 

Dall,  613 
Plant,  Morphology   and   Physiology,   Society   for, 

W.  F.  GanoNg,  413;  Food,  Water  Soluble,  H. 

Sntdeb,  834 
Polyodon,  I.,  G.  Wagner,  554 
Psychologists,  Experimental,  Meeting  of,  659 
Psychology,  Comparative,  W.  Mills,  745 

Quotations,  268,  612,  961 

Radium,  the  Scintillations  of,  R.  W.  Wood,  195 
Raphides  of  Calcium  Oxalate,  H.  W.  Wiley,  434 
Rehder,  A.,  The  Honeysuckles,  N.  L.  Britton,  145 
Remsen,  I.,  Scientific  Investigation  and  Progress,  I 
Research,  Club,  Univ.  Mich.,  F.  C.  Newcombe,  73, 

791 ;  in  State  Universities,  I.  C.  Russell,  841 
Rhizoctonia,  G.  G.  Hedocock,  268 
Rhoads,  S.  N.,  Mammals  of  Pa.,  and  N.  J.,  W.  H. 

Osgood,  576 
Rhythms  of  CO,  Production  -  during  Cleavage,  E. 

P.  Lyon,  350 
Rice,  W.  N.,  Convocation  Week,  548 
Rice,  W.  N.,  Christian  Faith  and  Science,  R.  M. 

W.,  949 
Richards,  J.  W.,  Advance  of   Electro-chemistry, 

905 
Richards,  T.  W.,  Convocation  Week,  263 
Rideal,  S.,  Disinfection  and  Preservation  of  Food, 

H.  W.  Wiley,  731 
Right  and  Left-eyedness,  G.  M.  Goltld,  591 
Robinson,  H.  W.,  Parasite  of  Yellow  Fever,  29 
Rocks  of  the  Watkins  Glen  Triangle,  H.  S.  W.,  234 
Rosa,    E.    B.,    American    Physical    Society,    888; 

Bureau  of  Standards,  937 
Rubber- producing  Plant,  W.  P.  Cockerell,  314 
Russell,   I.   C,   Research   in    State   Universities, 

841;   Geology  of  Harriman  Expedition,   783, 

862 
RrssELL,  J.  E.,  Convocation  Week,  311 
Rutherford,  E.,  on  Radium,  899. 

St.  T^uis  Acad,  of  Sci ,  504,  587,  660 

Scaurs  on  the  River  Rogue,  M.  S.  W.  Jefferson, 

loO 
ScHALLER,  W.  T.,  Tourmaline  in  S.  Cal.,  266 


SOHOONHOVEN,  J.  J.,  James  Hyatt,  635 
Schweinitz,  £.  A.  de,  356,  595 
Science,    Editorial    Committee   of,    77;    Club    of 
Wellesley,    Col.,    G.    Lanqford,    339;    Fund, 
Elizabeth  Thompson,  C.  S.  Minot,  364;  The 
Study    of,    476;    Club    of   the    University    of 
Mississippi,  Aij'Red  Hume,  759;  Nature  and 
Criticism,  Wm.  J.  Long,  760 
Sciences,  National  Academy  of,  698 
Scientific,  Investigation  and  Progress,  I.  Remsen, 
1;  Books,  22,  64,  102,  145,  188,  221,  298,  333, 
376,   426,  455,   498,  638,  575,  613,  656,   694, 
730,  757,  783,  821,  854,  885,  917,  949;  Notes 
and  News,  38,  77,  116,  156,  198,  238,  275,  316, 
357,  397,  437,  477,  516,  557,  597,  636,  677, 
711,  741,  772,  805,  836,  869,  900,  931,  966; 
Journals  and  Articles,  67,  103,  147,  190,  226, 
260,  303,   334,   381,  427,   457,   502,   541,  678, 
616,  659,   698,   732,  823,  855,  920,   968;    So- 
cieties,  Affiliated,    Meeting    at    Philadelphia, 
100;  Literature,  Int.  Catalogue,  66,  147,  334, 
860,  886;   Positions  in  the  Philippines,  770. 
ScoFiELD,  C.  S.,  Botanical  Soc.  of  Wasnington,  823 
Scott,  W.  E.  D.,  The  Inheritance  of  Song,   164, 

967;  Rearing  Wild  Finches,  651 
Secretions,  Odoriferous,  A.  F.  Conradi,  393 
Seeds,  Climate  and  Soil,  W.  W.  Tracy,  Jr.,  738 
Seidell,  A.,  Chemical  Society  of  Washington,  25, 

306,  429,  583,  618,  768 
Serrell,  E.  W.,  Flying  Machine  in  the  Army,  952 
Sex    Determination    in    Bees    and    Ants,    W.    E. 

Castle,  389 
Shattuck,  G.  B.      Section  E  of  the  Am.  Assoc. 

and  Geol.  Soc.  of  America,  521 
Shedd,  J.  C,  The  Word  Barometer,  108 
Sheep,  Multi-nipple,  A.  G.  Bell,  767 
Sherman,  H.  C,  N.  Y.  Section  of  the  Am.  Chem. 

Soc.,  68,  227,  618,  698,  923 
Shiver,  F.  S.,  Clemson  College  Science  Club,  263, 

382,  686,  660 
Skinner,  E.  B.,  Wisconsin  Acad,  of  Sci.,  191 
Slate,  F.,  Energetics  and  Mechanics,  510 
Smith,  F.,  Am.  Soc.  of  Zoologists,  221 
Smith,  H.  M.,  Fish  New  to  Florida  Waters,  314 
Smith,  J.  C,  Animal  Parasite  of  Yellow  Fever, 

314 
Smithsonian  Institution,  273,  514 
Smoke  Prevention,  C.  H.  Benjamin,  488 
Snyder,  H.,  Water  Soluble  Plant  Food,  834 
Social  and  Economic  Science  at  the  Am.  Assoc., 

J.  F.  Crowell,  281 
Societies   and   Academies,   23,   67,    104,   148,    191, 
225,   262,   304,   335,   381,  428,   541,   578,  615, 
669,   733,   758,  787,  823,  888,  921,  950 
Soil   Work   in  the  U.   S.,   E.   W.   Hiloard,   233; 

F.  K.  Cameron,  343;  C.  G.  Hopkins,  626 
Solar  Research,  Expedition  for,  964 
Sollas,  W.  J.  and  I.  B.  J.,  Palaeospondylus,  Bash- 
ford  Dean,  425 
Song,  Inheritance  of,  \X.  E.  D.  Scott,  164,  967 
Special  Articles,  30,  110,  151,  196,  234,  266,  314, 
350,   392,  435,  468,   505,   551,   591,   629,   675, 
704,   738,   767.   798,   834,  862,  893,  927,  957 
Spencer,  Herbert,  Autobiography,  L.  F.  Ward,  873 
Spillman,  W.  j..  Horticultural  Varieties  of  Com- 
mon Crops,  34 
Spitzka,  E.  a.,  a  Hea\nr  Japanese  Brain,  899 
Standards,  Bureau  of,  E.  B.  Rosa,  937 
Ste.txf«er,  L.,  Strictures  on  American  Biologists, 
371 


VIU 


SCIENCE. 


CCONTEMlt 
Inde: 


Stevens,  J.  S.,  College  Physics,  832 

Stevens,  \V.  Le  C,  Convocation  Week,  192;  The 

Metric  System,  534 
Stii-es,  C.  W.,  Convocation  Week,  384 
Sumner,  F.  R.,  Woods  Hole  Laboratory  of  Bureau 

of  Fisheries,  241 

Taylor,  R.  S.,  Levees,  Outlets  and  Reservoirs  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley,  601 

Theobald,  F.  V.,  Economic  Zoology,  F.  H.  Chit- 
tenden, 65;  F.  M.  Webster,  767;  Mosqui- 
toes, L.  0.  Howard,  333 

Thorium,  C.  Baskebviixe,  892 

Tides  and  Currents  at  Sea,  R.  A.  Harris,  704 

Time,  Sense  of,  R.  MacDougall,  707 

Titles  of  Papers,  H.  H.  Wilder,  468;  C.  Basker- 
VILLE,  702;  F.  A.  B.,  702 

Torrey  Botanical  Club,  F.  S.  Earle,  71,  309;  M.  A. 
Howe,  793;  T.  E.  Hazen,  824 

Tourmaline  in  S.  Cal.,  W.  T.  Schaller,  266 

Tracy,  Jr.,  W.  W.,  Influence  of  Climate  and  Soil 
on  Seeds,  738 

Transeau,  £.  N.,  Palisade  Tissue  and  Resinous 
Deposits  in  Leaves,  866 

Traphagen,  F.  W.,  Death  Gulch,  632 

Traquair,  R.  H.,  Lower  Devonian  Fishes,  Bash- 
ford  Dean,  64 

Trelease,  W.,  Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  809 

Trowbridge,  C.  C,  Astronomy,  Physics  and  Chem- 
istry, N.  Y.  Acad,  of  Sci.,  226,  582,  825 

Tuberculosis,  Royal  Commission  on,  929 

Tuckermann,  A.,  Literature  of  the  Spectroscope, 
C.  E.  M.,  380 

Underwood,  L.  M.,  Cryptogam ic  Botany  of  Harri- 

man  Expedition,  917 
University  and  Educational  News,  40,  80,  120,  160, 

200,  240,  280,  320,  360,  400,  440,  479,  519,  560, 

599.  640,  680,  712,  744,  775,  808,  840,  871,  904-, 

936,  968 

Van  Hise,  C.  R.,  Degrees  for  Scientific  Work,  812 
Vaughan,   T.   W.,   Zoology   in   the   International 

Catalogue  of  Sci.  Literature,  860 
Vegetable  Balls,  W.  F.  Ganono,  591;  J.  Adams, 

926 
Verwom,  M.,  Allgemeine  Physiologic,  F.  8.  Lee, 

189 
Vitalism  and  Mechanism  in  Biology  and  Medicine, 

S.  J.  Meltzer,  18 

W.,  H.  S.,  Classification  of  the  Rocks  of  the  Wat- 
kins  Glen  Triangle,  234 

W.,  R.  M.,  Christian  Faith  and  Science,  W.  N. 
Rice,  949 

Wagner,  G.,  Polvodon,  I.,  554 

Walden,  P.,  Wilhelm  Ostwald,  H.  C.  Jones,  821 

Waldo,  C.  A.,  Mathematics  and  Engineering,  321 


Ward,    L.    F.,    Positive    Philosophy    of    Aug 

Comte,  L.  LfivY-BtfUHL,  376;   Herbert   S 

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W^ARD,  R.  DeC,  Current  Notes  on  Meteorol 

115,  236,  353,  395,  555,  740,  801 
W^ater  Supply  of  the  Rio  Grande,  F.  S.  Dei* 

baugh,  505 
Wead,  C.  K.,  Philosophical  Society  of  Washing 

23,  225,  428,  546,  660,  736,  796,  022;    C 

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Webber,  H.  J.,  Botanical  Society  of  Washing 

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W^ebster,  a.  G.,  The  Metric  System,  860 
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757 
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Literature,  66 
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Am.  Assoc.,  161 
Weysse,  a.  W.,  Animal  Behavior,  955 
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Wheeler,  W.  M.,  Woodcock  Surgery,  347;  Ca 

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SCIENCE 


A  WEEKLY  JOURNAL  DEVOTED  TO  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE,  PUBLISHING  THE 
OFFICIAL  NOTICES  AND  PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION 

FOR  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE. 


Friday,  January  1,  1904. 


CONTENTS: 

The  American  Association  for  the  Advancement 
of  Science : — 
Scientific     Investigation      and     Progress: 
President  Ira  Remsen 1 

The  Twentieth  Century  Botany:  Bevebly  T. 

GaLIjOWAT    11 

Vitalism    and    Mechanism    in    Biology    and 
Medicine :  Db.  S.  J.  Melzeb 18 

Scientific  Books: — 

Davison's  Mammalian  Anatomy:  J.  P.  McM.     22 

Societies  and  Academies: — 

The  Philosophical  Society  of  Washington: 
Charles  K.  Weed.  Geological  Society  of 
Washington:  Ajlfbed  H.  Bbooks.  Chemical 
Society  of  Washington:  A.  Seidell.  Biolog- 
ical Society  of  Washington:  F.  A.  Lucas. 
Anthropological  Society  of  Washington: 
Db.  Walter  Hough 23 

Discussion  and  Correspondence: — 

The  Animal  Parasite  supposed  to  he  the 
Cause  of  Yellow  Fever :  Db.  H.  W.  Robinson     29 

Shorter  Articles: — 

The  New  Cosmical  Meteorology:  Db.  Fbank 
H.  Bioelow.  Horticultural  Varieties  of 
Common  Crops:  Db.  W.  J.  Spillman 30 

Rccen  t  Zoopa Icon tology : — 

Field  Expeditions  during  the  Past  Season: 

H.   F.  O 35 

Botanical  Notes: — 

The  Missouri  Botanical  Garden;  An  Ele- 
mentary Journal  of  Mycology;  Some  Recent 
Papers  on  Systematic  Botany;  Chemistry 
of  Plant  and  Animal  Life:  Pbofessob 
Charles  E.  Bessey 36 

The  Carnegie  Institution 37 

Scientific  Notes  and  News 38 

University  and  Educational  News 40 

H8S.  Intended  for  pnblloatton  and  booki,  ete..  Intended 
for  xeTlew  ihonld  be  lent  to  the  Editor  of  Scixncb,  Garrl- 
■on-on-Hndion,  N.  Y. 


SCIENTIFIC  INVESTIGATION  AND 
PROGRESS* 

At  the  weekly  services  of  many  of  our 
churches  it  is  customary  to  begin  with  the 
reading  of  a  verse  or  two  from  the  Scrip- 
tures for  the  purpose,  I  suppose,  of  put- 
ting the  congregations  in  the  proper  state 
of  mind  for  the  exercises  which  are  to  fol- 
low. It  seems  to  me  we  may  profit  by  this 
example,  and  accordingly  I  ask  your  atten- 
tion to  Article  I.  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science,  which  reads  thus:  *  The 
objects  of  the  association  are,  by  periodical 
and  migratory  meetings,  to  promote  inter- 
course between  those  who  are  cultivating 
science  in  different  parts  of  America,  to 
give  stronger  and  more  general  impulse 
and  more  systematic  direction  to  scientific 
research,  and  to  procure  for  the  labors  of 
scientific  men  increased  facilities  and  a 
wider  usefulness.' 

The  first  object  mentioned,  you  will  ob- 
serve, is  *  to  promote  intercourse  between 
those  who  are  cultivating  science  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  America  '  ;  the  second  is 
*  to  give  a  stronger  and  more  general  im- 
pulse and  more  systematic  direction  to  sci- 
entific research  *  ;  and  the  third  is  *  to  pro- 
cure for  the  labors  of  scientific  men  in- 
creased facilities  and  a  wider  usefulness.' 
Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  history 
of  the  association  are  well  aware  that  it  has 
served  its  purposes  admirably,  and  I  ai^ 
inclined  to  think  that  those  who  have  been 

•  Address  of  the  retiring  president  of  the  Ameri- 
can Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science, 
St.  Louis  meeting,  December  28,  1903. 


2 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  4 


in  the  habit  of  attending  the  meetings  will 
agree  that  the  object  which  appeals  to 
them  most  strongly  is  the  promotion  of  in- 
tercourse between  those  who  are  cultivat- 
ing science.  Given  this  intercourse  and 
the  other  objects  will  be  reached  as  a  neces- 
sary consequence,  for  the  intercourse  stim- 
ulates thought,  and  thought  leads  to  work, 
and  work  leads  to  wider  usefulness. 

While  in  1848,  when  the  association 
was  organized  and  the  constitution  was 
adopted,  there  was  a  fair  number  of  good 
scientific  investigators  in  this  country,  it 
is  certain  that  in  the  half  century  that  has 
passed  since  then  the  number  of  investi- 
gators has  increased  very  largely,  and  nat- 
urally the  amount  of  scientific  work  done 
at  present  is  very  much  greater  than  it 
was  at  that  time.  So  great  has  been  the 
increase  in  scientific  activity  during  recent 
years  that  we  are  apt  to  think  that  by  com- 
parison scientific  research  is  a  new  acquisi- 
tion. In  fact  there  appears  to  be  an  im- 
pression abroad  that  in  the  world  at  large 
scientific  research  is  a  relatively  new  thing, 
for  which  we  of  this  generation  and  our 
immediate  predecessors  are  largely  respon- 
sible. Only  a  superficial  knowledge  of  the 
history  of  science  is  necessary,  however,  to 
show  that  the  sciences  have  been  developed 
slowly,  and  that  their  beginnings  are  to  be 
looked  for  in  the  very  earliest  times. 
Everything  seems  to  point  to  the  conclu- 
sion that  men  have  always  been  engaged  in 
efforts  to  learn  more  and  more  in  regard  to 
the  world  in  which  they  find  themselves. 
Sometimes  they  have  been  guided  by  one 
motive  and  sometimes  by  another,  but  the 
one  great  underlying  motive  has  been  the 
desire  to  get  a  clearer  and  clearer  under- 
standing of  the  universe.  But  besides  this 
there  has  been  the  desire  to  find  means  of 
increasing  the  comfort  and  happiness  of 
the  human  race. 

A  reference  to  the  history  of  chemistry 
will  serve  to  show  how  these  motives  have 


operated  side  by  side.  One  of  the  fii 
great  incentives  for  working  with  chemic 
things  was  the  thought  that  it  was  possil 
to  convert  base  metals  like  lead  and  copp 
into  the  so-called  noble  metals,  silver  aj 
gold.  Probably  no  idea  has  ever  ope 
ated  as  strongly  as  this  upon  the  minds 
men  to  lead  them  to  undertake  chemic 
experiments.  It  held  control  of  intellectn 
men  for  centuries  and  it  was  not  un* 
about  a  hundred  years  ago  that  it  lost  i 
hold.  It  is  very  doubtful  if  the  pure 
scientific  question  whether  one  form 
matter  can  be  transformed  into  anoth 
would  have  had  the  power  to  control  tJ 
activities  of  investigators  for  so  long 
time;  and  it  is  idle  to  speculate  upon  th 
subject.  It  should,  however,  be  borne 
mind  that  many  of  those  who  were  engage 
in  this  work  were  actuated  by  a  desire 
put  money  in  their  purses— a  desire  th 
is  by  no  means  to  be  condemned  withoi 
reserve,  and  I  mention  it  not  for  the  pu 
pose  of  condemning  it,  but  to  show  that 
motive  that  we  sometimes  think  of  as  pec 
liarly  modern  is  among  the  oldest  knoi« 
to  man. 

When  the  alchemists  were  at  work  upc 
their  problems,  another  class  of  chemis 
were  engaged  upon  problems  of  an  entire! 
different  nature.  The  fact  that  substance 
obtained  from  various  natural  sources  ar 
others  made  in  the  laboratory  produ< 
effects  of  various  kinds  when  taken  in1 
the  system  led  to  the  thought  that  thei 
substances  might  be  useful  in  the  trea 
ment  of  disease.  Then,  further,  it  wi 
thought  that  disease  itself  is  a  chemic] 
phenomenon.  These  thoughts,  as  is  ev 
dent,  furnish  strong  motives  for  the  invei 
tigation  of  chemical  substances,  and  tl 
science  of  chemistry  owes  much  to  tl 
work  of  those  who  were  guided  by  thes 
motives. 

And  so  in  each  period  as  a  new  thougl 
has  served  as  the  guide  we  find  that  me 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


have  been  actuated  by  diflferent  motives, 
and  often  one  and  the  same  worker  has 
been  under  the  influence  of  mixed  motives. 
Only  in  a  few  cases  does  it  appear  that  the 
highest  motives  alone  operate.  We  must 
take  men  as  we  find  them,  and  we  may  be 
thankful  that  on  the  whole  there  are  so 
many  who  are  impelled  by  one  motive  or 
another  or  by  a  mixture  of  motives  to  take 
up  the  work  of  investigating  the  world  in 
which  we  live.  Great  progress  is  being 
made  in  consequence  and  almost  daily  we 
are  called  upon  to  wonder  at  some  new  and 
marvelous  result  of  scientific  investiga- 
tion. It  is  quite  impossible  to  make  pre- 
dictions of  value  in  regard  to  what  is  likely 
to  be  revealed  to  us  by  continued  work,  but 
it  is  safe  to  believe  that  in  our  efforts  to 
discover  the  secrets  of  the  universe  only  a 
beginning  has  been  made.  No  matter  in 
what  direction  we  may  look  we  are  aware 
of  great  unexplored  territories,  and  even 
in  those  regions  in  which  the  greatest  ad-' 
vances  have  been  made  it  is  evident  that 
the  knowledge  gained  is  almost  insignifi- 
cant as  compared  with  that  which  remains 
to  be  learned.  But  this  line  of  thought 
may  lead  to  a  condition  bordering  on  hope- 
lessness and  despondency,  and  surely  we 
should  avoid  this  condition,  for  there  is 
much  greater  cause  for  rejoicing  than  for 
despair.  Our  successors  will  see  more  and 
see  more  clearly  than  we  do,  just  as  we  see 
more  and  see  more  clearly  than  our  prede- 
cessors. It  is  our  duty  to  keep  the  work 
going  without  being  too  anxious  to  weigh 
the  results  on  an  absolute  scale.  It  must 
be  remembered  that  the  absolute  scale  is 
not  a  very  sensitive  instrument,  and  that 
it  requires  the  results  of  generations  to 
affect  it  markedly. 

On  an  occasion  of  this  kind  it  seems  fair 
to  ask  the  question:  What  does  the  world 
gain  by  scientific  investigation  ^  This  ques- 
tion has  often  been  asked  and  often  an- 
swered, but  each  answer  differs  in  some  re- 


spects from  the  others  and  each  may  be 
suggestive  and  worth  giving.  The  ques- 
tion is  a  profound  one,  and  no  answer  that 
can  be  given  would  be  satisfactory.  In 
general  it  may  be  said  that  the  results  of 
scientific  investigation  fall  under  three 
heads— the  material,  the  intellectual  and 
the  ethical. 

The  material  results  are  the  most  ob- 
vious and  they  naturally  receive  the  most 
attention.  The  material  wants  of  man  are 
the  first  to  receive  consideration.  They 
can  not  be  neglected.  He  must  have  food 
and  clothing,  the  means  of  combating  dis- 
ease, the  means  of  transportation,  the 
means  of  producing  heat  and  a  great  va- 
riety of  things  that  contribute  to  his  bodily 
comfort  and  gratify  his  esthetic  desires. 
It  is  not  my  purpose  to  attempt  to  deal 
with  all  of  these  and  to  show  how  science 
is  helping  to  work  out  the  problems  sug- 
gested. I  shall  have  to  content  myself  by 
pointing  out  a  few  of  the  more  important 
problems  the  solution  of  which  depends 
upon  the  prosecution  of  scientific  research. 

First,  the  food  problem.  Whatever 
views  one  may  hold  in  regard  to  that  which 
has  come  to  be  called  *  race  suicide,'  it  is 
certain  that  the  population  of  the  world  is 
increasing  rapidly.  The  desirable  places 
have  been  occupied.  In  some  parts  of  the 
earth  there  is  such  a  surplus  of  population 
that  famines  occur  from  time  to  time,  and 
in  other  parts  epidemics  and  floods  relieve 
the  embarrassment.  We  may  fairly  look 
forward  to  the  time  when  the  whole  earth 
will  be  overpopulated  unless  the  produc- 
tion of  food  becomes  more  scientific  than 
it  now  is.  Here  is  the  field  for  the  work 
of  the  agricultural  chemist  who  is  showing 
us  how  to  increase  the  yield  from  a  given 
area  and,  in  case  of  poor  and  worn-out 
soils,  how  to  preserve  and  increase  their 
fertility.  It  appears  that  the  methods  of 
cultivating  the  soil  are  still  comparatively 
crude,  and  more  and  more  thorough  inves- 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   No. 


tigation  of  the  processes  involved  in  the 
growth  of  plants  is  called  for.  Much  has 
been  learned  since  Liebig  founded  the 
science  of  agricultural  chemistry.  It  was 
he  who  pointed  out  some  of  the  ways  by 
which  it  is  possible  to  increase  the  fertility 
of  a  soil.  Since  the  results  of  his  investi- 
gations were  given  to  the  world  the  use  of 
artificial  fertilizers  has  become  more  and 
more  general. 

But  it  is  one  thing  to  know  that  artificial 
fertilizers  are  useful  and  it  is  quite  another 
thing  to  get  them.  At  first  bone  dust  and 
guano  were  chiefly  used.  Then  b&  these 
became  dearer,  phosphates  and  potassium 
salts  from  the  mineral  kingdom  came  into 
use. 

At  the  Fifth  International  Congress  for 
Applied  Chemistry,  held  at  Berlin,  Ger- 
many, last  June,  Dr.  Adolph  Frank,  of 
Charlottenburg,  gave  an  extremely  inter- 
esting address  on  the  subject  of  the  use 
of  the  nitrogen  of  the  atmosphere  for  agri- 
culture and  the  industries,  which  bears 
upon  the  problem  that  we  are  dealing  with. 
Plants  must  have  nitrogen.  At  present 
this  is  obtained  from  the  great  beds  of  salt- 
peter found  on  the  west  coast  of  South 
America— the  so-called  Chili  saltpeter— 
and  also  from  the  ammonia  obtained  as  a 
by-product  in  the  distillation  of  coal,  espe- 
cially in  the  manufacture  of  coke.  The 
use  of  Chili  saltpeter  for  agricultural  pur- 
poses began  about  1860.  In  1900  the  quan- 
tity exported  was  1,453,000  tons,  and  its 
value  was  about  $60,000,000.  In  the  same 
year  the  world  *s  production  of  ammonium 
sulphate  was  about  500,000  tons,  of  a  value 
of  somewhat  more  than  $20,000,000.  Of 
these  enormous  quantities  about  three 
quarters  finds  application  in  agriculture. 
The  use  of  these  substances,  especially  of 
saltpeter,  is  increasing  rapidly.  At  pres- 
ent it  seems  that  the  successful  cultivation 
of  the  soil  is  dependent  upon  the  use  of 
nitrates,  and  the  supply  of  nitrates  is  lim- 


ited. Unless  something  is  done  we  i 
look  forward  to  the  time  when  the  ea 
for  lack  of  proper  fertilizers,  will  not 
able  to  produce  as  much  as  it  now  d 
and  meanwhile  the  demand  for  food  is 
creasing.  According  to  the  most  reli* 
estimations  indeed  the  saltpeter  beds  ^ 
be  exhausted  in  thirty  or  forty  years, 
there  a  way  out?  Dr.  Frank  shows  t 
there  is.  In  the  air  there  is  nitroj 
enough  for  all.  The  plants  can  make  o 
a  limited  use  of  this  directly.  For 
most  part  it  must  be  in  some  form  of  ch< 
ical  combination  as,  for  example,  a  nitr 
or  ammonia.  The  conversion  of  atni 
pheric  nitrogen  into  nitric  acid  would  so 
the  problem,  and  this  is  now  carried  o 
But  Dr.  Frank  shows  that  there  is  anoth 
perhaps  more  economical,  way  of  getti 
the  nitrogen  into  a  form  suitable  for  plf 
food.  Calcium  carbide  can  now  be  ma 
without  difficulty  and  is  made  in  enormc 
quantities  by  the  action  of  a  powerful  el 
trie  current  upon  a  mixture  of  coal  a 
lime.  This  substance  has  the  power 
absorbing  nitrogen  from  the  air,  and  t 
product  thus  formed  appears  to  be  capal 
of  giving  up  its  nitrogen  to  plants,  or, 
other  words,  to  be  a  good  fertilizer.  It 
true  that  this  subject  requires  further  i 
vestigation,  but  the  results  thus  far  o 
tained  are  full  of  promise.  If  the  outcor 
should  be  what  we  have  reason  to  hope,  a 
may  regard  the  approaching  exhaustion  < 
the  saltpeter  beds  with  equanimity.  Br 
even  without  this  to  pin  our  faith  to,  \ 
have  the  preparation  of  nitric  acid  fro 
the  nitrogen  and  oxygen  of  the  air  to  fa 
back  upon. 

While  speaking  of  the  food  problem, 
few  words  in  regard  to  the  artificial  prej 
aration  of  foodstuffs.  I  am  sorry  to  sa 
that  there  is  not  much  of  promise  to  repoi 
upon  in  this  connection.  In  spite  of  tli 
brilliant  achievements  of  chemists  in  th 
field  of  synthesis  it  remains  true  that  thu 


Jakuabt  I,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


far  they  have  not  been  able  to  make,  ex- 
cept in  very  small  quantities,  substances 
that  are  useful  as  foods,  and  there  is  abso- 
lutely no  prospect  of  this  result  being 
reached  within  a  reasonable  time.  A  few 
years  ago  Berthelot  told  us  of  a  dream  he 
had  had.  This  has  to  do  with  the  results 
that,  according  to  Berthelot,  are  to  be 
brought  about  by  the  advance  of  chem- 
istry. The  results  of  investigations  already 
accomplished  indicate  that,  in  the  future, 
methods  will  perhaps  be  devised  for  the  ar- 
tificial preparation  of  food  from  the  water 
and  carbonic  acid  so  abundantly  supplied 
by  nature.  Agriculture  will  then  become 
unnecessary,  and  the  landscape  will  not 
be  disfigured  by  crops  growing  in  geomet- 
rical figures.  Water  will  be  obtained  from 
holes  three  or  four  miles  deep  in  the  earth, 
and  this  water  will  be  above  the  boiling 
temperature,  so  that  it  can  be  used  as  a 
source  of  energy.  It  will  be  obtained  in 
liquid  form  after  it  has  undergone  a 
process  of  natural  distillation,  which  wiU 
free  it  from  all  impurities,  including,  of 
course,  disease  germs.  The  foods  prepared 
by  artificial  methods  will  also  be  free  from 
microbes,  and  there  will  consequentiy  be 
leas  disease  than  at  present  Further,  the 
necessity  for  killing  animals  for  food  will 
no  longer  exist,  and  mankind  will  become 
gentier  and  more  amenable  to  higher  in- 
fluences. There  is,  no  doubt,  much  that 
is  fascinating  in  this  line  of  thought,  but 
whether  it  is  worth  following,  depends 
upon  the  fundamental  assumption.  Is  it 
at  all  probable  that  chemists  will  ever  be 
able  to  devise  methods  for  the  artificial 
preparation  of  foodstufifs?  I  can  only  say 
that  to  me  it  does  not  appear  probable  in 
the  light  of  the  results  thus  far  obtained. 
I  do  not  mean  to  question  the  probability 
of  the  ultimate  synthesis  of  some  of  those 
substances  that  are  of  value  as  foods.  This 
has  already  been  accomplished  on  the  small 
scale,  but  for  the  most  part  the  synthetical 


processes  employed  have  involved  the  use 
of  substances  which  themselves  are  the 
products  of  natural  processes.  Thus,  the 
fats  can  be  made,  but  the  substances  from 
which  they  are  made  are  generally  ob- 
tained from  nature  and  are  not  themselves 
synthetical  products.  Emil  Fischer  has, 
to  be  sure,  made  very  small  quantities  of 
sugars  of  different  kinds,  but  the  task  of 
building  up  a  sugar  from  the  raw  material 
furnished  by  nature— that  is  to  say,  from 
carbonic  acid  and  water— presents  such 
diflSculties  that  it  may  be  said  to  be  prac- 
tically impossible. 

"When  it  comes  to  starch,  and  the  pro- 
teids  which  are  the  other  chief  constit- 
uents of  foodstuffs,  the  difficulties  are  still 
greater.  There  is  not  a  suggestion  of  the 
possibility  of  making  starch  artificially, 
and  the  same  is  true  of  the  proteids.  In 
this  connection  it  is,  however,  interesting 
to  note  that  Emil  Fischer,  after  his  re- 
markable successes  in  the  sugar  group  and 
the  uric  acid  group,  is  now  advancing  upon 
the  proteids.  I  have  heard  it  said  that  at 
the  beginning  of  his  career  he  made  out  a 
program  for  his  life  work.  This  included 
the  solution  of  three  great  problems. 
These  are  the  determination  of  the  consti- 
tution of  uric  acid,  of  the  sugars  and  of 
the  proteids.  Two  of  these  problems  have 
been  solved.  May  he  be  equally  successful 
with  the  third !  Even  if  he  should  be  able 
to  make  a  proteid,  and  show  what  it  is,  the 
problem  of  the  artificial  preparation  of 
foodstuffs  will  not  be  solved.  Indeed,  it 
will  hardly  be  affected. 

Although  science  is  not  likely,  within 
periods  that  we  may  venture  to  think  of, 
to  do  away  with  the  necessity  of  cultivat- 
ing the  soil,  it  is  likely  to  teach  us  how  to 
get  more  out  of  the  soil  than  we  now  do, 
and  thus  put  us  in  a  position  to  provide 
for  the  generations  that  are  to  follow  us. 
And  this  carries  with  it  the  thought  that, 
unless  scientific  investigation  is  kept  up^ 


6 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


these  coming  generations  will  be  unpro- 
vided for. 

Another  way  by  which  the  food  supply 
of  the  world  can  be  increased  is  by  re- 
lieving tracts  of  land  that  are  now  used 
for  other  purposes  than  the  cultivation  of 
foodstuffs.  The  most  interesting  example 
of  this  kind  is  that  presented  by  the  culti- 
vation of  indigo.  There  is  a  large  demand 
for  this  substance,  which  is  plainly 
founded  upon  esthetic  desires  of  a  some- 
what rudimentary  kind.  Whatever  the 
cause  may  be,  the  demand  exists,  and  im- 
mense tracts  of  land  have  been  and  are 
still,  devoted  to  the  cultivation  of  the  in- 
digo plant.  Within  the  past  few  years  sci- 
entific investigation  has  shown  that  indigo 
can  be  made  in  the  factory  from  sub- 
stances, the  production  of  which  does  not 
for  the  most  part  involve  the  cultivation 
of  the  soil.  In  1900,  according  to  the  re- 
port of  Dr.  Brunck,  Managing  Director  of 
the  Badische  Anilin-  and  Soda-Fabrik,  the 
quantity  of  indigo  produced  annually  in 
the  factory  *  would  require  the  cultivation 
of  an  area  of  more  than  a  quarter  of  a 
million  acres  of  land  (390  square  miles)  in 
the  home  of  the  indigo  plant. '  Dr.  Brunck 
adds:  **  The  first  impression  which  this 
fact  may  be  likely  to  produce,  is  that  the 
manufacture  of  indigo  will  cause  a  terrible 
calamity  to  arise  in  that  country ;  but,  per- 
haps not.  If  one  recalls  to  mind  that 
India  is  periodically  afflicted  with  famine, 
one  ought  not,  without  further  considera- 
tion, to  cast  aside  the  hope  that  it  might 
be  good  fortune  for  that  country  if  the 
immense  areas  now  devoted  to  a  crop 
which  is  subject  to  many  vicissitudes  and 
to  violent  market  changes  were  at  last  to 
be  given  over  to  the  raising  of  breadstuffs 
and  other  food  products. "  * '  For  myself, ' ' 
says  Dr.  Brunck,  '*  I  do  not  assume  to  be 
an  impartial  adviser  in  this  matter,  but, 
nevertheless,  I  venture  to  express  my  con- 
viction that  the  government  of  India  will 


be  rendering  a  very  great  service  if 
should  support  and  aid  the  progress,  wb 
will  in  any  case  be  irresistible,  of  this 
pending  change  in  the  cultivation  of  t 
country,  and  would  support  and  direct 
methodical  and  rational  execution." 

The  connection  between  scientific  inve 
gation  and  health  is  so  frequently  the  s 
ject  of  discussion  that  I  need  not  d\ 
upon  it  here.     The  discovery  that  many  ( 
eases  are  due  primarily  to  the  action 
microscopic  organisms  that  find  their  -^ 
into  the  body  and  produce  the  changes  t 
reveal  themselves  in  definite  symptoms 
direct   consequence   of   the   study   of 
phenomenon  of  alcoholic  fermentation 
Pasteur.     Everything    that    throws    li 
upon  the  nature  of  the  action  of  tl 
microscopic  organisms  is  of  value  in  deal 
with  the  great  problem  of  combating 
ease.     It  has  been  established  in  a  num 
of  cases  that  they  cause  the  formation 
products  that  act  as  poisons  and  that 
diseases   are  due  to   the   action   of  tl 
poisons.     So  also,  as  is  well  known,  invc 
gation  has  shown  that  antidotes  to  som( 
these  poisons  can  be  produced,  and  thai 
means  of  these  antidotes  the  diseases  cai 
controlled.     But  more  important  than 
is  the  discovery  of  the  way  in  which 
eases  are  transmitted.     With  this  kn( 
edge  it  is  possible  to  prevent  the  disea 
The  great  fact  that  the  death  rate  is 
creasing  stands  out  prominently  and  ] 
claims  to  humanity  the  importance  of  sc 
tific   investigation.     It  is,   however,   to 
noted  in  this  connection  that  the  decri 
in  the  death  rate  compensates  to  some 
tent  for  the  decrease  in  the  birth  rate, 
that,  if  an  increase  in  population  is  a  tl 
to  be  desired,  the  investigations  in  the  i 
of  sanitary  science  are  contributing  to 
result. 

The  development  of  the  human  rac 
dependent  not  alone  upon  a  supply  of  i 
but  upon  a  supply  of  energy  in  avail 


Jaituart  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


forms.  Heat  and  mechanical  energy  are 
absolutely  essential  to  man.  The  chief 
source  of  the  energy  that  comes  into  play  is 
fdel.  We  are  primarily  dependent  upon 
the  coal  supply  for  the  continuation  of  the 
activities  of  man.  Without  this,  unless 
something  is  to  take  its  place,  man  is 
doomed.  Statistics  in  regard  to  the  coal 
supply  and  the  rate  at  which  it  is  being 
used  up  have  so  frequently  been  presented 
by  those  who  have  special  knowledge  of  this 
subject  that  I  need  not  trouble  you  with 
them  now.  The  only  object  in  referring  to 
it  is  to  show  that,  unless  by  means  of  scien-r 
tific  investigation  man  is  taught  new 
methods  of  rendering  the  world's  store  of 
energy  available  for  the  production  of  heat 
and  of  motion,  the  age  of  the  human  race  is 
measured  by  the  extent  of  the  supply  of 
coal  and  other  forms  of  fuel.  By  other 
forms  of  fuel  I  mean,  of  course,  wood 
and  oil.  Plainly,  as  the  demand  for  land 
for  the  production  of  foodstuffs  increases, 
the  amount  available  for  the  production  of 
wood  must  decrease,  so  that  wood  need  not 
be  taken  into  account  for  the  future.  In 
regard  to  oil,  our  knowledge  is  not  sufficient 
to  enable  us  to  make  predictions  of  any 
value.  If  one  of  the  theories  now  held  in 
regard  to  the  source  of  petroleum  should 
prove  to  be  correct,  the  world  would  find 
much  consolation  in  it.  According  to  this 
theory  petroleum  is  not  likely  to  be  ex- 
hausted, for  it  is  constantly  being  formed 
by  the  action  of  water  upon  carbides  that 
in  all  probability  exist  in  practically  un- 
limited quantity  in  the  interior  of  the  earth. 
If  this  be  true,  then  the  problem  of  supply- 
ing energy  may  be  reduced  to  one  of  trans- 
portation of  oil.  But  given  a  supply  of 
oil  and,  of  course,  the  problem  of  trans- 
portation is  solved. 

What  are  the  other  practical  sources  of 
energy  t  The  most  important  is  the  fall  of 
water.  This  is  being  utilized  more  and 
more  year  by  year  since  the  methods  of  pro- 


ducing electric  currents  by  means  of  the 
dynamo  have  been  worked  out.  There  is 
plainly  much  to^  be  learned  before  the 
energy  made  available  in  the  immediate 
neighborhood  of  the  waterfall  can  be  trans- 
ported long  distances  economically,  but  ad- 
vances are  being  made  in  this  line,  and  al- 
ready factories  that  have  hitherto  been 
dependent  upon  coal  are  making  use  of  the 
energy  derived  from  waterfalls.  The  more 
rapidly  these  advances  take  place  the  less 
will  be  the  demand  for  coal,  and  if  there 
were  only  enough  waterfalls  conveniently 
situated,  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in 
furnishing  all  the  energy  needed  by  man 
for  heat  or  for  motion. 

It  is  a  fortunate  thing  that,  as  the  popu- 
lation of  the  earth  increases,  man's  tastes 
become  more  complex.  If  only  the  simplest 
tastes  prevailed,  only  the  simplest  occupa- 
tions would  be  called  for.  But  let  us  not 
lose  time  in  idle  speculations  as  to  the  way 
this  primitive  condition  of  things  would 
aflfect  man's  progress.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
his  tastes  are  becoming  more  complex. 
Things  that  are  not  dreamed  of  in  one  gen- 
eration become  the  necessities  of  the  next 
generation.  Many  of  these  things  are  the 
direct  results  of  scientific  investigation.  No 
end  of  examples  will  suggest  themselves. 
Let  me  content  myself  by  reference  to  one 
that  has  of  late  been  the  subject  of  much 
discussion.  The  development  of  the  arti- 
ficial dye-stuflf  industries  is  extremely  in- 
structive in  many  ways.  The  development 
has  been  the  direct  result  of  the  scientific 
investigation  of  things  that  seemed  to  have 
little,  if  anything,  to  do  with  this  world. 
Many  thousands  of  workmen  are  now  em- 
ployed, and  many  millions  of  dollars  are 
invested,  in  the  manufacture  of  dye-stuflfs 
that  were  unknown  a  few  years  ago.  Here 
plainly  the  fundamental  fact  is  the  esthetic 
desire  of  man  for  colors.  A  colorless  world 
would  be  unbearable  to  him.  Nature 
accustoms  him  to  color  in  a  great  variety  of 


8 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  N 


combinations,  and  it  becomes  a  necessity  to 
him.  And  his  desires  increase  as  they  are 
gratified.  There  seems  to  be  no  end  to  de- 
velopment in  this  line.  At  all  events,  the 
data  at  our  disposal  justify  the  conclusion 
that  there  will  be  a  demand  for  every  dye 
that  combines  the  qualities  of  beauty  and 
durability.  Thousands  of  scientifically 
trained  men  are  engaged  in  work  in  the 
effort  to  discover  new  dyes  to  meet  the  in- 
creasing demands.  New  industries  are 
springing  up  and  many  find  employment  in 
them.  As  a  rule  the  increased  demand  for 
labor  caused  by  the  establishment  of  these 
industries  is  not  offset  by  the  closing  up  of 
other  industries.  Certainly  it  is  true  that 
scientific  investigation  has  created  large 
demands  for  labor  that  could  hardly  find 
employment  without  these  demands. 

The  welfare  of  a  nation  depends  to  a 
large  extent  upon  the  success  of  its  indus- 
tries. In  his  address  as  president  of  the 
British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science  given  last  summer  Sir  Norman 
Lockyer  quotes  Mr.  Chamberlain  thus:  **I 
do  not  think  it  is  necessary  for  me  to  say 
anything  as  to  the  urgency  and  necessity  of 
scientific  training.  •  •  •  It  is  not  too  much 
to  say  that  the  existence  of  this  country,  as 
the  great  commercial  nation,  depends  upon 
it.  *  •  *  It  depends  very  much  upon  what 
we  are  doing  now,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
twentieth  century,  whether  at  its  end  we 
shall  continue  to  maintain  our  supremacy 
or  even  equality  with  our  great  commercial 
and  manufacturing  rivals.''  In  another 
part  of  his  address  Sir  Norman  Lockyer 
says:  ** Further^  I  am  told  that  the  sum  of 
£24,000,000  is  less  than  half  the  amount  by 
which  Germany  is  yearly  enriched  by  hav- 
ing improved  upon  our  chemical  industries, 
owing  to  our  lack  of  scientific  training. 
Many  other  industries  have  been  attacked 
in  the  same  way  since,  but  taking  this  one 
instance  alone,  if  we  had  spent  this  money 
fifty  years  ago,  when  the  Prince  Consort 


first  called  attention  to  our  backward 
the  nation  would  now  be  much  richer 
it  is,  and  would  have  much  less  to  fear 
competition." 

But  enough  on  the  purely  material 
Let  us  turn  to  the  intellectual  resu! 
scientific  investigation.  This  part  o: 
subject  might  be  summed  up  in  a 
words.  It  is  so  obvious  that  the  intelh 
condition  of  mankind  is  a  direct  resi 
scientific  investigation  that  one  hesita 
make  the  statement.  The  mind  of  ma 
not  carry  him  much  in  advance  o 
knowledge  of  the  facts.  Intellectual 
can  be  made  only  by  discoveries,  anc 
coveries  can  be  made  only  by  investigi 
One  generation  differs  from  another  i 
way  it  looks  at  the  world.  A  genei 
that  thinks  the  earth  is  the  center  o 
imiverse  differs  intellectually  from  on< 
has  learned  the  true  position  of  the  eai 
the  solar  system,  and  the  general  rek 
of  the  solar  system  to  other  similar  syi 
that  make  up  the  universe.  A  genei 
that  sees  in  every  species  of  animal 
plant  evidence  of  a  special  creativ< 
differs  from  one  that  has  recognizee 
general  truth  of  the  conception  of  evoli 
And  so  in  every  department  of  know 
the  great  generalizations  that  have 
reached  through  the  persistent  effor 
scientific  investigators  are  the  intelle 
gains  that  have  resulted.  These  great 
eralizations  measure  the  intellectual  w 
of  mankind.  They  are  the  foundatio 
all  profitable  thought.  While  the  gei 
izations  of  science  belong  to  the  work 
all  the  world  takes  advantage  of  its  o; 
tunities.  Nation  differs  from  natio] 
teUectually  as  individual  differs  froi 
dividual.  It  is  not,  however,  the  posse 
of  knowledge  that  makes  the  efficier 
dividual  and  the  efficient  nation.  It  if 
known  that  an  individual  may  be 
learned  and  at  the  same  time  very  i 
cient.     The  question  is,  what  use  do< 


jANUiiBY    1,    1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


9 


make  of  his  knowledge  f  When  we  speak  of 
intellectual  results  of  scientific  investiga- 
tion, we  mean  not  only  accumulated  knowl- 
edge, but  the  way  in  which  this  knowledge 
is  invested.  A  man  who  simply  accumu- 
lates  money  and  does  not  see  to  it  that  this 
money  is  carefully  invested,  is  a  miser,  and 
no  large  results  can  come  from  his  eflPorts. 
While,  then,  the  intellectual  state  of  a 
nation  is  measured  partly  by  the  extent  to 
which  it  has  taken  possession  of  the  general- 
izations that  belong  to  the  world,  it  is  also 
measured  by  the  extent  to  which  the 
methods  by  which  knowledge  is  accumu- 
lated have  been  brought  into  requisition  and 
have  become  a  part  of  the  equipment  of  the 
people  of  that  nation.  The  intellectual 
progress  of  a  nation  depends  upon  the  adop- 
tion of  scientific  methods  in  dealing  with  in- 
tellectual problems.  The  scientific  method 
is  applicable  to  all  kinds  of  intellectual 
problems.  We  need  it  in  every  department 
of  activity.  I  have  sometimes  wondered 
what  the  result  would  be  if  the  scientific 
method  could  be  employed  in  all  the  mani- 
fold problems  connected  with  the  man- 
agement of  a  government.  Questions  of 
tariff,  of  finance,  of  international  re- 
lations would  be  dealt  with  much  more 
satisfactorily  than  at  present  if  the  spirit 
of  the  scientific  method  were  breathed 
into  those  who  are  called  upon  to  deal 
with  these  questions.  It  is  plain,  I  think, 
that  the  higher  the  intellectual  state 
of  a  nation  the  better  will  it  deal  with  all 
the  problems  that  present  themselves.  As 
the  intellectual  state  is  a  direct  result  of 
scientific  investigation,  it  is  clear  that  the 
nation  that  adopts  the  scientific  method  will 
in  the  end  outrank  both  intellectually  and 
industrially  the  nation  that  does  not. 

What  are  the  ethical  results  of  scientific 
investigation  t  No  one  can  tell.  There  is 
one  thought  that  in  this  connection  I  should 
like  to  impress  upon  you.  The  funda- 
mental    characteristic     of    the    scientific 


method  is  honesty.  In  dealing  with  any 
question  science  asks  no  favors.  The  sole 
object  is  to  learn  the  truth,  and  to  be  guided 
by  the  truth.  Absolute  accuracy,  absolute 
fidelity,  absolute  honesty  are  the  prime  con- 
ditions of  scientific  progress.  I  believe  that 
the  constant  use  of  the  scientific  method 
must  in  the  end  leave  its  impress  upon  him 
who  uses  it.  The  results  wiU  not  be  satis- 
factory in  all  cases,  but  the  tendency  will 
be  in  the  right  direction.  A  life  spent  in 
accordance  with  scientific  teachings  would 
be  of  a  high  order.  It  would  practically 
conform  to  the  teachings  of  the  highest 
types  of  religion.  The  motives  would  be 
different,  but  so  far  as  conduct  is  concerned 
the  results  would  be  practically  identical. 
I  need  not  enlarge  upon. this  subject.  Un- 
fortunately, abstract  truth  and  knowledge 
of  facts  and  of  the  conclusions  to  be  drawn 
from  them  do  not  at  present  furnish  a  suffi- 
cient basis  for  right  living  in  the  case  of  the 
great  majority  of  mankind,  and  science  can 
not  now,  and  I  do  not  believe  it  ever  can, 
take  the  place  of  religion  in  some  form. 
When  the  feeling  that  the  two  are  antagon- 
istic wears  away,  as  it  is  wearing  away,  it 
will  no  doubt  be  seen  that  one  supplements 
the  other,  in  so  far  as  they  have  to  do  with 
the  conduct  of  man. 

What  are  we  doing  in  this  country  to  en- 
courage scientific  investigation  t  Not  until 
about  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago  can  it  be 
said  that  it  met  with  any  encouragement. 
Since  then  there  has  been  a  great  change. 
Up  to  that  time  research  was  sporadic. 
Soon  after  it  became  almost  epidemic.  The 
direct  cause  of  the  change  was  the  estab- 
lishing of  courses  in  our  universities  for 
the  training  of  investigators  somewhat 
upon  the  lines  followed  in  the  German  uni- 
versities. In  these  courses  the  carrying 
out  of  an  investigation  plays  an  important 
part.  This  is,  in  fact,  the  culmination  of 
the  course.  At  first  there  were  not  many 
following  these  courses,  but  it  was  not  long 


10 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


before  there  was  a  demand  for  the  prod- 
ucts. Those  who  coulcj  present  evidence 
that  they  had  followed  such  courses  were 
generally  given  the  preference.  This  was 
especially  true  in  the  case  of  appointments 
in  the  colleges,  some  colleges  even  going  so 
far  as  to  decline  to  appoint  any  one  who 
had  not  taken  the  degree  of  doctor  of  phi- 
losophy, which  is  the  badge  of  the  course 
that  involves  investigation.  As  the  demand 
for  those  who  had  received  this  training 
increased,  the  number  of  those  seeking  it 
increased  at  least  in  the  same  proportion. 
New  universities  were  established  and  old 
ones  caught  the  spirit  of  the  new  move- 
ment until  from  one  end  of  the  country  to 
the  other  centers  of  scientific  activity  are 
now  found,  and  the  amount  of  research 
work  that  is  done  is  enormous  compared 
with  what  was  done  twenty-five  or  thirty 
years  ago.  Many  of  those  who  get  a  taste 
of  the  work  of  investigation  become  fasci- 
nated by  it  and  are  anxious  to  devote  their 
lives  to  it.  At  present,  with  the  facilities 
for  such  work  available,  it  seems  probable 
that  most  of  those  who  have  a  strong  de- 
sire and  the  necessary  industry  and  ability 
to  follow  it  find  th«ir  opportunity  some- 
where. There  is  little  danger  of  our  losing 
a  genius  or  even  one  with  fair  talent.  The 
world  is  on  the  lookout  for  them.  The 
demand  for  those  who  can  do  good  research 
work  is  greater  than  the  supply.  To  be 
sure  the  rewards  are  not  as  a  rule  as  great 
as  those  that  are  likely  to  be  won  by  the 
ablest  members  of  some  other  professions 
and  occupations,  and  as  long  as  this  con- 
dition of  affairs  continues  to  exist  there 
will  not  be  as  many  men  of  the  highest  in- 
tellectual order  engaged  in  this  work  as  we 
should  like  to  see.  On  the  other  hand, 
when  we  consider  the  great  progress  that 
has  been  made  during  the  last  twenty-five 
years  or  so,  we  have  every  reason  to  take  a 
cheerful  view  of  the  future.  If  as  much 
progress  should  be  made  in  the  next  quar- 


ter century,  we  shall,  to  say  the  le 
able  to  compete  with  the  foremost  i 
of  the  world  in  scientific  investigatic 
my  opinion  this  progress  is  largely 
dent  upon  the  development  of  our  i 
sides.  Without  the  opportunities  f  oi 
ing  in  the  methods  of  scientific  in^ 
tion  there  will  be  but  few  investigate 
is  necessary  to  have  a  large  num 
order  that  the  principle  of  selectio 
operate.  In  this  line  of  work  as  in 
many  are  called,  but  few  are  chose 

Another   fact   that   is   working 
tageously  to  increase  the  amount  of 
tific  research  done  in  this  country 
support  given  by  the  government 
different  scientific  bureaus.     The  ( 
ical  Survey,  the  Department  of  A 
ture,  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Surve 
National  Bureau  of  Standards  and 
departments    are    carrying    on    a 
amount  of  excellent  scientific  worl 
thus  helping  most  efficiently  to  spre 
scientific  spirit  throughout  the  land 

Finally,  two  exceedingly  interesti 
periments  in  the  way  of  encouragii 
entific  investigation  are  now  attracti 
attention  of  the  world.  I  mean,  of  < 
the  Carnegie  Institution,  with  its  e 
ment  of  $10,000,000,  and  the  Rock 
Institute,  devoted  to  investigations 
field  of  medicine,  which  will  no  doi 
adequately  endowed.  It  is  too  ea 
express  an  opinion  in  regard  to  t 
fluence  of  these  great  foundations  up 
progress  of  scientific  investigation 
both  will  make  possible  the  carryir 
of  many  investigations  that  would 
wise  probably  not  be  carried  ou 
chances  of  achieving  valuable  resull 
be  increased.  The  danger  is  that 
who  are  responsible  for  the  manag 
of  the  funds  will  be  disappointed  th 
results  are  not  at  once  of  a  striking 
acter,  and  that  they  will  be  tempt 
change  the  method  of  applying  the  i 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


11 


before  those  who  are  using  it  have  had  a 
fair  chance.  But  we  who  are  on  the  out- 
side know  little  of  the  plans  of  those  who 
are  inside.  All  signs  indicate  that  they  are 
making  an  earnest  effort  to  solve  an  ex- 
ceedingly difficult  problem,  and  all  who 
have  the  opportunity  should  do  everything 
in  their  power  to  aid  them. 

In  the  changes  which  have  been  brought 
about  in  the  condition  of  science  in  this 
country  since  1848,  it  is  safe  to  say  that 
this  association  has  either  directly  or  indi- 
rectly played  a  leading  part.  It  is  certain 
that  for  the  labors  of  scientific  men  in- 
creased facilities  and '  a  wider  usefulness 
have  been  procured. 

Ira  Remsen. 


THE   TWENTIETH   CENTURY   BOTANY.* 

At  previous  meetings  of  this  and  kindred 
societies  the  retrospective  field  in  botany 
has  been  pretty  thoroughly  covered.  It 
would  seem  a  fitting  time,  therefore,  to  take 
a  glance  into  the  future  and  endeavor  to 
see  what  there  is  for  botany  and  botanical 
science  in  the  years  immediately  before  us. 
It  is  realized  that  an  endeavor  to  set  forth 
the  lines  along  which  botany  will  develop 
is  a  risky  thing,  and  no  doubt  fifty  years 
hence  the  views  I  may  express  at  this  time 
will  cau^e  only  a  smile  in  the  light  of  actual 
developments.  Notwithstanding  this  fact, 
I  am  willing  to  essay  somewhat  the  role  of 
a  prophet,  not  so  much  with  the  idea  that 
I  expect  all  of  my  prophecies  to  be  realized, 
but  rather  in  recognition  of  a  principle 
that  to  wish  a  thing  or  to  desire  a  thing  js 
at  least  a  point  gained  in  the  full  realiza- 
tion of  the  wish  or  desire.  What  I  have 
to  say,  therefore,  will  be  rather  in  the  na- 
ture of  an  expression  as  to  what  I  desire  to 
see  brought  about  in  a  field  of  work  which 
to  me  seems  fast  opening  to  great  possibili- 
ties.    If  an  expression  of  these  desires  and 

•  Address  of  the  past-president,  Botanical  So- 
ciety of  America^  St.  Louis  meeting,  1903. 


the  vitalizing  of  the  thoughts  which  inspire 
them  by  placing  them  before  you  serve  but 
to  put  in  motion  some  of  the  forces  which 
will  act  for  the  betterment  of  botany,  my 
object  shall  have  been  fulfilled. 

Before  taking  up  specifically  the  more 
important  lines  along  which  botany  seems 
likely  to  develop,  and  before  considering 
some  of  the  demands  which  may  be  made 
upon  botany  in  the  twentieth  century,  I 
should  like  briefly  to  call  attention  to  what 
may  be  termed  the  present  attitude  of  the 
state  toward  the  work,  for  about  this  ques- 
tion hinge  some  points  which  are  of  vital 
importance  to  the  future  expansion  and 
growth  of  botany  as  a  whole.  By  the  atti- 
tude of  the  state  I  of  course  mean  the  atti- 
tude of  the  people,  for,  in  this  country  at 
least,  the  state  is  the  people.  It  requires 
no  argument  to  prove  that  the  attitude  of 
the  state  toward  botany  is  rapidly  chang- 
ing. Even  those  of  the  younger  generation 
realize  that  within  their  time  the  feeling 
of  the  people  toward  botany  as  a  science 
and  botany  applied  has  changed  greatly  for 
the  good  of  the  work.  I  believe  this  is  due 
to  the  fact  that  the  utilitarian  side  of  bot- 
any has  been  kept  largely  in  the  fore- 
ground, and  the  people  have  come  to  know 
and  understand  that  a  substantial  encour- 
agement of  the  work  means  a  direct  benefit 
to  many  important  interests.  When  bot- 
any and  botanical  work  were  confined 
largely  to  the  collecting  and  mounting  of 
plants,  the  building  up  of  herbariums  and, 
perhaps,  the  working  out  of  obscure  labora- 
tory problems,  public  sentiment  could  not 
be  aroused  in  its  behalf.  Every  time  we 
have  reached  into  new  fields  with  the  ob- 
ject  of  broadening  the  work  and  benefiting 
the  people,  the  people  have  responded  and 
given  us  most  generous  aid. 

As  an  object  lesson  in  this  field  I  may 
call  attention  to  the  rapid  growth  of  botany 
and  botanical  work  in  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  at  Washington.     Fifteen  years 


12 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


ago  the  tx)tal  amount  expended  for  work  of 
this  kind  did  not  reach  $25,000  annually. 
The  present  year  the  honorable  secretary's 
estimates  for  the  work  will  aggregate  about 
$400,000 ;  and  if  the  allied  lines  of  investi- 
gation in  which  botany  and  botanical  sci- 
ence play  an  important  part  are  considered, 
the  funds  devoted  to  the  work  will  exceed 
half  a  million  dollars.  This  amount,  it 
must  be  borne  in  mind,  is  an  annual  ex- 
penditure and  practically  represents  an 
endowment  on  a  three-per-cent.  basis  of 
over  fifteen  million  dollars.  This  is  for 
investigations  and  experiments  alone,  as 
purely  educational  subjects  are  considered 
only  in  an  indirect  way.  That  the  people, 
or  the  state,  are  not  averse  to  responding  to 
the  needs  of  botany  from  the  educational 
point  of  view  is  manifested  in  the  remark- 
able development  of  the  work  in  a  number 
of  our  important  universities  and  in  the 
growth  of  educational  institutions,  a  type 
of  which  is  found  in  the  New  York  Botan- 
ical Garden.  Here,  through  the  energy  of 
a  corps  of  earnest  workers,  the  educational 
value  of  botany  has  been  recognized  and 
generous  support  has  been  secured  for  the 
development  of  gardens,  museums  and 
laboratories.  These  results,  however,  I  im- 
agine, would  not  have  been  attained  with- 
out appealing  to  the  utilitarian  ends  in 
view.  The  practical  value  of  such  an  in- 
stitution to  the  community  and  to  the  coun- 
try has  been  presented  in  the  proper  way, 
and  the  necessary  support  was  forthcoming. 
The  argument,  therefore,  in  all  this  is 
that  for  the  future  development  of  botany 
and  botanical  work  we  must  make  up  our 
minds  to  two  important  things;  first,  the 
presentation  of  our  wants  to  those  upon 
whom  we  must  depend  for  support,  in  such 
a  way  that  the  ultimate  practical  value  of 
what  we  desire  to  do  will  be  seen;  second, 
the  thorough  discharge  of  our  duties  to  the 
end  of  showing  that  the  trust  imposed  on 
us  has  been  fully  and  honestly  respected. 


I  may  be  preaching  an  heretical  docti 
and  be  criticized  on  the  ground  that  scie 
has  nothing  to  do  with  such  material  thi 
and  will  take  care  of  itself  if  kept  pure  i 
undefiled.  This  may  be  true,  but  I  h 
long  since  reached  the  opinion  that  the  € 
trine  of  science  for  science's  sake  may 
beautiful  in  theory,  but  faulty  in  pract 
Some  one  has  said  that  pure  science  i 
science  applied  are  like  abstract  and  pi 
tical  Christianity,  both  beautiful,  but  i 
is  for  gods  and  the  other  for  men. 

It  is  men  that  we  are  to  deal  with  in 
future— keen,    practical,    analytical    m 
and  they  want  and  should  know  the  ¥ 
and  the  wherefore  of  what  they  are  asl 
to  support.     It  is  recognized  that  there 
but  few  men  who  have  the  gift  of  prese 
ing  what  is  frequently  an  abstruse  probl 
in  such  a  way  as  to  gain  material  suppc 
There  ought  to  be  more  such  men,  and 
the  needs  of  the  work  develop,  doubtl 
there  will  be  more.     Prom  the  tendency 
the  times  the  fact  becomes  evident  ti 
more  and  more  the  pursuit  of  science  m 
be   looked   upon   in   a  busineds-like   w 
Therefore,  future  aid  for  this  work,  be 
in  botanical  or  other  lines,  must  come 
going  after  it  in  the  proper  manner, 
other  words,   the  scientific  man   can   i 
afford  to  wrap  about  himself  a  mantle 
false  dignity  and  assume  that  because  \ 
work  is  scientific  he  is  debarred  from  se< 
ing  aid  where  aid  is  needed.     What 
shall  expect  to  see,  therefore,  in  the  futi 
is  a  manifestation  of  that  spirit  of  progr 
which  recognizes  that  science  must  seek 
own  interests  and  not  wait  to  be  soug 

Science,  and  I  mean,  of  course,  in  1 
main,  botanical  science,  can  not  and  ^ 
not  suffer  by  this  attitude.  I  do  not  me 
that  the  spirit  of  commercialism,  of  ban 
and  trade,  will  enter  into  the  matter.  Tl 
is  an  extreme  which  will  be  avoided,  as  w 
as  that  other  which  comes  with  it,  the  id 
that  the  responsible  head  of  scientific  wo 


January  1,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


13 


must  stand  on  a  pinnacle  and  say,  'I  am  a 
scientist;  this  is  enough;  walk  up  and  lay 
at  my  feet  your  tributes  in  order  that  you 
may  receive  my  beneficent  smiles.'  I  am 
not  overdrawing  this  picture,  for  this  very 
day  there  are  institutions  founded  and  con- 
ducted for  the  advancement  of  science 
where  this  attitude  is  maintained.  The  re- 
sult is  that  men  with  the  love  of  their  work 
at  heart  who  are  forced  to  work  under  these 
conditions  find  themselves  handicapped  on 
every  side  by  a  sort  of  immaculateness, 
perhaps  beautiful  in  theory,  but  of  no  prac- 
tical value  in  the  every-day  affairs  of  life. 
Under  this  system  work  is  carried  to  a  cer- 
tain point,  and  then,  when  a  little  effort 
would  make  it  complete,  the  dignity— and 
I  ,use  this  word  with  a  question  mark— of 
science  looms  up,  and  the  needed  support 
must  give  way  to  that.  Fortunately,  bot- 
any has  not  suffered  so  much  from  this  atti- 
tude as  some  of  the  kindred  sciences,  but 
her  cause  has  been  delayed  by  it  in  certain 
cases  and  is  being  delayed  even  to-day. 

I  repeat,  therefore,  that  the  twentieth 
century  shall  see  this  spirit  disappear,  and 
in  its  place  shall  come  one  which  is  fully 
progressive,  recognizing  that  to  be  a  scien- 
tist is  to  be  a  man  of  affairs,  a  man  gifted 
with  that  most  uncommon  of  all  things- 
common  sense.  It  will  be  recognized  that 
*  true  science  is  an  invention,  the  invention 
of  a  tool,  which  will  enable  man  to  become 
more  vital,  more  effective,  more  adequate 
in  the  world  in  which  he  finds  himself.' 
This  is  especially  true  of  botanical  science, 
which  in  the  future  must  necessarily  spread 
into  many  walks  of  life. 

It  is  evident  from  what  has  been  said 
that  botanists  themselves  will  have  much  to 
do  with  shaping  the  future  attitude  of  the 
state  toward  the  work  in  question.  Ex- 
pediency in  all  cases  will  govern  the  action 
of  the  state,  and  the  fact  that  the  botany  of 
the  future  will  more  and  more  become 
closely  identified  with  utilitarian  projects 


will  make  the  state  dependent  upon  it. 
The  rapid  changes  taking  place  in  popula- 
tion, the  filling  up  of  sparsely  settled  re- 
gions, the  shifting  of  general  commercial 
centers,  and  the  unification  of  commerce  in 
all  its  branches  will  bring  more  and  more 
imperative  demands  for  plants  and  their 
products.  "With  these  demands  will  come 
the  necessity  for  knowing  more  of  such 
plants,  how  to  use  them  to  the  best  advan- 
tage, and  how  to  increase  the  possibilities 
of  production  so  as  to  meet  the  demands  of 
the  times.  These  great  questions  will  neces- 
sarily force  themselves  upon  the  attention 
of  the  state  through  the  demands  of  the 
people,  and  the  state  will  on  its  part  re- 
quire of  those  charged  with  this  important 
work  investigations  which  must  necessarily 
be  far-reaching  in  their  importance. 

The  shaping  of  these  lines  of  work  will, 
as  already  pointed  out,  depend  in  large 
measure  upon  the  wisdom  and  farsighted- 
ness of  botanists  themselves.  The  fact  will 
not  be  lost  sight  of  that  to  attain  the  highest 
results  the  true  spirit  of  scientific  work 
must  be  kept  constantly  in  the  foreground. 
I  maintain  that  this  can  always  be  done  in 
such  a  way  as  to  command  the  respect  and 
confidence  of  the  scientific  world  and  at  the 
same  time  secure  the  practical  aid  which 
must  necessarily  be  at  hand  if  anything  is 
to  be  accomplished  at  all.  So  much,  there- 
fore, for  the  probable  future  attitude  of 
the  state  toward  botany  and  botanical  sci- 
ence. The  high  place  which  botany  and 
botanical  work  have  taken  in  the  affairs  of 
nations  during  the  past  few  years  makes  it 
evident  that  in  the  years  to  come  this  posi- 
tion will  not  only  be  maintained,  but  ma- 
terially advanced  in  numerous  directions. 

And  now  let  us  turn  to  another  some- 
what  general  question  which  it  seems  to 
me  must  necessarily  receive  careful  con- 
sideration in  the  near  future,  and  that  is 
the  effect  of  the  present  tendency  to  ex- 
treme £fpecialization  in  botany.     No  one,  I 


14 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  4 


think,  will  question  the  value  of  a  division 
of 'labor  in  science  as  well  ks' In  otJh'er  put-' 
suits,  but  the  danger  comes  from  carrying 
this  division  too  far.  The  specialist  is 
likely  to  be  a  dreamer,  and  a  dreamer  is 
dangerous.  He  is  apt  to  see  things  of  his 
own  creation  and  not  as  they  actually  exist. 
I  have  been  fortunate  in  being  placed  where 
I  could  study  the  specialist,  and  while  I 
can  not  help  but  admire  and  encourage  the 
patience  and  persistency  with  which  a  spe- 
cial problem  is  pursued,  I  am  confronted 
every  day  with  the  fact  that  a  concentra- 
tion of  mind  on  one  subject  is  apt  to  distort 
the  vision  and  bring  on  a  sort  of  neuras- 
thenia, difficult  to  combat  and  wholly  unaf- 
fected by  argument.  Now  there  is  danger 
in  this  sort  of  thing,  not  so  much  where  the 
specialist  is  surrounded  by  other  specialists, 
for  here  each  will  have  a  tendency  to  de- 
hypnotize  the  other,  if  I  may  use  such  an 
expression.  The  diflBculty  comes  where  the 
specialist  is  necessarily  much  alone,  where 
he  will  not  be  subject  to  rude  awakenings 
which  will  come  if  his  work  is  under  the 
eye  of  others.  Just  as  the  present  tend- 
ency in  political  economy  is  toward  a  tem- 
porary division  of  labor  rather  than  a  per- 
manent division,  so  it  must  be  with  special- 
ization in  botany.  From  all  the  signs  spe- 
cialization has  reached  its  extreme  develop- 
ment, as  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  we 
are  beginning  to  realize  something  of  its 
dangers.  In  the  near  future,  therefore,  we 
may  expect  to  see  a  movement  toward  bet- 
ter unification  of  the  many  special  lines 
of  botanical  work.  Rather  than  division 
there  wiU  be  integration  where  imaginary 
lines  which  have  been  built  up  will  come 
down  and  unification  will  follow. 

When  we  come  to  consider  carefully  some 
of  the  effects  of  specialization  during  the 
past  few  years,  we  are  led  to  the  conclusion 
that  it  has  had  more  or  less  of  a  tendency 
to  cause  working  botanists  to  group  them- 
selves into  castes.     Like  other  castes,  these 


sometimes  look  upon  each  other  with  mc 
or  less  respect,  and  again  with  more  or  h 
disdain.  In  other  words,  the  tendency 
concentrate  one's  effort  on  a  special  subj< 
naturally  has  a  tendency  to  develop  mc 
or  less  egotistical  and  conceited  ideas  as 
the  importance  and  value  of  such  subjec 
Hence,  there  is  produced  a  sort  of  aristc 
racy  which  prevails  more  pronouncedly 
some  cases  than  in  others.  For  exampi 
the  cytologist  is  pretty  apt  to  look  wii 
more  or  less  commiseration  on  what  he  co 
siders  his  less  fortunate  brother  who  m€ 
be  working  just  outside  the  range  of  tl 
plant  cell.  Then  again,  the  worker  wl 
has  branched  off  into  some  special  morph« 
logical  line,  systematic  line  or  physiologic^ 
line,  even  though  these  may  be  broa 
branches  of  botanical  science,  considei 
that  his  particular  field  is  naturally  pn 
eminent,  and  that  in  handling  his  prol 
lems  he  must  do  so  without  full  regard  fo 
the  consideration  of  all  the  questions  ir 
volved  in  the  other  problems.  No  one  cai 
question  the  fact  that  specialization  ha 
been  of  great  value,  particularly  during 
recent  years.  It  has  emphasized  the  im 
portance  and  necessity  for  a  concentratioi 
of  energy  in  one  direction.  While  this  i 
true,  experience  has  shown,  as  already 
pointed  out,  that  such  concentration  neces 
sarily  limits  one's  field  of  vision,  and  as  i 
result  the  true  facts,  and  especially  theii 
relationships,  can  not  always  be  deter 
mined.  The  reaction  against  this  feeling 
which  is  just  beginning  to  be  noticeable 
is  due  no  doubt  to  the  gradual  realizatioE 
of  the  fact  that  all  scientific  problems  arc 
more  or  less  interdependent.  We  are  com- 
ing more  and  more  to  see  that  not  only  are 
scientific  problems  in  a  particular  field 
interdependent,  but  that  all  lines  of  science 
are  closely  related,  and  that  to  consider 
them  in  the  most  intelligent  and  far-reach- 
ing manner  they  must  be  looked  upon  as 
part  and  parcel  of  one  great  whole. 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


15 


Hence,  we  look  to  the  twentieth  century 
for  material  changes  in  this  matter  of  spe- 
cial work  and  special  problems.  There 
will  be  closer  relationships  established  in 
the  various  lines  of  investigation,  not  only 
so  far  as  concerns  different  phases  of 
'botanical  work,  but  other  branches  of  sci- 
ence as  well. 

Brief  reference  has  already  been  made 
to  the  educational  advances  which  are  likely 
to  be  made  in  botany.  But  these  were  ed- 
ucational advances  of  an  indirect  sort, 
which  naturally  arose  out  of,  or  in  con- 
nection with,  pure  research.  Of  course  all 
work  is  educational,  but  in  the  sense  that 
we  now  use  the  term  we  mean  work  that 
will  in  the  future  be  conducted  in  our 
schools,  universities  and  colleges.  In  the 
light  of  the  developments  in  this  field  dur- 
ing the  past  twenty-five  years  it  would 
seem  hazardous  to  predict  what  the  future 
is  likely  to  bring  forth.  Twenty-five  years 
ago  the  subject  of  botany  in  any  of  our 
best  educational  institutions  meant  pri- 
marily teaching  in  systematic  botany. 
Naturally,  the  bringing  together,  grouping 
and  naming  of  our  more  or  less  virgin  flora 
attracted  first  consideration.  Thus  sys- 
tematic botany  received  an  impetus  which 
it  maintained  for  a  considerable  time.  The 
weakness  of  the  work,  however,  was  to  be 
foimd  in  the  fact  that  the  problems  dealt 
with  had  little  to  do  with  living  subjects. 
Plants  were  gathered,  named,  mounted  and 
placed  in  herbariums,  and  the  whole  ques- 
tion of  proper  relationships  was  based  on 
unsound  and  fallacious  reasoning.  Natur- 
ally, the  paramount  question  here  was  one 
of  names,  and  we  are  still  struggling  in  a 
maze  of  doubts  and  uncertainties  which  are 
the  direct  outcome  of  our  efforts  to  correct 
what  appeared  to  be  a  growing  evil. 

Perfection,  however,  is  never  reached  in 
a  leap.  Human  nature  must  have  experi- 
ence to  guide  it,  so  that  we  must  look  upon 
all  that  has  been  done  in  the  past  in  the 


matter  ol  systematic  work  as  essential  to 
broader  views  and  brx)ader  aims  for  the 
future.  It  is  believed,  therefore,  that  sys- 
tematic  botany  in  the  twentieth  century 
will  take  on  new  strength  as  a  result  of  an 
increasing  study  of  living  plants  and  a  bet- 
ter understanding  of  the  manner  in  which 
species  come  into  existence.  The  compli- 
cated problem  of  species  relationships  will 
UQ  longer  be  a  matter  of  more  or  less  guess- 
work, but  will  be  considered  in  the  light  of 
the  results  of  actual  experimentation  with 
the  plants  themselves. 

In  this  connection  the  question  of  meet- 
ing some  of  the  requirements  for  study  in 
this  and  allied  fields  will  have  to  be  con- 
sidered. The  experience  of  the  old  world 
in  the  matter  of  botanic  gardens  is  such  as 
would  suggest  caution  in  any  attempt  to 
emulate  what  has  been  accomplished  there. 
Eepresentative  collections  of  living  plants 
are  highly  important  and  valuable,  but  in 
bringing  them  together  the  fact  should  not 
be  lost  sight  of  that  botany  can  in  the  fu- 
ture be  advanced  by  giving  more  heed  to 
the  esthetic  side  of  the  work  than  has  been 
done  in  the  past;  that  is,  assuming  that 
collections  of  living  plants  are  for  study 
and  general  educational  effect,  much  of 
their  value  in  both  directions  may  be  lost 
by  adhering  too  closely  to  rigid  systems. 
Collections  meeting  every  requirement  for 
study  and  having  great  value  in  a  general 
educational  way  will  probably  be  main- 
tained in  what  is  more  likely  to  be  a  natural 
system.  Such  collections  can,  moreover, 
be  maintained  at  much  less  expense  than 
the  stereotyped  ones,  and  wiU  do  much  to 
bring  the  science  of  botany  home  to  large 
numbers  of  people  who  can  appreciate  a 
bit  of  lovely  landscape,  but  can  see  nothing 
in  the  little  plots  and  formal  labels  so  sug- 
gestive of  cemeteries.  In  other  words,  it 
seems  to  me  that  the  old  idea  of  botanical 
collections,  with  small  groups  of  plants 
representing  certain  systems  of  botanical 


16 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


nomenclature  or  certain  systems  of  botan- 
ical grouping,  will  give  place  to  natural 
gardens  where  may  be  grouped  herbaceous, 
shrubby  and  other  plants  in  such  a  way  as 
to  appeal  to  the  mind  through  the  eye. 
Unquestionably  a  much  greater  apprecia- 
tion of  botany  and  botanical  work  can  be 
brought  about  by  gardens  of  this  kind,  and 
it  is  believed  that  great  encouragement  will 
be  made  in  the  matter  of  their  development 
at  educational  institutions  wherever  oppor- 
tunity affords. 

In  morphology  and  physiology  we  shall 
expect  to  see  more  and  more  important 
problems  worked  out  by  experimental 
methods.  Less  attention  will  be  given  to 
the  mere  accumulation  of  facts  without 
proper  coordination.  The  value  and  im- 
portance of  experimental  morphology  are 
already  beginning  to  be  realized;  that  is, 
experimental  morphology  from  the  stand- 
point of  work  on  plants  in  their  natural 
environment  rather  than  under  laboratory 
conditions.  The  same  is  true  of  physiol- 
ogy. In  the  past  our  knowledge  of  plant 
physiology  has  been  largely  based  on  labo- 
ratory work  and  studies  of  one  or  more 
individual  plants.  From  such  data  broad 
generalizations  have  been  made,  which,  as 
time  has  shown,  have  in  many  cases  been 
erroneous.  In  other  words,  it  has  been 
found  unsafe  and  unreliable  to  base  gen- 
eralizations in  the  matter  of  the  life  pro- 
cesses of  plants  on  laboratory  experiments 
alone.  The  physiology  of  the  future  will 
undoubtedly  i>ay  more  heed  to  the  broader 
questions  of  plant  life  in  their  relation  to 
environment  and  their  adaptation  in  gen- 
eral to  surrounding  conditions.  In  other 
words,  ecology  in  its  broad  sense  is  to  be 
an  important  factor  in  the  future  study  of 
plants.  In  the  past  we  have  had  a  school 
of  scientific  workers  arise  and  endeavor  to 
demonstrate  that  the  growth  of  plants  is 
controlled  in  large  measure  by  the  chem- 
ical properties  of  the  soil.     More  recently 


another  school  has  developed  in  which 
physical  properties  of  the  soil  are  poin 
out  as  the  chief  factors  in  influencing 
processes.     Those  who  study  plants  th< 
selves  can  not  accept  such  generalities, 
is  not  safe.     Future  ecological  studies  i 
undoubtedly  furnish  much  new  light  on 
true  relationships  existing  between  pla 
and  their  environment.     These  questi 
must  naturally  receive  a  great  deal  of 
tention  for  the  reason  that  many  of 
most  important  problems  in  agriculti 
horticulture   and   forestry  will   be   ba 
upon  them. 

It  is  in  pathology  that  we  shall  expecl 
see  very  important  advances  within 
near  future.      This  science  is  just  on 
threshold  of  its  development.     From 
purely  utilitarian  standpoint  it  will  be 
vital  consequence,  and  everything  in 
nature  of  strengthening  it  will  necessaj 
need  to  receive  most  careful  thought.     1 
pathology    of    the    future    will    have 
groundwork  in  physiology.     Less  and  1 
attention  wiU  undoubtedly  be  given  to 
mere  question  of  remedial  measures,  s 
more  thought  will  be  paid  to  the  causes 
plant  diseases  and  the  relation  of  envir 
ment  to  these  causes.     The  highest  type 
pathological  work,  in  other  words,  wiU 
in  the  field  of  preventive  measures,  eiti 
by  the  correction  of  unfavorable  conditi< 
or  by  developing  plants  in  such  a  way  tl 
they  can  meet  conditions  which  are  i 
favorable. 

In  the  light  of  these  probable  deveL 
ments,  an  important  question  to  consider 
Where  are  the  workers  to  come  from  a 
how  are  they  to  be  trained?  Undoubtec 
in  the  future  much  greater  interest  will 
taken  in  botanical  work  in  our  educatioi 
institutions,  for  the  reason  that  it  is  gn 
ually  coming  to  the  knowledge  of  you 
men  that  there  is  a  demand  for  persons  \iv 
trained  in  plant  lines.  As  a  matter  of  fa 
during  the  last  few  years  the  supply 


Janitaby  1,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


17 


such  men  has  not  been  equal  to  the  demand. 
The  reason  for  this  is  not  far  to  seek,  for 
there  still  exists  in  the  minds  of  most 
young  men  who  go  to  college  an  idea  that 
their  future  welfare  in  large  measure  de- 
pends on  taking  some  academic  course.  It 
seems  important  and  necessary,  therefore, 
that  botanists  should  put  forth  their  best 
efforts  to  bring  about  a  better  appreciation 
of  tile  advantages  to  be  gained  in  the  field 
of  botanical  work.  A  number  of  colleges 
and  universities  already  have  courses  of 
study  which  pretty  well  equip  graduates 
for  the  advanced  work  in  botany  now  re- 
quired. In  the  future  there  will  be  more, 
and  at  the  same  time  there  will  be  a  greater 
encouragement  for  applied  work  than  there 
is  at  present.  In  most  colleges  it  is  not 
practicable  at  the  present  time  to  give  men 
the  necessary  training  for  government 
work.  A  few  years  ago  this  was  different, 
for  at  that  time  a  graduate  from  one  of 
our  best  universities  was  ^ble  at  once  to 
meet  the  general  requirements  of  govern- 
ment investigations.  The  govermnent  re- 
quirements, however,  have  been  broadened, 
so  that  men  capable  of  handling  the  prob- 
lems which  now  present  themselves  must 
necessarily  have  some  preliminary  experi- 
ence with  men  and  affairs  before  they  are 
in  a  position  to  take  up  independent  prob- 
lems. With  a  good  foundation  training  in 
botanical  science,  especially  plant  physiol- 
ogy and  pathology,  a  good  training  in  lan- 
guages and  a  proper  appreciation  of  the 
relation  of  science  to  practice,  men  can 
soon  get  a  sufficient  grasp  of  broad  prob- 
lems to  make  themselves  exceedingly  valu- 
able. Those  who  from  temperament  or  for 
other  reasons  are  interested  only  in  pure 
science  must  necessarily  have  their  field  of 
work  limited.  For  this  reason  it  is  be- 
lieved that  in  the  future  colleges  will  more 
and  more  endeavor  to  emphasize  the  value 
and  importance  of  applied  work. 
After  reviewing,  necessarily  with  more 


ox  les6  haste,  these  various  questions  as  to 
the  probable  future  development  of  botany, 
I  have  left  for  the  last  the  question  which 
seems  to  be  of  primary  importance,  for 
upon  a  proper  appreciation  of  it  will  de- 
pend much  of  the  success  of  whatever,  is 
undertaken  in  botanical  lines  during  the 
years  to  come.  I  refer  to  the  necessity  for 
properly  organizing  the  botanical  forces 
which  not  only  exist  now,  but  which  are 
likely  to  come  into  existence  as  the  years 
go  by.  We  have  developed  in  this  country 
a  group  of  botanical  organizations,  all  of 
which  are  doing  good  work  and  most  of 
which  have  arisen  largely  out  of  the  ex- 
igencies of  the  moment  There  has  as  yet 
been  little  attempt  toward  a  proper  co- 
ordination of  these  various  forces,  with  the 
object  of  bringing  about  imity  of  action 
upon  all  matters  which  will  be  for  the  best 
interest  of  botany  and  botanical  work  in 
th^  broadest  sense  of  the  word. 

This  society  was  organized  primarily  to 
take  the  lead  in  botanical  work  in  America. 
Its  standards  are  high  and  should  be  main- 
tained. Criticism,  if  criticism  may  be  of- 
fered, of  the  work  of  the  society,  is  that 
it  has  so  far  not  developed  the  individuality 
that  might  have  been  developed,  in  the  light 
of  the  questions  which  were  in  mind  at  the 
time  of  its  organization.  The  papers  which 
are  offered  do  not  differ  materially  from 
those  presented  by  other  societies  and  or- 
ganizations. To  my  mind  it  has  not  been 
so  much  a  question  of  the  presentation  of 
papers  as  some  would  think.  Unless  the 
papers  presented  can  be  in  some  way  made 
different  from  those  offered  in  other  organ- 
izations, there  is  little  to  be  gained  by  pre- 
senting them  except  affording  an  oppor- 
tunity for  those  who  wish  to  bring  their 
problems  before  coworkers.  It  would  seem 
to  me  that  this  society  might  very  well  dis- 
pense with  a  considerable  portion  of  this 
plan,  and  devote  its  energies  more  in  the 
future  to  broad  questions  of  shaping  policy 


18 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  8.  Vol.  XIX.  No 


in  botanical  work  generally  throughout  the 
country.  To  accomplish  this,  it  is  realized 
that  the  aid  and  cooperation  of  all  other 
botanical  societies  should  be  secured.  No 
question  is  raised  as  to  the  value  and  neces- 
sity of  other  botanical  organizations.  We 
do  not  believe  that  there  are  too  many  of 
them,  but  that  there  is  a  woeful  lack  of 
proper  unification  and  coordination  was 
shown  at  the  last  Washington  meeting, 
where  the  number  of  papers  presented  was 
so  great  that  it  was  impossible  for  visiting 
botanists  to  take  an3rthing  like  advantage 
of  them.  In  the  future  it  is  hoped  and 
believed  that  existing  botanical  organiza- 
tions can  be  continued  and  their  integrity 
and  independence  maintained,  but  at  the 
same  time  it  would  seem  highly  important 
that  some  steps  be  taken  toward  unification. 
There  would  seem  no  reason  why  the  Botan- 
ical Society  of  America  should  not  be  the 
medium  for  bringing  this  about,  and  why, 
through  its  efforts,  there  should  not  be  ef- 
fected an  organization  representing  the 
various  botanical  societies  throughout  the 
country  which  would  afSliate  with  this 
society  and  assist  in  shaping  a  general 
policy  on  all  matters  affecting  the  welfare 
of  the  science. 

The  time  seems  ripe  for  bringing  about 
this  result.  Never  was  botany  more  pros- 
perous, never  more  aggressive.  On  the 
threshold  of  the  twentieth  century  we 
stand,  knowing  our  strength  and  only  need- 
ing to  weld  it  into  harmonious  action  to 
make  it  vital  and  lasting.  Let  us  join 
hands  and  do  our  best  to  bring  this  about. 

Beverly  T.  Qallowat. 


VITALISM   AND    MECHANISM    IN   BIOLOGY 

AND  MEDICINE.* 

UntHj  some  sixty  years  ago  the  prevalent 
view  was  that  nearly  all  life  phenomena 

•  Introductory  remarks  made  at  the  D.  W. 
Harrington  lectures  on  '  (Edema,  a  Consideration 
of  the  Physiological  and  Pathological  Factors 
Concerned  in  its  Formation/  delivered  at  the 
University  of  Buffalo,  November  30,  December  1, 
2  and  3,  1903. 


were  guided  essentially  by  an  all-per 
ing  vital  force.  Even  after  the  disco' 
by  Wohler  in  1828  of  the  possibility  of 
ducing  synthetically  such  an  organic 
stance  as  urea,  such  a  universal  mim 
that  of  Johannes  Miiller  was  still  clin( 
to  the  belief  in  the  all-powerful  forc< 
the  creator  and  harmonizer  of  the  var 
mechanisms  of  the  living  body.  The 
lief  in  the  omnipresence  of  an  all-crea 
vital  force  furnished  little  stimulus 
laborious  studies  of  the  innumerable  m< 
anisms  of  life.  In  the  forties  of  the 
century,  however,  there  came  a  chai 
With  the  improvemeiit  of  the  methods 
investigation,  with  the  rapid  progress 
organic  chemistry,  with  the  establishn 
of  the  law  of  conservation  of  energy 
physics,  with  the  successful  applicatioE 
physical  and  chemical  laws  to  some  of 
intricate  problems  of  life,  the  convict 
developed  that  a  great  many  of  the  n 
teries  of  life  will  resolve  themselves  i 
physics  and  chemistry,  and  this  belief  gr 
ually  grew  in  some  quarters  into  a  the 
that  all  life  phenomena  are  nothing  < 
but  complex  phenomena  of  the  inorga 
world.  As  just  in  those  days  it  was  rec 
nized  in  physics  that  all  energies  can 
converted  into  motion,  and  that  the  ] 
chanical  energy  is  the  essential  principle 
the  inorganic  world,  the  new  theory  wh 
made  no  distinction  between  the  anim 
and  inanimate  phenomena  became  kno 
as  the  mechanical  theory  of  life.  Ri{ 
or  wrong,  this  theory  was  of  incalcula 
benefit  to  the  progress  of  the  biologi 
sciences.  The  conviction  that  all  parts 
life  are  accessible  to  an  analysis  by  i 
methods  employed  in  natural  science,  sti 
ulated  then  and  stimulates  now  thousai 
of  patient  investigators  in  their  indeff 
gable  attempts  to  unravel  an  infinitt 
small  fraction  of  the  mysteries  of  life.  "* 
talism  had  a  paralyzing  effect.  The  n 
chanical  conception  of  the  life  phenome 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


19 


as  a  working  hypothesis  is  a  marvelous 
stimulus.  But  it  did  not  remain  a  working 
hypothesis. 

Men  of  letters  with  a  transcendental 
bent  of  mind  have  turned  it  soon  into  a 
philosophical  system  and  have  extended  it 
to  regions  which  can  never  become  the 
domain  of  natural  science.  Some  of  the 
extravagances  proclaimed  in  the  name  of 
the  mechanical  theory  brought  undeserved 
discredit  upon  it.  I  need  only  to  remind 
you  of  the  statement  that  ideas  are  secreted 
by  the  nerve  cells  just  as  urine  is  secreted 
by  the  kidney  epithelium.  Assertions  of 
this  kind  initiated  a  reaction  against  the 
entire  theory.  The  theory  of  natural  selec- 
tion by  Darwin,  which,  during  its  rise,  lent 
its  glory  to  our  theory,  since  in  the  minds 
of  the  literary  public  the  two  were  nat- 
urally linked  together,  subsequently  also 
brought  some  discredit  to  it  during  its  slow 
descent  in  the  favor  of  that  public. 
Furthermore,  the  very  incessant  activity  in 
the  investigation  of  biological  problems 
which  was  stimulated  by  the  mechanical 
theory  soon  brought  out  the  unmistakable 
fact  that,  so  far,  comparatively  only  a 
small  fraction  of  life  phenomena  are  acces- 
sible to  interpretation  by  the  physics  and 
chemistry  of  our  day,  and  the  enthusiastic 
originators  of  the  mechanical  theory  have 
inadvertently  proclaimed  that  the  physics 
and  chemistry  of  their  day  would  explain 
all  life  phenomena.  What  a  failure!  say 
now  the  growing  number  of  vitalists,  or 
*neo  vitalists,'  as  they  choose  to  call  them- 
selves. Since  the  middle  of  the  eighties 
of  the  last  century  a  reaction  set  in  against 
the  mechanical  theory.  In  all  branches  of 
biology  an  increasing  number  of  writers  of 
first  standing  are  coming  out,  veiled  or 
open,  against  the  mechanical  theory  of  life. 
We  meet  them  in  physiological  chemistry, 
in  general  biology,  and  we  meet  them  in  the 
writings  on  medicine,  the  science  as  well  as 
the  practice  of  medicine.     We  meet  them 


in  the  writings  on  the  very  subjects  I  am 
going  to  discuss  before  you,  on  the  subjects 
of  the  production  of  lymph  and  formation 
of  oedema.  And  withal  the  vitalism  of  our 
day  is  not  such  a  modest  or  conservative 
creation  as  the  prefix  *neo'  would  lead  us 
to  believe.  For  instance,  because  only  cer- 
tain substances  are  absorbed  within  the 
intestines,  a  selection  that  can  not  be  ex- 
plained by  the  laws  of  diffusion  and  osmosis 
as  we  know  them  to-day,  it  is  assumed  by 
some  writers  that  the  epithelium  of  the  in- 
testinal mucosa  has  a  selective  power.  But, 
instead  of  considering  this  assumption 
merely  as  a  temporary  resting  place,  until 
we  know  something  more  of  physics  and 
chemistry,  the  conclusion  is  drawn  by 
Neumeister^  a  distinguished  physiological 
chemist,  that  the  epithelium  possesses  as 
much  sensation,  as  much  judicial  power  to 
know  what  is  good  for  the  body,  as  the 
nerve  cells  of  the  cortex.  In  what  essential 
respect  does  this  statement  differ  from  the 
one  of  Carl  Vogt,  which  was  quoted  above 
and  which  had  such  a  shocking  effect  upon 
his  contemporaries,  namely,  that  there  is 
not  one  difference  between  the  nerve  cells 
which  secrete  ideas  and  the  kidney  epi- 
thelium which  excretes  urine! 

The  point  is  that  Vogt  as  well  as  Neu- 
meister,  though  both  excellent  scientists, 
have  not  made  their  assertions  as  natural- 
ists but  as  philosophers,  who  are  dealing 
with  transcendental  problems.  The  dis- 
cussion which  is  going  on  between  the  vital- 
ists and  mechanists  and  which  has  not  only 
a  theoretical  but  also  a  very  important 
practical  bearing  upon  many  problems  in 
biology  and  medicine,  suffers,  in  my  opin- 
ion, from  a  confusion  of  conceptions  with 
regard  to  the  questions  to  be  answered. 
Permit  me  to  discuss  here  the  problems  of 
vitalism  and  mechanism  from  my  own 
point  of  view. 

The  phenomena  of  life  are  apparently 
different  from  those  of  the  inorganic  world. 


20 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


We  wish  to  recognize  sus  much  of  them  as 
our  human  faculties  will  permit,  and  wish 
to  study  them  by  methods  of  investigation 
which  proved  to  be  reliable  in  the  investigar 
tions  of  the  phenomena  of  the  inorganic 
world.  Then  there  are  some  preliminary 
questions  to  be  answered. 

TRANSCENDENTAL  VITALISM  AND  MECHANISM. 

The  first  question  is:  Suppose  there  will 
come  a  time  when  all  laws  of  the  inorganic 
world  and  also  all  structures  and  laws  of  the 
animated  world,  as  far  as  they  are  accessible 
to  the  human  faculties,  will  be  completely 
inown— will  it  then  be  found  that  the  phe- 
nomena of  life  can  be  completely  solved, 
or  will  it  be  found  that  life  has  still  an 
element  which  is  inconceivable,  inaccessible 
to  the  grasp  of  human  faculties.  This  is 
the  concise  question  between  mechanism 
and  vitalism.  What  should  be  our  position 
with  regard  to  that  question  T  To  this  I 
say  it  is  wholly  a  transcendental  question 
and  not  one  for  physiology  and  biology  to 
deal  with.  Since  from  the  point  of  view 
of  the  natural  or  rather  biological  sciences 
we  wish  to  investigate  only  that  which  is 
accessible  to  human  faculties  and  by  meth- 
ods approved  in  the  natural  sciences,  we 
can  obviously  have  no  scientific  opinions 
on  a  subject  which  is  admittedly  above  the 
human  faculties.  An  answer  in  the  mech- 
anistic sense  is  not  a  whit  more  scientific 
than  an  answer  in  favor  of  vitalism  would 
be. 

This  position,  however,  should  not  be 
interpreted  as  denying  the  right  to  enter- 
tain such  a  question.  It  is  certainly  a 
perfectly  legitimate  problem  in  pure  phi- 
losophy. Neither  do  I  mean  to  deny  the 
naturalist  the  right  to  discuss  philosophical 
problems.  But  in  such  a  case  the  discus- 
sion in  both  domains  ous;ht  to  be  carried 
on  strictly  separately,  otherwise,  as  experi- 
ence teaches  us,  a  harmful  confusion  will 
be  unavoidable. 


To  repeat  again,  we  consider  the 
lem  formulated  in  the  pi^eceding:  qi 
as  a  transcendental  one,  and  ^we 
therefore,  designate  the  theories  cod 
in  the  answers  to  it  as  transcendentaJ 
ism  or  transcendental  mechanism. 

NATURAL  VITALISM   AND  MECBLANIS 

The  second  question  is:  Suppose 
shall  come  a  time  when  all  laws  of  t 
organic  world  as  well  as  the  structure 
laws  of  the  animated  world  shall  b€ 
f  ectly  known  to  us.  Would  it  then  be  i 
that  the  animated  world  is  governed  es 
by  the  same  laws  as  the  inanimate  one 
by  the  laws  of  physics  and  chemistr 
they  will  then  be  known;  or  will  i 
found  that  the  vital  phenomena,  in  i 
tion  to  the  chemicophysical  forces,  are 
vaded  by  separate  energies,  separate  f  < 
which  are  specific  for  living  matter.? 
must  be  admitted  that  this  question 
perfectly  legitimate  one  and  within 
bounds  of  natural  science.  It  is  perti 
conceivable  that  one  group  of  natural 
nomena  might  possess  energies  which  o 
groups  do  not  possess  and  that  vital  ] 
nomena  might  differ,  indeed,  fi'om 
phenomiena  of  the  inorganic  world  b; 
plus  of  specific  energies.  In  contra 
tinction  to  the  transcendental  theories 
life  we  might  designate  the  theories  c 
tained  in  the  answers  to  the  second  qi 
tion  as  natural  mechanism  and  natu 
vitalism.  In  other  words,  then,  the  the< 
of  natural  mechanism  assumes  that  all  i 
conceivable  laws  of  life  will  prove  to 
nothing  but  physics  and  chemistry,  and  1 
theory  of  natural  vitalism  assumes  that 
vital  phenomena  are  directed  by  speci 
energies  besides  thosie  which  are  found  aJ 
in  the  physical  world.  A  little  consider 
tion  will  show  that  the  natural  and  trar 
cendental  theories  are  perfectly  indepen 
ent  of  one  another.  For  instance,  t] 
transcendental  vitalist  can  easily  accept  tl 


Januabt  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


21 


theory  of  natural  mechanism,  and  the  de- 
fender of  the  theory  of  natural  vitalism 
may  accept  the  theory  of  transcendental 
mechanism.     I  shall,  however,  certainly  not 
dwell  here  on  the  particulars  of  this  point. 
What  shall  be  our  position  with  regard 
to  the  problem  involved  in  the  second  ques- 
tion?    It  seems  to  me  that  the  state  of  our 
present  knowledge  does  not  permit  us  yet 
to  decide  the  question  in  one  way  or  an- 
other with  any  degree  of  probability,  and 
that  for  a  great  many  years  to  come  any 
decision  of  this  problem  will  have  to  be 
considered  as  an  arbitrary  hypothesis  with- 
out a  sufficient  scientific  basis.     The  argu- 
ment in  favor  of  vitalism,  brought  forward 
recently   by   Bunge,   Neunueister,    Stacke, 
Kassowitz  and  many  others,  consists  in  the 
statement  that  the  further  the  investiga- 
tion in  biology  progresses,  the  more  facts 
are  brought  to  light  which  can  not  be  ex- 
plained by  physics  and  chemistry.      But 
what    does    this    signify  Y       Our    present 
knowledge  of  physics  and  chemistry  surely 
is  a  most  minute  fraction  of  that  which  we 
shall  know  of  the  laws  of  the  inorganic 
world  in  the  thousands  of  years  to  come. 
Considering  the  length  of  human  history 
we  have  to  admit  that  even  the  science  of 
physics  is  only  in  its  very  infancy.     Why, 
it  is  only  recently  that  they  have  tortured 
the  father  of  physics  for  stating  that  the 
earth  is  turning  around  the  sun,  because  it 
hurt  their  f eeliugs  to  acknowledge  that  the 
abode  of  man  is  not  the  center  of  the  uni- 
verse.   And  it  hurts  the  feelings  of  men  to 
be  told  that  the  mysteries  of  life  are  only 
unrecognized    chemistry— hence    the    pas- 
sionate crusade  in  some  circles  against  me- 
chanism in  biology.     In  our  very  day  un- 
dreamt of  discoveries  are  made  in  physics 
and  in  chemistry.     Think  of  the  rays  dis- 
covered by  Roentgen  which  penetrate  heart 
and   kidneys.      Think   of   the   marvelous 
results  of  stereochemistry,  of  the  laws  of 
osmosis,  of  the  ionization  of  solutions,  etc., 


all  discoveries  of  our  time.  Why  should 
we  already  now  positively  deny  the  possi- 
bility that  chemistry  and  physics  might 
not  finally  elucidate  a  great  many,  and 
perhaps  all  the  facts  in  biology!  Fur- 
thermore, the  attempts  properly  and  sys- 
tematically to  apply  physics  and  chemistry 
to  the  interpretation  of  biological  phe- 
nomena are  hardly  older  than  half  a  cen- 
tury. Those  among  the  crusaders  who 
themselves  lent  a  hand  to  such  studies 
should  know  with  what  immense  difficulties 
the  physiologist  has  to  struggle.  He  has 
to  create  his  own  physics  and  chemistry; 
he  has  to  master  a  difficult  and  difficile 
technique,  and  then  the  difficulties  in  ob- 
taining and  handling  living  material.  The 
physicist  and  the  chemist  had  always  the 
aid  of  gold-seeking  people.  There  is  no 
gold  for  physiology,  but  plenty  of  obstruc- 
tion on  its  onward  way,  placed  by  the  sen- 
timentalist, the  ignorant  and  the  wicked. 
With  all  the  obstacles,  physiology  has 
already  succeeded,  in  a  great  measure,  to 
apply  physics  and  chemistry  to  a  good 
many  biological  phenomena,  and  the  out- 
look for  the  future  is  brighter  than  ever. 
Think  of  the  astonishing  discovery  in  our 
country  by  Jacques  Loeb  of  artificial  par- 
thenogenesis by  simple  changes  in  the 
osmotic  pressure  in  the  surrounding  me- 
dium of  the  ovum,  a  fact  which  was  never 
dreamt  of  before! 

No,  the  crusaders  against  mechanism  are 
wrong  in  their  pessimistic  views.  There 
is  nothing  in  the  present  stage  of  our 
knowledge  discouraging  for  the  hopes  of 
those  who  believe  in  the  ultimate  solution 
of  the  problems  of  vital  phenomena  by  the 
physics  and  chemistry  of  a  far-oflf  future. 
But  it  is  also  true  that  the  success  attained 
at  present  is,  in  comparison  with  what  has 
yet  to  be  attained,  too  minute,  too  insig-* 
nificant  to  justify  a  prediction  with  any 
decree  of  probability. 

Transcendental  mechanism  and  vitalism 


22 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


have  no  place  within  the  domain  of  natural 
science.  Natural  mechanism  and  vitalism 
are  insufficiently  supported  by  accumu- 
lated evidence  to  be  considered  as  well- 
established  scientific  theories. 

VITALISM  AS  A  WORKING  HYPOTHESIS. 

But    there    is    still    another    question. 
There   are   already  numerous  weH-estab^- 
lished  biological  facts  which  can  not  be 
explained  for  the  present  by  physics  and 
chemistry,  and  we  have  no  means  of  know- 
ing whether  they  will  ever  be  explained 
that  way— what  are  we  to  do  with  these 
facts?     Here  is  the  answer:  Vitalism  as  a 
storage  place  is  indispensable.    We  should 
continue   to    call    these    facts   vital   phe- 
nomena until  we  discover  a  way  to  explain 
them   by   laws   governing   the    inanimate 
bodies.     But  I  shall  still  go  further.     I  be- 
lieve that  vitalism  as  a  working  hypothesis 
is  of  great  advantage  to  the  progress  of 
biology.     The  belief  that  only  those  biolog- 
ical facts  which  can  be  reduced  to  physics 
and  chemistry  can  be  considere;)!  as  scien- 
tifically understood,  combined  with  the  mis- 
leading   and    harmful    notion    to    elevate 
physiology  to  an  exact  science,  confined  the 
activity  of  this  biologic  division  to  some 
favored   domains— to   its   own   detriment. 
The  sterility  of  some  parts  of  physiology 
is  due  to  this  inappropriate  exclusiveness. 
The  relation  of  the  internal  secretion  of 
the  thyroid  to  myxoedema  and  cretinism 
and  of  the  pancreas  to  diabetes,  was  dis- 
covered without  any  reference  to  physics 
and  chemistry  and  was  discovered  by  med- 
ical men,  and  not  by  physiologists.     The 
important  fact  of  the  marvelous  effect  of 
the  extract  of  the  suprarenal  capsule  upon 
the  circulation  was  discovered  by  physiol- 
ogists without  any  reference  to  physics  and 
chemistry.      Surely  physiology  ought   to 
search  for  the  physics  and  chemistry  of  the 
vital  processes  as  much  as  possible,  but  it 
ought  to  do  more.      It  ought  to  unearth 


vital  phenomena,  study  their  charact 
methods  peculiar  to  themselves,  and 
lish  their  laws  aside  from  any  relat 
physics  and  chemistry  of  the  inoi 
world.  That  this  can  be  successfully 
is  shown  by  the  marvelous  results  obi 
in  the  discoveries  and  the  precise  stuc 
toxines,  antitoxines,  hiemolysines,  c 
sines  and  their  like  without  much  r 
for  physics  and  chemistry.  Espe 
medical  men  have  reason  to  ask  for 
physiological  studies.  The  experii 
which  nature  is  continually  making 
human  beings  and  which  physiciani 
called  upon  to  interpret  and  to  men< 
not  confined  to  domains  which  are*  t 
sible  to  interpretations  by  physics 
chemistry.  And  it  is  to  such  a  far-se 
liberal,  broad  physiology  that  the  sc: 
and  practice  of  medicine  is  looking  i 
delivery  from  the  firm  grasp  of  the 
sided  teachings  of  pathological  ana  torn 

S.  J.  Melzi 


8GIENTIFW   BOOKS, 

Mammalian  Anatomy,  with  special  refer 
to    the    Cat.     By    Alvin    Davison,    P 
Philadelphia,    P.    Blakiston's    Son    & 
1»03.      8vo.      Pp.  xi  +  250;  108  figs. 
Another  book  on  the  anatomy  of  the 
can  not  but  awaken  suspicion  as  to  its  uti! 
but  an  examination  of  this  one  shows  the  ; 
picion  to  be  unfounded.      It  is  designed 
fill  the  gap  between  the  more  detailed  wc 
and  those  which  are  merely  laboratory  gui< 
and  to  afiord  the  student  who  can  not  pui 
a  lengthy  course  of  zoological  study,  a  gem 
idea  of  the  structure  of  a  mammal  and  of 
principles  of  mammalian  anatomy. 

In  writing  such  a  work  the  important  po 
is  to  determine  what  is  to  be  omitted,  8 
Professor  Davison  has  treated  his  subject  w 
an  admirable  perspective.  Occasionally, 
in  the  description  of  the  peritoneum,  a  soo 
what  fuller  development  of  the  subject  woi 
have  been  advisable,  and  occasionally,  also, 
brevity  of  statement  tends  to  convey  a  son 
what  erroneous  impression.     But  sucli  errc 


Januabt  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


23 


are  few  and  the  book  furnishes  an  excellent 
idea  of  the  structure  of  the  cat,  free  from  a 
superfluity  of  detail  which  too  often  serves 
merely  to  conceal  from  the  young  student  the 
fundamental  principles  which  they  may  be 
intended  to  elucidate.  Profusion  of  detail 
does  not  always  make  for  accuracy  in  the  stu- 
dent and  it  is  principles  rather  than  facts  that 
he  should  acquire  from  his  laboratory  training. 
Throughout  the  book  are  frequent  remarks 
of  a  comparative  nature  and  at  the  cl^ose  of 
each  chapter  is  a  list  of  questions  or  sugges- 
tions, for  the  most  part  of  a  general  nature, 
which  will  serve  as  excellent  topics  for  com- 
ment by  the  teacher  or  for  collateral  investiga- 
tion under  his  direction  by  the  student.  An 
introductory  chapter  is  devoted  to  an  account 
of  useful  methods  by  which  the  dissection  of 
a  mammal  may  be  facilitated,  and  the  text  is 
illustrated  by  numerous  figures  and  diagrams 
for  the  most  part  admirably  executed. 

J.  P.  MoM. 


SOCIETIES   AND   ACADEMIES. 
PHILOSOPHICAL   SOGIETT    OF   WASHINGTON. 

The  573d  meeting  was  held  November  7. 

Dr.  A.  L.  Day  spoke  on  'The  Black  Body 
and  the  Measurement  of  Extreme  Tempera- 
tures.' He  outlined  the  history  of  the 
theoretical  study  of  the  problem,  and  showed 
how  such  a  body  had  been  constructed  arti- 
ficially; he  then  discussed  at  length  the  results 
of  experiments  made  with  it,  pointing  out  the 
relation  between  the  temperature  and  the 
total  radiation,  and  between  the  temperature 
and  the  wave-length  of  radiation  of  maximum 
intensity,  and  expressing  these  relations  by 
equations;  from  these  equations  temperatures 
outside  the  range  of  measurement  can  be  cal- 
culated by  extrapolation. 

Mr.  0.  E.  Van  Orstrand  followed  with 
'  Notes  on  the  Emission  Function,'  discussing 
mathematically  the  second  of  the  equations 
presented  by  the  preceding  speaker. 

At  the  574th  meeting,  held  November  21, 
the  subject  of  '  Synchronous  Actions  in  the 
Atmospheres  of  the  Sun  and  the  Earth'  was 
discussed  by  Professor  F.  H.  Bigelow,  of  the 
Weather  Bureau.     The  curves  first  published 


in  1894,  showing  simultaneous  variations  in 
the  sunspot  areas,  the  magnetic  field,  the  pres- 
sures and  temperatures  of  the  northwestern 
states,  the  movements  in  latitude  and  longi- 
tudes of  the  storm  centers,  were  compared 
with  the  prominence  secular  variations  and 
found  to  agree.  The  meteorological  data  have 
been  extended  to  all  parts  o:(  the  earth  and 
they  give  similar  variations,  supplemented  by 
inversion  of  the  type.  Thus  the  direct  type 
of  temperature  prevails  throughout  the  tropics, 
and  the  inverse  type  in  the  temperate  zones; 
the  direct  type  of  pressures  holds  around  the 
Indian  Ocean  and  the  inverse  type  in  North 
and  South  America.  The  distribution  of  the 
prominences  in  latitude  and  their  movements 
in  the  eleven-year  cycle  were  explained,  also 
their  distribution  in  longitude.  From  the 
latter  were  derived  the  periods  of  rotation  of 
the  sun  in  different  zones,  and  the  variations 
of  the  several  periods  in  the  eleven-year 
cycle,  which  gave  the  same  curve  as  holds  for 
the  prominence  frequency.  This  important 
phenomenon  was  referred  back  to  the  internal 
circulation  of  the  sun,  and  it  confirms  the 
second  case  of  von  Helmholtz's  equations,  as 
applied  to  a  rotating  mass  heated  at  the  center. 
The  fundamental  period  of  the  sun's  rotation 
is  that  of  the  equator,  26.68  days,  and  as  this 
is  the  shortest  possible  period  in  the  sun  it 
follows  that  numerous  determinations  of  the  ' 
solar  rotation  from  terrestrial  phenomena, 
such  as  aurora,  thimderstorms,  must  be  ex- 
cluded as  misleading.  The  observed  syn- 
chronism at  the  earth  has  its  basis  in  the 
sun's  circulation,  and  this  is  of  a  kind  to  pro- 
duce vertical  polarization,  and  an  internal 
magnetic  field.  Hence  all  stars  should  be 
magnetized  while  the  process  of  cooling  under 
their  own  gravitation  is  going  on. 

Mr.  L.  A.  Bauer  then  presented  several  brief 
'Contributions  to  the  Theory  of  the  Earth's 
Permanent  Magnetism.'  He  showed  that  the 
energy  of  the  earth's  magnetization  had  di- 
minished by  (^ne  thirty-sixth  part  in  forty-six 
years.  He  stated  as  a  result  of  his  analysis 
that  the  principal  cause  of  secular  variation 
resides  outside  the  earth's  crust.  He  also 
attempted  a  calculation  of  the  magnetic  en- 


24 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  4 


ergy  per  unit  of  area  at  the  surface  of  the 
earth. 

The  575th  meeting  on  December  5  was  set 
apart  for  the  annual  address  of  the  retiring 
president.  Professor  James  Howard  Gore. 
His  subject  was  '  The  Gteoidal  Figure  of  the 
Earth.'  He  pointed  out  that  four  views  had 
been  held  successively  regarding  the  form  of 
the  earth — that  it  was  a  plane,  a  sphere,  a 
spheroid,  and  a  geoid;  he  traced  the  history 
of  the  measurements  that  had  led  to  the  suc- 
cessive views,  and  discussed  at  length  the 
present  conclusions  of  geodesists. 

Chables  K.  Wead, 
Secretary. 

GEOLOQIOAL  800IETY  OF  WASHINGTON. 

At  the  146th  meeting  held  on  November  25, 
1903,  the  following  papers  were  presented: 

Ninth  Session  of  the  International  Congress 

of  Geologists,  at  Vienna:  S.  F.  Emmons. 

The  Alaska^TreadweU  Mine:  A.  G.  Spencer. 

The    Straiigraphic    Position    of    the    Judith 

Eiver  Beds:   T.   W.   Stanton   and  J.   B. 

Hatghel. 

The  above  papers  have  been  or  shortly  will 
be  published  in  full. 

The  14:7th  meeting  of  the  society  was  held 
on  December  9.  Under  the  title  *  Notes  on 
the  Deposition  of  the  Appalachian  Pottsville,' 
Mr.  David  White  presented  certain  conclusions 
respecting  the  physical  geography  of  the  Aj)- 
lachian  trough  during  early  Pennsylvanian 
time,  with  correlations  based  largely  on  the 
study  of  the  fossil  plants.  These  show  the 
existence  in  lower  Pottsville  time  of  an  axial 
trough  near  the  eastern  margin  of  the  present 
coal  region.  The  loading  and  subsidence  of 
this  relatively  narrow  trough  led  to  the  sub- 
mergence of  the  western  land,  and  in  late 
Pottsville  time  the  transgression  of  the  sea 
across  the  bitimiinous  regions  of  Pennsylvania, 
Ohio,  western  Maryland  and  northern  West 
Virginia.  The  thickness  of  the  PottsviUe 
sediments,  about  1,200  feet  in  the  type  section, 
was  shown  to  be  about  4,000  feet  near  the 
eastern  border,  in  southwest  Virginia  near  the 
Tennessee  line. 

Dr.  George  H.  Girty  made  a  comparison  of 
sections  of  upper  Paleozoic  rocks  in  Ohio  and 


northwestern  Pennsylvania.     He  showed  t] 
not  the  Shenango  sandstone,  as  had  usu£ 
been  supposed,  but  a  much  lower  bed  in 
Crawford  County  section,  was  equivalent 
the  sub-Olean  conglomerate.     This   was 
termined  by  tracing  eastward  from  its  typi 
locality  the  Corry  sandstone,  which  near  W 
ren  was  found  to  occupy  a  position  just  ab< 
the  sub-Glean.     The  latter,  therefore,  woi 
appear  to  occur  at  about  the  horizon  of  i 
Berea  grit  of  Ohio,  which  is  the  same  as  i 
Cussewago  sandstone,  which  lies  not  far 
low  the  Corry  sandstone  in  Professor  I. 
White's  section  of  Crawford  and  Erie  coi 
ties. 

The  Waverly  group  of  Ohio  was  explici 
included  by  Meek  and  Worthen,  along  with  1 
Chouteau  group  of  Missouri  and  the  Goniat 
limestone  of  Rockford,  Indiana,  in  their  d< 
nition  of  the  Kinderhook  group  or  epoch.  1 
only  Waverly  fauna  well  known  at  that  ti: 
was  the  fauna  of  the  Cuyahoga  shale,  a 
these  authors  seem  to  have  had  in  mind 
the  Kinderhook  fauna  chiefly  that  of  t 
Chouteau  limestone.  If  any  precise  corre 
tion  is  possible  between  the  Waverly  gro 
and  the  early  Mississippian  of  the  Mississij 
valley,  it  lies  between  the  middle  member 
the  Cuyahoga  formation  and  the  Choute 
limestone.  It  follows,  therefore,  that  t 
series  of  rocks  and  faunas  in  southweste 
New  York  which  overlie  the  true  Chemui 
inclusive  of  the  sub-Olean  conglomerate,  ] 
cently  assigned  by  Professor  J.  M.  Clarke 
the  Carboniferous,  really  lie  below  the  base 
the  Carboniferous  system  as  at  present  recc 
nized  in  this  country,  just  as  they  lie  abo 
the  Chemung  beds,  the  recognized  top  of  t 
Devonian.  This  series,  having  an  appro^ 
mate  thickness  of  500  feet,  represents  an  i 
terval  not  provided  for  in  the  geological  tin 
scale,  and  for  it  the  term  Bradfordian  is  pi 
posed.  This  term,  which  will  rank  with  Se 
ecan,  Chautauquan,  etc.,  includes  the  Catta 
augus,  Oswayo  and  Knapp  beds  of  the  Nc 
York  section,  which  may  provisionally  be  a 
cepted  as  its  subdivisions.  The  position 
this  series  as  an  unrecognized  interval  in  tl 
time-scale  is  quite  apart  from  the  determin 
tion  of  its  age  as  Devonian  or  Carboniferor 


Jani'abt  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


25 


a  question  whicli  is  reserved  for  further  study 
and  discussion.  The  Bradf ordian  faunas  are 
equally  distinct  from  those  of  the  Chemung 
group,  on  one  hand,  and  from  those  of  the 
Waverly  group,  on  the  other.  They  contain 
to  some  extent  an  intermingling  of  Carbon- 
iferous and  Devonian  species,  and  are  in  fact 
transitional  between  those  of  the  two  eras  cor- 
responding to  the  position  of  the  rocks  in 
which  they  are  foimd. 

A  recent  bulletin  of  the  U.  S.  Geological 
Survey,  by  Professor  H.  S.  Williams,  which 
deals  with  the  migrations  of  faunas,  so  far  as 
it  involves  the  rocks  and  faunas  under  con- 
sideration, is  based  upon  a  misconception  of 
their  stratigraphic  relations. 

This  was  followed  by  a  paper  entitled 
'Fluorspar  Deposits  of  Southern  Illinois,'  by 
Dr.  H.  Foster  Bain. 

These  deposits  occur  within  an  eUiptical 
area  about  forty  miles  in  diameter  covering 
positions  of  southern  Illinois  and  the  adjacent 
part  of  Kentucky,  and  forming  a  truncated 
dome  probably  reduced  to  a  peneplain  in  Ter- 
tiary time.  The  region  is  one  of  the  normal 
faulting  and  the  individual  blocks  of  strata 
are  very  irregularly  disposed.  The  ore  occurs 
in  fissure  veins  along  these  fault  planes.  In 
the  region  are  a  number  of  dikes  of  mica- 
peridotite,  biotite-pyroxenite  and  diabase.  The 
type  of  deposits,  unusual  in  the  Mississippi 
valley,  associated  with  the  igneous  rocks  sug- 
gests a  genetic  relation  and  the  analogy  with 
the  fluorspar  deposits  of  the  northern  England 
is  very  close. 

The  148th  regular  and  11th  annual  meeting 
of  the  society  took  place  on  December  10. 
The  first  part  of  the  meeting  was.  occupied  by 
the  presidential  address  of  Dr.  C.  Willard 
Hayes,  entitled  'Should  There  be  a  Federal 
Department  of  Mines.*  Later  the  reports  of 
the  secretaries  and  treasurers  were  presented 
followed  by  the  election  of  officers  for  the 
ensuing  year. 

President— C.  Willard  Hayes. 

Vice-Presidents — George  P.  Merrill  and  Walde- 
mar  Lindgren. 

Secretaries — Walter  C.  Mendenhall  and  Alfred 
H.  Brooks. 

Treasurer — George  W.  Store. 


Members  of  Council  at  Large — ^David  White, 
T.  W.  Stanton,  T.  Wayland  Vaughan,  M.  R.  Camp- 
bell and  Leslie  F.  Kansom. 

Alfred  H.  Brooks, 

Secretary. 

CHEMICAL   SOCIETY   OF   WASHINGTON. 

The  144th  regular  meeting  of  the  Washing- 
ton Chemical  Society  was  held  on  October  8, 
at  8  P.M.,  in  the  assembly  hall  of  the  Cosmos 
Club.  In  the  absence  of  the  president,  the 
meeting  was  calle4  to  order  by  the  vice-presi- 
dent. Dr.  E.  T.  Allen. 

The  program  for  the  evening  consisted  of 
two  papers.  The  first  paper,  entitled  *  Second 
Report  on  Cement  Analysis,'  was  presented  by 
Dr.  W.  F.  Hillebrand  and  dealt  with  the  results 
of  the  analyses  of  two  samples  of  cement  ma- 
terial, which  were  made  by  nineteen  chemists 
working  independently.  The  results  obtained 
by  these  chemists  were  compared  with  a  stand- 
ard analysis  made  by  Dr.  Hillebrand  and  many 
of  the  determinations  diflFered  very  markedly 
from  the  standard  results.  A  discussion  of 
these  variations  was  entered  into  by  the  author, 
and  it  was  pointed  out  that,  although  many 
differences  existed  among  the  determinations 
made  by  the  various  analysts,  it  was  not  neces- 
sary to  assume  that  the  source  of  the  errors  lay 
with  the  method,  but  was  due  to  other  factors 
which  must  be  taken  into  consideration. 

The  second  paper  on  the  program  was  pre- 
sented by  Dr.  Atherton  Seidell,  and  was  en- 
titled 'Precipitation  of  Zinc  by  Manganese 
Peroxide,  with  especial  reference  to  the  Vol- 
hard  Method  of  Determining  Manganese.' 
The  problem  involved  and  the  method  used 
for  the  analysis  of  the  precipitate  formed  in 
the  Volhard  method  for  the  determination  of 
manganese  were  briefly  described.  The  re- 
sults of  the  investigation  lead  to  the  conclusion 
that  zinc  is  always  carried  down  by  the  pre- 
cipitated peroxide  of  manganese.  The  amount 
found  in  the  precipitate  depends  upon  the 
quantity  which  is  present  in  the  solution  at 
the  time  the  precipitation  is  made. 

The  ratio  between  the  zinc  oxide  and  the 
manganese  peroxide  found  in  the  precipitates 
indicates  the  formation  of  mixtures  having 
definite  molecular  ratios. 


26 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


The  precipitate  having  the  composition 
4MiiOy.ZiiO  contained  the  highest  relative 
amount  of  zinc  which  could  he  carri^  down  in 
combination  with  manganese  peroxide.  The 
water  of  hydration  in  the  precipitates  was 
found  to  be  variable,  and  its  amount  at  any  of 
the  temperatures  selected  for  drying  did  not 
correspond  to  a  whole  number  of  molecules. 

The  145th  regular  meeting  of  the  Wash- 
ington Chemical  Society  was  held  November 
12  in  the  assembly  room  of  the  Cosmos  Club. 
Dr.  H.  N.  Stokes  and  Mr.  S.  S.  Voorhees 
were  elected  councillors  of  the  American 
Chemical  Society.  Dr.  Atherton  Seidell  was 
elected  secretary  of  the  Washington  Chemical 
Society.  The  first  paper  on  the  program,  en- 
titled *  European  Notes/  was  delivered  by  Pro- 
fessor F.  W.  Clarke.  The  speaker  described 
his  recent  visit  to  Manchester,  England,  in 
attendance  upon  the  meeting  held  in  honor  of 
the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  Dalton's 
discovery.  He  also  told  of  his  visits  to  Cam- 
bridge and  the  laboratories  of  Thorpe  and 
Ramsay  in  London,  to  a  meeting  of  the  Royal 
Society  and  the  Royal  Society  Social  Club. 
A  short  account  of  the  meeting  of  the  Con- 
gress of  Applied  Chemistry  held  at  Berlin 
was  given,  after  which  he  described  his  sub- 
sequent visits  to  Dresden,  then  to  Munich, 
where  he  was  shown  Beyer's  laboratory  built 
by  Liebig  and  also  made  acquainted  with  the 
great  work  in  mineralogy  which  is  now  being 
done  by  Groth.  Dr.  Clarke  also  spoke  of  his 
visits  to  Zurich  and  to  Heidelberg.  The  sec- 
ond paper,  entitled  '  The  Solubility  of  Calcium 
Sulphate  in  Aqueous  Solutions  of  Sulphuric 
Acid,'  by  F.  K.  Cameron  and  J.  F.  Breazeale, 
was  presented  by  Dr.  Cameron.  The  authors 
showed  that  in  the  presence  of  any  concentra- 
tion of  sulphuric  acid  the  solubility  curve  for 
gypsum  or  calcium  sulphate  did  not  show  a 
maximum  point,  as  this  substance  does  in  pure 
water,  but  increases  steadily  with  increase  in 
temperature.  At  temperatures  from  25®  C. 
to  85°  C.  the  solubility  of  calcium  sulphate 
increases  with  increasing  concentration  of  sul- 
phuric acid  until  a  maximum  is  reached  and 
then  decreases  again.  The  position  of  the 
maximum  point  on  the  curve,  the  concentra- 
tion with  respect  to  calcium  sulphate  and  sul- 


phuric acid  respectively  beings    taken 
dinates,  depends  upon  the  temperature 
data  obtained  seems  to  negative  the  a 
tion  that  both  electrolytes  yield    a    c 
ion.     These  hypotheses  suggest  themse 

1.  That  at  higher  dilutions  sulphur: 
yields  mainly  an  HSO«  ion  and  wi 
creasing  concentration  mainly  an  SC 
But  this  assumption  is  opposed  to  the 
of  previous  work  of  others  on  the  c< 
tivity,  etc.,  of  solutions  of  sulphuric  aci 

2.  That  double  or  bisulphates  are  f( 
An  examination  of  the  solid  phase  in  c 
with  the  solution  failed  to  throw  light 
this  point. 

3.  That  other  solubility  effects  than  th 
casioned  by  the  ions  masked  the  action  < 
latter. 

No  satisfactory  criteria  exist  by  which 
assumptions  may  be  adequately  tested, 
authors  do  not  regard  the  facts  as  necesi 
opposed  to  the  dissociation  hypothesis, 
the  hypothesis  in  its  present  form  is  uni 
factory  and  inadequate  to  furnish  assisi 
in  the  study  of  such  phenomena. 

It  was  pointed  out  that  in  these  solu 
there  was  evidence  of  a  condensation  oi 
solvent,  water,  which  might  have  an  impoi 
bearing  on  the  apparently  abnormal  res 
Finally,  the  solubility  of  calcium  sulphat 
pure  water  was  discussed  in  comparison  ' 
the  results  obtained  by  other  investigatoi 

A.  Seidell, 
Secreiar 

THE  BIOLOGICAL  SOCIETT  OF  WASHINGTON 

The  377th  meeting  was  held  Satui 
evening,  November  28. 

H.  F.  Moore  spoke  on  '  The  Artificial  1 
tening  of  Oysters,'  stating  that  experimc 
made  by  the  U.  S.  Fish  Commission  sho^ 
that  when  placed  in  artificial  ponds,  kept 
the  right  degree  of  temperature  and  salis 
to  foster  the  growth  of  diatoms,  and  with 
water  kept  in  motion  to  imitate  the  movemi 
of  the  tide,  poor  oysters  rapidly  became  i 

F.  H.  Hillman  described  *  The  Comparat 
Effects  of  the  Seed  Midge  and  of  Bruci 
phagus  funehris  on  the  Structure  of  Cloi 
Flowers  and  Fruits.'     The  speaker  stated  tl 


Jakuart  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


27 


the  seed  midge,  Cecidomyia  leguminicola  Lint- 
ner,  arrested  the  growth  of  the  clover  corolla, 
usually  causing  it  to  project  but  slightly  from 
the  throat  of  the  calyx,  while  its  base  became 
crustaceous,  forming  a  hardened  case  about 
the  growing  larva.  At  the  same  time  the 
pistil  became  aborted,  its  growth  being  ar- 
rested before  fertilization,  while,  together  with 
the  stamens,  it  was  pushed  aside  by  the  grow- 
ing larva.  The  attacks  of  Bruchophagus 
funebris  (Howard)  does  not  prevent  the  com- 
plete or  nearly  complete  development  of  the 
corolla,  which,  in  this  case,  does  not  become 
crustaceous.  The  ovary  becomes  nearly  ma- 
ture, its  hardened  portion  being  fully  formed. 
The  seed  attains  nearly  full  size,  but  instead 
of  being  normally  violet  or  yellow,  plump  and 
shining,  it  is  brown,  dull  and  somewhat 
shrunken.  The  kernel  of  the  seed  is  prac- 
tically exhausted,  leaving  the  seed  coat  as  a 
frail  shell. 

These  essential  differences  in  the  life  his- 
tories of  the  insects  shown  in  their  effects  on 
the  clover  flowers  and  fruits  appear  to  afford 
conclusive  evidence  of  the  correctness  of  Pro- 
fessor Hopkins's  opinion  that  Bruchophagus 
funehris  feeds  on  the  cloyer  seed  and  is  not 
parasitic  on  the  seed  midge,  as  has  been  be- 
lieved. 

An  examination  by  the  author  of  32  red 
clover  heads  showed  53  per  cent,  of  the  seed 
farmed  to  be  uninjured,  while  47  per  cent, 
was  destroyed  by  the  Bruchophagus. 

Enlarged  figures  showing  the  structures 
discussed  were  displayed. 

Charles  HaUock  spoke  on  the  subject  of 
*Sea  Trout  where  no  Rivers  Are,'  the  object 
of  the  communication  being  to  establish  the 
point  that  the  sea  trout  is  not  a  fresh-water 
species  with  marine  habits,  but  primarily  a 
resident  of  salt  water.  It  was  stated  that  the 
sea  trout  of  the  Shetland  Islands  and  the 
Labrador  coast,  which  attain  a  weight  of 
twenty  x)ounds,  do  not  enter  rivers  to  spawn, 
nor  do  more  than  a  moiety  of  the  Canadian 
sea  trout,  the  bulk  of  these  spawning  in  estu- 
aries in  tide  water.  While  these  trout  were 
structurally  identical  with  the  fresh-water 
species,  they  differed  widely  from  the  latter 
in  habits,  range,  food  and  appearance,  and  the 


speaker  considered  that  ,ttese.  facts  should  \>e 
allowed  due  weight  in  differentiating  between 
species.  In  the  course  of  his  remarks  Mr. 
HaUock  intimated  that  the  salmon  of  the  At- 
lantic coast  passed  the  salt-water  portion  of 
their  life  in  the  subarctic  belt,  being  attracted 
thither  by  the  abundance  of  coastwise  food. 
The  fourth  paper  of  the  evening,  entitled 
'  The  Vegetative  Vigor  of  Hybrids  and  Muta- 
tions,' was  read  by  Mr.  O.  F.  Cook.  Hybrids 
and  mutations  were  interpreted  as  represent- 
ing opposite  side-paths  of  the  evolutionary 
thoroughfare,  the  free  interbreeding  of  nu- 
merous moderately  diverse  individuals  being 
the  best  condition  for  evolutionary  progress. 
A  declining  reproductive  power  characterizes 
both  of  these  extreme  types  of  variation,  but 
is  often  accompanied  by  unusual  vegetative 
vigor.  Physiological  and  selective  explana- 
tions of  this  paradox  appear  to  be  inadequate, 
but  from  the  standpoint  of  a  kinetic  theory 
of  evolution  it  was  suggested  that  the  vigor 
is  the  same  as  that  of  normal  variations  and 
crosses,  while  the  relative  or  complete  sterility 
may  be  due  in  both  cases  to  the  absence  of 
normal  interbreeding,  which  also  induces  ab- 
rupt variations  or  aberrations  of  heredity. 
Vegetative  vigor  does  not,  therefore,  conflict 
with  the  view  that  hybrids  and  mutations  are 
degenerative  variations.  F.  A.  LuoAS. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL   SOCTETY   OP  WASHINGTON. 

The  349th  meeting  was*  held  on  November 
3,  1903. 

Professor  W  J  McQee  gave  an  account  of 
the  work  performed  by  the  American  Anthro- 
pological Association  at  the  recent  meeting 
held  in  New  York  and  also  gave  a  resume  of 
the  work  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology 
of  the  World's  Fair  at  St.  Louis. 

Mr.  Goddard,  of  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, was  present  and  was  invited  to  address 
the  society.  He  told  of  the  investigations 
being  carried  on  in  the  language,  folk-lore 
and  ceremonials  of  the  Indians  of  California 
by  the  Ethnological  and  Archeological  Survey 
of  the  state.  He  spoke  of  the  extinction  of 
stocks  and  the  decay  of  customs  and  urged 
the  aid  of  students  before  it  is  too  late. 

Dr.  John  R.  Swanton  gave  a  communication 


28 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vor-.  XIX. 


on  the  Haida  and  other  tribes  he  has  be^x 
studying.  In  his  winter  field  work  he  hopes 
to  ascertain  the  relationships,  if  any,  between 
the  Tlinkit  and  the  Haida. 

On  account  of  the  illness  of  Dr.  Lamb  his 
paper  went  over,  and  the  society  resolved  itself 
into  a  committee  of  the  whole  to  discuss  the 
subject  of  cave  exploration. 

Professor  Holmes  stated  the  problems  to  be 
solved  and  mentioned  the  explorations  of 
Fowke,  McGuire,  Putnam  and  Moorehead. 
He  pointed  out  that  caves  show  undisturbed 
sites  and  hence  give  a  good  record,  and  an- 
nounced that  Professor  Putnam  has  found 
early  man  with  fossils  in  caves  of  California. 
As  yet  he  said  the  evidence  of  early  man  in 
the  caves  exploration  in  the  east  is  negative. 

Dr.  Fewkes  said  that  caves  were  gathering 
places  of  men  for  religious  purposes  as  the 
Cave  of  the  Sun  at  Porto  Plata,  where  it  is 
believed  by  the  natives  that  the  sun  and  moon 
rose.  He  stated  his  belief  that  the  lowest 
form  of  man  is  found  in  South  America  and 
in  caves  in  the  region  of  the  Tapuyan  stock. 
Dr.  Hrdlicka  remarked  on  the  caves  of  north- 
em  Mexico  where  there  are  (1)  shelters  show- 
ing evidences  of  fire,  chips  and  bones,  and  little 
art;  (2)  having  human  burial;  (3)  the  deep 
variety  containing  ceremonial  objects,  and 
(4)  the  dwelling  caves,  and  showed  all  occur 
in  a  region  inhabited  by  a  single  people. 

Mr.  McGuire  gave  an  interesting  account 
of  his  recent  cave  hunting  in  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania.  He  examined  a  ntimber  of 
caves,  and  while  the  finds  were  numerous  no 
evidence  was  found  as  to  the  antiquity  of  man. 

Professor  McGee  said  that  cave  studies 
should  be  made  not  so  much  for  man  as  for 
paleontology,  and  should  be  a  geological  prob- 
lem. 

The  president  told  interestingly  her  obser- 
vations on  cave  exploration  and  said  that 
some  Indian  words  indicate  going  under  the 
ground  to  enter  the  house,  and  perhaps  refer 
to  a  period  when  caves  were  used  as  habita- 
tions. 

The  350th  meeting  was  held  November  17, 
1903. 

Dr.  J.  Walter  Fewkes  read  a  paper  on  the 
stone  collars  and  tripointed  images,  or  zemes. 


of  Porto  Eico.  Doctor  Fewkes  illustrf 
paper  with  large  drawings  of  the  tj 
these  specimens.  The  collars,  wlii< 
found  almost  wholly  in  Porto  Rico,  a 
examples  of  stone  working,  having 
through  the  process  of  carving  and  po 
after  the  rough  work  of  pecking  with  i 
hammer.  Each  collar  has  an  ova] 
roughened  area  on  one  side. 

The  tripointed  images  are  of  "^ve 
(1)  Smooth,  without  decoration;  (2) 
conoid  projection  modified  into  a  heac 
with  face  on  one  side;  (4)  with  head  < 
right  and  two  legs  on  the  left;  (6)  witl 
legs.  Most  of  the  images  have  human 
though  some  are  in  the  shape  of  animal 
birds.  In  reference  to  the  relation  be 
the  collars  and  the  tripointed  images 
Fewkes  called  attention  to  the  theory  of 
Acosta  that  images  generally  have  the 
proportion  and  were  placed  on  the  flat  si: 
of  the  collar  and  secured  by  cords.  A  i 
men  showing  the  feasibility  of  such  jun 
was  displayed.  Dr.  Fewkes  said  that  th< 
no  proof  that  these  objects  are  not  idols 
that  they  show  the  representation  of  an 
pomorphic  gods  in  Porto  Kico.  Most  o; 
collars  seem  to  be  serpent  forms.  In  abi 
of  data,  however,  there  are  still  enigmas 
require  for  their  solution  more  field  work 
research,  to  which  end  Dr.  Fewkes  will  d( 
this  winter's  labors  in  the  West  Indies. 

In  answer  to  an  inquiry  from  the  presi( 
Miss  Fletcher,  Dr.  Fewkes  said  that  the 
form  images  are  geographical  and  resei 
Yunque  Mountain.  In  answer  to  a  ques 
from  Mr.  McGuire,  Dr.  Fewkes  said  i 
seem  to  be  more  triform  images  than  col 
and  he  further  remarked  that  the  loca 
where  the  collars  have  been  found  has 
been  recorded. 

The    secretary    mentioned    that   Profei 
Mason  had  remarked  on   the  similarity 
tween  the  cedar  bark  collars  of  the  northv 
coast  Indians  and  the  stone  collars  of  Pc 
Rico. 

Dr.  John  R.  Swanton  said  that  the  res( 
blance  is  probably  accidental  and  further  s 
that  if  the  Porto  Rican  collars  were  evidei 
of  a  serpent  cult  the  art  modifications  mi( 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


29 


be  due  to  the  transfer  of  the  cult  to  a  locality 
where  serpents  do  not  exist. 

In  reference  to  the  human  remains  collected 
by  Dr.  Fewkes,  Dr.  Hrdlicka  said  that  a  com- 
parison of  the  Porto  Eican  skull  with  South 
American  skulls  shows  it  to  be  like  specimens 
from  Brazil.  In  answer  to  an  inquiry  from 
Br.  Lamb,  Dr.  Fewkes  said  the  bones  were 
found  in  a  mound  near  Utuado. 

Under  the  head  of  voluntary  communica- 
tions. Dr.  Hrdlicka  suggested  that  archeolog- 
ical  and  anthropological  work  be  carried  on  at 
Panama  in  connection  with  work  on  the  canal. 

The  secretary  presented  data  on  the  destruc- 
tion of  ruins  in  the  southwestern  United 
States,  and  suggested  that  the  movement  for 
their  preservation  inaugurated  some  years  ago 
be  revived.  After  a  brief  discussion  in  which 
the  president,  Dr.  Kober,  Dr.  Fewkes  and  Dr. 
Hrdlicka  took  part,  the  matter  was  postponed 
to  the  next  meeting.        Walter  Hough, 

Secretary, 

DISCUSSION  '  AND    CORRESPONDENCE. 
THE  ANIMAL  PARASITE  SUPPOSED  TO  BE  THE  CAUSE 

OP  YELLOW  PEVER. 

To  THE  Editor  op  Sgienoe  :  In  your  issue  of 
October  23,  1903,  you  publish  a  communica- 
tion from  Mr.  J.  C.  Smith,  of  New  Orleans, 
in  regard  to  the  animal  parasite  in  the  bodies 
of  mosquitoes  infected  from  yellow-fever  sub- 
jects. While  the  article  is  on  its  face  con- 
tradictory and  unsatisfactory,  its  burden  is  to 
claim  the  credit  for  scientific  work  to  which 
he  is  not  entitled.  It  reflects  imfairly  and 
unjustly  upon  Professor  George  E.  Beyer,  as- 
sociate professor  of  biology  in  Tulane  Univer- 
sity, who  was  the  biologist  of  the  working 
party  of  the  yellow-fever  institute  of  the  U. 
S.  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Serv- 
ice, which  made  the  investigations  in  Vera 
Cruz  in  1902. 

Professor  Beyer  is  an  acting  assistant  sur- 
geon in  that  service,  and  for  that  reason  can 
make  no  publication  in  the  matter. 

In  the  first  paragraph  of  the  article  Mr. 
Smith  claims  that  he  was  'the  first  to  have 
correctly  interpreted  and  given  value  to  the 
things  found  in  the  bodies  of  the  mosquitoes 
infected  from  yejlow-fever  patients.'  After 
setting  forth  this  claim,  he  closes  with  the 


vastly  more  modest  claim  that  he  was  entitled 
to  have  printed  in  the  report  of  the  working 
party  an  acknowledgment  of  his  valuable  serv- 
ices in  working  out  the  sexual  life  history  of 
the  parasite. 

Mr.  Smith  fixes  January  23,  1903,  as  the 
time  when  his  assistance  was  asked,  and  his 
work  was  performed  subsequent  to  that  date. 

The  facts  are  that  the  working  party  dis- 
covered the  animal  parasite  in  mosquitoes  in- 
fected from  yellow-fever  subjects  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1902,  that  they  classified  and  named 
the  parasite,  illustrated  it  with  drawings,  and 
sent  the  drawings  in  November,  and  a  pre- 
liminary report  to  the  Surgeon-General  in 
July  of  1902,  nearly  six  months  prior  to  the 
time  fixed  by  Mr.  Smith.  This  report  is  an 
official  record,  is  on.  file  in  Washington,  and  of 
itself  shows  that  Mr.  Smith  was  neither  the 
discoverer  nor  the  first  correctly  to  interpret 
the  parasite. 

The  eighth  paragraph  of  the  article  does  a 
particular  injustice  to  Professor  Beyer.  It 
says:  "Up  to  this  time  (January  23;  1903) 
Professor  Beyer,  who  was  the  biologist  of  the 
party,  knew  of  no  evidence  of  a  parasite  in 
these  mosquitoes,  excepting  some  granular 
bodies,  as  they  were  styled,  which  were  found 
in  the  cell  of  the  salivary  glands,  and  which  I 
afterward  showed  the  party  were  not  granular 
bodies,  but  were  linear  bodies,  five  or  six  times 
longer  than  wide,  the  sporozites.  On  Jan- 
uary 30  [1903]  I  reported  having  found  in 
the  bodies  of  a  number  of  the  mosquitoes  an 
animal  parasite  in  process  of  sexual  develop- 
ment." 

Professor  Beyer  had  found  this  parasite  six 
months  before  the  time  fixed  by  Mr.  Smith 
as  the  day  when  he  saw  it  in  slides  loaned 
him  by  Professor  Beyer  and  known  by  the 
latter  to  contain  the  parasite.  A  number  of 
physicians  were  acquainted  with  the  discovery, 
its  interpretation  and  value,  in  the  summer 
and  fall  of  last  year.  Dr.  N.  Del  Rio  in  a 
statement  acknowledged  before  the  American 
Consul  at  Vera  6ruz,  June  8,  1903,  says  that 
as  delegates  of  the  Superior  Board  of  Health 
of  Vera  Cruz,  he.  Dr.  Matienzo  and  Dr. 
Iglesias  were,  during  June  and  July,  1902, 
shown  by  Professor  Beyer  in  the  stomach  and 


30 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol..  XIX 


glands  of  mosquitoes  infected  with  yellow 
fever,  an  animal  organism  which  the  members 
of  the  American  Commission  classified  as  a 
Protozoan  of  the  order  of  Coccidiida. 

Dr.  Henry  R.  Carter,  a  distinguished  sur- 
geon of  the  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hos- 
pital Service,  in  a  letter  dated  October  31, 
1903,  says  that  while  attending  the  Public 
Health  convention  in  New  Orleans,  on  De- 
cember 12,  1902,  he  visited  Professor  Beyer^s 
laboratory  in  Tidane  University,  with  several 
other  physicians,  and  was  shown  a  number  of 
slides  under  the  microscope.  These  showed, 
Professor  Beyer  told  him,  sections  of  the 
stomach  walls,  thorax  and  salivary  cells  of 
mosquitoes,  with  bodies  which  Professor  Beyer 
claimed  were  the  coccidium,  and  explained  the 
stages  in  detail.  Dr.  Carter  says  that  un- 
questionably, at  that  time.  Professor  Beyer 
claimed  that  his  slides  showed  the  sexual 
stages  of  a  coceidium  and  that  he  had  demon- 
strated the  sexual  cycle  of  a  coccidium  in  the 
infected  Stygomyia  fasciata. 

The  proof  that  the  work  which  Mr.  Smith 
claims  to  have  done  in  January  of  this  year 
was  all  originally  done  in  the  summer  of  last 
year  by  the  working  party  of  the  U.  S.  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  is  so 
clear  that  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  Mr.  Smith 
could  set  up  such  a  claim.  The  letter  of  Dr. 
Pothier  which  he  prints  in  his  article  is  con- 
tradictory of  his  claim. 

Mr.  Smith  was  consulted  in  January  of 
this  year  and  corroborated  the  work  already 
performed.  Ratification  by  a  man  of  his 
undoubted  high  scientific  knowledge  was 
valuable.  Professor  Beyer  has  willingly 
counseled  giving  Mr.  Smith  all  due  acknowl- 
edgment, and  has  never  sought  to  withhold  all 
that  he  was  entitled  to,  that  is,  due  recogni- 
tion of  his  assistance  in  demonstrating  the 
life  cycle  of  the  parasite. 

Mr.  Smith  has  never  published  any  inter- 
pretation of  the  coccidium  different  from  the 
working  party's.  It  is  hard  to  see,  therefore, 
how  he  was  the  first  correctly  to  interpret  the 
discovery  when  his  interpretation  was  the 
same  as  that  made  by  the  working  party 
months  before. 

I  ask  that  you  publish  this  refutation  of 


Mr.  Smith's  claims  in  the  same    m; 
his  article.     This  request  is    made 
wish  to  provoke  a  controversy,  but  so 
a  view  to  correcting  an  injustice. 

I  also  suggest  that  a  warning  note  1 
by  you  against  a  too  hasty  conclusion 
animal  parasite  discovered  in  infecte 
myia  fasciata  be  accepted  as  the  caus< 
low  fever.  The  working  party's  repoi 
no  such  claim.  Surgeon-General  Wy 
cently  issued  a  letter  pointing'  out  i. 
claim  is  not  made.  The  value  of 
covery  of  the  coccidium  lay  in  the  f  j 
it  pointed  out  a  path  for  future  invest 

H.  W.  RoBi 

New  Obleans, 

November  28,  1903. 


SHORTER   ARTICLES. 
THE  new  OOSMICAL   METEOROLOGT 

With  every  fresh  outburst  of  large  s 
the  surface  of  the  sun  there  is  likely  1 
sympathetic  disturbance  in  the  ter 
magnetic  and  electrical  fields,  a  change 
weather  conditions  of  the  world,  and  a 
descence  of  popular  interest  in  the  s 
Speculation  as  to  the  causal  connecti 
tween  this  solar  action  and  the  terresti 
feet  is  apt  to  become  extravagant,  even 
to  the  leng^th  of  seeking  to  identify  pari 
spots  on  the  sim  with  individual  storms 
earth.  This  procedure  overlooks  some 
in  the  chain  of  events  which  in  realitj 
the  two  phenomena  together,  and  it  i 
purpose  of  this  paper  to  present  in  a 
what  orderly  form  the  sequence  as  at  p: 
understood. 

It  has  been  found  necessary  to  include 
the  sun  and  the  earth  in  our  meteorol( 
research,  and  properly  so,  because  the  a 
phere  of  the  sun  is  at  work  in  sending  en 
and  the  atmosphere  of  the  earth  is  race 
energy,  each  through  its  process  of  co 
tion  and  radiation.  By  these  agenci< 
special  circulation  is  sustained  in  the  at 
phere  of  the  sun,  and  another  in  that  o: 
earth,  and  the  energy  of  one  passing  int( 
other  binds  the  two  together  in  a  single 
mical  thermal  engine.  Solar  physics 
astrophysics  are  evidently  only  other  n( 
for  meteorology,  which  embraces  all  ati 


Jakl'abt  1,  1804.] 


31 


pheric  phenomena  in  its  scope.  The  details 
of  the  work  of  the  Weather  Bureau  in  this 
research  are  being  published  as  rapidl;  as  pos- 
sible, but  as  some  time  must  elapse  before 
this  will  be  completed,  it  may  be  of  interest  to 


make  a  comprehensive  statement  of  the  con- 
clusions that  have  been  reached. 

The  Circulation  of  the  Sun.    (Fig.  1.)— The 
thermodTuamic  conditions  in  the  aun  suggest 


a  viscous  nucleus  extending  about  half  its 
radius  from  the  center,  which  is  surrounded  by 
a  gaseous  envelope,  the  sun's  proper  atmos- 
phere. The  nucleus  is  apparently  not  spher- 
oidal, hut  dumbbell  in  shape,  according  to  the 
Jaoobian  ellipsoid  of  equilibrium,  so  that  the 
sun  is  an  incipient  binary  star  with  two  cen- 
ters of  action  instead  of  only  one.  This  result 
rests  upon  the  following  facts:  (1)  The  promi- 
nence frequency  numbers  on  the  surface  have 
two  distinct  maxima,  which  move  in  opposite 
directions  from  the  middle  latitudes,  one  from 
latitude  26°  towards  the  equator,  as  do  the 
sunspots  and  facula:,  and  the  other  from  lat- 
itude 60°  towards  the  poles,  in  the  course  of 
an  eleven-year  cycle.  The  cycle  b^ns  at 
minimum  with  a  strong  outpouring  in  middle 
latitudes,  which  separates  into  the  two 
branches  mentioned.  It  is  probable  that  the 
congested  energy  of  the  interior  first  seeks 
to  escape  from  the  r^on  where  the  viscous 
nucleus  ends,  and  that  one  wave  spreads 
through  the  gaseous  region  towards  the  end 
of  the  equator  on  the  surface,  while  a  second 
wave  passes  through  the  nucleus  towards  the 
center  of  the  sun.  The  course  of  the  max- 
ima points,  as  shown  in  the  Monthly  Weather 
Review  for  January,  1903,  favors  this  expla- 
nation. (2)  The  distribution  of  the  prom- 
inences in  longitude  gives  two  maxima,  lo- 
cated on  two  opposite  meridians  of  the  sun, 
as  if  they  sprang  from  two  foci.  (3)  This 
division  of  solar  activity  is  also  found  record- 
ed in  the  distribution  of  several  other  products 
of  solar  eneisy  in  the  period  of  the  solar  rota- 
titm,  which  is  26.68  days  on  the  equatorial 
plane,  as  in  that  of  the  sunspots  and  the 
faculte,  in  one  system  of  deflecting  forces  of 
the  terrestrial  magnetic  field,  in  the  baro- 
metric pressures  and  in  the  temperatures. 
That  would  be  a  good  reason,  if  it  exists, 
why  the  sun  in  its  rotation  should  effect  dif- 
ferential impulses  throughout  the  cosmical 
system. 

The  periods  of  rotation  of  the  sun  have 
been  determined  in  the  several  zones  by  a  dis- 
cussion of  the  prominence  numbers,  and  there 
is  retardation  from  the  equator  to  the  poles, 
This  conforms  to  von  Helmholtz's  Case  II,, 
derived  from  the  general  equations  of  motion. 


32 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX 


for  discontinuous  surfaces  of  different  tem- 
peratures sliding  past  each  other  with  different 
velocities,  and  rolling  up  vortex  tubes  between 
them.  The  layers  are  warmer  around  the 
axis  of  rotation  of  the  sun,  and  have  slower 
angular  velocities  than  those  more  distant 
from  it.  The  vortex  tubes  have  the  shape 
indicated  in  Fig.  1,  right-handed  in  *  the 
northern  hemisphere  and  left-handed  in  the 
southern.  If  the  constituents  of  rotating 
matter  carry  electric  charges  in  their  atoms 
and  molecules,  this  vortex  entrainment  will 
produce  polarization  and  a  true  magnetic  field 
extending  outside  the  sun.  The  rotation 
period  of  the  magnetic  field  near  the  poles, 
since  it  is  primarily  seated  in  the  nucleus,  is 
the  same  as  that  of  the  surface  at  the  equator, 
namely,  26.68  days.  The  earth's  normal  mag- 
netic field  has  a  component  system  impressed 
upon  it  which  is  directed  from  north  to  south 
perpendicular  to  the  ecliptic,  and  these  vec- 
tors are  probably  portions  of  the  lines  here 
described  as  springing  from  the  solar  nucleus. 
Furthermore,  all  large  cooling  masses,  con- 
tracting by  their  own  gravity  and  rotating  on 
an  axis  must,  in  conformity  with  the  equa- 
tions of  motion,  set  up  such  a  polarized  in- 
ternal structure,  and,  therefore,  all  stars  are 
probably  magnetic.  The  earth  still  possesses 
a  residual  magnetism  originally  produced  in 
this  manner,  which  is  gradually  fading  away 
as  the  earth  cools,  and  will  become  very  feeble 
as  the  loss  of  convective  heat  progresses,  some- 
what like  that  of  the  moon  at  the  present 
time.  The  belt  systems  on  the  planets  Jupiter 
and  Saturn  afford  examples  of  rotations  with 
discontinuous  surfaces,  and  minor  vortices  be- 
tween them,  under  this  law.  The  granulated 
surface  of  the  sun  is  probably  due  to  this 
vortex  motion,  where  each  granule  represents 
the  discharge  of  a  single  vortex  tube. 

The  Solar-terrestrial  Synchronism.  (Fig. 
2.) — The  eleven-year  cyclic  period  of  the  sun- 
spot  variation  gives  a  curve  with  one  principal 
maximum  and  one  principal  minimum,  but 
this  register  of  the  solar  action  is  not  so  sen- 
sitive as  that  recorded  in  some  of  the  other 
elements.  The  eruptions  of  the  sunspots  and 
the  faculse  are  confined  to  the  gaseous  en- 
velope,   and    do   not    directly    represent    the 


working  of  the  viscous  nucleus.  Tlie 
inences  of  higher  latitudes,  40°  to  80 
duce  the  scune  fundamental  curve,  but 
are  minor  crests  superposed  upon  it, 
times  one  on  the  ascending  branch,  J. 
usually  two  on  the  descending  branch. 
In  some  of  the  eleven-year  cycles  A  do 
appear,  and  one  might  count  the  len^ 
the  short  period  from  the  three  crests,  Sj 
and  make  it,  11.1  -^-  3  =  3.7  years,  as  I/C 
has  done.  I  have  taken  the  four  cres 
B,  C,  D,  and  make  the  average  period,  1 
4  =  2|  years,  as  in  'Weather  Bulletin 
21,  page  125.  This  more  sensitive 
registers  primarily  the  action  of  the 
nucleus,  and  the  minor  crests  are  tin 
crudescences  of  a  contracting  and  con^^ 
medium  seeking  to  free  itself  of  superchc 
energy.  The  curve  is  found  to  be  repi 
in  a  remarkable  manner  throughout  the 
mical  system.  Thus,  we  have  found,  (1) 
the  periods  of  rotation  in  the  higher  zone 
the  sun,  60°  to  70°,  reproduce  the  curv< 
a  secular  variation,  and  refer  its  cause,  \^ 
out  doubt,  to  the  effects  of  internal  circ 
tion;*  (2)  that  the  magnetic  field  at  the  e^ 
synchronizes  with  it;t  (3)  that  the  terrest 
temperatures  in  the  tropical  zones  give 
same  curve  directly,  but  in  the  tempei 
zones  they  synchronize  in  an  inverted  foi 
while  the  terrestrial  pressures  synchronize 
rectly  with  it  in  the  regions  around  the  Ind 
Ocean,  Australia,  South  Asia  and  Africa,  1 
in  an  inverted  form  throughout  North  a 
South  America.  This  inversion  implies  tl 
there  is  a  surging  of  the  earth's  atmosphere 
the  process  of  its  general  circulation,  whereb; 
portion  rises  in  pressure  and  temperature  wh 
another  portion  falls.  This  opens  up  a  new  fie 
of  meteorological  research.  A  laboratory  e 
periment,  by  means  of  cathode  rays  within 
magnetic  field,  matches  the  observed  disti 
bution  of  the  solar  corona,  and  this  is  ali 
in  harmony  with  analysis  of  the  sun's  physic, 
condition  here  outlined.  The  computed  sy 
tem  of  ordinary  magnetic  deflecting  vectoi 
and  of  the  large  magnetic  storms  which  dif 
turb  the  earth's  normal  field  and  fluctuate  i 

•  See    Monthly    Weather    Review  for  Octobei 
1903. 
t  See  Monthly  Weather  Review  for  July,  1902. 


Januaby  1,  lOOi.] 


SCIENCE. 


33 


the  same  curve  as  the  solar  circulation,   is 
directed  upon  the  earth  in  polar  curves  as  if 
coming  from  a  distant  spherical  magnet,  and 
not  along  the  radial  lines  of  electromagnetic 
radiation.     It  is  not  easy  to  account  for  these 
disturbances  by  flights  of  ions  from  the  sun 
along  the  lines  of  the  electromagnetic  me- 
chanical pressures.      The  further  the  discus- 
sion of  the  cosmical  observations  is  pressed, 
the  more  positive  becomes  the  evidence  that 
the  sun  sustains  a  strong  magnetic  field,  which 
responds  to  a  variable  magnetization  within  its 
nucleus.    Radiation  from  the  solar  surface  has 
another  source  of  energy,  namely,  the  atomic 
and  molecular  vibrations  of  the  constituents 
of  the   outer   envelope,    as   the   photosphere, 
and  hence  much  may  go  on  at  the  surface 
which  is  not  inmiediately  representative  of 
the  state  of  the  nucleus.     Thus,  the  outpour- 
ing of  heat,   light  and  the   ions   streaming 
along  the  radii  of  electromagnetic  pressure, 
together  with  the  curved  rays   seen   in  the 
corona,   consisting  of  positive   and  negative 
charges  of  electricity  moving  about  a  mag- 
netic field,  may  take  place  at  a  given  time 
in  one  way,  while  the  nucleus  is  operating 
temporarily  in  another  manner.     Thus  there 
may  be  divergences  instead  of  synchronisms 
between  the  individual  outbursts  of  spots  and 
prominences  on  the  solar  surface  as  compared 
with    the    terrestrial    magnetic    storms    and 
auroral  displays  which  proceed  from  the  nu- 
cleus, without  in  the  least  invalidating  the 
claim  that  in  general  substantial  synchronism 
exists.     When  sufficiently  long  intervals  are 
taken,  as  a  year,  or  possibly  a  few  months, 
the  conditions  of  the  earth's  atmosphere  are 
affected  by  and  vary  with  the  changes  in  the 
solar  processes.     There  has  been  much  con- 
fusion in  scientific  writings  arising  from  the 
failure  to  distinguish  between  physical  actions 
at  the  surface  and  the  interior  of  the  sun,  and 
many  unsound  criticisms  have  been  published 
in  consequence  of  it.      The  problem  is  com- 
plex, but  with  the  growth  of  reliable  data  it 
is  becoming  yearly  more  promising  of  a  satis- 
factory solution,  and  it  is  always  interesting. 
The  Circulation  of  the  Earth's  Atmosphere. 
(Fig.  3.) — The  meteorological  theories  of  the 
motions  of  the  atmosphere  of  the  earth  are 


now  in  a  transition  state;  the  old  are  passing 
away,  and  new  ones  are  being  constructed. 
FerrePs  theories  of  the  structure  of  cyclones 
and  anticyclones,  as  well  as  of  the  general 
cyclone  of  the  hemisphere,  have  crumbled 
under  the  strain  of  modem  observations.  The 
'  Cloud  Report  *  of  the  Weather  Bureau,  1898, 
discarded  both  the  Ferrel  and  the  Oberbeck 
local  and  general  vortices,  and  indicated  a 
new  path  of  research.  The  International 
Meteorological  Gonunittee  has  at  last  reached 
the  same  conclusion.  (See  *  Reports'  for 
1902  and  1903.)  The  problem  at  present  is 
one  of  rebuilding  in  conformity  with  the  facts. 
The  general  equations  of  motions  were  very 
briefly  discussed  by  H.  von  Helmholtz,  who 
introduced  into  them  potential  temperatures, 
in  place  of  the  density,  and  the  corresponding 
constant  angular  momenta.  From  these  equa- 
tions arise  three  distinct  oases,  one  of  which 
was  considered  somewhat  fully  by  him.  The 
second  case  has  been  applied  by  Emden  to 
solar  circulation  as  above  indicated,  and  the 
third  case  has  not  yet  been  sufficiently  recog- 
nized by  any  one.  Case  I.  shows  that  there 
are  discontinuous  surfaces  of  separation  be- 
tween layers  having  different  temperatures 
and  velocities,  and  that  in  the  earth's  atmos- 
phere these  should  extend  from  about  lati- 
tude 35°  towards  the  poles,  rising  higher  above 
the  surface  with,  progress  poleward.  Case 
III.  gives  surfaces  sloping  towards  the  earth 
from  the  equator  up  to  about  latitude  35°. 
This  system  differs  entirely  from  Ferrel's, 
which  adopted  the  canal  theory  of  circulation 
with  poleward  currents  at  high  elevations. 
These  do  not  in  fact  exist,  but  there  is  evi- 
dence that  the  surfaces  here  specified  are  in 
conformity  with  the  observed  circulations  as 
modified  by  mixtures.  The  local  cyclones  of 
the  temperate  zones  are  built  up  of  counter 
curr^its  of  different  temperatures-  derived 
from  these  general  conditions,  which  in  low 
levels  near  the  surface  of  the  ground  under- 
flow the  eastward  drift  of  the  upper  strata. 
The  configuration  of  the  isobars  of  the  local 
cyclones  observed  on  the  sea  level  extends 
upward  two  or  three  miles  with  diminishing 
intensity,  till  absorbed  in  the  system  of  nor- 
mal isobars  pertaining   to  the  season  of  the 


34 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   Nc 


year.  These  two  sets  of  isobars  have  now 
been  separated  from  each  other,  and  the  proof 
of  this  statement  is  positive.  (See  ^Barometry 
Report,  1901;  Monthly  Weather  Review,  Jan- 
uary, 1903;  and  another  forthcoming  report.) 
The  prevailing  stream  lines,  velocities  and 
temperatures  in  high  levels  have  been  deter- 
mined for  the  United  States  (see  *  Cloud  Re- 
port,' 1898),  and  are  being  worked  up  for  the 
West  Indies  (report  in  preparation).  The 
potential  temperatures  can  be  computed  for 
both  regions  from  the  data  in  hand,  and  they 
are  such  that  the  heat  of  the  upper  strata  of 
the  temperate  zones,  where  there  is  eastward 
flow  increasing  with  the  height,  is  above  the 
quantity  called  for  by  the  adiabatic  law.  In 
the  tropics,  with  westward  velocities  diminish- 
ing upward,  the  heat  of  the  upper  strata  is 
probably  below  the  adiabatic  quantity,  though 
this  remains  to  be  determined.  We  have  had 
since  December,  1902,  daily  isobars  for  the 
United  States  on  the  three  planes,  the  sea 
level,  the  3,600-foot,  and  the  10,000-foot 
planes,  and  the  result  of  the  intercomparison 
of  their  varying  configurations  throughout  the 
year  is  in  conformity  with  this  analysis. 
They  possess  much  advantage  in  practically 
forecasting  the  areas  of  precipitation,  the  di- 
rection of  storm  tracks,  and  the  rapidity  of 
the  propagation  of  the  cyclonic  areas  over  the 
United  States.  Frank  H.  Biqelow. 

Weather  Bureau, 
November  30,  1903. 

HORTICULTURAL   VARIETIES    OF   COMMON  CROPS. 

The  improvement  of  farm  crops  by  breeding 
and  selection  has  received  a  marked  impetus 
in  recent  years,  due  partly  to  the  success  se- 
cured by  a  few  pioneer  workers  in  this  field, 
and  partly  to  recent  discoveries  in  the  laws  of 
heredity.  The  present  note  is  written  for  the 
purpose  of  calling  attention  to  a  method  of 
improvement  that  has  been  applied  to  ordinary 
field  crops  only  to  a  very  limited  extent,  but 
which  offers  promise  of  immediate  and  marked 
results.  It  can  be  best  illustrated  by  giving 
actual  cases.  Dr.  A.  D.  Hopkins,  at  present 
connected  with  the  Bureau  of  Entomology  of 
this  department,  formerly  of  the  West  Vir- 
ginia Experiment  Station,  for  many  years 
grew  timothy  for  seed.     For  this  purpose  the 


crop  is  ordinarily  sown  thinly,  so  that,  di 
the  first  harvest  year,  the  plants  are  sufiicii 
distinct  to  permit  of  the  observation  of  : 
vidual  plants.  Many  years'  close  observi 
showed  that  the  crop  consists  of  a  larg^e  i 
ber  of  constantly  recurring  forms  quite  e 
distinguished.  A  number  of  plants, 
representing  one  of  these  forms,  were  tj 
up  and  separated  into  as  many  parts  as 
nature  of  the  case  permitted;  in  this  way  < 
plant  became  the  parent,  by  divisions,  < 
large  number  of  plants,  all  set  side  by  sid 
a  plat.  When  seed  was  harvested  from  t 
plats  it  was  found  that  the  plants  prodi 
from  these  seeds  reproduced  faithfully 
characters  of  the  original  selection.  £ 
original  selection,  therefore,  became  the  pai 
of  a  variety.  Several  of  these  varieties 
now  growing  in  the  grass  garden  of  the 
partment  of  Agriculture,  where  they  h 
been  the  object  of  careful  observation  dur 
the  past  season.  They  differ  markedly 
character  of  growth,  earliness,  size,  etc.  Sc 
of  them  are  evidently  far  sui)erior  to  the 
dinary  timothy  as  grown  by  farmers  (whicl 
a  mixture  of  superior  and  inferior  varietic 
some  for  seed  production,  others  as  hay  plai 
and  others  as  pasture  plants. 

In  a  manner  exactly  similar,  Mr.  A. 
Leckenby,  director  of  the  Eastern  Oregon  I 
periment  Station,  has  isolated  ten  varieties 
brome  grass  (Bromus  inermis  Leyss.),  as  d 
tinct,  for  instance,  as  the  ordinary  varieties 
wheat.  He  has  also  isolated  a  larger  numl 
of  varieties  of  Poa  pratensis,  differing  to 
remarkable  degree  in  character  of  growth,  a: 
consequently  in  agricultural  value. 

This  method  of  securing  new  and  stal 
varieties  is  probably  applicable  to  all  unii 
proved  crops  that  are  ordinarily  close-fert: 
ized.  In  the  case  of  cross-fertilized  specie 
a  different  procedure  would  be  necessary;  bi 
if  Mendel's  law  holds  in  these  cases,  simiL 
results  can  be  secured  even  in  cross-fertilize 
species  by  artificially  close-fertilizing  tl 
plants.  In  this  case,  the  plants  would  imm< 
diately  split  up  into  a  number  of  stable  forn 
that  could  be  segregated  as  varieties  by  isc 
lating  them  from  other  forms. 

The   origin    of   these   varieties  which  ar 


Januabt  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


35 


found  in  stable  form  in  close-fertilized  species 
(and  which  exist  potentially  in  cross-fertilized 
species)  is  a  matter  of  great  interest,  both 
theoretically  and  practically.  The  adherents 
of  the  mutation  theory  will  see  in  them  a  con- 
firmation of  their  views.  The  rest  of  us  are 
compelled  to  admit  that,  thus  far,  their  origin 
is  obscure. 

In  the  light  of  the  facts  cited,  the  question 
whether  a  given  crop  is  cross-  or  close-fertil- 
ized becomes  a  matter  of  prime  importance, 
as  different  methods  of  procedure  are  required 
in  the  two  cases.  Dr.  Hopkins  states  that 
clover  plants  selected  in  a  manner  analogous 
to  that  described  for  timothy  did  not  repro- 
duce true  to  seed,  but  that  the  plants  grown 
from  the  seed  of  a  single  plant  represented  all 
the  forms  observable  in  the  original  field  of 
clover.  This  is  what  Mendel's  law  leads  us 
to  expect,  if  clover  is  cross-fertilized,  a  matter 
which  has  recently  been  called  in  question. 
It  is  easily  seen  that  we  have  here  a  list  of 
important  problems  for  plant  physiologists,  in 
determining  definitely  what  crops  do  and  what 
do  not  cross-fertilize.  There  is  likewise  a  broad 
and  promising  field  of  work  in  securing  in 
a  stable  form  superior  strains  of  all  ordinary 
crops  to  which  these  methods  have  not  already 
been  applied.  The  amount  of  improvement 
possible  represents  the  difference  between  the 
mixture  of  all  strains  and  the  best  components 

of  the  mixture.  W.  J.  Spillman. 

U.  S.  Depabtment  of  Agriculture. 


RECENT   ZOOPALEONTOLOQT. 
FIELD  EXPEDITIONS  DURING  THE  PAST  SEASON.  * 

The  Kansas  chalk  was  visited  by  three 
parties  during  the  summer.  The  first,  under 
Professor  S.  "W.  Williston,  representing  the 
University  of  Chicago,  was  extremely  suc- 
cessful, especially  in  procuring  remains  of 
mosasaurs,  pterosaurs  and  toothed  birds;  the 
collection  will  be  arranged  principally  as 
a  study  collection  in  the  university.  The 
second  party  represented  the  Carnegie  Insti- 
tution of  Pittsburg,  and  is  reported  to  have 
been  very  successful  also.  The  third  party 
was  that  of  Mr.  Charles  H.  Sternberg  in  the 
same  field.  He  writes  that  he  collected  over 
sixty  specimens  of  Cretaceous  fossils,  includ- 


ing especially  well-preserved  specimens  of  the 
turtles.  Protostega  gigas  is  represented  by 
three  skulls  and  a  complete  skeleton.  The 
skeleton  lay  on  its  dorsal  surface  with  the  fore 
limbs  stretched  out  at  right  angles  to  the  me- 
dian line  of  the  carapace,  measuring  six  feet 
between  the  ungual  phalanges;  the  hind  limbs 
were  parallel  with  the  neural  arch,  and 
stretched  out  behind.  Mr.  Sternberg  also 
secured  a  number  of  mosasaur  skulls,  with 
portions  of  the  skeleton  of  Platecarptis  (one 
individual  included  sixty-six  continuous  verte- 
br89  behind  the  skull) ;  also  skulls  of  each  of 
the  three  genera  of  mosasaurs,  the  skeleton  of 
Portheus,  and  skulls  and  skeletons  of  a  num- 
ber of  other  genera  of  fishes.  It  appears  that 
erosion  of  the  chalk  is  quite  rapid,  and  there 
are  practically  fresh  exposures  in  many  parts 
of  this  famous  region. 

Professor  Loomis,  of  Amherst  College,  who 
has  been  for  some  years  with  the  American 
Museum  of  Natural  History  expeditions,  dur- 
ing the  past  season  conducted  a  party  from 
Amherst  into  South  Dakota.  A  collection 
including  the  remains  of  some  500  animals 
was  made,  chiefly  in  the  White  River  beds, 
the  best  specimens  being  the  skeleton  of  a 
titanothere  and  of  an  oreodon. 

Princeton  University'  sent  an  expedition 
under  Dr.  Marcus  Farr  into  the  Laramie  and 
Judith  River  Beds  of  Montana.  It  is  re- 
ported as  having  been  very  successful. 

The  American  Museum  of  Natural  History 
sent  four  parties  into  the  field.  The  first, 
the  third  Whitney  Expedition  for  fossil  horses, 
worked  in  western  Nebraska  and  South 
Dakota,  and  added  considerably  to  the  collec- 
tion of  fossil  horses  already  in  the  museum. 
The  choicest  specimen  found  by  this  party 
was  the  skeleton  of  Camelus  occidentalism 
The  second  party  worked  in  the  Bridger  Beds 
of  western  Wyoming  under  Mr.  Walter 
Granger,  and  was  successful  in  securing  a 
representative  collection  of  the  small  fauna 
of  that  region.  The  third  party,  under  Mr. 
Peter  Kaison,  continued  the  excavation  of  the 
Bone  Cabin  Quarry  in  the  Como  region,  the 
chief  discoveries  being  a  fore  limb  of  Moro- 
saitru^,  a  skull  of  Diplodocus,  portions  of  an- 
other skeleton  of  Stegosaurua  and  a  very  large 


36 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX 


collection  of  the  limb  bones  of  Camarasaurus 
from  the  Reed  Quarry.  The  fourth  expedi- 
tion went  into  South  Dakota  and  northern 
Wyoming,  under  Mr.  Bamum  Brown,  and 
resulted  particularly  in  the  discovery  of  abund- 
ant mosasaur  and  plesiosaur  material. 

The  explorations  of  the  Carnegie  Museum 
have  been  described  by  Mr.  Hatcher  in  a  re- 
cent number  of  Science. 

Mention  should  also  be  made  of  the  continu- 
ation of  the  explorations  in  the  Triassic  under 
Professor  Merriam,  of  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, as  well  as  of  the  cave  fauna  in  Shasta 
County,  a  description  of  which  has  already 
appeared  in  Science.  H.  F.  O. 


BOTANICAL  NOTES. 
THE    MISSOURI   BOTANICAL   GABDEN. 

The  appearance  of  the  Fourteenth  Annual 
Report  of  the  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  cov- 
ering the  year  ending  December  31,  1902, 
enables  us  to  note  the  rapid  growth  of  this 
institution.  The  report  shows  that  the  in- 
come from  all  sources  for  the  year  was  $127,- 
142.60  and  that  considerably  more  than  one 
half  of  this  amount  was  expended  on  the  gar- 
den, including  library,  herbarium,  salaries,  etc. 
The  total  number  of  species  of  plants  now  in 
cultivation  in  the  garden  is  11,551,  which  is 
more  than  double  the  number  grown  in  1895. 
The  herbarium  now  includes  427,797  speci- 
mens. During  the  year  there  were  added  no 
less  than  62,844  sheets  of  specimens.  The 
botanical  library  was  increased  by  more  than 
2,000  books  and  pamphlets,  bringing  the  total 
number  up  to  about  42,000.  Other  interesting 
statistics  are  griven,  showing  that  the  garden 
has  been  an  active  agent  in  the  promotion  of 
botanical  knowledge. 

The  bulk  of  the  volume  is  taken  up  with  a 
paper  by  Alfred  Rehder  under  the  title  of 
*  Synopsis  of  the  (Jenus  Lonicera/  covering 
206  pages,  and  including  twenty  full-page 
plates.  The  lapse  of  seventy  years  since  the 
last  general  revision  of  the  genus  in  the  fourth 
volume  of  DeCandoUe's  'Prodromus*  makes 
such  a  paper  as  this  especially  necessary. 
This  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  of  the  154  spe- 
cies recognized  in  this  monograph,  but  42 
occur  in  the  '  Prodromus.'     The  conservative 


treatment  accorded  to  the  genus  is  i 
by  the  small  number  of  new  species 
only)  which  the  author  has  described 
moderation,  after  the  '  lying  fallow ' 
particular  botanical  field  for  so  long* 
should  put  to  shame  our  ^  species  ] 
In  this  the  Missouri  Botanical  Garc 
rendered  a  distinct  service  to  botanical 

AX  ELEMENTARY  JOURNAL  OF   MTCOIX 

About  a  year  ago  Professor  Xellerc 
Columbus,  Ohio,  began  publishing:  a  lea 
the  benefit  of  those  who  wish  to  learn 
thing  about  the  fungi.  He  called  it  th 
Mycological  Bulletin  and  filled  it  with 
lent  photoengravings  of  the  larger 
With  each  picture  was  given  a  simple  d 
tion  adapted  to  the  understanding  of  '  ch 
in  years  and  children  in  knowledge.' 
been  so  successful  that  practically  all  < 
earlier  numbers  have  been  exhausted, 
first  volume,  which  includes  twelve  nu: 
aggregating  forty-eight  pages,  closes  w 
good  index.  With  the  last  number  a 
page,  for  the  volume  is  supplied.  The 
volume  is  to  start  with  the  new  year,  and 
announced  that  *  the  frequency  of  issue  di 
the  year  will  depend  on  the  financial  rece 
The  hope  is  expressed  that  two  numbc 
month  may  be  issued  during  the  spring 
fall.  For  teachers  in  the  public  schools 
wish  to  learn  to  know  the  commoner  1 
fungi  nothing  better  than  this  is  publi 
anywhere. 

SOME  RECENT  PAPERS  ON  SYSTEMATIC  BOTA: 

William  R.  Maxon  in  the  'Contribut 
from  the  United  States  National  Herbarii 
(Vol.  Vm.,  part  3)  publishes  'A  Studj 
Certain  Mexican  and  Guatemalan  Species 
Polypodium'  in  which  he  notices  eight  spec 
five  of  which  are  new  to  science.  Two  g 
plates  illustrate  the  paper. 

In  the  September  number  of  the  Bulk 
of  the  Torrey  Botanical  Club  Dr.  G.  N.  I 
revises  the  mosses  of  the  genus  Leakea,  so 
as  the  North  American  species  are  concern 
Ten  species  are  recognized,  two  of  which  i 
new.  He  finds  two  new  varieties  also.  1 
paper  is  accompanied  with  two  plates  showi 
structural  details. 


Januabt  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


37 


In  the  October  number  of  the  Journal  of 
the  Linnean  Society  the  '  Enumeration  of  all 
the  Plants  known  from  China  Proper,  For- 
mosa, Hainan,  Corea,  the  Luchu  Archipelago 
and  the  Island  of  Hongkong,'  by  Francis  B. 
Forbes  ,and  William  B.  Hemsley,  is  carried 
forward  nearly  through  the  Cyperacece.  As 
the  sequence  is  that  of  Bentham  and  Hooker, 
it  is  likely  that  a  few  more  numbers  will  see 
the  end  of  this  great  work. 

In  No.  247  of  the  Journal  of  the  Linnean 
Society  (dated  October,  also)  W.  and  G.  S. 
West  publish  an  interesting  paper  on  the 
'  Scottish  Freshwater  Plankton,'  which  shows 
that  the  Scottish  phytoplankton  '  is  unique  in 
the  abundance  of  its  desmids.' 

CHEMISTRY   OP   PLANT   AND  ANIMAL   LIFE. 

Professor  Snyder,  of  the  University  of 
Minnesota,  has  compiled  a  handy  little  volume 
under  the  title  of  'The  Chemistry  of  Plant 
and  Animal  Life,'  which  merits  a  notice  here, 
since  it  is  an  attempt  to  place  within  reach 
of  the  beginner  many  of  the  chemical  facts 
which  otherwise  are  inaccessible  to  him.  It 
is  an  elementary  treatise  and  was  originally 
prepared  for  the  students  in  the  school  of 
agriculture  of  the  university.  This  made  it 
necessary  that  the  treatment  should  be  quite 
simple,,  and  as  nearly  non- technical  as  possible. 
It  is  not,  therefore,  a  'contribution'  to  sci- 
ence, but  it  is  a  contribution  to  the  pedagogics 
of  science.  The  author  has  found  how  to 
present  the  subject  for  the  class  of  students 
under  consideration;  a  class  characterized  by 
great  earnestness  and  a  desire  to  learn  all  that 
can  be  reached,  but  whose  scholastic  prepara- 
tion is  somewhat  defective.  Difficult  as  is  the 
problem.  Professor  Snyder  has  successfully 
solved  it.  He  first  gives  about  twenty  chap- 
ters to  a  simple  statement  (with  experiments) 
of  general  chemistry,  and  follows  these  with 
such  topics  as  '  the  water-content  of  plants,' 
'the  non-nitrogenous  organic  compounds  of 
plants,'  '  the  nitrogenous  organic  compounds 
of  plants,'  '  chemistry  of  plant  growth,'  '  com- 
position of  fodders,'  'composition  of  wheat,' 
etc.  The  book,  while  a  simple  one,  and  no 
doubt  here  and  there  open  to  the  criticism  of 
some  confusion  of  details,  is  without  question 


one  which  will  be  of  great  service  to  beginning 
students,  especially  in  the  schools  of  agricul- 
ture. A  new  edition  is  under  way,  and  is  to 
appear  soon.      It  should  find  place  in  many 

schools.  Charles  £.  Bessey. 

The  University  of  Nebraska. 


THE  CARNEGIE  INSTITUTION. 

The  trustees  of  the  Carnegie  Institution 
have  approved  the  recommendation  of  the  ex- 
ecutive  committee  that  $10,000  be  granted  for 
twenty  tables  at  the  Marine  Biological  Labora- 
tory at  Woods  Hole,  Mass.,  for  1904.  Appli- 
cations received  prior  to  February  1,  1904,  will 
be  considered,  and  twenty  persons  assigned  to 
the  tables  at  the  laboratory,  for  the  season  of 
1904. 

The  trustees  have  also  approved  of  an  appro- 
priation for  two  tables  at  the  Naples  Marine 
Biological  Station,  for  which  applications  will 
be  received  and  considered  up  to  February  1, 
1904. 

It  is  desirable  that  all  applications  for  re- 
search assistantships  shall  be  in  the  hands  of 
the  committee  by  February  1. 

The  regulations  in  regard  to  the  research 
assistantships  are  as  follows: 

It  is  the  purpose  of  the  Carnegie  Institution 
of  Washington,  among  other  plans,  to  encour- 
age exceptional  talent  by  appointing  a  certain 
number  of  research  assistants. 

These  positions  will  not  be  those  commonly 
known  as  fellowships  or  scholarships;  nor  is 
the  object  of  this  provision  to  contribute  to 
the  payment  of  mechanical  helpers  or  of  assist- 
ants in  the  work  of  instruction.  It  is  rather 
to  discover  and  develop,  under  competent 
scrutiny  and  under  favorable  conditions,  such 
persons  as  have  unusual  ability.  It  is  not  in- 
tended to  provide  means  by  which  a  student 
may  complete  his  courses  of  study,  nor  to  give 
assistance  in  the  preparation  of  dissertations 
for  academic  degrees.  Work  of  a  more  ad- 
vanced and  special  character  is  expected  of  all 
who  receive  appointment. 

The  annual  emolument  will  vary  according 
to  circumstances.  As  a  rule,  it  will  not  exceed 
$1,000  per  annum.  No  limitations  are  pre- 
scribed as  to  age,  sex,  nationality,  graduation 
or  residence.  Appointments  will,  at  first,  be 
made  for  one  year,  but  may  be  continued. 


88 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol,.  XI 


It  is  desirable  that  a  person  thus  appointed 
should  work  under  the  supervision  of  an  in- 
vestigator who  is  known  to  the  authorities  of 
the  Carnegie  Institution  to  be  engaged  in  an 
important  field  of  scientific  research,  and  in 
a  place  where  there  is  easy  access  to  libraries 
and  apparatus — but  there  may  be  exceptions 
to  this. 

Applications  for  appointments  may  be  pre- 
sented by  the  head  of,  or  by  a  professor  in, 
an  institution  of  learning,  or  by  the  candidate. 
They  should  be  accompanied  by  a  statement 
of  the  qualifications  of  the  candidate,  of  the 
research  work  he  has  done,  and  of  that  which 
he  desires  to  follow,  and  of  the  time  for  which 
an  allowance  is  desired.  If  he  has  already 
printed  or  written  anything  of  interest,  a  copy 
of  this  should  be  enclosed  with  the  application. 

Communications  upon  this  subject  should 
be  distinctly  marked  on  the  outside  envelope, 
and  on  the  inside,  'Research  Assistant,'  and 
should  be  addressed  to  the  Carnegie  Institu- 
tion of  Washington,  Bond  Building,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C. 

SCIENTIFIC    NOTES   AND    NEWS. 

As  all  our  readers  know,  the  American  As- 
sociation for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  the 
American  Society  of  Naturalists  and  about 
twenty  afl&liated  societies  are  meeting  this 
week  at  St.  Louis.  Several  of  the  most  im- 
portant national  societies  devoted  to  the  bio- 
logical sciences,  or  their  eastern  branches,  are 
meeting  in  Philadelphia.  The  American  Philo- 
sophical Association  is  meeting  at  Princeton, 
and  there  are  more  or  less  local  meetings  in 
other  cities.  At  the  time  of  going  to  press 
information  in  regard  to  these  meetings  has 
not  reached  us;  but  we  shall  as  usual  publish 
full  reports  in  the  issue  of  next  week  and  in 
subsequent  issues. 

M.  Emile  Bertin  has  been  elected  a  member 
of  the  Paris  Academy  of  Sciences  in  the  sec- 
tion for  geography. 

M.  H.  Grehant,  professor  of  physiology  in 
the  Paris  Museum  of  Natural  History,  has 
been  elected  a  correspondent  of  the  Philadel- 
phia Academy  of  Natural  Science. 


Professor  Ludwig  Boltzmann,  o 
has  been  elected  an  honorary  meml 
Academy  of  Sciences  at  Moscow. 

Professor  Otto  Butsohli,  profess* 
ogy   and   paleontology   of   the    Unii 
Heidelberg,  has  been  appointed    an 
member  of  the  Universities  of  St.  P 
and  Moscow. 

The  honorary  doctorate  of  the  t 
of  Marburg  has  been  conferred  on  D; 
Tschemyshew,  of  St.  Petersburg,  di 
the  Eussian  Geological  Committee. 

The  University  of  Munich  has  con: 
honorary  doctorate  of  philosophy  oi 
Cockayne,  of  Christ  Church,  New  Z< 

Mr.  a.  J.  EvELAND,  a  graduate  st 
geology  and  mineralogy  of  the  Johns 
University,  has  been  appointed  geologi 
Mining    Bureau   established    by    the 
States  Government  in  the  Philippine 

Ma.  John  Shafer,  formerly  custo 
botany  at  the  Carnegie  Museum  of  Pi 
has  been  appointed  custodian  of  the  I 
of  the  New  York  Botanical  Gardens. 

Professor  Paul  Ehrlich,  director 
Koyal  Institute  for  Experimental  Tli 
tics  at  Frankfurt,  a/M,  will  deliver  t 
course  of  Herter  lectures  at  the  Johi] 
kins  University  Medical  School.  P] 
Ehrlich's  lectures  will  be  in  German,  a 
probably  present  the  results  of  his  res 
on  immiuiity. 

Dr.  G.  Sims  Woodhead,  professor  of 
ogy  at  Cambridge  University  and  men 
the  Royal  Commission  on  Tuberculosii 
the  third  Henry  Phipps  Institute  lecti 
December  29  at  Philadelphia,  his  subject 

*  Paths  of  Infection  in  Tuberculosis.' 

The  Bradshaw  lecture  was  delivered 
the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons  on  Dec 
9   by   Mr.   Henry   Morris,   the  subject 

*  Cancer  and  its  Origin.' 

A  SPECIAL  meeting  of  the  Scottish  Geoj 
ical  Society  was  held  at  Edinburgh  on  D 
ber  17,  under  the  presidency  of  Pro: 
James  Geikie.  An  address  was  deliver( 
Sir  Thomas  H.  Holdich  on  ^  The  Patagi 
Andes.' 


January  1,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


39 


A  CABLEGRAM  to  the  daily  papers  states  that 
Dr.  Alexander  Graham  Bell  arrived  at  Qenoa 
on  December  27.  He  will  convey  to  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  at  Washingrton,  D.  C, 
the  remains  of  James  Smithson,  founder  of 
the  institution,  who  died  in  Genoa  in  1829. 

We  learn  from  the  Botanical  Gazette  that 
the  large  herbarium  of  the  late  Professor  C. 
Haussknecht  will  be  maintained  by  his  family 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Thuringian  Botan- 
ical Society. 

It  is  announced  that  Dr.  Oscar  Guttmann 
has  presented  to  the  London  Chemical  Society 
a  photograph  of  the  portrait  of  Boger  Bacon  in 
possession  of  Lord  Sackville  at  Knole  House, 
Sevenoaks. 

Db,  Priedrich  Goll,  professor  of  pharma- 
cology at  Zurich,  has  died  at  the  age  of 
seventy-three  years. 

We  regret  to  record  the  death  of  M.  Proust, 
professor  of  hygiene  of  the  University  of  Paris 
and  inspector  general  of  the  Sanitary  Service; 
of  Dr.  Eugene  Askenasy,  honorary  professor 
of  plant  physiology  at  the  University  of 
Heidelberg;  and  of  Dr.  Ottmar  Schmidt,  pro- 
fessor of  chemistry  in  the  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology at  Stuttgart. 

Dr.  p.  Chalmers  Mitchell,  secretary  of 
the  London  Zoological  Society,  writes  to  the 
London  Times:  The  recent  death  of  the  Polar 
bear,  a  popular  favorite  at  the  Zoological 
Gardens  since  1895,  has  caused  some  interest 
and  has  been  the  occasion  of  many  published 
comments  based  on  inaccurate  information. 
Perhai)8  you  will  allow  me  space  to  state  the 
facts.  The  bear  was  in  good  health  and 
spirits  and  fed  well  until  the  afternoon  of 
Sunday,  November  1,  when,  soon  after  taking 
food,  it  fell  backwards  and  died  almost  in- 
stantaneously. The  post-mortem  changes  were 
unusually  rapid,  and  next  day  an  examination 
was  made  in  the  presence  of  Mr.  Beddard,  the 
society's  prosector,  and  myself,  and  a  prelim- 
inary diagnosis  was  arrived  at.  Subsequently 
Dr.  Salaman,  pathologist  to  the  London  Hos- 
pital, a  fellow  of  the  society,  who  has  very 
kindly  placed  his  services  at  the  disposal  of 
the  society  until  the  return  from  abroad  of 


the  special  pathologist  recently  appointed  by 
the  council,  made  a  careful  examination  of  the 
material  that  we  had  reserved,  and  established 
the  correctness  of  the  preliminary  diagnosis 
that  the  cause  of  death  was  an  aortic  aneurism. 
The  case  was  of  great  scientific  interest,  and 
Dr.  Salaman  will  communicate  to  a  future 
scientific  meeting  of  the  society  a  detailed  ac- 
count of  it.  I  may  say  now,  however,  that, 
except  for  the  local  lesion,  the  organs  and 
tissues  were  healthy,  and  it  is  extremely  im- 
probable that  the  creature  suffered.  It  would 
have  been  impossible  to  make  the  diagnosis 
during  life,  or,  had  we  known  of  the  existence 
of  the  disease,  to  have  taken  any  steps  for  its 
treatment.  I  may  add  that,  while  in  the  past 
very  considerable  additions  to  anatomical 
knowledge  have  been  made  at  the  prosectorium 
attached  to  the  gardens,  the  council  of  the 
society,  by  increasing  the  accommodation  for 
pathological  work  and  by  appointing  a  special 
pathologist,  hope  that  additions  to  knowledge 
of  the  treatment  of  animals  will  be  made. 

Baron  Edmund  de  Eothschu^d  has  placed  in 
the  hands  of  M.  Albert  Gaudry,  president  of 
the  Paris  Academy  of  Sciences  the  sum  of 
10,000  francs  to  enable  him  to  secure  for  the 
Paris  Museum  of  Natural  History  the  more 
valuable  specimens  in  the  Filhol  paleontolog- 
ical  collection. 

According  to  Reuter's  Agency,  Mr.  Bruce, 
the  leader  of  the  Scottish  Antarctic  Expedi- 
tion which  was  sent  out  last  year  on  board  the 
Scotia  J  has  arrived  at  Montevideo  from  the 
Falkland  Islands.  He  reports  that  all  is  well 
in  the  Scotia,  which  is  on  the  way  to  Buenos 
Ay  res.  Six  men  have  been  left  behind  in 
charge  of  a  meteorological  station.  The  news 
of  the  safe  return  of  the  Scottish  Antarctic 
Expedition  has  come  some  two  or  three 
months  earlier  than  was  expected.  It  was 
not  originally  Mr.  Bruce's  intention  to  winter 
in  the  Antarctic,  but  it  was  understood  that  if 
he  did  so  nothing  would  be  heard  of  the  ex- 
pedition after  its  departure  from  Port  Stanley, 
Falkland  Islands,  until  March  of  next  year. 
The  meteorological  station  referred  to  by  the 
explorer  at  which  six  of  his  men  have  been 
left  appears  to  be  the  station  set  up  by  Mr. 
Bruce  at  Cape  Pembroke,  Falkland  Islands, 


40 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XI 


before  the  Scotia  left  for  the  southern  aeas  in      tion,  and  to  the  importance  of  pre 
January  last.  management. 


The  National  Geographic  Society  has  re- 
cently movecl  into  its  new  home,  the  Gardiner 
Greene  Hubbard  Memorial  Hall.  As  the 
building  is  not  entirely  completed,  the  formal 
opening  of  the  hall  will  be  deferred  for  the 
present.  The  society  offers  three  courses  of 
meetings  during  the  season  of  1903-19Q4 — ^a 
regular  or  scientific  series  of  ten  meetings; 
a  popular  series  of  ten  illustrated  lectures,  and 
an  afternoon  or  lenten  series  of  five  popular 
lectures. 

A  SPECIAL  Roentgen  Congress  and  Exhibi- 
tion is  to  be  held  at  Berlin  during  the  spring 
to  celebrate  the  tenth  anniversary  of  the  dis- 
covery of  the  X-rays.  Professor  Koentgen  is 
exi)ected  to  be  present  at  the  congress.  Fur- 
ther information  can  be  obtained  from  Dr. 
Immelmann,  Liitzowstr.  72,  Berlin,  W.,  Ger- 
many. 

The  annual  dinner  of  the  Institute  of 
Chemistry  of  Great  Britain  took  place  on 
December  14.  Speeches  were  made  by  the 
president.  Dr.  Davis  Howard,  Sir  William 
Huggins  and  Sir  William  Ramsay. 

The  Canadian  papers  state  that  at  a  meet- 
ing of  the  board  of  directors  of  the  Canadian 
Forestry  Association,  held  at  the  office  of 
Mr.  E.  Stewart,  Dominion  Superintendent  of 
Forestry,  the  treasurer  reported  the  receipt 
of  a  grant  of  $300  from  the  Government  of 
Ontario  to  assist  in  the  work  of  the  associa- 
tion, and  that  the  governments  of  Quebec  and 
British  Columbia  had  also  promised  assistance. 
The  membership  has  reached  the  number  of 
420,  and,  with  the  improved  financial  position 
in  which  the  association  finds  itself,  it  is  pro- 
posed to  extend  the  sphere  of  its  activities. 
The  establishment  of  a  journal  devoted  spe- 
cially to  forestry  interests  was  discussed,  and 
it  was  decided  to  report  favorably  to  the  an- 
nual meeting.  The  publication  will,  if  started, 
be  managed  by  the  association,  and  will  prob- 
ably be  at  first  a  quarterly,  with  the  expecta- 
tion of  being  finally  issued  as  a  monthly.  It 
is  hoped  in  this  way  to  call  public  attention 
more  distinctively  to  the  work  of  the  associa- 


UNIVER8ITY   AND   EDUCATIONA. 

At  the  forty-ninth  quarterly  conv 
the  University  of  Chicago  Presidei 
announced  that  Mr.  John  D.  Rockc 
given  to  the  university  $1,500,000  i 
tate  and  $350,000  in  cash.  A  dor 
name  was  not  made  public,  has  give 
466  for  a  special  purpose  not  yet  d 

It  is  stated  that  Mrs.  Phoebe  H 
provide  a  building  for  the  Depar 
Botany  of  the  University  of  Calif  on 

A  GIFT  of  $1,000  from  Edward  Mai 
of  St.  Louis,  has  enabled  the  depai 
chemistry  of  Harvard  University  to 
the  library  of  Boylston  Hall  and  to  bi 
hundred  new  books.  E.  Mallinckrodi 
added  to  this  a  sum  to  be  paid  ann 
the  next  five  years  to  defray  the  rui 
penses  of  the  library.  The  collection 
has  also  been  enlarged  by  several  gi 
Dr.  Wolcott  Gibbs. 

We  learn  from  the  London  Times 
late  Mr.  Charles  Seale-Hayne,  M.P.,  h 
his  will  provided  for  the  establishm 
College  of  Science,  Art  and  Agrici 
the  neighborhood  of  Newton  Abbot, 
students  of  the  county  of  Devon.  De 
be  left  to  the  executors.  It  is  thou 
about  £150,000  will  be  handed  over 
college. 

Dr.  Horace  Clark  Eichards,  instr 
physics  in  the  University  of  Penm 
has  been  promoted  to  an  assistant  pi 
ship  of  physics. 

Mr.  Henry  Balfour,  M.A.,  of  Trin 
lege,  Oxford,  has  been  elected  to  felloe 
Exeter  College.  Mr.  Balfour  has  I 
some  years  curator  of  the  Pitt-Eivers  3 
He  is  also  president  of  the  Anthrop 
Institute,  and  president-elect  of  the  Ai 
logical  Section  of  the  British  Associa 
1904. 

Dr.  Hermann  Grassmann,  decent  ai 
has  been  promoted  to  an  assistant  pr 
ship  of  mathematics. 


SCIENCE 

A  WEEKLY  JOURNAL  DEVOTED  TO  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OP  SCIENCE,  PUBLISHING  THE 
OPPICIAL  NOTICES  AND  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION 

POR  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE. 


Friday,  January  8,  1904. 


CONTENTS: 

Convocation  Week 41 

Some  Recent  Phases  of  the  Labor  Problem: 
H.  T.  Newcomb 46 

The  Association  of  American  AgriciUtural  Col- 
leges and  Experiment  Stations:  Db.  E.  W. 
Allen 61 

Scientific  Books: — 
Traquair  on  the  Lower  Devonian  Fishes  of 
OemUnden:  Pbofessob  Bashfobd  Dean. 
Theobald's  Report  on  Economic  Zoology: 
F.  H.  CHirrENDEN.  The  International 
Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature — Geol- 
ogy: F.  B.  Weeks 64 

Soientifio  Journals  and  Articles 67 

Societies  and  Academies: — 
The  North  Carolina  Section  of  the  American 
Chemical  Society:  C.  D.  Habbis.  New 
York  Section:  Db.  H.  C.  Shebman.  The 
Chemical  Society  of  Washington:  Db.  A. 
Seidell.  The  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington :  F.  A.  Lucas.  The  Anthropological 
Society  of  Washington:  Db.  Walteb 
Hough.  The  Botanical  Society  of  Wash- 
ington: Db.  Hebbebt  J.  Webbeb.  The 
Torrey  Botanical  Club:  Db.  F.  S.  Eable. 
The  Research  Club  of  the  University  of 
Michigan:  Pbofessob  Fbedebick  C.  New- 
comb  67 

Discussion  and  Correspondence: — 
Morgan  on  Evolution  and  Adaptation:  Db. 
J.  T.  Cunningham.  Mutation  and  Selec- 
tion: Db.  Maynabd  M.  Metcalf.  Wilbur 
WrighVs  Successful  Flight  in  a  Motor- 
driven  Aeroplane :  H.  H.  Clayton 74 

The  Editorial  Committee  of  Science 77 

Scientific  Notes  and  News 77 

University  and  Educational  News 80 


M88.  intended  for  pablication  and  books,  etc..  intended 
for  review  sboold  be  sent  to  the  Editor  of  Sciencb,  Garrl- 
lon-on-Hndsoni  N.  Y. 


CONVOCATION    WEEK. 

The  second  of  the  convocation  week 
meetings  of  scientific  and  learned  societies 
leaves  no  doubt  as  to  the  wisdom  of  the 
general  plan,  though  it  is  evident  that  a 
final  solution  can  only  be  reached  by  grad- 
ual evolution.  The  meetings  held  at  St. 
Louis,  Philadelphia,  Pittsburg,  Princeton 
and  elsewhere  brought  together  large 
groups  of  .scientific  men,  and  the  programs 
of  papers  and  other  features,  both  formal 
and  informal,  were  satisfactory  and  profit- 
able. With  the  exception  of  the  fibret  of 
the  convocation  week  meetings  held  last 
winter  at  Washington,  when  practically  all 
the  scientific  societies  met  together,  so 
many  scientific  men  have  not  simulta- 
neously attended  the  meetings  of  their  so- 
cieties. Last  winter  there  was  some  fric- 
tion in  the  relations  of  the  numerous  so- 
cieties meeting  together  for  the  first  time 
and  partly  confluent  in  their  scope;  but 
such  friction  naturally  leads  to  attrition 
and  adjustment.  When  individuals  or  so- 
cieties are  isolated  there  are  always  excres- 
cences in  process  of  formation,  which  re- 
quire friction  for  their  removal. 

We  can  not,  consequently,  regard  the 
meetings  this  year  as  wholly  satisfactory. 
The  attendance  of  the  meeting  of  the 
American  Association  and  its  affiliated  so- 
cieties at  St.  Louis  was  not  as  large  as  had 
been  expected.    It  seems  unfortunate  that 


42 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


the  American  Society  of  Naturalists 
should  have  met  at  a  diflferent  place  from 
many  of  the  national  societies  devoted  to 
the  biological  sciences  which  have  usually 
been  aflSliated  with  it;  that  the  newly 
formed  Paleontological  Society  should 
have  met  apart  from  the  Geological  So- 
ciety; that  the  psychologists  should  have 
met  at  St.  Louis  and  the  philosophers  at 
Princeton;  the  mathematicians  of  the  cen- 
tral states  at  St.  Louis  and  those  of  the 
eastern  states  in  New  York,  and  the  like. 
The  vast  area  of  the  country  makes  sec- 
tional meetings  inevitable,  but  it  can 
scarcely  be  assumed  that  the  arrangements 
this  year  were  the  best  possible. 

This  journal  has  consistently  advocated 
a  convocation  week  meeting  of  our  national 
societies,  in  which  all  shall  be  represented, 
if  not  by  sessions  and  programs,  then  by 
delegates.  One  of  the  most  important 
problems  of  the  present  decade  is  the  proper 
affiliation  of  men  of  science  to  promote  their 
interests,  which  we  sincerely  believe  repre- 
sent the  interests  of  civilization.  Combina- 
tions of  labor  and  of  capital  may  be  purely 
selfish,  promoting  the  interests  of  one  class 
at  the  expense  of  another,  though  there  is 
good  reason  to  hope  that  in  the  end  trades 
unions  and  corporations  will  benefit  the 
whole  community ;  but  from  the  very  outset 
every  advance  in  science  is  for  the  benefit 
of  all.  Faraday  and  Henry  investigated 
the  phenomena  of  electromagnetism  in  the 
laboratory;  others  joined  in  the  work  and 
gave  us  the  telegraph,  the  telephone,  the 
electric  motor  and  the  rest,  adding  billions 
of  dollars  to  the  wealth  of  the  world.  The 
direct  and  indirect  work  of  a  single  man, 


such  as  Liebig  or  Pasteur,  adds  more 
common  wealth  than  all  the  scientii 
that  have  ever  lived  have  drawn  f ] 
The  material  contributions  of  scien 
obvious  and  trite;  but  it  is  sometim 
fully  realized  that  the  social  and 
lectual  results  are  even  greater.  A 
mental,  social  and  esthetic  ideals  ha 
come  clarified.  Great  men  lived  bef  c 
dawn  of  modem  science,  greater  pc 
than  any  now  living,  but  their  activit 
often  fragmentary,  and  in  many  dire 
childish.  The  doctrine  of  evolutioi 
other  scientific  concepts  are  now  the 
mon  heritage  of  every  one,  guidin 
thought  and  all  action. 

It  is  entirely  reasonable  to  urge 
whatever  advances  science  must  b^ 
every  one ;  first  perhaps  an  individual 
then  a  class,  a  country  and  the  w 
This  truth  must  be  impressed  on  the  v 
people;  and  it  must  be  done  by  those 
realize  it  most  fully,  that  is  by  sciei 
men  themselves.  Much  progress  has 
deed  been  made  in  this  country.  The 
tional  government  does  more  for  scier 
work  than  any  other ;  the  states  and  m 
cipalities  do  more ;  private  gifts  to  uni 
sities  and  scientific  institutions  are  lar 
far  larger,  than  elsewhere.  But  this 
matter  of  the  last  twenty  years;  we  h 
only  begun.  The  United  States  must 
sume  the  leadership  in  science,  not  only 
its  own  advantage,  but  also  for  the  well 
of  civilization. 

Our  press,  the  pulpit,  legislative  bod 
public  sentiment  generally,  are  well  me 
ing,  but  excessively  crude.  Scientific  n 
have  a  large  problem  in  education  bef< 


January  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


43 


them,  and  it  must  be  admitted  that  educa- 
tion must  begin  at  home.  All  dissensions 
and  petty  quarrels  are  harmful.  There  is 
too  much  rivalry  and  too  little  cooperation 
in  scientific  work.  We  inherit  from  a  long 
past  certain  competitive  tendencies  which 
should  become  obsolete.  The  attainment 
of  priority,  degrees,  honors,  membership  in 
exclusive  societies,  and  the  like,  have  been 
largely  the  rewards  of  scientific  men.  Bet- 
ter no  heaven  than  one  with  a  limited  seat- 
ing capacity,  for  which  each  strives  to  the 
exclusion  of  others.  It  is  less  selfish  to 
seek  wealth  by  producing  new  wealth  which 
is  shared  by  all,  than  to  attempt  to  secure 
honors  at  the  cost  of  depreciating  others. 

The  moral  intended  is,  of  course,  that 
scientific  men  should  unite  to  promote  their 
common  interests.  A  single  individual 
should  subordinate  his  interests  to  those  of 
the  group,  and  a  single  society  to  those  of 
the  general  organization  of  societies.  It  is 
fortunately  the  case  that  the  interests  of 
the  individual  usually  coincide  with  those 
of  the  group ;  the  conflict  is  more  often  be- 
tween the  temporary  and  permanent  inter- 
ests of  an  individual  or  of  a  group.  The 
theory  of  evolution  tells  us  that  this  con- 
flict is  due  to  maladjustment,  the  environ- 
ment having  changed  more  rapidly  than  the 
individual  or  the  group  has  been  able  to 
adjust  itself  to  it. 

This  appears  to  be  the  case  just  now  in 
the  organization  of  science.  Scientific 
workers  have .  increased  fivefold  in  from 
ten  to  twenty  years;  new  and  specialized 
lines  of  scientific  work  have  arisen;  the 
geographical  center  of  scientific  population 
and  interest  is  moving  from  the  eastern 


seaboard  toward  the  west.  The  organiza- 
tion that  suJ9Sced  twenty  years  ago  is  no 
longer  adequate.  Special  societies  for  each 
science  have  arisen  and  regional  and  local 
sections  have  been  formed.  Organic  fusion 
must  be  slow,  but  better  progress  can  be 
made  by  intelligent  guidance  than  by  sub- 
mission to  the  wasteful  processes  of  natural 
selection.  No  one  can  lay  out  a  valid  pro- 
gram for  the  future,  but  suggestions  can  be 
made  subject  to  the  survival  of  the  fit, 
among  which  the  waste  by  failure  is  less 
than  in  the  case  of  experience  by  the  rule 
of  thumb. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution,  the  Nation- 
al Academy  of  Sciences  and  the  Carnegie 
Institution,  each  has  had  an  opportunity 
to  become  the  center  of  scientific  organiza- 
tion for  the  country,  and  each  has  com- 
pletely failed.  This  is  not  altogether  re- 
grettable. We  live  in  a  democratic  age 
and  community;  government  by  represen- 
tation is  better  than  any  aristocratic  or 
despotic  form,  however  benevolent.  The 
organization  of  the  council  of  the  American 
Association  adapts  it  for  becoming  the  chief 
center  for  scientific  organization.  The  as- 
sociation represents  the  entire  country  and 
all  the  sciences.  If  any  regions  are  inade- 
quately represented  in  its  membership  or 
any  sciences  are  not  included  in  its  scope, 
this  need  not  continue  to  be  the  case.  The 
council  is  not  only  the  representative  body 
of  the  association,  but  also  of  all  scientific 
societies  that  wish  to  be  represented  on  it. 
It  is  not  known  to  every  one  that  any  scien- 
tific society  may  by  vote  of  the  council  be- 
come affiliated  with  the  association.  In  this 
case  it  sends  one  or  two  delegates,  accord- 


44 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Voi^  XIX. 


ing  to  its  size,  to  the  council,  and  has  the 
option  of  meeting  with  the  association ;  its 
members,  even  when  not  members  of  the 
association,  enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  re- 
duced rate  of  transportation,  provision  of 
place  of  meeting,  enteirtainments,  etc.,  pro- 
vided by  the  association.  At  the  same  time 
the  society  retains  its  complete  autonomy. 
It  can  meet  when  and  where  it  likes,  and  if 
it  meets  with  the  association  its  scientific 
program  and  other  functions  remain  en- 
tirely  under  its  own  control.  The  associa- 
tion has  been  liberal  and  catholic  in  its 
treatment  of  affiliated  societies.  For  ex- 
ample, at  the  meeting  last  week  the  So- 
ciety of  College  Teachers  of  Education 
and  the  Society  for  Horticultural  Science 
were  admitted  to  affiliation.  Some  socie- 
ties, as  the  American  Chemical  Society  and 
the  American  Physical  Society,  met  at  St. 
Louis  in  conjunction  with  the  correspond- 
ing sections  of  the  association;  others,  as 
the  Geological  Society  of  America  and  the 
American  Botanical  Society,  provided  in- 
dependent programs.  No  society  that  has 
met  several  times  with  the  association  has 
shown  any  disposition  to  separate  itself 
from  it.  Different  societies  may  hold  in- 
dependent meetings  in  summer  or  even  in 
convocation  week,  but  they  will  not  break 
an  af&liation  that  has  proved  useful  for 
the  society,  for  the  association  and  for  the 
general  progress  of  science.  If  any  society 
is  unwilling  to  become  affiliated  with  the 
association,  it  is  probably  due  to  ignorance 
of  the  conditions. 

The  American  Association,  the  Ameri- 
can Society  of  Naturalists  and  about 
twenty    affiliated    societies,    including    all 


those  devoted  to  the  physical  scien< 
many  of  those  devoted  to  the  natu 
ences,  met  together  at  St.  Louis, 
believed  by  many  members  of  the  ( 
that  it  was  undesirable  to  select  St. 
as  the  place  of  meeting  this  winter 
council  has  in  recent  years  recomn 
a  place  of  meeting  two  years  in  ad 
When  the  meeting  at  St.  Louis  wa 
discussed  at  Denver,  it  was  suppose* 
it  would  be  last  summer  in  conn 
with  the  exposition.  The  expositioi 
postponed  for  a  year,  and  the  assoc 
changed  its  time  of  meeting  to  the  w 
It  would  probably  have  been  wiser  f< 
association  to  have  continued  its  su 
meetings,  at  least  until  the  relative  a< 
tages  of  winter  and  summer  meetings 
become  evident.  If  the  association 
such  of  the  affiliated  societies  as 
wished  had  met  last  summer  at  It 
this  winter  at  Philadelphia  and  next 
mer  at  St.  Louis  in  conjunction  witl 
Congress  of  Arts  and  Science,  the  c( 
tions  would  have  been  more  satisfac 
than  is  the  case  at  present.  But  at  TV 
ington  the  council  of  the  association 
no  definite  knowledge  of  the  congresi 
the  exposition,  the  chemists  had  met 
Philadelphia  the  year  before,  and  no 
could  have  supposed  that  the  easi 
branch  of  the  Zoological  Society  and  o1 
biological  societies  would  have  met 
Philadelphia,  when  it  was  known  that 
association  would  meet  there  next  y( 
Scientific  societies,  like  national  gove 
ments,  have  a  way  of  muddling  throui 
but  it  is  surely  reasonable  to  suppose  tl 
men   of   science   should    be  the  first 


Januabt  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


45 


apply  scientific  methods  to  their  own 
guidance. 

The  American  Association  and  a  ma- 
jority of  our  scientific  societies  will  meet 
next  year  at  Philadelphia  and  the  follow- 
ing year  at  New  Orleans.  Other  societies 
should  adjust  their  plans  to  this  definite 
program.  It  may  be  desirable  for  the  nat- 
uralists of  the  central  states  to  hold  a 
meeting  of  their  own  next  year  and  for  the 
naturalists  of  the  eastern  states  to  hold 
a  separate  meeting  the  following  year,  and 
individual  societies  may  like  to  meet  some- 
times apart  from  the  general  meeting.  But 
it  would  be  unfortunate  to  have  two  com- 
peting groups  of  naturalists  meeting  next 
year  at  the  same  time  and  in  the  same  re- 
gion. If  this  should  occur,  it  would  not 
be  the  result  of  the  wishes  of  the  general 
body  of  naturalists,  but  through  misunder- 
standings on  the  part  of  a  few  officers.  If 
any  of  the  societies  that  met  at  Philadel- 
phia last  week  are  unwilling  to  return  next 
year,  or  wish  to  hold  meetings  apart  from 
tiie  main  group,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  they 
will  meet  separately  in  small  university 
towns,  rather  than  undertake  to  organize  a 
conflicting  group. 

It  would  be  desirable  for  the  council  of 
the  American  Association,  representing 
the  association  and  affiliated  societies,  to 
lay  out  its  program  even  more  than  two 
years  in  advance,  it  being  of  course  always 
adjustable  to  new  conditions.  There  ap- 
pears to  be  no  valid  argument  against  both 
summer  and  winter  meetings.  It  entails 
extra  labor  on  the  secretaries,  but  they 
should  be  adequately  paid,  and  different 
summer  and  winter  secretaries  could  be 


elected  should  this  prove  desirable.  The 
council  of  the  association  should  and  does 
meet  twice  a  year,  and  it  appears  that  a 
summer  meeting  would  be  a  better  occa- 
sion than  the  time  of  the  meeting  of  the 
National  Academy  at  Washington.  A 
sunmier  meeting,  supposing  waste  on 
printing  programs  and  the  like  to  be  elim- 
inated, would  increase  the  receipts  more 
than  the  expenditures;  in  any  case  the  as- 
sociation has  an  ample  income,  having 
been  able  in  recent  years  to  turn  over 
large  sums  from  the  income  to  the  perma- 
nent funds.  Since  the  New  York  meeting 
of  the  association,  when  it  was  decided  to 
send  Science  free  of  charge  to  all  mem- 
bers, the  membership  has  increased  from 
1,700  to  over  4,000.  If  seventeen  hundred 
members— there  were  actually  but  twelve 
hundred  who  were  in  full  standing— could 
hold  one  meeting  annually,  four  thousand 
members  can  hold  two.  It  is  nearly  always 
a  mistake  for  those  who  do  not  want  to  do 
a  thing  to  say  to  those  who  do:  You  must 
not.  With  the  exception  of  certain  officers, 
most  of  whom  might  be  elected  in  dupli- 
cate, no  one  need  attend  any  particular 
meeting  of  the  association.  If  the  work 
were  somewhat  differentiated  there  would 
be  ample  room  for  two  meetings  a  year, 
with  a  satisfactory  attendance  and  pro- 
gram at  each. 

We  look  forward  to  seeing  the  convoca- 
tion week  meeting  in  midwinter  the  great 
assemblage  of  American  men  of  science, 
where  all  societies  will  be  represented  either 
by  a  plebiscite  or  by  delegates,  which  will 
impress  on  the  public  at  large  the  weight 
and  magnitude  of  scientific  work.      The 


46 


SCIENCE. 


[N.s.  Vol..  x: 


meeting  should  be  essentially  an  affiliation 
of  scientific  societies,  but  they  should  when 
convenient  confine  their  special  programs 
to  the  mornings,  leaving  the  afternoons  to 
the  sections  of  the  association,  two  or  three 
of  which  should  arrange  for  each  afternoon 
programs  of  general  interest  to  scientific 
men,  uniting  in  many  cases  the  common 
fields  of  several  sciences.  This  convoca- 
tion week  meeting  must  be  held  in  a  large 
city  and  its  work  must  be  largely  technical. 
But  there  appears  to  be  ample  room  for 
smaller  and  less  formal  meetings  in  the 
summer,  held  in  a  university  town  or  sum- 
mer resort,  where  those  who  liked— and 
many  teachers  and  others  whose  work  in 
science  is  somewhat  that  of  the  amateur 
would  appreciate  the  opportunity— could 
come  together.  Out-of-door  life  and  scien- 
tific excursions  would  there  be  possible^ 
pleasant  and  profitable. 

A  full  discussion  of  the  whole  problem 
of  scientific  organization  would  be  oppor- 
tune and  useful  at  the  present  time.  This 
journal  will  be  glad  to  give  space  to  those 
who  are  willing  to  express  their  views  on 
the  subject,  and  we  hope  that  it  will  be  dis- 
cussed from  different  standpoints. 


SOME  rece:nt  phases  of  the  labor 

PROBLEM.* 

OLD    PROBLEMS,    BUT    NEW    CONDITIONS. 

In  the  rapid  development  of  modem  in- 
dustry old  problems  are  ever  assuming  new 
and  perplexing  phases,  but  intrinsically 
new  ones  rarely  develop.  Each  age  is 
quick  to  imagine  that  its  difficulties  exceed 
those  which  were  conquered  by  its  prede- 
cessors,  and   to   fancv  the  latter  as   free 

*  Address  by  the  vice-pre.-^ident  and  chairman 
of  Section  I,  Economics  and  Social  Science,  St. 
Ijouis  meeting,  December,  1903. 


from  the  obstacles  in  overcomi 
the  courage  and  genius  of  its  ov 
are  subjected  to  their  supremest  i 
this  is  the  superficial  view  only. 
the  principle  upon  which  the  mos 
mechanism  performs  its  marvelc 
cialized  functions  is  to  be  foun 
crudest  labor-saving  devices  of  th 
dawn  of  culture,  so  the  most  prii 
dustrial  organization,  when  sub, 
minute  scrutiny,  is  sure  to  prese 
of  those  elements  of  friction,  vs^l 
after  another  in  different  stages 
ress,  become  the  particular  and  a 
problems  of  generations  to  which 
turn  seems  the  sole  serious  imped: 
the  realization  of  perfect  conditio 
The  labor  problem  is  no  exceptio 
the  struggle  between  different  fa 
production  over  the  relative  shares 
and  its  origin  lies  deep  in  fund 
conditions  which  have  existed  as 
men  have  known  the  wisdom  of 
labor  by  the  use  of  tools  and  of  con 
productive  resources  by  the  device 
vate  property.  It  will  persist,  in 
another  of  its  protean  forms,  until  I 
unlooked-for  alchemy  man  learns  to 
all  human  wants  without  requirini 
any  individual  more  labor  or  abs 
than  he  will  voluntarily  undertak 
every  historic  era  this  unceasing  si 
has  left  indelible  traces  upon  the  re( 
man's  progress,  and  rarely  has  it  3 
the  place  of  primary  importance 
minds  of  men  to  anything  less  comj 
than  religious  zeal. 

A  PERSISTENT  INQUIRY. 

IIow  shall  the  comfort  of  satisfie 
nomic  wants  be  divided  between  thos 
contemporaneously  endure  the  ph 
discomforts  of  toil  and  those  who  C( 
the  other  factors  in  production?  T 
the  everlasting  question  which,  in  vi 
forms,  has  been  asked  and  answerec 


Januaby  8,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


47 


asked  and  answered  again  in  unending 
repetition  while  humanity  has  struggled 
from  the  crudest  forms  of  industrial  or- 
ganization, through  slavery  and  serfdom, 
up  to  the  wages  system.  It  is  asked  to-day, 
when  the  share  of  the  poorest  who  labors 
with  his  hands  is  sufficient  to  purchase 
comforts  which  a  few  centuries  ago  were 
beyond  the  reach  of  kings,  and  although 
the  agencies  which  capital  has  established 
seek  daily  in  the  uttermost  limits  of  the 
earth  and  among  the  most  distant  islands 
of  the  sea  to  bring  thence  and  lay  cheaply 
at  the  feet  of  labor  every  product  that  can 
satisfy  or  please,  the  final  answer  is  not 
yet.  Indeed,  in  this  most  fortunate  land, 
where  sturdy  manhood  has  found  nature 
in  her  most  generous  mood  and  industry 
and  genius  have  won  an  abundant  and  in- 
creasing harvest,  there  is  at  this  hour  of 
highest  prosperity  a  reverberating  discon- 
tent which  seems  to  some  to  menace  much 
that  has  been  gained. 

The  organized  demand  for  a  better  an- 
swer to  this  persistent  questioning  than 
labor  has  ever  yet  received  appeals 
strongly  to  the  sympathies  of  those  who 
love  their  fellowmen,  and,  as  long  as  it  is 
kept  within  reasonable  bounds  by  a  due 
sense  of  the  responsibilities  of  strength 
and  the  rights  of  others,  will  have  the  aid 
and  approval  of  the  right-minded.  But 
sympathy  may  go  where  sanction  must  be 
denied,  and  in  every  step  of  its  perpetual 
struggle  for  what  it  rightly  or  wrongly 
conceives  to  be  the  interests  of  labor,  and 
the  means  of  attaining  a  higher  standard 
of  comfort  and  culture,  the  demands  of 
organized  labor  must  be  subjected  to  intel- 
ligent scrutiny,  and  the  probable  conse- 
quences of  granting  them  must  be  calmly 
and  minutely  examined. 

CONDITIONS    OP    THE    PROBLEM    OP 
DISTRIBUTION. 

Let  us  enumerate  a  few  of  the  funda- 


mental conditions  of  this  struggle  over  dis- 
tribution. Capital  is  the  great  labor-saving 
contrivance  and  the  mother  of  all  labor- 
saving  devices.  Withdraw  that  which  ex- 
ists, and,  with  the  most  grinding  toil,  the 
earth  could  not  be  made  to  support  a  tithe 
of  its^present  population.  Stop  its  further 
accumulation,  and  industrial  progress 
would  cease  until  presently  it  should  give 
place  to  retrogression.  Remove  the  incen- 
tive to  abstinence,  and  saving  and  accu- 
mulation would  stop,  while  the  gradual 
consumption  of  existing  capital,  not  offset 
by  replacement,  woujld  inaugurate  a  move- 
ment toward  barbarism.  Reduce  the  in- 
centive, and  the  pace  of  progress  will  be 
proportionately  slackened.  But  capital  is 
not  only  the  handmaiden  of  labor;  it  is 
the  accumulated  product  of  labor.  Wher- 
ever it  exists,  it  is  conclusive  evidence  of 
previous  effort  and  abstinence.  Labor, 
alone,  can  pluck  the  ripened  fruit;  it  can 
not  increase  the  product  by  cultivatioo, 
for  it  can  not  subsist  during  the  period  of 
growth.  Labor  can  wade  in  the  stream 
and  catch  a  few  fish  with  its  naked  liands, 
but  it  can  not  spread  the  net  to  gather  food 
for  a  multitude  unless  capital  provides  for 
its  immediate  necessities  while  the  fabric  h 
being  constructed.  Labor  can  carry  an 
armful  of  coal  or  a  stick  of  lumber,  but 
the  locomotive  which  hauls  its  train  of 
fifty  cars,  each  containing  one  hundred 
thousand  pounds  of  coal  or  lumber,  is  cap- 
ital. But  the  instruments  of  husbandry, 
the  net,  the  locomotive,  have  no  direct  or 
final  utility  of  their  own.  Of  themselves, 
they  neither  feed,  nor  clothe,  nor  house  the 
body  of  man,  nor  minister  to  his  higher 
needs.  They  will  not  be  brought  into 
being,  unless,  for  the  effort  expended  in 
their  creation,  their  producers  are  guaran- 
teed a  fitting  recompense.  This  recom- 
pense must  be  a  share  in  the  products  ob- 
tained through  their  agency  and  the  eco- 
nomic  name   for   this   share  is   *  interest.' 


48 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  Xj 


Interest,  including  in  that  term  compensa- 
ttioia  for  the  risk  assumed,  is  all  that  cap- 
ital, as  such,  ever  obtains  from  produc- 
tion ;  it  is  the  least  which  it  will  accept.  It 
is  high  when  the  supply  of  capital  is  small 
in  proportion  to  the  demand  for  it,  and 
low  when  the  condition  is  reversed.  Profit 
is  not  for  capital;  it  is  the  wages  of  the 
usually  arduous  labor  of  determining  the 
direction  of  industrial  investments  or  the 
differential  reward  of  exceptional  eco- 
nomic foresight  or  technical  skill.  Those 
who  reap  profits  are  differentiated  from 
those  who  receive  wages  by  the  fact  that 
profits  are  dependent  upon  success  (pos- 
sibly it  is  better  to  consider  that  in  the 
case  of  failure  there  are  really  negative 
profits),  while  wages  constitute  a  .pre- 
ferred claim,  the  payment  of  which  is 
usually  arranged  for  in  advance. 

THE  LIMIT  OP  WAGES. 

Here,  then,  are  the  conditions  of  the 
problem.  Labor  must  have  its  wages  at 
all  times  and  under  all  conditions.  In  the 
long  run  directing  efficiency  must  have  its 
profits  and  capital  must  have  its  interest. 
Wages  may  often  absorb  portions  of  the 
shares  of  the  other  claimants,  but  unless 
these  are  eventually  satisfied,  the  efficiency 
of  industry  will  be  impaired  and  capital 
will  cease  to  accumulate,  either  because  the 
owners  of  wealth  prefer  to  consume  it  or 
because  they  hoard  it  rather  than  permit 
its  use  as  capital  on  unsatisfactory  terms. 
Thus  is  the  limit  of  wages  fixed.  The  ef- 
forts of  organized  workingmen  to  secure 
higher  wages  deserve  approval  so  long  as 
they  do  not  threaten  industrial  efficiency 
through  a  reduction  of  interest  or  profits 
below  the  minimum  limits  respectively 
fixed  by  marginal  capitalists  and  entre- 
preneurs. Demands  that  exceed  these  lim- 
its would,  if  granted,  produce  results 
which  could  only  react  unfavorably  upon 
those  who  made  them.     The  increase  and 


progressive  diffusion  of  industr 
gence  tend  to  reduce  the  amou: 
can  be  effectively  demanded 
whose  service  to  society  lies  in  de 
the  character  and  organization  o 
tive  efforts,  and  the  rapid  accum 
capital  tends  to  reduce  the  gener 
interest.  Consequently,  wage-ea] 
reasonably  anticipate  an  increasi 
of  the  value  annually  produced 
under  favorable  conditions,  the^ 
receive  it  they  may  justly  d< 
change  in  the  proportion  which 
accorded. 

WHY  WORKMEN  ORGANIZE. 

The  instinct  which  impels  woi 
to  organize  rather  than  to  deal  sc 
with  their  employers  is  precisely 
as  that  which  at  other  points  of  < 
contact  has  universally  led  to  e 
mitigate  the  consequences  of  con 
by  the  simple  device  of  combinati< 
single  workman,  dealing  with  an  e 
of  many  workmen  engaged  to  ren 
ilar  service,  is  at  exactly  the  same 
disadvantage  which  confronts  th 
manufacturer  who  has  to  sell  in  a 
to  which  a  multitude  of  competi 
ducers  have  access  on  equal  terms, 
is  nothing  strange  in  the  fact  that  tl 
acteristic  movement  of  the  great  in< 
revolution  which  has  been  in  progre 
the  invention  of  the  spinning  jen 
the  power  loom  has  left  its  impres 
labor  as  well  as  upon  capital.  If  lal 
not  organized,  it  would  have  been  i 
belated  factor  in  the  industry  of  th 
ing  years  of  the  twentieth  century. 
as  capital  must  continue  to  compel 
capital,  so  labor  will  compete  with  L 
long  as  capitalistic  production  ai 
wages  system  endure,  but  on  eith( 
folly  could  go  no  further  than  to  sc 
perpetuation  of  the  crude,  cut-throa 
petition  which  seeks  the  immediate 


Januaby  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


49 


mination  of  the  rival  at  whatever  cost  to 
the  survivor.  Such  competition  is  crude 
in  its  methods;  it  is  destructive  in  its  con- 
sequences, and  it  is  not,  to-day,  a  means  of 
attaining  the  highest  degree  of  economic 
eflSciency.  Both  capital  and  labor  are 
amply  justified  in  uniting  to  mitigate  this 
\md  of  competition.  It  is  to  be  observed, 
in  passing,  that  the  capitalistic  combina- 
tion, when  fully  justifiable,  is  the  means  of 
economies  in  operation  and  management 
which  lower  the  cost  of  production,  and  in 
the  face  of  actual  or  potential  competition 
are  always  finally  expressed  in  reduced 
prices.  The  labor  combination  has  so  far 
almost  always  lacked  this  justification,  and 
the  leaders  must  systematically  seek  it  or 
their  organizations  must  continue  to  find 
their  entire  economic  basis  in  the  mitiga- 
tion of  the  evils  of  unrestrained  and  de- 
stuctive  competition. 

THE  employers'  SIDE. 

Enlightened  employers  do  not  expect  or 
desire  to  obtain  profits  by  securing  the 
greatest  aggregate  of  labor,  measured  in 
hours  or  effort,  at  the  lowest  cost.  The 
American  manufacturer  has  seen  the 
greatest  productive  efficiency  coincide  with 
the  highest  wages,  and  he  knows  that  the 
countries  where  workmen  receive  the  low- 
est real  wages  are  unable  to  compete  in  the 
markets  of  the  world  with  those  whose 
labor  is  better  paid.  He  is  able  to  estimate 
somewhat  accurately  the  sui)eriority  of 
intelligent,  well-fed,  well-clothed,  well- 
housed  and  contented  workmen  over  those 
who  do  not  enjoy  similar  advantages.  He 
knows  that  every  machine  in  his  factory 
works  better  in  the  hands  of  those  whose 
standajrd  of  living  requires  a  high  degree 
of  comfort.  Yet  in  the  economic  philos- 
ophy of  American  employers  there  is  no 
place,  and  there  should  be  none,  for  gra- 
tuities. High  wages,  liberal  wages,  are 
preferred  not  from  any  impulse  of  gener- 


osity, which  would  be  out  of  place  and 
destructive  of  its  own  purposes,  but  be- 
cause, dollar  for  dollar,  the  return  from 
high  wages  exceeds  that  from  low  wages. 
When  this  is  not  the  case,  it  means  that 
the  point  of  over-payment  has  been 
reached.  The  excess  of  the  wages  received 
by  the  overpaid  group,  in  such  an  instance, 
over  the  normal  amount,  is  a  burden  which 
must  be  borne  by  the  other  industries  and 
the  other  workmen  of  the  same  community. 
Each  workman  must  give  in  labor  a  fair 
equivalent  for  what  he  receives  in  wages, 
or  some  other,  workman  will  receive  less 
than  he  gives.  The  employer  who,  for  the 
sake  of  continued  peace  during  a  period 
of  high  profits  or  for  any  other  reason, 
aids  in  establishing  such  a  condition, 
strikes  a  blow  at  industrial  welfare  which 
in  the  end  will  fall  most  severely  upon  the 
wage  earners.  It  is  not  claimed  that  the 
practices  of  individual  employers  invar- 
iably attain  to  these  standards.  Narrow 
selfishness  and  unenlightened  greed  sway 
their  proportions  of  the  members  of  every 
industry  and  every  grade  in  every  indus- 
try. Employers  have  dealt  grudgingly 
and  even  cruelly  with  workmen  in  far  too 
ma^y  instances  and  always  to  their  own 
injury.  Yet  the  conditions  which  make 
for  fair  dealing  are  so  compelling,  even  if 
we  omit  the  paramount  condition  created 
by  the  force  of  public  sentiment,  and  they 
are  so  easily  read,  that  it  is  not  too  much 
to  say  that,  in  the  main,  American  employ- 
ers desire  to  deal  fairly,  and  do  deal  fairly 
with  the  men  whose  names  are  upon  their 
pay-rolls. 

HOW  IT  LOOKS   TO  UNIONISTS. 

The  economic  philosophy  of  general  ac- 
ceptance among  the  members  of  labor  or- 
ganizations is  not  so  easily  grasped.  In- 
deed, there  is  reason  to  believe  that,  except 
for  a  few  generalizations  of  the  broadest 
character,  there  is  no  economic  creed  to 


50 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol..  XI3 


which  American  trade  unionists  as  a  class 
adhere.  Among  their  leaders,  there  is 
every  shade  of  belief  from  the  strong  in- 
dividualism of  John  Mitchell  to  the  social- 
ism of  Eugene  Debs.  Even  in  the  prin- 
ciples to  which  the  various  unions  of  the 
American  Federation  of  Labor  adhere, 
there  is  no  uniformity,  for  we  find  organ- 
izations, like  the  United  Mine  Workers, 
which  desire  a  monopoly  of  all  labor  en- 
gaged in  certain  kinds  of  production  and 
move  toward  it  by  waging  destructive  war- 
fare upon  existing  unions  of  more  modest 
ambitions,  side  by  side  with  others  which 
admit  only  the  journeymen  workers  of 
single  highly  specialized  trades.  Theoret- 
ical agreement  is  probably  confined  to  the 
propositions  that  the  share  of  labor  in  the 
products  of  current  industry  should  stead- 
ily increase  at  the  expense  of  the  share  of 
capital,  and  that  this  can  be  accomplished 
by  the  enforcement  of  collective  bargain- 
ing. It  is  less  surprising  that  the  first 
proposition  should  be  pressed  by  some  to 
the  extreme  of  denying  the  validity  of  the 
claim  of  capital  to  even  the  smallest  share 
in  the  benefits  following  production  than 
it  is  gratifying  that  the  socialists,  whose 
philosophical  system  rests  upon  this  view, 
have  made  so  little  progress  in  their  efforts 
to  turn  the  labor  movement  into  an  organ- 
ized demand  for  the  socialization  of  all 
industry. 

DIVERGENT  UNION  METHODS. 

Even  in  the  current  practices  of  unionism 
there  is  little  uniformity.  At  their  best,  as 
exemplified  in  the  recent  history  of  some 
of  the  brotherhoods  of  railway  employees, 
these  practices  tend  to  increase  the  dignity 
of  labor  and  to  simplify  the  relations  be- 
tween employers  of  large  bodies  of  labor 
and  the  workingmen  composing  the  latter. 
On  the  other  hand,  there  have  been  in- 
stances in  every  great  city  and  in  most  in- 
dustries in  which  organized  labor  has  been 


made  the  means  of  denying  to  J 
citizens  some  of  the  most  funi 
rights  of  industrial  liberty;  of  in 
interference  with  public  order,  as 
pression,  falling  with  equal  injust 
representatives  of  capital  and  o 
What  more  significant  contrast  coi 
be  than  that  offered  by  American  u] 
one  day  paying  tribute  at  the  gra 
^I.  Arthur,  the  conservative  lead 
conservative  organization,  and,  on 
parading  under  the  leadership  of  a 
under  conviction  for  using  his  posit 
labor  union  as  a  means  of  blackmail 
grotesque  figure  of  the  man  whose  ii 
name  has  became  a  synonym  for 
speakable  vileness  of  the  lowest  p( 
the  political  degradation  of  the  ch 
of  this  country.  Yet  how  short  the  : 
between  the  funeral  of  the  late  Gran 
of  the  Brotherhood  of  Locomotive 
neers  and  the  Labor  Day  parade 
Parks  and  Devery. 

CONDUCT  THE  TEST. 

I  do  not  bring  these  facts  to  youi 
lection  without  a  purpose.  They  a 
mitted  as  conclusive  evidence  of  tl 
which  separates  the  best  organizatior 
the  worst.  Between  these  extremes  i 
doubtedly  to  be  found  representati 
nearly  every  intermediate  degree.  I 
the  same  organization  will  not  infreq 
appear,  within  a  short  period,  to  be  j 
by  utterly  divergent  ethical  and  ecc 
principles.  Such  a  lack  of  stability 
course  unfortunate,  but  it  is  attribute 
a  cause  that  operates  in  all  voluntary 
ciations,  and  at  times  even  in  the  st 
self ;  absence  of  interest  on  the  part  ol 
whose  influence,  if  exerted  at  all, 
usually  fall  on  the  conservative  side, 
conclusion  to  be  drawn  from  these  ti 
an  important  one.  They  establish  the 
ciple  that  every  labor  organization 
every  demand  of  a  labor  organization 


Jaituaby  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


51 


be  treated,  and  ought  to  be  treated,  accord- 
ing to  its  independent  merit.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  generalize  far  beyond  the  right  of 
workmen  to  organize,  a  right  which  no  sane 
student  of  industrial  affairs  and  no  intel- 
ligent employer  of  labor  ever  now  disputes. 
Workmen  have  the  right  to  organize  and  to 
do  so  on  such  terms  and  for  such  lawful 
purposes  as  seem  good  to  them,  but  em- 
ployers have  an  equal  right  to  refuse  to 
deal  with  organizations  whose  purposes  or 
methods  would  lead  to  a  loss  in  eflSciency 
and  to  reject  particular  overtures  whose  ac- 
ceptance would  have  that  effect.  Employ- 
ers who  earnestly  desire  to  accord  to  a 
movement,  the  persistence  of  which  against  . 
great  opposition  and  in  spite  of  enormous 
obstacles  of  internal  origin,  establishes  the 
economic  soundness  of  its  central  principle, 
will  always  strain  a  point  in  favor  of  deal- 
ing wi);h  labor  organizations.  Indeed,  no 
employer  ought  to  decide  to  refuse  to  con- 
sider an  offer  to  make  a  collective  bargain 
on  the  part  of  his  employees  except  on  the 
most  convincing  grounds  and  with  the 
greatest  reluctance.  To  destroy  one  labor 
organization  is  but  to  prepare  the  way  for 
another,  and  the  elimination  of  one  set  of 
labor  leaders  will  never  be  more  than  the 
signal  for  others  to  enter  upon  the  scene. 
Nor  are  the  new  organizations  and  the  new 
leaders  always  to  be  preferred  to  the  old. 

FAIR  TREATMENT  FOR  FAIR  EMPLOYERS. 

The  character  of  a  labor  organization  is 
to  be  measured  by  its  acts  and  by  the  prin- 
ciples to  which  it  adheres.  The  most  com- 
mon tests  of  character  relate  to  the  treat- 
ment of  non-union  men,  restriction  of  out- 
put and  the  strike.  Before  any  of  these, 
but  not  detracting  from  their  importance, 
I  should  put  the  attitude  of  the  organiza- 
tion toward  the  fair  employer.  What  ob- 
jection can  be  raised  to  the  declaration  that 
neither  a  fair  workman  nor  a  just  organiza- 
tion will  enter  into  an  agreement  which 


may  compel  unfair  treatment  of  a  fair  em- 
ployer. Yet  this  principle,  so  obviously 
just,  is  openly  and  constantly  violated  by 
organized  labor.  Before  the  recent  An- 
thracite Coal  Strike  Commission,  witness 
after  witness  among  those  called  on  behalf 
of  the  striking  mine  employees,  testified 
that  prior  to  the  great  strike  of  1902,  he 
had  no  grievance  against  his  employer,  the 
Philadelphia  and  Reading  Coal  and  Iron 
Company.  This  great  company  enjoyed 
an  unimpeachable  record  for  fairness  to  its 
employees,  and  among  them  there  existed 
no  doubt  that  should  unintentional  wrong 
occur  it  could  readily  be  brought  to  the 
attention  of  its  mining  superintendent  and 
would  be  promptly  and  completely  reme- 
died. The  man  who  holds  this  positicm, 
John  Vieth,  has  spent  more  than  half  a 
century  in  the  anthracite  mines,  beginning 
as  a  day  laborer.  He  knows  the  mines  and 
the  miners  as  probably  no  other  man  has 
ever  known  or  can  ever  know  them;  his 
sympathies  are  broad;  his  manner,  frank; 
his  honesty,  rugged;  his  fidelity  to  the  in- 
dustry and  every  man  in  it,  impartial  and 
unbreakable.  The  Reading  company  re- 
duced the  price  of  powder  a  full  decade 
before  its  competitors;  it  established  the 
sliding  scale  of  wages;  it  never  owned  a 
company  store;  it  long  ago  established  an 
employees'  insurance  fund,  and  it  pays  its 
miners  on  the  simple  per-car  and  per-linear- 
yard  systems.  Yet  the  organizers,  who 
were  sent  to  the  anthracite  fields  from  Illi- 
nois in  the  early  part  of  1900,  were  able 
to  induce  the  employees  of  the  Reading  to 
pledge  themselves  to  an  agreement  binding 
them  to  desert  their  fair  and  generous  em- 
ployers whenever  the  miners  in  the  north- 
em  and  western  anthracite  regions  should' 
feel  sufSciently  dissatisfied  with  the  wages 
or  conditions  in  their  fields  to  demand  a 
general  strike.  This  is  precisely  what  hap- 
pened in  May,  1902.  The  satisfied  em- 
ployees of  the  Schuylkill  region  had  no 


52 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


desire  to  strike,  but  because  the  men  of  the 
other  regions  desired  to  do  so,  they  con- 
sented to  attack  the  prosperity  of  the  com- 
pany which  had  brought  prosperity  to 
them,  and,  with  no  grievance  of  their  own, 
to  strike  a  severe  blow  against  American 
industrial  stability.  This  action  is  typical 
of  hundreds  of  instances  in  which  the  most 
generous  fairness  on  the  part  of  individual 
employers  has  failed  to  protect  them 
against  sharing  the  penalty  of  real  or 
fancied  unfairness  on  the  part  of  the  own- 
ers of  other  establishments  with  which  they 
had  no  connection.  In  fact,  with  few  ex- 
ceptions, it  is  the  current  practice  of  Amer- 
ican unionism  to  refuse  any  special  protec- 
tion to  the  employer  who  distinguishes 
himself  from  his  competitors  by  the  liberal 
treatment  of  his  employees  while,  in  a  spec- 
tacular manner  and  with  unbending  spirit, 
visiting  the  sins  of  those  who  displease 
them  alike  upon  the  just  and  the  unjust 
Such  a  practice  is  destructive  of  the  legiti- 
mate ends  to  be  gained  by  organization. 
It  places  the  generous  employer  at  a  greater 
disadvantage  than  that  resulting  from  the 
ordinary  competition  of  his  rivals,  and 
utterly  destroys  the  business  advantage 
that  ought  to  go  with  righteous  methods. 
The  principle  which  requires  the  fair 
treatment  of  fair  employers  must  be  estab- 
lished as  a  part  of  the  creed  of  unionism 
before  the  latter  can  become  a  genuine 
means  of  industrial  and  social  betterment. 
This  would  require  the  revision  of  some 
very  prominent  features  of  the  methods 
now  current  among  labor  organizations;  it 
would  abolish  the  S3mipathetic  strike  and 
also  the  general  strike  which,  in  recent  in- 
stances that  all  will  recall,  has  frequently 
paralyzed  the  industry  of  entire  sections. 
It  would  leave  labor  controversies  to  be 
settled  by  the  parties  directly  concerned 
and  would  pretty  effectually  deprive  both 
of  the  equally  fickle  support  and  opposition 


of  public  sentiment  based  on  mere  j 
inconvenience  and  annoyance. 

TREATMENT  OP  NON-UNION"    ME 

The  attitude  of  many  numericalljj 
labor  organizations  toward  those  w 
who  refuse  to  join  their  ranks  app 
closely  to  a  denial  of  personal  free 
matters  concerning  which  no  liberty 
individual  can  submit  to   dictatioi 
organization  except  government  cai 
the  sanction  of  the  intelligent  and  i 
ing,  be  permitted  to  demand   allei 
Yet  many  labor,  leaders  declare  tl 
workman  has  a  moral  right  to  remaii 
from  their  organizations,  and  compare 
who  dare  to  do  so  with  those  g^i 
treason  in  its  most  repulsive  forms, 
doctrine  has  its  natural  consequence,  c 
the  stress  of  great  strikes,  in  violen 
rected  at  the  persons  and  property  of 
who  give  practical  expression  to  their 
pendence  by  retaining  employment  a| 
the  wishes  of  their  fellows  or  by  acce 
positions  abandoned  by  those  on  strike 
would  be  absurd  to  expect  any  other  r 
Idle  men  of  somewhat  limited  cultm 
violent  passions  and  possessing  a  s 
sense  of  the  solidarity  of  their  class, 
abundant  oportunities  for  the  develop 
of  mob  spirit,  will  always  attempt  to 
pel  obedience  to  what  they  regard  a 
moral  law  when  convinced  that  those 
violate  it  are  doing  so  to  the  positive  ii 
of  their  class.     Hence,  when  John  Mil 
and  other  leaders  in  the  great  stril 
1902  proclaimed  against  violence,  in 
abstract,  with  one  breath,  aad  with 
next  compared  the  men  who  were  at ' 
to  Benedict  Arnold  and  to  the  tones  oi 
Revolutionary  period,  they  laid  a  fou 
tion  upon  which  it  is  not  strange  that  c 
men,  whose  opportunities  to  acquire 
control  had  been  more  limited  than  i 
own,    should    erect    a    superstructure 


Januabt  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


53 


violent   mterference   with   the    rights    of 
others. 

These  leaders  did  not  even  verbally  con- 
demn the  use  of  the  boycott  for  the  purpose 
of  enforcing  the  new  commandment: 
'Without  permission  of  the  majority  thou 
shalt  not  work.'  It  was  invoked  to  drive 
the  daughters  and  sisters  of  non-union  men 
from  employment  as  teachers  in  the  public 
schools  and  in  the  factories,  to  prevent 
medical  attendance  upon  the  sick  and  to 
interfere  with  the  interment  of  the  dead. 
Its  most  common  use  was  to  deprive  fam- 
ilies of  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  fathers 
who  sought  work  for  the  sake  of  their  little 
ones  were  sometimes  compelled  to  see  them 
suffer  from  hunger  because  no  one  dared 
to  sell  them  food.  From  this  expedient  to 
dynamite  how  short  the  step.  No  one  need 
be  surprised  that  it  was  repeatedly  taken.  ^ 

THE  VOICE  OP  AUTHGRTTY. 

It  still  remains  to  be  seen  whether  those 
who  have  been  most  prominent  in  incul- 
cating this  new  doctrine  of  the  depravity  of 
refusing  to  join  an  organization  and  espe- 
cially of  insisting  on  the  right  to  work  on 
terms  which  are  unsatisfactory  to  others 
will  learn  wisdom  from  the  Anthracite  Coal 
Strike  Commission  and  the  President  of  the 
United  States.  To  appreciate  the  contrast 
between  their  teachings  and  those  of  the 
great,  extrarlegal  labor  commission  and  the 
President  who  created  it,  it  is  necessary  to 
compare  certain  expressions  of  Mr.  Gom- 
pers  and  Mr.  Mitchell  with  the  later  o£Scial 
utterances  of  the  commission  and  the 
President. 

Mr.  Gompers  is  the  author  of  .the  follow- 
ing: 

•  *  *  The  individual  workman  who  attempts 
to  make  a  bargain  with  the  directors,  or  the  repre- 
sentatives of  such  a  directorate,  simply  places  him- 
self in  the  position  of  a  helpless,  rudderless  craft 
on  a  tempestuous  ocean.  If  he  did  but  himself 
a  wrong  we  might  pity  him  and  concede  not  only 
his  legal  but  his  moral  right.    But  for  the  workman 


who  toils  for  wages  and  expects  to  end  his  days 
in  the  wage-earning  class,  as  conditions  seem  to 
point,  it  will  be  a  necessity,  his  bounden  duty  to 
himself,  to  his  family,  to  his  fellowmen  and  to 
those  who  are  to  come  after  him  to  join  in  the 
union. 

Mr.  Mitchell's  expression  is,  perhaps, 
still  more  forcible.  He  said  of  the  non- 
union man  who  works  during  a  strike  that : 

He  is  looked  upon,  and  I  think  justly,  in  the 
same  light  that  Benedict  Arnold  was  looked  upon, 
or  any  traitor.  He  is  a  man  that  fails  to  stand 
for  the  movement  that  the  people  stand  for,  and, 
after  all,  the  majority  of  the  workers  in  any  par- 
ticular community  reflect  the  public  sentiment  of 
that  community.  It  is  the  movement  of  the  people 
of  that  community,  and  if  a  man  wants  to  desert 
his  fellow  workers  and  wants  to  prevent  them 
from  accomplishing  good  ends,  then  he  is  justly 
looked  upon  with  disfavor  by  those  who  are  right, 
because  his  working  does  not  affect  himself  alone. 
If  it  only  affected  himself,  it  would  be  a  different 
proposition,  but  the  fact  that  be  works  helps  to 
defeat  the  objects  of  the  men  who  go  on  strike. 

And  then,  answering  the  inquiry  whether 
the  'lives  of  the  wives  and  children'  of  the 
men  he  had  thus  condemned  ought  'to  be 
made  unendurable,'  Mr.  Mitchell  declared: 

I  think  those  wives  and  children  had  better  ask 
their  fathers. 

Both  of  the  foregoing  declarations  con- 
stituted part  of  the  record  before  the  An- 
thracite Coal  Strike  Commission  when  it 
unanimously  adopted  a  report  containing 
the  following: 

The  non-union  man  assumes  the  whole  responsi- 
bility which  results  from  his  being  such,  but  his 
right  and  privilege  of  being  a  non-union  man  are 
sanctioned  in  law  and  morals.  The  rights  and 
privileges  of  non-union  men  are  as  sacred  to  them 
as  the  rights  and  privileges  of  unionists.  The  con- 
tention that  a  majority  of  the  employees  in  an 
industry,  by  voluntarily  associating  themselves  in 
a  union,  acquire  authority  over  those  who  do  not 
so  associate  themselves  is  untenable.  •  *  *  It 
should  be  remembered  that  the  trade  union  •  ♦  ♦ 
is  subordinate  to  the  laws  of  the  land  and  can  not 
make  rules  or  regulations  in  contradiction  thereof. 
Yet  it  at  times  seeks  to  set  itself  up  as  a  separate 
and  distinct  governing  agency,  to  control  those 
who  have  refused  to  join  its  ranks  and  to  consent 


54 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.   N< 


to  its  government,  and  to  deny  to  them  the  per- 
sonal liberties  which  are  guaranteed  to  every 
citizen  by  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  land. 

Finally,  exercising  the  authority  volun- 
tarily accorded  to  it  under  the  terms  of  the 
submission,  the  commission  established  the 
wise  and  salutary  rule : 

That  no  person  shall  be  refused  employment,  or 
in  any  way  discriminated  against,  on  account  of 
membership  or  non -membership  in  any  labor  organ- 
ization; and  that  there  shall  be  no  discrimination 
against  or  interference  with  any  employee  who 
is  not  a  member  of  any  labor  organization  by 
members  of  such  organizations. 

It  is  very  highly  to  the  credit  of  organ- 
ized labor  that  among  the  seven  members 
of  the  tribunal  which,  without  a  dissenting 
voice,  enunciated  this  fundamental  prin- 
ciple of  fairness  toward  all  labor,  sat  the 
distinguished  chief  of  the  Brotherhood  of 
Railway  Conductors,  probably  the  ablest  of 
the  living  labor  leaders  of  America,  Edpar 
E.  Clark.  The  Jast  paragraph  quoted  has 
received  especial  presidential  approval, 
having  been  quoted  in  full  in  President 
Roosevelt's  letter  of  July  13  last  to  the 
Secretary  of  Commerce  and  Labor,  in  which 
it  is  followed  by  these  words: 

I  heartily  approved  of  this  award  and  judgment 
of  the  commission  appointed  by  me,  which  itself 
included  a  member  of  a  labor  union.  This  com- 
mission was  dealing  with  labor  organizations 
working  for  private  employers.  It  is  of  course, 
mere  elementary  decency  to  require  that  all  the 
government  departments  shall  be  handled  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  principle  thus  clearly  and  fear- 
lessly enunciated. 

Thus  in  decreeing  that  every  productive 
establishment  of  the  federal  government 
should  be  an  *open  shop,'  in  which  there 
should  be  no  discrimination  among  Amer- 
ican citizens  on  account  of  race  or  creed  or 
membership  or  non-membership  in  any 
legitimate  organization,  the  President  in 
the  plainest  terms  gave  the  weight  of  his 
endorsement  to  the  sound  doctrine  that  the 
discrimination  thus  forbidden  in  the  work- 
shops of  the  government  ought  not,  any- 


where, to  be  permitted.  The  f  reedoi 
American  workmen  could  not  survive 
general  abandonment  of  the  'open  si 
It  is  infringed  whenever  there  is  any 
crimination  such  as  can  no  longer  exis 
the  government  shops.  Workmen  who  ] 
faith  in  their  own  abilities,  who  treasure 
liberties  won  for  them  by  their  predeces 
here,  who  realize  the  spirit  and  the  hei 
of  the  Golden  Rule,  will  not  seek  to  d< 
others  from  the  right  to  work  on  accc 
of  a  disagreement  as  to  the  propriety 
the  terms  and  conditions  on  which  work 
be  obtained.  The  'union  label'  is  one 
the  milder  measures  for  compelling  mei 
join  organizations  against  whose  princif 
or  practices  they  wish  to  protest  by  remi 
ing  aloof  from  them.  He  who  refuses 
purchase  goods  not  having  this  label  is 
tacking  the  independence  of  some  felk 
citizen.  The  employer  who  weakly  asse: 
to  its  use  becomes  a  participant  in  a  c< 
spiracy  against  those  workmen  who  diss( 
from  the  principles  or  methods  of  those  w 
control  the  organizations  in  their  fields, 
is  not  pleasant  to  condemn  a  device  whi 
does  afford  some  guarantee  that  the  goo 
to  which  it  is  attached  are  not  produci 
under  oppressive  conditions,  but  while  gi 
ing  partial  protection  against  this  dang 
the  'union  label'  threatens  one  of  the  mo 
fundamental  and  sacred  rights  of  evei 
individual.  Divest  it  of  its  proscriptic 
of  the  non-union  man  and  its  power  fc 
good  will  win  for  it  deserved  welcome  froi 
all  right-thinking  men. 

RESTRICTION    OP    OUTPUT. 

There  would  be  little  utility  in  discua 
ing  the  restriction  of  individual  output  i 
its  theoretical  aspects.  That  the  practic 
is  unsound  in  economics  is  recognized  b^ 
all  students  and  even  by  those  leaders  o: 
labor  organizations  who  are  unable  to  denj 
that  it  is  followed,  more  or  less  extensively 
by   the   members   of   their   organizations, 


z  S,   1904.] 


SCIEi^CE. 


This  general  condemnation  of  the  practice 
makes  it  extremely  difficult  to  determine 
its  extent,  but  no  one  douhts  that  in  one 
way  or  another  it  is  a  eharact«ristie  of 
most  anions.  It  can  not,  however,  be  said 
to  have  originated  with  them.  Whenever 
two  men  work  side  by  side,  for  an  em- 
ployer, there  is  a  decided  tendency  to  limit 
the  labor  of  both  by  the  capacity  of  the 
less  skillful  and  energetic.  As  the  number 
of  workmen  increases  the  tendency  in  this 
direction  is  inevitably  strengthened,  and 
while  there  may  be  some  increase,  through 
example  and  emulation,  in  the  labor  of 
those  who  would  do  the  least  if  working 
alone,  the  net  result  is  always  expressed 
in  an  average  that  is  much  nearer  the  ca- 
pacity of  the  least  capable  than  that  of  the 
most  efficient.  All  this  will  happen  in  any 
establishment  without  the  aid  of  a  labor 
union.  What,  then,  is  the  consequence, 
in  this  connection,  of  organization  T 
Usually  its  first  effect  is  that  the  restric- 
tion which  was  formerly  tacit  and  some- 
what irregularly  enforced  is  reduced  to  a 
set  of  definite  regulations  that  are  syste- 
matically enforced.  It  may  not  become 
greater  in  amount,  although  it  is  not  un- 
likely that  it  will.  There  is  some  evidence, 
however,  that  the  improved  economic  per- 
ception on  the  part  of  labor  leaders  is 
causing  the  older  organizations  to  abandon 
their  efforts  in  this  direction.  Tet  the  re- 
cent growth  of  the  unions  in  numbers  and 
power,  and  the  reluctance  of  employers  to 
resist  their  aggression  in  this  particular, 
during  a  period  of  such  tremendous  gen- 
eral prosperity  that  nearly  every  produc- 
tive establishment  was  taxed  to  its  utmost 
capacity,  have  unoubtedly  led  to  an  exten- 
sion of  the  practice  of  restriction  which 
must  be  checked.  The  unit  of  production 
per  employee  per  hour  has  suffered  a  very 
considerable  decrease  in  almost  all  Amer- 
ican industries  during  the  last  six  or  seven 
years,  and  this  diminution  of  effectiveness 


has  placed  a  more 
dustry  than  the  en 
it  has  been  accompa 
United  Mine  Worl 
region  is  probably 
can  be  more  ad  vac 
any  other  on  ace 
investigation  prose 
testimony  taken  by 
contained  instances 
ceivable  method  by 
body  of  workmen  c 
level  fixed  by  the 
trious.  Those  who 
rules  restricting  th 
jected  to  the  ill-w 
oppression  of  their 
ergetic  comrades,  u 
less  efficient  or  were 
It  is  necessary  to  be 
springs  from  ignor; 
excuse  for  leaders  i 
do  not  use  all  thei 
to  spread  an  intelL 
the  simple  econo: 
would  at  once  desti 
self-limiting  practic 


That  recourse  to 
be  necessary  is  whc 
condition  of  men  w 
of  the  use  this  ind 
resort  would  be  ind 
must  have  the  righl 
not  to  work,  and  thi 
to  choose  the  fori 
more  imperative  th) 
their  own  desire  to 
ertion.  The  whole 
commerce  rests  on 
there  is  no  compul 
Between  the  b«y^' 
ities  th^y  ^re  ««* 
ter-offej..  ^      M  a 


56 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   N 


inal  demand,  has  become  the  point  of  con- 
tract.   The  corporation  and  the  'trust'  do 
away  with  a  great  deal  of  dickering  be- 
tween individuals,  and  in  a  precisely  sim- 
ilar way  the  labor  organization  attempts 
to  substitute  a  single  collective  bargain  for 
a  multitude  of  individual  bargains.     If, 
however,  the  corporation  and  the  trust  are 
unreasonable  in  their  demands,  every  one 
now  knows  that  the  potential  competition 
of  smaller  concerns;  which  always  exist,  is 
speedily  actualized  and  the  productive  or- 
ganizations that  have  shown  their  commer- 
cial incompetence  to   bargain  reasonably 
with  buyers  are  destroyed.    So  it  should  be 
with  labor  organizations.    Those  organiza- 
tions which  are  reasonable   in  their  de- 
mands will  usually  establish  their  right  to 
survive  by  remaining  at  peace  with  the 
employers;   those   whose   frequent  strikes 
and   repeated  complaints  of   the   alleged 
tyranny  of  employers  prove  their  inability 
to  bargain  are  usually  ineflScient  in  their 
efforts  to  promote  the  interests  of  their 
members  and  ought  to  pass  out  of  exist- 
ence.    Yet  the  decision  as  to  the  terms 
which  they  will  accept  must  always  be 
left  with  the  workmen,  organized  or  unor- 
ganized.    The  right  to  strike  ought  to  be 
used  rarely  and  reluctantly ;  its  use  should 
always  throw  the  burden  of  justifying  its 
course    at   the   bar   of   public   sentiment 
jointly  upon  the  employed  and  the  em- 
ployer; it  can  never  be  necessary  except 
by  reason  of  the  grievous  fault  of  one 
party  or  the  other :  yet  it  may  be  necessary 
and  the  greatest  protection  against  its  be- 
coming so,  save  that  which  lies  in  the  devel- 
opment and  spread  of  a  broad  and  intelli- 
gent spirit  of  humanity,  lies  in  its  exceed- 
ingly    careful     preservation.      Generally 
speaking,  however,  the  union  which  strikes 
on  small  provocation  and  frequently  is  to 
be  classed  among  those  which  are  undesir- 
able, and  the  credit  of  any  labor  organiza- 
tion ought  to  be  in  inverse  proportion  to 


the  frequency  of  its  resort  to  this  exi 
method  of  enforcing  its  demands. 

As  somewhat  justifying  the  assiim] 
that  every  strike  is  evidence  of  lack  o 
pacity  somewhere,  and  perhaps  indict 
where  the  blame  more  frequently  res 
I  would  call  your  attention  to  the 
large  number  of  strikes  which  alwayi 
tend  the  transition  from  a  period  of  g 
industrial  prosperity  to  one  of  relative 
pression.  The  interpretation  of  this 
nomenon  is  very  simple.  Prom  almost 
begiiming  of  a  period  of  prosperity 
leaders  of  organized  workmen  perc 
that  their  position  is  one  of  gro\ 
strength.  The  demand  for  products  : 
demand  for  labor,  and  as  the  one  is 
pressed  in  rising  prices  the  other  is  na 
ally  translated  into  rising  wages.  Org; 
zations  formulate  their  demands,  m 
them,  and  they  are  granted.  New 
mands  and  new  concessions  follow  in 
alternation  which  becomes  more  rapid 
prosperity  appears  more  intense,  the  1 
lingness  of  employers  to  grant  even  se< 
ingly  extravagant  demands  as  to  wages 
conditions  being  based  on  a  confidence 
the  continuance  of  heavy  demand  and  hi 
prices  which  often  amounts  almost  to 
toxication.  While  this  process  has  be 
going  on  the  effect  of  high  wages  and 
duced  eflBciency  is  being  transferred  to  t 
consumers,  always  with  some  addition 
make  up  for  the  exactions  of  those 
charge  of  production.  Naturally,  this  e 
not  continue  forever.  Sooner  or  lat 
there  is  a  consumers'  'strike.'  That 
high  prices  ultimately  reduce  the  effecti 
demand,  orders  come  less  freely,  the  bubb 
is  about  to  burst.  Employers  rath' 
promptly  perceive  the  situation  more  ( 
less  clearly ;  labor  too  frequently  does  no 
More  wages  or  less  work,  or  both,  are  agai 
demanded,  and,  as  this  time  the  employe] 
see  that  the  cost  of  acquiescence  can  not  I 
shifted  or  realize  that  a  curtailment  of  pre 


January  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


57 


duction  must  soon  occur,  the  demands  are 
refused.  The  strike  which,  if  the  workmen 
are  ill-advised,  follows,  marks  the  turning 
point  from  prosperity  to  depression. 

The  other  typical  strike  is  a  protest 
against  a  reduction  in  wages  when  the  de- 
cline in  commercial  activity  is  in  progress, 
or  before  the  change  to  perceptibly  better 
conditions  has  arrived.  Such  strikes  are 
less  frequent  but  much  more  likely  to  be 
creditable  to  the  judgment  of  the  strikers. 
Employers  rarely  refuse  reasonable  de- 
mands while  industry  is  prosperous  and 
the  labor  market  empty  or  nearly  so ;  some 
of  them  do  attempt  oppressive  reductions 
in  wages  or  unjust  modifications  in  condi- 
tions when  the  times  are  dull  and  the  labor 
market  glutted  with  the  unemployed.  This 
is  not  to  say  that  radical  reductions  in 
wages  may  not  be  necessary ;  they  are  very 
apt  to  be  after  such  a  period  of  unprece- 
dented activity  in  every  line  of  industry 
as  that  which  is  but  just  closed  or  closing, 
but  it  should  be  recognized  that  when  due 
allowance  for  the  changed  conditions  has 
been  made  everywhere  there  may  be  some 
employers  who  will  endeavor  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  the  situation  and  to  deal  un- 
justly with  their  workmen.  May  the  num- 
ber of  such  employers  be  few  and  the 
resistance  of  their  employees  wise,  fearless 
and  effective. 

OTHER  TESTS. 

The  character  of  any  labor  organization 
is  further  to  be  tested  by  its  principles  and 
practices  in  reference  to  labor-saving  ma- 
chinery, profit  sharing,  pensions,  insurance 
funds,  home  ownership   by  its  members, 
admission  of  applicants  for  membership, 
apprentices,   the  boycott,   the  manner  in 
which    it    conducts    itself    toward    other 
unions,  and  its  rules  and  general  policy. 
The  verdict  of  intelligence  concerning  most 
of  these  matters  is  so  clear  that  discussion 
would  hardly  be  warranted.    A  wise  policy 
will  prevent  any  labor  union  from  discour- 


aging the  introduction  of  improved  ma- 
chinery, from  refusing  to  accept  or  opposing 
fairly  formulated  efforts  of  employers  to  ob- 
tain greater  loyalty  from  employees,  from 
counseling  against  the  ownership  of  homes, 
from  upholding  the  boycott,  from  prevent- 
ing the  industrial  education  of  intelligent 
youth,  and  from  permitting  controversies 
with  other  unions  to  interrupt  work  or  oc- 
casion inconvenience  to  blameless  employ- 
ers. That  particular  organizations  have 
grievously  erred  in  these  matters  is,  per- 
haps, much  better  known  than  that  some 
have  stood  steadfastly  for  sound  prin- 
ciples. 

These  defects  in  the  current  beliefs  and 
practices  of  some  prominent  labor  organi- 
zations  have  been  pointed  out  in  no  spirit 
of  intolerance.  The  evils  are  widespread 
and  serious;  they  must  be  plainly  pointed 
out  and  bravely  overcome;  but  they  are 
not  necessary  accompaniments  of  such  or- 
ganizations. In  fact,  as  to  most  of  them 
the  history  of  several  highly  successful 
unions  can  be  cited  to  show  that  among 
organizations  composed  of  the  most  intelli- 
gent workmen  they  are  likely  to  be  elimi- 
nated. It  is  even  more  true  that  the  much 
less  pardonable  practices  which  involve 
blackmailing  employers  aiTd  combinations 
with  unscrupulous  representatives  of  cap- 
ital to  rob  consumers  and  destroy  compet- 
itors are  merely  temporary  consequences 
of  an  early  recognition  of  strength  which 
is  not  restrained  by  a  sobering  conscious- 
ness of  responsibility  or  by  ability  to  per- 
ceive the  consequences  of  such  injustice. 

VALUE  IN  ORGANIZATION. 

The  conclusion  is  that  while  the  labor 
problem  must  always  persist,  the  organiza- 
tion of  labor  will  continue  and  will  in- 
crease its  power  to  be  of  service,  not  only 
to  workmen  but  also  to  society.  The  prin- 
ciple of  organization  will  not  only  survive 
the  defeat  and  destruction  of  those  organi- 


58 


SCIENCE. 


[X.S.  V^L.XIX.   No. 


zations  which  dbBtinately  adhere  to  vicious 
principles  and  practices,  but  the  genuine 
progress  of  the  labor  movement  will  be 
substantially  advanced  every  time  such  de- 
served defeat  is  administered. 

ARBrrBATION. 

While  this  progress  is  being  made 
toward  the  atttainment  of  better  things 
and  substantial  results  are  awaited,  the 
public  properly  searches  for  a  means  of 
preventing  or  mitigating  the  annoyances 
and  losses  that  spring  from  the  interrup- 
tion of  production  caused  by  labor  con- 
flicts. Until  employers  and  employees 
learn  such  sweet  reasonableness  in  bargain- 
ing together  as  to  avoid  strikes  how  shall 
their  number  and  their  evil  consequences 
be  reduced?  Obviously  the  demand  is  for 
a  temporary  remedy  for  a  difficulty  which 
ought  ultimately  to  disappear.  With  this 
fact  kept  carefully  in  view  it  is  safe  to  con- 
sider the  remedy  of  arbitration.  This  has 
actually  but  one  form.  To  be  arbitration 
at  all  it  must  be  wholly  voluntary.  The 
term  compulsorj'^  arbitration  is  self-contra- 
dictory, and  however  it  may  be  disguised 
it  really  means  the  creation  of  a  new  type 
of  court  endowed  with  authority  to  make 
contracts  relating  to  labor  services.  Arbi- 
tration—voluntary arbitration— is  a  term 
so  grateful  to  the  ear  to  which  it  comes  as 
a  substitute  for  the  clash  of  bitter  indus- 
trial struggles  that  it  seems  ungracious  not 
to  commend  it  without  qualification.  If 
men  can  not  agree  what  can  be  better  than 
to  submit  their  differences  to  the  settle- 
ment of  a  disinterested  and  impartial  third 
party  ?  If  men  can  riot  agree.  This  qual- 
ification begs  the  entire  question.  Reason- 
able men  can  agree  and  unreasonable  men 
must  become  reasonable  or  be  replaced,  in 
industrial  affairs,  by  those  who  are.  One 
way  in  which  unreasonable  men  arrange  for 
their  own  replacement  is  by  getting  them- 
selves into  situations  out  of  which  they  can 


not  be  extricated  except  through-  tlie 
sistance  of  others.  The  adjustments  of 
dustry  are  too  delicate  to  endure,  wit! 
injury  to  all  concerned,  the  frequent  in 
ference  of  the  disinterested.  A  str 
personal  interest  is  the  element  whicl 
most  effective  in  preventing  irrepan 
mistakes.  Arbitration  may  be  the  sma 
of  two  evils,  but  no  one  should  fail  to  : 
ognize  it  as  an  evil.  Aside  from  the  i 
that  it  leaves  the  determination  of  mati 
of  primary  industrial  importance  to  j 
sons  who  will  neither  gain  nor  lose  by 
success  or  failure  of  the  industry,  it  is  < 
in  its  consequences,  because,  when  ther< 
reason  to  rely  upon  its  being  arranged  \ 
that  fact  constitutes  an  incentive 
making,  and  insisting  upon,  unreasons 
demands.  The  easy-going  policy  wh 
consents  to  the  submission  of  questi* 
vitally  concerning  the  welfare  of  an  enl 
prise  to  persons  who  have  no  stake  in 
success  naturally  leads  to  the  easy-go: 
method  en  the  part  of  arbitrators  wh 
is  expressed  by  'splitting  the  differen 
between  the  conflicting  demands  of  both 
the  contending  parties.  This  is  the  aim 
uniform  result  of  arbitration.  If  you  v 
turn  to  the  decision  and  award  of  the 
cent  Anthracite  Coal  Strike  Commissi 
you  will  find  that  that  ablest  and  mcst  i 
partial  of  arbitration  boards  was  not  a 
to  avoid  this  nearly  inevitable  result, 
its  pages  you  will  read  the  contradict] 
of  every  substantial  averment  of  the  str 
ing  mine  workers.  You  will  find  that  1 
wages  of  the  employees  of  the  anthrac 
operators  did  not,  in  April,  1902,  compj 
unfavorably  with  these  of  bituminc 
miners  or  men  in  other  employments 
similar  character.  You  will  find  that  t 
conditions  of  life  and  the  standard 
living  in  the  anthracite  counties  of  Pen 
sylvania  were  not  lower  than  in  comparal 
regions.  You  will  find  that  the  basis 
payment  was  not  unfair  to  the  workme 


Januaby  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


69 


You  \rill  find  the  United  Mine  Workers  de» 
scribed  as  a  body  too  strongly  influenced 
by  bituminous  coal  interests  to  be  a  safe 
factor  in  the  anthracite  industry.  You  will 
find  that  boys  voted  at  its  meetings  and 
gave  a  reckless  tone  to  its  management. 
You  will  find  that  the  period  of  the  great 
strike  was  one  of  lawlessness  and  violence, 
which  the  leaders  of  the  organization  could 
not  or,  at  any  rate,  did  not  effectively 
check.  So  much  the  gentlemen  of  the  com- 
mission gathered  from  unimpeached  and 
unimpeachable  testimony,  and  so  much 
they  clearly,  concisely  and  fearlessly  set 
down  in  the  permanent  record  of  their  ar- 
duous and  graciously  accepted  task.  But 
after  bravely  announcing  these  facts  in 
terms  quite  equivalent  to  declaring  that 
the  strike  had  no  justification,  the  commis- 
sion yielded,  as  any  other  arbitrators 
would  have  yielded  and  as  nearly  all  arbi- 
trators will  yield  in  future  controversies, 
to  the  impulse,  commendable  in  itself,  to 
deal  generously  with  those  who  have  rela- 
tively little  and  awarded  a  general  advance 
in  wages. 

'compulsory  arbitration.' 

The  term  compulsory  arbitration  in  the 
literal  sense  of  the  words  is  a  verbal  ab- 
surdity, but  it  refers  to  a  definite  idea  and 
one  fairly  understood  by  all.  Those  who 
favor  it  urge  that  when  men  will  not  rea- 
sonably agree  on  a  contract  relating  to 
wages  or  other  conditions  of  employment, 
and  will  not  agree  to  let  some  third  party 
make  a  contract  for  them,  they  ought  to  be 
compelled  to  adopt  the  latter  course.  The 
adherents  of  this  view  are  very  apt  to  begin 
their  argument  with  the  assertion  that 
*  there  are  three  parties  to  every  strike'— 
the  strikers,  the  employer  and  the  public. 
They  quite  imderstate  the  number;  there 
are  five.  There  is,  of  course,  always  the 
public  or  rather  the  consuming  public. 
Then  on  the  side  of  labor  there  are  always 


those,  mistaken  and  mis^ded,  perhaps, 
but  American  freemen  after  all,  and  en- 
titled to  that  liberty  under  the  law  which 
has  been  described  as  '  freedom  to  do  as  you 
please  and  take  the  consequences,'  who  are 
willing  to  work  on  the  terms  rejected  by 
the  strikers;  as  well  as  those  who  have  de- 
clined to  work.  On  the  side  of  capital, 
there  may  be  supposed  always  to  exist  sOme 
one,  over-sanguine,  perhaps,  but  entitled  to 
experiment  as  he  would  with  his  own,  who 
would  employ  the  strikers  on  their  own 
terms;  as  well  as  the  former  employer. 
Compulsory  arbitration  shuts  its  eyes  to 
both  those  willing  to  work  for  the  rejected 
terms  and  those  willing  to  become  em- 
ployers on  the  terms  demanded.  It  sees 
only  the  old  employers  and  the  old  em- 
ployees, and  would  force  them  to  continue 
the  industry  on  terms  very  likely  to  be  un- 
satisfactory to  both.  Manifestly,  when 
this  court  of  so-called  arbitration  has  issued 
its  decree  containing  the  terms  of  a  new 
labor  contract,  it  must  have  some  effective 
means  for  its  enforcement.  But  by  what 
process,  consistent  with  freedom,  is  an  em- 
ployer to  be  compelled  to  pay  wages  that 
he  believes  must  lead  to  bankruptcy,  or 
employees  to  work  on  terms  which  they 
regard  as  so  unjust  that  they  prefer  idle- 
ness to  their  acceptance?  Such  power  is 
beyond  the  limits  of  governmental  au- 
thority as  they  are  established  in  the  con- 
ditions essential  to  the  preservation  of 
human  liberty.  Men  must  be  free  to  con- 
tract or  not  to  contract,  to  work  or  to  refuse 
to  work,  to  remain  in  an  employment  or  to 
leave  it,  to  utilize  their  wealth  as  capital 
or  to  withhold  it  from  the  fields  of  produc- 
tion, to  open  their  workshops  or  to  close 
them,  and  there  can  be  no  limitation  upon 
their  rights  in  these  particulars  except  as 
fixed  by  their  own  voluntary  contracts, 
which  does  not  dangerously  reduce  the 
liberties  of  the  citizen.  Public  opinion 
may   praise   or   condemn   the   manner   in 


60 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol,  XIX.   Nc 


which  you  or  I  exercise  our  legal  rights 
and  privileges,  and  in  the  face  of  it  we  may 
be  driven  to  act  otherwise  than  as  we  would. 
This  pressure  is  legitimate,  and  when  the 
public  is  not  led  astray  by  prejudice  or 
wrongly  instructed  by  demagogues  the  com- 
pulsion of  its  intelligent  opinion  often  has 
salutary  results.  There  can  be  no  objec- 
tion to  this  sort  of  compulsion,  and  if  it 
leads  to  the  arbitration  of  individual  dis- 
putes, which  would  otherwise  have  caused 
prolonged  and  bitter  strikes,  it  probably 
leads  to  the  choice  of  the  least  evil  of  the 
available  ways  of  escape  from  a  condition 
too  evil  in  itself  not  to  result  in  some  more 
or  less  permanent  inconvenience.  The  dif- 
ference between  the  compelling  pressure  of 
public  opinion  and  the  exercise  of  govern- 
mental authority  is  wide.  If  such  au- 
thority is  used  by  officers  of  a  government 
to  which  power  to  compel  arbitration  has 
not  been  delegated,  then  that  government 
has  undertaken  to  over-ride  its  own  laws, 
and  regard  for  the  law  by  the  officers  of 
government  constitutes  the  whole  diflEerence 
between  a  despotic  government  and  one 
which  rests  on  the  will  of  a  free  people. 
The  humblest  American  citizen  and  the 
wealthiest  American  corporation  are  alike 
entitled  to  exercise  every  right  which  they 
possess  under  the  laws  which  the  people 
have  made,  and  when  any  particle  of  the 
power  or  the  prestige  attaching  to  official 
position  is  used  to  curtail  the  liberty  of 
either  that  of  both  is  endangered.  Public 
opinion  may  condemn  a  particular  act 
which  is  not  in  violation  of  any  law  and, 
if  unanimous  and  strong,  it  will  usually  be 
obeyed ;  but  the  hand  of  government  must 
never  be  lifted  to  hasten  the  compliance. 
So  long  as  the  act  is  legal,  government  and 
the  officers  of  government  have  no  business 
with  it.  If  the  popular  respect  attaching 
to  the  most  exalted  office  in  the  land  has 
lately  been  made  a  means  of  compelling 
men  to  submit  to  arbitration  the  manner  in 


which  they  shall  exercise  the  rights  w 
no  one  denies  are  theirs,  there  has  be 
misuse  of  official  position  and  a  prece 
has  been  established  which,  if  followed, 
sooner  or  later  seriously  impair  the  qxu 
of  American  liberty.  Compulsory  arb 
tion  has  been  rejected  by  organized  la 
and  when  Americans  generally  comprel 
what  is  meant  by  that  term  they  will  1 
none  of  it  whether  through  statutory  en 
ment  or  by  the  unauthorized  action  of  ( 
the  highest  officer  of  their  government. 

THE  OUTLOOK. 

But  if  voluntary  arbitration  is  no  n 
than  a  temporary  and  rather  dangei 
makeshift,  and  compulsory  arbitratioi 
utterly  to  be  condemned,  what  can  be  do 
The  answer  has  been  given — men  n 
learn  to  bargain  together  reasonably.  ' 
remedy  ought  to  appeal  to  us  more  beca 
it  is  a  process  and  not  a  panacea  for  all 
ills  of  industrial  conflict.  That  men 
learn  to  settle  their  disputes  over  wa 
without  outside  aid,  and  that  unions  ( 
make  and  keep  collective  bargains,  has  b 
abundantly  proven  during  the  recent 
dustrial  experience  of  the  United  Sta' 
All  that  is  required  is  that  there  shall 
more  of  this  reasonableness  and  much  1 
of  its  opposite.  That  this  will  come  w 
the  growth  and  spread  of  intelligence  th 
need  be  no  doubt.  When  workingmen  a 
employers  scrutinize  more  thoroughly  1 
conditions  by  which  their  relations  are  fia 
they  will  appreciate  the  wastefulness 
friction  and  will  know  that  reasonable  de 
ing  and  the  observance  of  the  Golden  Ri 
constitute  the  best  of  all  policies.  In  i 
taining  this  state  of  higher  intelligei 
organizations  of  employees  and  of  empic 
ers  will  bear  an  important  and  useful  pa 
Whatever  evils  may  be  discovered  in  t 
current  practices  of  either  class  of  orga 
izations,  however  absurd  the  doctrines 
crude  the  practices  of  some  of  them,  : 


Janxtabt  8,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


61 


matter  eren  how  ill-advised  their  leader- 
ship, the  contact  of  man  with  man  which 
they  directly  cause,  must,  in  the  long  run, 
lead  to  higher  principles  and  better  meth- 
ods. Satisfaction  with  the  distribution  of 
the  results  of  productive  effort  as  between 
wage  earners  and  capitalists,  we  shall  not 
see.  Probably,  if  we  did  see  it,  we  should 
wish  for  a  condition  which  gave  more  occa- 
sion for  effort  and  more  justification  for 
hope.  But  while  complete  satisfaction 
with  the  proportions  received  is  neither 
likely  to  be  attained  nor  properly  to  be 
considered  as  entirely  desirable,  the  time 
when  much  of  the  present  friction  shall 
have  disappeared  is  already  very  clearly 
foreshadowed. 

H.  T.  Newcomb. 


THE    ASSOCIATION    OF    AMERICAN    AGRI- 
CULTURAL   COLLEGES   AND   EXPERI- 
MENT  STATIONS. 

The  seventeenth  annual  convention  of 
this  association,  held  in  Washington,  No- 
vember 17-19, 1903,  was  one  of  the  largest 
meetings  in  point  of  attendance  which  has 
ever  been  held.  Something  over  200  dele- 
gates and  visitors  were  registered,  and  the 
representation  was  very  general  from  dif- 
ferent sections  of  the  country. 

As  has  been  customary  for  several  years 
past,  the  annual  meeting  of  the  official  hor- 
ticultural inspectors  was  held  during  the 
days  of  the  convention  in  conjunction  with 
the  meetings  of  the  section  on  entomology. 

The  convention  as  a  whole  was  notable 
for  its  harmony  and  the  expedition  with 
which  business  was  transacted,  and  was 
remarked  by  many  of  the  delegates  as  a 
most  satisfactory  meeting. 

The  address  of  the  president  of  the  asso- 
ciation, James  K.  Patterson,  of  Kentucky, 
dealt  with  the  general  topic  of  the  origin  and 
work  of  the  colleges  and  universities  repre- 
sented by  the  association,  and  the  influences 


of  these  institutions  upon  the  development 
of  technical  and  industrial  education. 

One  of  the  most  important  items  of 
business  was  the  consideration  of  the 
amendments  to  the  constitution  proposed 
at  the  Atlanta  meeting.  These  amend- 
ments had  been  before  the  association  for 
a  year,  and  were  adopted  with  practically 
no  discussion.  They  provide  for  a  reduc- 
tion in  the  number  of  sections  to  two,  one 
on  college  work  and  administration  and  the 
other  on  experiment  station  work,  three 
members  of  the  executive  committee  to  be 
chosen  by  the  first  section  and  two  by  the 
latter.  There  is  provision  for  each  section 
to  create  such  divisions  as  it  may  find  de- 
sirable, but  no  such  divisions  have  yet  been 
made,  and  the  report  of  the  committee  on 
the  organization  of  the  new  section  for 
station  work  recommended  that  for  the 
present  no  such  divisions  be  made.  The 
section  on  horticulture  and  botany,  how- 
ever, expressed  a  desire  to  continue  its 
meetings  in  the  future,  and  appointed  a 
committee  to  confer  with  the  executive  com- 
mittee with  reference  to  this  matter. 

The  report  of  the  bibliographer,  A.  C. 
True,  called  attention  to  the  more  impor- 
tant bibliographies  which  have  appeared 
during  the  year,  a  list  of  110  bibliographies 
with  explanatory  notes  constituting  the 
main  part  of  the  report.  Special  mention 
was  made  of  the  'International  Catalogue 
of  Scientific  Literature,'  several  parts  of 
which  have  been  noted  in  this  journal.  The 
incompleteness  of  this  catalogue  in  regard 
to  certain  lines  of  work  in  agricultural 
science,  notably  that  of  the  experiment  sta- 
tions, was  a  matter  of  much  regret. 

The  standing  committee  on  indexing  ag- 
ricultural literature  called  attention  in  its 
report  to  the  index  cards  for  the  publica- 
tions of  the  Department  of  Agriculture 
which  are  being  prepared  by  the  Depart- 
ment Library,  and  also  to  the  cards  for  the 
accessions  to  this  library.    The  latter  are 


62 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


now  being  printed  by  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress, and  can  be  obtained  at  small  cost,  as 
may  also  the  catalogue  cards  of  the  Library 
of  Congress  relating  to  agriculture.  The 
card  catalogue  of  the  Department  Library 
now  contains  over  110,000  cards,  and  the 
library  is  thus  in  position  to  render  more 
eflScient  aid  than  ever  before  to  the  agricul- 
tural colleges  and  experiment  stations,  by 
furnishing  them  information  in  regard  to 
the  literature  on  particular  topics,  loaning 
books,  etc.  Attention  was  called  in  this 
report  to  the  combined  index,  now  in  press, 
to  the  first  twelve  volumes  of  *  Experiment 
Station  Record,'  and  to  the  card  index  of 
agricultural  literature  issued  by  the  Office 
of  Experiment  Stations. 

The  report  of  the  committee  on  methods 
of  teaching  agriculture,  presented  by  A.  C. 
True,  was  on  the  relation  of  the  natural 
sciences  to  agriculture  in  a  four  years' 
course,  and  presented  a  plan  for  a  course 
of  study  including  these  natural  sciences 
and  noting  in  brief  the  principal  subjects 
under  each  to  be  covered.  The  report 
pointed  out  that  the  older  method  of  ar- 
ranging the  courses  in  agriculture  tended 
to  make  experts  in  analytical  or  agricultural 
chemistry  or  in  patholog>%  rather  than  to 
give  a  broad  training  in  agriculture  and 
the  natural  sciences.  It  was  urged  that 
there  should  be  a  sufficient  period  of  gen- 
eral study  before  specialties  are  taken  up, 
and  that  the  paths  of  the  specialist  and 
the  agriculturist  should  early  diverge. 
The  college  course  can  not  be  expected  to 
fit  men  for  expert  work  in  the  Department 
of  Agriculture,  and  the  experiment  sta- 
tions, but  for  this  work  at  least  a  mas- 
ter's degree  and  ere  long  the  doctor's  de- 
gree are  likely  to  be  required.  This  paper 
brought  out  much  discussion,  illustrating 
the  marked  interest  which  has  developed 
within  the  past  few  years  in  the  matter 
of  courses  of  study  and  in  agricultural 
education  of  different  grades.      The  work 


of  this  committee  was  highly  comnc 
and  was  pronounced  one  of  the  most  i 
tant  features  of  the  association 's  wor 

The  standing  committee  on  agricu 
engineering  presented  its  first 
through  W.  E.  Stone,  chairman.  T 
port  pointed  out  the  increase  in  the  m 
of  engineering  problems  in  agricultur 
their  prominence,  the  enormous  exte 
which  agricultural  machinery,  and 
cially  that  of  a  complicated  charact 
being  used  by  American  farmers,  the 
lems  of  irrigation  and  of  drainage 
terracing  of  hillsides,  the  constructi( 
roads  and  other  topics,  as  illustratini 
desirability  of  more  systematic  attenti 
instruction  in  these  topics  in  conne 
with  the  college  courses,  and  of  exte 
scientific  investigation.  The  course 
rural  engineering  in  the  colleges,  it 
stated,  have  not  kept  pace  with  the  proj 
of  the  times.  The  committee  declare 
favor  of  separate  departments  of  rura 
gineering  in  the  colleges,  the  enlargei 
of  the  work  of  the  Department  of  Agr 
ture  to  include  agricultural  enginee 
in  addition  to  irrigation,  and  recommei 
that  the  executive  committee  of  the  ass( 
tion  aid  in  securing  the  increased  ap 
priation  asked  from  congress  for  this  j 
pose.  This  report  was  adopted,  as 
also  a  resolution  commending  the  worl 
the  Department  along  the  lines  of  irr 
tion.  The  report  brought  out  considers 
discussion  and  indicated  that  this  ma 
is  occupying  the  attention  of  a  number 
institutions  at  this  time. 

The  report  of  the  committee  on  coopc 
tion  between  the  experiment  stations  i 
the  Department  of  Agriculture,  presen 
by  E.  A.  Bryan,  called  attention  to 
statement  of  fundamental  principles  e 
bodied  in  the  two  previous  reports,  < 
pressed  gratification  at  the  appointment 
a  committee  within  the  Department 
Agriculture  for  perfecting  the  details  oi 


Januabt  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


63 


system  df  cooperation,  and  reiterated  its 
belief  that  a  full  and  free  consultation 
between  the  stations  and  the  members  of 
the  department  forces  in  regard  to  the 
work  undertaken  in  the  several  states  is 
very  desirable  and  would  do  niuch  to  re- 
move possible  sources  of  friction. 

The  standing  committee  on  uniform  fer- 
tilizer laws,  of  which  H.  J.  Wheeler  is 
chairman,  called  attention  to  the  satisfac- 
tory progress  which  is  being  made  in  the 
direction  of  greater  uniformity,  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  association  having  been 
of  value  in  securing  the  recent  passage  or 
amendment  of  fertilizer  laws  in  Indiana, 
Florida,  Missouri,  Pennsylvania,  Tennessee 
and  other  states.  This  report  also  in- 
cluded recommendations  concerning  the 
laws  for  feeding  stuff  inspection. 

The  report  of  the  standing  committee  on 
pure-food  legislation,  made  by  W.  A. 
Withers,  noted  considerable  progress  along 
the  line  of  pure-food  legislation  during  the 
year.  New  legislation  was  enacted  in  two 
states,  and  provisions  made  by  congress  for 
the  inspection  and  control  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  of  foods  imported 
from  foreign  countries.  This  was  pro- 
nounced an  unusually  important  step  in 
food  legislation,  and  its  execution  has  re- 
sulted in  considerable  progress  in  the  prep- 
aration of  standards  of  purity. 

The  farmers'  institute  work  which  the 
Department  of  Agriculture  has  taken  up 
was  outlined  by  A.  C.  True,  who  stated 
clearly  the  policy  of  the  department  in 
regard  to  this  work.  There  will  be  no 
attempt  to  interfere  with  the  state  man- 
agement of  farmers*  institutes  in  any  way, 
but  rather  to  cooperate  with  the  state 
officials  and  to  aid  them  in  building  up  the 
institutes  in  the  several  states.  The  de- 
partment will  be  a  general  agency  for  co- 
ordinating and  strengthening  this  work 
throughout  the  country.  One  of  the  main 
objects  at  present  is  to  help  to  increase  the 


efficiency  of  the  institute  lecturers,  now 
numbering  over  800,  less  than  half  of 
whom  are  connected  with  the  work  of  the 
colleges  or  the  stations.  A  corps  of 
specially  trained  institute  workers  was  rec- 
ommended as  eventually  desirable,  to  re- 
lieve the  college  and  station  men  of  much 
of  the  burden  of  this  work,  as  it  is  the  opin- 
ion of  the  department  that  the  prime  object 
of  college  men  is  to  teach  and  of  station 
men  to  investigate.  The  speaker  pointed 
out  the  greatness  and  importance  of  the 
farmers'  institute  enterprise  as  a  means 
for  the  future  development  of  agriculture, 
of  building  up  of  a  proper  system  of  agri- 
cultural education  and  research,  and  de- 
veloping a  generation  of  farmers  who  will 
be  in  a  position  to  appreciate  and  apply  the 
results  of  the  work  of  these  institutes. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for 
the  ensuing  year: 

President — W.  0.  Thompson,  of  Ohio. 

Vice-President 9 — ^D.  F.  Houston,  of  Texas;  J.  C. 
Hardy,  of  Mississippi;  J.  H.  Worst,  of  North 
Dakota;  H.  J.  Wheeler,  of  Rhode  Island;  and  B. 
C.  Buffum,  of  Wyoming. 

Secretary  and  Treasurer — E.  B.  Voorhees,  of 
Xew  Jersey. 

Bibliographer — A.  C.  True,  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Executive  Committee — H.  C.  White,  of  Georgia; 
G.  W.  Atherton,  of  Pennsylvania;  J.  L.  Snyder,  of 
Michigan;  W.  H.  Jordan,  of  New  York;  and  C.  F. 
Curtiss,  of  Iowa. 

Section  on  College  Work  and  Administration — 
Chairman,  W.  E.  Stone,  of  Indiana;  secretary,  G. 
E.  Fellows,  of  Maine;  committee  on  program,  W. 
E.  Stone,  of  Indiana,  G.  E.  Fellows,  of  Maine, 
and  H.  W.  Tyler,  of  Massachusetts. 

Section  on  Experiment  Station  Work — Chair- 
man, E.  H.  Jenkins,  of  Connecticut;  secretary, 
M.  A.  Scovell,  of  Kentucky;  committee  on  pro- 
gram, J.  H.  Shepperd,  of  North  Dakota,  B.  W. 
Kilgore,  of  North  Carolina,  and  M.  A.  Scovell, 
of  Kentucky. 

In  the  meetings  of  the  sections  the  most 
important  papers  and  discussions  were  those 
on  soil  fertility,  animal  breeding,  instruc- 
tion in  horticulture  and  botany,  problems 
of  forest  entomology,  methods  of  work  in 


1 


64 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


economic  entomology,  the  mission  of  the 
land-grant  colleges  and  short  courses. 

E.  W.  Allen. 

U.  S.  Depabtment  of  Aqiucultubb. 


SCIENTIFIC   BOOKS. 

The  Lower  Devonian  Fishes  of   Oemiinden, 
By  E.  H.  Traquair.     Transactions  of  tho 
Koyal  Society  of  Edinburgh,  Vol.  XL.,  Pt. 
4,  pp.  723-739,  pis.  7,  1903. 
Dr.   Traquair's  recent  paper  will  be  wel- 
comed as  throwing  light  on  Drepanaspis,  one 
of  the  lowliest  vertebrates.    In  earlier  pajiers 
Dr.    Traquair    has    briefly    referred    to    this 
armored   form,  known  only  from  the  lower 
Devonian  slates  of  Khenish  Gemiinden :  in  the 
present  memoir  he  completes  his  studies  upon 
it,  basing  them  upon  a  remarkable  series  of 
the  fossil  which  he  has  collected  during  the 
past  dozen  years. 

Gemiinden  fossils,  one  may  note  incident- 
ally, are  remarkable  for  the  great  beauty  with 
which  their  external  characters  have  been  pre- 
served, shown  especially  in  mollusks,  trilobites 
and  starfish;  and  the  armored  flshes  have 
proven  no  exceptions  to  the  rule.  The  speci- 
mens however,  are  always  pyritized  and  are 
therefore,  unfortunately,  valueless  for  histo- 
logical study.  Besides  Drepanaspis,  the  only 
armored  flsh  known  hitherto  in  detail  from 
this  horizon,  Traquair  now  describes  a  Coc- 
costeus,  a  Phlyctwnaspis  and  two  forms  in- 
sertcB  sedis.  Of  these  the  first,  Oemundina,  is 
a  fish  somewhat  ray-like  in  form,  character- 
ized by  a  stout  vertebral  column  and  an  in- 
tegument well  encrusted  with  shagreen  den- 
ticles. What  it  is  no  one  can  say,  although  its 
describer  regards  it  as  'possibly  a  chimaeroid,' 
admitting,  however,  that  his  idea  'rests  more 
upon  feeling  than  upon  anything  else.'  Un- 
til, therefore,  more  and  better  material  can  be 
secured  one  is  constrained  to  conclude  that 
nothing  further  need  be  said  about  its  affini- 
ties. Hunsruchia,  the  second  problematical 
form,  is  represented  only  by  a  series  of  ver- 
tebral arches  whose  structures  suggest  very 
doubtfully  a  -pleuracanth  shark.  Eegarding 
Drepanaspis  the  paper  gives  many  interesting 
details,  and  they  do  not,  we  find,  lead  the 
author  to  alter  his  earlier  opinion  as  to  the 


affinities  of  this  form.    He  places  it  n 
classic  Pteraspis,  and  regards  it  as  th< 
generalized,  a  view  which  will  probabl; 
general  acceptance.     It  is  a  source  of 
faction  to  students  of  these  earliest  ch 
that  in  the  present  form  both  dorsal  as 
tral  sides  are  now  known  with  fair  ac< 
Desirable,  none  the  less,  is  a  better  kno 
of  the  region  of  the  mouth,  which  is 
cally  terminal,  surrounded  by  a   ratb 
definite  series  of  dermal  plates,   and 
lateral  angles  of  the  body,  where  possi 
opercular  opening  is  situated.    And  wl 
are  duly  grateful  to  Dr.  Traquair  for  h: 
f ul  and  continued  efforts  to  elucidate  t 
markable  form,  we  are  none  the  less  im] 
for  further  details.     The  object   is,   i 
best,  difficult  to  orient,  and  as  a  sympi 
this  it  may  be  doubted  whether  the  in 
tations  of  even  an  author  of  Dr.  Tra 
exx)erience    and    acumen    are    always 
Thus,  his  grounds  seem  inadequate  fc 
tinguishing  dorsal  and  ventral  sides, 
specimen  figured  is  the  relation  of  the 
lobe  of  the  tail  shown  convincingly  to  fc 
tinuous    with    the    so-called    dorsal    c 
moreover,  the  eyes  occur  on  the  side 
Traquair   regards   as   ventral.     Unless 
tional  evidence  is  forthcoming,  it  wou 
cordingly  seem  to  me  more  probable  th 
*  labial '  of  Traquair  was  the  '  rostral ' 
a  structure  which  appears  constant  in 
ostracans.     This  interpretation  would  ] 
the  eyes  to  be  seen  at  the  sides  of  the 
armoring,  as  indeed,  they  occur  in  Pte 
and  would  enable  us,  at  the  same  time, 
cate  the  greater  number  of  the  larger 
on  the  dorsal  side.     This  conclusion 
more    satisfactory   on    comparative    gr 
since  there  is  not  an  instance  in  the 
date    phylum    in    which    the    eyes    an 
most  complete  part  of  the  armoring  app 
the    (morphological)    ventral    side.      A 
doubt  whether,  on  the  present  evidence,  ^ 
assume,  with  Professor  Patten,  that  D\ 
aspis  might  have  evaded  the  law  of  vert 
orientation  by  swimming  on  its  back. 
Traquair  has  attempted  to  solve  this 
ventral  difficulty  by  suggesting  that  eith 
orbits  are  'sensory'  pits,  i.  e.,  not  orb: 


jAIOrAKT  8,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


65 


thaty  ^Bince  the  specimens  are  all  crushed  ab- 
solutely flat>  it  is  by  no  means  certain  that  in 
the  original  imcompressed  condition  the  open- 
ings did  not  look  out  to  the  side/ 

Bashford  Dean. 

First  Report  on  Economic  Zoology,    By  Feed. 

V.  Theobald,  M.A.     London.     1903.     Pp. 

xxxiv  + 192. 

Under  the  above  heading  F.  V.  Theobald,  a 
high   authority   on  economic   entomology   in 
Great  Britain,  has  published,  imder  the  aus- 
pices of  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History), 
in  three  parts,  his  initial  report  of  economic 
zoology.     The  volume  in  question  is  preceded 
by  an  introductory  chapter  of  some  extent 
by  E.  Hay  Lankester,  consisting  of  a  classi- 
fication of  animals  from  the  point  of  view  of 
economic  zoology.    The  same  writer  has  added 
considerable  correspondence   on  the  dreaded 
tsetse  fly  disease  of  Africa,  termites  or  white 
ants  and  the  locust  plague  of  the  same  coun- 
try, as  well  as  other  matters  not  pertaining  to 
entomology.     Mr.    Theobald    is   well   known 
from  his  valuable  treatise  on  the  Gulicide  of 
the   world,   which   has   already   reached    the 
fourth  volume.    Although  the  main  portion  of 
the  report  is  devoted  to  injurious  insects  and 
to  other  economical  entomological  questions, 
there  is  also  frequent  mention  of  the  injury 
accomplished   by    mammals    and    birds    and 
other  pests  as  well  as  of  fungous  and  other 
diseases.     Much  valuable  information  is  fur- 
nished in  regard  to  the  means  of  preventing 
insect   losses,    a    considerable   proportion    of 
which  has  been  derived  from  actual  experience 
or  from  reports  of  trustworthy  persons.     The 
work  is  not  only  of  special  interest  and  value 
to  persons  engaged  in  agriculture  in  Great 
Britain,  but  also  to  those  of  nearby  countries 
in  £urox>e,  where  many  of  the  same  species  oc- 
cur, although  not  always  in  the  same  degree  of 
abundance.     Many  of  the  species  considered 
are  cosmopolitan,  while  others  are  common  to 
North  America  and  Europe,  which  makes  the 
work  also  of  interest  to  farmers  of  the  United 
States.     Among  the  most  interesting  species 
treated  are  the  following: 

The  bud  moth  (Hedya  (Tmetocera)  ocellana 
Fab.),    a   well-known   pest    in    the   northern 


United  States;  the  mussel  scale,  or,  as  it  is 
more  familiarly  known  in  America,  oyster- 
shell  bark-louse  (Mytilaapis  pomorum  Bouch6), 
the  pear  leaf  and  ^big  bud'  mites.  Among 
potato  pests  is  a  species  of  caterpillar,  Ey- 
droecia  micacea,  which  works  in  the  same 
manner  as  our  stalk  borer,  Hydrceda  nitela 
Say,  well  and  unfavorably  known  to  potato 
growers  in  the  United  States.  Frequent  men- 
tion is  made  of  injury  by  millipedes  attacking 
potatoes  and  other  useful  crops. 

Gonsiderable  attention  is  given  to  the  oc- 
currence of  the  Colorado  potato  beetle  in  Eng- 
land, more  especially  in  Tilbury,  where  it  has 
been  established  for  some  little  time.  Judging 
by  this  report  of  local  occurrence,  it  would  not 
seem  difficult  to  stamp  out  the  pest  in  that 
region  so  as  to  prevent  its  spread  to  other 
portions  of  the  country  and  eventually  to  the 
continent  of  Europe. 

The  so-called  leather  jackets  or  maggots  of 
the  crane  flies  or  daddy  longlegs  (Tipulidss) 
are  considered  somewhat  at  length.  Hecords 
are  cited  of  injury  to  hundreds  of  acres  of 
gr&ss  land  by  these  insects,  and  it  seems  prob- 
able that  much  injury  is  done  by  related  spe- 
cies (of  which  there  are  many)  in  the  United 
States,  which  is  undetected  or  attributed  to 
other  forms  of  insects. 

There  is  always  danger  of  introducing 
European  sx)ecies  into  America,  and  it  is 
singular  that  some  of  the  commonest  pests 
of  England  have  never  found  a  complete 
establishment  with  us,  for  example,  the 
thousand-legged  worm  or  millipede.  Poly' 
desmua  complanatus,  which  has  undoubtedly 
often  been  brought  to  this  country  in  soil  and 
has  been  mentioned  as  occurring  here,  but- 
which  our  authorities  state  has  not  gained  a 
permanent  foothold.  The  same  is  true  of  the 
ear  wig.  Labia  minor,  which  is  said  to  be  a 
X)est  in  Europe,  well  established  in  America, 
but  never  injurious,  so  far  as  we  know,  in  our 
own  coimtry.  Another  species  frequently 
found  in  old  buildings,  in  furniture  and  in  old 
wood  generally  and  conmionly  called  deaiih 
watch,  Anohium  domesticum,  is  in  the  same 
category,  having  undoubtedly  been  brought 
here  in  wooden  material  but,  for  some  un- 
known reason,  failing  to  survive.     Mr.  Theo- 


66 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  I 


bald's  work  concludes  with  an  appendix  which 
includes  a  list  of  North  American  locusts  and 
a  list  of  African  termites. 

F.  H.  Chittenden. 

INTERNATIONAL     CATALOGUE     OF     SCIENTIFIO 
UTERATURE.      GEOLOGY. 

In  looking  over  the  reviews  that  have  ap- 
peared of  the  various  parts  of  the  Interna- 
tional Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature  thus 
far  issued  for  the  year  1901,  it  is  evident 
that  those  which  are  extremely  critical  have 
been  written  by  men  who  are  largely  investi- 
gators. The  men  who  have  spent  days  in  the 
laborious  work  of  going  over  publications, 
writing  out  the  titles  of  papers  and  arranging 
them  according  to  a  predetermined  subject 
classification  are  certainly  more  generous  in 
their  commendation. 

The  publication  on  geology  is  probably  as 
satisfactory  as  any  of  the  others.  Its  greatest 
weakness  for  the  purposes  of  the  whole  body 
of  geologists  is  that  of  omissions  and  the 
limited  scope  of  the  subject  classification. 
Many  papers  that  have  been  omitted  appeared 
in  publications  that  have  not  been  examined. 
But  the  character  of  the  publication  to  be  ex- 
amined was  limited  by  instruction  concern- 
ing which  the  workers  had  no  voice. 

The  scope  of  the  subject  classification  is 
one  of  very  great  importance  to  the  working 
geologist.  The  mass  of  geological  literature 
is  so  large  that  he  no  longer  burdens  his 
memory  with  the  fact  that  certain  persons 
wrote  upon  certain  topics  about  such  a  time 
and  in  such  a  place.  Modem  methods  de- 
mand that  these  papers  be  brought  together 
under  suitable  headings  and  that  these  shall 
be  sufficiently  detailed  in  scope  to  meet  the 
needs  of  the  investigator.  The  geological  clas- 
sification as  it  exists  falls  far  short  of  filling 
this  demand.  This  is  not  the  fault  of  those 
who  have  prepared  this  bibliography,  but  the 
value  of  the  publication  under  consideration 
would  have  been  greatly  enhanced  if  many 
papers  had  been  brought  out  under  more  of 
the  headings  which  were  given  them.  This 
is  due  to  the  fact  that  probably  much  of  this 
work  of  examining  the  literature  was  per- 
formed by  persons  who  had  no  special  knowl- 


edge of  the  subject,  the  literature  of 
they  were  classifying.  This  work  to  I 
done— and  no  other  sort  of  bibliographi 
is  acceptable — ^must  be  performed  by 
who  have  a  considerable  intimate  kno 
of  that  portion  of  science  which  they  i 
dexing.  It  is  well  known  that  some  o^ 
who  participated  in  the  formation  c 
organization  were  of  the  opinion  ths 
work  of  classification  could  be  execu 
persons  having  a  good  general  scienti£ 
cation.  The  first  annual  issue  of  the 
ographies  illustrates  how  erroneous  is 
conclusion.  If  the  preparation  of  the  m 
by  each  of  the  regional  bureaus  wer< 
plete  and  satisfactory,  the  work  of  col 
and  unifying  them  into  a  whole  must 
replete  with  difficidties. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  notice  t( 
out  particular  errors  of  omission  oi 
mission  or  to  note  defects  in  a  spirit  of 
criticism,  but  to  indicate  what  is  fun< 
tally  inlidequate  with  the  hope  that 
time  it  will  be  rectified.  It  may  pi 
have  been  a  wise  determination  to  ca 
this  work  for  a  period  of  five  years 
holding  a  congress  at  which  these  qu 
of  revision  will  be  discussed  and  detei 
But  it  is  believed  that  a  higher  gr 
bibliog^raphic  work  would  result  if  a 
measure  of  discretion  had  been  given 
central  bureau.  The  difficulties  which 
the  inauguration  of  such  a  peculiar  wo 
indeed,  great,  but  they  must  be  overc< 
the  organization  is  to  be  permanent  a 
outcome  of  its  labor  to  meet  the  appr< 
and  support  of  those  for  whose  benef 
conducted.  For  the  present  the  foUowii 
gestions  are  offered  to  those  who  h 
charge  the  preparation  of  these  bibliogi 

1.  Secure  the  assistance  of  specialists 
as  possible.  Would  it  not  be  practic 
send  to  such  persons  a  list  of  current 
icals,  publications  of  societies,  etc.,  to 
amined  for  each  regional  bureau,  and  as 
and  unify  their  work  for  transmission 
central  bureau? 

2.  Enlarge  the  list  of  publicatio: 
amined  to  include  those  which  only  oc 
ally  publish  articles  which  should  be  e 


Jandabt  8,  19M.] 


SCIENCE. 


67 


3.  Classic  in  greater  detail.  Enter  a  paper 
under  each  subject  heading  of  which  it  treats 
even  though  it  seem  unimportant 

F.  B.  Weeks. 


SCIENTIFIC    JOURNALS    AND    ARTICLES. 

The  Bulletin  of  the  Michigan  Ornitholog- 
ical Club  for  December  contains  articles  on 
the  '  Nesting  of  the  White-breasted  Nuthatch,' 
by  Edwin  G.  Mummery;  *  Purple  Martin  Notes 
from  Waynesburg,  Pa.,'  by  J.  Warren  Jacobs; 
'Nesting  of  the  Sandhill  Crane  in  Michigan,' 
by  Edward  Arnold.  There  is  the  third  series 
of  portraits  of  Michigan  ornithologists  and 
other  illustrations,  including  a  half-tone  of 
the  University  of  Michigan  Museum.  Besides 
the  papers  above  mentioned  and  the  official 
'  Minutes  of  Club  Meetings,'  book  reviews  and 
the  constitution  of  the  organization  there  are 
nimierous  notes  including  'Another  Parasitic 
Jaeger  (Stercoraritis  parasiticjis)  from  Mich- 
igan,' by  Alexander  W.  Blain,  Jr.,  and  '  Nest- 
ing of  the  Cardinal  Grosbeak  ((7.  cardinalis) 
in  Ingham  County,  Michigan,'  by  Professor 
Walter  B.  Barrows,  being  the  first  authentic 
record  of  the  breeding  of  the  cardinal  in  the 
state.  Beginning  with  1904  Charles  E.  Wis- 
ner,  of  Detroit,  will  assume  the  business  man- 
agement of  the  Bulletin. 


SOCIETIES   AND   ACADEMIES. 

NORTH     OAROUKA     SECTION     OF     THE     AMERICAN 

CHEMICAL    SOCIETT. 

The  seventh  annual  meeting  of  the  section 
was  held  in  the  chemical  lecture  room  of  the 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College,  West 
Haleigh,  on  November  28,  1903,  at  11  a.m., 
with  presiding  officer,  Chas.  E.  Brewer,  in 
the  chair. 

Preceding  the  presentation  of  papers  a  short 
business  meeting  was  held  and  the  following 
officers  were  elected  for  the  ensuing  year: 

Preaident—Br.  A.  S.  Wheeler,  Chapel  Hill,  N.  C. 

Vice-President— Dr.  R.  W.  Page,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

Secretary-Treasurer — C.  D.  Harris,  Raleigh, 
N.  C. 

Ctnincillor — Professor  W.  A.  Withers,  Raleigh, 
N.  C. 

Reporters — ^W.  6.  Morrison,  West  Raleigh,  and 
S.  E.  Asbury,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 


The  following  papers  were  presented  and 
discussed: 

Action  of  Ultra-violet  Light  upon  Rare  Earth 
Oxides:  Charles  Baskerville. 

See  American  Journal  of  Science,  December, 
1903. 

On  the  Action  of  Radium  Compounds  upon 
Bare  Earth  Oxides  and  the  Production  of 
Permanently  Luminous  Preparations  hy 
Mixing  the  Former  with  Powdered  Min- 
erals:   Charles  Baskerville  and  Oeo.  F. 

KUNZ. 

Will  appear  in  American  Journal  of  Science, 
January,  1904. 

Phosphorescent    Thorium     Oxide:     Charles 

BASKERVUiLE. 

As  previously  shown,  thorium  dioxide  is  one 
of  the  two  rare  earth  oxides  (zirconium  di- 
oxide being  the  other)  and  the  only  radio- 
active one  which  phosphoresces  with  ultra- 
violet light.  This  method  of  testing  was 
applied  to  different  fractions  obtained  from  the 
thorium  dioxide  by  volatilization  of  the  chlor- 
ides. The  three  fractions  obtained  varied  as 
follows:  The  residue  (containing  the  caro- 
liniimi)  is  only  faintly  phosphorescent,  due 
doubtless  to  the  retention  of  some  thorium. 
The  crystalline  sublimate  is  about  ten  times 
as  phosphorescent  as  the  original  oxide,  where- 
as the  very  volatile  fraction  (weisser  Dampff 
of  Berzelius)  does  not  phosphoresce  at  all. 
The  last-mentioned  preparation  contains  a 
little  thorium.  The  radio-activity  is  greatest 
in  the  residue  and  least  in  the  volatile  body. 
The  name  herzelium  is  proposed  for  this 
third  fraction  of  thorium. 

» 

A  Simple  Device  for  IlliLstrating  the  Periodic 

Law:   Charles  BASKERVUiLE. 

The  device  consists  of  blocks  cut  in  length 
according  to  the  atomic  weight,  taking  one 
half  inch  for  hydrogen.  The  blocks  are  planed, 
presenting  flat  surfaces  corresponding  to  the 
valency.  The  electro-positive  and  negative 
properties  are  indicated  by  painting  blue  or 
red.  When  these  blocks  are  arranged  in  an 
ascending  series  according  to  their  heights, 
the  resemblance  of  the  proi)erties  of  the  ele- 


68 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  V0L.XIX. 


meiits  in  the  different  families  of  the  periodic 
law  is  strikingly  presented. 

Upward  Filtration  and  Its  Application  in  the 
Determination    of    Crude    Fiber:    J.    M. 

PiCKELL. 

This  is  a  rapid  method  of  washing  and 
filtering  fiber  by  sucking  the  fiber  (contained 
in  a  beaker)  up  against  a  linen  filter  which  is 
stretched  across  the  top  of  a  small  funnel,  or 
better,  across  a  *  carbon  filter,'  which  is  pro- 
vided with  a  rim  for  this  purpose.  The  time 
consumed  in  a  filtration  is  usually  a  fraction 
of  a  minute,  but  in  the  more  difficult  cases, 
two,  three,  four  and  in  rare  cases,  ten  or 
fifteen'  minutes.  In  the  few  cases  tested 
(cotton-seed  meal,  wheat  bran)  it  was  found  to 
pass  (and  thus  lose)  0.2  per  cent,  to  0.3  per 
cent,  of  solids,  which  a  good  thick,  but  slow- 
filtering  asbestos  (Gooch)  filter  took  out 
With  cotton-seed  meal,  com  bran,  wheat  bran, 
rice  chaff,  ground  com  cobs,  peanut  hulls, 
peanut  middlings,  it  gave  duplicates  agreeing 
within  0.01  per  cent,  to  0.30  per  cent.  A  de- 
tailed description  of  the-  apparatus  and  method 
will  be  soon  published.  It  is  thought  that  un- 
glazed  terra-cotta  disks  and  with  suitable  pro- 
tection, even  filter  "paper,  especially  the  hard- 
ened variety,  may  be  substituted  for  linen,  and 
the  method  applied  quantitatively  to  difficult 
filtrations  other  than  those  of  fiber.  Experi- 
ments in  this  line  are  in  view. 

The    Constituiion   of    Cellulose    (a   report) : 

Alvin  S.  Wheeler. 

A  review  of  the  literature  on  the  subject 
up  to  date.  The  empirical  formula  of  the  re- 
acting unit  is  C«HjoO..  The  evidence  favors 
a  cyclic  formula  for  the  unit.  The  fact  that 
the  tetra  acetate  of  cellulose  is  a  normal  ester 
shows  that  four  oxygens  are  hydrozylic.  The 
fifth  oxygen  is  carbonyl  oxygen  and  the  be- 
havior of  cellulose  clearly  indicates  the  00 
group  to  be  ketonic  and  not  aldehydic.  Fen- 
ton  and  Gostling's  production  of  <w-brom- 
methylfurf ural  from  cellulose  is  exceedingly 
interesting  in  this  connection.  The  provi- 
sional formula  CO  <  (CHOH),  >  CH,  has 
many  suggestions  in  it.  The  subject  is  a 
very  complicated  one.  C.  D.  Harris, 

Secretary. 


THE   AMERICAN   OHEMIOAL   80CIETT.       NE' 

SECTION. 

At  the  regular  meeting  held  on  Dec< 
the  section  elected  to  the  council  of 
ciety.   Professors   E.   H.   Miller   and 
Coblentz,    and    Drs.    Leo    Baekeland, 
Schweitzer  and  Durand  WoodmaiL 

The  following  papers  were  then  rea 

The  Dissociation  of  Lead  Nitrate :  Leo 

LAND. 

Dr.  Baekeland  described  the  methc 
results  of  an  extended  investigation 
dissociation  of  lead  nitrate  under  d 
conditions  and  discussed  the  princi 
chemical  dynamics  involved  in  the  int 
tion  of  his  results.  Several  pieces  o 
ratus  especially  designed  for  this  i 
were  described  and  illustrated. 

On    the    Conversion    of    Lead    Sulp] 
Barium  Sulphate   and  a  Method 
Determination  of  Sulphur  in  Lead 
E.  H.  Miller  and  J.  E.  Thompson. 
This  paper  showed  that  the  conversio: 
would  be  expected  from  the  difference 
solubility  products  of  the  sulphates  c€ 
be  made  to  take  place,  as  the  mechanic 
ing  of  the  lead  sulphate  by  barium  sul] 
a  barium  lead  sulphate  always  prevent 
plete  conversion.     By  varying  the  pi 
and  dissolving  the  lead  sulphate  in 
chloric  acid,   a  satisfactory  precipita 
S0«  ions  as  barium  sulphate  was  0 
This  was  made  the  basis  of  a  method 
phur  in  lead  slags.     A  variety  of  sk 
tested  in  comparison  with  the  Eahll 
methodl 

The  End  Products  of  8  elf -Digestion 
mal  Olands  (first  communication) 
Levene. 

Dr.  Levene  gave  the  results  of  exp< 
with  the  pancreas  gland  and  the  live 
pancreas  was  subjected  to  self-digesti 
0.5  per  cent,  sodium  carbonate  solut 
liver  in  a  0.2  per  cent,  acetic  acid  1 
The  present  report  covers  the  examin 
the  end-products  for  amino-acids. 
amino-isovalerianic  acid,  leucin,  glutai 
phenylalanin  and  tyrosin  were  fc 
each  case.     The  presence  among  the  c 


Januast  8,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


69 


products  of  a-pyrolydin-carbonic  acid  could 
not  be  established  with  certainty. 

A  Restant  Source  of  Error  in  Optical  Sugar 

Analysis:  F.  G.  Wiechmann. 

Dr.  Wiechmann's  paper  dealt  with  the  error 
due  to  the  space  occupied  by  the  precipitate 
formed  by  basic  lead  acetate  used  as  a  clari- 
fying agent.  After  a  discussion  of  the  extent 
of  the  error  thus  introduced  in  the  examina- 
tion of  different  classes  of  raW  sugars,  the 
author  outlined  briefly  the  results  of  a  study 
of  the  methods  proposed  by  Scheibler  and  by 
Sachs  for  the  determination  of  the  volume  of 
the  precipitate.  This  paper  will  be  found  in 
the  School  of  Mines  Quarterly  for  November, 
1903. 

Dry  Defecation  in  Optical  Sugar  Analysis: 

W.  D.  HORNE. 

Dr.  Home  described  a  method  for  clarifying 
sugar  solutions  so  as  to  avoid  or  minimize  the 
error  discussed  by  Dr.  Wiechmann.  The 
'normal  weight'  of  sugar  is  dissolved  and 
diluted  to  100  cubic  centimeters  and  the  solu- 
tion clarified  by  the  addition  of  pulverized 
anhydrous  subacetate  of  lead.  The  acetic  acid 
going  into  solution  appears  to  replace  in  vol- 
ume the  organic  acid,  precipitated  by  the  lead, 
60  closely  that  the  polarizations  obtained  on 
such  solutions  approximate  the  theoretical. 

After  the  reading  of  the  above  papers,  Dr. 
G.  Plath,  of  Berlin,  exhibited  and  explained 
a  number  of  sx>ecimens  of  improved  stoneware 
apparatus  designed  for  use  in  chemical  opera- 
tions. 

H.  0.  Sherman, 
Secretary. 

CHEMIOAL  SOCIETY  OP  WASHmOTON. 

The  146th  regular  meeting  of  the  Wash- 
ington Chemical  Society  was  held  Thursday, 
December  10,  at  8  p.m.^  in  the  assembly  room 
of  the  Cosmos  Club.  The  program  for  the 
evening  consisted  of  the  following  three  papers. 

The  first  paper,  entitled  *  The  Bromine  Ab- 
sorption of  Oils,'  was  presented  by  Mr.  L.  M. 
Tolman. 

A  comparison  of  the  results  obtained  by  dif- 
ferent methods  was  made,  and  it  was  shown 
that  the  one  third  normal  bromine  in  carbon 


tetrachloride  gave  as  high  addition  figures  as 
the  Wij's  and  Hanus  methods,  when  the  car- 
bon tetrachloride  was  dry  and  the  reaction 
was  allowed  to  take  place  in  the  light  Moist- 
ure was  found  to  have  a  very  marked  effect  on 
both  the  addition  and  substitution  values. 
The  length  of  time  necessary  to  obtain  com- 
plete reaction  was  found  to  vary  in  the  light, 
30  to  60  minutes  being  necessary,  while  in  the 
dark  a  definite  i)oint  was  reached  in  a  very 
short  time,  but  the  results  were  much  below 
those  obtained  in  the  light.  Experiments  were 
reported  using  iodine  chloride  and  iodine 
bromide  in  carbon  tetrachloride  solution.  The 
iodine  chloride  in  carbon  tetrachloride  was 
found  to  be  the  most  satisfactory. 

The  second  paper  on  the  program,  entitled 
'  The  Action  of  Sal  Anmioniac  on  Certain 
Chlorides,'  was  presented  by  Dr.  P.  Fireman. 
The  action  of  ammonium  chloride  upon  inor- 
ganic and  organic  polychlorides  in  sealed  tubes 
at  temperatures  about  450°  C.  was  investi- 
gated. The  author  found  that  those  inorganic 
polychlorides  which  are  themselves  dissociable, 
react  with  ammoniimi  chloride  in  a  manner 
similar  to  the  reaction  between  ammonium 
chloride  and  phosphorus  pentachloride.  With 
respect  to  organic  polychlorides,  it  was  found 
that  under  certain  conditions  carbon  tetra- 
chloride reacts  with  ammonium  chloride,  with 
the  liberation  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  the 
formation  of  a  yellowish  compound  which  is 
probably  a  polymeric  modification  of  cyanogen 
chloride. 

The  third  paper  on  the  program,  entitled 
*The  SolubiHty  of  some  Slightly  Soluble 
Phosphates,'  was  presented  by  Dr.  F.  K.  Cam- 
eron. The  author  briefly  reviewed  the  litera- 
ture bearing  on  the  solubility  of  the  phos- 
phates of  calcium,  aluminum  and  iron,  and 
gave  a  preliminary  announcement  of  some 
experimental  investigations  he  has  been  car- 
rying on  with  Dr.  Seidell  and  Mr.  Hurst.  It 
appears  that  the  evidence  obtained  can  not 
be  brought  in  harmony  with  the  indications  6f 
the  dissociation  hypothesis,  even  in  very  dilute 
solutions.  But  some  of  the  apparent  discrep- 
ancies between  the  hypothesis  and  the  ob- 
served facts  are  undoubtedly  due  to  the  fact 


70 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


that  these  substances  are  very  slightly  soluble 
in  themselves,  but  hydrolize  greatly  with  the 
formation  of  a  readily  soluble  constituent. 

A.  Seidell, 
Secretary. 

THE  BIOLOGICAL   SOCIETY  OF  WASHINGTON. 

The '378th  meeting  was  held  on  Saturday, 
December  12. 

William  H.  Ashmead  presented  some  '  Re- 
marks on  Japanese  Hymenoptera/  stating  that 
a  recent  study  of  specimens  in  the  U.  S. 
!N^ational  Museum  had  raised  the  number  of 
known  species  to  over  five  hundred  and  fifty. 
Some  of  these  were  represented  in  eastern  and 
southern  Asia,  while  the  relationship  of  the 
parasitic  forms  were  largely  North  American. 
Specimens  and  drawings  of  some  of  the  more 
interesting  species  were  shown,  including 
tliree  distinct  honey  bees. 

V.  K.  Chesnut  and  Harry  T.  Marshall  gave 
"  Some  Observations  on  *  Locoed '  Sheep." 
Mr.  Chesnut  described  the  symptoms  of  lo- 
coed animals;  tendency  to  stray,  loss  of  appe- 
tite for  ordinary  food,  evident  hallucination, 
outbreaks  of  violence,  wasting  of  flesh  and, 
finally,  death.  He  stated  that  animals  that 
had  acquired  taste  for  the  loco  weed  rarely,  if 
ever,  recovered,  and  that  in  parts  of  the  west 
the  loss  of  stock  was  very  considerable.  The 
property  of  'locoing'  animals  had  been  as- 
cribed to  various  plants  of  the  genera  As- 
tragalus, Arag alius  and  Datura.  Mr.  Mar- 
shall gave  the  results  of  the  examination  of 
fourteen  sheep,  afflicted  with  the  loco-disease, 
and  selected  from  a  number  as  showing  typical 
symptoms.  These  sheep  exhibited  no  spe- 
cial lesions  such  as  might  be  considered  char- 
acteristic of  the  complaint,  but  some  of  them 
were  infested  by  various  parasites.  The 
speaker  stated  that  while  he  believed  in  the 
existence  of  «  loco-disease  so  far  as  these  sheep 
were  concerned,  the  actual  observations  showed 
that  it  had  been  preceded  by  other  causes 
and  that  sheep  enjoying  full  health  had  not 
been  attacked. 

Charles  Hallock  spoke  of  '  The  Bison  as  a 
Factor  in  the  Distribution  of  Aboriginal  Pop- 
ulation in  Mid-Continental  America,'  stating 
that  the  introduction  of  the  horse  had  enabled 


the  Indians  of  the  southwest  to  follow 
bison  northwards  into  the  plains,  while  as 
country  in  the  eastern  United  States  beci 
settled  the  forest  Indians  were  crowded  w 
ward  into  the  same  localities,  following 
bison  as  a  source  of  food.         F.  A.  Lucai 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL   SOCIETY   OF   WASHINGTON 

The  351st  meeting  was  held  December 
Dr.  D.  S.  Lamb  read  a  paper  entitled  '  All 
ism  and  Melanism,'  in  which  he  carefully 
viewed  the  contributions  to  the  study  of  1 
subject.  Dr.  Lamb  spoke  of  the  wide  < 
tribution  of  albinism  among  human  beii 
its  occurrence  among  animals  and  plants  i 
of  the  experiments  in  the  latter  fields  to  i 
duce  albinism.  Albinism,  he  stated,  is  c 
genital  and  inheritable.  The  theories  on 
cause  of  albinism  were  reviewed.  The  m 
important  took  civilization  and  the  direct 
tion  of  the  nerves  as  causes.  It  was  conclu< 
that  no  satisfactory  explanation  of  albini 
and  melanism  has  yet  been  advanced.  In 
discussion  Dr.  Hrdlicka  showed  photogra] 
and  samples  of  hair  of  the  Hopi  and  Zi 
albinos  and  observed  that  there  are  more 
male  than  male  albinos  at  Moki,  that  seve 
are  below  the  average  intelligence  and  mt 
were  second  child  in  order  of  birth. 
Hrdlicka  expressed  his  belief  in  the  cau 
relation  of  the  nervous  system  to  albinif 
He  related  an  extraordinary  case  where 
wings  of  an  albino  jay  bird  which  he  cut 
in  Mexico  had  returned  almost  to  their  natu 
blue  color  when  unpacked  in  New  York.  1 
president.  Miss  Alice  C.  Fletcher,  said  tl 
housing  among  the  different  tribes  accoun 
for  differences  of  complexion  and  that  alb 
ism  has  been  explained  in  this  way.  The  s 
retary  said  that  the  purpose  of  the  study 
albinism  and  melanism  from  the  anthropoL 
ical  side  was  to  ascertain  the  causes  of  rx 
coloration,  which  has  been  a  fruitful  subj* 
for  theorization.  The  discussion  was  tai 
part  in  by  Mr.  Hallock,  Mrs.  Lamb  and  M 
Seaman. 

Colonel  Paul  E.  Beckwith  read  a  paper  « 
titled  'The  Rise  and  Decline  of  the  Swoi 
Colonel  Beckwith  pictured  the  conditions 
the  life  of  early  times  and  showed  that  m 


Januabt  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


71 


had  to  weapon  himself  for  his  protection. 
Prehistoric  flint  weapons  which  stand  at  the 
beginning  of  the  sword  were  exhibited  and 
traced  along  to  the  seft  of  Egypt,  down 
through  the  various  derivative  forms  in  Af- 
rica, Europe  and  Asia  in  the  different  periods. 
Colonel  Beckwith  described  the  sword  blade, 
the  nomenclature  of  its  parts  and  the  reasons 
for  the  different  forms,  closing  with  remarks 
on  the  decline  of  the  weapon  incident  to  mod- 
em warfare. 

The  question  of  the  preservation  of  the  an- 
tiquities of  the  United  States,  which  was  laid 
over  from  a  former  meeting,  was  brought  up 
by  Dr.  H.  M.  Baum,  who  urged  action.  Pro- 
fessor Holmes  said  that  the  Bureau  of  Eth- 
nology  has  taken  up  the  subject  and  that  Mr. 
McGuire  is  engaged  in  examining  the  laws  of 
various  countries  with  a  view  to  the  prepara- 
tion of  an  act  for  the  United  States.  Dr. 
Baiun  suggested  that  a  movement  be  put  on 
foot  to  awaken  public  sentiment  in  the  pres- 
ervation of  antiquities  and  to  this  end  the 
society  should  petition  and  put  the  matter 
before  congress.  Dr.  Lamb  moved  that  a 
committee  of  five  members  be  appointed  to 
consider  and  report  on  the  ways  and  means 
for  the  preservation  of  antiquities.  The  mo- 
tion was  seconded  by  Mrs.  S.  S.  James,  who 
spoke  of  the  work  in  this  line  by  the  ladies  of 
Colorado.  The  president  thereupon  appointed 
a  committee  consisting  of  W.  H.  Holmes,  J. 
W.  Fewkes,  A.  Hrdlicka,  H.  M.  Baum  and 
J.  D.  McGuire.  Walter  Hough, 

Secretary, 

BOTANICAL  SOCIETY  OP  WASHINGTON. 

The  sixteenth  regular  meeting  of  the  Botan- 
ical Society  of  Washington  was  held  at  the 
Portner  Hotel,  December  5,  1903,  with  thirty- 
seven  i)ersons  present. 

The  following  progpram  was  presented: 
1.   The  Salt  Content  of  Sedbeach  Soils :  T.  H. 

Kearney. 

Most  writers  upon  the  ecology  of  strand 
vegetatix)n  have  implied,  or  even  explicitly 
stated,  their  belief  that  the  sands  of  the  sea- 
beach  are  impregnated  with  salt  in  amounts 
sufficient  to  determine  the  character  of  the 
plant  growth.      This   hypothesis   is   not  sus- 


tained by  an  examination  of  samples  of  dune 
and  beach  sand  taken  on  the  shore  of  Buzzards 
Bay,  Massachusetts,  near  Norfolk,  Virginia, 
and  near  Los  Angeles,  California.  On  the 
contrary,  the  amounts  of  soluble  salt  present, 
as  determined  by  the  electrolytical  method 
used  by  the  Bureau  of  Soils  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture,  is  generally 
less  than  that  found  in  most  cultivated  soils  in 
the  eastern  (humid)  part  of  the  United  States. 

The  greatest  amount  of  salt  detected  in 
beach  sand  occurred  in  a  sample  taken  at  Los 
Angeles,  California,  which  gave  an  electrical 
resistance  (at  60®  F.)  of  158  ohms  (equivalent 
to  about  0.15  per  cent,  of  salt  to  soil)  for  the 
first  foot,  and  180  ohms  (equivalent  to  about 
0.12  per  cent.)  for  the  second  foot,  an  amount 
not  greater  than  that  sometimes  occurring  in 
cultivated  land  in  the  eastern  United  States. 
We  are,  therefore,  constrained  to  attribute  the 
xerophytic  character  of  sand-strand  vegetation 
to  factors  in  the  environment  other  than  the 
presence  in  the  soil  of  an  excessive  amount  of 
soluble  salt. 

On  the  other  hand,  coast  marshes  that  are 
regularly  inundated  by  salt  or  brackish  water 
possess  a  distinctly  saline  soil,  and  their 
vegetation  may  safely  be  termed  halophytic, 
so  far  as  halophytes  may  be  regarded  as  form- 
ing an  ecological  class  distinct  from  other 
xerophytes. 

2.  The  Influence  of  Climate  and  Soil  on  the 
Transmitting  Power  of  Seeds:  Will  W. 
Tracy,  Sr,  This  paper  will  be  published 
later  in  Science. 

3.  The  American  Ginseng  Industry:  F.  V. 
CoviLLE.  Herbert  J.  Webber, 

Corresponding  Secretary. 

torrey  botanical  club. 

At  the  regular  meeting  of  the  club  held  at 
the  College  of  Pharmacy,  December  8,  1903, 
the  scientific  program  consisted  of  a  paper 
by  Mr.  W.  L.  Home  on  *  The  Vegetation  of 
Kadiak  Island,  Alaska.'  The  paper  was  illus- 
trated by  a  large  number  of  botanical  speci- 
mens and  by  numerous  photographs  showing 
the  topography  of  the  island  and  the  char- 
acteristics of  the  different  plant  formations. 
Kadiak  Island  is  58°  north  latitude  and  155° 


72 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XEX.  No. 


west  longitude  and  is  thirty  miles  from  the 
mainland.  It  is  twenty  miles  long  by  fifty 
wide  and  has  a  very  irregular  coast  line. 
The  surface  is  much  diversified  and  broken. 
A  fresh-water  lake  about  twenty  miles  long 
is  situated  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the 
island.  It  is  connected  with  the  sea  by  the 
Karluk  Biver  and  furnishes  an  ideal  breed- 
ing ground  for  the  red  salmon.  One  of  the 
most  important  fishing  stations  and  canning 
plants  in  the  world  is  located  near  the  mouth 
of  this  river.  The  winters  are  very  long,  be- 
ginning early  in  October,  but  they  are  not  in- 
tensely cold.  The  lowest  temperature  during 
the  two  years  of  Mr.  Home's  stay  was  — 10®. 
There  is  much  mild  weather  and  there  are  fre- 
quent thaws.  The  soil  only  freezes  to  a  depth 
of  from  one  to  two  feet,  and  the  frost  is  out  of 
the  ground  early  in  June.  The  highest  sum- 
mer temperature  noted  was  72°.  The  Chinese 
laborers  in  the  canning  factory  make  gardens 
where  they  cultivate  successfully  many  of  the 
more  hardy  vegetables. 

The  principal  plant  formations  discussed 
were  those  of  the  low-lying  bogs,  the  com- 
paratively level  grass  lands,  the  higher  lying 
I>eat  bogs,  and  the  alpine  fiora  occupying  the 
rocky  hilld.  Marine  plants  are  not  particu- 
larly conspicuous,  though  many  brown  and 
red  seaweeds  occur.  Two  species  of  Potamoge' 
ion  are  found  in  the  river  at  the  point  where 
the  salt  and  fresh  waters  meet.  Above  this 
point  it  is  comparatively  free  from  vegeta- 
tion. The  country  is  well  watered  by  small 
streams.  These  are  often  full  of  various  green 
algsB  and  they  are  frequently  dammed  by 
dense  growths  of  mosses.  Some  of  the  smaller 
slower  brooks  are  completely  blocked  by  dense 
growths  of  species  of  Vaucheria,  which  so  re- 
tard the  flow  of  the  water  as  to  form  low  wet 
bogs  that  are  covered  with  a  characteristic 
vegetation.  The  earliest  plant  to  flower  in  the 
spring  in  these  vaucheria  bogs  is  the  small 
Claytonia  asarifolia.  Other  conspicuous 
spring  plants  are  a  species  of  Bumex,  Caltha 
paliLstris  and  various  species  of  the  CruciferaB. 
These  bogs  are  showiest  in  midsummer  when 
filled  with  Polemonium  acuti folium,  several 
species  of  Epilohium  and  a  handsome  Mimulus, 
Epilohium  luteum  in  particular  forms  showy 


masses  in  the  bogs  and  along  the  brooks, 
large-flowered  skunk  cabbage  also  occurs 
wet  places,  frequently  marking  the  course 
little  brooks  along  the  hillsides.  Oarex  cr 
tocarpa  forms  a  dense  zone  bordering  porti« 
of  the  river  bank. 

The  drier  and  comparatively  level  gr 
lands  are  always  completely  covered  by  lay 
of  mosses  and  lichens,  so  that  they  approi 
the  condition  of  the  timdras.  The  first  spri 
flowers  of  the  grass  lands  are  the  abundi 
pink  blossoms  of  the  little  Ruhiis  stellat 
which  is  also  a  conspicuous  plant  in  the  i 
from  the  rich  coloring  of  its  leaves.  The  ti 
consists  mostly  of  Carex  Omelinii,  Scattei 
plants  of  species  of  Poa  and  Festuca  are  f 
quent,  but  the  dominant  grass  is  a  species 
Calamagrostis.  A  fragrant  grass,  a  spec 
of  Hierochloa  called  locally  *  vanilla  gra 
occurs,  but  it  is  not  abundant  Other  consp 
uous  plants  are  Trientalis  Europea  artica,  t 
species  of  violets,  Oeranium  erianthum,  a 
conspicuous  in  the  fall  from  its  red  foliage 
yellow  Gasiilleia,  Viburnum  paucifiorum,  8c 
guisorha  latifolia,  Galium  horeale  and  a  lai 
showy  Lupinus.  The  salmonberry,  Bubus  ap* 
tahilis,  is  frequent  and  bears  a  large,  delicid 
edible  berry.  In  midsummer  great  patches 
flreweed,  Chamcenerion  angustifoUum,  si: 
denly  burst  into  bloom,  giving  a  most  striki 
color  effect.  Later  in  the  season  Solida 
lepida  becomes  conspicuous.  Lathyrus  palx 
iris  was  the  only  plant  observed  having  a  vii 
like  habit. 

The  peat  bogs  occur  at  the  foot  of  the  hil 
Among  their  characteristic  plants  are  Beti 
glandulosa,  a  shrub  reaching  two  feet 
height;  Empetrum  nigrum,  with  black  frui 
that  are  called  'blackberries'  and  are  eat 
by  the  natives,  and  Ledum  palustre,  the  leav 
of  which  are  used  for  a  tea.  Vaccinium  ova 
folium  grows  along  the  upper  edge  of  t 
grass  lands.  It  furnishes  an  important  ec 
nomic  fruit. 

The  alpine  flora  on  the  rocky  hills  consis 
of  a  mat-like  growth  of  mosses,  Cladonic 
Empetrum,  dwarf  blueberries,  etc.  The  fii 
to  bloom  in  the  spring  is  MoBrania  alpina.  Tl 
fall  foliage  of  this  plant  is  very  showjr,  fori 
ing  intense  red  patches  on  the  hillsides.    Oth 


January  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


73 


conspicuous  plants  are  AragaliLS  arctica,  A. 
nigrescens,  ChamcBcestus  procumhens,  Dra- 
pensia  Lapponica,  Lloydia  serotina.  Campan- 
ula lasiocarpaj  Arnica  lassingi  and  various 
dwarf  arctic  willows.  Vaccinium  uliginosum 
and  V.  VitiS'IdcBa  are  abundant  and  their 
fruits  are  of  great  economic  importance  to  the 
natives. 

The  paper  brought  out  an  interesting  dis- 
cussion lasting  till  the  hour  for  adjournment. 

F.  S.  Earle, 
Secretary. 

RESEARCH  CLUB  OF  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  MICHIGAN. 

The  regular  October  meeting  was  held  on 
the  evening  of  the  twenty-first.  Dr.  Kaymond 
Pearl  discussed  the  problem  of  the  ^Belative 
Variability  of  Man  and  Woman/  and  pre- 
sented statistical  evidence  of  two  sorts,  bear- 
ing on  the  subject.  (1)  It  was  shown  that 
with  respect  to  age  at  death  from  fatal  con- 
genital malformations  woman  was  signifi- 
cantly more  variable  than  man.  The  stand- 
ard deviation  in  age  at  death  for  men  was 
2.104  years,  while  for  women  it  was  2.699 
years,  giving  a  difference  of  .696  year  with  a 
probable  error  of  =fc  .044.  The  mean  age  at 
death  was  not  significantly  different  in  the 
two  sexes.  Since  there  is  a  positive  correla- 
tion between  (a)  the  degree  or  intensity  of 
malformations  sufficiently  great  to  cause 
death,  and  (h)  the  age  at  which  death  occurs, 
it  was  maintained  that  these  results  give  evi- 
dence as  to  the  relative  variability  of  the  sexes 
with  reference  to  the  degree  or  intensity  of 
fatal  malformations,  and  indicate  a  slightly, 
but  significantly,  greater  variation  in  the  fe- 
male. 

(2)  It  was  shown  from  an  analysis  of 
Marchand's  data  on  human  brain-weights  that 
with  reference  to  this  character  the  female 
was  slightly  more  variable  than  the  male. 

These  results  are  in  accordance  with  Pear- 
son's main  conclusion  from  a  study  of  the 
relative  variability  of  the  sexes  with  respect 
to  a  large  number  of  physical  characters. 

Professor  E.  D.  Campbell  read  a  paper  on 
'The  Diffusion  of  Sulphides  through  SteeL* 

Ten  years  ago  the  author  had  determined 
the  diffusion  of  sulphide  of  iron  through  steel. 


and  later  he  found  that  to  effect  diffusion  the 
sulphide  must  be  an  oxysulphide. 

That  steel  should  be  permeable  to  liquids 
even  when  heated  to  1,200°  0.  was  considered 
so  unlikely  that  Professor  J.  O.  Arnold,  of  the 
University  Technical  College  of  Sheffield, 
England,  repeated  a  portion  of  the  work,  and 
confirmed  the  results. 

In  September,  1902,  H.  Le  Ohatelier,  of 
L'Ecole  des  Mines,  Paris,  with  M.  Ziegler  pub- 
lished a  paper  in  which  they  denied  the  per- 
meability of  iron,  stating  that  the  escape  of 
the  sulphide  of  iron  was  entirely  by  capillary 
action  through  the  space  between  the  steel 
plug  and  the  sides  of  the  hole  containing  the 
sulphide.  Professor  Campbell  described  a 
series  of  experiments  in  which  the  sulphide 
was  contained  in  a  long  steel  tube  closed  at 
one  end  with  a  tapered  screw  plug,  and  heated 
in  such  a  way  that  it  was  impossible  for  sul- 
phide to  escape  around  the  plug.  When  the 
steel  tubes  were  heated  above  1,200®  C.  a  por- 
tion of  the  sulphide  was  found  to  have  pene- 
trated the  solid  walls  of  the  steel  tube,  thus 
confirming  the  author's  first  contention,  that 
steel  when  heated  to  about  1,200**  C.  is  per- 
meable to  oxysulphide  of  iron  without  increase 
in  the  per  cent,  of  sulphur  in  the  steel. 

The  November  meeting  occurred  on  the 
eighteenth.  Mr.  G.  O.  Higley  described  *A 
Method  for  Determining  the  Excretion  of 
Carbon  Dioxide  from  the  Lungs.'  The  exist- 
ing methods  for  measuring  the  amount  of  car- 
bon dioxide  in  the  expired  air  do  not  permit 
a  study  of  the  character  of  sudden  changes 
such  as  occur  at  the  beginning  and  at  the  end 
of  vigorous  muscular  work,  nor  such-  changes 
as  accompany  the  'secondary  rise'  in  the 
pulse  rate  as  described  by  Bowen  (memorial 
volimie  of  contributions  to  medical  research 
dedicated  to  Victor  C.  Vaughan,  1903).  In 
Mr.  Higley's  method  the  expired  air,  after 
removal  of  moisture,  is  freed  from  carbon 
dioxide  in  an  apparatus  charged  with  soda 
lime,  and  suspended  upon  the  arm  of  a  bal- 
ance. A  long,  light  lever  attached  to  the  end 
of  the  beam  greatly  magnifies  the  movements 
of  the  beam,  and  writes  the  curve  of  carbon 
dioxide  excretion  upon  the  blackened  paper  of 
a  kymograph  drum.     On  the  same  drum  may 


74 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No 


be  recorded  the  carotid  pulse,  the  respiration, 
the  time  in  seconds  and  the  rate  of  muscular 
movements.  Experiments  made  with  this  ap- 
paratus show  that  the  curve  of  carbon  dioxide 
excretion  during  work  closely  resembles  that 
of  the  pulse,  and  that  carbon  dioxide  is  at 
least  in  part  the  cause  of  the  secondary  rise 
in  the  pulse  rate  observed  by  Bowen. 

Dr.  W.  B.  Pillsbury  detailed  some  experi- 
ments on  *  The  Attention  Wave  as  a  Measure 
of  Fatigue.'  Not  merely  the  daily  rhythm  of 
fatigue  and  practise  of  the  typical  morning 
and  evening  workers  was  reflected  in  the  ratios 
of  the  period  of  visibility  to  the  period  of 
invisibility  in  the  attention  wave,  but  the  de- 
gree of  fatigue  on  days  of  severe  work  as 
compared  with  easy  days  had  a  corresponding 
variation  in  the  fluctuation  of  attention.  In 
the  morning,  practise  shows  itself  in  a  con- 
tinuous increase  in  efficiency  through  at  least 
a  considerable  portion  of  the  experiment; 
while  in  the  evening  there  is  a  decreasing 
effectiveness  almost  from  the  beginning.  As 
further  substantiation  of  the  theory  that  the 
attention  wave  is  closely  related  to  the  Traube- 
Hering  or  Mayer  vaso-motor  waves,  it  was 
noted  that  both  have  the  same  daily  rhythm 
of  length.  Frederick  C.  Newcombe, 

Secretary, 

DISCUSSION    AND    CORRESPONDENCE. 

MORGAN    ON    EVOLUTION    AND    ADAPTATION. 

To  THE  Editor  op  Science:  I  have  alwajrs 
supposed  that  what  are  generally  called  La- 
marck i  an  views  of  evolution  were  considered 
with  less  prejudice  by  biologists  in  the  United 
States  than  in  England  or  Europe,  and  that  my 
own  publications  in  support  of  such  views  were, 
therefore,  likely  to  be  known  and  read  in 
America  even  if  they  were  almost  completely 
ignored  by  my  own  countrymen. 

I  find,  however,  that  Dr.  Thomas  Hunt  Mor- 
gan in  his  book  *  Evolution  and  Adaptation,' 
which  has  just  appeared,  makes  no  mention 
whatever  of  my  book  *  Sexual  Dimorphism  in 
the  Animal  Kingdom,  a  Theory  of  the  Origin 
of  Secondary  Sexual  Characters,'  which  was 
published  in  London  more  than  three  years 
ago.  Any  biologist,  American  or  other,  has 
a  perfect  right  to  reject  all  my  conclusions. 


but  it  seems  to  me  that  an  author  who 
votes  a  great  part  of  his  book  to  the  discus 
of  Darwin's  theory  of  sexual  selection  and 
evolution  of  secondary  sexual  characters,  ix 
tire  ignorance  of  the  facts  and  arguments  w! 
it  cost  me  years  of  labor  to  collect  and  ela 
ate,  lays  himself  open  to  the  charge  of  wri 
without  proper  knowledge  of  the  literatur 
his  subject.  I  have  published  the  results  oi 
perimental  work  apart  from  this,  but  the  < 
reference  Dr.  Morgan  makes  to  it  is  t 
popular  article  in  Natural  Science;  he 
not  apparently  consulted  the  original  memc 
Like  other  English  writers  it  has  been 
ambition  that  my  work  should  be  known  to 
scientific  public  of  the  United  States,  wl 
is  not  only  very  intelligent  but  free  from  p 
udices  which  are  stronger  than  reason  in  E 
land.  I  am  much  disappointed  to  find  t 
my  chief  contribution  to  the  investigation 
evolution  is  so  little  known  to  American  e 

lutionists.  J.  T.  Cunningham 

Zoological  Society, 
3  Hanover  Square,  London,  W. 

mutation  and  SELECmON. 

In  reading  Professor  Morgan's  very  int 
esting  and  valuable  book,  '  Evolution  a 
Adaptation,'  it  is  surprising  to  find  that 
apparently  regards  the  theory  of  evoluti 
by  selection  and  DeVries's  mutation  theory 
being  to  a  degree  in  conflict. 

The  evolution  which  observation  shows 
has  taken  place  is  chiefly  characterized  by  1 
fact  that  it  has  brought  organisms  into  f avi 
able  relation  with  their  environmental  com 
tions.  That  this  could  have  been  secured 
mutation  unaided  by  selection  seems  alt 
gether  unlikely. 

In  the  case  of  the  leaf  butterflies  of  t 
genus  Kallima  the  theory  of  evolution 
mutation  alone  must  assume  that  the  remai 
able  resemblance  arose  all  at  once  by  a  sing 
mutation,  or  that  there  were  a  series  of  mut 
tions  which  for  some  unaccountable  reas< 
were  of  such  a  character  as  to  make  the  i 
semblance  to  a  leaf  gradually  grow  more  pc 
feet,  though  no  selective  action  of  the  e 
vironment  controlled  this  improvement 
pattern. 


•» 


January  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE 


75 


The  first  assumption,  of  the  origin  of  the 
perfect  leaf  pattern  by  a  single  mutation,  is 
unsupported  by  evidence  and  to  me  seems  very 
improbable.  That  the  resemblance  arose  by 
the  cumulation  of  a  series  of  mutations  inde- 
pendent of  selection  seemis  no  less  improbable, 
for  in  this  case  we  have  either  to  assume  some 
mysterious  internal  regulation  of  the  muta- 
tions directing  them  all  in  one  direction,  or 
else  we  must  assume  that  among  the  many 
possible  mutations  only  those  that  were  in 
the  direction  of  closer  imitation  happened  to 
occur.  The  latter  is  of  course  practically 
impossible  upon  the  theory  of  probabilities 
and  the  former  leads  us  into  a  realm  of 
darkness  which  we  seem  at  present  unable 
to  explore.  If,  however,  there  is  reason  to 
believe  in  such  internal  directive  influence,  we 
are  not  justified  in  rejecting  it  because  of  our 
inability  to  study  its  nature  and  action.  I 
can  not  see  that  we  have  such  evidence. 

I  have  been  impressed  with  the  feeling  that 
Professor  Morgan  has  allowed  his  opposition 
to  Darwin's  conception  of  evolution  by  the 
selection  of  favorable  '  fiuctuating  variations ' 
to  cause  him  to  understate  the  importance  of 
selection,  though  in  parts  of  his  book  he  recog- 
nizes that  selection  acts  on  mutants  and  va- 
riants. The  Darwinian  theory  and  the  theory 
of  evolution  by  selection  are  not  identical,  yet 
Professor  Morgan  frequently  refers  to  them 
as  if  they  were  so.  If  mutations  be  distinct 
from  fluctuating  variations,  as  our  as  yet  very 
scanty  evidence  seems  to  suggest  may  be  the 
case,  still  both  mutations  and  variations,  so 
far  as  we  can  see,  would  be  subject  to  selec- 
tion. The  theory  of  selection  is  an  explana- 
tion of  some  of  the  phenomena  of  adaptation. 
It  is  difficult  to  see  that  the  mutation  theory, 
apart  from  selection,  aids  us  in  understanding 
or  imag^ining  how  this  adaptation,  the  most 
general  phenomenon  in  organisms,  has  been 
secured. 

Mutation  may  be  the  mode  of  origin  of 
certain  useful  qualities,  but  it  is  difficult  to 
see  how  it  explains  their  retention  and  per- 
fection. The  theory  of  selection  makes  no 
pretense  to  explain  the  origin  of  varieties  or 
mutations.  It  attempts  to  explain  the  adap- 
tation of  organisms  to  their  conditions  of  life. 


such  adaptation  resulting  from  the  selection 
of  those  individuals  which  vary  or  mutate  in 
useful  directions.  The  theory  of  selection 
begins  where  the  theory  of  mutation  leaves  off. 

Not  even  a  combination  of  DeVries's  muta- 
tion theory  with  Weismann's  theory  of  germ- 
inal selection  would  give  us,  without  natural 
selection,  an  explanation  of  progressive  per- 
fection of  adaptation.  We  should  still  need 
to  add  Nageli's,  or  rather  St.  George  Mivart's, 
perfecting  principle. 

The  work  of  DeVries  seems  especially  val- 
uable since  it  brings  to  the  front  such  ques- 
tions as  the  following: 

Are  there  mutations  which  are  distinct  from 
fluctuating  variations  ?  Are  fluctuating  varia- 
tions restricted  to  rather  narrow  limits,  and 
are  the  larger  variations  which  occur  of  a  dif- 
ferent sort,  establishing  a  new  mean  about 
which  a  new  series  of  fluctuating  variations 
cluster? 

Are  mutations  (or  variations)  definite  or 
indefinite?  Do  they  follow  certain  lines  or 
do  they  occur  in  all  directions? 

If  the  direction  of  mutations  (or  variations) 
is  wholly  or  in  part  predetermined,  what  are 
these  predetermining  factors?  Are  they  in- 
ternal (involved  in  the  nature  of  the  organ- 
ism), or  external   (environmental),  or  both? 

Is  there  a  tendency  in  mutants  (or  variants) 
to  revert  toward  the  condition  of  the  parent 
stock  ? 

Are  mutants  (or  variants)  of  one  sort  more 
(or  less)  fertile  or  more  (or  less)  vigorous 
when  bred  together  than  when  bred  with  the 
parent  stock  or  with  mutants  (or  variants)  of 
another  sort?  Does  mutation  (or  variation) 
cause  partial  (or  complete)  segregation? 

Are  hybrids  between  mutants  (or  variants) 
of  different  sorts  or  between  mutants  (or 
variants)  and  the  parent  stock  intermediate 
in  character  between  the  two  parents,  or  do 
they  follow  wholly  or  chiefly  one  parent?  If 
the  latter,  which  parent  is  followed  in  the 
several  kinds  of  crosses? 

Upon  most  of  these  points  the  observations 
of  DeVries  have  an  important  bearing,  though, 
without  much  further  observation,  they  do  not 
decide  them. 

It  seems  possible  that  one  of  the  most  im- 


76 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


portant  results  of  the  work  carried  on  by  and 
stimulated  by  DeVries  will  be  to  show  another 
way  in  which  partial  segregation  may  be  se- 
curedy  and  the  theory  of  natural  selection 
needs  all  the  help  it  can  get  from  segregation. 

It  should  hardly  be  necessary  to  urge  that, 
in  understanding  the  development  of  the  con- 
ditions which  prevail  to-day  among  organisms, 
the  problem  of  the  origin  of  species  seems  of 
very  secondary  importance  in  comparison  with 
the  problem  of  the  perfection  of  adaptation. 

Matnard  M.  Metcalf. 

The  Woman's  College  of  Baltimobe. 

WILBUR  Wright's  sucxjessful  fuqht  m  a 
motor-driven  aeroplane. 

The  newspapers  of  December  18  contained 
the  annoimcement  that  Wilbur  Wright  had 
flown  a  distance  of  three  miles  with  an  aero- 
plane propelled  by  a  16-horse  power,  four- 
cylinder,  gasoline  motor,  the  whole  weighing 
more  than  700  pounds.  To  the  average  news- 
paper reader  this  meant  no  more  than  similar 
statements  previously  made  in  the  newspapers 
that  men  had  flown  in  New  York,  or  St.  Louis, 
or   San  Francisco.     But  to  the  student  of 

r 

aeronautics,  and  particularly  to  those  who 
had  followed  the  careful  scientiflc  experiments 
with  aeroplanes  which  were  being  made  by  Or- 
ville  and  Wilbur  Wright,  it  meant  an  epoch  in 
the  progress  of  invention  and  achievement, 
perhaps  as  great  as  that  when  Stevenson  first 
drove  a  locomotive  along  a  railroad. 

It  meant  that  after  ages  of  endeavor  man 
had  at  last  been  able  to  support  himself  in 
the  air  as  does  a  bird  and  to  land  in  safety 
at  a  spot  chosen  in  advance. 

The  report  from  an  authoritative  source 
confirms  the  fact  of  this  fiight,  but  modifies 
the  details  somewhat  from  those  given  in  the 
newspapers.  It  appears  that  four  successful 
flights  were  made  in  a  motor-driven  aeroplane 
on  December  17  near  Kitty  Hawk,  N.  C. 
The  wind  was  blowing  about  21  miles  an 
hour  and  a  speed  relative  to  the  wind  of  31 
miles  an  hour  was  attained  by  the  aeroplane. 
This  meant  a  speed  of  10  miles  an  hour  rela- 
tive to  the  ground.  The  aeroplane  had  a 
surface  of  610  square  feet  and  in  the  longest 
flight  was  in  the  air  57  seconds.    The  aeroplane 


is  said  to  have  risen  from  a  level.  The 
ported  distance  of  three  miles  was  probi 
relative  to  the  wind. 

The  earlier  work  of  the  Wright  brother 
described  in  the  reports  of  the  Western 
ciety  of  Engineers  and  in  part  republishec 
the  Annual  Report  of  the  Smithsonian  Ii 
tution  for  1902.  Their  invention  of  a 
ward  rudder  has  contributed  to  the  final  f 
cess. 

The  modem  success  in  aeronautics  ma^ 
said,  I  think,  to  date  from  the  feat  of  ( 
Lilienthal  in  1891  in  gliding  down  an  inc 
in  an  aeroplane.  These  glides  were  repec 
with  much  success  and  with  an  improvi 
aeroplane  by  Mr.  Chanute  and  Mr.  Herring 
our  own  country.  Mr.  Herring  even  weni 
far  as  to  carry  with  him  50  pounds  of  sane 
his  aeroplane  which  weight  he  computed  wo 
be  that  of  an  engine  sufficient  to  support  h 

Mr.  Pilcher,  in  England,  repeated  these 
periments  on  a  level  by  rising  into  the 
in  his  machine  when  drawn  by  a  horse  attad 
to  a  rope,  the  machine  rising  like  a  kite  i 
then  gliding  forward.    Mr.  Whitehead  is 
scribed  in  the  Scientific  American  as  hav 
rei)eated  this  experiment  recently  in  Oonne 
cut  with  a  motor  on  board  the  aeroplane. 

In  the  meantime,  in  1896,  Dr.  Langley  1 
driven  a  model  weighing  about  25  pou] 
through  the  air  with  a  small  steam-engine,  f 
Sir  Hiram  Maxim  had  performed  the  wond 
ful  feat  of  lifting  7,000  poimds  into  the 
for  a  moment.  This  was  done  with  an  ae 
plane  having  5,000  square  feet  of  surf; 
driven  by  serial  screws  attached  to  a  stea 
engine  of  360  horse-power  and  of  extraord 
ary  lightness. 

But,  notwithstanding  all  these  partial  si 
cesses,  there  was,  owing  to  the  recently 
ported  failure  of  Dr.  Langley  to  lift  a  m 
and  to  other  causes,  a  wide  skepticism  as 
the  possibility  of  human  flight. 

Mr.  Wright's  success  in  rising  and  landi 
safely  with  a  motor-driven  aeroplane  is 
crowning  achievement  showing  the  possibil: 
of  human  flight.  Much  yet  remains  to 
done,  but  with  the  stimulus  of  this  beginni 
progress  will  probably  be  rapid.  In  the  pn 
ress  now  achieved  a  great  deal  is  due  to  ^ 


jAsnABT  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


77 


Octave  Chanutey  an  eminent  American  engi- 
neer, whose  enthusiasm  and  great  knowledge 
have  stimulated  the  work  of  Herring,  Huf  aker, 
the  Wrights  and  many  others,  and  whose  ad- 
vice and  sux>ervision  was  freely  given  in  per- 
fecting the  machine  which  has  finally  suc- 
ceeded. 

H.  H.  Clayton. 


THE  EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE  OF  SCIENCE, 

At  the  recent  meeting  of  the  American  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  the 
council  resolved  to  add  the  vice-presidents  of 
the  association  and  the  permanent  secretary  to 
the  editorial  committee  of  Science.  The  vice- 
presidents  of  the  association,  each  of  whom  is 
chairman  of  one  of  the  ten  sections,  repre- 
sent the  sciences  covered  by  the  journal,  and 
are  always  among  the  most  efficient  and  active 
men  of  science  of  the  country.  Their  cooi)er- 
ation  during  their  term  of  office  will  greatly 
promote  the  interests  of  the  association  and  of 
the  journal.  We  also  hope  to  secure  the 
cooperation  of  several  other  men  of  science  in 
order  that  all  branches  of  science  and  all  parts 
of  the  country  may  be  adequately  represented. 
The  members  of  the  committee  who  have  had 
control  of  the  journal  during  the  nine  years 
of  the  new  series  will  of  course  remain  as 
heretofore.  Science  is  now  so  well  established 
as  the  representative  organ  of  American  men 
of  science  that  it  seems  unnecessary  to  print 
each  week  the  names  of  the  editorial  committee 
and  of  the  responsible  editor. 


SCIENTIFIC   NOTES   AND    NEWS. 

We  hope  to  publish  next  week  the  official 
report  of  the  St.  Louis  meeting  of  the  Ameri- 
can Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Sci- 
ence, and  as  soon  as  possible  the  reports  of  the 
societies  meeting  in  affiliation  with  it  and 
of  the  other  societies  that  met  during  convo- 
cation week  at  Philadelphia  and  elsewhere. 
Professor  Farlow,  of  Harvard  University,  the 
eminent  botanist,  was  elected  president  of  the 
association,  and  vice-presidents  were  elected  as 
follows:  Professor  Alexander  Ziwet,  of  the 
University  of  Michigan,    Section   of  Mathe- 


matics and  Astronomy;  Professor  W.  F. 
Magie,  Princeton  University,  Section  of 
Physics;  Professor  C.  P.  Kinnicutt,  Worcester 
Polytechnic  Institute,  Section  of  Chemistry; 
Professor  D.  S.  Jacobus,  Stevens  Institute  of 
Technology,  Section  of  Mechanical  Science 
and  Engineering;  Professor  E.  A.  Smith,  Uni- 
versity of  Alabama,  Section  of  Geology  and 
Geography;  Dr.  C.  Hart  Merriam,  U.  S. 
Biological  Survey,  Section  of  Zoology;  Pro- 
fessor B.  L.  Kobinson,  Harvard  University, 
Section  of  Botany;  Dr.  Walter  Hough,  U.  S. 
National  Museum,  Section  of  Anthropology; 
Martin  A.  Knapp,  Interstate  Commission  of 
Commerce,  Section  of  Social  and  Economic 
Science.  President  C.  S.  Howe,  Case  School 
of  Applied  Science,  was  elected  secretary  of 
the  council,  and  Professor  C.  A.  Waldo,  Pur- 
due University,  general  secretary.  The  asso- 
ciation will  meet  next  year  at  Philadelphia  and 
the  following  year  at  New  Orleans. 

• 

The  American  Society  of  Naturalists  at  the 
annual  meeting  in  St.  Louis  last  week  elected 
officers  as  follows :  President,  E.  L.  Mark,  Har- 
vard University ;  vice-president  for  the  Eastern 
Section,  Franklin  P.  Mall,  the  Johns  Hopkins 
University;  vice-president  for  the  Central  Sec- 
tion, John  M.  Coulter,  of  the  University  of 
Chicago;  secretary,  Chas.  B.  Davenport,  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago;  treasurer,  Hermann  von 
Schrenk,  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  and  the 
Bureau  of  Forestry;  additional  members  of  the 
executive  committee.  Professor  J.  McKeen 
Cattell,  Columbia  University,  and  Professor 
William  Trelease,  Missouri  Botanical  Gar- 
den. The  program  of  the  Naturalists  at 
St.  Louis  was  similar  to  that  of  recent 
years.  On  Tuesday  evening  President  David 
Starr  Jordan,  Stanford  University,  gave 
an  illustrated  lecture  on  '  The  Besources  of 
the  Sea,'  which  was  followed  by  a  smoker  at 
the  University  Club.  On  Wednesday  after- 
noon the  annual  discussion  was  held,  the  sub- 
ject being  'What  kind  of  degrees  should  be 
conferred  for  scientific  work?'  the  open- 
ing speakers  being  President  Jordan,  Presi- 
dent Van  Hise,  Professor  Cattell  and  Pro- 
fessor Coulter.  The  annual  dinner  was  held 
on  Tuesday  evening  at  the  Mercantile  Club, 
and  was  followed  by  the  address  of  the  presi- 


78 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  8.  Vol.  XIX. 


dent,  Director  William  Trelease,  of  the  Mis- 
souri Botanical  Garden,  whose  subject  was 
*  Critical  Periods  in  the  Life  of  a  Naturalist' 
We  hope  to  publish  subsequently  this  address 
and  the  discussion. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Geological 
Society  of  America  at  St.  Louis,  Professor 
H.  L.  Fairchild,  University  of  Rochester,  waa 
elected  president;  Professor  J.  C.  Branner, 
Stanford  University,  secretary,  and  Professor 
I.  0.  White,  University  of  West  Virginia, 
treasurer. 

At  the  twelfth  annual  meeting  of  the  Amer- 
ican Psychological  Association  held  at  St. 
Louis  last  week.  Professor  William  James  was 
elected  president.  This  is  the  only  occasion 
on  which  a  past  president  has  been  reelected 
president  of  the  association.  Professor  Liv- 
ingston Farrand,  Columbia  University,  wiU 
continue  as  secretary,  and  the  members  of  the 
executive  committee  elected  to  succeed  the  re- 
tiring members,  Professor  John  Dewey,  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  and  Professor  J.  Mark 
Baldwin,  of  the  Johns  Hopkins  University, 
were  Professor  Hugo  Miinsterberg,  of  Harvard 
University,  and  Dr.  Henry  Kutgers  Marshall, 
of  New  York  City. 

At  the  third  annual  meeting  of  the  Amer- 
ican Philosophical  Association,  held  at  Prince- 
ton on  December '29,  30  and  31,  Professor  G. 
T.  Ladd,  of  Yale  University,  was  elected  presi- 
dent; Professor  Frank  ThiUy,  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Missouri,  vice-president,  and  Professor 
H.  N.  Gardiner,  of  Smith  College,  secretary- 
treasurer.  The  new  members  of  the  executive 
committee  are  Professor  James  H.  Tufts,  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago,  and  Professor  H.  Heath 
Bawden,  Vassar  College. 

Officers  of  the  New  York  Academy  of  Sci- 
ences have  been  elected  as  follows:  President, 
Edmund  B.  Wilson.  Vice-presidents:  Sec- 
tion of  G^eology  and  Mineralogy,  James  F. 
Kemp;  Section  of  Biology,  L.  M.  Underwood; 
Section  of  Astronomy,  Physics  and  Chemistry, 
Chas.  Lane  Poor;  Section  of  Anthropology 
aid  Psychology,  F.  J.  E.  Woodbridge.  Corre- 
sponding secretary,  Richard  E.  Dodge.  Re- 
cording secretary,  Henry  E.  Crampton.  Treas- 
urer, Charles  F.  Cox.     Librarian,  Balph  W. 


Tower.  Editor,  Chas.  Lane  Poor,  d 
(to  serve  three  years),  Livingston  Fai 
O.  Hovey.  Finance  committee,  John 
ton,  C.  A.  Post,  Henry  F.  Osbom. 

It  is  announced  that  Mr.  John  Mo 
deliver  the  principal  address  at  the  op 
the  Technical  Institution,  founded  i 
burg  by  Mr.  Carnegie,  in  the  autumn 

Oxford  University  has  conferred  tl 
of  D.C.L  on  Mr.  Henry  Wilde,  F.] 
ventor  of  the  dynamo  electric  machii 
Wilde  is  the  founder  of  the  Wilde  Re 
in  Mental  Philosophy  and  of  the  Jo): 
scholarship  on  the  same  subject. 

The  large  gold  medal  for  services 
to  art  and  science  has  been  awardec 
German  government  to  Professor  Pi 
lich,  director  of  the  Imperial  Institut 
perimental  Therapeutics  at  Frankfort 

Mr.  Reginald  Innes  Pocoge,  F.Z.S 
ant  at  the  Natural  History  Museun 
Kensington,  has  been  appointed  residei 
intendent  of  the  Gardens  of  the 
Zoological  Society.  Mr.  Pocock  enl 
his  duties  on  January  1,  1904. 

The  United  States  Archeolog^ical  a 
nological  Commission  met  at  the  State 
ment  on  December  21.  Dr.  W  J 
the  anthropologist  of  the  Louisiana  } 
Exposition,  is  chairman  of  the  com 
The  other  members  are  Mr.  Volney  ^ 
of  Chicago,  and  Professor  Francis  B. 
professor  of  Latin  language  and  li 
the  University  of  Michigan. 

Mr.  Gurdon  Trumbull,  the  wel 
artist  and  ornithologist,  died  in  £ 
Conn.,  on  December  28,  in  the  sixty-tl 
of  his  age. 

A  fire,  on  December  27,  in  the  bui 
Washington  occupied  by  the  U.  S.  On 
Survey  caused  a  loss  estimated  at  $1S 
eluding  the  destruction  of  some  valua] 
and  records. 

The  Matin  announces  that  it  has  pi 
sum  of  30,000^.  at  the  disposal  of  I 
d'Arsonval  in  order  to  enable  him  to  < 
his  researches  in  connection  with  tl 
erties  of  radium. 


Jakuabt  8,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


79 


The  XT.  S.  Geological  Survey  will  make  an 
exhibit  at  the  Lousiana  Purchase  Exposition 
in  St.  Louis  which  will  illustrate  the  survey's 
methods  of  work  and  the  products  of  its  vari- 
ous branches  as  completely  as  the  space  placed 
at  its  disposal  will  permit.  Small  pamphlets 
containing  descriptions  of  the  methods  of 
work  pursued  by  the  different  branches,  divi- 
sions, and  sections  of  the  survey  will  be  pub- 
lished for  distribution  during  the  exposition. 

Secretabt  Cobtelyou  has  recommended  the 
establishment  at  Washington  under  the 
Bureau  of  Fisheries  of  an  aquarium  that  shall 
surpass  in  importance  any  similar  institution. 

Reuteb's  Agency  is  informed  that  a  scien- 
tific expedition,  which  has  been  organized  by 
the  anthropological  section  of  the  St.  Louis 
Exhibition,  is  about  to  leave  England  for  Cen- 
tral Africa  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  S.  P. 
Yemer,  who  landed  a  few  days  ago  from  New 
York.       Since  his   arrival    in    England   Mr. 
Yemer  has  been  to  Brussek  to  consult  with 
the  authorities  there  regarding  his  expedition. 
With  reference   to  his  journey  Mr.   Yemer 
says:  '^Li  order  to  get  at  the  aboriginal  life 
as  little  changed  as  possible  by  the  inroads  of 
civilization  it  is  desired  to  go  entirely  out  of 
the  track  of  previous  explorers,  as  well  as  of 
all  settlers,  and  to  enter  the  most  untouched 
region  to  which  access  can  be  obtained.     One 
of  these  regions  is  that  between  the  Congo  and 
Zambesi  valleys,  to  the  north  of  Livingstone's 
and  the  south  of  Stanley^s  journeys.     This 
territory   embraces,   among   others,   the   vast 
Lunda  Plateau.     It  is  into  this  and  contiguous 
territories  that  the  expedition  is  proceeding. 
The  region  is  1,500  miles  from  the  West  Coast. 
The  fact  that  the  enterprise  leads  into  a  coun- 
try of  cannibals  and  savages,  and  that  the 
attainment  of  our  object  requires  diplomacy 
and  tact  in  dealing  with  the  natives,  makes 
the  mission  one  of  difficulty  and  hazard.     The 
time  at  its  disposal  also  will  make  it,  if  suc- 
cessful, a  notable  exploit.     To  secure  permis- 
sion and  cooperation  of  the  European  govern- 
ments controlling  the  territories  in  question 
representations  are  being  made  by  the  govern- 
ment of  the  United  States.     Our  base  of  op- 
erations will  be  from  the  capital  of  Chief 


Ndombe,  paramount  chieftain  of  the  Lunda 
tribes,  at  the  head  of  navigation  of  the  Kassai 
river,  the  largest  southern  tributary  of  the 
Congo,  from  which  place  an  effort  will  be  made 
to  penetrate  the  interior.     Ndombe  is  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  of  living  African  rulers. 
He  is  peculiar  for  being  of  a  bright  copper 
color,  as  are  his  family,  although  there  has 
been  no  known  white  blood  in  his  ancestry. 
He  is  also  a  firm  friend  of  the  white  man, 
having  signified  his  assent  to  white  suzerainty 
over  his  domain,  and  having  instructed  his 
people  to  recognize  the  authority  of  the  for- 
eigners.    His  general  jurisdiction  is  very  ex- 
tensive, and,  including  federated  and  associ- 
ated tribes,  may  be  said  to  include  several  mil- 
lion people  over  a  territory  of  several  hundred 
thousand  square  miles.     His  own  immediate 
family  and  their  blood  relations  are  known  OB 
the  Bakwampesh,  a  word  almost  exactly  equi- 
valent to  *  aristocracy.'     Li  his  territory  are 
tribes  of  pygmies,  of  cannibals,  and  the  last 
remnant  of  the  once  powerful  transcontinental 
slave-traders,  the  Bimbadi.     The  scientific  in- 
terest attaching  to  this  expedition  arises  from 
the  fact  that  it  has  lately  become  strongly 
suspected  that  the  most  primitive  forms  of  the 
human  race  are  to  be  found  in  remote  Africa, 
the  oldest  region  known  where  the  native  life 
has  been  longest  undisturbed  by  outside  influ- 
ences.    It  is  desirable  to  record  the  conditions 
now  existent  there  and  to  obtain  specimens  of 
the  arts  and  products  of  the  people  before  they 
have  changed  their  aboriginal  ways  for  the 
innovations  of  rapidly  approaching  civiliza- 
tion." 

Mr.  Ernest  Alysooghe  Floyer,  inspector- 
general  of  Egyptian  telegraphs,  died  at  Cairo 
on  December  1  from  heart  disease,  at  the  age 
of  fifty-one  years.  We  learn  from  the  London 
Times  that  Mr.  Floyer  was  educated  at  the 
Charterhouse,  receiving  in  1869  an  appoint- 
ment in  the  Indian  Telegraph  Service.  In 
1876  he  received  his  first  long  leave,  and 
started,  unaided  and  alone,  for  the  unexplored 
interior  of  Baluchistan.  His  observations  and 
surveys  on  this  difficult  and  dangerous  journey 
were  of  considerable  geographical  interest.  He 
returned  to  London  in  the  same  year,  and  sub- 


80 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  8.  Vol.  XIX 


sequently  published  an  account  of  his  travels 
in  a  work  entitled  'Unexplored  Baluchistan/ 
In  the  same  year  (1876)  he  was  appointed 
inspector-general  of  Egyptian  telegraphs.  In 
1887  he  surveyed,  and  described  in  the  'Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society/ 
'  Two  Routes  in  the  Eastern  Desert  of  Egypt,' 
and  later  described  the  results  of  an  expedition 
to  the  same  desert  in  an  official  publication 
entitled  'Etude  sur  la  Nord-Etbai.'  It  was 
during  this  journey  that  he  rediscovered  the 
ancient  emerald  mines  of  the  Egyptians,  and 
his  maps  and  observations  have  been  the  basis 
for  the  subsequent  exploitation  of  minerals  in 
this  region.  During  the  last  decade  Mr. 
Floyer  devoted  much  attention  to  the  reclama- 
tion, by  judicious  planting,  of  the  land  which 
had  been  lost  to  cultivation  by  the  encroach- 
ment of  drifting  sand  upon  the  western  border 
of  the  Delta. 

It  is  proposed  to  establish  under  the  aus- 
pices of  the  International  Sanitary  Confer- 
ence an  international  sanitary  bureau  for  the 
collection  of  information  respecting  infectious 
diseases,  such  as  plague,  cholera  and  yellow 
fever,  and  also  for  the  harmonious  working  of 
those  sanitary  regulations  in  the  east  which 
have  so  greatly  contributed  within  the  last  five 
years  to  the  preservation  of  public  health,  as 
well  as  to  the  benefit  of  trade,  by  the  suppres- 
sion of  the  old  quarantine  system.  If  the 
movement  is  successful  the  bureau  will  have 
its  headquarters  in  Paris. 


UNIVERSITY  AND   EDUCATIONAL    NEWS. 

The  will  of  the  late  Washington  Corring- 
ton,  of  Peoria,  HI.,  leaves  the  entire  estate, 
valued  at  $750,000,  for  the  founding  of  an 
educational  institution  to  be  known  as  Cor- 
rington  Institute  and  University.  The  estate 
is  to  be  managed  by  trustees  until  it  reaches 
$1,500,000,  when  work  is  to  be  begun  at  Mr. 
Corrington's  late  home,  just  outside  the  limits 
of  Peoria.  Professor  John  M.  Coulter,  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  is  one  of  the  trustees. 

By  the  will  of  the  late  Ruth  A.  Hoar,  the 
Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute  receives  $5,- 


000  and  Clark  University  will  ultim 
ceive  $30,000. 

Palmer  University,  at  Muncie»  ] 
secured  the  $100,000  necessary  to  ol 
endowment  of  $100,000  left  by  the  h 
Palmer. 

Dr.  Edward  Hitchcxxtk,  Jr.,  foi 
years  professor  of  physical  culture  and 
and  director  of  the  gymnasium  at  Cor: 
varsity,  has  resigned. 

Professor  W.  A.  S.  Hewins,  M.A. 
resigned  the  post  of  director  of  the 
School  of  Economics  and  Political 
the  senate  has  appointed  in  his  place 
J.  Mackinder,  M.A.,  lecturer  in  € 
geography  at  that  institution.  Mr.  M; 
has  lately  resigned  the  principalship 
versity  College,  Reading,  but  will  < 
his  lectures  on  economic  geography 
University  of  London  and  historical  gi 
in  the  University  of  Oxford. 

Mr.  William  Ravenscroft  Huqhe 
has  been  elected  to  a  fellowship  in  Je 
lege,  Cambridge  University.  Mr.  Hu^ 
fifth  wrangler  in  the  mathematical  trip 

The  council  of  King's  College,  Lon< 
appointed  to  the  chair  of  mathematics 
A.  F.  White,  MA.,  of  Wadham  Colli 
ford,  who  has  been  demonstrator  in 
philosophy  in  King's  College  since  189 
council  has  also  appointed  Mr.  E.  F.  1 
assistant  professor  of  physics,  and  M 
Dale,  M.A.,  of  St.  John's  College,  Car 
assistant  professor  of  mathematics. 

Sir  John  Scott  Burdon-Sanderso^ 
D.M.,  hon.  fellow  of  Magdalen,  and 
professor  of  medicine  at  Oxford  Uni 
has  placed  his  resignation  of  the  profei 
in  the  hands  of  the  vice-chancellor.     S 
Burdon-Sanderson  was  appointed  to  th 
professorship,   to  which   is   annexed 
drichian  professorship  of  the  practise  c 
cine,  in  1895,  upon  the  resignation  of 
Sir  Henry  Acland,  who  had  occupied  tl 
for    thirty-eight    years.      Professor    1 
Sanderson  was  the  first  occupant  of  the 
flete  chair  of  physiology,  to  which  he 
pointed  in  1883,  his  successor  being  the 
professor.  Dr.  Gotch. 


SCIENCE 


A  WBSKLY  JOURNAL  DBVOTBD  TO  THB  ADVANCBMBNT  OP  SCIBNCBp  PUBLISHING  THB 
OPPICIAL  NOTICES  AND  PROCBBDINGS  OP  THB  AMBRICAN  ASSOCIATION 

POR  THB  ADVANCBMBNT  OF  SCIBNCB. 


Friday,  January  15,  1904. 


CONTENTS: 

The  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science: — 
The  Proceedings  of  the  St.  Louis  Meeting: 
Pbesident  Chabi£S  S.  Howe 81 

The  Elements:  Verified  and  Unverified: 
Pbofessor  Charles  Baskebville 88 

Meetings  of  AffiHated  Scientific  Societies  at 
Philadelphia    100 

The  American   Mathematical   Society:    Pro- 
fessor F.  N.  Cole 101 

Scientific  Books: — 
Noyes  on  the  General  Principles  of  Physical 
Science:  Professor  £.  H.  Loomis 102 

Scientific  Journals  and  Articles 103 

Societies  and  Academies^ — 

The  Society  for  Experimental  Biology  and 
Medicine:  Dr.  William  J.  Gies.  The 
New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  Section  of 
Anthropology  and  Psychology:  Pbofessor 
James  £.  Lough.  Section  of  Qeology  and 
Mineralogy:  Dr.  Edmund  Otis  Hovey. 
Michigan  Ormthological  Club:  Alexander 
W.  Blain,  Jr.  104 

Discussion  and  Correspondence: — 

The  Word  Barometer:  Professor  John  C. 
Shedd 108 

Special  Articles: — 

Color  Inheritance  in  Mice:  Professor  C. 
B.   Davenport 110 

Current  Notes  on  Meteorology: — 

Meteorological  Bibliography;  Cloud  Obser- 
vations in  India;  Air  Pressures  in  India; 
Note:  Professor  R.  DeC.  Ward 116 

The  Association  of  Official  Agricultural  Chem- 
ists       116 

Scientific  Notes  and  News 116 

University  and  Educational  News 120 


USS.  Intended  for  pabUoetton  and  booki,  etc.  intended 
for  xerlew  ihoold  be  lent  to  the  Bdltor  of  Scirncb,  aarrl- 
WB-on-Hndeon,  N.  T. 


THE    AMERICAN    ASSOCIATION    FOR    THE 
ADVANCEMENT    OF   SCIENCE, 

PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ST,  LOUIS  MEETING. 

The  fifty-third  annual  meeting  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement 
of  Science  was  held  in  St.  Louis,  December 
26, 1903,  to  January  1, 1904.  This  was  the 
second  time  the  association  had  met  in  St. 
Louisy  the  first  being  the  twenty-seventh 
meeting  in  1878.  The  association  has  met 
west  of  the  Mississippi  but  six  times. 

The  number  of  members  in  attendance 
was  385,  while  the  number  in  the  affiliated 
societies  was  81,  making  a  total  attendance 
of  466.  This  places  the  meeting  fifth  in 
point  of  numbers  of  those  held  during  the 
last  ten  years.  As  the  total  membership 
has  rapidly  increased  in  this  time,  this 
would  seem  to  be  a  small  meeting,  but  there 
are  various  reasons  to  account  for  it.  The 
first  and  strongest  of  them  is  that  the  ex- 
position will  be  held  in  St.  Louis  next  sum- 
mer and  a  large  number  of  the  members 
expect  to  visit  the  city  at  that  time.  Hence 
they  did  not  feel  like  going  to  St.  Louis  in 
the  winter,  notwithstanding  their  strong 
desire  to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  asso- 
ciation. 

Although  the  meeting  was  small  in  point 
of  numbers,  it  was  large  in  point  of  papers 
and  earnest  work  m  the  section  room. 
Many  of  the  sections  were  very  largely  at- 
tended and  had  so  many  papers  that  they 
could  not  complete  them  during  the  regular 
time  assigned.  Several  evening  meetings 
were  held,  and  at  least  two  of  the  sections 
held  meetings  after  the  final  adjournment 
of  the  association.     This  shows  that  the 


82 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   N 


meeting  was  what  might  be  called  a  work- 
ing meeting.  Those  who  had  papers  to 
present  were  there  and  took  active  part  in 
the  proceedings.  It  was  unfortunate  that 
a  larger  number  could  not  liave  been  pres- 
ent, but  any  meeting  at  which  a  large  num- 
ber of  papers  is  presented,  and  where  a 
strong  and  vital  interest  is  taken  in  the 
work  of  the  section  room  must  be  called  a 
successful  one. 

Perhaps  the  second  reason  why  the  at- 
tendance was  small  was  in  the  fact  that  the 
policy  of  the  association,  which  calls  for 
working  meetings,  does  not  meet  hearty 
support  from  all  of  the  members.  There 
is  still  some  discussion  going  on  as  to 
whether,  it  would  be  better  to  have  a  sum- 
mer meeting  or  a  winter  meeting,  or  per- 
haps both.  Some  of  the  older  members  do 
not  feel  like  traveling  long  distances  during 
the  winter  and  subjecting  themselves  to  the 
changes  of  temperature  and  other  discom- 
forts which  come  from  winter  travel.  In 
some  cases  it  is  not  possible  for  college  pro- 
fessors t^  get  away  from  their  institutions 
during  \W,  week  of  the  meeting,  and  still 
others  do  not  like  to  leave  their  families 
during  the  holiday  vacation.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  majority  of  those  present  seemed 
to  feel  that  it  was  best  to  continue  the  pres- 
ent method,  for  a  time  at  least.  There  was 
no  open  opposition  to  the  winter  sessions, 
and  when  the  vote  was  taken  in  the  general 
committee  the  winter  meeting  for  next  year 
was  unanimously  decided  upon. 

Winter  meetings  do  not  readily  lend 
themselves  to  excursions.  The  time  must 
be  taken  up  in  the  reading  and  discussion 
of  papers,  and  the  social  element  must  come 
in  the  form  of  banquets  and  smokers.  St. 
Louis  did  all  in  its  power  to  entertain  the 
convention,  and  several  excursions  were  ar- 
ranged, notwithstanding  the  unfavorable 
season. 

AFFILIATED   SOCIETIES. 

The    following    affiliated    societies    held 


nuH'tings  in  conjunction  with  the  as 
tion : 

The  American  Anthropological  A>>90ciatio 

Tlje  American  Chemical  Society. 

Tlie  American  Mathematical  Society  (C 
Section). 

The  American  Microscopical  Society. 

The  American  Physical  Society. 

The   American   Psychological   Association 

The  American  Society  of  Naturalists. 

The  American  Society  of  Zoologists  (C 
Branch ) . 

The  Association  of   Economic  i^ntomolog 

The  Association  of  Plant  and  Animal  Bn 

The  Astronomical  «nd  Astrophysical  Soci 
America. 

The  Botanical  Club  of  the  Association. 

The  Botanical  Society  of  America. 

TKe  Central  Botanists'  Association. 

The  Entomological  Club  of  the  Associati 

The  Fern  Chapter. 

Tlie  Geological  Society  of  America. 

The  Sigma  Xi  Honorary  Scientific  Society 

The  Society  for  Horticultural  Science. 

The  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Agrici 
Science. 

The  Wild  Flower  Preservation  Socie 
America. 

The  policy  of  encouraging  the  affili 
of  scientific  societies  with  this  associ 
has  been  continued,  and  two  more  soci 
the  Society  of  College  Teachers  of  E 
tion  and  the  Society  for  Horticultura 
ence,  have  been  added  to  the  list.  So: 
the  strongest  of  the  affiliated  societies 
not  sought  any  connection  with  this 
ciation.  It  would  seem  that  an  ef 
effort  should  be  made  to  bring  about 
connection  between  these  organization 
our  own.  *In  union  there  is  strei 
The  scientific  forces  of  the  country  s 
stand  together,  and  whenever  it  come« 
assistance  is  needed  for  scientific  res< 
or  favorable  legislation  is  needed  fo: 
purpose,  it  will  be  obtained  much 
readily  if  it  is  known  that  practical 
the  scientists  of  the  country  are  ba 
the  association  which  asks  for  such  a 

The  first  session  of  the  meeting  was  < 


January  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


83 


to  order  in  the  auditorium  of  the  Central 
High  School,  at  10  a.m.,  Monday,  December 
28,  1903,  by  the  retiring  president.  Dr.  Ira 
Remsen. 

Dr.  Remsen  introduced  the  president- 
elect, Dr.  Carroll  D.  Wright.  Addresses  of 
welcome  were  then  made  by  the  Hon.  D. 
R.  Francis  on  behalf  of  the  local  committee, 
by  the  Hon.  C.  P.  Walbridge  on  behalf  of 
the  city  of  St.  Louis,  and  by  Professor  C. 
M.  Woodward  on  behalf  of  the  educational 
institutions  of  the  city  and  the  state.  To 
these  addresses  President  Wright  replied 
for  the  association. 

Presiddht  Wright  announced  that  each 
day  the  council  would  meet  at  nine  o'clock 
and  the  general  session  at  ten  o'clock. 

After  the  adjournment  of  the  general 
session  the  several  sections  were  organized 
in  their  respective  rooms. 

On  Monday  afternoon  the  vice-presi- 
dents' addresses  were  given  as  follows: 

At  2:30  P.M. 

Vice-President  Ha  Is  ted  before  the  Section  of 
Mathematics  and  Astronomy,  in  Room  B2,  en- 
titled 'The  Message  of  Non-Euclidean  Geometry.' 

Vice-President  Baskerville  before  the  Section  of 
Chemistry,  in  Room  102,  entitled  *  The  Elements: 
Verified  and  Unverified.' 

Vice-President  Davis  before  the  Section  of  Greol- 
ogy,  in  Room  202,  entitled  *  Geography  in  the 
United  States.* 

At  4:00  P.M. 

Vice-President  Waldo  before  the  Section  of  Me- 
chanical Science  and  Engineering,  in  Room  310. 

.Vice-President  Hargitt  before  the  Section  of 
Zoology,  in  Room  202,  entitled  *  Some  Unsolved 
Problems  of  Organic  Adaptation.' 

Vice-President  Coville  before  the  Section  of 
Botany,  in  Room  102. 

Vice-President  Newcomb  before  the  Section  of 
Social  and  Economic  Science,  in  the  auditorium, 
entitled  *  Some  Recent  Phases  of  the  Labor  Prob- 
lem.' 

The  address  of  Vice-President  Nichols 
before  the  Section  of  Physics  was  omitted, 
owing  to  the  absence  of  Mr.  Nichols,  who 
was  detained  by  sickness  in  his  family. 

On  Monday  evening  the  address  of  the 
retiring  president.  Dr.  Ira  Remsen,  entitled 


^Scientific  Investigation  and  Progress,'  was 
given  at  the  Odeon. 

On  Tuesday  evening.  President  David 
Starr  Jordan,  of  Leland  Stanford  Junior 
University,  gave  a  public  lecture  on  *The 
Resources  of  Our  Seas. '  After  the  lecture 
the  American  Society  of  Naturalists  and 
aflBliated  societies  held  their  annual  smoker 
at  the  University  Club.    . 

On  Wednesday  morning  Dr.  George  A. 
Dorsey  delivered  his  address  as  retiring 
president  of  Section  H,  upon  the  subject 
'The  Future  of  the  American  Indian.' 

On  Wednesday  afternoon  the  American 
Society  of  Naturalists  held  their  annual 
public  discussion,  the  subject  being  *What 
Academic  Degrees  should  be  conferred  for 
Scientific  Work?' 

On  Wednesday  afternoon  Professor  E. 
Rutherford,  of  McGill  University,  Mon- 
treal, Canada,  gave  an  illustrated  public 
lecture  on  the  subject  'Radium  and  Radio- 
activity. ' 

On  Wednesday  evening  the  retiring 
president  of  the  American  Chemical  So- 
ciety, Dr.  John  H.  Long,  delivered  an 
address  upon  the  subject  *Some  Problems 
in  Fermentation.' 

On  Wednesday  evening  the  American  So- 
ciety of  Naturalists  held  its  annual  dinner 
at  the  Mercantile  Club,  after  which  w^as 
given  the  address  of  the  retiring  president. 
Professor  William  Trelease. 

On  Wednesday  evening  the  annual  din- 
ner of  the  American  Chemical  Society  and 
Section  C  was  given  at  Faust's. 

On  Wednesday  evening  Dr.  S.  F.  Em- 
mons gave  the  president's  address  before 
the  Geological  Society  of  America  at  the 
Planters'  Hotel. 

On  Thursday  afternoon,  by  invitation  of 
the  officers  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Ex- 
position, the  members  of  the  association 
and  affiliated  sccioties  visited  the  exposition 
grounds.  A  buffet  luncheon  was  tendered 
the  association  by  the  officers  of  the  exposi- 


84 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol,  XIX.    Ji 


tian,  after  which  they  were  taken  in  small 
parties  through  the  grounds  and  buildings 
and  shown  the  various  exhibits,  under  the 
personal  charge  of  the  chiefs  of  depart- 
ments. 

On  Thursday  evening  the  annual  ban- 
quet of  the  Sigma  Xi  Honorary  Scientific 
Society  was  given  at  the  Mercantile  Club, 
followed  by  the  address  of  President  David 
Starr  Jordan. 

On  Friday  evening  the  members  of  the 
association  attended  the  fourteenth  annual 
banquet  given  by  the  trustees  of  the  Mis- 
souri Botanical  Garden  at  the  Southern 
Hotel. 

REPORTS  OP  COMMITTEES. 

The  following  reports  of  committees  were 
presented  to  the  council.  They  were  ac- 
cepted and  ordered  printed. 

On  the  Atomic  Weight  of  Thorium. 

To  the  Council  of  the  American  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Science. 
Gentlemen :  Since  our  last  report  we  beg  leave 
to  state  that  Messrs.  Charles  Baskerville  and  R. 
O.  E.  Davis  have  secured  further  evidence  of  the 
complexity  of  the  so-called  element,  thorium.  This 
work  has  resulted  from  applications  of  methods 
of  fractionation  to  the  large  amounts  of  purified 
material  with  which  they  were  engaged,  as  stated 
in  our  last  report.  Under  such  circumstances 
these  gentlemen  deemed  it  advisable  to  prosecute 
further  the  fractionation  until  a  stable  thorium 
preparation  was  secured.  This  fractionation  is 
controlled  by  atomic  weight  determinations  and 
spectroscopic   examinations. 

At  the  Washington  meeting  of  the  council,  a 
grant  of  fifty  dollars  was  made  Mr.  Charles 
Baskerville  for  work  on  prseseodidymium  and  the 
supervision  of  the  same  given  over  to  this  com- 
mittee. Concerning  this,  we  beg  leave  to  state 
that  Messrs.  Baskerville,  James  Thorpe  and  T.  B. 
Foust  have  secured  about  one  kilogram  of  quite 
pure  oxide  by  novel  methods.  At  present  Messrs. 
Baskerville  and  G.  MacNider  are  subjecting  a 
considerable  portion  of  this  purified  material  to  a 
treatment  which  promises  to  show  the  complexity 
of  this  so-called  element. 

We  therefore,  beg  leave  to  report  progress. 
Respectfully, 

Chas.  Baskebville,  Chairman, 
Francis  P.  Venable, 
Jas.  Lewis  Howe. 


On  the  Relation  of  Plants  to  Climatt 

Gentlemen:  The  committee  on  the  relat 
plants  to  climate  presents  herewith  a  pap 
titled  *  Soil  Temperatures  and  Vegetation,' 
sets  forth  recent  results  obtained  by  the 
grants  received  in  1001  and  1902,  and  whi( 
published  in  Contributions  from  the  New 
Botanical  Garden  (No.  44). 

Your  committee   is  desirous   of   extendii 
observations  already  made  to  cover  a  wider 
of  soil  and  climatic  conditions,  and  has   s 
the  cooperation  of  the  New  York  Botanical  ( 
and  of   the   Desert  Botanical  Laboratory 
Carnegie  Institution,  both  of  which  have 
taken   the   purchase   and   installation    of    b 
instruments.       The    major    inquiry    is    con 
with   the   influence   of   the  temperature   of 
with    its  diurnal   and   seasonal   varia^ons, 
growth  and  distribution  of  plants.      As  a 
of    the    observations    already    made    it    han 
found  that  different  portions  of  the  body  o 
small   plants  may  differ  as  much   as  40" 
temperature,  a   fact  which   has   hitherto   e 
notice  and  which  promises  to  be  of  great 
tance  in  the  interpretation  of  the  physics 
cesses  of  the  plants.      In  order  to  carry  alo 
entailed  investigations,  your  committee  as 
additional  grant  of  seventy-five  dollars. 

During  the  course  of  the  work,  the  HaUo< 
thermograph  has  been  invented  and  per 
Specifications  have  been  placed  in  the  hand 
competent  instrument  maker,  and  no  limit 
of  any  kind  placed  on  its  manufacture  o 
The  numbers  of  applications  for  instruments 
that  it  is  deemed  useful  for  thermometric 
in  various  kinds  of  observations. 

Respectfully, 

D.  T.  MacDougal, 
For  the  Commii 
William  Treleabi 
J.  M.  Coulteb, 
D.  T.  MacDougal 
Commii 

On  Anthropometric  Tests. 
The  committee  of  the  association  on  ant] 
metric  tests  has  continued  its  work  throu 
the  year.  A  laboratory  for  physical  and  r 
measurements  was  arranged  at  Washingtoi 
tests  of  the  fellows  and  members  of  the  af 
tion  were  made  by  Mr.  Miner  and  Mr.  Davis 
the  direction  of  the  chairman  of  the  comn 
The  results  of  measurements  of  about  one 
dred  fellows  have  been  compiled  and  con 
with  similar  measurements  of  members  o 
British   Association  and  of  other   classes  c 


January  16,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


85 


community,  but  the  data  are  not  yet  sufficiently 
numerous  for  publication.  Dr.  McGee,  of  the 
committee,  has  taken  steps  toward  the  establish- 
ment of  anthropometric  and  psychometric  labora- 
tories as  part  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposi- 
tion, with  special  reference  to  the  measurement 
of  the  savage  tribes  that  will  be  gathered  there. 
Professor  Boas,  of  the  committee,  has  published 
measurements  of  the  cephalic  index  in  relation  to 
Mendel's  law,  and  has  carried  forward  anthropo- 
metric work  in  other  directions.  The  chairman 
of  the  committee  has  published  two  papers  on 
the  natural  history  of  American  men  of  science, 
seeking  to  apply  metric  methods  to  merit  and 
other  individual  differences.  Numerous  meas- 
urements of  physical  and  mental  traits  have  been 
made  in  the  psychological  laboratory  of  Columbia  . 
University,  and  work  has  been  carried  on  in  the 
schools  of  New  York  City  on  the  resemblance  of 
brothers  and  twins,  and  in  other  directions.  Pro- 
fessor Thomdike  has  published  a  book  on  'Edu- 
cational Psychology,'  concerned  especially  with  the 
application  of  anthropometric  methods  to  children. 
It  did  not  appear  feasible  to  arrange  an  an- 
thropometric laboratory  at  St.  Louis.  We  ask 
that  the  fifty  dollars  appropriated  for  such  a 
laboratory  be  made  available  for  next  year. 

J.  McKeen  Cattell, 

Chairman, 

On  Indexing  Chemical  Literature. 

The  committee  on  indexing  chemical  literature, 
appointed  by  your  body  at  the  Montreal  meeting 
in  1882,  respectfully  presents  to  the  Chemical  Sec- 
tion its  twenty-first  annual  report,  covering  the 
twelve  months  ending  June  1,  1903. 

Works  Published. 

'An  Index  to  the  Literature  of  Thorium  (1817- 
1902).'  By  Cavalier  H.  Jouet,  Ph.D.  Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous  Collections,  No.  1374.  Wash- 
ington City,  1903. 

'  References  to  Capillarity  to  the  End  of  the 
Year  1900.'  By  John  Uri  Lloyd  (aided  by  Sig- 
mund  Waldbott).  Bulletin  No.  4  of  the  Lloyd 
Library  of  Botany,  Pharmacy  and  Materia  Medica. 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1902.     8vo.     212  pp. 

The  665  'references'  extend  from  1519  to  1900; 
each  is  accompanied  by  a  summary  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  paper  cited. 

The  Journal  of  the  American  Chemical  Society. 
General  Index  to  the  first  twenty  volumes,  1879- 
1898,  and  to  the  proceedings,  1877-1879.  Easton, 
Pa.,  1902.     8vo.     237  pp. 

Though  issued  anonymously,  the  preface  bears 
the  initials  of  E.  W.  Morley  and  0.  F.  Tower,  and 


the  labor  was  one  of  love.  Accuracy  of  detail 
and  adequate  treatment  on  every  page  are  its 
admirable  features.  Besides  an  index  of  authors 
and  an  index  of  subjects,  there  is  an  index  of 
obituaries  which  is  suggestive.  Also  an  index 
of  new  books. 

Notes  on  Foreign  Bibliographies. 

*A  Bibliography  of  Steel- works  Analysis,'  by 
Harry  Brearly,  forms  an  appendix  to  the  volume 
entitled  'The  Analysis  of  Steel-works  Materials,' 
by  Harry  Brearly  and  Fred  Ibbotson.  London, 
1902. 

This  bibliography  comprises  1,858  references, 
which  occupy  more  than  130  pages  octavo.  The 
items  are  grouped  under  seven  heads,  besides 
minor  subdivisions;  the  literature  is,  however, 
very  incomplete,  being  confined  to  four  British 
journals. 

'A  Catalogue  of  the  Library  of  the  Chemical 
Society  (of  London).'  Arranged  according  to 
authors  with  a  subject  index.  London,  1903. 
8vo.     342  pp. 

'  International  Catalogue  of  Scientific  litera- 
ture.' First  Annual  Issue  (for  the  year  1901). 
D,  Chemistry.  Published  for  the  International 
Council  by  the  Royal  Society  of  London.  London, 
1902.     Vol.  II.,  Part  L     June,  1902. 

Work  in  Progress. 

A  second  supplement  to  the  '  Select  Bibliography 
of  Chemistry,'  by  Dr.  H.  Carrington  Bolton,  has 
been  completed  and  accepted  for  publication  by  the 
Smithsonian  Institution.  It  brings  the  literature 
down  to  the  end  of  the  year  1902. 

An  index  to  the  literature  of  cadmium  has  been 
begun  by  Professor  Ernest  N.  Pattee,  of  Syracuse 
University. 

An  index  to  the  literature  of  glucinum  has  been 
begun  by  Professor  Charles  L.  Parsons,  of  New 
Hampshire  College,  Durham,  New  Hampshire. 

An  index  to  the  literature  of  germanium,  gal- 
lium and  indium  has  been  begun  by  Dr.  Philip  E. 
Browning,  of  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

Mr.  Frank  R.  Fraprie,  writing  from  Munich, 
Bavaria,  reports  substantial  progress  on  an  index 
to  the  literature  of  lithium,  ceesium  and  rubidium. 

Mr.  Benton  Dales  is  engaged  on  an  index  to  the 

literature  of  the  yttrium  group  of  the  rare  earths. 

His  address  is  Ithaca,  New  York. 

H.  Carrington  Bolton  (in  Europe), 

F.  W.  Clarke  (in  Europe), 

Albert  B.  Prescott, 

Alfred  Tuckerman, 

H.  W.  Wiley, 

Committee. 
June  1,  1903. 


86 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


On  the  Velocity  of  Light. 

The  committee  reports  progress  since  the  Pitts- 
burg meeting  in  the  preliminary  study  of  the 
methods  of  determining  the  group  velocity  and 
the  absolute  velocity  of  light  in  ponderable  media 
and  in  space. 

The  practicability  of  the  method,  involving  the 
use  of  electric  double  refraction  and  electric  oscil- 
lations for  producing  groups  of  waves,  and  the 
examination  of  them  through  a  column  of  water 
at  least  100  feet  long  and  probably  twice  that 
distance,  has  been  established. 

An  estimate  from  the  corresponding  optical 
conditions  in  air  would  make  the  available  dis- 
tance several  miles.  The  preliminary  study  of  the 
method  for  determining  the  absolute  velocity  has 
not  yet  been  completed,  but  the  apparatus  is 
partly  mounted  and  in  place. 

The  committee  petitions  a  further  grant  of 
seventy-five  dollars  for  the  continuance  of  the 
preliminary  experiments  now  in  progress. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

D.  B.  Bbace, 
For  the  Committee, 

On  the  Teaching  of  Anthropology  in  America. 

To  the  President  and  Council:  Your  committee 
on  the  teaching  of  anthropology  in  America  beg 
to  report  progress. 

During  the  year  1902  (for  which  a  brief  report 
was  submitted  to  the  council,  though  apparently 
lost  before  reaching  the  secretary  of  the  council), 
the  committee  held  one  or  two  conferences,  while 
different  members  took  individual  action  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  general  policy  looking  toward 
the  promotion  of  anthropologic  education  in  sev- 
eral leading  institutions.  Dr.  MacCurdy,  of  the 
committee,  continued  the  collection  and  publica- 
tion of  statistics  as  to  the  teaching  of  anthro- 
pology; and  Dr.  Boas,  Dr.  Russell  and  the  chair- 
man of  the  committee  delivered  addresses  and 
published  papers  advocating  the  extension  and 
betterment  of  anthropologic  teaching  in  this 
country.  During  the  year  1903  the  committee 
have  continued  work,  chiefly  as  individuals,  and 
diflferent  members  have  been  consulted  and  have 
expressed  opinions  as  to  the  value  of  anthropology 
as  a  subject  of  instruction  in  educational  insti- 
tutions. Recently  the  committee  has  suffered  a 
grievous  loss  in  the  death  of  Dr.  Frank  Russell, 
one  of  the  original  members  of  the  committee. 

It  is  recommended  that  the  committee  be  con- 
tinued, and  that  the  vacancy  created  by  the  death 
of  Dr.  Russell  be  filled  by  the  appointment  of  Dr. 
Roland  B.  Dixon,  of  Harvard  University.      Since 


the  work  of  the  committee  is  performed 

sional  conferences  and  by  correspondence 

ing  little  expense,  no  grant  is  asked  for  i 

tenanoe.  Respectfully, 

W  J  McGee,  Chairm 

Geobge  Gbant  Mac< 
On  Grants. 

The  committee  on  grants  recommends 
propriations    for   the   ensuing   year   be   : 
follows,  namely: 

To  the  Concilium  Bibliographicum  of 
$100. 

To  the  Committee  on  the  Atomic  W 
Thorium,  $100. 

To  the  Committee  on  the  Study  of  the  1 
of  Plants  to  Climate,  $75. 

To  the  Committee  on  Determination 
Velocity  of  Light,  $75. 

To  a  committee  of  Section  C,  to  be  appo 
study  certain  problems  in  electrochemisi 

To  give  effect  to  this  last  recommenda 
following  resolution  is  suggested: 

Resolved,  That  a  committee  consisting 
fessors  W.  D.  Bancroft,  Edgar  F.  Smith 
Kahlenberg  be  appointed  to  conduct  said 
gations  in  electrochemistry  and  that  this  cc 
be  designated  the  Committee  on  Electrocl 

On  Policy  of  the  Association. 

The  Committee  on  Policy  of  the  Associi 
ported  the  following  resolutions,  whi( 
adopted. 

1.  Concerning  the  proposition  to  authc 
appointment  of  an  executive  committee  o 
consult  with  the  permanent  secretary  and 
details  of  the  meetings,  that  the  functions 
proposed  executive  committee  be  perfoi 
the  Committee  on  the  Policy  of  the  Associ 

2.  The  Committee  on  the  Policy  of  the 
tion  recommend  to  the  council  that  at  1 
annual    meeting   only   three   general    sesi 
held,  namely,  those  of  Monday,  Wednea 
Friday  of  the  week  of  meeting. 

3.  Amend   Article   34   by   the   omission 
words  '  on  the  election  of  any  member  as 
an  additional  fee  of  two  dollars  shall  \ 

4.  That  the  commutation  of  secretaries 
tions  be  fixed  at  $30  for  each  meeting  of  1 
ciation,  provided  that  these  secretaries  lo 
ing  the  whole  meeting  at  the  hotel  head 
of  the  association. 

In  regard  to  granting  credentials  to  i 
of  the  association  who  wish  to  visit  forei 
ciations,  the  committee  recommended  that 
applications    be    referred    to    the    Commi 
Policy,  with  power. 


jAmiABT   15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


87 


In  regard  to  the  application  of  the  Society  of 
College  Teachers  of  Education  and  of  the  Society 
for  Horticultural  Science  for  affiliation  with  this 
association,  the  committee  recommended  that  the 
applications  be  granted. 

On  the  Relations  of  the  Journal  Science  icith  the 

Association. 

On  the  recommendation  of  the  committee  it 
was  voted: 

1.  That  the  treasurer  be  added  to  this  com- 
mittee. 

2,  That  the  vice-presidents  of  the  association 
and  the  permanent  secretary  be  added  to  the  edi- 
torial committee  of  the  journal,  Science. 

On  Amendments. 

The  following  amendments  to  the  constitution 
having  been  proposed  at  the  Washington  meeting, 
favorably  acted  upon  by  the  council  and  reported 
to  the  general  session  were  adopted : 

Article  34,  second  line,  change  the  word  assess- 
ment to  the  word  dues. 

Article  35,  first  line,  change  the  word  assess- 
ment to  the  word  dues. 

Article  37,  first  line,  change  the  word  assess- 
ment to  the  word  dues. 

On  Fellows 

The  following  members  were  elected  fellows  of 
the  association:  Edward  Goodrich  Acheson,  Vic- 
tor C.  Aiderson,  J.  M.  Allen,  Frank  Marion 
Andrews,  Henry  Prentiss  Armsby,  B.  J.  Arnold, 
Luigi  d'Auria,  Oscar  Phelps  Austin,  Thomas  M. 
Balliet,  J.  H.  Barr,  John  Mallery  Bates,  Albert 
T.  Bell,  W.  Z.  Bennett,  William  B.  Bentley,  Ber- 
nard Arthur  Behrend,  Samuel  Lawrence  Bigelow, 
Charles  Edward  Brewer,  W.  K.  Brooks,  David  I. 
Bushnell,  Jr.,  Sidney  Calvert,  William  E.  Castle, 
Hubert  Lyman  Clark,  Frederic  Edward  Clements, 
George  E.  Coghill,  James  Milnor  Coit,  Charles  A. 
Conant,  Robert  A.  Cooley,  Henry  Crew,  William 
Crozier,  Richard  Sydney  Curtiss,  N.  M.  Fenneman, 
George  Elgbert  Fisher,  Moses  Gomberg,  Benjamin 
Feland  Groat,  Charles  M.  Hall,  Fred  DeForest 
Heald,  George  Grout  Hedgcock,  J.  S.  Hine,  Fred- 
erick W.  Hodge,  S.  J.  Holmes,  William  Hoskins, 
Ira  Woods  Howerth,  William  James,  John  Black 
Johnston,  Edwin  S.  Johonnott,  Edward  Kasner, 
Edward  Keller,  C.  A.  King,  J.  S.  Kingsley,  Martin 
A.  Knapp,  Charles  M.  Knight,  Jesse  Goad  Land, 
A,  S.  Langsdorf,  F.  M.  Leavitt,  Felix  Lengfeld, 
Victor  Lenher,  P.  M.  Lincoln,  G.  W.  Littlehales, 
George  Edwin  McLean,  Haven  Metcalf,  Robert 
Treat   Paine,    Charles   J.   Reed,   Jacob   Reighard, 


James  Ford  Rhodes,  Isaac  W.  Riley,  Samuel  P. 
Sadtler,  E.  Dwight  Sanderson,  Homer  LeRoy 
Shantz,  John  Lewis  Sheldon,  Bohumil  Shimek, 
Edward  Randolph  Taylor,  J.  Bishop  Tingle,  Olin 
F.  Tower,  J.  L.  Van  Omum,  F.  L.  O.  Wadsworth, 
S.  W.  W^illiston  and  A.  N.  Winchell. 

The  following  resolutions  were  proposed 
and  adopted  at  the  meeting  of  the  general 
session  held  Friday,  January  1 : 

In  view  of  the  extremely  complete  and  eflfective 
arrangements  which  have  guarded  and  guided  the 
conduct  of  the  multiplied  activities  of  the  meeting 
with  such  unusual  success,  and  in  the  thought  of 
the  many  courtesies  which  have  been  extended  to 
us  on  every  hand  with  most  genuine  hospitality, 
it  is  a  peculiar  pleasure  to  be  called  upon  to  present 
for  adoption  by  the  association  the  resolution  of 
thanks  which  are  so  incomplete  an  expression  of 
our  appreciation  of  these  privileges.  At  the  same 
time,  each  one  of  us  must  feel  that  the  most  ex- 
tended enumeration  would  only  partially  include 
the  many  who  have  so  generously  contributed 
to  make  this  meeting  a  success  in  every  direction. 

First  of  all,  the  thanks  of  the  association  must 
be  extended  to  the  local  committee,  and  partic- 
ularly to  the  honorary  president,  the  Hon.  David  R. 
Francis;  to  the  chairman.  Professor  William  Tre- 
lease;  to  the  secretary.  Professor  A.  S.  Langsdorf; 
to  the  treasurer,  Mr.  William  H.  Thomson,  and 
to  the  members  of  the  executive  committee,  Chan- 
cellor W.  S.  Chaplin,  Mr.  George  H.  Morgan,  Pro- 
fessor F.  E.  Nipher,  Mr.  John  Schroers,  Mr. 
Walter  B.  Stevens,  Dr.  William  Taussig  and  Mr. 
H.  C.  Townsend,  who,  as  chairman  of  the  various 
subcommittees,  have  arranged  for  all  the  details 
with  such  forethought  as  to  keep  the  machinery  of 
a  large  and  complicated  program  in  operation 
without  friction  or  interference,  and  to  provide  for 
many  outside  courtesies  of  the  most  enjoyable 
type. 

Sincere  thanks  are  due  to  the  Board  of  Edu- 
cation for  placing  at  our  disposal  the  Central 
High  School  building,  so  admirably  adapted  to  the 
purposes  of  this  meeting;  to  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  F.  S.  Soldan;  to  Principal  W. 
J.  S.  Bryan  and  his  corps  of  assistants  and  stu- 
dents for  their  imtiring  efforts  in  caring  for  the 
various  sections,  and  to  Messrs.  George  F.  Knox, 
William  Butler  and  S.  A.  Douglas  for  their  con- 
tinued oversight  and  manipulation  of  the  lanterns 
"^nd  other  appliances  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
sections. 

The  association  is  deeply  indebted  to  the  trustees 
and  director  of  the  Missouri   Botanical  Gardens 


88 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  X: 


for  hospitalities  extended  to  members  in  connec- 
tion with  their  visits  to  this  splendid  institution, 
and  for  the  exceptional  courtesies  tendered  in  con- 
nection with  the  Shaw  banquet. 

The  association  is  under  obligations  to  the 
officers  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  for 
the  luncheon  and  reception  at  the  grounds  of  the 
exposition,  and  to  the  chiefs  of  departments  un- 
der whose  guidance  the  members  were  privileged 
to  witness  the  progress  already  made  toward  the 
completion  of  this  monumental  work. 

The  association  must  further  acknowledge  its 
indebtedness  to  the  press,  to  the  St.  Louis  Transit 
Company,  to  the  president  of  the  Board  of  Public 
Improvements  and  to  all  other  organizations,  cor- 
porations and  individuals  who  have  extended  so 
many  privileges  to  members  individually  and  in 
groups  in  connection  with  visiting  the  great  in- 
dustries and  points  of  interest  in  St.  Louis  and 
vicinity. 

The  association  is  under  deep  obligations  to  the 
Mercantile  Club,  to  the  University  Club,  and 
finally  and  in  especial  measure,  to  the  Wednesday 
Club  for  the  thoughtful  hospitalities  extended  to 
the  ladies  registered  at  the  meeting. 

It  was  unanimously  voted  to  extend  the 
thanks  of  the  association  to  Professor 
Kutherford  for  his  lecture  on  radium  and 
radio-activity. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  general  committee, 
held  Thursday  evening,  it  was  decided  to 
hold  the  next  meeting  in  Philadelphia,  be- 
ginning Tuesday,  December  27,  1904,  and 
closing  Monday,  January  2,  1905,  it  being 
understood  that  the  Executive  Committee 
of  the  Council  will  meet  Tuesday,  De- 
cember 27,  and  the  opening  session  of  the 
meeting  will  be  held  Wednesday,  December 
28.  New  Orleans  was  recommended  as  the 
place  of  meeting  two  years  hence. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for. 
the  Philadelphia  meeting: 

President — W.  G.  Farlow,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
Vice-Presidents : 
Section    A — Alexander    Ziwet,     Ann    Arbor, 

Michigan. 
Section  B — William  F.  Magie,  Princeton,  New 

Jersey. 
Section  C — ^Leonard  P.  Kinnicutt,  Worcester, 

Massachusetts. 
Section  D — ^David  S.  Jacobus,  Hoboken,  New 

Jersey. 


Section  E — Eugene  A.  Smith,  Uni 

bama. 
Section    F— C.    Hart   Merriam, 

D.  C. 
Section  G — B.  L.  Robinson,  Camb 
Section  H — ^Walter  Hough,  Washi 
Section    I — ^Martin    A.    Knapp, 

D.  C. 
Section  K — ^The  present  vice-presi< 
p.  Bowditch,  will  serve  anothei 
General  Secretary — Charles  S.  How< 
Ohio. 

Secretary  of  the  Council — Clarence 
Lafayette,  Indiana. 

Charles  S.  I 
General  8e 


THE  ELEMENTS:    VERIFIED 
UNVERIFIED.* 

It  is  the  sad  duty  of  the  retir 
man  of  this  section  to  chronicle  th 
two  members.  One  of  them.  Jam 
Magee,  B.S.,  University  of  Pen 
1887,  devoted  his  life  chiefly  to  c 
pursuits,  in  which  he  was  most  i 
He  joined  the  association  at  the 
meeting,  being  one  of  the  younj 
bers.  The  other  was  H.  Carringt 
Columbia,  1862  (Ph.D.  Getting^ 
who,  with  the  exception  of  fou 
Boye,  Brush  and  Hilgard),  was 
of  the  section,  having  joined  at 
teenth  meeting.  I  beg  permissio: 
from  an  article  of  his  in  the 
Chemist,  1876,  the  year  foUowir 
vation  to  fellowship  in  the  asso< 
it  exemplified  in  telling  words  ( 
great  aims  in  his  life,  with  th 
accomplishment  of  which  you  arc 

**So  rapid  are  the  strides  ma 
ence  in  this  progressive  age  and 
less  is  its  range,  that  those  whi 
career  from  without  find  great  d: 
following  its  diverse  and  intri< 
wavs,  while  those  who  have  secui 

*  Address  of  the  vice-president  and  < 
Section  C,  Cliemistry,  of  the  American 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  St.  Lo 
December  28,  1903. 


January  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


89 


ing  within  the  same  road  are  often  quite 
unable  to  keep  pace  with  its  fleet  movements 
and  would  fain  retire  from  the  unequal 
contest.  It  is  not  surprising,  then,  that 
those  actually  contributing  to  the  advance- 
ment of  science,  pressing  eagerly  upward 
and  onward,  should  neglect  to  look  back 
upon  the  labors  of  those  who  precede  them 
and  should  sometimes  lose  sight  of  the  obli- 
gations which  science  owes  to  forgotten  gen- 
erations. '  '*  His  numerous  contributions  to 
and  intimate  knowledge  of  the  history  of 
chemistry,  his  gentle  and  generous  sym- 
pathy aided  and  stimulated  many  active  in 
research  or  technical  applications  of  chem- 
istry. His  monumental  bibliographies  put 
out  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  are  mas- 
terpieces. The  grief  and  keen  regret  of  his 
loss  are  not  confined  to  one  nation. 

On  another  occasion  it  has  been  the  good 
fortune  of  him  who  has  the  honor  of  ad- 
dressing you  to-day  to  indicate  that  events 
of  literary  moment^  governmental  modifica- 
tions, inventions  and  forward  stridings  in 
science,  have  apparently  accommodated 
themselves  to  historical  periods  during  the 
past  century,  f  Striking,  novel  facts  and 
fancies,  gleaned  in  the  realm  of  inorganic 
chemistry,  have  crested  not  a  few  of  the 
high  waves  of  those  human  tides  that  beat 
against  the  coasts  of  the  untried  and  un- 
known. 

The  human  mind  knows  by  contrasts. 
For  the  day  we  have  night;  for  the  good 
there  is  evil.  Where  man  would  have  a 
God,  he  also  had  a  devil ;  for  the  true  there 
is  the  false;  the  verified  and  unverified. 
The  false  may  be  true  through  ignorance; 
the  true  may  be  false  in  the  light  of  new 
knowledge.  Or,  as  Hegel  put  it,  '  Sein  und 
das  nicht  Sein  sind  das  Namliche. ' 

*  *  Notes  on  the  Early  Literature  of  Chemistry — 
The  Book  of  the  Balance  of  Wisdom,'  New  York 
Academy  of  Sciences,  May  29,  1876. 

t  *  The  Rare  Earth  Crusade ;  What  it  Portends, 
Scientifically  and  Technically,'  Science,  N.  S., 
XVII.,  722-781. 


Is  matter  continuous  or  discrete  1  argued 
the  opposed  schools  of  Grecian  philosophy 
led  by  Leucippus,  Democritus  and  Epicurus 
and  dominated  by  Aristotle.  Despite  the 
clarity  of  the  statements  of  the  Roman 
Lucretius,*  the  atomic  hypothesis  received 
scant  attention  until  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury of  the  Christian  era,  when  Galileo's 
experimental  science  assailed  Aristotelian 
metaphysics  and  demanded  verification  of 
the  premises  of  that  philosophy  which  had 
governed  all  the  schools  of  Europe  for  two 
thousand  years,  f  While  Gassendi,  Boyle, 
Descartes,  Newton,  perhaps  Boscovich, 
Lavoisier,  Swedeborg,  Richter,  Fischer  and 
Higgins  had  to  do  with  our  modern  atomic 
theory,  Dal  ton  one  hundred  years  ago  'cre- 
ated a  working  tool  of  extraordinary  power 
and  usefulness'  in  the  laws  of  definite  and 
multiple  proportions.  As  ClarkeJ  re- 
marked, *  Between  the  atom  of  Lucretius 
and  the  Daltonian  atom  the  kinship  is 
very  remote.'  Although  the  lineage  is  di- 
rect, the  work  of  Berzelius,  Gmelin  and 
others;  the  laws  of  Faraday,  Guy  Lussac, 
Avagadro,  Dulong  and  Petit ;  the  reforma- 
tions of  Laurent  and  Gerhardt,  but  par- 
ticularly Cannizzaro;  the  systematizations 
o*f  de  Chancourtois,  Newlands,  Hinrichs, 
Mendelejeff  and  Lothar  Meyer ;  the  stereo- 
chemistry of  van't  Hoff  and  LeBel  have 
imperialized  the  ideas  of  the  Manchester 
philosopher,  so  that  the  conceptions  of  the 
conservative  atomists  of  to-day  are  quite 
different  from  those  at  the  beginning  of  the 
closed  century.  § 

*  "  Nature  reserving  these  as  seeds  of  things 
Permits  in  them  no  minish  nor  decay; 
They  can't  be  fewer  and  they  can't  be  less." 

Again,  of  compounds — 

**  Decay  of  some  leaves  others  free  to  grow 
And   thus   the   sum   of   things    rests    unim- 
paired." Book  II.,  79. 
tSee  'The  Atomic  Theory/  the  Wilde  Lecture 
by  F.  W.  Clarke  at  Dalton  Celebration,  May,  1903. 
t  Loc.  cit. 

{  While  I  have  examined  much  of  the  original 
literature,    Venable's    'History    of    the    Periodic 


90 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  V<ML.XIX. 


These  have  not  come  about  solely  through 
the  additive  labors  of  the  savants  men- 
tioned, for.  they  have  been  shaped  quite  as 
much  by  speculative  and  experimental  op- 
position exemplified  by  Brodie*  and  Sterry 

Huntt 

In  Graham's  *  Speculative  Ideas  Respect- 
ing the  Constitution  of  Matter'!  we  have 
the  conception  that  our  supposed  elements 
possess 'one  and  the  same  ultimate  rr  atomic 
molecule  existing  in  different  conditions  of 
movement.  §  Apropos,  we  have  the  sug- 
gestion of  F.  W.  Clarke  ||  that  the  evolu- 
tion of  planets  from  nebulae,  according  to 
the  hypothesis  of  Kant  and  Laplace,  was 
accompanied  by  an  evolution  of  the  ele- 
ments themselves.  Even  Boyle— *  the  cau- 
tious and  doubting  Robert  Boyle, '  as  Hum- 
boldt said  of  him— was  inclined  to  the  be- 
lief that  *all  matter  is  compounded  of  one 
primordial  substance— merely  modifications 
of  the  materia  prima.' 

The  Daltonian  ideas  had  scarcely  reached 
adolescence  before  Prout  (1815),  giving 
heed  to  the  figures  concerned,  would  have 
all  the  elements  compounded  of  hydrogen. 
The  classical  atomic  mass  values  obtained 
by  sympathetic  Stas  and  the  numerous  in- 
vestigations of  those  who  followed  him, 
with  all  the  refinements  human  ingenuity 
has  been  able  to  devise,  temporarily  silenced 
such  speculations,  but  not  until  Marignac 

Law  '  has  been  most  helpful.  I  have,  furthermore, 
had  the  privilege  of  reading  very  carefully  the 
manuscript  of  a  work  entitled  *  The  Study  of  the 
Atom'    (in  press),  by  Dr.  Venable. 

*  *  Calculus  of  Chemical  Operations,*  J.  Chem. 
8oc.,  21,  307  (1860),  and  his  book,  'Ideal  Chem- 
istry,' 1880. 

f  Nimierous  papers  summarized  in  *  A  New 
Basis  for  Chemistiy.'  New  York,  1887  and  1892 
(fourth  edition). 

X  Proc.  Roy.  8oc.,  1863. 

{  Venable,  *  The  Definition  of  the  Element,'  vice- 
presidential  address,  Section  C,  American  Associa- 
tion for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  Columbus 
meeting,  1899. 

II  '  Evolution  and  the  Spectroscope,*  Pop,  8c.  M. 
Jour.,  1873. 


had  halved  the  unit,  Dumas  had  qi 
it,  and  Zangerle,  as  late  as  1882, 
upon  the  one  thousandth  hydrogen 

The  notion,  like  Banquo's  ghost,  i 
up,  for  if  one  may  judge  from  th( 
bility  calculations  of  Mallet*  and 
a  profound  truth  underlies  the  no^ 
hypothesis. 

CrookeSjJ  from  observations  mad( 
prolonged  and  painstaking  fractions 
certain  of  the  rare  earths,  suppoi 
previously  announced  *  provisional 
esis*  as  to  the  genesis  of  the  elemer 
a  hypothetical  protyle,  which  exists 
the  universe  was  without  form  ai 
He  designated  those  intermediate 
like  yttrium,  gadolinium  and  did 
*  meta-elements, '§  a  species  of  co: 
radicals,  as  it  were.  Vrstoff,  fire  m 
tyle,  the  ultra-gaseous  form,  the 
state  of  matter  ||  was  condensed  bj 
cess  analogous  to  cooling;  in  sh< 
elements  were  created.  The  rate 
cooling  and  irregular  condensati( 
duced  *the  atavism  of  the  elemeni 
this  caused  the  formation  of  the 
families  of  the  periodic  system.  Mai 
criticizing  this  hypothesis,  states:  * 
always  admitted**  the  impossibility 
counting  for  the  curious  relations  w. 
manifested  between  the  atomic  we: 
the  elements,  except  by  the  hypotl 
a  general  method  of  formation  ac 
to  definite  though  unknown  laws 
when  these  relations  have  the  charj 
general  and  absolute  laws." 

Further,  **I  do  not  the  less  ackn 

•Phil.  Trans.,  171,  1003,  1881. 

fPhil.  Mag.   (6),  1,  311. 

i  Chem.  Ncirs,  55,  83,  1886. 

g  Address  before  Chemical  Section  of 
ish  Association,  Chem.  A'etc*,  54,  117,  U 

II  Crookes,  Royal  Societies,  June  10,  1 J 

^  Archives  des  Sciences  Physiques  et  N( 
17-5;   Chemical  Neirs,  56,  39. 

**Remark3  made  in  1860-5  after  publi< 
Stas's  *  Researches  on  Atomic  Weights,*  . 
9,   102,  24-376. 


jAlfUART    15,    1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


91 


that  the  effect  of  constant  association  of 
these  elements  is  one  of  the  strongest 
proofs  that  can  he  found  of  the  community 
of  their  origin.  Besides,  it  is  not  an  iso- 
lated fact ;  we  can  find  other  examples  such 
as  the  habitual  association  in  minerals  of 
tantalum,  niobiiun  and  titanium." 

Sir  John  Herschel  thought  that  all  the 
atoms  were  alike  and  the  elements,  as  we 
know  them,  'have  the  stamp  of  the  manu- 
factured article.' 

Hartley*  this  year  says :  *  It  is  more  than 
twenty  years  since  the  study  of  homology 
in  spectra  led  me  to  the  conviction  that  the 
chemical  atoms  are  not  the  ultimate  par- 
ticles of  matter,  and  that  they  have  a  com- 
plex constitution.' 

The  peculiar  discharge  from  the  nega- 
tive electrodes  of  a  vacuum  tube  waa  in- 
vestigated  many  years  ago  by  Hittorf  and 
Crookes,  who  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that 
it  was  composed  of  streams  of  charged 
particles.  All  are  familiar  with  the  very 
recent  proposed  *  electrons'  and  'corpuscles' 
resulting  from  the  beautiful  physical  re- 
searches of  Lodge  and  J.  J.  Thomson. 
These  appear  to  have  caused  a  trembling  in 
the  belief  of  many  in  the  immutability  of 
the  atom,  and  the  complete  abandonment 
of  the  atom  is  seriously  discussed  by 
others. 

**If  the  electrons  of  all  elements  are  ex- 
actly alike,  or,  in  other  words,  if  there  is 
but  one  matter,  just  as  there  is  but  one 
force,  and  if  the  elements  be  but  the  various 
manifestations  of  that  one  matter,  due  to 
a  different  orbital  arrangement  of  the  elec- 
trons, it  would  seem  that  we  are  fast  re- 
turning to  the  conceptions  of  the  mid- 
dle-aged alchemist.  The  transmutation  of 
metals  involves  but  the  modification  of  the 
arrangement  of  the  electrons."     Such  ef- 

*  Address  before  the  Chemical  Section,  British 
Association,  Southport  meeting,  September,  1903, 
Chem.  Veua,  88,  154. 


forts  as  Pittica's*  should  not  be  treated 
with  scorn,  but  given  careful  examination 
and  merited  consideration,  as  Winklerf 
gave  his.  Science  should  thus  ever  be  'a 
foe  of  raw  haste,  half-sister  to  delay. 'J 

Although  by  chemical  means,  so  far,  we 
have  been  unable  to  break  up  the  atoms, 
apparently  electrical  energy,  in  the  form 
of  cathode  rays,  for  example,  follows  the 
grain  of  atomic  structure.  Some  advanced 
thinkers  look  upon  the  atoms  as  disem- 
bodied charges  of  electricity.  Ostwald 
has  taught  it.  Electric  charges  are  known 
only  as  united  to  matter,  yet  Johnstone, 
Stoney  and  Larmor  have  speculated  on  the 
properties  of  such  charges  isolated.  **Such 
a  charge  is  inertia,  even  though  attached 
to  no  matter,  and  the  increase  of  inertia 
of  a  body  due  to  electrification  has  been 
calculated  by  both  Thomson  and  Oliver 
Heaviside,  the  conception  accordingly 
being,  advanced  that  all  inertia  is  electrical 
and  that  matter,  as  we  know  it,  is  built 
up  of  interlocked  positive  and  negative 
electrons.  If  it  were  possible  in  any  mass 
of  matter  to  separate  these  electrons  then 
matter  would  disappear  and  there  would 
remain  merely  two  enormous  charges  of 
electricity."  We  are  aware  of  phenomena 
attributed  to  the  negative  electrons;  we 
await  anxiously  the  announcement  of  the 
positive  electrons.  But  here  the  water  is 
deep  and  one  may  not  swim  too  well. 

We  do  know,  however,  as  A.  A.  Noyes 
says,§  that  'there  exists  in  the  universe 
some  thing  or  things  other  than  matter 
which,  by  association  with  it,  give  rise  to 
the  changes  in  properties  which  bodies  ex- 
hibit, and  give  them  power  of  producing 
changes  in  the  properties  of  other  bodies.' 

*  *  Black  Phosphorus,  or  Conversion  of  Phos- 
phorus into  Arsenic,*  Chem.  News,  81,  257;  82, 
166. 

f  Be^-ichte,  3»,  10;  Chem.  News,  81,  306. 

t  Van  Dyke  in  *  The  Ruling  Passion.' 

J  *  General  Principles  of  Physical  Science,'  p.  13, 
1902. 


92 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


Further  (p.  15),  '*•  •  •  matter  is  that 
which  gives  rise  to  the  localization  of  the 
complex  of  properties  which  certain  por- 
tions of  space  exhibit.  Even  though,  on 
the  one  hand,  it  must  be  admitted  that  the 
existence  of  matter  is  inferred  only  from 
various  energy  manifestations  which  bod- 
ies exhibit,  it  must  be  acknowledged,  on 
the  other,  that  there  are  no  manifestations 
of  energy  except  those  which  are  asso- 
ciated with  the  manifestations  of  it  that 
have  led  to  the  adoption  of  the  concept  of 
matter;  in  a  word,  the  two  assumed  enti- 
ties, matter  and  energy,  are  indissolubly 
connected  in  our  experience."  Thus,  as 
Dumas  said,  'Hypotheses  are  the  crutches 
of  science  to  be  thrown  away  at  the  proper 
time.' 

I  have  dared  to  sketch  these  conceptions 
in  a  few  bold  outlines,  for 

"  VVe  can't  enumerate  them  all ! 
In  every  land  and  age  have  they 
With  honest  zeal  been  toiling  on,* 
To  turn  our  darkness  into  day." 

The  imposition  upon  your  good  nature 
practiced  in  the  foregoing  craves  its  par- 
don in  an  effort  to  seek  a  definition  for  the 
term,  element.  Shall  we  say,  as  does  Rem- 
sen,  'An  element  is  a  substance  made  up  of 
atoms  of  the  same  kind  ? '  Can  we  say  that 
it  is  not?  Venablef  truly  says:  *An  ele- 
ment is  best  defined  by  means  of  its  prop- 
erties.' These  conceits  are  not  exclusive. 
The  properties  are  the  result  of  the  action 
of  physical  forces  and  chemical  affinity, 
whatever  that  may  be.  Certain  of  the 
novel  atmospheric  gases  have  so  far  re- 
sponded but  poorly  to  the  latter,  as  pre- 
dicted before  their  discovery  by  Flawitz- 
sky,  Julius  Thomsen  aad  de  Boisbaudran 
in  1887.  This  necessitates,  according  to 
PicciniJ  our  dividing  them  at  once  into 
two  classes. 

*  Aikens*    poem    at    Priestley    centennial.    Am, 
Chemist,  1876,  23. 
t  The  *  Definition  of  the  Element,'  loc.  cit. 
tZeit.  Anorg.  Chem.,  19,  296,  1899. 


Pattison  Muir  gives  a  satisfactory  < 
tion.*  **The  notion  of  the  element 
has  been  attained  after  long,  con 
labor  is  that  of  certain  distinct  kii 
matter,  each  of  which  has  propertic 
distinguish  it  from  every  other  ki 
matter,  no  one  of  which  has  been  sep 
into  portions  unlike  the  original  sub? 
and  which  combine  together  to  pi 
new  kinds  of  matter  that  are  callec 
pounds."  The  following  simpler 
tion  has  finally  served  as  my  guid 
element  is  that  which  has  not  bet 
composed,  so  far  as  we  are  aware,  int 
thing  other  than  itself.  In  short,  it  i 
sistent. 

It  is  well  to  stop  occasionally  anc 
stock.  The  Daltonian  centenary  cou 
but  be  an  opportune  time.  StabU 
tified  securities  are  not  enumerated 
list  which  follows.  Having  in  mic 
second  chapter  of  the  first  book  of  C 
cles,  certain  so-called  elements  are 
tioned,  for  yttrium  begat  cerium,  ai 
rium  b^at  lanthanum,  and  lantl 
begat  samarium  and  didymium,  and 
mium  begat  neodidymium  and  presses 
mium,  and  praeseodidymium  begat  o 
/5-pr8Bseodidymium,  'und  so  weiter.' 

Unpractised  as  a  reading  clerk,  I 
spare  you  the  strain  of  hearing  thii 
list  of  elements  on  probation,  but  s 
for  leisure  perusal  printed  copies 
will  form  an  appendix  to  the  addr 
published  in  the  Proceedings  of  the 
ciation. 

From  the  table  have  been  omitted  u 
protyle  (Crookes),  electrons  (Lodge) 
puscles  (J.  J.  Thomson)  and  par 
(Hinrichs).  It  appeared  also  unnec< 
to  incorporate  phlogiston,  nitricum 
imaginary  body,  thought  by  Ber 
united  with  oxygen  to  form  nitrogen] 
araeon  (ponderable  caloric).    Accordi 

*  *  The  Alchemical  Essence  and  the  CI 
Element,'  London,  8vo,  pp.  94,  1894. 


Jakuabt  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


93 


Meissner,  hydrochloric  acid  is  composed  of 
two  equivalents  of  oxygen,  one  of  water, 
combined  with  arson  and  the  imaginary 
radical  murium  (vide  Bolton).  Often  al- 
loys have  been  prepared  and  given  names 
like  the  elements,  'magnalium,'  for  exam- 
ple. These  are  omitted  also.  Otherwise, 
I  have  purposely  included  every  sugges- 
tion of  an  element  I  could  obtain.  The 
summary,  while  doubtless  deficient,  may 
secure  an.  historical  vindication. 

What  shall  we  do  with  these  numerous 
aspirants  whose  recognition  is  urged? 
"These  elements  perplex  us  in  our  re- 
searches, baffle  us  in  our  speculations  and 
haunt  us  in  our  very  dreams.  They  stretch 
like  an  unknown  sea  before  us,  mocking, 
mystifying  and  murmuring  strange  revela- 
tions and  possibilities/'  said  Crookes,  refer- 
ring to  the  rare  earths.  Some  have  been 
verified,  many  unverified;  some  are  true, 
some  are  false.  Without  doubt  some  have 
been  presented  without  sufficient  stage  set- 
ting, yet  the  good  faith  of  many  can  not  be 
questioned.  In  fact,  from  this  list,  as  one 
reads,  he  perceives  the  whole  gamut  of  sci- 
entific emotions.  There  he  may  find  the 
tragedies  of  elemental  pretension,  the  com- 
edies, yea,  the  very  farces. 

We  need  not  look  far  to  ascertain  expla- 
nations for  certain  incorrect  conclusions. 
The  extreme  rarity  of  the  minerals  in  which 
many  of  the  tentative  elements  have  been 
detected,  the  excessively  small  percentages 
of  the  new  ingredients,  and  the  extraor- 
dinary difficulties  attending  their  separa- 
tion from  known  and  unknown  substances 
combine  to  render  the  investigations  labori- 
ous, protracted  and  costly.  De  Boisbau- 
dran  required  2,400  kilograms  of  zinc 
blend  for  62  grams  of  gallium.  Bamsay* 
has  shown  one  part  of  crypton  in  twenty 
million  volumes  of  air,  while  a  like  amount 
of  xenon  requires  one  hundred  and  seventy 
million.     How  patiently  and  persistently 

*Zeii.  phys.  Ohem,,  44,  74,  1903. 


that  modest  Parisian  couple  followed  Bec- 
querel's  rays! 

Furthermore,  when  one  feels  that  he  has 
obtained  something  novel,  the  absolute 
proof  is  fraught  with  difficulties  and  un- 
certainties. We  have  decided  to  define  an 
element  by  its  properties.  The  alterations 
produced  in  the  properties  of  the  most  char- 
acteristic elements  by  the  presence  of  small 
amounts  of  foreign  substances  are  evident 
in  steel.  The  influence  of  arsenic  upon  the 
conductivity  of  copper  is  well  known,  and 
Le  Bon*  has  recently  shown  that  traces  of 
magnesium  (one  part  in  14,000)  in  mer- 
cury cause  the  latter  to  decompose  water 
and  to  oxidize  rapidly  in  the  air  at  ordinary 
temperatures.  Thorium  with  less  than  a 
trace  of  actinium  produces  an  auto-photo- 
graph. 

This  point  can  not  be  too  strongly 
stressed  in  the  rare  earth  field.  One  who 
has  wrought  with  thorium  dioxide  well 
knows  the  influence  a  small  amount  of 
cerium  has  upon  its  solubility.  The  con- 
flicting statements  in  the  literature  as  to 
the  colors  of  the  oxides  of  the  complexes, 
neodidymium  and  praeseodidymium,  cause- 
one  to  wonder  if  different  researchers  have 
had  the  same  hsecceity. 

An  appeal  to  the  spectroscope  is  of  course 
in  the  minds  of  all  my  hearers. 

It  was  once  supposed  that  each  element 
has  its  characteristic  spectrum  which  re- 
mained the  same  under  aU  circumstances. 
Keelerf  calls  attention  to  modern  investiga- 
tions which  have  shown  that  the  same  ele- 
ment can  have  entirely  diflferent  spectra. 
For  example,  oxygen  may  be  caused  to  have 
five  different  spectra;  nitrogen,  two,  etc. 
In  fact,  there  is  no  indication  in  the  appear- 
ance of  the  spectra  that  they  belong  to  the 
same  substance;  yet  through  the  result  of 
the  work  of  Rydberg,  Kayser,  Runge  and 

•  Compt.  rend.,  131,  706,  1900. 
t  Bcientific  American  Supplement  88,  977,  1894, 
and  Popular  Astronomy. 


94 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


Preeht,  series  of  groups  of  lines  are  had 
which  satisfy  mathematical  formulae. 

**It  was  proposed  by  de  Oramont,  at  the 
International  Congress  in  Paris,  in  1900, 
and  agreed,  that  no  new  substance  should 
be  described  as  an  element  until  its  spark 
spectrum  had  been  measured  and  shown  to 
be  different  from  that  of  every  other  known 
form  of  matter.  * '  As  Hartley  *  remarks, 
*This  appears  to  me  to  have  been  one  of 
the  most  important  transactions  of  the  con- 
gress.' Radium  t  was  the  first  to  be  tested 
by  this  rule.  Exner  and  Haschek  obtained 
1,19^  spark  and  257  arc  lines  for  Demar- 
cay's  europium-  It  must  not  be  foi^otten, 
however,  that  by  overlapping,  lines  in  mix- 
tures may  be  masked  or  appear,  which  are 
absent,  in  those  bodies  of  the  highest  state 
of  purity.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that 
pressure  influences  the  spectrum,  usually 
producing  a  broadening  of  the  lines,  as 
shown  by  Schuster,  and  that  it  may  occur 
symmetrically  or  only  towards  the  least  re- 
frangible red.  Lest  we  forget,  the  spectro- 
scope failed  a  long  time  to  show  radium  and 
we  knew  it  was  there.  It  must  not  be  for- 
gotten, as  Kruss§  has  shown,  that  the  *  in- 
fluence of  temperature  can  not  be  neglected 
and  ignored,  but  must  be  considered  by 
every  chemist  who  wishes  to  make  correct 
spectroscopic  observations.'  It  is  well 
known  to  spectroscopists  that  band  spectra 
are  obtained  at  temperatures  intermediate 
between  those  required  for  the  production 
of  continuous  spectra  and  line  spectra.  || 

*  Address  before  the  Chemical  Section  of  the 
British  Association,  Southport,  1903. 

t  Runge  and  Precht,  Am.  Physik.,  IV.,  12,  407, 
1903. 

t  British  Association,  Report,  1880,  276.  Vide 
also  Lockyer  and  Frankland,  Proc.  Roy.  8oc.,  27, 
288,  1869. 

{  *  The  Influence  of  Temperature  upon  the 
Spectrum;  Analytical  Observations  and  Measure- 
ments,* IAehig*8  Annalen,  238,  57;  Chem.  News, 
66,  61. 

H  *  Spectrum  Analysis,'  Landauer,  English  trans- 
lation by  Tingle,  p.  70. 


The  explanations  of  these  facts  do.  n< 
cem  us  at  present. 

It  has  been  shown  by  the  researe 
Newton,  D£kle,  Qladstone,  Jamin,  Scl 
Landolt  and  others  that  the  refi 
power  increases  in  all  liquids,  exc< 
water,  between  0°  and  4°  with  the  in 
of  density— that  is,  with  decrease  o: 
perature.  Rydberg  showed  that  v 
solid  bodies,  such  as  quartz  and  ara| 
follow  the  same  law.  There  are  soi 
ceptions,  however.  Among  these  is 
as  proved  by  Arago  and  Neumann  pi 
Rydberg.  **0n  a  rise  of  temperati 
phenomena  of  absorption  or  emissic 
displaced  toward  the  violet  with  the 
prisms,  but  toward  the  red  with  < 
prisms.  These  displacements  are  the 
er  the  more  refrangible  the  region  < 
spectrum  in  which  they  occur.''  I 
result  of  a  large  number  of  observe 
Kriiss  learned  that  by  a  variation  o: 
marked  changes  would  be  observed  i 
spectroscopic  lines.  From  a  table  gi's 
could  be  seen  that  errors  may  spring 
neglect  of  the  temperature  (of  the  ii 
ment?)  in  stating  wave-lengths,  sii 
rise  of  5**  is  sufficient  to  transfer  the 
the  position  Dj.  Roscoe  obtained  a 
tirely  new  spectrum  with  the  metal  so- 
whereby  it  appears  that  this  metal  exi 
a  gaseous  state  in  four  diflferent  degn 
aggregation,  as  a  simple  molecule,  ai 
three  or  four  or  eight  molecules  tog< 

Griinwald  in  a  series  of  papers  o 
theory  of  spectrum  analysis*  endeavor 
discover  relations  between  the  spectrt 
thus  to  arrive  at  simpler,  if  not  fi 
mental  'elements.'  "  He  came  to  the 
elusion  that  'all  the  so-called  element 
compounds  of  the  primary  elements  c 

*  *  Uber  das  Wasser spectrum,  das  Hydrc 
und  Oxygen  spectrum,'  Phil.  Mag.,  24,  304, 
'  Math.  Spectralanalyse  des  Magnesiums  ui 
Kohle,'  Monatahefte  fiir  Chemie,  8,  650.  * 
Spectralanalyse  des  Kadmiums,'  Monatahef] 
Chemie,  9,  956. 


Jaivuaby  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


95 


6 '  ( eoroniuin  and  helium ) .  Ames,*  having 
called  attention  to  the  use  of  uncorrected 
data  by  Griinwald,  remarks:  *The  concave 
grating  gives  the  only  accurate  method  of 
determining  the  ultra- violet  wave-lengths  of 
the  elements;  and  as  a  consequence  of  not 
using  it,  most  of  the  tables  of  wave-lengths 
so  far  published  are  not  of  much  value.' 

Hutchins  and  Holden,t  after  a  compara- 
tive study  of  the  arc  spectra  of  metals  and 
the  sun  with  a  twenty-one-foot  focal  Row- 
land grating,  state :  **  We  are  convinced  that 
there  is  much  in  the  whole  matter  of  coin- 
cidences of  metallic  and  solar  lines  that 
nee(ls  reexamination ;  that  something  more 
than  the  mere  coincidence  of  two  or  three 
lines  out  of  many  is  necessary  to  establish 
even  the  probability  of  the  presence  of  a 
metal  in  the  sun.  With  the  best  instru- 
ments the  violet  portion  of  the  solar  spec- 
trum is  found  to  be  so  thickly  set  with  fine 
lines  that,  if  a  metallic  line  were  projected 
upon  it  at  random,  in  many  places  the 
ehances  for  a  coincidence  would  be  even, 
and  coincidences  could  not  fail  to  occur  in 
case  of  such  metals  as  cerixmi  and  vana- 
dium, which  give  hundreds  of  lines  in  the 


arc. 


99 


*' Moreover,  a  high  dispersion  shows  that 
very  few  lines  of  metals  are  simple  and 
short,  but,  on  the  contrary,  winged  and 
nebulous,  and  complicated  by  a  great  va- 
riety of  reversal  phenomena.  A  *line'  is 
sometimes  half  an  inch  wide  on  the  photo- 
graphic plate,  or  it  may  be  split  into  ten 
by  reversals." 

Lockyer  maintained  that  the  lines  of  cer- 
tain brilliant  substances  vary  not  only  in 
length  and  in  number,  but  also  in  bril- 
liancy and  in  breadth,  depending  upon 
the  quantity  of  the  substance  as  well  as 

*  Am,  Chem.  J.,  11,  138,  1889. 

t  *  On  the  Existence  of  Certain  Elements,  To- 
gether with  the  Discovery  of  Platinum,  in  the 
Sun,*  Am.  Jour.  8ci.;  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  25,  628, 
1888.  ' 


temperature.*  Being. unable  to  decompose 
the  elements  in  the  laboratory,  he  studied 
the  spectra  of  the  stars.  The  spectra  of 
the  colder  starsf  show  many  more  metals, 
but  no  metalloids,  whereas  the  coldest 
stars,  A.  Ononis,  show  the  Crookes  spec- 
trum •  of  metalloids  which  are  compounds. 
None  of  the  metalloids  are  found  in  the 
spectrum  of  the  sun.  Over  100,000  visual 
observations  and  2,000  photographs  were 
made  in  the  researches. 

Liveing,!  as  the  result  of  the  work  of 
Young,  Dewar,  Fievez  and  himself  on  the 
spectrum  of  the  sun,  by  which  some  lines 
were  resolved  with  a  new  instrument, 
which  they  before  had  not  been  able  to 
devise,  comments  on  Lockyer 's  work:  That 
the  coincidence  of  rays  emitted  by  differ- 
ent chemical  elements,  especially  when  de- 
veloped in  the  spark  of  a  powerful  induc- 
tion coil,  and  the  high  temperature  of  the 
sun  and  stars,  gives  evidence  of  a  common 
element  in  the  composition  of  the  metals 
which  produce  the  coincident  rays.  **This 
result  can  not  fail  to  shake  our  belief,  if 
we  had  any,  in  the  existence  of  any  com- 
mon constituent  in  the  chemical  elements, 
but  it  does  not  touch  the  evidence  which 
the  spectroscope  affords  us  that  many  of 
our  elements,  in  the  state  in  which  we  know 
them,  may  have  a  very  complex  molecular 
structure." 

Hartley§  in  his  recent  admirable  address 

said: 

"  I  have  always  experienced  great  difficulty  in 
accepting  the  view  that  because  the  spectrum  of 
an  element  contained  a  line  or  lines  in  it  which 
were  coincident  with  a  line  or  lines  in  another 
element,  it  was  evidence  of  the  dissociation  of  the 
elements  into  simpler  forms  of  matter.  In  my 
opinion,  evidence  of  the  compound  nature  of  the 

•  Roy.  Soc.  Proc,  61,  148,  183;  Chem.  News,  79, 
145. 

t  Chem.  News,  79,  147. 

t  Address  before  the  Chemical  Section  of  the 
British  Association,  Scientific  American  Supple- 
ment, 14,  356,   1882. 

S  Loc.  cit. 


96 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


elements  has  never  been  obtained  from  the  coin- 
cidence of  a  line  or  lines  exclusively  belonging  to 
the  spectrum  of  one  element  with  a  line  or  lines 
in  the  spectrum  exclusively  belonging  to  another 
element.      This  view  is  based  upon  the  following 
grounds:    (1)   Because  the  coincidences  have  gen- 
erally been  shown  to  be  only  apparent,  and  have 
never  been  proved  to  be  real ;  ( 2 )  because  the  great 
difficulty  of  obtaining  one  kind  of  matter  entirely 
free  from  every  other  kind  of  matter  is  so  great 
that  where  coincident  lines  occur  in  the  spectra  of 
what  have  been   believed   to  be  elementary  sub- 
stances, they  have  been  shown  from  time  to  time 
to  be  caused  by  traces  of  foreign  matter,  such  as 
by    chemists    are    commonly    termed    impurities; 
(3)    no  instance  has  ever  been  recorded  of  any 
homologous  group  of  lines  belonging  to  one  ele- 
ment occurring  in  the  spectrum  of  another,  ex- 
cept and   alone   where   the   one   has   been   shown 
to  constitute  an  impurity  in  the  other;   as,  for 
instance,   where  the  triplet  of  zinc   is  found  in 
cadmium  and  the  triplet  of  cadmium  in  zinc  the 
three  strongest  lines  in  the  quintuple  group  of 
magnesium  is  graphite,  and   so  on.      The  latest 
elucidation  of  the  cause  of  coincidences   of  this 
kind  arises  out  of  a  tabulated  record   from   the 
wave-length   measurements   of  about  three  thou- 
sand lines  in  the  spectra  of  sixteen  elements  made 
by    Adeney    and    myself.       The    instances    where 
lines  appeared  to  coincide  were  extremely  rare; 
but  there  was  one  remarkable  case  of  a  group  of 
lines  in  the  spectrum  of  copper  which  appeared 
to  be  common  to  tellurium;  also  lines  in  indium, 
tin,  antimony  and  bismuth  which  seemed  id  have 
an  origin  in  common  with  those  of  tellurium." 

The  last  sentence  presents  the  point  I 
wish  to  emphasize.  Tellurium  has  long  ob- 
truded itself  before  a  satisfactory  vision 
of  the  natural  system.  The  table  alone 
recites  not  a  few  efforts  to  obtain  the  con- 
taminating constituent  of  tellurium  which 
a  priori  is  present  from  Hartley 's  observa- 
tions (see  also  Griinwald  1889  table).  The 
fractionation  of  a  rubidium-ccesium  mix- 
ture, perhaps,  is  a  simpler  problem  than 
that  confronting  Pellini,*  who  reports  a 
definite  amount  of  an  element  with  a  high 
atomic  weight  (about  214),  similar  to  and 
associated  with  tellurium. 

•  aaz.  Chim,  ital,  33,  11,  35. 


What  has  been  said  applies  esp 
to  the  elements  of  the  rare  earth 
—'asteroids  of  the  terrestrial  famil 
phrased  by  Crookes.  Many  of  then 
not  been  secured  with  sufficient  pui 
claim  an  inherent  spectrum;  furthe 
spectra  attributed  have  not  been  ob 
under  uniform  conditions. 

I    have    referred*    somewhat    in 
elsewhere  to  the  factors  )>roducing 
tions  in  the  absorption,  as  well  as  tl 
vantages  and  disadvantages  of  the 
phorescent  and  reversal,  spectra. 

Without  doubt  the  spectroscopic  c: 
are  the  most  valuable  we  have  in  ju 
finally  the  elements,  and  mayhap  w 
main  so,  but  in  my  humble  opinion 
have  not  alone  sufficient  authority,  8 
to  usher  the  aspirant  to  a  place  amoi 
elect.  The  contention  frames  itself, 
ever,  in  an  expression  of  the  need  fo 
formity. 

Whether  we  follow  the  most  adv 
metaphysico-chemical  teachings  or  i 
there  be  any  one  concept  upon  which 
ern  practical  chemical  thought  depec 
is  the  law  of  definiteness  of  compos 
There  may  be,  and  doubtless  are,  de 
perhaps  invariable,  properties  of  ou 
ments  other  than  their  combining  pr 
tions,  the  atomic  weights,  if  you  p 
yet,  as  far  as  we  know,  they  approx 
more  closely  than  any  fixed,  if  not  p< 
nent,  ratios.  Many  of  these  valuei 
which  we  lay  such  store,  are  depei 
upon  dataf  in  which,  I  venture  the  i 
tion,  too  great  confidence  has  beer 
stowed,  or  opinions  to  which  sufficier 
tention  has  not  been  given. 

Although   in   this   connection   we 
give  little  heed  to  the  suggested  varial 
of  the  relative  values,  it  may  be  rems 
that  Boutlerow,  noting  the  variation 

* '  The  Rare  Earth  Crusade,'  loc.  cit. 
t  Others  have  been  referred  to  in  the  addr 
which  this  is  a  sequel.     Loc.  cit. 


Januabt  15,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


97 


served  lii'  1880  by  Schiitzenberger,  who,  by 
the  use  of  diflferent  atomic  weights,  ob- 
talDed  analyses  summing  101  instead  of 
100,  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  chem- 
ical value  of  a  constant  weight,  or  rather 
mass  of  an  element,  may  vary;  that  the 
so-called  atomic  weight  of  an  element  may 
be  simply  the  carrier  of  a  certain  amount 
of  chemical  energy  which  is  variable 
within  narrow  limits.  (See  also  Crookes.) 
Wurtz  's  summary  of  Boutlerow  's  views,  at 
a  meeting  of  the  Chemical  Society  of  Paris, 
provoked  an  interesting  discussion.  Cocke 
later  published  a  statement  that  he  had  ex- 
pressed similar  views  more  than  twenty- 
five  years  before.  That  is,  in  1855,  he  had 
questioned  the  absolute  character  of  the 
law  of  definite  proportions  and  had  sug- 
gested that  the  variability  was  occasioned 
by  the  very  weak  afiinity  between  elements 
manifesting  a  fluctuating  composition. 
Without  doubt  *The  Possible  Significance 
of  Changing  Atomic  Volume,'*  in  which  a 
suggestion  as  to  the  probable  source  of  the 
heat  of  chemical  combination  is  put  for- 
ward by  T.  W.  Richards,  bears  directly 
upon  this  phase  of  the  problem. 

While  the  atomic  mass  values  depend  di- 
rectly upon  the  ratio  between  the  constit- 
uents of  the  compounds,  they  rest  equally 
upon  the  molecular  weights.  Many  of  the 
latter  attributed  to  salts  of  some  of  the 
rare  earths  depend  solely  upon  the  spe- 
cific! heat  determinations  of  Hillebrand 
and  Norton,!  Nilson  and  Pettersson,§  who, 
in  the  light  of  subsequent  investigations, 
we  know,  worked  with  complexes.  To  be 
sure,  those  elements  which  were  apparently 
exceptions  to  the  law  of  Dulong  and  Petit, 
possess  low  atomic  weights  (beryllium, 
boron,  carbon,  silicon,  aluminum  and  sul- 

*  Proc.  Am.  Acad.  Arts  and  Sciences,  27,  1,  1901, 
and  27,  399,  1902. 

fBerichte,  13,  14(51,  1880.. 

tPogg.  Annal.y  156  and  following. 

§  Berichte,  13,  140,  1880. 


'J  I 


;.)     ''I 


phur)  and  have  for  the  most  part  been 
brought  into  harmony.  **The  specific 
heats  of  all  substances  vary  with  the  tem- 
perature at  which  they  are  measured ;  and 
though  the  variation  is  often  slight,  it  is 
occasionally  of  relatively  great  dimensions. 
When  this  is  so  in  the  case  of  an  element, 
the  question  arises:  At  what  temperature 
must  the  measurement  of  the  specific  heat 
be  made  in  order  to  get  numbers  compar- 
able with  those  of  the  other  elements?  No 
definite  answer  has  been  given  to  this  ques- 
tion, but  it  is  found  that  as  the  tempera- 
ture rises,  the  specific  heat  seems  to  ap- 
proach a  limiting  value,  and  this  value  is 
not  in  general  far  removed  from  that 
which  would  make  the  atomic  heat  approx- 
imately equal  6.4. '  '*  In  view  of  this,  allo- 
tropism,  and  the  work  of  Richards  ad- 
verted to,  it  appears  that  a  revision  of  the 
specific  heat  values  now  taken  is  necessary 
before  we  can  accept  fully  this  law,  which 
has  been  most  helpful. 

Time  will  not  admit  of  detailed  state- 
ments, and  it  is  unnecessary  in  this  presence 
to  more  than  call  attention  to  the  fact  that 
what  has  been  said  is  not  applicable  to  each 
specific  case.  'La  critique  est  facile,  mais 
Vart  est  difficile/  as  Berthelotf  has  said, 
yet  we  must  appreciate  that  all  our  laws 
have  their  limitations.  "Man  being  ser- 
vant and  interpreter  of  nature,  can  do  and 
understand  so  much  and  so  much  only,  as 
he  has  observed  in  fact  or  in  thought  in  the 
course  of  nature.  Beyond  this  he  neither 
knows  anything  nor  can  do  anything."! 

A  glance  at  the  extensive,  even  censored, 
list  of  claimants  will  evoke  serious  thought. 
*'Thus  was  the  building  left  ridiculous.  "§ 
The  difiiculties  briefly  outlined  and  the 
causes  for  lack  in  uniformity  are  by  no 
means  insurmountable,  but  will  continue 

*  *  Introduction  to  Physical  Chemistry,'  James 
Walker,  London,  p.  33. 
t  *  Les  Origines  de  TAlchimie,*  Paris,  1885. 
J  Bacon's  *  Novum  Or^anum,'  Aphorism  I. 
§  Milton,  '  Tower  of  Babel.' 


98 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX. 


until  more  systematic  direction  and  prose- 
cution of  the  work  come  about.  Investiga- 
tors in  pure  chemistry  as  a  rule  hold  pro- 
fessorships, or  other  positions  making  equal 
demand  upon  their  time.  Furthermore,  it 
is  extremely  rare  that  one  man  can  become 
a  master  of  the  various  delicate  operations 
hinted  at.  Mallet*  made  a  proposition  for 
systematizing  atomic  weight  work  and  F. 
W.  Clarke  in  this  country  f  and  abroad  J 
has  urged  the  establishment  of  an  institute 
for  its  prosecution.  This  appeals  to  all  in- 
terested in  what  we  are  pleased  to  term  the 
exact  sciences,  and  doubtless  in  time  will 
come  about.  For  the  time  being,  however, 
it  is  not  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  a 
concerted  appeal  of  the  chemists  of  this 
country  to  the  direction  of  the  munificent 
endowment  recently  made  American  science 
for  funds  to  clarify  the  elemental  enigma 
presented  above  would  not  be  in  vain. 
There  are  splendidly  equipped  chemical  de- 
partments in  some  of  our  great  American 
universities  which  would  make  room  for, 
and  cordially  welcome,  I  am  sure,  a  selected 
corps  of  supported  researchers,  who  would 
test  the  claims  of  each  of  these  and  other 
elemental  aspirants.  Such  a  community  of 
effort  should  receive  even  greater  substan- 
tial assistance  from  governments  and  cor- 
porations than  has  been  accorded  individ- 
uals. I  need  only  refer  to  the  aid  given 
the  Curies  by  the  Austrian  government, 
and  generosity  shown  by  the  Welsbach 
Lighting  Company  in  this  country  to  sev- 
eral investigators,  especially  myself. 

It  must  be  evident  to  all  that  we  are  not 
indulging  in  special  pleading,  for  every 
phase  of  that  division  of  science  designated 
chemistry  rests  upon  what  we  choose  to 
term  the  elements. 


•  c^ 


Stas  memorial  lecture,  Chemical  Society  (Lon- 
don), delivered  December   13,   1892. 

t  Presidential  address  before  the  American 
Chemical   Society. 

t  Wilde  lecture  at  the  Dalton  Centenary,  Man- 
Chester,  1903. 


Victor  Meyer,*  referring  to  the 
tasies  of  science,  said;  **He,  howev4 
only  knows  chemistry  as  a  tradition 
fectly  clear  facts,  or  who  thinks  to 
real  soul  of  chemical  study  in  mei 
physical  phenomena  which  accc 
chemical  transformations,  feels  no 
of  this  enjoyment."  Reflecting  uj 
good  and  ill  that  have  come  to  us  t 
unrestrained  imagination,  we  may 
careful  acceptance  of  Newton's  *I 
beware  of  metaphysics'  for  as  ( 
wrote,  *  Doubtless  there  shall  by  am 
laws  as  far  transcending  those  we  h 
they  do  the  simplest  observations.' 

The  graphic  representation  of  1 
ments,  *the  foundation  stones  of  t 
terial  universe  which  amid  the  wi 
composite  matter  remained  unbrok 
unworn,'  as  Maxwell  gracefully  sj 
them,  has  often  been  mistaken  i 
periodic  law.  Carnelley's  'reasont 
plana tions'  of  the  periodic  law  wer 
a  respectful  hearing  and  forgotten. 

**  Granting  that  the  chemical  chj 
istics  of  an  element  are  connected  ' 
atomic  weight,  we  have,  however,  r 
to  assume  them  to  be  dependent  up 
fact  alone"  (Liveing).  Hinrict 
weight  and  form,  j  concerning  the  1; 
which  I  am  ignorant.  No  doubt  t 
dulum  lately  has  swung  back  towa 
zelian  thought  revivified  by  the  111 
ters,  van't  Iloff  and  Arrhenius. 

Le  Verier  predicted  the  planet  I 

*  Lecture  on  '  The  Chemical  Problems  o; 
before  the  Association  of  German  Natura 
Physicians  at  Heidelberg,  Septembei 
Chemical  \cir«,  61,  21. 

t  He  regarded  the  elements  as  comp 
carbon  and  ether  analogous  to  the  hyc 
radicals,  and  suggested  that  all  known  b 
made  up  of  three  primary  elements 
hydrogen  and  ether — truly  an  assumpti 
can  not  be  disproved.  Aberdeen  meeting 
Association. 

X  *  Atom  Mechanics,'  Hinrichs,  Vol.  I.,  I 
1894,  p.  242. 


January  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


99 


and  his  predictions  were  verified.  While 
ail  of  Mendele  Jeff's  predictions,  specific  and 
tacit,  have  not  been  verified,  some  have. 
Ramsay*  and  others,  without  a  i)eriodic 
goide,  predicted  certain  of  the  inert  gases^ 
which  predictions  have  been  verified. 

Victor  Meyer,  in  speaking  of  the  comple- 
tion of  the  Mendele jeff  table,  calls  attention 
to  the  summing  up  of  one  hundred  ele- 
ments, from  which  it  appears  that  258 
would  be  the  limit  to  our  atomic  mass 
equivalents.  I  am  not  prepared  positively 
to  contradict  such  a  conclusion  at  the  pres- 
ent time,  but  there  are  reasons  for  thinking 
otherwise. 

Clarke  t  has  shown  that  the  mean  density 
of  the  earth,  5.5  to  5.6,  is  more  than  double 
that  of  the  rocky  crust,  and  *the  difference 
may  be  accounted  for  as  a  result  of  pres- 
sure, or  by  supposing  that,  as  the  globe 
cooled,  the  heavier  elements  accumulated 
towards  the  center.'  While  it  is  quite  im- 
possible to  judge  of  the  order  of  this  intra- 
mundane  pressure,  I  am  not  aware  of  such 
marked  changes  being  brought  about  in  the 
specific  gravities  of  the  heavier  solid  ele- 
ments of  their  compounds,  either  by  pres- 
sure, allotropic  or  isomeric  changes,  except 
the  cerebral  argentaurum  of  the  late  S.  H. 
Emmens.  t  The  examinations  of  volcanic 
dusts  by  Hartley,  §  Fleet  i|  and  others  ap- 
pear to  contradict  the  latter  explanation, 
although  we  are  unable  to  state  the  depth, 
perhaps  within  the  shell  considered  by 
Clarke,  at  which  volcanoes  begin  their  bois- 
terous activity.     While  awaiting  a  fulfiU- 

*  Address  before  the  Chemical  Section,  British 
Associatiou,  Toronto  meeting   (1898). 

t  *  The  Relative  Abundance  of  the  Chemical  Ele- 
ments/ F.  W.  Clarke,  read  before  the  Philosoph- 
ical Society  of  Washington,  October  26,  1899; 
Chem.  Netcs,  62,  31. 

I  Argentaurum  papers  published  by  Emmens, 
New  York. 

5  Royal  Society,  February  21,  1901 ;  Chem, 
A-etr«,  83,  174. 

II  Abstr.  Proc.  Qeol.  fifoc,  1902,  117;  Journ. 
Chem.  8oc.  (Land),  81-82,  ii.,  518,  1902. 


ment  of  Martinez 'sh^  project  to  explore  the 
earth's  center,  we  may  oflfer  a  third  solu- 
tion, not  whoUy  unscientific,  as  it  can  do  no 
harm,  and  has  nought  to  do  with  any  yellow 
peril  in  science,  namely,  the  existence  of 
elements  with  atomic  weights  higher  than 
those  set  by  the  silent  limit  of  periodic 
tables. 

*  *  Most  molecules  —  probably  all  —  are 
wrecked  by  intense  heat,  or,  in  other  words, 
by  intense  vibratory  motion,  and  many  are 
wrecked  by  a  very  impure  heat  of  the 
proper  quality.  Indeed,  a  weak  force, 
which  bears  a  considerable  relation  to  the 
construction  of  the  molecule,  can  by  timely 
savings  and  accumulation  accomplish  what 
a  strong  force  out  of  relation  fails  to 
achieve. '  't 

As  hinted  at  in  the  earlier  portion  of 
this  unduly  prolonged  address,  many 
have  theorized  as  to  the  ultimate  composi- 
tion of  matter.  The  logic  of  Larmor'sJ 
theory,  involving  the  idea  of  an  ionic  sub- 
stratum of  matter,  the  support  of  J.  J. 
Thomson 's§  experiments,  the  confirmation 
of  Zeeman's  phenomenon,  the  emanations 
of  Rutherford,  Martin 's||  explanations,  can 
not  fail  to  cause  credence  in  the  correctness 
of  Crookes's  idea  of  a  fourth  state  of 
matter.^  In  the  inaugural  address  as 
president  of  the  British  Association  (1898) , 
he  acknowledges  in  the  mechanical  con- 
struction of  the  Roentgen  ray  tubes  a  sug- 
gestion by  Silvanus  Thompson  to  use  for 
the  anticathode  a  metal  of  high  atomic 
weight.  Osmium  and  iridium  were  used, 
thorium '  tried,  and  in  1896  Crookes  ob- 
tained better  results  with  metallic  uranium 
than  platinum. 

These  and  the  facts  that  most  of  the  ele- 
ments with  high  atomic  weights,  in  fact 

» *  La  Nature,*  8c.  Am.  8up.,  21,  546,  1886. 

f  Tyndall  in  Longman's  Magazine. 

%  Phil.  Mag.,  December,  1897,  506. 

8  Phil.  Mag.,  October,  1897,  312. 

II  Chem.  News,  86,  205,  1902, 

1[  Phil.  Trans.,  II.,  1881,  433. 


100 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   N< 


all  above  200  .(tl^Uium  iiot  reported  on),f>. 
exhibit  radio-active  properties,  are  doubt- 
less closely  associated  and  have  to  do  with 
the  eventual  composition  of  matter.  I 
have  unverified  observations  which  go  to 
show  the  existence  of  at  least  one  element 
with  a  very  high  atomic  weight  If  it  be 
confirmed,  then  we  have  them  now  or  they 
are  making,  and  probably  breaking  up,  as 
shown  by  that  marvelous  class  of  elements 
in  the  discovery  of  which  the  Curies  have 
been  pioneers. 

If  our  ideas  that  all  known  elements 
come  from  some  primordial  material  be 
true,  then  it  stands  to  reason  that  we  are 
coming  in  time,  perhaps,  to  that  fixed 
thing,  a  frozen  ether,  the  fifth  state  of  mat- 
ter. I  may  make  use  of  dangerous  analogy 
and  liken  our  known  elements,  arranged  in 
a  perfected  natural  system,  to  the  visible 
material  spectrum,  while  electrons,  etc., 
constitute  the  ultra-violet  and  cosmyle 
composes  the  infra-red,  either  one  of  the 
latter  by  proper  conditions  being  convert- 
ible into  perceptible  elemental  matter.  No 
positive  evidence  supports  these  ideas,  but 
I  like  to  fancy  scientific  endeavor  as  the 
sea— calm  and  serene,  supporting  and  mir- 
roring that  which  is  below  it,  bearing  that 
which  is  upon  it,  reaching  to  and  reflecting 
that  which  is  above  it,  moving  all  the 
while;  yet,  torn  and  rent  at  times  by  con- 
flict from  without  and  contest  within,  it 
runs;  it  beats  against  the  shores  of  the 
unknown,  making  rapid  progress  here, 
meeting  stubborn  resistance  there,  com- 
passing it,  to  destroy  but  to  rebuild  else- 
where; and  the  existence  of  those  within 
it!  'Like  that  of  Paul,  our  life  should  be 
a  consecrated  unrest.' 

Charles  BASKEEVHiLE. 

*  See  the  exquisite  paper  by  Madame  Curie  on 
*  Radioactive  Substances,'  also  *  Radio-active  Lead/ 
Hofmann  and  Strauss,  Berichte,  34,  3033,  Pellini 
( loc.  cit. )  on  *  Radio-active  Tellurium ' ;  Strutt, 
Phil.  Mag.,  6,  113,  Elster  and  Geitel,  Giesel, 
Marckwald,  etc.,  etc. 


MEETINGS   OF   AFFILIATED .  fiOIJ^^T. 
SOCIETIES  AT   PHILADELPHIA. 

The  Association  of  American  A: 
mists,  the  Society  of  American  Bactei 
gists,  the  Society  for  Plant  Morphologji 
Physiology,  the  American  Physiolo 
Society,  the  American  Society  of  Z 
gists  (Eastern  Branch),  the  Americai 
ciety  of  Vertebrate  Paleontologists,  nn 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  December  28-31,  ] 
All  of  these  societies  except  the  last,  "w 
was  organized  only  one  year  ago, 
heretofore  been  affiliated  with  the  A 
ican  Society  of  Naturalists,  and,  with 
exception  of  the  annual  discussion 
dinner  which  the  Society  of  Nature 
holds,  the  meetings  this  year  were  wl 
similar  to  those  which  have  been  helc 
these  societi^  during  the  past  ten  or  t^ 
years. 

On  Monday  evening  there  were  infoi 
meetings  of  the  members  of  the  varioui 
cieties.  The  Society  for  Plant  Morpho 
and  Physiology  was  given  a  receptioi 
Biological  Hall,  University  of  Pern 
vania;  the  American  Physiological  Soc 
held  a  smoker  at  the  Hotel  Walton,  ^ 
the  other  societies  held  smokers  at 
'Rathskellar.' 

Tuesday  morning  and  afternoon,  sess 
of  all  the  societies  were  held  at  the  Uni 
sity  of  Pennsylvania,  and  all  the  socie 
except  the  physiologists  held  morning 
afternoon  sessions  there  on  Wednesday  j 
The  Physiological  Society  met  on  Wed 
day  at  Jefferson  Medical  College.  Lui 
eon  was  served  by  the  University  of  Pe 
sylvania  to  all  the  societies  on  Tuesday 
to  all  except  the  physiologists  on  Wed 
day;  on  this  day  the  latter  society  was 
tertained  at  luncheon  at  the  Philadelp 
Club. 

Tuesday  evening  all  the  societies  t« 
the  guests  of  the  local  committee  al 
smoker  at  the  University  Club. 

Wednesday  evening  a  lecture  was  gi 


JaihjaBt  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


101 


befoi^^tte'mBiAbeihi&  'o?E  th6  various  societies 
at  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  by 
Professor  W.  B.  Scott,  on  *The  Miocene 
Fauna  of  Patagonia  and  the  Problem  of 
the  Southern  Hemisphere.'  After,  the 
lecture  a  brilliant  and  most  enjoyable  re- 
ception was  given  to  the  members  of  the 
societies  by  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Horace  Jayne. 

About  two  hundred  members  of  the  vari- 
ous societies  attended  the  meetings,  and  the 
papers  presented  were  numerous  and,  in 
some  of  the  societies  at  least,  more  than 
usually  interesting. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for 
the  ensuing  year: 

Association  of  American  Anatomists:  President, 
Professor  Charles  S.  Minot,  of  Harvard  Univer- 
sity; First  Vice-President,  Professor  George  A. 
Piersol,  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania;  Sec- 
ond Vice-President,  Professor  J.  M.  Flint,  of  the 
University  of  California ;  Secretary  and  Treasurer, 
Dr.  G.  Carl  Huber,  of  the  University  of  Michigan ; 
Executive  Committee,  Dr.  Franklin  P.  Mall,  Dr. 
George  S.  Huntington. 

Society  of  American  Bacteriologists:  President, 
Dr.  F.  G.  Novy,  of  the  University  of  Michigan; 
Vice-President,  Dr.  E.  O.  Jordan,  of  the  University 
of  Chicago;  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  Dr.  F.  P. 
Gorham,  of  Brown  University.  Dr.  William  H. 
Welch  was  elected  a  delegate  to  the  Council  of 
the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science. 

Society  for  Plant  Morphology  and  Physiology: 
President,  Dr.  G.  T.  Moore;  Vice-President,  Pro- 
fessor Clara  E.  Cummings;  Secretary  and  Treas- 
urer, Professor  W.  F.  Ganong. 

American  Physiological  Society:  President, 
Professor  Kussell  H.  Chittenden,  of  Yale  Univer- 
sity; Secretary  and  Treasurer,  Professor  Frederic 
S.  Lee,  of  Columbia  University;  Members  of 
Council,  Professor  William  H.  Howell,  of  Johns 
Hopkins  University;  Professor  Warren  P.  Lom- 
bard, of  the  University  of  Michigan;  Professor 
William  T.  Porter,  of  Harvard  University;  Pro- 
fessor Frederic  S.  Lee,  of  Columbia  University. 

American  Society  of  Zoologists,  Eastern  Branch: 
President,  Professor  E.  A.  Andrews,  of  Johns  Hop- 
kins University;  Vice-President,  Professor  W.  E. 
Castle,  of  Harvard  University;  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  G.  A.  Drew,  of  the  University  of  Maine ; 
Executive  Committee,  Professor  H.  S.  Jennings,  of 
the   University    of    Pennsylvania;    T.    H.    Mont- 


gomery, jy.f'of  the  •University  of  Texas;  !S.  C. 
Bumpus,  of  the  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History. 

American  Society  of  Vertebrate  Paleontologists: 
President,  Professor  Henry  F.  Osbom,  of  Columbia 
University  and  the  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History;  Secretary,  Dr.  O.  P.  Hay,  American  Mu- 
seum of  Natural  History;  Eaecutive  Council,  Pro- 
fessor Bashford  Dean,  of  Columbia  University; 
Professor  Loomis,  of  Amherst  College;  Dr.  C.  R. 
Eastman,  of  Harvard  University. 


AMERICAN   MATHEMATICAL   SOCIETY. 

Three  meetings  of  the  American  Mathe- 
matical Society  were  held  during  the 
Christmas  holidays.  On  December  19  the 
San  Francisco  Section  met  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  California;  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  society  was  held  at  Columbia  Univer- 
'sity,  December  28-29;  and  the  winter 
meeting  of  the  Chicago  Section  was  held  at 
St.  Louis,  in  connection  with  that  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science  December  31  to  January  1. 

Reports  of  the  sectional  meetings  will 
appear  in  a  later  number  of  Science.  At 
the  annual  meeting  in  New  York  oflScers 
for  the  society  for  1904  and  members  of 
the  council  to  serve  for  three  years  were 
elected  as  follows : 

Vice-Presidents — Oskar  Bolza  and  J.  M.  Van 
Vleck. 

Secretary — F.  N.  Cole. 

Treasurer — W.  S.  Dennett. 

Librarian — ^D.  E.  Smith. 

Committee  of  Publication, — F.  N.  Cole,  Alex- 
ander Ziwet,  D.  E.  Smith. 

Members  of  the  Council — ^Maxime  BOcher, 
Florian  Cajori,  M.  B.  Porter,  J.  H.  Tanner. 

The  president  of  the  society,  Thomas  S. 
Fiske,  continues  in  office,  the  presidential 
term  being  two  years. 

The  following  persons  were  elected  to 
membership  in  the  society:  R.  F.  Deimel, 
Columbia  University;  C.  S.  Forbes,  Co- 
lumbia University;  0.  T.  Geckeler,  Geor- 
gia School  of  Technology;  E.  A.  Hook, 
Columbia  University;  L.  A.  Martin,  Jr., 


102 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX. 


Stevens  Institute  of  Technology ;  Miss  Vir- 
ginia Ragsdale,  New  York  City;  S.  E. 
Rasor,  Ohio  State  University;  A.  E. 
Young,  Purdue  University;  J.  E.  Wright, 
Bryn  Mawr  College.  Six  applications  for 
membership  were  received. 

Annual  reports  were  received  from  the 
treasurer,  librarian  and  secretary.  The 
society  continues  to  hold  its  own  finan- 
cially. It  could  accomplish  more  if  larger 
funds  were  at  its  disposal.  The  library 
has  increased  to  over  1,300  volumes,  and 
now  receives  by  exchange  with  the  Bulletin 
and  Transactions  the  current  volumes  of 
nearly  every  mathematical  journal  in  the 
world.  The  membership  of  the  society  is 
now  455,  a  gain  of  54  during  the  past 
year.  The  *  Annual  Register'  will  be  is- 
sued about  the  middle  of  January. 

Committees  were  appointed  to  arrange 
for  the  publication  of  the  course  of  lec- 
tures delivered  at  the  Boston  colloquium, 
September,  1903,  and  to  consider  the  ques- 
tion of  the  future  financial  support  of  the 
Transactions,  Avhich  has  hitherto  been  pub- 
lished by  the  aid  of  subventions  termina- 
ting in  1904. 

The  following  papers  were  read  at  the 
annual  meeting: 

E,  V.  Huntington  :  *  A  set  of  independent  postu- 
lates for  the  algebra  of  logic  (second  paper).* 

J.  G.  Hrx:  'On  certain  invariants  of  two  tri- 
angles.' 

O.  D.  Kellogg:  '  Note  on  Cauchy's  integral.* 

J.  I.  Hl'tchixson:  *  On  certain  automorphic 
functions.* 

W.  F.  Osgood:  *  On  a  gap  in  the  usual  presenta- 
tion of  \Vcierstrass*s  theory  of  functions.* 

E.  V.  Huntington  :  *  Third  complete  set  of 
postulates  for  the  theory  of  positive  integers.' 

E.  V.  Huntington:  'Second  complete  set  of 
postulates  for  the  theory  of  magnitudes  or  positive 
real  quantities.* 

W.  B.  FiTE :  *  On  some  properties  of  groups 
whose  orders  are  powers  of  a  prime.* 

E.  J.  WiLCZYNSKi :  *  On  ruled  surfaces  whose 
flecnode  curve  intersects  every  generator  in  two 
coincident  points.' 


ViBGiL  Snyder  :  *  Complete  enumeral 
sextic  scrolls  having  a  rectilinear  directrix 

F.  MOBLEY:  *0n  the  triplicity  of  3-poiz 
plane.' 

C.  L.  E.  Moore:  'Classification  of  sun 
singularities  in  the  quadratic  spherical  c( 

\j.  D.  Ames:  'On  the  theorem  of  analye 
relating  to  the  division  of  the  plane  or  c 
by  a  closed  curve  or  surface.' 

W.  B.  Ford:  *  On  the  function  define 
Maclaurin  series.' 

P.  F. -Smith:  'Linear  transformation 
quadratic  form  into  itself.' 

E.  B.  Wilson:  'Projective  and  metrica 
etry.' 

C.  H.  SiSAM :  '  On  the  depiction  of  the 
a  special  linear  complex  on  the  points  of  s] 

Edward  Kasneb  :  '  Investigations  on  isol 
systems.' 

About  fifty  persons  attended  the 
ing.     On    Monday    evening    an    ini 
dinner  contributed  to  the  pleasures 
occasion. 

The  next  meeting  of  the  society  i; 
held  at  Columbia  University  on  Fel 
27.  The  Chicago  Section  will  meet 
in  April  and  the  San  Francisco  Sect 
May.  F.  N.  CoLi 

Secret 


BCIENTIFW  BOOKB, 

The  General  Principles  of  Physical  S 
By  Arthur  A.  Notes.  New  York, 
Holt  &  Co.     1902.    Pp.  vii  +  172. 
This    is    the   first   volume    of    a   wo 
which   the    author    is    engaged,    entitle 
*  General  Principles  of  Chemistry.'    Th 
ent  volume  is  introductory  and  has  i 
purpose  the  setting  forth  of  the  laws  an 
eral  principles  of  physics  and  chemist 
far-  at  least  as  these  underlie  the  broad  e 
which  the  author  has  undertaken. 

The  present  treatment  is  altogether 
matic  and  not  historical,  and  is  intend 
readers  and  students  who  are  making  \ 
study  of  what  is  now  generally  kno 
physical  chemistry. 

The  book  contains  four  chapters:  L, 
Object,  the  Methods,  and  the  Sub-dii 
of    Science ' ;     II.,    '  The    Fundamental 


Jai«uart  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


103 


cepts  of  Physical  Science ' ;  III.,  '  The  Gen- 
eral Principles  Relating  to  Matter/  and  IV., 
*  The  General  Principles  Relating  to  Energy.' 
To  these  are  added  a  good  general  index. 

The  basal  importance  of  the  subjects  with 
which  these  chapters  have  to  do  is  well  estab- 
lished and  the  author  has  achieved  a  signal 
success  in  the  clear  and  comprehensive  man- 
ner in  which  he  has  presented  them  to  the 
reader. 

For  this  is  no  rehash  of  what  has  been  al- 
ready well  said  by  various  authors  on  these 
subjects,  but  is  clearly  the  result  of  a  close 
personal  inquiry  into  the  underlying  con- 
cepts of  modem  science.  The  reader  is  thus 
not  infrequently  asked  to  set  aside  the  tradi- 
tional form  in  which  some  concept  has  been 
hitherto  expressed.  The  author's  independence 
of  thinking  is  well  illustrated  in  his  treat- 
ment of  compounds  and  mixtures,  kinetic  and 
gravitational  energy  and  the  second  law  of 
thermodynamics. 

Sometimes,  however,  an  impression  is  left 
on  the  reader  that  the  author's  restatements  of 
old  laws  are  a  little  hasty  and  so  lack  the  ab- 
solute singleness  of  idea  or  exact  precision 
which  should  characterize  any  general  state- 
ment in  physical  science. 

Thus  on  page  117  we  find  Faraday's  laws  of 
electrolysis  expressed  as  follows:  'The  pets- 
sage  of  electricity  through  an  electrolyte  is  at- 
tended at  each  electrode  hy  a  chemical  change 
involving  a  number  of  chemical  equivalents 
strictly  proportional  to  the  quantity  of  elec- 
tricity parsed  through,  and  dependent  on  that 
alone/  This  is  hardly  free  from  possible  mis- 
imderstanding.  A  clearer  statement  of  the 
facts,  following  the  suggestion  of  the  author, 
would  be  the  following:  The  passage  of  elec- 
tricity through  any  electrolyte  is  attended  by 
chemical  changes  which  involve  the  same  num- 
ber of  chemical  equivalents  at  each  electrode, 
and  which  are  directly  proportional  to  the 
quantity  of  electricity  passed  through  and 
dependent  on  that  alone. 

Similarly  on  page  37  the  statement  of  the 
law  of  multiple  proportion  would  be  clearer 
if  the  words  the  same  were  replaced  by  the 
words  a  given,  so  that  the  law  would  read: 
*When  one  element  combines  with  another  in 


several  proportions  to  form  different  chemical 
compounds,  the  quantities  of  the  one  element 
which  in  the  several  compounds  are  combined 
with  a  given  quantity  of  the  other  element, 
stand  to  one  another  in  the  ratio  of  small 
whole  numbers.' 

The  chapter  on  energy  is  especially  valu- 
able. Throughout,  the  concept  of  energy  is 
regarded  as  fundamental  and  the  concept  of 
force  is  made  secondary.  The  treatment  of 
the  various  forms  of  energy  is  such  as  to 
bring  into  prominence  the  factors  of  a  par- 
ticular form  of  energy — ^namely  the  intensity 
and  quantity  factors. 

The  first  and  second  laws  of  thermodynam- 
ics or  energetics,  as  our  physical  chemistry 
friends  are  pleased  to  call  them,  are  presented 
and  discussed  with  great  distinctness. 

Credit  also  should  be  given  the  author  for 
his  consistent  use  throughout  the  book  of  a 
particular  and  distinct  symbol  or  letter  to 
denote  a  particular  and  distinct  physical  quan- 
tity. This  saves  the  beginner  many  pains. 
Beginners  will  owe  him  also  much  gratitude 
because  he  has  made  such  free  use  of  numer- 
ical examples  to  illustrate  the  applications  of 
the  various  principles. 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  say  that  the  present  in- 
troductory volume  is  a  positive  addition  to 
the  literature  of  physical  science  and  the 
students  of  physical  chemistry,  especially  in 
America,  will  await  with  eagerness  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  volumes  which  are  to  follow. 

E.  H.  LooMis. 
Princeton  University, 
December,   1903. 


SCIENTIFIC    JOURNALS    AND    ARTICLES. 

The  December  number  of  the  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Mathematical  Society  contains: 
Report  of  the  Boston  Colloquium  of  the  Amer- 
ican Mathematical  Society,  by  F.   N.   Cole; 

*  Linear  systems  of  curves  upon  algebraic  sur- 
faces,' by  H.  S.  White;  'An  expression  of 
certain  known  functions  as  generalized  hyper- 
geometric    functions,'    by    E.    T.    Whittaker; 

*  On  the  factoring  of  large  numbers,'  by  F.  N. 
Cole ;  *  Note  on  the  p-discriminant  of  ordinary 
linear  differential  equations,'  by  Arnold  Emch ; 

*  Hydrodynamic  action  at  a  distance,'  by  E.  B. 


104 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No 


Wlkon;  Shorter  Notices  of  BraunmiiKVa  'His- 
tory of  Trigonometry'  and  of  the  recent  re- 
print of  Camot's  'Treatise  on  heat  engines' 
(1824);   Notes;   New  Publications. 

The  January  number  of  the  Bulletin  con- 
tains: Keport  of  the  October  meeting  of  the 
American  Mathematical  Society,  by  F.  N. 
Cole ;  *  Two  systems  of  subfi^^oups  of  the 
quaternary  abelian  group  in  the  general  Galois 
field/  by  L.  E.  Dickson ;  '  The  determination 
of  the  constants  in  the  problem  of  the  brachis- 
tochrone,'  by  Oskar  Bolza ;  *  On  three  types 
of  surfaces  of  the  third  order  regarded  as 
double  surfaces  of  translation/  by  A.  S.  Oale; 
'  On  the  generation  of  finite  from  infinitesimal 
transformations — a  correction/  by  H.  B.  New- 
son  ;  Keview  of  Study's  Geometry  of  dynames, 
by  Virgil  Snyder;  Review  of  Weber  and  Well- 
stein's  Encyklopadie  der  Elementar-Mathe- 
matik,  by  D.  E.  Smith ;  Shorter  Notices  of  the 
mathematical  papers  of  the  late  George  Green, 
Agnes  M.  Gierke's  problems  in  Astrophysics, 
Miiller  and  Presler's  Constructive  geometry, 
and  Schilling's  Catalogue  of  mathematical 
models;  Notes;  New  Publications. 


SOCIETIES   AND   ACADEMIES. 

THE  SOCIETY   FOR  EXPERIMENTAL  BIOLOOT   AND 

MEDICINE. 

The  fourth  regular  meeting  of  the  Society 
for  Experimental  Biology  and  Medicine  was 
held  in  the  demonstration  room  of  the  depart- 
ment of  physiology  of  Columbia  University, 
at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  on 
Wednesday  evening,  December  16.  Dr.  S.  J. 
Meltzer  presided. 

Reports  of  original  investigations  were  of- 
fered as  follows: 

The  Changes  in  the  Viscosity  of  the  Blood 
Produced  by  Various  Experimental  Pro- 
cedures, with  Demonstrations  :*  R.  Burton- 
Opitz. 

Dr.  Burton-Opitz  described  and  demon- 
strated the  apparatus  used  in  determining  the 
viscosity  of  the  blood.  This  demonstration 
was  followed  by  a  discussion  of  the  changes  in 

*  The  abstracts  here  given  have  been  prepared 
by  the  authors  themselves.  The  secretary  has 
made  only  a  few  abbreviations  and  minor  changes. 


the  molecular  friction  of  the  blood  ttiMt.  h 
venous  injections  of  distilled  water,  sa 
dextrose  and  alcoholic  solutions.  The  e 
of  alcohol,  when  introduced  into  the  ston 
and  small  intestine,  was  also  noted.  Next ' 
considered  the  changes  following  subcutan< 
administration  of  curare  and  the  differe: 
in  the  viscosity  of  arterial  and  venous  b] 
K,  the  coefficient  expressing  the  viscosity 
determined  before  and  after  each  experime 
procedure,  two  or  three  determinations  h 
made  in  each  case. 

It  was  found  that,  if  distilled  water^ 
quantities  of  from  5  to  50  c.c.,'is  slowly 
lowed  to  flow  into  the  facial  vein,  the  visco 
of  the  blood  is  increased,  but  the  increas 
not  considerable.  The  following  experin 
may  serve  as  a  sample.  The  normal  coeffic 
K,  in  a  dog  weighing  19.2  kilos,  was  802.6 
5.8  times  greater  than  K  for  distilled  wate 
37®  C.  After  the  injection  of  10  c.c.  disti 
water  the  coefficient  showed  the  value  786.C 
6.0  times  greater  than  distilled  water 
37°  C.  Normal  saline  solutions  produce 
reverse  effect,  i.  e.,  the  blood  becomes  less 
cous.  In  one  case  after  injecting  10  c.c, 
0.7  per  cent.  NaCl  solution,  the  viscosity 
the  blood  fell  from  5.9  to  5.6  times  thai 
distilled  water  at  37°  C.  Concentrated  S( 
tions  of  dextrose  (5  c.c.)  injected  into  the  fa 
vein  bring  about  an  increase  in  the  visco 
of  the  blood  which  is  more  pronounced  i 
that  produced  by  distilled  water.  About  1 
an  hour  after  the  injection  the  coefficieni 
shows  again  its  normal  value. 

If  from  3  to  5  c.c.  of  10  or  25  per  cent.  s< 
tions  of  alcohol  in  water  are  allowed  to  i 
into  the  facial  vein,  the  molecular  friction 
the  blood  becomes  greater.  The  same  rei 
can  be  obtained  by  introducing  the  alec 
directly  into  the  stomach  or  duodenum, 
c.c.  of  a  25  per  cent,  solution  were  injec 
into  the  stomach.  The  viscosity  determi 
twenty  minutes  later  showed  the  value  608 
as  against  664.17,  the  normal  coefficient.  Tl 
instead  of  being  only  7.0  times  greater  t] 
that  of  distilled  water  at  37°  C,  it  chan 
after  the  injection  to  7.7  times  greater, 
equally  decisive  change  occurred  after  inji 
ing  40  c.c.  of  a  25  per  cent,  solution  into 


JAI7UABT    15,    1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


105 


duodenum.  A  marked  increase  in  viscosity 
aiso  ioYltfws  subcutaneous  administration  of 
curare;  however,  this  result  is  not  evident 
until  the  respiratory  muscles  become  paralyzed. 

Venous  blood  is  slightly  more  viscous  than 
arterial,  but  the  difference  is  often  very  insig- 
nificant. 

In  all  these  determinations  a  direct  parallel- 
ism exists  between  the  viscosity  values  and  the 
specific  gravity.  When  the  viscosity  increases 
the  specific  gravity  increases  also,  and  vice 
versa.  Not  a  single  exception  to  this  rule 
could  be  found. 

The  viscosity  was  also  determined  in  a  dog 
having  very  large  thyroid  bodies.  The  right 
gland  weighed  57,  the  left  52  g^irams.  The 
viscosity  coefficient,  obtained  by  eight  deter- 
minations, showed  the  value  1,233.17  (specific 
gravity  1,05028),  which  means  that  the  blood 
of  this  animal  was  only  3.8  times  more  viscous 
than  distilled  water  at  37°  C.  The  lowest 
previous  value  obtained  by  Dr.  Burton-Opitz 
occurred  in  a  dog  after  three  days  of  hunger. 
K  equaled  in  this  case  1,110.3  (4.2  times  more 
viscous). 

In  general  it  may  be  said  that  the  less  the 
viscosity  the  longer  the  period  required  for 
extra-vascular  coagulation.  This  was  espe- 
cially well  shown  in  the  case  just  mentioned. 
Clotting  set  in  after  about  fifteen  minutes. 

Survival  of  an  Animal  after  Removal  of  both 
Suprarenal    Capsules,    due    to    a   Previous 
Grafting  of  the  Organ  into  the  Kidney:  S. 
J.  Meltzer  (for  F.  C.  Busch  and  Charles 
van  Bergen,  of  the  Department  of  Physiol- 
ogy at  the  University  of  Buffalo). 
Dr.  Meltzer  stated  that  in  several  instances 
survival  of  a  part  of  suprarenal  grafts  was 
obtained  after  transplantation  into  the  kidney 
of  the  same  animal. 

In  one  experiment  the  animal  (a  rabbit) 
survived,  after  apparently  all  other  suprarenal 
tissue,  aside  from  that  which  was  grafted  into 
the  kidney,  had  been  removed.  In  this  case, 
after  total  removal  of  the  left  suprarenal  a 
part  of  the  gland,  including  medulla  and  cor- 
tex, was  introduced  through  an  incision  into 
the  cortex  of  the  left  kidney.  Eighty-six  days 
later  the  remaining  right  suprarenal  was  re- 
moved in  toto.     The  animal  survived  the  op- 


eration and  was  apparently  nopnal  for  twenty- 
one  days,  at  the  end  of  which  time  it  was  killed 
in  order  to  examine  the  gn^aft.  This  was 
found,  upon  histologic  examination,  to  have 
been  in  part  replaced  by  connective  tissue. 
The  surviving  cells  apparently  belong  to  the 
medullary  portion  of  the  suprarenal.  The 
cortex  had  been  replaced  by  connective  tissue. 
Blood  supply  was  good. 

Slides  showing  the  successful  grafts  were 
exhibited  under  the  microscox)e.  In  this  con- 
nection, also.  Dr.  Meltzer  showed,  under  the 
microscope,  a  section  of  Zuckerkandel's  organ, 
the  chromophilic  bodies  of  which  are  similar 
in  nature  to  the  chromophilic  granules  of  the 
medullary  portion  of  the  suprarenal  capsule. 

On  the  Absence  of  a  Cane  Sugar  Inverting 
Enzyme  in  the  Stomach:  Graham  Lusk. 
It  was  shown  by  Professor  Lusk  that  free 
hydrochloric  acid  and  not  an  enzyme  caused 
the  inversion  of  cane  sugar  in  the  stomach. 

A  new  Head  Holder  for  Rabbits,  with  Demon- 
stration: Frederic  S.  Lee. 

The  following  reviews  were  made: 

The  Action  of  Potassium  Cyanide  upon  the 

Unfertilized  Egg:  Holmes  C.  Jacksoit. 

Loeb  and  Lewis  were  the  first  to  note  the 
fact  that  unfertilized  eggs  (of  the  sea  urchin), 
when  placed  in  n/1,000  KCN  solution,  retain 
their  capability  of  fertilization  much  longer 
than  when  suspended  in  normal  sea  water. 
This  was  ascribed  to  the  action  of  the  KCN 
in  inhibiting  intracellular  autolytic  processes 
which  lead  normally  to  maturation  and  finally 
death.  The  bactericidal  action  of  KCN  was 
excluded,  as  the  result  of  experiments  in 
which  eggs  apparently  died  as  rapidly  in 
sterile  as  in  putrid  sea  water. 

Gorham  and  Tower's  experiments  in  the 
same  connection  indicated,  on  the  other  hand, 
that  the  effect  of  KCN  was  entirely  bacteri- 
cidal. The  sterile  eggs  retained  their  capacity 
for  fertilization  longer  under  absolutely  sterile 
conditions  than  when  placed'  in  n/1,000  KCN. 

As  the  question  now  stands  there  exist  two 
almost  identical  series  of  sterilization  ex- 
periments by  two  pairs  of  investigators,  with 
results  diametrically  opposed  to  each  other. 
Critically  considered,  the  more  carefully  con- 


106 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  472. 


ducted  experiments  seem  to  be  those  by  Gor- 
ham  and  Tower;  and  in  the  lack  of  further 
evidence  in  favor  of  an  intracellular  action  of 
KCN  in  this  connection,  we  must  conclude 
that  the  destruction  of  the  bacteria  by  the 
KCN  removes  the  condition  which  causes  the 
death  of  the  cell,  and  in  the  absence  of  which 
the  eggs  retain  their  potential  power  for 
growth  after  fertilization. 

Results  of  Recent  Investigations  in  Proteid 

Chemistry:  P.  A.  Levene. 

Recent  work  on  the  chemistry  of  the  pro- 
teid molecule  has  furnished  explanation  of 
many  biological  phenomena.  Thus,  in  cer- 
tain pathological  conditions  there  appears  in 
the  urine  a  sulphur  and  nitrogen-containing 
substance,  cystin.  The  source  of  the  substance 
in  the  organism  had  been  unknown,  until 
through  the  efforts  of  Momer  and  Embden 
and  others,  its  radical  was  demonstrated  to  be 
a  normal  constituent  of  the  proteid  molecule. 

The  chromatin  of  a  developed  cell  differs 
from  that  of  an  unfertilized  egg  by  the  pres- 
ence in  it  of  radicals  of  purin  bases.  It  is 
probable  that  these  bases  are  derived  from  the 
histidin  radical,  which  is  also  a  normal  con- 
stituent of  proteids. 

Hemoglobin  is  known  to  be  absent  from 
the  unfertilized  egg  and  it  appears  only  in 
course  of  development  of  the  embryo.  It 
was  shown  recently  that  the  non-proteid  part 
of  hemoglobin  is  a  pyrrol  derivative  and  it  is 
probable  that  a  pyrrol  radical  is  present  in 
the  proteid  molecule.  Chlorophyl  is  also  a 
pyrrol  derivative,  a  fact  further  establishing 
its  close  relationship  to  hemoglobin. 

The  work  of  £mil  Fischer  points  to  the 
way  in  which  the  various  component  radicals 
may  combine  in  order  to  form  the  proteid 
molecule,  and  makes  probable  the  eventual 
synthesis  of  true  proteid  material. 

New  Members. — The  gentlemen  named  be- 
low were  elected  to  membership :  A.  C.  Abbott, 
Isaac  Adler,  B.  H.  Buxton,  J.  McK.  Cattell, 
H.  L.  Gushing,  E.  K.  Dunham,  Simon  Flex- 
ner,  Reid  Hunt,  Hugo  Miinsterberg,  J.  A. 
Murlin,  Horst  Oertel,  E.  L.  Opie,  Theobald 
Smith,  A.  B.  Wadsworth,  R.  S.  Woodworth, 
Naohid6  Yatsn.  Wiluam  J.  Gies, 

Secretary. 


THE  NEW  YORK  ACADEMY  OF  SaENCES.       SECTION 
OP  ANTHROPOLOGY    AND   PSYCHOLOGY. 

The  section  met  on  November  23,  in  con- 
junction with  the  American  Ethnological  So- 
ciety. A  paper  was  read  by  Dr.  Clark  Wissler, 
^  Recent  Researches  on  the  Decorative  Art  of 
the  Plains  Indians.' 

It  was  demonstrated  by  specimens  and  ex- 
planations that  among  the  Indians  of  the 
plains  may  be  found  a  tyi>e  of  graphic  art 
that  is  purely  decorative  in  contrast  to  a  type 
that  is  absolutely  symbolic.  In  addition,  a 
transition  type  occurs  in  which  both  the  sym- 
bolic and  the  asthetic  motives  function.  The 
whole  of  this  art  is  the  work  of  women.  In 
the  purely  decorative  art  complex  geometric 
designs  are  built  up  from  simple  geometrical 
elements.  These  elementary  designs  have 
technical  names  and  are  worked  into  composi- 
tions according  to  recognized  principles  and 
standards.  In  the  symbolic  art  the  designs 
are  conventional  representations  of  objects 
with  sacred  or  mystic  associations  and  are 
realistic  in  motive.  While  a  number  of  con- 
ventional designs  are  used  which  are  known 
once  to  have  possessed  symbolic  value  and 
to  have  originated  in  realistic  motives,  the 
majority  of  design  elements  do  not  appear  to 
have  originated  in  this  way.  Their  occa- 
sional use  in  a  symbolic  sense  is  an  after- 
thought and  a  makeshift.  '  From  which  it  ap- 
pears that  the  graphic  art  of  these  Indians,  as 
we  find  it  to-day,  is  an  objective  development 
in  contrast  to  the  subjective  symbolism  of 
other  tribes.  Jahes  E.  Lough, 

Secretary, 

SECTION  OP  geology  AND  MINERALOGY. 

The  regular  meeting  of  the  section  took 
place  December  14, 1903,  with  Professor  James 
F.  Kemp  in  the  chair. 

The  first  paper  on  the  progrram  was  'Ex- 
plorations and  First  Ascents  in  the  Canadian 
Rockies,'  by  Professor  Herschel  C.  Parker. 

This  paper  occupied  the  evening.  It  con- 
sisted of  an  illustrated  lecture  describing  the 
section  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  British 
Columbia  and  Alberta  known  as  the  '  Ca- 
nadian Alps.' 

In  a  brief  introduction  an  explanation  was 


1 

J 


January  16,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


107 


given  of  tbe  physical  characteristics  that  de- 
termine  the  alpine  nature  of  mountain  ranges, 
and  it  was  pointed  out  that  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains of  Canada  may  justly  be  termed  the 
*  Switzerland  of  America.' 

A  series  of  more  than  100  lantern  slides  was 
shown,  many  of  them  illustrating  six  first  as- 
cents made  by  the  lecturer.  These  siunmits 
were:  Mt.  Dawson,  the  highest  peak  of  the 
Selkirks;  Mt.  Goodsir,  one  of  the  highest  and 
most  difficult  peaks  in  British  Columbia;  Mt. 
Lefroy,  Mt.  Hungable  (the  'Chieftain')*  Mt. 
Deltaform  and  Mt.  Biddle,  these  latter  peaks 
being  situated  in  Alberta  near  Lake  Louise. 
The  summits  of  some  of  these  mountains  were 
previously  thought  to  be  practically  inacces- 
sible and  the  climbs  were  attended  with  the 
very  greatest  difficulties.  Mt.  Lefroy  was 
climbed  by  the  lecturer  in  1897,  Mt.  Dawson 
in  1899  and  the  remaining  four  summits  dur- 
ing the  past  season. 

The  lecturer  also  briefly  described  an  inter- 
esting trip  of  about  100  miles  north  of  the 
railroad  to  Wilcox  Pass,  where  the  Saskatche- 
wan and  Athabasca  Eivers  take  their  rise. 

The  following  two  papers  were  submitted 
for  reading  by  title  and  subsequent  publica- 
tion: 

Oem  Minerals  of  Southern  California:  Dr. 

George  F.  Kunz. 

In  this  paper  the  author  said  in  part  that 
California,  especially  in  its  southern  portion, 
had  of  late  years  produced  the  most  interesting 
gem  minerals  of  any  state  in  the  union.  First 
came  the  magnificent  series  of  colored  tour- 
malines, described  in  recent  reports  of  the 
Division  of  Mining  and  Mineral  Resources, 
U.  S.  Geological  Survey  (1899,  p.  38;  1900, 
p.  33 ;  1901,  p.  31) ;  next,  the  remarkable  rose- 
beryl  from  Mesa  Grande  and  Pala  (ibid,,  1900, 
p.  32),  and  lastly,  the  amethystine  spodumene 
(kunzite),  in  crystals  which  for  purity  and 
beauty  of  color  are  unrivaled  by  any  other 
mineral  of  North  America.* 

Thus  far  the  minerals  are  confined  to  two 

counties.      The  tourmalines  occur  near  San 

Jacinto,  in  Riverside  County,  and  at  Mesa 

Grande  and  Pala,  in  San  Diego;  the  pink 

*  Amer.  Jour,  Science,  Vol.  16,  November,  1903 ; 
y.  y.  Acad.  Sciences,  October  19,  1903. 


beryl,  in  small  amounts,  at  the  two  last-named 
localities;  and  the  lilac  spodumene  at  Pala, 
and  also  to  some  extent  at  Coahuila,  in  River- 
side County,  in  crystals  of  similar  character 
but  smaller.  Other  interesting  gem  minerals 
are  now  coming  to  light  in  association  with 
the  preceding  ones.  With  the  spodumenes 
from  Coahuila  have  been  found  beautiful 
beryls,  some  yellow,  closely  resembling  those 
from  Sarapulka  in  the  Ural  Mountains,  others 
pale  green  and  even  colorless.  Some  of  the 
yellow  crystals  are  finely  formed,  and  the 
others  show  instances  of  remarkable  etched 
faces,  similar  to  the  crystals  from  Sarapulka 
in  Perm;  while  others  are  almost  as  delicate 
as  a  darning  needle.  The  etching  in  certain 
of  these  is  most  curious;  crystals  of  three 
inches  long  and  an  inch  across,  colorless  and 
transparent  as  the  finest  rock  crystal,  are  cov- 
ered all  over  the  prismatic  and  basal  planes 
with  the  most  complicated  etching,  and  within 
are  hollow,  made  up  of  interlocking  plates,  as 
it  were,  exceedingly  clear  and  brilliant. 

From  Pala  came  a  fine  doubly  terminated, 
detached  pink  beryl  which  measured  10  cm. 
by  5  cm.,  and  which  was  quite  transparent 
and  an  object  of  great  beauty. 

Another  mineral  recently  observed  at 
Coahuila  is  spessartite  (manganese-aluminum 
garnet),  in  trapezohedral  crystals  of  remark- 
able beauty.  Some  of  these  are  absolutely 
pure  and  measure  from  6  to  10  mm.  in  diam- 
eter, while  large  ones  are  as  much  as  30  mm., 
but  less  perfect.  They  are  implanted  upon 
crystals  of  albitic  feldspar,  recalling  strongly 
the  occurrence  at  Amelia  Court  House, 
Virginia.  The  smaller  crystals  are  exceed- 
ingly brilliant  and  beautiful,  of  a  honey-yel- 
low color,  deepening  to  orange-red;  others  are 
quite  large,  but  not  transparent.  The  crystal- 
line form  is  that  of  the  trapezohedron,  n,  in 
combination  with  the  rhombic  dodecahedron,  d. 

Lastly,  and  of  great  interest,  is  the  first- 
noted  occurrence  in  the  state  of  topaz,  in  dis- 
tinct and  beautiful  crystals.  The  source  is 
the  well-known  caineral  locality  three  miles 
from  Bamona,  in  San  Diego  County.  One 
crystal  is  absolutely  transparent,  of  a  pale  blue 
color,  like  those  from  the  Ural  region,  and 
measures  2  cm.  by  1  cm.  by  5  mm.     The  faces 


108 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  472. 


c  and  X  are  entirely  absent;  those  present  are 
P,  d,  o,  f  and  g,  with  m  and  I  of  the  prism; 
the  pyramid  faces  are  etched.  The  general 
character  strongly  recalls  the  Alabashka  type 
of  the  Urals,  and  this  likeness  would  suggest 
that  the  minerals  to  be  found  with  it  will 
also  resemble  those  of  that  noted  locality. 
Other  crystals  are  perfectly  colorless,  but  with 
the  same  general  form  and  proportions;  those 
of  about  one  centimeter  in  length  are  ex- 
tremely brilliant,  the  larger  ones  less  so  ex- 
ternally, but  clear  within.  It  is  of  great  in- 
terest that  this  belt  of  rare  species  which 
traverses  the  state  in  its  southern  portion 
gives  indication  of  further  occurrences  of 
remarkable  minerals  there  to  be  found. 

Clackamas    Meteoric   Iron:   Dr.    Geohqe    F. 

KUNZ. 

There  has  lately  been  discovered  in  Oregon 
an  enormous  iron  meteorite,  ranking  with  the 
two  immense  ones  found  respectively  by 
Lieutenant  Peary  in  Greenland  and  by  Pro- 
fessor H.  A.  Ward  in  Mexico.  This  is  a  mass 
of  iron,  measuring  ten  feet  in  length  by  seven 
in  width  and  five  in  height,  pitted  in  the  usual 
manner,  but  in  an  extensive  degree,  and  at 
one  point  even  perforated,  so  as  to  leave  an 
opening  through  it  as  large  as  a  man's  hand. 
It  was  discovered  in  the  autumn  of  1902  by  a 
prospector,  Mr.  Dale,  on  land  belonging  to 
the  Oregon  Steel  and  Iron  Company,  some 
two  miles  south  of  Oregon  City,  in  Clackamas 
County.  The  official  statement  of  its  location 
is  T.  2,  S.;  R  1,  E.  of  Willamette  Meridian. 
It  was  dug  loose  from  the  soil  and  removed  on 
a  truck  to  adjacent  land  belonging  to  Mr.  Ellis 
Hughes,  where  it  now  lies,  subject  to  a  claim 
by  the  company  and  a  suit  now  in  progress. 
The  material  has  been  subjected  to  analysis  by 
a  local  chemist  and  found  to  contain  a  small 
percentage  of  nickel;  but  the  exact  figures  are 
not  yet  in  the  author's  possession.  According 
to  Mr.  A.  W.  Miller,  of  Portland,  Oregon, 
from  whom  most  of  the  facts  have  been 
learned,  a  piece  which  he  examined  for  struc- 
ture did  not  show  the  Widmanstatten  figures, 
but  a  marked  cubical  structure,  with  very 
high  silvery  luster.  A  fine  photogni-aph  sent 
by  him  to  the  author  shows  the  mass  as 
roughly  conical  or  dome-shaped,  on  an  elliptic 


base,  wonderfully  pitted  and  with  <  the  hok 
through  its  lower  portion.  Men  standing  by 
it  indicate  its  size,  which  is  perhaps  as  large 
as  that  of  any  other  meteorite  known. 

Edmund  Ons  Hovey, 

Secretary, 

MICHIGAN  OBNITHOLOGIGAL  CLUB. 

The  last  meeting  of  the  Michigan  Ornitho- 
logical Club  for  the  current  year  was  held  at 
the  Detroit  Museum  of  Art  on  December  6. 
President  Adolphe  B.  Covert  presided.  There 
was  a  good  attendance  and  the  papers  pre- 
sented were  of  much  interest.  The  program 
was  as  follows: 

NoBMAN  A.  Wood  :  '  The  Discovery  of  the  Breed- 
ing Area  of  Kirtland's  Warbler  in  Michigan.' 

Alexandeb  W.  Blain,  Jb.  :  '  Observations  made 
on  the  Habits  of  Birds  of  the  Family  Mniotiltidse 
in  Monroe  County,  Michigan,  by  Jerome  Trombley, 
during  the  years  1875-81.* 

J.  Claibe  Wood:  'Some  Late  Breeders.' 

Edwabd  Abnold:  'Nesting  of  the  Sandhill 
Crane  in  Michigan.' 

Pbofessob  a.  U.  Gbiffith  :  '  Birds  in  their  Re- 
lation to  Art.' 

Following  the  papers  a  business  session  was 
held.  Dr.  J.  A.  Allen,  of  the  American  Mu- 
seimi  of  Natural  History,  Wm.  Brewster,  of 
Cambridge,  and  Robert  Ridgway,  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  were  elected  to  honorary 
membership.  Many  new  active  members  were 
elected.  The  constitution  was  amended  so  as 
to  allow  quarterly  instead  of  monthly  meet- 
ings.   A  class  of  patrons  was  created. 

The  next  meeting  of  the  club  will  be  held 
at  the  Detroit  Museum  of  Art  on  February  5, 
1904.  Visiting  ornithologists  are  cordially  in- 
vited to  attend. 

Alexandeb  W.  Blain,  Jb. 
Detboit  College  of  Medicine. 


DI8CU88I0N  AND  CORRESPONDENCE. 
THE  WOBD  BABOMETEB. 

To  THE  EorroB  of  Science:  In  my  letter 
of  August  28  I  expressed  the  belief  that  the 
letter  of  John  Beale  to  Robert  Boyle  bearing 
date  February  6,  1665,  should  read  1666. 
Since  then  Dr.  J.  B.  Nichols,  of  Washington, 
D.  C,  has  called  my  attention  to  the  system  of 


Januaby  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


109 


double  dating  in  vogue  during  the  time  that 
both  church  and  civil  almanacs  were  in  use. 
During  this  time  a  date  falling  between  Jan- 
uary 1  and  March  26  would  by  the  church 
almanac  be  a  year  earlier  than  the  same  date 
on  the  civil  almanac.  This  was  sometimes 
indicated  by  a  double  date  thus,  February  6, 
1665/6. 

This  was  a  point  that  I  had  overlooked,  as 
had  also  Drs.  Rotch  and  Bolton.  A  reexamin- 
ation of  the  various  dates  and  of  their  con- 
text leads  to  the  following  conclusions.  John 
Beale's  letter  was  written  February  6,  1665/6. 
The  paper  cited  by  Dr.  Rotch  and  myself  is 
of  date  March  24, 1665/6.  Henry  Oldenburg's 
letter  to  Robert  Boyle,  cited  by  me,  is  of  date 
March  19,  1665/6. 

During  the  year  1665  several  instances  of 
the  use  of  the  word  *  barometer'  are  to  be 
found  in  Robert  Boyle's  correspondence.  In 
Robert  Boyle's  paper  of  April  2,  1666,  he  refers 
to  'barometrical  observations'  made  by  John 
Beale;  these  observations  Henry  Oldenburg 
transmits  to  Robert  Boyle  on  December  19, 
1665  (Vol.  v.,  p.  343),  and  again  on  December 
30,  1665,  and  on  January  16,  1665/6. 

More  interesting  than  the  above  is  what 
would  seem  to  be  the  original  passage  in  which 
the  word  barometer  is  used.  This  passage  I 
found  by  following  up  the  reference  in  John 
Beale's  letter  to  the  three  papers  on  *  thermom- 
eters and  baroscopes.'  A  close  examination 
of  Robert  Boyle's  papers  shows  these  to  be 
three  papers  printed  with  the  *  History  of 
Cold'  in  the  spring  of  1664/5.  They  are  en- 
titled *  New  Thermometrical  Experiments,' 
and  are  preliminary  to  the  'History.'  There 
is  also  an  introductory  note  by  Henry  Olden- 
burg of  date  March  10,  1664/5,  and  beginning 
thus:  'I  am  fully  persuaded,  you  will  much 
rejoice  to  see  that  exquisite  searcher  of  nature, 
the  illustrious  Robert  Boyle,  come  abroad 
again,  *  *  *'  (Vol.  H.,  p.  231).  A  little 
further  on  he  says:  "I  am  now  to  advertise 
you  of  one  or  two  circumstances  necessary  to 
be  taken  notice  of  in  its  i)erusal.  One  is 
that  the  noble  author  being  at  Oxford,  when 
the  book  was  printed  at  London,  he  hopes  the 
reader  will  not  impute  to  him  the  errors  of 
the  press,  which  yet  he  is  persuaded  will  not 


be  many,  and  out  of  which  must  be  excepted 
a  blank  or  two,  occasioned  by  this,  that  the 
author's  papers  being  near  two  years  since 
given  to  be  transcribed  to  one.  *  *  *'' 
This  passage  shows  that  the  papers  were  writ- 
ten by  Robert  Boyle  prior  to  March,  1662/3. 

Turning  to  the  author's  preface  we  find  the 
following,  "*  *  *  how  great  a  power  my 
friends  have  with  me  *  *  *  the  reader  may 
guess  by  the  preamble  he  will  find  prefixed  to 
the  first  title  of  the  ensuing  history.  For  by 
the  date  of  that  he  will  see  how  early  my 
papers  about  cold  were  to  have  been  communi- 
cated." The  preamble  bears  date  '  Little  Chel- 
sea, February  14,.  1662,  S.  A.,'  or  1663  civil 
almanac. 

Turning  to  discourse  L,  we  find  the  follow- 
ing interesting  passage:  ''Among  the  several 
notes  I  find  among  my  loose  papers  and  in  a 
diary  I  kept  for  a  while  of  these  observations, 
I  shall  content  myself  to  transcribe  the  follow- 
ing two.  *  *  *  The  first  of  these  memoran- 
dums runs  thus.  Last  night  I  took  notice  that 
there  was  but  one  or  two  divisions  difference 
betwixt  the  two  thermometers,  but  upon  such 
a  change  of  weather,  that  happened  this  day, 
as  made  me  imagine  that  the  atmosphere  would 
be  lighter  than  before,  consulting  the  barom- 
eter (if  to  avoid  circumlocutions,  T  may  so 
call  the  whole  instrument  wherein  a  mercurial 
cylinder  of  29  or  30  inches  is  kept  suspended 
after  the  manner  of  the  Torricellian  experi- 
ment) *  *  *>'  (Vol.  IL,  p.  244b).  The 
date  of  the  diary  from  which  these  remarks 
are  taken  is  not  given,  and  the  best  that  can 
be  concluded  from  a  reading  of  the  whole 
paper  is  to  say  that  the  date  must  be  prior 
to  March,  1662/3,  and  probably  prior  to  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1662/3.  Later  on  in  the  same  paper 
the  word  baroscope  is  used. 

It  is  a  pity  that  Robert  Boyle  had  not 
earlier  followed  the  determination  of  giving  all 
requisite  dates,  expressed  by  him  in  the  fol- 
lowing letter  to  Henry  Oldenburg,  dated  Octo- 
ber 26,  1667.  "  *  *  *  Care  will  be  taken  for 
the  future,  that  the  letters  I  send  you  be 
dated.  *  *  *  And  I  am  the  more  solicitous 
about  this  matter,  because  frequent  experi- 
ence shews  us  how  much  our  English  have 
lost,  for  want  of  being  so;  and  (which  is  more 


110 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  H 


considerable)  how  difficult  it  is,  otherwise,  to 
avoid  the  occasions  of  personal  disputes,  or 
reflections;  which,  for  my  part,  I  heartily  de- 
sire to  shun"  (Vol.  v.,  p.  252b). 

One  can  not  but  conclude,  judging  from  the 
phraseology,  that  the  passage  in  the  Phil. 
Trans,  cited  by  Dr.  Bolton  is  from  the  same 
pen  as  Henry  Oldenburg's  prefatory  note. 
Further  evidence  of  the  same  authorship  is 
found  in  the.  capitalization,  following,  as  it 
does,  the  German  method.  Now  Robert  Boyle 
would  not  be  likely  to  use  this  mode  of  writing, 
while  Henry  Oldenburg,  being  ft  native  of 
Bremen  in  lower  Saxony,  might  easily  have 
lapsed  into  the  style  of  his  native  tongue. 

John  C.  Shedd. 

Physical  Labobatobt, 
Colorado  College. 


SPECIAL   ARTICLES. 
COLOR   INHERITANCE   IN    MICE. 

Within  the  last  few  years  great  interest  has 
been  aroused  by  the  rediscovery  of  Mendel's 
Law  of  Dichotomy  in  plant  hybridization. 
This  law  has  been  confirmed  for  many  species 
of  plants,  especially  by  De  Vries  (1902,  pp. 
14d-151,  etc.),  Correns,  Tschermak  and  others. 
The  study  of  mice,  rats  and  rabbits  has  yielded 
a  partial  confirmation  of  this  law  for  animals. 
I  wish  here  to  contribute  additional  although 
too  meager  data  drawn  from  my  experiments 
of  the  past  four  years. 

The  two  great  laws  enunciated  by  Mendel 
were  these:  Of  the  two  antagonistic  peculiari- 
ties possessed  by  two  races  that  are  crossed, 
the  hybrid,  or  mongrel,  exhibits  only  one;  and 
it  exhibits  it  completely,  so  that  the  mongrel 
is  not  distinguishable  as  regards  this  character 
from  one  of  the  parents.  Intermediate  con- 
ditions do  not  occur.  That  one  of  the  two 
parental  qualities  that  alone  appears  in  the 
mongrels  is  called  dominant;  the  other  reces- 
sive. Second,  in  the  formation  of  the  pollen 
or  egg-cell  the  two  antagonistic  peculiarities 
are  segregated;  so  that  each  ripe  germ  cell 
carries  either  one  or  the  other  of  these  pe- 
culiarities, but  not  both.  It  is  a  result  of  the 
second  law  that  in  the  second  generation  of 
mongrels  each  of  the  two  qualities  of  their 
grandparents  shall  crop  out  on  distinct  indi- 


viduals, and  that  the  leoessive  quality 
appear  in  25  per  cent,  of  the  individuaJ 
remaining  75  per  cent,  having  the  don 
quality.  Such  recessive  individuals,  c 
inter  se,  should  never  produce  anythin 
recessive  offspring. 

Now  experiments  with  animals  ha^ 
vealed  the  existence  of  recessive  quali 
e.  g.,  in  mice,  when  white  and  wild  gra 
crossed  and  the  mongrel  offspring  are  ci 
inter  se,  the  second  mongrel  generatioi 
yield  some  white  mice,  and  such  white 
bred  inter  se,  will  thenceforth  produce 
white  mice.  These  results  have  been  g 
Crampe  (1885),  von  Guaita  (1898,  19 
cf.  Davenport  (1900)— Cuenot  (1902, 
— ^f.  Bateson  (1902,  p.  173)— Darb 
(1902,  1903),  Castle  (1903)  and  Ba 
(1903).  Is  the  percentage  of  the  recessi^ 
dividuals  always  25?  In  such  a  second 
grel  generation  Cuenot  (1902)  found  162 
and  57  albino  individuals,  or  74  per  cei 
26  per  cent.,  and  in  von  Guaita's  bree 
between  walzing  and  albino  mice  the  cr 
gray  hybrids  gave  25  per  cent,  albinos;  n 
that  accord  with  theory.  But  instead  o 
75  per  cent,  gray  which  Mendel's  law  call 
von  Guaita  got  57  per  cent,  gray  and  V 
cent,  walzing  mice  of  gray,  gray-white,  I 
and  black  and  white  colors.  Habbits 
Woods  (1903)  only  21  per  cent,  instea 
25  per  cent,  of  the  recessive  type  in  the  sc 
mongrel  generation,  and  in  crossing  hy 
with  albinos  he  got  only  40  per  cent,  all 
instead  of  50  per  cent.,  as  theory  dem 

The  discussion  concerning  the  validil 
Mendelism  for  mice  has  been  based  cl 
upon  crosses  between  albinic  mice  on  the 
hand  (Crampe,  Cuenot,  Castle  and  A 
and  gray  or  walzing  mice  on  the  < 
(Haacke,  von  Guaita,  Darbishire).  Bai 
(1908)  alone  has  recorded,  without  details 
results  of  crossing  mice  of  varied  c< 
His  data  will  be  referred  to  in  the  folio 
account  of  my  experiments. 

A.    THE  OFFSPRING  OF  MICE  OF  THE  SAME  G< 

I.  Albino  y(^  Albino. — This  cross  appea 
produce  only  albinos.  Bateson  (1903,  p. 
has  examined  the  evidence  and  finds  only 


Jaituabt  16,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


Ill 


donbtf  ul  case  where  white  mice  produced  col- 
ored offspring.  In  two  crosses  of  white  imr- 
ents  I  got  nine  offspring;  all  were  white. 

n.  Yellow  X  Yellow,—!.  Yellow-red  (8)*  X 
yellow-red  (7).  The  mother  (8)  was  yellow- 
red  with  a  patch  of  white  below;  the  father 
was  pure  yellow-red.  Of  the  offspring  one 
was  pure  yellow-red  like  the  father,  two  were 
brownish  yellow  above  and  much  lighter  below, 
one  was  brownish  red  with  patches  of  white, 
and  five  were  chocolate  with  yellow  flanks  and 
patches  of  white  above  and  below.  Thus,  one 
bred  true  to  the  father  but  the  remainder  were 
much  darker  and  had  a  mixture  of  colors. 

/      f  white  (6)  \ 
2.  Muddy  yeUow  |36  j^^^^^  ^^^  )  X  yellow 

(7).  Of  the  four  offspring  one  was  a  uniform 
light  yellow  (57);  one  was  yellow  above  and 
white  below  and  on  the  flanks  (59) ;  one  was 
dirty  yellow  above,  white  below  (58) ;  and  the 
last  was  wild-mouse  gray  (or  agouti)  above 
and  white  on  belly  and  flanks.  The  result  in 
both  cases  is  seen  to  be  very  variable. 

m.  Black  (2)  and  Black  (j8).— My  blacks 
seemed  delicate  and  relatively  infertile,  so  that 
of  two  crosses  only  two  individuals  survived 
— ^both  were  black.  Black  behaves  something 
like  albinism.     Is  it  not  likewise  recessive? 

rV.  Chocolate  X  Chocolate. — Chocolate  is  a 
broad  class  including  various  shades  of  color 
from  a  dark  red-gray  to  a  dark  red-yellow. 
I  raised  four  families  as  follows:  1  and  2. 
Chocolate  (10)  X  Chocolate  (1)  with  nine 
offspring,  as  follows:  Uniform  chocolate,  nos. 
22,  23,  ^6,  66  and  65.  Chocolate  above,  more 
or  less  white  below,  nos.  67,  68.  Chocolate 
with  white  spots,  nos.  24,  25. 


3.  Chocolate 


(«{n 


X  Chocolate 


H:y 


These  full  siblingsf  of  chocolate  parents  pro- 
duced five  offspring.  All  were  of  a  uniform 
chocolate  color. 


4.  Chocolate 


{<) 


X  Chocolate 


Hn 


*  The  numbers  in  parentheses  are  those  of  Ihe 
pedigree  mice. 

t  Sibling  (Peartson)  is  a  term  applicable  either 
to  brother  or  to  sister. 


There  was  only  one  survivor  of  this  pair;  it 
was  chocolate  colored  excepting  for  some  white 
on  the  belly. 

Thus  the  chocolate  color  show?^  itself  rather 
stable,  especially  in  the  second  pure  bred  gen- 
eration. 

B.     THE  OFFSPRING  OF  MICE  OF  DIFFERENT  COLOR. 

I.  Qray  and  White. — ^This  cross  has  been 
made  by  several  investigators,  as  indicated 
above.  The  usual  result  is  that  the  offspring 
in  the  first  filial  (mongrel)  generation  (F^  in 
Bateson's  nomenclature)  are  prevailingly  gray 
like  the  wild  house  mouse.  My  own  experi- 
ence is  partly  confirmatory. 

A  wild  house  mouse  (15)  X  albino  (5)  gave 
five  offspring:  nos.  47  to  51.  Four  of  these 
resembled  the  wild  mother  in  coat  excepting 
that  they  were  yellower  on  the  back  of  the 
neck  and  of  a  cream  color  in  the  region  be- 
tween the  fore  legs  and  also  between  the  hind 
legs.  Also  the  coat  had  a  richer,  glossier  look 
than  the  mother's.  The  other  one  of  the  off- 
spring was  generally  agouti  above  and  ashy 
below,  but  the  hairs  of  the  ventral  part  of  the 
shoulder  girdle  were  yellow  tipped,  there  was  a 
mid-ventral  white  patch  and  there  were  five 
distinct  white  patches  on  the  dorsal  side. 
These  were  unlike  anything  in  the  mother,  and 
indicated  particulate  inheritance  by  the  mon- 
grel from  both  parents,  but  especially  from  the 
mother.  My  results  agree  with  those  of 
Crampe,  who  found  that  similarly  bred  rats 
give  in  F,  either  uniformly  gray  or  gray  and 
white.  Darbishire  (1903)  crossing  walzers 
and  albinos  finds  that  the  mongrels  have  the 
less  white  the  purer  bred  the  albinos  are,  and 
von  Guaita's  pure-bred  albinos  gave  all  gray 
offspring  when  crossed  with  walzers.  I  know 
nothing  of  the  ancestry  of  the  albino  (5) ;  but 
it  may  be  inferred  that  it  was  not  pure  bred. 
With  an  albino  that  had  been  bred  pure  for 
two  generations  I  got  the  following  result: 


Gray 


(«{S: 


) 

(f  4,  white  \ 
^«  is.  white) 


21,  chocolate  (10X1) 
house 

4,  white 
white 


Five  offspring  were  obtained  all  gray  like  a 


112 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  472. 


house  mouse,  but  of  a  lighter  color.  Probably 
the  earlier  crosses  of  Crampe  (1877,  p.  3?Q^ 
391)  with  white  and  gray  ratg^Aw  led  Idm  to 
the  conclusion  that  in  inheritance  the  color 
of  the  species  shuts  out  the  color  of  the  variety 
were  made  with  pure  bred  rats.  Cuenot  cross- 
ing grays  and  albinos  got  gray  mice  without 
exception  in  the  F^  generation. 

From  the  foregoing  the  conclusion  may  be 
drawn  that  the  offspring  of  pure-bred  gray 
mice  crossed  with  albinos  inherit  chiefly  from 
the  wild  form  but  that  the  color  is  slightly 
modified,  particularly  when  the  albinos  are  not 
pure  bred,  first  by  an  increase  in  the  yellow 
and,  secondly,  in  some  cases,  by  the  presence 
of  white.  Gray  is  dominant  over  albinism  but 
the  soma  derived  from  hybrid  germ  cells  shows 
traces  of  the  albinic  blood.  The  dominance 
is  incomplete.  The  dominance,  so  far  as  it 
goes,  accords  with  De  Vries's  (1902,  p.  145) 
generalization  that  the  older  type  or  the  wild 
species  is  dominant  over  a  more  recent  type 
or  a  cultivated  variety. 

When  these  gray  mice  are  crossed  inter  ae 
there  result  gray  mice  and  white  mice  in  the 
proportion  of  three  to  one  (Cu6not;  Castle 
and  Allen,  1903),  and  the  albinos  show  them- 
selves purely  recessive.  That  all  recessive 
mice  are,  however,  not  alike,  but  differ  accord- 
ing to  their  ancestry  has  been  argued  by 
Darbishire  from  the  fact  that  pure  bred  al- 
binos transmit  less  to  F^  than  albinos  do  that 
are  derived  from  a  mixed  ancestry. 

II.  Wild  Oray  U6)X  Black  (9).— Two  off- 
spring of  this  cross  were  essentially  of  the 
wild,  maternal  color. 

III.  Wild  Gray  (29<S)  X  Chocolate  /21  |      ). 

— Nos.  52  and  54  were  marked  like  the  wild 
gray  but  were  darker.  No.  53  had  a  dark  back, 
a  light  yellow  belly  and  white  on  the  shoulders 
and  in  the  middle  of  the  right  fiank.  No.  55 
had  a  back  like  the  house  mouse,  but  its 
shoulders  were  white  and  its  belly  yellow  and 
white.  In  these  offspring  there  was  an  at- 
tempt at  least  at  blending  and  there  was  a 
cropping  out  of  an  ancestral  white,  but  on  the 
whole  the  gray  dominated. 


IV.   Black  X  Albino, — This  cross  was  made 
twice. 


1.   Black 


(r  2,   black  V 
^^  I  9,    black  / 

/        f  4,  albino  \ 

X»^»'-°("l  6.  albino)- 

Five  young  were  obtained,  all  reversions,  be- 
ing of  typical  wild  mouse  color  except  that 
two  of  them  had  white  spots  on  the  belly. 

2.   Black  (126)  X  Albino 

r  35,  yellow  (6,  albino  X 
J      7,  yellow) 

7,  yellow 


57,  reversion 


102 


18,  albino 


{t 


4,  albino, 
albino 


— The  two  offspring  were  reversions,  but  one 
had  a  white  spot  at  the  center  of  the  belly. 
These  two  matings  indicate  that  neither  black 
nor  white  is  dominant,  but  that  the  repressed 
ancestral  gray  character  is,  as  it  were,  liber- 
ated. 


V.   Black  (137)  X  Yellow 


[  102,  albino 


136  4 


130,  reversion 


ion  -I 


102,  albino 
126,  black 


— The  single  offspring  was  a  typical  reversion 
except  that  the  front  part  of  the  belly  and  the 
flanks  were  white.  Bateson  (1903,  p.  85) 
states  that  Miss  Durham  got  sables  and  dingy 
fawns  and  even  blacks  from  this  cross.  In 
any  case  there  is  no  evident  dominance. 
The  following  cases  are  still  more  complex. 

6,  white 
yellow 


VI.  Reversio 


(r6,  white  V 
1 7,  yellow  / 


XOray 


/      1 15,  wild  V 
\       1^5,  white/ 


— There  were  two  of  the  progeny  of  this  pair 
that  survived  infancy — ^both  were  of  the 
typical  wild  mouse  color. 

yellow' 
yellow 


Vn.  Reversion 


(35, 
[57,  gray  j^ 

109] 

I18,  white!  J'  ^j!;^ 

(5,  white 


Januabt  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


113 


X  Reversion 


117 


AT^r       11      J  ^^'  yellow  1 
77,  yellow  I  ^2^  y^ji^^ 


48,  gray 


{ 

fl5, 
l5, 


wild 
white 


— There  were  three  offspring;  one  was  uni- 
formly black  (a  color  not  found  in  the  an- 
cestry for  at  least  three  generations)  and  two 
were  white.  Black  rats  were  got  by  Crampe 
(1877,  p.  394)  by  crossing  mongrels  between 
wild  and  white-and-black  rats ;  and  black  mice 
by  von  Guaita  by  crossing  piebald  dancing 
mice  with  albinos. 

6,  white 

yellow 


Vin.  Piehald 


(f  6,  white  V 
(7,  yellow/ 


X  Qray-yeUow 


Hi 


8,  yellow  \ 
yellow  / ' 


—Of  the  six  offspring  four  (nos.  77,  78,  79, 
81)  had  the  back  colored  yellow-red.  In 
matching  the  color  with  the  color  wheel  red, 
orange  and  yellow  were  found  to  constitute 
60  per  cent,  to  70  per  cent,  of  the  color.  In 
no.  82  the  dorsal  pelage  was  yellow-chocolate, 
with  the  color  formula,  N61,  R28,  Y12,  W9;* 
and  in  no.  80  it  was  chocolate,  with  the  color 
formula,  N76,  R13,  Y4,  W7.  Four  had  some 
white  on  the  beUy  or  flanks.  In  this  cross  a 
new  color— chocolate — ^arose,  which  I  interpret 
to  mean  that  some  of  the  primitive  gray  was 
added  to  the  yellow;  that  is,  there  was  a  par- 
tial reversion.  Otherwise  the  yellow  is  dom- 
inant. 

IX.  Gray  and  White 

37,  yellow  (6,  white  X  '^»  yellow)  \ 
yellow  / 

(f4,  white  V 
^H 5.  white)- 

— There  were  eight  offspring,  three  albinos  and 
five  gray.  Four  of  the  latter  had  white 
patches  on  the  sides,  legs  or  middle  of  the 
belly.  This  is  like  the  case  described  by 
Castle  (1903,  p.  642). 

C.     SUMMART   OF  RESULTS. 

When  the  parents  are  of  the  same  color, 

especially  if  they  are  pure  bred,  there  is  a 

•  N,   nigruin,   black ;    R,   red ;    Y,   yellow  j    W, 
white.     The  numbers  are  percentages. 


(•'{': 


strong  tendency  for  the  offspring  to  be  of  the 
same  color  as  the  parents.  In  the  case  of 
albinos  this  tendency  is  so  strong  that  the  off- 
spring are  probably  always  albinic;  if  both 
parents  are  black  the  tendency  to  black  off- 
spring is  likewise  very  strong;  if  chocolate, 
the  result  is  more  variable;  if  yellow,  still  more 
intermediate.  The  results  indicate  that  there 
are  different  degrees  in  the  strength  of  inherit- 
ance of  different  colors. 

When  the  parents  are  of  dissimilar  color 
the  offspring  show  different  kinds  of  inherit- 
ance in  the  different  cases.  When  gray  and 
white  are  crossed  the  offspring  are  gray  with 
a  little  white,  and  this  white  is  the  more  re- 
duced the  purer  bred  the  albinic  parent;  the 
gray  is  dominant.  Likewise  in  the  cross  of 
gray  and  black,  black  is  quite  shut  out,  and 
the  same  is  true  of  gray  and  piebald  rats 
(Crampe,  1877,  p.  394).  The  wild,  gray  color 
is  strongly  prepotent.  Melanism  and  albinism 
act  quite  similarly  in  crossing.  Both  are  in 
the  nature  of  'sports.'  Perhaps  *  purity  of 
the  germ  cells'  is  the  mechanism  of  isolation 
for  which  we  have  been  so  long  looking,  by 
which  mutations  are  preserved  from  the 
'  swamping  effects  of  intercrossing.'* 

When  gray  and  chocolate  are  crossed  the 
gray  is  incompletely  dominant.  When  black 
and  white  are  crossed,  typical  reversions  ap- 
pear; neither  color  is  dominant.  When  black 
is  crossed  with  yellow  the  result  is  highly 
variable.  If  white  and  yellow  be  mixed  in 
various  proportions  for  several  generations  the 
progeny  takes  on  various  shades  of  yellow  and 
may  acquire  the  wholly  new  color  of  chocolate. 
Similarly,  black  may  result  from  a  mixed  an- 
cestry in  which  there  is  no  black.  The  study 
of  the  cropping  out  of  new  colors  certainly 
forms  an  enticing  subject  for  further  inquiry. 

D.    BEARINQ  OF  THE  RESULTS  ON  MENDEL'S  LAW. 

The  enthusiasm  kindled  by  the  discovery  of 
a  new  law  leads  us  to  go  to  extremes,  to  as- 

*  Since  the  above  was  written  I  have  received 
Castle's  paper  in  Science  for  December  11,  1903, 
in  which  he  states  that  the  long-haired  character 
in  the  Angora  guinea-pig  is  recessive.  This  char- 
acter is  probably  a  mutation,  and  as  such  behaves 
in  accordance  with  the  above  hypothesis. 


^^ 


114 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XEC  tfi 


sume  its  universal  validity,  and  to  overlook 
apparent  exceptions.  Those  who  insist  upon  a 
critical  examination  of  all  evidenoe  against  as 
weil  as  for  the  theory  run  the  risk  of  being 
regarded  as  lukewarm  and  as  clogs  on  the 
wheels  of  progress;  but  they  should  not  be  de- 
terred on  that  account  from  a  full  examination 
of  all  the  facts  in  the  interest  of  truth. 

Mendel's  Law  is  an  hyx^thesis  of  great 
value  both  because  it  fits  so  many  cases  of  in- 
heritance and  because  it  is  stimulating  to  ex- 
perimental investigations  which  will  determine 
the  limits  within  which  it  is  valid. 

The  first  limitation  of  Mendel's  Law  is 
stated  by  De  Vries  (1902,  p.  141),  who  cer- 
tainly can  not  be  accused  of  lukewarmness 
toward  the  theory,  since  he  was  its  redis- 
coverer.  He  says  in  effect:  Mendel's  Law  of 
dichotomy  holds  in  general  only  for  phylogen- 
etically  recent  characters,  the  so-called  racial 
characters;  and  for  only  a  part  of  those — ^what 
part  we  do  not  know.  Even  Mendel  recognized 
that  his  rule  was  not  generally  applicable. 

The  second  limitation  of  Mendelism  con- 
cerns his  theory  of  dominance.  Sometimes 
when  dissimilar  racial  characters  are  crossed 
one  of  them  is  dominant,  and  sometimes  not. 
For  example,  gray  is  (within  limits)  dominant 
over  white  or  black  in  mice,  but  when  black 
and  white  or  black  and  yellow  are  crossed  there 
is  no  dominance  of  one  color  over  the  other; 
both  are  recessive  and  a  reversion  to  the  primi- 
tive gray  occurs.  The  whole  hypothesis  of  the 
purity  of  the  germ  cells  will  bear  careful 
scrutiny.  The  best  example  of  a  recessive 
character  in  animals  is  albinism,  but  even  in 
this  case,  as  Darbishire  has  pointed  out,  the 
recessives  can  not  be  perfectly  pure  and  inde- 
pendent of  ancestry,  for  the  mongrel  mice 
coming  from  a  recessive  crossed  with  a  gray 
differ  according  to  the  ancestry  of  the  reces- 
sive. The  result  of  this  study  is,  I  think,  to 
add  evidence  that  Mendel  did  not  discover  all 
the  important  laws  of  inheritance,  and  that 
further  investigation  will  unquestionably  re- 
veal other  and  still  broader  principles  of 
heredity.  C.  B.  Davenport. 

Hull  Zoological  Laboratory, 
University  of  Chicago, 
December  13.  1903. 


LITERATURE  CITED. 

Bateson,    W.,    1902.       'Mendel's    Principli 

Heredity.'     Cambridge  [Eng.].     1902.     211 
Bateson,  W.,  1903.    '  The  Present  State  of  K] 

edge   of   Colour   Heredity   in   Mice    and   I 

Proc.  Zool,  8oc.  London,   1903,  II.,  pp.   7 

October  1. 
Castle,  W.  E.,  1903.    *  Mendel's  Law  of  Herei 

Proc.  Amer.  Acad.  Arts  and  Set.,  XXXVIII 

535-548. 
Castle,  VV.  L.,  and  Allen,  G.  M.,  1903. 

Heredity  of  Albinism.'     Proc.  Amer.  Acad, 

and  8ci.,  XXXVIII.,  pp.  603-622,  April. 
Crampe  [H.],  1877.    *  Kreiizungen  zwischen  \ 

derratten   verscheidener   Farbe.'      Landwir 

Jahrbiicher,  VI.,  pp.  539-619. 
Crampe  [H.],  1885.     'Die  Gesetze  der  Vererl 

der    Farbe.'      Landtcirtach.    Jahrhucher,    S 

pp.  539-619. 
Cu^NOT,     L.,     1902.        'La    loi     de     Mendel 

I'h^r^dit^  de  la  pigmentation  chez  lea  sou 

Arch,  de  Zool.  Exp&r.  et  O^.    (3),  X.,  N 

et  Revue,  pp.  xxvii-xxx. 
Cu£not,  L.,  1903.     '  L'h^r6dit«  de  la  pigmenta 

chez    les    souris.'       Arch,    de    Zool.    Exp^r. 

Q4n.  (4),  I.,  Notes  et  Revue,  pp.  xxiii-xli. 
Darbishire,  A.  D.,  1902.      'Note  on  the  Res 

of  Crossing  Japanese  Walzing  Mice,  with  Ei 

pean  Albino  Races.'      Biomeirika,  II.,  pp.  1 

104,  November. 
Darbishire,  A.  D.,  1902.     '  Second  Report  on 

Result  of  Crossing  Japanese  Walzing  Mice  v 

European  Albino  Races.'      Biometrika,  II., 

165-173,  February. 
Darbishire,    A.    D.,    1902.       "Third    Report 

Hybrids    between    Walzing    Mice    and    Alb 

Races,    On    the    Result    of    Crossing    Japax 

Walzing  Mice  with  '  Extracted '   Recessive 

binos."     Biometrika,  II.,  pp.  282-285,  June. 
Davenport,     C.     B.,     1900.        'Review     of 

Guaita's  Experiments  in  Breeding  Mice.'     B 

Bull.,  IL,  pp.  121-128. 
Davenport,  C.  B.,  1901.    Mendel's  Law  of  Did 

omy  in  Hybrids.'     Biol.  Bull.,  II.,  pp.  307-5 
De    Vries,    H.,  1902.       'Die    Mutations- theoi 

II.  Bd.,  Leipzig. 
GuATTA,  G.  VON,  1898.    *  Versuche  mit  Kreuzunj 

von  verschiedenen  Rassen  der  Hausmaus.'    i 

Naturf.  Ges.  zu.  Freiftwr^.  X.,  pp.  317-332,  Ap 
GuAiTA,   G.    VON,    1900.      *  Zweite   Mittheiluuj 

(iber  Versuche  mit  Kreuzungen  von  versch< 

enen  Rassen  der  Hausmaus.'    Ber.  Naturf.  C 

zu  Freiburg,  XI.,  pp.  131-138,  August. 
Woods,  F.  A.,   1903.      *  Mendel's  Laws  and  sc 

Records  in  Rabbit  Breeding.'      Biometrika, 

pp.  299-306,  June. 


Jakuast  15»  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


115 


CURRET^T  IfOTES  ON  METEOROLOGY, 
METEOROLOGICAL  BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

To  the  *Note  on  Meteorological  Bibliog- 
raphies/ published  in  Science  for  December 
18,  p.  795,  there  should  have  been  added  a 
reference  to  one  other  publication  which  con- 
tains a  valuable  list  of  titles  in  physics  and 
meteorology.  This  is  the  Fortschritte  der 
Physik,  Halhmonatliches  Litteraturverzeich- 
niss,  an  octavo  publication,  issued  twice  a 
month,  now  in  its  second  year.  The  Fort- 
schritte der  Physik,  already  well  known  in 
this  country,  contains  reviews  ^of  publications 
in  astrophysics,  meteorology  and  geophys- 
ics, but  the  Fortschritte  necessarily  appears 
some  time  after  the  date  of  the  books  and 
articles  reviewed  therein.  The  object  of  the 
new  Halhmonatliches  Litteraturverzeichniss  is 
to  publish  the  titles  of  all  physical  books  and 
articles  immediately  after  their  issue,  and 
without  reference  to  the  later  reviews  in  the 
larger  volumes  of  the  Fortschritte,  The  mat- 
ter is  in  the  hands  of  the  Deutsche  Phjrsi- 
kalische  Gesellschaf t,  the  editor  for  ^  Cosmical 
Physics'  being  the  well-known  meteorologist. 
Dr.  Assmann.  No  one  can  fail  to  appreciate 
the  advantage  of  this  bibliography,  which  ap- 
pears frequently,  is  well  edited,  and  will  prove 
of  the  greatest  service  to  meteorologists.  It  is 
altogether  the  best  current  meteorological  bib- 
liography published,  although  one  could  wish 
that  an  author  catalogue  were  included,  and 
that  the  same  classification  of  subjects  were 
used  as  in  the  'International  Catalogue'  (or 
a  better  one).  The  price  of  the  Litteraturver- 
zeichniss is  four  Marks  yearly. 

CLOUD  OBSERVATIONS  IN  INDIA. 

Observations  of  the  movements  of  the  up- 
per clouds  were  made  at  six  stations  in  India 
during  the  period  1895-1900,  and  the  results 
are  now  discussed  by  Sir  John  Eliot  in  Vol. 
XV.,  Pt.  I.,  of  the  Indian  Meteorological 
Memoirs  (pp.  112,  Pis.  XII.,  Calcutta,  1903). 
Nephoscopes  of  the  Finemann  pattern  were 
used.  No  observations  of  altitude  are  in- 
cluded. The  discussion  concerns  the  direc- 
tions of  movement  of  each  cloud  type  at  each 
station,  during  dry  and  wet  seasons.  These 
being  the  first  considerable  Indian  contribu- 


tions to  the  study  of  the  upper  air  movements 
as  shown  by  cloud  directions,  the  results  are 
especially  noteworthy.  The  movement  of  cir- 
rus and  cirro-stratus  clouds  is  remarkably 
steady  at  the  four  northern  stations  (Simla, 
Lahore,  Jaipur  and  Allahabad)  during  the  dry 
season,  being  from  almost  due  w^t,  i.  e.,  in 
accordance  with  theory.  The  number  of  ob- 
servations at  Vizagapatam  and  Madras  is 
small,  but  the  indications  are  that  the  upper 
air  movement  recurves  from  southeast  through 
south  to  southwest  in  the  southern  portions 
of  India,  also  in  general  accordance  with 
theory.  The  lower  as  well  as  the  upper  air 
movement  is  from  west  over  the  whole  of 
northern  and  central  India  during  the  dry 
season,  the  direction  of  movement  of  the  alto- 
cumulus, cumulus  and  cumulo-nimbus  being 
almost  as  regular  as  that  of  the  upper  clouds, 
but  more  southerly.  During  the  rainy  season 
there  is  great  variability  and  unsteadiness 
in  the  cloud  movement  up  to  the  elevation 
of  the  highest  cirrus  at  Allahabad,  which  is 
in  the  center  of  the  Indian  trough  of  low  pres- 
sure at  that  season.  Photogrammetric  obser- 
vations at  Allahabad  in  1898-1900  showed  that 
the  mean  altitude  of  the  cirrus  in  the  rainy 
season  is  32,654  feet.  Hence  it  appears  that 
the  unsteady  movement  in  the  monsoon  trough 
extends  up  to  30,000  feet  at  least,  and  perhaps 
even  to  40,000  feet.  The  regular  movement 
in  the  higher  atmosphere  (from  west  to  east) 
is  then  suspended,  or  else  occurs  at  a  greater 
elevation  than  in  the  dry  season. 

AIR  PRESSURES  IN  INDU. 

Vol.  XVI.,  Pt.  I.,  of  the  'Indian  Meteor- 
ological Memoirs'  contains  the  'Normals 
of  the  Air  Pressure  Reduced  to  32°  F.  and 
Constant  Gravity,  Lat.  45,'  by  Sir  John  Eliot. 
The  memoir  includes  the  monthly  and  annual 
means  of  the  barometric  observations  at  all 
observatories  in  India  which  have  been  in 
operation  at  least  twenty  years.  At  most  of 
the  observatories,  the  observations  date  from 
1876,  when  the  department  was  *  imperialized.' 
In  June,  1878,  the  government  of  India  sanc- 
tioned arrangements  for  the  publication  of  a 
daily  weather  report,  which  included  observa- 
tions made  at  10  a.m.,  at  about  100  stations. 


116 


.  SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No. 


The  hour  was  later  changed  to  8  a.m.  It  is  to 
be  noted  that  certain  persistent  discrepancies 
appear  when  the  observations,  after  reduction 
to  sea-level,  are  compared,  the  most  noteworthy 
cases  being  those  of  stations  which  are  more 
or  less  completely  shut  in  by  hills  of  consider- 
able elevation.  The  result  of  this  condition 
is  to  check  somewhat  the  horizontal  movement 
of  the  air,  and  to  give  too  high  a  pressure  dur- 
ing the  morning.  At  the  three  stations  where 
this  topographic  effect  is  most  marked  the 
excess  of  pressure  averages  about  .02  inch 
at  8  A.M. 

NOTE. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  winter  snowfall  is 
a  great  help  in  lumbering  operations  in  our 
northern  forests,  for  it  greatly  facilitates  the 
labor  of  hauling  out  the  trees.  In  a  recent 
article  on  the  'Forest  School  at  Biltmore' 
(Forestry  and  Irrigation,  November),  Dr. 
Schenck  notes,  among  the  disadvantages  of 
the  Biltmore  forest  tracts,  the  lack  of  winter 
snows,  which  allow  'cheap  sleighing  to  take 
the  place  of  expensive  wagoning.' 

R.  DeC.  Ward. 


THE  A880CIATI0N  OF  OFFICIAL  AGRI- 
CULTURAL   CHEMISTS. 

The  twentieth  annual  meeting  of  the  asso- 
ciation was  held  at  the  Columbian  University, 
Washington,  D.  C,  on  November  19,  20,  21, 
with  an  attendance  of  150,  the  largest  on 
record.  A  large  part  of  the  meeting  was  de- 
voted to  the  reports  of  the  referees  and  asso- 
ciate referees  on  the  analysis  of  foods.  Dr. 
William  Frear,  as  chairman  of  the  committee 
on  pure  food  standards,  reported  that  those 
on  meats  and  the  principal  meat  products, 
milk  and  its  products,  sugars  and  related  sub- 
stances, condiments  (except  vinegar),  and 
cocoa  products,  were  ready  for  adoption  as 
official  and  the  proclamation  so  declaring  them 
was  signed  by  Secretary  Wilson  on  November 
21.  The  circular  containing  these  standards 
is  now  in  press  and  will  be  ready  for  distribu- 
tion in  a  short  time. 

Slight  changes  were  made  in  the  official 
methods  for  the  analysis  of  sugars  and  in- 
secticides and  a  new  division  of  the  work  was 
created  by  a  motion  to  appoint  a  referee  on 


drugs.  A  resolution  was  adopted  requesi 
the  Bureau  of  Standards  through  its  ch^ 
to  participate  in  the  work  of  the  referees 
ing  standard  methods  of  analysis.  The  e 
mittee  on  fertilizer  legislation  was  instru< 
to  prepare  a  bill  for  submission  to  Cong 
regulating  interstate  commerce  in  fertill 
and  fertilizing  materials. 

The  executive  committee  was  given  pen 
sion  to  call  the  meeting  of  the  associa' 
next  year  at  St.  Louis  and  there  is  e^ 
probability  that  such  action  will  be  tal 
The  officers  elected  are  as  follows: 

President — ^M.  E.  Jaffa,  Berkeley,  Cal. 

Vice-President — C.  L.  Penny,  Newark,  Del. 

Secretary — H.  W.  Wiley,  Washington,  D. 

Additional  Members  of  the  Executive  Comnf 
— W.  P.  Headden,  Fort  Collins,  Colo.;  W 
Perkins,  Agricultural  College,  Mass. 


SCIENTIFIC    NOTES   AND    NEWS. 
Mr.  Shyamaji  Krishnavarma,  of  India, 
offered  $5,000  to  Oxford  University  to  es 
lish  a  lectureship  in  honor  of  Herbert  Spei 
to  be  known  as  the  Spencer  Lectureship. 

The  prize  for  French  contributions  to 
ence  given  by  M.  Osiris  through  the  P 
Press  Association  has  been  divided  bet\w 
Mme.  Curie  and  M.  Branly.  Mme.  Curie 
ceives  60,000  francs  for  her  work  on  radi 
and  M.  Branly  40,000  francs  for  his  worl 
connection  with  wireless  telegraphy. 

The  sixtieth  birthday  of  Dr.  Robert  K 
was  celebrated  on  December  11.  A  port 
bust  was  unveiled  in  the  Institute  for 
fectious  Diseases,  Berlin,  a  museum  for  1 
teriology  was  established  and  a  Festschrif 
in  press.  Dr.  Koch  expects  to  return  f: 
South  Africa  in  March. 

At  the  St.  Louis  meeting  of  the  Astron 
ical  and  Astrophysical  Society  of  America 
following  officers,  including  those  who  1 
over,  were  elected  for  the  ensuing  y< 
President,  Simon  Newcomb;  First  Vice-Pi 
dent,  George  E.  Hale;  Second  Vice-Presid 
W.  W.  Campbell;  Secretary,  George  C.  C 
stock;  Treasurer,  C.  L.  Doolittle;  Council 
Ormond  Stone,  W.  S.  Eichelberger,  E. 
Pickering,  R.  S.  Woodward. 


Januabt  15,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


117 


At  the  St.  Louis  meeting  of  the  Geological 
Society  of  America,  Professor  John  C.  Bran- 
ner,  of  Stanford  University,  was  elected  presi- 
dent and  Professor  H.  L.  Fairchild,  of  the 
University  of  Rochester,  was  reelected  secre- 
tary. We  regret  that  the  liames  were  acci- 
dentally interchanged  in  the  last  issue  of 
Science. 

Governor  Bates,  of  Massachusetts,  in  his 
annual  message  recommends  the  appointment 
of  a  state  forester  and  greater  attention  to  the 
forest  resources  of  the  state. 

Professor  N.  S.  Shaler,  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, will  spend  the  next  four  months 
abroad  traveling  in  Egypt,  Asia  Minor  and 
Greece. 

Dr.  J.  C.  Branner,  professor  of  geology  at 
Stanford  University,  has  received  leave  of 
absence  and  is  about  to  go  to  Europe. 

The  American  Geologist  states  that  Mr.  O. 
H.  Hershey  has  charge  of  the  gold  mine  in 
Humboldt  County,  California,  and  is  study- 
ing the  geology  of  the  Klamath  Mountains. 

An  Ohio  State  Forestry  Association  has 
been  organized  with  Mr.  W.  I.  Chamberlain 
as  president,  and  Professor  W.  E^  Lazenby  as 
secretary. 

Dr.  Herman  M.  Bigos,  medical  officer  of  the 
health  board  of  the  City  of  New  York,  lec- 
tured at  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
on  January  5,  his  subject  being  *  The  Health 
of  the  City  of  New  York.' 

Sir  Oliver  Lodge  lectured  at  the  University 
of  Birmingham  on  *  Radium  and  its  Meaning,' 
on  January  5,  Mr.  Joseph  Chamberlain,  the 
chancellor  of  the  university,  presiding. 

Mr.  Gifford  Pinchot,  chief  of  the  Bureau 
of  Forestry,  will  attend  the  meetings  of  the 
National  Live  Stock  Association  and  the  Na- 
tional Woolgrowers'  Association,  which  will 
be  held  at  Portland,  Ore.,  from  January  11-16, 
in  order  to  learn  the  sentiment  of  these  asso- 
ciations in  regard  to  the  policy  of  forest  re- 
serves. 

Professor  Russell  H.  Chittenden,  director 
of  the  Sheffield  Scientific  School  of  Yale  Uni- 
versity, has  announced  the  thirty-eighth 
Course  of  Sheffield  Lectures  for  1904.  The 
list  of  subjects  and  speakers  is  as  follows: 


January  15.  *  The  Tower  of  Fe\€e:  New  Re- 
searches in  Martinique ' :  Professor  Angelo  Heil- 
prin. 

January  22.  *  Triumphs  of  Engineering  * :  Mr. 
Frank   W.   Skinner,  C.E. 

January  29.  '  Expeditions  among  the  Rockies 
of  British  Columbia;  a  Reconnaissance  for  the 
Platinum  Metals ' :  Mr.  Howard  W.  DuBois,  M.E. 

February  6.  'Around  the  World  in  Search  of 
the  Unexpected':  Mr.  Horace  Fletcher. 

February  12.  *  Recent  Archeological  Discov- 
eries in  Northwestern  America ' :  Mr.  Harlan  I. 
Smith. 

February  19.  'Wireless  Telegraphy*:  Pro- 
fessor M.  I.  Pupin. 

February  26.  'Comets':  Professor  Frederick 
L.  Chase. 

March  4.  '  The  Revolutionary  Movement  in  the 
Philippines ' :  Capt.  John  R.  M.  Taylor,  U.S.A. 

March  11.  'Electrochemistry  at  Niagara 
Falls':  Professor  C.  F.  Chandler. 

March  18.  '  Radio-activity ' :  Professor  Ernest 
Rutherford. 

Professor  Karl  Alfred  von  Zittel,  the 
eminent  paleontologist  of  the  University  of 
Munich,  died  on  January  6. 

Mr.  Henry  W.  Lothrop,  a  student  of  ento- 
mology, died  at  Providence,  R.  L,  on  January 
5,  at  the  age  of  sixty  years. 

Mr.  Beverly  Burton,  an  American  chemist, 
who  has  resided  in  Munich  for  a  number  of 
years,  died  in  that  city  on  January  5. 

A  CIVIL  service  examination  will  be  held  on 
February  8  and  4  to  fill  vacancies  in  the 
position  of  civil  engineer  in  the  Philippine 
services  at  salaries  of  $1,400  and  $1,800. 

The  House  of  Representatives  has  appro- 
priated $250,000  toward  the  eradication  of  the 
cotton  boll  weevil. 

The  will  of  Peter  B.  Brigham,  of  Boston, 
leaving  $5,000,000  to  the  Brigham  Hospital, 
has  been  sustained  by  the  court. 

John  William  Cuoworth  has  bequeathed 
about  £70,000  to  the  Dr.  Pusey  Library, 
Oxford. 

Herr  a.  Samson  has  bequeathed  to  the 
Munich  Academy  of  Science  600,000  Marks 
for  research  in  scientific  ethics. 

The  Electrical  World  states  that  in  order  to 
celebrate  the  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  the 
introduction  and  commercial  development  of 


118 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  1 


the  incandescent  lamp,  the  friends  and  asso- 
ciates of  Mr.  Thomas  A.  Edison  have  taken 
steps  to  found  a  medal  which  will  be  entrusted 
to  the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engi- 
neers. The  circular  which  is  being  issued  by 
the  Edison  Medal  Asociation  announces  that 
it  is  the  intention  that  the  medals  shall  be 
awarded  each  year  to  the  graduating  student 
who  shall  present  the  best  thesis  on  some 
original  subject  from  the  universities  and 
colleges  of  the  United  States  and  Canada 
which  have  regular  courses  in  electrical  engi- 
neering. It  is  proposed  that  the  medal  shall 
be  executed  by  some  artist  of  distinction  and 
that  if  possible  a  permanent  fund  of  about 
$5,000  shall  be  established  for  its  maintenance. 
It  is  proposed  to  present  the  medal  fund  at 
the  annual  dinner  of  the  institute  on  February 
11,  which  is  Mr.  Edison's  birthday. 

We  learn  from  Nature  that  the  Venetian 
Academy  of  Sciences,  Letters  and  Arts,  offers 
prizes  of  3,000  lire  under  the  Querini- 
Stampaglia  foundation  for  monographs  on  the 
following  subjects :  The  lakes  of  Venetian  dis- 
trict, treated  from  a  physiographic  and  biolog- 
ical standpoint;  the  works  of  Manuzi  as  a 
critic  of  Greek  and  Latin  literature;  the 
origins  of  Venetian  painting;  and  advances  in 
the  projective  geometry  of  algebraic  surfaces 
of  two  dimensions  in  space  of  n  dimensions. 
Under  the  Cavalli  foundation,  a  similar  prize 
is  offered  for  an  essay  on  the  effects  of  modern 
social  and  economic  conditions,  etc.,  on  land- 
lords and  farmers,  with  especial  reference  to 
the  Venetian  provinces.  Under  the  Balbi 
Valier  foundation  an  award  of  the  same 
amount  is  offered  for  advances  in  medicine  or 
surgery  for  the  period  1902-3,  and  under  the 
Minich  foundation  a  prize  of  3,000  lire  is 
offered  for  embryological  'researches  on  the  de- 
velopment of  the  larynx,  the  trachea  and  the 
lungs  in  vertebrates  and  birds. 

In  his  annual  message  Governor  Odell,  of 
New  York,  writes  as  follows  in  regard  to  the 
New  York  State  School  of  Forestry:  "By 
Chapter  122  of  the  Laws  of  1898  the  State 
purchased  Townships  23  and  26  in  the  County 
of  Franklin,  and  CornoU  L^niversity  there- 
upon took  title  and  undertook  practical  dem- 
onstration and  instruction  in  the   School  of 


Forestry.  Its  operations  had  for  their 
the  substitution  for  so-called  worthless  i 
of  valuable  growths,  but  this  has  resul 
the  practical  destruction  of  all  trees  up 
lands  where  the  experiment  was  in  pr< 
No  compensating  benefits  seem  possible 
present  generation.  The  preservation 
forests  is  primarily  for  the  protection 
water  supply,  and  this  is  not  possible  tl 
the  denudation  of  the  lands.  Therefoi 
school  failed  of  its  object,  as  understc 
its  founders,  a  failure  which  was  no 
however,  to  the  work  of  the  uni\ 
which  followed  out  the  letter  and  spi 
the  law.  The  report  of  the  committee 
assembly  at  the  last  session  of  the  1 
ture,  and  the  knowledge  of  the  disapprc 
many  of  our  citizens,  led  me  to  veto  th 
for  its  support  in  the  appropriation  1 
1903.  The  question,  therefore,  is  befoi 
and  to  the  legislature  we  must  accor 
look  for  such  action  as  will  properly  ] 
all  interests.  Cornell  University  und 
this  work  at  the  request  of  the  state,  j 
such  was  its  agent.  In  so  doing  it  has 
contracts  for  which  it  is  primarily  respo 
but  which  responsibility  as  the  agent 
commonwealth  it  should  not  be  called 
to  assume.  Neither  should  the  sch 
founded  be  discontinued,  because  wii 
lapse  of  years  a  proper  understanding  of 
tific  forestry  will  become  more  and  n 
necessity.  This  is  particularly  true  oi 
forestry,  which  will  form  an  importan 
in  the  future  of  agriculture  within  the 
That  our  people  do  not  desire,  howeve; 
public  lands  shall  be  denuded  is  beyonc 
tion.  It  would  seem,  therefore,  desirab 
immediate  legislation  be  had  to  recover 
state  this  property,  of  which  there  are 
30,000  acres,  and  for  the  payment  in 
treasury  of  the  unexpended  portion  • 
oaptital  fund  advanced  by  the  state.  P 
si  on  should  be  given  to  clear  up  and  i 
all  cut  timber  and  wood  by  the  univers 
that  the  danger  of  fire  may  be  lessened. 
contracts  made  between  Cornell  and  the 
lyn  Cooperage  Company  might  be  lef 
t\\o  executive  for  adjustment,  and  fail 
tliis  either  to  the  Court  of  Claims,  if  th 


Jasuary  15,  1904.] 


SCIENCE 


119 


is  to  be  the  party  defendant,  or  to  the  Supreme 
Court  if  Cornell  should  be  the  responsible  de- 
fondant.  In  neither  case,  however,  should  any 
burden  be  placed  upon  the  university. 

Mk.  Jam£S  Boyle,  U.  S.  Consul  at  Liver- 
pool, England,  writes  to  the  Department  of 
State  that  the  British  government  has  taken 
the  first  step  toward  the  adoption  of  the 
decimal  system  of  weights.  It  has  just  been 
announced  by  the  Board  of  Trade  that,  under 
a  special  order  in  council,  it  will  sanction  the 
use  of  a  weight  of  50  pounds,  instead  of  the 
present  standards  of  112  pounds  (called  a 
hundredweight)  and  56  pounds  (called  a  half 
hundredweight).  The  50  pounds  is  by  this 
action  made  a  legal  standard  of  weight.  This 
reform  has  been  adopted  after  forty  years  of 
agitation  by  Liverpool  merchants  and  later 
on  by  petitions  to  the  government  by  the 
chambers  of  conimerce  throughout  the  coun- 
try, and  particularly  by  the  chamber  of  com- 
merce of  this  city.  Liverpool  has  felt  the 
necessity  for  the  change  more  than  any  other 
city,  as  this  is  the  leading  entrepot  for  Ameri- 
can and  colonial  produce  of  bulk,  the  weighing 
of  which  is  a  considerable  item  in  the  handling 
and,  indeed,  in  the  ultimate  cost  of  the  ship- 
ments. More  cotton,  com,  provisions  and 
tobacco  are  imported  into  Liverpool  than  into 
any  other  city  in  the  world,  and  by  far  the 
largest  proportion  of  these  imports  come  from 
the  United  States;  so  the  United  States  is 
peculiarly  interested  in  the  reform  just  insti- 
tuted. The  Liverpool  Journal  of  Commerce 
comments  approvingly  as  follows: 

All  these  great  quantities  are  calculated  by  the 
American  sellers  in  pounds  avoirdupois,  but  by 
the  British  buyers  they  have  had  to  be  counted 
in  hundredweights,  quarters,  and  pounds,  in  ac- 
cordance with  our  antiquated  and  absurd  and 
anomalous  system  of  weights.  What  is  the  con- 
sequence ?  To  give  a  concrete  example :  The  buyer 
wishes  to  ascertain,  say,  the  weight  of  100  pounds 
of  tobacco;  to  do  so  the  nearest  weight  he  can 
employ  is  a  quarter,  or  56  pounds,  to  which  must 
be  added  smaller  weights  until  the  exact  quantity 
is  ascertained.  But  two  60-pound  weights  will 
give  him  the  exact  amount  at  once;  three  will 
give  hira  the  weight  of  160  pounds,  four  200 
pounds,  and  so  on,  smaller  weights  being  used  for 
fractions  of  60  pounds.  The  consequence  is  an 
enormous  simplification  of  calculation.     It  should 


be  remembered  that  the  meh  who  weigh  these 
materials  at  the  docks  are  not,  as  a  rule,  mathe- 
maticians who  can  tell  the  time  of  day  by  algebra. 
They  are  largely  day  laborers,  who  have  not  had 
a  superior  education,  and  to  weigh  quantities 
with  a  set  of  weights  necessitating  the  calculation 
of  fractions  of  pounds,  and  thereby  the  use  of 
dozens  of  small  weights,  necessitates  a  mental 
effort  of  which  all  are  not  capable,  and  the  use 
of  a  multiplicity  of  weights  which  confuses  them 
leads  to  errors  and  loss  of  time — and  time  is 
money.  But  by  the  adoption  of  a  50-pound 
weight  a  unit  of  calculation  has  been  obtained 
w^hich  will  sweep  away  a  whole  set  of  weights, 
prevent  errors,  and  save  confusion,  time  and 
money.  It  should  be  remembered  that  the  pres- 
ent oomplicated  and  wasteful  method  of  calcula- 
ting weigths  has  to  be  gone  through  four  times — 
first,  when  the  goods  are  warehoused;  second, 
by  the  customs,  for  the  purpose  of  duty;  third, 
in  the  counting-house;  and  fourth,  in  the  factory 
— and  in  all  these  cases  the  same  cumbrous  sys- 
tem of  calculation  by  hundredweights,  quarters 
and  pounds  has  to  be  gone  through,  and  the  loss 
of  time,  convenience  and  money  quadrupled.  But 
by  the  adoption  of  a  60-pound  weight,  though  four 
separate  calculations  will  still  be  necessary,  they 
can  be  done  simply  and  quickly.  The  savings  in 
bookkeeping  will  alone  be  great.  The  present 
system  necessitates  a  maze  of  figures  of  different 
denominations;  but  by  their  reduction  to  the  one 
common  denominator  of  pounds  weight  whole 
columns  of  figures  will  be  saved  and  the  risk  of 
mistakes  minimized. 

Americans  have  great  difficulty  in  under- 
standing the  English  system  of  weights — 
almost  as  much  as  they  encounter  in  trying 
to  understand  the  English  fractional  system 
of  coinage.  For  instance,  if  you  ask  a  man 
here  how  much  he  weighs  he  will  tell  you,  say, 
*  11  stone  7.'  '  A  *  stone '  is  14  pounds ;  so  11 
stone  would  be  154  pounds,  and  adding  the 
extra  7  pounds  the  weight  given  would  be  161 
pounds.  Even  Englishmen  *  to  the  manner 
born'  have  to  make  a  mental  calculation  in 
arriving  at  the  result  in  pounds  in  such  a 
case.  Sometimes  provisions  and  other  articles 
are  sold  at  so  much  a  stone,  and  then  if  the 
quantity  purchased  weighs  a  few  odd  pounds 
over  a  stone  or  a  number  of  stones  the  pur- 
chaser and  seller  have  to  figure  out  the  price 
per  pound.  It  is  the  hope  and  expectation 
that  the  results  from  the  adoption  of  the  new 


120 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX 


standard  weight  of  50  pounds  will  be  so  satis- 
factory that  before  long  the  old-fashioned 
'hundredweight'  of  112  pounds  will  be  en- 
tirely abolished  along  with  the  stone,  and  that 
a  decimal  fractional  system  of  5  pounds,  10 
pounds,  and  25  pounds  will  come  into  general 
use. 

We  learn  from  the  London  Times  that  the 
first  meeting  for  the  session  of  the  Geologists' 
Association,  held  recently,  took  the  form  of 
a  conversazione,  held  in  the  library  of  Uni- 
versity College,  London.  The  most  important 
geological  exhibits  were  the  erratics  from 
Hertfordshire,  and  the  facetted  pebbles  from 
Berkshire  and  Oxfordshire,  shown  by  Dr. 
Salter;  the  Hertfordshire  pudding-stones  by 
Mr.  Green,  and  the  iron,  flint  and  lime  con- 
cretions, closely  resembling  animal  forms, 
sent  by  Dr.  Abbitt.  The  small  erratics  are  of 
great  interest,  as  it  is  not  easy  to  account  for 
the  presence  of  rhomboid  porphyry  of  Nor- 
wegian origin  on  the  uplands  of  Hertfordshire. 
On  this  subject  Dr.  Salter  intends  to  publish 
a  paper,  advancing  another  theory  than  that 
generally  accepted — the  transportation  by  ice 
across  the  North  Sea.  The  facetted  pebbles 
of  banded  quartzite  were  probably  worn  down 
by  a  natural  sand-blast.  Anthropology  was 
well  represented.  The  Rev.  R  Ashington 
BuUen  showed  prehistoric  implements;  as  did 
Mr.  Elliott,  whose  exhibits  included  photo- 
graphs of  and  implements  from  the  Mentone 
caves.  Among  the  other  exhibits  were  worked 
Chinese  jade,  collections  of  fossil  moUusca, 
photographs  and  maps,  and  other  objects  of 
interest  to  students  of  geology. 

The  following  books  have  recently  been  sold 
at  auction  in  London : '  Catalogue  of  the  Birds 
in  the  British  Museum,'  from  Vol.  1  to  Vol. 
27, 1874-95,  with  numerous  beautifully-colored 
plates,  £32 ;  the  Ibis,  from  1859  to  1903,  with 
numerous  colored  plates  and  the  general 
index,  1877-94,  £60;  'Colored  Figures  of 
the  Birds  of  the  British  Islands,'  1891-97, 
second  edition,  £63 ;  H.  E.  Dresser,  '  History 
of  the  Birds  of  Europe,'  published  by  the 
author,  1871-96,  with  numerous  colored  plates, 
£61 ;  two  by  John  Gould,  '  The  Birds  of  Great 
Britain,'  1873,  £58 ;  '  Birds  of  Asia,'  1860-83, 
£75;  'English  Botany,'  1790-94,  36  volumes. 


£18  15s. ;  W.  C.  Hewitson, '  Exotic  Bx 
1876,  £19. 

UNIVERSITY  AND   EDUCATIONAL 

Cornell  University  will  receive  n: 
$200,000  from  the  estate  of  the  late  ] 
W.  Guiteau  of  Irvington-on-the 
which  is  nearly  $50,000  more  than 
nounced  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Guiteai 
last  year.  The  money  will  be  used  a 
for  the  assistance  of  needy  students, 
be  lent  them  without  interest. 

By  the  will  of  George  Sykes,  of  I 
Conn.,  a  fund  of  $100,000  is  provid 
manual  training  schooL 

A  NEW  science  hall,  to  cost  $100,000 
erected   at   Colgate   University.       A 
about   $30,000   has   been  subscribed 
purpose. 

The  French  minister  of  public  ine 
has  recommended  the  establishment  oi 
of  physics  at  the  University  of  Paris,  i 
M.  Curie  will  be  called. 
.  In  the  report  of  the  registration  of 
versities,  recently  published  in  Sci£] 
number  of  students  in  the  graduate  s 
the  University  of  Michigan  was  givei 
We  are  informed  that  it  was  at  that 
least  85,  and  is  now  nearly  100. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Dabney  has  acce{ 
presidency  of  the  University  of  Cin 

Dr.  George  Stuart  Fullerton,  prof 
philoisophy  at  the  University  of  Penns 
and  formerly  dean  and  vice-provost,  h 
elected  professor  of  philosophy  at  d 
University. 

At  Teachers  College,  Columbia  Uni 
Dr.  Edward  L.  Thomdike  was  pTomot< 
an  adjunct  professorship  to  a  profes 
of  psychology;  Dr.  J.  H.  MacVanne 
an  instructorship  to  an  adjunct  prof« 
in  education,  and  Dr.  Herman  Vulte 
lectureship  to  an  adjunct  professorshiji 
mestic  science. 

Mr.  Gilbert  Van  Inobn  has  been  ap 
assistant  in  geology  and  curator  in  i 
brate  paleontology  at  Princeton  Univei 

Mr.  Howard  D.  Minchik,  of  the  Un: 
of  Michigan,  has  been  appointed  ins 
in  physics  at  Rochester  University. 


SCIENCE 


A   WBBKLY  JOURNAL  DEVOTED  TO  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OP  SCIENCE,  PUBLISHING  THE 
OPPICIAL  NOTICES  AND   PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION 

FOR  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OP  SCIENCE. 


Friday,  January  22,  1904. 


The  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science: — 

Geography  in  the  United  States,  /.:  Pro- 
FS6SOB  W.  M.  Davis 121 

Borne  Unsolved  Problems  of  Organic  Adapta- 
tion: Pbofessob  Chabl£S  W.  Haboitt.  . . .  182 

Scientific  Books: — 

The  Honeysuckles:  Db.  N.  L.  Britton. 
Human  Anatomy  in  the  International  Cata- 
logue  of  Scientific  Literature :  M 145 

Scientific  Journals  and  Articles 147 

Societies  and  Academies: — 

The  Ban  Francisco  Section  of  the  American 
Mathematical  Society:  Pbofessob  G.  A. 
Miller.  The  Anthropological  Society  of 
Washington:  Dr.  Walter  Hough.  The 
Science  Club  of  the  University  of  Wiscon- 
sin: Victor  Lenher 148 

Discussion  and  Correspondence:—^ 

The  Lunar  Theory:  Professor  Asaph 
Hall.  The^  Scaurs  on  the  River  Rouge: 
Dr.  Mark  S.  W.  Jefferson 150 

Shorter  Articles: — 

Wonder  Horses  and  Mendelism:  Professor 
C.  B.  Davenport.  The  Inherita/nce  of  Song 
in  Passerine  Birds:  William  E.  D.  Scott.    151 

The  U.  S.  Naval  Observatory 154 

Scientific  Notes  and  News 156 

University  and  Educational  News 160 


U8S.  Intended  for  publication  and  booki,  etc..  Intended 
for  reTlew  ihoold  be  sent  to  the  Editor  of  Scisncb,  Oarrl- 
■on-on-Hodion,  N.  T. 


GEOGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES,''      /. 

For  twenty  years  past  our  section  has 
acknowledged  in  its  name  an  equal  rank 
for  geology  and  geography,  but  not  one  of 
the  vice-presidential  addresses  during  that 
period,  or,  indeed,  since  the  foundation  of 
the  association  over  fifty  years  ago,  has 
been  concerned  with  the  subject  second 
named.  Unless  we  cross  oflf  geography 
from  the  list  of  our  responsibilities,  it 
should  certainly  receive  at  least  occasional 
attention;  let  me,  therefore,  depart  from 
all  precedents,  and,  even  though  geologists 
may  form  the  majority  in  this  gathering, 
consider  the  standing  of  geography  among 
the  sciences  of  the  United  States;  how  it 
has  reached  the  place  it  now  occupies,  and 
what  the  prospects  are  for  its  further  ad- 
vance. 

One  measure  of  the  place  that  geography 
occupies  in  this  country  may  be  made  by 
considering  the  share  that  geographical 
problems  have  had  in  the  proceedings  of 
our  association;  here  follow,  therefore,  the 
results  of  a  brief  examination  of  our  fifty 
volumes  of  records.  In  the  early  years  of 
the  association  there  was  no  fixed  division 
into  sections.  The  meetings  were  some- 
times so  small  that  papers  from  various 
sciences  were  presented  in  general  session. 
At  least  once  in  the  early  years  the  work 
of  our  predecessors  was  recorded  under  the 
general  heading,  *  natural  history,  etc.' 
As  early  as  in  1851  there  was  a  section  of 

*  Address  of  the  vice-president  and  chairman  of 
Section  E — Geology  and  Geography — of  the  Ameri- 
can Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science, 
St.  Louis  meeting,  December,  1903. 


A 


/ 


122 


SCIENCE. 


[X.S.  Vol.  XIX.  N< 


geology  and  physical  geography,  and 
another  of  ethnology  and  geography,  but 
that  classification  did  not  endure.  Once 
only,  in  1853,  did  geography  stand  by 
itself  as  a  sectional  heading,  but  at  many 
meetings  physics  of  the  globe  and  meteor- 
ology had  places  to  themselves.  Through 
the  '60 's  and  70 's  geography  was  some- 
times coupled  with  geology,  but  the  latter 
more  often  stood  alone  or  with  paleontol- 
ogy, and  it  was  not  until  the  Montreal 
meeting  of  1882  that  Section  E  was  defi- 
nitely organized  with  the  title  that  it  now 
bears. 

In  those  years  when  physics  of  the  globe 
and  meteorology  were  given  sectional  rank, 
problems  concerning  the  ocean  and  the  at- 
mosphere received  a  good  share  of  atten- 
tion. It  is  curious  to  note,  in  contrast  to 
this,  how  little  consideration  has  been 
•  given  to  the  exploration  and  description  of 
the  lands,  that  is,  to  the  geography  of  the 
lands,  in  this  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science,  either  before  or  after  the 
establishment  of  the  double  name  for  our 
section.  The  exploration  of  f c  reign  lands, 
for  many  years  a  prominent  subject  in  the 
meetings  of  the  British  Association,  where 
geography  has  had  a  section  to  itself  since 
1869,  has  attracted  hardly  any  notice  in 
our  gatherings;  perhaps  because  we  have 
been  busy  exploring  our  own  domain.  At 
the  first  meeting,  1848,  a  summary  of  then 
recent  explorations,  prepared  by  Alexan- 
der, is  the  only  paper  of  its  kind.  Other 
papers  treating  the  geography  of  foreign 
lands  are  so  few  in  number  that  most  of 
them  may  be  noted  here;  in  1850,  Squier 
gave  an  evening  address  on  the  volcanoes 
of  Central  America;  in  1858  and  1860, 
Hayes  and  Wheildon  discussed  arctic  ex- 
ploration; Orton  described  the  valley  of 
the  Amazon  in  1869 ;  in  1884  and  1898,  two 
English  visitors  had  papers  on  different 
parts  of  Asia;  in  1891  and  1898,  Craw- 
ford described  features  of  Nicaragua:  and 


in  1894  and  1895,  Hubbard  read  pj 
on  China,  Corea  and  Japan.  Even 
logical  essays  on  foreign  regions  have 
few;  Dana,  Branner,  Hill,  Spencer, 
prin  and  Hitchcock  being  the  chief 
tributors.  Inattention  to  foreign  exp 
tion  is,  however,  not  to  be  fully  explj 
by  devotion  to  the  geography  of  our 
country,  so  far  as  the  latter  is  meas 
by  the  pages  devoted  to  it  in  our  pro 
ings.  The  first  meeting  started 
enough,  with  accounts  of  the  terrac 
Lake  Superior  by  Agassiz,  of  the  ph^ 
geography  cf  northern  Mississippi  by 
ton,  and  of  the  topography  of  Per 
vania  and  Ohio  by  Roberts.  Agaii 
1851,  when  physical  geography  was  n 
with  geology,  the  first  subject  had 
essays,  the  distribution  of  animals  in 
fornia,  and  the  climate,  fiora  and  fau 
northern  Ohio;  and  geography  joint 
the  same  year  with  ethnology  had 
rather  scattering  titles:  a  deep-sea 
near  the  Gulf  Stream,  measuremei 
heights  by  the  barometer,  and  a  geog 
ical  department  in  the  Library  of 
gress;  but  this  beginning  had  no  w 
sequel.  The  many  expeditions  acros 
western  territory  contributed  little 
graphic  matter  to  our  records;  in 
Blake  described  the  orography  of  the 
em  United  States,  and  Emory  the  b< 
ary  of  the  United  States  and  M( 
and  the  latter  added  in  1857  an  accoi: 
the  western  mountain  systems  of  1 
America.  From  that  time  onward 
has  been  very  little  primarily  of  a 
graphical  nature  concerning  the  L" 
States.  Even  the  modern  discussio 
glacial  geology  in  the  last  t\venty  ; 
profitable  as  they  have  been  to  the 
ical  geographers  of  glaciated  regions, 
in  very  few,  if  any,  cases  been  preseni 
contributions  to  geography.  The 
phase  of  the  physiography  ( f  the  lai 
scantily    represented ;     there     have 


Jauuaby  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


123 


hardly  more  than  accounts  of  Mexico  by 
Hill,  of  California  by  Perriri  Smith,  of 
North  Carolina  by  Cobb ;  it  is  to  be  noted, 
moreover,  that  these  three  authors  are  pri- 
marily geologists,  not  geographers.  This 
meager  showing  leads  one  to  suspect  that 
our  proceedings  do  not  give  a  fair  measure 
of  geographical  activity  in  North  America. 
There  has  been  in  reality  a  great  deal 
of  work  of  a  geographical  nature  done  by 
our  people,  but  the  proceedings  of  the  asso- 
ciation do  not  seem  to  have  commended 
themselves  as  a  place  to  put  the  work  on 
record.  Our  geological  surveys,  state  and 
national,  have  contributed  numerous  geo- 
graphic chapters  and  reports  of  prime 
value;  our  weather  bureau  is  in  many  re- 
spects the  leading  institution  of  its  kind; 
our  coast  survey  sets  a  high  standard  for 
triangulation,  coast  maps  and  tide  current 
studies ;  we  have  held  a  prominent  place  in 
arctic  exploration,  and  have  taken  some 
part  in  exploration  elsewhere.  But  in 
spite  of  all  this  accomplishment,  we  have 
not  made  great  contributions  to  the  full- 
fledged  science  of  geography.  There  are, 
for  example,  few  steps  toward  scientific 
geography  of  greater  value  than  good 
maps,  but  for  the  geographer  to  stop  with 
the  production  of  good  maps  is  as  if  the 
botanist  stopped  with  the  collection  of 
dried  plants.  The  survey  reports  of  our 
various  states  and  territories  contain  a 
great  fund  of  geographical  matter,  and 
some  of  the  members  of  these  surveys  have 
carried  the  physical  geography  of  the 
lands  so  far  forward  as  to  develop  it  into 
a  new  science,  to  which  a  name,  geomor- 
phy  or  geomorphogeny,  has  been  given; 
yet  geography  has  not  flourished  among  us 
as  a  maturely  developed  subject.  The  sur- 
vey reports  have  not,  as  a  rule,  been  pre- 
pared by  persons  whose  training  and  inter- 
ests were  primarily  geographical,  and  very 
few  of  the  geomorphogenists  have  carried 
their  new  science  forward  into  a  geograph- 


ical relation;  they  have  usually  stopped 
with  the  physical  aspects  of  the  subject, 
and  left  the  organic  aspects  with  scanty 
consideration.  It  is  as  if  there  had  been 
some  impediment  in  the  way  of  the  full 
development  of  geography  as  a  maturely 
organized  science.  There  are  in  fact  three 
serious  impediments. 

During  all  these  years  geography  has 
suffered  greatly  from  being  traditionally 
a  school  subject  in  its  educational  rela- 
tions; the  subject  as  a  whole  has  been 
almost  everywhere  omitted  from  the  later 
years  of  college  and  university  training, 
although  certain  of  its  component  parts 
have  received  some  attention  in  college 
years.  Again,  geography  as  a  whole  leads 
to  no  professional  career  outside  of  school- 
teaching;  it  is  perhaps  chiefly  on  that  ac- 
count that  our  colleges  and  universities  can 
give  little  time  to  it.  Finally,  there  is  not 
to-day  in  this  country  an  organised  body 
of  mature  geographical  experts  at  all  com- 
parable to  the  bodies  of  physicists  or  of 
zoologists  who  are  organized  into  effective 
working  societies;  in  the  absence  of  such 
an  organization  geography  suffers  greatly 
for  the  lack  of  that  aid  which  comes  from 
mutual  encouragement  among  its  workers. 
How  can  we  remove  these  impediments  of 
low  educational  rank,  no  professional  ca- 
reer and  no  professional  organization? 

Geography  will  find  a  place  in  our  col- 
leges and  universities  very  soon  after  it  is 
shown  to  be  a  subject  as  worthy  of  such  a 
place  as  are  the  subjects  whose  position  is 
already  assured.  Physical  geography  is 
to-day  slowly  winning  a  more  respected 
place  than  it  has  ever  had  among  the  sub- 
jects on  which  examinations  are  set  for 
admission  to  college.  Commercial  or  eco- 
nomic geography  is,  I  believe,  destined  to 
attract  increasing  attention  from  mature 
teachers  and  nearly  mature  students.  The 
general  geography  of  various  parts  of  the 
world  must  receive  more  and  more  consid- 


124 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   N< 


eration  in  our  colleges  during  the  century 
that  opens  with  the  outgrowth  of  our  home 
country ;  and  just  so  soon  as  mature  teach- 
ers of  mature  geography  can  make  their 
lectures  of  value  to  the  young  men  of  to- 
day, who  are  to  be  the  leaders  of  enterprise 
to-morrow,  place  will  be  found  for  geo- 
graphical courses  in  our  higher  institu- 
tions of  learning.  Progress  in  this  respect 
is  visible,  though  not  rapid.  In  order  to 
hasten  progress,  increased  attention  might 
well  be  given  to  so-called  practical  courses 
in  geography,  as  well  as  to  courses  of  a 
generally  descriptive  nature.  The  imped-- 
iment  of  low  educational  rank  is  not  per- 
manent ;  it  need  not  discourage  us,  for  it  is 
destined  to  disappear. 

The  study  of  geography  is  not  likely 
soon  to  lead  to  a  large,  independent  career, 
but  it  may  be  made  useful  in  many  careers, 
as  has  just  been  indicated.  It  will,  how- 
ever, be  made  particularly  serviceable  to 
a  class  of  men  that  is  now  of  small  but  of 
increasing  numbers,  namely,  those  who 
travel  about  the  world,  seeking  fortune, 
entertainment  or  novelty.  With  the  pres- 
ent rapid  increase  of  wealth  among  us,  this 
clajss  is  destined  to  grow,  and  while  it  may 
never  be  large,  it  may  soon  be  important, 
and  its  members  need  careful  cultivation; 
and  at  the  same  time  the  teachers  of  this 
class,  and  of  other  classes  with  whom  geog- 
raphy becomes  important,  will  win  a  re- 
spected career  for  themselves.  The  imped- 
iment arising  from  the  lack  of  a  large  pro- 
fessional career  will,  therefore,  have  no 
great  importance  when  the  many  relations 
of  geography  to  other  subjects  are  recog- 
nized. 

The  third  impediment  to  the  maturing 
of  geography  is  the  most  easily  overcome 
even  if  at  present  the  most  serious,  for  its 
removal  depends  only  on  the  action  of 
geographers  themselves,  and  not  on  the 
action  of  higher  bodies,  such  as  executive 
officers,  trustees  and  so  on,  or  on  the  action 


of  lower  bodies,  such  as  students.    Th 
sence  of  a  society  of  mature  geograp 
experts  is  the  fault  of  the  experts  t 
selves.    No  greater  assistance  to  the  d 
opment  of  mature  scientific  geography 
within  our  reach  than  the  establishme: 
a   geographical   society   which   shall 
rank  with  the  Geological  Society  of  -A 
ica,  for  example,  as  a  society  of  exper 
which  membership  shall  be  open  on] 
those  whose  interests  are  primarily 
graphical   and   whose   capacity   has 
proved  by  published  original  work 
distinctly  geographical  field.     In  ord< 
determine  whether  such  a  society  can 
be   organized,   I  propose   to  consider 
classes  of  persons  in  the  community 
which  the  members  of  the  society  coul 
recruited. 

There  are  at  least  four  classes  of 
graphical  associates,  as  they  may  be  ci 
from  which  mature  geographical  ex] 
might  be  drawn.  First  and  in  la 
number  is  the  class  consisting  of  the  t 
ers  of  geography  in  our  schools.  It  is 
that  our  school-teachers,  as  a  rule,  d< 
themselves  to  immature  geography; 
is,  to  only  so  much  of  the  whole  conte 
the  subject  as  can  be  understood  bj 
nors,  indeed  by  children.  But,  on  the  < 
hand,  one  who  is  acquainted  with  r 
educational  progress  can  not  fail  to  r 
nize  the  notable  advance  made  in  the 
ten  years  alone  in  the  preparation  foi 
in  the  performance  of  geographical  t 
ing.  .  There  are  in  the  secondary  sc 
to-day  a  number  of  teachers  who  are 
petent  to  make  original,  mature  geog: 
ical  exploration  of  their  home  country 
some  of  them  have  actually  traveled 
and  west  with  the  object  of  making 
graphical  studies.  There  are  several  t 
ers'  geography  clubs,  and  the  leading  : 
bers  of  these  clubs  are  thoughtful  woi 
I  am  sure  that  a  significant  number  c 


Ja>'UARY  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


125 


i 


ceptable  members  of  an  expert  geograph- 
ical society  would  be  found  in  this  class. 

The  second  class  of  geographical  asso- 
ciates includes  the  observers  of  the  na- 
tional and  state  weather  services,  who  have 
chiefly  to  do  with  that  important  branch 
of  geography  comprehended  under  clima- 
tology; these  observers  are  gathering  a 
great  crop  of  facts,  not  always  very  accu- 
rately determined  or  very  widely  applied  as 
far  as  the  observers  in  the  state  services  are 
concerned;  yet  from  among  the  thousands 
of  persons  thus  employed  there  will  now 
and  then  come  forth  the  original  worker 
whose  contribution  will  fully  entitle  him  to 
expert  rank;  when  his  published  studies 
are  seen  to  be  of  a  thoroughly  geographical 
character  and  of  a  mature  grade,  they 
would  warrant  his  admission  to  a  society 
of  geographical  experts. 

Third  comes  the  class  made  up  from  the 
members  of  various  governmental  bureaus, 
state  and  national,  whose  work  is  of  a  more 
or  less  geographical  character;  for  exam- 
ple, topographers  and  hydrographers,  geol- 
ogists'and  biologists,  ethnologists  and  stat- 
isticians; this  class  being  as  a  whole  of 
much  higher  scientific  standing  than  the 
two  classes  already  mentioned.  It  may 
happen  that  many  persons  thus  classified 
have  a  first  interest  in  the  strictly  geo- 
graphical side  of  their  studies,  although 
faithful  work  in  the  organization  to  which 
they  belong  associates  them  with  other  sci- 
ences. I  should  expect  the  greatest  part 
of  the  membership  in  a  society  of  geo- 
graphical experts  to  be  drawn  from  this 
class. 

It  may  be  noted  that  the  absence  of 
a  body  of  mature  geographers,  as  well  or- 
ganized and  as  scientifically  productive  as 
are  the  workers  in  various  other  sciences, 
is  explained  by  some  as  an  inherent  char- 
acteristic of  geography,  necessitated  by  the 
great  diversity  of  its  methods  and  its  in- 
terests.   The  diversity  is  already  an  embar- 


rassment, it  is  claimed,  even  in  school 
years ;  and  it  afterwards  compels  the  sepa- 
ration of  the  branches  of  this  highly  com- 
posite subject,  at  best  but  loosely  coherent, 
into  a  number  of  specialities,  each  of  which 
is  so  much  more  closely  allied  to  other 
sciences  than  to  the  other  branches  of  geog- 
raphy, that  those  workers  whose  union 
would  constitute  a  body  of  mature  geo- 
graphical experts  are  found  scattered 
among  other  unions,  geological,  botanical, 
zoological,  ethnological,  economical  and 
historical.  The  claim  that  the  disunion  of 
geographical  experts  is  necessary  does  not 
seem  to  me  well  founded.  May  we  not, 
indeed,  prove  that  there  is  no  such  dis- 
union by  pointing  to  the  fourth  class  of 
geographical  associates,  concerning  whom 
my  silence  thus  far  may  perhaps  have 
awakened  your  curiosity,  namely,  the 
members  of  our  various  geographical  so- 
cities? 

There  are  at  the  present  time  between 
five  and  seven  thousand  such  persons  in 
the  United  States,  but  in  the  absence  of 
any  standard  of  geographical  knowledge 
from  the  requirements  for  membership, 
these  societies  can  not,  I  regret  to  say,  be 
taken  as  evidence  that  there  is  a  common 
bond  by  which  experts  in  all  branches  of 
geography  are  held  together.  None  of  our 
geographical  societies  is  composed  solely 
of  experts,  and  none  of  them  is  held 
together  by  purely  geographical  bonds. 
While  we  must  not  overlook  the  excellent 
work  that  our  geographical  societies  have 
done,  neither  must  we  overlook  the  fact 
that  in  making  no  sufficient  attempt  to 
require  geographical  expertness  as  a  condi- 
tion for  membership,  there  is  a  very  im- 
portant work  that  the  societies  have  left 
undone.  They  have  truly  enough  culti- 
vated a  general  interest  in  subjects  of  a 
more  or  less  geographical  nature,  but  they 
have  failed  to  develop  geography  as  a  ma- 
ture science.     Indeed,  it  may  be  cogently 


I 


126 


SCIENCE. 


[X.  S.  Vo^.  XIX.    ] 


maintained  that  the  absence  of  any  stand- 
ard of  geographical  knowledge  as  a  con- 
dition for  society  membership  has  worked 
as  seriously  against  the  development  of 
mature  scientific  geography  as  has  the  gen- 
eral abandonment  of  geographical  teaching 
to  the  secondary  schools.  Large  member- 
ship seems  to  be  essential  to  the  mainte- 
nance of  good  libraries  in  handsome  so- 
ciety buildings,  and  it  is  certainly  helpful 
in  the  collection  of  funds  with  which  jour- 
nals may  be  published  and  with  which  ex- 
ploring expeditions  may  be  equipped  and 
sent  out.  I  should  regret  to  see  the  mem- 
bership in  a  single  existing  geographical 
society  decreased,  but  I  regret  also  that 
there  is  no  geographical  society  of  the  same 
rank  as  the  American  Mathematical  So- 
ciety, the  American  Physical  Society  or 
many  others  in  which  number  of  members 
is  secondary  to  expert  quality  of  members. 
Large  numbers  of  untrained  persons  are 
not  found  necessary  to  the  maintenance 
of  vigorous  societies  in  which  these  other 
sciences  are  productively  cultivated,  and  it 
is,  therefore,  reasonable  to  believe  that 
large  numbers  would  not  be  essential  to 
the  formation  of  a  geographical  society  of 
high  standing.  Indeed,  it  can  hardly  be 
doubted  that  the  acceptance  of  a  low  sftand- 
ard  for  membership  in  our  geographical 
societies  has  had  much  to  do  with  the  pre- 
vailing indifference  regarding  the  devel- 
opment of  a  high  standard  for  the  qualifi- 
cation of  geographical  experts. 

Not  only  may  any  respectable  person  ob- 
tain membership  in  any  of  our  geograph- 
ical societies,  however  •  ignorant  he  may  be 
of  geography,  but  various  kinds  of  socie- 
ties are  ranked  as  geographical,  even 
though  their  object  may  be  geographical 
in  a  very  small  degree.  This  is  indicated 
by  a  list  of  geographical  societies  recently 
published,  in  which  is  included  a  small 
travelers'  club  lately  organized  in  one  cor- 
ner of  our  country.     The  object  of  this 


club  is  simply  *  the  encouragement  of 
ligent  travel  and  exploration.'  Intei 
rather  than  accomplishment  of  explo 
and  travel  suffice  to  recommend  a 
date,  otherwise  qualified,  for  membc 
The  object  of  travel  is  nowhere  sta 
be  geographical.  As  a  matter  of 
travel  for  the  sake  of  art,  archeolog] 
guage,  history,  astronomy,  geologj 
botany,  for  discovery,  or  even  onl 
sport  and  adventure,  as  well  as  for  si 
geographical  objects,  is  encouraged  h 
young  organization,  which  is  really 
ing  more  than  its  name  claims  it  to 
travelers'  club.  The  same  list  of  geo^ 
ical  societies  includes  several  clu 
excursionists,  outing-takers  or  moi 
climbers,  among  whom,  as  a  matter  o: 
geography  attracts  hardly  more  ir 
than  botany.  These  societies  are 
an  excellent  work  in  taking  their 
bers  outdoors,  sometimes  on  walks 
home,  sometimes  farther  away  to  a 
in  the  country,  sometimes  to  a  camp  i 
the  mountains.  The  chief  result  oi 
outings  is  an  increased  enjoyment  ai 
preciation  of  the  landscape,  of  n 
scenery  and  of  everything  that  enter 
it ;  but  this  excellent  result  is  by  no  ; 
exclusively,  perhaps  not  even  largely 
graphic  in  its  quality. 

One  might  question  whether  geogi 
rank  was  really  accorded  to  these  ch 
general  assent,  if  their  recognition  i 
group  of  geographical  societies  wei 
pressed  only  by  an  individual  opini 
the  list  referred  to ;  but  this  is  not  th( 
In  preparation  for  the  meeting  of  tl 
ternational  Geographical  Congress, 
held  in  this  country  next  summer, 
gates  to  the  committee  of  manag 
have  been  invited  from  the  Appak 
^lountain  Club,  in  one  corner  of  the 
try,  and  from  the  Mazamas  in  an 
The  delegates  appointed  by  these  clul 
as  might  have  been  expected,  men  e 


January  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


J  27 


tent  to  act  with  the  others  in  organizing 
the  congress  for  us,  but  the  same  result 
would  have  been  attained  if  delegates  had 
been   asked   from  the   various   geological, 
botanical,  zoological   and  historical  socie- 
ties, for  all  these  societies  contain  among 
their  members  persons  of  a  certain  amount 
of  geographical  knowledge  and  of  a  suffi- 
cient executive  ability.     The  same  would 
be  true  had  delegates  been  invited  from 
the  Boone  and  Crocket  Club,  a  choice  or- 
ganization of  sportsmen,  for  all  such  clubs 
have  men  of  undoubted  ability  in  the  way 
of  organization  among  their  members,  and 
are  largely  concerned  with  matters  of  geo- 
graphical location  and  distribution  in  their 
activities.    Nevertheless,  neither  the  sport- 
ing nor  the  outing  clubs  are  essentially  or 
characteristically  geographical  in  their  ob- 
jects.   Do  not,  however,  understand  me  to 
object  to  the  acceptance  of  delegates  from 
the  above-named  clubs  as  members  of  the 
committee  on  management  of  the  Interna- 
tional Geographical  Congress.     I  approve 
of  the  plan  heartily;  for  in  the  absence  of 
geographical  societies  in  many  parts  of  our 
country  there  was  no  other  plan  so  appro- 
priate.   The  matter  is  mentioned  here  only 
to  show  the  straits  to  which  geographers 
are  reduced  in  attempting  to  give  a  na- 
tional  welcome   to   an   international   geo- 
graphical congress;  the  difficulty,  so  far 
as  it  is  a  difficulty,  arises  from  the  absence 
among  us  of  a  body  of  mature  geograph- 
ical  experts,   united  in  an   advanced   ac- 
quaintance with  some  large  part  of  a  well- 
defined  science.     This  condition  of  things 
seems  to  me  unsatisfactory.     The  absence 
of  a  strong  society  of  geographical  experts 
indicates  an  insufficient  attention  to  scien- 
tific geography,  and  I,  therefore,  now  turn 
to  consider  the  direction  in  which  serious 
efforts    may    be    most    profitably    made 
toward  a  better  condition  of  things.    Let 
it  be  understood,  however,  that  no  quick- 
acting  remedy  is  possible,  for  the  reason 


that  many  of  those  concerned  with  the 
problem— namely,  the  advance  of  scientific 
geography— do  not  seem  to  recognize  that 
the  existing  state  of  things  needs  a  remedy. 
It  is,  therefore,  only  as  a  change  of  heart— 
a  scientific  change  of  the  geographic  heart 
—makes  itself  felt  that  much  can  be  ac- 
complished toward  the  development  of  sci- 
entific geography,  and  such  a  change  is 
notoriously  of  slow  accomplishment.  Prog- 
ress is  apparent,  however,  and  from  prog- 
ress we  may  gather  encouragement.  In 
what  direction,  then,  shall  our  further 
efforts  be  turned? 

Let  me  urge,  in  the  first  place,  that  close 
scrutiny  should  be  given  to  things  that  are 
properly  called  geographical,  with  the 
object  of  determining  the  essential  content 
of  geographical  science  and  of  excluding 
from  our  responsibility  everything  that  is 
not  essentially  geographic.  Only  in  this 
way  can  we  clear  the  ground  for  the  culti- 
vation of  really  geographical  problems  in 
geographical  education  and  in  geograph- 
ical societies.  This  scrutiny  should  be  ex- 
ercised all  along  the  line:  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  text-books,  in  the  training  of  teach- 
ers, in  the  study  of  experts,  and  in  the 
conduct  of  any  geographical  society  that 
attempts  to  take  a  really  scientific  posi- 
tion. The  essential  content  of  geograph- 
ical science  is  so  large  that  the  successful 
cultivation  of  the  whole  of  it  demands  all 
the  energies  of  many  experts.  Those  who 
are  earnestly  engaged  in  cultivating  geog- 
raphy proper  should  treat  non-geographic 
problems  in  the  same  way  that  a  careful 
farmer  would  treat  blades  of  grass  in  his 
cornfield:  he  would  treat  them  as  weeds 
and  cut  them  out,  for  however  useful  grass 
is  in  its  own  place,  its  growth  in  the  corn- 
field wiU  weaken  the  growth  of  the  com. 
So  in  the  field  of  geographical  study,  there 
is  no  room  for  both  geography  and  history, 
geography  and  geology,  geography  and 
astronomy.    Geography  will  never  gain  the 


128 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   > 


disciplinary  quality  that  is  so  profitable  in 
other  subjects  until  it  is  as  jealously 
guarded  from  the  intrusion  of  irrelevant 
items  as  is  physics  or  geometry  or  Latin. 
Indeed,  the  analogy  of  the  blades  of  grass 
in  the  cornfield  is  hardly  strong  enough. 
It  is  well  known  that  Ritter,  the  originator 
of  the  causal  notion  in  geography,  and, 
therefore,  the  greatest  benefactor  of  geog- 
raphy in  the  nineteenth  century,  was  so 
hospitable  in  his  treatment  of  history  that 
his  pupils  grew  up  in  large  number  to  be 
historians,  and  his  own  subject  was  in  a 
way  lost  sight  of  by  many  of  his  students 
who  became  professors  of  geography,  so- 
called,  in  the  German  universities,  until 
Peschel  revolted  and  turned  attention 
again  to  the  essential  features  of  geog- 
raphy proper. 

Close  scrutiny  of  what  is  commonly 
called  geography  will  certainly  be  bene- 
ficial in  bringing  forward  the  essence  of 
the  subject  and  in  regulating  irrelevant 
topics  to  the  background ;  but  it  is  not  to 
be  expected  that  any  precise  agreement 
will  soon  be  reached  as  to  what  constitutes 
geography,  strictly  interpreted.  Opinions 
on  the  subject,  gathered  from  different 
parts  of  the  country,  even  if  gathered 
from  persons  entitled  to  speak  with  what 
is  called  'authority,'  would  probably  differ 
as  widely  as  did  the  nomenclatures  of  the 
leading  physiographic  divisions  of  North 
America  as  proposed  in  a  symposium  a 
few  years  ago ;  but  if  careful  consideration 
and  free  discussion  are  given  to  the  sub- 
ject, unity  of  opinion  will  in  due  time  be 
approached  as  closely  as  is  desirable. 

As  a  contribution  toward  this  collection 
of  opinions,  let  me  state  my  own  view :  the 
essential  in  geography  is  a  relation  between 
the  elements  of  terrestrial  environment 
and  the  items  of  organic  response;  this 
being  only  a  modernized  extension  of  Rit- 
ter's  view.  Everything  that  involves  such 
a  relationship  is  to  that  extent  geographic. 


Anything  in  which  such  a  relations] 
wanting  is  to  that  extent  not  geogr^ 
The  location  of  a  manufacturing  vilh 
a  point  where  a  stream  affords  ^ 
power  is  an  example  of  the  kind  of 
tion  that  is  meant,  and  if  this  exam 
accepted,  then  the  reasonable  princij 
continuity  will  guide  us  to  include  i 
geography  every  other  example  in  ^ 
the  way  that  organic  forms  have  of 
things  is  conditioned  by  their  inor 
environment.  The  organic  part  of 
raphy  must  not  be  limited  to  man,  be 
the  time  is  now  past  when  man  is  st 
altogether  apart  from  the  other  fori 
life  on  the  earth.  The  colonies  of  an 
our  western  deserts,  with  their  bur 
their  hills,  their  roads  and  their  thre 
floors,  exhibit  responses  to  elements  c 
vironment  found  in  soil  and  clima 
clearly  as  a  manufacturing  village  ex] 
a  response  to  water-power.  The  diff 
coloration  of  the  dorsal  and  ventral 
of  fish  is  a  response  to  the  external  ilk 
ation  of  our  non-luminous  earth, 
word  arrive  is  a  persistent  memorial  c 
importance  long  ago  attached  to  a  su< 
ful  crossing  of  the  shore  line  that  sepa 
sea  and  land.  It  is  not  significant  wh 
the  relation  and  the  elements  that 
into  it  are  of  easy  or  diiSBcult  unders' 
ing,  nor  whether  they  are  what  we  cal 
portant  or  unimportant,  familiar  or  i 
miliar.  The  essential  quality  of  geogr 
is  that  it  involves  relations  of  thing 
ganic  and  inorganic;  and  the  entire 
tent  of  geography  would  include  all 
relations.  A  large  library  would  b 
quired  to  hold  a  full  statement  of  so  l 
a  subject,  but  elementary  text-book 
geography  may  be  made  by  selecting 
the  whole  content  such  relations  as 
elementary,  and  serviceable  handl 
may  be  made  by  selecting  such 
tions  as  seem  important  from  their 
quency  or  their  significance.     The  e 


January  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


129 


tial  throughout  would,  however,  still  be  a 
relation  of  earth  and  life,  practically  as 
Ritter  phrased  it  when  he  took  the  impor- 
tant step  of  introducing  the  causal  notion 
as  a  geographical  principle. 

Thus  defined,  geography  has  two  chief 
divisions.  Everything  about  the  earth  or 
any  inorganic  part  of  it,  considered  as  an 
element  of  the  environment  by  which  the 
organic  inhabitants  are  conditioned,  be- 
longs under  physical  geography  or  physi- 
ography.* Every  item  in  which  the  or- 
ganic inhabitants  of  the  earth— plant,  ani- 
mal or  man— show  a  response  to  the  ele- 
ments of  environment,  belongs  under 
organic  geography.  Geography  proper  in- 
volves a  consideration  of  relations  in  which 
the  things  that  belong  under  its  two  divi- 
sions are  involved. 

The  validity  of  these  propositions  may 
be  illustrated  by  a  concrete  case.  The  loca- 
tion and  growth  of  Memphis,  Helena  and 
Vicksburg  are  manifestly  dependent  on 
the  places  where  the  Mississippi  River 
swings  against  the  bluffs  of  the  uplands 
on  the  east  and  west  of  its  flood  plain.  The 
mere  existence  and  location  of  the  cities, 
stated  independently  of  their  controlling 
environment,  are  empirical  items  of  the 
organic  part  of  geography,  and  these  items 
fail  to  become  truly  geographic  as  long  as 
they  are  stated  without  reference  to  their 
cause.  The  mere  course  of  the  Mississippi, 
independent  of  the  organic  consequences 
which  it  controls,  is  an  empirical  element 
of  the  inorganic  part  of  geography,  but  it 
fails  to  become  truly  geographic  as  long  as 
it  is  treated  alone.  The  two  kinds  of  facts 
must  be  combined  in  order  to  gain  the  real 
geographic  flavor.  Geography  is,  there- 
fore, not  simply  a  description  of  places ;  it 
is  not  simply  an  account  of  the  earth  and 
of  its  inhabitants,  each  described  independ- 

*  It  should  be  noted  that  the  British  definition 
of  physiography  gives  it  a  much  wider  meaning 
than  is  here  indicated. 


ent  of  the  other;  it  involves  a  relation  of 
some  element  of  physical  geography  to 
some  item  of  organic  geography,  and  noth- 
ing from  which  this  relation  is  absent  pos- 
sesses the  essential  quality  of  geographical 
discipline.  The  location  of  a  cape  or  of  a 
city  is  an  elementary  fact  which  may  be 
built  up  with  other  facts  into  a  relation  of 
full  geographic  meaning;  but  taken  alone, 
it  has  about  the  same  rank  in  geography 
that  spelling  has  in  language.  A  map  has 
about  the  same  place  in  geography  that  a 
dictionary  has  in  literature.  The  mean  an- 
nual temperature  of  a  given  station,  and 
the  occurrence  of  a  certain  plant  in  a  cer- 
tain locality,  are  facts  of  kinds  that  must 
enter  extensively  into  the  relationships 
with  which  geography  deals;  but  these 
facts,  standing  alone,  ai-e  wanting  in  the 
essential  quality  of  mature  geographical 
science.  Not  only  so;  many  facts  of  these 
kinds  may,  when  treated  in  other  relations, 
enter  into  other  sciences;  for  it  is  not  so 
much  the  thing  that  is  studied  as  the  rela- 
tion in  which  it  is  studied  that  determines 
the  science  to  which  it  belongs.  I,  there- 
fore, emphasize  again  the  broad  general 
principle  that  mature  scientific  geography 
is  essentially  concerned  with  the  relations 
among  its  inorganic  and  organic  elements ; 
among  the  elements  of  physical  and  of 
organic  geography,  or,  as  might  be  said 
more  briefly,  among  the  elements  of  phys- 
iography and  of .    Let  me  confess  to 

the  most  indulgent  part  of  this  audience 
that  I  have  invented  a  one-word  name  for 
the  organic  part  of  geography,  and  have 
found  it  useful  in  thinking  and  writing 
and  teaching;  but  inasmuch  as  the  ten,  or 
at  the  outside  twelve,  new  words  that  I 
have  introduced  as  technical  terms  into  the 
growing  subject  of  physiography  have 
given  me  with  some  geological  critics  the 
reputation  of  being  reckless  in  regard  to 
terminology,  it  will  be  the  part  of  pru- 
dence not  to  mention  the  new  name  for 


130 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  8.  Vol.  XIX,  No.  473. 


organic  geography  here,  where  my  au- 
dience probably  consists  for  the  most  part 
of  geologists. 

There  can  be  no  just  complaint  of  nar- 
rowness in  a  science  that  has  charge  of  all 
the  relations  among  the  elements  of  terres- 
trial environment  and  the  items  of  organic 
response.  Indeed,  the  criticism  usually 
made  upon  the  subject  thus  defined  is,  as 
has  already  been  pointed  out,  that  it  is  too 
broad,  too  vaguely  limited  and  too  much 
concerned  with  all  sorts  of  things  to  have 
sufficient  unity  and  coherence  for  a  real 
science.  Some  persons,  indeed,  object  that 
geography  has  no  right  to  existence  as  a 
separate  science;  that  it  is  chiefly  a  com- 
pound of  parts  of  other  sciences ;  but  if  it 
be  defined  as  concerned  with  the  relation- 
ships that  have  been  just  specified,  these 
objections  have  little  force.  It  is  true,  in- 
deed, that  the  things  with  which  geog- 
raphy must  deal  are  dealt  with  in  other  sci- 
ences as  well,  but  this  is  also  the  case  with 
astronomy,  physics,  chemisti^,  geology, 
botany,  zoology,  history,  economics.  •  •  • 
There  is  no  subject  of  study  whose  facts 
are  independent  of  all  other  subjects;  not 
only  are  the  same  things  studied  under 
different  sciences,  but  every  science  em- 
ploys some  of  the  methods  and  results  of 
other  sciences.  The  individuality  of  a 
science  depends  not  on  its  having  to  do 
with  things  that  are  cared  for  by  no  other 
science,  or  on  its  employing  methods  that 
are  used  in  no  other  science,  but  on  its 
studying  these  things  and  employing  these 
methods  in  order  to  gain  its  own  well- 
defined  object.  Chemistry,  for  example,  is 
concerned  with  the  study  of  material  sub- 
stances in  relation  to  their  constitution, 
but  it  constantly  and  most  properly  em- 
ploys physical  and  mathematical  methods 
in  reaching  its  ends.  Botanists  and  zoolo- 
gists are  much  interested  in  the  chemical 
composition  and  physical  action  of  plants 
and  animals,  because  the  facts  of  composi- 


tion and  action  enter  so  largely  into  the 
understanding  of  plants  and  animals  con- 
sidered as  living  beings.  Overlappings  of 
the  kind  thus  indicated  are  common 
enough,  and  geography,  as  well  as  other 
sciences,  exhibits  them  in  abundance.  It 
may  be  that  geography  has  a  greater 
amount  of  overlapping  than  any  other 
science;  but  no  valid  objection  to  its  con- 
tent can  be  made  on  that  ground ;  the  max- 
imum of  overlapping  must  occur  in  one 
science  or  another— -there  can  be  no  dis- 
credit to  the  science  on  that  account.  Geog- 
raphy has  to  do  with  rocks  whose  origin  is 
studied  in  geology;  with  the  currents  of 
the  atmosphere,  whose  processes  exemplify 
general  laws  that  are  studied  in  physics; 
with  plants  and  animals,  whose  forms  and 
manner  of  growth  are  the  first  care  of  the 
botanist  and  zoologist;  and  with  man, 
whose  actions  recorded  in  order  of  time 
occupy  the  historian;  but  the  particular 
point  of  view  from  which  the  geographer 
studies  all  these  things  makes  them  as 
much  his  own  property  as  they  are  the 
property  of  any  one  else. 

In  view  of  what  has  been  said,  let  me 
return  to  the  close  scrutiny  that  I  have 
urged  as  to  what  should  be  admitted 
within  the  walls  of  a  geographical  society. 
We  will  suppose  the  geography  of  Penn- 
sylvania is  under  discussion;  as  a  result 
there  must  be  some  mention  of  the  occur- 
rence of  coal,  because  coal,  now  an  element 
of  inorganic  environment,  exerts  a  control 
over  the  distribution  and  the  industries  of 
the  population  of  Pennsylvania.  But  the 
coal  of  Pennsylvania  might  be  treated 
with  equal  appropriateness  by  a  geologist, 
if  its  origin,  its  deformation  and  its  ero- 
sion were  considered  as  local  elements  in 
the  history  of  the  earth;  by  a  chemist,  if 
its  composition  were  the  first  object  of 
attention;  by  a  botanist,  if  the  ancient 
plants  that  produced  the  now  inorganic 
coal-beds  were  studied.     Furthermore,   it 


Jai^uabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


131 


would  be  eminently  proper  for  the  geolo- 
gist to  make  some  mention  of  the  present 
uses  to  which  coal  is  put ;  or  for  the  chem- 
ist and  the  botanist  to  tell  something  of  the 
geological  date  when  coal  was  formed,  if 
by  so  doing  the  attention  of  the  hearer 
could  be  better  gained  and  held,  and  if  the 
problem  at  issue  could  thereby  be  made 
clearer  and  more  serviceable.  So  the  geog- 
rapher is  warranted  in  touching  upon  the 
composition,  the  origin,  the  exploitation  of 
the  Pennsylvania  coal-beds,  if  by  so  doing 
he  makes  a  more  forcible  presentation  of 
his  own  problem;  but  if  he  weakens  the 
presentation  of  his  own  problem  by  the  in- 
troduction of  these  unessential  facts,  still 
more  if  he  presents  these  unessential  facts 
as  his  prime  interest,  he  goes  too  far.  The 
point  of  all  this  is  that  students  in  many 
different  sciences  may  have  to  consider  in 
common  certain  aspects  of  the  problems 
presented  by  'the  coal  of  Pennsylvania; 
but  that  each  student  should  consider 
Pennsylvania  coal  in  the  way  that  best 
serves  his  own  subject.  The  scrutiny  that 
I  have  urged  would,  therefore,  be  directed 
chiefly  to  excluding  from  consideration 
under  geography  the  non-geographic  rela- 
tions of  the  many  things  that  various  sci- 
ences have  to  study  in  common,  and  to 
bringing  forward  in  geography  all  the 
problems  that  are  involved  in  the  relations 
of  the  earth  and  its  inhabitants.  The 
things  involved  in  the  relations  of  earth 
and  life  are  the  common  property  of  many 
sciences,  but  the  relations  belong  essen- 
tially to  geography.  It  would' be  easy  to 
point  out  topics  in  text-books  and  treatises, 
in  the  pages  of  geographical  journals  and 
in  lectures  before,  geographical  societies, 
that  would  not  fall  under  any  division  of 
geography  as  here  defined.  In  many  such 
cases,  however,  the  topics  might  without 
difliculty  have  been  given  a  sufficiently  geo- 
graphical turn,  had  it  been  so  desired  or 
intended ;  the  topics  might  have  been  pre- 


sented from  the  geographical  point  of 
view,  so  as  to  emphasize  the  essential  qual- 
ity of  geographical  study,  had  there  been 
a  conscious  wish  to  this  end.  But  in  other 
cases,  the  subjects  presented  belong  so 
clearly  elsewhere,  or  are  treated  so  com- 
pletely from  some  other  than  a  geograph- 
ical point  of  view,  as  to  fall  quite  outside 
of  geography;  for  example,  a  recent  num- 
ber of  one  of  our  geographical  journals 
contained  an  excellent  full-page  plate  and 
a  half  page  of  text  on  the  '  Skull  of  the 
Imperial  Mammoth,'  with  brief  descrip- 
tion of  its  size  and  anatomy,  but  with  noth- 
ing more  nearly  approaching  geographical 
treatment  than  the  statement  that  the 
specimen  came  from  *  the  sands  of  western 
Texas.'  In  all  such  cases  it  is  open  to 
question  whether  close  scrutiny  as  to  inclu- 
sion and  exclusion  has  been  given,  and 
while  the  policy  pursued  by  many  geo- 
graphical societies  of  generously  accepting 
for  their  journals  many  sorts  of  interest- 
ing articles  has  something  to  commend  it 
in  the  way  of  pleasing  a  mixed  constit- 
uency, it  is,  nevertheless,  open  to  the  objec- 
tion of  not  sufficiently  advancing  the  more 
scientific  aspects  of  geography.  Blades  of 
grass  and  mammoth  skulls  are  very  good 
things,  if  crops  of  hay  and  collections  of 
fossils  are  to  be  gathered;  but  they  are  in 
the  way  of  the  growth  of  the  best  com  and 
of  the  publication  of  the  best  geographical 
journals.  Let  no  one  suppose,  however, 
that  the  audiences  in  geographical  lecture 
halls  or  the  readers  of  geographical'  jour- 
nals need  suffer  under  the  scrutiny  that  is 
here  urged  regarding  lectures  and  articles. 
There  is,  even  under  the  strictest  scrutiny, 
an  abundance  of  varied  and  interesting 
matter  of  a  strictly  geographical  nature; 
few,  if  any,  sciences  are  richer  than  geog- 
raphy in  matter  of  general  interest.  There 
is,  indeed,  some  reason  for  thinking  that 
the  real  obstacle  in  the  way  of  applying 
close    scrutiny    in    the    way    here    recom- 


132 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  473. 


mended  is  the  difl&culty  of  obtaining  high- 
grade  material  presented  in  an  essentially 
geographical  form.  Inasmuch  as  this  diffi- 
culty arises  from  the  relative  inattention 
to  geography  as  a  mature  science,  it  is  the 
business  of  geographical  societies  to  re- 
move the  difficulty. 

W.  I\I.  Davis. 

Harvabd  University. 

{To  he  concluded.) 


HOME   UNSOLVED   PROBLEMii   OF  ORGAMC 

ADAPTATWS.* 

With  the  advent  of  the  *  Origin  of  Spe- 
cies'  became  current  the  naturalistic  inter- 
pretation of  organic  nature,  epitomized  in 
such  phrases  as  *  natural  selection/  *  sur- 
vival of  the  fittest,'  etc.  So  rapid  and 
general  was  the  acceptance  of  this  concep- 
tion as  a  working  hypothesis  that  in  thirty 
years,  or  within  a  single  generation,  Wal- 
lace made  bold  to  claim  for  it  universal 
recognition  in  the  well  known  and  oft- 
quoted  declaration,  *He  (Darwin)  did  his 
work  so  well  that  descent  with  modifica- 
tion is  now  universally  accepted  as  the 
order  of  nature  in  the  organic  world.' 

As  a  general  statement  of  the  fact  of 
evolution,  as  the  phrase  may  be  literally 
interpreted,  it  may,  after  fifteen  additional 
years  of  intense  biological  activity,  be  as 
vigorously  claimed  and  as  readily  con- 
ceded. If,  however,  it  be  so  interpreted 
as  to  include  the  full  content  of  Darwin- 
ism and  the  all-sufficiency  of  natural  se- 
lection as  the  prime  factor,  with  its  details 
of  endless  adaptations  to  environment, 
whether  physical  or  physiological,  it  need 
hardly  be  said  that  consent  would  be  far 
less  general  or  prompt. 

Moreover,  with  the  highly  metaphysical 
and  speculative  deductions  which,  under 
the  caption  of  *Neo-Darwinism/  or,  more 
plainly,      ^Weismannism/      which      have 

*  Address  of  the  vice-president  and  chairman 
of  Section  F,  Zoology,  St.  Louis  meeting,  1903. 


boldly  assumed  the  omnipotence  and  all- 
sufficiency  of  natural  selection  to  account 
for  the  least  and  last  detail  of  organic  dif- 
ferentiation or  constancy,  widespread 
doubt  and  open  protest  are  too  common  to 
elicit  surprise  or  comment. 

It  need  hardly  be  pointed  out  at  this 
late  day,  though  it  is  more  or  less  persis- 
tently ignored,  that  primitive  Darwinism, 
while  essaying  to  explain  the  origin  of 
species,  and  emphasizing  the  importance 
of  natural  selection  as  a  means  in  the  proc- 
ess, did  not  in  the  least  presume  to  account 
for  the  origin  of  variation  and  adaptation^ 
which  were  recognized  as  fundamental  and 
prerequisite  in  affording  conditions  with- 
out which  natural  selection  must  be  hope- 
lessly impotent.  Nor,  moreover,  should  it 
be  overlooked  that  while  recognizing  the 
inseparable  correlation  of  the  factors  just 
mentioned  and  their  essential  utility  either 
to  the  individual  or  species  in  the  majority 
of  cases,  Darwin  was  free  to  concede  and 
frank  in  declaring  the  efficiency  of  many 
other  factors  in  the  intricate  and  compli- 
cated problems  of  organic  evolution. 

The  recent  impulse  which  has  come  to 
biologic  progress  by  experimental  methods, 
and  the  remarkable  results  which  have 
been  attained  thereby,  may  without  exag- 
geration be  said  to  have  raised  anew  many 
an  earlier  doubt  as  well  as  brought  to  light 
problems  apparently  beyond  the  scope  of 
the  older  explanations.  It  may  not,  there- 
fore, be  an  extravagant  assumption  to  an- 
nounce the  entire  question  of  organic  adap- 
tations as  open  for  reconsideration,  in  the 
light- of  which  no  apology  will  be  necessary 
for  directing  attention  to  certain  phases 
of  the  subject  upon  the  present  occasion. 

Among  the  many  problems  which  recent 
investigations  and  conclusions  have 
brought  into  better  perspective  as  well  as 
sharper  definition,  and  which  might  profit- 
ably be  discussed,  the  limits  of  a  single 
address  preclude  any  very  wide  range  of 


Jaswasy  22,  1904.] 


SGIEtJGE. 


13S 


review.  I  have,  therefore,  chosen  to  re- 
strict my  discussion  chiefly  to  problems  of 
coloration  among  lower  invertebrates,  in- 
cluding incidental  references  to  correlated 
subjects,  and  the  probable  limitations  of 
color  as  a  factor  in  organic  adaptation. 

Interesting  as  it  might  be  to  glance  at 
the  earlier  views  of  a  subject,  the  nature 
of  which  from  earliest  times  must  have 
been  a  source  of  keen  interest  to  mankind 
in  general,  and  which  must  have  appealed 
to  the  esthetic  and  rational  nature,  inspir- 
ing not  only  poetic  imagery,  but  admiring 
awe  and  a  devout  fervor  akin  to  reverence, 
it  must  suffice  in  the  present  discussion  to 
hold  attention  well  within  the  period  of 
thought  immediately  concerned,  which,  as 
already  indicated  in  the  opening  para- 
graph, was  brought  into  prominence  by  the 
'Origin  of  Species.* 

As  is  perfectly  well  known,  color  in  na- 
ture is  due  to  one  of  two  causes,  or  to  a 
combination  of  botii,  namely:  (1)  What 
has  been  termed  optical  or  structural  con- 
ditions, such  as  diffraction,  interference 
or  unequal  reflection  of  light,  examples  of 
which  are  familiar  in  the  splendid  hues  of 
the  rainbow,  the  iridescent  sheen  and  me- 
tallic colors  of  the  feathers  of  many  birds, 
wings  of  insects,  etc.  (2)  What  are  known 
as  pigmentary  colors,  due  to  certain  mate- 
rial substances  lodged  within  the  tissues  of 
animals  or  plants  which  have  the  prop- 
erty of  absorbing  certain  elements  of  light 
and  of  reflecting  others,  and  thereby  pro- 
ducing the  sensation  of  color.  While  the  two 
are  physically  quite  distinct  it  is  not  unus- 
ual to  find  them  associated  in  producing 
some  of  the  most  exquisite  color  effects  of 
which  we  have  knowledge.  In  a  general 
way  one  may  usually  distinguish  between 
these  two  sorts  of  color  by  noting  that 
those  which  are  purely  optical  in  their 
character  produce  a  constantly  changing 
impression  as  the  relative  position  of  ob- 
ject or  observer  may  happen  to  vary  with 


reference  to  the  angle  and  direction  of 
light;  while,  upon  the  other  hand,  colors 
which  are  due  to  pigments  show  this  prop- 
erty very  slightly  or  not  at  all,  and  that, 
moreover,  pigment  colors  are  usually  more 
or  less  soluble  in  various  reagents,  such  as 
alcohol,  ether,  acids,  alkalies,  etc.,  and  that 
they  often  fade  rapidly  under  the  in- 
fluence of  strong  light  or  in  its  absence,  or 
upon  the  death  of  the  organism. 

The  presence  of  many  and  various  colors 
in  inorganic  nature,  the  large  majority  of 
which  are  due  to  purely  physical  causes, 
such  as  the  colors  of  the  ocean,  the  sky, 
the  clouds,  the  mineral  or  gem,  while  ap- 
pealing to  our  sense  of  beauty  elicit  no 
special  inquiry  as  to  their  significance  or 
purpose.  It  suffices  to  know  that  they  are 
constitutional  or  structural,  inseparable 
from  the  physical  conditions  in  which  they 
have  their  place. 

It  is  different,  however,  with  much  of 
the  color  found  in  the  organic  world. 
While  such  colors  as  those  of  the  grass  or 
leaf  might  seem  to  have  hardly  any  differ- 
ent significance  or  to  call  for  special  ex- 
planation different  from  the  preceding,  as 
Wallace  has  pointed  out,  on  the  other 
hand,  as  he  has  also  forcefully  expressed 
it:  **It  is  the  wonderful  individuality  of 
the  colors  of  animals  and  plants  that  at- 
tracts our  attention— the  fact  that  colors 
are  localized  in  definite  patterns,  some- 
times in  accordance  with  structural  char- 
acters, sometimes  altogether  independent 
of  them;  while  often  differing  in  most 
striking  and  fantastic  manner  in  allied 
species.  We  are,  therefore,  compelled  to 
look  upon  color  not  merely  as  a  physical 
but  also  as  a  biological  characteristic, 
which  has  been  differentiated  and  special- 
ized by  natural  selection,  and  must,  there- 
fore, find  its  explanation  in  the  principle 
of  adaptation  or  utility." 

It  is  under  the  stimulus  of  this  concep- 
tion that  the  significance  of  color  has  come 


134 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


to  have  the  large  place  and  concern  in  the 
literature  of  evolution  which  it  at  present 
occupies,  as  expressive  of  which  such  well- 
known  phrases  as  'protective  coloration,' 
'warning  colors,'  'mimicry,'  etc.,  have 
come  to  be  household  commonplaces  among 
us.  It  is  not  surprising,  therefore,  that 
in  a  book  like  Wallace's  'Darwinism'  out 
of  a  total  of  some  475  pages  more  than  150 
should  be  devoted  to  this  phase  of  the 
problem  alone,  while  it  has  frequent  ref- 
erence in  other  connections. 

And  the  same  is  largely  true  of  much 
of  the  literature  dealing  with  the  subject 
of  organic  colors.  In  other  words,  color 
in  these  relations  has  been  studied  largely, 
if  not  wholly,  as  a  factor  in  adaptation- 
fitting  the  animal  better  to  meet  the  exi- 
gencies of  life  in  the  struggle  for  exist- 
ence, in  certain  cases  serving  as  a  disguise 
or  screen  against  detection,  in  others  by 
glaringly  advertising  some  noxious  qual- 
ity, in  still  others  by  flying  a  signal  of 
alarm  or  warning,  and  in  flight  serving  to 
segregate  the  members  of  a  herd  in  whose 
collective  aggregate  a  larger  measure  of 
protection  might  be  realized. 

Hence  it  naturally  came  to  pass  that 
color  was  looked  upon  largely  as  a  physical 
factor  in  the  sum  total  of  the  animal's 
morphology  which  must  have  some  funda- 
mental relation  to  the  adaptation  or  fitness 
for  survival  of  the  species.  It  is  not 
strange,  under  prevailing  conditions,  that 
small  attention  was  directed  to  the  more 
fundamental  problem  of  the  physiological 
significance  of  color,  or  the  part  it  has  to 
do  in  the  processes  of  metabolism  of  the 
individual  organism.  Recent  work  in  ex- 
perimental morphology  has  directed  atten- 
tion to  this  phase  of  the  problem,  and  one 
of  the  objects  of  the  present  discussion  will 
be  to  make  somewhat  more  evident  a  too 
long  neglected  aspect  of  animal  biology. 

It  ought  not  to  be  overlooked  in  this  con- 
nection that  along  with  the  development  in 


experimental  morphology  to  which  refer- 
ence has  been  made,  t^hose  of  organic  chem- 
istry, and  particularly  chemical  physiol- 
ogy, have  been  perhaps  equally  important 
in  directing  attention  to  certain  phases  of 
our  problem.  Nor  ought  we  to  forget  that 
the  spectroscope  has  thrown  its  light  upon 
the  same  general  problem,  though  with 
perhaps  less  of  conclusiveness  than  could 
have  been  desired.  As  a  result  of  this 
growing  activity  there  has  been  accumu- 
lated a  body  of  information,  a  part  of 
which  stands  directly  related  to  the  sub- 
ject under  consideration,  and  a  part  indi- 
rectly  concerned  with  the  same  essential 
principles,  and  from  it  we  may  safely  pre- 
dict the  solution  of  problems  hitherto  only 
predicated  hypothetically,  and  such  side- 
lights upon  others  equally  important  that 
it  is  not  too  much  confidently  to  forecast 
substantial  progress  all   along  the  line. 

It  may  be  well  in  this  connection  to 
glance  briefly  at  some  of  the  results  at 
present  known  as  in  some  measure  justify- 
ing these  somewhat  optimistic  assumptions, 
as  well  as  pointing  the  line  along  which  im- 
portant and  promising  researches  may  be 
prosecuted. 

The  work  of  Krukenburg,  MacMun,  Ma- 
callum,  M'Kendric,  Hopkins,  Urech,  Eisig, 
Cunningham  and  a  host  of  others,  com- 
prising a  mass  of  literature  of  enormous 
proportions,  will  be  available  to  those  in- 
terested and  may  afford  some  faint  con- 
ception of  the  magnitude  and  importance 
of  the  field  to  be  explored,  as  well  as  an 
introduction  to  that  already  made  avail- 
able. And  while  as  a  result  of  this  activity 
many  and  various  organic  pigments  have 
been  isolated  and  their  composition  in  part 
or  entirely  made  known,  it  must  be  recog- 
nized that  the  task  of  the  chemical  analy- 
sis of  any  such  highly  complex  compounds 
as  most  of  these  are  known  to  be  is  at- 
tended with  extreme  difficulty  and  no 
small   measure   of   uncertainty.      Still,   it 


Jakuabt  22,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


135 


has  been  possible  fairly  to  aistinguish  sev- 
eral classes  of  such  pigments,  diflferen- 
tiated  physiologically  as  follows: 

1.  Those  directly  serviceable  in  the  vital 
processes  of  the  organism.  Under  this 
head  may  be  classed  such  pigments  as  hae- 
moglobin, chlorophyll,  zoonerythrin,  chlo- 
rocrnorin  and  perhaps  others  less  known. 
It  need  not  be  emphasized  that  by  far  the 
most  important  of  these  are  the  two  first 
named.  The  others,  found  chiefly  among 
the  lower  invertebrates,  are  believed  to 
serve  a  function  similar  to  the  first. 

2.  Waste  products.  Among  these  the 
several  biliary  products  are  too  ,well  known 
to  call  for  special  note.  Guanin  is  a  pig- 
ment of  common  occurrence  in  the  skin  of 
certain  fishes  and  is  associated  with  the 
coloration  of  the  species.  Similarly  cer- 
tain coloring  matters  have  been  found  in 
the  pigments  of  many  lepidoptera,  known 
as  lepidotic  acid,  a  substance  closely  allied 
to  tiric  acid  and  undoubtedly  of  the  na- 
ture of  a  waste  product. 

3.  Reserve  products.  Of  these  there  are 
several  series,  one  of  which,  known  as  lipo- 
chrome  pigments,  is  associated  with  the 
metabolism  involved  in  the  formation  of 
fats  and  oils.  Perhaps  of  similar  charac- 
ter are  such  pigments  as  carmine,  or  rather 
cochineal,  melanin,  etc.  It  may  be  some- 
what doubtful  whether  these  pigments  do 
not  rather  belong  to  the  previous  class, 
where  should  probably  be  listed  such  pro- 
ducts as  hematoxylin,  indigo,  etc.,  all  of 
which  have  been  claimed  as  resultants  of 
destructive  metabolism  in  process  of  being 
eliminated  from  the  physiologically  active 
tissues  of  the  body  of  the  organism.  Of 
similar  character  is  probably  tannic  acid, 
a  substance  well  known  among  plant  prod- 
ucts and  involved  in  the  formation  of 
many  of  the  brownish  and  rusty  colors  of 
autumn  foliage,  particularly  of  the  oaks 
and  allied  trees,  as  are  the  lipochromes  in 
the  formation  of   the   reds   and   yellows 


/'     !"»    * 


which  form  so  conspicuous  a '  feature 
among  autumn  colors. 

While  the  association  of  these  and  other 
pigmentary  matters  has  long  been  known 
in  connection  with  both  animal  and  plant 
growth,  and  while  the  conception  of  their 
more  or  less  intimate  relation  to  the  active 
metabolism  of  the  various  tissues  is  not 
new,  comparatively  little  has  been  done 
toward  directly  investigating  and  eluci- 
dating the  exact  nature  and  extent  of  the 
process.  This  seems  to  be  especially  the 
case  in  relation  to  the  part  played  by 
these  products  in  the  formation  of  those 
features  of  coloration  among  organisms 
with  which  we  are  now  concerned. 

The  most  strenuous  advocates  of  the  pri- 
mary importance  of  natural  selection  as 
the  chief  or  only  factor  in  adaptation  are 
free  to  admit  that  among  the  simplest 
forms  particularly,  color  has  originated  in 
some  more  or  less  obscure  way  through 
growth  or  some  of  the  vital  activities  of 
the  organism,  Darwin,  for  example,  merely 
suggesting  that  'Their  brightest  tints  re- 
sult from  the  chemical  nature  or  minute 
structure  of  their  tissues,'  and  Wallace  in 
the  even  less  explicit  statement  that  *  color 
is  a  normal  product  of  organization, '  wha1>- 
ever  that  may  imply. 

So  far  as  I  am  aware  Eisig  was  among 
the  earliest  to  claim  that  among  certain 
annelids  the  colors  were  primarily  expres- 
sions of  the  katabolic  processes  of  the  tis- 
sues, and  were  excretory  in  character.  He 
was  able  largely  to  demonstrate  this  with 
species  of  Capitellidse  by  experimental 
methods.  By  feeding  the  animals  with 
carmine  he  was  able  to  follow  its  course 
through  the  alimentary  tract,  its  progress 
through  the  tissues,  and  final  deposition 
in  the  hypodermal  tissues  beneath  the  cuti- 
cle, where  in  the  process  of  moulting  it 
was  finally  eliminated.  He  also  found  that 
in  a  species  of  Eunice,  which  fed  upon 
sponges,  the  pigment  granules  of  the  food 


136 


SCIENCE.. 


[N.  8.  VoD.  XIX.  No.  473. 


passed  unchanged  through  the  intestine 
and  into  the  body  tissues  much  as  had  been 
the  case  in  the  experiments  with  the  pre- 
ceding. 

Grafif  later  reached  very  similar  conclu- 
sions concerning  coloration  in  the  leeches, 
but  was  able  to  go  a  st^p  farther  than  Eisig 
had  done  and  to  show  in  great  detail  the 
exact  process  through  which  it  was 
brought  about.  He  found  in  the  endothe- 
lium certain  migratory  cells  which  wander 
about  in  the  coRlom  or  penetrate  through 
the  tissues,  and  that  among  their  func- 
tions one  of  the  most  important  seems  to 
be  the  absorption  of  foreign  bodies  and 
their  conveyance  into  the  mouths  of  the 
nephridia  or  through  the  tissues  to  the 
hypodermis  and  their  lodgment  in  that 
tissue.  He  was  even  able  to  show  that  the 
special  markings  or  color  patterns  which 
are  so  characteristic  of  the  animals  may 
be  explained  by  the  disposition  of  the  mus- 
cle bands,  and  their  relation  to  the  lines  of 
pigmentary  deposition  by  the  wandering 
cells,  which  Graflf  has  designated  *excreto- 
phores.'  He  was  also  able  to  confirm  the 
results  of  Eisig  as  to  the  experimental 
demonstration  of  feeding  with  various  pig- 
mentary matters,  and  subsequently  tracing 
them  from  point  to  point  in  the  process  of 
elimination.  Furthermore,  he  showed  that 
the  amount  and  density  of  pigmentation 
was  closely  related  to  the  intensity  of  me- 
tabolism, being  greatest  in  those  specimens 
which  were  most  voracious  feeders. 

Observations  of  a  similar  character  have 
been  made  upon  certain  of  the  protozoa, 
particularly  upon  Stentor.  Schuberg  in 
1890  found  that  the  blue-green  pigment 
so  characteristic  of  this  organism  was  con- 
stantly being  excreted  bodily  in  the  form 
of  definite  granules. 

In  1893  Johnson,  in  an  extended  study 
of  the  morphology  of  these  protozoa,  con- 
firmed the  preceding  observations,  and 
showed    that    the    pigment   was   excreted 


along  with  other  excrementitious  matter. 
He  found  also  that  the  principal  region  of 
excretory  activity  was  at  the  base  of  the 
animal,  where  was  formed  after  a  short 
time  a  definite  mass  of  debris  near  the  foot. 

Perhaps  one  of  the  most  important  con- 
tributions along  this  line  is  that  of  Har- 
mer  on  the  character  of  the  'brown  body' 
of  the  polyzoa.  By  a  series  of  critical  ob- 
servations upon  the  life-history  of  these  in- 
teresting organisms  and  painstaking  exper- 
iments in  feeding  with  carmine  and  other 
pigments,  he  was  able  to  prove  beyond 
reasonable  doubt  that  the  so-called  'brown 
body'  of  the  polyzoa  is  a  direct  product 
of  the  destructive  metabolism  within  the 
body  and  its  excretion  in  a  mass  at  this 
particular  region.  He  found  that  the  leu- 
cocytes of  the  funicular  organ  as  well  as 
certain  cells  of  the  organ  itself  engulfed 
pigmentary  wastes,  and  with  the  periodic 
decline  of  the  polypides  these  cells  be- 
came crowded  into  a  close  mass,  thereby 
constituting  the  *  brown  body.'  The  new 
polypide  arising  by  a  sort  of  regenerative 
process  was  found  to  be  always  devoid  of 
any  coloration,  no  pigment  appearing  for 
some  time  following  the  activity  of  the 
new  poljrpide,  but  that  it  is  formed  in  reg- 
ularly increasing  amounts  with  the  age 
and  degree  of  metabolism  of  the  organisms. 

Correlated  with  these  views  concerning 
the  origin  of  certain  colors  and  their  dis- 
position in  the  organism  is  that  of  the  rela- 
tion of  coloration  to  the  food.  It  has  long 
been  known  that  in  many  cases  there  is  a 
more  or  less  intimate  relation  of  color  to 
the  food  consumed  by  certain  animals. 
Instances  of  this  are  too  numerous  for  de- 
tailed consideration  here.  Let  it  suffice 
that  Darwin,  Semper,  Eimer,  Koch,  Bed- 
dard,  Poulton,  Gunther  and  many  others 
have,  by  extended  observations  and  by  de- 
tailed experimentation,  apparently  estab- 
lished the  general  fact.  Beddard  quotes 
the    following    observation    made    by    G. 


JAnuaby  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


137 


Brown-Goode  as  to  such  an  explanation  of 
protective  coloration  in  fishes.  **0n  cer- 
tain ledges  along  the  coast  of  New  England 
are  rocks  covered  by  dense  growths  of  scar- 
let arid  crimson  seaweeds.  The  codfish,  the 
dinner,  the  sea  raven,  the  rock  eel,  and  the 
wrymouth,  which  inhabit  these  brilliant 
groves,  are  all  colored  to  match  their  sur- 
roundings; the  cod,  which  has  naturally 
the  lighter  color,  being  most  brilliant  in 
its  scarlet  hues,  while  others  whose  skins 
have  a  large  and  original  supply  of  black 
have  deeper  tints  or  dark  red  and  brown.'' 
He  then  quotes  farther  the  suggestions  of 
Goode.that  these  colors  are  due  to  pigment 
derived  either  directly  or  indirectly  from 
the  red  algsB;  those  which  are  carnivorous 
feeding  upon  the  Crustacea  and  other  mar 
rine  organisms  whose  stomachs  are  full  of 
the  algse  and  their  pigments  which  pass 
unchanged  into  the  tissues  of  the  fishes. 

He  also  quotes  a  similar  conclusion  of 
Gunther  as  to  the  origin  of  the  red  pig- 
ment of  the  salmon  being  derived  from  the 
red  pigment  of  the  Crustacea  upon  which  it 
feeds.  While  admitting  that  in  the  cases 
just  cited  there  has  been  no  attempt  at 
demonstration  of  the  proposed  explana- 
tion, it  yet  would  seem^  highly  probable. 
**It  is  too  remarkable  a  coincidence  that 
the  fish  normally  with  but  little  pigment 
should  when  among  these  weeds  be  bright 
red,  and  that  the  fish  normally  possessing 
black  pigment  should  be  dark  red,  to  per- 
mit of  a  settlement  of  the  question  ofiP- 
hand  by  the  easy  help  of  natural  selection 
—without  at  least  some  further  inquiry." 

With  the  foregoing  considerations  con- 
cerning the  general  origin  and  develop- 
ment of  pigments  and  their  relations  to  the 
colors  of  organisms,  we  may  next  proceed 
to  pass  rapidly  in  review  such  groups  of 
animals  as  we  may  choose  to  consider,  and 
may  institute  a  brief  inquiry  as  to  the  sig- 
nificance of  their  types  of  coloration  as 
factors  of  adaptation. 


With  the  avowed  purpose  of  restricting 
my  observations  and  discussion  as  far  as 
practicable  to  the  lower  groups  of  inver- 
tebrates as  already  announced,  it  will 
suflSce  to  say  further  that  in  justificationr 
of  such  a  course  I  am  constrained  to  con- 
sider the  lower  animals,  particularly 
coelenterates,  as  more  favorable  subjects 
from  which  to  obtain  fundamental  conclu- 
sions than  are  the  more  highly  specialized 
insects  or  birds  which  have  had  so  large  a 
measure  of  attention  in  earlier  investiga- 
tions along  these  lines. 

Furthermore,  it  seems  highly  probable 
that  future  investigations  will  involve 
more  of  direct  experimentation  than  has 
hitherto  been  the  case,  and  if  so,  these 
lower  series  will  naturally  afford  some  of 
the  best  material  available  for  such  in- 
quiries,  not  only  because  of  the  more 
ready  and  rapid  responses  obtained,  but 
from  the  relative  simplicity  of  their  organ- 
ization and  the  consequent  simplicity  of 
results  likely  to  be  obtained  in  each  case. 

If  further  warrant  were  demanded  for 
a  comparatively  limited  survey,  or  special 
emphasis  upon  a  limited  group  of  animals, 
I  should  find  it  in  a  measure  in  the  per- 
sonal interest  and  familiarity  which  has 
come  from  special  researches  connected 
therewith. 

Beginning  with  the  hydrozoa  it  may  be 
noted  in  the  outset  that  though  including 
the  simplest  of  the  Coelenterates  we  shall 
find  a  remarkable  variety  and  range  of  col- 
oration. Among  the  hydroids,  as  is  well 
known,  coloration  is  neither  very  remark- 
able as  to  brilliance  nor  distribution. 
Many,  if  not  most,  are  almost  without 
color  distinction,  except  in  the  dull  brown- 
ish or  amber  colors  found  in  such  as 
Obelia,  Halecium,  and  other  campanula- 
rians.  This  may  be  due  in  part  to  the  fact 
that  the  colonies  are  so  generally  encased 
within  a  chitinous  perisarc  which,  while 
somewhat  colored  as  already  indicated,  is 


138 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


seldom  if  ever  of  any  considerable  brill- 
iance or  diversity.  Among  the  tubula- 
rians,  in  many  of  which  the  development 
of  a  perisarc  is  slight,  and  always  lacking 
over  the  hydranth  itself,  there  is  often 
found  considerable  coloration,  as  in  Evr- 
dendrium,  Pennaria,  Corymorpha  and 
others.  And  in  these  color  is  usually 
found  associated  more  particularly  with 
the  development  of  the  sexual  products, 
or  during  the  season  of  reproductive  activ- 
ity, which  is  a  matter  of  considerable  sig- 
nificance, to  be  taken  up  in  a  later  con- 
nection. 

As  is  well  known,  the  predominance  of 
alternation  of  generations  in  these  animals 
brings  into  prominence  the  sexual  phase, 
which  in  most  species  is  an  independent 
organism— the  medusa.  And  it  is  in  con- 
nection with  the  medusae  that  we  find  the 
most  marked  development  of  color.  There 
does  not,  however,  appear  to  be  any  well- 
defined  distribution  of  colors  into  patterns. 
Among  the  Hydromedusae  the  distribution 
of  pigment,  which  is  almost  the  only  con- 
spicuous kind  of  color  present,  is  chiefly 
in  association  with  the  gonads,  the  tissues 
of  the  stomach  and  the  regions  of  the  chy- 
miferous  canals,  though  in  some  cases  also 
extending  to  the  tentacles  and  in  the  re- 
gions of  the  sensory  organs.  It  should  not 
be  overlooked,  however,  that  in  many  of 
these  medusae  the  color  tints  are  among  the 
most  beautiful  and  delicate  known,  though 
lacking  the  intensity  more  common  among 
the  Seyphomedusae  and  corals. 

Turning  attention  to  the  Seyphomedusae 
we  find  as  just  suggested  a  more  copious 
development  of  color,  and  also  what  is 
more  significant,  in  many  cases  its  distri- 
bution into  something  like  definite  pat- 
terns, as  is  more  or  less  evident  in  such 
genera  as  Cyanea,  Pelagia  and  Rhizostoma. 
It  is,  however,  no  less  evident  that  among 
these  we  have,  as  in  the  former,  the  deposi- 
tion of  pigment  along  the  lines  of  most 


active  metabolism,  such  as  the  gastrovas- 
cv^  aiid  rep|;pdu#,^ive  otrgans,  in  most 
abundance  and  usually  of  greatest  bril- 
liance. 

It  is,  however,  when  we  come  to  the  An- 
thozoa,  which  includes  the  corals,  acti- 
nians,  sea-fans,  etc.,  that  we  find  the  cli- 
max of  coloration,  both  as  regards  bril- 
liance and  intensity.  To  look  into  the 
crystalline  depths  of  the  waters  about  a 
coral  reef  where  these  varied  forms  thrive 
in  great  garden-like  areas  is  to  gaze  upon 
a  scene,  the  fairy-like  features  of  which  it 
would  be  difficult  to  exaggerate.  Here  are 
actinians,  corals,  sea-fans,  sea-feathers, 
etc.,  which  abound  in  the  richest  profusion 
and  endless  variety,  seeming  to  vie  with 
each  other  in  the  effort  to  produce  the  most 
exquisite  displays  of  every  tint  of  the  spec- 
trum. 

In  the  distribution  of  color  there  is  not 
apparently  any  advance  as  to  differentia- 
tion over  that  found  in  the  Seyphomedusae, 
if  indeed  as  much,  though  among  the  actin- 
ians certain  stripings  and  mottlings  occur 
over  the  exterior  of  the  body.  It  is  worthy 
of  note  that  in  those  forms  in  which  the 
tendency  toward  definite  coloration  is  more 
evident  there  appears  to  be  in  many  cases 
considerable  variation  of  coloration.  This 
is  particularly  noticeable  in  such  forms  as 
Metridium  and  Cyanea, 

Face  to  face  with  this  rich  profusion 
and  beauty  of  color  what  is  its  signifi- 
cance? How  has  it  originated  and  what 
does  it  mean?  Is  it  simply  the  expression 
of  some  original  constitution  peculiar  to 
the  entire  class,  and  if  so  why  does  it  differ 
in  so  marked  a  degree  among  the  different 
subclasses?  We  may  safely  dismiss  such 
an  alternative  as  altogether  unnecessary 
and  without  value  as  an  explanation.  May 
it  be  considered  as  an  adaptation  to  pro- 
tection, the  result  of  natural  selection? 
Certainly  in  no  direct  sense,  for  without 
exception,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  the  more 


■J&MUABT  22,  1904.] 


SCIStfCE. 


T 


139 


brightiy  eolored' forau  ill^fel '  thereby  ttftn- 
dered  correspondingly  more  conspieuons 
and,  theref oi«,  more  liable  to  attack  from 
enemies.  May  it  come  within  the  category 
of  'warning'  coloration,  due  to  the  oflfen- 
ai^ve  caidarian  armor  borne  by  most  of  the 
members  of  this  phylum?  So  not  a  few 
who  have  essayed  an  account  of  the  matter 
would  have  us  believe.  It  seems  to  me, 
however,  open  to  serious  doubt,  aside  from 
the  fact  that  it  lacks  evidence.  On  the 
otter  hand,  among  hydroids  I  have  found 
that  those  having  brighter  colors  are  most 
liable  to  be  eaten  by  fishes  in  the  habit  of 
feeding  upon  such  a  diet.  Furthermore, 
various  worms,  snails,  etc.,  which  are 
known  to  feed  upon  them  would  be  more 
likely  to  be  attracted  by  colors  than  to  be 
repelled.  It  is  also  matter  of  common  ob- 
servation that  such  animals  are  much  more 
abundant  among  colonies  of  highly  colored 
hydroids  like  Eudendrium,  Pennaria  and 
Tuhvlaria  than  among  species  of  Obelia  or 
others  of  little  color  distinction.  Many 
fishes  with  finely  adapted  dental  apparatus 
are  constant  feeders  upon  corals,  tran- 
quilly browsing  among  the  animated 
foliage  of  this  luxuriant  forest. 

Finally,  may  it  come  within  the  cate- 
gory of  *  sexual  selection*?  So  far  as  I  am 
aware,  no  one  has  ventured  to  assign  to  it 
any  such  a  significance.  Where  sex  char- 
acters are  so  little  differentiated  as  among 
at  least  a  portion  of  the  phylum  such  an 
explanation  would  be  as  far-fetched  as  it 
would  be  unnecessary.  While  upon  the 
part  of  some  of  the  older  naturalists  there 
was  a  disposition  to  regard  the  massing  of 
members  of  the  Scyphomedusse  at  certain 
times  as  having  a  sexual  meaning,  it  may 
be  doubted  whether  it  has  any  consider- 
able support  in  facts. 

Concerning  coloration  among  the  antho- 
zoa,  Duerden,  whose  work  on  the  group  is 
80  extended  and  so  favorably  known,  has 
summarized  the  following  account: 


**The  prevalence*  of  the  yellow  and 
brown  color  is  easily  understood  when  an 
examination  is  made  of  the  polypal  tissues. 
For  in  all  instances  in  which  it  occurs,  the 
entoderm  is  found  to  be  crowded  with  the 
so-called  *  yellow  cells'  or  Zooxanthellae, 
which  are  unicellular,  symbiotic  algse,  the 
chromatophores  of  which  are  yellow  or 
yellowish-green.  That  these  are  the  main 
caiLse  of  the  external  coloration  may  be 
easily  proved  from  colonies  of  Madrepora. 
In  this  genus  the  polyps  toward  the  apex 
of  branches  are  nearly  colorless,  and  on  a 
microscopic  examination  of  the  entoder- 
mal  layer  Zooxanthellae  are  found  to  be 
absent  while  they  are  present  in  abundance 
in  older  pigmented  regions.*' 

These  symbiotic  algae  are  not,  however, 
the  only  source  of  color  among  the  corals. 
Duerden  finds  ectodermal  pigment  gran- 
ules, aggregated  in  somewhat  irregular, 
isolated  patches  in  some  cases,  in  others 
somewhat  regularly  distributed. 

He  also  found  that  a  third  source  of  col- 
oration among  corals  was  the  presence  of 
what  he  has  termed  'boring  algae.'  These 
were  both  red  and  green,  and  penetrate 
into  the  skeletal  mass  and  color  it  a  dis- 
tinct red  or  green,  as  one  or  the  other  may 
be  present. 

In  his  work  on  the  Actiniaria  of  Jamaica, 
this  author  has  found  in  many  cases  the 
presence  of  unicellular  green  algae  growing 
upon  the  surface  and  giving  to  the  polyp 
a  distinctively  green  color.  He  found  also 
superficial  granular  pigments  in  certain 
species  which  could  be  removed  by  any 
erosion  of  the  ectoderm.  I  have  found  the 
same  in  several  species  of  New  England 
actinians,  and  in  some  cases  the  pigmenta- 
tion was  irregularly  distributed,  sometimes 
in  blotches,  sometimes  in  longitudinal 
stripes,  more  often  the  latter.  So  ex- 
tremely variable  is  the  coloration  in  many 
of  these  organisms  that  it  is  impossible  to 
utilize  it  as  a  factor  in  differentiating  spe- 


140 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473* 


cies.  Duerden  has  called  attention  to  this 
feature  among  both  corals  and  actinians, 
and  believes  it  to  be  due  to  the  presence  or 
absence  of  greater  or  less  intensity  of  light, 
^nd  believes  it  to  be  an  expression  of  the 
fact  that  the  Zooxanthellae  are  not  able  to 
thrive  except  under  proper  light,  and  that, 
i^aoreover,  where  light  is  too  intense,  as  in 
shallower  waters,  certain  dark  pigment 
found  in  such  specimens  is  thought  to  be 
due  to  its  utility  as  a  screen.  While  there 
may  be  a  measure  of  credibility  as  to 
phases  of  this  view,  it  does  not  seem  to  me 
as  of  general  adequacy.  The  variability 
of  species  to  which  I  have  just  referred 
and  to  the  very  common  genus  Metridium 
is  certainly  not  due  in  any  appreciable  de- 
gree to  the  factor  of  light,  since  it  occurs 
indiscriminately  among  specimens  taken 
in  identical  situations  as  well  as  under 
those  of  diflfering  conditions. 

In  this  connection  may  be  mentioned  the 
same  phenomeuon  among  medusas.  The 
variation  of  coloration  in  Cyanea  has  long 
been  known  and  is  so  marked  that  the 
elder  Agassiz  distinguished  two  additional 
species  chiefly  on  this  character,  both  of 
which  have  long  since  been  discarded.  It 
is  quite  well  known  to  observers  that  these 
animals  when  placed  in  aquaria  usually 
show  within  a  very  short  time  a  more  or 
less  marked  diminution  in  colors.  Dacty- 
lometra,  while  living  fairly  well  for  many 
days  in  the  aquarium,  loses  within  this 
time  so  much  of  its  asually  bright  colora- 
tion as  not  to  seem  like  the  same  creature. 
The  same  is  true  of  many  other  animals 
than  medusa*.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is 
equally  well  known  that  many  other  ani- 
mals may  be  placed  under  these  more  or 
less  artificial  environments  with  little  ap- 
parent loss  in  this  or  other  respect.  That 
it  is  not  due  to  light  alone  is  evident  in  the 
fact  that  similar  changes  occur  in  medusae 
which  have  been  kept  in  open  pools  or 
enclosures  about  docks  or  elsewhere. 


It  seems  to  me  rather  that  the  true  exr 
planation  is  to  be  found  in  the  changed, 
conditions  of  nutrition  and  the  consequent- 
change  in  the  metabolism  of  the  animal. 
Hydroids  placed  under  these  conditions, 
show  the  same  tendency. 

Those  which  take  kindly  to  the  change 
show  no  appreciable  decline  as  to  color  or 
other  vital  process.  The  same  is  true  of 
medusae.  OonionemiLS  may  be  kept  for 
weeks  in  the  aquarium,  and  if  properly  fed 
will  show  no  decline  in  color,  while  if  the 
conditions  become  bad  an  immediate 
change  is  noticeable  in  this  as  well  as  other 
features. 

The  same  may  be  said  concerning  the 
actinians.  While  many  seem  to  suffer  no- 
ticeably when  placed  in  aquaria  others 
show  no  apparent  difference.  Cerianthus 
memhranacetbSy  one  of  the  finest  of  the 
actinians  to  be  seen  in  the  Naples  aqua- 
rium, and  one  of  the  most  variable,  shows 
no  apparent  decline  in  any  vital  function. 
Specimens  have  been  kept  in  flourishing 
condition  in  the  aquarium  for  several 
years  and  show  no  sign  of  decline,  the  col- 
oration continuing  as  brilliant  as  in  the 
open  sea.  The  same  is  true  of  many  other 
organisms  found  in  finest  condition  in  this 
celebrated  aquarium.  Among  the  annelids 
Protula  soon  shows  decline  in  color  vigor, 
and  the  same  is  true,  though  to  a  less 
degree,  in  the  case  of  Spirographis  and 
Serpula. 

While  it  may  not  be  without  probability 
that  some  measure  of  this  color  change 
may  be  due  in  certain  cases  to  the  changed 
conditions  of  light,  it  still  remains  true, 
I  believe,  that  light  alone  is  but  a  single 
factor,  and  that  often  a  minor  one  involved 
in  the  changes  observed,  and  that  changed 
conditions  of  nutrition  and  metabolism  are 
by  far  the  more  important. 

The  main  factor  of  our  problem,  how- 
ever, is  still  unsolved.  What  answer  shall 
we  make  to  ourselves  concerning  the  sig- 


Jaituaby  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE 


141 


nificanee  of  the  multiform  colors  more  or 
less  general  among  members  of  the  coelen- 
tera?  It  seems  to  me  more  or  less  evident 
that  natural  selection  can  have  at  best  but 
a  limited  place  in  its  explanation.  I  see 
no  place  for  it  along  the  lines  of  protec- 
tion, either  direct  or  indirect. 

Of  even  less  significance  can  any  modi- 
fication of  it  under  the  guise  of  sexual  se- 
lection be  claimed ;  for  even  aside  from  the 
large  majority  of  cases  where  there  is 
slight  if  any  sex  differentiation,  no  sen- 
sory organization,  which  Darwin  recog- 
nized as  essential  to  the  exercise  of  this 
factor,  is  present  through  which  it  might 
become  operative  in  even  the  smallest 
degree. 

Two,  and  only  two,  other  methods  of 
explanation  have  seemed  to  me  to  aflPord  a 
reasonable  account.  First,  that  it  is  due 
primarily  to  the  normal  course  of  metabo- 
Uam,  during  which  color  appears  as  one 
of  its  many  expressions.  Darwin  himself 
was  not  indifl^erent  to  this  possibility,  aiid 
expressly  states  in  connection  with  the 
same  problem  that  color  might  very  nat- 
urally arise  under  such  conditions.  **  Bear- 
ing in  mind,"  he  suggests,  ''how  many 
substances  closely  analogous  to  organic 
compounds  have  been  recently  formed  by 
chemists,  and  which  exhibit  the  most  splen- 
did colors,  it  would  have  been  a  strange 
fact  if  substances  similarly  colored  had 
not  often  originated,  independently  of  any 
useful  end  thus  gained,  in  the  complex 
laboratory  of  the  living  organism.*'  It 
has  also  been  pointed  out  in  an  earlier 
portion  of  this  paper  that  Wallace  had 
to  appeal  to  a  similar  source  in  his  search 
for  the  primary  factors  of  animal  colora- 
tion. 

Geddes  and  Thomson  in  discussing  the 
problems  of  sex  likewise  make  a  similar 
claim.  They  declare,  **  pigments  of  rich- 
ness and  variety  in  related  series,  point  to 


preeminent  activity  pf  chemical  processes 
in  the  animals  which  possess  them.  Tech- 
nically expressed,  abundant  pigments  are 
expressions  of  intense  metabolism."  They 
further  find  in  the  phenomena  of  bright 
colors  among  the  males  of  most  of  the 
higher  animals  simply  the  expression  of 
the  correspondingly  greater  activities  of 
the  process  of  metabolism. 

I  believe  that  in  this  source  we  have  a 
real  account  of  a  considerable  body  of  color 
phenomena  among  the  lower  invertebrates, 
and  particularly  of  that  series  under  pres- 
ent consideration. 

The  second  factor  to  which  I  would  ap- 
peal is  so  nearly  related  to  the  former  as  to 
be  involved  more  or  less  intimately  there- 
with. It  is  to  the  effect  that  certain  pig- 
ments are  products  of  waste  in  process  of 
elimination.  This  has  already  been  re- 
ferred to  in  a  former  connection  and  need 
not  be  separately  emphasiaed  apart  from 
the  concrete  cases  to  which  it  may  be 
applied. 

Strongly  significant  of  the  importance 
of  this  process  among  the  Hydrozoa  is  the 
fact  already  pointed  out  that  pigments  are 
found  deposited  along  the  lines  of  prin- 
cipal metabolism,  namely,  the  gastrovascu- 
lar  regions,  the  gonads,  and  to  a  less  extent 
the  immediate  regions  of  sensory  bodies, 
when  these  may  be  present.  While  this 
alone  as  a  mere  statement  of  fact  does  not 
prove  the  point  at  issue,  when  taken  in  con- 
nection with  other  facts  of  a  similar  na- 
ture, it  amounts  to  a  high  degree  of  prob- 
ability. 

What  evidence  have  we  that  in  the  case 
of  hydroids,  medusae,  etc.,  colors  are  asso- 
ciated with  excretory  processes?  While 
the  facts  are  not  numerous,  they  are,  I 
believe,  rather  convincing.  In  work  upon 
regeneration  in  hydroids,  Driesch  and 
Loeb  called  attention  to  certain  pigmen- 
tary   matters    found    in    Tubularia    and 


142 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


claimed  for  it  an  important  function  in 
the  regenerative  process.  Morgan,  and 
later  Stevens,  working  upon  the  same  hy- 
droid,  became  convinced  that  the  claims 
of  the  former  investigators  as  to  the  im- 
portance of  this  pigment  were  not  well 
founded.  They  found  that  not  only  was 
the  pigment  of  no  special  importance,  but 
that  it  was  reaUy  a  waste  product,  and 
that  during  the  process  of  regeneration 
was  actually  excreted  and  finally  ejected 
bodily  from  the  hydranth.  I  have  person- 
ally been  able  to  confirm  these  results  on 
the  same  and  related  hydroids,  and  have 
also  shown  that  in  regenerating  medussB 
there  is  formed  de  novo  in  each  regener- 
ating organ,  such  as  manubrium,  radial 
canals,  etc.,  the  characteristic  pigment  of 
the  normal  organ.  This  was  particularly 
noticeable  in  the  case  of  radial  canals.  Pol- 
lowing  their  regeneration  and  promptly 
upon  their  functional  activity  the  deposi- 
tion of  pigment  made  its  appearance,  and 
within  a  comparatively  short  time  had  ac- 
quired the  normal  intensity.  This  was  also 
true  of  other  organs,  tentacles  and  ten- 
tacular bulbs,  as  well  as  manubrium  and 
canals. 

Substantially  the  same  results  have  been 
obtained,  though  here  first  announced,  in 
experiments  upon  one  of  the  Scyphome- 
dusae.  In  very  young  specimens  where  the 
tissues  are  delicate  it  is  possible  to  note 
the  intense  activity  in  regenerating  organs, 
such  as  the  sensory  body.  The  first  part  of 
this  organ  to  make  its  appearance  is  the 
sensory  papilla,  which  is  soon  followed  by 
the  otoliths,  and  later  by  the  special  pig- 
mentation of  the  entire  organ. 

From  the  foregoing  considerations  three 
things  seem  to  me  to  be  more  or  less  evi- 
dent: 

1.  That  in  all  regenerative  processes  a 
very  marked  degree  of  metabolism  is  in- 
volved, whether  in  the  mere  metamorphosis 


of  old  tissues  into  new,  or  in  the  direct 
regeneration  of  new  tissues  by  growth 
processes,  both  of  which  seem  to  occur. 

2.  That  in  regenerative  processes  there 
is  often  associated  the  development  of  pig- 
mentary substances  which  seem  to  have  no 
direct  function  in  relation  thereto. 

3.  That  in  many  cases  there  follows  a 
more  or  less  active  excretion  and  elimina- 
tion of  portions  of  the  pigment  in  ques- 
tion. 

Concerning  color  phenomena  among  the 
several  classes  of  worms  we  are  in  much 
the  same  uncertain  state  of  mind  as  in  the 
former.  For  while  in  some  of  the  annelids 
there  may  be  found  fairly  well  developed 
visual  organs  it  may  be  seriously  ques- 
tioned whether  they  are  of  any  such  degree 
of  perfection  as  would  enable  their  pos- 
sessors to  distinguish  small  color  distinc- 
tions. And  if  this  be  the  case  there  would 
at  once  be  eliminated  any  possibility  of 
conscious  adaptation  in  seeking  a  suitable 
environment,  or  such  as  would  be  involved 
in  so-called  sexual  selection. 

Furthermore,  it  is  very  well  known  that 
among  this  group  some  which  exhibit  among 
the  richest  of  these  color  phenomena  have 
their  habitat  in  seclusion,  buried  in  sand  or 
mud,  or  hidden  beneath  stones,  or  with 
tubes  built  up  from  their  own  secretions, 
or  otherwise  so  environed  as  to  render 
practically  nil  the  operation  of  natural  se- 
lection. 

Again,  it  should  not  be  overlooked  in 
this  connection  that  in  many  of  the  anne- 
lids, as  well  as  others,  the  most  pronounced 
source  of  color  is  to  be  found  in  the  haemo- 
globin dissolved  in  the  blood,  and  that  it 
would  be  as  futile  to  ascribe  its  color  to 
natural  selection  as  it  would  to  claim  a 
similar  explanation  of  the  color  of  the 
same  substance  in  the  blood  of  vertebrates, 
where,  as  color,  it  is  absolutely  of  no  select- 
ive value,  except  in  such  special  cases  as 
the  colors  of  the  cock's  comb,  where  it  may 


Januaby  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


143 


come  to  play  a  secondary  functiqii  as,  a,., 
sex  character. 

What  shall  be  said  of  such  forms  as 
Bipalium  and  Oeoplana  among  land  plan- 
arians,  which  exhibit  in  many  cases  bril- 
liant coloration,  but  since  they  are  chiefly 
nocturnal  in  their  habit  and  conceal  them- 
selves during  the  day  under  logs  or  other 
cover,  the  color  could  hardly  serve  any 
selective  or  adaptive  function? 

The  same  is  equally  true  of  such  forms 
as  nemerteans  whose  habitat  is  beneath 
the  sand  along  the  tide  line  or  below,  and 
also  of  many  annelids  having  a  similar 
habitat.  Some  of  these,  particularly 
among  the  latter,  have  types  of  coloration 
which  are  often  of  brilliant  character  and 
splendid  patterns,  vying,  as  one  writer  has 
expressed  it,  *with  the  very  butterflies.' 

It  can  not  be  questioned  that  in  some 
cajses  we  And  among  these  forms  what 
would  seem  at  first  sight  to  be  splendid 
illustrations  of  protective  coloration.  If, 
however,  we  trace  in  detail  their  distribu- 
tign  and  variable  habitat  we  shall  often 
find,  as  did  Semper  in  the  case  of  Myxicola, 
that  the  supposed  case  of  marvelous  mim- 
icry resolves  itself  into  merest  coincidence. 
This  case  cited  by  Semper  is  described  in 
detail  in  'Animal  Life,'  and  its  careful 
study  by  some  of  our  over-optimistic  selec- 
tionists would  prove  a  healthy  exercise, 
conducing  to  a  more  critical  scientific 
spirit  and,  as  a  consequence,  to  saner  inter- 
pretations of  appearances  in  the  light  of 
all  the  facts. 

The  mimicry  in  the  case  was  of  coral 
polyps  among  which  the  annelid  was 
found  growing  and  which,  in  the  form  of 
its  branches,  their  size  and  coloration, 
seemed  so  perfect  that  it  had  long  escaped 
notice  and  was  described  by  Semper  as  a 
new  species. 

It  was  found  in  various  localities  among 
the  corals,  but  invariably  having  precisely 
the  same  simulation  of  the  polyps,  so  that 


Sempe;*  noted  it.m^./^p^png  th^  ^estjcasea 
of  mimicry  which  had  come  to  his  atten- 
tion. It  so  happened,  however,  that  soon 
after  he  happened  to  discover  his  mimetic 
Myxicola  growing  upon  a  sponge  whose 
color  and  form  were  so  different  as  to  ren- 
der it  very  conspicuous.  A  systematic 
search  for  it  in  other  situations  soon  re- 
vealed it  among  the  rocks,  and  in  his  own 
language,  'Almost  everjrwhere,  and  wher- 
ever I  examined  it  carefully,  it  was  exactly 
of  the  size  and  color  of  the  polyps  of  dor- 
docora  ccespitosa/ 

Attention  has  already  been  called  to 
Eisig's  account  of  coloration  among  the 
Capitellidae,  in  which  he  discards  the  fac- 
tor of  natural  selection  as  wholly  inade- 
quate in  the  case  of  the  organisms  under 
consideration  as  well  as  in  many  others, 
and  refers  to  many  investigators  who  have 
likewise  found  it  deficient.  In  his  exhaus- 
tive monograph  the  subject  is  discussed  in 
considerable  detail  and  references  given, 
which  it  would  be  impracticable  to  cite  in 
such  a  review  as  the  present. 

It  will  be  possible  to  refer  but  briefly 
to  another  group  or  two  in  the  present  dis- 
cussion, the  first  of  which  is  the  echino- 
derms,  and  chiefly  the  starfishes.  As  is 
well  known,  these  organisms  exhibit  a  con- 
siderable range  of  variety  and  richness 
of  coloration,  among  which  red,  orange, 
brown,  yellow  and  black  are  more  or  less 
common.  In  not  a  few  cases  of  course  the 
colors  comprise  combinations  of  two  or 
more  of  those  named.  An  examination  has 
been  made  of  these  pigments  in  a  few  cases 
and  has  suflSced  to  show  that  for  the  most 
part  they  are  lipochromes  and,  therefore, 
belong  to  either  reserve  or  waste  products. 
Similar  colors  are  also  found  among  the 
brittle-stars,  with  occasional  admixtures  of 
blue  or  green,  colors  less  common  in  the 
former  group. 

As  is  also  well  known  similar  colors  are 
found  among  the  Crustacea,  into  a  consid- 


144 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


eration  of  which  it  is  impossible  to  enter 
here.  There  is  a  matter,  however,  which 
I  can  not  ignore  in  connection  with  the 
group,  namely,  the  rather  remarkable  fact 
that  in  two  phyla  having  so  little  in  com- 
mon as  to  habit,  structure  or  environment, 
there  should  be  so  striking  a  color  resem- 
blance. This  is  further  heightened  by  the 
fact  that  while  one  is  a  prey  to  almost 
every  denizen  of  the  sea  of  predatory 
habit,  the  other  is  almost  correspondingly 
exempt.  So  far  as  I  know  echinoderms 
have  few  enemies,  and  are  of  course 
largely  invulnerable  against  such  as  might 
otherwise  find  palatable  feeding  among 
these  sluggish  herds.  If  the  color  is  in  the 
one  case  protective,  why  not  in  the  other  f 
Or  if  it  be  not  protective  on  the  other 
hand,  why  claim  such  in  the  first  t  That 
sexual  selection  might  have  some  place 
among  Crustacea  may  not  seem  improbable. 
But  if  color  is  its  signal  here  what  does  it 
imply  among  echinoderms,  where  in  the 
nature  of  the  case  it  must  be  ruled  out  of 
account  t 

Discussing  the  significance  of  colors 
among  the  echinoderms  Mosely  submits 
the  following  interesting  problem :  *  *  Those 
coloring  matters  which,  like  those  at  pres- 
ent under  consideration,  absorb  certain 
isolated  areas  of  the  visible  spectrum,  must 
be  considered  as  more  complex,  as  pig- 
ments, than  those  which  merely  absorb 
more  or  less  of  the  ends  of  the  spectrum. 
•  •  •  It  seems  improbable  that  the  eyes 
of  other  animals  are  more  perfect  as  spec- 
troscopes than  our  own,  and  hence  we  are 
at  a  loss  for  an  explanation  on  grounds  of 
direct  benefit  to  the  species  of  the  exist- 
ence of  the  peculiar  complex  pigments  in 
it.  That  the  majority  of  species  of  Ante- 
don  should  have  vivid  coloring  matters  of 
a  simple  character,  and  that  few  or  only 
one  should  be  dyed  by  a  very  complex  one, 
is  a  remarkable  fact,  and  it  seems  only  pos- 
sible to  say  in  regard  to  such  facts  that  the 


formation  of  the  particular  pigment  in  the 
animal  is  accidental,  i.  e.,  no  more  to  be 
explained  than  such  facts  as  that  sulphate 
of  copper  is  blue.'* 

Considered  from  the  standpoint  of  met- 
abolism such  facts  would  hardly  seem  to 
assume  the  difficulty  which  might  be  im- 
plied in  the  case  just  cited,  indeed  they  are 
in  perfect  alignment  with  what  might  be 
anticipated,  and  what  has  in  cases  pre- 
viously cited  been  found  to  be  actually 
occurring. 

Similar  conditions  as  to  color  and  color 
significance  are  also  matters  of  common 
knowledge  in  relation  to  mollusca.  Per- 
haps few  groups  among  animals  exhibit 
more  brilliant  and  varied  colors  than  are 
to  be  found  among  gasteropods,  yet  in 
many  of  them  this  factor  can  have  no 
more  value  as  a  means  of  adaptation  than 
do  biliary  pigments  or  hsemoglobin  among 
vertebrates,  where  as  pigments  their  sig- 
nificance is  nil.  Of  them,  Darwin,  with 
his  usual  frankness,  has  said,  as  previously 
cited,  'These  colors  do  not  appear  to  be 
of  any  use  as  a  protection ;  they  are  prob- 
ably the  direct  result,  as  in  the  lowest 
classes,  of  the  nature  of  the  tissues— the 
patterns  and  the  sculpture  of  the  shell  de- 
pending on  its  manner  of  growth.'  Re- 
ferring in  the  same  connection  to  the 
bright  and  varied  colors  of  nudibranchs, 
he  further  declares,  '*many  brightly  col- 
ored, white,  or  otherwise  conspicuous  spe- 
cies, do  not  seek  concealment ;  whilst  again 
some  equally  conspicuous  species,  as  well 
as  other  dull  colored  kinds,  live  under 
stones  and  in  dark  recesses.  So  that  with 
these  nudibranch  molluscs,  color  appar- 
ently does  not  stand  in  any  close  relation 
to  the  nature  of  the  place  which  they  in- 
habit.'' 

Into  the  classic  shades  afforded  by  the 
insects  as  a  fruitful  haunt  and  stronghold 
of  natural  selection  I  must  not  venture. 
Not  that  its  problems  have  all  been  solved, 


Jaituabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


145 


nor  that  some  considered  as-  settled  beyond 
controversy  may  not  have  to  be  readjusted, 
not  excepting  the  much  exploited  Kalima 
itself,  but  out  of  pure  regard  for  the  exi- 
gencies of  the  occasion. 

No  more  dare  I  presume  to  enter  the 
abysses  of  the  deep  sea  and  to  pass  in  re- 
view its  manifold  and  ahnost  untouched 
problems  of  color  significance,  great  as  is 
the  temptation  and  attractive  as  are  its  in- 
ducements. It  must  sufElce  to  suggest  that 
had  half  the  ingenuity  which  has  been  ex- 
ercised to  bring  these  problems  into  align- 
ment with  the  general  sway  and  supposed 
supremacy  of  natural  selection  been  em- 
ployed in  an  analysis  of  the  pigments  and 
some  efforts  to  discover  the  origin  of  col- 
oration and  its  general  significance  as  a 
physiological,  rather  than  as  a  physical 
one,  we  should  have  been  saved  the  sad 
rites  attending  the  obsequies  of  still-bom 
hypotheses  and  half-developed  theories. 
The  desperate  attempt  to  save  natural  se- 
lection from  drowning  in  its  submarine 
adventures  by  lighting  its  abyssal  path 
with  the  flickering  and  fitful  shinmier  of 
phosphorescence  was  worthy  of  ac  better 
cause.  It  is  difficult  to  be  serious  with  this 
phase  of  a  subject  the  nature  of  which  de- 
mands anything  but  ridicule  or  satire.  But 
the  attempts  to  illuminate  the  quiescent 
abysses  with  the  dull  glow  which  under  all 
known  conditions  requires,  if  not  violent, 
at  least  vigorous  stimulus  to  excite  it,  and 
the  assumption  that  its  sources  were  suffi- 
cient to  meet  even  a  moiety  of  the  necessi- 
ties involved,  makes  a  draft  upon  one's 
credulity  which  might  arouse  either  indig- 
nation or  the  sense  of  the  ludicrous,  de- 
pending upon  the  point  of  view !  But  se- 
riously, such  a  conception  apparently  loses 
sight  of  too  many  evident  known  condi- 
tions of  phosphorescence  with  which  we 
are  familiar,  not  to  mention  the  growing 
belief  that  the  phenomenon  is  in  itself  of 
the  nature  of  one  of  the  wastes  of  metab- 


olism to  justify  the  herculean  attempt  to 
make  it  serve  a  cause  so  desperate. 

As  a  concluding  word  allow  me  to  say 
that  in  the  present  review  I  have  not  in  the 
least  sought  to  ignore  or  discredit  the  value 
of  natural  selection  as  a  factor  in  organic 
evolution.  Nor  would  I  be  understood  as 
wholly  discarding  color  as  a  factor  in  or- 
ganic adaptation,  particularly  among  the 
higher  and  more  specialized  forms,  but 
rather  to  show  its  limits.  At  the  same  time 
I  must  submit  to  a  growing  conviction  that 
its  importance  has  been  largely  overesti- 
mated, and  that  other  factors  have  been  as 
largely  lost  sight  of.  If  the  present  discus- 
sion may  serve  in  even  the  smallest  degree 
to  direct  attention  to  some  of  the  latter  it 
will  have  served  its  chief  purpose. 

ChaeijES  W.  HARorrr. 

Sybacuse  Univeesity. 


BCIEVTIFIO   BOOKS. 

THE  HONEYSUCKLES.* 

This  notable  addition  to  the  literature  of 
the  genus  Lonicera  is  a  most  welcome  contri- 
bution, presenting  as  it  does  the  first  com- 
plete systematic  treatment  of  the  honey- 
suckles since  their  description  by  De  Candolle 
in  the  fourth  volume  of  his  ^  Prodromus/  pub- 
lished in  1830.  Mr.  Kehder  has  consulted 
the  specimens  preserved  in  all  the  larger 
American  herbaria,  and  in  the  most  important 
of  those  of  Europe,  and  has  consulted  the  liv- 
ing collections  in  the  larger  botanical  gardens, 
his  investigations  having  extended  through 
several  years.  The  treatment  of  the  genus  in 
De  CandoUe's  'Prodromus'  recognized  53 
species,  of  which  42  are  now  held  to  be 
valid;  the  present  monograph  recognizes  154 
species,  together  with  3  imperfectly  known 
and  not  named,  making  157  in  all,  thus  adding 
115  species  to  those  known  in  1830.  In  addi- 
tion to  these  157  species,  a  large  number  of 
varieties  are  given  rank,  as  also  are  a  consider- 
able number  of  forms  recognized  under  name ; 

*  *  Synopsis  of  the  Genus  Lonicera,*  by  Alfred 
Rehder  {Ann,  Rep,  Mo.  Bot.  Qard,,  14:  27-232, 
pi,  1-20,  October  8,  1903). 


146 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol  XIX.  No.  473. 


.  '.    '  •  I 


some  of  these  varieties  and  forms  will  prob- 
ably come  to  be  taken  as  species  or  subspecies, 
but  most  of  them  are  clearly  only  deviations 
from  ordinary  states  of  the  species  in  color 
or  size  of  various  organs,  and  the  formal  rec- 
ognition of  such  things  lumbers  up  nomen- 
clature without  any  useful  result. 

Mr.  Rehder  recognizes  two  subgenera, 
Chamcecerasus,  with  four  sections,  and  Peri- 
clymenum,  following  the  division  accepted 
by  Linnaeus,  who  united  the  four  genera  ac- 
cepted by  Toumefort  in  1700,  Caprifolium, 
Periclymenum,  Xylosteum  and  ChamcBcerasiLS, 
into  the  one  genus  Lonicera,  of  which  it  would 
appear  that  the  Lonicera  Caprifolium  is  to  be 
taken  as  the  type.  Mr.  Behder  remarks  that 
the  two  subgenera  form  two  very  well-defined 
and  natural  groups  if  based  on  the  character 
of  the  infiorescence,  but  he  evidently  does  not 
agree  to  recent  propositions  to  recognize  them 
as  genera.  The  genus  Distegia  of  Kafinesque 
is  only  given  rank  as  a  subsection,  while 
Nintooa  of  De  CandoUe  is  given  rank  as  a 
section.  Including  the  Mexican  types,  21 
North  American  species  are  recognized,  no 
new  ones  being  described  by  Mr.  Rehder  from 
within  this  territory  in  the  present  work;  of 
recently  described  North  American  species, 
L.  sororia  of  Professor  Piper  is  reduced  to  L. 
conjugicUis  Kellogg  and  L,  ehractulata  of  Dr. 
Rydberg  is  found  to  be  inseparable  from  L. 
Utahensis  S.  Watson.  The  species  which  has 
long  been  called  L.  ciliata  Muhl.,  is  found  to 
have  an  older  name  in  L,  Canadensis  Marsh.; 
L.  villosa  Michx.  is  reduced  to  a  variety  of 
L.  coerulea  L.,  following  Torrey  and  Gray;  L. 
flavescens  Dippel  is  made  a  variety  of  L. 
involucrata  (Richards)  Banks;  L.  Japonica 
Thunb.,  naturalized  in  recent  years  in  eastern 
North  America  from  New  York  southward, 
is  not  uncommonly  cultivated  in  the  West 
Indies;  L.  sempervirens  receives  a  new  variety 
in  var.  hirsutula  Rehder  from  North  Carolina, 
but  an  examination  of  two  of  the  specimens 
cited  leads  me  to  believe  that  this  has  no 
serious  claim  to  recognition  under  name; 
L,  suhspicata  H.  and  A  and  L.  interrupia 
Benth.,  reduced  to  varieties  of  L,  hispidula 
by  Dr.  Gray,  are  restored  by  Mr.  Rehder  to 
specific   rank;   L.    dumosa   Gray,    which   has 


recently  been  regarded  as  synonymous  with 
L,  alhiflora  T.  &  G.,  is  maintained  as  a  variety 
of  that  species;  Dr.  Rydberg's  recently  pro- 
posed L.  glaucescens  is  accorded  specific  rank. 
Only  one  American  species  known  to  the 
writer  is  not  referred  to  by  Mr.  Rehder,  being 
described  by  Dr.  Small  in  his  'Flora  of  the 
Southeastern  United  States,'  issued  in  July, 
1903,  viz.,  Lonicera  flavescens  from  Tennessee 
and  Kentucky;  in  naming  this  species,  which 
is  related  to  L.  Sullivantii  and  to  L.  flava.  Dr. 
Small  inadvertently  overlooked  the  older  L. 
flavescens  of  Dippel,  so  that  if  the  species 
holds  good  it  will  have  to  receive  another 
name. 

Mr.  Rehder's  excellent  paper  is  illustrated 
by  four  plates  of  details  of  inflorescence  and 
morphology  and  by  reproduced  photographs  of 
little-known  or  rare  Asiatic  species  taken  from 
sheets  in  the  older  herbaria  of  Europe,  largely 
from  the  collections  at  St.  Petersburg. 

Mr.  Rehder  records  14  doubtful  species  at 
the  end  of  his  monograph  which  he  has  been 
unable  to  refer  satisfactorily,  and  24  hybrids, 
most  of  which  have  originated  in  various 
gardens,  where  the  parent  species  have  been 
growing  in  proximity;  none  of  the  hybrids 
is  indicated  as  of  origin  in  the  wild  condi- 
tion; two  fossil  species  of  the  genus  are 
known,  both  of  them  from  European  terranes. 

N.  L.  Britton. 

International  Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literc^ 
ture.  First  annual  issue.  O,  Human  An- 
atomy. London,  Harrison  &  Sons.  1903 
(June).  Pp.  xiv  +  212.  Price,  ten  shill- 
ings and  sixpence. 

Although  the  plan  of  this  catalogue  is  ex- 
cellent and  its  contents  are  good  as  far  as  they 
go,  it  is  improbable  that  any  anatomist  who 
has  access  to  Schwalbe's  '  Jahresberichte 
ueber  Anatomie  und  Entwicklungsgeschichte ' 
will  find  it  very  useful.  For  several  genera- 
tions past  anatomists  have  been  accustomed  to 
excellent  year-books  and  a  new  catalogue  will 
naturally  be  compared  to  those  already  in 
existence.  The  last  volume  of  Schwalbe 
(1901)  is  a  large  book  containing  over  1,300 
pages,  filled  with  numerous  abstracts,  giving 
the  titles  to  over  3,300  papers  taken  from  over 


Januabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


147 


650  journals.  To  be  sure,  all  the  papers  on 
anatomical  subjects  which  djppeared  in  1901 
are  not  given  in  this  volume,  and  there  are 
numerous  papers  appearing  in  1900  cata- 
logued, but  the  series  of  volumes  gives  prac- 
tically a  complete  catalogue  of  such  papers. 

When  we  compare  the  new  catalogue  with 
Schwalbe's  so  many  deficiencies  are  at  once 
seen  that  only  a  few  of  them  can  be  mentioned 
in  this  review.  Less  than  half  as  many  titles 
(about  1,600)  are  given  as  in  Schwalbe.  To 
be  sure,  it  is  stated  in  the  preface  of  the  new 
catalogue  that  it  is  to  be  a  complete  index, 
but  it  is  noted  that  the  literature  of  Austria 
has  not  been  included  and  this  omission  of 
literature  is  not  sufficient  to  account  for  the 
difference  between  the  new  catalogue  and 
Schwalbe's.  The  omissions  are  best  expressed 
by  making  some  comparisons.  In  Schwalbe's 
*  Jahresbericht '  the  blood  and  lymph,  the  fe- 
male organs  of  sex  and  the  integument  are 
represented  by  301,  65  and  74  titles  and  in 
the  new  catalogue  by  77,  43  and  36  titles  re- 
spectively. Under  'Pedagogy  and  Biography' 
we  miss,  among  others,  SpaltehoLz,  *Zum  70 
GJeburtstag  von  Wilhelm  His';  G^egenbaur, 
*Erlebtes  und  Erstrebtes';  Barker,  'On  the 
Study  of  Anatomy,'  and  Jackson,  'A  Method 
of  Teaching  Relational  Anatomy';  all  of 
which  are  given  in  Schwalbe's  '  Jahresbericht.' 
We  also  do  not  find  any  reference  to  the  Jour- 
nal of  Morphology,  The  Biological  Bulletin, 
The  Journal  of  Experimental  Medicine,  The 
American  Journal  of  Physiology,  The  Johns 
Hopkins  Hospital  Reports,  The  Bulletin  of  the 
Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  The  American  Jour- 
nal of  Anatomy,  The  Journal  of  Comparative 
Neurology,  the  Proceedings  of  the  Association 
of  American  Anatomists  and  the  Journal  of 
Medical  Research,  each  of  which  contains 
articles  on  anatomy — 83  altogether.  In  the 
new  catalogue  we  find  but  one  reference  to 
Minot  and  one  to  Bardeen;  in  Schwalbe  there 
are  eleven  references  to  these  two  authors. 

While  there  are  many  omissions  there  are 
also  many  duplications.  Spalteholz's  '  Atlas ' 
with  its  translation  is  entered  thirteen  times; 
Szymonowicz,  which  came  out  in  parts  is  given 
fifteen  times,  while  Stohr  is  given  six  times  in 
the  subject  catalogue  and  not  at  all  in  the 


authors'  catalogue.  There  are  also  a  number 
of  contributions  which  should  not  have  been 
included  in  this  catalogue,  e.  g.,  Meiaenheimer, 
'Die  Entwicklung  von  Herz,  Perikard, 
Niere  und  Genitalzellen  bei  Cyclas,'  etc., 
and  also  a  few  subjects  catalogued  under  the 
wrong  headings.  Eisler  on  the  'Muscularis 
Stemalis'  should  be  under  'Abnormalities' 
and  Parskij,  'Die  Anatomic  und  Histologic 
der  Schildriise,'  should  not  be  under  'Pitui- 
tary Body.' 

The  above  illustrations  are  only  a  few,  but 
they  are  sufficient  to  show  that  the  'Interna- 
tional Catalogue  of  Scientific  Literature  on 
Human  Anatomy'  is  very  incomplete;  so 
much  so,  that  anatomists  will  not  find  in  it  a 
substitute  nor  a  supplement  to  the  lists  ac- 
companying the  Anatomischer  Anzeiger  nor  to 
Schwalbe's  '  Jahresbericht.'  It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  the  volume  for  1902  will  include  all  the 
titles  found  in  any  of  the  lists,  for  they  are  at 
hand  and  can  be  copied  and  supplemented. 
A  complete  authors'  catalogue  with  a  subject 
catalogue  will  be  welcomed  by  all  anatomists. 

M. 


SCIENTIFIC    JOURNALS    AND    ARTICLES. 

We  have  received  the  first  number  of  the 
Journal  of  Philosophy,  Psychology  and 
Scientific  Methods,  edited  by  Professor  Fred- 
erick J.  E.  Woodbridge,  of  Columbia  Uni- 
versity and  published  by  The  Science  Press 
(Sub-station  84,  New  York  City).  ^  The  con- 
tents are  as  follows :  '  The  International  Con- 
gress of  Arts  and  Science,'  Professor  Hugo 
Miinsterberg;  'The  Religious  Consciousness 
as  Ontological,'  Professor  George  Tnmibull 
Ladd ;  '  Some  Points  in  Minor  Logic,'  Chris- 
tine Ladd  Franklin ;  '  The  Third  Meeting  of 
the  American  Philosophical  Association'; 
'  Stratton's  Experimental  Psychology,'  Pro- 
fessor H.  Austin  Aikens ;  '  Journals  and  New 
Books ' ;  '  Notes.'  The  scope  of  the  journal 
is  explained  in  an  editorial  note  which  reads: 
"  In  so  far  as  an  explanation  or  even  an  ex- 
cuse may  be  needed  for  the  establishment  of 
a  new  journal,  it  is  hoped  that  this  may  be 
given  by  the  contents  and  form  of  the  first 
number  of  The  Journal  of  Philosophy,  Psy- 
chology and  Scientific  Methods.     There  are  in 


us 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


Germany  *  Centralblatter '  for  nearly  all  the 
sciences,  and  there  are  in  all  countries  ^  trade 
journals'  for  the  applied  sciences  such  as 
medicine  and  engineering.  But  there  exists 
no  journal  covering  the  whole  field  of  scien- 
tific philosophy,  psychology,  ethics  and  logic, 
appearing  at  frequent  intervals  and  appealing 
directly  to  the  interests  of  all  professional 
students.  It  is  a  matter  of  importance  at  the 
present  time  that  the  relations  between  phi- 
losophy and  psychology  should  remain  inti- 
mate, and  that  the  fundamental  methods  and 
concepts  of  the  special  sciences,  now  receiving 
attention  on  all  sides,  should  be  kept  in  touch 
with  philosophy  in  its  historic  development. 
What  may  be  accomplished  by  the  prompt 
publication  of  short  contributions  is  demon- 
strated by  the  Comptes  Rendus  of  the  Paris 
Academy,  whose  four-page  articles  cover 
nearly  the  whole  scientific  activity  of  France. 
A  fortnightly  journal  is  particularly  suited  for 
discussion,  the  interval  being  just  long  enough 
to  permit  of  questions  and  answers.  Finally 
the  special  function  of  such  a  journal  is  the 
quick  and  complete  publication  of  reviews  and 
abstracts  of  the  literature." 

The  Botanical  Gazette  for  December  con- 
tains the  following  articles :  £.  N.  Transeau,  in 
a  paper  '  On  the  Geographic  Distribution  and 
Ecological  Kelation  of  the  Bog  Plant  Societies 
of  Northern  North  America,'  finds  that  the 
bog  plant  societies  of  North  America  show  an 
optimum  dispersal  in  moist  climates  subject 
to  great  temi)erature  extremes.  Relations  of 
the  bog  societies  are  with  the  conifer  rather 
than  with  the  deciduous  forests.  The  bog 
societies  are  considered  as  relicts  of  former 
widespread  societies,  and  are  observed  in  vari- 
ous places  largely  because  of  favorable  tempera- 
ture conditions.  Edward  W.  Berry  discusses 
^  Aralia  in  American  Paleobotany,'  giving  a 
critical  account  of  the  fossil  forms  that  have 
been  referred  to  this  genus. — ^In  his  conclud- 
ing instalment  of  *  The  Vegetation  of  the  Bay 
of  Fundy  Salt  and  Diked  Marshes:  an 
Ecological  Study,'  Professor  Ganong  considers 
the  mesophytic  and  hydrophytic  conditions  of 
the  Bay  of  Fundy  marshes,  also  the  succession 
of  plants  in  place  and  time.  In  his  con- 
clusion he  makes  an  earnest  appeal  for  more 


careful  description  of  ecol<>gical  facts,  longer 
periods  of  study  before  publication,  and  ad- 
vance in  the  method  of  correlating  meteorolog- 
ical data  with  vegetation,  the  recognition  of 
physiological  as  well  as  structural  adaptations, 
and  a  careful  study  of  the  exact  nature  of 
plant  cooperation  and  competition. — ^Alice 
Eastwood  publishes  a  synopsis  of  Oarrya,  a 
characteristic  California  genus,  and  describes 
three  new  species. — J.  Y.  Bergen,  in  a  study 
of  '  The  Transpiration  of  Spartina  junceum 
and  other  Xerophytic  Shrubs,'  has  reached 
the  conclusion  that  during  the  leafy  season 
the  relative  power  of  transpiration  of  the 
leaves  compared  with  that  of  the  cortex  is 
much  greater  for  equal  areas,  and  that  leafless 
individuals  of  Spartina  grow  but  little  in  any 
season. 


SOCIETIES   AND   ACADEMIES. 

THE   BAN    FRANaSOO    SECTION    OF    THE   AHEBIGAN 
MATHEMATICAL  SOCIETT. 

The  fourth  regular  meeting  of  the  San 
Francisco  Section  of  the  American  Mathe- 
matical Society  was  held  at  the  XJniyersity 
of  California  on  December  19,  1903.  Four- 
teen membera  of  the  society  were  present.  A 
number  of  other  teachers  of  mathematics  liv- 
ing in  or  near  San  Francisco  attended  both 
of  the  sessions.  The  following  officers  were 
elected  for  the  ensuing  year: 

Chairman — Professor  Allardice. 
Secretary — Professor  Miller. 
Program  Committee — Professors  Haskell,  String- 
ham  and  Miller. 

The  dates  of  the  regular  meetings  of  the 
section  were  changed  from  May  and  Decem- 
ber to  February  and  September.  This  change 
is  to  go  into  effect  after  the  next  regular  meet- 
ing, which  will  be  held  at  Stanford  University 
in  May.     The  following  papers  were  read: 

Dr.  £.  M.  Blake  :  '  Exhibition  of  models  of 
polyhedra  bounded  by  regular  polygons.' 

Professor  M.  W.  Haskell:  'Brianchon  hexa- 
gons in  space.* 

Professor  R.  E.  Allardice:  'On  the  locus  of 
the  foci  of  a  system  of  similar  conies  through 
three  points.' 

Professor  Irving  Strikoham:  'On  curvature 
in  absolute  space.' 


Jakcabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


149 


Pbofessob  H.  F.  Blichfeldt  :  *  On  the  order  of 
linear  homogeneous  groups  II.' 

Professor  E.  J.  Wiijczynski  :  *  Studies  in  the 
general  theory  of  surfaces.' 

Professor  E.  J.  Wilczynski:  'A  fundamental 
theorem  in  the  theory  of  ruled  surfaces.' 

Professor  G.  A.  Miller  :  *  On  the  roots  of 
group  operators.' 

Dr.  D.  N.  Lehmer  :  '  On  the  Jacobian  curve  of 
three  quadric  surfaces  and  a  certain  ruled  sur- 
face connected  with  it.' 

Dr.  D.  X.  Lehmer:  *  On  a  new  method  of  find- 
ing factors  of  numbers.'    ■ 

Mr.  W.  a.  Manning  :  *  On  the  primitive  groups 
of  classes  six  and  eight.' 

Professor  M.  W.  Haskell:  'Approximations 
to  the  square  root  of  positive  numbers.' 

In  the  absence  of  their  authors,  Dr.  Blake's 
models  were  explained  by  Professor  Haskell, 
Professor  Wilczynski's  papers  were  presented 
by  Dr.  Lehmer,  and  Mr.  Manning's  paper  was 
read  by  the  secretary.  G.  A.  Miller, 

Secretary, 

anthropological    society    of   WASHINGTON. 

The  352d  meeting  was  held  December  15, 
1903.  The  committee  on  the  preservation  of 
ancient  monuments  reported  a  form  of  i)eti- 
tion  to  congress  which  might  be  sent  out  for 
signatures.  The  report  was  accepted,  the 
committee  continued  and  instructed  to  give 
publicity  to  the  petition,  and  they  were  author- 
ized to  frame  a  bill  on  the  lines  of  the  petition. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Babcock  communicated  to  the 
society  a  letter  from  Mr.  J.  E.  Betts  on  the 
aborigines  of  China  called  Changkia  and 
Miao. 

The  paper  of  the  evening  was  by  Dr.  George 
Byron  Gordon,  of  Philadelphia,  on  the  sub- 
ject, *  The  Ruins  of  Copan.' 

Doctor  Gordon  traced  the  limits  of  the 
Maya  and  Aztec  peoples,  and  said  that  they 
sprung  from  a  stem  whose  origin  and  location 
is  wrapped  in  mystery.  Views  of  the  elabor- 
ately carved  monoliths  of  Quirigua  were 
thrown  on  the  screen  and  Doctor  Gordon  said 
that  those  showing  has  reliefs  of  men  are 
placed  to  the  north  and  those  of  women  to  the 
south  of  a  given  line  through  the  ruins.  No 
metals  were  found  here  and  few  stone  tools, 
but  the  sculpture  was  worked  out  with  stone 
implements.      The  phases  of  art  displayed  in 


the  monoliths  were  discussed  and  it  was 
pointed  out  that  the  dragon-like  carvings  of 
serpents  represent  the  rattlesnake,  the  spots 
on  the  back  being  transferred  to  the  side  in 
the  carving.  Views  of  the  sculptures,  the 
ruins  and  surroundings  of  Copan  were  next 
presented  and  discussed.  One  of  the  pyramids 
has  been  partly  cut  away  by  a  stream,  and  in 
the  section  are  a  number  of  successive  pave- 
ments and  sewers,  giving  evidence  of  consider- 
able antiquity  to  the  structures. 

Dr.  H.  M.  Baum  asked  whether  the  present 
Mayas  are  descendants  of  the  people  who  made 
the  buildings.  Doctor  Gordon  replied  that 
none  of  the  tribes  know  anything  about  them 
so  far  as  any  one  has  been  able  to  discover. 

Doctor  Fewkes  said  that  the  Pueblo  Indians 
call  the  north,  male;  the  east,  female;  the 
south,  male;  and  the  west,  female.  The  great 
plumed  serpent  of  the  Pueblo  mythology  is 
also  related  to  the  serpent  of  Central  America. 
Doctor  Fewkes  believes  that  the  different  cities 
of  Copan  carry  back  man  on  this  continent 
a  long  period. 

Doctor  Hrdlicka  said,  in  reference  to  the 
buried  cities  of  Copan  exposed  in  the  section 
of  a  pyramid,  that  the  work  may  represent 
different  periods  of  advancement  of  the  struc- 
ture rather  than  different  ages. 

At  the  close  of  the  meeting  a  vote  of  thanks 
of  the  society  was  given  to  Doctor  Gordon  for 
his  interesting  paper.  Walter  Hough. 

THE    SCIENCE    CLUB   OF    THE    UNIVERSITY    OF 

WISCONSIN. 

A  MEETING  of  the  club  was  held  on  Novem- 
ber 17,  when  two  papers  were  presented  by 
Professor  Augustus  Trowbridge,  as  follows: 
(a)  '  Personal  Keminiscence  in  an  Italian  Uni- 
versity.' This  paper  was  illustrated  with 
lantern  slides  and  dealt  with  the  lecturer's 
experiences  while  recently  traveling  in  Italy. 
(6)  ^  New  Experiments  in  Wireless  Teleg- 
raphy,' was  a  description  of  some  recent 
original  devices  got  up  by  the  lecturer  for 
receiving  wireless  messages.  The  paper  was 
illustrated,  and  wireless  messages  were  re- 
ceived in  the  lecture  room  during  the  lecture. 

Victor  Lenher, 

Secretary, 


150 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


DI8CU88I0N    AND    CORRESPONDENCE. 
THE   LUNAR   THEORY. 

In  a  recent  number  of  the  Monthly  Notices 
of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society,  Mr.  P.  H. 
Co  well  gives  an  account  of  his  investigations 
on  the  motion  of  the  moon.  He  finds  con- 
siderable errors  in  Airy's  theory,  but  gives  no 
explanation  of  the  small  defect  in  the  tables 
of  Hansen.  A  curious  result  of  several  in- 
vestigations is  to  show  the  accuracy  of  the 
tables  of  Damoiseau,  made  four  score  years 
ago,  and  after  a  theory  which  has  gone  out 
of  use. 

The  interest  now  shown  in  the  lunar  theory 
by  several  astronomers  promises  to  give  us 
better  tables  of  the  moon.  Two  methods  can 
be  followed.  '  The  attractive  one  is  to  make 
a  new  theory,  since  in  this  case  one  has  the 
entire  question  in  hand.  But  this  requires  a 
great  expenditure  of  labor.  The  other  method 
would  be  to  correct  the  tables  of  Hansen.  The 
accuracy  of  the  coefficients  in  these  tables  is 
very  great,  and  it  is  a  pity  so  much  good  work 
should  be  lost.  In  determining  the  orbit  of 
the  moon  for  the  formation  of  his  tabl^es 
Hansen  introduced  twelve  unknown  quantities 
into  his  equations  of  condition,  or  fourteen, 
if  we  include  the  two  depending  on  the  dis- 
tance from  the  center  of  figure  to  the  center 
of  gravity  of  the  moon.  It  is  not  much  won- 
der that  a  small  error  should  have  been  com- 
mitted in  such  a  complicated  theory.  The 
manuscript  of  Hansen  must  be  preserved, 
probably  in  the  observatory  of  Gotha,  where 
he  spent  most  of  his  life.  There  are  several 
astronomers  in  Germany  who  studied  with 
Hansen,  and  who  understand  his  methods. 
It  is  to  be  hoped  that  a  careful  revision  of 
Hansen's  calculations  on  this  *  theory  will  be 
made  and  that  his  error  may  be  discovered. 

After  looking  at  some  of  the  works  on  this 
theory  I  venture  to  make  this  suggestion :  that 
astronomers  should  unite  on  a  system  of 
notation  for  the  lunar  theory.  So  many 
changes  have  been  made  that  it  is  almost 
necessary  to  have  a  dictionary  of  symbols  in 
order  to  read  the  various  memoirs. 

A.  Hall. 
Norfolk,  Conn., 
January  5,  1904. 


THE   SCAURS   ON   THE  RIVER  ROUOE. 

To  THE  Editor  of  Science  :  The  earth's  rota- 
tion causes  in  the  winds  of  our  hemisphere  a 
tendency  to  deviate  to  the  right  of  straight 
ahead  in  whatever  direction  they  are  flowing 
(Davis*  'Meteorology,'  p.  101).  It  ought  to 
produce  the  same  effect  on  rivers  (Russell, 
*  Rivers  of  North  America,'  p.  41).  Instances 
have  been  supposed  to  be  found  in  the  streams 
on  the  south  coast  of  Long  Island  (American 
Journal  of  Science,  1884,  p.  427),  in  the 
great  detrital  cone  of  Lannemezan,  on  the 
Rhine,  Danube,  Ob,  Irtish,  Nile,  New  Zealand 
streams,  Parana  and  Paraguay  by  authors 
cited  in  Penck,  *  Morphologic  der  Erdober- 
flache,'  pp.  351-360.  From  objections  that 
have  been  made  to  most  of  these  illustrations 
it  appears  that  there  is  more  of  unanimity  as 
to  the  theory  than  in  the  conviction  aroused 
by  the  evidence  offered. 

The  Michigan  rivers  have  long  seemed  to 
me  suitable  to  examine  for  evidence  of  this 
sort.  They  are  young,  meandering  streams, 
not  usually  encountering  ledges,  but  flowing 
eitheV  in  lake  clays  or  in  a  till  that  has  few 
large  boulders  and  is  fairly  homogeneous. 

The  Rouge  is  a  stream  some  twenty-five 
miles  long  that  flows  into  the  Detroit  -River 
a  few  miles  west  of  Detroit.  At  Dearborn 
two  forks  of  the  river  unite  into  one.  Early 
in  November  I  visited  the  west  branch  in  com- 
pany with  Mr.  Isaiah  Bowman  to  look  over 
the  availability  of  the  valley  for  worfc  with 
my  class  in  field  geography.  The  river  is 
ten  or  fifteen  feet  wide,  meandering  on  a  flood 
plain  two  or  three  hundred  feet  wide,  which  is 
incised  in  the  level  clays  that  once  formed  the 
floor  of  Lake  Maumee.  Every  now  and  then 
the  stream  in  its  meandering  undercuts  the 
bank,  causing  a  naked  bluff  of  clay  in  a  land- 
scape that  is  elsewhere  well  grrassed.  Such  a 
bluff  is  what  the  Scotch  call  a  scaur.  As  the 
scaurs  indicated  the  points  where  the  river  is 
actually  at  work  widening  its  valley,  it  was 
proposed  to  measure  the  proportion  of  bank 
occupied  by  them.  To  this  end  we  paced  the 
distance  along  the  river  bank  under  each  scaur 
and  by  the  flood  plain  to  the  next  one,  noting 
whether  the  scaur  was  on  the  right  bank  or 


Jakuabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


151 


the  left      The  results  are  given  in  the  fol- 
lowing tabla 

FiBST  Day. 

Scaar.  Flood  Plain. 

Bight  Left. 

222  245 

65  187 
73  350 

96  271 

90  442 

73  303 

21  518 

34  273 

41  287 

76  236 

50  280 

31  100 

53  466 

95  168 

653                        357  4,126 

In  all 5,136 

Total  both  banks 10,272 

Total  scaur 1,010 

Per  cent,  of  scaur 10 

Per  cent,  of  scaur  on  right ...  64 

Second  Day. 
Scaur.  Flood  Plain. 

Bight  Left. 

66  295 
56  300 

130  273 

120  153 

173  225 

195  1,160 

39  144 

30  350 

60  245 

16  341 

178  256 

47  196 

37  100 

200  343 

48  260 

100  1,218 

27  78 

30  30 

17  259 

180 

978                        591  6,406 

Total    7,975 

Total  both  banks 15,950 

Total  scaur , .  1,569 

Per  cent,  of  scaur 10 

Per  cent,  of  scaur  on  right . .  62 

Mr.  Bowman's  pacing  gave  practically  the 
same  results. 

As  my  pace  is  2.76  feet,  we  walked  the  first 
day  2.6  miles  and  the  second  4.1,  and  found 
each  time  that  along  one  tenth  of  its  course 
the  Rouge  is  widening  its  valley,  while  two 
thirds  of  this  work  is  being  done  on  the  right 
bank.     This  called  Mr.  Bowman's  attention 


at  once  and  he  will  prosecute  further  studies 
on  this  and  other  streams.  Of  course,  the 
interest  here  is  in  a  possible  criterion  for 
detecting  deflection  of  rivers  by  the  effect 
of  the  earth's  rotation.  The  distance  is  short> 
yet  the  results  are  singularly  uniform,  as  ap- 
pears from  the  following  analysis  in  detaiL 
Grouping  the  scaurs  by  successive  amounts 
of  about  600  paces,  we  have: 


Percentage 

Total  Scaur. 

Right 

Left. 

on  Right. 

536 

318 

218 

59 

474 

335 

139 

71 

545 

349 

196 

64 

518 

224 

294 

43 

506 

405 

101 

80 

948 


64 


2,579  1,631 

Bivers    ought   to    show   the   effect   of   the 

earth's   rotation    and   no    criterion   could   be 

simpler  in  theory  or  application  than  this. 

As  the  Kouge  flows  fairly  to  the  east  prevalent 

westerly  winds  urge  the  river  neither  to  right 

nor  left.  Mark  S.  W.  Jefferson. 

Michigan  State  Normal  College, 
December  7,  1903. 


SHORTER   ARTICLES. 
WONDER    HORSES    AND    MENDELISM. 

Dr.  Castle's  reference  to  the  Oregon  Won- 
der horse  in  Science  for  December  11  reminds 
me  that  in  the  autumn  of  1899  I  corresponded 
with  Mr.  James  K.  Rutherford,  of  Wadding- 
ton,  N.  Y.,  who  then  owned  a  horse  called 
Linus  U.  Mr.  Rutherford  sent  a  photograph 
of  the  horse,  taken  in  1898.  The  photograph 
shows  a  Morgan  horse  probably  about  five 
years  old  with  a  double  mane  which  trails  on 
the  ground  on  either  side  for  a  distance  of  two 
feet.  The  tail  trails  on  the  ground  for  a  dis- 
tance of  about  six  to  eight  feet.  Correspond- 
ence with  Mr.  Rutherford  yielded  the  follow- 
ing additional  statements:  Linus  U.  is  the 
son  of  Linus  I.,  which  had  a  mane  that  was 
single,  but  at  fourteen  years  old  eighteen  feet 
long,  while  the  tail  was  twenty-one  feet  long. 
"  The  mother  also  had  a  remarkable  growth  of 
hair."  The  paternal  grandmother  was  known 
.as  the  *  Oregon  Beauty '  and  was  noted  for  the 
mass  and  leng^th  of  her  hair.  My  correspond- 
ence with  the  owner  of  Linus  I.  led  to  few 
additional  facts.      He   stated   that   the  long 


152 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


hair  had  been  in  the  family  since  importation 
[to  Oregon (?)]  and  added:  'the  growth  and 
quantity  has  increased  with  each  generation/ 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  data  are  somewhat 
inconclusive.  Had  the  father  as  well  as  the 
mother  of  Linus  I.  been  long-haired  (reces- 
sive, according  to  Dr.  Castle's  hypothesis), 
then  we  can  understand  the  long  hair  of  Linus 
I.  The  latter  was  mated  with  a  recessive  ( ?) 
mare  (if  'remarkable  growth  of  hair'  may  be 
so  interpreted)  and  produced  Linus  IL 

On  the  whole,  it  would  seem  more  probable 
that  the  long-haired  property  was  dominant, 
unless,  indeed,  Linus  II.  got  no  long-haired 
progeny.  The  data  are,  as  we  see,  insufficient 
to  decide  the  matter. 

The  question  of  the  Mendelian  behavior  of 
animal  mutations  has  long  interested  me  and 
I  have  collected  some  statistics  bearing  on  the 
subject.  The  records  concerning  polydactyl- 
ism  are,  perhaps,  the  most  complete  and  in- 
structive. In  the  Jenaische  Zeitschrift,  XXTI., 
Fackenheim,  1888,  has  given  a  table  that  may 
be  thus  summarized:  Each  letter  n  (normal) 
or  p  (polydactyl)  stands  for  a  person,  the 
coefficient  being  used  to  indicate  the  number 
of  such  persons  in  a  family. 


only  two  cases.  The  majority  of  the  p  off- 
spring should  produce  p  and  n  in  equal  num- 
bers in  the  second  filial  generation — we  get 
7  p  and  12  n  in  generation  III.  and  5  p  and 
5  n  in  generation  lY.  or  12  p  and  17  n  alto- 
gether, which  is  a  wide  but  not  unlikely  dis- 
agreement from  theory.  Of  the  n  children 
mated  with  n  consorts,'  theory  would  demand 
that  all  should  be  n,  since  R^B  gives  only 
R  qualities.  In  the  second  filial  generation 
this  happens  in  one  family  of  seven  children, 
but  does  not  happen  in  two  families  with  a 
total  of  19  children  in  which  5  p's  occur.  The 
total  of  the  three  families  is  21  n  and  5  p. 
This  is  not  Mendelism,  but  there  is  certainly 
a  marvelous  prepotency  of  the  normal  quality. 
In  the  third  filial  question  from  three  nX^ 
families  all  of  the  16  children  are  n.  If  we 
had  this  generation  only  we  should  certainly 
have  a  right  to  suspect  that  n  is  truly  reces- 
sive. 

Consider  next  the  records  of  polydactyl  cats 
given  by  Poulton,  1883,  in  Nature.  The 
fathers  are  not  known,  but  Poulton  says  it  is 
highly  improbable  that  an  abnormal  female  has 
ever  crossed  with  a  likewise  abnormal  male. 


Oen. 
L 

II. 

III. 


nXp 

•  I 


pn      nX»     pXn      nX»      »Xp      »X«     »Xp 


6n    3p    4n    3p 


In   3n    2p    &n    2p 


On  the  assumption  that  polydactylism  (p) 
is  dominant  and  the  normal  condition  (n)  is 
recessive,  any  p  of  unknown  ancestry  may  be 
a  (D  +  R).  Then  the  offspring  of  the  parents 
RX(D  +  R)  might  give  (DR)  +  (RR)  or 
an  equal  proportion  of  p  and  n.  There  are 
4  p  and  4  n  in  the  first  filial  generation;  thus 
agreeing  with  theory.  Of  the  p  offspring  of 
this  first  filial  generation  one  third  should  be 
pure  2) +  2)  and  should  produce  only  poly- 
dactyl children  even  with  normal  consorts. 
This  condition  is  not  realized,  for  both  of  the 
polydactyls  of  whose  offspring  we  have  a  rec- 
ord produced  both  n  and  p  offspring;  but  this 
is  not  surprising,  considering  that  there  are 


2n     pXn 

1                1 
nX»      p'Xn 

1               1 

nXn 

nXn 

1 

2n    3p 

!             1          ' 

12n       3n    2p 

PX? 

Zn 

1 
n 

I. 

1              1              1 
P          PX?     P 

2d  litter 
II.        2n      p 

1          let    litter 
P       JPX? 

1 
2n 

3d  litter 
3p  " 

l8t  litter         2d  li 

tter 

1 
pX? 

1 
III.               2n 

1 
2p 

IV. 

4f 

This  case  is  easily  explained  on  Mendelian 
principles,  for  assuming  p  to  be  dominant  and 
the  mother  in  the  first  filial  generation  to  have 
{D  -\-R)  gametes,  then  there  should  be  out  of 
10  offspring  5  p  and  5  n;  there  are  6  p  and 


January  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


153 


4  n.  The  third  generation  accords  with  the 
assumption  that  the  p  parent  has  (D'-\-R) 
gametes,  while  the  p  parent  in  the  third  gen- 
eration behaves  as  would  one  that  had  purely 
dominant  gametes.  Unfortunately,  the  record 
stops  here. 

Struthers  has  given  the  following  case  of 
polydactylism  in  man: 


PX^ 

I 


I. 
II. 


I 
pXn 


lOp 


I 
3p 


pXn 


IIL      4n 


I 
ip 


This  result  can  be  explained  on  the  Men- 
delian  hypothesis  by  considering  the  original 
parent  to  have  only  D  gametes;  and  that  the 
father  was  also  polydactyl.  The  offspring  (I.) 
are  all  p  and  purely  dominant.  In  the  first  filial 
generation  D  is  crossed  with  B  and  the  dom- 
inant offspring  have  (D-\-R)  gametes;  when 
one  of  these  gametes  of  the  second  filial  gen- 
eration is  crossed  by  B  the  product  is  DB  -f- 
BB  (third  generation).  We  should  expect  an 
equal  number  of  dominant  and  recessive  indi- 
viduals and  we  get  them.  If,  on  the  other 
hand,  we  calculate  the  proportion  of  abnormal 
individuals  in  accordance  with  Galton's  Law 
we  should  get  only  33  per  cent,  instead  of  the 
actual  60  per  cent.  Mendel's  Law  here  ac- 
cords with  the  facts  better  than  Galton's  Law. 


These  relations  and  the  remaining  descendants 
are  given  in  the  accompanying  diagram. 

This  case  differs  from  the  preceding  in  the 
small  proportion  of  p'a  occurring  in  any  gen- 
eration. These  small  percentages  can  hardly 
accord  with  Mendel's  Law. 

Finally,  we  may  consider  some  cases  of 
inheritance  of  deaf-mutism  for  records  of 
which  we  are  indebted  to  Bell,  1884,  Mem. 
National  Academy  of  Sciences,  II.,  pp.  179 
and  208. 


A. 

I. 
II. 

III. 
IV. 


?x? 


nX» 


nXn 


dX? 

I 


dX? 


dXn 

L 

7d 


dXd 

1 
d 


I 
d 


I 
dXd 

L 


3d 


B. 


?X? 

I 


I. 


nXd 

I 


I 


I 


I 


nXd 

\ 

id 


II.       d        nXd 

1 
III.  2d 

It  seems  impossible  to  regard  either  n  or  d 
as  recessive.  If  n  is  recessive  how  can  d  be 
derived  from  two  n  parents  as  in  Case  A, 
Gen.  I.  ?  li  d  is  recessive,  how  can  6  n  come 
from  two  d  parents  as  in  A,  Gen.  LEI.? 

The  conclusion  of  this  communication  is  that 
while  Mendelian  principles  seem  applicable  to 


Gen. 


nXp 


I. 

1 
2n 

1 
n 

1 
nXn 

1 

n 

1                     1 
nX«            5» 

1 

II. 

1                   1 
»Xn        8» 

1 

ITT. 
IV. 

1              I 
p            In 

No  more  abDormalities  in 

later  generations. 

I 

pXn 

I 


In 


nXp 
~6n 


I 
2n 


I 
pXn 


I 
n 


p  Xn        9»  (all  progeny  of  n's  normal) 


9n 


I 


I 


»X»       pXn 


I 


I 


np 


V. 

Another  series  is  given  by  Struthers  (1863) 
in  the  Edinburgh  New  Philosophical  Journal 
for  July.  Mr.  A.  L.,  normal,  married  E.  P., 
who  had  six  fingers  on  the  left  hand.  They 
had  eighteen  children,  of  whom  one  only  was 
abnormal,   with   six   fingers    on   both   hands. 


1           1 

nXn       p 

1 
2n 

1             1 
n           p 

some  cases  of  crosses  between  sports  and  the 
normal  species,  there  seem  to  be  others  where 
neither  Mendel's  nor  Galton's  Law  of  Inherit- 
ance holds.  0.  B.  Davenport. 

Hull  Zoological  Labobatobt, 
University  of  Chicago. 


154 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


THE    INHERITANCE    OF    SONG    IN    PASSERINE   BIRDS. 
REMARKS    AND    OBSERVATIONS    ON    THE    SONG 
OF    HAND-REARED    BOBOLINKS    AND    RED- 
WINGED    BLACKBIRDS     (dOLICHONYX 

oryzivorus  and  agelaius 
phceniceus). 

During  the  past  spring  (1903)  I  secured  a 
brood  of  bobolinks  and  two  broods  of  red- 
winged  blackbirds.  These  young  nestlings 
were  carefully  reared,  and,  while  allowed  to 
hear  many  other  kinds  of  birds  sing,  were  not 
placed  where  it  was  believed  that  they  could 
hear  the  songs  of  their  own  species.  The  re- 
sults about  to  be  described  have  been  based 
on  continuous  observation,  in  the  case  of  the 
blackbirds  for  six  weeks,  and  for  the  bobolinks 
three  weeks.  Care  has  been  taken  to  have 
competent  judges,  well  acquainted  with  the 
song  of  both  species,  listen  to  the  song  of 
these  birds  without  seeing  the  singers.  In  no 
instance  was  the  song  recognized;  one  listener 
ascribed  the  song  of  two  red- winged  black- 
birds to  the  brown  thrasher  (Toxostoma 
Tufum),  and  was  wholly  unable  to  form  an 
*  opinion  as  to  what  birds  were  singing  when 
listening  to  the  performance  of  two  bobolinks. 
It  should  be  stated  that  there  were  but  two 
males  of  each  of  the  species  in  question  from 
the  broods  that  had  been  reared. 

The  song  of  the  bobolinks  is  loud  and  bril- 
liant as  well  as  sustained;  that  of  the  red- 
winged  blackbirds  is  even  of  greater  volume 
and  may  be  best  described  as  continuous. 

A  word  seems  essential  as  to  the  call-notes 
of  the  two  kinds  of  birds  in  question.  I  have 
failed  to  distinguish  anything  that  resembles 
the  call-note  of  the  bobolink  in  its  wild  state, 
nor  any  sound  that  emanates  from  the  two 
representatives  of  this  species  that  are  under 
observation  which  could  be  referred  to  bobo- 
links in  a  wild  state.  The  interval  of  the 
notes  and  the  duration  of  the  song  seem,  how- 
ever, not  unlike  those  of  wild  bobolinks.  One 
of  the  young  birds,  moreover,  has  been  noticed 
both  by  myself  and  other  observers  attemp- 
ting with  a  marked  degree  of  success  to  sing 
the  continuous  rolling  warble  with  its  rising 
and  falling  inflection  that  characterizes  the 
Hartz  Mountain  roller  canary. 

The  call-note  of  the  red-wing  blackbird  is 


clearly  distinguishable  in  the  two  red-wing 
blackbirds  under  observation,  but  is  the  only 
sound  that  might  be  referred  to  that  species. 
The  song  of  these  two  birds  seems  to  be  made 
up  of  a  composite  jumble  wherein  robin  and 
thrush-like  notes  of  great  clearness  and  vol- 
ume predominate.  The  duration  of  the  song 
is  not  marked  by  any  particular  break,  {he 
performance  generally  lasting  from  five  to 
ten  minutes.  The  clear  robin  and  thrush-like 
notes  are  connected  by  fainter  warbles  and 
lisps,  the  whole  being  continuous. 

The  blackbirds  were  taken  during  the  first 
weeks  in  June  and  were  probably  about  a 
week  old  They  began  to  sing  early  in 
September,  and  the  only  interruption  was  an 
interval  of  four  or  five  days  when  they 
changed  from  the  liberty  of  a  room  where  they 
could  fly  about  to  two  large  room  cages. 

The  bobolinks  were  taken  on  the  twelfth  day 
of  June  and  were  much  younger  than  the 
blackbirds,  being  not  more  than  four  days 
old.  They  have  been  kept  all  the  time  to- 
gether in  a  large  cage,  and  have  not  known 
the  freedom  of  a  flying  room.  They  began  to 
sing  about  the  first  of  November,  and  in  a  few 
days  could  be  heard  in  song  at  almost  any 
time  during  daylight. 

William  E.  D.  Scott. 
.     Princeton,  N.  J., 

November  30,  1903. 


THE  U.  8.  NAVAL  OBSERVATORY* 

The  astronomical  force  has  been  grad- 
ually diminished  year  by  year,  first  by  the 
detachment  of  a  number  of  line  officers 
who  were  formerly  assigned  positions  as  ob- 
servers, and  more  recently  by  the  detach- 
ment of  several  professors  of  mathematics  for 
duty  at  the  Naval  Academy.  This  not  only 
left  the  observatory  short-handed,  but  made 
frequent  rearrangements  of  the  personnel 
necessary.  Each  new  assignment  to  astro- 
nomical duty  retards  the  work,  breaks  up  its 
continuity,  and  diminishes  the  output.  It  is 
such  changes  as  these  among  subordinate 
oflicers  who  have  special  work  to  do  that  pro- 

*  From  the  reports  of  the  Superintendent  Rear- 
Admiral  C.  M.  Chester,  for  the  year  ending  June 
30,  1903. 


Januabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


155 


duce  confusion,  as  in  the  case  of  every  other 
executive  branch  of  the  government;  not,  as 
is  frequently  maintained,  the  change  of  the 
head  or  administrative  officer.  He  must  nec- 
essarily continue  the  policy  left  by  his  pre- 
decessor until  experience  has  demonstrated  the 
wisdom  of  innovations. 

*        *        * 

In  addition  to  the  drawback  to  efficient  ad- 
ministration and  labor  caused  by  the  reorgan- 
ization of  the  personnel,  most  of  the  time  of 
the  superintendent  and  staff  during  the  latter 
half  of  the  year  has  been  given  up  to  answer- 
ing questions  called  forth  by  several  investi- 
gating boards.  These  boards  have  consisted 
of: 

1.  A  board  ordered  by  the  Navy  Depart- 
ment, composed  of  Rear-Admiral  F.  M. 
Eamsay,  U.  S.  Navy;  Capt.  J.  E.  Pillsbury, 
U,  S.  Navy;  and  Commander  C.  J.  Badger, 
U.  S.  Navy ;  '  for  the  purpose  of  inquiring 
into  and  reporting  upon  the  advisability  of 
eliminating  or  transferring  to  other  than  the 
control  of  the  Navy  Department  any  of  the 
work  now  i)erformed  at  the  Naval  Observa- 
tory.' 

This  board  reported  that  *  in  the  opinion  of 
the  board,  the  regular  work  of  the  Naval  Ob- 
servatory is  essential  to  the  Navy;  it  can  be 
systematically  and  successfully  accomplished 
only  under  government  control ;  and  no  portion 
of  it  should  be  discontinued  or  transferred  to 
other  than  the  control  of  the  Navy  Depart- 
ment.' 

2.  The  General  Board  of  the  Navy,  of 
which  Admiral  of  the  Navy  George  Dewey  is 
president,  to  which  was  referred  the  same 
subject  that  was  referred  to  the  preceding 
board,  rendered  a  similar  decision. 

3.  A  committee  ordered  by  the  President 
of  the  United  States,  composed  of  Mr.  Charles 
D.  Walcott,  chairman;  Brig.  Gen.  William 
Crozier,  U.  S.  Army;  Rear- Admiral  Francis 
T.  Bowles,  F.  S.  Navy;  Mr.  Gifford  Pinchot 
and  Mr.  James  R.  Garfield,  to  report  upon 
various  matters  connected  with  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  govemmelit  scientific  work.  The 
report  of  this  committee  has  not  yet  been  made 
public,  but  it  also  thoroughly  investigated  the 
Naval  Observatory. 


Added  to  the  drain  on  the  time  of  the  astro* 
nomical  staff  incident  to  the  above-enumerated 
conditions  is  that  due  to  the  greatly  increased 
demand  for  navigational  instruments  for  the 
numerous  ships  building  for  the  Navy.  No 
small  portion  of  the  labor  due  to  this  demand 
has  fallen  on  the  Naval  Observatory.  Form- 
erly from  four  to  six  naval  line  officers  were 
employed  in  the  three  departments  of  nautical 
instruments,  storekeeper  and  chronometers 
and  time  service.  Now  one  lieutenant-com- 
mander is  the  only  line  officer  detailed  for  the 
combined  duties  of  all  three  departments. 
Other  branches  of  the  naval  service  have  been 
supplied  with  additional  men  paid  from  the 
general  appropriation  ^  Increase  of  the  Navy ' 
to  meet  these  conditions,  but  the  requirements 
of  this  observatory  seem  to  have  been  over- 
looked. 

Failing  to  procure  the  needed  force  for  this 
important  service,  it  has  been  necessary,  un- 
der the  Bureau  of  Equipment's  general  order 
to  sacrifice  astronomy  for  military  duties,  to 
assign  two  computers  from  the  astronomical 
force  to  keep  up  with  the  extraordinary  de- 
mands of  the  fleet.  Further  than  this,  as  is 
shown  in  the  report  of  the  head  of  the  depart- 
ment of  nautical  instruments,  articles  of 
equipment  for  naval  vessels  are  such  that  the 
board  of  inspection  which  passes  upon  in- 
voices before  they  are  paid  for  must  devote 
much  time  to  the  examination  of  each  article, 
and  thus  not  only  has  the  fleet  made  an  un- 
usual number  of  calls  on  the  observatory  staff, 
but  each  call  has  required  a  greater  amount 
of  time  than  is  usual  at  other  naval  stations. 
It  should  be  remembered  that  navigational  in- 
truments  can  not  be  passed  over  with  the 
cursory  inspection  given  to  ordinary  supplies 
for  a  ship,  but  must  be  subjected  to  a  critical 
test  of  all  their  different  parts  under  varying 
conditions,  needing  at  times  several  hours  to 
pass  one  item  of  a  schedule.  As  the  one  line 
officer  at  the  observatory  can  not  report  upon 
the  articles  under  his  charge,  professors  of 
mathematics  who  are  employed  for  astro- 
nomical work  have  been  detailed  to  act  on 
the  board  of  inspection,  thereby  detracting 
from  their  own  individual  work. 

Feeling  as  I  do  that  the  work  of  the  Naval 


156 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


Observatory  has  been  greatly  handicapped  by 
the  conditions  briefly  outlined  above,  I  com- 
mend to  the  department  the  zeal  of  the  staflF  as 
worthy  of  more  consideration  than  seems  to 
have  been  accorded  it  in  the  past.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  staff  have  vied  with  each  other  dur- 
ing the  past  year  in  doing  more  than  was  re- 
quired of  them,  and  thus  have  been  enabled  to 
maintain  a  good  average  of  records;  but  such 
conditions  can  not  be  expected  to  continue. 
In  one  instance  a  member  of  the  Nautical 
Almanac  Department,  Mr.  H.  B.  Evans,  in 
addition  to  a  full-time  service  in  that  depart- 
ment, has  devoted  a  good  part  of  three  nights 
in  the  week  to  observational  astronomy,  giving 
to  the  records  data  of  much  value.  Also,  Mr. 
Hammond,  a  member  of  the  computing  divis- 
ion of  the  observatory,  has  contributed  over- 
time work  in  the  search  for  and  location  of 
asteroids,  a  work  that  has  been  much  appre- 
ciated by  outside  astronomers. 

Such  observations  have  been  published  in 
astronomical  periodicals  and  the  authors  given 
credit  for  their  work,  thus  making  an  incen- 
tive for  additional  labor. 

While  such  work  may  be  only  incidental  to 
naval  purposes,  it  helps  to  maintain  the  inter- 
est of  observers  in  a  class  of  astronomy  that 
is  more  or  less  a  drudgery  and  carries  out  the 
precept  of  the  observatory  to  contribute  to 
astronomical  science.  It  also  produces  better 
results  in  routine  observations. 


SCIENTIFIC   NOTES    AND    NEWS, 

The  French  minister  of  public  instruction 
and  fine  arts  has  conferred  the  degree  of 
officer  of  public  instruction  upon  Dr.  Lester 
F.  Ward  for  his  scientific  and  sociological 
works.  This  highest  degree  of  the  academic 
order  is  usually  only  conferred  on  persons 
who  have  for  five  years  held  the  degree  of 
officer  of  the  academy. 

Dr.  W.  Roux,  professor  of  anatomy  at  Halle, 
has  been  elected  a  foreign  member  of  the 
Brussels  Academy  of  Sciences. 

Professor  H.  De  Vries,  of  Amsterdam,  and 
Professor  R.  von  Wettstein,  of  Vienna,  have 
been  elected  honorary  members  of  the  Berlin 
Botanical  Society. 


Grants  in  aid  of  research  have  recently  been 
made  from  the  Rumford  Fund  of  the  Amer- 
ican  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences  as  fol- 
lows: to  Professor  Edward  W.  Morley,  for  his 
research  on  the  nature  and  effects  of  ether 
drift,  $500;  to  Professor  Carl  Barus,  for  his 
research  on  the  study  by  an  optical  method 
of  radio-actively  produced  condensation,  $200; 
to  Mr.  J.  A.  Dunne,  for  his  research  on  fluc- 
tuations in  solar  activity  as  evinced  by  changes 
in  the  difference  between  maximum  and  mini- 
mum temperature,  $200. 

President  Roosevelt  has  appointed  the 
assay  commission  for  1904,  which  will  test 
the  weight  and  fineness  of  coins  produced  at 
the  mints  of  the  United  States  during  the 
year.  The  members  include  Dr.  S.  W.  Strat- 
ton,  chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Standards;  Mr. 
Marcus  Benjamin,  of  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution; Professor  Edgar  F.  Smith,  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Professor 
William  Hallock,  of  Columbia  University. 

Mr.  J.  A.  EwiNG,  F.R.S.,  lately  professor 
of  mechanism  and  applied  mechanics,  Cam- 
bridge, and  Mr.  Karl  Pearson,  F.R.S.,  pro- 
fessor of  applied  mathematics  in  University 
College,  London,  and  formerly  fellow,  have 
been  elected  to  honorary  fellowships  at  King's 
College,  Cambridge. 

TuE  silver  medal  of  the  Munich  Academy 
of  Sciences  has  been  conferred  on  Professor 
Rudel,  of  Niiremberg,  for  his^  researches  in 
climatology. 

Dr.  W.  T.  Blanford,  F.R.S.,  who  was  on 
the  staff  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India 
from  1855  to  1872,  has  been  made  a.  Com- 
panion of  the  Order  of  the  Indian  Empire. 

Mr.  R.  G.  Carruthers  and  Mr.  G.  W.  Grab- 
ham  have  been  appointed  geologists  on  the 
British  Geological  Survey. 

Brigadier-General  A.  W.  Greely,  chief 
signal  officer  of  the  U.  S.  Army,  has  refused 
to  go  on  the  retired  list  with  the  rank  of 
major-general,  preferring  to  remain  in  active 
service. 

Dr.  T.  D.  Wood,  professor  of  physical  edu- 
cation in  Teachers  College,  Columbia  Uni- 
versity, has  been  given  leave  of  absence  for 
the  rest  of  the  year  on  account  of  his  health. 


JjkiruASi  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


157 


Professor  E.  B.  Voorhees,  of  Rutgers  Col- 
lege, has  been  appointed  president  of  the  New 
Jersey  State  Board  of  Agriculture. 

Mr.  Otto  E.  Jennings  has  been  appointed 
custodian  of  botanical  collections  at  the  Car- 
negie Museum,  Pittsburg,  Pa.  Mr.  Jennings 
has  been  Professor  Kellerman's  herbarium 
assistant  for  two  years  in  the  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity. 

Dr.  E.  W.  Olive,  who  has  been  studying  for 
the  past  year  some  nuclear  problems  of  certain 
lower  plants  in  the  laboratory  of  Professor 
Strasburger,  has  received  another  grant  from 
the  Carnegie  Institution  and  will  continue 
his  work  in  the  laboratory  of  Professor  Harper, 
at  Madison. 

Professor  Vernon  F.  Marsters,  of  the  de- 
partment of  geology  in  the  University  of 
Indiana,  is  spending  a  year's  leave  of  absence 
at  Columbia  University,  pursuing  work  in 
geology  and  anthropology. 

Mr.  George  T.  Hastings,  a  graduate  of 
Cornell  University  and  assistant  in  botany  in 
that  university  in  1899-'00,  recently  returned 
from  Santiago,  Chili,  where  for  two  years  he 
has  been  teacher  of  science  in  the  English 
Institute.  Mr.  Hastings  made  a  good  collec- 
tion of  plants  from  central  Chili  during  his 
stay  there  and  is  now  preparing  sets  for  dis- 
tribution to  herbaria.  He  is  doing  this  work 
in  the  botanical  department  at  Cornell. 

Professor  Blanchard,  of  Paris,  accom- 
panied by  Dr.  R.  Wurtz,  professor  in  the 
medical  faculty  of  the  University  of  Paris, 
and  twelve  students  of  the  Paris  Institut  de 
Medecine  Coloniale,  paid  a  visit  to  the  London 
School  of  Tropical  Medicine  on  December  28. 

As  we  have  already  stated.  Dr.  Hans  Gadow, 
PJI.S.,  lecturer  on  zoology  in  the  University 
of  Cambridge,  is  coming  to  America  at  the 
end  of  March  for  the  purpose  of  giving  six 
lectures  on  *  The  Coloration  of  Amphibia  and 
Reptiles,'  specially  prepared  for  the  Lowell 
Institute  in  Boston.  He  desires  to  secure  en- 
gagements for  lectures  in  other  institutions. 
Communications  regarding  engagements  for 
lectures  may  be  sent  directly  to  Dr.  Gadow 
at  the  University  Museum  of  Zoology,  in 
Cambridge,  or,  after  March  15,  in  care  of  Pro- 


fessor W.  T.  Sedgwick,  Massachusetts  Insti- 
tute of  Technology,  Boston. 

It  is  expected  that  Dr.  Alexander  Graham 
Bell,  bringing  the  remains  of  James  Smithson 
on  the  steamship  Princess  Irene,  will  arrive  in 
New  York  this  week.  It  is  planned  that  the 
Dolphin,  of  the  U.  S.  Navy,  will  meet  the 
steamship  and  carry  the  remains  of  Smithson 
to  Washington. 

The  District  of  Columbia  Library  Associa- 
tion has  held  a  meeting  in  memory  of  the  late 
Henry  Carrington  Bolton  and  Marcus  Baker. 
Professor  F.  W.  Clarke  made  the  principal 
address  on  Dr.  Bolton,  and  Dr.  W.  H.  Dall, 
the  principal  address  on  Mr.  Baker. 

The  Max  Miiller  Memorial  Fund,  which  is 
to  be  held  in  trust  by  the  University  of  Oxford 
for  the  promotion  of  learning  and  research  in 
the  history,  archeology,  languages,  literature 
and  religion  of  ancient  India,  now  amounts  to 
about  $12,000. 

It  is  proposed  to  erect  at  Rome  a  memorial 
to  the  eminent  mathematician,  Luigi  Cremona, 
and  it  is  hoped  that  the  contributions  will 
be  international  in  character.  Subscriptions 
should  be  sent  to  Signer  I.  Sonzogno,  Piazza 
San  Pietro  in  Vincoli,  5,  Rome. 

The  death  is  announced  of  Miss  Anna  Win- 
lock,  of  the  Harvard  College  Observatory.  She 
was  the  daughter  of  Professor  Joseph  Win- 
lock,  superintendent  of  the  Nautical  Almanac, 
and  later,  until  his  death  in  1875,  director  of 
the  Harvard  College  Observatory.  At  this 
time  Miss  Winlock  entered  the  observatory  as 
a  computer  and  subsequently  assisted  in  the 
preparation  of  a  large  number  of  important 
papers  issued  from  the  observatory. 

The  death  is  announced  of  the  eminent  pro- 
fessor of  psychiatry  and  nervous  diseases  in 
the  University  of  Berlin,  Dr.  Friedrich  JoUy. 
Professor  Jolly,  who  was  bom  at  Heidelberg  in 
1844,  occupied  professorial  chairs  at  Wiirzburg 
and  at  Strasburg  before  he  was  called  to 
Berlin  in  1890.  We  regret  also  to  record  the 
deaths  of  M.  Jean  Dufour,  professor  of  plant 
physiology  at  Lausanne  at  the  age  of  forty- 
three  years;  of  Dr.  A.  Edmund  Hess,  pro- 
fessor of  mathematics  at  Marburg,  at  the  age 
of  sixty  years;  of  Dr.  Sophus  Ruger,  professor 


158 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


of  geography  and  anthropology  at  the  Tech- 
nical Institute  of  Dresden,  at  the  age  of 
seventy-two  years,  and  of  Dr.  Sophie  Pere- 
jaszlawzeila,  formerly  head  of  the  Zoological 
Station  at  Sebastopol. 

A  CABLEGRAM  to  the  New  York  Times  states 
that  by  the  will  of  the  late  Herbert  Spencer 
all  rights  and  property  in  his  books  and  in- 
vestments are  given  to  the  trustees,  the  Hon. 
Auberon  Herbert,  Dr.  Henry  Charlton  Bas- 
tian  and  David  Duncan,  with  instructions  to 
employ  the  yearly  revenue  "  in  resuming  and 
continuing  ♦during   such   period    as   may   be 
needed  for  fulfilling  my  express  wishes,  but 
not  exceeding  the  lifetime  of  all  descendants 
of  Queen  Victoria  who  shall  be  living  at  my 
decease  and  of  the  survivors  and  survivor  of 
them,  and  for  twenty-one  years  after  the  death 
of  such  survivor,  the  publication  of  the  exist- 
ing parts  of  my  '  Descriptive  Sociology,'  and 
the  compilation  and  publication  of  the  fresh 
parts  thereof  upon  the  plan  followed  in  the 
parts  already  published."     Afterward  all  copy- 
rights, stereotype  plates,  etc.,  are  to  be  auc- 
tioned   and   the   proceeds    divided    among    a 
number  of  scientific  societies.     The  will  orders 
that   Spencer's  autobiography   is  to  be  pub- 
lished simultaneously  in  Great  Britain  and 
the  United  States,  and  requests  David  Duncan 
to  write  a  biography  in  one  volume  of  mod- 
erate size. 

The  Linnean  Society  of  New  South  Wales 
has  received  about  $170,000  from  the  late  Sir 
William  Macleay  for  the  endowment  of  re- 
Search  fellowships  in  science. 

We  learn  from  Nature  that  a  meeting  was 
held  in  the  house  of  the  Zoological  Society 
on  January  5  to  consider  proposals  for  the 
organization  of  zoologists.  Forty-one  zoolo- 
gists from  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland  at- 
tended the  meeting.  The  following  resolu- 
tion was  carried  by  a  large  majority:  "That 
it  is  desirable  that  the  zoologists  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  be  organized  for  the  con- 
sideration of  all  matters  affecting  the  interests 
of  zoology  and  zoologists,  and  to  take  such 
action  as  may  seem  desirable."  A  committee 
consisting  of  Professor  Cossar  Ewart,  Pro- 
fessor Bridge,  Professor  Hickson,  Dr.  Scharff, 


Dr.  G.  C.  Bourne,  Dr.  Ridewood  and  Mr. 
Cunningham  was  appointed  to  draw  up  a 
scheme. 

Baron  Erland  Nordenskjold'?  expedition  to 
Peru  and  Bolivia  is  expected  to  arrive  about 
February  15  at  La  Paz,  the  capital  of  Bolivia, 
which  will  be  the  departing  point  for  the  ex- 
pedition to  Lake  Titicaca, 

Owing  to  a  fire  in  a  printing  house  in  New 
York  City  the  electrotype  plates  and  matter 
in  type  of  several  volumes  of  the  Transactions 
of  the  American  Institute  of  Eletrical  Engi- 
neers have  been  destroyed. 

Nature  states  that  the  Brothers  Kearton  have 
arranged  to  hold  an  exhibition  of  enlarged 
photographs  of  birds,  beasts,  reptiles  and  in- 
sects at  the  Modem  Gallery,  London,  on  Jan- 
uary 2-12,  1904,  inclusive.  The  gallery  will 
be  open  from  10  a.m.  until  9  p.m.,  and  Mr.  R 
Kearton  will  deliver  lime-light  lectures  to 
children  each  afternoon,  and  to  adults  in  the 
evening. 

We  learn  from  the  London  Times  that  Mr. 
James  G.   Ferrier,  secretary  of  the  Scottish 
Antarctic  Expedition,  has  received  from  Mr. 
W.  S.  Bruce,  the  leader  of  the  expedition,  nar- 
ratives of  the  voyage  of  the  Scotia,  written  by 
Mr.  Bruce  and  the  individual  members  of  the 
staff,  dealing  with  meteorology,  zoology,  biol- 
ogy  and  other  scientific  departments   of  the 
work  of  the  expedition.      Mr.  Bruce,  in  his 
letter,  stated  that  the  Scotia  had  made  a  very 
satisfactory  record,  dnd  he  expressed  the  hope 
that  he  and  his  staff  might  be  allowed  to  com- 
plete their  researches.     The  appeal  for  funds 
to  enable  the  expedition  to  prolong  its  stay 
in  the  Antarctic  has  now  been  so  liberally  re- 
sponded to  that  the  cruise  will  be  continued 
for  at  least  six  months,  and  as  Mr.  Ferrier  is 
still  receiving  donations  an  extension   for  a 
year  may  be  possible.     Mr.  Bruce's  desire  will 
then  be  fulfilled.      Meantime,  the  Scotia  has 
gone  north   to  Buenos   Ayres  to   refit.      The 
expedition  left  its  winter  quarters  in  Scotia 
Bay,  South  Orkney  Islands,  on  November  23 
— sooner  than  was  anticipated  owing  to  the 
unexpected  breaking  of  the  ice.      Some  mem- 
bers  of   the   expedition   were   left   behind   in 
the  winter  quarters  in  charge  of  a  meteorolog- 


Jaitoabt  22,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


159 


ical  station.  They  were  stocked  with  pro- 
yisions  for  fully  18  months,  and  the  place 
also  abounds  with  penguins,  fish  and  seals. 
Mr.  Bruce  reports  that  all  on  board  the  Scotia 
are  in  robust  health  and  eager  for  further 
work. 

Db.  H.  W.  Wiley,  chief  of  the  Bureau  of 
Chemistry,  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture, 
appeared  before  the  committee  on  commerce 
of  the  house  of  representatives  on  January  6, 
in  support  of  the  pure,  food  bill  now  before 
congress. 

The  regular  annual  meeting  of  the  New 
Mexico  Academy  of  Sciences,  held  on  De- 
cember 28,  at  Santa  Fe,  was  well  attended 
and  interesting  papers  were  presented.  The 
geological  part  of  the  program  included  the 
following:  Presidential  address  by  Hon.  Frank 
Springer  on  the  'Life  of  Louis  Agassiz'; 
'Note  on  Block  Mountains,'  by  Dr.  Charles 
R.  Keyes;  'New  Rapid  Assay  Method  for 
Zinc,'  by  Professor  Francis  C.  Lincoln ;  '  Gla- 
ciation  in  the  High  Plateau  of  Bolivia,'  by 
Professor  W.  G.  Tight;  'Revised  Geological 
Column  for  New  Mexico,'  by  Dr.  Charles  R. 
Keyes;  'Notes  on  Some  New  Mexico  Min- 
erals,' by  Dr.  Rufus  M.  Bagg;  'Some  Irriga- 
tion Problems  in  New  Mexico,'  by  Professor 
Oliver  R.  Smith ;  '  Geographic  Development 
of  South  America,  by  Professor  W.  G.  Tight. 
The  president  of  the  academy  is  Hon.  Frank 
Springer,  of  Las  Vegas;  vice-president,  Dr. 
Charles  R.  Keyes,  president  of  the  New 
Mexico  School  of  Mines,  Socorro;  secretary. 
Professor  W.  G.  Tight,  of  Albuquerque. 

At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  State  Commis- 
sion in  Lunacy,  held  December  1,  the  recom- 
mendation contained  in  the  resolution  passed 
by  the  advisory  board  of  the  Pathological  In- 
stitute, October  29,  1903,  to  the  effect  that: 
"  Physicians .  appointed  to  the  state  hospital 
service  should  serve  a  preliminary  term  of 
from  three  to  six  months  on  Ward's  Island; 
that  the  Pathological  Institute  and  the  Man- 
hattan State  Hospitals  on  Ward's  Island  or- 
ganize a  training  school  for  this  purpose  and 
that  provisions  be  made  for  the  construction 
of  additional  accommodations  in  connection 
with  the  staff  house  at  Manhattan  State  Hos- 


pital, west,"  was  given  careful  consideration. 
The  recommendation  was  adopted,  and  the 
state  architect  has  already  been  notified  to 
arrange  at  once  plans  and  specifications  for 
the  construction  of  an  addition  to  the  staff 
house  at  Manhattan,  west,  to  the  extent  of 
providing  twelve  additional  bed-rooms. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  British  Astronomical 
Association,  held  on  December  30,  Sir  William 
Ramsay  gave  a  lecture  entitled  '  Some  Specu- 
lations regarding  Atoms  and  Stars.'      Begin- 
ning with  a  sketch  of  the  discovery  of  helium,, 
he  gave  reasons  for  holding  that  terrestrial 
helium  was  the  same  as  that  existing  in  the 
sun,  and  that  there  was  no  other  unknown 
body,  asterium,  associated  with  it  in  the  chro- 
mosphere, as  was  sometimes  supposed.    He  next 
pointed  out  that  of  the  group  of  inactive  gases, 
helium,  neon,  argon,  krypton  and  xenon,  only 
helium    and   krypton    had   been    detected    in 
stellar  bodies,  and  went  on  to  apply  the  fact 
that  the  characteristic  line  of  krypton  was 
prominent  in  the  spectrum  of  the  aurora  to 
the  explanation  of  that  phenomenon.      These 
five  gases,  having  their  molecules  composed  of 
single  atoms,  not  of  a  pair  of  atoms  like  the 
other    gases    of    the    atmosphere,  .  would    get 
heated  more  rapidly  than  the  others,  and  would 
be  carried  up  more  rapidly  to  the  outer  con- 
fines of   the  atmosphere  by   the  general   at- 
mospheric circulation.      Hence  the  top  layers 
of  the  atmosphere  might  be  supposed  to  con- 
sist largely  of  those  gases.     Now,  Arrhenius's 
hypothesis  was  that  electrified  particles  were 
shot  out  from  the  sun  and  in  turn  electrified 
the  gases  in  those  top  layers;  in  this  way  the 
argon  and  its  companions  would  be  excited  to 
yield  their  characteristic  spectra.     The  reason 
why  that  of  krypton  alone  was  visible  was,  as 
was  indicated  by  laboratory  experiments  he 
had  carried  out,  because  it  had  a  greater  power 
of  emitting  light  than  the  others.     The  aurora 
might  then  be  considered  as  a  ring  discharge 
round  the  poles  of  the  earth,  by  which  the 
yellow-green   line  of  krypton,   the  line   that 
made  the  aurora  what  it  was,  was  caused  to 
shine  out,  the  streamers  being  the  effect  of 
the  magnetic  action  exerted  by  the  earth.     In 
the   latter   part  of   his   lecture.    Sir  William 
Ramsay  described  some  of  the  phenomena  af- 


160 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  473. 


forded  by  radium.  He  described  how,  in  addi- 
tion to  three  kinds  of  rays,  it  gave  off  a  self- 
luminous  gas  or  emanation,  which  contracted 
very  quickly — so  quickly  indeed  that  in  a 
month  it  contracted  itself  out  of  existence, 
leaving  only  a  purple  discoloration  in  the  glass 
of  its  tube.  He  told  how  in  trying  to  get  the 
spectrum  of  this  emanation  he  found  one  of 
the  helium  lines,  and  a  few  days  later  discov- 
ered that  the  tube  yielded  the  complete  spec- 
trum of  helium,  his  inference  being  that  the 
emanation  was  continually  changing  into 
helium  which  perhaps  disappeared  in  the  glass. 
The  speculation  was  suggested  that  there  was 
a  limit  to  the  size  of  atoms,  as  of  stars,  and 
that  some  atoms  were  too  heavy  to  be  stable 
and  threw  off  electrons,  just  as  the  planets,  on 
the  nebular  hypothesis,  were  thrown  off  by  the 
original  nebula.  The  atoms  of  bodies  like 
uranium  or  radium  might  be  supposed  to  have 
reached  this  limit  of  stability,  and  conceivably 
the  electrons  they  shot  off  formed  matter  with 
simple  atoms  which  in  turn  polymerized  into 
heavier  ones. 


UNIVERSITY   AND   EDUCATIONAL    NEWS. 

Syracuse  University  has  received  $150,000 
from  the  estate  of  the  late  James  J.  Belden. 
$50,000  goes  to  the  Medical  College  and  $100,- 
000  to  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts.  Syracuse 
University  also  receives  the  residue  of  the 
estate  of  the  late  John  Lyman.  The  value  of 
the  estate  is  not  stated;  but  special  bequests 
to  charitable  institutions  were  made  by  Mr. 
Lyman,  amounting  to  over  $150,000. 

The  new  library  building  of  Clark  Univer- 
sity was  dedicated  on  January  14.  The  build- 
ing has  been  erected  at  a  cost  of  $125,000 
provided  by  the  will  of  the  founder  of  the 
university.  President  Hall  announced  a  gift 
of  $100,000  from  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie  for 
the  library,  this  gift  being  made  in  honor  of 
Senator  Hoar,  president  of  the  board  of 
trustees. 

The  Catholic  University  of  America  has 
received  $50,000  from  the  Knights  of  Colum- 
bus for  the  endowment  of  a  chair  of  secular 
history. 


Princeton  University  has  received  a  be- 
quest of  $25,000  from  the  late  Louis  C.  Van- 
uxem,  of  Philadelphia. 

E.  W.  D.  HoLWAY,  banker  of  Decorah,  Iowa, 
has  given  his  private  library  and  collection  of 
fungi  to  the  University  of  Minnesota.  The 
library  numbers  about  1,000  volumes,  in- 
cluding many  rare  and  valuable  works,  and 
the  collection,  with  some  85,000  specimens, 
is  especially  rich  in  illustrative  material  of 
the  smuts  and  rusts,  a  group  in  which  Mr. 
Holway  is  a  well-known  specialist. 

Sir  Wiluam  H.  Wills  and  Sir  Frederick 
Wills  have  each  contributed  $5,000  to  liqui- 
date the  debt  of  $26,000  at  University  College, 
Bristol.  The  whole  sum  has  now  been  col- 
lected. 

The  Kev.  Dr.  William  E.  Huntington  has 
been  elected  president  of  Boston  University. 
He  has  been  since  1882  dean  of  the  university, 
and  since  the  resignation  of  Dr.  Warren  last 
year,  acting  president.  The  trustees  decided 
that  the  university  should  equip  laboratories 
for  chemistry,  physiology,  biology,  geology  and 
botany,  but  that  the  courses  in  physics  be  con- 
tinued as  heretofore  at  Massachusetts  Insti- 
tute of  Technology. 

J.  H.  Bair,  Ph.D.,  Carnegie  research  as- 
sistant working  in  the  psychological  labora- 
tory of  Columbia  University,  has  been  ap- 
pointed professor  of  psychology  and  education 
in  the  University  of  Colorado. 

At  Edinburgh  University,  Mr.  E.  M.  Hors- 
burgh  has  been  appointed  lecturer  on  practical 
mathematics;  Dr.  Jacob  Halm,  lecturer  on 
astronomy,  and  Dr.  H.  J.  Stiles,  lecturer  in 
applied  anatomy. 

Mr.  Herbert  Tomlinson,  F.R.S.,  known  for 
his  contribution  to  physics,  has  resigned  the 
principalship  of  the  Southwestern  Polytechnic 
at  Chelsea,  London. 

Mr.  R  II.  Yapp,  of  Cambridge,  has  been 
appointed  professor  of  botany  in  the  Univer- 
sity College  of  Aberystwyth. 

Professor  F.  C.  M.  Stormer  has  been  ap- 
pointed professor  of  pure  mathematics  at  the 
University  of  Christiania. 


SCIENCE 


A  WBBKLY  JOURNAL  DEVOTED  TO  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OP  SCIENCE,  PUBLISHING  THE 
OPPICIAL  NOTICES  AND  PROCEEDINGS  OP  THE  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION 

POR  THE  ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE. 


Friday,  January  29,  1904. 

CONTSyTS: 

The  American  Association  for  the  Advance- 
ment of  Science: — 
Section  A,   Mathematics   and   Astronomy: 
Pbofcssor  Laenas  Oiffobd  Weld 161 

Section  O,  Botany:  Professor  Francis  E. 
Lloyd  lefi 

Geography  in  the  United  States,  II.:  Pro- 
ressoR  W.  M.  Davis 178 

Karl  Alfred  von  Zittel:  Professor  Henry 
Fairfield. OsBORN  186 

Scientific  Books: — 
The  Moth  Book:  Dr.  L.  0.  Howard.     Yer- 
v>om*s  Allgemeine  Physiologic:  Professor 
Frederic  S.  Lee 188 

Scientific  Journals  and  Articles 190 

Societies  and  Academies: — 
The  Academy  of  Science  and  Art  of  Pitts- 
burg: Frederic  S.  Webster.  Wisconsin 
Academy  of  Sciences,  Arts  and  Letters:  E. 
B.  Skinner.  'Sortheasiem  Section  of  the 
American  Chemical  Society:  Arthur  M.  ^ 
COIIEY    191 

Discussion  and  Correspondence: — 
Convocation  Week:  Professor  E.  L. 
Nichols,  Professor  W.  Le  Conte  Ste- 
vens, Professor  J.  S.  Kinosley.  The 
Scintillations  of  Radium:  Professor  R. 
W.  Wood 192 

Special  Articles: — 

The  Occurrence  of  Zinc  in  Certain  Inverte- 
brates: Harold  C.  Bradley 196 

Atmospheric  Nitrogen  for  Fertilizing  Pur- 
poses      197 

Missouri  Lead  and  Zinc  Regions  visited  by 
the  Geological  Society  of  America:  Pro- 
fessor A.  R.  Crook 197 

Scientific  Notes  and  News 198 

University  and  Educational  News 200 

M8&  intended  for  pabllcaUon  and  booki,  etc..  in  tended 
tor  review  Bhoold  be  lent  to  the  Editor  of  Science,  Garrl- 
■on-on-Hadaon,  N.  Y. 


THE   AMERICAN   ASSOCIATION  ,FOR   THE 

ADVANCEMENT   OF   SCIENCE. 

SECTION  A,  MATHEMATICS  AND 

ASTRONOMY. 

Vice-President — Otto  H.  Tittmann,  Superin- 
tendent U.  S.  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C. 

Secretary — Professor  Laenas  G.  Weld,  Univer- 
sity of  Iowa,  Iowa  City,  Iowa. 

Member  of  Council — Professor  Ormond  Stone. 

Sedtional  Committee — ^Dr.  G.  B.  Halsted,  Vice- 
President,  1903;  President  C.  S.  Howe,  Secretary, 
1903;  Superintendent  O.  H.  Tittmann,  Vice-Presi- 
dent, 1904;  Professor  L.  G.  Weld,  Secretary,  1904- 
1908;  Professor  W.  W.  Beman,  one  year;  Dr.  J. 
A.  Brashear,  two  years;  Professor  J.  R.  Eastman, 
three  years;  Professor  Ormond  Stone,  four  years; 
Professor  E.  B.  Frost,  five  years. 

General  Committee — ^Mr.  Philip  Fox. 

Professor  Alexander  Ziwet,  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Michigan,  was  elected  vice-presi- 
dent for  the  next  meeting. 

The  Chicago  Section  of  the  American 
Mathematical  Society  and  the  Astronom- 
ical and  Astrophysical  Society  of  America 
met  in  affiliation  with  Section  A.  The  pa- 
pers presented  before  these  affiliated  socie- 
ties will  be  noticed  elsewhere.  Those  read 
before  Section  A  were  as  follows : 

A  New  Treatment  of  Volume:  Professor 
George  Bruce  Halsted,  Kenyon   Col- 
lege, Gambler,  Ohio. 
In  September,  1902,  Poincar6  wrote  in 
his  review  of  Hilbert's  *Grundlagen  der 
Geometric':   "The   fourth  book  treats  of 
the  measurements  of  plane  areas.    If  this 
measurement    can    be    easilv    established 
without  the  aid  of  the  principle  of  Archi- 
medes, it  is  because  two  equivalent  poly- 
gons can  either  be  decomposed  into  trian- 
gles in  such  a  way  that  the  component  tri- 


162 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


angles  of  the  one  and  those  of  the  other  are 
equal  each  to  each,  or  else  can  be  regarded 
as  the  diflPerence  of  polygons  capable  of 
this  mode  of  decomposition.  But  we  must 
observe  that  an  analogous  condition  does 
not  seem  to  exist  in  the  case  of  two  equiv- 
alent polyhedrons;  so  that  it  becomes  a 
question  whether  or  not  we  can  determine 
the  volume  of  the  pyramid,  for  example, 
without  an  appeal  more  or  less  disguised 
to  the  infinitesimal  calculus.  It  is,  there- 
fore, not  certain  that  we  can  dispense  with 
the  axiom  of  Archimedes  in  the  measure- 
ment of  volumes.  Moreover,  Professor 
Hilbert  has  not  attempted  it." 

Professor  Halsted,  in  the  paper  in  ques- 
tion, has  attacked  the  problem  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner: 

The  product  of  an  altitude  of  a  tetrahe- 
dron by  the  area  of  its  base  is  the  same 
whichever  of  the  four  faces  may  be  chosen 
as  base.  This  product  is,  therefore,  a  'nat- 
ural invariant'  of  the  tetrahedron  and 
may  be  designated  as  its  volume,  except 
that  in  order  to  adjust  the  conception  to 
our  ordinary  numerical  scale  the  factor 
one  third  is  arbitrarily  introduced.  After 
defining  a  transversal  partition  of  a  tetra- 
hedron as  one  made  by  a  plane  through 
an  edge  and  a  point  of  the  opposite  edge, 
it  was  shown  that,  however  this  soUd  be 
cut  by  a  plane,  the  partition  can  be  ob- 
tained as  a  result  of  successive  transversal 
partitions,  using  not  more  than  two  other 
planes. 

The  above  being  explained,  it  was  shown 
that  the  volume  of  any  tetrahedron  is 
equal  to  the  sum  of  the  volumes  of  all 
tetrahedrons  which  result  from  any  set  of 
transversal  partitions.  This  need  not  be 
assumed  as  self-evident,  but  may  be  dem- 
onstrated as  a  necessary  consequence  of 
the  so-called  *betweenness'  assumption 
with  reference  to  three  co-straight  points. 
Similar  principles  were  deduced  for  poly- 
hedrons in  general,  and  by  their  use  a  gen- 


eral theory  of  volume  was  built  up  with- 
out reference  to  the  ordinary  notions  of 
ratio  and  commensurability.  The  same 
method  of  treatment  may  be  applied  to 
figures  in  hyperspace  of  any  order. 

Lines  on  the  Pseudosphere  and  the  Syn- 
tractrix  of  Revolution:  E.  L.  Hancock, 
Purdue  University,  Lafayette,  Indiana. 
The  lines  of  the  pseudosphere  are  re- 
viewed and  those  of  the  syntractrix  of  rev- 
olution studied.     The  latter  surface  8^  is 
defined  as  the  surface  generated  by  the 
revolution  of  the  curve  C^  about  its  asymp- 
tote; Ci  being  determined  by  laying  off  a 
constant  distance  d  on  the  tangents  of  the 
tractrix. 

The  geodesic,  asymptotic  and  loxodro- 
mic  lines  on  8^  are  worked  out  and  studied 
by  classifying  the  surfaces  according  as 

c  being  the  constant  of  the  tractrix.  When 
d  =  2cit  happens  that  the  geodesic  lines  on 
Si  are  all  real ;  while  for  d  <  2c  they  are 
real  or  imaginary  according  as 

2<|         «**"       ' 

*  >|d«— 4cd|' 

K  being  a  constant  of  integration. 

The  loxodromic  lines  of  the  syntractrix 
of  revolution  are  represented  in  the  plane 
by  the  same  system  of  straight  lines  as  rep- 
resent the  loxodromic  lines  of  the  pseudo- 
sphere. 

The  Rotation  Period  of  the  Planet  Saturn: 

Professor   G.   W.    Hough,   Director   of 

Dearborn  Observatory,  Evanston,  Ills. 

In  1877  Professor  Asaph  Hall,  then  at 

the  U.  S.  Naval  Observatory,  observed  a 

spot  near  to  Saturn's  equator  and  by  its 

means    determined    the    period     of    the 

planet's    rotation.      From    that    time    on, 

until  the  recent  opposition,  no  well-defined 

spot  has  been  visible.     On  June  23,  1903, 

however,  Professor  E.  E.  Barnard,  of  the 


January  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


lf;3 


Yerkes  Observatory,  noted  a  large  and  dis- 
tinct spot  in  Kronocentric  latitude  36**  .5. 
This  was  observed  micrometrieally  on 
June  27  and  July  13. 

Acting  upon  the  request  of  the  author, 
micrometrie  observations  of  spots  on 
Saturn  were  made  by  Professor  S.  W. 
Bumham  with  the  40-inch  Yerkes  equa- 
torial. Measurements  were  secured  on 
July  29  and  August  15.  From  these  data 
the  'mean'  rotation  period  deduced  was 
10^  38°*  27" ;  but  the  observations  showed 
the  period  to  be  variable.  The  value 
10*»  38™  18«  +  n  X  08.1856  was  found  to 
satisfy  all  the  observations  with  a  mean 
error  of  ±  0™.8.  In  the  formula  n  is  the 
number  of  rotations  of  the  planet  counting 
from  the  epoch  of  the  discussion,  June 
23,  1903. 

An  Extension  of  the  Group  Concept:  Dr. 
Edwabd  Easner^  Columbia  University, 
New  York. 
Read  by  title. 

FacHiiie^  for  Astronomical  Photography 
in  Southern  California:  E.  L.  Larkin, 
Director  of  Lowe  Observatory. 
Attention  was  called  to  the  fact  that, 
from  May  1  to  November  1,  the  observer 
upon  Echo  Mountain  enjoys  an  almost  un- 
broken succession  of  cloudless  days  and 
nights.  During  the  greater  part  of  this 
season  the  air  becomes  remarkably  steady 
shortly  after  sunset;  so  much  so  that  the 
rings  of  Saturn  may  be  seen  rising  as  a 
minute  but  sharply  defined  arch  over  the 
crest  of  the  neighboring  mountain  ridge. 
In  the  rainy  season,  after  a  shower,  the  air 
is  of  such  transparency  that  mountains 
distant  a  hundred  miles  or  more  may  be 
seen  with  clearness  and  distinctness. 

In  view  of  these  conditions  Mr.  Larkin 
urged  the  establishment  of  an  observatory 
equipped  for  astro-photography  upon  the 
summit  of  Echo  Mountain.  Attention  was 
called  to  the  faint  nebulous  light  forming 


the  background  of  large  regions  of  the  sky 
as  observed  from  this  station.  Some  inter- 
esting views  of  Lowe  Observatory  and  its 
surroundings  were  projected  upon  the 
screen,  together  with  a  number  of  the 
famous  Lick  Observatory  photographs. 

Coincident  Variations:  Lucinus  S.  McCoy, 
Whitten,  Iowa. 
Read  by  title. 

On  the  Generalization  and  Extension  of 
Sylow's  Theorem:  Dr.  G.  A.  Miller, 
Stanford  University,  California. 
Dr.  Miller's  paper,  which  will  shortly 
be  printed  in  full,  is  in  abstract  ss  follows : 
Let  p»  be  the  highest  power  of  p  which 
divides  the  order  of  a  group  (G),  and  sup- 
pose that  a  subgroup  (P^)  of  order  p* 
contains  only  one  subgroup  (P^ )  of  order 
p^  and  of  a  particular  type.  It  is  proved 
that  the  number  of  subgroups  of  G  which 
are  of  the  same  type  as  P^  is  of  the  form 
1  +  kp,  and  that  all  of  these  subgroups 
form  a  single  conjugate  set.  Hence  the 
order  of  G  is  of  the  form  p^h^(l-\-kp) 
where  p^fei  is  the  order  of  the  largest  sub- 
group of  G  which  transforms  Pp  into 
itself.  By  letting  /5  =  a  we  have  Sylow's 
theorem.  When  fi^a  the  factor  h^  is  not 
divisible  by  p  while  it  is  divisible  by  p  for 
all  other  values  of  fi.  Some  simplifications 
of  the  proof  of  Frobenius's  extension  of 
Sylow's  theorem  are  also  considered. 

The  Supporting  and  Counter-weighting  of 

the  Principal  Axes  of  Large  Telescopes: 

C.  D.  Perrine,  Lick  Observatory,  Mt. 

Hamilton,  California. 

In  large  telescopes   it   is  necessary  to 

reduce  the  friction  of  the  axes  in  their 

bearings.    This  has  usually  been  done  by 

a  system  of  friction  wheels  held  against 

the  axis  by  weights  and  levers. 

Experience  with  the  roller  bearings  used 
in  the  driving-clock  for  the  new  mounting 


164 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


of  the  Crossley  reflector  suggested  the 
same  principle  as  being  suitable  for  the 
axes  of  large  telescopes.  These  bearings 
are  very  simple  in  construction  and  con- 
sist of  a  ring  of  hardened  steel  rollers 
around  the  axis,  in  the  bearing.  The  roll- 
ers fit  closely  about  the  axis  and,  therefore, 
do  not  require  any  frame  to  hold  them  in 
their  relative  positions.  There  is  no  loose- 
ness and  the  axis  revolves  with  perfect 
accuracy,  yet  easily. 

Such  bearings  would  be  fully  as  efficient 
in  the  case  of  a  large  overhang  of  the 
polar-axis  as  in  the  ordinary  form  of 
mounting.  Where  the  ends  of  the  polar 
axis  are  supported  on  separate  piers  the 
bearings  can  be  made  self -aligning. 

A  Linkage  for  Describing  the  Conic  Sec- 
tions by  Continuous  Motion:  J.  J^ 
QuiNN,  Warren,  Pa. 

This  linkage  is  the  material  embodiment 
of  the  facts  set  forth  in  the  following 
theorem : 

If  one  vertex  of  a  movable  pivoted 
rhombus  be  fixed  in  position,  while  the 
opposite  vertex  is  constrained  to  move  in 
the  arc  of  a  circle,  the  locus  of  the  inter- 
section of  a  diagonal  (produced)  through 
the  other  two  vertices,  with  the  radius 
(produced)  of  the  circle  in  which  the  ver- 
tex moves  is  a  conic. 

If  the  fixed  vertex  is  in  the  diameter 
of  the  circle,  and  the  directing  radius 
finite,  the  locus  is  an  ellipse.  If  the  direct- 
ing radius  is  infinite  and  the  fixed  vertex 
in  the  diameter,  the  locus  is  a  parabola.  If 
the  directing  radius  is  finite,  and  the  fixed 
vertex  is  in  the  diameter  produced,  the 
locus  is  a  hyperbola.  Modifications  of  the 
essential  features  of  this  linkage  give  rise 
to  many  interesting  corollaries  involving 
the  geometric  construction  of  the  conies, 
their  tangents  and  normals. 


Circles  Represented  by  /jl^P+L/j^Q+MplH 

-\^N8  =  0:  T.  B.  Running,  Ann  Arbor, 

Michigan. 

In  the  equation  discussed  /x  is  a  variable 
parameter;  L,  M  and  N  are  constants;  P, 
Q,  K  and  S  represent  circles.  The  equa^ 
tion  itself  represents  circles  for  all  values 
of  the  parameter.  Three  circles  of  the  sys- 
tem pass  through  each  point  of  the  plane. 
The  locus  of  the  centers  of  the  system  is 
a  cubic  having  eight  arbitrary  constants. 

There  will  be  a  circle  orthogonal  to  the 
system  if  any  one  of  the  circles  P,  Q,  R,  8 
can  be  derived  linearly  from  the  other 
three.  There  are  six  point  circles  in  the 
system,  all  lying  upon  the  locus  of  the  cen- 
ters. Four  circles  of  the  system  are  tan- 
gent to  any  one.  Eight  pairs  of  tangent 
circles  have  a  common  linear  relation  con- 
necting their  parameters. 

The  envelope  of  the  system  is 


18  LMNPQSS—fn  N^F^S'  +  VM^(fB^ 

which  may  be  written 


=0 


where 


B*  =  4AC, 


A  =  L*(f—  3PMR,     C=  M^R*— LQNS, 
B  =  LMQB—9PN8, 

It  is  shown  that  this  is  the  envelope  of 

A,  B,  C  being  bicircular  quartics  which 
are  themselves  envelopes  of  systems  de- 
rived from  the  original  circles. 

The  envelope  of  the  radical  axes  of  a 
particular  circle  and  other  circles  of  the 
system  is  a  conic.  This  conic  may  be  said 
to  correspond  to  the  particular  circle,  and 
there  is  such  a  conic  corresponding  to 
every  circle  of  the  system.  The  system  of 
circles  represented  by 

fi*P  +  Lfi^Q  -f  MfiB  +  N8=0 

is  called  the  primary  system,  and  the  sys- 


Jakuaby  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


1.65 


tern  of  conies  corresponding  to  it  in  the 
manner  above  explained,  the  secondary 
system.  It  is  shown  that  the  equation  of 
a  conic  of  the  secondary  system  is  of  the 
fourth  degree  with  respect  to  the  param- 
eter and  that,  therefore,  four  conies  of 
the  secondary  system  pass  through  any 
particular  point  in  the  plane. 

The  equation  of  the  radical  axis  of  two 
circles,  a*  and  m',  of  the  system  is 

F     .H 

F  and  H  being  of  the  fourth  degree  in  m 
and  At'  and  O  of  the  third  degree.  It  thus 
appears  that  there  are  sixteen  sets  of 
values  of  ii  and  m'  for  which  this  equation 
represents  the  same  radical  axis;  that  is, 
there  are  sixteen  pairs  of  circles  having  the 
same  radical  axis.  Moreover,  to  these 
thirty-two  circles  there  correspond  thirty- 
two  conies  of  the  secondary  system,  all  of 
which  are  tangent  to  the  same  radical  axis. 
The  paper  includes,  by  way  of  introduc- 
tion, a  brief  discussion  of  the  equation 

A  New  Type  of  Transit-Room  Shutter: 
Professor  Davh)  Todd,  Amherst,  Massa- 
chusetts. 

The  type  of  shutter  here  described  is 
that  used  to  cover  the  two  transit  slits  of 
the  new  observatory  of  Amherst  College. 
These  slits  have  a  clear  opening  of  100** 
each  way  from  the  zenith  and  are  three 
and  one  half  feet  in  width.  Each  shutter 
is  twenty-one  feet  long  and  sixteen  feet 
high.  It  is  made  of  structural  steel  with 
two  vertical  members  and  one  truss  mem- 
ber across  the  roof.  Its  weight  is  about 
three  thousand  pounds. 

The  entire  shutter  moves  as  a  unit  upoi^ 
ball-bearing  rollers  underneath  the  verti- 
cal members.  These  rollers  travel  upon 
rails  lying  east  and  west  along  the  north 
and  south  walls  of  the  building.    The  two 


ends  of  the  shutter  are  made  to  travel  in 
unison  by  means  of  rack  and  pinions  with 
sprocket  wheels  and  link-belt  chain. 

The  roof-member  travels  ten  inches 
above  the  roof  of  the  transit  room,  thus 
clearing  all  ordinary  depths  of  snow. 
Only  the  bottom  of  this  member  is  covered 
in,  the  structural  elements  of  its  top  and 
sides  being  left  exposed  as  in  bridge  work. 
Wind  thrust  is  thereby  minimized. 

The  entire  shutter  opens  or  closes  full 
width  in  four  seconds,  by  eight  turns  of 
a  hand  wheel.  A  small  shaft  lock  holds  it 
firmly  in  either  position. 

Laenas  Gippord  Weld, 

Secretary. 

SECTION  0,  BOTANY. 

Section  6  at  the  St.  Louis  meeting  was 
organized,  under  the  chairmanship  of  Pro- 
fessor T.  H.  Macbride,  on  December  28, 
1903.     The  other  officers  were  as  follows: 

Secretary — F.  E.  Lloyd. 

Councillor — Wm.  Trelease. 

Sectional  Committee — T.  H.  Macbride,  vice- 
president,  1904;  F.  E.  Lloyd,  secretary,  1904-1908; 
F.  V.  Coville,  vice-president,  1903;  C.  J.  Chamber- 
lain, secretary,  1903;  W.  A.  Kellerman  (one  year), 
F.  S.  Earle  (two  years),  C.  E.  Bessey  (three 
years),  W.  T.  Beal  (four  years),  F.  E.  Clements 
(five  years). 

Member  to  General  Committee — C.  L.  Shear. 

Meetings  of  the  section  for  the  reading 
of  papers  and  for  other  business  were  held 
on  December  28,  29,  30,  31  and  January 
1.  The  Mycological  Society  and  the  Bota- 
nists of  the  Central  States  met  conjointly 
with  the  section. 

A  committee  consisting  of  Professor  C. 
E.  Bessey,  Dr.  B.  T.  Galloway  and  Pro- 
fessor C.  MacMillan  drew  up  a  resolution 
strongly  endorsing  the  efforts  at  present 
being  made  looking  toward  the  passage 
of  such  laws  by  Congress  as  will  provide 
for  the  perpetual  preservation  of  the  Cala- 
veras Grove  of  Big  Trees  in  California. 

On  Friday  morning  the  section,  together 


]66 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


with  visiting  botanists,  had  the  pleasure 
of  paying  a  visit  to  the  Missouri  Botan- 
ical Garden,  where,  under  the  guidance  of 
Dr.  Wm.  Trelease  and  his  staflf,  the  various 
appointments  and  collections  were  exam- 
ined with  great  profit  and  enjoyment. 
The  section  returned  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
Dr.  Trelease  for  his  courtesy  to  the  visiting 
botanists. 

The  following  papers  were  presented : 

The  Work  of  the  Y^ar  1903  in  Ecology: 
H.  C.  CowLES.     (By  special  invitation 
of  the  sectional  committee.)    This  paper 
will  be  published  in  full  in  Science. 
Notes    on    the    Botany    of   the    Caiicasus 
Mountains:  C.  E.  Bessey. 
General    characteristics    of    the    moun- 
tains and  their  climate.    The  steppes  north 
of  the  range.     The  vegetation  of  Kislo- 
vodsk, Bermamut,  Kasabek  and  Ardon,  on 
the  north  side.    Vegetation  of  the  Ardon 
Valley,   the  higher  mountain  slopes  and 
the  Rion  Valley  to  Kutais.    The  forests  of 
Colchis.     Tiflis  and  its  botanical  garden. 
The    region    of    Upper    Armenia.      The 
plains  of  Erivan  on  the  Zenga  River.    The 
gardens    at    Batum    and    Chackva.      Tea 
plantations     and     bamboo     thickets     at 
Chackva.     The   forests   of   the   northeast 
shores  of  the  Black  Sea. 

The  Cypress  Swamps  of  the  Saint  Francis 

River:  S.  M.  Coulter. 

The  Saint  Francis  River  covers  wide 
stretches  of  lowland  in  Missouri  and  Ar- 
kansas with  a  varying  depth  of  water.  At 
some  seasons  these  lands  are  dry,  at  others 
covered  with  two  feet  of  water.  Sub- 
merged aquatic  plants  cover  the  river  bot- 
tom and  Polygomim  densiflorum  seems  to 
be  the  first  aerial  plant;  Zizaniopsis  mil- 
iacea  succeeds  it  very  closely;  Peltandra 
undulata,  Saururus  cernuus  and  Typha 
latifolia  are  next  in  order,  then  a  willowy 
undergrowth,  succeeded  by  Cephalanthus 


ocddentalis;  Nyssa  uniflora  and  Taxodium 
distichum  occupy  the  next  zone  and  are 
the  principal  forms  which  have  worked 
out  so-called  adaptations  to  their  habitat 
The  young  trees  of  Nyssa  uniflora,  the 
tupelo  gum,  are  crowded  in  pure  groves, 
and  as  they  increase  in  size  they  develop 
a  peculiar  bulging  in  the  trunk  near  the 
water  line.  These  dome-shaped  bases  be- 
come as  much  as  twelve  feet  in  diameter 
and  are  accompanied  by  the  decay  of  the 
central  tissue  in  base  Tind  trunk.  Upper 
portions  of  the  trees  are  usually  blown 
away,  leaving  a  hollow  shaft  thirty  or 
forty  feet  high.  The  habitat  of  the  cypress 
is  similar.  The  young  groves  are  not  so 
unmixed  as  those  of  the  tupelo.  The  cy- 
press base,  instead  of  being  dome-shaped, 
becomes  conical,  but  does  not  decay  in  the 
center.  The  development  of  the  cypress 
'knees'  or  upward  enlargements  of  the 
roots  is  another  peculiarity  of  the  cypress 
growing  in  water.  They  are  enormously 
developed  in  the  Saint  Francis  region, 
sometimes  reaching  a  height  of  eight  feet 
above  the  ground.  When  cypress  grows 
under  mesophytic  surroundings,  neither 
the  enlargement  of  the  base  occurs  nor  the 
development  of  knees.  Beyond  the  cy- 
press-tupelo  gum  association  is  found  a 
large  variety  of  shrubs  and  trees.  The 
tension  line  between  the  cypress  and  most 
broad-leaved  trees  seems  dependent  upon 
the  amount  of  water;  the  cypress  can  live 
on  land  or  water,  but  the  other  forms  only 
on  land.  However,  they  are  more  vigorous 
under  those  favorable  conditions  and  soon 
occupy  the  land  to  the  exclusion  of  the 
cypress.  These  marginal  forms  include 
Liquidambar  styraciflua,  white  and  red 
oaks,  sassafras,  sycamore,  Celtis  Mississip- 
piensis,  Nyssa  sylvatica  and  a  large  num- 
ber of  shrubs. 

Ecological  Notes  on  the  Islands  of  Ber- 
muda: S.  M.  Coulter. 


Jakuaby  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


167 


The  Bermuda  Islands  are  composed  of 
porous  limestone  with  a  thin  covering  of 
soil.  The  nature  of  this  substratum  pre- 
vents the  accumulation  of  water  excepting 
a  few  brackish  ponds  near  the  level  of  tide- 
water. Conditions  of  moisture  and  expo- 
sure are  very  uniform,  hence  plant  asso- 
ciations are  not  large,  nor  do  they  vary 
widely.  The  largest  ecological  area  com- 
prises in  a  general  way  all  the  hillsides  and 
slopes  that  have  sufficient  soil  to  support 
a  large  vegetation.  Their  appearance  is 
somber  on  account  of  the  large  number  of 
cedars  which  cover  them.  Two  species  of 
Laniana  (called  the  Bermuda  sage-brush) 
are  associated  with  the  cedars,  and  crab- 
grass  and  cape-weed  cover  the  ground. 
Tall  oleanders  are  marginal  to  the  cedar 
groves  and  Tucca  alsifolia  is  abundant 
along  the  cliffs.  A  second  area  comprises 
the  rocky  shores  along  the  ocean,  charac- 
terized by  gnarled  forms  of  Conocarpus 
erectus,  Borrichia  arborescens,  Solidago 
sempervirens  and  Opuntia  Tuna.  A  third 
area  is  formed  by  the  sandy  beaches  and 
small  dunes  along  the  south  shore.  The 
sea  blackberry,  Scmvola  lobelia,  is  the  most 
abundant  form  and  Ipomo&a  pes-caprcB  is 
almost  as  common,  trailing  its  long  vines 
over  the  sands  and  helping  to  bind  them 
together.  Secondary  in  importance  are 
Cakile  cequalis,  Tournefortia  gnaphaloides, 
the  golden-rod  mentioned  above  and  the 
sea  ox-eye,  Borrichia  arborescens.  These 
mesophytic  and  xerophytic  areas  are  most 
prominent,  but  there  are  two  types  of 
swamps  to  be  noted.  The  Devonshire 
marsh  was  apparently  once  a  large  pond 
but  there  is  little  water  left.  Two  species 
of  Sphagnum,  Proserpinaca  palustris, 
Typha  latifolia  and  Eichornia  occupy  the 
lower  pools.  Hydrocotyle  Asiatica  and 
Herpestis  monniera  are  rooted  in  the  mud. 
Osmunda  Cinnamomea  and  0.  regalis  are 
abundant  in  somewhat  drier  places,  while 
in  the  dry,  peaty  soil  Pteris  aquilina  cor- 


data,  the  cedar,  palmetto  and  dog-bush  are 
most  common.  The  mangrove  swamps 
about  small  inlets  of  the  sea  constitute  the 
second  hydrophytic  area.  The  aerial  roots 
from  the  limbs  of  Rhizophora  Mangle  and 
the  curving  prop-roots  add  considerable 
interest  to  these  swamps.  The  seeds  begin 
to  grow  on  the  trees,  then  drop  into  the 
mud,  their  pointed  ends  fixing  them  up- 
right, while  the  growing  roots  soon  pene- 
trate the  soil  and  a  pair  of  leaves  appear 
at  the  upper  end.  Avicennia  nitida,  the 
false  mangrove,  is  associated  with  the  true 
and  along  the  tide- water  margins  are  Soli- 
cornia  fruticosa,  Statice  Lefroyi,  Sesuviwn 
Portulacastrum  and  Coccoloba  uvifera. 

A  Lichen  Society  of  a  Sandstone  Riprap: 

Bruce  Fink. 

A  general  discussion  of  the  oonditions 
under  which  the  society  has  developed  and 
is  now  growing,  including  some  statement 
as  to  amount  of  moisture  in  various  por- 
tions of  the  riprap,  amount  of  disintegra- 
tion at  various  points  and  amount  of  ex- 
posure to  sun  and  wind.  Following  this 
is  a  consideration  of  the  ecologic  condi- 
tions and  resulting  spermaphytic  flora  in 
the  area,  and  the  effect  of  these  surround- 
ings on  the  composition  of  the  lichen  so- 
ciety. Next  in  order  is  given  a  list  of  the 
lichen  species  of  the  society,  followed  by  a 
discussion  of  the  conditions  under  which 
each  species  is  growing  and  the  adapta- 
tions of  each  species  to  these  conditions. 
Brief  comparisons  are  made  between  this 
society  and  three  others  found  on  sand- 
stone, and  herein  are  shown  some  very 
marked  responses  between  ecologic  condi- 
tions and  structural  adaptations. 

Relation  of  Soil  to  the  Distribution  of  Veg- 
etation in  the  Pine  Region  of  Michigan: 
E.  B.  Livingston. 
The   study   here   reported   is   of   about 

fifteen  townships  lying  in  Roscommon  and 


168 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  474. 


Crawford  Counties,  Michigan.     The  soils 
are  classed  as  clay,  clay  loam,  sandy  loam, 
and  sand,  power  to  hold  and  lift  water 
from  an  underground  water  level  decreas- 
ing with  the  different  soils  in  the  order 
named.    The  region  is  glacial  and  consists 
of  ridges  and  plains.    The  former  are  usu- 
ally gravelly  and  sandy  loam.    The  latter 
are  loamy  sand,  clay  or  nearly  pure  sand. 
Some  ridges  are  quite  clayey.    The  vegeta- 
tion is  divided  into  (I.)  upland  and  (II.) 
lowland  types.    Of  the  former  are  consid- 
ered the  following,  named  for  the  charac- 
teristic tree  species:    (1)    The  hardwood, 
(2)  the  white  pine,  (3)  the  Norway  pine 
and   (4)   the  jack  pine.     These  types  be- 
come more  xerophytic  in  character  in  the 
order    named.      In    general,    the    upland 
types  follow  in  their  distribution  the  dis- 
tribution of  the  soils,  the  hardwood  occur- 
ring on  low  clay  plains,  on  swamp  margins 
in  loamy  soil,  and  on  certain  plains  of  loam 
which  are  well  covered  with  humus.    The 
white  pine  occurs  on  certain  ridges  of  clay 
loam  and  of  clay  and  also  on  swamp  mar- 
gins in  loam  and  clay.    The  Norway  pine 
type  is  found  on  loamy  sand  plains  and 
on  the  ridges  of  sandy  and  gravelly  loam. 
The  jack  pine  type  occupies  exclusively 
the  well-washed  sand  plains.     The   only 
complicating   factors   in    distribution    are 
the  effect  of  humus  (which  seems  able  to 
make  even  sand  able  to  support  hardwood) 
and  the  effect  of  the  rise  of  the  under- 
ground water  level,  as  at  swamp  margins. 
The  latter  makes  a  sandy  soil  able  to  bear 
vegetation    which     would     otherwise     be 
found  only  in  loam  or  clay.     Analyses  of 
the  soil  seem  to'  show  that  its  chemical 
properties  are  unimportant,  that  the  real 
factor    to    determine    distribution    is    the 
power  of  the  soil  to  hold  water,  this  power 
increasing   with   fineness   of   particles   or 
with  presence  of  humus. 


Research  Methods  in  Phytogeography :  F. 

E.  Clements. 

(1)  The  use  of  simple  and  automatic 
instruments,  photometer,  psychrometer, 
thermometer,  etc.,  in  the  exact  determina- 
tion of  the  physical  factors  of  a  habitat; 
(2)  the  study  of  the  structure  and  devel- 
opment of  formations  by  means  of  perma- 
nent and  denuded  quadrats,  and  migration 
circles;  (3)  experimental  ecology  in  the 
field  by  moving  plants  from  one  habitat  to 
another,  or  by  modifying  the  controlling 
factor  of  a  habitat;  (4)  experimental  ecol- 
ogy in  the  plant  house  by  equalization  and 
control  of  physical  factors. 

Ensayo  para  la  formacion  de  un  foto-heri- 
ario  Botanico  y  medico  de  la  flora  Mexi- 
cana:  Fernando  Altamirano.* 
Contendra  una  collecci6n  de  6000  foto- 
grafias  tomadas  de  los  especimenes  del 
Herbario  de  Plantas  Mexicanas  del  Insti- 
tuto  Medico  Nacional.  Cada  fotografia 
ser&  de  y  Uevarfi  dos  etiquetas:  una  corre- 
sponderii  al  Colector  y  tendri  los  datos  de 
clasificacion,  lugar  de  vegetacion,  etc.,  y  la 
otra  corresponder4  al  instituto,  conten- 
iendo  los  nombres  vulgares,  las  rectifica- 
ciones  que  se  hayan  hecho  k  la  clasifica- 
cion, etc.  Cada  lamina  del  Foto-herbario, 
que  contendra  4  foto-grafias,  ira  accom- 
panada  de  una  hoja  de  igual  temano  (0.20 
por  0.25  proximamente),  conteniendo 
datos  descriptivos,  aplicaciones  y  la  distri- 
bucion  geografica  con  su  mapa  respective. 
Las  plantas  del  Herbario  ser&n  fotografia- 
das  en  6rden  de  familias  naturales,  comen- 
zando  por  las  Ranunculaceas.  Cada  lam- 
ina contendra  solamente  especies  de  un 
mismo  genero,  especies  que  ir&n  numera- 
das  progresivamente,  tal  como  se  repre- 
senta  en  la  muestra  que  se  remite,  la  cual 
comprende  100  fotografias.  La  impresi6n 
del  texto  y  el  tiro  de  las  l&minas,  lo  hara 

*  La  palabra  foto-herbario  sera  substituida  por 
otra  si  se  considerare  inadecuada. 


Jai;uaby  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


169 


el  Instituto,  en  numero  de  1,000  ejem- 
plares,  que  repartira  en  toda  la  Republiea 
y  a  las  corporaciones  cientificas  extran- 
geras.  El  objeto  de  la  publieaci6n  de  este 
Foto-herbario  es  faeilitar  el  conocimiento 
de  nuestras  plantas  a  toda  clase  de  per- 
sonas,  aun  de  aquellas  que  sean  menos  ver- 
sadas  en  la  Bot4nica.  Para  eso  se  pre- 
senta  la  figura  de  la  planta  que  atrae  la 
atencion  y  f acilita  las  descripciones ;  y  por 
eso  tambien  se  dan  a  conocer  las  aplica- 
eiones  y  el  lugar  donde  vegeta  una  planta, 
lo  eual  aumenta  el  interes  por  conocerla  y 
facilita  su  adquisieion  a  los  colectores. 
Pormara  pues,  este  Poto-herbari  o  un  eat- 
alogo  eomo  el  que  acostumbran  publicar 
los  botanicos  de  sus  herbarios ;  pero  eon  la 
ventaje  de  que  el  Poto-herbario  es  un  cata- 
log© y  un  herbario  k  la  vez,  podriamos 
decir,  aeompanado  de  otras  muchas  no- 
tisias  que  no  se  acostumbra  poner  en  los 
simples  catalogos.  Este  Poto-herbario 
puede  tener  una  aplicacion  mas  amplia 
todavia,  y  ese  es  mi  deseo,  que  comprenda 
las  Potografias  de  todas  las  plantas  mexi- 
canas  eonocidas.  Para  consequirlo  me 
propongo  que  tambien  sean  fotografiados 
los  especimenes  de  los  herbarios  extran- 
geros  que  no  tengamos  en  los  de  Mexico. 
Asi  por  ejemplo,  procuraremos  fotografias 
de  aquellas  plantas  mexicanas,  de  los  her- 
barios de  los  Estados  Unidos,  de  los  de 
Europa,  etc.  A  la  vez  que  trabajemos  en 
Mexico  se  procurara  que  tambien  se  tra- 
baje,  sobre  el  mismo  asunto,  en  los  her- 
barios de  fuera,  siguiendo  un  plan  deter- 
minado  para  que  cuando  al  fin  de  algun 
tiempo  (dos  anos  probablemente)  que  se 
haya  completado  le  coleccion  de  las  foto- 
grafias de  la  Plora  Mexicana,  no  resulten 
desordanadas  ni  haya  repeticiones.  Si 
pues  se  considerare  util  la  publicacion  del 
Catalogo  del  Herbario  del  Instituto,  segun 
la  manera  que  he  indicado,  y  que  sea  apli- 
cable  a  toda  la  Plora  Mexicana,  procu- 
raremos   fotografiar   cuanto    antes,    todas 


las  plantas  de  los  herbarios  que  haya  en 
Mexico,  y  yo  me  atrevere  a  j)edir  desde 
ahora  la  valiosisima  cooperacion  de  los 
botanizes  de  todas  las  naciones.  Ojal& 
que  esta  autorizada  Asociacion  tuviera  & 
bien  iniciar  el  monbramiento  de  una  Com- 
ision  que  se  siriera  dictaminar  sobre  cual 
seria  la  mejor  manera  de  llevar  a  cabo  la 
formacion  de  un  Catdlogo  General  de  la 
Plora  de  cada  Nacion  6  sea  un  Poto-her- 
bario-Pan- Americano. 

The  Alamogordo  Desert;  A  Preliminary 

Notice:  Thomas  H.  MAcBRmE. 

The  Alamogordo  Desert  is  situated  in 
southwestern  New  Mexico;  it  is  a  bolson, 
t.  e,,  an  undrained  desert  plain.  The  to- 
pography of  the  region  and  its  geology  are 
briefly  described  and  an  effort  made  by 
illustration  and  description  to  connect  the 
present  distribution  of  the  flora  with  geo- 
logical history.  It  is  claimed  that  in  this 
desert,  as  often  in  other  parts  of  the  coun- 
try, the  distribution  problems  can  be  un- 
derstood only  as  the  geologic  story  is  more 
or  less  perfectly  read.  The  flora  of  the 
plain  is  contrasted  with  that  of  the  moun- 
tain side  and  summit. 

The  Flora  of  the  St,  Peter  Sandstone  in 
Iowa,  An  Ecological  Study:  B.  Shimek. 
The  distribution  of  the  St.  Peter  expo- 
sures in  Iowa.  The  physical  characters  of 
the  St.  Peter  sandstone.  A  brief  discus- 
sion of  the  plants  which  are  peculiar  to  it. 
A  corresponding  discussion  of  the  plants 
which  are  common  to  rocky  ledges  and 
which  also  occur  on  the  St.  Peter  sand- 
stone. A  more  detailed  discussion  of  a 
series  of  plants  which  normally  belong  to 
other  habitats,  but  which  have  gained  a 
foothold  on  the  sandstone,  or  on  the  sands 
resulting  from  the  decomposition  of  the 
sandstone.  These  latter  are  very  much 
develcped. 


170 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


An  Ecologically  Aberrant  Begonia:  Will- 
iam Trelease. 

An  account  of  a  Mexican  species  of 
Begonia  possessing  a  single  large  sessile 
leaf  closely  applied  t(»  the  cliflf  on  which 
the  plant  grows,  so  as  to  afford  protection 
to  its  roots. 

Plant  Formations  in  the  Vicinity  of  Co- 
lumbia, Mo,:  Francis  Daniels. 
The  vegetation  of  the  region  falls  into 
four  main  classes:  (1)  The  aquatic  and 
subaquatic  floras;  (2)  the  mesophytic,  or 
in  poor  soil,  xerophytic,  sylvan  flora;  (3) 
the  rupestrine  flora  of  the  limestone  cliffs ; 
(4)  the  cultural  and  ruderal  floras.  The 
aquatic  and  subaquatic  vegetation  falls 
into  six  zones:  The  aquatic,  amphibious, 
limose,  ulignose  (wet  swamp),  paludose 
(open  marsh)  and  riparian  zones.  The 
mesophytic  (or  xerophytic)  sylvan  flora 
assumes  five  main  types:  The  alluvial,  the 
mesophytic  sylvan  proper,  the  open  brush, 
the  arborescent  glade  and  the  sterile  hill 
type.  The  rupestrine  flora  exhibits  four 
types:  The  fontinal  or  dripping  rock,  the 
soil-covered  ledge,  the  bare  rock  and  the 
cliff  summit  types.  The  cultural  and  ru- 
deral floras  have  the  forms  proper  to  pas- 
tures, meadows,  fields,  orchards,  gardens 
and  waste  places.  Besides  these  there  are 
a  host  of  parasitic  and  saprophytic  fungi, 
and  a  few  flowering  plants,  like  Cuscuta, 
Thalesia  and  Monotropa. 

The  Distribution  of  Some  Iowa  Plants; 

Formations  on  which  they  Occur:  L.  H. 

Pammel. 

A  brief  account  of  some  of  the  more  im- 
portant plants  found  on  the  carbonifer- 
ous sandstone  in  eastern  Iowa,  noting  the 
occurrence  of  the  white  pine,  Pinv^  Stro- 
bus,  Gaylussacia  resinosa,  Aspidium  mar- 
ginale,  A.  acrostichoides,  Lycopodium 
lucidulum,  Phegopteris  Dryopteris,  Dier- 
villa  trifida  and  Danthonia  spicata.     The 


occurrence  of  boreal  types  like  SaUx  Can- 
dida, Lobelia  Halmii,  Cniciis  muticus,  Oen- 
tiana  crinita. 

The  Chemical  Constituents  of  a  Soil  as 
Affecting  Plant  Distribution:  S.  M. 
Tracy. 

The  author  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that 
the  distribution  of  plants  is  often  attrib- 
uted wholly  to  the  physical  and  mechan- 
ical condition  of  the  soil,  though  in  many 
cases  the  chemical  constituents  of  the  soil 
are  equally  potent. 

Vegetation  of  the  North  Shore  of  Lake 

Michigan:  C.  MacMili^an. 

A  brief  sketch  of  the  characteristic  shore 
and  forest  vegetation  of  the  North  Shore. 
The  strong  resemblance  of  this  to  the 
mountain  vegetation  of  British  Columbia 
was  pointed  out.  Not  only  does  the  re- 
semblance appear  in  the  many  northern 
species,  but  more  particularly  in  the  gen- 
eral association  of  plants  and  the  relative 
preponderance  of  generic  types. 

Zones  of  Vegetation  About  the  Margin  of 

a  Lake:  W.  J.  Beal. 

About  a  mile  and  a  half  northwest  of 
Lansing,  Mich.,  is  a  natural  pond  which 
goes  by  the  name  of  Jones'  Lake  with  an 
outlet  at  the  west.  The  lake  is  nearly  cir- 
cular in  outline  and  about  forty  rods  in 
diameter.  There  is  a  slight  extension  both 
to  the  north  and  to  the  south.  The  bottom 
and  the  shaky  margins  all  around  consist 
uniformly  of  dark  mud,  ooze  or  muck. 
The  lake  contains  a  few  species  of  fish, 
such  as  sunfish,  blue  gills  and  spotted  bass. 
From  the  soft  banks  within  two  to  three 
rods,  the  bottom  uniformly  descends  rap- 
idly to  deep  water.  I  examined  the  mar- 
gins of  this  lake  on  August  23,  1903.  Be- 
ginning with  the  deep  water  this  is  the 
order  of  the  bands  of  some  of  the  leading 


Jakuabt  20,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


171 


kinds  of  plants:  (1)  Potamogetons,  not 
yet  in  fruit,  prominent  among  which  was 
Potamogeian  amphifolius  Tuckerman, 
which  formed  an  nnhroken  band  about  the 
margin  of  the  lake.  (2)  In  most  pl<aces  a 
narrow  strip  of  some  species  of  Char  a.  (3) 
Cast  alia  tuherosa  (Paine)  Greene,  and 
NymphcBa  advena  Soland,  usually  mixed, 
but  sometimes  only  one  or  the  other, 
formed  a  band  ten  to  thirty  feet  in  width, 
and  this  band  was  rarely  broken,  and  then 
only  for  a  space  of  ten  to  thirty  feet.  (4) 
In  many  places  were  narrow  patches  of 
Pontederia  cordata  L.,  but  scarcely  ever  in 
long  strips.  (5)  Typha  latifolia  L.,  with 
very  rarely  an  exception  of  a  few  feet, 
formed  a  band  from  five  to  twenty  feet  in 
width.  (6^  Sedges  in  variety  with  some 
species  of  rushes  and  grasses,  and  others  of 
like  needs  formed  an  uninterrupted  band. 
(7)  Several  species  of  Salix,  or  some  one  or 
two,  surrounded  the  lake  completely.  (8) 
A  band  of  Larix  laridna  (Du  Roy)  Koch 
was  unbroken  excepting  for  a  few  rods  on 
the  north,  where  it  may  have  been  formerly 
cut  away  next  to  a  cleared  farm.  As  the 
condition  of  the  margins  of  the  lake  and 
surroimding  it  are  so  nearly  uniform,  we 
have  reason  to  expect  the  zones  of  vegeta- 
tion will  be  little  if  at  all  interrupted.  As 
the  descent  of  the  bottom  from  the  flat 
margins  of  the  lake  to  the  deep  water  are 
so  rapid,  there  is  only  room  for  narrow 
zones  of  vegetation.  Beyond  the  eighth 
zone  (of  Larix)  in  two  places  for  a  quar- 
ter of  the  circumference  the  slope  rises 
rapidly  to  dry  arable  land,  while  in  the 
remaining  three  fourths  there  are  many 
kinds  of  aquatic  and  lowland  plants.  In 
all  his  travels,  the  author  never  remem- 
bers to  have  seen  a  place  where  so  many 
zones  of  plants  were  so  well  marked  for 
80  long  a  distance  as  were  found  at  Jones' 
Lake. 


The  Oenus  Harpochytrium,  its  Develop^ 
ment,  Synonymy  and  Distribution:  Q. 
F.  Atkinson. 

Describes  the  genus  Harpochytrium,  its 
structure,  formation  of  sporangia  and 
spores;  the  movement  of  the  spores  and 
attachment  to  host.  Also  discusses  the 
synonymy  as  weU  as  the  distribution  of  the 
genus  in  diflferent  parts  of  the  world. 

The   Phylogeny    of   the   Lichens:   F.    B. 

Clements. 

(1)  A  general  consideration  of  the  un- 
derlying principles  of  polyphylesis ;  (2)  a 
detailed  discussion  of  the  points  of  con- 
tact of  fungi  and  lichens;  (3)  the  treat- 
ment and  classification  of  lichens  as  para- 
sitic fungi. 

The  Necessity  for  Reform  in  the  Nomenr 
clature  of  the  Fungi:  F.  S.  Eablb. 
Cites  the  conflicting  usages  in  Engler 
and  Prantl  's '  Pflanzenf  amilien '  and  in  Sac- 
cardo's  *Sylloge  Fungorum'  to  show  that 
there  is  no  unanimity  in  the  use  of 
genus  names  for  fungi  at  the  present  time. 
Shows  from  unpublished  data  in  regard  to 
the  types  of  the  earlier  genera  that  in 
forty-five  per  cent,  of  these  oases  the  ear- 
liest available  name  is  not  used  by  Sac- 
cardo.  Shows  that  this  process  of  shifting 
generic  names  from  one  group  of  species 
to  another  is  still  in  progress  and  urges 
that  immediate  steps  be  taken  to  put  a 
final  stop  to  the  practice. 

Taxonomic  Value  of  the  Spermogonium: 

J.  C.  Arthtjb. 

The  physiological  significance  of  the 
spermogoniimi  is  yet  unknown.  It  had 
been  tentatively  assumed  to  be  associated 
with  sexual  reproduction  as  the  male  struc- 
ture. It  has  been  known  for  more  than 
fifty  years,  and  it  still  bears  the  name 
given  by  the  discoverer,  Tulasne,  but  its 
sexual    character    is    still    problematical. 


172 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


The  numerous  forms  of  spores  among  the 
Uredineae  are  shown  to  belong  to  two 
classes,  the  teleutospores,  which  are  doubt- 
less of  a  sexual  character,  and  conidia,  the 
latter  being  either  sscidia  or  uredo.  These 
follow  in  an  invariable  order.  The  sper- 
mogonium  always  appears  in  the  life  cycle 
as  the  first  fruiting  structure.  If  the  first 
subsequent  spore  structure  is  the  uredo, 
there  is  no  aecidium  in  the  cycle;  if  it  is 
in  the  teleutospore,  there  is  neither  ©cid- 
ium  nor  uredo.  The  presence  and  associa- 
tion of  the  spermogonia,  therefore,  furnish 
important  information  regarding  the  ex- 
tent of  the  life  cycle.  The  characters 
drawn  from  form,  size  and  origin  of  the 
spermogonia  furnish  minor  characters. 
The  spermogonia,  as  well  as  any  or  all  of 
the  conidia,  may  be  suppressed  in  certain 
species. 

Proof  of  the  Identity  of  Phoma  and  Phyl- 
losticta  on  the  Sugar  Beet:  George  G. 
Hedgcock. 

This  paper  gives  the  results  of  a  cul- 
tural study  of  Phoma  betm  and  Phyllos- 
ticta  tdbifica  in  which  two  fungi  are  shown 
to  be  identical,  both  causing  a  similar  rot 
of  the  root  of  the  sugar  beet,  and  pro- 
ducing upon  inoculation  upon  the  leaves 
the  typical  Phyllosticta  leaf  spots.  The 
cultural  characters  of  the  two  fungi  are 
identical. 

Craterellus  taxophilus,  A  New  Species  of 

Thelephoracece :  C.   Thom. 

A  delicate  fleshy  Craterellus  found  at 
Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  is  described  and  figured  as 
new.  Photographs,  specimens  and  draw- 
ings of  structure  are  presented,  and  show 
it  to  differ  from  previously  described  spe- 
cies. Its  association  with  Taxus,  which 
seems  very  close,  is  made  the  basis  of  the 
specific  name.  The  technical  description 
of  the  species  as  Craterellus  taxophUus  is 
added. 


The  Fungi  Cultivated  by  Texas  Ants:  A. 

M.  Ferguson. 

The  fungi  found  in  the  so-called  'mush- 
room gardens 'of  certain  fungus-eating  ants 
occurring  in  central  and  southern  Texas 
{Atta  fervens  Say,  A.  septentrionaUs  Mc- 
Cook,  A.  turrifex  Wheeler  and  Atta  n.  sp. 
Wheeler)'  consist  of  a  white  slow-grow- 
ing mycelium  with  characteristic  clusters 
of  terminal  swellings,  the  *Kohlrabihauf- 
chen'  of  Moller,  which  are  eaten  by  the 
ants.  While  no  kind  of  spore  formation 
was  found,  it  is  probably  the  same  as  the 
form  described  by  Moller  from  the  gardens 
of  Brazilian  Attas.  The  fungus  grows 
slowly  in  culture,  but  was  often  more  vig- 
orous than  in  the  garden  under  the  control 
of  the  ants.  The  formation  of  the  charac- 
teristic  swellings  seemed  to  be  governed  by 
local  conditions  (probably  controlled  in 
the  garden  by  the  ants),  for  in  cultures,  on 
beans,  for  example,  they  would  be  formed 
in  abundance  in  some  tubes  and  not  at  all 
in  others.  Efforts  to  feed  one  species  with 
the  fungus  grown  in  the  garden  of 
another,  or  from  cultures,  gave  erratic  re- 
sults, rarely  succeeding,  and  then  only 
after  prolonged  starving.  Some  observa- 
tions of  Moller  bearing  on  the  systematic 
position  of  the  fungus  were  unconfirmed. 
A  Dematium-like  fungus  proved  to  be  the 
organism  cultivated  in  the  nests  of  Cypho- 
myrmex  rimosus.  This  ant  was  sup- 
posedly carnivorous  until  its  fungus-feed- 
ing habit  was  observed  by  Dr.  W.  M. 
Wheeler.  In  this  case  caterpillar  pellets 
are  used  exclusively  by  the  ants  for  a  me- 
dium upon  which  to  grow  the  fungus. 

Symbiosis  in  Lolium:  E.  M.  Freeman. 

In  a  previous  paper  I  have  described  the 
unique  year-cycle  of  the  fungus  symbiont 
of  Lolium  temulentum  and  other  species 
of  Lolium,  Further  experiments  support 
the  theory  that  the  fungus  does  not  form 
spores.     There  are  two  races  -each,  of  L. 


J 


Jasuabt  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


173 


temvlentum,  L.  perenne  and  £.  linicola, 
one  with  and  one  without  the  fungus  sym- 
biont.  Of  these  the  with-fungus  race  is 
the  slightly  more  vigorous.  Present 
knowledge  points  to  the  probability  that 
the  fungus  is  an  Vstilagene,  which  has  lost 
its  power  of  spore  formation,  and  has 
adopted  a  method  of  intraseminal  mycelial 
infection  at  the  first  appearance  of  the 
stem  growing  point.  Infection  of  without- 
fungus  plants  seems  impossible,  as  is  also 
the  elimination  of  the  fungus  from  the 
with-fungus  plants. 

Mitotic  Division  of  the  Nuclei  in  the  Cyan- 

ophycece:  Edgar  W.  Olive. 

The  'central  body'  in  the  Cyanophyceae 
is  a  nucleus,  not  essentially  different  from 
the  nuclei  of  higher  plants.  When  condi- 
tions for  growth  are  favorable,  the  vegeta- 
tive cells  divide  with  unparalleled  rapidity, 
so  that  their  nuclei  are  rarely  in  a  state  of 
rest.  Consequently  during  this  period  of 
mitotic  division  a  nuclear  membrane  is  not 
present.  In  spores  and  heterocysts,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  nuclei  form  nuclear  mem- 
branes and  they  resemble,  furthermore,  in 
other  respects  the  resting  nuclei  of  the 
higher  plants.  When  in  division,  the  'cen- 
tral body'  is  made  up,  for  the  most  part, 
of  a  more  or  less  dense  kinoplasmic  achro- 
matic substance,  which  corresponds  to  the 
spindle,  and  which  is  composed  both  of 
mantle  fibers,  attached  to  the  partition 
walls  of  the  cell,  and  of  connecting  fibers. 
The  chromosomes,  which  can  be  success- 
fully demonstrated  only  by  careful  differ- 
entiation of  stained  material,  are  very 
minute,  and  are  usually  sixteen  in  num- 
ber. In  the  large  species  Oscillatoria  prin- 
ceps  and  0.  Froehlichii,  however,  there  are 
thirty-two,  while  in  Nostoc  commune  and 
in  Gleocapsa  polydermatica  there  are  but 
eight  chromosomes.  In  Gleocapsa  the 
plane  of  division  of  the  chromosomes  is 
exceptional,  in  that  it  takes  place  at  right 


angles  to  the  resulting  plane  of  division  of 
the  cell.  In  all  the  other  forms  studied, 
embracing  five  genera,  the  plane  of  divi- 
sion of  the  chromosomes  is  normal,  being 
parallel  to  the  resulting  plane  of  division 
of  the  cell.  In  the  filamentous  forms  di- 
vision of  the  cells  takes  place  with  wave- 
like regularity;  and  in  all  cases  studied, 
with  the  exception  of  Gleocapsa,  division 
of  the  cell  is  accomplished  by  the  growing 
in  from  the  peripheral  wall  of  a  ring- 
formed  wall.  In  Oscillatoria  several  ring- 
shaped  walls,  in  different  stages  of  growth, 
may  be  present  at  the  same  time  in  the 
same  cell,  long  before  the  one  first  formed 
has  completely  divided  the  cell.  Two 
kinds  of  granular  inclusions,  which  are 
characteristic  of  the  Cyanophyceae,  the 
cyanophycin  granules  and  the  slime  glob- 
ules, or  'central  granules,'  are  usually 
present  in  the  cytoplasm.  The  peripheral 
position  of  the  cytoplasm  is  generally  dif- 
ferentiated into  a  denser,  fibrous  region— 
the  chromatophore— which  contains  the 
diffused  green  and  blue  coloring  matters. 
No  evidence  whatever  was  found  of  the 
presence  of  minute  globular  chloroplasts, 
such  as  several  investigators  say  are  pres- 
ent in  certain  forms.  In  this  investigation 
the  conclusion  was  reached  that  the  cell 
organization  of  these  low  plants  can  not 
be  successfully  studied  except  in  thin  sec- 
tions, cut  longitudinally  as  well  as  cross- 
wise. 

Chemical  Stimulation  of  Algce:  E.  B.  Liv- 
ingston. 

The  study  was  carried  on  with  the  poly- 
morphic form  of  Stigeoclonium  previously 
worked  with  by  the  same  author.     In  the 
previous  work  it  was  shown  that  with  rela- 
tively high  osmotic  pressure  of  the  medium 
the  alga  produces  only  spherical  cells,   a 
Palmella  or  Pleurococcus  form.    With  low 
osmotic  pressure  it  grows  out  with  long 
branching  filaments.  Zoospores  are  formed. 


174 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


only  with  low  osmotic  pressure  and  they 
germinate  to  form  filaments.  If  filaments 
are  placed  in  a  medium  of  high  pressure 
they  break  up  into  round  cells  or  form 
groups  of  round  cells.  When  the  solution 
of  low  osmotic  pressure  has  added  to  it  a 
trace  of  such  a  poison  as  nitric  or  sulfuric 
acid,  copper  sulphate,  silver  nitrate,  etc., 
the  alga  takes  the  Palmella  form  as  though 
the  pressure  were  high.  If  the  poison  is 
still  more  dilute  there  is  a  stimulation  of 
zoospore  production,  though  the  zoospores 
are  checked  in  germination.  Nitrates  and 
sulphates  were  used  and  it  appears  that 
the  poison  kations  have  the  effect  of  pro- 
ducing the  Palmella  form  in  a  solution 
whose  osmotic  pressure  is  far  too  low  to 
bring  about  this  result.  The  kations  so  far 
studied  are:  H,  Li,  Rb,  NH^,  Cu,  Ag,  Al 
and  Pe.  All  of  these  also  produce  stimula- 
tion of  zoospore  production  when  in 
weaker  solution,  and  to  the  list  may  be 
added  Ba  and  Sr. 

The  Differentiation  of  the  Strohilus:  F.  B. 

Clements. 

(1)  A  brief  consideration  of  the  anti- 
thetic evolution  of  the  sporophyte  from 
Tetraspora  to  Anthoceros;  (2)  a  discus- 
sion of  the  probable  origin  of  Selaginella 
and  Isoetes;  (3)  the  derivation  of  the  stro- 
bilus  of  Pinus,  Myosurus  and  Alisma  from 
Selaginella;  (4)  the  general  ecological 
principles  involved  in  the  modification  of 
the  strobilus;  (5)  the  essentials  of  the 
phylogenetic  method. 

The  Histology  of  Insect  Oalls:  M.  T.  Cook. 
The  function  of  the  gall  is  to  furnish 
nutrition  and  protection  for  the  larva. 
The  simplest  galls  only  show  two  zones, 
the  inner  nutritive  and  the  outer  pro- 
tective. The  most  highly  developed  galls 
show  four  zones,  the  second  and  third 
often  separated ;  the  innermost  zone  is  nu- 
tritive and  the  other  protective.  When 
the  gall  first  forms  it  is  a  mass  of  irregular 


parenchyma  cells,  which  sopn  lt>ecoipe  dit  ^ 
f erentiated  into  the  zones.  In  the  simplest 
galls,  where  we  have  only  two  zones,  the 
inner  nutritive  zone  is  rich  in  protoplasm, 
starch,  etc.,  until  the  insect  is  near  ma- 
turity, while  the  other  zone  forms  tannin. 
In  the  most  highly  developed  galls,  tannin 
is  also  developed  in  abundance.  The  in- 
nermost zone  is  very  rich  in  nutrition,  the 
remaining  three  zones  are  protective.  The 
separation  of  the  second  and  third  zone  is 
undoubtedly  a  protective  device.  The 
shape  of  the  gall  and  its  complexity  are 
probably  due  to  efforts  for  protection 
against  parasites  and  birds. 

Morphology    of    Caryophyllaceoi:    M.    T. 

Cook. 

Some  time  since  the  writer  published  a 
short  paper  on  Agrostemma  Githago  L.  and 
Claytonia  Virginica  L.  Among  the  most 
interesting  points  in  these  papers  was  the 
formation  of  the  peculiar  beak  to  the  ovule 
and  the  two  zones  of  the  nucellus  in  A. 
Githago,  The  writer  has  since  (continued 
the  study  upon  two  species  of  the  Caryo- 
phyllaceaB  for  the  purpose  of  demonstrat- 
ing the  importance,  if  any,  of  the  morphol- 
ogy of  the  embryo  sac  and  surrounding 
structure  in  taxonomy.  The  two  species 
selected  for  study  were  Vaccaria  Vaccaria 
(L.)  Britton  and  Alsine  pubera  (Michx.) 
Britton.  In  both  cases  a  beak  is  formed 
similar  to  A.  Githago  and  the  embryo  fol- 
lows a  similar  line  of  development,  but  the 
sac  enlarges  in  the  same  manner  and  di- 
rection as  in  C.  Virginica.  Other  points 
are  as  yet  not  definitely  determined. 

The  Phylogeny  and  Development  of  the 
Archegonium  of  Mnium  cuspidatum:  G. 

M.  HOLFERTY. 

After  brief  statements  in  regard  to  the 
collection  and  method  of  treatment  of  ma- 
terial, and  the  terminology  to  be  used,  the 
author  reviews  the  more  important  litera- 


January  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


175 


ture  on  tiie  aevelopment  of  the  moss  arche- 
gonium  from  1851  to  the  present.  A  sum- 
mary of  this  literature  shows  considerable 
divergence  in  the  opinions  and  interpreta- 
tions of  the  several  investigators.  The 
crux  of  discussion  has  been  in  respect  to 
the  origin  of  the  members  of  the  axial  row, 
but  particularly  whether  the  terminal  cell 
(cover  cell  of  liverworts)  adds  to  the  row 
after  its  first  division.  The  discovery  of 
a  mitotic  figure  in  this  cell  after  one  cell 
had  been  cut  off  enables  the  writer  to  de- 
cide this  question  affirmatively.  In  a  sec- 
ond part  of  the  paper,  the  author  demon- 
strates the  homology  of  archegonia  and 
antheridia  from  the  standpoint  of  (a) 
homology  of  the  organs  as  indicated  in 
early  stages  of  development;  (6)  homology 
of  the  egg  and  other  members  of  the  axial 
row;  (c)  the  homology  of  the  members  of 
the  axial  row  and  sperm  mother  cells. 
From  certain  bisexual  organs,  and  from 
abnormal  or  slightly  modified  forms  of 
both  archegonia  and  antheridia,  the  au- 
thor is  able  to  offer  support  to  recent 
views  as  to  the  phylogeny  of  the  archego- 
nium  and  to  throw  light  upon  the  meaning 
of  abnormal  forms,  and  particularly  to 
groups  of  cells  at  the  apexes  of  certain 
archegonia  for  which  up  to  the  present  no 
adequate  interpretation  has  been  sug- 
gested. 

The  Enzyme-secreting  Cells  in  the  Seed- 
lings of  Zea  Mais  and  Phc&nix  dactyl- 
ifera:  Howard  S.  Reed. 
During  the  process  of  germination,  the 
above-named  seedlings  produce  an  enzyme 
for  the  solution  of  endosperm.     The  en- 
zyme   is    secreted    from    a    differentiated 
layer  of  cells.    These  cells  show  continuous 
morphological  changes  during  the  time  the 
enzyme  is  being  secreted.    When  secretion 
begins  the  cells  of  the  secreting  layer  are 
full  of  the  fine  proteid  granules,  which  are 
thought  to  be  zymogen,  because,  as  secre- 


tion progresses,  they  constantly  disappear. 
In  the  early  stages  of  secretion  the  nuclei 
of  the  secreting  cells  of  Zea  Mais  are 
found  in  the  basal  end  of  the  cell;  in  the 
later  stages  they  are  in  the  apical  end 
next  the  endosperm  layers.  As  secretion 
progresses,  there  is  a  continuous  increase 
in  the  amount  of  chromatin  in  the  nuclei 
of  the  secreting  cells.  At  the  same  time 
the  nucleoli  decrease  in  size  and  staining 
properties.  At  the  end  of  the  process 
the  protoplasm  of  the  secreting  cells 
breaks  down  and  the  products  of  disinte- 
gration disappear  from  sight. 

Discoid  Pith  in  Woody  Plants:  F.  W.  Fox- 

WORTHY. 

Discoid  Pith:  Any  pith  which  is  inter- 
rupted at  frequent  and  tolerably  regular 
intervals  by  transverse  partitions  dividing 
the  pith  up  into  a  series  of  chambers. 
These  partitions,  disks,  diaphragms,  plates 
or  lamellae,  as  they  are  variously  called, 
may  be  composed  either  of  thick- walled  or 
of  thin- walled  cells,  and  the  spaces  between 
the  disks  mfty  be  empty  or  filled  with  cel- 
lular tissue.  Thus,  M.  Gris  classifies  discoid 
pith  as:  (1)  Heterogeneous  continuous 
diaphragmatic,  when  the  pith  is  contin- 
uous between  the  disks,  and  (2)  heteroge- 
neous discontinuous  diaphragmatic,  when 
the  pith  is  not  continuous  between  the 
disks,  but  the  interspaces  filled  with  air. 
The  first  type  of  pith  is  found  in  lArioden- 
dron,  Magnolia  species,  Asimina,  Nyssa, 
etc.,  and  the  cells  forming  the  disks  are 
very  thick-walled  and  heavily  lignified, 
while  the  ceUs  forming  the  interspaces  are 
small,  very  thin-walled  and  empty.  The 
second  type  is  found  in  Juglans,  Ptero- 
carya,  Celtis,  Halesia,  Forsythia  viridis- 
sima,  Jasminum  species,  Paulownia,  etc., 
and  the  cells  forming  the  disks  are  thin- 
walled,  empty  and  often  shrunken.  Dis- 
coid pith  seems  to  be  of  taxonomic  impor- 
tance   for    generic    distinctions    in    some 


176 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  474. 


cases;  though  the  characters  it  furnishes 
may  be  of  only  specific  rank,  as  in  For- 
sythia  and  Jasminum. 

A  Plea  for  the  Preservation  of  Our  Wild 
Flowers:  C.  E.  Bessey  and  S.  Coulter. 
Cultivated  flowers  are  planted  and  cared 
for  by  man,  but  no  one  cares  for  the  wild 
beauties  of  the  woods  and  meadow.  We 
must  preserve  them.  It  is  our  privilege 
as  lovers  of  plants  to  care  for  them  and  to 
see  that  they  are  not  exterminated.  The 
rarer  the  plant  the  greater  the  danger  that 
it  will  be  eradicated.  Who  are  the  offend- 
ers? The  tourists,  who  lay  their  vandal 
hands  on  everything  pretty;  the  amateurs, 
who  desire  to  have  samples  of  everything; 
and  some  botanists  who  think  more  of  col- 
lecting specimens  than  of  the  beauties  of 
nature  in  the  field.  At  Colorado  Springs 
the  once  beautiful  Cheyenne  Canyon  has 
been  made  barren  by  the  vandals,  and 
there  is  scarcely  a  fern  or  a  pretty  flower 
now  left  in  it.  What  shall  we  do  about  it  ? 
First  of  all  let  us  talk  vigorously  against 
this  vandalism.  Talk  in  season  and  out  of 
season,  and  denounce  the  wholesale  de- 
struction of  wild  flowers  in  the  strongest 
language  possible.  Then  write  against 
vandalism.  Do  not  fail  to  say  what  you 
think  through  the  public  press.  The  news- 
papers will  help  you  every  time  if  you 
call  upon  them.  Then  organize  clubs  and 
guilds  and  societies.  Do  this  as  you  please. 
If  you  prefer  to  form  a  local  chapter  of  the 
Wild  Flower  Preservation  Society  well 
and  good.  We  shall  take  great  pleasure  in 
helping  you.  But  if  you  prefer  to  form 
an  independent  club— do  so  by  all  means. 
It  is  not  how  you  do  it ;  it  is  only  that  you 
do  something.  Agitate  the  matter  persist- 
ently and  vigorously,  and  keep  at  it.  In 
this  way,  only,  may  we  hope  to  save  our 
attractive  wild  flowers  from  extinction. 

Type  of  the  Genus  Agrostis:  A.  S.  Hitch- 
cock. 


In  view  of  the  fact  that  stable  generic 
nomenclature  depends  upon  the  method  of 
fixing  the  type  of  each  genus,  investigations 
concerning  the  effect  of  various  rules  upon 
•different  genera  must  be  carefully  worked 
out.  For  this  reason  the  history  of  the 
grass  genus  Agrostis  is  presented.  The 
effect  of  the  application  of  different  rules 
will  be  shown. 

The  Morphology  of  Elodea  Canadensis:  R. 

B.  Wyme. 

The  pistillate  flower  is  strongly  epigy- 
nous,  the  fused  parts  of  the  flower  forming 
a  long  floral  tube  which  extends  from  the 
sessile  ovary  to  the  surface  of  the  water. 
The  stamens  each  bear  two  sporangia  and 
the  staminate  flowers  at  maturity  break 
loose  from  the  stem  and  rise  to  the  surface 
of  the  water.  The  rise  of  these  flowers  is 
aided  by  bubbles  of  oxygen.  Though  the 
pollen  grains  are  heavier  than  water,  the 
multitudes  of  spines  on  the  exine  hold  back 
the  surface  film,  thus  imprisoning  enough 
air  to  keep  the  spores  afloat.  The  male 
cells,  which  are  formed  in  the  pollen 
grains,  are  very  large,  and  during  their 
continuance  in  the  spores  remain  joined 
together.  The  pistillate  flower  opens  upon 
reaching  the  surface  of  the  water  and  the 
stigmas  soon  recurve,  arching  out  over  the 
floral  parts.  Since  the  stigmas  are  im- 
pervious to  water,  the  weight  of  the  flower 
resting  on  them  forms  a  depression  in  the 
surface  fllm.  Pollen  grains  floating  near 
are  now  attracted  to  the  flower  by  gravity, 
operating  through  the  declined  surface 
film.  They  approach  and  drop  into  this 
depression  in  contact  with  the  stigmas.  In 
the  development  of  the  embryo-sac,  four 
megaspores  are  usually  formed,  though  six 
were  noted  in  one  instance.  The  embryo- 
sac  at  the  two-celled  stage  develops  an 
antipodal  pouch,  in  which  the  antipodal 
group  of  nuclei  is  formed.  The  pollen 
tube   shows  a  marked   development.     Its 


Ja^iuart  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


1 


177 


course  is  down  the  floral  tube,  thence  di- 
rectly through  the  ovarian  cavity  to  the 
upturned  micropyles  of  the  ovules.  The 
pollen  tubes  that  have  failed  to  enter 
ovules  often  swell  up  at  their  tips  into 
tuber-like  enlargements,  which  may  be 
fifteen  times  the  normal  diameter  of  the 
tube.  In  these  tubers  which  lie  am(  ng  the 
ovules,  the  male  elements  can  be  made  out, 
each  distinctly  a  cell,  rather  than  a  nucleus 
only.  About  each  male  nucleus,  which 
usually  shows  a  nucleolus,  is  an  ample  cy- 
toplasm bounded  by  a  membrane.  The 
functioning  pollen  tubes  pass  through  the 
micropyle  and  seem  to  enter  one  of  the 
synergids.  Numerous  preparations  showed 
one  sperm  in  contact  with  the  egg  nucleus, 
and  in  several  instances  the  second  sperm 
M^as  found  fusing  with  the  endosperm  nu- 
cleus. The  egg  regularly  divides  before 
the  primary  endosperm  nucleus.  The 
functioning  pollen  tubes  persist  for  a  long 
time,  sometimes  until  the  embryo  is  well 
developed. 

Prothallia  of  Botrychium  ohliquum:  H.  L. 

Lyon. 

During  the  summer  of  1903  gameto- 
phjrtes  of  Botrychium  ohliquum  were  col- 
lected in  considerable  numbers  in  Minne- 
sota. In  shape  they  resemble  those  of  B. 
Virginianum  but  average  only  about  one 
third  the  size  of  the  latter.  The  repro- 
ductive organs  are  borne  dorsally  and  do 
not  differ  essentially  from  those  of  other 
Ophioglossaceas  described.  The  embryo 
sporophyte  is  bipolar  instead  of  tripolar 
as  in  B,  Virginianum,  the  stem  growing 
directly  upward  and  the  root  directly 
downward  through  the  prothallium.  There 
is  no  pronounced  nursing-organ.  All  the 
superficial  cells  of  that  portion  of  the  em- 
bryo lying  within  the  tissue  of  the  gameto- 
phyte  apparently  act  as  absorbent  cells. 
The  primary  root  usually  protrudes  1  to  3 


cm.  from  the  prothallium  before  the  first 
leaf  bursts  through  the  calyptra. 

The  Life  History  of  Ephedra  trifurca:  W. 

J.  G.  Land. 

Material  for  a  morphological  study  of 
Ephedra  trifurca  was  obtained  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  Mesilla,  N.  M.  Collections  were 
made  at  regular  intervals  between  Decem- 
ber 20,  1902,  and  May  20,  1903.  The  pri- 
mordium  which  gives  rise  to  the  staminate 
flowers  was  apparent  in  the  first  material 
collected.  The  perianth  appeared  a  month 
later.  The  primary  wall  cell  divides  to 
form  two  layers,  the  wall  cell  and  the  tape- 
tum.  The  microspore  mother  cells  remain 
in  the  resting  condition  about  one  month. 
The  reduction  division  occurs  about  March 
15.  The  gametophyte  number  of  chromo- 
somes is  twelve.  The  male  gametophyte 
at  the  time  of  the  shedding  of  the  pollen 
grain  consists  of  two  prothallial  cells,  tube 
nucleus,  stalk  cell  and  body  cell.  The  body 
cell  divides  shortly  before  fertilization 
occurs.  The  ovule  has  two  integuments: 
an  outer  one  resulting  from  the  fusion  of 
four  bracts,  the  inner  one  from  the  fusion 
of  two  bracts.  The  megaspore  mother  cell 
appears  about  March  8.  Sometimes  two  or 
three  megaspore  mother  cells  are  present, 
but  only  one  megaspore  functions.  As  the 
result  of  the  division  of  the  megaspore 
mother  cell  a  row  of  four  or  sometimes 
three  megaspores  is  formed,  the  lowest 
one  being  of  course  functional.  The  di- 
vision of  the  megaspore  is  followed  by  free 
nuclear  division  and  parietal  placing.  At 
least  256  nuclei  are  formed  before  walla 
appear.  One,  two  or  three  archegonia  are 
formed,  and  the  central  cell  is  placed  . 
deeply  in  the  tissues  of  the  gametophyte. 
The  ventral  nucleus  is  cut  off  shortly  be- 
fore fertilization,  which  occurred  the  pres- 
ent year  about  April  20.  The  oospore 
forms  from  two  to  eight  free  nuclei,  each 
one  of  which  organizes  a  wall  and  gives 


178 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.   No.  474. 


rise  to  an  embryo.  The  normal  number  of 
free  nuclei  is  in  general  four.  The  single 
suspensors  are  very  long  and  thrust  the 
embryos  deeply  into  the  endosperm.  Only 
one  of  the  embryos  develops. 

The  Effect  of  Chemical  Irritation  upon  the 
Respiration  of  Fungi:  Ada  Watteeson. 
These  experiments  concerning  the  ef- 
fect of  chemical  irritation  upon  the  res- 
piration of  fungi  were  carried  on  with  the 
Kunstmann  and  with  the  Pettenkofer 
forms  of  apparatus.  The  fungi  used  were 
Sterigmatocystis  nigra  and  PenicUlium 
glaucum,  and  the  irritants  were  ZnSO^, 
FeSO^  and  LiCl.  The  results  go  to  show 
that  although  the  economic  coefficient  of 
the  sugar  is  increased,  yet  the  CO2  re- 
spired by  the  fungus  remains  proportion- 
ally the  same. 

The    Dehiscence    of   Anthers    by    Apical 

Pores:  J.  A.  Harris. 

The  author  presents  a  systematically  ar- 
ranged descriptive  list  of  all  genera  in 
which  the  dehiscence  of  the  anthers  is  by 
apical  pores,  and  makes  a  series  of  com- 
parisons of  the  floral  structure  of  these 
forms  with  other  members  of  the  same 
family,  showing  the  modifications  in  not 
only  the  stamens,  but  the  other  floral  parts 
as  well,  upon  the  assumption  of  the  apically 
dehiscent  habit.  The  forms  are  divided 
into  groups  or  'types'  on  structural 
grounds  and  the  ecological  relations  of 
these  considered.  While  the  types  as  a 
whole  are  not  sharply  limited,  a  pro- 
nounced similarity  of  form  in  the  corre- 
sponding parts  of  the  different  genera  is 
observable  even  when  these  belong  to  sys- 
tematic groups  differing  widely  in  floral 
habit.  For  some  of  these  types  the  geo- 
graphical distribution  of  the  genera  and 
species  has  a  similarity  which  does  not 
seem  to  depend  on  systematic  relation- 
ships.    The  only  explanation  which  seems 


possible  is  that  jqf.  the  soujipwl|at  w4l^r 
distribution  of  the  Apidae,  upon  which 
their  structure  indicates  they  are  largely 
dependent  for  pollination. 

Francis  E.  Lloyd, 
Secretary. 

OEOGRAPHY  IN  THE  UNITED  BTATEB,     II. 

It  has  been  maintained  that  one  of  the 
embarrassments  from  which  geography 
suffers  is  the  incoherence  of  the  many 
things  that  are  involved  in  its  broad  rela- 
tionships. This  is  not  really  a  serious  em- 
barrassment, and  so  far  as  it  is  an  embar- 
rassment at  all  it  is  not  peculiar  to  geog- 
raphy. It  is  not  a  serious  embarrassment, 
because  when  any  element  of  geography  is 
treated  in  view  of  the  relations  into  which 
it  enters,  it  becomes  reasonably  interesting 
to  all  who  are  concerned  with  scientific 
geography.  The  embarrassment  is  not  pe- 
culiar to  geography,  for  it  is  found  in  aU 
other  studies;  in  history,  for  example, 
where  an  essay  by  a  specialist  on  the  mod- 
em history  of  South  America  is  not  likely 
to  excite  an  enthusiastic  interest  in  the 
mind  of  the  student  of  classic  times  in 
Greece,  or  in  the  mind  of  the  student  of 
medieval  church  history  in  Germany;  the 
embarrassment  is  known  also  in  geology, 
where  the  student  of  the  petrography  of 
the  southern  Appalachians,  or  of  the  pa- 
leontology of  the  Trias  in  California,  may 
care  little  for  a  paper  by  a  colleague  on 
the  glaciation  of  the  Tian  Shan  Mountains 
in  Turkestan.  Yet,  however  unlike  these 
various  topics  in  history  or  in  geology  may 
be,  they  are  welcomed,  if  well  treated,  by 
all  the  members  of  the  expert  society  or  by 
all  the  readers  of  the  special  journal  in 
which  they,  are  presented,  because  they  so 
manifestly  make  for  progress  in  the  science 
to  which  they  belong.  Geographers  need 
not,  therefore,  be  embarrassed  on  finding 
discussions  of  magnetic  declination  as  af- 
fecting the  navigation  of  the  antarctic  re- 


J 


January  20,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


179 


gioss,  of'  the  relations  of  climate  and 
religion  among  the  Hopi  amerinds,  and 
of  the  facilities  for  irrigation  peculiar  to 
aggrading  fluviatile  plains,  all  in  one  jour- 
nal ;  this  diversity  of  topics  only  illustrates 
the  great  richness  of  geography,  and  thus 
likens  it  to  history  and  geology. 

Let  me  consider  next  the  advantages 
that  will  come  to  geography  from  the  sys- 
tematic collection  and  classification  of  all 
the  facts  pertinent  to  it.  The  popular  idea 
of  geographical  research  is  fulfilled  when 
an  explorer  discovers  a  new  mountain  or  a 
new  island;  but  discovery  is  not  enough. 
The  thing  discovered  must  be  carefully  de- 
scribed in  view  of  all  that  is  known  of  sim- 
ilar things,  and  the  relation  into  which  the 
thing  enters  must  be  sought  and  analyzed. 
Careful  work  of  this  nature  involves  the 
development  of  systematic  geography,  in 
which  all  items  of  a  kind  are  brought 
together,  and  all  kinds  of  items  are  ar- 
ranged according  to  some  serviceable 
scheme  of  classification.  Geographers  are 
far  behind  zoologists  and  botanists  in  this 
respect,  for  there  is  to-day  no  comprehen- 
sive scheme  of  geographical  classification 
in  general  use.  Existing  schemes  are  too 
generally  empirical  and  incomplete.  So 
important  a  group  of  land  forms  as  moun- 
tains has  never  yet  been  thoroughly  treated 
in  a  physiographic  sense,  while  the  organic 
responses  to  inorganic  controls  are  as  a 
rule  not  classified  by  geographers  at  all; 
yet  a  comprehensive  scheme  of  classifica- 
tion should  certainly  provide  systematic 
places  for  the  organic  responses  as  care- 
fully as  for  inorganic  controls.  In  the  ab- 
sence of  a  generally  accepted  scheme  of 
classification,  it  is  natural  that  items  of  one 
kind  and  another  should  be  neglected  in 
text-books  and  elsewhere;  for  it  is  well 
known  that  incompleteness  of  treatment 
goes  with  unsystematic  methods.  So  sim- 
ple and  manifest  a  response  to  the  glob- 
ular form  of  the  earth  as  is  afforded  by  a 


wide  extent  of  modem  commerce  is  seldom 
mentioned  in  connection  with  its  cori?r6l. 
The  many  importaut  and  interesting  re- 
sponses to  the  eternal  and  omnipresent 
force  of  gravity  are  not  habitually  treated 
as  geographical  topics  at  all;  nor  is  the 
definition  of  boundaries  in  terms  of  me- 
ridians and  parallels  usually  recognized  as 
a  response  that  civilized  nations  now  habit- 
ually make  to  the  form  and  rotation  of  the 
earth,  when  they  have  occasion  to  divide 
new  territory  in  advance  of  surveys  and 
settlement.  Yet  surely  all  these  responses 
to  environment  deserve  systematic  mention 
when  the  earth  is  described  as  a  rotating, 
gravitating  globe,  just  as  the  location  of 
villages  and  the  growth  of  cities  at  some 
point  of  advantage  to  their  inhabitants 
deserve  mention  in  the  pages  given  up  to 
geography  of  the  more  conventional  kind. 
The  development  of  a  well-tested  scheme 
of  systematic  geography  may,  therefore, 
be  urged  upon  every  geographer  as  a  prob- 
lem well  worthy  of  his  attention.  A  prac- 
tical step  toward  the  construction  of  such 
a  scheme  is  evidently  the  accumulation  of 
items  that  call  for  classification ;  therefore, 
let  the  geographer  study  the  world  about 
him :  and  a  most  effectual  aid  in  the  accu- 
mulation of  items  is  found  in  searching  for 
the  organic  response  to  every  inorganic 
control,  and  for  the  inorganic  control  of 
every  organic  response  that  comes  to  one's 
attention;  therefore,  let  the  geographer 
think  carefully  as  he  looks  about  him  over 
the  world.  It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that 
the  explorer  who  goes  abroad  or  the  stu- 
dent who  stays  at  home  will  make  better 
progress  in  his  investigations  in  propor- 
tion to  the  completeness  of  the  systematic 
scheme  with  respect  to  which  he  con- 
sciously carries  on  his  work.  I  would, 
therefore,  urge  the  development  of  the 
habits  of  always  associating  causes  with 
their  consequences  and  consequences  with 
their  causes,  and  of  always  referring  both 


180 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


causes  and  consequences  to  the  classes  in 
whicli  they  belong.  If  to  these  two  habits 
we  add  a  third,  namely,  that  of  making  a 
careful  arrangement  of  the  classes  in  a 
reasonable  and  serviceable  order,  we  shall 
have  taken  three  important  steps  in  geo- 
graphical progress,  and,  as  a  result,  geog- 
raphy will  flourish. 

There  is  no  device  by  which  the  work  of 
the  specialist  is  so  helpfully  relieved  of  its 
narrowing  influence  as  by  the  simple  de- 
vice of  looking  always  for  the  general  geo- 
graphical relations  of  any  special  topic. 
The  specialist  in  the  geographical  study  of 
ocean  currents,  of  caverns  or  of  deltas,  of 
forests,  of  trade  routes  or  of  cities,  should 
not  lessen  his  attention  to  his  chosen  line 
of  work,  but  he  should,  often  to  his  great 
advantage,  increase  his  attention  to  the 
place  that  his  chosen  subject  holds  in  the 
whole  content  of  geography.  Not  only  will 
his  work  be  broadened  in  this  way,  but 
both  he  and  his  work  will  be  brought  into 
closer  relations  with  the  whole  body  of 
geographers  and  the  whole  content  of  geog- 
raphy, and  the  possibility  of  organizing  a 
society  of  mature  geographical  experts  will 
be  thereby  greatly  increased.  If  the  geo- 
graphical relations  of  a  special  topic  are 
not  looked  for,  the  specialist  fails  to  that 
extent  of  becoming  a  geographer.  The  cli- 
matologist  who  studies  the  physical  condi- 
tions of  the  atmosphere  for  their  own  sake, 
the  oceanographer  who  makes  no  applica- 
tion of  the  physical  features  of  the  ocean 
as  controls  of  organic  consequences,  the 
geomorphist  who  is  satisfied  with  the  study 
of  land  forms  as  a  finality,  the  student  of 
the  location  of  cities  and  the  boundaries 
of  states  who  makes  no  search  for  the  ex- 
planation of  his  facts  as  affected  by  physi- 
ographic controls— these  specialists  may 
all  be  eminent  in  their  own  lines,  but  they 
fall  short  of  being  geographers.  In  the 
same  way  it  might  be  shown  that  a  petrog- 
rapher  who  makes  no  study  of  field  rela- 


tions and  discovers  no  results  of  processes 
and  no  sequences  in  time,  fails  of  being  a 
geologist,  for  geology  deals  essentially  with 
processes  and  structures  in  time  sequence; 
likewise  a  chronologist  who  is  satisfied  with 
mere  dates  of  occurrence  fails  of  being  a 
historian,  for  history  involves  the  meaning 
as  well  as  the  mere  sequence  of  human 
events.  There  is,  of  course,  no  blame  to 
be  attached  to  interest  in  specialization,  no 
praise  to  an  interest  in  larger  relations; 
it  is  merely  a  matter  of  fact  that  the  iso- 
lated specialist  remains  somewhat  to  one 
side  of  the  larger  sciences  with  which  he 
might  become  associated.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  geographer  is  not  necessarily  so 
broad-minded  that  he  must  be  shallow;  he 
may  specialize  deeply  on  the  climatologic, 
ooeanographic,  geomorphic,  topographic, 
organic  divisions  of  his  subject;  but  if  he 
wishes  to  be  considered  a  geographer  he 
should  cultivate  all  the  geographic  rela- 
tions into  which  the  facts  of  his  chosen 
division  enters,  and  he  will  find  that  it  is 
largely  through  these  relations  that  he  as- 
sociates himself  profitably  with  other  geog- 
raphers. 

Two  of  the  most  beneficial  results  of  the 
systematic  study  of  geography  are  the 
great  increase  in  the  number  of  classes  or 
types  with  which  the  geographer  becomes 
familiar,  and  the  great  improvement  in  the 
definition  of  these  types.  This  is  partic- 
ularly the  case  with  those  types  which  con- 
tain many  individual  examples,  such  as 
rivers  and  cities,  and  which  are,  therefore, 
capable  of  division  into  many  headings. 
So  long  as  the  geographer  deals  only  with 
things  in  an  empirical  fashion,  he  may  be 
satisfied  with  a  rough  classification;  as 
soon  as  he  begins  to  treat  his  problems 
more  carefully,  his  classification  becomes 
more  refined  and  he  has  relatively  more 
to  do  with  classes  of  things  than  with  the 
things  themselves.  The  things  are  actual, 
the  classes  are  ideal,  and  therein  lies  one 


Januaby  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


181 


of  thie  greatest  values  of  systematic  geog- 
raphy; it  enforces  attention  upon  the 
idealized  type ;  by  means  of  this  increased 
attention  the  type  is  more  fully  conceived, 
and  both  observation  and  description  of 
actual  things  are  greatly  aided.  Let  me 
illustrate. 

The  breezes  that  descend  from  mountain 
valleys  at  night  are  well  known  and  well 
understood  phenomena.  As  a  result,  one 
may  form  a  well-defined  conception  of  such 
a  breeze— a  type  mountain  breeze— im- 
agining its  gradual  beginning,  its  increase 
in  strength  with  its  extension  in  area,  and 
its  gradual  extinction;  all  its  phases  of 
waxing  and  waning  being  duly  related  to 
the  passing  hours  of  the  night  and  to  the 
associated  changes  of  temperature.  It  is 
safe  to  say  that  no  actual  mountain  breeze 
is  as  well  known  by  direct  observation  of 
all  its  parts  and  stages  as  is  the  type 
breeze,  in  which  all  pertinent  ob&ervations 
are  properly  generalized,  and  in  which  the 
deficiencies  of  observation  are  supple- 
mented as  far  as  possible  by  inferences 
deduced  from  well-established  physical 
laws.  It  is  entirely  possible  that  there  may 
be  some  errors  in  the  deduced  elements  of 
the  ideal  type-breeze,  but  it  may  be  confi- 
dently asserted  that  the  errors  will  be  re- 
placed by  the  truth  through  the  methods 
involved  in  observing,  imagining  and 
checking,  guided  by  the  conception  of  the 
type,  sooner  than  the  truth  will  be  discov- 
ered by  blind  observation  unguided  by  the 
aid  that  a  well-defined  type  affords. 

It  is  the  same  with  an  alluvial  fan;  an 
element  of  land  form  that  has,  by  the  way, 
more  similarity  to  a  mountain  breeze  than 
appears  on  first  thought.  Observation 
shows  only  the  existing  stage  of  the  surface 
of  a  fan;  the  fully  developed  type-fan  in- 
cludes the  structure  as  well  as  the  surface, 
the  process  and  the  progress  of  formation, 
extended  into  the  future  as  well  as  brought, 
forward  from  the  past.    There  can  be  no 


question  that  the  explorer  who  is  equipped 
with  a  clear  conception  of  a  type-fan  can 
do  jnuch  better  work  in  observing  and  de- 
scribing the  fans  that  he  may  find  than 
will  be  done  by  an  explorer  who  thinks 
he  can  dispense  with  all  idealized  types, 
and  who  proposes  simply  to  describe  what 
he  sees.  The  shortcomings  of  the  simple 
observational  method  would  be  less  if  it 
were  not  so  difficult  to  see  what  one  looks 
at  and  to  record  what  one  sees;  but  any 
one  who  has  had  experience  in  field  studies 
knows  how  far  short  seeing  may  be  of  look- 
ing, and  how  far  short  recording  may  be  of 
seeing.  The  best  results  in  geographical 
investigation  can  only  be  obtained  when 
every  legitimate  aid  to  observation  and 
description  is  summoned;  and  of  all  aids, 
that  furnished  by  carefully  considered 
types,  reasonably  classified,  is  the  greatest. 
When  large  and  complicated  features,  such 
as  valley  systems  or  cuestag,  are  to  be  de- 
scribed, the  need  of  types  is  vastly  in- 
creased. Hence  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant and  practical  suggestions  that  can  be 
made  toward  the  maturing  of  geographical 
science  is  to  cultivate  the  geographical 
imagination  in  the  direction  of  acquiring 
familiarity  with  a  large,  systematic  series 
of  well-defined  ideal  types.  As  progress  is 
made  in  this  direction  there  will  be  profita- 
ble advance  from  that  narrow  conception 
of  geography  which  is  based  on  the  school- 
day  study  of  names,  locations  and  bounda- 
ries—the only  conception  of  geography 
that  many  mature  persons  in  this  country 
possess— to  a  wider  conception  in  which 
everything  studied  is  considered  as  an  ex- 
ample of  a  kind  of  things,  so  that  it  shall 
appeal  to  the  reasonable  understanding 
rather  than  to  the  empirical  memory. 
Progress  of  this  sort  is  already  apparent 
in  the  schools,  but  it  has  not  yet  reached  a 
desirable  measure  of  advance. 

One  of  the  best  results  that  follow  from 
the  systematic  recognition  of  a  large  num- 


182 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


bar  of  .well-defined  4ypes  i/rill  be  the  nat- 
ural development  of  an  adequate  geo- 
graphical terminology.  When  review,  is 
made  of  modem  geographical  articles  it  is 
curious  and  significant  to  find  only  a  small 
addition  to  the  school-boy  list  of  technical 
terms.  This  is  not  true  of  any  subject  that 
is  cultivated  in  the  universities  as  well  as 
in  the  schools.  It  is  a  reproach  to  geog- 
raphy that  the  results  of  mature  observa- 
tion are  so  generally  described  in  the  inade- 
quate terms  of  immature  study;  this  re- 
proach will  have  the  less  ground  the  more 
thoroughly  systematic  geography  is  stud- 
ied. With  the  development  of  more  ma- 
ture methods  of  description  there  may 
come  a  larger  share  of  attention  to  the 
thing  described,  and  thus  a  relative  de- 
crease of  attention  to  matters  of  merely 
personal  narrative.  I  do  not  wish  to  lessen 
the  number  of  entertaining  books  of  travel 
which  now  fill  many  of  the  shelves  in  libra- 
ries called  geographical,  but  it  would  be  a 
great  satisfaction  to  see  the  standard  works 
of  geographical  libraries  given  a  more  ob- 
jective quality,  so  that  they  might  compare 
favorably  with  the  standard  works  of  geo- 
logical or  botanical  libraries,  in  which  the 
element  of  personal  narrative  is  reduced  to 
its  properly  subordinate  place. 

Another  step  of  equal  importance  with 
the  establishment  of  geographical  types  is 
the  change  from  the  empirical  to  the  ex- 
planatory or  rational  or  genetic  method  of 
treating  the  elemental  facts  that  enter  into 
geographical  relationships.  The  rational 
method  has  long  been  pursued  in  regard  to 
the  facts  of  the  atmosphere  and  the  ocean ; 
it  is  coming  to  be  adopted  for  facts  con- 
cerning the  lands;  and  since  the  adoption 
of  an  evolutionary  philosophy,  the  evolu- 
tionary explanation  of  the  organic  items  of 
geography  may  replace  the  teleological 
treatment  that  obtained  in  Ritter's  time. 
It  is,  however,  very  seldom  the  case  that 
geographers    adopt    the    rational    method 


con8ei0itisly  and 'fully;  heno€f  special' Atten- 
tion to  this  phase  of  the  theoretical  side  of 
geography  may  be  strongly  urged.  It  may 
be  noted  in  this  connection  that  the  appli- 
cation of  the  explanatory  method  has  been 
so  lately  made  to  the  treatment  of  land 
forms  that  the  geographer  may  for  the 
present  make  himself  to  his  advantage 
something  of  a  specialist  in  this  branch  of 
the  subject.  It  should  be  added  that,  so 
long  as  he  studies  land  forms  in  order  bet- 
ter to  understand  the  environment  in 
which  living  things  find  themselves,  he  re- 
mains a  geographer  and  does  not  become  a 
geologist.  There  is  a  needless  confusion  in 
this  matter,  which  may,  perhaps,  be  les- 
sened if  its  untangling  be  illustrated  by 
the  following  geological  comparison. 

For  some  decades  past  a  new  method  of 
treatment  has  been  applied  to  the  study  of 
rocks,  greatly  to  the  advantage  of  geolo- 
gists. The  method  requires  a  good  knowl- 
edge of  inorganic  chemistry  and  of  optical 
physics,  and  the  geologists  who  have  spe- 
cialized in  the  study  of  rocks  have  had  to 
make  themselves  experts  in  these  phases  of 
physics  and  chemistry;  but  they  are  not 
for  that  reason  classified  as  physicists  or 
chemists.  They  remain  geologists,  though 
sometimes  taking  the  special  title  of  pe- 
trographer.  So  with  the  geographer  who 
specializes  in  the  study  of  land  forms;  he 
must  make  himself  familiar  with  certain 
phases  of  geology,  but  he  does  not,  there- 
fore, become  a  geologist;  he  remains  a 
geographer.  His  object  is  not  to  discover 
for  their  own  sake  the  past  stages  through 
which  existing  land  forms  have  been  devel- 
oped; he  studies  past  forms  only  in  order 
to  extend  his  knowledge  of  systematic)  phys- 
iography and  thus  to  increase  his  appre- 
ciation of  existing  forms.  As  far  as  he 
studies  the  sequence  of  past  forms  he  is 
studying  a  phase  of  geology,  just  as  the 
geologist  who  examines  existing  arrange- 
ments of  climate,  of  oceanic  circulation,  or 


Januabt  20,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


183 


ofi  tondvlprma,  is  studying  a  phase  of 
physiography.  The  two  sciences  are  mani- 
festly related,  but  they  need  not  be  con- 
fused. For,  as  has  been  shown  for  sciences 
in  general,  geology  and  geography  are  best 
characterized  by  the  relations  in  which 
their  topics  are  studied,  and  not  by  the 
topics  themselves.  Both  are  concerned 
with  the  earth  and  life.  The  whole  content 
of  knowledge  concerning  the  earth  and  life 
might  be  shown  by  a  cube,  in  which  ver- 
tical lines  represented  the  passage  of  time, 
and  horizontal  planes  represented  phe- 
nomena considered  in  their  areal  exten- 
sion; then  if  the  whole  mass  of  the  cube 
were  conceived  as  made  up  of  vertical  lines, 
that  would  suggest  the  geological  concep- 
tion of  the  whole  problem;  while  if  the 
cube  were  made  up  of  horizontal  planes, 
that  would  suggest  its  geographical  aspect ; 
and  the  whole  series  of  paleogeographies, 
horizontaUy  stratified  with  respect  to  the 
vertical  time  line,  would  culminate  in  the 
geography  of  to-day. 

Objection  is  sometimes  made  to  the  plan 
of  geography,  as  here  set  forth,  that  it  in- 
volves hypotheses  and  theories,  instead  of 
being  content  with  matters  of  fact,  as  the 
advocates  of  a  more  conservative  method 
in  geography  suppose  themselves  to  be. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  geographical  inves- 
tigation of  the  kind  here  exposed  does  in- 
volve abundant  theorizing,  but  that  is  one 
of  its  chief  merits,  for  therein  it  adopts 
the  methods  of  all  inductive  sciences. 
Furthermore,  as  between  the  progressive 
geographer,  who  candidly  recognizes  that 
he  must  theorize,  and  the  conserva- 
tive geographer,  who  thinks  that  he 
observes  facts  only  and  lets  theories  alone, 
the  chief  difference  is  not  that  the  first 
one  theorizes  and  the  second  does  not, 
but  that  the  first  one  knows  when  he  is 
theorizing  and  takes  care  to  separate  his 
facts  and  his  inferences,  to  theorize  log- 
ically,  to  evaluate  his  results,   while  the 


jsecoftd  one  1 1  theorizes  j  uneonsciously  jand. 
hence  uncritically,  and,  therefore,  fails  to 
separate  his  inferences  sharply  from  his 
facts,  and  gives  little  attention  to  the  eval- 
uation of  his  results.  Geography  has,  in- 
deed, suffered  so  long  and  so  seriously 
from  the  failure  of  geographers  to  culti- 
vate the  habit  of  theorizing  as  critically  as 
the  habit  of  observing— studies  of  the  at- 
mosphere and  the  ocean  still  excepted,  as 
above— that  a  strong  recommendation 
must  be  given  to  the  acquisition  of  the 
methods  of  theoretical  investigation,  in 
which  deduction  is  an  essential  part,  by 
every  one  who  proposes  to  call  himself  a 
scientific  geographer.  Let  me  give  an  ex- 
ample of  the  loss  of  time  that  has  resulted 
from  the  failure  of  geographers  to  develop 
the  habit  of  theorizing. 

For  forty  years  past  there  has  been  ac- 
tive discussion  as  to  how  far  land  forms 
in  glaciated  regions  had  been  shaped  by 
glacial  erosion,  but  not  till  within  five 
years  has  any  geographer  clearly  defined 
the  deductive  side  of  this  problem.  In  or- 
der to  determine  whether  land  forms  are 
carved  by  glacial  erosion  or  not,  two  meth- 
ods have  been  open:  one  is  to  observe  the 
action  of  existing  glaciers  and  thus  deter- 
mine whether  they  are  competent  or  not 
to  carve  land  forms;  but  this  is  diflBcult, 
because  the  beds  on  which  glaciers  lie  can 
not  be  well  examined.  The  other  method  is 
to  deduce  the  appropriate  consequences  of 
both  the  aflSrmative  and  the  negative  sup- 
positions, and  then  to  confront  these  con- 
sequences with  the  facts  found  in  regions 
once  glaciated,  and  see  which  set  of  con- 
sequences is  best  supported.  This  deduct- 
ive method  is  very  simple.  Its  application 
involves  no  principle  that  was  not  per- 
fectly well  known  fifty  years  ago,  though  it 
does  involve  a  facility  in  theorizing  that 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  familiar  or 
habitual  with  geographers  until  more  re- 
cent times.     On  the  supposition  that  gla- 


184 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


ciers  do  not  erode,  the  valley  systems  of 
once  glaciated  mountains  ought  not  to  ex- 
hibit any  significant  peculiarity  of  form, 
but  should  correspond  to  the  normal 
stream-worn  valley  systems  of  non-gla- 
ciated mountains.  On  the  supposition  that 
glaciers  do  erode,  the  valley  systems  of 
once  glaciated  mountains  should  exhibit 
the  highly  specialized  feature  of  a  discord- 
ant junction  of  branch  and  trunk ;  for  the 
channels  eroded  by  a  small  branch  glacier 
and  by  a  large  trunk  glacier  must  stand 
at  discordant  levels  at  their  junction,  just 
as  the  channels  of  a  small  stream  and  a 
large  river  do,  though  the  measure  of  dis- 
cordance is  much  greater  in  the  channels 
of  the  clumsy,  slow-moving  ice-streams 
than  in  the  channels  of  the  nimble,  quick- 
moving  water-streams.  There  can  be  no 
question  that  these  well-specialized  conse- 
quences, deduced  from  the  postulate  that 
glaciers  can  erode  their  channels,  are  much 
more  accordant  with  the  actual  features  of 
valley  systems  in  once  glaciated  mountains 
than  are  the  consequences  deduced  from 
the  opposite  postulate;  but  my  reason  for 
introducing  this  problem  here  is  not  to 
call  attention  to  the  value  of  *  hanging 
valleys  '  in  evidence  of  glacial  erosion,  as 
first  clearly  set  forth  by  Gannett  in  1893 
in  his  account  of  Lake  Chelan,  but  rather 
to  point  out  how  slow  geographers  have 
been  to  employ  the  deductive  method  in 
solving  this  long-vexed  problem.  The 
moral  of  this  is  that  geographers  as  well  as 
geologists,  physicists,  astronomers,  ought  to 
have  good  training  in  scientific  methods  of 
investigation,  in  which  all  their  faculties 
are  employed  in  striving  to  reach  the  goal 
of  full  understanding,  instead  of  depend- 
ing so  largely  on  the  single  faculty  of  ob- 
servation. 

Some  may,  however,  object  that  the 
problem  of  glacial  erosion,  just  touched 
upon,  belongs  exclusively  to  geology,  and 
not  at   all   to  geography.     It  belongs   to 


both ;  its  association  will  be  determined  by 
its  application,  as  the  following  considera- 
tions will  show.  The  accumulation  of 
sand-dunes  by  wind  action,  the  abrasion 
of  sea-coasts  by  waves,  the  erosion  of 
gorges  by  streams,  the  construction  of  vol- 
canoes by  eruptions  now  in  progress,  man- 
ifestly belong  in  the  study  of  physical 
geography,  in  close  association  with  the 
blowing  of  the  winds,  the  rolling  of  the 
waves,  the  flowing  of  streams,  and  the  out- 
bursting  of  lavas  and  gases.  Both  the 
agent  and  the  result  of  its  action  are  ele- 
ments of  the  environment  by  which  life  is 
conditioned.  Similarly,  the  grass-covered 
dunes  of  Hungary,  the  elevated  sea-cliffs 
of  Scotland,  the  abandoned  gorges  of  cen- 
tral New  York,  and  the  quiescent  volcanoes 
of  central  France,  are  all  elements  of  land 
forms  and  are  all  treated  as  geographical 
topics  and  explained  by  reference  to  their 
extinct  causes  in  the  modern  rational 
method  of  geographical  study.  Likewise 
the  discordant  valley  systems  of  glaciated 
mountains  are  proper  subjects  for  explan- 
atory treatment  in  the  study  of  geography, 
although  the  glacier  systems  that  eroded 
them  are  extinct ;  they  deserve  explanatory 
treatment  in  geography  just  as  fully  as  do 
the  accordant  valley  systems  of  non-gla- 
ciated mountains.  It  is  true  that  discus- 
sion as  to  whether  certain  sculptured  land 
forms  are  due  to  glacial  erosion  is  likely 
to  continue  more  or  less  actively  through 
the  present  decade ;  but  when  this  problem 
is  as  well  settled  as  the  problem  of  stream 
erosion  has  already  been,  the  geographer 
will  be  content  with  the  simplest  statement 
of  the  evidence  that  is  essential  to  the  con- 
clusion reached;  and  the  explanatory  de- 
scriptions of  land  forms  will  include  due 
reference  to  forms  of  glacial  origin,  just  as 
much  as  a  matter  of  course  as  they  now  in- 
clude reference  to  forms  of  marine  or  of 
subaerial  origin.  Forms  of  glacial  sculp- 
ture will  be  given  as  assured  a  place  in 


January  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


185 


geograpbieal  study  as  forms  of  glacial  dep- 
osition are  already  given.  Neither  the 
thing  studied,  nor  the  agent  by  which  it 
was  produced,  nor  the  method  by  which 
the  agent  is  shown  to  be  accountable  for 
the  thing,  suffices  to  show  whether  the  thing 
is  of  a  geological  or  a  geographical  nature. 
This  question  will  be  decided,  as  has 
already  been  shown,  by  the  relations  into 
which  the  thing  enters.  It  would  .be  as 
unreasonable  to  omit  all  reference  to  gla- 
cial erosion  in  a  geographical  description 
of  Norway  as  to  omit  all  reference  to  sub- 
aerial  erosion  in  a  geographical  account  of 
our  Atlantic  coastal  plain. 

Nowhere  is  the  cultivation  of  systematic 
geography  more  helpful  than  in  the  study 
of  local  or  regional  geography.  The  truth 
of  this  may  be  appreciated  by  considering 
the  case  of  botany.  No  botanist  would  at- 
tempt to  describe  the  flora  of  one  of  our 
states  until  he  had  obtained  a  good  knowl- 
edge of  systematic  botany  in  general. 
Such  knowledge  would  help  him  at  every 
turn  in  his  study  of  a  local  flora,  not  only 
in  describing  the  plants  that  he  might  find, 
and  in  arranging  the  descriptions  in  a  serv- 
iceable order,  but  also  in  finding  the 
plants  themselves.  I  believe  that  a  closely 
equivalent  statement  might  be  made  with 
regard  to  the  geography  of  a  state;  and 
yet  there  is  not,  to  my  knowledge,  a  single 
work  on  regional  geography  in  which  a 
recognized  scheme  of  systematic  geography 
has  been  avowedly  followed  as  a  guide  for 
the  treatment  of  local  features.  The  adop- 
tion of  such  a  guide  would  lead  to  various 
advantages;  on  announcing  that  a  certain 
scheme  of  systematic  geography  has  been 
chosen  as  a  standard,  the  writer  of  a  re- 
gional work  thereby  gives  notice  in  the 
simplest  manner  to  the  reader  as  to  the 
kind  and  amount  of  knowledge  necessary 
to  understand  the  work  in  hand;  descrip- 
tions are  made  at  once  briefer  and  more 
intelligible  than  by  phrasing  them  in  terms 


of  a  scheme  that  is  elsewhere  stated  in  full ; 
relative  completeness  of  treatment  is  as- 
sured, for  with  a  systematic  list  of  all 
kinds  of  geographical  relations  at  hand, 
the  writer  is  not  likely  to  overlook  any 
element  of  the  subject  that  occurs  within 
his  chosen  region;  the  reader  can  easily 
find  any  desired  topic,  not  only  by  means 
of  the  table  of  contents  and  index,  but  also 
by  means  of  the  standard  scheme  of  classi- 
fication in  accordance  with  which  all  ele- 
ments are  arranged;  and  finally,  books  on 
different  regions  will  come  to  exhibit  a 
desirable  uniformity  of  treatment  when 
they  are  based  on  a  common  scheme  of  sys- 
tematic geography.  Although  no  books  of 
this  kind  now  exist,  I  do  not  think  it  over- 
venturesome  to  say  that  some  such  books 
will  soon  exist,  and  that  they  will  form 
very  serviceable  contributions  to  the  litera- 
ture of  our  subject. 

The  various  recommendations  that  I 
have  made  are  likely  to  remain  in  the  air, 
or  at  most  to  secure  response  only  from 
isolated  individual  students,  unless  those 
who  believe  that  the  adoption  of  these  rec- 
ommendations would  promote  the  scien- 
tific study  of  geography  are  willing  to  give 
something  of  their  time  and  thought 
toward  organizing  a  society  of  geograph- 
ical experts— an  American  geographers' 
union.  From  such  a  union  I  am  sure  that 
geography  would  gain  strength,  but  it  is 
not  yet  at  all  clear  in  my  mind  that  any 
significant  number  of  persons  would  care 
to  accept  the  strict  conditions  or  organiza- 
tion which  appears  to  me  essential  for  the 
success  of  such  an  enterprise.  The  most 
important  of  the  conditions  are  as  follows : 

1.  The  adoption  of  some  definition  for 
geography  that  shall  sufficiently  indicate 
the  boundaries  as  well  as  the  content  of 
this  broad  subject. 

2.  The  limitation  of  membership  to  per- 
sons with  whom  geography  as  thus  defined 
is  a  first  or  at  least  a  second  interest,  and 


186 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  6.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


by:')WiK)m.more  than,  one  g^ograpliieal  ar-ii 
tide  of  advanced  grade,  based  on  original 
observation  and  study,  has  been  published. 

3.  The  independence  of  the  union  thus 
constituted  of  all  other  geographical  so- 
cieties. 

Although  we  can  not  adduce  any  exist- 
ing geographical  society  in  this  country  as 
a  witness  competent  to  prove  that  geog- 
raphy has  suflScient  unity  and  coherence 
to  tempt  geographers  to  form  such  a  union 
as  is  here  contemplated,  a  careful  review 
of  the  problem  convinces  me  that  a  suffi- 
cient unity  and  coherence  really  exist  in 
the  science  as  I  have  treated  it;  and  I, 
therefore,  believe  that  the  formation  of  an 
American  geographers'  union  is  feasible  as 
well  as  desirable. 

It  has  been  my  object  in  this  address  to 
describe  briefly  the  status  of  mature  geog- 
raphy in  our  country,  and  to  suggest  sev- 
eral steps  that  might  be  taken  for  its  im- 
provement. Certain  branches  of  the  sub- 
ject have  reached  a  high  development,  but 
the  subject  as  a  whole  does  not  thrive  with 
us.  The  reason  for  its  relative  failure  is 
not,  I  believe,  to  be  found  in  the  very 
varied  nature  of  its  different  parts,  but 
rather  in  the  failure  to  place  sufficient  em- 
phasis on  those  relationships  by  which, 
more  than  by  anything  else,  geography  is 
to  be  distinguished  from  other  sciences, 
and  by  which,  more  than  by  anything  else, 
geographers  may  come  to  be  united. 
Among  the  great  number  of  persons- 
many  thousands  in  all — whose  attention  is 
given  primarily  to  subjects  that  are  closely 
related  to  geography  as  here  defined,  there 
must  certainly  be  many— probably  several 
hundred— with  whom  mature  geography  is 
a  first  interest.  It  is  upon  these  persons, 
geographers  by  first  intention,  that  the 
future  development  of  sound  and  thorough, 
mature  and  scientific,  geography  among  us 
primarily  depends.  To  these  geographers, 
in  particular,  I  would  urge  the  importance 


of  developing  the -qn^tematie  ai^^ts-of  th^' 
science,  and  of  constantly  associating  the 
special  branch  that  they  cultivate  with  the 
subject  as  a  whole.  Observation  will  not 
suffice  for  the  full  development  of  geog- 
raphy ;  critical  methods  of  investigation,  in 
which  deduction  has  a  large  place,  must  be 
employed;  for  only  by  the  aid  of  careful 
theorizing  can  an  understanding  of  many 
parts  of  the  subject  be  gained.  With  the 
progress  of  systematic  geography  we  may 
expect  to  see  a  parallel  progress  of  local 
or  regional  geography.  As  the  science  is 
thus  developed,  societies  of  mature  geo- 
graphical experts  will  be  formed,  and  sci- 
entific geography  will  thrive ;  but  whether 
thus  developed  into  a  thriving  science  or 
not,  I  hope  that  another  long  term  of  years 
may  not  pass  without  a  representative  of 
geography  in  this  vice-presidential  chair. 

W.  M.  Davis. 

Habvard  University. 


KARL   ALFRED    VON    ZITTEL.     , 

In  the  death  of  Karl  Alfred  von  Zittel 
paleontology  has  lost  one  of  its  most  dis- 
tinguished advocates.  Although  a  German 
by  birth,  Professor  von  Zittel  belonged  to 
every  country,  and  through  his  remarkable 
work  *Handbuch  der  Palaeontologie'  his 
influence  extended  everywhere.  It  is  prob- 
ably not  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  he 
did  more  for  the  promotion  and  diffusion 
of  paleontology  than  any  other  single  man 
who  lived  during  the  nineteenth  century. 
While  not  gifted  with  genius,  he  possessed 
extraordinary  judgment,  critical  capacity 
and  untiring  industry. 

The  first  volume  of  his  great  work  bears 
the  date  1876-1880,  covering  the  extinct 
Protozoa,  Coelenterata,  Echinodermata  and 
Molluscoidea ;  the  second  volume,  covering 
the  MoUusca  and  Arthropoda,  bears  the 
date  1881-1885;  the  third  volume,  begin- 
ning the  Yertebrata,  was  issued  between 
1887  and  1890,  and  covers  the  Pisces,  Am- 


Januabt  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


187 


pluil>i{%  ^BeptUia  ^md  A*\^es?;'the  fouirtb  vol-' 
uine,  issued  between  1891-1893,  is  devoted 
to  the  fossil  mammalia.  Under  his  editor- 
ship appeared  also  the  second  part  of  the 
great  'Handbuch/  including  the  'Palseo- 
phytologie'  begun  by  Schimper  and  con- 
tinued and  concluded  by  Schenk,  and  is- 
sued in  1890. 

These  volumes,  which  together  number 
4,315  pages,  are  richly  illustrated  and  ad- 
mirably indexed,  and  constitute  a  veritable 
encyclopedia  of  paleontology. 

Immediately  after  the  completion  of  this 
work  the  author  began  the  preparation  of  a 
condensed  treatise  upon  the  whole  subject, 
entitled  'Grundziige  der  Palaeontologie,.' 
which  was  issued  in  1895,  consisting  of  950 
pages.  A  second  revised  edition  has  just 
appeared  (1903). 

We  mention  this  monumental  work  first, 
because  it  was  chiefly  through  this  that  the 
influence  of  von  Zittel  was  exerted.  The 
prodigious  progress  of  paleontology  in  the 
nineteenth  century  was  scattered  through 
thousands  of  monographs  and  special 
papers,  a  hopeless  labyrinth  to  the  student, 
and  an  extremely  diflScult  field  even  to  the 
expert  investigator;  it  had  ceased  to  be 
possible  to  gain  a  perspective  view  of  the 
whole  subject,  not  to  speak  of  the  diflBculty 
of  mastering  the  details.  With  remarkable 
clearness  and  fullness,  with  impartial 
justice  to  workers  in  every  country,  with 
especially  warm  appreciation  of  the  work 
done  in  America,  von  Zittel  devoted  him- 
self for  twenty  years  to  this  great  task.  I 
had  the  privilege  of  studying  with  him  in 
Munich  while  he  was  engaged  on  the  volume 
on  the  manmialia,  and  I  was  greatly  struck 
with  his  extremely  effective  and  compre- 
hensive methods  of  work,  which  he  carried 
on  while  giving  a  full  and  delightful  course 
of  lectures  on  the  same  subject. 

This,  however,  was  only  one  form  in 
which  von  Zittel's  influence  was  exerted. 
He  established  a  great  historical  collection 


inr  the  Alte.  Akddemie  of  Munich^  ih  ^Hrich 
he  gathered  from  all  parts  of  the  world 
collections  illustrating  the  evolution  of 
plants  and  of  invertebrate  and  vertebrate 
animals.  Here  are  to  be  found  not  only 
fossils  from  all  parts  of  Germany,  but  rare 
collections  from  Pikermi  and  Samos,  from 
the  French  Tertiaries,  especially  the  phos- 
phorites, from  North  America,  including 
especially  a  remarkable  collection  of  Cre- 
taceous fossils  made  for  him  by  Charles  H. 
Sternberg,  as  well  as  a  valuable  collection 
of  Permian  fossils  made  by  Dr.  Broili,  Mr. 
Sternberg  and  others.  In  addition  to  these 
there  are  remarkably  fine  specimens  secured 
by  exchange  and  purchase  from  the  Ter- 
tiaries of  North  America,  from  the  Oligo- 
cene.  The  same  clear  judgment  which  was 
displayed  in  the  *Pal«ontologie'  is  evi- 
denced in  the  arrangement  of  this  vast 
collection,  so  that  nowhere  else  in  the  world 
can  a  student  follow  with  equal  ease  the 
whole  story  of  the  evolution  of  life. 

It  is  small  wonder  that  Munich  became 
the  Mecca  of  paleontologists,  young  and 
old.  Professor  von  Zittel  had  an  excep- 
tionally charming  and  magnetic  personal- 
ity. His  face  was  full  of  keen  intelligence 
and  enthusiasm.  He  took  the  deepest  in- 
terest in  the  original  researches  of  young 
men  who  came  to  him  from  various  parts 
of  the  world,  and  was  unusually  generous 
in  placing  in  their  hands  much  of  his  rarest 
material;  in  fact,  the  memoirs  which  were 
published  under  his  supervision  far  out- 
number those  which  he  was  able  to  publish 
himself,  because  of  his  long-continued  de- 
votion to  his  preparation  of  the  'Hand- 
buch.'  He  occupied  a  position  in  paleon- 
tology similar  to  that  occupied  by  the 
lamented  Gegenbaur  in  comparative  an- 
atomy. Among  his  pupils  may  be  num- 
bered, with  a  few  exceptions,  all  the 
younger  American,  most  of  the  German, 
and  many  of  the  younger  French  and 
Austrian  paleontologists.     All  bear  him  in 


188 


SCIENCE. 


[X.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


most  grateful  remembrance  and  will  sadly 
mourn  his  loss. 

The  following  details  of  his  life  are 
taken  from  one  of  the  newspaper  notices 
of  his  death.  He  was  a  son  of  Karl  Zittel, 
the  leader  of  the  Clerical  Liberals  in  Baden, 
and  was  born  at  Bahlingen,  near  Freiburg, 
on  September  25,  1839.  He  studied  at 
Heidelberg,  Paris  and  Vienna.  After 
serving  as  assistant  in  the  Hofmineralien- 
Kabinet  in  Vienna,  he  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  mineralogy  at  Karlsruhe,  and  in 
1866  he  assumed  the  same  professorship 
in  Munich,  where  he  also  became  director 
of  the  Paleontological  Staatsmuseum.  The 
great  scientific  value  of  the  Rohlf  expedi- 
tion to  the  Libyan  desert  in  1873-74  was 
owing  chiefly  to  his  participation  in  it. 
He  wrote  a  book  on  the  expedition ;  another 
on  the  Sahara,  and  many  treatises  on  geo- 
logical and  paleontological  subjects.  In 
1899  he  published  his  *Geschichte  der 
Geologic  und  Palaeontologie'— an  impor- 
tant work  carrying  the  subjects  to  the 
end  of  the  nineteenth  century.  He  was 
editor  of  the  periodical  Palceontographica, 
He  was  present  at  the  opening  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  Railroad  in  August  and 
September,  1883.  It  may  be  added  that 
he  had  been  in  delicate  health  for  some 
years.  His  death  was  unfortunately  hast- 
ened by  his  being  struck  by  a  bicyclist, 
causing  a  serious  injury  to  his  knee  and 
a  long  and  debilitating  confinement. 

He  traveled  extensively.  Aside  from  the 
special  journey  to  the  United  States  in  con- 
nection with  the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad, 
he  came  here  again  in  connection  with  the 
meeting  of  the  International  Geological 
Congress,  visiting  all  the  American  mu- 
seums and  studying  the  great  collections 
with  most  intense  interest.  At  the  meeting 
of  the  Geological  Congress  in  Paris  in  1900, 
Professor  von  Zittel  received  the  honors 
to  which  he  was  so  richly  entitled,   fre- 


quently presiding  over  the  paleontological 
and  geological  sections. 

Henry  Paibpield  Osbobn. 


SCIENTIFIC   BOOKS. 

The  Moth  Book.  A  Popular  Guide  to  a 
Knowledge  of  the  Moths  of  North  Amer- 
ica. By  W.  J.  Holland.  New  York, 
Doubleday,  Page  &  Company,  1903.  Pp. 
xxiv  +  479.  Forty-eight  plates  in  color 
photography  and  numerous  illustrations  in 
the  text. 

All  persons  interested  in  the  study  of  Lepid- 
optera,  including  hundreds  of  amateur  collect- 
ors, have  anxiously  been  awaiting  the  publi- 
cation of  Dr.  Holland's  'Moth  Book,*  which 
was  promised  five  years  ago  in  the  introduc- 
tion to  his  well-known  and  very  useful  *  But- 
terfly Book.'  The  volume  has  now  appeared, 
and  will  be  a  delight  to  collectors  and  will 
greatly  facilitate  their  attempts  to  determine 
their  specimens,  and  will  no  doubt  induce 
many  others  to  take  up  the  study  of  these 
beautiful  and  interesting  insects.  In  his 
*  Butterfly  Book '  Dr.  Holland  had  a  restricted 
group  of  comparatively  few  species,  and  was 
able  to  illustrate  or  describe  practically  every 
8i)ecies  known  to  occur  within  the  limits  of 
the  United  States.  The  task  of  producing  a 
serviceable  moth  book  has  been  much  more 
difficult.  To  illustrate  and  describe  all  of  the 
thousands  of  species  of  moths  of  this  country 
would  require  the  publication  of  several  vol- 
umes. Therefore,  an  effort  has  been  made  to 
select  those  species  which  adequately  represent 
the  various  families  and  the  commoner  and 
more  important  genera,  thus  providing  a  work 
which  will  serve  as  an  introduction  to  the 
study.  The  selection  has  been  admirable. 
The  48  colored  plates  illustrate  with  beautiful 
accuracy  more  than  1,500  8i)ecies,  and  all 
through  the  text  are  illustrated  other  species 
to  the  number  of  more  than  250.  Dr.  Holland 
adopts  in  the  main  the  classification  of  Sir 
George  Hampson,  and  uses  43  family  names. 
In  nomenclature  he  wisely  follows,  for  the  most 
part.  Dr.  Dyar's  list  of  the  Lepidoptera  of  the 
United  States,  and  has  conformed  the  text  of 
his  volume  to  Dr.  Dyar's  serial  arrangement. 
Dr.  Holland  differs,  as  he  says,  from  Dr.  Dyar 


JancaBY  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


189 


ill  his  views  as  to  the  position  which  should 
be  held  in  relation  to  each  other  of  a  number 
of  genera,  but  as  Dyar's  list  is  certain  for 
many  years  to  come  to  be  used  largely  by 
American  students  in  arranging  their  collec- 
tions, he  has  thought  best  to  follow  it.  As  in 
the  *  Butterfly  Book,'  the  'Moth  Book'  con- 
tains a  number  of  digressions  and  quotations. 
The  quotations  are  extremely  apt,  and  the 
digressions  are  extremely  readable. 

Dr.  Holland's  literary  style  is  charming,  and 
his  cosmopolitan  training  and  wide  range  of 
information  lend  interest  and  value  to  every 
line  of  the  digressions.  The  one  entitled 
'Walking  as  a  Fine  Art'  deserves  a  place  in 
literature  as  well  as  in  a  treatise  on  hygiene. 
The  book  is  by  no  means  confined  to  descrip- 
tive matter  of  the  species  treated.  State- 
ments concerning  the  habits  and  the  life  his- 
tories are  scattered  through  the  pages,  and 
much  sound  information  of  a  practical  eco- 
nomic character  accompanies  the  accounts  of 
many  of  the  injurious  species.  The  general 
chapters  on  the  life  history  and  anatomy  of 
moths,  and  on  the  capture,  preparation  and 
preservation  of  specimens,  contain  all  the  in- 
formation that  is  necessary,  and  in  the  chapter 
entitled  'Books  about  the  Moths  of  North 
America'  the  author  has  given  a  competent 
bibliography  for  the  use  of  students  who  wish 
to  go  further  into  the  subject.  The  index  is 
very  full. 

As  a  bit  of  book-making,  the  volume  is  a 
handsome  one.  Some  of  the  text  figures  suf- 
fer in  the  printing  on  account  of  the  character 
of  the  paper  used,  but  this  is  by  no  means  a 
serious  blemish. 

Dr.  Holland  is  to  be  congratulated  on  the 
completion  of  this  very  attractive  and  useful 
work,  and  the  number  of  collectors  and  stu- 
dents is  sure  to  be  increased  rapidly  as  the 
result  of  its  publication.        L.  O.  Howard. 

Allgemeine   Physiologie,    Ein   Grundriss   der 

Lehre    vom    Lehen.      By    Max    Verworn. 

Fourth  Edition,  revised.     Jena,  G.  Fischer. 

1903.     Pp.  652;  illustrations  300. 

The  favor  with  which  this  work  is  still  re- 
gardexl  is  evinced  by  the  fact  that  the  fourth 
edition  is  now  called  for  within  nine  years  of 


the  book's  first  appearance.  The  author  has 
made  in  it  less  radical  changes  than  in  pre- 
vious editions.  Those  portions  which  have 
received  the  most  considerable  alterations  are 
the  section  on  'Physical  World  and  Mind,' 
which  has  been  rewritten  and  enlarged,  and" 
endeavors  to  present  more  clearly  than  before 
the  author's  psychomonistie  conception;  the 
section  on  'Enzymes  and  Their  Mode  of  Ac- 
tion,' which  has  again  been  rewritten,  largely 
for  the  purpose  of  showing  the  /analogy  be- 
tween ferment  actions  and  the  catalytic  ac- 
tions of  inorganic  chemistry;  and  the  section 
on  '  Growth  as  the  Fundamental  Phenomenon 
of  Change  of  Form,'  which  has  been  revised 
and  extended  by  Professor  Rhumbler,  and 
contains  the  latest  conclusions  of  that  well- 
known  investigator,  with  figures  and  discus- 
sions of  Rhumbler's  and  Heidenhain's  models 
of  the  dividing  cell.  In  the  revision  of  the 
chemical  portions  of  the  book  the  author  has 
had  the  counsel  of  Professor  von  Baeyer,  of 
Munich,  and  Dr.  Coehn,  of  Gottingen,  and  the 
alterations,  though  not  great,  represent  im- 
provements. 

Engelmann's  law  of  complementary  chro- 
matic adaptation  is  cited,  according,  to 
wjiich  the  color  of  an  organism  becomes 
more  and  more  complementary  to  that  of 
colored  light  to  which  the  organism  is  sub- 
jected. Macfadyen's  observations  are  sum- 
marized on  the  resistance  of  bacteria  to  ex- 
treme cold,  and  Regnard's  observations  of  the 
temporary  cessation  of  vital  activity  in  a  large 
variety  of  organisms  subjected  for  not  too 
long  a  time  to  great  pressure.  Wallengren's 
demonstrations  are  quoted  of  anodic,  kathodic 
and  transverse  galvanotaxis  in  the  same  or- 
ganism by  the  application,  to  the  same  spot, 
of  polar  stimuli  of  different  intensities.  Many 
other  recent  discoveries  are  cited ;  but  with  the 
multiplicity  of  present  investigations  in  gen- 
eral physiology  one  naturally  finds  many  im- 
portant omissions.  By  judicious  excisions  and 
condensations  of  the  previous  text  the  en- 
largement of  the  book,  caused  by  the  addi- 
tions and  a  much-needed  revision  of  the  index, 
is  limited  to  twenty-one  pages. 

Frederic  S.  Lee. 

Columbia  Univebsity. 


190 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  YoL.  XDL  No.  474. 


SCIENTIFIC  JOURNALS  AND  ARTICLES. 

The  Journal  of  Infectious  Diseases,  Volume 
L,  No.  L 

Fbedebick  G.  Novy  and  Ward  J.  McNeal: 
*0n  the  Cultivation  of  Trypanosoma  Bruoei.* 

Louis  B.  Wilson  and  William  M.  Chowninq: 
*'  Studies  in  Pyroplaamosis  Hominis  {*  Spotted 
Fever  *  or  *  Tick  Fever '  of  the  Rocky  Mountains)." 

John  R.  McDill  and  William  B.  Whebbt: 
'A  Report  on  Two  Cases  of  a  Peculiar  Form  of 
Hand  Infection  due  to  an  Organism  Resembling 
the  Koch- Weeks  Bacillus.' 

H.  Gideon  Wells  and  Lee  0.  Scott:  "The 
Pathological  Anatomy  of  *  Paratyphoid  Fever.' " 

Geobge  H.  Weaveb:  'Agglutination  of  Strepto- 
cocci, Especially  Those  Cultivated  from  Cases  of 
Scarlatina,  by  Human  Sera.' 

GusTAV  F.  Ruediges:  'The  Effects  on  Strepto- 
cocci of  Sera  of  Cold-blooded  Animals.' 

Wilfred  H.  Man  waring  :  '  The  Action  of  Cer- 
tain Salts  on  the  Complement  in  Immune  Serum.' 

Milton  M.  Portis:  'Experimental  Study  of 
Thyrotoxic  Serum.* 

Alfred  Scott  Warthin  and  David  Murray 
Cowie  :  *  A  Contribution  to  the  Casuistry  of 
Placental  and  Congenital  Tuberculosis.' 

C.-E.  A.  Winslow  and  D.  M.  Belcher: 
'  Changes  in  the  Bacterial  Flora  of  Sewage  During 
Storage.' 

S.  C.  Prescott  and  S.  K.  Baker  :  *  On  Some 
Cultural  Relations  and  Antagonisms  of  Bacillus 
Coli  and  Houston's  Sewage  Streptococci;  with  a 
Method  for  the  Detection  and  Separation  of  These 
Microorganisms  in  Polluted  W^aters.' 

The  opening  (January)  number  of  volume 
6  of  the  Transactions  of  the  American  Mathe- 
matical Society  contains  the  following  papers : 

L.  E.  Dickson:  'The  Subgroups  of  Order  a 
Power  of  2  of  the  Simple  Quinary  Orthogonal 
Group  in  the  Galois  Field  of  order  p»  ™  8/  db  3.' 

J.  G.  Hun  :  *  On  Certain  Invariants  of  two 
Triangles.' 

Edward  Kasner  :  *  Isothermal  Systems  of 
Geodesies.' 

A.  Loewy  :  *  Zur  Gruppentheorie  mit  Anwend- 
ungen  auf  die  Theorie  der  linearen  homogenen 
Differentialgleichungen.' 

J.  W.  Young:  'On  the  Group  of  the  Sign 
(0,  3;  2,  4,  oo  )  and  the  Fimctions  belonging  to  it.' 

Saul  Epsteen  :  *  On  the  Definition  of  Reducible 
Hypercomplex  Number  Systems.' 

E.  Goursat  :  *  A  Simple  Proof  of  a  Theorem  in 
the  Calculus  of  Variations  (Extract  from  a  Letter 
to  Mr.  W.  F.  Osgood).' 


The  American  Naturalist  for  November  is 
a  little  belated.  It  contains  the  second  of  the 
papers  on  ^Adaptations  to  Aquatic,  Arboreal, 
Fossorial  and  Cursorial  Habits  in  Mammals/ 
this  being  by  Louis  I.  Dublin  on  'Arboreal 
Adaptations.'  In  a  few  instances  it  would 
seem  that  the  writer  may  not  have  distin- 
guished between  physiological  adaptation  and 
morphological  characters.  D.  T.  MacDougal 
considers  at  some  length  'Mutation  in  Plants/ 
some  of  his  conclusions  being  that  new  types 
of  specific  rank  have  arisen  in  (Enothera  by 
discontinuous  variation,  that  natural  selection 
is  universally  prevalent  is  certainly  disproved 
and  that  nothing  in  the  nature  of  living  or- 
ganisms demands  that  all  si)ecie8  should  have 
originated  in  the  same  manner.  S.  E.  Meek 
presents  a  paper  on  the  'Distribution  of  the 
Fresh-Water  Fishes  of  Mexico/  considering 
that  four  distinct  fish  faunas  are  present,  and 
that  their  origin  and  number  of  species  are 
as  follows :  From  the  Colorado  River,  9 ;  from 
the  Rio  Grande,  80;  from  the  Lerma,  49;  and 
from  Central  America,  246.  The  final  paper, 
by  Pehr  Olsson-Seffer,  is  on  the  'Examina- 
tion of  Organic  Remains  in  Postglacial  De- 
posits/ x>articularly  in  peat,  and  contains  very 
good  and  full  directions  as  to  the  methods 
and  apparatus  necessary. 

The  Popular  Science  Monthly  for  January 
has  for  a  frontispiece  a  portrait  of  the  late 
Herbert  Spencer  from  a  bust  made  when  he 
was  seventy-six.  The  first  article  is  'A  Case 
of  Automatic  Drawing,'  by  William  James, 
with  numerous  illustrations  of  the  curious 
pictures  made  by  the  subject.  In  'The  Col- 
lege Course '  John  J.  Stevenson  makes  a  plea 
for  a  return  to  the  college  with  a  course  of 
four  years,  mainly  compulsory,  and  in  'The 
Fimctions  of  Museums '  F.  A.  Bather  suggests 
such  a  division  of  the  material  as  would  make 
it  most  available  for  the  general  student,  the 
special  student  and  the  general  visitor.  T.  A. 
Jaggar  describes  'The  Eruption  of  Pele, 
July  9,  1902';  Allan  McLaughlin  discusses 
'Immigration  and  the  Public  Health/  sug- 
gesting more  carefully  drawn  laws  on  the 
subject,  and  Amanda  Carolyn  Northrop  con- 
siders '  The  Successful  Women  of  America/ 


jAinJABT  29,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


191 


hemg  a  study  of  those  who  appear  in  '  Who's 
Who  in  America.'  Authors  are  in  the  great 
majority,  and,  save  in  science^  those  educated 
in  private  schools  exceed  in  number  those 
educated  in  public  schoola-  D.  D.  Wallace 
presents  the  case  of  'Southern  Agriculture: 
Its  Condition  and  Needs/  the  latter  being  bet- 
ter trained  labor,  credit  at  reasonable  rates 
and  a  more  suitable  education  for  his  work* 
Wm.  Scheppegrell  describes  '  Voice,  Song  and 
Speech,'  and  there  is  a  reprint  of  Herbert 
Spencer's  'What  Knowledge  is  of  Most 
Worth  ? '  *  The  Progress  of  Science '  contains 
a  criticism  of  what  the  Carnegie  Institution 
has  not  accomplished. 


SOCIETIES   AND   ACADEMIES, 

THE  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCE  AND  ART  OP  PITTSBURG. 

SECTION   OF   BIOLOGY. 

The  regular  monthly  meeting  of  the  section 
was  held  on  December  1,  in  the  lecture  hall  of 
the  Carnegie  Institute.  Doctor  E.  G.  Matson, 
city  bacteriologist  of  Pittsburg,  discussed  with 
the  members,  the  germ  theory  and  the  zymotic 
theory  of  epidemic  diseases;  the  discovery  of 
bacteria,  their  form,  structure  and  office  in  the 
economy  of  nature,  evidence  upon  which  rests 
the  doctrine  that  they  are  the  causes  of  dis- 
eases, the  advantages  of  having  the  specific 
agents  of  these  diseases  for  practical  purposes, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  possibility  of  getting 
on  without  this  knowledge;  the  individuality 
of  contagion  and  the  necessity  of  taking  this 
into  account  in  the  attempt  to  prevent  epi- 
demics, such  as  smallpox,  typhoid  fever  and 
yellow  fever;  how  the  bacteria  make  their 
attack;  toxin,  antitoxin  and  the  immunity 
problem. 

The  malarial  mosquito  received  some  atten- 
tion, and  considerable  valuable  information 
was  given  regarding  the  epidemic  of  typhoid 
fever  which  has  been  raging  for  several  weeks 
in  Butler,  Pa.  There  have  been  about  1,800 
cases,  with  84  deaths,  representing  a  fatality 
of  a  little  more  than  10  per  cent. 

Many  thousands  of  dollars  have  been  gen- 
erously contributed  from  various  sources. 

The  infection  of  the  water  supply  of  the 


city  seems  to  have  been  responsible  for  the 
general  spread  of  the  disease,  two  cases  being 
discovered  not  far  from  the  city's  reservoir. 

Frederic  S.  Webster, 
Secretary-Treasurer, 

WISCONSIN  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES,  ARTS  AND 

LETTERS. 

The  thirty-fourth  annual  meeting  of  the 
Wisconsin  Academy  of  Sciences,  Arts  and 
Letters  was  held  in  the  State  Normal  School 
Building  in  Milwaukee,  Tuesday  and  Wednes- 
day, December  29  and  30,  1903,  President  J. 
J.  Davis  in  the  chair.  The  program  contained 
thirty-six  titles,  nearly  every  field  of  science 
being  represented,  although  physical  papers 
were  entirely  absent.  Several  excellent  papers 
were  presented  upon  philosophical,  pedagogical 
and  literary  subjects.  The  program  was 
notable  in  that  so  many  sections  of  the  state 
and  so  many  different  institutions  were  rep- 
resented. The  number  of  papers  coming  from 
the  university,  from  the  colleges  and  from  the 
normal  schools  was  nearly  equal.  Volume 
XIV.,  part  1,  of  the  Transactions  of  the  acad- 
emy, containing  fifteen  papers,  has  just  been 

published. 

E.  B.  Skinner, 
Secretary. 

northeastern    section    of    the    AMERICAN 
CHEMICAL  SOCIETY. 

The  48th  regular  meeting  of  the  section 
was  held  Friday,  December  18,  1903,  at  8 
P.M.,  at  the  Tech  Union,  Boston,  President 
W.  H.  Walker  in  the  chair.  Sixty  members 
were  present. 

Dr.  Carl  Otto  Weber,  of  Manchester,  Eng- 
land, addressed  the  section  on  the  ^Applica- 
tion of  Scientific  Data  to  Technical  Problems 
in  India  Rubber  Manufacture,'  in  which  he 
discussed  the  various  steps  in  the  evolution 
of  a  scheme  for  rubber  analysis,  and  the 
methods  of  applying  the  results  to  the  theoret- 
ical and  practical  consideration  of  the  chem- 
istry of  india  rubber. 

Arthur  M.  Comey, 
Secretary. 


192 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474 


DTBCUS8I0N  AND  CORRESPONDENCE. 
CONVOCATION  WEEK. 

To  THE  Editor  of  Science:  I  am  in  hearty 
sympathy  with  nearly  all  the  opinions  ex- 
pressed in  the  recent  article  in  Science  en- 
titled 'Convocation  Week.'  The  American 
Association  has  a  large  membership.  One  of 
its  chief  functions  is  to  provide  for  its  mem- 
bers the  means  of  getting  together  for  scien- 
tific and  social  intercourse.  The  plan  of  a 
convocation  week  into  which  might  be  gath- 
ered so  far  as  practicable  the  numerous  scat- 
tered meetings  of  special  societies,  which  were 
being  held  without  any  correlation  of  time  or 
place,  was  in  my  opinion  a  distinct  step  in 
advance. 

When  the  question  of  winter  meetings  for 
the  American  Association  first  began  to  be 
considered  it  became  evident  that  many 
members  of  the  association  preferred  the  sum- 
mer meeting.  Comparatively  few  probably 
would  attend  two  meetings  a  year,  but  I  think 
it  safe  to  estimate  that  if  by  its  present  plan 
of  holding  one  meeting  a  year  the  association 
succeeds  on  the  average  in  securing  an  attend- 
ance of  500  of  its  4,000  members,  it  would, 
by  holding  both  summer  and  winter  meetings, 
in  localities  and  at  times  selected  with  judg- 
ment, have  almost  if  not  quite  as  large  an 
attendance  at  each.  It  would  thus  double  its 
usefulness  by  supplying  the  facilities  for  a 
scientific  meeting  to  twice  as  many  of  its 
members  every  year. 

The  general  feeling  in  the  west  is  for  sum- 
mer meetings.  In  the  east  the  majority  favors 
meetings  in  the  winter,  but  the  geographical 
lines  are  not  sharply  drawn.  Many  of  us 
would  be  glad  of  a  choice  between  the  summer 
and  the  winter  meeting  with  privilege  of  at- 
tending one,  both  or  neither  at  our  conven- 
ience. The  summer  meetings  should  be  held, 
as  a  rule,  in  some  attractive  and  accessible 
resort;  in  the  mountains,  on  the  lakes  or  at 
the  seashore.  By  selecting  the  earliest  pos- 
sible date  after  the  closing  of  our  colleges  it 
would  be  practicable  to  house  the  entire  at- 
tending membership  under  one  roof.  The 
great  summer  hotels  at  the  beginning  of  the 
season  are  almost  empty  and  they  would  wel- 
come the  association.    The  end  of  the  summer. 


while  desirable  in  certain  respects,  is  the 
crowded  season  at  such  places  and  it  would  be 
difficult  to  find  suitable  accommodations. 

Summer  meetings  would  probably  be  as  well 
attended  as  those  held  in  convocation  week; 
the  attendance  at  the  former  would  indeed 
be  the  much  larger  but  for  the  greater  gath- 
ering of  the  affiliated  societies  in  winter. 

The  association  in  bringing  together  men 
of  many  sciences  has  a  more  important  func- 
tion than  apx)ears  to  be  commonly  recognized. 
Without  some  such  organization  we  shall  meet 
in  the  various  special  societies  only  those  who 
are  engaged  in  our  own  particular  lines  of 
work.  The  bringing  together  of  the  various 
affiliated  societies  at  a  common  meeting  place 
helps  to  mitigate  one  of  the  most  unfortunate 
features  of  modem  specialization  in  science, 
namely,  the  separation  of  men  of  science  into 
small  groups.  Moreover,  the  formation  of 
special  societies  has  gone  so  far  that  every 
one  is  compelled  to  hold  membership  in  sev- 
eral. In  addition  to  being  a  member  of' the 
American  Physical  Society  the  physicist  is  or 
should  be  interested  in  the  work  of  the  Insti- 
tute of  Electrical  Engineers,  of  the  Physical 
Chemists,  of  the  Society  for  Astrophysics,  of 
the  Mathematical  Society,  of  the  Electro- 
Chemical  Society,  etc.  The  affiliation  of  these 
and  other  special  societies  in  the  American 
Association  would  make  it  easy  for  one  to 
get  in  touch  at  least  once  a  year  with  the  vari- 
ous activities  which  they  represent,  hence  the 
importance  of  convocation  week.  It  is  not 
less  imperative  that  the  American  Association 
afford  those  of  its  members  who  can  not  at- 
tend its  winter  meetings  an  opportunity  for 
intercourse  with  kindred  spirits  at  times  and 
places  possible  to  them.  The  question  of  the 
expense  of  two  meetings  a  year  is  not  worthy 
of  consideration.  It  is  absurd  to  say  that  an 
association  with  a  membership  of  4,000  is 
unable  to  carry  on  two,  or  if  desirable,  even 
more  meetings  every  year. 

E.  L.  Nichols. 

When  the  American  Scientific  Association 
was  organized  in  1847  it  was,  like  its  im- 
mediate predecessor  the  Association  of  Ameri- 
can Geologists  and  Naturalists,  the  only 
national   society   devoted  to  pure  science   in 


Januabt  29,  1901.] 


SCIENCE. 


193 


this  country.  To  be  elected  a  member  was 
a  certificate  of  scientific  standing.  Its  first 
president,  William  B.  Kogers,  was  equally  well 
known  as  a  physicist  and  as  a  geologist,  and 
the  day  of  close  specialization  had  not  yet 
begun.  The  formation  of  the  National  Acad- 
emy during  the  civil  war  was  not  undertaken 
with  a  view  to  organizing  any  more  select 
body  of  investigators,  but  rather  for  utilitarian 
purposes.  To  be  selected  as  a  scientific  ad- 
viser for  the  government  was  a  high  honor, 
but  it  seems  not  to  have  interfered  with  the 
loyalty  of  any  member  to  the  national  asso- 
ciation. At  the  memorable  Albany  meeting 
in  1861  about  27  per  cent,  of  the  total  mem- 
bership of  769  were  present.  At  the  Wash- 
ington meeting  in  December,  1902,  about  27 
per  cent,  of  the  total  membership  of  3,596 
were  present 

That  differentiation  should  result  from  in- 
creasing growth  was  naturally  to  be  expected. 
In  1875  the  first  division  into  two  sections  was 
made,  the  total  membership  being  still  only 
807.  It  was  at  the  Saratoga  meeting  in  1879 
that  the  policy  of  popularizing  the  association 
seems  to  have  been  inaugurated,  the  barriers 
to  membership,  in  the  form  of  recognized  sci- 
entific credentials,  being  in  great  measure  re- 
moved. The  next  meeting,  held  in  Boston, 
was  attended  by  997  persons,  and  the  total 
membership  was  increased  to  1,555.  At  the 
Cincinnati  meeting  in  1881,  although  the  at- 
tendance was  but  half  that  of  the  Boston 
meeting,  it  was  decided  to  break  up  into  nine 
sections.  Already  a  serious  source  of  em- 
barrassment had  sprung  into  existence  in  the 
form  of  an  invasion  of  cranks.  About  the 
same  time  was  noticed  the  absence  of  a  num- 
ber of  members  of  the  National  Academy  who 
had  formerly  been  regular  attendants.  To 
guard  against  the  admission  of  papers  by  ill- 
balanced  or  ignorant  persons  it  was  necessary 
to  form  committees  of  inspection  whose  duty 
it  should  be  to  suppress  such  papers,  a  sum- 
mary of  each  being  required  before  it  could 
be  presented  to  any  section.  The  laxity  in 
regard  to  admission  soon  became  such  as  to 
develop  the  wide-spread  impression  that  any- 
body of  either  sex  could  be  elected  to  member- 


ship by  exhibiting  willingness  to  pay  the  usual 
fees. 

If  the  term  scientific  aristocracy  is  admis- 
sible at  all  it  was  applicable  to  the  association 
in  its  earlier  days.  The  rapid  change  to  de- 
mocracy after  the  Saratoga  meeting  produced 
dissatisfaction  among  many,  and  this  was 
manifested  in  the  formation  of  the  American 
Chemical  Society  as  an  offshoot.  The  inter- 
est of  its  members  was  very  perceptibly  with- 
drawn for  a  time  from  Section  C,  although 
affiliation  was  claimed.  One  after  another  of 
these  affiliated  societies  has  since  been  formed, 
until  their  number  now  considerably  exceeds 
the  number  of  sections  of  the  parent  associa- 
tion. Where  the  affiliated  society  has  a  field 
identical  with  that  of  a  section  of  the  associa- 
tion the  two  usually  meet  together,  as  a  matter 
of  courtesy,  but  division  is  still  perceptible. 
The  American  Physical  Society,  for  example, 
has  four  meetings  each  year,  the  agreement 
being  that  one  of  them  shall  be  held  in  con- 
junction with  Section  B  of  the  association  and 
the  others  usually  in  New  York.  The  chief 
reason  alleged  for  the  formation  of  the  Phys- 
ical Society  was  that  many  of  the  leading 
physicists  of  the  country  could  not  be  induced 
to  attend  the  meetings  of  the  larger  associa- 
tion on  account  of  the  lack  of  discrimination 
in  its  make-up.  It  has  been  repeatedly  notice- 
able that  some  of  the  most  active  members  of 
the  Physical  Society  were  absent  from  the 
joint  meetings.  No  ground  for  criticism  is 
implied  in  such  a  statement.  Every  one  is 
perfectly  free  to  attend  only  such  meetings 
as  are  found  attractive,  and  an  appeal  based 
on  loyalty  to  the  parent  association  can  never 
be  effective,  especially  now  that  the  number  of 
gatherings  is  so  great  that  nobody  can  attend 
them  all. 

The  tendency  toward  disintegration  of  the 
growingly  unwieldy  national  association  is 
not  dufi  merely  to  increasing  diversity  of  in- 
terests or  undue  liberality  in  admitting  those 
who  are  not  specialists.  The  great  size  of 
our  country  and  the  consequent  exi)ense  in- 
volved in  long  journeys  make  the  conditions 
essentially  different  from  those  which  seem  to 
have  maintained  the  unity  of  the  British  Asso- 
ciation.    Reduced  rates  on  the  railroads  can 


194 


SCIENCE. 


[N.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


generally  be  secured  for  almost  any  gathering 
of  more  than  fifty  or  a  hundred  persons,  but 
in  spite  of  this  a  trip  from  Boston  or 
Savannah  to  Denver  or  San  Francisco  implies 
an  expenditure  in  both  money  and  time  which 
is  prohibitive  to  many.  The  plan  advocated 
by  the  editor  of  Science,  that  each  affiiated 
society  shall  send  delegates  to  the  annual 
meetings  of  the  national  association,  is  much 
to  be  commended  and  well  worth  trying,  but 
its  availability  depends  much  upon  the  loca- 
tion of  each  delegate's  home  with  regard  to 
the  place  of  meeting.  The  tendency  toward 
the  formation  of  separate  societies  irrespective 
of  the  American  Scientific  Association  seems 
now  to  be  well  developed.  Two  of  them  met 
recently  in  New  Orleans  where  they  launched 
a  third  into  existence.  Recommendations 
may  be  made  at  will  by  those  who  wish  to 
maintain  imity,  but  the  ordinary  processes  of 
evolution  will  continue  without  regard  to  in- 
dividual preferences. 

The  present  writer  gives  his  hearty  approval 
to  the  views  advocated  by  the  editor  of  Science, 
which  have  been  well  thought  out.  The  policy 
of  adaptation  to  the  multitude  inaugurated  at 
the  Saratoga  meeting  has  had  nearly  a  quarter 
of  a  century  in  which  to  become  fixed.  What- 
ever change  may  yet  be  developed,  it  will  not 
be  to  the  conditions  of  1850.  No  plan  elab- 
orated by  any  single  individual  will  be  carried 
out  in  full,  but  the  views  of  many,  if  given 
full  expression,  will  be  helpful  in  preparation 
for  the  Philadelphia  meeting. 

W.  Le  Conte  Stevens. 
Washington  and  Lee  UNn-EBSiTY, 
January  16,  1904. 

The  Editor  of  Science  invites  comments 
upon  the  article  '  Convocation  Week '  pub- 
lished in  that  periodical  on  January  8.  With 
much  of  the  article  I  am  in  full  accord,  but 
with  one  matter  I  do  not  agree. 

As  the  article  in  question  says,  there  was 
considerable  friction  at  the  Washington  meet- 
ing a  year  ago.  Under  the  circumstances 
this  seemed  unavoidable.  The  rooms  avail- 
able were  few  in  number  and,  naturally,  the 
association  and  its  sections  were  first  pro- 
vided for.      The  result  was  that  at  least  two 


of  the  independent  societies — ^the  Zoologists 
and  the  Anatomists — ^were  forced  to  put  up 
with  inadequate  and  inconvenient  quarters. 
It  would  seem  probable  that  similar  disagree- 
able and  irritating  conditions  will  recur  when- 
ever so  many  organizations  meet  together. 
The  only  escape  seems  to  be  either  the  merging 
of  the  separate  societies  in  the  sections  of  the 
association  or  in  their  meeting  apart,  as  sev- 
eral did  this  year. 

The  greatest  objection  to  such  a  merger  is 
the  enormous  extent  of  our  country.  The 
association  is  national  in  character  and  its 
meetings  have  been  held  at  points  as  remote 
from  each  other  as  Portland  and  Denver, 
Charleston  and  Minneapolis.  It  is  the  policy 
of  the  association  to  meet  one  year  in  the 
east,  the  next  in  the  west — ^Denver,  Washing- 
ton, St.  Louis,  Philadelphia  and  New  Orleans. 
With  this  no  one  can  find  fault.  A  national 
society  should  supply  all  parts  of  our  country. 
When,  however,  the  matter  of  amalg^amation 
is  considered,  it  is  seen  that  many  of  the 
members,  most  of  whom  are  living  on  mod- 
erate salaries,  must  either  take  long  journeys 
or  forego  the  meetings  on  alternate  years. 

Another  objection  is  the  difference  in  char- 
acter between  the  association  and  the  inde- 
pendent societies.  The  latter  are  strictly 
professional  organizations,  aiming  at  the  ad- 
vancement of  science.  As  such  they  limit 
their  membership,  thus  ensuring  audiences, 
the  majority  of  whom  are  able  fully  to  com- 
prehend any  paper  presented.  The  associa- 
tion admits  all  who  apply  for  membership,  and 
its  function,  in  spite  of  its  name,  has  largely 
become  that  of  the  popularization  and  dif- 
fusion of  knowledge.  There  is  nothing  more 
difficult  than  the  presentation  of  the  results 
of  research  to  an  audience  which  can  not  ap- 
preciate the  points  made.  Again,  with  the 
smaller  societies  under  the  present  conditions 
there  is  too  little  time  for  discussion  of  the 
papers  presented;  united  with  the  sections  of 
the  association  the  program  would  be  so  long 
that  this  valuable  feature  would  be  entirely 
lost. 

In  view  of  these  facts  it  seems  best  to  the 
writer  that  the  societies  should  retain  their 
independence  and  should  hold  their  meetings 


Jaitoabt  28,  1904.] 


SCIENCE. 


195 


without  reg^ard  to  the  movements  of  the  larger 
organization.  They  might  all  meet  together 
at  times  and  places  where  the  accommodations 
were  adequate,  hut  such  places  would  be  few 
and  far  between. 

Of  course,  this  would  result,  under  the  pres- 
ent conditions,  in  a  society  and  a  section  with 
similar  aims  meeting  in  different  places  at  the 
same  time  and  a  member  of  both  might  have 
difficulty  in  deciding  which  of  the  two  he 
should  attend.  But  the  remedy  is  a  simple 
one.  These  separate  societies  have,  by  right 
of  preemption,  a  claim  upon  the  Christmas 
holidays  for  their  meetings.  The  whole 
trouble  has  been  caused  by  the  American  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  which 
has  encroached  upon  this  period  and  is  now 
trying  to  force  the  independent  organizations 
to  accommodate  themselves  to  its  actions.  All 
that  is  necessary  for  full  harmony  is  that  the 
association  return  to  its  summer  meetings, 
leaving  the   Christmas   vacation  free  to   its 

rightful  possessors.  J.  S.  Ejngslet. 

Tufts  College, 
January  13,  1904. 

THE   SCINTILLATIONS   OF  RADIUM. 

The  phenomenon  of  the  scintillation  of  a 
phosphorescent  screen,  under  the  influence  of 
the  radium  bombardment,  which  was  first  de- 
scribed by  Sir  William  Crookes,  is  one  of  the 
most  impressive  spectacles  which  we  have  had 
for  a  long  time. 

As  comparatively  few  of  us  have  had  an 
opportunity  of  witnessing  this  remarkable 
sight,  I  have  prepared  about  two  dozen  *  spin- 
thariscopes,' which  I  shall  be  very  glad  to  pass 
around  among  my  colleagues,  on  the  condition 
that  they  be  promptly  returned. 

Last  autumn,  while  experimenting  with 
some  phosphorescent  materials,  I  found  that 
the  scintillations  could  be  as  easily  seen  when 
the  radium  was  mixed  with  the  phosphorescent 
powder  (the  mixture  being  pressed  between 
two  plates  of  glass)  as  in  the  usual  form  of 
Crookes's  spinthariscope. 

If  one  sits  for  several  minutes  in  an  abso- 
lutely dark  room,  and  then  examines  the  plate 
with  a  powerful  pocket  magnifying  glass,  the 
appearance  reminds  one  of  an  enormous  star 
cluster  as  seen  in  a  telescope,  the  individual 


stars  lighting  up  and  disappearing  in  rapid 
succession,  producing  an  impression  which  has 
been  likened  to  that  produced  by  moonlight 
on  rippling  water. 

Whether  the  flashes  are  produced  by  the  im- 
pact of  the  individual  electrons  which  consti- 
tute the  a  rays,  as  was  imagined  by  Crookes, 
or  whether  they  represent  microscopic  cleav- 
ages which  are  occurring  in  the  crystals  as  a 
result  of  the  bombardment,  as  Becquerel  be- 
lieves, is  still  an  open  question.  The  fact 
that  hundreds  of  flashes  appear  every  few 
seconds,  the  action  showing  no  signs  of  abate- 
ment after  several  months,  makes  it  difficult 
to  believe  that  each  flash  represents  a  split  in 
a  crystal,  unless  one  is  prepared  to  accept  the 
doctrine  of  *  infinite  divisibility.'  It  is,  per- 
haps, equally  hard  to  believe  that  the  impact 
of  a  single  electron  is  responsible  for  each 
flash.  The  obvious  way  of  settling  this  ques- 
tion would  be  to  make  a  rough  estimate  of  the 
number  of  flashes  produced  in  a  given  time 
by  a  very  smaU  amount  of  radiimi  of  very 
low  activity,  and  see  if  the  number  was  of  the 
same  order  of  magnitude  as  the  number  of 
positive  electrons  given  off  in  the  same  time. 
If  the  number  of  emitted  electrons  far  exceeds 
the  number  of  flashes,  we  may  find  a  way  out 
of  the  difficulty  by  assuming  that  the  electrons 
are  thrown  out  in  intermittent  streams,  the 
impact  of  each  'squirt'  producing  a  fiash. 

On  carefully  scrutinizing  the  screen  it  is 
almost  impossible  to  avoid  forming  the  opinion 
that  the  points  of  light  are  in  motion,  the 
whole  field  squirming  with  light,  like  a  colony 
of  infusoria  under  the  microscope.  This  ap- 
pearance is,  perhaps,  a  little  more  pronounced 
with  the  Crookes  spinthariscope,  in  which  a 
speck  of  highly  active  radium  is  mounted  at 
a  little  distance  above  the  screen.  If  this 
motion  should  turn  out  to  be  real  and  not 
illusory  it  could,  perhaps,  be  explained  by  a 
slight  sweeping  motion  of  the  streams  of 
electrons  emitted  by  the  radium.  Such  specu- 
lations are  scarcely  worth  while,  however,  in 
view  of  the  very  deceptive  nature  of  illusions 
of  motion.  The  plates  which  I  have  prepared 
for  distribution  are  packed  in  small  tin  boxes, 
which  can  be  sealed  up  in  an  ordinary  envelope. 
Institutions   desiring  to  borrow  one  will  be 


196 


SCIENCE. 


[N.S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


accommodated  as  promptly  as  possible.  The 
limited  number  of  plates  available  will  of 
course  cause  more  or  less  delay  in  complying 
with  many  requests.  A  prompt  return  of  each 
plate  is  to  the  interest  of  all.  A  self-addressed 
envelope  with  four  cents  in  postage  affixed 
should  accompany  each  application. 

Failure  to  observe  the  phenomenon  can  only 
result  from  an  insufficient  resting  of  the  eyes. 
Half  an  hour  in  subdued  light  such  as  lamp- 
light, followed  by  four  or  ^\q  minutes  in 
absolute  darkness  is  the  sine  qua  non  of  suc- 
cess. 

The  magnifying  glass  employed  should  have 
a  power  of  five  or  six  diameters.  A  Codding- 
ton  lens,  or  Hastings  triplet  is  suitable. 

K.  W.  Wood. 

Johns  Hopkins   University. 


SPECIAL   ARTICLES. 

THE    OCCURRENCE    OF    ZINC    IN    CERTAIN 
INVERTEBRATES. 

In  the  course  of  an  investigation  on  the 
chemical  physiology  of  certain  invertebrates, 
undertaken  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  La- 
fayette B.  Mendel,  it  was  found  that  the  ash 
of  the  hepato-pancreas  of  the  large  carnivorous 
gastropod,  Sycotypus  canaliculatus,  contained 
an  element  hitherto  unobserved  in  such  con- 
nection, namely  zinc.  So  far  as  the  writer 
is  aware,  this  element  has  never  been  observed 
as  a  normal  constituent  of  the  tissues  of 
any  animal,  vertebrate  or  invertebrate.  The 
reaction  by  which  zinc  was  first  suspected  was 
the  ordinary  ferrocyanide  test  for  ferric  iron 
in  acid  solutions.  Not  only  was  iron  present, 
as  indicated  by  the  blue  color,  but  some  other 
metallic  element  as  well,  giving  a  marked 
slimy  precipitate.  Further  investigation 
showed  the  presence  of  a  heavy  metal  having 
all  the  characteristic  chemical  properties  of 
zinc. 

Quantitative  separations  were  made  difficult 
by  the  presence  of  very  large  amounts  of 
phosphoric  acid,  and  the  basic-acetate  method 
was  resorted  to.  The  well-known  limitations 
of  the  latter  make  it,  however,  scarcely  more 
than  of  qualitative  value.  By  this  method 
samples  of  ash  from  Sycotypus  canaliculatus 


gave  approximately  eleven  per  cent,  and 
twelve  per  cent,  respectively  of  ZnO. 

Further  separations  have  since  been  made 
by  means  of  Hampers  well-known  method 
(slightly  modified),*  depending  upon  the  pre- 
cipitation of  ZnS  from  a  formic  acid  solution 
of  sufficient  strength  to  prevent  the  precipita- 
tion of  the  iron.  By  this  method  concordant 
results  have  been  obtained  as  shown  in  the 
table  below.  At  the  same  time  qualitative 
examinations  were  made  of  specimens  dredged 
from  various  parts  of  Long  Island  Sound 
about  New  Haven,  and  in  all  cases  zinc  was 
found  in  large  quantities  in  the  ash  of 
Sycotypus  and  Fulgur  carica. 

Copper  was  estimated  electrolytically  in 
each  case;  in  one  sample  by  the  rotating 
cathode  method  of  Gooch  and  Medway.  Iron 
was  determined  by  permanganate  titration  in 
the  usual  way.  Blanks  were  run  through  to 
detect  the  possible  presence  of  zinc  in  the 
reagents,  and  great  care  was  exercised  through- 
out to  prevent  any  contamination. 

Other  tissues  besides  the  hepato-pancreas 
were  incinerated  and  examined,  and  other 
gastropods  and  Crustacea  dredged  from  the 
same  localities  were  also  tested.  With  the 
exception  of  the  blood  of  Sycotypus,  no  fur- 
ther occurrence  of  zinc  has  yet  been  detected. 

The  following  table  of  ash  analyses  summar- 
izes the  result  of  the  investigation  as  far  as 
it  has  been  carried. 


Samples    ' 
Obtained.  , 

1 

Mav,  1903 
Mav,  1903   , 
Mav,  1903 
.«ept.,  1903 
Sept.,  190,3  1 
Nov.,  liKj3 
Nov.,  1903 
Nov.,  1903 
May,  190:3 
Sept, 1903 
Nov.,  llKj:j 

Fe. 

Cu. 

Present 

8.57< 
8.17^ 
8.47< 
7.83^ 

'     ZnO. 

1 

Sycotypu*  (hepato- 
pancreas. 
SycntypiLS. 
Sycotypus. 
Sycotypus. 
Sycotypus. 
Sycotypus. 
Sycotypus. 
Blood  of  Sycotypus. 
Fulijur, 
Fulyur. 
Fulgur. 

Present 
it 

(( 

i( 

(( 

0.8« 

O.S^^ 

Present 

1 

1  Present 

11.971J 
10.8K 

23..3S^ 
1    18.S0* 



18.605( 

Present 

ii 
•< 

Present 

<4 

1       «« 

The  following  other  marine  forms  have 
been  examined  for  zinc,  with  negative  or  doubt- 
ful results  in  all  cases:  Urosalpinx  cinerea, 
Mytilus    edulis,    Modiola    plicatula,    Argina 

*  W.  Hampe,  Chemiker  Zeitung,  IX.,  543   (esti- 
mation of  zinc). 


JilKVary  29,  1004.] 


SCIENCE. 


197 


pexata,  Eupagurua  pollicaris,   Osirea  virgin- 
iana  and  Cancer  irroraius. 

The  si^ificance  of  this  unique  occurrence 
of  zinc  in  the  economy  of  Sycotypus  and 
Fulgur  is  still  to  be  determined,  as  is  the 
nature  of  the  combination  in  which  it  exists. 
These  points,  together  with  the  distribution  of 
the  element  in  other  marine  forms  about  the 
sound,  are  at  present  being  investigated  and 
will  be  reported  upon  later. 

Harold  C.  Bradley. 

Sheffield  Laboratory  of  Physiological 
Gheicistry,  Yale  University. 


ATMOSPHERIC   NITROGEN    FOR   FERTIL- 
IZING PURPOSES. 

Of  much  interest  to  scientific  students  of 
agrricultural  economy  is  the  report  of  the 
United  States  Consul-General  Mason,  at 
Berlin,  Germany,  on  a  new  method  of  pro- 
ducing nitrogen  from  the  atmosphere  for  soil 
fertilization,  as  announced  in  the  daily  '  Con- 
sular Report,*  No.  1804,  issued  by  the  Bureau 
of  Statistics,  Department  of  Commerce  and 
Labor. 

The  gradual  but  ultimately  inevitable  ex- 
haustion of  the  known  nitrate  deposits  of 
South  America,  the  report  states,  lends  a 
growing  interest  to  the  methods  which  have 
been  devised  for  obtaining  a  supply  of  nitro- 
gen for  fertilizing  purposes  from  the  inex- 
haustible storehouse  of  the  air.  That  this  can 
be  done  as  a  scientific  process  has  long  been 
known.  The  first  method  was  by  passing  a 
current  of  air  over  red-heated  copper,  whereby 
the  oxygen  combined  with  the  metal  to  form 
oxide  of  copper,  leaving  the  nitrogen  free. 
At  first  the  nitrogen  thus  produced  was  fixed 
by  combination  with  calcium  carbide  to  form 
nitrate  of  lime  (KalkstickstofF)  or  calcium 
cyanimide,  a  combination  of  lime  carbon  and 
nitrogen,  which  had  all  the  essential  properties 
of  a  nitrate  fertilizer.  But  as  the  use  of 
calcium  carbide  rendered  the  product  unduly 
expensive,  a  method  was  sought  which  would 
employ  a  substitute  for  that  material,  and  this 
was  found  by  Dr.  Erlwein,  who  brought  the 
nitrogen  into  combination  with  a  mixture  of 
powdered  charcoal  and  lime  in  an  electric 
fumaca     The  product  of  this  combination  is 


a  black  substance  containing,  besides  the  lime 
and  carbon,  ten  to  fifteen  per  cent,  of  nitrogen, 
in  perfect  condition  to  be  used  as  a  fertilizer. 
From  the  experiments  thus  far  made  with  this 
new  artificial  nitrate — which  is  known  in  com- 
merce as  calcium  cyanimide — it  appears  that 
its  nitrogen  acts  upon  plants  quite  as  effect- 
ively as  that  contained  in  a  proportionate 
quantity  of  nitrate  of  potassium  or  sodium 
nitrate  (Chile  saltpeter).  The  scientific  prob- 
lem of  obtaining  nitrogen  for  fertilizing  pur- 
poses from  the  atmosphere  would  seem,  there- 
fore, to  be  satisfactorily  solved.  Whether  it 
can  be  done  on  a  very  large  scale  and  at  a 
cost  which  will  make  it  economically  available 
for  general  ag^ricultural  purposes  remains  to 
be  demonstrated  by  practical  experience. 

John  Franklin  Crowell. 


MISSOURI    LEAD    AND    ZINC    REGIONS 

VISITED     BY     THE     GEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY  OF  AMERICA, 

At  the  close  of  the  St.  Louis  meeting  of  the 
Geological  Society  of  America,  January  2,  an 
excursion  to  the  Missouri  lead  and  zinc  re- 
gions was  given  by  the  Missouri  Bureau  of 
Geology  and  Mines  to  the  members  of  the  so- 
ciety whose  work  would  allow  them  time  for 
the  journey.  In  the  company  several  univer- 
sities were  represented — ^Alabama,  Dartmouth, 
Kentucky,  McGill,  Missouri,  Northwestern, 
Hochester,  Springfield  and  Toronto,  and  sev- 
eral members  of  geological  surveys  were  pres- 
ent— Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Missouri, 
Ontario,  West  Virginia  and  the  United  States. 
The  excursion  allowed  of  a  view  of  the  Mis- 
souri geological  scale  from  the  St.  Louis  for- 
mation (of  the  sub-Carboniferous),  through 
Devonian,  Ordovician,  Cambrian  to  the  Al- 
gonkian,  and  many  phases  of  geology,  from 
peneplain  to  paleontology,  had  their  share  of 
attention.  However,  the  chief  place  in  the 
thought  of  the  visitors  was  occupied  by  the 
mineral  resources  of  the  famous  lead  and  zinc 
localities.  A  day  and  a  half  was  spent  in  the 
eastern  lead  region — ^the  classical  locality  for 
lead  production  in  the  Mississippi  valley.  A 
number  of  mines  and  mills  at  Bonne  Terre 
and  Central  were  visited,  and  the  facts  ob- 
tained there,  when  combined  with  those  ob- 


198 


SCIENCE. 


[X.  S.  Vol.  XIX.  No.  474. 


tained  on  the  visit  made  during  the  American 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science 
meetings  to  the  lead  pipe  works  in  St.  Louis, 
gave  a  complete  view  of  the  lead  industry, 
from  deposits  disseminated  in  the  Third  Mag- 
nesian  Limestone  to  the  finished  product,  to 
be  disseminated  eventually  throughout  the 
homes  and  shops  of  American  cities.  A  dozen 
mines  a  score  or  two  miles  from  th