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OF MOTION PICTU 


eaeerey <2 S 


RTI as SARL 











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AMERICAN 


THE MAGAZINE OF MOTION PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY 





ArTHUR FE. Gavin, Editor 
Technical Editor, Emery Hust GLENN R. KersHNner, Art Editor 
Circulation, MARGUERITE DUERR 
Eprrortat. Apvisory Boarp: Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., John Arnold, A.S.C. Arthut 
Edeson, A.S.C., Lee Garmes, A.S.C., Charles Rosher, A.S.C., Leon Shamroy, A.S.C., 
Fred Gage, A.S.C., Dr. J. S. Watson, A.S.C., Dr. L. A. Jones, A.S.C., Dr. C. E. K. 


Mees, A.S.C., Dr. V. B. Sease, A.S.C., Col. Nathan Levinson. 


Editorial and Business Office: 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 
Telephone: GRanite 2135 





VOL. 30 DECEMBER ¢ 1949 NO. 12 


CONTENTS 


ARTICLES 


DiFFERENT AND Dirricu.t—By Paul Vogel, A.s.c. , , , 436 
Srory Te.iinc With Firm—By Charles G. Clarke, As.c ; , 438 
RESOURCEFULNESS PAveD THE Way For THeir Success—By Frederick Foster 439 
New Speep For Fi.ms—By Leigh Allen ' ' 440 


16MM. AND 8MM. CINEMATOGRAPHY 


MovinG CAMERA SHots IN AMATEUR Movies—By Ray Fernstrom, a.s.c. : 442 


A 16MM. SouND CAMERA For THE Home Movie MAKER—By Glenn B. Lewis $44 


FEATURES 


Ho_Lywoop BULLETIN BOARD : : ‘ , ; ‘ 432 
CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS OF A.S.C. MEMBERS , ’ : , 434 
ROSTER OF AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS , . ; : ‘ 450 
Wat's New IN EQUIPMENT, ACCESSORIES, SERVICE . ‘ ' ‘ ; 458 
ANNUAL INDEX—1949 ‘ ‘ ; : , ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ; 460 


ON THE COVER 


For realistic shots of explosion scenes in “Battleground,” MGM technicians 
devised a concussion mounting for the camera. Inside a light steel frame- 
work, the Mitchell camera is suspended from light coil springs and braced 
vertically and horizontally. In filming explosions from artillery bombard- 
ment, director of photography Paul C. Vogel (left) struck the framework 
a sharp blow, causing camera to jarr momentarily, then “jitter” back to 
normal—creating concussion effect of a heavy explosion. Behind camera is 
operator James Harper, director William A. Wellman, and in rear, 
author-associate producer Robert Pirosh.—Photo by Ed Hubbell 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, is published monthly by the A. S. C 
Agency, Inc., 1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. Entered as second class matter Nov. 
18, 1937, at the postoffice at Los Angeles, Calif., under act of March 3, 1879. SUBSCRIP- 
TIONS: United States and Pan-American Union, $3.00 per year; Canada, $3.00 per year; 
Foreign, $4.00. Single copies, 25 cents; back numbers, 30 cents; foreign single copies, 35 
cents; back numbers, 40 cents. Advertising rates on application. Copyright 1949 by A. S. C 
Agency, Inc. AUSTRALIAN REPRESENTATIVE: McGill's, 179 Elizabeth St., Melbourne. 


* 


AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS 


FOUNDED January 8, 1919, The American 
Society of Cinematographers is composed of 
the leading directors of photography in the 
Hollywood motion picture studios. Its mem- 
bership also includes non-resident cinema- 
tographers and cinematographers in foreign 
lands. Membership is by invitation only. 


The Society meets regularly once a month 
at its clubhouse at 1782 North Orange Drive, 
in the heart of Hollywood. On November 1 
1920, the Society established its monthly pub 
lication “American Cinematographer” which 
it continues to sponsor and which is now cir- 


culated in 62 countries throughout the world. 


Dominant aims of the Society are to bring 
into close confederation and cooperation all 
leaders in the cinematographic art and sci- 
ence and to strive for pre-eminence in artistic 
perfection and scientific knowledge of the art. 


OFFICERS AND BOARD OF GOVERNORS 


CHARLES G. CLARKE, President 
Frep W. JACKMAN, Exec. V-Pres. and Treas. 
ARTHUR EpEsoN, First Vice-President 
GEORGE J. Fousey, JR., Second Vice-Pres. 
WitiiaAm V. SKALL, Third Vice-President 
Ray RENNAHAN, Secretary 
JoHN W. BoyLe, Sergeant-at-Arms 
VicToR MILNER 
SoL PoLito 
ALFRED GILKS 
CHARLES ROSHER 
Lee GARMES 
JOHN SEITZ 
LEON SHAMROY 
JosepH WALKER 


ALTERNATE BOARD MEMBERS 


JOHN ARNOLD 
So. HALPRIN 
ARTHUR MILLER 
Hat Mone 
JosePpH RUTTENBERG 


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HOLLYwooD 


BULLETIN BOARD 











KARL FREUND, «.s.c., after a nine-month 
sabbatical from Warner Brothers, during 
which time he moved his Photo Research 
Corporation to new and larger quarters 
in Burbank, has returned to that studio 
to direct the photography of “Bright 
Leaf,’ directed by Michael Curtiz. 
“i 
CHARLES ROSHER, .s.c., has developed a 
new, improved type diffuser at MGM 
for fill lights, to replace silks which soon 
discolor and are rendered useless for 
Technicolor photography. New diftuser 
consists of one or two sheets of spun 
vlass mounted in a frame which is hung 
before the light source. Holder for dif- 
fuser is extended six inches ahead of 
lamp housing, allowing greater ventila- 
tion than when other types of diffusers 
are used. Extending position of diffuser 
also improves quality of the diffusion, ac- 
cording to Rosher, who is using new 
gadgets in the photography of “Annie 
Get Your Gun” starring Betty Hutton. 
° 


PHIL TANNURA, a.s.c., recently signed 
by Columbia Pictures to photograph 
“Custom Agent,” will shoot much of the 
picture in actual locales, mostly down- 
town Los Angeles office buildings. Using 
the new “50 foot candles” photography 
recently inaugurated at Columbia (see 
article on Latensification elsewhere this 
issue) Tannura will light these interiors 
with photofloods and place No. 50 N.D. 
filter gels over windows to balance the 
daylight with interior lighting. 

° 
SOL HALPRIN, a.s.c., head of 20th Cen- 
tury-Fox camera and laboratory depart- 
ments, and Mrs. Halprin embarked last 
month for a 30 day cruise of the Carib- 
bean, combining annual vacation and 
celebration of their 25th wedding anni- 
versary. 

. 
HERB A. LIGHTMAN, whose name by-lines 
those interesting articles in American 
Cinematographer each month, and who 
for years has been‘a producer and direc- 
tor of photography of commercial films 
for Bud Woods Productions, Tulsa, 
Oklahoma, has been made Production 
Director of television shows for Tulsa's 
new million dollar TV station, KOTY. 

e 
ANNUAL PARADE of Pasadena Tourna- 
ment Of Roses will be filmed in Techni- 
color in its entirety January ist by Uni- 
versal-International, who will have three 
color cameras focused on the event. One 
camera will be suspended from a boom 
over Colorado boulevard, with the other 
two spotted along the parade route to 

(Continued on Page 457) 


For three years the new Maurer 16-mm Professional 
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Operated under maximum temperatures and high humidity 
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And it has mei exacting tests and functioned perfectly in 
every respect at —065° F, producing the same fine results as 


when operated at normal temperatures. 


It offers the photographer an unrivaled assurance of con- 


sistently high picture quality under any climatic condition. 





The accuracy and reliability of his 
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fully the experienced photographer will 
be able to transfer his skill and experi- 
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New Catalogue mailed on request. 







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CURRENT ASSIGNMENTS 
OF AS.C. MEMBERS 


Major film productions on which members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers were en- 
gaged as directors of photography during the 
past month. 


KKK KKK KKK KK KKK 










Columbia 





© JosepH Wacker, “No Sad Songs,” (Robert 
Rossen Prod.) with Margaret Sullavan, Wen- 
dell Cory, Viveca Lindfors and Natalie Wood. 
Rudy Mate, director. 

®@ CHarves Lawton, “Kill The Umpire,” with 
Wiil'am Bendix and Gloria Henry. Lloyd 
Bacon, director. . 




















® Burnett Gurrey, “In A Lonely Place,” 
later retitled “Behind This Mask,” (Santana 
Prodn.) with Humphrey Bogart, _ Gloria 
Graham, Frank Lovejoy, Jeff Donnell. Nicho- 
las Ray, director. 
© Georce Diskanr, “Fortunes Of Capt. 
Cap rhea plete Blood,” with Louis Hayward, Patricia Me- 
eee | dina, Dona Drake and Lowell Gilmore. Gor- 
don Douglas, director. 
® JosepH Biroc, “The Killer That Stalked 
New York,” with Evelyn Keyes, Wm. Bishop 
and Lola Albright. Earl McEvoy, director. 

















. : , — Eagle-Lion 

The finest in engineered lighting 6 

@ Jack MAcKENzig, “Blaze Of Glory,” with 
Ron MeAllister. Jack Rawlins, director. 

@ Lionet Linpon, “Destination Moon,” 
(George Pal Prodn.) with Warner Anderson, 


Mole-Richardson to give the max- John Archer, Erin O'Brien-Moore and Tom 


Powers. Irving Pichel, director. 


Independent 


equipment, newly developed by 





imum in modern, flexible illumi- 





nation, r <i ©@ Hat Monr, “Here Lies Love,” (Briskin- 
A p oduct no television, Smith Prod.) with Robert Young, Betsy 


° ° P Drake, John Sutton and Jean Rogers. James 

commercial or motion picture stu- V. Kern, director. 
, : @ Kar Srruss, “It's A Small World,” (Mo- 
dio can afford to be without. tion Pictures, Inc.) with Paul Dale, Lorraine 
Miller and Nina Koshetz. William Castle, 


director. 















Ask your dealer or write us about @ James Wonc Howe, “The Baron Of Ari- 

zona,” (Lippert Prod.) with Vincent Price, 

this result of over tw Ellen Drew, Beulah Bondi and Vladmir So 
ert enty FoaEs kolotf. Sam Fuller, director. 





@ Henry Freuticu, “The Vicious Years,” 

(Emerald-Film Classics) with Tommy Cook, 

Svbil Merritt, Edward Franz, and Anthony 
Ross. Robert Florey, director. 


THE EMBLEM M-G-M 





of illuminating achievement. 















® Pau. C. Vocer, “You're Only Young 
Twice” (In Color), with Dean Stockwell, 
Scotty Beckett, Darryl Hickman and Leon 
Ames. William A. Wellman, director. 
® JosepH RUTTENBERG, “The Miniver Se- 
quel (In Color—shooting in England), with 
Greer Garson, Walter Pidgeon, John Hodiak 
and Cathy O'Donnell. Henry Potter, director. 
® Ray June, “The Reformer And The Red- 
head,” with June Allyson, Dick Powell, 
David Wayne and Cecil Kellaway. Norman 
Panama and Meivin Frank, directors. 


| 
ARDSON ao © Rosert Surtees, “King Solomon's Mines,” 
- —— 





















i ee 


Se 






<) , 


















MOLE-RICH 









(Technicolor) (Shooting in Belgian Congo) 
with Deborah Kerr, Stuart Granger and 
Richard Carlson. Compton Bennet, director. 
® CHARLES SCHOENBAUM, “Duchess Of Idaho,” 
(Technicolor) with Esther Williams, Van 













9 37 NORT H SY CAMORE AVENUE Johnson, John Lund and Paula Raymond. 
bert Leonard, director. 
HW Ro : 
OLLYwW oOoD 3 8 ’ CALIFOR NIA © CHarves Rosner, “Annie Get Your Gun,” 
| (Technicolor) with Betty Hutton, Howard 





(Continued on Page 461) 





34 ©@ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ DECEMBER, 1949 





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CAMERA SETUP for a low angle shot of an action scene for Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer’s “Battleground.” This is one of few instances when 
company worked outside sound stage in sunlight. Bulk of picture was 


Different™ 


. . . and difficult 


Ninety percent of the action for 
“Battleground” was photographed 
in fog, snow and night time within 


M-G-M’‘s largest sound stage. 


436 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ DECEMBER, 1949 


filmed indoors, in artificial foy and snow. Here cinematographer Paul 
Vogel, A.S.C., (seated, left) relaxes while director William Wellman 
instructs cast before signalling the camera to “roll.” 


SNOW 
“LET ME SEE your dog tags, Major,"" commands Van Johnson in this scene from | obstac! 


“Battleground.” Cinematographer Paul Vogel's realistic lighting makes this illumin 
shot look like it was really filmed on a cold, winter day in Bastogne. 








be MORNING filming began on “Bat- 
tleground” I received a_ personal 
message of good luck from Dore Schary, 
producer of the film, which said in part: 
You carry a big responsibility .. . 
because so much of the honesty of 
the picture is going to depend on the 
quality of the photography.” 

“Honesty,” the keynote of the film, 
could only be-achieved, | felt, by studied 
simplicity of camera work, devoid of any 
trick effects or camera manipulation 
which might tend to distract attention 
from the action. 

This “honesty,” an inflexible standard 
agreed upon by Schary and author Rob- 
ert Pirosh from the film’s inception, of- 
fered a challenge. That it proved one of 
the most interesting and difficult assign- 
ments, | have the gray hairs to prove, 
for almost 90 percent of the action is 
played in fog, snow and /or night-time, 
centering around the defense of Bastogne 
during the crucial Battle of the Bulge. 

History—with no appreciation of the 
cinematographer’s problems—had chosen 
to write one of its most blazing chapters 
during the foulest of European winters. 
When the Nazis broke through near 
Bastogne in 1944, snow and fog joined 
forces with them, preventing aerial sup- 
port for the beleaguered G.1.’s. 

It should be explained here that except 
for opening scenes (filmed at Sawtelle 
General Hospital) and the climax (shot 
at Fort McArthur), “Battleground” was 
filmed indoors on Metro-Goldwyn-May- 
er's Stage 15. This is a cavernous affair, 
measuring 130x320 feet with a ceiling 
height of 70 feet, nearly three million 


SNOW AND FOG, artificially produced within a closed sound stage, proved an 
obstacle both to photography and effective lighting. Vogel employed overhead 
illumination entirely—130 5K pans spaced at 20 foot intervals. 


By PAUL VOGEL, A.S.C. 


cubic feet of air—air which proved as 
recalcatory before the camera as cats. 

With fog the Order of the Day, we 
faced the problem of adequately lighting 
the set while avoiding a possible movie- 
boner of casting shadows. Shadows would 
automatically indicate sunshine, a non- 
existent luxury during that dark Decem- 
ber week. 

All lighting, accordingly, was from 
overhead, with 130 5K pans, arranged at 
20 feet intervals, the first time a major 
production has been filmed in this man- 
ner. When “fog” was flowed onto the 
set, it served to diffuse the light, creating 
the necessary effect without throwing 
shadows. 

However, it frequently left actors’ 
faces black under their regulation G.I. 
helmets. Supplementary lighting for face 
modelling was used from the floor up. 

This overhead lighting, while creating 
the desired result, created problems. The 
sK’s heated the upper lavers of air, start- 
ing movement and _ shifting of colder 
strata below. This was particularly ap- 
parent when only sections of the stage 
were lit. (To avoid reflections on the 
fog, at no time did we permit any light 
at all behind the camera. ) 

In filming long shots it was impossible 
to avoid inclusion of some lights. We 
killed two birds with one stone, photo- 





DECEMBER, 








1949 





graphically and artistically, by masking 
those light with layers of fog. 

Furthermore, despite the constant 40 
degrees temperature maintained by the 
stepped-up air conditioning system, we 
discovered that soon after lighting the set 
each morning, the lamp heat started the 
air currents flowing—but not always in 
the same direction! We turned this 
meteorological oddity to advantage plac- 
ing our fog machines—spraying vapor- 
ized light machine oil—at strategic posi- 
tions, allowing the indoor currents to 
waft our fog into the desired place. 

At all times our foreground was clear, 
the fog only increasing in density in the 
background just as it does in actuality. 
Residents of Southern California can at- 
test to this condition, for even in the 
heaviest fog, the immediate vicinity 
seems clear. 





En passant, the constant fog—chemi- 
cal, not mental—in which we worked for 
more than seven weeks killed the desire 
to smoke. Cinematographers overly ad- 
dicted to nicotine might try this effective, 
but drastic cure. 

Possibly wartime experience with the 
U.S. Signal Corps in Italy had condi- 
tioned me to this type of filming. In 
those days we never waited for weather 
—fog, snow and rain, like the Biblical 
poor, were always with us. Thanks to 
our simplified overhead lighting system 
for “Battleground,” and a masterly over- 
all set design by Unit Art Director Hans 
Peters which permitted a full 360 degrees 
filming, no time was lost in changing 
set-ups. It was not uncommon many days 


(Continucd on Page 448) 


HALF MILE TRUCKING SHOT was made with dolly instead of camera 
car, presented problem of handling sound and power cables as camera 
rolled 2600 feet. “Snow” covering hills is whitewash spray job. 


° AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 




















The American 
Society of Cinematographers, is particularly active in furthering the 
development of new processes and new techniques in cinematography,” 
said Charles G. Clarke, speaking at the opening ceremony of the 
George Eastman House in Rochester, New York, last month. 


“OUR OWN cultural and educational organization, 


THE FOLLOWING address was delivered by Charles G. Clarke, 
president of the American Society of Cinematographers, on the 
occasion of the dedication of the George Eastman House in 
Rochester, New York, on November 9, 1949. Mr. Clarke's 
address was a feature of the symposium on “The Science and 
Art of Photography,” which highlighted the dedicatory pro- 
gram and in which six other notables of the photographic world 
participated. — EDITOR. 


| AM PARTICULARLY honored to be present on this occasion 
of the Dedication of the George Eastman House. To me, 
Mr. Eastman was a boyhood hero, who today has gone down 
in history as one of the world’s great men. It is fitting and 
appropriate that his home be made into a shrine of photography 
so that students may come to understand the great public 
benefit that he did so much to make popular and practical. 

As a student of photography and of the history of the 
cinema, I personally know what his introduction of roll film 
meant to the creation of the motion picture film industry. As 
a representative of the Directors of Photography, it is with a 
sense of humbleness, and yet with some pride, that I feel we 
cinematographers have carried on to a fine art from those 
materials placed in our hands by Mr. Eastman and his asso- 
ciates. 

As some confusion exists about the title, “Director of Pho- 
tography,” perhaps a brief summary at this time would be in 
order. Since the inception of the movies there have been 
cameramen. Then, as the peculiar technique of the cinema was 
developed, the cameraman became the cinematographer. As the 
industry progressed, cinematography took on specialized fields. 
The cinematographer now devoted more of his talents to com- 
position and lighting and left the mechanics of the camera to 
members of this staff. Today he directs and supervises the 
efforts of a large crew of workers and is now known as the 
Director of Photography. He selects the composition, sets the 
DECEMBER, 1949 


438 * AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER a 


STORY TELLING WITH FILM 


The Director of Photography’s contribution 


in the science and art of cinematography. 
By CHARLES G. CLARKE, A.S.C. 


exposure, conceives the lighting and designates the filters or 
other photographic controls to be employed. 

Some may well ask, “How does motion picture photography 
differ from regular photography ?”’ While photography is the 
basis for this particular field, the requirements for telling a 
story on motion picture film have created a technique quite 
unique from that which went before. The use of moving 
figures, the lighting technique utilized to obtain plasticity, the 
effective use of relatively short-focus lenses, as well as the 
mobile camera all are examples peculiar to cinematography. 
In the very early days cameramen invented the fade-out and 
fade-in; the lap-dissolve, the matte shot, the process shot and 
numerous other special effects that have been incorporated into 
the technique of writing for the screen. 

One of the great problems of picture production is securing 
stories for the screen. Over five hundred productions are 
turned out annually by the industry and any author will concur 
that no such number of plots exist. The studios are therefore 
obliged to revamp many of the old reliables, give them new 
casts and dialogue, a change of locale and depend heavily on 
new photographic treatment. This continual search for new 
photographic approach is one of the most exciting aspects of 
the industry. Thousands of workers throughout the land have 
a hand in it. The physicist creating a new or better product; 
the chemist perfecting a better formula, the engineer fabri- 
cating a machine that will do that which could not be done 
before. The writer devising a scene in some new and unusual 
setting, and the producer, director and cinematographer trans- 
lating it finally to film are all part of a team striving to do 

(Continued on Page 452) 


one =_—« 
Pi 


*O. 8 


- 


‘ 


a* 


pi: eee 
% - 





MANY WORLD NOTABLES attended opening of George Eastman House. 
Watching Thomas J. Hargrave, president of Kodak, cut ribbon of 
movie film at dedicatory ceremony, is Mary Pickford (seated in front 
row, far left) and next to her, Admiral Richard Byrd. The House has 
been established by Kodak as a public educational institute to further 
knowledge of photography as a living memorial to George Eastman. 











his way up. 


LEE GARMES, A.S.C., started as a property boy at the old Thomas Ince studio. 
Devising special lighting to enhance features of an early day star put him on the 
road to success—set the pattern for his individual camera style. 


Resourcefulness Paved The 
Way For Their Success 


Second in the series of articles describing how 


top directors of photography got their start. 


By FREDERICK FOSTER 


MONTH we pointed out that some 
of the most successful directors of 
photography got their start in the natural 
course of looking for a job; that nearly 
all of them got into the motion picture 
business without benefit of a graduate 
course in photography. ‘These men _pos- 
sessed two dominant attributes, however, 
that peculiarly fitted them for the career 
thev or fate ordained they were to follow 
—imagination and resourcefulness. 

An example how 
started one cameraman on the road to 
cinematic fame is the instance in which 
Lee Garmes, A.S.C., assigned to photo- 


resourcefulness 


graph “The Duchess and The Waiter,” 
many years ago, made an_ otherwise 
mediocre story into a hit picture by devis- 
ing new lighting for the star, which 
greatly enhanced his appearance on the 
screen. The story was considered more 
or less a lemon, and the male star con- 
sidered a second-rate actor because he 
had “bags’’ under his eyes. 


Faced with this situation, Garmes 
started experimenting on eliminating 


those “‘bags” with lighting, and in so do- 

ing became the first cameraman to use 

mazda bulbs instead of carbons. He used 
(Continued on Page 454) 


DECEMBER, 1949 


RAY JUNE, A.S.C., was a lab assistant when 





JOSEPH WALKER, A.S.C., thought he'd like to be an electrical 
engineer until he watched a cameraman shoot a scene in a 
Hollywood studio. He got a job in a lab, and rapidly worked 





the studio cameraman quit and Ray stepped 


into his shoes. 





SOL POLITO, A.S.C., decided he’d rather shoot 
movies than project them in “‘nickelodeons.” 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 


439 

















ew Speed For Films 


Hollywood studios, using new film intensify- 


ing process, report marked economic benefits. 


By LEIGH ALLEN 


FY sINCE the Academy, two vears 
ago, awarded an “Oscar” jointly to 
Paramount and DuPont for introducing 
latensification in the processing of motion 
picture film, several major studios have 
adopted the process and are using it prof- 
itably. 

One studio is using latensification con- 
sistently in the production of all its “B” 
pictures with a consequent savings of up 
to 60% in lighting costs. Others are 
using it to shave lighting costs on exten- 
sive night exteriors or to save footage 
exposed in adverse light or where it was 
impossible to use a full quota of standard 
lighting units. It is predicted that within 
a year, latensification will have altered 
appreciably the photographic procedures 
of all studios, chiefly because of the eco- 
nomic benefits. As one industry spokes- 
man put it, “Latensification is an indis- 
pensable part of production today.” 

The process of latensification, which 
was described at length by Hollis W. 
Moyse, A.S.C., in his article in the De- 
cember, 1948, issue of American Cine- 
matographer, results in converting to 
acceptable printing negative, motion pic- 
ture film that has been deliberately or 
necessarily underexposed. The process, 
which is also known as post-exposure or 
post-fogging, consists of a simple labora- 
tory procedure of re-exposing the under- 
exposed negative to a weak light for a 
period of time prior to development, thus 
intensifying the latent image. 

The phenomenon was noted as early 
as 1939 by Robert Cabeen in the course 
of his work in the DuPont research lab- 
oratories. He was intrigued when some 
exposed negative sensitometric strips, 
which had unintentionally received an 
extended safelight exposure, showed a 
very substantial gain in density in the 
threshold region. He diagnosed the effect 
as resulting from the action of the safe- 
light although the strips showed only a 
very slight increase over normal fog 
values in the unexposed areas. Further 
tests confirmed the diagnosis that a small 
amount of light, applied over a consid- 
erable period, has the effect of intensify- 
ing the latent image. 


$40 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


Not until the process was suggested 
to Dr. C. R. Daily of Paramount Pic- 
tures was an application attempted in 
the motion picture industry. Starting late 
in 1946, Paramount applied latensifica- 
tion to production action stills. Early in 
1947, this company extended the laten- 
sification process to the treatment of 
motion picture negative, with remarkable 
benefits both economic and in picture 
quality. Today, latensification is an ac- 
cepted procedure in the Paramount lab- 
oratory. 

Speaking from the viewpoint of pho- 
tography, Ray Wilkinson, Paramount's 
camera department head said, “We feel 
that latensification affords the camera- 
man a strong advantage when properly 
used, and we are likewise pleased when 
economies are effected. However, we still 
are of the opinion that it is a special tool 
to be used with discretion and we do not 
recommend its indiscriminate use on all 
artifically lighted sets.” 

There has never been any pressure on 
the cameramen at Paramount with re- 
gard to the use of this process. All of 


the men have been made acquainted with 
its advantages, and its use or non-use 
lies within their discretion, according to 
Wilkinson. He emphasized that Para- 
mount does not insist upon use of laten- 
sification to effect economies on normally 
lighted interiors. 

“During the past year, the process has 
been employed to some extent on perhaps 
two-thirds of our pictures,” Wilkinson 
said, “‘and its use is steadily increasing. 
Some productions may have only a few 
scenes or an isolated sequence subjected 
to latensification, but in others it is much 
more frequently used throughout the en- 
tire picture, as in the recently completed 
‘Sunset Boulevard’ and ‘United States 
Mail.’ ” 

“Incidentally both of these productions 
were photographed by John Seitz, A.S.C., 
and his objective in the use of latensifi- 
cation was quite different for each pic- 
ture. On ‘Sunset Boulevard’ it was used 
to permit stopping down for focal depth 
in a low key light. The greater use of 
the process on ‘United States Mail’ oc- 
curred while the company was on loca- 
tion shooting the steel mills at Gary, 
Indiana. In this instance, the use of laten- 
sification could conceivably have meant 
the difference of shooting or abandoning 
the location, as the vastness of the area 
covered together with the extent of the 
camera moves would have made conven- 
tional lighting methods virtually impos- 
sible. Naturally, tremendous economies 
were effected and it was felt, upon re- 
viewing the material, that the quality was 
actually enhanced rather than harmed,” 
Wilkinson concluded. 

It is reported that Columbia Pictures 
is now making more extensive use than 

(Continued on Page 456) 








LATENSIFICATION, TIME AND MONEY SAVER 


Introduced in the motion picture studios two years ago as 
a method for increasing the effective speed of negative 
film after exposure, latensification — 


. is now being used by Columbia, Paramount, Warner 
Brothers, 20th Century-Fox, R.K.O., Republic and 
Samuel Goldwyn studios. 


... permits economies in set lighting costs up to 60%. 


...can save footage exposed in adverse light; permits 
making good negatives in sub-normal light. 


... Widens scope of filming night exteriors. 
. permits stopping down lens for focal depth when 








shooting in low key. 
... requires no costly equipment installation. 
DECEMBER, 1949 











The Officers and Staff 


of 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 


extend to 
ALL CINEMATOGRAPHERS 
Everywhere— 





HOLIDAY GREETINGS 


and 


Soop WILL 


For 


The Christmas Season 
and 


The New Year— 








J6mm. died Smm. € ‘inemalography 
E T iN 
































Moving Camera Shots 





In Amateur Movies 


By RAY FERNSTROM, A\S.C. 


|‘ YOU HAVE access to any vehicle that has four wheels and 
will support your cine camera, you have the means for 
making moving camera shots for your movies. Such vehicles 
may range from a lowly roller skate or toy wagon to your 
automobile and all can be put to good use by the amateur to 
add effective cinematic touches to his films. The pictures on 
this page show how one enterprising movie amateur employed 
her automobile as a camera dolly, mounting the camera on the 
hood for a trucking shot, inside the car for an unobtrusive 
follow shot, and then set her camera up in the trunk compart- 
ment to shoot action as the automobile driver pulled away 
from the scene. 

‘Too few movie amateurs use the “fluid” camera technique 
because they mistakenly believe that such technique calls for 
elaborate studio-type camera booms and dollies. ‘The amateur 
has only to experiment a little to discover how much more pro- 
fessional his movies can be made to appear on the screen when 
the camera moves in for a closeup or follows action on a dolly 
—all in a single shot, without the disruptive effect of a series 
of cuts. 

Why should we use a moving camera? The question is a 
logical one in view of the fact there is usually quite enough 
motion within the average movie scene. However, there are 





YOUR AUTOMOBILE may be used in a number of ways to make several good reasons why the moving camera is an indispensable 
moving camera shots. For an effective dolly shot, mount camera in ar f effective ; -e tec " > Byres on 9 ¢: aT: 
rents ay Beccarerlbinn gg Fe of R nang maghy —~ By By Ry S- part of effective motion picture technique. First, when a camera 
camera securely and partially deflate tires to cushion bumps. (Continued on Page 449) ( 







WITH CAMERA mounted on tripod and set up inside car, you can shoot interesting action FOR A SLOW dolly shot of limited scope, mount camera on 
unobserved, make foliow shots with professional style. Always shoot through open windows. light tripod and place on hood of car, as shown here. 
Shooting through glass may cause distracting ghost images on film. Heavy comforter hoids tips of tripod legs securely. 













a Jia 








Interference-Free Turret 


{ slight twist turns the turret . . . clicks the stand-by lens into auto- 
matic alignment in the taking position. 

There’s no trick to switching focal lengths ... no risk of 
obscured movies. Because the turret is angled, you can use 
any two Kodak Cine Lenses in combination without the slight- 
est physical or optical interference—regardless of speed, focal 
ieneth, or barrel design. 


ne vecause adapters are integral with 1e turret, you 
And | lapt tegral h the t = 


attach lenses directly—any of twelve Kodak Cine Ektar and 


Ektanon Lenses... ranging from 15mm. to 152mm. 
\ separate, clip-on finder is available for each lens accepted 
so that you can instantly adjust your field of view to match 
that of the lens on the camera. 


One of a series of pages which 
help to explain why Cine-Kodak 
Special 11 Camera is known as 
the world's most versatile 


16mm. motion-picture camera. 





THE WORLD’S MOST 
VERSATILE 16MM. 
MOTION-PICTURE CAMERA 


ow Ty 


: Cumettt 


Superb 16mm. motion-picture camera with the 
controls for special effects integral with the basic 
model. Fully capable for precision movie making 
TUS MOE MIME o) oli (Xo MMe lilo MiUlgi-tmelelelolielel(-Minlceltiels 
accessories to meet the specialized requirements of 
every field served by 16mm. motion pictures. 

One of Cine-Kodak Special II Camera’s stand- 
ard features is described at the left. For further: 
details about this outstanding 16mm. camera, see 
your Kodak dealer ... or write Rochester for the free 
booklet, ‘‘Motion-Picture Making with the Cine-Kodak 


’ 


Special IT Camera.’ 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N. Y. 


Cine-Kodak Special II Camera is illustrated with 200-foot 
Film Chamber, standard Kodak Cine Ektar 25mm. f/1.4 
Lens, and accessory Kodak Cine Ektar 63mm. f/2.0 Lens. 

















Jo6mm. anil Smm. Cinematography 


> t .< I l 4 








LOW PRICE and simplicity of operation of the Cine-Voice camera now make it possible 
for movie amatcurs to make 16mm. sound films in color or black and white, just like the 
professionals. It’s destined to open new horizons of filming for the advanced cine amateur. 


A 16MM. SOU 
FOR THE HOWE 


CAMERA 
MOVE MAKER 





Biggest news for movie amateurs since advent of 


the cine camera is Auricon’s new “Cine-Voice” 


which records picture and sound simultaneously. 


By GLENN B. LEWIS 


Fr" SINCE the first 16mm. sound-on- 
film projector was introduced, the 
home movie maker has dreamed of the 
day when a 16mm. camera would be 
available for making talking-pictures at 
home. The new Auricon 16mm. “Cine- 
Voice” sound-on-film camera is the an- 
swer to that dream! 

Designed and built in Hollywood by 
the Auricon Division of Berndt-Bach, In- 
corporated, this new 16mm. sound camera 
features simplified controls, weighs only) 
12% pounds, and is priced within reach 
of the advanced 16mm. movie maker. It 
can be used for making talking pictures 


444 © AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


around the Christmas tree, during vaca- 
tion trips, at birthday parties, or even 
during baby’s bath, all with theatrical 
brilliance and clarity. 

To record the actual sounds as they 
occur along with the picture, you merely 
place the Cine-Voice microphone outside 
of camera range, adjust the amplifier, 
and shoot. Synchronization of sound and 
picture is automatic, as both are put on 
the film at the same time. 

The Cine-Voice camera is driven by 
a constant-speed electric motor. The cam- 
era’s 100-foot film capacity provides a 

(Continued on Page 446) 


DECEMBER, 1949 











EASY TO THREAD is the Cine-Voice, and simple to 
operate as any 8mm. or 16mm. cine camera. Maximum 
film capacity is 100 feet—takes 50-foot spools, too. 











DESIGNED for the advanced amateur, the Cine-Voice 
will find use in many professional fields, too, such 
as production of instructional and television films. 





CAMERA, microphone and sound amplifier and con- 
trols all fit snugly into this compact, light-weight 
carrying case. Portable batteries supply the power. 








FOR YOUR 
MOVIE MAKER 


THIS CHRISTMAS! 


BAUSCH & LOMB ANIMAR 
LENS PACKAGING 


Here is a package strikingly different ...a lens 
package never before offered. This new Animar 
lens package is a rigid, molded plastic container. 
The lens screws into a threaded base. Your lens 
is held rigid, no knocking around in the case. 
With a quarter turn the clear plastic top fastens 
securely over the lens. No dents on edge of sun 
shade ... no flattening of screw threads ... no 
scratching of lens surfaces. Animar lenses are 
completely protected, yet readily available, in 
this new long-lasting protective container. 


THE LENS WITH A 
HOLLYWOOD BACKGROUND | 


For many years, the world’s leading cameramen 
of Hollywood have preferred Bausch & Lomb 
Baltar lenses . . . use them to film Hollywood's 
finest movies. All the experienced lens design 
and manufacturing know-how, accumulated by 
Bausch & Lomb in producing lenses for profes- 
sional motion-picture cameramen, have gone into 
the development of the new Animar series of 
lenses. Now your movies can have crisp, spark- 
ling, brilliant images with Bausch & Lomb 
Animar lenses . . . movies filmed in their full 
magnificence of fine detail, subtle tone and bril- 
liant color. Equip your camera now. 

: If your dealer does not have the Bausch & 

: Lomb Animar Lenses... write us direct! 

n] ee 7 . CY « 
CY . © e Shy © 
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fomm, pmo Smm. 4 inematography 
} | | fp 











These Hollywood Cameramen 





Chas. G. Clarke 


2 


Ernest Haller 





Chas. Rosher 


Hal Mohr 








Ray Rennahan 





Arthur Miller 


will judge the films 


entered in 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER’S 


Amateur Motion Picture Competition 


for the 1950 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
AWARD 


And Six Achievement Awards 


CLOSING DATE FOR ENTRIES . . . MARCH 1, 1950 
ANNOUNCEMENT OF WINNERS. . . MARCH 15, 1950 


Competition open to members of amateur movie clubs 

within the United States. Non-movie-club-members may 

also compete by submitting films through their local 
amateur movie club. (See rules below.) 








RULES 


@ Each entry must be wholly amateur produced, except for 
any titles and film laboratory work. Any sound accompaniment 
must be recorded exclusively by the entrant or club submit- 


ting the film 


@ Competition open to members of amateur movie c'ubs 
within the U.S. Clubs will evaluate and enter the best 8mm 
and best 16mm. film completed by a member since January 
1, 1948. Individuals (non-club-members) may also compete 
by submitting films to their local amateur movie club for 
entry at discretion of the club. (Refer to your local camera 
store for name and address of local club, or write the Editor.) 


@ Amateur movie clubs may enter films not to exceed 4 
as follows 

Best 8 mm. member-made film 

Best 16 mm. member-made film 

Best 8mm. non-member film. 


Best 16mm. non-member film 


@ Film length limits: 16mm.—800 feet. 8mm.—400 feet 
@ Entry Fee: $1.00 for each subject submitted 


@ Each film reel as well as its container must be plainly and 
securely labeled with owner’s name and address plus name 
and address of club entering tne film 


@ All films must be shipped on reels and in cans to contest 
headquarters fully prepaid. Entry blank and fee should be 
mailed in advance of film. Films will be returned directly to 
owner via Express collect, fully insured. Be sure to indicate 
value on your entry blank for which films are to be insured 


@ Please indicate make and model of camera and the lenses 
used in making your picture, also brand of film used. This 
information will have no bearing on evaluation of films, but 
is desired by judges for reference. 


@ Do not submit any films before January 1, 1950. Send 
only your entry blank which may be obtained by writing The 
Editor, American Cinematographer, 1782 No. Orange Drive, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

















446 


* AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER * DECEMBER, 1949 


16MM. SOUND CAMERA 


(Continued from Page 444) 


maximum of 234 minutes of continuous 
recording when a scene of this length is 
desired. The camera can be hand-held or 
mounted on a light-weight tripod when 
telephoto lenses are used. 

Eastman Kodak, DuPont and Ansco 
all furnish sound film on 100-foot day- 
light loading spools for the Auricon Cine- 
Voice camera. Either regular or Type A 
Kodachrome film may be used, too, to 
make movies in color and sound. 

Sound is recorded in the Cine-V oice 
camera with standard 26 frames separa- 
tion between sound track and corre- 
sponding picture. This means that sound 
movies made on the Cine-Voice camera 
can be threaded into any standard 16mm. 
sound-on-film projector when it is re- 
ceived from the film processing labora- 
tory, and the recorded speech or music 
will be played back in perfect synchron- 
ism with the pictures. If splices are made 
in this film, the sound and picture will 
still maintain perfect synchronism, just 
as Hollywood feature pictures do in your 
neighborhood theatre. 

The sound track made by the Cine- 
Voice camera is photographed along one 
edge of the film by a “galvanometer.” 
All the sound recording lenses and the 
galvanometer are extremely rugged in 
construction and require no adjustment 
of any kind. The Cine-Voice equipment 
can be subjected to audible shock such as 
gunfire, without damage. The galvanom- 
eter is as rugged as your telephone re- 
ceiver, and will operate in any position, 
whether the camera is being hand-held 
or on a tripod. 

The sound track recorded by the Cine- 
Voice galvanometer is of the variable 
area type, which has proven to be most 
successful, especially since the film proc- 
essing needed for this type of sound track 
is not critical. The galvanometer is driven 
from a 5 tube amplifier, having the 
necessary controls for recording highest 
quality sound—speech or music. The 
amplifier has two meters: one to indicate 
volume of sound being recorded on the 
film, and the other to indicate the ex- 
posure of the sound track. The meters 
are calibrated and previous experience in 
sound recording is not needed to under- 
stand their use and operation. The sound 
track exposure indicator meter also pro- 
vides a means of checking on the condi- 
tion of the amplifier batteries, which are 
of the portable radio type. Replacements 
can be obtained at any radio supply store. 

Two input plugs are provided on the 
Cine-Voice amplifier: one for the sound 
recording microphone and a second input 
for connection to a crystal phonograph 


pickup. The microphone input has a vol- 
ume control and also a speech-music tone 
control connected with it. The phono- 
graph input permits feeding music from 
phonograph records into the amplifier at 
the same time speech is being picked up 
by the microphone, so that both speech 
and music can be put on the film at the 
same time if desired. The amplifier and 
batteries are contained in a lift-out tray 
in the large carrying case, so that the 
carrying case can be put to one side and 
the amplifier and batteries in lift-cut tray 
can be placed on a convenient chair or 
table. The amplifier has sufficient power 
to record satisfactory speech when a per- 
son is talking in a normal tone of voice 
outdoors as far as 6 feet away from the 
microphone. 

Not only is the Cine-Voice a sound 
recording camera, but it is also a pre- 
cision-built photographic instrument. The 
film is handled at the picture gate on 
stainless steel balls, a patented Auricon 
feature until recently used only on 16mm. 
professional cameras. 

The intermittent film pull-down claw 
is made of hardened steel, precision- 
ground to size. It moves the film gently 
from one picture frame to the next, and 
is noiseless in operation. The Auricon 
film movement was specially designed for 
use in sound recording cameras, and per- 
mits silence of operation so that camera 
noise is not picked up by the microphone. 
‘The entire camera mechanism is mounted 
on a solid aluminum casting, precision- 
machined. All the parts are thus held in 
exact alignment. 

The Cine-Voice camera body is also 
of solid aluminum, precision-machined for 
ruggedness and light weight. The camera 
takes “C”’ mount lenses, such as used 
with most popular 16mm. cameras today. 

A control panel at rear of camera pro- 
vides plugs for connecting camera to the 
sound-recording amplifier and also for 
connecting camera motor to a source of 
110 volt 60 cycle A.C. current. The 
Cine-Voice camera is so quiet in opera- 
tion, that a pilot light is provided that 
flashes red when the motor is on. This 
prevents accidentally running camera. 

A newly designed optical system pro- 
vides the Cine-Voice user with a large, 
clear picture in the finder. The finder’s 
maximum aperture the 15mm. 
wide angle lens. Professional-type trans- 
parent plastic mattes may be inserted 
into the finder to adapt it for other lenses. 
A matte for 1” lens is provided as stand- 
ard equipment. Mattes to match other 
lenses are available as extra equipment. 
A parallax adjustment is provided on the 
Auricon finder, which allows complete 
accuracy in framing pictures, down to 
4 feet. A footage indicator is a built-in 
feature, so that the amount of unexposed 


covers 











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DECEMBER, 1949 ra AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 





447 








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(Continued from.Page 437) 








to complete more than 20-odd set-ups, an 
achievement aided by the absence of the 


ART REEVES’ NEW ADDRESS: usual painted backdrop. 


Except for thre sequences, which 





ART REEVES MOTION PICTURE EQUIPMENT called for actual reproduction of Bas- 
AND CAMERA SUPPLY COMPANY togne and environs, our backing was pure 

7 : white, a continuous strip, approximately) 

7512 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood 46, Calif. 1000 feet, covering the stage’s four walls. 
eens When seen through a film or fog, it 

Only Art Reeves Can Sell The New Model created the hazy effect of distance. (This 


complete utilization of every inch of 

S E N S I T E S T E R floor space resulted in the only sound 

Will Handle Modern Fine Grain Film stage I ever saw devoid of stars’ dress- 

ing rooms, chairs or benches. We 
stretched out on the dirt.) 

The plain backdrop—an idea evolved 

by Cedric Gibbons, Supervising Art Di- 

AN IDEAL CHRISTMAS GIFT! rector, and Camera Department Head 


John Arnold—offered unusual lighting 

For Every Movie Ma ker possibilities. Rather than flood this evenly 

7 with light in the conventional manner, | 

e lit it unevenly, creating the effect of 
Amateur or Professional varying degrees of depth and distance. 

Snow, which played a major role dur- 

ing the actual siege of Bastogne, also 

Source of QUICK ANSWERS to such presented problems. Using the new fire 

questions as: “‘What is the angle of extinguisher-type liquid, whipped, vapor- 






















American view of my 25mm. lens?” “What's ized and blown through whirling discs 
Cinematographer the depth of focus of my 50mm. lens (a mammoth combination of mixmaster 
HAND BOOK at 12 feet?” “How much film will a and shower head!) we produced realistic 

30 second take consume at 24 f.p.s.?” snowfalls which could be regulated as 
“What's the Weston daylight rating gentle fall or violent blizzard. It fell, 
of Ansco Ultra-Pan negative?” “What piled into drifts and clung like the na- 
stop shall | use to shoot at 8 f.p.s. tural thing. This called for the camera 
if exposure at 16 f.p.s. is £/4.52” And crew and Director Bill Wellman to 
thousands more! A handbook that’s work frequently from inside a tent. In 


addition to its realism our snow had the 
nasty habit of staining clothes and proved 
painful on contact with the naked eye. 


a must for every motion picture cam- 
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ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY Only one special camera gadget was 

$5.00 used (front cover). Inside a light steel 

Prepaid framework the camera was suspended 

from light coil springs, braced horizon- 

ee tally and vertically by additional springs. 

; a any | “ied —- 7 pa yer - 2 
l ae ee a A | louse Or Toxholes during arti he ig 

| Hollywood 28. Calif.” ; bardment, I struck the framework a 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find $5.00 Address sharp blow. The camera, jarred wasn 

| THE AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER tarily, quickly jittered back to normal, 

| HANDBOOK AND REFERENCE GUIDE.  City-.....20..0.cccecceseceeeeeeeee. Zone sila Ma aintideneitiaasss | creating the concussion effect of a heavy 

| | explosion. We rehearsed the house col- 


448 ©@ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ DECEMBER, 1949 


A 





lapse meticulously, with an_ intricate 
system of cue lights and buzzers, for once 
destroved that particular set would have 
taken several days to reconstruct. It had 
to be right first take. 

Dolly and panning shots were held to 
a minimum. On only two _ occasions, 
when photographing troops drilling and 
marching, were trucking shots used. One 
—on the rolling hills behind Fort Me- 
Arthur—ran for nearly a full half-mile, 
and without benefit of camera car. This 
sequence, by the way, proved a field day 
for a local whitewash concern, who 
“snowed in” a mile of the countryside 
spraying the stuff through three-inch 
hoses. 

Only for this and preceding sequences 
showing the break-through of sunlight, a 
focal point in History and “Battle- 
eround,” did I use ares, controlling the 
change from complete fog to partial sun- 
shine by using shutters on the ares to 


denote the sunshine soutce. 

Our guide and yardstick throughout 
was U.S. Army film, loaned the studio as 
part of the 100 percent co-operation 
M-G-M_ received, including official 
records, still photographs and equipment. 
To capture the authenticity or “honesty” 
desired, well over a million feet of war- 
time film was checked, a labor of love, I 
think, which paid dividends. 

Co-operation, in fact, highlighted the 
entire production. I was unusually 
blessed in this respect with the help and 
encouragement I received from Schary, 
Wellman and Bob Pirosh to Cedric Gib- 
bons and all connected with the film. 

In restrospect—now that the “shoot- 
ing” is all over — “Battleground” now 
appears more of a “different” than a 
“difficult” assignment. Though physically 
unpleasant with the constant fog, snow 
and wind, at least it was a mutual dis- 
comfort, enjoyed by the entire company. 





MOVING CAMERA SHOTS 


(Continued from Page 442) 


is set up for an effective static composi- 
tion and securely locked in place, the 
pictorial result may be striking according 
to the criteria one would use in evaluat- 
ing a still photograph. However, if this 
composition is to be retained throughout 
the scene, it is evident that the action 
which takes place in that scene must be 
limited to the boundaries of the frame. 
The result is not only static visual com- 
position but inhibited action as well. The 
obvious alternative to this cut and dried 
presentation is the use of the pan and tilt. 
But here, the uninitiated often goes over- 
board, “spraying” the landscape as if 
with a garden hose. 

In between these two extremes lies 
the moving camera shot. It is effected by 
placing the camera upon some mobile 
base so that it can be freely moved about 
the locale. In the studio, the “movable 
bases”’ range from small dollies to huge 
camera booms capable of swinging many 
feet into the air. 

The moving camera shot has two main 
purposes. Its most legitimate function is 
to follow action; that is, to actually go 
along with the pattern of movement exe- 
cuted by a player or some other active 
element of the scene. The second eftec- 
tive, if somewhat less legitimate, use of 
a moving camera is to force action into a 
scene which might otherwise be static or 
lack proper dramatic emphasis. Above 
all, the cine amateur must realize that in 


order to be professional, his moving cam-’ 


era shots must be executed smoothly and 
not too rapidly. 
Let us explore some of the practical 


« 


uses of the moving camera in relation to 


the amateur film. Let us say that Little 
Sister is having a birthday party. In the 
climactic scene, she has opened all of her 
lesser presents, and begins to open the 
package containing the huge doll which 
Mother and Dad have bought for her. 
The conventional way to handle this 
sequence would be to start with a medium 
shot of Sister opening the present, cut to 
a close-up of the doll as it is unwrapped, 
cut back to a medium shot of Sister lift- 
ing the doll out of the package and clasp- 
ing it to her, and finally cut to a close-up 
of sister ecstatically hugging the doll. 
Through the use of the moving camera, 
this entire sequence of four scenes could 
be filmed in one shot, with much better 
flow and continuity than in the chopped- 
up version. For example, we could start 
with a close-up of the package being un- 
wrapped. As the doll is revealed, the 
camera would pull back to a medium 
shot of Sister’s first reaction. Then the 
camera would move in to a close-up of 
her face as she happily holds the doll. 
The advantages of this method should 
be obvious. In the first place, instead of 
four separate setups, resulting in four 
abrupt cuts, only one would be required. 
Second, the entire action is complete as 
filmed, thus eliminating the necessity for 
cutting. Finally, there would be a na- 
tural flow of action as opposed to the 
jerky result that might be achieved if you 
had to stop Sister after each small seg- 
ment of action, make a new camera 
setup, and then expect her to re-create 
her enthusiasm for the overlap of action. 
When the camera pushes in or pulls 
(Continued on Page 451) 


DECEMBER, 1949 


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MOVING CAMERA SHOTS 
(Continued from Page 449) 


back at an accelerated speed, the effect 
is known as a “zoom shot.’ This device 
is very effective when applied to a par- 
ticularly dramatic sequence, because it 
forces an immediate focus of audience 
attention toward a particular small but 
important segment of the scene. Obvi- 
ously, however, it should not be used too 
often or in a sequence which does not 
demand such emphasis. It is often effec- 
tive to conclude one sequence by zooming 
to a close-up and begin the following 
sequence by pulling back from a related 
close-up. Thus the moving camera shot 
becomes a useful continuity device by 
helping to effect smoother transitions. 
The follow-shot is perhaps the most 
functional device for the use of the mov- 
ing camera. As the name implies, it is 
used to follow a particular pattern of 
action, especially when the action covers 
a considerable space. In order to set up a 
good follow-shot, it is first necessary to 
rehearse the action exactly as it will be 
staged for the camera. Draw a diagram 
of this action in relation to the setting. 
Next, decide where the camera should be 
in each separate stage of the action in 
order to capture the full effect of the 


450 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


situation. The next step is to link these 
separate camera positions together with 
lines indicating the path which the dolly 
must follow in order to achieve proper 
coverage. A rehearsal with the camera 
will then show up any awkwardness in 
camera movement as related to the ac- 
tion, and adjustments can be made ac- 
cordingly. 

In some cases, the camera will have 
to move only a very few feet in order to 
cover the action; in other instances, such 
as a situation in which a character is 
driving down the street in an automo- 
bile, it will be necessary for the camera 
to follow the action over great areas of 
space. The fundamental. principles of 
technique involved, however, remain the 
same. 

The question naturally arises as to 
how the amateur is to achieve these 
effects in terms of required equipment. 
As we have already stated, it is not neces- 
sary to have huge camera booms; a bit of 
ingenuity coupled with the sparsest equip- 
ment will often do the trick quite satis- 
factorily. 

A child’s wagon is one of the most 
obvious and popular vehicles to be used 
as the movable base for the camera. 
The wagon should be big enough to 
comfortably accommodate both the cam- 
era and the cameraman. As wagon wheels 


DECEMBER, 1949 


are usually made of solid rubber mounted 
on rigid discs, the problem of bumpiness 
becomes important. This situation can be 
alleviated through the use of smooth 
lumber planks pressed into service as 
dolly tracks. 

Offered on the market are 
light-weight triangular  dollies 
structed simply of three pieces of metal 
tubing and three wheels. Such dollies 
have their applications, but since the 
cameraman must run the camera and 
push the dolly at the same time, the 
chances of really smooth camera move- 
ment are greatly diminished. 

It is much better to have the camera- 
man concentrate solely upon the hand- 
ling of the camera and to have someone 
else push or pull the dolly. A satisfactory 
dolly can be easily constructed out of 
lumber and a few other inexpensive 
materials. Basically it is nothing more 
than a wooden platform mounted on 
wheels (preferably pneumatic) with a 
T-handle in back. The rear axle should 
swing freely, so that dolly shots can be 
made around corners, etc., but a rigid 
stop should also be included so that the 
wheels can be set for a straight move- 
ment in or out. 

For follow-shots outdoors where the 
action transpires over a relatively large 
space, an automobile (especially a con- 


several 


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vertible) can very often be used to fine 
advantage. ‘he automobile can either be 
run under its own power, or for smoother 
effect it can be pushed by a group of 
husky stalwarts. To ensure even greater 
smoothness of operation it ts ad\ isable to 
let about half the air out of the tires. 
Lacking sometimes 
quite satistactory to point the camera out 


a convertible, it is 


of the window of a closed car. 
Elevator-shots are obtained in protes- 
sional motion pictures through the use of 
a giant camera boom equipped mechani- 
cally to zoom up into the air. For the 
amateur, the much 
more difficult proposition, but one which 
is not absolutely impossible to achieve. 
One of the neatest substitutes for an ele- 
vator boom is a hydraulic lift of the type 


elevator-shot is a 


used in service stations. Of course, the 
limitations of this alternative include 
the necessity of getting the permission of 
the service-station manager to put a plat- 
form across his hydraulic lift and run- 
ning it up and down, as well as the limi- 
tations in background. 

In the filming of specialized subjects, 
cameramen have often taken advantage 
of devices such as loading-cranes and con- 
struction-elevators already set up for 
some other purpose. For interiors, a per- 
fect elevator substitute when available is 
the small type of hoist truck called a 
“goose” which is used in warehouses to 
haul and lift various loads into place. 
The hydraulic lift mechanism of this 
truck works smoothly and at the right 
rate of speed. Coupled with the mobility 
of the truck itself, it forms a_ perfect 
elevator boom for the amateur camera- 
men whenever he is lucky enough to find 
one. 

The moving camera shot is a profes- 
sional technique which the amateur cam- 
eraman can adapt to advantage in the 
filming of his own movies. A bit of in- 
genuity will enable him to achieve fluid 
camera effects similar to those which 
Hollywood’s top cameramen use so ef- 
fectively in the major studios. 





STORY TELLING WITH FILM 


(Continued from Page 438) 


something better and more interesting 
than it was ever done before. 

That the Director of Photography will 
exceed his share, is taken for granted in 
Hollywood. Every production attempts 
to be different from another and each 
presents a challenge for new photographic 
approach. Upon being assigned to a new 
production the Director of Photography 
carefully studies the script and plots the 
stvle of photography most appropriate to 
the story. He aids in selecting the loca- 
tions and offers suggestions towards set 


DECEMBER, 1949 


construction, painting, makeup and cos- 
tuming—all to the end that the produc- 
tion may be made artistically and with 
the utmost economy. 

The Director of Photography plans 
his photographic treatment so that each 
setting will take on a sense of reality and 
enhance the story idea and mood of the 
picture. The director and the cinema- 
tographer work as a team and each ex- 
change suggestions about lighting and the 
staging of scenes. Whenever possible, the 
stvle of lighting is varied from sequence 
to sequence so as to add interest and 
impact to the photographic effects. At all 
times must the plavers be photographed 
to their best advantage. Uhe studios have 
made tremendous investments in building 
their stars. every effort is expended to 
display them most ideally. As there is no 
retouching possible in movie film, our 
stars must be very carefully lighted so 
that they appear their most glamorous. 
The science of lighting is therefore highly 
developed among the Directors of Pho- 
tography, and is an art that is constantly 
being retined. We strive to obtain pho- 
tographic interest combined with a sense 
of reality, vet being on guard that the 
photography never detract nor overpower 
the story being unfolded upon the screen. 
Our lighting technique has lent its influ- 
ence to other branches of the art. Com- 
mercial and portrait studios* frequently 
adopt our stvle and use much of the 
equipment developed by the cinematog- 
rapher. 

‘The economies of motion picture pro- 
duction invariably fall on the Director 
of Photography. He is expected to utilize 
more tricks and lighting devices to cover 
lack of actual construction, yet 
the illusion that such construction exists. 
More and more of our scenes call for 
process photography whereby a still or 


create 


motion picture is projected from the reat 
on a translucent screen. To effect a com- 
posite scene realistically, ingenuous light- 
ing must be devised to light the subject 
naturally, yet keep the screen in dark- 
ness. 

In recent vears there has been increas- 
ing tendency to utilize natural interiors 
for motion picture settings. Many of our 
current productions transpire in Macy's; 
in some Court House, private 
home or Public building. This has given 
our productions a sense of authenticity, 
but in doing so it has presented new prob- 
lems to the cinematographer. To light 
such interiors and the players therein to 
the standards expected of us is a chal- 
lenge. ‘To meet with these conditions, 
often huge filters need be placed over 
windows and doors to balance exterior 
light with that available inside. As lights 
can seldom be placed overhead, horizon- 
tal sources must be employed. Reflections 
from glass, marble and other shining 


store, 


surfaces add to the complications of na- 
tural reproduction. 

As action is the motivating force of 
the cinema, the majority of our scenes 
today require the mobile camera tech- 
nique. Our cranes, velocilators, dollies 
and camera mounts are wonders of engi- 
neering and construction. Few realize 
however, the difficulties of lighting these 
moving shots. The actors must be well 
photographed under all conditions, yet 
there can be no shadows from these trav- 
eling monsters. The ever present micro- 
phone constantly hovering close over- 
head, darting here and there zs the ac- 
tors speak, creates a shadow problem of 
no mean proportion. To cope with the 
microphone situation in sound films, a 
whole new lighting technique had to be 
devised. Ingenuous light shields and 
masks have been evolved to eliminate 
stray, shadow-casting light. 

Our sets are broken up with light pat- 
terns that stay clear of the microphone. 
We use dimmers for mazda lamps and 
shutters for are lights to bring their il- 
lumination into play where needed. The 
sound blimp encasing the camera is a bulk 
in itself that is an obstacle to lighting, 
and in moving shots is a shadow-maker. 
‘Thus, many moving scenes cannot en- 
tirely be pre-lit because of shadows cast 
by the equipment. Until the precise mo 
ment shadows are clear, offending lights 
remain out. They are then brought on, 
and then dimmed out after they have 
fulfilled their use. 

Infra-red film is used for making many 
of our out-door productions. Properly) 
used, it lends extra Pictorial interest and 
excitement to the action. Many of our 
standard and overworked locations take 
on the “new look” when photographed 
with infra-red. New make-up had to be 
devised for infra-red and in this the 
cinematographer carried on research with 
the make-up manufacturers to secure 
proper materials. 

Color photography continues to make 
progress but will always require a deli- 
cate sense of lighting values. We are 
avidly encouraging the manufacture of 
better films, meanwhile mastering some 
of the shortcomings of present processes. 
Dramatic, low-key lightings create the 
problem of red faces and color distortion 
when filming in color. Yet, progress de- 
mands imaginative lighting to keep 
abreast of requirements of production. 
To a great extent the Director of Pho- 
tography has devised a means of lighting 
that avoids these short-comings, and in 
so doing make the processes appear bet- 
ter than they are. Increasingly more pro- 
ductions are filmed in two-color, single 
film monopack and the three strip meth- 
ods. A special photographic technique is 
required for each. 

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DECEMBER, 1949 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


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454 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


tography has long been the goal towards 
which much effort has been put forth. 
That it will eventually come into use is 
only a matter of time and research. The 
director of Photography assists in new 
technical development by suggesting im- 
provements and by testing new materials 
before they become commercially avail- 
able. Our own cultural and educational 
organization, The American Society of 
Cinematographers, is particularly 
in furthering the development of new 
processes and new techniques in cinema- 
tography. Recently we added to our 
clubhouse in Hollywood, the finest of 
projection facilities, which now make it 
possible for manufacturers and others in 
the industry to demonstrate new films, 
new color and photo- 
graphic innovations to the cameramen of 
Hollywood, enabling them all to keep 
abreast of those developments which are 
so vital to the progress of the art. We 
invite co-operation from all sources that 
will enhance that miracle of the modern 
age—photography. 


active 


processes new 





RESOURCEFULNESS 
PAVED THE WAY... 


(Continued from Page 439) 


two mazda bulbs with empty tomato 
cans as reflectors, and to the amazement 
ot everybody, he eliminated the dark 
splotches the had always made 
on the star’s tace. 

When he saw that this worked, he 
rigged up a lot more mazda bulbs, hang- 
ing them about the set. The result was 
that he succeeded in making the picture 
with a wide range of tone values instead 
of sharp blacks and whites which char- 
acterized arc-lighted pictures. 


“bags” 


In his youth, Garmes interest in 
movies was so intense, he persuaded his 
folks to move to Hollywood from Den- 
ver so he could try for a job in one of the 
studios. He heard of an opening for a 
property boy at the old Thomas Ince 
studio, applied and was hired, and soon 
caught the eye of cameraman John 
Leezer who took him on as his assistant 
and taught him the business. After 
eral years as an assistant, he was given 
the job as first cameraman on a series of 
Gale Henry two-reel comedies, and sub- 
sequently was assigned to photograph his 
first full length feature. A Menjou 
picture followed shortly thereafter and 
Lee Garmes was well on his way to suc- 
cess. He recently a shooting 
“With All My Love” for Samuel Gold- 
wyn, the photography of which is marked 
throughout by the well-known Garmes’ 
resourcefulness and imaginative treat- 
ment. 

The resourcefulness of Joseph Walker, 
A.S.C., in applying his knowledge of high 


sev- 


DECEMBER, 1949 


tension electricity in the staging of an 
early-day motion picture scene, led him 
to taking up cinematography as a career. 
Walker is one of the few directors of 
photography who never served an appren- 
ticeship as assistant or second cameraman. 
He was an electrical engineer. His spe- 
cialties were what was then called “wire- 
less” and high tension electricity. In this 
latter capacity he was one day called 
into consultation by a studio to advise 
how to stage in which an actor 
Was to sit on an electric chair that was 
to emit sparks. 

It was while rigging up the sparking 
apparatus for the chair and Juring the 
subsequent photography of same that 
Walker was bitten by the photographic 
bug. Not long thereafter he gave up his 
electrical job and went to work in a mo- 
tion picture film laboratory. Here he 
worked through every stage, from sweep- 
ing the floor to developing negative, tint- 
ing, toning and printing. When a rush 
call came through for a cameraman one 
day, and no one was available, Walker, 
despite his lack of experience in camera- 
talked himself into the job—and 
He’s been making good ever 


a scene 


work, 
made good. 
since. 

“That may sound like coming up the 
easy way,” he said, “but it wasn’t. I had 
to find out everything for myself—and 
do it the hard way.” Walker's indepen- 
dence and self-reliance has given his work 
an individuality which has made him one 
of the industry's really outstanding direc- 
tors of photography. 

Incidentally, the man generally cred- 
ited with establishing the title “director 
of photography” is Sol Polito, a.s.c., 
who, back in the early Vitaphone days of 
sound films at Warner Brothers studio, 
convinced studio executives that the cine- 
matographer, now charged with the 
greatly expanded scope of photographing 
movies with sound, could be more val- 
uable in a supervisory or directorial ca- 
pacity than operating his own camera. 
Back in those days the first cinema- 
tographer acutally operated the camera. 
If there was such a thing as a second 
cameraman, he was there to operate an 
additional camera. 


“In those days,” said Polito, “they 
didn’t think they could cut the sound 
track as flexibly as picture film. This 


was because the sound was recorded on 
discs instead of film. Thus, every cut or 
angle of a complete sequence had to be 
shot all at the same time, and this in- 
volved using six to eight cameras shoot- 
ing from all angles at once. Planning the 
lighting and compositions for that many 
cameras was a real job. To do it well and 
at the same time operate one’s own cam- 
era proved impossible.”’ Polito convinced 
the front office of the wisdom of his sug- 
gestion for a director of all photograph- 











ers and his plan has remained in prac- | 
tice ever since. | 

Polito’s first job in the picture busi- | 
ness was as a projectionist in a small | 
theatre. While grinding out pictures | 
night after night, he determined to be- 
come a cameraman and create the pic- 
tures instead of merely projecting them. 














His opportunity came when he met Tony 
Gaudio, then chief cinematographer for 
which was a subsidiary of Universal. L 
‘There were no such things as assistant | 7 
Polito under his wing as a sort of pro- | | if | | b A) 4 p I’ 
tegé-apprentice and taught him the cam- | 
_| 
was the producing branch of the Univer- | for 
sal organization. ] 
Sol Polito’s ever-adventurous nature CINE SPECIAL CAMERA 
a limb at IMP. At that time, the studio . 
t limb at IM ; At — — the “ — e 115 V. Universal Motor — AC-DC 
had been shooting all its interiors with ; 
@ Variable Speed 8-50 Frames 


Carl Laemmle’s old Victor Company, 

cameramen in those days but Gaudio took 

era business. By 1913 Polito was suff- 

ciently proficient to land a job as cam- | ith TACHOMETER t 
eraman with the IMP company, which | WI 

and resourcefulness soon had him out on | AND MAURER CAMERA 

Cooper - Hewitt mercury - vapor flood- 


lights. Are lights for studio use had just | @ Separate Base for Cine Special 
been introduced, but few studios would | @ Adapter for Maurer Camera 


accept them. Sol decided to try on one 
— ee : Interchangeable Motors: 


| 
‘6 ~- . . ” | 
scene what we now call “effect lighting, | as Wee OR comes Geted 60D ee. 
| 
| 
| 
| 











oo 


using an are lamp to cast strong shadows 115 Volt AC 60 Cycles, Synchronous Motor 











| 
| 
| 
| 
| 
220 Volt AC 60 Cycle, 3 Phase, Synchro- phasors far Galen ond Filed 
| 
| 
| 
| 





: om Tina ; wecian ws " Single Phase. Animation Motors for Cine Special. 
on the set. W hen the rushes came | re praising Rap ah ag 
through the studio executives were furi- | nous Motor. 
re ° Cameras. Time Lapse Equipment. 
ous. The shadows, they said, detracted 
from the actors and ruined the scene! N ti | Ci E e i | 20 WEST 22nd St. 
And Polito was fired. | NaTIONG! Vine EQUIPMENT, INC. New vork 10, ny. 
“Yet, today,”’ Polito will tell you, “it’s 
traditional that cinematographers are BACK ISSUES — AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
aid more for the shadows they *reate Complete your files! Save every issue for the informative technical articles they contain on all 
— . = : - = , ’ at phases of cinematography. Back issues available for all months of 1948 and for first 9 months of 
than for the highlights : 1949 (write for list of issues available for other years) 30c per copy; foreign, 40c per copy, postpaid 
Readers who may not be familiar with AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, 1782 No. Orange, Hollywood 28, Calif. 
; y 





Polito’s name on the credit titles will at 


least remember his superb photography of 

such pictures as “Sorry, Wrong Num- Th e MA 4 T MES Ay GE 

ber,” and “Anna Lucasta.” 
Ray June’s advent in cinematography 





: ' ReaD ed ating The new B-22 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 
encountered parental rather than studio wasaunes Sica, elnaned coined, cleniier to Rall 
: i, June’, | HALLEN RECORDER a mare 
hurdles. Back in 1914, people in J une’s & Howell, 170° dissolving shutter, 2-400’ BGH 
Pelee Mat, nae ae ea Two channel mixer and dialogue equalizer. mags, 24, 32, 40, 75mm. f2 Speed Panchro 
neighborhood didn t rate movie to very Synchronous for 16 and 35mm. cameras. ome ony SS es yeas, -_ 24 
Tu and av's folks ar f 30 to 10,000 cycles frequency response. v MOTOF achometer and 220 v, 3 phase 
highly and Ray’s folks put their foot immediate playback—Write ie datelie. 50 or 60 cycle synchronous motor, exceptionally 
down flatly on any suggestion that he — Lr Ae ae — stan 
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accept a job that was open in the labora- Cc @) L @) R T A N L l G H T S for 16 or 35mm. cameras, demonstrator $950.00 
tory of a studio in Ithaca, New York. | CONVERTERS AND GRIP EQUIPMENT | FSARLISS BLIMP with finder bracket, gearce 
But he got around this when he ex-- are proving to be indispensable to film studios | MOLE-RICHARDSON 3 wheel dolly, 2 seats, 
' s — and illustrators alike. High intensity lighting with MR large geared head, list $2,500.00 
plained that inasmuch as his job at the = a. a oe oe Fae "...$975.00 
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people. eo of 35mm. Arriflex cameras turret, 3 lenses, 2-400’ mags, rackover focus- 
hed, a _ aS ' wit rimoplan, Astro, and Sonnar lenses from ing, amplifier, mike, cables, cases $4,500.00 
W hile on this job, the studio's lone, $725.00 to $1,250.00. Accessories include hi- CLOSE-OUT PRESTO K-8 DISC RECORDERS, 
temperamental laboratory chief failed to hats, original or American-made tripods and only a few left, brand new, list $392 
} ; 7 — . “a baby, lens extension tubes, 200 ft. origina! or Now : $225.00 
show up one day. e just didn't come American magazines, lightweight 12 or 16 WANTED 
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to work, Ray says, “and there w as the chargers. Ideal outfit for newsreel and tele- | Headquarters for Motion Picture and Television 
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only me to do it! Luckily I'd learned 
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head.” { 
ead ai NEW YORK 19.N. Y. “CABLE ADDRESS: CAMERAMART 
Several weeks later, the studio’s head 





DECEMBER, 1949 « AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER o 455 








camerman neglected to show up and 
again Rav came to the rescue. He'd never 
operated a camera before but he had 
watched the cameraman enough so he 
pretty well knew what to do. ‘This was 
I'd first set foot 
inside the studio,” said Ray, “and there | 
was a full-fledged first cameraman!” 
Which is just about the record for a man 


scratch and without 


only three months after 


who started trom 
any previous experience. June is cele- 
brating his 34th year as a cinematogra- 
pher at MIGM where he has been a di 
rector of photography for many years. 
You'll have a chance to observe his skill- 
ful camera work in Metro's “Nancy 
Goes ‘To Rio,” starring Ann Sothern, 
and “The Reformer And The Redhead,” 
starring June Allyson and Dick Powell. 


George Folsey, aA.s.c., is another 
MGM. director of photography whose 
entry into cinematography is an interest- 
ing story. When George was fourteen 
and job hunting, the local Y.M.C.A. 
bureau sent him to fill a call for an 
office boy at the Lasky Feature Play 
Company. The name didn’t mean any- 
thing to him and he was on the job a 
day before he knew what kind of busi- 
ness he was in. The next day when such 
stars as Mary Pickford, Carlyle Black- 
well, John Barrymore and Harold Lock- 
wood brushed past him on their way 
through the studio, he decided he was 
going to like the job no matter what. 

As time went on, he was often pressed 
into service to take the part of an office 
boy or a messenger boy in a scene, or 
perhaps a prop boy. Finally there came 
the opportunity to go out on the set as 
an assistant to one of the cameramen. 

“It was my first introduction to pho- 
tography,” said Folsey. “Up until this 
time, I’d never touched a camera—never 
even owned a box Brownie. But some- 
how, | took to it instinctively.” 

Four years later Folsey was promoted 
to second cameraman and then his luck 
changed. The first cameraman. with 
whom he worked, a_ temperamental 
Frenchman, suddenly decided one day to 
retire to his native France and raise 
violets! The picture was only half fin- 
ished — but George Folsey, then only 
eighteen, stepped into the Frenchman’s 
job and the most difficult assignment he 
has ever had. 

“It wasn’t just an ordinary picture,” 
said Folsey. ‘““The star, Alice Brady, was 
playing a dual role—and a difficult one. 
She had to talk to herself in two charac- 
terizations, shake hands with herself, and 
pin jewelry on her “double’—routines 
that are simple to handle today in this 
era of optical printers and process pho- 
tography.” 

With all his innate resourcefulness, 
Folsey met the challenge—not with elab- 
orate mattes—but through skillful light- 





456 7 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER ¢ 


ing, and doing many of the takes with 
the set completely masked with black 
velvet. The rest is history. George Fol- 
sey continued to rise to the greatest 
heights in his profession and today he is 
one of MIGM’s most talented and re- 
sourceful directors of photography. 
Next month we'll 
the men who already were experienced 
in still photography when opportunity 
knocked and beckoned them to the more 
lucrative and specialized field of cine- 


describe some of 


matography. 





NEW SPEED FOR FILMS 


(Continued from Page 440) 


other studios of the latensification proc- 
ess, shooting all their “B” pictures with 
purposely reduced illumination and sub- 
jecting the negative to post-exposure. 
Here they term the procedure ‘50 foot 
candle lighting,” rather than latensifica- 
tion, because these pictures are all photo- 
graphed with illumination of 50 foot 
candles, as opposed to the 120 foot candles 
formerly used. This results in a saving of 
up to 60 per cent in lighting costs, they 
say. 

By fixing the illumination norm at 50 
foot candles, there is no question in the 
laboratory about the amount, of post- 
exposure that must be given the negatives. 
From exhaustive tests made when Co- 
lumbia adopted the latensification process 
about eight months ago, the laboratory 
knows exactly how much post-exposure 
to give the negatives photographed espe- 
cially for this treatment. 

Obviously there is considerably econ- 
omy in lighting costs effected by the use 
of 50 foot candle illumination. Because 
Color-Tran units and photofloods are 
mostly employed for set lighting, the 
time required for rigging conventional 
heavy lighting units on sets is eliminated. 
“For productions,” one studio 
spokesman said, “we do all the lighting 
from the floor. If there is need for an 
ovrehead light, it is quickly clamped at 
the top of one of the walls of the set. 
But the rigging of overhead lights is 
definitely eliminated.” 

Use of the “50 foot candle’ system 
has made it for the cinema- 
tographers employed on such productions 
to adapt themselves to the new lighting. 
Phil ‘Tannura, A.S.C., and Henry Freu- 
lich, A.S.C., who have filmed a great 
many of the “50 foot candle” pictures at 
Columbia, found no difficulty in adjust- 
ing their techniques to meet the reduced 


these 


necessary 


illumination level. 

It is in the production of their comedy 
shorts and action westerns that Columbia 
has discovered “‘latensification” effects 
the greatest economies. With these films 


DECEMBER, 1949 


the arty lighting and photography em- 
ployed in major features is unnecessary. 

The resort to latensification saved sev- 
eral valuable shots which director of 
photography Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C., 
was forced to make in adverse light re- 
cently while on location in Germany for 
the 20th Century-Fox production, “Two 
Corridors East.” Earlier, Sol Halprin, 
A.S.C., and Henry Goldfarb who head 
that studio's camera and laboratory de- 
partments respectively, had prepared for 
just such eventualities and added latensi- 
fication facilities to the Fox laboratory. 
Clarke simply marked the underexposed 
footage for latensification, with indica- 
tions of the approximate illumination 
deficit, and the laboratory applied the 
necessary post-exposure to render a nor- 
mal negative. The use of light to increase 
the effective speed of the negative per- 
mits very accurate control and yields 
dependable and uniform results, Halprin 
pointed out. 

Latensification has been in practice 
at the Fox studio about a and 
both cinematographers Norbert Brodine, 
A.S.C., and Clarke have made many tests 
and subsequently planned their photog- 
raphy to take advantage of this valuable 
new process. Edward Snyder, A.S.C., at 
the same studio has employed latensifi 


vear 


cation advant. seously in the production 
of background plates. 

Warner Brothers, although as yet not 
using the process as extensively as some 
other studios, nevertheless has installed 
the most modern latensifying equipment 
of any studio laboratory. “We are pre- 
pared, and use latensification occasionally 
when we have no other recourse,” saia 
Fred Gage, studio lab head. 

Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer studios are 
reportedly interested in the process and 
while they have not as yet installed equip- 
ment for latensifying film in their own 
labs, are understood to be conducting 
tests. 

Independent laboratories such as Con- 
solidated and Pathe, in Hollywood, were 
among the first to realize the great bene- 
fits arising from the latensifying process 
and were among the first to equip fo 
rendering this independent 
motion picture producers and to majo 
studios not yet equipped for the process. 
At the present time, Consolidated Film 
Industries’ laboratory in Hollywood is 
doing latensification work for RKO, 
Samuel Goldwyn and Republic studios. 
“Studios who were cautious about the 
process in the beginning, now use it reg- 
ularly,”’ said Sid Solow, head of Consol- 
idated. Pointing out that latensification 
is a definite attribute in the use of Ansco 
Color film, Solow said latensification is 
destined to become part of the regular 
procedure in all color film processing. 

Equipment cost is never a factor in 


service to 





the decision to adopt use of latensification. 
As Mr. Moyse pointed out in his article: 
“The equipment for post-fogging can 
take a variety of forms but can be vis- 
ualized as a dry-box-like arrangement 
wherein a negative can be exposed to a 
weak source of light for a number of 
minutes as it passes through. .. . The 
exposing light source should be variable 
in intensity but under accurate voltage 


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BULLETIN BOARD 

(Continued from Page 432) 

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DEWEY WRIGLEY, 1.8.c.,. and Schuyler 
Santord who have been shooting back- 
eround footage in Europe to re-furbish 
P2ramount’s stock shot library, have sup- 
plied that studio with 100,000 feet of 
stock shots of Italian locales. Both cam- 
eramen were sent overseas months ago 
primarily to work on Hal Wallis’ “Sep- — - a , , :, . 
tember.” Following completion of that 


assignment, they roamed Europe and 
filmed scenic and background shots 
needed in future productions. 

6 
UNPRECEDENTED smog and fog conditions 


in the Los Angeles area latter part of 








November curtailed shooting activities on The Three Color Process that is destined to play 

three pictures and forced production a leading role in the motion picture Color Field 

managers to revise filming schedules to 

indoor sets. Productions aftected were VITACOLOR gives the producer . . . Release Prints with more BRILLIANT AND SATURATED 
: — “— racial COLOR, SHARPER DEFINITION, FINER GRAIN, SILVER SOUND TRACK—AND AT LOW COST!! 


Kramer's “The Men,” being photo- 
graphed by Bob deGrasse, A.s.c., “Annie 
Get Your Gun” which Charles Rosher, 
1.S.¢c., is filming for M1I-G-M, and 
“Bright Leaf,” Warner Brothers pro- 
duction with Karl Freund, a.s.c. behind 
the camera. The Gene Autry company at 
Columbia reportedly salvaged scenes 
shot in smog, by latensifying the film. 


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LESTER WHITE, A.s.c., started filming on Du Pont Color Customers. 
location at San Diego November 28th on \/ VITACOLOR is the largest and best equipped 35mm. Color Film Processing ‘ab- 
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ist. Already signed to star in_ initial 
group is comedian Billy Gilbert. — 








DECEMBER, 1949 @ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER ®@ 457 











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GEO.W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 


164 N. WACKER DRIVE, CHICAGO 6, ILL 





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have a copy! Write Dept. AC12 for 
yours today — Free! 

BURKE & JAMES, INC. 
321 S. Wabash * Chicago 4, Ill. 














AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER « 


WHAT'S NEW 


in equipment, accessories, service 











“T” Stop Calibrator 
Photo Research Corpn., 


announces its new transmission “T” 
calibrator, a scientific optical instrument de- 
signed to accurately measure the true trans- 
mission potential and exact focal length of 
lenses. It permits exacting recalibration of 
stops by studio camera depart- 
laboratories, photographic 
service Complete details and 
prices may be had by writing manufacturer 
at 127 W. Alameda St., Burbank. 


Calif., 
Stop 


Burbank, 


lenses to “T” 
technical 
stores, etc. 


ments, 


Custom Accessories 

Pictorial Enterprises, 742 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif.. announce an extensive line 
of custom-built accessories for Bolex and 
Cine Special cameras, including varifocal 
viewfinders, matte-box and filter holder as- 
sembly, five-unit extension and a 
precision alignment gauge for the Bolex 16”. 
High craftsmanship, according to Lee W. 
Smith, head of company, assures precision 
results, ease of operation and accurate fit to 
the cameras for which each piece is designed. 
Of special note is the varifocal viewfinder 
with 5-element optical system giving sharp 
edge-to-edge images even at low light levels. 


tube set 





Eye-Level Focus 


Now standard equipment on Bolex model 
H cameras is the Bolex Eye-Level focusing 
device, permitting focusing through the lens 
before making the shot, insuring sharp focus 


at all times. Ground glass focusing has 
always been a feature of Bolex cameras. 
New Eye-Level focusing enlarges image 1o 
diameters. Owners of older model H Bolex 
cameras may have the Eve-Level focuser 
added to their cameras for $37.50 (plus tax) 
through their local dealers. 


Color Film Processor 

Houston Corp., West Los Angeles 64, Calif., 
announces a new automatic color film devel- 
oping machine, designed for processing Ansco 
Color film. Four models are available for 
35mm. and 16mm. film. 


DECEMBER, 1949 


Motor Drive For Bolex, Special 


A precision-made, instantly attachable bat- 
tery-operated electric motor for Bolex and 
Cine Special cameras is offered by the Miles 
Engineering Co., Box 5872, Kansas City, Mo. 
Click switch affords use of three speeds: 8, 
16, or 24 f.p.s. Motor weighs 8 oz., is ball- 
bearing, governor controlled. Net weight of 
motor, case and battery is less than 5 Ibs. 
Complete unit $57.50. A special 
sound model, operating at 24 f.p.s., sells for 
$67.80. 


sells for 


Magnetic Recorder Data 


Kinevox, Inc., 4000 Riverside Dr., Burbank, 
Calif., has prepared an informative new 
brochure and data sheet on Kinevox 
chronous magnetic film recorders. Also an- 
nounced as companion for the Kinevox 
recorder is the new Kinevox Film Phono- 
graph or dubber and a four-position mixer, 
which provides all the equipment necessary 
for production of magnetic film sound tracks 
for 35mm. or 16mm. motion picture produc- 
tion. Make request on your letterhead. 


svn- 





Pathe Camera Comes To U.S. 


Pathé Ciné, 521 5th Ave., New York, 
headed by Robert E. Brockway, is now dis- 
tributing the complete line of Pathé 16mm. 
motion picture cameras and projectors man- 
ufactured by Pathé in France. 

The “Super-16” Pathé camera, priced at 
$395.00 less lens permits viewing picture 
through the lens while shooting—a new inno- 
vation in ciné cameras. Other features in- 
clude variable shutter, speed irange from 8 
to 80 f.p.s., runs 30 feet of film at one wind- 
ing, automatic footage and frame counters, 
tri-iens turret, built-in hand crank, optical 
viewfinder and single-frame device. 





New Magnetic Film Recorder 

The Hallen Corporation, 3503 W. Olive, 
Burbank, Calif., announces the Hallen Junior 
synchronous magnetic film recorder—a single 
unit machine designed especially for economy 
of operation and light weight. Companion 
equipment to the Hallen B-22 recorder, the 
“Junior” may be had in portable case or for 
rack and panel mounting. Features include 
monitor speaker in the removable lid, special 
salient-pole motor, convenient, easy-to-see 
sloping amplifier and mixing panel, simulta- 
neously functioning erase, record and play- 
back heads, handles up to rooo feet of mag- 
netic film. 





Fast Cine Lens 


Ciné Balowstar is name of new and un- 
usual 16mm. camera lens announced this 
month by Jen Products Sales Co., 419 W. 
y2d St., N.Y. Said to be faster than any 
cine telephoto lens yet designed, the Balow- 
star is computed to give the highest definition 
and edge-to-edge sharpness in natural color, 
due to a completely new mathematical for- 
mula. Aperture range is from f/1.3 to f/16. 
Calibrated in both f/ and T stops. Focal 
length is 114”. Price is $199.00, tax incl. 





Waterproof Coupling 

A quick disconnect electrical coupling for 
all-weather and sub-marine applications is 
a new development of Rolyn, Inc., 718 W. 
Wilson St., Glendale, Calif. Coupling is de- 
signed to meet the rigid requirements of 
industries requiring an electricai connector 
that is quick acting, heavy duty, impervious 
to moisture and capable of withstanding 
pressure without leakage. It is ideal for use 
on electrical cables for all types of motion 
picture production, but especially for exterior 
location work where considerable moisture 
prevails. A quarter turn is all that’s required 
to make or break the coupling. Descriptive 
literature is available. 
New S.O.S. Catalog 

J. A. Tanney, president of $.O.S. Cinema 
Supply Corp., 602 W. 52nd St., N. Y., an- 
nounces a new catalog listing its film produc- 
tion and television equipment. Titled “Sture- 
lab 8.A\," this new catalog is divided into 
sections and includes a cross-reference index 
leading to instant locating of items. Catalog 
lists about 1600 items and contains over 200 
photos. Also, many items are priced at sav- 
ings from 25 to 40 percent. A copy will be 
mailed free. 
Equipment Catalog 

Producers Service Company, designer and 
manufacturer of the famous “Acme” motion 
picture production equipment has just issued 
a comprehensive 16-page catalog which illus- 
trates all the equipment, accessories and 
parts now being offered by this company. 
Complete description given together with 
photo reproductions of such items as the 
Acme Process Camera, Acme Animation 
Boards, Process Projector heads, Acme Matte 
Shot Projector, Acme Printers, etc. Also in- 
cluded is sale and rental price lists of Acme 
equipment. 


Apogar Lens 

The C. P. Goerz American Optical Com- 
pany is now supplying photo dealers and 
camera stores with the popular new f/2.3 
Apogar lens. This is a six-element high qual- 
itv lens for both 16mm. and 35mm. cameras. 
Corrected for aberration at full opening, 
fitted to a precision focusing mount, lenses 


come in “C” mounts for 16 mm. cameras. 


110 VOLT AC/DC 


VARIABLE SPEED MOTOR 
5, with TACHOMETER 


j for C. K. Cine Special 


Now you can motor drive your 










Cine Special camera with con- 
fidence. 
Tachometer is mounted in clear 
view of operator. Calibrated from 
16 frames per second to 64 fps. 
with definite RED marking for 24 
fps. 








Electrical governor control for adjusting speeds. Steady operation at ALL speeds 
““OFF-ON”’ switch built into motor base. No adaptors required, except motor-coupling 
which attaches to camera and couples to motor. 


Motor shaft equipped with spring steel drive arm which will shear if camera jam 
occurs. This drive arm is easily replaced. 


Furnished complete with rubber covered cable and plugs. 
Write for complete details. 


FRANK C. ZUCKER 


CG amern-CQuipment O. 





1600 BROROWAY NeW YORK CITY 











C. ROSS 


Ze) 
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 


Inkie and Arc Lamps including Required Accessories 
Generators—Cables—Boards—Boxes 


* 
Raby Camera Crane—Dollies—Blimps—Geared Heads 
ie 


GRIP EQULPMENT 


FOR LOCATION AND STUDIO 
Parallels—Steps—Platform Ladders 
Century Stands—Reflectors—Flags—Scrims 


SOLE EASTERN MOLE-RICHARDSON: CO. DISTRIBUTOR 
RENTALS ¢ SALES * SERVICE 


CHARLES ROSS, Inc. 


333 WEST 52nd STREET 


NEW YORK 19, N.Y. Circle 6-5470-1 





DECEMBER, 1949 2 AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER of 459 








Index To AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER —1949, Vol. XXX 


A 
A 6mm Sound Camera For The Home Movie 
Maker: 444 
Academy Awards for Cinematography 1948 


Adler, Lewis The Case for the Cameramen 4 
Allen, Leigh Animation Adds Interest to Movie 
Titles 170 
New Speed F Films 44 
Ralph Gray, Number One Movie Amateu 
29 
Signal System 4 
They Do It With Infra-Red 3¢ 
Allmon, Charles South Seas Saga 2 
Alton, John. ASC The Hollywood Close-Up 4 
Amateur With Professional Ideas, An 32 
American Cinematographer Award, The: 32 


Among The Movie Clubs: 24 

Animars, The: 248 

Animation Adds Interest » Movie Titles 
A.S.C Photography f 


Inaugurates Research 
Television: 8 
A.S.C.’s New Preview Theatre 38 
Ai 


iricor Cine Voice’: 444 


Balancing Television Camera Tubes: 3¢ 
Barnett, Louis W Movie Club Filming Project 
40¢ 
Story of Television Filmed in 16mm RS 
Berg, Benjamin Eclair Camerette Makes U.S 
Debut 23) 
Book Reviews Better Color Movies 104 
British Film Industry Year Book 104 
Color Movie Making Fo Everybody 325 
Electron-Optics 104 
Films In Business and Industry 104 
Painting With Light 245 
Photographic Emulsion Technique 104 
Principles of Stereoscopy 104 
Brady, J. M Tomorrow's Television ) 
Budget Your Ideas For Better Vacation Movies 


c 
Calamar, Donald B Lens Lore 54 
Calibration of Photographic Lens Markings: 163 
Cameras: 282: 321 
Camera Timer for Time-Lapse Cinematography 
Cardiff, Jack, ASC The Problems of Lighting and 
Photographing ‘Under Capricorn’ ’ 358 
Case For the Cameramen, The: 45 
Case Histories: 400 
Champion: 19¢ 
Changing Trends in Cinematography: 10 
Cine Clubbers Lend A Hand: 24¢ 
Cine Kinks For Movie Amateurs: 22: 58: 9 138 
174; 214 
Cinematographer’s Place in Television: 87 
Cinematography’s Changing Pace: 280 


Clarke, Charles G., A.S.C Story Telling With 
Film 438 
Color: 13; 122; 284 


Color and Color Reproduction: 13 

Color Compensating Filters Simplified: 284 

Cook, Canfield—"Light On The Subject Out 
doors’’: 328 

Current Assiqnments of 
78; 118: 156; 224: 264: 274 


A.S.C. Members: 6: 40 
314; 384; 420; 434 


Cutting The Commercial Film: 208 


D 
Dancing Shoes, The: 318 


DeMos, John—"The Cinematographer’s Place in 
Television”: 87 
“India’s Movie Industry 


DeVinna, Clyde, ASC 
236 

Devon, Jay—*'Cinematography’s Changing Pace 
280 

Different and Difficult: 436 

Directors of Photography Report on Television Re 
search: 124 

Directing The Commercial Film: 130 

Documentary Stvie: 161 


Dored, John, ASC—’’Newsreeler’s Dilemna’’: 201 
Dorte, P. H “The Use ef Films in Television’: 50 


DuPont’s New Color Film: 240 


E 
Eclair Camerette Makes U.S. Debut 21 
Edeson,. Arthur, ASC—’’Not All Artists Paint’: 365 
8mm: 206; 248; 287; 290; 326; 328; 365; 366; 369 
Endurance Test: 172 
Exposure for Titles and Ultra-Closeups: 56 


F 


Farnham, Ralph B.—"'Mercury Cadmium Lamps for 
Studio Set Lighting’: 47 
Fernstrom, Ray, A.S.C.—Moving Camera Shots In 
Amateur Movies’: 442 
Fifteen Dollar Movie Star: 408 
Film: 9; 50; 125; 126; 130; 240; 360; 385 
Filming The Harvester Ant: 18 
Filming “The Man on the Eiffel Tower” 
ASC): 46 
Films for Television: 
Filters: 284 
-'Directors of Photography Report on Tele 
vision Research”: 124 


(Cortez 


125 


460 Ad AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER e 


Television Film Center 5 
Aids TV Photogra 


Ford, Victor How Zoomer 
phy 202 
Foster, Frederick A.S.C.’s New Preview Theatre 
Budget Your Ideas For Better Vacation Mov 
1es 287 
Resourcefulness Paved The Way For 
Success 439 
Fireiight That's Real: 84 
Forbes, John Camera Timer for Time-Lapse Cine 
matography’: 210 
Case Histories 400 
Firelight That's Real 84 
Packaged Illumination 49 
Pushbutton Cinematography 
There’s A Future in Television Filn 
Fountainhead, The: 200 
From Music to Movies: 11 


Their 


G 


Galloway, Clemmie It’s The Print That Counts 
98 

Garin, Warren This Is The Dircctor of Photogra 
phy 401 

Garmes, Lee, ASC Lighting Translucent Back 
ngs'’: 398 


Garutzo Lens In Motion Picture Photography, The 
290 
Gavin, Arthur E The Ame 
Award 32€ 
1948 Academy Awards For Cinematography 


can Cinematographer 


Gilks, Alfred L.. ASC Give Your Vacation Movics 
A Break 128 

Give Your Vacation Movies a “Break 128 

Grooms, Harold M High Speed Cineradiography 
164 

H 

Hartwell, R. B New Lens Testing Method May 

Improve TV Picture Quality 88 


Hayes. John D Pestrecov, ASC The Animars 
248 

Hazlett, Walter Two-Camera Man 53 

High Speed Cineradiography: 164 


His Better Mousetrap Was a Homemade Movie: 3 


Hitchcock Alfred Production Methods Com 
pared 162 

Hoffman, Dave—"’The New Nord Camera 282 

Hollywood Bulletin Board: 4; 42: 76° 11 158 
194: 234: 276: 316: 356: 396: 432 

Hollywood Close-up. The: 245 

Housler, James Technicolor Photography Under 
Water 122 

How Zoomar Aids TV Photography: 202 

Hypersensitizing Film: 385 

I 

India’s Movie Industry: 236 

It’s The Print That Counts: 198 

Keane, Norman—’’Films For Television’: 125 


> 


“Modern Title Making 
King, Paul E.—*Tiger Tape 369 
Kinevox Is Newest of Magnetic Tape Recorders 
292 


L 


Laboratory: 198; 334 


Latens‘fication: see ‘‘New Speed For Films 44 


Lawton, Ralph—’"’Balancing Television Camera 
Tubes”: 362 
—''Champion”: 19¢ 
“Synchronous Maanetic Recorder, A 14 
-"Tyro In Technicolor’: 322 
Lenses: 33; 54; 88; 134; 163; 202; 248; 320 


Lens Facts: 134 
Lens Lore: 53 


Lewis. Glenn B.—"A 16mm. Sovnd Camera For 
The Home Movie Maker 444 
Lightina: 47; 49: 324: 378: 358: 398 


liaht On The Subject: 328 
lighting Translucent Backings: 398 
Lightman, Herb A “Changing Trends In Cinema- 
toaqraphy”’: 10 
“Documentary Stvle 1 
“Fountainhead, The’’: 200 
“Magic Of Montage, The’’: 361 
—"'Red Shoes, The’: 82 
“Rope of Sand’: 278 
‘Snake Pit, The’’: 48 


6) 


192 


—"‘Sound Staae Seafare 23 
Lorina. Charles—"Cutting The Commercial Film’’ 
208 
—''Directing The Commercial Film’’: 130 
—"'Photographing The Commerial Film 168 
“Planning the 16mm. Commercial Film’’: 94 
—"’ ‘Pro’ Touch in Amateur Movies, The’’: 250 
“Puppets Star In Budaet Tele Films’: 17 
“Some Do’s and Dont’s For TV Film Photog- 
raphy’’: 283 
“Source Lighting’’: 324 
Lyon. Frank E.—‘’The Research Council 
Crane’: 242 


Camera 


M 
Magic Of Montage, The: 361 
Magnetic Sound & Recorders: 14; 206; 292; 299 
369; 382; 383 


DECEMBER, 1949 


Membership Roll of American Society of Cinema 
tographers: 121 

Mercury Cadmium Lamps for Studio Set Lighting 
47 


Meters: 85; 419 

Meyer, Dr. Herbert—‘’Color and Color Reproduc 
tion”: 13 

Milner, Victor, ASC A.S.C. Inaugurates Research 
on Photography for Television’’: 86 


Modern Title Making: 2 
Movie Club Filming Project: 406 
Moving Camera Shots In Amateur Movies: 442 


N 


Neal, J. Wesley—'’Cine Clubbers Lend a Hand 
4 


Newbold, R. M The Garutzo Lens in Motion 
Picture Photography 320 
New Lens Testing Method May Improve TV Picture 
Quality: 88 
New Nord Camera 
Newsreeler’s Dilemna: 2( 
New Speed For Films: 440 
New Vest-Pocket Co!or Temperature Meter, A: 85 
Nominees For Achievement Awards: 81 
Norwood, Captain Don Exposure For Titles and 
Ulitra-Closeups’’: 56 
New Vest-Pocket Color Temperature Meter 


The: 828 


/ 85 

Not All Artists Paint!: 365 
° 

Off The Kinescope Tube: 103; 14¢ 

On The Way Magnetic Sound For Smm.: 20¢ 
P 

Packaged Illumination: 49 

D. K., ASC ‘(Hayes The Animars 


Pestrecov 

248 
Photographing Films For Television: 9 
Photographing The Commercial Film. 168 
Planning The 16mm. Commercial Film: 94 
Printers 172 


Problems of Lighting and Photographing ‘Unde 

Cap icorn The 358 
Production Methods Compared 2 
Pro’’ Touch In Amateur Movies, The: 250 
Puppets Star in Budget Tele Films: 17 
Pushbutton Cinematography: 205 

R 

Ralph Gray, Number One Movie Amateur: 290 


Red Shoes, The: 92 

Research Council Camera Crane, The: 242 

Resourcefulness Paved The Way For Their Suc 
cess: 439 

Rice, Adeline— 


His Better Mousetrap Was A 


Homemade Movie’: 366 
Roark, J. G Endurance Test 172 
Rope of Sand: 278 


Rose, Jackson, ASC Lens Facts 134 
Roster of American Society of Cinematographers 


Rowan, Arthur Amateur With Professional Idea 
An 92 
Color Compensating Filters Simplified’: 284 


From Music To Movies 11 


s 

Sease, Dr. V. B., ASC DuPont's New Color Film 
> AN 
a7 

Signal System: 402 

16mm 54 9) 9? 94 28 30 } R 246 248 
282; 287; 288; 290; 32 328; 330; 365; 366 
369 

Snake Pit, The: 48 

S.M.P.E. Convenes In Hollywood October 10th to 
14th: 354 

Some Do’s and Don'ts For TV Film Photography 
283 

Sound Stage Seafarer: 123 

Source Lighting: 324 

South Sea Saga~* 20 

Splicers: 419 

Stanmyre, R. William Teaching Speech With 
16mm. Movies’’: 330 


Story of Television Filmed in 16mm.: 288 

Story Telling With Film: 438 

Strenge, Walter, ASC—Photographing Films Fo: 
Television 3 

Suit The Angle To The Scene: 405 

Synchronous Magnetic Recorder, A: 14 

Synchronized Sound For Home Movies: 91 


T 
Tannura, Phil, ASC—‘’Translucent Photo 
grounds Cut Production Costs’’: 240 
Teaching Speech With 16mm. Movies: 330 
Technicolor Photography Under Water: 122 
Television: 9; 50; 86; 87; 88; 124; 125; 126; 165 
166; 202; 205; 283; 362 
Television Film Center: 165 
There’s A Future In Television Films: 126 
They Do It With Infra-Red!: 360 
This Is The Director of Photography: 401 
Tiger Tape: 369 
Tips To Amateurs From The Pros: 252 


Back 


Titling: 12; 56; 170 

Tomorrow’s Television: 166 

— Warwick—"‘Fifteen Dollar Movie Star’: 
408 
—"Filming The Harvester Ant”: 18 

Translucent Photo Backgrounds Cut Production 
Costs: 240 

Tutwiler, Thomas, ASC—‘Suit The Angle To The 
Scene”: 405 

25 Years Ago With A.S.C. Members: 26; 62; 98; 
140; 176; 222; 294 

Two-Camera Man: 53 

Tyro In Technicolor: 322 


U 
Use of Films In Television: 50 


Y 
Vogel, Paul C., A.S.C.—"Different and Difficult”: 
436 


Ww 
What's New In Equipment, Accessories & Service: 
69; 109; 184; 222; 458 
Wixon, Bernarr—‘‘Synchronized Sound For 
Movies”: 91 


Home 





ASSIGNMENTS 


(Continued from Page 434) 


Keel, Louis Calhern, J. Carrol Naish, Edward 
Arnold, Keenan Wynn and Benay Venuta. 
George Sidney, director. 

@ Haro_p Rossen, “Asphalt Jungle,” with 
Sterling Hayden, Jean Hagen and James 
Mitchell. John Huston, director. 

© JoHN ALTon, “Mystery Street,” with Ri- 
cardo Montalban, Sally Forrest, Bruce Ben- 
nett and Marshall Thompson. John Sturges, 
director. 

® Harowp Lipsrein, “The Skipper Surprises 
His Wife,” with Robert Walker, Joan Les- 
lie, Edward <Arnold, Spring Byington and 
Leon Ames. Elliott Nugent, director. 

® Ropert PLANCK, “Summer Stock,” (Tech- 
nicolor) with Judy Garland, Gene Kelly, 
Gloria DeHaven, Phil Silvers and Eddie 
Bracken. Charles Walters, director. 


Monogram 


® Gicperr WARRENTON, “Young Daniel 
Boon,” (In Color) with David Bruce, Kris- 
tine Miller. Reginald LeBorg, director. 

@ WILLIAM SICKNER, “Joe Palooka In Hon- 
eymoon For Five,” with Joe Kirkwood, Leon 
Errol and Pamela Blake. Jean Yarbrough, 
director. 

@ Harry C. NEUMANN, “Fence Riders,” with 
Whip Wilson, Reno Browne and Andy Clyde. 
Wallace Fox, director. 


Paramount 


@ WitwiaAm ME tor, “A Place In The Sun,” 
with Elizabeth Taylor, Montgomery Clift 
and Shelly Winters. George Stevens, director. 
® Georce BARNES, “Mr. Music,” with Bing 
Crosby, Charles Coburn, Ruth Hussey and 
Nancy Olson. Richard Hadyn, director. 

® Roy Hunt, “Outrage,” (Pine-Thomas) 
with Macdonald Carey, Gail Russell, Ed 
Rios. Joseph Losey, director. 

© CHarves LANG, “September,” (Hal Wallis 
Prod.) with Joan Fontaine, Joseph Cotten, 
Francoise Rosay and Robt. Arthur. William 
Dieterle, director. 


®@ Vicror MILNER, “The Furies,” (Hal Wallis 


Prod.) with Barbara Stanwyck, Wendell 
Corey, Walter Huston. Anthony Mann, di- 
rector. \ 


R.K.O. 


® Freppige YouNG, “Treasure Island” (Walt 
Disney Prodn.—Shooting in England) with 
Bobby Driscoll, Robert Newton, Basil Sidney 
and Denis O’Dea. Byron Haskin, director. 
® Harry Wi, “Carriage Entrance,” with 
Robert Mitchum, Ava Gardner and Melvyn 
Douglas. Robert Stevenson, directer. 


® Leo Tover, “Blind Spot,” (Skirball-Man- 
ning Prod.) with Claudette Colbert, Robert 
Ryan and Jane Cowl. Mel Ferrer, director. 
@ Harry STRADLING, “Edge Of Doom,” 
(Goldwyn Prod.) with Dana Andrews, Far- 
ley Granger, Joan Evans. Mark Robson, di- 
rector. 


20th Century-Fox 


® CHartes G. CLarRKE, “Two Corridors 
East” (Shooting in Berlin, Germany) with 
Montgomery Clift, Paul Douglas, Cornella 
Burch and Burni Loebel. George Seaton, di- 
rector. 

@ ArTHUR MILLER, “The Gun Fighter,” with 
Gregory Peck, Helen Wescott, Jean Parker 
and Skip Homeier. Henry King, director. 

® JosePpH LASHELLE, “The Big Fall,” with 
John Garfield, Micheline Prelle, Luther Adler 
and Orley Lindgren. Jean Negulesco, direc- 
tor. 

® Leon SHAMRoy, “Cheaper By The Dozen,” 
(Technicolor) with Jeanne Crain, Clifton 
Webb, Myrna Loy, Betty Lynn. Sara Allgood. 
Walter Lang, director. 

® Mitton KRasNeR, “No Way Out,” with 
Richard Widmark, Linda Darnell, Stephen 
MeNally and Fred O'Neal. Joseph Mankie- 
wicz, director. 


United Artists 


@ Henry FReEvLIcH, “The Iriquois Trail,” 
(Bernard Small Prod.) with George Mont- 
gomery, Brenda Marshall, Glen Langan, 
Sheldon Leonard and Paul Cavanaugh. Phil 
Karlson, director. 

© Ropert De Grasse, “The Men,” (Stanley 
Kramer Prod.) with Marlon Brando, Teresa 
Wright, Richard Erdman and Everett Sloan. 
Fred Zinnemann, director. 


Universal-International 


® WittiAmM DANIELs, “Deported” (Shooting 
in Italy) with Marta Toren, Jeff Chandler. 
Robert Siodmak, director. 

© Maury GERTZMAN, “Double Crossbones,” 
(In Color) with Helena Carter, Donald 
O'Connor, John Emery. Charles Barton, di- 
rector. 

© IRVING GLASSBERG, “Shoplifter,” with Scott 
Brady, Mona Freeman, and Andrea King. 
Charles Lamont, director. 

@® Maury GEeERTZMAN, “Death On A Side 
Street,’ with James Mason, Marta Toren and 
Dan Duryea. Hugo Fregonese, director. 


Warner Brothers 


® Tep McCorp, “The Victim,” with Joan 
Crawford, David Brian and Steve Cochrane. 
Vincent Sherman, director. 

© Ernest Haver, “The Hawk And The 
Arrow,” with Burt Lancaster, Virginia Mayo 
and Frank Allenby. Jacques Tourn ir, di- 
rector. 

® Swney Hickox, “The Rock Bottom,” with 
Eleanor Parker, Patricia Neal, Ruth Roman, 
and Lief Ericson. Robert Wise, director. 

@® Ropert Burks, “The Glass Menagerie,” 
with Gertrude Lawrence, Jane Wyman, Kirk 


Douglas, Arthur Kennedy. Irving Rapper, 
director. 
@ Cart GuTurig, “Storm Center,” with Gin- 


ger Rogers, Ronald Reagan and Doris Day. 
Stuart Heisler, director. 

® Wicrrip Kine, “Colt .45,"° (Technicolor) 
with Randolph Scott and Zachary Scott. Ed- 
ward Marin, director. 

® Kari Freunp, “Bright Leaf,’ with Gary 
Cooper, Jack Carson, Lauren Bacall, Patricia 
Neal, Donald Crisp, Elizabeth Patterson and 
Jeff Corey. Michael Curtiz, director 


DECEMBER, 1949 


NOW AVAILABLE! 


@ 35mm. Variable Area Film Re- 
cording Equipment. 

35mm. Re-recorders. 
Interlock Systems. 

Studio Mixer Consoles. 
Portable Converters. 


35 mm. Double Film Magazines 
and Loop Attachments. 





QUALITY FILM RECORDING 
EQUIPMENT SINCE 1930 





BLUE SEAL SOUND DEVICES 
536 E. 85th St., New York 28, N.Y. 
Cable Address: SOUNDFILM 


























AKELEY CAMERA AND 
INSTRUMENT CORP. 


175 Varick Street 
New York 14, New York 
— Established 1914 — 


Designers and manufacturers of silent 
and sound motion picture cameras 
with 225° shutter opening, (288° 
shutter opening for television use), 
gyro tripods and precision instruments. 
Complete engineering and machine 
shop facilities for experimental work, 
model and production runs. 


INQUIRIES INVITED 

















DIRECT 16MM SOUND 
with MAURER RECORDING SYSTEM 


For the Producer of 16mm. Business, 
Educational and Religious Films. 

@ Synchronized Studio 
Photography 

@ Release Prints— 
Color and BGW 


@ Edge Numbered 


Work Prints 
@ Sound Recording 
@ Duplicate Negatives 


GEO. W. COLBURN LABORATORY, Inc. 


164 N. Wacker Dr., Dept. A . Chicago 6, Ill. 














A. S. C. 
CINEMATOGRAPHIC 
ANNUAL 


Printed and published in 1930, a limited 
number of the original editions of this valu 
able technical book are available to cinema 
tographers, movie amateurs, schools and 
public libraries. 

No other book ever written contains so 
much data supplied by the professionals of 
Hollywood's motion picture studios 


$3.50 Postpaid 


AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
1782 N. Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. 








AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER o 


401 

















RATES: 





Classified Advertising 


Ten cents per word— minimum ad $1.00. Ads set in all capital letters, 60¢ per agate line (12 agate lines per inch). 
No discounts on classified advertising. Send copy to editorial office, 


1782 N. 


Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, California. 

















———- -- 





FOR SALE 


FOR SALE 


STUDIO & PRODN. EQUIP. 





35MM. INTERMITTENTS—now only $75.00 each 

precision machining, excellent design. Perfect 
for Printers, Animation Cameras, Slide Film Cam 
and for silencing and modernizing motion 


eras, 
picture cameras. Double pull-down claws and 
double registration pins, at aperture. Entire unit 


in light-tight metal case to accommodate 200 


foot roll, complete with take-up. Light trap at 
aperture. Original cost $1,000.00 
AFP 


1600 BROADWAY - - SUITE 1004 


New York 19, N. Y. 


WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSIONAL AND 
EQUIPMENT, NEW AND USED. WE ARE 
FOR ALL LEADING MANU 


omm 


DISTRIBUTORS 


FACTURERS. RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 
Seventh Ave., New York City. Established since 
1910. 


TOP QUALITY CINE LENSES—The world’s largest 
selection of fine cine lenses (Zeiss, Cooke, Astro 
Bausch G Lomb, Goerz and many others) avail 
able on |5 day trial High Speed, Wide Angle, 
Telephoto In focusing mounts coated to fit 

Mitchell 35 


Eyemo, Bell G Howell Professional, 
and 16, Maurer 

SPECIAL EYEMO CAMERAS—Rebuilt factory in 
spected; magazine and motor adaption 


EYEMO ACCESSORIES AND PROFESSIONAL CINE 
EQUIPMENT—Eyemo Magazines, developing out 
fits, printers 


FREE CATALOG: full 
Send this ad to BURKE G JAMES, INC. 
321 So. Wabash Ave. Chicago, Ill., U.S.A. 
Att: A. Caldwell 


description and prices 


BASS SAYS: 
For top values in Cine equipment 
Always write to Bass first. 


CHARLES BASS 
President. 


35mm. Universal, B. G L. Tessar F:3.5 


8mm. Zeiss Movikon K, Sonnar F:2, 3X Zeiss tele- 
photo attachment, Case $125.00 


Bolex H-16, Plasmat F:1.5, wide angle F:2.7, 3” 
Trioplan F:2.8 coated 


$110.00 


$295.00 


16mm. Bell G Howell 70DA, 1°’ Cooke F:1.5, 17mm 
F:2.7 wide angle, 4° Dallmeyer F:4 $325.00 


Movikon, F:1.4, cpld. R.F., 
....-3 75.00 


16mm. Zeiss Sonnar 


Case 
BASS CAMERA COMPANY 


Dept. AC, 179 W. Madison St., Chicago, 2, Ill. 


MITCHELL STANDARD CAMERA. Like new. Brand 
New Mitchell Wild Motor, Tachometer. Four like 
new Pantachar Lenses, Mitchell Mounts 75mm- 
50mm.-35mm. All F.2-3. 25mm. F.1-8. 400 Ft 
Magazine, Will Sacrifice $3,000.00 


OPTICAL PRINTER—35mm. Most complete in 
Hollywood. Brand New Bell G Howell No. 1082 
on Copy head, also Bell G Howell on Projector 
head. All dissolves and wipes selsyn motor con- 
trolled. Extra Optical System for background work 
or superimposing titles. Many exclusive features 
Value $30,000.00. Will accept any reasonable 
offer. 


BELL G HOWELL 35mm. Hot negative splicer. 


Value $950.00. Will accept $700.00 for quick 
sale. 
MOVIOLA Silent—New condition $125.09 


LOUIS MEYER STUDIOS 
9200 Exposition Bivd., Los Angeles 34, Calif. 
Phone TEXAS 0-4696 


WILLIAMS ELECTRIC 33MM. camera, 100 ft. ca- 
pacity, double frame. Ideal for baby picts. For 
the best deal in town see “‘Herb,’’ member of 
Local 659, at CAMERA MART, INC., 1614 No. 
Cahuenga, Hollywood 28, Calif. HEmpstead 7373. 


WE Buy, Sell, Trade Cameras, Projectors, Labora- 
tory and Cutting Room Equipment, 8-16-35- 
mm. We pay highest prices. Carry one of the 
most diversified stocks in America. Mogull’s 
Camera G Film Exchange, 112-114 W. 48th St., 
New York 19, N. Y. 


BELL G HOWELL I6MM. RACKOVER CAMERA, 
3 Ektar lenses, matte box, finder, motor, maga- 
zines, tripod, batteries. Used less than 600 feet. 
Must sacrifice—$1,985.00. New cost $2,900.00 
Box 1066, AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER 
Phone ARizona 9-0865. 


FOR SALE: ONE MAURER Camera. Latest model— 
NEW WORLD FILM COMPANY, 58 


like new 

West 57th Street, New York, N.Y. Tel. Cl. 5-915] 
F-B DECEMBER SPECIAL—35mm. Devry camera, 
like new, built-in Eyemo “‘C’ mount, 2” 2.8 
G 6” 4.5 Eymax focusing lenses, tubular side 
viewfinder, bracket, cranks, case—only $195.00 
Hundreds of 16-35mm. production items at 


lowest prices. Request free list—trades accepted 
FLORMAN G BABB 
1254 Sherman Ave. New York 56, N.Y. 


16MM. SPECIALIST RACKOVER CAMERA 
WITH CUSTOM MADE BLIMP 


Standard Mitchell Finder, universal and sync mo- 
tors, studio matte box and sunshade, two 400-ft 
magazines, other small accessories, no lenses. All 
in two felt-lined metal cases, ideal for studio or 
location work. $2200.00. Write to P. K. SMITH, 
16th Floor, 45 West 45 Street, New York, N. Y. 


BGH 





LABORATORY & SOUND 





STARTLING New Bridgamatic Automatic Process- 
ing Machine, $1395.00 (tax included)—for TV 
Stations, Small Laboratories. Self - contained 
60’'x28"' high. Steel Neoprene lined tanks. De- 
velops and dries 16mm. film ready for showing 
at positive speed of 720’ per hour. Wire or phone 
Dept. f—S. O. S. CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORA- 
TION, 602 W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 





PHOTOGRAPHERS 





SERVICE TO PRODUCERS 


Mitchell 16mm. Professional camera equipped with 
1200 foot film magazines for continuous film- 
ing, available for rent with operator to 16mm. 
producers. Write for rates. 


Walter Porep 
Sportsreel Productions 
1114 Carleton St. 
Berkeley, California 





MISCELLANEOUS 





A.S.C. “CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL,” published 
1930. Limited number copies available at $3.50. 
A collectors’ item. A.S.C. Agency, 17482 N. 
Orange Dr., Hollywood 28, Calif. ' 


REBUILT Blue Seal 35mm. Soundfilm Recorder 
w /galvanometer 1000’ magazine, syncmotor, 
noise reduction, recording amplifier, power sup- 
ply, etc., worth $6,000.00, now $2,750.00; other 
35mm. recorders from $495.00; Closing out cus- 
tom built Reversal Processor, $1375.00; Custom 
built Maurer Blimp, $295.00; New Auricon 33 
Minute Camera, $1665.00; MR 1000W Solarspots, 
$64.50; B. Maurer 16mm. Recorder, $1595.00 
Akeley 35mm. Newsreel. Camera, lenses, tripod, 
magazines, complete $229.50; Simplex Acme 
35mm. Sound Projection outfit, $595.00. Illus- 
trated Production Equipment Catalog ready 
Dept. f—S. O. S. CINEMA SUPPLY CORPORA- 
TION, 602 W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


ROGER CAMERA TIMER 


for automatic operation of (any) camera and 
light for TIME-LAPSE CINEMATOGRAPHY and 
ANIMATION as used by many organizations 
since 15 years. Microcinema Equipment. 


SETTINGS: I, 2, 3, 6, 12 
, & B 4, 6, 
faster, 


and 24 Exp. per Hour 
Exp. per minute 
frame push 


and 8 


and also single 


button. 
ROLAB 


Sandy Hook, Connecticut 





EQUIP. WANTED 





WANTED TO BUY FOR CASH 
CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES 


MITCHELL, B G H, EYEMO, DEBRIE, AKELEY 
ALSO LABORATORY AND CUTTING ROOM 
EQUIPMENT 


CAMERA EQUIPMENT COMPANY 
1600 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY 19 
CABLE: CINEQUIP 


“WANTED” 
Mitchell - Akeley - B G H 
Wall - Eyemo 
Cameras - Lenses - Equipment 


NATIONAL CINE EQUIPMENT, INC. 
20 West 22nd Street 
New York 10, New York 


STUDIO equipment, Lights, Recorders, Cameras, 
Tripods. S.0.S. CAMERA SUPPLY CORPORA- 
TION, 602 W. 52nd Street, New York 19. 


WANTED: ONE AURICON camera, excellent con- 
dition. Will pay cash. NEW WORLD FILM COM- 
PANY, 58 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y. 


SPENDING SPREE—F-B needs equipment immedi- 
ately. Cash waiting for 16-35mm. cameras, pro- 
jectors, recorders, lenses, tripods, lights, lab 
equipment. Write or wire 


FLORMAN G&G BABB 
1254 Sherman Ave. New York 56, N.Y. 


WANTED: 16MM. AURICON Model RT-80 Sound 
recorder less amplifier, 200 ft. magazines to fit 
same. Auricon portable power supply also Kodak 
coated |" F:1.4 lens. Write E. A. BLACKMAN, 
81 High St., Danvers, Mass. . 





462 -@ AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER @ 


DECEMSER, 1949 

















His pen-and-ink people live for laughter... 


BORN on the drawing board, though 
they are, these little people have the 
breath of life and laughter that captures 
hearts the world around—thanks to the 
creative genius of the animator. 

His knowing lines belie the fact that 
they are folk of fantasy ...of pen and ink 
and paint. For each and every one has 
the human touch... has been fully en- 
dowed with character and lifelike move- 


ment, through the animator’s artistry. 

Yet—for all his wit and skill—the 
animator could not present his gift of 
laughter to the moviegoing world with- 
out the help of film. And this—in types 
especially adapted to his needs—he finds 
in the famous Eastman family, whose 
Fine Grain Master Positive and Back- 
ground X Negative have been the ani- 
mator’s faithful mediums for many years. 


EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 


ROCHESTER 4, N. Y. 


J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., DISTRIBUTORS 


FORT LEE -« 


CHICAGO - 


HOLLYWOOD 








Why pick that one? 


Because you're looking for the best, naturally. 
And when you're looking for the best in 

home movie equipment you pick Bell & Howell. 
You know it’s built to the most exacting 
specifications to produce glowing, lifelike movies 
that delight even the most critical. Yes, for 
home movies of real professional quality, you'll 
choose Bell & Howell—every time! 














Auto 8. Flick of Swifturn 2-lens tur- 
ret gives split-second shift from long 
shots to closeups with automatic po- 
sitioning of viewfinder. Magazine- 
loading. Light, compact. With Filmo- 
coted f/2.5 lens only, now $174.42. 


16mm Single-Case Filmosound. Built 
for flawless performance, dependa- 
bility. Lightweight, easy to carry. 
For either sound or silent films. With 
built-in 6-inch natural sound 
speaker, only $399.50. Larger, sepa- 
rate speakers available. 


16mm Auto Master. Only 16mm 
magazine camera with turret head 
that automatically matches view- 
finder to lens in use. Last word in 
l6mm field. With £/2.5 Filmocoted 
lens only, now $222.51. 





16mm Diplomat Projector. Outstand- 
ing performer that gives professional 
results. All-gear drive for silent, 
smooth operation and long life. 
$273.30. 


16mm Auto Load. All the fine qual- 
ity of Auto Master without turret 
head. Lens easily interchangeable 
with other lenses. With Filmocoted 
£/1.9 lens, only $185.00. 





8mm Picture Master Projector. Su- 
perior optical system provides maxi- 
mum illumination. Still projection 
feature. $262.00. 


Guaranteed for life. During the life of 
any B&H camera or projector, any 
defects in workmanship or material 
will be remedied free (except trans- 
portation). 


eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneeeeeese 


EXTRA LENSES add to Movie-Making Fun! In- 
crease the versatility of your camera— make 
sure of hard-to-get shots with extra lenses. 
There’s a full range of fine B&H 8 and 16mm 
speed, wide-angle, and telephoto lenses to 
choose from! See your dealer today! 


You buy once in a lifetime when you buy 


swe 


= Sar