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AMERICAN VETERINARY REVIEW, 


JULY, 1892. 


EDITORIAL. 


ACTINOMYCOSIS.—The subject of actinomycosis has of 
late received a great deal of attention from American veteri- 
narians, with the result of giving rise to the expression of 
very contradictory opinions which were freely exhibited 
pending the trial held last year in Peoria, Ills. We have im. 
partially reported all the various theories and arguments 
propounded during the pendency of that memorable event, 
and have, we think, done justice to all the parties profession. 
ally interested in the matter without reference to the shades 
of opinion, or theory, or school they may have espoused, or 
whether in the eye of the law they may have appeared on 
the right or the wrong side of the case. In the publication 
of one of the various critiques on the subject we were obliged 
to express our opinions in relation to some different consider- 
ations connected with the case on our part, and explained 
that we were giving the subject a great deal of thought, and 
that we were not yet well prepared to change the opinion we 
had expressed at the trial. 

In continuing our investigations our attention has been 
directed to the publication of some notes on actinomycosis 
presented to the Soczete Centrale de Medecine Veterinaire, by 
Professor Nocard; and as his opinion on all matters pertain- 
ing to our science is accepted as of the highest authority, we 
have much pleasure in making certain citations from his ex- 
pression of views, which may prove interesting and impor- 
tant in connection with the subjects involved in the Peoria 
trial. After a few allusions to the presence of actinomycosis 





186 EDITORIAL. 





in various parts of the world, and a quotation from the statis- 
tics of the disease, which shows a percentage of a compara- 
tively small number in France, 95 cases only having been 
discovered out of 131,398 animals, or a proportion of 0.72 per 
thousand, the professor makes a few remarks upon the frequen- 
cy of the seat of the actinomycotic lesions, and the location of 
the disease in certain organs, as the tongue, the bones of the 
head and the lungs, and enters upon the most interesting part 
of his communication, viz., the treatment of the lingual form 
of the affection, which, adopted by Professor Thomassen, of 
Utrecht, and recommended by him as early as 1885, had 
proved most satisfactory to him and the few who had prac- 
tised it. The treatment of “actinomycotic glossitis,” which 
is known by its symptoms and the peculiar condition of the 
organ affected, consists simply in the administration of iodide 
of potassee, with which the local application of tincture of 
iodine may be combined. The history of several observa- 
tions on this subject have heretofore appeared inthe REVIEW. 

The communication of Professor Nocard concludes with 
the etiology and mode of entrance of the parasite, which, for 
many reasons, ought to be considered as being introduced 
through the herbaceous food, the grains, the hay and the straw, 
which, when taken into the mouth, and finding a solution of 
continuity of the mucous membrane have thus met all the re- 
quired facilities for infection. The lesions of the lungs may 
be explained by the inhalation and introduction of infected 
dust into the air passages, and the same may be said when 
the udder is the part affected, and the introduction of the 
parasite may have occurred through the milk channel. The 
invasion through the serous membranes and the abdominal 
organs may also be explained as occurring through the buc- 
cal cavity. For the renal form of the lesion he proposes no 
explanation. 

The interesting points, as far as the Peoria case is con- 
cerned, follow, and we give them ina translation of Profes- 


sor Nocard’s own words: 

The considerations above presented are, however, sufficient to show the 
predominating action of vegetable alimeutation in the development of actinomy- 
cosis. But thus produced, is the disease contagious? Can it be communicated 





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same 
stance 
hi 
traced 
straws 


EDITORIAL. 187 





by an affected animal to his neighbors? Does he constitute a danger for those 
who have the care of him? Can a man contract actinomycosis from diseased 
animals, as he does in cases of glanders, or rabies, as he receives it in 
aphthous fever, trichinosis, or even tuberculosis? Evidently, the question is not 
yet solved; but it can be said that if actinomycosis is contagious, it is so only in 
a degree so slight that the danger of contagion may be considered as a neglige- 
able factor. It is in the country where the disease is the rarest that such a ques- 
tion can be most usefully studied. In France, for instance, each veterinarian 
sees now and then a few cases of actinomycosis of the jaw. These cases remain 
always isolated, though the animals live and associate with others for years. 

Actinomycosis of the jaw has no effect upon the general habit of the subject ; 
as long as the slow progress of the disease has not involved the dental alveola, or 
loosened the teeth from their sockets, and the animals live, eat, work, fatten 
and give milk as much and as well as their neighbors. But whatever may be the 
duration of the sojourn in the same barns, no matter how intimate the contacts 
with all animals may have been, never has the disease been seen affecting other ani- 
mals ; and yet from time to time the actinomycotic tumor has been seen to soften 
and ulcerate, and through existing and persistent fistulous tracts permit the escape 
of pus loaded with parasites. Yet, still, I repeat no case of direct contagion has 
yet become known,* 

Besides it is known with what difficulty experimental actinomycosis can 
be obtained ; whatever may have been the mode of inoculation, or the quantity 
of inoculating matter employed, or whether obtained from pure cultures or from 
fresh lesions, the result is always negative. Some authors have succeeded in 
giving rise to the development of tumors in animals which had received into the 
peritoneum fragments more or less voluminous of actinomycomes ; but the in- 
oculation by series has always failed, and, as the result, one is brought to the 
conclusion that to reproduce itself de novo in an animal organism the germ must 
perhaps pass through a different media. We know nothing of the evolutive pe- 
riod of the disease, but it is an allowable supposition that the vegetates, through 
which the introduction into the organism occurs, not only act as a vehicle of 
introduction, but that they probably furnish a necessary or perhaps simply use- 
ful substitute for an unknown phase of its evolution. 

Should this hypothesis be admitted, the comparative history of this affection 
will be better understood ; it is easily explained how, out of seventy-five obser- 
vations of human actinomycosis counted hy Moosbrugger, he could discover but 
a single patient who had been in contact with animals affected with tumors of 
the jaw, while in forty-nine cases they were found in persons whose vocations did 
not require their proximity to affected cattle. 

The conclusion which imposes itself is that the source of infection is the 
same for both men and animals, and that in all appearances gramineous sub- 
stances have served as vehicles for the introduction of the parasite. 

In many of the cases of human actinomycosis where the cause has been 
traced it was in persons having thoughtlessly chewed or swallowed particles of 
straws or ears, or grains of wheat or rye. In the elucidation of the saprophitic 


* The italics are ours. —Eb. 





188 EDITORIAL. 





life of the germ lies the only means of establishing on a solid basis the rules of 
an efficacious prophylaxy of actinomycosis, whether in man or in animals. 


MALLEINE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LATENT GLANDERS.— 
How often have veterinarians been embarrassed in the pres- 
ence of an animal possessing a symptomatic resemblance to 
glanders, and yet with such a want of positiveness in its mani- 
festations that the question “ whether it is truly glanders” 
had almost to remain unsolved. 

And yet how many means are at his disposal of which he 
may avail himself, as ‘aids in the solution of the question, 
among which are the various inoculations of other animals, 
from the small guinea-pig to the dog, the horse or the donkey. 
But to make sucha system of inoculation available, something 
to inoculate becomes necessary, such as the various discharges, 
pus, glandular tissue, etc.; and how often are they absent? 
There are cases where the disease is localized in the lungs, 
and there is nothing externally visible, and in these cases 
what is to be done ? 

By the discovery of tuberculine, one fact was established, 
which, if applicable to the virus of other contagious diseases, 
would prove of great value. 

This principle was that the products of secretion of the 
tuberculous bacilli, when cultivated zz vitro, have a specific 
and altogether special e/ective action, upon the organic lesions 
caused by this bacillus. 

If this action existed, was it peculiar to the tuberculous 
bacilli, or did it not exist as well for the pathogenous microbes 
of other diseases? It is an importont question, and it seemed 
to be answered in respect to glanders in the affirmative. 

Two Hessian veterinarians, Kolinng and Hellmann, were 
the first to announce the result of their labors in the ob- 
taining from the extracts of cultures of glanders the malleine, 
which they claimed was capable of an action upon the lesions 
of glanders similar to that of tuberculine upon the lesions of 
tuberculosis. 

Malleine is the glycerinated extract of the cultures of the 
bacillus of glanders, and according to the veterinarians re- 
ferred to, a subcutaneous injection was followed in several 





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EDITORIAL. 189 


glanderous animals, by strong febrile reaction, while healthy 
horses used as witnesses or tests, showed no elevation of tem- 
perature. As we have before reported, Dr. Kolinng died 
from the inoculation of glanders, while engaged in his experi- 
ments. 

These experiments have been quite extensively repeated 
since. Professor Nocard recently read before the Societé Cen- 
trale, a communication relating to his experience with the new 
agent, which ends with a statement of the results obtained by 
him, as follows: 

1. The subcutaneous injection of malleine in the dose of a 
cubic centimeter, gives rise, 7x glanderous horses, to a strong 
ebrile reaction, appearing as early as the eighth hour after the 
operation, and lasting for several hours following. 

2. If the elevation of temperature exceeds two degrees, it 
can be affirmed that the animal has glanders—if the tempera- 
ture does not vary, or rises less than one degree, the animal 
has no glanders. lf the temperature rises between one and 
two degrees, it is not yet possible, in the present condition of 
our knowledge, to be positive as to whether the animal has 
or has not glanders; he must be considered as doubtful, and 
treated accordingly. 

3. In all infected stables, it would be advantageous to sub- 
mit all the contaminated animals to the malleine test. <A bet- 
ter surveillance, a better regulated abatage, and more judicious 
sequestration would foilow, and in any case no new victims 
of the disease would be found. 

The period must certainly soon arrive when all practition- 
ers, and especially all State veterinarians, will consider 
malleine one of the most important factors in their diagnosis, 
prognosis and sanitary remedies, in cases of latent and of doubt- 
ful glanders. 

NEw YORK STATE VETERINARY MEDICAL SOCIETY.— 
We have received, as we go to press, the notice of the semi- 
annual meeting of this Society, sent to us by the kindness of 
the Secretary, Dr. N. P. Hinkley, V.S. The doctor sends us, 
besides the notice, an urgent appeal addressed to veterinari- 
ans in the State, asking them to lay aside all personal and 








190 MR. GODBILLE. 





professional business for one day to attend the meeting on the 
14th of July. It is to be hoped that the call will not be ig- 
nored, and that the roll call will show every section of the 
State represented at the meeting in Syracuse. New York 
State ought not to remain without a veterinary society doing 
work in behalf of the profession, and the present Society 
promises well if it only receives the support of the veterina- 
rians of the State. The notice reads as follows: 

Nortioz.—The semi-annual meeting of the New York State Veterinary Medi- 
cal Society will be held at the Vanderbilt House, Syracuse, on Thursday, July 
14th, 1892, 10 o’clock a.m. Every qualified veterinarian in New York State 
ought to attend the meetings of this Society and offer his assistance in accom- 
plishing the good work it has undertaken for the benefit of the profession 
throughout the whole State. We extend a cordial invitation to every one of you 
to join usin this attempt to elevate the standard of our profession. Several 


papers of interest will be read and offered for discussion. 
N. P. Hinxtey, D.V.S., See’y. 





ORIGINAL ARTICLES. 





ACTINOMYCOTIC GLOSSITIS. 
TREATMENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF POTASS. IODIDUM. 


By Mr. GopBItiez.* 


First observation. September, 23d I was called to visit a 
four-year-old cow, and at once recognized her trouble. The 
tongue was one third larger than normal, hard, and with its 
superior and lateral faces covered with yellowish nodules, 
She salivated profusely ; the intermaxillary space was much 
swollen and oedematous, and prehension of food was difficult, 
as well as mastication; temperature normal. According to 
the owner, the disease had existed for the past ten days. 

The animal was left in the pasture, and the daily adminis- 
tration of 12 grammes (about two drachms and a half) iodide 
potassain two doses, in about a pint of water, was prescribed. 

Ten days later the symptoms were much improved ; sali- 


*Extracts from Professor Nocard’s paper before the Soc. Cent. de Med. Vet. 





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ACTINOMYCOTIC GLOSSITIS. 191 





vation much reduced, swelling of the maxillary space almost 
disappeared ; the tongue had again assumed its normal size 
and mobility ; the yellowish nodules had disappeared, and in 
their place were reddish granular spots, true cicatrices, not 
yetcovered withepithelium. The patient ate well, her flanks 
were full and lactation normal. 

A peculiar feature was that the entire skin became covered 
with large, thin epidermic pellicles, of an orange yellow color, 
principally on each side of the neck. The eyes became 
swollen, the lacrymation quite active, and there were coryza 
and diarrhoea. As soon as these evidences of iodism were 
manifested, the organism being saturated with potass. iodide, 
and the animal on the way to recovery, the treatment was 
stopped. The recovery was radical, a week after. 

Second observation. October 8, 1891, a cow nine years old 
showed an actinomycotic tongue, of eight days’ standing. 
She was kept in the barn, and received every day in two 
doses, ten grammes of potass. iodid. Diet: grass and mashes 
of bran and rye flour. 

Ten days later improvement was well marked ; but signs 
of iodism were less pronounced than in the first case, as the 
eyes were less swollen and lachrymation less. But the 
epidermic exfoliation was very marked. 

Considering the animal cured, she was returned to the 
pasture, and all treatment suspended, but four days later the 
prehension of food again became difficult and maxillary space 
became puffy and she was brought back to the barn and re- 
ceived six grammes of the iodide morning and evening; the 
iodism then reappeared and more severely than at first, and 
then everything proceeded favorably. Her recovery was 
final. 

Third observation. A steer four years old had fora few 
days back refused his food and had salivated abundantly. On 
examination of the mouth, the tongue seemed absolutely 
normal, but the palate was tumefied and covered with yel- 
lowish nodules like those of an actinomycotic tongue. In the 
same field six weeks before, a steer had been kept, which was 
destroyed on account of actinomycosis of the tongue.. 





192 MR. GODBILLE. 





This patient received potass. iodid. in decreasing doses, 
fifteen grammes the first day, thirteen the second, then eleven, 
nine, seven and five grammes, a dose which he received until 
the twelfth day, when he appeared entirely recovered, al- 
though the phenomena of iodism were not well marked. 

Fourth observation. A heifer of eighteen months was 
affected. She was placed under the same treatment, with 
gradually increasing doses, beginning with five grammes the 
first day, and increasing one daily until twelve. The symp- 
toms of iodism became well marked on the sixth day, with 
on the eighth, coryza, an abundant flow of tears, and epidermic 
desquammation. The treatment was then discontinued. A 
few days later recovery was complete. 

The following case is recorded by Prof. Nocard himself. 
A cow six years old, losing flesh rapidly, was sent to the 
butcher for slaughter. She was in bad condition, hollowed 
at the flank, and with the maxillary space filled with a hard, 
painless mass of the size of a man’s arm, not adherent to the 
skin. A thick viscous saliva escaped from the commissure of 
the lips, and exploration of the mouth seemed painful. The 
tongue was very large, principally at the base, hard and 
nodulated, and but slightly flexible ; the lateral faces covered 
with small tuberculiform nodosities, the mucous membrane 
ulcerated in spots, pressure upon which forced out little yel- 
lowish masses, which when crushed showed under the micro- 
scope the tuffs of actinomycotic growth. The temperature 
was normal; pulse, 46°; respiration, 12. After a few days the 
animal was placed under treatment as follows: 

March 15th she received six grammes of potass. iodidum in 
a pint of water in one dose, and this was followed by eight 
grammes in two doses, one in the morning and one in the 
evening before meals. Three days later there seemed to be 
some improvement; on the 1gth signs of iodism were well 
marked, and the symptoms had subsided inseverity. On the 
21st, everything was better accentuated, the improvement 
being more manifest, as the iodism was better marked. 

On the 24th everything had assumed its normal aspect and 
the treatment was discontinued, and since then the animal 
has regained her general fat condition. 





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TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS. 193 





TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS IN ITS RELATION TO HUMAN 
ALIMENTARY HYGIENE. 


By Pror. 8. ARLOING. 
(Continued from page 138). 


II. 


We believe we have answered all the principal objections 
which have been urged against the conclusions adopted by 
the various congresses in which the question of tuberculosis 
has been discussed. A few words more, however, may be 
of use. 

It would have been surprising if from one congress to an- 
other there had been no progress accomplished in the ideas 
elicited and illustrated by means of these discussions. In 
1888 it had been decided “ that it was necessary to enforce by 
all means possible, including the indemnification of interested par- 
ties, the general application of the seizure, and total destruction of 
all the meats of tuberculous animals, whatever might be the sever- 
ity of the lesions found in those animals.’ . 

The ministerial decree issued during the time when your 
discussion was in progress did not include features of tota] 
seizure, or of indemnification. It remained satisfied with the 
exclusion of the meat from tuberculous animals. First, zf the 
lestons were generalized, viz., not exclusively confined to visceral 
organs and their lymphatic glands ; and secondly, tf the lesions, 
though localized, had involved the greater part of a viscera, or 
were mantfested by an eruption upon the walls of the thoractc or 
the abdominal cavity. 

These restrictions had afforded evidence of important 
progress in the service of meat inspection, the superior au- 
thority having thus indicated to the municipal magistrates 
the duty they had to fulfil, and to the veterinary inspectors 
the limits within which they might interfere. Some of our 
colleagues consider that these restrictions are sufficient to 
amply satisfy all needed requirements, and remove all the 
dangers against which they are directed. But we respectfully 
beg leave to dissent from the optimistic views of our friends. 





194 M. 8. ARLOING. 


We are not satisfied with the decree of 1888, either in regard 
to the scientific or to the practical aspects which are present- 
ed to our view. 

Indeed, in allowing free circulation to tuberculous animals, 
for the reason that the alterations have not gone beyond the 
affected organ, it implies that the virulent bacilli in these 
animals are never found in the vascular network of the mus. 
cles and glands, which in numerous cases would be an extrav- 
agant and erroneous assumption.* 

And again, in allowing inspectors such a latitude of judg- 
ment in respect to the importance and the extent of tubercu- 
lous lesions, there remains an open door for very dangerous 
differences of appreciation and irregularities and errors of 
conduct. We have seen this exemplified in Lyons, when 
the veterinary inspector endeavored to conform to the 
provisions of the official regulations. Dairies are numerous 
in that region, and cattle dealers protested against the sever- 
ity exercised in that city, making unfavorable comparisons 
between that and the lenity and consideration practised in 
other places. 

To be simpler and more logical, we would then propose 
to the congress to persevere in the principle of the entire 
seizure and destruction in all cases, without distinction, of the 
condemned cattle. But we must not forget that the opposi- 
tion to any measures designed to suppress the consumption 
of tuberculous meats is with an important class of interested 
persons largely and exclusively a question of money, and we 
have also shown that these measures affect one class of agri- 
culturists more intimately than agriculture itself, pure and 
simple. If we could so alter things that this fact could be 
ignored, then all minds might be brought into a general har- 
monious co-operation in the matter. In other words, instead 
of leaving those who are entirely dispossessed by the seizure 
of the diseased products to sustain the entire loss, the result- 





*In a Hygienic Congress held in London not long since, Messrs. McFadyean 
and Woodhead reported a case in which the intra-muscular and tuberculous 
deposits existed with some- nodules in the lungs only, and a few lymphatic 
glands. 





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TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS. 195 





ing damages ought to be equitably divided and apportioned 
among all who are in any degree benefitted by their interest 
in the trade of the cattle-market. In order to accomplish this, 
we propose the institution of a system of mutual warranty 
and assurance, which, when properly organized and operated, 
could not fail to be followed by excellent results. The objec- 
tion to such a proposition was that it would involve the in- 
vestment of a large capital. 

To resume, I have the honor of asking this congress to 
persist in its previous declarations, excepting perhaps the 
clause relating to the destruction of the confiscated meats: 
And, moreover, in the interest of the public health, I would 
urge the establishment of an authorized meat inspection for 
the entire territory, and with the least possible delay. And 
secondly, | would ordain that the meat of tuberculous animals 
in its fresh state should in every case, without distinction, be 
strictly excluded from the markets, or from entering into 
general consumption as human food. T%zrdly, it should be 
sterilized, or transformed by the application of sufficient heat, 


or by salting, according to location and other circumstances, 
before being offered for consumption. Fourthly, the cost in- 
volved in these transformations or modifications should be 
compensated by an indemnity. And /fth/y, and finally, this 
indemnity should be paid from a special fund derived from a 
tax assessed upon every head of cattle inspected. 





ENORMOUS DIMENSIONS OF THE STOMACH OF A HORSE 
—In making the post-mortem of a horse fourteen years old, 
veternarian Koch, inspector of markets at Hagen, found the 
stomach of his subject to answer to the following dimen- 
sions: Filled with no less than 51} kilograms of food, with 
the shape of an enormous egg, longitudinal circumference 
measuring I meter and go centimeters, while transversely its 
circumference was I meter and 46 centimeters, at the same 
time it contained 84 litres of water. The mucous membrane 
of the left sac occupied a space four times larger than that of 
the right. 





HERBERT OSBORN. 





LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS.* 


By HERBERT OsBOoRN. 


The following pages on some parasites that affect our 
domestic animals are extracted with but slight alteration from 
the writer’s papert published by the Division of Entomology 
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and we desire here to acknowledge 
the kindness of the Department officers in allowing the use of 
the cuts which accompany it. 

It is needless to speak of the importance of the subject or 
to present any apology for devoting space to its consideration. 
The keeping of live stock for work, dairy, and meat or wool 
production is one of the most important industries in the state 
and the injuries of parasitic insects often assume important 
proportions. While only a few species are treated in the 
present paper they are such as require frequent attention. 

The common lice of our domestic animals belong to two 
quite distinct groups of insects, and may be called for con- 


venience the suctorial lice (which form the family Pediculidae) 
and the biting or running lice, which do not penetrate the 
skin to suck blood, but feed upon the epidermal scales, hairs, 
feathers, etc. (which are included in the family Wadlophagidace). 


THE SUCTORIAL LICE. 


In these there is a tubular mouth capable of being thrust 
into the skin to draw blood. The feet are adapted to clasping 
hairs and the insects are poorly adapted for locomotion except 
in the hairy covering of animals. 

The eggs, “nits,” are attached to hairs by a glue-like sub- 
stance, and the young lice when hatched resemble the adults 
except in size. As the entire life of the parasite is passed 
upon the same animal or another animal of the same kind, its 
range of habit is easily stated. 


*From Bulletin of Experimental Station of Iowa. 

+I. The Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals, by 
Prof. Herbert Osborn. Bulletin 7, Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, 18gr. 





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LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 





But very few of the species are ever 
found upon any other species of animal 
than that which they normally infest, 
and if so always upon very nearly re- 








2ct our lated species. Whether this is due to 
on from differences in the skin, of temperature, 
mology of the size of the hair to which they 
wledge must adhere and to which their feet 
> use of are adapted, or to some subtle differ- 
ence in the odor or taste peculiar to 
ject or their particular host which leads them 
ration. to discard all others, we are unable to 
or wool say. 
he state The mouth parts are necessarily ca- 
portant pable of great extension in order to 
in the reach the blood of their hosts. Uhler 
ion. says (Standard Nat. Hist., I, p. 209): 
to two “A fleshy unjointed rostrum, capable 
or con- of great extension by being rolled in- 


culidae) side out, this action serving to bring 
ite the forward a chaplet of barbs which imbed 
, hairs, themselves in the skin to give a firm 
gidae). hold for the penetrating bristles, ar- 
ranged as chitinous strips in a long, 
slender, flexible tube, terminated by 


thrust four very minute lobes which probe to 
mapng the capillary vessels of a sweat pore 
except (see Fig. 1). The blood being once 
reached a current is maintained by the 
ce sub- . : . Fig. 1.—Mouth parts of 
pulsations of the pumping ventricle — pevicuius vestimenti, show- 
adults and the peristaltic movements of the _ ee 
’ ube—greatly enlarged. 
passed stomach.’ 


nd, it ; 
ee THE SuckinG Doc-LouseE. (Plate I, Fig. 2.) 


Hematopinus piliferus, Burmeister. 


Although the dog has been the closest companion of man 
among the domestic animals from very early times, and con- 
sequently this parasite in all probability was well known to 


mals, by 
tment of 





SS eg A PET a) GUE PET 


wp Ba 


198 HERBERT OSBORN. 








keepers of dogs, it was not technically described until about 
the year 1838. 

It does not appear to have been a very numerous or injuri- 
ous parasite, apparently much less so than the 7richodectes 
/atus infesting the same animal, and less annoying than either 
ticks or fleas. Denny says (Monog. Anop. Brit., p. 29), “I 
have found it upon dogs two or three times, but it is by no 
means of common occurrence.” We have examined many 
dogs in quest of it, but only a single specimen has so far been 
our reward. Denny says (loc. cit.), “ I also received specimens 
from the ferret.” It can hardly be inferred, however, that 
this animal is a normal host for the species, as such an instance 
might occur entirely from accident, the louse having been 
transferred from some dog to a ferret associated with it. 

This species is somewhat smaller than the lice infesting 
most of the larger mammals, the full-grown individuals being 
nearly one-tenth of an inch long. It is described generally as 
of a light-red or ashy flesh color, but evidently varies as the 
other species, according to condition of the body as well as 
age of specimens. In preserved specimens these colors be- 
come lighter, assuming a yellowish hue, the abdomen, except 
where darkened by the intestine and its contents, appearing a 
shade lighter than the front part of the body. The abdomen 
is thickly covered with fine hairs and minute warty eminences, 
these latter when magnified about 300 diameters appearing 
like the scales of a lizard or fish. 

Specimens from different breeds of dogs do not appear to 
have been noticed as different, though a form described as 
H. bicolor by Lucas may perhaps be found to present race 
characteristics. 


THE SHORT-NOSED Ox-LousE. (Plate I, Fig. 1.) 


Hematopinus curysternus, Nitzsch. 


This is the species that has probably been familiar from 
early time as the louse infesting cattle, though since this 
species and the following one have been generally confused, 
it is impossible to say which has been most common. It was 
first accurately described by Nitzsch under the name of 





Pedic 
and | 
parasi 
the he 
specie 
as tre 
asa n 
suppr 
Sil 
ing sp 
as cles 
quota 
Augu 
intere 
there 
color 
tioned 
under 
one.” 
parts « 
to rid 
visitor 
no Co! 
them. 
Th 
an incl 
a little 
from t 
the me 
body. 
from t 
as sho’ 
Th 
broker 
slightl 
acter, | 
on the 
The 


LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 199 





Pediculus eurysternus, in 1818 (Germar’s Mag., vol. III, p. 305), 
and has received mention in every important treatise on 
parasites since that date, as well as innumerable notices under 
the head of animal parasites, cattle lice, etc. As with other 
species, the disease produced has been termed phthiriasis, and 
as treated by Kollar and other writers it has been recognized 
as a most serious pest and numerous remedies tried for its 
suppression. 

Since it has been very generally confused wlth the follow- 
ing species we shall give more particular description and show 
as Clearly as possible how to distinguish them. The following 
quotation from Mr. C. W. Tenney (in Jowa Homestead for 
August 18, 1882) will show that this difference is not without 
interest or value as viewed by a practical breeder: “ Then 
there is a blue slate-colored louse and a larger one of the same 
color that vary somewhat in their habits, and the last men- 
tioned is the hardest to dislodge.” Evidently it is the species 
under discussion to which Mr. Tenney refers as the “larger 
one.” It infests particularly the neck and shoulders, and these 
parts are frequently worn bare by the efforts of the animal 
to rid itself of the irritation produced by these unwelcome 
visitors. Still, some cattlemen say that these parasites are of 
no consequence, and that they never pay any attention to 
them. 

The full-grown females are about one-eighth to one-fifth of 
an inch long, and fully half that in width, while the males are 
a little smaller and proportionately a little narrower. Aside 
from the difference in size the sexes differ very decidedly in 
the markings and structural features on the under side of the 
body. The males have a broad black stripe running forward 
from the end of the body to near the middle of the abdomen, 
as Shown in Fig. 1 c (Plate [). 

The females have no indication of this stripe, but the black 
broken band of the upper side of the terminal segment extends 
slightly around onthe under side. The most important char- 
acter, however, is the presence of two little brush-like organs 
on the next to the last segment, as shown in Fig. I d (Plate I). 

The head is bluntly rounded in front, nearly as broad as 





















rene teeapranerann penne Nana tok Sg ag eee ee ag near a gettin: — 5 — . 2 
= : = a ae an len a SOE RS I Sot ta en A meet en 









Sa spe eran NE ne 


















200 HERBERT OSBORN. 





long and with the antennz situated at the sides midway from 
the posterior to the anterior borders; behind these are located 
slight eminences upon which may be found the small eyes, 
which are seen with considerable difficulty. At the front of 
the head may be seen the small rostrum or beak, the end of 
which is usually at or near the surface, but which is capable 
of extension and retraction. The end of this beak is armed 
with a double row of recurved hooks (see Fig. 1 4). The 
function of these hooks is doubtless to fasten the beak firmly 
into the skin of the host, while the true pumping organ must 
consist, as in the Pediculi of a slender piercing tube, though 
we can see only slight indications of this tube within the head, 
and we have not seen it nor do we find any record of its having 
been seen fully extended in this species. Professor Harker 
says the rostrum can be pushed out, but his figure shows only 
the basal portion with the crown of hooks and nothing of the 
tubular parts inclosed within. 

The thorax is wider than long and widest at the posterior 
margin where it joins the abdomen. The legs project from 
the side, are long and stout, and especially adapted to clasp- 
ing and clinging to the hair. An extra provision for this 
purpose consists of a double plate having fine transverse 
ridges in the basal joint of the tarsus. This structure appears 
to have been first described by Professor Harker (Agricultural 
Students’ Gazette, vol. I, p. 162). The abdomen differs greatly 
in form and size, according to the degree of distention, which 
accounts for the discrepancies in the different figures of this 
species. It may be called flask-shaped and more or less flat- 
tened according to the amount of matter contained in it. 
There is a row of horny tubercles along each side and a row 
of chitinous plates along each side of the upper surface of the 
abdomen. The spiracles are located in the tubercles at the 
sides, and there is one to each of the last six segments omit- 
ting the terminal one. In color there is some variation, as 
would be surmised from a comparison of descriptions by 
different authors. The general color of the head and thorax 
is a light brown approaching to yellowish, with touches of 
bright chestnut on the head and legs and margins of the 











tho 
tict 
in f 
abl 
den 
ish- 
ser\ 
say. 
Mr. 
the 
ber« 
are 
the 
the | 
7 
very 
shov 
root 
stanc 
attac 
as tc 
the h 
ing a 
uppe 
vistb. 
powe 
be se 
the s1 
or ch 
late a 
pond 
Plate 
appea 
The s 


from ; 





om 

ted 

yes, 

t of 

1 of 
ible 
ned 
The 
mly 
iust 
ugh 
ead, 
ving 
rker 
only 
' the 


2rlor 
‘rom 
lasp- 
this 
verse 
years 
tural 
eatly 
rhich 
| this 
5 flat- 
in it. 
row 
yf the 
at the 
omit- 
on, as 
ns by 
horax 
hes of 
of the 


LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 201 





thorax, also touches of dark brown on these parts, more par- 
ticularly on the dorsal portion of the thorax. The abdomen 
in fresh specimens has a general bluish aspect, not so notice- 
able in preserved specimens, besides its color depends evi- 
dently in large degree upon its contents. Denny says “ gray- 
ish-white or ochraceous gray,” which would apply well to pre- 
served specimens, but this plate shows it a blue-gray. Harker 
says brownish gray. It appears to us that the term used by 
Mr. Tenney, blue slate-colored, comes quite as near describing 
the average appearance as any that we have seen. The tu- 
bercles at the side of the abdomen and the chitinous plates 
are chestnut-colored, while the most of the upper surface of 
the terminal segment in the female and the ventral stripe in 
the male are black. 

The females deposit their eggs on the hair, attaching them 
very near the skin. Fig. 1 e represents one of the eggs, 
showing its attachment to the hair and the distance from the 
root of the hair in the specimen drawn. The adhesive sub- 
stance evidently invests the egg during oviposition and is 
attached to the hair, the egg then slightly drawn along so 
as to leave the glue-like mass to form a firm union around 
the hair and to the egg. The egg is elongate-shaped, taper- 
ing at the lower end, and having a cap-like covering at the 
upper end. The surface is set with very minute points just 
vistble under an inch objective, but showing clearly with a 
power of 300 diameters. At the surface no connection is to 
be seen between different points, but focusing a little below 
the surface brings into view what dppear to be minute threads 
or channels running from point to point and giving a reticu- 
late appearance to the eggshell. The points cannot corres- 
pond to the circular bodies represented in Denny’s figure (E, 
Plate xxv, Monog. Anop. Brit.) which have much more the 
appearance of protoplasmic granules of the egg contents. 
The shape of the egg in his figure is also entirely different 
from that of the specimén from which our figure is drawn. 

The young louse escapes from the outer or unattached 
end, whether by pushing off the cap-like portion or simply 
pushing through this portion which appears to be thinner 




















202 HERBERT OSBORN. 








than the rest and may be simply membranous, is not, so far 
as we know, determined. No marked changes, except in size 
and the development of the chitinous patches, occur from 
hatching to maturity. 

This is one of the most difficult parasites to destroy, and 
once settled upon an animal should receive prompt and thor- 
ough treatment. The main reliance of veterinarians seems 
to be stavesacre, and this can doubtless be depended upon to 
accomplish the desired end. Mr. Tenney recommends the 
seed of common larkspur steeped, and the animal thoroughly 
washed with the liquid. Hesays: ‘1 have known one ap- 
plication to destroy every insect and egg; two will suffice if 
done thoroughly.” Of course this and the stavesacre are 
nearly identical, both plants belonging to the genus De/phin- 
tum. Washes of carbolic acid soap or of tobacco infusion are 
also effectual, but washes of any kind are of course illy adapt- 
ed to use in midwinter, the time when there is frequently 
most necessity for treatment. Mercurial ointment, sulphur, 
or tobacco smoke, kerosene and lard, or kerosene emulsion, 
road dust, ashes, etc., may be resorted to, according to the 
circumstances. Infested animals should, if possible, be placed 
apart from the others, and much trouble may be saved by 
this precaution. 

Experiments with fumigation have shown this to be a 
method available when other plans are undesirable, though 
from the equipment necessary, and the fact that it requires 
some time in application, it may not prove of as general ser- 
vice as the washes, especially the kerosene emulsion. 

The method may be said in brief to consist of a tight box- 
stall just large enough to admit the largest animal to be 
treated, one end having a close-fitting door to admit the ani- 
mal, the opposite end a stanchion in which the animal is fas- 
tened, and covering the open part of this end, and made to 
fit tightly around the head just in front of the horns, is a can- 
vas sack open at both ends, the inner one nailed to the stall 
and the outer with a running cord to draw it down to the an- 
imal’s head, thus leaving the eyes and nose in open air. An 
opening at the bottom of one side admits fumigating sub- 





sta 
fec 
tol 
qu: 
or 
nec 
to t 
was 
tob: 


this 
be | 
by t 
ciate 


histor 
seems 
under 
lowed 
with | 
Steph 
ally, 
rhynch 
utrostr. 
Piaget, 
fail to « 
given kt 
In t 
and not 
The hez 
dle eact 
the ante 
into the 





apt- 
atly 
aur, 
10n, 

the 
iced 
1 by 


ye a 
ugh 
ires 
| ser- 


box- 
o be 
> anl- 
s fas- 
Je to 
1 can- 
. stall 
ne an- 

An 


y sub- 


LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 203 





stance, sulphur or tobacco, the latter apparently the most. ef- 
fective. In burning this we used a wire screen to spread the 
tobacco, placing this over a tin trough containing a small 
quantity of alcohol. It could be burnt, however, with coals 
or using a small quantity of kerosene. The time of exposure 
necessary will vary some with the strength of fumes, but one. 
to two ounces of tobacco and exposure of 20 to 30 minutes 
was found effective. Pyrethrum might be better even than 
tobacco. 

This species has been said to occur also on horses, but if 
this is the case it must be in rare instances, and there need 
be little apprehension of horses becoming infected with it 
by transmission from cattle with which they may be asso. 
ciated. 


THE Lonc-NosEp Ox-LouseE. (Plate I, Fig. 3.) 
Hematopinus vituli, Linn.—tenuirostris, Burmeister. 


In connection with the preceding species this louse, as al- 
ready stated, has long been familiar to cattlemen; it has also 
been known to entomologists for a considerable time, but its 
history from the entomological side is not entirely clear. It 
seems to have been first technically described by Linnzus 
under the name of Pediculus vituli, which name has been fol- 
lowed by Fabricius, Berkenhout, Stuart, and Turton, and, 
with the exception of the change in the generic name, by 
Stephens, Denny, and English and American authors gener- 
ally. Nitzsch describes it under the name of Pediculus oxy- 
rhynchus, which name was Latinized by Burmeister to ¢en- 
utrostris. This designation has been followed by Giebel and 
Piaget, but why the earlier name of Linnzeus was dropped we 
fail to discover. It seems more proper to retain the name 
given by Linnzeus. 

In this species the body isabout one-eighth of an inch long 
and not more than one-third of that in width (see Flg. 3). 
The head is long and slender, the antennz set near the mid- 
dle each side; there is but a very slight protuberance behind 
the antennz and no eyes visible. The head sets well back 
into the thorax, forming an acute angle behind; the thorax 























wae tee oe 7 . 
ee abe ge eR EE Se ee 









PSE atlas ern a Laer eager 






Sia 

































204 HERBERT OSBORN. 





Berita. Sa aaa sts Catt os hcl 


is longer than wide, and has a distinctly showing spiracle 
above the second pair of legs; the abdomen is elongate, with- 
out chitinous plates and devoid of any tubercles along the 
sides; the terminal segment is also devoid of black horny 
band; the brush-like organ on the under side of the abdomen 
(see Fig. 3) is slender, while the terminal segment is set with 
numerous rather long hairs. 

In all of these points it will be observed there is a distinct 
difference from eurysternus. The brush-like organ on under 
surface of the abdomen, common to females of related species 
and which is wanting in young of all species, must be taken as 
distinct evidence of the maturity of the specimens. If, how- 
ever, there were any doubt on this point, a study of the young 
of eurysternus gives equally conclusive testimony. In the very 
youngest eurysternus we have seen that the chitinous tuber. 
cles along the sides of the abdomen inclosing the spiracles 
are distinctly to be seen, while the head, though longer pro- 
portionally than in adults, is by no means equal in length to 
that of adult vitw/c. A young vztudi found, it is true, associ- 
ated with eurysternus shows this elongation of the head still 
more markedly. In color there is little difference in the two 
forms, this species having rather duller colors upon the head 
and thorax. The abdomen of young specimens, when full of 
blood, appears dark red, but the bluish-gray hue is more 
prominent in adults. The eggs of this species have not been 
described, and we have not had the good fortune to discover 
them. The young are even more slender than the adults. 

The remedies that are available for the preceding species 
will prove effectual for this, and it is evidently less difficult to 


subjugate than that form. 
THE Hoc-Louse. (Plate I, Fig. 5.) 
Hematopinus urius, Nitzsch. 


Occasionally this species appears in formidable numbers, 
since we often hear of swine badly affected with lice, and no 
other species is known to attack this animal. 

Giebel credits this species to Moufet, citing the Theatrum 
Insector, (1634, 266), while Piaget states that it is cited by 


Mo 
WOl 
Lin: 
nam 
the - 
and 
men 
of it 
(Mor 
+. 
does 
from 
curs 
many 
appli 
seeme 
their I 
ald Is) 
pect, t 
buyer: 
I mos 
were Cc 
[ founc 
Mo: 
abunda 
cultura 
out the 
than th 
more ay 
more cc 
be taker 
animals, 
multiplie 
and unhe 
become ; 


majority 
early age 
asites wh 








ibers, 
id no 


atrum 








LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 205 









Moufet on the authority of Albertus (1V., C. 205), which 
would carry its recognition back to the thirteenth century 
Linnzeus described it under the name of Pediculus suis, which 
name has been most commonly followed, but Nitzsch revived 
the name of urzus, and this name has been followed by Giebel 
and Piaget. Along with other parasites it received frequent 
mention by both early and modern writers. Denny speaks 
of it as rare in England, but common in Ireland. He says 
(Monog. Anop. Brit., p. 35): 

“ This species is found in great numbers on swine, but it 
does not appear so generally spread as might be expected 
from the dirty habits of the animals. It most frequently oc- 
curs on those fresh imported from the sister isle. It was 
many months before | could obtain a single example. I had 
applied to both farmers and pig butchers, neither of whom 
seemed to approve of the idea which I had conceived, that of 
their pigs being /ousy, but referred me to those of the Emer- 
ald Isle as being sure to gratify my wishes (forgetting, I sus- 
pect, that the Irish pigs come to this market to meet English 
buyers). I accordingly visited a colony just arrived, where 
[ most certainly met with a ready supply; but here they 
were confined almost entirely to lean animals, and wherever 
[ found a pig fat and healthy no game were to be seen.” 

Most stockbreeders have probably seen instances of its 
abundance, and from the frequent mention of it in the agri- 
cultural papers, it would seem to be quite common through- 
out the country, and while. perhaps, less generally distributed 
than the ox-louse, to multiply sometimes so as to cause much 
more apparent damage to its host. The fact that they are 
more commonly found on poor or runty animals should not 
be taken as evidence that they have a preference for such 
animals, but rather that the animals upon which they have 
multiplied rapidly have, in consequence, become emaciated 
and unhealthy. That they do not increase more rapidly and 
become a much greater nuisance, may be in part because the 
majority of hogs are sold and slaughtered at a comparatively 
early age, and with each one slaughtered must perish the par- 
asites which have been supported by it, unless, perchance, an 












































Ba a a ae i a a wtalgeiarss 


206 HERBERT OSBORN. 





occasional one escape the scalding trough and succeed in 
finding another host. Of the vast number of hogs shipped 
to market and slaughtered at the great packing houses, none 


can bequeath the insects they have nurtured to their follow- 


ers. The amount of injury and the consequent need of pre- 
cautionary measures are, therefore, much less for this species 
than for many others. 

This is one of the largest species of the family, full grown 
individuals measuring a fourth of an inch or more in length. 
It is of a gray color, with the margins of the head and thorax 
and most of the abdomen dark; the head is quite long, the 
sides nearly parallel, with strong eminences just back of the 


antennze, which are set on the sides of the head, midway from 


rostrum to occiput; the legs are lighter, with dark bands at 
the joints; the spiracles are inclosed by a black chitinous 


eminence, and there is a broad black band on the last seg- 


ment, broken near the middle. (See Fig. 6.) 

The male has the abdomen marked beneath with a large 
black area extending forward from the end of the terminal 
segment, so as to occupy the central portion of the last three 
segments. 

There is a curious provision in the feet for strengthening 
the hold upon the hair, which does not seem to have been 
hitherto described. 

It consists of a circular pad-like organ or disc in the outer 
portion of the tibia which is received in a conical cavity in 
the end of the tibia, and which can be forced out so as to 
press upon the hair held between the claws of the tarsus and 
the end of the tibia. 

Ordinarily, and always in the dead specimens, this is with- 
drawn so as to appear simply as a part of the end of the tibia, 
and the spines located on its margin appear to belong to the 
tibial rim, but if examined with sufficient magnification when 
the louse is alive it is easy to observe the extrusion of the 
organ. 

Whether similar organs exist in related species is yet un- 
determined, but it seems quite probable that they should, 
since in the specimens examined microscopically we have 













and \ 
asint, 
Late: 
the n 
given 
and t 
circu 
the sa 
meiste 
on the 
It 
sufficic 
examir 


abund: 





in 
ed 
one 
OW- 
ore- 
c1es 


wn 
rth. 
yrax 

the 

the 
rom 
s at 


10uS 


seg- 


arge 
1inal 
hree 


ning 
been 


yuter 
ty in 
as to 
; and 


with- 
tibia, 
o the 
when 
f the 


=t un- 
1ould, 
have 


LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 207 





usually to deal with dead and preserved individuals in which 
this structure would almost certainly escape notice. 

The eggs are one millimeter and a half in length (.06 in.) 
by three-fourths of a miilimeter in width (.03 in.). They are 
light yellow or dusky whitish in color, and taper slightly to 
the point of attachment. The circular lid-like portion is 
large, occupying nearly all the surface of the free end of the 
egg. They are attached usually near the base of the hairs. 

On account of the thinness of the hair, the application of 
remedies, where necessary, is quite easy. Washes of tobacco 
water or dilute carbolic acid, and the application of kerosene 
in lard, or kerosene emulsion by means of force pump, sul- 
phur ointment, etc., are recommended. The application of 
fine dust may be provided for naturally by allowing the hogs 
a chance to roll in the roadway or any place well supplied 
with fine dust. Where this is impracticable, the dust, ashes, 
or powdered charcoal may be applied directly to the neck 
and back of the infested animal. The species is not known 
to attack any other of the domestic animals, and hence no 
precautionary measures in this direction are necessary. 


THE SUCKING HorsE Louse. (Plate I., Fig. 4.) 
Hematopinus asint, Linn.—macrocephalus, Burm. 


This species was figured by Redi (Exp., Pl. xxii., Fig. 1) 
and was described by Linnzeus under the name of Pedtculus 
asint, presumably his specimens being taken from the ass. 
Later Burmeister described specimens from the horse under 
the name of Pedtculus macrocephalus. Denny retains the name 
given by Linnzeus and states that it is common upon the ass, 
and that he also had specimens from the horse, trom which 
circumstance he suspected Burmeister’s macrocephalus to be 
the same. Gjiebel and Piaget both follow the name of Bur- 
meister, and Piaget separates as a variety the form occurring 
on the ass, and gives it the name of colorata. 

It seems hardly probable that it occurs in this country in 
sufficient numbers to cause much trouble on horses. Possibly 
examination of mules, asses, or donkeys would show greater 
abundance from the fact that horses in general are more care- 





208 HERBERT OSBORN. 





fully groomed than their somewhat despised relatives. The 
size is about the same as that of the ox-louse, but it differs 
very decidedly in the form of the head, which is long, slender, 
and the sides of the head nearly parallel, as shown in the fig- 
ure (Fig. 9), taken from Comstock’s “ Introduction to Ento- 
mology.” 

Careful grooming may be looked upon as at least favor- 
able to the reduction of numbers inthis species. In case they 
become too numerous the application of a little kerosene to 
the card or curry comb used in grooming the animals will be 
found of value. When more vigorous treatment is necessary 
the measures recommended for the ox-louse may be adopted. 


THE BITING AND RUNNING LICE. 
Mallophaga. 


This group embraces all the biting lice infesting birds and 
mammals. They are very distinct, indeed, from the pre- 
ceding group, though frequently placed with them under 
such unnatural divisions as Anoplura, Pedicultnes, etc. 

These bodies are usually hard and horny and much fiat- 
tened. They possess mandibulate mouth parts adapted to 
cutting and biting the hairs, feathers, epidermal scales, or 
excretions on the bodies of their hosts. The jawsare situated 
on most forms underneath the head and near the center, the 
clypeus projecting and forming the most anterior portion of 
the head. The eyes when visible are located back of the 
antenne. The antennz are five-jointed except in 77ichodec- 
tes. The thorax is generally narrow, and frequently but two 
divisions are apparent. The legs are adapted to clasping 
(Philopteride) or to running (Liothedi@), the tarsi in the first 
case being short and fitted for clasping against the tibiz, and 
in the second case being long and provided with two claws 
well adapted to running. The members of the first division 
occur on both mammals and birds, those of the second, ex- 
cept Gyropus, are limited to birds. Wings are entirely want- 
ing and the abdomen contains nine or ten segments and is 
usually oval in shape. 

In life history this group agrees witn the preceding. The 





wher 
them: 
ing Oo! 
ed th 
whicl 


Tl 
and ¢ 
refers 
Piage 
the fe 
pilosu. 
whict 
ngean 
scribe 
descr 
certal 
famili 
that t 
the hi 
hesita 
Piage 
ferent 
certal 
so, if 
pilosu. 


2 Av mm AY —_ 8 YS : 


| all we wes gv YY‘. — 


LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 209 





eggs are glued to the hairs or feathers of the host animal and 
open with a circular cap or lid at the free end. The larve 
are less flattened, shorter in proportion, and without the har- 
dened parts common to the adults covering a part of the sur- 
face. The length of life and rapidity of multiplication has 
not been determined for any species so far as we know, and 
the habits of the insects make any such determination a mat- 
ter of great difficulty. 

The effect of these upon the host animal may be less im- 
portant than that of the suctorial lice, but judging from cases 
where serious results follow the efforts of the animals to rid 
themselves, and from the known irritation due to the crawl- 
ing of anything among hairs and feathers, it cannot be doubt- 
ed that they cause much inconvenience to the creatures 
which become their involuntary supporters. 


BITING LIcE oF HorRSES, MULES, ASSES, ETC. 


Trichodectes equi, of Authors. 


The original reference by Linnzeus to the lice of horses 


and asses under the name of Pediculus egut most certainly 
refers to the common 7richodectes infesting these animals, but 
Piaget has reached the conclusion that this reference is to 
the form subsequently described by Giebel as 7richodectes 
pilosus, and that the form described by Denny as eguz, and 
which has since almost universally been treated as the Lin- 
nzean species, was in reality a different insect from that de- 
scribed by Linnzeus under the same name. He therefore 
describes this form under the name of parumpliosus. It is 
certainly somewhat confusing to be obliged to drop the 
familiar designation for so common a species, and were it not 
that the conclusion has been reached by one who is probably 
the highest living authority regarding these insects we should 
hesitate to introduce the change. The figures given by 
Piaget, however, leave no doubt that there is a decided dif- 
ference between fz/osus and parumpilosus, and it is equally 
certain that our common species belongs to the latter form; 
so, if there is no question as to Linnzus having: the form 
pilosus in hand, we certainly have no right on technical 





210 HERBERT OSBORN. 





grounds to apply the term eguzto our common form. We 
will therefore introduce descriptions and comparisons of the 
two forms, and adopt, for the present at least, and on the 
authority of Piaget, the names given in his “ Les Pediculines.” 


Trichodectes pilosus, Giebel. (Plate II., Fig. 7.) 


This, according to Piaget, is the form originally designated 
by Linnzeus as eguz,and which, if that is correct, was the 
basis for a name which has been widely used to designate the 
biting lice of the members of the horse family. The original 
reference dates back considerably more than a century, and 
doubtless, the insect was familiar many centuries before that, 
as the horse and ass have been too familiar as domestic ani- 
mals to allow the parasite common to them escaping entirely 
the notice of man. 

According to Piaget this occurs upon both the ass and the 
horse, while the following species he has found only on the 
horse. 

We have not been fortunate enough to secure samples of 
this form, though we have the other in great abundance, so 
we are compelled in describing to depend upon the excellent 
description and figures of Piaget, the latter being reproduced 
{in Fig. 7) for comparison. The head in this form is shorter 
and less rounded in front, that of the male being still less 
rounded than the female, while the abdomen is more slender 
and tapering. The transverse bands are also represented as 
less conspicuous. Perhaps the most striking point, however, 
is the position of the antennz, which stand well forward on 
the head, so that the front border of the head and base of the 
antennz are nearly in line. 

The habits of the species and the remedies applicable to 
it are naturally identical with those of the other related 


species. 


Trichodectes parumpilosus, Piaget. (Plate II., Fig. 6). 


While it does not seem possible that all the writers pre- 
vious to Denny should have overlooked this form, which ap- 
pears to be the more common one, at least on the horse, it 





may 
ough 
comn 
founc 
Denn 
speci 


ments 
half wv 
In scai 
than 1 

TI 
ceivec 
more 
preset 
when 
tion t 
the re 
of the 
quent 
rid th 

It 
treatn 
specie 


LICE AFFECTING DUMESTIC ANIMALS. 211 





may be true that Denny was the first one to give it a thor- 
ough description and careful drawing. He speaks of it as 
common on the horse and ass, but Piaget says he has never 
found it on the ass, and there is, of course, a possibility that 
Denny did not distinguish between this and the preceding 
species. 

In this species the head is decidedly rounded in front, the 
antennze inserted well back, so that the head forms a full 
semi-circle in front of the base of the antenne. The abdomen 
is more slender and tapering than in sca/aris, but less so than 
in pilosus, as shown in Piaget’s figures. The color is much 
the same as in the allied species, the head, thorax, and legs 
being a bright reddish brown or chestnut, and the abdomen 
of a dusky yellowish color, with about eight transverse dusky 
bands occupying the central or anterior portions of the seg- 
ments and extending from the middle line a little more than 
half way to the margin. They are hardly as conspicuous as 
in scalars and apparently rather longer and more conspicuous 
than in pelosus. 

The habits of this species are well known and have re- 
ceived mention for many years. They seem to accumulate 
more particularly upon colts or horses in pasture, but their 
presence becomes most manifest in the latter part of winter, 
when they may become so numerous as to cause great irrita- 
tion to the animals infested. They occupy more particularly 
the region of the neck, and also accumulate around the base 
of the tail and between the legs, and the animals will fre- 
quently rub bare places in these regions in their attempt to 
rid themselves from the irritation. 

It is unnecessary to give any special notice regarding 
treatment, as they must be attacked on the same plan as other 
species. 

Even if it proves that this species does not ordinarily 
infest the mule or donkey it would be policy not to allow 
these animals, if infested, to associate with horses, as we have 
no assurance as yet that they can not thrive on any of the 
members of the equine family. 

(To be continued.) 





C. J. SIHLER. 








TUBERCULOSIS. 


By Dr. C. J. Srmcer, Kansas City, Kas.* 


This is a specific infectious disease, produced by tubercles, 
which arein turn special products of a distinct micro-organism, 
known as the Baczllus tuberculosis. The actual or continued 
presence of tubercles is, however, not a necessary factor in 
the production, course or development of tuberculosis. 
Preéxisting tubercles may have been discharged, or after 
softening become calcified or absorbed. Inacute tuberculosis, 
it is not uncommon to find the spleen enlarged but free from 
tuberculous deposit. 

The history of tuberculosis falls into five periods, three of 
which at least are quite distinct, in that they date from the 
discoveries of distinct individuals, Bayle and Lzennec, Villemin 
and Koch. 

The first is the period of ancient history. During all this 
period the disease was observed from a clinical stand point 
only. 

The second period, beginning with the birth of anatomy, 
in the sixteenth century, furnishes the first definite knowledge 
regarding changes of lesions of structure. 

The third period, following the publications of Bayle and 
Lzennec, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, declar- 
ing tuberculosis a separate affection, due to the deposit of 
tubercle, a specific product independent of ordinary inflam- 
mation. 

The fourth period was introduced late in the last half of 
the nineteenth century, with the inoculation experiments of 
Villemin, in 1865; and the fifth was announced with the 
brilliant revelations of Koch, in 1882. 

There is but one form of tuberculosis, and scrofula is only 
an external form of it. Vuillemin concludes tuberculosis is a 
specific disease. It belongs, therefore, among the virulent 
affections, and takes its places in nosology with small-pox, 
scarlet fever, syphilis, and more specially with glanders. The 


*From the Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. 





cles, 
ism, 
1ued 
r in 
Osis. 
after 
Osis, 
rom 


2e of 
the 
>min 


this 
yoint 


my, 


2dge 


and 
clar- 
it of 
1am- 


lf of 
ts of 
the 


only 
is a 
ilent 
pox, 
The 


TUBERCULOSIS. { 213 





disease arises, therefore, either by direct inoculation, by con- 
tagion, or, finally, by germs suspended in the air, or contained 
in the peculiar tuberculous matter. According to Professor 
Walley, hereditary tendency may be divided into direct and 
indirect: the former, when it is transmitted by a sire or dam 
to its immediate progeny ; the latter, when only transmitted 
to the second or third generation, constituting atavism. No 
predisposing cause with which we are acquainted exercises 
such a potent influence in the production of tubercle as this; 
from sire to son, from dam to offspring, from generation to 
generation, often in unbroken succession, the fatal tendency 
is transmitted ; the more consanguinity is multiplied the more 
the tendency is increased, and the greater the virulence of the 
resulting products. 

No animal whose system is tainted even in the slightest 
degree, or in whose history there exists the slightest suspicion 
of tubercle, should be used for breeding purposes. 

A remarkable case, proving the transmissibility of the 
disease from the male parent to the progeny, is published by 
Zippelius: A stock-breeder purchased a bull, and with him 
served ten of his cows. The bull was found to be affected 
with tuberculosis, and for this reason was killed. All the 
calves of the ten cows which had been bred to this bull had 
eventually to be killed, because of this affection. The first 
symptoms of the disease in the calves were manifested when 
they had passed the adult age. 

Williams says it is not only hereditary, but congenital; and 
he has seen a calf three months old, which had thriven well 
until within two or three days of its death, filled with caseous, 
calcareous, and gray, tuberculous ulcers. In this calf the 
whole of the serous membranes were affected, which must 
have been formed in the uterus. 

Adams relates an instance, from among many others, in 
which the lesions of the disease were observed in a calf which 
died a few hours after its birth, the mother at the time being 
affected with the disease. Semmes relates five cases of phthisis 
which he met with in the foetuses of cattle, and says these 
cases sufficiently prove that it can be developed during the 
embryonic stage. 





214 ©. J. SIHLER. 





This insidious and delusive disease is not the result of 
civilization, as many suppose. Barbarous and uncivilized 
races are afflicted as severely as many of the.most advanced 
civilized races. Neither geographical position nor climatic 
condition is a factor in the distribution of tuberculosis; every 
known part of the globe, with a few isolated areas excluded, 
is a habitat of the disease. The only constant associated 
factor is found, in my opinion, in the inbred bovine species. 
If a community is closely associated with inbred dairy c :ttle, 
tuberculosis prevails. 

P. L. Simmonds, in his book on “Animal Products,” says: 
‘The natives of South Africa delight in horned cattle of the 
bovine species ; the natives are great milk drinkers. These 
barbarous people suck the blood from the jugular vein of the 
living bullock,” and also “churn together blood and milk for 
a drink.” 

In Hirsch’s book on the “ Geographical Distribution of 
Phthisis,” we find the following: “In Cape Colony phthisis 
is oftenest met with among the Hottentots inhabiting the 
plain near the coast.” 

In proof of the fact that these African cattle are inbred, 
we have the writings of Anderson, quoted by Darwin, as fol- 
lows : “The Damaras take great delight in having whole droves 
of cattle of the same color, and take great pride in their oxen 
in proportion to the size of their horns. The Namaquas have 
a perfect mania for a uniform team, and almost all of the 
people of southern Africa value their cattle next to their 
women, and take great pride in possessing animals that look 
high bred.” 

These facts relating to the cattle-breeding propensities of 
the negroes account for the statement of Daniell, that “ Phthisis 
is widely prevalent and very malignant among the negroes of 
the west coast of Africa. In the interior plateaus of southern 
Africa phthisis, however, hardly ever occurs. Thisimmunity 
can be accounted for by the presence of the Tsetse fly. This 
fly inhabits well-defined regions in central Africa, and where it 
exists cattle, horses and dogs cannot live.” Doctor Webster 
says, although the climate of St. Michael cannot be safely 





reco 
rare 
have 
ized 
bovi 
of tl 
thos 
for i 
peor 
flesh 
to D 
neve 
they 
L 
but 1 
us t 
glob 
inva: 
1780 
beco 
graz: 
500 1 
store 
conv 
also” 
herd 
was 
cessf 
men 
cattl 
three 
drou 
was | 
boug 
3,000 
a rer 
says, 
Zeal 


TUBERCULOSIS. 215 





recommended to a consumptive patient, it is, nevertheless, 
rare to see the disease inanative. Doctor Webster would not 
have been astonished at this condition of affairs, had he real- 
ized the truth, that phthisis is a disease acquired from the 
bovine race; for it is a fact that the only people on the face 
of the globe who enjoy absolute immunity from phthisis are 
those who are not in possession of the domestic cow. Take 
for instance the Kirghiz, on the steppes of Russia. These 
people consume large quantities of mare’s milk, and eat the 
flesh of horses and sheep, but they have no cows. According 
to Doctor Neftel, a case of phthisis among these people was 
never known. The Esquimaux also enjoy immunity, because 
they have domesticated the reindeer—not the cow. 

Let us look at a locality which once enjoyed immunity, 
but is now notoriously a place of consumption. Wallace tells 
us that Australia was the poorest zodlogical region on the 
globe. The only animals that existed on this island before its 
invasion by Europeans were a few marsupials. Previous to 
1780 no ruminants existed there. In 1821, the Government 
becoming convinced of the great advantages of Australia as a 
grazing country, immigrants were allowed a grant of from 
500 to 2,000 acres of grazing land, and rations from the king’s 
stores were allowed to each settler; a certain number of 
convict servants were alike apportioned tothem. They were 
also allowed a certain number of cattle from the Government 
herd, and a loan of money to be repaid in seven years. This 
was the beginning of the cattle raising, and it proved so suc- 
cessful that in 1826 the Australian Agricultural Company com- 
menced. its operations, which was the origin of the sheep and 
cattle mania. A drouth, beginning in 1827 and lasting for 
three years, cured the mania. But within a year after the 
drouth, cattle became so plentitul that meat of the best quality 
was sold for 14 cents a pound. In 1833, good cattle could be 
bought for $4 and $5 a head. At the present time there are 
3,000,000 inhabitants, and 8,000,000 cattle. Australia enjoyed 
a reputation for immunity from consumption, but, as Hirsch 
says, this has of late been shown to be a mistake. In New 
Zealand, phthisis has made terrible ravages among the Maoris, 





916 C. J. SIHLER. 





and has been one of the chief causes of the gradual extinction 
of that race. Both Hirsch and Evans, quoting Grant, say, 
that on the Island of Madagascar consumption is as common 
as it is inany part of Europe, and rapidly fatal. The principal 
diet of the natives is meat, milk and rice. 

The natives of Great Kabylia, according to Hirsch and 
Evans, enjoy an almost absolute immunity from phthisis. 
According to the history of the people, there is no evidence 
of the presence of the bovine tribe among them; but they 
possess large flocks of sheep and goats, and each family has 
usually one buffalo ox to do the plowing. As these are a 
peculiar people. with peculiar ideas and peculiar habits, not 
calculated to encourage visits from European invalids, they 
retain their immunity from phthisis to the present day. There 
are many countries fnrnishing statistics of death rate from 
phthisis where the disease is not indigenous, but due to impor- 
tation. Edmond About, in his book on “Greece and 
Grecians,” tell us that the town of Athens possesses only five 
or six cows; no other milk is drank than that of the sheep; 
their butter alone is eaten. They eat meat but once a year. 
The entire population eat meat at Easter for the whole year, 
and this meat is lamb’s. The disease is very rare in that 
country. (Roser.) 

Prof. James Orton, of Vassar College, who made a scien- 
tific expedition to the equatorial Andes, in 1867, under the 
auspices of the Smithsonian Institute, says: “At Quito, the 
highest city in the world, suddenly we are looking down into 
the valley of Chimbo; there are herds of cattle and fields of 
grain, yet we shall not find a quart of milk or a loaf of bread 
for sale. The people insist on first boiling the milk.” Profes- 
sor Orton further says consumption is unknown in the city. 

Without going into further details respecting separate 
communities, let us consider the statistics of Europe, and 
there we find the prevalence of phthisis is regulated by the 
ratio of the bovine to the human race. Thus, in Ireland, 
where the cattle number 4,570,000 nearly an equal proportion 
to that of the inhabitants, according to Doctor Wylde, 
phthisis is by far the ‘most fatal affection to which the in- 
habitants of that country are subject. 





TUBERCULOSIS. 217 





In China, the people do not drink the milk of the cow, 
and they are free from phthisis. 

Thus the statistics go on, and where the exceptions arise 
the cause is always evident in the conditions that influence 
the breeds af cattle. 

Taking into consideration all the foregoing facts, there 
can be little doubt that the inbred species of the bovine race 
is the prime etiological factor of phthisis in the human race. 
They not only nurse the germ, and prevent its extinction, but 
sow it in the human race continually and abundantly. With- 
out their aid the germ would die, for of all germs known none 
have so hard a struggle for existence in the human kind as 
bacillus of tubercle, when we consider the comparatively few 
of the human race who are afflicted, and the immense number 
who are exposed to the infection and escape it. The cow is 
the only known animal that has transmitted tuberculosis to 
her offspring in inheritance. Atter looking through all the 
works at my command, and making inquiries of prominent 
doctors, I fail to find a well-authenticated case on record of a 
human foetus at term showing evidence of tuberculosis. At 
the congress for the study of tuberculosis, held in Paris, in 
July of the year 1888, it was stated, and generally accepted 
by the members, that a large portion of sufferers of phthisis 
acquired the disease through the ingestion of infected milk or 
meat. When we come to consider the transmission of the 
disease through the use of milk and the ingestion of diseased 
meat, we reach a point of vital importance to every man, 
woman, and child, and the conviction that the consumption 
of milk of phthisical cattle constitutes a veritable danger is 
daily gaining ground. 

Since holding my present position, as veterinary inspector 
for the Bureau of Animal Industry at Armour Packing Com- 
pany, | find upon post mortem that the udder is more often 
affected than any other organ of the body, and always in cows 
with fine, large udders, and those that look high bred. 

At this period it seems to be customary to rear children 
on cows’ milk. I therefore think it time that health depart- 
ments had a regular inspection of all dairies. We have a so- 





218 REPORTS OF CASES. 


called milk inspection in the large cities, but the adulteration 
of milk with water and the skimming of cream cannot compare 
with tuberculosis in milk. As tuberculosis is difficult to 
diagnose in the early stage, I propose that a sample of milk 
from each cow be microscopically examined, and then the 
cow examined by a qualified person. By taking these pre- 
cautions I think we could, in a measure, improve the health 
of the people,-as well as that of our domestic animals. 








REPORTS OF CASES. 


OSTEO-POROSIS WITH FRACTURE OF BOTH NAVICULAR BONES, 
BREAKING DOWN OF PERFORANS AND PERFORATUS AT 
THE OS-PEDIS, IN POSTERIOR EXTREMITIES. 


By C. N. DARKE, D V.S., Guttenberg, N. J. 

I was called on April 14th to see a valuable running mare 
six years old unable to get up; with the history that she had 
been down five days, and that five weeks previous, while 
working a trial on the track, she had a very severe fall. She 
got up and walked to the stable apparently all right. The 
next day a large cyst formed at the point of the sternum; 
this the owner punctured and allowed contents to escape; 
but as it did not do very well, the owner called in a veterin- 
ary from New York city, who inserted a seton; but as the 
mare became very irritable in a few days, owner withdrew 
seton, the wound healed up all right, mare was again put on 
the track. On the goth of April trainer found mare unable to 
rise; he informed owner,who did not call me till asstated above. 

On arriving at stall, found a bay mare six years old unable 
to rise, eating and drinking, with a small amount of abdomi- 
nal pain; inquired about fzeces and urine; was informed that 
urine was passed regular, but feces were very hard and 
passed with difficulty. On examining head, I found on the 
lower jaw a little anterior to first molar, and on the external 
face on each bone, a circumscribed swelling about half the size 
of a hen’s egg, not painful on pressure. The owner informed 
me that they had been there for about three years, and that 
a colored boy who exercised her at that time had a habit of 





Cv = (CO ee See. Um CS 


REPORTS OF CASES. 219 





yanking the mare while working her on the track to such an 
extent that he finally discharged him for it. The swelling 
appeared at that time and seemed to grow to about its present 
size, and was the same in size now as then to him; also, that 
it never seemed to cause her any inconvenience; otherwise 
the head to me seemed normal. 

The shoulder and hip joint were very hot and painful on 
pressure, and when turned over the hair around the two cor- 
responding joints was very wet. The knees and hocks seemed 
all right. Both anterior fetlock joints were swollen, hot and 
painful on pressure; both posterior fetlock joints and the hol- 
low of the fetlock were very much swollen, hot and extremely 
painful on pressure; also the interstices between heels were 
broken open, and there exuded a serum-like synovial fluid. 
Temperature, 102° F.; pulse, 48. 

1 informed owner that I thought mare was broken down, 
but that I could tell better when I put her in slings. I pre- 
scribed the following : 

Kx Olei lini., 3 vi, 
Aloes Barb., 3 vi, 
Hydrarg chlor. nitis, 3i, 
Pulv. nucis vomice, 31, 
Pulv. zinzib. rad., qs. 
M. et fiat haustus. 

Sig.—As directed. 

I ordered hot-water enemas with castile soap, and left. 
Returned about three hours later with slings, The animal 
was hoisted to her feet. She stood all right and quiet on 
hind legs, but trembled so violently in forward legs that she 
had to be lowered, then breaking out in a profuse perspira- 
tion. I examined the fetlock joints of both anterior extremi- 
ties, but beyond being a little swollen I could detect nothing. 
As the animal stood so well on the hind limbs I did not bother 
with them, and gave up the idea of break-down. On inquiry 
of owner when animal was last sick, he informed me that last 
summer she was laid up for over two months with inflamma- 
tory rheumatism. As all the joints seemed hot and painful 
on pressure (temperature, 102° F.; pulse had gone up to 60), 








220 REPORTS OF CASES. 





I made a diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatism. This seemed 
to please the owner very much, as here was a chance to re- 
cover. I ordered enemas kept up every once in a while 
Prescribed 
Kk Potassii sodi, 3i, 
Potassii nitratis, 3 iv. 
M.—Talis dos. No. xviii. 
Sig.—One three times a day. 

Also belladonne linimentum to swollen joints, and then. 
bandaged. 

Saw mare next day, 15th, resting quietly, but seemed to 
have a little abdominal pain, manifested by turning head 
around to side and giving aslight sigh. Temperature, 102 F.; 
pulse, 48; bowels not yet open. 

Called again on 16th. Seemed about same, but as bowels 
were not open yet, ordered olei lini, one pint, administered, 
enemas being still kept up. 

Called again on 17th. Purgative had not acted as yet. 
Ordered olei lini, one pint. Still seemed to have slight ab- 
dominal {pain Little increase in temperature; pulse about 
same. 

Called again on 18th. Mare eating. Pulse, 46; tempera- 
ture, 10292 F. Still had abdominal pain very slight. Fzeces 
passed, but hard and coated with a thick mucus, not foetid, 
and ofa blaek color. 

Called on 19th. Owner said mare had stood up for fifteen 
minutes that morning, trembled for a few minutes, then it 
ceased ; they cleaned out box and bedded her fresh and she 
then laid down again. Temperature, 102° F.; pulse about 
42, but still had a little abdominal pain; was eating; fzeces 
were passed hard and dry, coated with mucus. 

I was sent for in a hurry about six o’clock on evening of 
19th. The mare was struggling very violently when I reached 
the stall. Temperature, 106° F.; pulse, 80. I gave morph. 
sulph. hyperdomically, and tinct. opii by mouth and rec- 
tum, but I could not quiet the animal; she would struggle 
violently for about ten minutes, then rest about the same; this 
she kept up until she expired at 11.50 P.M. 





colo 
the 
I co 
resis 
surf: 
this 

liver 
was. 
upor 
I con 
in pa 
to m 
few s 
€XCe] 
breal 
navic 
ferio1 
hind 

told 1 


In t 
the B 
to my 
house: 
Upon 
as bell 
wonde 
under; 
organs 
Th 
nail, tl 
into th 
cul-de- 
the diz 


* 


REPORTS OF CASES. 221 





Held post-mortem next morning. Heart was of a pink 
color, easily torn, with fibrin around the semi-lunar valves of 
the aorta. The liver was a putrid mass, very soft like jelly ; 
I could press my finger right through its substance without 
resistance, with small nodules studded here and there on its 
surface. In the vicinity of the liver there was peritonitis; 
this no doubt was the cause of the abdominal pain, and the 
liver trouble the cause of the continued constipation. There 
was no sign of jaundice at any time present. On cutting down 
upon the exostoses on lower jaw bone they seemed quite hard; 
I could not cut them. Both shoulder joints were ulcerated 
in patches on its surface. Anterior limbs and tendons seemed 
to me natural, swelling excepted. Coxo-femoral joints had a 
few small ulcers. Fetlock joints were also natural, swelling 
excepted. On removing the soles of the hind feet ! found a 
breaking down of perforans and perforatus, fracture of both 
navicular bones, disease of os pedis, and ulceration of the in- 
ferior extremity of the os suffraginis. I then turned both 
hind feet over to Dr. Liautard, who had them boiled out, and 
told me | had a nice case of big head on hand. 





RESISTING POWER OF THE ANIMAL ECONOMY. 
By Craupg D. Morris, V. 8., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In the early part of May, shortly after my connection with 
the Bureau of Animal Industry in this city, while attending 
to my regular duties making post-mortems at the slaughter 
houses, a certain cow was placed upon the bed and dressed. 
Upon removing the lungs and heart, the latter was noticed 
as being extraordinarily large. An examination revealed the 
wonderful resisting power the animal economy is capable of 
undergoing when the seat of attack was one of the most vital 
organs of the body. 

The cow had at some time in the past swallowed a wire 
nail, three inches in length. The nail had found its way 
into the reticulum; there it pierced the anterior wall in the 
cul-de-sac portion of the stomach, forced its way through 
the diaphragm, entered the right lung, and when found it 








222 EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODIOALS. 





was lodged in what was formerly the pericardium, but at 
the time of the examination had become a thick mass of 
fibrous tissue. On the right side of the heart a large sinus 
had formed, extending from before backward, and from 
base to apex. the walls of which were covered with a thick 
layer of disintegrated pus; no pus was present in the form 
as usually seen. There was considerable fetor upon opening 
the sinus. 

The mass surrounding the heart was variable in thickness, 
some portions being about an inch, other portions nearly 
three inches in thickness. 

The parenchyma of the heart to all appearance was unaf- 
fected. The endocardium valves and chordz tendinez 
showed no signs of disease. There were considerable ad- 
hesions both of the diaphragm and pericardium. The pos- 
terior lobe of the right lung showed signs of previous inflam- 
mation, and the path of the intruding agent was easily fol- 
lowed. I do not place the history of this post-mortem before 
the readers of the REVIEW without feeling to a certain de- 


gree that perhaps some will not give it the credulity it 
deserves. To the casual observer, and I may say examiner, 
this animal outwardly presented no indications of organic 
disease. She was in good flesh, with a sleek coat of hair. 





EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 


ORIGINAL WORK BY RUSSIAN VETERINARIANS. 
CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY 
FROM GLANDERS. 


By M. NonigEwi Tsou. 


The author reports several cases of the spontaneous re- 
covery of glanderous horses. According to the conclusions 
of Mr. Meyrick, such a recovery is the result of the weakness 
of the contagion, which may give rise to local manifesta- 
tions upon the septum nasi, and in the submaxillary glands, 
without infecting the entire organism. M. Noniewitsch 
has noticed an interesting case in a mare four years old, 





EXTRACTS FROM FUREIGN PERIODICALS. 223 





which was used for experiments in the bacteriological insti- 
tute of Dorpat. This animal, when but six months old, was 
inoculated under the skin of the right nostril, and that of the 
scapular region, with a virulent liquid obtained by squeezing 
the liver and spleen of a guinea-pig which had died from 
glanders. 

Nine days after the injection, together with other symp- 
toms, a greasy ulcer appeared on the nasal septum, surrounded 
by nodules of a grayish-yellow color; also inflammation of the 
right submaxillary glands, and an abundant discharge from 
the mouth and ocular regions. 

Two months later the patient was very weak, continuing 
in the recumbent posture. The inoculation of other animals 
with virulent matter gave positive results. During the entire 
continuance of the disease the temperature remained at 
about 39°. 

After a while the symptoms began to abate, and a month 
later the mucous of the nasal cavity had resumed its normal 
aspect. 

On the 8th of March following, or about six months after, 
a subcutaneous injection of oleum terebinthina was made, ac- 
cording to Cagny’s method. Outside of the cedema follow- 
ing, nothing abnormal could be discovered, and up to the 7th 
of April the mare was apparently in good health. On that 
day injections of virulent matter were made as follows, by 
means of excoriations made with a scalpel upon the right side 
of the septum nasi; and also, the same process being used, 
by frictions upon the frontal region; and for the subcutaneous 
injection of the nostril, virulent matter mixed with a physio- 
logical solution of natr. chloro., previously filtrated, was used. 
For this injection a cubic centimeter was employed. Inflam- 
matory symptoms soon appeared at the points of inoculation, 
and the microscope disclosed micrococci in the pus, the tumor 
in the nostril becoming enlarged and warm. 

April 11th, all the symptoms were diminished, and by the 
beginning of May the tumor had disappeared. The maxi- 
mum of temperature of the mare remained about 38.8.° 

On the same day, April 7th, and with the same virulent 








924 EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 


matter, and at the same places, subcutaneous injections were 
made on an old horse, and on the 19th of June he died with 
glanders. 

A third injection of the same mare was made with a pure 
culture of bacillus mallei, of the third generation, obtained 
from the spleen of a guinea-pig which had died from glan- 
ders; the injection being made at the same places and in the 
same manner. A friction of pure culture, weighing about 
one grain, on potatoes, was made upon the frontal excoria- 
tions, and the quantity of virulent matter, mixed in two cubic 
centimeters of a sterilized physiological solution of natr. 
chlor. was used for an injection under the skin of the nose, 
alongside the nostrils. The pus of the abscess which had 
formed, examined by the microscope, and the preparation 
tincted with an alkaline solution of violet methyl of Loffleur, 
showed several rods of glanders (bacil. mallei.). The condi- 
tion of the general health varied much, being at times bad, 
but at others changing for the better. The temperature 
varied between 40.5° and 39.7°. 

On the 25th of September an injection of oleum terebinth 
was administered, by the Cagny method, but the result was 
negative, being quite without reaction or morbid changes. 

To prove the diagnosis of glanders as transmitted, a third 
time, to the mare, a dog was inoculated and gave positive re- 
sults, and was killed, showing at the post-mortem all the 
organs healthy except the spleen. Pure cultures of bacillus 
mallei were obtained, with a selected portion of that organ, 
and besides this experiment two pigs were inoculated, with 
positive results, by the virulent matter of the abscess of the 
mare. 

On the 24th of October three inoculations were made in 
a pupand two guinea-pigs, with the discharge from the nos- 
trils of the same mare, but produced no results. 

The conclusions of the author are as follows: 

1st. In chronic glanders the bacillus mallei of Schutz and 
Loffleur may be absent, but in their place are tound micro- 
cocci forming clusters, which under a weak microscopic 
power may be mistaken for rods. These micrococci present 








the last 
that th 
able an 
2d 
several 
the hea 
virus re 
second; 
3d. 
of glanc 
4th. 4 
insured 
matter. 
5th. 
place. 
The 
well as 1 
and hor: 
municat 
St. Peter 


Havi 
affection, 
was inoc 
these ani 
of mucou 
a dourine 
weeks aft 
paraplegi 
gressive | 
disease in 
cord coul 
pure and 
brains anc 


EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 295 





the last stage of bacillus mallei—that is, they are so weakened 
that they lose their glanderous process upon an impression- 
able animal, or otherwise die entirely. 

2d The glanderous process may take effect in a horse 
several times (as three times in the case above cited), and yet 
the health of the animal inoculated with the non-attenuated 
virus remains normal; that is, the horse will have sustained a 
secondary malleisation. 

3d. According to Loffleur and St. Cyr, a first inoculation 
of glanderous virus has a repressive influence upon a second. 

4th. According to the theory of the author, horses may be 
insured against glanders after several inoculations of virulent 
matter. 

5th. Spontaneous recovery of glandered horses may take 
place. 

The glanderous process (malleus humidus et farcinosus), as 
well as that of syphilis in man, may be under a latent form, 
and horses affected with that form of glanders cannot com- 
municate their disease to other horses.—Arch. en Scien. Vet., 


St. Petersburg. 





FROM SOCIETY PAPERS. 


INOCULABILITY OF DOURINE. 
By Pror. E. Nooarp. 

Having noticed the virulency of the spinal cord in this 
affection, Prof. Nocard had proved to himself that the disease 
was inoculable to dogs. He had noticed that several of 
these animals which had been inoculated with a small quantity 
of mucous matter taken from a softened part of the cord of 
a dourined horse had subsequently died in from six to eleven 
weeks after the injection, after also noticing the existence of 
paraplegia or monoplegia associated with a well marked pro- 
gressive loss of flesh. Since then he has often developed the 
disease in dogs, and has observed that the virulency of the 
cord could be preserved fora long time by immersing it in 
pure and neutral glycerine, as is done by Mr. Roux with the 
brains and cords of rabies. 








226 EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 





The greatest obstacle to progress in the study of dourine 
heretofore has been the necessity of having horses for the 
purpose, and the difficulty of procuring dourined animals in 
sufficient numbers for experimentation. In the future, how- 
ever, cases will be collected and preserved, to furnish material 
for experiments on dogs, and in this way it is likely that at an 
early day the pathogeny of the disease will become better 


known. 


FROM FRENCH JOURNALS. 


DOSIMETRIC MEDICINE IN CANINE PATHOLOGY. 
ACUTE BRONCHITIS. 


By Mr. H. Jaoorin. 

A small pet-dog had taken a severe cold. He had chills, 
was dull with loss of appetite, nose dry and warm, constipated, 
painful cough, high fever, difficult breathing, mucous rales. 

The diagnosis was evident, and the prognosis quite serious 
on account of the delicate constitution and the small size of 
the animal. ; 

Treatment: A teaspoonful of sedlitz Chanteaud in the morn. 
ing on an empty stomach; at intervals, Rigollot’s mustard 
plasters on the flat of the thigh ; aconite, brucine, three gran- 
ules a day; arseniate of antimony, four granules. Animal kept 
warm ; food ad /ibitum—milk, soup, meat, etc. 

Carefully carried out during three days, this treatment 
was followed by the almost jugulation (abortion) of the 
disease.—Rev. de Med. Dosim. Veter. 


AMAUROSIS. 
By Mr. A. Mansvy. 

A watchdog for several days seemed not to see as closely 
and as well as before, knocking against the walls and the 
doors and the furniture of the room. When examined he 
appeared by his actions to have lost much of his sight, if not 
to be entirely blind. The eyes seemed to show nothing very 
peculiar, except an abnormal dilatation of the pupils, which 
contracted somewhat, however, when the patient was brought 


to a strong light. 










































The 
granule 
he rece 
being d 

On 1 
patient 
room. 
the acor 

Two 
sight we 
and two 
peculiar 
were ke] 
days, an 
entirely | 
duties as 

















A dog 
culty of t 
tite, temp 
of double 
He was ir 
veratrine 
day, inas 
more chee 
hard, pain 
codeine w: 
occurred i 






An Tris 
for hunting 
Two days | 
Was not wil 





urine 
yr the 
als in 
how: 
terial 
, at an 
better 


chills, 
pated, 

rales. 
erious 
size of 


;morn- 
ustard 
> gran- 
al kept 


atment 
of the 


\ 


EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 227 





The diagnosis established, the animal was placed under 
granules of arseniate of strychnia and of aconitine, of which 
he received one of each twice a day for two days, the dose 
being doubled on the third day until all were used. 

On the fourth day there was but little change, though the 
patient seemed to act better when in the open air than in the 
room. The same treatment was continued with the strychnia, 
the aconitine being replaced by the nitrate of pilocarpine. 

Two weeks later, though the improvement continued, the 
sight was not yet perfect. A purgative was administered, 
and two or three days after, repeated. This gave rise to some 
peculiar symptoms of pain. The strychnine and pilocarpine 
were kept up for a week or so longer, stopped then for a few 
days, and started for a week longer. After this the sight 
entirely returned, and the animal became able to perform his 
duties as watchdog.—/bid. ; 





DOUBLE ACUTE PNEUMONIA. 
By Mr. L. Mesnarp. 

A dog three years old became affected with a great diff- 
culty of breathing. He was dull and drooping, had no appe- 
tite, temperature, 39.3°._ Upon auscultation, all the symptoms 
of double acute pneumonia were present and well marked. 
He was immediately placed under treatment, with aconitine, 
veratrine and digitaline, two granules (% of a milligram) a 
day, in a small piece of meat. Two days later the dog was 
more cheerful and had a little appetite. He had, however, a 
hard, painful cough, for which he received two granules of 
codeine with the preceding treatment combined. Recovery 
occurred in a few days.—/ézd. 





SERIOUS ATTACK OF JAUNDICE. 
By THE SAME. 

An Irish setter, about three years old and very valuable 
lor hunting purposes, had lost his appetite and was very dull. 
Two days before he swam across two rivers. When seen he 
was not willing to move nor to answer the calls that were 





228 EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 


———— 





made to him. The mucous membrane had an icteric hue well 
marked, and the diagnosis was simple. 

Treatment: Two granules of hyosciamine, one of brucine 
and one of digitaline, the three together every two hours with 
black coffee mixed with carrot bouillon. 

No change appeared on the next day, anda large sinapism 
was then applied under the abdomen, but principally toward 
the liver, to be lett on four hours; the same medicine to be 
continued. 

The next day improvement was evident, which continued 
until recovery, four days later. —/did. 





ACUTE MENINGITIS. 
By THE SAME. 

A Newfoundland dog, four years old, had refused his food 
for one day, and moved about in his kennel in a manner so 
strange that his owner began to fear rabies. He howled 
_ occasionally, but not with the characteristic howl of rabies, 
and when lying down and urged to get up, he did so com- 
plainingly and with faint, painful groans. When on his feet 
he stood with his head hanging down. His eye was dull and 
partly closed and the walk trembling. He refused all kinds 
of food, and no efforts that were made were sufficient to 
excite any manifestations of a rabid state. It was a simple 
case of acute meningitis, and for treatment, aconitine, vera- 
trine and digitaline were prescribed, one granule of each 
every two hours, 

No change appeared the next day, unless perhaps the 
convulsive movements had abated. These disappeared the 
following morning and the standing became firmer, the walk 
better, the appetite improved. 

The treatment was continued for five days longer, and 
was followed by a radical recovery.—J0zd. 





PARAPLEGIA. 

By Mr. P. Bon. 
A bitch which had nursed puppies for five weeks, was sud- 
denly attacked with paraplegia. Every pup died a few days 





late 
drag 
T 
stry: 
honr 
Char 
C 
Hyo 
scrib 
of sa. 
forty 
T 
assist 
ules | 
then 
—L7; 


TI 
1891, 

which 
were 

stages 
food, 

respir. 
ried f1 
rior e} 
dition, 
extent 
Cly 
mucou 
with f 
and c 
Loco 


well 


icine 
with 


jpism 
ward 
oO be 


nued 


food 
er so 
wled 
ibies, 
com- 
; feet 
land 
kinds 
nt to 
mple 
vera- 
each 


s the 
1 the 


walk 


r, and 


EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 229 





later. The mother was dull, fed but little, moved only by 
dragging her hind quarters. 

The prescription ordered was one granule of sulphate of 
strychnia every hour, hyosciamine one granule every two 
honrs, and every morning, milk containing a little sedlitz 
Chanteaud. 

On the sécond day little or no change could be noted. 
Hyosciamine was continued and arseniate of strychnia pre- 
scribed in place of the sulphate, and, in addition, one granule 
of salicylate of quinine was given every six hours. Within 
forty-eight hours there was marked improvement. 

The next day the patient tried to get up alone, and if 
assisted and standing she could take a few steps. The gran- 
ules were then given every two hours, again diminished, and 
then discontinued, and in twenty days recovery was complete. 
—Tbiit. 


FROM GERMAN JOURNALS. 
By R. Mipptzton, D.V.S., Philadelphia, Pa. 


A PECULIAR DISEASE OF SWINE. 


There appeared in Rodingen toward the end of August, 
1891, a peculiar and at once pernicious disease of swine 
which developed the following characteristics: The victims 
were invariably of the female sex, and in the diversified 
stages of pregnancy. The animals reclined quietly, refused 
food, and evidenced somewhat accelerated and difficult 
respiration. In twenty recorded cases the temperature va- 
ried from 101}$° to 103° F., and pulse go to 120. The poste- 
rior extremities were apparently involved in a paralyzed con- 
dition, which involved the rectum and bladder to such an 
extent as to preclude their use by the patient. 

Clysters of irritating substances had no effect upon the 
mucous membrane of the bowels, which was constantly filled 
with feces. Catheterization yielded a urine, normal in color 
and consistence, though somewhat increased in quantity. 
Locomotion of an uncertain and unsteady gait was possible, 





230 _ EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODIVALS. 





but the animal’s volition apparently exercised no control of 
the hind limbs. The disease lasted from two to ten days; 
discoloration of the cutis was not noticeable. Recovery was 
seldom, and only occurred in those cases where the patient 
retained the government of rectum and bladder. Upon post- 
mortem, nothing in the nature of a pathological lesion was 
remarked, but in the several cavities from two to fifteen 
quarts of an amber-colored coagulable fluid was collected. 
Most of this was obtained from the thorax and lungs, the lat- 
ter showing numerous emphysematous localities and inter- 
stitial tissue swelled by the liquid referred to. The remain- 
ing apparatus of the thoracic and abdominal cavities displayed 
no alterations discovered by the eye or microscope. Colon 
always filled with dry feces. Treatment was without result, 
and animals recovered that had not received therapeutic con- 
sideration—Woch. fur Thierheilkunde. 





THERAPY OF PENETRATING WOUNDS OF THE HOCK. 


A horse of the army which had received a blow upon the 
tibio tarsal articulation exhibited a puncture of the same, 
with small quantities of escaping synovia, but little or no 
swelling. 

The wound, after being weil cleansed and dusted with 
iodoform-tannin, was neatly closed by a small tuft of cotton. 
Adjacent to the wound, the cutis received a coating of ung. 
cantharid. Later the cotton was removed and in its stead 
we endeavored to obliterate the puncture by repeated appli- 
cations of iodoform-collodion. After two hours patient ap- 
plying, the gentle oozing of secretion (synovia) had disap- 
peared, and a tenacious covering secured. After the lapse 
of a few days the patient was discharged, and again resumed 
the march. 

Also in two other cases where the same cause produced 
the same effect, the results were equally favorable. In one 
of these the animal could not be left behind, the lameness as- 
sumed painful proportions. The march came to an end at 
the termination of fourteen days, and the patient was given 





f 
and 
it h 
poin 
ted : 
tion. 
acid 
wate 
tion 
metl 
cles. 


in sle 
jects 
rid. g 
ed e3 
Woch 
Jo 
cavity 
dinar 


—— 


ol of 
lays ; 
/ was 
itient 
post- 

was 
fteen 
cted. 
e lat- 
inter- 
main- 
ayed 
Solon 
esult, 
 con- 


n the 
same, 
or no 


with 
ytton. 

ung. 
stead 
appli- 
it ap- 
lisap- 
lapse 
imed 


luced 
1 one 
‘SS as- 
nd at 
riven 


EXTRAOTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 





the usual application of ung. cantharid.; absolute quiet was 
enjoined. The articulation remained thickened, but recovery 
was attained.—Z¢schr. f. Vet. K., tv. 


ZINCUM CHLORIDUM IN VETERINARY PRACTICE. 


Since bandaging of the upper portion of the extremities 
and loins in the larger domestic animals is of great difficulty, 
it has been recommended to irrigate the wounds at these 
points with zincum chloridum. For this purpose the satura- 
ted solution, and not the crystallized product, are in requisi- 
tion. The latter is a solution of the metal in hydrochloric 
acid, of the strength 1:3; this liquid is further diluted with 
water sufficient to double the amount. A ten per cent. solu- 
tion in conjunction with zincum oxidum is a successful 
method of treating abraded injuries upon the gluteal mus. 
cles.— Thzer. Woch. 





THERAPEUTIC NOTICES. 


As an anti-itch application, Klein prescribed a salve of 
the following ingredients : 
K Lanolin, 3 ijj, 
Vaseline, ZV, 
Ag. Destill., 3 vi, 
M. 
Sig.—Apply to part every three hours.—Ber/. iWoch. 
Prof. Demme, of Bern, suggests sod. cantharid. to be used 
in slowly granulating wounds from scalds or burns. He in- 
jects subcutaneously every third or fourth day sod. cantha- 
rid. gr.; six to eight hours subsequently the wounds so treat- 
ed exhibit a hyperzemic appearance, and are moist.—Ber/. 
Woch. | 
Journ. de Med. Paris recommends for fetor of the oral 
cavity these two prescriptions, which are to be used as or- 
dinary collatorium : 





EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 





B Thymoli, _ gr. viij, 
Boracis, er. Xv, 
Alcoholis, f. 3ss, 
Ag. Destil, 9j, 

M. 

B Ac. Salicylici, 

Saccharini, 

Sod. Bicarb., aa 3 jss, 

Alcoholis, ZV, 

M. 
Sig.— 3] dissolved in glass of water. 

Reuter, of Carlstadt, recommends lysol as the most effec- 
tual and safest disinfectant for the treatment of aphthz epi- 
zootice, or footand mouth disease. For the feet he uses a 
salve made from 365 parts of lysol, 10 carbo. liqui and 100 
of vaseline, to be applied twice or three times daily. The 
stomatic ulcers and those upon the tongue were three times 
per day subjected toa three per cent. to five per cent. lysol 
salve, which in aggravated cases also contained alum. The 
stalls and appurtenances were likewise cleansed in a three 
per cent. lysol solution. Asa prophylactic measure, animals 
not manifesting symptoms of the disease were also treated to 
washing of the oral cavity and feet in a five per cent. lysol 
solution.—Landw. Presse. 





FROM ENGLISH PAPERS. 


HOW TO PREVENT TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE. 


Professor M‘Fadyean says: Evensupposing that tubercu- 
losis, like pleuro-pneumonia, were a disease peculiar to cattle, 
it would be a matter of the gravest concern to know that 20 
per cent. of our dairy cows are affected with it; but still 
greater misgivings are excited in one’s mind when it is re- 
membered that tuberculosis is the same disease as that which 
is commonly called “consumption” when it attacks human 
beings. 

In both species the disease is called by the same bacillus, 





EXTRACTS FROM FUREIGN PERIODICALS. 933 





and every case of the disease has its starting point in the in- 
troduction of one or more of these germs into the body of 
the individual attacked. It is quite permissible to maintain 
that the danger of the transmission of tuberculosis to mem- 
bers of the human race through the eating of meat or drink- 
ing of milk from tuberculous animals has been exaggerated, 
but the danger certainly exists, and to a degree that gives 
human sanitarians a right to urge the necessity of devising 
measures to check the spread of the disease among cattle. 
But even without that, the great loss which the disease in- 
flicts on farmers and dairymen is surely sufficient incentive to 
do whatever is feasible in the way of prevention. And that 
raises the question, Is tuberculosis a preventable disease ? 

To this question an affirmative answer may be given with- 
out hesitation. There are one or two very well known, but 
generally misinterpreted, facts that have an important bear- 
ing on this question. Why are cattle, above all other domes- 
ticated species, the victims of tuberculosis? Not altogether, 
as some suppose, because their tissues furnish a specially suit- 
able soil for the growth and multiplication of the tubercle 
bacillus. Sheep are so rarely the subject of tuberculosis that 
it is doubtful whether any natural case has been observed in 
this country, and yet we know that when attempts are made 
to infect sheep with that disease, the experiment succeeds 
well enough. Again, both experiment and observation have 
shown that the tubercle bacillus, when once it gains entrance 
to the system of a horse, is capable of setting up a deadly 
form of the disease, and yet the proportion of tuberculosis 
among horses is insignificant. These facts suggest that the 
prevalence of tuberculosis among cattle may be less due to 
any inherent susceptibility of the ox tribe than to something 
in man’s method of keeping these animals. May it not be due 
in great measure to the fact that cattle, particularly dairy 
cows, as they are commonly kept in this country, are found, 
in circumstances specially favorable for the transmission of 
the disease from the affected to the healthy animals? No 
well-informed person now imagines that overcrowding can 
generate tuberculosis; but what everyone must see is that 





234 EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICAIS 





the more constantly animals are housed, and the smaller and 
worse ventilated the buildings are in which they are confined, 
the greater will be the risk of the disease spreading, provided 
there is one tuberculous individual in the stock. A cow that 
is the subject of tuberculosis of the lungs expels tubercle 
bacilli from the air passages in the act of coughing. These 
bacilli, when desiccated, rise as particles of dust, they are 
then apt to be inhaled by other inmates of the same building. 
Such in the great majority of cases is the mode of infection 
in the case of cattle, and hence the two main things to be at- 
tended to with a view to prevention are—(1) To permit no 
animal suspected of being tuberculous to stand in the same 
building with other animals; and (2) to see that the buildings 
in which cattle, and especially dairy cows, are housed, are 
roomy and well ventilated. To provide sufficient air-space 
and adequate means of ventilation in the most obvious manner 
diminishes the risk of one animal infecting another. No wild 
animal in a state of nature has ever been known to die from 
tuberculosis; and, with the exception of the few cases in 
which the disease is inherited, or transmitted to the calf by 
means of the milk, cattle of even the most susceptible breeds 
remain free from tuberculosis as long as they are not housed. 
In short, tuberculosis is a disease of domestication—of close 
housing and bad ventilation. 

Long before the discovery of the tubercle bacillus, and 
even before it was generally recognized that tuberculosis is 
contagious, medical men had come to the conclusion that in- 
sufficient ventilation had much to do with the prevalence of 
the disease among human beings, and a most convincing proof 
of the correctness of their view was furnished by the sudden 
decline in the mortality from phthisis among our soldiers 
when a greater air-space per man and better means of venti- 
lation were provided in the barracks. There is every reason 
to believe that, in like manner, a great check would be put to 
the spread of the disease among cattle if byres were made 
larger and better ventilated. 

Sanitarians are agreed that in ordinary human habitations 
a cubic capacity of 600 to 800 feet should be provided for 





» | 


“OD OD OD ee be 


EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 235 





each individual; and where, as in hospitals, the apartments 
are occupied during the whole twenty-four hours, 1,000 feet 
is considered not too much. And yet it isreported that some 
county councils and the local authorities are hesitating about 
fixing the cubic space for dairy cows at 800 feet, and some 
have actually recommended that this may be as low as 450 
feet. Government has already been urged to apply radical 
measures for the suppression of bovine tuberculosis, and some 
do not hesitate to recommend the system of slaughter and 
compensation now in force against pleuro-pneumonia. The 
ratepayers may form some notion of what this would cost the 
country if Io to 20 per cent. of adult cattle are already at- 
tacked, and if byres, from insufficient space and defective 
ventilation, are to remain veritable hot-beds for the propaga- 
tion of the disease.-—Veterinary Record. 





THE OFFORD ELBOW PAD. 
According to the Veterinary Record (England), this new 


contrivance is one of the best of all the appliances known, de- 
signed for the relief of horses affected with that annoying 
trouble known as lapped elbow. 

All sorts of pads have been invented with a view to obvi- 
ate the evil of pressure on the injured part, but all have failed 
to give satisfactory results, and animals which are liable to 
suffer from the injury in question are still, now and then, laid 
up disabled for various periods of time. The new invention 
is due to a layman, and according to those who have used it 
it is incomparably the best of its kind. 

It consists of a long pad, slung from above, in such a man- 
ner that it hangs just under the sternum, extending rather 
beyond both elbows. Its action seems to be to effectually 
protect the elbow from pressure while the horse is lying 
down, and thus to cause the disappearance of the unsightly 
tumors by gradual absorption. 

Those who have used this pad affirm that their experience 
justifies them in saying that it has given them entire satisfac- 
tion, and that it acts equally well in cases where both elbows 









EXTRACTS FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 


236 












are affected as when the trouble is unilateral. It causes no 
discomfort to the animal, and does not prevent him from 
lying down.—Jdzd. 













DIABETES MELLITUS IN A HORSE. 


By Tuomas Wattey, M.R.C.V.S., Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, 
Edinburgh. 


While diabetes insipidum (polyuria) is of very common 
occurrence in the horse, the graver form (d. mellitus) is very 
rarely met with, or perhaps it would be more correct to say 
that it is seldom diagnosed ; consequently, the relation of an 
indubitable case may be of interest to the veterinary surgeon. 

With the exception of the occurrence of sugar in the urine 
of azoturic patients | have not hitherto met with a case in 
which I had reason to suspect that sugar was present in the 
urine. 

On the 6th May, 1891, I was requested by Mr. D. to ex- 
amine an aged chestnut hunter, and to give my opinion as 
to his condition. 

HisTory.—The owner stated that the horse had been ill 
for some time, that he had observed that whenever he mount- 
ed him the animal seemed to yield under his weight, that al- 
though in gond spirits at the commencement of his work, the 
horse appeared to become abnormally fatigued after exertion, 
that he had lost condition, and that he had been under the 
care of Mr. John Aitken, Dalkeith. 

Eliminating by enquiry the probabilities that the illness 
was due to worms, indigestion, or diabetes, I proceeded to 
make a careful examination. 

The symptoms presented were, unthriftiness of the skin, 
which was dry and tolerably firmly adherent to the under- 
lying tissues; the coat dry and harsh; pulse 60, wanting in 
tone but regular in rhythm; temperature 103° F.; respiration 
normal; visible mucous membranes injected and somewhat 
icteric. 

The muscular wasting was most marked in the lumbar 
Suspecting renal mischief, I withdrew (and collected) 

















































region. 





in ; 
put 
mil 
atic 


EXTRACTS FROM FUREIGN PERIODICALS. 237 





the urine then contained in the bladder, and on its withdraw- 
al I observed that it was of a pale primrose color. In the 
absence of any positive symptom it occurred to me that the 
case might be one of diabetes mellitus, and an analysis car- 
ried out, under the guidance of my colleague, Dr. Aitken, by 
Greig Smith verified my suspicion, sugar being found in tol- 
erable quantity. 

TREATMENT.—Reasoning that the diabetic condition was 
in all probability due to derangement of the liver and to in- 
digestion and mal-assimilation, | advised that the horse be 
put on a diet of bran, linseed, and malt mashes, with skim 
milk, and that he should receive daily a dose of nitro-muri- 
atic acid and inf. of quassia, with a dose of aloine every third 
day atnoon. I saw the horse only once afterwards at Mr. 
Aitken’s stables, on which occasion he did not show any signs 
of improvement. 

Subsequently, as no progress towards recovery was made, 
the owner of the horse expressed his intention of shooting 
him, but Mr. Aitken persuaded Mr. D to turn him out 
to grass and give him another chance. He was accordingly 
put out to graze during the day and stabled at night, and al- 
though at that time he could scarcely walk to pasture he 
eventually improved, although very slowly, and in the middle 
of February the owner informed me that he was in good con- 
dition and doing his work well. In answer to my inquiries 
Mr. Aitken, Jr., subsequently stated that the animal had for 
several years suffered from repeated attacks of polyuria, these 
attacks being most observable after a day with the hounds, 
and that the polyuria was usually checked by the administra- 
tion of a few doses of tonic medicine with or without iodine. 

Mr. Aitken further informed me that in 1890 the animal 
had an attack of influenza (pink-eye) followed by pleurisy, 
after which irremediable diabetes set in.—/ournal Com. Path. 
and Ther. 











SANITARY BULLETIN. 





SANITARY BULLETIN. 


EXTRACTS FROM STATE VETERINARY REPORTS. 


ILLINOIS—Actinomycosis—The following tables, obtained 
from the annual report of the Board of Live Stock Commis- 
sioners for the State of Illinois, exhibit fully the extent to 
which that disease prevails among the cattle of that region: 


ANIMALS AFFEOTED WITH AOTINOMYOOSIS, ISOLATED AT THE UNION STOOK 


YARD AND SLAUGHTERED. 





Number 
released. 


Number 


Months. isolated. 


Number 
affected and 
slaughtered. 





November 280 
December 203 
January 182 
February 119 

129 
100 
155 
150 
217 
186 
223 


315 


_ 
WO AF OO C1 OO PH CO 


272 
199 
170 
110 
124 

88 
148 
138 
202 
170 
210 
295 








2,259 








2,126 





ANIMALS AFF£0OTED WITH AOTINOMYOOSIS, ISOLATED AT THE NATIONAL STOOK 


YARD AND SLAUGHTERED. 





Number 
released, 


Number 


Monrss. isolated. 


Number 
affected and 
slaughtered. 





_ 


SCE PPIAODWDS 


November 
December 


1 


SHDWOAAAGCAOS 


Dee Re 
Foe co 

















Poe ee ee et a ae 


pe | 
o 


Tul 

a herd 
affectec 
herd, 1 
badly ¢ 
Gla: 
affectec 
slaught 
ages pa 
mal, $3: 
Dour 
during 
mare, a1 
Pleug 
appeara 
Lov: 
last twe 

cases. 

Rabte 
during t 
sympton 
dogs des 


SANITARY BULLETIN. 239 





TABLE OF STATES, WITH THE NUMBER OF OATTLR AFFEOTED WITH AOTINOMY- 
OOSIS SHIPPED THEREFROM TO THE UNION STOOK YARD, OHICAGO. 





MonrTas. 


| Colorado. 
Kentucky. 





ro | Wisconsin. 
Missouri 
vw | Neb: aska. 


DOr r Oe 


1890. November .. 
December... | 29) 

1891. January.... | f 19 
February ... 10 .. 

10 2 

re. 
10} 11 15; 5] 12 
13} 11! 14; 29, 9 
18} 12 15] 27 17 | 
12/10 13/2115 8 .. - 
ae 3) 20) 18 21) 23 17 | re eree eee, 
October..... 31] 26, 28) 27/28 10 7 ..) 21) 14) ..| 295 





x 2 | Minnesota. 
oS 


— 











. ; . ; r 
| nee mowe Michigan. 








..| 201 8 
a es 


WDM ORIAEMOS Indiana 








Totals 298 438]229|171|173 197|198 159 91 51] 24 59| 23| 152,196 














Tuberculosis.—-There were two outbreaks. In one county 
a herd of 60 cattle was inspected, of which nine were found 
affected, and three looked upon as suspicious. In another 
herd, 18 out of 24 were found by post-mortem examination 
badly diseased by Prof. Withers. 

Glanders.—During the year 1891, 137 animals were tound 
affected, and 467 had been exposed. The diseased ones were 
slaughtered, with five of the exposed ones. Average dam- 
ages paid by the State being allowed for each diseased ani 
mal, $33.83; and for exposed ones, $73.00. 

Dourine.— There have been no new cases in the State 
during the year, and there now remains but one diseased 
mare, and three suspicious cases in quarantine. 

Pleuro-pneumonia.—There is none and no prospect of its 
appearance, if carefully watched for. 

LOUISIANA.—Aunthrax has been less prevalent than in the 
last two years. There have been but one or two isolated 
cases. 

Rabies.—A pronounced case of rabies occurred in a horse 
during the year. He died exhibiting the most characteristic 
symptoms. There have been, however, a number of rabid 
dogs destroyed. 

















240 STAFF OF STATE VETERINARIANS OF ILLINUIS. 





Glanders.—Several outbreaks have occurred. 62 horses 
and mules were affected and destroyed, all the carcasses being 
burned or buried, and all sanitary disinfecting measures ap- 
plied. 

MINNESOTA—G/anders.—The following report for Febru- 
ary, 1892, shows a marked decline in numbers: Remaining 
on hand February 1, 30; reported during the month, 7; killed 
during the month, 7; released during the month, 16; remain- 
ing isolated, March 1, 14. Most of them are “ suspects ” and 
are kept under observation. The disease is steadily decreasing 
in the state. 










STAFF OF STATE VETERINARIANS OF ILLINOIS, 


J. CASWELL, V.S., State Veterinarian. 


ASSISTANT STATE VETERINARIANS: 


Joseph Hughes, 2537 State Street, Chicago, III. 

A. H. Baker, 2537 State Street, Chicago, IIl. 

R. J. Withers, 2537 State Street, Chicago, IIl. 

A. Maguire, 1446 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Ill. 

B. A. Pierce, 625 West Madison Street, Chicago, IIl. 

J. F. Ryan, 175 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Ill. 

J. E. Hill, 101 West Adams Street, Chicago, IIl. 

Wm. E. McGarth, 625 North Madison Street, Chicago, IIl. 
L. C. Tiffany, Springfield, III. 

Walter Tomlinson, Alexis, III. 

C. A. Pierce, Elgin, Ill. 

J. F. Pease, Quincy, IIl. 

B. F. Swingley, Freeport, Ill. 

J. Stallman, Pontiac, IIl. 

J. J. Walker, Olney, Ill. 

O. J. McGurty, Paris, Ill. 

F. R. Rowan, Kirkland, Ill. 

A. G. Alverson, Bloomington, III. 

Chas. W. Johnson, Elburn, III. 
Matthew Wilson, Mendota, Ill. 




















The 
loss of | 
one of i 
the you 
will real 
recalling 
the depa 


UNI 


The a 
ical Asso 





rses 


ing 


ap- 


bru- 
ing 
‘led 
ain- 
and 
sing 


OBITUARY—NOTICE TO THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 241 





J. F. Reid, Decatur, Ill. 
C. M. Paxton, Kansas, lI. 
W. A. Baker, Gibson, III. 

A. D. Melvin, Sterling, III. 

James Bond, Streator, IIl. 

P. C. Dodge, Rochelle, III. 

H. G. Pyle, Jacksonville, Ill. 

W. F. Weese, Ottawa, III. 

S. V. Ramsey, Tuscola, Ill. 

James Addison, Aledo, Ill. 

A. J. Ziegler, Lincoln, IIl. 

Thomas Hope, Waukegan, III. 

B. B. Page, Rockford, III. 

J. C. Booker, Carrollton, Ill. 

John C. Stewart, Danville, III. 

I. J. Miles, Charleston, Ill. 

Thomas E. Feron, Bushnell, Ill. 

J. D. Nighbert, Pittsfield, III. 

John Scott, Peoria, III. 

F. H. Armstrong, East St. Louis, Il. 





OBITUARY, 


DR. WILLIAM R. BIRDSALL. 


The medical fraternity of New York City will regret the 
loss of one of their members, Dr. W. R. Birdsall, as that of 
one of its most active and promising members, and some of 
the younger graduates of the American Veterinary College 
will realize an additional reason for regretting his loss by 
recalling the fact that for two years he lectured to them in 
the department of Helminthology. 





NOTICE TO THE VETERINARY PROFESSION. 


UNITED STATES VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 


The annual meeting of the United States Veterinary Med- 
ical Association will be held in Boston, September 2oth, 21st 








942 SUNDRIES. 





and 22d next. It wili be our first meeting with a three days’ 
session, giving assurance of a full discussion and consideration 
of all matters brought before us. 

The unfinished discussions of our Washington meeting 
will be then completed, and all the preliminary work for our 
International Meeting in 1893, will be considered. Reports 
and papers will then be presented as follows, upon which a 
full discussion will be indulged in, which certainly will make 
an intructive and enjoyable session: 

The most interesting and important Committee Reports. 
The food supply—an important topic. The veterinarians’ 
position on the meat and milk supply of our land. 

A paper by Dr. D. E. Salmon on the “ Scientific Investi- 
gations of the Bureau of Animal Industry.” 

Original work in the field of “ Rodents,”—important dis- 
coveries with a summary of the wide field opened for research, 
by Dr. S. E. Weber, of Pennsylvania. 

“Veterinary Science in Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations,” by Dr. W. L. Williams, Perdue University. 

‘“ Strongylus Armatus,” by Dr. J. F. Winchester, of Mas- 
sachusetts. 

“Army Veterinary Cases,” by Dr. D. Lemay, U.S. Army. 

A paper by Dr. Tait Butier of Mississippi, on “ Profess- 
ional Ethics as related to business interests,” and one or two 
others to be announced later. 

Application for reduced rate of fare on all railroads has 
been made, and a royal reception is promised by our Eastern 
friends. 

All State and local Associations should take immediate 
steps to have duly appointed delegates present. 

By order of 
R. S. HUIDEKOPER, 
President. 








W. HorAcE HOSKINS, Secretary, 
12 South 37th St., Philadelphia. 





SUNDRIES. 


UPON THE VALUE OF THE MEAT FROM TUBERCULAR 
CaTTLE.—(Ueber die Verwerthung des Fleishes von tuber- 






























culose 
sitenk. 
1875 | 
Xviii., 
those 
missio 
orate 
ductec 
puppie 
fore th 
in the 
ing th 
slaught 
groups 
guinea- 
quite a: 
ments, | 
injected 
interval 
imals w 
Two ca 
meat-jui 
of the d 
months « 
ing the | 
ter of t 
months « 
other dis 
without | 
fed for tl 
afterwar 
changes ; 
having ac 
GREA 
rible fami 
producing 
lation, has 
consul’s r 
sued from 













































days’ 
ation 


eting 
r our 
ports 
ich a 
make 


ports. 
rians’ 


vesti- 


it dis- 
sarch 


xperi- 
sity. 
Mas- 
Army. 
-ofess- 


r two 


1s has 
astern 


ediate 


»stdent. 


SUNDRIES. 243 





culosem Schlachtvieh. Centralblatt f. Bakteriol. u. Para- 
sitenk., Bd. xi., No. 14.)—Perroncito, whoas early as 1874 and 
1875 (Ann. der kgl. Akad. f. Landwirthschaft in Turin, Bd. 
xvill., 1875) stated his belief in the absence of any danger to 
those eating the flesh of tubercular animals from the trans- 
mission of the disease, calls up his former position to corrob- 
orate it from aricher experience. During 1890-91 he con- 
ducted an extensive series of experiments upon guinea-pigs, 
puppies, pigs, and horned cattle, which was summarized be- 
fore the International Congress of Hygiene in London, and 
in the congress at Paris for the study of tuberculosis, dur- 
ing the last summer. The meat obtained from the public 
slaughter-houses in Turin was fed in several experiment 
groups to pigs, and the juices were injected into puppies, 
guinea-pigs, and cattle. More than two hundred puppies and 
quite as many guinea-pigs were subjected to these experi- 
ments, the meat-juice, or a watery extract of the meat, being 
injected subcutaneously or into the abdominal cavity. After 
intervals of six weeks, two, three, or more months, these an- 
imals were killed, not a trace of tuberculosis being evident. 
Two cattle were subjected to subcutaneous injection of the 
meat-juice, and when killed, six months later, showed no sign 
of the disease. Four pigs, six months old, were fed for four 
months on the flesh from tubercular cattle, without exhibit- 
ing the least evidence of acquirement of the affection. A lit- 
ter of twelve pigs, aged two months, were fed for five 
months on the flesh from tubercular cattle ; several died from 
other diseases, and the rest were all killed at varying periods, 
without any tubercular lesions being found. Two pigs were 
fed for three months on flesh from tubercular animals, and 
afterwards fed with tissues in various grades of tubercular 
changes; when killed they showed not the least evidence of 
having acquired tuberculosis. 

GREAT MORTALITY AMONG HorsEs IN RussiA.—The ter- 
rible famine which has prevailed in Russia since last Autumn, 
producing such dreadful results among the human popu- 
lation, has been also very disastrous to horses. In the British 
consul’s report on trade and commerce in Taganrog, just is- 
sued from the Foreign Office, in reference tc the effect of the 

















244 SUNDRIES 








famine, mention is made that up to last January it was esti- 
mated that 500,000 horses had died in the province of Samara 
alone. From a calculation it was believed that of a million 
of horses no more than 400,000 would be alive at the end of 
last month, and these would be in such an exhausted condi- 
tion as to be useless for heavy agricultural labor. This is, 
indeed, a serious matter, not only presently, but prospectively, 
as it will require many years to replace these animals, and 
agriculture will accordingly suffer, even if the seasons should 
prove propitious. We do not hear that the starving peas- 
ants availed themselves of the flesh of the horses as food, and 
it might be inferred that they did not, but like our soldiers in 
the Crimea, preferred to perish rather than consume such 
food. The French at Metz and in Paris in 1870-71 were not 
so “nice.”— Medical Record. 


IMMUNITY.—Professors Brieger and Kitasato, and Dr. 
Wassermann, working in Koch’s laboratory, have found a 
method of preparing a substance which conters immunity to 
animals from infective diseases such as typhoid, diphtheria, 
cholera and tetanus. The bacilli of these diseases, with their 
culture fluids, are exposed to the action of extracts of thy- 
mus gland ata temperature of 65° to 80° C. This kills the 
bacilli, but leaves in the fluid an antitoxine which confers im- 
munity. Immunity seems to be secured rather easily and in 
various ways in experimental laboratories. What is wanted is 
something that works in practice. Recently Dr. G. Taruff 
has reported a sixth case of tetanus cured by the antitoxine 
of Tizzoni and Cantani, and this has an encouraging look.— 
Medical Record. 


A WorTHy SANITARY FEAT QUIETLY ACCOMPLISHED.— 
It is alleged for General Rusk that he has greatly improved 
the treatment of cattle exported to Europe for food purposes. 
The mortality among them at sea, resulting from cruelity, 
want of water, etc., was formerly stated at sixteen per cent., 
while at the present time it is one per cent. The value of 
these exportations is not far from $25,000,000 annually. If 
this statement is only partly true, General Rusk has accom- 
plished a great sanitary reform, for he has been the means of 
indirectly purifying the flesh-food supply of thousands of Ev- 
ropean consumers.—lV. Y. Medical Journal. 





Som 
prac 
gani 
and 

not 1 
its w 
it to 
of its 
not c 
from 
the f 
tion 

hono 
sidin; 
has | 
its co 
as the 
every 
cant 

fluenc 


is due 
efficie 
uted ;