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the 
‘son 
on, 
ubs 
iece 

no 
1ses 
but 


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AMERICAN VETERINARY REVIEW, 


OCTOBER, 1884. 








ORIGINAL ARTICLES. 





REPORT ON THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 


By Pror. James Law, of Cornell University. 
(Continued from page 258.) 





ERGOT AND ERGOTISM. 


In view of the importance of this question, it seems desirable 
to append a general statement on the subject of ergut and allied 
fungi, and their known effects on the animal system. 

Ancient synonyms.—Ignis Sacer; Ignis Sancti Antonii; Ignis 
Sancti Martialis; lgnis Invisibilis seu Infernalis, Beate Virginis. 

Modern synonyms.—Morbus_ Cerealis; Mutterkornbrand ; 
Kriebelkrankheit. 

Definition.—These names are given to an affection, or rather 
several affections, caused by the consumption of cereal grains 
affected with ergot (sclerotium or spawn of Claviceps purpurea). 
The morbid phenomena produced in those that eat this product 
are of several different types, according to the conditions in which 
the ergot has been grown and the conditions of life of the animals 
fed. The most prominent forms may be thus stated ; 

ist. The nervous form, resulting in convulsion, paralysis, or 
lethargy. 

2d. The gangrenous form, resulting in the dry gangrene of the 
extremities. 











286 JAMES LAW. 





3d. The abdominal for m, resulting i in ‘constipation, impactions 
of stomach or bowels, with subsequent diarrhea and eruptions on 
or erosions of the mucous membranes or skin (mad itch). 

4th. The abortion form. 





HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ERGOTISM. 


The disastrous abortions which occurred in nearly all classes 
of pregnant females, human and brute, at Rome in B. C. 278 
(Orosii), are with some reason attributed to ergotism, as agricul- 
ture was likely to have been neglected in consequence of the pre- 
vailing Tarentian war. In later times the affection has been no- 
ticed to follow a dull, clondy summer and a great development 
of ergot. In A. D. 857 it was widespread among human beings 
(cattle not mentioned ; Amsales Zanteus, Pertz). Man and beast 
suffered severely in France in A. D. 994 (Hensinger); man in 
Flanders in A. D. 1041 (Chron. Ste. Bavonis); in England in 
1048 (Tysden); in France (man and beast) in 1085 (K6nigshofen), 
in which year there were great losses in cattle in England and 
Ireland (Chron. Sax.); in man and beast on the continent of 
Europe in 1089-91 (Chron. Ste. Bavonis); in France in 1099 
(Mylius); in France in 1127 (cbid.); in France and England in 1196 
(Heusinger) ; in Spain and France (dry gangrene in men, sterility 
in cattle, sheep, and birds) in 1213 (Villalba), 1214 and 1215 
(Heusinger) ; in Germany (ergotism in man) in 1598, also a great 
mortality in beasts, cause not stated (Aeuspinger); in Silesia in 
1587 and 1592, and in Westphalia and Hesse in 1596 (Hecker) , 
in France in 1650; in Germany (in men, ruminants, horses, swine, 
geese) in 1694 (Sownie) and 1700-1 (Hoyerus) ; in Freiburg in 
1703 (Kanold); in Sologne in 1709 (Phil. Trans.); in Transyl- 
vania (pregnant animals aborted) in 1720 (Koliser); in Silesia 
(men and animals—cows and ewes had difficult and dangerous 
parturitions) in 1721 (Hecker, Bresl. Samml.); in Silesia and Bohe- 
mia (convulsive form) in 1737 (Soring) ; in Sologne (man and beast) 
in 1754 (Verheyen) ; in France and Germany (fowls had spasms and 
laid few eggs, most of which failed to hatch) in 1770-’72 (Her- 
mann, Schneider, Meyer, Traube). 
Since the end of the eighteenth century ergotism has become in- 





creasing] 
soil by it 
ergot, al 
and othe 
limit its 
cult part 
nection 
probably 
Erge 
Europe | 
of ergot 
went mé 
Abo 
among ¢ 
ern Fra 
epizooti 
to the e 
(Edinb. 
In 1 
New Y 
hay (Re 
Ontaric 
ports 0! 
account 
source « 
Pro 

in the 1 
ergot il 
occurri 
Sm 

corn ( 
South | 
shed tl 
limbs, 
shells. 
in plac 
univer: 





actions 
ions on 





classes 
C. 278 
agricul. 
he pre- 
een no- 
pment 
beings 
1 beast 
1an in 
nd in 
ofen), 
d and 
nt of 
1099 
| 1196 
arility 
1215 
great 
sia in 
ker) . 
wine. 
rg in 
nsyl- 
lesia 
rous 
sohe- 
east) 
and 


Ter- 


e in- 





THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 287 





creasingly rare in the Old World, the general improvement of the 
soil by intelligent culture having restricted the development of 
ergot, and the extensive production of potatoes, turnips, beets» 
and other succulent roots and vegetables, having done much to 
limit its evil effects when it does exist. The abortions and difii- 
cult parturitions in Nassau and Central Europe in 1829, in con- 
nection with the damp, cloudy season and spoiled forage, were 
probably in part due to ergot (Franque, Zunéel). 

Ergotism prevailed in man and pigs in Saxony and Northern 
Europe in 1831~32, in connection with an unusual development 
of ergot in rye, and dogs and cats compelled to eat of the rye 
went mad—nervous ergotism ? (Wagner, Helm, Verbeyen). 

Abortions and retention of the placenta were also prevalent 
among cattle (Helm). An extensive outbreak occurred in South- 
ern France in 1835 (Barrier); also in Hesse (Heusinger). An 
epizootic of ergotism at Trois Crois, France, in 1841, was traced 
to the ergoted state of the rye and other graminez in the district 
(Edinb. Month. Jour., Jan., 1842). 

In 1842 the dry gangrene of the limbs of cattle in Central 
New York was successfully traced to the presence of ergot in the 
hay (Randall), and my observations in 1868 in New York and 
Ontario fully confirmed this conclusion. Since that time the re- 
ports of the Commissioner of Agriculture have furnished frequent 
accounts of such outbreaks in different States, though the true 
source of the trouble has not always been recognized. 

Professor Tanner, writing in 1859, traced the abortions in cows 
in the wet meadow lands in Western England to the prevalence of 
ergot in the grasses, and without doubt many of the abortions 
occurring in the United States are due to a similar cause. 

Smut—Closely allied to ergot in its effects is the smut of Indian 
corn ( Ustilago Maidis). Roulin writes of this that in Colombia, 
South America, persons who eat it lose their hair and teeth, swine 
shed their bristles and become weak and atrophied in their hind 
limbs, mules lose their hair and hoofs, and hens lay eggs without 
shells. Tschudi says the ergot of maize is commonly used at Lima 
in place of ergot of rye, and another writer mentions an almost 
universal occurrence of abortion in cows in Brazil from eating this 















































288 JAMES LAW. 


product. Tode, Sarcone, Cordier, Imhof, Parmentier, and Tessier 
have fed smut to men, dogs, and birds for periods varying from 
several days to several weeks without evil effect. Gerlach, on the 
other hand, fed geese and ducks on smut of wheat, thereby induc- 
ing death (of anthrax?). In 1842-44 he observed a yangrenous 
fever (and true anthrax ?) in horses from feeding on smutty wheat. 
Soon after being put on the wheat they were attacked with indi- 
gestion, the feeces were covered with a layer of mucus, they had 
colics daily, aud on the slightest occasion (chill or violent exercise) 
they developed a typhous and gangrenous fever (and true anthrax?) 
so that in one day two or three animals sickened and died. He 
gives another instance of the occurrence of abortion in cows from 
the same cause. (Magaz. f. Thierh.) Monati records that the 
peca pellagra of the Italians was unknown until the eighteenth 
century, when maize began to be extensively cultivated. Mazzari, 
Mardi and Lette attribute this disease entirely to smutty corn. 
Balardini found that fowls and dogs suffered when fed on smut, 
and confirms the assertion of Valleuzosca della Fallcadina that 
pellagra was banished from the Bellano Alps by the introduction 
of the potato as the basis of the food of the poor. 

In 1870 the dairy cows of Cornell University were attacked 
with unhealthy gangrenous sores around the coronets, after they 
had been fed some time on corn stalks containing many “ nubbins ” 
affected with smut, but speedily recovered when in accordance 
with my advice the objectionable food was withheld. In 1868 
Prof. John Gamgee fed to each of two cows 21 pounds of smut 
from corn in the course of three weeks, producing no active dis- 
ease, but the one animal to which the food was given dry steadily 
fell off in condition, while the one to which it was fed in a moist 
state steadily gained. The instance of gangrene quoted above as 
occurring in the present season in Yates County, New York, is a 
more recent manifestation of this deleterious action of smut. 

To these may be added the many cases of dry murrain which 
occur yearly in cattle that have been turned out in fields of corn 
stalks when the usual sources of water supply have been sealed up, 
and when drink can only be had irregularly through breaking of 
ice or prolonged hand pumping. There is further reason to sup” 





pose that 
stances O 
ergot or 

It she 
classed wv 
bear a cl 
by ergot 


This | 
while th 
planatiot 
acknowle 
determin 
toms. 1 
of Wrig 
associate 
tion of 1: 
gangrent 
died in ti 
the lesio 
the alim 
to be for 
been gre 

The 
of nerve 
There is 
tion to li 
or feathe 
touch, si 
afterwar 
periods « 
still alte 
Constip: 
diarrhea 
even wit 
nausea ( 





from 
on the 
induc- 
‘enous 
vheat. 
1 indi- 
y had 
reise) 
hrax?) 
He 
from 
it the 
eenth 
ZZari, 
corn. 
smut, 
1 that 
iction 


acked 
they 
bins ” 
Jance 
1868 
smut 
e dis- 
adily 
moist 
ve as 
isa 


vhich 
corn 
d up, 
ng of 
) sup” 


lessier 





THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 289 





pose that many cases of so called mad itch in cattle are but in- 
stances of a gastric and cutaneous disorder due to the ingestion of 
ergot or smut. 

It should here be noted that a number of maladies usually 
classed with anthrax, but really caused by molds and other fungi, 
bear a close resemblance in many respects to the disorders caused 
by ergot or smut. 


SYMPTOMS OF NERVOUS ERGOTISM. 


This has been more commonly observed in the north of Europe, 
while the gangrenous form has prevailed farther south. In ex- 
planation Heusinger suggests that the greater abundance of ergot 
acknowledged to exist in Southern Europe, and notably in Sologne, 
determines a more rapid poisoning and a different class of symp- 
toms. Toa certain extent this is negatived by the experiments 
of Wright, who found convulsions, local spasms, and paralysis 
associated with intestinal disorder as the result of the administra- 
tion of large doses of ergot, but in no case anything approaching 
gangrene. In the worst cases in Kansas, too (Bead’s ox, which 
died in twenty-four hours, and Keith’s calf, which died in two days), 
the lesions were not those of dry gangrene, but of inflammation of 
the alimentary mucous membrane. The explanation is probably 
to be found rather in the conditions under which the ergot has 
been grown and the stage at which it had been harvested. 

The nervous form of ergotism is usually ushered in by some loss 
of nervous power, accompanied or not by digestive disturbance. 
There is at first vertigo and unsteady gait, with a marked disposi- 
tion to lie down and remain so until urged to get up. The hair 
or feathers lose their luster and the skin its heat. The senses of 
touch, sight and hearing vary, being dull and obtuse at first and 
afterward morbidly and even painfully acute, though with these 
periods of hypersesthesia intervals of torpor and obtuseness may 
still alternate. During these periods the pupils are dilated. 
Constipation is an early symptom, usually followed by an irritable 
diarrhea, the faeces being covered by mucus or mixed with it, or 
even with blood. The digestive disorder is further indicated by 
nausea (vomiting in swine and carnivora), congestive spasms or 


























290 JAMES LAW. 





paralysis of the throat, sores on the mucous membrane of the 
mouth and throat, and salivation. In some cases there is merely 
progressive paralysis, with little or no spasmodic action, the palsy 
commencing in hind limbs and gradually extending to the rest of 
the body. This constitutes the paralytic form. 

In other cases the spasms set in early. They may resemble 
those of tetanus or epilepsy, and often cause the subject to moan 
or cry out with pain. They are not continuous but paroxysmal, 
the intervals being marked by knuckling forward at the fetlocks 
from some remaining tonic contraction of the flexor muscles, or 
by stupor, drowsiness, or even palsy of the hind limbs. 

The course of the disease will vary with the individual suscept- 
ibility, the quantity of ergot taken and its quality. It sometimes 
only attains the first stage of drowsiness and vacillating gait, and 
on the ergot being withdrawn recovery ensucs. In the more 
severe cases death takes place after several hours or days, preceded 
by comatism or general paralysis. 

More commonly the quantity of ergot taken is small but main- 
tained, and the disease goes on in a chronic form. The appetite 
is irregular, dainty and ravenous by turns; but however much is 
taken, the animal fails to digest and assimilate it and becomes 
steadily emaciated and exhausted, and finally dies in a convulsion. 

Finally, in a certain number of cases, neither spasms or par- 
alysis occur, but the animal is plunged into a condition of profound 
lethargy and stupor, from which nothing will rouse it; it remains 
mostly in the recumbent position, eats little, fails to digest or 
assimilate, becomes rapidly emaciated, and dies in marasmus. 


SYMPTOMS OF GANGRENOUS ERGOTISM. 


Dry gangrene.—Cases of this kind are usually preceded by 
intestinal and nervous disturbance. Constipation, diarrhea, varia- 
ble appetite, salivation, and dullness, followed by a morbid acute- 
ness of the senses, may be so marked as to attract general atten- 
tion, or these symptoms may be so slight that the gangrene seems 
to come on as a primary lesion. In the lower animals the gan- 
grene usually attacks the feet and pasterns, and less frequently the 
tail, the ears, and even the horns. It is ushered in by lameness, 








with heat 
extremiti 
or follow 
on a deey 
a hard he 
parts. | 
ing is lin 
but more 
member | 
given hei 
The limit 
edge of t 
with the 
further n 
living an 
and exter 
All below 
insensible 
this line : 
from the 
process 0: 
tendons, 1 
tion thror 
thrown ir 
say nothi 
it is soon 
given rise 
of the ani 
tends up | 
the separs 
joints is s 
than wher 
of the sha 
In fav 
stump hee 
end and t 
a shift to 


of the 
merely 


e palsy 
rest of 


semble 
> moan 
cysmal, 
etlocks 
les, or 


uscept- 
1etimes 
it, and 
» more 
eceded 


t main- 
ppetite 
uch is 
2comes 
ulsion. 
yr par- 
found 
emains 
est or 
us. 


ed by 
varia- 
acute- 
atten- 
seems 
2 gan- 
ly the 
eness, 


THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 991 





with heat, doughy swelling, and extreme tenderness of the affected 
extremities. The heat is soon reduced below the natural standard, 
or followed by absolute coldness, sensibility is lost, the part takes 
on a deep brownish-red or black appearance, dries or witners up into 
a hard horny-like mass, and is slowly separated from the living 
parts. Sometimes the death of the tissue and subsequent slough- 
ing is limited to circumscribed spots or patches above the hoof, 
but more commonly it involves at once the whole substance of the 
member (skin, sinews, and bones) up to the top of the hoof, to a 
given height on the pastern, or to some point on the shank bone. 
The limit of the dead part may be easily recognized by the abrupt 
edge of the cold, hard, dried-up and insensible skin as contrasted 
with the hot, puffy, swollen tissues above. This limit is soon 
further marked by a breach of continuity or crack between the 
living and dead, forming a ring completely encircling the limb 
and extending in succession through the skin, sinews, and bone. 
All below this line is dark-brown or purplish-black, hard, dry, horny, 
insensible to wounds, and will not bleed when incised. Above 
this line are the healthy pink granulations, separating the dead 
from the living and building up a covering over the stump. The 
process of separation is rapid in the case of the soft tissues (skins, 
tendons, nerves, vessels), but may require months for its comple- 
tion through the center of the shank-bone, and as the animal is 
thrown into a state of great vital prostration and emaciation, to 
say nothing of poisoning from the absorption of septic products, 
it is soon reduced to a very miserable condition. This fact has 
given rise to many ignorant and unfounded charges of starvation 
of the animals in the recent outbreak. When the gangrene ex- 
tends up to the level of a joint (upper or lower pastern or fetlock), 
the separation through the comparatively soft ligaments of the 
joints is speedily effected, and the constitution suffers much less 
than when the separation has to be effected through the middle 
of the shank-bone. 

In favorable cases, after the removal of the dead mass, the 
stump heals over by the gradual contraction of the skin over its 
end and the formation of a firm cicatrix, and the animal makes 
a shift to live, and even at times to fatten. 











292 JAMES LAW. 





In the slightest cases and while the hoof is not shed, but merely 
detached over a portion of the sole, the toe turns up, grows out 
excessively, and the beast walks on the dew-claws. 

In the worst cases, with extensive sloughing, the irritation of 
the sores by filth, and the absorption of putrid products, the ani- 
mal suffers from a very high fever, with dry mouth, red eyes, dry 
muzzle, excited pulse and breathing, high temperature, suppressed 
secretions, and fcetid breath, and dies from septic poisoning. 

One symptom, the presence of sores and even vesicles in the 
mouth, has been a cause of much misapprehension in the recent 
outbreak in the West. Observers had overlooked the fact that 
one of the most constant symptoms of ergotism in all its forms is 
disorder of the digestive organs, and with this disordered innerva- 
tion and even an eruption in the mouth and on the skin. Hence 
the owners and even some veterinarians, misled by the great num- 
bers attacked, the simultaneous implication of the mouth and feet, 
and the appearance, in one or two instances, of distinct blisters, 
pronounced this the foot-and-mouth disease. This has been shown 
above to be incorrect, and it is only brought up here to show that 
blisters on the mouth or elsewhere must be recognized as an occa- 
sional symptom of ergotism. 

All medical writers on the subject attach a high importance 
to the sense of formication (feeling as if ants were creeping over 
the skin). Bruce says that gangrencus ergotism differs from ordin- 
ary gangrene only in its cause (Dict. of Med.), and phlyctene or 
blisters, with colored contents, is an almost constant symptom of 
gangrene ; Buck, under gangrenous ergotism, says there are “blebs 
with ichorous conte:uts which soon discharge and leave a gangren- 
ous spot of varying size, when dry gangrene is developed” 
(Hygiene) ; Tabourin notices that in animals there often occurs a 
sero-mucous discharge from the nostrils (Matiére Médicale), and 

Zundel says that this discharge is at times sanguinolent (Dict. de 
Méd. et de Chirurg. Vét.). 

These quotations tend to show the liability of the mucous 
membranes and skin to suffer in such cases. This liability to the 
formation of sores and blisters on the mucous membrane and skin 
in ergotism satisfactorily explains the reports made in former 








years, t 
the We 
disease 
spread 
have dc 
at the s 
come u 
animal: 
as cattl 
tain th: 
or smu 
have m 
prising 
empha 
made t 
in the 
this pa 
on the 
with tl 
treats } 
Ameri 
ones. 
In 
of the 
cold, t 
tail, a 
old, li 
flamed 
anothe 
in the 
In 
purple 
feet sh 
wails « 
and ti 
tween 
the to 


verely 
vs out 


on of 
1€ ani- 
8s, dry 
ressed 
s, 

in the 
recent 
t that 
rms is 
lerva- 
Tence 
num- 
| feet, 
sters, 
hown 
y that 
occa- 


tance 
over 
rdin- 
ee OF 
m of 
blebs 
yren- 
ved ”9 
irs a 
and 
t. de 


cous 
. the 
skin 
mer 








THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 293 





years, that foot-and-mouth disease existed in certain localities in 
the West. Results always disproved such allegations, for the 
disease in question never entered our western stock-yards, nor 
spread over our Middle and Eastern States, as it must inevitably 
have done had it been the foot-and-mouth disease which prevailed 
at the source of our cattle traffic. As all such reports that have 
come under my notice referred to the period of winter, when the 
animals were confined to an aliment of dry hay or cornstalks, and 
as cattle only were mentioned as having suffered, it is almost cer- 
tain that the trouble then, as now, was but the result of ergoted 
or smutty fodder. That the observers in all such instances should 
have mistaken the ergotism for the contagious plague is not sur- 
prising, because of a certain similarity of symptoms, by the 
emphasizing of which the account of the dietetic disease could be 
made to read exactly like that of the contagious one, as witnessed 
in the letters and newspaper reports quoted in the earlier part of 
this paper. The mistake is the more easily explained that no work 
on the practice of veterinary medicine in the English language, 
with the single exception of my “ Farmer’s Veterinary Adviser,” 
treats of ergotism. In England the disease is unknown, and 
American veterinary books are mostly republications of English 
ones. 

In Tessier’s experiments on pigs, the first effects were redness 
of the eyes and ears; the latter organs and the limbs then grew 
cold, the joints swelled, gangrene attacked the ears, limbs, and 
tail, and the animal died in convulsions. One of them, six months 
old, lived for sixty-six days. Its intestines were described as in- 
flamed and gangrenous. (Mém. de la Soc. de Méd.) Here, in 
another class of animals, is shown the same tendency to disorders 
in the skin and alimentary mucous membrane. 

In Millet’s observations on gallinacese the comb became cold, 
purple, black, withered, and dried, the beak and sometimes the 
feet shriveled up and died, and gangrenous patches covered the 
wails of the abdomen. Tessier noticed that in palmipeds the bill 
and tip of the tongue withered up, and Decoste that the web be- 
tween the toes blackened, dried up, hardened, and together with 
the toes, dropped off. This tendency to implicate the bill and’ 





294 ¢ JAMES LAW. 





tongue is generally recognized (Delwart, Read, Thuillier, Salerno), 
and coincides with the observed symptoms iu our cattle. 

In concluding this part of the subject it should be stated that 
powdered ergot applied upon raw surfaces in the lower animals 
has led to circumscribed patches of gangrene. In estimating the 
causes of gangrene in the limbs, therefore, and of unhealthy sores 
in the mouth, throat and bowels, we should not overlook this local 
action of the ergot, which is applied to the feet in wet or thawing 
weather in the mud beneath the racks, and to the mouth and 
alimentary canal continually in the masticated food. 


SYMPTOMS OF DIGESTIVE DISORDERS IN ERGOTISM. 


Indications of digestive disorder are usually among the 
earliest symptoms of ergotism. Carnivora and omnivora usually 
reject by vomiting any consideable dose of ergot administered, 
and show such a disgust for the drug that they will often rather 
starve than voluntarily partake of any food containing it. In the 
herbivora constipation and subsequent diarrhea, as we have 
already seen, is a very common early symptom in both the 
nervous and gangrenous types of the disease. We have even seen 
that an eruption on the skin and on the mouth and other mucous 
membranes is a not unfrequent concomitant of the digestive dis- 
order. But in some outbreaks the disorder of the digestive 
organs is such a prominent feature that the subsequent implica- 
tion of the nervous system is liable to be looked upon as only 
contingent on the digestive disorder. These are the so-called 
cases of dry murrain, in which cattle fed on ergoted hay or 
smutty maize, and subjected to a dearth of water during frost, 
have the stomachs thrown into a state of torpor, and the mani- 
folds firmly impacted with dry food. The local irritation usually 
leads to diarrhea, and in bad cases to inflammation of the stomach 
and bowels, but sooner or later the brain usually sympathizes in 
the trouble, and spasms, delirium, and even paralysis ensue. 
There is first dullness, drowsiness, inappetence, and a tendency to 
lie with the head in the flank, and the pupils dilated ; then there 
may be colicky pains, with looking at the flanks, uneasy move- 
ments of the hind fect and tail, then redness of the eyes, a staring 











look and 
bellowin; 
dangers, 
paralysis 
was kno 
so often 
the Lola 
rye-vrass 
all these 
acts prin 
on the bi 

To : 
twenty-f 
in a few 
of the p 
ing of t 
beats fre 
that on 1 
of all m 
in solipe 
occurrin 


In tl 
instance 
or smut. 
action of 
Dr. Wri 
bitches, 
animals 
term, al 
the syn 
flaccidit; 
tinued 1 
In other 
disprove 
nervous 








lerno), 


d that 
nimals 
ng the 
- sores 
8 local 
awing 
1 and 


r the 
ually 
ered, 
ather 
n the 
have 
| the 
seen 
1cous 
- dis- 
stive 
lica- 
only 
alled 
Ly or 
rost, 
1ani- 
ally 
2ach 
s in 
sue. 
y to 
nere 
ove- 
ing 





THE RECENT CATTLE DISEASE IN KANSAS. 295 





look and blindness, then involuntary or unconscious movements, 
bellowing, a tendency to rush forward irrespective of obstacles or 
dangers, and an early death by accident or in convulsions or 
paralysis. This will be recognized as strongly resembling what 
was known to the old farriers as stomach staggers, which occurs 
so often from the consumption of moldy or musty hay or oats, of 
the Lolum temulentum of Lathyrus cicera, of partially ripened 
rye-yrass, millet, or vetches, or finally of lead insome form. In 
all these cases alike there is this in common, that a poison which 
acts primarily on the digestive organs afterwards operates directly 
on the brain, which it reaches through the course of the circulation. 

To a horse Hertwig gave 3,552 grams of ergot of rye in 
twenty-four days, causing colics and inappetence, which passed off 
in a few hours, drowsiness, which also quickly passed, dilatation 
of the pupils, slight contractions of the cutaneous muscle, lower- 
ing of the temperature of the skin, and reduction of the heart’s 
beats from 40 to 28 pulsations per minute. The day succeeding 
that on which the last dose was given witnessed the disappearance 
of all morbid symptoms. Even in experimental cases, then, and 
in solipeds, there are developed gastric disorders allied to those 
occurring in dry murrain. 


ABORTION FORM OF ERGOTISM. 


In the historical sketch given above are recorded a number of 
instances of widespread abortion which had been traced to ergot 
orsmut. It would be disingenuous to overlook the fact that this 
action of ergot on the lower animals has been held to be disproved. 
Dr. Wright experimented with large doses of ergot on pregnant 
bitches, cats and rabbits. If the doses were moderate, the 
animals remained apparently healthy, carried their young to full 
term, and brought them forth alive. If larger doses were given, 
the symptoms were dilated pupils, rapid pulse, convulsions, 
flaccidity of the limbs, followed by tetanic rigidity which con- 
tinued till death, but no abortion. (Ed. Med. and Surg. Jour.) 
In other cases similar results were obtained. But this no more 
disproves the action of ergot on the uterus than the absence of all 
nervous symptoms in certain cases proves that this agent can 


296 JAMES LAW. 





never act on the brain, or the lack of dry gangrene in others 
proves that it can never act on the capillaries of the extremities, 
Similar objections were for a time advanced against its action on 
the uterus in the human female, but such objections are now 
definitely set at rest. In many cases the comparative inactivity 
of the agent was due to the period of harvesting, and in others to 
the loss of power through exposure, while in still other instances 
the susceptibility of the animal and the conditions of its life 
doubtless stood in the way of a positive result. 

Dr. Kluge found that ergot secured before the grains had 
fully ripened was the most effective (Taylor, Med. Jurisp.) It is 
undoubtedly more active in certain years (grown in certain condi- 
tions) than in others. The ergot of wheat has been found more 
active than that of rye (McGugin, Iowa Med. Jour.). Ergot long 
exposed to the air, and especially in the condition of powder, 
rapidly loses its medicinal and toxic properties. Again, the uterus 
is subject to periodic excitement corresponding to the periods of 
heat in the impregnated female, and as normal parturition usually 
takes place at one of such periods, so it is probable that ergot 
administered at such a time would be more efficient than during 
the interval. Levi finds that nervous ergotism results from the 
vegetable principles (ergotine, ecboline, &c.) and abortion from 
the phosphoric acid. A lack of this acid would thus mean inability 
to cause abortion (Lo Sperimentale). 

It is unhappily too true that disastrous abortions are often 
coincident with feeding on ergot or smut, and the recent abortions 
of mares fed on ergoted red-top in Central Illinois is only one of 
a thousand such instances. Among recent remarkable instances 
is a widespread abortion which occurred in New Zealand in 1875 
in consequence of the introduction to the colony of rye grass which 
ran largely to ergot (Vet. Jour.). Experimentally, in the hands 
of Diez, ergot produced abortion in pregnant bitches and Guinea 
pigs; in those of Percy and Laurent, in a cow. Zundel sums up 
his experience by saying: 


A very constant symptom of ergotism is abortion in the females, and it is 
upon this specific effect that the therapeutic use of ergot is based; but abortion is 
observed as well after the long-continued prehension of aliments altered by smut 


(Fuchs), ¢ 
rust (Has 
(Dict. de 


The 
those of 
dyspept 
a tempo! 
tion, an 
this is f 
in the fi 


—__——_— 


A SU 


(A Par 


The 
many 0 
relief f 
may be 
Other 
lamene 
vestiga 
hazard 
to som 

The 
the mo 
the sol: 
it is u 
cut off 
at the - 

Th 
forme 
fies it, 
horses 





n others 
remities, 
‘tion on 
re now 
activity 
thers to 
istances 
its life 


ins had 
) Itis 
1 condi- 
d more 
ot long 
owder, 
>» uterus 
iods of 
usually 
- ergot 
during 
om the 
} from 
ability 


often 
yrtions 
one of 
tances 
| 1875 
which 
hands 
ruinea 
ns up 


d it is 
rtion is 
y smut 





NEURUTOMY ON TROTTING HORSES. 297 





(Fuchs), of wheat affected by brown rust (Gerlach), and of straw covered with 
rust (Haselbach). This is noticed not only on mammals, but on gallinacez. 
(Dict. de Méd. et de Chirurgie Vétérinari.) 


The symptoms of abortion from ergotism do not differ from 
those of abortion from other causes. If none of the nervous, 
dyspeptic, or gangrenous phenomena are shown, there is merely 
a temporary uneasiness, the usual preliminary symptoms of parturi- 
tion, and the expulsion of the foetus and its envelopes. Oftentimes 
this is found to have occurred during the night, or it takes place 
in the field, and is only suspected when the animal comes in heat. 

(To be continued.) 





A SUGGESTION CONCERNING THE OPERATION OF NEU- 
ROTOMY ON TROTTING HORSES. 


By T. 8. Very, V.S. 


(A Paper read before the United States Veterinary Medical Association at the 
meeting held in Cincinnati, Sept. 16th, 1884.) 





The operation of neurotomy has had many advocates and 
many opponents. Under some circumstances, particularly where 
relief from painful lameness is otherwise not to be obtained, it 
may be considered a humane and practical method of treatment. 
Other circumstances render it objectionable, even in incurable 
lamenesses. The conscientious practitioner will hesitate and in- 
vestigate closely before deciding to operate in any case. Hap- 
hazard undertakings of this kind will lead to queer results, and 
to some very unwelcome and entirely unanticipated. 

There are some few operations of a harmless nature, like filing 
the molar teeth, which one might feel justified to undertake at 
the solicitation of an owner. I maintain, on the other hand, that 
it is unprofessional and vicious, as well as “un-American,” to 
cut off the tail of a horse to conform to a foolish fashion, even 
at the request of a wealthy and influential patron. 

The operation of neurotomy certainly ought never be per- 
formed except the judgment and conscience of the operator justi- 
fies it, and no respectable man would practice it for dealers in 
horses simply to make the animals more merchantable. 


298 T. 8. VERY. 





It is a notorious fact that in former years the operation has 
been injudiciously performed by traveling “horse-doctors who 
made the operation a specialty.” Horses were thus deprived of 
sensibility in their feet without good and sufficient cause, but 
simply for a dollars and cents consideration between practitioner 
and owner. 

If the chances of destroying the animal have been explained 
to the owner, which in some cases is doubtful, the owner has taken 
these chances in order to effect a quick recovery from lameness, 
considering the matter, as they are frequently prone to do, simply 
in its commercial aspect. The operator has done a mean and 
despicable thing for a paltry reward, and either ignorantly or in- 
differently injured his own reputation—if he has had any; has 
brought discredit upon an operation the benefit of which is ac- 
knowledged in many cases, and upon a profession the members of 
which are, as a body, the equal of any in point of humanity and 
respectability. 

It is not necessary to enter into any details concerning the ad- 
visability of operating or refusing to operate in certain stages of 
disease, or in the different conditions and conformations of the 
feet. The importance of deciding which are and which are not 
proper subjects is well understood, but much good judgment can 
be used, or grave mistakes made by the operator in arriving at 
conclusions, in making a thorough analytical diagnosis, and in his 
conception of pathological conditions as influencing results. 

The matter to which I desire to call attention is one quite as 
important as any of these, but I believe nothing has heretofore 
been written or said professionally about it. I have never heard 
it discussed or alluded to, and but for an experience that called 
my attention to it, probably I should not have this opportunity. 
It relates to the effect of the operation upon the gait of the fast 
trotting horse. 

Among some horsemen the opinion prevails that an animal 
trots faster after having been successfully neurotomized, and it is 
easy to discover other conditions favoring why he should go freer 
and faster, with quickened step and increased stride. 

But there arc cases in which, instead of improving the fast 





gait, it « 
operatio 
nerves | 
fect. I 
animal, 
falter, : 
which v 
driver. 
One 
horses | 
their le 
slow Wi 
sold mi 
in spee 
he beg 
and is - 
Th 
which 
wretch 
cause ¢ 
vorabl 
It 
a “tre 
his gai 
in acti 
each ¢ 
tience 
abuser 
to ref 
It wot 
that tl 
offset 
fortur 
M 
throu 
mone 
lame, 


en 
tion has 
ors who 
rived of 
use, but 
titioner 


plained 
iS taken 
neness, 
simply 
an and 
’ or in- 
y; has 
is ac- 
bers of 
ty and 


he ad- 
ves of 
f the 
re not 
1t can 
ng at 
in his 


ite as 
ofore 
eard 
alled 
nity. 

fast 


imal 
it is 


reer 


fast 


NEUROTOMY ON TROTTING HORSES. 299 





gait, it destroys and makes it impossible, and subsequent to the 
operation the animal is worthless as a trotter until reunion of the 
nerves has taken place and sensibility has been restored to the 
fect. In such cases the action of the limbs is so altered that the 
animal, by hitting his legs and feet in some manner, is forced. to 
falter, and “breaks,” ambles and “ mixes his gait” in a way 
which will prove anything but encouraging and agreeable to the 
driver. 

One shudders to think of the abuse which some trotting 
horses receive. In the hands of intemperate and ignorant drivers 
their lot is indeed a hard one. Thrice blessed is the half-fed, 
slow working horse in comparison. <A “trotter” is traded and 
sold much oftener than a slow horse, and as long as he improves 
in speed he usually receives good care and kind treatment. When 
he begins to deteriorate he becomes a victim of circumstances, 
and is ill-used forever after. 

These remarks apply to the clean-gaited, smooth-going horse, 
which may be said to be gifted; but heaven help those poor 
wretches which, by imperfection in gait and conformation, or be- 
cause of other imperfections, are able to trot fast only under fa- 
vorable conditions, which in their cases do not always exist. 

It would be particularly inhuman and unwise to operate upon 
a “trotter” and place him in such a condition that by altering 
his gait he is rendered liable to overreach and become confused 
in action, so that in being passed from one owner to another, 
each one perhaps endeavoring to make him trot and losing pa- 
tience in the attempt, he would be whipped, twitched, pulled and 
abused immoderately. It might be considered safe and humane 
to refuse to operate at all on an animal required for fast work. 
It would certainly be so in cases where it was deemed possible 
that the benefit resulting from the operation would be more than 
offset by creating a new source of evil and hardship for the un- 
fortunate beast. 

My attention was drawn to the consideration of this matter 
through owning a horse which I prized very highly apart from his 
money value, and which becoming, as it was supposed, incurably 
lame, was neurotomized.- He was one of the fastest of road 








300 T. S. VERY. 





horses; one of the steadiest, purest-gaited and most pleasant 
drivers possible. He could strike a 2:30 gait, in going a hundred 
yards, from a walk, and could be relied on not to break or act 
foolishly under any circumstances. He never interfered or cut, 
or hit his legs anywhere or at any time. He had been a little 
lame at times, and finally became incurable by ordinary means. 
Consulting two of my friends about it, it was thought best to op- 
erate upon him. One of these gentlemen kindly performed the 
operation, which terminated in a favorable way so far as imme- 
diate results were concerned, and he was put to work and went 
sound. But from that time he could never go a three-minute 
gait. When urged to go fast he would “hitch” and break, the 
hind shoes would clatter against the front ones; he would amble 
and pace, and go all sorts of ways rather than trot. He was 
willing to try, but the effort was futile. Now I had had quite an 
experience with “ trotters,” and had owned and driven a good 
many (but have now outgrown the fever), so I could generally 
find out where and how and why they hit their legs and broke or 
acted badly. I owned more than a bushel of boots, toe-weights, 
rollers, check-reins, bits, etc., and knew much about shoeing to 
balance the action and overcome defects in gait; but all the 
traps, and all the knowledge and ingenuity I possessed availed 
nothing in this case. His value as a “trotter” had disappeared. 
Accordingly I resolved not to try to trot him, and while he lived 
used him only for slow road-work, which he did acceptably. 
Another case which came under my observation and handling 
was that of a mare that could trot half-miles in 1:10 almost any 
day. I had seen her do this a number of times, and go as steadily 
without boots or weights as could be desired. She became lame, 
and after various attempts to cure the lameness she was purchased 
by a friend of mine, who had her neurotomized, and subsequently 
lent her to me to drive double with a horse that I owned. I 
found that she acted almost precisely like the horse previously 
referred to; that she could not go at anything like her former 
rate of speed without overreaching and hitting her legs in some 
way that frightened her and made her act badly. I tried all my 
paraphernalia of boots, toe-weights and straps on her, but it was 





no us 
could 
again 
trot ¢ 
T 
with 
who. 
that | 
sume 
T hav 
clusic 
z 
tions, 
that s 
outsic 
lated 
and e 
destre 
or the 
ant m 
so th 
to pre 
sible. 
O 
favors 
swing 
under 
than | 
In 
latituc 
the su 
ing to 
others 
Le 
manag 
necess 
and hi 


pleasant 
hundred 
\k or act 
1 or cut, 
1 a little 
y means. 
2st to op- 
rmed the 
1s imme- 
and went 
e-minute 
reak, the 
d amble 
He was 
quite an 
a good 
enerally 
broke or 
weights, 
eing to 
all the 
availed 
ppeared. 
he lived 
ly. 
andling 
ost any 
steadily 
ie lame, 
rchased 
quently 
ned. I 
viously 
former 
in some 
all my 
t it was 





NEUROTOMY ON TROTTING HORSES. 301 





no use; and so long as there was no sensibility in her feet she 
could not trot a bit. The following summer she became lame 
again through reunion of the ends of the nerves, and she could 
trot quite as fast as ever without boots or weights. 

The similarity of these cases and the circumstances connected 
with them set me to thinking. I knew three or four horse-dealers 
who had had large experience with lame horses and with those 
that had been neurotomized, and made it a point to ask them 
sume questions. All of them had seen cases similar to those that 
I have described, and one of them had arrived at the same con- 
clusion I had in regard to them. 

This opinion, which has been strengthened by other observa- 
tions, was that it is unwise and unsafe to operate on any trotter 
that spreads his hind legs wide apart and carries the hind feet 
outside of the front ones in quick action. In both the cases re- 
lated the tendency to this peculiarity was marked, and the flexion 
and extension of the hind limbs particularly bold. The effect of 
destroying the pain in the front feet either increased their action, 
or their time was disarranged in some way, producing a discord- 
ant movement in the relative stroke of the hind and front limbs, 
so that the contact between them came abont in a way impossible 
to prevent by ordinary means, and rendered fast trotting impos- 
sible. 

On the other hand, I should conclude that, other things being 
favorable, a horse that is ‘ close-gaited,” having less “lift and 
swing” to the hind feet and limbs, and carrying them straight 
under the body in rapid action, would go faster after the operation 
than he would if incurably lame in the front feet. 

In the study of the action of the horse in fast trotting, wide 
latitude of thought and investigation may be exercised. I trust 
the suggestions [ have made may do some good, not only in add- 
ing to an inadequate fund, but that they may lead to and develop 
others more important and of greater value. 

Let us hope also that improvements in breeding, and in: the 
management of the horse’s foot, will in the future lessen the 
necessity for the operation of neurotomy, concerning the utility 
and humanity of which there will always be some doubt. 





302 W. D. CRITCHERSON. 





IMPACTION OF PELVIC FLEXURE OF COLON—RECOVERY, 
By W. D. Crirouerson, D.V.S. 


On Monday, June 2d, I was called to see a bay gelding, 
between six and seven years of age. 

History.—Had been owned by the present owner a little more 
than one year; was in fair condition, ate greedily, grain as well 
as the straw used for bedding; performed his work well, but was 
not able to increase his avoirdupois. On the day before (Sunday), 
for the first time, he had an attack of colic; owner treated with 
homeopathic doses of aconite and belladonna. Several hours 
after the attack he purged ‘quite violently, the foeces having a very 
offensive odor. After this he seemed to be relieved, but still 
showed some abdominal irritation. 

Monday morning.—He was still purging, and had intermittent 
pain. When I was called, found condition nearly normal. Diag- 
nosed case as one of intestinal irritation, probably caused by over 
feeding on grass. Gave chloral hyd., 3vi. in pill form, and 
ordered gruel, with small quantity of hay. Saw him again late in 
the afternoon ; found slight rise in febrile condition ; pain at times 
quite severe. Ordered a mixture of opium, belladonna and 
ginger, combined with an alcoholic stimulant in form of gin. 

Tuesday June 3d.—Pain more violent, with expulsive efforts, 
and with little intermission. Had passed neither foeces or urine 
since early Monday morning. Suspecting impaction, made rectal 
examination, and found bladder partially filled with fluid, and 
lying well back in pelvic cavity, having been displaced by pelvic 
flexure of colon, which was firmly wedged in the inlet of pelvis. 
The mass was hard, and could not be displaced forward on account 
of violent expulsive efforts. Condition at this time: Temper 
ature, 101°; pulse, 48; respiration, 120. Gave aloes Barb, 33, 
Ol. Lini, 3x, and passed catheter. To allay pain, gave hypoder- 
mically gr. iv. of morphia. Throughout the day continued to give 
the anodyne mixture of opium and belladonna. 

Wednesday.—Condition about the same. Hypodermie injec- 
tions gave more relief than anything else. Continued the same 
treatment with the addition of rectal injections. 





been p 
most § 
hard p 
severe 
About 
the in 
would 
soda & 
rectun 
but we 
spasm: 
104°; 
F; 
termit 
respir 
injecti 
morpl 
down 
positi 
down. 
side 
motio 
dropp 
seeme 
vomit 
as it’ 
was | 
S 
mass 
Being 
comf 
anim: 
was 
sever 
ten | 








)VERY, 


gelding, 


ttle more 
1 as well 
, but was 
Sunday), 
ited with 
al hours 
ig a very 
but still 


rmittent 
Diag- 
by over 
‘m, and 
1 late in 
at times 
na and 
‘in. 
efforts, 
r urine 
> rectal 
id, and 
' pelvic 
pelvis. 
ecount 
emper 
rb, 3i, 
poder- 


0 give 


injec- 
same 





303 





IMPACTION OF PELVIC FLEXURE OF COLON. 





Thursday morning.—lectal examination revealed no change, 
with the exception that the bladder was empty, the urine having 
been passed in small quantities when expulsive efforts were the 
most severe. Hot water injections brought away several small 
hard pellets of foeces, thickly coated with mucus. At noon had a 
severe attack of pain, which yielded to hypodermic injections. 
About five o’clock was very violent, but was soon brought under 
the influence of morphia. Fearing a rupture of the intestines 
would follow the administration of a second dose of aloes, I gave 
soda sulph. lb. i. and continued the use of soap injections per 
rectum. Ol. Terebinthine Zii. was added to the first injection, 
but was not repeated. Was more quiet during the night, the 
spasms being not so frequent or so violent. Temperature rose to 
104°; pulse, 80; respiration, 40. 

Friday.—Temperature, 103° ; pulse, 84; respiration, 60. In- 
termittent pain. 4 o’clock P.M.—Temperature, 104é° pulse, 90 ; 
respiration, 42. Combined a decoction of tobacco with rectal 
injection. Depended now wholly upon hypodermic injections of 
morphia to give relief from pain.. In lying down, would go 
down first on the knees (like a cow), then would remain in that 
position several seconds before dropping gently down; when 
down, would extend the hind legs and press strongly against the 
side of the stall, while the near fore leg was kept constantly in 
motion, pawing the air. At seven o’clock the temperature had 
dropped to 103° and the pulse to 80. Was not in much pain, but 
seemed to be nauseated, and made several ineffectual attempts to 
vomit. Could not think that the effect was due to the tobacco, 
as it was retained but ashort time. At five o’clock, temperature 
was 102°; pulse, 78; respiration, 36. 

Saturday morning.—On rectal examination, found impacted 
mass somewhat softer to the touch. Gave aloes 3i. as injection. 
Being obliged to attend to other business, I left my patient quite 
comfortable. On returning a little after noon, I found the 
animal in terrible agony and the owner about to destroy him. It 
was impossible to control him, and as a consequence, he was 
severely bruised over his entire body, especially both hips. In 
ten minutes, under the cffects of morphia, hypodermically, the 











304 W. D. ORITCHERSON. 





animal was apparently relieved of all pain, and remained so till 
3:30 P. M., when he passed voluntarilly a small amount of faces. 
At this time temperature, 104°; pulse, 90; respiration, 50. 

Sunday, 7:30 A. M.—Temperature, 123°; pulse, 90 ; respir- 
ation, 54. All through the day and night pain was controlled by 
morphia, instant relief being afforded. The effects of gr. iii doses 
lasted from two to three hours. 

Monday morning.—A small amount of fceces was passed vol- 
untarily, and with but little pain. During the day the animal 
defeecated eight times. The fceces were not liquid at all, but all 
that was in the rectum was passed “en masse,” it being dry, and 
composed of coarse woody fibrous substances, viz. : straw, coarse 
hay, etc. Before the faeces were passed in normal consistency, I 
am certain that the animal passed a bushel of this indigestible 
mass. All pain had now stopped. The food consisted of milk, 
gruel, hay tea, potatoes, carrots and a few cooked oats. 

Wednesday.—His condition was normal. As there was con- 
siderable oedema of his breast, the result of numberless punctures 
with the hypodermic needle, I scarified it, and ordered it bathed 
with warm water; the injuries on different parts of the body 
were treated antiseptically, the hips and one knee being the 
only places that required stimulating by means of nitrate of silver. 
Fearing that abscesses would follow the repeated puncturing of 
the skin, (I had injected hypodermically nearly two drams of 
sulphate of morphia), I watched closely, but saw nothing more 
than the cedemnatous condition of the breast before alluded to, 
although the needle had been inserted into the pectoral muscles 
(the injections being made deep into the muscular structure) more 
than into any other part of the body. The punctures were not 
confined to that particular spot, being made into the neck, flank, 
thigh or breast, whichever part was most conveniently presented. 
Dreading the formation of abscesses as I did, I was very particular 
with my needle, and also with my solution, being careful to have 
it filtered, and a drop of carbolic acid added before filling the vial 
of my case. By s> doing I am satisfied that the development of 
the vegetable parasite (penicillium) which grows at the expense of 
the alkaloid, was sufticiently arrested to prevent any deleterious 





effects 
of tin 
says : 
moven 
motes, 
serous 
in pel 
comin 
reduct 
to the 
“Tha 
cess— 
acids 
have 
packa 
is des 
Fe 
At th 
perfor 
was b 


In 
facts « 

O; 
geldin 
before 
loose 
wount 
appea 
which 
he be; 
minut 
opene 
condi 
sweat 


ned so till 
it of foeces. 
ation, 50. 
90 ; respir- 
trolled by 
rr. ii doses 


yassed vol- 
he animal 
all, but all 
r dry, and 
AW, Coarse 
sistency, I 
digestible 
d of milk, 


> Was con- 
punctures 
it bathed 
the body 
eing the 
» of silver. 
turing of 
drams of 
ing more 
luded to, 
1 muscles 
re) more 
were not 
ck, flank, 
»resented. 
particular 
il to have 
y the vial 
pment of 
xpense of 
eleterious 


QUEER PLACE FOR A FISH HOOK. 305 





effects, provided the solution was used within a reasonable length 
of time. Bartholow, in his book on hypodermic medication, 
says: “That morphia relieves pain. That at first peristaltic 
movements are temporarilly suspended, but continued use pro- 
motes, instead of diminishing peristalsis. That it is indicated in 
scrous inflammation, as pleurisy before extensive effusion. Also 
in peritonitis chorea and eclampsia. In cases of fracture, over- 
coming as it does muscular contraction, it aids very much in 
reduction, a local injection haviug systemic effects.” In regard 
to the development of the penicillium in the solution, he says; 
“That earbolie acid, aleohol, alum and acetic acid, unless in ex- 
cess—thereby becoming irritant—are nil; that the mineral 
acids are effective, but are irritant; that the better way is to 
have the amount desired for a single injection put up in separate 
packages, and to make the solution of fresh water whenever it 
is desired.” 

For the first week after his relief, the animal lost flesh rapidly. 
At the end of six weeks he was returned to his work, and has 
performed it ever since, being in better condition to-day than he 
was before the attack. 





QUEER PLACE FOR A FISH HOOK. 


By W. B. Row.tanp, D.V.S. 


In accordance with your wish I submit to the Review the 
facts of a case that was unusually interesting to me. 

On August 15th I was called into the country to see a black 
gelding, eleven years old, the property of Mr. M. About a week 
before he had punctured the near fore foot with a nail from a 
loose shoe; I opened the wound and found a sack of pus. The 
wound was treated with a carbolic lotion, and the lameness dis- 
appeared by the 21st, when I ordered him shod and put to work, 
which was done. After he had gone but one and one-half squares 
he began roaring, fell gasping for breath, and struggled for a full 
minute without breathing, with ropy saliva running from the 
opened mouth. I saw him twenty minutes after, in the following 
condition: blood running from the mouth and righé nostril, 
sweating profusely and eating grass; he had been coughing and 





306 0. H. FLYNN. 





had coughed up clots of blood the size of a tea saucer. On 
auscultating at the base of the neck I heard a loud sonorous rale, 
evidently blood. 

Diagnosis.— Choking from some sharp foreign substance such 
as tin, which had ruptured the membranes during its upward 
passage, causing the hemorrhage. 

Treatment—rest. On the 24th he was harnessed again but as 
soon as the bit was put in his mouth he began shaking his head. 
He had gone but a few steps when he fell and acted precisely the 
same as on the 21st. I was called in and saw him a few moments 
after in the same condition as he was after the first attack, with 
blood flowing quite freely. I used a speculum and passed my hand 
into the pharynx, but found nothing; I was puzzled, of course. 
After some time a diagnosis was made of spasms of the glottis, 
with a weakening of the walls of the blood vessels in that local- 
ity, probably the result of the punctured wound and reflex action. 
On the 27th I saw him harnessed and was on hand during this the 
third attack. He showed the same symptoms as were shown on tlie 
two previous occasions. He fell twice (once on me), and got up 
and commenced eating grass. While looking. at him the attendant 
said: “ Doctor, there is a string hanging out of his nose ” I, 

thinking it was nothing but saliva, said : “ Wash it off.” He did so, 
but as he touched the nose with a sponge the horse fell over back- 
ward and got up. I looked at him, and there was the string, sure 
enough. It was fast at the other end, and as he was bleeding freely 
at the time, I had him cast and then passed my hand into the 
pharynx and detached a fish hook with three feet of string attached 
to it. I found the hook fastened on the right side of the glottis. 
I then used astringent lotions, but the next day I had to perform 
tracheotomy. Next week he will be put to work, as he is entirely 
well. 





SUPERNUMERARY INCISORS. 
By C. H. Fryny, D.V.M. 


' There was brought to me to-day a six year old gelding, having 
nine well developed incisors on the lower jaw. The extra teeth 
were on the right side, anterior to the normal ones. - They had 





growr 
in gre 
Tl 
ago | 
teeth 
antag 
teeth 
appes 


—_—_—— 


T 
has b 
any 1 
ure 

retur 
had : 
out, 
bene 
and 
the © 
able. 
num 
for, 
(whi 
leag 
vete 
ansv 
read 


ucer. On 


orous rale, 


tance such 
ts upward 


ain but as 
his head. 
cisely the 
rT moments 
tack, with 
| my hand 
f course. 
e glottis, 
nat local- 
ex action. 
¥ this the 
vn on the 
d got up 
ittendant 
ose ” I, 
fe did 80, 
er back. 
ing, sure 
ig freely 
into the 
attached 

. glottis. 
perform 
entirely 


having 
a teeth 


ey had 


EDITORIAL: 307 





grown out so far as to interfere in closing the lips together, also 
in grazing. 

The owner gave the following history of the case: two years 
ago he found the animal with a fracture in this region, these 
teeth dropping forward. After healing, three more teeth appeared, 
antagonizing perfectly with the superior incisors. { removed the 
teeth with forceps, and he immediately presented a much better 
appearance. 





EDITORIAL. 


UNITED STATES VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


The twenty-second anniversary meeting of this Association 
has heen held, and from all reports has proved as successful as 
any the Association has ever had. ‘The fears of its possible fail- 
ure have proved erroneous, and the few who were present have 
returned to their various labors with the satisfaction of having 
had a good meeting, one in which important business was carried 
out, where several papers were listened to and enjoyed with 
benefit to all, and, above all, where many members were admitted 
and many others proposed. It must, however, be conceded that 
the Western delegation was not as fully represented as was desir- 
able, and that our Western friends did not turn out in as goodly 
numbers as was expected by some. This can be easily accounted 
for, as, besides the ignorance of the doings of the Association 
(which has existed for years) on the part of our Western col- 
leagues, there was a question in doubt, viz.: whether delegates of 
veterinary associations would be admitted. This is positively 
answered by Article 5, Chapter 1, of the Constitution, which 
reads : 

Art. 5. The Association shall receive such delegates as the various State or 
County Veterinary Societies may elect, on proof of due qualifications. 

This must be now well understood by every State association. 
They have the right—in fact it ought to be considered the duty 
of these State bodies to appoint delegates to any of the meetings 
of the Association, and every actual member of. the Association 





308 EDITORIAL. 





ought to make it a personal duty to see that delegates are 
appointed from their respective State Associations. No fee is 
asked or expected. The United States Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation is bound by its objects and by its own regulations to admit 
such delegates. Let the State societies know this and there will 
never again be occasion for fear of the meetings falling through 
from want of attendants. 


REPORTS OF MEETINGS OF STATE SOCIETIES. 


When at the recent meeting of the United States Veterinary 
Medical Association Dr. Detmers moved that the American 
Vererinary Review be the organ of the Association, Prof. 
Michener objected on the very proper ground that this journal 
had never been the organ of any special organization, but was 
ambitious only of being that of the entire profession, regardless 
of schools, colleges, etc. We have always held this ground, and 


the profession has already shown the appreciation of this fact, as 
can be seen by the number of reports of meetings which we have 
at times published. We take this opportunity to thank the sec- 
retaries of the several Associations which have sent us their 
reports, but at the same time will take the liberty of making a 
suggestion to them: that is, to forward us not only reports of the 
transactions of their meetings but also copies of the papers which 
are read. Many of these, no doubt, are interesting and valuable, 
information could be derived by reading them, and the fact that 
a paper may be directed to be printed in a journal which may be 
considered as the organ of the Association, gught not to prevent 
its publication in another, especially when that one is an indepen- 
dent journal, not affiliated with or under obligation to support or 
accept without comments the action of any scientific body. We 
hope that in the future the secretaries of State associations will 
see the good they can do to their organization, to their respective 
members, and to the profession at large in allowing the publica- 
tion of the papers read at their meetings, and that they will favor 
us with a copy of the same to be printed afterwards in the pages 
of the Review. 





leges 0 
Colleg: 
6th, T 
enterin 
nounce 
deliver 
great ¢ 
Aso. 
our scl 
hundre 
which 
tion of 
istence 
means 
school 
for stt 
our p 
closed 
ago; 
begin 
a few 
old w 
has be 


Balkan 
Berns, 
Bower: 
Breder 
Brunn, 
Charut 
Cochre 
Cuff, . 
Cuff, 1 


egates are 
No fee is 
lical Asso- 
s to admit 
there will 
x through 


‘eterinary 
A MERICAN 
yn, Prof. 
8 journal 
, but was 
egardless 
und, and 
3 fact, as 
we have 
the sec- 
us their 
naking a 
ts of the 
ra which 
valuable, 
act that 
may be 
prevent 
indepen- 
pport or 
ly. We 
ons will 
spective 
publica- 
ll favor 
e pages 


EDITORIAL. 





x] 
OPENING OF VETERINARY COLLEGES. 


With this month’s return, the opening of the veterinary col- 
leges on this continent will take place. The American Veterinary 
College, in New York, opens the field on the 1st, Montreal on the 
6th, Toronto on the 15th, Harvard has already begun, or is about 
entering into its second year, and Philadelphia has issued its an- 
nouncement that the opening lecture of the first session will be 
delivered on the second of the month by Prof. Huidekoper. What 
great changes, when compared with the condition of a few years 
azo. Of course the attendance of students will vary ; some of 
vur schools will have but few, while others will count them by 
hundreds. But no matter; there is in this no reason for those 
which are less privileged to feel discouraged, it is merely a ques- 
tion of time. lf half a dozen veterinary schools are now in ex- 
istence in the country there is room for more. A larger number 
means more exertion on the part of the officers of each separate 
school, more exertion means better education and better facilities 
for study, and the grand result—advancement and elevation of 
our profession. The history of the veterinarian of the past 
closed with the establishment of veterinary schools twenty years 
ago; that of the veterinarian of the present is just now in its 
beginning; the veterinarian of the future, if we keep on, will in 
a few years equal, if not surpass, his much older confrere of the 
old world. After all, we can all feel proud of the progress that 
has been made. 


REGISTER OF GRADUATES OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 
Continued from page 234. 
ALUMNI OF COLUMBIA VETERINARY COLLEGE. 


Balkam, Asa K 

Bares, Qetk Tic cicu-issenicavtiens vr 

Bowers, Geo. F 

Breder, Edward 8 

Brunn, Armin E. B. § 

Charum, Emilio 

Cochran, David New York City 

I, I a eee ee eee New York City 

Cuff, W. A. E....... jecasaansgninenia geoenges New York City.....0.seecsesereees nenehogeans 1883 








310 EDITORIAL. 





Curtice, Fred. Cc. DRiincnsscsecccrnatail Moravia, IN. Y.....ccsccscccscccssccccecsvcsee 1883 
Corcoran, Aloxander.....10:0:000.0000s<essee Brooklyn, N. Y.........cccscscssesssceeveeees 1884 
DeClyne, Theodore F.............sssses00: New Durham, N. J........ccccccccccecsecees 1883 
NE, Sie intrisnintinnnensnnsorssomionsaces New York City........ccccccccsccsccecseesces 1879 
Douglass, Edward W..........sscsseseseees Brooklyn, N. Y......ccccccoccccccccsceeveeees 1882 
TDONMO AC ROMORS vi 5556 55 csesexsccdincccciceses New York City........ccccccsccsccssceccecess 1881 
is Dog © Ee (ER £5 0a = New York City.......cccccccccccccssccccceses 1879 
a | ere Bow York Clty. ..ccccccorcccoscccesssoseesess 1879 
I Ber Msg PBs ettecinserecnmesiinsal New York City.......ccccccccscscccssceseeees 1883 
I, TT icc scicciinecvrnniiinn «New York City. .......cccccccocsscssscessvees 1883 
TNT bcinsiasensianieniviatsasinindennideta New York City. ........cccccccccccccssescoees 1881 
Gribble, William H .............ssces0e + -Churchville, N. Y..........scccocseeserseoees 1884 
Hance, Theodore F., M.D...........s000 PIOWATE Nid icscsecsscnssccsivesacesvecarcens 1888 
ey NE snisierntiienneentiencicoines New York City.......cc.ccocccccesessssesees 1879 
I UE in ccs shclitnnniitannntennniiitsipinnniinel Rem, Ts D.. sniccecesssdcsntsconesesvecsedees 1883 
Humphrey, Winslow P..............+..00 Elizabeth, N. J ...ccccocccecccccccscccocscess 1884 
AMBIEN PI ODE 5055005 cs asesaecsessvedshecsseess WWANOBDOETO UES ins sciacseesscvssentscsasogees 1884 
I, TIE sc tncisccnsaicnccnestinineunel Scaradale, N.Y. ..00.c.cccccccccccssecsocsceee 1882 
Sete, TWEE EL... caincsccescccceces evens Poughkeepsie, N. Y.......cccrescceesseenes 1883 
Keompel, B.:A., PhD., M.D...0.0<ciseos New York City. ........ccccsccscccccesseeees 1883 
TOK 10S GS. PRED cecccscnseccesescses Patterson, N.Y vsvccécccssasesesevescotsasesc 1884 
I NE secestcvinesceceenteneensanenn -Huntington, (1. I.) N. Y....ccccccccscsees 1880 
Lippincott, Thomas §.........cscccsecseeee Harrisburg, Pa.........csccccccccccocccecceses 1883 
a Bittle PAHs, INS Goss isacssacesssesessodssances 1883 
MeL TARATI GB sss sseceaeesecesavesscoens DIE PE sccie vedepenesckdesescdasenatncaess 1884 
MBVEL, KORRTIRGIA . occssciscsesecesessesdsues SNOW: POEKACIEV 0 icsscascssseccounstacccneessaa 1879 
MacLellan, Edward A .........sceseseseees Bridgeport, Comm... ....0..coccccccccesceeccses 1882 
MeLaughlin, J. Alex.....cccccccccsceccscees Jersey City, Ni. J......ccsccccccce.coccscecess 1880 
Mastae, Pabe F onccsvcecovecesvosessecvesses Brooklyn, N. Y.......ccccccsrcccscscccsevscess 1880 
RNS OWN AN eet ccenes sscscccssccseseesevesesa PCO IOI IN GN 5 vc<cdsonouetevacenqnsconperts 1884 
BN, TID. vic <cescsevesccccoseseesece oROOR IR, TE. -T.. ccccesccsescescsascosevoncnns 1882 
PUCHOIS, WV ANAT, ..00cssccscccesscvoesesss ISGUGE SO CHUEPCH, PRs. 6siccsescccsecsassecene 1884 
Naylor, Joseph, Ph. D. ........00cc-cesesee0 Jersey City, N. J... cccccccccssccsccccccseeree 1884 
Parkin, Robert Lincoln............00.0000 PPONNOD, AINE <i0cssesesssecssxacetsconarstskouss 1883 
Parkinson, George H..........ssessesseees Middletown, Comn...ccccccccccossesesccosees 1881 
Peck, EB. J., M.D. ..cccccocccococcescsessoees New York City......cccccccscccerccssesceess 1881 
Parsons, Bdwin A. ....00<..cocssscveseosseees New York City......cccccccccccsescocesecesoes 1884 
PROUD LTTE OW os scescadsdesnsvencucesssceess PIGWICHGR IN id cisvensescacseseccessossoonsenee 1883 
Ramacciotti, Hugo L..........sereseceees Omaha, Neb. ...ccccccccscccsssssessescesoosans 1883 
BRNO, TRING. cccceccevecesesecosecesessn New York City. ...cccccccccscscccee seeesceces 1881 
8 eS een OOD, Ti oi ccccoscevccnnvernesssenseentegnnenen 1883 
A FE EE wicsiinsacscwececcsncescnipaney -Chesterfield Factory, N. H.......-.0se++0 1883 
GIG ONIN Is is cstncscecesdcpseseeccacesone oRAve Park, Mag. .csccccccsscposeesasesqees 1883 
PAQNILM VW SUMAN «os cscnsisoscaeseadcesnccensscnes New York City........cccccoccccccscccsccoeees 1882 
BN, BINGE De ccccseccecesscescocesesenss AVEIGON, OODN, .cciassceccecstencseneessaasocete 1883 
I I ettd i bicntcnncenconsnctncemnnn LFORVETlO, PA, cecccccosccescccescscssossoceaiot 1884 
eS oe | enone ee New York City .....cccccccccoccsecssccceesese 1884 
| E . T Oak Orchard, N. Y.....ccccccccccsccsacceses 1884 








Stoute, | 
Stewart, 
Schultz, 
Smith, ] 
Subale, 

Slee, He 
Thomps 
Toussail 
Vander! 
Walton, 
Wallace 
Wilson, 
Will, P: 
Weise, 

Whittle: 
Waters, 
Windoly 


—— 


Kdito: 


Tl 
Was ¢: 
Morgs 
well d 

i 
barley 
his ste 
At 4. 
tremb 
to be | 
get an 
tions 
distan 
better 
him a 
side, s 
ature, 


cold ; 





pecereece 


eeetcese 


eeeecses 


eeetecee 


peeeeees 


eetesees 


peeeees 


eeeeee 


reece 


311 








CORRESPONDENCE. 
Stoute. Wichiatd As. cccscacssssavescaiescass Barbadoes, West Indies. .........seesseree -1884 
Stewart, Robert W......ccrcccccoccscccsseees Mount Victory, O......ccccecrecsereeseeeee 1883 
SOWA VOR. Mio sccccpcvavacsspececsacciace -Flatbush, (L. 1.) N. Y..cccccccccccccoccceee 1883 
Biniith: Dae bs is sicecscccescsiaccccececes Arist, "TEER... 000000sccsececsoccascosecssotas 1882 
Bubabe, TE: Th. O..cscesseconceseedessiicnnpet Orange Valley, N. J.......cccceesseerereeees 1882 
Blot, Henry O...cercrcccccsenrcconscqueqionous New York City........ccccccocsesceeceeseeees 1883 
Thompson, Nathaniel F...........0s0000 oNew York City..........ccccccccorscscccevses 1881 
TPousesint, vate Ws x icecccesececdacscesasces Milwaukee, Wis........0ccccccccescccce: see 1884 
Vanderhof®, H. 8... MD... .cceverseccceavs Brooklyn, N.Y. ..ccosccccccrscces cescosescess 1881 
Waltons, PRR conssecccesesscacecscerantupss New York City.........cccccccccsecseesceeees 1879 
Wallsicd: Folnsssccccssessncscacucseasecamars INOW VOR CEG 5 coc cecececseccsccceacssecctans 1880 
Wilson, Wroderick: J sciccocsscccsscosesenese Brooklyn, N.Y. ....cccccccccoscceccccccscesee 1879 
WAR: PPA accsnccsescisctessactveccectaeconaa SOUMMOWN, PGi. <ccscdccsscacscconcissqusccers 1883 
Weise: Mawnan sscsssscccsecceiaesscsdeuns New York City. ...cccccccoccccccsccccosceses 1883 
Witten, Th, Bis cncanesanecascaseiorees coc NOUR, TEAMR.. . 00004 cesosqnenrecsectanpnons 1883 
Walent, By Bicsccasisnscisieinn Bemobthye, Wh. Y¥...ccsccccoccssnenssivvccrmpensig 1883 
Windotphh, FOG Bivecsce-coscesssvonsntevnsen Darlington, -Md....cc-cccsccsessesccccesceses 1883 
CORRESPONDENCE. 


RUPTURED STOMACH. 
Editor American Veterinary Review : 
Linville, Va., Sept. 10th, 1884. 

The following may be of interest to some of your readers. I 
was called on September 3d, 1884, to see a fine stallion, “ Clint 
Morgan, ” a rich mahogany bay, eight years old, 164 hands high, 
well developed, weight 1,300 lbs. 

Tfistory.—Clint had been fed the previous day at noon, on 
barley, chopped hay and water; at 1:30 P. M. was taken from 
his stall to tease a mare; she not being in season, he was returned: 
At4 P. M., was found to be very sick, pawing with fore feet ; 
trembling and partial sweats over body. The owner thought him 
to be suffering from colic and gave him various things, but did not 
get any desired results. By dark of the same evening eructa- 
tions of gas were noticed, with occasional retching. It being a 
distance of twelve miles to my place, and thinking he might get 
better soon he did not send for me till next morning, when I saw 
him at 6 A. M. He was in a lot near the barn, lying on his left 
side, sometimes looking around to his right with a groan. Temper- 
ature, 103°; respiration, 40; pulse almost imperceptible; legs 
cold; ears cold; tremors of superficial muscles; eyes staring. I 











312 CORRESPONDENCE. 





asked the owner to get him on his feet, which being done, the horse 
at once began to step around with his hind feet towards the right, 
and continued this movement till we would permit him to go at 
his leisure, at which time he showed signs of delirium by traveling 
in a circle and walking into anything that happened in his way. 

Diagnosis.—Impaction of the stomach ; I gave an unfavorable 
prognosis; but “ Clint” being a fine animal (the first premium 
for general utility being awarded him at the State Fair), the 
owner insisted on my doing something for him, saying: “as long 
as there is life there is hope.” So I gave a drench of linseed 
oil Di. spts. turpentine 3i; followed in a short time with pulv. 
aloes Barb. 3 vi., tr. nux. vomica, 3i., given in pill; hot appli- 
cations to abdomen. At this time I refused to do anything more, 
as I knew death would put an end to his sufferings soon. About 
this time the horse vomited, and continued to do so at intervals of 
3 to5 minutes. The horse at no time was quiet nor did he lie down 
from the time we got him on his feet at 6 o’clock until 7 o’clock, 
when he fell, and death followed within three minutes. Made post- 
mortem immediately, and upon opening the abdomen about two 
gallons of amber colored fluid escaped. Going still further, traces 
of peritonitis were observed, and after laying back the entire left 
side of the abdominal wall, found the stomach to be ruptured at 
the lesser curvature, sufficiently large to admit the passage of my 
hand. Judging from the amount of ingesta that yet remained in 
the stomach and that which had escaped by the mouth and 
nostrils, and into the abdominal cavity, the organ must have been 
very much distended. The horse had also suffered to some extent 
from gastritis. He had always been a very fast feeder, though 
he never was known to suffer any inconvenience from it up to this 
time. 


Joun A. Myxers, D.V.S. 


NATIONAL VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 12th, 1884. 


Editor American Veterinary Review : 
It would be folly on my part to reply to Mr. James’ letter 
which appeared in your last issue, otherwise than to quote the 








followi 
Medica 


“cc S 
spectiv 
for the 
Nation 
rejectic 

As 
was Or; 
tient al 
the. Na 
missile 


Secreta 

De 
veterir 
petent 
to exte 


U 


Th 
the Gi 
nA; 

Th 


aminat 


horse 
right, 
x0 at 
eling 
ay. 
rable 
nium 
. the 
long 
iseed 
oulv. 
ppli- 
10re, 
bout 
Is of 
lown 
lock, 
Dost- 
two 
‘aces 
left 
d at 
ae 
-d in 
and 
peen 
tent 
ugh 
this 





5. 


384. 


tter 
the 





SOCIETY MEETINGS. 313 





following from the Constitution of the National Veterinary 
Medical Association. 
“ ARTICLE 3. 


‘“¢ MEMBERS. 


“ Szo. 1. All members shall be admitted through their re- 
spective State societies. Said societies shall be held responsible 
for their members’ proper credentials and character, and the above 
National Veterinary Medical Association shall have the right of 
rejection.” 

As we have not had our annual meeting since our Association 
was organized and chartered, it would be advisable for all impa- 
tient and fault-finding parties to await the result of the action of 
the. National Veterinary Medical Association ere they throw any 
missiles at that association on its State organizations. 

Respectfully, 
L. V. PLageman, 
President National Veterinary Medical Association. 


VETERINARIAN WANTED. 


SramForp, Conn., Aug. 30th, 1884. 
Secretary American Veterinary College, New York. 

Dear Sir: There is a capital opening in this town for a good 
veterinary surgeon, and I write to ask if you know of a com- 
petent person to fill the place. To such a person I would be glad 
to extend assistance in getting started here. 


Yours truly, 
Henry R. Towne. 





SOCIETY MEETINGS. 


UNITED STATES VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


The twenty-second annual meeting of this Association met at 
the Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio, on Tuesday, Sept. 16th, at 
11 A. M. 

The session of the Comitia Minora was taken up by the ex- 
amination of candidates for admission, or of their credentials. 














314 SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





In cases where neither the candidates nor their credentials were 
present the Secretary was instructed to notify such of these 
requirements. 

After reading and accepting minutes of last meeting, the 
order of business was changed to admit to the meeting all candi- 
dates present. 

Under the head of “urfinished business,” the Association 
decided to increase the number of Censors from five to seven. 

Reports of committees followed. 

Prof. Liautard gave a very interesting report, as Chairman of 
the Committee on Diseases, as did also W. H. Hoskins, of the 
Committee on Intelligence and Education. Discussion of these 
reports was deferred until later in the meeting. 

The President, Dr. Miller, here appointed a committee of three, 
consisting of Drs. Meyer, Liautard and Robertson, to draft a set 
of resolutions relative to the death of Wm. Saunders, V.S., said 
resolutions to be forwarded to his widow. 

There were a number of applicants for membership presented, 
and from the fact of these coming from different veterinary 
schools, the Association felt that its numbers and usefulness had 
received a great impetus. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, W. B. 
E. Miller, of Camden, N. J.; Vice-President, L. H. Howard, of 
Boston, Mass.; Secretary, Chas. B. Michener, New York; 
Treasurer, Chas. Burden, New York. 

Censors.—A. Liautard, New York; Jas. L. Robertson, New 
York; W. H. Hoskins, Phila.; J. Meyer, Jr., Cincinnati, Ohio; 
J. Corlies, Newark, N. J.; W. Bryden, Boston, Mass.; W. J. 
Crowley, St. Louis, Mo. 

The President then appointed the following regular com- 
mittees ; Library Committee—Drs. Coates and W. D. Critcherson. 
Intelligence and Education Committee—Drs. J. L. Robertson, 
Howe, Lyman, W. H. Rose, Detmers. Finance Committee— 
Drs. Pendry, Dixon and John Saunders. Diseases Commitiee— 
Drs. Liautard, Winchester, Zuill, J. Meyers, Jr., Hopkins. Prize 
Committee—Drs. Corlies, Peabody and Johnson. 

The Treasurer’s report was then read and accepted. 











An a 
were giv 
part it 
years.” 

Und 
creased 

On | 
have pri 
member 
member 

Dr. 
Review 

Dr. 
part of 
journal 
school o: 

and bei 
This 
fully wi 


The 
Liautar 
of cont 
unless t 
was als 
of opin 
lution, » 

“MM 
at the 
Sept, 1 
and vet 
every al 
tice, in 
do in h 
offences 

Aft 





ils were 
f these 


1g, the 
candi- 


ciation 
ven. 


man of 
of the 
F these 


three, 
ta set 
., said 


ented, 
pinary 
ss had 


W. DB. 
ird, of 
York ; 


, New 
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W. J. 


com- 
erson. 
rtson, 
ttee— 
ttee— 
Prize 








SOCIETY MEETINGS. 315 





An adjournment was here taken for dinner. Several toasts 
were given, among which was, “The Veterinary Profession : the 
part it has taken in Scientific Advancement of the past ten 
years.” This was ably responded to by Dr. Detmers. 

Under the head of new business, the Secretary’s salary was in- 
creased from twenty to tifty dollars a year. 

On motion of Dr. Howe it was ordered that the Secretary 
have printed annually the names and addresses of the officers and 
members of this Association, and that a copy be sent to each 
member. 

Dr. Detmers then moved that the American VETERINARY 
Review be made the official organ of this Association. 

Dr. Michener strongly condemned any such action on the 
part of the Association, and held it to be unwise to make any 
journal the official organ of an association that knows no special 
school or set of men, being, as it is, a United States Association, 
and being comprised of members from a// schools. 

This sentiment was heartily sean, and Dr. Detmers cheer- 
fully withdrew his motion. 


Papers ann Discussions. 


The report of Diseases Committee was first taken up. Prof. 
Liautard urged that veterinarians be compelled to report all cases 
of contagious diseases. Dr. Detmers held this to be unfair, 
unless the State first recognized the veterinary surgeons. This 
was also the opinion of Dr. Miller, After a general expression 
of opinion pro and con, Dr. Liautard offered the following reso- 
lution, which was carried by vote: 

“ Moved that the United States Veterinary Medical Association 
at the anniversary meeting held in Cincinnati on the 16th of 
Sept, 1884, suggest the obligation on the part of veterinarians 
and veterinary practitioners to report to the proper authorities 
every and any case of contagious disease he may meet in his prac- 
tice, in the same manner as the human practitioner is obliged to 
do in his specialty, under the liability of penalty for punishable 
offences.” 

After discussing the report by Dr. Hoskins, of the Committee 





316 | SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





on Intelligence and Education, the following motion by W. H. 
Hoskins was adopted : 

‘Moved that the President appoint a committee of three to 
confer with the faculties of the veterinary colleges and schools of 
North America as to their willingness for a convention of the 
same, to discuss the advisability of adopting a mutual standard of 
excellence or examination; and that these three be from different 
schools.” Dr. Hoskins, of the American Veterinary College, Dr, 
Howe, of Toronto Veterinary College, and Dr. Bryden, of the 
Montreal Veterinary College, were appointed. 

A most interesting and instructive paper was then read by the 
Secretary on the subject of “ A Suggestion concerning the Opera- 
tion of Neurotomy on Trotting Horses,” by T. 8. Very, V.S., of 
Boston. 

A paper by Dr. Dixon was ordered published, and to be 
brought up at the next meeting as unfinished business. 

A paper prepared by Dr. Liautard on the subject: “ New Dis- 
coveries in some Contagious Diseases: Tuberculosis, Anthrax and 
Rabies,” as well as one from J. Meyer, Sr., on “ Pleuro-Pneu- 
monia,” were crowded out for want of time. These, with other 
essays, will be published. 

Dr. J. Meyer, Sr., then extended an invitation to all present to 
remain in the city and be his guests the next day, an invitation 
that was gladly accepted by most present. 

Votes of thanks were given to those who favored the Associa- 
tion with papers. While the convention was not as large in 
numbers as could have been hoped, yet it may be justly said that 
it was one of the most pleasant and profitable meetings ever held 
by the Association. 


Cuas. B. Micuuner, Secy. 


KEYSTONE VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 
(Specially reported for the Revizw by W. Horaog Hoskins, D.V.S.) 
The regular monthly meeting of the Keystone Veterinary 

Medical Association was held on Saturday evening, September 
6th, 1884. President Zuill called the meeting to order, and on 





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SOCIETY MEETINGS. 317 





roll call the following members responded: Drs. Hauea, Zvill, 
Hoskins, Huidekoper and Rogers. After a correction in the 
minutes they were adopted. Drs. Ward B. Rowland and 8. L. 
Weber were elected to membership. 

An amendment to the constitution was adopted, changing the 
day of meeting from the first Saturday to the first Thursday 
evening of each month. 

Dr. W. L. Zuill was chosen delegate to the United States 
Veterinary Medical Association at Cincinnati, to represeut this 
Association. 

The subject of methods of administration of medicines was 
then brought up by Dr. Hoskins, and after citing many forms in 
use, others were cited by members present. 

Dr. Hoskins took this opportunity of referring to the useful- 
ness of State associations, and the good work to be accomplished 
when they were wisely controlled. He advised every qualified 
practitioner to identify himself with them and thus increase and 
direct the good work. 

Dr. T. B. Rogers extended an invitation to the members 
to visit South Jersey, where they could now see an important 
outbreak of hog cholera, and witness some autopsies on the same. 
After the reporting of several interesting cases the meeting 


adjourned. 


PENNSYLVANIA STATE VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 
(Specially reported for the Revigw by W. Horace Hoskins, D.V.S.) 


-The annual meeting of the Pennsylvania State Veterinary 
Medical Association was held at the Keystone Hotel, Reading, on 
Tuesday, September 2d, 1884. President Sallade occupied the 
chair. On roll call twenty-three members responded to their 
names. 

After the reading and adoption of minutes of the previous 
meeting, the election of officers for another year took place, re- 
sulting as follows: President J. W. Sallade, Topton, Pa.; 1st Vice 
President, T. B. Raynor, Phila.; 2d Vice President, Charles 
Schaufler, Phila.; 3d Vice President, Charles T. Goentner, 
Bryn Mawr; Recording Secretary, R. Gladfelter, Phila. ;. Corres- 





318 SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





ponding Secretary, Alex. Glass, Phila.; Treasurer, J. C. Fly, 
Phila. The following members compose the Board of Censors : 
W. Horace Hoskins, Geo. B. Raynor, W. L. Zuill, W. 8. Kooker 
and J. H. Keeler. 

Five members were proposed, as follows: Dr. W. Milleisen, 
of Mechanicsburg; Dr. J. H. Keeler, of Kulpsville; Dr. S. L. 
Weber, Greenj Lane; Dr. Solomon Hoffman, of Hamburg, and 
W. U. Custer of Reading. The Board of Censors reported 
favorably on the last three members, and unfavorably upon the 
first two candidates. The report of the Board was accepted by 
the Association. 

The Corresponding Secretary reported the reception of a 
letter of resignation from Francis Girard of Philadelphia, in re- 
sponse to a petition sent him asking for the same. A discussion 
arose at this point as to whether the above should be received, and 
a motion to accept the letter was lost; after which a motion to 
expel the member for his unprofessional and dishonorable 
methods of practice, was offered and unanimously adopted. The 
Secretary reported the reception of two letters from the Secretary 
of the National Veterinary Medical Association, notifying the 
Association of the by-laws of the same, calling for an assess- 
ment of $1. from each member of State Associations; also asking 
if we had appointed delegates to the National Association. 
After some unfavorable discussion, they were ordered to be laid 
upon the table. 

Dr. W. L. Zuill as chairman, reported progress on the secur- 
ing of a certificate of membership, a copy of which was shown, 
being beautifully and tastefully engraved. 

The names of Drs. Geo. B. Raynor and W. 8. Kooker, were 
added to the committee on Dill of legislation. 

A committee, composed of the following members, was ap- 
pointed to revise the Constitution and By-Laws: Drs. Hoskins, 
Zuill, Glass, T. B. Raynor and John Berry. 

At the afternoon session Dr. John R. Hart of Phila. read an 
essay entitled Paralysis; and Dr. T. 8. Lippincott of Harrisburg, 
one on the subject of strangles. Much valuable discussion 
followed on the point of glanders or farcy following as a result 





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SOCIETY MEETINGS. 319 





of strangles, the weight of opinion being against this point. 
Essayists were appointed for the next mecting. After a vote of 
thanks being extended the essayists and the President, the meet- 
ing adjourned to meet in Philadelphia the coming March. 


OHIO STATE VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


The semi-annual meeting of the Ohio State Veterinary Medi- 
cal Association took place in the Tyndal Room, City Hall, 
Columbus, on the 3d and 4th of Sept. The meeting was called 
to order at 7:30 P. M. on the 3d, by the President, Dr. W. C. 
Fair, Cleveland, who stated the objects of. the present meeting 
and then called on the Secretary, Dr. Waddel, Columbus, to call 
the roll. The following gentleman answered to their mames: 
W. C. Fair, V.S., Cleveland; J. V. Newton, V.S., Toledo; T. B. 
Colton, V.S., Mount Vernon; W. A. Labron, V.S., Xenia; 
J. M. Waddle, V.S., Columbus; J. S. Butler, V.S., Piqua; T. B. 
Hillock, V.S., Columbus; W. R. Howe, V.S., Dayton; L. B. 
Chase, V.S., Berlin; R. W. Whitehead, V.S., Youngstown; J. C. 
Meyer, M.D., V.S., Cincinnati; C. C. Crane, V.S., Akron; J. B. 
Crane, V.S., Sharon Centre; W. Huntsberger, V.S., East Union ; 
W. E. Wright, V.S , Deleware; A. H. Tanner, V.S., Ashtabula ; 
J. E. Taylor, V.S., Toledo; J. B. Hillock, V.S., Lancaster. The 
gentlemen present who were not members, were: G. W. Butler, 
V.S., Circleville; L. A. Severcool, V.S., Norwalk; E. A. Eber- 
sole, Fostoria; S. D. McClure, V.S., Sandusky ; James A. Lee 
and T. E. Jones, Mount Vernon; A. J. Smith, Pleasant Hill, 
and Dr. Salmon, D.V. M., of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were then read and 
approved, and the following gentlemen were proposed for mem- 
bership: G. W. Butler, V.S., Circleville; L. A. Severcool, V.S. 
Norwalk; and A. J. Smith, Pleasant Hill. The two former, 
being graduates, were admitted to membership. and the latter 
gentlemen referred to the Board of Censors. 

Dr. Salmon was then called upon to address the meeting and 
describe briefly the disease, pleuro-pneumonia contagiosa, and 








320 SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





the distinguishing symptoms between it and tuberculosis. He 
said he was very much pleased to be present, but would not at- 
tempt anything like a full description of the disease, but would 
give a few points in regard to the disease. 

Most veterinary surgeons have had very little experience with 
the disease, and it was embarrassing to those to go into a herd of 
cattle and examine them, and give a definite opinion, especially 
when the disease exists in a chronic form. 

He went on the force five years ago in New York, and found 
it very difficult to pick one or two out of a large herd, affected 
with the chronic form, when not able to learn the previous history. 
In the acute form of the disease there was a high temperature, 
hurried respirations, and other evidences of acute lung trouble. 
Then it was not hard to diagnose; but when these symptoms 
were absent, as in the chronic form, it was much more difficult. 
Inthe chronic form the examiner can only rely on auscultation and 
percussion, and the history. It requires constant practice to be- 
come an adept in the examination of the chest. 

In Illinois he found the disease in the acute form, but in Ohio 
had only found it in the chronic form. In tuberculosis there is 
cough, mucus in the bronchial tubes, and the lungs more resonant. 
The glands are enlarged two or three times their natural size. 
Acute cases seldom recover. 

In pleuro-pneumonia contagiosa, the lung is hepatized more or 
less, with loss of respiration in such portions. Clear history, ete. 
Sometimes it is not safe to give a definite opinion in the chronic 
form, where you cannot get the history, until you kill an animal 
and hold a post mortem. Was pleased to see so many veterinary 
surgeons in this State and it afforded him great pleasure to see 
so many present. He felt sure for intelligence we would yield 
but little to our sister profession. Each one in the veterinary 
profession has a duty to perform which is equal to those in the 
sister profession in regard to contagious disease. 

This is one of the greatest stock-raising countries in the 
world, and he hoped it would never become ravaged to any great 
extent with the above disease, or any other contagious disease. 
We are dependent upon the veterinary surgeons throughout the 











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SOCIETY MEETINGS. 321 





country for information in regard to contagious diseases, and 
hoped every one would feel it his duty to report to the Bureau of 
Animals Industry at Washington, D. C., so we can institute 
measures for their suppression. ‘The national law will be made 
better this winter, and if we all act in an unselfish manner can 
very easily suppress all such diseases. He would not take up any 


more time and would be pleased to shake every one by the hand: 


before leaving. 

Dr. Whitehead then asked whether anything had been done 
in the way of inoculating for the prevention of contagious 
pleuro-pueumonia in this country. 

Dr. Salmon said it had been tried, but was not needed in this 
country. A drawback to inoculation was that it produced a sore 
and the animals in switching their tails would scatter the poison 
and keep up the infection, unless disinfection was resorted to 
often. In Holland, in districts where inoculation is practised, 
the disease still exists; but where the animals are killed at once 
they have entirely wiped out the disease. It must be stamped 
out by killing and burying or burning, to be effectual. Hoped to 
have a law soon that would permit one to go into a herd and kill 
every animal, and compensate a man fairly for his cattle, and that 
is the only way it will ever be stamped out. It is in a narrow 
belt now, and if the proper measures are taken it can be extir- 
minated. Have made representations to Congress, but received 
in reply, that it was impossible for it to be in the West; but at 
the same time the disease was working its way westward, and the 
present outbreak in Iilinois was a good illustration of the above. 
There is great difficulty in tracing it at the present time, as ani- 
mals have been scattered over considerable territory. Some have 
been sent to Kentucky from Illinois, and the disease has broken 
out among them; some have been sent to Missouri, but nothing 
has developed there. Hoped to soon have it in check. 

The four gentlemen who were to have been present at this 
meeting and go before the Board of Censors, did not appear. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Dr. Butler, was then called up- 
on to read communications, -correspondence, ete. He read a com- 
munication from G. O. Harlan, of Fremont, censuring the Associ- 


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3822 SOCIETY MEETINGS. 








ation in very strong language for asking him to go before the actior 
Board of Censors before being admitted to membership. He the m 
claimed to be a graduate of the old Philadelphia College, and Assot 
thought its graduates ought to be recognized. M 

Quite a lengthy discussion then took place by several of the Assoc 
members in regard to Mr. Harlan’s letter, and it was finally here 1 
moved and seconded that Drs. Fair and Newton be delegated as ( M 
a committee to have an interview with Mr. Harlan in regard to adjou 


his letter and admission to the Association. 
The committee appointed at the last meeting was then called 





upon to report on a code of ethics and revision of the by-laws. Tl 
Dr. Colton being the chairman of the committee, asked for an the ch 
extension of time, as they had not yet fully considered the matter, tuber 
but would report at the next meeting. The time was granted the TI 
committee. the ne 
It was moved and seconded that Dr. Meyer, Cincinnati, act ee Re 
on said committee in the absence of Dr. Blanchard. Carried. Vernc 
It was moved and seconded that a committee be appointed to Di 
draft resolutions of respect to the late Dr. G. W. Bowler, and a upon | 
copy be sent to the widow and family of the deceased, and also admis: 
be recorded upon the minutes of the Association. The following the ge 
gentlemen were then appointed: J. V. Newton, V.S., Toledo; report 
R. W. Whitehead, V.S., Youngstown ; J. 8. Butler, V.S., Piqua. to the 
The assessment of one dollar on each member of the Associa. Mc 
tion for the support of the National Association was then thanks 
discussed. that cc 
Moved by Dr.Newton, seconded by Dr. Colton, that this Mc 
Association endorse the action of Dr. Fair in appointing delegates for hal 
to the National Convention last December, and that we endorse Mc 
and support the National Association. by the 
Moved by Dr. Howe, seconded by Dr. Meyer, as an amend- and sh 
ment, that this Association condemns the action of Dr. Fair in ap- tion, a 
pointing delegates to the National convention and making this Ma 
Association a part and parcel of said Association. The amendment on con 
was put and lost, yeas, 6; nays,11. The original motion was of Ag 
then put and carried, yeas, 11; nays, 6. be adv: 


Dr. Fair then thanked the Association for sustaining his and th 











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SOCIETY MEETINGS. 323 





action in the matter, and would at any time abide by a majority of 
the members, whether we endorse the National or United States 
Association. 

Moved by Dr. Colton, and seconded by Dr. Meyer, that this 
Association tender Dr. Salmon a vote of thanks for his presence 
here this evening, and his able address. 

Moved by Dr. Newton, and seconded by Dr. Meyer, that we 
adjourn until 8:30 A. M. to-morrow. Carried. 


SECOND DAY. 


The morning session opened at 8.30 A. M., with Dr. Fair in 
the chair. He then called upon Dr. Whitehead to read his essay on 
tuberculosis, which was a very lengthy and interesting paper. 

The appointment of delegates to the National Convention was 
the next in order, and the following gentlemen were chosen: 
J. V. Newton, Toledo; J. S. Butler, Piqua; T. B. Colton, Mount 
Vernon; T. B. Hillock, Columbus; L. A. Severcool, Norwalk. 

Dr. Chase, chairman of the Board of Censors, was then called 
upon to report the action the board had taken in regard to the 
admission of Mr. A. J. Smith into the Association. Dr. Chase said 
the gentleman had passed a very creditable examination. The 
report was discussed and the gentleman admitted and introduced 
to the members. He responded in a few well-chosen remarks. 

Moved and seconded that Dr. Whitehead be tendered the 
thanks of the meeting for his very able paper on tuberculosis, and 
that copies be sent to the veterinary journals for publication. 

Moved and seconded that an order be drawn on the Treasurer 
for hall rent, gas, ect. Carried. 

Moved and seconded that John Rose, Columbus, be requested 
by the Secretary to appear at the next meeting of the Association 
and show cause why he should not be expelled from the Associa- 
tion, and answer to charges preferred against him. Carried. 

Moved and seconded that a committee of three be appointed 
on contagious diseases, and that they wait upon the State Board 
of Agriculture and the Legislature, and take such steps as may 
be advisable in regard to the suppression of contagious diseases, 
and the appointment of a State Veterinarian. Carried. The 








324 SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





following gentlemen were then chosen: T. B. Colton, Mount 
Vernon; T. B. Hillock, Columbus; and W. E. Wight, Deleware. 

Moved and seconded that the expenses of the committee be 
borne by the Association. Carried. 

Moved and seconded that our next annual meeting be held at 
Toledo, on December 27th, 1884, at 10 A. M. and that Dr. Newton 
be delegated to secure a place for the meeting. .Carried. 

Dr. Butler volunteered to read a paper on pleuro-pneumonia 
contagiosa, and Dr. Wight one on epizootic cellulitis, or pink- 
eye. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

J.S. Burrer. Cor. Secy. 


MASSACHUSETTS VETERINARY ASSOCIATION. 


' The fourth regular meeting of the Massachusetts Veterinary 
Association was held at the rooms of the Medical Library 


Association, No. 19 Boylston Place, Wednesday evening, Sept. 
3d, 1884, and was called to order at 7:45, with W. Bryden in the 
chair. 

Thirteen members answered the roll call. Minutes of the last 


meeting read and approved. 

Dr. Lyman made a motion and it was seconded and carried, 
that the name of the college from which each member of the 
Massachusetts Veterinary Association graduated be appended to 
his name. 

The Executive Committee reported favorably on the creden- 
tials of F. S. Thomas, V.S., Hanson; W. A. Sherman, D.V.S., 
Lowell; J. E. Gardner, D.V.S., Greenfield ; and Fred. Saunders, 
D.V.S., Lynn. They were then balloted for and admitted mem- 
bers of the Association. 

It was moved by Dr. Skally that the Executive Committee 
report upon a by-law to the effcet that the reading of the essay 
follow immediately the reading of the minutes of the last meet- 
ing, and also to draw up a regular order of business. Seconded 
and carried. 

Moved by Dr. Lyman that the society add a pro tem. mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee during the absence of Dr. 





Billing 
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SOCIETY MEETINGS. 325 





Billings. Seconded and carried. Dr. Blackwood was nominated 
and elected a member pro tem. of the Executive Committee. 

Dr. Lyman made a few remarks upon a case of contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia he was called to see in Brooklyn, N. Y., and it 
was then moved and seconded that he read the report he had 
prepared instead of the essay on “ Article I. Section 2.” Carried. 
After a general discussion of the subjectthe was tendered a vote of 
thanks. Dr. Billings sent in a paper “to be opened and read at 
the meeting” and Dr. Lyman moved, and it was seconded, that 
the paper be referred to the Executive Committee. Lost. 

The reading of Dr. Billings’ paper by the Secretary was begun, 
when Dr. Lyman moved that the further reading of Dr. Billings’ 
resignation from the Executive Committee be suspended, for 
there had been no charge against him as a graduate of a veterin- 
ary school by the Association. This was amended by Dr. Osgood: 
that the resignation be submitted to three members of the Associ- 
ation appointed by the chair. Amendment seconded and carried. 

Dr. Lyman moved, and it was seconded, that the further 
reading of the resignation of Dr. Billings be postponed, so far as 
the Association is concerned, and proceed to vote on the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Billings. Lost. 

Drs. Bunker, Osgood and Howard were appointed a com- 
mittee to report on the paper. Dr. Bunker reported for the 
committee that the paper was not necessary for the Association, 
but his resignation from the Executive Committee being made 
known, it was then accepted, and Dr. Blackwood elected to fill 
the vacancy. 

Dr. Lyman, after a few remarks, tendered his resignation to 
the Massachusetts Veterinary Association. 

Dr. Blackwood moved, and it was seconded, that Dr. Lyman’s 
resignation be not accepted. Carried. 

Moved and seconded that Dr. Lyman be notified by the 
Secretary that his resignation is not accepted. Carried. 

Dr. J. B. Coleman presented his credentials to the Executive 
Committee, and they were satisfactory. 

J. M. Skally was appointed essayist and the meeting adjourned. 

J. S. Wincuesrer, D.V.S., Secy. 





SOCIETY MEETINGS. 





CONNECTICUT VETERINARY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 


The regular bi-monthly meeting of the above Society was held 
at the usual place in New Haven, on Tuesday, Aug. 5th. The 
President, Dr. W. J. Sullivan, in the chair. 

There were present Drs. F. E. Rice, W. K. Lewis, E. C. Ross, 
E. A. McLellan, A. D. Sturges, Geo. H. Parkinson, Nathan 
Tibbles and Thos. Bland. 

The minutes of previous meeting were read and approved. 

Dr. E. A. McLellan read a very lengthy and carefully pre- 
pared paper on “ The Surgical or Mechanical Treatment of Dis- 
eases of the Feet.” In speaking of quarter-crack, the essayist 
said that he generally found unequal pressure at the coronet on 
the side on which the crack had formed, the wall being deeper 
than on the other side, and the coronary structure pushed upward 
and inward, the pressure of the horn so lessening nutrition and 
the descending pastern pressing upon the adjacent tissues, causing 
fracture of the thin and weakened wall. 

The treatment he recommended was first to reduce the wall 
at the plantar border so as to remove as far as possible the undue 
elevation of the coronet, then thin the bar and planter horn on 
same side and apply a spring between the heels in such a manner 
as to widen them at their most posterior point. The crack will 
then be closed unless it should be very wide and its edges everted. 
In any case he advised that a transverse incision should be made 
at the superior extremity of the fissure, and in applying the shoe 
it should bear evenly from toe to heel on both sides. Thespring 
should be used until the wall became sound. In case of a foot 
predisposed, the occasional use of the spring will prevent a recur- 
rence of the crack. 

The various foot troubles, such as chronic laminitis, corns, 
thrush, ossification of lateral cartilages, etc., were exhaustively 
treated, and at the conclusion of reading of the paper, a lively 
discussion ensued, the essayist successfully combatting the multi- 
tude of questions that were put to him. 

The Secretary was chosen to read a paper at the next meeting. 

It was voted that a reserve fund should be created by a month- 





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NEWS AND SUNDRIES. 327 





ly assessment on each member of the sum of twenty-five cents, 
said fund not to be drawn upon except by a two-thirds vote of the 
entire membership of the Society. 

A committee of three was appointed to obtain designs of 
membership certificates, and present at next meeting. The meet- 
ing terminated with a vote of thanks to Dr. McLellan for his 


interesting paper. 
Txos. Bann, Sec’y. 


KANSAS STATE VETERINARY ASSOCIATION. 


At the meeting held September 12th, at Topeka, Kansas, for 
holding a State Veterinary Association the following officers were 
elected: Dr. A. A. Holcombe, President ; Dr. Young, of Abilene, 
Vice-President ; Ed. R. Allen, of Topeka, Secretary; Dr. Wilhite, 
of Emporia, Treasurer. 

A Board of Censors was elected as follows : 

Dr. W. D. Epperson, Ottawa; C. L. Moulton, Leavenworth ; 
D. P. Young, Abilene; J. H. Wilhite, Emporia; O. W. Murphy, 
Lawrence. ; 

The organization adjourned to meet in Topeka on Thursday, 
December 15th, at which time papers will be read on subjects of 
interest to the Association. 





NEWS AND SUNDRIES. 


Hoe Cuorera.—This disease has prevailed in different States 
for a long time, and is increasing. 


QUARANTINE AGAINST AMERICAN Catrie.—Dr. McEachran, in- 
spector of the Dominion cattle quarantine, maintains that nothing 
but an absolute embargo against American cattle will prevent the 
introduction of pleuro-pneumonia into Canada.—Waine Farmer. 


Prouiric Cow.—A cow in County Carlow, Ireland, has pro- 
duced four heifer calves in ten months. The cow was calved 
April 4, 1881, had her two first calves on July 25, last year, and 
two more on the 25th of May, this year.— Weetern Rural. 





328 NEWS AND SUNDRIES. 





Lire or Mares.—As a rule mares are longer lived than geld- 
ings and the majority of instances of prolonged life are among 
the former. The Pennsylvania 2ecord states that Charles Smedley, 
residing near Media, owns a mare forty-two years old, and she is 
still ablebodied, being capable of doing as much hauling as the 
majority of horses one-third her age-—American Farmer. 


Hoa CHotera in New Jurszy.—A special dispatch from 
Phillipsburg, New Jersey, says: The hog cholera is playing havoc 
with the swine in this place. Within the last four weeks between 
fifty and sixty hogs have died shortly after being taken with that 
disease. Some of the hogs die within twenty-four hours after the 
first symptoms of the disease are noticeable, and others live for 
three days. 


Tue Oonprtion or THE Broop 1n Hypropuosia.—In an ex- 
amination of the blood drawn rapidly from the vessels, especially 
from the sinuses of the dura mater, Dr. Romiti (22ivista Clinica, 
July, 1884) found it to be of a dark red color and not coagulable 
spontaneously. The red globules were rather pale, and when the 
preparation was stained by Bizzozero’s method, and placed under 
an immersion lens, there appeared a mass of granular matter in 
which the white globules seemed to be imbedded. These appear- 
ances were similar to those presented by the blood of persons 
killed by snake bites.—edical Record. 


A Mixp Form or Hyprorxosta.—There seems to be little doubt 
that the following curious series of events occurred near Eufaula, 
Ala. On July 25th a dog on a plantation bit a mule and several 
hog; nineteen days later the mule and one of the hogs died with 
the symptoms of tetanus. Within the next week three more of 
the bitten hogs died with the same symptoms. The dead hogs 
were eaten by some thirty negroes, about half of whom were within 
ten or fifteen days attacked with what Dr. Johnson, the attending 
physician, calls “a mild form of hydrophobia.”—Medical Record. 


Destroyine Grrms—Dr. Dobell, in writing to the London 
Times, directs attention to a method of destroying cholera and 
typhoid germs, in drinking-water, by passing through it an electric 





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NEWS AND SUNDRIES. * 329 





current, and thereby exposing it to the influence of nascent oxygen, 
by which means the water would be dezymotized. This sugges- 
tion of Dr. Dobell’s seems to have been forestalled by the con- 
struction of a filter invented by Dr. Stephen H. Emmons, which 
is now on view at the offices of the Economic Electric Company in 
London. The filter consists of an earthenware vessel, in which 
are placed porous cells containing carbon plates, the spaces between 
the plates and the cells being partially filled with animal charcoal. 
The plates are coupled up with the positive pole of the Leclanché 
battery or of one of the company’s own chromozone batteries. 
Alternating with the porous cells are other carbon plates, which 
are coupled up with the negative pole of the battery. The water 
is supplied into the porous cells, and passes through the charcoal 
to the exterior of the cells, and is drawn off by a tap in the usual 
way. Itisclaimed, that by this means, the water being submitted 
to the influence of the evolved nascent oxygen, as suggested by 
Dr. Dobell, the materies morbi of typhoid, cholera, and similar 
disease are destroyed, and that an end is put to the dreaded danger 
of ‘death in the pot.’—Science. 


Typuor From Manure.—In a communication to the Lancet, 
Mr. Lawrence puts forward the theory that typhoid fever is 
capable of being set up de novo by bovine evacuations. In support 
of it he cites a number of cases that came under his observation 
while practicing medicine in South Africa, in which, although the 
sparse population was favorable to the tracing of infection, no 
connection with a previously-existing case of typhoid could be 
detected, while there was always evidence of the access of cattle- 
manure to the drinking water. In no case was he able to ascribe 
the disease to horse-manure or to sheep-manure, the latter of which, 
at the large sheep farms of the Boers, is said to lie in enormous 
quantities close by their dwelling-houses, It certainly is a curious 
fact, as pointed out by Mr. Lawrence, that many typhoid epidemics, 
of which the history has been traced to this country, have origin- 
ated from dairies, although this has hitherto usually been attribu- 
ted to the great susceptibility of milk to contract contamination. 
—Farm and Fireside. 


Litt Bah 


Shite amen sere ndats Soe Ee 





Sic Aiea LAAs teak osinceraehe e tastete ete oe 











330 EXCHANGES, ETO., RECEIVED. 





EXCHANGES, ETC., RECEIVED. 





FOREIGN.—Veterinarian, Veterinary Journal, Journal de Zootechnie, Presse 
Veterinaire, Echo Veterinaire, Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire, Archives 
Veterinaria, Gazette Medicale, Revue Scientifique, Clinica Veterinaria, Revue 
fur Thierheilkunde und Thierzucht, Annales de Bruxelles, Schweizer Archiv 
fur Thierheilkunde, Quarterly Journal of Veterinary Science in India. 

HOME.—Journal of Comparative Medicine, Medical Record, New York Medical 
Journal, American Agriculturist, Country Gentleman, Prairie Farmer, Breed- 
ers’ Gazette, National Live Stock Journal, American Cultivator, Scientific 
American, Turf, Field and Farm, Spirit of the Times, Science, Annals of 
Hygiene. 

JOURNALS.—Western Farmer, Maine Farmer, Ohio F'armer, Practical Farmer, 
Hearth and Home, &c., &c. 

PAMPHLETS.—Esposizione della R. Scuola Superiore de Medicinia Veterinaria 
di Milano, Royal (Dicks’) Veterinary College Prospectus, 1884~’85, Official 
Report of the State Veterinarian to the Governor of Illinois, Report of Com- 
missioners on Contagious Diseases of Cattle of Maine. 

BOOKS.—Simple Ailments of the Horse, by W. T. 








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