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Vol. XII, 

JANUARY, 1906. 

No. } 




IERCING winds swept the streets of 
Chicago. A cutting sleet, driven 
into the faces of pedestrains, sent 
them hurrying to their homes and 

the warmth of the genial fire. 

Kindly hearts prayed for homeless 
wanderers abroad on such a night, and 
prayers in their behalf ascended to the 
Father invisible. 

In a mission room, on Halsted street, a 
young man was addressing a class of street 
arabs, a majority of them paying but slight 
attention to his teachings. They had been 
attracted by the warmth, and appreciated 
the physical comfort more than they did 
his interest in their souls. 

‘‘Not even a sparrow falleth to the 
ground but He knoweth,’’ he said. His 
earnest tones gave evidence of a great zeal 
in his Master’s cause, and the expression 
of his face told of a great faith in the 
Father invisible. He told the arabs of a 
Father’s love greatly exceeding that of all 
earthly parents, and of how He had sent 


His Son on earth to suffer and die for 
sinners like them. 

Then he called Him the Redeemer 
of mankind and the friend of little children. 
‘*He is looking down on you now,”’ he said, 
‘and will see you when you leave this 
room. He is with you at all times; is glad 
when you do right, and grieves when you 
do wrong.’’ Then he added, ‘‘ He knoweth 
all things, and careth for us always.’’ 

One of the little arabs had been paying 
attention, and as the wonderful story was 
unfolded, gazed at the teacher in astonish- 
ment. His little pinched face and prema- 
turely withered frame gave evidence of a 
close acquaintance with hunger and misery. 
His garments were in tatters, and his shoes, 
many sizes too large, were kept from fall- 
ing to pieces by portions of old rope. 

When the words, ‘‘He knoweth all 
things and careth for us always,’’ were 
delivered in all sincerity by the teacher, 
the boy gasped, and then broke loose in a 
volley of denunciation and unbelief. ‘‘Ah! 


wot are yes tryin’ tu trow down our necks?”’ 
he exclaimed. ‘‘ Dosdis guy know me? Dos 
dis high guy know dat dis kid snoozed in 
noospaper alley last night? Dos he see dat 
big stiff, Cop Mulligan, wen he jolts me an 
de oder kids wid de boot, and dos he know 
dat dis guy hasn’t chewed ter day? 

‘*Did dis wise guy, wot knows all tings, 
git de tip dat Maggie, wat woiks in de tin 
can jint, wus goin’ tu git her finn cut off 
wid de ’chinery? If ’e did, woy didn’t he 
bust the ’chinery ’fore it busted her finn? 

' ‘* Ver said dis guy, wot yer gasses erbout, 
liked us bett’rn our faders and muders. 
Dat’s de wurst con, dat is. Wen me fader 
an muder wos livin’ dis kid hed someting 
ter eat and er jint ter snooze in. Me fader 
an muder wos good ter me, dey wos. 

‘But wot dos dis high guy, dat yer 
chins erbout, do fer us? Nuttin’! We lays 
in alleys, and if we gets stuck on our pa- 
pers we gits nuttin ter chew. An dis kind 
guy wot yez are nutty erbout lets dat big 
stiff Mulligan, de cop, boost de kids out ov 
dere warm doses and giv dem de boot if 
dey sasses’im. Wot du yer tink we are. 
Dis pipe ov yers is full ov dope.’’ 

The whole class was now all attention, 
and the little fellows backed up the state- 
ments of their fellow sufferer and declared 
that the teacher was ‘‘nutty.’’ Cries of 
‘* Dat’s right, Chimmy ; der bloke got out 
ov der bug house; der guy’s tryin’ ter giv 
us der con,’’ came from every quarter, and 
although the teacher tried to quiet them 
they refused to be silenced. Great suffering 
had been the lot of his listeners, and they 
could not be persuaded that the teacher 
was not having fun at their expense. 

The teacher received a shock that was 
never forgotten. He gazed in horror at his 
scholars; then his lips moved in silent 
prayer. The Father invisible was implored 
to give him an answer to satisfy the chil- 
dren. No response came, and the class re- 
mained in disorder until the mission was 

When the boys had left the room, the 
young teacher related his experiences to 
the superintendent. He was an old man, 
had been in charge of the mission for years, 
and the teacher was assured this old dis- 
ciple of the Nazarene would be able to ad- 
vise, comfort, and bring to him the message 
which the invisible Father had been pleased 
to hold back. He was disappointed. The 
superintendent shook his head and mur- 

mured, ‘‘ Truly His ways arejjbeyond our 

The fury of the storm had increased since 
the opening of the service, and the teacher, 
on his way home, had not only to contend 
with the raging elements, but with a storm 
that raged in his soul. ‘‘ Poor little chaps,’’ 
he murmured; then he began to realize that 
it was hard to explain some of the ways of 
the Father invisible. The storms, within 
and without, raged mercilessly. 

He reached home and was soon free from 
the fury of the storm that enveloped the 
city, but still battled with the storm in his 
soul. He thought of Jimmy and others 
like him, and could find no rest. Then 
upon his bended knees he implored the 
Father invisible for light. And the light 
came, but with it no joy. It only showed 
him how little he had been doing for his 

This was the message: ‘‘ Take heed that 
ye despise not one of these little ones; for 
I say unto you, that in heaven their angels 
do always behold the face of my Father 
which is in heaven. 

‘*Suffer little children, and forbid them 
not to come unto me; for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven. 

‘**Go and sell that thou hast, and give to 
the poor. 

‘** My house shall be called of all nations 
the house of prayer, but ye have made it a 
den of thieves.’’ 

He had often read the words in his study 
of the scriptures, without paying any 
special attention tothem. Now they seemed 
to come as a revelation. He rose from his 
knees, satisfied that great wrongs were being 
perpetrated against helpless humanity. 
It was a revelation, but it showed only the 
crime, and not the remedy. It brought no 
peace to his soul. 

He realized that he had done nothing to 
relieve the sufferings of his brethren, but 
that like others he had been saying 
‘* Lord, Lord!’’ and letting it go at that, 
without doing the will of the Father in- 

He was only a worker, and had to toil for 
his daily bread. Almost all of his leisure 
time had been given to the church, and he 
had believed he was doing his duty. Yet 
little children were starving and freezing, 
women were selling their virtue and men 
struggling hopelessly for bread, while he 
and other religious zealots had closed their 


ears to the wail of human misery all around 

Little Jimmy’s ‘‘ attack’’ on the Father 
invisible, and its indorsement by his arab 
comrades, had opened the teacher’s ears, 
and his soul rebelled against the inhumani- 
ties practiced almost on the threshold of 
his beloved church. 

The little ones had been calling for bread, 
and he and his associates had been giving 
them astone. ‘‘ Yet,’’ he argued, ‘‘I am 
only a worker myself. What can I do to 
assist my fellow men in a material way ?”’ 

For hours the battle raged in his breast. 
Then nature asserted itself, and he went to 
sleep, but only to dream of the slaughter 
of the innocents. 

‘*Cop’’ Mulligan was having a busy night. 
The storm raged with terrible fury, and the 
policeman was on the alert for little figures 
huddled in doorways and other places fre- 
quented by homelessarabs. Tosleep abroad 
on such a night meant death, and Mulligan 
wanted no ‘‘stiffs’’ found on his beat. 

Stretched on a grating, from which came 
heat from a boiler below, Mulligan found 
Jimmy asleep. His little face was emaciated 
and pale, and when the policeman prodded 
his little body with his night stick, he mur- 
mured, ‘‘Ah, g’wan!’’ and slumbered on. 
‘Git up, yez young divil,’’ growled Mulli- 
gan, ‘‘or it’s afther being run in yez’ll be.’’ 
At the sound of the voice of his enemy 

Jimmy’s eyes opened wide, and when he ° 

saw the officer standing over him, he rose, 
limped painfully away, and disappeared into 
the storm and the darkness. 

‘* Poor little divil,’’ murmured the police- 
man, as Jimmy disappeared. ‘‘ I wonther 
where he’ll make for now, after meself 
roustin’ him out ov the warmest sphot on 
me beat.’’ Then Mulligan growled some- 
thing that sounded like a curse, not on 
Jimmy, but on the ‘‘ nobs that feed their 
mangy curs on veal cutlets, whoile poor 
kids starve and freeze on the streets.’’ 

‘* It’s meself that hated to roust the kid,’’ 
said the officer, ‘‘ but it’s meself that had 
to do it, for it’s sharp eyes the sargeant 
has, and it’s me own poor kids that would 
be up agin it, if he found me neglectin’ me 
duty, and the dirthy duty it is, to roust 
poor little kids loike that. 

“‘Ugh! but it’s a bad noight,’’ growled 
Mulligan, as an icy blast struck him and 
chilled his bones, despite his heavy cloth- 
ing. ‘‘Begorra! and it’s to the station 

I’d betther be takin’ that kid, or he’ll 
freeze, sure.’’ Then he hurried after the 
boy and called him, but he did not reply. 
All night long Mulligan searched for him, 
but failed to find him. 

Another policeman found all that was 
left of him in the gray of the morning. A 
little, dead, frozen shell. Was his soul with 
the Father invisible ? 

When the Sunday-school opened on the 
following week, Jimmy was missing. The 
teacher made inquiries about him, and 
reeled when, in answer, one of the children 
replied, ‘‘ He’s dead—he was frozed tu deat 
last Sunday night.’’ 

Yes! frozen to death, while the teacher 
was battling with his comscience, and 
thousands of professing Christians were 
rolling in luxury, and dogs were being fed 
on choice veal cutlets. 

After the scholars had been dismissed the 
young man, with a face blanched with 
horror, related the story of the tragedy to 
his friend, the aged superintendent. With 
a voice thrilling with honest emotion, he 
declared that something would have to be 
done to save the perishing children. 

He expected comfort and advice from the 
aged disciple, but was disappointed and 
enraged when the superintendent mur- 
mured, as he had done the Sunday before: 

~ “*Truly His ways are beyond our under- 


Then fire flashed from the eyes of the 
horrified teacher. Shaking with honest 
indignation, he shouted: 

‘‘His ways are not beyond our under- 
standing. When on earth he said: ‘ Heal 
the sick, feed my lambs ’—I haven’t been 
doing it—you haven’t been doing it. He fed 
the hungry and healed thesick, but you and 
I have only been saying: ‘Lord, Lord,’ 
while the lambs have been freezing and 
starving to death. The people have been 
crying for bread, and we have been giving 
them a stone. 

‘“The boy who was frozen to death last 
Sunday died scoffing the idea of a merciful 
Father in Heaven, and hundreds of others 
will perish in this land of ours before the 
winter is over. Do you dare to believe that 
such will die praising the sort of God we 
have been worshipping? No, sir, they will 
not, and you must confess they will not if 
you dare to be honest. 

‘* What is the use of talking about a mer- 
ciful God to a starving people? They will 


laugh you and your God to scorn. If you 
believe in this omnipotent being, you will 
follow His teachings. If you don’t you will 
be responsible for the rejection of the Re- 
deemer; you will be crucifying Him afresh. 

‘‘T pray the forgiveness of my heavenly 
Father. I need it, and so do you—aye, and 
so does the church. Not even a sparrow 
falleth to the ground but He knoweth. 
How, then, can you dare to expect that He 
will not notice the fall of His children, and 
hold you and me responsible for our neg- 
lect and their sufferings? If your religion 
is of the ‘Lord, Lord’ kind, I have had 
enough of you and your religion. It is a 
hollow mockery.’’ 

The face of the superintendent flushed; 
then he upbraided the young man, and ad- 
monished him to pray for control over an 
ungovernable temper. The teacher refused 
to take the advice, and an argument ensued, 
in which the old man was worsted and ex- 
hibited a temper that certainly needed 
praying over. Horrified teachers who over- 
heard the argument were of the opinion 
that both were fit subjects for much prayer. 

There was a great stir in the shop where 
the teacher had worked for years. An 
agitator had appeared and invited the men 
to attend a meeting, to be held in the even- 
ing, for the purpose of forming a union. 
To the teacher the union had been an insti- 
tution built on very objectionable lines. 
Employers had frowned upon it, and he 
had regarded unionists as a lawless class. 
Prominent members of his church society 
had denounced it in scathing terms, and 
their opinions had prejudiced him against 
all labor organizations. 

The superintendent of the mission had _ 

been vehement in his denunciations of all 
things connected with the unions, but now 
his ideal, the superintendent, had been 
shattered. Heretofore his advice had been 
a guide to the young man, but his brutal 
indifference to human suffering had ex- 
posed the false shepherd. Like a drowning 
man, the teacher grasped at the first thing 
that floated near him. He decided to go to 
the meeting and find out what there was 
in unionism. 

‘**This is my commandment, That ye 
love one another even as I have loved you.’ 
This is my text, and I propose to demon- 
strate that upon this foundation the unions 
are built.’’ These were the first words 
spoken by the agitator, and a hush fell over 

the audience of working men when the 
words of the Nazarene, uttered in mellow, 
sympathetic tones, were heard. 

Surely this could not be the agitator. 
The speaker was a man of slight build. 
Lines of suffering marked his features. He 
was mild of manner and impressed his 
hearers as being a man of great intelligence 
and benevolence. 

‘* The world is filled with good things,’’ 
he continued, ‘‘and the Creator never in- 
tended that a few should monopolize all 
his blessings, while the multitude groveled 
in poverty and thousands perished through 
lack of the bare necessities of life. I have 
here a copy of a newspaper that tells of a 
banquet given to dogs at Newport, and in 
the same paper is unfolded a tale of horror 
that makes my blood and yours run cold. 

‘While the dogs were being pampered and 
feasted on choice viands, a woman and her 
children were found homeless and starving 
on the streets of New York. Think of this, 
and then denounce us as rabid agitators, if 
you dare, because we want to bring about 
conditions that will make our children and 
yours as precious as dogs. 

‘*The Carpenter of Nazareth—the Re- 
deemer of mankind—said, while on earth: 
‘It is not meet to take the children’s bread 
and cast it to the dogs;’ but this very thing 
is being done today, and thousands of the 
professing followers of the Christ are not 
only allowing it to be done without protest, 
but are found among those who are doing it. 

‘*While passing the morgue the other day, 
I was attracted by a number of children, who 
exhibited great evidences of grief. I asked 
a bystander what caused the commotion, 
and he carelessly replied: ‘Oh, not much ! 
It’s only a bunch of street arabs. One of 
them was frozen to death last night, and 
he’s in there.’ 

‘* Why do you tolerate such conditions 
without protest? Because your attention 
has been all taken up in your own struggle 
for bread? This little fellow was only a 
street arab, they said. Yet he was a human 
being, made after the image of God. 

The street arab, human and madein the 
image of God, rests in an unmarked grave 
in the potter's field. 

** Surely the Christ, who said, ‘Inasmuch 
as ye did it to the least of these my brethren, 
ye did it unto me,’ wilh hold men responsi- 
ble for such inhumanities. And when I say 
this, I mean that He will hold you equally 


responsible with the favored classes. You 
have the remedy at hand, and you will be 
condemned if you do not embrace it. You 
are your brother’s keeper, and will be called 
to account if you fail in your duty to him. 

‘‘The labor organization seeks to instill 
into the minds of men the doctrine of love, 
and is condemned for doing it. 

‘‘T say again, the world is filled with 
good things, provided by a merciful Father, 
and that the masses can not secure them, 
because they have allowed themselves to be 
exploited by the few, who seek to keep 
them in subjection, and coin their bone, 
muscle, and blood into yellow gold. 

‘*T am adisciple of the Christ. Tome He 
is the greatest ideal of all that is good. He 
was a workman himself, and experienced 
the privations of the common people. He 
condemned the oppressors of the widow and 
orphan, and rebuked the rich young man 
who wanted to know how he could enter 
heaven while in all probability the op- 
pressor of the poor and defenseless. 

‘*Do you remember His command to 
that representative of the pampered, fa- 
vored classes? Here it is: ‘Go sell all that 
thou hast and give to the poor.’ He might 
have said, and probably the young man un- 
derstood Him to say, ‘ Go give to the poor 
that which belongs to them and that which 
thou hast taken from them by extortion 
and other unfair methods.’ I am convinced 
that is what the Redeemer meant. If the 
rich young man had done this he would 
very likely have had little left, and he went 
away exceedingly sorrowful. 

‘* There are others today who profess to 
honor this Christ, but, like the young man, 
are not willing to obey His commands. 

‘‘ Christianity is all right. It is a glorious 
doctrine. It teaches the fatherhood of God 
and the brotherhood of man. Our labor or- 
ganizations are founded on this doctrine, and 
we bow our heads in adoration to the 
Saviour, the workman, the champion of 
the people and the Redeemer of mankind. 

‘‘Organizations of workers have been 
forced to take up the work that belongs to 
the church, and are carrying out the com- 
mands of the Nazarene today. They are 
caring for the sick, and pangs of hunger 
are less frequent since they have attained 

‘* They have taken the children from the 
factories, and placed them in the schools. 

‘‘ Take the child from the factory, shop, 

and mine. Give Bobby and Jennie a happy 
childhood, and their hearts will be lifted in 
praise and adoration to the giver of every 
good and perfect gift. 

‘* Give the people something to thank 
God for, and their voices will be raised to 
Him in praise and adoration. 

‘* Do you know that Christ was crucified 
for preaching this very doctrine? Yes! and 
men are being crucified today because they 
dare tell the people of their wrongs. If you 
want to be men, and are prepared to suffer in 
order that right may prevail, I invite you 
to become members of the great organized 
labor movement. If you are afraid to make 
a stand for your own rights and the rights 
of others, you had better stay out of it. The 
pioneers of this movement bore the brunt 
of this fight, but there are still great tasks 
to be undertaken, and it will require men 
to perform them. Cowards will only be a 
hindrance, and the movement can not be 
hampered with such. We do not want im- 
pressed men in our organizations. We 
want volunteers. Are there any here ready 
to voluvteer ?’’ 

The speaker was interrupted by the 
teacher, who at this point jumped from his 
seat and cried: ‘‘ I’ll volunteer. You have 
told the truth tonight, sir. That boy who 
was frozen to death was my Sunday-school 
scholar, and he derided the idea of a mer- 
ciful God a few hours before he met his 
death. I am and have been a church mem- 
ber, and thought I was doing my full duty, 
but the horrible death of that poor little 
chap has shown me that I have failed in 
my duty to my fellow men. Boys! you all 
know me. I have had no use for the unions, 
but my late experiences and the truth told 
by this speaker tonight has converted me.’’ 

The teacher walked to the platform, and 
was met by the speaker, who grasped him 
by the hand, amid the cheers of the as- 
sembled workmen. Then the men arose in 
a body, and crowded around the desks of 
the secretaries. The speaker had not fin- 
ished his address, but further talk was un- 
necessary. The workmen were aroused, 
and few left the meeting place before their 
names had been inscribed on the books of 
the new labor organization. 

A temporary organization was formed, 
and the teacher was proclaimed its presi- 
dent amidst great enthusiasm. He had been 
led to Damascus, and was about to take up 
the cross of his Master. 


‘*You have disappointed me, and you 
can not tell how shocked I am to find you 
the leader of a pestilential union. From all 
I hear, a union would not have been 
formed last night had you not gone out of 
your head and deliberately assisted that 
rabid agitator in his work.’ I have always 
regarded you as a conservative young man, 
and had intended to look after your in- 
terests, but you must realize it will be im- 
possible for me to do so now since you have 
arrayed yourself against my interests.’’ 
The speaker was the employer of the 
teacher, and the admonition was given on 
the morning of the day succeeding the 
meeting at which the labor organization 
had been formed. The young man listened 
impatiently to the condemnation of his em- 
ployer and then replied: ‘‘ You are mis- 
taken, sir. I have not arrayed myself against 
your interests. I have decided to stand for 
the rights of my class, but if you are an 
honest emplover, there will be no conflict 
between you and the organization that was 
formed last night. I thank you for the 

interest you profess to have had in my wel- 
fare, but if my action last night has changed 
your opinion of me, it will have to be so. 

I have been deluded long enough, and have 
been influenced to look upon labor organiza- 
tions as iniquitous institutions, but Iam now 
assured that my place is with the unions.’’ 

His firm stand for his new-born princi- 
ples astonished the employer, and for the 
time being he was left undisturbed. But not 
for long. A few days later he was offered a 
foreman’s position if he would withdraw 
from the organization. He refused to 
sacrifice his manhood, and told the super- 
intendent he was not a Judas that could be 
bought for either silver or position. Then 
indignities were heaped upon him, and he 
began to realize that cross-bearing was not 
nearly so pleasant as the ‘‘ Lord, Lord ”’ 
business had been. 

ae “aP 

At the mission, the superintendent and 
the workers treated him coolly, and his 
burden became almostintolerable when his 
sweetheart intimated that he must either 
surrender the union or her affections. This 
was indeed a hard, heavy cross, but when 
he read in his testament the words, ‘‘And 
ye shall be hated of all men for My name’s 
sake, but he that shall endure unto the end, 
the same shall be saved,’’ it seemed as if 
the Father invisible was talking to him, 
and he stood fast. 

His sweetheart and some of his friends 
did desert him, but he had the satisfaction 
of converting many of his old church 
friends, and he and they are working con- 
tinuously for the advancement of the in- 
terests of their class. 

Several years have passed since the 
teacher decided to take up his cross and 
follow the Master. His troubles have been 
many, and his disappointments have been 
legion. He has found it a hard matter to 
induce the workers to work out their own 
salvation, but he labors on patiently, realiz- 
ing that every year brings nearer the day 
when the laborers shall be free from 
the thraldom of an unjust capitalistic 

He has now a home and a wife and a lit- 
tle fellow, who is named Jimmy. He lost 
his first love when he became a unionist, 
but the little woman who sits by his fire- 
side amply repays him for the loss of his 
former sweetheart. She is sweet, kind, 
sympathetic, and is his partner in all his 
undertakings. She is his comfort and main- 
stay in all things, and they find time and 
opportunity together to help suffering hu- 

Sorrows have come to their home, but 
the sunshine of true love has always light- 
ened the dark places, and they find joy and 
satisfaction in fulfilling the true mission of 
the Father invisible. 

eae aie aaa 
P “ a 
ay — ie \————————_ 

NK 4 



Member of Laundry Committee, Woman’s Trade Union League. 

[Fifth article in this series.] 

URING the last half century the 
shirtmaker’s trade has been spec- 
ialized into two almost distinct 
branches; first, men’s shirts and 

boys’ waists, and, second, collars and cuffs. 
But the conditions affecting the life of the 
shirtmaker as an individual have not been 

Home work is said to be ‘‘No Man’s 
Land in the Industrial World,’’ as it is 
peopled with ‘‘casuals, dreary phantoms 
who come and go whence and whither no 
man can tell.’’ Upon a closer analysis, 
however, the home workers in any trade 
may be classified into three distinct groups. 

First, women whose husbands are either 
irregularly employed, poorly paid, ill, run- 
away, drunk, or dead. These women are 
bound to the home either by a flock of little 
children, old age (most often premature), 
or by lack of skill. They may be found in 
the villages and small towns, in the tene- 
ment and yard-houses of the slums of a 
large city. Here all the horrors of poverty, 
hunger, ignorance, and dirt are found. In 
the dingy little cells called homes, these 
women work from gray dawn until long 
after midnight by the flickering light of a 
smoking kerosene lamp. 

Second, farmers’ wives, not theeighteenth 
century ‘women who might be and were 
proud of their big rolls of homespun clothes 
and chests full of linen fashioned by their 
hands. The twentieth century farmer 
women do home work generally because 
they must contribute their mite towards 
paying the interest at least on the mortgages 
that so often are a crushing weight upon the 
uncertain yearly income of a small farm. 

Third, the wives and daughters of the 
‘‘shabby genteel,’’ small salaried clerks 
and the like. These women do not wish to 
shock the social conscience by going to the 
factory as ordinary womenfolk do. Out 
they go, then, singly, book in hand, round 

about and into the factory, where, without 
the least bargaining as to prices, they ask 
in a whisper for a bundle of work to be 
delivered at the home. 

As to the application of earnings, the 
last group may again be roughly subdi- 
vided into two classes: 

(a) Those women who feel or assume 
the duty of assisting the ‘‘ male supporter ”’ 
when his income is not commensurate with 
the standard of living to which the family 
has been accustomed or to which it aspires. 

(6) Those women who are in the finan- 
cial circumstances, but do not share in the 
scruples of the women in the first class. 
They are inclined to ‘‘ conspicuous waste ’’ 
in dress and living, while at the same time 
they wish to preserve a spirit of independ- 
ence. The work of these women, especi- 
ally, is of the capricious kind, most irregular, 
intermittent. Their work is a squandering 
of their own energies, and it degrades and 
lowers the standard of wages of that large 
and increasing majority of women who 
have little or nothing else to depend on. 

All these different classes of house workers 
are employed mainly on the surplus of the 
factory orders—the unskilled, poorly paid 
work which the factory hand rejects or 
which the pressure of a big order prevents 
her wholly completing. 

Home workers are extremely poorly paid, 
and at the same time act as parasites on 
the regular factory hand; the employers use 
them as a threat to discourage any self- 
assertion on the part of workers whose 
daily bread is at stake. In this respect the 
home worker performs a function similar to 
that of the strike breaker. 

Owing to the presence of home workers 
in the trade, it is almost impossible to state 
with any degree of accuracy just how 
many women are engaged in work at men’s 
shirts, boys’ waists, collar and cuff making. 
The meager statistics we have are from the 



special report of the census for 1900, which 
gives 30,941 women (8,491 men) shirt, 
collar, and cuff makers in the United States. 
An extraordinary proportion, 90 odd per 
cent of this number, are located in New 
York State, in and around Troy. 

Collar and cuff making is indigenous to 
the women of the town of Troy on the 
Mohawk. They seem to have it ‘‘ bred in 
the bone’’ is the saying, and many of them 
have been trained for years to perfect some 
of its little details. The first separate collar 
for sale was made by the wife of a Troy 
blacksmith about seventy-five years ago. 
Since that time the number of families de- 
pendent upon thisindustry steadily increased 
until, at the present day, nearly every one 
within a radius of twenty-five or thirty 
miles is vitally interested in the manufac- 
ture. Almost all of it is in the hands of 
women at home or in the factory. 

It is stated that the female population at 
Troy is proportionately larger than any- 
where else in the United States and so are 
their aggregate earnings in proportion to 
those of men. In fact, many a man de- 
pends upon the wages of women relatives, 
as there are very few vocations open to 
men at Troy, except cutting shirts, collars, 
and cuffs, shirt ironing, driving, and work- 
ing in the few iron foundries. 

The wages of factory women there are 
$2.50 to $4 per week for young recruits, 
$6 to $12 for those of mature experience, 
with perhaps a bonus for experts. The 
working hours are from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m., 
and a half-holiday on Saturday. Net wages 
are generally less than what they are pop- 
ularly estimated to be. During two to 
three months in the year, there is little 

There are also numerous reductions, in 
fines and otherwise. For instance, a collar 
to be repaired is not only returned to the 
operator for repair, but a fine of five cents 
must be paid in addition ‘‘ to avoid careless- 
ness,’’ says the rule printed in heavy, black 
type, and located so that it is the first thing 
one sees on entering the room. When the 
belt around an operator’s machine cracks, 
the operator loses the time necessary for re- 
pair and also must pay 40 cents an hour to 
the machinist, who is, of course, an em- 
ploye at the establishment. The operator 
must own a machine or pay 25 cents a week 
for its use. Needles, thread, and even the 

little time-book must be paid for. Finally, 
as there is no drinking water at Troy 
proper, and it has to be imported from out- 
side, every operator must pay three cents a 
week. These are only a few striking illus- 
trations. It goes without saying that, as 
the system of fines is entirely in the hands 
of a foreman with ‘‘ full power,”’ it is open 
to every abuse. 

Prior to the strike of 1901, elsewhere re- 
ferred to, the operator’s union was one of 
the 18 locals:in the craft of Troy affiliated 
under a single district council. 

Troy, being the center of the collar and 
cuff industry, typifies the conditions wher- 
ever the same work is done. The manu- 
facture of men’s skirts and boys’ waists is 
largely located in New York City, and this, 
like Troy, exemplifies the circumstances of 
its employes everywhere found. 

The shirt and waist operators of Greater 
New York are estimated to number from 
four thousand to five thousand people. 
Forty-five per cent only of this number are 
women. The factory employes may be di- 
vided into two groups: 

First, the ‘‘inside’’ workers, generally 
English-speaking, those who work in the 
few big factories on Broadway, employed 
on the very best custom work, that pays, 
perhaps, $3 per dozen. These form what 
may be termed the aristocracy in the trade, 
and many a white-haired woman among 
them, who seems to own that little corner 
of the world, makes it extremely difficult 
for a new hand to come in. In a sense, 
there is good reason for the resentment felt 
toward intruders. Shirtmakers have seen 
better days in their craft. About nine or 
ten years ago they had a strong union, but, 
at the very time when the union could be- 
gin to ask terms, the newcomers stepped 
in, underbid them, and unwittingly served 
as the employers’ tool against the union. 

Second, the ‘‘ outside’’ workers, immi- 
grant men and women, mainly Hebrews, 
getting their work second-hand from a con- 
tractor. Little seems to be known about the 
factory workers by these outsiders. The 
latter, in turn, now believe that trade 
unionism among the ‘‘ Yankee’’ factory 
workers is impossible, since they are unap- 
proachable, In fact, the only organization 
in the trade in New York City is Local 
142, which meets every Friday night on 
Ludlow street, in the same hall where the 

— A et Fe Fe bee hOCOUe  hCU![CU Oe 

oo mm OC st ah Off 


fn 4 


Sabbath services of the synagogue are con- 
ducted an hour before the union meeting. 

This union has existed for the last two 
years and has a membership of 250, nearly 
a third of which are women. These women 
pay the same dues as the men, 40 cents 
per month ahd $1 initiation fee. They are 
welcome to ‘‘act,’’ but do soonly when the 
special occasion arises. 

There is a large and growing proportion 
of Jewish girls of the progressive type, who, 
if not diverted by other ‘‘isms,’’ are ardent 
adherents to trade unionism. They join the 
union of their respective crafts readily, and, 
although they may not attend regularly 
the weekly business meeting, they prove to 
be an invaluable factor whenever their sense 
of duty, their sympathy, their heroism is ap- 
pealed to. 

The principle for which the Shirt, Waist, 
and Laundry Workers’ Union is fighting in 
New York is the recognition of the organi- 
zatioy by the employer. In the shops where 
the union people succeeded in carrying 
their point, the employer agrees not to en- 
gage other than union members. 

An organized shop has comparatively 
good sanitary conditions and regular hours, 
from 7 a.m. to6p m. Wages are accord- 
ing to agreement. 

The bulk of the trade, however, really lies 
in the factories of the neighboring small 
towns. The women there are not organized, 
and work for ridiculously low prices. For 
instance, for the making of a dozen ‘‘ center 
pieces, side-pockets, and back-yokes’’ 19 
cents is paid in the city; whereas in the 
country a dozen of these things may be 
made for five cents, since workers there are 
generally hired for the week, and the 
highest wage may not exceed $3.00. 

Wages in this trade are consequently 
exceedingly low. In a busy week in season 
a man operator makes $9.00 to $10.00 a 
week, a woman $4.00 to $6.00. But there 
are only six busy months in the year—the 
rest are either ‘‘ slack’’ or ‘‘ dull,’’ especi- 
ally during the summer, when two or three 
days constitute a week’s work. In many 
cases the workers can not even resort to 
another industry during the dull season, as 
the one who does not ‘‘stick to the shop 
now is not likely to get a job later.’’ The 
average wage of a union man, the father of 

a family, is thus $6.00 or $7.00 a week 
during the year; that of the union woman, 
probably about $4.00. 

It is taken for granted that non-union 
men and women do not get as good wages 
as the unionists do. But besides low wages, 
the latter work at times 14 to 16 hoursa 
day, and the conditions in the shops are 
anything but sanitary. Crowded, dark, and 
filthy are mild terms to be applied to nearly 
all of them. In some the halls are not 
lighted even at night. 

The people working late are obliged to 
crawl down the stairways in utter darkness, 
and accidents occur frequently. Under the 
circumstances it can not be otherwise. The 
contractor gets only a definite, limited price 
for a given dozen of work. 

To make his own share of profit larger, he 
is tempted to reduce the wages of the 
operators or the expenses in running a 
shop. He generally does both at the same 
time; hence ‘‘short’’ wages, long hours, 
and deficient sanitary conditions. 

The crying need in this trade is to or- 
ganize the workers in the small towns 
where factories have been established. To 
the uninitiated this may appear to be an 
impossibility, but quite a number of such 
little unions in various trades are already 
struggling into existence. 

It is the only means whereby, under 
the present industrial organization, the 
manufacturer proper may be reached. 

Only when the country workers are well 
organized may the general movement for 
increased wages be possible and success- 

The story of the shirtmaker’s life is a piti- 
ful one. Its best summary is still the ‘‘Song 
of the Shirt.’’ But, of course, the growth 
of crowded cities and the development 
of machinery have modified it. The ‘‘ shat- 
tered roof’’ over the shirtmaker’s head has 
been thickened into layers that hold swarms 
of men, women, and babes on top of one 
another, like so many bees in a hive, but 
‘‘the walk that cost a meal’’ from the tene- 
ment to the factory is still longer. 

The single needle and thread have been 
changed into the nine needle-threaded 
machine, but the ‘‘woman in unwomanly 
rags, with fingers weary and worn, with 
eyelids heavy and red,’’ is with us still. 




The Pittsburg convention of the American Federation of 
aa Labor was, without question, one of the greatest in the 
CONVENTION. history of the Federation. It was attended by 309 delegates, 

representing 83 national and international unions, 22 state 
federations, 71 city central bodies, 19 trade and federal labor unions, and 
six fraternal organizations. The convention was marked by the highest 
order of intelligence, the delegates vying with each other to render the 
American Federation of Labor and its constituent unions the most practical 
and potent aid for the material, moral, and social benefit of the entire wage- 
earners of our continent. 

The convention was indeed an inspiration to all who aim for the uplift- 
ing of the masses. The discussion of the various questions under 
consideration was characterized by keen, intelligent, and frequently 
eloquent debate. 

As is the custom the sessions were entirely open and above board, a 
large number of visitors were present every day, and representatives and 
correspondents of the press of the city and of the entire country were in 
constant attendance. 

We here quote au opinion written by Mr. Charles Stelzle, which was 
largely shared by visitors and observers. He says: 

It was my privilege to attend practically every session of the American Federation 
of Labor convention, which was recently held in Pittsburg. The convention was re- 
markable for many things, but I want to confine myself to the personal side of the 
meeting, principally because the average delegate will hardly report upon this phase of 
the convention. 

The first impression that an outsider got as he looked upon the four hundred dele- 
gates was their seriousness of purpose. It was an audience that would not be trifled 
with. They had evidently come there for business. Throughout the convention there 
seemed to be a keen appreciation of what was involved in the action of the delegates 
with reference to a particular resolution. 

They were nearly all young men, but they were wise beyond their years in the 
practical things of life. ‘‘Executive ability’’ was plainly written upon their faces. Put 
to commercial uses, there is little doubt that their talents would have brought incomes 
which would have exceeded their present rewards. It was surprising, at first, to note 
that the unskilled workingmen had sent as delegates some of the best orators that were 
listened to on the floor of the convention. But practically every international sent a 
strong team, among whom there was found at least one man who could ably champion 
the interests of his union. 

Few questions could have been presented which would not have had an intelligent 
consideration. The breadth of information of these delegates was a source of constant 
surprise. Not only problems that had to do directly with the labor question, but 
such as had only the remotest bearing upon it, were discussed with evident clearness and 
comprehension. There was a disposition to be absolutely fair, no matter how unpopular 
the speaker or the subject under consideration. Not once was a man howled down. It 
seemed to me that the delegates at times were really too patient. Never have I seen 
such a desire to give the other fellow a square deal. The man who produced the best 
argument won his case. It was quite apparent that politics had little to do with the 
decision of the delegates. 


There wasn’t a single so-called anarchistic appeal, nor was thereanything that could 
be called un-American. The convention was not composed of ‘agitators of unrest.’’ 
Most of them were bona fide workingmen. 

The hearty response to Mr. Gompers’ message with reference to universal peace, 
and the important part which organized labor must play in its consummation, indicated 
the feeling of brotherhood which lies deep in the hearts of the toilers. 

The reports of the officers were exhaustive, and their reading listened 
to with every evidence of intelligent satisfaction and gratification. The 
reports were considered by the various committees and almost every recom- 
mendation approved. The work of the year, reviewed in these reports, showed 
gratifying results, and that every effort had been made to protect and 
advance the interests of the working people of America, and to be in line 
with the best sentiment and effort of the wage-workers and humanitarians 
the world over. 

Referring to a few detail matters considered by the convention, it may 
be stated that the further organization of the working people was deter- 
mined upon, and a vigorous prosecution of the effort to organize the yet 
unorganized and to have all unaffiliated unions become a part of the general 
labor movement under the banner of the American Federation of Labor. 

An assessment of four cents upon the members of affiliated organiza- 
tions in the interest of the International Typographical Union for its eight 
hour day movement was endorsed. The demand for the abolition of child 
labor in all states of the Union was adopted, as were also resolutions for the 
entire abolition of the sweat-shops; the movement for the general intro- 
duction of the eight hour day, and the eight hour law for all Government 
work ; also for an anti-injunction law, and a law to prohibit the labor of 
convicts coming into competition with free laborers. 

A resolution demanding the use of public school rooms for the meet- 
ings of labor organizations was passed, as was also one in favor of the 
establishment by central bodies of schools in various localities of the coun- 
try, where instruction on trade union history, methods, and philosophy 
might be had. Resolutions on immigration, as well as protesting against a 
change in the American policy of Chinese exclusion, were adopted. 

The convention reiterated its position in regard to the initiative and 
referendum in national, state, and local affairs; and for self-government in 
public schools. Resolutions were passed urging that the Government yards 
be enlarged to give direct employment to the men working therein; endors- 
ing the movement for the thorough investigation of the social and in- 
dustrial condition of women employed in manufacturing and in mercantile 
pursuits, and to thoroughly organize the women wage-workers. 

Resolutions were adopted insisting upon a wider and more general de- 
mand and use of all labels issued by bona fide organizations, and instructing 
the Executive Council to work for the organizing of the farm laborers, and 
to establish a closer alliance between the Farm Laborers’ Protective 
Associations and the organized labor movement. 

There was a general discussion on the subject of tuberculosis, that 
terrible plague from which so large a number of our fellow-workers are 
sufferers and victims, and a movement inaugurated looking toward both the 
prevention and cure of the disease. 


These are a few of the important matters discussed by the convention; 
but it may not be amiss to call attention to the fact that it had a most potent 
influence in endeavoring to adjust inter-union grievances and differences. 
Arrangements were made for conferences, and tentative agreements reached, 
to adjust differences between the wood workers and carpenters; between 
plumbers and steam fitters; coopers and brewery workers; wood workers 
and painters; seamen and longshoremen; drop forgers and blacksmiths; 
metal lathers and structural iron workers; brewery workers, engineers, and 
firemen, and several others. 

All in all, the Pittsburg convention was a great gathering of the 
representatives of the men and women of labor of America, who came to 
the convention with the one avowed purpose, that of applying themselves 
earnestly and faithfully to the work of devising ways and means to better 
protect and promote the interests of the working people of our country. It 
was a convention the attendance upon which and participation therein 
every one who was a delegate may feel justly proud. Time will demonstrate 
the wisdom of the work outlined and performed and the policy declared. 

The convention opened Monday morning, November 13, was in session 
12 days, and committees having various subjects referred to them for 
consideration gave faithful, sincere, and intelligent consideration to them, 
many hours of many days after the close of the daily sessions. 

On the last day the convention elected as its officers the following: 

President, Samuel Gompers; first vice-president, James Duncan; second 
vice-president, John Mitchell; third vice-president, James O’Connell; fourth 
vice-president, Max Morris; fifth vice-president, D. A. Hayes; sixth vice- 
president, Daniel J. Keefe; seventh vice-president, Wm. D. Huber; eighth 
vice-president, Joseph F. Valentine; treasurer; John B. Lennon; secretary, 
Frank Morrison. 

Frank K. Foster, of the International Typographical Union, and James 
Wilson, of the Pattern Makers’ National League, were elected fraternal 
delegates to the British Trade Union Congress, and T. A. Rickert, of the 
Garment Workers, was elected fraternal delegate to the Canadian Trades 
and Labor Congress. 

Minneapolis, Minn., was selected for the meeting place of the twenty- 
sixth annual convention, November 12, 1906. 

LEGALITY OF We have been very disrespectful to those noble and virtuous 
UNION SHOP patriots, the sweaters, and those who, in the name of 
SUDICIALLY Liberty, Americanism, the Constitution, and the Golden 

Rule, have declared war on the union shop. We have 
treated in these columns the whole anti-union campaign as a farce and 
a bit of plutocratic hypocrisy as far as the appeals to ‘‘sacred principles ’’ 
were concerned. 

Nay, we have done more; we have had the hardihood to criticise, and 
some say to ridicule, certain decisions of solemn, ill-informed, or uncon- 
sciously preju liced judges who had permitted sophistical attorneys to mis- 
lead them into condemning agreements voluntarily made, providing for the 


union shop; that is, for the exclusive employment of union men in certain 
establishments for certain periods. 

How rash all that was! How could we contradict learned judges in 
whose opinion any ‘‘ closed shop contract is an illegal and wrongful con- 
tract, acontract opposed to public policy, because designed to create a 
monopoly?’’ How could we continue to advocate the union shop and 
swear at the attempts of short-sighted employers and their obliging attor- 
neys to outlaw all union shop contracts ? 

Well, we could—we did. We were guilty of those unheard-of things, 
as are the typographical unions that even now, regardless of grotesque 
injunctions and silly dicta, are fighting for the union shop and the eight 
hour day. 

And, strange as it will seem to our friend, the enemy, one of the great- 
est courts in the country, the New York Court of Appeals, has just 
completely justified our attitude. 

That great court, to which, by the way, organized labor is indebted for 
several admirable, sound, progressive decisions, has upheld a typical case, a 
union shop contract, declaring it perfectly. legal and in no sense incom- 
patible with public policy and industrial liberty. 

More than that, it has treated the arguments of the grave counsel of the 
employers, party of the second part in the case, with a degree of disrespect 
that is akin to contempt. This is ‘‘the unkindest cut of all.’’ Finally, the 
virtuous and patriotic champions of ‘‘liberty,’’ in the form of sweat-shops 
and anti-union shops, have not even the consolation of one or more dissent- 
ing opinions. The court was unanimous ! 

Will the foundations of American liberty and American government 
withstand this shock? 

We shall see. Meantime, let us briefly give the facts of the New York 
case, which we commend to the study of thoughtful employers and honest 
lawyers, as well as to the attention of organized labor. 

The New York local of the Protective Coat Tailors and Pressers’ Union 
had entered into an agreement with a clothing firm, whereby the latter, for 
a sufficient consideration, bound itself to employ none but good standing 
members of that union. The firm had violated the contract, and the union 
had brought suit to recover damages for the breach. 

In the trial court the union won, but the favorable decision was later 
reversed by the appellate division. Two questions were involved: First, 
was the contract a good, legal contract ? Second, was the defense sufficient 
on its face? The defense was that the contract was not enforceable in a 
court of law because it was opposed to public policy, in that it operated to 
restrain trade and establish monopoly in labor. 

This, it will be remembered, was precisely the ground upon which 
some two years ago a high Illinois court declared a ‘‘ closed’’ shop contract 
void and unlawful. 

But the New York Court of Appeals declined to take that view. It 
held that the garment workers’ union shop contract was perfectly valid, 
lawful, and proper, and that the employers were bound by it. 

By implication, the court rejected the contention that union shop 


contracts tend to create monopolies and as such are injurious to the public. 
We have shown how absurd and hollow the contention is, how it logically 
leads to the repudiation of all contracts; and how employers have always 
had the right to make contracts in regard to raw material, rnachinery, and 
things of the kind that the hypocritical and pseudo-patriotic employers have 
attempted to deny to organized labor. 

The New York decision completely vindicates the union shop, and 
covers its rabid, fanatical, or vicious enemies with confusion and ridicule. 
We almost pity the plutocratic lawyers and the prejudiced, gullible judges 
who have been betrayed into making silly, farcical decisions against the 
right of contract in the zame of the right of contract. 

The union shop rests on the right of contract and the right of property 
and the right to dispose of one’s labor. 

ABUSE The officers of the Western Federation of Miners are evi- 
INSTEAD dently following the well-known practice of lawyers having 
OF AN a bad case at bar, that is, to abuse the other side. In the 
ACCOUNTING. iccue of their official paper of November 23, 1905, they 
devote nearly 10 pages to abuse and attacks upon the President of the 
American Federation of Labor. And all this because the latter, with the 
Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor, reported to the 
Pittsburg convention a recommendation that the officers of the Western 
Federation of Miners be required to give an accounting of the money re- 
ceived from the American Federation of Labor trade unions, so as to show 
whether this money was devoted to the legal defense of the outraged con- 
stitutional, natural, and human rights of the miners of Colorado, carrying 
the contest, if necessary, to the highest courts of the United States; or 
whether, as has been frequently asserted, these funds were used to bring 
into existence an organization having for its avowed purpose the destruc- 
tion of the very unions making the financial contributions. 

The report of the officers of the Western Federation of Miners, which 
was sent to the convention, and which purported to give the moneys received 
and expended, contained not one word or figure which could be gleaned as 
indicating that these moneys were used for the legal defense of the miners, 
as contemplated by the circular issued by the American Federation of Labor, 
and in response to which the unions contributed. 

The recommendations of both the Executive Council and the President 
of the American Federation of Labor to the Pittsburg convention were calm 
and deliberate statements, to which sincere and honest men should not have 
objected. The officers of the Western Federation of Miners sent a telegram 
to the convention stating that they had mailed an exhaustive reply to what 
they saw fit to regard as an attack, and the convention deferred considera- 
tion of the subject until the so-called reply was received. This reply con- 
sisted of the advance sheets of a 10-page document entitled ‘‘Answer of the 
Western Federation of Miners to Samuel Gompers.’’ It was turned over to 
the committee having the entire subject-matter in charge. Copies of it were 
forwarded by the Western Federation of Miners’ officers to the delegates to 


the Pittsburg convention who were in political sympathy with them. The 
entire question at issue was deferred, so that all might have a full and free 
opportunity to judge as to whether the request of the American Federation 
of Labor’s officers for an accounting was justified or otherwise. For a 
better understanding of this entire matter, we quote herewith the unani- 
mous report of the committee having the subject in charge: 

Considering that portion of the Executive Council’s report bearing on this subject— 
which was referred to this committee—jointly with the President’s report, we desire to 
say that we approve ‘‘ definitely and without equivocation,”’ the policy pursued as tothe 
contributions received for the Western Federation of Miners. We further recommend 
that the Executive Committee be instructed to insist that the Western Federation of 
Miners shall either carry out the purpose for which such financial aid was contributed, 
i. e., carrying to the highest courts the cases involved, or give to the Executive Com- 
mittee an accounting of what was done with the money. 

In the proceedings of the eighth day, morning session, after the report of the 
committee, the following appears: 

During the discussion Delegate Kennehan announced that if a further considera- 
tion of the matter was deferred until a later session the proceedings of the last conven- 
tion of the Western Federation of Miners would be placed in the hands of the committee. 
He stated that this would showthe disposition of the money referred to in the com- 
mittee’s report. 

Delegate Mahon moved that action on the section of the committee’s report under 
discussion be deferred ; that Delegate Kennehan be instructed to give the report spoken 
of to the committee, and that the question be taken up at a later session. 

At a later session a report of the Official Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual 
Convention of the Western Federation of Miners was handed to the committee, to- 
gether with the advance sheets of the reply made by Messrs. Moyer and Haywood: 

Your committee reports that it has examined with care the proceedings of the con- 
vention of the Western Federation of Miners submitted to it, and also the advance 
sheets of a reply made in the current number of the official journal of the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners to that portion of President Gompers’ report bearing upon the dispo- 
sition of the funds contributed by the American Federation of Labor unions to the 
Western Federation of Miners. Neither from the printed proceedings nor from the 
statements contained in the address of Messrs. Moyer and Haywood do we find sufficient 
reasons for changing our original recommendation: that in justice to all concerned an 
accounting should be given our Executive Council as to what portion of the very large 
amount contributed by the American Federation of Labor unions from the time the circu- 
lar was issued (June 9, 1904, to March, 1905), for the defense of the legal rights of trade 
unionists, has been applied for the purpose for which it was donated 

Andrew Furuseth, Frank K. Foster, Collis Lovely, Thomas F. Tracy, james A. 
Creamer, John P. Frey, John S. Henry, James Wilson, George F. Dunn, P. H. Sweet, 
John A. Powell, Committee. 

And it may be additionally interesting to say that the report above 
quoted was adopted by a convention of 309 delegates, representing 83 
national and international unions, 22 state federations, 71 city central bodies, 
19 trade and federal labor unions, and six fraternal organizations, without 
one dissenting vote. 

In what purports to be the answer of the Western Federation of Miners 
to the Executive Council and to the President of the American Federation 
of Labor, many insinuations and slanders are indulged in. They are but a 
repetition of attacks made by them before. To these we shall give neither 
attention, nor do they need any answer, other than to say that they are as 
malicious as they are false, and to remind them that they can not excuse 
their own conduct by accusing us. 

After all, a whole lifetime of straightforward, earnest work in the cause 
of labor, justice, right, and humanity is the best answer we could make. 
No one appreciates more than we, honest criticism, and frank, determined 


statements of differences; but when men indulge in slander, abuse, and bil- 
lingsgate, they can well be dismissed without attempts at explanation or de- 

We repeat that the officers and the great rank and file of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor and its affiliated unions have nothing but the 
kindliest feelings for the splendid manhood of the western metalliferous 
miners and desire for the organization of the craft. 

The American Federationists are a unit in the conviction that, inas- 
much as we all recognize that it is morally wrong for any wage earner to 
fail for any reason to belong to the union of his trade or calling, so it can 
not be morally right for a national or international union to remain 
aloof from the family of trade unions in the American Federation of Labor. 

It is true that the American Federation of Labor is not a perfect insti- 
tution. None know its defects better than those who are its staunchest 
friends and supporters, but they realize that men have not yet reached the 
stage of perfection, and that whatever weaknesses or shortcomings they in- 
dividually possess are reflected in their associated effort, and that it is the 
duty of those who see the errors to faithfully give their ability and energy 
to bring about the requisite improvement within the organized body, to 
make men better and more intelligent, to make them see the right, and to so 
conform their course as to bring about the highest and best results in their 
own interest, in the interest of their fellows, and the interest of the whole 
human family. 

We commend these thoughts not only to the Western Federation of 
Miners’ officers, but to all whom it mayconcern. The faithful consideration 
of them must convince every sincere thinking man who desires seriously 
and faithfully to be helpful to his fellows in the uplifting work of the organ- 
ized labor movement of the necessity of being in full fellowship with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

What we have stated here and elsewhere is prompted by no selfish 
motive, nor by any desire to annoy or aggravate either the officers of the 
Western Federation of Miners or their organization, but without passion or 
anger, we submit that if they will give an accounting, as requested by the 
unanimous voice of the American Federation of Labor, they will render a 
greater service to themselves and the cause of labor than any other course 
which they might pursue. Frankly explain, gentlemen, and unite for the 
common cause. 

TWO COURTS The Appellate Court of Cook County, Illinois, and the 
ON Supreme Court of the state of Washington have recently 
PICKETING. rendered decisions in ‘‘ picketing’’ cases, which have 
greatly pleased the organs that are hostile to organized labor. The de- 
cisions deny the right of any and all forms of picketing. No distinctions are 
made or recognized. The position taken is that picketing is an invasion of 
property rights and as such may—nay, should—be enjoined by courts of 

Let us consider dispassionately the logic or arguments whereby this 
sweeping conclusion is reached. 


The Illinois court starts out with the proposition that strikes have no 
legal right to ‘‘ interfere ’’ with or ‘‘ disturb’’ the business of the employers 
whom they seek to compel to grant this or that lawful demand. 

This, at first sight, seems as sound as it is simple. We are expected to 
accept it as self-evident. In point of fact, the statement is too vague to be 
admissible. It needs important qualifications. It is true only in a certain 
sense. In the sense which anti-union employers largely repeat it, it is un- 
true and pernicious. 

Everything depends upon the meaning given to the words ‘‘ interfere ’’ 
and ‘‘disturb.’’ A mere strike may, under certain circumstances, constitute 
a very serious interference with business or a grave disturbance of it. 

An employer may be very busy, very anxious to carry out certain orders 
for goods, and a strike may cripple him, prevent the keeping of his contract, 
or the getting of neworders. Yet it is conceded that no “‘ interference ’’ or 
‘*disturbance’’ of this nature is illegal. We need to know, in each case, 
the kind or form of interference attempted or threatened. 

If picketing is illegal, it is illegal, not because it interferes with or dis- 
turbs business, but because it interferes in a wrongful or unlawful manner. 
Can this be shown? Is it true of all forms of picketing? 

The court makes an attempt to show that picketing is necessarily wrong- 

ful and invasive. We quote from the opinion: 

The picket system once established, the intimidation, assaults, slugging, and blood- 
shed followed as naturally and inevitably as night follows day. There can be no such 
thing as peaceful, ‘‘ polite, and gentlemanly ’’ picketing, any more than there can be 
chaste, ‘‘ polite, and gentlemanly ’’ vulgarity, or peaceful mobbing, or lawful lynch- 
Me, «+ « 

It is idle to talk of picketing for lawful, persuasive purposes. Men do not form 

icket lines for the purpose of conversation and lawful persuasion. Such picketing as 
is established by the evidence in the case at bar is intended to annoy and intimidate, 
whether physical violence is resorted to or not, and is unlawful in either case. 

It does not matter here to state ‘‘ the evidence in the case at bar’’— 
what it established or failed to establish. We are concerned with the gen- 
eral question. The court says dogmatically that ‘‘there can be no such 
thing as peaceful picketing,’’ and the statement is absurd on its face. Cer- 
tainly, anything which exists ‘‘can be,’’ and every rational, unprejudiced 
person who knows anything at all about the actual, industrial world, who 
does not prefer imagination to facts, knows that there are hundreds of 
instances of perfectly peaceful picketing. The special pleaders and the 
sensational press do not call public and judicial attention to such instances— 
for obvious reasons, they are not sensational. But they exist, and that 
fact is fatal to the court’s arbitrary assumption. 

Men do form picket lines for persuasive purposes as well as for the pur- 
pose of gathering and conveying information about strikes to those in 
charge of them. It is not true that assaults and intimidation follow picket- 
ing as night follows day. Therefore, the whole argument falls to the 

Courts assume to restrain violence and intimidation by pickets or in 
connection with picket duty. They assume to restrain and do punish inva- 
sion of property rights, but what right have they to beg the question, to 
jump at the conclusion, to assume that picketing mus? lead to wrongful and 
illegal disturbance of business? 


Let us now turn to the case decided by the Supreme Court of the state 
of Washington. The facts, as stated in the opinion, appear to have been as 

The plaintiff was the proprietor of a restaurant. A dispute with some 
union men in his employ resulted in a strike. Thereupon the union 
picketed the establishment, and declared a boycott against it. The pickets 
congregated around the entrance, accosted patrons, attempted to persuade 
them not to enter an ‘‘ unfair’’ place, and succeeded in inflicting consider- 
able pecuniary injury upon the plaintiff. 

It is not pretended that the pickets threatened anybody or committed 
any disturbance of the peace. There was no attempt at intimidation. The 
picketing was what the Illinois judges are pleased to say, in their ignorance 
of the facts of the labor movement, picketing can not be; it was entirely 
peaceable. ‘The patrons had nothing to complain of, and it is not alleged 
that the public had anything to complain of in the conduct of the pickets. 

The question, therefore, is simply this: had the union the right to call the 
restaurant ‘‘ unfair,’’ to picket it peacefully, and to try to persuade patrons 
not to enter it during the strike? The court says, ‘‘no.’’ The opinion says: 

Clearly the acts of the appellants and defendants as set forth in the complaint are 
illegal and may be restrained by an injunction. It is true that a man not under contract 
obligations to the contrary has the right to quit the service of another at any time he 
sees fit, and may lawfully state, either publicly or privately, the grievances felt by him 
which gave rise to his conduct. And that right, which one man may exercise singly, 
many may lawfully agree by voluntary association to exercise jointly. 

But one man singly, nor any number of men jointly, having no legitimate interests 
to protect, may not ruin the business of another by maliciously inducing his patrons and 
other persons not to deal with him. Men can not lawfully jointly congregate about the 
entrance of another’s place of business, and there, either by persuasion, coercion, or 
force, prevent his patrons and the public at large from entering his place of business or 
dealing with him. 

Here the injunction is granted not on the acts, but on the mofives of the 
defendants. They are accused of ‘‘ malice,’’ and told that they had no 
‘* legitimate interests to protect.’’ The court holds that things a combina- 
tion of men may do, where there is no malice, where thereis a legitimate 
interest to further, may not be done by men actuated by malice pure and 

But where is the evidence of malice on the part of the union? It called 
the restaurant unfair because the proprietor had refused to grant demands 
that the /egitimate interests of the union employes had led them to make of 
him. The strike was not malicious; it was the result of a difference, involv- 
ing conflicting interests of a legitimate kind. 

Will the court contend that a union’s interests are not legitimate, and 
that any strike for better conditions or recognition of the union, essential 
to better conditions, is presumed to be malicious? This would be absurd. 

Unions are organized to further the legitimate interests of labor ; they 
have no other purpose. 

Strikes are not called by sane men for amusement, or to gratify malice, 
or out of caprice. They are called to obtain practical improvements ; they 
are prompted by self-interest, legitimate self-interest. 

We see no connection between the facts and the assumption of the 
Washington court. It is not necessary to consider the question of actually 


malicious picketing and boycotting. The point is, the facts in the case 
show no malice, while they do show legitimate interest In order to con- 
demn legal acts, the court had to imagine and impute malice and bad motive. 
And this some people call justice and reason. That a wiser and fairer 
conception will yet obtain, is as sure as the sunrise of the coming day, and 
it will come through a healthier public judgment brought about by the 
organization, agitation, and education of the trade-union movement. 


Trade unions have always been and are now abused and attacked by 
the wicked, the sordid, and theignorant. It is the imperative duty of every 
man to fight back the enemies of labor, no matter behind which mask they 


Apropos of the calamity howlers who loudly declare the textile 
workers’ strike a failure, and all trade union effort ineffective, the following 
telegram may have some interest: 

Fall RIVER, Mass., December 14, 1905. 

President American Federation of Labor, 
Washington, D. C. 

Thirty thousand woolen workers have received notice of a ten per cent advance 

in wages. 
President United Textile Workers of America. 

This wage increase is in response to the textile workers’ last strike and 
new demand. Apropos of the recent wage advance secured by the Fall River 
textile workers, it should be stated that the agreement was for a four per cent 
straight increase, no reduction for one year. Also an increase of one per 


cent for every cent over a margin of 72% cents. 

On page 838 of the November issue of the AMERICAN FEDERATIONIST, 
a typographical error occurred in the editorial, ‘‘ Eight Hour Work Day 
Tests Prove Successful.’’ It said that in the construction of the battle- 
ships, respectively, in private and Government yards, the former under the 
10 hour and the latter under the eight hour day, “‘ official reports show that 
after 528 days 54.5 per cent of the hull of the Louisiana work was accom- 
plished, while the Connecticut was 53.59 percent after 570 days.’’ It should 
have read 568 instead of 528. Attention is called to a letter by International 
President Kirk, of the shipwrights’ union, upon the subject, published 
elsewhere in this issue of the AMERICAN FEDERATIONIST. 

The printed index for Volume XII, 1905, of the AMERICAN FEDERA- 
TIONIST is ready, and may be had upon application to this office by those 
desiring to have their copies of the magazine for the year 1905 bound for 
future reference. 



Number Commissioned Organizers, American Federa- 
tion of Labor, 1,175. 

District No. |.—Eastern. 

Comprising the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and 
the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. 

Organizers, John A, Flett, Jacob Tazelaar. 

District No. Il.—Middle. 

Comprising the statesof New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, 
and the Province of Quebec, Canada, 

Organizers, Herman Robinson, H. L. Eichelberger, J. 
D. Pierce, Wm. E. Terry, James Sexton, Richd. Braun- 
schweig, Thomas lynn, Stuart Reid, Hugh Frayne, W. 
C. Hahn, J. J. Towey, Thos, F. Tracy, Cal Wyatt. 

District No. I11|_—Southern. 

Comprising the states of Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. 

Organizers, Emmet T. Flood, James Brown. 

District No. 1V.—Central. 

Comprising the states of West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 

Organizers, P. H. Strawhun, J. J. Fitzpatrick, N. W. 
Evans, M. Donnelly. 
District No. V.—Northwestern. 

Comprising the states of Minnesota, Iowa, North}Da- 
kota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Manitoba, 
Organizer, J. Gordon O’ Neil. 

District No. Vi.—Southwestern. 

Comprising the states of Missouri, Kansas,* Texas, 
Indian Territory, Oklahoma, and Arkansas, 

Organizers, H. M. Walker, C. W. Woodman, M. Grant 
Hamilton, James Leonard. 

District No. Vil.—Inter-Mountain. 

Com states the states of Montana, Wyoming,{Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Idaho. 
District No. VIll._—Pacific Coast. 

Comprising the states of Nevada, Alaska, Washing- 
So California, and the Province of British Co- 
um bia. 

Organizers, C. O. Young, Chas. H. Gram. 

Porto Rico.—Santiago Iglesias. 

SS} @, 

ws Oi 


ifn Tt 

Courtesy Pittsburg Dispatch. 



Chicago, Jil. 

The admission of women into wider spheres of 
activity has come about so gradually that we can 
scarcely realize the enormity of the transformation. 
The wide range of education is a large factor in 
promoting the conditions of the present day. 

One by one our great commercial industries have 
opened their doors to women, that they may get 
their education and training side by side with men. 
They have —— that they are a great help in 
every line of work they have undertaken. 

Trades union men have been slow to realize wo- 
man’s proper sphere in the great industrial strug- 
gle. Women, as a rule, expend the greater part of 
the family income, hence are the purchasing 
agents, as it were. If they can be educated as to 
the value of the union label (and I hold that they 
can), they will be a greater force in strengthening 
organization among the toilers, through their de- 
mand for the union label, than the men possibly 
can. Toaccomplish this is the pees of the 
Woman’s International Union Label League, which 
is entirely unselfish, in so far as direct benefits are 
concerned, although we rully realize that the bet- 
ter the conditions of the bread winner, the better 
for all humanity. 

Label leagues are educational in the principles 
of trade unionism; they are practical schools for 
the education of the wives and families of trade 
unionists and others who believe that the worker 

should receive a fair living wage under favorable 
conditions; they teach union men’s wives and 
families to spend union earnings for union labeled 
goods, and teach women to work together for the 

betterment of humanity. Itteaches the wife who 
buys a garment, for herself or her child, which 
does not bear a label, that she is working against 
the best interests of her husband, whose trade may 
also be represented by a union label. 

I earnestly desire that the union men and women 
encourage those who are organized, and do every- 
thing in their power to interest women the world 
over. Use your influence to build up the Woman’s 
International Union Label League, which can be 
made the greatest possible help to the organiza- 
tions of both men and women. 

We fully realize, as does every thinking union 
man and woman, that in order to place a value 
upon the union label, so as to accomplish its pur- 
pose, there must be a demand forit. There is no 
way this demand can be made more effective than 
by the organization of locals of the Woman’s Inter- 
national Union Label League. In fact, the label can 
never wholly perform its mission without the sup- 
port of the women. 

Let me assftire your readers that any time you can 
spend in this noble work will be time well spent. 

. International President, 
Woman's International Union Label League, 
286 S. Homan Avenue, Chicago. 

I herewith desire to call your attention to an 
error appearing in the November edition of the 

FEDERATIONIST. In that — of your editorial 
dealing with the report of the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor, comparison is shown between 
the construction of the battleships ‘‘Connecticut ’’ 
and ‘‘ Louisiana,”’ now in course of construction at 
the Brooklyn, N. Y., Navy Yard, and at the yard 
of the Newport News Shipbuilding Company, New- 
port News, Va., respectively. 

On page 838 it reads as follows: ‘‘ The official 
report shows that, after 528 days, 54.5 per cent of 
the hull of the ‘ Louisiana’ work was accomplished, 
while the ‘Connecticut’ showed 53.59 per cent 
after 570 days.”’ 

According to Secretary Metcalf’s report it should 
read as follows: The official report shows that, after 
568 days, 54.5 per cent of the hull of the ‘‘ Louisi- 
ana’’ work was accomplished, while the ‘‘ Connect- 
icut’’ showed 53.59 per cent after 570 days. 

As you are aware, your much valued editorials 
are eagerly read by the enemies of organized labor, 
who are not slow to take advantage of a printer’s 
error, such as this is, and who will quote it at all 
times in preference, as it places the 8-hour work- 
day, to some small extent, at a disadvantage. 

The enemies of the eight hour work-day en- 
gaged in the shipbuilding industry of this coun- 
try are watching with keen interest the final result 
of the construction of these two battleships. As 
early back as August, 1904, when the ship-repair- 
ing employers of Chicago, IIl., organized to take 
from the members of local No. 17, of the Interna- 
tional Union of Shipwrights, Joiners, and Caulkers 
of America, the eight hour work-day, which they 
had enjoyed for the past 12 years, President Dun- 
ham, of the Shipowners’ Dry Dock Company, of 
Chicago, Ill. (in his appeal to us to give up the 
eight hour work-day and come back to the nine), 
called our attention to the contest proceeding be- 
tween the Brooklyn Navy Yard pol the Newport 
News Shipbuilding Company on the construction 
of the above-named battleships. He contended 
that the navy yard was behind with the construc- 
tion of their ship then, which we admit was true, 
but which was due to the fact that they com- 
menced one month later. We hope President Dun. 
ham has had a copy of Secretary Metcalf’s report, 
and we also hope that he has read the later re- 
ports issued — the progress made in the con- 
struction of the two battleships, which prove 
conclusively that not only can the eight hour 
workman produce as much per day as the 10 hour 
workman, but that he has taken the lead. It may 
be appropriate for me to here state, in connec 
tion with our struggle to maintain the eight hour 
work day in the ship-repairing industry at Chi- 
cago, Ill., that on the ist of November, 1904, the 
employers locked out our men for the purpose of 
bringing them back to the nine hour work-day. 

For five months of winter the struggle continued, 
when towards the end of March, 1905, five out of 
the seven employers gave way and conceded the 
eight hour work-day. 

Fraternally yours, 
President International Union Ship- 
wrights, Joiners, and Caulkers. 

[See editorial note elsewhere in this issue in relation to 

this letter.] 


FinpinG Leisure TO Live. 

By Jacos A. RIIS, 

last summer. They came in the morning, 
after I had finished my breakfast and was 
busy with my mail—at eight my working 
day is well under way—and in the afternoon, at 
the stroke of five, they hung up their aprons, 
lighted their cigars, and went home. Watching 
them pack up their tools one day, I said that they 
had cut off the best hours at each end of the 
working day. 
‘‘When I learned your trade, 40 years ago,”’ 
I said, ‘‘we went to work at six in the morning 
and quit at seven in the evening. In winter the 
day was from sunrise to sunset.’’ 
They laughed. ‘‘And you had no Saturday after- 
noon off. Many things can happen in 40 years.’’ 
That Saturday afternoon found me in a particu- 
larly busy neighborhood down town, where, at the 
rush hours, the crowds of workers hastening to 
and from their shops made the streets fairly im- 
passable. The street was still—deserted, in fact. 
Coming over, I had met trolley cars jammed with 
a holiday throng bound for the beach. I thought 
of my carpenter's ‘‘Many things can happen in 
40 years.” He might have said 20. It is just that 
number of years since the Saturday half-holiday, 
coming over from England, took root in New York, 
championed by organized labor 
It was Mr. Gompers who was instrumental in 
enforcing the law, establishing it upon financial 
New York, much to its disgust. It protested 
loudly to the legislature that business would desert 
the metropolis and move to Jersey and Connecti- 
cut, where it was not so hampered. Instead, the 
half holiday has invaded those states and all 
others, as Mr. Gompers predicted it would. And 
from a month, or two months, it has stretched 
over the whole summer, and the winter, too, in 
the trades. 
The workday has been shortened at both ends, 
as Isaid. There is no longer a sixteen or seventeen- 

S's carpenters were at work upon my place 

hour day for street-car drivers, as some of us 
remember. In Chicago, the other day, they had to 
change the time for keeping the bridges closed to 
a later hour because the early morning crowds 
were no longer there. The mechanic, the laborer, 
has time for his family, for play, for life. His 
wages have gone up, so that he can afford a day off. 
This also he owes to organization, some of it per- 
haps to greater power of production, greater 
efficiency of machinery; but the lion’s share tothe 
union that has fought his fight. ‘‘ The effort of 
men, being men, to live the life of men,” has 
prevailed to this extent. 

The nation is his debtor. The old senseless 
hurry is lessening. We are taking time to think, 
finding leisure to live. Only at the top and at the 
bottom does the waste goon. The get-rich-quick 
man is in as much of a hurry as ever. Perhaps a 
feeling that it won’t last makes him go at even a 
harder pace. In Poverty Row, where children 
work, the day is as long as ever, and in the tene- 
ment homes that treadmill grinds by day as by 
night. But in the war upon these evils outraged 
humanitv is joining hands with organized labor, 
and the fight will be won, for the social conscience 
is aroused. 

Recently I read that a company with large capital 
had been organized to transmit power for manufac- 
turing purposes to the homes of individual workers 
living at a distance. Have we indeed reached a 
fair workday, and the control of the factory in the 
interest of the commonwealth, only to find our- 
selves face to face with a new alignment of indi- 
vidual forces demanding a change of strategic 
front? And may it be that the city has had its 
day, just when it loomed largest as a factor in hu- 
man life, demanding all our time and thought and 
strength? It is well that the workman of 
the twentieth century has found himself, for his 
day is big with problems that can be solved by 
men only, not by machines.— Zhe Reporter. 

Love and freedom still are powers in the human heart and soul, 
And the great, eternal truth is marching onward to the goal! 

But all words are worse than useless—reason’s self ye would deride— 
Ye are but the sons of folly and the slaves of purse-born pride; 

Ye are strangers unto mercy; ye are deaf and dumb and blind; 

Ye have never paused to listen to the human heart and mind. 

Will ye not turn to justice ere your words have made it vain, 

And the Marseillaise is ringing round a rebel world again? 


January 1, Hoquiam, Wash., International 

Shingle Weavers’ Union. 

January 8, Utica, N. Y., International Hod Car- 
riers and Building Laborers of America. 

January 8, Washington, D. C., International 
Slate and Tile Roofers’ Union of America. 

January 16, Indianapolis, Ind., United Mine 

Workers of America. 

February 23, Bridgeport, Conn., Pocket Knife 
Blade Griuders and Finishers’ National Union. 

April 2, St. Louis, Mo., International Brother- 
hood of Foundry Employes. 

May 1, New York, N. Y., United Cloth Hat and 
Cap Makers of North America. 

May 1, Cincinnati, Ohio, Amalgamated Associa- 
tion of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers. 

May (first week), Worcester, Mass., National 
Union of Cutting Die and Cuttermakers. 

May 7, Cincinnati, Ohio, Commercial Telegraph- 
ers’ Union of America. 

May —, Canton, Ohio, Tin Plate Workers’ Inter- 
national Protective Association of America. 

May —, York, Pa., or Buffalo, N. Y., National 
Print Cutters’ Association of America. 

May 14, Boston, Mass., American Federation of 

May 14, Buffalo, N. Y., Amalgamated Meat Cut- 
ters and Butcher Workmen of North America. 

May 21, New York, N. Y., Actors’ National Pro- 
tective Union. 

May 30, Buffalo, N. Y., International ‘Union of 
Pavers and Rammers. 

June 4, Chicago, Ill., International Association 
of Marble Workers. 

June 6, New York, N. Y., International Com- 
pressed Air Workers’ Union. 

June 11, Chicago, Ill., Ceramic, Mosaic, and 
Encaustic Tile Layers and Helpers. 

June 12, Washington, D. C., International Broth- 
erhood of Bookbinders. 

June 18, Pittsburg, Pa., International Printing 
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union. 

June 20, Washington, D. C., International Steel 
and Copperplate Printers. 

July —. Akron, O., National Brotherhood of 
Operative Potters. 

July 2, Troy, N. Y., Brushmakers’ International 

July 9, Atlantic City, N. J.,Glass Bottle Blowers’ 
Association of the United States and Canada. 

July 9, Buffalo, N. Y., International Jeweiry 

July 9, Chicago, Ill., Piano, Organ, and Musical 

Instrument Workers’ International Union of 
July 21, Springfield, Mass., American Wire 

Weavers’ Protective Association. 

August —-, Toronto, Ont., United Garment Work- 
ers of America. 

August 6, Chicago, Ill., International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters. 

August 7, Milwaukee, Wis., International Glove 
Workers’ Union of America. 

August 12, Colorado Springs, Colo., Interna- 
tional Typographical Union. 

August 13, New York, N. Y., International Ste- 
reotypers and Electrotypers’ Union. 

August 14, Pittsburg, Pa., Window Glass Snap- 
pers’ National Association. 

August 20, Boston, Mass., United Gold Beaters’ 
National Union. 

September 3, -, Elastic Goring Weavers’ 
Amalgamated Association. 

September 3, Toronto, Ont., International 
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes. 

September 6, Toronto, Ont., Saw Smiths’ Union 
of North America. 

September 10. Milwaukee, Wis, International 
Union of Steam Engineers. 

September 10, Danville, Ill., International 
Alliance of Brick, Tile, and Terra-Cotta Workers. 

September 11, Buffalo, N. Y., American Brother- 
hood of Cement Workers. 

September 13, Boston, Mass., Cotton Mule Spin- 
ners’ Association. 

September 13, Hartford, Conn., Table Knife 
Grinders’ National Union. 

September 17. New York, N. Y., International 
Wood Carvers’ Association. 

Septemiber 17, Niagara Falls, N. Y., United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. 

October 1, Minneapolis, Minn., International 
Photo-Engravers’ Union. 

October, first week,. Toronto, Ont., Wood, Wire, 
and Metal Lathers’ International Union. 

October 8, Milwaukee, Wis., Coopers’ Inter- 

national Union. 

October 16, Paterson, N. J., United Textile 
Workers of America. 

November 12, Minneapolis, Minn., American 
Federation of Labor. 

December 3, New York, N. Y., National Alliance 
of Bill Posters and Billers of America. 



SHouLD THE Wire Hetp To Support THe FAmity? 


whether the wife should help to support the 

family, I take it that what is meant is the wife 

of a mechanic, a laborer, a workman, not the 
well-to-do or the fairly well-to do, for among the lat- 
ter there is not even the false pretense of necessity. 
Taking, then, my conception of what is implied 
by the question, I have no hesitancy in answering, 
positively and absolutely, ‘‘No.’’ I take it, also, 
that the inference from the question is that the 
help which is implied is the help which finds its 
expression in work for wages, and to that, with 
added emphasis, I again answer, ‘‘No.”’ 

Modern industrial conditions have made it de- 
cidedly uneconomical for any great amount of 
work to be done other than in factories, workshops, 
or other industrial plants, where steam and electric 
power are used and the best and most highly de- 
veloped machinery is employed; in which labor in 
in its different branches is so divided, subdivided, 
and specialized that each worker performs a very 
small part of the complete product. The workers 
in each case are dependent, and wait upon those 
employed in the preceding branch, so that it re- 
quires constant application, immediate attention, 
and the close proximity of all. This requires that 
the workers must generally begin and close the 
day’s work together. It therefore necessarily re- 
quires the worker to leave home early in the morn- 
ing, absent himself or herself from the home 
during the working hours and the time necessary 
to go to and from the place of employment. Im- 
agine the wife leaving her home and children un- 
protected and uncared for during the working 
hours, which among women generally, by reason 
of their comparative lack of organization, are 
much longer than the day’s work of men. 

In some of the factory towns I have seen—and 
it can easily be seen even now—wives and mothers 
have taken their nursing babes with them to the 
factory and mill, with all the humdrum of ma- 
chinery, and in their highly nervous state under- 
taken to nurse their babes. A friend informed 
me that recently a woman, hiding from the fore- 
man, let herself down on a rear elevator, that she 
might rush home and see the children, whom she 
had left ill in the morning. Who can tell the 
awful agony a mother endures from the un- 
certainty of her unprotected, uncared-for child- 

Nor do I wish to be understood to be opposed to 
the full and free opportunity of woman to work 
whenever and wherever necessity requires. It has 
been the policy of my associates and myself to 
throw open wide the doors of our organizations 

T undertaking to answer the question as to 

CO Oe 

and invite the working girls and working women 
to membership for their and our common protec- 
tion. It is in the unions of labor that the full 
rights of the working women are proclaimed and 
asserted, defended and contended for; and many 
a contest has been waged by union men to secure 
for women equal wages and conditions for equal 
work performed. 

It is not for any real preference for their labor 
that the unscrupulous employer gives work to 
girls and boys and women, but because of his 
guilty knowledge that he can easily compel them 
to work longer hours and at a lower wage than 
men. It is the so-called competition of the unor- 
ganized, defenseless woman worker, the girl and 
the wife, that often tends to reduce the wages of 
the father and husband, so that frequently in after 
years, particularly in factory towns, the combined 
wages of the husband and wife, the father and 
daughter, have been reduced to the standard of 
the wages earned by the father or husband in the 

I contend that the wife or mother, attending 
to the duties of the home, makes the greatest con- 
tribution to the support of the family. The honor, 
glory, and happiness that come from a beloved 
wife and the holiness of motherhood are a con- 
tribution to the support and future welfare of the 
family that our common humanity does not yet 
fully appreciate. 

It is with keen gratification that observers have 
noticed in recent years that the wife of the wage- 
earner, where the husband has been a fair bread- 
winner for the family, has taken up beautiful 
needlework, embroidery, and the cultivation of 
her better, but heretofore latent, talents. 

There is no reason why all the opportunities for 
the development of the best that woman can do 
should be denied her, either in the home or else- 
where. I entertain no doubt but that from the 
constant better opportunity resultant from the 
larger earning power of the husband the wife will, 
apart from performing her natural household du- 
ties, perform that work which is most pleasurable 
for her, contributing to the beautifying of her 
home and surroundings. 

In our time, and at least in our country, gener- 
ally speaking, there is no necessity for the wife 
contributing to the support of the family by work- 
ing—that is, working as here understood, by wage 
labor. In our country, rich and fertile as any in 
the world, producing wealth in such prodigious 
proportions, the wife as a wage-earner is a disad- 
vantage economically considered, and socially is 

—_— = _— TS a, 

a lies Rett ate Ba . oe ee ee 



In this department is presented a comprehensive review of industrial conditions throughout the 

This includes: 

A statement by American Federation of Labor general and local organizers of labor conditions in 

their vicinity. 

Increases in wages, reduction of hours, or improved conditions gained without strikes. 

Work done for union labels. 
Unions organized during the last month. 

City ordinances or state laws passed favorable to labor. 

Strikes or lockouts ; causes, results. 

A report of this sort is rather a formidable task when it is remembered that more than 1,000 of the 
organizers are volunteers, doing the organizing work and writing their reports after the day's toil is 

finished in factory, mill, or mine. 

The matter herewith presented is valuable to all who take an intelligent interest in the industrial 
development of the country. It is accurate, varied, and comprehensive. The information comes from 
those familiar with the conditions of which they write. 

These organizers are themselves wage workers. 
better conditions, help to win the victories, aid in securing legislation—in short, 

They participate in the eT of the people for 
o the thousand and 

one things that go to round out the practical labor movement. 

Through an exchange of views in this department the wage workers in various sections of the 
country and the manifold branches of trade are kept in close touch with each other. 

Taken in connection with the reports from secretaries of international unions, this depratment 
gives a luminous vision of industrial advancement throughout the country. 


Carriage Workers. 

Chas. Baustian.—We chartered a new local in 
Pittsburg, Pa., during the month. Trade in fair 
shape, and work has been fairly plentiful for mem- 
bers of our craft. In Kenosha, Wis., we were suc- 
cessful after a two weeks strike against open shop. 
We have a strike on hand in Newark, N. J., at this 
writing, but we hope to win out. 

Die and Cutter Makers. 

Jas. Clasen.—Trade conditions improving. We 
are trying for the 50 hours per week and have good 
chances of winning without strike. 

Elastic Goring Weavers. 

Geo. H. Flowers.—Work has been fairly plen- 
tiful, and we are holding our own as regards steady 
employment. We are booming the lace congress 
shoe, the manufacture of which employs a number 
of men in our trade. At this writing we have a 
small strike on hand in Chelsea, Mass., for the 
union shop, and hope to win out. 

Elevator Constructors. 

Henry Snow.—Our trade is in better shape now 
than at any time in the history of the organization. 
Work has been plentiful for men in our crait. In 
Philadelphia, we hada strike, but at the end of 
three weeks our members were conceded their de- 
mands, We formed a new local in Los Angeles, 
Cal., during the month. We expended $100 in 
death benefit recently. 

Glass Workers. 

Wm. Figolah.—We chartered new unions in 
Louisville, Ky.; Crystal City, Mo., and Spokane, 


Wash. Trade in good shape. At this writing we 
have the following strikes on hand: Cincinnati, 
discrimination against union men; Chicago, viola- 
tion of agreement by employers, and in Los An- 
geles, a strike called by the building trades coun- 
cil. Our membership is growing steadil~. 

Glove Workers. 

A. H. Cosselman.—Our members have been 
steadily employed during the season. We won a 
strike in Ripon, Wis., against a reduction in wages, 
and in Milwaukee the cutters obtained increased 
wages after a strike of four weeks. In both in- 
stances the union label was the direct cause of 


Ralph Brandt.—Since my last report we have 
chartered new locals in Knoxville, Tenn.; New 
Bedford, Mass.; Alton, Ill.; Reno, Nev., and Los 
Angeles, Cal. The total increase in membership 
during the month was 200. Trade conditions have 
been good during the past year. 

Machine Printers and Color Mixers. 

Chas. McCrory.—Trade conditions are excellent, 
and 95 per cent of our men are engaged at the 
present time. Business seems to be on the move in 
the direction of the middle west. We have a lock- 
out on hand in Philadelphia. The firm refused to 
pay the wage schedule agreed upon. 

Mule Spinners. 

Samuel Ross.—Our members have been steadily 
employed. We are increasing our membership. 
During a recent month an increase of 400 members 
was noted. We have no strikes to report. We had 
four deaths recently and paid out in benefits $200. 



Harry McCloskey.—Trade conditions good. We 
are working hard to improve the conditions of our 
members throughout the country. Have formed 
new unions in Tennessee and California during 
the month. We organized four new unions re- 
cently and increased the membership of unions 
already organized. 

Paving Cutters. 

William Dodge.—We are contemplating a move- 
ment for the eight hour day in some localities in 
the spring. Work is not plentiful, as a number of 
quarries have closed down for the winter and will 
not open until spring. We paid one death benefit 
amounting to $75. Our unions keep up their mem- 
bership in good shape, even in dull times, 

Print Cutters. 

Thomas Eastwood.—Trade conditions are good, 
and our members, as a rule, are steadily employed. 
All agreements as to hours and wages are settled 
during June and July, and remain unchanged 
during the year. No strikes to report. 

Shingle Weavers. 

J. E. Campbell.—Our organization is in fair 
shape and making steady progress. We recently 
organized three new unions, Raymond, Port 
Angeles, and Rochester, Wash. A number of mills 
have cl6sed for want of cars. Mill owners have 
been trying to form an association to close for 60 
days in order to raise the price of shingles. From 
reports they have succeeded in securing the 
majority of operators to join this association. The 



Los Angeles.—l,. D. Biddle: 

Work is fairly plentiful in all trades. The con- 
dition of the organized workers continues to show 
a steady advance. Lathers have formed a union. 
Molders are organizi.g. Woman’s label league held 
a label fair during the month for the benefit of the 
labor temple fund. 

San Diego.—James P. Dunn: 

Organized labor in excellent condition. The 
bartenders have succeeded in building up a strong 
local. Work is steady, especially among the build- 
ing trades A clause providing for the eight hour 
day and $2 per day has to be inserted in every 
municipal contract. We are working for still other 
ordinances favorable to labor. A building trades 
council has effected a temporary organization. 


Jacksonville.—W. J. Lowe: 

The unions are holding their own, although 
some employers are trying to force the open shop. 
We feel confident of winning, as it is impossible 
to secure enough good, competent workmen who 
will work under the open shop rule. Organizea 
labor is in good shape, as we havesome energetic 
and earnest union men here, who keep the move- 
ment up to the standard. Coopers, stationary fire- 
men, musicians, blacksmiths, and longshoremen 
are organizing. Work for the union labels is pro- 


eight hour day, if adopted, would eliminate the 
annual shut down of 60 days. In Portland, Ore., we 
had a strike for the semi-monthly payday. The 
strike was settled to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned and contract was signed. The success of the 
strike was due tothe loyalty of the members to 
their union. 


John B. Lennon.—Trade booming. Have formed 
new unions in Lexington, Ky., Coshocton, O., and 
Trinidad, British West Indies. At this writing we 
have a strike pending in Lowell, Mass. The object 
is to secure the union shop. 

Travelers Leather Goods. 

Chas. J. Gille-—In Los Angeles, Cal., we have 
signed contract for the eight hour day. This is the 
first contract for the eight hour day in our trade, 
but we hope that this initial effort will be followed 
by others. Strike and lockout still continues in St. 
Louis. Strike in Newark was settled by arbitration. 
In Wyandotte, Mich., our members walked out 
because four officers and members of the union 
were discharged without reason and the firm 
refused to confer with committee of the local union 
or make explanation of such action. Since that time 
the firm has met the committee, and we expect an 
early settlement. Trade conditions fairly satisfac- 
tory throughout the country. 

Watch Case Engravers. 

Geo. W. Weidman.—Work has been fairly 
plentiful in our craft. We are working to build up 
our organization toa thorough degree of efficiency. 


St. Augustine.—John H. Pomar: 

Organized labor is making good progress in this 
section. Employment plentiful for all organized 
crafts. Wages have improved and conditions of 
employment are better. This is mostly owing to 
union effort. Union men work the eight hour day, 
whereas the non-unionists must accept 10 and 11 
hours for less wages. We hope soon to get all the 
unorganized workers in line. Have one new union 
under way. Good work is done for the union 

Tarpon Springs.—Victor Castaing: 

Organized labor is in good shape and has secured 
the eight hour day, while the unorganized still 
work nine hours per day. Work is steady in all 
trades. Wages have been improved and hours 
shortened by the organized crafts without strike. 
Practically all skilled mechanics are union men in 
this vicinity. 


Savannah.—S. W. Harris: 

Industrial conditions are better in this city than 
ever before. Wages have advanced about 20 per cent 
for organized workers, owing to union effort. Long- 
shoremen increased their wages from 25 and 30 
cents an hour to 30 and 35cents. Plumbers ad- 
vanced wages from 30to 40 cents an hour. Freight 
handlers obtained increase from 15 to 20 cents an 
hour without strike. All local organizations are in 
good shape, and as a rule, union wage scales range 

wet Ww We ty 


about 15 cents per hour more than the unorganized 
workers. Interior freight handlers and ware- 
housemen, coal handlers, and rock handlers have 
formed unions. 


Centralia.—S. J. Stonecipher: 

Work has been steady during the season for 
organized crafts Industrial conditions fair in this 
section. Team drivers have formed union. Black- 
smiths are organizing. The union labels are pa- 
tronized by all union men. 

Champaign.—W. E. Price: 

Car painters and retail clerks are organizing. 
Condition of organized labor is superior to that of 
the unorganized. Work is slack at this time in 
most trades. 

Granite City.—James O’ Rourke: 

Conditions are improving for organized crafts, 
and wages are as high as anywhere in the state. 
The unorganized workers are in bad shape, both 
as regards wages and shop conditions. They re- 
ceive no compensation for overtime, and are ill- 
treated in many respects, but they must expect 
this so long as they ignore the real remedy. All 
factory work continues steady. There is good de- 
mand for the union labels, and as a result the busi- 
ness men do their best to keep such goods on 
hand. A city ordinance requires all municipal em- 
ployes to work the eight hour day. Another ordi- 
nance provides for fire escapes on factories. Team- 
sters’ union and woman’s label league were 
organized recently. Have foundry employes and 
federal union under way. 

Havana.—l. A. Nicholas: 

Work has been plentiful during the year in all 
lines, especially for the unskilled crafts. Organ- 
ized labor in good shape and growing stronger 
every day. Musicians have organized with 26 
charter members. All union men patronize. the 
union labels. Clerks and stationary engineers will 
probably organize in the near future. Prospects 
good for building up our organizations still more 
firmly during the coming year. Union sentiment 
is growing stronger every day. 

La Salle.—George A. Hunter: 

Work was plentiful for outside crafts until the 
cold weather. Prospects good for plenty of work 
during the coming year. The municipal engineers 
and firemen must belong to their respective unions 
in this city in order to obtain employment. Good 
work is done for the union labels. Retail clerks’ 
agreement expired January 1, and no decision has 

‘et been reached as to a new agreement. Organ- 
ize1 labor is making steady progress. 

Rockford.—Frank C. Lander: 

Organized trades secure better wages and con- 
ditions than the unorganized. There has been an 
active demand for labor in all lines, with the ex- 
ception of the building crafts, up to January first. 
Employment is a little dull now, owing to the 
season. Printers have secured the eight hour day 
in the principal establishments without friction, 
although several of the smaller concerns are still 
trying to maintain the open shop. Furniture mak- 
ing is one of the leading industries in this city. 
We hope before long they will realize the advant- 
ages organization would bring them. 

Sparta.—S. W. Skelly: 

Condition of organized crafts satisfactory, 

Nearly all trades are organized. Work has been 
steady, but is not so plentiful during the winter. 
Have one new union under way. The union labels 
are patronized. 

Spring field.—R. E. Woodmansee: 

Organized labor in good shape, and union men 
have been steadily employed. Printers secured the 
eight hour day. Otherwise we have had no recent 
changes in hours or wages. Nearly every trade is 
organized in this city. Coopers are about to form 
union, All union labels are patronized. 

Sterling.—H. A. Brown: 

Organized labor making good progress, but the 
condition of the unorganized is r. Work not so 
steady on account of cold weather. Have no strikes 
to report. All improvements in wages and hours in 
the last year have been secured without strike. 
Union men work the eight and nine hour day, 
while the unorganized still work from 10 to 14. 
Printing pressmen and assistants organized re- 
cently. Bartenders are organizing. There is a good 
demand for the union label on cigars, shoes, and 


Elwood.—jJames G. Field: 

Work was fairly steady until the winter season, 
and the organized workers have had the prefer- 
ence by employers. Organized labor making good 
progress. There has been no recent change in 
wages or hours. Prospects good for coming year. 

Hammond.—N. Lauer: s 

Organized labor in good condition. Union men 
have had steady employment during the past year, 
and are about 50 per cent better than the unorgan- 
ized. Good work is done for the union labels. 

Logansport.—Mrs. O. P. Smith: 

Organized labor continues to improve its condi- 
tion. The trades assembly is in better shape than 
it was a year ago, and this is largely due to the 
fact that the union men of this city have realized 
the benefit of a closer union of labor’s forces They 
also know that organization commands respect 
from the employers. Work is steady in all crafts. 
The largest printing establishment in the city has 
signed the eight hour day agreement with the ty- 
pographical union. It is expected that all the 
others will follow this example. The unorganized 
workers are in bad shape in this city, but we hope 
to get some of them in line this year. Laundry 
workers and bakers are organizing. All union 
labels are well patronized. One of the leading 
churches in the city is taking up the labor ques- 
tion, and special sermons are being preached on 
the subject. 

Mount Vernon.—James K. Kreutzinger: 

Industrial conditions in this city are fairly satis- 
factory. Employment was plentiful up to the open- 
ing of the winter season, and all organized trades 
had a prosperous year. Concrete employes secured 
increase of 25 per cent without strike. Greater har- 
mony seems to prevail, and the employers are bet- 
ter satisfied. We hope this year to organize the 
employes of a straw board plant, where wages are 
very low. The union labels are steadily pushed. 

Tipton.—R. I. Wisner: 

Organized trades in this city are in good shape. 
However, there is room for general improvement, 
as some of the crafts have not yet formed unions. 
We hope the unorganized workers during the com- 
ing year will realize the benefits of organization 


and unite with us in the struggle for better condi- 
tions. Wages same as last report; no strikes or 
lockouts. Employment not so steady since the be- 
ginning of winter. 


Chickasha.—G. W. Moore: 

Skilled trades in this section are better organized 
than the unskilled, but we hope to get the latter 
into unions before long. Union labels are patron- 
ized, and we hope to create a stronger demand for 
them. We made some advances in wages last year, 
and held our own all along the line. Employment 
rather dull just now owing to the season, but 
prospects good for the coming year. We make a 
special effort during the winter to keep up the 
membership of trades already organized. 

Madiill.—W. H. Dickerson: 

Work has been steady, and we hope to keep all 
members steadily employed during the winter. 
We have cut off an hour a day in working time 
without reduction in wages and without strike. 
The condition of the unorganized workers is not 
so good as that of the union men, but in some in- 
stances they share some of the benefits earned by 
organized men. Farmers’ union proves a great aid 
in this section by a steady demand for the union 

South McAlester.—D. S. O’Leary: 

Stationary firemen are organizing. Work is slack 
during the winter season as a rule. Good work is 
done for the union labels. 

Sulphur.—S. Browning: 

Workers are scattered at this season, owing to 

the lack of employment, which is always unsteady 
at this season. There have been no recent changes 
in wages or hours. Organized trades usually se- 
cure shorter hours than the unorganized. 


Clarinda.—A. G. Heer: 

Organized workers making steady progress. A 
strike was inaugurated in a local coal mine against 
defective weights, and after three days the men 
won. Have two new unions under way. Work 
was steady until the winter season. Good work is 
done for the union labels. 

Dubuque.—Simon Miller: 

Cracker bakers and stationary firemen are organ- 
izing. Work has been plentiful for all crafts dur- 
ing the past year. Not much now, owing to the 
season. We have had no changes in wages or con- 
ditions since last spring, when the contracts were 
drawn up. The unorganized workers are obliged 
to work longer hours for less wages than the or- 
ganized. Bakers are on strike for the ten hour 
day and day work, and hope to win. Woman’s 
label league has been formed, and we expect good 
results frem it. 

Marshalltown —J. C. Crelling: 

Work slack with most trades at this season. 
Molders secured increased wages and improved 
conditions after being on strike two days. The 
outlook is brighter for organized labor this year 
than for some time past. Splendid work is done 
for the union labels. 

Waterloo.—W. J. Brayton: : 

Organized labor in better shape at thistime than 
a year ago. Have no strikes or lockouts to report. 
Work has been steady, but the weather makes 

things slack just now. Union men work nine hours 
a day, the unorganized ten. Pipe fitters are forming 
a union. 


Fort Scott.—F. E. Scott: 

Work has been plentiful, and most men have 
been steadily employed during the past year. 
Prospects good for this year. No recent changesin 
hours or wages. There is a good demand for the 
union labels. 

Topeka.—W. 1,. A. Johnson: 

Work has been pretty steady and wages for 
union men fairly good. Organized workers secure 
better wages, hours, and regulations than the 
unorganized. Have machinists helpers union under 
way. A recent strike for better shop regulations 
was successful. Strike in one trade for the union 
shop is still pending. All union labels are well 


Paducah.—Alonzo Crandell: 

Organized workers secure better wages and 
shorter hours than the unorganized. Employment 
slack, owing to the winter weather. Organized one 
new union during the month and have two others 
under way. The union labels are well patronized. 

Rockfield.—John W. Sweeney: 

Organized labor in this section making good 
progress. All work here is done by union men, and 
employment has been steady. The union labels 
are always patronized. 


New Iberia.—E. H. Lacroix: 

Work is plentiful in this section of the country, 
as the harvest season is not over until about 
February. The weekly pay-day is general in the 
factories here. The organizations, after securing 
improved conditions through united effort, have 
allowed themselves to become somewhat lax, but 
we hope tosee renewed interest during the coming 
year. Have two new unions under way. Hours are 
rather long for all trddes. Our unions could do 
effective work by united action for a shorter work- 


Vinalhaven.—Winslow H. Roberts: 

Organized crafts secure a steady improvement 
in conditions. Good prospects for having all the 
towns along the coast in line for organization by 
next spring. Work was steady up to the latter part 
of November. Not much doing now, owing to the 
winter weather. 


Greenfield.—_W. P. Ryan: 

Union men have secured better wages and 
shorter hours, while the unorganized have made 
no progress whatever in the past year. Work has 
been steady. We have no strikes to report. Our 
organization committee is trying for several new 
unions and paying special attention to the retail 
clerks. All union members are doing good work 
for the union labels. 

Marlboro.—Philip J. Byrne: 

Have been traveling through the state of Maine 
and find that while the organized crafts have held 
their own, the unorganized have suffered reduc- 
tions in wages. Employers have more respect for 


1 man who belongs to a union. Employment 
rather dull in the shoe trade at this season. Build- 
ing trades quiet. Cotton mills running steadily. 
The state branch of Maine is collecting a fund to 
keep a legislative committee at the capitol during 
the session of legislature to look after labor legis- 
lation. There is an increasing demand for the 
union labels throughout the state. No recent 
changes in hours or wages. 


Houghton.—John §S. Allen: 

The workers had a banner season last fall, as re- 
gards steady work and increased wages. There 
was a good demand for men in the building crafts, 
and prospects are good for prosperous winter 
season. Nostrikes to report. Typographical union 
secured the eight hour day without reduction in 
wages. Nearly all other organized trades work 
the nine hour day. Plumbers have formed a union. 
Painters, lathers, and building trades section are 
being organized. 

Kalamazoo.—R. R. Warner, 

Horseshoers have organized during the month. 
Am working with the meat cutters, and so far have 
succeeded in unionizing one shop and established 
the union working card in another. Prospects 
good for the coming year. 


Hannibal.—B. F. Fields: 
The organized workers are generally well em- 
ployed, and at fair wages. Twoout of the three print- 

ing offices in town have signed for the eight hour 
day, to take effect January ist. 

Novinger.—G. B. Queen: 

Organized labor making steady progress in se- 
curing better conditions. Work in mining industry 
is ratherslack at this timeof the year. Other trades 
seem to be steadily employed. All union men de- 
mand the union labels. 


Great Falls.—Eugene Ingram: 

Work has been steady and organized men well 
employed. The condition of the organized crafts 
is better than that of the unorganized. Committee 
of the trades council is working for the union 

Kalispell.—H. C. Durst: 

Organized labor in good shape. Work has been 
steady, considering the season. Carpenters and 
painters are receiving satisfactory wages; carpen- 
ters work the eight hour day at 50 cents an hour, 
and painters get 40 cents an hour and eight hour 
day. Wages of the unorganized range from $1.50 
to $2.50 per day. A federal labor union will soon 
be formed in this city. The state laws are fairly 
favorable to organized labor. Open meetings are 
being held to promote interest in organization. 
Public opinion is growing more favorable to organ- 
ized labor. 


Omaha.—W. J. Copenharve: 

Work rather slack now, owing to cold weather. 
rhe organized workers are beginning to realize 
that to secure any improvements they must form 
“nions. Retail clerks and other trades are talking 

of organization. We will make a special effort to 
organize all trades during the coming year. 


Camden,.—Joseph R. Graw: 

Carpenters, bricklayers, and plasterers are well 
organized. Shoemakers, cigarmakers, painters, 
shipwrights, retail clerks, team drivers, barbers, 
potters and patternmakers have recently organized. 
Have plumbers and a new local of carpenters un- 
der way. Work has been fairly steady. The eight 
hour day is the rule in the building trades, and 54 
hours a week is general in the mills. Organized 
trades are in position to secure the best work. We 
are holding open meetings with great success, The 
last legislature passed some laws favorable to or- 
ganized labor. Splendid work is done for the union 

Elizabeth.—John Keyes: 

Organized workers, both skilled and unskilled, 
are making steady progress in securing higher 
wages and less hours than the unorganized. Work 
has been steady, and the demand for union men 
continued until winter set in. Employment rather 
slack now. Am trying to get the unorganized 
workers in line, and have good prospects of even 
greater success this year than last. Label commit- 
tee is working for the union labels. There has 
been no material change in hours or wages since 
the last report. 

Paterson.—Paul Breen: 

The outlook is very bright for organized labor 
in this city. The trades council is active, and g 
results are expected. Building trades are coming 
in line, and several new unions are being organized. 
Established unions will pay special attention to 
keeping up their membership this winter. 

Trenton.—Reuben Forker: 

Work was plentiful in all crafts, especiall¥ the 
building trades, up to the opening of the winter 
season. The conditions of the pottery workers 
have been improved, without strike or loss of 
time, through conferences between the representa- 
tives of the national operative potters and of the 
Manufacturing Potters’ Association. Building 
trades work 44 hours per week. Plumbers, en- 
gineers, and barbers are endeavoring to have li- 
cense laws passed by the legislature this session. 
Retail clerks will probably organize soon. Good 
work is done for the union labels. Prospects good 

for coming year. 

Ballston Spa.—Geo. W. Miller: 

Paper mill employes here are partially organ- 
ized. As yet the men employed in the tanneries 
have not organized, but hope to get them in line 
before long. Work is steady, and there is a demand 
for competent union men. Firemen in the paper 
and bag mills have secured the eight hour day and 
increased wages. Organized labor is farin advance 
of the unorganized workers. Employers and the 
general public are ready to admit it. The union 
labels are well patronized. Women are erfiployed 
in the tanneries under very adverse conditions. 
We are urging legislative action to protect women 
in such industries. 

Newburgh.—John Rothery: 

The building trades have enjoyed a prosperous 
year, but work is slack during the winter for out- 
side trades. Wages are fair for organized trades, 


and owing to united effort have been kept up to 
the standard. Central labor union is accumulating 
a fund that the labor unions may have a home of 
their own. 

Platisburg —J. C. Malampy: 

Organized workers in this vicinity are making 
good progress. Organized labor is slowly but 
surely gaining in favor with the public and em- 
ployers. Work has been steady and plentiful dur- 
ing the past year. Molders have reduced hours 
from ten to nine and increased wages 25 cents a 
day without strike. Practically there are no un- 
organized workers here. Painters, paperhangers, 
barbers, and bartenders have recently organized. 
Retail clerks, hod carriers, and federal union will 
organize soon. Good work is done for the union 


Goldsboro.—Joel Powers: 

Condition of organized labor fair. Work is 
steady. The wood-w: rkers union, which recently 
organized, promises to become a strong local. All 
union men patronize the union labels. 

Salisbury.—G. E. Brookshaw: 

All trades here have organized with the excep- 
tion of the carpenters Work is steady. Organized 
labor making steady progress. Fair work is done 
for the union labels, but will try to improve in 
that direction. No recent changes in wages or 


Bucyrus.—W. A. Morrison: 

Industrial conditions are improving, and it isdue 
to the efforts of the organized workers. Work has 
been steady during the year for all crafts. No 
strikes or lockouts to report. A large steel foundry 
will be erected here in the near future. Painters 
have formed union. Engineers will organize soon. 
Good work is done for the union labels. Wages 
have had an upward tendency in the past year. 

Cleveland.—Michael Goldsmith: 

Work is fairly steady in most indoor crafts. 
Tinners are putting up a strong fight for recogni- 
tion of the union, with good show of success. We 
are looking forward to some favorable labor laws 
during this session of the legislature. Prospects 
good for coming year. 

Columbus:— Wm. B. Hartman: 

Work is steady in all lines excepting the build- 
ing trades. where the weather does not permit 
activity. Organized labor in good condition. Have 
no strikes to report. The three locals of carpenters 
have increased their membership until now they 
number 1,100 members. There is a great demand 
for the union labels. Hours, wages, and working 
conditions about the same as last report. 

Coshocton.—Edwin P. Miller: 

Laundry workers and tailors have organized 
during the month. Steam engineers and garment 
workers are about to organize. Employment 
rather ‘slack now, owing to the season. Retail 
clerks have secured recognition with most of the 
merchants, and their conditions have improved 
since they organized. Central body is doing good 
work for the union labels. 

Crooksville.—S. R. Frazee: 

The organized workers steadily advancing. Work 
has been fairly steady in this vicinity. Have two 

new unions under way. Splendid work is done 
for the union labels. 

East Palestine.—G. H. Allcorn: 

A marked improvement in the past year is no- 
ticed in the.conditions of the organized workers 
of this city. Work is steady for indoor trades. 

We have a committee working for the union la- 
bels. Wages have kept up to the standard in the 
past year. 

Marietia.—W. C. Hanna: 

Nearly all union men have steady employment. 
Practically the only unorganized workers in this 
city now are the teamsters, and am trying to get 
them in line. Condition of organized labor good. 
Have no strikes to report. Fair demand for the 
union labels. 

Steubenville—James Parkinson: 

Work is as steady as can be expected at this 
time of the year. Organized labor in good shape. 
Carpenters who are locked out are steadily gaining 
and taking in new members at every meeting. 
They feel sure they will win. Lathers are about 
to organize. There is a steady demand for the 
union labels. 

Wapakoneta.—Wm. Hassemer: 

All organized trades are securing fair conditions, 
through union effort. Work has been steady dur- 
ing the fall months. The organized workers have 
secured the eight hour working day and fair con- 
ditions without strike. Cigarmakers are actively 
working for the union labels. 


Allentown.—Chas. M. Rehrig: 

Condition of organized labor good, and work has 
been plentiful throughout the year. Retail clerks 
are organizing. Machine typesetters on a daily 
paper secured a raise of $2 a week without strike. 
Iron molders were locked out at a local foundry 
during the month. Typographical union is boom- 
ing the union label. Printers are preparing to en- 
force their demand for the eight hour day on the 
first of January. Bricklayers, hod carriers, and 
typographical union are steadily increasing their 

Altoona.—J. H. Imler: 

Union men are preferred by employers and are 
respected by them, but the unorganized workers 
are obliged to accept poor conditions. Work in 
all crafts has been plentiful and steady during the 
fall. Wages have advanced 10 per cent through 
union effort since the trades organized, and we ex- 
pect to secure the nine hour day before long. We 
are trying tosecure an ordinance requiring fort- 
nightly payment of the city employes. Carpen- 
ters are forming union. Splerdid work is done for 
the union labels. The unorganized are showing 
more interest than formerly, and we expect scon 
to organize several new unions. 

Catasauqua.—Harry W. Trexler: 

Organized workers enjoy improved conditions, 
owing to their own efforts. Work has been steady 
during the year for most crafts. Molders of Allen- 
town are on strike at this writing. The demand 
for the union labels is urged at all times. Am 
working to build up the unions already organized. 

Edwardsdale.—]J. E. Jones: 

Organized labor is in splendid condition, but the 
unorganized are working long hours, with very 
little consideration from their employers. Work 


has been quite steady. The organized workers 
have secured many improvements without strike 
as regards wages and hours. Have one new union 
under way. 

Honesdale.—Theodore Hebert: 

All union men, with the exception of the 
machinists, are steadily employed; the latter are 
on strike at this writing A woman’s label league 
has been formed. Glass cutters and a federal 
union expect to organize soon. There is a good 
demand for the union labels. 

Jermyn.—S. B. Hills: 

All trades, except the glass-workers, are organ- 
ized in this city. Will try to get them in a union 
soon. Work has been steady and plentiful. Wages 
are good in all trades. We have a committee 
working for the union labels. 

Pittsburg.—H. J. Carey: 

Condition of organized labor is very good as 
compared with that of the unorganized. Work has 
been steady during the fall. City firemen of Alle- 
gheny and poultry workers of this city have 
formed unions. Have another new union under 
way. Good work is done for the union labels. No 
recent changes in hours or wages. 

Pittston.—H. M. Bigler: 

Organized labor is in better condition in this 
vicinity than ever before. Printers gained the eight 
hour day without strike. Carpenters won strike. 
This community is practically all organized. 
Brewery workers organized recently. Musicians 
and bakers are about to organize. Electric light 
ordinance passed common council with favorable 
clause incorporated in regard to workers. 

Pottsville.—Jere Brennan: 

There is a marked difference in the condition of 
the organized workers as compared with the un- 
organized. The organized workers reap the harvest 
of their efforts. President John Mitchell’s visit 
here has accomplished a great deal of good, and 
the miners’ union is rapidly gaining in member- 
ship. Work is plentiful. The label committee is 
constantly at work for the union labels. Black- 
smiths of Minersville have organized. 

Scranton.—John E. Galligan: 

Organized workers making steady progress. 
* Work has been steady, and there is still a good 
demand, especially for union men. Livery drivers 
secured a good agreement with increased wages 
and reduced hours; also union shop. Thijs was 
secured after a two weeks’ strike and affects about 
two hundred men. Teamsters are making great 
progress. Street-car men are rapidly increasing 
their membership. Lathers and a federal union are 
about to organize. Splendid work is done for the 
union labels. 

Williamsport.—S. Herman Alter: 

Work is steady, union men having the prefer- 
euce with employers. Typographical union secured 
the eight hour agreement with all employers. Un- 
organized workers in bad shape, but they seem to 
realize that organization is their only hope in 
order to secure improved conditions. The union 
labels are pushed. 

Pawtucket.—]. Brickell: 
Nearly all organized trades are steadily em- 
ployed. The unorganized workers are pretty well 
employed, but their wages are from 50 to 75 cents 

a day lower than those of the organized. Their 
work-day is also longer than the hours of the 
union men. Painters have formed union. Plumb- 
ers are under way. Cloth folders and bleachery 
employes in Central Falls have organized. All 
union labels are well patronized. No recent 
changes in hours or wages. 


Bennettsville.—W. F. Pond: 

Carpenters have organized and have encouraging 
prospects. Have no strikes toreport. We are work- 
ing to create a good demand for the union labels. 
Wages and hours have been unchanged for the 
past year. Employment slack, owing to the season. 

Charleston:—John 1. Kiley: 

Carpenters of Mount Pleasant have formed 
union. Carpenters of Summerville expect to or- 
ganize soon. Work is quite steady for union men. 
Splendid work is done tor the union labels. Wages 
up to the standard. 


Chattanooga.—W. A. Wilson: 

Garment workers, candymakers, and bakers are 
organizing. Stereotypers formed a union during 
the month. The conditions of organized labor are 
better at this time than ever before. We have had 
few strikes during the last year, but wages and 
conditions have improved considerably. 

Knoxville.—Geo. W. Ford: 

Organized labor is better paid, has shorter hours, 
and its members are more independent as citizens 
and workmen than the unorganized. Some of the 
trades here are not yet organized, and their condi- 
tions are poor, being entirely at the mercy of the 
employers. The unorganized horse-collar makers 
are on strike, their claim being that they can not 
support their families on $1 and $1.25 aday. Work 
is fairly steady, and wages are fair for the organ- 
ized. Lathers have formed a union. Have several 
new unions under way. 


Austin.—John Russell: 

Conditions are steadily improving for the or- 
ganized crafts owing to their own efforts. Plumbers 
won strike for 50 cents a day increase. The organ- 
ized workers are slowly but surely gaining. We 
have a city ordinance requiring the eight hour 
day for municipal employees. Have three new 
unions under way. Ladies label league was recently 
organized and is doing good work. 

Denton.—H. V. Hargrove: 

Organized labor steadily advancing. Unorgan- 
ized workers are in poor condition. Work is steady 
for union men. Have had no strikes. The city has 
conceded the nine hour day to municipal em- 

loyees. The farmers are organizing. The union 
abels are weli patronized. 

Ft. Worth.—C. W. Woodman: 

There is a decided tendency toward organiza- 
tion all along the line. Work has been unusually 
steady during the year. Bricklayers have secured 
an increase of wages. All skilled mechanics are 
securing good wages. Union men are preferred by 
employers. All locals are increasing their mem- 
bership. Considerable work is done ie the union 



Ogden.—H. L. Gaut: 

Organized labor in first-class condition. Em- 
ployment is steady, and the outlook is favorable for 
plenty of work for the coming year. Barbers or- 
ganized recently. The railroad construction com- 
panies do not desire white men on the railroad 
construction, but are demanding Chinese and Jap- 
anese laborers. Ona test of the municipal eight 
hour law the district court decided in favor of the 


Alexandria.—Howard T. Colvin: 

Organized labor making good progress in this 
city. The eight hour day is the rule among the 
organized trades, and wages are fair. Work has 
been steady for most trades. The union labels are 

Norfolk.—C. H. Perry: 

Conditions are very encouraging for the organ- 
ized trades. Nearly all building trades, and several 
others, have secured increased wages, shorter 
hours, and better conditions without strike. Elec- 
trical workers won union shop and increased wages 
after a four-days’ strike. The board of directors on 
the Jamestown Exposition have agreed to work 
only union men on the construction of the build- 
ings. A city ordinance recently passed requires 
——s and electrical inspectors. Plumbers 

ave organized recently. Tin and sheet iron work- 

ers, barbers, and federal union are likely to organ- 

- soon. All union men patronize the union la- 

Portsmouth.—Thos. Nolan: 

Condition of organized labor is steadily improv- 
ing. The union men secure about 20 per cent 
better wages than the non-unionists. Iron molders 

have organized. Distillery workers are forming 
union. We keep up a general agitation for the 
union labels. No strikes or lockouts recently. 
Wages up to the standard. 

Richmond.—James Brown: 

Considering the season of the year, employment 
is steady. Prirters are on strike for the enforce- 
ment of the eight hour day, with the probability of 
winning. Organized labor in good shape. Am try- 
ing to get the tobacco workers to organize. 


Huntingion.—W. W. Lowe: 

Work has been exceptionally plentiful, and pros- 
pects are good for steady employment during 
winter. All organized labor in good shape. No 
strikes. No recent changes in wages or hours. 


La Crosse.—Wm. Panke: 

Considering the season of the year, work is 
steady. All organized crafts in good shape, but 
the unorganized workers are at a decided dis- 
advantage. Machinists secured an increase of two 
cents an hour without strike. Electrical workers 
are on strike at this writing for increased wages 
and shorter hours. Coachmen and bakery workers 
are organizing. There is an increasing demand for 
the union labels. 

Racine.—R. M. Walsh: 

Nearly all the organized crafts secure fair wages 
and hours. Work is steady, considering the season. 
Tailors have organized. The most thoroughly or- 

anized trades Secure the best results. As an 

illustration of the advantages of organization, 
there aretwo shoe factories here using the label; 
in them conditions are fair;in a third, which 
does not use the label, the situation is well-nigh 


Halifax, N. S.—Thos. D. Sheehan: 

Butchers are organizing. Street railway em- 
loyes obtained incre wages without strike. 
ailors are rapidly gaining in membership. Paint- 

ers also show fair increase during the year. 
Printers are booming the eight hour day. On the 
other hand, the unorganized are indifferent, and re- 
main under the old, unimproved conditions. 

Hamilton, Ont.—Samuel L. Landers: 

All trades have been busy, but work will slacken 
up somewhat during the winter months. Brewery 
workers have organized. Laundry workers are 
forming union. Organized workers secure higher 
wages and shorter hours than the unorganized. 
We are working for the union labels at all times. 


Havana.—t,. E Fales: 

Labor organizations are as yet young in this 
city, and we are making improvements slowly. The 
four unions of longshoremen have improved their 
conditions by securing pay for overtime and extra 
work. Teamsters, street railway employes, shoe- 
makers, carpenters, brickmasons, clerks, dock 

hands, stewards, and cooks are likely to organize 
in the near future. 


San Juan.—Santiago Iglesias: 

Work is steady for cigarmakers, carpenters, 
shoemakers, and several other trades. Bricklayers 
won strike for the eight hour work-day in this city 
and Vega Baja. The unorganized workers now 
realize the benefits of organization and are be- 
coming enthusiastic in regard to organization. 
Organized workers secure more wages and work 
shorter hours than the unorganized. Shoemakers 
and ladies’ garment workers of Rio Grande, 
agricultural laborers of Lares, agricultural work- 
ers of Luguillo, carpenters of San Sebastian, me- 
chanics of San Juan, and carpenters of San Juan 
have organized during the month. Carpenters of 
Manati and Vega Baja, as well as other trades, are 
organizing. Shoemakers and cigarmakers are 
actively working for the union labels. Organizer 
Eugenio Sanchez and ten other labor leaders have 
been set free by the district court of Ponce. They 
were accused of attacking the police during the 
strike in Ponce. 

~ Co 


nor i 



American Federationist. 

423-425 G Street N. W. Washington, D. C. 
Correspondents will please write on one side of the 

paper only, and address 
SAMUEL GompeERs, Editor, Washington, D. C. 
All communications relating to finances and subscrip- 

tions should be addressed to 
FRANK MORRISON, Secretary, Washington, D. C. 

The publisher reserves the right to reject or revoke 
advertising contracts at any time. 

The American Federation of Labor is not sponsor for, 
nor interested in, any souvenir publication of any kind. 

Entered at Washington, D. C., postoffice as second-class 

Per Annum, - 7 - - . $1.00. 
Single copy, - : * ~ o 10 Cents. 

Executive Council, A. F. of L. 


JAMES DUNCAN, First Vice-President. 

JOHN MITCHELL, Second Vice-President. 
JAMES O’CONNELL, Third Vice-President. 
MAX MORRIS, Fourth Vice-President. 
DENNIS A. HAYES, Fifth Vice-President. 
DANIEL J. KEEFE, Sixth Vice-Presideat. 
WILLIAM D. HUBER, Seventh Vice-President. 
JOSEPH F. VALENTINE, Eighth Vice-President. 
JOHN B. LENNON, Treasurer. 



WASHINGTON, D. C., December 25, 1905. 
To All Affiliated Unions: 

At the request of the unions interested, and after due 
investigation and attempt at settlement, the following 
concerns have been declared UNFAIR: 


Secretaries are requested to read this notice at union 
meetings, and labor and reform press please copy. 
Fraternally yours, 
President, American Federation of Labor. 

We Don’t Patronize. 

When application is made by an international union 
i> the American Federation of Labor to place any busi- 
ness firm upon the “ We Don’t Patronize” list the inter- 
nitional is required to make a full statement of its 
gz -ievance against such company, and also what efforts 
have been made to adjust the same. The American Fed- 
eration of Labor then uses every endeavor to secure an 

amicable adjustment of the matters in controversy, 
either through correspondence or by having a duly- 
authorized representative of the American Federation 
of Labor interview such firm for that purpose. 

After baving exhausted in this way every effort to 
amicably adjust the matter, and without success, the 
application, together with a full history of the entire 
matter, is submitted to the Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor for such action as it may 
deem advisable. If approved, the firm’s name appears 
on the *‘ We Don’t Patronize” list in the next issue of 

An international union is not allowed to have pub- 
lished the names of more than three firms at any one 

Similar course is followed when appiication is made 
by a local union directly affiliated with the American 
Federation of labor. Directly affiliated local unions are 
allowed the publication of but one firm at any one time. 

When application is made by a central labor union on 
behalf of any one of its affiliated local unions, the appli- 
cation is taken up with the international union of such 
local for its approval, or otherwise, before any action is 
taken by the American Federation of Labor. If the 
application be approved by the international union 
similar course is followed as above. Central bodies are 
allowed to have published the name of but one concern 
at any one time. 

Union workingmen and workingwomen and sympa- 
thizers with labor have refused to purchase articles pro- 
duced by the following firms—Labor papers please note 
changes from month to month and copy: 


Bread.—McKinney Bread Company, St. Louis, Mo.; Na- 
tional Biscuit Company, Chicago, Ill. 

Cigars.—Carl Upman, of New York om: Kerbs, Wert- 
heim Schiffer, of New York City; The Henry 
George and Tom Moore. 

Flour.—Washburn-Crosby Milling Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Kelley Milling Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Groceries.—James Butler, New York City. 

Meats.—Kingan Packing Company, of Indianapolis, Ind. 

Pipes.—Wm. Demuth & Co., New York. ‘ 

Tobacco.—American and Continental Tobacco Com- 


Buttons.—Davenport Pearl Button Company, Daven- 
port, Iowa; Krementz & Co., Newark, N. J. 

Clothing.—N. Snellenberg & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Clothiers’ Exchange, Rochester, N. Y.; Strawbridge 
& A age Philadelphia, Pa.; Blauner Bros., New 


Corsets.—Chicago Corset Company, manufacturers Kabo 
and La Marguerite Corsets. 

Gloves.—J. H. Cownie Glove Co., Des Moines, Iowa; Cali- 
fornia Glove Co., Napa, Cal 

Hats.—J. B. Stetson Company, Philadelphia, Pa.; E. M. 
Knox Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Shirts and Collars.—United Shirt and Collar Company, 
Troy. N. Y.; Van Zandt, Jacobs & Co., Troy, N. Y.; 
Cluett, Peabody & Co., Troy, N. Y.; James R. Kaiser, 
New York City. 

Textile.—Merrimac Manufacturing Co. (printed goods), 
Lowell, Mass. 

Underwear.—Oneita Knitting Mills, Utica, N. Y. 

Woolens.—Hartford Carpet Co.. Thompsonville, Conn.; 
J. Capps & Son, Jacksonville, Ill. 




Bookbinders—Geo, M. Hill ©Co., Chicago, Ill; Boorum & 
Pease Uo., Brooklyn, N. ¥ 

Newspapers.—Philadelpbhia Democrat, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Hudson, Kimberly & Uo. printers, of Kansas City; 
Mo., W. B. Conkey Co., publishers, Hammond, Ind., 
Times, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Shoes.—Harney Bros., Lynn, Mass.; J. E. Tilt Shoe Co., 
Chicago, Il. 

Suspenders.— Russell Mfg. Co. Middletown, Conn. 


Pottery and Brick.—J. B. Owens Pottery Co. of Zanes- 
ville, Ohio; Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. of Chi- 
cago, Ill.; C. W. Stine Pottery Co., White Cottage, 
Ohio; Harbison-Walker Retractory Co., Pittsburg, 
Pa.; Utica Hydraulic Cement and Utica Cement 
Mfg. Co., Utica, Ill. 


Carriage and Wagon Builders.—S. R. Baily & Co., Ames- 
bury, Mass.; Hassett & Hodge, Amesbury, Mass.; 
Carr, Prescott & Co., Amesbury, Mass. 

General Hardware.—Landers, Frary & Clark, 4tna Com- 
pany, New Britain, Conn.; Iver Johnson Arms Com- 
pany, ay Mass.; © Kelsey Furnace Company, 
Syracuse, N. Y ; Brown & Sharpe Tool ( ompany, 
Providence, R.1 ; John Russeil Cutlery Company, 
Turner’s Falls, y Atlas Tack Company, Fair- 
have, Mass.; Hen Disston & Co., Philadelphia, 
Pa.; American Hardware Co. (Russell & Erwin Co. 
and P. & F. Corbin } New Britain, Conn.; Mer- 
ritt & Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tron and Steel.—I\llinois Iron and Bolt Company, of Car- 
Po NY? IIL; 

yy oy, Company, Niagara 

‘alls, N. Y Casey & Hedges, Chattanooga, Tenn.; 
Gurney Foundry Company, Toronto Ont.; —y 
Manufacturing € Company, Springfield, Obio; P: e 
Needle Company, Franklin, N. H.; American Cir- 
cular Loom Company, New Orange, N. J.; Payne 
Engine Company, Elmira, N. Y.: Lincoin Iron 
Works (F. Patch Manufacturing Company), 
Rutland, Vt.; Art Metal Construction Company, 
Jamestown, N. Erie City Iron Works, Erie, Pa.; 
David Maydole oot Co., Norwich, Ms Bas 
Singer Sewing Machine Co., Elizabeth, N.J.; Na- 
tional Elevator and Machine Com any. Hones- 
dale, Pa.; Pittsburg Expanded Metal Co., Pittsburg, 
Pa.: Peckham Manutacturing Company, Kingston, 

Iron, Architectural.—Geo. L. Meskir, Evansville, Ind. 

Stoves.—Germer Stove Company, Erie, Pa.; “‘ Radiant 
Home” Stoves, Ranges, and Hot Air "Blast, Erie, 
Pa.; Wrought Iron Range Uo., St. Louis, Mo. 


Bags.—Guif Bag Company, New Orleans, La., branch 
Bemis Bros., St. Louis, Mo. 

Baskets.—Williams Manufacturing Company, 
ampton, Mass. 

Brooms and Dusters.—The Lee Broom and Duster Com- 

ny, of Davenport, Iowa; M. Gorller’s Sons, Cir- 
cleville, Ohio; Merkle-Wiley Broom (o., Paris, Ill. 

Carriages.—Crane, Breed & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Cooperage.— Northwestern Cooperage and Lumber Com- 
owed (otherwise known as the Buckeye Stave 

YXompany), of Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin; 
Elgin Butter Tub yg Elgin, Ill.; Williams 
Cooperage Company and Palmer Manufacturing 
Company, of Poplar Bluff, Mo. 

China.—Wick China Company, Kittanning, Pa. 

Furniture.—American Biliiard Table Company, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio; Brumby Chair Company, Marietta, Ga.; 
O. Wisner Piano Company, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Krell 
Piano Company, ‘‘incinnati, Ohio: N. Drucker & 
Co., «incinnati,,Ohio; St. Johns Table Com ny; 
St. "Johns, Mich:; Grand Rapids Furniture Manu- 
facturing ‘Association, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Derby 
Desk Co., Boston, Mass. 

Gold Leaf—W. H. Kemp Company, New York, N. Y.; 
Andrew Reeves, Chicago, I11 ; George Reeves , Cape 
May, N. J.; Hastings Company, Ph ladel phia, Pa. e 
Henry Ayers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lumber.—Trinity County Lumber Company, Groveton, 
Texas; Reinle Bros. & Solomon, ltimore, Md. ; 
Himmelberger Harrison Lumber Company, More- 


house, Mo.; Union Lumber Company, Fort Bragg, 
Cal.; St. Paul and Tacoma Lumber Company, 
Tacoma, Wash.; Gray’s Harbor Commercial Co., 
Cosmopolis, Wash. 

Leather.—Kullman, Salz & Co., Benicia, Cal.: A. B. Pat- 
rick & Co., San Francisco, Cal.; Lerch Bros., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Paper Boxes.—E. N. Rowell & Co., Batavia, N 
Roberts & Co., Metropolis, Il. 

Paper.—Remington-Martin Paper Co., Norfolk, N. Y. 

Raymond Paper Co., Raymondsville, N. Y.; J. L. 
rost Paper Co., Norwood, ‘N.Y. ;) Potter Wall l'aper 
Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

Typewriters.—Underwood Typewriter Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Watches.—Keystone Watch Case Company, of Philadel- 

hia, Pa.; Crescent Courvoiseer Wilcox Company; 
a Brooklyn Watch Case Company, Sug 

ry & 


Burlap.—H. B. Wiggins’ Son’s Com pany, Bloomfield, N.J. 

Bill Pasters.—Bryan & Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Railways.—Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad ; 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway Company 

Telegraphy.—Western Union Telegraph Company, and 
its Messenger Service. 

D. M. Parry, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Thomas Taylor & Son, Hudson, Mass. 

C. W. Post, Manufacturer of Grape Nuts and Postum 
Cereal, Battle Creek, Mic 

Lehmaier-Swartz & Co., New York City. 

Compiled by the Editor of the American Federationist 
Of the 957 unions making returns for November, 19 5 
with an aggregate membership of 92,396, there were 1 
per cent without employment. In the preceding month 
1,855 unions, with a membership of 154,118, reported .9 of 
bs per cent unemployed. 

Aug Sep 


NWA A Y @® & 


Chart showing the reported percentage of unem- 
played members of trade unions at the close of each 
ing January, 1905. 

The heavy line indicates the per cent for 1905; the 
light line for 1904. 

Number of Affiliated Unions. 

Local trade and federal labor unions... 1 
Local a attached to internationals (approxi- 
Charters Issued for November, 1905. 
State branches... 


Following is a statement of the receipts and expenses AMATTER OF HEALTH 

or the month of November, 1905. (The months are ab- 
breviated thus: j, f, mm, a, m, etc.) 

1. Balance on hand November 1, 1905... .-$114,858 31 
Trades assem, Schenectady, N Y, tax, t ‘ln, 
a Ee REE a 5 00 

J aise 
Central iabor union, Chattanooga, Tenn, 
tax, j, a, 8. 
Central labor union, Washington, tod lax, 

a 8 
Central trades council, Mobile, Ala, 
= and labor council, Kenosha, we 

tax, j,j.a = 
Federai labor 11746, ‘tax, ‘sept. ‘45e; a f, 45e 
Federal labor 11823, tax, oct, $2; a f, J 
Federal! labor 9646, tax, "oct, $1.75; d & $1.75. 
Federal! labor 9079, tax, 8, O, $2.60; d f, $2.60 
Federal labor 11a87, tax, m, j, j, a, 8, $5.65; df, 


Milk dealers prot 8226, tax, m, j, j, a, 8, 0, 
$2.10; d f, $2.10 

Stenogra hers, typewriters, and bookkeep- 
ers and assistants 11597, tax, m, j, j, a, 8, 
$4.25; d f, $4.25. 

Metro asso of double drum hoisters runners 
11275, tax, a, 8, $3.80; d f, 

Columbia river fishermens’ prot 6821, tax, j, 
a, 8, 0, $5; d f, $5 

Inti printing pressmen, tax, sept.. 

City firemens prot asso, 11974, su won 

Hospital nurses and employes i , SuUP...... 

Assorters and packers 8316, sup 

2. Federal labor 11917, sup 

Regalia and badge workers 11159, tax, oct, 
8uc; d f, 80c; sup, $8.50. 

Millmens prot 10297, sup acct. 

Intl of slate workers, tax, oct.. 

Intl shingle weavers ‘of A, tax, 

Oe Teles. helpers prot 11395, rodagy zn ‘a, ai. 35; 

Federal labor 7187, ‘tax, ‘aug, H. 25; d 3 4.5 
Federal labor 10847, tax, j, a, s, $1 "50; a f, $1.50 
Tin, steel, iron, and ranite ware workers 
10943, tax, oct, $4.50; d f, $4.50. 
| eoneendh 11254, tax, dec, $12.50; d. f, 
Riggers 11583, tax, oct, 40c; d f, 40c. a 
Trades union and labor council, } k, 
VUhio, tax, nov, "U4, to and incl july.. ‘ 
Central labor union, Delaware, Unio, tax, ry 
a, 8, 0, n,d.. 
Alabama state fed of labor, tax, nov, 04, to 
and incl oct, 05 .. 
Connecticut state fed ‘of ‘labor, tax, may, 05, 
to and incl apr, ’v6 
. Amal sheet metal workers. ‘intl asso, tax, 
oct, U4. to and incl sept, ’v5 
Lobster fishermen 11954, sup .. ieceaiiae 
Hospital employes 1v64l, tax, ‘oct, i $i. 50; 
$1.0; sup, $3.10 .............. 
Gas workers 10036, sup 
Stonemasons 7049, tax, 8, o, $12; d f, $12. 
Federal labor 9857, tax, a, s, $2; d f, 
Federal labor 10639, tax, oct, $2.55; ‘d f, $2.55... 
Federal labor 8228, tax, j, a, 8, $1.15; d f, $1.15.. 
Federal labor 11158, tax, nov, $6.50: d 1, $6.50.. 
Drain layers and helpers 10335, tax, oct, $4. 50; 
d f, $4.50. 
Base ball makers 10929, tax, oct, 90c; d f, 90c.. 
Bottle caners 10535, tax, oct, Se: i f, e.. 
Carbonated water workers 1157 
$1.80; d f, $1.30. 
Steel case makers 11842, tax, j, a, 8, $8.90; d f, 

( baw factory ‘tobacco ‘strippers 10227, tax, 
oct, $2 50; d 50... 
Mineral and ‘oda water bottlers 9275, tax, j, 
J, a, 8, 0, $3; d f, $3 
Window-shade makers 11556, tax, ‘sept, $1.50; 

Federal labor 9736, tax, f, 70c 

Federal labor 8281, tax, oct, $3: ‘af.$ 

Federal labor 7479, tax. oct. $1. ri $ f, $1.25... 

Federal labor 9461, tax, oct, $5; d f, 

Central labor council, Carbondale and vicin- 
ity, Pa, tax. j, a, 

Trades aasembiy, ‘Ennis, Tex, tax, f, m,a, 

m, Jj, j 
Federated trades assembly, Duluth, Minn, 
CIBER, Be Bip Drerccercccensveccssncvssane-csese quencmecumses-cusees 

Absolutely Pure 


mmo Baoan 
6S 828 s#esees $5 8 8S 8S FS SB SF SE2 


4. Intl bro of stationary firemen, tax, sept 

Central labor union, New Orleans, La, tax, 

Tiades and row assembly, Chicago Heights, 
Ill, tax, j, a. 

Lake co isades ane labor’ council, Paines- 
ville, Ohio, tax, 8, 

Central labor — ‘ang "Philadeiphia, Pa, and 
vicinity, tax, j, a, 8. 0, 

7 labor 3620: tax, mer, ane d f, $1.80; 

up, He 
Federal labor 10128 sup. 
Sawmill workers 11826, tax, oct, $1.3); d f, 

i icintrai vivian 

Lobster fishermen 11881, tax, oct, $1.50; d f, 

Lumber handiers 11474, ‘tax, "sept, ‘$i. 75; ‘a ft 
$1.75. = 

Pipe cutters ‘11687, tax, ‘sept, $5; ‘a t $.. 

Soap-makers 8594, tax, m, j,j, a, 8, 0, $2.10; d 
f, $2.10. 

Central trades and labor council, Ashansns 
City, Kan, tax. j.a, 8,0, n,d 

Central labor union, Akron, Ohio, tax j,a 

Central labor aatem, Lancaster and vicinity, 
Pa, tax, j, a 

Federated \eadene yuncil, Montreal, Canada, 
tax, a, 8,0 .... 

Federated trades council, Milwaukee, Wis, 
tax, may, "U5, to and including apr, '06 

eo labor union, Marceline, Mo, tax, 8, 

Trades and aber assembly, E save. 
Ohio, tax, j, a 

Twin terr Gieretion ‘of labor, Ind Lz nd 
Okla T, tax, m, a, m, j, j, a. 8, 0, 

ben ee state federation of labor, tax, J, J, 

. 8, O. ccesese 
Federal labor 7204, tax, “oct, Bae; df. 55e . 
Federa! labor 7481, tax, sept, $2.50; d f, $2.50... 

ao ww 

gee 88 88 Es 8 






Federal labor 8139, tax, oct, $5; d 
Federa] labor 8533, tax, oct, $2; 
Federal labor 9316, tax, a, s, $2.40; 
Federal labor 10085, tax, 8, 0, $1.25; 
Federal labor 10926, tax, nov, $2.25; 
Federal labor 11478. tax, oct, $2.50; 
Federal! labor 11802, tax, sept, $1.25; da 
Intl of elevator constructors, tax, oct 
Intl bro of maintenance of vend employes, 
tax, j, a, 8, 0 
Suspender workers 11294, sup. 
Porters and shoe polishers 11976, sup... 
Federal labor 8646, tax, j, a, s, $1. 50; d f, 

Federal _— 11938, tax, oct, $14.50; d f, $14.50; 
sup, $114. 
Fag lingpectors prot 11701, tax, o, n, $3; d f, $8; 
sup, ia ve 
Federal labor 11968, su ip... 
— labor 9425, wom, nov, $1.35; di f, $1.35; 

Federal labor 9083, ‘tax, ‘nov, 1. 75; di f, $1.75; 
sup, $2.23.. 

Central labor union, “Marine City, Mich, ‘sup 

Suspender workers 9480, bal, a, m, 
j,.J, a, $1.60; d f, $1.60. 

Federal labor 9614, tax, nov, 50c; df, 

Elevator conductors and starters rises, tax, 
oct, $5; d f, $3... 

Park employes. "prot ‘asso. ‘11820, ‘tax, ‘sept, 
$1.35; d f, $1.35 

Asphalt pavers 11484, tax, nov, 50c; d f, 50c... 

et x yantend cutters 6939, tax, apr, $3.75; 

Womens prot 11846, tax, aug, $1; d f, $1 
Agricultural workers 11696, tax, j, a, 8, 0, $4; 


Federal labor 10917, tax, sept, 40c; d f, 40c. 
Federal labor 8152, tax, o, n, a, $4. 50; a re $4.50 
Federation of labor, Cedar Rapids, Ta, tax, 

j,a, 8,0, n,d 
Trades prone Mansfield, Ohio, tax, j, a, 8 
United hattersof N A, assess, I T via 
United neckwear cutters 6939, sup 
Mineral water bottlers 11317, sup 
oy labor 11907, tax, nov, 35c; df, 35c; 

Agricaltazal workers 11941, tax, sept, $1.25; 
a f, $1.25; sup 

Agricultural iaborers 11978, sup 

Federal labor 10334, tax, nov, 85c; d f, 8 ; 
Federal labor 10364, tax, dec, 70c; d f, 70c....... 
Federal labor 11270, tax, oct, $2.50; d f, $2.50... 
Laborers prot 9105, tax, oct, $5; d f, $5. 
Federal labor 10829, tax, oct. $8.25: 

Trades -_ labor ‘assem, AL, ll, 

tax, j, a, 

Trades ona labor assem, Moberly, Mo, tax, 
Oo, n, a, $2.50; sup, $2.50... 

Central labor, uiney, Mass, ‘tax, may, 705, 
to and includ jan, " 

Central labor oh Seattle and Vicinity, 

salar 5 eal peetion "38, j $2.25; 

PP and packers tax, j, a, 8, 

d f, $2.25 

Newspapers fa mail deliverers 9463, tax, 
sept, $45; d f, $ 

ay employes” ‘11848, tax, oct, 50c; df, 

Icemens prot 10176. tax, oct, $1.30; d f, $1.30... 
Scale workers prot 7592, tax, s, 0, $14.90; d f, 

ype employes 9987, tax, nov, $1.25; d f, 
Horse nail workers 7180, tax, “nov, "$6.25; a L 

Cigar factory “tobacco “strippers 11939, ‘tax, 

Newsboys prot 11566, tax, se 

Porters and bootblacks 1197 up 

Poultry and stock food wornees prot asso 

, su 

Federal! labor 11981, sup 

Artificial limb seahorse 11356, ‘tax. bal, . - “a, 
8, O, n, d, 05, j, 06, $2.50; d f, $2 50 

Boot and shoe workers, assess, I TU 

Hotel and restaurant employes intl alliance, 
etc, acct assess, I 

Wood. wire, and metal fnthecs intl, ‘assess, 

Journeymen tailors of A, assess, 4 TU 
Intl typographical union, tax, oc 
bster Sshermens 11966, lean. = $l. - df, 
$1.15; sup, 54c 

Bo SSS Cronmnend 
3 888 sssssess 

Co re om pw tet 


SSSroe co fm wo me 
& 3 88s8s8 ses 88 S32 8 88 oa sw SB Be 

3 CO 


so ocguTrr-, 
S S$8383e8 

a rata 

wn & 
83 8 

p, $1 
Barber shop porters and bat 
ployes 11963, tax, o, n, $2.70; d f, $2.70... 

. Intl steel and copper plate printers of N a 

assess, I 

Bro of painters, decorators, and paperhang- 
Siam A, tax, oct, $280.47; assessment, I T U, 

76 eer errr 

Natl mine managers ‘and assistants mutual 
aid asso, tax, feb, 04, toand incl jan, ’05... 

Suspender workers 10098, tax, nov, $1.50; d f, 
$1 50; sup, $16 

Stoneware potters 8302, tax, s, 0, $8.50; d f, 
$3.50; sup, 72c 

Cemetery employes 10634, tax, nov, $6.50; d f, 
$6.50; sup, $3.25... 

Natl asso of machine "printers and “color 
mixers of U S, local no 8, SUP................000++ 

Federal labor 9613, sup, 

Paper bag workers 11757, oan, nov, 55c; d f, 

¥ Tt? 
Post office clerks 8703, tax, sept, $15; df, $15... 
Federal labor 8060, tax, nov, $3.7; « df, $3.75... 
Federal labor j8426, tax, 8, 0, n, d , $7.20: da f, 
Federal labor 8770, tax, 0, n, $1.20; d f, $1.20... 
Federal labor 11423, tax, nov, $1.40; d ,, $1 40... 
Federal labor 11491, tax. 8, acc 0, 55¢; a’ f, 55¢ 
Trades council, Elgin, Lil, tax, j,a,s.. 
Central labor union, Lebanon, Pa, tax,j,a,s 
Central labor union, Mt Carmel, Ill, tax, 
a Si BP nnsecnapcendnbtnbnsnonetnttibeeberteses -sssnntoutpmanmngnteues 
cdntial trades and labor assem, Watertown, 
N Y, tax, m, a, m,j,j,a 

, Federated trades council, < “olorado ayetne, 

Colo, tax, a, m,j,j, a, 8, 0, n, d.. 
Union co ‘trades cuncil. "Elizabeth. N g i 
tax, aug, 05, to and incl july, U6, $10; sup, 

Granite cutters intl asso of A, assess, I T U.. 

Glass bottle blowers asso of the US and Can- 
ada, assess, 1 T U 

prot 9523, —_ a, $1.10: d f, $1.10... 

ew London, Conn, 

Central labor union, 

central i hee union, Ft Williams, Ont, tax, 
dec, 01, to and incl aug, ’05... 

Central labor yf wane ‘and ‘Auburn, 
Me, tax, m, a, 

Federal labor ons, ‘One Oct, $2.25; d f, $2.25 

tecny bee , tax, = 35¢; it B 

Sewer Ts 8662, tax, 

Bootblacks 11623, tax, pov, tee d f, 95 

Fibre workers 7185, tax, oct, $5; d f, $5 

Lobster fishermens 11954, tax, nov, $26; af, 


Fire dept employes 10446, tax, 0, n, $4: d, f, $4 

Central trades and labor council, Will co, 
Ill, tax, j, a, s. 

Intl asso of car workers, tax, oct, $22.50; acc 
assess, textile, 

Labor council, Houston, Tex, tax, j,j, a. 

Trades and labor council, Leavenworth, 
Kans, tax, m, a, m,j,j,a 

Trades and labor council, Nashville, Tenn, 
tax, feb, to and incl oct 

Fishermens prot , tax, 8, 0, 0, $3. 60; a f ‘$3.60 

oot labor, Charlotte, x Cc, tax, j, a, 8, 

Soda and peinoret water bottlers 10833, tax, 
nov, $1.75: d f, $1.75. 

Frank Morrison. ieee D. C., refund 

trades and labor assem, Decatur, Ill 

Twine stringers 11632, tax, oct, 0c; d f, 50c... 

Gas 4 $y and trimmers 11864, tax, 
sept, $4; d f, $4... 

Needlemakers 11433, ‘tax, a, 8, , $2.15; “ad f, 82. “ib. 

ae Vx" —— workers 7319, tax, oct, $7.50; 

Federal labor 11617, tax, j, a, Sa 2 fe $8.25. 

Federal labor 11519; tax, Oo, 1. $3.50; 

Federal labor 10334, assess. Uv.” 

Paper owen of the nd S A and Canada, 

Federal ‘labor 10018, ‘tax, nov, ‘$1.65; a f ‘$1.65; 

46 00 

2,524 23 
12 00 
19 00 
7 72 
16 25 



ora = 

ah co oo ass on tod 8S om 
SB 8 288 $8 SB SKS Bs Ss 28 8B ss seszz 

ISR po = ow 

» & 


Do Not Replace Your Worn Carpet 

With a New One. 

The new one will harbor dust and germs and will 

wear out just the same as the old one did. Our Par- 


or Hardwood Floors, are beautiful, 

sanitary, and will last as long as your house. 
Catalogue No. 15. 



Wood-Mosaic Flooring Co, 
New Albany, Ind. 

Rochester, N. Y. 




Lamp lighters 11943, tax, oct, 

Setters prot 1185, tax, m, j, j, a, $2.40; 


Grain workers 11407, tax, oct, $1.50; d f, $1.50; 

assess, I T 
$3.25; d f, $3.25; 
sup, $3.40 

3. Trabajadores agricolas 11693, tax, “oct, 04, ‘to 



Sheet joggers 11951, tax, nov, 60c; af, 60e ..... 

and includ juiy, ’05, $25; d f, $25 
Tre abajadores agricolas 11901, tax, anes, 75e; 

d f,7 

Vegetz able ivory button makers 7546, te AX, ‘oct, 
1.50 . . 

$1.50; a f, 
sorters and hand 

d, $1.50; d f, $1.50 
Derrick mens 9499, tax, $5.10: d f, $5.10. 
pressmens 9331, tax, nov, 

Pipe layers 9744, tax, oct, $1. 50; d f. AR 
Starchworkers 8938, tax, 

n, d, "05, i, 06, $1.20; 
d f, $1.20...... 
ware potte rs 11598, ‘tax, oct, S0e.; d f, 8c. 
$2.60; df, 

, tax, J, 5, 

Tobacco strippers i042, tax, nov, 

Trades” council, Johnson C ity, Ill 

a, 8, Oo, n. 

Central labor union, Indianapolis, Ind, tax, 

12. &: 
Twin city labor congress, 1 ae & Rock 
Falls, Ill, tax, j, a, 8, 0, n, na 
Brewery laborers 10877, tax, n, d, $2; 

Federal labor 7112, tax, o, n, d, ’$1.50 

Federal labor 9365, tax, j, j, a, s, 3: df 

Federal labor 9449, tax, oct, 65c: d ft 

Federal labor 11812, tax, nov, $3. Y d f, $3.35. 

Federal labor 11949, tax, oct, $5; d f, $5 

Federal labor 11124, tax, nov, 40c; d f, #c...... 
\merican federation -y musicians, tax, nov. 
$175; assess, I T U, 

United textile wactlead of A, assess, I T U... 

Machine ee and color mixers 11967, 
tax, oct, 60c; d f, 60c 

Womens prot risge tax, bal, oct, 10c; d f, 10c, 



B88 Ss S8sesesss = 




Fits any Gas Fixture-Heats & Lights any room. 


Comfort, convenient, hygienic, econ- 
omic, will heat foods, liquids, 
curling Irons Ete The latest & best. From 
Dealers or sent on receipt of price 81.25—if 
not D-E-L I-G-H-T-E-D money refunded 
Agents wanted 20th Century Co. 19 Warren St. N.Y 

If not obtainable from your dealer will be sent 

paid on receipt of price, $1.25. 

> Agricultural worke rs 11896, 

. Ceramic, mosaic, and encaustic tile layers 

and helpers inti, acct assess, | T U. 
Horse nail makers 10958, assess, I T U... 
Federal! labor 7087, assess, | T U 
Federal labor 8139, assess, I T U.. 
Federal labor 11969, sup... 
Federal labor *8.6, assess, ITU 
Lobster fishermens 11845, assess, 1 T 
Locomotive peace and nelpers mr tax, 
oct, $3.20; d f,$3..0; assesx, I T U, $2.56 
N Y transfer co employes prot 11824, tax, 
nov, $1.25; d f, $1.25; assessment, I TU, 
Wire and cable workers 9517, tax, 8, O, n, i: 
d f, $¥; assessment, I T U, $2. 40; sup, $1 
Laborers prot 11649, tax, s, 0, $2; ‘4 f, & 
Central labor, Lawrence, Mass, tax, bal j, 

Steel and copperplate cleaners 8810, tax, nov, 
55e; d f, 5ic; assessment, I I' U, 44; sup, 39¢.. 

Local 24, American bro of cement workers, 

Hospital nurse 

Federal \abor 8 
sup. We .. 

Suspender makers 9560, sup.... 

Federal labor 9873, sup 

Bottlers prot 8434, sup 

Lobster shermens 11843, tax, nov, $7.20; d f, 

and employ es 1085", sup. 
3, tax, j,j, a, 8, o, $5; d f, $5; 

Federal labor, 11477, tax, ‘nov, 80c: df, ®e; 
sup, 25e¢ . cece 

Assorters and. pac -Kers 8316, sup ae 

Newsboys prot 11912, tax, s, o, n, $1.80; ‘sup, $i 

Lobster fishermens 11859, tax, ooaam, 08.85; df, 
$6.85; sup, Hc. ” 

Federal labor 8339, sup 

Fe de ral labor 10816, tax, oct, 

Curbstone cutters and setters ‘9186, sup 
Amal asso of street and electric ry 
ployes of A, sup... - 
le; df, 

tax, oct, 
Decorators, costumers, and badgemakers, 
11555, tax, o, n, $1.25; df, $1 25 
Tuck pointers 10384 hy oct, $2.7 50; d f, $2. 50. 
Undertakers 9049, tax, nov, $1.'0; d f, $1.50... 
Federal labor 9862, tax, s, 0, $5.25; d f, $5.25,. 
Federal labor 10307, tax, nov, 95c; d f, 95c.... 
File workers 10048, tux, j, a, s, $3; d f, $3.. 
Laborers prot i tax, 8, 0, $2.50; d f, $2.50; 
assess, IT U,$i .... : 
Central labor, ES Pa, tax, 7 a, 8. 
United gold beaters, natl of A, assess, 1 TU... 
Well drillers and helpers 11952, assess, I T U. 
en goring weavers amal asso, assess, 
Music engravers 11809, M ene oct, aa 65; d f, 
$1.65; assess, 1 T U, $1. 
City firemens prot asso, woe 
Federal labor 11958, tax, om, ‘$1. he: a tf. $1. 10; 

up, 5 
Federal 1 11722, tax, 3 0, By ‘8 5: a = a 1-85; 
assess, I T U, 36 exsensee 
Rockmens prot 008i. 

15, Trades and labor colnel Mt Olive, I; tax, 

j.j, a, *, 0, D 


SS ss 8% S$ 



KNOX Union-Made SOAPS ... ucruc, owen 

Mail Orders Taken. Banners, Badges, Buttons, 

: . Regalia f ieties, 2 
Toilet Articles, Extracts, RGPEn Der Saeatiee, he 

Tea, Coffee, Spices S. BLACK 

CLUB PLAN s : ‘ 
Manufacturer to Consumer Union Outfitter for Outings and Parades 

Send léc. and get a 0c. American Beauty Sugar Shell, 
and catalogue of 2,0u0 premiums. 55 Mott St., New York 
GALESBURG, ILL. Special Attention Paid to all Labor Organi- 
This ad. should bring a thousand answers : : : 
idenibom the Padeuntbentes. zations in the United States 
15. Aluminum workers 8261, tax, nov, $13.75; 16. Federal labor 10279, tax, oct, $3.60; d f, $3.60; 
, $13.75 .. $27 50 IIR, Fr IE. - casenepicess. <arcicensensnucnnegnsehine $10 08 
Federai ‘Labor 11534, ‘tax, oct, “Tbe; d f, 75c ..... 1 50 Federal labor’ 11891, tax, nov, $1.30; d f, $1.30; 
—- water bottlers i1829, tax, 0, n, $1.30; assess, I T U, $1 Skea thet arengyclin ae tceninin 3 64 
eT Ee Sb 2S eee 8 12 Federal labor wy tax, aug, $2,00; d f, $2.00; 
poothinnke prot 1v175, tax, oct, $3.20; d f, $3 20.. 6 40 A I Ar SIRI ccesia’-siiech, vepamanasiinaicetnetucadonnes 5 40 
Iron chippers 7573, tax, oct, $3.50; af, $3. = 700 Granite polishers, quarry mens, and laborers 
Lobster fishermens 11855, eer, #2; d f, $2.. 4 00 re tax, nov, $2.15; d cheer 15; assess, 
Gilders agp oo tax, oct, $4.05 “4 34.05 beabiies 8 10 U, $1.72 6 02 
Tie makers 11239, tax, nov, 75c; ‘af, 1 50 Federal labor 7187, ‘assess, ITU. 3 40 
Artesian well drillers = hin, 1344, Water pipe calkers 10830, assess, I T U. 100 

tax, nov, $1.50; wee 3 00 Gardeners and florists 10615, tax, oct, $1. 40; a 
Federal labor Wal a oct, “Sse; “a t “He... 90 ce YS a a eae 8 30 
wx labor 10702, tax, 8,.0, acct n, — Lobster fishermens 11923; tax, oct, $2.65; d f, 

d f, 90e me 1 80 ft eee ee eee 6 80 
Federal ‘labor 11098, ‘tax, ‘oct, 85e; da t, 'B5c........ 1 70 Intl glove workers of A, sup... om 100 
Federal labor 11761, tax, nov, 50e; d f, 50c...... 100 17. Agricultural workers 11694, tax, a, s, 0, $6; 

Trades council, Albion. Mich, tax, oe eee 250 3 Re ee 12 00 

Intl stereoty pers and electroty pers, tax, oct. 15 83 Pavers helpers 10841, tax, oct, $2.45; di f, $2.45. 490 

Commercial telegraphers of A, assess, I TU. 80 00 Interlocking switch and signalmens —— 

Machinist helpers 9713, sup, 90¢; assess, I T tax, oct, $3.90; d f, $3.90......... 7 80 
ll wsitantisschiaipigearninthhaabta cen tieinlnnarnente 8 70 Telephone aapstreaicemia peas 

Messenger boys prot 11973, $5.30....... 10 

SIA III. ssiececinmsvesinaninvarsoummnisqereseneniitonsecescose 270 
Federal labor 9066, tax, a 2 50 

25c; sup, $......... sofaabiaieieiin 8 50 Coffee, spice, and baking powder wor' 

Laborers prot 655, ‘tax, ‘oct, $1.05: .05; 9605, tax, err Cl ee 8 00 

up, $1... 3 10 Granite workers 9289, a nov, $2. 

16. Boilermakers ‘heipers 11801, “tax, ‘a, m, < = a, $2.25: assess, | T U, $1.80 ‘ 6 30 
6 00 Telephone operators 10795, ‘tax, nov, 65¢; d f, 

1 30 

5 20 Cooks ‘and waiters 10968, ‘tax, no 

Liaciciiesddiidiisedadcenthalinthaliadsbinnenaashienpniniaanaintctiuse 24 10 

5. 3 50 Laborers prot 10215, tax, ‘hov 5Ne; d f, 50c ..... 100 

Gas workers 11790, tax, oct, $2.50; d f, $2.50..... 5 00 Egg inspectors 8705, assess, I | edict aeeasenel 6 56 
Telephone employes 11268, tax, oct, 45c; d Paving in spectorsand opp ry 10579. 

ii, Sil ithacndineenasaihnasneiiehdtnpedeniintiilipainninndineie-miecansee 90 tax, j, j, a, 8, O, n, d,$3.85; d f, $8.85; acct as- 

Paving dept a we 6751, tax, jan, to and sess, I T U, 34c; assess, textile workers, 36c 8 40 

incl oct, bes d f, $26 natin 52 00 Natl bro of operative potters, assess, I T U.. 222 00 
Riggers prot 11561, tax, i, ‘a, 's, $15; ‘af, $i5....... 30 00 The order of R R telegraphers,assessITU.. 600 00 
Soap, soda, and candle workers 10885, tax, Federal labor 10486, tax, nov, $1.90; d f, $1.90; 

«7 yo) wendeeamaene teens linate 7 00 omen | fC Seamtacmat tae agate 5 82 
Isinglass on workers 11799, tax, m, j, j, a, 8, Federal! labor 9418, tax, a, s, why 3 d f, $8.75 7 50 

O, $2.10; d f, $2.10... a 420 Federal labor 11782, tax, OGts Bat & ©, Bho csccnss 2 00 
Bootblacks prot 11964, ‘tax, oct, “70e; ‘a ft J0e.. 1 40 Federal labor 11841, tax, oct, $1.55; d f, $1.55... 8 10 
— workers 11251, tax, nov, 40c; 2 ae and labor assembly, Alton, Ill, tax, 

cinchitecaiGbensiiacdidtimindisiniaidiaatutitcipeimemunccmuiiges «§«-«» I la eircnnti abet 2 50 
Suspender workers 10833, tax, j, a, 8, 0, $1.40; Federal labor 11834, tax, oct, $1.55; d f, $1.55; 

SE ER a 2 80 sup, 50c... 8 60 

RR one messengers and clerks 11639, Icemens prot 9254, assess, T TkKU,! $1.80; ‘sup, $i 2 80 

eee TS eae eee 6 00 Local 333, anited textile wor$ers of A, su 50 
Federal labor 9650, tax, nov, $7.50 15 00 Federal labor 9133. tax, oct, 1.50; d f, $l. 

Federal labor 6697, tax, nov, $1 it a Pie 76: assess, I T U, $1.20......... 420 
ee A * eee ae 490 Federated trades and labor coun Sil, Boise, 

Federal labor ‘11514, tax, s, acct 0. 60e; d f, 60c 120 Idaho, tax, june, ’05, to and incl 165, 7 

Federal labor 8805, tax, 0, n, 80c; d f, 80c . 160 18. American society of — engravers 9008; 

Federal \ nad 8109, tax, a, m, j, j, a, 8, $2. ‘10; Se, TN errr Oe asec enccescnecsscesccscetcece 5 50 

f° SRS 420 — assem, Bridgeport, Tex, tax, j,a,s, 

Federal = 11333, tax, Oo, n, $3. 50; ‘a f, $8.50. 7 00 NE ERE Ee RPE Ree a 5 00 
Federal labor 7591, tax, m, j, f. $2. 4 00 Federal labor 9185, tax, nov, $2.85; d f, $2.85.. 5 70 
Federal labor 1311, tax, oct, $l. "35; df, ‘$1.35... 2 70 Federal labor 11747, tax, 8, o, $1; df, * anes 200 
Federal labor 9626, ‘tax, nov, "$3.50 d ¢ $3. s 7 00 Laborers prot 8012, tax, bal, j, a, 8, $1.85; d f, 

Federal labor 11871, tax, bal oct, $2.50; d $185. ..... 3 70 

SiN cicnmnsisicninetiiinany, coarasninandvunnetinicninhiamaatiiamnncs 5 00 Laborers. prot ‘1273. tax, ‘oct, $3.05: d f, $3.05... 6 10 
Tri city : central trades council, Granite City, Fishermens prot 11056, tax, a. s, 70c: d g, 70¢.. 1 40 

Ill, tax. j. a.s. 2 50 Gas workers 10678. tax, oct, $5: d f, $5. ..... : 10 00 
—— jabor union, ‘Holyoke, “Mass, tax, Ordnancemens 9585, tax, s, 0, $1.50; d f, $1. 50. 3 00 

Le sdiaashaiianish semaine sivliedimmatialttdaasiianiaiane diins <aiue 250 Pavers and rammers 10318. tax, a. 8, $3; df, $3 6 00 
ceniral labor union, Hyde Park, Mass, tax, Central labor council, Portsmouth and 

RR I ge PEEL ern Se 2 50 a eee 250 

Cotton mule spinners assn, assess, I TU. ..... 88 00 Trades assem, Rome, N L 2 ee Y eae 2 50 

tek ol! / Mann Mn MeL -L kollel. ol: TT eee 





SAMUEL SWAN, Prest. . D. LENT, Vice-Prest. 
CHAS. ae TOWNER, Sec’y saa Treas. 

: THE 

David B. Crockett Company 



Eare the origi- 
nal and only 
of Genuine Spar 
Composition, and 
Nos. 1 and 2 Pre- 
servative. These 
goods we have 
manufactured al- 
most thirty years, 
by a process exclu- 
siv ely our own, and after a formula which is an absolute 
secret known only to this company. As a result we have the 
best materials ever used as Varnishes. We warrant and will 
defend them against all comers. 


others have taken advantage of the popularity of our goods 
to bring out numerous imitations which are offered under 
the same or similar names. 

Avoid all such as they are not in the same class with our Gen- 
uine Spar Composition and Nos. | and 2 Preservative in any 
respect—and in all probability will crack, soften, discolor, 
stick, peel, or otherwise ruin interior or exterior finish. 

Please send to us freely for copies of our >: “creas 
Hand-Book, Sample Boards, or samples of our g 

If local dealers can not supply you, send direct al 

Bridgeport, Conn., U.S. A. 

18. ——— fishermens 11954, assess, I T U........... 
inspectors 11254, assess, I T U................. 
FS asso of bridge and structural iron work- 
ers, assess, textile WOrKEeTS...................-css0e0" 
Federal labor 8769, tax, oct, $1.70; d f, $1. 70: 
assess, I T U, $1. mata 
Machine textile printers ‘asso, ‘tax, a. s, Bac 
Millmens prot 10297, tax, nov 75; 
$3.75; assess, I T U, - 
Central labor union, Berlin, 
Stone pavers 7602, sup... 
ee hostlers and helpers 11944, “tax, 
oct, $2.50 ; d f, $2.50 5 SUP, ii asculsibneusneasainannsey 
Fish curers 11970, sup.. 
Federal labor 11426, tax, ‘a, rm a. 50: df, $1.50 
Lobster fishermens 11859, (EE 
Geo. M. Henderson, Baltimore, Md, sup...... 
20. Federal labor 11185, tax, nov, $1.80; d f, _— 80.. 
Federal labor 11622, tax, nov, $4; d f, Cc 
Federal labor 10993, tax, nov, 65c; d f, 65c...... 
Grays Harbor trades and labor council, 
Aberdeen, Wash, tax, j, @, 8 ...............00.:c000 
Trades ant labor pam Usinnsbus, Ohio, 
——, sad labor “assem, “Oelwein, “Towa, 

2 =e 

$3 85 S 882 8 SS BBessezse Kas ax es 2s 

co OM 


maccmuc an 


Sugar workers 10519, tax, oct, $15; d f, $15 ..... 

Federal labor 10964, tax, oct, $1.25; d f, $1.25... 

House movers 1072, tax, 8, 0, 90c; d f, 90e 

Agricultural workers 11897, tax,aug, $2. 75; 

mrs Boo bo 

< ee 
Horse nail makers 9656, tax, nov, $2.55; d f, 

Federal labor 9087, tax, j, a, $1.30; d f, $1.30.. 
Federal labor 8584, tax, feb, $3.25; a f, $3.25; 
assess, I T U, $2.40: SN TEE sc scccisninannancemsnntionny 
Laborers prot 10842, tax, nov, 80c; d f, 80c...... 
Last makers 11929, tax, oct, $2: da f, $2! assess, 
i MY re Ee eras - 
Federai labor 8997, assess. 1 T U . 
Veen * ivory buttonmakers 7546, assess, 

oo -S tO ao 


Federal labor 11958, ‘assess, T T 

Federal labor 9870, assess, ITU... 

Wax and plaster model makers . ta 
nov, 90c; d f, 90c; assess, I T U, $1................ 

S See 5 


20. Federal labor 11414, tax,s, 0, $1.35; d f, $1.85; 
assess, I T U, 56c... 



. Laborers ty 9788, tax, om tia df, 

Emmeti asso of rock drillers and tool sharp- 
eners 11808, assess, I T U... aes 

Lobster fishermens. 11881, assess, '. {| oe 

Spring fitters 11810, tax, nov, $2 30; d f, $2.30.. 

Federal labor 11449, tax, oct, $2.50; d f, $2.50; 
assess, I T U, $2... een anemia, 

Federal labor 9993, tax, “nov, $4.25; da f, $4.25; 
Ne eae, 

Federal labor 9465. tax, Oo, n, $3.50; d f, $3.50; 
assess, I T U. $1.60.. = 

Planermens 10604, tax, oct, hake f, $4; assess, 
IT U, $8.20........ ; 

Actors nat! prot of ax, 

Railroad iron workers ana track ayers 
i aliens .-aspdbteiien tananenenencinnnentinneantedvatn 

Federal labor 9643, sup... 

Nat! aavanee bill posters “and biiiers of A. 
SE lr i A ceateecimantetn toenaiontentdasamstiiitteninendtailin 

Rhode island state federation of labor, tax, 
dec, '05, to and incl nov, ’06 

Federal labor 11823, sup............ 

Hospital employes 10088, su 

Locomotive hosilers and he = 11944, sup.. 

Federal labor 8288, tax, oct, ; d f. emnand 
sup, $1.22 . 

Scalemens prot "11408, iax, ‘0. n, ‘d, $3.75; a T, 
BE TIED cnencisthnenengubensneinecinstesanovunebintatnte 

Federal labor 11971, sup 
Sus _—a 10342, tax, o, n, $1.90; ‘a 
$1.40; su . 
Postoice c 
sup, $6. . 

Stone pavers ‘1 Ax, d f, $8 
ony, ee = ome, 1481, tax, nov, $15; 
Pavers prot 8895, tax, nov, $1 50; ri f, 7 _ a 
Gas workers 11683, tax, oct, 85ce; d f, 85c.......... 
Federal labor 9925, tax, oct, 75e: $ Hy og 
Federal labor 9316. tax, oct, $1. 20; d f, $1. 20. 
Federal! labor 11366, I ne o, n, d , $2.25; af, 
OTs meee, FT Ubi iccccceccesccccoccsccscccecee exseee 
Stone planermens 10305, assess. I T U .......... 
Inti slate and tile roofers of A, assess, I T U 
Federat labor 11845, assess, I T 
Federal labor 11957, tax, oct, $1. 60; “a f, $i. 60; 
IR Te Oe SII nisciniteindennenesenwtcndiciieas 
Trades council, Anderson, Ind, sup.. 
Cloth spongers and refinishers 10384, ‘tax 
0, 80¢; d f, 80c; assess, I T U, 32c; *, Boe. 

Marble, ‘mosaic and terrazza workers 2 Seas, 
tax, 0, n, d, $83; d f, $3; assess, I T U, 80c...... 
Park employes pr prot asso 11820, tax, oct, $i 35; 

Stable employes. "Jo041, “tax, “aug, "$2. 50; ‘a f, 

Crown, cork and seal workers 10875, tax, 
“OY | 2 ee eee een 
Pavers and rammers, 7182, tax, j, a, 8, $1.05; 
i acrtepiniriciiitieten titeainitsiiiiebedlintipiiiateaiitiine 
Car wheel molders and hel pe 11569, x, 
0, n, $4.50; df, $4.50; assess, $1.80; su — 
Horse-nail makers 8653, assess, I T LT = 
Horse-nail workers 7180, assess, 1 T U 
Federal labor 11587, tax, oct, 80c;d f, 80c; as- 
-  <o 3 RRR eee eee 
Laborers prot 8856, tax, nov, 95c; d f, 95c, 
IR BEB --cccccccnes <0000.orcensstnsscovennsceseoseeseonesnbense 
Laborers prot 11223, tax, j. a, s, $6.70; d f, $6.70 
Women’s laborers prot 11752; tax, july, $2; 
I iiciirsns iesatiteianinicabiabheiccclaatisthianinicioatenn 
Trades hessenbiy. Bradford, Pa, sup me 
Intl bro of woodsmen and sawmill workers 
SITs Si Dhinsapnsuaten~_ o-niese segcuniiailhinkvimasiandibbiiisidainnn 

4 Table knife grinders natl, assess. IT U........ 

Intl of slate workers, assess. I T U.. 

Pa ee. of labor, Sedalia, Mo, tax, n, d, 

Central labor union, ‘Madison. Me. tax. x, 8, oO 

Federal labor 9504 tax. nov. 5%: d f, 50c.. ..... 

Federal labor 10816, assess, I T U. 

Federal labor 8217, tax, nov, $1. 50; ‘a f, f, $1.50; 
assess, I T U. $1 29 pili 

Federal labor 8087, assess, IT v. 

Federal! labor 11871, assess, I T 

Federal labor 11887, te oct, $1 25: d f, $1.25; 
SE Wiig We iciieinsthininscntnetnnisennences 


Ss $8358 88 & 



Co Comm me not 
S $88 sszs S52 



Condensed Milk 

Evaporated Cream. 

NOT A CHEAP milk and cream, but always 
safe and reliable for babies. 

Best for Family Use. 

Good To-day—To-morrow—All the Time. 

Write for Booklet. 

Try a Can. Do it Now. 
91 HUDSON ST., Dept. W. 

28. Carbonated water workers 11574, tax, nov, 25. Federal labor ror tax, nov, $2.75; d f, 
$1.70; d f, $1 70; assess, I T U, $1.36....... assess, I T U, 
Lobster fshermens 11924, tax, oct, $4; d ft #; Federal labor bass, oO, $7; d f, $7; assess, I T 
assess, I T U,$3.20 .... J U, $2.80. 
Cloth and stock workers 10184, asses U 80 Federal labor 7479, assess, I T U 
be 2 und stock workers 10184, tax, 0, n, $2; Amer wire weavers prot asso, acct assess, I 

d f, 
Soft ‘beer aw 7 and pone 8934, tax, 0, Local 2, Amer bro of cement workers, sup.. 
n, $1.40; d f, $1.4 Lobster fishermens 1 1899, tax, » sept, _ne 50; af, 
Laborers prot 106i. ‘tax, O, n, ‘$i. 20; af, ‘$1.20. $1 50; sup, $1.60... 
Laborers, wT Te and rockmens 11679, , lac ksmiths, sup.. 
tax, nov, $2.50; d f, $2.50 Egg inspectors 11254, sup.. 
Lastmakers 9771, tax, 0, n, $8.85; d Assorters and packers 8316, ‘sup 
Wool sorters and graders 9025, tax, 0, ai: 27. —— prot 9923, tax, a, 8s, 0, 
d f, $5 1.50 
Federal labor 066, tax, bal, j, a, 8, $2.50; Canvassing omens and solicitors 8643, tax, s, 
$2.50; sup, $1 o, $3; df. 8. 
Horse-nail workers 10582, tax, nov, . Miikers 8861, tax, “nov, $12.50; ‘a t ‘$12.50. 
sup, 50¢ Tin, steel, iron, and granite ware workers 
Bootblacks prot 10175, sup.. = : 10042, tax, nov, $4.50; d f, $4.50.. 
Bro of railway expressmen, ‘local 14, sup. - Watch workers 6961, tax, oct, $3. 40; “at, %. 40. 
Horse-nail workers 7180, . : Laborers prot 9558, tax, nov, 32. 50; d f, $2. 
be iy h case engravers intl asso of A, assess —— labor union, Batavia, N Y, = 
It U. 

Laborers prot 10215, assess Pes = Trades’ ‘and ‘labor council, ‘Hammond, Ind, 
Federal labor 10829, assess, IT VU. : tax, m, j,j 
Metro asso double drum hoister runners Central labor union, 
11275, assess, I T U ‘ ‘ tax, J, a, 8. 
Suspender workers 11251, assess, | T 3% Trades and labor federation, “New Bruns- 
Central labor union, Franklin Falls, ‘N ‘H, wick, N J, tax, a, s, 0... 
tax, j, a, s, 0, n, d.. 5 Trades council, Tacoma, Ww _ tax, d; a, 8. 
--Y ral water bottle rs 1 317, ax, j jt 8 Federal labor 11164, tax, nov, $1; d f, 
3d f, $6 Federal labor 11440, tax, n, d, $7: df, 4 
Trailes council, Marshall, Tex, tax, m, Jj, j.. 2 50 Federal 'abor 11459, tax, nov, $1.25; a £, $1.25 
Sand cutters 10047, tax, nov, 35c; d f, 30. . Federal lahor 11624, tax, oct, $8.75; d f, $8.7 75. 
Fede ral labor 11006, tax, oct, $2: a f, Federal labor 11658, tax, nov, $1.50; 
Wholesale c lothing ¢ le rks and 08 Z rs 11042, Federal labor 11971, tax, nov, $1.25; 
tax, n, d, $1; d f, $ Steel case makers 11842, assess, I T U...... 
Federal labor 9373, tax, nov, $1.75; d f, $1.75... 36 Fibre pressmens 933], assess, I T U.......... 
Laborers prot 11002, tax, s, o, $1.50; df, f $1. 50; Indurated fibre workers 7185, assess, I T U. 
assess, I T U, 6% ; 3 6 Federal labor 9650, assess, I T U ... 
Federal labor 10261, assess, I T U. Federal labor 11016, assess, I T U.. 
Plaster material workers 11877, tax, nov, $5: Federal labor 11478, assess, I T U.. 
d f, $5; sup, 50e; assess, I T U, $4 Federal labor 11812, assess, I T U....... 
Lobster fishermens 11886, a 6, 0, $2.70; a f, Cigar factory tobacco strippers 10227, assess, 
$2.70; sup, $1.79; assess, I T $1.08 " ITU 
Agricultural workers 11948, ic oct, $1.56 “d Amal lace curtain operatives of A, assess, 
f, $1.55; sup, 50c. _— sucnete mS TU i" 
Minera! water bottlers 11: 317, su ip 
Barber shop porters and bath house em- Goal handlers W022, tax, 
ployes 11963. sup...... assess, I TU, 
Lobster fishermens 11887, tax, oct, 85c Federal labor be36, tax, s,o, 70c; d f, 70c; as- 
85e; sup, 75c.. sess, [T A. 28c 
. Laborers prot 9512, ‘tax, J, j, a, $2.40; a  f, $2.40 
Laborers prot 11965 tax, oct, 75c; d f, 75c....... 
Cut nail workers 7029, tax, nov, d5¢; d f, 95ce.. 
Federal labor 11856, tax, oct, $2: d f, 
Trades and labor council, Hancock, Mich, 
tax, j,a,8 


Oo et So de PS Co I Se nS BO bS 

$25.85; assessment, IT U, $9.88 
Machine hands 11933, tax, Deets 
assess, I T U, $1.60... eee 

So ee me bo 
S Sssss 




High Grade Metal Specialties 




Window shade vaintem 10537, tax, nov, 70c; 
70c; assess, I I U, 

Federated trades council, Eureka, Cal, ‘sup.. 

Lobster fishermens 11-59, sup.. 

Hospital nurses and employes. "10507, ‘tax, 
oct, $4.75; d f, $4.75; sup, $1.50. 

Federal labor 9646, tax, nov, $l. 75; a £ ¢. 75; 
sup, 0c; assess, I T U, $1. 

28. Trades and labor assem, Pekin, ‘Til, jax, aug, 

05, to and incl july, ’¢ 
Central labor union, ~ nn, Mass, tax, a, 8,0 
Lime trimmers 11835, tax, nov, $1; d f, 
Agricultural workers 11902, tax, oct, 
d f, $2 
o—es nder workers 11294, tax, anti $1.70; d f, 
$l. - 
one “derrickmens, “and “helpers 
11435, tax. s, o, $3; df, nt 
Laborers prot 11981, tax, nov, $3. 80; ‘a f, "$3.80. 
Federal labor L17#u, tax, s, o, $9; d f, $9... 
Federa! labor 11934, tax, oct, GB OG, Bhaccccocsee 
a4 pulishers, buffers, platers, etc, tax, 
8, ¢ 
E levaior conductors and starters 11959, tax, 
nov, $5; df, $5; ASSESS, ITU, st 
Federal jabor #25, assess, I T U 
Laborers prot 20, assess, 1 T U 
Union co trades council, Elizabeth, N J, ‘tax, 
a, 8, 0, 06 
Trades council, Cumberland, Md, tax, a,s,o0 
Central — rated union, New Yora, N Y 
tux, a a, 

f, $3 

se eeeree 

Ounns il of trades and labor, Detroit, Mich, 

Trades and labor council, 
tax, a, 8, 0 

Marbie workers intl asso, tax, jan, ’04, t 
and incl sept, '05, $159.05; assess, 1 T U,$59. 10 

National mine managers and assistants mu- 
tual aid asso, tax, feb to and incl sept, $8; 
assess, textile, $6 

Council of labor, McKeesport, Pa,tax, jan,’06 

Drain layersand helpers 10335, assess, textile 

Central labor — _ “wanes Mass, tax, 
bal o, n, d, '05, acct J 

United cloth hat an 

Newark, Ohio, 


Intl treight handlers and warehouse mens 
of A, assess, textile 

Asphalt, asphalt block, “and wood pavers 
asso 11811, tax, j, a, 8, 0, $50.50; d f, $50.50 

Emmett asso rock drillers and tool sharpen- 
ers 11808, sup... 

we vollermakers and iron “ship builders 
of A, sup 

Asphalt, asphalt block, and wood pavers 
asso 11811,su 

. Gas workers I 

Grain handlers 7445, tax, 8, 0, n, 

Federal labor 11776, tax, j, a, 8, 0, $8, d f, 
Central labor janice, andaigua, we . 

tax, m, a, m, j 
Trades assem, 

@, BD cacovencecee 
— council, Pinckneyvilie, Ti, “tax, a, 

united labor league, ‘Sharon, Pa, tax, +a, &.. 
— labor union, Ticonderoga, N Y, tax, 

Well driliers and helpers 11952, tax, nov, 
$1.55; d f, $1.55. 
Botilers 10218, tax, m, a, m, rd $7.75; d f, 
$7.75; su $1.50; assess, I T 
Horse-nail makers 10958, tax, oe. $4.30: a £ 
$4.30; s ap $2. 
Horesuat makers loses, sup... 
Federal labor 11988, su 

29. Local 8, American bro of cement workers, 

Federal labor 10746, tax, =o. $3; df 
sess, textile, $2 25; sup, $%.¥0 
Foremens blasters 11950, tax, n, “d, $4; df, 
sup, $2 
Tin, steel, iron, and granite ware workers 
11943, assess, I T U, $3.60; sup, $6 25 
Intl of pavers and rammermen, sup.. 
Central trades and labor assembly, Port of 
Spain, Trinidad, British W I, sup 
Central labor union, Fall River, Mass, ae 

Fall Rive . Mass, sup.. 
Montgomery Ala, 

Central labor unio 
Central labor council, 

Union protec ‘tiva de trabajadores. 11985, we 
Lobster fishermen 11986, sup.................000000- 
Federal! labor 11987, sup 
Machinists helpers 11988, sup........ 
Union de braceros agric Olas 11989, sup 
Federal labor 11990, sup 
The West Indian federation of labor roe. 
Federal labor 11977 sup.. ; wes 
Gardeners and florists 11984, ‘sup.. 
| Ree 
Premiums on bonds 
Subscriptions AM FEp .... eee ase 
Advertisements, AM FED...............css-seseseseeens 



- Month’s rent in advance, G G Seibold, secy 

. Organizing expenses, Stuart 

Organizing expenses, Julio Aybar.. 

. Translating, B H Lane 


8. Seals, J Baumgarten & Sons.. 

noe for AM FED, Natl press intell co... 
1 map, Brentanos 
1 3-burner gas stove, tubing, and connecting 
same, 8S Shedd & Bro 
1 box carbon, $2; | doz erasers, $1; Typewriter 
office supply co 
Ice, American ice co : 
Printing: 1 blank book, ledger, ’05-’06, 
$38.25; 1 blank book, advtg ledger, 05-08, 
$32.25; 1 blank book, eash ledger, '05- 06, 
$35; 3,100 receipts, gen per capita, $21.30; 
8,100 receipts, fed, $21 30; 5,000 letter heads, 
cong linen. $15; The Law Reporter co 
ee re airing 1 pen, 75c; 1 Harpers’ 
yeekly, 10c: 1 doz oiled sheets, 30c: repair- 
ing numberin machine, 75c; % Ib pins, 
30c; 2 Harpers’ eekly, 20c; 2 No 1004 scrap 
books at 75e, $1.50; 1 copy Era, 10c; 1 pr 
shears, 75c; lgro Hott pons. . 75e; 1 jar paste, 
50c; 1 steel eraser, 75c; Harpers’ Weekly, 
2c; 1 doz T W oil, 830; 1 s e ledger, F 5 
8 eclettered, #4; letior pad 8, 25c; 5,000 secon 
sheets, cong linen, $10; 2 doz better pads, 
$1.50; soc —~ eee =¢ fiber, Ly + 
ns, 30c; very y’s Magazine, . 
arpers’ Weekle, 0c; 1 Mev lure’s, 10¢; 1 
pa Lhe 85c; 1 Haipers’ 10¢; 1 Rem purple 
bon, "T5e; The Law Reporter co 
Organizing expenses, S G Ganesngnens. 
Legal services, H W Wheatiley.......... .. 
Organizing expenses, J D Pierce 
Freight, Blue line transfer co. 
Organizing expenses, T H Flyn: ‘ 

Telephone services, Ches & Pot tel co. 
Printing 2,400 reports, strikes, etc. $21.25; 500 
M due stamps, $40; Law Reporter co 
50 M envelo Berlin & Jouss Envelope co 
a. ‘ostal tel cable co 
apenieing expgnen G W Harris, $25: 
inewn, McCarthy, $4.70; WC 
Hahn, $26.30; SG Cunningham, $85.77; J J 


Su2 BRS 


Ohfe Hellmann Brewing Co. 

Ales and Porter 



Towey, $100; C W Woodman, $2'.27; E J 
McTighe, $100;C O Young, $100; C Wyatt 
$1u0; W E Terry, $100; J Tazelaar, F100 PH 
Strawhun, $100; H Robinson, $100; "I D 
Pierce, $50; J Leonard, $100; M G Hamilton, 
$100; CH Gram, $luv; H Frayne, $100; E T+ 
Flood, ;J A Flett, $100; H L Eichel- 
berger, $100; H. AM Walker, $125; M_ Don- 
nelly,$100;S G Cunningham, $40; we Hahn, 

9. Stamps: 5,200 1-c, $52; 800 2-c, $16; P O dept... 
Printing 50 M envelopes, H Barton. ............-. 17 50 
Expenses auditing books and credentials; 

JC neon $85; G Soderberg, $84; F J 
McNulty, $31.50 
ae po expenses, R A Higgin 
C Runneals, $15: J Torres, $3v 
aon services, HW Wheatley... 
3 — for fraternal delegates, cc 

- oe 04 
68 00 

mapaiting 2 trunks, Jas S Topham.. 
Express, U 8S express co 
8-hour badges, C C Darling & co.. 
25,000 2-c stamps, P O dept 
Refund, the Hoster-Columbus associated 
breweries co 
2,000 1-c stamps, $20; 1,500 2-c stamps, "$0; 
P O dept 
Organizing expenses, John Fitzpatrick... 
Refund, Olds motor works 
\. Expenses entertaining fraternal delegates, 
Jas Wilson 
Files for Pittsburg convention papers, Cal 
Organizing expenses, G Harris.. ° 
Legal services, H W Wheatley.............-.---++ 
. Acct printing Pittsburg daily proceedings, 
HA McClung 
Organizin , Capone, 8 
Legal po H W Wheatley... 
. 500 l-c stamps, P O dept. 
Legal services, H W Wheatiey...... 
. Legal services, H W Wheatley. ; 
Organizing expenses, H Robinson................ 
Validating tickets, Pittsburg convention, 
G M Farnhan 
. Organizing.expenses, T H Flynn, $150; E 

Flood, $100; L Fichelberger, $5) 

Bal rent of hall, Pittsburg convention, U 

Carpenter work. moving tables and chairs, 
Pittsburg conveution, U Bellingham 

Organizing expenses, T F Tracy 

Services as messenger, Pittsburg convention, 
Be Oo eB oceciesncccrnceseneggescn cpsqnecenceexeeneeecnnens07ees 

Services as messenger, Pittsburg convention, 
H J “arey.. , 

Services a8 assistant secretary, ‘Pittsburg 
convention, David Wright 

Preparing list of absentees, Pittsburg con- 
vention. . 8 Crammon 

Organizing expenses, Thos Lockwood 

. Expenses, telegrams, etc, attending 

meeting, Pittsburg, Pa, James Duncan, $60; 
Thos I Kidd, $60; Max Morris, $60; John 

8 RSs 

< o— a 

S8888S S&S SES 8 E88 8 

SY = zs to Bence’ 


Mitchell,$60; Jas O’Connell 1800; DA Hayes, 
$6u; D J Keefe, $60; Wm J Spencer, $60; 
John B Lennon, $60... 

27. Expenses attending Pittsburg ‘convention, 

_Frank Morrison 

m2 fraternal 
Rent of committee rooms, Hotel Colonial.. 

. Telegraph, telephone, stamps, newspapers, 

etc, Pittsburg convention, Hotel Colonial. 
Rent of typewriter and tabie, Pittsburg con- 

vention, Remington typewriter co. - 
Organizing expenses, Cal Wyatt 

. BOOKKEEPERS: 4 weeks’ salary, J W Lowe, 

$34; J W Bernhard, $64; F C Alexander, 
$68. STENOGRAPHERS: J we} $4; RL 
Guard, $84; N L Baines & Mecallen, 
$60; DL Bradley, $00; ALM y, $60; A G 
Russell, $68; L A Sever, OS F v Faber, $60; 
J Gallaher, $64; G Witter, $60.75; (2 
weeks), J Sherier, T90. M Sinclair, Mod 
well, $52; E Valesh, 

Nielsen, $51. 24;BS8 Thomas, $46; 

DF Manning, = LA Sterne, 
Alexander, $41.20; J T Swan, 55) L 
Black, $40; M C Hatch, __ er 

One month’s salary, Samuel Gompers, pres 

One month’ ssalary, as Morrison, sec 

3,000 1-c stamps, PO d 

850 2c 2-c stamps, $7; 150 


Cleaning tops and finishing 15 typewriter’s 

desks, Wm M Cleland.. 

Excess baggage on trunks shipped to Pitts- 
burg convention, T W Ridgely, agt 

Expenses as stenographer, Pittsburg con- 
vention, J Kelly 

Expenses. as stenographer, Pittsburg con- 
vention, R L Guard 

Expenses’ entertaining fraternal delegates, 
H Robinson 

Cleaning office, R C Walton.. 

Legal services, H W Wheatley. 

Strike benefits to pipe cutters 11667, two 
weeks, ending nov 29, 05, H Robinson and 
E J O’Brien, sec.. ensces 

Organizing expenses, H Frayne, "$100; “CH 
Gram, $100; M G Hamilton, $100; 8 omen, 
$188; J Leonard, $150; 8 _ , $100; J Sexton, 
$100; P H Strawhun, $100; J Teacher, $100; 
W E Terry, $100; HM Walker, $125: C O 
Young. $100; W H Hahn, $30; EJ McTighe 
$50; J J Towey, $50; Jas Brown, $20; C 
Woodman. $159.41: 8 G Cunningham, $50; 
R Braunschweig, $100. 

Stamps received and used, Frank Morrison, 

Soap, 25c; cab hire, $1; rope, 25c; whisk 
broom, 5c; newspapers, 25c; roping trunks, 
$1; fee, m, 0, 22c; pos é due, 22c; car 
tickets, $6.25; .c ar ; express '$2.40; 
hassocks, $1.50; J W Lowe 

Hauling Federationists, IW 

Postage on AM FED, P O dept.. 

Legal services, H W Wheatley 


. 1 oak case, Library bureau 
Cleaning windows and doors, natl office and 
window cleaning co 
6 reams No. 4 letter paper, $3.30; 1 platen roll, 
$1.50; 12 ribbons, $5; repairing typ typewriter, 
$9.50; Smith Premier weeve 
8-hr badges, CC Darling 
Towel serv a. Fowler Mfg co. 
3,000 white cards, $5.25; 2 sets guid 
per agt ame ok 52 . : 
8 cuts, Maurice oyce ngrav ng co. . : 
Repairing switch, John C Rau gratified and satis- 
Telegrams, Telegraph co.. } fied, and the fine, 
Printing 150 letter circulars, I rich, flavor of 
; 3,000 No. 10 envelope 
vo kw to unite, $60; aye 
20,000 trades —. En 1,000 bait sottes 
typewriter (sup), 50; 1,000 half letter 

typewriter (Pk), ei 50; 250 special notices, ) 
$2.25; 2,000 letter circulars (proceedi ngs), u nh e r 
$6.50; 16,000 aims, $21; 10,000 whys, $21; cor- 

rections list of organizations, $9; correc- 

tions list of organizers, $7 50; corrections ) 
— < organizations, $9; The Trades Un- Baltimore 


man sbS 

The palate must be 


Balance on hand Nov 1, 1905.. canbe «$114,858 S 
Receipts for month of Nov 18, "529 09 BALTIMORE RYE Charms the taste 
WM LaNAHAN & SON and it becomes at 

Expenses for month of Nov BALTIMORE once a fixed choice 
Balance on hand Dec 1, 1905 ........cccccc-ssssseeseesseees | ' against change. 


s&s s 

General fund 
Defense fund 

ss s 

Sold at all first-class cafes and by jobbers. 


Secretary A. F. of L. 



American Federationist 


It is Your Magazine v 


A Liberal Commission on Write for Terms. \V/ 
all Subscriptions sent in. Why don’t You Become an Agent? NW, 

Z\ Ny 
MIN The American Federationist W 

AN Is on Sale on Every News Stand. If you fail to see it on your News Stand W 


"SS SSS eS SO SSS Se eee 




New External Remedy so Successful 
That the Makers are Willing to 
Wait for their Pay Until 
the Work is Done. 

. We want to send—tree to try—to every rheumatic 
Sufferer in the land, a pair of Magic Foot Drafts, 
the great Michigan external cure for rheumatism of 
every kind no matter where located or how severe. 
Send us your name today. The Drafts will come pre- 
paid by return mail. If you are satisfied with the relief 
they bring you, then you can send us One Dollar. If 
not, 'they cost you nothing. This is the only way we 
sell the Drafts. Nobody pays until satisfied, and you 
can sec that we couldn’t afford to make such an offer 
if the Drafts didn’t cure, and cure to stay cured. 
ony ’ ! The Drafts are worn as 
illustrated, and cure by ab- 
sorbing acidim purities 
from the blood through 
3 the pores of the tender foot 
soles, and also acting on the important nerve centers 
there. We will gladly show any one who calls the 
thousands of testimonial letters we have received 
from cured chronic cases in all parts of the world. 
Our free booklet (in colors) on Rheumatism contains 
a number of these testimonials, with photographs. 
Write today to the Magic Foot Draft Co., 536A, Oliver 
Bldg., Jackson, Mich., for a trial pair of Drafts on 
approval ahd our free book Doit now. 




Chicago Daily News 

every day, and probably more than 


read it. Why? Because they believe 
it prints all the news and tells 
the truth about it. 

Interlocking Rubber Tiling 

Is noiseless, non-slippery, waterproof, and 
thoroughly sanitary, more durable than stone 
or earthen tiles, elegant in appearance, manu- 
facturedin a carefully selected variety of colors. 
Endorsed by the best architects and engineers. 
A perfect floor for business offices, banking 
rooms, court rooms, vestibules, halls, billiard 
rooms, smoking rooms, cafes, libraries, 
churches, hospitals, hotels, bath rooms, 
kitchens, etc. 

Samples, estimates, and special designs fur- . 
nished upon application. 

Beware of infringers. Patented. 
Manufactured solely by 

9] and 93 Chambers St., New York. 

4 RHAS, THE A ah * 


Amounts to Suit Your Needs up to $100,000. 
Over 6 Million Policies in Force. 
INSURING OVER $1,000,000,000. 


The Prudential ne or Aerica 

Incorporated as a Stock Company by the 
State of New Jersey. 
Home Office, JOHN F. DRYDEN, 
Newark, N. J. President. 



No. 5, $35.00 No. 7, $50.00 

Blickensderfer Typewriter 

The Blickensderfer is a standard machine that will do as 
much work in a neater and better manner than any machine 
on the market. 

A Few Features. 
ting it has no equal. 
Writing; Perfect and Permanent Alignment. 
Portable and Durable. 

= The Blickensderfer Manufacturing Co. 
No. 644 Atlantic Street, 


For Manifolding and Stencil Cut- 
Has Interchangeable Type, Visible 
Is Simple, 
Send for Descriptive Catalogue. 

Stamford, Conn. 




HEN you are buying a FUR HAT, either soft or sti? 
see to it that the Genuine Union Label is sewed in Kt 
The Genuine Union Label is perforated on the four edges 
exactly the same as a postage stamp. Ifa retailer 
loose labels in his possession and offers to put one in a ha‘ 
for you, do not patronize him. Loose labels in retail stores 
are counterfeits. Unprincipled manufacturers are using 
them in order to get rid of their scab-made hats. Th« 
John B. Stetson Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., is a non-unios 
JOHN A. MOFFITT, President. 

MARTIN LAWLOR, Secretary, Orange, N. J. 
11 Waverly Place, New York City. 


$1.00 PER YEAR. 

he Kings of ALL Polishes 


Hatt’s Piano and Furniture Polishes and Cleaners make 
bid furniture look like new and prevent new furniture 
from looking like old. Hatt’s ~~ King for repair 

ork. Twenty years in use by leading manufacturers 

. tes. Ask your dealers. Sam- 

ne gallon, $1.50 pre- 

The Normandin Block Machine 



Boston Furniture Company 

Telephone 371 
Furniture, Carpetings 
and Curtain [laterials 


Corner South Main, Scovill and Brook Streets, 
Waterbury, Conn. 



Manufacturers of every grade of 

Varnish and Japan 


St. Louls 
San Francisce 

New York 



Canadian Factory, Walkerville, Ont. 


AskK a man who has tried it 

and he will tell you that no service is better 



Than that of the Frisco Road 

Day trains carry handsome Smoker, Free Reclining Chair Car, 
Club Car, Library Cafe Car, and Observation Parlor Car; electric 
fans in each car. Night trains carry handsome Smoker, Free 
Reclining Chair Cars and Pullman Sleepers with berth lights. 

Leave La Salle St. Station, Chicago, 10.37 a. m. and 11.32 p.m. Leave St. Louis, 
Union Station, 10.35 a. m. and 11.30 p. m. 


W. H. RICHARDSON, G. P. A., Chicago, 11. 

Se waa. 

Evaporatep CREAM 

is pure, clean milk, evaporated to a creamy consistence 
and freed from all possible germ life by sterilization. 

; Undiluted or slightly diluted, it is delicious in coffee, cocoa, on fruits, breakfast 
foods, or puddings. Diluted according to directions on the can, it serves in place of 
fresh milk for all purposes. 


OUR PET, ECONOMY, and Other Brands 
and our name is a guarantee as to their perfection. 

Helvetia Milk Condensing Company 
Highland, Illinois. 



Fiduciary Trade Printing, Revenue, Due 
and Assessment Stamps. 
Trade Labels. Consecutively Numbered 
and Seried Tickets and Labels. 

Union Men Operating 
Union-Made Machines do the Work. 

New York 
Bond & Ticket Company 


New York City. 

JOHN F. BUSCHE, Printer. 
GEORGE A. FISKE, Toolmaker. 

a a 

J. M. GUFFEY, President. C.F. FARREN, Secretary. 
A. W. MELLON, Treasurer. 


Producers, Refiners, Shippers, 
and Exporters of 

Texas Crude Petroleum 
and its Products 


Main Office: 

Branch Office : 
New York Boston Philadelphia 

New Orleans 

Port Arthur, Texas 

[ff ES 




Great Eastern Clay Company 


Flue Lining 
Chimney Brick 

Sewer Pipe 
Wall Coping 

Vitrified Clay Conduits 


Fireproof Building Material 

New York Office: 

Factories and Clay Banks: 

Telephone Connections. 

Saws are the Best 

Note.—Any carpenter who will cut out this ad- 
vertisement and send same to us we will send FREE 
OF COST one of our souvenirs. 

Fitcbburg, - - - Mass. 



and CUFFS 


“Warranted Linen” 




¥ AND 








| Loose 


Ww in the 
hands of 
ers are 

The only genuine Label indorsed by American 
Federation of Labor and Organized 

Labor in general. 

1772 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago 

23 years’ practical experience in build- 
ing pianos warrants us in saying that 

Our Pianos 

are unequalled in tone, finish, and dur- 
ability. Every instrument guaranteed. 
Pianos shipped anywhere. 

C. H. Bunker, President. Franxuin H. Heap, Vice-President. 
H. G. B. ALEXANDER, 2nd Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 
A. A. Smitn, Secretary. 


Capital Stock, $300,000 
General Offices: CHICAGO 
Nearly Five Million Dollars 

paid in claims to 175,000 
of our policy holders. 

Policies are Protected by 
more than One Million 
Dollars Assets. 

Good contracts in good territory to good men, 
Producers, address— 
H. G. B. ALEXANDER, 2nd Vice-President and Gen. Manager, 
134 Monroe Street, Chicago. 



*“Reading”’ a 4 ii Manufacturing Confectioner 

Superfine Chocolates and Confections 

Transom == 

s | uA 
Lifter | 4 
Self-locking. Requires only 554 Broome St. NEW YORK. 
one hand to raise or lower 
the transom. Same lifter 
works transoms hung in 
nine different positions 
without changing any of 
the parts. 





96-98 Reade St. 617 Market St. 105 Lake St. 

T “rie 

<6) 50 {O74 CLO Rre™ 
a > 


i RA I J LW 2 VY 




Cis iv 

> 4g Ys 

runs the largest passengerengines 
n the world 
They keep the trains on time . 
Between Chicago, SN 
St. Louis, = 
Kansas City and The first brand of Union 

Gun.6 Guidi memati dnie Tobacco ever produced 


mors 2o —_wzc 

HNC > <m MO>Z 4o7 


The growing complexity of man’s 
relations emphasizes the need of 

-_ of ry A yg 
arge to him whose 
know ; 

doubled the dy- 

namic power of his nat- 

ural abilities. In Com- 

merce, ae pa wd coun- 

selor is the arbiter i 

all large matters. OF THE 

In Politics,trained 

legal minds Livy VOLUMES 

ries. The 7 vols. 
already delivered to 

17 per cent. 
tion advised. Prepares 
any State; both Theory & Practice. 
Pamphlet, testimonials and special 
price offcr,sent free. Chance of years. 

Frederick J. Drake & Co. 
255 Madison St... CHICAGO 


33 Warren Street, 
New York. 



| Send for Catalogue H. 

‘Sz BUY 



Your face has a 
right to health 
and comfort. 
Insist on 
Shaving Soap. 
Williams’ Shaving Sticks and Tablets 
peo ys depot yee aire 

booklet, «* How to Shave.’’ 

The J. B. Williams Co., 
Glastonbury, Conn, 

‘*Syracuse’’ Wall Papers 
From Factory Direct to Consumer. 
We Supply the Entire Country Through our Branch Stores. 

Exclusive Patterns—Ready Selling Papers—Goods 
Always in Stock. 

‘“*PAPERHANGERS AND DECORATORS” apply to the nearest 
branch fora set of our books, and represent the largest 
Manufacturers and Distributers of Wall Paper in the 


New York: 47-49 W.14th St. Sr. Louis: 923-925 No. B’way. 

Boston: 272-274 Devonshire St. Cincinnati: 635-637 

Main St. PxHicapecpHia: 10-12 So. 10th St. Syracuse: 223- 

225 W.Water St. Potspam: 22-24 Market St. BurraLo: 465 

Washington St. 

Main Office and Factory: Raw Stock Mill: 

Syracuse. SKaneateles Falls 

07) BUIMIIg J2uasTg 

40x MN 



Ask Your Jeweler for 

& C0.’S 

‘ Gold Filled Chains. 
They are Reliable. 

New York Office: Factory: 

It doesn’t cost any 

more to have a good Brookfield Glass Company 
chuck—like the PRATT, 2ie BROADWAY 

+ in which drills can not NEW YORK 
slip —than it does for manurectenans 

. very ordinary ones. 

Frankfort, N.Y., U. S.A. AND BOTTLES 

ee a Representatives—Selig, Sonnenthal & 
., 8 Queen Victoria St., London, Eng. 

Lumber Company 

Business Established 1872. 

Manufacturers of Pennsylvania White Hemlock 


Mills en Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroad. 



950 Ellicott Square, 


Realizing that there is quite {a demand for Metal 


has, for the past two or three years, been quietly 
conducting an independent and disinterested investi- 
ation into the metal packing business of the coun- 
ry: As a result they have made a long term arrange- 
ment with the Pitt Mfg. Co. whereby the operation 
of the latter’s plant at Elwood og. Pa.,will in future 
be under their control. Mr. L. . Martell, who has 
had fifteen years’ experience in this line of work, will 
remain as manager of this factory, which will be de- 
voted exclusively to the manufacture of a full and 
complete line of metal packings. By the addition of 
this plant the Garlock Packing Co. are prepared to 
— both Fibrous and Metal Packing to meet any 
and all conditions existing at the present time and 
are secure in their position as the largest manufac- 
turers and distributers of Packing in the world. 

Steel Storage and 
Flevator Construction Co. 


Builders of Fire-Proof 
Grain Elevators. 


Building Construction 
Engineering in all its 
branches. Foundations, 
Structural Steel, Electric 
Light and Power Plants, 
Steam Heating Plants. 


The Pittsburg Steam Packing Co. 


Steam, Hydraulic, 

Water, Air, 
Ammonia, (>. Etc, 



John W. Masury& Son 


Paints and 

New York Chicago 

ROWLAND D. THOMAS, Secy. and Treas. 
GEO. DAVIES, Pur. Agt. 

Davies & Thomas Co. 
Foundry and 

Machine Works 

HORN & THOMAS, Gen’! Agents, 
Havemeyer Building, 
26 Cortlandt St., New York. 

N. Y. Telephone 4061 Cortlandt 
Catasauqua Telephone 1181 

OYAL Steam Heaters and Royal Hot Water 
Heaters have the Feather Edge—the latest and 
most scientific patented advance in cast iron 
boiler construction. New York Radiators— 

made in every size and style—are the soundest and 
best on the market. 

These are reasons for the enormous increase in 

the use of ROYAL Heaters and New York Radiators. 

HART & CROUSE CO., Home Office, Utica, N. Y. 


235 Water St. Poplar & Heary Sts. 

659 Elm Street. 

79 Lake St. 



“Yankee” Ratchet Screw Driver. : TOOLS 

are the newest, cleverestand 
most satisfactory in use, and 
the first to be offered at so 
reasonable a price that every 
up-to-date mechanic could 
buy tools of their quality and 

Other tools are very good 
tools, but “Yankee” Tools 
are better. 

“Yankee” Tools are sold 
by all leading dealers in tools 
and hardware everywhere, 
Ask your dealer to see them. 


“Yankee” Reciprocating Drill for Wood or Metal. 

rots aNeeas” Tonk noe North Brothers Manufacturing Company, — 



The H. Wales Lines Co. 


m7 Eas m3 ED 

ox Mage 


WATERPROOF. Not the Boys, but the Wall. 

It is covered with SANITAS, the new 
Washable Wall Covering. Applied to the 
wall like ordinary paper. Can be washed 
any time with soap and water. The hand- 
some prints, plain colors and tile effects, 
dull finish or —— with oil colors, make 
it an appropriate covering for kitchen, 
bath, or any other room. A closet lined 
with SANITAS is moth proof. 
Decorator, Dept. Store, Dry Goods or Oil 
Cloth Dealer does not keep it, write to us 

i and we will send you samples. 
320 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 



Bath-room furnishings are of vital importance to the housekeeper—for 
a well equipped bath-room is the hall-mark of respectability. 


makes your bath-room a thing of joy and provides perfect sanitation. 

Standard Sanitary Tif. Co. 


F The Very Best Edge Tools Made in America 



Pittsburgh White Metal Co. “DR. Barton” Brand 


160 LEROY ST., - NEW YORK, For Carpenters, Coopers, Ship Builders, Coach 
Makers, Turners, Butchers, Pump Makers, Wood 
BABBITT AND ANTI-FRICTION METALS. Carvers, Etc., the most complete and extensive 
line of strictly fine and superior edge tools 
ELECTROTYPE, STEREOTYPE, made in this country. 

LINOTYPE. t For Sale by First-Class Hardware Dealers 

BEST METALS KNOWN If your dealer does not keep them and refuses 
to order them, send to us for catalogue, not 
PRICES CONSISTENT WITH QUALITY AND failing to mention what kind of tools you use, 

TL al as we issue Separate catalogues, and state where 
you Saw this “ad.” 

AND Mack & | Co. 



H. K. LEE, 

Sales agent for Improved Buckeye Engines. Contractor for 
Complete Power Plants. Engines indicated and power measured. 
High Pressure Boilers, Belt Pumps, and Feed Water Heaters, Auto- 
mobile and Portable Engines and Saw Mills, Kerosene Engines. 

Long Distance Telephone 1402-5. 

Prices Subject to Change without Notice. All Agreements made 

contingent upon Strikes, Fires, Accidents, or Causes beyond our 

Cable Address, Engine Works, W. U. Code. 
Special Attention given to the Repairing HartrorD anpD Buckeye ENGINES, WoOpRUFF & Beacu ENGINES, and 
Steam Engines of All Builds. Cylinders Bored,also Valve Seats of Cylinders Planed in Position by Special Machinery 
Without Removing from Bed, 




Protect yourselves from being defrauced. 


Report of the Executive Council and action of the Convention of the 


At Scranton, Pa., on December 14, (90, 

In reference to 

A number of souvenir books have been published in which the name of the American Federation 
of Labor has been used without authority or sanction of any kind frc n either the American Federation 
of Labor or its officers. The good name of our movement is thereby impaired, the interests of our 
fellow-workers injured, and fair-minded business men imposed upon and deceived. During the year we 
have endeavored to impress upon all that the only publication in which advertisements are received is 
our official monthly magazine, the AMERICAN FEDERATIONIST ; and we havealso endeavored to influence 
a more straightforward course by those who have transgressed in the direction indicated. In this 
particular we have not been as successful as we should be pleased to be enabled to report to you. How- 
ever, we are more concerned with the future than the past; and in order to be helpful in eliminating 
this cause of grievous complaint, we make the following recommendations : 

First —That we shall insist that no body of organized labor, nor shall any person issue a souvenir 
book claiming that such book or any other publicetion is issued for or on behalf of the American Federation 
of Labor. 

Second—That any city chosen by a convention of the American Federation of Labor to hold the 
convention following shall not directly or indirectly through its Central Labor Union or otherwise issue 
a souvenir book claiming that such book is issued for or on behalf of the American Federation of Labor. 

Third—That in the event of any such souvenir book being projected or about to be issued, directly 
or indirectly, by the Central Labor body in the city in which the convention was selected to be held, in 
violation of the letter and spirit of these recommendations, the Executive Council may change the city 
in which the convention is to be held to the one which received the next highest number of votes for 
that honor. 

Fourth—That the Executive Council is hereby directed to prosecute any person or persons in the 
courts y 0 shall in any way issue souvenir books, directories or other publications in which the name of 
the Ame. an Federation oF Labor is used as publisher, owner or beneficiary. 

Fit: —That it be again emphasized thal the AMERICAN FEDERATIONIST ts the official monthly maga- 
sine ofthe merican Federation of Labor, and is the only publication in which advertisements are received. 


Report of Committee to Convention on the Above Report. 

Perhaps there has been no more prolific source of dishonesty perpetrated in the name of organ- 

ized labor than that involved in the publication of souvenir books. Unscrupulous projectors have 

—=— victimized merchants and other friends of the movement in a most shameful 

fashion, and your committee heartily agrees with the strictures of the Executive 

Council = the subject. We emphatically agree with the suggestions offered 


as a rem and recommend their adoption. As an additional means to this end 
we would recommend that there be published in a conspicuous place in each 
issue of the AMERICAN FEDERATIONIST a notice to the effect that the American 
Federation of Labor is not sponsor nor interested in any souvenir publication of 
any kind. 

Adopted by the Convention of the American Federation of Labor, December 
14, 1901.