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SESSIONAL  PAPERS 


VOLUME  7. 


THIRD  SESSION  of  the  FOURTH  PARLIAMENT 


OF   THE 


DOMINION  OF  CANADA, 


SESSION    1880-81. 


VOLUME  21 V. 


Printed  by  MacLean,  Roger  &  Co.,  Wellington  Street,  Ottawa. 


LIST  OF  SESSIONAL  PAPERS 


VOL,  XI7.— SESSION  1880-Sl. 


AERANaED    ALPHABETICALLY. 


No. 


Accounts,  Public 1 

Advertizing,  Government.. =.• 107 

Agents,  London  - 16 

Agriculture,  Report  of  Department  of. 12 

Appraisals  of  Goods,  Customs 64 

Auditor-General's  Report 8 


Banks,  Lists  of  Shareholders 27 

Baptisms,  Marriages,  &c 77 

Beauharnois  Canal 91 

Better  Administration  of  Justice  Act,  1878 141 

Bodwell,  E.  V 60 

Bonds  and  Securities  30 

Boston,  Winter  Port 133 

Boundaries,  Ontario  and  Quebec... 73 

Bridge.  Chaudiere  Railway  124 

Bridge  Iron 62 

British  Canadian  Investment  Co 123 

British  Columbian  Lands,  C.  P.  Railway. —    21^ 
Burlington  Bay,  Canal  Bridge ..1 131 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway 23 

Cape  Termentine  Railway  102 

do    Traverse  Railway  ..'. 102 

Cascumpec  Harbor ,  127 

Castle  Garden,  Quebec 112 

Cattle  Exported , 41 

Census 28  &  103 

Oharybdis,  .Steam  Corvette ^% 

Ciiaudiere  Railway  Bridge. 124 

Civil  Service  Commission,  Report  of.  113 

Coal  Imported 118 

C 0-0 p'.' rati ve  Association,  Customs  Officers'...  69 

Customs'  Appraisals <, 64 


Delegates'  Expenses 110 

Dismissal?,  Public  Service 17 

D.^minion  Police,  Expenditure  of 97 

do        Statutes  -.. ■ 35 

do        Surveyors 87 

do        City  Post-Offiee 135 

Drawbacks  on  Goods  63 


E  No. 

Eagan,  J.  B 108 

Emigration,  Ireland  to  N.  W..    68 

do           via  Sarn;a  and  Windsor 67 

Esquimau  k  Xanaimo  Railway   139 

Estimates,  Public  Service „..  1 

do         Department  of  Interior 88 


Fishery  Statistics...,. c 54 

Fishing  Licenses 99 

Fish-Breedmg,  Newcastle 134 

Pood,  Failure  of,  N.W 85 

French  Translators 78 

French  Shipping  Bounties  Bill 8& 


O 


Geological  Survey 32 

Graduates,  Military  College.. 101 

Grain!Rates,  via  Halifax 61 


Halifax  and  Great  Britain,  Freight  to 61 

do       Commission  ... 104 

Hamilton  Coloni7,;ition  Company,  N.-W 1\m 

Health  Legislation     „     98 

Hudson  Bay  Company Ill 

do  Navigation     ,   \\\b 


Immigrants,  Manitoba 109 

Indian  Affairs,  Report  of  Department  of. 14 

Indians,  N.-W.  Territories 85 

Inland  Revenue,  Report  of  Department  of. 4 

Insurance 13 

Intercolonial  Railway. 36 

Interior,  Report  of  Department  of 3 

do       Department  of,  Estimates 88 

Ireland,  Relief  of 76 

Iron  and  Gold  Ore 40 

Island  Railway,  B.C.........  ,,...  ,.,.,..., 49 


S  No. 

Judges' Retiring  Allowances « 55 

Judicial  Work,  Quebec t6 

J. 

Lachine  Canal « 29 

Lake  Erie  Surveys , 130 

Land  Guides,  N.-W 44 

Laval  University „ 47 

Leeds  and  Grenville  Judgeship 145 

LeSueur,  Mr.,  Superannuation  of 96 

Librarian,  Report  of. , 15 

Life-Saving  Stations 12 

Lislois,  Joseph  C ,.  140 

Locomotives  Purchased , 51 

London  Agents 16 

Lower  Lightship,  Traverse 81 

Luard,  Major-General,  Appointment  of 57 

do                 do         Complaints  of 82 


Manitoba  Colonization  Society „.  ., 211 

do        Lake 119; 

do        Land  Patents : 20  ; 

do        and  N.-W.  Territories «,. 21  ' 

Marine  and  Fisheries,  Report  of. 11  ' 

Meaford  Harbor 144 

Military  College  Graduates lOJ 

Militia,  Report  of  the  Department  of,. 9 

Montreal  Registry  OfBce , 94 

Mounted  Police  Supplies 45 


X 


New  Carlisle  Harbor. 92 

Nicolet  River 137 

North  Store  Mails 95 

Ncrth-West  Territories — New  Names 105 


o 

Official  Debates,  House  of  Commons 120 


Paris  Exhibition < 75 

Penitentiaries,  Report  on 65 

Pickled  Fish,  Shelburn 38 

Point  St.  Pierre,  les  Becquets 122 

Police  Magistrates,  Appointment  of 79 

Port  Hooa  Wharf 143 

Postmaster-General,  Report  of 7 

Post-OfiSce  Orders 132 

do  Dominion  City 135 

do  Montreal ,  .,., 115 

do         Parkhill , « 37 

do  Prescott ..„ 126 

do  Sorel • 114 

Prince  Edward  Island  Railway  Accident 71 

Public  Accounts^ .,..v... 1 

do     Works,  Report  of  Department  of 6 


Quebec  &  Lake  St.  John  Railway. 70 

Q.,  M.,  0.  &  0.  Railway  Purchase 142 


«  No. 

Railway'  Lands,  B.C 210 

Railways  and  Canals,  Report  of  Department 

ot 5 

Railways,  Cunsiiuction  of  Old  Account 5a 

do  Statistics 56 

Receipts  and  Expenditure... 24 

do  Payments 80 

Reservations,  Public  Lands,  N.W , 2ln 

Refeiigouche  Feiry  .. 93 

Rice  ana  Powder,  B.C 117 

liondeau  Harbor  of  Refuj^e 34 

Ryland,  G.  11 94 

S 

Savings  Banks 22 

SecietarN  of  Slate,  Report  of. 10 

Selkirk  Crossin^j,  C.P.R 2lJ 

Settlement  Bell,  .Mauituba  20 

Shelburne  Fi&Lery  Officer 53 

ShippegaD,  N.B.,  Breakwater -  100 

Shipping  Bounties,  French  Bill 8& 

Silver  Oie 83 

Smoked  Herrings,  iD.speciiou  Fee 43 

Souris,  VV  est,  Breakwater 138 

Special  Warrants.... 18 

St.  Vincent  de  Paul  Peuitentiary 121 

Statutes,  Douiinion,  Distribution  of 35 

Squatters,  Point  Pelee  Reef. 106 

St.  Francis  River 74 

Superannuation  Allowances 25 

Supreme  and  Exchequer  Courts 46 

Sugars,  vtd  Halitax 26. 

T 

Thames  River  Surveys 48 

Timber  Limits,  N.-W,  Territories 86 

do             Quebec 42 

Tobacco,  Canadian 31 

Toronto  harbor 130 

Trade  and  Navigation  Tables 2 

Travelling  Expenses 110 

Trent  Valley  Canal 62 

Tuck,  S.  P 90 

U 

Unforseen  Expenses 19- 

Union  Suspension  Bridge,  Ottawa 146 

V 

Vankleek  Bill,  Postmaster  of 128 

W 

Weights  and  Measures 39 

Wheat  Grinding 6^ 

Wiarton  Harbor H^ 

Williamsburgh  Canal 68 

Wilson,  Major  C • ^3 

Window  Shade  Cloth 125 

Winter  Port,  Boston ^ 133 

Wreckage,  Canadian  Waters' ^4 

Wrecking  and  Towing,  Inland  Waters..^ 50 

Y 

Yamaska  River — •••  1-29- 


44  Yictoria 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


LIST      OF     SESSIONAL     PAPERS. 


AEEANGED   NUMEEICALLY   AXD   LN  VOLUMES. 


No.    1. 


No.    2... 


co:ntents  of  volume  no.  i. 

Pdblic  Accounts  :— The  Public  Accouiits  of  Canada,  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  30th  Jane,  1880. 

Estimates  of  Canada,  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  3Dth  June,  1882. 

Supplementary  Estimates  of  the  amounts  required  for  the  service  of  Canada, 
for  the  year  ending  30th  June,  1881. 

Further  Supplementary  Estimates  of  the  amounts  required  for  the  service 
of  Canada,  for  the  year  ending  30th  June,  1881. 

Supplementary  Estimates  of  sums  required  for  the  service  of  the  Dominion, 
for  the  year  ending  30th  June,  18S2. 


contents  of  volume  No.  2. 

Trade  and  Navigation  : — Tables  of  the  Trade  and  Navigation  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada, 
for  the  fiscal  year  ended  30th  June,  1830,  compiled  from  official  returns. 


No.    3... 

No.    4... 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  No.  3. 

Interior  :— Report  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior  for  the  year  ended  30th  June,  1880. 

Inland  Revenue  : — Reports,  Returns  and  Statistics  of  the  Inland  Revenues  of  the  Dominion 
of  Canada,  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  30th  June,  1880, 

Supplement  No,  1 :— Canal  Statistics  for  the  close  of  Navigation  of  1880. 

Supplement  No.  2  :— Weights  and  Measures,  1880. 

Supplement  No.  3: — Report  on  Adulteration  of  Food  for  1880. 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  No.  4. 

No.    5  ..[Railways  and  Canals: — Annual   Report  of  the  Minister  of  Railways  and  Canals  for  the 
i  fiscal  year,   1st  July,  1879,  to  30th  June,  1880,  on  the  works  under  his 

control. 


No.    5a.. 


No.    5^ 


Return  to  Order;  Stating  the  names  of  the  several  persons  to  whom  was 
paid  the  sum  of  $23,y31,  given  in  page  10  of  the  Report  of  the  Minister  of 
Railways  for  the  year  ending  30th  June,  1880,  as  the  total  sum  paid  for 
"  Construction  of  Railways,  old  accounts."     (Not  printed.) 

Statistics  ;  Reports,  Railway  Statistics  of  Canada,  and  Capital,  TuafBc  and 
Working  Expenditure  of  the  Railways  of  the  Dominion,  for  the  year 
ended  30th  June,   1880. 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.    6... 
No.    7... 


Public  Works  :— Annual  Report  of  the  Minister  of  Public  Works,  for  the  fiscal  year,  1st  July, 
1879,  to  the  30th  June,  18S0,  on  the  works  under  his  control. 

Postmaster  General  :— Report  of  the  Postmaster  General,  for  the  year  ended  30th  June,  1880. 


No.    8... 

No.    9... 

No.  10... 


No.  11... 


CO:^[TENTS  OF  YOLTJME  No.  5. 

Auditor-General  :— Report  of  the  Auditor-General  on  Appropriation  Accounts,  for  the  year 
ended  30th  June,  1880. 

Militia  :— Report  on  the  state  of  the  Militia  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  for  the  year  1880. 

Secretary  of  State  :— Report  of  the  Secretary  of  State  of  Canada,  for  the  year  ended  31st 
December,  1880. 


No.  12... 
No.  13... 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  No.  6. 

Marine  and  Fisheries  :— Thirteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Department  of  Marine  and  Fisheries, 
being  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  30th  June,  1880. 

Supplement  No.  1 : — Report  of  the  Board  of  Steamboat  Inspection,  &c.,  for 
the  year  ended  3lst  December,  1880. 

Supplement  No.  2  : — Report  of  the  Commissioner  of  Fisheries,  for  the  year 
ended  31st  December,  1880. 


CONTENTS   OF  VOLUME  No.  7. 

Agriculture,  Report  of  Minister  of  : — Report  of  the  Minister  of  Agriculture  for  the  Do- 
minion of  Canada,  for  the  calendar  year  1880. 

Insurance,  Abstract  and    Statements  of  : — Abstract  for  1880,  and   Report  of  the  Super- 
intendent of  Insurance,  for  1879. 


CONTENTS   OF  VOLUME   No.  8. 

No.  14... [Indian  Affairs:— Annual  Report  of  the  Department  of  Indian  Afiairs  of  the  Dominion  of 
Canada,  for  the  year  ended  3lst  December,  1880. 

Librarian  of  Parliament: — Report  of  the  Librarian  of  Parliament  on  the  state  of  the 
Library  of  Parliament. 

Agents  in  London  :— Return  to  Order,  showing  the  amounts  of  Money  in  the  hands  of  the 
Agents  in  London,  on  the  first  day  of  each  month,  in  the  years  1876, 
1877,  1878  and  1879,  with  a  Statement  of  the  rate  of  interest  allowed. 

Dismissals  :— Return  to  Order  ;  Names  of  persons  whose  services  have  been  dispensed  with, 
or  who  have  been  superannuated  or  transferred  from  one  of&ce  to  an- 
other, since  13th  February,  1879 ;  together  with  the  reasons  for  such 
superannuation  or  transference. 

Special  Warrants  :— Statement  of  Special  Warrants  issued  b^  His  Excellency  the  Governor 
General,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  Act  41  Victoria, 
Chapter  7,  Section  32. 

Unforeseen  Expenses  :— Statements  of  payments  charged  to  Unforeseen  Expenses  by  Orders 
in  Council,  from  the  1st  July,  1880,  to  date,  in  accordance  with  the  Act 
43  Victoria,  Chapter  10,  Schedule  B. 

Settlement  Belt,  Manitoba  :— Return  to  Order;  Applications  for  Patents  in  the  Settlement 
Belt,  part  of  the  Parish  of  Saint  Peter,  in  Manitoba  ;  all  evidence  taken 
in  reference  to  the  title  of  the  late  Chief  Pegais  to  lands  in  said  Parish. 
{Not  printed.) 


No. 

1 

15... 

No. 

16... 

No. 

17... 

No. 

18... 

No. 

19... 

No. 

20... 

i 

44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A,  1881 


No.  21. 


Xo.  21a..! 


No.  21b.. 


No.  2Ic. 


Manitoba  and  North- West  Territories  : — Return  to  Order;  Shewing  the  quantities  of  lands 
sold  by  the  Government  of  Canada  in  the  Province  of  Manitoba  and  the 
North-West  Territories  ;  also,  the  quantity  disposed  of  by  free  grant  or 
otherwise. 

Return   to   Order ;    Notices  published  since   the  accession  to  office  of  the 
Ministry  on  the  subject  of  settlement  or  sale  of  the  Public  Lauis  in  any 
,  part  of  Manitoba  or  the  North-West. 

Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  touching  the  sale  of  large  blocks  of  land 
in  the  North-West  to  Mr.  Brassey,  or  to  any  other  individual,  with  a 
description  of  any  such  grant. — (Not  prinieJ.) 

Return  to  Order;  Statement  of  the  total  number  of  acres  of  land  sold 
and  taken  up  as  homesteads  and  preemption  rights  from  the  acquisi- 
tion of  the  North-Wast  up  to  31st  October  last,  and  the  total  amount 
received  in  money  therefrom. 

Return  to  Address;  Copy  of  any  Order  in  Council  granting  tracts  of  land  in 
the  North-West  to  any  Railway  Company  other  than  the  Manitoba 
South-Western  Colonization  Railway  Company  ;  also,  as  to  the  route  or 
termini  of  any  such  Railways. — (Not  printed) 

Return  to  Address;  Copy  of  the  Order  in  Council  granting  about  1,328,000 
acres  of  land  in  the  North-West  to  the  Manitoba  South- Western  Coloni- 
zation Railway  Company  ;  also,  as  to  the  route  or  terminus  of  the 
Railway. 

Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  or  papers,  not  already  brought  down, 
touching  any  sale  of  land  in  the  North- West  to  any  Railway  Company. 

Return  to  Order;  Shewing  the  amount  appropriated  each  year  on  account  of 
Dominion  Lands,  the  sum  expended  in  surveys  and  the  amount  expended 
in  management. 

Return  to  Order ;  Of  the  quantity  of  lands  actually  surveyed  in  Manitoba 
and  in  the,  North-West  Territory,  the  cost  of  such  survey  to  the  30th 
of  June  and  the  1st  November  last,  the  number  ot  surveyors  employe! 
and  the  average  number  of  lots  surveyed. 

Return   to  Order;     Statistics  on  which  were   based  the   plans  and  prices 
I  adopted  in  1879  for  the  sales  of  Railway  Lands  and  Pre-emptions,  and 

1  now  in  foTCQ.~(Not printed.) 

No.  21  j..  Selkirk  Croseing,  C.  P.  R.:— Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  reference  to  the  claims  of 
persons  whose  lands  have  been  expropriated  for  the  Selkrk  Crossing,  of 
the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway. — {Not  printed). 


No.  21  i.. 


No.  21e.. 


No.  21/.. 


No.  21^.. 


No.  21/i.. 


No.  21e.. 


No.  2\k. 


British  Columbia  Lands,  C.  P.  R. — Return  to  Address ;  Orders  in  Council,  and  Correspondence 
with  the  Government  of  British  Columbia,  touching  the  lands  appro- 
priated for  the  construction  of  the  Pacific  Kailway  in  that  Province. 


No.  21^..  Colonization  Society,  Manitoba: — Return  to  Order;  Documents  which  have  passed  between 
the  Department  of  the  Interior  at  Ottawa  and  the  Dominion  Laads 
Office  at  Winnipeg,  or  the  President  of  the  Colonization  Society  of 
Manitoba,  respecting  the  grant  to  or  the  exchange  of  the  Reserve  Lands 
of  the  said  Society ;  and  also  respecting  the  difficulties  which  arose 
in  1878  in  connection  with  the  settlement  of  Tache  Township. — (Not 
printed.) 


No.  21m. 


No.  21w. 


No.  21o, 


^ 


Hamilton  Colonization  Co.,  N.W.: — Return  to  Address,  respecting  the  claim  of  settlers  on  lands 
set  apart  for  the  Hamilton  Colonization  Company,  in  the  Bird  Tail  Land 
District,  to  be  allowed  to  take  up  their  pre-emptions  at  one  dollar 
per  acre. — (Not printed.) 

Reservations,  Public  Lands,  N.-W.  :— Return  to  Address  ;  Orders  in  Council  by  which  the 
Government  have  set  apart  reservations  of  the  Public  Lands  of  Manitoba 
for  the  benefit  of  the  Half-breeds,  or  Indian  population,  who  were  resi- 
dents previous  to  the  time  the  Dominion  held  control  of  the  North-West 
Territory;  also  those  which  have  been  set  apart  for  Steamship  Com- 
panies, Mennonites,  Icelanders,  &c.     (Not printed.) 

Railway  Lands,  B.C. : — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  and  telegrams  between  Mr.  J.W. 
Trutch  and  the  Government,  respecting  the  Railway  lands  in  British 
Columbia.     (Not  printed.^ 


44  Yictoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  22  ..'Savings  Banks 


-Three  approved  Minutes  of  Council,  relating  to  the  administration  of 
Savings  Banks,  and  to  the  computation  of  the  rates  of  interest  allowed  on 
Deposits  in  such  Banks,  &c.,  <fec. 


No.  23...  Canadian  Pacific  Railway: — Memorandum  of  estimated  cost  of  constructing  certain  sections 
of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway, — and  also,  a  Statement  of  Expenditure 
on  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  to  30th  November,  1880. 


No.  23(r. 

No.  23&. 
No.  23c. 
No.  23ci 

JSo.  23e. 


No. 

23/ 

No. 

23^. 

No. 

23/1.  1 

No.  23?. 


No.  23;.. 


No   23k. 


No.  23/.. 


No.  23m 


Return  to  Order ;  Copies  of  all  offers  made  by  the  Government  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  line  of  Railway  from  any  part  of  the  proposed  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway  line,  to  Sault  St.  Marie. 

Return  to  Order ;  Copies  of  Contracts  for  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway, 
in  terms  of  Section  19  of  the  Act  37  Vic,  cap,  14.    {.Not printed,') 

Return  to  Address  ;  Copy  of  the  Royal  Commission  issued  to  Messrs.  Clarke, 
Keefer  and  Miall,  to  enquire  into  certain  public  matters. 

Return  to  Order;  Reports  of  Surveys  made  since  last  Session  on  the  line 
from  South-East  Bay  to  SauU  Ste.  Marie,  or  on  the  line  between  South- 
East  Bay  and  Thunder  Bay. 

Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  connection  with  the  Georgian  Bay 
Branch  (of  the  Pacific  Railway)  contract,  since  the  9th  day  of  February, 
1880  ;  also  particulars  of  settlement  of  the  claims  preferred  by  Smith,  Ripley 
&  Co.,  or  Heney,  Charlebois  and  Flood,  in  connection  with  said  contract. 

Return  to  Order;  Showing  any  modifications  made  under  the  provisions  of 
any  of  the  contracts  for  the  construction  of  any  part  of  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway,  prior  to  the  21st  October  last,  and  of  any  estimates  made 
as  to  the  result  of  such  modifications  on  the  expense  of  the  work. 

Return  to  Order;  Map  shewing  the  proposed  Railway  grants,  under  the 
Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Contract  on  the  Table.     \Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  showing  the  various  modifications  and  altera- 
tions made  in  location,  design  and  otherwise  whereby  the  estimated  cost 
of  the  Sections  of  the  Pacific  Railway  between  Kamloops  and  Yale ; 
between  Yaie  and  Port  Moody;  between  Thunder  Bay  and  Selkirk; 
between  Selkirk  and  Jasper ;  between  Jasper  and  Kamloops  were 
reduced  in  April,  1880,  from  the  estimate  of  1878,  and  a  Statement  of  the 
amount  of  such  estimates  of  1878. 

Return  to  Order ;  Return  of  all  receipts  from  Government  Railways  in 
operation  in  the  Province  of  Manitoba  and  the  Territory  of  Kewaydin, 
during  the  months  of  September,  October  and  November. 

Return  to  Order  ;  Return  of  the  surveys  made  in  the  Fall  of  1879  and  Winter 
of  1879-80,  by  the  officers  of  the  Pacific  Railway  Survey,  of  the  Southern 
Route  or  Shore  line  between  Red  Rock,  JSipigon  Bay  and  the  terminus  of 
the  Pacific  Railway  at  Thunder  Bay. 

Return  to  Address ;  Correspondence  touching  the  contracts  for  the  two 
Sections  of  100  miles  each  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  West  of  Red 
River,  and  touching  the  cancellation  of  either  of  the  said  contracts,  the 
execution  of  the  work  thereon  and  the  cost  thereof. 

Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  showing  the  quantity  of  steel  rails  and  fasten- 
ings bought  by  the  Government  in  1879,  and  the  average  price  thereof; 
Statement  of  interest  on  such  price  from  the  date  of  payment  at  the  rate 
at  which  part  thereof  are  to  be  conveyed  to  the  Canada  Pacific  Railway 
Company. 

2nd.  The  quantity  of  such  rails  and  fastenings  already  delivered. 

3rd.  The  quantity  of  such  rails  and  fastenings  already  used  by  the  Govern- 
ment, and  the  quantity  required  for  the  completion  of  the  Government 
part  of  tne  Railway, 

4tli.  The  quantity  which  will  remain  for  conveyance  to  the  Company,  and 
the  price  thereof. 

5th.  The  market  value  of  such  last  mentioned  quantity  on  the  average  prices 
for  each  of  the  months  of  September  atid  October,  A.D.  1880,  and  on  the 
price  of  21st  October,  1880. 

A  new  offer  for  the  construction  and  operation  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Rail- 
wav,  submitted  to  the  Honorable  Sir  Charles  Tupper,  K.CM.G  ,  M.P., 
Minister  of  Railways  and  Canals,  for  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  Ottawa. 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A. 1881 


No.  23/?.. 

No.  233- . 

No.  23r.. 
No.  235.. 

No.  23/.. 

No.  23w. 

No.  23v. 

No.  24... 

No.  25... 
No.  26... 

No.  27... 
No.  28... 
No.  29... 

No.  30... 
No.  31.., 

No.  31a. 


No.  23n    Canadian  Pacific  Railway: — 'Retura  of  Telegrams  respecting  deposits  held  on  account  of 
the  new  offer  for  the  constructioa  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway, 

No.  23o..  Return  to  Order  ;  Information  on  which  the  Government  based  their  judg- 

ment in  accepting  the  Union  Pacific  Railway,  as  the  same  was  whan  first 
constructed,  as  The  standard  regulating  the  quality  and  character  of  the 
proposed  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  its  materials  and  equipment,  and  of 
any  detailed  estimate  which  has  been  made  by  any  Officer  of  the  Govern- 
ment as  to  the  cost  of  the  works  under  progress  and  to  be  constructed  by 
the  Government,  and  of  those  to  be  constructed  by  the  projected  Com- 
pany, according  to  such  standard. 

Return  to  Address  ;  Copy  of  the  Order  in  Council,  passed  in  or  before  the 
year  18Y3,  fixing  Esqniraalt  as  the  Western  Terminus  of  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway.     {Not  vrinied.^ 

Return  to  Address ;  Correspondence  between  the  Government  and  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  Haggas  Patent  Water  Elevator  for  Locomotives,  which 
was  furnished  to  the  Government  on  the  first  Section  of  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway,  West  of  Thunder  Bay,  last  year.     (^Not  'printed  ) 

Return  to  Address  ;  Memoranda  and  Orders  in  Council  relating  to  the  with- 
drawal ot  Sandford  Fleming-,  from  the  position  of  Chief  Engineer  of  the 
Canadian  Pacific  Railway.     (.Not printed.) 

Return  to  Order;  Statement  of  the  quflntity  and  value  of  the  iron  for 
bridging  on  ihe  Canadian  PaHfi?  Kailway,  from  Selkirk  to  Kamloops, 
and  information  as  to  the  number,  length  and  character  of  the  bridges. 
(iYoi  printed.) 

Return  to  Order ;  Correspondence  respecting  the  claim  of  C.  Horetzky,  for 
Higher  compensation  than  be  has  received  for  his  services  in  exploring 
the  region  between  the  Skeena  and  Peace  Rivers,  in  the  year  1879.  {Not 
printed.) 

Communication  from  Mr.  C.  Drinkwater,  Secretary  of  the  C  P.  R.  Co.,  dated 
Montreal,  25th  Feijruary,  1881,  transmitting  an  extract  from  the  minutes 
of  the  first  meeting  of  the  Directors,  having  reference  to  the  proposed 
agreement  between  the  Government  and  the  Company,  on  the  subject 
of  running  powers  over  a  portion  of  the  C.  P.  R.  to  Callander  Station, 
etc. 

Statement  of  amounts  required  for  the  Pembina  Branch  of  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway. 

Receipts  and  Expenditdre  : — In  detail,  of  the  Dominion  of  (Canada,  for  the  six  months  ending 
the  31st  January,  1881. 

Superannuation  : — Statement  of  allowances  and  gratuities  under  the  Act  33  Vic,  cap.  4. 

Sugars  ; —Return  to  Order;    showing  the  quantities  of  Sugars  sent  over  the  Intercolonial 

Railroad  from  Halifax  to  all  other   places  in  the  Dominion  in  the  years 

ending  December  31st,  1878,  and  in  March  llih,  1880,  and  the  rales  of 
freight,  &c. 

Banks  : — List  of  shareholders  of  the  several  Banks  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada.  {Not 
printed.) 

Census  : — Report  of  work  done  and  moneys  expended  on  accouat  of  the  forthcoming  census. 
{Not  ■printed.) 

Lachinb  Canal  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  of  Engineers,  in  relation  to  the  accident 
which  has  recently  occurred  in  Section  JSo.  11  of  the  Lachine  Canal, 
now  under  contract,     {Not  printed.) 

■Bonds  and  Securities  : — Statement  of  all  Bonds  or  Securities  registered  in  the  Department  of 
the  Secretary  of  State  of  Canada.     {Not printed.) 

Tobacco,  Canadian  : — Return  to  Order.  Statement  showing  the  names  and  places 
of  residence  of  all  per.?ons  who,  since  Ist  May,  1880,  obtained  licenses 
for  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  cultivated  in  Canada.     {Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order;  showing  the  amount  of  Inland  Revenue  collected  for 
Canadian  grown  tobacco,  for  the  year  ending  31st  December,  1880.  {Not 
printed. ) 


44  Yictoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No. 

32... 

No. 

33... 

No. 

34... 

No. 

35... 

No. 

36... 

No. 

"Mr. 

36a.. 
or;. 

Geological  Surtey  :— Report  of  Progreps  of  the  Geolof^ical  Sarvey  of  Canada,  by  Alfred  R. 
C.  Selwyn,  F.  R.y.,  F.G.S.,  Director,  for  the  year  1878-79,  (Aot  re -printed 
for  SessiC7ial  Papers) 

Wilson,  Major  C.  : — Return  to  Order;  Correspom^ence  between  Major  C.  Wilson,  and  the 
Militia  Department,  in  reference  to  a  Return  of  certain  Duties  paid  upon 
Riflts  imported  for  the  use  of  the  Rifle  Association  of  the  33rd  Battalion. 
(A^ot  printed.) 

Rondeau,  Harbor  op  Refugs  : — Return  to  Order  ;  showing  the  names  of  parties  who  tendered 
to  perform  the  work  advertised  durmg  the  present  year  in  connection 
with  the  improvement  of  the  Harbor  of  Refuge  at  Rondeau.  (Not 
printed.) 

Dominion  Statutes  :— Official  Return  of  the  distribution  of  the  Dominion  Statutes  of  Canada, 
being  43rd  Victoria,  Second  Session  of  the  Fourth  Parliament,  1880. 
{Act  printed.) 

Intbkcolonial  Railway  : — Return  to  Order  :  Correspondence  relating  to  the  claims  of  Mr. 
Patrick  Ultican,  of  Belledune,  Restigouche,  for  damages  to  his  farm 
occasioned  by  oveiflow  of  water,  in  connection  with  the  Intercolonial 
Railway.     (Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  selling  of  Hay  through 
King's  County,  id  tbe  Province  of  New  Brunswick,  on  the  [ntercolonial 
Railway.     (Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  and  Award  of  —  Simard,  Esquire,  Ofl&cial 
Arbitrator  in  the  case  of  Lucien  Morin,  Antille,  and  several  others  of 
the  Parish  of  St.  Hoch-des-A.ulnets,  County  of  L'lslet,  claiming  damages 
from  the  Government  on  account  of  borrowing  pits  for  the  use  of  the 
Intercolonial  Railway.     {Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order ;  Copies  of  the  notices  respecting  the  sale  of  hay  alongside 
the  trftck  of  the  Intercolonial  Railway,  and  the  names  of  the  tenderers, 
&c.     {Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order ;  Papers  and  accounts  relating  to  a  claim  made  by  G.  A. 
Girouard,  for  an  alleged  delivery  of  sleepers  on  the  Intercolonial  Rail- 
way, on  which  a  payment  of  $2,640  appears  to  have  been  made  by 
Special  Warrant. 

Return  to  Order  ;  Instructions  given  to  CoUingwood  Schreiber,  Esq.,  C.  E., 
Since  10th  October,  1878,  on  the  subject  of  enquiries  made  or  to  be  made 
by  him,  against  certain  persons  employed  on  the  Northern  Division  of 
the  Intercolonial  Railway  ;  also,  on  the  subject  of  resignations  and 
dismissals  of  persons  employed  on  the  same  division  of  the  Railway,  «fec., 
(Not  printed.) 

Return  (in  part)  to  Orler ;  Statement  showing  the  names  of  the  several 
persons  employed  on  tbe  Intercolonial  Railway,  in  Quebec,  New  Bruns- 
wick and  Nova  Scoria  :  their  ages,  nationalities  and  religious  faith  ;  their 
residence  and  the  present  amount  of  their  yearly  salary,  &c,  ;  and  the 
names  of  those  who  have  ceased  to  be  employed  on  the  railway  since  the 
18th  October,  1878.     (Not  printe  ..) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Award  of  Dominion  Arbitrators  on  a  claim  of  one  Alex- 
ander Forbes,  for  fencing  on  the  Intercolonial  Railway,  on  which  a  pay- 
ment of  $172.18  appears  to  have  been  made  by  Special  Warrant.     (Not 

printed.) 

Return  to  Order ;  Contract  between  the  Government  and  Denis  Coholan, 
dated  18th  January,  1877,  with  that  part  of  the  specification  relating  to 
the  size  and  number  of  scows  employed  with  the  dredges  operating  at 
tl  e  De^'p- water  Terminus  of  the  Intercolonial  Railway,  St.  John,  N.B 
(Not  printed  ) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Copy  of  the  contract  for  fencing  entered  into  by  Thomas 
B.  Smith,  on  tbe  latercolonial  Kailway,  in  1871-1872,  in  which  a  pay- 
ment has  b:en  made  of  $1,894  50  by  Special  Warrant.     (Not printed.) 

Return  to  Order;  Return  of  the  contracts  made  since  February,  1877,  for 
dredging  at  tbe  Deep-water  Terminus  of  the  Intercolonial  Railway,  St. 
John,  ^.B.     (Not printed.) 


No.  36c.. 


No.  36i.. 


No.  36e.. 


No.  36/ 


No.  36^.. 


No.  36A. 


No.  36i.. 


No.  36/. 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  36yfc..  Intercolonial  Railway  :— Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  the  Surrey  made  in  1880,  with  a  view 
to  the  construction  of  a  branch  of  the  Intercolonial  Railway  to  lead  by 
way  of  St.  Michael  or  St.  Charles  to  the  terminus  at  St.  Joseph  de  Levis. 
iNot  printed.) 

No.  361..  Return  to  Order  ;  Showing  the  claims  of  contractors  and  others,  arising  out 

of  the  construction  of  the  Intercolonial  Railroad,  made  or  reported  upon, 
since  the  Report  dated  November  27th,  1880,  made  by  F.  Shanly,  Esq. 

No.  36m.  Return  to  Address;  Orders  in  Council  respecting  the  claims  "of  contractors 

on  the  Intercolonial  Railway,  since  January  1st,  1880  ;  also,  for  all  in- 
structions issued  to  Mr.  Shanly  respecting  the  same. 

No.  36n..  Return   to  Order ;    Statement  showing  the  amount  and  character  of   the 

various  claims  made  by  contractors  on  the  Intercolonial  Railway  since  its 
completion;  the  cases  in  which  a  settlement  was  obtained;  also,  the 
Report  of  Mr.  Sandford  Fleming,  Mr.  C.  Schreiber  and  Mr.  Brydges  in 
each  case. 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  No.  9, 

No.  37...  Parkhill  Post  Office  :— Return  to  Order;  Evidence  taken  before  the  Post  Office  Inspector, 
in  the  course  of  the  present  year,  with  reference  to  the  affairs  of  the  Post 
Office  at  Parkhill.     (N'ot  printed.) 

No,  38...  Pickled  Fish,  Returns  of: — Return  to  Order;  Returns  furnished  the  Department  of  Inland 
Revenue  for  the  present  year  by  the  Inspector  or  Deputy  Inspectors  of 
Pickled  Fish,  for  the  County  of  Shelburne,  together  with  a  Statement  of 
the  fees  collected  by  the  said  officers.    (Not  printed.) 

No.  39...  Weights  and  Measures,  Appointments  and  Dismissals  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Appointments  or 
dismissals  made  under  the  Weights  and  Measures  Act,  from  the  1st  day 
of  July,  1879,  to  date,  and  the  causes  of  such  dismissals,  if  any  ;  and  the 
receipts  and  expenditures  under  the  said  Act. 

No.  39<r..  Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  claim  of  Theotime  Blan- 

chard,  late  Inspector  of  Weights  and  Measures  for  the  Counties  of 
Gloucester  and  Restigouche,  N.B  ,  for  the  payment  to  him  of  the  portion 
of  his  salary  withheld  as  his  contribution  to  the  Superannuation  Fund. 
(Not  printed.) 

No.  396..  Return  to  Order ;  Charges  made  against  Horatio  N.  Tabb,  formerly  Deputy 

Inspector  of  Weights  and  Measures,  of  the  evidence  taken  on  the 
enquiry  into  such  charges,  and  of  the  finding  of  the  officer  who  made 
fiuch  enquiry.     (Not  printed.) 

No.  39c..  Return  to  Order ;    Showing  the  Revenue  derived  from    the  Weights    and 

Measures  Branch  of  the  Inland  Revenue  Department,  and  the  expenditure  ; 
also,  accounts  in  detail  of  all  Instruments  purchased  for  the  use  of  the 
Weights  and  Measures  Department,  and  of  the  expenses,  on  two  occasions, 
to  England,  of  the  Commissioner  of  Inland  Revenue,     (Not  printed.) 

No.  40...  Iron  and  Gold  Ore  :— Return  to  Order;  Iron  Ore  and  Gold  Ore  exported  from  Belleville  or 
the  County  of  Hastings,  during  the  last  year.     (Not  printed.) 

No. 41...  Cattle  Exported: — Return  to  Order  ;  Comparative  Statement  of  Cattle  and  Sheep  exported 
from  Canada  to  England,  during  the  years  1879  and  1880. 

No. 42...  Timber  Limits,  Quebec: — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  between  the  Government  of 
Canada  and  the  Government  of  Quebec,  in  reference  to  the  Timber 
Limits  north  of  the  boundary  of  Quebec.     (Not  printed.) 

No.  43....  Smoked  Herrings,  Inspection  Fee: — Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  between  the  Inland 
Revenue  Department  and  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Halifax,  on  the 
subject  of  the  inspection  fee  on  Smoked  Herrings.     (Not  printed.) 


No,  44... 


Land  Guides,  N.  W.  Territories  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Showing  the  names  and  nationality 
of  all  the  Government  Land  Guides  in  the  Province  of  Manitoba  and 
the  North-West  Territories,  the  salary  or  allowance  paid  to  each,  and 
Statement  of  all  costs  and  expenses  connected  with  this  branch  of  the 
Public  Service. 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  45... 


No.  46. 


No.  47.. 


No.  4Ta. 


No.  48... 
No.  49... 
No.  50... 
No.  51. 

No.  52... 
No.  53... 

No.  54... 
No.  55... 

No.  56... 
No.  57... 


No. 

58... 

No. 

59... 

Ko. 

59a.. 

Mounted  Polios  Supplies: — Return  to  Order;  Advertisements  for  Tenders  for  Mounted 
Police  and  Indian  Sapplien,  together  with  all  Tenders  made  in  response 
to  said  Adveitisemeat3.     {Not  pnnied.) 

Supreme  and  Exchequer  Courts: — Heturn  to  Address:  Statements  showing  all  Judgments 
rendered  by  the  Supreme  and  Exchequer  Courts  since  the  1st  day  of 
January  last,  the  amount  of  claim  and  costs  in  each  suit,  and  the 
amount  of  fees  paid  to  the  Registrar  in  each  suit. 

Laval  University: — Return  to  Address ;  Correspondence  and  Memorandum  from  the  Hono- 
rable the  Minister  of  Justice  to  the  Honorable  Secretary  for  the  Colonies, 
concernin<^  the  amendment  to  the  Royal  Charter  granted  to  Laval 
TJniversity  of  Quebec,  from  January.  1879,  up  to  this  date. 

Supplementary  Return;  Showing', — 

1st.  The  Draft  of  a  proposed  new  Charter  for  the  Laval  University,  which 
Draft  was  sent  to  England  with  the  Archbishop  and  Bishop's  petition. 
.    2nd.  The  reply  of  the  Colonial  Secretary  to  that  Petition,  and  all  other 
documents  connected  with  the  Laval  tlniversity  question. 

3rd.  The  petition  and  the  "  Expose  de  faits"  of  "  I'Ecole  de  Medecine  et  de 
Ghirurgie  de  Montreal,"  registered  in  the  Honorable  Secretary  of  State's 
Office  during  the  present  month.     (^N ot  printed  for  Sessional  Papers.) 

Thajies  River  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Reports  of  Surveys  made  since  last  Session  of  the  Rive;- 
Thames,  from   Chatham  to  the  City  of  London,  with  the  view  to  the  • 
improvement  of  the  Navigation  of  that  River.     {Not  printed.) 

Island  Railway,  B.C.  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  with  the  Government  of  British 
Columbia,  or  with  any  persons  in  that  Province,  respecting  the  Island 
Railway.     {Not  yrinUd  ) 

Wrecking,  Inland  Waters: — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  between  Sir  Edward  Thornton 
and  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  United  States,  relative  to  wrecking 
and  towing  in  Inland  waters. 

Locomotives  Purchased: — Return  to  Order;  Showing  the  number  of  Locomotives,  or  other 
Railway  rolling  stock,  purchased  by  the  Government  under  contract  or 
otherwise  during  the  year;  the  places  where  they  were  manufactured 
and  purchased,  and  the  prices  paid. 

Trent  Valley  Canal  : — Return  to  Order ;  Correspondence  between  parties  in  Chicago  and 
the  Department  of  Public  Works,  or  of  Railways  and  Canals,  respecting 
constructing  the  Trent  Valley  Canal.     {Not  printed.) 

Sheleuhne  Fishery  Officer: — Return  to  Order;  Return  of  all  fines  imposed  by  the  Fishery 
Officer  of  the  County  of  Shelburne,  upon  whom,  and  for  what  offence. 
{Not  printed') 

FisherieSj'Statistics  of  : — Return  to  Order ;  Instructions  issued  by  the  Department  of  Marine 
and  Fisheries  to  their  officers,  as  a  guide  in  the  collection  of  statistics  as 
to  the  annual  production  of  the  Fisheries.     {Not  printed.) 

Judges'  Retiring  Allowances: — Return  to  Address;  Statement  of  the  Number  of  Judge- 
ships in  each  Province,  at  the  time  of  the  Union  of  such  Province  with 
Canada,  the  incumbents  of  which  were  entitled  in  certain  events  to  re- 
tiring allowances;  and  the  number  actually  receiving  such  retiring  al- 
lowances at  such  time  ;  and  a  like  statement  for  each  year  since  Con- 
federation. 

Judicial  Work,  Quebec  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  on  the  subject  of  the  distribu- 
tion of  the  judicial  work  of  the  Province  of  Quebec. 

LuAED,  Major  General  :— Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  with  the  Imperial  Govern- 
I  ment  in  relation  to  the  appointment  of  Major  General  Luardas  the  officer 

in  command  of  the  Militia  of  Canada.     {Not  printed.) 

WiLLiAMSBURGH  Canal  : — Return  to  Order:  Engineer's  Report  on  the  cost  of  increasing  the 
water-power  of  the  Williamsburgh  Canal.     {Not  printed.) 

Wheat,  Grinding  in  Bond  :— Return  to  Address  ;  Copies  of  all  Orders  in  Council  and  Depart- 
mental Regulations  for  the  grinding  of  Wheat  in  bond  in  the  Dominion 
of  Canadrt,  since  the  14th  March,  1879. 

Return  to  Order;  Showing  the  names  of  all  parties  who  have  imported 
Wheat  for  the  purpose  of  grinding  in  bond  ;  also,  Statement  of  the 
quantity  of  Flour  exported  by  each  party. 


44  A^ictoria, 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  60... 
No.  61... 

No.  61a.. 
No.  62.. 

No.  63.. 

No.  64... 

No.  65.. 
No.  66.., 

No.  67... 

No.  68... 
No.  69... 

No.  70... 

No.  70a.. 
No.  71... 

No.  72... 


BoDWELL,  E.  V, — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  on  which  was  based  the  Commission 
issued  in  the  case  of  Mr.  E.  V".  Bodwell,  then  Superintendent  of  the  Wtl- 
land  Canal ;  also,  for  all  papers  in  connection  with  Mr.  Bodwell' s  transfer 
to  British  Columbia.     (Not printed.'^ 


Grain  Rates  via  Halifax  :— Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  relating  to  rates  of 
freight  for  Grain  to  England  via  Halifax,  or  touching  in  any  way  the 
que^ion  of  the  transportation  of  Grain,  etc.,  over  the  Intercolo- 
nial Railway  and  by  steamship  from  the  Port  of  Halifax  to  Great 
Britain. 


Supplementary  Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  between  the  Department 
of  Railways  and  Canals  and  the  ownerg  of  steamships,  relating  to  rates 
of  freight  for  Grain  to  England  via  Halifax. 

Bridge  Iron.— Return  to  Order ;  Shewing  the  quantity  and  value  of  Bridge  Iron  and  Iron 
Bridges  entered  for  duty  from  the  United  States,  with  the  duty  collected 
thereon  from  1st  day  of  January,  1875,  to  15th  December,  1880,  and 
shewing  all  the  cases  in  which  any  seizure  had  been  made  lor  under 
valuation.     {Not  printed,') 

Drawbacks  on  Goods.— Return  to  Order;  Of  all  claims  presented  for  drawbacks  on  Goods 
manufactured  for  export  since  14th  March,  1879,  showing  the  names  of 
all  applicants,  etc.,  and  the  articles  on  which  the  drawback  was  claimed. 
{Not  pTirded.} 

Customs  Appraisals  of  Goods  :— Return  to  Order ;  Instructions  as  to  the  appraisera^^nt  of 
goods  sent  to  Officers  of  the  Customs,  and  all  regulations  made  under  Sec. 
iO,  cap.  15,  42  Vic,  in  legard  lo  appraisals.     {Not  j.rintei.) 

Penitentiaries: — Report  of  the  Minister  of  Justice,  as  to  Penitentiaries  in  Canada,   for  the 
•       year  ending  30th  June,  1880. 

Charybdis  : — Message;  Correspondence  on  the  subject  of  the  gratuitous  transfer  from  the 
Imperial  to  the  Canadian  Government  of  Her  Majesty's  Steam  Corvette 
Charybdis  for  training  school  purposes. 

Emigration,  via  Sarnia  and  Windsor  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Number  of  persons  who  have  passed 
from  Canada  into  the  tFnited  States  by  way  of  Sarnia  and  Windsor  since  the 
1st  of  January,  1880  ;  also.  Statement  of  the  number  of  persons  who  have 
within  the  same  period  come  into  Canada  from  the  United  States  by  way 
of  Windsor  and  Sarnia.     {Not  printed.) 

Emigration,  Ireland  to  North- West  : — Message  ;  On  the  subject  of  assisted  Emigration  from 
Ireland  to  Manitoba  and  the  North-West,  together  with  a  copy  of  the 
Despatch  from  His  Excellency  the  Governor-General  transmitting  the 
same. 

Co-operative  Association:— Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  between  the  Customs 
Department  and  the  Collector  of  the  Port  of  Montreal,  relating  to  his 
connection  with  the  Go-operative  Association,  together  with  all  Orders 
and  Regulations  of  the  Department,  relating  to  Customs  Officers  in  such 
cases.     {Not  printed.) 

Quebec  and  Lake  St.  John  Railway  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  A.  L.  Light,  Esq., 
Engineer-in- Chief  of  the  Province  of  Quebec,  relating  to  the  railway  from 
Quebec  to  Lake  St.  John,  and  the  Quebec  and  Lake  St.  John  Railway 
Company.  {Not  printed,  the  Supplementary  Return  being  a  corrected 
copy.) 

Supplementary  Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  A.  J.  Light,  Esq.,  Engineer-in- 
Chief  of  the  Province  of  Quebec,  relating  to  the  railway  from  Quebec  to 
Lake  St,  John,  and  the  Quebec  and  Lake  St.  John  Railway  Company, 

P,  E.  I.  Railway  Accident  :— Return  to  Address  (Senate)  ;  Correspondence  having  reference  to 
an  accident  which  occurred  during  the  month  of  August  last,  betv/een  the 
York  and  Suffolk  Stations  of  the  P.  E.  I.  Railroad.  Also,  a  Return  of 
the  number  of  new  sleepers  or  ties  used  on  the  said  railway  since  the 
occurrence  of  the  accident  referred  to,  together  with  cost  of  same.  {Not 
printed  for  Sessional  Papers.) 

Lifb-Saving  Stations  : — Return  lo  Order  ;  Correspondence  upon  the  question  of  establishing 
life-saving  stations  upon  the  inland  waters  of  the  Dominion.  {Not 
printed,) 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers, 


A.  1881 


No.  74.. 


^o.  73...  Boundaries,  Ontario  and  Quebec  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  between  the 
Government  of  the  Dominion  and  the  Imperial  Government,  on  matters 
relating  to  the  Boundaries  of  the  Provinces  of  Ontario  and  Quebec.  (iVbi 
printed. ) 

St.  Francis  River  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  the  Engineer  vs^ho,  in  1880,  conducted  the 
exploratory  surveys  of  the  River  St.  Frances,  in  the  County  of  Yamaska. 
(Not  printed,)  * 

No.  75...  Paris  Exhibition: — Return  to  Order;  Report  of  the  Canadian  Commissioners  appointed  in 
conneotion  with  the  Paris  Exhibition. 

No.  75a..  Return  to  OrJer  ;  Showing  the  names  &c.,  of  all  persons  appointed  by  the 

Dominion  Government  as  Commissioners,  &c.,  in  connection  with  the 
Canadian  Exhibit  at  the  Paris  Exposition,  held  in  the  year  1878  ;  also. 
Statement  of  all  moneys  paid  for  salary  of  each,  and  for  expenses  of 
living,  &c. 

No.  76...  Ireland,  Relief  of  :— Return  to  A.ddress  ;  Correspondence  respecting  the  expenditure  of  the 
sum  of  One  hundred  thousand  dollars,  voted  by  the  Canadian  Parliament 
last  Session,  for  the  relief  of  those  in  Ireland  who  were  threatened  by 
famine. 

No.  77...  Baptisms,  Marriages  and  Burials  :— General  Statement  of,  for  certain  Districts  in  the  Pro- 
vince of  Quebec,  for  the  year  1880.     {Not  printed,) 

No.  78....  French  Translators  ; — Return  showing  the  names  of  all  persons  employed  as  permanent  and 
sessional  French  Translators  of  the  House  of  Commons,  from  the  Ist 
January,  1874,  to  the  1st  February,  instant,  with  the  salary  or  wages  to 
each  of  them  respectively.     {Not  printed) 

No.  78a..  Statement  showing  the  names  of  all  persons  employed  as  additional  French 

Translators  of  the  House  of  Commons,  translating  by  page,  during  the 
last  Session  of  the  Dominion  Parliament.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  786-  Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  relation  to  the  sub-division  of  the  De- 

partment or  Office  of  French  Translators,  with  a  view  to  having  a  special 
ofSce  for  the  translation  of  the  Laws  of  Canada.    (Not  printed.) 

No.  79...  Police  Magistrates  : — Return  to  Address ;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  rights  of  the 
Provincial  Governments  to  appoint  Police  Magistrates,  Justices  of  the 
Peace,  and  Inspectors  of  Licences.    {Not  printed  ) 

No.  80...  Receipts  and  Payments  ;— Statement  of  receipts  and  payments  from  the  1st  to  the  10th  Feb- 
ruary, 1881,  and  from  the  1st  July,  1880,  to  the  10th  February,  1881. 
{Not  printed.) 

No.  81...  Lower  Lightship,  Traverse  :— Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  respecting  the  contract  for 
all  the  wood  furnished  to  the  Department  of  Marine,  for  the  use  of  the 
Lower  Lightship  in  the  Traverse,  during  the  past  summer,  and  the  price 
paid  for  this  wood,  &c.     {Not printed.) 

No.  82...  Luard,  Major-GexNeral  : — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  appointment 
of  Major-General  Luard;  together  with  copies  of  all  complaints  in  regard 
10  the  administration  of  Militia  affairs  by  the  said  Luard.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  83...  Silver  Ore  :— Retura  to  Order ;  Return  of  the  number  of  tons  of  Silver  Ore  expoited  from 
Ontario  during  the  past  five  financial  years.     {N ot printed.) 

No.  84...  Wreckage  in  Canadian  Waters  :— Return  to  Address  ;  Copies  of  all  the  evidence  collected 
in  regard  to  Wreckage  in  Canadian  waters,  particularly  on  the  shores  of 
Lakes  Erie,  Ontario  and  Huron,  and  Rivers  St.  Clair  and  Detroit,  and  of 
the  money  expended  and  to  whom  paid  for  collecting  the  same,  {Not 
printed.) 


No.  85...  Indians,     N.W. 


No.  85«. 


Territories  :— Return    to     Order ;     Statement]    shewing     in     what    parts 

of  the  North-West  Territories  there  has  been  a  total  failure  of  the  usual 

supply  of  the  food  on  which  the  Indians  subsist,  and  how  many  Indians 

in  consequence  have  been  dependent  upon  the  Indian  Department  for 

■  the  means  of  subsistence.    {Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  dismissal  of  any  Indian 
Agent  or  other  officer  connected  with  the  management  of  Indian  aflfairs 
m  the  North-West  Territories.     {Not printed,) 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  856.  Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  showing  what  proj^ress  has  been  made  in  sur- 

Teying  Indian  Reserves  under  the  Indian  Act  cf  1880.     {Not  printed.^ 

No    85c.  Return  to  Order  ;  Showing  the  name  and  nationality  of  each  of  the  instructors 

to  the  Indians  in  the  Territories  of  Uanada  ;  the  salary  or  allowance  paid 
to  each,  and  a  Statement  of  all  expenses  connected  with  the  instruction 
of  said  Indians.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  86...  Timber  Limits,  N.W.  Territories: — Return  to  Address;  Return  of  the  several  Timber  Limits 
granted  to  parties  in  the  North-West  Territories  and  Keewatin,  and  the 
names  of  those  to  whom  they  were  granted. 

No  87...  Dominion  Surveyors: — Return  to  Order;  Statement  showing  the  names  of  the  several  Dominion 
Surveyors  employed  between  the  year  1873  and  the  loth  December,  1880, 
on  Surveys  of  Public  Lands  elsewhere  than  in  their  respective  Provinces  ; 
their  ages,  &c,,  the  amount  of  their  salaries,  together  with  a  summary 
showing,  by  Provinces  and  nationalities,  the  number  of  Surveyors  now 
workingin  British  Columbia,  Manitoba  and^the  North-West.  {Not printed,') 

No.  88...  Estimates,  Dept.  Interior  and  Indian  Affairs:— Estimate  of  amounts  required  for  1881-82 
for  the  Department  of  the  Interior, — and  the  same  for  the  Department 
of  Indian  Affairs. 

No.  89..  Fkench  Shipping  Bounties  Bill: — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  relating  to  the  French 
Shipping  Bounties  Bill,  which  has  passed  the  Chamber  cf  Deputies,  and  is 
now  under  the  consideration  of  the  French  Senate.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  90...  Tuck,  S.  P.  : — Correspondence  in  reference  to  the  unpaid  liabilities  for  labor  and  materials 
of  S.  P.  Tuck  as  contractor  for  the  enlargement  of  St.  Peter's  Canal, 
Cape  Breton,     {Not  printed.) 


No.  91... 

No.  91a. 

No.  916. 

No.  91c. 

No.  91c?. 
No.  91e. 

No.  92... 
No.  93... 

No.  94  .. 
Ifo.  94a. 


Beauharnois  Canal: — Return  to  Order ;  Statement  shewing  the  date  of  the  appointment  of 
Thomas  Brossoit,  surnamed  Bourguignon,  as  Paymaster  and  Collector 
on  the  Beauharnois  Canal,  and  the  amount  of  his  contingent  expenses. 
{Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order;  Copies  of  all  leases  granted  to  any  persons  for  the  use  of 
waterpowers,  and  for  certain  privileges  in  relation  to  the  construction  of 
wharves  or  warehouses  on  the  Beauharnois  Canal.     {Not  printed.) 


Return  to  Order 
bridge  across 
printed.) 


Report  of  H.  Parent,  Engineer,  relative  to  the  change  of 
the  lock  on  the  Beauharuois  Canal,  at  Valleyfield.     {Not 


Return  to  Order;  Report  of  H.  Parent,  Engineer,  relative  to  the  lease  of 
certain  land  on  the  north  shore  of  the  Beauharnois  Canal,  at  Valleyfield. 

{Not  printed.) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Return  of  the  tolls  collected  each  year  on  the  Beauharnois 
Canal,  since  1872,  up  to  the  present  time.     {A^ot  printed  ) 

Return  to  Order;  Reports  made  by  Antoine  Dosithe  Danis,  as  Collector  and 
Paymaster  upon  the  Beauhnrnoitj  Canal,  and  submitted  by  h.m  to  the 
Departments  of  Inland  Revenue,  Public  Works,  and  of  Railways  and 
Canals.     {Not  printed.) 

New  Carlisle  Harbor  :— Return  to  Order;  Report  of  the  Engineer  who  conducted  the  survey 
of  the  Harbor  of  New  Carlisle  in  1880.     {Not  printed.) 

Restigouche  Ferry  :— Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  relation  to  the  issue  of  a  license 
to  Mr.  James  Quinu,  to  keep  the  Ferry  on  the  River  Restigouche,  between 
Cross  Point,  in  the  Province  of  Quebec,  and  Campbellton,  in  tHe  Province 
of  New  Brunswick.     {Not  printed.) 

Montreal  Registry  Office: — Correspondence  since  the  1st  January,  1875,  relative  to  the 
division  of  the  Montreal  Registry  Office,  and  the  consequent  claim  of 
G.  H.  Ryland,  Esquire,  under  the  arrangement  entered  into  with  him  by 
Her  Majesty's  Lord  High  Commissioner,  on  the  part  of  the  Imperial 
Government  in  the  year  1841.     {Not  printed  Jor  Sessional  Papers.) 

Supplementary  Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  between  the  Imperial, 
the  Domiuion  and  Quebec  Governmeats,  respectivelj,  since  1st  January, 
18  i5,  relative  to  the  division  of  the  Montreal  Registry  Office,  and  the 
consequent  claim  of  G.  H.  Ryland,  Esquire.  {Not  printed  for  Sessional 
J^apers.) 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  95...' North  Shore  Mails: — Return  to  Order  ;    Correspondence  connected  with  the  letting  of  the 
1  last  contract  for  carrying  the  North  Shore  Mails  between  Little  Current 

1  and  Sault  Ste.  Marie.     {JVoi  printed.  ) 


No.  96...  LEStJEUR,  Mr. 


No.  97... 
No.  98... 
No.  99... 

No.  99a.. 

No.  100.. 


-Return  and  Sapplementary  Return  to  Order  ;  Reports  relating  to  the  super- 
annuation   of  Mr.    LeSueur,   formerly   of  the   Post  OfiBce  Department. 

(^Not  printed  ) 


Dominion  Police  ;— Statement  of  Expenditure  of  the  Dominion  Police  during  the  year  1880, 
in  accordance  with  the  Act  31  Vict.,  cap.   73,  see-  6.     (Not printed.^ 

Health  Legislation: — Return  to  Address;  Copies  of  all  Resolutions  from  Medical  Conven- 
tions asking  for  Health  Legislation. 

Fishing  Licenses,  Lakes  Huron  and  Superior,  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Licenses  granted  for  fish- 
ing grounds  on  Lakes  Huron  and  Superior  within  the  past  two  years. 

(^j\oi2jrm(ed.) 

Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  relation  to  Licenses  granted  for  fishing 
grounds-,  within  the  past  four  years,  at  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Killarney^ 
in  the  Distn.t  of  Algoma.     (^Not  printed.) 

ShippegaNj^N.B.,  Breakwater  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Reports  of  Engineers,  or  others,  respecting 
the  repairs  made  on  the  Dam  or  Breakwater  at  Shippegan,  N. B.,  in  the 
year  1880.     {Niot  printed.) 


No.  101..  Military  College  Graduates  : — Return  to  Order;  Statement  of  the  names  of  the  Graduates 
of  the  Military  College  holding  First  and  Second  Class  Certificates  ob- 
tained in  the  last  Anu'al  Examination  ;  those  who  have  gone  into  the 
British  Army  ;  those  who  have  been  employed  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment, and  those  who  have  left  Canada  for  the  United  States.  {Not 
printed.) 

No,  102..  Caps  Tormentine  and  Cape  Traverse  Railways  :  — Return  to  Order;  Correspondence  during- 
the  past  two  years  in  reference  to  building  lines  of  Railway  from  the  In- 
tercolonial Railway  to  Cape  Tormentine,  in  Westmoreland'  County,  and 
from  Cape  Traverse,  in  Prinoe  Edward  Island,  to  the  Prince  Edward 
Island  Railway.     (N-t printed.) 

No,  103..  Census: — Return  to  Order;  Statement  as  to  the  number  of  persons  counted  during  the  last 
Census,  though  absent  from  tho  place  in  which  they  were  counted  ;  dis- 
tinguishing by  Province?,  and  also  between  those  said  to  be  absent;  a 
Statement  of  the  means,  if  any,  to  be  taken  during  the  next  Census,  to 
secure  the  suggested  information.      {Not  printed.) 

No.  103a  Return  to  Order ;  List  of  the  names  of  persons  appointed  to  take  the  next 

Census,  givmg  the  oflice  held  by  each,  and  the  District  for  which  he  is 
appointed.     (Not  printed.) 

No.  103J  Return  to  Order  ;  Copies  cf  all  written  instructions  and  forms  prepared  for 

the  use  of  any  of  the  officers  engaged  in  taking  the  Census  of  1871,  and 
the  like  information  in  connection  with  the  Census  for  1881.    {Not  printed.y 

No,  104..  Halifax  Commission  :— Return   to  Address;    Correspondence  between  His   Excellency  and 
j  Prof.  Henry  Y    Hind,  in  reference  to  alleged  inaccurate  Statistics,  sub- 

mitted to  the  "Hnbfax  Commission,"  appointed  under  the  Washington 
Treaty.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  104a  Correspondence  respecting  the  alleged  falsification  of  some  of  the  Statistics 

submitted,  as  part  of  the  English  case,  to  the  Fishery  Commission  which 
sat  at  Halifax  in  1877  ;  also,  i.'eport  by  the  Commissioner  of  Fisheries, 
with  reference  to  such  alleged  falsification,     {Not  printed.) 

No.'105..  N.  W,  Territories,  New  Names  : — Return  to  Order;    Correspondence  relating  to  the  substi- 
I  tution  of  new  names  for  ancient  and  historic   ones,   in  the  North- West 

I  Territories,  more  especially  along  the  route  of  the  Pacific  Railway.  {Not 

printed.) 

No.  i06..  Squatters,  Point  FKhtvi  Reef  :— Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  respecting  the  rights  of 
Squatters  on  tae  Naval   Reserve  on   Point  Peiee  iieef,  in  the  County  of 
J  Es-sex.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  107..  Advertising  and  Subscriptions  :— Return  to  Order  ;    Monthly    Statement    of  the   amount 
I  expended  during  the  years  1878  and  1879,  in  advertising  on  behalf  of  the 

I  Governmeut.     {Not  printed.) 


44  Victoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  108. 


Xo.  109. 


Eager,  J.  B  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  of  the  amounts  which  have  been  paid  to  J.  B. 
Eager,  late  Clerk  in  the  Hamilton  Post  Office,  since  the  date  of  his  super- 
annuation ;  also,  correspondence  in  reference  to  the  cause  of  the  said 
Superannuation.     (^Not  printed.') 


Immigrants,  Manitoba  :~Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  of  the  number  of  immigrants  who 
have  gone  into  Manitoba  and  the  North-VYest  Territories  fur  the  year 
ending  October  Slst,  1880  ;  the  number  who  have  purchased  lands  ;  the 
number  who  have  taken  homesteads  and  pre-emption  rights,  and  the 
number  of  acres  sold.     (^Not  printed.) 

No.  110..  Travelling  Expenses  -.—Return  to  Order  ;  Showing  the  expenses  incurred  by  the  several 
Members  of  the  Government,  and  other  persons  sent  to  England,  or 
elsewhere,  on  behalf  of  the  Government,  from  the  1st  day  of  Novemlaer, 
1878,  to  date. 

No.  110a  Return  to  Order;  Return  of  expenses  incurred  by  Members  of  the  Govern- 

ment, and  other  persons  sent  to  England,  or  elsewhere,  on  behalf  of  the 
Government,  from  the  ist  January,  1874,  to  1st  October,  1878. 

No.  111..  Hudson's  Bay  Co.,  Sums  Paid  To  :— Return  to  Order ;  Statement  of  all  amounts  paid  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company  by  the  various  Departments,  since  the  transfer 
of  their  Territory  to  Canada.     {Not printed.) 

No.  Ilia  Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  with  the  Hudson's   Bay  Company  with 

reference  to  the  South-east  quarter  and  the  North  half  of  Section  7, 
Township  17,  Range  20,  West  of  the  1st  principal  Meridian,  and  for  all 
Papers,  &;c  ,  respecting  the  granting  of  the  said  land  to  the  Company. 
{Not  printed.) 

No.  1116  Return   to  Address  ;    Communications  to  the   Government   since  the  last 

Session  of  Parliament,  on  the  subject  of  the  navigation  of  Hudson 
Bay.     (  Not  printed. ) 

No.  112.  Castle  Garden,  Quebec  : — Return  to  Order;  Papers  in  support  of  the  claim  of  Henry  A.  P. 
I  Holland,  to  the  Castle  Garden  property,  Quebec.     {Not printed.) 


No.  113. 
No.  114.. 

No.  115.. 

No.  116,. 
No.  117.. 

No.  118., 

No.  119. 

No.  120.. 


CONTEXTS  OF  YOLUME  ]S"o.  10. 

Civil  Service  Commission  :— Report  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission,  and  Appendix,  with  the 
Evidence  in  full. 

Post  Office,  Sorel  • — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  between  the  Government  and 
Michel  Mathieu,  Esquire,  Advocate,  M.P.P.,  in  relation  to  the  purchase 
of  a  property  for  the  establishment  of  a  Post  Office  in  the  town  of  Sorel. 
{Not  printed.) 

Post  Office,  Montreal,  Boxes  : — Return  to  Order ;  Statement  showing  the  number  of  Boxes, 
Drawers  and  Pigeon-holes  in  the  Montreal  Post  Office ;  the  number  let 
before  the  rent  was  raised,  and  the  number  of  those  not  let,  since  the 
rent  was  so  raised.     {Not printed.) 

Wiarton  Harbor  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  the  Engineer  who  made  a  survey  of  Wiarton 
Harbor.     {Not  printed.) 

Rice  and  Powder,  B.C.: — Return  to  Order;  Return  of  all  duties  collected  on  Rice  and 
Powder  imported  into  the  Province  of  British  Columbia  during  the  last 
fiscal  year.     {Not  printed.) 

Coal  Imported  ; — Return  to  Order;  Return  showing  the  quantity  of  Coal  imported  into  the 
Dominion  from  30th  June  last,  and  the  duty  collected  thereon.  {Not 
printed.) 

Manitoba,  Lake  of: — Return  to  Order;  Reports  made  since  last  Session  upon  the  present 
water  level  of  Lake  Manitoba,  and  the  estimated  cost  of  lowering  the 
same.     {Not  printed.) 

Official  Debates,  House  of  Commons: — Statement  of  the  actual  cost  in  each  year,  for  the 
last  four  years,  of  the  Official  Debates,  with  a  Statement  of  the  moneys 
paid  in  each  year  for  this  service.    {Not  printed.) 


44  Yictoria. 


List  of  Sessional  Papers. 


A.  1881 


No.  121..  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  Pknitentia.ry: — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  respecting 
the  management  and  administration  of  the  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  Peni- 
tentiary, since  the  Ist  January,  1880.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  122..  Point  St.  Pierre  les  Becqukts  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Documents  relating  to  improvements  to 
be  made  on  the  Shoals  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  off  Point  St.  Pierre  les 
Becquets.  and  of  the  Reports  of  the  Government  Engineers  in  relation  to 
the  said  Works.     {Not  printed.') 

No.  123..  British  Canadian  Investment  Company:— Statement  of  Affairs,  and  List  of  Shareholders  of 
the  British  Canadian  Loan  and  Investment  Company  (Limited),  on  the 
31st  December,  1879,  in  compliance  with  the  Act  43  Vict  ,  cap.  43. 
{Not  printed.) 

No.  124..  Chaudiere  Railway  Bridge: — Return  to  Order;  Statement  showing  the  value  for  Duty  at 
which  the  Iron  for  the  construction  of  the  Chaudiere  Railway  Bridge  was 
entered,  the  addition  made  to  said  value  by  the  Appraiser  or  Collector  at 
the  Port  of  Ottawa,  the  names  of  the  Merchant  Appraisers  appointed 
under  Sec.  45,  cap.  10,  40th  Vict.,  to  whom  the  final  appraise- 
ment was  referred.  (This  return  also  covers  the  Return  to  Order  of  20th 
December  last ;  for  correspondence  relative  to  the  seizure  or  appraise- 
ment of  the  Bridge  Iron  for  the  Chaudiere  Railway  Bridge,  and  the 
results  of  such  appraisements,  if  any.) 

No.  125. '.Window  Shade  Cloth  :— Return  to  Order;  showina:  the  number  of  yards  of  Od-fiaished 
Window  Shade  Cloth  imported  into  Canada  during  the  last  twelve 
months,  and  the  total  value  of  the  same.     {Not printed.) 

Post  Office,  Prescott  .• — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  connected  with  the  removal  of 
the  Post  Office  in  Prescott  to  the  Town  HalL     {Not  printed.) 

Casccmpec  Harbour  :— Return  to  Order;  Engineer's  Report  of  Survey  made  at  Cascumpec 
Harbour,  Prince  County,  Prince  Edward  Island,  during  the  summef-  of 
1880,  with  a  view  to  improving  said  Harbour. 

Vankleek  Hill,  Postmaster  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  in  relation  to  the  dismissal 
of  Duncan  McDonell,  late  Postmaster  of  Vankleek  Hill,  in  the  County 
of  Prescott ;  and  correspondence  with  one  McLaurin,  the  present  Post- 
master of  Vankleek  Hill,  respecting  his  appointment  to  the  said  office. 
{N'ot  printed.) 

Yamaska  River  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Report  of  the  Engineer  who,  in  1880,  conducted  the 
Exploratory  Surveys  of  the  River  Yamaska,  from  its  mouth  up  to  La 
Belle  Pointe,  in  the  Counties  of  Bagot  and  St.  Hyacinthe.    {Not printed.) 

Lake  Erie,  Surveys  : — .-(eturn  to  Order;  Reports  of  Surveys  for  Harbors  made  by  the  late 
John  Lindsay,  Esq.,  C  E.,  on  the  North  Shore  of  Lake  Erie,  between 
Point  Pelee  Reef  and  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  River.     {Not  printed.) 

Burlington  Bay  Canal  Swing  Bridge  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Order  in  Council  regulating 
the  working  of  the  Railway  Swing  Bridge  crossing  Burlington  Bay  Canal. 
{Not  printed.) 

Post  Office  Orders  : — Return  to  Order;  Showing  the  amount  of  money  sent  by  Post  Office 
Orders  to  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  and  the  United  States,  during  the 
past  year  1880,  and  the  cost  of  the  same.     {Not  printed.) 

Boston,  Winter  Port:— Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  between  the  Postmaster  General 
and  the  owners  or  agents  of  the  Allan  Line  of  Steam^^rs  relative  to  the 
selection  by  them  of  the  Port  of  Boston,  as  their  terminal  Winter  Port, 
or  in  any  way  connected  therewith.     {Not  printed.) 

Fish-Breeding,  Newcastle: — Return  to  Order;  Showing  the  cost  of  maintaining  the  Fish- 
Breeding  establishment,  at,  or  near  Newcastle,  Ontario,  for  the  year 
187G,  and  for  each  year  since,  including  the  year  1880.     {Not  printed.) 

Post  Office,  Dominion  City: — Return  to  Order  ;  Evidence  taken  before  the  Deputy  Postmaster 
of  Winnipeg  in  the  course  of  the  present  year,  with  reference  to  the  grave 
complamts  made  against  the  management  of  the  Post  Office  at  Dominion 
City  ;  also  copy  of  the  Report  of  the  said  officer.  (This  Return  contains 
the  information  required  by  a  similar  Order  of  The  House  of  the  21st 
February,  last.)     {Not  printed.) 


i>U. 

No. 

126. 

No. 

127. 

No. 

228. 

No. 

129.. 

No. 

130.. 

No. 

131.. 

No. 

132.. 

No. 

133.. 

No. 

134.. 

No.  135. 


No.  136. 


Toronto  Hakbor  : — Return  to  Order ;  Report  made  by  Government  Engineers  respecting 
works  in  the  Harbor  of  Toronto,  since  1st  January,  1880.  {Not 
printed.) 


44  Victoria.  List  of  Sessional  Papers.  A.  1881 

No.  I37..N1COLET  River: — Return  to  Order ;  Correspondence  in  relation  to  the  deepening  of  the  River 
Nicolet,  and  a  Harbor  Refuge  at  the  entrance  of  that  river.  {Not  printed). 

No.  138..SOURIS,  West,  Breakwater  : — Return  to  Order  ;  Correspondence  and  Report  of  Engineers  in 
relation  to  the  construction  of  a  Breakvfater  and  Breastwork  at  Souris, 
West,  in  King's  County,  Prince  Edward  Island.     {Not  printed.') 

No.  139..EsQUiMALT  AND  Nanaimo  RAILWAY : — Return  to  Order  ;  Reports  made  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Trutch 
respecting  a  Railway  between  Esquimau  and  Nanaimo,  and  between 
Emory  and  Burrard  Inlet.     {Not printed.) 

No.  I40..L1SLOIS,  Joseph  C.  : — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  between  the  Government  and  Mr. 
Joseph  Charles  Lislois,  in  relation  co  the  claim  made  by  the  latter  for 
the  destruction  of  one  of  his  buildings  by  fire,  and  ©f  the  Report  of  the 
Ofi&cial  Arbitrator.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  141.  Better  Adminstration  op  Justice  Act,  1878  : — Return  to  Address  ;  Correspondence  between 
the  Dominion  Government  and  the  Provincial  Government  of  British 
Columbia,  and  between  the  Supreme  Court  Judge  of  British  Columbia 
and  the  Local  and  Dominion  Governments,  on  the  "Better  Administra- 
tion of  Justice  Act,  1878,"  and  the  Judicature  Act,  1879,"  both  passed  by 
the  Local  Legislature,  together  with  the  official  protest  of  the  said  Judges 
against  the  allowance  of  those  Acts.     {Not  printed.) 

No,  142..Q.  M.  O.  &  0.  R.,  Purchase  of: — Return  to  Address;  Correspondence  between  the  Govern- 
ment and  the  Provincial  Government  of  Quebec,  concerning  the  purchase 
by  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  of  the  Quebec,  Montreal,  Ottawa  and 
Occidental  Railway,  or  the  subsidizing  of  the  same.     {Not  printed.) 

No.  143.  Port  Hood  Wharf  :— Return  to  Order ;  Correspondence  between  the  Government  and  the 
party  in  charge  of  the  expenditure  and  repairs  made  on  the  public  Wharf 
at  Port  Hood,  during  the  last  Summer  and  Fall.     {Not  printed,) 

No.  144..MEAF0RD  Harbor  :— Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  showing  expenditures  on  Meaford  Harbor  in 
years  1879  and  1880,  with  Reports  of  Engineers  relating  thereto,  since 
January,  1879.     {I^ot  printed.) 

No,  145..Leeds  and  Grenvillb,  Judgeship; — Return  to  Address ;  Correspondence  on  the  subject  of  the 
County  Court  Judgeship  and  Junior  Judgeship  of  Leeds  and  Grenville. 
{Not  printed.) 

No.  146..D'nion  Suspension  Bridge,  Ottawa  River  :  —Return  to  Order  ;  Statement  showing  the  Revenue 
and  Expenditure  in  connection  with  the  Union  Suspension  Bridge,  on  the 
Ottawa  River,  from  1867,  up  to  1st  January,  1881.     {Not  printed.) 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


REPORT 


OP    THE 


MINISTER   OF  AGRICULTURE 


FOR   THE 


DOMINION    OF    CANADA 


FOR  THE   CALENDAR  YEAR 


1880. 


fyinM  %  ^tto  tf  gskXli^mnt 


OTTAWA: 

POINTED  BY  MACLEAN,  ROGER  &  Co.,  WELLINGTON  STREET, 

1881. 


'U  Vifioria.  Sessloiiiil  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  2S81 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


Minister's  Eeport  : — 

I.  General  Eemarks. 
II.  Arts  and  Agriculture,  containing  Cattle  Trade. 

Phcspbate  of  Lime. 
Paris  Exhibltioa. 
Dominion     do 
Public  Archives. 
Census  and  Statistics. 
III.  Copyrights,  Trade  Marks,  &c. 
ly.  Patents. 

Y.  Quarantine. 
VI.  Immigration. 

Annex  : — 

Secretary's  Eeport  on  Emigration  from  Canada  on  Western  Frontier 

Criminal  Statistics. 

Tables. 

Appendices  : — 

Eeports  of  Immigration  Agents. 
do  Quarantine  Offieers. 

do  Cattle  Quarantine  Officers, 

do  Cattl®  Exportation. 

12— Aj 


44  Victorirt.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  ISSI 


REPOR 


OF    THE 


MmiSTER    OF    AGRICULTLTRE 


FOR  THE 


CALENDAR   YEAR   ISSO. 


To  His  Excellency  the  Bight  HonouraUe  Sir  Juhn  Doujhu  Sutherland  Caraphell  (commordy 
called  the  Marquis  of  Lome),  one  of  Her  Majesty  s  Most  Honourable  Privy  Council, 
Knight  of  the  Most  Ancient  and  Most  Xohle  Order  of  the  Th'stle,  a?L  /  Kn'ght  Grand 
Cross  of  thi  Most  Distinguished  Order  of  St.  Michael  <'.nd  St.  George.  Gi'Vernor- 
General  of  Canada  and  Vice-Ad7niral  of  the  same,  d-c,  cfj.,  Jgc. 

May  it  Please  Your  Excellency, — 

I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  Report  of  the  DepaitQient  oii  Agriculture  for 
the  calendar  jear  ISSO. 

I._GEXERAL    REMARKS. 

The  following  is  a  statement  of  the  number  of  letters  received  and   sent   by  the 
Department,  during  the  year  ISSO  : — 

Montks.  Recelrea.  Sent. 

January 2.672 3,451 

February 1,.S75 2.537 

March 2,645 2,S90 

April 2.012 

May 1,794 

June 1,511 

July 2,0S6 

August 1,7S3 

September 1,434 

October 1,S90 

November 1,663 

December 1,S45 

24,210  30,9SS 


2,33S 

2,943 

1,S00 

3,371 

3,063 

1,S1S 

2,701 

1,934 

2,132 

44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


The  followiug  table  shows  a  glatistical  statement  of  the  business  of  the  Depart- 
ment from  the  year  1834  to  1880,  inclusive  : 


Years. 

Letters  Received. 

Letters  Sent. 

No.  of  cases  of 
Patents,    Copyrights, 
Trade  Marks,  &c.    i 

Total  number  of 
Immigrants. 

1864 

5,422 

5,152 

181 

40,649 

1865 

6,694 

7,638 

200 

47,103 

1866 

7,435 

8,250 

337 

51,794 

1867 

7,571 

10,679 

840 

57,873 

1868 

8,696 

10,299 

643 

71,448 

1869 

9,516 

13,654 

965 

74,365 

1870 

11,442 

20,078 

1,110 

69,019 

1871 

18,416 

21,709 

2,035 

65,722 

1872 

20,271 

30,261 

2,215 

89,186 

1873 

22,216 

31,786 

3,204 

99,109 

1874 

17,970 

22,673 

3,072 

80,022 

1875 

15,623 

17,927 

4,923 

43,458 

1876 

16,562 

18,512 

4,389 

36,549 

1877 

21,796 

30,079 

4,271 

35,285 

1878 

19,815 

28,429 

4,159 

40,032 

1879 

27,259 

22,419 

4,190 

61,052 

1880 

24,210 

30,988 

4,474 

85,850 

II.— AETS  AND  AGRICULTUEE. 

Cattle  Trade.- 

The  cattle  trade  with  Great  Britain  has.  during  the  past  j^ear,  assumed  larger 
proportions  than  in  any  previous  j'ear,  and  is  daily  gaining  favour  in  the  British 
markets.  This  is,  no  doubt,  in  a  great  measure  owing  to  the  healthiness  of  Canadian 
stock,  and  to  the  very  full  and  complete  regulations  and  watchfulness  exercised  at 
the  Cattle  Quarantines,  which  protect  it  from  many  diseases  that  other  countries 
fcuffer  from.  The  total  number  of  cattle  exported  from  Canada  during  the  past  year 
was  50,905,  being  an  increase  of  25,896  over  last  3  ear,  as  will  be  seen  from  the 
following  table  :— 

1879.  1880. 

Cattle 25,009  50,905 

Sheep 80,332  81,843 

Swine , 5,385  700 

I  have  already  referred  in  my  previous  reports  to  the  superior  advantages  of  the 
St.  Lawrence  route  for  the  shipment  of  live  stock.  That  superiority  has  continued 
to  manifest  itself  in  the  comparative  smallness  of  the  losses  sustained  by  cattle 
shippers. 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


In[^the  Appendices  will  be  found  the  report  of  Prof.  MoEachran,  on  the  working 
of  the^  Cattle  Quarantines  and  Stock  Inspections  during  the  past  year.  After  a 
lengthy  correspondence  with  the  Imperial  Authorities,  and  by  means  of  negotiations 
with^the  United  States,  it  was  decided,  that  while  the  prohibition  against^  the  intro- 
»duction  of  American  cattle  and  swine  was  of  paramount  necessity,  both  as  regards 
the  health  of  Canadian  stock  and  for  securing  the  continuance  of  exemption  from  the 
slaughtering  clause  of  the  "  Imperial  Contagious  Diseases  (Animals)  Act,"  there  was 
a  possibility  of  allowing  the  transit  of  animals  in  bond  from  one  American  port  to 
another  through  Canadian  territory. 

As  regulations  were  necessary  for  carrying  out  these  precautions,  and  con- 
sidering this  in  connection  with  the  general  subject  of  stock  quarantine  and 
inspection,  the  Order  in  Council  of  the  21st  May,  18'79,  was  repealed  and  a  new 
Order  in  Council  was  passed  on  the  23rd  April  last. 

The  latter  being  a  consolidation  of  the  previous  Eegulations  and  Orders,  with 
a  still  further  Order  in  Council,  passed  3rd  May  last,  respecting  the  importation  of 
swine  for  the  purpose  of  packing,  is  now  in  effect. 

It  is  divided  into  four  chapters,  and  provides  for  the  prohibition  of  cattle  and 
swine  from  the  United  States  into  the  Provinces  of  Ontario  and  Quebec,  New 
Brunswick,  Nova  Scotia  and  Prince  Edward  Island ;  for  cattle  quarantine  in  the 
ports  of  Halifax,  St.  John  and  Quebec,  of  all  cattle  coming  from  Europe,  such 
quarantine  to  extend  over  a  period  of  ninety  days ;  it  provides  for  the  transit  of 
animals  in  bond  under  strict  regulations  of  inspection  and  segregation,  and  goes 
fully  into  the  details  of  the  precautionary  measures  to  be  exacted  from  shippers 
and  forwarders,  and  for  setting  aside  railway  cars  exclusively  for  that  transit.  The 
period  of  detention  in  quarantine  of  ninety  days,  for  cattle  imported  from  Europe, 
has  been  adopted  in  order  to  satisfy  the  United  States  Government,  and  it  was  in 
consequence  of  the  adoption  of  that  measure  that  the  Washington  Authorities 
repealed  the  Regulations  adopted  by  them,  prohibiting  the  importation  of  Canadian 
cattle  into  the  United  States. 

It  is  a  subject  of  congratulation  that  amongst  the  numerous  cattle  detained  at 
the  Stock  Quarantine  at  Point  Levis  for  the  ninety  days  period,  no  contagious  disease 
manifested  itself;  the  deaths  having  only  amounted  during  the  whole  season  to  two 
cows,  four  calves  and  one  sheep  ;  all  from  ordinary  causes. 

There  have  been  this  year,  in  the  Point  Levis  Quarantine  grounds,  at  times  over 

two  hundred  head  of  the  finest  cattle,  and  it  may  be  said  that  probably  never  were 

there  on  this  continent  such  a  number  of  prize  cattle  gathered  together  on  the  same 

spot.    The  details  of  the  operations  of  that  Quarantine,  under  the  immediate  care 

of  Mr.  Couture,  Y.S.,  will  be  found  in  the  general  report  of  Professor  McEachran, 

herewith  annexed. 

vii 


4-1  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

Besides  the  ordinaiy  inspection  and  quarantine  proceedings,  there  have  been 
several  visits  paid  to  localities  where  rumour  alleged  that  disease  had  broken  out 
amongst  cattle.  Every  case  to  which  attention  was  called  was  found  on  investigation 
to  be  either  mere  rumour,  or  some  ordinary  disease  due  to  common  causes.  The 
only  exception  was  a  form  of  disease  existing  in  the  County  of  Pictou,  Kova  Scotia, 
for  a  number  of  years,  but  an  inspection  of  the  locality,  examination  of  the  animals, 
post  mortem,  and  other  investigations  held  have  failed  so  far  to  clearly  establish  the 
true  character  of  the  disease.  It  does  not  belong  to  any  of  the  known  types  of  conta- 
gious or  infectious  diseases,  and  has  been  pm-ely  local  in  its  extent.  I  purpose 
following  up  the  marter,  and,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  local  authorities,  endeavour 
to  discover  both  the  cause  and  a  remedy  if  possible.  I,  however,  would  here  repeat 
that  there  is  no  danger  whatever  of  infection,  as  the  disease  has  invariably  remained 
localized  within  a  narrow  limit. 

T  cannot  too  thoroughly  impress  upon  all  Canadian  feeders  and  shippers  of 
cattle  the  great  importance  of  exporting  none  but  first-class  animals.  Much  has 
already  been  done  to  improve  the  breed  of  cattle,  but  there  still  remains  much  to  be 
done  in  this  direction. 

To  obtain  the  breed  best  adapted  for  feeding,  with  the  view  of  making  Canadian 
beef  occupy  the  first  place  in  European  markets,  rests  with  the  Canadian  farmer. 
All  in  this  trade  should  ship  none  but  well  fed-cattle,  and  take  every  precaution  to 
see  that  they  are  well  and  properly  cared  for,  both  in  the  shipping-yards  and  on 
the  railway,  prior  to  being  placed  on  board  the  vessel.  On  the  latter,  the  means  of 
proper  and  systematic  ventilation  should  be  well  looked  after,  and,  with  the  exercise 
of  care  and  attention  to  their  wants  during  the  voyage,  cattle  should  arrive  in 
Liverpool,  or  any  other  port  for  which  they  are  destined,  in  as  good  or  even  better 
condition  than  when  leaving  the  port  of  embarkation.  As  it  is  largely  to  the  inter- 
est of  our  Canadian  shippers  that  their  beef  should  be,  from  its  quality,  the  first  in 
demand  on  the  European  markets,  I  would  again  impress  the  desirability  of  ship- 
ping none  but  beef-cattle  of  the  best  quality.  There  is  another  matter  of  especial 
interest  and  import  to  the  Canadian  farmer  in  the  feeding  of  cattle  before  shipment; 
that  is,  the  benefit  that  must  accrue  to  the  land  when  the  manure  from  such  an  opera- 
tion is  restored  to  it,  and  on  our  partially  worn-out  and  exhausted  soils,  the  result 
of  over-cropping  and  constant  getting  of  cereals  from  the  land  is  only  too 
apparent.  Where  this  system  has  been  carried  on,  and  the  want  of  manure  is 
felt  to  replenish  the  elements  abstracted  from  the  soil,  the  OTil  has  become  too 
marked  to  pass  by.  The  facilities  for  cropping,  and  the  diminished  labour  attending 
that  branch  of  farming,  together  with  the  former  low  price  of  meat,  as  compared  with 
stock  raising,  have  contributed  to  this  evil,  and  the  time  has  now  arrived  when  the 
proper  remedy  can  be  provided,  which  is  afforded  by  the  English  markets  so 
readily  taking  our  supply  of  cattle.    I  feel  that  this  subject  cannot  be  too  freely 

impressed  on  our  agriculturists  generally. 

viii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Phosphate  of  Lime. 

Attention  was  called  in  my  Eeport  for  18Y8  to  large  deposits  of  phosphate  of 
lime,  which  were  ascertained  to  exist  in  this  country,  and  the  mining  and  shipment  of 
which  bid  fair  to  become  a  large  and  profitable  eource  of  industry.  This  trade, 
however,  received  a  severe  check  in  1871^,  owing  to  the  successive  bad  harvests  in 
G-reat  Britain,  which  reduced  the  consumption  of  this  article  to  a  minimum.  With 
the  opening  of  the  year  1880,  however,  the  demand  from  England  materially  increased 
the  price  of  this  fertilizer,  and  the  shipments  which,  in  1819,  fell  to  about  6,000 
tone,  increased  in  1880  to  about  12,000  tons.  On  account  of  the  h'gh  grade  of  Cana- 
dian phosphate  (from  TS  to  95  per  cent.,)  it  may  now  be  considered  as  having  secured 
a  firm  foothold  in  the  English  market. 

No  definite  action  has  yet  been  taken  here  in  regard  to  the  conversion  of  crude 
phosphate  into  superphosphates  ready  for  use.  The  iron  pyrites  found  in  consider- 
able quantities  in  proximitj^  to  the  phosphate  deposits  has  not  been  mined  to  any 
extent,  and  the  little  that  has  found  its  way  to  the  manufacturer  has  been  consumed 
in  the  making  of  sulphuric  acid  for  export. 

The  necessity  for  the  use  of  artificial  manure  in  the  production  of  wheat  and  other 
crops  becomes  yearly  more  and  more  apparent,  and  especially  on  this  continent  where 
the  virgin  soil  is  becoming  exhausted  by  continual  cropping,  and  a  return  to  it  of  the 
requisite  fertilizers  is  absolutely  necessary  for  profitable  cultivation. 

Practical  experience  has  shown  how  some  of  the  older  States,  whose  soil  was 
considered  inexhaustible  for  wheat  growing,  are  now  far  behind  the  Western  Statet^ 
and  Manitoba,  against  the  products  of  which,  from  virgin  soil,  they  can  only  compete 
by  heavy  use  of  artificial  and  other  manures. 

From  the  fact  of  a  fertilizer  in  our  midst,  only  requiring  to  be  manufiictured,  it 
can  readily  be  seen  what  facilities  are  afforded  Canadian  agriculturists  for  its  use, 
compared  with  Europeans,  who  have  to  pay  the  freight  and  other  charges  on  the 
same  material  even  in  a  crude  state. 

I  strongly  call  the  attention  of  our  farming  community  to  the  use  of  this  native 
product,  a  large  demand  for  which,  in  a  manufactured  state,  would  soon  call  into 
existence  works  for  the  same  amongst  us;  and  such  manufacture  would  employ 
the  labour  of  our  own  country. 

The  experiments  with  ground  mineral  phosphates  not  treated  with  sulphuric 
acid,  carried  on  for  some  years  by  the  Aberdeenshire  Agricultural  Association,  have 
led  to  the  inception  of  like  experiments  in  Canada  of  crude  phosphate  of  lime 
reduced  to  a  fine  powder  being  applied  to  the  soil.  During  the  year  1880  Professor 
Brown  of  the  Ontario  School  of  Agriculture  at  Guelph  carefully  conducted  one 
experiment.     While  the  ground  phosphate   plot  as  compared  with   a  plot  without 

ix 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

manure  showed  a  larger  produce  of  grain,  [it  [showed  a  less  produce  of  straw,  and  in 
boih  materials  it  did  not  yield  as  much  as  a  plot  with  farm-yard  manure.  Mr.  Brown, 
in  conclusion,  remarks,  "I  am  of  opinion  that  the  inquiry  should  be  prosecuted  for 
two  years  more  upon  the  same  plots,  as  Apatite  (phosphate  of  lime)  is  probably 
slower  in  its  effects  than  farm-yard  manure  and  some  other  fertilizers,  so  that  the 
future  may  tell  a  better  story  than  now." 

One  gentleman  has  for  a  second  year  experimented  with  the  ground  phosphate 
on  potatoes,  and  the  yield,  for  size  and  excellence,  has  been  unprecedented. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  increased  attention  will  be  paid  to  the  phosphate  industries, 
and  the  results  of  experiments  in  the  use  of  this  fertilizer  noted  and  made  public. 

Paris  Exhibition. 

The  bronze  medals,  with  the  diplomas  of  each  of  the  classes  of  awards,  were 
received   from   the   British   Commissioner  early   in   the  year,   and   were  at  once 

distributed. 

The  "  Honourable  Mentions  "  were  subsequently  received  and  were  transmitted 
to  the  respective  successful  exhibitors,  according  to  a  list  which  accompanied  them 
from  the  Secretary  of  the  British  Commission. 

Dominion  Exhibition. 

The  Annual  Exhibition  of  the  Association  of  Arts  and  Manufactures  of  the 
Province  of  Quebec,  for  ISSO,  was  held  in  the  city  of  Montreal  in  September  last. 
A  Dominion  character  was  given  to  the  Exhibition  by  a  vote  of  Parliament  of  $5,000, 
which  was  administered  through  my  Department.  The  Exhibition  possessed  every 
feature  of  excellence,  and  was  largely  attended.  As  was  the  case  in  18*79  at  the 
Ontario  Exhibition  at  Ottawa,  the  exhibits  of  Manitoba  and  the  North-West 
Provinces  were  shown  at  Montreal  and  attracted  a  lar^e  share  of  attention. 


to" 


Archives. 

Additions  continue  to  be  made  to  the  collection  of  Archives  relating  to  the 
history  of  the  Dominion  and  its  Provinces. 

The  work  of  preparing  catalogues  and  indexes  is  being  done  by  Mr.  Douglas 
Brymner,  the  Archivist  of  the  Dominion,  and  lists  of  the  annual  additions  will  be 
found  in  previous  reports. 

Among  the  papers  received  during^the  year  are  the  following  volumes  of  the 
Ilaldimand  collection,  copied  from  the  originals  in  the  British  Museum  in  London. 
The  woik  of  copying  the  rest  of  the  volumes  is  still  in  progress. 

Vol. 

Correspondence  with  Sir  Jeffrey  Amherst 1*758  to  1117        1 

'Correspondence  with  General  Gage 1*758  to  1*766        4 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Vol. 

Correspondence   with  Brigadier  Stanwix,  General  Abercrombie, 

General  Murray,  and  Colonel  Eobertson 1*756  to  1775  1 

lieport  of  General  Murray  on  Quebec .1762  1 

Governor  Murray's  transactions  at  Quebec. 1 

Correspondence  with  Brigadier  Barton 1760  to  1765  1 

Correspondence  with  Sir  W.   Johnson,    and  papers  on   Indian 

Affairs 1759  to  1774  1 

Correspondence   with   Brigadier   Taylor  and  others   on  Indian 

Affairs 1765  to  1774  2 

Correspondence  with  Governors  of  Provinces 1765  to  1774  1 

Letters  and  accounts  relating  to  Ordnance  affairs  at  Pensacola....l764  to  1775  1 

Accounts  of  Pensacola,  &c 1767  to  1773  1 

General  orders  and  letters  relating  to  the  Garrison  at  Kiagara...l759  to  1774  1 

Correspondence  with  Messrs.  Wallace  Boss  &  Co 17^)5  to  1778  1 

Correspondence  with  Major  F.  Ilutcheson 1766  to  1778  1 

Papers  relating  to  the  Government  of  Three  Rivers  and  the  Iron 

Works  there 1760  to  1767  2 

Papers  relating  to  Courts  Martial,  &c 1758  to  1759  1 

General  orders  and  instructions 1763  to  1777  1 

Instructions  for  the  Ordnance  Officers  and  Barracks  at  Quebec. ..1767  to  1771  1 

Accounts  and  papers  relating  to  Long  Meadow,  Maryland 1766  1 

Journal  of  exploring  expeditions,  maps  and  plans 1750  to  1780  1 

Copies  of  letters  of  General  Haldimand  as  Commander-in-Chief  .1773  to  1774  1 

Correspondence  with  Lord  Dartmouth 1773  to  1775  1 

Correspondence  with  Lord  Barrington,  Secretary  of  War 1764  to  1777  1 

Correspondence  of  the  Ministers  with  Generals  Amherst,  Gage 

and  Carleton... 1776  to  1778  1 

Letters  from  Sir  Guy  Carleton 1776  to  17  i  8  2 

Orders  and  instructions  to  General  Haldimand 1778  1 

Letters  from  General  Ilaldimaud  to  Lord  George  Germaine  and 

the  Treasury , 1777  to  1779  1 

Letters  from  Lord  George  Germaine 1777  to  1779  1 

Letters  from  English  Ministers 1782  to  178i  1 

Letters  from  the  Treasury 1777  to  1786 

Letters  from  Boards  of  Admiralty  and  Ordnance - 1778  to  1785  1 

Letters  from  the  Treasury  and  to  and  from  the  War  Office 1778  to  1785  I 

Letters  to  the  Ministry 1778  to  1790 

Letters  to  the  Treasurj^ 1778  to  1785  1 

Letters  to  the  Secretary  at  War,  Ordnance,  Admiralt}'  and  Board 

of  Trade 177S  to  1756  1 

Letters  from  the  Secretaries  of  General  Ilaldimand 1779  to  1784  1 

xi 


«> 


a 


d'i  A'ietoria.                 Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)                         A.  1S81 

YOL. 

Letters  to  various  persons. 1778  1 

Private  letters 1784  1 

Letters  to  various  persons 1781  to  17i5»l  1 

Letters  from  various  persons , 1757  to  1777  c> 

Letters  to  General  Haldimand  as  Governor  of  Quebec 1778  to  1787  & 

Letters  to  General  Haldimand  afier  his  appointment  as  Governor 

of  Quebec 1788  to  1*^91  '   1 

Minutes  of  Council  at  Quebec 1778  to  I7e4  2 

Letters  from  Adjutant-General's  Office  at  Quebec 1778  to  1783  3 

General  Orders  by  Sir  Guy  Carletou  and  General  Haldimand 1776  to  1783  1 

General  Orders  by  General  Haldimand 1783  to  1784  1 

Eegister  of  Military  Commissions 1778  to  1782  1 

^Register  of  Naval  and  Military  Commissions 1778  to  1782  1 

Warrants  for  the  ordinary  service  of  the  Army 1778  to  1784  2 

Abstract  of  Warrants  for  the  ordinary  service  of  the  Army 1778  to  1784  1 

Register  of  Warrants  for  the  extraordinary  service  of  the  Army...  1778  to  1784  6 

Abstract  of  Warrants  for  the  extraordinary  service  of  the  Army... 1778  to  1784  1 
Correspondence  with  II.  T.  Cramabe  and  H.   Hamilton,  Lieut.- 

Governors  of  Quebec 1778  to  1784  1 

Correspondence  with   officers   commanding   at   Michillimakinak 

and  Niagara 1777  to  1783  2 

Correspondence  with  officers  commanding  at  Michillimakinak 1778  to  1785  3 

Corre-^pondence  with  officers  commanding  at  Niagara 1777  to  1778  1 

Letters  to  Lieut.-Coionel  Campbell  and  others 1778  to  1784  2 

Correspondence  with  Lieut. -Colonel  D.  Claus 1778  to  1784  I 

Commission  and  instructions  to  Sir  J.  Johnson 1782  to  1783  1 

l^ejiorts  on  Indian  Nations 1 

Letters  from  officers  of  the  German  Legion    ....  2 

Journal  of  Colonel  de  la  Balme. 1779  1 

Papers  relating  to   lierre  de  Calvet  and  Boyer  Pillon 1776  to  1786  1 

Papers  relating  to  Pierre  Rouband : 1771  to  1787  1 

Papers  reluting  to  the  cases  of  Joseph   Despins  (1778)   and  the 

cartel  sloop  ''Sally" 1778  to  1781  1 

Private  diary  of  General  Haldimand 1786  to  1790  2 

^  Census  and  Statistics. 

In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the   Census   Act,  a  report  of   work  done 

and  monies  expended  on  account  of  the  forthcoming  census  was  laid  by  me  before 
Parliament. 

In  this  connection  the  examination  of  the  Statutes  and  Official  Gazettes,  both 

Provincial  and  Dominion,  to  ascertain  the  changes— municipal  and  territorial — since 

xii 


4 1  V 


ictona. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


the  taking  of  the  last  ceiisus,  have  entailed  considerable  work ;  a  re-adjustment  of 
schedules,  together  with  lists  of  each  census  district  have  been  made,  and  the  prepa- 
ratory work  is  now  approaching  completion. 

The  total  expenditure  on  Census  account  is  $0,089.95. 

The  Criminal  Statistical  tables  of  1879-80  are  published  as  an  annex  to  this 
Eeport. 

Several  representations  have  been  made  to  me  during  the  year  on  the  subject  of 
Ilealth  Eegistration  and  Tital  Statistics,  the  great  importance  of  which  is  recognized 
by  every  one.  But  the  question  is,  how  to  devise  a  measure  which  shall  be  at  once 
effective  and  economical.     This  will  receive  my  earnest  consideration. 

III._COPYEIGHrS,  TEADE  MAEKS,  INDUSTEIAL  DESIGNS  AND  TIMBEE 

MAEKS. 


The  following  table  shows  a  Compai-ative  Statement  of  the  business  of  this  Branch 
from  1868  to  1880,  inclusive:— 


-6 

So 

O 

o 

"Ss 

1 

03 

1 

•—1  OQ 

a 

fciC 
Ct2 

.5 

1 

m 
'be 

0^ 

Years. 

1 

2 

m 

1-4 

h 

o 

TO 

Cm 

o 

1- 

l-g 

o 
m'Ss 

M 

M 

o  . 

(3 

Feoa 
Received. 

O) 

o  -^ 

t^ 

S3^ 

rcM 

^-^ 

a^ 

t^ 

50  — 

^ 

-3 

O 

Z^ 

H 

o 

— 

O 

H 

O 

< 

S   cts. 

1868 

110 
198 

128 
211 

3i 
62 

34 

62 

32 
50 

32 

50 

6 

12 

6 
12 





183  00 

1869 

418  00 

1870 

473 
562 
523 
418 

473 
562 
523 
549 

68 
115 

87 
122 

66 

115 

33 

38 

72 
106 
103 

95 

72 
106 
103 

95 

23 
22 

17 

30 

23 

22 
17 

30 

190 

105 

6t 

69 

190 

105 

6t 

96 

877  00 

1871 

1,092  00 

1872 

11 

20 

927  00 

1873 .. 

940  50 

1874 

1027 

1027 

134 

55 

163 

163 

30 

30 

41 

41 

19 

1,339  50 

1875 

943 

1175 

986 
1240 

131 

178 

50 

57 

149 
238 

149 
238 

31 
4T 

31 

47 

21 
17 

21 
17 

15 
33 

1,175  00 

1876 

1,758  25 

1877 

llfO 
1210 

1246 
1285 

138 
193 

37 
61 

227 
223 

227 
223 

50 
40 

60 
40 

18 
10 

18 
10 

31 

14 

1,732  70 
1,671  25 

1878 

1»79 

1104 

1127 

184 

09 

154 

154 

41 

41 

13 

13 

24 

2,434  82 

1880 

1145 

1292 

1§5 

93 

113 

113 

40 

40 

19 

19 

28 

i;,806  15 

The  total  number  of  registrations  of  copyrights,  trade  marks,  industrial  designs 
and  timber  marks,  was  385  during  the  year  1880.  Out  of  this  number  there  were  185 
registrations  of  copyrights,  besides  93  certificates ;  14  of  interim  copyrights,  besides 
7  certificates;  2  of  temporary  copyrights  with  certificates;  113  registrations  of  trade 
marks  ;  40  of  industrial  designs;  and  19  of  timber  marks. 

The  total  number  of  assignments  of  these  different  rights  recorded  was  23.  The 
correspondence  of  this  Branch  of  the  Department  amounted  to  1,145  letters  received, 
and  1,292  sent. 


The  fees  during  the  year  amounted  to  $3,806.15. 

xiii 


44  V 


ICtOVKl. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


CO 

CO 


CO 


o 

o 


O  CO 

00  t- 

ir-i^ 

O  O 

OO  00 

-o 

a>  -i- 

CO  ro 

(M  cvj 

iO  o 

O  Ir- 

t— .  (M 

•— 1 

IM  C<I 

^Loc- 

00 

—   "-^ 

CO  CO 

■" 

C<J  t-t 


00  00  t-  I— 


■H    O 


00  r^ 


,-(  <X)  CO 


00  Tvi 


00  o 
-rf  O 


7'  a»  5 


w  03  oJ       ^   oJ  o3 
si  r:i 


E0V2  ^ 

«^  ^  0 

r*  oi  <t) 

a 


<'^ 


44  A^ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  ISSl 


lY.— PATENTS. 

■       ■   Tho  following  table  contains  a  summaiy  of  the  business  of  the  Canadian  Patent 
Office,  from  1855  to  1880,  inclusive:— 


Years, 


Applications  I       p^^^^^g 
Patents.       I 


Granted, 


18,55. 

1856 

1857. 

1858. 

1859 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 


99 

120 

126 

116 

142 

170 

160 

180 

207 

170 

184 

274 

369 

670 

781 

626 

279' 

752 

1,124 

1376 

1,418 

1,548 

1,445 

1,428 

1,358 

1,601 


92 

108 

115 

98 

112 

150 

142 

160 

156 

145 

162 

263 

218 

54G 

580 

556 

512 

670 

1,026 

1,249 

1,320 

1,382 

1,353 

1,264 

1,237 

1,406 


Caveats 
Filed, 


Transfers  of 

Patents 
Registered. 


*60 
132 
151 
184 
171 
200 
194 
185 
168 
172 
203 
227 


54 

35 

26 

47 

56 

72 

78 

74 

70 

126 

193 

337 

470 

431 

445 

327 

547 

711 

791 

761 

841 

832 

728 

855 


Fees 
Kecived, 
includine^    De- 
signs and 
Trad 3    MarlvS 
branch. 


$     cts. 

1,911  30 

2,370  50 

2.406  7(5 

2.105  00 

2,479  75 

2,644  07 

3,012  70 

3,650  90 

3,759  90 

3,267  95 

3,618  76 

6,132  78 

8,110  00 

11,052  00 

14,214  14 

14,540  07 

14,097  00 

19,578  65 

29,830  14 

34.301  98 

34,555  82 

36,187  63 

35,388  00 

33,663  67 

33,303  60 

42,141  14 


*Tbere  were  no  caveats  until  1869. 

From  the  above  comparative  statement  it  will  be  seen  that  there  wa,s  a  largo 
•ncrease  in  the  business  of  the  Patent  Office  during  the  past  year,  when  compared 
with  every  previous  year. 

The  following  statement  shows  the  number  of  Patents  for  five  years'  terms  issued 
and  allowed  to  expire  in  the  years  named  : — 


In  1871. 
1876. 


In  1872. 
1877. 


Five  Years'  Patents  issued 

do  allowed  to  expire 

Continued  in  force  bj  renewal 

Five  Years'  Term,  Patents  issued 

do  do         allowed  to  axpire 

Continued  in  force  by  renewal •.... 

XV 


495 
468 


27 


629 

572 


57 


4-1  Victoria^ 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A..  1881 


PATEN  TS— Con  tinued. 


In  1873  iFire  Years'  Terra,  Patents  issned. 


1878. 


In  1875. 
1880 


do                      do           allowed  to  expire 
Continued  in  force  by  renewal «. 


In  187i 

1879 


Five  Years'  Term,  Patents  issued 

do  do  aliowed  to  expire 

Continued  in  force  by  renewal , 


Five  Yeais'  Term,  Patents  issued.... 

do  do  allowed  to  expire. 

Continued  in  force  by  renewal 


887 
813 


74 


1,130 
1,019 


111 


1,214 
1,105 


109 


A  large  propoi'tioa  of  the  Patents  issued  for  five  years  in  1875  expired  during 
1880,  the  holders  not  renewing  them. 

The  following  statement  shows  the  numbers  and  terms  of  Patents  issued  in  the 
years  named  : —  • 


Years. 

Patents  for  five 
years'  term. 

Patents  for  ten 
years'  term. 

Patents  for  fifteen 
years'  term. 

1877 

1878 

1,286 
1,201 
1,173 
1,298 

17 

19 

8 

19 

30 
44 

1879 

1880 

58         V 
89 

XTl 


44   Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


The  Patentees  of  the  last  seven  years  resided  in  the  following  countries  :- 


Years. 


Canada 

England      

United  States... 
France  

Germany 

Other  Counties. 


Totals  ,.... 


1874. 


530 

43 

665 

3 


8 


1,249 


1875. 


1876. 


521 

575 

44 

51 

748 

736 

3 

8 

2 

3 

2 

9 

320 

1,382 

1877. 


533 

46 

767 

2 

5 

10 


1,353 


1878. 


1879. 


1890. 


j 

452 

478 

490 

32 

51 

50 

771 

695 

843 

1 

2 

6 

5 

5 

7 

3 

6 

11 

1,264 

1,237 

1,406 

The  Canadian  Patentees  were  distributed  among  the  Provinces  as  follow  :- 


1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

Ontario , 

344 

348 

380 

340 

315 

308 

334 

Quebec 

147 

134 

152 

132 

100 

133 

122 

New  Brunswick 

19 

24 

19 

22 

16 

16 

15 

fCova  Scotia 

14 

14 

21 

34 

17 

16 

18 

Prince  Edward  Island.  *.... 

4 

1 

2 

3 

2 
2 

Manitoba 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 
575 

3 
533 

1 
452 

1 

Totals 

530 

521 

478 

490 

Two  applications  for  Patents  were  found  to  be  conflicting,  and  were  settled  by 
arbitration. 

The  issue  of  49  Patents  was  objected  to  ;  but  15  of  these  were  allowed  after  altera- 
tions and  modifications  in  the  claims. 

Many  patentees  have  been  unable  to  commence  the  manufacture  ot  their  inven- 
tions in  Canada  within  the  two  years  allowed  by  law  after  the  granting  of  the  Patent^ 
and  wherever  the  reasons  appeared  sufficient,  a  further  term  of  a  few  months  was 
granted  under  authority  of  section  28  of  the  Act. 

Seven  re  issues  of  Patents  were  granted. 

The  correspondence  of  the  Patent  Branch  cantinue.s  to  increase,  also  the  demand 
for  authenticated  copies. 

The  visitors  to  the  Model  Eooms  increase  in  numbers  every  year.  Many 
strangers  neglect  signing  their  name3  in  the  visitors'  book,  kept  for  that  purpose,  so 


XV 11 


12— B 


44  Victoria,  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

that  the  exact  number  cannot  be  recorded.  But  a  compilation  of  the  names  regis- 
tered in  1880  shews  3,603,  and  it  is  estimated  nearly  double  that  number  neglected  to 
siffn  the  visitors  book  in  the  Model  Rooms. 

As  I  stated  in  my  Report  last  year  the  show  cases  in  the  Model  Rooms  ar«  over- 
crowded and  additional  space  will  shortly  have  to  be  obtained,  both  for  the  benefit  of 
the  officers  as  well  as  the  public. 

The  Patent  Record  for  1880  in  connection  with  the  Scientific  Canadian  and 
Jkhchanics'  Magazine,  as  published  by  the  Burland  Lithographic  Company,  has  been  of 
great  u?e  to  inventors,  manufacturers  and  others,  and  having  been  first  issued  in  1873 
it  now  forms  a  valuable  record  for  reference. 

Y.— QUARANTINE. 

Grosse  Isle. 

The  Medical  Superintendant  of  G-rosse  Isle  Quarantine  states  that  only  one 
vessel  was  reported  for  medical  inspection  at  that  station  during  the  year.  This  was 
the  "  Glen  Monarch,"  from  Rio  Janeiro,  on  which  there  had  been  sixteen  cases  of 
yellow  fever  during  the  voyage.     Tho  vessel  was  cleansed,  purified  and  disinfected. 

The  expenditure  during  the  season  of  18S0  was  $8,654.44. 

Port  of  Quebec. 

The  Inspecting  Physican,  Dr.  Rowand,  reports  the  past  year  as  exceedingly 
healthy,  there  being  only  thirteen  cases  of  infectious  disease,  out  of  24,997 
immigrants  who  arrived  during  the  season ;  of  these  diseases  eleven  were  measles, 
one  scarlet  fever,  and  one  small-pox.  They  were  sent  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant 
Hospital,  and  every  precaution  being  taken  there  was  no  spread  of  contagion  on 
board  or  elsewhere. 

Halifax. 

The  Inspecting  Physician,  Dr.  Wickwire,  reports  that  no  case  requiring 
quarantine  observation  was  brought  to  that  port  during  the  past  year. 

The  expenditure  during  the  season  of  1880  was  $3,712.30. 

St.  John. 
The  Inspecting  Physician,  Dr.  Harding,  reports  that  the  season  has  passed 
-without  any  serious  quarantine  requirements.  In  April  last  the  ship  "  David,"  from 
Rio  Janeiro,  arrived  at  St.  John,  the  captain  of  which  had  died  from  yellow  fever  on 
the  voyage.  A  number  of  the  crew  also  had  been  sick  with  yellow  fever  during  the 
passage.  The  vessel  had  been  well  fumigated  at  sea,  and  after  a  day's  detention,  the 
trew  being  all  healthy,  she  was  discharged  from  quarantine. 

Tho  expenditure  during  the  season  of  1880  was  $2,888.77. 

vxiii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


PiCTOU. 

The  Inspecting  Physician,  Dr.  Kirkwood,  reports  only  two  cases  of  infectious  or 
contagious  disease  requiring  his  attention  during  the  year;  both  proving  to  bo 
simply  cases  of  measles,  were  speedily  cured  and  discharged. 

The  expenditure  during  the  season  of  1880  was  $1,100.65. 

Charlottetown. 

The  Inspecting  Physician,  Dr.  Hobkirk,  reports  that  three  cases  of  yellow  fever 
were  admitted  into  the  Quarantine  Hospital  during  the  year.  The  patients  were  part 
of  the  crew  of  the  brig  "  Westaway,"  from  Demerara.  Every  preca^ation  was  taken 
by  the  captain  to  prevent  the  spread  of  the  disease  on  board,  and  on  arrival  at 
Charlottetown  the  patients,  who  were  suffering  from  extreme  debility  and  prostration 
only,  were  removed  to  the  Quarantine  Hospital,  where  they  remained  till  thoroughly 
convalescent.  The  ship  was  placed  in  quarantine,  fumigated  and  thoroughly 
disinfected  before  being  admitted  to  the  wharf. 

The  expenditure  at  this  station  during  the  year  was  8915.85. 

Tracadie. 

In  pursuance  of  the  vote  of  Parliament  of  $3,000  for  maintenance  of  the  Tracadie 
Lazaretto,  which  from  its  character  I  include  under  the  head  of  quarantine,  arrange- 
ments have  been  made  under  authority  of  an  Order  in  Council  for  its  transfer  by 
the  Provincial  Government  of  New  Brunswick  to  the  Dominion  Government.  By 
this  transfer  all  the  properties  belonging  to  the  Lazaretto  have  now  been  handed 
over  to  the  Federal  Government.  Owing  to  my  absence  in  England,  and  to  other 
circumstances,  the  actual  transfer  did  not  take  place  till  the  25th  of  November  last; 
since  which  date  the  institution  has  been  reorganized  on  an  economical  footing,  and 
the  expenditure  will  be  kept  within  the  sum  voted  by  Parliament* 

The  Lazaretto,  as  is  well  known,  has  for  its  object  the  segregation  of  lepers.  I 
am  not  prepared  at  present  to  deal  at  any  length  with  the  subject,  but  there  are 
hopes  that  it  will  be  possible  within  a  comparatively  short  term  of  years  to  eradicate 
that  terrible  disease  from  Canadian  soil. 


XIX 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


YI.— IMMIGEATIOK 

The  same  form  of  tables  as  was  used  last  year  has  been  retained  in  this  Eeport, 
for  the  convenience  of  comparison;  and,  therefore,  in  the  first  place,  in  the  following 
statement,  all  arrivals  both  of  immigrant  passengers  and  immigrant  settlers,  who 
have  entered  the  Dominion  from  1812  to  18S0,  inclusive,  are  given  :  — 


1872. 

1873.  • 

1874. 

1875, 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

Vid  the  St.  Lawrence  

34,743 

49,130 

5,313 

36,901 

50,578 

2,659 

23,894 
39,904 

2,114 

, 

65,992 
14,110 

16,038 

18,322 

959 

10,901 

13,203 

1,311 

7,743 
13,040 

2,749 
23,532 
11,753 
35,28o 

10,295 

T7.9R1 

24,997 

♦47,296 

3,309 

Vtd  S'lapension  Bridge  and  Inland 
Ports  

Maritime  Province  Ports,  includ- 
ing Portland 

15,814'  30,071 
2,488'     3,955 

Entered  at  Customs  Houses  with 
settlers'  goods 

89,186 

90,138 

8,971 

99,109 

35,319    25,415 
8,139    11,134 

28,597 
11,435 

51,277 
9,775 

75,602 
10,248 

Total 

89,186 

80,022 

43,458    36.549 

40,032 

61,052 

85,850 

*  Note.— It  may  be  explained  that  this  item  of  47,296  is  composed  as  follows  i—Immi grants  t>id 
Suspension  Bridge,  45,016;  and  from  United  States,  vid  Daluth  and  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  and 
Manitoba  Railway,  comprising  Mr.  Lalime's  party  from  the  Eastern  States,  2,280. 

The  arrivals  by  the  St.  Lawrence  route,  both  by  immigrant  passengers  and  im- 
migrant settlers,  from  1854  to  1880,  inclusive,  are  shown  by  the  following  table : — 

1854 53,180 

1855 21,274 

1856 22,43^ 

1857 , 32,097 

1858 12,810 

1859 8,778 

1860 10,150 

1861 , » 19,923 

1862 22,176 

1863 ..  19,419 

1864 19,147 

1865 21,355 

1866 ;....  28,(543 

1867  30,757 

1868 34,309 

1869 43,114 

1870 44,475 

1871 37,020 

1872 34,743 

1873 36,901 

XX 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


1874 23,894 

1875 16,038 

1876 10,901 

1877 7,^743 

1878 10,295 

1879 17,251 

18S0 24,997 

The  number  of  immigrants  who  arrived  during  the  last  five  years,  and  who 
were  reported  by  the  Agents  of  the  Department  as  having  stated  their  intention  to 
settle  in  Canada,  was  as  follows  : — 

1875.  1876.  1877.  1878.  1879.  1880. 

At   Quebec 12,043      7,063  4,201  5,804  11,017    14,359 

'    Suspension  Bridge....  5,145      5,696  6,453  7,022  7,565      5,770 

"     Halifax,  N.S 709         506  930  1,970  3,430      2,265 

''     St.  John,  KB. 250         136  141  276  ,              90 

"     Portland,  Me 605  1,513  161  124 

^'  ^Manitoba,  settlers  en- 
tering at  ports  other 
than  these  above 

enumerated 1,096         493  2,084  3,139  7,905      4,936 


19,243    14,499     15,323     18,372    30,717    27,544 
Keported  with  Settlers' 
goods    by    Custom 
Houses 8,139    11,134     11,759     11,435      9,715    10,961 


Total  Settlers...     27,383    25,633     27,082     29,807    40,492    38,505 

As  remarked  in  previous  Eeports,  the  numbers  of  immigrants  reported  to  be 
distributed  by  the  several  Agents  will  be  found  in  excess  of  those  above  given,  and 
the  fact  arises  from  movements  of  immigrants  between  the  stations,  some  of  them 
being  twice  reported.  The  figures  taken  are  those  given  by  the  Agents  at  the  points 
at  which  the  immigrants  enter  the  Dominion. 


*  The  total  number  of  persons  who  went  into  Manitoba  in  1880  was  in  round  numbers  about  18,000, 
ascertained  as  follows :— Reported  at  Emerson  to  end  of  May,  2,065  ;  reported  at  Winnipeg  to  same  date, 
411;  settlers  reported , by  chief  land  guide  from  May  25th,  to  end  of  season,  13,366;  Lalime's  party 
firom  Eastern  States,  169;  Grahame's  party  from  western  States,  411;  navvies  to  work  on  railway, 
about  1,500:  in  all  17,922.  Mr.  Kingsmill,  Agent  at  St.  Paul,  reports  from  tickets  shown  there  that, 
including  children,  about  17,000  souls  entered  Manitoba.  If  a  proportion  of  10  per  cent,  of  these  is  taken 
(and  that  is  a  very  low  estimate)  as  persons  from  the  United  States,  it  gives  1,700,  which,  with  thoge 
gent  by  Mr.  Grahame  (411)  and  by  Mr.  Lalime  (169),  makes  American  arrivals  2,280. 

xxi 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

-  ■  -  -         ~         ■ 

There  was  an  increase  this  year  of  arrivals  at  Quebec  of  7,746  ;  there  was  also 
an  increase  at  the  Suspension  Bridge  of  2,850,  making  a  considerable  increase  in  the 
immigration  to  Canada  in  1880. 

The  value  of  the  personal  effects  of  immigrants  entered  at  the  Custom  Houses  as 
settlers'  goods  amounted  in  1880  to  $335,899,  against  $335,612  the  previous  year.  The 
following  statement  shows  the  number  of  the  arrivals  and  the  value  of  the  personal 
effects  entered  at  the  several  ports  in  1880  : — 

Number  of  Arrivals.        Value  of  Effects. 

Montreal 4,071  $55,58(j 

Ottawa,  and  ports  within  its  agency 721  24,517 

Kingston 589  18,850 

Toronto,  and  ports  within  its  agency 646  61,552 

Hamilton,         do                    do           711  41,715 

London,            do                    do           2,741  109,565 

St.  John 646  12,089 

Halifax,  N.S 123  12  025 


10,248  $335,899 

To  the  above  figures  should  be  added  the  amounts  of  money  taken  into  Manitoba 
by  new  arrivals,  and  brought  in  1880  by  other  arrivals  from  sea ;  but  as  the  only 

agencies  reporting  these  are  Toronto £70,000  or  $340,66J  90 

And  Hamilton 619,000  00 


$959,666  90 


the  returns  are   imperfect.     Adding  these  two  to  the  effects  of  those  reported  from 
Customs  there  is  as  follows  : — 

Eeported  at  Agencies ,. .• $959,663  90 

'*  Customs 335,899  00 

In  all $1,295,565  90 

It  thus  appears  that  the  value  in  money ^and  property  brought  by  the  immigrants 
into  the  country  in  1880  was  over  a  million  and  a  quarter  dollars  ascertained,  besides 
a  very  large  amount  unascertained.  In  addition  to  this  amount,  there  were  the 
large  unascertained,  but  undoubtedly  very  considerable,  values  in  the  tools,  imple- 
ments and  effects  brought  by  them  of  which  there  are  no  means  of  taking  any  account. 


xxu 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


I 


The  following  table  shows  the  number  ot  immigrant  passengers  through  Canada 
to  the  United  States,  and  the  number  of  settlers  in  Canada,  from  1866  to  1680, 
inclusive  : — 


Year. 

Immigrant. 
Passengers  for 
United  fcjtatea. 

Immigrant 

Settlers 
in  Canada. 

1866 

41,704 
47,212 

58,683 

57,202 

44,313 

37,949 

52,608  . 

49,U59 

40,619 

9,2U 
10,916 

5,640 
11,226 
20,560 
47,112 

10,091 

1867 ,. 

14,666 
li',765 

1868 

1869 

1870 , 

18,630 
24,706 

1871 

27,773 

1872 , 

36,578 

1873 

'*1,079 

1874 

25,263 
19,243 

1875 

1876 

1877 

i4,499 
15,323 

1878 

18,372 

1879 , 

1880 

^0,717 
27,544 

The  immigrant  arrivals  reported  with  settlers'  goods  by  the  Custom  Hou.ses, 
being  10,961  in  number,  are,  however,  given  hereinbefore  in  a  separate  form.  They 
may  be  regarded,  to  a  considerable  extent,  as  a  set-off  against  the  emigration  to  the 
United  States. 


The  origins  of  the  immigrants  who  arrived  in  the  Dominion  are  only  reported  at 
the  Port  of  Quebec.     They  are  as  follow,  from  1873  to  1880,  as  reported  at  that  Port 


1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

English ...,o. 

Irish ^ 

Scotch ,.... 

Oerman , 

18,004 
4,336 
4,665 
739 
6,447 
2,634 
76 

13,298 

2,650 
2,.^62 
462 
1,407 
],632 

351' 

1,532 

7,582 
1,449 
1,816 

176 
1,201 

534 

'22 

3,258 

1 

4,989 

808 

1,009 

104 

1,157 

289 

20 

1,167 

1,358 

20 

4,646 

742 

799 

84 

1,004 

150 

74 

52 

183 

9 

5,350 

1,042 

1,077 

238 

1,538 

155 

154 

418 

323 

! 

10,395 

1,543 

1,448 

349 

2,872 

149 

33 

6 

248. 

200 

17,251 

11,059 

3,183 

2,875 

307 

Scandinavians 

French  and  Belgians 

Other  Origins — Swiss,  etc 

Icelanders 

7,402 
27 

Mennonites «.. 

Russians 

70 



.  .     ... 

16,038 

10,295 

Total 

36,901 

23,894 

10,901 

7,743 

24,997 

XXlll 


41  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A    ISS? 


The  trades  and  occupations  of  the  steerage  adults  landed  at   the  same  port  for 
the  same  years,  were  as  follow  : — 


1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880, 

Faimeis.   

1,470 
6,202 
7,662 

1,763 

4,259 

2,773 

32 

1 

1,188 

3,863 

977 

510 

2,796 

491 

13 

209 

1,393 

1,118 

SO 

283 

2,839 

897 

26 

340 

7,136 

923 

12 

589 

10,184 

903 

Cleiks  and  Traders 

Professional  Men 

54 

Total 

15,403 

8,828 

6,035 

3,810 

2,740 

4,027 

8,4H 

11,730 

The  efforts  of  the  Agents  of  the  Department  have  been  mainly  directed  to  the 
bringing  out  of  agriculturists,  with  capital,  together  with  agricultural  labourers, 
railway  navvies,  and  female  domestic  servants.  All  the  agricultural  labourers  who 
came  were  placed  in  situations.  The  demand  for  this  class  of  labourers,  in  the  spring 
and  summer  was  not  satisfied.  All  through  the  season  the  demand  was  good.  The 
chances  for  agricultural  labourers,  who  come  out  in  winter,  finding  employment 
immediately  on  arrival,  are  not  so  good.  But  the  winter  is  a  favourable  time  for 
those  who  come  to  join  friends.  The  immigration  of  artizans  and  mechanics  has 
been  mainly  moved  by  the  demands  of  their  several  trades. 

AJarge  number  of  the  agricultural  class  arrived  with  means  to  buy  farms  or 
land,  and  this  class  is  rapidly  increasing.  This  increase  of  immigration  has  been 
produced  by  the  late  agricultural  depression  in  the  United  Kingdom,  on  the  one 
hand,  and  the  confidence  produced  by  the  circulation,  on  a  very  large  scale,  of  the 
Heports  of  the  Tenant  Farmers'  Delegates  on  the  other. 


XXIT 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  1!3.) 


A.  1S81 


The  following  statement  shows  the  miinber  of  immigrants,  chiefly  children^ 
brought  to  Canada  undet*  the  auspices  of  charitable  societies  and  individuals  during 
the  last  fi\  e  years  : — 


1876. 

1877. 

!      1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

Mis3  Bilboroue^h 

1 

132 

Acton  Refoimatory,  Essex  , 

Miss  Macpberson . 

179 " 

71 

14 

2 

127 

87 

99 

26 

79 
89 
42 

101 
60 
94 

128 

Mr.  Middiemore 

Miss  Rye 

East  London  Family  Emigration  Fund  of  Hon. 
Mrs.  Hobart 

44 
33 

Children's  Home,  London 

Rev.  M.  N^ugent,  Liverpool  

1 

1§ 

4 

T.  S.  Fletcher,  Dublin 

South  Dublin  Union 

Rev.  Mr  Stevenson 

"••• 

28 



28 
22 

Catholic  Emigration  Committee 

13 
3 

19 

Kingswood  Reformatory,  Bristol 

11 

Mrs,  Bin 

70 

54 
84 

36 

61 
134 

144 

Mr.  Quarrier,  Glasgow , 

Rev.  Mr.  Siephenson,  Children's  Home,  Hamil- 
ton   

Sisters  of  Mercy,  Loughrea 

Mulligan  Union ... 

Ballyshanan  Union... --.. 

10 
39 

14 

Old  Castle  Union  

7 

•Cardinal  Manning,   Dublin 

51 

Miss  Kennedy,  Dublin 

_.^, ' 

47S 

9 

Totals 

303 

430 

384 

672 

It  may  be  remarked  that  the  whole  of  the  immigrants  who  enter  Canada  by  sea 
now  come  by  steamers,  the  greatly  superior  speed  of  these,  and  the  comfort  and  good 
condition  in  which  they  bring  immigrants,  having  driven  sailing  vessels  completely 
out  of  the  field,  as  respects  this  transport.  The  average  time  of  the  mail  steamers 
from  Liverpool  was  lOf  days,  and  from  Londonderry,  9  days;  that  of  the  Dominion 
Line  from  Liverpool,  12J  days;  thac  of  the  Temperleys,  from  London  to  Quebec,  l*7j- 
days;  and  that  of  the  Glasgow  steamers,  12J-  days:  Beaver  Line,  from  Liverpool, 
12  days;  and  iloss'  London  Line,  13^  days. 

Assisted  passages  were  granted  during  the  year  at  the  rate  of  £5   stg. 
class  of  labourers,  and  £4  for  female  domestic  servants. 

When  I  was  in  England  in  the  autumn,  I  found  that  a  publication  to  the  effect 
that  there  was  an  emigration  from  Canada  at  Port  Huion  0^75,057  for  the  fiscal  year 
ended  June  30th  last,  had  produced  a  very  detrimental  effect  as  respects  confidence  in 
emigration' from  the  United  Kin<^dom  to  Canada.  It  was  naturally  said  by  many, 
that  if  Canada  is  a  place  from  which  such  large  numbers  leave  in  one  year  at  a  single 
port,  it  omst  at  least  be  a  very  doubtful  country  to  go  to  for  settlement.     From  my 

XXV 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A..  1881 

general  knowledge  of  the  movementB  of  emigrants,  I  felt  positive  that  this  statement 
could  not  be  correct,  and  I  caused  a  denial  of  its  truth  to  be  published.  I  have  since 
caused  an  investigation  to  be  made,  the  result  of  which  will  be  found  in  an  Annex 
herewith,  in  the  form  of  a  report  from  Mr.  Lowe,  the  Secretary  of  the  Department.  It 
is  therein  shown  that  the  claim  of  the  Collector  of  the  Port  Huron  Custom  bouse  is 
a  verv  gross  fabrication,  and  that  the  emigration  at  that  point  was  not  more  than 
6,705,  arising  apparently  from  an  ordinary  movement  which  has  been  going  on  for 
some  yeai's  between  the  east  and  the  west,  on  the  whole  continent  of  America  ;  and 
which  will  probably,  in  the  future,  be  turned  in  a  very  much  larger  stream  to  the 
prairie  province  of  Manitoba  and  the  North- West  Territory  of  the  Dominion. 

The  reports  of  the  delegates  from  tenant  farmers  in  the  United  Kingdom,  whose 
visits  were  alluded  to  in  last  year's  Eeport,  have  commanded  far  greater  confidence 
among  the  farmers  ot  G-reat  Britain  than  any  representations  or  statements  of 
Agents,  and  the  general  success  resulting  from  the  visits  of  these  delegates  prompted 
me  to  cause  farther  invitations  to  be  extended  to  a  limited  number  of  similar 
representatives.  In  accordance  therewith,  the  following  delegates  visited  Canada 
principally  during  the  fall  of  the  year  : — 

Gr.  Broderick,  Hawes,  Wensley  Dale,  Yorkshire,  England;  G.  Curtis,  Woodaide, 
Silsden  and  Leeds,  Yorkshire,  England ;  John  Sagar,  Waddington,  Clitheroe> 
Lancashire,  England ;  Jesse  Sparrow,  Woodlands  Farm,  Doynton,  Gloucestshire, 
England  ;  William  Cubitt,  Barton  Abbey,  North  Walsham,  Norfolk,  England;  J.  P. 
Sheldon,  Wiltshire  and  South  of  England ;  L.  Christy,  Limerick,  Ireland;  Henry 
Anderson,  Listowell,  Ireland;  H.  Mercier,  Gilford,  Ireland;  Hugh  McLean,  Ehu 
Tarbert,  Kintyre,  Argyleshire,  Scotland ;  Peter  Imrie,  Candercuilt,  Maryhill,  Lanark- 
shire, Scotland;  D.  McDiarmid,  Cluny,  Scotland;  and  M.  A.  De  LaLonde,  France. 

As  it  was  impossible  for  each  delegate  to  visit  the  whole  Dominion,  a  different 
portion  of  the  country  was  assigned  to  different  delegates,  and  the  eiiamination  of 
its  products,  system  of  agriculture,  and  general  aspect  was  left  entirely  to  their 
own  examination  in  order  that  an  unbiassed  report  might  be  given  by  them  to  their 
constituents  on  their  return.  These  reports  have  already,  to  some  extent,  appeared 
in  the  columns  of  newspapers,  and  they  have  been  published  in  pamphlet  form. 

It*is  safe  to  observe  that  with  the  wide-spread  publication  of  the  reports  ot  the 
delegates  of  1879  and  the  publication  in  newspapers  so  far  of  those  of  1880,  and  from 
other  causes  which  have  brought  Canada  of  late  prominently  before  the  British  public, 
the  Dominion  has  now  attained  an  interest  in  the  minds  of  a  class  of  that  people 
which  it  had  not  hitherto  reached.  This  has  been  evidenced  during  this  year  by  the 
character  of  immigrants  who  have  arrived,  they  being,  as  reported  by  the  Agents,  for 
the  most  part  as  of  a  very  superior  class,  and  possessed  of  considerable  means, 

xxvi 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

The  Hon.  Sir  A.  T.  Gait,  K.C.M.Gr.,  having  been  appointed  by  an  Order  in 
Council  High  Commissioner  for  Canada,  in  England,  th6  superintendence  of 
emigration  from  the  British  Isles  became  part  of  his  functions.  This  reorganization 
necessarily  changed  the  position  of  the  Chief  Emigration  Agent,  and  the  Hon.  William 
Annand  resigned  his  appointment  in  consequence.  The  staff  was  also  lessened  by 
the  retirement  of  Mi*.  A.  B.  Daveney.  Mr.  Joseph  Colmer,  was  appointed  by  Order 
in  Council,  Secretary  of  the  Emigration  Branch  of  the  High  Commisisoner's  Office. 

The  Agents  of  the  Department  in  the  United  Kingdom  in  1880,  were  the  High 
Commissioner  for  Canada,  Sir  A.  T.  G-alt ;  Mr.  John  Dyke,  Liverpool ;  Mr.  J.  W, 
Down,  Bristol;  Mr.  Thomas  Grahame,  Glasgow;  Mr.  Charles  Foy,  Belfast;  Mr, 
Thomas  Connolly,  Dublin. 

On  the  European  Continent,  Dr.  Otto  Hahn,  of  Wurtemburg,  is  acting  as  Agent 
in  Germany. 

The  annual  Eeports  of  the  British  Agents  will  be  found  in  the  Appendices,  and 
contain  valuable  information  on  immigration  matters  and  the  trade  in  Canadian 
cattle  and  produce. 

Mr.  Stafford,  the  Agent  at  Quebec,  gives  the  usual  tables  of  occupations,destination 
and  other  information  in  detailed  form,  and  his  Eeport  shews  a  large  increase  in  the 
number  of  immigrants  arrived  through  that  port. 

Mr.  Daley,  the  Montreal  Agent,  reports  small  capitalists  as  far  more  numerous 
than  heretofore,  the  demand  for  labour  good,  and  the  year's  proceedings  satisfactory. 

Mr.  Wills,  the  Agent  at  Ottawa,  reports  that  the  improvement  in  trade  and 
business  since  his  last  Eeport  has  had  the  effect  of  raising  wages  in  his  district,  greatly 
facilitating  his  disposal  of  immigrants.  He  reports  a  number  of  Germans  as  settling 
in  his  district.  He  also  states  that  there  is  a  large  number  of  arrivals 
which  does  not  come  under  his  notice,  as  they  enter  at  points  away  from  his  office. 
This  remark  is  applicable  to  other  agencies  besides,  as  many  who  arrive  with  means 
do  not  report  themselves  at  all. 

Mr.  Macpherson,  the  Agent  at  Kingston,  furnishes  very  complete  tables  showing 
the  operations  of  his  Agency  for  the  season,  and  reports  the  immigrants  as  of  a 
superior  class.  He  further  reports  that  in  several  cases  persons  for  whom  he  found 
employment  remitted  money  home  to  bring  out  their  families  and  friends. 

Mr.  Donaldson,  the  Agent  at  Toronto,  reports  the  arrival  of  a  large  number 
of  farm  labourers  in  his  district,  for  whom  ready  employment  was  obtained.  More 
capitalists  also  arrived  than  in  former  years,  and  he  mentions  the  fact  of  ten  parties 
alone  possessing  a  capital  of  £tO,000  sterling. 

xxvii 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Mr.  Smith,  the  Agent  at  Hamilton,  reports  the  immigrants  in  his  district  aa 
of  a  very  good  class  compared  with  previous  years,  and  for  the  most  part  possessed 
of  means  ranging  from  $500  to  $1,500,  and  in  some  instances  much  larger  amounts. 
He  reports  a  great  improvement  in  all  branches  of  manufacture  in  his  district,  which 
with  good  crops  and  a  general  activity  has  caused  works  that  had  been  closed  for 
years  to  be  reopened.  His  tabulated  statements  give  a  thorough  synopsis  of  his 
operations. 

Mr.  Clay,  the  Agent  at  Halifax,  reports  the  immigrants  as  superior  to  those  of 
former  years,  and  attributes  this  in  a  great  measure  to  the  Order  in  Council 
prohibiting  the  landing  of  pauper  immigrants.  He  reports  also  that  many  who  left 
Nova  Scotia  in  the  spring  with  the  idea  of  bettering  their  condition  in  the  United 
States,  failed  to  do  so,  and  are  soliciting  aid  to  return. 

Mr.  Smyth,  the  Agent  at  London,  Ont.,  gives  a  tabulated  synopsis  of  his 
operations,  and  reports  the  demand  for  agricultural  labourers  greater  than  th4 
supply,  and  work  easily  obtained  for  all  of  that  class  which  composed  the  principal 
part  of  his  immigrants.  He  reports  also  a  number  of  settlers  in  Muskoka  with 
means  to  take  up  land,  who  are  doing  well. 

Mr.  Grahame,  the  Agent  at  Duluth,  reports  an  influx  via  his  station  to  Manitoba 

of  immigrants  from  the  Mother  Country,   which   he   attributes    to  the  favourable 

representations  made  by  the  tenant  farmer  delegates  on   their  return   home.     He 

mentions   the   difficulty   immigrants    for    Manitoba   and  the  North- West   have   to 

encounter,  in  passing  through  United  States  territory,   at  the  hands  of  land  agents 

and  runners  for  railway   companies,   who   are   always  on   the   look-out  to   entice 

immigrants  to  remain  in  the  United  States.     Ho  mentions  411  persons  from  the 

Western  States  who  were  induced  to  enter   the  North- West  by   his  own   personal 

exertions,  and  he  shews  how  the  figures  he  gives  of  other  arrivals  are  obtained. 

• 
Mr.  Hespeler,  agent  at  Winnipeg,  reports  the  number  of  immigrants  who  came 

under  his  notice  at  the  immigrant  sheds,  and  an  approximate  number  of  arrivals  at 

Winnipeg    in   addition.     He  states   that  the    flow  of  immigration  was  principally 

directed  to  the  west,  along  the  banks  of  the  Assiniboine  and  Little  Saskatchewan 

Hi  vers.     Many  of  the  immigrants  were  possessed  of  considerable  means. 

Mr.  Lalime,  Agent  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  reports  forwarding  169  persons  from  the 
JEastern  States  to  colonize  in  Manitoba,  and  that  they  were  only  a  prelude  to  a  larger 
number,  whom  the  activity  in  business  caused  to  postpone  their  intentions. 

Mr.  Taylor,  the  Icelandic  Agent  at  (rimli,  reports  a  succession  of  disasters  in  that 
colony,  attributable  to  climatic  causes  that  could  not  have  been  foreseen,  and  thinks 
that  the  site  will  have  to  be  abandoned.  Many  of  the  colonists  have  gone  out  to 
labour,  and  so  earned   enough  to  maintain  their  families,  but  to  those  remaining  in 

XXV  iii 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


the  colony,  things  were  not  propitious.     A  succession  of  five  wet  seasons  has  proved 
most  discouraging  and  disastrous. 

Mr.  Gardner,  Agent  at  St.  John,  N.B.,  reports  the  immigrants  arriving  in  that 
Province  as  principally  composed  of  Danes.  He  explains  the  "  exodus"  from  the 
Province  as  being  largely  made  up  of  transient  travellers,  and  that  tourists,  traders 
and  commercial  travellers  are  included  in  it  to  a  large  extent. 

Mr.  Kingsmill,  Agent  at  St.  Paul,  reports  that  about  17,000  persons,  in  round 
numbers,  passed  that  point  for  the  North- West.  He  alludes  to  the  enticing  offers  of 
lahd  companies'  agents  to  draw  off  immigrants  from  Manitoba,  and  points  out  the 
importance  of  watchfulness  at  this  Agency  to  protect  our  immigrants. 

It  is  to  be  remarked  that  the  following  Table  of  Expenditures  refers  simply  to 
the  figures  in  the  books  of  the  Department  in  each  year.  It  has,  however,  occurred 
that  the  Finance  Department  has  collected  from  the  Provinces,  in  successive  years, 
considerable  sums  for  refunds  of  advances  for  thansport  and  the  expenses  of  the 
London  office,  as  agreed  at  the  Conference  of  1814,  other  than  those  which  have 
passed  through  the  books  of  the  Department,  which  sums  have  appeared  in  the 
Public  Accounts ;  and  which,  strictly  speaking,  should  be  considered  as  reductions  of 
so  much  of  Dominion  Immigration  expenditure. 


XXIX 


4  1  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Table  exhibiting  the  Total  Expenditure  of  the  Department,  by  Calendar  Year.- 


IMMIGRATION. 


Agency 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 


Quebec 

Montreal 

Sherbrooke 

Ottawa 

Kingston 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

London,  Ont., 

Halifax,  N.S., 

St.  John,  X.B, 

Miramichi ., 

North-West  Agencies  :— 

Winnipeg 

Icelandic  Settlement , , 

Diifferin  (now  Emerson^ , 

Special    Agents  with  Immigrants  on  Intercolonial  and  Grand  Trunk 

Railroads  ..., 

Portland  Agency  (closed)  , 


Chicago 
Detroit 
St.  Paul 
Worcester 
Daluth 


do 
do 
do 
do 

do 


do 


Colonization  Road,  Icelandic  Settlement 

Icelandic  Loan  (for  provisions  and  other  supplies),  advanced  on  mort- 
gage security  under  Dominion  Lands  Act,  to  be  refunded 

Canadian  Colonization * 

Special  Inspection  of  Children  brought  out  by  Miss  Rye 

Mennonite  Expenses 

General  Immigration  Contingencies,  including  Commissions  and  Immi- 
gration Publications  . 

British  Agencies'  Salaries  and  Expenditures , 


187S. 


$  cts. 

64,507  64 

10,179  83 

1,591  12 

2,988  55 

1,918  35 

2,953  17 

1,302  16 

725  90 

1,818  13 

1,064  63 

492  42 

3,672  75 


Less — Amount  of  Refunds  for  Transport,  &c. 


2,766  77 

53,286  2T 
84,733  24 


234,000  93 


Paid  in  1879  bat  belonging  to  1878 
Total  Imviiy ration  Expenditure 


Vote  of  Parliament  in  aid  of  the  Provinces  for  encouragement  of  Immi- 
gration   


QUARANTINE. 


Grosse  Isle  Quarantine 

Halifax  do  

St.  John,  N.B.,  do  

Inspecting  Physicians,  Quebec 

Pictou  Quarantine 

Uiramichi      do       

Charlottetown,  P.E.I 

Public  Health  (including  Cattle  Quarantines). 
Tracadie  Lazaretto.. 


Total  Quarantine. 


234,000  93 


70,000  00 


1874. 


12,119  07 

4,287  15 

3,205  50 

2,600  00 

210  36 

269  02 


4,823  83 


27,514  93 


$     cts. 

57,768  73 
9,032  94 
1,375  31 
2,553  19 
1,530  78 
3,456  37 
1,631  00 
1,442  59 
1,920  79 
1,132  05 
233  GO 

2,638  35 


22,485  86 

66,943  38 
82,135  11 


256,279  45 
5,185  79 


251,12©  75 


12,901  74 

3,748  91 

2,915  34 

2,600  00 

286  28 

891  47 

245  89 

6,3©2  83 


30,292  46 


These  items  simply  include  the  Refunds  received  by  this  Department. 

XXX 


U  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No    12.) 


A.  1881 


for  the  Sorvico  of  Iramigiation  and  Quarantine,  for  1873  to  1880,  inclusive. 


1875. 


$   cts. 

48,713  59 
13, 4  r2  99 
1,141  41 
3,971  27 
1,837  92 
2,923  42 
l,72i  59 
1,700  47 
1,738  72 
1,114  46 
DiscoQtjnued. 

3,568  04 


46,234  37 

67,026  43 
109,988  95 


305,123  63 
8,430  72 


296,692  91 


1876. 


$  cts. 

23,432  99 

16,277  56 

829  76  I 

4,848  23 

2,540  02 

6,825  33  I 

1^511  24  I 

2,394  36 

1,429  52 

1,071  82 


6,398  88 

'26,165  12 

3,157  98 

1,128  OQ 

703  18 

1,839  08 

2,664  00 


3,147  18 

'5,006"  00 


3,713  50 

2,592  00 

20,719  00 

67,933  54 
80,173  08 


285,495  07 
1,429  15 


284.065  92 


1877. 


$   cts. 

18,947  29 
8,312  61 
626  63 
3,554  44 
2,180  88 
4,981  08 
1,754  41 
1,346  23 
1,670  88 
1,141  99 


1,667  88 

2,255  00 

3,527  69 

1,128  00 

12,876  58 

900  00 

2,074  04 


3,282  01 
886  81 


30,717  40 
9,062  00 


3,496  60 

18,311  70 
64,282  02 


188,984  25 
5,311  49 


183,672  76 


12,353  22 
3,403  25 
2,916  15 
2,600  00 

732  25 
1,093  39 

803  70 
1,628  13 


1878. 


1879. 


$  cts. 

26,472  02 
9,707  47 
r.l9  12 
2,878  10 
2,104  70 
5,803  26  I 
1,896  53  i 
1,492  72  i 

t9,515  13 
1,440  00  i 


§2,84li  93 
3,788  04 
2,281  37 

1,504  55 


2,712  35 


$   cts. 

54,947  42 
7,696  15 

*  '2,"732"25' 
2,014  58 
3,504  71 
1,834  .36 
1,564  18 

$19,833  96 
1,000  00 


.3,253  38 
2,088  57 
2,305  45 

2,707  91 


460  00 


3,099  07  I 
2,893  52  j 


2,164  37 
4,737  20 


14,601  10 
934  67 


6,015  87 

34,582  .'^0 
49,122  33 


2,124  75 


641  73 


63  978  08 
29,177  92 


186,210  35 
9,165  82 


198,766  97 
13,622  11 


177,044  53 
8,801  70 


185,144  86 
8,801  70 


185,846  23 


35,530  09 


11,750  89 

3,195  83 

2,053  58 

2;  399  93 

706  00 

DiscoQtinued. 

899  09 

4,474  16 


25,473  51 


11,763  56 

3,183  58 

2,506  08 

2,679  90 

700  00 

808  51 

20,111  01 


10.845  56 

2,948  04 

2,512  05 

2,733  42 

700  00 

836  22 

7,318  65 


176,343  16 


1830. 


$   Ct3. 

35,790  51 
7,106  84 

2,965"'24" 

2,122  61 

3,185  38 

2,037  9© 

1,.''>87  98 

2,159  70 

1,313  40 


2,889  73 
1,200  00 
2,753  22 

3,809  68 


400  00 


1,441  00 
3,056  56 
6,066  34 


2,712  84 
117  00' 


80,500  40 
23,636  23 


205,852  56 
24,319  89 


181,532  67 


41,752  64 


27,893  94 


9,865  03 

2,537  37 

1,979  32 

1,524  96 

700  00 

805  00 

3,19T  69 


20,609  37 


HlO.OOO  60 


8,654  44 
3,712  .30 
1,313  40 
1,095  25 
1,100  65 

915  85 

16,765  23 

656  50 


34,213  62 


*ThiB  includes  Icelandic  Advances  to  be  repaid.  fTransport  ip.cluded 

Jlncluding  I.O.R.R.  transport,     ^ffine  moatha  only.     ||To  recoup  Immigration  Expenditure  in  N.B. 

xxxi 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

The  re?ults  of  the  year's  operations  of  the  Department,  as  respects  Immigration, 
may  thus  be  summarized  : 

Total  number  of  settlers  in   Canada  (including  arrivals 

through  the  Customs) 38,505 

Total  amount  of  money  and  effects  brought  by  immigrants 

during  the  year,  so  far  as  ascertained ,.. $1,295,565  90 

Total  actual  cost  of  Immigration,  including  all  establish- 
ments in  Canada,  the  UnitTed  Kingdom,  the  Conti- 
nent of  Europe,  the  United  States,  and  all  immigra- 
tion propagandism ^181,532  6T 

Per  capita   cost  of  27,544    settlers,    (not   including  the 

arrivals  reported  through  the  Customs) 6  59 

By  the  same  comparison,  the  per  capita  cost  of  settlers  for  the  five  previous 
years  was  as  follows  : — 

1875 .,.. 19,243  settlers,  $14  00 

1876 14,490         do        19  60 

1877 15,323        do         12  00 

1878 18,372        do  9  63 

1879 30,717        do  5  74 

1880 , 27,544         do  6  59 

The  total  amounts  spent  for  transport  of  immigrants,  separately  abstracted  from 
the  accounts  of  the  Agencies,  as  given  in  the  preceding  table  of  expenditure  of 
Immigration,  are  as  follows,  from  1871  to  1880,  inclusive:-— 

1871 $21,112  31 

1872 33,873  55 

1873 60,620  HI 

1874 61,629  02 

1875 61,738  87 

1876 60,572  6S 

1877 29,669  62 

1878 31,204  88 

1879 68,0J9  17 

1880 *53,064  80 

During  the  past  year  the  arrangement  with  the  Provinces,  as  respects  refunds  of 
transport  to  the  extent  of  one-third  of  the  amount  paid,  continued  ;  but  for  the  future 
the  Province  of  Ontario  has  given  notice  that  it  will  withdraw. 

The  whole  respectfully  submitted. 

J.  H.  POPE, 
Department  op  Agriculture,  Minister  of  Agriculture . 

Ottawa,  31st  December  1880. 


•There  is  in  addition  a  sura  of  $9,134.68  due  to  the  latercolonial  Rftiliray  for  transport,  for  which 
special  vote  will  be  asked  from  Parliament. 

xxxii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


REPORT  ON     EMIGRATION    FROM    CANADA    ON 
THE   WESTERN   FRONTIER. 


Ottawa,  December  22nd,  188©. 
SIR  :— 

I  have  the  honour  to  report  that,  when  at  Sarnia  on  the  19th  October  last,  I  ob- 
tained at  the  Canadian  Castom  House,  a  printed  statement  issued  by  the  United 
States  Custom  House  at  Port  Huron,  which  placed  the  number  of  immigrants  arrived 
at  that  port  during  the  fiscal  year,  endeJ  June  30th  last,  at  94,375. 

I  called  on  Dr.  Pace,  the  U.  S.  Consul  at  Sarnia,  hoping  to  ascertain  how 
these  large  figures  were  made  up.  He  told  me  they  were  obtained  by  the  Customs 
officials  at  Port  Huron,  and  that  the  proportion  from  Canada  of  the  total  immigra- 
tion was  15,059.  But  he  had  no  personal  knowledge  of  the  manner  in  which  the 
figures  were  obtained.  He  had  given  about  700  certificates  (he  could  not  say 
the  exact  number)  which  at  4J-  persons  per  certificate  would  give  3,150  emigrants. 
The  average  of  families  is  5  ;  but  very  often  only  parts  of  families  emigrate. 

I  next  proceeded  to  Port  Huron,  and  obtained  an  introduction  to  the  Deputy  Col- 
lector, Mr.  F.  L.  Wells,  who,  in  the  absence  of  the  Collector,  received  me  with  great 
courtesy.  But  I  could  not  ascertain  from  him  the  method  adopted  in  taking  down 
the  large  figures  of  the  alleged  emigration  at  Port  Huron.  I  found  from  the  records 
in  the  Custom  House  that  69,159  of  the  75,059,  claimed  as  immigrants  from  Canada, 
were  from  the  Provinces  of  Ontario  and  Quebec,  the  remainder  being  from  the 
Maritime  Provinces. 

In  view  of  this  situation  I  again  proceeded  west,  under  your  instructions,  on  the 
18th  November  last,  to  make  an  enquiry  respecting  the  emigration  from  Canada  into 
the  United  States,  between  Detroit  and  Fort  Gratiot.  There  are  along  this  frontier 
two  U.  S.  Customs  districts — one  with  the  head  office  at  Detroit,  and  the  other  at 
Port  Huron,  to  which  the  outlying  districts,  report.  At  Detroit,  I  was 
received  with  much  courtesy  by  Mr.  Y.  B.  Bell,  the  Collector  of  Customs  at  that 
port,  and  he  kindly  gave  me  the  following  figures  of  immigration  from  Canada  as 
recorded  in  his  office  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30th  last : — 

September  quarter,  1879 717 

December      do          do  , 382 

March            do        1880.., 1368 

June               do          do  2097 

Total.... 4564 

xxxiii 

12--C 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

Mr.  Bell  told  me  that  these  figures  were  taken  by  the  officers  in  the  face  of 
some  difficulties,  while  the  trains  were  crossing  the  river,  and  he  could  not  vouch  for 
their  entire  accuracy.  His  belief,  however,  was  that  they  were  honestly  taken.  He 
stated,  moreover,  that  from  motives  of  humanity,  he  had  directed  that  as  few 
fees  should  be  collected  as  possible  from  the  poor  immigrants  for  the  entry  of  their 
effects,  in  as  far  as  this  could  consist  with  official  duty. 

The  emigration  from  Canada,  passing  west  through  the  District  of 
Detroit,  is  supplied  by  two  lines  of  Railway  running  all  the  way  across 
the  Province  of  Ontario  from  the  Niagara  frontier,  viz.:  the  Great  Western 
and  the  Canada  Southern,  and  these  are  in  their  turn  connected  with 
two  through  lines  of  Eailway  leading  to  the  Western  States,  viz.:  the  Michi- 
gan Central  and  the  Detroit  &  Milwaukee.  In  so  far  as  the  Province  of  Ontario 
is  concerned,  there  would,  therefore,  naturally  flow  as  large  or  a  larger  stream  of 
emigration  to  the  Western  States,  through  these  two  railway  systems,  than  through 
the  Grand  Trunk  at  Sarnia. 

I  next  proceeded  to  call  on  Mr.  Eenson,  the  Canadian  Collector  of  Customs  at 
Windsor,  and  he  informed  me  that  there  was  very  little  movement  of  Canadian 
emigrants  to  the  United  States  at  this  point.  He  added  that  he  had  not  kept  a 
record  of  numbers,  except  from  the  2nd  of  August  last,  at  which  date  he  had 
received  instructions  to  do  so.  The  figures  he  gave  me  from  his  record,  between  the 
dates  of  August  2nd  and  November  5th  last,  were  136.  These  figures,  which  Mr. 
Benson  informed  me  had  been  carefully  taken,  show  anything  but  an  active  emi- 
gration from  that  point. 

I  now  approach  Port  Huron,  and,  in  the  first  place,  before  dealing  with  the 
figures,  I  beg  to  report  the  following  facts : — 

I  have  crossed  several  times  by  the  Grand  Trunk  trains  between  Point  Edward  and 
Fort  Gratiot,  and  each  time  noticed  the  proceedings  with  carefulness.  An  United 
States  Custom  House  officer  examined  my  "  hand  baggage "  and  subsequently  my 
valise.  But  I  was  not  asked  at  any  of  the  times  I  crossed  any  questions  as  to  whether 
or  not  I  was  an  immigrant  into  the  United  States,  or  what  country  I  came  from,  or 
my  age  or  calling  ;  in  fact,  none  of  the  questions  which  would  cover  the  information 
required  by  the  U.  S.  returns.  I  further  noticed  that  no  questions  of  this  sort  were 
asked  of  the  other  passengers  on  the  trains,  nor  did  I  see  any  counting  made,  nor  any 
record  set  down.  But  the  poorest  second-class  passengers,  who  have  effects  with 
them — such  as  their  bedding  and  boxes, — are  made  to  pass  a  free  entry  of  settlers 
effects  for  which  they  are  obliged  to  pay  a  fee  of  90  cts.,  and  those  entries,  in  so  far 
as  they  go,  would,  of  course,  constitute  a  record. 

These  proceedings  are  very  rapidly  hurried  forward,  occupying  from  20  to  30  min- 
utes with  ordinary  express  passenger  trains,  the  examination  of  the  '•  hand  baggage," 

xxxiv 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

by  two  officers,  takiog  place  while  the  train  is  crossing  the  river.  The  Grand  Trunk 
officials  and  conductors,  of  whom  I  made  enquiry  at  this  point,  informed  me  that  the 
practice  which  I  have  fully  described  is  the  usual  one;  and  that  there  is  nothing  else 
done. 

In  view  of  the  nature  of  my  enquiry,  I  thought  it  advisable  to  have  some  conver- 
sation with  the  XJ.  S.  Custom  House  officers  actually  engaged  in  this  duty.  I  spoks 
to  more  than  one,  but  it  will  be  sufficient  to  report  here  the  following  notes  of  state- 
ments made  to  me  at  an  interview  on  the  afternoon  of  November  2l8t,  with  Mr. 
Stephen  Avery,  in  the  office  of  Mr.  Marcus  Young,  a  Land  and  Immigration  Agent, 
at  Port  Huron.  The  interview  was  in  the  presence  of  Mr.  Young.  Mr.  Avery  is  the 
officer  who  is  charged  with  the  duty  of  making  up  the  figures  of  these  immigration 
statistics,  on  which  the  Customs  Collector  at  Port  Huron  relies  for  the  statements  and 
detailed  information  to  which  I  shall  presently  refer. 

The  points  of  Mr.  Avery's  statements  were:  That  he  was  the  officer  to  whom 
was  confided  the  duty  of  making  up  these  statistics.  That  there  are  certain  forms  fur- 
nished by  the  TJ.  S.  Government,  (a  copy  of  one  of  these,  Exhibit  J,  is  appended  to  this 
report,)  the  whole  of  the  details  of  which  could  not  be  filled  up,  from  answers  given  by 
immigrants  to  questions  while  the  train  is  crossing  between  the  points  above  mentioned. 
That  the  questions  were  not  asked,  because  it  would  be  an  impossibility  to  ask  them 
and  record  the  answers  within  the  dme  afforded.  That  20  men  could  not  do  this 
on  some  days.  That  it  was  a  fact,  that  within  two  years  past,  much  greater  care 
had  been  bestowed  upon  these  statistics  than  previously.  That  previously  to  the 
two  years  stated,  they  had  just  been  jumped  at;  the  figures  being  simply  written  in. 
That  when  he  looked  into  the  door  of  a  car,  he  saw  at  a  glance  what  it  contained,  and 
the  numbers  it  contained ;  and  that  he  could  tell  whether  the  passengers  were  im- 
migrants or  not.  That  he  made  up  his  figures  after  he  had  done  examining  the  train. 
That  he  did  not  look  at  the  tickets  to  see  where  the  immigrants  were 
from.  That  he  did  not  estimate  the  number  of  immigrants  from  pieces  of 
baggage.  But  in  answer  to  a  question  he  could  not  deny  that  this  had 
been  done.  That  he  knew  the  immigrants  who  had  come  from  the  Pro- 
vinces of  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia  from  the  checks  on  their  baggage. 
That  there  was  especially  a  very  large  French  Canadian  immigration,  larger  than 
people  would  be  willing  to  believe ;  and  that  this  was  also  true  of  the  general  immi- 
gration, which  he  believed  was  not  over-stated  but  under-stated  by  the  published 
figures.  That  on  some  days  entries  of  settlers'  effects  to  the  number  of  30  were  made  in 
the  day.  That  some  days  there  were  as  mamy  as  60.  He  did  not  take  the  numbers  of  the 
persons  in  the  family  making  the  entry.  That  90  cts.  were  charged  to  immigrants  for 
each  entry.  That  mostly  all  the  persons  in  the  second-class  cars  were  immigrants,  just 
as  the  reverse  was  the  fact  as  respected  persons  in  the  first-class  cars.  That  he  believed 
there  would  be  as  many  as  fifty  persons  in  a  second-class  car,  and  that  there  wore  5 

XXXV 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


or  6  second-class  cars  in  a  day,  which  would  soon  run  u»p  the  figures  of  the  immigra- 
tion to  three  or  four  hundred  in  a  day.  That  November  would  probably  be  as  heavy 
a  month  as  October,  but  that  December  would  probably  show  a  very  largo  falling  off. 
That  the  groat  bulk  of  all  the  immigrants  came  by  the  Grand  Trunk  Eailway,  very 
few  comparatively,  coming  by  the  Great  Western  branch  to  Sarnia,  or  crossing  by  teams 
at  the  ferry.  That  he  could  nol  ask  the  questions  required  by  the  Government, 
but  had  to  arrive  at  the  information  as  best  he  could.  That  he  did  not  think  he  had 
taken  all  the  immigrants  by  10  per  cent.,  but  sometimes  the  figures  which  he  had 
put  down  seemed  too  large,  and  he  had  to  ''  scale  them  down."  That  he  had  serious 
doubts  as  to  the  genuineness  of  many  of  the  tickets  for  St.  Boniface,  as  he  had  very 
little  faith  in  the  talked  of  Manitoba  emigration. 

I  think  it  is  proper  to  remark  with  respect  to  these  statements  of  Mr,  Avery, 
which  I  at  once  wrote  down  in  my  note-book,  that  the  local  papers  of  the  day  before 
•contained  one  or  two  columns  of  attack  upon  certain  criticisms  respecting  the  correct- 
ness of  the  figures  in  question,  and  referred  to  my  previous  visit  to  Sarnia.  The  whole 
of  his  remarks,  whether  or  not  as  a  consequence  of  this  circumstance,  were  an  evident 
-attempt  at  a  defence  of  his  position,  and  the  correctness  of  the  figures.  I  therefore 
received  his  admissions  as  to  the  manner  of  taking  the  information  as  confessions 
which  could  not  be  concealed  in  any  conversation,  and  the  figures  of  the  numbers  of 
entries  of  settlers'  effects  and  the  second-class  cars  per  day  as  being  "  scaled  up  "  to 
establish  the  figures  he  had  given,  in  the  same  way  that  he  sometimes  "  scaled " 
the  figures  "  down,"  when  he  thought  they  were  too  large. 

The  following  are  the  headings  (see  form  A  annexed)  of  the  information  required 
by  the  United  States  Government  to  be  gathered  at  Port  Huron,  and  which  actually 
is  obtained  in  the  manner  explained  by  Mr.  Avery :  — 

(1)  "  Country  or  island  of  last  permanent  residence  or  citizenship. 

(2)  "  Country  of  intended  residence. 

(3)  ''Occupation. 

(4)  "  Under  15  years  of  age— male,  female  ;  total. 

(5)  "  Fifteen  and  over  forty  years  of  age — male,  female  ;  total. 
(0)  "  Forty  years  of  age  and  under — male,  female;  total. 

(7)  •'  Total, — male,  female  ;  total. 

(a)  '•  Foreign  born  citizens  of  the  United  States  returning  from  abroad  are  to 
^'  be  designated  as  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and  entered  only  in  the  table  headed 
^''  *  passengers  not  immigrants.' 

'•'  Passengers  who  died  on  the  passage  are  not  to  be  included  in  this  table." 

These  headings  could  not,  as  Mr.  Avery  stated  to  me,  by  any  possibility  be  filled 

up  from  answers  recorded  to   questions  put   to  passengers  on  the  Grand  Trunk 

XXX  vi 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


traJDS,  while  passing  from  Point  Edward  to  Fort  G-ratiot,  within  the  time  occupied, 
even  in  the  case  of  the  total  number  of  the  actual  passengers, — apart  from  any 
question  of  being  able  to  do  so  with  the  large  fabricated  figures. 

It  will  be  seen,  however,  from  the  abstract  annexed,  (Exhibit  B)  that  the  heading* 
are  filled  up,  if  not  from  answers  to  questions,  at  the  time  recorded,  in  such  other 
way  as  that  information  may  be  ''arrived  at"  by  the  Port  Huron  Customs  officials. 
One  striking  feature  of  these  figures  is  the  very  large  number  of  persons  said  to  be 
proceeding  to  the  Western  States,  without  any  occupation,  and  the  fact  is  suspi- 
ciously suggestive  of  the  way  in  which  the  forms  are  filled  up. 

I  next  considered  it  important  to  ascertain  how  matters  stood  at  the  ferry 
between  Sarnia  and  Port  Huron,  and  with  this  view  I  procured  an  introduction  to 
Mr,  A.  Larned,  the  United  States  officer  at  Port  Huron,  who  receives  entries  at  the 
landing,  and  he  kindly  gave  me  the  following  facts  from  his  books,  which  I  took 
down  on  the  spot : — 

1880.  Entries.  Souls. 

From  July  6th  to  31st 16     81 

''      August31st , 21     69 

"      September  30th 39 163 

"      October  31st 42     175 

*<     JSTovember  19th 30     143 

Totals 148     631 

These  figures  are  4 J  persons  per  entry. 

I  was  not  able  to  get  the  figures  over  any  more  extended  period.     But  these  will 
show  the  outflow  at  this  point  in  the  period  of  alleged  most  active  emigration  from  ^ 
Canada. 

There  is  a  constant  stream  of  ferry  passengers,  without  any  luggage  of  any  sort, 
passing  backwards  and  forwards  by  the  ferry  steamers,  and  the  number  of  these,  I 
am  informed,  is  placed  on  record.     But  it  has  no  reference  to  emigration. 

Crossing  over  to  Sarnia,  I  obtained  from  Mr.  Mathewson,  the  Canadian  Customs 
Collector,  the  fact  that  the  number  of  outward  entries  at  Sarnia,  and  its  out-ports,  of 
settlers'  effects,  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30th,  was  858.  This,  taking  the 
entry  at  4J  per  family  (or  more  correctly  parts  of  family)  with  each  entry,  which  is  a 
larger  estimate  per  family  than  appears  from  the  entries  at  Mr.  Larued's  Office,  would 
give  an  emigration  of  3861.  For  the  five  months  from  July  1st  to  November  30th, 
the  number  of  entries  was  325 — a  considerably  proportionate  decline,  as  compared 
with  the  fiscal  year — and  these  with  the  same  number  of  persons  per  entry,  would 
give  an  emigration  of  1567. 

xxxvii 


44  Victoria,  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

I  procured  an  introduction  to  Mr.  J.  P.  Sanborn,  the  Collector  of  Customs  at 
Port  Huron,  with  the  object  of  communicating  to  him  the  information  I  had  gathered 
on  the  frontier  respecting  these  Immigration  Statistics,  and  talking  over  with  him 
the  mode  of  procuring  them,  but  I  found  he  could  not  bear  to  have  any  question 
raised  as  to  the  accuracy  of  the  figures  furnished  on  his  authority,  and  so  I  regret  to 
say  the  conversation  terminated. 

I  found  that  the  alleged  emigration  from  Canada  has  gone  on  in  a  very  largely 
increased  stream,  according  to  the  Collector  of  Customs  at  Port  Huron,  from  the  end 
of  the  fiscal  year  at  June  30th  last,  as  appears  from  the  following  printed  letter 
which  was  put  into  mv  hands  while  at  that  place  : — 

*'  CUSTOMS  HOUSE,  PORT  HURON,  MICH. 

"  Collector's  Office,  Mvember  Sth,  1880. 

"Marcus  Young  Esq.  Port  Huron,  Mich. 

"  Dear  Sir, — In  reply  to  your  enquiries  I  have  to  state  that  the  records  of  this 
office  show  the  following  Immigration  for  the  periods  mentioned,  viz.  : — 

"  Year  ending  June  30th,  1S80 94,375 

^'  Quarter  ending  September  30th,  1880 43,975 

''Month  of  October,  1880 16,748 

"  Respectfully, 

"  H.  BOTSFORD, 

"  Deputy  Collector:* 

In  this  statement  the  figures  for  the  quarter  are  at  the  rate  of  175,900  for  the 
year,  and  the  figures  for  the  month  of  October  at  the  rate  of  200,976  for  the  year. 

An  emigration  of  94,375  in  one  year  would  be  a  very  large  fact,  plain  before  all 
men's  eyes,  and  not  at  all  dependent  for  its  proof  upon  the  assertions  of  Customs 
officials  at  Port  Huron,  or  elsewhere.  It  would  imply  an  exodus  of  302  persons 
every  day  for  6  days  in  the  week,  and  counting  40  as  a  large  average  per  second-class 
car  (although  they  may  sometimes  be  crowded  to  the  extent  of  50)  this  would  mean 
8  full  cars  every  day  in  the  week,  in  addition  to  the  numbers  of  cars  required  for 
ordinary  travellers. 

An  emigration  of  43,975  in  a  quarter  implies  564  in  one  day,  or  14  full  car  loads 
for  every  day  in  the  \\  eck,  also  in  addition  to  the  numbers  of  cars  required  for 
ordinary  travellers. 

An  emigration  of  16,748  in  one  month,  implies  644  per  day,  requiring  16  full 

cars  for  each  day  in  the  week,  also  in  addition  to  the  numbers  of  care  required  for 

ordinary  passengers. 

xxxviii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

i  ■  ■ 

I  obtained  information  from  the  G-rand  Trunk  Station  Master  at  Sarnia'and  Port 
Huron,  that  while  there  are  five  trains  which  arrive  at  that  point  from  eastern 
stations  [daily,  which  carry  more  or  less  passengers,  there  are  two  principal  or 
through  express  trains  from  the  east  which  carry  the  bulk  of  the  Canadian 
passengers  going  west.  The  ordinary  make-up  of  these  trains,  is  as  follows : — 
1  Pullman  car ;  3  first-class  cars ;  1  second-class  car ;  1  smoking  car ;  2  baggage 
cars — in  all  8  cars.  On  particular  occasions  other  cars  may  be  added.  But  this  is 
the  ordinary  train.  In  the  ordinary  trains,  moreover,  it  is  to  be  remarked  that  the 
•cars  are  by  no  means  always  full.  They  certaialy  were  not  on  the  'occasions  on 
which  I  crossed  to  Port  Huron.  There  are  sometimes  special  cars  required  for  the 
•<jon8iderable  number  of  lumbermen  who  go  second-class  to  work  in  the  woods  of 
Michigan  and  return  in  the  spring. 

There  are  also,  sometimes  special  emigrant  and  excursion  trains  for  Manitoba 
and  the  Western  States;  but  these  are  of  comparatively  rare  occurrence,  and  they  are 
all  specially  advertised  and  noticed  in  the  newspapers. 

The  figures  of  the  alleged  emigration  from  Canada,  crossing  at  the  point  of 
Port  Huron,  as  tested  by  the  fact  of  the  make-up  of  the  Grand  Trunk  passenger 
trains  which  pass  at  that  point,  and  which  are  established  by  a  daily  written  record 
kept  in  books,  are  not  only  a  simple  impossibility,  but  a  grotesque  absurdity. 

There  is  a  further  test.  I  have  obtained  by  official  letter  from  Mr.  Hickson,  the 
General  Manager  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Company,  the  following  statement : — 

Number  of  passengers  for  points  west  of  Sarnia  during  twelve  months  ending 
June  30th,  1880— 

From  United  States  stations 17,365 

From  Canadian  do        (including    5,636  passengers 

who  purchased  tickets  in  Europe) 36,262 


53,62*7 


These  figures  represent  the  whole  of  the  through  travel  from  the  United  States 
:and  Canada  to  all  points  in  the  west,  including  Manitoba,  crossing  at  Port  Huron  vid 
the  Grand  Trunk  Railway. 

To  arrive  at  the  total  number  of  through  passengers  from  Canada,  the  following 
deductions  have  to  be  made: — 

Passengers  holding  tickets  purchased  at  stations  in  the  U.  S....   17,365 
Passengers  holding  tickets  purchased  in  Europe 5,636 

23,001 
xxxix 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


This  leaves  a  total  of  30,626  for  the  whole  of  the  through  travel  from  Canada  to 
all  points  west  of  Sarnia,  including  all  travellers  for  pleasure  or  business,  and  all 
migrants  from  the  older  provinces  to  Manitoba, — in  other  words,  a  little  less  than 
one-third  of  the  immigration  into  the  United  States  at  Port  Huron,  according  to  the 
figures  published  by  Mr.  Sanborn,  Collector  of  Customs. 

From  the  figures  of  30,626,  there  should  be  deducted  the  migrants  and  immt 
grants  to  Manitoba,  who  have  passed  at  this  point.  From  the  figures  received  the  total 
number  entering  Manitoba  is  from  13,500  to  16,000.  The  proportion  of  those  who  hava 
crossed  at  this  point  cannot  be  exactly  ascertained,  but  it  is  at  the  very  least  between 
3,000  and  4,000.  If  the  average  of  this  very  moderate  estimate  3,500  is  taken,  it 
would  make  [the  actual  number  of  passengers  of  all  sorts  and  from  all  places,  for 
Western  States,  at  Fort  Gratiot,  27,126. 

The  total  number  of  passengers  who  came  from  the  West  to  the  East  during  the 
twelve  months  ended  June  30th  last  was  45,676,  against  the  53,627  who  went  West, 
making  a  difference  of  7,951.  It  does  not,  however,  follow  that  those  who  went  and 
those  who  returned  were  the  same.  But  the  figures  do  establish  the  fact  of  the 
relative  extent  of  the  movement  both  ways,  and  they  do  establish  the  fact  that  the 
bulk  of  the  West-bound  passengers  were  not  emigrants  from  Canada. 

Of  the  total  of  45,676  of  East-bound  passengers,  the  number  of  24,739  came  from 
points  in  the  West  to  points  in  Canada,  against  30,626  from  points  in  Canada  to- 
points  in  the  Western  States  and  Manitoba,  leaving  a  difference  of  5,887  as  the  emigra- 
tion, or  only  about  2,387,  deducting  the  proportion  of  3,500  for  the  Manitoba  migrants^ 
and  immigrants. 

As  respects  the  claim  of  the  Port  Huron  Custom  House  for  the  September 
quarter  of  43,975  immigrants,  I  have  to  submit  the  following  figures  furnished  by 
Mr.  T.  B.  Hawson,  the  Auditor  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Eailway,  upon  official  applica- 
tion :— Total  number  of  West-bound  passengers  leaving  Canada  at  Sarnia,  for  3  months 
ending  30th  Sept.,  1880—16,699. 

It  thus  appears  that  the  total  number  of  through  passengers  from  every  point, 
including  those  from  Europe,  the  Eastern  States  and  Canada,  of  the  1st,  2nd  and  3rd 
class,  travelling  for  business  or  pleasure  to  all  points  West,  and  including  migrants 
and  immigrants  for  Manitoba,  are  little  more  than  one-third  of  theimmigrants  said 
to  have  arrived  at  Port  Huron. 

The  passengers  from  the  West  to  the  East  during  the  three  months  in  question 
were  16,039,  leaving  only  a  difference  of  660  between  the  passengers  who  went  West 
and  those  who  came  East.      The  same  remark  must  be  applied  to  these  figures. 
The  two  sets   of  passengers  are  not  necessarily  the  same,  but  they  do  establish  the- 
relative  movements  between  the  East  and  the  West. 

xl 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


I  find  from  inquiry,  both  at  Port  Huron  and  Sarnia,  that  there  has  been  during 
the  last  ten  years  an  appreciable  emigration  from  Canada  to  the  Stale  of  Michigan 
and^other'points  in  the  West,  and  I  am  informed  that  one  county  in  the  state  named  is 
almost  wholly  settled  by  Canadians,  principally*  from  Ontario,  and  this  has  arisen 
largely  from  the  fact  that  wooded  land  of  something  of  the  same  nature  of  that  in 
the  Province  of  Ontario  has  been  obtainable  at  comparatively  cheap  rates,  while 
land  in  the  old  settled  parts  of  that  province  has  been  entii  ely  taken  up.  This 
movement,  however,  would  not  at  any  time  have  made  any  large  figures  in  one 
year. 

There  is  a  further  point.  Considerable  numbers  of  persons  have  from  time  to 
time  gone  Westj'as  excursion  parties,  by  the  regular  or  special  trains.  These  parties 
have  first-class  tickets  afforded  at  special  reduced  rates.  The  excursions  are  adver- 
tisedby  the  Eailway  Companies  in  order  to  get  Eastern  farmers  to  view  their  lands. 
These  parties  have  been  referred  to  in  newspapers  as  emigrants  to  the  AYestern 
States,  but  not  very  many  from  each  excursion  purchase  lands.  I  was  informed, 
by  Mr.  Marcus  Young  of  Port  Huron,  who  is  largely  engaged  in  this  business,  that 
not  more  than  five  out  of  150  of  such  excursionists  purchase  lands,  and  that  ten 
would  be  considered  a  good  business.  Mr.  Young  referred  specially  to  one  party 
of  165  Canadians  (^inclnding  2  Englishmen,  who  joined  the  excursion  from  Canada), 
The  Canadians  all  returned,  but  3  purchased  land,  together  with  the  two  English- 
men, as  did  also  2  Canadians  subsequently. 

To  complete  the  record  of  movements  of  passengers  at  Sarnia,  I  ofiicially  applied 
to  Mr.  Broughton,  the  General  Manager  of  the  Great  Western  Eailway  Company,. 
and  from  himl  obtained  the  following  statement: — 

Total  number  of  passengers  from  Canadal^to  Western  States 

ma  Sarnia 1,7U) 

Total  passengers  from  Western  States  to  Canada  via  Sarnia.  1,2C2     " 

Difference 457 

Total  1^0.  of  joassengers  from  Eastern  to   Western  States  via 

Sarnia , ],461 

Total  No.  from  Western  to  Eastern  States  via  Sarnia 452 

Difference 1,009 

The  difference  of  travel  at  this  point  in  favour  of  the  Western  States  is  therefore- 
much  larger  from  the  Eastern  States  than  from  Canada. 

The  total  number  of  passengers  from  all  points  beyond  the    Western    frontier^ 

via  the  Great  Western   Eailway,  was  101,681,  while    the  total  number  from   the 

West  to  the  East  crossing  our  Western  frontier  by  that  railway  svstem  was  62,1 52>- 

xli 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


leaving  a  difference  of  39,529  in  favour  of  the  Western  States  and  Manitoba.  These 
figures  include  the  large  number  of  immigrants  from  Europe  by  the  New  York 
steamship  lines  for  the  Western  States  who  enter  by  the  Suspension  Bridge. 

There  is  still  another  approximative  test  which  may  be  applied  to  this 
<lue8tion,  taken  from  the  Onited  States  census  of  1870  (the  returns  for  1880  not 
jet  having  been  received)  the  largest  emigration  from  Canada  having,  I  believe, 
beyond  question,  taken  place  in  the  ten  years  preceding  the  outbreak  of  the  crisis 
in  the  United  States  in  1873. 

Personsof  Canadian  birth  residing  in  the  United  States  in  1870,  as  per  U.  S. 
<;ensu8  : — 

Canada 411,731 

New  Brunswick 26,551 

Nova  Scotia 33,098 

P.  E.  Island 1,348 


472,728 

At  the  previous  census  there  were  249,970,  showing,  in  taking  account  of  the 
death  rate  thereon  appertaining,  a  yearly  total  emigration  of  about  23,000  at  all 
points  from  Canada,  including  that  from  the  Province  of  Quebec,  to  the  manufacturing 
towns  of  the  Eastern  States,  which,  within  that  period,  was  at  its  highest.  But  since 
the  crisis  in  the  United  States  in  1873,  there  has  been  a  large  immigration  into  Canada 
from  the  States,  the  figures  being,  with  free  entries  of  settlers'  effects  alone — 

In  1873 8,971 

1874 14,110 

1875 8,139 

1876 11,134 

1877 11,753 

1878 11,435 

1879 9,775 

The  immigrants  from  the  United  States  in  the  years  above  mentioned,  who 
have  entered  without  effects,  and  of  whom  there  is  no  record,  may  be  set  down  as 
-equal  in  numbers  to  those  recorded  with  free  entries. 

It  may  be  mentioned  incidentally  here,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  that  the  number  of 
persons  of  U.  S.  birth  in  Canada  at  the  census  of  1871  was  64,449,  or  18  per  thousand 
of  the  xvholc  population  ;  while  those  of  Canadian  birth  in  the  United  States  in  1870 
wci-e  12  per  thousandof  the  population. 

An  emigration  of  75,000  in  a  year  from  Canada,  and  especially  at  a  single  point, 

would  mean  depopulation,  which  it  is  known  is  not  taking  place.    The  last  census, 

xlii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


-which^covered  the  period  of  greatest  emigrations,  showed  an  increase  of  12.79  per 
cent.,  for  the  four  old  provinces  of  the  Dominion,  during  the  preceding  decenniad. 

Eecapitulation. 

{For  Year  ended  June  SOth,  1880,  at  Port  Huron.) 

Total  alleged  immigration  in  U.S.  at  this  point 94,375 

Proportion  of  do,  from  Canada 75,059 

{Via  Grand  Trunk  Railway. ) 

Total  number  of  passengers  from  all  points  of  Europe,  the 
Eastern  States  and  Canada  to  all  western'points,  includ- 
ing Manitoba 53,627 

Total  from  West  to  East  at  same  point 45,676 

Difference 7,951 

{Via  Grand   Trunk  Bailway.') 

Total  passengers  from  Canada  to  all  points  West,  including 

Manitoba 30,626 

Total  passengers  from  Western  States  to  Canada 24,739 

Difference 5,887 

{Via  Great   Western — Sarnia  Branch.) 

Total  passengers  from  Canada  to  Western  States 1,719 

Total  from  Western  States  to  Canada 1,262 

Difference 457 

{From  JJ,  S.  Consul  at  Sarnia.) 

Total  emigrants  with  Consular  certificates,  from  estimate  of 
Consul  at  Sarnia,  700  certificates  at  4J  persons  per 
certificate , 3,050 

{From  Canadian  Customs  Collector  at  Sarnia.) 

Total  outward  entries  at  Sarnia  and  itsoutports,  858,  or  at 

4^  persons  per  entry,  for  12  months  ended  June  30th....     3,861 

Taking  the  larger  of  these  two  numbers  of  outward  entries  and  the  differences 

etween  West- bound  and  East-bound  travel,  we  arrive  at  the  following  figures  of  the 

xliii 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


total  probable  emigration  from  Canada  via  Port  Huron,  during  the  twelve  months 
ended  June  30th  last : — 

Difference  between  the  Eastern  and  Western  passengers 

from  points  in  and  to  Canada 5,88*7 

Ditto  by  the  Great  Western , 457 

Emigrants  with  outward  entries  at  Sarnia  and  outports 3,861 

Total 10,205 

Less  migrants  and  immigrants  to  Manitoba, being 

a  proportion  of  a  total  of  13,500  or  16,000.. . .     3,500 

Total  emigration  from  Canada  to  Western  States 

during  the  year  at  Port  Huron 6,705 

Eecapitulation  for  Quarter  ended  September  30th,  at  Port  Huron. 
Total  alleged  emigration  from  Canada 43,957 

( Via  Great  Western  Bailivay  at  Sarnia.^ 

Total  West-bound  passengers  from  all  Eastern  points  to 

AYestern  points,  including  Manitoba 567 

Total  ditto,  b^ast-bound 573 

'  Difference  in  favour  of  the  East 6 

{Via  Graiid  Trunk  Railway.) 

Total  number  of  West-bound  passengers  from  all  points  of 
Europe,  the  Eastern  States  and  Canada,  to  Western 
points,  including  Manitoba 16,699 

Total  ditto  from  Western  points  to  Eastern  points 16,039 

Difference 6b0 

With  entries  at  Port  Huron 313 

973 

It  appears  that  whatever  test  is  applied,  whether  the  well-known  and  recorded 
capacity  of  the  cars  employed,  or  the  inability  of  counting  by  the  methods  ap- 
plied, or  the  number  of  all  passengers  travelling  by  rail,  as  officially  obtained  from  the 
lesponsible  officers  of  the  railways,  or  the  entries  with  emigrants'  effects,  or  approxi 
mation  by  the  records  of  the  census,  the  claim  of  the  Collector  of  the  Port  Huron 

xliv 


1 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

Custom  House,  as  respects  the  immigration  into  the  United  States  at  that  point,  is  a 
iabrication  so  gross  as  to  establish  an  impossibility,  without  even  a  semblance  of 
probability. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be, 
Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  LOWE, 
Secretary  of  the  Dept.  of  Agriculture. 
To  THE  Hon.  J.  H.  Popb, 

Minister  of  Agriculture, 


xlv 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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xlri 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


EXHIBIT  B. 
Summary  Abstract  of  Eecords  of  ImmigTation,  from  the  Provinces  of  Ontario  and 
Quebec,  taken  from  the  Custom  House,  Port  Huron,  Michigan,  U.S.A. 


Countrj  or  Island 

of  last  Permanent 

Residence  or 

Citizenship. 


Quebec  and  Ontario. 
Sept.  30th.  1879 


Dec.  31st,  1879. 


Immigrants' 
Occupation. 


Architects 

Accountants , 

Blacksmiths 

Butchers 

Clerks 

Caulkers 

Carpenters 

Cabinet-makers.. 

Coopers 

Dressmakers 

Drovers 

Engineers 

Firemen 

Farmers 

Farm  Laborers.. 

Fishermen 

Grocers 

Laborers 

Musicians 

Machinists 

Painters 

Plasterers 

Printers , 

Plumbers , 

Railroad  men...., 

Shipwrights 

Shoemakers 

Seamen , 

Tailors , 

Tanners 

Telegraphers... . 

Trimmers 

Watchmakers. ,. 
Without 


Total 


Artists 

Bakers. 

Butchers 

Brewers 

Carpenters  

Cabinet-makers., 

Coopers 

(Engineers 

Farmers 

IFarm  Laborers... 

IGlaziers , 

JLaborers 

Miners i 

Musicians j 

Masons i 

Music  Teachers... 

Paimters I 

Kailroad  men j 

Shoemakers \ 

Tailors 

Blacksmiths [ 

Without 


Numbers. 


3 
6 

12 

14 

18 

5 

71 

24 

3 

16 

6 

8 

6 

1,917 

144 

16 

6 

190 

3 

2 

14 

5 

8 

6 

31 

11 

34 

14 

17 

4 

3 

5 

4 

2,797 


5,423 


Country  or  Island 

of  last  Permanent 

Residence  or 

Citizenship. 


10 
13 
16 
13 

700 

159 

23 

12 

2,741 

1,443 

13 

7,181 

50 

8 

26 

10 

IT 

23 

101 

13 

58 

8.706 


Quebec  and  Ontario. 
March  31st,  1880.... 


June  30th,  1880 


Total 


21,336 


September,  1879, 
December,  1879. 

March,  1880  

June,  1880 


Immigrants' 
Occupation. 


Numbers. 


Artists 

Accountants 

{Bakers 

Barbers  

Blacksmiths 

Brewers 

Butchers 

Carvers 

Cabinet-makers. 

Carpenters 

Engineers 

Farmers.. 

Farm  Laborers.. 

Laborers 

Machinists 

Millers 

Miners 

.Plasterers.. 

'Printers 

Railroad  men.... 

Shipwrights 

Shoemakers 

Stonecutters 

Tanners 

Teamsters 

Tailors 

Without 


Total 


Artists 

Accountants 

Blacksmiths 

Brewers 

Bakers 

Carpenters 

Cabinet-makers. 

Carvers 

Coopers 

Dyers 

Engineers.. 

Farmers 

Farm  Laborers... 

'Grocers 

j  Hatters 

Jewellers 

(Laborers 

iLumbermen.... 
'Machinists 

Musicians 

Miners 

Painters 

Railroad  men.. 

Without 


Total 


5 

16 
10 
17 

5a 
n 

17 

7 

156 

348 

12 

2,373 

668 

2,444 

14 

IT 

35 

T 

6 

33 

147 

72 

23 

3 

11 

11 

7,970 


14,486 


15 

19 

23 

31 

41 

1,589 

871 

69 

121 

9 

52 

5,862 

1,829 

29 

16 

9 

2,974 

123 

131 

21 

180 

61 

49 

13,789 

27,914 

5,423 
21,336 
14,486 
27,914 


^69,159 


*  Note.— These  figures,  69,159,  refer  to  Quebec  and  Ontario, 
figures  are  75,059  ;  and  all  Countries,  94,375. 

xlvii 


Adding  the  Maritime  Provinces  the 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No  12,)  A,  1881 


LIST  OF  APPENDICES. 


1.  Report  of  Quebec  Immigration  Agent L.Stafford. 

2  do  Montreal  do            J.J.Daley. 

3  do  Ottawa  do  W.J.Wills. 

4  do  Kingston  do  R.  Macpherson. 

5  do  Toronto  do               J.A.Donaldson. 

6  do  Hamilton  do John  Smith. 

7  do  Halifax  do            E.Clay. 

8  do  London  (Ont.)        do A.G.Smyth. 

9  do  Duluth  do            W.  C.  B.  Grahame. 

10  do  Winnipeg  do           W.  Hespeler. 

11  do  Manitoba  Colonization C.  Lalime. 

12  do  Icelandic  Colony J.Taylor. 

13  do  Travelling  Agent  on  Trains J.  Sumntr. 

14  do  St.  John  Immigration  Agent ....S.Gardner. 

15  do  St.  Paul  do G.  R.  Kingsmill. 

16  do  Grosse  Isle  Quarantine  Medical  Officer F.  Montizamb^rt^  M.D. 

17  do  Halifax  do                  do W.  N.Wickwire,  M.D. 

18  do  St.  John  do                  do           W,  S.  Harding,  M.D. 

19  do  Pictou  do                  do H.  Kirkwood,  M.D. 

20  do  Charlottetown      do  do W.  H.  Hobkirk.  M.D. 

21  do  Quebec  Inspecting  Physician ...A.  Rowand,  M.D. 

22  do  do       Acting       do J.  Racey,  M.D. 

23  do  Ocean  Mail  Officer W.  F.  Bowes. 

24  do  do S.T.Green. 

25  do  do .....Jas.  Ferguson. 

26  do  Cattle  Quarantine,  Halifax A.  McFatridge,V.S. 

27  do  do  St.  John R.  Bunting,  V.S. 

28  do  Cattle  Disease  at  Carleton  Place. ......     ...      A.  F.  Coleman,V.S. 

29  do  High  Commissioner,  England... = Sir  A.  T.  Gait,  K.C.M.G. 

30  do  Liverpool  Emigration  Agent ,  John  Dyke. 

31  do  Bristol  do J.  W.  Dawn, 

32  do  Glasgow  do               .. — Thos.  Grahame. 

33  do  Dublin  do                ........*.........,...... Thos.  Connolly. 

34  do  Belfast  do C.Foy. 

35  do  Point  Levis  Cattle  Quarantine  and  Cattle  Exportation.. .Z>.  McEachran,  F.R.C.V.S. 

36  do  Ocean  Mail  Officer « F.  Barlee. 


12— D 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


r\PPP:NDlX    No.    I 


ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  QUEBEC  IMMIGRATION  AGENT. 
(Mr.  L.  Stafford.) 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Quebec,  17th  December,  1880. 

giR^ — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  to  you  herewith,  my  Annual  Eeport  for  the 
year  1880. 

The  total  arrivals  at  the  Port  of  Quebec,  in  1880,  were  : — 


Add  births  at  sea 

Deduct  deaths  at  sea. 


Cabin.  Steerage. 


3,142 


3,142 


3,142 


21,863 
3 


21,866 
11 


21,855 


Totals. 


25,005 


25,008 
11 


24,997 


The  arrivals,  compared  with  those  of  1879,  show  an  increase  of  7,74o  souls. 
Comparative  Table  of  Arrivals,  1879  and   1880. 


Where  From. 

1879. 

1880. 

Increase. 

Decrease. 

Cabin. 

Steerage. 

Cabin. 

Steerage. 

England 

2,144 
131 
104 

11,969 

957 

1,498 

14,424 

448 

2,927 

42 

173 

15,720 

2,443 
2,672 

4,534 
1,397 
1,243 

Scotland 

Total  from  United  Kingdom..- 
Vi&  United  States,  &c  

2,379 

3,142 

20,835 
1,020 

7,174 

S72 



.....-> .. ... 

... 

14,872 
2,379 

17,251 

21,855 
3,142 

7,746 

Cabin                         

7,716 

Grand  Total 

24,997 

Showing  an  increase  of  7,174  in   the   immigration   from  the   United  Kingdom, 
and  572  via  United  States,  &c. 

The  total  number  of  steamships  which  arrived  with  passengers  was  127. 

The  average  passage  of  the  Allan  Line  was  :  Mail  steamers  from  Liverpool,  lOJ 
days;  Londonderry,  9  days;  Glasgow  steamers  from  Ghi^gow,    12|-  days;  Dominion 
Line  from  Liverpool,  1 2 J- days  ;  Belfast,  ^Of  days  ;  Beaver  Line  from   Liverpool   12 
days  ;  Temperley's  London  Line,  17J  da\'s;  Ross  London  Line,  13i-  days. 
12—1 


44  Victorica, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.) 


A.  1881 


The  number  of  Cabin  and  Steerage  by  each  line  of  vessels  was  as  follow  : — 


Allan  Line  Mail  Steamers 

do         Glasgow  Steamers   

do  do       from  Liverpool 

do  do  Londonderry. 

do  ^do  Queenstown,. 

Dominion  Line  of  Steamers 

Beaver  Line  of  Steamers 

Temperley's  London  Steamers ... 

Ross  London  Steamers...  

Fza  United  States,  &c.,  &c 


Cabin.    ■  Steerage. 


2,340 

173 

9 


448 

113 

51 


3,142 


15,176 

2,672 

458 

611 

46 

1,334 

237 

208 

93 

1,020 


21,855 


Total. 


17,516 

2,845 

467 

611 

46 

1,782 

350 

259 

101 

1,020 


24,997 


The  nationalities  of  the  passengers  brought  out  by  each  line  were  as  follow 


* 

Line. 

'So 

1,660 

! 

§ 

m 

aa 

a 
e3 

i 

Scandinavians. 

1 
1 

o 
a 
a 

.Is 

i 

E! 

"71 


..... 

Total. 

Allan  Line  Mail  Steamers  from  Liverpool 

and  Londonderry   

Glasgow  St'iamers  from  Glaso^ow, 

8,719 

5 

2,774 

157 
-16 

'"82 
2 

307 

1 

1 

6,892;     12 

70 

17,516 
2,845 

36 

ij'ii's 

253 
259 
101 
573 

5 
611 

46 
536 

95 

""  "230 

410  —   ■ 

467 

do                  do          Londonderry........ 

do                 do          Queenstown 

Dominion  Steamers .  ...... 

7 

1 
32!       7 

611 

46 

1,782 

350 

Beaver  Line  Steamers 

«^ 

71 

'""2 
3 

Temperley's  London  Steamers , 

89 

27  i     70 

259 

Ross                             do              .. 

FtVi  United  States,  Ac 

101 
1,020 

Total 

11.059 

3,183 

2,875 

7,402 

24,997 

The  nationalities  of  the  immigrants  of  1880,  compared  with  those  of  1S79,  were 
as  follow;  — 

1879.  1880. 

English , 10,395  ll,05i^ 

Irish  1,543  3,183 

Scotch 1,448  2,875 

Germans 349  307 

Scandinavians 2,872  7,402 

French  and  Belgians  149  27 

Swiss  33  3 

Italians 6  0 

Icelanders 248  71 

iiussian  (Mennonites) 208  70 

1/,251  24,997 

2 


44  Victori: 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


The  number  of  single  men  arrived  was  9,106. 

The  number  of  single  women  arrived  was  2,856. 

Table  No.  2  gives  the  number  of  passengers  from  each  port  in  1879  and  1880. 

The  trades  and  callings  of  the  steerage  male  adults,  as  per  passenger  lists,  were 
as  follow : — 

Farmers , ^ 5^9 

Labourers , 10  184 

Mechanics , '993 

Clerks,  &c. ...... 54 


11,730 


Table  No.  3  gives  the  number  of  immigrants  arrived  at  the  Port  of  Quebec  from 
1829  to  1880,  inclusive,  showing  a  total  of  1,435,842,  or  a  yearly  average  of  27,612. 

The  following  table  gives  the  number  of  immigrants  assisted  to  emigrate  by 
various  societies  during  the  year  1880. 


Date. 


Vessel. 


1880. 


By  whom  sent. 


April 
May 

do 

do 

July- 
do 
do 
do 

Sept. 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

do 
Oct. 

do 

do 
Nov. 

do 

do 

do 


13  Via  Halifax.. 
9|  Polynesian  .. 
9,  Montreal, 

ISjBaenos  Ayr- 
I     ran.- 

4  Sardinian  .... 

4;        do 
12  Dominion  ... 
17  Polynesian  .. 

15  Sardinian  .... 
6  Moravian  .... 
61        do 

6!        do        .... 

ll'Brook]yn 

11  Sarmatian  ... 

16  Buenos  Ayr- 

ran  , 

25|Sardinian  .... 
16; Moravian  .... 
23  Sarmatian  ... 
30, Circassian  ... 

TSarainian  .... 

7!        do 

14  Peruvian  .... 
14        do      


'Mrs.  Birt 

I  Mies  Macpherson  ...  .......  

iKev.  Mr.  Stephenson,  Hamilton. 


jMiss  Bilborough 

Mias  Macpherson  .  , .  , 

!  Boys'  Home,  Queen  St.,  London , .. 

ISisters  of  Mercy,  Loughrea,  Co.  Galway 

Mr.  Ajiddlemore,  Birmingham, 

Mrs.  Birt 

South  Dublin  Union ,.. ,... 

•Miss  Rye , 

jMiss  Bilborough  

'MuUingar  Union,  Co.  Wegtmeath   

[Ballvshanan  Union, 


Total. 


18 


10 
2 

23 

28 

9 


6 


25 


18 


Co.  Donegal, .- |....    ...i      13 


Miss  Bilborough 

Miss  Macpherson 

Cardinal  Mauning's  Committee,  London 
do  do  do 

do  do  do 

do  do  do 

Old  Castle  Union,  Co.  Meath ,. 

Miss  Kennedy,  Dublin 

Cardinal  Manning's  Committee,  London, 


Totals, 


119 


2  (, 


172        320 


61 


70 
32 
22 

120 
77 
11 
10 
44 
74 
28 
33 
5 
39 
14 

7 

19 

13 

16 

12 

4 

7 

9 

6 

672 


The  total  number  assisted  with  free  transport  by  this  office  was  9,270  soul  s 
jqual  to  7,517 J  adults. 

Souls.  Adults. 

^ales ^ 4^460  4,460 

Females 2,367  '^,367 

Children 1^381  (j90i 

Infants 1062 


9,270        7,517i 


i2~lj 


44  Victoria.                 Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 

Their  nationalities  were  : — 

Souls.  Adults. 

Entrlish 4,878  3,910 

Irish  2,422  2,057| 

Scotch 1,307  1,025 

Germans , 232  162J 

Scandinavians  340  289 

French  and  Belgians 24  23 

Swiss 2  1 

Icelanders 6  6 

Eussian  (Mennonites) 59  4.:5J- 

9,270  7,517J 

They  were  forwarded  to  the  following  places  : — 

Souls.  Adults. 

Eastern  TownshijDS 587  476 

Montreal 561  504 

Saguenay 14  14 

Ottawa 360  306 

Central  District 1,166  926J 

Toronto ..    4,229  3,487J 

Webt  of  Toronto 2,249  1,724 

Manitoba 6\)  43J^ 

Lower  Provinces 43  34 

United  States ,...           2  2 

9,270  7,517^ 

The  general  destinations  of  the  steerage  passengers,  as  per  returns  from  Grand 
Trunk  Euilway,  were  as  follow  : — 

Adults. 

Eastern  Townships 488|- 

Montreal 1,176 

Saguenay 14 


Total  Province  of  Quebec 1,678J 

Ottawa  City 460 

Ottawa  District,  167j 

Kingston  City 411J 

Kingston  District 506 

Toronto , 4,001 

West  of  Toronto ^  3,297 

Total  Province  of  Ontario , 8,843 

I^ova  Scotia 6 

New  Brunswick 29 

Manitoba... 820| 

British  Columbia, 7 

^62^ 

Total  Adults :  11,384 

To  which  may  be  added  one-third  for  children  and  infants..     3,795 

Total  number  of  souls  remaining  in  Canada 15,179 

4 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Adults. 

Eastern  States 262J 

Weslern  States  (chiefly  Scandinavians) 6,109 

Total  Adults 6,371i- 


The  total  expenditure  of  this  Agency  for  the  year  ending  Slst  December,  1880> 
was  as  follows  : — 

Immigration. 

Meals,  provisions  and  assistance  to  immigrants.   $  1,255  42 

Agency  charges 1,221  75 

Salaries  of  staif 4,150  00 

Eepairs,  supplies,  &c 735  06 

Pay  of  Guardians,  Levis  Sheds  959  00 

Transport  of  immigrants 47,469  28 

Total  Immigration $55,790  51 

Quarantine. 

Inspecting  Physician's  salary $     900  00 

Medicines,  stationery,  &c 195  25 

— —         1,095  25 

Total  Expenditure  at  Agency  $56,885  76 

The  distribution  io  Great  Britain  of  the  reports  of  i\\Q  delegates,  who  visited 
this  country  in  1879,  has  already  produced  good  effects,  as  this  season  (apart  from 
the  Delegates  accredited  to  the  Government)  many  wealthy  tenant  farmers  and 
gentlemen  of  means  visited  the  older  Provinces  and  the  Korth-West  with  the  view  of 
selecting  a  site  for  their  future  homes.  The  number  of  these,  as  well  as  the  labour- 
ing classes,  will  be  largely  increased  by  the  opening  of  the  Thunder  Bay  and 
Winnipeg  branch  of  the  Canada  Pacific  Eailway,  giving  access  through  Canadian 
waters  and  rail  to  the  public  works  and  fertile  plains  of  the  great  North- West. 

The  immigrants  landed  here  in  1880  were  of  the  usual  classes,  comprising 
farmers,  farm-labourers,  navvies,  mechanics  and  domestic  servants.  The  number 
of  the  latter,  so  very  desirable  a  class,  was  the  largest  for  many  years,  viz.,  2,856  as 
against  1,496  in  1879,  and  957  in  1878,  and  all  found  employment  at  good  wages. 

The  season's  immigration  shows  a  large  increase  over  that  of  late  years,  and 
causes  at  present  affecting  the  labouring  and  farm  classes  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
will,  I  have  no  doubt,  continue  to  increase  the  numbers  who  will  select  Canada  as 
their  future  home,  and  the  general  prosperity  of  this  country,  now  so  visible,  is  a 
guarantee  that  on  arrival  here  immediate  employment  awaits  them. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

L.  STAFFORD, 

Agent. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Ag,iculture, 
Ottawa. 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  18S1 


Table  No.  2. — Statement  of  the  number  of  immigrants  arrived  at  the  Port  of 
Quebec,  distinguishing  the  countries  from  whence  they  sailed,  during  the  seasons 
1S79  and  ISSO. 


Eng'and. 


Liverpool. 
London ... 


1879. 

1880. 

14,076 
37 

18,287 
360 

14,113         18,647 


Ireland. 

Londonderry 1,088  2,229 

Belfast 210 

Queenstown 46 


1,088  2,485 


Scotland. 
Glasgow 1,602  2,845 


Via  United  States,  odd  ships,  &c 448  1,020 


Eecapitulation. 

1879.  1880. 

England ,,.. 14,113  18,647 

L-eland 1,088  2,485 

Scotland 1,602  2,845 

Fia  United  States,  &c 448  1,020 


17,251         24,997 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Quebec,  3l8t  Deceniber,  1880. 


L.  STAFFOED, 

Agent. 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Table  No.  3. — Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  Immigrants  arrived  at 
the  Port  of  Quebec,  since  the  year  la29  until  1880,  inclusive. 


Years. 

England. 

Ireland. 

Scotland. 

Germany 

and 
Norway. 

Other 
Countries. 

Total. 

1829  to  1833 

43,386 

28,561 

30,791 

60,458 

8,980 

9,887 

9,677 

9,276 

9,585 

18,175 

6,754 

10,353 

15,471 

6,441 

4,846 

6,481 

7,780 

6,877 

6,317 

5,013 

9,296 

7,235 

9,509 

16,173 

27,876 

27,183 

23,710 

21,712 

25;i29 

17,631 

12,456 

7,720 

5,927 

7,500 

14,113 

18,647 

102,266 
54,904 
74,981 

112,192 
23,126 
17,976 
22,381 
15,983 
14,417 
16.165 

4;iu6 

1,688 

2,016 

1,153 

417 

376 

413 

4,545 

4,949 

3,767 

4,683 

2,230 

2,997 

2,585 

2,743 

2,534 

2,893 

3,274 

4,236 

2,503 

1,252 

688 

663 

913 

1,088 

2,485 

20,143 
11,061 
16,311 
12,767 
4,984 
2,879 
7,042 
5,477 
4.745 
6;446 
4,859 
2,794 
3,218 
1,424 
793 
979 
1,112 
2,979 
3,959 
2,914 
2,601 
2,222 
1,793 
1,924 
2,867 
5,356 
4,984 
5,022 
4,803 
2,491 
1,768 
2,131 
829 
1,425 
1,602 
2,845 

15 

485 

9*728* 

436 

849 

870 

7,256 

7,456 

11,537 

4.864 

1343 

11,!:  68 

3,578 

2,722 

2,314 

10,618 

7,728 

4,1S2 

7,453 

4,770 

16,958 

16,453 

13,607 

9,626 

9,396 

5,391 

4,414 

2,010 

857 

1,889 

1,346 

1,777 

1,219 

968 

701 

1,106 

1,184 

496 

857 

691 

261 

24 

214 

167,699 

86,357 

123,860 

196,364 

1834  to  1838,. 

1839  to  1843 

1844  to  18''8 

1849 

1850   .... 

38,494 
32,292 
41,07'6 
39.176 

1851  

1852 

1853 

1854 

36.699 
53,180 

1855     

21,274 

1856 

1857 

22,439 
32,097 
12,810 

1858 

1859 

8,778 

I860      



10,150 

1861 

1862  , 

1863 

1864 

47" 

12 

19,923 
22,176 
19,419 
19,147 
21,355 

1865 

6 

3 

5 

11 

2 

6 

42 

321 

723 

412 

562 

362 

324 

457 

448 

1,020 

1866 

28,648 

1867 

30,767 
34  300 

1868 

1869 

43,114 
44,475 
37,020 
34,743 
36,901 
23  894 

1870 , 

1871 

1872 

1874 

1875 

16,0S8 

1876. 

10,901 

1877 

7,743 
10,295 

1878 



1879 

17,251 
24,997 

1880 

556,926 

515,587 

161,549 

184,284 

17,371 

1,435,842 

Yearly  average,  27,612. 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Quebec,  31st  December,  1880, 


L.  STAFFOED, 

Agent, 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Return  of  Immigrants   arrived   during    the   Year    1880,   via   United  States,  Odd 

Ships,  &c. 


Married. 

Single. 

Children. 

Infant  s. 

Total. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M, 

F. 

M. 

F. 

Souls 

Adults. 

Steer&fire 

120 

102 

451 

106 

74 

56 

63 

48 

1,020 

844 

Nationalities. 
English 

67 

27 

12 

9 

5 

51 

29 
8 

7 
6 

241 

113 

33 

10 

46 
8 

68 

26 

5 

5 

2 

50 

13 

6 

4 
1 

39 
7 
6 
3 
1 


31 

9 

11 

7 
5 

26 
6 
8 

I 

573 

230 

89 

50 

68 

8 

2 

471^ 

205 

64 

Scotch 

Germans.... 

Scandinavians 

34^ 

60 

French  and  Belgians 

8 

Other  Countries,  Swiss 

..i 

1 

74 





1 

1 

Total 

120 

102 

451 

106 

56 
14 

63 

48 

1,020 

844 

Assisted  out. 
By  Mrs.  Birt 

13 

18 

19 

6 

70 

47| 

Note. — General  health  of  immigrants,  good. 


General  Destinations  of  Steerage  Passengers. 


Eastern  Townships. 
Montreal 


Total,  Quebec. 


151 


Ottawa  City 

Kingston  District,  including  all  east  of  Toronto. 

Toronto  City , , 

West  of  Toronto,  in  Canada , 


5U 

459i 


Total,  Ontario. 


621 


Total  for  Canada,  772 ;  of  this  number,  4iO  were  labourers,  and  161  mechanics. 


L.  STAFFOED, 

Agent. 


Government  Immigration  Oefice, 

Quebec,   17th  December,  1880. 


10 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  2. 
AJ^NUAL  EEPOET  OF  THE  MONTEEAL  IMMIGEATION  AGENT. 

(Mr.  John  J.  Daley.) 


Government  Immigration  Ofeice, 

Montreal,  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  for  your  information,  my  eleventh  Annual 
Eeport  of  this  Agency,  accompanied  by  the  usual  Schedules. 

Following  precedents,  I  make  a  few  brief  remarks  under  appropriate  headings. 

INDIGENT   IMMIGRANTS. 

The  number  applying  to  me  for  aid  in  transport,  was  five  hundred  and  forty -eight 
("548)  only,  although  immigration  has  been  much  greater  during  this  year  than  the 
preceding  one.  Those  figures  convincingly  show  that  the  immigration  has  been  of 
a  class  possessing  greater  means,  and  consequently,  less  in  need  of  Government 
aid.  This  may  be  greatly  attributed  to  the  publication  of  the  Fanners'  Delegates 
Reports^  which  had,  I  have  no  doubt,  a  good  effect  on  intending  immigrants 
from  Europe — given,  as  they  were,  by  gentlemen  uninfluenced  by  any  other  object 
than  the  best  interests  of  their  clients.  A  smaller  per  centage  of  praiper  immigrants, 
and  a  correspondingly  greater  number  with  means  have  sought  homes  in  the  Dominion, 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Statements  "  A"  and  "  B"  give  the  necessary  details  as  to  the  manner  in  which 
the  548  applicants  for  aid  and  advice,  have  been  distributed  thronghonfc  the  Dominion 
— with  their  trades,  nationalities,  &c.,  and  give  the  points  to  which  they  have  been 
sent. 

MANITOBA. 

I  had  occasion  to  say  in  my  last  report,  that  numbers  of  persons  were  applying 
for  information  about  this  province.  The  same  questions  hav^e  had  to  be  answered 
this  year;  but  I  find,  that  on  the  whole,  better  information  is  generally  diffused 
amongst  arriving  strangers  as  to  the  geogra])hy  and  resources — present  and  pros- 
pective— of  the  Dominion.  Small  capitalists,  with  from  £100  to  £4  '0  and  upwards,  are 
far  more  numerous  than  heretofore.  Personally  investigating  the  circumstances 
of  arriving  immigrants  at  the  Tanneries,  going  west,  I  find  that  they  are  more 
respectable,  and  far  more  desirable  as  settlers,  inasmuch  as  they  possess  vastly  more 
wealth  and  intellect  than  their  predecessors.  Undoubtedly  this  class  is  flowing 
largely  towards  the  opening  of  the  virgin  soil  of  the  North-West — but  no  small 
number  are  taking  up  homes  in  the  vacated  farms  and  Government  lands  in  Ontario 
and  Quebec,  especially  the  Eastern  Townships,  thereby  introducing  capital  and 
improved  husbandry  into  those  districts.  From  these  facts  may  be  gathered  cheerful 
hopes  of  the  future. 

he\lth. 

Good.  No  report  of  disease.  The  ^^ear's  report  in  this  respect  is  eminently 
satisfactory. 

11 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


DEMAND    FOR    LABOUR. 

As  in  previous  years,  the  anival  of  good  t-arm  labourers  and  domestic  servants!: 
has  fallen  lar  short  of  the  local  demand,  i  haveTiad  no  difficulty  in  finding  occupation!/ 
for  this  kind  of  servants.     All  willing  persons  may  come  with  a  fair  prospect  of 
improving  their   condition  in  life,  the  only  pre-requisite  needed  being  efficiency.     I 
have  been  able  to  place  all  such  making  their  wants  known  to  the  Agency,  and  could 
ha\e  found  situations  for  many  more. 

ARRIVALS    AT    PORTS    OP    ENTRY. 

Statement  "C  "  gives  four  thousand  and  seventy-one  (4071),  as  having  arrived 
from  the  United  States  through  ports  of  entry  in  this  Agency,  bringing  with  them 
§55,000 — these  figures  are  undoubtedly  correct,  so  far  as  the  knowledge  of  the  Custom 
House  authorities  extends,  and  I  am  much  indebted  to  the  gentlemen  who  have 
furnished  me  with  the  figures.  FoliowiEg  the  form  of  schedule,  I  give  the  result; 
regarding  it,  however,^  as  of  doubtful  statistical  value,  because  I  believe  on  our 
extensive  frontier  as  much  migration,  probably,  flows  to  the  Dominion  as  from  it, 

COURTESIES. 

From  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  and  Quebec,  Montreal,  Ottawa  and 
Occidental  Railroad,  with  whom  I  daily  come  in  contact,  I  have  received  on  all 
occasions  the  most  courteous  considerations,  and  I  return  them  my  best  thanks,  as 
they  are  ever  ready  to  afford  me  their  willing  and  cheerful  aid. 

The  whole  respectfully  submitted. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  J.  DALY, 

Dominion  Government  Immigration  Agent. 
To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


ii  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No,  12.) 


A,  1881 


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44   Victcvia. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  B. — Showing  the  Points  to  which  548  Persons  have  been  Distributed,  for 

the  Year  1880. 


Station. 


Almonte 

Ajlmer 

Actoa 

Berthier  

Brockville  

Belleville  , 

Beloeil 

Cornwall 

Carleton  Place. 

Coaticooke , 

Caughnawaga  . 

Chatham 

Franklin 

Granby 

Guelph  , 

Grenville 

Gait 

Halifax,  N.S  .... 

Hamilton 

Hull,  P.Q .., 

Kingston 

London ... 

Lancaster 

Lindsay  

Lennoxville , 

Napanee  

Ottawa 

Osgoode. 

Unllia , 


Carried  forward 


o  ?3 


553 

a 


1 

3 
2 
1 

4 
1 
6 
2 
2 
1 
4 
2 
9 
4 

li 

12 

1 

3 

2 

1 

3 
27 

1 

1 

183 


Station. 


Brought  forward 


Prescott 

Peterboro' 

Pembroke 

Papineauville  .. 

Perth 

Port  Hope 

Quebec  

Richmond 

Renfrew 

St.  Johns,  P.Q. 

St.  Armand , 

St.  Ann's ... 

St.  Hyacinthe... 

Sarnia . 

Stratford 

Stanbridge 

Summerstown .. 

Sherbrooke  

Sand  Point  .... 
Smith's  Palls... 

St  Brigide 

Trenton 

Toronto , 

Waterloo   ....... 

Wabashene 

Winnipeg  ....... 


Total. 


a 


183 

2 

15 

13 

10 

1 

3 

49 

3 

1 

7 

3 

10 

3 

8 

1 

2 

1 

13 

2 

1 

1 

1 

170 

42 

2 

1 


548 


Montreal  Agency, 


J.  J.  DALEY, 

Dominion  Government  Immigration  Agent, 


3l8t  December,  1880. 


U 


Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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15 


41  Vietorin.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No  3. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  OTTAWA  IM:m:IGRATION  AGENT. 
(Mr.  W.  J.  Wills.) 


GrOVERNMENT   IMMIGRATION    OFFICE, 

Ottawa,  15th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  Annual  Eeport  of  proceedings,  together 
with  tables  of  details  at  this  Agency,  for  the  calendar  year  1880. 

In  c.  mpliance  with  instructions  from  your  Department  not  to  render  my  report 
later  than  the  15th  December,  I  have  made  up  statements  to  that  date. 

The  total  number  of  immigrants  were  as  follows: — 

From  Europe. ,. 1,146 

From  United  States 721 

Total 1,867 

I  am  happy  to  state  that  the  improvement  in  trade  and  business  here  since  my 
last  report,  has  had  the  effect  ot  raising  the  wages  of  agricultural  labourers;  and  the 
impetus  the  timber  trade  has  also  received,  has  provided  work,  at  a  high  rate  of 
wages,  for  a  large  number  of  men  this  winter,  who  would  otherwise  have  been 
unemployed. 

I  have  experienced  no  difficulty,  since  spring,  in  placing  satisfactorily  all 
agricultui-al  labourers. 

Of  clerks,  mechanics,  and  men  without  any  fixed  employment,  this  Agency 
received  quite  a  number,  and  it  proved  a  matter  of  difficulty  to  dispose  of  them; 
some  of  these  accepted  whatever  work  v\as  found  for  them,  and  the  rest  were  sent  to 
other  districts,  where  a  better  opportunity  offered  for  employment. 

The  demand  for  female  domestic  servants  was,  as  is  always  the  case,  larger  than 
the  supply.  In  addition  to  those  forwarded  here  at  their  own  request,  there  also 
arrived  a  number  from  Ireland,  sent  out  by  the  Poor  Law  Comtnissionors;  many  of 
the«e  were  inexperienced,  never  having  been  at  service  before,  and,  consequently, 
difficult  to  at  once  dispose  of;  but  a  few  months  experience  in  this  country,  with  few 
exceptions,  makes  fair  average  domestics,  who  need  never  want  employment. 

A  number  of  boys  were  sent  out  to  this  Agency  from  England,  by  Archbishop 
Manning,  at  three  different  times  during  the  summer.  They  brought  with  them  a 
written  request  to  be  placed  in  charge  of  the  Eoman  Catholic  Bishop  here  for 
disposal.     This  was  done,  and  free  transport  and  relief  was  granted  them  by  me. 

The  public  works  in  course  of  construction  at  the  G-renville  Canal,  and  the 
extension  of  the  Canada  Central  Eailway,  have  afforded  work  for  such  labourers  as 
arrived  late  in  the  season,  when  the  demand  for  farm  hands  fell  off. 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  table  of  nationalities,  quite  a  number  of  G-ermans  have, 
this  year,  settled  in  this  district;  they  and  the  Scandinavians  who  also  came,  form  a 
thrifty  desirable  class,  and  aj*e  an  acquisition  not  only  to  the  district  they  Settle  in, 
but  to  the  country  at  large. 

In  obedience  to  Departmental  instructions,  I  paid  every  attention  to  such  of  the 
farm  delegates  as  visited  this  district,  and  all  those  whom  I  came  in  contact  with 
bcerned  pleased,  and  even  surpi-ised,  at  what  they  saw. 

16 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  rapers  (No.  12„) 


A.  ISSl 


There  are,  as  is  always  the  case,  a  large  number  of  arrivals  in  this  district  who 
enter  without  coming  under  my  notice.  This  is  more  especially  the  case  with  those 
possessed  of  means,  who  do  not  risquire  the  services  of  the  Agent,  whilst  the  destitute 
and  poor  class  generally,  as  a  rule,  report  themselves  immediately  on  their  arrival. 
A  large  number  of  persons  also  settle  in  the  limits  of  the  Agency,  entering  it 
elsewhere  than  here.  Of  the  number  of  these  I  am  unable  to  speak  with  any 
accurac}^,  and  it  is  only  casually  that  I  hear  of  such.  I  have  no  doubt  that  fully 
one-third  more  than  these  reported  enter  in  this  way. 


i 


I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

W.  J.  WILLS. 


To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
&c.,     &c. 


Table  showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  arrived  at  the  following  Ports  of 
Entry,  with  the  value  of  their  effects. 


Morrisburg 

Ottawa 

Prescott 

Cornwall... 
Brock  ville.. 


Ports  of  Entry. 


Totals 


Soula. 


67 
129 
198 
146 
191 


721 


Value 
of  Effects. 


$   cts. 

1,214  00 
7,667  00 
3,638  00 
4,327  0© 
7,671  00 


24,517  00 


Statement  showing  the  Number  and  Nationalities  of  Immigrants  who  reached  the 
Ottawa  Agency  during  the  Year  1880,  up  to  the  15th  December. 


Nationality. 


Natives  of  England. 


Ireland 

Scotland  ... 

Germany ... 

Norway  an( 

France. 

Sent  to  other  parts  of  Agency  from  Q  uebec 

Settlers  from  United  States,  as  per  Customs  Returns 


do 
do 
do 
do 
do 


Sweden. 


Totals 


17 


12—2 


European  Immigrants. 


Vid 
St.Lawrence 


258 

246 
82 

112 
24 
28 

162 


912 


Vid  United 
States. 


14 
18 
8 
156 
18 
20 


234 


Total. 


272 

264 

90 

268 

42 

48 

162 

721 

1,867 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Table  showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  who  received  Assistance  in  the  shape 

of  Transport  and  Food. 


Men. 

Women. 

Children. 

Natives  of  England , 

do        Ireland 

do        Scotland 

do        Germany 

do        Norway  and  Sweden 

113 
75 
32 
74 
21 
22 

34 
95 
10 
50 
6 
15 

21 
21 

6 
69 

7 

do        France 

8 

Totals 

337 

210 

132 

18 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  4. 

ANNUAL   EEPORT   OF   KINGSTON  AGENT. 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Kingston,  14th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit,  for  your  information,jthe  annexed  statements 
of  this  office  for  the  eleven  months  ended  30th  November,  1880,  viz. : — 

ist.  Statement  showing  the  number  and  nationality  of  immigrants  arrived  at  the 
Kingston  Agency  during  each  month,  from  1st  January  to  30th  November  last,  by 
way  of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the  United  States  respectively,  classified  as  to  sexes, 
occupation,  and  general  destination. 

2nd.  Statement  of  monthly  arrivals  within  this  district  during  the  past  eleven 
months,  the  numbers  fed,  and  distributed  by  free  passes  each  month  ;  also  the  num- 
ber of  meals  furnished  to  destitute  immigrants. 

3rd.  Statement  showing  the  number  and  destination  of  adult  free  passes  furnished 
to  immigrants  during  the  eleven  months  ended  30th  November,  1880. 

4th.  Statement  showing  the  number  of  settlers  from  the  United  States  who  have 
made  entry  at  the  several  ports  of  entry  within  the  Kingston  Immigration  District 
since  1st  January  i-ast,  and  the  value  of  their  effects,  amounting  to  $18,850.00. 

Miss  Bilborough,  of  Marchmont  House,  Belleville,  continues  her  good  work;  she 
had  one  hundred  and  thirty -four  (134)  children  brought  out  during  the  past  season, 
averaging  over  nine  years  of  age,  chiefly  from  Scotland. 

I  have  to  report  that  stock-raising  continues  to  increase  in  my  district,  and  more 
attention  is  being  paid  by  farmers  to  the  improvement  of  this  impoi'tant  branch  of 
husbandry  ;  likewise,  to  the  manufacture  of  cheese  and  butter  and  the  expor<^  of  eggs 
and  poultry.  The  mining  interests  also  are  being  developed  to  a  large  extent  in  the 
rear  townships  of  my  district,  which  contain  an  almost  unlimited  supply  of  iron  ore, 
phosphates,  and  gold,  to  some  considerable  degree.  In  the  manufacturing  districts 
inspected,  when  visiting  my  agency,  I  found  all  well  satisfied  with  their  greatly  im- 
proved condition,  as  compared  with  previous  years. 

The  immigrants  placed  within  this  agency  during  the  past  season  were  of  a 
superior  class,  chiefly  farm  labourers,  with  large  supplies  of  clothing,  many  having 
considerable  sums  of  money  in  gold  and  bank  drafts ;  in  fact,  I  have  not  had  as 
thrifty  settlers,  since  my  appointment  to  this  office,  as  during  the  past  year,  and  found 
no  trouble  in  securing  good  situations  for  all  the  farm  labourers  who  came  duVing  the 
early  season,  say  up  to  August. 

I  have  to  report  only  two  deaths.  One  occurred  in  the  Kingston  Hospital  of 
typhoid,  and  the  other  of  sunstroke ;  the  latter  supposed  to  have  been  caused  by 
wearing  too  much  clothing  while  at  work  in  the  hot  weather  of  June  last.  He  had 
left  in  my  charge  £14  stg.,  which  I  forwarded  after  his  death  to  his  heirs  in  Scotland. 
The  Messrs.  Allan  carried  the  effects  of  both  the  above  to  England  and  Scotland 
without  charge. 

The  immigrants  generally  were  in  good  health,  and  proceeded  to  work  immedi- 
ately on  arrival.  In  several  cases,  persons  whom  I  placed  in  situations  during  the 
months  of  May  and  June  have  since  sent  money  to  bring  out  their  families  and  friends. 

Trusting  that  next  year  will  bring  an  equally  good  class  of  settlers  and  in  in- 
creased numbers, 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

K.  MAOPHEHSON, 
The  Honourable  Government  Immigration  Agent. 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 

19 
12— 2J 


4-4  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  showing  number  of  Settlers  from  the  United  States,  as  reported  to  the 
Collectors  of  Customs  at  the  ditferent  Ports  of  Entry  within  the  Kingston 
Immigration  District,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880,  and 
the  value  of  their  effects. 


Ports  of  Entry. 


Whitby 

Oshawa 

Darlington .., 

Port  Hope  

Cobourg 

Cramahe 

Brighton 

Trenton 

Picton 

Belleville 

Napanee 

Kingston 

Gananoque  

Total 


m 

TS 

s 

a 

SJ 

■XS 

n 

03 

'M 

S 

ta 

1 

17 

6 

8 

16 

6 

3 

7 

9 

19 

11 

11 

13 

6 

12 

16 

5 

6 

5 

9 

10 

19 

3 

5 

10 

18 

12 

5 

29 

43 

42 

20 

15 

12 

26 

38 

41 

17 

16 

23 

184 

189 

216 

I  a 


c8  a 


31 
25 
35 
35 
34 
16 
38 
18 
35 

114 
47 

105 
56 


5'  15 
.A  19 
5l|  14 
17 
20 
15 
38 
18 


589 


157 


337 


CQ   1   O 

•r;  i  o 


39  35 


10 


Value  of 
Effects. 


%  cts. 

850  00 

800  00 

1,246  00 

1,196  00 

2,515  00 

377  00 

727  00 

607  00 

1,328  00 

1,774  00 

1,575  00 

4,385  00 

1,470  00 

18,850  00 


21 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  showing  the  number  and  destination  of  Immigrants  forwarded  from  thi» 
Ageuo}'  by  free  passes,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Stations. 


Adult 
Passes. 


Belleville  

Toronto 

Hastings 

Wolfe  island  .... 

Brockville 

Howe  Island 

Cornwall 

Madoc 

Marysburgh 

Picton 

Napanee 

Port  Hope 

Lancaster 

Tyandinaga 

Collins  Bay 

Whitby    

DuflBn's  Creek  .. 

Prescott , 

Montreal 

Oxford 

Morrisburg 

Amherst  Island 

Cobourg.  

Trenton ,.... 

Adolphustown  . 

Gananoque , 

Sand  Point 


Carried  forward 


112 

3U 

57 

50 

12 

10 
9 

14 

21 

30 
5 

15 
4| 
2| 
9| 

12 

4 

1 

1^ 
3 

n 
1 

8 
2 
3 
1 

428 


Stations. 


'  Brought  forward. 


Ernestown 

Bath..... 

Oolborne 

Campbellford.... 

Ottawa 

Omeeme 

Oshawa , 

Perth 

Bowmanville 

Northport 

London 

Smith's  Falls  ... 

Lindsay 

Hamilton 

Palmerston  

Harrowsmith .... 
Peterborough  ... 

Arnprior , 

Olden 

Fredericksburg 

Oso 

Seeley's  Bay 

Parham  

Lakefield 

Bethany- . 

Newcastle 


Total 


Adult 


428 

3 
5 

1 


2 
1 
1 
2 
5 
2 
1 

0| 

4 

2 

8 

1 

6 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

4 

SI 


487i 


22 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  showing  the  total  number  of  Immigrants  arrived,  and  remained  to  be 
dealt  with  at  the  Kingston  Agenc  y,  or  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th 
November,  1880. 


Months. 


Via  St. 

Lawrence. 


Vid 

the  United 

States. 


January,... 
February... 

March  

April , 

May  

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November  . 


53 
15 
22 


Total. 


53 
15 
22 


Number 
Fed. 


No.  dis- 
tributed 
by  Free 
Passes. 


Number 
of  Meals 
furnished. 


♦Settlers  from   United  States  as  re- 
ported by  Collectors  of  Customs... 


342 

348 

232 

134 

87 

50 

62 


1,345 


345 

349 

233 

126 

88 

50 

63 


78 
182 
129 
81 
25 
12 
10 


67 
213 
64 
122 
13 
16 
13 


1,354 
589 


598 


1,943 


539 


530 


197 

264 

246 

223 

38 

31 

12 


1,079 


*  Remarks. — Besides  these,  the  several  Collectors  of  Customs  estimate  about  an  equal  number 
having  come  into  this  Agency  from  the  United  States  without  making  entries,  not  having  effects  of  any 
considerable  value,  but  intending  to  reside  in  Ontario. 


Kingston,  30th  November,  1880. 


R.  MACPHERSOK, 

Government  Immigration  Agent. 


23 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  5. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  TORONTO  IMMIGRATION  AGENT. 
(Mr.  John  A.  Donaldson.) 


Immigration  Office, 
Toronto,  Ont.,  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit,  for  the  information  of  the  Minister  of 
Agriculture,  my  report,  as  requested,  for  the  eleven  months  ending  November  30th, 
1880. 

The  total  number  of  arrivals  at  this  agency  during  that  period  was  15,712.  Of 
these  some  7,797  remained  in  Canada,  the  balance,  7,915,  composed  principally  of 
Norwegians,  passed  through  on  their  way  to  the  Western  States. 

In  addition  to  these  numbers,  646  souls  are  reported  at  the  Toronto  and  Colling- 
wood  ports  of  entry,  thus  making  a  total  of  8,443  remaining  in  Canada. 

The  number  remaining  in  the  Province  of  Ontario,  as  far  as  could  be  ascertained, 
was  6,908,  which,  with  the  646  from  the  ports  of  entry,  make  a  total  of  7,554  for  that 
Province.  One  hundred  and  fifty-nine  Mennonites  came  out  during  the  summer  and 
joined  their  friends  in  Manitoba. 

The  general  health  of  the  immigrants  during  the  past  summer  has  been  excep- 
tionally good.  Two  deaths  occurred  in  the  early  part  of  the  season,  both  being 
infants. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  immigrants  this  year  have  been  farm  labourers  of  a 
good  class,  and  I  have  experienced  no  difficulty  in  procuring  employment  for  such 
al  most  immediately  on  their  arrival.  Quite  a  number  of  general  labourers  and  navvies 
obtained  ready  employment  at  good  wages  on  the  Pacific  and  other  railroads  at 
present  in  course  of  construction. 

The  visit  of  the  British  delegates,  who,  wherever  they  went,  were  most  favourably 
impressed  with  the  country  and  its  capabilities  of  supporting  a  large  population, 
together  with  the  vast  amount  of  live  stock  being  sent  over  weekly  to  the  British 
markets,  cannot  but  have  a  decided  influence  in  inducing  the  wealthier  class  of 
tenant  farmers  and  capitalists  to  make  a  home  in  Canada. 

Of  capitalists  we  have  had  more  than  in  any  former  year.  Some  have  invested 
their  money  in  bank  stocks,  and  some  in  improved  farms  and  other  properties. 

There  are  at  present  in  this  city,  some  ten  parties  recently  arrived  here, 
possessing  a  capital  together  of  some  £70,000,  sterling,  awaiting  investment. 

All  of  which  is  most  respectfully  submitted. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  A.  DONALDSON, 

Government  Immigration  Agent. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


24 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


t 


Statement  showing  the  Total  Number  of  Immigmnts  arrived  and  remained  to  be 
dealt  with  at  the  Toronto  Agencv,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  ISTovember, 
1880. 


Months. 


January.... 
February- 
March 

April 

May 

June 

July .... 

August.. .. 
September 
October.... 
November 


Via  St. 

Lawrence. 
1 

143 

194 

321 

174 

1,448 

855 

1,229 

866 

586 

i           588 

424 

6,828 

Via 
the  United 

States. 


71 


80 


Total. 


143 
202 
321 
245 

1,448 
855 

1,229 
866 
586 
588 
425 


6,908 


.2^ 

Number  of 

T3    f»> 

Free 
Meals. 

Number 
bated 
Passes 

1,700 

820 

526 

851 

3,078 

1,484 

1,089 

1,067 

814 

932 

618 


120 

138 
147 
206 
691 
404 
222 
145| 
1!5 
116 
99 


2,403| 


-^  S  2 


25 

45 

136 

199 


163 

309 

12 


8S9 


Statement  showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  arrived  at  the  Toronto  Agency,  for 
the  Eleven  Months  ending  80th  ISTovember,  1880,  and  their  Nationality;  the 
number  assisted  with  Provisions  and  with  Eree  Passes  by  Eailways  or  other 
conveyances,  from  this  Agency  to  their  respective  places  of  destination. 


Country  from. 

Arrivals  via  the 
St.  Lawrence 
and  Halifax, 

Arrivals  vid~  tho, 
Uuited  States. 

Total. 

Remained  in  the 
Province      of 
Ontario. 

Went      to     the 
United  States. 

Nnmber  of  Free 
Meais  issued. 

Number    assist- 
ed  with  Free 
Passes. 

1 

1 

s 

-J 

§3 

England 

Ireland 

3,870 
2,326 
1,212 
39 
8,026 
159 

15,632 

40 
13 
26 

1 

3,910 
2,339 
1,238 
40 
8,026 
159 

3,579 

2,200 

1,059 

10 

60 



331 
139 

Scotland 

12  969 

2,403i- 

179 

Germany      , 

Norwey,  Sweden 

Other  Oouutries,  Mennonites. 

30 

7,885 

81 

159 

2,403^ 

80 

15,712 

6,908 

7,915 

12,969 

889 

25 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  showing  tho  Number  and  Destination  of  Immigrants  forwarded  from  this 
Agency  by  Fi-ee  Passes,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Stations. 


Agincourt... 
Ailsa  Craig, 
Allandale... 

Alliston 

Alma 

Angus 

Arthur 

Atberley   ... 

Aurora 

Aveniag. 

Aylraer 

Ayr 


Baden 

Ballantrae 

Barrie   

Batteaux 

Beachville  .... 

Beaton -. 

Belgrave , 

Belle  River.... 

Belleyille 

Berkeley , 

Berlin 

Blythe 

Bolton 

Bowmanville. 
Bracebridge... 

Bradford 

Brampton. 

Brentford 

Brome     .    

Brucefield, 

Brussels 

Burford 

Camlachie 

Carlet-n 

Carron  brook.. 

Chatham 

Chatsworth... 
Charleston..,. 
ChelteDham,. 

Clifibrd 

Clifton 

Clinton 

Coboconk 

Cobourg , 

CoUingwood. 
Cookestown  . 
Cookesville... 
Copetown  .... 
Courtland.  ... 
Craiglfciih  .... 

Craigvale 

Crej-more 

Davenport 

Dayton 

Dixie ... 

Doon 

Dorchester  ,.. 

Douglas 

Drayton 

Dublin 


Adult 
Passes. 


5 
2 

7 

11 

2 

1 

7 

2 

6 

1 

3 

7 

16 

3 

17 

6 

3 

1 

1 

2 

5 

1 

26 

8 

3 

4 

94 

63 

74 

29 

2 

2 

1 

12 

1 

1 

3 

61 

10 

6 

3 

6 

6 

16 

4 

3 

22 

1 

9 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

3 

2 

3 

3 

6 

2 

4 

1 


Stations. 

Adult 
Passes. 

Dundas , 

6 

Dundalk 

4 

1 

Elora 

4 

Blmvale 

2 

2 

Exeter 

24 

Fergus ...« 

26 

Plesherton 

3 

Forrest 

52 

Fort  Erie 

1 

Gait 

6 

Garafraxa 

Georgetown 

Gilford  

Glen  Williams.. 

Gobie's  Station, 

'Goderich. 

.Gorrie  

Goodwood 

iGravenhurst 

Guelph , 

Hamilton 

i  Hamburg.. , 

jHarriston 

iHarrisburg 

JHarley 

'Hornby 

Ingersoll 

jinnerkip 

Islington , 

■Kenilworth 

i  King ,..,-.  .., 

I'Kiugston , 

!  Kincardine 

!|Kleinburg , 

|;Komoko 

jLambton 

iLefroy 

I  Lindsay 

'Lisle  

[iListowel.. 

London 

Longford  Mills  , 

Lucan 

Lucknow 

Malton 

Manitowaning.. 

Mnrkham...... .  .. 

Mark'lale 

Meaford 

Meadowvale 

Merriton , 

Millikens ... 

iMilton 

Mimico , 

Miichel 

Mona  Road 

Montreal   

Moore  field 

Mount  Brydges- 
I  Mount  Forest  ,. 
26 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  showing-  the  Number  and  Destination  of  Immigi'ants  forwarded  from  this 
Agency  by  Free  Passes,  kit.— Concluded. 


Stations. 


Adult 
Passes. 


Myrtle 

iNapanee ... 

Newcastle 

Newmarket 

Newry 

New  Lowell 

Niagara   ......  , 

Norval..... 

Norwich 

Oakville ...-,.  ..... 

Orangeville    

Orilha 

Ostiawa 

Ottawa ..... 

Owen  Sound 

Palgrave , 

Palmerston.. 

Paris 

Parkhill 

Pariy  Sound 

Penetanguishene 

Peterboro' „ 

Petrolia 

Piakerton , 

Port  Credit 

Port  Carling , 

Port  Elgin 

Port  Dalhousie v. , 

Port  Hope 

Port  Perry 

Port  Robinson,.., 

Preston 

Prescott. 

Princeton ,..  . 

Prince  Arthur's  Landing 

Proton  .....  ,..,  

IJuebec  ..... 

Richmond  Hill,.... 

Ripely 

Rosseau 

Sarnia 

Scarboro' 

Seaforth , 

Shakespeare 


1 
6 

15 
3 
1 
3 

73 

20 
6 

12 

17 

24 
5 
4 

56 
2 

18 

39 
1 

33 
6 
4 

17 
1 

15 
2 
5 

^2 
3 
3 
1 
8 
4 
5 
3 
2 
3 

10 
1 

45 
4 
8 

19 


Stations. 


Shelburne 

Simcoe  

Southampton  

,Spr!ngfield 

Stoney  Point , 

Stonebridge ... 

Stayner 

Strattord 

Strathroy 

Streetsville 

St.  Catharines. 

St.  Joseph's  Island. 

>:t.  Mary's 

St.  Thomas  

Sutton. 
Thamesville. 
Thornbury. 
Thorn  dale. 
iThorahill. 
Thorold. 

Thornton 

Teeswater  .... 
Tilsonburg. ... 
Tottenham  ... 
Utiionville..... 
Walkerton..., 
Waterdown... 

Waterloo 

Watford 

Welland  

Weston  

Whitby 

Wick 

Williamsford. 
Windsor...... 

Wisgham  .... 

Woodbridge . 
Woodstock... 
Woodville.... 

Wolverton.... 

Wyoming  .... 

lYarmouth  ..... 


Adult 
Passes. 


10 
5 
2 

4 

1 
28 
62 
22 

8 
31 
22 

7 
16 

4 

1 
12 
13 

2 

22 
1 
9 
2 
7 
4 

22 
4 
2 
3 
3 

19 
3 
2 
5 

14 
3 
2 

29 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Total  number  of  passes 2,389 


27 


41  ^'ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Eeturn  showing  the  dumber  of  Immigrants  arrived  at  the  Port  of  Toronto,  for  the 
Year  1880 ;  their  Nationality,  and  the  Value  of  their  Effects  entered  at  said 
Port. 


English. 
Irish  .... 


Scotch   

German  .... 
Canadian  . 
American  .. 
Korwvgian, 

Italian 

French , 

Austrian 

Poles  


Nationality. 


Males. 


Total 


Females. 


225 


60 
11 
13 

22 
71 
67 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 


251 


Children. 


33 

12 

11 

3 

33 

29 

4 

1 

9 

1 


136 


Value 

of 
Effects. 


$    cts, 

17,832  00 

280  00 

3,894  00 

2,985  00 

14,155  00 

21,025  00 

50  00 

6  00 

175  00 

100  00 

50  00 

60,552  00 


Eeturn  showin 
the  Year  1880 
Port. 


j_,  the  Number  of  Immigrants  arrived  at  the  Port  of  CoUingwood,  for 


their  Nationality,  and  the  Yalue  of  their  Effects  entered  at  said 


Nationality.                                    ' 

Males. 

Females. 

Children. 

Value 
of 

Effects. 

English 

Irish 

1 
1 
3 
4 
2 
1 
1 

]3 

i 

2 
4 
1 

l"' 

5 
5 

2 

$    ets. 

8  00 
60  00 

Scotch 

140  00 

Cauadian .-. 

American 

Norwegian 

f-TPrmRn                                                          .. ..       .  . ... ....... 

582  00 

140  00 

20  00 

50  00 

Total           

8 

13 

1,000  00 

28 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  6. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  HAMILTON  IiMMIGEATION  AGENT. 
(Mr.  John  Smith.) 


Government  Lmmigration  Office, 

Hamilton,  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  tho  following  report,  with  tabular  statements 
annexed,  for  the  period  of  eleven  months  ending  November  30th,  1880. 

The  arrivals  at  this  agency  for  the  above  named  period  fall  below  the  corres- 
ponding months  of  last  year,  but  the  immigrants  that  have  been  received  were  of  a 
very  good  class  and  very  suj)erior,  as  compared  with  those  arriving  in  previous 
years,  a  large  number  of  them  having  brought  out  small  sums,  whilst  others  have 
brought  out  amounts  averaging  from  five  hundred  to  fifteen  hundred  dollars,  and 
in  some  instances  much  larger  amounts. 

The  immigrants,  with  few  exceptions,  arrived  out  in  good  health,  and  were  well 
suited  for  settlers,  a  large  portion  of  them  being  agricultural  and  general  labourers, 
adapted  for  the  wants  and  work  of  the  country. 

Those  requiring  assistance  were  few,  as  compared  with  the  arrivals  of  pre- 
vious years,  the  great  majority  of  them  being  able  to  provide  for  themselves  until 
arriving  at  their  destination. 

There  has  been  no  difficulty  in  locating  the  immigrants  on  arrival,  as  the  demand 
for  labour  in  this  district  was  in  excess  of  the  supply.  Not  only  has  this  been 
the  case  with  agricultural  and  general  labourers,  but  mechanics  and  artizans  of  all 
descriptions  have  met  with  ready  employment. 

In  my  last  annual  report  I  had  the  honour  of  drawing  attention  to  the  practice  of 
certain  steamship  passenger  agents  in  the  United  Kingdom,  encouraging  and 
inducing  an  undesirable  class  to  emigrate  to  Canada  who  were  entirely  unfit  for  tho 
duties  ot  this  country.  I  have  now  to  inform  you  that  the  means  adopted  by  the 
Department  to  put  a  stop  to  this  class  of  emigration  have  been  successful,  and 
that  complaints  from  this  cause  have  been  almost  entirely  removed,  only  one 
individual  case  having  occurred  at  this  agency  during  the  present  season. 

The  months  of  October  and  November  show  a  large  falling  off,  as  compared  with 
the  two  corresponding  months  of  the  previous  year,  the  numbers  arriving  and  settling 
in  Ontai'io  in  1879  being  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  twenty-six  as  against  one 
thousand  and  seventy-eight  for  the  same  period  in  1880,  the  diifeience  was  caused 
principally  by  the  depressed  state  of  trade  in  Britain  last  year,  when  large  numbers 
were  sent  out  to  this  country  by  the  different  religious  and  other  societies;  and  great 
difficulty  was  found  and  expense  incurred  in  locating  them,  as  the  season  was  so  far 
advanced  that  it  was  difficult  to  find  out-door  woik  for  them  on  their  arrival. 

It  is  very  desirable  for  all  intending  emigrants  to  leave  early  in  the  season,  and 
this  cannot  be  too  strongly  impressed  upon  all  parties  intending  to  settle  in  this 
country;  for  a  large  immigration  is  expected  to  flow  to  the  Dominion  next  year, 
owing  to  the  depressed  state  of  affairs  in  Ireland  and  the  urisatisfactory  state  of  the 
agricultural  interests  in  England  and  Scotland.  The  inducements  held  out  by 
Canada  from  the  general  prosperity  of  our  farmers  and  the  increased  activity  in  all 
branches  of  manufiacturing  and  general  business,and  the  interest  that  has  been  created 
in  regard  to  the  prairie  lands  of  the  North-West  Territories  muat  largely  aid  emi- 
gration. 

During  the  past  year  great  improvements  have  taken  place  in  this  district  in  all 
branches  of  manufacture.     Public  confidence  being  restored,  with  a  succession  of 

29 


41   Viotona.  Sessional  Papers  (No,  12.)  A.  1881 


good  cropt^,  has  liad  a  tendency  to  develope  a  general  iecling  of  activity  in  all  branches 
of  industry,  causing  works  that  have  been  closed  for  years  to  be  reopened,  capital 
being  lurnished  by  joint  stock  companies,  private  individuals  and  firms.  New 
manufactories  have  been  built  and  old  ones  enlarged  to  meet  the  growing  demands 
made  upon  the  manufacturers,  and  the  increased  purchasing  power  of  the  consumers. 
Two  new  cotton  mills  have  been  erected  and  put  into  operation  during  the  current 
3'oar,  and  others  are  being  projected. 

\Yoollcr.  mills  and  hosiery  factories  vre  also  being  established,  those  already  in 
operation  not  being  able  to  keep  pace  with  the  growing  demand  made  upon  them. 

All  classes  of  mar  ufactures  are  participating  in  the  general  prosperity,  thereby 
giving  increased  and  steady  employment  to  all  classes  of  mechanics,  artizans, 
02xn*atives  and  labouiers  at  remunerative  and  increasing  wages. 

During  the  current  year  some  of  the  British  tenant  farmer  delegates,  and  other 
leading  agriculturists,  visited  this  district,  and  expressed  themselves  as  more 
than  satisfied  with  its  capabilities  and  the  productiveness  of  the  soil. 

They  visited  the  fruit  district  of  the  Niagara  Peninsula,  and  were  surprised  to 
see  the  extent  of  some  of  the  vineyards  and  orchards,  and  the  magnificent  display  of 
all  kinds  of  fruit,  including  grapes,  peaches,  plums,  quinces,  apples  and  pears.  Some 
of  the  growers  stated  that  they  had  contracted  to  deliver  from  one  thousand  to 
one  thousand  five  hundred  bushels  of  peaches,  and  had  ordered  the  baskets  to  ship 
them  in.  Some  of  the  principal  cereal  and  root  farms  were  visited,  the  rotation 
cropping  being  adopted  with  high  cultivation,  equal  to  some  of  the  best 
managed  farms  in  Britain;  in  some  instances  the  yield  this  year  was  from  forty-five 
to  fifty  bushels  of  wheat  per  acre,  and  from  thirty  to  thirty- five  tons  of  roots  per 
acre.  They  also  visited  the  principal  stock  farms  and  the  model  farm,  including 
Bow  Park,  and  Messrs.  Stone,  Jardine,  J.  White,  and  other  lai-ge  breeder's  farms 
which,  for  their  value  and  extensive  proportions,  exceeded  all  their  expectations. 

The  Bow  Park  Herd  has  attained  the  position  of  being  the  most  valuable  in 
existence,  not  only  on  account  of  its  vast  proportions,  but  also  for  the  diversity  and 
purity  of  its  blood,  as  it  comprises  all  the  most  valuable  families  and  notable  breeds 
of  the  old  and  new  world.  The  prices  realized  at  the  annual  sales  compare  not 
only  very  favourabl}^  with,  but  probably  average  higher  than  the  sales  of  any  other 
herd  that  have  been  put  up  to  public  competition,  and  at  the  present  time  the 
demand  upon  the  herd  is  more  than  can  be  supplied. 

The  past  season  has  been  a  very  successful  and  profitable  one  for  Canadian 
breeders,  and  ail  animals  have  met  with  a  good  demand  for  the  western  and  south 
western  States  at  highly  remunerative  rates.  Very  large  prices  have  been  realized 
for  first-class  Short  Horns  and  Herefbrds,  and  for  Leicester,  Cotswold,  South  and 
Shropshire  Downs  ;  Clydesdale  horses  have  also  been  in  good  demand  for  the  western 
States,  and  high  prices  have  been  obtained  for  them. 

The  export  demand  for  the  old  country  for  beeves,  sheep,  hogs  and  horses,  has 
been  well  sustained  during  the  year ;  there  has  also  been  a  good  demand  for  horses 
for  the  States;  and  a  good  demand  for  lumber  for  the  States,  as  well  as  for  combing 
and  luster  wools  at  increasing  rates. 

The  demand  from  the  United  Kingdom  for  all  kinds  of  breadstuffs  and  dairy 
products  has  been  exceedingly  good  during  the  year,  with  high  prices;  during  the 
same  period  there  has  been  a  lively  demand  for  barley,  at  more  than  average  prices. 

The  general  business  of  the  district  shows  a  large  increase  in  all  branches  of 
trade,  both  of  exports  and  imports;  the  wholesale  merchants  have  been  prompt  in 
their  payments,  and  liabilities  have  been  greatly  reduced,  whilst  the  country 
merchants  have  met  their  payments  more  satisfactorily  than  for  some  time  past,  and 
the  retailers  have  been  fairly  prosperous,  doing  a  larger  and  more  satisfactory 
business.  Failures  have  been  fewer,  confidence  with  traders  has  been  restored, 
and  new  houses  have  been  established  in  the  various  branches  of  business. 

There  has  be;3n  a  considerable  falling  off  in  settlers  in  the  free  grant  districts 
of  Muskoka,  Pariy  Sound  and  Nipissing,  but  with  the  projected  railways  being 
constiucted,  access  will  be  given  to  the  Townships  waiting  settlement,  the  landa 
being  of  good  quality  either  for  grazing  pui-pobes  or  cultivation. 

30 


44  Victoria.  -Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.)  A.  18S1 


The  Provincial  I'^xhiuitioii  held  here  iu  September  ha^t  was  hii-gclr  visited  by 
the  leading  agrif-ultiirists  from  the  United  States,  aiso  by  the  British  delegates.  The 
exhibits  shewed  a  marked  improrenient  over  previous  ones,  which  was  particularly 
DOtlceable  with  the  Implement  and  MaDiifactimng  Departmeni.  The  samples  of 
grain,  frail,  and  dairy  })roduet>  were  the  be^t  ever  exhibited  here. 

The  exhibits  tVom  Manitoba  attracted  great  attention,  the  roots  being  remarkable 
for  their  size  and  qnaiity ;  also  the  same  may  be  said  of  the  hops  and  hemp,  whilst  the 
oats  were  remai-kably  fine,  and  the  fruit  and  corn  compared  favorably  with  some  of 
the  settled  ])ortions  of  Ontario. 

There  has  been  a  great  interest  taken  in  the  iYorth-West  Territories  by  intending 
settlers,  a  great  many  of  our  farmers  sons  having  gone  out  there  to  establish  homesteads. 
With  the  prospect  of  the  territory  bei;}g  duly  opened  up  by  the  railways  now  under 
construction,  and  projected,  it  is  anticipated  that  the  future  immigration  from  this 
district    will  be  principally  directed  to    the    rich    prairie  lands   of   the  Dominion. 

The  West,  North  and  South-west  States,  and  railroad  land  agencies  in  this  district 
have  put  forward  special  enoris  to  induce  Canadians  to  settle  upon  their  lands, 
without  obtainini;  auy  great  etrect.  A  great  many  that  have  been  induced  by  false 
representations  to  emigrate  to  Kansas,  Arkansas  and  Texas,  would  only  be  too  ghxd 
to  return  to  Canada,  if  thej'  could  sell  out  and  raise  sufficient  means  to  bring  them 
back,  as  great  sutfering  has  been  caused  by  fever  and  ague  in  some  of  those  States,  and 
in  others   the  crops  are  very  precarious,  owing  to  long  and  continuous  drouths. 

As  an  evidence  of  the  increasing  prosperity  of  the  country,  the  respective  earn- 
ings of  the  different  railways  in  the  Dominion  show  a  large  increase,  and,  although 
the  through  lines  have  participated  in  the  increased  through  foreign  traffic,  the  local 
earnings  of  the  Dominion  have  increased  in  a  much  iireatei'  rate,  as  will  be  seen  by 
the  reference  to  the  last  annual  report  of  the  Great  Western  Eailway  Company,  at 
the  general  meeting  of  the  shareholders,  also  by  the  report  of  the  Directors  of  the 
Northern  and  North- Western  Eailway  Companies,  which  are  of  a  purely  local 
character. 

The  securities  of  all  the  railways  have  been  very  much  enhanced  in  value  since 
my  last  report,  and  the  Great  Western  Eailway  Company,  owing  to  the  increased 
traffic  and  rates  of  freight  combined,  with  the  low  price  ot  all  railway  supplies,  both 
raw  and  manufactured,  and  the  very  low  price  of  steam  coal  (during  the  first  two 
years)  for  locomotive  running,  have  enabled  the  Directors  to  meet  all  their  engage- 
ments, including  the  interest  on  the  bonded  debt  and  preference  stock  of  the  railway, 
in  addition  to  providing  for  the  past  due  interest  upon  their  preference  stock,  also 
providing  for  a  small  dividend  upon  the  ordinary  stock  of  the  Company,  a 
desirable  state  of  afiairs  that  they  have  not  been  able  to  accomplish  for  years  past.. 

In  this  city  more  buildings  have  been  erected  than  in  any  previous  year,  and 
those  of  a  public  character  are  the  most  extensive  and  expensive  that  have  been  built 
for  the  past  twenty  yeai-s. 

By  reference  to  the  following  statements,  the  work  of  this  Agency  is  fully 
exhibited. 

Statement  A  shews  the  number  of  indigent  immigrants  to  whom  assistance  has 
been  granted,  with  the  number  of  meals  and  lodgings  supplied,  and  as  compared  with 
the  corresponding  ]3eriod  of  1879,  shews  a  decrease  of  fully  50  per  cent,  in  the  number 
relieved :  this  is  owing  to  a  better  class  of  immigrants  arriving  this  year,  and  the 
facilities  for  locating  them. 

Statement  B  shews  the  location  of  the  immigrants  in  this  district. 

Statement  C  shews  the  number  that  have  been  forwarded  on  free  passes,  and  their 
destination. 

Statement  D  shews  the  amount  of  capital  that  has  been  reported,  being  an 
increase  of  seven  thousand  dollars,  as  compared  with  the  corresponding  months  of 
last  year. 

Statement  E  shews  the  number  of  children  brought  into  and  settled  in  this 
district  by  the  different  philanthropic  societies,  the  work  having  been  faithfluly 
carried  on  with  the  best  results. 

31 


it  A'ictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Statements  F  to  J  show  the  number  of  settlers  passed  at  the  respective  Customs 
port-s  in  this  district,  with  the  vahic  of  their  elfects. 

Statement  K  sliews  the  number  of  immigrants  that  have  been  settled  in  Ontario 
with  the  number  fed,  the  number  of  meals,  lodgings  and  passes  supplied. 

Statements  L  and  M  shew  the  arrivals  and  the  general  destination  of  the 
immigrants  for  the  period  of  eleven  months. 

I  have  again  to  bring  under  your  notice  the  want  of  accommodation  for  arriving 
immigrants,  and  a  place  where  they  can  wash  and  cleanse  themselves  after  the  sea 
and  railway  voyage.     Buildings  suitable  for  their  accommodation  are  much  needed. 

All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 
I  Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  SMITH. 

Immigration  Agent. 
To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture. 
Ottawa. 


32 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  A. — Showing  the  Number  of  Indigent  Immigrants  assisted,  the  Number 
of  Meals  and  Lodgings  supplied,  and  the  Number  of  Passes  issued  by  Railways 
and  Steamboats  at  the  Hamilton  Agency,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  SOth 
November,  1880. 


No.  of 
Immigrants. 


January  .... 
February... 

March 

April  

May , 

June 

July 

August  ..... 
September. 
October .... 
November  . 


Total 


86 

73 

74 

97 

413 

339 

2.33 

200 

227 

119 

101 


1,J 


No.  of 


55 

52 

42 

52 

161 

139 

110 

107 

107 

63 

51 


1       No.  of 
I    Lodgings. 


939 


43 
69 
43 
32 
60 
94 
45 
25 
136 
26 
25 


598 


No.  of 
Meals. 


147 
229 
113 
75 
399 
418 
356 
260 
452 
104 
811 


Statement  B. — Showing  the  Location  of  Immigrants  in  the  District  of  the  Hamilton 
Agency,  for  [he  Eleven  Months  ending  SOth  November,  1880. 


County. 

1 

No. 

County. 
1 

No. 

Algoma 

British  Columbia 

91 
6 

349 
293         i 

29         1 

12 

13 
205 

213         j 
144         j 

19 

lu 
177 
145 
189 

13 

17 

73 
133 
206 

i  Manitoba 

Middlesex 

1,449 
470 

Bruce 

Brant 

Cardwell 

Dundas  ., < 

Durham  . 

Exsex 

Muskoka 

Norfolk 

Ontario , 

Oxford 

Ottawa 

Peel   

66 
267 

22 
373 

8 

78 

Elgin  ,. 

Grey 

Perth 

Renfrew 

iSimcoe 

Stormont , 

Peterboro' 

150 
20 

Grenvilie  

221 
16 

Hastings 

Halton , 

14 
15 

Haldimand  .      ..» 

Huron  

Welland  

1  Wentworth 

1,306 

1,871 

371 

206 

Lanark 

Leeds 

Wellington 

W^iterloo , 

York 

Lambton , 

953 

Lincoln 

Tota    

Kent 

10,225 

12—3 


33 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  C. — Showing  the  Destinaiion  of  Immigrants  forwarded  by  Free  Passes 
from  the  Hamilton  Agency,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November, 
1S80. 


Stations. 


Ancaster 

Aylmer 

Alma 

Beamsville 

Brussels  

Brantford  

Buckhorn 

EoThwell 

Burlington 

Brownsville 

Brampton  

Baden  

Clifton 

Caledonia , 

Cookstown 

Collingwood 

Comber 

Chatham , 

Cayuo^a 

Courtland 

Creedmore  

CanfieM  , 

C(utralia.. 

Dundas 

Delhi  

Drayton    

Dorchester 

Drummondville 

Drumbo 

Exeter , 

Flamboro' 

Fort  Erie 

GhU , 


Guelph 

Glencoe , 

Harrisburgh .. 
Hagersvilee  .. 

Harriston  

Jordan 

IngersoU 

Jarvis 

Kincardine.... 

Komoka 

Kingston  

London 


Xo, 


4 
1 
1 
9 
6 

18 
1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
1 

15 
4 
6 
1 
6 
6 
3 

10 
1 
3 
2 

13 

16 
1 
1 
5 
6 
1 
1 
5 
1 

22 
9 

24 
1 
1 
2 

23 
2 

11 
3 
1 

58 


Stations, 


Listowell 

Lewisville 

Lucknow , 

Leamington 

Maldon 

I\1erritton    

Morefield   

Niagara  

Norwich    , 

Nanticoke.  ..^ 

Oakville 

Port  Dover 

Port  Burwell 

Paris 

Paisley 

Port  Nelson  

Palmerston  

Port  Golborne. .. 

Princeton 

Petrolia 

Rockton 

St.  Tnomas .. 

St   Catharines  ... 

Simcoe 

St.  Ann's 

Stratford 

Seaforth 

Toronto 

Thorold 

Tilsonburg 

Thamesville 

Thornton 

Walkerville 

Wallaceburg 

Windsor  

Woodstock 

Winona 

Wingham 

Waterdown 

Watford 

Walkerton 

Welland  , 

Zimmerman 

Total 


No. 


1 
1 
6 

11 

3 

174 

6 

3 

12 
4 
4 
8 
2 
9 

19 
1 


1 

1 

11 

64 

21 

1 

7 

2 

61 

17 

4 

4 

1 

9 

1 

12 

56 

16 

2 

6 

2 

5 

« 

2 

897 


cA 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  D. — Showing  the  xYmount  of  Capital  brought  into  Canada  by  Immigrants 
and  Settlers  at  the  Hamilton  Agency,  for  the  Eleven  Month.s  eliding  30th 
November,  1880. 


January  ... 
February  .. 

March 

April    

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October .... 
November . 


Month. 


Total 


1879. 


$ 
30,000 
26,000 
30,000 
45,000 

143,000 
42,000 
37,000 
71,000 
41,000 

101.000 
46,000 


1880. 


$ 
.37,000 
36,500 
47,000 
53,500 
67,500 
62,000 
49,500 
57,500 
72,000 
76,000 
60,500 


612,000 


619,000 


Increase, 


Decrease. 


7,000 


Statement  E. — Retarn  of  the  Number  of  Children  reported  at  the  Hamilton  Agency 
by  the  following  Societies,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Name  of  Society. 

Arriv 
Boys. 

ed  in  the 
1880, 

Girls. 

Year 
Total. 

Number  in  the 
Home  31st  De- 
cember, 1879. 

Number   in  the 
Home  30tb  No- 
vember, 1880. 

85 

5 

22 

25 
93 

4 

122 

110 
98 
26 

234 

30 
6 

46 

Miss  R,ve   Niagara  ........ •.,..... 

4 

Rev.  Mr.  Stevenson,  Hamilton 

8 

Total ..., 

112 

36 

58 

35 


12 


41  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  F. — Numher  of  Immigrants  reported  at  the  Port  of  Hamilton,  and  the 
Value  of  their  Effects,  for  the  Eleven  Alonths  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Sexes. 

Nationalitj. 

Value 

of 
Effects. 

Males. 

Females. 

Children. 

Total. 

14 

16 

13 

2 

6 

24 

33 

3 

32 

28 
5 
12 
30 
30 
1 

62 
50 
9 
25 
87 
103 

Enpclish. 

$ 
2,800 
1.450 

9 

Irish  , 

2 

7 

33 

40 

Scotch  

Germaa 

Uuited  States  Citizens .... 

Canadians 

271 
4,445 
5,505 
3,790 

500 

3 

Other  Countries 

Total 

108 

97 

138 

343 

18  761 

Statement  G. — Showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  reported  at  the  Port  of  Clifton, 
and  the  Value  of  their  Effects,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November, 
1880. 


Sexes. 


Males. 


Females.        Children 


50 


66 


11 
3 

li 
3 
5 

23 


56 


Total. 


30 
10 
21 
12 
39 


Nationality. 


1T2 


English ... 

Irish 

Scotch 

German 

United  States  Citizens. 
Canadians 


Total 


Value 
of 

Effects. 


$ 


4,150 
255 

1,050 
400 

2,449 

3,335 

11,639 


36 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Paper;^  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


Statement  H. — Showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  reported  at  the  Port  of  Fort 
Erie,  and  the  Y ahie  of  their  Effects,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November, 
188l». 


Sexes. 

Nationality. 

Value 
of 

Effects. 

Males. 

Females. 

Children. 

Total. 

i 

13 

4 
1 
4 

'I 
I 

20 
22 

'I 

3 
5 

22 
54 

39 
10 
5 
12 
58 
65 

English  ....= .... 

Irish 

Scotch 

Germans      - .  ........ 

1,875 
460 
100 
485 

16 

United  States  Citizens 

3,475 
4,550 

19 

Canadians ...,.,... ». 

..Total 

57 

63 

69 

189 

10,945 

Statement  I. — Showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  reported  at  the  Port  of  Niagara, 
and  the  Yalue  of  their  Effects,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th   November, 

1880. 


Sexes. 

Nationality. 

Value 

of 
Effects. 

Males. 

Females. 

1 
1 

Children. 

Total. 

2 
5 

1 

English  , 
Irish  ..., 

$ 
300 

1 

3 

70 

...Total 

2 

2 

3 

7 

370 

Statement  J. — Showing  the  Number  of  Immigrants  and  the  Yalue  of  their  Effects 
entered  at  the  respective  Custom  Houses  in  the  district  of  the  Homilton  Agency, 
for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Nationality. 

Hamilton. 

Clifton. 

Fort  Erie. 

Niagara. 

Total. 

Value 

of 
Effects. 

English 

Irish 

Scotch 

Germans.    

62 
50 

9 

25 

87 

103 

7 

30 
10 
21 
12 
39 
60 

39 
10 
5 
12 
58 
65 

I 

1.33 

75 

35 

49 

184 

228 

7 

9,125 

2,235 

1,421 

5,330 

11,429 

11,675 

500 

United  States  Citizens 

Canadians 

Other  Countries 

Total 

343 

172 

189 

7 

711 

41,715 

37 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  K. — Showing  the  Number  of  Immigrant  Arrivals  and  Departures  at  the 
Hamilton  Agency,  tor  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November,  1880,  and  their 
Nationalities ;  the  Number  of  Free  Meals  and  Free  Passes  by  Eailways  and  other 
conveyances,  from  this  Agency  to  their  respective  places  of  destination. 


c 

a 

oi 

w 

t 

£ 

"3 

OJ 

OS 

J3 

S 

3 

^ 

3 

*j 

ni 

-t-3 

fl 

-J 

c 

© 

V7 

O 

1  ^ 

^ 

2,996  45,016  48,012  37,787     1,446 
I  '  i  1 


Remained     in     the 
Province    of    On- 
tario. 

Nationalities  of  Immigrants 
settled  in  Ontario. 

1 

Number    of    Immi- 
grants fed. 

Number     of     Free 
Lodgings. 

1 

English. 

Irish. 

Scotch. 

03 

i 

o 

i 

a> 

ii 

o 

416 

"S 

si 

II 

5?: 

8,776 

1            1 
I 

2,560j    l,318i    1,330 

970 

2,182 

i 
3,364     1,426    598 

939 

Eeturm  L. — Showing  the  Number  of  Araivals  and  Departures  of  Immigrants  in  the 
district  of  the  Hamilton  Agency,  for  the  Eleven  Months  ending  30th  November, 
1880. 


Nationality. 

Yici   the 

St. 

Lawrence. 

Viu 

the  United 

States. 

Total. 

Remained 

in 
Ontario. 

Went 
to  Manitoba. 

Went  to 

the  Western 

States. 

English 

Irish , 

Scotch 

German 

1,437 

687 
736 
102 

34" 

4,508 
2,973 
2,193 

20,785 
2,522 

12,035 

5,945 
3,660 
2,929 

20,887 
2,522 

12,069 

2,560 
1.318 
1^331 

969 
2,182 

416 

282 
219 
219 
198 
340 
191 

3,103 

2,123 

1,379 

19,720 

n',462'" 

United  States  Citizens .. 
Other  Countries 

Total 

2,996 

45,016 

48,012 

8,776 

1,449 

37,787 

38 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.   1881 


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39 


44  VIotovia.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No   7. 

ANNUAL  EEPOKT  OF  HALIFAX  AGENT. 
(Mr.  Edwin  Clay. 


Dominion  Immkjration  Office, 

Halifax,  N.S.,  16th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honoiu"  to  present,  for  your  information,  a  report  of  the  workings 
of  this  Agency  since  1st  Januaiy,  IcSO. 

Herewith  are  statements  showing:  A.  The  number  of  arrivals;  B.  The  number 
ofsettlei-s  entered  at  the  different  Cusiom's  offices;  and  C.  The  number  of  free  passes 
giante  I  lo  indigent  immigrants. 

The  number  of  arrivals  is  not  so  large  as  for  last  year,  the  falling  off  being  in  the 
lattei-  part  of  the  year,  as  January,  February,  March  and  April  exhibit  a  large 
incre-fse  over  the  corresponding  months  of  last  ^^ear.  The  class  of  immigrants  landing 
this  year  has  been  better  than  in  former  years,  due  in  a  great  measure,  no  doubt, 
to  the  Oi'der  in  Council  prohibiting  the  Janding  of  pauper  immigrants. 

In  April,  Mrs.  Eirt  landed  with  70  children  for  distribution  in  the  Upper 
Provinces;  and  in  the  same  month  one  death  occurred  amongst  the  immigrants  on 
board  the  Steamship  ''Hibernian."  The  general  health  of  the  immigrants  has  been 
good,  and  ail  have  appeared  satistied  with  their  treatment  on  board  ship. 

The  visits  of  several  agricultural  delegates  to  the  Province  has  had  a  good  effect, 
inasmu"h  as  particular  attention  has  been  called  to  the  capabilities  of  Nova  Scotia 
for  fruit  growing  and  sheep  and  cattle  raising.  Their  reports  at  home 
have  induced  many  English  and  Scotch  farmers  to  open  up  a  correspondence  with  a 
view  to  settling  in  Nova  Scotia,  where  they  would  enter  exclusively  into  sheep  and 
cattle  raising,  the  nearness  to  the  English  market,  as  compared  with  Ontario  and  the 
West,  giving  a  sufficient  profit  in  the  difference  of  cost  of  transportation  to  the  sea- 
boai-d,  to  guarantee  success.  A  number  of  our  own  people  are  now  engaged  in  this 
business,  and  could  suitable  vessels  be  had  when  required,  many  more  would  engage 
in  it.  In  this  connection  I  may  say  that  efforts  are  being  put  forth  to  improve  the 
breeds,  so  as  to  ensure  a  market  in  England  or  elsewhere  for  cattle  when 
landed ;  and  I  noticed  a  marked  improvement  was  reported  in  those  shown  at 
The  different  agricultural  exhibitions  throughout  the  Province  this  season,  as  compared 
with  former  yeai-s. 

The  returns  (B)  showing  the  number  of  settlers  entered  at  the  ports  of  entry  is 
hardly  complete,  as  several  returns  have  not  yet  come  to  hand ;  yet  the  total  amount 
shown  is  in  excess  of  last  year's  return.  Quite  a  number  of  people  left  the  Province 
early  in  the  season  to  better  themselves  in  the  States.  The  majority  failed  to  do  so, 
however,  and  now  many  are  soliciting  aid  to  bring  them  back  home.  I  am  constantly 
in  receipt  of  petitions  for  aid,  and  I  know  of  private  individuals  who  tell  the  same 
story.. 

(^During  the  year  gold  mining  has  received  a  fresh  impetus,  and  the  results  from 
two  or  three  mines  are  said  to'  be  very  promising.  Several  rich  leads 
have  been  discovered  within  our  city  limits,  shafts  are  being  sunk,  and  a  few  months 
will  test  the  richness  of  the  claims. 

The  coal  mines  have  been  pushed  to  their  utmost  capacity,  and  the  recent 
disasters  at  Stellarton  mines  may  be  considered  as  a  national  calamity,  as  ihc  effects 
upon  the  ti-ade  and  those  engaged  in  these  mines  will  be  most  serious. 

40 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.)  A.  1881 


Large  gangs  of  men  are  already  entering  the  woods  for  lumbering  purposes,  and 
the  prospects  are  that  a  much  larger  quantity  of  lumber  than  usual  will  be  cut  and 
prepared. 

I  have,  on  several  occasions,  issued  fi-ee  passes  to  immigrants  whose  cases  I  was 
satisfied  were  honest ;  but  in  every  case  I  made  particular  enquiries,  before  1  for- 
warded them.  As  a  general  rule,  immigrants  landing  now  are  ticketed  to  Quebec, 
and  do  not  require  assistance  here. 

I  have  to  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  Sumner,  Mr.  Connors,  I.  C.  R.  ticket  agent, 
and  the  employees  of  the  Customs  Department,  for  their  valuable  assistance  in 
forwarding  the  work  on  the  arrival  of  steamers;  and,  in  conclusion,  beg  to 
express  the  hope  that  the  work  at  this  Agency  has  met  with  your  approval. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant. 


The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


EDWIN  CLAY,  M.D., 

Immigration  Agent. 


41 


4  i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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42 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  ISSl 


Statement  showing  Number  of  Settlers  entered   at  the  various  Customs  Houses  in 
Nova  Scotia,  together  with  the  Yahie  of  their  Eifects,  for  the  Year  1880. 


Port  of  Entry. 


Amherst ..,..«.. .... 

Arichat 

BarringtoQ. 

Bear  River 

BridJcetowa 

Canso 

Cornwallis 

Guysborough 

Halifax 

Liverpool 

Loadonderry 

Lunenburg  

Parrsborough 

Pictou 

Port  Hawkesbury 

Sydney 

Truro 

Windsor 

Yarmouth -,... 


Number 

of 
Settlers. 


Total. , 


10 

12 
6 

11 
1 
1 
3 
5 

44 
6 
7 
2 


147 


Value 

of 
Effects. 


$    cts. 

1,922  00 

82  00 

172  00 

128  00 

50  00 

72  00 

183  00 

146  00 

4,957  00 
140  00 
354  GO 
300  00 
500  00 
540  00 
476  0© 
795  00 
460  00 
655  00 
925  00 


12,857  00 


Remarks. 


One  or  two  porta  have  yet  to  be 
heard  from.  Nearly  all  these  settlers 
have  returned  from  the  .'States,  and 
just  now  many  others  are  returning  to 
various  parts  of  the  Province. 


EDWIN  CLAY,  M.D., 

Immigration  Agent* 


43 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  8. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  LONDON  (ONT.)  AGENT. 
(Mr.  A.  G.  Smyth.) 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

London,  15th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  Animal  Report  of  this  Agency  for  the  eleven 
mouths  ending  the  oOlh  November,  1880,  as  follows,  viz.  : — 

Form  A. — Statement  of  arrivals,  nationality,  the  number  assisted  with  provisions 
and  with  free  passes  to  their  destination,  for  the  season. 

Form  B. — Shewing  the  total  number  of  arrivals  at  this  Agency,  for  each  month, 
via  the  St.  Lawrence  and  Halifax  and  the  United  States. 

Form  C. — The  number  forwarded  by  free  passes  and  the  stations  to  which  they 
were  sent. 

Annual  statement  of  arrivals  and  departures,  to  30th  November,  shewing  sexes, 
nationalities,  trades  or  occupations,  and  their  general  destination,  by  which  to  will 
be  seen  that  seventeen  hundred  and  fifty  remained  in  Ontario,  ninety-one  went  to 
Manitoba,  and  two  hundred  and  two  to  the  United  States. 

I  also  enclose  returns  of  settlers  and  the  value  of  their  effects,  as  entered  at  the 
ports  in  my  district  viz. : — 

St.  Thomas,  Stratford,  Chatham,  London,  Windsor,  Amherstburg,  Sarnia  and 
Goderich. 

The  number,  nationality  or  sex  is  not  kept  in  London  at  present,  and  no  doubt, 
from  the  value  of  ettects,  several  hundred  settlers  from  the  United  States  should 
be  added  to  my  returns.  I  was  also  informed  in  Sarnia  that  a  large  number  are 
continually  coming  over  who  have  no  household  effects,  who  probably  average  from 
seven  to  ten  per  day. 

The  class  of  immigrants  who  arrived  at  this  Agency  the  past  season  and  received 
Government  assistance  were  agriculturists  and  general  farm  labourers,  with  a  few 
domestic  servants,  for  all  of  whom  work  was  easily  attainable,  the  demand  for  them 
being  much  in  excess  of  the  number  of  arrivals. 

The  general  health  of  the  immigrants  was  good,  ou\y  a  few  cases  of  illness  and 
those  not  of  a  serious  nature.  Those  requii-ing  any  medical  attendance  were  at  once 
looked  after.     No  deaths  occurred  under  my  charge. 

During  the  last  fall  we  had  a  visit  of  some  of  the  English  tenant  farmer 
delegates,  whom  I  accompanied,  in  accordance  with  instructions,  through  this 
section  of  the  country,  visiting  the  Counties  of  Middlesex,  Elgin,  Lam bton,  Essex, 
Kent,  and  part  of  Huron  and  Bruce.  This  journey  was  made  with  teams  in  all 
possible  cases,  thus  enabling  the  gentlemen  to  stop  and  examine  for  themselves  a 
immbei-  of  farms  in  these  various  localities ;  cheese  and  butter  factories,  also  some 
fine  grazing  farms  at  which  large  quantities  of  cattle  were  being  raised  and  fed  for 
exportation  to  Great  Britain.  They  expressed  themselves  to  many  of  the  principal 
farmers  and  others  as  finding  the  country  far  in  excess  of  anything  represented 
to  them  before  their  visit,  both  as  regards  the  quality  of  the  soil  and  signs  of  moderate 
wealth  and  prosperity  among  the  farming  community  generally;  and,  no  doubt, 
from  the  views  they  expressed  here,  their  report  will  be  most  favourable,  and  induce 
many  of  the  class  whom  they  represented  in  the  various  districts  to  take  advantage 
of  the  gi'eat  farming  facilities  offered  in  Canada  and  make  it  their  future  home. 

Samples  of  prize  grain  and  fruit  have  been  forwarded  to  our  agent  in  Liverpool, 
Mr.  .John  Dyke,  which,  no  doubt,  will  be  sent  to  various  localities,  and  confirm  the 
good  ropo]"ts  alieady  heard  in  favour  of  our  Dominion. 

44 


Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers   (No.   12.) 


A.  1881 


The  demand  for  agricultural  labourers,  this  coming  season, will  be  as  great  w^  ever, 
as  applications  are  being  continually  received  at  the  present  time.  I  had  quite  a 
number  who  have  gone  to  the  free  grant  district  of  Muskoka,  some  worth  consider- 
able means,  and  others  who  had  saved  sufficient  since  their  arrival  here  to  enable 
them  to  take  up  a  homestead,  who  are  doing  well  and  feel  quite  satisfied  with  the- 
country. 

All  of  wnich  is  respectfully  submitted. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

A.  G,  SMYTH, 

Government  Immigration  Agent. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


Statement  A. — Showing  the  number  of  Immigrants  arrived  at  the  London,  Ontario, 
Agency,  for  the  eleven  months  ending  3()th  IS'ovember,  1880,  and  their 
nationality ;  the  number  assisted  with  Provisions,  and  with  Fi'ee  Passes  by  Rail- 
ways,  or  other  conveyances,  from  this  Agency,  to  their  respective  places  of 
destination. 


Country  from. 

Arrivals 
via  the  St. 
Lawrence. 

Arrivals 
via  the 
United 
States. 

Total. 

Remained 

in  the 
Province 

of 
Ontario. 

Went 
to  the 
United 
States. 

Number 

assisted 

with 

Provisions 

Number 

assisted 

with    Free 

Passes. 

Enarland , 

835 

470 

188 

20 

73 

155 

115 

36 

30 

11 

3 

990 

585 

224 

50 

84 

3 

874 
533 

198 

34 

27 

3 

1 
116     1  -.-- 

Ireland  -. .  

[Scotland 

52 
26 
16 
57 

Germany 

Norway  - 

Switzerland 

Iceland 



America 

Other  Countries 

53 

54 

107 

81 

26 

Total 

1,639                434 

2,043 

1,750 

*293                6.^7 

375J 

♦  Of  these  91  went  to  Manitoba. 


45 


4-1  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Statement  B.— Showing  the  total  number  of  Immigrants  ari-ived,  and  remained  to  be 
dealt  with  at  the  London  Ageni'v,  for  the  eleven  months  endine;  30th  ISTovember 
1880. 


Months. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

Slay 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November..   .. 

Total 


Vid 
St.   Lawrence. 


85 

42 

63 

87 

294 

233 

235 

196 

193 

97 

114 


1,639 


Viff 
UDited  States. 


21 
23 
24 
40 
62 
45 
63 
36 
44 
17 
29 


404 


Total 


2,043 


Number  Fed. 


106  I 
65  I 
87     I 

127     j 

356     i 

278 

298 

232 

237 

114 

143 


37 

18 

4 

37 

134 

142 

57 

96 

66 

25 

21 

637 


Number 

distributed  by 

Free  Passes. 


27 

15 

4 

18 

102 

65* 

64 

31 

21 

9 

27J 


375^ 


Statement  C. — Showing  the  number  and  destination  of  Immigrants  forwarded  from 
this  Agency,  by  Free  Passes,  for  the  eleven  months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Stations. 


Ilderton 

Lucknow 

Port  Stanley. 
Windsor 


Newbury.  

St.  Thoinas 

Srratbroy 

Mt.  Brydges  .... 

Woodstuck. 

Eyde  Park 

Chatham 

Glanworth 

Kipley 

Toronto  

Amherstburg... 

Stralfurd 

Lucan 

Belmont 

Thorndale 

Guelph 

Parkhiil 

Thamerville  ... 

Boihwell.  

IngersoU  

Forrest 

Dorchester 

(Jlencoe ... 

Watford 

Charincr  Cross 

Mitchell 

AT'pin  

Komoka 


Adults 
Passes. 

Stations. 

Adult 
Passes. 

B 

1 
Aylmer 

11 
8 

5 

9| 

7     ' 

Brucefield 

Beachville 

jSheddon .  ..    . 

14 
62 

Camlachie. ., 

7 

Fletcher 

1 
4 
1 

Comber 

Lambeth , 

lona...... 

45 

7 

13 

1 

2 
13^ 
10 

9 

1 

4 
6 
4 
1 
8 

e^ 

10 
3 

1 
4 


iTilbury 

Lawrence  .... 

Brecon 

Hensall 

Puce  R'.ver.,.. 

Essex  Centre. 

1  Yarmouth 

iLongwood..... 

Wingham  ..... 

Masonviile  ..., 

Point  Levi...., 

Kingst'^n 

Springfield..... 
(London  Tp. .. 

jClinton 

jHamilton 

lOil  Citj  

jPetrolia 

jciandeboye  .. 

iBismark., 

1  Wyoming 


Total, 


375^ 


44  Victo 


ria. 


Sessional  Papers   (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


bo 

.9 


;-( 
o 

S3 

bo 
.2 

c3 


a  ^ 


CJ  o 

go, 


O 
fl 

-♦J 
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"Biq 


CD  O  •*      .  M  OS  in  tH 


"BqO^IU'B[^ 


•OIJ■B:^uo 


■^1— lO-^oe^^ofOr-iroo 

ai<£>lr-Ol^»C000ipH05i— I 

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rH  rHOO<MC<lCq(rqi— Ir-I 


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Cq   CO   C^   r-J   r-J  r-( 


JO 


I 


m 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No,  12.) 


A.  1881 


Return  of  Settlers  and  Value   of  Eifects,  as  entered  at  the  Port  of   St.  Thomas 

for  the  Year  1880. 


i 

00 

(U 

1 

, 

fl 

CD 

p 

O 

• 

S 

.5 

c 

4 

^ 

^ 

i 

a 

2 

Value. 

^ 

eS 

a 

o 

03 

o 

^ 

52; 

O 

m 

'^ 

72 

O 

:^ 

^ 

^ 

%      cts. 

142 

65 

19 

6 

2 

50 

64 

74 

^ 

12,772  00 

Return  of  Settlers  and  Value  of  Effects,   as  entered  at  the  Port  of  Stratford,  for 

the  Year  1880. 


QQ 

0) 

^ 

a 

p 

c 

c 
(£ 

^ 

o 
O 

qj 

Value. 

rrt 

a 

1 

'oc 

f; 

o 

-1 

eg 

2 

3 

(3 

a 

•c 

S 

<D 

ra 

55 

C) 

W 

" 

^ 

O 

^ 

fa 

o 

$      ets, 

52 

10 

12 

7 

16 

7 

23 

18 

11 

3,269  60 

The  number,  nationality,  &c.,  not  kept  for  the  first  six  months. 


Return  of  Settlers  and  Value  of  Effects,  as  entered  at  the   Port  of  Chatham,  for 

the  Year  1880. 


<o 

d 

1 

A 

d 
2 

TS 

Value. 

a 

% 

-S 

o 

^ 

'-3 

B 

s 

ce 

5z; 

O 

m 

>^ 

02 

6 

S 

fa 

0 

$      cts. 

468 

263 

100 

67 

n 

37 

202 

146 

140 

7,450  00 

43 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Eeturn  of  Settlers  and  Yaliie   of  Effects,  as  entered  at    the  Port  of   London,  for 

the  Year  1S80. 


^ 


1 

1 

1  s 

a 

!    a 

1  ^ 

1X4 

Value. 


11,344  00 


No  particulars  as  to  number,  only  value. 


IIeturn  of  Settlers  and  Value  of  Effects,  as  entered  at  the  Port  of  \Yindsor,   for 

the  Year  1880. 


1st  Quarter 
2nd       do 
3rd       do 
4tli       do    , 

Total. ., 


78 
265 
308 
162 


!13 


32 

130 

130 

87 


379 


be 

c 


89 


4 

1 

36 

9 



38 

7 

27 

11 

3 



- 

_ 

19 


28 


41 
90  • 
106 
Gl 


46 


298        224 


c3 

a 

Value. 

ci 

'o 

£3 

£:- 

O 

$   cts. 

27 

26 

3,055  00 

92 

102 

11,679  00 

98 

12^ 

13,230  (.0 

54 

62 

5,155  00 

27i 

318 

33,119  00 

Eeturn  of  Settlers  and  Yalue  of  Effects,  as  entered  at  the  Port  of  Araliorstbiirg, 

the  Year  1880. 


79 


29 


a 


I         I 


10 


19 


22 


25 


32 


Value. 


$         Ct: 

2,991  00 


43 


12—4 


44  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


IvETCRN  of  Settlers  and  Value  of  Effects,  as  entered  at  the  Port  of  Sarnia,  for  the 

Year  1880. 


1st  Quarfer. 
2nd       do    . 


3rd 
4tli 


do     

do     (2  months 


Total. 


164 
347 

430 
166 


1,107 


m 

1 

(U 

C 

. 

3 

c 

O 

^ 

O 

c 

.2 

^ 

O 

a; 

V 

<j3 

O 

W 

►^ 

m 

o 

S 

90 

12 

3 

20 

39 

48 

211 

33 

36 

7 

60 

90 

267 

48 

25 

31 

59 

116. 

91 

24 

13 

7 

31 

51 

C59 

117 

77 

65 

189 

305 

50 
104 
120 

50 


324 


66 
153 
194 

65 


478  I 


Value. 


%       cts. 

3,743  00 

12,597  00 

15,932  Oe 

5,318  00 


Eeturn  of  Settlers  and  Value  of  Effects,  as  entered  at  the  Port  of  Goderich,  for 

the  Year  1830. 


CO 

a> 

t-i 

C 

C3 

a 

2 

glisb. 

,a 

o 

o 

^ 

2 

Value. 

3 

a 

.-H 

u 

03 

^ 

"z. 

O 

H 

-^ 

72 

O 

'^ 

fe 

Q 

%      cts. 

50 

30 

5 

3 

2 

10 

28 

10 

12 

1,030  00 

50 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Nc  9. 

ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  DULUTH  AGENT. 

(Mr.  ^V.  C.  B.  Graiiame.) 


DiJLUTii,  Minnesota,  U.S.^ 

31st  December,  1880. 


Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  tranwmit  a  Report  of  the  operations  at  this  Agency 
during  the  year  1880. 

Acting  nnder  special  instructions  I  made  my  head-quarters  at  St.  PanI,  about  the 
beginning  of  March  hist,  and  remained  there  attending  to  the  wants  of  immigrant 
parties  passing  through  that  city  on  their  Avay  to  Maintoba  and  the  British  North- 
West  Territories,  making  occasionrJ  trips  into  the  States  of  Iowa  and  Wisconsin, 
wliere  I  had  been  in  correspondence  ^\'ith  parties  whose  intention  it  was  to  emigrate 
to  om*  '^prairie  province."  These  were  my  duties  nntil  the  opening  of  navigation, 
On  or  about  the  first  of  May  I  came  to  .Duluth,  having  previously  put  the  Colonists' 
Reception  House  in  order  ibr  immigrants  during  the  season.  During  the  current 
year  the  immigrant  travel  v/as  largely  via  CIdcago  and  St.  Paul,  the  proportion 
coming  vm  J-)uluth  being,  about  the  same,  numerically,  as  in  1879.  One  noticeable 
improvement  in  the  immigration  of  1880  was  the  very  large  proportion  coming  direct 
from  the  Mother  Country.  This  influx  is  due  to  the  eftbrts  made  by  the  Department 
of  Agriculture  to  have  the  wealth  and  resoiu'ces  of  our  North-Western  Provinces 
made  known  in  Europe.  Both  farmers  and  ])easants  of  the  older  countries,  have  naturally 
sought  with  eagerness  to  better  their  condition  in  a  land  where  there  is  room  for  all, 
and  where  the  soil  yields  a  hundred-fold  for  the  etlbrts  expended  in  its  cultivation. 
Consequently,  no  sooner  liave  means  been  taken  to  spread  the  knowledge  of  the  ferti- 
lity of  the  soil  of  the  new  North- West,  and  the  many  otjier  natural  advantages  enjoyed 
by  this  favoured  region,  than  the  stream  of  immigration  was  turned  this  way,  and  we 
are  now  reaping  the  benelits  of  these  efforts. 

The  visits  of  the  delegates  apj^ointed  by  the  tenant  farmers  of  the  Mother 
Country  to  Canada,  and  the  reports  Avhich  they  ]jublished  on  their  return  home,  have 
been  most  successful  in  makdng  known  the  resources  of  the  new  countries,  and  in 
inducing  immigration  thereto.  It  is  not  surprising  that  many,  after  reading  the 
favourable  reports  which  the  delegates  gave  of  the  country^  should  seek  the  earliest 
opportunity  of  bettering  their  condition  in  the  new  world.  If  this  liberal  policy  be 
continued  by  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  if  vig02-ous  efforts  be  made  to  advertise 
liberally  and  extensively  the  advantages  afforded  to  the  capitalist,  farmer,  mechanic 
and  peasant  in  the  north-western  portion  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  there  can  bo 
little  doubt  that  in  a  few  years  the  country  will  have  a  teeming  tmd  thriving  population. 
What  immigration  there  has  been  this  year  in  consequence  of  these  efforts  to  make 
known  the  advantages  of  the  new  Provinces,  is  only  an  earnest  of  what  will  be  in 
coming  years,  when  the  knowledge  of  these  resources  is  more  widel}^  spread. 

The  eftbrts  which  American  Transportation  Companies  a.re  making  to  advertise 
the  lands  through  Avluch  their  roads  run,  should  be  an  incentive  to  our  own  Gov- 
ernment not  to  spare  any  expense  in  sj)reading  abroad  a  true  and  thorough  account  of 
the  fertile  countries  to  which  we  invite  immigration.  These  American  Companies  are 
unremitting  in  their  efforts,  and  stop  at  no  expense  of  money,  time  or  means  to 
advertise  their  lands.  The  St.  Paul  and  Sioux,  (noAv  owned  by  the  Chicago  and 
North-Western R.  R.  Co.,)  the  St.  Paul,  Minneaj^olis  and  Manitoba,  and  the  Northern 
Pacific,  and  the  Chicago  and  North-Western  in  its  Dakota  extension  (all  within  my 
district),  are  unsparing  in  their  efforts  to  induce  immigration  to  their  lands.     They 

51 
12-4i 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A..  1881 


have  agents  scattered  throughout  this  country  i\m\  Europe ;  they  j^ublish  pamphlets- 
and  give  encouragement  to  newspapers  to  extensively  advertiee  their  lands,  and  the 
result  is,  immigrants  are  pouring  in  in  streams.  The  St.  Paid  and  Sioux  City  especially 
ai-e  making  herculean  eltbrts  to  induce  immigrants  to  settle  along  the  line  of  their 
road,  and  are  meeting  with  marvellous  success.  Particularly  are  they  successful  in 
inducing  wealthy  Englishmen  (men  whom  we  ought  to  have  in  Manitoba  and  the 
Korth-West  Territories)  to  settle  on  their  lands.  By  the  activity  of  their  agents  in 
Great  Britain,  Ireland  and  Canada,  their  ^'runners"  in  the  principal  cities  of  the 
United  States,  succeed  in  persuading  young  Englishmen  (and  not  a  few  Canadians), 
with  capital,  to  purchase  their  lands.  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  during  the 
past  few  years  nearly  half  a  million  of  English  and  Canadian  capital  was  invested  in 
state  and  railroad  lands  in  Iowa,  of  which  the  Sionx  City  Eailroad  Company  have  the 
lion's  share.     This  capital  may  be  largely  brought  to  our  own  western  possessions. 

It  is  the  immigrants  from  these  States  and  from  Europe  that  we  should  make 
special  efforts  to  secure.  Emigration  from  the  over-crowded  centres  of  Europe  and 
the  Western  States  to  our  broad  and  fertile  prairies  is  of  real  benefit,  not  alone  to  the 
Provinces  in  which  the  immigrants  settle,  but  to  the  whole  Dominion.  And  those 
Avhom  we  get  from  Europe  are,  as  a  general  rule,  strong,  activ^e  and  vigorous  men  and 
women.  It  is  a  truism  that  only  the  more  energetic  and  self-reliant  men  have  pluck 
enough  to  leave  their  homes  and  seek  to  better  their  condition  in  an  unknown  land. 
The  very  fact  that  they  have  the  courage  to  face  the  trials  and  difficulties  necessarily 
to  be  encountered  in  a  jiew  land,  is  suthcient  index  of  their  strength  of  character.  A 
large  proportion  of  those  who  have  come  to  our  north-western  possessions  during  the 
past  year  are  men  who  will  make  good  citizens  and  pi-osperous  farmers,  and  we  should 
give  them  all  the  inducement  and  encouragement  possible.  There  is  another  featm-e 
of  this  immigration  ji'om  the  older  Provinces  to  the  new,  to  which  I  would  nrgently 
call  your  attention,  ^iany  of  those  Avho  leave  Ontario  and  the  eastern  sections  of  the 
Pominion  are  captured  during  their  transit  tlu'ough  the  United  States  by  r.-ilroad 
agents  and  land-sharks,  and  are  led  to  settle  in  Dakota,  Mimiesota,  Iowa  and  other 
Western  States.  Thus  oui*  Government  loses  worthy  citizens  at  the  same  time  that 
American  Transportation  Companies  arc  drawing  a  heavy  levemic  fi-om  the  country 
in  the  shape  of  transportation  fees. 

I  will  here  mention  a  very  ingenious  method  adopted  by  Mi*.  Drake, 
Land  Commissioner  of  the  St.  Paul  and  Sioux  City  Eailroad,  (whose  headquarters 
are  in  St.  Paul),  to  capinre  English  and  Canadian  capitalists  and  farmers.  The 
Land  Office  of  this  Company  is  about  three  blocks  from  the  passenger  depots  on 
one  of  the  principal  streets  of  the  city.  Mr.  Drake  lias  a  very  large  British  flag 
.stretched  across  the  street  from  his  office,  and  it  is  the  first  thing  to  catch  the  eye  of 
the  immigrant,  Avho  must,  of  necessity,  come  to  this  street  to  seek  refreshments  or 
lodging.  Any  one  who  knows  the  loyalty  of  the  British  subject  to  the  flag  of  his 
country,  can  readily  imagine  the  feelings  of  the  lonely  immigrant  as  he  sees  it  waving 
proudly  in  a  foreign  land.  Pride,  hope  and  fond  regi'ct  are  stirred  up  ^vithin  him  as 
he  looks  on  his  country's  emblem.  More  than  one  sturdy  son  of  Britain  or  Canada 
have  I  seen  bring  his  coat  sleeve  suddenly  across  his  moist  eyes  on  coming  in  sight  of 
this  flag,  and  the 

'■  Flush  that  spread  from  cheek  to  brow" 

told  plainly  of  the  loyal  lieart  that  was  then  beating  beneath  the  rough  corduroy  of 
Albion  or  the  homespun  frieze  of  the  *'  land  of  the  maple  leaf."  And  yet,  strange  to 
say,  it  is  these  same  loyal  impulses,  this  deep  devotion  to  the  Mother 
Country  and  flag,  that  are  the  means  of  the  poor  emigrant's  taking  the 
flrst  step  that  ultimately  leads  him  to  forswear  allegiance  to  that  country 
and  flag.  Mr.  Drake,  who  is  no  mean  judge  of  human  nature,  plays  skilfully  on 
the  patriotism  of  these  poor  people,  and  in  addition,  spares  neither  pains  nor 
money  to  capture  as  many  of  them  as  po:esible.  Attracted  by  the  flag,  the 
emigrant  naturally  goes  to  the  office,  supposing  it  to  be  a  British  Agency.  Here 
there  is  a  stair  cf  polite  clerks  to  receive  him.  He  is  ushered  into  a  a*eading-]oom 
where  the  leading  English  and  Canadian  newspapers  are  kept  on  file,   and  hero  and 

52 


M  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


there  a  pamphlet  or  newspaper  with  glowing  accounts  of  the  land  through  which  the 
St.  Paul  <fe  Sioux  City  E.  R.  passes.  His  attention  is  then  called  to  the  samples  of 
the  products  of  these  lands,  which  are  there  on  exhibition.  When  the  emigrant  is 
ready  to  go,  he  is  politely  asked  to  register  his  name  in  a  book  kept  for  the  purpose, 
which,  of  course,  he  does,  stating  also  where  he  comes  from.  On  looking  over  his 
entry,  the  attendant  suddenly  remembers  a  Mr.  X.,  from  "  the  very  same  place,"  who 
owns  a  very  line  farm  out  on  the  line  of  "our"  road.  "lam  sure,"  says  the 
attendant,  "  ho  would  be  delighted  to  see  you.  It  is  only  a  short  distance,  and  you 
might  as  well  seize  the  opportunity  before  going  to  Manitoba."  Should  the  emigrant 
demur  on  account  of  the  expense,  or  on  having  tickets  for  Manitoba,  he  is  graciously 
assured  that  it  "  won't  cost  him  a  cent,"  and  as  for  his  Manitoba  tickets,  that  can  bo 
"fixed"  very  easily.  Before  the  emigrant  is  fully  aware  of  what  is  going  on,  ho  is 
provided  with  free  transportation  to  some  point  along  the  line  of  the  Sioux  City  K.  E., 
where  it  is  very  probable  he  will  select  land  and  remain.  Should  the  immigrant  have 
■the  appearance  of  gentility  or  wealth,  the  hunting-car  is  got  ready  and  the  party  or 
parties  are  run  out  to  some  of  the  duck  marshes  where  game  abounds,  and  usually 
the  visitors  enjoy  a  good  day's  sport,  guns,  dogs,  attendants  and  transportation  being 
furnished  by  the  company  free,  gratis.  Before  returning,  the  strangers  are  shown 
some  "  very  choice"  lands  adjoining  some  recently  purchased  by  a  younger  son  of 
some  mythical  lord.  "There  is  just  about  1,000  acres  lefi  in  a  block,  and  is  a  good 
bargain  at  $6  per  acre,  which^  of  course,  is  not  one-half  its  value,"  and  the  trusting 
Englishman  exchanges  his  English  gold  for  "  sour"  lands  in  Iowa,  that  have  been 
abandoned  by  some  former  settler.  But  what  cares  Mr.  Drake  whether  the  lands  are 
worthless  or  not,  so  long  as  he  has  secured  a  purchaser  for  a  part  of  his  white 
elephant;  and  should  this  purchaser  abandon  his  lands  in  disgust  without  fulfilling 
his  contract  by  improving  them,  they  can  bo  sold  over  again.  Of  course  this  company 
have  large  tracts  of  very  good  lands,  but  these  they  find  no  difficulty  in  disposing  of. 
To  dispose  of  their  poor  lands  they  spare  neither  money  nor  trouble,  and  their  agents 
are  meeting  with  remarkable  success  in  securing  settlers,  simply  because  their 
expenditure  is  heavy,  but  at  the  same  time  judicious.  Prom  SI 00,000  to  S200,000 
must  have  been  paid  out  by  this  company  during  the  past  year  in  advertising,  paying- 
agents,  rebates  on  immigrant  transportation,  bounties  to  settlers,  and  other  expenses 
incidental  to  an  emigration  bureau.  This  policy  must  evidently  pay,  as  the  company 
are  well  pleased  with  the  result.  Unless  some  liberal  policy  be'adopted  by  the  Gov- 
ernment, it  will  be  hard  to  compete  with  American  railroad  companies  that  have 
lands  for  settlement.  They  know,  that  as  a  result  of  the  report  of  the  delegates  of 
the  tenant  farmers,  there  will  be  an  increased  immigration  from  Great  Britain  next 
year,  and  are  consequently  putting  forth  extraordinary  efforts  to  capture  the  bulk  of  it* 

Settlers  Themselves  as  Immigration  Agents. 

(__There  is  another  danger,  of  no  small  proportions,  which  we  have  to  contend 
with.  This  is  that  the  emigrants  who  have  settled  in  ^linnesota,  Iowa  and 
Dakota  are  in  constant  communication  with  their  friends  in  Great  Britain  and 
Canada,  and  from  my  own  personal  observation  and  experience  I  know  it  to 
be  a  fact — although  it  is  not  generally  known — that  one  family,  snugly  settled 
in  any  country,  and  well  pleased  with  their  location,  can,  by  writing  to  their 
friends,  do  more  real  good  work  for  the  settlement  of  the  countiy  than  ten 
immigi-ation  agents  who  only  speak  fi-om  hearsay  of  the  country.  The  reason 
is  obvious.  Settlers  who,  after  some  years  of  toil,  have  succeeded  in  making  a 
home  for  themselves,  are  thoroughly  acquainted  with  all  the  difficulties  that  have  to 
be  encountered,  with  the  capabilities  of  the  soil,  with  the  climate,  with  the  success 
that  awaits  eftbrts  and  industry,  and  the  means  that  will  prevent  failure,  in  a  word, 
they  have  all  the  information  and  experience  that  prospective  settlers  desire.  More- 
over, writing  to  their  friends  and  neighbours,  and  giving  a  detailed  account  of  their 
experience,  their  neighbours  naturally  believe  them  in  preference  to  entire  strangers. 
An  agent  may  go  into  a  crowded  district  in  the  Eastern  Provinces  or  in  Europe,  and 

53 


4-1  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


dilate  upon  the  glorious  opportiniitics  ailbrded  in  the  new  coiintiy,  but  his  efforts  will 
not  be  half  as  eiteetive  as  a  single  letter  from  a  well-satistied  settler.  He  who  receives 
the  letter,  reads  it  to  his  neighbours,  they  discuss  it,  and  in  seven  cases  out  of  ten 
resolve  to  follow  him.  They  have  before  them  the  experience  of  a  man  whom  they 
I:nou',  and  his  success  is  an  inducement  to  them.  And  here  I  would  suggest  the  vital 
importance  of  taking  immigrants  on  their  arrival,  and  helj)ing  them  in  everyway 
possible  in  securing  locations  and  homes.  Agents  on  the  ground  should  spare  no 
efforts  or  trouble  in  attending  to  the  immigrants  in  these  ways.  A  great  deal  depends 
upon  the  first  impression  Avhich  the  new-comer  gets  from  his  location  and  surroundings 
and  the  treatment  he  receives  from  those  who  are  to  be  his  future  neighbours.  In 
Minnesota  and  Dakota,  (as  I  know  by  personal  observation),  those  who  have  already 
secured  a  home  are  always  anxious  to  hel]^  beginners.  They  show  them  where  the 
best  locations  are,  they  help  them  to  build  their  cabins,  to  break  their  land,  to  sow 
the  seed,  and  in  a  hundred  other  ways,  strive  to  make  the  labour  of  the  new-comers 
as  light  as  ]-)Ossible.  Every  family  that  has  settled  and  thriven  on  the  great  prairies 
of  the  United  States  becomes  a  voluntary  and  enthusiastic  agent.  The  settlers  write 
to  their  old  fj-iends  and  induce  them  in  the  strongest  language  they  can  command,  to 
come  out  and  settle  alongside  them.  They  ]u'ocure  the  land  for  them,  make  arrange- 
ments with  the  railroad  companies  for  the  transportation  of  their  families  and  baggage, 
and  in  every  possible  wa^'  help  them  along.  It  would  be  well  if  our  own  settlers 
would  imitate  this  example. 

lilMIGRATION   FROM    THE    WESTERN   STATES. 

As  I  said  above,  the  immigration  from  the  Western  Slates,  although  fair,  has  nOr. 
been  so  great  as  in  the  past  few  years.  This  falling-off  is  due  to  various  causes,  chie 
among  which  I  would  mention  the  discontinuing  of  the  policy  of  refunding  to  the 
immigrants  part  of  their  fare,  i  e.,  $13.50  per  tickot.  I  have  found,  in  my  experience 
of  the  last  few  years,  that  the  i-efand  was  a  set-off  to  the  offers  of  American  railway 
companies,  and  its  stopj)age  has  placed  us  at  a  disadvantage  compared  with  them. 
These  companies  are  enabled  to  give,  and  they  do  give,  heavy  discounts  on  immigrant 
fares  and  on  the  rates  for  stock,  implements,  household  goods,  &c.,  &c.,  a!'d  thus 
secure,  through  the  bait  of  cheap  travel,  a  great  many  whom  we  now  lose  beeauNe  of 
the  high  rates  from  any  of  the  Western  States  to  Manitoba.  VYhat  immigra- 
tion there  has  been  is  due  to  the  personal  and  untiring  energy  of  your 
agent.  Prior  to  Mr.  Kingsmill's  appointment  to  St.  Paul  I  went  over  a 
great  part  of  Wisconsin,  Southern  Minnesota  and  Iowa,  and  saw  parties  with  whom 
I  had  been  in  correspondence  in  reference  to  immigrating  to  our  Provinces.  Some  I 
induced  to  come,  but  with  others  I  was  not  so  successful.  Those  who  objected  to 
come  to  Manitoba  did  so,  for  the  most  part,  because  of  the  extra  expense.  They 
uniformly  replied  to  all  my  arguments,  that  they  could  get  just  as  good  lands  in  the 
United  States,  and  it  would  cost  them  less  to  get  there.  They  have  no  other  objection, 
and  to  re-establish  the  rebate,  which,  practically,  would  be  equivalent  to  a  reduction 
of  fares,  would  give  your  agents  an  equal  advantage  with  the  agents  of  other  corpora- 
tions. These  western  people  are  a  class  whom  we  should  make  every  effort  to 
secure.  These  ai-e,  as  I  said  in  my  last  year's  Eeport,  hardy,  industrious,  and  accus- 
tome  I  to  farming  on  prairies,  and  whatever  money  it  would  cost  to  bring  them  to 
our  Pj-ovinces  would  be  returned,  in  a  very  few  years,  by  their  skill  and  energj^.  I 
oould  enlarge  on  some  of  these  points  and  mention  others,  but  as  this  report  has 
already  assumed  proportions  greater  than  I  originally  intended,  I  hasten  to  draw  it 
to  a  close.  The  suggestions  I  have  been  bold  enough  to  make  have  been  made  only 
after  mature  deliberation,  and  from  an  earnest  desire  for  the  speedy  colonization  of 
our  great  North-West. 

FACTS   AND    FIGURES. 

During  the  year  1880  thei-e  passed  through  the  port  of  Duluth  3,729  souls,  of 
whom  1,433  were  direct  from  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.     This  is  more  than  double 

54 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  18S1 


the  number  that  came  last  year,  being  805  in  excess  of  last  year's  figures.  Of  the* 
2,291  from  other  places  than  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  67  were  from  Scandinavia, 
29  from  the  northern  part  of  France,  43  from  Germany,  and  the  remainder — 2,152 — : 
from  Ontario,  Quebec  and  the  Lower  Provinces.  In  addition  to  this  there  were  411 
from  the  Western  States,  who  were  induced  to  emigrate  by  my  own  personal 
exertions.  Same  of  these  passed  through  Duluth,  but  the  majority  went  by  way  of 
St.  Paul. 

The  figures  which  I  give  are  as  exact  as  it  is  possible  for  me,  with  my  facilities, 
to  make  them.  I  arrive  at  them  in  this  way:—  I  go  to  the  stewards  of  the  boats,  and 
get  from  them  the  number  they  have  checked.  Then,  if  the  immigrants  have  ta 
remain  a  day  or  so  in  town,  I  go  to  all  the  hotels  and  get  the  number  registered, 
counting,  personally,  those  who  remain  in  the  reception  house.  If  there  be  a  train 
to  bring  the  immigrants  off,  immediately  on  their  arrival,  I  board  the  cars  and  count 
them.  These  figures  I  compare  with  those  of  the  stewards,  and  when  the  conductor 
of  the  train  comes  back  on  the  return  trip,  I  get  his  figures  als  >,  and  compare  them 
with  mine  and  the  steward's.  I  doubt  if  any  escape  this  close  scrutiny,  and  I  believe 
that  my  figures  are  as  correct  as  it  is  possible  to  make  them. 

LIVE    STOCK, 

The  amount  of  live  stock  exported  from  Ontario  to  the  North- West  is  as  follows  i 
255  horses,  87  head  of  horned  cattle,  not  including  a  shipment  of  cows  and  calves  for 
the  Indian  Department,  and  115  sheep,  the  total  value  of  which  was  $43,66*7.  Those 
figures  cover  the  shipment  to  the  Indian  Department,  as  also  some  extra  valuable 
horses  and  prize  cnttle  for  breeding  purposes. 

The  total  value  of  merchandize  and  railroad  iron  shipped  into  Manitoba  via 
Duluth  was  $1,353,294,  and  the  duty  was  $907,869.62,  a  creditable  increase  over  that 
of  1879. 

Trusting  that  this  Eeport  will  meet  with  your  approval, 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

WM.  0.  B.  GEAIIAME, 

Dominion  Government  Immigration  Agent. 

To  the  Hon.  the  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


55 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  10. 

AN^^UAL  REPOET  OF  WINNIPEG  AGENT. 

(Mr.  Wm.  Hespeler.) 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Winnipeg,  15th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit,  for  your  information,  my  Eeport  for  the  year 
ISSO,  accompanied  with  a  return  of  immigrant  arrivals  that  were  accommodated 
diu-ing  the  season  at  the  Government  sheds,  as  well  as  the  approximate  number  of 
such  immigrants  who  arrived  at  Winnipeg  and  did  not  avail  themselves  of  the 
aeeommo  iation  offered  by  the  Government,  but  received,  at  the  same  time,  advice  and 
assistance  from  this  office. 

As  shown  by  my  monthly  returns,  immigration  from  Great  Britain  exceeded  that 
<^f  any  other  country,  and  was  of  a  most  superior  class,  the  majority  being  English 
and  Scotch,  and  many  of  them  possessed  of  considerable  means. 

The  flow  of  immigration  was  almost  entirely  directed  towards  the  West,  beginning 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Souris  Eiver,  spreading  along  the  banks  of  the  Assiniboine  and 
Little  Saskatchewan  Elvers,  and  forming  fine  settlements  in  the  vicinity  of  Eapid 
City,  Minnedosa  and  Odanah.  Another  important  settlement  is  started  on  Bird  Tail 
Creek,  in  the  locality  where  the  Canadian  Pacific  Eailway  is  expected  to  cross  that 
liver. 

Prince  Albert  settlement  was  chosen  by  a  large  number  of  immigrants,  as  the 
facilities  for  reaching  the  Saskatchewan  Eiver  districts  were  better  than  in  previous 
rears,  throngh  th@  Hudson  Bay  Company's  enterprise  in  running  regular  boats  and 
carrying  passengers  on  Lake  Winnipeg,  and  connecting  with  their  line  of  steamboats 
on  the  Saskatchewan  Eiver. 

A  number  of  immigrants  of  a  pioneer  element  settled  in  the  Bow  and  Peace  Eiver 
valleys,  pi'incij)ally  with  the  view  of  stock-raising,  for  which  these  localities  are  so 
well  adapted. 

Considerable  progress  has  been  made  east  of  Eed  Eiver,  along  the  completed  line 
of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Eailway.  The  erection  of  three  saw-mills,  which  will  supply 
the  western  prairie  section  with  lumber  at  a  reasonable  rate,  is  in  itself  removing  one 
of  the  great  draAvbacks  the  early  settler  had  to  contend  with.  The  same  can  be  said 
of  the  eastern  shore  of  Lake  VViimipeg,  where  three  saw-mills  were  erected  within 
the  last  twelve  months. 

The  city  of  Winnipeg  has,  during  the  last  year,  excelled  the  most  sanguine 
expectations  in  its  rapid  growth,  the  population  now  being  estimated  to  be  12,000 
inhabitants,  showing  an  increase  of  over  ^-^,000  during  the  past  year,  and  over  300  new 
buildings  wei'e  erected  during  the  past  summer. 

The  construction  of  the  South- Western  Eailway  will  add  greatly  to  a  rapid 
settlement  of  the  south-western  part  of  the  Province  and  territory,  while  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Eailway  west  of  Winnipeg  will  speedily  turn  that  vast  and  largely  unoccupied 
prairie  land  into  cultivated  farms  and  thrifi}^-  homes. 

Tlie  action  taken  1)y  the  Provincial  Government  in  forming  the  Province  into 
municijjalities  (26  municipalities)  has  proved  most  beneficial,  and  although  this  has 
been  the  first  year  of  its  existence,  its  advantages  are  noticeable  throughout.  Another, 
and  probably  the  most  important  move,  is  the  active  measure  taken  by  the  Provincial 
Govei-nment  in  commencing  to  drain  the  low  and  wet  lands  within  the  Province. 

Tlie  visits  of  the  European  Farm  Delegates  to  this  Province  and  territory, 
giuirantees  an  unparalleled  large  immigration,  and  of  an  equally  superior  class. 

56 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


The  Tiussian  Mennonite  immigration  has  virtually  ceased,  as  the  emigration 
period  allowed  by  the  Eussian  Government  has  expired.  The  Mennonites  are  doing 
exceedingly  well,  and  are,  without  exception,  contented  and  happy  in  their  new  homes. 

Through  the  exceptionally  wet  seasons  this  Province  has  experienced  during  the 
last  four  years,  some  300  families  of  Mennonites  vfere  obliged  to  move  from  the 
^eastern  and  somewhat  low  reserve  to  the  southern  and  higher  located  one,  leaving  400 
families  still  residing  upon  the  former  reserve. 

The  average  crojDs  of  the  present  year  in  the  Province  of  Manitoba  and  the  ^ortli- 
West  Territory  proved  to  be  25  bushels  of  wheat  per  acre,  and  all  other  grain  and 
root  crops  were  equally  productive.  The  land  prepared  for  next  spring's  sowing  is 
considered  to  increase  the  present  cultivated  lands  to  the  extent  of  one-half  more. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

WM.  HESPELEE, 

Government  Immigration  Agent. 
The  IHonourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


Statement  of  the  dumber  of  Immigrants  accommodated  at  the  Government  Sheds 
Winnipeg,  and  their  Nationalities,  during  the  Season  of  1880. 

Great  United 

Months.                             Canada.      Britain.  States.       Sweden.  Total, 

January  11         11 

February  16          16' 

March  16             49         65 

April  ., 22           131         153 

May 55           111         166 

June 34           130         164 

July 40           "132         172 

August 16           102              7         125 

September 69           105         174 

October 18             36         39  93 

November 25         25 

December 


Total 270  843  7  39  1,164 


Statement  of  the  Approximate  Number  of  Immigrant  Arrivals  at  "Winnipeg,  during^ 

the  Year  1830. 

January  «....  200 

February 560 

March 1,400 

•April 3,800 

May 820 

June 700 

July 800 

August 550 

September 650 

October  350 

November : 200 

,                December , » 150 

Total  10,180 

57 


U  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  18S1 


No.  11. 

ANNUAL  EP:P0ET  ON  MANITOBA  COLONIZATION. 
(Mr.  C.  Lalime.) 


Worcester,  Mass.,  Ist  December,  1880. 

Sir, — On  the  31st  December  last,  in  the  last  Eeport  which  I  had  the  honour  of 
(submitting,  I  ex^Dressed  the  hope  that  this  year  the  immigration  of  Canadians  from 
New  EngLand  into  Manitoba  would  be  greater  than  in  1879. 

I  had  grounds  foi'  making  that  statement,  but  as  that  immigration  depends  upon 
circumstances  it   resulted  in  a  diminution  of  the  number  our  immigrants. 

The  revival  of  business  in  the  United  States  in  the  month  of  January  last  was 
sudden.  Industries  which  had  languished  for  three  years  assumed  an  extraordinary 
degree  of  activity. 

Cotton  and  woollen  factories  gave  employment  to  as  many  as  their  productive 
capacity  could  furnish  with  work,  and  wages  increased  from  ten  to  twenty  per  cent. 

A  lai'go  number  of  families  who  had  manifested  an  inclination  to  emigrate  to- 
Manitoba  last  spring,  having  a  prospect  of  comparatively  high  remuneration  as 
com])ared  with  that  of  former  years,  have  changed  their  mind  and  postponed  the 
execution  of  that  project  until  the  spring  of  1881. 

The  cost  of  the  journey  to  Manitoba,  $31,  being  high,  and  the  families  we  have 
here  being  composed  of  from  seven  to  eight  adults,  the  cost  of  removal  is  heavy  and 
causes  a  certain  number  to  hesitate. 

In  spite  of  everything  I  have  yet  reason  to  be  satisfied  with  the  results  of  my 
laboui's. 

The  list  forwarded  to  your  department  will  show  that  one  hundred  and  sixty-nine 
Canadians  have  left  the  Eastern  States  for  Manitoba,  and  those  departures  are  but  the 
prelude  to  a  large  number  of  others. 

Every  settler  becomes  our  auxiliary,  for  all  our  emigrants  of  former  years  are 
satisfied  with  the  step  they  took;  they  form  the  nuclei  of  parishes  which  will  attain 
importance,  ard  they  constitute  a  class  of  peaceable  citizens  who  are  friendly  to  pro- 
gress. 

The  sudden  revival  of  industrial  pursuits,  to  which  allusion  has  already  been  made,, 
has  resulted  in  a  surplus  of  imm.igi-ation  to  manufacturing  centres,  and  labour  being 
supei-abundant  wages  have  remained  unchanged,  while  the  cost  of  living  has  increased, 
and  those  who  had  jjostponed  their  departure  for  Manitoba  are  again  preparing  to 
proceed  thither  next  spring,  and  as  is  always  usual,  they  will  be  accompanied  by  a 
certain  number  of  relatives  and  friends.  I  therefore  look  forward  to  the  arrival  of 
spring  with  the  hope  of  bringing  together  a  strong  body  of  earnest  and  resolute 
ficttlers. 

A  missionaiy,  residing  in  one  of  the  most  populous  Canadian  centres,  informs  me 
that  next  sprmg  more  than  forty  families  from  his  locality  will  leave  for  Manitoba, 
and  personal  infbimation  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  about  an  equal  number  of 
families  will  direct  their  steps  towards  the  Canadian  North-West. 

I  daily  receive  letteis  from  persons  applying  for  information,  some  of  which  even 
come  from  the  Province  of  Quebec.     Where  it  is  possible  to  do  so,  I  visit  these  persons 
at  theij- homes,  and  after  having  enquired  into  the  financial  condition  of  their  affairs 
encourage  their  emigration  accordingly  as  I  judge  it  wise  and  prudent  to  do  so. 

58 


44  Victoria.,  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Hiiving  visited  the  Pi-ovince  several  times,  and  being  acquainted  with  its  resources 
and  exceptional  advantages,  I  am  convinced  that  our  fellow-countrjanen  from  the 
United  States  will  there  find  a  competency,  and,  with  the  double  object  of  promoting 
the  interests  of  Canada  and  those  of  the  j)eople  themselves,  I  shall,  as  in  tlie  past, 
spare  no  pains  in  the  faithful  performance  of  the  duties  which  have  been  entrusted  to 
me. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

CHARLES  LALIME. 

Special  Agent. 
The  Honourable 

Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


59 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  12. 

AXNUAL  EEPORT   ON  ICELA.NDIC  COLONY,   LAKE  AVINNIPEG. 

(Mr.   John  Taylor.) 


GiMLi,  District  of  Keewatin, 

31st  December,  1880. 

Sir, — The  condition  of  the  Icelandic  Colony  at  the  commencement  of  the  present 
year  was  satisfixctory.  A  spirit  of  contentment  was  very  general,  and  confidence  in 
the  futm-e  success  of  the  colony  was  never  greater.  The  winter  catch  of  fish  for  the 
market  was  encom-aging  ;  and.  at  the  close  of  the  winter  farming  ojoerations  began 
with  unusual  vigor. 

The  winter  had  been  unusually  severe,  the  temperature  having  been  as  low  as  55°. 
below  zero.  The  ice  on  the  lake  reached  a  thickness  of  five  feet  in  exposed  situations/ 
and  remained  until  18th  of  May,  when  it  finally  disappeared. 

From  that  date  the  season,  which  had  been  favourable  and  dry,  became  stormy, 
cold  and  very  wet ;  and,  generally  speaking,  this  unfavourable  weather  has  characterized 
the  entire  open  season,  until  the  freezing  over  of  the  lake  again  on  15th  November, 
except  a  short  period  of  fine  weather  which  preceded  that  event. 

The  result  was  that  farming  operations  which  had  been  pushed  forward  suc- 
cessfully from  the  end  of  April  were  entirely  stopped ;  no  more  grain  could  be  sown, 
and  that  which  was  in  the  ground  was  destroyed. 

Potatoes  and  beans  were  planted  in  June,  butweregenerally  cut  down  by  frost  on 
-5th  July.  The  hay  crop  was  ruined  by  the  continual  rains,  and  the  best  hay  marshes 
were  covei-ed  with  the  rising  waters  of  Lake  Winnipeg.  Much  hay,  which  had  been 
laboriously  cut  in  these  wet  marshes  and  brought  to  higher  lands  for  curing  and 
stacking,  was  ultimately  washed  away  in  the  heavy  storms,  or  so  wetted  by  the  waves 
as  to  be  spoiled. 

The  lake  continued  to  rise  more  and  more,  sweeping  away  fences,  stables,  houses, 
and  tearing  down  the  banks,  flooding  the  roads  and  low4ying  fields,  until  15tli 
November,  when  it  reached  a  height  never  attained  before,  and  was  only  stopped  by 
the  severe  fi-ost,  which  finally  arrested  its  course  inland. 

The  Icelandic  colonists,  as  usual,  in  the  beginning  of  the  year,  held  their  informal 
•elections,  and  made  customary  arrangements  for  the  repair  of  roads  and  bridges.  A 
request  was  made  by  the  settlers  in  the  south  that  some  measures  should  be  taken  to 
encourage  Canadian  immigrants  to  settle  in  this  reserve.  The  good  feeling  which 
generally  prevailed  was  much  shaken  by  the  setting  in  of  the  unfavourable  season.  The 
destruction  of  their  young  crops  required  that  they  should  seek  work  elsewhere.  A  great 
many  obtained  employment  at  good  wages  in  Manitoba,  and  have  thus  earned  enough 
to  maintain  themselves  and  families  this  Avinter;  others,  who  remained  at  home, 
hoping  for  better  times,  have  fared  badly.  Some  have  lost  all  they  worked  for,  grain, 
roots  and  hay  being  destroyed,  and  are  now  necessitated  to  leave  their  homes  and  seek 
a  living  in  the  settlements  elsewhere.  The  present  condition  of  our  affairs  is  not 
satisfactory,  and  the  prospects  for  the  future  are  but  gloomy.  Cattle  have 
suffered  gi-eatly  fj-om  the  want  of  their  usual  good  range  of  pasture  ;  some  died, 
othej  s  have  been  killed,  as  there  was  no  hay  for  them.  About  100  (not  G-overnment) 
have  been  driven  south  to  be  fed.  It  is  certain  that  a  great  many  more  must  follow 
them  oj*  remain  to  die  here.  The  people  generally  have  decided  on  leaving  the  reserve 
in  the  spring,  if  they  can  do  so.  The  most  enticing  offers  are  held  out  to  some  of  them 
by  their  Dakotah  friends,  but  the  greater  part  of  the  settlers  have  no  wish  to  leave 

00 


U  A^ictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Canada.  Circumstances  beyond  their  control  seem  to  compel  them  to  leave  all  their 
hard-earned  homes  and  improvements.  About  twenty  lots  have  been  entered  this  year 
for  homesteads  in  the  prairie  lands  of  the  North-West,  and  they  will  be  settled  on  in  the  - 
spring.  It  is  only  fair  to  those  who  selected  this  site  for  a  colony  to  state,  that  in 
1875  the  comitry,  although  low  and  flat,  was  dry  and  attractive.  To  every  enquiry 
the  reply  Avas  made  that  the  state  of  things  at  that  time  had  been  always  the  same  ; 
w^hatever  trouble  vras  apprehended  was  from  the  dryness  of  the  climate,  which  exposed 
the  place  to  danger  from  fires. 

A  succession  of  five  wet  seasons  seems  to  have  so  accumulated  the  Avaters  in  the 
SAvamps  and  marshes  far  distant  from  us  that  Ave  are  noAV  feeling  the  disastrous  results 
of  their  drainage  into  Lake  Winnipeg. 

In  its  present  condition  the  reserve  is  unsuited  for  settlement,  but  many  other  places 
have  suffered  from  the  same  causes,  and  good  farming  lands,  Avhich  yielded  large 
returns  in  former  years,  haA'C  been  ruined  by  the  long  continuance  of  Avet  seasons. 

I  haA^e  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  serA'ant, 

JOHN  TAYLOE, 

Icelandic  Agent. 
The  Honourable 


The  Minister  of  Agriculture^ 
Ottawa. 


61 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  ISSl 


No.  13. 

ANNUAL  P.EPOET  OF  TRAVELLTNG  IMMIGEATION  AGENT. 

(Mr.  John  Sumner.)  ' 


Carleton  Place,  1st  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  my  Annual  Report  as  Travelling  Immigration 
Agent. 

Prom  the  1st  of  January  until  the  20th  of  April  ra}^  duties  were  performed 
between  Halifax  and  Eiver  du  Loup,  and  occasionally  extending  as  far  as  Montreal, 
taking  charge  of  the  emigrants  of  twelve  steamships,  numbering  1,652,  and  necessarily 
travelling  23,150  miles.  The  winter  accommodation  provided  by  the  Intercolonial 
Railway  Company  was  good,  and  considering  the  very  deep  snows  and  occasional 
heavy  drifts  to  which  all  our  winter  roads  in  Canada  are  subjected,  the  service  was 
well  performed. 

For  the  first  three  months  of  the  summer  the  steamers  arriving  at  Quebec  brought 
a  large  number  of  emigrants,  over  10,000  coming  to  our  shore?,  the  whole  number 
that  came  under  my  special  charge  being  13,580  during  the  summer  season,  besides 
a  large  number  by  other  vessels  to  whom  I  could  not  give  my  attention.  During  the 
period  mentioned  I  made  twenty-five  trips  from  Quebec  to  Toronto,  three  to  Montreal 
and  two  to  Brockville,  to  accomplish  which  27,480  miles  were  traversed,  making  a 
total  travel  in  eleven  months  of  50,630  miles. 

The  emigrants  were  generally  poor,  having  been  a  long  time  without  employment. 
They  were,  however,  fairly  clad  and  well  behaved.  A  goodly  number  went  to 
Manitoba,  some  of  them  having  large  sums  of  money,  and  none  without  suffiicient  to 
give  them  a  good  start  on  their  arrival  in  that  Province.  I  was  informed  by  them 
a  much  larger  number  would  find  their  way  there  in  the  spring  of  1881. 

I  gave  all  the  information  in  my  power,  having  visited  that  Province,  to  all  the 
emigrants,  giving  them  good  advice,  and  seeing  they  were  properly  cared  for  and  put 
off  the  trains  at  their  several  destinations. 

The  accommodation  given  by  the  Grand  Trunk  Buihvay  Company  during  the 
summer  has  been  good,  and  the  transit  all  that  could  be  desired. 

The  officials  of  the  Intercolonial  and  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railways  are  entitled 
to  my  very  best  thanks  for  their  uniform  courtesy  and  kindness ;  the  conductors  and 
brakesmen  on  trains  also  for  their  care  and  attention. 

The  meals  provided  at  the  several  refreshment  rooms  have  been  satisfactory. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  SUMNER, 

Travelling  Agent. 
The  Honourable 

Tiie  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


G2 


44  Yictorica.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  14. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OP  SAINT  JOHN,  N.B.,  IiUffl&RATION  AGP]NT 

(Mr.  Samuel  Gardner.) 


Government  Immigration  Office, 

Saint  John,  N.B.,  31st  December,  1880. 

giR^ — I  i^ave  the  honour  to  submit  for  your  information  the  following  Eeport,  for 
the  past  year  : — 

The  number  of  arrivals  during  the  year  for  settlement  on  the  public  lands,  wore 
principally  Danes.  Of  these,  DO  in  all,  most  of  whom  were  from  Denmark, 
proceeded  to  New  Denmark,  in  Victoria  County,  and  took  up  lands  under  the  Pro- 
vincial Free  Grant  Act,  a  thriving  settlement  only  opened  some  few  years  since 
by  a  colony  from  old  Denmark,  and  to  which  every  year  since  there  have  been  acces- 
sions, and  now  there  are  only  some  thirty  lots  of  100  acres  each,  for  disposal  in  the 
Danish  Eeserve,  which  will  soon  be  taken  up  by  friends  foUowing ;  and  unless  more 
land  is  obtained  for  the  friends  of  those  already  settled  there,  this  immigration  will 
cease,  as  the  Danes  want  a  colony  to  themselves.  They  are  not  desirous  for  Swedes 
or  Norweo-ians  among  them.  No  better  class  of  settlers,  without  exception,  could 
possibly  come  to  this  country.  They  are  a  sober,  prudent,  industrious  class  of  people. 
They  came  via  Halifax  and  Quebec  principally,  some  few  via  United  States  brought 
their  families  with  them,  but  later  arrivals  during  the  season  were  young  men. 
Besides  these  came  a  small  number  of  single  men  and  women  from  England,  Ireland 
and  Scotland,  and  settled  in  different  sections  of  the  Province,  some  few  mechanics, 
the  larger  portion  farmers  and  farm  servants.  Eight  boys  and  five  girls  from 
English  industrial  schools,  were  sent  to  Springfield,  Kings  County,  homes  being  pro- 
vided for  them  ere  they  left  England,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Eev.  G.  Eogers, 
now  of  Bristol,  and  Eev.  James  Shipperley,  of  Yarmouth,  Nova  Scotia. 

Durincr  1880,  as  in  1870,  public  attention  has  been  called  to  the  large  number  of 
families  and  single  youths  of  both  sexes  leaving  Saint  John  for  the  United  States — 
'The  ''  Exodus  "  so  called.  Upon  enquiry  of  the  agent  of  the  International  Steamship 
Line  at  this  port,  I  find  the  greater  number  of  persons  referred  to,  travel  by  this 
route.  His  opinion  of  the  number  leaving  is  simply  in  part  the  same  as  stated  in  the 
report  for  1879.  Still,  the  departure  consisted  largely  of  mechanics  and  others  who 
came  here  after  the  fire  of  1877  seeking  employment,  and  others  going  to  find  employ- 
ment in  the  United  States  for  the  season  and  to  return  again ;  others  to  better  their 
condition,  if  possible,  permanently.  Also  upon  enquiry  of  the  Supei-intendent  of  the 
Saint  John  and  Maine  Eailway,  I  find  that  the  departures  for  the  United  States  have 
been  3,216  in  excess  of  the  arrivals  by  the  same  route.  This  large  difference  is 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  many  of  the  tourists,  traders  and  c6mmercial  travellers 
-come  throuf^h  various  inlets  into  our  Province  and  Nova  Scotia,  and  return  home  via 
this  route,  travel  being  very  large  during  the  year  through  these  Provinces. 

While  it  is  impossible  to  get  at  the  exact  number  of  persons  who  have  returjied 
to  the  Province  during  the  year,  a  very  near  approximate  can  be  arrived  at.  I  have 
observed  during  the  fall  months,  on  arrival  of  the  boats  of  the  International  Steamshi]> 
Company's  Line,  a  different  class  of  persons  coming  here  than  usually  constitutes  the 
summer  travel,  viz.:  the  working  classes,  the  bone  and  sinew  of  any  country.  Some 
of  those  that  had  been  allured  to  the  United  States  owing  to  the  revival  of  trade 
there     and     consequent      demand     for     mechanics      found     employment,    othcrs 

C'3 


41  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  {No.  12.)  A.  1881 


not  so  fortunate  are  returning,  and  many  more  would  do  so  had  they  the  means. 
While  the  departures  attracted  the  public  eye,  the  returns  as  a  rule  are  not  noticed. 
The  International  Steamship  Company's  agent  at  St.  John  reports  600  returned  with 
their  ellects,  and  1,S20  that  annually  leave  for  work  and  return  again,  in  ail  by  this 
i-oute,  2,420.  "  'li.liU 

The  Collector  of  Customs  at  McAdam  Junction,  estimates  that  during  the  year 
200  settlers,  their  ettects  valued  at  $2,000,  have  entered  Canada  via  that  port  Irom- 
the  United  States,  being  chiefly  Provincials  returning. 

The  Collector  of  Customs  at  St.  Stephen  reports  42  settlers  in  all  entered  with 
their  effects,  valued  at  SI, 505;  21  of  these  returned  Canadians,  G  Norwegians,  15 
Americans,  all  from  the  United  States. 

The  Collector  of  Customs  at  Chatham  reports  17  settlers  entered  with  their 
effects,  valued  at  $1,520 ;  of  this  $1,500  in  cash,  $20  other  values  ;  6  returned  Canadians. 
Last  fall  70  young  mv.,  loft  lor  the  United  States,  10  died,  60  returned  this  spring. 
We  don't  class  these  a.^  immigrants,  although  no  doubt  they  appear  under  that  head- 
ing in  the  United  States.  I  am  informed  a  good  many  Canadians  who  left  here  the 
last  few  years  to  settle  in  the  United  States,  would  gladly  return  had  they  the  means. 
The*^  Collector  of  Customs  at  Woodstock  reports  2  settlers  entered,  returned 
Canadians,  value  of  their  effects  $75. 

The  Collector  of  Customs  at  Andover,  County  Victoria,  reports  9  settlers  entered 
in  all,  value  ot  their  effects  $300  ;  4  of  these  returned  Canadians  from  the  United 
States,  besides  9  young  men  who  went  there  from  this  section  this  j^car,  have  re- 
turned, and  that  40  Americans  have  come  into  this  county  the  last  three  years, 
and  settled  in  Tilley  Settlement :  so  reports  A.  Cameron,  Commissioner  of  Crown 
Lands  for  the  Local  Government  there. 

The  Collector  of  Customs  at  Newcastle  reports  always  a  stream  of  men  cjoing  in 
the  fall  to  the  United  States  to  work  in  the  woods  in  the  winter,  and  girls  in  the 
factories,  but  they  all  return  again. 

The  Custom  House  records  at  Saint  John  show  74  entries,  value  of  effects  $6,689^ 
all  from  the  United  States;  no  entries  from  Great  Britain  or  elsewhere ;  no  indica- 
tions on  entry  as  to  number  in  families,  each  entry  only  representing  the  person  who 
has  charge  of  the  effects.  The  lowest  estimates,  however,  would  be  370.  The  agent 
of  the  International  Steamship  Company  estimates  600  instead. 

^  Tnimigration  for  1880. 

Arrivals  from  Europe  by  steamer : 

Danes 54 

British 36 

Arrivals  from  the  United  States: 

F/a  McAdam  Junction 200       Effects  value $2,000 

''  St.  Stephen 42  "         "     1,505 

''  Chatham 23  ''         "     1,520 

''  Woodstock 2  "         "     75 

"Andover 9  ''         ''     300 

''  St.  John 380  "         *'     6,689 


Total  arrivals  in  the  Pro- 
vince   646 

Yalue  of  effects  of  arrivals  from  U.S $12,089 


It  is  with  pleasure  I  refer  to  the  visit  of  the  British  Agricultural  Delegates  to 
our  Province.  As  soon  as  I  was  notified  by  telegram  from  the  Agent  at  Halifax  they 
were  coming,  I  immediately  put  myself  in  connection  with  our  Local  Government, 
by  pcrsonaf  application  to  the  Provincial  Secretary,  then  in  our  city   en  route  for 

64 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Frederictr-n,  and  by  telegram  to  the  Attorney-General  through  the  HonoiirableB  Eobert 
Marshall  and  T.  R.  Jones,  and  in  reply  received  the  following  telegrams  : 

Fredericton,  16th  October,  1880. 

''  The  reception  of  the  British  Agricultural  Delegates  has  been  fully  considered, 
and  the  Provincial  Secretary  left  this  afternoon  by  train  to  meet  them  and  invite 
them  to  visit  the  Upper  St.  John  and  other  portions  of  the  Provinces. 

John  J.  Fraser." 

Fredericton,  16th  October,  1880. 

"  I  go  to  St.  John  to-day  to  meet  the  British  Delegates. 

W.  Wedderburn." 

I  then  arranged  for  leadings  agriculturists  to  meet  them  at  the  hotel.  They 
were  met  on  landing  by  Hon.  W.  Wedderburn,  Provincial  Secretary;  J.  B.  Harmer^ 
President  of  the  Agricultural  Society,  Couaty  St,  John  ;  James  Hannay,  reporter  for 
Daily  Sun,  Dr.  Clay,  Immigrant  Agent,  Halifax,  and  myself,  antici]»ating  the 
benefit  that  would  accrue  to  the  Province  by  their  visit,  believing  we  had  some  of  the 
best  lands  in  the  Dominion  and  one  of  the  best  climates  in  the  world,  as  evidenced  by 
the  growth  of  our  agricultural  interest,  especially  in  wheat.  The  culture  of  that  grain 
is  now  prosecuted  to  a  very  large  extent  all  over  this  Province  and  Nova  Scotia  ;  the 
dreaded  weavil  and  smut  of  the  past  years  do  not  now  prevent  its  successful  cultiva- 
tion, and  the  quantity  and  quality  now  grown  have  necessitated  the  erection  of  a 
number  of  flouring  mills.  This  year  one  firm,  the  Waterous  Engine  Works  Com- 
pany of  Brantford,  Ontario,  have  sold  no  less  then  thirteen  flour  mills,  one  in  each  of 
the  following  places: — Sackville,  Sussex,  Painsic,  Woodstock,  Branfort,  Ossakeng, 
Rolling  Dam,  Charlotte  County,  St.  George  in  New  Brunswick ;  Granville,  Maitland, 
Yarmouth,  Economy,  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia.  This  firm  have  also  ten  portable  engines 
and  saw  mills,  showing  vitality  in  our  lumbering  interest. 

I  hilve  made  application  to  the  Crown  Land  Office,  Fredericton,  for  a  report 
showing  the  increase  of  the  Free  Grant  Settlements  and  the  progress  the  settlers 
have  made  during  the  year  and  received  for  an8wer,that  the  office  had  addressed  their 
diiferent  Commissioners  for  a  report,  but  that  they  had  not  done  so  as  yet,  ^.herefore 
could  not  comply  with  m}^  request.  The  movement  from  our  city  to  the  Free  Grant 
Settlement,  has  not  been  very  large  this  year,  but  my  private  enquiries  show  large 
increase  of  lands  brought  under  cultivation  in  Clarendon,  Charlotte  County,  on  the 
Tobique,  Yictoi'ia  County,  Tiiley  Settlement,  New  Denmark,  Johnville,  Chapman- 
ville,  Beaufort  and  other  parts  in  Carleton  County.  Some  of  the  settlers  that  were 
assisted  the  last  two  years  in  two  of  these  settlements  are  now  independent  farmers. 
As  an  instance,  one  settler,  with  the  help  of  his  family,  has  the  second  year  under 
cultivation,  taken  from  the  forest,  forty  acres.  Those  from  whom  nothing  was 
expected  from  their  former  idle  habits,  have  done  marvels,  and  being  stimulated  by 
their  surroundings  are  now  independent.  In  fact,  our  whole  farming  population  are 
better  off  now  than  they  have  ever  beecLin  the  history  of  the  Province  and  generally 
better  satisfied  with  the'r  country.  [From  enquiries  in  York  County,  I  find  that 
there  never  was  a  time  when  so  much  Interest  was  taken  in  agricultural  pursuits  as 
now.  In  a  letter  received  from  Thomas  Pickard,  Esq.,  (no  better  authority),  ho 
reports  450  cattle  shipped  from  Sackville,  150  from  Anlac  Station,  600  in  all  from 
that  section  for  Great  Britain  alone ;  besides  large  numbers  of  sheep  exported 
to  Maine,  in  addition  to  the  supplies  for  homo  market.  Large  quantities  of  hay 
were  sold  to  traders  in  the  early  seasoft  for  $10  loose,  and  $13  when  pressed. 
A  large  part  of  our  hay  is  shipped  direct  to  the  West  Indies.  Of  hay  sent  by  rail,  the 
largest  part  has  gone  to  Halifax  this  year.  As  regards  our  prospects  for  1881,  our 
cattle  feeders  say  :  That  much  more  is  being  done  this  winter  tnan  last  in  preparing 
cattle  to  meet  the  demands  in  the  English  market.    The  reports  from  all  the  countiea 

65 
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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


give  the  same  zeal  in  the  general  farming  interest  of  the  Province;  in  fact,  farmers 
are  the  money-holders,  the  solid  portion  of  the  population. 

The  Sackville  people  invariably  ship  their  own  cattle.  St.  John  butchers  have 
bought  freely  in  other  sections  and  in  Nova  Scotia  for  export  to  England,  and  they 
say  their  shipments  were  profitable.  The  difficulty  they  labour  under,  is  want  of 
direct  steam  connection  Irom  St.  John,  they  having  to  ship  from  Halifax,  and 
Quebec,  yet  with  these  drawbacks,  those  shipments  have  paid. 

This  new  line  of  exports  is  growing  immensely.  It  is  estimated  in  Carleton 
County  that  the  sales  to  the  United  States  buyers  have  exceeded  any  previous  year. 
They  have  paid  luliy  $100,000  in  cash  for  sheep,  sheepskins,  cattle,  horses,  hay  and 
cereals. 

The  shipment  over  the  St.  John  and  Maine  Eailway  alone,  amounted  to  11,000 
sheep  collected  from  Prince  Edward  Island  and  Eastern  Counties.  The  destination 
of  nearly  all  of  these  sheep  was  Boston. 

The  upper  counties  find  purchasers  aL  their  centres.  It  is  estimated  up  to  now 
that  our  Province  has  received  oue  million  doliare  for  potatoes  alone. i 

Applications  are  being  made  at  this  office  for  information  in  reference  to 
Manitoba  and  the  North-West  Territories.  Enquiries  of  this  nature  came  from  indi- 
viduals and  clubs  of  from  six  to  twelve  during  the  season,  and  still  continue.  To  these 
I  have  responded  by  sending  pamphlets  descriptive  of  territory  and  otherwise. 
They  appear  more  anxious  to  know  the  cost  of  transport ;  I  have  no  doubt  many  young 
men  this  year  will  find  their  way  to  Manitoba,  the  North-West  and  British  Columbia, 
going  to  friends  who  have  preceded  them,  and  owing  to  the  glowing  accounts 
given  of  the  country  by  those  now  settled  there,  together  with  the  ease  with  which 
the  prairie  lands  may  be  cultivated.  Yet,  notwith-^tanding  this,  I  again 
repeat  our  young  men  are  waking  up  to  the  fact,  that  their  own  country  is  not  to  be 
despised.  By  comparison  they  find  it,  taking  everything  into  account,  its 
proximity  to  the  sea  and  Great  Britam,  a  market  now  not  only  for  ships  and  timber 
as  of  yore,  (and  this  now  not  a  bad  export),  but  for  cattle,  sheep,  &c.,  and  our  Pro- 
vince as  fully  as  capable,  if  not  superior  to,  any  in  the  Dominion,  looking  at  its  every 
element  for  cattle-raising,  together  with  the  vigour  our  farmers  now  exhibit  in 
agricultural  interest  (our  present  Provincial  Exhibition  adding  additional  stimulant 
thereto) . 

The  circulation  of  the  British  Delegates'  report  of  last  year  in  Great  Britain, 
elicited  many  enquiries  from  this  office  of  our  capabilities  for  cattle-raising,  going  into 
details,  and  where  lands  are  obtainable  for  this  purpose,  &c.  To  these  enquiries  I 
responded,  and  have  no  doubt  that  the  last  delegation  of  Messrs.  Sheldon  and 
Sparrow  will  give  a  good  report.  I  feel  convinced  they  will  strongly  recommend  it, 
as  a  good  field  for  the  immigrant. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,   Sir, 

Tour  obedient  servant, 

SAMUEL  GAKDNER, 

Immigrant  Agent, 
The  Honourable 

Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


66 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  15. 

ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  ST.  PAUL,  MINN.,  AGENT. 

(G.  R.  KiNGSMILL.) 


St.  Paul,  Minn.,  27th,  November  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  following  report  of  my  operations  at  this 
point,  duiing  the  season  now  drawing  to  a  close :  — 

Under  instructions  from  the  Department,  I  took  up  my  quarters  at  St.  Paul 
early  in  May,  1880.  Previous  to  leaving  Canada,  I  had  been  instructed  that  my 
duties  were  to  look  after  all  persons  passing  through  this  place  en  route  for  Manitoba 
and  the  Canadian  North- West;  and  to  generally  do  everything  in  my  power  to 
assist,  aid,  guide  and  direct  such  persons,  and  to  protect  them  against  the  efforts  of 
runners,  Jand  agents  and  others  who  might  have  an  object  and  interest  in  inducing 
them  to  change  their  destination.  So  far  as  was  possible,  I  have  endeavored  to  carry 
out  those  instructions,  and  to  carefully  attend  to  all  intending  settleis  in  Manitoba, 
passing  through  St.  Paul. 

Under  existing  circumstances  this  is  a  most  important  point  in  connection  with 
the  transportation  of  settlers  from  the  East  to  the  Canadian  North- West.  Though, 
during  the  summer  months,  a  considerable  number  of  settlers  and  others  find  their 
way  to  Manitoba,  by  way  of  the  lakes,  the  main  route  ot  transit  runs  through  St. 
Paul.  In  fact  it  is  impossible  to  reach  Manitoba  by  the  all  rail  route  without 
touching  at  this  point.  This  is  a  great  centre  for  railway  companion,  land  agents 
and  others,  who  have  wild  and  uncultivated  lands  to  dispose  of.  In  this  respect  St. 
Paul  is  growing  rapidly,  and  may  now  be  considered  tne  grea'o  distributing  point  and 
land  market  of  the  north-western  country.  The  railway  stations  swarm  with  runners 
for  railway  and  land  companies,  passenger  trains  are  boarded  hj  them,  large 
quantities  of  printed  matter  are  distributed,  and  ail  sorts  of  iixiucements  are  held  out 
to  the  new-comer  to  make  his  home  on  the  lands  of  the  coii:pMitiie«  jepresented. 

I  have  been  brought  in  contact  with  these  agents  constantly  i  uiing  the  summer, 
and,  though  it  was  not  possible  to  protect  all  of  our  people  against  them,  I  am  glad 
to  be  able  to  report  that  very  few  persons  weie  led  arttray  i>y  them,  and  that  our 
settlers,  so  far  as  I  know,  nearly  all  reached  tf^uir  destination  in  safety,  notwith- 
standing the  efforts  and  representations  of  those  who  were  operating  against  me. 

As  I  have  already  reported  from  time  to  time,  during  the  summer,  our  chief 
opponents  have  been  the  St.  Paul  and  Sioux  City  Railway  Company  and  a  body  of 
land  speculators  operating  in  connection  with  that  Company.  The  railway,  so  far  as 
railway  purposes  proper  are  concerned,  is  now  part  of  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  and  St. 
Paul  line,  while  the  land  speculator?  are  practically  an  independent  body.  These 
people  are  in  the  habit  of  flying  the  British  flag  in  front  of  their  offices,  thereby 
attracting  the  attention  of  old  country  people  passing  through  the  city.  In  addition 
to  this,  they  keep  in  their  office  the  leading  Enghsh  political,  agricultural  and 
general  newspapers,  and  are  doing  everything  possible  to  ci*eate  the  impression  that 
their  place  is  the  English  headquarters  for  this  region.  Their  runners  make  it  a 
practice  to  meet  our  people  on  the  trains  or  at  the  station,  and  while  abusing 
Manitoba  and  the  North-West,  they  set  forth  in  glowing  terms  the  attractions  offered 
by  the  country  they  represent.  So  fiar  as  those  so-called  attractions  are  concerned, 
I  may  say  that  they  fall  far  behind  the  advantages  presented  by  the  Canadian  North- 
West.  ThiR  sefjson  the  trains  were  snowed  up  for  two  or  three  days,  and  all  traffic 
suspended  on  the  St.  Paul  and  Sioux  City  line  long  before  there  was  anything  in  the 

67 
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4i  ^'iotoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


shape  of  severe  weather  in  Manitoba.  The  misrepresentations  of  these  land  specu- 
lators often  tell  against  themselves;  yet  they  have  been,  and  still  are,  most  energetic 
and  aggressive  in  the  work,  and  make  special  eiforts  to  capture  old  country  people  in 
eearch  of  new  homes. 

Another  company  competing  with  us  for  settlers  is  the  IS'orthern  Pacific,  but 
with  one  or  two  exceptions,  which  have  been  reported,  they  and  their  agents  have 
acted  fairl}'  throughout,  and  have  not  interfered  with  our  people. 

Ail  persons  desirous  of  reaching  Manitoba  from  this  point  must  of  necessity  pass 
over  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  and  Manitoba  Railway,  and  thus  our  settlers  are  brought 
into  direct  contact  with  the  ofiieials  of  that  Company.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  and 
the  opportunities  for  interfej'ence  thus  presented,  1  am  glad  to  be  able  to  report  that 
I  have  not,  during  the  entire  season,  heard  of  a  single  case  of  interference.  Our 
people  have  not  in  any  way  been  tampered  with  ;  on  the  contrary,  they  have  been 
Kindly  treated  and  well  looked  after  by  the  Company's  officials.  Several  times 
during  the  summer,  at  my  request,  special  cars  have  been  put  on  for  groups  of 
families  or  large  parties  travelling  together ;  and  in  many  other  ways  everything 
possible  has  been  done  to  add  to  the  comfort  of  our  people.  It  is  only  due  to  the 
Company  and  its  officials  that  I  should  give  them  ihis  well  deserved  meed  of  praise 
for  their  care,  kindness  and  courtesy. 

Though  it  is  not  possible  to  say  exactly  how  many  persons  have  passed  through 
St.  Paul  for  the  Canadian  North- West,  the  following  figures,  will,  1  thir»k,  nearly 
represent  the  actual  total : 

Full  tickets  for  St.  Boniface  and  Winnipeg,  January  Ist,  to 

November  15th,  1880 7,880 

Full  tickets  to  Emerson,  Jan.  1st.  to  Nov.  15th,  1880 680 

''       other  points  in  Manitoba 149 


II 


Grand  total 8,709 

As  a  large  number  of  settlers  have  been  accompanied  by  their  families,  in  which 
case  two  children  often  went  as  one  adult,  and  in  many  cases  the  younger  children 
do  not  count  at  all — we  may  safely  double  this  number ;  and  thus  we  find  that  in 
round  numbers  over  17,000  souls  have  passed  through  this  point  for  oui'  North-West 
during  the  season.  From  the  information  and  details  I  am  guided  by,  and  from  my 
own  observation,  I  consider  this  a  moderate  estimate. 

As  to  the  nationalities  of  the  settlers,  I  have  to  report  that  the  greater  portion  of 
them  are  from  the  Province  of  Ontario.  There  were,  however,  a  considerable  number 
from  England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  continental  Europe,  and  a  few  Americans. 
About  one  hundred  and  fifty  were  from  the  Province  of  Quebec ;  and  over  sixty  were 
French  Canadians  who,  after  trying  their  fortunes  in  Massachusetts,  had  united  for 
the  purjjose  of  forming  a  colony  in  Manitoba.  Many  of  the  settlers  took  in  with  them 
their  live  stock,  furniture,  and  agricultural  implements.  I  have  met  veiy  few  cases  of 
distress,  that  is  to  say,  persons  seeking  assistance.  On  the  whole,  the  settlers  were 
thrifty,  intelligent,  piosperous  looking  people,  well  contented  with  the  prospects  before 
them,  and  piepared  and  determined  to  face  manfully  difficulties  that  they  might  be 
called  upon  to  meet. 

In  August  last  I  came  in  contact  with  several  Mennonites  from  the  reserve  in 
Manitoba.  They  were  here  for  the  pui-pose  of  ascertaining  the  terms  upon  which 
they  could  procure  ]  assage  to  Russia,  their  object  being  to  visit  their  friends  in  that 
country.  Knowing  that  the  laws  of  Russia  with  relation  to  citizenship  were  some- 
what peculiai*,  I  warned  them  against  the  dangers  of  visiting  their  former  homes 
without  some  good  guarantee  that  they  would  not  be  molested  by  the  Russian 
authorities.  In  order  to  satisfy  them  and  myself  on  the  point,  I  wrote  to  the 
Eussian  Minister  at  Washington,  stating  all  the  facts  of  the  case,  and  was  favoured 
with  the  following  official  reply  :  — 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Cop3^  No.  1'49.)  .  "  Imperial  Russian  Legation. 

''  Washington  Sept.  13th,  1880. 

^'  Sir, — la  answer  to  your  letter  of  August  28th,  requesting  the  informatioQ  as  to 
whether  such  Mennonites  as  would  return  to  the  Mother  Country  would  be  interfered 
with  by  the  Russian  authorities,  I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  following  statement  : 

''  The  Mennonites  who  have  expatriated  themselves  from  the  Russian  Empire  are 
of  two  classes  :  One  composed  of  emigrants  who  have  lied  the  country  without 
passports  or  proper  authority  from  the  Government;  the  other  comprising  those  who, 
before  leaving  the  Empire,  have  fulfilled  all  the  requirements  of  the  law. 

"All  Mnnnonites  belonging  to  the  first  class,  upon  crossing  the  frontier,  would 
be  considered  as  deserters,  and  would  hav^eto  abide  by  the  consequences  of  the  law. 

"  As  for  the  Mennonites  of  the  second  class,  I  would  for  clearness  sake  sub-divide 
them  in  two  categories:  those  who  have  left  Russia  with  the  ordinary  passport,  and 
those  who  have  left  previously  declaring  their  intention  of  emigrating  and  changing 
their  citizenship,  and  have  either  obtained  due  authorization  to  that  effect  or  have 
signed  a  written  agreement  of  never  returning  to  Russia  if  allowed  to  leave  the 
country. 

"  Those  who  have  in  their  possession  the  ordinary  passport  can  retun  to  Russia, 
paying  as  they  cross  the  frontier,  ten  I'oubles  for  every  year  of  residence  in  a  foreign 
country,  for  the  lapse  of  five  years  since  the  date  of  delivery,  and  for  every  year 
lapsed  beyond  this  allowed  period  a  fine  of  three  times  the  above  amount  is  imposed. 
An  exception  is  made  for  the  residents  within  the  Kingdom  of  Poland,  where  the 
passport  fee  is  twenty  roubles  a  year  and  the  fine  raised  in  proportion. 

"  For  the  category  of  Mennonites  who  have  received  from  the  Russian 
Government  the  authorization  of  emigrating  with  or  without  permission  of  changing 
their  nationality,  or  who  have  signed  the  written  agreement  of  never  returning  to 
Russia,  tlieir  case,  as  it  may  be,  is  always  stated  on  the  passport  delivered  before  their 
leaving  the  country,  and  their  free  return  to  Russia  is  dependent  on  that  statement. 
Those  who  have  received  permission  to  assume  the  citizenship  of  another  country,  can 
return  to  Russia  with  the  passport  of  their  new  nationality ;  those  who  have  not,  or 
who  have  signed  the  written  agreement,  must  apply  for  a  special  permit,  but  I  must 
add  that  the  Imperial  Government  seldom  favours  such  applications  especially  if  the 
applicant  is  destitute  of  means. 

"  Accept,  Sir,  the  assurance  of  my  distinguished  consideration. 

"  G.    •'^ILLAMOV, 

Chargi  d' Affaires,  Russia" 
"To  G.  R.  KiNGSMiLL,  Esq., 

^'  Canadian  Government  Agent, 
"St.  Paul." 

On  receipt  of  the  above  letter  I  forwarded  a  copy  to  the  Department.  I  under- 
stand that  it  was  translated  and  circulated  among  the  Mennonites  for  their  guidance 
and  instruction. 

So  far  as  immigration  purposes  are  concerned,  St.  Paul  is  an  important  point,  in 
fact,  the  most  important  between  Ontario  and  the  Manitoba  boundary.  There  are 
centering  here  several  lines  of  railway,  and  each  company  has  immense  quantities 
of  land  to  sell.  In  addition  to  these  there  are  many  land  speculators  in  search  of 
purchases.  Owing  to  the  way  the  trains  have  been  running  all  summer,  our  people 
have  been  compelled  to  remain  here  from  early  in  the  morning  till  seven  in  the 
evening.  They  have  thus  been  all  day  while  lying  over  here,  pestered  and  annoyed 
by  the  runners  and  agents  of  the  land  owners.  In  fact,  considering  the  influences 
and  ai'guraents  used  by  those  persons  and  the  inducements  held  out,  the  only  wonder 
is  that  they  were  so  unsuccessful  in  their  efforts. 

In  view  of  these  circumstances,  and  in  view  also  of  the  absolute  necessity  for 
protecting  our  people  at  this  point,  I  would  respectfully  suggest  that  there  should 
be  a  permanent  officer  of  the  Government  stationed  here.     Following  the  example  of 

69 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A,  1881 


others,  he  should  have  conveniently  situated  offices  for  his  own  use  and  for  the 
accommodation  of  tliose  of  our  people  who  might  be  detained  here.  Eeasonable 
conveniences  and  arrangements  should  be  made  for  their  comfort,  and  everything 
possible  should  be  done  to  protect  them  against  the  runners  that  now  beset  them  on 
every  side.  So  long  as  our  settlers  are  left  to  loiter  about  the  railway  stations  all 
day,  or  to  wander  through  the  streets,  they  must  be  subject  to  the  influences  and 
arguments  of  the  runners.  For  their  protection,  as  well  as  for  their  comfort  and 
convenience,  they  should  be  housed  during  their  delay,  and  looked  well  after  by  the 
Government  agent.  A  Canadian  headquarters,  with  our  flag  flying  in  front  of  it,  is 
what  is  wanted,  and  until  we  have  it  our  people  must  continue  to  sufier  the  pestering 
and  annoyance  of  which  so  many  of  them  had  reason  to  complain  this  summer. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

G.  E.  KmGSMILL. 

The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


70 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1S81 


No.  16. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OF  QUAE  AN  TINE  STATION,   GEOSS-ISLE. 

(Frederick  Montizambert,Esq.,  M.D.) 

•    Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  my  Annual  Eeport  for  1880. 

The  barque  "  Glen  Monarch,"  O'Neil,  Master,  from  Eio  de  Janiero,  an-ived  at  the 
Quarantine  Station  of  Gross-Isle  on  the  6th  of  June.  There  had  been  sixteen  cases  ol 
yellow  fever  amongst  her  crew  during  the  voyage.  Threa  of  these  cases  ended 
fatally.  The  vessel  was  most  thoroughly  cleansed,  purified  and  disinfected  at  the 
Station. 

This  was  the  only  vessel  reported  for  medical  inspection  at  the  Station  during  the 
yeai\ 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

FEEDEEICK  MONTIZAMBEET,  m.  d., 

Univ.  Edin.,  L.E.O.S.E.,&c.,  &c. 

Medical  Super intendenU 

The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


11 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  17. 

ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  QUARANTINE  STATION,  HALIFAX. 

(Mr.  W.  N.  Wickwrie.) 

Halifax,  December  11th,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  submit  the  following  report  for  the  year  1880 : — 

I  am  able  to  state  that  no  case  requiring  quarantine  observation  has  been 
brought  to  this  port  to  date  during  the  year.  This  seems  somewhat  remarkable,  as  the 
number  of  immigrants  to  various  parts  of  the  continent,  via  Halifax,  has  been  much 
greater  than  for  several  preceding  years.  It  is  evident  that  a  greater  care  than 
formerly  has  been  exercised  by  steamship  companies  and  other  authorities  as  to 
vaccination,  cleanliness,  &c.,  of  those  immigrating. 

TiiO  usual  care  has  been  taken  as  regards  passenger  steamers  and  vessels  coming 
from  infected  ports. 

I  a!n  glad  to  be  able  to  state  that  some  repairs  have  been  made  to  the  buildings  at 
Lawlor's  Island  during  the  summer,  and  one  of  the  small  hospitals  has  been  so  altered 
and  improved  as  to  be  comfortable  for  winter  quarters  in  case  it  should  be  required. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

W.  N.  WICKWIEB,  M.D.,  Univ.Edin., 

-^Medical  Superintendent. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


n 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  18. 

ANNUAL  BEPOET  OF  ST.  JOHN,  N.B.,  QUAKANTINE  STATION. 

(W.  S.  Harding,  M.E.C.S.) 

Quarantine  Station, 
St.  John,  N.B.,  Slst  November,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  hoDOur  to  report,  respecting  this  Station,  for  eleven  months  of  the 
year  1880,  ending  the  Slst  of  November  : — 

Of  the  considerable  number  of  vessels  inspected  by  me  at  this  Station  during 
the  year,  it  was  only  necessary  to  detain  one  of  them  longer  than  merely  to  inspect 
the  cases  of  sickness  found,  or  which  had  occurred,  being  either  not  infectious  disease, 
or,  owing  to  other  circumstances,  not  to  be  considered  dangerous. 

On  board  of  the  ship  "David,"  however,  which  arrived  here  on  the  16th  of  April, 
the  captain  had  died,  and  a  number  of  the  crew  been  sick  of  yellow  fever  during  the 
passage,  and  it  became  necessary  to  detain  the  vessel  and  use  means  for  disinfection. 

Owing  to  false  statements  made  by  the  acting-master  of  this  ship  on  her  arrival, 
I  considered  it  necessary  to  submit  the  particulars  to  your  notice  at  that 
time,  and  ask  advice,  under  which  such  action  was  taken  as  will  tend  to  prevent  in 
the  future  neglect  or  infringement  of  the  law.  As  the  narration  here  of  the 
particulars  alluded  to  would  occupy  considerable  space,  you  will  probably  consider  it 
unnesssary  lor  me  to  present  them  again. 

All  things  considered,  I  feel  warranted  in  saying  that  the  season  has  passed 
without  the  occurrence  of  any  serious  quarantine  difficulty. 

Having  before  reported  the  completion  of  the  work  ordered  to  be  done  on  the 
building  on  Partridge  Island,  I  need  only  again  briefly  refer  to  such  matter.  Before 
this  work  was  done  the  only  existing  buildings  had  so  entirely  fallen  into  decay  as 
to  be  unfit  for  use.  The  work  done  has  completely  renovated  the  buildings,  and  they 
will  require  no  repairs  for  many  years.  It  is  a  gratification  to  know  when  it  may 
become  necessary  to  land  all  the  people  from  an  infected  ship,  that  the  means  exist 
of  housing  them,  and  securing  their  disinfection. 

To  all  experienced  in  such  matters  it  is  well  known  that  when  a  vessel  arrives  in 
a  badly  infected  state,  the  only  reliable  way  of  disinfecting  her,  and  the  people 
in  her,  and  preventing  the  spread  of  the  disease  in  the  country,  is  to  take  all  the 
people  out,  and  deal  with  them  and  the  vessel  in  such  manner  as  the  Quarantine 
Regulations  direct. 

The  new  fence  enclosing  the  buildings  is  very  good  and  efficient  and  will  be 
of  much  benefit. 

I  may  mention  that  the  fence  enclosing  the  grave  yard  is  no  longer  in  a 
serviceable  state,  and  a  new  one  much  desired. 

Certificates  respecting  dead  bodies  brought  here  have  been  [examined  during 
the  year,  and  other  routine  matters  attended  to. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your^most  obedient  servant, 

W.  S.  HAEDINa,  M.E.C.S., 

Medical  Superintendent » 


The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


73 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  19. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET,  QUAEANTINE  STATION,    PICTOU,  IS.S. 

(Henry  Kirkwood,  M.D.) 

Quarantine  Staation. 

PiCTOU,  December  3rd,  1880. 

Sir,--!  beg  (.c  subii.il  my  licport  for  the  Quarantine  Station  at  this  Port  for  the 
year  1S80. 

During  the  past  year  there  have  been  only  Uvo  cases  of  infectious  or  contagious 
diseases  which  required  my  attendance. 

The  captain  of  the  steamship  "Tunstall,"  carrying  coal  between  this  port  and 
Montreal,  was  reported  to  me  October  10th  to  be  sick,  supposed  to  be  smal!-pox,  but 
which  proved  to  be  a  mild  form  of  spurious  measles.  At  liis  own  request,  and  the 
case  being  so  mild,  I  treated  him  on  board. 

The  second  case  was  Angus  McDonald,  seaman,  of  steamship,  " Scud"  trading 
between  this  port  and  Cape  Breton,  who  was  reported  to  me  October  6th  to  be  suffering 
from  some  eruptive  disease,  which  also  proved  to  be  measles.  I  had  the  patient 
removed  immediately  to  the  hospital,  where  he  remained  until  the  19th,  when  he 
was  sufficiently  recovered  to  be  discharged. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

HENRY  KIEKWOOD,  M.D., 

Medical  Superintendent. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


U 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  20, 
A^KUAL  EEPOET,    QUAEA^'TmE  STATION,    CHARLOTTETOWJST,  P.E.I. 

(W.   H.   HOBKIRK,  M.D.) 

Quarantine  Office. 
Charlottetown,  P.E.I.,  11th  December,  1880. 

Sir — I  have  the  honour  to  forward  my  Report  uj)  to  30th  November,  1880. 

My  duties  have  been  the  same  as  in  previous  3'ear6,  therefore  I  need  not  trouble 
you  with  a  repetition  of  them. 

There  have  been  three  cases  of  yellow  fever  admitted  into  the  Quarantine 
Hospital  under  the  following  circumstances : — 

The  brig  ''Westaway"  left  Demaiara  15th  May,  1880,  in  ballast  for  Charlottetown, 
P.E.I.  On  the  following  day,  John  Egan,  a  seaman,  was  seized  with  symptoms  of 
yellow  fever,  and  on  the  I9th  the  mate  showed  the  same  symptoms,  whilst  on  the  25th, 
George  Sedwick,  cook,  was  likewise  prostrated  by  the  same  disease.  The  captain, 
Malcolm  McLeod,  an  old  "West  India  trader,  saw  at  once  the  position  he  was  in, 
and  with  great  judgment  and  deliberation  commenced  treating  the  sick  men  under  the 
directions  given  by  the  "  Board  of  Trade  Medical  Guide,"  for  seamen  with  yellow 
fever.  He  had  a  good  supply  of  medicine  and  other  necessaries.  He  also  protected 
the  crew  from  the  contagious  effects  of  the  disease  by  keeping  them  separate  from  the 
Bick,  fumigating  the  ship,  and  burning  old  bedding  and  clothes.  The  vessel  arrived 
in  this  port  on  the  10th  June,  two  of  the  men,  although  improving,  were  in  a  very 
low  condition,  and  John  Egan  was  quite  unable  to  stand,  and  almost  in  a  dying  state 
when  Itfted  from  the  ship.  They  were  immediately  conveyed  to  the  Quarantine 
Hospital  where  they  remained  under  treatment  until  they  were  convalescent.  John 
Egan  was  not  discharged  until  the  10th  July,  and  for  some  weeks  suffered  from 
occasional  attacks  of  intermittent  fever,  but  has  since  made  a  good  recovery. 

The  ship  was  placed  in  quai-antine  for  some  days  and  was  fumigated,  thoroughly 
cleansed  and  disinfected  before  being  admitted  to  the  wharf  to  take  in  her  cargo. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 


To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


W.  H.  HOBKIRK,  F.E.C.S.,  Eng. 

Medical  Supeiint&ndenL 


•75 


41   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  21. 

ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  INSPECTING  PHYSICIAN,  POET  OF  QUEBEC. 

(A.  EowAND,  M.D.) 

Quebec,  15th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  was  under  the  necessity,  from  a  serious  accident  which  befell  me,  of 
applying  to  the  Government  for  leave  of  absence  for  the  season,  with  permission  to 
discharge  the  duties  of  my  office  by  substitute,  which  was  kindly  granted  me;  not- 
withstanding which  I  am  glad  I  was  able,  a  groat  part  of  the  time  to  supervise  the 
manner  in  which  the  duties  were  performed. 

The  past  season  was  exceedingly  healthy  from  the  opening  of  the  navigation  on 
30th  April,  to  the  close  on  the  12th  November;  23,988  passengers  and  emigrants  having 
iU'rived  by  steamships  and  sailing  vessels.  Out  of  that  number  there  were  thirteen 
(13)  cases  of  infectious  diseases,  viz.,  eleven  (11)  cases  of  measles,  one  (I)  scarlet 
fever,  and  one  (I)  of  small-pox.  These  cases  were  sent  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant 
Hospital,  and  every  precaution  was  taken  to  prevent  the  spread  of  contagion  on 
board  and  ashore. 

The  barque  "  Glen  Monarch"  sailed  from  Rio  Janeiro  on  30th  March,  and  arrived 
here  on  the  9th  June.  The  whole  crew  with  the  exception  of  the  mate  were  attacked 
with  3"ellow  fever  on  the  passage.  Three  of  the  sailors  died  on  the  passage,  the  last 
one  on  the  19th  April.  The  remainder  of  the  crew  were  on  duty  again  on  the  22nd 
of  the  same  month.  This  vessel  anchored  at  Grosse  Isle,  and  being  healthy,  Avas 
allowed  to  proceed  to  Quebec,  where  she  arrived  in  a  satisfactory  condition. 

The  whole  number  of  deaths  at  sea  during  the  season  was  thirteen  (13)  viz. : 
eight  (8)  children  from  bronchitis,  two  (2)  women  after  child-birth,  one  (1)  man 
from  heart  di.jease,  one  (I)  from  apoplexy,  and  one  (1)  from  senile  debility.  Two 
children  died  after  arrival  in  port  from  croup  and  congestion  of  the  lungs. 

One  man,  a  lunatic,  was  taken  back  by  the  Allan  line  of  steamers,  bavins:  no 
friends  here  to  care  for  him. 

In  closing  this  report  I  cannot  omit  gratefully  to  acknowledge  the  great  kindness 
and  consideration  of  the  Government  in  having  granted  mo  leave  of  absence  and 
enabling  me  to  provide  a  substitute. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 

A.  ROW  AND,  M.D.,  etc. 

Inspecting  Physician^ 
To  the  Honourable 

Minister  of  Agricultuie, 
Ottawa. 


•J6 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.)  A.  1881 


No.  22. 

REPOET  OF  ACTING  INSPECTING  PHYSICIAN,  QUEBEC. 
(J.  Racey,  M.D.) 

Quebec,  8th  October,  1880. 

Sir,- In  compliance  with  Dr.  Eo  wand's  request  I  forward  the  subjoined  report: — 

From  the  9th  May  to  the  Ist  October,  inclusive,  of  the  present  year  I  had  the 
honour  to  act  on  his  behalf  as  Inspecting  Physician  of  the  Port  of  Quebec. 

During  that  time  20,589  cabin  and  steerage  passengers  arrived  here  by  steam- 
ships and  sailing  vessels.  Out  of  that  number  there  were  thirteen  cases  of  infectious 
disease,  consisting  of  eleven  cases  of  measles  among  the  steerage  passengers  of  the 
mail  steamer  "  Polynesian,"  which  arrived  on  the  9th  May, 

They  were  sent  by  boat  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant  Hospital.  One  case  of 
scarlet  fever  amongst  the  steerage  passengers  of  the  steamer  "Peruvian,"  which  came 
in  on  the  21st  August. 

The  little  patient  and  her  mother,  along  with  a  brother  who  apparently  had  some 
symptoms  of  the  disease,  were  also  sent  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant  Hospital  by  boat. 

One  case  of  small-pox,  that  of  a  female  steerage  passenger  on  the  mail  steamer 
"Polynesian,"  which  reached  this  port  on  the  17th  July  ;  she,  along  with  her  two  sis- 
ters, were  sent  by  water  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant  Hospital. 

One  of  the  crew  of  the  mail  steamer  "  Peruvian,"  which  arrived  on  the  11th  July, 
suffering  from  an  attack  of  measles  was  despatched  to  the  Marine  and  Emigrant  Hos- 
pital by  boat. 

In  all  the  above  cases  isolation  and  disinfection  had  been  carried  out  by  the  sur- 
geons of  the  steamers,  and  after  their  ain-ival  every  precaution  was  taken  to  prevent 
the  spread  of  the  contagion. 

A  sailing  vessel,  the  "Glen  Monarch"  from  Eio  Janeiro,  arrived  here  on  the  9th 
June,  all  of  whose  crew  except  the  mate  had  been  attacked  with  yellow  fever  on  the 
voyage,  three  of  their  number  having  died  from  the  disease;  on  inspection  I  ascer- 
tained that  the  barque  had  been  thoroughly  cleansed  and  disinfected  at  Grosse  Isle,  and 
that  the  crew  were  in  a  healthy  condition. 

Two  other  vessels,  the  "  Eliza"  and  the  "  Angela,"  from  infected  ports  passed  on 
to  Montreal  without  due  quarantine  inspection,  as  I  reported  on  the  22nd  September. 

A  lunatic  was  landed  by  the  steamer  "  Waldensian  "  on  the  19th  May,  but  being 
without  friends  here  was  taken  back  by  Messrs.  Allan  and  Eae  to  the  port  from  which 
he  had  embarked.  The  deaths  among  the  passengers  on  their  way  to  Quebec  were  as 
follows:  seven  children,  from  bronchitis;  two  women  after  child-birth;  three  men 
fi'om  disease  of  the  heart,  apoplexy,  and  senile  debility  respectively  ;  and  two  children 
after  their  arrival  in  port  from  croup  and  congestion  of  the  lungs.  Eight  births 
occurred  among  the  passengers  while  on  board  ship. 

The  whole  respectfully  submitted. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

,         Your  most  obedient  servant, 


To  the  Honourable 

The  Ministej-  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


JOHN  EACEY,  M.D. 


77 


4A  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  23 

REPOET  OF  OCEAN  MAIL  OFFICER. 

(Mr.  W.  F.  Bowes.) 

Steamsh:p  Moravian,  at  Halifax, 

nth  Docember,  1880. 

Sir, — The  priuled  informfition  furnished  to  me  from  your  Department  during 
the  present  year  was  carefully  distributed  to  those  on  board  the  Allan  Lino  of  Miil 
Steamers  who  are  classified  as  immigrants  or  intending  settlers.  In  conversations 
with  passengers,  many  of  whom  were  cabin,  I  ascertained  that  they  possessed  more 
than  an  ordinary  amount  of  capital  and  intelligence,  and  were  destined  for  Ontario, 
Manitoba  and  the  Eastern  Townships. 

I  am,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

W.  F.  BOWES, 

Marine  Mail  Officer, 
To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of 'Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


78 


4i  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  24. 

EBPOHT  OF  OCEAN  MAIL  OFFICER. 
(Mr.  Samuel  T.  Green.) 

Levis,  29th  December,  1881. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  report  it  is  with  feelings  of  satisfaction  that  I  comply 
with  the  usual  instructions  to  send  in  a  yearly  statement  of  services  performed,  and 
result  of  observations,  concerning  immigration  to  Canada  for  the  past  year. 

There  has  been  a  healthy  and  steady  improvement,  both  in  the  number  and 
appearance  of  immigrants  coming  by  our  mail  line,  since  the  opening  of  navigation, 
1880 ;  and  if  the  mails  ai'e  a  barometer,  or  criterion,  to  judge  by,  our  connection  with 
the  Eastern  world  must  be  wonderfully  increased.  The  major  part  of  the  increase  is 
to  and  from  the  newly-settled  lands  in  Manitoba. 

The  specimens  of  com,  fruits,  and  vegetables  specially  brought  over  by  Mr.  John 
Dyke,  and  exhibited  in  Liverpool,  this  past  Autumn,  I  am  sure  will  have  a  beneficial 
effect.  Several  farming  gentlemen,  whom  I  brought  to  see  them,  were  astonished  at 
their  size  and  quality,  and  confessed  it  must  be  a  wonderfully  fertile  soil,  &c.,  that 
could  produce  them.  I  believe  we  are  on  the  eve  of  a  vastly  increased  and  well-to-do 
emigi'ation  to  the  Dominion. 

I  have  regularly  distributed  pamphlets,  etc.,  to  the  emigrants  on  board,  and 
given  them  useful  information  to  guide  them  on  their  arrival. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

SAMUEL  T.  GEBEN. 

Marine  Mail  Officer. 
To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agricultui-e, 
Ottawa. 


19 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  25. 

REPORT  OF  OCEAN  MAIL  OFFICER. 

(Mr.  James  Ferguson.) 

Quebec,  18th  November,  1880. 

Sir — I  have  the  honour  to  report  that  during  the  past  year  I  have  distributed 
all  the  pamphlets  furnished  to  mo  for  that  purpose  to  immigrants  on  board  ship, 
showing  the  advantage  of  settling  in  the  North- West,  and  the  grand  future  in  store 
for  that  fertile  country. 

I  am.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

J.  FERGUSON, 

Marine  Mail  Officer* 
To  the  Honourable 

Minister  of  Agriculture,  &c.,  &c. 
Ottawa. 


80 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


No.  26. 


ANNUAL  EEPORT,   CATTLE   QUARANTINE,   HALlF.iX,   N.  S. 
(¥r.  Archibald  McFatridge.) 

Halifax,  N.S.,   9tli  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to   submit  the   following   Eeport  for  the  year  X1880)  in  ^ 
compliance  with  your  letter  of  2Yth  ultimo. 

There  have  been  shipped  from  the  port  of  Halifax  to  Great  Britain,  during  the 
year  1880,  5,155  head  of  cattle,  2,292  head  of  sheep,  and  there  have  been  imported 
into  Halifax  from  Great  Britain  in  the  same  time,  twelve  thoroughbred  cattle,  all  of 
which  arrived  in  good  health — as  follows  :  two  Guernsey  heifers  (both  with  calf,  and 
did  well)  imported  by  W.  Anderson,  Esq.,  arrived  13th  May,  1880,  per  steamer 
"Texas,"  Captain  Prowse,  quarantined,  at  Wm  Vieth's  farm,  suburbs  of  Halifax.  Also 
one  Jersey  heifer  (with  calf,  and  did  well)  imported  by  Mr.  Troop,  of  Halifax,  for 
Mr.  Troop,  of  New  Brunswick,  arrived  30th  July,  1880,  per  steamer  ''  Mississippi," 
Captain  Gibson ;  quarantined  at  Mr.  Boggs',  Bedford.  Also  nine  thoroughbred  short 
horns;  imported  by  the  Agricultural  Society  of  Nova  Scotia,  arrived  30th  Nov.,., 
1880,  per  steamer  "  Brooklyn"  ;  quarantined  at  Oakfield  farm. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

ARCHIBALD  McFATRIDGE, 


To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


Inspector. 


81 


12—6 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  27- 

AXXUAL  EEPOET,  CATTLE  QUAEANTINB,  ST.  JO  HIST,  N.B. 

(Mr.  Eoland  Bunting.) 

St.  John,  X.B.,  11th  December,  1880. 

SiR,-^I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  during  the  past  year  (1880)  there  have 
been   no   importations   of  cattle,    sheep   or    swine    from  Europe,   in   this   district, 

There  have  been  two  pigs  imported  from  Boston,  U.S.;  their  destination,  Nova 
Scotia,  and  which  I  intercepted  and  had  slaughtered  on  December  2nd,  present 
month,  according  to  Order  in  Council. 

It  gives  me  much  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  there  are  no  diseases,  contagious 
or  infectious,  in  my  district. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

EOLAND  BUNTINa, 

Inspector. 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


82 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  28. 
EEPOET  ON  CATTLE  DISEASE  IN  CARLETON-PLACE. 

(A.  F.  COLEx\lAN,  y.  S.) 

Ottaava,  Ont.,  3rd  December,  1880. 

Sir, — Acting  under  instructions  received  from  the  Hon.  J.  H.  Pope,  Minister  of 
Agriculture,  I  proceeded  to  the  town  of  Carleton  Place  to  inspect  the  stock  of  one 
Mr.  Brice  McNeely.  I  found  one  cow  on  the  point  of  death,  another  having  died. 
Of  this  animal  I  examined  the  contents  of  the  chest  and  found  the  lungs  in  a  healthy 
condition.  I  then  examined  the  abdominal  cavity  aud  am  satisfied  the  cause  of 
death  to  be  from  impaction  of  the  omasum  (third  stomach).  The  animal  had  been 
fed  on  musty  straw  and  frozen  roots  ;  hence  the  cause  of  death. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

A.  F,  COLEMAN,  Y.S. 

Th«  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa 


83 
12-6J 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


No.  29. 

ANNUAL  EEPORT  OF  THE  HIGH  COMMISSIONEE. 

(Sir  a.  T.  Galt). 

Office  of  the  High  Commissionee, 

10  YicToiiiA  Chambers, 

London,  S.  W  . 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  transmit  the  reports  of  Messrs.  I>yke,  Grahame,  Foy, . 
Connolly  and  DoTvn,  npon  the  working  of  their  respective  Agencies  for  the  eleven 
months "^ending  November  30th,  1880. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  statistics  furnished  by  Mr.  Dyke,  and  Mr.  Grahame, 
demonstrate  that  the  number  of  emigrants  proceeding  to  Canada,  from  Liverpool,  and 
Glasgow,  in  1880,  were  larger  than  for  the  same  period  in  1879,  and  they  show  a  still 
greater  increase  when  compared  with  1878. 

The  following  tignres,  Ivindly  snj^plied  by  the  Board  of  Trade,  show  the  total 
immigration  from  British  and  Irish  ports  to  Canada,  for  the  eleven  months  ending 
November  30th,  18S0  and  1879  :— 


Nationalities. 

Eleven  months, 
ending  30th  November. 

English , 

1880. 

13,327 
3,221 

3,864 

1879. 
13  612 

Scotch.. 

1,641 
2,177 

L'ish , 

' " 

Total  of  British  origin 

Foreigners 

20,412 

8,414 
4 

17,430 
4  49'^ 

Nationalities  not  distinguished 

48 

Total 

28,830 

21,£71 

I  took  an  early  opportunity  shortly  after  my  arrival  in  England,  in  April  last,  tO' 
meet  the  various  Agents,  to  discuss  matters  generally  with  them,  and  ascertain  the 
prospects  of  emigration  for  the  season  then  about  to  commence. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  class  of  emigrants  who  have  proceeded  to  Canada 
tliis  year  has  been  good;  and  as  the  country  becomes  better  known  and  is  opened  wp 
more  extensively  by  i-ailways  (I  refer  particularly  to  Manitoba  and  the  North- West 
TeriTitory),  so  will  the  numbers  expand.  The  dissemination  of  the  reports  of  the 
tenant  farmers  delegates,  and  the  other  pamphlets  issued  to  the  public,  and  the  more 
fi-erpient  visits  to  the  country  now  made  by  literary  men  and  tourists,  will  extend  the 
knowledge  of  its  j-esources,  while  the  construction  of  the  Pacific  Bailway,  and  particu- 
larly the  speedy  completion  of  that  portion  of  it  from  Thunder  Bay  to  Winnipeg^ 
cannot  but  prove  an  immense  advantage,  both  to  the  old  and  new  settlers  in  the  western 
jKirtions  of  the  Dominion. 

The  depression  existing  in  agricultural  circles  in  England  and  Scotland  is  causing 
many  to  look  around  for  fresh  fields  in  which  to  employ  their  energy  and  capital. 
!rhe  jjricc  of  lands^  and  high  taxes  and  tithes,  bad  seasons,  and  the  com2:)etitions  in  the 


84 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


grain  and  cattle  trade  is  making  it  impossible  for  British  farmers  to  hold  their  own; 
and  the  reports  of  the  delegates  upon  the  suitability  of  Canada  as  a  field  for  agricul- 
turists, and  the  advantages  it  possesses  m  the  way  of  cheap  land,  low  taxes,  good 
education,  facilities  for  transj)ort  of  produce,  &c.,  (and  not  the  least  of  all,  its  position 
as  a  British  Colony)  are  attracting  the  attention  of  the  agricultural  section  of  the 
community  and  the  press.  It  is  expected  that  the  second  series  of  the  reports  to  be 
shortly  published  (and  which  contain  the  opinions  of  some  prominent  agriculturists) 
will  also  carry  much  weight. 

The  deplorable  distress  which  has  been  so  prevalent  in  Ireland,  and  the  present 
disturbed  state  of  that  country  has  naturally  led  to  a  large  emigration,  which  has 
not  been  directed  to  a  great  extent  to  Canada,  although  the  passengers  by  the  mail- 
boats  from  Derry  in  1880  have  been  double  that  for  the  same  period  in  1879.  But 
it  is  well  known  that  the  passsages  of  at  least  three-fourths  of  the  people  leaving 
were  prepaid  by  their  friends  in  other  countries,  and  not  controlled  from  this  side. 
It  is  generally  considered  that  the  real  remedy  for  the  existing  difficulties  must  be  a 
further  emigration. 

I  notice  that  the  attention  of  agriculturists  and  others  on  the  Continent,  is  being 
directed  to  the  resources  of  Canada,  which  may  be  productive  of  good  results. 

The  London  offices  of  the  Government  have  been  removed  to  the  above  address 
in  accordance  with  your  directions,  and  with  the  alterations  that  have  taken  place  in 
the  staff,  will  enable  a  reduction  to  be  made  in  the  expenses  of  the  establishment 
without  detriment  to  its  efficiency. 

I  have  to  report  that  Mr.  Annand,  the  Chief  Emigration  Agent  in  this  country, 
terminated  his  connection  with  the  service  on  the  30th  September  last,  and  the  staff 
has  also  been  lessened  by  the  retirement  of  Mr.  A.  B.  Daveney. 

I  estimate  that  the  expenses  of  the  establishment  in  London  for  the  year  1881, 


under  the  heads  of  rent  and  taxes,  will  be  as  undei 


1881.  1879. 


Eent  and  taxes £    460 

Staff 1,103 

Housekeeper's  account,  and  light  and  fuel.       100 


£    870 

1,837 

119 

5 

0 

7 

2 

6 
0 

£1,663        £2,826  12    8 

These  figures  include  the  rent  of  the  High  Commissioner's  offices,  and  the  salary 
of  my  Secretary,  and  the  detail  work  of  this  office  is  also  performed  without  any 
increased  expense. 

It  may  be  necessary,  on  account  of  the  increasing  work,  to  make  an  addition  to 
the  staff,  but  the  expenses  will  be  kept  as  low  as  possible  compatible  with  the 
efficient  working  of  the  office. 

I  may  say  that  the  number  of  letters  received  at  the  London  office  up  to  the  end 
of  November  exceeds  that  for  the  same  period  in  1879  b}^  1,500,  (exclusive  of  many 
letters  which  have  been  addressed  to  me  personally,)  and  since  the  office  has  been 
removed  to  Westminster  the  increase  has  been  marked. 

The  emigration  department  of  this  office,  in  accordance  with  an  Order  in 
Council,  is  now  conducted  under  my  supervision  by  Mr.  Joseph  Colmer,  who  also  acts 
as  my  Private  Secretary. 

In  compliance  with  your  directions,  Mr.  Thomas  Grahame,  the  agent  at  Carlisle, 
has  removed  his  office  to  Glasgow,  a  change  which  will  probably  be  attended  with 
good  results,  that  port  being  the  principal  place  of  shipment  for  Scotch  emigrants, 
and  the  Government  having  been  unrepresented  directly  in  Scotland  for  some  time. 

Mr.  Thomas  ConnoWy,  having  been  appointed  an  agent  of  the  Dominion,  has, 
Tinder  your  instructions,  opened  an  office  in  Dublin,  and  his  report  will  be  found 
.annexed 

85 


4i  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


The  following  forms  an  extract  from  the  Board  of  Trade  JRetm-ns  for  November 
shoTving  the  quantity  of  imports  of  various  articles  into  Enscland  for  the  elevea 
months  of  1879-80: 


1879.  1880. 

'No.  No. 


Animals,  living 


(C 


Oxen  and  bulls, 1*79,352  304,655 

Cows 21,591  31,227 

Calves 38,138  37,890 

Sheep  and  lambs 906,907  914,847 

Swine    50,366  49,478 

Bacon,  cwts 3,639,059  3,981,672 

Butter,     "     1,861,676  2,155,234 

Cheese,    ''     1,668,598  1,674,209 

^Wheat,  (Canada).. 4,264,540  3,715,473 

-'^Flour            "       399,900  489,637 

Eggs,  great  hundreds 5,955,114  5,705,402 

Fish,  cured  and  salted,  cwts 632,375  720,447 

Hams,    cwts 845,542  871,198 

Potatoes,  " 8,807,879  8,812,414 

Poultry  and  game,  value £312,281  £291,898 

-'"Wood  and  timber,  loads : — 

From  Canada,  hewn 181,176  330,716 

'TdS"}    S58,V72        1,056,611 

^  Only  in  these  items  are  the  imports  divided  so  as  to  show  the  trade  with  British- 
North  America.  In  the  case  of  the  other  goods  the  jBgures  represent  the  total  imports 
from  all  countries. 

I  transmit  a  summaiy  of  the  accounts  of  the  London  establishment,  and  of  the 
agencies  in  this  country  which  will  be  found  at  the  foot  hereof. 

In  conclusion  I  have  to  express  my  gratification  at  the  zealous  and  energetic 
manner  in  which  the  various  officers  in  this  country  have  performed  their  respective 
duties. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

A.  T.  GALT, 

Ei(jh  Commissioner, 
The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture,  &c.,  &c., 
Ottawa,  Canada. 


86 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Summary. 

Synopsis  of  Expenditure  at  London  Agency  from  1st  January  to  30th  IN'ovember,  1880, 

Pay  of  staff £1,447  15  0 

Kent  and  taxes 1,329     1  3 

Advertising 625  12  0 

Printing  and  stationery 2,284  14  1 

Postage  95  16  9 

Light  and  fuel 58  10  5 

iiepairs 2  12  9 

Library  (papers,  books,  &c.) 18     5  9 

Freight  and  carriage 93     9  2 

Cables  and  telegraphs 74  15  7 

Cab,  railway  and 'bus  fares 19  19  6 

Travelling  expenses 182  16  3 

Eeraoval  expenses 80  16  9 

Housekeeper's  expenses 73  16  2 

Government  aid  to  emigration 22     0  6 

Retiring  allowance 4b5     5  5 

Miscellaneous  petty  expenses 53  10  5 


Total £6,898  17     0 

This  statement  includes  the  printing  of  the  greater  portion  of  the  reports  of  the 
tenant  farmer  delegates,  and  of  the  first  edition  ot  the  ''  Information  for  Emigrants 
to  the  British  Colonies,"  and  the  advertising  in  connection  with  their  issue ;  also  rent 
and  expenses  of  the  High  Commissioner's  office,  and  expenses  connected  with  the 
surrender  of  the  lease  of  the  city  premises  and  the  cost  of  the  removal  of  the  ofiices. 

Statement  of  the  Expenditure  at  the  London  Agency,  from  the  1st  of  January  to  the 

30th  of  November,  1880. 

Expenditure  at  the  London  office,  as  per  summary..   £6,898  17     0 

Salaries  of  special  Agents £    956     2     3 

Travelling  allowai'ces  of  Agents 1,000  12  11 

Extraordinary     expenses,     including 

rents,  postages,  telegrams  and  all 

other  incidentals 1,181  14     0 

£  3,138  9  2 

Foreign  commission , 60  0  0 

Expenses  of  tenant  farmers  to  Canada 79  9  1 

Carlisle  Exhibition  expenses 45  1  8 

£10,222     1  11 
Paris  Exhibition  account 2     2     2 

Total  expenditure £10,224     4][1 


87 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


No.  30. 

ANNUAL  RKPOET  OF  LIYEEPOOL   (Eng.)  AGENT. 

(Mr.  John  Dyke.) 

15,  Water  Street, 

Liverpool,  30th  November,  1880. 

Sir, — In  compliance  with  instructions  received  from  the  High  Commissioner,  I 
l)Cg  to  present  3'0ii  with  a  report  of  the  operations  of  this  Agency  during  the  past 
eleven  months.  My  instructions  being  such  that  I  have  to  make  this  hurried  report 
at  a  few  days' notice,  and  as  the  annual  statistics  relating  to  trade  and  emigration 
cannot  of  course  be  completed,  and  consequently  no  comparisons  be  drawn,  my 
report  must  necessarily  be  of  a  meagre  character.  The  emigration  returns  for  the 
eleven  months  to  all  countries,  from  this  port,  show  the  following  gross  figures, 
details  of  which  are  appended  to  this  report. 

Nationalities  of  the  emigrants  as  compared  with  those  of  the  first  eleven 
months  of  1879  : 

1879.  1880.  Increase. 

English 59,156  71,892  12,736 

Scotch 1,077  1,737  660 

Irish 12,372  27,479  15,107 

Foreigners 37,194  72,748  35,554 

Nationalities  not  given 3,463  4,402  939 

113,262  178,258  64,996 

19.921  emigrants  were  carried  by  the  Allan  Line,  1,533  by  the  Dominion  Line, 
and  o5  ^  by  the  Beaver  Line.  Of  the  emigrants  destined  for  Canada,  4,048  were 
cabin  passengers,  and  17,814  were  steerage,  as  against  3,375  cabin  and  14,875  steerage 
passengers  during  the  same  period  last  year. 

The  annually  increasing  importance  of  this  Agency  necessitated  the  taking  by 
your  Department,  of  new  offices,  wherein  a  commodious  and  well  appointed  reading 
room  is  provided.  Files  of  the  leading  Canadian  newspapers,  the  Statutes,  Parlia- 
mentary reports,  both  of  the  Dominion  and  of  the  several  Provinces,  trade  and  navi- 
gation returns,  ai.d  all  other  official  documents  and  matters  of  interest  to  traders  or 
visitors  to  the  Dominion,  may  be  consulted.  Ever  since  the  rooms  have  been 
opened,  they  have  been  extensively  made  use  of,  and 'have  supplied  a  long  felt  want; 
as,  notwithstanding  that  the  major  proportion  of  the  trade  with  the  Dominion  is 
conducted  through  this  port,  and  questions  relating  to  navigation,  pilotage,  tariffs, 
&c.,  continually  arising,  there  was  in  the  city  prior  to  this  time  no  place  of  reference 
for  matters  concerning  the  Dominion.  There  is  also  a  large  sample-room  in  which 
specimens  of  grain,  grasses,  and  other  produce,  and  of  the  soils  of  the  Dominion,  are 
arranged  for  the  inspection  of  emigrants  and  others.  There  is,  in  addition,  a  com- 
modious store-room  in  which  all  pi-inted  matter  and  propaganda  issued  for  the  use  of 
the  various  A^ncies  in  Europe,  is  stored  upon  its  arrival  from  Canada,  instead  of 
being,  as  heretofore,  shipped  to  London,  v/hence  a  large  proportion  was  returned  to 
Liverpool  for  the  ma  of  steamship  agents,  &c.,  thereby  effecting  a  saving  in  carriage 
and  other  charges,  which  materially  reduce  the  net  rent  of  these  offices. 

The  class  of  emigrants  who  have  gone  forward  to  the  Dominion  this  year,  has 
been  remarkable  in  its  chai-acter,  for,  as  is  admitted  on  all  hands,  it  has  been 
composed  of  agi'iculturists  with  capital  to  an  extent  never  before  equalled,  to  any  part 

88 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


-of  the  world.  From  the  very  satisfactory  letters  which  have  have  been  received 
from  those  settlers,  I  am  confident  that  each  nucleus  so  formed  will  prove  of  great 
and  permanent  benefit  to  the  Dominion. 

I  have  also  to  note  that  several  persons  have  passed  through  this  Agency,  with 
the  intention  of  entering  upon  manufacturing  enterprises  in  the  Dominion.  One  of 
the  leading  manufacturers  of  Yorkshire  has  taken  out  the  whole  of  his  plant  and  a. 
number  of  operatives,  and  has  started  manufacturing  in  the  Province  of  Ontario. 
Many  others,  similarly  situated,  ai-e  making  enquiries  with  the  view  of  proceeding  to 
Canada  in  the  ensuing  spring. 

During  the  past  3^ear,  I  have  again  had  an  increase  in  the  number  of  youths  who 
have  ap]:>lied  to  be  admitted  to  the  Guelph  Agricultural  College,  or  to  be  placed  out 
with  farmers,  especially  in  the  Province  of  Manitoba. 

In  my  previous  reports,  I  have  alluded  to  the  advantage  which  would  accrue 
from  the  introduction,  in  this  way,  of  young  men  with  capital ;  and  I  shall  indeed  be 
pleased  to  receive  the  names  of  farmers  and  others  in  various  parts  of  the  Dominion, 
who  would  be  prepared  to  receive  the  sons  of  English  capitalists,  at  premiums  which, 
I  am  sure,  could  be  made  satisfactory  to  any  Canadian  agriculturist.  During  my  late 
visit  to  Canada,  I  was  invited  to  inspect  the  Agricultural  College  at  Guelph.  Of  this 
institution  I  cannot  speak  too  highly,  my  only  regret  being  that  it  is  not  double  the 
;8ize,  and  that  some  arrangement  has  not  been  arrived  at  for  introducing  pupils  from 
Great  Britain,  as  I  have  suggested.  Professors  Brown  and  Mills  were  both  exceedingly 
kind  to  me,  gave  me  ample  facilities  for  seeing  the  institution,  and  supplied  me  with 
samples  ot  grain  and  other  Canadian  produce,  which  will  be  of  the  utmost  value  to 
this  Agency. 

The  views,  in  reference  to  the  future  position  and  prospects  of  the  agricultural 
-classes  in  these  Islands,  expressed  in  my  last  three  annual  reports,  have  been  more 
than  verified  by  the  actual  experience  of  the  last,  as  of  previous  years.  Although  the 
'Crops  have  been  unusually  good,  a  large  number  of  agriculturists  have  had  to  succumb 
to  difficulties  which  were  brought  on  by  the  preceding  untoward  years  of  depression. 
However,  the  troubles  which  the  farmers  and  landowners  are  now  experiencing,  and 
which  were  prognosticated  in  my  former  reports,  are  now  loo  well  known  to  render 
necessary  any  further  comment  on  my  part.  I  do  not  see  any  reason  for  changing 
my  opinion  as  to  the  prospects  of  the  farming  classes  in  this  country. 

•J'he  efforts  of  your  Department  in  inviting  agricultural  delegates  to  visit  the 
older  Provinces  of  Canada,  and  Manitoba,  have  borne  fruit ;  but,  as  Professor  Caird, 
in  writing  to  the  Times  in  reference  to  their  reports  stated,  it  may  bo  four  or  five 
years  before  the  full  benefit  is  derived  from  them.  As  I  have  frequently  pointed  out, 
English  people  are  slow  to  move ;  but,  as  alreadj^  reported,  a  considerable  number  of 
very  desirable  agriculturist  settlers  with  capital,  have  already  gone  forward,  and 
still  more  are  making  further  enquiries,  stimulated  by  these  excellent  reports. 

According  to  instructions  received  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Depart- 
ment, when  here,  the  distribution  of  the  delegates'  reports  devolved  upon  this 
Agency.  As  your  Department  has  been  informed  in  detail  as  to  the  manner  in 
which  this  woi'k  has  been  done,  it  is,  for  obvious  reasons,  inadvisable  for  me  to 
repeat  these  details  in  a  report  to  which  our  competitors  have  access.  Knowing 
that  we  were  on  the  eve  of  a  general  election  here,  and  that  if  longer  delayed  we 
might  not  be  able  to  liave  them  sufficiently  noticed  by  the  British  press,  I  instructed 
the  printers  eai-ly  in  January  to  produce  an  advance  edition  of  some  2,000  copies. 
The  whole  of  the  delegates'  reports  were  not  to  hand  at  that  time.  I  may  briefly 
state  that  the  copies  of  the-e  reports  sent  by  me,  were  favourably  reviewed  in  upwards 
of  one  thousand  newspapers  in  this  country,  and  that  I  am  sure,  coming  as  they  did 
from  unofficial  sources,  and  from  men  representing  prominent  agriculturists  in  this 
•country,  ih^j  will  be  kept  for  many  3'ears  for  reference. 

Itj  order  that  these  reports  should  come  into  proper  hands,  and  we  are  now 
dealing  with  a  class  of  people  (capitalists")  who  were  almost  unapproachable  a  few 
years  ago,  I  obtained  from  friends,  a  list  of  agriculturists,  and  others  interested  in 
agriculture,  and  posted  direct  to  their  addresses  some  40,000  copies. 

89 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


At  no  period  since  my  connection  with  emigration  to  the  Dominion,  have  the- 
agents  of  the  American  Land  Companies  been  more  active  than  at  present;  and 
hardly  a  steamer  arrives  without  bringing  emissaries  from  America  to  work  in 
various  parts  of  Europe.  The  success  which  has  attended  their  efforts  in  Germany 
and  the  Scandinavian  Kingdoms,  has  made  some  of  these  over-bold,  and  one  who  has 
been  particularly  successful  has  met  with  the  same  fate  which  befel  one  of  your 
agents  some  eight  years  ago,  viz. :  imprisonment  by  the  German  Government,  and 
expulsion  from  the  Fatherland. 

The  Northern  Pacific  Eailroad  is  very  ably  represented  by  Mr.  Georere  Sheppard^ 
whose  name  is  well  known  in  Canada  as  a  journalist;  and  a  very  efficient  sta,if. 
They  have  elaborate  offices  situated  immediately  opposite  those  of  the  Department. 
in  Water  street,  and  an  apparently  unlimited  amount  of  money  for  expenditure.  In 
fact  Liverpool  is,  as  it  has  always  been,  the  centre  for  emigration  propaganda  for  the 
whole  of  Europe. 

The  agent  for  Texas,  Dr.  Kingsbury,  through  overdrawn  pictures,  and  other 
practices,  has  brought  such  a  host  of  reflections  upon  himself  and  the  country  he 
represents,  in  the  press  and  olsewhere,  that  I  do  not  think  there  is  much  to  be  feared 
from  that  quarter  in  the  future. 

The  serious  depression  which  is  now  prevailing  in  "New  Zealand,  unparalleled, 
probably,  in  any  of  the  Colonies,  has,  I  think,  eff'ectually  put  a  stop  to  emigration 
thither  to  any  large  extent,  for  some  years  to  come. 

Some  idea  may  be  gained  of  the  increasing  interest  taken  in  the  Dominion  from 
reference  to  my  letter  books,  which  show  that  during  the  first  six  months  of  this 
year,  upwards  of  3,700  letters  were  sent  from  this  Agency  alone,  in  reply  to  com- 
munications received  seeking  special  information,  which  the  pamphlets  we  are 
issuing  did  not  supply.  In  addition  to  this  work,  heavy  calls  were  made  upon  my 
lime  by  enquirers  in  person  from  various  parts  of  Great  Britain. 

For  many  years  past  I  have  been  urging  the  necessity  of  our  being  represented 
at  agricultural  meetings,  having  proved  the  value  of  such  advertiHements  by  the 
exhibition  of  grain?,  roots,  and  cereals  selected  by  me  at  the  autumn  exhibitions 
held  in  Canada  in  1873,  and  exhibited  at  various  corn  exchanges  and  other  placea 
throughout  England,  in  the  ensuing  winter.  Our  representation  at  these  shows  was 
urged  somewhat  furthei'  upon  your  Department  in  my  confidential  report,  attached 
to  my  annual  report  in  187G.  I  am  happy,  however,  to  find  that  a  highly  creditable 
exhibition  was  made  this  j'car  at  the  Royal  Agricultural  Show  at  Carlisle,  by  Mr^ 
Grahame,  and  that  the  success  attending  it  far  exceeded  all  anticipations. 

During  mj^  visit  to  Canada  this  autumn,  collections  of  fruit,  roots,  etc.,  were 
made  for  me  by  the  President  and  Committee  of  the  Western  Fair,  held  at  London, 
Ontario,  and  by  the  Root  Growers'  Association  of  Toronto;  and  more  especially  are 
my  thanks  due  to  Mr.  Rennie,  the  well-known  seedsman  there.  These  specimeui^ 
were  sent  on  to  me,  and  I  secured  publicity  for  them  by  having  them  exhibited  at 
Mr.  Cuthbert's,  a  leading  seedf^man  here,  and  at  the  Smithfield  Club  Cattle  Show,  on 
Messrs.  Sutton  &  Son's  stand.  Favoui-able  notices  appeared  of  this  exhibit  in  the 
London  and  Provincial  newspapers. 

The  past  season  has  indeed  been  a  most  favourable  one  for  our  cattle  exporters  • 
and  the  trade,  when  conducted  with  the  care  and  experience  acquired  by  those  who 
have  been  engaged  in  it  for  many  years,  has,  1  am  informed,  been  attended  with 
more  favourable  results  than  heretofore.  The  rates  of  mortality  have  been  exceed- 
ingly low.  This  result  is,  in  no  small  degree,  due  to  the  precautions  taken  by  your 
Department,  and  your  most  efficient  staff  of  Veterinary  Inspectors,  at  the  j.orts  of 
embarkation,  to  secure  proper  space,  water,  and  ventilation  for  the  cattle.  There 
arc  no  such  regulations  at  the  United  States  ports,  the  consequence  being  that  the 
mortality  on  boats  plying  from  American  ports  has  been  conspicuously  greater  than  on 
those  running  fiom  the  St.  Lawrence.  Unfortunately,  the  underwriters  have 
nitherto  taken  the  losses  on  the  whole  trans-Atlantic  cattle  trade  as  the  basis  of 
their  calculations  for  rates  of  insurance.  1  am  happy  to  state,  however,  that  I  have 
recently  had  the  opportunity  of  placing  the  matter  before  the  leading  underwriters 

90 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


in  London  and  elsewhere,  pointing  out  to  them  that  our  trade,  in  consequence  of  the 
new  regulations  and  its  comparative  freedom  from  loss,  should  be  placed  upon  a 
separate  footing,  and  that  special  rates  of  insurance  should  be  granted  to  our  shippers. 
This,  I  believe  I  am  justified  in  saying,  will  be  done  during  the  ensuing  season.  The 
l^rices  obtained  for  our  stock  during  the  past  season  have  been,  until  recently,  in 
advance  of  previous  years,  owing,  no  doubt,  to  a  better  class  of  stock  having  been 
shipped.     Much  improvement,  however,  remains  to  be  effected  in  this  direction. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  animal  food  consumed  in  England  is,  as  you  are  aware, 
imported  from  Ireland  ;  and  as  the  production  there  must  naturally  have  an  import- 
ant influence  upon  our  exports,  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  quote  from  the  Eeturns  of 
Live  Stock  in  Ireland  for  the  year  1^80.  There  is  a  falling  off  of  146,752  head  of 
cattle,  compared  wth  1879;  and  of  456,542  sheep,  223,139  hogs,  and  14,887  horses. 
From  what  I  have  been  able  to  ascertain,  increased  supplies  from  the  continent  need 
not  be  looked  for  ;  whilst  on  the  other  hand,  with  the  return  of  prosperity,  and  the 
steady  and  considerable  increase  of  population  in  this  country,  a  greatly  enhanced 
demand  may  be  looked  for. 

I  understand  that  a  combination  of  the  leading  cattle  dealers  in  the  Dominion: 
has  secured  all  the  available  space  in  the  regular  lines  of  steamers  for  the  early  part 
of  next  season.  J^'ears  were  entertained  for  a  time,  that  this  would  lead  to  the 
exclusion  of  a  considerable  part  of  our  exportable  live  slock.  Arrangements,  how- 
ever, have  been  made  to  secure  freight  on  steamers  from  Halifax  and  Quebec,  which 
will  convey  some  15,000  head  of  cattle;  and,  as  a  new  enterprise  in  this  direction,  I 
am  imformed  that  these  steamers  will  run  out  in  ballast,  and  return  with  live  stock 
alone.  In  this  manner,  it  is  stated,  each  steamer  chartered  will  be  able  to  convey 
800  head  of  cattle  per  trip;  and  that  in  consequence  of  the  facility  with  which  live 
stock  can  be  placed  on  board,  and  the  little  delay  occasioned  to  the  steamers  whilst 
in  joort,  the  steamship  owners  are  confident  of  making  a  success  of  this  novel  venture. 

Another  effort,  it  appears,  is  to  be  made  to  import  meat  from  Texas  and  the 
Eiver  Plate,  by  means  of  the  steamship  "  Great  Eastern."  I  have  made  enquiries  as 
to  the  probable  effect  this  would  have  upon  our  importations  ;  and  from  what  I  can 
glean,  feel  satisfied  that  the  enterprise  must  beconie  a  failure;  unless  they  can  send 
a  far  superior  quality  of  beef  then  has  ever  yet  come  from  those  districts.  The 
masses  can  now  obtain  the  coarse  parts  of  meat  from  prime  beasts  at  a  reasonable 
figure,  and  the  only  effect  of  the  introduction  of  the  mahogany-coloured  Texan  beef, 
would  be  to  glut  a  market  which  is  already  full.  The  money  which  is  being  made  is 
upon  prime  beef,  which  is  disposed  of  at  high  prices  to  the  richer  classes. 

I  am  happy  to  inform  you  that  since  my  visit  to  Glasgow,  acting  under  instruc- 
tions from  Sir  John  Eose  and  Mr.  Lowe,  the  Secretary  of  your  Department,  when  the 
difficulty  arose  in  reference  to  an  alleged  outbreak  of  hog-cholera  on  board  the  steamship 
''Eernard  Castle,"  no  serious  complaint  has  been  made  as  regards  the  health  of  our 
livestock.  Vigilance  on  my  part  is,  however,  in  no  way  diminished,  by  reason  of  the 
extraordinary  anxiety  on  the  part  of  our  competitors  to  create  or  make  out  an  unclean 
bill  of  health  against  our  cattle  exports.  ]So  doubt  the  remarkable  freedom  of  our 
exported  live  stock  from  disease,  is  to  a  certain  extent  due  to  the  extraordinary 
efficiency  of  Professor  McEachran  and  his  staff  at  Quebec.  Although  such  vigilance 
may  have  cost  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  yet  when  it  is  taken  into  consideration 
that  our  tr  ide  will  thus  reach  close  upon  50,000  head  of  cattle,  representing  a  value  of 
six  to  seven  millions  of  dollars,  and  that  nearly  one-fifth  of  that  value  is  due  to  the 
special  facilities  enjoyed  by  Canadian  dealers,  owing  to  that  freedom  from  disease,  the 
extra  expenditure  is  certainly  not  money  wasted. 

!  A  large  number  of  store  cattle  have,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  been  shipped  from  the 
Dominion  to  this  country,  and  have  eagerly  been  snapped  up  by  British  feeders  at 
prices  ranging  from  £12  to  £18  sterling  per  head.  The  only  reason  I  can  give  for 
such  cattle  having  been  shipped  is  that  the  exporters,  having  engaged  space  on  steamers 
at  extraordinary  rates,  would  prefer  making  a  small  loss  on  such  stock,  to  breaking 
their  contract  with  the  steamship  owners.  It  would  be  much  preferable,  and  greatly 
to  the  interest  of  Canada,  that  these  cattle  should  come  forw^ard  as  finished  beef. 

91 


d4  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


I  am  sorry  to  inform  you  that,  this  year,  there  has  been  an  increase  of  cases  in 
"which  men,  coming  over  with  cattle,  have  not  been  provided  with  return  ticJcets  to 
Canada.  The  consequence  has  been  that  they  have  been  left  here  destitute,  and  have 
applied  to  the  mayor  for  relief,  Of  course,  situated  as  I  am,  I  have  no  means  to  assist 
these  men,  and  they  cannot  apply  to  the  United  States  consul.  The  consequence  is 
that  it  has  been  a  source  of  constant  trouble  to  me  to  get  them  shipped  back  to  the 
Dominion.  Some  arrangement,  I  think,  should  be  come  to,  making  it  imperative  upon 
cattle  shippers  to  furnish  men,  coming  over  in  charge  of  cattle,  with  return  passes  to 
the  Dominion.  Otherwise,  the  good  name  of  Canada  will  suifer.  Indeed,  it  does 
appear  hard  that  the  Liverpool  taxpayers  shoukl  have  to  pay  for  the  liic]s.  of  bond  fides 
on  the  part  of  Canadian  cattle  exporters. 

The  number  of  horses  imported  into  this  country  in  1880  will  show  a  marked 
decrease.  This  is  again  accounted  for  through  the  depression  amongst  small  farmers 
in  this  country,  and  the  consequent  necessity  of  their  disposing  of  their  stock ;  and  on 
the  other  hand,  the  increased  demand  in  the  United  States,  to  which  country  large 
numbers  of  Canadian  horses  have,  this  year,  found  their  way. 

AVhile  attending  the  Western  Fair  at  London,  Ontario,  I  was  introduced  to  Lieut. 
Colonel  Kerbreck  and  Captain  H.  de  La  Chere,  who  were  inspecting  horses  in  the 
Dominion,  with  the  view  to  purchasing  for  the  French  Government,  and  to  whom  I 
was  able  to  render  some  little  assistance  as  an  interpreter.  1  am  happy  to  be  able  to 
report  that,  after  having  visited  the  States,  these  gentlemen  were  decidedly  in  favour  of 
our  Canadian  stock;  although  they  did  not  fail  to  point  out  the  immense  advantage 
which  would  arise  from  the  introduction  of  a  better  class  of  stallions  than  were  being 
used.  According  to  their  ideas,  there  were  not  more  than  two  stallions  on  the  ground 
fit  for  the  purpose  of  breeding  stock  suitable  for  the  French  markets. 

Messrs.  JJendrie  &  Douglas,  of  Toronto  and  Hamilton,  have  imported  a  large 
number  of  horses  this  season,  and  these  have  been  of  unusually  good  quality,  and 
commanded  high  prices  and  a  quick  sale.  There  is  no  doubt  that  a  good  demand 
will  always  exist  in  this  country  for  first-class  stock  of  any  kind,  and  more  especially 
of  horses ;  whilst  those  wdio  ship  inferior  animals  will  undoubtedly  have  to  face  loss 
and  disappointment. 

The  sheep  trade  will  probably  be  as  remunerative,  if,  indeed,  not  more  so 
than  the  cattle  trade,  to  the  Dominion.  The  introduction  of  Shropshire  Downs, 
and  other  valuable  breeds  calculated  to  produce  the  lean  and  juicy  qualities 
of  mutton  essential  to  a  good  market  here,  has  been  actively  carried  on  during 
the  past  year;  and  the  in<ireasing  demand  in  this  country,  coupled  with  the  fact  that 
no  part  of  the  United  States,  through  climatic  and  other  reasons,  can  successfully 
compete  with  Canadian  breeders  of  sheep,  should  stimulate  our  farming  capitalists 
to  increased  entei'prise  ia  this  direction.  It  may  be  interesting  to  add  that  the 
supplies  of  mutton  from  the  continent  are  falling  short,  while  tie  home  flocks  in 
many  counties  have  been  fearfully  thinned  by  disease. 

In  my  previous  repoits  I  have  frequently  pointed  out  that  a  profitable  business 
may  be  conducted  in  condensed  milk,  from  the  Dominion;  and  I  am  happy  to  state 
that  the  attention  of  capitalists  has  been  directed  to  certain  portions  of  the  Province 
of  Quebec  which  are  most  favourably  adapted  for  the  production  of  this  article,  which 
is  dail}^  increasing  in  importance.  I  hope  in  my  next  report  to  be  able  to  state  that 
feeverai  factories  have  been  established  in  that  Province. 

The  egg  trade  between  the  Dominion  and  this  country  has  not  yet  reached  the 
extent  that  could  be  der^ired.  This  I  account  for  mainly  owing  to  the  very  imper- 
fect system  of  ti-ansportation  for  such  very  perishable  articles.  As  a  case  in  point,  a 
consignment  of  eggs  from  central  Canada  to  the  interior  of  England  recently  was 
allowed  to  remain  in  Montreal  for  upwards  of  a  fortnight  before  being  sent  on  to 
England.  01  course  everything  depends  upon  careful  packing  and  rapid  transit. 
These  conditions  observed.'  the  quantity  which  may  be  profitably  shipped  here  from 
the  Dominion  is,  practically  speakirjg,  illimitable.  Some  scheme  or  system  should  be 
devised  by  exporters  and  steamship  and  railway  companies,  for  a  rapid  service 
between  Canada  and  the  centres  ot  population  in  this  country.  A  reasonable  premium., 
for  special  delivery  would,  I  am  sure,  be  readily  paid. 

92 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


I  am  pleased  to  report  that  I  have  been  instrumental  in  introducing  a  very 
valuable  trade — during  the  past  year— in  timber  sections  for  machinery  fcr  various- 
manufacturing  purposes.  Heretofore  this  trade  has  been  conducted  by  the  Americans, 
who  purchased  the  raw  material  in  the  Dominion. 

It  is  surpi'ising  to  find  that  men  in  high  positions  in  this  country,  and  who  should 
be  well  informed,  still  cling  to  the  hope  that  with  the  return  of  prosperity  to  the 
American  continent,  home  consumption  there  will  be  increased,  and  that  ocean  freights 
will  also  rise,  and  thus,  from  both  these  causes,  the  volume  of  food  exports  to  this 
country  will  be  checked.  In  my  last  report  I  ventured  to  suggest  the  2:)robability 
that  with  the  introduction  of  steel-built  ships  and  other  scientific  improvements,  to- 
which  their  appears  to  be  no  limit,  there  would  be  a  reduction,  rather  than  an  increase 
in  freights  ;  and,  although  this  has  not  already  taken  place,  1  believe  that  in  the  near 
future  it  will  do  so,  in  consequence  of  economical  improvements  made  in  ship-building, 
and  in  running  the  enormous  steamers  which  are  now  being  built.  At  all  events,, 
should  the  rates  of  freight  not  decrease,  it  is  highly  improbable  that  they  will  advance. 
Still,  however  black  this  outlook  may  be  to  the  British  farmer,  it  is  a  decided 
advantage  to  his  Canadian  competitor. 

I  have  again,  in  concluding  this  short  and  imperfect  report,  to  acknowledge 
valuable  assistance  received  from  my  colleagues,  both  in  the  Dominion  and  in  this 
country,  and  from  many  official  and  private  friends, — especially  during  my  late 
journey  to  Manitoba  and  the  North-West.  I  am  also  under  considerable  obligation 
to  the  representatives  of  the  various  Canadian  steamship  lines  ;  and  last,  though  far 
from  the  least,  to  my  annually  increasing  list  of  friends  connected  with  the  British 
]3ress. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

JOHN  DYKE. 

Canadian  Government  Emigration  Agent ^^ 
To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture,  Ottawa,  Canada. 


93 


•14  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


APPENDIX  A. 


Eeturn  of  Emi2;ration  from  Liverpool,  for  the  eleven  months  ending  30th  November 

1&79  and  1880. 


1879. 

Destination. 

1880. 

Under 
Act. 

Not 

under 

Act. 

Total. 

1 

Under 
Act. 

Not 

under 

Act. 

Total. 

i  j 

a 
1— 1 

i 
1 

at 
Q 

90,987 

13,909 

4,341 

90,987 

13,909 

4,341 

United  States 

Under  Act  not  given. 

153,048 

18,035 

3,827 

153,048 

18,035 
3,827 

62,061 

4,126 

.'Quebec 

Nova  Scotia 

New  Brunswick ....«, '« 

514 



.  ..Prince  Edward  Island, 

Newfoundland 

990 

321 

321 

669 

....New  South  Wales 

to 

New  Zealand.. 

1 

Si 



< 
u 

76 

927 

130 

521 

1,381 

76 

927 

130 

521 

1,381 

131 

1,125 
115 
534 

1,102 
20 

131 

1,125 

115 

534 

1,102 
20 

55 

198 

a 

1 East  Indies 

West  Indies 

1      ■ 

15 

Wpst  Coast  Africa 

13 

Sonth  America • 

279 

Honolulu 

20 

1 

1 

1 113,262 

113,262 

1 

178,258 

178,253 

\ 

1 

66,473 

1,477 

1,477 

1 

Net  Incr 

ease 

64,996 

u 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


APPENDIX  B. 


Return  of  Emigrants  and    Steamers    sailed   from  Liverpool   for    Canada,    for   the 
eleven  months  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


■ 

Steamers. 

^Quebec. 

Halifas 

a 

S3 

0 

-,  N.S. 
1 

St.  John, 
N.B. 

Cabin.               ^ 

0 

Steerage. 

Date. 

C3 

5 

a 
0 

03 

Total 

1880. 
Jan       1 

Allan  Line. 
Sardinian 

21 
20 
20 
35 
11 
3 
26 
34 
27 
15 
65 
36 
74 

45 

81 
41 
30 

74 
40 
55 
62 
80 

21 
20 
20 
35 
11 
3 
26 
34 
27 
15 
65 
36 
74 
45 
81 
41 
30 
87 
49 
34 
82 

■***63" 

59 

85 

50 

19 

70 

33 

51 

85 

44 

44 

78 

67 

12 

59 

48 

66 

103 

109 

29 

139 

66 

59 

152 

192 

45 

160 

144 

25 

122 

47 

74 
40 
55 
62 
80 

72 

102 

86 

95 

do       8 

Moravian 



60 

do     15 



75 

do     22 

Sarmatian... 

Peruvian.. ,.,. 

97 

do      29 

91 

do      31 

Caspian..... 

*' 

3 

Feb.      5 

48 

72 

102 

86 

91 

167 

121 

194 

302 

243 

37 

74 

do      12 

Sardinian 

106 

do      19 

Moravian 

129 

do      26 

Nova  Scotian 

Polynesian 



if>i 

Mar.      4 

1 



91   ^     156 

do      11 

Sarmatian 

167  1     90?? 

do      18 

Circassian 

121 
194 
302 
243 

37 
823 
828 
173 
951 
434 
814 
166 
665 
651 

92 
483 
614 

23 
502 
559 

28 
702 
458 

30 
490 
477 

22 
488 
364 

25 
342 
278 

13 
291 
348 

38 
279 
236 

25 
238 
268 

195 

do     25 

Hibernian 

239 

Apl.      1 
do       8 

Sardinian.... 

383 

Peruvian 

284 

do      13 

Caspian 

67 

do      15 

Polynesian ". 

87 
49 

823 
828 

910 

do     22 
do     27 

Moravian 

Nova  Scotian 

"'3*4 

"'173' 



877 
207 

do     29 

Sarmatian 

82 

951 
434 
814 

......... 

1  03S 

May      6 
do 

Waldensian 

Circassian..... 

"**59' 
""1*9 

***i*66 
"*9*2" 





434 
877 
225 

do     11 

Hibernian 

do     13 

Sardinian 

85 
50 

665 
651 

[^ 



^fiO 

do      20 

Peruvian.... 

701 

do      25 

Prussian..; 

m 

do      27 

Polynesian 

Moravian. 

Nova  Scotian 

70 
33 

483 
614 



553 

June     3 
do       8 

...  .^.^. 

"2*3" 





647 

74 

do     10 

Sarmatian 

85 
44 

502 
559 



"^ 

587 

do     17 

Circassian 



603 

do     22 

Hibernian,.. «  

44 

28 

72 

do      24 

July     1 

do       6 

Sardinian , 

Peruvian 

78 
67 

"*59' 
48 

702 
458 

"'490' 

477 



780 
5*^5 

Prussian >.  

12 

30 



42 

do       8 

Polynesian 

549 

do      15 
do     20 
do     22 
do     29 
Aug.     3 
do       6 
do     12 
do     17 
do     19 
do     26 

Moravian 

Nova  Scotian 

■'**66* 

*"2*2' 

......... 

" 

525 
88 

Sarmatian 

103 

109 

488 
364 

RQI 

Circassian 

Hibernian 

473 

29 

25 

54 

Sardinian 

Peruvian 

139 
66 

342 
278 

481 

^44 

Caspian 

69 

13 

72 

Polynesian 

152 
102 

"'ieo* 

144 

291 

348 

"279" 
236 





'•^ 

Moravian 

450 

do     28  Nova  Scotian 

45 

38 

*  * 

83 

Sept.     2Sarmatian 

439 

do       9 
do      14 
do      16 
do      23 

Circassian 

380 

Hibernian ,^- 



25 

25 





^lO 

Sardinian....... ,,„ 

122        238 
47        268 



qcA 

Peruvian....... 

315 

95 


44  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (Xo.  12.) 


^.  1S8I 


APPENDIX  ^.—Continued. 


Eeturn  of  Eraigrants  and  Steamers  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Canada,  etc. — Continued. 


Date. 


1880. 

Sept,  28 
do      30 

Oct.  7 
do      12 


Quebec. 


Steamer. 


Allan  Zine— Continued. 


do 
do 
do 
do 
Nov. 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 


Caspian 

PolyneBian 

Moravian 

Xova  Scotian. 
Sarmatian  ..... 

Circassian , 

Sardinian 

Hibernian 

Peruvian^ , 

Caspian  .  ... ... 

Polynesian 

Moravian 

Nova  Scotian. 
Sarmatian , 


Halifax,  N.S. 


St,  John, 
N.B. 


Total, 


268 
222 


69  217 
32  177 
41        156 


13 


211 


Jan. 

do 
Mar. 
Apl. 

do 

do 

do 

do 
May 

do 

do 

do 
Jane 

do 

do 

do 

do 
July 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Aug. 

do 

do 

do 
Sept. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Oct. 


2,324'  13,834 


Dc 


Line. 


Quebec 

Brooklyn.. 
Brooklyn.. 
Dominion 

Quebec 

Montreal,.. 
29  Brooklyn.. 
...Ontario... 
6  Toronto.... 
13,Teutonia  ., 
20  Dominion, 

27|Quebec 

3  Montreal.. 
10,  Brooklyn.. 

12!Texa8 

IZ'Ontario.... 
24;Toronto.,., 
1  Dominion, 
S^Quebec. 


Montreal., 
Brooklyn., 
Ontario- 
Toronto.... 

12iDominion. 

18  Quebec...., 

28  Montreal.. 
2  Brooklyn  . 
9  Ontario.... 

16, Toronto..., 


23|Dominion. 
30  Quebec... 

...JTexas 

6;Brook]yn.. 


18 
16 

7 
14 
11 

1 
24 

7 
23 

'I 

2 
20 

9 
12 
17 
13 
18 
27 
24 
19 
29 
16 
10 

8 
IT 


49 
93 

"74 
40 
46 
41 
35 
33 1 
I4I 

n 

32 

50 

33 

49 

52 

25 

31, 

30 

29, 

41 

13 

60 

40 

37 

11 

11 


27 


13 


16 


10 
21 
14 
4 
22 


16 


18 


1,154 


17  ,.. 

361... 
3ll... 

14;... 
62  ... 


2,609 


22 

96 


Total. 


3,478 


16 

43 

268 

353 

222 

257 

6 

19 

217 

286 

177 

209 

156 

200 

■  18 

34 

211 

224 

17 

27 

36 

57." 

31 

45 

14 

18 

6^ 

I    84 

16,443119,921 


7 

10 
18 
16 

7 
14 
111 

1 
24i 

7 
23 


15 

15 

12 

12 

11 

18 

15 

25 

49 

67 

93 

109 

... 

7 

74 
40 
46 
41 
35 
33 
14 


5 

n| 

4 

32 

17 

50 

9 

33 

2 

49 

20 

52 

9 

2^ 

12 

31 

17 

30 

^13 

29 

18 

41 

27 

I3I 

24 

60 

19 

40 

29 

37 

16 

11 

10 

11 

8 
17 

1 

22I 

51 

47 
65 
42 
56 
16 
16 
36 
67 
42 
51 
75 
34 
43 
47: 
42 
£9 
40 
84 
59 

2e 

2T 

21 

8 

39^ 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


APPENDIX  B.— Continued. 


Eeturn  of  Emigrants  and  Steamers  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Canada,  etc. — ContlnuecL 


Datf 


1880. 


^Steamers. 


JJominion  Line — Continued. 


Oct.  14  Ontario... 
do  23  Toronto. . 
do      28  i  Dominion 


Apl. 

do 
May 

do 
June 

do 

do 
July 

do 

do 
Aug. 

do 

do 
Sept. 

do 

do 
Oct. 

do 

do 


Beaver  Line. 


Lake 
Loke 
Lake 
Lake 
Lake 
i.ake 
Lake 
Lake 
20  Lake 
31 1  Lake 
7JLake 
18|Lake 
28,  Lake 
9  Lake 
17jLake 
28  Lake 
12  Lake 
IGlLake 
28  Lake 


Winnipeg... 
Champlain, 
Nepigon..... 
Winnipeg  .. 
Manitoba..., 
Champlain. 

Nepigon 

Winnipeg  .. 
Manitoba... 
Champlain. 
Nepigon  .... 
Winnipeg  .. 
Manitoba  .. 
Champlain. 
Nepigon  .... 
Winnipeg... 
Manitoba.,,. 
Champlain, 
Nepigon 


I 

Quebec,      j Halifax,  N.S. 


438 


115 


1,075 


4 
17 
17 
11 

12; 

17 

17l 

25! 

19| 

7 

10 

i 

243 


St.  John, 

N.S. 


17 


53 


Total. 


o 


Total. 


17         20i 

14!         21! 

5i         32 


115 


455'    1,128,    1,583 


18 

8 

15 

3& 

15 

8 

8 

4 

23 

25 

16 

17 

46 

21 

20 

33 

27 

8 

10 


243        358 


SUMMARY, 


Allan  Line  ,. I  2,324,13,834 

Dominion  Line ...... ..c i  438|    1,075 

Beaver  Line... J  115,       243 

Total 2,877  15,152 


1,154     2,609 
17  63] 


1,171|    2,6621 


3,478;i6,443 
455     1,128 


115 


4,048 


243 


17,814 


19,921 

1,583 

358 

21,  862 


12— '7 


97 


44  Viciorin. 


Sessional  Papers  (N'o.  32») 


/v.  !881 


APPENDIX  C. 

Eetitrn    of    Emigration  fi-om  the  Port  of  Liverpool,  for  the  month  ending  30th 

September,  1880. 


Duder  Act. 

Destination. 

Not  and 

er  Act. 

Total 

Vessels. 

Kmigrants. 

Vessels. 

Emigrants. 

Emigrants. 

Under  Act  not  given. 

United  States 

Quebec 

Nova  ticotia ,.....,-. 

New  Brunswick ..... 

Prince  Edward  Island 

48 

14 

2 

16,739 

2,194 

87 

16,739 

2,194 

87 

.. 

Newfoundland 

Victoria .    

New  South  Wales 

.::::::;*::::::' 
' 

20 

20 

< 

iVew  Zealand  ., ... 

Queensland  » - 

China - , 

3 

7 
1 
5 
6 

20 

132 

2 

39 

95 

20 

^> 

East  Indies 

132 
2 

c 

West  ^ndies.... - 

P 

Africa  ..... 

39 
95 

87 

19,328 

19,328 

September,  1879,  14,739;  September,  1«80,  19,328;  ^Increase  on  month,  4,589. 


^For  the  month  ending  30th  October,  1880. 


Under  Act  not  given. 

United  States 

47 

11 

2 

12,979 

1,145 

53 

12,979 

1,145 

53 

Quebec  -- 

Nova  Sr'nt.ifi, . ..  ........... 

s 

> 

to 

NpwrfnnndlaTid                 . . ... 

o 

Victoria 

New  South  Wales 

2 

70 

70 

o 

New  Zealand 1  

^ 

Onpprmlfl.nfi .        .  .....  ........   ............ ........ 

1 

China.....  

2 
7 
2 
5 
6 

8 

253 

12 

72 

103 

8 
263 

D 

West  Indies       

12 

72 

South  America 

103 

84 

14,696 

14,696 

October,  1879,  15,062  ;  October,  1880,  14,695 ;    Decrease  on  month,  367. 

9b 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Appendix  C. — Eeturn  of  Emigration  from  the  Fori  of  Liverpool,  for  the  month 
ending  30th  November,  1880 — Concluded. 


Onder  Act. 

Destination. 

Not  under  Act. 

Total 

Vessels. 

Emigrants. 

Vessels. 

Emigrants. 

Emigrants. 

Under  Act  not  given. 

United  States  -..,-. 

Quebec  , 

1 

7,918 
224 
231 

7,918 
224 

. 

Nova  Scotia 

New  Brunswick .....    . 

231 
1... , 

bgivei 

Prince  Edward  Island 

Newfoundland 

Victoria > ...• 

1 

26  •■ 

26 

1 

New  South  Wales. 

New  Zealand...... 

o 

< 

a> 

Queensland , 

China 

East  Indies 

' .3  ' 

9 
5 
5 

8 

10  ' 

244 
29 
52 

109 

Vo'** 

244 

CI 

West  Indies , 

Africa 

29 
52 

South  America , 

109 

85 

8,843 

8,843 

November,  1879,  10,141;  November,  1880,  8,843;  Decrease  on  month,  1,298. 


1)9 


12--^i 


44  Yictorii 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


APPENDIX  A. 

^Return  of  Emigrants  and  Steamers  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Canada  for  the  month. 

ending  30th  September,   1880. 


Allan  Line. 

Quebec. 

Halifax. 

! 

Total. 

Total. 

Date.                 Steamers. 

1  Cabin. 

1 
1 

Steerage. 

Cabin. 

Steerage. 

Cabin, 

Steerage. 

Sept 
do 

2 
9 
14 
16 
23 
30 
28 

Tc 

[ 

160 

144 

279 
236 

160 
144 
25 
122 
47 
87 
27 

279 
236 

25 
238 
268 
268 

16 

439 

Circassian 

! 

380 

do 

Hibernian.. 

25 

25 

50 

do 

122 

47 
87 

238 

268 
268 

360 

do 

!..!!.!!...  ..""!*!!"!. 

315 

do 

Polynesian 

355 

do 

Caspian 

27 

16 

43 

>tal  by  Allan  Line. ......... 

560 

1,289 

52 

41 

612 

1,330 

1,942 

Sept. 
do 

Dominion  Line. 

2|Rrnnk1vn                 .  .. 

24 
19 
29 
16 
10 
8 

60 
40 
37 
11 
11 

24 
19 
29 
16 
10 
8 

60 
40 
37 
11 
11    . 

84 

q 

Ontario 



59 

do 

16 
23 

30 
"^0 

Toronto  

Dominion 

Quebec      .  ....  .  .    .. 

66 

do 

27 

do 

21 

do 

Texas  

8 

Total  by  Dominion  Line 

Beater  Line. 

9  T,nlrp  niiflTnnlflin..   . 

106 

7 
3 
8 

159 

106 

159 

26& 

Sept. 
do 

14 
17 
25 

7 
3 

8 

14 
17 
25 

21 

17 

28 

Lake  Nepigon 

— — 

20 

do 

33 

Total  by  Beaver  Line 

do        Allan  Line 

do        Dominion  Line 

52'*' 

18 
560 
106 

56 

1,289 

159 

ii*" 

18 
612 
106 

56 

1,330 

159 

■74 

1,942 

265 

Tc 

tal  

684 

1,504 

. 

41 

736 

1,545 

2,281 

For  the  month  ending  Slst  October,  1880. 


Oct. 

Allan  Line. 
7  Moravian 

35 

1 
222      . 

25 
13 
69 
32 
44 
16 

222 
6 
217 
177 
156 
18 

257 

do 

12  Nova  iScotiau 

13 

6 

19 

do 

14  Sarmatian  

21  Circftssian 

69 
32 

•     217      . 
177      . 
156 


286 

do 



I'e" 

:::::::;::.::: 

209 

do 
do 

28  Sardinian 

28  Hibernian  ,. 

Total  by  Allan  Line.. 

200 
34 

180 

772 

29 

24 

209 

796 

1,005 

100 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Appendix  A. — Eeturn  of  Emigrants  and  Steamers  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Canada 
for  the  month  ending  3l8t  October,  1880 — Continued. 


Dominion  Line. 

Quebec. 

Halifax. 

T 

otal. 
Steerage. 

Total. 

Date. 

Steamers. 

Cabin. 

Steerage. 

Cabin. 

Steerage. 

Cabin. 

Oct.      6 
do     14 

Brooklyn. 

14 
5 

53 

8 

1 

22 
20 
21 
32 

17 
17 
14 

22 
20 
21 
32 

39 
37 

do      23 

Toronto  ..,«  

nmninifin                    .       

25 

do     28 

....... , ...... 

37 

Total  by  Dominion  Line 

95 

..... 

53 

95 

148 

Oct,    12 
do      19 
do     28 

Beaver  Line. 

19 

7 
10 



8 

1 

19 

7 

10 

27 

Lake  Champlain ., 

Tjflkft  Nfinicrtn    ..  .  ... 

7 
10 

9 

180 

53 

242 

36 

772 
95 

9 

209 

53 

36 

796 
95 

45 

do       Allan  Line 

29 

'24 

1,005 

An         Dnmininn  T^infi 

149 

" 

To 

tal 

903 

29 

24 

271 

927 

1  198 

For  the  month  ending  30th  November,  1880. 


Not.     4 

Allan  Line. 

Peruvian 

Caspian > 

13 

211 

13 
10 
21 
13 
4 
22 

211 
17 
36 
31 
14 
62 

224 

do       7 

10 
21 
14 
4 
22 

17 
36 
31 
14 
62 

27 

do     11 

Polvnesian 

57 

do     18 

45 

do     23 

18 

do     25 

84 

Tc 

tal  by  Allan  Line 

13 

211 

71 

160 

84 

371 

455 

101 


44  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


00 


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bog 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  31. 

ANNUAL   EBPORT   OF  BRISTOL  (ENG.)  AGENT. 

(J.  W.  Down.) 

Bath  Bridge, 
Bristol,  31st  December,  1880. 

Sir, — In  presenting  a  condensed  report  of  the  labours  of  the  year,  permit  me  to 
state  that  I  commenced  my  efforts  in  the  early  part  of  the  season,  somewhat  under  a 
diffei'ent  plan  to  the  previous  year,  namely,  by  distributing  printed  matter,  chiefly 
through  the  post.  I  obtained  various  Directories,  took  the  address  of  farmers,  bailiffs, 
land  stewards,  &c.,  and  commenced  posting  pamphlets  to  those  in  Somerset,  and  con- 
tinued throughout  the  year  to  post  to  farmers  in  other  counties  in  this  manner. 
During' the  year  I  posted  28,942  pamphlets  ;  only  42*7  out  of  this  number  were  returned 
through  the  post  "as  gone  away,"  "left  no  address,"  or  "not  known  ;  "  thus  28,515 
reached  the  hands  of  farmers,  &c. 

These  pamphlets  so  posted  were  the  followingj^namely  :  — 

The  Eastern  Township  Pamphlet ; 
l<armers'  Delegates'  Eepoi-t ; 
General  Hand-Book ; 
Ontario's  Cattle  Pamphlet ; 
New  Pamphlet,  issued  under  the  authority  of  the  Colonial  Office. 

Besides  the  above,  I  have  distributed  over  20,000  small  pamphlets  and  cards^ 
obtained  from  the  Messrs.  Allan  in  Liverpool.  These  with  numerous  other  pamphlets* 
and  printed  matter  received  from  time  to  time  from  London,  Liverpool  and  Canada, 
were  distributed  chiefly  in  the  cattle  market  on  large  market  days. 

Although  the  numbers  I  have  sent  out  to  Canada  this  year  are  not  so  large  as  in 
some  previous  years,  they  were  of  a  far  better  class.  The  majority  of  them  took  out 
means,  and  were  nearly  all  of  the  agricultural  class,  numbers  of  whom  settled  on 
land,  and  have  written  home  satisfactory  letters  to  their  friends.  I  issued,  during  the 
yeai',  to  parties  going  to  Canada  direct  by  the  Allan  line,  137  tickets ;  47  of  these  tickets 
were  to  men  with  families  which  varied  in  number  from  two  to  twelve,  and  would  average 
seven  souls  ;  87  tickets  were  to  single  men,  and  three  to  female  domestics.  Many  of 
the  single  men  were  young  farmers  who  took  means  with  them  to  settle  on  land. 
Some  were  men  whoso  wives  and  families  were  left  behind,  and  some  ten  or  twelve  of 
them  have  sent  back  prepaid  tickets,  for  their  families  to  go  out  early  this  coming 
spiing. 

1  issued  21  tickets  during  the  year  to  parties  who  elected  to  go  via  New  York, 
and  booked  them  through  to  Ontario  and  Manitoba,  numbering  in  all  53  souls,  out  of 
which  there  were  nine  small  families  who  took  between  them  over  £3,000.  Part  of 
them  settled  near  London  in  Ontario,  the  others  in  Manitoba  or  the  North- West. 

Several  farmers  from  Somersetshire  went  to  Canada  during  the  year  via  New 
York  by  the  Bristol  line,  sailing  fi-om  this  city.  These  farmers  had  been  supplied 
with  printed  matter  by  me,  and  had  been  to  me  for  advice,  but  would  go  from  Bristol 
on  account  of  being  able  to  get  out  at  £6  6s.  Od.  from  their  own  homes,  thus 
saving  the  journey  and  expense  to  Liverpool.  In  all  cases  I  advised  them  to 
take  their  tickets  through  to  their  destination,  and  in  every  case  that  came  to  my 
notice  they  did  so.  I  saw  many  of  their  tickets  made  out  through  to  London  and 
Toi-onto,  Untario.  I  also  advised  all  to  report  themselves  on  arrival  in  Ontario  to  the 
Government  agents,  who  would  render  them  advice  and  assistance  as  to  settle- 
ment, &c. 

103 


4  4  yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


T  havtj  reooivcd  many  letters  during  the  year  from  farmers  in  Manitoba,  the 
^orth-West,  Ontario,  and  other  parts  of  Canada,  whom  I  have  seint  out  in  pre- 
vious years,  and  am  liappy  to  say,  none  complain,  all  are  satisfied,  and  speak  in  the 
highest  terms  of  the  country. 

I  am  satistied  that  the  posting  of  pamphlets  to  farmers  as  I  am  doing  is  a  good 
plan,  for  the  pamphlet  gets  to  the  very  person's  hands  whom  it  is  intended  for,  and  I 
know  of  several  farmers  now  preparing  for  Canada  who  would  never  have  thought  of 
the  Dominion  had  not  a  pamphlet  been  posted  them.  I  fully  expect  Delegate  Spar- 
row's report  will  assist  many  Grloucestershire  farmers  to  a  good  home  in  Canada. 
No  man  could  speak  better  of  a  country  than  Mr.  Sparrow  does  of  the  Dominion,  and 
many  are  waiting  anxiously  for  his  report. 

I  have  the  largest  correspondence  just  now  from  farmers  in  different  counties  I 
ever  had  before  at  this  season,  and  I  have  every  prospect  of  increasing  my  numbers 
another  3'ear. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

J.  W.  DOWN, 

GovernmenPEmigration  Agent. 

To  the  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


104 


44  Victcria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.)  A.  1881 


No.  32, 

ANI^UAL  EEPORT  GLASGOW,  SCOTLAND,  AGENT. 

(Mr.  Thomas  Grahame). 

4i),  St.  Enoch  Square, 

Glasgow,  6tli  December,  1880. 

Sir, — In  accordance  with  instructions  I  have  the  honour  herewith  to  submit  my 
report  for  the  year  1 880  up  to  the  HOth  N"ovember. 

At  the  date  of  my  report  last  year  there  were  several  tenaot  farmer  dele- 
gates who  had  not  held  their  meetings  for  the  presentation  of  their  reports  to 
those  who  had  sent  them.  The  first  of  these  meetings  was  held  at  Annan  on 
the  9th  of  January  by  Mr.  Gordon,  the  delegate  from  South  Dumfriesshire. 
There  was  a  very  large  and  influential  attendance,  chiefly  tenant  farmers;  the 
report,  which  was  a  very  able  one,  being  received  with  great  satisfaction.  As  a 
result  a  large  number  of  enquiries  have  been  made  and  a  considerable  number  of 
farmers  have  gone  to  various  parts  of  Canada  from  that  district  during  last  summer. 

On  the  19th  January.  Mr.  Wallace,  the  delegate  fromThornhill  district,  held  his^ 
meeting  at  Thornhill.  Here  again  there  was  a  largo  attendance  of  farmers  and  an 
excellent  report  given  by  the  delegate,  which  was  very  well  received  by  the  audi- 
ence. Fj'om  communications  I  have  had  with  the  district  since,  I  am  aware  that 
good  practical  results  have  flowed  from  this  report.  The  specimens  of  the  produc- 
tions of  Canada  shown  })y  Mr.  Wallace,  though  on  a  small  scale,  excited  a  great  deal 
of  curiosity  and  attention. 

On  the  20th  January,  Mr.  Welsh,  the  delegate  from  the  Canonbie  district  of 
Dumfriesshire  and  Roxboroughshire,  gave  his  report  at  Canonbie  to  a  very  large 
audience.  The  report  was  very  full  and  exhaustive,  and  gave  great  satisfaction  to 
those  who  were  present,  eliciting  afterwards  a  large  number  of  enquiries  from 
farmers  and  their  sons  thinking  of  emigrating. 

On  the  27th  February,  I  attended  the  meeting  called  by  Mr.  James  Bruce  of 
CoUithie,  Gartley,  delegate  from  Aberdeenshire.  It  was  held  in  Aberdeen,  and  though 
the  audience  was  not  large  a  great  deal  of  interest  was  taken  in  Mr.  Bruce's  report, 
which  was  a  very  elaborate  one,  going  very  fully  into  the  statistics  of  our  country. 
Mr.  Bruce  has  since  very  much  amplified  this  report  and  has  been  using  strong 
endeavours  towards  inducing  farmers  in  Aberdeenshire  to  seek  new  homes  in  the 
various  Provinces  of  our  country.  Throughout  the  winter  months  and  well  into 
spring  I  held  a  great  number  of  informal  meetings  in  conjunction  with  many  of  the 
delegates  of  last  year  for  the  purpose  of  meetmg  with  farmers,  their  sons  and  other 
suitable  persons  who  meditated  going  out,  but  who  wanted  further  information,  and 
-as  a  result  of  these  interviews  and  the  information  given  them,  large  numbers  were 
induced  to  seek  their  fortunes  in  our  couutry,  some  going  to  the  various  older  Pro- 
vinces, but  the  great  majority  to  Manitoba,  a  considerable  number  going  via  Glas- 
gow, from  w^hich  port  I  saw  four  different  parties  off.  A  number  of  these  people 
had  capital  varying  from  a  few  hundred  up  to  several  thousand  pounds. 

1  also  held  a  number  of  meetings  on  the  invitation  of  Farmers'  Clubs  and  other- 
wise, at  which  I  delivered  addresses  upon  Canada  productive  of  satisfactory 
results,  as  I  had  many  inquiries  proceeding  from  them  which  ended  in  numbers 
going  out.  At  all  these  meetings  and  on  all  available  occasions  I  took  opportunity 
to  distribute  the  latest  pamphlets  and  matter  generally  referring  to  our  country. 

On  the  Yth  of  April  I  received  instructions  to  go  into  the  Counties  of  York- 
shire and  Lancashire  for  the  purpose  of  holding  meetings  with  the  view  of  send- 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


ing  tenant  farmer  delegates  from  these  and  surrounding  districts  in  a  similar  manner 
to  last  year.  A  number  of  eligible  names  were  proposed  by  those  attending  them 
as  appropriate  persons  to  send  out  as  delegates.  Further  instructions  having  come 
to  me  through  the  High  Ck)mmissioner,  Sir  A.  T.  Gait,  the  number  was  limited  so 
that  it  fell  to  my  lot  to  select  four  delegates.  These  were  Mr.  Sagar,  of  Waddington, 
near  Clitheroe,  Lancashire  ;  Mr.  Gre(^'ge  Curtis,  Silsden,  near  Leeds,  Yorkshire  ;  Mr. 
George  Broderick,  Hawes,  Wensleydale,  Yorkshire;  and  Mr.  Peter  Imrie,  of  Oawder- 
c'uilt,  Mary  hill,  Lanarkshire.  1  think  they  will  all  have  proved  themselves  appro- 
priate men  for  the  duties  imposed  upon  them.  I  feel  certain  similar  good  results 
will  flow  from  their  trip  to  Canada,  as  was  the  case  with  the  delegates  of  last  year; 
and  as  a  verification  of  that  statement  I  can  only  refer  to  the  large  and  enthusiastic 
attendance  of  farmers  at  the  meeting  held  by  Mr.  Curtis  at  Skipton  on  the  15th  of 
last  month,  for  the  presentation  of  his  report.  Arrangements  are  being  made  for  the 
holding  of  meetings  by  other  delegates,  and  I  have  no  doubt  they  will  prove 
equally  satisfactory. 

In  the  course  of  conversation  at  the  interview  which  I  had  with  the  High 
Commissioner  in  Liverpool,  in  May  last,  I  suggested  the  advisability  of  our  having 
an  exhibit  of  Canadian  productions  of  all  kinds,  so  far  as  they  could  be  obtained  for 
the  occasion,  at  the  Eoyal  Show,  at  Carlisle,  which  was  held  from  the  10th  to  the 
17th  July.  Sir  Alexander  Gait  approved  of  the  view  which  I  took  in  this  matter, 
and  I  am  under  great  obligations  to  him  for  the  kind  assistance  which  he  has  on  all 
occasions  given  me  in  the  furtherance  of  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  extension  of 
Cana<iian  interests  in  this  country,  as  well  as  in  this  particular  case,  and  the  concern 
which  he  has  taken  in  ray  endeavors  in  this  respect.  The  kindly  supervision  which 
he  took  of  what  has  been  done,  and  the  speeches  which  he  made  on  several  occasions 
connected  with  the  show,  were  productive  of  great  benefit  to  Canada.  The  time  was^ 
so  short  for  the  preparation  of  the  exhibit  that  there  was  no  opportunity  to  obtain 
any  large  quantity  of  articles  from  Canada,  nor  were  those  that  I  did  get  of  the 
extent  or  importance  I  could  have  desired  to  make  a  truly  representative  exhibit  of 
the  products  of  our  country.  I,  however,  did  the  best  in  my  power,  in  requesting 
my  friends,  and  writing  to  all  whom  I  thought  might  be  of  assistance  to  rac.  I 
am,  in  the  first  place,  deej^ly  indebted  to  Colonel  Dennis,  and  Mr.  Dawson  of  the 
Geological  Society  of  Montreal,  for  an  excellent  assortment  of  the  minerals  of  Canada 
sent  to  me,  and  also  to  Mr.  IJridges,  of  the  County  of  Simcoe,  Ontario,  for  a  large 
number  of  specimens  of  gi*ains,  seeds,  &c.  Mr.  Dyke,  our  -Agent  in  Liver- 
pool, also  heartily  co-operated  with  me  in  the  matter  and  YQvy  greatly  enhanced 
the  appearance  of  the  exhibit  by  a  large  variety  of  articles  which  he  sent 
me  for  the  occasion,  grains  in  a  variety  of  shapes,  grass  from  Manitoba,  and  a  good 
assortment  of  other  articles.  It  would  take  up  too  much  space  to  enumerate  all  who 
were  of  assistance  to  me  in'^the  matter,  but  I  may  state_^  briefly  that  almost 
all  the  delegates  of  last  year,  Mr.  Beattie  of  Preston  Hall,  Mr.  Crighton  of  Carlisle, 
and  many  others  were  of  essential  service  to  me  in  this  respect.  There  can  be  no 
doubt  the  exhibit  created  a  very  favourable  impression,  and  was  visited  by  tens  of 
thousands  of  people  during  the  show  week.  The  comments  of  the  Press, 
weje  very  satisfactory,  and  the  benefits  to  Canada  from  the  holding  of  it  are 
acknowledged  on  all  hands  to  be  very  great.  Representatives  of  other  Colonies 
present,  expressed  themselves  as  being  very  desirous  of  following  the  example 
given  them  by  our  exhibit.  A  large  porportion  of  those  visiting  the  stand 
were  small  farmers  and  their  families  from  comparatively  remote  districts,  and  the 
avidity  with  which  they  received  all  the  publications  which  were  obtainable  showed 
their  desire  to  have  a  knowledge  of  what  our  country  really  is,  and  these  people, 
othei'wise,  might  not  have  had  an  opportunity  of  knowing  anything  about  it.  The 
tent  was  crowded  from  morning  till  night  every  day,  and  some  fifty  thousand 
pamphlets  in  ail,  largo  and  small,  distributed,  and  oven  then  I  had  not  sufficient,  as  I 
could  have  distri bated  ten  thousand  more.  I  had  long  conversations  with  large 
numbers  of  people  during  the  week  who  intend  emigrating,  many  of  them  with 
considerable  capital.     Some  were  going  at  once,  and  others  not  until  they  could  make 

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arraugeraents  for  the  disposal  of  their  farms.  I  think  it  of  the  highest  importance 
that  simihir  exhibits  on  a  much  larg.er  scale,  if  possible,  should  be  made  at  the  Royal 
Highland  Society's  and  Eoyal  Irish  Show,  annually.  I  feel  certain  if  this  were  done 
it  would  prove  of  great  beneHt  to  Canada. 

I  also  visited  the  Highland  Society's  Show  at  Kelso,  and  met  with  a  numberof  peo- 
ple wanting  information  from  me,  and  I  distributed  a  large  quantity  of  pamphlets,  &c. 

During  the  month  of  August,  in  accordance  with  my  instructions,  I  went  to  the 
estate  in  the  Western  Isles  of  Mrs.  Gordon,  of  Cluny,  and  held  a  number  of  meetings, 
with  the  view  of  promoting  the  emigration  of  a  portion  of  her  tenantry  to  our  country. 
That  matter  I  have  gone  into  so  fully  in  the  special  report  which  I  prepared,  and 
which  you  have  seen,  that  I  need  not  dilate  upon  it  here.  I  have  heard,  on  several 
occasions  since  his  return,  from  the  delegate  from  that  district,  who  went  out  last 
spring,  Mr.  Donald  McDiarmid.  He  is  desirous  that  I  should  hold  meetings  in 
conjunction  with  him,  and  I  have  written  him  that  I  pi'opose  doing  so  when  I  go 
to  the  Islands  in  January  or  February,  as  was  arranged.  I  have  learned  that  a  number 
of  the  tenantry  there,  who  Avei-e  favouiable  to  emigration,  are  now  hesitating 
on  the  subject,  from  the  result  ot  the  agitation  in  Ireland  for  the  subdivision  of  the 
lands  of  the  country,  a  wave  of  the  same  sentiment  having  been  wafted  into  these 
as  well  as  other  parts  of  the  Highlands.  There  are  in  these  districts  some  very  ex- 
tensive farmers,  and  the  proposition  has  been  mooted  that  their  lands  should  be 
divided  up  for  the  benefit  of  the  multitude. 

Jn  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  High  Commissioner,  I  went  to  Liver- 
pool, on  the-  25th  August,  to  take  charge  of  the  office  there  during  the  absence  of  Mr. 
Dyke,  who,  on  account  of  ill-health,  visited  Canada.  I  fulfilled  the  duties  of  that  position, 
as  well  as  of  my  own  at  Carlisle,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  and  banded  over  the  charge 
of  affairs  there  again  to  Mr.  Dyke  on  his  return  on  the  2nd  of  November. 

According  to  insti-uctions,  I  removed  to  Glasgow,  to  take  charge  of  the  Agency 
here,  on  the  10th  of  November,  and  have  since  been  engaged  in  making  arrange- 
ments and  getting  matters  into  shape  for  the  satisfactory  fiilfilment  of  my  duties 

From  my  time  having  been  so  fully  taken  up  otherwise  since  the  beginning  of 
August,  1  was  unable,  as  in  former  years  has  been  my  custon,  to  attend  many  of  the 
local  shows,  sales,  fairs,  &c.,  in  my  district.  By  attending  these,  I  have  become 
personally  acquainted  with  many  farmers,  and  in  that  way  I  have  had  the  opportunity 
of  giving  advice  to  those  who  think  of  emigrating. 

I  am  constantly  receivi]]g  fresh  experience  of  the  vast  importance  of  the  delegate 
system.  Not  only  are  the  reports  of  those  who  have  gone  out  this  year  eagerly 
looked  for,  but  I  receive  letters  fi'om  all  parts  of  the  country  enquiring  for  the  reports 
of  last  year'  delegates,  and,  judging  from  my  experience  in  this  and  other  ways,  both 
in  the  t.  arlisle  district,  and  in  Scotland,  1  feel  certain  there  will  be  a  much  larger 
emigration  of  the  agricultural  classes  next  season  than  has  been  the  case  for  many 
years.  It  takes  a  considerable  time  for  many  people  in  farming  pursuits  to  make 
their  preparations,  and  I  know  of  large  numbers  who  have  for  a  long  time  been 
preparing  to  go  next  spring,  besides  those  who  may  make  up  their  minds  this  winter. 
I  would  strongly  recommend  that  the  delegate  system  should  be  continued  next 
season. 

Emigration  from  Glasgow. 

From  the  Eoard  of  Trade  Returns,  the  following  is  the  emigration  for  1879, 
and  from  1st  of  January  to  30th  of  November,  1880,  to  Canada : — 

1879 ,  \^m 

1880 3,658 

This  shows  an  increase  of  more  than  double  over  the  number  last  year,  and  this  fact 
is  chiefly  attributable,  undoubtedly,  to  the  result  of  the  reports  of  the  tenant  farmer 
delegates  of  last  year,  and  the  efforts  which  they  and  I  made  in  the  interests  of 
Canada.     I  also  give  the  arrivals  of  live  stock  in  Glasgow,  from  Canada,  in  18*79  and 

107 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


ISSu,  which  shows  an  enormous  increase  this  year   over  last  in  the  number  of  cattle 
mpoi'teil,  but  a  decrease  in  other  arrivals  : — 

Horses.  Cattle.  Sheep.  Pigs. 

1S79 118  (i,360  14,382  1,057 

,  ^o,-)  I  Allan  Line 10  9,196  5,648 

^^"^  j  Donaldson  Line 5,422  2,r6l  336 

10  14,618  8,385  336 

As  regards  other  imports,  from  the  short  time  given  for  the  preparation  of  this 
report,  my  appointment  here  having  oaly  extended  over  a  few  weeks,  as  well  as 
statistics  on  these  points  only  being  obtained  with  accuracy  up  to  the  end  of  the  year, 
I  may  say  that  fresh  meat  has  been  very  largely  imported,  as  well  as  bacon, 
hams,  batter,  cheese,  poultr}^  and  eggs.  .  An  extraordinary  quantity  of  apples  have 
also  been  imported.  Canadian  flour  I  find  is  very  highly  esteemed  by  the  larger 
dealers  in  produce,  and  Canadian  biscuits  are  highly  thought  of  all  over  this  district. 

I  have  found  that,  as  upua!,  we  have  a  great  number  of  competitors  for  the 
classes  of  people  we  want  in  Canada.  Although  Australia  and  New  Zealand  are  not 
in  such  favour  as  they  were  a  few  years  ago,  the  Western  States  are  working 
hard  and  probably  the  State  of  Iowa  bears  the  palm  in  this  respect.  If,  however, 
our  Xorth-West  territory  is  opened  up  by  the  immediate  construction  of  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway,  Canada  need  fear  no  competitior,  as  that  work  when  completed  will 
be  by  far  the  grandest  that  ever  was  constructed  in  Canadian  interests,  and  particularly 
as  regards  the  connection  with  this  country  in  the  inducement  for  the  best  class  of 
settlers  to  go  from  here  to  the  limitless  prairies  of  our  far  west.  From  the 
construction  of  this  railway  also  the  inducement  for  private  enterprise  and  the 
investment  of  large  amounts  of  capital  in  a  great  variety  of  ways,  will  be  much 
greater  than  has  ever  hitherto  been  the  case. 

I  have,  on  all  occasions,  co-operated  as  far  as  possible  with  the  steamship 
companies  connected  with  Canada,  and  I  am  ha.ppy  to  say,  from  the  information  I 
have  obtained  and  the  friends  I  have  made  in  Glasgow,  I  am  in  a  much  better 
position  for  directing  emigration  in  a  satisfactory  way  than  has  been  the  case  in  the 
past.  I  also  intend,  so  far  as  possible,  to  make  myself  acquainted  with  people  here 
Connected  with  Canada  in  trade  of  all  kinds,  more  particularly  those  engaged  in  the 
importation  of  stock. 

The  benefit  of  advertising  has  been  clearly  exemplified  during  the  last  season, 
both  as  regards  the  tenant  farmers'  reports  and  otherwise,  and  I  am  decidedly  of 
opinion  that  a  judicious  and  extensive  use  of  the  press  in  this  way  in  the  future  will 
act  as  a  very  powerful  auxiliary  in  the  pi'omotion  of  emigration  to  our  country. 

I  have  at  all  times  used  my  best  endeavours  in  assisting  people  from  Canada 
who  have  come  over  for  high-bred  stock,  and  this  year  I  had  the  opportunity  of  doing 
a  good  deal  in  that  respect. 

I  have  the  whole  of  this  season  had  abundance  of  publications  for  distribution. 
The  tenant  farmers'  reports  have  filled  an  important  gap  which  occasioned  me 
difficult}'  and  annoyance  in  former  years.  The  memorandum  on  Manitoba,  prepared 
by  Colonel  Dennis  has  been  highly  thought  of  and  eagerly  read  by  large  numbers  of 
people;  the  Canadian  portion  of  a  pamphlet,  issued  on  the  authority  of  the  Colonial 
Office  in  this  country,  has  been  much  sought  after  and  enquired  for.  This,  with  the 
new  tenant  farmers'  reports  of  this  year,  will  afford  a  good  supply  for  the  ensuing 
season. 

I  wish,  however,  to  impress  the  strong  advisability  of  having  maps  of  a 
convenient  folding  up  size,  of  all  the  various  Provinces,  as  for  these  I  have  constant 
enquiries,  and  I  am  certain  if  they  were  prepared,  great  good  could  result  to  our 
country. 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


I  am  glad  to  say,  that  with  the  enormously  increased  correspondence  which  I 
have  had  during  the  last  year,  I  have  on  all  occasions  had  the  hearty  co-operation  of 
the  agents  of  the  Government  both  in  Canada  and  in  this  country. 

Hoping  that  what  I  have  done  in  the  performance  of  my  duties  will  meet  with 
your  approval, 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

THOMAS  GEAHAME, 

Canadian  Government  Emigration  Agent. 

The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


109 


^4  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  33. 

ANNUAL  E^<.PORT   OF  THE  DUBLIN  EMIGEATION  AGENT. 
(Mr.  Thomas  Connolly.) 


Northumberland  House, 

Dublin,  6th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honour  to  state,  for  your  information,  that  on  my  appointment  to 
this  Agency  in  the  early  part  of  the  summer,  I  procured  the  most  eligible  offices  I  could 
find,  situated  opposite  the  Custom  House  and  close  to  the  quays  and  shipping. 
Instructed  b}'  the  High  Commissioner  I  advertised  judiciously,  and  distributed 
largely  the  Farm  delegates'  reports  and  the  pamphlets  supplied  by  the  Department 
throughout  the  cast  and  west  and  south  of  L-cland.  But,  in  truth,  i  mu->t  say  that  the 
generous  contributions  of  the  Canadian  people  for  Ihe  relief  of  the  distress  in  L'eland, 
last  winter,  and 'the  munificent  grant  of  the  Government  and  Parliament  of  the 
Dominion,  which  has  wisely  been  applied  to  the  permanent  improvement  and  relief 
of  our  poor  fishermen,  have  done  more  to  direct  the  attention  of  the  Lish  people  to 
the  Dominion  of  Canada,  as  a  field  for  emigration,  than  the  distribution  of  a  ship 
load  of  printed  matter  and  the  exertions  of  a  half-dozen  Emigration  Agents.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  that  the  agricultural  interests  of  this  country  have  been  prostrated  by 
a  succession  of  bad  harvests,  to  an  extent  without  parallel,  since  the  famine  of  1848. 
But  the  abundant  harvest  of  this  year  has  wonderfully  improved  the  condition  of  the 
people,  and  it  is  probable  there  will  be  no  scarcity  of  food  this  winter  except  in  very 
isolated  districts,  owing  to  the  agitation  respecting  land  tenure.  Although  food  has 
been  plentiful  since  the  harvest  there  has  been  very  little  employment  for  our  work- 
people, and  in  consequence  thereof  many  thousands  of  them  have  emigrated,  mainly 
assisted  by  their  friends  in  the  United  States  and  it)  the  Colonies.  I  am  satisfied  that 
many  artizans  from  this  city  and  from  country  districts  in  L"eland  have  sought 
employment  in  Canada  this  year,  and  the  assisted  passages  granted  by  your  Depart- 
ment have  enabled  me  to  direct  and  send  through  this  Agency  many  agricultural 
labourers  with  their  families  and  a  large  number  of  female  domestic  servants  to  the 
Dominion.  The  emigration  of  tenant  farmers  from  L^eland  this  year  has  been  very 
limited,  in  comparison  with  the  large  number  of  people  who  have  left  the  country 
owing  to  the  land  agitation  above  referred  to.  During  the  few  months  I  have  been 
in  this  office  I  have  had  a  great  number  of  letters  from  the  agricultural  districts  in 
reference  to  the  lands  of  Manitoba  and  the  North-West.  Some  few  of  the  writers 
have  gone  ou',  and  settled  there,  and  there  are  many  men  with  moderate,  if  not 
ample  means  now  waiting  for  the  opening  of  next  season  to  go  out  and  settle  on 
those  fertile  prairie  lands.  In  view  of  the  great  agricultural  development  of  the 
Western  States  and  the  vast  Dominion  of  Canada,  with  the  competition  in  meat  and 
bi'eadstutfs  which  arises  therefrom,  the  outlook  of  I'uiming  in  this  country  under  the 
most  favourable  conditions  is  not  very  cheerful ;  therefore  I  am  convinced  that  when 
the  land  question  is  settled,  and  order  is  restored,  so  that  the  farmers  can  realize 
their  true  position,  they  will  emigiate  in  large  numbers  from  this  country,  and  I  am 
certain  that  all  the  world  over  they  cannot  find  greater  scope  for  the  profitable  em- 
ploj^ment  of  their  capital  and  labour  than  in  your  vast  Canadian  Dominion.  Already 
we  sell  your  spades,  steel  forks,  hoes  and  many  other  agricultural  implements  in 
evej-y  hardware  shop  and  seed  store.  The  Toronto  mower  and  reaper  is  famed  all 
over  the  country.  Canadian  hams,  butter  and  cheese  sell  freely  in  the  Irish  markets ; 
and  last  summer  an  army  contractor  imported  more  than  50  head  of  Canadian  cattle 

no. 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


in  one  lot.  Canadian  clover  is  in  great  demand  with  our  seedsmen,  and  I  think 
Canadian  apples  should  sell  well  in  Dublin  where  retailers  pay  from  18s.  to  '^2b.  a 
barrel  for  apples  of  inferior  quality. 

I  have  the  honour,  Sir, 

To  remain  your  obedient  servant, 

THOS.   CONNOLLY. 

Government  Emigration  Agent. 

The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 

Ottawa. 


Ill 


44  Vi(iorin.  Sos^sional  Papers  (No.   12.)  A,   ]881 


No.  34. 
ANNUAL   REPOET   OB'  THE  BELFAST  EMIGRATION   AGENT. 

(Mr.  Charles  Foy.) 


29  Victoria  Square, 

Belfast,  3rd  December,   1880. 

Sir, — I  have  the  gratification  of  being  in  a  position  to  report  an  increased 
emigration  from  the  iSorth  of  Ireland  during  the  year  now  closing,  and  also  that  the 
emigrants  were  of  a  very  desirable  class.  In  my  last  yearly  report  I  mentioned  that 
a  number  of  farmers  with  considerable  capital  proposed  leaving  for  Manitoba  in  the 
coming  si)ring.  From  this  county  (Antrim)  a  small  colony  left,  and  I  am  glad  to 
hear  that  they  have  sent  favourable  reports  of  that  country.  The  wife  of  one  of  them 
(Mrs.  Lawther),  took  the  first  prize  for  batter  at  the  show  in  Winnipeg  this  year.  I 
understand  that  numbers  of  their  old  neighbours  and  relatives  purpose  following  them 
next  8])ring;  some  of  them  have  been  with  me  enquiring  about  the  best  time  to  leave 
here,  the  route,  &c. 

To  the  Province  of  Ontario  also,  a  good  number  of  farmers  and  farm  labourers 
and  servant  girls  emigrated,  and  their  letters  to  their  friends  are  of  the  most 
encouraging  and  hopeful  tone. 

The  emigration  of  the  farmer  class  would  have  been  much  larger  but  for  the  un- 
settled state  of  the  land  question. 

The  land  agitation  afforded  me  an  opportunity  of  advocating  emigration  as  the 
cure  for  excessive  competition  for  land,  and  consequent  poverty  of  the  farmers. 
Knowing  how  very  unpopular  the  advocacy  of  emigration  is  with  a  large  majority  of 
our  countrymen,  and  desiring  to  steer  clear  of  the  political  aspect  of  the  question,  I 
eschewed  the  question  of  rent  altogether  and  took  as  my  premises  that  the  tenants  of 
from  fifteen  to  twenty  acres  held  their  farms  in  freehold,  and  I  made  a  calculation 
that  any  schoolboy  could  figure  of  the  value  of  the  produce  of  those  farms,  how  much 
land  in  crop,  how  much  in  meadow  and  pasture,  the  value  of  the  crops  when  in 
market,  the  number  of  firkins  of  butter  and  their  value,  and  put  on  the  debtor  side 
the  support  of  the  family  necessary  to  work  the  farm,  taxes,  &c.,  and  took  then  the 
value,  even  as  farm  labourers  and  dairy-maids  in  Canada,  of  the  family,  and  brought 
out  the  result  a  dead  loss  remaining  in  this  country,  even  were  they  to  be  only 
labourers  and  servants  in  Canada.  My  letters  attracted  considerable  attention  result> 
ing  in  an  extensive  correspondence  on  tlie  capabilities  of  Canada,  and  the  prospects 
of  emigrants  in  that  colony.  I  had  thus  an  opportunity  of  advocating  Canada  to 
persons  who  had  come  to  think,  for  perhaps  the  first  time,  on  the  country  or  on  the 
subject  of  emigration.  I  had  the  honour  to  forward  to  your  Department  letters 
from  the  most  influential  men  in  Ireland,  landlords,  land  agents,  M.P.'s  and  clergy- 
men. One  gentleman,  A.  Moore,  J. P.,  agent  to  Lord  Annesley,  wrote  to  me  to  say 
that  he  had  !-ome  thousands  of  copies  of  my  letters  printed  and  circulated,  and  the 
ren  e  iy,  emigration,  is  every  day  receiving  new  supporters;  indeed,  as  I  have  proved, 
if  til/  tenants  of  small  farms  had  no  I'ent  to  )  ay  they  could  t  ot  compete  with  the  imports 
fiom  America  and  elsewhere;  and  this  brings  me  to  an  important  factor  in  emigration^ 
the  imports  from  (>anada.  A  gentleman  remarked  to  me  a  month  or  two  ago,  at  an 
auction  of  Canadian  apples  :  "  If  you  cannot  induce  by  your  pen  or  your  tongue  the 
farmers  of  Ireland  to  emigrate  you  will  soon  be  able  to  compel  them  to  do  so  by  your 
exports  to  this  country.  By-and-bye  we  will  get  everything  from  the  other  side  of 
the  Atlantic  cheaper  than  we  can  grow  it,  and  you  are  attacking  us  doubly,  for  by 

112 


4i  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


sending  our  labourers  and  domestic  servants  to  your  counti-y  you  are  making  tlio 
cost  of  production  here  double  what  it  was  some  years  ago."  In  connection  with 
these  remarks  1  would  respectfully  refer  to  my  report  of  last  year. 

I  have  mentioned  a  sale  of  Canadian  apples,  and  in  connection  with  this  I  may 
be  excused  alluding  to  the  folly  of  exporting  any  but  well  selected,  good  conditioned 
fruit ;  the  cost  of  freight  and  other  charges  is  the  same  on  the  worst  windfalls  as  on 
the  best  qualities.  \Yhen  inferior  fruit  reaches  Liverpool  oi-  Belfast,  buyers  won't 
touch  them,  except  at  very  little  over  charges,  and  of  course  they  must  be  sold  at  any 
price,  whereas  good  fruit  has  a  ready  sale  at  good  prices,  realizing  the  double 
advantage  of  quick  sales  and  large  profits.  I  am  proud  to  say  that,  as  a  rule,  the 
merchants  here  have  much  more  faith  in  the  honesty  of  Canadian  exporters  than 
they  have  in  the  exporters  from  the  States.  Canadian  apples  sell  at  Is,  Gd.  a  barrel 
more,  and  Canadian  hams  and  bacon  at  higher  prices  than  American.  But  some 
unprincipled  importers  in  Liverpool  brand  inferior  United  States  produce  as  Canadian. 
If  an  importer  were  known  to  sell  none  but  Canadian,  I  believe  that  he  would  have 
almost  a  monopoly  of  the  Irish  trade. 

Daring  the  year  I  was  well  supplied,  from  the  Liverpool  and  London  offices,  with 
pamphlets  which  I  judiciously  distributed  by  hand  and  by  post.  The  reports  of 
the  farmers'  delegates  will,  I  am  sure,  produce  go©d  fruits.  I  was  glad  to  see  a  letter 
in  the  Daily  Express  (Dublin)  from  Mr.  Anderson,  who  went  from  the  South  of 
Ireland  last  summer,  in  which  he  speaks  ver}^  l^igliiy  of  Canada;  he  tells  me  that  he 
intends  going  out  to  settle  there  next  spring.  lie  has  furnished  an  exhaustive  report 
to  the  High  Commissioner,  Sir  A.  T.  Gralt,  and  I  have  every  confidence  that  be  will 
influence  a  good  many  men  of  means  to  go  as  he  has  a  large  connection  among  land 
agents,  gentlemen  farmers  and  others  connected  with  land. 

From  a  copy  of  a  report  of  a  tour  through  Canada  and  the  United  States,  by 
Mr.  Cubitt,  I  took  an  extract  in  vv^hieh  is  his  description  of  a  visit  to  the 
neighbourhood  of  Port  Hope,  and  in  which  he  mentions  an  old  settler  in  the  Town- 
ship of  Cavan,  and  I  had  it  published  in  the  Irish  papers  Avith  a  short  introduction 
from  myself.  Since  its  appearance,  I  have  had  a  considerable  correspondence  on  the 
subject,-  and  there  is  every  reason  to  hope  that  it  has  done  good  work. 

As  to  prospects  for  the  coming  year,  they  are,  I  believe,  good,  from  the  causes  I 
have  already  mentioned.  Farmers  who  are  intelligent  and  observant,  are  saying  : 
'•If  Canada  can,  in  what  may  justly  be  called  her  infantile  state,  send  us  what  she  is 
sending,  what  will  our  chances  of  competition  be  when  her  hundreds  of  millions  of 
acres  of  virgin  soil  are  brought  into  cultivation?  AYhile  we  are,  as  it  were,  in  a 
country  growing  older  and  becoming  fossil,  the  Canadian  farmer  is  in  a  land  growing 
from  youth  to  the  full  strength  of  maturity.  We  must  finally  succumb,  and  if  we 
wait  much  longer  necessity  will  compel  us  to  leave;  but  instead  of  leaving  with 
money  to  stock  a  farm  in  the  land  we  may  adopt,  leave  as  paupers."  This  first-men- 
tioned class,  when  the  land  question  is  settled,  will  go,  and  another  class,  of  wliom 
very  few  thought  some  time  ago  of  emigration  are  now  speaking  of  it  and  writing 
to  me  for  information  on  the  subject,  ix,,  the  landlord  class,  whose  rental  amounts 
to  from  £500  to  £1,000.  If  land  could  be  sold  at  anything  like  a  fair  value,  numbers 
of  this  class  would  sell  and  leave  this  country  ;  and  they  would  be  very  glad  if  either 
their  tenants  or  the  Government  would  purchase  from  them  at  from  twenty  to 
twenty-five  years'  purchase.  Properties  offered  in  the  Encumbered  Estates  Court 
this  year  have  had  to  be  withdrawn,  as  not  more  than  ten  years'  purchase  could  be 
had. 

A  gentleman  who  went  to  New  Zealand  some  six  years  ago,  one  of  the  Vesey 
Stewart  settlement,  mentioned  by  me  in  my  report  of  that  year,  has  returned  for  the 
purpose  of  taking  out  a  North  of  Ireland  colony;  the  Government  of  New  Zealand 
having  given  him,  as  they  did  Mi-.  Stewart,  a  block  of  land  on  conditions  of  colonizing 
it.  Of  course  this  is  serious  opposition  to  Canada,  which  it  keeps  me  lively  to  watch 
and  counteract.  The  agents  for  Dakota  and  Minnesota  are  making  strenuous  efforts 
as  well,  chiefly  by  large  posters  with  elaborate  illustrations  of  farms  from  the  first 
settlement  to  the  thoroughly  cultivated.      Of  course  I  explain  that  these  exertions 

113 
12  —8 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


aro  made  by  railway  companies.  I  do  not  fear  their  competition  as  much  as  that 
from  New  Zealand,  as  North  of  Ireland  emigi'ants,  as  a  rule,  prefer  a  British  colony. 
But  even  with  the  splendid  climate  of  New  Zealand  to  contend  against,  1  am 
oontidont  that  I  shall  be  able  to  hold  my  own,  and  am  quite  sanguine  in  my 
expectations  for  the  coming  year.     1  have  the  honour  to  remain,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

ClIAIiLES  TOY. 

Government  Emi(jrailon  Agent. 

The  Honourable 

The  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


114 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  35. 

ANNUAL  EEPORT  OF  I.NSPECTOE  OF  STOCK. 
(Professor  D.  McEachran,  F.RC.V.S.) 


Point  Levis  Cattle  Quarantine. 


Montreal,  15th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  beg  to  report  that,  in  accordance  with  your  instructions,  the  cattle  sheds 
at  the  Point  Levis  Cattle  Quarantine  at  Fort  No.  3  were  opened  for  the  reception  of 
imported  cattle  on  the  first  of  May.  The  first  stock  was  admitted  on  the  l*7th  of 
June,  and  the  last,  one  sheep,  on  the  14th  of  November. 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  annexed  table,  the  imporiaiions  this  year  have  been  very 
much  in  excess  of  any  previous  season  since  the  quarantines  were  opened,  the 
total  reaching  the  large  number  of  389  cattle,  with  27  born  in  the  quarantine,  making 
416  cattle,  613  sheep,  and  12  pigs;  and  this,  notwithstanding  that  the  Order  in 
Council  of  November  25th,  1879,  extends  the  probationary  period  in  quarantine  to 
three  months. 

It  was  generally  believed  that  the  ninety  days  of  quarantine  would  prove  almost 
prohibitory,  but  the  above  figures  show  that  it  had  the  reverse  result.  Not  only  have 
the  numbers  been  increased,  but  the  quality  of  the  stock  also.  They  have  been  the 
best  which  could  be  bought  in  England,  many  of  them  being  prize  winners  at  the 
Eoyal  Agricultural  and  other  Shows  in  England  and  Scotland.  Of  the  entire  number 
about  300  were  of  the  Hereford  breed,  and  except  about  sixty  they  were  all  intended 
for  the  Western  States,  to  supply  the  demand  for  Hereford  bulls  for  the  large  stock 
ranches  of  the  great  West. 

Next  to  "  Herefords  "  in  numbers  and  quality  were  the  "  Polled  Angus,"  or 
"  black  Aberdeen  cattle,"  of  which  some  of  the  most  lamous  individuals  of  this  breed 
in  existence  were  imj)orted,  having  been  purchased  at  large  prices  at  the  sal  of  the 
late  Mr.  McCombie,  of  Tullifour,  Scotland.  'Among  them  may  be  mentioned  the 
celebrated  bull  "  The  Judge,"  which  cai-ried  off  the  medal  at  the  Paris  Exposition  as 
the  best  bull  of  any  age  or  breed.  From  all  appearances  these  two  breeds  are  going 
to  be  given  a  preference  to  all  others  in  the  stocking  of  the  vast  prairies  of  the  west. 
While  the  other  breeds  were  fewer  in  numbers  the  quality  of  the  animals  was  excel- 
lent. There  were  some  very  fine  Shorthorns,  also  Devons,  Ayreshires,  Jersej^s 
Galloways  and  West  Highland  Kyloes. 

As  was  to  be  expected  the  enormous  increase  in  imported  cattle  and  the 
length  of  time  they  had  to  be  kept,  necessitated  the  erection  of  extensive 
sheds  for  their  accommodation,  which  had  in  many  cases  to  be  built  after  the 
stock  arrived,  but  large  as  the  expenditure  for  buildings  has  been,  no  expense  has 
been  incurred  which  was  not  absolutely  necessar}^  to  enable  nic  to  carry  out  the 
Orders  in  Council,  and  meet  the  requirements  of  importers.  Hefei'ring  to  the  build- 
ings of  the  Quarantine,  Professor  Sheldon,  one  of  the  English  delegates,  says  :  "As 
the  custom  is  in  this  country  the  buildings  in  which  the  cattle  ai'c housed  are  built  of 
wood,  and  they  are  as  dry,  as  warm  and  as  comtbrtableas  one  need  wish  to  put  cattle 
into  for  the  purposes  of  quarantine,  or  for  the  matter  of  that  for  any  other  purpose. 
Though  but  recently  constructed  and  for  an  object  in  which  Canadian  experience  is 
quite  modern,  these  premises  are  constructed  and  arranged  in  a  manner  which  is  at 
once  conducive  to  the  comfort  of  the  animals  and  the  convenience  of  the 
attendants,  bpacious,  well-ventilated,  and  contiguous  to  yards  in  which  cattle  can  be 
exercised,  and  to  land  on  which  they  can  be  pastured  ;  importers  of  European  cattle 
may  have  every  confidence  that  their  live  stock  are  well  cared  for  while  they  remain 
under  Government  supervision." 

115 


4i  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


Xolwithstunding  tho  iibovo  rery  complimentary  remarks,  it  is  my  duty  to 
report  that  the  hurried  arrangements  which  were  made  this  season  will  not  meet  the 
requirements  of  another  year.  The  buildings  themselves  are  everj^  thing  that  could 
be  desired,  but  the  limited  area  into  which  they  are  crowded  by  no  means  affords 
sufficient  space  to  assure  the  necessarj^  isolation  in  the  event  of  an  outbreak  of  disease 
among  cattle  undergoing  quarantine.  The  sheds  within  the  Fort  yard  are  too  close 
togetlier,  and  the  yards  are  too  small  and  not  sufficiently  separated.  I  beg  to  suggest 
that  all  the  Government  land  surrounding  the  Fort  bo  secured  for  quarantine 
purposes,  and  that  it  be  inclosed  by  a  high  fence,  so  as  to  make  it  a  thorough  close 
quarantine — and  I  would  recommend  that  within  this  inclosure  isolated  sheds  and 
appro2)riate  3'ards  be  arranged  so  that  each  lot  may  be  perfectly  isolated  from  one 
another.  The  advantages  to  be  derived  from  this  arrangement  are,  proper  and 
essential  isolation,  good  air.  abundance  of  water,  and  perfect  separation  from  native 
stock. 

We,  fortunately,  notwithstanding  the  large  number  -of  animals  in  quarantine 
during  the  past  summer,  escaped  what  might  have  been  a  very  serious  matter,  if 
pleuro-pneumonia  had  apj^eared  in  any  of  the  lots.  Such  a  risk  must  no  longer  be 
incurred,  and  the  only  wa}^  to  do  so  is  to  provide  such  accommodation  as  will  admit  of 
proper  isolation.  The  question  of  expense,  in  a  matter  of  such  vital  importance, 
should  not  stand  in  the  way  of  those  improvements  being  carried  out.  So  long  as 
contagious  diseases  in  cattle  can  ho  kept  out  of  the  country,  the  country  can  well 
afford  to  pay  the  necessarj^  cost;  but,  let  the  disease  once  enter  and  spread  in  the 
country,  then  a  thousand  times  more  must  be  spent,  when  impoverished  taxpaj^ers 
can  ill  afford  it. 

Looking  at  it  from  another  point  of  view  under  the  present  regulations,  I  might 
say,  in  consequence  of  the  present  quarantine  system,  Canada  being  free  from 
contagious  diseases,  every  bullock  exported  from  this  country  is  worth  from  $-0  to 
S-0  per  head  more  than  those  from  the  United  States,  being  an  infected  or  scheduled 
country.  It  will  be  apparent  that  the  country  is  benefitted  to  about  a  million  and 
a  quarter  of  dollars  in  money  direct,  without  considering  the  indirect  benefit  from 
having  a  market  for  thousands  of  animals,  which,  could  shippers  purchase  in  the 
Western  markets,  would  never  be  bought  for  exportation  at  all;  whilst  the  great 
improvement  in  the  general  agriculture  of  tho  country  from  the  better  culti7ation, 
the  large  quantity'  of  manure  which  goes  back  to  the  land,  and  the  increased  value 
of  cuttle  from  improved  breeding  are  a  necessary  consequence. 

I  have  much  pleasure  in  reporting  that,  notwithstanding  the  large  numbers 
imported,  no  disease  of  a  contagious  nature  appeared  on  them.  Two  deaths  in  cows 
from  post-parturient  causes;  four  calves  and  one  sheep  also  died,  from  diarrhoea  or 
infiainrcation  of  the  bowels. 

I  have  also  to  report  that  the  duties  of  the  quarantine  were  most  effectually 
performed  by  Mr.  Couture,  assisted  by  Mr.  Welsh  and  tho  men  under  him. 
Importers  of  stock  have  repeate<lly  expressed  themselves  in  terms  of  satisfaction 
with  the  quirantine  and  the  treatment  they  have  received  from  those  in  charge,  as 
will  be  seen  from  Mr.  Culbcrlson's  letter  of  August  30th,  in  which  he  says:  "  I  have 
said  a  good  word  in  regard  to  the  treatment  I  have  received  from  3'ou,  and  tho 
prompt  and  obliging  manner  in  which  you  have  done  all  that  could  be  asked  of  yon 
in  quarantine  matters,  and  I  think  it  likely  to  have  much  effect  among  Western  men 
in  drawing  importations  lo  Quebec."  Mr.  Culbertson  is  one  of  the  most  extensive 
importei-s  and  cattle-breeders  in  Illinois. 

In  conclusion,  I  beg  to  report  that  on  the  14th  of  December  the  quarantine  was 
clo.-ed,  tlic  buildings  being  left  in  charge  of  Mr.  Welsh. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

D.  McEACHEAN, 
The  Honourable  Inspector. 

Tii(!  Minister  of  Agi-iculture, 
Ottawa. 

116 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


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44  Victoriii.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


EEPOET  ON  CATTLE  EXPORTATION. 
(D.  MoEACHaAN,  F.R.C.Y.S,  Chief  Inspector.) 

Montreal,  30th  November,  1880. 

Sir, — I  bei;-  to  submit  the  fellowing  report  of  the  inspection  of  live  stock  from 
CniKidian  ]iorts  to  Europe  during  the  season  just  closed,  which,  by  a  comparison 
with  past  years,  shows  :x  most  satisfactory  increase  in  the  numbers  exported: 

Cattle.  Sheep.  Swine. 

1S7Y 6,940  9,509  430 

1878 18,655  41,250  2,078 

1879 25,009  80,332  5,385 

1880 50,905  81,843  700 

These  figures  include  those  from  the  three  ports  in  the  following  proportions: 

Cattle.  Sheep.  Swine. 

Montreal....  35,416        67,943  700 

Quebec 9,894        11,208 

Halifax  5,595  2,692 

50,905        81,843  700 

It  will  be  observed  Ihat  the  numbers  of  cattle  exported  have  more  than  doubled 
since  last  year;  sheep  show  a  small  increase,  while  swine  have  almost  ceased  to  be 
exported.  While  the  numbers  of  cattle  have  increased  it  is  to  be  regretted  that 
the  quality  has  not  improved.  It  is  true  that  a  largo  number  of  prime  cattle  have 
been  shipped,  but  it  is  also  true  that  thousands  wore  shipped  of  a  very  inferior 
grade,  which  is  to  be  regretted  as  it  has  a  tendency  to  reduce  the  value  of  Canadian 
stock  in  the  English  market.  It  is  to  bo  hoped  that  our  stock-raisers  will  improve 
their  herds  by  using  purebred  "Shorthorn,  '' Polled  Angus,"  or  "  Hereford"  bulls. 
Owing  to  the  fact  that  a  large  number  ot  farmers  have  given  up  sheep-raising  for 
cattle-breeding  thero  has  not  been  a  proportionate  increase  in  numbers,  but  the 
quality  of  the  animals  has  been  such  as  to  pi'ovo  the  adaptability  ot  Canadian  soil 
for  sheep-rai.^jing,  which  can  be  very  protitably  extended.  Canada  is  not  adapted  for 
hog-i-aising.  Our  farmers  can  never  compete  with  the  United  States  in  this  branch 
of  stock,  and  while  the  animals  sent  were  of  excellent  quality  the  profits  realized 
were  not  such  as  to  lead  to  a  very  great  extension  of  the  hog  trade  with  Britain. 
If  we  take  the  estimated  value  of  the  cattle  at  the  low  figure  ot  ^100  .including 
prime  cost,  freight,  feed  and  other  expenses,  $S  per  head  for  sheep,  and  $10  per  head 
for  pigs,  it  gives  the  handsome  sum  of  $5,658,144,  or  an  increase  of  $2,460,738  over 
last  year— a  very  satisfactory  return.  And  while  the  reports  of  the  United  States' 
exportation  show  a  direct  loss  of  over  $2,000,000  owing  to  the  existence  of  pleuro- 
])neumonia  in  tiiat  countrj',  and  the  embargo  consequently  placed  on  their  cattle  at 
I'Airopean  ports,  Canada,  being  free  from  disease,  has  a  corresponding  adv^antage 
amounting  to  $1,250,000,  which  is  unquestionably  due  to  the  quarantine  regulations 
and  their  being  faithfully  carried  out. 

Inspection. 

The  necessity  for,  and  advantages  derived  from  inspection  of  steamers  and  stock 
being  now  fully  understood  and  appreciated  by  all  concerned,  but  little  difficulty 
was  expeiicnced  in  carrying  out  your  instructions  in  this  respect.  In  one  or  two 
instances  stock  were  taken  on  board  without  being  inspected,  but  were  disembarked 
for  inspection.    The  only  difficulty  which  occurred  with  regard  to  space  was  in  the 


4^4  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


case  of  sheep,  and  I  regret  to  say  that  considerable  loss  was  oc^'asioned  by  over- 
crowding. It  is  considered  bv  all  experienced  in  shipping  sheep  that  they  ('-.iiujot 
be  safely  carried,  especially  when  the  fleeces  are  on,  if  more  than  eight  are  allowcj  to 
the  space  for  a  bullock,  \iz.,  2  ft.  9  in. 

Owing  to  the  excessive  mortality  of  sheep  during  the  month  of  August,  T 
directed  the  attention  of  steamship  agents  and  shippers  to  the  fact,  and  inslructud 
the  inspectors  not  to  allow  more  than  eight  sheep  to  a  space  of  3  ft.  9  in.  by  8  ft. 
and  7  ft.  in  height,  and  no  pen  to  be  constructed  to  hold  more  than  sixteen  sheep.  I 
am  happy  to  say  that,  with  one  exception,  all  the  steamship  companies  readily 
seconded  my  efforts  by  at  once  carrying  out  my  suggestion. 

I  have  pleasure  in  repoi'ting  that  the  duties  of  assistant  inspector  wore  most 
faithfully  and  satisfactorily  conducted  by  Mr.  Baker,  assisted  by  Mr.  E.  J.  Oartci-. 

« 

Cattle  Yards. 

I  am  happy  to  be  able  to  report  that  the  suggestions  made  in  my  report  fur  last 
year,  with  regard  to  cattle  yards,  have  been  in  a  great  measure  carried  out.  The 
yards  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Iv'iilway,  at  Point  St.  Chatlcs  a)id  I'oint  Levi^i,  hare  been 
veiy  much  improved,  although  the  latter  are  capable  of  gi'eat  improvement  st  li. 

Impressed  with  the  necesfiity  of  better  yard  j-oom  being  pt-ovidcd,  I  addressed 
the  following  letter  to  W.  J.  Patterson,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  on  the 
subject: — 

"  Sir, — I  beg  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Board  of  Trade  to  the  necessity  of 
adopting  some  means  for  providing  better  facilities  for  the  rapidlj^  growing  cattle 
trade  of  this  port  From  my  report  on  this  subject,  published  in  the  report  of  the 
Minister  of  Agriculture,  a  cop}^  of  which  I  herewith  send  you,  the  nesessity  for  im- 
provement will  become  apparent.  It  is  particularly  desii'able  that  sufficient  sheds 
and  yard  room  be  provided,  that  cattle  should  not  be  removed  to  the  wharf  or  placed 
on  board  a  steamer  until  all  other  cargo  is  on  board,  and  that  she  should  proceed 
on  her  voyage  as  soon  as  her  live  stock  are  loaded.  Under  present  regulations  this 
is  impossible.  It  is  desirable  that  stock  yards  be  established  somewhere  below 
Hochelaga,  with  a  wharf  specially  for  cattle.  This  could  be  easily  accomplished  by 
a  connection  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  through  St.  Laurent  with  the  Occidental 
Bailway,  and  an  extension  to  the  yards.  The  vast  importance  of  this  trade  to  the 
Dominion,  and  Montreal  in  particular,  the  certain  rapidity  with  which  it  will  develoj> 
if  properly  encouraged,  by  affording  the  shippers  every  facility  for  shipment,  is  my 
reason  for  bringing  the  matter  before  the  Board.  The  loss  to  the  shipper  from  loss 
of  weight  and  injury  to  the  animals  from  exposure  to  cold  and  wet  is  very  great.  I 
am  aware  that  animals  cannot  be  transported  long  distances  by  land  or  sea  without 
suffering  in  some  way  ;  but  surely  cattle  kept  in  warm  byres  during  winter,  where 
they  are  highly  fed,  cannot  be  exposed  for  days  in  wet,  open  yards  to  cold  rains,  or 
standing  for  twenty-four  hours  in  open  cars  on  the  Avharves,  without  losing  weight. 
Dtiring  the  month  of  May  last,  there  Avere  shipped  5,313  cattle.  Suppose  the  loss  of 
weight  was  25  lbs.  each,  at  8  cts.  per  lb.,  it  represents  a  loss  of  $10,62t>  for  one  month 
alone,  a  sum  which  would  go  a  considerable  way  towards  the  cost  of  the  necessary 
improvements.  Hoping  that  your  Board  will  take  this  subject  into  consideration  at 
your  meeting  this  morning, 

I  am,  etc.,  etc., 

''  (Signed)         D.  McEachran." 

At  the  suggestion  of  the  President  of  the  Board  I  also  sent  a  copy  of  the  above 
to  the  Harbour  Commissioners,  and  the  subject  was  at  once  taken  up,  and  resulted  in 
the  erection  of  sheds  on  the  wharf  opposite  the  t^^eboc  Gate  Barracks  capable  of 
accommodating  about  4,000  head.  These  sheds  were  admirably  suited  for  the  pur- 
pose of  affording  shelter,  dry  yards,  and  a  plentiful  supply  of  water.  From  their 
proximity  to  the  steamships  of  the  Donaldson,  Ross,  Beaver  and  Dominion   Line 

119 


i:  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


ilocks.  as  well  as  most  of  Lhc  outside  ships,  it  was  hoped  that  they  would  be  con- 
.slaiiilv  used  by  the  shippers  lor  whose  convenience  they  were  erected,  but  with  a 
short-sightedness  waieh  is  inexplieab'c,  I  regret  t)  say  they  were  only  occasionally 
niiule  use  of. 

Notwilhslandiiig  the  inlinitely  better  accommodation  thus  provided,  and  the 
charges  at  the  moderate  rate  of  5  cents  ]jer  day  for  cattle,  and  2  cents  per  day  for  sheep, 
the  shi])pci'8  continued  to  use  the  private  yards  which  in  m}^  last  year's  report  I  ref- 
erred to  as  nntitlor  cattle  to  be  kept  in.  'Yhi  reasons  given  wore  that  in  most  of  the 
})rivate  3'ards  the}'  had  the  iced  ])rovided  and  the  cattle  fed,  which  sared  them  some 
li-ouble,  but  I  imagine  if  they  looked  better  into  the  matter  they  would  find  that  they 
could  effect  considerable  saving  by  buying  their  own  feed  and  using  the  Harbour 
Conimissioiioi's'  \'ards.  Another  and  more  forcible  reason  was  the  city  by-law 
referred  to  in  my  report  of  last  year  ])rohibiting  tho»  railway  running  down  to  the 
wharves  from  seven  in  the  morning  till  six  in  the  evening  so  that  cattle  arriving 
during  the  day  had  to  be  unloaded  at  Point  St.  Charles  and  driven  to  the  nearest  yaids. 

1  would  again  urge  m}"  suggestion  of  having  a  double  track  laid  on  the  wharf, 
and  that  the  city  bj^-law  be  altereil  to  allow  of  cattle  trucks  being  moved  at  any  time 
to  \\\o  yards,  or  better  still,  that  stock  yai-ds  with  shipping  wharves  be  built  at  some 
])()int  betweeii  Ilocliclaga  and  Longuo  Point. 

The  growth  of  the  cattle  trade  within  the  next  four  years  will  render  such  yards 
a  necessity,  and  ?io  better  investment  cjin  be  found  for  capital.  If  Montreal  is  to 
eoiUinue  to  be  the  shipping  port  for  stock  this  must  be  done,  otherwise  the  cattle 
trade  Avill  in  the  no  distant  future  be  removed  to  Quebec.  In  this  connection  I  beg  to 
suggest  that,  owing  to  the  cattle  being  scattered  in  lots  over  a  large  number  of  yards, 
thereby  enta'ling  a  great  loss  of  time  to  the  inspectors  and  necessitating  a  hurried 
and  oiton  imperfect  inspection,  a  icgulation  should  be  made  requii'ing  the  cattle  to  be 
cjllected  in  special  yards  for  inspection,  and  that  the  tariff  of  charges  in  the  yards  be 
arranged  to  meet  the  necessities  of  the  trade. 

THE  PROSPECTS  OF  THE  COMINC  SEASON. 

Owing  to  tliis  report  having  to  be  sent  in  earlier  than  I  antici])ated,  I  have  not 
been  able  to  obtain  direct  reports  of  the  number  of  exportable  animals  which  may  be 
expected  for  next  season,  but  I  have  the  authority  of  the  most  extensive  shippers  for 
saying  that  at  least  7o,000  head  can  be  found  tit  for  shipment.  So  universal  has 
been  the  determination  of  the  farmers  to  share  in  the  profits  of  cattle  raising  that 
the  number  of  cattle  now  bred  in  the  Provinces  of  Ontario,  Quebec,  New  Brunswick 
and  Nova  Scotia  have  increased  enormously. 

Notwithstanding  that  over  50,000  head  have  been  shipped  this  year  the  shippers 
inform  me  that  there  v/as  no  scarcity  of  cattle  such  as  they  are,  but  I  must  admit 
tliat  many  of  them  were  of  poor  quality,  and  during  the  season  thousands  were 
ship])ed  which,  were  the  American  ports  open,  could  not  be  sold  for  export. 

In  a  few  5^ears  we  may  expect  a  great  improvement  in  the  quality  as  well  as  an 
increase  in  the  numbers. 

HEALTH    OF    STOCK    IN    THE    DOMINION. 

I  beg  to  report  that  pleuro-pneumonia,  foot  and  mouth  disease,  scab  on  sheep 
and  hog  cholera  do  not  exist  in  any  part  of  the  Dominion.  That  from  all  parts  the 
reports  which  reach  me  affirm  the  fact  that  contagious  disease  in  stock  is  quite  un- 
known. 

IS    QUARANTINE   NECESSARY. 

The  fact  that  pleuro-pneumonia,  foot  and  mouth  disease  and  swine  plague  still 
continue  to  exist  in  Britain,  and  in  the  United  States,  renders  the  continuance  of  the 
quarantine  absolutely  necessary,  esj)ecially  if  we  reflect  on  the  fact  that  ^-'^^Cattle  FlcKjue 
has  an  incubatory  period  of  from  live  to  to  six  days,  rarely  over  ten. 


My  Report  of  last  year. 

120 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No,  12.)  A.  1881 


CATTLE   PLAGUE. 

Foot  and  Mouth  Disease, —The  latent  period  is  from  four  to  six  days,  often  sooner, 
occasionally  longer,  but  rarely  over  nine  days. 

Fleuro-pneumonia  has  a  period  of  incubation  extendiug  from  one  to  sixteen  weeks, 
«ome  say  even  longer. 

Scab  in  Sheep. — As  the  number  of  parasites  usually  transmitted  to  a  healthy 
animal  are  limited,  and  it  takes  nearly  fifteen  days  for  the  new  generation  to  develop, 
there  may  be  nothing  unusual  to  be  seen,  especially  on  long-wooUed  sheep,  for  the 
first  ten  days. 

Swine  Fever. — The  incubation  of  this  disease  is  given  differently  by  different 
experimenters,  thus :  Professor  Axe,  cf  London,  gives  it  as  five  or  six  days;  Br. 
Budd,  four  to  eight ;  Professor  Law,  seven  to  fourteen ;  while  experiments  con- 
ducted at  the  Veterinary  College,  Montreal,  by  Professor  Osier,  showed  it  to  be  from 
five  to  six  days.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  if  we  allow  twelve  days  on  shipboard  and 
eight  days  in  quarantine  it  will  be  sufficiently  long  for  '^  rinderpest,"  foot  and  mouth 
disease,  scab  in  sheep  and  swine  fever  ;  consequently  a  period  of  eight  days  will  be 
quite  sufficient  to  protect  the  country  from  the  disease  on  sheep  and  swine  from 
European  stock,  but  for  United  States  stock  twenty  days  at  least  should  be  required, 

For  pleuro-pneumonia  a  less  quarantine  than  ninety  days  is  useless  and  dangerous, 
for,  by  imparting  a  certain  amount  of  confidence  in  the  owners,  it  conduces  to  care- 
lessness in  taking  precautions  to  prevent  the  imported  from  mixing  with  the  homo 
stock. 

So  long  as  disease  continues  to  exist  in  countries  with  which  we  have  intimate 
commercial  relations,  it  will  be  necessary  for  Canada  either  to  maintain  a  strict 
quarantine  of  ninety  days,  or  else  to  close  the  ports  against  importation  of  stock  from, 
such  infected  countries. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

D.  MgEACHEAN, 

Inspector-in-Chief. 
The  Honourable 

Minister  of  Agriculture,  Ottawa. 


12—9 


121 


44  Yictoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


No.  36. 

ANNUAL  EEPOET  OP  OCEAN  MAIL  OFFICER. 

(Mr.  F.  Barlee.) 

Lakefield, 

13th  December,  1880. 

Sir, — I  beg  to  report  to  you  that  according  to  instructions,  I  distributed  the- 
different  pamphlets  supplied  to  me  amongst  the  emigrants  during  their  passage  across 
the  ocean,  and  gave  them  all  the  information  it  was  in  my  power  to  afford. 

I  am.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

F.  BARLEE. 

Marine  Mail  Officer;,. 
The  Deputy  Minister  of  Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 


122 


\ 

44  Victoria  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


CRIMINAL  STATISTICS 

FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  30th  SEPTEMBER,  1S19. 

Compiled  in  pursuance  of  the  Act  39  Yictoria,  Cap.  13,  intituled  "  An  Act  to 
make  provision  for  the  Collection  and  Registration  of  the  Criminal  Statistics  of 
Canada . 

These  tables  have  been  arranged  upon  a  somewhat  different  system  from  those  of 
previous  years. 

The  present  arrangement  of  the  tables — divided  by  Provinces — into  the  clauses^ 
viz.: — ''Offences  tried  by  Jury  ;"  "  Offences  tried  summarily  (by  consent);"  and 
^'  Summary  convictions  and  preliminaryexaminations,"  fully  meets  the  requirements  of 
the  Act  and  fdrnishei  additional  infoiTnation  in  a  more  concise  form. 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


CRIMINAL  STATISTiaS, 

1879. 


TABLE    I. 


STATISTIQUES  CRIMINELLES, 


TABLEAU  I. 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I. 


Ppoviuceof  Ontario— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY, 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES^ET  D   LITS. 


:l,  p- 


1-! 


f  Murder , 

Attempts  to  Marder 

Ac'-essory  to  Murder  after  the  fact 

Infanticide    , 

Alai  slrtufrliter 

Shooting  ut,  Stflbb'g,  Wound'gj&c 

Adminisi'g  nox'a  and  pois's  drags. 

Attempts  to  cooimit  Abortion 

Rape  

Sodomv  and  Bestiality 

Carnally  know'ff  a  girl  of  t'nd'r  yrs 

Concealing  the  birth  of  an  infant.... 

Bigamy 

Abiiiiction 

Presenting  Fire-arms 

Neglecting  to  support   Family 

A?s'  It  occas'g  actual  bodily  harm. 

Felonious  Assault   

Aggraviited  Assault 

laa  Ass'lt  &  att'pts  to  commit  rape 

Ass'lt  and  obstruct'g  Peace  Officer 
[  Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery.. 
f  Highway  Robberv 

Robbeiy 

I  Burglary  and  Robbery 

I  Burglary 

I  Hav'g  Burglars  tools  in  possession 
I  House  &  ahop  Breaking  &  Larceny 
I  Demanding  money  -with  menaces.. 

I  Felonious  Entry 

f  Horse  Stealing 

Accessory  to  Horse  Stealing «. 

iiarceny  from  the  Person 

Larceny 

8  1  Accessory  to  Larceny 

1  Stealing  Timber  

j  Receiving  Stolen  Goods 

I  Eaabeziilement 

1  Fraud  and  False  Pretences 

f  Arson 

^J  Attempts  at  Arson  

I  Wounding  a  Horse  ^ ^... 

(^Malicious  injury^to  Property 


10 
1 

o 

3 

12 

28 

7 

1 

11 

2 

2 

1 

6 

1 

1 

1 

3 

4 

6 

16 

13 

43 

1 

14 

6 

24 

2 

5 

1 

1 

22 

1 

2 

187 

1 

1 

9 

6 

31 

13 

1 

1 

2 


ty  1'-'^ 


<    < 


5 
1 

2 
106 
1 
1 
3 
4 
22 
8 
1 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAxMNATIO.VS. 


rotal. 


-311 

>  -c 

a    c 
o    c 


a    c 
o    o 


81 


76 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 

EifPEISONxts. 


Sans  opt'n 


51 


a  X. 
OS     p 


2 
1 
3| 


12 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  ) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontario-OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY.     TABLEAU  L     j 

SENTENCE. 

it 

i   E 
6 

.2 

a; 

1  i 

^  1 

^1 

aj 

if 

1    i- 

0  (i 

Ti      — 

1  1 

0       c 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

1 
1 

CONJUGAL 

STATE. 

E'FaT          1 
CONJUGAL. 

Pesitentiaby. 
Penitentiaiiie, 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CO 

2  i 

p     CM 

is    03 

1.1 

d    c 

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> 
^^ 

•3       EC 

:  i 
U 
il 

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1 
1 
2 

"V 

■**v 

"V 

3 

..... 

4 

"27* 

"*5 
2 
7 
2 

I'l 

-    5 
^  > 

1 

"V 
"*'l 

i 

i 

i 

i 
1 

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1 

1 

I 

i" 

1 
1 
3 

1* 

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3 

2 

13 
1 
6 

2 

4 

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2" 

I 
G 
1 

5 

4 

9 
2 
1 
3 

2 

1 

1 
3 
6 

9 

3 

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9 

"*27 

*i* 

1 
3 

4 

1 

1 

2 

1 

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7 

1 

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1 
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1 

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5 

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1 

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i" 

4 

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4 

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..".* : 

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3 

1 

1 





*  4 
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2 

7 
2 
10 
1 
6 

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1 
1 

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3 



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...... 

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****2' 
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1 



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12-li* 


44  Yicloria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


I    TABLE  I. 


Province  of  Ontario— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCA'lION. 


2{ 


I 

i       I 

I 


!  3 


Meurtre 

Tentatives  de  meurtre , 

Complice  dans  ua  meurtre  apres  le  fait.  

Infanticide 

Homicide  non-prcmedite 

Poignarder,  blesser,   etc   

Administrer  des  drogues  nuisibles  et  vencneuaes 

'lentatives  d'avortement 

Viol  

Sodomie  et  bestialitc 

Connaitre  charnellement  une  fille  en  bas  age 

Suppression  de  part 

Bigamie  

Ab  iuction 

Diriger  une  Jirme  h  feu  sur  une  personne 

Negliger  de  pourvoir  aux  b^'soins  de  sa  famille 
Voies  de  fait  oocasionn.  des  lesions  corporelles. 
Voies  de  fail  avec  int.  de  commettre  uue  fclonie 

Voies  de  fait  j^raves 

Attentat  contre  la  pudeuret  tentatives  de  viol. 
Voies  de  f  .it  et  opposer  un  officier  de  paix... 

Voies  de  faic  ordinaires 

Vol  de  grand  c  emin .-. 

Vol 


Kffraction  et  vol    

Vol  de  nuit  avec  effraction , 

Avoir  des  outils  de  voleurs  en  sa  possession... 

B  is  de  maison,  de  magasia  et  larciu 

Demander  de  I'argent  avec  menaces    

Entrer  d.  une  mais,  av.  int.  de  comm.  une  felonie 

Vol  de  chevaux  

Complice  dans  un  vol  de  chevaux , 

Larcin  Bur  la  personne.. 

I.arcin 

Complice  dans  un  larcin 

Vol  de   bois     

Recel  d'obj  ts  voles  , 

Abus  de  cunfiance     

Fraude  et  faux  protextes 

Incendier  une  maison  habitee   , 

Tentatives  d'incendier  une  maison  babitee 

Blesser  un  cheval    

Dummage  malicienx  il  la  proprictc 


a    r 


16 


^  ^ 


c 
a. 

K3   ^ 


39 


AGES. 


Under  16 
years. 


16  years  j  21  years 

and      i     and 
under  21    under  40. 


Moins      16  ans 
de        et  m  >in! 


16  ans. 


de  21. 


H. 


21   ans 
■t  moins 
de  40. 


30 


4 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Oatario-OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY,        TABLEAU  I. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIOxYS. 

U?B    OP 

Liquors. 

Usage  des 
liqueurs. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  e 

au- 
dessus. 

a 
□ 

c 

0 

1 

c 

> 
u 

0 
F. 

"1 

British  Isles. 
Iles  Britan- 

NIQD£8. 

0! 
a 

2 

"4 

7 
5 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

"2" 

'2 
4 

12 

5 

12 
2 

4 

1 
14 

29 

'4 

1 
8 
3 

1 

00 

S   .2 

72  i   C 

LI)    ta 

1 

0     C 

'J    £ 

a: 
1  £ 

or, 

a)      s- 
5    ^ 

3.1 
1 

r     0 
a   ^ 

m 

^    h 

5  < 

CO       O; 

1.  E 

23     CO 
1 

m      - 

u     a 

S3      X 
^    C 

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1 

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1 



:::::::  :::::::.l 

1 

44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A. 1881 


TABLE  I.        Province  of  Ontario— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY.— Concluded. 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

1 

c 

i1 

11 

y  ■  S 
CO     c: 

3   § 

V    a, 

41 
5 

1 
19 
6 
2 
9 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
17 
2 

622 

T3  i 
II 

<  < 

16 

1 

"'*14 
3 

I 

1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
10 

316 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 

SENTENCE. 

Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonnes. 

Total. 

it 

H   « 
§    § 

23 
4 
1 
5 
6 
2 

6 
1 

''  1 

1 
7 

266 

a   « 

M 

—     OS 

§  § 

1 

2   c* 
n    > 

23  c: 

1 

c 

.2 

.   « 

5  i 

» 1 
II. 

No  option 
Sans  opt' n 

to 

i  ^ 

3: 

"*2' 
28 

Is 

a    = 

II 

a    c 
10 

...... 

6 
2 
6 

4 

146 

I 

3    c 

1 

17 

I 
i 
5 

I 

1 
6 

Forgrery  and  uttering 

25 
4 
1 
5 
6 
2 
6 
1 

i" 

1 

7 



Mak'g.bav'gr  &  utt'p  rount'tmon'y 

^  Hftvinp  coining  tools  in  pos?esfioii 

Perjury  and  Subornal'n  of  Perjur} 

Conspirncy 

E? cape  from  Prison     ...  

Riot  and  Breach  of  the  Peace   

Brf'ach  of  Inland  Revenue  Laws... 

Ketnoring  Surveyor'?  Posts  

Contravention  ot  R'lw'y  Kegulat'f 

Tnking  nnd  detaining  a  letter 

(Jbstructing  the  Highway 

12 

~ 





Selling  Liquor  on  Polling  day 

Nuisance  

Felonies  not  otherwise  denomin'ed 
Misdemeanors  not  incl'd'd  in  above 
liiinarv . 

i " 

i 

Total „ 



304 

13 

Province  of  Qnebec-OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 

1 
! 

i 
1 

'  *  urd-^r 

Attempt  to  commit  Murder   

Inciting  to  Murder 

Sending  a  letter  threat'g  to  Murder 

Manslaughter .. 

Shooting  at,  Stabb'g,  Wound' g,  Ac 
Rape   

1  Attempt  to  commit  Rape  

(,'arnally  kuow'g  a  girl  of  t'nd'r  yn- 
Sodomy  and  Bestiality 

18 
5 

1 
1 
7 

20 
fi 
8 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 

15 

10 
9 

17 

16 
2 
1 
1 
2 
5 
4 
3 
.... 

2 
1 
2 
3 
5 
2 
5 

2 
3 

5 

15 
1 
5 
2 

1 

12 
5 
7 

12 

2 
3 

5 
15 
1 
5 
2 

**1 

'""2 

12 

5 

7 

12 



..... 



1 

2 

7*1 

**V 

10 

*"V 

1 

1* 

i' 

5 
4 

6 
5 

""2 

...... 

•  a...  . 

:::..■ . 

2' 

7 

Abduction 

Endanger'g  Life  of  Pass'rs  on  R'y. 
-N'fglecting  to  provide  for  Family 
A.«s'lt  occas'g  actual  bodily  harm 

Aggravated  Assault      . 

Asa'lt  and  obstruct'g  Peace  Oflfice- 
Asaault  and  Assault  and  Battery.. 

4i  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  1 2  ) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontarlo-OFFEXSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY. --Fin.     TABLEAU  L 

SENTENCE, 

6 

<D 

J 1 

^'^ 

2  -c 

'3   c. 
V    E 

....  . 



""2' 
2 

il 
5  1 

1  r 

0       c 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Penitentiary. 

PiNITKNTIAIBK. 

i  . 

OS     00 
«    Cr 
>»  ca 
o  c<» 

1.1 
Si 





§^ 

■0      rc 

a    a 

ri 

n 

8 

4 

40 

t4 

o 

1 

37 



jl 

M           00 

5    > 

5    1 
1    1 

22       C 

i  i 

4 

"V 

1 

3 

...... 

"V 

"3 

48 

DO 

i  i 

B  e 
a'£ 

'J  5 

6 

"5  .1^ 

ill 

a    c 

m 
S 

X 
"a    ot 

II 

1 

5 
2 

k 

11 

1 
1 

il 

2 

111 

a     V-, 
n     0 

5 

5 

1 

2 

1 

4 

1 

17 
4 
1 
2 
6 

6 

1 

i" 

3 

1 

10 

3 

..  ..^.. 

1 

5 

1 

i" 

4* 

2 

1 

1 



] 
1 

*'"3 

4 

1 

9.^ 

1 


1 

i 

63 

6 

5 

"2 

'V 

21 

1 

13 

lU 

10 

119 

143 

140 

Province  de  Qnebec-OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY, 

•••••>  • 

1 
1 

1 

..  . 

**v 

7 

1 

■*2 



• 

l' 

2 



3 

3 

11 

2 

-.•    ... 

*2 

11 

'"*6 
3 

2 

2 

4 

1 
5 

1 

1 

5 

*8 

1 

"V 

2 
"*2 

'*"l' 
"3* 

1 

1' 

""2 

•  •.«• . 

1 
3 

...... 



""2 

'"3" 
2 

1 

"2 
1 

9 

1 

2 
1 

3 
"V 

"1 

3 
3 

2 

7 

1 

"iV 

• .»•»  > . 
1' 

'"V 
"V 

"V 

2 

3" 

12 

1 





2 





••"• 

9 
2 
5 
6 

E 

:: 

...  . 

"•• 



44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12. 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I.         Province  of  Ontario-OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JJJRY— Concluded. 

OFFENCES, 
CRIMES  ET  DALITS. 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

l^DUCATION'. 

AGES. 

II 

a  1  c 
D  ■'  q; 
S    S 

19 
4 
1 
2 
5 
2 
4 
1 

2 
....  , 

Under  16 
years. 

Moius 

de 
16  ans. 

16  years 

and 
under21. 

16  ans 

et  moinfc 

de21. 

21  years 
and 

•ander40. 

21  ana 

it  moins 

de  40. 

M. 
H. 

F. 

M, 
H. 

4 
"{ 

P, 

V. 

M. 
H. 

8 
4 

"2" 
3 
2 
2 
1 

F. 

5- 

rTTflriY    pf    piroiilfl tiOTi 

Fabriquer  et  circuler  dw  I'argent  contrefait 

Avoir  des  instrum.  de  fnuxmonnayeurensaposs. 
Parjure  et  subornation  de  parjure 

"l 

""i 

""i 

1 

""i 

Evasion        ..     .......    .»-^ ••.•..•••.••..•.••••....■.... 

Emeute  et  rupture  de  la  paix 

Contravention  aux  lois  du  Revenu  de  I'Interieur 

Enlever  des  poteaux  d'arpenteurs 

Contravent.  aux  r^glements  deg  chemins  de  fer. 
Prendre  et  d6tenir  une  lettre 

...... 

"i 

"'l' 

46 

4 
69 

*  1 

"'3' 
2 

197 



5 

'1 
4 

,.^_ 

"3 

28 

1 

"1 

2 

136 

7 

Veiidre  des  liqueurs  fortes  dur.  unjourde  votat 

Nuisance  

Crimes  non  specifies , 

Delits  non  compris  ci-dessug..... 

^  Folic 

Total 

Province  of  <tnel>ec— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY.                                      , 

1 
1 

1 

1 

"'V 
11 

1 

3 
...... 

""l 

""s 

1 
.  ...^ 

..*... 
.••••• 

"i 

1 
2 

"3* 
13 

4 

l 

6 
3 

I 

•.«••. 

'"{' 

..•••• 

Tentative  de  meurtre ^ 

Inciter  k  comniettre  un  meurtre...  

i' 

2 
""l 

'  4 
3 

1 

1 

**T 
3 

4 
3 

1 
2 

Homicide   non-premedite 

Poignarder,  blesser,  etc 

Viol  

Tentative  de  viol.    

Connattre  charnellement  une  fille  en  baa  &ge. 

Sodomie  et  beaiialito. 

Al>duction 

Comprom   la  vie  des  passag.  eur  lea  eh.  de  fer... 
N6gliger  de  pourvoir  aux  beeoius  de  sa  famille 

Voies  de  fnit  avec  lesions  corporellea 

Voies  de  fait  graves 

Opposit.  et  voies  de  fait  contre  un  offic.  de  paix 

44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12. 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontario-OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY— Fin,     TABLEAU  I. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  XA[S3ANCB. 

RELIGIONS. 

UsB   OP 

Liquors. 
Usage  des 

LIQUEURS. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

a 
0 
■a 

a 
0 
sc 

1 

c 
<v 
> 

Sc 

0 

F." 
1 

3 

British  Isles. 
Tles  Britan- 

NJQCES. 

03 
•X) 
ai 

d 

03 

Q 

12 

4 
1 
1 
3 
2 
4 
1 

2 

3 
2 

165 

D       c/, 

1  3 

ai 

V 

0     c 

ph     or) 
F      > 

1  £ 

i      t 

S.I 

0    c 

0    PQ 

1     1 

00 

5  < 

DO 

i  .2- 

93      03 

-6  i 

n     br 

*-   < 

jq      bi 
-J)    H 

2   1 

II 

5  J 

-Q    X 

jQ       00 

<n     in 

a    a 

■A      03 

1    1 

1   2 
2 

OQ 

0     o5 

^    .£ 

2 

2     . 

17 
3 
J 
3 
3 

•* 

=3     vQJ 

i  '§ 

a  s 
3  a 

3 
1 

3' 

2 
4 
1 

40  a 

a 

dea 

M. 
H. 

6 

'"i 

"l 

"2 


IT 

ns  ei 

u- 

SQS. 

F 
F. 

.... 

1 

a5   no 

n 

-0  - 

^< 
4 
"2 

30 

■.3      c3 

si 

3 

2 

2 

4 

■"1 
16 

..... 

1 



2 
2" 

2 

i" 

3 
1 
2 

7 
3 

1 

1 
1 

""2 

"T 

1 

72 

4 
1 

4 





....... 

""2" 

""2 

1 

1 



"*V 







1 

19 

4 

"1" 

""5 
2 

133 

"*"2* 

*   "2 
128 



i 

"'V 

19 

6 

54 

..... 

27 

13 

64 

Province  de  Quebec -OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY. 

1 

"T 

1 

"T 

""2 
"2 

*  i 

.... 

*1 

"1 

1 

2 

1 

*   3 

"e 

1 

... 

1 
2 

*5 
13 

I 
4 
2 

"1 

1 

7 
2 

8 



1 





2 
2 

"  V 
12 

...... 

2 



..  ...^.. 

.• 

2 
1 

"3 

2 
1 
3 

'"1 

""2 
10 

1 





1 
1 

"1" 





.:.:.' 

4 
2 

....... 

12 
5 
4 
8 





"'"1" 

1 

6 

1 
....  ^. 

'  "2 

1 
5 

"3 

1 

1 

2 

I 



44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I.        Province  of  qneber— OFFENCES  TRIED   BY  JURY.— Concluded: 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DfiLITS. 


3^ 


Hijjhway  Robbery 

Robbery   

AssHult  -vrilh  intent  to  Rcb 

Bnrplnry 

Hav'g  Burglars  tools  in  possession 

Hou8P-brehk:ng  and  Larceny .. 

House-breaking -. 

Attempt  at  eho]  -breaking  .. 

Steal'g  from  a  dw'g  bouse  w'h  men. 

Forcible  Entry 

Horse  Stf^Hling 

Cattle  t^tealing   

Larceny  from  the  Person    

Attempt  to  s'eal  fr<  m  the  Person. 

liarceny  in  a  dwelling  house 

Larceny  

Attempt  to  commit  Larceny 

Receiving  >St  <lea  Goods 

Embezzlement 

Fraud  and  False  Pretences .-. 

Afipropriating  Timber 

Ari?on    

Incendiaripm  

Malicious  injury  to  properly 

Forgery  and  uttering  

Mak'g/bav'g  &  uti'g  count't  mon'j 

Tampering  With  Hallot  Box 

Unlawful  A8P«mbly 

Prisc-n-breaking  in  d  Escape 

Contempt  cf  ('ourt 

Opi-ning  a  Post  Letter 

Carrying  Unlawful  Weapons.... 
Destroying  a  VXrit... 

i'^'i^ij 

Riot 

Compounding  a  Felony. 

Attempt  to  c<  nimit  a  Felony.... 

Acce8^ory  to  Felony  

Abeit'g  tbe  commii'n  of  amisdem'i 
Lunacy  


ToUl. 


3 

12 
2 
9 
2 

31 
4 
1 
1 
1 
9 
1 

20 

1 

1 

107 

1 

14 
9 
8 
1 
2 

b 

5 
9 

6 
6 

5 
7 
3 

1 

2 
8 
10 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 

448 


<  < 


181 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIONS. 


Total. 


a    c 
o    c 


a 


fl     C 

o    c 


266 


265 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonke3, 


m 


3  ^ 

3 


No  option 
Sans  opt'n 


3  .t: 

.T      C 


23 


^-^ 

^  < 

1 

...... 

... 



.... 





4 

3    


106 


a 


10 


44  Victor  a. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  Qiiebec— OFFENSES  JUGfiES  PAR  UiV  JXJRY.-^Fin.    TABLEAU  L 

SENTENCE. 

1 

1! 

.S  'z 
^    S 

■2      c 
^      S 
^      .2 

o     <^ 

i   1 

o       r 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 

STATE. 

fiTAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Penitentiary. 

PiNITKNTIAIRB. 

2    . 

1.1 

ii 

6 

1 

2 
3 
I 
2 
1 

11 
1 

u 
o 
t>- 
3 
t3 

1 

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2 

"  1 

3 

...... 

4 

2 

a 

as        « 

03            CO 

5    ^ 

g     £ 

=  1 

:i5     O 

1  i 

St  u 

Of* 

ll 

111 
if 

0  C 

»  ■  t 

il 

II 

13     C 

i 

1 

1 

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..... 

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2 

^ 

1 

1 

1 

188 

77 

164 

11 


4-4  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12. 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I.      Province  of  Quebec— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY- 

—Concluded, 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELIT3. 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 

AGES 

.  2 

o    a 

II 

0    <v 

II 

5,3 

i=l  .  c 

....... 

"  4* 

**v 

1 
1 

""13* 

**"5 
2 

.  i 
.2  .i 



....... 

Under  16 
years. 

M^ns 

de 
16  ans. 

16  year.' 

and 
under21 

16  ans  et 
moiHS 
de21. 

21  years 

and 
under  40 

n  ans  et 
moins 
de40. 

M. 

i". 

"*1 

1 

F. 
F. 

M. 
H. 

1 

1 

3 

2 

'2 

4 

1 
U 

"2 

1 

1 
1 

2 

T' 
49 

F. 
F. 

... 
.... 
... 

■■ 
I 

i 
2 

M. 

i. 

2 

1 

"3 

1 
11 

1* 
1 

\ 

1 
8 

:-.4 

6 
1 
1 

I 
2 
2 
3 

1 

1 

I 

1 
1 

1 

1 
ISO 

F. 
F. 

'2" 

T 
"2 

6 

3 

6 
6 

^  Vol  de  grand  chemin * 

Vol    

Voies  de  fjiit  avec  intention  de  vol. 

Vol  de  nuit  avec  effraction 

Avoir  en  sa  possession  des  outils  de  voleur.... 

4 
"2' 

""2 

"l 

'22" 

4 
""2 

"'"2 
■"2 

i' 

'23 

"1 

Rri5   Hp   maioon        .  .. ..-..   

Tentative  d'tffraction-  

Vol  avec  menaces  dans  une  demeure 

Entree  illeorale  el  violente 

Vol  de  chevaux 

Vol  de  betrtjl.    ..., 

Larcin  sur  la  personne 

Toniative  de  vol  sur  la  personne 

Vol  dans  une  demeure 

Larcin , 

Tentfitive  de  larcin 

Fraude  et  fsux  pretextes 

1  S  appropri»*r  du  bois  illegalement 

Incendier  une  maison  habitee 

(dct'ndier  une  batisse  inhabiiee 

'>egat  h.  la  proprietc 

Faux  et  circulation — 

2 



2 

2 

3 

....... 

...... 

FabncaiioM  et  circulation  d'argent  contrefait. 

Manijmlation  d'une  boite  du  scrutin 

KHS8enibleu)ent  illegal  •• 

Bris  de  pri-on  et  evasion 

Mepris  de  cour 

Uuvnr  une  lettre .' 

Port  d'armes  illegal ^  

Ctrl. ire  un  ordre  de  sommation 

"'2 

"V 

1 
2 

'"2 

1 
1 

■"'3 

i 

1 

77 

6 

Pariure            .         .  .    .    •  .     .          ...  .....    .  .... 

Emeute ,.. 

Composer  dans  une  felonie 

TentMtive  de  commettre  une  felonie  

Complice  dans  une  felonie 

Ai   er  a  I'exccution  d'un  delit ,  ,. 

t  Fohe  

Total 

51 

68 

12 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A. 1881 


Province  de  Qwebec-0FFE>^SE3  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY— i^m.     TABLEAU  I. 

AGES. 



Bki 

Ili 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANOE. 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  op 

LiQUOHS. 

CTSAGB  DE8 
LIQUEURS. 

40  year 
and 
over. 

40  ans 
et  au- 
dessus. 

.0 

5 

■a 

:^ 
1 

c 
> 

F 

1 





1 

TisH  Isles. 
:s  Bbitan- 

NIQDKS. 

03 

a 

6 

1 

"*5 



9 

en 

Si 

§  1 

be 

0  < 

2  't 

J  1  a. 

■II 

1-         -: 

Z>  < 

CO        Ol 

no 
.      «^ 

0  1  a- 
"o  1  '0 

z>  0 

3 

7 
1 
8 
1 
16 
1 

1" 

■'"V 

1 

10 

1 



60 

-J 

2 
1 

""4 
3 

3 

4 

""g 

3 

4 
2 
4 
6 

""1 
1 
1 

rn        CO 

0      0 

a>    «<!> 

W         «3 

a    c 

CO      ./ 

71        K 

a     c 

d      or 

a  1 

M 

a 

3       ry 

IS      c 

-  ¥ 

^ ! 

^     a 

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^    ^^ 

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2 

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1 
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2 



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7 
1 
3 
3 

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14 

15 

1 
1 

'"2" 











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........ 

4' 
2 





i 

1 







2 





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1 

r 

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1 



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1 



5 

•••• 



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4 

43 

7 



223 

4 

1 

32 

57 

46 

la 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


i 
TABLE  I.          Province  of  New  Brans wiclt— OFFENCES  TRIED   BY  JURY. 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DfiLITS. 

1 
1 

ti 

i  - 

CO     C 

§     g 

-6  i 

»J    ♦J 

'3  '5 
cr  o- 

<  < 


i" 

1 

1 

8 

1 
2 

"lo' 

1 
33 

CONVICTIONS. 

SENTENCE. 

jCONDAMNATIONS. 

Committed  to  Gaol. 
Empbisonnes. 

Total. 

DO 

^     I— 1 

li 

a   c 
0    0 
0  0 

ii 

■0"  '^ 

li 

p.    nr 
Ci     c 
0    C 

'o  0 

....... 

....... 

i' 





G 

1 1 

..... 

""1 

"V 
"1 

4 

c 

.2 

— <     a, 

s « 

c: 

ill 

'.is 

N'o  option 
Sans  opt'n 



ill 
i.s 

n    0 

i' 

1 
2 

""2' 

1 
2 
1 

"4 

...... 

'"4 


ti 

0 

xi    0: 

a    c 
0  t:^ 

f  Murder 

2 

1 

7 
1 
3 
1 
3 
3 
2 
5 
4 
7 
4 

25 
1 
3 
1 
4 

10 
1 
1 

89 

2 
I 
7 
I 
3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
4 
4 

3 

17 

1 

1 
4 

V 

2 

1 
7 
1 
2 
1 

"*V 

1 
3 

4 

15 

*  "i 
3 

1* 

1 
1 

i 
1 

1  4i 

Manslaughter 

Shooting,  Stabbing,  Wounding,  &c 
Concealing  the  birth  of  an  Infant. 
Assault  occa'ing  actual  bod'y  harm 
Assault  with  in't  to  com't  a  Felon} 
Indecent  Assault 



i' 

*"T 

"1 

Aggravated  Assault 

Assault  on  Peace  Oflicer 

Assault 

Forcible  Entry 

r  Larceny  from  the  Person 

""i 

Larceny  

Arson  , , 

;  &< 

Uttering  Counterfeit  Coin 

1 

Escape  from  Prison.... 

Unlawful  Combination  < 

t"! 

Perjury 

Misdemeanors  not  inci'ded  in  above 

1 

19 

2 

2 

1 

Total 

56 

46 

1 

Province  of  Nova  Scotia— OFFENCES  TRIED   BY    JURY. 
1 

1 

f  Murder 

1 
3 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
9 
8 
1 
35 
5 
1 

""2 

""2 

1 

'"'2 
3 

"*iV 
i* 

1 
1 
3 
2 

1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
1 





1 

1 





Manslaughter. 

Shooting,  Stabbing,  Wounding, &r 
Concealing  the  birth  of  an  Infant. 

Bigamy  ^ 

Aggravated  Assault ,* 

1- 

1 

i 

: 

Assault  on  Peace  Officer 

1 
I 
3 
7 
5 
1 
25 
5 

\ 

3 
6 
5 
1 
21 
4 

1 





1 

'  Robbery 

1 

"'"V 

1 



1 

3 

1 

'  House  k  Shop  Breaking  &  Larcen; 

[  House  Breaking * 

'      fLarceny ., 

3  ■<   R.r'<''pi  vi  n  cr  St.nlpn    cmf\/\a                 -  . 







"2 

Stealing  a  Post  Letter 





14: 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No  12.) 


A-  1881 


Province  da  Nonveau-Brusnwicli— OFFENSES  JUG^ES  PAR  UN  JURY.     TABLEAU  I. 

SENTENCE. 

6 

ll 

St 
II 

2 

1 

a    u 

3    a 

•^  a 

III 

::5  fc: 

il 

1  '^ 

a    ^ 

3      c 

1  1 

1  r 

'J)    ^ 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

I:Fat 

CONJUGAL. 

Penitentiary. 
Penitekciaiue. 

1 
5  ^. ' 

»■ 

i  ^ 

— '    C<l 

> 
0 
rJ 
a     . 

33        DO 

£  -? 

si- 

"1 

1 

i 

1 

Mi 

M            CO 

-  t 

5     > 

Hi 

1  i 

23      D 

-T    05 

3      3 

u    0 

...... 

2 

DC 

11 

a  s 

a  a 
0  0 

si 

a  t 

"   I 

...... 

2  '^ 

CO        I/- 

3  '  3 

■0  *r! 

a    3 

no 

1 

3J       CO 

a    c 
2  .2 
/J   0: 

0    c 

4-1        t- 

1.  c^ 

06 

^        r- 

****1 

-5 

a':2 
1 

"*V 
1 
1 

"'2 

'"  I 

1 
1 

11 

1^ 

'a    3 

1 

72       0 



3 

2* 

'2 

1 
3 
1 

*2 

6 

1 

2 
1 

1 

1" 

1 

1 

7 

i' 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 



3 

"*I 



1 

..••«  • 

•••' 

.'.". 

...... 

...J. 
...... 

5 



...J.. 

""2 
"l 

6 







2 
3" 

2 

8 

■***v 

3 

1 

""2 
1' 

7 

••"•• 



1 
7 

i* 

1 

1 

5 

15 



2 



m" 

1 
14 

:;e 

2 
1" 

— ' 

1 

24 

21 

21 

1 

Province  de  la  STouvelle-Ecosse— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR   UN  JURY. 





""1' 

1 

***3 



1 



•«••••• 

2 

1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

1 

1 

*3 

4 

••••2Y 
4 

1 

1 

...... 

1 

*"'i 

""1 

3 
1 
3 

!   "I's 
4 

1 
..... 

""1 

i 

1 
1 
1 
2 

.... 

1 
2 

2 

* r 

■""3 

i 

3 

1 

"****3 
3 

.        5 

"l4 

4 

2 



! i 

1 



;:;;:;: 

3 
3 

i 

4 

1 



3 

c 

3 
3 

..... 
"3 

.     1 
i 

1 

i 

1 

i 

1 

.... 

1 

10 


44  Yictoria- 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I,         Frovlnce  of  Jfew  Ernnswicli— OFFNCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 

i 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

ifiDUCATIOxN. 

AGES. 

g    a. 

t-.     rV 
O       dJ 

SI 

y 

"i 

Is 

0  j  s. 

It 

"Y 
"i 

S  5 

3  j  C 
a;  ■  Q, 

|.? 

""1* 

2 

"'i' 

1 

'"3' 
"""3 

1 

1 
"2' 

0  J 

... 

Und 

ye 

Mc 

c 

16  J 

M. 
H. 

"1 
1 

2 

er  16 

ars. 

)ins 

le 

ms. 

F. 
F. 



16  y 

ai 

and( 

\6  a 
mo 
de 

M. 
H. 

"1 

'Y 

"2 

4 

T 

ears 
id 
it  21 

QS  et 

ins 

21. 

F. 
F. 

a 

md 

21  a 
mc 
de 

M. 
H. 

"3 

"1 

"i 
i 
i' 

7 

ears 

nd 

er40. 

na  et 
)ins 
40. 

F. 
V. 

1- 

3 

4- 

5 

■  Meurtre , 

Homicide  non-premedile 

Poignarder,  blesser,  etc 

Suppression  de  part 

'  Voies  de  fait  avec  lesions  corporelles 

Voies  de  fait  avec  int.  de  commettre  une  feloni* 

Attentat  contre  la  pudeur 

Voies  de  fait  srraves 

Voies  de  fait  contre  un  oflBcier  de  paix... 

Voies  de  fait  ordinaires  ..  : 

''  Hris  de  maison  eL  de  magasin 

Eniree  de  force , ,.... 

Larcin  sur  la  personne 

Larcin 

-Incendier  nne  maison  habitee. 

Faux 

Circulation  de  fausse  moanaie 

''  Evasion « 

Cabale  illegale 

Pariure.    .*. 

"2* 

"i 

"Y 

"1 

5 

6 

20 

Totaux 

Province  of  Nova  Scotia— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 

( 
1 

1 

( 
3 

Meurtre . 

1 

" '2 

2 

""1 
2 
2 

1 
11 

"{' 

"2 



'Y 

"3 
1 

3 

•"• 

.... 



Homicide  non-premodite  

Poignarder,  blesser,  etc 



Bigamie ............ 

1 

2 

4 

1 

I 



Voies  do  fait  graves 

Voica  de  fait  contre  un  oflBcier  de  paix 

Voies  de  fait  ordinaires 

"i" 
2 
2 
1 

Vol 

Vol  de  auit  avec  effraction 

Bria  de  maiaon  ot  de  magasin  et  larcin 

3 
3 

1 
12 

...... 

Bris  de  maison i..« • 

"Larcin 

Kecel  d'objets  volea 

Vol  d'une  letire 

4 
2 

5 
2 

. 

16 


44  Victoria.. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


i 
Province  du  Jfonveau-Bruuswicli— OFFENSES  JUGl^ES  PAR  UN  JURY.     TABLEAU  I. 

i 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NALSSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

1 

Use  op 

LiQDORS.    - 

Usage  DE3 

LIQUEURS.   1 

40  years 
and 
over. 

d 
P 
C 
^3 

[ 

a 

> 

'be 
0 

F. 
"1 

1 

British  Isles. 
Iles  Britan- 

HIQUBS. 

•73 
o3 

ta 
33 
::) 

1 
1 
2 

*1 
1 

1 
3 

"2 

"1 

7 

r 

1 
2 

24 

•3  1 

a? 

5     ^ 

.11 

i  .-§ 
1  f« 

^  ^: 

.51 0 

Si  §- 

1 
1 
3 
1 

1 
2 

"*"i 

3 

'"T' 

19 

-a     a3 

1  fe 

be   "S 

;§  ^ 
""1 
"V 

"1 

3 

no      O) 

0     C 
♦J      *- 

"1 

03        W 

(jQ      or. 

1  i 

X.    Cl 

0        K 

■a.    c 

C       cr; 

1     '^ 
0      c 

?       f 

«     a 

5  < 

3       C 

1 
1 
! 

i-ii 

00' 

a  a; 
i  ^ 

'""i""i 
1  1 

..... 

1    ! 

2 

i 
""4I 
....... 

15  j 

40  ai 

des 

M. 
E. 

1 
1 

'  i 

"i 

6 

IS  et 
tu- 
rns. 

F. 
F. 

1 
1 

2 

Is 

-a    - 
a  +i. 

"3c  bi 

a  a 

"1 
1 

■6      ffi 

■6 

^    CO 

.... 

.... 



'V 



"V 

..... . 

""  1 

3 

'"!'! 

....... 

.!*.!.! 

""1" 

"V 
3 

...  ^ 

9 

...... 





"'i' 

2 

::::::. 

"V 

2 

"V 

6 





3 

1 

::::;:: 


........ 

1 

ProviMce  de  la  IVonwlle-Ecoisse— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY.                     | 

1 
"*1 

'l 
""2 
"2 



'2 
""1 

'1 
"*1 

...... 



.... 

1 

3 

2 

i 
3 
5 

4 

1 

23 

5 

'"'V 

"V 

"1' 

2 

..... 

""l 

1 

... ..  .. 

1 
6 
1 

""1 ' 

'""2" 

1 

....... 

2 
3 

""i* 

"T 

1 



1 

"2" 
1 

""2" 
4 

"19" 

"'"'i"i 

....  i 

"j 

i 

...... 

i 

....... 

""V 
........ 

'"2*" 



17 


12 — 2^ 


41  Vict. 


ria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I.       Province  of  xova  Scotia— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JVRY.— Concluded, 

i 

OFFENUES 

1 

CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

TO 

a, 
■^    2: 

SIS 

o    c 
^  p- 

5 
1 
1 
3 

87 

-6  i 

5  '~ 

4 

2 

27 

CONVICTIONS. 

SENTENCE. 

CONDAMNATIO.VS. 

Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonkes. 

• 
Total. 

\\ 

a    c 
o    c 

-^  c 

1 

1 
1 
1 

jr. 

>    'C 

a    c 
o    o 

■a 

•     a. 

pi 

o 

s  i 

2J  cc 

>?©  option 
Sans  opt'n 

u  1  > 

-3  X 

^  i 

3      C 
""'l 

8 

(X) 

> 
0     , 

a  ^ 

s  "J 

c    c 
0   L^ 

C  Arson 

;  4:}  Attempt  at  Incendiarism ,.. 

!      (  Malicious  injury  to  property 

6— Perjury 

Totals 

1 
1 
1 
1 



3 

IZl' 

1 

5 

60 

57 

1 

Province  of  Prince  Edward  Island— OFFENCES  TRIED    BY  JURY. 

f Murder     ..   . 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
9 
2 
1 
'2 

I  

1 

1  

I         1 
1  

1    

2        2 

2  7        6 
2        2 

1  .„ 

1 

2 



l" 

1 

2 

..... 



"5 

"V 

1 

7 

"1 
1 

2 



Shooting  with  intcLt  to  xMaim 

,  Bigamy 

*1  Rape    ..., : 

1  Assault  with  intent  to  Rape  

1  Assault 

2 — House  B'"eaking 

(  Ar-'on 

4<  Killing  a  coav , 

(  Cutting  and  Maiming  Horse' 

5 — horgery  and  Uttering 

Totals ... 

i 

2  1 

3  1 

i        17       13 

!                                     Province  of  Manitoba— OFFENCES   TRIED    BY   JURY. 

C  Manslaughter 

1 
2 

2 

1 

12 

2 

1 
1 

i* 

..... 

1 

i* 

1* 

1 

2 

1 
"*'l' 

*v 

1 

2 
6 

. .. . ' 




2 " 



• ' 

•  

1 -j  Shooting  with  Intent 

(.  Aggravated  Assault 

"*  {  Burglary      , 

3— Larceny 

5— Forgery 

C Escape  from  Penitentiary 



6  "I  Rejecting  Nomination  papers 

Illicit  Distilling   , 



Zl 

— 

Totals 

6 

2 

18 


44  Victoriii. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  4le  lai  :&^oiiveaile-Ecosse— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  VN  JURY.— Fin  TABLEAU  L 

SENTENCE. 

3J 

^      C 

3  E 
1 

1 

li 
it 

2)  K 

1  ^ 
i " 

O         c 

o      P^ 

■^         or 

-a     — 

a    > 

o       c 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 

STATE. 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Pexitentiaby. 
Penitentiaihe, 

2    . 

Oj     c 

O      03 

^    a; 

II 

d    c 
7 

> 

D 

=  : 
II 

n 

1 
"    1 

32 

> 

2  TO 

if;     ci 

;3  < 

-M            TO 

5    > 

r^         s- 
1       1' 

—       TO 

ri     ^ 
5;   U 

6 

i  1 

'-)     i~ 

a  s 
3  a 

o    c 
'^  O 

'  "l 

4 

O       .r- 

a  t 
^^ 

i' 

5 

a    c 
5 

no 

ii 

3^    si 
O      C 

:-^      ~ 

1 

1 

-6 

'"'V 

li 

1 

.     '-5 
a      .o 





1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

5 

"111 

14 

44 

29       11 

48 

1 
Province  de  FBle  dw  Prince-EdoKard— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN    JURY. 











...... 

1 













1 

1 



.!..... 



I 

1 

2 

2 

6 











2 

u 







Province  de  Maniloba-OFFENSES  JUGEES   PAR  UN  JURY. 

1 





•..••»^ 

1 













;;;;•; 



i' 

1 

"i 

1 

i 

2 



IZ.' 

19 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


i                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 
T.\BLE  I.                     Province  of  Nova  Scotia— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY— Concluded. 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDU(^ATIONAL 
STATUS. 

Education. 

AGES. 

^  1 

2  i^ 

II 

"l' 

13 

-  c 

o  ■  a 
V    f 

-  t 

'"l" 

18 

3      C 

3    B 

1 
1 

"*1 

2i 

O     _C 

^^ 

1 

Under  K- 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 

16  years 

and 
under  21 

16  ans  el 
raoins 
de  21. 

21  years 

and 
mder40, 

21  ans  et 
moins 
de  40. 

M. 
H. 

3 

F. 

F. 

H. 

'l 

18 

F. 
F. 

M. 
H. 

1 

21 

F. 
F. 



r 

1 

'  Tncendier  nne  mai^on  habitee 

'} 

Tentative  d'in^endie ....... 

^  Doofat  i\  la  propriete 

-Parjure  

Totaux 

Province  off  Frince  Edward  Island— OF FEVCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 

1 

•  I- 

Meurtre 

Usage  d'armes  a  feu  avec  intention  de  blesser. 

Bigamie 

Viol 

Voies  de  fait  avec  intention  de  viol 

V^oies  de  fait 





••••"■ 



.... 
... 
... 

.... 



.... 



3- 
4 

-Bris  de  maison 

-Larcin 

Incendier  une  maison  habitee  

Tuer  une  vache    



5- 

-Fanx  et  circulation  

Totaux 





■  ■— 

Province  of  Manitoba— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 

,_,                                                                                                                ., 

1 

r  Homicide  non-premedite 

Usage  d'armes  avec  intention  de  tuer 

[  Voies  de  fait  geavts  





.... 

.... 

.... 



Vol 

Vol  de  nuit  avec  effraction , 

-  Larcin 

-faux 

2 

3 

5- 

ZZ' 

G 

i 
1 

1  Rf-jeter  les  bulletins  de  nomination 

[  Distillation  iliicite 

Totaux 

— 

L_ 

^_ 

20 


44  Yicioria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  AU  I.     Province  de  la  Xowvelle-Ecosse-OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY— i^m. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  op 
Liquors. 

Usage  des 

LIQUEUB,3. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  ei 

au- 
dessus. 

m 
-o 
a 

o 
-a 
a 
o 
Z 

1 

G 

i> 

'Si 

o 

F 
3 

British  Isles. 
Iles  Britan- 

NIQUES. 

OS 

c 

03 
1 

*i 

1 

51 

^   .2 

M 

U 

P          & 

■2:4 

•~l       c 
U        !- 

5  < 
1 

a    ,lr 

--    c 
£   (^ 

no 

^      t 

5  < 

03 

"5    'c 

i  t 

■fci;    a. 
—     < 
0     a; 

o     c 

1  i 

2  .2? 

0-    C- 

a    c 

X        r/. 

I       1 

3-1     CL 

§     a 

ll 
S   % 

to 
t^     a. 

a;      s- 

3  2^ 

^     . 

a  E 
5  ^ 

■h  CO 

D  a; 

■A    J. 

2 

-3         OJ 

1  1 

-H           (—1 

Is 

o  o 

o  « 

M. 
H. 

r 

8 

F. 
F. 

i 

1 

6 

1 
1 
1 

23 

::::::; 





"V 

1 
1 

36 

1 
7 

— 

1 
11 

2 

3 

5 

:iii 

1 

Province  de  VUe  dn  P-ince-Edouard— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY. 

:;;;;: 

1 



......1 











...... 























"1! 

1 





- 











Province  de  Manitoba— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY. 



... 





1 



^ 



..;.**: 





1 



























:2i 


41  Y 


letoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I. 


Pro^-inoe  of  Britisli  Columbia— OFFENCES  TRIED    BY  JURY. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


f  Murder ,.... 

Attempt  to  Murder 

Manslaughter 

Carnally  k'ing  a  girl  of  t'nd'^yea^^ 
l  ■{  Rfipe  

Sodomy  and  Bestiality 

Assault  with  Intent 

Assault  on  Peace  Officer 

I  A  sault  

f  Larceny  from  the  person. 

(  '.arceny 

I  Forgery  

I  Selling  spurious  Gold  dust 

—Illicit  Distilling 


Totals.  .. 
Grand  Total. 


X.    fL 


55 


13!= 


<    <. 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIONS. 


rotal 


t  £ 


o    c 


1 

3 

2 

14 



1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

5 

1 

5 

9 

1 

] 

2 

16 
587 

39 

748 

a    c 
o    o 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonkes, 


^  Ci 


•_^ 

« 

' 

Tl 

t- 

c 

— • 

ei 

Ij 

(- 

o 

Zi 

"^ 

m 

37 

710 


26 


12 


No  option 

Sans  opt'n 


44 


7 
293 


13 

27       62 


2"^ 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  la  Colombie-Britanniqae— OFFENSES  JUG^ES  PAR  UN  JURY.  TABLEAU  I 

SENTENCE. 

II 
H  Q 

<v 

© 

ii 

sit 

i  .1 

i    £ 

«       1 

a       a; 
3        c 

1    = 

a     > 

o      c 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Pbnitbntiary. 

PilNITENTIAlBE. 

t      . 

>»    03 
O    c«, 

£3     C 

13 

i 

05        . 

§^ 

a    c 

n 

ll 

"*4 

1 
.... 

*"l' 

6 
182 

0) 

t> 

o 

It 

1 1 

""V 
1 

i 

4 
86 

...... 

1 



2 
4 

II 

'-a     > 

u        a; 

3    > 

2:3    C 

1  ^ 
113 

to 

ll 

a  s 
a'£ 

0    c 

:::>  0 



.. .  . 

) 

50 

.       TO 

"   J: 

i'l 

28 

a    c 



""1 

2 

3 
94 

"3     re 

i'i 
Ii 

X  p. 
12 

277 

33      03 

225 

It 



17 

72       0 

... 

3 

........ 



1 

2 

i 

1 

2* 

i" 

""2 

3 
14 



2 

4 

189 

4 

3 

6        347 

377 

» 

'A^ 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  I. 


Province  of  Britisb  Colambia— OFFENCES  TRIED  BY  JURY. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


Meurtre 

Tentative  de  meurtre  

Homicide  non-preniedite... 

Coonaitre  charnellement  une  fiUe  en  bas  age. 

V   ■ 


1  ■{  Viol 


Sodomie  et  bestialite 

Voies  de  fait  avec  intention. 

Voies  de  fait  centre  un  officier  de  paix , 

Voie3  de  fait  ordinaires 

Larcin  sur  la  personne 

Larcin...... ; 

Faux ., 

^'^ndre  de  la  fausse  poudre  d'or 

bistillalion  illicite. 


Totaux.. 
Grand  total. 


EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 


118 


o  j^ 


144 


a  s 


319 


a^   p. 


12 


AGES 


Under  16 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 


16  years 

and 
ander21 

16  ans  et 
rooins 
de  21. 




M.     F.     x\L 


H. 


10 


103 


21  years 

and 
inder40 

!l  ans  et 
moins 
de  40. 


F. 


F. 


14 


24 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  la  Col.-Britanniqtie— OFFENSES  JUGEES  PAR  UN  JURY. 

TABLEAU  I, 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  op 
Liquors. 

UfeiGB  DES 
LIQUECTRS. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans 
et  au- 

dessus. 

c 
c 
o 

O 
1 

a 
t> 
& 

o 
^; 

F. 

British  Isles. 
Iles  Hritan- 

NIQDES, 

03 
eJ 

a 

03 
O 

..... 

415 

m 

O) 

"T" 

■g   2 

§  1 
5  1 

O    < 

i"" 

11 
&  t 

^     a; 

o  < 

3  1 

03        DO 



o     o 

be  ^ 
a     u 

IS 

73         OQ 

o     o 

^  Is 

rt     c 

S  .2 

CQ       a. 

on      00 

a     c 
1    1 

a 
2    « 

33      C 

a   -K 

11 
- ! 

OQ 

tH     a, 

1  s 

5  < 

2     , 

V  '  v© 

a    Si 

a  a 

-H      t— 1 

3  +- 
d  c 

a  ^ 
x:  « 

... 
1 

2 

50 

-3        1 

71 

-:5 
20 

M. 

H. 

95 

F. 

F. 









...... 



'"'"l 









1 
....... 

'.'.!!.!. 



2 

61 

1 



i 

~5" 

2 

....... 



••••• 



.. .!! 

..... 


"".!*.!" 

— - 

1 

1 

3 



6 

9 



40 

1 

30 

15 

1 

25 

329 

91 

61 

238 

197 

44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


OFFENCES  TRIED  SUMMARILY 

(By  consent ) 


TA.I3  LE    I  I. 


OFFENSES  JCGEES  SOMMAIREMENT 

(Par  consentement.) 


Ti^BLTS^TJ    XT. 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  11. 


Province  of  Ontario— OF FEVCES   TRIED   SUMMARILY 
(By  consent.) 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DfiLITS. 


X,  Cm 


{  Shnotinp  at  StabVgf,  Wounding,  &c 

Sodomy  and  Bestiality  

A  Iministering  noxious  drugg 

Concealing  the  birth  of  an  Infant... 
Endang'g  lifj  of  pas3eng's  on  R'ys. 

Abduction 

Bigamy     

Child  desertion 

Child  stealing 

Kidnapping      

Presenting  Fire  Arms 

Negl'i'g  &  flt'fns'g  to  supp't  fam'ly 

Threatening  Bodily  harm 

As-'twith  iut'tt'^do  gri's  b'y  harm 
Indecent  Ass'lt  k  attempt  at  Rape. 
Felonious  Assault  


I  Aggravated  A-sault., 


A-saiilt  on  &  obst'iog  Peace  Officer 
[Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery... 
'  Highway  Robbf^ry    

Robbing  Her  Majesty's  Mails  

R.'bbery  

Attempt  at  Robbery. , 

Burglary 

Attempt  at  Burglary 

House  Breaking  and  Robbery 

House  &  -Shop  Breaking  &  Larceny 

H'lu.se  and  Shop  Breaking 

Brea'<ing  into  a  Railway  car 

Forcible  En'ry 

Demanding  money  with  menaces... 
f  Horse  Stealingr     

I  Attempt  at  Horse  Stealing 
Cattle  Stealing 

IS'ertl'ga  Post  Letter cont'g  money 
Larceny  from  the  person  

I  Larceny     

j  A  ccessory  to  Larceny 

Attempt  at  Larceny  

I  Rf'ceiviner  Stolen  goods. 

I  Bringing  Stolf^n  goods  into  Canada 
Fraud  and  False  Pretences. 

[  Emhiezzlemeat..    


52 

1 

2 

3 

5 

3 

2 

9 

3 

1 

8 

32 

2 

10 

28 

4 

33 

93 

32 

2 

1 

39 

2 

74 

2 

15 

32 

11 

3 

1 

20 

2 

11 

1 

8 

1896 

2 

1 

40 

3 

165 

28 


<  < 


23 


1 

22 

'"5 

18 

1 

10 

15 

7 

2 

*22 
2 

43 

1 

2 

4 

11 

""3 

1 
4 
2 
6 

*  6 

773 


2 

111 

18 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIONS. 


rotal, 


31 


16 


11 

o    o 


5 
1 
2 
1123 
2 
1 


13 


ill 

d    c 

o    o 


(J 

:r5   C£. 


5 
1 
2 

055 

2 

1 

11 

1 

50 

10 


36 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 
Empbisonnes. 


3  i  = 

5   1 


32 


o  \*^ 

=>        0 

^   2 


46 


No  option 
Sans  opt'ri 


4 
'2 

717 
...... 

5 

1 

26 

6 


d     "" 

-3 
^-  03 

^4 


162 
1 


Z8 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontario-OFFENSES  JCJGEES  SOMMAIREMENT      TABLEAU  II. 

(Par   consentement.) 

SENTENCE. 

' 

CO.VJUCAL 

RESI- 

OCCUPATIONS 

STATE. 

Penitentiary. 

DENCE. 

lETAT 

P^KITENTIAIRE 

.2 

TO 

© 

. 

CONJUGAL. 

<o 

.^ 

> 

-zs 

O 

'^ 

a; 

j3 

OJ 

B 

OP 

D 

trf 

>-, 

OJ 

>> 

r 

<M 

c 
'c 

© 
o 

CO 

o! 

o 
03 

a 

O 

P 

o 

p. 

s 

0 
O 

2      w 

2      S 

2    § 

.     to 

.       TO 

a    c 

i 

i 

i-i 

> 

m 

13 

3 

o 

tn 

P- 

a 

a 
a 

o 

5       a> 

~"      0 

3    .2 

0  0- 

a  a 
a'a 

0  0 

0  2 

3*        CU 

t3    -c 

o    c 
ill 
o    c 

-2   ^ 

ill 

0  > 

~    a 
-I!     - 

*5 

i    1 

-        1     vO 

Q 

^- 

H         (M 

fe 

lo     Q 

w 

Q 

K 

-J)    f> 

:^      C 

<,  <t; 

'.J  c 

::3  m 

-H      ^ 

Om  Cl 

-3  1^. 

>3  :s 

S-  > 

7J      0 

4 

1 

19 

8 

8 

3 

1 

6 

1 

1?, 

14 

1 

8 

•"• 

..... 



.... 



"""2 

1 

1 
1 

*"*2 

"V 

1 
1 

"1 

""1 

1 
2" 

•• 

•• 



2 

2 

2 

3 







... 

5 

1 



4 

.... 

.... 



::::: 

1 

'"'"2 

*"V 

1 



"1 

1 

"1 

**  1 

• 



.... 



.... 

.... 

1 





...... 

...... 

1 

..  . 

1 

1 







6 
6 

3 

2 
3 

1 
2 

2 

5 

1 
2 

""1" 

3 
2 

■■"2' 
1 

"1 

3 
3 

'"2 
5 

2 
8 

4 
3 

1 

5 

*1 

4 
2 

•:;: 1 

.... 



.... 





1 

...  .^. 

"l 

20 
51 

2 
11 

'"5 

4 
2 

1 
5 

6 

20 



11 
31 

8 
20 



14 
37 

.... 

•• 

2 



..... 
3 

1 

7 

16 

'*'*1 
2 

3 

1 

1 

4 

"'V 



14 

7 

1/ 

'   5 

2 

11 

"1 

11 



.... 

13 

- 

14 

4 

.... 



19 

10 

2 

3 

2 

8 

2 

12 

5 

1 

25 

•• 



2 

— 

2 

.... 

"I'l 



1 

"V 

'"'V 

1 

4 

'  1 

6 

.. 

4 

.... 

.... 

2 

13 

4 

7 

1 

1 

1 
1 

6 
6 

■1       8 
38       1 

1 

13 
10 

....... 

.... 



.... 







1 

5 

3 

1 

4 

7 

1 

1 

2 

8 

4 



9 



- 

1 

..= 

1* 

.... 





1 

4 
1 

1 

2 



2 

3 



2 
1 

1 
802 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

60 

T? 

60 

831 

191 

30 

42 

103 

179 

4 

569 

2I4 

34 

,. 

.,,.., 

1 

.... 

, 

... 

2 

'  2 

• ' 

i 

5 

\ 

2 

1 

""'1 

4 

""2 

1 

15 

1 

7 

■*"27 

.... 



.... 

...... 

1 

26 

9 

5* 

**"6 

*"*7 

1 
9 

.... 

2 

1 

13 

7 

3 

1 

1 

4 

2 

1 

4 

^ 

:i9 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  ir. 


Province  of  Ontario— OFFENCES  TRIED  SUMMARILY 
(By  consent.) 


OFFENCES, 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


I 
I 


f  Poignarder,  blesser,  etc 

Sodomie  et  Bestialite 

Administrer  des  drogues  nuisibles 

Suppression  de  part  

Coinpromettre  la  vie  des  passag.  surles  c.  de  fer 

Abduction  » 

Enlevement  d'une  feUime ,...,. 

Abandonner  son  enfant 

Vol  d'enfant 

Enlevement..... ^ 

Diriger  une  arme  a  feu  sur  une  personne 

Refuser  de  poui  voir  aux  besoins  de  sa  famille.., 

Monacer  de  faire  des  blessures  corporelles 

Voies  de  fait  avec  int.  de  faire  des  les.  corp  grav 
Attentat  contre  la  pudeur  et  tentative  de  viol.., 
Voies  de  fait  avec  int.  de  comm.  une  felonie.... 

Voies  de  fait  graves 

Opposition  et  voies  de  fait  cent,  un  offic  .de  paix 

Voies  de  fait  ordinaires 

Vol  de  grand  chemin 

Voler  la  malle  de  Sa  Maieste 

Vol 


Tentative  de  vol ».  ... 

Vol  de  nuit  avec  effraction 

Tentative  de  vol  de  nuit 

Bris  de  maison  et  vol , 

Bris  de  maison,  de  magasin  et  larcin... 

Bris  de  maison  et  de  magasin 

Bris  de  char 

Entree  deforce 

Hfrnander  de  Targent  avec  menaces... 

Vol  de  chevaux , 

Tentative  de  vol  de  chevaux 

Vol  de  betail  

Vol  d'une  lettre  d' argent 

Larcin  sur  la  personne 

Larcin   

Complice  dans  un  [larcin 

Tentative  de  larcin 

Recel  d'objels  voles 

Appi;rter  en  Canada  des  objets  voles. 

t  raude  et  faux  prctextes 

Abu3  de  confiance 


EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 


249 


292 


b.2 

a  ,E 

a>     CD 


sq  k; 


17 


25 


3 

""2' 

728 
2 

1 
7 
1 
27 
5 


AGES. 


Under  16 
years. 

Moius 

de 
16  ans. 


2 


1 


1 


16 


16  years 

and 
under  21 

16  ans 

et  moins 

de  21. 


34 


21  years 

and 
under  40. 

21  ans 

3t  moins 

de  40. 


10 


2 
389 

1 
1 
5 


57 


30 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Oiatarlo— ©FFENSES  JUG^ES  SOMMAIREMENT     TABLEAU  II. 
(Par  consbntement.) 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

1 

Use  of 
Liquors. 

Usage  des 
liqueurs. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

a 
§ 

a 
0 

1 

g 
> 

0 

F. 

British  Isles. 
Ilks  Britan- 

MQUfiS. 

c3 

■a 

aJ 

a 
<a 
:^ 

11 
1 
1 
2 
1 

"1 
2 

3  .2 

1 

0    c 

'■^    2 

.ir! 

m 

■B    c 

5  -5 

0^ 

11 
11 

CO 

1  ^ 

5  < 

CO        0/ 

ii'S. 

1  -^ 

8 

0      (V 

..a     bi 
6 

.        TO 

no      a> 

tn      VI 

-5  ^ 
0    0 

:^   ^ 

5 
1 

'"V 

i  s 

X,    (X 

4 
....  ^.. 

1 
1 

CO       r/^i 

1 

d 

53     c 

|!^ 

CO 

8 
1 

""2" 
3 

2     . 

33     ^03  j 

0    »ai  1 

^  '§! 
3  ai 
a  a 

18 
..  ..^.. 

.  ....^. 

r"i 

1 

40  ai 

ai 

des 

M. 
H. 

7 
"l 
"*2 

"l 

1 
2 
2 

""i 

1 

7 
5 

"l 
"2" 

""i 
3 



"1 

"1 

129 

"2 

1 
10 

iset 
1- 

3US. 

F. 

w 
a;  ^ 

*? 
11 

a  c 

3 

"2 

1 

"1 

"4 
6 
9 

1 

3 

3 
2 

2 
"1 

128" 

"1 

1*2 
3 

t5       oi 
4 





1 

2 

'"1 
2 

3 

9 
2 

'""2 
""T 

"*"2 
1 
1 

'*"*4 

-c5 

u 

1 
'1 
.... 

.... 

"1 

1 

"1 
"2 

"1 
1 
i 

46 

"i' 

"2 
1 

3 





1 
'"3" 



1 

1 

1 



1 

,... 







2 





2 



::!::: 

1 
*"l 

3 
3 

*i 

1 
3 
5 

1] 

3 

7 

'2 

5 
2 
9 
39 
9 

"1 
12 

2 

i" 

1 
3 

...... 



...^ ^„ 

1 

**"i 

2 
2 

1 
8 

34 
3 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 

2 
1 
5 

...... 

4 

'"*V 
2 

**'V 

...... 

4 
2 

*"io*' 

16 
"2" 

'1 

6 
6 
3 



1 
1 
1 

5 

14 
14 

2 
7 
3 

"1 



1 

5 

4 



15 

6 

1 

1 

14 

8 

3 

2 

3 

11 

20 





"5" 
14 

•f 

"3 
1 

599* 

"3 

2*1" 

4 

........ 

8 

"**i 
*  **i 

••'•••• 

""2" 

*'*4 

10 

5 

""4" 





*  "7 

""3 

"V" 

7 
3 

*ri" 
....... 

1 

510 

I 

"V 
1 

25 
6 

•■•■J 

8 

'2* 

4" 

"53*2* 
I 
1 

4 

3 

5 
'"3" 

i" 

5 

1 

'"5 
'""4" 



i* 

i' 

i' 

"31 
"i" 

'"'i' 

1 

2 

114 
2 

*"4 
1 
2 

1 

1 

373 

21V" 
2 

'"u 
2 

1 

176 

....< .. 

1 

1 

12 

2 

34 

143 

'""3* 

2 

2 

80 

'"1 
3 

*"*8* 
3 

9 

'"'*'i' 

'•• 

....... 

■*'*3** 

i 

"io" 

1 

31 


■41  Y 


ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE   II. 


Province  of  Ontario— OFFENCES   TRIED   SUMMARILY. 
(by  cokse^t.)— Concluded. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  KT  DALITS. 


Arson 

Accessory  to  Arson - 

Incendiarism .-.. 

Wounding  Horses  and  Cattle  ....... 

Malicious  Injury  to  Property. 

Mak'g,  hav'g  &  utter'g  co'  t'l't  Coii 

Forgery  and  Uttering 

Uttering  unc.irreut  Money 

Breach  of  Revenue  Laws 

Conspiracy 

Conspiring  to  Break  Gaol 

Escape  from  Prison 

Carrying  Fire  arms 

Riot  and  Breach  of  the  Peace 

Attempt  at  Suicide 

Tnreats " 

Attempt  to  commit  a  felony 

Felonies  not  oth'wise  denominated 
Misdemeanors  not  incl'ed  in  above. 
Lunacy 

Totals 


20 
1 

2 
3 

17 
9 

17 
1 
7 
3 
1 
9 
7 
1 
3 
3 
1 

26 

12 
4 

'830 


1^ 


<tj  <: 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIONS. 


Total 


13 


L222 


1604 


a    e 
o    o 


1510 


^11 

>    ns 

a    c 
o    o 


53 


3S      > 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonnes. 


41 


a  a; 


163 


No  option 
Sans  opt'n 


910 


o 

o     « 

a    c 


30 


213 


Province  of  Quebec 


f  Shooting  at,  Stabb'g,Wound'g,  &( 

Endanger'g  life  of  passeng's  on  R'} 

Presenting  Fire-arms    *. 

N  )t  providing  for  Family 

Bigamy 

Abduction 

1  -{  Bestiality 

Attempt  to  commit  Bestiality 

At't  to  carn'y  know.girl  of  I'nd'ryrs- 

Indecent  Assault 

Aggravated  Assault  

Ass'lt  on  &  Obstruct'g  Peace  Offic 
[  Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery.. 


11 


3'^ 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Provinces  d'Ontario— OFFENSES  JUG^ES  SOMMAIREMENT. 
(.Par  consentement.) — Fin. 

TABLEAU    IL 

SENTENCE. 

Penitentiary. 
Pen'itentiaire. 

Detained  for  Lunacy. 
Emprisoane  pour  cause  de  folie. 

Committed  to  Reformatories. 
Envoye  h  la  Prison  de  Reforme. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CON,JUGAL 

STATE. 

fiTAT 
CONJUGAL. 

1 

CO 

I  i 

-<         rr. 

i  1 

13     Pi 

Two  years  and  under  Five. 
2  ans  et  moins  de  5. 

Five  years  and  over. 
5  nns  et  ]>lns. 

00          w 

^        bt 

O       ^ 

%       > 

5    > 

3 

1 

7 

1 

2 

7 

1 

1 

I 

6 

1 

1092 

Rural  Districts. 
Districts  rnraux. 

— r  w 

be    tl 

<i  <; 
1 

*"*'i 

""5 

1 

...... 

'"T 
2 

.2  1 

11 

...  . 

1 

"1 

"V 
"V 

2 

Hi? 

ra     cr, 

a  ■  :: 

a    c 
2 

oi 
1 

^     en 
3     C 
2   S 

ii 

Z  £ 

I'l 

4 

1 

""*1 
6 

1 
1 
1 

"""5 
2 

'"i 

2 

1 

S!:2 

•^    a 

0    > 
■^    ;:; 

III! 

1 

1 

*1 

3 

1 



4 

2 

2 
5 

1 

5 

1 

1 
1 

2 

i 

4 
3 
3 

2     

j 
4    1 

M 

'i'i 

7 
2 

1 

"*'*4 

i 

1 

1 
6 

3 



.... 

3 

""V 
1 

4 
3 
1 
1 

*"l' 
1 
1 

2 
2 

4 

1 
1 

...... 

"'"'1 

44 

••;; 

i 



1 

2 

1 

283 

3 

15 

i" 

1 

106 

i' 

35 

4 

4 

80 

1 

135 

67 

324 

66 

752  1  366 

1057 

Province  cle  4Joebec. 

2 

1 

1 

1 





4 
1 
1 
3 

1 

1 

2 
35 

72 
4 

1 

1 

1 

1 
2 
1 

1 

1' 

11 

1' 

""e 

3 

*""l 

"1 

14 
1 



1 
1 
1 
2 

\ 

1 

4 

1 
1 

1 

1 

2 

15 

25 

3 



"3 

1 



■ 

\ 



'""2 

1 

3 

29 

24 

4 

1 

1 

12 

22 

2 

**"*i 

1 
5 
5 
2 

; 

6-6 


li~^ 


^i[  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  11.               Province  of  Ontario-OFFENCRS  TRIED  SUMMARILY 

(By  consent)  —Concluied. 

OFFEXCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDUCATIOI^AL 
STATUS. 

igDUOA'lION. 

AGES. 

CO 

■a 

QJ      4) 

O     a; 
-? 

II 

1 

a; 

If 
1 

a  s 

6 

1 

0    0 

[Jnd 
jea 

Mo 
d 

16  i 

M. 
H. 

Br  16 
rs. 

ins 
e 

ms. 

F. 
F. 

167 

ar 

unde 

16 

et  m 

de 

M. 
H. 

1 

"3 
2 

1 

ears 
d 
r21. 

ans 

oins 

21. 

F. 
F. 

.... 

21y 

ar 

unde 

21 

et  m 
de 

M. 
H. 

3 

1 

'3 

4 
2 

1 
4 

*  1 

7 
1 

"1 

"5 
2 

1 

622 

jars 

id 

r40. 

ans 

oins 

40. 

P. 

F. 

1 

72 

flncendier  line  mftison  habitee 

C*  mpiicc  (i'un  iiiccndis-irp             .           .  -. 

5  ' 
G 

Inctfudif'r  un  biitiment  itihabitc  ...  ,,  ,.    .   ....... 

Blesser  de?  chevaux  et  des  bestiaux 

1 
1 
1 

1 

2 
1 

2 

7 
5 
4 
1 
5 

i" 

6 
2 





1 
2 

FabricHiion  et  circulation  de  t'ausse  monnaie 

Faux  et  circulation                

[Circulation  de  monnaie  non  autonsee 

..  . 



'2 
^37 

16 

1 

'**r 
1 

"1" 

"1 

226 



.... 



39 

Tramer  ure  eva^iion    

S'echapper  de  prison 

2 

2 

Tentative  de  suicide 

Menaces     .    .. 

1 

1 

1 
3 
1 
9 
4 
3 

1055 

1 
13 

3 

3 

1 
1 

374 

Dclits  non  conipris  ci-dessus    

[  Fulie    

1 

318 

Totals 

ProTince  of  Quebec, 

1 
1 

1 

1 

f  U^aze  d'armr-a  avoc  intention  de  mutiler 

3 
...... 

3 

i" 

1 



"i" 



3 

1 

7 
13 

.... 

2 

"1 

1 

"1 

12 

41 

2 

"i 

Comiirom.  la  suretc  des  passag.  sur  les  ch.  de  fei 

Diriger  une  arme  a  feu  Bur  une  personne 

Nc-nrjiger  de  pourvoir  aux  besoins  de  ea  fanaille.. 
Bioramie 

Enlevement  d'une  femme  

Best.ialite  

Tentative  de  be?tialite 

Tenter  de  connnitre  charnellem.  une  jeune  fille.. 
Attentat  f<jntre  la  pudeur j 

10 

11 

""3 

19 

1 

"T 

Voies  de  fait  graves 

Opposit  et  voies  de  fait  cent,  un  officier  de  paix. 
Voies  de  fait  ordinaires 

34 


4.4  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Oiilario— OF FEXSES  JUGEi^.S  SOMMAIREMENT 

.     TABLEAU  II. 

(Par  C0x\sentemEx\t)— i^r«. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 

Use  op 
Liquors. 

AGES. 

LiaUX  DE  NAISSAXCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

[JSAOB  DES 
LIQUEURS. 

« 

British  Isles. 

xii 

40  years 

's 

— 

and 

c 
o 

Tles  Britan- 

Oi 

3         .ri 

over. 

T3 

NJQDES. 

fc-      m 

W      c 

. 

— 

o 

a     a^ 
=3     bi 

OJ     *-• 

t;  ?= 

5      tr 

1 

40  ans  ei 

"^r. 

0     c 

0  fS 

5      - 

a 

des 

M. 
— 

1- 

3  as. 
F. 

1 

a 

■5, 

0 

OS           S3 

^6 

c3 

C 

'A 

to 

2    2 

bO    « 

0   ^ 

:3    -^ 

-3  ^ 
0     c 

00 

0 

a 
0 

C      c 

0    0 

35 

II 

0    0 

H. 

F. 

a;      .— ( 

r^  V 

d 

a    +i 

oi     OS 

o3      03 

jq      hi 

0/      -i* 

tH         fc^ 

!-< 

►J      .- 

a   s 

2 

F.   ::£!< 

^       ►^ 

UuUi 

0 

3 

2 

2" 

O    < 

D    < 

:q    td 

•.J    0 

2 

^    S 

0.     CL 

^ 

D- 

0  < 

2 

1 

..  .^.. 

5 
"  i 

"" 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

....... 

"V 

**"r 



..  . 



1 

... 



2 

2 

2 

6 

2 

1 

'"2" 

5 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

7 
5 

1 
1 

1 

.... 

1 



3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

" 

2 
1 

2 

1 



.... 



1 

4 







5 

'• 



1 

1 

'•■*•** 

...•■ 

....  . 

.... 

...... 

"1 



1 



1 

.... 

1 

3 

3 

2 

2 

3 

1 

2 

..... 

1 

2 

7 

3 

"i 

1 



..... 

2 
.... 



'""{ 

2 

1 

"T 

1 

1 

... 

2 



1 

1 







1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

..... 

.... 

1 

.....  .. 

i 

... 

1 

4 

i 



.... 

1 

1 

6 

1 

3 

6 

1 

2 

i 

7 

5 

2 

3 

.... 

1 

1 



2 

2 

1 

,. 



3 

1 

203 

3i 

2 
11 

2 

198 

1 

1 

814 

174 

22 

5 

48 

508 

3 

317 

243 

191 

127 

4 



220 

63 

15 

695 

767   , 

Province  de  Quebec. 







.... 

1 

4 

1 

5 

2 

1 

1 



1 

1 

1 

1 





"1 





• 

.. . 

i 

1 

.... 



— 

1 
1 
3 

3 

;    8 



4 

1 

8 

10 

1 

'  i 

32 

53 

3 

26 

36 

2 

1 

8 

17 

3 

18 
1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

9 
2 

1 

i\  . 



_. 









IZ-^—U 


35 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S8I 


t 

!  TABLE  ir.                ProvinceofQnebec— OFFENCES  TRIED  SUMMARILY, 
i                                                                    (By  consent.) — Concluded, 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

.     0 

■a  -^ 

11 

'^     I 
m     C 
a    c 
o    0 
£   Z 

K      a; 

23 
6 

2 

22 
5 

12 
5 
3 
1 

17 

690 

4 

14 
1 
6 

31 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 

q 

1 
1 

2 
1 

1055 

.       CO 

T*     a, 

"5  *5 

cr   c- 
w    0 

<   ^. 

4 
4 

"""i 
2 
4 
1 

141 
■***6* 

"20 

1 
1 

1 
2 

1 

i' 

2 

239 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 

SENTENCE. 

Committed  to  Gaol. 

Emprisonnes, 

Total 

rr 

<^ 

¥i 

>    'O 

d    c 
o    c 
■J  0 

18 
2 
2 

18 
3 
8 
4 
3 
1 

12 
540 
4 
8 
1 
6 

11 

""i 
""3 
""i 

or! 

ll 

M 

>  -a 
a    c 
0    0 

1 

c 
.2 

0     =1 

VViih  the  optiou  of  a  Fiue. 

Sur  option  entre  la  Prison 
on  I'amende. 

No  option 
Sang  opt'n 

It 
"'V 

14 

0  ;b 

^  a 

3    c 
■:::>  ^ 

12 

1 
2 
6 
2 

1 
1 
1 

"3 

410 

"s" 

'4 
8 

0     . 

s  ^ 

a    c 
3 

"11 

f  Robbery 

19 
2 
2 

18 
3 
8 
4 
3 
1 

12 
549 
4 
8 
1 
6 

11 

1 

3 

1 

"*"'l 

816 

i  2 -|  Attempt  at  Burglary 

j      1  House  &  Shop  Break'g  &  Larceny... 
i  House  Breakino'  

1      f  Horse  Stealing. 

Cattle  Stealino- 

I        Sheep  Stealing        

Larceny  from  dwelling , 

"""q 

""3 

•••••• 

24* 

i" 

Larceny  from  the  person..... 

3«!  Larceny  

Stealing  a  Post  Letter , 

Receivino"  Stolen  Goods 

Bring'g  Stolen  Goods  into  Canada 
Embezzlement 

1      [  Fraud  and  False  Pretences 



f  Incendiarism  ., 



.  \  Attempt  at  Arson 

'l  Shooting  a  Horse 

[  Damage  to  property 

"'V 
"2* 

509 

16 

20 

;.  j  Forgery  

"*  (  .Mak'g,hav'g  &  utter'g  count't  mon. 

f  Conspiracy 

1  Breakino-  o-aol ,.   , 

1  Forcible  Detainer.... 

t  Misdemeanorsnot  incl'ded  in  above 

lotah 

1 

788 

IS 

10 

— 

127 

Ptt'ovince  of  Xcw  Brunswick. 

(  Attempting  to  Shont 

1<  Aggravated  Assault...    

Assault  on  &  resist'g  Peace  Officer 
2I  Jobbery 

j  House  and  Shop  Breaking 

3 

4 

27 

2 

3 

Id 

1 

201 

2 

1 

4 
2 

"97 

1 

107 

1 

3 

23 

"  "3 
64 

1 

3 

23 

'*'3 

56 

86 

5 

5 

""3 
3 

1 

2 

20 

4 

"3" 

19 

1' 

3  1  Larceny  

(  Embezzlement 

Totals 



22 

1 

■""""" 

94 

27 

36 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


1 

\                             Province  deQucbec-OFFEJ^SES  JUGEE3  SOMMAIREMENT.     TABLEAU  IL 

;                                                                  (Par  consentement,)— i'7n. 

SEXTEXCE. 

Detained  for  Lunacy. 
Emprisonne  pour  cause  de  folie. 

Committed  to  Reformatories. 
Envoye  ii  la  Prison  de  Reforme. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CO  N' JUG  A  L 

STATE. 

:gTAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Penitentiary. 
Penitentiaire. 

Under  two  years. 
^foins  de  2  ans. 

Two  years  and  under  Five. 

2  ans  et  moins  de  5. 

Five  years  and  over. 
5  ans  et  plus. 

^     — 

a      ^ 
03       a; 

5    > 

Rural  JJistricts. 
Districts  rnraux. 

.2   § 

p  0 

S  1  0 

as 
a  a 

0    c 

'-)  0 
...... 

"iV 
1 

"i' 

""2* 

6.t 

...... 

"25' 

.     tn 

■^    '3 

-a  -c 
a    c 

3 

1 
1 
3 

'**3* 
2 

i" 

39 

"i 

'"3" 

1 

** 

1 
U     00 

s    a 
0    0 

i  1 
1* 

11 

^    s 
^^ 

14 
1 
1 

13 
1 
3 
2 
3 
1 
5 
368 
3 
6 

■*"*3 

6 

-6 
5 

Is 

••HI? 
1 

i)        c3  \ 

III 

-/3       0 

4 
1 

9 

G 

3 
2 

1 

3 

40 

1 

13 
2 
2 

17 

6 

3 

1 

12 

476 
4 
3 
1 
6 
6 



2 

6 

..  ..^. 

1 
1 
] 
3 

**"62 

T 

1 

9' 

13 
2 
2 

12 
2 
4 





2 

1 

4 

'"V 

3 
2 

1 

4 

78 

"*T 

1 
2 
5 

2 

"**i' 



1 

1 

1 
2 
2 

*  i 

1 

29 

2 

2 

2 

2 

7 

6 

446 
4 

7 

4 
4 



.]..*, 



..... 





35 

33 

86 

3 

""3 

"**'l 

501 



1 

3 

*  T 



i 

1  ""!. 



8 

1.'>3 

14 

74 

40 

68  i 

98        13 

564 

! 

1 

Province  tin  K^ouveau-B?rc&iiswic!i. 

1 

2 



1 

3 

23 

...  .^. 

60 

""I 



""V 

"i 

7 

15 

""2 
3 

....  ^. 

8 

1 

2 

20 

3 

50 

1 
14 

'  30 

45 

1 

13' 

17 

"*l" 
1 







u 

90 

4    . 

76 

'61 


44  VicLoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


j  TABLE  II.               ProTinoe  of  Quebec— OF FEJ^CES  TRIED  SUMMARILY 

(By  consknt)— CVicZwc/ei. 

' 

1 

i 

i 

1 

.       OFFEXCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELIT3. 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 

AGES. 

11 

2  - 

11 

8 

y 

8 

*  *5 

3  .  C 

5 

*"*1 
2 

1 

""2 
...... 

63 

1 
1 

""1 

1 

'"4 

Und( 
yea 

Mo 

d 

16  a 

M. 
H. 

1 

'  i 

1 

1 

"1 

21 
2 

*i 
1 

3rl6 
rs. 

ns 
3 
ns, 

F. 
F. 

16y 

an 

unde 

16  an 
mo 
de 

M. 
H. 

7 

1 

i 

1 

1 

37 
.... 

1 

75 

ears 
d 

r21. 

s  el 

ns 

21. 

F. 
F. 

"5 

5 

21  y 

an 

unde 

21  an 
mo 
de^ 

M. 
H. 

4 

1 

1 

11 

3 
3 

3 

1 
3 
84 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 

"1 

i* 

183 

ears 

d 

r40 

s  et 

ns 

10. 

P. 
F. 

'T' 

"2 

7 

"1 
12 

|.i 

f  Vol 

^'ol  de  nuit  avec  effraction 

Tentative  de  vol  avec  effraction 

...... 

1 

Biis  de  maison...., 

f  Vol  de  chevaux 

1 

1 

'  3 

V^ol  de  betail 

1 

"I 

1 

i 

105 

Larcin  dans  une  demeure. 

fjurcin  sur  la  personne 

Lircin 

VDIer  nne  lettre 

Recel  d'objets  voles 

Apporier  en  Canada  des  effets  voles. 

A bu3  de  confiance ... 



Fraiide  et  faux  pretextes 

'Incendier  nn  batiment  inhabite 

Tentative  d'incendie  

6 

6 

4 

Tner  un  cheval , 

"'"1 





'  "1 

32 

5 

^  iJcgat  a  la  piopriete  

Faux < 

Fabriquer  et  circuler  de  I'argent  contrefait.... 
(  ConsT)iratioa 

i' 

129 

""l 

148 

c 

!  Bris  de  prison. 

I  Dotpnir  de  force  _ 

1  Delits  non  connpris  ci-dessus 

Totaux 

104 

5 

i 

j                                                                 Provin«e  of  New  IBruaswiek. 

1 

1 

'Usaore  d'armes  u  feu  avec  intention  de  tuer.... 

1 

3 

19 

"1 

7 



1 

1 

16 

"i 

19 
3S 

"l* 

"2" 
3 

( >ppo3.  et  voies  de  fait  contre  iin  ofiicier  de  paix 
Vol .. 

1 

1 

1 

i  ^ 

Bris  de  maison  et  de  niagasin 

3 

42 

G8 

1 

2 
8 

10 

"3 

3 

'21 

29 

19 

20 

20 
21 

3 

1 

) 

{  Abus  de  confiance 

Totaux 

08 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


ProTince  de  ©ueboc— OFFEXSES  JUG^ES  SOMMAIREMENT     TABLEAU  II. 
(Par   consentkmeni) — Fin. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANUE. 

RELIGIONS. 

UsB  OP 

Liquors. 

CJSAGE  DE3 
LIQDEURS. 

40  yean 
and 
over. 

40  ans 
et  au- 
dessus. 

no 

C 

a 
0 

a 
0 

1 

d 

bi: 

0 

F 

British  Lles. 
Iles  Britan- 

NIQUK3. 

c: 
a 

c3 

17 
2 
2 
8 
1 
6 
4 
3 
1 
6 
383 
2 
6 

"5 

7 

.... 



"*"l 

1 

CO 

1  1i 

(A 

§    1 

5  1 

n 

5  < 





u     a 

2    i 

-J  l.a 
0    Q 

a     s- 
*^    < 

5   '§ 
.J     .J 

33  s 

■.;--.v 
a    E 

2  i 

=5      ^ 
0      C 

i 

aJ      C 

5  -< 

2 

a-    «o 

2      0 

10 

""i" 

1 

..  ...^. 

*i 

108 
1 

1 

i 
5 

2 

J)  ■  .0 

I'll 

a  a 

i 
3 

1 

1 

2 

i 

59 

""2 

a  *i 
bCbi 
ii  < 

1   '1 

§  i 
II 

2 

M. 
H. 

1 

F. 

2 

17 
2 
2 

13 

1 
7 
4 

"1' 

10 

445 

4 
6 

1 
5 
7 





2 

*  5 

1 



I 

*T 

20 
"l 

36 

.... 
... 

"'5 



.... 

.... 

Zi 

7 

3 
64 

71 

""2 
1 

"2 
41 

"i 
1 

55 

5 

...  ..^. 

'  '3 

82 

2 

2 

1 

"2 

1 
14 

"1 


21 



'3 





"'  2 

90 

"1 

2 

"".. 

5 

8 

1 

3 









2 





1 

'""i 

14 







"1' 









2 

1 

■'1 

1 

1 



i" 

1 
\ 

96 

... 



159 

1 
608 

8 

........ 

2 

— 

116 

1 

116 

556 

8 

Province  du  Xouveau-Branswielc. 

1 .!". 

"2 

"2 

4 

1 
3 



3 

19 

'3 

50 

75 

i' 

5 

6 

1 

1 

2' 

"'V 

14 

2 

37 

64 





1 

3 

2 

1 

8 

11 

1 

6 

""1 

1 

10 

2 
23 

1 
41 

4 

1 

6 



' 



5 

2 

12 

— 

28 

48 

8 

2 

6 

4 

39 


44  Victoria 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  II. 


Province  of  Nova  Sootia— OFFENCES    TRIED    SUMMARILY. 
(By  consent.) 


OFFENCES 


CRIMES^ET  DELITS. 


I 


Crnellj  beating  a  child 

-  .  Wife  Beatinpr -.. 

(  Presenting  Fire  arms  

[  Assault  on  &  obs'ct'g  Peace  Officer 

f  Larceny  from  the  Person 

2  1  Larceny  

;  Keceivi''Dg  Stolen  goods   

[False  Pretences  


1 
1 
1 
10 
1 
205 
5 
1 


Totals 2'25 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIO.VS. 


Total 


1 
1 
1 
9 
1 
119 
4 
1 


D  C- 


5  e 


a  c 
o  o 
'J)   C 


137 


1 
..... 

9 

1 

118 

2 


133 


SENTENCE. 


Committed  to  Gaol. 

Emprisonn^s. 

No  option. I 

Sans  opt'i.l 


O  '  S 
3U    7. 


D   ^ 


104 


5=  < 


Province  of  Prince  Sdward  Inland. 


1 — As?aiilt  on  &  obt't'ng  Peace  Office 

2  f  Larceny  from  the  Person 

(Larceny , 

Totals 


46 


17 


17 


29 


26 


10 


18 


Province  of  Manitoba, 


f  Assault  with  intent  to  Rape 

1  I  Resisting  a  Peace  Officer 

3— Burglnry  . 

f  Horse  Stealing. .i 

I  Larcpny        " 

3  J  Keff'iving  Stolen  goods   

'  En^ib^zzUment 

I  False  Pretences  

6— Riot 

Totals 

Grand  Totals 


52 
1.401 


23 


31 
1,70-1 


21 


2.701 


17 
?,56(i 


83 


13 

431  Si,479j 


47 


4 
258 


40 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  la  Xouvelle-Ecosse— OFFENSES  JUGl^ES  SOMMAIREMENT.      TABLEAU   IL 

(Par   consentbmbnt.) 

- 

SENTENCE. 

i    1  i    i   :   :   i    i   i   j        |  Detained  for  Lunacy. 

:       ::::;:::          Emprisonne  pour  cause  de  folie. 

Committed  to  Reformatories. 
Envoye  h  la  Prison  de  Reformo. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 

STATE. 

ifiTAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Penitentiary. 

PIlNITBNTIAIRE. 

Under  two  years. 

Moins  de  2  ans.                           1 

Two  years  and  under  Five. 
2  ans  et  moing  de  5. 

Five  years  and  over. 
5  ans  et  plus. 

rn        no 

il 
1 ! 

CO            «3 

5    t^ 

Rural  Districts. 
Districts  rnranx. 

1   t 

So  fct 

<  <; 

""3 
3 

II 

Hi 

a  £ 

0    c 

""1" 
""2 

2 
5 

is 

3' 

... 

3 

"3  ^[^ 
3  3 

a    c 

...... 

1 

OR 

"3 , » 

a    c 
0    0 

■?o  I'm 
OD     en 

0     C 
U      t-. 



n 

i' 

"iV 

"*"l 

1 

'""2 

1 

5 

II 

1' 

1 

III 

'/2       0 



6 

6 

1 

....  .^ 

"26* 
4 

2 

'"19" 
3 

1 

23 



26 

2 

14 

Province  de  I'lle  dn  Prince-Edouard. 





8 

1 

20 



2 
3 

*••"* 

2 
1 
2 

5 

— - 

4 
13 
17 

3 

3 

.... 

5 

1 

20 



29 



26 

1 

Province  de  Manitoba. 



1 

'"'2' 

3 

183 

1 

1 

44 

_„.!. 



'■"5 

T 



r 

3 

...... 

1 

83 

138 

""1" 

175 



1 

389 

18 

'"5 

"1 

1 

i" 

2 

r 



113 

6 

1,927 

4 

6 

4 

1,750 

44 

532 

1,329 

549 

61 

41 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  11.          Province  of  Nov 

n  Scotia- 

(By 

-OFFENCES  TRIED  SUMMARILY 
consent). 

OFFENCES, 
CRIMES  Er  DALITS 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

fiDUCATIO.V. 

AGES. 

■a  " 

II 

—>  1— 1 

i  1 

X>  !    CD 

as 

i 

"n 

2 

1 

15 

111 



Under  16 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 

16  years 

and 
under21. 

16  ans 

et  moins- 

de  21. 

21  years 

and 
under  40. 

21  ans 

it  moins 

de40. 

M. 
i. 

4 

1 

5 

F. 

F. 

M. 
H. 

1 
8 

F 
F. 

M. 

H. 

"l 

"9 
2 

1 

13 

F. 
F. 

("Battre  nn  enftmt  cruelleraent.... 
j  _     Voies  de  fait  contre  sa  femme.. 

personne. 
ofiicier  de 

Oppos.  ct  voies  de  fait  contre  un 

pai.\. 



>l 

Larcia 

8 
2 

8 
2 

Recfl  d'objets  vo^es  

1  Faux  preiextes 

1 

Totanx, 

10 

10 

Province  of  Prince  Edward  Island. 

1  ■" 
3 

-Oppos.  et  voies  de  fait  contre  un 

officier  de 

paix. 

i' 

10 
11 

.... 
10 
11 

7 

lo' 

17 

Jill 

8 
8 

'— 

2 
*6 
8 

— 

4 
I 
6 

11 



Larcin          .. ........ 

Totaux 

Province  of  Manitoba. 

1 

Voifs  de  fait  avec  intention  de 

viol 

...... 

4 

5 
493 

i 

4 

5 
569 

4 
'*"l 





^,16 

41 

"1 

4 

'1 

6 
S73 

s. 

-Vol  dc  nnit  avic  effraction 





• 

Ljarf'in  ...          .           .••.....<- 

Rpcel  d'objets  voles  

. 



92 

19 

-Emeule          -  

Totaux, 

Gran;fs  totaux. 





5 

1,264 

19 

4:d 


4.4  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  la  Nouvelle-Ecosse— OFFEJ^SES  JUGEE3  SOMMAIREMENT        TABLEAU  II. 

(Par  consentbment). 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 

LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

1 

(Jsa  OP 
Liquors. 

Usage  des  ' 
liqueurs.  1 

1 

40  years 
and 
over. 

i 

a 
a 

o 

CI 

o 

1 

d 

"So 

o 
52; 

F. 

British  Isles. 
Iles  Britan- 

KIQDES. 

•rs 

03 

a 

03 

oJ      w 

3  w 

1. 

1  & 

5  i 

1  - 

11 
.2    S 

St 

g    £ 

0     < 

2  -2 

CO      <n 
23    00 

»    1 
0    0- 

73      2 

bo   "S 

g  J 

0     pq 

•Ti    .2 

■-3  ^ 

0     0 

m     w 

(M      re 

0^    (X 

a     fl 

5  s 

0      0 

m 

a     . 
0    00 

•X3     C 

JJ   .2 
.2    ^ 

a  cs 

0   < 

■D    -a> 

-r<    T3 
0     C 

2 

oS    »9 

40  a 
et 
des 

M. 

i". 

**r 

1 

QS  el 

sus. 

F. 

v. 

..... 

u 

03  'V 

a  a 

I'l 

12    CO 

cow 

1 

1 

1 







.  ..^. 

1 

1 

3 
5 



11 
11 

1 

1 

17 
4 

23 

1 
*"i 

2 

1 

6 
2 

2 

11 
1 

-  — 

12 

2 

4 
*  1 



-IZ" 



9 

1 

2 

2 

12 

15 

5 



ProTince  de  I'lle  du  Prince-Edouard. 

i 

Zl 



i' 



8 

1 
18 

2 

3 

1 

2 



5 
1 
3 

9 

2 

19 

1 
1 

5 

7 

JZ_1 





1 

27 

18 

3 

1 

1 
Province  de  Manitt^ba, 

...... 

"*4 





'•••• 

"l 
6 





1 

..•«..•• 







— 

1 

1 

1 

7 

2 



3 

4 



1 

:::::, 







i' 

..... 

....... 



"T 



1 

7 

2 









16 

4 
256 

43 

1 

907 

944 

93 

260 

1 

84 

1 

3 

3 

4 

278 

339 

343 

1502 

192 

37 

8 

61 

1200 

251 

198 

43 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


SUMMARY  CONYIOTIONS 


PRELIxMINARY  EXAMINATIONS 


TABLE    III. 


OONYICTIOJ^S  SOMMAIRES 


ET 


EXAMENS    PRELIMINAIRES 


TABLEAU   HI. 


4-i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III.      Province  of  Ontario- 


-SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND  PRELIMINARV 
EXAMINATIONS. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


>rarder  

Infanticide 

Manslaughter 

Attempts  to  Murder. 
Rape 


1 J 


2-1 


Shooting  at,  Stabbing,  Wounding,  &c 

Administering  noxious  and  poisonous  drugs.... 

Attempt  to  procure  abortion , 

Abduction 

Bigamy 

Amiug  and  abutting  bigamy 

Presenting  Fire-arms  and  attempts  to  shoot.... 

Neglecting  to  support  Family 

Disturbing  Public  Meeting 

Criminal  assault  on  a  child. , 

Cruelly  beating  a  child 

Felonious  Assault 

Aggravated  Assault ,, , 

Indecent  Assault 

Assault  on  and  obstructing  Peace  Officer 

Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery 

Miscellaneous. 

Highwsy  Robbery 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Attempts  at  Burglary 

Having  Burglars  tools  in  possession 

House  and  Shop  Breaking ,. 

Forcible  Entry 

Horse  Stealing 

Larceny  from  the  Person , 

Larceny 

Receiving  Stolen  Goods 

Embezzlement 

Fraud  and  False  Pretences 

Petty  Larceny 

Unlawfully  taking  Property 

Bringing  Stolen  Goods  into  Canada 

Arson 


Damage  to  Property „ - 

Forgery  and  uttering 

Making,  having  and  uttering  counterfeit  money.... 


46 


21 
1 
2 
1 
6 
1 
3 
1 

58 
1 
1 
2 
4 
5 

40 

3447 

1 

1 

7 

22 
2 
1 

1 

4 

3 

1 

199 

5 

5 

21 

80 

2 

4 

8 

557 

21 

7 


<!  < 


719 
1 


1 

167 
2 


CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 

Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
sonnes. 

Total 


IS 


o    c 


51       51 
""l 1 


21 
2712 


589 


21 

2G32 


oSi 


a    a; 


:j  q 


29 


:^  c: 


51 


Sentence. 


1 
7 

21 
2 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 
189 
4 
4 

15 


13   .2 


> 

CO 

1 

9 



? 

•• 

1 

5 

21 

1 

1 

1 

•• 

6 

50 


21 

,607 


367 


44  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


1 

ProviKcc  d'OiUai-io-COXVICTIONS  J"^OM\TAIRES  ET  EXAMENS       TABLEAU  III. 
PRELIMINAIRES. 

SENTENCE. 

.2 

a, 

i! 

?  1 

ri 







Uommitted  to  Reformatories. 
Envove  ii  la  Prison  rio  Reforme. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Committed  to 
Gaol. 

Empbisonnjis. 

0  I'M 
^   j    0. 

i1 

No  option. 
Sans  option. 

5     t 

i  s 

Cities  and  Towns. 
Villes  et  Villages. 

Rural  Districts. 
Districts  ruranx. 

si 

a  'a 
be   fcx 

i  1 

a  a 
a  a 

;:>  0 

6    ^ 

0  .t: 

a  r: 
0  s 



-4     '^ 

"^    !^ 
m     en 

3    a 
a    a 



a' 

lii 
.2 .2 

m  1  «. 

2  £ 

Z'.'.'. 

"18 

Is 





Z'. 

'""s 

i 

404 


""3 

-3 

d     ci 

"'T 

11 

0    t- 

"T    a 

::^  > 


III 

71       0 

Under  one  year. 
Moins  d'un  an. 

One  year  and  over. 
Un  an  et  pins. 

1 

""11 



1 

....... 

\- 

2 

1 

763 

8 

"165 

1 

, 1 

6 

1 

472 

i 

66 







"90 
"3 

"88* 

'"'70' 

191 

463 

17 



'"Te 

2 



4 

""is 

3* 

15" 







""155' 

9 

***5 

4 

"15 

■■'27 



'  ^76 

"'is' 

"""5 

"iii 



47 


4i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III.            Province  of  Onfarin»— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND 
PKELUllNARV  EXAMISATIONS. 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

Education. 

AGES.                \ 

\ 

1 
i 

O     Oi 
SI 

II 

III 

II 

■a  '5 
a    a 

3  a 

0  z 
n  a: 

Under  16 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 

16  years 

and 
■ander  21 

16  ans  et 
moins 
de  21. 

21  years  , 

and 
.mder40. 

21  ans  et 
moins 
de40. 

M. 
H. 

F. 
F. 

"'5 

M. 

H. 

3 

109' 

27" 

F. 

i\ 

"'9 
.... 

M. 
H. 

""1 

"1 
508 

"*3 

"78 

F. 
F. 

38"  ■ 

u" 

1 

3- 

1* 

f  VIeurtre     ... 

Infanticide .* • 

Homicide  non-premeditc 

Teatative  de  meurtre 

Viol 

Usage  d'armes  avec  intention  de  rautiler 

Adrainistrer  des  drogues  nuisibles  et  veneneux.. 







.  .... 

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'5 

'38 

.... 

13 
28' 

Bigamie 

Complice  dans  nn  ess  de  bigamie... 

Dirig.une  arme  h  feu  surune  pers.av.int  de  menrt 
Negliger  de  pourvoir  anx  besoins  de  sa  famille.. 

Interrompre  une  assemblee 

Assaiit  criminel  sur  un  enfant 

Battre  cruellement  un  enfant. 

Voies  de  fait  avec  int.  de  commettre  une  felonie 
Voie.s  de  fait  graves 







""l 

172 

i 

1 

189 


Opposition  et  voies  de  fait  cont.  un  ofi&c  de  paix. 

'746* 

"19 

Diverges  offenses  contre  la  personne 

■  Vol  de  grand  chemia .- • 

Vol ~ 

Tentative  de  vol  de  unit  avec  effraction 

Avoir  des  outils  de  voleur  en  sa  possession 

Bris  de  maison  et  de  magusiu 

Eutree  de  force 

Vol  de  chevaux - 

Larcin  sur  la  T^ersonnd       

Larcin 

*'*4 
"34 

7 

'    38 

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122' 

1 

1 

Abus  de  confiance 

Fraude  et  faux  pretexte 

Petit  vol 

Appropriation  illogale  de  proprieie 

AT)porter  en  Canada  des  etfets  voles 

Incendier  une  maison  habiice .- 

! 

Faux  et  circulation 

Fabrication  et  circulation  d'argent  contrefait... 

4S 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontario— CONVICTIONS  SOMMAIRES  ET       TABLEAU     III. 

EXAMENS  PRfiLlMINAIRE^S.                                                              i  ; 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX   DE  NAISS.^NCE, 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  of 
Liquors. 

Usage  des    : 

LIQUBURa. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  et 

au- 
dessus. 

OQ 
S3 

a 

0 

a 
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4U 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


TABLE  III. 


Province  of  Ontario— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND  PRELIMINARY 

EXAMINATIONS— Con^mu^i. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DfiLlTS. 


f  Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly 

Breach  of  Liquor  Laws 

Breach  of  Municipal  By-laws 

Breach  of  Municipal  Acts 

Breach  of  Fishery  \ct 

Breach  of  Marine  Laws 

Breach  of  Game  Laws 

Breach  of  Railway  Act 

Breach  of  Public  School  Laws 

Breach  of  Election  Laws 

Breach  of  Revenue  Laws , 

Breach  of  Weights  and  Measures  Act 

Breach  of  the  Peace 

Perjury  and  Subornation  of  Perjury 

Practising  Medicine  without  License 

Practising  Midwifery  without  License 

Practicing  Dentistry  without  License 

Keeping  a  Gambling  House 

Gambling  

Keeping  a  House  of  Ill-fame  

Inmates  and  Frequenters  of  Houses  of  Ill-fame 

Keeping  Disorderly  House  

Inmates  and  Frequenters  of  Disorderly  Houses 

Indecently  exposing  the  Person 

Profane  and  Obscene  Language 

Threatening  and  abusive  Language 

Layiner  down  Explosive  Substances  

Carrying  Unlawful  Weapons 

Selling  Poison  Unlawfully 

Putting  out  Poisonous  bait 

Detaining  a  Letter  as  Postmaster 

Non  registration  of  Births,  Marriages  and  Deaths... 

Prison  Breaking  

Rescuing  and  attempts  to  rescue  Prisoners 

Refusing  to  aid  Peace  Officer 

Killing  insectivorous  birds 

Violence,  threats  and  molestation 

Removing  line  fence 

Contempt  of  Court. 

Cruelty  to  animals 

Attempting  to  commit  Suicide , 

Profanation  of  the  Sabbath  

Master  and  Servant 


50 


7933 

1491 

273 

426 

72 

2 

29 

2 

4 

4 

5 

1 

416 

28 

21 


23 

122 

202 

44 

128 

45 

201 

876 

1 

88 

4 

3 

I 

9 

1 

7 

5 

1 

5 

2 

13 

102 

4 

64 

588 


<  < 


1818 

323 

410 

67 

3 


6 
23 
40 
12 
63 
12 
37 
153 


CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 


Total 


10 


5115 

1168 

863 

359 

69 

2 

27 


3 
1 
1 

1 
326 


20 
5 
6 
8 

17 

97 

162 

32 

65 

33 

164 

721 


.2 


a    c 
o  o 


—I  03 

t>  ro 

CI  c 

o  o 


Skntknce. 


Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
scnnes. 


Cr^  02 


4760 

1091 

827 

348 

69 

2 

27 


3 
1 
1 
1 
313 


20 

5 

6 

8 

17 

89 

153 

28 

64 

33 

162 

700 


3 

5 

1 

3 

2 

11 

88 

1 

48 

513 


3 
5 

1 
3 
2 
8 

87 
1 

48 
504 


104 

27 

15 

3 


251 

50 

21 

8 


10 


^ 


.2  S 


12 


4,898 

1,122 

849 

352 

69 

2 

27 


1 

1 

314 


20 

5 

5 

8 

17 

77 

141 

25 

64 

30 

157 

519 


1 
1 
2 
9 
87 


46 

509 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'Ontario-CONVICTIONS  SOMHAIRES  ET  EXAMENS       TABLEAU  lU. 
PRELIMINAIRES. 

SENTENCE. 

1 

<V 

fi 
11 

at 
?  § 

2-g 

:::>  K 

..... 

Committed  lo  Ketormatories. 
Envoye  a  la  Prison  de  Reforme. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE.        r 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Committed  to 
Gaol. 

Bmpbisonnes. 

ii 

fl 

M 

^    c 

0     CM 

^    a; 

^     re 

II 

13  ;s 

OCCUPATIONS. 

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12-4i* 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III.  Province  of  Ontario- SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  A?fD 

PRELIMINARY  EXAMINATIONS— 6V/z/^//?/(?i. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


f  Irresse  et  condnite  desordonnee 

Contraveutions  aux  r^glem.  des  liqueurs  fortes 

Contraventions  aux  lois  municipales 

Contraventions  aux  actes  municipaux 

Contraventions  aux  lois  de  peche 

Contraventions  aux  lois  de  marine , 

Contraventions  aux  lois  de  chasse 

Contraventions  b.  I'acte  des  chemins  de  fer 

Contraventions  aux  lois  des  ecoles  publiques. .. 

Contraventions  aux  lois  d' election , 

Contraventions  aux  lois  du  revenu 

Contraventions  k  I'acte  des  pcids  et  mesurea 

Rupture  de  la  paix 

Parjure  et  subornation  de  parjure 

Pratiquer  la  medecine  sans  licence 

Pratiquer  eans  licence  comme  sage-femme 

Pratiquer  sans  licence  comme  dentiste 

Tenir  une  maison  de  jeu 

Brelander.. 

Tenir  une  maison  de  dcbauche 

Habiter  et  frequenter  des  maisons  de  debauche. 

Tenir  des  maisons  desordonnees 

Habiter  et  frequenter  des  maisons  desordonnees 

Exposition  indecente  de  la  personne 

Paroles  profanes  et  obsc^nes 

Menaces  et  injures 

Placer  des  substances  explosibles .... 

Port  d'inetruments  illegaux 

Vendre  du  poison  illcgalement 

Placer  des  appats  empoisonnes , 

De'euir  une  lettre  comme  maitre  de  poste 

Def.  d'enregist.  desnaissances,  mariages  etdec^s 

Bria  de  prison 

Delivrance  et  tentative  de  deliv.  d'un  prisonnier 

Refuser  d'assister  un  officier  de  paix , 

Tiier  des  oiseaux  insectivores 

I  Violence,  menaces  et  molestations 

Ueplacer  une  cloture...  , 

I  .Mopns  de  cour 

Cruaute  envers  les  animaux 

I  Tentative  de  suicide 

Profanation  du  sabbat 

I  Refus  de  salaixe  et  desertion  d'emploi 


EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 


O  I  4) 


O  I  a; 

(A     oi 


545 
21 

77 
5 


39 


603 

25 

83 

6 


as     03 

a's 


3086 

399 

481 

124 

7 

2 

4 


127 
""3 


20 


1 

6 

52 

100 

15 

61 

9 

42 

216 


35 


Ji  m 


AGES 


Under  16 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16ans. 


M.     F. 


2  6 
1  27 
1 

8 

54 


16  years 

and 
under  21 

16  ans  et 
moins 
de  21. 


F.     H. 


23 


21  years 

and 
•.mder40. 

21  ans  et 
moins 
de  40. 


M.     F. 


13 


1723 

206 

258 

60 

4 

2 

3 


2 

12 
27 

2 
18 

9 

19 

\2\ 


29 


?. 


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*  3 

4 
13 

7 
31 

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52 


4i:  Victoria. 


Se.sbioiial  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  d'«ntarSo -CONVICTIONS  SOMMAIRES  ET        TABLEAU  III.    \ 
EXAMEN8  PRELIMlNAlRErf— iSujfe.                                                           , 

BIRTH  PLAGES. 

Use  of 
Liquors,  i 

AGES. 

RELIGIONS. 

LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

DSAGB  DES  j 
LIQUEURS.   ! 

40  year> 
and 
over. 

40  ans 
et  au- 

dessus. 

c 
c 
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26 

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44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  HI. 


Province  of  Ontario— SUMMARY    CON7I0TI0NS 
EXAMINATIONS. 


AND   PRELIMINARY 


OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DfiLITS. 


Disorderly  conduct 

Pool  selling „ 

V&grancy 

Nuisance - 

Trespass  

Libel 

Felonies  not  otherwise  denominated 

Misdemeanors  not  included  in  the  above. 

Minor  offences 

[Lunacy 


Totals 


-a    TO 


<  < 


1216 

343 

3 

1669 

397 

32 

11 

609 

111 

1 

1 

6 

2 

2 

1 

396 

61 

71 

15 
6,094 

22837 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 


Total. 


3 

1271 

20 

498 


334 


16,263 


O      O 


797 

3 

1118 

19 

493 


326 


-;8i 


295 


51 


102 

1 
2 


Sentence. 


Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
sonnes. 


tit 


4 
1 
3         1 


587 


ta  cu 


O  '   C    03 

oj  .2  S 
5    °5 


^d 


839 

2 

543 

20 
450 


•69 


424   14,661 


Province  of  Quebec. 


i^ 


3-! 


I 

4— 

5— 

f 


Murder  

Attempt  to  Commit  Murder 

Manslaughter 

Shooting  at  Stabbing,  Wounding,  etc 

Sodomy  and  Bestiality 

Bigamy 

Disturbing  Religious  Worship  

Aggravated  Assault c... 

Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery 

Endangering  life  of  Passengers  on  Railway 

Robbery 

Burglary 

Horae  Stealing 

Cattle  Stealing  

Larceny  from  the  Person 

Larceny .. 

Larceny  of  Timber 

Petty  Larceny „...,^ , 

Embezzlement 

False  Pretences 

Damage  to  Property  , 

Forgery  and  Uttering 

Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly  .  

Breach  of  Liquor  Laws 

Breach  of  Municipal  By-laws 

Breach  of  Vlunicipal  Acts 


54 


3 
2 

1 

11 

2 

1 

1 

5 

1148 

4 

4 

4 

1 

4 

1 

24 

3 

13 

1 

1 

158 

3 

1414 

487 

20 

43 


2 
310 


50 


196 

63 

6 

7 


1 
'838 


11 


1 
831 


11 


108 


1218 

424 

14 

36 


106 


1156 

419 

14 

36 


30 


1 
"59*2" 


10 


107 


1018 

420 

14 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.) 


A.  18SI 


Province  d'Ontario-CO.VVICTIONS    SOMMAIRES  ET  EXAMEXS            TABLEAU  IIL 

i^KKLlMINAIRES. 

SENTENCE. 

.     ™ 
a    Si 

5    S 
:^  K 

56 

56 

Commitled  to  Reformatories. 
Envoye  h  la  Prison  de  Reforme. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL    , 
STATE. 

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55 


ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


T-\BLfc:  ni.           ProvHioe  of  Ontario-Srj.MM  .\RY  Ov)NVrCTIOXS  AND 
P:iE..lMlXARY  EXAMINATIONS— CoyifVMJei. 

OFFENCES. 
1 

CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDUCATIONAL 
HTATU8. 

EDUCATION. 

AGES. 

t    ^ 

rl 

3  hi; 
— 

182 
1 

249 
1 

31 

it 

n 

189 

1 

264 

1 

32 

s  s 

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Province     f  Quebec. 

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r.Meurtre 

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Usage  d'armes  avec    intention  de  mutiler 

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.... 

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102 

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136 

1 

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Troubler  le  culte  religieux 

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Coraprom.  la  vie  des  passagers  sur  les  eh.  de  fer 
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Larcin  sur  la  personne. 

Larcin    

Vol  de  bois 

Petit  vol 

Abus  de  confiance 

Faux  pretextes 

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189 

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2 

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1 

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i 

fivresse  et  condwile  desordonnce 

Contravention  aux  reglem.  des  liqueurs  fortes.. 
Contravention  aux  lois  municipales   

187 
29 

1 

i 

200 
34 

1 

;  Contravention  aux  actes  municipaux 

i 

56 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


Province  d'Onfnrio-CON  VICTTONS  SOMMAIRES  ET        TABLE  A.U  III, 
EXA.VIENS  PRELIMIN AIRES- ^^i/i. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 

LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

i 
Use  of    j 
Liquors,  j- 

j 

Usage  DES 

LIQUEURS.  : 

! 

40  3 
ar 
or 

40  a 
etj 
des 

M. 
H. 

90 

1 

252 

4 

25 

"33 
6 

2452 

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er, 

QS  el 

sus. 

F. 

V. 

18 

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2 
2 

6 

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00 

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0 

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1 

c 

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c 

F. 

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4 
2 

264 

Bri 

li 

a  c 

60 

1 

137 

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1361 

tishIs 
s  Brit. 

NIQUSS 

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191 

141 

10 

232 
20 

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1     ; 

4-1  Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE   III. 


Province  of  anobec— SUMM  aRY  CONVICTIONS   AND  PRELIMINARY 

EXAMINATION©— Conc/wderf. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET   DELITS, 


6  J 


Breach  of  Game  Laws 

Breach  of  Fishery  Act 

Breach  of  the  Peace 

Threatening  and  abusive  Language 

Keeping  House  of  ill  fame 

Inmates  and  frequenters  of  House  of  ill  fame. 

Keeping  Disorderly  House  

Inmates  and  frequenters  of  Disorderly  House 

Indecent  Exposure  of  the  Person 

Refusing  Constable  admission  to  Tavern 

Rescuing  and  Attempting  to  rescue  Prisoner, 
Harbouring  Persons  Escaped  from  gaol...  .... 

Administering  Dni;^3  without  License 

Illegal  use  of  Poison  

Refusing  wages  and  Discharging  Seamen 

Deserting  Ship  and  Refusing  duty 

Master  and  Servant 

Capture  of  insectivorous  birds 

Carrying  unlawful  weapons 

Contempt  of  Court 

Cruelty  to  animals 

Attempt  to  Commit  Suicide 

Disorderly  Conduct 

Vagrancy 

Xuit^ance 

Perjury 

Trespass 

Riot 

Mi'nAr  OffpTT'Pfl  

Lunacy 

Totals 


.  i 

So  s 

'^    I 

m     C 

a  c 
o  c 

^  i 
II 

<   < 

9 

4 

5 

2 

5 



103 

26 

56 

4 

204 

38 

31 

13 

33 

11 

30 

2 

3 

1 

7 

3 

3 

1 

1 

1 

4 

3 

298 

194 

5 

3 

4 

35 

4 

I 

60 

8 

1 

415 

56 

1120 

111 

4 

2 

1 

1 

19 

3 

14 

5 

27 

6 

8 

1 

5869 

1141 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 


TotaL 


5 
3 
5 

77 
52 
166 
18 
22 
28 


1 
1 
104 
2 
4 

32 
3 

52 


359 

1009 

2 


4641 


o    c 


5 
3 

5 

64 

51 

166 

18 
22 
28 


1 
1 
104 
2 
4 

29 
3 

52 


347 
953 

2 


4472 


^=2 


m 


o    o 


87 


1.^ 


Q-    Cd 


Sen^ 


Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
sonnes. 


80 


^  a 

C  4; 

.2  S 
o 


^  X 


5 

3 

5 

67 

21 

82 

8 

3 

12 

2 

7 


270 

718 

2 


16 


16 


3517 


Province  of  New  Brnnswiclk. 


f  Attempt  to  Murder 

j  Stabbing  and  Wounding 

Assault,  with  intent  to  do  bodily  harm.. 

I  Carnally  knowing  a  girl  of  tender  years 

1  {  Abduction 


68 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


Province  de  Quebec-CONVICT[ONS  SOMMAIRES  ET  EXAMEJ^S               TABLEAU  J[T. 

PREr.lMLVAlREd— AVz. 

SENTENCE. 

Committed  to 
Gaol, 

Emprisonnes, 

i  i 

<  < 

t;  ^ 

cn 

>.   oi 

;2    o 

...  . 
..... 

t! 

'S    p. 

^  s 

7 

^    a 

0  -0 

1  -^ 

CU          C 

a    >■ 
1    ^ 

0        C 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL    i 

STATE. 

1 

^TAT          ^ 
CONJUGAL. 

No  option. 
Sans  option. 

O          c 
-3         =: 

2  ™ 

S   1 

a       +^ 

03  1    <v 

CO           w 

5    > 

2  s 

3  s 

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a  a 

0    c 

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II 

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1 

1 

3 

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1 
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1 

1 

24 
5 

30 

1 
1 
8 

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12 
2 
5 

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260 

5 

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1 

1196 

5 

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9 

4 
5 
2 

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...... 

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8 

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70 

1 

6 

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1    ^ 

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Under  one  year. 
Moins  d'un  an. 

Si 

> 
o 

a      c 

2 

29 
78 
10 
19 
16 

84' 

.... 

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5 

"*17 
20 

'""5 

74 

43 

157 

11 

18 

24 

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3 

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2 

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s 

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4 

3 
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3 

20 

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5 

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1 
725 

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60 

71 
270 



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44 

3687 

294 

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ProTince  du  Mouveau-Brunswiclc.                                                          11 



1 

..'..'..'... 

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i 





1 

••••*  ■ 

1 

■ 1 

1 

59 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


TABLE  III.         Province  of  Qu' l»cc-SUMM  AKY  CONVLCTfOXS  AND  PRELIMIXIRY 

KX  A  M  [  N  A  T 1 0  NS— Co  ncluded. 

1 

! 

i 

i 

i 

i                                 OFFENCES, 

1                         CRIMES  EF  DELITS. 

j 

1 

i 
i 

EDUCATIONAL 

STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 

AGES. 

■A  ^ 
I  ^ 

y 

2 

I 

10 

5 
8 
6 
2 
2 

""2 

'  13 

1 

i% 
21 « 

Vi 

2 

"i 

20 

5 

10 

6 
2 
2 

■'*2 

'"15 

1 

s  g 

^   K 

45 
5 

8 

Under  16 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 

16  years 

and 
under  21. 

16  ans 

et  moin? 

de21. 

21  years 

and 
under  40. 

21  ans 

et  moin? 

de  40. 

M. 
— 
H. 

.... 

1 

"1 

4 

"i" 
"i 

47 
.... 

'  4 

F. 
F. 



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M. 
H. 

5 

'""4 

"3 
""1 

"16 

'  "q 

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210 

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4 
1 

56] 

P. 
F. 

p 

1 

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....... 

63 

M. 

i". 

4 

33 

2 

29 
2 
5 
9 

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1 

"15 

1 

19 

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376 

1 

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I 



1644 

F. 
F. 

5 

15 
46 

4 
10 

3 

"16 
119 

1 

"l 

1 

371 

6 

Cortraventions  aux  lois  de  chasse , 

Contraventions  aux  lois  de  peche 

Kunture  de  la  paix 

Tenir  des  maisooa  de  dcbauche 

Habiter  et  frequenter  des  maisons  de  debauche. 

Tenir  des  maisons  desordonnees 

Habiter  et  frequenter  des  maisons  desordonnees. 
Fxposicion  indecent^  de  la  personne  

'""5 
'"'79 



Refuser  d'admettre  un  constable  dans  un  cabaret 
Delivrance  d'un  prisonnier  et  tentatives  de.... 

Reccler  des  echappes  de  prison 

Prescrire  des  drogues  sans  license 

Csage  illegal  de  poison 

Refus  de  salaire  et  decharge  de  marins 

Desertion  et  refus  de  devoir  bur  vaisseau 

Rpfus  de  salaire  et  desertion  d'emploi   

Prendre  des  oiseaux  insectivores 

4 
""2 

4 
""2 

12 
2 

8 

"62" 
110 

"le 

"'13' 
2 

885 

""1 

Mepris  ne  cour 

Cruauie  envers  les  aniraaux   

Tentative  de  suicide 

Oonduite  desordonnee 

53 

159 
2 

'  5 

"V 

2 

564 

56 

168 

2 

f) 

6 
3 

607 

Parjure    ..  

Empi^tement.... 

Emeuie 

Petits  delita          

[  Folie 

Totaux 

19 

79 

14 

'                                                                  Province  of  Jfew  Brnnswictc. 

1 

f  Tentative  de  meurtre , 



1 

1 

i 

■E 

... 

Poignarder,  blesser 

Voies  de  fait  avec  int.  de  faire  des  lesions  corpor. 

Connaitre  charnellement  une  jeune  fille  

Enlevement  d'une  femme 

6U 


41  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  ISSl 


Province  de  iftuebec— CO:»fVlCTIONS  SOMMAIRES  ET  EXAMENS      TABLEAU  IIL  j 
PRELIMINAIRES— /'m. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAfSSAXCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

UsB   OF 

Liquors. 

Usage  des  [ 

LIQUEUBS. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

no 

a 
a 
o 

-? 

£3 
O 

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1 

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> 
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5 

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17 

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41 

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69 

186 

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501 

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74 

2924 

63 

124 

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Province  dn  Urouvean-Brnsnwick. 



... 

1 

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4  1   Y 


iotoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III. 


Province  of  New  Brunswick— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND 
PRELIMINARY  EXAMIN ATIOisS—0 mcouUed. 


OFFENCES 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


I 
I 

I 

f 


I  Refusing  to  Support  family..., 

Disturbing  Public  Worship 

I  Assault  and  obstructing  Peace  Officer. 
i  Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery 

2  j  Feloniously  entering  a  store.  

I  Forcible  entry. 

f  Larceny 

I  Petty  Larceny 

3  ■{  Receiving  Stolen  Goods 

I  Embezzlement 

False  Pretenees 

Arson    , 

Incendiarism   

Damage  to  property 

Forgery...    

Coining 

Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly 

Breach  of  Liquor  Laws  

breach  of  Municipal  By-laws 

Breach  of  Municipal  Acts 

Breach  of  Game  Laws 

Violation  of  Railway  Rules , 

Deserting  bhip  and  Refusing  duty , 

Profane  and  obscene  Language... 

Threatening  and  abusive  Langage  

Carrying  unlawful  weapons 

Profanation  of  the  Sabbath  

,  Indecent  Exposure  of  the  Person  ........ 

i     \  Keeping  House  of  Ill-fame  

'      j  Keeping  a  Disorderly  House 

Cruelty  to  animals 

•  'ontempt  of  Court 

I  Unlawful  combination 

Escape  from  Lock-up 

Disorderly   conduct 

Pound  breach 

Nuisance 

Vagrancy ^ 

Fighting  

Minor  offences • 

Lunacy. 


Totals . 


CONVICTIONS. 

Sentbnce, 

Committed 

to  Gaol. 

CONDAMNATIO.VS. 

Empri- 
sonnes. 

s 

o 

si 

fa  'E 

w 

*^ 

<v 

CO 

no 

«M     S3 

-d 

1 

CO 
U 

Total. 

^ 

s  -^ 

it 

c 

O    .^3 

«s 

O,    (U     . 

a 

9r 

a- 
C 

a 

9r 

'3  '5 

.11 

>    '73 

.2  1 

T3 

OS 

U,      U 

JT  F 

fl    a 

d    c 

.       , 

<D      <V 

o    o 

o   o 

•■^        JU  r-l 

2 

2 

'O  O 

^^ 

3i    CC 

fa   Sj 

^      m 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

...... 

1 

483 

270 

207 

181 

10 

16 

6 

193 

1 

1 

*"l' 









1 

16 

7 

i 

7 

1 

7 

15 

7 



1 

1 

.... 

.... 

1 

1 





4 

4 

.   ...... 



3 

1 

1 
1 







2 

89 

52 

37 

26 

4 

7 

33 

2 

2 

1 

1 

.... 



1330 

134 

1196 

943 

109 

144 

1I55 

85 

20 

65 

54 

3 

8 



65 

153 

105 

48 

36 

12 



46 

12 

5 

7 

7 

7 

2 

2 

2 



2 

8 

1 

7 

1 

6 

7 

19 

1 

18 

18 

4 

4 

3 

1 

4 

120 

49 

71 

59 

3 

9 

60 

3 



3 

3 





3 

7 

.... 

7 

7 

1 

4 

1 

3 

3 





■ 

2 

2 

2 





2 

4 



2 

4 

4 



2 



4 

2 

2 

2 

1 

8 

1 
86 

*47 

7 

3 

8 
1 

29 

57 

54 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

I 

1 

318 

108 

120 

81 

21 

18 

32 

47 

8 

39 

30 

6 

3 



39 

15 

7 

8 

8 

8 

3 









2861 

898 

1920 

1528 

182 

210 

40 

1724 

62 


41   Victoria, 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S8T 


Province  du  Ncnvcau-Brunswicli— CONVICTIONS  SOMiNf AIRES  ET          TABLEAU  III.l 

EXAMENS^PRELLVlINAiRES— i'^2«.                                                        1 

SENTENCE. 

1 

I'l 

^    S 

::5  w 

Goramitted  to  Ketormatories. 
Erivoye  a  la  Prison  de  Reformo. 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

1 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

Stat 

CONJUGAL. 

Committed  to 
Gaol. 

Emprisonnes. 

si 

CO 

V    c 
>^>    03 

■^    -73 

II 

a    c 
""2 

"\ 
"9" 

'  "'2 
""3 

No  opt. on. 
Sans  option. 

or! 

03      00 

M            03 
•3           > 

1    1 

c5    c 

-i  t 

II 

be    tjD 

18 

*"*5 

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1 
1 
1 
2^ 

4 
1 

3  1 

Z  t. 

11 
ii 

"33 

5 

189 

7 
16 

i     1 

Q  m 

'"V 
"'13 

36 

16 

—I    ^ 
'5  [^ 

'in    *C 

a    d 
d    c 

lo 

3*42 

4 

16 

*""l 
15 

en 

Of 

1 

0  0 

"i'l 

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P 

*  0 

"'"ei 
..  .^ 



Vi'o 

6 
6 

l± 

33     ai 

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291' 

33 

36 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

35 
2 

2' 

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*  "V 

....... 

10 
5 

Ii 

.!!!.! 

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!!!!.! 

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3 

1 

j 
i 

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111 

72     O;. 

Under  one  year. 
Moins  d'un  an. 

0 

il 

M 

a       a 
0      D 

.....ft.... 

ii 

1 

2 

1 






150 
""27 

ns'i 

56 
46 
3 

' *f 

9 

3 

60 

3 

6 
3 

2 
2 

4 

I 

"■56 

i" 

87 

39 

7 

2 

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6 

6 

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9 
1 
4 
2 

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6 


1 

1 

1 

1 

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i"! 

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....... 



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14 
11 

1" 

6 

15 
2 

28 
1 
6 

1 

4 



""1 


20 

''3 
3 

""2 





........ 

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1 

10 

1 

"V 

7 


1' 

1 

16 
2' 

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"53 

18 

2 

1 

710 



2 



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68 



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1 

1 

9 

1 

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7 

305 

1 
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85 

1 

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8 

450 

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13 

*  "'24 



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18 

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3 



1 

61 

506 

1 
31 

69 

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1706 

133 

1248  { 

63 


\  !r;\)na. 


Sessional  Papers   (No.   V2.) 


A.  1S8I 


Table  hi.     province  of  Xew  Hi-uiisw'lclc— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND 
PRKLIMINARY  EXAAJlNATION3-6'o;^c/«.-/«(y. 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 

EDUCATIONAL 

STATUS. 

DU  CATION. 

AGES. 

■a  ;= 

0    a: 

il. 

0  1  0) 

11 

6.S 

a  ■  c 

a's 

'"  4 

""1 

1 

2 

'"1 

1' 

10 

Und( 
yea 

Moi 

d 

16  a 

M. 
H. 

1 
'5 

3 

"'1 
2 

"2 
"1 

14 

"9 
2 
3 

43 

jrie 

rs. 
ns 
ns. 

F. 
F. 

'3 

"4 

.... 

"1 

4 

12 

16y 

an 

andt 

16  ai 
mo 
de 

M. 
H. 

26 

3 

126 
'2 

"1 

2 
4 
1 

7 

'  4 

19 

11 

8 
4 

■il8 

ears 
d 

r21 

IS  et 

ins 

21. 

F. 
F. 

1 

"2 
5 

'  1 

.... 

■ 
.... 



6 
3 

18 

21  y 

an 

ande 

21  ar 
mo 
de 

M. 
H. 

ibo 
"i 

"15 

720 
23 
24 

ears 

d 

r40 

3  et 

ns 
iO. 

F. 
F. 

•*■'* 

lb" 

"2 

"42 

5 

2 

1 
a 

3: 

1 
4 

.5 

6 

Refuser  de  pourvoir  aux  besoius  de  sa  famille... 
Troubler  le  culte  reliffieux — . 

"33 

"V 
1 

'5* 

206 

13 

3 

"37 

'1 

1 

5 

208 

13 

3 

{32' 

■"V 

"  '24 

879 

31 

40 

1 

2 

7 

13 

4 

41 

3 

4 

3 

4 

1 

'  '42 

1 
1 
81 
34 
7 
2 

1362 

Opposit.  et  voies  de  fait  centre  ua  offic.  de  paix. 

Voies  de  fait  ordinaires ,.... 

Entrer  d.  un  magas.  av.  int.  de  comm.  une  felonie 

Enlree  de  force , ,.... 

Larcin .» 

Petits  vol 

Recel  d'objets  roles... 

Abug  de  confiance 

Faux  pretextes 

'Incendier  une  maison  babitee 

Incendier  ua  bfitiraent  inhabite 

Degat  k  la  proprietc  

Faux 

Fabrication  de  fausse  mounaie 

Ivresse  et  cooduite  desordonnee 

Contravention  aux  r^glem.  des  liqueurs  fortes... 

Contravention  aux  actes  mimicipaux 

Contravention  aux  iois  de  chasse 

Contravent.  aux  roglements  des  chemins  de  fer. 
Desertion  et  refus  du  devoir  sur  un  navire  ...... 

Paroles  obscenes  et  profanes 

Menaces  et  injures  

""5' 
9 

5 
*  "10 

5 

11 

1 

23 

2 

'"2 
2 

'2: 
23 

1026 

.... 
"6 

"2 

"1 

10 

2 

"i 

83 

Port  d'instrunients  illegaux 

Profanation  du  sabbat  

Exposition  indecente  de  la  personne 

Tenir  des  maisons  de  debaucbe 

Tenir  des  naaisons  de.soriloniioes 

2 
""2 

2 
2 

Mepris  de  cour 

5 

"is" 

3 
307 

5 

18 
3 

1 

314 

Cabnle  illegale 

Evasion 

Conduite  desordonnee , 

Bris  de  fournere 

Nuisance 

Rixes 

Petits  delits 

[Folie  , 

Totaux 

64 


41  Yictcria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  18SI 


ProTince  «lu  ]Souvean-llrmiswioK-CONVrOTrON.S  SOMMAIRES            TABLEAU  IIL  ■ 
ET  EXA-ViKNS  PRELLMIXAIRES.— ^V/i. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  of 
Liquors. 

Usage  des  ' 

LIQUEUR.'?.  1 

40  year? 
and 
over. 

m 

■>© 

a 
a 
0 

C 
0 

;^ 

1 

'Sc 

0 
'^. 

F. 
"  6 

i 

British  Isles. 

[les  Britan- 
NiQoas. 

03 

a 

149 

1 
6 

1 

2 

^     fcx 
o     = 
-J    £ 

5  < 
..  ..^. 

«    0- 

11 
|£ 

III 

u     a.' 
D    < 

..  .^. 


11 

'  15 

no 
J3      (X 

'J  0 

"92" 
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2 

1    ^ 

i  .1 

0  w 

2     ® 

a     c 

3    « 

a     c 

1    1 

0     0 

00 
a 
0    00 

3  1 

a    cc 

S  i 

0      c 

a     c 
0     t 

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—     a 
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5     a 

5  < 

V 

33  1  -<d" 

111 

0  '  c 

^  IS 

a  5 

40  ai 
et  i 
des 

M. 
R. 

3*2 

234 

26 

29 

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29 
3 

.... 
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II 

50 

1 

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^  i 

72    Vj 

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19 

1 
1 

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.... 
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1 

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16 

7 

1 

1 

14 

2 

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1" 

"1*5" 

*  'io 

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1 

"  48 

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6 

132 

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787 

38 

38 

2 

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7 

1 

3 

43 

2 

2 
2 

44 

1 

1 

51' 

33 

7 

1260 

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5 

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2 

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42 

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28 
20 

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33 

3 

i 

4 

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9 

1 

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1 
5 

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1 



1 

i 

2 

11 

2 
"1 

22 

1 

78 

'   1 

7 

10 

1 

4 

2" 



1  i 
17  i 

4M 

3  1 
......  1 

3  1 

2  i 
2 
4 

1 
...... 

.     1 

12 
2 

s" 

s" 

2 

' '  2 
...... 

2 



2 

1 
2 

i 

1 

"22 
1 

]' 

380 

•••• 

2 

4 

"i 

31 

1 

63 

"26" 

59 

24 
2 
2 

"■'s" 

4 
4 

202 

'2 

1 

""V 
1 

"17" 

"21" 
8 

**'T 

"  "2 

9 
*1 

"*27 
1 

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6 

■'"'2* 



"*  28 

89 

32 

3 

1 

15l>5 

. 

30 

295 

103 

48 

8 

77 

1044 

84 

95 

29  i 

^ 

278 

: 

65 


12-5^ 


41  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III.         Province  of  Wov»  Scotia— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AND 

PRELIMINARY  EXAMINATIONS. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET   DfiLITS, 


f  Att'^mpt  to  Murder , 

Concealing  tbe  birth  of  an  infant 

I  Negleciiug  to  provide  for  family 

l-(Rape 

Indecent  Assault  and  Attempts  at  Rape  . 
Assault  on  and  obstructing  Peace  Officer. 

Assault  and  Assault  and  Battery.  ...» 

'Hiffhwij  Robbery 

Robbery ...., 

*!  Burglary  

I  House-breaking. .- 

I  Larceny 

«  !  Petty  Lfirceny , . 


En-ibezzlement 

False  Pretences • 

Arson , 

Damage  to  Property 

Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly .. 

Breacli  cf  Liq'.ior  Lhws  

Breach  of  Municipal  By-law8 , 

Breach  of  Municipal  Acts 

Viohttion  of  Militia  Act  

Breach  of  the  Peace  

Threatening  and  Abusive  Language 

Profane  and  Obscene  Language 

Deserting  Ship  and  refusing  duty 

Deseriiou  and  assisting  to  desert  H.M.S 

Rescuing  Personer  and  assisting  to  Escape. .-.. 

Indecenily  exposing  the  Person ., 

Refusing  to  assist  Peace  Officer .- 

Running  away  from  Industrial  School .. 

Carrying  Fire-arms 

Cruelty  to  Animals  

Contempt  of  Court 

Disorderly  Conduct    

Keeping  a  Disorderly  House  

Keeping  a  House  of  Ill-fame 

Inmates  of  Hou-^e  of  Ill-fame 

Keeping  a  Gambling  House 

Gambling 


CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 


Total. 


I 
1 
2 
1 
2 
10 
400 
1 

3 

3 

3 

]4 

14 

1 

4 

6 

31 

10  iO 

127 

152 

23 

] 

28 

55 

16 

10 

18 

2 

25 

3 

5 

6 

40 

7 

316 

15 

17 

9 

2 

6 


~ 


1 
148 


3 
4 

10 

219 

32 

39 

3 

1 

8 

9 

3 


3 

si 


"'*2 

5 
4 

U 

2f 

7 

133 

183 

7 

8 

7 

10 

9 

2 

4 

1 



.« ^.... 

..... 

7 

7 

250 

242 

....* 

11 

"iV 

"21' 

"2T 

811 

79  i 

95 

82 

113 

113 

20 

20 

'20 

19 

46 

46 

13 

13 

10 

10 

15 

15 

2 

2 

17 

17 

3 

3 

5 
4 

24 

7 

183 

8 

10 
9 
2 
1 


SIH 


3  c 
o  c 
■J  Q 


Sentence. 


Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
sonneg. 


id  oc 


6U 


'44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S8I 


Province  <le  la  Komvelle-Ecosse— CONVICTION'S  SOMMAIRSS          TABLEAU  111  \ 
ET  EXAM  ENS    PRELIMINAIRES.                                                          ! 

SENTEiNCE. 

.2 
J    0 

PL 

«    c 

2  -d 

•J   S 

a; 

1   ^ 

1    1 

-d  ^ 

\      t 

0       c 

"J)    fa 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

1 

00"iJUGAL 
STATE.        1 

£tat 
conjugal. 

i 

OOMMITTBD    TO 

Gaol. 
EmprisonnI:s. 

^    z 



No  option. 
Sans  option 

00        m 

1    1 

5    > 

2      ^ 

y      £  - 

i  - 

^  .1' 

i3      C   ■ 

6 

12 

17 
15 

8 

1 

i 

"4* 

""i 

1 

■—  ,  fc- 

li     a, 

m 

0    c 

'J)  0 

■ 

'.Z.. 

8 


"22" 
2 
4 

Hi 

a  > 

'"3 
3 

To" 
20 

6 

"'2 

a  'c 
d    c 

'11 

so 

5 
18 

""V 
1 

CO 

a    c 

21.2 

n     ■'■ 
""3 

11 

'29 

"2 

56 
4 

27 
1 

*  *1 
4 
2 

"V 

.. .... . 

"V 

3   S 

"'3 

19 

27 
27 
31 

4 
3 

'  v 

0    > 



4 

11 

1 

'"'2 

i 
i 

i 
i 

'5 

^  1  iz! 

5     0; 

Under  one  year. 
Moins  d'un  an. 

u 

> 

o 

C          " 

d     ^ 

a       c 

3 

'  "21 

..  .^ 

2 

""1 

""1 

""56 

..  ..„ 

112 

25 
64 

1 

*""l 
2 

1 
"1 

""3 

1 
7 

........  1 

1 

3  1 

28  i 

4 

6 

6a  j 

1 
32 

■"■■3  \ 

"'"{  1 

■ 1 

1 

3 

2  ' 
2  ! 

12* 

3 

32 

2 

....... 

i 

2 
10 

5 
' 3 

3 
8 
9 



■   ••• 





....... 

12— 6J^f^ 


61 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


i 

'  TABLK  III.         Province  of  Nova  Scotia— SUMMARY  CONVICTIONS  AXD 
1                                                          PRELIMINARY  EXAMINATIONS. 

i 

OFFENCES. 
CRIMES  ET  DELITS, 

! 

EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCA'lION. 

AGES. 

33 

-    c 

1 1 

5  ^ 

0    i 

a  & 
3    = 

CO  K 

Und 
yea 

Mo 
d 
16 

M 
H. 

"1 

"5 

"1 

1 

"i 
1 

erl6 

irs. 

ins 

e 

ins 

P. 
P. 

;;;; 

16  y 

ar 

unde 

16" 

et  a 

de 

M 
H. 

"s 

"'2 

"6 

24 

13 
"1 

1 

ears 
id 

;r21 

ans 

I'liu,'- 
21. 

P. 
P. 

z 

3 

'  2 

21y 

ai 

und( 

21 

i^t  a 

de 

M. 
H. 

1 
30 

6 
69 

9 
29 

1 

'3 
3 

"*1 
] 

"2 

ears 
id 

;r4'). 

ans 

loins 

40. 

F, 
V. 

""2 
3 

1 
4 
5 

1 

i 

i 

la- 

1 
■ 

1 

r 

6 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1_ 

Tentative  d 
Suppressioc 
Negliger  d( 

......     , 

le  meurtre  

I  de  part 

3  pourvoir  aux  besoins  de  sa  famille. 

Attentat  co 
Oppos.  etv 
Voies  de  fa 
Vol  de  gra 

Vol 

Vol  de  nui 
Bris  de  ma 

ntre  la  pudeuret  tentatives  de  viol. 
3ies  de  fait  contre  un  officierde  paix 

it  ordinaires 

nd  chemin 

t  avec  effraction 

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17 


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Faux  prete 
Incendier  u 
D6gut  a  la 
Ivresse  et 
Contravent 
Contravent 
Contravent 
Contravent 
Rupture  de 
Menaces  et 
Langage  p 
Dcseiter  so 
r^eserter  et 
Delivrance 
Expositioa 
Kt-fus  d'aiJ 
Sechapper 
Port  d'arm 
Criiaute  en 
Mepris  de  < 
Con-iuite  d 
Tenir  une 
Tenir  une 
Habiter  un 
Tenir  une  i 
lirelaader  . 

2 

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15 

1 
12 

1 

r 

2 

'  3 

18 
1 

12 

"  "2' 

1 

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2 

5 

3 
71 
32 
50 

7 

3 

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2 

1 



1 

4 
2 

nfiance 

xtes  

ne  maison  habitee , 

propriete  .  . ....,,,.m ......... 

ions  aux  r^glem.  des  liqueurs  fortes 
ions  aux  lois  manicipales 

ions  k  I'acte  municipal 

ions  h.  I'acte  de  la  milice 

la  paix 

injures ..... 

n  navire  et  refus  de  devoir 

aider  k  deserter  d'un  navire  de  S.  M 
d'un  prisonnier  et  aider  une  evasion 

indecente  de  la  personne 

er  un  ofhcier  de  paix  

de  I'ecoie  industrielle 

ei  u  feu 

"2 

2 

csordonnee 

maiaon  desordonnee 

mnison  de  debauche 

g  maison  de  d6bauche,.. 

68 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  188: 


Province  <Te  la  jSon%die-E«.'©sse— CONVIOTIONS  SOMMAIRES        TABLEAU 
ET  EXAMSXS  PR^LIMINAIRES. 

IlL  J 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAIS3ANCE. 

RELIGIOxNS. 

Use  op 

LiQUOKS. 

Us  ARE  DES 
LIQUEUUS 

•  40  jeaTf 
and 
over. 

■JO  ans 
et  ;ui- 
dessus. 

0 

■c 

c 

1 

f 

F 
26 

Vf. 
13 

19 

19 
5 

"9 

Bkitish  Lles- 
Iles  Britan- 

MQUKS. 

S 

s 

Q 

44 

.:: 

10 

110 

38 

54 

1 

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3 

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1 

3 

1 
3 

1  1 

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5 

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3 

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2 

1 

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H. 

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17 

1 

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1 



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4 

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6 

I 

1 

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35 

1 

36 

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1 
2 

4 

4 
19 
13 
46 

2 
65 
10 

18 

::::::: 

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1 

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1 

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1 

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1 





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: 

3 





2 

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i 

3 

.... 



— 

t 

' '  1 

69 


44  Yictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  III.        Province  olf  Nova  Scotia— SUMMARY  CONVICTIO?^S  AND 
PRELIMINARY  EXAMlNATinKH—Ujn'.'uUcd. 


OFFENCES 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


I  Vap^rancy - 

j  Nuisance 

Trespass 

I  Perjury 

[Minor  Off<;nces 

Totals 


X,  fL 


91 


2.562 


697 


CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIO.VS. 


Total. 


28 
1,832 


-!E 


o    c 

'J  C 


1,793 


5i! 


o    c 


if  1^ 


Skn'tenck. 


Oomniitted 
to  Gaol. 

Eru  pri- 
son DCS. 


30 


33 


1,534 


Province  of  Prince  Kdward  Islanti. 


1 

7 
7 
3 

""2 

'"40 



4 

327 

13 
16 

... 

4 

.'.'.'... 

32 

.... 

1 
2 

20 

15 

47 

43 1 

i 

J  f  Abortion 

I  As?ault  and  Assault  and  Battery  .... 

2— Burglary  

3 — Larceny 

^  f  Incendiarism  

'i  Damage  to  Property 

5  I  Torgery 

I  Uttering  a  counterfeit  note 

J      f  Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly.... 

Breach  of  Liquor  Laws 

Breach  of  Municipal  By-laws 

Breach  of  Merchant  ^)*hipping  act. .., 

Keeping  a  House  of  111  fame ,... 

Prequentora  of  Houses  of  III  fame...., 

•(  Deserting  Ship 

Threatening  and  abusive  Language 

Cruelty  to  animals 

Di:iorderly  conduct 

Vagrancy   

Nuisance  

[  s  inor  offences  , 

Totals 


70 


] 

93 

7 

7 

3 

6 

2 

1 

338 

16 

19 

1 

3 

9 

2 

14 

1 

6 

39 

22 

56 


646 


96 


51 

49 

4 

4 

'328 

269 

13 

8 

16 

16 

3 

""3 

9 

9 

1 

1 

13 

13 

1 

1 

2 

27 

21 

15 

14 

47 

47 

530 

455 

16 


4i:  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.) 


A.  18SI 


ProT^incc  de  la  Monvelle-JX'usse— CONVICTIONS  S0MMAI1E8       TABLEAU  lii. 
ET  EXAWENS  PRELIMINAIRES— /'en. 

SENTE.VCE. 

TO 

fi 

n 

1 1 

i! 

1  1 

1   i 
1  1 

2  ^ 

"^         e: 

-0     — 

1 1 

0        c 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

ETAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Committed  to 
Gaol. 

EmP3IS0NN»S. 

i  i 

-    h 

y.     ^^■ 

■A      a 
^     &• 

3-  a. 

Ii 

O  I'M 

5    a 
5    *_£ 

No  option. 
Sans  option. 

00 

=  1 

-         > 

^      ?^ 

S        a. 
-0         tn 

3    > 

Rural   Districts. 
DiafnVtq  rnranx. 

18 

CT3 

a  a 
i  1 

O  Q 

1 

38 

1 

1 

! 
i 

a'i 

44 

"u,    'u 

2    2 
a    c 

69 

Mi; 

111 
3 

j5    - 
-5   ^ 

2 
146 

It 

1^ 

0    fc. 

i. 

I'i' 

X      O! 

i  i 

§11 

1 1 

a      c 

u 

o 

^|! 

a       c 

11 
4 



60 

1 

6 
19} 

6 

4  1 

1 
116 

21 

8 
1 

1 

\ 

162  1 

1             i 

109 



88 

72 

1 

ProviMo©  de    *Ue  da   Prinee.lEdonard. 

1 





*  11 

*   1 

*  .3 

5 

"23 
43 





•    • 

4 

'282" 
13 
16 

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9 
1 

11 
1 
2 

27 

15 

47 

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v 



1 

48* 

■■"2" 

51' 

7' 

1 

1 
3 
1 

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7 
10 

90 

8 

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2 

14 



12 

'  1 

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1 
1 

4 
'"'3 

2 
17 

112 

'"V 

'27' 

11 

1' 

85 

10 
4 

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1 

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1 

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12 
183 

5' 

1 

1' 

1 
"40  , 

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"237' 

2 
12 

1   ! 

8  : 
1 



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2 

4 
9 

i27 
1 

3 

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2 
21 

f. 
12 

200 

4 



"2* 

9 

2  1 
2  ! 

5 

482 

31 

50 

337 

71 


44  Yic^toria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TAULE  III.           I'xoviiito  otl^oAa  Scolin^M^YM  A  HY  CONVJCTlONri  AND 
1                                              PI.'KLLMIXaRY    EXAMlNATUsNS— Co«dMJ<"c/. 

i 

i 

;•                                  OFFENCES. 

1 

CRIMES  Er  DELITS. 

.i 

i 

EDUCATIONAL 
ST.-\TU«. 

1^.DUC  AXIOM. 

AGES. 

3,  ^ 

i  4 

y 

1 
'"V 

5? 

c 
a3  •'£ 

—    c 

5  I 

1 

2 


61 

3   B 

V 
210 

JO   X 

11 

iJnd 

Mo 

d 

16i 

M. 

_ 

IJ. 

"q 

16 

erl6 
rs. 

ius 

e 

ms. 

F. 

F. 

16year.i- 

and 
undeT21 

16  ans 

et  moin;- 

de  21. 

M.     F 

H.     F. 

55       7 

21  years 

and 
'.inder40. 

21   ans 

■t  meinp 

de  40. 

M.     F. 

fl.     F.  i 

~          1 

4     

6     '''.'.. 

.65      15 

■ 

Vnorabondace 

N wis   nee 

EmT'ietement...  ., ,. 

PH'juie         ^  

,  Pttits  d61it3 

Province  of  Prince  F.dward   fslaud. 

1 

i.i 

Avortfment 

Voips  de  fait  ordinaires 

"iG 

■"97* 

7 

"''2 
1 

"■3" 

"*2 

22 

9 

7 
159 

"16 

'  '97 
7 

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1 

4 

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22 
2 

160 

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224' 

13 
2 

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1 
9 

1 

5 

1'. 

40 

1 

••::■; 

1 

1 

3 

"7 

■'"^ 
19 

14' 

52 
2 
2 

1 
1 

8 
80 

'"'1 

2 
3 

30 

2' 

.'05 
3 
4 

5 

2 
1 
2 

12 
11 
16 

9i 

I 

'l 

"1 
2 

1 

4 

j 

1- 

i 

-Vol  de  nuit  avec  effraction 

-Lariin 

Incendier  un  bafiment  inbabite.... 

Dc.'at  a  la  {jroj)rieLe , 

Faux 

Circulation  de  f^iix  billets..., 

lvres.se  et  condwite  der<ordounee 

Contraventions  aux  reglem.  des  liqueurs  fortes 

Conlraveniions  aux  lois  municipales 

CoKiraveotions  a  I'acte  de  la  marine.. 

Frequenter  desmai.5on3  de  dcbaucbe 

De.-prter  son  navire 

Meiiac-s  et  injures 

Cruaute  enver:!  les  animaux..  

Cnnduite  desordonnce 

VafT'ibonlage 

Nuisxnee 

Pctits  dclits 

Totaux 

1 
356  1       1 

1 

! 

7:^ 


4i  ^\'ictoiMa. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  18S1 


Province  dc  la  Sfouvelle-JEcosse-C ON VI CTIONS  SOMM AIRES        TABLEAU  III. 
BT  EXAMENS  P RELIMIN AIRES— if'm. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX   DE  NAISSANCB. 

RELIGIONS, 

USS    OF 

Liquors. 

CTsAGii;  DCS  i 

LIQUEUBS.    [ 

1 

-10  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  ei 
aa- 

desaus. 

rr. 

o 
■a 

1 

3 
0.' 
> 

f" 

25 

British  I.-les. 
Iles  Britan- 

N1QCE3. 

3; 

«; 
c 

,=^ 

12 
303 

■C3     '1' 

3  2 

1 
9 

0      C 
5^     r. 

K 

5  < 
3 

0      :; 

li 

-    c 
5   (^ 

Cf, 

5  < 

1 

3 

■12           1r 

y 

4 
11 

<v 
■n     — 

-J)   c 

2 
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13, 

■6    t 

a    (- 
^    ■*- 

"be     -J-' 

Si 

*-    < 

X3      bJ 

If 

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2  « 

a     c 
y     a- 

9}        K 

a    c 

iS       a: 



103 

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ll 

4 

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129 

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2 
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f 

126  1 

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2 
91 

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51 

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136 

10 

'   "                                                           •                                                                                                                                    ! 

i 

Provi««ce  de  i'lle  du  Prince-Edonard.                                                        i 

5 

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63 

7 
3 

1 

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4 

30 

120 

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3 

1 

6 
11 

3 

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2 

1 

5 

1 

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1 
1 

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1 

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1 
3 

46 

4 

287 

9 

14 

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9 

12 
i 
2 
27 
14 
34 

46  i 

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3 

'"2" 

'~2 

"12* 
"i* 

13 

4 
4 

32 

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9 
9 

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5 
1 
6 

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15 

8 

15 

302 

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1" 

1 

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T 

3 

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1 
2 

15 

104" 
3 
3 

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4 

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7 
32 

182 

10 

38 



2 

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5 
3 

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36 
76 

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5 

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8  i 
1   i 
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1   1 

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27 
8  1 

11 

408 

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22 

5 

36 

5 

10 

4  i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


1 

TABLE  III.         Province  of  Manitoba— SUMMARY   CONVICTIONS  AND  PRELIMINARY 

!                                                                         EXAMINATIONS. 

1 
j 

J                                    OFFENCES. 

1 

CRIMES  ET   Dl^LlTS. 

i 

|i 

'  ■)  1  w 

■^  I  a. 

q  '  c 
o    c 

2  ^ 

2 
2 
2 
1 

39 
2 
6 

10 
2 
4 

17 
3 

6 
2 
5 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
3 
10 

182 

-6  i 
•§'? 
<  < 

2 

1 
2 

"l2 
1 
3 

""2 

""i 
3 
4 

12 

4 

""2" 

*"l 

1 

1 
1 

""1 

■"V 

2 
64 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 

SSNTBNCE. 

Committed 
to  Gaol. 

Empri- 
8cnn6s. 

Total. 

or) 

% 

20 

4 

27 
2 

"31 
...... 

'"5 

1 

62 

.11 

%    § 
"2* 

""4 
"*'l 





7 

"1 

*v 
3 

c 
.£ 

Ill 

:^^ 

'**T 

"1 

4 
1 
3 

10 

"4 
9 

""2 

'"T 


With  ihu  i){)Uon  of  a  Fine. 

Sur  option  entre  la  prison 
ou  i'amende. 

1- 

I 

1  4- 

f  Murder 

"23 

4 

32 
2 

3 

""■'2 



5 

1 

Shooting  with  intent. , 

Rape  

Bestiality , 

Assault 

19 

Robbery 

Burcrlaiv 



Larceny 

Embezzlement 

30 

2 

*2 

False  Pretences. 

—Malicious  iujury  to  property 

1  5- 

-Forpery, ^ ..., 

1 

6 

Breach  of  .jiquor  La^vs 

Breach  cf  Militia  Act 

Breach  of  Indian  Act        ., 

Leavir.ff  open  holes  in  ice  . = 

V 
"°i 
33 

■  '""2 

1 

Unlawful  herding 

Gaol  breaking 

Vagrancy 

Trespass 

LuLacv .. 

Totals ~ 

72 

56 

Province  of  Britisn 

Columbia. 

,_ 

-Assault 

8 

4 

23 

42 
T5S" 

3 
3 
4 
3 

13 
9,003 

5 
1 
19 
2 
2 

4 

1 

15 

2 

22 

1 

"1 

2 
598 

4 

"1 
5 

976 

635 

5 

"'To' 
1 
2 

3- 

-Petty  Larceny  

f  Drunk  and  Drunk  and  Disorderly 

Brewcb  (f  Liquor  Laws 

[Minor  offences  

Totals  

29 

'5,  287 

18 
21,991 

74 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


'   Province  de  M«iiitoba-CONVIGTIO>fS   SOMMAIRES  ET  EXAMENS          TABLEAU  III. 

PRELIMINAIRES- 

1 

SENTENCE. 

<t 

IS 

alt 

I'i 

.2  -c 
a    p. 

^    S 

t     & 

1  1 

2  ^ 

1  1 

-J      K 

RE  SI-                    OCCUPATTOV^ 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

fiTAT 
CONJUGAL.. 

Committed  to 
Gaol 

EMPRISONNiS. 

si 

<  < 

>>    03 
O    iM 

II 

s    o 

DENCK 

No  op 

Sans  0 

1  i 

o  1% 

1  1 

a      c 

tion. 
ption. 

> 
o 

u        ^ 
d       c 

i  1 

1  1 

no         cc 

5      C^ 

1    £ 

i  '-5 

il 

<  < 

TO 

as 
a  a 

0    c 

0  0 

is 
a  £ 

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d    c 

2h   ft. 

? 

...... . 

1 

m 

ill 

^^ 
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i  1 

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%   % 

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i 

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1 
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20 

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■"V 

4 

1 

...... 

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2 

6 

4 
2 



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13 

1 

1 " 

24 

28  t 

1 

1 

Province  de  la  Colombie-Britanniqno,                                                      1 

1 

7 

1 



68 

74 



"***i 

3 

1 

17 

2 

2 

1 
7.30 

3 

3 
2,121 

1 

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...... 

3 

1,316 

1 

7* 

1 

9 

3,254 

1 
2 

5,507 

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2 

£59 

4 

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2 

I 

216 

5,706 

9 
2,158 

1 

25 

22 

4 

359 

100 

3,555 

1,663 

7,576 

75 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.) 


A.  18S1 


TABLE  III. 


Province  of  Maiiiloba— SUM  M  A  R  Y  COVVfCTION'S  AND 
PivElJMlXARr  EXAMINATIONS. 


OFFENCES. 


CRIMES  ET  DELITS. 


I  i 


Meurtre — 

U?age  d'urmes  arec  intention  de  tuer. 

Viol  . 

Hestialite    , 

Voies  de  fait „ 

Vol  


.1 

!     f 

I 

I 


I 


Vol  de  uuit  avec  effraction. 

Larcin 

Abus  de  confiance .... 

Kaux  jirctexus 

Degat  a  la  propriety. ... 

Faux 

Ivresse  et  conduite  desordonnee 

Contra  vent   aux  leglements  des  liqueurs  fortes. 

Contraventions  a  I'acte  de  ia  milice 

Contraventions  h  I'acte  des  sauvages 

^5enaee3  et  inj'ires 

Rtji^tt-r  les  bulletins  de  nomination.. 

Laisser  des  oiivt^rtures  decouvertes  sur  la  glace 

Espo-ilion  indc'cente  de  la  personne  

KffiiS  de  salaire 

Attroaper  des  bestiaux  illegalcment .,..'. 

Bris  de  prison  

Faiisse  arredtation 

V^agabondage 

P^rapietement 

Folie 


EDUCATfONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUGATIUN. 


as 


14 


Totaux. 


25 


14 


25 


O   XT. 


AGES 


(Jnder  If 
years. 

Moins 

de 
16aus. 


16  years 

and 
mrter  21 

[6  ans  et 
moins 
de  21. 


H. 


21  years 

and 
maer40. 

l\  ans  et 
moins 
de  40, 


13 


49 


F. 


Province  of  Kriti.sli  Columbia,. 


I — Voles  de  fait  ordinaires 

3— I'etits  vols  

r  Ivrcfse  et  condnite  desordonnee 

6.|  Contravent.  aux  reglements  des  liqueurs  fortes. 

(  Petits  dolits 

Totaux .... 

Grand  total 


5 

5 

3 

1 

1 

... 

.... 

1 

9 

9 

6 





.... 

3 

6 

3 

2 

.... 

1 

i 

1 

1 

16 

16 

9 



.... 

3 

11 

3 

2,65H 

2,858 

9,829 

182 

414 

52 

1675 

208 

7141 

1114 

76 


4  i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  ISSI 


Province  de  .Manitoba— COX VICTIO.VS  SOMMAIRES          TABLEAU  III.   ' 
BT  KXA.VIKN8  FRELIWIN'AIRES                                                               ' 

1 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX   DE  NAISSANCE. 

REMGIONS. 

! 

Use  of 
Liquors. 

(TSAGK  DES  i 
LIQUEURS.    1 

j 
i 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  ei 

au- 
dessus. 

i 

a 
c 
0 

c 
1 

C3 
> 
■& 

0 

F. 

British  Isles. 
Ilks  Britan- 

JJIQDES. 

'n 

03 

a 

c3 

19 

.... 

"4 

20 
2 

"1 

"1 

4 

1 
8 

60 

1 

tn 

<v 

0    c 

'-^  t 

d  ,^ 

1  £ 

a. 

5  < 

i  .1 

2  = 

11 
? » 

r     0 

5  < 

rn 

%     w 

a.    p. 
33     « 
M    PQ 

.  i 

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"lo"" 

1  i 

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i  1 

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■5  'c 
0    c 

2    s 

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d 

0      m 

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F. 



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Proviuce  de    »    Colomble-Britannique. 

6 
2 
1 

9 

3670 

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1 

681' 

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1 

3 

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2 

724 

1 

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12 

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78 

3 

1 
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2 

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9 
17 

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19 

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3 

6681 

1934 

943 

1250 

41 

230 

2 

352 

3 

683 

3403 

44  Yictoria,  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  ISSl 


SUMMARY  BY  CLASSES  AND  PROVINCES. 


T^I3LE    IV. 


RECAPITULATION  PAR  CLASSES  ET  PROVINCES, 


TABL1CA.U    IV, 


4-i  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE    IV. 


SUMMARY    BY    CLASSES  AND    PROVINCES. 


CLASS  AND  PROVINCE. 


CLASSE  ET  PROVINCE. 


No.  2. 


fences  againist  tJi^  Property 
with  violence. 


Totals  cf  No.  3. ... 


Total 


3»o,  1. —  0 fences  against  the  Person. 


Ontario 

Uuebec 

New  Brunswick 

Nova  Scotia  

Prince  Edward  Island 

Manitoba . 

British  Columbia  

Totals  of  No   1 


4,111 

1,503 

559 

445 

108 

531 

44 


6,823  1,868 


Ontario 

Quebec 

New  Brunswick 

Nova  Scotia. , 

Prince  Edward  Island 

.Manitoba , 

British  Columbia. 

Totals  of  No.  2 


Xo.  3  — Offences  against  Property 
without  Violence. 


Ontario 

Quebec — .- 

New  Brunswick 

Nova  Scotia 

Prince  Edward  Island 

Manitoba 

British  Columbia 


275 

132 

L^ 

31 

9 

13 


478 


i,757 

1,004 

220 

286 

54 

6. 

19 

4,402 


935 

409 
288 
157 

47 
22 
10 


116 

3e 
1( 


175 


CONVICTIONS. 


CONDAMNATIONS. 


3,084 

1,070 

260 

279 

60 

25 

34 


4,812 


o    o 


2,98 

1,045 

230 

270 

58 

21 

32 


4,643 


122 

88 

,    7 

16 

2 

3 


238 


1,135 

2ib 
113 

lOtt 

3( 

i 
i,6r,b 


403 
726 
92 
166 
28 
18 
11 


114 

86 

7 

15 


226 


'J   O 


1,320 
717 
80 
16! 
24 
16 
10 


2,318 


m 


95 


SENTENCE 


Committed  to  Gaol. 
Emprisonnes. 


cs: 

-i       CO 


143 


48 


219 
32 
15 

12 

7 

14 


299 


■-S  ,  ^ 


n3 

2  £ 


2,76^ 

707 

218 

231 

48 

19 


4.000 


37 

2 

8 

1 

8 

7 

4 

65 

- — 

2 

120 
37 
11 

104 
2 


274 


STo  option. 

SaQSopt'r) 


5  .-: 

^S 
a,  c 

e  ■^ 

■3  .in 

3  C 

188 

313 

20 

15 

""o 
4 

545 

45 

30 

4 

1 



1 

81 

831 

475 

24 

27 

6 

li 

4 

i;^8 

a; 
> 
o 

^  % 
a  — 

tl 

o  := 

13 

4 
3 

1 

21 

9 
4 

13 

23 
11 

1 
35 

10 


194 
26 
1 
5 
18 
4 
6 

254 


80 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


1 
RfiOAPITULATIOX    PAR   CLASSES  ET    PROVINCES.          TABLEAU  IV. 

SENTENCE. 

CONJUGAL 

RESI- 
DENCE. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

STATE. 

Penitentiary. 

ETAT 

1 

Pesitentiaire. 

en 

c:' 

P 

c 

CONJUGAL. 

1 

OJ 

a 

S-l 

t- 

O 

^ 

<o 

wt 

Id 

> 

d   -j^ 

a 

s 

m         00 

cr' 

j 

i  i 

o  cq 

11 

-CJ       TO 

d  ,  c 

o 

glp. 

6 

i^    o 

d  s 

-d    c 

I'l 
II 

2 

a 
a 

o 

> 

c 

ivies  and  Town 
illes  et  Villapre 

2      £ 

'-'        "co 

■i  t 

d     oj 

'd  'd 
w    o 

bO   be 

a  a 
a  E 

o    c 

.       CO 

i'E 

o    S 

C  "C 

M        00 

d     d 
d    c 

d     c 

2  .2 

CO  1  no 
tn     CO 

o    o 

I'l 

33      o 

-3 

a:2 

33      CS 

j 

A 
fill 

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p  s 

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o     > 

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ci  xn 

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109 

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25 

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26 

610 

16 

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123 

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92 

82 

203 

21 

318 

232 

7 

227 

6 

3 

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23 

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82 

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139 

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1 

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26 

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10 

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31 

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1 
1 

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13 

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1 

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31 
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15 

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8 

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3 

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5 

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33 

2         3 
4       14 



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198 

3 

266 

1 
187 

4 
535 

52 

995 

1 
949 

38 

' 

5  1  2,010 

1 

502 

1,073 

33 

17 

9 

2 

81 

25 

4 

7 

5 

48 

2 

38 

29 

3 

8S 



35 
3 

10 



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69 
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17 

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3 
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m 

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3 

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11 
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'  '  1 

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7 

1 

1 

2 

1 

7 

3 

12 



2 

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85 

28 



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9 

12 

7 

58 

3 

111 

54 

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6 

164 

49 

163 

84 

27 

67 

932 

261 

54 

58 

123 

214 

8 

638 

293 

38 

914 

103 

19 

....    . 

36 

609 

97 

31 

26 

29 

56 

3 

463 

135 

16 

542 

45 

9 

2 



, 

G8 

18 

1 

7 

3 

9 

....... 

38 

16 

1 

66 

3 

18 

1 

3 

6 

36 
21 

27 

6 

5 

1 

3 

3 
3 

35 
13 

6 

1 

54 
21 

2 

1 



6 

4 

1 

1 

1 



5 

i 

4 

1 

2 

2 







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48 

218 

52 







109 

1,674 

409 

93 

97 

159 

286 

11 

1,187 

455 

57 

1,602 

81 


12*— 6 


41   Vi< 


'la. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1S81 


TABLE  IV. 


SUMMARY  BY  CLASSES  AND  PROVINCES. 


CLASS  AND  PROVINCE. 


CLASSE  ET  PROVINCE. 


Xo,  1. — Outrages  contre  la  personne. 


Ontario 

Quebec 

Nouveau-Bruaswick 

Nouvelle-Ecosse 

He  du  Prince-Edouard 
Manitoba 

Colombie-Britannique .. 


Xo, 


2. —  Outrages  avec  violence  contre 
la  propriete. 


Ontario 

Quebec 

Nouveau-Brunswick 

Nouvelle-Ecosse 

He  du  Prince-Edouard. 
Manitoba 

Colonabie-Britannique ... 


Totaux,  No.  2. 


EDUCATIONAL 
STATUS. 

EDUCATION. 


a; 


o  I  ai 

3  e 


213 
72 
36 
13 
16 
14 
7 


O  I  4> 

L3   ^ 


240 
86 
40 
21 
16 
14 
7 


CD    vO 


424 


o^\  p. 


AGES 


Under  16 
years, 

Moins 

de 
16  ans. 


959 

170 

166 

34 

42 


1380 


40       46 


Xo.  3, —  Outrages  sans  violence  contre 
la  propriUe, 

\  Ontario 

Quebec 

Nouveau-Brunswick 

Nouvelle-Ecosse 

He  du  Prince-Edouard , 

'  Manitoba 

Colombie-Britannique 

I  Totaux,  No.  3 


82 


288 

126 

23 

18 

11 

5 

2 


473 


346 

141 

25 

19 

11 

5 

2 

549 


114 


37 


64 


859 
94 
53 
27 
10 
5 


1048 


17 


16  years 

and 
under21. 

16  ans  et 
moins 
de  21. 


142 

132 

36 

9 

16 

4 


339 


21  years 

and 
ander40 

l\  ans  et 
moins 
de40. 


20 


16 


233 
26 
14 
11 


292 


16 


19 


51 


179 

64 

27 

22 

6 


298 


64' 

341 

122 

33 

34 

13 


1196 


115 


41 


117 


488 

156 

21 

24 


704 


80 


44  A^ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


1 

RECAPITULATION  PAR  CLASSES  ET  PROVINCES.          TABLEAU  IV. 

AGES. 

BIRTH  PLACES. 
LIEUX  DE  NAISSANCE. 

RELIGIONS. 

Use  op 
Liquors. 

Usage  dbs 
LIQUBUR8. 

40  years 
and 
over. 

40  ans  el 

au- 
dessus. 

cl 
a 
0 

a 
0 

1 

"Sc 

0 

"fT 

42 

48 

7 

28 

125 

10 
68 

12 

1 

91 

British  Isles. 
Ilk3  Britan- 

NIQUES. 

83 

a 

03 

676 
668 

183 
f9 
54 
19 

1 

1660 

1 

a  s 

88 
6 

8 
1 

i 

C        TO 

d     <L 
3     bJ 
0     c 

^  £ 

w 

o  < 

29 

19 

3 

2 

S.I 

0      S= 

11 

-,     c 

5  -< 

2 
2 

35        CO 

a.    p. 
■a    oe 
:p   P3 

28 
1 

18 
4 

51 

.    ^ 

1   -S" 

0  ? 

458 

369 

120 

20 

34 

10 

1011 

i  t 

bb  "S 

3     '^ 
XI       bf 

::>  w 

241 

7 

25 

2 

3 

.        TO 

CO        OQ 

-5  'S 
0    0 

a    c 
B  S 

I  1 

m 

a 

O      a 

1'! 

■^  t^ 
0  -< 

17 
3 

1 

2" 

23 

o     0 

i:t 

<u   -a 

■a    'J 
0     0 
B    B 

a  a 
—4  t— > 

a. 

21 
li 

33   I) 

a  c 

160 

48 
2 

"""1 

""2 

21? 

IB 
7 

""1 

-5       <a 

— 1           l-H 

u 

M 

56 

1 
r 

i 

] 
1 

65 

M. 
H. 

269 

119 

35 

19 

5 

1 

448 

3 
""2 

12 

158 

42 

K 

5 

4 
219 

F. 

F. 

25 
li^ 

4 
4 

52 
1 

3 

33 

7 
2 

42 

207 

158 

15 

1 

3 

169 

6 

17 

4 

2 

133 

"iV" 
7 
3 

159 
77 
33 
22 
17 
12 
6 

326 

676 
141 
55 
32 
15 
11 
5 

542 
74 

165 

21 

40 

12 

3 

3 
3 

109 

2 
55 

4 

278 

198 

154 

384 

935 

857 

10 
1 
1 

10 
19 

3 

6 

71 

5:^ 

3 

13 

140 

17 

1 

1 

••••«. 

3 

43 

73 
2 
8 

27 

13 

12 

14 
13 

4 

40 

17 

2 

6 

1 
.     4 

18 

1 
2 



1 

..... 

1 

1 



Zll'l 

4 

126 





13 



24 

159 
51 

2 
217 

29 

182 
104 
3 
1 
1 
1 

^ 

32 

13 

28 

4 

65 

91 

55 

72 

708 

503 

65 

5fc 

19 

7 

1 

1359 

139 

11 

8 

2 

2 

1 

163 

17 
11 

28 

4 

1 
1 

1 
1 

8 

43 

""u 

5 

423 

577 

44 

19 

16 

3 

259 

7 

10 

5 

224 

""4 
1 

159 
1 
1 
5 

104 

118 

7 

14 

6 

4 

10 

^ ....... 

10 

620 

139 

34 

41 

4 

1 

2 

611 
81 
45 

9 

17 

9 

1 

282 

..... 

292 

62 

1082 

229 

169 

252 

841 

772 

8-i 


1-^— 6J* 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE    IV.                        SUMMARY   BY    CLASSES  AND    PROVINCES. 

i           CLASS  AND  PROVINCE. 
CLASSE  ET  PROVINCE. 

OP 

-6  ^g 

ta    ^ 

^  % 

-g  ^ 

m    c 

d    c 

o    c 

li 

625 
176 
94 
44 
14 
17 

970 

102 
22 

""e 

4 
2 

143 

18419 

4535 

2253 

2068 

526 

97 

32 

27930 

40746 

-2  ■"■2 

<    <. 

200 

63 

55 

18 

3 

8 

347 

35 
9 
3 

i 

3 

2 

53 

CONVICTIONS. 
CONDAMNATIONS. 

1 

SENTENCE. 

Committed  to  Gaol. 

EMPRISONNis. 

Total. 

1 

i'l 

.s  i 

d    c 
o    o 

if 

-it 
- 1 

V  ^ 

d    c 
o    o 
O  O 

5 
1 
4 

10 
2 

i 

t5 

as     > 
V   »® 

4 
1 
7 

*"l' 
13 

c 
.2 

c3 

—J       M 

s  § 

•■1    u 
O     3 

■^  cc 

8 

2 

2 
3 
9 

24 

With  the  option  of  a  Fine. 
Sur  option  entre  la  Prison 
on  I'fliTiende. 

No  option 
Sansopt'n 

00 

II 

^£ 

■S    y. 

2 

a    =: 

1.1 

d    0 
^  IS 

23 
3 

2 
3 

1 

32 

14 

4 

> 

0     . 

a    c 
1 

Xo.  4. — Malicious  Ofences  against 
Fro-perty. 

Ontario , 

417 

113 

37 

24 

8 

408 

111 

26 

24 

7 

576 

38 
10 

1 

1 

1 

373 

108 

33 

18 

4 

Quebec 

j  New  Brunswick 

1' 

2 

1 
2 

1 

1 
3 
4 

Prince  Edward  Island 

Manitoba 

British  Columbia ., 

Totals  of  No.  4 

599 

41 

10 

2 



3 

1 

536 

Xo.  5. — Forgery  and   Offences  againsi 
tke^Currency. 

Ontario...* 

1 

i 

2 

533 

76 

188 

22 

59 

2 

5 

885 

1046 

26 
3 
2 

3 

Quebec 

New  Brunswick    

Nova  Scotia « 

2 
33 

42 

13 

9 

2 

5' 

71 
635 

1 
19 

887 

811 

60 

95 

5 

9 

8 

1875 

3930 

Manitoba 

British  Columbia 



4 
3 

4 

224 
3 

Totals  of  No.  5 

Xoi  Q.— Other  Offences  not  included  iv 
the  above  classes. 

Ontario 

57 

51 

4 

261 

84 

168 

9 

14 

5 

1 

542 

707 

3 

5211 

798 

569 

522 

51 

32 

9 

7192 

11294 

13104 

3716 

1672 

1544 

475 

52 

23 

12310 

3556 

1316 

1513 

402 

45 

7 

11571 

2815 

1490 

1286 

437 

39 

13 

Quebec -, 

New  Brunswick 

Nova  Scotia  .. 



85 
32 

1 

Prince  Edward  Island 

Manitoba 

British  Columbia.  .           

Totals  of  No.  6 

3 

78 

345 
679 

20586 

19159 
26983 

17631 

Grand  Totals  of  Dominion 

28736 

22466 

, 

The  details  and  component  parts  of  the  six  classes  of  crimes,  here  summarized,  will  be  found 
to  G  in  the  left  hand  margin. 

8i 


1 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


:                                     RfiOAPITaLATIOX  PAR  CLASSES  ET  PROVINCES.          TABLEAU  IV. 

SENTENCE. 

li 

-      ^0 

IJ 

<0      C 

J3     o 
£-•  O 

1 

i! 

i  i 

0  »a> 

1  ^ 

^  .i 

2   <^ 

O          c 

RESI- 
DENCE 

OCCUPATIONS, 

CONJUGAL 
STATE. 

^TAT 
CONJUGAL. 

Pexitentiary. 

PiNITENTIAIRE. 

£    . 

as    00 
«    c 

>»     OS 

O   a 
^    «; 

*»   ns 

II 

=>  s 

...... 

1 

"65 

6 

> 

§.| 

£  S 
it 
|1 

2 

1 

4> 

> 
O 

-a 
a     . 

oj    00 

8 

i   i 
1  1 

5    > 

2  i 

i  1 

:i5     Q 

it 

d  '5 
o  _o 

bit   U 

8 
4 
5 

17 
11 

11 

438 
56 
39 
13 
49 

2 

1 

598 
926  : 

as 
a's 

o    o 
'^  O 

4 
7 
5 
1 
2 

19 

3 

10 

818 

697 

268 

30 

82 

10 

L905 
2309 

6.t 

II 

16 

1 

17 

1 

.       TO 

1   1 

a    c 
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34 

18 

i 

1 
54 

7 

1 

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a    H 
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11 

91 

37 

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8 

11 

55 

15 

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77 

21 
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3341 

650 

428 

95 

171 

34 

1 

1-790 

^     % 

7 
1 

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379 

89 

29 

18 

9 

2 

2 

528 

637 

2 

1 
..  ..^. 



167 

86 

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131 

26 

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4 

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1 

142 

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7 

1 

18 

29S8 
945 
642 
108 
173 
3 

2 

290 

53 

193 

-^ 

62 
8 
3 

8 
9 

1 

28 
1 
1 

16 

7 

1 

704 
293 
77 
39 
13 
20 
2 

1148 

1519 

1 

8 

1675 

543 

410 

57 

99 

4 

8 

2796 

3737 

1 

115 

43 

11 

3 

7 

18 

6522 

3025 

1532 

124 

427 

42 

1 

30 

23 

53 
44 

941 
215 
68 
50 
31 
15 
21 

4067 

1016 

1113 

121 

294 

20 

18 

1 

66 

125 

4 
365 

1 
130 

— .r. 

. 

8 

81 
81 



179 
240 

4859 

97 

L1673 

1341 

6649 

4 

14 

7312  (3281 

219 

5829 

2384 

9703 

throughout  the  preceding  Tables  Nos.  L  IL  IIL,  being  indicated  by  the  braces  and  numerals  1 

85 


i   \'ictGria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.   12.) 


A.  1881 


TABLE  IV.                     SUMMARY  BY"  CLASSES  AND  PROVIXCES. 

EDUCATIONAL 

STATUS. 

AGES. 

CLASS  AND  PROVINCE. 

Education. 

i 

Under  16 

16  years 
and 

21  years 
and 

CLASSE  ET  PROVINCE. 

years. 

under  21 

ander40. 

<L 

Moins 

16  ans  et 

21  ans  et 

..  ii 

»  T 

de 

moins 

moins    , 

b  -* 

16ans. 

de  21. 

de  40. 

j 

• 

II 

2  « 

n 

a    c 

a  s 

o    <o 
72   CC 

M. 
H. 

F. 
F. 

M. 
H. 

P. 
F. 

M. 
H. 

F. 
F. 

Jfo,  4. — Attaques  ynalicieuses  contre  la 

propriHL 

38 
1.5 

43 
1.5 

143 
6 

1 

31 

.... 

31 
12 



87 
39 

15 
11 

Quebec ..... 

Nouveau-BrunsTvick 

5 

5 

4 

24 
5 

3 
1 

4 

3 
7 

r 
' 

15 
7 

1 

Xouvelle-Ecosse 

He  du  Prince-Edouard * , 

4 

1 

2 

Manitoba 





....... 

Colombie-Britannique 







.... 



.... 

.... 

Totaux  No.  4 

61 

67 

182 

1 

36 

4 

53 

2 

150 

29 

No.  5,— Faux  et  delits  par  rapport  d  la 

monnaie. 

Ontario 

1 

1 

34 

2 

7 

19 

Quebec 

Nouveau-Brunswick 

4 
1 

1 

1 

t-. 
1 



1 

1 

NouTelle-Ecosse 

.... 

He  du  Prince-Edouard, 













Manitoba 

Colombie-Britannique.... 









.... 

Totaux  No  5 

2 

2 

39 

2 



— 

8 

1 

25 

.... 

No.  6. — Autres  dSlits  non  compris  dans  les 

classes  prccedentes. 

1338 
516 

267 

1448 
554 
270 

6127 

775 

1203 

125 
9 
6 

176 
72 
34 

21 
14 

620 

457 
189 

107 
59 
15 

3396 

1379 

911 

580 
317 

71' 

Nouveau  Brunswick 

Nouvelle-Ecosse 

37 

143 

11 

41 

144 

11 

177 

317 

41 

7 
1 
5 

9 

17 



39 
66 

1 

7 
2 

128 

262 

36 

10 
4 
3 

Manitoba 

:  Colombie-Britannique 

10 

10 

9 

3 

.... 

7 

3 

Totaux  No.  6 

2322 

2478 

8649 

153 

308 

40 

1375 

190 

6119 

988 

■                      Grand^total  de'Ja  Confederation... 

3269 

3566 

11412 

213 

716 

71 

2124 

255 

8311 

1215 

Les  details  et  les  parties  qui  composent  lea 

six  classes  de  crimes  ici  recapitules,  seront 

parentheses  numerotees  de  1  jusqu'^  6. 

86 


44  Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


RfiCAPITULATIOX  PAR  CLASSES  ET  PROVLVCES.        TABLEAU  IV. 

Use  of 

BIRTH  PLACES. 

LiQDOKS. 

AGES. 

RELIGIONS. 

— 

LIEUX  DE  NAISSANOE. 

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trouvcs  dans  les  Tableaux  I,  II  et  III  precedents,  et  sont  indiques  dans  la  marge  gauche  par  des 

87 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


PARDONS  ANJ3  COMMUTATIONS 


TABLE    V. 


PARDONS  ET  COMMUTATIONS. 


TABLEAU  V. 


41   Victoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


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A.  1881 


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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  18S1 


APPENDIX  TO  THE  ANNUAL  REPORT 

—  OF   THE  — 

DEPARTMENT   OF  AGRICULTURE 


CANADA    IN    1880 


"BEFORTS 


TENANT  FARMER8'   DELEGATES 


ON  nil  — 


DOMINION  OF  CANADA 


FIELD    FOR    SETTLEMENT. 


SECOND  SERIES. 


OTTAWA: 

PRINTED  BY  MACLEAN,  ROGER  &  CO.,  WELLINGTON  STREET. 

1881 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12,)  A.  1881 


CONTENTS, 


Introduction \ 5 

Introduction  to  First  Series  of  Eeports 7 

Professor  Sheldon's  Report 9 

Mr.  Hugh  McLean's  Report  31 

Mr.  George  Curtis'  Report 56 

Mr.  R.  H.  B.  P.  Anderson's  Report 10 

Mr.  W.  B.  Cubitt's  Report 89 

Mr.  Peter  Imrie's  Report 102 

Mr.  J.  Sparrow's  Report 119 

Mr.  George  Broderick's  Report 129 

Mr.  John  Sagar's  Report. 142 

Mr.  James  Riddle's  Paper 154 

Extracts  from  Messrs.  Read  and  Pell's  Report 159 

Extracts  from  Colonization  Circular 161 

Extracts  from  Colonel  Dennis'  Memorandum  respecting  Land  Regulations ITl 

^;     Information  for  intending  Settlers 173 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


INTRODUCTION. 


The  second  series  of  the  reports  of  farmers  from  England,  Ireland  and  Scotland,  who 
visited  Canada  in  the  summer  and  autumn  of  last  year,  are  now  presented  to  the  public. 
They  have  been  made  by  the  following  gentlemen,  some  of  whom  were  appointed 
as  delegates  by  the  farmers  in  the  districts,  while  others,  from  their  positions  in  the 
agricultural  world,  are  well  qualified  to  speak  upon  so  important  a  subject. 

Mr.  J.  P.  Sheldon,  Professor  of  Agriculture,  Wilts  and  Hants  Agricultural 
College,  Down  ton,  Salisbury. 

Mr.  Hugh  McLean,  Rhu,  Tarbert,  Argyllshire. 

Mr.  George  Curtis,  Woodside,  Silsden,  Leeds. 

Mr.  R.  H.  B.  P.  Anderson,  Listowel,  County  Kerry,  L-eland. 

Mr.  W.Oubitt,  Bacton  Abbey,  North  Walsh  am,  Norfolk. 

Mr.  Peter  Imrie,  Cawder-Cuilt,  Mary  hill,  Lanark. 

Mr.  J.  Sparrow,  Woodlands  Farm,  Doynton,  near  Bath. 

Mr.  Gr,  Broderick,  Hawes,  Wensleydale,  York. 

Mr.  John  Sagar,  Waddingtou,  near  Clitheroe,  Lancashire. 

A  paper  has  also  been  contributed  by  Mr.  James  Riddell,  who  has  been  residing 
in  Manitoba  for  four  years.  Extracts  are  also  given  from  the  report  of  Messrs. 
Clarke  Read  and  Albert  Pell,  M.P.,  presented  to  Parliament  in  August,  18S0  — 
and  from  the  Chapter  of  the  '  Colonization  Circular'  relating  to  Canada  recently 
issued  by  the  Colonial  Office. 

Containing,  as  they  do,  much  information  upon  the  agricultural  resources  of 
Manitoba,  the  ^orth- West  Territories,  Ontario,  Quebec,  and  the  Maritime  Provinces 
of  Canada,  and  the  suitability  of  the  country  generally  for  the  settlement  of  British 
agriculturists  and  others,  these  reports  will  doubtless  be  read  with  interest  by  many, 
who,  from  various  causes,  are  looking  around  for  fresh  fields  in  which  their  capital 
and  energy  can  be  invested  to  advantage. 

The  following  are  the  classes  recommended  to  go  to  Canada  : 

1.  Tenant  farmers,  who  have  sufficient  capital  to  enable  them  to  settle  on  farms, 
may  be  advised  to  go  with  safety,  and  with  the  certainty  of  doing  well.  The  same 
remark  will  apply  to  any  persons  who,  although  not  agriculturists,  would  be  able  to 
adapt  themselves  to  agricultural  pursuits,  and  who  have  sufficient  means  to  enable 
them  to  take  up  farms. 

2.  Produce  farmers,  and  persons  with  capital  seeking  investment. 

3.  Male  and  female  farm  laborers,  and  female  domestic  servants  (to  whom  assisted 
passages  are  granted)  and  country  mechanics. 

The  classes  who  should  be  warned  against  emigration  are  females  above  the  grade 
of  servants,  clerks,  shopmen,  and  persons  having  no  particular  trade  or  calling,  and 
unaccustomed  to  manual  labor.     To  these  Canada  offers  but  little  encouragement. 

It  is  claimed  that  Canada  offers  advantages  to  steady,  hardworking  men,  unequalled 
in  any  other  country.  In  the  first  place,  the  cost  of  reaching  there  is  less — a  con- 
sideration where  a  man  has  a  family  and  is  not  overburdened  with  cash.  The  sea  pas- 
sage is  also  shorter  ;  and  the  settler  remains  a  British  subject,  not  requiring  to  change 
his  nationality  before  taking  up  a  free  grant  of  land,  or  acquiring  the  right  to  record 
his  vote.  Free  grants  of  land,  ranging  from  100  to  200  acres,  can  be  obtained  in  most 
of  the  provinces.  In  Manitoba  and  the  North- West  Territories  a  settler  can  obtain 
160  acres  free,  and  purchase  another  160  acres  at  a  nominal  price  and  on  very  easy 
conditions,  as  set  forth  in  the  Appendix.  In  writing  of  this  part  of  Canada,  its  rapid 
growth  and  development  must  be  mentioned.  The  country  was  practically  unknown 
ten  years  ago ;  now  it  possesses  a  city  of  12,000  inhabitants  (Winnipeg),  besides 
12** 1 


4i  Yictoria.  Sessional   Papers  (No.l2  )  A.  1881 


many  smaller  towns.  The  rapid  construction  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  must 
undoubtedly  be  of  incalculable  benefit  to  the  country,  by  opening  it  up  and  giving 
employment  to  a  large  amount  of  labor.  Many  other  railways  will  doubtless  be  made 
in  this  vast  territory  as  the  country  becomes  inhabited. 

The  climate  is  suitable  for  Englishmen,  and  the  country  produces  all  the  crops 
that  are  raised  in  England,  and  many  more.  Tomatoes,  melons,  grapes,  peaches  and 
fruit^s  ripen  in  the  open  air  and  grow  to  the  greatest  luxuriance,  which  is  a  sufficient 
answer  to  an^'thing  that  may  be  said  against  the  climate. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  speak  in  detail  of  the  various  reports  ;  they  need  no  com- 
ment ;  and  it  only  remains  for  persons  who  are  thinking  of  leaving  England  to  settle 
down  in  other  countries,  to  place  the  advantages  of  Canada  against  the  disadvantages, 
and  form  their  own  judgment  as  to  its  suitability  for  the  settlement  of  agriculturists, 
and  those  engaged  in  the  other  industries  that  must  follow  in  their  wake. 

The  introduction  to  last  year's  issue  is  also  printed,  and  the  reports  therein 
referred  to  may  be  obtained  from  any  of  the  Grovernment  offices. 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1S81 


INTRODUCTION  TO  FIRST  SERIES  OF  REPORTS, 

PUBLISHED   EARLY   IN   1880. 


I 


The  Hon.  J,  H.  Pope,  the  Minister  of  Agriculture  of  the  Government  of  Canada, 
caused  a  number  of  delegates  rej)resenting  tenant  farmers  in  the  United  Kingdom  to 
be  invited  to  visit  the  Dominion  in  the  autumn  of  1879,  for  the  purpose  of  examining 
its  resources  and  reporting  on  its  suitability  as  a  field  for  settlement. 

In  accordance  with  such  invitation,  the  following  delegates  visited  Canada: — 
Mr.  Biggar,  The  Grange,  Dalbeattie,  Kirkcudbrightshire. 
Mr.  Cowan,  Mains  of  Park,  Glenluce,  Wigtownshire.  ^ 

Mr.  Gordon,  Comlongon  Mains,  Annan,  Dumfriesshire. 
Mr.  Elliot,  Hollybush,  Galashiels. 
Mr.  Logan,  Legerwood,  Earlston,  Berwickshire. 
Mr.  Snow,  PirntatoUj  Fountain  Hall,  Midlothian. 
Mr.  Hutchinson,  Brougham  Castle,  Penrith,  Cumberland. 
Mr.  Peat,  Lees  House,  Silloth,  Cumberland. 
Mr.  Lving,  Bowness-on-Solway,  Carlisle. 
Mr.  Johnstone,  Low  Burnthwaite,  near  Carlisle. 
Mr.  Wilken,  Waterside  of  Forbes,  Aberdeenshire. 
Mr.  Bruce,  Aberdeenshire. 
Mr.  Wallace,  Nithsdale. 
Mr.  Welsh;  Eskdale. 
These  gentlemen  were,  in   the  first  place,  clearly  informed  it  was  of  all  things 
■desired  that  their  own  judgment  should  be  freely  exercised  and  entirely  unfettered  ; 
and  that  it  was  simply  desired  to  obtain  from  them  the  result  of  their  own  personal 
observations,  as  well  with  respect  to  drawbacks  as  advantages,  to  shade  as  well  as 
brightness.     But  it  may  be  added  that  even  this  injunction  was  unnecessary  for  men 
of  the  character  of  those   who  were  sent  to  Canada,  and  their  constituents  do  not 
require  to  be  informed  of  it. 

The  motive  for  thus  inviting  delegates  and  affording  them  facilities  to  see  every 
part  and  province  of  the  Dominion,  in  so  far  as  practicable  within  the  limit  of  time 
at  their  disposal,  was  to  obtain  testimony  as  respects  the  objects  stated,  which  should 
not  be  open  to  the  kind  of  question  that  might  attach  to  any  statements  whatever 
coming  from  Canada,  no  matter  on  what  authority  they  might  be  made. 

The  reports  now  published  have  been  made  by  the  delegates  to  their  respective 
constituents,  and  have  been  handed  to  Mr.  John  Lowe,  the  Secretary  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  of  the  Government  of  Canada,  who  has  visited  this  country  for 
the  purpose  of  receiving  and  publishing  them.  This  has  only  been  done  after  careful 
•revision  by  the  delegates  responsible  for  each. 

The  reports  of  two  gentlemen  who  did  not  visit  the  Dominion  as  delegates, 
namely,  Mr.  John  Maxwell,  ot  Carlisle,  and  Mr.  Chambre,  from  the  County  Tyrone, 
in  Heland,  but  who  accompanied  parties  of  the  delegates  as  simple  observers,  are 
appended  to  this  publication. 

It  is  not  thought  necessary  to  make  in  this  place  any  attempt  to  summarize  the 
reports  of  the  delegates,  as  they  will  be  read  with  very  great  and  special  interest  by 
many  in  the  United  Kingdom.  It  may,  however,  be  generally  stated  that  those  who 
went  to  Manitoba  and  contiguous  parts  of  the  adjoining  territory  found  the  land  to 
be  of  extraordinary  richness,  and  specially  adapted  to  the  growth  of  wheat ;  while  in 
the'older  provinces  of  the  Dominion  they  found  the  conditions  of  mixed  farming  very 
much  the  same  as  in  the  United  Kingdom.     One  of  the  delegates,  Mr.  Elliot,  stated 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No  12)  A,  1881 


that,  in  the  parts  of  the  Dominion  he  visited,  he  did  not  find  that  cattle  required  ta 
be  housed  longer  than  in  Scotland. 

Several  of  the  delegates  refer  to  the  question  why  farms  may  be  bought  in  the 
older  provinces,  and  why  the  land  is  so  cheap.  In  so  far  as  respects  price,  in  the  last 
named  portion  of  the  Dominion,  it  is  to  be  observed  that  the  value  of  occupied  land 
in  the  older  parts  of  a  new  country  like  Canada  must  necessarily,  to  a  great  extent, 
be  governed — first,  by  the  cost  of  clearing  new  forest  land  in  the  wooded  parts;  and 
second,  by  the  facility  with  which  prairie  land  can  be  obtained  free,  to  the  extent  of 
160  acres,  on  the  simple  condition  of  continuous  settlement  for  three  years.  It  must 
be  plain  to  all  men  that  the  fact  of  vast  areas  being  open  to  settlement  on  such 
conditions  will  largely  affect  prices  of  occupied  land  a  few  hundred  miles  distant,  to 
which  there  is  connection  both  by  water  and  rail. 

A  fact  to  be  remarked  is  that  the  farmer  who  migrates  from  the  British  Islands 
to  any  part  of  Canada  does  not  change  his  flag  ;  nor  does  he,  except  to  a  very  slight 
degree,  change  his  mode  of  life  or  his  companionship.  He  goes  among  his  own 
people  to  conditions  of  life  and  society  the  same  as  those  he  leaves  behind.  He  is  not 
obliged  to  swear — before  he  can  exercise  the  rights  of  citizenship,  or  in  some  States 
hold  land — that  he  "renounces  for  ever  all  allegiance  and  fidelity"  to  his  Sovereign 
Jhd  the  land  of  his  birth. 

The  farmer  who  migrates  from  these  Islands,  moreover,  has  the  satisfaction  of 
feeling  that  he  is  assisting  to  build  up  a  great  British  Empire,  having  for  its  seat  the 
northern  half  of  the  continent  of  North  America,  occupying  a  space  as  large  as  the 
whole  of  Europe,  and  containing  agricultural,  mineral  and  commercial  resources  to  bo 
developed  in  the  immediate  future  of  almost  illimitable  extent;  and,  as  the  reports 
of  the  delegates  will  show,  certainly  beyond  popular  conception  in  this  country. 

The  public  lands  of  Manitoba,  Keewatin  and  the  North- West  Territory  are  in 
the  hands  of  the  Dominion  Government;  and  those  of  the  older  provinces  in  the 
hands  of  the  Provincial  Governments.  The  regulations,  as  respects  the  Dominion 
lands,  stating  the  conditions  on  which  homesteads  are  given  to  settlers,  and  the  prices 
at  which  other  lands  are  sold,  including  the  railway  lands,  are  appended  to  this 
publication.  Any  further  particulars  on  any  point  may  be  obtained  by  correspondence 
with  a  Government  agent. 


& 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A,   1881 


THE  EEPOET  OF  ME.  J.  P.  SHELDON,  PEOFESSOE  OF  AGEICULTUEB 
AT  THE  WILTS  AND  HANTS  AGEICULTUEAL  COLLEGE,  DOWN- 
TON,  SALISBUEY. 


I 


INTRODUCTORY. 

Sailing  from  Liverpool  in  the  AlJan  steamship  Peruvian  on  the  12th  day  of 
August  last,  I  landed  in  Quebec  on  the  21st  of  the  same  month.  I  then  proceeded  by 
way  of  Montreal  to  Ottawa,  steaming  up  the  Ottawa  river;  I  afterwards  went  to 
Toronto,  and  from  thence,  by  way  of  the  Great  Lakes,  to  Manitoba,  which  was  the 
extent  of  my  journey  westward.  Eeturning  eastward,  1  spent  a  considerable  time 
in  the  Province  of  Ontario,  leaving  it  at  last  reluctantly.  I  then  proceeded  to  the 
Provinces  of  Quebec,  New  Brunswick,  Prince  Edward  Island  and  Kova  Scotia,  and 
my  impressions  of  each  of  these  will  be  found  later  on  in  this  report.  Having  spent 
exactly  ten  weeks  in  the  country,  I  sailed  from  Quebec  on  the  30th  of  October,  and 
arrived  in  Liverpool  on  the  8th  day  of  November. 

On  this  occasion  I  took  passage  on  the  Allan  mail  boat  Moravian,  and  I  may  now 
take  the  opportunity  of  expressing  a  high  opinion  of  the  great  care  and  skill  with 
which  these  vessels  are  navigated,  the  comfortable  and  elegant  manner  in  which 
they  are  fitted  up,  the  attention  which  the  passengers  get  from  the  stewards,  the 
courtesy  which  they  never  fail  to  receive  from  the  officers  of  the  vessels,  and  of  the 
general  cleanliness,  neatness,  and  order  which  reign  everywhere  on  board. 

Going  out  on  the  Peruvian  we  had  a  large  number  of  emigrants  as  steerage  and 
intermediate  passengers ;  and  through  the  courtesy  of  Captain  Smith,  who  personally 
conducted  me  over  the  ship,  being  clearly  familiar  with  every  detail  of  its  manage- 
ment, I  was  enabled  to  inspect  the  emigrants'  quarters.  I  wish  here  to  bear  testi- 
mony to  the  cleanliness  and  airiness/ of  the  sleeping  rooms,  to  the  excellent  quality 
of  the  food  supplied,  and  to  the  order,  neatness  and  discipline  which  prevailed 
throughout.  To  cross  the  great  Atlantic  in  these  boats  is,  in  fact,  a  much  easier, 
simpler,  and  pleasanter  thing  than  people  think ;  and  if  it  really  is  the  case  that 
many  persons,  particularly  females,  are  deterred  from  going  to  Canada  on  account  of 
the  voyage,  I  may  here  say  that  there  is  really  nothing  formidable  in  it  at  all.  After 
a  safe  and  rapid  voyage,  emigrants  and  settlers  in  Her  Majesty's  Canadian  territory 
will  meet  with  every  attention,  and  receive  the  most  ample  instructions,  from  the 
agents  of  the  Dominion  Government,  who  are  stationed  at  every  necessary  place  for 
the  purpose  of  giving  assistance  to  those  who  need  it. 

It  must  be  understood  that  I  can  only  give  in  this  report  the  unfinished  opinions 
which  may  reasonably  be  expected  to  come  of  a  tour  far  too  limited  in  time. 
Opinions,  in  fact,  I  shall  scarcely  venture  to  give  at  all,  except  on  certain  points  on 
which  my  information  may  be  regarded  as  sufficiently  definite ;  foi-  the  most  part  I 
shall  confine  myself  to  impressions,  suggesting  rather  than  drawing  inferences. 
Many  of  the  conditions  which  bear  on  the  agriculture  of  Canada  are  so  essentially 
different  from  those  which  prevail  in  the  Mother  Country,  that  dogmatism  on  the  part 
of  a  mere  traveller  would  easily  develop  into  egotism;  1  shall,  therefore,  mainly  con- 
fine myself  to  descriptions  of  what  I  saw,  and  to  recital  of  what  I  heard. 

It  is  to  be  feared  that  some  writers  on  the  agriculture  of  Canada,  who  were 
travellers  and  not  agriculturists,  have  fallen  into  the  error  of  expressing  opinions  of  a 
too  definite  character ;  and  were  it  not  that  I  am  a  farmer  by  early  training,  and  by 
subsequent  experience  until  now,  I  should  feel  diffident  at  expressing  even  my  im- 
pressions of  the  various  Provinces  through  which  I  passed,  of  the  different  soils  I 
inspected,  and  of  the  diversified  systems  of  husbandry  which  came  under  my  notice. 
I  made  it  my  business,  however,  throughout  the  journey,  to  see  as  much  as  possible 
with  my  own  eyes,  and  to  obtain  the  most  reliable  information  within  my  reach ;  it 


44    Victoria.  Sessional  Pa;^ers  (No  Izi.)  A.  1881 


is  therefore  competent  for  me  to  draw  a  pictui-e  which,  if  erring   in   any  particular, 
will  err  nnintentionall}'. 

The  Dominion  Government  iind  the  Provincial  Legislatures,  as  well  as  the  agents- 
of  the  Dominion  and  private  individuals  almost  everywhere,  afforded  me  every  pos- 
sible facility  to  see  the  various  sections  of  the  country  as  thoroughly  as  circumstances 
admitted,  and  1  found  no  means  lacking  or  withheld  of  ascertaining  alike  the  advan- 
tages and  disadvantages  of  the  country  as  a  field  for  the  energies  and  capabilities  of 
Old  Country  farmers.  It  is,  in  fact,  easier  by  far  for  a  stranger  to  obtain  information 
in  Canada  than  in  England  or  Ireland,  for  the  people  are  much  more  communicative 
and  they  spare  no  pains  to  give  ample  opportunity  for  one  travelling  as  I  did  to 
inspect  their  farms  and  stock,  and  the  various  details  of  their  practice.  My  tour 
through  Canada  has  been  a  singularly  pleasant  one — made  so  by  the  untiring  kind- 
ness of  the  people ;  and  interesting,  on  account  of  the  many  striking  and  beautiful 
scenes  which  the  country  affords. 

MANITOBA. 

A  journey  to  Manitoba  by  way  of  the  great  Lakes  Huron  and  Superior  is  full  of 
interest.  The  scenery  in  many  parts  is  beautiful ;  in  some  it  is  even  grand  and 
majestic.  The  various  parts  touched  at  in  G-eorgian  Bay  present  in  some  cases  scenes 
of  commercial  activity  beyond  what  I  had  expected  to  find.  At  Collingwood,  for 
instance,  and  Owen  Sound,  there  are  substantial  and  thriving  towns,  with  well-built 
hotels,  houses,  stores,  and  public  institutions,  and  the  country  around  and  behind 
them  is  being  rapidly  cleared  and  brought  into  cultivation.  At  Owen  Sound  I  had  a 
very  pleasant  drive  often  or  a  dozen  miles  back  into  the  country  with  Mr.  Keogh^ 
who,  with  marked  kindness,  hitched  up  his  team  to  enable  me  to  make  the  best  use 
of  ihe  couple  of  hours  which  were  at  my  disposal  before  the  boat  started  again.  We 
saw  many  farms  on  the  way,  most  of  which  had  a  progressive  air  about  them ;  there 
were  also  several  fine  orchards  with  excellent  plums  and  apples,  especially  the  latter^ 
proving  that  fruit  can  be  easily  and  profitably  raised  midway  between  the  44th  and 
45th  parallels. 

Passing  along  the  northern  coast  of  Lake  Superior,  I  saw  some  magnificent 
scenery,  chiefly  in  Thunder  Bay  and  in  the  Fort  William  district.  The  last-mentioned 
place  is  at  present  the  Eastern  terminus  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Eailway,  a  road 
which  is  being  rapidly  built,  and  which  will  in  due  time  open  up  the  illimitable 
resources  of  the  North-West  territory.  This  road,  in  fact,  is  necessary  to  the  coloni- 
zation of  the  North-West  Until  it  is  built,  indeed,  and  until  there  is  a  Canadian 
canal  at  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  the  produce  of  the  North- West  cannot  be  forwarded  to 
Europe  without  passing  through  United  States'  territory,  unless,  indeed  the  Hudson's 
Bay  route  can  be  made  practicable. 

The  Province  of  Manitoba,  so  far  as  I  saw  it,  is,  as  a  rule,  flat,  wanting  in  trees, 
and,  consequently,  somewhat  dreary-looking;  but  in  many  parts  the  land  is  of  strik- 
ing richness.  I  was  up  there  in  time  to  see  the  latter  part  of  the  harvesting,  and  I 
was  certainly  sti-uck  with  the  excellent  crops  of  wheat  and  oats  which  were  grown 
with  the  crudest  cultivation. 

On  the  day  after  my  arrival,  September  3rd,  I  saw  a  new  string-binder  at  work 
in  a  crop  of  wheat  in  the  Kildonan  settlement,  near  Winnipeg;  it  was  a  very  nice 
even  crop,  and  would  average,  say,  25  bushels  per  acre  of  grain,  whose  quality  was 
very  good  ;  the  wheat  was  the  ''  Scotch  Fife  "  variety,  not  a  heavy-headed  kind,  but 
it  was  a  nice,  even  crop,  the  straw  rather  short  and  weak,  but  clear  and  bright,  and 
the  grain  was  plump,  well-fed,  bright,  and  fit  for  the  mill  at  once.  This  crop  was 
sown  on  the  22nd  of  May,  on  first  prairie  sod — that  is,  on  prairie  land  just  then 
ploughed  up  for  the  first  time — and  as  such  sod  is  very  tough  at  first,  it  may  be 
imagined  that  the  surface  of  the  field  was  rough,  and  that  the  seed  had  been  imper- 
fectly covered;  yet  the  seed  was  sown  and  the  crop  dead  ripe  within  a  period  of  15 
weeks.  It  is,  however,  no  uncommon  thing  for  wheat  to  be  twice  in  the  bag  within 
90  days — that  is,  sown,  harvested,  and  thrashed  within  thai  period.  I  saw  also  a 
ciop  of  oats  which  was  sown  at  intervals,  as  the  land  was  ploughed,  from  the  7th  to 

10 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No   12.)  A.  1881 


the  17th  of  June ;  the  oats  were  the  black  tartarian  variety,  and  though  not  ripe 
when  I  saw  it,  I  should  say  the  crop  would  reach  45  bushels  per  acre.  It  was  a 
strong,  well-headed  crop,  and  the  oats  promised  to  be  a  good  sample.  This  crop,  too, 
was  on  first  prairie  sod,  on  a  farm  belonging  to  Mr.  Eoss,  of  Winnipeg,  but  some  ten 
or  twelve  miles  away  from  the  city. 

Land  increases  rapidly  in  value  near  to  the  city.  For  this  self-same  farm  Mr. 
Eoss  paid  $367;  now  he  wants  $3,000  for  it.  It  is  240  acres  in  extent,  and  the  owner 
has  put  up  a  small  house  and  a  building  or  two  on  it,  besides  breaking  up  about  half 
of  the  land. 

The  soil  of  Manitoba  is  a  purely  vegetable  loam,  black  as  ink,  and  full  of  organic 
matter,  in  some  places  many  feet  thick,  and  resting  on  the  alluvial  drift  of  the  Red 
and  Assiniboine  Rivers.  It  is,  of  course,  extremely  rich  in  the  chief  elements  of 
plant-food,  and  cannot  easily  be  exhausted  ;  the  farmers  know  this,  so  they  take  all 
they  can  out  of  it  in  the  shortest  possible  time,  and  return  nothing  whatever  to  it  in 
the  form  of  manure.  By  turning  up  an  inch  or  two  of  fresh  soil  now  and  again,  the 
fertility  of  the  surface  is  renewed,  and  the  same  exhaustive  system  of  growing  wheat, 
year  by  year,  may  be  pursued  for  a  long  period  with  impunity.  It  is  true,  in  fact, 
that  for  several  of  the  first  years,  at  all  events,  manuring  the  soil  would  do  much 
more  harm  than  good ;  and,  until  an  Act  was  passed  to  prevent  it,  the  farmers  were 
in  the  habit  of  getting  their  litter  and  manure  out  of  the  way  by  sleighing  it  out  on 
the  ice  of  the  frozen  rivers  in  winter,  to  be  carried  away  somewhere  when  spring- 
time and  the  floods  come,  and  the  ice  broken  up ;  now  they  leave  it  to  rot  in  heaps 
outside  the  stables,  and  find  it  an  easier  task  to  remove  the  stable  rather  than  the 
manure,  when  the  latter  becomes  unpleasantly  plentiful. 

In  course  of  time  it  is  probable  that  the  manure  will  need  to  be  put  to  its  legiti- 
mate use  of  improving  an  exhausted  soil,  or  maintaining  the  fertility  of  a  rich  one. 
At  a  still  later  period  the  operation  of  subsoiling  will  bring  up  new  earth  from  below, 
and  there  does  not  appear  to  be  any  probability  that  the  better  soil^  of  the  Province 
will  ever  become  sterile,  providing  that  the  farmers  make  use  of  the  means  they  will 
always  have  at  hand  for  keeping  them  up  to  the  mark.  At  present,  however,  these 
rich  wheat  soils  do  not  need  improving;  they  are  rich  enough  for  j^ears  to  come,  and 
in  some  cases  too  rich  for  the  welfare  of  the  crop;  much  of  the  straw,  therefore,  is 
valueless,  and  really  a  cumber  to  the  farmer.  In  the  State  of  Minnesota  I  saw  large 
quantities  of  it  burnt  to  get  rid  of  it. 

The  good  prairie  soils  are  known  by  the  dwarf  wild  rose  and  the  wolf-willow 
growing  on  them  while  still  in  a  state  of  nature ;  at  all  events,  the  land  is  at  once 
denoted  good  where  these  plants  are  found,  though  it  is  probable  that  there  is  good 
land  on  which  they  are  not  found.  But  there  is  a  deal  of  inferior  soil  in  the  Province 
in  places;  this  is  chiefly  alkaline  soil,  on  which  nothing  that  is  profitable  will  grow 
in  its  present  condition;  in  many  places,  too,  the  watetMs  alkaline.  Yet  there  is 
plenty  of  good  water  to  be  got  in  most  places  by  boring  for  it,  and  in  some  instances  a 
clear  pure  spring  has  been  struck  a  very  few  feet  below  the  surface. 

Ii  must  not  be  supposed  that  the  soil  of  Manitoba  is  fit  only  for  wheat  and  oats. 
The  wild  grasses,  it  is  true,  are  very  coarse  in  character,  and  there  are  many  weeds 
and  worthless  plants  among  them,  yet  cattle  flourish  on  these  immense  plains  of 
prairie  grass.  The  "prairie  meadows"  are  generally  damp  lands,  situated  near  the 
swamps.  "River  lots"  often  stretch  four  miles  back,  and  are  6,  9  or  12  chains  wide, 
as  the  case  may  be;  6  chains  at  that  length  enclose  200  acres.  The  Province  is  not 
adapted  to  grow  maize ;  it  is  too  far  north  for  that ;  but  it  will  grow  garden  vege- 
tables very  well,  and  turnips  and  potatoes,  beans  and  peas,  in  the  fields  with  com- 
plete success,  while  such  "tame"  grasses,  as  timothy  and  the  rye  gra>8es,  and  also 
red  and  white  clover,  grow  satisfactorily  on  land  that  is  at  all  decently  cultivated. 

Outside  the  city  of  Winnipeg  I  saw  a  large  market  garden,  run  by  a  Yorkshire- 
man  named  Longbottom,  in  which  very  large  crops  of  onions,  potatoes,  carrots,  peas, 
beans,  tomatoes,  celery,  and  a  hundred  other  things,  were  grown  in  a  rough-and- 
ready  sort  of  a  way,  but  very  profitably.  There  is  a  good  market  in  Winnipeg  for  all 
kinds  of  garden  stuff,  and  the  earliest  sorts  command  very  high  prices,  so  that  our 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.  1881 


Yorkshire  friend,  as  I  was  told  on  the  best  authoritj^,  is  reaping  a  rich  reward  of  his 
skill  and  industry. 

I  was  much  surprised  to  find  among  the  Manitoban  farmers  one  for  my  old 
Cirencester  pupils.  He  had  bought  a  farm  of  some  -iOO  acres  a  few  miles  west  of 
Winnipeg,  paying,  as  was  thought,  the  extravagant  price  of  $20  (£4)  per  acre.  He 
declared  to  me  that  he  had  the  best  farm  in  the  locality,  which  may  be  taken  as 
evidence  of  his  being  satisfied  with  it;  and  he  was  growing  crops  of  turnips,  pota- 
toes, oats,  etc.,  which  were  already  a  theme  of  conversation  in  the  Province;  this 
was  done  by  better  cultivation  than  the  land  of  Manitoba  is  used  to,  and  it  is  clear 
that  the  soil  will  produce  almost  any  kind  of  crop  in  a  very  satisfactory  way,  pro- 
viding it  is  properly  attended  to.  And  yet,  how  can  we  expect  the  rank  and  file  of 
fai-mers  to  cultivate  the  soil  carefully  in  a  country  which  has  such  a  superb  abund- 
ance of  magnificent  land  still  unoccupied?  In  time,  no  doubt,  better  farming  will 
prevail ;  and  I  hope  my  old  pupil  will  set  an  example  which  will  be  worth  extensive 
imitation ;  but  at  present  land  is  too  cheap  and  plentiful  to  admit  of  microscopic 
cultivation,  as  we  have  it  in  England  and  Scotland. 

The  chief  drawbacks  in  Manitoba,  in  the  estimation  of  an  Englishmen,  are 
these  :  Bad  roads,  bad  water  in  many  parts,  the  almost  utter  absence  of  trees  except 
on  the  rivers'  banks,  the  flatness  of  the  country  and  the  long  and  severe  winter. 
(And  these  remarks  apply  with  even  greater  force  to  large  tracts  of  country  I  have 
seen  in  the  north-western  portion  of  the  United  States.)  No  doubt  the  roads  in  time 
will  be  improved,  though  road-metal  is  very  scarce;  good  water  will  be  obtained  in 
most  parts  of  the  country  by  boring  for  it ;  this,  indeed,  is  already  being  done ;  trees 
will  be  planted  to  break  the  monotony  of  the  scene;  and  so  far  as  the  winters  are 
concerned,  I  am  assured  by  those  whose  testimony  is  worthy  of  all  trust,  that 
the  mercury  may  go  to  30°  below  zero,  yet  the  cold  is  not  intolerable,  but  rather 
pleasant  and  bracing,  because  the  air  is  dry.  The  flat  low-lying  land  in  the  vicinity 
of  Winnipeg  has  hitherto  been  much  flooded  in  spring  time,  but  an  extensive  and 
well-executed  system  of  large  open  drains,  which  is  now  being  carried  out  at  the 
cost  of  the  Government,  will  greatly  diminish  the  evil,  if  not  entirely  remove  it. 
There  are  other  districts  needing  similar  treatment,  and,  as  the  land  if  of  excellent 
quality,  they  will  receive  attention  in  due  time. 

In  the  city  of  Winnipeg  every  household  and  personal  requisite  can  be  bought 
at  not  unreasonable  rates;  and,  above  all,  agricultural  tools  and  machinery  of  a 
character  superior  to  the  general  run  of  such  things  in  England,  are  everywhere 
abundant.  It  is,  in  fact,  one  of  the  sights  most  suggestive  of  reflection,  to  notice  at 
the  railway  stations,  here  and  there,  and  at  the  dealers'  stores,  abundant  supplies  of 
labor-saving  implements  and  machinery,  which  are  cheaper,  handier  and  better  made 
than  many  English  goods.  The  cost  of  living  is  not  very  high;  beef,  by  the  side, 
in  winter  is  about  7c.  a  lb.;  beefsteaks  in  summer,  15c. ;  mutton  in  winter  about 
12c.,  and  butter  about  25c,  the  year  round.     Eggs  in  winter  are  35c.  a  dozen. 

The  great  features  of  Manitoba  are  :  Land  of  excellent  quality,  very  low  in  price, 
and  in  great  abundance,  and  a  climate  that  bring  to  perfection,  in  a  short  time,  all 
kinds  of  cultivated  crops.  The  value  of  land  is  $1  (4s.)  to  $10  (£2)  an  acre,  away 
in  the  country,  while  near  the  city,  in  some  cases,  it  is  still  higher.  Out  in  the 
North-West  Territory,  however,  the  finest  land  can  be  bought  at  a  dollar  or  less  per 
acre,  and  actual  settlers  can  obtain  free  grants  of  IHO  acres  for  each  adult,  with  a 
pi-e-emption  right  to  160  more  on  payment  of  a  nominal  sum  to  Grovernment.  I  can- 
not, however,  recommend  English  farmers  of  middle  age  to  go  there  to  settle,  because 
they  are  entirely  unsuited  to  pioneer  life,  and  would  have  much  to  unlearn  before 
they  could  learn  the  ways  of  the  country;  but  young  men  with  small  capital  and 
strong  hearts  and  willing  hands,  even  though  they  have  been  reared  amidst  the  com- 
forts of  an  English  home,  are  sure  to  prosper  in  the  new  territory,  providing  they 
are  steady  and  industrious.  Being  young,  they  are  not  too  closely  wedded  to  certain 
habits  of  life,  and  they  would  the  more  easily  habituate  themselves  to  the  new  con- 
ditions which  they  would  encounter  in  the  new  country.  But  whoever  may  go  to 
Manitoba  from  the  Old  Country,  will  do  well  to  have  a  good  look  around  before  buy- 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.   18S1 


ing  land,  and,  if  possible,  to  pass  a  few  weeks  on  a  farm  here  and  there,  with  a  view 
of  watching  the  processes  on  which  husbandry  is  conducted  in  the  North-West;  and 
a  man  with  a  small  capital  and  no  encumbrances  would  do  well  to  hire  himself  out  to 
a  farmer  for  a  year  or  two  before  locating  himself  on  land  of  his  own.  Land  may  be 
rented  in  Manitoba,  and  probably  it  would  be  a  wise  thing  for  an  English  farmer  to 
rent  a  farm  for  a  year  or  two,  until  he  has  learned  the  country  and  the  country's 
ways,  and  he  will  then  be  the  better  able  to  select  the  right  sort  of  land  for  himself. 
Land  may  be  rented  as  follows :  The  landlord  provides  the  land  and  half  the  seed  ; 
the  tenant  the  labor,  implements,  horses,  and  half  the  seed ;  the  landlord  receives 
one-third,  and  the  tenant  keeps  two-thirds  of  the  produce  for  his  share  of  the  busi- 
ness. Mr.  Mackenzie,  of  Burnside,  one  of  the  largest  and  most  prosperous  farmers 
in  Canada,  lets  off  some  of  his  land  in  the  Portage  la  Prairie  on  these  terms. 

ONTARIO. 

Of  the  southern  part  of  this  Province  I  cannot  speak  in  terms  other  than  of 
warm  praise.  Generally  speaking,  this  favored  portion  of  the  Province  has  a  rolling 
and,  in  some  parts,  almost  a  hilly  surface;  in  certain  localities,  as  that  of  Hamilton, 
for  instance,  the  surface  is  much  broken,  and  almost  precipitous  here  and  there ;  but 
as  a  rule,  the  great  bulk  of  the  land  in  this  part  of  the  Province,  with  the  exception 
of  rocky  or  swampy  districts,  is  easily  cultivable  when  it  is  cleared  of  timber  and 
the  roots  are  pulled  out.  Thirty  or  forty  years  ago,  Ontario  must  have  been  a  very 
heavily- wooded  district,  and  the  labor  of  clearing  the  hundreds  and  thousands  of 
beautiful  farms  must  have  been  prodigious ;  in  the  district  to  which  these  remarks 
more  specially  refer,  the  work  of  clearing  is,  for  the  most  part,  done,  but  there  are 
still  many  extensive  tracts  of  timber  land  here  and  there,  and  most  of  the  farms 
have  a  smaller  or  greater  proportion  of  uncleared  land  upon  them.  This  land  is  kept 
to  grow  wood  for  fencing  and  for  fuel. 

This  portion  of  Ontario  may  be  regarded  as  the  garden  of  the  Dominion — liter- 
ally as  well  as  figuratively  the  garden — for  it  is  there  that  apples,  pears,  grapes, 
peaches,  melons,  and  the  like  grow,  in  the  greatest  profusion,  and  with  the  least 
trouble  on  the  part  of  the  farmer.  Every  farm  has  its  orchard,  and  it  is  purely  the 
farmer's  fault  if  the  orchard  is  not  an  excellent  one,  for  the  climate  and  the  soil  are 
clearly  all  that  can  be  desired,  and  the  trees  will  do  their  share  of  the  work,  provided 
the  right  sorts  are  planted.  It  is  usual  to  plant  out  peach  and  apple  trees  alternately 
and  in  rows  in  a  new  oi-chard,  and  the  apple  trees  are  at  a  distance  apart  which  will  be 
right  when  they  are  full  grown ;  this  is  done  because  the  peach  trees  come  to  matu- 
rity first,  and  have  Jone  bearing  before  the  apple  trees  require  all  the  room;  the 
peach  trees  are  then  cut  down  and  the  apple  trees  occupy  all  the  room.  These  trees 
are  planted  in  rows  at  right  angles,  so  that  there  is  a  clear  passage  between  them 
whichever  way  we  look,  and  the  land  can  be  freely  cultivated  among  them  ;  it  is,  in 
fact,  usual  to  take  crops  of  wheat,  or  oats,  or  maize,  from  this  land  during  the  time 
the  trees  are  young,  and  we  often  see  fine  crops  of  golden  grain  overtopped  by  noble 
young  trees  laden  with  fruit.  A  farmer  may  not,  of  course,  look  to  fruit  alone  to 
grow  rich  on,  but  he  often  nets  a  nice  roll  of  dollars  out  of  it,  and,  to  say  the  least,  it 
is  conducive  to  happiness  to  be  well  supplied  with  fruit,  while  to  live  in  a  climate 
and  on  a  soil  that  will  produce  it  abundantly  is  always  desirable. 

There  are  many  kinds  of  soil  in  this  part  of  the  Province,  most  of  which  are 
fertile  and  easy  to  cultivate.  The  most  common  soils  are  loams  of  one  kind  or 
another,  comprising  all  the  varieties  included  in  the  terms  '^  sandy  '  and  "  clay  "  loams  ; 
then  there  are  light  soils  of  various  kinds,  clays,  and  marsh  soils,  most  of  them  more 
or  less  impregnated  with  organic  matter.  Many  of  these  soils — I  speak  now  of 
farms  that  have  been  long  under  cultivation — were  at  first  well  adapted  to  the  growth 
of  wheat,  but  it  appears  that  in  many  places  wheat  has  been  grown  so  repeatedly  on 
the  land,  that  it  will  no  longer  produce  the  crops  off  it  that  were  formerly  easy  to 
obtain.  The  fact  is,  this  one  crop  has  been  grown  so  often  that  the  land  has  become 
deficient   in   the   elements  necessary   to   it;    the  same    land   will,   however,  grow 

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very  good  crops  of  other  kinds — roots,  clover,  barley,    peas,  oats,  and  the  like,  while 
ill  .-ome  pai'ts  protitable  crops  of  In  lian  corn  are  grown  ;    the   latter,  however,  is  also 
an  exhausting  crop,  even  more  completely  so  than  wheat,  but  not  so  quickly,  and  can 
only  be  grown  to  profit  on  a  rich  soil  and  a  hot  climate.     The  difference  between  the 
two  crops  is  this  :   wheat  exhausts  a  soil   of  certain    elements,  leaving  the  rest  com- 
paratively untouched  ;  but  maize  is  a  generally  exhausting  crop,    less  dependent  on 
special  elements,  but  feeding,  as  it  were  on  all  alike;  and  so  it  follows  that  it  can  be 
grown  for  a  longer  time  before  the  land  shows  signs  of  exhaustion,  which  at  last  is  so 
thorough  that  fertility  is  restored  with  difficulty .      There  is,   however,  a  great  deal 
of  good  wheat-land  in  Ontario,  and  much  more  of  it  to  be  cleared.     The  partialty- 
exhausted  land,  too,  will  come  round  again,  and  will  grow  wheat  as  profitably  as  before, 
but  it  is  only  good  farming  that  will  will  bring  this  about.     The  farmers  of  Ontario 
declare  that  they  would  hai-dly  have  known  what  to  do  with  their  land  if  it  were  not 
for  cheesemaking,  and  particularly  for  the  new  cattle  and  beef  trade  with  England. 
Wheat,  wheat,  nothing  but  wheat  as  a  paying  crop,  was  simply  exhausting  the  land, 
i-eturning  nothing  to  it;  cattle-raising  paid  poorly,  because  the  demand  was  limited  ; 
and  cheesemaking  could  onlj^  be  profitably  carried   on  in  the  districts  suitable  to  it. 
But  the  demand  arising  in  the  Old   Country  for  beef,  and  the   improved  means  of 
transportation  over  the  sea,  have  provided  a  new  and  profitabl^e   opening  towards 
which  the  energies  of  the  farmers  are  being  directed.     The  raising  of  stock  suitable 
to  the  English  market  is  now  a  leading  and   profitable  branch  in  this  part  of  the 
Dominion,  and  it  is  encouraging  to  the  cultivation  of  root  and  green  crops,  of  clover, 
timothy,  and  other  forage  crops,  of  green  corn,   etc.,  for  soiling.     The   growth  and 
consumption  of  these  crops,  indeed,  is  the  very  practice  that  was  needed  to  restore 
fertility    to   soils   which    had    been    injured    by    over-cropping    with    wheat.      But 
numbers  of  the  Ontario  farmers  seem  to  be  so  wedded   to  wheat-raising,  that  rather 
than  go  extensively  into  stock-raising  and   fattening,  ana  the  growth  of  various  rota- 
tion crops,  more  after  the  English  and  Scotch  models,  they  prefer  to  sell  out  and  go  to 
lytanitoba  and  the  North- West,  a  territory  which  in  par  excellence  a  wheat   country, 
and  which  must  soon  become,  perhaps,  the  greatest  granary  in  the  world.     They  are 
the  more  inclined  in  this  direction  because  they  can  sell  their  Ontario  farms  at  S40  to 
$100    an   acre,    and  can   buy  virgin   soil   in  the    North-West  at    $1  to  $10.      By 
an  exchange  of  this  nature  they  can  easily  establish  their  children  in  separate  farms, 
a  thing  but  few  of  them  could  hope  to  do  in  Ontario,  where  land  is  comparatively 
high.     They  have  also  the  spirit  of  restlessness  which  permeates  the  Americans  as 
well,  but  which  is  scarcely  known  in  England. 

These  various  influences  are  causing  numbers  of  farmers  to  migrate  in  the  direction 
of  the  setting  sun,  and  the  Americans  themselves  were  never  more  crazed  about  the 
West  than  are  the  Canadians  ot  to-day  about  their  Manitoba  and  North-West  Territory. 
They  treat  their  land  as  a  parcel  of  schoolboys  treat  an  orchard  of  apples,  into  which 
they  are  suddenly  let  loose:  they  rush  about  from  one  place  to  another,  plucking  an 
apple  here  and  there,  having  a  nip  at  it,  and  throwing  it  down,  only  to  repeal  the 
prf>cess  at  every  tree  they  come  to,  thinking  in  this  way  to  find  the  best  fruit  in  the 
oichaid.  So  it  is  with  the  Canadian  and  the  American  farmer  of  the  West.  His 
farm  is  a  mere  machine,  out  of  which  he  gets  all  the  work  he  can  in  the  least 
possible  time,  and  he  quits  it  for  another,  as  his  fancy  suggests.  It  is  of  second  or 
third-ate  importance  to  him,  for  he  can  buy  on  the  Western  prairies  at  a  less  cost 
than  that  of  putting  the  first  crop  into  it ;  and  the  affection  with  which  an  English- 
msin  regards  his  farm,  and  the  home  of  his  childhood,  is  a  factor  at  present  almost 
unknown  in  the  social  life  of  our  friends  across  the  Atlantic. 

In  time  this  will  change  in  Canada,  and  in  England  the  old  ties  are  rapidly 
weakening.  It  is  well,  or  rather,  would  be  well,  if  English  landlords  would  note  this 
change  of  feeling,  this  loosening  of  the  Old  World  sentiment,  this  infiltration  of  new 
ideas,  which  are  surely,  and  not  slowly,  permeating  the  rank  and  file  of  British 
fai  mcrs.  Steam  has  made  the  whole  world  a  possible  market  for  the  products  of  any 
fiingle  portion  of  it,  and,  along  with  education,  is  making  the  people  everywhere  cos- 
mopolitan in  thought  and  feeling.      To   him  who  travels  these   things  are  clear, 

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and  I  repeat  that  it  would  be  well  if  those  in  power  would  recognize  them  without 
delay. 

As  a  dairying  country  some  portions  of  both  Western  and  Eastern  Ontario  are 
clearly  well  adapted.  The  chief  want  of  the  country  in  this  connection  is  that  of 
streams,  and  springs,  and  running  brooks;  the  smaller  streams,  in  fact,  are  either 
less  numerous  than  they  were  before  the  forests  were  cut  away,  or  they  are  dry 
at  the  time  when  they  are  most  wanted.  But  the  Belleville  district,  in  Eastern 
Ontario,  where  there  is  indeed  a  great  deal  of  excellent  land,  and  the  Ingersoll 
and  Stratford  districts,  in  the  western  portion  of  that  Province,  with  many  others 
here  and  there,  are  producing  excellent  cheese  in  the  factories.  It  would  appear, 
in  fact,  that  wherever  water  for  stock  is  available,  dairy-farming  irj  Ontario  may 
be  made  a  profitable  business.  The  lack  of  water  on  some  ot  the  farms  could 
without  much  difficulty,  I  should  say,  be  made  up  by  providing  it  in  artificial 
meres  and  ponds,  a  practice  which  is  common  in  many  parts  of  England.  The 
Canadian  farmers,  as  a  rule,  are  alert  on  questions  which  affect  their  interests, 
though  less  so  than  the  Americans  are,  and  that  this  water  question,  all-important 
as  it  is  to  dairy -farming  and  stock-raising,  will  in  due  time  receive  the  attention 
it  demands,  is,  I  think,  a  point  which  may  safely  be  predicted. 

The  Canadian  dairy-farmer  has  several  important  advantages  over  his  English 
contemporary,  not  the  smallest  of  which  is  this:  he  can  grow,  at  a  very  moderate 
cost,  very  large  crops  of  forage  for  winter  use ;  clovers  and  timothy  flourish  well 
on  most  soils  in  Ontario,  and  I  should  say  that  rye-grasses  would  also,  though  I 
did  not  find  they  were  much  employed,  if  at  all,  in  the  growth  of  forage;  I 
think  they  might  be  used  to  advantage.  It  is  also  clear,  from  what  I  saw  in 
many  places,  that  he  can  raise  abundant  crops  of  swedes  and  mangels,  and  very 
good  ones  of  carrots,  parsnips,  and  the  like.  Here  then,  after  the  question  of 
water,  are  the  first  requisites  for  successful  dairy -farming.  A  rotation  of  crops 
is  just  the  system  to  re-invigorate  the  older  soils  of  Ontario,  which  have  been 
over-cropped  with  wheat,  and  rotations  work  well  in  dairy-farming.  It  is  true 
that  good  natural  pastures  are  scarce  in  the  Province,  if  indeed  there  are  any 
at  all  which  deserve  the  name  from  an  Englishman's  point  of  view  (the  best 
grassland  I  saw  in  Ontario  was  in  the  neighborhood  of  London,  and  on  the  way 
to  Hamilton);  but,  as  I  have  said,  clovers,  etc.,  grow  well,  and  they  will  answer 
capitally  for  the  pastures  for  a  year  or  two,  a  regular  succession  of  them  being 
provided,  and  it  is  a  simple  matter  to  produce  a  large  supply  of  green  corn — for 
soiling  in  summer  when  pastures  run  out. 

The  rotations  may  be  as  follows:  1.  Wheat  or  oats;  2.  Eoots  and  green  crops 
for  soiling;  3.  Oats  or  barley,  seeded  down  with  artificial  grasses;  4,  5,  and  if 
advisable,  6,  Grass  for  forage  and  pastures.  These  rotations  admit  of  endless 
variation,  and  in  a  country  where  no  fossilized  restrictions  as  to  cropping  exist, 
as  they  do  in  England,  the  farmer  can  always  grow  the  crops  that  suit  his 
purpose  best.  The  practice  at  Bow  Park  is  to  sow  western  corn,  which  is  a 
luxuriant  cropper,  thickly,  in  drills  of  eighteen  or  twenty  inches  wide;  in  this 
way  the  space  between  the  drills  is  easily  horse-hoed,  until  the  corn  is  a  foot  or 
more  high  ;  the  corn  grows  rapidly,  and  effectually  smothers  the  weeds  and  wild 
grasses  which  grow  vigorously  in  so  forcing  a  climate.  In  Canada,  as  in  England, 
the  axiom  is  true  that  nothing  cleans  the  soil  of  weeds  so  effectually  as  a  heavy 
cultivated  crop  of  some  kind  or  other.  If  all  the  western  corn  is  not  wanted  for 
soiling,  the  balance  is  cut  and  stocked  while  the  leaf  is  still  green,  and  the  grain 
in  the  milk,  and  it  is  left  out  in  the  fields,  and  fetched  in  as  it  is  wanted  in 
winter;  in  this  way  it  makes  very  good  forage,  and  the  stalks,  leaves,  and  ears 
are  all  passed  thiough  the  chaff-cutter,  and  all  consumed  by  the  stock.  A 
similar  system  may  be  followed  with  almost  any  other  kind  of  soiling  crop — 
that  is,  making  into  forage  for  winter  that  portion  of  it  which  is  not  wanted  for 
soiling. 

As  in  the  United  States  so  in  Canada,  cheese-making  has  had  more  attention 
than  butter- making,  more    skill   and    inv(^s;tigation    have    been    applied    to  it,  and 

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41   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


^i'lieose  is  consequently  ahead  of  butter  in  average  quality.  It  is,  however,  pro- 
bable that  the  climate  and  soil  are  better  adapted  for  the  former  than  the  latter  ; 
a  moist,  cool  climate,  and  a  natural  herbage  full  of  delicate  and  succulent  grasses, 
appear  to  be  best  suited  for  butter-making;  still,  it  is  true  that  in  France,  for 
instance,  excellent  butter  is  made  where  the  land  is  almost  wholly  under  arable 
cultivation,  and  the  cattle  are  almost  entirely  led  on  artificial  grasses,  etc. ; 
and  again,  a  hot  climate  induces  excessive  respiration  in  cows  as  in  other  animals, 
and  where  this  is,  there  is  a  larger  expenditure  of  fat  from  the  tissues,  and  a 
smaller  su|)}>ly  ot  it  to  the  milk-glands.  Be  this  as  it  may,  however,  the  cheese  of 
Canada  in  many  cases  is  very  good,  while  the  butter  is  scarcely  more  than  second- 
class  quality  ;  but  it  cannot,  at  the  same  time,  be  denied  that  the  present  high  quality 
of  the  cheese  is  owing  to  the  adoption  of  factories  some  twelve  or  fifteen  years  ago. 

The  same  thing  indeed  may  be  said  of  the  United  States,  whose  cheese — 
some  of  it  of  liigh  average  quality,  while  some  will  rank  as  first-class  anywhere — 
was  of  a  very  inferior  character  before  Jesse  Williams  established  the  first  cheese- 
factory  near  Pome,  in  the  State  of  New  York.  It  may  be  mentioned  here  that 
at  the  late  International  Dairy  Fair  in  New  York,  the  highest  premium  was 
carried  off  by  Canadian  cheese.  Cheese-factories  are  already  numerous  in  Canada, 
while  creameries,  on  a  corresponding  system  of  butter-making,  are  as  yet  few  and 
far  between;  and  so  it  follows  that  cheese  is  a  centralized  and  butter  an  isolated 
manufacture,  the  one  receiving  collective  and  the  other  individual  study  and 
attention.  Thus  it  is  that  cheese-making  is  better  understood,  alike  in  its  principles 
and  practices,  than  is  the  case  in  the  sister  industry.  I  must,  however,  not  omit 
to  say  that  I  have  tasted  several  samples  of  butter  in  Canada  that  would  be  hard 
to  beat  in  Ireland,  and  harder  still  in  our  London  dairy-shows. 

The  most  conveniently  arranged  and  best  equipped  cheese  factory  I  saw  in 
Canada  belongs  to  Mr.  Ballantyne,  M.P.P. ;  it  ia  known  as  the  Tavistock  factory,  and 
is  situated  a  few  miles  from  Stratford.  The  milk  received  daily,  at  the  time  of  my 
visit,  was  about  17,000  lb  from  nearly  lOOC  cows^  but  this  was  in  the  latter  part  of 
September.  Mr.  Eallantyne  contracts  with  his  patrons  to  make  the  cheese  for  them 
at  IJc.  per  lb.,  and  the  cheese  I  saw  there  was  of  very  good  quality,  well  made 
and  carefully  cured  ;  the  temperatuie  of  the  curing-room  is  kept  about  80°  fors])ring 
cheese,  and  75°  for  summer,  and  at  65*^  for  rich  autumn  cheese.  The  quantity  of  salt 
used  is  2  to  2|  lb.  per  1000  lbs.  of  milk ;  the  smallest  quantity  is  used  when  the  curd 
is  driest. 

Mr.  Ballantyne  for  many  years  past  has  paid  much  attention  to  the  subject  of 
€heese  making,  as  also  have  several  other  prominent  dairymen  in  Ontario,  and  their 
labors  have  done  much  towards  raising  the  cheese  of  the  Dominion  in  the  estimation 
of  buyers  in  England.  Formerly  thei;e  was  great  difficulty  and  uncertainty  in  making 
autumn  cheese  in  Ontario ;  it  was  liable  to  be  puffy  and  porous ;  and,  as  the  whey 
was  not  always  got  well  out  of  it,  the  flavor  was  frequently  unpleasant.  This  diffi- 
culty has  been  completely  overcome  by  "ripening"  the  milk  before  adding  the  rennet 
to  it.  Mr.  Ballantyne  thought  the  matter  out  in  his  mind,  and  argued  it  to  me  in 
this  wise :  the  summer's  milk  kept  through  the  night  is  not  so  deadly  cold  as  the 
autumn's,  and  so  is  in  a  more  natural  condition ;  its  warmth  has  broui  ht  it  into  that 
state  which  produces  the  best  cheese — that  is,  it  has  ripened  somewhat,  because 
warmth  as  well  as  time  is  necessary  to  the  ripening  of  anything.  He  declares  his 
belief,  further,  that  the  best  cheese  cannot  be  made  from  fresh,  warm  milk  ;  because, 
though  it  is  of  course  warm  enough,  and  has  never  been  cold,  it  has  not  the  required 
age,  and  so  is  unripe.  Hence  he  prefers  that  one-half  of  the  milk  he  makes  cheese 
from  should  be  twelve  hours  old,  and  this  being  ripe  enough  in  itself,  ripens  the  fresh 
morning's  milk  when  the  two  are  mixed  together.  In  summer  the  ripening  of  the 
evening's  milk  is  enough  for  the  purpose,  but  in  the  colder  weather  of  autumn  it  is 
not,  so  the  morning's  and  evcrdng's  milk  are  warmed  up  together  to  a  temperature  of 
90^  or  so,  and  allowed  to  stand  several  hours  before  the  rennet  is  mixed  with  them 
for  coagulation,  and  this  is  done  because  the  autumn's  evening  milk  has  been  too  cold 
to  admit  of  enough,  if  any,  ripening.     As  the  mass  of  milk  stands  at  the  temperature 

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14  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  ^  A.  I^^T 


named,  it  ripens,  and  the  difficulty  previously  so  common  disappears,  the  autuma 
cheese  having  all  the  warmth  and  mellowness  of  character  of  the  summer  cheese,  and 
it  is  not  so  liable  to  be  injured  by  the  excessive  heat  of  the  summer  climate;  this 
autumn  cheese,  in  fact,  take  it  for  all  in  all,  is  probably  the  best  of  the  season,  whereas 
it  was  formerly,  in  many  cases,  the  worst. 

The  grand  principles  of  the  Cheddar  system  of  cheese-making— which,  by  the 
way,  is  probably  the  best  system  the  world  knows — consists  in  the  ripening  which  the 
curd  gets  after  separating  it  from  the  whey,  and  before  salting  and  pressing  it.  This 
ripening  comes  of  keeping  the  curd  warm,  and  exposing  it  to  the  air.  But  even  in 
the  Cheddar  system  it  is  well-known  that  autumn  cheese  does  not  mature  like  that  of 
summer,  and  this  Mr.  Ballantyne  declares  is  owing  to  the  evening's  milk  of  autumn 
not  having  a  chance  to  ripen  like  that  of  summer.  I  was  pleased  to  find  that  Profes- 
sor Arnold,  an  able  exponent  of  the  Cheddar  system,  has  done  much  good  in  Canada 
in  teaching  dairymen  how  to  manage  floating-curds — that  is,  by  exposing  them  longer 
in  the  vat,  and  by  developing  more  acidity  to  checkmate  the  taint  which  is  common  to 
floating  curds.  The  milk  is  generallaalelivered  once  a  day  to  the  Canadian  factories, 
and  the  farmers,  under  pain  of  having^heir  milk  rejected,  are  required  to  take  proper 
care  of  the  evening's  milk,  and  to  deliver  it  in  good  condition  at  the  factory.  This 
done,  the  transit  is  supposed  to  do  the  milk  good  rather  than  harm. 

IngersoU  is  at  once  the  oldest  and  most  famous  of  the  districts  of  Ontario  in 
which  cheese  factories  have  been  established  ;  1  was,  consequently,  interested  in  look- 
ing through  a  few  of  the  factories  near  the  town,  in  seeing  the  neighborhood,  and  in 
attending  the  cheese  market.  My  visit  was  made  the  occasion  for  calling  a  meeting 
of  the  farmers,  factory  men,  cheese  buyers,  and  others  who  happened  to  bo  in  the 
town  at  the  time.  To  Mr.  Hately,  a  considerable  exporter  of  Canadian  cheese  to 
England,  I  am  indebted  for  the  pleasure,  interest  and  information  which  the  meeting 
afforded  me.  A  most  interesting  discussion  was  the  result  of  it,  the  subject  being 
chiefly  dairy  farming.  It  transpired  that  some  farmt.'rs  receive  as  much  as  $4*7  per 
cow  for  milk  sent  to  the  factories  during  the  season,  and  the  farmers  were  hopeful  as 
to  the  future  prospects  of  cheese  making  in  that  part  of  the  Dominion,  though  it  is 
true  that  the  industry,  in  common  with  all  others,  had  recently  passed  through  very 
trying  times. 

The  dairy  cattle,  in  some  parts  of  Ontario,  will  compare  not  unfavorably  with 
those  of  many  parts  of  England.  Shorthorn  grades  prevail,  and  it  may  be  said  that, 
wherever  a  better  class  of  cattle  are  found,  the  improvement  is  due,  as  a  rule,  to  the 
shorthorn  element.  In  the  magnificent  herd  of  pedigree  shorthorns  at  Bow  Park,  I 
found  a  collection  of  animals  which,  for  number  and  quality,  cannot  in  ail  probability 
be  equalled  elsewhere.  It  is  clear  that  the  climate  and  soil  of  Canada  are  well  suited 
to  maintain  the  purity  and  vigor  of  these  animals,  and  there  is  every  indication  that 
they  have  not  deteriorated  in  any  respect,  but  the  contrary,  in  their  new  home  in 
the  Far  West.  There  are  some  300  animals  on  the  farm,  forming  a  herd  that  is  well 
worth  crossing  the  Atlantic  to  see.  I  spent  three  days  at  Bow  Park,  enjoying  the 
company  of  my  worthy  friend  Mr.  Clay,  and  I  should  have  liked  to  spend  as  many 
weeks  or  even  months,  in  order  to  become  familiar  with  the  many  beautiful  short- 
horns I  saw  there .  Canada  has  in  her  midst,  then,  the  largest  herd  of  pure-bred 
shorthorns  to  be  found,  and  she  ought  to  make  an  extensive  use  of  it  to  improve  the 
bovine  stock  of  the  country,  with  a  view  of  developing  the  new  fat-stock  trade  which 
has  sprung  up  with  England.  But  Mr.  Clay  complains,  and  not  without  reason,  that 
the  Americans  are  ahead  of  the  Canadians  in  appreciation  of  good  stock,  and  that  the 
greater  portion  of  his  young  bulls  have  to  find  a  market  in  the  States.  This  ought 
not  to  be  so,  and  it  is  no  feather  in  Canada's  cap  that  such  a  complaint  should  be 
made. 

The  county  of  Brant,  near  whose  capital  town  of  Brantford  the  farm  is  situated, 
is  of  a  more  broken  and  hilly  character,  with  a  more  frequent  occurrence  of  valleys 
and  rivers  where  banks  are  steep,  than  we  find  to  be  the  case  in  many  other  parts  of 
the  Province  of  Ontario.  It  is  also  well  wooded,  and  generally  picturesque.  The 
Bow  Park  farm  is  situated  within  a  long  horseshoe  bend  of  the  G-rand  Eiver,  which 

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4[    Vioturia.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


•empties  into  Lake  Erie.  The  river's  bank  on  the  west  is  high  on  the  Bow  Park  side, 
iind  the  hiiui  trends  away  in  a  gentle  but  somewhat  varying  slope  down  to  where  the 
river  comes  round  again  on  the  east ;  here,  again,  but  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river,  the  bank  is  high,  forming  a  bold  bluff,  from  which  at  many  points  a  view  of 
nearlj^  the  whole  of  the  farm  may  be  obtained.  Thus  the  farm  resembles,  as  it  were, 
a  huge  plate,  which  is  tilted  up  some  sixty  or  seventy  feet  on  its  western  side,  the 
lower  edge  of  it  dipping  easily  into  the  eastern  section  of  the  river,  which  surrounds 
it  except  for  a  neck  of  land  in  the  south  of  some  five  hundred  yards  in  width.  Along 
the  east  and  north-east,  where  the  land  for  some  distance  slopes  slowly  down  to  the 
river,  the  soil  is  a  rich  alluvial  deposit,  which  is  still  being  flooded  and  deepened  by 
the  swollen  water  in  the  spring;  in  the  middle  of  the  farm  the  soil  is  a  strong  sandy 
loam,  and  on  the  west  a  lighter  sand,  resting  on  a  gravelly  subsoil.  The  lower  part  of 
the  farm  grows  fine  crops  of  mangels,  red  clover,  lucerne,  and  the  like  ;  the  middle  is 
well  ada})ted  to  any  crop  you  would  like  to  put  upon  it,  and  the  upper  part  grows  a  large 
burden  of  maize.  It  is  thought  by  many  in  the  Old  Country  that  the  soil  and  climate 
of  Canada  are  ill  adapted  to  the  growth  of  clovJ||;  but  here  I  find  on  the  wheat  stub- 
bles as  fine  a  root  of  red  clover  as  I  would  wislf^  see  anywhere,  and  one  large  field 
is  covered  with  a  luxuriant  root  of  white  clover,  which,  of  its  own  accord,  has  sprung 
tip  on  a  rye  stubble  of  the  present  autumn;  white  clover,  in  fact,  is  indigenous  to 
these  soils;  the  roadsides  are  covered  with  it,  and  the  field  in  question  is  now  provid- 
ing a  fair  pasture  for  about  forty  in-calf  heifers,  while  the  portions  of  the  farm  which 
aie  really  untouched  parts  of  the  primeval  foi'est  have  a  strong-stemmed  undergrowth 
of  red  clover,  wherever  the  brushwood  has  been  trampled  or  cut  away. 

But  fancy  this  magnificent  farm,  which  erstwhile  was  forest  and  glade,  now 
growing  magnificent  crops  of  grass,  and  grain,  and  roots,  and  supporting  some  of  the 
finest  the  world  has  in  it  of  ubiquitous  Teeswater  bovines.  This  transition  from  Eed 
Indian,  and  black  bear,  and  moose  deer,  to  Anglo-Saxon  andKirklevington  Duchesses, 
to  Duchesses  of  Barrington,  and  Oxford  and  Woodhi II,  to  Eoyal  Charmers,  Coun- 
tesses, Lady  Fawleys,  Polly  Gwynnes,  Eoses  of  Sharon,  Waterloos,  Wild  Eyes,  and 
the  like,  to  Princes,  -Dukes,  Earls  and  Baron  of  the  same  ilk,  and  all  these  glories  of 
shorthorn  fame  supplemented  by  waving  fields  of  grain,  of  mammoth  mangel  wurzels, 
and  the  thickly  carpeted  clovers,  is  as  remarkable  as  anything  we  meet  with  in  this 
great  young  country  of  the  West.  The  situation  of  the  farm,  and  the  views  of  the 
district  which  we  obtain  to  great  advantage  from  many  points  on  the  river's  high 
bank  on  the  west,  are  beyond  compare  the  finest  I  have  seen  in  Canada,  or,  for  the 
matter  of  that,  in  the  United  States ;  and  when  we  turn  from  these  beauties  of  locality 
to  witness  the  grand  shorthorn  cows,  and  heifers,  and  yearlings  grazing  lustily  on  the 
newly-seeded  clovers,  or  on  the  primeval  turf  which  for  ages  has  formed  a  beautiful 
glade  in  the  forest,  we  have  the  surroundings  complete  which  go  to  make  up  a  scene 
in  which  the  soul  of  any  Old  Country  farmer  would  take  great  delight. 

The  Bow  Park  farm  was  purchased,  a  dozen  years  ago,  from  various  persons  who 
had  settled  upon  it,  by  the  Hon.  George  Brown,  whose  melancholy  death  a  few  months 
ago,  by  the  bullet  of  a  drunken  assassin,  filled  the  whole  of  the  Canadian  agricultural 
world  with  indignation  and  dismay.  It  was  converted  the  first  of  all  into  an  ordinary 
dairy  farm,  in  the  days  when  Canada  was  coming  to  the  front  as  a  cheese-producing 
country;  and  a  cheese  factory,  which  is  still  standing,  though  put  to  other  uses,  was 
built  for  the  convenience  of  the  farm  and  of  the  neighborhood  around.  Gradually, 
however,  the  dairy  stock  were  improved;  and  as  the  soil  developed  animals  in  a 
superior  mannei-,  the  idea  arose  to  form  it  into  a  breeding  establishment  for  stock 
of  the  best  kind,  and  there  is  now  upon  it  one  of  the  largest  and  most  valuable 
shoi'thorn  herds  in  the  world.  There  are  in  all  neariy  two  hundred  females  and 
forty  to  fifty  males,  in  many  of  whose  veins  runs  the  bluest  of  blue  blood,  while 
there  is  not  a  single  animal  among  them  who  has  not  exceptionable  pretensions 
to  patrician  parentage.  In  lots  of  twenty  to  forty  we  find  the  females  pasturing 
in  various  parts  of  the  farm;  and  it  is  a  sight  worth  travelling  far  to  see  which 
we  get  in  wandei'ing  slowly  through  the  herds,' each  individual  of  which,  pedigree 
and   all,  is   named   at  once    by  my  friend  Mr.   Clay,  to  whom   the    chief  manage- 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No   12)  A.  1881 


ment  of  the  farm  is  entrusted  by  the  Association  to  whom  this  great  undertaking 
belongs. 

Groing  first  among  the  bulls,  we  came  to  the  lord  of  the  harem,  the  veritable  king 
of  the  herd,  an  animal  of  surprising  merit,  and  a  fortune  in  himself  This  grand  old 
sire,  the  4lh  Duke  of  Clarence,  who  was  bred  by  Colonel  Gunter,  of  Wether  by  G-range, 
is,  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  the  most  nearly  faultless  bull  I  have  seen  in  this  or 
any  other  country.  He  is  a  huge  mountain  of  fiesh  and  bone  and  muscle,  and  at  first 
sight  one  would  think  that  no  two  of  his  four  legs  could  support  the  burden;  but 
when  we  notice  ihe  grand  development  of  muscle,  and  the  grace  and  ease  with 
which  he  moves,  we  think  so  no  longer.  His  brisket  is  wide  and  deep,  down  to  his 
knees;  his  shoulder,  from  the  point  of  it  to  the  brisket  between  the  knees,  measuring 
4  ft.  9  in.,  is  the  deepest  I  have  seen,  and  yet  it  is  not  in  the  least  coarse  or  lumpy; 
his  top  is  level,  wide  and  long,  measuring  5  ft.  8  in,  from  point  of  shoulders  to  the 
square  of  the  tail,  and  the  roasting-beef  is  there  in  fine  display.  He  is  well  sprung 
in  the  ribs,  with  great  chest  room;  equally  well  let  down  in  the  flanks,  forming 
perfect  underlines  ;  the  tail  is  set  on  as  a  tail  ought  to  be,  but  not  always  is ;  the  neck 
is  wonderfully  massive  and  muscular;  the  head  has  the  true  shorthorn  character,  and 
is  withal  very  kindly  in  expression,  denoting  the  good  temper  which  the  owner  is 
known  to  possess,  and  which  is  no  mean  factor  in  the  process  of  physical  development. 
With  a  constitution  unsurpassed,  this  fine  six-year  old  bull  is  a  most  impressive  sire, 
superseding  in  almost  every  case  the  influence  of  the  dam;  he  is,  in  fact,  thoroughly 
prepotent  in- the  widest  sense  of  the  word,  impressing  his  individuality  on  sons  and 
daughters  alike.  His  dam  was  the  4th  Duchess  of  Clarence,  and  his  sire  the  18th 
Duke  of  Oxford,  who  was  bred  by  the  Duke  of  Devonshire.  He  traces  back  through 
Dukes  of  Claro,  Wharfdale,  York,  and  Northumberland,  through  Cleveland  Lad, 
Belvedere,  the  Hubbacks,  Ketton  2nd  710,  Comet  155,  and  Favourite  252;  and  among 
the  breeders  names  are  Bates  and  Colling,  Hunter  and  Thomas  Here  is  blue  blood 
enough  and  to  spare,  with  a  representative  in  every  way  an  honor  to  it ! 

Among  the  younger  bulls  we  came  lo  the  Duke  of  Oxford  46th,  a  most  promising 
young  animal  of  eighteen  months,  whose  sire  is  the  4th  Duke  of  Clarence,  and  dam 
the  Grand  Duchess  of  Oxford  29th.  He  has  a  great  denl  of  the  sire's  character  in  all 
respects,  and,  if  we  mistake  not,  will  prove  a  worthy  scion  of  a  grand  line.  Next 
we  find  a  beautiful  ten  months'  bull.  Baron  Acomb  llth,  by  the  same  sire,  and  out  of 
Aurora,  a  rich  red  roan  in  color,  shapely  and  substantial,  and  most  promising  withal. 
By  the  same  sire,  again,  there  are  Baron  Knightly  5th,  only  four  months  old,  8th 
Duke  of  Kirklevington.  a  few  weeks  younger  still  ;  Earl  of  Goodness  8th,  Prince 
Victor  2nd,Eoan  Duke  6th,  ditto  7th  and  8th,  Waterloo  Duke  2nd,  Dukes  Barringto* 
llth  and  12th,  and  Butterfly's  Duke,  animals  whose  ages  vary  from  two  to  nine 
months.  There  are  also  many  excellent  yearlings  by  other  sires,  forming  a  collection 
of  great  merit. 

Among  the  most  celebrated  and  valuable  females,  we  find  Eose  of  Autumn  3rd, 
a  pure  Mantalini,  and  a  very  choice  animal ;  she  is  now  four  years  old,  and  a  most 
beautiful  cow,  in-calf  to  Prince  Leopold.  This  cow  is  simply  grand  in  the  shoulders, 
which  are  deep,  clean,  and  beautifully  set  in.  She  has  very  fine  bone,  well-rounded 
ribs,  a  very  small  amount  of  offal,  and  excellent  roasting  joints.  She  walks  ofl:'  the 
ground  bravely  and  gracefully,  and  fills  the  eye  wealthily  as  she  passes  away.  An 
excellent  and  well  preserved  animal  is  Butterfly's  Duchess,  bred  by  Mr.  Game,  of 
Churchill  Heath,  and  import<3d.  She  has  a  wonderful  substance,  magnificent  hind- 
quarters, and  gi-and  broad  hips,  with  a  top  of  surpassing  breadth  and  evenness. 
Among  the  younger  females  we  come  to  Royal  Charraer  llth,  ten  months  old. 
This  excellent  young  animal  has  a  beautiful  skin,  rich  roan  in  color,  and  very  mellow 
to  the  touch,  perfectly  level  top  and  even  underlines,  handsome  head  and  neck,  fine 
bone,  clean  and  even  points,  and  neat  as  a  new  pin.  It  is  wonderful  what  matronly 
models  the  young  heifiers  lay  hold  of.  I  cannot  find  time  to  describe  more  than  a 
tithe  of  those  I  should  like  to  mention,  and  it  would,  indeed,  take  a  week  to  learn 
them  properly  first ;  nor,  in  fact,  do  I  pretend  to  have  picked  out  the  best  specimens 
so  far,  for  where  there  are  such  a  number  of  first-class  animals,  most  of  whom  have 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


many  merits  in  common,  while  many  of  them  have  special  points  of  excellence  of 
their  own,  it  would  require  the  nicest  judgement,  formed  after  a  long  and  careful 
ins^pection,  to  assign  the  many  blue  ribands  which  I  should  feel  bound  to  award. 
Sutiice  to  say,  that  here  is  a  great  herd  of  shorthorns,  in  which  all  the  finest  families 
a  10  more  or  less  represented,  and  that  they  are  flourishing  in  the  best  manner  possible, 
and  under  conditions  closely  allied  to  nature. 

One  of  the  most  striking  facts  brought  out  in  connection  with  the  Bow  Park 
herd  is  this— the  best-bred  animals  are  clearly  the  best  developed  ones  in  size  and 
beauty,  while  their  constitution  is  just  as  clearly  of  the  soundest  and  best.  No  doubt 
tlio  way  in  which  all  the  animals  alike  are  treated  has  no  little  to  do  with  the  superb 
health  which  they  all  enjoy.  In  no  sense  are  they  forced  into  condition  by  extrava- 
gant feeding.  The  food  they  get  indoors  is  chiefly  maize,  of  which  stalk,  leaf,  and 
halt-developed  ear  are  passed  together  through  the  chaff-cuiter.  The  older  cows  and 
heifers,  in  fact,  do  not  receive  through  the  summer  even  this  modicum  of  artificial 
food ;  they  depend  entirely  on  grass,  when  there  is  enough  of  it,  as  there  has  been 
through  the  past  summer  and  present  autumn ;  and  it  is  indeed  surprising  to  see  the 
excellent  condition  which  one  and  all  of  them  are  in,  on  grass  alone. 

Animals  of  the  Oxford,  Kirklevington,  Waterloos  and  Eoan  Duchesses  are  indi- 
dividually  and  collectively  superior,  not  only  in  personal  merit  but  in  general  excel- 
lence, to  those  of  less  excellent  strains.  No  falling  off  in  vigour  and  healthiness  of 
constitution,  no  sign  of  tuberculosis,  and  little,  if  any,  of  infertility,  is  known 
amongst  them.  Closely  in-bred  as  they  have  been  for  many  generations,  transplant- 
ing them  to  newer  soils  and  to  a  clearer  climate  than  those  of  England  has  clearly 
re-mvigorated  them  in  the  qualities  which  are  usually  enjoyed  by  animals  which  have 
not  been  artificially  bred  and  tended,  and  lacking  which  the  purest  bluest  blood  is 
shorn  of  some  of  its  most  valuable  properties.  That  a  Canadian  home  admirably 
suits  the  high-born  British  shorthorn  is  the  fi)*st  impression  given  to  any  stranger 
who  visits  Bow  Park,  and,  so  far  as  the  first  requisites  in  successful  breeding  are  con- 
cerned, it  is  clear  that  Canada  is  abreast  of  the  Old  Country ;  while  my  own  observa- 
tion during  the  three  days  I  spent  at  Bow  Park  resulted  in  the  opinion  that  less 
careful  feeding  and  attention  are  needed  there  than  here. 

The  sheep  of  Ontario  are,  on  the  whole,  better  than  I  expected  to  find,  but  they 
are  open  to  improvement.  It  appears  to  me  that  Shropshires  and  Border  Leicestera 
are  calculated  to  improve  the  flocks,  as  shorthorns  are  to  improve  the  herds,  of 
Canada.  In  any  case,  however,  the  mutton  I  got  in  Canadian  hotels  was  nice- 
flavoured,  tender,  and  juicy,  as  a  rule — in  these  respects  better  than  that  of  our 
Cotswold  sheep,  or  than  of  many  of  our  Leicesters  ;  but  the  Canadian  sheep,  as  a  rule, 
need  improvins:  in  symmetry,  if  not  increasing  in  size.  The  pigs,  generally  speaking, 
are  very  good,  better,  perhaps,  on  the  average,  than  the  pigs  in  the  British  Islands. 
I  do  not  see  that  this  class  of  farm  stock  needs  much  improvement.  It  is  abundantly 
clear  that  Canada  can  produce  excellent  farm  stock  of  all  kinds,  and  that  most  of 
them  are  being  improved.  Until  recently  the  inducements  to  improve  them  have 
not  been  strong  enough,  and  in  some  of  the  Provinces  little  or  nothing  would  appear 
to  have  been  done  in  this  direction.  Now,  however,  the  inducement  is  supjDlied,  and 
it  is  probable  that  in  ten  years'  time  we  shall  find  a  marked  reform  in  the  quality  and 
symmetry  of  cattle  and  sheej),  as  well  as  a  great  increase  in  numbers.  It  is  not  easy 
to  estimate  the  cost  of  raising  and  fattening  beef  in  Canada,  because  the  facilities 
vary  in  difl'erent  districts.  The  following,  however,  has  been  communicated  by  an 
enterprising  breeder  of  fifteen  years'  experience  : — 

fiaising,  feeding  and  attendance,  first  year,  per  head  $24 
"  "  "       second  year,  "  18 

''  "  ''  third  year,  "  24 

Total  cost  of  fat  beast  weighing  1600  lbs $66:=:  £13  4s. 

This  would  be  about  $4.12J  (I6s  6d.)  per  100  lb.  live  weight,  or  H^d  per  lb.  on 
the  dressed  meat.      At  the  present  rates  of  freight,  in   the   summer  time,  such  an 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


animal  would  be  landed  in  Liverpool  for  £5  to  £6,  including  foed  and  attendance. 
It  is  probable,  in  fact,  that  Canadian  beef  will  be  landed  in  Liverpool,  giving  fair 
profits  to  all  concerned,  at  5d.  to  6d.  per  lb. 

A  neighbor  of  mine  in  Derbyshire,  an  intelligent  working  nian  with  a  large 
family  of  children,  went  out  to  Canada,  some  ten  or  twelve  years  ago,  with  about 
£100  in  his  pocket.  Having  his  address  with  me,  I  wrote  to  him,  and  he  came  to 
Toronto  to  meet  me.  His  home  for  the  present  is  in  County  Gray,  Ontario,  where 
he  is  farming  200  acres  of  rented  lana,  in  addition  to  a  quantity  of  his  own.  For  the 
rented  land  he  pays  75c.  an  acre — or,  rather,  that  is  what  he  agrees  to  pay,  or  its 
equivalent  in  some  other  form;  the  fact  is,  however,  that  his  improvements  have 
more  than  covered  the  rent.  The  land  is  cleared,  but  the  peimanent  improvements 
done  on  it  are  such  that  they  balance  the  rent;  these  improvements  consist  of  fencing, 
draining,  road-making,  getting  out  stones,  and  the  like.  He  raises  cattle  and  sheep  ; 
the  former  are  natives  with  shorthorn  crosses,  the  latter  too  are  natives,  more  or  less 
improved.  His  fat  ewes,  sold  in  September,  weight  180  lbs.,  live  weight,  on  the 
average.  He  grows  rape  for  sheep-feeding — a  practice  very  popular  and  profitable 
on  the  limestone  soils  of  Derbyshire.  Improved  lambs  are  worth  $1  apiece  more 
than  native  lambs,  viz.,  $3  to  $3.50,  native  lambs  being  worth  $2  to  $2.50.  Oats  fetch 
30c.  to  31c.  ;  wheat,  90c.  to$l;  white  peas,  60c.  to  65c.;  and  barley,  50c.  to 
60c.  per  bushel.  He  ploughs  rape  under  for  barley,  and,  after  barley,  takes 
turnips,  working,  ridging  and  manuring  the  land  for  them.  He  says  that  if  butter 
fetches  15c.  a  pound,  the  farmers  do  well.  Cattle  when  fat  fetch  3c.  to  4c.  a 
pound,  live  weight;  these  are  native  cattle;  improved  cattle  are  worth  5c.  to  5Jc.  ; 
while  mutton  is  worth  4c.  to5J^c.,  according  to  quality  and  the  time  of  the  year. 
My  old  neighbor  is  not  afraid  of  work,  and  he  has  his  share  of  native  shrewdness  ; 
he  thinks  a  man  will  do  better  renting  than  owning  land  in  Ontario,  because  the  rent 
is  less  than  the  interest  on  the  money ;  he  has  prospered  himself  in  renting  land, 
and  informs  me  that  he  is  now  worth  upwards  of  £1,000.  He  would  not  have  been 
worth  one-fourth  of  it  if  he  had  remained  in  England. 

I  was  much  interested  in  a  trip  made  to  Bradford  and  Barrie,  the  latter  a  beautiful 
town  on  an  arm  of  Lake  Simcoe.  At  both  these  towns  we  had  a  meeting  of  farmers 
in  the  evening,  and  a  lively  discussion  on  agricultural  topics.  The  farmers  around 
Bradford  declared  that  they  had  more  than  held  their  own,  despite  the  bad  times  of 
the  past  four  or  five  years.  They  considered  their  capital  employed  in  farming  had 
at  all  events  paid  five  per  cent,  per  annum  during  that  period  of  depression.  Pre- 
viously, a  farmer  expected  to  buy  and  pay  for  an  extra  farm  every  eight  or  ten  years, 
but  of  late  years  they  have  not  been  able  to  do  so.  The  land  about  Bradford  is  a 
clayey  loam,  some  of  it  almost  a  clay,  and,  as  a  rule,  it  is  well  farmed.  More  or  less 
live  stock  are  kept,  and  the  land  is  farmed  in  rotations  which  are  far  from  arbitrary 
or  regular.  Wheat  is  taken  now  and  again ;  mangels,  carrots,  turnips,  etc.,  are 
grown,  and  the  land  is  generally  seeded  down  with  a  white  crop;  if  with  autumn 
wheat,  the  timothy  is  sown  in  the  autumn  and  the  clover  in  the  spring. 

It  is  needless  to  suggest  anything  to  the  farmers  of  Bradford,  except  that  they 
keep  as  many  live  stock  as  possible,  making  the  other  operations  of  the  farm  subsi- 
diary to  them  ;  the  live  stock  then  will  do  their  part  in  maintaining  and  increasing  the 
fertility  of  the  farms. 

I  had  the  pleasure  of  being  present  at  the  agricultural  shows  of  Toronto, 
Hamilton,  and  Montreal,  and  I  may  say  that  I  have  seen  no  shows  in  England, 
except  the  Eoyal  and  the  Bath  and  West  of  England  that  can  claim  to  be  ahead  of 
them  in  aggregate  merit.  The  Montreal  show  is  a  new  one,  and  in  a  short  time  will 
also  be  a  very  good  one,  no  doubt ;  in  any  case,  its  permanent  buildings  are  the  best 
I  have  seen,  either  in  Canada  or  the  States.  The  Canadians  throw  themselves  with 
great  spirit  into  enterprises  of  this  kind,  and  these  shows  are  a  great  credit  and  orna- 
ment to  the  Dominion. 

The  school  accommodation  of  the  settled  districts  of  Canada,  and  the  quality  of 
the  education  given  to  the  children  are  among  the  country's  greatest  merits  and 
ornaments.     The  school-houses  are  frequently  the  most  prominent  buildings  in  many 

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of  the  towns  and  villages,  and  throughout  the  Dominion  the  education  of  the  young  is 
regarded  as  a  matter  of  vital  importance,  and  one  of  the  highe-t  duties  of  citizenship. 
Everywhere  primai}'  education  is  free,  the  poor  man's  child  enjoying  advantages  equal 
to  the  rich  man's,  and  even  in  the  higher  branches  of  education  in  the  colleges  the 
fees  are  merely  nominal,  the  State  providing  all  the  machinery  and  defraying  nearly 
all  the  cost.  The  education  of  all  children  between  the  ages  of  seven  and  twelve  is 
compulsory,  and  Acts  of  Parliament  are  in  force  under  which  delinquent  parents 
may  be  lined  for  neglecting  to  send  their  children  to  school.  It  is  impossible  not  to 
discern  in  these  provisions  one  of  the  surest  pledges  of  the  future  greatness  ot  the 
country,  and  they  obviously  provide  the  poor  man  with  advantages  greater  than  those 
he  will  meet  in  most  parts  of  England.  One  ot  the  first  duties  of  a  new  district  is  to 
erect  a  school-house  with  ample  accommodation  ;  and  so  imbued  are  the  people  with 
the  need  and  wisdom  of  such  an  act,  that  the  provision  is  made  with  alacrity.  Sec- 
tarian differences  are  arranged  by  the  erection,  where  necessary,  of  separate  schools, 
but  in  any  case  the  children  are  bound  to  be  educated.  It  may  be  true  that  the 
support  of  the  high  schools  should  come  in  a  larger  measure  from  those  who  benefit 
by  them,  and  in  time  no  doubt  this  part  of  the  educational  question  will  be  more  or 
less  modified,  yet  it  cannot  be  denied  that  if  the  Provincial  Governments  have  erred 
at  all  in  this  matter,  they  have  erred  on  the  right  side.  It  is  not  competent  for  me 
to  go  farther  into  the  question  in  this  report,  but  it  is  important  to  notify  to 
intending  emigrants  that,  at  all  events,  thejr  children  are  sure  to  be  provided, 
according  to  the  measure  of  each  one's  capacity,  with  the  knowledge  which  is  power. 

Among  educational  institutions  the  Gruelph  Agricultural  College  occupies  an 
honorable  position.  The  College  was  unfortunately  not  in  session  when  I  was  there, 
and  the  President  and  Professor  of  Agriculture  were  both  away  at  the  Hamilton  show, 
80  that  I  saw  the  College  and  farm  under  unfavorable  conditions.  The  Professor  of 
Chemistry  did  all  that  lay  in  his  power,  however,  to  give  me  facilities  for  seeing  the 
educational  machinery  of  the  College,  as  well  as  the  farm  buildings,  the  farm,  and  the 
stock.  The  following  day  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Mr.  Mills,  the  President, 
and  Mr.  Brown,  the  Professor  of  Agriculture,  at  Hamilton.  It  is  satisfactory  to  know 
that  the  College  is  being  more  appreciated  and  employed  year  by  year  by  those  for 
whose  benefit  it  was  established.  Increased  accommodation  is  now  being  provided, 
and  there  is  a  prospect  of  the  College  even  becoming  self-sustaining  in  time.  Already 
it  is  a  flourishing,  though  quite  a  young  institution,  and  its  influence  is  being  felt  on 
the  agriculture  of  the  Province.  The  students  receive  an  agricultural  education,  in 
which  science  is  happily  blended  with  practice,  and  theory  is  borne  out  by  demon- 
stration. The  farm  consists  of  some  550  acres,  on  which  a  variety  of  experimental 
and  practical  crops  are  grown,  and  several  kinds  of  pure-bred  English  sheep  and  cattle 
are  kept,  which,  in  their  turn,  will  have  an  important  effect  on  the  country's  future. 

The  taxation  in  Ontario  is  light,  as  it  is  everywhere  else  in  the  Dominion  that 
I  have  been.  At  first  sight  it  would  seem  to  be  heavier  than  in  some  of  the  other 
Provinces,  yet  it  is  not  really  so.  It  is  assessed  on  the  basis  of  valuation  of  property, 
and  in  this  sense  differs  but  slightly  from  the  other  Provinces.  Land,  and  real 
property  generally,  leaving  out  of  consideration  such  cities  as  Montreal  and  Quebec, 
is  moi-e  valuable  in  Ontario  than  elsewhere,  yet  the  total  taxation,  including  school- 
rates,  does  not  often  go  beyond  25c.  to  30c.  an  acre,  while  it  frequently  falls  below 
those  sums.  Some  districts  have  public  property  which  nearly  provides  all  the 
public  money  that  is  neded,  and  others  are  the  more  heavily  rated  for  the  present  in 
order  to  wipe  off  sums  of  money  which  were  given  as  bonuses  to  new  railways 
passing  through  them.  But  nowhere  did  I  meet  with  an  instance  in  which  taxation 
may  be  regarded  as  really  burdensome ;  yet  it  will  be  expedient  for  new-comers  to 
make  inquiry  into  these  matters  before  purchasing  farms. 

In  the  matter  of  assessing  land  for  taxation,  the  farmers  appoint  a  Commission 
to  value  it,  and  it  is  revalued  each  year  if  thought  expedient.  If  any  dispute  arises 
the  land  is  looked  over  again,  and  the  dispute  may  be  privately  settled  by  the  judge. 
Practically  the  farm  erg  hold  their  taxation  in  their  own  hands,  for  no  direct  imperial 
taxation  is  levied. 

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The  farming  in  many  parts  of  Ontario  is  of  a  higher  order  than  I  had  been 
led  to  expect.  West  of  Toronto,  as  well  as  north  of  it,  I  saw  many  farms  in  a 
condition  which  would  be  no  discredit  to  any  country  whatever,  but  a  great  credit 
to  most. 

QUEBEC. 

1  have  to  regret  that  my  time  did  not  admit  of  my  taking  more  than  a  glance  at 
the  Eastern  Townships  of  this  Province,  because  I  am  persuaded  there  is  much 
excellent  land  in  them,  and  a  good  opening  for  English  farmers.  They  are  situate 
between  the  cities  of  Montreal  and  Quebec,  and  near  some  of  the  cities  of  the  United 
States,  in  all  of  which  there  are  good  markets  for  farm  produce.  The  land,  moreover, 
is  much  lower  in  price  than  in  tlje  better  portions  of  Ontario,  and  farms  for  the  most 
part  cleared  and  fenced,  in  a  fair  state  of  cultivation,  and  possessing  good  houses  and 
buildings  may  be  bought  at  the  rate  of  £4  or  £5  an  acre.  The  district  is  rolling  and 
the  soil  loamy ;  it  is  also  well  supplied  with  water,  a  valuable  feature  in  dairy- 
farming  and  stock-raising.  The  climate  is  healthy,  for  it  is  here  that  Mr.  Cochrane 
has  raised  his  excellent  shorthorns,  and  where  he  is  now  beginning  to  raise  high-class 
Herefbrds  in  the  place  of  them. 

The  agriculture  of  Quebec,  generally  speaking,  is  susceptible  of  improvement, 
and  the  same  may  be  said  of  its  cattle,  sheep,  horses,  and  pigs.  In  many  parts  the 
farmers  plough  the  "  lands"  too  narrow,  as  if  the  soil  were  very  wet.  If  such  be  the 
case,  it  were  better  to  underdrain  it.  I  noticed  that  grasses  and  clovers  grew  best  in 
the  numerous  furrows.  The  fences  of  Quebec,  as  a  rule,  are  quite  equal  to  those  of 
any  other  Province,  and  probably  superior,  because,  being  straight  rail  fences,  they 
are  not  such  a  harbor  for  weeds  as  the  zigzag  "  snake-fences"  too  commonly  are. 

NOVA   SOOTIA. 

Of  this  Province,  too,  I  am  unable  to  say  very  much,  as  I  had  not  facilities  for 
inspecting  it  equal  to  those  with  which  I  was  provided  elsewhere.  In  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Truro  I  saw  some  useful  land,  in  the  vale  of  Annapolis  also,  some  of  which  is 
not  easily  excelled  in  any  part  of  the  Dominion.  I  was  recommended  by  His 
Excellency  the  Governor-General,  to  pay  a  visit  to  this  fertile  region,  and  I  may 
fairly  say  that  I  should  have  missed  a  treat  if  I  had  not  done  so.  The  finest  portion 
of  the  valley  is  found  in  the  Kentville  district,  and  in  Cornwallis,  in  King's  County; 
and  the  great  feature  of  the  locality  is  fouud  in  the  dyke-lands,  which  have  been 
reclaimed  from  the  Bay  of  Fundy. 

Of  the  nature  of  these  lands  I  shall  have  to  speak  at  some  length  in  my  remarks 
about  New  Brunswick,  which  Province  also  has  a  large  area  of  them.  There  is, 
however,  some  very  fine  upland  in  the  valley,  which  is  admirably  adapted  to  the 
growth  of  roots  and  grain,  and  to  the  raising  of  live  stock  of  various  kinds.  The 
apples  of  the  Annapolis  Yalley  are  famous  in  many  countries,  and  though  they  do 
not  surpass  those  of  Ontario,  they  are  an  ornament  to  the  country,  and  a  source  of 
profit  to  the  people.  It  is  probable  that  there  is  room  for  a  limited  number  of 
English  farmers  in  Nova  Scotia,  but,  so  far  as  I  saw  it,  it  does  not  offer  inducements 
^qual  to  those  of  the  adjoining  Provinces.  The  country  for  some  distance  out  of 
Halifax  cannot  ever  become  valuable  farming  land,  a  great  part  of  it  being  what  is 
termed  a  'hard  country,'  that  is,  rocky  and  short  of  soil. 

PRINCE   EDWARD    ISLAND. 

In  some  respects  this  is  one  ot  the  most  beautiful  Provinces  of  the  Dominion, 
and  it  has  probably  the  largest  proportion  of  cultivable  land.  The  soil  gener- 
ally is  a  red  sandy  loam,  ot  one  character  throughout,  but  differing  in  quality. 
On  the  whole  the  grass-land  of  the  island  and  the  character  of  the  sward,  con- 
sisting as  it  does  of  indigenous  clovers  and  a  variety  of  the  finer  grasses 
reminded   me   strongly  of  some  portions   of  Old  England.      The   people,  too,  are 

23 
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i4  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


more  English  in  appearance  than  those  of  •^ny  of  the  other  Provinces,  with  the 
exception  of  New  Brunswick.  This  is  probablj'  owing  to  a  cooler  climate  and  the 
contiguity  of  the  sea.  The  hotter  climate  and  the  drier  air  of  the  West  seem  to 
deprive  the  cheeks  of  some  of  the  color.  The  summer  climate  of  the  island  appears 
to  be  almost  everything  that  can  be  desired,  but  the  winters  are  very  long ;  the 
Northumberland  Straits  being  frozen,  the  people  are  isolated  from  the  mainland 
during  the  winter,  unless,  indeed,  they  cross  over  on  the  ice — a  thing  which  may  be 
done,  and  I  believe  not  uncommonly  is. 

One  of  the  most  annoying  circumstances  in  connection  with  the  island  winters  is 
this :  it  commonly  happens  that  in  spring  numbers  of  icebergs  find  their  way  through 
the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle,  and  collecting  in  the  northerly  half-moon  coast  of  the  island, 
melt  there  slowly,  retarding  vegetation  sometimes  a  fortnight  or  more.  The  people 
believe  that  if  a  breakwater  were  thrown  across  the  Straits  of  Belie  Isle  the  climate 
of  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  would  be  vastly  improved,  and  there  are  some  who 
incline  to  the  belief  that  in  this  event  the  St.  Lawrence  would  be  navigable  the  year 
round.  If  such  results  were  at  all  likely  to  follow  the  closing  of  the  Straits,  why — 
the  sooner  they  are  closed  the  better. 

Prince  Edward's  Island  is  covered  with  a  soil  that  is  easy  to  cultivate,  sound  and 
healthy,  capable  of  giving  excellent  crops  of  roots,  grain  and  grass — an  honest  soil 
that  will  not  fail  to  respond  to  the  skill  of  the  husbandman.  For  sheep,  particularly, 
the  island  seems  to  be  well  adapted,  for  the  soil  is  light,  dry  and  sound,  growing  a 
thick-set,  tender  and  nutritious  herbage.  For  cattle,  too,  it  is  suitable,  though  per^ 
haps  less  so  than  for  sheep.  For  horses  the  island  has  been  famous  for  a  long  time, 
and  American  buyers  pick  up  most  of  those  that  are  for  sale.  It  is  not  impiobable, 
in  fact,  that  taking  them  for  all  in  all,  the  horses  of  the  island  are  superior  to  those 
of  any  other  Province ;  it  seems,  in  fact,  to  be  in  a  sense  the  Arabia  of  Canada.  The 
sheep,  as  a  rule,  are  fairly  good,  but  open  to  improvement;  the  cattle,  generally 
speaking,  are  inferior.  Many  of  the  sheep  are  now  being  exported  to  England,  and 
the  day  I  sailed  from  Quebec,  Mr.  Senator  Carvell  was  shipping  1,200  of  them,  most 
of  which  were  of  very  fair  quality.  This  gentleman,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for 
much  kindness  and  information,  informs  me  that  sheep  from  the  island  cost  ISs.  a 
head  in  freight,  food  and  attendance,  by  the  time  they  reach  Liverpool,  besides  which 
there  is  insurance,  which  varies  from  2  to  10  per  cent.,  according  to  the  season  of 
the  year. 

It  cannot  but  be  regarded  as  a  good  thing  for  the  island  that  Mr.  Carvell  has 
opened  up  a  trade  m  this  way,  and  it  will  be  an  inducement  to  the  people  to  go  more 
into  sheepraising — an  industry  for  which  the  island  is  specially  adapted.  The 
cattle  at  present  ar  e  not  good  enough  for  the  English  market,  and  they  are  not  worth 
taking  over.  The  Provincial  G-overnment  has  established  a  stock  farm  near  Ghar- 
lottetown  for  the  dissemination  of  better  blood  through  the  flocks  and  herds  of  the 
island  ;  but  so  far  the  farmers  have  not  availed  themselves  as  they  ought  to  do  of 
this  great  advantage.  The  new  trade  with  England  will,  however,  in  all  j)robability 
cause  them  to  put  their  shoulders  to  the  wheel  and  bring  their  cattle  up  to  the  level 
of  the  sheep,  Beef  and  mutton  are  very  cheap  at  present  on  the  island ;  stall-fed 
beef  in  spring  can  be  bought  at  3jc.  a  lb.,  live  weight,  and  grass  fed  beef  in 
October  was  worth  only  2Jc.,  while  dresi=ed  beef  by  the  side  could  be  bought  at  4c.  to 
5c.  per  lb.;  lamb  and  mutton  by  the  quarter,  and  of  very  nice  quality,  was  being 
sold  in  the  markets  at  5c.  per  lb.  Lambs  were  worth  from  6s.  to  lOs.  each,  and 
ewes,  10s.  to  18s. ;  while  fat  wethers  and  ewes  were  bought  at  ISs.  to  20s.  By 
exporting  a  few  thousands  yearly  to  England,  the  price  of  sheep  will  increase  on  the 
island.  The  farmers  complain  that  they  receive  but  27c.  per  lb.  for  their  wool ;  but 
BO  long  as  they  shear  unwashed  sheep  they  must  submit  to  low  prices. 

The  island  grows  very  good  wheat,  and  probably  better  oats  than  most  other 
parts  of  the  Dominion.  Of  the  former,  the  crops  are  from  18  to  30  bushels,  and  of 
the  latter,  25  to  70  bushels  per  acre.  Barley,  too,  as  may  be  expected,  makes  a  very 
nice  crop.  Wheat  at  the  time  of  my  visit  was  worth  4s.  per  bushel  of  60  lbs. ;  oats- 
Is.  9d.  per  bushel  of  34  lbs.,  and  barley  28.  6d.  to  38.  per  bushel  of  48  lbs.    Winter 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1881 


wheat  is  regarded  as  a  precarious  crop,  being  liable  to  be  thrown  out  of  the  loose  soil 
by  the  thaws  in  spring.  The  same  thing  holds  good  in  Manitoba,  and  in  Ontario  I 
found  that  the  farmers  consider  there  is  danger  on  the  one  hand,  with  winter  wheat 
that  is  too  far  advanced  when  winter  sets  in,  of  having  it  smothered  by  a  too  heavy 
fall  of  snow  lying  too  long,  especially  on  damp  land;  and  on  the  other,  of  having  it 
throw  itself  out  of  the  ground  by  the  heaving  of  the  frosts  and  thaws  of  spring.  In 
this  event  the  dead  plants  may  afterwards  be  raked  off  the  land  like  so  much  hay. 
There  is  indeed,  on  these  loose  soils,  room  for  the  exercise  of  judgment  in  the  sowing 
of  the  grain.  Many  farmers  consider  it  a  good  thing  to  drill  it  in  north  and  south 
as  a  protection  against  the  prevalent  west  winds,  while  others  try  the  experiment  of 
leaving  a  row  of  old  corn  stalks  standing  at  intervals  of  15  or  20  feet.  All  this  is 
done  to  prevent  the  wind  blowing  the  snow  off  the  plant  and  so  exposing  it  to  the 
withering  frost,  for  snow  is  indeed  a  protection  if  there  is  not  too  much  of  it  and  the 
land  is  dry. 

The  island  is  noted  for  its  large  crops  of  excellent  potatoes,  which  not  uncom- 
monly foot  up  to  250  bushels  an  acre  of  fine  handsome  tubers.  At  the  time  of  my 
visit  they  were  worth  only  15c.  to  20c.  a  bushel,  the  tariff  of  ]5c.  a  bushel 
imposed  by  the  Americans  on  Canadian  potatoes  having  almost  killed  a  once  large 
export  trade  of  potatoes  to  the  States.  Swedes  make  a  fine  crop,  not  uncommonly 
reaching  750  bushels  per  acre  of  sound  and  solid  bulbs. 

The  island  possesses  one  advantage  which  is  unique  and  immensely  valuable.  I 
refer  now  to  its  thick  beds  of  '^  mussel  mud  "  or  "  oyster  mud,"  which  are  found  in 
all  the  bays  and  river  mouths.  The  deposit,  which  is  commonly  many  feet  thick, 
consists  of  the  organic  remains  of  countless  generations  of  oysters,  mussels,  clams 
and  other  bivalves  of  the  ocean,  and  of  crustaceous  animals  generally.  The  shells 
are  generally  more  or  less  intact,  embedded  in  a  dense  deposit  of  mud-like  stuff, 
which  is  found  to  be  a  fertilizer  of  singular  value  and  potency.  The  supply  of  it  is 
said  to  be  almost  inexhaustible,  and  it  is  indeed  a  mine  of  great  wealth  to  the  island. 
It  is  also  found  to  some  extent  on  the  east  coast  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick. 
A  good  dressing  of  it  restores  fertility  in  a  striking  manner  to  the  poorest  soils ; 
clover  grows  after  it  quite  luxuriantly,  and,  as  it  were,  indigenously ;  by  its  aid 
heavy  crops  of  turnips  and  potatoes  are  raised;  and,  indeed,  it  may  be  regarded  as  a 
manure  of  great  value  and  applicable  to  any  kind  of  crop.  Nor  is  it  soon  exhausted, 
for  the  shells  in  it  decay,  year  by  year  throwing  off  a  film  of  fertilizing  matter. 
(This  singular  deposit  is  obtained,  as  a  rule,  below  low- water  mark,  and  in  winter 
when  the  water  is  a  solid  mass  of  ice.  Holes  are  cut  through  the  ice  until  the  mud 
is  reached,  and  a  powerful  and  ingenious  horse  power  scoop  is  used  to  fetch  up  the 
mud  and  dump  it  in  the  sleighs.  It  is  then  taken  to  shore  and  laid  in  heaps  until  it 
is  wanted. 

There  is  not  much  Crown  land  to  dispose  of  in  the  island  at  the  present  time,  but 
there  are  plenty  of  encumbered  farms,  more  or  less  improved,  which  can  be  bought 
at  $5  to  $35  an  acre.  Taxation  on  the  island  is  very  light ;  it  amounts  to  2c .  to 
8c.  an  acre  according  to  value,  or  from  15c.  to  18c.  per  $100  valuation. 

The  educational  advantages  of  the  island  are  on  a  footing  similar  to  those 
of  the  other  Provinces.  There  are  good  roads,  railways,  etc.,  and  many  excellent 
harbors  around  the  island.  There  are  also  thriving  woolen  and  other  mills,  not  to 
mention  the  lobster  fisheries,  which  are  a  source  of  considerable  wealth  to  the 
Province.  There  are,  however,  complaints  that  too  many  farmers  have  been  tempted 
into  the  fishing  business,  to  the  neglect  of  their  farms  ;  that  between  two  stools  these 
men  have  fallen  to  the  ground ;  and  that  the  land  is  sometimes  blamed  tor  losses 
which  really  come  of  neglecting  it.  1  was  assured  on  the  highest  authority  that 
farmers  who  have  minded  their  business,  have  been  steady  and  have  used  a  moderate 
supply  of  common  sense  in  their  dealings,  have  made  farming  pay  and  become 
independent.  It  is  true  that  a  man  is  independent  on  a  smaller  sum  in  Prince 
Edward's  Island  than  he  would  be  in  England,  but  at  the  same  time  there  are 
numerous  evidences  of  happiness  and  contentment  among  the  people. 

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44   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No   12)  A.  1881 


It  appears  to  me  that  Englibhrnen  of  moderate  ambition  would  find  homew  con- 
genial to  their  tastes  in  this  beautiful  Province,  and  I  have  an  impression  that,  with 
cattle  and  sheep  raising  and  fattening  for  the  English  market,  better  times  are  in 
store  for  those  hospitable  and  kindly  islanders,  many  of  whom  I  shall  always  lemera- 
ber  with  feelings  of  more  than  ordinary  kindness.  For  agricultural  laborers  there 
id  plenty  of  employment  at  good  rates  of  pay.  A  man  will  get  $80  to  $150  per 
annum,  plus  board  and  lodging  ;  or,  minus  board  and  lodging,  but  with  cottage,  keep 
of  a  cow,  and  an  acie  ot  land  lor  potatoes,  will  receive  $140  to  $200  in  cash.  Farm- 
ing, after  all,  cannot  be  bad  where  such  wages  are  paid  to  men,  and  there  is  every 
inducement  lor  the  farmer  and  his  family  to  do  all  the  work  they  can  withia 
thems-clves. 

NEW    BRUNSWICK. 

Apart  from  its  wealth  in  timber  and  minerals,  the  latter  as  yet  only  just  begin- 
ning to  be  developed,  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick  is  well  adapted  to  the  pursuits 
of  agriculture.  In  several  portions  of  the  Province  there  are  soils  which  have  cer- 
tain very  remarkable  features  and  properties;  and  in  many  other  portions  I  found 
soils  that  are  easy  to  cultivate  when  once  cleared  of  timber,  deep  in  staple  and  rich 
in" the  accumulated  lertility  of  many  centuries.  Many  of  the  upland  soils  bordering 
on  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  St.  John  Eiver  have  every  indication  of  being  well 
adapted  to  stock  raising,  particularly  of  bovine  stock.  They  are  for  the  most  part 
sandy  or  gravelly  loams,  sometimes  approaching  to  stiffness,  but  generally  friable^ 
varying,  no  doubt,  in  depth  and  quality,  but  haixlly  anywhere  good  for  nothing.  It 
is  prolable,  in  fact,  that,  with  the  exception  of  Prince  Edward's  Island,  New  Bruns- 
wick has  a  larger  proportion  of  cultivable  soil  than  any  of  the  older  Provinces  of  the 
Dominion. 

So  far,  however,  the  settled  parts  of  the  Province  are  chiefly  along  or  adjacent 
to  the  rivers  which  drain  the  country;  but  there  are  yet  many  millions  of  acres  not 
appropriated,  as  good,  in  all  probability,  for  agricultural  purposes,  as  those  that  are 
— if  we  make  exception  of  the  "  dyke  "  and  "  intervale  "  lands.  But  those  unsettled 
portions  are  for  the  most  part  still  covered  with  a  dense  growth  of  timber,  and 
I  should  hardly  fancy  that  English  farmers  are  either  fitted  for  or  would  like  the  task 
of  clearing  it  off. 

The  work  of  clearing  these  lands  is,  indeed,  herculean,  but  it  is  generally  sup- 
posed that  the  timber  will  pay  for  it.  The  land  may  be  cleared  at  a  cost  of  $12  to  $zO 
an  acre,  and  it  is  said  that  a  Canadian  backwoodsman  will  cut  down  an  acre 
of  heavy  timber  in  three  or  four  days. 

Let  us  take  the  new  settlement  of  New  Denmark  as  an  instance  of  what  may  be 
done.  Seven  years  ago  the  locality  was  covered  with  a  dense  forest,  and  the  Danes 
who  emigrated  to  it  were  very  poor  ;  now  hundreds  of  acres  are  cleared,  and  are  pro- 
ducing abundant  crops  of  grain  and  vegetables,  some  of  which  are  of  a  superior 
character,  and  the  land  supports  a  happy  and  prosperous  colony,  which  in  time  will 
be  a  wealthy  one.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  condition  of  these  people  is  far 
better  than  it  would  have  been  in  the  land  of  their  birth.  Take  again  the  Scotch 
settlement  of  Napan,  on  the  Miramichi  :  here  we  have  also  a  favorable  illustration 
of  what  thrift  and  industry  will  do.  The  settlement  is  mainly  Scotch,  but  there  are 
a  few  Irish  among  them,  some  of  whom  have  prospered.  One  Irish  farmer  we  met 
had  become  wealthy,  "  and,"  said  a  countryman  of  his  to  me,  "  we  call  him  Barney 
Eothschild  itself!"  It  is  at  once  pleasant  and  instructive  to  see  these  now  settlements, 
for  they  are  only  what  will  be  found  all  over  the  province  in  course  of  time. 

It  would  seem  probable  that  a  number  of  English  farm  laborers  might  do  the 
same,  starting  with  free  grants  of  land  covered  with  timber,  and  clearing  it  as  far  as 
circumstances  would  admit  of  They  would  in  any  case  meet  with  encouragement 
from  the  Government  and  people  of  the  Province,  and  with  industry  their  reward 
would  be  sure. 

Geneially  speaking,  the  sheep  of  New  Brunswick  are  tolerably  good,  producing 
very  nice  mutton,  and  it  does  not  apj^ear  that  any  special  effort  at  improving  them  is 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No  12)  A.  18SI 


at  present  called  for.  But  the  cattle  generally  are  very  inferior,  and  here  it  is  that 
etf'>rts  at  improvement  are  urgently  required.  It  appears  to  me  that  good  shorthorn, 
polled  Aberdeen,  or  polled  Norfolk  blood  would  bring  about  the  desired  change.  I 
saw,  however,  many  cattle  in  the  neighborhood  of  Sackville,  that  are  good  enough 
for  all  practical  purposes,  and  fit  for  the  export  or  any  other  trade.  Here,  then,  the 
"  blue  noses  "  have  an  example  in  cattle-breeding  set  them  in  their  own  countr3\  It 
is  clear  that  the  climate  and  the  soil  are  fit  to  produce  excellent  cattle,  and  if  we  find 
comparatively  few  such,  it  is  man's  fault,  not  the  country's.  Ontario  is  a  long  way 
ahead  of  any  of  the  other  Provinces  in  cattle,  and  this  will  give  her,  in  the  new  trade, 
a  lemJ  which  cannot  easily  be  taken  away. 

:The  soils  1  have  spoken  of  as  possessing  certain  remarkable  features  and  pro- 
perties are  the  "  dyke  "  and  the  "intervale  "  lands.  Both  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Bruns- 
wick are  celebrated  for  the  former,  while  the  latter  are  a  peculiarity  of  New  Brunswick, 
in  the  valley  of  the  noble  river  St.  John.  The  dyke  lands  of  both  Provinces  are  found 
bordering  on  the  inlets  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  Those  I  saw  in  Nova  Scotia  are  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Kentville  and  Amherst;  in  New  Brunswick  I  saw  them  at  Dorchester 
and  Sackville.  As  the  name  suggests,  they  are  dyked  in  from  the  sea,  from  which 
they  have  been  from  time  to  time  reclaimed.  In  many  cases  marsh  grass  is  cut  from 
saline  ^wamps  Avhich  have  not  yet  been  dyked,  and  over  which  the  high  tides  for 
which  the  Bay  of  Fundy  is  noted,  still  during  certain  seasons,  continue  to  flow.  The 
grass  is  made  into  hay  in  the  best  way  possible  under  the  circumstances — on  the  ridges 
of  higher  land,  on  platforms,  etc. — and  is  stacked  on  a  framework  which  is  raised 
several  feet  above  the  land,  supported  on  piles;  and  it  is  a  curious  sight  to  see  the 
water  flowing  under  the  stacks  and  in  and  about  the  piles  when  the  tide  is  at  its 
height.  In  one  case  I  counted,  near  the  town  of  Annapolis,  upwards  of  140  of  these 
stacks,  each  of  them  containing  a  ton  or  so  of  hay.  They  are  put  up  in  this  manner 
hurriedly,  and  are  fetched  into  the  farmyards,  in  winter,  as  they  are  wanted,  to  use 
along  with  ordinary  hay,  with  straw  and  with  roots,  to  which  they  are  found  to  form 
a  tolerable  though  coarse  addition.  But  the  dyke-lands  proper  are  so  fenced  in  from 
the  water  by  a  strong  bank  of  earth  thrown  up  some  six  or  eight  feet  high,  with  a 
broad  and  substantial  base,  that  the  land  within  them  is  firm  and  solid,  of  excellent 
quality,  and  covered  with  a  thick  sward  of  coarse  though  vigorous  and  nutritive  grass. 
The  fertility  of  these  reclaimed  soils  is  unusually  high  ;  they  are  never  manured,  but 
cut  on  the  average  upwards  of  two  tons  of  hay  to  the  acre — a  yield  which  has  been 
sustained  for  many  years,  and  shows  no  signs  of  running  out. 

The  land,  however,  under  this  system  of  farming  is  found  to  become  weedy  in  the 
course  of  time,  and  it  becomes  expedient  to  plough  up  portions  of  it  in  rotation,  at 
intervals  often  or  twelve  years,  taking  one  ciop  of  wheat  or  oats,  with  which  new 
grass  seeds  are  sown,  to  form  the  new  sward  which  is  desired.  This  once  ploughing 
is  found  to  kill  the  weeds  for  the  time  being,  and  they  do  not  again  become  very 
troublesome  for  some  years  ;  and  when  at  length  they  do,  the  land  is  simply  ploughed 
up  again  in  the  way  described. 

These  bottom-lands  are  valuable  acquisitions  to  the  upland  farms  adjoining,  most 
of  which  have  more  or  less  of  them  attached  ;  and  they  do  much  towards  maintaining 
the  fertility  of  the  uplands,  obviating  the  necessity  of  using  purchased  fertilizers  on 
them.  These  djke-lands  are  in  much  request  on  this  account,  and  they  are  worth 
from  $50  to  ^150  an  acre,  in  a  country  where  ordinary  upland  farms  ai-e  not 
worth  as  many  shillings  an  acre.  The  portions  of  these  oyke-lands  owned  by  different 
men  are  marked  out  for  identity's  sake,  but  are  not  fenced  off  from  the  rest.  Each 
man  cuts  off' the  hay  from  his  portion,  and  takes  it  home,  sometimes  several  miles, 
and  the  aftermath  is  eaten  in  common  by  the  stock  of  all  the  owners  combined,  com- 
mencing on  the  1st  of  September.  A  few  days  before  this  date  a  committee  of 
assessors  is  appointed  to  place  a  value  on  each  mnn's  portion  of  the  land,  and  to  decide 
on  the  number  and  kind  of  animals  he  shall  send  for  pasturage.  So  it  Ibllows  that  we 
see  veiy  large  tracts  of  land,  on  which  hundreds  of  cattle  roam  about  and  feed  at  will. 

The  extent  of  these  dyke^lands  is  said  to  be  about  65,000  acres,  and  there  is  still 
a  large  area  to  be  reclaimed. ^\ A   large  portion   of  the  marshes  was  dyked  by    the 

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44  Yictoria.  Sessional   Papers  (No  12.)  A,  1881 


Fi-ench,  previous  to  the  conquest  of  Fort  Beausejour  in  1754.  Immediately  afterwards 
they  were  tiiken  possession  of  by  the  English  settlers,  who  afterwards 
obtained  grants  of  them  from  the  Crown.  The  expense  of  dyking  fresh  marshes  has 
ranged  from  eight  dollars  to  twenty  dollars  per  acre,  and  it  is  worthy  of  note  that 
the  system  of  constructing  dykes  and  aboideaux  adopted  by  the  first  French  settlers 
is  the  one  still  employed.  The  system  of  cultivation  is  very  simple,  and  consists  of 
surface  draining  by  cutting  ditches  22  yards  apart,  3  feet  wide  at  ,the  top,  !^  feet'  9 
inches  deep,  and  sloping  to  1  foot  wide  at  the  bottom  ;  about  three  years  afterwards 
the  h\ud  is  ploughed  in  ridges  of  6  to  8  feet  wide,  sown  with  oats,  and  seeded  down 
with  timothy  aud  clovers.  It  then  yields  large  crops  of  grass  of  a  coarse  description, 
and  it  would  seem  to  me  that  careful  draining,  generous  cultivation,  and  discrimina- 
ting manuring  would  increase  the  quantity,  or  at  all  events  improve  the  quality  of 
the  grass.  By  a  well-devised  system  of  drainage,  carried  out  in  a  workmanlike 
manner,  and  by  the  free  percolation  of  rain-water  through  them,  these  dyke-lands 
would  gradually  lose  much  of  the  saline  element  which  at  present  is  not  favorable  to 
the  growth  of  the  finer  grasses,  and  they  would  become  fitted  to  the  growth  of  roots, 
green  crops  and  grain,  while  as  pastures  they  would  be  greatly  improved. 

The  "  intervale  lands  "  of  New  Brunswick  are,  as  the  name  suggests,  found  in  the 
valley.  The  name  is  peculiarly  appropriate  and  expressive.  In  England  we  should 
call  them  bottom-lands  or  alluvial  soils.  They  are,  in  fact,  alluvial  soil  to  all  intents 
and  purposes,  with  this  peculiarity,  they  are  still  in  process  of  formation.  In  some 
cases  these  intet-vale  lands  consist  of  islands  in  the  rivers — and  there  are  many  such 
in  the  magnificent  river  St.  John  ;  but  for  the  most  part  they  are  level  banks,  on  each 
side  of  the  river,  in  some  cases  several  miles  wide,  and  reaching  to  the  feet  of  the  hills, 
which  form  the  natural  ramparts  of  the  valleys  ihe^^  enclose.  These  intervale  lands 
are  rich  in  quality,  and  the  grass  they  produce  is  very  good.  Like  the  dyke-lands, 
they  need  no  manuring  artificially.  The  dyke-lands,  in  fact,  have  such  a  deep  excellent 
deposit  of  unusual  richness,  that  manuring  is  superfluous ;  but  the  intervale  lands 
receive  a  periodical  manuring  in  the  deposit  which  is  laid  on  them  each  spring  by  the 
freshets  of  the  rivers.  They  are,  in  fact,  flooded  more  or  less  for  several  weeks  in  the 
spring  of  the  year,  and  the  deposit  left  by  the  receding  waters  is  of  a  character  to 
add  fertility  to  an  already  rich  soil,  and  at  the  same  time,  to  add  to  its  depth.  An 
inch  or  two  of  rich  alluvial  mud  deposited  on  these  lands  each  year  is  gradually 
raising  them  above  the  influence  of  the  freshets ;  and  they  are  to-day  among  the  most 
valuable  soils  in  the  Province. 

Much  of  the  upland  of  the  Province  is  of  a  very  good  quality,  excellently  adapted 
to  the  growth  of  cereal,  root,  and  green  crops  generally,  and  for  the  raising  of  live 
stock.  Sheep  in  particular  do  remarkably  well  wherever  I  have  seen  them  in  Canada, 
and  nowhere  better  than  in  New  Brunswick.  Little,  if  any,  improvement  in  them  is 
specially  desirable,  for  they  are  already  of  very  good  quality  in  most  respects,  and  they 
are  of  course  well  inured  to  the  soil  and  climate.  The  cattle,  on  the  contrary,  are  of 
a  very  inferior  character ;  yet,  at  the  same  time,  they  are  sound  and  vigorous  in  con- 
stitution, and  therefore  provide  an  excellent  basis  on  which  a  very  profitable  breed  of 
cattle  may  be  built  up  by  the  use  of  improved  blood  from  the  Old  Country. 

There  are  in  this  Province  millions  of  acres  still  unoccupied,  except  by  a  heavy 
growth  of  trees  which  form  the  primeval  forest.  The  forests  require  a  large  expen- 
diture of  labor  to  clear  them,  and  English  farmers  are  not  well  calculated  to  do  the 
work  ;  but  there  are  numbers  of  cleared  farms  which  can  be  bought,  with  good  houses 
and  buildings  upon  them,  at  the  rate  of  £8  to  £8  an  acre,  and  it  seems  to  me  that  a 
practical  farmer  from  the  Old  Country,  especially  if  he  has  a  rising  family  to  help 
him,  could  hardly  fail  to  do  well  in  this  Province.  So  far  a^  the  people  are  concerned, 
an  English  farmer  would  find  himself  quite  at  home  here,  and  there  is  nothing  in  the 
soil  or  climate  which  would  cause  a  painful  disillusion.  The  geographical  position  of 
these  Maritime  Provinces  trive  them  a  strong  claim  on  the  notice  of  the  Old  Country 
farmers  who  sec  tne  neeos  of  fresh  fields  and  pastures  new;  comparative  nearness  to 
Britain,  with  regular  and  uninterrupted  communication  all  the  year  round,  offers  a 
strong  inducement  for  English  settlers  to  come  here  ;  and  the  new  trade  in  cattle  and 

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sheep  which  is  rapidly  growing  up  between  the  New  and  Old  Countries  is  sure  to 
make  farming  in  these  provinces  a  profitable  business  to  those  who  have  the  will  and 
the  judgment  to  lay  themselves  out  to  produce  live  stock  of  the  quality  which  will  find 
favor  in  England. 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention,  with  warm  feelings  of  pleasure  and  gratitude,  the 
unbounded  courtsey  and  kindness  which  were  extended  to  me  by  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  Province,  by  all  the  members  of  the  Government,  by  various  officials, 
railway  and  steamboat  managers,  and  by  private  gentlemen  and  others,  in  every  part 
of  the  Province  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  visit.  The  memory  of  my  visit  to  New 
Brunswick  will  be  a  source  of  pleasure  to  me  as  long  as  I  may  live,  and  I  shall  not 
cease  to  entertain  feelings  of  more  than  ordinary  friendliness  toward  many  persons 
whose  acquaintance  I  had  the  pleasure  of  making  under  such  happy  auspices. 


If  cannot  be  denied  that  to  the  average  Englishman  Canada  is  a  country  con- 
sidered to  be  chiefly  noted  for  fur-bearing  animals,  Esquimaux,  Indians,  and  winters  of 
extraordinary  severity.  It  may  be  these,  but  it  is  something  more.  It  is  a  country 
abounding  in  agricultural  and  mineral  wealth,  and  it  is  a  country  for  timber.  It  has 
vast  areas  of  excellent  land,  unsurpassed  in  fertility,  and  suited  to  the  growth  of  many 
crops.  It  has  already  many  thousands  of  prosperous  and  pleasant  farms,  and  in  a  few 
year's  time  will  have  many  thousands  more.  It  abounds  in  game  and  fish,  in  the 
live  stock  of  the  farm,  in  fruit,  and  in  cultivated  crops.  It  is  true  that  the  winters 
are  severe,  but  I  am  assured  alike  in  Manitoba  and  Prince  Edward's  Island,  in  Ontario 
and  New  Brunswick,  that  the  winters  are  bracing  and  healthy,  full  of  enjoyment,  and 
far  more  tolerable  than  a  severe  winter  in  England  or  Scotland;  though  the  ther- 
mometer may  now  and  again  fall  to  30°  below  zero,  the  atmosphere  is  always  dry, 
and  so  the  cold  is  not  felt  so  severely  as  a  much  less  extreme  degree  is  in  a  damp 
climate. 

The  farmers  of  Canada  work,  it  is  true,  but  I  doubt  if  they  work  as  hard  as  we 
are  in  the  habit  of  thinking.  But  in  any  case  they  work — not  to  do  so  would 
demoralize  the  men — and  it  seems  that  a  drone  cannot  well  exist  in  the  atmosphere 
there.  I  believe  I  am  correct  in  saying  that  the  dignity  of  labor  is  more  generally 
honored  in  Canada  than  in  England,  and  as  there  are  fewer  idlers,  men  in  rags  are 
scarcer.  I  do  not,  in  fact,  remember  seeing  more  than  two  or  three  men  in  rags  the 
whole  time  of  my  wanderings,  and  not  many  dirty,  except  the  Indians,  and  not  always 
these.  Yet  the  farmers  have  not  all  plain  sailing,  nor  do  they  grow  rich  without 
Industry  and  thrift.  Every  country  has  its  disadvantages,  and  Canada  is  no  exception. 
There  are  sometimes  violent  storms  which  do  injury  to  the  crops  and  stock;  some- 
times they  are  troubled  with  the  grasshoppers,  but  their  visits  are  few  and  far  between, 
ai'd  they  have  only  made  their  appearance  about  six  times  in  the  last  fifty  years. 
The  Colorado  beetle  I  only  saw  once.  It  does  not  seem  to  have  yet  reached  Manitoba 
and  the  North-West  Territory,  and  is  not  nearly  so  numerous  as  I  had  expected  to 
find  it,  having  confined  its  ravages  more  particularly  to  the  United  States  Territory. 
Then,  again,  the  weevil  and  the  Hessian  fly  attack  the  wheat  sometimes,  and  it  is 
difficult  when  they  do  come  to  check  their  ravages ;  and  lastly,  the  winters  put  a 
complete  stop  to  agricultural  operations,  and  the  ploughing  and  sowing,  as  a  rule, 
have  to  be  hurried  through  in  a  limited  period.  The  seed-time  and  harvest  are  very 
busy  periods,  but  when  the  winter  is  over  the  spring  comes  at  a  bound,  and  vegetation 
grows  at  a  rate  which  surprises  P]nglishmen. 

These  disadvantages  apply  to  the  whole  of  North  America,  and  not  merely  to 
Canada;  but  they  have  no  apparent  effect  on  the  progress  of  settlement  in  the  country. 
Men  soon  learn  to  accommodate  themselves  to  these  things,  suiting  their  work  to  the 
•seasons  and  planning  out  beforehand  various  things  that  can  be  done  in  the  depth  of 
winter. 

Three  things  in  Canada  strike  a  stranger  powerfully :  the  vastness  of  the  country ; 
the  unbounded  faith  the  people  have  in  the  future  greatness  of  the  country;  and  the 

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44    Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No  12.)  A.  1881 


choerAil  loyalty  to  the  Old  Counti-y  which  is  everywhere  found.  The  liberty  of  the 
Canadian  farmer,  grand  and  unconventional  as  it  it^,  and  the  independence  of  mind 
and  of  position,  considerable  and  even  complete  as  it  is  in  many  cases,  (.'o  not  develop 
into  licence  and  recklessness,  but  into  cheerful  and  generous  habits  of  life.  Loyalty 
to  the  Old  Country  and  pride  in  their  own  are  leading  features  in  the  political  faith  of 
the  people;  hospitality  to  strangers',  and  readiness  to  impart  information  and  render 
services,  are  equally  features  in  their  domestic  life;  while  a  living  faith  of  the  future 
of  the  Dominion,  based  on  a  knowledge  of  its  exhaustless  natural  wealth,  and  of  the 
inherent  energy  of  its  citizens,  is  prominent  in  their  conversation.  It  is  not  the 
aristocracy  of  birth,  but  that  of  labor  and  of  brains—personal  merit,  in  fact — that 
holds  a  foremost  place  in  the  estimation  of  the  people. 

The  new  departure  which  has  recently  begun  in  Canadian  farming — that  of  send- 
ing cattle  and  sheep  alive  and  dead  to  England — has  elated  the  farmers  in  Canada  in  a 
degree  corresponding  with  the  depression  it  has  caused  among  the  farmers  of  England ; 
it  is  a  new  and  unexpected  source  of  wealth  to  them,  and  they  are  laying  themselves 
©ut  to  make  the  best  of  it  in  future.  So  far  the  country  is  free  from  diseases  of  stock, 
Iput  how  long  it  will  remain  so  depends  almost  entirely  on  the  action  of  the  Grovern- 
ment.  Stringent  regulations  are  in  force  governing  the  importation  and  exportation 
of  fat  and  lean  stock,  and  (|ualified  inspectors  are  on  the  alert  in  many  places; 
American  cattle  are  not  admitted  except  in  bond,  passing  through  the  country  under 
strict  supervision. 

So  far  the  Canadian  cattle  trade  has  expanded  rapidly.  It  commenced  in  1877 
with  7,000  to  8,000,  three-fourths  of  which  were  American  ;  in  1878  there  were  18,000 
sent  to  Europe,  two-thirds  of  which  were  American  ;  in  1879  there  were  28,000  sent, 
all  Canadian,  because  Amej-ican  cattle  were  then  excluded;  in  18S0  it  is  computed 
35,000  will  be  shipped  ;  and  in  live  years  it  is  predicted  that  100,000  will  be  available. 
P'or  these  figures  I  am  indebted  to  Dr.  McEachran,  of  Montreal,  who  is  the  chief 
Government  Inspector  of  imported  and  exported  cattle. 

The  landlords  and  fixrmers  of  England,  and  many  writers  and  speakers  on  agri- 
cultural matters,  profess  to  find  some  consolation  in  this  :  that  with  an  increase  of 
trade  and  commerce,  freights  will  rise,  and  a  check  will  thus  be  placed  on  trans- 
atlantic importations  of  stock.  I  have  no  doubt  this  hope  will  prove  to  be  a  mere 
ignis  fatuus,  and  I  cannot  participate  in  it.  I  have  it  on  very  high  authority  that 
there  is  no  probability  of  freights  rising,  but  the  contrary,  rather.  With  steel-built 
ships,  compound  condensing  engines  and  various  mechanical  improvements,  to  which 
at  present  no  limit  can  be  placed,  the  cost  of  sailing  a  ship  across  the  Atlantic  is  being 
yearly  lessened. 

Tbe  expenditure  of  coal  on  board  steamships  is  being  rax)idly  reduced,  and  the 
size  of  the  ships  increased,  so  that  a  5,000-ton  vessel  can  be  navigated  now  at  very 
little  more  cost  than  was  entailed  by  a  2,000-ton  ship  ten  years  ago.  Freight  at  258. 
a  ton  in  1880  pays  better  than  fi  eight  at  50s.  a  ton  did  in  1870.  This  is  brought  about 
by  enlarged  ships,  a-  smaller  expenditure  of  coal,  and  a  larger  space  on  board  for 
freight.  The  ships  now  building,  though  larger  than  those  running,  will  run  at  less 
cost  and  carry  very  much  more  freight,  and  although  freights  for  some  time  past  have 
been  and  still  are  very  low,  it  is  an  open  secret  that  freights  pay  far  better  than 
passengers...  In  any  case,  the  rate  at  which  ships  are  being,  and  will  be,  built  is 
gi eater  than  any  probable  inciease  in  the  volume  of  freights.  Hence  it  is  hardly 
po^.^ible  that  English  farmers  may  find  any  solid  comfort  in  a  hoped-for  rise  in 
fi  light  age. 

I  come  now  to  the  last  point  of  discussion  and  inquiry  in  this  Eeport,  viz.,  is 
Canada  a  suitable  field  of  settlement  for  English  farmers  ?  I  approach  this  point  with 
caution,  because  1  am  aware  of  its  great  importance.  But  the  question  rather  is:  are 
English  farmers  suitable  for  Canada?  It  appears  to  me  that  Canada,  as  a  country,  has 
many  advantages,  and  a  futuie  in  all  probability  very  important.  She  is  a  rising 
country:  this  cannot  be  denied;  and  she  cannot  remain  in  her  present  stage  of 
development.  I  think,  then,  that  many  of  our  middle  aged  English  farmers  are 
unfitted  by  their  habits  of  life  and  of  labor  to  battle  with  the  work  which  would  fall 

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to  their  lot  iu  Canada.  But  there  are  many  others  who  are  titted  for  it,  particularly 
those  who  have  led  laborious  and  active  lives  ;  and  our  young  farmers  would  soon  fall 
into  Canadian  habits.  Men  with  large  families  who  are  not  afraid  to  work  would,  as 
a  rule,  do  well  in  Canada.  The  younger  men  would  not  long  be  at  a  loss  in  pioneer 
life  in  Manitoba,  but  it  is  scarcely  the  place  for  a  mau  who  has  been  long  accustomed 
to  English  methods  of  farming  ;  that  is,  they  would  have  to  unlearn  their  old  methods 
and  learn  new  ones,  but  it  is  only  fair  to  add  that  the  land  and  climate  of  Manitoba 
are  so  generous  that  very  careful  cultivation  is  at  present  alike  unnecessary  and 
scarcely  profitable.  These  latter  men,  as  it  seems  to  me,  would  be  happier,  and  their 
wives  would  be  more  content  in  Ontario,  or  'New  Brunswick,  or  Prince  Edward  Island. 
They  are  not  suited  to  the  cruder  life  of  the  far  west.  A  man  with  a  capital  of  £1,000 
would  do  well  in  one  or  other  of  the  Maritime  Provinces,  or  in  the  Eastern  townships 
of  Quebec ;  one  with  £2,000  would  do  well  in  Ontario.  A  man  with  little  or  no 
capital  should  either  go  to  the  Red  Eiver  district  or  take  a  free  grant  of  land  in  one 
of  the  Lower  Provinces.  But  any  man  should  look  round  him  for  some  time,  and  get 
into  some  kind  of  employment  before  he  buys  a  farm  or  takes  up  a  free  grant.  Look- 
ing at  the  increasing  competition  which  British  farmers  have  to  meet,  and  at  the 
heavy  rates,  taxes,  rents,  bills  and  wages  they  have  to  pay,  I  have  no  doubt  many  of 
them  would  do  better  out  yonder,  and  their  families  would  do  better  than  they  can 
in  England,  providing  always  that  they  are  not  afraid  of  work,  and  are  sober  and 
frugal. 

It  is  said  that  Canada  is  the  place  for  a  poor  man,  and  this  no  doubt  is  true;  but 
it  is  also  the  place  for  a  man  of  means,  for  capital  tells  a  tale  there.  It  is  not  probable, 
however,  that  many  farmers  of  capital  will  face  the  ills  they  know  not  of  in  Canada, 
and  indeed  I  would  not  advise  anyone  to  go  there  who  is  doing  well  in  this  country; 
but,  then,  it  is  hardly  fair  to  Canada  that  only  poor  men  should  go  there  as  farmers,  for 
money  is  wanted  to  develop  the  riches  of  the  soil — not  labor  only.  I  know  farmers  in 
England  who  toil  year  after  year,  and  live  very  carefully,  without  being  any  forwarder 
at  the  year's  end  than  they  were  at  its  start;  this  sort  of  thing  seems  very  hopeless, 
and  I  would  say  to  such  men  :  ''  You  will  get  along  faster  in  Canada."  There  is  not 
and  has  not  been  a  better  time  than  the  present  for  English  farmers  going  to  Canada. 
Canada  is  just  recovering  from  a  period  of  depression  during  which  the  value 
of  land  has  become  reduced,  and  it  so  happens  that  many  of  the  farmers  of  the  Lower 
Provinces  are  looking  wistfully  at  the  wonderful  prairies  of  the  Nortb-West,  and  are 
anxious  to  sell  their  present  farms  and  go  there  with  their  rising  families.  They,  it 
is  true,  are  fitted  to  go  ;  and  it  seems  to  me  a  nice  arrangement  that  English  farmers 
of  capital  should  take  their  places.  It  would  seem,  indeed,  that  the  sysiems  of 
farming  to  which  English  fai'mers  have  been  long  accustomed  are  well  adapted  to 
restore  condition  to  the  land,  while  Canadian  methods  are  better  suited  to  the  present 
condition  of  the  North-West.  It  is  at  the  same  time  true  that  many  English  farmers 
would  do  well  in  the  North- West,  particularly  those  whose  capital  is  small,  and  who 
are  not  too  old  for  pioneer  life.  Yet  in  the  Lower  Provinces  they  would  find  farms 
and  homes  more  in  keeping  with  those  they  leave  behind  in  England.  Their  sons, 
in  turn,  will  move  in  the  direction  of  the  setting  sun. 


EEPOET  OF  ME.  HUGH  McLBAN,  EHU,  TAEBEET,  N.B.,  THE  DELEGATE 
OF  THE  KINTYEE  ACEICULTUEAL  SOCIETY. 

"  Yesterday  (Nov.  19,  1880)  Mr.  Hugh  McLean,  Ehu,  the  delegate  appointed 
some  time  ago  by  the  Kintyre  Agricultural  Society  to  visit  Manitoba,  and  report  as 
to  its  suitabilitv  for  emigration  purposes,  etc.,  addressed  the  members  of  the  society 
and  others  in  the  Town  Hall.  The  delegate  was  accompanied  to  the  platform  by 
Provost  Greeulees,  ex-Provost  Galbraith,  Eev.  J.  C.  Eussell,  David  McGibbon,  Efiq., 
Chamberlain  to  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Argyll ;  Lachlan  Clark,  Esq.,  Eobert  Aitken, 
Esq.,  John  Gilchrist,  Esq.,  Charles  McConachy,  Esq.,  James  B,  Mitchell,  Esq.,  and 

31 


M   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.  1881 


James  Littlejohn,  Esq.      David   McGibbon,  Esq.,   occupied    the    chair,  and  briefly 
introduced  Mr.  McLean." — Campbelltown  Courier,  20th  November,  1880. 

The  following  is  the  text  of  the  report : — 

After  certain  preliminary  arrangements  in  London  had  been  completed,  it  was 
lixcd  that  I  should  sail  for  Quebec  on  the  5th  August,  1880,  by  the  Allan  Line  steamer 
Sardinian,  C apt-: in  Button. 

Tho  Sardinian  \s  a  magniticent  specimen  of  marine  architecture.  Her  tonnage 
is  4,370.  She  is  divided  in.^  seven  water-tight  compartments,  is  propelled  by  a  pair 
of  direct-acting  compound  high  and  low  pressure  engines  of  2,800  horse  power,  and 
maintains  a  speed  of  14  knots  per  hour.  She  is  strongly  built,  carries  ten  life-boats, 
has  accommodation  for  180  saloon,  60  intermediate,  and  l,0u0  steerage  passengers. 
The  steward's  department  is  managed  in  the  most  Approved  manner — nothing  is 
wanting  to  conduce  to  the  comfort  of  the  passengers;  and  every  attention  is  shown 
that  the  most  fastidious  could  reasonably  desire.  The  berths  are  comfortable  and 
well  ventilated,  the  lights  entirely  under  the  control  of  persons  appoiu  ^ed  to  light  and 
extinguish  them. 

The  ship  arrived  at  Moville  about  11  a.m.  on  the  6th.  We  sailed  \  .he  evening 
about  5  p.m.  The  time  did  not  hang  heavily  on  our  hands,  being  enlivened  by 
Captain  Button's  lectures  on  the  Pyramids,  Tabernacle,  etc.,  together  with  very  good 
music,  instrumental  and  vocal.  Having  seen  five  icebergs,  one  large  whale  very  close 
to  the  ship  and  a  school  of  others  about  three  miles  off,  everyone  was  pleased  to  find 
that  we  were  entering  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle.  The  beauty  of  that  sail  up  the  St. 
Lawrence  was  exquisite. 

Having  arrived  at  Point  Levis  on  Sunday,  the  15th,  our  luggage  was  taken  to 
the  Customs  house  shed  for  examination.  We  then  procured  tickets  for  Montreal. 
Perhaps  what  attracts  one's  attention  most  of  all  on  the  way  is  the  charred  stumps  of 
trees  that  stand  up  like  men,  say  in  spaces  of  six  or  seven  feet  apart.  They  give  a 
desolate  look  to  the  country,  as  if  the  hand  of  the  destroyer  was  wasting  it.  The 
impression  to  a  Scotch  mind  is  waste  ;  beautiful  plantations  (for  he  can  as  yet  scarcely 
realize  that  they  are  forests)  are  on  fire.  It  makes  him  feel  sad  to  think  that  these 
woods  are  not  in  the  home  market.  Tne  land  along  the  line  of  railway  from  Point 
Levis  is  occupied  by  French  Canadians.  Their  crops  seemed  light.  The  oat  crop 
was  much  lighter  than  at  home. 

Before  leaving  Point  Levis  (opposite  Quebec),  I  was  informed  that  His  Excellency 
the  Governor-General  was  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  had  telegraphed  to  Ottawa  that  he 
wished  me  to  visit  the  Annapolis  and  Windsor  districts  of  Nova  Scotia,  Sussex  Valley 
in  New  Brunswick  and  the  Eastern  Townships  of  Quebec,  as  well  as  Ontario  and  the 
North- West.  I  felt  that  the  task  was  onerous,  that  no  time  could  be  spared,  and 
therefore  on  Monday  presented  myself  at  Ottawa.  Here  I  found  that  the  Hon.  Mr. 
Pope,  the  Minister  of  Agriculture,  was  in  England;  that  Mr.  Lowe,  Secretary  to  the 
Department,  was  in  Quebec,  and  would  not  be  back  till  next  day.  I  was,  however, 
received  by  Dr.  J.  C.  Tache,  who  gave  me  a  letter  of  introduction  to  Mr.  Hespeler, 
Immigration  Agent,  Winnipeg.  I  then  returned  to  Montreal.  I  should  mention  in 
passing  that  Dr.  Tache  is  the  Deputy  Minister  of  Agriculture,  that  he  has  written  a 
very  excellent  pamphlet  on  the  Colorado  potato-beetle,  showing  how  to  oppose  its 
i-avages.  As  the  pamphlet  is  largely  circulated  throughout  the  Dominion,  I  do  not 
^loubt  but  that  it  has  been  instrumental,  where  the  suggestions  contained  in  it  are 
attended  to,  in  allaying,  and  in  many  places  nullifying,  the  ravages  of  that  destructive 
insect.  The  methods  of  destroying  the  beetle  are  firsthand-picking,  and  second  Paris 
green  ;  the  latter  is  very  efficient. 

Before  leaving  Ottawa,  I  was  much  impressed  with  the  beauty  of  its  public 
buildings,  conspicious  amongst  which,  situated  on  a  hill,  are  the  Parliament  Houses, 
consisting  of  thj'ee  blocks,  fbrming  three  sides  of  a  square,  all  detached.  The  grounds 
around  are  very  tastefully  laid  out.     The  Post  Office  is  an  elegant  structure. 

Ottawa  is  famed  for  its  trade  in  lumber,  which  in  Canadian  means  *' timber."  The 
8aw-mills  are  a  study  in  themselves.      The  railway  station  from   which  I  went  to 

32 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12)  A,   ISSl 


Montreal  is  at  Hull,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Ottawa  river.  I  saw  the  Chaudiere  Falls 
when  passing  the  Suspension  Bridge,  and  perceived  that  limestone  is  the  prevailing, 
rock  of  the  district.  There  are  slides,  or  timber  erections,  in  the  river,  to  guide  the 
rafts  that  descend  the  river  to  the  various  saw-mills. 

The  land  around  Hull  is  very  good,  and  judging  from  the  condition  of  sheep  and. 
cattle,  as  visible  from  the  railway,  the  grass  must  have  a  fattening  quality.  Crops  of 
wheat,  oats,  buckwheat,  and  corn  whii'led  past  as  the  train  sped  from  station  to 
station.  Wooden  houses,  with  verandahs  in  front,  constantly  met  the  eye ;  wood, 
fences  everywhere,  till  at  last  night  closed  the  scene.  At  length  we  arrived  at 
Hochelaga  station,  which  is  the  name  of  the  original  Indian  village,  on  the  site  of 
which  Montreal  is  built. 

The  city  of  Montreal  is  situated  on  an  island.  The  Victoria  Bridge  crosses  the 
St.  Lawrence,  its  length  being  9,194  feet.  The  city  contains  many  objects  of  interest, 
which  were  seen  on  my  return;  but  on  this  day  I  visited  Notre  Dame  Church,  which 
internally  is  a  most  exquisitely  finished  place  of  worship.  The  Crucifixion,  the 
Apostles,  the  Altar,  the  candlesticks,  the  gold  and  crimson  decorations,  all  surpass 
description,  and  fill  the  beholder  with  awe  and  admiration. 

I  started  for  London,  Canada  West,  by  the  evening  train,  but  saw  nothing  of  the 
country  till  next  morning.  When  daylight  came  the  morning  was  very  wet.  The 
country  was  beautiful.  I  found  several  fellow-passengers  by  the  Sardinian  were  on 
the  iiuin.  We  were  all  glad  to  meet,  but  they  dropped  out  one  after  another,  and  we 
were  lost  to  each  other  probably  for  ever.  We  drove  through  a  country  farmed  by 
English,  Scotch  and  Irish.  There  are  good  crops,  good  cattle,  good  houses.  The 
fields  are  rich  with  golden-colored  grain.  The  orchards  loaded  with  fruit.  Every- 
thing to  the  passing  visitor  has  the  appearance  of  plenty.  Now  we  pass  fields  of 
clover.  Arrived  at  Port  Union,  we  pass  more  clover  fields.  Swamps  intervene,  then 
light  crops.  By-and-bye  beautiful  crops  burst  upon  the  view.  Everywhere  the  fields 
are  fenced  with  zigzag  rails,  which  appears  to  me  to  occupy  too  much  land  ;  but  the 
British  Canadian  adopt  them  universally.     We  come  to  Toronto. 

We  proceed  and  pass  through  Guelph.  On  the  run  we  notice  brick  buildings 
going  up  to  replace  wooden  houses,  generally  a  fair  sign  of  a  prosperous  farmer ;  but 
sometimes  I  was  told  emulation  induces  a  man  to  build  a  fine  house  while  his  land  is 
mortgaged.  We  pass  Breslau,  which  seems  by  the  map  to  be  not  far  from  the  Banks 
and  Braes  o'  Bonnie  Doon ;  then  through  Berlin,  Hamburgh,  Stratford,  St.  Mary's,  at 
which  last  place  I  changed  for  London,  and  saw  the  last  of  my  last  Sardinian. 

I  arrived  at  London  and  took  train  for  Newbury,  for  the  purpose  of  paying  a 
short  visit  to  a  Kintyre  settlement.  I  was  driven  over  a  clayey  road  from  Newbury 
to  Crinan  by  the  light  of  the  moon,  and  as  yet  saw  nothing  of  the  country.  My 
quarters  at  Crinan  were  with  the  Eev.  John  Milloy,  a  native  of  Clachaig  Kintyre. 
In  common  with  the  whole  settlement,  I  was  roused  about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning 
by  a  thunderstorm.  In  the  midst  of  it  all  I  fell  asleep,  and  awoke  to  find  myself 
surrounded  hy  glorious  sunlight,  and  everything  smiling. 

I  partly  visited  in  the  neighborhood  the  farms  of  Messrs.  John  McMurchy,  from 
Leanagbhoich ;  Archibald  McEachran,  from  Auchnadrain ;  James  Stalker,  from. 
Achnacloich,  Muasdale;  Duncan  Stalker,  from  the  same  place;  Dougald  McMillan, 
brother-in-law  to  Mr.  John  Grilchrist,  Ballinvain  ;  Messrs.  Duncan  Campbell,  fromi 
Ballochroy;  Finlay  McNab,  from  Cour ;  Donald  McCallum,  from  Carradale;  Peter 
McMillan,  from  Achnafad  ;  and  many  others,  all  natives  of  Kintyre,  and  all  evidently 
doing  well.  I  then  called  on  Mr.  Neil  Walker,  from  Achnaglaic,  near  Tarbert  (who 
had  no  notice  of  my  approach),  and  who  gave  me  a  hearty  welcome.  I  took  the 
liberty  of  putting  inquiries  to  him,  as  to  his  success  since  he  left  Tarbert  in  the  year 
1874.  His  farm  I  found  to  consist  of  100  acres,  one-third  or  33J  acres  being  under 
wood  for  fuel,  one-third  under  wheat  and  hay,  in  proportions  of  about  18  acres  of  the 
former,  and  say  15J  of  the  latter;  the  remaining  third  contained  3  acres  of  barley, 
2  acres  Indian  corn,  14J-  acres  oats,  and  the  balance  summer  fallow. 

The  summer  fallow  land  is  ploughed  in  autumn ;  it  lies  exposed  to  frost  all  winter 
and  to  the  sun  till  the  Ist  September,  when  it  is  sown  with  fall  wheat.     He  explained 

33 


4  \    ^'ictoria. 


Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.) 


A.  1881 


that  when  the  land  is  first  ploughed,  it  is  so  tough  that  one  would  suppose  nothing 
-could  grow  on  it,  but  by  being  exposed  to  the  frost  in  winter,  and  to  the  sun  in  sum- 
iner,  it  moulders  away  until  it  is  like  the  soil  of  a  molehill.  The  soil  in  this  part  is 
black  mould  above  and  clay  below,  which,  after  exposure,  is  good  producing  wheat 
land.     If  the  clay  is  undrained,  it  is  good  for  most  crops,  even  for  apples. 

The  tirst  year  Mr.  Walker  came  to  Canada  he  bought  his  present  holding,  which 
C05^t  S3, 800,  or  £760,  including  log-house,  barns,  etc.,  he  having  also  the  straw  of  the 
waygoing  crop.  He  sows  v!  bushels  of  fall  wheat  and  2|  bushels  of  oats  to  the 
imperial  acre.  He  sowed  30  busnels  of  wheat  last  year  and  had  234  bushels,  which 
he  considered  very  poor,  and  much  below  the  average.  He  had  the  year  betbre 
thrashed  250  bushels  from  12  of  seed.  His  potatoes  are  much  the  same  as  at  home. 
The  rotation  he  follows  is  to  plough  land  that  was  under  wheat  (without  grass)  last 
year,  in  the  fall,  and  sow  oats  in  it  in  the  spring.  After  oats,  summer  fallow  it;  after 
fallow,  sow  wheat  again,  but  putting  all  the  manure  the  farm  produces  on  the  fallow. 
Turnips  and  mangel-wurzel  are  not  grown.  He  had  10  milch  cows,  7  two-year-olds, 
4  one-year-olds,  32  ewes  and  20  lambs,  5  pigs,  and  3  horses.  He  and  his  two  sons 
labor  the  ground. 

The  following  were  the  receipts  and  expenditure  for  the  past  year: — 

Eeceipts — 

Produce  of  cows  sold ,   $160  00 

Two  three -year-old  stots 56  00 

Wheat 233  00 

Wool 47  12 

Lambs 60  50 

Pigs 50  00 

$606  62 
Expenditure — 

Interest  on  $3,800 $190  00 

Taxes 20  00 

Labor 191  00 

Clothing 100  00 

Smith-work 5  00 

506  00 

Profit,  £20  28.  5d.,  or $100  62 


In  giving  the  above,  it  is  to  be  understood  that  the  items  interest,  labor  and 
clothing  are  merely  estimated,  as  he  does  not  pay  interest,  and  the  labor  is  done  by 
his  family.  The  following  were  Mr.  Walker's  returns  of  various  cereals  since  he 
emigrated  in  1874  : — 


Year. 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Oats. 

Pease. 

1875 

1876  

170  bushels. 

180 

310 

80  bushels. 

600  bushels. 

350 

220 

210 

165 

220  bushels. 
100    " 

1877 

105    " 

1878 

70    " 

1879  330    " 

37    " 

34 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.l2.)  A,  1881 


He  wished  to  impress  on  me  that  the  land  still  requires  great  improvements  to 
be  made  on  it,  and  that  if  it  were  farmed  on  the  same  system  that  is  adopted  at  home, 
it  would  produce  double  what  it  now  does.  With  regard  to  the  yield  of  the  cows 
Mr.  Walker  stated  that — in  May  last,  2.019  lbs.  of  milk  were  sold,  which  made  182  lbs. 
of  cheese,  which,  minus  expenses  of  factory,  realised  $1(5.56,  or  £:>  6s.  2d.  In  the 
month  cf  June,  2,996  lbs.  of  milk  were  sold  to  the  factory,  making  276  lbs.  of  cheese, 
realising  $17.60,  or  £3  lOs.  5d.  He  stated  that  in  July  there  was  a  drawback  owing 
to  the  hot  weather.  In  August  and  September,  although  there  was  less  milk,  it  took 
less  milk  to  make  a  pound  of  cheese.  October  is  the  best  money  making  month  in 
the  year.  He  can  average  $20  per  month  for  six  months  out  of  the  ten  coww,  and 
can  sell  $10  dollars  worth  of  butter;  that  is,  the  cows  produce  $160,  or  £32,  or  an 
average  of  £3  4s.  per  cow  ])er  annum. 

Next  day  I  drove  to  G-lencoe.  Maple  trees  abound  along  the  route.  I  passed 
Battle  Hill,  the  scene  of  a  tight  between  the  Americans  and  the  British  during  the 
war  of  1812.  Before  coming  to  Glencoe  I  was  shown  a  farm,  the  owner  of  which  had 
turned  his  attention  to  feeding  cattle  for  the  home  market.  Passed  the  residence  of  a 
lady,  a  native  of  Tangy  Glen.  At  Glencoe,  which  a  few  years  ago  was  a  small  hamlet, 
but  which  now  is  a  little  town,  having  good  shops,  and  doing  a  good  business,  I  saw 
for  the  first  time  the  sunflower,  a  large  yellow  flower  that  always  faces  the  sun. 

On  the  train  from  Glencoe  to  London  I  met  Dr.  McAlpine,  a  native  of  Lochgilp- 
head. He  wished  me  to  visit  Kilmartin,  in  the  neighborhood  of  London,  asid  to  call 
for  his  brother,  a  farmer  there,  but  I  could  not  do  so.  He  corroborated  Mr.  Walker's 
account  of  the  Canadian  method  of  farming. 

On  the  train  i  fell  in  with  a  Dutchman,  Mr.  Jacob  Utter.  He  has  a  store,  and 
owns  several  farms.  He  stated  that  Ayrshire  cattle  were  rather  tender  for  a  Canadian 
winter,  but  that  a  cross  between  an  Ayrshire  cow  and  the  Durham  bull  was  the  best 
breed  they  possessed  ;  that  a  good  cow  would  produce  milk  to  make  3  lbs.  of  cheese 
per  day;  that  nine  cows  averaged  $23  each,  or  £4  12s.,  for  six  months.  He  men- 
tioned that  ihe  general  return  for  wheat  throughout  the  country  was  25  bushels  per 
acre;  oats,  50  bushels;  barley,  35  bushels,  and  potatoes,  250  bushels.  He  gave  the 
following  rates  of  wages  as  applicable  to  the  district:  Man-servant,  $20  or  £4  per 
month,  with  board  and  lodging;  or  for  12  months,  $150,  that  is  £30  ;  maid-servant, 
$5  or  £1  per  month.  The  following  were  the  retail  prices  of  various  articles,  given 
by  him  and  converted  into  British  money:  Steak,  4M.,  other  beef  6^d.  to  4j^d.  per 
lb.;  Rio  coffee.  Is.  OJd.  to  Is.  5d.  per  lb.  ;  sugar,  3^d.  to  5fd . ;  tobacco.  Is.  OJd.  to 
2s.  6d.;  bread,  21b.,  6ic.,  or  12ic.  for  a  4-lb.  loaf~6Jd. ;  pork,  2|  d.  to  6d.;  ham,  6d. 

Having  arrived  at  Sarnia,  I  made  the  acquaintance  of  Captain  L.  M.  Morrison, 
of  Corunna  (Moore  County),  on  the  St.  Clair  River.  His  farm  consists  of  200  acres. 
I  did  not  visit  it  until  my  return  from  Manitoba,  but  I  will  here  state  his  experience. 
His  returns  were  :  Fall  wheat,  25  bushels  per  acre  ;  oats,  30  to  50  bushels.  Of  pota- 
toes he  just  planted  sufficient  for  home  consumption.  Plants  them  from  beginning 
of  April  to  beginning  of  May  ;  digs  them  about  1st  September.  The  following  is  the 
rotation  he  follows  :  Sows  wheat  this  fall  along  with  grass  seed,  IJ  bushel  wheat  and 
one-quarter  bushel  grass  seeds  per  acre  (mixture  being  three-quarters  of  timothy  and 
one-quarter  of  clover,  often  half  the  quantity  is  sufficient).  Next  year,  a  crop  of  hay ; 
next  year  again,  another  crop  of  hay  (no  manure  or  top-dressing.)  Lets  the  land  lie 
two  years  in  pasture.  He  mentioned  that  he  had  land  in  pasture  for  four  years,  but 
that  it  was  run  out  when  he  got  it,  having  been  twenty-six  years  in  succession  under 
crop.  When  a  field  is  broken  from  lea,  he  puts  oats  in  it  (2  bushels  per  acre,  sown 
with  seed-drill).  In  some  cases,  where  the  land  is  dirty,  he  does  not  crop  it  the  first 
year,  but  re-ploughs  it  several  times  during  the  season,  and  crops  it  for  fall  wheat  by 
1st  September.  Manure  is  put  on  the  fall  wheat.  The  land  is  not  under-drained, 
but  surface-drained .  It  consists  of  a  strong  clay  with  a  vegetable  mould  on  top. 
Clay  land  is  the  best  land  for  wheat.  Land  that  a  crop  of  oats  cannot  be  raised  off 
here  will  raise  wheat.  It  would  raise  oats  if  manured.  His  turnips  were  sown 
broadcast. — 1  lb.  of  seed  to  three-quarters  af  an  acre.  Turnips  so  sown  by  him  this 
year  promise  to  be  a  good  ci^jp.     Putting  turnips  into  old  land,  they  are  sown  in 

35 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.  1881 


drills,  but  the  drills  are  not  raised,  merely  run  the  turnip-sower  on  the  level  surface- 
about  IH  inches  apart,  and  thin  them  10  inches  apart. 

Potatoes  are  planted  in  hillocks  a  pace  apart.  Indian  corn  is  put  in  from  the 
24th  Ma}^  to  1st  June.  The  reason  for  not  putting  corn  in  earlier  is  that  it  is  liable 
to  spring  frost.  It  is  put  in  for  cleaning  the  land  principally.  Indian  corn  is  cut 
whilst  soft  and  the  shaws  green,  to  have  the  benefit  of  the  latter  for  milk  cows,  as 
the  shaws  are  better  for  cattle  than  hay.  The  grain  is  not  sold,  as  producers  in 
Canada  are  unable  to  compete  with  the  United  States. 

Price  of  wheat,  ^1  per  bushel  of  60  lbs  ;  barley,  60c.  per  bushel  of  48  lbs. ; 
oats,  34c.  to  38c.  per  bushel  of  321  bs.;  potatoes,  40c.  per  bushel  •  good  timothy  hay,  $10 
or  £2  per  ton  ;  Indian  corn,  30c. 

Of  the  two  farms  of  100  acres  each  which  Captain  Morrison  owns,  one  is  fully 
cleared  of  wood,  the  other  is  half  cleared.  He  has  in  one  farm  nineteen  acres  under 
oat«  and  corn,  twenty  under  barley,  twenty -two  under  hay  and  wheat,  seven  and 
five  under  hay,  seven  of  orchard  land,  twelve  under  wheat,  and  the  remainder  in 
pasture ;  and  in  the  other  farm,  fifty  acres  under  wood,  the  remainder  hay  and  pasture. 
He  has  in  all  400  apple  trees  and  20  plum  trees.  He  can  sell  600  bushels  of  apples, 
all  grafted  fruit.  Hia  etock  consists  of  12  cows,  28  head  of  young  cattle,  from  half- 
a-year  to  three  years  ola.  The  cows  yield  from  3|  to  5  gallons  of  milk  per  day 
during  the  grazing  and  feeding  months.  Milk  weighs  8  lbs.  to  the  gallon,  which 
gives  from  30  to  40  lbs.  of  milk,  or  3  to  4  lb.  of  cheese  per  cow  per  diem.  He 
usually  gets  from  7c.  to  lOc,  or  from  3J<1.  to  5d.  per  lb.  for  cheese. 

Price  given  for  fat  cattle  is  4jc.  per  lb.,  live  weight;  usual  weight  is  from. 
1,050  to  1,100,  but  he  has  had  them  as  high  as  1,400  to  1,500  lbs.  The  proportion 
for  dressed  beef  is  58  lbs.  per  100  lbs.  of  live  beef.  The  price  of  milch  cows,  any 
pure  breed,  is  $25  to  $35,  that  is  £5  to  £7 ;  but  he  had  been  asked  £20  for  a  thorough- 
bred Durham  cow.  Three-year-old  steers  cost  $35  each,  or  $7.  Average  weight  of 
sheep,  80  lbs.  Would  pay  for  an  imported  Leicester  tup  $30,  or  £6,  but  usually  gets 
them  amongst  his  neighbors  at  from  $5  to  $10,  that  is  £1  to  £2.  Draught  horses 
sell  at  $100  to  $150,  or  £20  to  £30  each,  being  from  15J  to  16  hands  high ;  average- 
weight  of  a  horse  is  1,250  lbs.  He  has  two  mares  weighing  3,000  lbs.,  and  17  hands 
high,  which  he  values  at  $400,  or  £80  for  the  two.  Pigs  are  either  Suffolk  or  Berk- 
shire. Coming  in  in  spring,  and  killed  next  February,  they  generally  weigh  250  lbs. ; 
price  6c.  to  7c.  per  lb.    Wool  sells  at  31Jc.,  or  Is.  3f  d.  per  lb.    Lambs  at  $3,  or  12s.  each. 

Man  servant,  boarded,  gets  $15,  or  £3       per  month. 
Lad  servant,  "  8        £1  12s.         " 

Maid  servant,         "  5        £1  " 

Man  servant  for  two  months,  20  " 

Man  employed  per  day  during  harvest,  $1  per  day. 
Taxes  on  200  acre  farm,  $72,  or  £14  8g. 

I  sailed  from  Sarnia,  at  the  foot  ot  Lake  Huron,  on  board  the  steamship  Ontario^ 
Captain  Robertson,  bound  for  Duluth,  a  town  in  Minnesota,  at  the  head  of  Lake 
Superior,  and  had  for  fellow-passengers  several  Canadian  farmers.  The  following  is 
the  rotation  followed  by  Mr.  Eckfbrd,  near  Dunkeld  Station,  County  Bruce,  Ontario. 
He  breaks  up  the  field,  sows  it  with  pease ;  when  pease  are  removed  next  year,  he 
ploughs  and  sows  it  with  wheat  in  the  fall,  about  15th  September.  Next  year  again, 
the  wheat  crop  comes  off  at  the  end  of  July ;  he  then  ploughs  it,  and  in  the  winter 
takes  out  his  manure  and  puts  it  in  heaps  on  the  field.  As  soon  as  the  land  is  dry  in 
spring,  he  spreads  and  ploughs  it  in.  About  1st  June  he  drills  it  up  and  sows  turnips, 
twenty-two  to  twenty-four  inches  apart,  and  thins  them  at  from  twelve  to  fourteen 
inches.  His  first  ploughing  is  as  deep  as  the  team  can  afford — about  eight  inches. 
The  soil  is  clay. 

We  left  Duluth  by  rail  for  Winnipeg. 

From  what  Cduld  be  seen  that  evening  on  the  railway  cuttings,  the  soil  wa8- 
black  vegetable  mould.  I  could  see  that  a  great  level  tract,  interspersed  withi 
swamps,  formed  the  general  feature  of  the  country, 

36 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No  12)  A.  1881 


Night  having  come  on  and  rain,  we  arrived  at  St.  Boniface,  opposite  Winnipeg, 
under  most  inauspicious  circumstances.  The  streets  of  Winnipeg  came  into  view  by- 
light  of  the  windows,  but  they  were  mud.  It  was  with  a  feeling  of  relief  that  we 
got  landed  at  our  hotel.  The  landlord,  who  was  a  Canadian  Highlander,  received  us 
kindly,  and,  after  some  trouble  to  himself,  owing  to  the  lateness  of  the  hour,  and  the 
absence  of  waiters  and  others,  got  us  as  substantial  a  supper  as  the  circumstances 
could  affoi*d.  The  house,  however,  was  fully  occupied.  I  got  a  shakedown,  and 
spent  the  first  night  in  the  Prairie  City  pretty  comfortably.  After  breakfast  an 
English  fellow-passenger  and  I  went  to  St.  Boniface  in  search  of  our  luggage  which 
was  to  be  examined.  We  grudged  the  50c.  each  that  were  paid  on  the  preceding 
night,  and  were  determined  to  walk  rather  than  be  fleeced  again.  The  morning  was 
dry,  but  the  wooden  pavements  were  as  slippery  as  glass  with  the  greasy  mud.  We 
reached  the  Eed  River,  and  crossed  in  the  ferry-boat,  which  was  of  great  beam  and 
capacity,  and  could  take  not  a  few  buggies,  waggons,  etc.,  with  their  horses  and 
occupants,  over  each  time.  I  forget  the  fare  paid.  We  reached  the  opposite  side, 
and  then  saw  the  steep  bank  which  we  descended  on  the  previous  night,  which  we 
now  ascended  with  great  difficulty.  We  soon  thereafter  got  our  luggage  passed  by 
the  Custom-House  officer.  A  person  with  "  checks "  asked  us  if  we  wished  our 
luggage  sent  to  our  hotel.  We  agreed  that  it  should  be  sent,  and  had  to  pay  75c. 
for  two  articles,  or  $1.50  for  four.  We  smarted  under  this,  but  there  was  no  help  for 
it.  I  suspect  that  before  we  got  the  luggage  to  our  hotel,  and  paid  the  ferry  both 
ways,  it  was  a  pretty  expensive  item.  My  companion  and  I  then  called  on  Mr. 
Hespeler,  and  received  a  map  and  printed  regulations  respecting  the  disposal  of 
certain  public  lands  for  the  purposes  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway.  He  also  gave 
me  a  jotting  of  the  route  he  suggested  I  should  take,  in  order  to  see  the  country. 
Several  things  combined  to  prevent  my  following  his  route.  I  had,  therefore,  to 
devise  a  route.  By  the  time  the  call  was  made,  and  another  call  at  a  bank,  we  found 
that  the  steamer  for  Portage  la  Prairie,  which  was  the  place  I  intended  proceeding 
to,  had  sailed  up  the  Assiniboine;  and  as  there  was  no  stage  till  Monday  I  had 
nothing  for  it  but  to  wait  at  Winnipeg. 

In  the  interval,  having  been  advised  by  Mr.  Sinclair,  Miller  Street,  Glasgow,  to 
call  on  Mr.  Gerrie,  Winnipeg,  who  owns  land  at  Sturgeon  Creek,  I  did  so,  and  Mr. 
Gerrie  kindly  offered  to  drive  me  to  his  farm  when  the  roads  became  passable.  At 
present  they  were  absolutely  impassable.  I  was,  therefore,  somewhat  downhearted 
at  my  bad  fortune  in  losing  the  steamer  and  being  detained  at  Winnpeg,  but  bore  up 
the  best  way  I  could.  Meanwhile,  I  was  introduced  by  Mr.  Gerrie  to  Mr.  Bathgate, 
Main  Street,  Winnipeg,  who  informed  me  that  coal  had  been  discovered  on  the  Souris 
River,  and  is  in  course  of  being  worked,  and  some  of  it  brought  down  to  Winnipeg. 
He  said  that  a  railway  is  likely  to  be  constructed  between  Winnipeg  and  the  Souris 
River,  also  that  coal  had  been  found  on  the  Pembina  Mountain.  Further,  that  great 
quantities  of  coal,  of  the  very  best  quality,  had  been  discovered  on  the  Saskatchewan 
River,  but  that,  in  the  meantime,  this  was  very  far  distant.  He  also  stated  that  on 
certain  parts  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  line  of  railway  not  only  coal  but  other  minerals 
were  reported  to  have  been  found.  Mr.  Bathgate  took  me  to  an  office  in  Winnipeg 
where  I  procured  a  specimen  of  the  coal  from  the  Souris  River,  which  I  have  in  my 
possession  now. 

The  following  is  the  experience  of  Mr.  McCorquodale,  Headingley : 
He  left  Craignish,  Argyleshire,  1853,  for  Canada.  Had  many  hardshipswhen  he 
came  to  Canada.  Bought  100  acres  at  $1  per  acre  ;  had  to  clear  it  all  of  wood.  The 
land  was  in  the  township  of  Greenock,  back  of  Kincardine,  Lake  Huron  He  got 
on  very  well  there.  Two  of  bis  sons  and  himself,  three  years  ago,  came  to  Manitoba 
to  see  the  country.  It  pleased  tiim  so  well  that  he  did  not  retiirn  to  Canada.  His 
eons  returned  temporarily.  He  himself  spent  six  weeks  travelling  through  the 
country,  looking  for  a  suitable  place.  He  did  not  sleep  in  a  bed  all  that  time.  He 
took  this  farm  by  share  from  the  proprietor,  Mr.  Cunninghame.  Mr.  McCorquodale's 
terms  were  to  work  the  farm  and  get  half  the  profits.  During  the  first  year  he 
looked  out  for  a  suitable  place  elsewhere,  and  purchased  one  of  320  acres  for  himself, 

37 
12—3** 


4[  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12)  A.  1881 


and  one  of  320  tor  his  Hon,  in  the  south  of  the  Province.  There  is  a  good  dwelling- 
house  on  each  larm.  The  larms  are  partly  sown  and  partly  planted,  ready  for  his 
going  there  next  month.  I  drove  through  these  farms  on  a  future  day.  They  were 
next  to  the  Mennonite  Settlement,  on  the  way  from  Pembina  Mountain.  Other  four 
pons  bought  each  3'JO  acres  at  the  back  of  Eock  Lake,  about  60  miles  farther  west. 
He  oonsideied  that  Manitoba  was  very  far  before  that  part  of  Canada  he  came  from, 
but  the  roads,  he  said,  were  very  far  behind.  This  was  certainly  a  great  inconven- 
ience to  new-comers.  ''  Any  one  coming  here,"  said  he,  "  taking  up  a  house,  has 
nothing  to  complain  of,  comparatively;  but  if  one  has  not  got  a  house,  he  must  pre- 
pare to  go  over  the  country  and  pitch  his  tent,  and  that  is  not  always  agreeable." 

The  followintc  is  a  statement  by  Colin,  his  son,  of  the  capabilities  of  the  land  pre- 
sently farmed  by  his  father  : 

''  Wheat  (2  bushels  sown  per  acre)  produced  35  bushels.  The  wheat  is  sown  in 
spring.  Fall  wheat  is  not  generally  sown  in  Manitoba,  but  a  test  has  been  made,  and 
it  has  succeeded.  Eeaping  commences  in  August.  The  land  is  ploughed  right  up 
that  same  fall,  when  wheat  is  sown  again  in  spring  in  succession  for  years.  Weight, 
64  lbs.  never  less  than  60  lbs.  per  bushel. 

"  Oats  average  75  bushels  per  acre,  but  it  is  not  usual  to  take  100  bushels  otP. 
Sow  2^  to  3  bushels  per  acre,     Oats  weigh  34  lbs. 

"  Barley  does  well.     Sow  2  bushels  per  acre,  return  60  bushels. 

"  Potatoes — 3  bushels  planted  produced  87  bushels  ;  400  bushels  have  been  raised 
per  acre,  but  not  on  his  father's  farm. 

"  Turnips  do  well. 

"  Indian-corn  does  not  ripen.  Farmers  cut  it  green,  and  it  makes  an  excellent 
feed. 

"  Cabbages,  carrots,  lettuces,  parsnips,  cucumbers,  melons,  squashes,  etc.,  do  well. 

*'  Have  not  yet  grown  apples.     Old  settlers  have  grown  them. 

"  Prices— Wheat,  65c.  to  $1.05 ;  oats,  42c.  to  74c. ;  barley,  60c.  to  65c.;  potatoes, 
50c.  to  $1.25.     The  two  prices  are  fkll  and  spring  rates." 

All  round  is  a  grazing  country.  If  a  man  cuts  as  much  grass  as  will  feed  his 
cattle,  it  is  then  suitable  for  grazing. 

The  hot  weather  begins  in  June,  about  Ist.  June  is  the  wet  month;  more  rain 
falls  in  it  than  in  all  the  other  months. 

July  is  hot,  with  occasional  thunder-showers. 

August  is  warm  and  dry. 

September  is  warm  and  dry. 

October  is  cool  but  dry. 

November,  winter  sets  in  about  10th.  It  sets  in  with  frost  and  occasional  fall* 
of  snow,  but  not  much  snow. 

December,  snow  falls  about  20th.     The  greatest  depth  on  the  level  is  22  inches. 

January,  snow  falls. 

February,  snow  falls. 

March,  begins  to  get  a  little  warm;   about  15th  begins  to  thaw. 

April,  snow  being  off  at  latter  end  of  March,  begin  to  plough  and  sow.  Weather 
pleasant  for  working. 

May,  usually  fine  weather,  and  devoted  to  sowing  purposes. 

The  months  of  March,  April  and  May  are  spring;  October  is  the  fall. 

Labor, — Farm  servants,  $16.00  per  month,  £4. 

Maid       do  6.00         do  1    is. 

Day  labourers      1.25  to  $1.50  per  day. 

Taxes. — No  taxes  till  this  year,  except  the  school-tax. 

Water  is  very  good  in  this  place — the  very  best,  pure  spring ;  but  in  some  other 
parts  it  is  impregnated  with  alkali,  and  of  a  saltish  nature. 

Soil. — If  the  grass  is  short  and  smooth,  and  not  a  close  sward,  that  ground  is  not 
good.  If  the  grass  is  long,  close  sward,  and  the  soil  black  clay  loam,  that  ground  is 
good.  Manuring  the  alkali  land  with  stable  manure  makes  it  good.  The  soil  where 
alkali  is,  is  of  a  sticky  nature,  and  manure  loosens  it. 

3S. 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.   1S81 


I^.B.— I  found  this  disputed  elsewhere.     Some  say  that  two  crops  of  beet  absorb 
the  alkali,  others  laugh  at  the  idea,  and  say:  ''  Have  nothing  to  do  with  it." 
G-rain  is  sold  without  any  trouble  to  merchants. 

Milch-cows  average  $35,  or  £7.  They  can  be  bought  at  that  in  the  country 
easily.  Cows  are  cross  between  native  cattle  and  Durham  bull.  Team  of  horses  cost 
from  $250  to  $300  per  pair,  that  is  £50  to  £60.  Team  of  oxen,  $140  to  $180  or  £28 
to  £36.  Mrs.  McCorquodale  says  a  cow  will  make  100  lbs.  of  butter  in  the  season, 
from  May  up  to  the  end  of  September.  Price,  20c.  to  25c. — yielding  £4  to  £5.  In 
winter  the  price  is  50c.  Sweet  milk  cheese  is  20c.  to  25c. ;  eggs,  25c.  to  30c.  per  dozen  ; 
poultry,  $1  for  young  turkeys;  $3  for  gobbler,  and  $1  for  turkey  hens;  25c.  for  com- 
mon hens;  $1  each  for  ducks;  $5  for  a  pair  of  geese. 

I  left  Headingley  next  morning,  driven  in  an  Indian  cart,  and  proceeded  to  the 
Biver  Sale  We  parsed  through  three  very  bad  swamps,  from  three-quarters  to  one 
mile  broad,  and  of  indefinite  length.  These  swamps  might  be  drained  into  the  Assini- 
boine  and  Sale  Elvers  without  much  difficulty.  The  Indian  ponj^,  Jeannie,  dragged 
her  owner  and  myself  through  the  swamps  and  over  the  prairie  grass,  eating  a  bite 
and  running  as  she  ate,  without  being  in  the  least  fatigued.  Her  driver  used  neither 
whip  nor  switch,  but  only  a  kind  word  of  praise,  which  she  evidently  understood, 
or  a  word  of  caution,  which  she  understood  equally  well,  or  an  appeal  to  energy, 
which  set  her  all  aflame  when  she  came  to  a  difficult  spot.  She  was  the  best  of  ponies. 
Her  owner's  name  was  Emou. 

Mr.  Alex.  Murray,  of  the  hostelry  of  the  Eiver  Sale,  a  branch  of  the  Assiniboine, 
has  a  stock  of  twelve  cows.  The  spring  was  so  wet  that  he  did  not  sow  Avheat.  He 
eays  the  carriage  of  wheat  to  Winnipeg  takes  25c.  off  the  price.  He  mentioned  that 
he  had  a  farm  for  sale  in  the  county  of  West  Marquette,  parish  of  Portage  la  Prairie, 
of  which  he  gave  me  both  particulars  and  price. 

We  left  the  River  Sale  next  day  in  company  with  a  Canadian,  he  being  on  horse- 
back. We  wej'e  both  bound  for  the  Boyne  settlement.  We  passed  some  very  bad 
sloughs  and  went  through  three  large  swamps.  The  prairie  grass  was  very  good  and 
abounded  with  dog-roses,  which  dotted  it  all  over,  growing  about  eighteen  inches  high, 
and  which  were  very  beautiful.  The  principal  grasses  were  bone-grass  and  buffalo- 
grass,  a  brown  grass  said  to  be  good  for  cattle,  also  goose-grass,  said  to  be  very  good 
for  horses.  These  grasses  indicate  good  soil,  There  is  another  grass  in  the  prairie 
called  by  some  arr^w-grass,  by  others  spear-grass.  When  drawn  and  thrown  it  sticks 
like  a  dart,  and  is  bad  for  sheep  and  cattle.  It  is  always  avoided  for  hay.  The 
arrows  had  dropt  off  when  I  was  in  the  country.  We  arrived  at  Mr.  Johnstone's  farm 
on  the  Boyne  after  a  long  journey,  during  which  the  Canadian  horseman  was  left 
behind,  his  horse  having  become  exhausted,  and  he  himself  being  obliged  to  dismount 
and  walk.  He  was  close  to  a  farm  at  that  juncture,  which  relieved  my  apprehensions 
for  his  safety. 

We  sojourned  with  Mr.  Joseph  Wells  Johnstone,  who  came  from  County  Oxford, 
Ontario,  in  18V0,  and  settled  on  this  farm.  Since  he  came  to  Manitoba  his  wheat  ha& 
averaged  32  bushels  per  acre,  but  he  has  thrashed  it  at  52  bushels  and  at  60  bushels, 
and  five  years  ago  at  48  bushels.  Last  year  it  was  20  bushels.  He  sows  1  bushel 
and  5  pecks  to  the  acre. 

As  to  oats,  he  considers  this  the  best  of  countries  for  oats,  which  weigh  42  lbs.  per 
bushel,  and  produce  70  bushels  per  acre.  He  has  known,  at  Headingley,  a  field  of  10 
acres  produce  1,010  bushels,  or  about  100  bushels  per  acre. 

Barley  weighs  from  48  to  52  lbs.,  and  an  acre  produces  from  50  to  60  bushels. 
Finds  a  market  at  Winnipeg,  which  is  60  miles  distant  from  this.  He  grows  no 
Indian  corn.  Price  of  barley,  last  year,  60c.;  oats,  50c.;  wheat,  $1  ;  potatoes,  50c. 
per  bushel ;  buttei',  25c.  per  lb. ;  pork,  10c.  per  lb. 

The  system  he  adopts  is  :  Starts  ploughing  about  15th  June,  and  breaks  land  till 
15th  July.  Leaves  it  lying  till  following  fall.  This  ploughing  is  as  shallow  as  possible 
— say  2  inches— and  from  12  to  14  inches  broad.  In  the  fall  he  backsets  it—that  is, 
ploughs  it  the  same  way,  being  3  inches  deep  and  12  to  14 inches  wide.  He  harrows 
It  in  spring,  and  sows  it  with  broadcast  seeder.     Has  a  lO-horse  power  thresher  i 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No   12  )  A.  1881 


charges  4i-c.  for  threshing  wheat;  3Jc.  for  barley,  and  3c.  for  oats.  Sows  timothy  and 
white  clover.  Timothy  is  a  splendid  success;  has  one  piece  which  he  cut  in  July, 
and  expects  to  cut  it  again  before  winter.  Mangel-wurzel  does  well,  and  so  do  turnips  ; 
also  onions,  carrots,  gooseberries,  currants  and  rhubarb.  Buckwheat  grows  well,  so 
do  cucumbers,  melons,  squashes  and  strawberriet^. 

With  regard  to  flies,  he  says  that  the  bull-dog  is  dreadful  in  July  on  horse  and 
cattle-  makes  a  horse  lean,  and  he  will  not  eat.  The  mosquitoes  need  no  comment ; 
they  are  very  troublesome.  The  buffalo-gnat  is  very  bad  for  horses  and  cattle  in  June 
and  July.  There  is  also  the  sand  fly,  which  is  not  very  bad,  but  is  fOund  where  there 
is  high  grass  and  scrub. 

May,  a  very  nice  month. 

June,  very  wet. 

July,  \ery  hot;  hotter  than  Ontario — up  to  100°  in  the  shade. 

August,  showery  and  cool. 

September,  flne  weather. 

October,  very  fine  month. 

November,  fine  month  ;  clear  and  frosty. 

December,  snow— 1  foot  average;  freezes  very  hard. 

January,  very  cold ;  thermometer  froze  up  last  winter. 

February,  cold  month. 

March,  not  so  cold  ;  snow  begins  to  melt. 

April,  fine  month. 

The  soil  is  black  vegetable  mould  and  clay  bottom.  The  water  is  sprini?  water. 
The  water  is  good  in  the  Boyne  settlement.  He  says  the  heat,  even  when  the  ther- 
mometer is  at  SO*^',  is  not  felt  so  much  as  in  Ontario,  as  there  is  always  afresh  breeze. 
Although  very  cold  in  winter,  he  says  that  cold  is  more  endurable  than  in  Ontario, 
there  being  less  changeable  weather  in  Manitoba.  He  spoke  of  the  Indians  dying  in 
the  spring  of  the  year  from  consumption,  but  attributed  this  to  their  being  careless 
as  to  keeping  their  feet  dry. 

He  has  seven  cows  and  three  teams  of  horses.  I  took  samples  of  oatg  and 
wheat.  He  has  one  crab-apple  tree  bearing  fruit,  of  which  he  is  very  pi*oud.  Mr. 
Johnstone  added  :  **  In  Ontario  all  I  could  do  was  to  make  a  living;  here  I  have- 
made  money." 

I  should  have  mentioned  that  wo  passed  the  Poplars  before  coming  to  the  Boyne 
settlement.     We  passed  Tobacco  Creek  settlement,  which  lay  east  of  us. 

We  started  on  the  morrow  for  Nelson vi lie,  but  were  overtaken  by  Mi'.  Inman, 
of  the  Boyne,  who  owns  800  acres  of  land  there.  Mr.  inman  spoke  of  a  blue  flower 
that  always  indicated,  by  its  presence,  good  water.  He  mentioned  that  he  paid  $10- 
for  160  acres,  and  got  160  acres  for  pre-emption  price.  He  bought  scrip  for  the 
balance.     He  has  60  acres  in  crop. 

Wheat  will  average  30  bushels  per  acre,  60  lbs. 
Oats  "  40  *'  34    " 

Barley  *'  30  "  48    '' 

Potatoes       ''  250  "  60    " 

He  stated  that  he  does  not  make  butter,  but  rears  cattle.  The  price  of  wheat  is 
$1  per  bushel;  oats,  65c.;  barley,  60c.;  potatoes,  25c.  in  the  fall  and  50c.  in  the 
spring  ;  butter,  20c.  Young  cattle  can  be  bought  in  the  fall  for  froija  S7  (£1  8s.)  to- 
$10  (£2)  per  head.  Hay  can  be  made  here,  deducting  expense,  tear  and  wear,  for  $1 
(or  4s.)  per  ton.  Two  tons  of  hay,  with  some  straw,  will  winter  a  yearling  well.  A 
three  year-old  steer  is  worth  from  $35  (£7)  to  $50  (£10).  Hence  he  considers  it  is 
more  profitable  to  rear  cattle  than  to  grow  wheat.  This  is  the  way  he  puts  it : 
"  Wheat  worth  $1  per  bushel  in  Winnipeg  last  season  ;  the  year  before  60c.  only ;  40 
bushels  can  be  taken  in  a  sledge  in  winter  over  the  ice,  by  a  team  of  oxen,  to 
Winnipeg,  sixty  miles  distant,     it  takes  five  days  to  make  the  round  trip. 

40 


44   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  1S81 


A  man  and  his  team  is  worth  $2.50  per  day $12  50 

Expenses  on  road  not  less  than 8  00 

$20  50 

Priceof  40  bushels,  at  $1 $40  00 

Off  expenses...  20  50 

40  bushels  realise $19  50 

"  Actual  price  of  wheat  48c.,  or  2s.  per  bushel." 

He  says  that  a  man  on  the  river  brought  12  sheep  from  Ontario,  and  they  are 
•doing  very  well,  as  he  has  lost  none  yet.  Prairie  dogs  are  dangerous  for  sheep. 
Water  is  good,  and  there  is  good  timber  near  him.  The  Dominion  harvesters  are 
very  bad  [N.B. — The  blackbirds  who  feed  on  wheat].  Wages,  $15  (£3)  per  month 
for  farm  servants,  $25  (£=))  per  month  for  haying  and  harvest  months  ;  $6  for  maid- 
servants (£1  4s.).  Taxes — School  tax  is  j^ths  of  a  cent  per  $1,  according  to  the 
value  of  the  land  and  other  property ;  he  is  also  bound  to  give  three  days  of  road 
labor  for  each  160  acres  he  owns,  or  pay  $1.50  per  day. 

The  Province  is  divided  into  municipalities,  in  each  of  which  there  is  a  warden 
and  five  councillors.  In  the  municipality  in  which  Mr.  Inman  lives,  every  man  takes 
eare  of  his  own  cattle,  and  is  responsible  for  any  damage  done  by  them  to  his  neigh- 
bours' crops  from  1st  April  to  1st  October.     After  that  they  are  free  commoners. 

Pigs  are  profitable — $8  per  100  lbs.     They  are  fed  on  cracked  barley. 

Fife  wheat  is  sown  mostly  on  the  Boyne,  also  red  chaff  wheat. 

Oats — black  oats  chiefly,  and  white  oats  also  are  sown. 

A  man  coming  here  to  settle,  should  start  with  oxen  for  the  first  two  years,  until 
he  gets  enough  crop  to  feed  the  horses.  Having  to  erect  a  house,  his  horses  are 
standing  exposed  to  the  weather,  whilst  the  oxen  will  take  care  of  themselves. 

Having  arrived  at  Nelsonville,  I  washed  with  soap  and  water  in  the  hotel,  and 
folt  an  uncommon  irritation  over  my  face,  whilst  my  hair  and  beard  seemed  to  be 
glued.  I  was  told  that  this  arose  from  alkali  water,  and  that  no  soap  should  be  used 
in  washing. 

Mr.  Nelson,  founder  of  the  town,  stated  that  when  searching  for  water  and  digging 
his  well,  which  is  the  well  from  which  the  inhabitants  obtain  drinking  water,  the 
vegetable  mould  was  18  inches  to  3  feet  deep;  then  3  to  4  feet  of  marly  clay ;  then  5 
feet  of  solid  grey  clay  ;  then  black  soapstone.  The  water  is  generally  found  between 
the  clay  and  soapstone.     "  If  not  successful,"  added  Mr.  Nelson,  "  try  another  place." 

Wheat  produces  20  to  30  bushels  per  acre.  Weight  per  bushel,  64  to  66  lbs. 
Oats          "         40  to  90                 "  "  "  38 

:6arley       "  40  to  50  "  *'  50 

Potatoes    "         200  " 

Mr.  Nelson  came  to  Manitoba  in  1877.  He  had  planted  cucumbers,  potatoes, 
eabbages— very  weakly  plants — on  the  28th  June,  and  they  all  came  good. 

Beets,  turnips,  and  mangel-wurzel  do  well. 

Mr.  Nelson  corroborated  previous  statements  as  to  the  weather,  remarking  that 
the  thermometer  showed  llO"^  in  the  shade  in  July,  but  that  one  could  stand  the  heat 
better  in  Manitoba  than  in  Ontario.  He  thought  that  the  cool  nights  helped  it. 
There  are  only  two  or  three  nights  in  the  year,  he  eaid,  that  they  don't  use  blankets. 

He  remarked  that  the  thermometer  froze  last  winter,  but  that  the  cold  was 
endurable  when  there  was  no  wind.  He  is  a  miller  by  trade,  having  grist  mills  which 
grind  wheat,  etc.,  at  ioc.  per  bushel. 

Nelsonville  is  a  thriving  little  place,  and  the  inhabitants  are  kindly.  It  is 
destined  to  be  a  place  of  considerable  trade,  as  it  is  on  the  track  to  Turtle  Mountain, 
which  is  fast  settling  up.  Mr.  Nelson  showed  m.e  next  day  tomatoes  sown  on  the  10th 
May,  which  promised  to  ripen.     T  took  samples,  but  they  did  not  keep.     He  showed 

41 


44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12)  A.  1881 


me  cauliflowers,  estimated  by  him  at  4  to  5  lbs.  weight.  Potatoes — early  roses  keep- 
till  the  new  ones  come  again.  Plant  them  from  1st  May  to  1st  June.  I  took  two 
samples,  and  one  potato  from  a  seed  planted  on  3rd  July.  When  the  hill  was  dug 
there  were  seventeen  potatoes  on  it,  the  sample  taken  being  the  biggest.  I  also  took 
an  average  onion. 

The  Pembina  Mount  is  a  rising  eminence,  so  gradual  in  ascent  that  I  could  not 
discover  that  1  was  ascending  it.  It  is  pretty  thickly  wooded  from  Township  4  north^ 
but  has  not  such  uninterrupted  good  prairie.  There  is  said  to  be  a  stretch  of  sandy 
laud  not  very  good  for  settlement  beyond  it,  but  good  land  comes  again  at  lurtle 
Mountain,  which  is  well  wooded .     Crystal  City  is  on  the  east  side  of  Bock  Lake. 

The  JRev.  Mr.  Edwards,  whom  I  met,  stated  that  there  was  plenty  of  land  all 
through  the  country  that  could  be  got  from  men  holding  the  land  on  Crown  patents. 
Tobacco  Creek  is  considered  the  best  settlement  in  the  country.  The  soil  is  loose 
black  vegetable  mould,  clay  bottom.  The  water  is  very  good  there;  Avells  can  be 
had  from  eight  to  twenty  teet  deep.  Wood  is  rather  scarce,  being  from  six  to  eight 
Biiles  distant.  Blackbirds  (or  Dominion  harvesters,  as  Mr.  Inman  called  ihem)  resort 
to  woods  and  water,  but  will  not  go  far  away  from  a  good  supply  of  both.  AH  the 
land  about  Tobacco  Creek  is  owned  by  private  individuals.  Mr.  Edwards  stated  that 
$5  an  acre  was  the  highest  price  asked  for  land,  and  fiom  the  location  he  considered 
it  reasonable  at  that  price. 

Having  now  turned  towards  Mountain  City  we  passed  Minniwashtey,  meaning 
*'  good  water,"  also  Adamson  Creek  and  Deadhorse  Creek.  I  was  struck  with  finding 
boulders  of  gi-anite  on  the  road  to  Mountain  City,  being  evidently  floated  there  during 
the  glacial  period. 

The  number  of  houses  that  Mountain  City  rejoices  in  is  eight,  but  it  will  probably 
be  a  big  place  byand-bye.  After  leaving  Mountain  Oity  the  stage  proceeded  to  Stod- 
dartville,  where  we  put  up  for  the  night.  Mr.  Stoddart  had  very  good  crops.  N'ext 
morning  we  started  early,  passing  Calamity  Creek  and  Liffey  Creek,  an  Ii*ish  settle- 
ment, and  the  farm  of  Mr.  Windraro,  M.PP.,  Bluff,  South  Dufferin. 

Ultimately,  after  passing  various  farms,  amongst  others,  Mr.  McCorquodale's,  we 
came  to  Austervitch,  a  Mennonite  village.  Before  coming  to  it  we  saw  a  great  patch^ 
of  alkali  land.     The  crops  in  this  neighborhood  were  light. 

We  could,  on  looking  back,  now  discover  that  we  had  descended  the  mountain, 
but  the  descending  was  not  realised  in  the  act.  The  Mennonites  have  very  good 
crops.  Their  cattle  pasture  together  in  great  herds.  They  had  steam  threshers,  and 
all  their  houses  were  neatly  thatched.  They  also  had  machine-houses  to  hold  their 
agricultural  implements. 

An  accident  happened  to  our  stage  by  the  rim  of  the  left  fore  wheel  coming  off, 
which  we  repaired  under  peculiar  circumstances.  We  came  soon  to  County  Touro, 
Ehineland,  and  met  a  party  of  emigrants.  We  passed  Snipe  Lake,  and  perceived  a 
horse  threshing-mill  treading  the  corn  under  foot,  according  to  the  Eastern  custom. 
We  met  the  Governor  of  the  Mennonites  driving  out.  A  large  windmill  made  of 
wood  was  in  one  of  the  villages.  Ultimately  we  came  to  Nyonloch,  and  dined  in  a 
Mennonite  cottage.  Everything  was  very  clean  and  tidy.  Sunflowers  were  cultivated 
in  the  gardens,  as  were  also  poppies. 

We  came  next  to  Grangehall,  ultimately  to  the  Eiver  Moraye,  and  saw  Smuggler'^ 
Point,  Dakota,  not  far  off.  Finally  we  crossed  the  Eed  Eiver,  and  entered  the 
thriving  little  city  of  Emerson.  The  city  of  Emerson  contains  about  1,500  inhabitants, 
and  it  appears  to  be  a  place  where  a  good  business  is  done.  The  mud  is  not  quite  so 
bad  as  that  of  Winnipeg,  but  it  is  bad  enough. 

On  Monday  I  returned  to  Winnipeg.  The  streets  by  this  time  had  dried  up,  but 
the  ruts  made  driving  very  unpleasant. 

The  following  are  the  prices  of  certain  articles  at  Winnipeg:  Breaking  plough, 
$25  to  i29;  common  plough,  $16  to  $22;  reaper  and  mower  combined,  $200;  horse 
hay-raker,  $35  to  $45;  waggons,  $95;  spades,  $1;  shovels,  $1.25;  hay-forks,  75c.; 
mur.ure  forks,  $1  ;  harrows,  $15  to  $35;  two  hoop  pails,  25c.;  three  hoop  pails, 
30c.;  16  inch   tubs,  90c.;  blankets,   $3;  wood,  $20  to  $40  per  1,000  feet;    dressed 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12.)  A.  18S1 


wood,  $30  to  $60  ;  shingles,  $6  per  1,000  ;  laths,  $5  per  1,000  ;  nails,  $5  per  100  lb.  •, 
doors,  $2.50 ;  sashes,  $1  per  pair ;  single  harness,  $20 ;  double,  $35 ;  hay,  $7  to  $12 
pel  ton. 

The  population  of  Winnipeg  is  from  8,000  to  10,000,  and  that  of  the  Province  of 
Manitoba  is  said  to  be  100,001).  The  Indians  are  supposed  to  number  about  4,000. 
There  are  about  13,000  half-breeds,  who  are  a  mixture  of  English  and  Indiao,  Scotch 
and  Indian,  and  Irish  and  Indian.  The  Mennonites  are  Eussian,  and  number  about 
1,000.     There  are  about  18,500  French  in  the  Province. 

The  Province  of  Manitoba  is  in  latitude  49^  0'  to  50*^  2'  north.  It  contains 
9,000,000  acres,  and  is  divided  into  four  counties — Selkirk,  Provencher,  Lisgar  and 
Marquette  (and  these  into  twenty-four  districts),  each  of  which  returns  a  member  to 
the  Dominion  Parliament.     The  land  in  the  Province  is  divided  into  ten  strips. 

1,400,000  acres  of  land  are  re>^erved  for  the  Indian  half-breeds  and  512,000  acres 
for  the  Mennonites.  The  sections  throughout  the  Province  belonging  to  the  Hudson 
Bay   and   school  districts   are   likewise   reserved.     There  are  also  Indian  reserves. 

Unless  the  land  held  by  speculation  is  thrown  open  the  tide  of  emigration  must 
flow  westward  so  that  until  the  country  is  opened  by  railways,  its  future  prosperity 
must  undoubtedly  be  greatly  retarded.  The  wild  animals  of  Manitoba  are  deer, 
bears,  brown  and  black  ;  prairie  wolves,  not  formidable  to  man,  but  destructive  to 
sheep  ;  foxes,  badgers,  skunks,  gofers,  and  the  common  grass  snake,  grasshoppers 
and  frogs.  Locusts  were  very  destructive  some  years  ago,  but  they  have  not  re- 
appeared. It  is  noticeable  that  all  wild  animals  fall  back  with  the  advent  of  the 
white  man.  Buffalo  bones  are  common  on  the  prairie,  but  no  baffaloes.  Although  I 
went  through  what  was  last  3^ ear  a  bear  country,  not  a  bear  was  visible  this  year. 
The  mosquitoes  and  other  fly  pests  become  less  venomous  as  agriculture  advances. 
As  for  fowl,  there  are  ducks,  bittern,  prairie  chickens  and  partridge;  and  of  birds  of 
prey,  hawks  of  great  size ;  also  several  others  whose  names  I  did  not  ascertain.  The 
pi-airie  does  not  look  like  a  solituile;  there  is  always  plenty  of  life  moving  about. 
The  grass  reminds  one  forcibly  of  fields  of  waving  lye-grass.  Trees  are  found  along 
the  course  of  streams.  In  some  parts  they  have  to  drag  wood  a  distance  of  twelve 
miles.  Compressed  straw  and  manure  is  used  for  fuel  by  the  Mennonites,  though 
wood  is  not  far  distant  from  their  settlements. 

Bad  land  is  easily  known  from  the  smoothness  of  the  surface,  the  sort  of  bluish 
green  of  the  grass,  and  the  very  sickly  hue  of  the  thin  vegetation.  There  is  no  alkali 
where  timber  grows.  The  wolf  willow,  a  sort  of  scrub,  grows  on  good  land.  Moles 
or  gofers  show  hills  which,  if  of  black  clay  or  loam,  without  grey  or  white  clay  or 
gravel,  indicate  good  land.  When  light  clay  or  gravel  is  turned  up,  the  land  is  not 
desirable. 

The  best  time  to  look  at  land  is  in  July,  August,  or  September,  when  the  grass 
shows  it.  If  one  goes  in  Mai-ch  he  is  in  danger  of  hisanimals  being  starved.  If  he  goes 
in  June  the  roads  are  impassable,  and  he  is  likely  to  find  great  obstruction.  A  farmer 
going  can  travel  better  and  cheaper  by  purchasing  his  horse  and  buggy  and  after- 
wards selling  or  keeping  them.  After  selecting  his  land  he  has  to  secure  it  at  a  land 
office.  Then  he  has  to  purchase  material  for  a  house  and  to  build  it ;  then  to  break 
up  his  land.  He  has  then  to  go  l^ack  for  his  family.  One  way  or  another  he  will  be 
put  to  immense  inconveniences  and  considerable  expense  before  he  can  settle  down. 

I  returned  to  Ontario  via  Sarnia,  by  the  steamer  Quebec,  Capi.  Anderson,  and 
visited  Captain  Morrison's  farm  in  Corunna,  being  afterwards  driven  by  him  over  the 
township.  On  his  farm  the  red  clover  grew  naturally.  His  apples  were  the  golden 
russet,  the  pear  aople,  the  snow  apple,  the  strawberry  apple,  Ehode  Island  greening, 
northern  spy,  Newton  pippen,  etc.  The  wheat  straw  was  put  up  in  stacks  for 
winter-feeding.  The  cattle  came  round  it  and  helped  themselves.  A  young  bull 
came  to  us  tossing  his  head.  ''Ah,"  said  the  captain,  "  he  is  missing  his  s  Jt."  All  the 
cattle  get  an  allowance  of  salt.  He  had  splendid  timothy  hay  stored  up  in  his  barn. 
He  showed  me  a  stump  extractor.  His  farm  evinced  that  he  was  an  energetic  and 
successful  cultivator  of  the  soil.  A  sailor  till  four  years  ago,  he  is  by  no  means  the 
worst  farmer  on  the  St.  Clair.     His  lands  are  well  fenced,  his  fields  are  levelled,  and 

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44  Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.  1881 


he  is  now  uiuieidraining  the  soil.  The  water  used  on  his  land  is  from  the  river.  It 
is  allowed  to  be  less  tinged  with  alkali  than  any  water  in  Canada.  Since  his  return 
from  Prince  Arthur's  Landing  on  Lake  Superior,  he  started  underground  draining. 

''  The  weather  at  Corunna,"  said  Captain  Morrison,  "  is  a  bluster  of  snow  in  March 
which  soon  disappears.  In  April  the  frost  gets  out  of  the  ground,  and  he  ploughs 
about  the  10th.  May  is  fine  weather;  puts  in  balance  of  seeds,  and  on  to  20lh  June, 
and  then  there  is  rain.  July  is  the  corn  harvest  for  fall  wheat;  August,  the  general 
hai-vest.  September,  sow  fail  wheat.  October,  tine  month.  November,  broken 
Scotch  weather.  December,  frost  stops  the  plough  January,  winter ;  snow  1  foot. 
February,  partly  snow  ;  cold." 

He  told  me  that  there  were  several  farms  in  his  neighborhood  for  sale.  He  also 
told  me  of  a  farm  belonging  to  his  father  that  he  would  wish  sold.  It  is  in  the  town- 
ship of  Finch,  Stormont,  Ontario.  I  met  at  Sarnia  several  parties  acquainted  with 
people  at  home. 

On  returning  to  the  township  of  Aldborough  I  made  further  inquiries  as  to 
returns.  Mr.  Stalker's  returns  of  wheat  averaged  20  bushels  per  acre;  oats,  60; 
potatoes,  20  returns  per  bushel;  barley,  160  bushels  from  12  bushels;  but  this  was 
not  good,  the  season  being  unfavorable.  During  mj  absence  they  had  had  a  very 
wet  harvest.  He  was  wintering  15  three-year  old  steers,  feeding  with  chopped  stutf, 
peas  and  oat^.  Peas  not  doing  so  weU  with  the  bug;  he  uses  Dr.  Tacbe's  antidote. 
They  put  all  the  manure  they  can  spare  on  the  wheat  land,  sow  it  with  wheat  and 
timothy  and  clover  seed  (5  lb.  timothy  and  5  lb.  clover  to  each  acre).  The  average 
price  of  a  three-year  old  steer  is  $40,  or  £6.  Visited  Hector  McPherson,  lona,  from 
Ehunahoaran ;  Duncan  McLean,  West  Aldborough.  He  thrashed  600  bushels  of 
wheat  from  21  acres,  sown  with  if  bushel  seed  per  acre;  40  to  50  bushels  oats  from 
2  bushels  sowing;  30  bushels  barley  per  acre.  Has  116  acres;  90  under  cultivation. 
Taxes,  $25.  His  rotation  is  wheat  sown  in  fall,  and  clover  among  the  braird  in 
spring.  Cuts  it  in  July.  Sometimes  has  a  second  cut  of  clover  for  seed.  Next  year 
he  lets  the  clover  grow  up  and  ploughs  it  under,  and  then  gives  fair  crop  of  wheat 
again.  The  townships  here  are  ten  miles  long  by  ten  miles  broad.  Mr.  Dyke,  in 
this  township,  sowed  12  acres  of  wheat,  and  thraehed  277  bushels.  Eaised  50  to  60 
bushels  Indian  corn  per  acre.  G-razing  is  from  2  to  3  acres  per  cow.  Grood  hay  2 
tons  per  acre;  light  crop,  IJ  tons  per  acre.  Tuinips  do  not  grow  well  in  hard  clay. 
I  saw  many  other  Kintyre  people — Mr.  Ramsay,  iVlr.  Stewart,  and  visited  a  cheese 
manufactory  owned  by  James  McLean. 

I  went  to  Lome  or  Bismarck,  where  I  met  with  Mr.  A.  Kerr,  from  Kilmory, 
Lochgilphead.  Left  in  1818.  Was  in  the  woods  all  his  life.  His  wheat  averages 
20  busl  els  per  acre,  weight  over  60  lb.;  barley,  30  bushels  per  acre,  weight  48  lb. 
He  stated  that  12  acres  grazed  5  cows  for  him  all  summer.  A  good  cow  should  make 
$35  out  of  cheese;  has  cows  that  exceed  that.  Leicester  sheep  require  great  care  ; 
South  Downs  are  best. 

I  met  with  a  German  gentleman,  J.  C.  Schleihauf,  who  gave  me  information  as 
to  shingles,  flooring,  etc. :  The  former,  $2.25  per  1,000;  the  latter,  4in.  to  6in.,  $18 
to  $20  per  1,<'00;  1,000  shingles  cover  100  square  feet.  Bricks  worth  about  $5  per 
1,000;  drain-tiles,  2J  inches,  $9  per  1,000  ;  3  inches,  $11  ;  4  inches,  $12;  length,  12 
inches.     Land  can  be  bought  here  fjom  $20  to  $30  per  acre. 

1  visited  St.  Thomas ;  took  rail  for  Dunkeld,  County  Bruce,  Ontario.  Saw 
splendid  land  on  the  line  from  London  City  to  Harrisburgh.  Passed  Guelph.  The 
land  here  seemed  to  be  gravelly  clay  with  loam  above.  Arrived  at  Dunkeld  station 
late.  Proceeded  to  Souihampton,  on  Lake  Huron.  This  country  is  not  very  pre- 
po.>sessing.  Drove  from  Southampton  to  Owen  Sound,  parsing  the  Dageen  Eiver, 
Cbif)[>ewa  Hill,  and  an  Indian  reserve  of  12,000  acres.  The  soil  is  light  and  sandy. 
A  good  deal  of  burk  is  made  from  the  hemlock  tree  for  tanning;  sells  at  $4  per  cord 
— that  is,  8x4x4.     Cedar  is  used  for  paving. 

Parsed  the  Saugeen  River.  Mr  Vl'ndrick,  who  owns  horses  and  buggies  for 
hiring,  ^itales  tliat  ije  sold  horses  at  $112  each  for  Duiath.  The  expenses  to  the 
purcha.-er  wei-e  $.iO  for  duly  and  $S  for  freight. 

44 


44   Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.l2.)  A.  ISSl 


There  is  a  settlement  at  the  Lake  Shore  of  Lowland  Scotch,  who  go  in  for  feeding. 
They  pay  high  prices  for  bulls,  have  good  cattle,  and  e:}ihibited  steers  at  Philadelphia. 

We  passed  through  the  township  of  Keppei.  We  skirted  along  the  Pottawa- 
tamie  Falls.  Ey-and-bye,  we  approached  Owen  Sound.  There  is  an  immense  ledge 
of  limestone  in  its  vicinity.  The  town  itself  is  beautiful  compared  to  other  towns 
which  I  had  occasion  to  visit.  There  is  a  market  in  Owen  Sound  daily.  The  price 
of  wheat  here  is  95c.  per  bushel. 

Donald  McKay,  4th  concession,  Sydenham,  mentioned  that  fall  wheat  averaged 
30  bushels  per  acre,  but  this  is  from  land  of  which  one-third  is  covered  with  slumps. 
When  stumps  are  removed,  such  land  yields  40  to  45  bushels  per  acre.  He  considers 
this  the  best  wheat-producing  district  in  Canada.  The  drawback  here  is  that,  having 
<3ommenced  poor,  settlers  were  obliged  to  take  crop  after  crop  ott  the  land  till  it  was 
cleared.  Now  that  they  are  getting  up  in  the  world,  they  intend  to  give  it  rest  and 
to  summer-fallow  it,  and  by  this  means  believe  its  fertility  will  be  increased.  Oats 
yield  from  40  to  50  bushels  per  acre;  barley,  45  to  50.  Turnips  grow  to  a  very 
great  size.     Grow  apples  13  inches  in  circumference. 

A  Mr.  McLean,  from  a  second  year's  crop  of  wheat,  produced  100  bushels  from 
2J-  acres,  as  stated  to  me  ;  that  is  equal  to  40  bushels  per  acre.  The  price  of  cattle 
and  horses  corroborates  the  price  already  given  elsewhere,  and  the  same  for  other 
produce.  Average  yield  of  hay,  1  to  IJ  tons  per  acre.  White  clover  is  natural 
to  the  soil. 

The  average  number  of  cows  kept  in  a  100  acre  farm  is  five,  with 
their  followers.  I  saw  here  Malcolm  Gardner,  from  Margmonagach,  Kintyre, 
and  a  brother.  I  also  saw  Francis  McNeale,  from  Orubasdale  Shore ;  Hugh 
McDonald,  a  native  of  Islay,  and  others.  I  passed  five  farms  belonging  to 
Islay  men  from  Port  Ellen.  The  following  is  the  system  adopted  by  some.  After 
breaking  up  a  field  it  will  fetch  five  good  crops  of  wheat  in  succession,  or  it  may  be 
worked  after  this  fashion  : 

1st  year,  sow  it  in  fall  with  wheat. 

2nd  year,  oats,  or  spring  wheat. 

8rd  year^  another  spring  wheat  crop. 

4th  year,  another  spring  wheat  crop. 

5th  year,  a  crop  of  peas. 

6th  year,  fit  for  spring  or  tall  wheat. 

Put  manure  on  pea  or  oat  ground,  and  sow  wheat. 

7th.  After  that  crop,  summer -fallow  and  seed  down  with  timothy  and  clover. 
Let  that  lie  four  years,  cutting  grass  annually.  Pasture  two  or  three  years,  and  it  is 
considered  again  fit  for  another  crop. 

In  this  township,  as  in  other  townships,  every  man  does  what  he  considers 
right  in  his  own  eyes.  The  great  trouble  they  have  is  the  limestone  boulders — a  good 
fault,  for  limestone  rock  gives  a  good  true  soil.  I  therefore  drove  through  Holland 
township,  which  is  twenty-eight  years  settled,  and,  like  the  others,  is  a  beautiful 
country.  English,  Irish  and  Scotch  settlers.  Country  a  forest  thirty  years  ago — 
infested  with  bears  and  wolves. 

Came  to  Chats  worth  station  ;  visited  the  fair  ;  cattle  not  good,  but  market  very 
good.  Went  by  train  from  Chatsworth  to  Toronto.  On  this  line,  the  narrowest  in 
Canada,  our  train  went  slowly — about  twelve  miles  an  hour.  Our  passengers  were 
dj-overs.  The  train  stopped^suddenly.  "  What's  up  ?  "  "Only  poking  the  cattle." 
*'  Get  up,  get  up,  get  up,  will  ye  ?  Get  up  !"  Drovers  were  on  the  line  poking  the 
-cattle  with  sticks  to  make  tbeni  rise  up.  After  the  poking  the  train  goes  on  again. 
By-and-by  a  frantic  ru>h  is  made  to  the  windows,  and  thereafter  to  the  bell-rop  3  to 
stop  the  train,  and  we  learn  that  five  of  the  cattle  had  leaped  out.  By-and-bye,  after 
a  drive  of  many  hours  through  a  poor  country,  enlivened  by  many  incidents,  such  as 
a  Scotch  terrier  racing  us,  and  barking  furiously,  night  comes  on,  and  we  ultimately 
-alight  at  Toronto. 

Next  day  I  went  to  Hamilton  to  attend  the  exhibition,  but  Canadian  exhibitions 
iire  not  like  exhibitions  in  this  country.     The  cattle  were  not  forward,  and,  although 

45 


M    Victoria.  Sessional  Papers  (No.  12  )  A.  1881 


the  oxhibilion  was  partly  open,  it  liad  not  been  formally  opened  by  His  Excellency 
the  Governor  General,  and  would  not  be  for  a  couple  of  days. 

The  land  in  the  neighborhood  of  Hamilton  needs  no  description.  It  is,  according 
to  the  people  of  that  quarter,  the  garden  of  Canada.  But  the  most  of  Canada  is  a 
gai-den.  The  orchards  of  this  region  are  extraordinary.  Clover  cut  first  in  June  is 
now  (September)  cut  :igain  for  seed.  I  can  easily  fancy  what  a  beautiful  county  this 
must  appear  in  spring,  when  the  apples  and  peaches  are  in  blossom.  It  is  literally 
a  paradise.  The  soil  in  this  disti-ict  is  a  deep  red.  I  left  Hamilton  for  a  trip  to 
Niagara.  The  soil  becomes  of  a  light  color,  but  the  fine  vegetable  mould  remains. 
The  fields  show  what  splendid  crops  were  produced.  More  orchards,  more  reclaimed 
bush — brick  and  stone  houses.  It  was  a  relief  to  see  a  stone  house.  Indian-corn 
extensively  grow" n.  Magnificent  orchards..  It  is  hopeless  to  descii be  the  land;  it 
was  one  panoramic  view^  of  sylvan  and  rural  beauty. 

We  passed  the  Jordan.  I  came  out  at  St,  Catharines,  and  drove  to  Clifton,  and 
visited  the  Falls  of  Niagara.     The  laud  in  this  neighborhood  is  limestone. 

The  falls  and  the  banks  of  the  river  are  subjects  for  scientists,  and  would  require 
a  very  lengthy  description.  They  are  valuable  geologically,  and  every  stranger 
should  visit  them.  Having  returned  to  Hamilton,  I  went  to  the  exhibition,  which 
was  to  be  officially  opened  the  next  day.  Among  the  exhibits  were  turnips  of  various 
species,  cabbages,  savoys,  parsnips,  beet,  squashes,  cayenne  pods,  pumpkins,  mangels, 
potatoes,  a  fine  collection  of  wheats  (spring  and  winter)  from  the  Government 
experiment  farm,  Ontario.  The  Toronto  cord  binder.  Thrashers  (3*7  cwt.)  and  engine 
(50  cwt.).  Prairie  Queen  ploughs.  No  cattle  forward  except  a  contingent  of  Here- 
ford and  Ayrshires,  and  a  shorthorn  steer  and  one  cow.  I  could  not  lose  another 
day,  in  case  it  might  cause  me  to  lose  a  week  ultimately,  and  therefore,  to  my  great 
regret,  left  before  the  Governor  General  arrived. 

I  then  went  to  Ottawa,  and  returned  b}'  the  Grand  Trunk  to  Montreal.  The 
quality  of  the  land  along  this  route,  on  the  whole,  is  good,  though  I  find  that  fall 
wheat,  equal  in  quantitj^  to  that  of  the  west,  was  not  raised  on  it.  I  called  on  my 
townsman.  Principal  McEachran  of  the  Yeterinary  College,  and  was  very  kindly 
received  by  him  and  his  brother,  Dr.  McEachran,  who  drove  me  far  into  the  country, 
and  showed  me  all  objects  of  interest  around  Montreal.  I  was  also  kindly  entertained 
by  Mr.  Drysdale,  Mr.  McNish,  and  Mr.  Alex.  Milloy.  On  the  Monday,  I  started  for 
the  Eastern  Townships,  going  over  the  Yictoria  Bridge,  which  is  tubular. 

Before  going  to  the  Eastern  Townships  I  should  remark  that,  in  the  bush  in 
Canada  the  best  land  is  generally  found  where  deciduous  trees  most  abound.  The 
pir  e  groves  on  sandy  ridges  and  swamps ;  on  sandy  ridges  it  is  of  regular  growth,  on 
swampy  land  it  occurs  here  and  there.  As  a  general  rule,  deciduous  trees,  such  a» 
maple,  beech,  oak,  etc.,  indicate  good  land. 

The  drive  through  the  French  country  was  delightful.  It  is  a  beautiful  country, 
and  the  farms  are  better  cultivated  than  those  on  the  line  from  Quebec.  The  system 
of  tiencing  with  straight  rails  is  now  introduced,  and  the  zigzag  Ontario  rails  cease. 
TVe  pass  the  river  Belo^il.  The  river  may  be  about  *200  yards  wide,  and  was  of  a 
sky-blue  color,  like  Lake  Superior.  We  next  ap))roached  a  place  called  the  Mountain, 
which  is  wooded  to  the  base  of  a  perpendicular  precipice  which  was  lost  in  a  fog. 
The  autumnal  foliage  is  rich,  abounding  in  green,  pui  pie,  yellow  and  brown.     . 

The  roofs  of  the  churches  are  of  tin,  and  the  spires  are  also  lined  with  that  metal 
The  effect  when  the  sun  shines  must  be  dazzling.  The  country  consists  of  panoramic 
views  of  rare  beauty.  In  the  fields,  the  ridges  are  not  particularly  straight — I  believe 
designedly  crooked.  I  have  noticed  the  same  phenomena  in  County  Galway,  Ireland, 
and  in  outfield  lands  in  our  own  Highlands.  I  also  observed  that  groves  of  poplar, 
which  is  a  sacred  wood  in  Catholic  countries,  abound  in  the  French  country.  At 
length  we  arrive  at  Durham.  Alder  buphes  are  now  seen.  These  bushes  do  not 
grow  in  Upper  Canada,  and  here  do  not  become  trees,  as  at  home.  Ultimately  we 
came  to  the  St.  Francis  Eiver.  The  scenery  here  is  gorgeous.  Painting  itself  would 
fail  to  repi-esent  the  loveliness  of  the  foliage.  A  picture  such  as  this  would  be  con- 
demned as  unnatural.     We  pass  Eichmond,  Mr.  McKenzie's  farm,  from  Loch  Broom  j 

4<J 


44  Victoria.  Sessional   Papers  (No  12.)  A.  ISSl 


also  Mr.  Steel's  farm.  Underground  draining  is  done  here.  We  come  to  Windsor^, 
where  there^is  a  paper-mill.  The  salmon  ascend  fifty  miles  above  Windsor.  The 
variegated  foliage  of  the  forest  is  lovely.  1  never  beheld  anything  more  beautiful. 
Mounds  of  earth  are  clad  with  trees  painted  in  exquisite  colors,  as  Nature  only  can 
mix  them.  Farmhou«es  and  lovely  white  cottages  with  green  blinds  add  variety^ 
while  the  broad  river,  like  a  huge  snake,  coils  its  way  around  the  base  of  mountains 
full  of  color.  A  graveyard  on  the  opposite  side  reminds  the  observer  that,  notwith- 
Btanding  the  beautiful  surroundings,  man  is  mortal. 

We  pass  saw-mills,  and  see  whole  logs  drawn  up  by  machinery  in  order  to  be 
sawn.     The  river  is  blocked  with  rafts. 

We  arrive  at  Sherbrooke.  My  first  visit  was  to  Mr.  Buchanan,  township  of  Bury 
— 140  acre  farm.  "  When  a  field  is  broken  up,'  said  he,  "  oats  or  barley  are  put  in. 
Wheat  sometimes  does  well,  and  in  some  places  better  than  either  oats  or  barley. 
Next  year  potatoes  manured,  next  year  wheat,  and  seed  it  down  with  timothy  grass 
and  northern  clover,  sometimes  Alsike.  White  clover  is  natural  to  the  soil.  In  poor 
land  the  ground  is  manured  for  second-year  crop.  It  is  allowed  to  lie  in  pasture  till 
its  turn  comes  around."  When  Mr.  Buchanan  came  here  six  years  ago  the  land  was 
run  out.  The  heaviest  crop  was  a  half-ton  of  hay  per  acre.  He  manured  the  land 
for  two  years  and  cropped  it,  and  laid  it  out  to  grass,  and  first  year  cut  1|  tons  to  the 
acre ;  the  second  year  2  tons  (part  being  manured  and  part  not)  per  acre.  In  some 
farms  this  quantity  is  taken  twice  in  same  year. 

Eeturns — Wheat,  25  bushels  per  acre 60  lbs.  per  bushel. 

Barley,  30  to  40  bushels  per  acre 48  '' 

Oats,  50  to  40  bushels  per  acre  (known  to  be  60)  32  " 

The  oats  are  small  long  oats.  Pease,  raise  them  among  oats  — two  thirds  of  oats, 
and  one-third  of  peas.  Beans  good.  Turnips  do  exceedingly  well,  but  there  is  too 
much  work  in  weeding  them.  Wheat  $1  per  bushel.  Other  cereals  as  in  Ontarif> 
and  Manitoba.  Buckwheat,  Mr.  Buchaann  said,  does  well.  The  more  rain  it  gets 
the  better  it  will  be.  It  produces  50  to  V5  bushels  per  acre.  He  sows  4  bushels  of 
oats  per  acre;  wheat,,  1^  bushels;  barley,  2  bushels;  buckwheat,  1  bushel.  Indian 
corn  requires  more  manure  in  Bury  than  turnips.  iOO  loads  of  manure  will  produce 
100  bushels  of  Indian  coin.  Cattle  sell  3c.  to  6c,  live  weight.  Horses,  1 100  for 
good  junk  (15  to  16  hands)  ;  cheese,  12c.;  butter,  cOc. ;  yearling,  $10;  two-year-old, 
$20.      ij  acres  pasture  per  cow  sufficient;  has  5  milk  cows  and  their  followers. 

Henry  Cowan,  Gould,  Lengwick,  stated  his  returns  of  wheat  to  be  20  to  25^ 
bushels  per  acie ;  oats,  30  to  30  bushels  per  acre;  barley,  15  to  20