A QUARTERLY ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE DEVOTED
TO ALL SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH
THE NAVIGATION OF THE AIR.
PornisHeD BY THE AERONAUTICAL Soctety oF Great BRITAIN AND PRINTED BY
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THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL.
The Aeronautical Journal.
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Communications respecting Advertisements to
be addressed to the Publishers, ‘* Aéronautical
Messrs. KING, SELL & OLDING, Ltd.,
27, Chancery Lane, W.C.
Editorial communications should be addressed
to the Editor,
58, Victoria Street,
Westminster, London, S.W.
of Great rita.
At a meeting of the Council of the Aéro-
nautical Society of Great Britain, held at
the Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi,
on Friday, December 7th, 1906, the follow-
ing gentlemen were elected members of the
Lord Monracu oF BEAULIEU.
Mr. LioneEL CALiscH.
Mr. Witt1am Epwarp BuRGEss.
Colonel SELDEN ALLEN Day.
Lieutenant GEoRGE Gipps, R.N.
Mr. Water JAMES GRIFFITHS.
Mr. ALFRED HarpIeE.
Mr. Jocetyn Hore Hvupson.
Mr. Samvuet Eric NEAL.
Mr. Witi1aM R. Patrerson.
Lieutenant ArTHUR Rice, R.N.
Mr. Harotp F. SMALMAN-SMITH.
The following gentleman was elected a
member of the Council : —
Bt. Colonel J. E. Capren, C.B., R.E.
FORTHCOMING GENERAL MEETING.
The second meeting of the 42nd session
of the Aéronautical Society of Great Britain
will be held at the Society of Arts, John
Street, Adelphi, in March next, the date of
which will be duly announced. The follow-
ing papers will be read:—‘* Wings v.
Screws,’’ by Colonel J. D. Fullerton, R.E.,
M.Aér.Soc.; ‘* Theory of Sailing Flight,”’
by Mr. José Weiss, M.Aér.Soc.; and “A
Study of Model Gliders,’’ by Mr. A. V.
It has been arranged to hold a kite dis-
play at Sunningdale on the occasion of
the summer meeting of the Aéronautical
Society of Great Britain in July next.
Members and others who may wish to dis-
play kites at this meeting are requested to
communicate with the Honorary Secretary
of the Aéronautical Society of Great
Britain, 53, Victoria Street, Westminster,
London, S8.W., as soon as possible.
To members there wil! be no entrance fee
for this display, but to non-members there
will be an entrance fee of five shillings for
the privilege of displaying their kites on
the ground acquired by the Council of the
Aéronautical Society of Great Britain.
All kites displayed will have to be ap-
proved by the Council of the Aéronautical
Society of Great Britain.
The following publications have been pre-
sented to the library :—
By Major B. Baden-Powell, ‘‘ Right to
Fly’ (Nadar), ‘‘ First Aérial Voyage in
Eneland’’ (Lunardi), ‘‘ Crochets in the
Air’? (J. Poole), ‘‘ Balloon Ascents ’’
(Rush), and “ Aéronautics ’ (Mason).
By the editor of Knowledge and
Scientific News, ‘‘ The Science Year Book,
By Colonel F. C. Trollope, ‘* Institut
Aérodynamique de Koutchino,’’ ‘* Qua-
triéme Conférence de la Commission Inter-
national pour L’Aérostation Scientifique,”’
publications of the International Com-
mission, for scientific aéronautics, January,
By Dr. Richard Assman, ‘‘ Ergebnisse
der Arbeiten des Kdéniglich Preuhiscen
Aéronautischen Observatoriums bei Linden-
By the Meteorological Office, ‘* Publica-
tions of the International Commission. for
Scientific Aéronautics,’’ January, 1905.
From D. Riabauchinsky, ‘‘ Bulletin de
L’Institut Aérodynamique de Koutchino.”’
From the French Minister of Commerce,
‘*Congrés International D’Aéronautique,
By D. Pecho Vives Y. Vich, ‘* Avance de
los Resaltados Obtendos en las Observa-
ciones del Eclipse Total de Sol de 30 De
Agosto de 1905.
ERIC STUART BRUCE,
The opening meeting of the 42nd session
of the Aéronautical Society of Great Britain
was held at the Society of Arts, John Street,
Adelphi, on Friday, December 7th, 1906.
The President, Major B. Baden-Powell, oc-
cupied the chair.
The Present: Gentlemen, the Honor-
ary Secretary will now read the minutes of
the last meeting.
The Hon. Secretary read the minutes.
On the Use of Kites in
By WILLIAM SHAW,
The exploration of the upper air by means
of kites was formally adopted as part of the
regular scheme of operations of the Meteoro-
logical Office in the summer of 1905, when
Mr. W. H. Dines, F.R.S., whose work in
connection with a joint committee of the
Royal Meteorological Society and _ the
British Association is well known, was ap-
pointed to organise and control experiments
in that line of meteorological research. The
objects to be kept in view were stated to
(1) ‘‘ The maintenance of a depot for the
construction and testing of apparatus.
THE AERONAUTICAL YOURNAL.
(2) ‘‘ The investigation of the upper air
over the British Isles by a series of simul-
taneous ascents on the days of the inter-
national ascents (kites and unmanned
balloons being used if practicable). Three
stations for each day of ascent are to be
arranged if possible within a range of 200
miles in the first instance, one of them being
on the coast. For the two of these ascents
not at the depot station, the central depot
would supply apparatus and instruct the ob-
servers, but would not be responsible for
making any payment to the observers.
(3) ‘* The supply of apparatus and instru-
ments for the observations of the upper air
‘o vessels of the Navy or of the Mercantile
Marine, of which the officers might be will-
ing to take charge of the ascents, and the
instruction of the observers.’’
The scheme of co-operation outlined by
the statement of objects has been realised
in nearly all particulars. Working at his
own house at Oxshott, Mr. Dines has carried
out a large number of kite ascents with re-
markably little loss and no serious mis-
adventure, except an unfortunate injury to
his hand. He has now transferred his base
to Watlington, in Oxfordshire, where con-
ditions are more favourable for operations
involving the use of a greater length of steel
wire than at Oxshott.
Mr. C. J. P. Cave, who had already made
some successful experiments with kites in
Barbados, has established an effective sta-
tion at Ditcham Park, in Hampshire, and
has worked in hearty co-operation with Mr.
Dines. Mr. 8. H. R. Salmon also joined
the scheme from the first, and, considering
the restriction imposed by the use of a
hand winch, has carried out a number of
successful ascents from the Brighton downs,
and has, in particular, explored the upper
air on several occasions of sea fog with very
In the meantime Dr. G. C. Simpson,
lecturer in Meteorology in the University
of Manchester, took up the work in con-
nection with the joint committee to which
already reference has been made, and a con-
siderable amount of work had been done in
selecting a suitable site at Glossop Moor
for experiments in the Derbyshire hills and
in remaking the old winding gear, lent for
the experiments, after a collapse attended
with some thrilling experiences at the first
ascent. By the time the new apparatus
was ready, Dr. Simpson had accepted an
appointment as assistant to the Meteoro-
togical Reporter to the Government of India,
and Mr. J. E. Petavel, of the Physical
Laboratory of the University of Manchester,
took charge of experiments at Glossop Moor
in the summer when kite ascents were not
practicable at Oxshott for want of wind.
At sea Captain A. Simpson, of the steam-
ship Moravian, an enthusiastic meteoro-
logist and a skilled observer, has made some
preliminary experiments with apparatus sup-
plied from Oxshott, the central depot, and
a set of apparatus was prepared for Lieut.
the Hon. C. F. Cavendish, of H.M.S.
Suffolk, who expressed his willingness to
make a trial of observations at sea, but in
the multitude of occupations in other direc-
tions I fear that the instruments have not
yet been dispatched to that officer.
Thus the observations so far secured
have been the kite observations at Oxshott,
Ditcham Park, Brighton, and Glossop
Moor, of which there have been altogether
upwards of 150. Mr. Petavel did, indeed,
send up an unmanned balloon from Man-
chester, which came down safely near
Huddersfield, but the curiosity of the North
was too much for the perishable record
which was so overlaid with superfluous
marking as not to be decipherable.
Colonel Capper, of the Aldershot Balloon
Factory, has also contributed observations
upon change of direction of wind with
The meteorograph which was designed by
Mr. Dines for use in the kite ascents, has
been enriched by the addition of a simple
means of recording the wind velocity. It
consists of a light sphere attached by a long
cotton thread to a pen controlled by a
spring. Thus pressure, temperature,
humidity, and wind velocity are all recorded
on the chart carried by the kite.
Mr. Dines has also designed and con-
structed new and extraordinarily light in-
struments, for recording variation of
pressure and temperature, which were ex-
hibited at the Office on July 6 preparatory
to their being sent as part of the British
Government exhibit to the International Ex-
hibition at Christchurch, New Zealand, but
with them the present: paper is not immedi-
From the commencement. of the current
year a brief summary of the results ob-
tained by the various observers taking part
in the co-operation for the exploration of
the upper air has been published from week
to week in the weekly weather report of
the Meteorological Office. That form of
publication was chosen because the Weekly
THE AERONAUTICAL ¥OURNAL. 3
Report includes maps of the barometric,
thermometric, and weather conditions over
Europe for each day of the week. The
scale of the maps is small, but it is enough
to indicate the general conditions prevail-
ing during the ascents of which the results
are given, and to enable those who wish to
follow up the meteorological suggestions
which arise from the results to form a pre-
liminary idea of the line to be pursued.
The summary of the ascents given in the
Weekly Report is almost unmercifully brief.
It gives only the bare figures for tempera-
ture, humidity, wind velocity, and wind
direction at the ground level and at the
fixed heights 1,660 feet (500 metres), 3,320
feet (1,000 metres), 5,000 feet (1,500
metres), and so on, with a short note in a
‘‘remarks’’ column of any conspicuous
feature of the ascent.
The question may fairly be asked whether
there is any useful information to be got
out of such a curt record, or if it would not
be better to wait till the observers have
had time and opportunity to discuss the
bearing of all their observations on various
meteorological questions before calling in
the printer at all. It is to that question
that I propose to direct your attention to-
night. I will not speak of the use of a
brief summary, such as that which you see
in the Report, as an index which would
enable anyone who wished to make a study
of the subject to select the ascents likely
to give him the information wanted for an
answer to any particular question. I will
take the more directly pertinent question
whether the information given enlarges our
knowledge of the upper air. From this
point of view I have only the same ad-
vantages as the ordinary reader of the
Weekly Weather Report; that is to say, I
base what I have to say upon what is pub-
lished, and not on the more expressive in-
formation contained in the original records,
of which, as a matter of fact, I have seen
Before entering upon the consideration
of the results I shall not stay to argue
whether a knowledge of the upper air is of
any practical advantage. I take that for
granted, but I should like to explain that
what I mean by knowledge of the upper
air is not merely a remembrance of what
has once been found to occur there, but
rather a guide to what does occur there
‘fas arule.’’ That is to say, our experi-
ence is of little use unless we can draw some
eeneral conclusions from it, and thus get
4 THE AERONAUTICAL $¥OURNAL.
some guide towards practical application or
I hope to show you that the records of
the year’s work, even in the curt form of
publication which you have seen, do advance
our knowledge from both those points of
I am indebted to Mr. Gold, Superintend-
ent of Instruments at the Meteorological
Office, for enabling me to show you some
of the general results of the year’s work, by
providing me with a number of diagrams to
which I will direct your attention.
Let me put down some questions to
which we will endeavour to obtain answers
from the diagrams, I will set them out as
an examination paper.
(1) Does the temperature of the air de-
crease regularly or irregularly with height?
Gradually or suddenly! Within what limits
is the rate of variation with height confined
at different stages? Is the rate of variation
the same for different directions of the
wind, or different for different winds in
any regular manner!
(2) Does the wind velocity increase aloft
in manner for winds from the
various directions? Is there any height at
which the wind velocity practically ceases
to increase! Is there any sudden transi-
tion in direction or in velocity /
(3) Does the humidity of the air always
increase with height and consequent reduc-
tion temperature until saturation is
reached, and after saturation is reached
and cloud formed does the saturation con-
tinue to greater heights, or can we find
evidence of dry layers above moist ones?
(4) In those sections of the atmosphere
where there is no extraordinary change in
the temperature with height is the com-
position of the atmosphere homogeneous,
or, to be more precise, are the proportions
of water vapour and dry air at different
levels such as would be the case if the air
within the section were churned up and
thoroughly mixed and then allowed to
settle, or is the atmosphere, as we find it,
stratitied in layers of different composition ?
Now let us turn to the diagrams to see
what suggestions we can get for answers to
these. questions. To many of them any ex-
pert in aéronautics would doubtless be able
to give an answer off-hand from his own
experience, but I wish you to consider
whether answers can be obtained from the
meagre information of the published results
of the kite ascents.
The diagrams have an element of novelty
about them in that the condition of the air
at 1,660 feet (500 metres) has been taken
as the datum in each case, instead of that
at the surface. The reason for this is that
the surface is liable to all sorts of local dis-
turbing causes. There may be local effects
in the way of warming—indeed, the thermo-
graph trace may not be in proper working
order at the start; the wind velocity at the
surface is a purely local matter depending
upon the screening due to trees, buildings,
or other obstacles, or what may be called
for brevity the friction of the ground. In-
deed, it is only at Oxshott, where there is
a stationary anemometer, that the surface
velocity of the wind is given. There are
difficulties about determining the velocity
with the kite close to the ground. And in
like manner the local influence of the ground
upon the humidity or air-composition as
regards water vapour may be very great ;
consequently the condition of affairs at the
ground level gives bad datum values to
which to refer the variations shown above.
The 500 metre level has been chosen instead,
because it is next in the published tables.
I am not prepared to say that the selection
of that particular level is the most appro-
priate. That is a question upon which I
should like the opinion of those who are in
2 position to study the details of the re-
The first three sets of diagrams, then,
show the variations in temperature, wind
velocity, and humidity from the values of
those quantities in the several ascents at the
500 metre level. Heights are shown by
vertical distances and increases of tempera-
ture, wind velocity, and humidity by dis-
tances measured from left to right and vice
versa according to a scale indicated on the
In order to get the general results, rather
than the individual details, the diagrams
originally drawn to show the values for the
individual ascents have been generalised in
those represented on the screen by drawing
lines to represent changes approximately
indicated by the members of a group of
ascents. The lines are thus average lines,
and the number of ascents which each line
represents for each stage is given by a
figure against the line. Thus, in the tem-
perature diagram for Oxshott, S.W. winds,
the full line, between the two dotted lines,
represents the mean result of twenty ascents,
and the full line beyond the dotted line re-
presents the mean result of eleven ascents.
January, 1907. THE AERONAUTICAL FOURNAL.
| a N.W. Winds,
f é S.W. Winds,
ROE LESSEE NE RAPS
THE AERONAUTICAL $OURNAL.
500 meres —
January, 1907.) THE AERONAUTICAL YOURNAL. -
Dotted lines show extreme variations,
S.W. Winds, S.E. Winds,
8 THE A ERONA UTIC AL JOURNAL. (January, 1907,
MASS OF VAPOUR
“8 PER CUBIC METRE.
MASS OF AIR
N.W. Winds. N.E. Winds.
. 100 represents
Scale. trains of water
100 represents 8 grains of va‘er vapour per cubic
/ vapour per cubic metre nearly metre nearly.
| * y . i
SE ee ee ae 500 oe oe
f N \
Hi lh VN a. ‘.
’ a ~ *
o— 2 =—-
S.W. Winds. S.E. Winds.
Tke dotted line shows how the ratio would change with saturation from the beginning and adiabatic
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL. 9
In order to give the reader an immediate
impression of the numerical distribution, the
thickness of the lines in the diagrams has
been adjusted so that the thickest lines
indicate the most numerous groups.
Let me next explain the dotted lines in
the diagrams. In those relating to tem-
perature they correspond with certain lines
of theoretical variation of temperature
known as the adiabatic lines for dry air
and saturated air respectively. The line of
less slope, indicating more rapid fall of
temperature with increasing height, is a line
of adiabatic change for ‘‘dry’’ air. If a
mass of air could be isolated and completely
protected against any gain or loss of heat
during its travels, its temperature would
diminish as it rose and increase as it fell
simply in consequence of its expansion under
the release of pressure in the first case, and
its compression under the added pressure
in the second. The change of temperature
with height would be indicated by the
dotted line of less slope for ascending or
descending air so long as the air caused no
cloud of water drops. When the air carries
water drops the temperature changes are
less, because evaporation or condensation
of water interferes, and we get. a thinning of
the cloud instead of the full warming in
descent and thickening of the cloud instead
of the full cooling in ascent. Air actually
ascending or descending with any consider-
able rapidity is practically freed from any
accessions or losses of heat, consequently
we may anticipate that its change of tem-
perature with height should be along the
dotted line of less slope if it is free from
water drops, or along the dotted line of
greater slope if it contains water drops.
We cannot easily explain changes of tem-
perature in an isolated mass of air more
rapid than the ‘‘ dry ’’ adiabatic rate or less
rapid than the ‘‘ saturated ’’ adiabatic rate ;
consequently the presence of lines in the
temperature diagrams outside the region
between the two dotted lines affords
material for speculation and further in-
vestigation. It must be remarked that. in
plotting the results of a kite ascent we do
not record the successive temperatures of
the same specimen of air, or even of the
same section, but of different points of
successive sections as the whole stream flows
past the kite, so that all sorts of variations
may be expected unless the stream under
investigation is steady and persistent. We
need not, therefore, be surprised at irregu-
lar changes, but in due time we might be
able to account for them in some rational
manner. Thus the cases when the varia-
tions shown in the diagrams are outside the
limits of the two adiabatics may be regarded
as affording material for another examina-
tion paper in the future.
On the humidity diagrams the changes
shown in the humidity of the air are much
more violent and sudden than in the dia-
grams of the other elements. The dotted
lines on those diagrams indicate the ex-
treme variations recorded in the ascents re-
ported in the published results.
The diagrams here reproduced represent
the results for Oxshott, grouped according
to the direction of the wind which raised
the kites, for the four quadrants, N. to E.,
E. to S., S. to W., and W. to N. On this
occasion time does not allow of the com-
parison of the results with those obtained
at the other stations mentioned. Moreover,
the numbers of ascents for the different
quadrants are very unequal, and, therefore,
such general conclusions as may be drawn
from them are liable to modification with
more extended experience.
With these preliminary explanations let
us turn to our examination paper.
(1) The winds in the N.E. quadrant show
remarkably regular decrease of temperature
nearly at the ‘‘dry’’ adiabatic rate up to
5,000 feet (1,500 metres), but at each stage
there are ascents which indicate a cessation
of the decrease. For the S.E. quadrant the
ascents are few (only five), but with one
exception they show a decrease nearly at
the ‘‘ saturation’’ adiabatic rate, slacken-
ing off at 1,500 metres. For the S.W.
quadrant, below 500 metres, there are two
groups, one of 20 with an average gradient
intermediate between the ‘‘dry’’ and
‘“ saturation ’’ adiabatics, and one of 11
with gradient greater than the ‘‘dry”’
adiabatic, which may be due to special sur-
face heating. Above 500 metres there is a
marked bifurcation: 19 go on in continua-
tion of the line of the large group of the
first stage, but eight show very slight fall
of temperature, and for one there is a
marked inversion of temperature change.
The next stage is also marked by irregu-
larities. The N.W. wind seems again to
be more steady as to its gradient, with one
marked exception. Thus we may fairly say
that the temperature changes lie for the
most part between the ‘‘dry’’ and ‘‘ satu-
rated ’’ adiabatic rates, that the northern
winds show the steadier changes, but that
sudden and comparatively violent changes,
ly THE AERONAUTICAL $OURNAL.
most frequent in the S.W. quadrant, which
happens to be also the quadrant of most
frequent ascents, are liable to occur.
(2) The diagrams of wind velocity are
particularly interesting. The average line
ior the winds of the N.E. quadrant shows
only an increase of nine miles per hour up
to 500 metres; beyond that the average
variation is practically very small, though
there are special cases of sudden change in
either direction which indicate a distinct
change of current. The S.E. quadrant
shows an average increase of 16 miles per
hour up to 500 metres; beyond that very
little increase on the average, and a general
diminution in the cases of three ascents,
which went beyond 1,500 metres. For the
S.W. quadrant an increase of 18 miles per
hour shown in the average for 24 ascents
for the first stage there is comparatively
little variation in the average, although for
five ascents to 1,500 metres and three be-
yond that stage the velocity does go on
increasing right up to the highest limit.
The theoretical bearing of this result is of
great interest. The N.W. quadrant again
shows considerable increase for the first
stage, but beyond that, on the average,
Thus it appears that whatever be the law
of variation of velocity with height the
increase of velocity which at Oxshott is
greatest for south-westerly winds and least
for north-easterly, has practically ceased at
500 metres, except in certain cases, which
suggest the existence of special meteoro-
logical conditions requiring further investi-
Temporary fluctuations of wind velocity
are apparently to be expected at any height.
At Glossop Moor, where observations were
conducted in August and September, the
wind, if sufficient to raise a kite at all, rises
so rapidly at considerable heights as fre-
quently to wreck the kite, thus rendering
observations at that station particularly
(3) The humidity diagrams do not admit
of any such simple descriptions as those for
temperature and wind velocity. All sorts
of variations are shown at all heights, ex-
cept in the case of north-westerly winds,
of which there are, however, very few ex-
amples. That is the only quadrant for which
no diminution of humidity is shown at any
stage of an ascent. That result may be
purely fortuitous. In the indications of
bewildering variety of changes shown in the
other diagrams as, for example, in that for
the S.W. quadrant, we may have a tend-
ency towards a maximum of humidity at 500
metres; there are 22 examples of humidity
increasing for the first stage, 12 of diminu-
tion for the next stage. Higher up the
tendency of the air to become drier is still
more marked. Six ascents show drier air
at the third stage, four no change, and only
four increased humidity at that stage.
For the N.E. quadrant the tendency to-
wards diminished humidity does not show
itself until after the second stage is passed.
The great irregularities in the variations
of humidity with height are doubtless due
to the facility with which cloud forms in
air, cooled by the expansion due to the
diminishing pressure of rising air. In this
respect the properties of moisture are differ-
ent from those of the other constituents of
the air, and the proportion of moisture to
dry air in a certain mass of the mixture
may be taken as a criterion for determining
the points suggested in the fourth question
of the paper.
(4) To answer this question special dia-
grams have been prepared representing the
variation with height of the ratio of the
mass of vapour to the mass of air per cubic
metre. For these the lines of the separate
ascents are shown because it is difficult to
select representative average lines as in the
case of the other elements. The run of the
lines may be compared with one or other of
two theoretical lines. Of these two lines
the first represents what would happen if
the air could be regarded as having been
thoroughly stirred ; in that case the ratio of
water vapour to air in a cubic metre would
be the same at all heights, and the limiting
or test line in that case would be simply a
vertical line. The second represents the
changes that would be incidental to a cloudy
atmosphere, 7z.e., complete saturation, at
every stage. In this case the actual
umount of water present compared with the
dry air would diminish with height, be-
cause the temperature falls and less water
is required to saturate air at lower tempera-
ture. The second line has been calculated
by Mr. Gold and plotted as a dotted line
in the diagram.
It will be seen that we cannot generalise
the lines on the diagram at any stage by
referring them to the vertical line or the
saturation line. Clearly the composition of
the air does not remain the same at all
heights. For the most part there is less
water in proportion to dry air up above
than lower down, but there are evidently
striking exceptions in the one direction or
in the other.
We have thus definite evidence of more
or less horizontal stratification in the at-
mosphere, which is borne out by numerous
examples in the other diagrams, the sudden
changes of wind velocity, the sudden changes
of relative humidity, and the changes of
temperature gradient all point to stratitica-
tion, disturbed, perhaps, but not obliterated
by the convection currents which must be
produced by various sources of local heating
at the surface or elsewhere. And if we con-
sider for a moment, we can gather plenty of
ocular evidence of stratification. The
ordinary stratus cloud must represent a
more or less horizontal layer of stratified
air covering a vast area, many thousands of
square miles; an overcast day without rain
must mean the persistence of that stratifica-
tion for a very long time without much
change. The evidence from our kite ascents
shows us that there are many examples of
stratification in the atmosphere, and, in-
deed, it is not too much to say that the two
well-known forms of cloud, the cumulus and
the stratus, represent two types of condi-
tion in the atmosphere which must be re
presented in the kite ascents if we extract
all their meaning.
The convective condition illustrated by
the cumulus cloud is of limited horizontal
extent. It is sometimes referred to in the
notes of the observers, and it is represented
in the results by those cases in which the
temperature gradient is adiabatic, either
‘“‘ saturated ’’ for rising air in clouds, or
“dry ’’ for descending air. The stratified
condition represented below by stratus cloud
is shown in the kite results by the changes
in the composition of the air at different
I am sorry that I have not time or space
to refer to the comparison of the results for
different stations. As a matter of fact that
part of the initial programme which referred
to simultaneous ascents at three stations has
not been carried out as fully as could be
wished, because each observer has had to
wait an opportunity, and the opportunities
have seldom been coincident, so that the
comparison of the results from the different
stations would practically involve merely the
comparison of the general results drawn
from each. But I should like to refer again
to the cases of ascents at Brighton under
the conditions of sea fog. The only ex-
amples that I happened to notice in the
course of the year showed a conspicuous
THE AERONAUTICAL $¥OURNAL. it
increase of temperature in the fog at the
first stage of 500 metres. This is as it
should be if sea fog is due to the cooling of
the surface layer of a warm current by cold
sea water, and there is a good deal of evi-
dence for that view of the origin of many
sea fogs, but in compiling the results Mr.
Gold came across other examples of Mr.
Salmon’s observations, which showed no
increase of temperature for the first stage,
but in one case a decrease nearly ap-
proaching the adiabatic rate. It may be
remarked that a sea fog might not extend
so high as 1,000 feet, and that there may
be room for a reversal of the gradient be-
tween the ground level and the first stage.
These and other suggestions which would
account either for an abnormally high sur-
face temperature or an abnormally low
reading at 500 metres, require further ex-
I have made no remarks about the varia-
tion of wind direction. The estimations of
direction in the upper air are, in any case,
difficult, and when the top kite is hidden
by clouds, not possible. As a general rule,
but not always, the wind veers slightly
aloft. No case ig reported of a kite reach-
ing a current of markedly different direc-
tion by sudden transition. Thus it would
appear that the sudden changes which take
place in the composition of the atmosphere
or the velocity of the wind are not accom-
panied by equally sudden and extensive
changes in wind direction.
I have now completed the examination
paper, and I think we may regard the
general conclusions as to the tailing off of
the increase of wind with height and the
differences in the increase of velocity for
different directions and for the first stage
as information of very considerable impor-
tance. Ina similar way we may regard the
evidence for the stratification of the atmo-
sphere drawn from the humidity results and
confirmed by them for wind velocity and
temperature as equally striking and valu-
able. It only remains to consider what
indications the results give us for future
First and most evidently, whether the
general statements that have been made
here on rather slender foundation can be
laid down with greater security; whether
the exceptions as in the case of the increase
of temperature aloft in a sea fog can be ex-
plained without abandoning the general
statement, as, for example, by some acci-
dental initial warming of the thermograph.
Next we want to know more exactly the
shape of the curve of variation of wind
velocity with height for the various direc-
tions from which the wind comes. For this
purpose the jump from the ground to 500
metres is too great: we want to know about
the intermediate portion. Next we want
to know what are the meteorological condi-
tions under which the wind fails at higher
levels or goes on increasing up to the high-
est limit. Also some more precise infor-
mation about the wind direction at the
upper levels is very desirable. It is evi-
dent to the casual observer on some days
that the upper clouds move directly oppo-
site to the lower clouds. How is the transi-
tion between the two effected? By a
gradual alteration in direction, or by a
falling off in the velocity until a calm layer
is reached and then gradual increase in the
new direction ?
Next we want a more careful study of the
boundary region between two stratified
layers of different composition. If, as I
have said, the atmospheric processes may
be resolved into convection and stratifica-
tion, the careful examination of either or
both would be most valuable. For this the
observer would have to train himself to
recognise the signs of a marked stratifica-
tion and a marked convection and manipu-
late the kite to get a prolonged record in
the region to be specially examined.
Finally there is the part of the programme
of co-operation still to be taken in hand,
namely, concurrent observations at the
same time in different places. Such com-
parisons as are possible from the published
results show that the phenomena at the
two stations, Oxshott and Ditcham Park,
though similar, are not identical, and the
examination of the records for salient points
of difference is well worth the effort re-
quired to make it. Perhaps it may be
possible to arrange for the opportunities to
occur simultaneously at the four stations
where ascents are now made, and I hope
before another year elapses that further
progress may be made with the work by
means of unmanned balloons so that a
greater height may be brought under re-
As it is, I wish most cordially to con-
gratulate the observers at the several sta-
tions who have contributed in their various
ways to the results which I have sketched in
this paper upon the year’s work.
Mr. Dives: Dr. Shaw has taken
metres as a starting point, so to speak.
12 THE AERONAUTICAL YOURNAL.
is not possible to publish results of observa-
tions in very great detail, and it is, there-
fore, necessary to take some point to start
from, for the sake of comparisons. It may
occur to you to wonder why some lower
point might not be taken. It would be an
advantage if we could leave a kite at a few
hundred feet above the surface so as to get
the temperature conditions uninfluenced by
the surface, and I should like to do so if it
were possible, but in practical work, as a
rule, it is not possible. On calm days one
often has to wait some time before one gets
a chance of going through the surface wind,
and the kite soon falls to the ground. Then
on days when the wind is strong, particu-
larly when there is a west wind, it is most
likely to be broken, because the wind is
gusty. I always try to get a kite through
that region of surface wind as quickly as
Dr. Shaw pointed out one case in which
the temperature decrease exceeded the adia-
batic rate. I think this must be some in-
strumental error, and that it is not the
rule. I may point out that the temperature
shown at 500 feet was not simultaneous
with the temperature at the surface, so that
it does not follow that the actual tempera-
ture at that height showed a greater de-
crease than the adiabatic decrease at the
same time, because the two observations
were not simultaneous.
With reference to the question of the wind
decrease, unfortunately there are consider-
able limitations in the use of kites. To
begin with, we cannot fly without some
wind, and if the wind fails, we cannot keep
in any particular stratum of air, hence it
may be that in those charts the height is
limited to 1,000 metres because of the wind
decrease above that height. There are
many cases when the wind fails at 1,000
metres or so. That is incontestably the
case with winds from the east and north-
east ; it seldom happens with a south-west
These ascents were all made in the day-
time. I do not think that makes any
difference above 500 metres, but the tem-
perature decrease is far more rapid in the
day-time, because it is warmer in the day
at the surface, and it is an established fact
that when we get a few thousand feet up,
the surface temperature vanishes, and the
air temperature is the same night and day.
With reference to the change of wind
above, there was one undisputable case with
a north-east wind, in which the wind in-
creased rapidly. This was due to the fact
that a rain squall passed over when the kite
Generally speaking, the humidity in-
creases as the instrument rises, until the
cloud level is reached. Then if you do not
reach the clouds you may be fairly certain
of the height by the decreasing humidity.
When a kite passes through clouds, a few
hundred feet above the cloud level, the air
is curiously dry. Temperature inversion
occurs just above the cloud level, and you
find dry air. Then frequently you get a
sudden rise of temperature, and then a de
crease, and I imagine that there are two
or three cloud levels, as the same thing
may happen time after time.
The observations as to cumulus clouds
and the uprushes of air are interesting, but
they are not so pleasant to the man who is
flying the kites as to the man who works
them up. It has happened to me several
times that my kite has got into one of
these uprushes and been carried up 1,000
feet or so, and in a few minutes the wire
has broken, which is not exactly what one
As to the question of co-operation. It
would be useful if we could get ascents on
the same day and at the same time, but it is
a difficult matter, because my observers, to
whom I am grateful for making the ob-
servations, are voluntary observers, some
have regular business, and they cannot
always set apart a time for kite flying.
Also if a time is pre-arranged, it probably
happens there is no wind at that time.
I think Mr. Cody is here, and if he will
give us the result of his experience as to
decrease and increase of wind with different
directions it would be interesting.
Mr. Copy: I have frequently found that
the kites get to a certain height and will
not go higher. I have known occasions
where a man has gone up at night-time 500
feet in a dead calm; we let the lifter go,
and the man went right up with no wind at
all with his carrier kite, so there must be
wind high up. Only a few days ago we had
balloons up with a perfect gale blowing to
400 feet, and at the ground we could not
have flown a piece of tissue paper. I went
up to see the conditions, and found the
wind did not blow at all at starting, but
higher up there was a great deal. If the
Society is interested in meteorological re-
search, I could guarantee to give them read-
ings at 100 feet or at any height up to
1,000 or 2,000 feet, either in a dead calm
THE AERONAUTICAL $OURNAL.
or a heavy wind. I could tie my kite to
any heitht that was wanted. So that if
there is any interest in having a certain
height, if the Society will communicate with
me, I will give them the necessary readings.
Mr. Reap: I would like to say one word
about the importance of these readings. It
shows the interdependence of one branch of
science on another. Meteorologists bring
us fresh information, especially that of the
increase of wind at 500 metres, and this is
a practical point for aéronauts. It has
another bearing, too, with regard to the
future; when we are going through the
wind at a great rate—for instance, in the
future, when we make our week-end trips
in balloons—we shall have to consider what
precautions must be taken to prevent colli-
sions. When we are travelling 100 miles
an hour, it is all very well on a railway, but
in the air if you come across another ap-
paratus travelling the same pace as your-
self, there is bound to be a collision. The
only rule of the road, then, will be the
upper and lower airs. On the ground or
water we have only two directions, but in
the air there are four. It is important that
we should get a knowledge of these layers
of the atmosphere before we start on our
journeys, and we are indebted to the author
of the paper for having shown us that we
have layers of this kind.
With regard to the sea fog, I think there
is a solution for both cases. An east wind
will bring us rain on the east coast, when
the water is warm, but not when the water
Mr. Doveias ARCHIBALD: Some years
ago I found that the result of the observa-
tions up to a height of 1,500 feet above the
ground was that the velocity of the wind
always increased up to that height. The
increase of velocity was greatest with a
south-west wind, exactly Dr. Shaw
found. I am glad to see that in almost
every respect the observations taken now
under the direction of the Weather Office
agree with and corroborate the ones I took
then. We made these observations for
three years, and mostly in the summer time,
but sometimes in the spring, and, there-
fore, there were a good many variations in
the wind, and I collected them under differ-
ent heads, and certainly proved that the
north-east current is the shortest, and the
south-west is the tallest. I certainly think
that what Dr. Shaw has shown us to-night
has a bearing rather on aéronautics than
on pure meteorology, because he did not
i4 THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL.
show us how these observations would en-
large our knowledge of the conditions of
the weather so much as the physical condi-
tions of the atmosphere, and from that
point of view they appear to me a necessary
accompaniment of any aéronaut. It is
much in the same way as the hydrographer
to the Admiralty shows the currents of the
sea that aid the mariner who is floating his
ship, and the more that is known of the
conditions up above by the aid of kites,
certainly the better for the journeys of those
flying machinists who are going to greatly
develop their machines shortly. When
they do, the first thing they will find out
will be what a great variation occurs in
different parts of the atmosphere. So far
as the actual observations of kites have
shown up to date, I think the work that
has been done recently in America is one
of the best instances in which the observa-
tions from kites have shown fruit. Pro-
fessor Bigelow has taken all the observa-
tions that have been made over in America
and a great many that have _ been
made in Europe, and by combining
them he has shown the conditions of the
atmosphere with regard to the cyclones and
anti-cyclones; in fact, he has developed a
new theory as to cyclones and anti-cyclones
which had never been attempted before. So
far as I have seen, I think it is some of the
best work in meteorological science that
has been done in the last few years. I am
glad that kite observations have been the
basis of this work. The idea was started a
few years ago; I may claim a little towards
starting it, the only observation of the kind
before my own being in 1847, which had
practically been forgotten when I started
mine in 1883. By the aid of these observa-
tions all over the world, meteorological
science has advanced by leaps and bounds,
and I think it is a pleasant fact that Dr.
Shaw has included these observations in the
ordinary weekly weather maps so that they
may be utilised by the public and made
part of the development of the science.
Mr. Bucnanan: I think the most im-
portant observation that has been made to-
night is the proposal of Mr. Cody to give
readings at definite heights, and I presume
over a period of 24 hours. We have had
ordinary kite flying and balloon observa-
tions lasting over an hour or two, and we
now have an opportunity of getting what
is the most important thing, a 24-hours’
There is one other remark I should like
to make. When Dr. Shaw was pointing
out the fall of temperature in one case Mr.
Dines showed that it might be accidental.
There is a similar thing in the observations
at Grand Moulet, which is like a mountain
station, but the observations at Bosch have
a difference of temperature of quite as much
as 20°C. per 100 metres.
Colonel TroLttore: For some years Pro-
fessor Hergesell, of Strasburg, has been
sending out man-carrying balloons and
kites on a certain day to make meteorologi-
cal observations. Mr. Bruce has these
papers, and if we can correspond with him
with regard to a date, I think we shall get
Dr. SuHaw: It is too late at present to
detain the audience by going fully into the
points that have been raised. I think the
discussion has been more interesting than
the original paper. I am glad Mr. Douglas
Archibald said what he did. I knew the
time would be short, and I purposely com-
pressed what I had to say in the smallest
possible compass, or I should have been
glad to compare my results with the results
he obtained some years ago. I did keep
myself off the meteorological side of things
as much as possible. I think the question
as to whether there is a limit to the velocity
of the wind is one of the most important
theoretical meteorological questions before
any investigator. I think Mr. Dines’ ex-
planations were only suggestive, and I am
looking forward to next year’s work.
The Presient: You will all agree that
this paper is one of great interest, and I
may say important, considering both the
name of the reader and the names of those
who have taken part in the discussion.
Some of our most eminent meteorologists
have come here to-night to discuss these
matters. There are letters from other
authorities who express their regret at not
being able to be present at this lecture. It
seems to me of especial value that the wind
has been found to increase up to 500 metres,
and probably does not increase much more.
We have known that it did increase as one
went up, but there was a doubt as whether
it went on increasing or if there was a limit.
Now it seems there is a limit to the rate of
There is one point I should like to bring
forward, that very often in a balloon ascent,
when you get above the clouds, if there is a
decided layer of clouds hanging around,
when you rise above this, the direction of
aA a Owe mk
the wind changes. I am only speaking
from a limited experience of three or four
times, but it would be interesting to know
whether aéronauts have found a change in
the direction of the wind where there is a
large bank of clouds.
I can only now propose a vote of thanks
to the lecturer for his valuable paper to-
The vote of thanks was carried unani-
The Gordon-Bennett Cup
By Br. COLONEL J. E. CAPPER, C.B.,
The Gordon-Bennett Cup is the ‘* cordon
bleu ’’ of the aéronautical world.
It was presented by Mr. James Gordon-
Bennett, the proprietor of the Vew York
Herald, to the International Aéronautical
Federation, to be competed for yearly under
the following conditions :—
(1) That it should be an International
(2) Every competing nation to have the
right to enter three balloons; no balloon
to be more than 77,000 cubic feet and none
less than 31,500 cubic feet.
(3) Each balloon must be piloted by a
member of the nation which he represents.
(4) All balloons to start on the same |
date, and the cup to be won by the balloon
which descends furthest from the starting
If the weather conditions are unsuitable
for a long-distance contest, the Committee
may decide it shall be won by the balloon |
which stays longest in the air. |
(5) The Cup to be competed for under |
the auspices of the Club which holds it.
The first contest, viz., in 1906, taking place
under the auspices of the Aéro Club of
(6) The Cup to be held by the Club and
not by any individual.
(7) Any nation winning it three years in
succession to keep it.
The race for the Cup this year started
from Paris. It excited a great deal of
interest in the aéronautical world, and the
entry was very fine. France, Germany, |
Great Britain, and Spain each sent three
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL. 15
balloons, America two, and Belgium and
Italy each one.
The British representatives were Mr.
Frank Hedges Butler, accompanied by Mr.
Griffith Brewer, in the ‘‘ City of London ”’ ;
Professor A. K. Huntington, accompanied
by Mr. M. C. Pollock, in the ‘‘ Zephyr ’’ ;
and the Hon. C. S. Rolls, accompanied by
Colonel J. E. Capper, in the ‘‘ Britannia.”’
All the British balloons were constructed
specially for this race, and were of 77,000
cubic feet capacity.
Among the foreign pilots the best known
were M. Santos Dumont and Comte Henri
de la Vaulx.
The competing balloons were all spherical
with the exception of the ‘‘ City of Lon-
don’’ (Mr. Butler’s), which was _pear-
M. Santos Dumont had his car fitted with
an engine and lifting screws to utilise in-
stead of ballast.
The smallest balloon used was of 52,500
cubic feet capacity.
Most of the balloons were of varnished
cotton; two were of varnished silk, and
two of rubbered cotton. Twelve were en-
tirely new, and nearly all were in excellent
The contest was fixed for September 30,
the hope being that the strong easterly
winds usual at that time of year would give
a long course westwards over Europe, and
thus permit of a record run being made.
In anticipation of these winds and of a
journey in the air extending over two days,
during the second of which we might ex-
pect to reach great heights, we had laid in
an ample provision of food and drink. We
also had cylinders of oxygen, and a very
ample supply of warm clothing.
We ourselves had forgotten to lay in a
| stock of water, though well provided with
Professor Huntington, who had had
the foresight to provide an ample quantity,
most kindly gave us a large tin at the last
moment, and this we found most valuable.
Mr. Butler had also ordered two pints of
| champagne to be placed in each of the
British cars, and when wearied out, the next
evening, we much appreciated the extra
fillip it gave us.
The balloons had to be in Paris on Sep-
tember 29, each being certified by its Club
committee as complying with the regula-
tions, and they were there inspected by the
The French Aéro Club kindly invited all
contestants to a dinner on the 29th, and
there they were hospitably entertained and a
few pleasant speeches made, notably by
Prince Jerome Bonaparte and by Mr.
Roger Wallace, who delighted all by the
facility with which he rendered his witticisms
in a foreign idiom.
The arrangements for the contest were
admirably organised by the Club Secretary,
M. Besancon; whilst the English competi-
tors owe a great deal to the Secretary of
the British Aéro Club, Mr. Perrin.
The 30th was a great day. The west end
of the Tuileries Garden was simply full of
balloons, 16 great, glossy spheres, mostly
of a translucent yellow, one of chocolate
colour, and two of a brilliant chrome, and
so close together that it seemed almost im-
possible to start them.
Gas mains were laid along this part of
the garden, with branches to each balloon,
and by three o’clock all the huge globes
Each balloon was furnished with the flag
of its nation and a huge number on the car
to make identification easy ; whilst a num-
ber of sappers from the military Pare
d’Aérostation were told off to assist in
handling the balloons, each man wearing
on the arm a brassard with the number of
the balloon to which he was appointed.
A crowd of gaily-dressed visitors was ac-
commodated on the raised terraces on three
sides of the enclosure allotted to the
balloons, but neither gold nor interest could
gain admission to this enclosure to any but
the competitors, a few journalists, and the
At 3 o’clock a flight of 3,000 carrier
pigeons was launched in the air. Several
of these were so attracted by the unusual
scene in the Tuileries Garden that instead
of starting on their proper journey they
paid the balloons a visit, some of them even
remaining on the balloons during their de-
The interval before the departure of the
first balloon was occupied by the ascent of
numerous pilot balloons of comical shapes,
which elicited shouts of amusement from
the populace, and a swarm of beautiful
small toy balloons, sent up by ‘‘ La Vie au
Grand Air.’’ There must have been hun-
dreds of these despatched at the same
moment, and the diverse currents of the air
were well shown by the way in which they
The general direction of the wind as
shown by these pilots was W. by S., and
great was the disappointment; numerous
THE AERONAUTICAL YOURNAL.
prophecies being made that the contest
would be a short one, and end on the shores
of the Atlantic.
We ourselves, thanks to a telegram sent
by the Meteorological Society, hoped to
eet currents trending in a north-westerly
direction at the higher altitudes, and we
were, therefore, careful to provide ourselves
with a map of England, besides the general
map of Europe, and large scale maps of
Northern and Western France.
No time was lost in ballasting up, and
punctual to the minute at 4 o’clock the first
balloon, ‘‘ The Elfe,’’ of Italy, manned by
Mr. Vonwiller and Lieut. Cianetti, sailed
eracefully off amid the cheers of the popu-
lace. Thence on, at regular intervals of
five minutes, a fresh balloon, brought to
the same point of departure, sailed off on
its appointed mission, till all had been des-
The ‘‘ Britannia,’’? on which I was a
passenger, was the fifth, and henceforward
my description can only be of our owa
Starting at 4.20 we were wafted slowly
from the Gardens, over the Place de la Con-
corde, which was a mass of human beings,
close to the Eiffel Tower at the elevation of
its summit, over the Bois de Boulogne and
St. Cloud, then over Nancy, where dusk
began to enclose us. Ahead and astern
were our competitors, seeming to be going
in all directions. Mr. Rolls, with his eye
fixed on the statoscope, continually threw
out small shovelfuls of sand, to compensate
for the cooling of the gas, till by 6.30
eight of our thirty-seven bags of ballast had
been expended. My duties were to keep
the log and ascertain our course—no diffi-
cult matter while daylight lasted.
About 6 the sun set in all its splendour,
and we had recourse to electric lights to
read our maps and instruments. Half an
hour later the moon rose, throwing a silvery
radiance on the earth beneath, but even
with its assistance the course was hard to
We had been going steadily just south
of west when darkness surrounded us, and
when railways below us gave the next op-
portunity of locating our position, we found
none on the map that tallied with those on
the ground. For some little time we were
in doubt, but about 8 p.m. we came to a
large well-lighted town which, knowing our
probable rate of progress and the time
from the last point we had identified, must
surely be recognisable. We searched the
map, but no such town could we find in our
line, and it was evident we had changed
direction after dark. Consulting the next
map to the north we identified the town
by its size and the direction of the railways
and roads as undoubtedly Evreux, and ques-
tions shouted down (which were reported in
the French press as cries for help) brought
back the reassuring news that we were
really there, and were going in a north-
westerly direction. This was the best of
news, as it promised fair for a run to the
West of England, or even to Ireland, instead
of our journey being brought to an abrupt
termination by the Atlantic.
From that point on we were never in
doubt as to our position, and we hoped
shortly to make the mouth of the Seine
and a long crossing of the Channel to
Devonshire. Our hopes, alas! were doomed
to be frustrated. For some reason we rose
to about 3,000 feet and were taken at that
altitude more and more to the north, finally
reaching the Seine about 10 miles west of
Youen, and here we lingered, drifting slowly
along, nearly becalmed for several hours,
going finally north-east.
At 11.20 we saw below us a balloon hurry-
ing N.W., and it became a question whether
we should descend and follow it, or remain
up in the hope of getting a stronger current
in the morning which would bear us N.E.
to Norway. On the whole, we decided for
the latter. We knew it was improbable
that anyone else would have got this easterly
set, whilst several, if not all, would cross
to England. Our chances there were only
equal to theirs, but if we could get to Nor-
way we must distance everyone.
There was nothing to do, the balloon
stayed at its elevation; we had thrown out
no ballast since evening; and in turns we
tried to sleep, the smallness of the car and
its numerous contents making our efforts
in this direction somewhat ineffective.
About 2.30 a.m. we moved off again, the
treacherous wind taking us nearly due
north, and it became apparent that we must
try for England after all, greatly handi-
capped by the drift we had already taken
to the east.
At 3 a.m. the revolving light west of
Dieppe saluted us some 20 miles off, and at
4.30 the moon fell behind a heavy bank of
clouds, appearing for a few moments be-
neath them as she sank far west into the
sea, sending a gleam of glittering silver
over the water as she disappeared. Then
the pale light of dawn appeared in the east,
THE AERONAUTICAL FOURNAL. 17
the country gradually became visible, till
at 5.20 we left the coast of France west of
Dieppe and ventured on the Channel cross-
It is curious to think that by that hour
two of our competitors had already de-
scended in England, having kept low down
in the faster breeze whilst we had been
sauntering over the reaches of the Seine.
The morning was hazy, and 10 miles out
we lost the coast of France, England being
still invisible behind the mist. Far away
to the north we saw another balloon (the
‘* Zephyr ’’), and knew that at least one
had crossed before us.
On the sea nothing was visible except an
occasional fishing boat and steamer.
We found we were going too far to the
east, and comine down in order to strike
westward, trailed for some time in the
Channel, passing close to a steamboat and
exchanging greetings with the crew.
There is something peculiarly fascinating
in crossing the sea out of sight of all land
as we were; the feeling is even more peace-
ful than going over land, whilst the gentle
murmur of the waves far below adds to the
restful sensations of a balloon voyage.
After keeping low down for a consider-
able time we decided to ascend to see if we
could find the English coast, as it is diffi-
cult to estimate one’s course with only the
sea to guide one.
Ascending to 5,000 feet we saw again
our friendly competitor away to the N.E.,
and then, alas! far to the N.W., made out
the white cliff of Beachy Head. Again the
valve was pulled to bring us down into the
more westerly currents, the higher ones
still trending eastwards, and we kept down
till England was close in front, on one oc-
casion shouting to a steamer to avoid our
trail rope. A look at the map and our
knowledge of the coast showed Hastings in
front, and rapidly a telegram was written
and, together with half-a-crown, fastened to
a small rubber balloon, and ballast thrown
to take us over the town. The small balloon
fluttered to the ground, and we saw it safely
descend in the garden of a small house on
the outskirts of the town.
The crossing had taken just five hours.
Over England our course was again
easterly, and we had to keep as near the
ground as possible, which entailed a liberal
expenditure of gas and ballast in order to
keep up to the north. Trailing was mostly
out of the question, as entailing too much
damage, but we were enabled to enjoy short
periods, striving to make every inch to the
west we could. Passing over the Medway
near Chatham we had a splendid view of
the channels of even that muddy stream,
an object lesson as to the utility of a balloon
for conning purposes; then coming down
we trailed across the Thames and the marsh
land on either side. And so on northwards,
hoping against hope to make as far west as
Ely, so that we could run up Lincolnshire
and possibly to York—but it was not to
be. Bury St. Edmunds was crossed late
in the afternoon, and dusk overtook us,
tired with our exertions and disappointed
in our hopes, with no prospect of even
touching the Wash. The wind had risen
to 30 miles an hour, and we sped on in the
vathering gloom 1,000 feet above the earth,
till with but seven miles of unknown coun-
try between us and the open sea, we had
reluctantly to come down. Tearing past a
cottage we shouted to the occupants to come
on half a mile to help us, and there, in an
open root field, we touched the eround. I
was too mixed up with attempting to keep
myself from the shock of landing and at
the same time keep ready to fling the heavy
anchor, to notice exactly what happened,
but Mr. Rolls ripped the balloon at exactly
the right moment, the grapnel tore through
the roots for a few yards, the car fell gently
on its side, and the balloon, no longer
beautiful, spread out an inert mass to lee
ward of it. Our journey was over, assist-
ance came, we packed with the aid of our
electric torches, and the hospitable vicar of
Shernborne (Mr. Waters) entertained us for
Next morning we learnt, on arrival at
the station, of the ‘‘ mysterious disappear-
ance’’ of the ‘‘ Britannia,’’ and learnt,
too, for a certainty that at least two
balloons had beaten us. Lieutenant Lahm,
of America, assisted by Major Hersey, a
meteorological expert, who is acting
engineer to the Wellman Polar Expedition,
gained a well-earned victory, due both to
his own determination and management,
and to the unrivalled knowledge of air cur-
rents possessed by his aide. He descended
Second was M. Vonwiller, of Italy, with
his companion, Lieut. Cianetti, of the
Italian Military Pare d’Aérostation, who
reached as far asthe Humber. It is probable
that had they kept at a low elevation they
would have been the winners, but an experi-
ence near Alton, where they got mixed up
with someone’s chimneys, decided them to
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL.
keep up higher, and, getting to about
12,000 feet, they drifted steadily east of
north. On the descent their ripping panel
failed to tear quite through, and some gas
remained in the envelope long enough to
carry the balloon and car across a cottage,
the inmates of which were considerably
alarmed to see a huge flapping monster ap-
parently attempt to devour their house. No
one was injured to any extent, but the ex-
perience was a sufficiently unpleasant one.
Third place was given to the
‘‘ Britannia,’’ after very careful calcula-
tions, the ‘‘ Walhalla,’’ manned by Comte
de la Vaulx and Comte d’Oultremont,
having descended quite close near Great
Walsingham. It was a near thing, but the
British balloon was held to have won by
about a mile—much to our delight.
Three other balloons crossed the Channel
—the ‘‘Zephyr’’ (Prof. Huntington) de-
scending in Kent, and the ‘‘ Ville de Cha-
teauroux ’’ (M. Balsan) with the ‘‘ Mon-
taner’’ (M. Kindelan) descending in
The remainder all descended in France,
nearly all on the coast, for fear of being
carried to the Atlantic, whilst if they had
only known their position, most might have
safely crossed to England.
The Belgian balloon apparently leaked,
and made but a short run, whilst an acci-
dent M. Santos Dumont met. with to his
arm from his motor necessitated his de-
scent in order to see a doctor.
It is interesting to note the number of
each nation who crossed the Channel :—
Italy: The only one entered.
France: Two out of three.
Great Britain: Two out of three.
America: One out of two.
Spain: One out of three.
Belgium: None—one entered.
Germany: None out of three.
The contest, though not involving any
great distances, was most interesting, and
the race went to the bold and to those who
best judged and utilised the currents of the
The Cup remains in the hands of the Aéro
Club of America, who will organise the next
It is to be hoped our champions will make
a bold bid to gain it, and that the entries
will be as good as this year, and the con-
test carried through with the same spirit
of friendly rivalry as in the initial contest
The Present: I will propose a vote of
thanks to Colonel Capper for having kindly
given us a full account of his very interest-
The vote was carried unanimously.
The Aéroplane Experiments
of M. Santos Dumont.
By ERIC STUART BRUCE, M.A. Oxon.,
F.R. Met. Soc.
At whatever value the aéronautical
achievements of M. Santos Dumont may be
placed in the history of aérial navigation,
there can be no doubt that there is a per-
sonality about the Brazilian aéronaut that
has done more to convince the world of the
possibilities of human flight than any other
cause. Whenever M. Santos Dumont be-
gins to experiment there is a thrill of en-
thusiasm throughout the civilised world,
and everywhere we hear the cry that the
conquest of the air is at hand. Such a
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL. 19
have given M. Santos Dumont an almost
mesmeric influence on mankind, because
they do not come within the scope of this
Society. But whether or no it is the work
of the man or his individuality that has con-
vinced the world of the possibilities of the
aéroplane, in any case I think he must be
congratulated that he has succeeded in do-
ing so. And this is a moment of special
jubilation for the Aéronautical Society of
Great Britain, who, forty-two years ago,
was the pioneer of the world’s aéronautical
societies. For by this Society more atten-
tion has been paid to the subject of aérial
navigation by bodies heavier than air than
has been by any other aéronautical society
in the world.
Our library is full of the records of the
valuable papers read before this Society in
the past, that little by little have contri-
buted to the issues that are just beginning
to be realised at the present time. We feel
bound to think that had the light petroleum
motor not come so tardily, the dreams of
many of those members whose lips are
for ever closed might ere now have come to
faith as this was, indeed, inspired when, in |
1901, M. Santos Dumont rounded the Eiffel |
Tower in his navigable balloon to win the
Deutsch prize. When his navigable balloon
experiments ceased, the public faith again
grew dim. It has been but a few days ago
again revived with still more general ac-
cord by his experiments with a motor-driven
aéroplane. And yet, since M. Santos
Dumont won the Deutsch prize, and before
he began experimenting with his aéroplane,
two undoubtedly greater achievements in
aérial navigation have been accomplished
than have fallen to his lot. I refer to the
development of the Lebaudy navigable
balloon and the experiments of the brothers
Wright in America.
Though, in the former case has been evi-
denced the cleverest piece of engineering
work that has yet been done with a
navigable balloon, and in the latter case the
accomplishment of a flight of 25 miles in a
motor-driven aéroplane, yet these two ex-
amples of really practical progress did not
raise the public pulse to any like degree as
did the navigable balloon experiments of
M. Santos Dumont in 1901, and his com- |
paratively short aéroplane flights in Paris |
the other day.
I will not attempt in this paper to ac-
count for the psychological reasons which
But one industry has to wait for another.
So interdependent are the affairs of human
life! The light petroleum motor is, in-
deed, one of the chief factors in the de
velopment of the aéroplane. Its want was
felt as long ago as 1868, when a £100 prize
was offered by this Society for a light engine
and boiler for an aéroplane, a prize won
by Mr. Stringfellow. But light steam
motors did not supply the want that is be
ing satisfied in modern petroleum motors.
At the present moment when the flights
of M. Santos Dumont are creating an inter-
est in aéronautics that is, perhaps, without
precedent, it is, I think, all important to
real progress that those who are experiment-
ing or about to experiment should keep their
heads and balance enthusiasm with the re
quisite amount of prudence and reason.
We must remember that the period of
public excitement which was evoked by M.
Santos Dumont’s former evolutions round
the Eiffel Tower was followed by a period
of fatal accidents and consequent depression.
It is important in the interests of aéro-
nautical science that the present second
period of exultation should be followed by
neither. We have still in our memory the
tragedies of ‘‘La Paix’’ and the ‘De
Bradsky.’’ The deaths of Severo and
De Bradsky and their respective engineers
, Were caused by neglect of ordinary pre-
cautions in the one case and the absence of
common engineering knowledge in the other.
Though just a little progress has been
made in aéroplane manipulation, still the
work that has yet to be done before we can
claim to have secured the stability of our
structures amidst the ocean of air, with its
subtle currents as yet unstudied and un-
fathomed, is gigantic in its proportions. Is
not this the truth? And at the present
moment, when there is an exaggeration
going on about progress made, which is, I
fear, misleading the public, it is important
that within the walls of a learned society
the truth should be spoken.
At this moment of encouragement let us,
in this Society, both collectively and in-
dividually, apply ourselves with increased
zeal to the task the founders of this Society
set us in 1866, but at the same time with
precaution and with the methods of science.
In eight years’ time this Society will be
keeping its jubilee. In what better way
could we keep our jubilee than by showing
the world that the work of 50 years has
brought us near the goal?
I hear that M. Santos Dumont has lately
given advice to those who take part in com-
petitions to fly low. That advice is sound,
for it is commensurate with our present
progress. Just as the child learns to walk
by tumbles, so the first flyers will not
escape their falls. By flying very near the
ground, man must first learn to use his
wings. But the time will come when he
will seek higher flight. Will not his best
precaution then be to fly over the surface
of water, accompanied by the rescue boat?
I know this method has been lately
criticised on account of the danger of the
flyer being entangled in his machine in the
water and drowned before rescue can be ac-
complished. But it would seem that when
man first seeks higher flight it will be the
choice of two evils, and of two evils one
must choose the least. Tumbles at a cer-
tain height over solid earth must mean de-
struction. Tumbles over water may mean
drowning, but there is, perhaps, an equal
chance of rescue and preservation.
Concerning the apparatus and actual ex-
periments of M. Santos Dumont, neither at
present gives scope for a lengthy paper. In
the October number of this journal there
appeared a picture of the machine. The
supporting surface may be described as a
multiple box kite. It reminds us of the
part which Mr. Hargrave, an honoured
member of this Society, has played in the
THE AERONAUTICAL FOURNAL.
[ January, 1907.
development of the aéroplane, for from kite
we are passing to flying machine. The
success of the box kite in scientific aérial
exploration has done much to familiarise us
_ with the idea of the possible stability of
bodies heavier than air, and enticed man
io abolish the string and apply instead the
In M. Santos Dumont’s machine the two
wings are slightly inclined so as to form a
V. Each of the wings is fixed at one end
of a long protruding girder. This girder
carries the car, and at its other end is the
box-shaped rudder. This rudder can be
moved in any direction, the up and down
movements regulating the rising and falling
of the machine. The two-bladed aluminium
propeller is fixed behind the wings, and is
worked by a petrol motor, which, in the
earlier experiments, was of 24-h.p., but
which has now been replaced by an
Antoinette motor of 50-h.p.
The machine has already been the sub-
ject of much criticism; for instance, the
following criticism was made by Colonel
Fullerton during his recent lecture at the
Royal United Service Institution. He then
said, ‘‘ On the whole, this machine worked
fairly well; the lifting power is, however,
indifferent, and the steering apparatus is
much too powerful for such a small machine.
The centre of gravity appears to be unduly
close to the centre of pressure.”
I have received the following criticism in
a letter from Mr. A. J. Winship. He says:
“T had the pleasure, some time ago,
of working with Mr. E, P. Frost, of West
Wratting Hall, Cambs., a member of the Aéro-
nautical Society, in his experiments with
natural and _ close-imitation-natural wing
machines; and in the course of the work I
learnt from him this most momentous fact, to
which Mr. Frost was, I believe, the first to
draw attention, and that is that for any degree
of safety in the use of these parts it is abso-
lutely essential for the posterior edge as well
as the extreme ends of aéroplanes to be as
near infinite flexibility as it is possible to make
them. On this point birds derend for their
safety and *..tumatic balance when soaring.
The importance of this fact is further power-
fully emphasised by the remembrance of the
death of Dr. Lilienthal, and our poor Pilcher,
both of whom used machines with unyielding
posterior edges. The latter made his last
ascent on a windy day, and was earnestly en-
treated by Mr. Frost previously not to at-
tempt an ascent in such a machine, on such a
day at any rate, as disaster would, he said,
surely follow. Pilcher disregarded this advice |
with the result, as you know, of his death.
You may be sure, therefore, with what grave
concern I saw the illustrations of the defective
apparatus M. Santos Dumont is now using;
and I am writing to you in the hope that you
may, by some means or other, see your way to
bring this matter before M. Dumont’s notice.
Mr. Frost will, I know, be only too pleased
to do all in his power to prevent the disaster
which both he and I feel sure will accrue from
persistent use of his machine in its present
Regarding the actual achievements of M.
Santos Dumont with his machine, there has
been a great discrepancy in the reports of
the distances he has flown. Therefore, I
have obtained through the coui.esy of M.
De Besangon, Secretary of the French Aéro-
Club, the exact measurements of his third
and fourth ascents of November 12th, 1906,
at Bagatelle. The first and second ascents
took place in the morning, and were not
chronometrically registered. The third and
fourth ascents, which took place in the
afternoon of the same day, were officially
checked by the Sport Committee of the
In the third attempt the start was at
4.9 p.m. There were two flights. The
first of about 50 metres, not chronometri-
cally registered. The second of 82 metres
69, in 75 seconds, chronometrically regis-
tered, which is at the rate of 11 metres 47,
the second, or 41 kilometres 292, the hour.
In the fourth attempt the start was at
4.45 p.m. There was a flight of 220 metres,
in 21 seconds }, chronometrically recorded ;
that is, 10 metres 38 the second, or 37
kilometres 358, the hour.
The third experiment, therefore, at this
moment, is the official record of speed, and
the fourth the official record of distance and
time in the air.
After the reading of this paper the Presi-
dent exhibited a model of the Santos
Dumont aéroplane made by himself, which
excited great interest.
Mr. Copy: I have seen M. Santos
Dumont’s machine, and I consider it is an
excellent. structure, and just as likely a
machine to fly successfully as anything I
have seen. I believe in a large spread, and
in carrying light weight.
The Preswent: I should like to propose
a vote of thanks to Mr. Bruce for his paper.
The vote was carried unanimously.
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL 21
The Stability of the Conic
Shape in Kites and Flying
By REGINALD M. BALSTON, M.Aér.Soc.
In following such able lecturers as Dr.
Napier Shaw and Col. Capper, with the
added interest of lantern illustrations, I
feel that, in presenting myself to you, I
labour under a serious disadvantage, and I
must ask you to deal indulgently with me,
the more so that I am a newcomer amongst
Though it is only lately that I have had
the honour of becoming a member of this
Society, I am not, however, altogether a
novice in matters where aéronautics are
As long ago as 1889 I had finished a
model of a flying machine, and since then
I have been studying them pretty closely.
To the best of my recollection it is Jules
Verne who was responsible for arousing my
interest in the subject, although I fear I
am ungrateful enough to remember nothing
about his book beyond the fact that it in-
spired me to base my first attempts at fly-
ing machines upon his theories of screws as
lifters. Soon, however, I discarded this
type of machine in favour of those with
wings, and the study of kites also naturally
occupied a large share of my attention. I
found them to be of absorbing interest.
Perhaps the greatest fascination about a
kite or flying machine lies in one’s efforts
to make it behave as one is convinced that
it should, which it very often fails to do.
But such an element of uncertainty is no
new thing. We know by her books that in
the times of Jane Austen the simplest forms
of aéronautics demanded a considerable
exercise of patience, for in her novel,
‘*Emma,’’ she illustrates the calm and self-
control of one of her characters by setting
him to fly kites for a little boy. Even in
these days of modern kites and their de-
velopments the difficulty of preserving one’s
equanimity where such things are concerned
has not entirely disappeared. Often a kite
goes so closely to the fulfilment of one’s
best hopes—it rises with a rocket-like sweep
into the air, hangs motionless for a moment,
then sinks slowly, preparatory to a second
rush upwards, when the next gust of wind
comes. But now, perhaps, its rise is not
22 THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL,
[ January,” 1907.
so straight, the wind catches it at a [ Now if you depart slightly from the conic
slightly different angle, and, to meet the
current, the kite turns on one side and then
back again, when the true wind strikes it
oncs more. In its endeavours to find each
new position it gets up a pendulum-like
motion, moving from side to side, until
eventually it overbalances, and turns head
downwards towards the ground. Possibly
it may, once or twice, recover itself, but in
the end it is bound to descend head fore-
most, and it is indeed fortunate if the
wooden frame is not, in consequence,
snapped in two.
But why is it that a kite proves so re-
iractory! Surely it is because, in nine
cases out of ten, its stability is defective,
and so, to put it briefly, it cannot stay the
right way up.
This question of instability, however,
does not present an insurmountable diffi-
culty. There is, to my mind, a way in
which it can be obviated, though I need not
say that, in approaching the subject of the
conical shape with regard to stability, I am
fully aware that I am introducing no fresh
principle to your notice. But the point
which I wish to draw your attention is that
the theory of the dihedral angle, with which
we are all familiar, should be carried some-
what further. The dihedral angle is con-
fined to sections of a flying machine in one
direction only, namely, that one which
passes through the wings, and, in con-
sequence, the stability is merely lateral.
Two points only of support are considered,
whereas to ensure complete stability a third
one must be recognised. In birds this
point is supplied by the tail, while in the
generality of insects the two hind wings
have the function in question.
The most stable form in which any ex-
panse of material can be spread out to form
an efficient resistance to the air is that of a
flat inverted cone, or, to put it in another
way, the underside of an inverted cone is
the form of surface which combines most
stability and opposition to falling. The
apex of the cone must lie somewhere near
the centre of the surface exposed, and all
portions of the surface which lie nearer to
the circumference must be superposed on
those nearer to the apex when the machine
is in equilibrium. The more acute the
angle at the apex, the greater the stability
obtained, but what is gained in stability is
lost in resistance to falling. These two
shapes I have here will illustrate this. (Ex-
shape and make your model with sides
which curve upwards, instead of following
straight lines, a very stable shape is ob-
tained. An umbrella is a good example of
this. Its stability is perfect, and it will
even retain its equilibrium, though its
centre of gravity is so high as to be actually
above its centre of support.
An alternative in which will probably be
found the meeting-point of the two require-
ments, stability and efficient aéroplaner
arrangement, is a conic surface, if it may
so be described, decreasing in gradient as
you proceed from the apex towards the cir-
cumference. With some difficulty, but with
excellent results, I have reproduced this
shape ina wire model. I do not, however,
intend to proceed further in this direction,
since my object to-night is merely to draw
attention to the fact that in the conic sur-
face lies the secret of stability.
To make use of it in its entirety is, of
course, unnecessary. For all practical pur-
poses well-chosen portions are all that are
required. A chair or table supported at
four or even three points will, under
ordinary conditions, maintain its equili-
brium, and the same thing holds good with
the supporting surfaces of a kite.
The reason why the conic shape conduces
thus admirably to stability is not far to
seek. A body suspended in air is bound to
commence a downward passage, owing to
the influence of gravity to which it is sub-
jected. By impelling its aéroplane surface
in one direction or another, the machine
may be caused to rise, but the ascent is
merely due to the fact that fresh layers of
air are placed beneath the surfaces more
quickly than the flying machine is able to
fall through them ; and in a body’s descent
that part of it which offers least resistance
to the air through which it is passing will
naturally fall first. By shaping the body
as a cone, its surface is so formed that it
finds its balanced resistance to its down-
ward passage by falling point—or, rather,
I should say—apex foremost. We will all
agree that in making a shape of aéroplane
which will fall slowly in equilibrium, we
have gone a long way towards finding the
right aéroplaner arrangement for a body
intended to be put in motion horizontally.
We have here a slide of the Cody kite.
This kite is one in use by His Majesty’s
Government, which, of course, ensures to it
all up-to-date improvements. You see that
Mr. Cody has made use of the angle in one
direction, and has turned the wings up-
wards. You have, in consequence, a kite
which will fly steadily without rushing from
side to side.
know whether Mr. Cody has ever attempted
to introduce an angle in the other direc-
tion, for, though it might have the disad-
vantage of slightly decreasing the lifting
efficiency, it would put all fear of swooping |
out of the question. Possibly the kite does
not, even as it is, do such a thing in Mr.
Cody’s hands, but such kites are liable to
this defect, whereas if they were so made
that their after aéroplanes met the wind at
a lesser angle than the front ones, it would
not happen. The after aéroplanes would be
the first to lose their lifting power when
the head of the kite was depressed, thus
allowing the weight. of the stern of the kite
to restore the balance. In a butterfly’s
flight we find a clear example of this
principle. I have set the wings of a speci-
men in an approximate conical shape, a
position which the insect doubtless assumes
instinctively. You see how it falls to the
ground in perfect equilibrium. (Experi-
As I have said before, in propounding
this theory of the stability of the conical
shape I am anxious that my meaning should
not be taken too literally. I wish, rather,
to draw attention to the fact that in this
form lies the clue which will aid us to adapt
to our own requirements those perfect
natural mechanics which are disclosed to
us in the hovering of the insect and the
sweeping flight of the bird; for, after all,
it is to Nature that we must turn for teach-
ing where aéronautics are concerned.
Mr. Doveras ArcniBaLD: The box kite
is so satisfactory that it is a question
whether there is any necessity for any other.
In America there was a pretty exhaustive
book about kites, in which all the different
shapes were tried, and I think the most
satisfactory they got was a _ pentagonal
shape. Professor Marvin takes this shape.
It is a box kite with a pentagonal front,
and he found it the most satisfactory of any.
Mr. Barston: In a box kite there is one
disadvantage: you are bound to have your
surfaces over each other, and when you are
going slow, or stopping, the top ones lose
The Present: Talking of umbrellas, I
once broke the handle off an umbrella and
tied a string to the end. It formed an
extremely stable kite. The more the um-
brella revolves the more it is bound to re-
It would be interesting to |
THE AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL. 23
main in the same position. There is one
matter which Mr. Balston did not mention.
A kite will remain on the level at which you
put it, and, therefore, if you stand at an
elevation and fly your kite, you can fly it
on your own level perfectly stable if you
weight it in the right way, though it is
rather difficult to get the balance. I
originally thought that might be a method
of getting a rope ashore from a ship. If a
ship were stranded on a lee shore you might
get a rope ashore with an ordinary um-
brella, and it would be a handy apparatus.
I made a number of experiments with con-
vex kites, and found that the more convex
it was—that is, the more bent back the
edges were, the less it was liable to rise and
get a good angle.
I will now ask you to record your vote of
thanks to Mr. Balston for the interesting
paper and models he has shown us.
The vote of thanks was carried unani-
Colonel TroLLore: Ladies and gentlemen,
you will all join with me in giving a vote
of thanks to our able chairman, who has
presided over this most interesting meet-
Mr. E. P. Frost: I shall be very pleased,
ladies and gentlemen, to second that pro-
The vote of thanks having been carried
unanimously, the proceedings then ter-
The Balloons in The Gordon-Bennett
With reference to the report on “‘ Some
Technical Features of the Competing Bal-
loons,” by Major B. Baden-Powell, in the
October number of the “ Aéronautical
Journal,” Messrs. Short Brothers have written
to point out that each of the British balloons
supplied by them (the ‘‘ Britannia” and the
“ Zephyr”) were fitted with awnings over the
Applications for Patents.
(Made in October, November, and December,
The following list of Applications for Patents con-
nected with Aéronautics has been specially
compiled for the AzRonauTICAL JoURNAL by
Messrs. BromHEeaD & Co., Patent Agents, 33,
Cannon Street, London, E.C.
21884. October 4th. Wrrrram CocHRAne.
Improvements in and relating to Dirigable
Flying Machines and Airships.
THE AERONAUTICAL iinaamniails
22352. October 10th. E.A. Forster. Aero-
— Flying Machine.
22517. October 11th. F. Smrons and J, W.
Murcurr. Improvements in Controllers or
Governors for Steam and other engines or |
Motors, Motor Propelled Vehicles
vessels of all kinds, including Submarines,
Flying Machines, and the like.
22977. October 17. W. R. Greson.
provements in Box Kites oranalogous Aerial |
23037. October 18th. J. L. Garsep. Im-
for Aerial Machines.
23036. October 18th. J. L. Gansep.
provements in the method of and means
employed for prope.ling and steering Aerial
23085. October 18th.
23415. October 22.
J. B. Passat. New
J. S. CHENHALL. Im-
provements in Electrical Aerial Apparatus |
for the conveyance of passengers, goods,
and the like.
23476. October 23rd. C.A.Witcnett. Im-
provements in connection with Mechanisms
for Learning to Fly.
26612. November 23rd. A.M. Lover. Im-
provements in and relating to the main-
tenance of stability in Airships, Flying
Machines, and the like.
26764. November 24th. M. Vanrman. Im-
provements in Aeroplanes.
26784. November 26th. B.R.Apams. Im-
proved form of Propeller for Flying
27000. November 27th. J. R. Porter. Im-
provements in Airships and in apparatus
provements in Wings, Vanes, or Propellers | for propelling the same.
27141. November 29th. A. A. Fris. Im-
provements in Flying Machines.
27266. November 30th. H.
Improvements in Air ships.
27312. November 30th. W. P. Txompson.
Improvements in or appertaining to Aero-
27528. December 3rd. H. van pE WEYDE.
Improvements in Balloons both ordinary
23493. October 23rd. B.L.Gmtman. Im-
23855. October 26th. A.J.Brerczron. Tail-
less Kite which can be taken to pieces. |
23872. October 26th. R. M, Batsron. Im- |
provements in relation to Kites and similar |
apparatus for Aerial Flight.
24122. October 30th. J. L. Ganrsep.
provements in Aeroplanes or Aerostats.
24140. October 30th. A. B. Taytor and
Witu1am Toorzy. Musical Kites.
24489. November2nd. J. L. Garsep.
provements in Aeroplanes or Aerostats.
25387. November 10th. A. H. P. Bunt.
Improved Flying Machine.
26089. November 19th. A. V. RoE
provements in Flying Machines.
26588. November 23rd. S. R. Sarr and
G. Perry. Flying Machines.
26602. November 23rd. D. E. Hipwe ru.
Improvements in Flying Machines.
2'7554. December 4th. W.A.S tater. Appli-
cation of the principle of the Screw
27612. December 4th. J. N. Waker. Im-
provements in Flying Machines.
27751. December 6th. J. S. Harnsworta.
| Improvements in Airships.
27816. December 6th. J. Derxter. Im-
provements in Airships.
27817. December 6th. J. Dexter. Improve-
ments in Propeler-driven Airships.
27886. December 7th. B. R. Apams. Form
of apparatus for propelling and control-
| ling a Flying Machine.
27978. December 8th. A. Brrxpeck, Im-
provements in Machines for Aerial Naviga-
28270. December 11th. W. Friese-Greene.
Improvements in and relating to Air Cars
28386. December 12th. E. Jonzs.
ments in Flying Machines.
28710. December 15th. T. W. K. Crarke.
Improvements in Aeronautical Machines.
Back Numbers may be obtained from the Publishers:
Messrs. KING, SELL & OLDING, LTD., 27, Chancery Lane, W.C.
The following are some articles of special interest which have appeared during last few years :—
The Paris International Aéronautical Congress.
The Experiments with the Zeppelin Airship,
Aéronautics in France.
VIELLE. July, 1901.
The Chief Scientific Uses of Kites.
LawRENCE Rotcu. October, rgor.
Aérial Navigation by Means of Bodies heavier
than Air. By Sir Hiram Maxim.
Atmospheric Currents. By WiILLiAM Marriott.
The Berlin Congress of the International Aéro-
nautical Commission. July, 1902.
The ‘ Peace” Balloon of the late Senhor
Augusto Severo. By Dr, Carros Sampaio.
By WILFRED DE Fon-
| The Santos Dumont, No. xiv.
Recent Aéronautical Progress. By Major
B. BaDEN-PoWELL. January, 1903.
Contributions of Balloon Investigations to
Meteorology. By Dr. W. N. Suaw, F.R.S.
Photographs of the Paths of Aérial Gliders.
By Professor G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., and W. E,
Wituiams. July, 1904.
Scientific Balloon Ascents. By CHARLES
HarpinG. October, 1904.
Automatic Stability. By E. C. Hawkins, J.P.
Notes on a Bird-Like Flying Machine. By
Dr. F. W. H: Hutcuinson, M.A. July,