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Full text of "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1959-02-01: Vol 134 Iss 3"

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General Articles 
Arteriography of the Internal Genitalia of the Cow—H. W. Reuber and 


M. A. Emmerson 
Report on First Institute on Veterinary Public Health Practice—M. B. Starnes 109 
Piedra in Lower Animals—A Case Report of White Piedra in a Monkey and 

a Review of the Literature—William Kaplan 
United States Livestock Sanitary Association—1958 


Surgery and Obstetrics 


Two Cases of Atresia Ani Vaginalis in Sheep—l. Z. McFarland 


Clinical Data 
The Oklahoma-Kansas Anthrax Epizootic—Van Ness—Plotkin—Huffaker— 
Treatment of Canine Otitis Externa with a New Antibiotic-Steroid Prepara- 
tion—Sears—Crow—Ellison 


Swine Losses—S. H. McNutt 
Sey rg Eis hala gs ge soe PA teed Oe a Are 


Nutrition 

The Nutritional Requirements of Cats—Stanley N. Gershoff 
Editorial 

Hog Cholera Eradication 


The News Organization Section 


Correspondence, adv. p. 4; Coming Meetings, adv. p. 39 
AVMA Report adv. p. 12 


Contents continued on adv. pages 2 and 4 








LEPTRIN' 


Leptospira Pomona Bacterin 


Leptospirosis is now a major disease problem 
exacting a toll of well over a hundred millions 
annually from the U.S. livestock industry. Yet 
this disease can be controlled effectively and 
economically by methods available today. 
Among these, immunization with L. pomona bac- 
terin is perhaps most important. 


We consider LEPTRIN an outstanding prod- 
uct — one offering substantial immunity for 
well over a year in most vaccinated animals. 
Exceptionally large numbers of organisms ad- 
sorbed on alumina gel provide the added 
antigenic stimulation that enables you to ad- 
——— minister LEPTRIN with confidence. 




















NORCALCIPHOS 


of For milk fever and 


complicated cases 


oY Provides Ca, P, Mg 


in metal organic 
form 


oY Non-irritating 


non-precipitating 








Slower ionization means extended 
action in milk fever therapy 


Norcalciphos provides extended ther- 
apeutic action against milk fever. In 
NORCALCIPHOS, calcium, phos- 
phorus and magnesium are in metal- 
organic form. This means slower 
ionization, better controlled pharma- 
cological action and less irritation 
than formerly possible with old-style 
inorganic compounds. 


Especially indicated in complicated 
cases, the balanced formula of Ca, P, 
Mg and dextrose in Norcalciphos is 
also valuable in problem herds to 
help prevent relapses. And because 
Norcalciphos is exceptionally stable, 
there is no troublesome precipitation 
to slow treatment, even after freez- 
ing. 


Supplied In: 500 ce vials 
Products of Research for Veterinarians Exclusively 





Pils » NORDEN LABORATORIES 





LINCOLN, NEBRASKA 








Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 





CONTENTS 


Continued from Cover 


SURGERY AND OBSTETRICS 


Traumatic Resection of Intestine During 


eS a eee eee ee 122 
Resection of an Intussusception ............ 123 
Ovarian Cysts and Nymphomanic ........ 123 
Cesarotomy in Cows with Hyperkeratosis .. 123 


Notes on Obstetrics in Ewes . 
Hormone Treatment of Metritis 
False Heat During Pregnancy . 
Correction of Displaced Abomasum ........ 
Surgery in the Newborn .. 


CLINICAL DATA 


Treating Parasitic Bronchitis with 


Virus Pneumonia of Swine 


NS POT TET 129. Exudative Epidermatitis in Pigs ............ 
Septicemic Pasteurellosis in Lambs ........ 129. Experimental Infection of Pigs with Ascaris 
Experimental Production of Pneumonia in SS Se ee RE eee 

ES esta a a NSS 129 Selenium and Hepatosis in Pigs .......... 
Hygromycin B for Horses ...........-.-..+. 131 Immunizing Chicks for Infectious Laryngo- 
ES rrr rere 134 RR ee eee 
Hog Cholera in Bulgaria .................. 134 Bovine Brucellosis in Scandinavia ........ 
Hog Cholera Virus Survives in Goats ...... 135 States Prohibiting Use of Virulent Hog 
ID SE PN Sok w ke seinc cc wesc ce ctae's 135 IS Sowces +o cantes scan dedenae 

NUTRITION 
Rumen Parakeratosis and Type of Feed .... 141 Comments on Bloat in Ruminants 
Response of Cobalt-Deficient Lambs to Effect of I D Cc } 

Cobaltic Oxide Pellets ...............--. 141 oy oe Se ene Somers ae Young 
Influence of Fatty Acids on Signs of Vitamin if phate tate fal thal Hoe Tes eene es 

Be Detiemes te CGNs . 2... cc cscccnseesss 142 Congenital Blindness in Lambs ............ 


CURRENT LITERATURE 
Abstracts 


Comparative Histology of the Skin of Cattle 146 


Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy in Lambs .. 146 
Comparative Histology of the Kidney ...... 146 
Trivalent Toxoid for Botulism .............. 146 


Detection of Leptospirosis in Wild Mammals 146 


Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus 

Cytopathogenic Enteroviruses from Cattle .. 

Serum Protein Turnover Rates in Dairy Cows 

Lipid Accumulation in The Adrenal Glands 
of Cows ... 





Virus Association with Lamb Pneumonia .. 147 Soluble Vibrio Fetus Antigen .............. 
Strains of Listeria Monocytogenes ......... 147 ‘Particle Size and Efficiency of Phenothiazine 
Body Fluids of Ruminants .................. 147. Pneumonia in Slaughtered Lambs ........ 
Serological Types of Pasteurella Multocida . 147 Radioiodine in Thyroid Glands of Swine .. 
Immunogenic Agent Against Brucella Protection Against Clostridium Perfringens . 
Ee Pie lon £6 su anoewe sce Saaed a 147,  Pyometra in Dogs ...... Sino te Becta saa 


. 142 


. 142 


142 


148 
148 
148 


148 
149 
149 


. 149 


149 
150 
150 





EprrortaL Starr: W. A. Aitken, Editor in Chief; Donald A. Price, Associate Editor; H. E. King- 


man, Jr., Managing Editor; Eva G. Bailey, Assistant to the Editors. 








$15.00 per Annum Single Copies, $ .75 Prepaid in U.S. 
Canada, $15.50; Pan American Countries, $16.50; Foreign, $17.00 

Published semimonthly at 600 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago 5, Ill., by the American Veterinary Medical 

Association. Second class postage paid at Chicago, Ill., and at additional mailing offices. 








VIROVAX D- H 


DISTEMPER and HEPATITIS 


et La 
“a Pz ALLIED LABORATORIES, INC. 











(Correspondence 


October 9, 1958 





Dear Dr. Aitken: 

The nutrition section of the Oct. 1, 1958 JOUR- 
NAL, page 390, was of particular interest to me 
and this is a little pat on the back for you and 
your staff. 

Could you favor me with a copy of the complete 
article “The Aetiology of Grass Tetany,” by A. A. 
Wilson (Vet. Rec., May 10, 1958: 406)? Your ab- 
stract mentions nitrogenous fertilizers as a possible 
cause of tetany, and I want to know if the author 
has experimental or clinical proof of this. 

Nitrogen fertilization of various grassy plants 
has been blamed for grass tetany, nitrate poisoning, 
cornstalk poisoning, prussic acid poisoning, and 
other livestock maladies. We believe that circum- 
stantial evidence is responsible for much of this 
misunderstanding and may retard the desirable ex- 
pansion of pasture and forage fertilization. 

Research was recently concluded at Nebraska 
University in which dairy calves grazed brome 
which had received as high as 1,500 Ib. of nitro- 
gen per acre (4,500 Ib. ammonium nitrate). The 
research team consisted of veterinarians, dairy sci- 
entists, and agronomists. Nothing more serious 
than initial “scouring’’ and unpalatability was re- 
ported. 

Many trials involving high applications of nitro- 
gen fertilizer for Bermuda and other southern 
grasses have paid off consistently in “cheap beef.” 
The Texas Panhandle Experiment Station has been 
investigating grass tetany on winter wheat pas- 
tures. Sporadic transitory cases of tetany occurred 
long before the advent of nitrogen fertilization in 
these soils which are naturally low in nitrogen con- 
tent. Throughout these studies, grass tetany has 
been associated with grazing in seasons of lush 
fall growth whether nitrogen fertilization was used 
or not. 

Our observation is that these complications may 
be associated with imbalances or irregularities in 


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CONTENTS——Continued 


Books and Reports 


Recommended Methods for the Micro- 
biological Examination of Foods .. 150 


Veterinary Ophthalmology .......... 150 
Pictorial Handbook of Fracture Treat- 
NES eee atc ae Aine ad'cas Ga +o5 bute ame 150 
THE NEWS 
Dr. Hagan to Head New Disease 
NO og cre cade die cin Lemme 151 


XVIth International Veterinary Con- 
gress to Have Photographic Exhibit 151 


Horseshoeing Is Still with Us ........ 151 
CDC Offers Course in Veterinary 
EE TS rt eae 152 
Among the States and Provinces ..... 152 
ET Te ld a 0 eon ob wig es ew neta 153 
MISCELLANEOUS 
Hydatid Disease in Australia ........ 112 


Frozen Whole Blood for Transfusion .. 112 
Stream Pollution Damages Awarded . 112 
White Horses Are Black at Birth .... 112 
Wild Birds as Disease Disseminators . 117 
Mastitis Due to Serratia Marcescens . 117 
Damages Awarded for Trichinosis .. 121 
Prohibiting Use of Virulent Hog Chol- 
era Virus (Map) 145 
Record Milk Production 
Musk Ox Avoids Extinction ... 


Additions to the AVMA Film Library 
adv. p. 39 


adv. p. 47 


Pesticide Residues in Milk .... 











the plants nitrogen transport—not necessarily the 
degree of nitrogen fertilization of the soils. For 
example, nitrate poisoning and cornstalk poison- 
ing are closely linked with sudden or killing 
drouth, freezing, or chemical spray effects on the 
growing forage plants. Prussic acid poisoning is 
more serious from drouthy or frost-bitten  sor- 
ghums. 

Bray’s nitrate testing powder (Urbana Labs., 
Urbana, Ill.) could give diagnostic support when 
nitrate poisoning is suspected, and veterinary sup- 
ply houses stock a simple forage test reagent for 
prussic acid. 

Our experience suggests that these problems 
need additional study and that we should not 
“over-simplify” their cause to our stockmen-clients 
and thus do a disservice to improved grazing and 
our clientele. Better grazing management should be 
advocated in all cattle operations. 

s/W. E. IRWIN 
Bartlesville, Okla. 

















when the question 1s — by OW 


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PUTS ANIMALS ON FULL FEED — ALMOST OVERNIGHT 


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Puss'n Boots total nourishment 
means strength, health, beauty! 








Only a complete diet can PET SSD 
bestow perfect health! WHOLE FISH is Retained in Puss ‘n Boots 





Experts in animal nutrition are aware that 
there are two sides to the diet coin. One side 
stresses the importance of certain single nutri- 
tive elements. The other side underscores the 





importance of a complete diet. It warns that { 
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Proof of Puss’n Boots nutritive value lies 
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FURACIN-PENICILLIN GEL veterinary 


Furacin with penicillin produces an enhanced antibacterial action that is 
at least additive, and may be truly synergistic. The combination covers a 
broader bacterial spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms 
than either agent alone. 


Indications: For treatment of bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus 
aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae and dysgalactiae; Escherichia coli and 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to Furacin. 
For use as a topical ointment in treatment of wounds, pyodermas, in otic and 
ophthalmic infections. 
SUPPLIED: A crystalline suspension of Furacin 2% and procaine penicillin G (13,333 
units per cc.) in peanut oil with aluminum stearate 3%. In rubber-capped vial of 100 cc.; 
applicator tube of 7.5 cc., box of 12. 
1. Kakavas, J. C., et al.: J. Am. Vet. M. Ass. 119:203 (Sept.) 1951. 

0 NITROFURANS—a new class of antimicrobials— 
*"\’" neither antibiotics nor sulfonamides 

EATON LABORATORIES, NORWICH, NEW YORK 


All Eaton Veterinary Specialties Are Available Through Your Professional Veterinary Distributor 








to treat 

bovine ketosis, 

Canine dermatoses, 
inflammatory joint conditions 
with a duration of 

action that’s “just right” 


Uliracortenol 


(prednisolone trimethylacetate CIBA) 





ULTRACORTENOL is a new and improved glucocorticoid with distinct 
advantages over prednisone and prednisolone: the duration of therapeutic 
action is “just right” and therefore optimally effective. Hence, a single 
intramuscular injection generally achieves the desired effects, and daily 
injections or supportive oral therapy are not needed to maintain effective 
corticoid levels. 


ULTRACORTENOL has been extensively tested and enthusiastically 
accepted by a number of small- and large-animal practitioners!!° who 
found these regimens to be highly effective: 














Ketosis (acetonemia) Single 100- to 200-mg. injection* 
Dairy 
Cow Shock (‘‘downer” cow) Single 200-mg. injection as supportive 
syndrome therapy. 
5 mg./10 pounds body weight, total 
D single dose not to exceed 20 mg. 
lermatoses For sustained therapy, repeat once or 
twice a week as indicated. 
Dog 
sas 5 mg./10 pounds body weight, total 
ony yom single dose not to exceed 20 mg. 
Supportive oral therapy not necessary. 

















*This initial injection may be reduced to 50 to 100 mg. intramuscularly if simultaneous administration of 
intravenous glucose is given, thus a more economical glucocorticoid ss. If necessary, either 
tegimen may be augmented by an additional injection of 50 to 100 mg. Uitracortenol after 24 to 48 hours. 


C IBA Effective Veterinary Drugs, Products of Exacting Research 


8 

















NOW injectable glucocorticoid 


BOVINE KETOSIS Following a single intramuscular injection of 
Ultracortenol, investigators observe that: 

* appetite is restored, depression is dispelled within 12 to 24 hours? 

* blood giucose levels are raised within 12 hours! 

* blood ketone levels return to normal within 24 to 96 hours! 

* a Steady increase in milk production begins after 48 hours.? 


Pounds 40— “Freshened” 26 days 
“~~ “OFF FEED” 3 days 


91 2z23s@4e8s@e7frfesesegewmenrnhkrereseseMw s&s 
——DAYS-—— 
THERAPY 200 mg. of prednisolone trimethylacetate 


This chart shows the good response in ketotic cow following intramuscular injection of 
200 mg. of Ultracortenol. (Adapted from Vigue') 


CANINE DERMATOSES Reporting on 9 animals (of whom 6 received 
15 or 20 mg. Ultracortenol in a single intramuscular dose), Pollock? says, 

. Ultracorten Trimethylacetate [Ultracortenol] proved effective not 
only against the seemingly innocuous lesions, but also against the hem- 
orrhagic dermatitis associated with exquisite pain.” And, “The duration 
of the anti-inflammatory phase varies from seven to ten days depending 


upon the dosage. . . .”° 


References: 1. Vigue, R. F.: J. A.V.M.A. 133:326 (Sept. By 1958. 2. Shaw, J. C.: Personal com- 
munication. 3. Pollock, S.: To be published. 4. Rabin, P. H.: Personal communication. 5. Hoffer, 
S. H.: 447 communication. 6. Weir, H. T., and Hazelrig, J. W.: Personal communication. 
7. Beck, J. W.: Personal communication. 8. Bull, W. S.: Personal communication. 9. Fessenden, P. 
E.: Personal communication. 10. Lohmeyer, C.: Personal communication. 


SUPPLIED: Multiple-dose Vials, 10 mi., each mi. Suen” 10 mg. or 25 mg. of 


prednisolone trimethylacetate in suspension for 
ULTRACORTENOL is available from ethical veterinary distributors througheut the 
United States. 


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ye 


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VpC CON-O-MINERAL SUPPLEMENT 


lowers pig loss... builds pork faster, at less cost 


FOR SOWS, BABY PIGS, 
GROWING AND FATTENING HOGS 


Your recommendation of a swine feed forti- 
fied with VpC Con-o-mineral Supplement 
can be your client’s best weapon against nu- 
tritional deficiencies. Con-o-mineral builds 
heavier, stronger, ricket-free bone . . . helps 
grow more pork cheaper and faster. 

Ingredients include: calcium, phosphorus, 
potassium iodide with cobalt-ferrous-copper- 
zinc-manganese sulphates, plus other trace 
elements . . . dried brewer’s yeast and yeast 
cultures providing vitamins A, D, niacin, 
thiamin, panothenic acid, pyridoxine, chol- 
ine, riboflavin and other B complex factors. 


A sow has to wean 5 pigs to make produc- 
tion costs. According to a recent estimate, 
we market only 51/ out of 10 pigs farrowed. 
The difference between profit and loss is a 
narrow margin. Your clients will profit 
MORE when you recommend Con-o-mineral. 


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saving, roduction- 
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31st Ed. of VpC Feed Book now ready. Send for your supply. 


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Via-D-Mineral . . . Con-o-mineral . . . Viamineral . . . Viaferm . . 


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a complete 
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This new meat-flavored dietary 
supplement contains nineteen 
important ingredients in tablet form. 
Small animals like them! 


The comprehensive Pet-Tabs formula: 


¢ Balances the daily ration. 
+ Speeds recovery from illness. 
« Shortens convalescence after surgery. 


¢ Eliminates complicated additions to 
rations. 


¢« Maintains health and vigor in older 
animals. 


¢ Aids growth in young animals. 


Dosage: | Pet-Tab daily. 
Supplied: In bottles of 50. To veterinarians only. 


Send for literature 


THE S.E. MASSENGILL COMPANY 


Veterinary Division 
Bristoi, Tennessee 





AYMA Report 


VETERINARY MEDICINE AS A CAREER, 1959 


New Public Relations Tool Available 


A completely revised and modernized booklet, Veterinary Medicine As A Career, is now 
available for distribution through the headquarters public relations department. 


In 1947, the AVMA developed the first career booklet to answer the questions of high 
school students considering veterinary medicine for their career. In 18 pages, the booklet covered 
the college studies required, the opportunities for service in the profession, the personal quali- 
fications that make for success, and the rewards that may be expected. 


Many high schools have established career days to give their students an opportunity to 
meet representatives from many occupations and hear a description of the requirements, qualifi- 
cations needed, and opportunities in their respective fields. The increased interest in career 
guidance by high schools has led to a steadily increasing demand for literature describing the 
various trades and professions. In 1958, more than 50,000 AVMA booklets were mailed to 
veterinary organizations for distribution at fairs, to clients’ children, to high school career 
counselors, and to individual high school students. 


—> 


——~ — Ss. 


Of the 50,000 copies, almost 40 per cent were mailed to educational institutions, 10 per cent 
to veterinary organizations, and 50 per cent to individuals. Almost half the individual requests 


were received from girls. 


| 


During 1958, several constituent associations’ auxiliaries obtained lists of high schools in 
their respective states and provided each with two AVMA career booklets. Addressing and 
mailing of the booklets was handled by the auxiliaries. 


The Kansas Veterinary Medical Association distributed 5,000 booklets at the two state 
agricultural fairs and at the veterinary college open house at K.S.C. 


The increasing usage of this booklet not only justified but made necessary a modernized 
edition which more adequately portrays in current art treatment, photographs, and written pres- 
entation, today’s opportunities in veterinary medicine. 


Veterinary Medicine As A Career, 1959, is a two-color booklet. In addition to historical 
background, college studies required, opportunities for service, personal qualifications, rewards 
to be expected, and a list of AVMA-accredited schools and colleges, the new booklet incorpo- 
rates information on student aid and scholarships available. 


As an effective tool for public relations, the new booklet should increase demand even 
further among veterinary organizations, institutions of learning, and high school students. Even 
when the student does not elect to pursue a professional career, he has a better understanding 
of veterinary medicine and its public service from reading the book. Furthermore, he usually 
communicates this understanding to his parents, brothers, sisters, and friends. 


These booklets, in the hands of student counselors, can assist in encouraging qualified stu- 
dents to consider veterinary medicine as a career, while discouraging those with poor prepara- 
tion for a successful future in the profession. In many instances, counselors are not now 
equipped to guide students either toward or away from a veterinary medical career. 


Veterinary Medicine As A Career, 1959, is available from the AVMA Public Relations 
Department at ten cents per copy in multiple orders; single copies, free. 


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en. 
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FOR A HIGH MEASURE OF PROTECTION 
AGAINST SWINE ERYSIPELAS 





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ational Laboratories Corp. 


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important facts about 


the new highly concentrated 








IRON, INNECTABLE — PROTEIN COMPLEX 








FERAJECT’S EXCLUSIVE FEATURES 


* Feraject protein complex-iron in- 
jectable contains 100 mg. per 2cc, 
which gives baby pigs the all impor- 
tant amount of iron necessary for the 
prevention of iron deficiency anemia. 
* Aside from the high concentration 
of complexed iron, Feraject contains 
NEOJEL as an adjuvant with a sta- 
bilizing effect, Vitamin B,. as a 
growth stimulant; and Pyridoxine 
Hydrochloride (B,) as an aid to 
amino acid metabolism. 







DIAMOND 
DeEsS 


FIRST IN PROGRESS ...THROUGH RESEARCH 


MOINES, 


* Feraject is non-toxic and when 
used as directed, will not disrupt the 
homeostatic condition present in the 
normal animal. 

* The recommended therapeutic dose 
of Feraject is 2cc. For prophylaxis of 
pig anemia, the dose may vary from 
lec to 2cc depending upon the degree 
of iron deficiency. 

* Feraject is available exclusively to 
veterinarians in 30cc (15 dose) and 
100ce (50 dose) vials. 


LABORATORIES 


1Iowa 











FURADANTIN® VETERINARY 


brand of nitrofurantoin 


ORA-BOLS- 


new, exclusive veterinary dosage form 


ars 





Ng 


Clic 
@ pleasing taste 


encourages prompt acceptance 
™ tapered shape permits easy swallowing 
@ readily retained 





for small-animal urinary tract infections 


FURADANTIN promptly produces high bactericidal concentrations in the urine; often there 
is marked improvement in a few days and complete recovery in 1-2 weeks.1 


and canine tracheobronchitis 


FuRADANTIN administered for a period of 5 days effectively stopped coughing in 95% of 75 
,cases. In some instances symptoms were completely alleviated in 48 hours.? Recurrences have 
been very infrequent. 

SUPPLIED: Bottle of 100 scored Ora-Bots (50 mg. FurApANTIN with dextrose excipient). 
FURADANTIN VETERINARY also is available as: 10 mg. and 100 mg. bottles of 100 scored tablets 
and Oral Suspension containing 5 mg. per cc., bottle of 60 cc. 

1. Belloff, G. B.: Calif. Vet. 9:27 (Sept.-Oct.) 1956. 2. Mosier, J. E.: Vet. Med. 52:445 (Sept.) 1957. 

Available through your professional veterinary distributor. om Je 


° ° ° ° a ° . ° 
NITROFURANS—a new class of antimicrobials—neither antibiotics nor sulfonamides 


EATON LABORATORIES, NORWICH, NEW YORK 


15 











New, 
potentiated 
broad-spectrum 
antibiotic 
activity 

with 


COSA-TERRAMYCIN 


oxytetracycline with glucosamine 


more consistently effective 
more rapid response 
better toleration 

no increase in dosage 





A recent double cross-over study! in 
dogs showed marked increases of blood 
levels—up to 40% higher with Cosa- 
Terramycin as much as 5 hours after 
administration. Further studies with 
radioactive C1! tagging conclusively 
confirm that glucosamine-antibiotic 
potentiation more than doubles the 
height of those levels obtained with the 
broad-spectrum antibiotic alone.? 





DOSAGE: The usual effective oral dosage is based upon a daily total of 25 to 50 mg. per pound of body 
weight in small animals and 5 to 10 mg. per pound of body weight in large animals, given in divided 
doses every 4 hours. 


SUPPLY: Capsules—250 mg. (yellow) bottles of 100 
Capsules—125 mg. ‘yellow) bottles of 100 *Trademark 


CE> Science for the world’s well-being 


REFERENCES: 1. Cross-over studies by DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE 


Dr. B. A. Sobin, Pfizer Laboratories. 2. 
Snell, J. F. and Garkuscha, R., Proc. Soc. PRIZER LABORATORIES 
Exper. Biol. & Med. 98:148-150, 1958. Division, Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., Brooklyn 6, N. Y. 


16 








THE MOST EXCITING DEVELOPMENT 
IN SULFA THERAPY IN 20 YEARS... 


















THE MOST EXCITING 









— one dose produces therapeutic blood levels lasting 48 hours 














SlLILFA 


DEVELOPMENT IN SULFA THERAPY IN 20 YEARS 


More than any other professional man, the practicing veterinarian knows 
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of his therapy cannot be measured by results alone; he is a busy man whose 
time must be used judiciously. 

Well aware of this problem, Merck research workers have designed an 
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SULFABROM gives you all the benefits of sulfa efficacy and at the same 
time eliminates the necessity for frequent administration. Thus, 
SULFABROM is economical—your initial expenditure is sulfa-low and 
decreased dosage brings the cost down even lower. 


SU LFABROM, administered orally or intraperitoneally to cattle, produces 
effective blood levels lasting 48 hours—frequently long enough to elimi- 


nate any repetition of dosage. 


SULFABROM —quickly absorbed, slowly excreted. 

Although SULFABROM is notable for producing effective levels in rapid 
time, once it has entered the blood stream its speed of action slows down 
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long as 53 to 60 hours. And, because it is excreted so slowly, at no time is 





BROOM 


SULFABROM is a bromine-substituted sulfamethazine developed by Merck research workers. 


This new antibacterial agent is the only sulfa product available exclusively to veterinarians. 


the amount of SULFABROM passing through the urinary tract large 


enough to cause crystalluria. 


SULFABROM —effective against a broad range of infection. 
By maintaining a high level of sulfonamide in the tissues, SU LFABROM 
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acute systemic mastitis (“uneventful recovery’’); 

metritis (“back on feed and eating normally in two days’’); 

severe foot rot (“in 48 hours the cow was able to stand and 

started to eat’’); 

and pneumonia (“in five days time this calf was back to normal’’)'; 

as well as scours, coccidiosis, winter dysentery and postoperative traumatic 


gastritis. 


SULFABROM -single-dose sulfa therapy available exclusively 

to veterinarians. 
In sum, SULFABROM represents the very latest advance in sulfa therapy. 
Effective against a full range of infectious diseases, economical to use by 
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SULFABROM 
Single-dose professional sulfa preparation granting effective blood levels 


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1. CASE REPORTS IN MERCK & CO., INC., FILES 


* TRADEMARK OF MERCK & CO., INC., FOR SULFABROMOMETHATZINE @meRcK @ cO., INC. 








The “Constant-Level” Concept of Sulfa Therapy 


The establishment and maintenance of a constant 
blood level is virtually necessary throughout a 
course of sulfa therapy.' 


In the recent past this has meant frequent readmin- 
istration of the sulfonamide in use, as most of these 
drugs were of short-range effectiveness. Once a day, 
the dose of sulfamethazine or sulfamerazine would 
have to be repeated in order to maintain therapeu- 
tically effective blood levels for another 24 hours. 


If, however, sulfonamides were available that 
maintained therapeutic blood levels for two days 
or longer after single doses, a step forward would 
have been made." 


SULFABROMF* is just such a preparation. Clinical 
studies prove that SULFABROM maintains pro- 
longed blood levels in cattle after oral administra- 
tion of doses of 1.5 grains of SULFABROM per 
pound of body weight. 


This agent produced blood levels that were above 
the generally accepted therapeutic minimum for 
periods of approximately 48 hours after oral doses 
of 214 mg. per kilogram of body weight.' 

Here is ample evidence of the value of 
SULFABROM — your one answer to the problem 
posed by the “constant-level’’ concept of sulfa 
therapy. 


1. STOWE, C. MH. ET AL.: AM. J. VET. RES. 19:345 (APRIL) 1950 


* TRADEMARK OF MERCK @ CO., INC., FOR SULFABROMOMETHAZINE 
© 1959 MERCK @ CO., INC. 








Dosage (in cattle) 


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0.25-0.5 grains/Ib., intravenously 
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(Consult the package circular for full directions 
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Norte: In selected cases it may be advantageous to combine 
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23 












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28 














JOURNAL 


of the American Veterinary Medical Association 


Established January, 1877 


Chicago 5, Illinois 





VOL. 134 


February 1, 1959 


No. 3 


Copyright 1959 by the American Veterinary Medical Association 





Arteriography of the Internal Genitalia of the Cow’* 


H. W. REUBER, D.V.M., and M. A. EMMERSON, D.V.M. 


Ames, Iowa 


THE DIAGNOSIS and treatment of reproduc- 
tive disturbances in cattle usually require 
manual manipulation of the genitalia. Such 
manipulations have resulted in irreparable 
damage, and even death, of the sterility 
patient.® This study of the cyclic variations 
in circulation to the genital organs of the 
cow was undertaken to attempt to add to 
our knowledge of normal reproduction and 
the proper handling of interferences with 
it. In the past, hemodynamics have received 
little attention in the physiological or 
pathological considerations of bovine re- 
production. Much of the available informa- 
tion has come from the histopathologist, 
without careful timing of the estrous cycle 
and lacking the over-all visual picture of 
blood vascular changes. 

In this study, the arterial distribution of 
entire genital tracts has been carefully 
timed and radiographed. The distribution 
of the arterial vessels was intensified by 
injecting them with a contrast medium. 

Theoretically, the ideal method of study- 
ing the arterial changes in the bovine 
uterus would follow the intra-arterial 
injection of a nontoxic contrast medium 
into the main vessels supplying the in- 
ternal genitalia, and making a radiographic 
record before the contrast medium trav- 
ersed the capillaries and entered the venous 
side of the circulation. This technique, re- 
peated on the same cow at various stages 
of her sexual cycle, would produce a set of 





From the Department of Obstetrics and Radiology, Di- 
vision of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State College, Ames; 
Dr. Reuber is now associate professor, Department of 
Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medi- 
cine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 

*Part of the original thesis submitted in partial fulfill- 
ment of the requirements for a Master of Science degree, 
Iowa State College, 1954. 


radiographs clearly portraying circulatory 
changes. 

However, since no suitable technique or 
radiographic equipment was available for 
this ideal method of study, arterial changes 
were demonstrated on isolated genitalia of 
cows slaughtered at different stages of the 
estrous cycle. 


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 


Development of the art of rectal palpa- 
tion in large animals has been a gradual 
process. In 1881, rectal palpation was be- 
lieved to be no more accurate for preg- 
nancy diagnosis in the cow than was 
external observation,’ and in discussing 
sterility and its treatment in farm animals, 
rectal palpation of the ovaries was not 
mentioned. 

Between 1881 and 1930, there was a 
gradual increase in the employment of rec- 
tal examination of the genital organs. With 
the advent of artificial insemination in the 
bovine species in the 1930’s, there arose a 
demand for men proficient in the rectal 
examination of the genital tract of the cow, 
and numerous present-day books on animal 
reproduction contain illustrations and de- 
tailed descriptions of the technique of 
rectal examination.’)"*18 Today it is a 
routine procedure in combating infertility. 

Many anatomic studies on arterial circu- 
lation have been done by making a radio- 
graph after blood vessels were injected 
with a radiopaque liquid. Of greatest im- 
portance to the technique used in this 
study are the following: 

1) In 1924, it was found’ that a good 
injection medium penetrated into the blood 
vessels of a specimen without causing 
opacity of the surrounding tissues by seep- 


(101) 








102 


H. W. REUBER AND M. A. EMMERSON 


J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





age through the vessel walls. A manometer 
was of little value. Slow, steady pressure 
on a glass syringe gave good results. 

2) In 1938, it was found? that the radio- 
pacity of an element varied directly as its 
atomic weight or density. Also, insolubles, 
because they did not traverse the capil- 
laries between the arteries and veins, ac- 
curately outlined the arterial system on a 
radiograph, whereas solubles, because they 
had no fine particles to hinder passage, 
were suited for injecting very small vessels 
as found in the eye. An organ was found to 
give a sharper outline if isolated from the 
body than if x rayed “in situ” with other 
structures over or under it. 

3) In 1944, a radiopaque material sus- 
pended in latex was used.?° 

4) In 1946, latex was discarded because 
it “gummed up” the injection apparatus; 
an injection mass that was easier to handle 
and cheaper was developed.’® These speci- 
mens were flexible and could be handled 
for radiography as readily as those in- 
jected with latex. 

5) In 1951, it was discovered that the 
radiopacity of mediums varied directly as 
their particulate size;> the best mediums 
had maximum particulate size, but would 
still fill the small vessels of the vascular 
bed to be injected. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Five cows with clinically normal genital 
tracts were procured for this experiment. 
All were primiparous dairy animals of 
similar size and conformation which had 
given birth to a live calf at least four 
months before the beginning of this study. 
The sexual cycles were followed by clinical 
observations, by rectal palpations, and by 
vaginal smears. The cows were slaughtered 
at various predetermined stages of the 
sexual cycle. The genital tracts were re- 
moved from the carcasses and injected 
within a few hours after slaughter. 

To prepare a specimen for injection, it 
was placed in a pan of water at 150 F., 
after which the middle and posterior 
uterine arteries were cannulated. The can- 
nulae were made of blunted hypodermic 
needles of various sizes, each with a metal- 
lic ring inserted through a small hole 
drilled in the hub. Ligatures were placed 
around the arteries into which the cannu- 
lae were inserted and fastened to the rings 
to insure that the cannulae would not slip 
out of the vessels. A 1 per cent citrate 


solution (25 ml.) was injected into each 
cannulated artery as a preinjection rinse. 

The injection mass was prepared by mix- 
ing 45 Gm. of gelatin powder U.S.P. with 
300 ml. of distilled water. This mixture 
was then heated in a water bath kept at 
180 F. After the gelatin became fluid, 15 
Gm. of potassium iodide, 100 ml. of glyc- 
erol, 1.5 ml. of formaldehyde solution, and 
32 Gm. of bismuth subnitrate were added. 
The entire injection mass was kept in a 
uniform suspension by periodic agitation 
with a mixer. 

Injections were made with a 30-ml. glass 
syringe under a steady digital pressure of 
about 300 mm. Hg. Each syringe-fu!l was 
injected over a period of about three min- 
utes. Approximately 60 ml. of the mass 
was injected into each middle uterine ar- 
tery, and 35 ml. into each posterior uterine 
artery. The numerous cut arteries, which 
allowed the injection mass to escape, were 
ligated and the cannulae in the arteries, 
when not used for injecting, were plugged. 

Upon completion of the injection, the 
cannulae were removed, arteries ligated, 
and the specimen cooled in a refrigerator. 
The processed specimens were flexible and 
could be cut without the injected material 
seeping out of the vessels. Before radiogra- 
phy, the bladder, rectum, posterior vagina, 
and deposits of adipose tissue were re- 
moved by dissection. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Radiographs (fig. 1) were made from 
cows killed in proestrus, estrus, postestrus, 
early diestrus, and late diestrus. The right 
uterine horn in figure 1 is the larger be- 
cause it had been gravid during the cow’s 
one and only pregnancy. Apparently, hy- 
pertrophy and hyperplasia of the gravid 
horn and its blood supply occur; these 
structures do not regain their nulliparous 
size after parturition. Five months had 
elapsed since this cow calved, during which 
she had gone through four estrous cycles. 

None of the cows studied had clinical 
evidence of cervicitis on rectal palpation, 
yet four of the specimens radiographed 
showed some cervicitis both radiographi- 
cally and grossly. Folds of the affected 
cervices were somewhat prolapsed through 
the external os, and the cervices as a whole 
showed less circulation (fig. 2, 3) to the 
posterior portion. Diagrammatic illustra- 
tions of the cervices are presented because 








J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 














ARTERIOGRAPHY OF BOVINE INTERNAL GENITALIA 








Fig. I—Radiograph of a bovine genital tract after the arterial injection of a radiopaque medium; 

pointers at the lower right side indicate the length of the cervix; area in rectangle was enlarged for 

figure 4; note the left ovary just below the rectangle; (1!) utero-ovarian artery, (2) middle uterine 
artery, (3) posterior uterine artery. 


of difficulty in reproducing the larger 
number of small arterioles present in the 
original radiographs. 

Antemortem and postmortem examina- 
tions of the cervices indicate that some 


pathological changes in the cervix may be 
difficult to diagnose clinically. Since many 
cows conceive by artificial insemination 
after natural service has failed,** the 
cervix must at times act as a mechanical 














Figure 2 





Fig. 2—Diagrammatic reproduction of the circulation of a normal cervix; there is little difference be- 
tween the amount of circulation to the anterior and posterior portions of the cervix. 


Fig. 3—Similar to figure 2, except that hypertrophic cervicitis is depicted; notice the increasing 
diameter and decreasing blood supply toward the posterior part of the cervix. 





Figure 4 Figure 5 


Fig. 4—Enlarged portion of the uterine horn outlined by rectangle in figure |; notice how the 

arteries in the broad ligament divide to form coiled branches that supply the uterus; (1) a uterine 

branch from the utero-ovarian artery; other large arteries are branches from the middle uterine 
artery. 

Fig. 5—Radiograph of a cross section taken from the center of a uniparous uterine horn: (1) sub- 


serous vascular layer; (2) myometrial vascular layer; (3) a caruncle; (4) area of serosal reflection 
to the broad ligament. 


(104) 








< epee ane oe, 





tng) 
IEBRUARY 1, 1959 


ARTERIOGRAPHY OF BOVINE INTERNAL GENITALIA 


105 





barrier or its altered secretions as a 
spermicide or inhibitor of sperm motility. 

The role of cervicitis in bovine sterility 
is further complicated by the possibility of 
conception in affected cows. It is possible 
that the glans penis of the bull, at copula- 
tion, may accidentally enter the external os 
and thus deposit semen in the cervical 
canal anterior to that part of the cervix 
most frequently involved in cervicitis. 
Changes in the structure of the cervix as a 
cause of “repeat breeder” cows has been 
disputed, and cervical hypertrophy in pluri- 
parous cows has been called a normal 
physiological process due to prolapse and 
enlargement of the posterior annular ring 
in pregnancy.” 

The uterine arteries pass through the 
broad ligament to the uterus in a rather 
flexuous course. When they reach the vas- 
cular layer in the uterine muscle wall, the 
arteries divide dorsally and ventrally to 
encircle the uterus. The circumferential 
arteries and arterioles anastomose, form- 
ing a network of helical vessels (fig. 4, 5) 
capable of tremendous lengthening without 
breaking when the uterus enlarges to ac- 
commodate the fetus during pregnancy.** 
As the fetus grows, the vessels straighten 
and stretch; after parturition they involute 
and coil again. 

Two vascular plexuses are visible on 
cross sections of the uterine wall: an outer 
subserosal layer, and a more prominent 
layer in the myometrium. The vascular 
plexus in the myometrium is described in 
veterinary literature,21 but no mention is 
made of the subserosal arterial plexus 
found in this investigation. 

Radiographic reproductions of the ova- 
ries of the 5 experimental cows are shown 
(fig. 6-15). The ovaries were halved longi- 
tudinally and turned back to expose the cut 
surfaces and to form two sections as shown 
in figures 11 and 15. Figures 6 to 10 and 
12 to 14 show only one half of the ovary 
with either none or only a small portion of 
the other half showing. Most of the visible 
arteries supply blood to ovarian follicles; 
a few arteries, such as the prominent one 
below the corpus luteum in figure 18, carry 
blood to active corpora lutea. Large folli- 
cles were found during proestrus and es- 
trus; smaller ones were present at all 


stages of the cycle. Figure 9 shows a folli- 
cle with a diameter greater than one half 
the length of the entire ovary. 


The structures within the ovary receive 
their blood supply from coiled arteries 
originating from the site of ovarian at- 
tachment (meso-ovarian ligament). The 
original radiographs™* portrayed many mi- 
nute arterioles whose outline was lost 
during the process of photographically re- 
producing the x rays. It appears that the 
size of blood vessels supplying a follicle 
and the vascularity of a corpus luteum are 


TABLE I—Bovine Follicles and Corpora Lutea in 
Chronological Order 








Structure Age Stage of cycle 
Follicle (fig. 6) 2 days before Proestrus. 
rupturing 
Follicle (fig. 9) 1 day before Estrus. 
rupturing 
Corpus luteum (fig. 10) 2 days Postestrus. 
Corpus luteum (fig. 13) 8 days Diestrus. 
Corpus luteum (fig. 14) 14 days Diestrus. 
Corpus luteum (fig. 7) 18 days Proestrus of 
next cycle. 
Corpus luteum (fig. 8) 19 days Estrus of 
next cycle. 
Corpus luteum (fig. 11) 22 days Postestrus of 
next cycle. 





in direct proportion to the quantity of 
hormone given off by these structures into 
the systemic circulation. 

Stereoscopic radiographs with descrip- 
tions of the manner in which ovarian func- 
tion in the rabbit changes the ovarian vas- 
culature have been published.** A similar 
phenomenon takes place in the cow. Ova- 
ries from cows in the follicular phase of 
the cycle (fig. 6-9, 14, 15) show a partial 
straightening of the helical vessels that go 
to follicles. This diminution in spiralling 
is conducive to increased blood pressure, 
blood flow, and increased circulation, re- 
sulting in a greater amount of follicle- 
stimulating hormone reaching the func- 
tioning ovary. The corresponding increase 
in venous drainage carries more estrogen 
from the follicles. 

The arteries to the follicles in cows in 
the luteal phase of the cycle assume a 
tortuous form (fig. 10-13). This coiling, 
according to the laws of hemodynamics,** 
impedes the flow of blood, diminishing the 
blood pressure and blood volume to the 
structures involved, and thus certain folli- 
cles become atretic. This, along with the 
smaller follicles present during the post- 
ovulatory half of the cycle, explains the 
reduction of estrogenic effects at this time. 
The follicles and corpora lutea of various 
ages are shown (table 1; fig. 6-11, 13, 14). 








Fig. a of left ovary of a cow in proestrus, eight hours after its onset: (f) large follicle 
of proestrus—probably the follicle which would have ruptured two days later. 
Fig. 7—Right ovary of same cow (see fig. 6); (c) corpus luteum 18 days old. 

Fig. 8—Left ovary of a cow four hours after the onset of estrus: (c) corpus luteum 19 days old. 
Fig. 9—Right ovary of same cow (see fig. 8): (f) follicle, the diameter of which equals half the 
length of the ovary, one day before rupturing. Light area was caused by contrast medium escaping 

from a broken vessel within the follicle, probably the arteriole to the cumulus oophorus. 
Fig. 10—Radiograph of left ovary of a cow in postestrus, 3.25 days after the onset of estrus: (c) 
developing corpus luteum, two days after follicular rupture; (f) regressing follicle. 
Fig. 11—Right ovary of same cow (see fig. 10): (c) corpus luteum, 22 days old, retrogressing to 
eventually become a corpus albicans; (f) deeply embedded follicle. 








-A.V.M.A ARTERIOGRAPHY OF BOVINE INTERNAL GENITALIA 


EBRUARY 1, 1959 


Pad 
iy Y Sage T 
15) Ay r “a > 


Fig. 12—Radiograph of left ovary from a cow in diestrus, 9.5 days after the onset of estrus: (f) 
diestrous follicle with typical coiled arteriole below. 


Fig. 13—Right ovary of same cow (see fig. 12): (c) corpus luteum, eight days old, showing maximal 
vascularity. 


Fig. 14—Radiograph of left ovary from a cow in diestrus, 16.25 days after onset of estrus: (c) corpus 
luteum about 14 days old, showing organization and beginning regression. 
Fig. 15—Right ovary of same cow (see fig. 14): (f) one of several follicles in this ovary. Notice that 


there has been some straightening of the coils in the ovarian arteries, indicating the beginning of 
the functiona! activity of this ovary for the approaching cycle. 


If these temporary endocrine glands are 
located in the figures in the order given in 
table 1, the increasing vascularity can be 
traced as far as the fourth entry, when it 
is at its height. The corpus luteum at 15 
days of age (fig. 14) had diminished in 
vascularity and normally would continue 
to do so in the living animal until only a 
scar was left. Such scars (corpora albi- 
cans) are fibrous with little vascularity. 
When the functioning corpus luteum de- 
creases in vascularity, the ovaries again 
show signs of follicular development in 
preparation for a new cycle. 

The rich blood supply to the corpus 


luteum (fig. 13) is evidence that profuse 
bleeding frequently occurs when a corpus 
luteum is manually expressed at its “peak” 
stage.’* Fatal hemorrhage or extensive ad- 
hesions in the ovarian bursa from hemor- 
rhage have been reported from this treat- 
ment for sterility,*® even when the corpus 
luteum was “retained” rather than in the 
process of physiological development or 
regression. 

Excessive bleeding after this operation 
seems to be due to prolongation of blood 
clotting time or improper enucleation, or 
both, although hemorrhage has occurred 
with all methods employed.’® Blood coagu- 








108 


H. W. REUBER AND M. A. EMMERSON 


FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





lation may be inhibited by the dicoumarin 
content of spoiled sweet clover, shock, bac- 
terial infection, or anything interfering 
with blood coagulation components.* The 
blood clotting time of an animal can readily 
be checked before treatment by the “capil- 
lary tube” method explained in any labora- 
tory manual on mammalian physiology. 

Because of the accompanying dangers, 
some research workers advocate that 
manual enucleation of the corpus luteum 
should rarely, if ever, be attempted*?’ and 
that time and hormones are a better treat- 
ment for this type of anestrus. However, 
removal of a retained corpus luteum may 
hasten conception,® thereby shortening the 
time that an animal will be “out of produc- 
tion;” this is rendering valuable service to 
a cattle owner. Failures with this type of 
treatment®?* have been due to: (1) faulty 
diagnosis or confusing a normal corpus 
luteum with a retained one, (2) rough 
manipulation of the genitalia, and (3) 
failure in discovering factors which pre- 
vented normal regression of the persistent 
corpus luteum (uterine and systemic in- 
fections or dietary and endocrine deficien- 
cies). 

After separation of the corpus luteum 
from the ovary, it should be dropped into 
the peritoneal cavity and freed of all at- 
tachments to the ovary and bursa.** Fol- 
lowing this, the ball of the thumb should 
be pressed into the luteal crater for a short 
time to aid in the formation of a blood clot 
to control hemorrhage. 

Old regressing corpora lutea (17 days or 
more) are difficult to express. The use of 
force will do much tissue damage that 
usually leads to permanent sterility. Ac- 
tually, there is no occasion to express a 
regressing corpus luteum. Once a corpus 
luteum begins to regress, it continues to 
regress until it becomes a corpus albicans. 
This explains the absence of all corpora 
lutea except the functioning corpus luteum 
(corpus luteum of pregnancy) in advanced 
pregnancy. Only a corpus luteum that is 
functional persists and this persistency 
may be either physiological as in preg- 
nancy or pathological as in pyometra. 

Even in pyometra, those previously- 
formed corpora lutea that started to re- 
gress prior to the formation of the func- 
tioning (persistent) corpus luteum will 
continue to retrogress, and if the pyometra 
lasts long enough, they will become corpora 
albicans and only the one functioning (per- 


sistent) corpus luteum will be found on 
examination. 

A persistent functioning corpus luteum, 
whether physiological (pregnancy) or path- 
ological (pyometra), tends to become better 
organized, firmer in consistency, shows a 
retraction and “smoothing” of the pro- 
tuberance, and usually remains embedded 
in the ovarian substance, whereas the ret- 
rogressing corpus luteum of estrus moves 
toward the surface of the ovary, becoming 
soft and “mushy.” When the functioning 
corpus luteum (retained or persistent corpus 
luteum) is firmly embedded in the ovarian 
substance, and cannot be expressed without 
damaging the ovary, repeated ovarian mas- 
sage, hormone injections, or surgical re- 
moval of the corpus or the entire ovary 
may be necessary. By heeding the fore- 
going precautions, the incidence of serious 
hemorrhage and pathological adhesions fol- 
lowing manual expression of the corpus 
luteum can be greatly reduced. 


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

The arterial vasculature of the bovine 
genital tract (uterus and ovaries) can be 
vividly demonstrated by the use of arteri- 
ography. This method of study used on 5 
cows demonstrated: (1) that the circula- 
tion is diminished to the posterior part of 
the cervix during chronic cervicitis even if 
it is so mild that it cannot be diagnosed by 
rectal palpation; (2) that variations in 
ovarian circulation occur during the sexual 
cycle; and (3) that in the walls of the bo- 
vine uterus a subserous vascular layer is 
visible—especially after a uterine horn has 
been gravid. 

The great vascularity of the corpus lu- 
teum which occurs nine to ten days after 
estrus is probably related to the numerous 
incidents of hemorrhage or adhesions 
which are reported following enucleation 
of the corpus luteum. 

By inference, the role of variations in 
the blood volume to the functioning ovary 
(hemodynamics) should be more closely 
studied to determine its importance in af- 
ferent and efferent hormonal blood level 
effects. 

A thorough understanding of the role 
of the corpus luteum in health and disease 
is needed before the manual removal of 
this gland of internal secretion is con- 
demned as a therapeutic measure in han- 
dling certain reproductive problems. 














-A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH 


109 





References 
nt P.: Revision de la Morfologia del Sis- 
. de Analisis e Interpretacion. VI Congreso 
Nacional de Medicina Realizado en Cordoba, Oct., 
1938. 

*Benesch, Franz, and Wri 
Obstetrics. Bailliere, Tin 
(1951): 396-397. 

*Fleming, G.: Veterinary Obstetrics. Wm. R. 
Jenkins, New York, 1881. 

‘Frank, A. H.: Impaired Breeding in Cattle-Field 
Observations and Results of Treatment. Proc. 
Book, AVMA (1950): 190. 

"Harrison, R. G.: The Selection and Injection of 
Contrast Media. In “Micro-Arteriography,” edited 
by A. E. Barclay. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 
Ill. (1951): 52-60. 

"Herrick, J. B.: Clinical Observations on the 
Effect of Removing Retained Corpora Lutea in the 
Cow. North Am. Vet., 33, (1951): 92-93. 

"Hill, E. C.: Notes on an Opaque X-Ray Mass. 
Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., 35, (1924): 218-221. 

*Jones, L. Meyer: Veterinary Pharmacology and 
Therapeutics. 2nd ed. Iowa State College Press; 
Ames (1957): 321-332. 

*Laing, J. A.: Fertility and Infertility in Domes- 
tic Animals. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, London, 
1955. 

*Lum, R., Jr.: Notes on an Elastic Radiopaque 
Injection Mass. Anat. Rec., 96, (1946): 165-181. 

“Millar, P. G., and Ras, N. P.: Manual of In- 
fertility and Artificial Insemination of Cattle. 
Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, London, 1952. 

*™Moberg, R.: Disease Conditions in the Fallopi- 
an Tubes and Ovarian Bursae of Cattle. Vet. Rec., 
66, (1954): 87-89. 

"Petry, E. J.: The Artificial Insemination of 
Farm Animals. Rutgers University Press, New 
Brunswick, N. J., 1950. 

“Reuber, H. W.: Arteriography of the Cyclic 
Estrual Changes in the Internal Genitalia of the 
Cow. Master of Science Thesis, Iowa State Col- 
lege, Ames, 1954. 

*Reynolds, S. R. M.: The Vasculature of the 
Ovary and Ovarian Function. In “Recent Progress 
in Hormone Research,” edited by G. Pincus, Aca- 
demic Press, Inc., New York (1950): 65-100. 

*Reynolds, S. R. M.: Physiology of the Uterus. 
2nd ed. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., New York, 1952. 

"Roberts, S. J.: Veterinary Obstetrics and Geni- 
tal Diseases. Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, 
Mich. (1956) : 346-347, 364. 

*Stamm, G. W.: Artificial Breeding and Live- 
stock Improvement. Windsor Press, Chicago, IIL, 
1954. 

*Teige, J.: Hemorrhage Following Expression 
of the Corpus Luteum in the Cow (Trans.). Nord. 
Vet-med., 7, (1955): 747. 

*Tobin, C. E.: A Radiopaque Liquid Latex In- 
jection Medium for Blood Vessels. Am. J. Roentg. 
Rad. Therap. & Nuclear Med., 51, (1944): 386. 

™Trautmann, Alfred, and Fiebiger, Josef (trans- 
lated by Habel, Robt. E., and Biberstein, Ernest 
L.): Fundamentals of the Histology of Domestic 
Animals. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, 
N.Y.. 1952. 


te J. G.: Veterinary 
and Cox, London 





Report on First Institute on Veterinary 
Public Health Practice 


M. B. STARNES, D.V.M., M.P.H. 
Washington, D. C. 


Approximately 175 conferees representing vari- 
ous disciplines in the practice of public health 
medicine participated in an Institute on Veterinary 
Public Health Practice at the School of Public 
Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Oct 
6-9, 1958. The Institute, the first of its kind, was 
conducted by the Continued Education Service as 
an interprofessional approach to the utilization of 
veterinary resources in public health. 

The Institute, which was more than three years 
in preparation, was attended by speakers, con- 
ferees, and educators from 28 states and four for- 
eign countries. Medical, dental, veterinary, nurs- 
ing, and sanitation disciplines were among those 
represented. In addition, papers were presented or 
contributions were made by nearly 100 persons. 

In the development and conduct of the Institute, 
the planners had the interest, guidance, and as- 
sistance of more than a dozen agencies and groups, 
including the American Public Health Association, 
Association of State Public Health Veterinarians; 
American Board of Veterinary Public Health; 
American Veterinary Medical Association; Con- 
ference of Public Health Veterinarians; Depart- 
ments of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force; U.S. 
P.H.S.; and Michigan State University. 

The purpose of the Institute was to explore, 
document, and expand upon the present and future 
contributions of all veterinarians to public health, 
and their relationships to other public health dis- 
ciplines; to collect and evaluate source materials 
on veterinary health practices and administration; 
and to compile and publish a proceedings to pre- 
serve the material presented in formal papers and 
committee reports, thus providing a reference on 
veterinary public health practice that would re- 
flect the thinking of the Institute. 

It was designed to serve all disciplines in public 
health, particularly state and local health depart- 
ment administrators, nurses, epidemiologists, nu- 
tritionists, health educators, environmental and 
occupational health, research and laboratory per- 
sonnel, together with veterinarians in whatever ca- 
pacity whose activities contribute to health as de- 
fined by the World Health Organization, ie., 

. the field of activity which protects and ad- 
vances human well-being by utilizing the combined 
knowledge and resources of all those concerned 
with human and animal health and their interrela- 
tionships.” 

Presiding over the various sessions were Berwyn 
F. Mattison, M.D., American Public Health Asso- 
ciation; William A. Hagan, D.V.M., Cornell Uni- 
versity; Herbert H. Hasson, Division of Medicine 


Colonel M. B. Starnes, V.C., director, Division of Vet- 
erinary Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 
Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington 12, D.C. 








VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH 





.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





and Public Health, W. K. Kellogg Foundation; 
Seward E. Miller, M.D., University of Michigan; 
and James Lieberman, D.V.M., Communicable 
Disease Center, U.S. Public Health Service. 

Section committees and their chairmen were: 

1) Working Relationship of Career Veterinari- 
ans to Other Disciplines in Public Health—Robert 
Korn, M.D., D.P.H., and Ernest J. Witte, V.M.D. 

2) Working Relationship of Practitioners of 
Veterinary Medicine to Public Health—Jackson 
P. Birge, M.D., M.P.H. 

3) Actual and Potential Utilization of and Con- 
tributions by Career Public Health Veterinarians 
and Practicing Veterinarians in Official Public 
Health Programs—Franklin Top, M.D., M.P.H. 

4) Actual and Potential Utilization of and 
Contributions by Veterinarians in Voluntary and 
Official Agencies (Other than Public Health) and 
Industry—Oscar Sussman, D.V.M., M.P.H. 

5) Education—J. D. Martin, M.D., M.P.H., and 
I. A. Merchant, D.V.M., M.P.H. 

Dr. Leonard M. Schuman, School of Public 
Health, University of Minnesota, who summarized 
the meeting had this to say: 

The veterinarian, for a long time, has made and 
will continue to make contributions to the public 
health. But the veterinarian in public health as a 
career specialist is a relatively new phenomenon 
and has but recently completed his initial orienta- 
tion period wherein associations were made, inter- 
relationships with other disciplines established, 
workloads accepted, short-range goals were set, 
emergencies were met, and immediate problems 
tackled. During this initial period, lines of com- 
munication were established and leadership was 
spontaneously developed. 


The Challenge for the Veterinarian 


It was apparent to the planning group that tech- 
nical contributions to public health will be made 
continuously and in ever-increasing numbers by 
veterinarians and that adequate opportunities ex- 
isted for the free interchange of technical informa- 
tion through the medium of professional meetings, 
journals, conferences, and seminars. It was also 
apparent that until this time there had been no 
well-organized efforts at an interdisciplinary study 
of the maximum utilization of the talents of all 
veterinarians in private practice, industry, volun- 
tary agencies, and official and other agencies in 
behalf of public health programs. 

Henrik J. Stafseth, Michigan State University, 
suggested that the term, “veterinary public health,” 
is not only a grossly inadequate term but may also 
be a totally misleading term in some quarters when 
attempting to describe the activities of all veteri- 
narians in behalf of public health or to define the 
responsibilities of career public health veterinar- 
ians. Others felt that “veterinarians in public 
health” was more descriptive and appropriate. Al- 
though the term, “comparative medicine,” was 
once applied to the veterinarian’s field and sub- 
sequently rejected, the suggestion of its readoption, 
but in a broader context, was more than apparent 
in the presentation of T. Lloyd Jones, Ontario 
Veterinary College, “Comparative Medicine—the 


Half-Open Door.” Thus it was evident that there 
was no meeting of the minds in this particular 
area so that we are going to have to wait a little 
while before the veterinarians themselves decide 
what they would like to be called in the future. 

No practitioner of human medicine can deny the 
interdependence of man and the lower animals, 
not only in terms of a food supply but in terms of 
ecological relationships. The profound impact of 
one upon the other in a common environment is 
seen in the zoonoses which are but one manifesta- 
tion of this relationship. It is also seen in terms of 
the insight that a knowledge of the anatomy, 
physiology, and chemistry of the one can give for 
knowledge of the other; in terms of the usefulness 
of study and experimentation on lower animals for 
the clarification of normal and abnormal processes 
in man. The realization of the complete interde- 
pendence of all species of animal life leads one to 
the easy acceptance of Dr. Jones’ cogent sugges- 
tion that human and veterinary medicine are truly 
components of comparative medicine. 

W. W. Armistead, Michigan State University 
and immediate past-president of the AVMA, 
reached an almost identical conclusion in his paper, 
“The Public Health Challenge to Veterinary Medi- 
cine.” It was his belief that artificial boundaries 
are inclosed by compartmentalization and that the 
modern and probably necessary high degree of 
specialization frequently obscures both origins and 
goals of veterinary and human medicine. It was his 
firm conviction that all veterinarians have a dis- 
tinct responsibility to man’s welfare and thus to 
public health; also, that human and veterinary 
medicine are a part of a large MEDICINE (which 
Dr. Schuman put in capital letters) which is a 
broad interdisciplinary area of operation for the 
health of man. 

Regarding this, Dr. Schuman stated, “It is, of 
course, highly unlikely that practitioners of human 
medicine will quickly bridge the channels of spe- 
cialization, think deeply of the origins of the two 
disciplines and accept this thesis at once.” To push 
wide the half-open door will require the breaking 
of conceptual habits. The area in which this could 
best be done was in the equally broad discipline 
of public health which, as Dr. Berwyn F. Matti- 
son, executive secretary of the American Public 
Health Association, stated: “. . . is not a discipline 
segmented by profession but a broad discipline or 
interest with various disciplines contributing.” 

To Dr. Schuman, “public health is not an of- 
ficial agency or agencies but a concept which 
treats of the total health of the community of peo- 
ples as opposed to medical attention to separate 
individuals of the community.” Dr. Stafseth con- 
curred in this and made the further observation 
that the veterinarian adapts himself readily to 
public health activities since he is trained to think 
in terms of herd health problems rather than of 
health problems of individual animals. The epi- 
demiologist has long accepted the partnership of 
the veterinarian, for the epidemiologist must think 
in terms of the human herd just as the veterinari- 
an must think in terms of the animal herd. 











.A.V.M.A, 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH 


111 





Dr. Edward H. Cushing, Office of the Secretary 
of Defense, singled out the military veterinarian 
as having contributed substantially both to the 
military population and to civilian health programs 
related thereto. 

Dr. Albert E. Heustis, Michigan Department of 
Health, indicated that the veterinarian’s career op- 
portunities in public health are as broad as his 
personal abilities. Training which enables him to 
deal with a disease in the animal host qualifies 
him to help combat disease in man. 

Education of the veterinarian toward greater ap- 
preciation for his role in public health was stressed 
by Dr. Russell E. Rebrassier, president of the 
AVMA, in discussing “Undergraduate Education.” 
He believes that undergraduate education first and 
foremost must make the student a good veterinari- 
an. Also, he insisted that veterinary medical as- 
pects of public health programs should result from 
a continuous program relating the veterinarian to 
his responsibility to community welfare and mak- 
ing him aware of the relation between animal and 
human disease. 

In discussing “Graduate Training,” Dr. Vlado 
A. Getting, School of Public Health, University of 
Michigan, stressed the need for careful selection 
of schools of public health for graduate training. 
These courses, he said, should meet the individual's 
needs, depending upon his specific area of interest 
and should include public speaking, scier-tific writ- 
ing, administration, and practical field experience 
in several public health agencies. 

Dr. Richard E. Shope, in discussing “The Role 
of Latency in the Epidemiology of Virus Disease,” 
provoked thought regarding the role of veterinary 
research in virology. Dr. Jacques M. May, Na- 
tional Geographic Society, in his dramatic discus- 
sion of “Disease Geography” left no doubt that 
the veterinarian has already contributed and can 
contribute more to this fascinating epidemiological 
approach to disease control in man. This can best 
be done by increased animal disease morbidity re- 
porting, greater interchange of data between vet- 
erinarians and physicians, research in geriatrics 
and chronic diseases, and a charting of the zoo- 
noses on a country-by-country and ultimately a 
world-wide basis. Dr. Carey P. McCord, editor, 
Industrial Medicine and Surgery, related the zoo- 
noses to true occupational diseases and appealed 
for more investigations into and reporting of the 
incidence of these diseases especially in rural areas. 


The Role of the Veterinarian 


The veterinarian in public health has a special 
interest in the inspection of food and this activity 
should be drawn closer to food and drug divisions; 
he should be the director of food, meat and milk 
control programs at the local level and at least an 
advisor at the state level; he should conduct epi- 
demiological investigations of food-borne diseases ; 
have advisory control over the food analysis 


laboratory; and agency veterinarians should be 
responsible for evaluation of antibiotics, and bi- 
ological and chemical agents used in raising and 
processing food animals. 


There was expressed a particular need for 
properly trained veterinarians in the raising, care, 
and handling of laboratory research animals. The 
veterinarian should be drawn into and encouraged 
to do research in public health, experimental sur- 
gery, and other medical research. Those trained in 
comparative pathology and microbiology have 
demonstrated unusual capabilities in the field of 
comparative medicine. 

The matter of veterinarians in administrative ca- 
pacities was discussed. It was agreed that adminis- 
tration is not a separate profession but an inherent 
skill in professional personnel; that administrative 
procedures offer the means of accomplishing what 
mere technical workers frequently cannot do; and 
that administration requires interest, opportunity, 
experience and, above all, capabilities not inherent 
in every individual. It was recommended that vet- 
erinarians in public health demonstrating ability in 
administration, with necessary scientific background 
to plan and direct major programs, be given this 
opportunity rather than being limited to minor, 
segmentalized programs or projects. 

Job description and classification also was dis- 
cussed in special committee studies. On this the 
statement was made that salaries of veterinarians 
in public health are not commensurate with their 
education, training, and responsibilities. Classifica- 
tion should be based on comparable duties and 
training, not on salaries paid elsewhere in other 
agencies. There is a need to equalize job descrip- 
tions within health departments and establish justi- 
fications for commensurate salaries. 

Veterinarians in public health can assume leader- 
ship in rural health occupational programs, includ- 
ing accident-prevention programs. Practicing vet- 
erinarians should be encouraged to participate in 
such programs by reporting certain accidents, poi- 
sonings, and occupational diseases in rural areas. 
Rural poison control centers should be established 
in the same pattern as similar urban centers. Prob- 
lems peculiar to rural areas include crop poisons, 
insecticides, etc. 

On the matter of education, there was general 
agreement that the basic courses now taken by the 
veterinary student were adequate, provided aware- 
ness of responsibility was impressed. This, it was 
proposed, could be done by teaching medical and 
veterinary history and by summer externships for 
students interested in public health. Veterinary 
medical schools should publicize availability of 
graduate training and public health. Veterinarians 
in public health should be utilized in postgraduate 
education as guest lecturers, resident lecturers, and 
full-time faculty members. Full-time, qualified, 
trained public health veterinarians should be 
added to faculties in schools of public health. 
Practicing veterinarians and veterinarians in pub- 
lic health should be included on faculties of con- 
tinued education courses because of their field ex- 
periences. 

Interdisciplinary participation was encouraged 
by combined meetings of physicians, veterinarians, 
dentists, and nurses to provide proper attitudes and 








112 


MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS J.A.V.M.A 


FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





activities. Participation of veterinarians in hospital 
medical center and industrial research center staff 
meetings was encouraged, along with the simple 
device of the exchange of speakers between medi- 
cal and veterinary groups and societies. A full-time 
faculty chair in public health should be established 
in veterinary schools, not necessarily to teach pub- 
lic health as a separate course but rather to be a 
coordinator-interpolater of public health across the 
board in all subjects. It was generally felt that 
veterinarians in public health should receive grad- 
uate training in schools of public health in order 
to obtain a better understanding of medical-veteri- 
mary problems and relationships. However, it was 
fele that the American Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion should survey the training of veterinarians— 
not for the purpose of standardizing course con- 
tents but to determine whether the veterinarian in 
public health training is obtaining the training 
which he needs for his work. 

The proceedings of the Institute will be pub- 
lished as a manual of reference on public health 
Practice by veterinarians for all workers in the 
health and related fields. It is hoped that the pub- 
lication will not remain a manual of practice for 
too long but rather that it will soon become a 
historical document of reference for veterinary 
medicine and public health. 





Hydatid Disease in Australia 


In Australia, a classic habitat of hyda- 
tid disease due to Echinococcus granulosus 
infection, the disease is particularly com- 
mon in children who play with dogs. To 
prevent human infection, the following are 
suggested: (a) prevent dogs from eating 
raw offal or boil the offal for ten minutes 
before it is fed to dogs; (6) treat the dogs 
for tapeworm every two months; (c) keep 
dogs away from the vegetable garden and 
wash raw vegetables before eating them; 
(d) observe ordinary hygiene such as 
washing the hands before eating or smok- 
ing; and (e) eliminate flies as far as pos- 
sible—J. Agric. South Australia (Sept., 
1958): 100. 





Frozen Whole Blood for Transfusion 
Addition of sugars to whole citrated 
human blood permits freezing and thawing 
with recovery of a large percentage of the 
erythrocytes after six months of storage 
at -93 C. Hemolysis due to freezing and 
thawing of erythrocytes is known to be 
avoided considerably by ultrarapid freez- 
ing or by the addition of glycerol. 
Modification of erythrocytes to prevent 
hemolysis has now been achieved by mix- 
ing equal parts of acid-citrated blood with 


sugar solutions to obtain a 0.2 molar (M) 
concentration of lactose, or a 0.7 M concen- 
tration of dextrose, or an additive molarity 
of 0.6 with both sugars. The modification 
may take from five to 270 minutes. 

When stored at -—58 C., the rate of red 
blood cell recovery from freezing, and of 
survival for 24 hours in the blood stream, 
deteriorates more rapidly than at lower 
temperatures. At —93 C., a satisfactory re- 
covery and survival are maintained for 
at least six months.—Science (Oct., 24, 
1958): 1002. 





Stream Pollution Damages Awarded 

Damages were awarded to an owner of 
livestock in Oklahoma for death of cattle 
($5,000) and for injury to cattle ($2,000) 
resulting from drinking from a stream 
which allegedly became polluted as a result 
of an oil company’s operations which 
caused salt to be released into the creek 
involved. 

The court, on appeal, modified the 
judgment by striking out the award for 
the cattle which had not died. It appears 
that the evidence was “far from conclu- 
sive to show a statutory violation,” but the 
lower court was convinced by it and found 
accordingly. The appellate court indicated: 
“The mandate of Oklahoma statutory law 
. . - makes it unlawful to allow salt water 
to flow over the surface of the land and dis- 
pels the necessity of proving particular 
acts of negligence. . . . Liability per se 
follows for damages occasioned by the 
contamination of a fresh water stream 
through the release of salt water into such 
stream. . .”—Pub. Health Court Digest, 4, 
(Oct., 1958): 3. 





White Horses Were Black at Birth 

The Science News Letter (Oct. 4, 1958: 
222) states that Austria’s famous white 
performing horses are born dark and be- 
come white when 3 to 7 years old. This may 
come as surprising information to a high 
percentage of our present population, but 
less so t» those who were familiar with 
horses in their heyday. 

While ‘he white Arabian-type horses are 
born whiie, the gray horses, even those 
that even'ually become pure white with ad- 
vancing age, are black at birth, while black 
horses are mouse-colored at birth. 














Piedra in Lower Animals 


A Case Report of White Piedra in a Monkey 
and a Review of the Literature 


WILLIAM KAPLAN, D.V.M. 


Atlanta, Georgia 


PIEDRA IS a fungus disease of the hair, 
characterized by the development of nod- 
ules along the involved hair shaft. Two dis- 
tinct forms of this disorder exist: black 
piedra, which is caused by the ascomycete, 
Piedraia hortai, and white piedra, which is 
caused by the imperfect yeastlike fungus, 
Trichosporon cutaneum. 

In the literature,*:":*7 Trichosporon bei- 
gelit is usually cited by most authors as 
the etiological agent of white piedra. How- 
ever, the epithet, 7. beigelii was regarded® 
as a “nomen dubium,” since its original 
description was so incomplete that it could 
apply to any Trichosporon species. The lead 
of these workers is followed in considering 
T. cutaneum as the valid name for the 
causative agent of white piedra. 


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 


Black piedra in man usually affects the 
hair of the scalp and is endemic in the 
moist tropical regions of the world. This 
disease has been reported in South Ameri- 
ca, Indonesia, Indochina, and Thailand.*’ 
The causative agent, P. hortai, invades be- 
neath the hair cuticle, proliferates, and 
eventually breaks out to surround the 
shaft, forming a discrete brown to black, 
hard nodule. The concretion is composed of 
closely septate, dematiaceous branched 
hyphae, 4 to 8 » in diameter, held together 
by a cement-like substance (fig. 1). Within 
the nodule, asci containing two to eight 
unicellular, curved, elongate ascospores 
with a polar filament at both ends may also 
be observed. 

White piedra in man is a relatively rare 
condition and is found to affect the hair of 
the beard, mustache, and occasionally other 
sites of the body.??°.?417 This disorder oc- 
curs most commonly in temperate regions 





From the Communicable Disease Center, Public Health 
Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Wel- 
fare, Atlanta, Ga. 

The authors thank Dr. Lynferd J. Wickerham, Northern 
Utilization Research and Development Division, U.S.D.A., 
Peoria, Ill., for assistance in the identification of T. cuta- 
Reum. 


and only occasionally in the tropics. Cases 
in man have been recorded in South Ameri- 
ca, western and central Europe, England, 
and the Orient. A few cases have been re- 
ported in the United States.*-575 

In white piedra, the nodules are lighter 
in color and softer in consistency than 
those caused by P. hortai. They are usually 
less discrete and may appear as a sheath 
surrounding the hair shaft. Frequently, the 
fungus invades the interior of the hair, 
causing marked pilar damage. Such hairs 
may be broken or split.**:14 

Under the microscope, the nodules are 
found to be composed of hyaline hyphae 
which fragment into oval or rectangular 
arthrospores, 2 to 4 » in diameter, held to- 
gether by a cement-like material. Careful 
study may disclose blastospores. Asci and 
ascospores have not been observed (fig. 2). 

Piedra has also been reported in lower 
animals. In 1925, white piedra was de- 
scribed among horses in Germany.® A Tri- 
chosporon was reportedly the cause of the 
disorder, and the agent was named Tricho- 
sporon equinum. Unfortunately, the fungus 
was not described completely, and it is not 
possible to determine its relationship to T. 
cutaneum. 

White piedra was said to be common in 
cavalry horses. The disorder usually in- 
volved the hairs of the mane, tail, and fore- 
lock, and appeared as visible, light colored 
nodules or thickenings. Frequently, the in- 
fected hairs were broken or split. 

When the infected hairs were studied 
under the microscope, the nodular thicken- 
ings were found to be composed of hair 
splinters and fungal elements. The fungus 
was present in the form of hyphal filaments 
which had fragmented into oval or rectan- 
gular arthrospores. The organism had in- 
vaded the cortex and medulla of the hair, 
resulting in eventual destruction of that 
portion of the hair shaft.* This process ex- 
plained the clinical diagnosis of trichor- 
rhexis. 

In 1936, black piedra was described in 


(113) 








WILLIAM KAPLAN 





J.A.V.M.A, 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 








Fig. I—A human hair affected with black piedra, 
showing a discrete dark nodule surrounding the shaft. 
x 286. 


the chimpanzee.* Infected hairs were found 
on the legs, genital regions, and heads of 
five chimpanzee museum pelts in Munich, 
Germany. The five pelts had originally been 
obtained from animals skinned in the Cam- 
eroons. It is of interest that, to date, black 


Ld 





Fig. 2—A human hair affected with white piedra, 
showing a light colored nodule surrounding the shaft. 
x 160. 


piedra infections in man or lower animals 
have not been reported in Africa. 

Many round or wartlike dark excres- 
cences, reaching the size of a nit, were ob- 
served on the involved hair shafts. So nu- 
merous were the nodules that the hairs 
appeared to be covered with large dust 
particles. Examination of the thickenings 
showed them to be made up of closely seg- 
mented, branched, dematiaceous hyphae, 3 
to 6 » in diameter, along with hair splin- 
ters, held together by a dark colored 
cement-like material. Numerous asci con- 
taining eight curved, unicellular, fusiform 
ascospores were also present. The fungus 
had invaded the cortex and medulla of the 
hair, resulting in destruction of the in- 
volved portion of the shaft. 

Unfortunately, it was not possible to re- 
cover the causative agent from the pelts. 
However, the gross and microscopic appear- 
ance of the nodules was similar to that ob- 
served in black piedra in man, with the ex- 


ception that the fungus had attacked and 
destroyed the medulla and cortex of the 
chimpanzee hairs.® 

It is evident that both black and white 
piedra may affect lower animals as well as 
man. To date, this disorder has been re- 
ported in horses and in chimpanzee pelts. 

The present report describes a case of 
white piedra in a monkey, caused by T. 
cutaneum. This is the first such simian in- 
fection to be recorded and marks the first 
time that 7. cutaneum has been demon- 
strated to have caused piedra in a lower 
animal host. 


CASE REPORT 

A 1-year-old male, black spider monkey 
(Ateles sp.), indigenous to Central and 
South America, had been imported into the 
United States on Jan. 22, 1957, by a dealer 
in New Orleans, La. The monkey was part 
of a shipment that originated in Panama 
City, Panama, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Upon arrival at the dealer’s premises, all 
the monkeys had been placed in a large re- 
ceiving cage. Thus, it was not possible to 
determine the precise country of origin of 
the infected monkey. Two days after its 
arrival in the United States, the simian 
was sold as a pet to a New Orleans resident. 

Within two weeks after purchase, the 
monkey showed signs of apparent systemic 
illness as evidenced by anorexia, malaise, 
loss of weight, and marked abdominal en- 
largement. On February 7, the simian was 
taken to a local animal hospital for diag- 
nosis and treatment of the illness. The at- 
tending veterinarian noticed widespread 
loss and breakage of hair on the monkey’s 
extremities, tail, and head. 

Hairs collected from various sites of the 
body were submitted to the Mycology Lab- 
oratory, Communicable Disease Center, 
Chamblee, Ga., for mycological study. One 
week later, the monkey died. 

When laboratory studies disclosed the 
monkey had white piedra, attempts were 
made to obtain clinical materials from the 
other monkeys in the original shipment. 
All the simians had been sold, however, and 
it was not possible to study them. There 
was no evidence of transmission of 7. Cu- 
taneum to the owner or members of his 
family. 

Mycological Findings.—At the labora- 
tory, careful visual inspection of individual 
hairs disclosed numerous small, wavelike 
thickenings along the shafts (fig. 3). Some 











-A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


PIEDRA IN LOWER ANIMALS 


115 





of the larger nodules were twice the diam- 
eter of the intervening normal hair. The 
longer hairs had as many as six such visi- 
ble swellings. Many of the hairs were 
broken, with enlarged terminal ends visible. 
Due to their relatively small size, the nod- 
ular thickenings could be overlooked un- 
less the visual examination was done care- 
fully. None of the hairs fluoresced under 
the Wood’s light. 

Hairs were studied microscopically in 10 
per cent potassium hydroxide mounts. The 
direct examination showed the nodules to 
be composed of hyaline hyphae that had 
fragmented into oval or rectangular ar- 
throspores, 2 to 4 » in diameter, along with 
hair fragments. The nodular components 
were held together by a cement-like mate- 
rial. 

The fungus had invaded the cortex and 
medulla of the hair and completely de- 
stroyed the interior of the shaft. So com- 
plete was the destruction that the fully 
developed nodules served as bridges joining 
adjacent portions of the normal hair (fig. 
4A). In many cases, hairs were broken at a 
nodule, which accounted for the visible 
thickening of their ends (fig. 4B). 

Microscopic pilar swellings were numer- 
ous and found to be caused by proliferation 
of the fungus under the cuticle or within 
the interior of the hair. Such invasion 
caused bulging of the affected portion of 
the shaft. The microscopic thickenings ap- 
peared to be nodules in early stages of de- 
velopment. 


Fig. 4—Spider monkey hair 
affected with white piedra 
(A) showing complete de- 
struction of the interior of 
the hair, with the nodule 
serving as a bridge joining 
adjacent portions of the 
normal hair, and (B) show- 
ing hair broken at the 
point of nodule formation. 
x 344, 





Fig. 3—Spider monkey hairs showing numerous nodu- 
lar thickenings along their shafts. x 20. 


To isolate and identify the causative 
agent, hairs were cultured on Sabouraud’s 
dextrose agar to which had been added 20 
units of penicillin and 40 units of strepto- 
mycin per milliliter of medium to inhibit 
bacterial contaminants. It was not possible 
to incorporate cycloheximide, because this 
antibiotic completely inhibits the growth 
of T. cutaneum.*® 

On the isolation medium the fungus was 
recovered in pure culture in every case. The 
organism was relatively rapid-growing and, 
in four days, appeared as a cream-colored, 
moist, yeastlike growth. After three weeks’ 
cultivation at room temperature (25 C.), 
the colonies were yellowish gray, wrinkled, 
raised, and dull (fig. 5), and microscopic 
examination showed abundant development 
of true mycelia which fragmented into oval 
or rectangular arthrospores (2.0 to 4.0 by 
3.5 to 9.0 »). Blastospore formation was 
also observed (fig. 6). 

The biochemical properties of this organism 
were investigated. The fungus did not ferment 











116 


WILLIAM KAPLAN 


-A.V.M.A, 
FeBruaryY 1, 1959 








Fig. 5—A 3-week-old colony of Trichosporon cutaneum 
on Sabouraud dextrose agar. 


carbohydrates. Auxanographic studies showed that 
the organism assimilated glucose, galactose, su- 
crose, maltose, and lactose. Potassium nitrate was 
not assimilated. Arbutin was split. On the basis of 
these morphological and physiological properties 
the fungus was identified as T. cutaneum.’ This 
was confirmed by workers in Holland.* 





A 


% 
Se 


Fig. 6—Arthrospores (a) and blastospores (b) of 
Trichosporon cutaneum. x 776. 


DISCUSSION 


The occurrence of white and black piedra 
in lower animals has been established. 
However, such cases have been too few to 
be of more than academic interest. Never- 





*Cultures were sent to Mrs. N. J. W. Kreger-van Rij, 
Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Yeast Division, 
Delft, Holland, who identified the fungus as T. cutaneum. 
Dr. G. de Vries of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmel- 
cultures, Baarn, Holland, confirmed this opinion. 


theless, the possibility exists that this dis- 
order is not as rare in animals as the pau- 
city of recorded cases would indicate. 

Clinically, piedra in lower animals may 
be readily overlooked. The nodules are 
small and could escape casual visual exam- 
ination. Even upon careful visual inspec- 
tion, they may present the appearance of 
adherent gross contaminants, Only careful 
microscopic study of these nodular swell- 
ings, supplemented by cultures, would dis- 
close their fungal nature. 

The fact that lower animals are suscepti- 
ble to attack by agents causing piedra 
raises the question whether animals might 
be playing an unsuspected role in the epi- 
demiology of the disease in man. On the 
basis of information on hand, man, and 
possibly animals, probably contract the in- 
fections by exposure to a common source in 
nature. Evidence for this contention is two- 
fold. 

First, the agent of white piedra, T. cu- 
taneum, has been isolated from a variety of 
natural substrates. It has been recovered 
from wood pulp in Sweden and Italy.® Re- 
coveries have also been made from the sew- 
age of a dairy plant in England and from 
soil and decaying plant material in Israel.? 

Secondly, although there has been no 
authenticated record of the isolation of P. 
hortai in nature, black piedra develops 
more commonly in individuals who bathe 
in certain bodies of water in endemic areas, 
which would indicate a common source of 
infection in these waters.** However, it is 
also possible that the wetting of hair may 
reduce resistance to infection. 

It is obvious that our present knowledge 
of the epidemiology of piedra and the 
ecology of the etiological agents is frag- 
mentary and that comprehensive epidemioc- 
logical and ecological studies are necessary. 


SUMMARY 

A case of white piedra in a 1-year-old, 
male, black spider monkey (Ateles sp.), 
caused by Trichosporon cutaneum, is re- 
ported. The animal involved had recently 
been imported from Latin America. This is 
the first such simian infection recorded. 

Previous reports of piedra in horses and 
chimpanzee pelts are reviewed. 

The known epidemiological features of 
white and black piedra are reviewed and 
discussed. 








‘or 














A.V.M.A. 
BBAUARY 1, 1959 PIEDRA IN LOWER ANIMALS 117 
References ducks, pheasants, pigeons, doves, magpies, 


*Area Leao, A. E.: Consideracdes sobre os thallo- 
sporados. O género Trichosporon. Trichosporon 
minor n. sp. productor de piedra axilar. Mem. Inst. 
Oswaldo Cruz., 35, (1941): 729-745. 

*Aschner, M., and Cury, A.: Starch Production 
in the Genus Trichosporon. J. Bact., 62, (1951): 
350-352. 

*Burdick, K. H.: Piedra in Mother and Daughter. 
Am.M.A. Arch. Dermat., 73, (1956): 386. 

‘Conant, N. F., Smith, D. T., Baker, R. D., 
Callaway, J. L., and Martin, D. S.: Manual of 
Clinical Mycology. 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders Co., 
Philadelphia, 1954, 

*Daly, J. F.: Piedra in Vermont. Am.M.A. Arch. 
Dermat., 75, (1957): 584-585. 

*Fambach, D.: Trichosporon Equinum. Ztschr. f. 
Infektionskr., 29, (1925): 124-142. 

*Kneedler, W. H.: Tinea Nodosa of the Scalp in 
School Children of South Siam. Arch. Dermat. and 
Syph., 39, (1939): 121-125. 

*Lochte, T.: Uber das Vorkommen der Piedra 
beim Schimpansen und iiber die Beziehungen der 
tierischen Piedra zur menschlichen. Arch. Derm. u. 
Syph., 175, (1937): 107-113. 

*Lodder, J., and Kreger-van Rij, N. J. W.: The 
Yeasts. A Taxonomic Study. North Eivitend Pub- 
lishing Co., Amsterdam, 1952. 

1 opez-Fernandez, J. R.: Primer caso Uraguayo 
de “Piedra Blanca.”’ An. Inst. hig. de Montevideo, 
2, (1948): 36-43. 

“Mackinnon, J. E.: Zimologia Médica. Imprenta 
el Siglo Ilustrado, Montevideo, 1946. 

*Mackinnon, J. E., and Schouten, G. B.: Investi- 
gaciones sobre las enfermedades de los cabellos 
denomenadas “Piedra.” Arch. Soc. biol. Monte- 
video, 10, (1942): 227-266. 

*Mycology Unit, Communicable Disease Center, 
Chamblee, Ga.: Unpublished data, 1957. 

“Pereiro Miguens, M.: Piedra blanca europa. 
Primer caso descrito en Espana. Actas dermo-sif., 
43, (1952): 537-545. 

*Scott, M. J.: Piedra. Report of a Case. Arch. 
Dermat. and Syph., 64, (1951): 767-773. 

“Simons, R. D. G.: Handbook of Tropical 
Dermatology. Vol. 2. Elsevier Publishing Co., 
Amsterdam, 1953. 

"Zeledon, R., and Dias, V. M.: Consideracdes 
sobre um caso de piedra trichésporica. Hospital, 
Rio de Janeiro, 44, (1953): 751-762. 





Wild Birds as Disease Disseminators.— 
In an extensive study by the Ministry of 
Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, in Eng- 
land, feral birds were proved to be carriers 
of many diseases: 

Among the bacterial diseases were an- 
thrax, botulism, coligranuloma, listeriosis, 
pullorum disease, fowl typhoid, and Sal- 
monella thompson infection. 

Virus diseases carried were infectious 
avian encephalomyelitis, infectious laryn- 
gotracheitis, aftosa, fowl paralysis complex, 
Newcastle disease, ornithosis, and vesicular 
dermatitis of seabirds. Among the carriers 
of ornithosis were the gulls, petrels, terns, 


finches, and sparrows.—/. F. Keymer in 
Vet. Rec. (Sept. 13, 1958): 736. 





Mastitis Due to Serratia Marcescens 


Quarter milk samples were collected 
from all cows in a dairy herd, in Ontario, 
when several developed mastitis in the fall 
of 1957. Of 22 samples with an increased 
cell count, hemolytic staphylococci were 
found in 16, Streptococcus agalactia in 2, 
Serratia marcescens in 2, and 2 were free 
of bacteria. 

Since an autogenous bacterin of Staphy- 
lococcus aureus had benefited this same 
herd five years previously, it was again 
used to vaccinate cows. Several months 
later, quarter milk samples from the entire 
herd were again tested and S. marcescens 
was isolated from 17. The organism was 
also cultured from teat cup liners immedi- 
ately after removal from infected cows but 
was not found on other equipment. It 
seemed to be associated with mild chronic 
mastitis which at no time produced a sys- 
temic reaction. 

Milk production from the affected ani- 
mals was reduced. Cyclic changes occurred, 
such as swelling of the udder and clots in 
the visibly abnormal milk, followed in a 
few days by normal appearance of the 
milk. The reaction of all samples to the 
California mastitis (CM) test was 3 to 4 
plus. 

An 18-hour culture of the organism was 
injected into two normal quarters of a 
healthy cow. The quarter inoculated with 
500 organisms seemed normal at 12 hours 
but at 24 hours the milk was positive to 
the cM test and there was a mild clinical 
reaction. The left hindquarter, in which 
25,000 organisms were injected, was 
swollen and sensitive in 12 hours and the 
milk was strongly positive to the CM test. 
By the third day, the swelling had sub- 
sided but there were clots on the strip cup 
and the organism could be isolated from 
the milk for ten days but not longer. 

In vitro tests showed the organism to be 
susceptible to neomycin only. When the ex- 
perimentally infected quarters and others 
from field cases were treated with an 
initial dose of 2 Gm. of neomycin in 10 ml. 
of distilled water followed by three daily 
doses of 1 Gm., the organism was elimi- 
nated.—D. A. Barnum et al. in Canad. J. 
Comp. Med. & Vet. Sci. (Nov., 1958): 392. 











United States Livestock Sanitary Association—1958 


The sixty-second annual meeting of the 
U.S.L.S.A. was held at the Deauville Hotel, 
Miami Beach, Fla., Nov. 4-7, 1958, with Dr. 
John G. Milligan presiding. 

Officers elected for the following year 
were: Mr. F. G. Buzzell, Augusta, Maine, 
president; Dr. J. R. Hay, Chicago, first 
vice-president; Dr. A. P. Schneider, Boise, 
Idaho, second vice-president; Dr. William 
L. Bendix, Richmond, Va., third vice-presi- 
dent; and Dr. R. A. Hendershott, Trenton, 
N. J., secretary-treasurer. 


Committee Reports 


INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE 


Listeriosis.—This disease may result in 
fatal encephalitis or a genital infection 
causing fetal death and abortion. Sheep 
have been successfully immunized with live 
organisms but practical vaccination is not 
yet established. 

At present, Listeria monocytogenes is 
classified under five serotypes.—John W. 
Osebold, Davis, Calif. 

Mucosal Disease Complex.—-Although the 
mortality remains high and although this 
disease is reported in all months of the 
year, the number of cases per month is low 
and there are usually only a few cases per 
herd. 

The incidence of rhinotracheitis appears 
to be increasing. In Colorado and adjacent 
states, a successful vaccination program 
has been reported. A satisfactory labora- 
tory test for the presence of this disease 
has been found.—Frank J. Mulhern, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Nocardial Mastitis—In America, No- 
cardia asteroides was first incriminated in 
bovine mastitis early in 1957 in California 
and has since been reported from Texas 
and Alabama. Typically, there is fever and 
mammary gland enlargement, hardening, 
and pasty exudation. Infected cows become 
emaciated and either die or are killed. 

The organism survives exposures up to 
145 F. for 30 minutes and 161 F. for 15 
seconds.—A. C. Pier and M. J. Fossatti, 
Davis, Calif. 

Vibriosis.—This disease is the largest 
single cause of infertility in cattle. The 





Dr. J. E. Stuart, Sacramento, Calif., was chairman of 
the Committee on Infectious Diseases of Cattle. 


most constant clinical sign is repeat breed- 
ing in cows. Owners should be advised 
against adding stock that has been used for 
breeding. Additions should be sexually 
immature and from Vibrio fetus-free 
herds. Artificial insemination is still useful 
in prevention and eradication programs.— 
A. H. Frank, Washington, D.C. 


ANAPLASMOSIS 


Losses from anaplasmosis have been 
heavy during 1957 and 1958, perhaps due 
to a previous build-up of susceptible cattle 
as a result of decreased insect vectors due 
to drought. Increased rainfall, luxuriant 
pastures, and heavy insect populations are 
favorable for severe epizootics of this 
disease. 

Laboratories conducting the test for ana- 
plasmosis can now obtain a complete kit for 
the purpose. The Animal Disease Eradi- 
cation Branch of the ARS has negotiated 
with the Texas A. & M. Experiment 
Station to supply antigen. An experimental 
field trial in Wyoming is planned to study 
such aspects of the disease as duration, 
transmission by vectors, and test and 
segregation for control. 

Research on anaplasmosis is being con- 
ducted at 12 state universities and experi- 
ment stations, as well as at Beltsville, Md. 
—K. J. Peterson, Chairman, Salem, Ore. 


BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 


Polyvalent vaccines and serum products 
are tending to become slightly more numer- 
ous. It is now possible by practical means 
to standardize serums to appropriate anti- 
body levels for a protective dose. 

More effective mastitis therapy has re- 
sulted from the use of special diffusible 
bases and steroids. 

Organic phosphorus insecticides have 
proved to be effective against cattle grubs 
and screwworms whether applied external- 
ly or given per os. Dimethoate was re- 
ported 97 per cent effective in controlling 
nasal botflies. 

Several new compounds (3.5 dinitroben- 
zamide, an arsenical and sulfonamide com- 
bination, glycarbylamide, and bithional-me- 
thiotriazamine) are reported to provide 
safe control of coccidiosis by addition to 
feeds. 


(118) 














.A.V.M.A 


EBRUARY 1, 1959 


U. S. LivEstocK SANITARY ASSOCIATION 


119 





New antibiotics being studied in allied 
medical fields may eventually find uses in 
livestock treatment. Of academic interest 
is antinobolin, reported to have antibacter- 
ial, antiprotozoan, and antitumor proper- 
ties. 

Some new long-acting sulfonamides (sul- 
fadimethonine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and 
sulfaphenylpyrazol) being used in medicine 
are reportedly superior to other sulfona- 
mides.—A. A. Creamer, Chairman, West 
Point, Pa. 


RABIES 


The decline in rabies infection in 1957, 
compared with 1956, was 17 per cent for all 
species; for livestock, it was 10 per cent, 
for dogs, 32 per cent, and for wildlife, 6 
per cent. 

The fluorescent antibody technique has 
been developed for the detection of rabies 
virus in brain and salivary gland tissue; 
some rabies virus isolates have been 
adapted to tissue culture. 

With few exceptions, the New England 
and Rocky Mountain states are essentially 
free of rabies (fig. i). 

Studies show that 75 per cent of rabid 
foxes contain virus in their salivary glands, 
and that there is no evidence of true or 
subclinical carriers in foxes. Serum- 
neutralizing antibody studies show some 
evidence of naturally acquired immunity in 
foxes. 

The committee recommended the con- 
tinued widespread vaccination of dogs, 
preferably with chicken embryo vaccine; 
the collection and disposal of strays; and 
development of predator control programs 
in areas of enzootic and epizootic sylvatic 
rabies.—E. S. Tierkel, Chairman, Atlanta, 
Ga. 

a e * 
Anaplasmosis Control by Test and by 

Treatment with Chlortetracycline 


A combination of complement-fixation 
tests and chlortetracycline treatment has 
proved to be a practical means of control- 
ling anaplasmosis, especially in carrier 


cattle. At present, the tetracyclines are the 
only drugs known to eliminate the carrier 
state. Parenteral use is rather expensive 
but oral administration permits treatment 
on a herd basis and the use of more econo- 
mical forms of the drug. 


An experiment was designed to show 
whether chlortetracycline could be used 
orally to accomplish this purpose. Cattle 
with a 3 or 4 plus reaction to the comple- 
ment-fixation test were assigned to three 
lots and treated for 60 days. The dosage 
was determined on the basis of body 
weight. The chlortetracycline* was mixed 
with cottonseed meal. Complement-fixation 
tests were conducted at two-week intervals 
for 60 days, then monthly for the following 
three months. Inoculation of splenecto- 
mized calves was made at the end of the 
treatment to prove that the principals were 
no longer infected. 

All 14 cattle were negative to comple- 
ment-fixation tests sometime before the 
end of the 60-day period. Of the 3 animals 
in lot 1 (5 mg./lb. daily), 2 were negative 
at day 47; all 4 in lot 2 (2.5 mg./lb.) were 
negative in 60 days; and 2 in lot 3 (1.5 
mg./Ib.) were negative at day 54. There 
was some relation between level of dosage 
and length of time required for negative 
tests to occur. All cattle in the experiment 
showed varying reaction to the treatment 
(diarrhea, loss of weight, and anorexia) 
starting about the first day after treatment 
and lasting about a week. Subinoculated 
calves remained negative to the comple- 
ment-fixation test. 

In a field test on an Aberdeen Angus 
herd of 175 cattle, 19 reacted to the comple- 
ment-fixation test; 18 of these were given 
5 mg. of chlortetracycline per pound of 
body weight for 60 days, mixed with feed. 
When retested four months after the start 
of the experiment, 15 were negative. The 
mixing of feed and drug had been con- 
ducted under range conditions by lay per- 
sonnel which may explain the failure in 3 
cows. The course of treatment was quite 
economical.—_W. E. Brock, C. C. Pearson, 
and I. O. Kliewer, Stillwater, Okla. 

e* e @ 


Anaplasmosis—A Study in Deer 


This paper reported a cooperative study 
between the University of California and 
the California State Department of Fish 
and Game. 

On Feb. 6, 1958, 18 calves, which had 
been splenectomized at 2 to 4 months of 
age, were inoculated with blood from indi- 
vidual Columbian black-tailed deer within 
three days of collection. The deer blood 





*In the form of Aurofac-10, American Cyanamid Co., 
Pearl River, N.Y. 








120 


U. S. Livestock SANITARY ASSOCIATION 





J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





specimens were collected in southern San 
Benito County, approximately 150 miles 
south of San Francisco. All calves were 
negative to the complement-fixation test at 
the time of inoculation. They were tested 
at weekly intervals for three weeks; then 
more often until after 83 days. 

Results—It was found that the comple- 
ment-fixation test is worthless for deter- 
mining latent anaplasmosis infection in 
deer. Twelve calves developed anaplasmosis, 
according to stained slides and comple- 
ment-fixation tests. The incubation period 
varied from 14 to 43 days, with an average 
of 28 days. None of the calves died and no 
severe infection developed. Infective blood 
was obtained from 2 deer less than 1 year 
of age. 

This is the fourth area in which in- 
fection in deer has been established in Cali- 
fornia, the deer population of which is 
about 1.5 million, and where both cattle 
and deer are infested with ticks shown to 
be transmitters of anaplasmosis. If ticks 
are capable of transmitting anaplasmosis 
from deer to cattle, then complement-fix- 
ation testing and treatment of cattle can- 
not be expected to completely control the 
disease.—J. F. Christensen, Davis, Calif. 

e* e @ 
Diagnostic Problems in Leptospirosis 

The serotypes of Leptospira have anti- 
gens in common. This complicates the 
problem of diagnosis. The isolation of the 
agent is the only means by which an un- 
equivocal diagnosis can be made. 

The ascending titer method is valuable 
but is time-consuming. Although most 
veterinarians and owners are not willing to 
wait the required two weeks for a diagno- 
sis based on this test, it should be done even 
though vaccination and control methods are 
instituted. The titer that indicates active 
infection is not known, although by Stoen- 
ner’s method, 1:160 appears to be signifi- 
cant in swine and cattle. 

A rapid plate-type test would seem to be 
most useful for routine laboratory work.— 
E. V. Morse, Ames, Iowa. 

ee @ 
Observations on Sporadic Bovine 
Encephalomyelitis in California 

Cows may be infected -experimentally 
with sporadic bovine entephalomyelitis 
(SBE) by intramammary inoculation with 
the virus, which may be subsequently 
transferred to the suckling calves. One such 


heifer calf was observed for three years. 
During this time, she aborted twice but at- 
tempts to isolate SBE virus were not sucess- 
ful. In at least one instance, this virus was 
suspected of causing abortions in cattle in 
California. In six herds with histories of 
abortion, 18 per cent of the cows had evi- 
dence of SBE antibodies—J. B. Enright, 
Davis, Calif. 
. * — 


Ovine Virus Abortion 


Ovine virus abortion has been reported 
in Europe and Great Britain. This is to re- 
port the first proof of its existence in the 
United States; however, evidence is pre- 
sented showing that it has been present in 
the West for some years. The report pre- 
sents proof of the infection in aborting 
ewes on three different ranch properties in 
Montana and one in a neighboring state 
during the 1958 lambing season. 

The disease is clinically indistinguish- 
able from vibriosis. It may be diagnosed by 
the demonstration of elementary bodies in 
the maternal and fetal tissues, and more es- 
pecially the cotyledons. The virus may be 
grown in chicken embryo yolk sacs, guinea 
pigs, mice, and pregnant ewes. 

Serological identification of the disease 
is obtained through the demonstration of 
complement-fixing and agglutinating anti- 
bodies. Infected pregnant ewes may be 
identified some three months before par- 
turition and about nine months afterward 
by the persistence of antibodies. Experi- 
mental transmission, via the mouth, to 
pregnant and nonpregnant ewes may be ac- 
complished. However, nonpregnant ewes 
are less susceptible than are pregnant ones. 
Infection is naturally transmitted via the 
mouth at lambing by the aborted fluid and 
tissues to noninfected lambs and nonpreg- 
nant adult ewes. The virus can be carried 
until their first pregnancy which is fol- 
lowed by abortion, after which time they 
are permanently immune. A single vaccin- 
ation confers a solid immunity. 

The disease has been so well controlled in 
Great Britain and Europe by vaccination 
that it is no longer listed as a reportable 
disease.—E. A. Tunnicliff, Bozeman, Mont. 

e* ee 


Ornithosis—A Public Health Problem 


Ornithosis can be a destructive infection 
among pigeons, turkeys, and ducks. The 
usual infection with the causative virus 














A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


U. S. LivesTocK SANITARY ASSOCIATION 


121 





probably does not adversely affect the host, 
but provides for continuity of the virus as 
a species. Of the poultry birds, turkeys 
have been responsible for epidemics, par- 
ticularly among poultry eviscerators and 
pickers, and losses in certain infected tur- 
key flocks have been extensive. The virus 
has been found in turkeys in all parts of 
the United States. 

The infection in man can be effectively 
treated if tetracycline compounds are given 
early in the course. When it is learned that 
workers in a processing plant have been 
exposed, they should be carefully observed 
for signs and symptoms of the disease. 
Blood for serum tests and virus isolation 
should be collected before treatment and 
again during convalescence. 

Control methods in poultry remain to be 
developed. Chemotherapy has helped con- 
trol the clinical course, but has not totally 
eradicated the virus from all birds; it has 
reduced, but not eliminated, the risk to 
processors. Sick birds excrete the virus and 
spread the infection throughout the flock. 
These and dead birds should be removed 
and destroyed by some method that de- 
stroys the virus. Additional methods of 
chemotherapy and vaccination are being 
studied as means of controlling the in- 
fection—K. F. Meyer, San Francisco 


Calif. 
e* ese @ 
Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis 
of Cattle 


Of 90 cows in a dairy herd, in New 
York State, 75 per cent of those animals 
examined were affected with this disease. 
The incidence of the disease in that state 
was determined by checking 53 herds by 
means of the serum-neutralization test in 
tissue culture. In 15 per cent of the herds, 
there were cattle with antibodies, and in 
those herds 6 per cent of the tested 
animals were positive. Neutralization index 
ranged from 3 to 48 (titers from 1:3 to 
1:48). 

Studies indicate that dairy heifer calves 
inoculated with infectious bovine rhino- 
tracheitis into the vulva and vagina develop 
clinical signs of illness similar to infectious 
pustular vulvovaginitis infection. Cattle in- 
fected with either virus produce serum- 
neutralizing antibodies that neutralize 
both viruses. These and other similarities 
indicate that they may be the same virus. 


Reciprocal immunity tests in cattle, now in 
progress, will clarify this point—J. H. 
Gillespie and K. McEntee, Ithaca, N.Y., 
and J. W. Kendrick, Davis, Calif. 
— a - 
Infectious Synovitis Control 

Infectious synovitis is caused by a virus- 
like agent which can be grown in embryon- 
ating chicken embryos. Only one strain 
studied has caused erosions of the joint 
surfaces. Fowlpox and pleuropneumonia- 
like infection cause a similar condition in 
experimentally inoculated birds. It spreads 
by contact, with an incubation period of 
about 24 days. 

Chlortetracyline has been shown to be 
efficacious against this disease by a num- 
ber of workers, but these reports are char- 
acterized by variation in results. 

Experimental chicks, 1 day old, were in- 
oculated and then treated daily for three 
weeks starting at 1 day and 7 or 8 days at 
levels of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 Gm. of 
chlortetracycline per ton of feed. When 
medication was started at 1 day of age, 
the infection was controlled at the 100 
Gm./ton level. Removal of medication after 
three weeks resulted in 1 bird showing 
infection at the 200 Gm./ton level. When 
treatment was started eight days after in- 
fection, the disease was controlled at the 
500 Gm./ton level, but removal of medi- 
cation after three weeks resulted in 5 birds 
showing infection at the 1,000 Gm./ton 
level. 

Another experiment showed that a level 
of 200 Gm./ton controlled the disease if 
treatment was started at the same time of 
inoculation, while, in another group of 
birds, treatment began seven days after 
inoculation (via the foot pads) was also 
effective in preventing spread of the 
disease—N. O. Olson and D. C. Shelton, 
Morgantown, W. Va. 





Damages Awarded for Trichinosis 

A state supreme court awarded damages 
to a plaintiff who contracted trichinosis af- 
ter eating mettwurst sausage purchased 
from a defendant who operates a delica- 
tessen. It was established that an agree- 
ment between the defendant and his sup- 
plier provided for the former to smoke the 
sausage in his own ovens but that, in order 
to preserve the natural flavors, he failed to 
process them at proper temperatures.— 
Pub. Health Court Digest, 4, (Oct., 1958) :1. 





and Obstetrics 


Swigery 


and Problems of Breeding 


Two Cases of Atresia Ani Vaginalis 
in Sheep 


L. Z. McFARLAND, D.V.M. 


Davis, California 


Atresia ani is the most common anomaly 
encountered in domestic animals, partic- 
ularly swine. In an extensive survey of 
conditions treated surgically in twelve vet- 
erinary clinics throughout the nation,? the 
frequency of surgical correction of atresia 
ani exceeded that of dermoid cysts, intes- 
tinal torsion, and vaginal rupture. The 
anomaly is observed in both males and fe- 
males, and it is known to have a hereditary 
basis in the pig. 

Occasionally, the embryological defect is 
more extensive and involves structures 
other than the anal plate. Atresia ani vag- 
inalis is such a condition. It is character- 
ized clinically by an imperforate anus and 
the voidance of both urine and feces 
through the vulvar orifice and anatomically 
by the presence of the anal plate and a 
form of rectogenital fistula, resembling the 
primitive cloacal formation. 


RECTOVAGINAL , pee go 
metus ABI 
— a | . — 
ee ry 
ANAL PLATE—=* €\ . a Sao ae 
‘ ~— i 
VESTIBULE a 2S-UTERUS 
WULVAR ORIFICE“ PY TT fF 
“28 Uff’ Secacver 
“ 
URETHRA PuBis " 


Fig. I—Drawing of a median section through the 
hindquarters of a lamb with atresia ani vaginalis, 
showing the relationship of the viscera. 


Atresia ani vaginalis was observed in 2 
female lambs, a Suffolk and a Hampshire, 
4 months old. Both animals were embalmed 
to fix the visceral relationships, and a medi- 
an section was made to expose the pelvic 
and abdominal structures (fig. 1) found in 
both lambs. 

From the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of 
California, Davis. 


The author thanks Mr. R. W. Wise for illustrating this 
article. 





(122) 





The rectum was patent caudally to the 
imperforate anal plate. A rectovestibular 
fistula, approximately 1 cm. in diameter, oc- 
curred just caudad to the vaginal opening 
into the vestibule. This fistula permitted 
feces to pass from the rectum to the vesti- 
bule to be evacuated through the vulvar 
orifice. A prominent rectogenital septum 
extended caudad to within 2 cm. of the 
perineum, 

Dissection revealed muscles in the anal 
plate which could have served as anal 
sphincter muscles in the event of a surgical 
correction. The vagina and urethra opened 
normally into the vestibule, and the vulvar 
folds and orifice were normal in size, shape, 
and position. 


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 


Although this condition is clinically 
termed atresia ani vaginalis, the recto- 
genital fistula is, as in these 2 lambs, usual- 
ly located between the rectum and the vesti- 
bule, rather than between the rectum and 
the vagina. 

Surgical correction of atresia ani vagin- 
alis may be indicated when fecal evacuation 
is inadequate. It requires two steps: (1) 
the perforation of the anal plate to estab- 
lish an anus, and (2) the continuation of 
the incision into the dorsal vulvar commis- 
sure and the surgical closure of the fistula, 
using the technique described® for correct- 
ing a rectovaginal fistula in the cow. 

Surgical correction should not be con- 
sidered in animals destined for breeding 
purposes because of the possible hereditary 
basis of this condition. 


References 


*Berge, S.: The Inheritance of Paralyzed Hind 
Legs, Scrotal Hernia and Atresia Ani in Pigs. J. 
Hered., 32, (1941): 271. 

*Davis, R. W., and Frandson, R. D.: Surgical 
Conditions Encountered in Twelve Veterinary 
Clinics. J.A.V.M.A., 124, (May, 1954): 361. 

*Gétze, R.: Dammrissnaht, Vulva-u. Scheidenvor- 
hofplastik bei Stuten u. Kiihen. Deutsche tierirtzl. 
Wehnschr., 49, (1938): 163. 





Traumatic Resection of Intestine 
During Parturition 


A Guernsey heifer in mild labor, with 
the hindlegs of the calf protruding, was 
aided by use of a mechanical “calf puller.” 
The traction did not seem excessive but “as 
the hips of the calf made their appearance, 
a fleshy mass of tissue came flying through 














-A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


SURGERY AND OBSTETRICS 


123 





the air and landed on the ground about 3 
yd. behind the cow.” When the calf was de- 
livered, the heifer’s vagina and uterus were 
intact but there was a 4-inch tear in the 
wall of the peritoneum-covered portion of 
the rectum. The expelled mass was an 18- 
inch section of the small intestine which 
had been caught in the pelvis, then sheared 
off and forced through the rectogenital 
pouch by the piston-like pressure of the 
calf’s hindquarters. 

The injury was repaired by giving the 
heifer a tranquilizer plus epidural and par- 
alumbar anesthesia, making a 12-inch in- 
cision through the lower right flank and 
omentum, finding the torn ends of the in- 
testine, and performing an intestinal anas- 
tomosis. Because of the considerable in- 
testinal content free in the peritoneal cav- 
ity, 5 Gm. of powdered streptomycin and 
4 million units of penicillin were placed in 
the cavity. The cementum and flank incision 
were then sutured and the hole in the rec- 
tum closed with a continuous No. 1 chromic 
catgut suture, operating through the lumen 
of the bowel. Twice daily for seven days, 
the heifer was given supportive therapy 
and antibiotics. After a critical period dur- 
ing the third and fourth days, she recov- 
ered.—V. D. Stauffer in Rocky Mt. Vet. 
(Oct., 1958): 12. 


[A somewhat similar accident occurred 
in a mare in April, 1938. The hindfeet of 
the foal were presented but each time 
the mare strained, her rectum prolapsed. 
Chains were placed on the foal’s feet and 
two men applied a steady pull attempting 
to engage the hips in the pelvic inlet be- 
tween straining periods when the rectum 
was in normal position. However, the mare 
simultaneously strained and lunged for- 
ward and before the traction could be 
released, the hindquarters of the foal were 
drawn deep into the pelvis and this piston- 
like action burst the protruding rectum. In 
spite of attempted repairs, the prolapse 
recurred when the epidural anesthesia 
wore off, so the mare was killed. Epidural 
anesthesia prior to the traction would have 
prevented this accident.—W.A.A.] 





Resection of an Intussusception 

A Jersey cow, 3 years old, showed signs 
of abdominal pain by kicking at the abdo- 
men and by general depression. Twelve 
hours later, she was still depressed but 


showed no signs of pain; an intussuscep- 
tion anterior to the uterus could be pal- 
pated per rectum. At 24 hours, the only 
change was that the scanty feces were 
blood-tinged. 

The cow was anesthetized with chloral 
hydrate, an incision was made high in the 
left flank, and the intussuscepted portion 
of small intestine was exteriorized. This 
part had become gangrenous, so bowel 
clamps were placed on either side and it 
was excised with part of the mesentery. 
An end-to-end anastomosis was done with 
O chromic catgut using Czerny-Lembert 
sutures and the operation was completed 
routinely. 

The cow was given glucose solution in- 
travenously and penicillin intramuscularly 
and intraperitoneally. When released 24 
hours after surgery, she immediately be- 
gan grazing and made an excellent recov- 
ery.—F.. H. Brown and O. Jonkers in New 
Zealand Vet. J. (Aug., 1958): 127. 





Ovarian Cysts and Nymphomania 

A study of bovine ovarian cysts shows 
that their wall structure is not typical of 
normal follicles and the fluid contains no 
estrogenic hormone. Therefore, cysts 
could not be the cause of nymphomania, 
nor could they prevent development of 
follicles and corpora lutea. 

It is difficult to differentiate cysts from 
normal follicles by manual palpation since 
they may be the same size (20 to 25 ml. 
in diameter); however, cysts may be as 
large as 40 cm, in diameter—W. Nusshag 
and F. Illner in Archiv. f Exptl. Vet.-med., 
12, (1958): 392. 





Cesarotomy in Cows with 
Hyperkeratosis 

Of 27 cows, in Israel, on which it was 
necessary to perform cesarotomies, 12 were 
heifers suffering from hyperkeratosis and 
15 had dystocia “uncomplicated by any 
other conditions.” Live calves were deliv- 
ered from 10 of the 12 heifers but all of 
them retained the fetal membranes. Within 
six months, 8 were sold for slaughter be- 
cause of the hyperkeratosis while 4 con- 
ceived within three months. 

All 27 operations were performed through 
a vertical incision in the left flank with the 
cow standing. The advantages of this 








124 


SURGERY AND OBSTETRICS 


J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





method are: it is easier for the operator; 
intestinal prolapse is less likely; the rumen, 
when pushed behind the uterus, helps to 
hold the latter near the incision; and the 
rumen is less prone to infection than or- 
gans in the right flank—B. Ben-David in 
Refuah Vet. (Sept., 1958): 148. 


[Three cases of dystocia in young cows 
in a herd in which 3 of the 8 other animals 
showed signs of hyperkeratosis were re- 
ported in the JOURNAL (Feb., 1949, p. 86). 
All occurred within a period of six weeks, 
and within a month of the end of the gesta- 
tion period. In each case, the genital tract 
was unrelaxed and the calf was dead. How- 
ever, unlike the above cases, the 3 cows 
died or were condemned at slaughter with- 
in five days. Hyperkeratosis may not have 
been responsible for the premature births. 
—ED.] 





Notes on Obstetrics in Ewes 

In ewes, 25 per cent of the dystocias in 
one practice were due to an undilated cer- 
vix. In about 85 per cent of these cases, if 
two fingers could be inserted, the cervix 
could be dilated by lubricating the fingers 
and rotating them with slight pressure 
until the hand could be inserted. This 
usually required less than ten minutes; 
sometimes up to 20 minutes. 

Failure of dilation often seemed due to 
lack of the normal pressure on the cervix 
by the lamb or its membranes. This fre- 
quently occurred in ewes in which the va- 
gina had been prolapsed and the fetus 
could not be wedged against the cervix be- 
cause the latter no longer was held rigid.— 
D. K. Blackmore in Vet. Rec. (Dec. 6, 
1958): 1002. 





Hormone Treatment of Metritis 


Of 326 cows given intrauterine treat- 
ment with an estrogen (600 units dieno- 
estroldiacetate in 25-50 ml. water), 272 
again conceived. 

Several types of organisms disappeared 
from the uterine secretions but tricho- 
monads disappeared in only 4 of 7 cases.— 
W. Koch et al. in Tierirztl. Umschau (Dec. 
1, 1958): 401. 





False Heat During Pregnancy 

A 22-year study of more than 3,000 dairy 
cows, in California, showed that nearly 5 
per cent showed estrus during pregnancy 


at some period of their life. This false 
estrus occurred from 11 to 213 days after 
conception but within 45 days of conception 
in more than half of these cows. It was 
twice as likely during the first gestation; 
the sex of the calf did not affect its occur- 
rence; and it was most common in July, 
least common during April.—Hoard’s 
Dairyman (Sept. 10, 1958): 888. 





Correction of Displaced Abomasum 

Four dairy cows developed signs of dis- 
placement of the abomasum to the left of 
the rumen, from six to 14 days after calv- 
ing. The condition was corrected immedi- 
ately in a first-calf heifer by casting and 
“rocking” her on her back. 

After rolling failed in 1 cow, an incision 
was made through the left sublumbar 
fossa, the greater omentum was torn near 
its ruminal attachment, the operator’s 
right hand was passed through the tear to 
push the abomasum under the rumen, and 
an assistant passed his left hand through 
the incision, then over the rumen until he 
could grasp the abomasum and pull it well 
to the right. The cow made a remarkable 
recovery. 

Another cow recovered slowly after a 
similar operation in which the operator 
pushed the abomasum under the rumen but 
the assistant could not grasp it due to the 
intervening mesentery. 

In a fourth cow, the displacement re- 
curred after similar difficulties. However, 
the cow recovered after a second operation. 
This time, the mesentery was avoided by 
the assistant passing his hand over the 
rumen toward the right hip, forward along 
the flank to the liver, then downward to 
where he could grasp and pull the aboma- 
sum.—E. P. Barrett and J. Nicol in Vet. 
Rec. (Dec. 20, 1958): 1206. 





Surgery in the Newborn 

Babies are better surgical risks during 
the first three days of life than later. They 
are in excellent nutritional state, have high 
levels of hormones and antibiotics, feel 
pain less, require less anesthetic, and re- 
cover more rapidly than older babies. 

Surgery should be avoided for two weeks 
after the third day due to a period of tran- 
sition, with loss of weight and a sluggish 
adrenal response.—Sci. News Letter (Dec. 
13, 1958): 376. 

















Clinical Data 


The Oklahoma-Kansas Anthrax Epizootic of 1957 


G. B. VAN NESS, D.V.M.; S. A. PLOTKIN, M.D.; 
R. H. HUFFAKER, D.V.M.; W. G. EVANS, D.V.M. 


Washington, D.C. 


AN OUTBREAK of anthrax in northeastern 
Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas in July 
and August, 1957, demonstrated the poten- 
tial of this disease to disrupt an agricul- 
tural community. Excellent cooperation be- 
tween state and federal disease control 
authorities materially lessened the impact 
of the disease. Epizootiological studies are 
summarized in this report. 

The epizootic began on high ground near 
the town of Welch, in Craig County, Okla- 
homa, about the second week in July. The 
first postmortem diagnosis of anthrax 
was made on July 14. A diagnosis of weed 
poisoning had been made without a necrop- 
sy on 8 animals dying during the preceding 
week. After laboratory confirmation of the 
presence of anthrax, vaccination was 
started in exposed herds on July 21. 

By the end of the first week in August, 
it was evident that a full-fledged epizootic 
of anthrax had developed. Clinical and 
laboratory-confirmed evidence of anthrax 
was found on nearby farms in Oklahoma 
and Kansas. Losses were sporadic, and in 
most herds the mortality rate was low. In 
addition to anthrax, veterinarians reported 
that leptospirosis, anaplasmosis, and malig- 
nant edema were also important factors in 
animal mortality. Anthrax losses eventual- 
ly occurred in eight counties in Oklahoma, 
and four counties in Kansas. 

Anthrax disrupted the community life of 
this and the surrounding area for over two 
months. Livestock losses were placed at 
1,627 head on 741 premises (table 1). 
Other losses due to leptospirosis, anaplas- 
mosis, blackleg, and malignant edema oc- 

Dr. Van Ness is veterinarian, Animal Disease Eradication 
Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A., Wash- 
ington, D.C.; Dr. Plotkin is assistant surgeon, U.S. Public 
Health Service, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Communi- 
cable Disease Center, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. Huffaker is 
assistant veterinarian, U.S. Public Health Service, Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Los Angeles, 
Calif.; Dr. Evans is veterinarian, Animal Disease Eradica- 
tion Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A., 


Springfield, Ill. 

Presented before the Section on Public Health, Ninety- 
Fifth Annual Meeting, American Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation, Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 18-21, 1958. 


curred but were eliminated by clinical and 
laboratory means. 

A total of 182,349 animals was vacci- 
nated in Oklahoma, and 20,821 in Kansas. 
The sale of milk to dairies and creameries 
ceased during the area quarantine period, 
adding to the economic impact on the com- 
munity. The local rodeo at Vinita was can- 
celled. Two nonfatal cases of human cu- 
taneous anthrax occurred in individuals 
who performed necropsies on cattle. That 
no anthrax developed in rendering plant 
workers or other meat handlers indicates 
the effectiveness of the quarantine. 


ECOLOGY OF THE EPIZOOTIC 

Definition of the environments where an- 
thrax might occur is advantageous in the 
effective utilization of vaccination as a con- 
trol measure. Public hysteria is also 
averted when the regulatory authorities 
can calm the fears of those not in potential 
danger areas. 

Anthrax has a tendency to occur in the 
United States on neutral or alkaline soils.” 
The Oklahoma-Kansas epizootic can be ex- 
plained on this basis. One of these alkaline 
soils is the Summit-Bates series, which is 
well represented throughout the known en- 
zootic areas, and has been the site of an- 
thrax outbreaks in other counties of Okla- 
homa and Kansas. 

Since alkaline soils and parent material 
derived from limestone tend to produce 
neutral alluvial soils, this could explain the 
occurrence of anthrax in the Neosho River 
bottoms. Anthrax could be expected on soils 
of the Parsons and Labette series original- 
ly deposited as alluvial soils but now organ- 
ized into definite horizons, since these 
soils tend to be neutral under drought con- 
ditions. The addition of alkali to the nor- 
mally acid soils by mining operations 
could create a fourth soil situation, and 
this was observed in both Oklahoma and 
Kansas. Although anthrax has occurred in 
an area influenced by mining operations 
northwest of Joplin, Mo., none was re- 
ported during 1957. 


(125) 























-A.V.M.A. 
126 VAN NESS—PLOTKIN—HUFFAKER—EVANS a ae 
TABLE !—Vaccinations and Deaths of Cattle from Anthrax in Oklahoma and Kansas 
No. herds 
County affected Cattle Horses Sheep Swine Others Total 
Oklahoma 
Craig 237 470 3 37 12 2 524 
Mayes 87 137 1 0 0 0 138 
Ottawa 107 248 2 0 5 0 255 
Rogers 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 
Cherokee 2 7 2 0 0 0 9 
Nowata s 10 1 0 0 0 11 
Delaware 11 6 4 (1) 2 0 12 
Washington 4 5 0 0 0 0 5 
Estimated deaths 459 886 13 37 19 2 957 
Vaccinated 3,498 147,634 3,328 14,247 12,281 4,859 182,349 
Kansas 
Labette 159 337 2 2 39 0 380 
Cherokee 1ll 263 0 0 9 0 272 
Montgomery 12 14 0 0 1 0 15 
Neosho 2 3 0 0 (1) 1) 3 
Estimated deaths 284 617 2 2 49 0 670 
Vaccinated 513 18,295 84 902 1,478 62 20,821 
Total vaccinated 4,011 165,929 3,412 15,149 13,759 4,921 203,170 





Craig County, Oklahoma, the county in 
which anthrax first occurred, was selected 
for close study. It borders the Kansas line 
and is the second county from the Arkan- 
sas line. The soil is developed from sedi- 
ments deposited in a shallow sea during the 
Pennsylvanian geological period. Erosion 
by Cabin Creek and its tributaries has 
formed two broad valleys separated by a 
shale and sandstone ridge running from 
the southwest corner to the Neosho River 
in the northeast corner of Craig County. In 
the northwest corner of the county, a typi- 
cal, Flint Hills environment has been de- 
veloped by Big Creek and Cabin Creek. 
This limestone area is well suited to live- 
stock production. 

Due to the erosion of lime-bearing soils, 
rich prairies and alluvial soils have de- 
veloped in the valleys through the central 
portion of the county. These soils extend 
southwest into Mayes County, and north 
into Kansas, forming a broad natural path 
at one time employed for cattle drives from 
the southwest to the Missouri markets. 
East of this prairie, some limestone soils 
occur in the deeply-eroded stream valleys 
of the Ozark plateau itself. 


ENVIRONMENTS FAVORABLE FOR ANTHRAX 


Three environments were involved in the 
distribution of anthrax throughout Craig 
County. The first of these was the Flint 
Hills region. Here the limestone encour- 
ages an alkaline soil which supports good 
grazing. Before the epizootic was over, ex- 
tensive outbreaks of anthrax occurred on 


this soil east of Pryor, Okla., and near 
Mound Valley, Kan. 

The second environment was the loam 
soils formed over shales, but influenced by 
lime-bearing soils at higher elevations. 
The most extensive of these, the Parsons 
soils, were associated with the greatest 
occurrence of anthrax. It appears that 
these soils are involved because of an im- 
pervious layer in the B horizon of the soil. 
Water may stand for prolonged periods 
following rains, causing damage and death 
to vegetation. Damage to vegetation ap- 
pears to be a principal factor in anthrax 
epizootics. 

A third environment for anthrax oc- 
curred on alluvial soils along streams and 
the Neosho River. Bottomland anthrax was 
of some significance, particularly in Kan- 
sas, but in Craig County very few out- 
breaks were associated with streams. 

In order to examine the relationship be- 
tween soil type and the occurrence of an- 
thrax, we first attempted to analyze the 
data with respect to several major cate- 
gories of soil. Craig County was studied on 
Aug. 8, 1957. The locations of anthrax 
deaths were determined by the aid of a 
map compiled by authorities during the 
epizootic, by which farms with infected 
animals were located within a square-mile 
section. The type of soil present on the 
same square-mile section was determined 
by reference to a soil map of Craig County 
prepared by the U.S.D.A. in 1931. 

Through the influence of the Ozark 
plateau to the east, the area receives the 














-A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


OKLAHOMA-KANSAS ANTHRAX EPIZOOTIC OF 1957 


127 





benefit of both winter and summer rain. 
Although the recent drought was not as 
serious as in the more western counties, in 
1955 the county received 12 inches less an- 
nual precipitation than the normal 43 
inches. In 1956, the deficit amounted to 15 
inches. The effect of this was to cause 
grass to grow in many of the ponds and 
other normally wet areas. The spring of 
1957 was wet and, by the end of June, 
1957, a total of 43 inches of rain had fallen 
in Craig County, most of it in April, May, 
and June. 

With such extended rainfall, the ground 
absorbed water to a point of saturation. 
Slight depressions and flat areas which 
normally did not retain water had water 
standing over their surfaces. 

During July the rain ceased, except for 
one or two local thunderstorms, and tem- 
peratures were generally high. The daily 
maximum ranged from 92.0 to 107.0 F., 
with a mean of 98.87 F. The daily mini- 
mum ranged from 59.0 to 77.0 F., with a 
mean of 72.58 F. The weather in the other 
counties involved did not vary significantly 
from that in Craig County. 

It was apparent during the epizootic, 
and in a study of the records later, that an- 
thrax did not occur indiscriminately. Well- 
drained areas had a low incidence of the 
disease. The shale soils of The White Oak 
Hills, Donelly Hill, and Timber Hill were 
not involved, nor was the well-drained 
Ozark region along Cabin Creek as it left 
the county. 

In order to investigate the correlation 
between anthrax and lands flooded during 
the spring rains, soils were classified into 
three groups: (1) claypan soils, those 
which have a stiff clay subsoil restricting 
drainage; (2) alluvial soils, those which 
line the stream bottoms; and (3) all other 
types of soil. Anthrax occurred in 11.3 per 
cent of the sections on which claypan soils 
were present, 3.9 per cent of the sections 
on which alluvial soils were present, but 
only 1.8 per cent of the sections not having 
claypan soils (table 2). Statistical com- 
parison of the observed incidence of an- 
thrax on two categories of soil (claypan or 
alluvial), as contrasted to neither claypan 
nor alluvial, reveal a significant difference 
in the incidence of anthrax (table 3). 

Claypan soils are not randomly distrib- 
uted in Craig County, but tend to occur 
more in the northeast portion; therefore, 


the relationship between anthrax and clay- 
pan soils can be questioned since nearly 
all sections in the areas of high anthrax 
incidence have some claypan soil. 

We, therefore, focused our attention on 
the soils of township No. 1 of Craig 
County, the township which had the high- 


TABLE 2—The Proportion of Sections,* in Craig 
County, Containing Various Categories of Soil on 
Which Anthrax Occurred 








Sections (%) 

Anthrax Total having 
Soil category sections sections anthrax 
Claypan 45 399 11,3 
Alluvial 2 51 3.9 
Claypan and alluvial 23 203 11.3 
Total claypan** 68 602 11.3 
Total alluvial 25 254 9.9 
Claypan or alluvialt 70 653 10.7 
No claypan** 3 170 1.8 
Neither claypan nor alluvial? 1 119 0.8 
All soils 71 772 9.2 





*Section == square mile; **x? of comparison (n = 1) = 
12.7 (P = <.01); x? of comparison (n=1)=10.9 
(P = <.01) 


est rate of farms infected with anthrax. 
Almost all of these farms have some clay- 
pan soil. In about half of the sections in 
this township, claypan soils were not only 
present but predominant. When the inci- 


TABLE 3—Predominant Soils in Sections* of Township 
No. | on Which Deaths Due to Anthrax Occurred and 
Those on Which No Deaths Occurred 








Anthrax Total Sections (%) 
Soil category sections sections having anthrax 
Claypan 17.0 51.3** 33.1 
Alluvial 5.8 11.3 51.3 
Claypan or alluvial 22.8 62.6 36.4% 
Other 8.2 49.4 16.6% 
All soils 31.0 112.0 38.3 





*Section = square mile; **where two categories appeared 
to be equally predominant, they were each assigned half of 
a section; where three categories appeared to be equally 
predominant, they were each assigned a third of a section; 
tx*=5.27; P=<0.02. 


dence of the disease was determined ac- 
cording to soil category (table 2), anthrax 
occurred on 33.1 per cent of sections on 
which claypan soils were predominant; on 
51.3 per cent of sections on which alluvial 
soils were predominant; but on only 16.6 
per cent of sections on which other soils 
were predominant. This difference was 
statistically significant. 

A popular theory concerning the trans- 
mission of anthrax is that the organisms 
are transported downstream by creeks. 
During a telephone survey, we inquired at 








128 


VAN NESS—PLOTKIN—HUFFAKER—EVANS 





J.A.V.M.A, 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





TABLE 4—Methods of Watering Livestock on Farms Which Had Deaths Due to Anthrax, and Those 
Which Had No Deaths 

















No 
Areas with anthrax anthrax— 
Welch Ottawa Vinita Three areas Welch 

Source of water (No.) (%) No.) (%) (No.) (%) (No.) (%) (No.) (%) 
Pond 18 81.8* 9 64.3 ll 60.0 38 70.4 15 45.5* 
Pond and creek 2 9.1 0 0.0 3 16.7 5 9.3 4 12.2 
Pond and well 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.5 1 1.9 6 18.2 
Creek 2 9.1 3 21.4 0 0.0 5 9.3 3 9.1 
Well 0 0.0 2 14.3 3 16.7 5 9.3 5 15.1 
Total all sources 22 100.0 14 100.0 18 100.0 54 100.0 33 100.0 





*x? of comparison (n=1)=7.03 (p + <.01). 


farms, randomly selected, about the places 
where the cows were watered. On 70.4 per 
cent of the 54 surveyed farms on which an- 
thrax occurred, the animals were watered 
solely at ponds, while on 45.5 per cent of 
the 33 farms on which no anthrax occurred, 
the animals were watered entirely at ponds 
(table 4). All of the no-anthrax farms 
which we surveyed were in the Welch area. 
If direct comparison is made between the 
anthrax farms and the no-anthrax farms in 
that area, the percentages of those farms 
using ponds were 81.8 per cent and 45.5 
per cent, respectively, a difference which is 
statistically significant (X?=7.03, P .01). 
With respect to the presence of anthrax, 
there was no difference in the percentage 
of farms where animals watered at creeks 
only. 


TABLE 5—Days After Vaccination of Last Death in 
the Herd (127 Herds) 














Days after Craig Ottawa Mayes Per cent of 
vaccination County County County Total 127 herds 

0 1 3 1 5 3.9 
1 6 6 0 12 9.4 
2 5 1 5 11 8.5 
3 14 3 1 18 14.2 
4 2 4 6 12 9.4 
5 9 4 2 15 11.8 
6 ~ 2 2 12 9.4 
7 16 0 6 22 17.3 
8 4 1 1 6 4.7 
9 3 0 0 3 2.4 
10 2 1 1 4 3.1 
11 1 0 0 1 0.8 
12 0 1 0 1 0.8 
13 2 0 0 2 1.6 
14 2 0 ti) 2 1.6 
15 0 0 ri) 0 ie 
16 i) 0 t) 0 es 

17 1 0 0 1 0.8 
Totals 76 26 25 127 99.7 

An important observation concerning 


the spread of the epizootic was that an- 
thrax appeared in Kansas after it appeared 
in Oklahoma. Kansas is north of Okla- 
homa, and all the creeks in this area flow 
southward. 

Another popular theory regarding the 


transmission of anthrax is that the disease 
is carried by biting flies. Horseflies (Taba- 
nus sp.) were plentiful in Craig County 
during this outbreak, and large numbers 
were seen on and around dead animals. It 
is possible that some animals were infected 
in this manner, but it is doubtful that 
insect vectors were a major means of 
spread. Tabanus sp. will feed to saturation 
unless disturbed, and will not soon attack 
a second animal, Moreover, if horseflies 
were important agents of transmission, 
the attack rates should have been mueh 
higher in infected herds, and the spread to 
other herds should have been to those con- 
tiguous to the original herd. 

In this epizootic, farms adjacent to those 
where anthrax occurred frequently did not 
have aithrax. More study of the part 
played by Tabanus sp. in anthrax trans- 
mission is necessary before definite con- 
clusions can be drawn. 


NONCAPSULATED ANTHRAX SPORE VACCINE 


The use of noncapsulated anthrax spore 
vaccine in the Oklahoma-Kansas enzootic 
area represents the first large-scale use of 
this product in the United States. This vac- 
cine, which differs from the Pasteur type 
vaccines, is prepared as follows: 

When Bacillus anthracis is propagated 
on 50 per cent serum agar in an atmos- 
phere of 50 per cent CO.,, virulent strains 
form partially or completely mucoid colo- 
nies due to the development of capsular 
material. From such mucoid masses, out- 
growths of nonmucoid chains may develop. 
Organisms isolated from these nonmucoid 
chains may lack the ability to form cap- 
sules. By using organisms produced by 
this technique, a vaccine which has been 
widely used was developed in South Afri- 
ca.1 On serum agar in an atmosphere of 
CO,, such noncapsule-producing organisms 
never grow mucoid. 

The noncapsulated vaccine is injected 














.A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


OKLAHOMA-KANSAS ANTHRAX EPIZOOTIC OF 1957 


129 





subcutaneously, and appears to produce an 
effective immunity after eight days. Losses 
from anthrax in nonvaccinated herds may 
continue for several months but, in the 127 
herds vaccinated in Craig, Ottawa, and 
Mayes Counties, mortalities from all causes 
showed a marked decline eight days after 
vaccination (table 5). 


SUMMARY 


A major epizootic of anthrax occurred 
in northeastern Oklahoma and_ south- 
eastern Kansas in July and August of 1957, 
with a loss of 1,627 farm animals on 741 
premises. 

The epizootic was associated with a cli- 
matic variation characterized by excessive 
rainfall followed by prolonged hot, dry 
weather. This region of normally acid soil 
had several years of drought. Anthrax oc- 
curred in areas subjected to prolonged 
moisture damage where, during this 
period, the flow of ground water had 
created neutral or alkaline soil conditions. 

A noncapsulated Sterne-strain vaccine 
was used extensively in this outbreak with 
apparent success. 


References 

*Sterne, Max: The Use of Anthrax Vaccines Pre- 
pared from Avirulent (Uncapsulated) Variants of 
Bacillus Anthracis. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. & 
Anim. Indust., 13, (1939): 307-317. 

*Van Ness, G. B., and Stein, C. D.: Soils of the 
United States Favorable for Anthrax. J.A.V.M.A., 
128, (Jan. 1, 1956): 7-9. 





Treating Parasitic Bronchitis with 
Diethylcarbamazine 


Twelve bull calves, 4 months old, were 
each given 10,000 Dictyocaulus viviparus 
larvae by stomach tube then, starting on 
the fourteenth day, they were treated for 
five days with diethylcarbamazine citrate 
(10 mg./lb. body wt.). This effectively ter- 
minated the moderate lungworm infection, 
whereas 1 mg./lb. was ineffective. The 
drug was more effective when given intra- 
muscularly than when given orally. 

When challenged on the forty-fourth 
day, the immunity of these treated calves 
to reinfection was of a lower order than in 
untreated similarly infected calves. Persist- 





ing parasitic lesions were found in both 
treated and untreated calves at necropsy 
on the eighty-second day.—W. H. Parker 
and H. E. Roberts in J. Comp. Path. and 
Therap. (Oct., 1958): 402. 





Septicemic Pasteurellosis in Lambs 

Pasteurella hemolytica septicemia, as re- 
ported from Europe, exists in identical 
form in California and has been repro- 
duced in lambs by intravenous inoculation 
of pure cultures. The predominant gross 
lesions were serosal hemorrhages, edema 
and congestion of lungs and lymph nodes, 
and focal lesions in liver and lungs. Micro- 
scopically, bacterial colonies in liver, lungs, 
spleen, lymph nodes, and adrenal cortex 
were a constant characteristic finding. No 
significant cellular inflammatory reaction 
was associated with these colonies. 

Experimental lambs surviving beyond 
the first day postinfection developed such 
complications as arthritis, pericarditis, and 
meningitis. No pneumonia comparable to 
the field condition associated with shipping 
fever has been seen in the experimentally 
infected lambs. Of laboratory animals, only 
guinea pigs and mice were found to be sus- 
ceptible—[E. L. Biberstein and P. C. Ken- 
nedy: Septicemic Pasteurellosis in Lambs. 
Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 
94-101.] 





Experimental Production of 
Pneumonia in Lambs 

Forty-one lambs were allotted to groups 
and were exposed to organisms recovered 
from pneumonic lesions of lambs. A virus, 
pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO), 
and Pasteurella organisms were used. None 
was capable of reproducing pneumonia 
when used singly, and this also was true of 
stress alone and combinations of the virus 
and PPLO. Combinations of the virus with 
Pasteurella and the latter with PPLO pro- 
duced febrile responses without pneumonia. 
Combinations of the three microbial agents 
produced pneumonic lesions in 2 of 4 lambs. 

When stress was applied with a combina- 
tion of two or three agents, all of 7 lambs 
developed both clinical signs and lesions of 
pneumonia.—[A. H. Hamdy and W. D. 
Pounden: Experimental Production of 
Pneumonia in Lambs. Am, J. Vet. Res., 20, 
(Jan., 1959): 78-83.] 











Treatment of Canine Otitis Externa with a New 
Antibiotic-Steroid Preparation 


ALEC C. SEARS, M.S., D.V.M.; EMIL W. CROW, D.V.M.; EDWIN H. ELLISON, D.V.M. 


Fort Worth, Texas 


OTITIS EXTERNA is one of the most frequent 
and often one of the most puzzling prob- 
lems encountered in canine practice. The 
treatment described here involves the con- 
current local application of a steroid and 
an antibiotic. Difficulty in treating the 
condition may arise because the micro- 
organisms responsible for a given case may 
be insensitive to the available antibiotic. 

Staphylococcus aureus is the most preva- 
lent organism found in otitis externa*}?-2° 
and, fortunately, infections with this or- 
ganism respond well to treatment. In per- 
sistent cases, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 
Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris as 
well as any of numerous other bacteria 
occur.”!2:17 Fungi such as Candida albicans 
and the blastomycetes, which resist all the 
antibacterial antibiotics, have also been re- 
ported. 

Improvement in most cases of otitis ex- 
terna has been reported following the use 
of most of the commonly available anti- 
biotics. In man, as well as dogs, results 
with neomycin have been particularly im- 
pressive.?:513,16 The success with neomycin 
reflects the fact that this antibiotic is 
antagonistic to a broad spectrum of bac- 
teria. A steroid in addition to neomycin has 
been employed®?°1418 with good results. 
Even when neomycin and the steroid are 
administered in combination, a few cases 
remain resistant despite prolonged therapy. 

The comparative frequency with which 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi are 
identified in persistent cases suggests that 
additional agents specifically active against 
these organisms should also be incorpo- 
rated in a therapeutic compound for use in 
treating otitis externa. Polymyxin B exerts 
marked activity against Pseudomonas spp. 
in otitis externa of man’*®*® but we have 
seen only one report of its use in otitis of 
dogs.* Nystatin, an antibiotic acting ex- 
clusively against fungi, has been effective 
for the treatment of monilial (Candida 





Drs. Sears, Crow, and Ellison are practitioners in Fort 
Worth, Texas. 


albicans) infection and, at least in vitro, 
has activity against many other fungi. 
Both of these antibiotics, when added to 
steroid-neomycin, could be expected to 
exert at least their separate effects. How- 
ever, evidence of a synergistic action be- 
tween neomycin and polymyxin when em- 
ployed in combination has been reported 
from in vitro studies." 

This is a report on the clinical results 
obtained when three antibiotics—neomy- 
cin, polymyxin B, and nystatin—plus the 
steroid fludrocortisone, are compounded* 
for treatment of otitis externa of dogs. En- 
couraging results, with prompt healing, 
were obtained in a high percentage of dogs 
treated topically with the preparation. 


MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The dogs treated in this study were of 
the following breeds: 4 Wire-Haired Fox 
Terriers, 3 Poodles, 3 German Shepherd 
Dogs, 2 Scottish Terriers, 2 Cocker Span- 
iels, 2 Boxers, 2 of mixed breeding, and 1 
each of Dachshund, Pekingese, and Samoy- 
ede. Usually they were brought to the hos- 
pital because of severe, long-standing otitis 
of one or both ears. Treatment was applied 
by the owners but, in most instances, the 
dogs were examined by us from time to 
time for about one month after treatment 
began; in some cases, the owner reported 
verbally on the effects of the treatment. 

The preparation is supplied as a powder 
which is reconstituted and used in an 
aqueous glycerin suspension. Each milli- 
liter of solution contains: neomycin base 
(3.5 mg.); polymyxin B sulfate (10,000 
units); nystatin (100,000 units); and 
fludrocortisone (1.0 mg.). 

The ears are prepared by thorough 
cleansing with a tannic acid-salicylic acid 
solution and dried with cotton swabs, thus 
removing all exudate and debris. A few 
drops of the antibiotic suspension are ap- 





*The compound, Florotic, is produced by E. R. Squibb 
& Sons, New York, N.Y. 


(130) 














.A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


TREATMENT OF CANINE OTITIS 131 





plied directly to the affected areas one or 
more times daily and the ear canal is mas- 
saged. The treatment is continued until the 
condition clears, the period ranging from 
a few days to several weeks. 

In most cases, it is inadvisable to clean 
and dry the ear daily, since this irritates 
the canal and slows down healing. When 
recleaning is necessary, it is done at three- 
day intervals. 

Instructions to the owner are to continue 
instilling the drops and massaging the ear 
for two to three days after the ear appears 
completely normal. 


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 


Of the 21 dogs in this investigation, 19 
showed good to excellent improvement 
within two to 21 days. Another dog re- 
covered after six weeks of treatment. The 
remaining dog, a Poodle which had been 
affected for more than two years, showed 
only slight and temporary improvement. 
None of the 21 dogs showed untoward re- 
actions to the medication. 

The rapidity with which the otitis 
cleared in most of the 21 dogs was remark- 
able. Disappearance of all evidence of in- 
flammation had occurred in a number of 
dogs by the fourth day of treatment, and 1 
animal required only two applications of 3 
to 5 drops at an interval of four days. Oc- 
casionally, however, improvement was 
more slow; in 1 dog, the otitis cleared only 
after six weeks of therapy. 


SUMMARY 


Twenty-one dogs with otitis externa, 
often of the severe chronic form, were 
treated topically with an aqueous glycerin 
suspension of three antibiotics (neomycin, 
polymyxin B, and nystatin) and a steroid 
fludrocortisone). 

Of the 21 dogs, 20 recovered, many with- 
in a few days after treatment began. The 
remaining dog showed only a slight tem- 
porary improvement. 


References 


*Appel, B.: Oxytetracycline and Polymyxin B: 
Their Combined Effect on Pyodermatoses. Anti- 


biot. Ann. (1954-1955) : 949. 

*Bunn, C. E., and Scheidy, S. F.: Antibiotic 
Agents for Veterinary Use. J.A.V.M.A., 121, (Aug., 
1952): 95. 

"Crago, C. C., and Crago, V. G.: Polymyxin— 


Bacitracin Combinations in Small Animal Practice. 
Southwest. Vet., 8, (1954): 38. 

‘Dam, A.: The Bacterial Flora in External Otitis 
in Dogs. Nord. Vet. Med., 4, (1952): 1207. 

‘Davidson, J. L.: Neomycin Sulfate in Veteri- 
nary Dermatology and Ophthalmology. Vet. Med., 
47, (1952): 239. 

"Davidson, J. L.: A Preliminary Report on the 
Use of Hydrocortisone and Hydrocortisone with 
Neomycin in Dogs and Cats. Vet. Med., 49, 
(1954): 286. 

"Farrag, H., and Mahmoud, D. H.: Otorrhea in 
Dogs Caused by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. 
J.A.V.M.A., 122, (Jan., 1953): 35. 

*Farrar, D.A.T.: Use of Polymyxin B in the Ex- 
ternal Ear. Brit. Med. J., 2, (1954): 629. 

*Graves, J. W.: Otitis Externa and Its Treatment 
with a New Antibiotic Preparation. Eye, Ear, Nose 
and Throat Monthly, 31, (1952) :32. 

*Haas, K. B.: Use of Neomycin and Erythro- 
mycin in Veterinary Practice. Vet. Med., I, 
(1955): 460. 

“Jawetz, E.: Polymyxin Neomycin and Bacitra- 
cin. Medical Encyclopedia, Inc., New York, N.Y., 
1956. 

*Jones, W. G.: A Preliminary Report of the 
Flora in Health and Disease of the External Ear 
and Conjunctival Sac of the Dog. J.A.V.M.A., 
127, CNov., 1955): 442. 

*Kitchen, H. B., and Waksman, S. A.: Strepto- 
mycin and Neomycin in Veterinary Medicine. 
J.A.V.M.A., 127, (Sept., 1955): 261. 

“Konde, W. N., and Monroe, W. P.: Neomycin 
in Veterinary Practice. Vet. Med., 1, (1955): 231. 

"Kral, F.: Pyogenic Infections of the Skin and 
of the Ear Canal in the Dog. J.A.V.M.A., 130, 
(Jan. 1, 1957): 41. 

*Livingood, C. S., Nilasena, S., King. W. C., 
Stevenson, R. A., and Mullings, J. F.: Pyogenic 
Infections Treated with Neomycin. J.Am.M.A., 
148, (1952): 334; Am.M.A. Arch. Dermatol. & 
Syph., 69, (1954): 43. 

“McBride, N. L.: Persistent Otorrhea in the 
Dog. Proc. Book, AVMA (1953): 247. 

*Senturia, B. H., and Alford, V.: Hydrocortisone 
Acetate and Neomycin in Otic Infections. Laryn- 
goscope, 64, (1954): 834. 

*Schoop, G.: Otitis Externa, a Blastomycosis? 
Deutsche tierarztl Wehnschr., 58, (1951): 216. 

Witter, R. E.: Diseases of the External Ear 
Canal of the Dog. Cornell Vet., 39, (1949): 11. 





Hygromycin B for Horses 


When hygromycin B was added to the 
ration of horses, at the level of 30 Gm. per 
day, it resulted in a gradual suppression of 
strongyle egg production, as indicated by 
fecal egg counts. There was some evidence 
that this treatment had a greater effect on 
nematodes of the genus Trichonema than 
of the genus Strongylus.—D. Poynter in 
Vet. Rec. (Oct. 25, 1958): 865. 








Swine Losses 


S. H. McNUTT, D.V.M. 


Madison, Wisconsin 


SHROUDED IN the unknowns of prehistoric 
time is the concept that the hog is an “un- 
clean” animal whose fiesh is unsuited for 
human consumption. Both the Jewish and 
the Mohammedan religions are definite in 
this regard. 

At the time the concept of uncleaness of 
pork developed, it is unlikely that the 
reason for such conclusion was understood. 
But the reasoning back of the concept was 
sound. It had been seen that people became 
sick and sometimes died after eating pork. 
Failure to cook the pork thoroughly to kill 
the Trichina was often responsible for such 
sickness and death. Cooked worms are not 
detrimental to human health. 

We have come a long way in the past few 
hundred years in the control of trichinosis. 
The one procedure of cooking garbage fed 
to swine has in a few years reduced the in- 
cidence of human trichinosis by 50 per 
cent. Still there are those who believe there 
should be no cooking of garbage used as 
feed for swine. 

The last contribution to world culture by 
the United States has been the hula hoop. 
But previously it made two contributions to 
the swine industry: (1) hog cholera and 
(2) vesicular exanthema. Hog cholera de- 
veloped first in this country, during the 
first half of the last century. The disease 
was then made available to everyone over 
the entire world. Vesicular exanthema de- 
veloped first in California during the early 
part of the twentieth century. It has never 
occurred in other countries. There has not 
been a recognized case of vesicular exan- 
thema in over a year. Perhaps it no longer 
exists. 

When tuberculosis was rampant in our 
cattle, it was also common in our hogs. 
Bovine tuberculosis was another reason for 
the contention that pork was unfit for 
human consumption. With the bovine tu- 
berculosis situation as it is now, when 
poultry production is separated entirely 





Dr. McNutt is engaged in teaching and research at the 
University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

*Presented at the National Swine Industry Conference, 
Purdue University, Nov. 3, 1958. 


from swine production, our swine will no 
longer be affected with tuberculosis. 

The hog has been condemned because it 
is said to be “unclean.” Actually, many of 
its diseases have developed from associ- 
ation with other species of animals. In 
this regard, man is an undesirable associ- 
ate for the hog. It is altogether likely 
that swine influenza developed as a result 
of the hog’s association with man. Also, do 
we blame man for infecting swine with the 
tapeworm cysts or do we blame swine for 
infecting man with Taenia solium? 

One is inclined to the belief that the hog 
is a clean animal but, through association 
with other species, it encounters the un- 
clean including man who forces him to live 
in unclean surroundings. These surround- 
ings and environment are gradually being 
improved so that losses are being reduced 
and diseases controlled more effectively. 

More efforts are being employed by 
swine producers to start with breeding 
stock that is relatively free of disease and 
to use better means of handling and feed- 
ing to reduce losses. Producers are apt to 
demand that boars come from “disease- 
free” herds and that such boars be shown 
to be disease-free during an_ isolation 
period before they are used as herd sires. 
More pigs are being saved per sow and 
they reach market at an earlier age. 

Losses due to faulty management, hand- 
ling, feeding, and disease are being pro- 
gressively reduced. Whether this progress 
is being made rapidly enough to retain for 
pork a just share of the food dollar is not 
known. Certainly there is proportionately 
less pork eaten. 


ERADICATION OF HOG CHOLERA AND 
PORCINE BRUCELLOSIS 


It is the opinion of those who have 
studied the evidence that swine brucellosis 
can be better controlled, or even eradicated, 
with the resulting return of $10 million 
a year to the swine industry. Also, it is 
their opinion that hog cholera can be 
eradicated readily, with a resulting return 


(132) 














f; .V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


SWINE LOSSES 138 





of $40 million a year to the swine industry. 

Regarding animal disease eradication, 
too many know of the tremendous effort 
required to eradicate tick fever and too 
few remember its tremendous benefits. The 
same is true in the eradication of bovine 
tuberculosis and of bovine brucellosis. 
People generally have come to believe that 
any animal disease eradication is extreme- 
ly costly in time and funds. This is not 
true. Almost no one remembers that gland- 
ers, dourine, fowl pest, and bovine pleuro- 
pneumonia were eradicated with a mini- 
mum of effort. A majority of those who 
have given thought to the problem believe 
that such diseases as hog cholera and 
swine brucellosis will be brought under es- 
sential eradication by producers with very 
little assistance in the form of regulations 
and financial support from government 
agencies. It is believed that such eradi- 
cation by producers is the most desirable 
because it will bring the greatest benefits 
to all. 

The swine industry can expect no help 
from the general public in swine disease 
eradication, or even in control, until the 
industry makes its move and outlines its 
program. People know that they can live 
without pork even though they are aware 
they can live better with it. They are not 
“about to go all out” for eradication of 
hog cholera in order to establish a more 
sound swine industry, especially since the 
disease does not affect man. The people 
largely feel that it is up to the industry to 
set its house in order. This being the case, 
it is fortunate that cholera is a disease that 
the industry can eradicate by itself if it so 
desires. Necessary help can be obtained but 
the industry must “spark-plug” the effort. 
Hog cholera eradication depends simply on 
keeping the virus away from susceptible 
hogs. Who can do this better than pro- 
ducers? 

A similar situation exists in the case of 
swine brucellosis. Most people feel that if 
producers insist on exposing themselves 
and their families to the dangers of brucel- 
losis-affected swine, it is of small concern 
of theirs—human brucellosis has never 
been traced to pork in the home. However, 
if it should be found that swine brucellosis 
interferes appreciably with the eradication 
of bovine brucellosis, swine producers will 
be forced to eradicate it. Presently, this ap- 
pears unlikely, although it is known that 


the infection in swine will complicate 
bovine brucellosis eradication to a degree. 
Methods for the eradication of swine bru- 
cellosis have been field tested and found to 
be effective. 

There is a feature about swine bru- 
cellosis that causes many to believe its era- 
dication is a simple matter. This feature is 
that the disease is self-limiting—that is, it 
usually does not persist in the herd but 
must be reintroduced. Infected boars are 
the chief factor in introducing the disease 
into clean herds. If brucellosis-free boars 
only were employed, many believe this 
alone would reduce swine brucellosis to al- 
most zero. Many herds are already free. 


NEW MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS 


We are apt to fear things that we do not 
understand and forces we can not control. 
For this reason, most of us view so-called 
“vertical integration” of the swine indus- 
try with considerable alarm. A recent meet- 
ing of learned individuals on this subject 
served to emphasize one interesting point, 
if it did little more. The first question at 
this meeting was whether vertical in- 
tegration of the swine industry would re- 
sult in profit to someone. It was decided 
that it would result in financial gain for 
an unidentified someone and was, there- 
fore, an economic problem with no moral 
or social aspects. If money could be made 
from it, then it followed logically that it 
was good for the social order. 

If any members in attendance heard a 
wee voice of conscience questioning 
whether or not this was always true, that 
voice was drowned out and only the loud 
noises were reported in the minutes of the 
meeting. 

It would be interesting to hear the pro- 
posals and suggestions of those engaged in 
the social sciences on these and like 
questions. Our actions and reactions are 
rarely balanced. In our herdlike reactions, 
we rush too far in one direction, then see- 
ing our error, rush too far in reverse in 
correcting such error. 

However, vertical integration of the 
swine industry and its effect on the social 
order is only one small part of a tremend- 
ously huge movement. 

Recently, those engaged in swine re- 
search in the north central region of the 
United States met with representatives of 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture to dis- 











134 


.A.V.M.A, 
S. H.McNutTtT — 1, 1959 





cuss their research on swine diseases and 
progress toward raising better, more 
healthy swine. The matter of testing breed- 
ing stock, especially boars, was discussed. 
There was concern lest diseases be spread 
through such testing stations, particularly 
brucellosis, atrophic rhinitis, virus pneu- 
monia, and the enteric diseases. Hogs from 
many producers come together at such 
testing stations. They probably bring with 
them the diseases that exist on the farms 
of origin. Through contact, these diseases 
could spread among all the hogs at the 
station. When sold back onto farms, such 
hogs are potential spreaders of disease. The 
group recommended that such hogs be used 
for slaughter only and, in addition, that 
the experiment stations have no part in 
this kind of operation. 

What has been said about losses due to 
infectious diseases applies also to all losses 
due to animal parasites and faulty hus- 
bandry. 

Research and education must continue in 
order to further reduce losses. One would 
predict that the swine industry would con- 
tinue to reduce losses due to faulty han- 
dling, would control infectious diseases 
better, and would eradicate those that can 
be eradicated. 





Hog Cholera Control 


{Excerpts from a paper presented at the lowa 
State College Conference for Veterinarians, July, 
1958.} 

In none of the states that have outlawed 
the use of virulent hog cholera virus for 
vaccinating has there been difficulty due to 
that virus not being available. All are well 
satisfied. 

Wisconsin, which is about seventh 
among the states in the production of 
swine, has less than 60 herds affected with 
cholera each year although less than 10 
per cent of Wisconsin swine are vaccinated. 

As the incidence of cholera declines, 
there will be more mistaken diagnoses and 
more belief that hog cholera has changed. 

All of the hog cholera antibodies in the 
specific antiserum were found in the 
gamma globulin. 

The colostrum of sows vaccinated with 
crystal violet vaccine usually contains suf- 
ficient antibodies for six months after vac- 
cination to protect the newborn pigs. 

It has been reported that crystal violet 
vaccine should not be given to sows in the 


last half of their gestation period. Also, 
swine should not be vaccinated for erysipe- 
las within 30 days before or after vaccina- 
tion with crystal violet vaccine. 

It has been shown that hog cholera virus 
can be carried by the ova and larvae of the 
swine lungworms, as swine influenza virus 
is carried, but it was suggested that the 
virus might not thus survive more than 
two years. Actually, cholera often occurs on 
farms one year but does not recur on those 
farms in the years immediately following. 

Lungworms and earthworms are usually 
found wherever hogs are raised, yet the 
disease has been eradicated in such areas 
(Canada). If cholera were started from 
such reservoirs, would it occur often 
enough to seriously affect eradication? 

Hog cholera is an acute disease and, 
therefore, would be more easily eradicated 
than a chronic disease—S. H. McNutt in 
Iowa Vet. (Oct., 1958) :7. 

ee e 

Effectiveness of Erysipelas Vaccine Re- 
duced by Simultaneous Use of Hog Cholera 
Vaccine.—In testing a new avirulent ery- 
sipelas vaccine, typical farm herds of 
swine were used. When a modified hog 
cholera vaccine and minimum dose of 
serum were given simultaneously with the 
erysipelas vaccine, 56 to 70 per cent 
showed no protection against erysipelas 
when challenged by the skin scarification 
test 21 days later. Of those given the ery- 
sipelas vaccine alone, only 8 to 14 per cent 
were not protected, whereas 100 per cent 
of the nonvaccinated controls developed 
typical skin reactions of erysipelas when 
challenged.—A. H. Quin in Iowa Vet. (Oct., 
1958) 325. 

[This failure to develop immunity to 
erysipelas was probably due chiefly to the 
specific antibodies contained in the anti- 
hog cholera serum. This serum has re- 
peatedly shown curative, as well as prophy- 
lactic, activity against field cases of acute 
erysipelas in swine.—ED. ] 





Hog Cholera in Bulgaria 

Hog cholera was eradicated in Bulgaria 
in the period from 1945 to 1957, This was 
achieved by locating infected farms, 
slaughtering sick animals, enforcing quar- 
antine and sanitary regulations, and im- 
munizing swine in threatened areas. Anti- 
serum was used extensively in 1945 to 
1946. The use of virulent virus was pro- 

















ce 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


CLINICAL DATA 135 





hibited in 1947, and mass immunization 
with crystal violet vaccine was begun on 
socialized farms in 1948. By 1952, hog 
cholera no longer presented an epizootic 
problem. 

The enforcement of disease control 
measures was greatly facilitated by the im- 
provement of swine husbandry methods on 
cooperative and state farms and by gov- 
ernment control of swine marketing and 
slaughtering. About 80 per cent of brood 
sows are now on socialized farms. 

To prevent reintroduction of the dis- 
ease, Bulgaria has agreements with Ro- 
mania, Yugoslavia, and Greece for the 
maintenance of a zone of immunity at their 
borders. In 1957, 1.5 million swine were 
vaccinated in the border zone.—N. Dimi- 
trov, Vet. Admin., Ministry of Agric., Bul- 
garia: Hog Cholera in Bulgaria.—ROBERT 
E. HABEL. 





Hog Cholera Virus Survives in Goats 

Several passages of hog cholera virus 
were carried out in goats in 1936. Starting 
in 1951, Japanese workers accomplished 
209 successive passages, using 1 ml. of 
virulent swine blood injected intravenous- 
ly in the first passage to 2 goats then, for 
the next 66 passages, taking blood from 
the goats on the fifth or sixth day, pool- 
ing it, and injecting 5 ml. into each of the 
next 2 goats. 

After the sixty-sixth passage, 3 ml. of 
blood was used and, after the 196th pas- 
sage, the inoculum was stored at -70 C. for 
a month before the next passage. 

Pigs which were inoculated with blood 
from 14 of the passages, including the 
209th, died with typical signs and lesions 
of hog cholera. Some of the goats inocu- 
lated during the series showed pyrexia; 
some also showed a_ reduced leukocyte 
count.—NIBS Bull. Biol. Res., 2, (1957): 
23-27. 





Lungworms in Pigs 

Lungworms and the lesions attributable 
to them are usually found in the posterior 
parts of the diaphragmatic lobes of the 
lungs, but occasionally in the heavier in- 
fections they are found in the anterior 
lobes where the lesions have to be differ- 
entiated from those of virus pneumonia.— 
A. Mackenzie in Vet. Rec. (Oct. 18, 1958): 
843. 


Virus Pneumonia of Swine 

Virus pneumonia of swine can be diag- 
nosed only at necropsy. The edges of the 
cranial portions of the lungs show sharply 
limited red or reddish gray coloration. Al- 
teration of the posterior parts of the dia- 
phragmatic lobes are usually due to lung- 
worms. Sick animals usually cough and are 
somewhat feverish for several days but 
usually eat well, although pigs 19 to 24 
weeks old may suffer acute pneumonia with 
dyspnea and high fever caused by second- 
ary infection. 

Transmission results from aerosol drop- 
lets which can travel over separating walls 
but not more than a few meters. Virus car- 
riers may show no signs of infection for 
months. 

The growth rate of the affected pigs is 
decreased about 16 per cent, Tetracycline 
therapy has some value in decreasing the 
cough but complete recovery does not oc- 
cur. 

The virus has not been cultivated; there- 
fore, immunization is not possible. Careful 
isolation of coughing litters may partially 
control the disease, but the best method is 
to slaughter the herd, then procure sows 
from noninfected herds, isolate the boars, 
and use artifical insemination—W. J. B. 
Beveridge in Schweiz. Arch. f. Tierheilk. 
(Oct., 1958): 525. 





Exudative Epidermatitis in Pigs 

This condition, called “greasy skin 
disease,” usually occurs in pigs under 30 
days old. It is characterized by extrava- 
sation of serum from the cutaneous vascu- 
lar system. The skin becomes wet and the 
hair matted with dust and dirt until it is 
extremely greasy. (When grasped by its 
tail or a leg, the pig may escape, leaving 
much of the foul-smelling exudate and skin 
in one’s hand.) It occurs frequently in 
pigs in the corn belt-hog states and may be 
a nutritional problem, since it seems to af- 
fect pigs in certain litters. It may be that 
the dam either does not absorb efficiently 
the nutrients supplied or does not elimi- 
nate certain waste products effectively. 

The affected pigs usually represent less 
than 30 per cent, but occasionally up to 70 
per cent, of the litters in the herd. Mortal- 
ity of affected pigs may be 50 to 100 per 
cent. Successive litters from the same sow 
are rarely, if ever, involved. 

In the past year, treatments with ACTH 











136 CLINICAL DATA J.A.V.M.A, 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 
(600 units in 500 cc. of 5% dextrose other in the intestine—[B. Schwartz: Ez- 


solution) injected subcutaneously (5 cc.) 
seem to have been effective in 50 to 75 
per cent of affected pigs. This should be 
repeated on alternate days if necessary. 
Gentle washing to remove the incrustations 
is a rational procedure. Pigs old enough to 
eat should be given rolled oats or skim 
milk as a supplement to the sow’s milk.— 
J.R. Dick in Georgia Vet. (Oct., 1958): 20. 





Experimental Infection of Pigs with 
Ascaris Suum 

Patent infections with Ascaris suum 
were produeed experimentally in 8 of 9 
pigs; 6 pigs were inoculated with embryo- 
nated eggs and 3 with lungs of guinea pigs 
inoculated a week earlier. The 8 pigs that 
became infected harbored, at necropsy, 
worms of both sexes. The smallest number 
found in 1 pig was 27 and the largest num- 
ber was 204. 

Ascarid eggs were first discovered in the 
pigs’ feces 47 to 51 days after inoculation. 
Approximately four weeks after inocu- 
lation, immature worms began passing out 
of the infected pigs; the number tended to 
increase gradually, over a prolonged period. 
Five of the pigs each eliminated 141 to 
1,790 worms; in the other pigs, the number 
eliminated was much smaller. The worms 
so eliminated showed a gradual increase in 
size as their age increased. This natural 
elimination of the worms appeared to be 
associated with their final molt. Elimina- 
tion may also have been the result of the 
development of a resistance by the host, 
stimulated in part by the penetration of 
the larvae into various tissues during their 
early migration. 

It does not appear that the early mi- 
gration of Ascaris is an adaptation that 
has survival value for the species; on the 
contrary, the migration leads worms into 
situations from which they probably can- 
not extricate themselves. 

The migration of the newly hatched lar- 
vae appears to be of phylogenetic signifi- 
cance and probably points to the evolution 
of these worms from ancestral forms that 
had an indirect life cycle. On the basis of 
this assumption, it may be concluded that 
the life cycle of A. suum and of related 
species apparently has become compressed 
into one host, although it still shows evi- 
dence of an indirect development, with one 
phase culminating in the lungs and the 


perimental Infection of Pigs with Ascaris 
Suum. Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959) :7- 
13.] 





Selenium and Hepatosis in Pigs 

A litter of 10 newly weaned pigs was 
divided into two groups of 5 each. All were 
fed a hepatonecrogenic diet consisting 
chiefly of soybean meal but one group was 
also given sodium selenite (0.2 mg./kg. 
feed). 

The 5 not given the selenite died after 
22 to 45 days on this diet. All showed mas- 
sive edematous transudations, degenera- 
tion of the skeletal and cardiac muscle, le- 
sions of hepatosis dietetica, and pigmented 
adipose tissue. 

None of the pigs given selenite died. 
Upon examination, their livers were nor- 
mal and there was no transudation, but 
skeletal muscle degeneration and pig- 
mented adipose tissue were observed. The 
use of selenium cannot be recommended for 
control of this disease in pigs until further 
experiments are completed.—Nord. Vet.- 
med. (Oct., 1958): 657. 





Immunizing Chicks for Infectious 
Laryngotracheitis 

Studies comparing the drop and brush 
methods of applying laryngotracheitis vac- 
cine to the vent of birds showed that the 
protection to challenge and the serological 
response were comparable. Abrasions of 
the mucous membrane were not necessary 
to obtain effective inoculation. The immu- 
nity was not as durable when chickens 
were vaccinated at 3, 10 and 21 days of age 
as when 4% weeks old.—S. B. Hitchner 
and P. G. White in ASL Res. Rep. No. 4 
(Nov., 1958): 10. 





Bovine Brucellosis in Scandinavia 

Bovine brucellosis has been eradicated 
from Norway, Finland, and Sweden, and 
has been reduced in Denmark from a herd 
incidence of 25 per cent in 1924 to less than 
0.5 per cent in 1956. The cattle were blood- 
tested and, if infected, were slaughtered at 
state expense and the premises were disin- 
fected. In Sweden, vaccination of calves 
with strain 19 was practiced in severely in- 
fected herds.—Vet. Bull. (Oct., 1958): Item 
3129. 











What Is Your Diagnosis ? 


Because of the interest in veterinary radiology, a case history and radiographs 
depicting a diagnostic problem are usually published in each issue. 


Make your diagnosis from the picture below—then turn the page > 





Figure | 


History.—A female Cocker Spaniel, 8 years old, was hit by an automobile 
three days before it was brought in for examination. There was soreness and an 
edematous, crepitating swelling over the right side of the thorax posterior to the 
scapula and humerus. A ventrodorsal radiograph, with the dog recumbent, was 
taken of the thorax. 


(137) 











Here Is the Diagnosis 


(Continued from preceding page) 


Diagnosis.—Fracture of several ribs, emphysema, subcutaneous hematoma, 
and pneumothorax, all on the right side. 





Fig. 2—Radiograph of thorax of the Cocker Spaniel showing fractured ribs (a); emphysema (b); 
subcutaneous hematoma (c); and pneumothorax (d) 


Our readers are invited to submit histories, radiographs, and diagnoses of 
interesting cases which are suitable for publication. 


This case was submitted by Wilbur H. Crago, Youngstown, Ohio. 
(138) 











Mubriti 


The Nutritional Requirements of Cats 


STANLEY N. GERSHOFF, Ph.D. 


Boston, Massachusetts 


ALTHOUGH a number of good commercial 
cat foods are marketed, there are so many 
which are inadequate that frequently small 
animal practitioners discourage the use of 
them. Lacking knowledge of specific nutri- 
tive requirements of cats, many veterinar- 
ians wisely recommend the use of a variety 
of foods including milk, eggs, meat, liver, 
and vegetables. 

A mixture of foods such as these un- 
doubtedly provides cats with the nutrients 
they require for health, growth, reproduc- 
tion, and lactation. Nevertheless, this type 
of advice is not satisfactory to the average 
cat owner because it is too ambiguous, and 
the foods recommended are expensive and 
require special preparation. 

A number of studies in recent years have 
added to our still inadequate knowledge of 
cat nutrition. This paper is an attempt to 
briefly summarize these studies in the hope 
that the information presented will be of 
value to small animal practitioners. 


SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 


Calories.—As is the case with other 
species, the cat’s energy requirements per 
unit of body weight decrease with age and 
increase with exercise. Weanling cats re- 
quire approximately 250 calories per day 
per kilogram of body weight.** The rate de- 
creases to about 150 calories in cats several 
months old and 60 calories in inactive adult 
cats.2:15,16 

Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate.—Cats 
appear to do best on high-protein, high-fat 
diets. Cat nutritionists frequently use puri- 
fied diets containing 30 to 40 per cent 
protein and 25 to 30 per cent fat. The opti- 
mum fat level in cat diets has not been 
determined. 

Our experience indicates that high-fat 
purified diets are more palatable than low- 
fat ones. There may also be metabolic fac- 
tors involved in the cat’s preference for 





From the Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of 
Public Health, Boston, Mass 

Prepared in cooperation with the American Association 
of Veterinary Nutritionists. 

Presented before the Section on Small Animals, Ninety- 
Fifth Annual Meeting, American Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation, Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 18-21, 1958. 


high-fat diets. We have observed a rela- 
tionship between the amount of dietary fat 
and absorption of vitamin A by cats.'° 
This suggests that many low-fat commer- 
cial cat foods may supply inadequate vita- 
min A. Although we have obtained con- 
sistently better results with purified diets 
containing 26 per cent fat than 5 per cent 
fat, an intermediate level might be more 
desirable. 

Unlike control cats fed 5 per cent fat 
diets, cats fed 26 per cent fat diets fre- 
quently showed small amounts of histologi- 
cally demonstrable liver fat. It is not pos- 
sible at this time to judge whether this is 
undesirable. Futhermore, we have found 
that cats fed high-fat diets require more 
riboflavin than those fed low-fat diets.°® 
This effect, which can be explained in great 
part on the basis of altered intestinal syn- 
thesis, may also apply to some of the other 
vitamins. 

The high-protein requirements of cats 
appear related to their metabolic needs. 
Two investigators® could obtain satisfac- 
tory growth in cats only when they were 
fed diets with more than 30 per cent pro- 
tein. Others'* reported that a weanling cat 
retains 1.7 Gm. of nitrogen per day per 
kilogram of body weight, approximately 70 
per cent more than a Beagle pup at wean- 
ing. They found that the adult cat with full 
body stores of protein requires approxi- 
mately 0.56 Gm. of nitrogen per day per 
kilogram of body weight to remain in ni- 
trogen balance. 

Although it has not been demonstrated 
that cats require dietary carbohydrate, it 
appears that if diets are adequate in pro- 
tein and fat, the balance of calories can be 
provided by carbohydrate. 

Ash.—There have been no studies of the 
quantitative requirements of cats for any 
mineral. Four to five per cent mixed salts 
such as salts IV** have been used success- 
fully in purified diets. Although cats are 
subject to kidney and bladder stones, at- 
tempts to induce calculi by the feeding of 
diets containing as much as 30 per cent 
ash for a year have been unsuccessful in 
this and other laboratories.°:* 


(139) 





STANLEY N. GERSHOFF 





J.A.V.M. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 














140 
TABLE I—The Effect of Vitamin Deficiencies on Cats 
Reported deficiency changes 
Vitamin Pathological* Chemical 
Aw Squamous metaplasia of conjunctiva, salivary Lowered serum 
glands, uterus, and respiratory tract; subpleural cysts; vitamin A. 
focal dysplasia of pancreatic exocrine tissue; hypoplasia 
of seminiferous tubules; depletion of adrenal cortical 
lipid; focal atrophy of the skin; neurological 
signs; bronchopneumonia. 

D® Rickets. Lowered serum Ca, P, and citric 
acid; raised serum alkaline phos- 
phatase. 

E18 I Ce el ey tS Re | atime tliedimiitligtiiadiamee 

Thiamine *}**. Cardiac disorders, ataxia, convulsions, and paralysis. = _ ..... il aaitisianiciniones 

Riboflavin *.® Cataracts, fatty livers, testicular atrophy, and alopecia. Lowered urinary and fecal 
riboflavin. 

Niacin #8 Diarrhea, lesions of mouth, and respiratory disease. Decreased urinary N! 
methylnicotinamide. 

Folic acid® Macrocytic anemia; leukopenia. Increase in plasma iron; lengthened 
blood clotting time. 

B,?.11 Anemia, oxalate nephrocalcinosis, ! Increased urinary and kidney 

convulsions, and hemosiderin deposition. oxalate decreased urinary inorganic 
sulfate. 

Pantothenic Fatty livers. Decreased ability to acetylate 

acid® PABA. 





*Acute vitamin deficiencies in cats are usually accompanied by anorexia with resulting emaciation and 


death; **carotene has little vitamin A activity for the cat; ttryptophan is not converted to niacin by the cat. 


Vitamins.—Deficiencies of vitamins A, 
D, E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic 
acid, B,, and pantothenic acid in cats are 
summarized (table 1). No studies of cats’ 
requirements for vitamins B,,, C, K, bio- 
tin, and choline have been reported. It is 
unlikely that dietary sources of vitamins 
C, K, and biotin are necessary under ordi- 
nary circumstances, The vitamin supple- 
ments used in our laboratory and that of 
another are listed (table 2). These figures 
do not necessarily represent recommended 
allowances. They are amounts of vitamins 
which appear to satisfy the needs of young 
cats for growth when fed purified rations. 


DISCUSSION 


Many important questions concerning 
cat nutrition remain to be answered. Not 


TABLE 2—Vitamin Supplements for Cats Used in Two 








only are data concerning the nutrient re- 
quirements of cats for growth generally 
lacking, but there have been no studies of 
the cat’s dietary requirements for repro- 
duction and lactation. We are unable to ex- 
plain reports in the literature that foods 
for cats are more nutritious uncooked than 
cooked.’"»19 In cats, the relationship of nu- 
trition to susceptibility to disease, particu- 
larly mycotic infection, respiratory disease, 
and urinary calculi, is obscure. 

In view of the importance of cats as 
domestic and laboratory animals, it seems 
obvious that considerable value would be 
gained from the answers to some of these 
problems. 


SUMMARY 

The author’s personal experience and a 
review of recent studies on cat nutrition 
provide the following information. 

1) Weanlings need approximately 250 
calories per day per kilogram of body 
weight, while kittens several months old 
and inactive adults need only about 150 


and 60 calories, respectively. 
2) Although precise fat requirements 
are not known, high-fat diets are more 


palatable and appear necessary for best 
growth when purified rations are fed. 

3) Protein requirements of cats seem to 
be higher than of other animals, including 


Laboratories 
Amount (mg./kg. Amount (mg. given 

Vitamin of diet)* 3 times/wk.)** 
Thiamine HCI 4.0 0.75 
Riboflavin 8.0 0.75 
Niacin 40.0 2.5 
Ca pantothenate 20.0 2.5 
Pyridoxine HCI 4.0 0.75 
Folic acid 1.0 0.5 
Biotin 0.2 0.05 
Menadione 1.0 0.75 
Choline 3,000.0 300.0 
Inositol hie 30.0 
— benzoic acid iti... 0.75 

tochopherol J 

— dogs. 





*According to Gershoff—vitamins A and D are supplied 
by adding 1 per cent cod-liver oil to the diet. vitamin E is 
supplied by the fats used, particularly corn oil; **according 
to Da Silva—vitamins A and D are supplied by emulsify- 
ing the other vitamins in 2 ml. of cod-liver oil. 


4) Diets containing as much as 30 per 
cent ash have been fed to cats for a year 
without causing urinary calculi. 














-A.V.M.A. 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF CATS 


141 





5) Clinical signs of avitaminosis are 
tabulated, as are the vitamin supplements 
given to cats at the author’s and one other 
laboratory. 


References 


*Cordy, D. R.: Experimental Production of Ste- 
atitis (Yellow Fat Disease) in Kittens Fed a Com- 
mercial Canned Cat Food and Prevention of the 
Condition by Vitamin E. Cornell Vet., 44, (1954): 


310. 

*Da Silva, A. C.: Unpublished data, University 
of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1958. 

*Da Silva, A. C., de Angelis, R. C., Pontes, M. 
A., and Guerios, M. F. M.: The Domestic Cat as a 
Laboratory Animal for Experimental Nutrition 
Studies. IV. Folic Acid Deficiency. J. Nutr., 56, 
(1955): 199. 

‘Da Silva, A. C., Fried R., and de Angelis, R. 
C.: The Domestic Cat as a Laboratory Animal for 
Experimental Nutrition Studies. III. Niacin Re- 
quirements and Trypotophan Metabolism. J. Nutr., 
46, (1952): 399. 

‘Dickinson, C. D., and Scott, P. P.: Failure to 
Produce Urinary Calculi in Kittens by the Addi- 
tion of Mineral Salts Derived from Bone-Meal to 
the Diet. Vet. Rec., 68, (1956): 858. 

‘Dickinson, C. D., and Scott, P. P.: Nutrition 
of the Cat. 2. Protein Requirements for Growth of 
Weanling Kittens and Young Cats Maintained on 
a Mixed Diet. Brit. J. Nutr., 10, (1956): 311. 

"Everett, G. M.: Observations on the Behavior 
and Neurophysiology of Acute Thiamine Deficient 
Cats. Am. J. Physiol., 141, (1944): 439. 

“Gershoff, S. N.: Unpublished data, Harvard 
School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., 1958. 

*Gershoff, S. N., and Hegsted, D. M.: Effect of 
High Fat Diets on Riboflavin Requirements of 
Cats. Fed. Proc., 16, (1957): 386. 

*Gershoff, S. N., Andrus, S. B., Hegsted, D. M., 
and Lentini, E. A.: Vitamin A Deficiency in Cats. 
Lab. Invest., 6, (1957): 227. 

"Gershoff, S. N., Faragalla, F. F., Nelson, D. 
A., and Andrus, S. B.: Vitamin B, Deficiency and 
Oxalate Nephrocalcinosis in the Cat. Am. J. Med.: 
In press. 

"Gershoff, S. N., Legg, M. A., O’Connor, F. J., 
and Hegsted, D. M.: The Effect of Vitamin D- 
Deficient Diets Containing Various Ca:P Ratios 
on Cats. J. Nutr., 63, (1957): 79. 

"Heath, M. K., MacQueen, J. W., and Spies, 
T. D.: Feline Pellagra. Science, 92, (1940): 514. 

“Hegsted, D. M., Mills, R. C., Elvehjem, C. A., 
and Hart, E. B.: Choline in the Nutrition of 
Chicks. J. Biol. Chem., 138, (1941): 459. 

“Krehl, W. A., Cowgill, G. R., and Whedon, 
A. D.: Non-Deleterious Effects of Polyoxyethylene 
Esters in the Nutrition of Rats and Cats. J. Nutr., 
55, (1955): 35. 

*Miller, S. A., and Allison, J. B.: The Dietary 
Nitrogen Requirements of the Cat. J. Nutr., 64, 


(1958): 493. 
"Mostyn, H. J.: Effect on Feline Growth of 
Heat Processed Foods and Metabolized Vitamin 


D Milk. Vet. Med., 42, (1947): 110. 

*Odom, G., and McEachern, D.: Subarachnoid 
Injection of Thiamine in Cats; Unmasking of 
Brain Lesions by Induced Thiamine Deficiency. 
Proc. Soc. Exptl. Med. Biol., 50, (1942): 28. 

*Pottenger, F. M., Jr., and Simonsen, D. G.: 


Heat Labile Factors for the Proper Growth and 
Development of Cats. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 25, 
(1939): 238. 

*Thoman, J. E. P., Everett, G. M., Oster, R. H., 
and Smith, D. C.: Origin of Cardiac Disorders in 
Thiamine-Deficient Cats. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 
Med., 58, (1945): 65. 





Rumen Parakeratosis and 
Type of Feed 


Ruminal parakeratosis, characterized by 
hardening, enlargement, and clumping of 
mucosal papillae in the rumen, was found 
to be much more common in lambs fed fine- 
ly ground and pelleted feed than in those 
fed untreated rations (Am. J. Vet Res., 19, 
1958: 277). Proposed possible etiological 
factors were: that finely ground feed may 
create a medium for ruminal flora to pro- 
duce harmful products; contaminants may 
have entered from feed pelleting machin- 
ery; or the grinding and pelleting may 
have altered the composition of the feed, 
thus producing a deficiency. Other experi- 
ments showed that sheep fattened on finely 
ground rations consumed less, had periods 
of anorexia, and gained less than sheep fed 
coarsely ground feed. 

In contrast, another report has indicated 
that finely ground and pelleted feed was 
consumed in greater quantity with greater 
gains resulting than when lambs were fed 
coarse rations (J. Anim. Sci., Nov., 1957: 
863). In 1955, one third of all manufac- 
tured feeds in the United States was 
pelleted and there has been a steady rise in 
this type of feed processing.—Nutr. Rev. 
(Oct., 1958) 299: 





Response of Cobalt-Deficient Lambs 
to Cobaltic Oxide Pellets 


A field test was conducted to determine 
the effect of 75 per cent cobaltic oxide 
pellets on the growth of lambs grazing a 
cobalt-deficient pasture. 

The pellets, designed to remain in the 
reticulum or rumen, weighed about 5.5 
Gm., contained 75 per cent of cobaltic 
oxide, and were as effective as weekly doses 
of cobalt sulfate in controlling the defi- 
ciency over a 14-week period. 

At slaughter, the pellet was found in the 
forestomach of 10 of the 12 lambs. The 
fate of the other 2 is unknown, but both 
lambs grew normally. 

Seven of the 10 pellets recovered showed 
a whitish insoluble deposit consisting 








142 


NUTRITION 





-A.V.M.A, 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





largely of calcium phosphate. On 6, the de- 
posits were slight, but were thickly en- 
crusted on the seventh. 

Only traces of cobalt were removed from 
the pellets during the 14 weeks that they 
remained in the forestomach. 

Present indications are that cobalt top- 
dressing is a cheaper method of control on 
farms of high carrying capacity, but the 
pellets may compete economically with co- 
balt topdressing on farms of low carrying 
capacity and, as an alternative to cobalt 
topdressing, are probably preferable to 
cobaltized licks. 

Cobalt pellets will be of value in the 
diagnosis of cobalt deficiency disease in the 
field—E. D. Andrews et al. in New Zea- 
land Vet. J. (Oct., 1958): 140. 





Influence of Fatty Acids on Signs 
of Vitamin E Deficiency in Chicks 

Encephalomalacia and exudative diath- 
esis, two prominent signs of vitamin de- 
ficiencies in chicks, are promoted by die- 
tary polyenoic fatty acids, 7.e., linoleic and 
linolenic acids. Encephalomalacia has not 
been reported except when the diet con- 
tained these acids. 

When groups of chicks were given a 
commercial mash low in vitamin E for two 
weeks after hatching, then were raised on 
experimental diets, one or both signs of the 
disease appeared within 28 days. Exuda- 
tive diathesis appeared in groups fed either 
of the two fatty acids but encephalomalacia 
occurred only with the linoleic acid diet. 
This agrees with earlier experiments.— 
Nature (Sept. 20, 1958): 802. 





Comments on Bloat in Ruminants 

Bloat, a digestive disturbance charac- 
terized by the excessive accumulation of 
fermentation gases, is believed by many to 
be due to formation in the rumen of stable 
foam, which interferes with eructation. 
Among the several factors which may con- 
tribute to the formation of a stable foam 
are: (a) lack of coarse or scabrous materi- 
al in fresh succulent legumes; (b) slime- 
producing bacteria in the rumen; (c) plant 
saponins; and (d) water-soluble proteins. 

Investigation indicated that the dehy- 
dration of alfalfa had little effect on ru- 
minal motility but it did reduce the pro- 


duction of gas per unit of dry matter. De- 
hydration would not change the saponin 
content but it would denature water- 
soluble proteins. The pH of rumen liquid 
from bloating cows usually was below 6.3 
before bloat occurred, and a drop in pH 
would be more likely to be due to the pro- 
tein content than to saponins. 

The benefit from feeding penicillin (50 
to 75 mg./day) may be due to its effect on 
the antifoaming properties of the fat 
layers on the surface of chloroplasts. How- 
ever, continued feeding of penicillin may 
lead to the development of resistance and 
less effectiveness. 

A water-dispersible oil at a level of 1 and 
2 per cent in the drinking water has been 
reported to reduce bloat. More research is 
indicated.—Nutr. Rev. (Oct., 1958): 300. 





Effect of an Iron Dextran Complex on 
Young Pigs 

Untreated pigs showed a decrease in the 
hemoglobin of the blood up to 4 weeks of 
age but an increase after 8 weeks. Of 184 
pigs given 2 cc. (50 mg. Fe) of the iron 
complex when 3 days old, the average 
weight at 8 weeks was 13.19 kg. (29 Ib.), 
as compared with 11.03 kg. (24 lb.) for the 
140 control pigs. The increased gain varied 
from 0.6 to 43.2 per cent in different herds, 
with a considerable weight gain in all but 
one herd. The greatest gains occurred in 
herds fed the least animal albumin. 

The gain of pigs in the same herd varied 
from 6.2 to 162.0 per cent. 

Death losses during the first three days, 
i.e. prior to treatment, varied from 0 to 
33.3 per cent (av. 17.1%). The later fa- 
talities, up to 56 days of age, were about 
equal in the treated and untreated pigs.— 
G. Schoop and K. Zettl in Monatsh. f. Tier- 
heilk., 10, (1958): 218. 





Congenital Blindness in Lambs 

Based on experimental investigations as 
to whether hereditary or nutritional fac- 
tors are mainly responsible for lambs of 
normal parents being blind at birth, it was 
concluded that this rare phenomenon might 
be due to an hereditary need for a high 
intake of vitamin A.—/J. R. Swiep in 
Tijdschr. v. Diergeneesk. (Dec. 1, 1958): 
1220. 

















© ditpria? 


Hog Cholera Eradication 


Requested Guest Editoria! 


Within recent years there has been 
a growing sentiment that every effort 
should be expended toward the eradication 
of hog cholera. Infectious pleuropneu- 
monia, fowl plague, and foot-and-mouth 
disease have been pointed out as dis- 
eases in the control and eradication of 
which we can be justifiably proud. The 
implication has been that since we have 
had these outstanding successes, proper 
and adequate effort on our part would 
also result in the control and eventual erad- 
ication of hog cholera. The problem in its 
simplest form consists of the protection of 
susceptible swine from infection with hog 
cholera virus. The most common sources 
of this virus are pigs sick of or in the in- 
cubation stage of hog cholera, virulent vi- 
rus used in the so-called “simultaneous 
method” of vaccination, and uncooked gar- 
bage containing raw refrigerated pork 
trimmings from infected swine. 

It is inconceivable that anyone with the 
best interests of the swine industry at 
heart would quarrel with the objective 
looking toward the eventual eradication of 
hog cholera. However, there are some dif- 
ferences of opinion as to how this objective 
is to be achieved or, in fact, whether it is 
even attainable. Some believe it may be at- 
tainable but not by the measures thus far 
proposed, and this editorial is being writ- 
ten in support of this last contention. 

The measures presently proposed have a 
number of facets all designed with the ob- 
jective of preventing the exposure of sus- 
ceptible swine to virulent hog cholera virus. 
The point seemingly uppermost in the 
minds of proponents of the current meas- 
ures is the important role played by viru- 
lent virus, used in “simultaneous vaccina- 
tion,” in the perpetuation of hog cholera. 


SAFETY OF THE NEWER VACCINES 


It is pointed out that swine vaccinated 
with a preparation containing virulent hog 
cholera virus may constitute a health 
hazard to other associated susceptible 
swine in that for a time following vaccina- 
tion such swine shed virulent virus in their 
excretions. The currently proposed pro- 
gram for eradication, therefore, insists 
that the use of virulent virus in immuni- 
zation procedures be outlawed. 


In at least 18 states, the use of virulent 
virus is no longer permitted and it is rec- 
ommended that either killed virus vac- 
cines or preparations containing virus at- 
tenuated by serial passage in rabbits be 
used. 

These two types of hog cholera pro- 
phylactics are variably effective in render- 
ing swine immune to hog cholera but, more 
important, they are supposedly “safe” in 
that they are not considered to perpetuate 
hog cholera virus infection. This last con- 
tention is open to considerable doubt; in 
several “breaks” following the uce of at- 
tenuated (lapinized) virus vaccines ob- 
served personally, the virus isolated from 
sick swine was fully virulent and distin- 
guishable in no way from that found in 
natural cases of the disease. Certainly in 
these instances the “breaking” swine vacci- 
nated with “safe” attenuated virus were 
just as hazardous to the well-being of as- 
sociated susceptible swine as they would 
have been had they been vaccinated with 
virulent virus and hyperimmune serum. 
The source of the fully virulent hog chol- 
era virus in “breaks” of this sort is not 
clear and whether it represents a reversion 
to virulence of the attenuated virus used in 
vaccination or has some other explanation 
remains to be determined. 

But even if the attenuated virus vac- 
cines should eventually prove to be safer 
from the standpoint of virus perpetuation 
than the virulent virus, there is serious 
doubt that the mere elimination of virulent 
virus in vaccination would of itself effect 
the eradication of hog cholera. What ap- 
pears to have been completely lost sight of 
in incorporating the outlawing of virulent 
virus as one of the salient stipulations in 
eradicating cholera is the fact that hog 
cholera was a widespread, multimillion dol- 
lar killer of pigs long before the simul- 
taneous method of vaccination had even 
been dreamed of by Dorset, Niles, and Mc- 
Bryde. 

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries, something besides virulent virus 
vaccine was accountable for the perpetua- 
tion of hog cholera and undoubtedly this 
“something” is still a factor in hog cholera 
perpetuation. Thus the mere elimination of 
one man-made source of infection will be 


(143) 





144 


EDITORIAL 





J.A.V.M.A, 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





only a partial solution and the remainder 
of the problem, that imposed by nature, 
must be understood and taken account of 
before we can even hope to achieve eradica- 


tion. 


AN INTERMEDIATE HOST 

In a recent editorial (JOURNAL, Oct. 15, 
1958: 439), it was pointed out that an ob- 
servation indicating that the swine lung- 
worm could serve as reservoir and interme- 
diate host for the hog cholera virus had 
academic interest but the possible influ- 
ence of the observation on the design of an 
effective hog cholera eradication program 
was barely mentioned. It is the purpose of 
the present communication to enlarge up- 
on this and to point out the infiuence that 
the finding of a reservoir and interme- 
diate host for the hog cholera virus might 
have on the planning of any program de- 
signed specifically to eradicate hog chol- 


era. 
This can be done best by comparing 


the methods that have been employed suc- 
cessfully in the control and eradication of 
two virus diseases—one that has a reser- 
voir and intermediate host and the other 
that apparently lacks such a host. In the 
case of the first, urban yellow fever, the 
eradication program succeeded only when 
the intermediate host, Aedes aegypti mos- 
quito, was eliminated. In the case of the 
second, foot-and-mouth disease as it occurs 
in the United States, mere control of the 
disease in the sick or exposed host was all 
that was required to assure eradication. 
The measures used in controlling yellow 
fever would have succeeded no more in the 
control of foot-and-mouth disease than 
would those employed for foot-and-mouth 
disease have succeeded against not only the 
hog cholera virus but against yellow fever. 

The measures currently proposed for the 
eradication of hog cholera are designed to 
handle a disease in which only one host 
is involved, whereas cognizance should be 
taken not only of the host in which the 
disease occurs, but also the one that serves 
to shelter and perpetuate the causative vi- 
rus between outbreaks. In short, it seems 
that we have focused our sights on only 
half of the target and probably the least 
vulnerable half at that. To have any hope 
of eradicating hog cholera, we shall have 


to broaden our program to include the 
taking of adequate measures against the 
reservoir and intermediate host that is re- 
sponsible for perpetuating the virus in na- 
ture—namely the swine lungworm. 

It is a well-proved medical fact that the 
most effective point of attack on any path- 
ogen dependent upon an intermediate host 
for its transmission is the intermediate 
host itself. This has been amply shown to 
be true in typhus, malaria, and urban yel- 
low fever where the control respectively 
of lice and anopheline and aegypti mosqui- 
toes have resulted in the eradication of 
these three diseases from large areas of 
the earth where they were formerly ramp- 
ant. 


ELIMINATING THE LUNGWORM 

Lungworm eradication will probably not 
be as easy or simple a procedure as louse 
and mosquito eradication has been. How- 
ever, countering this greater problem of 
eradication is the greater ease with which 
swine can be prevented from acquiring 
lungworm infestations even in areas where 
these nematodes are widely prevalent. 
Swine acquire lungworms only by ingest- 
ing earthworms that contain lungworm lar- 
vae so that the matter is as simple as de- 
priving swine of access to earthworms. 
This can be achieved by farrowing in 
floored houses and keeping the pigs on ce- 
ment and away from access to soil until 
after weaning time, when they should be 
vaccinated. It matters not at all that the 
sow may be infested with lungworms, be- 
cause she cannot transmit these directly to 
her offspring. 

A detailed accounting of the procedure 
for maintaining swine in a lungworm-free 
state is beyond the province of this edi- 
torial. However, it can be done and, if car- 
ried out, should eliminate one large source 
of hog cholera virus infection. The matter 
of completely freeing a premise of earth- 
worms containing virus-infected lungworm 
larvae is one that would require a number 
of years to effect. Earthworms are reputed 
to live for as long as ten years under fa- 
vorable conditions and there is direct ex- 
perimental evidence that they will carry in- 
fective lungworm larvae for at least three 
years. 

From this it is evident that any pro- 














ends 
EBRUARY 1, 1959 


EDITORIAL 


145 





gram designed for the eradication of hog 
cholera through an all-out attack upon the 
reservoir and intermediate host of its 
causative virus would, of necessity, have 
to be a sustained and prolonged effort. 

In the meantime, swine, even though 
free of lungworms, are still susceptible to 
infection with hog cholera virus from the 
extrinsic sources previously mentioned. 
Much careful thought should be expended 
in designing that portion of the eradication 
program dealing with the means of pro- 
tecting swine from outside exposure dur- 


ing the interval required to exhaust the 
residual virus existing in lungworm lar- 
vae on a premise or in an area. The most 
conservative and safest course would prob- 
ably be to immunize all swine in the area 
at regular intervals with one of the killed 
hog cholera virus vaccines. The use of live 
virus, either fully virulent or that attenu- 
ated by rabbit passage, would appear to 
this writer to be strictly contraindicated if 
we really do want to eradicate hog cholera. 
—Richard E. Shope, M.D., the Rockefeller 
Institute, New York, N.Y. 





States Prohibiting Use of Virulent Hog Cholera Virus, January |, 1959 


STATES 


ie] prohibiting use * 
CJ permitting use 










TOTAL: 
18 states 






AL ASKA~NO VIRULENT USED 





© BY LAWS AND REGULATIONS 


—U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service 


As of Dec. 15, 1958, Alaska and the I& states shown above had laws prohibiting the use of viru- 
lent hog cholera virus in vaccinating. In Oregon (*), virulent virus can be used but only when ap- 
proved by the state veterinarian. 








Cwvrent Literature 





ABSTRACTS 


Comparative Histology of the Skin of Cattle 

A histological study of the skin of Hereford and 
Aberdeen Angus cattle revealed certain breed and 
sex differences. The skins of Hereford cattle of 
both sexes were thicker than the skins of Aber- 
deen Angus and the males of the latter breed ex- 
hibited thicker skin than the females. The stratum 
corneum was thicker in the Aberdeen Angus and 
the stratum germinativum was thicker in the Here- 
ford. Excluding the exceptionally thick epidermis 
of the muzzle (av. 921 «), the thickest epidermis 
in 3 of the 4 Herefords was on the ventral ab- 
dominal wall. 

The fine black pigment granules of the Aber- 
deen Angus and the coarser brown granules of the 
Hereford indicated breed but no sex differences. 
Dorsal areas showed the greatest density of pig- 
ment. In the Hereford, the quantity was greater in 
the red than in the white areas. The dermis of the 
Hereford was thicker than that of the Aberdeen 
Angus. 

A structure not previously described occurred 
in the hair follicle. A series of 15 to 25 folds, in- 
volving the cuticle of the root sheath, encircled 
the middle of the hair follicle distal to the open- 
ing of the sebaceous duct. Three types of sweat 
glands were present. The sebaceous glands varied 
in size and form with hair density and, in general, 
occurred on the same side of their respective hair 
follicles.—{S. Goldsberry and M. L. Calhoun: 
The Comparative Histology of the Skin of Here- 
ford and Aberdeen Angus Cattle. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 
20, (Jan., 1959): 61-68.} 


Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy in Lambs 

Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) 
was determined on blood samples drawn from 
lambs born of ewes maintained throughout gesta- 
tion on hay grown in an area where muscular 
dystrophy was prevalent or hay grown in an area 
free of this disease. 

Of 418 lambs born in the dystrophy flock, 77 
developed clinical signs of the disease. There were 
no cases among the 25 lambs in the control flock. 
An elevated SGOT level at 7 or 14 days of age 
was a reliable indication of subsequent develop- 
ment of clinical muscular dystrophy. Very high 
SGOT levels were found at the time of clinical 
muscular dystrophy in the iambs.—{K. F. Swingle, 
S. Young, and H. C. Dang: The Relationship of 
Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase to Nu- 
tritional Muscular Dystrophy in Lambs. Am. J. 
Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 75-77.} 





Comparative Histology of the Kidney 

No sex differences were apparent in kidneys 
from 69 domestic animals representing seven spe- 
cies. 


The capsule, except in the cat which has only 
one layer, contains an outer dense fibrous layer 
and an inner looser layer containing varying 
amounts of smooth muscle, depending on the 
species. The ruminant capsule contains the most 
smooth muscle. 

The renal corpuscles are largest in the horse and 
cow and smallest in the cat. They are largest next 
to the medulla in the horse, pig, dog, and cat; 
those nearest the capsule are largest in the ox. 

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is present in all 
species, including animals 2 and 3 months old. 

The diameter of all parts of the uriniferous 
tubule is greatest in the horse and least in the cat. 
The epithelial height is lowest (11) in the sheep, 
goat, and dog. Fat globules are present in the 
proximal convoluted tubules of carnivores. 

The macula densae are similar in all animals ex- 
cept the horse, which shows nuclei crowded to- 
gether in such a way as to appear stratified. 

Transitional epithelium lines the papillary ducts 
in all species except the dog, which has only sim- 
ple columnar epithelium. A valvelike epithelial 
flap marks the entrance of the papillary duct into 
the pelvis in the dog and cat. 

Intertubular or Becher’s cells are present in all 
species except the cat, and are best developed in 
the horse and ox. Goormaghtigh’s cells are present 
in all animals. 

The stellate veins are particularly prominent in 
the carnivores. In the cat, they are just beneath or 
in the edge of the capsule while, in the dog, they 
are located in the cortex a short distance from the 
periphery.—[Ramchandra P. Yadava and M. Lois 
Calhoun: Comparative Histology of the Kidney 
of Domestic Animals. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 19, (Oct., 
1958): 958-968.} 





Trivalent Toxoid for Botulism 

Several factors concerned with the preparation 
and evaluation of a trivalent toxoid containing 
equal parts of Clostridium botulinum types A, 
B, and C were studied. Trivalent toxoids, which 
served as satisfactory antigens in mice against 
large doses of toxoid of all three types studied, 
were prepared by the methods and criteria de- 
scribed.—{[G. S$. Appleton and P. G. White: Lab- 
oratory Evaluation of a Trivalent Toxoid for 
Botulism. Am. J]. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 170- 
172.} 





Detection of Leptospirosis in Wild Mammals 

In a study of leptospirosis in wild mammals in 
southwestern Georgia, 2,501 animals were col- 
lected. Of these, 1,811 were tested for the presence 
of leptospiras by culturing kidney tissue, and 181 
(10%) were positive. Complement-fixation tests 
using antigens of Leptospira ballum, Leptospira 
pomona, Leptospira icterobaemorrbagiae, and Lep- 
tospira canicola were performed on 2,200, and 399 
(18%) were positive. 

The tests were duplicated on 1,704 animals, and 


(146) 











A 
FB 


.V.M.A 
RUARY 1, 


1959 


CURRENT LITERATURE 


147 





9.5 per cent were pesitive by culture and 18 per 
cent were positive by complement-fixation tests. 

Only 60 (37%) of the animals from which iso- 
lates were obtained were positive by complement- 
fixation tests. Absence of cross reaction between 
the antigens used and antibodies of Leptospira 
australis A and the Leptospira hyos, Leptospira 
grippotyphosa, Leptospira autumnalis, and Lepto- 
spira hebdomadis serogroups probably caused 
the greatest discrepancy between the two tests. 
Prior to the present study, L. autumnalis was iso- 
lated from man only; L. australis A and organ- 
isms of the L. byos, L. grippotyphosa, and L. 
hebdomadis serogroups had not been isolated 
previously in the United States. 

Of the 44 isolates identified, 26 were either 
L. ballum or L. pomona; blood from the hosts of 
24 of these was tested and only 11 (46%) had a 
positive complement-fixation reaction. 

The cottontail rabbit and spotted skunk are 
recorded as new hosts for leptospiras—{S. Mc- 
Keever, ]. H. Schubert, G. W. Gorman, and R. D. 
Grimes: Comparison of Bacteriological and Sero- 
logical Techniques for Detection of Leptospirosis 
in Wild Mammals. Am. J]. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 
1959): 192-197.} 





Strains of Listeria Monocytogenes 


Somatic and flagellar antigens of Listeria mono- 
cytogenes were determined in 142 strains isolated 
in Michigan from cattle, sheep, and human beings. 
Of these, 51 belonged to type 1, 26 of which con- 
tained antigens I, II, (111), AB (type la) and 25 
possessed I, II, (III), ABC (type Ib). No type 2 
strains were found, and there was only one type 
3b with a formula II, IV, (IIT) ABC. The remain- 
ing 90 strains were type 4, and these were sub- 
divided into four strains containing V, VII, IX, 
(II), ABC (type 4a), 63 strains possessing V, VI, 
dill), ABC (type 4b), nine strains with V, VII, 
dill), ABC (type 4c), and 14 strains containing 
V, VI, VIL, EX, CIID, ABC (type 4ab). There was 
no apparent correlation between antigenic types 
and the species of animal from which the culture 
was obtained or the region of Michigan in which 
the animals originated—{J. Donmker-Voet: A 
Serological Study on Some Strains of Listeria 
Monocytogenes Isolated in Michigan. Am. J]. Vet. 
Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 176-179.} 


Body Fluids of Ruminants 


A procedure for the simultaneous determination 
of the extracellular and total body water using 
sodium thiocyanate and antipyrine was described. 
Normal extracellular water volume (thiocyanate 
space) in sheep and goats is consistent at 30.0 per 
cent of body weight; cattle 8 to 9 months old 
show 28.0 per cent. Normal plasma water volume 
in 18 wether sheep and 9 goats, as determined by 
dye (T-1824) dilution analysis, averaged 5.8 per 
cent of body weight. Blood plasma thiocyanate 
concentrations in sheep and goats decreased ex- 
ponentially at the rate of 4.0 to 5.0 per cent of 


the injected dose per hour, and equilibrium with 
the extracellular water was reached 60 to 90 
minutes postinjection. Cattle showed a consistent 
plasma concentration of thiocyanate for six hours 
postinjection. 

Antipyrine was metabolized by the sheep and 
goat at the rate of 28.0 to 30.0 per cent per hour 
of the injected dose, while in cattle its metabolism 
was slower by about 5.0 per cent. The body com- 
position of a wether is given as determined from 
the analysis in vivo of the several fluid compart- 
ments. Severe dehydration in the sheep produced 
by low dietary sodium intake resulted in a 26 per 
cent reduction in plasma water volume, and a 25 
per cent reduction in interstitial and extracellular 
water volume. 

The concept of an anatomic versus a physiolog- 
ical volume of the extracellular water compartment 
was introduced, the latter being synonymous with 
the thiocyanate space.—[{E. L. Hix, G. K. L. Un- 
derbjerg, and J]. S. Hughes: The Body Fluids of 
Ruminants and Their Simultaneous Determination. 


Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 184-191.} 





Serological Types of Pasteurella Multocida 


Strains of Pasteurella multocida from various 
species, diseases, and geographic locations were 
examined serologically by the indirect hemagglu- 
tination test. Of 257 strains, only 99 were clearly 
typed. Of these, 62 strains were identified as type 
A, 14 as type B, and 23 as type D. 

All but two type B strains were recovered over- 
seas from buffaloes with acute pasteurellosis 
(hemorrhagic septicemia). The type A and D 
strains were recovered from animals with a variety 
of disease processes, many of which were sporadic. 
Type A strains predominated as the cause of acute 
fowl cholera. The existence of a third large group 
or type was indicated but, because of inconclusive 
hemagglutination reactions, final identification was 
suspended.—[{G. R. Carter: Studies on Pasteurella 
Multocida. IV. Serological Types from Species 
Other than Cattle and Swine. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 20, 
(Jan., 1959): 173-175.} 





Immunogenic Agent Against Brucella Abortus 


A soluble-type vaccine was prepared by the acid- 
heat extraction of Brucella abortus strain 2308 
and its metabolic by-products in Stuart's medium. 
A comparison was made, in guinea pigs, of 2-day- 
old and 13-day-old cultures for the preparation of 
the immunogenic agent. Although the number of 
viable organisms present in the culture liquid was 
approximately the same for both lots, there was a 
significant difference in immunogenic activity. The 
agent made from the 2-day-old culture produced 
no significant protection against various dosage 
levels of living Br. abortus strain 2308 organisms. 
The agent prepared from the 13-day-old culture 
produced not only significant protection against 
homologous strain challenge but, at effective dos- 
age levels, produced insignificant serum-agglutina- 
tion titers. Protection was determined by the fail- 








148 


CURRENT LITERATURE 


J.A.V.M.A., 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





ure to isolate Brucella organisms in tissues taken 
at necropsy.—{Warren G. Hoag and Robert C. 
Allen: Studies on an Immunogenic Agent Against 
Brucella Abortus. I. Titrations of a New Soluble 
Immunogenic Agent Against Experimental Infec- 
tions in Guinea Pigs. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 19, (Jan., 
1958): 162-165.} 





Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus 


The influence of temperature, hydrogen ion con- 
centrations, and selected chemical agents on the in- 
fectivity of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus 
were evaluated by titrations in bovine kidney tis- 
sue culture. 

When suspended in tissue culture mediums at 
pH 7.0, the virus was found to be unusually stable, 
retaining its original titer for 30 days at 4 C. and 
losing only 1 log of infectivity after five days at 
22 C. 

Although loss of titer was rapid at pH’s of 5.0 
and 4.4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, the virus was 
remarkably stable over the pH range of 6.0 
through 9.0. Only 2 logs of infectivity were lost 
after 60 days at 4 C., at pH’s of 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 
9.0. 

Exposure of the virus to equal parts of ether, 
alcohol, or acetone caused prompt inactivation.— 
{T. P. Griffin, W. V. Howells, R. A. Crandell, 
and F. D. Maurer: Stability of the Virus of In- 
fectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis. Am. J]. Vet. Res., 
19, (Oct., 1958): 990-992.} 





Cytopathogenic Enteroviruses from Cattle 


Six cytopathic virus isolates were recovered in 
bovine kidney cell cultures from feces of cattle in 
six different herds with a history of respiratory 
disease and abortion. All affected animals in one 
herd developed significant neutralizing antibody 
titers after recovery. 

The six virus isolates, which were less than 80 
my and heat and ether resistant, produced rapid 
morphological cytopathic changes in bovine, swine, 
human, and monkey cells grown in vitro. Cross- 
neutralization tests in cell cultures showed that the 
six virus isolates belonged to two serological 
types. Both types were inhibited in cell culture- 
neutralization tests by infectious bovine rhino- 
tracheitis convalescent serums and enteric cyto- 
pathogenic bovine orphan immune serums. 

Preliminary studies have shown that these vi- 
ruses cause heart necrosis in cortisone-treated 
weaned mice, pneumonitis in cortisone-treated 
calves, and late abortion in pregnant guinea pigs. 
—{T. Moll and A. D. Davis: Isolation and Charac- 
terization of Cytopathogenic Enteroviruses from 
Cattle with Respiratory Disease. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 
20, (Jan., 1959): 27-32.} 





Serum Protein Turnover Rates in Dairy Cows 


Glycine-1-C* was injected into nonlactating and 
lactating dairy cows. The turnover rates of intra- 


vascular serum protein as measured from the de- 
scending curve of the logarithm of the specific ac- 
tivities of the total serum proteins were 4.55 and 
4.51 per cent per day for 2 lactating cows. A non- 
lactating cow, febrile and exhibiting a pulmonary 
infection, possessed a turnover rate of 5.93 per 
cent for the total serum proteins. Replacement 
rates of intravascular serum proteins were 80.2, 
69.5, and 81.2 Gm. per day for the febrile non- 
lactating cow and 2 lactating cows, respectively. 

A procedure, using the hippurate glycine as the 
precursor tracer concentration for serum protein 
production, was utilized to calculate a minimum 
estimation of the total serum protein production 
rate. A nonlactating cow produced, per unit time, 
64 per cent of the average of serum proteins pro- 
duced by 2 lactating cows.—{C. E. Cornelius, A. 
L. Black, and M. Kleiber: The Use of Glycine-l- 
C" in the Measurement of Serum Protein Turn- 
over Rates in Dairy Cows. Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, 
(Jan., 1959): 44-52.} 





Lipid Accumulation in the Adrenal Glands of 
Cows 

The adrenal glands from 94 Holstein-Friesian 
cows and mature heifers were used in this study 
in an effort to learn more about the incidence and 
nature of lipid accumulation in the bovine adrenal 
gland under the stresses of pregnancy and lactation. 

The average adrenal gland weights of the non- 
pregnant lactating (16.6+0.8 Gm.) and pregnant 
lactating (14.6+0.8 Gm.) cows were significantly 
greater (P=<0.01) than the average weight of 
the mature nonpregnant heifers (9.1+0.6 Gm.) The 
average adrenal gland weight of the nonpregnant 
lactating cow was significantly greater (P= <0.05) 
than that of the pregnant lactating cow. Measure- 
ments of the various cortical zones showed the 
zonae fasciculatae of the lactating pregnant cows 
to be significantly greater than those of the other 
two groups. Counts made to determine the num- 
bers of nuclei per unit of area (784 square mi- 
crons) showed a constant glomerulosa-fasciculata 
ratio of 2:1 between all three groups, indicating 
that cellular hyperplasia rather than cellular hyper- 
trophy was responsible for the increase in size of 
the glands. 

Amounts of oil red O-stainable material gradu- 
ally increased from the mature heifers group to 
the pregnant lactating group, with the zona glo- 
merulosa showing a greater tendency toward lipid 
accumulation than the zona fasciculata. Acicular 
birefringent particles were found in all adrenal 
glands studied, with the zonae glomerulosae show- 
ing more involvement than the zonae fasciculatae. 
There appeared to be no correlation between quan- 
tity of birefringent particles and quantity of lipid 
material present. All glands were negative to the 
Schultz cytochemical test for cholesterol. 

On the basis of this study, it appears that the 
stresses of pregnancy and lactation bring about a 
gradual increase in the lipid content of the bovine 
adrenal gland. Although less in quantity, the pat- 
tern of distribution of the lipid material resembles 











Fenavaw A 


ARY 1, 1959 


CURRENT LITERATURE 


149 








that seen in the adrenal glands from cows with 
ketosis and other parturient diseases.—{J. T. Bell, 
Jr., and A. F. Weber: A Comparative Study of 
Lipid Accumulation in the Adrenal Glands of Ma- 
ture Nompregnant Dairy Heifers, Nonpregnant 
Lacting Dairy Cows, and Pregnant Lactating Dairy 
Cows. Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 53-60.} 





Soluble Vibrio Fetus Antigen 


A heat-stable, water soluble substance, termed 
“HS,” apparently partly polysaccharide in nature, 
was isolated from smooth Vibrio fetus cells of 
bovine origin. Its carbohydrates yielded only pen- 
toses of hydrolysis. Seven amino acids were identi- 
fied in the fraction. The fraction contained 14.0 
per cent nitrogen and 615.0 per cent phosphorus. 
Immunological reactivity of the fraction was dem- 
onstrated by production of agglutinating antibody 
in the rabbit and guinea pig. Fraction HS was 
serologically active in gel precipitation tests and 
was capable of inhibiting a specific agglutination 
reaction—{M. Ristic amd C. A. Brandly: Char- 
acterization of Vibrio Fetus Antigens I. Chemical 
Properties and Serological Activities of a Soluble 
Antigen. Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 145- 
147.} 





Virus Association with Lamb Pneumonia 

Trypsinized ovine kidney epithelial cells were 
used successfully for the propagation of a virus 
recovered from a pneumonic lung of a lamb. No 
cytopathogenic changes were observed, but intra- 
cytoplasmic inclusion bodies developed seven days 
after adding the virus. 

The range of pathogenicity of the virus was de- 
termined in various laboratory animals. The virus 
produced pneumonia in mice when instilled in- 
tranasally. It killed chicken embryos within three 
to nine days. The virus passed through Seitz steri- 
lizing pads and Selas No. 02 filters, but was re- 
tained by Selas No. 03 filters. Psittacosis antibodies 
were demonstrated in the serums of turkeys which 
had been inoculated with the virus—{A. H. 
Hamdy and V. L. Sanger: Characteristics of a Vi- 
rus Associated with Lamb Pneumonia. Am. J]. Vet. 
Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 84-86.} 





Particle Size and Efficiency of Phenothiazine 

Studies with phenothiazine N.F. powder of 
various particle sizes in sheep revealed that there 
is an inverse relationship between particle size and 
anthelmintic efficiency against nematode parasites 
inhabiting the abomasum and small intestine. This 
inverse relationship, if plotted as percentage of 
efficiency against specific surface (sq. cm./Gm.), 
was found to be linear between 5,000 and 25,000 
sq. cm./Gm. This represents a range of approxi- 
mately 104 to 1u mean particle diameter and 63 
to 93 per cent efficiency. 

A generic and species differential susceptibility 
was found in the abomasum, while no significant 
differential effect was found between genera or 


species present in the small intestine. In the abo- 
masum, Ostertagia circumcincta and Trichostrongy- 
lus axei were most susceptible, while Tricho- 
strongylus vitrinus was more resistant. However, 
these differences became progressively smaller with 
decrease in mean particle diameter and all were 
equally susceptible when the mean particle diam- 
eter approximated 24 or less (specific surface 
of 25,000 sq. cm./Gm. or more). 

A purified phenothiazine preparation having a 
mean particle diameter of 4.8u was found to be as 
efficient as N.F. powder of 2.04. The explanation 
of this is not presently available. 

It is concluded that a most desirable phenothia- 
zine N.F. powder for use where species of the 
genera Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Nema- 
todirus are the nematodes of greatest importance 
in sheep should have an average particle diameter 
of 2 or less (specific surface of 25,000 sq. cm, 
Gm., or higher).—{J. R. Douglas, N. F. Baker, 
and W. M. Longhurst: Further Studies on the Re- 
lationship Between Particle Size and Anthelmintic 
Efficiency of Phenothiazine. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 20, 
(Jan., 1959): 201-205.} 





Pneumonia in Slaughtered Lambs 


Pasteurella organisms were isolated from the 
laryngeal regions of 28 of 41 lambs and 23 of 36 
dams. At slaughter, pulmonary lesions were found 
in 14 of the 41 lambs and 71 per cent of them 
harbored Pasteurella organisms in their throats 
during the nursing period. 

The lambs seemed to acquire the organisms 
from their dams and these, in turn, may provide 
the agents which produce mastitis in their dams. 
Pasteurella species, pleuropneumonia-like organ- 
isms, and a virus were found to be associated with 
pneumonia lesions in lambs at time of slaughter.— 
{A. H. Hamdy, W. D. Pounden, and L. C. Fer- 
guson: Microbial Agents Associated with Pneu- 
monia in Slaughtered Lambs. Am. ]. Vet. Res., 20, 
(Jan., 1959): 87-90.} 





Radioiodine in Thyroid Glands of Swine 


Initial observations in Palouse pigs reveal a di- 
rect relationship between nutritional level and 
thyroidal I™ accumulation. Full-fed and 70 per 
cent full-fed pigs received a marginally goitrogenic 
ration (low in iodine) in a long-term study de- 
signed primarily to define the maximum level of 
I™ given daily that will not cause thyroid dam- 
age. Pigs were fed 0.5, 5.0, and 45.0uc of I™ daily. 
Those on a low-level ration were fed 70 per cent 
(by weight) of the daily allowance for swine on 
full feed and individual daily supplements of 
stable iodine to equalize their iodine intake with 
that of the high-level group. 

In both single and chronic feedings of the iso- 
tope, full-fed pigs showed significantly higher 
thyroid accumulations. Both levels of nutrition 
attained maximum thyroidal I™ accumulations 
between 20 and 30 hours after single-isotope 
feedings and the effective thyroidal I™ half-life 








150 


CURRENT LITERATURE 


J.A.V.M.A. 
___Fesruary |, 1959 





averaged six days. Chronic I feeding showed 
approximate equilibrium accumulations in the 
thyroid in 21 days, and the time appeared to be 
independent of nutritional level. The sensitive, 
two-probed, in vivo thyroid monitor (scintillation 
principle) and associated restraint equipment uti- 
lized in the study were briefly described—{L. J. 
Seigneur, L. D. Test, and L. K. Bustad: Use of 
Scintillation Detector for Determining I’ Accumu- 
lation in the Thyroid Glands of Swine. Am. J. 
Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 14-17.} 





Protection Against Clostridium Perfringens 

Ewes inoculated with Clostridium perfringens 
type D vaccine as young lambs showed greater 
antitoxin production when revaccinated three years 
later than did ewes which were inoculated only 
at 3 years of age. This increased immune re- 
sponse was evident not only in the antitoxin con- 
tent of the serums of the ewes, but also in the 
antitoxin content of the colostrum and of the 
serums of their lambs. A presumably protective 
level of antitoxin was maintained by the lambs for 
three months——{L. DS. Smith and T. Matsuoka: 
Maternally Induced Protection of Young Lambs 
Against the Epsilon Toxin of Clostridium Per- 
fringens Using Nonactivated Vaccine. Am. J]. Vet. 
Res., 20, (Jan., 1959): 91-93.} 





Pyometra in Dogs 

The hypothalamic-hypophysial systems of 6 
bitches with pyemetra and 10 healthy control 
bitches were studied histologically using GémGri's 
aldehyde-fuchsin method. Comparison between 
these groups indicated that the amount of neuro- 
secretory material had decreased in the neuro- 
hypophysis in the bitches with pyometra.—{S. 
Talanti: Observations on Pyometra in Dogs, with 
Reference to the Hypothalamic-Hypopbysial Neu- 
rosecretory System. Am. J. Vet. Res., 20, (Jan., 
1959): 41-43.} 





BOOKS AND REPORTS 


Recommended Methods for the 
Microbiological Examination of Foods 

Following a chapter of general directions for 
routine and special laboratory methods employed 
in the microbiological examination of foods, this 
book has 14 chapters each covering a particular 
type or class of food. The last two chapters dis- 
cuss methods for examining food for Escherichia 
coli, coliforms, fecal streptococci, and the specific 
food poisoning bacteria. Finally, there are excellent 
appendices giving all cultural mediums, staining 
procedures, and indicators recommended in the 
book. 

This book is an excellent reference for labora- 
tory personnel doing microbiological studies on 
foods and determining the causative agents of 


microbiological spoilage. The principal limitation 
of its use is in the interpretation of the results of 
analysis. Due to the tremendous scope of the ma- 
terial, only brief interpretations are offered in 
each section. Since interpretations of laboratory 
data of this nature are frequently complex, it may 
be necessary to use considerable reference material 
in conjunction with these methods. References are 
listed at the end of each chapter. 

The various sections in this book have been pre- 
pared and reviewed by some of the best authorities 
on each topic. There are undoubtedly many revi- 
sions that the various contributors could make 
even now, and future revised editions are certainly 
indicated.—[{Recommended Methods for the Micro- 
biological Examination of Foods. Prepared by the 
Subcommittee on Methods for the Microbiological 
Examination of Foods, American Public Health As- 
sociation. 212 pp. American Public Health Associa- 
tion, Inc., 1790 Broadway, New York 19, N.Y. 
1958. Price not given.}—R. N. COSTILOW. 





Veterinary Ophthalmology 

This second edition does not differ greatly from 
the first (see the JOURNAL, Dec. 1, 1956, p. 
535).—[{Veterinary Ophthalmology. By R. H. 
Smythe. 2nd ed. 379 pages. Williams and Wilkins 
Co., Baltimore, Md. 1958. Price $8.50.} 





Pictorial Handbook of Fracture Treatment 

The book is designed particularly for the needs 
of the medical student and the busy general prac- 
titioner. The style of writing and illustrations give 
a visual picture of the actual steps required to re- 
duce, immobilize, and provide intelligent after- 
care for each of the more common fractures and 
dislocations. Each case is treated by the simplest 
method which the authors themselves have been 
able to consistently obtain satisfactory end-results. 

The first 15 of the 33 chapters deal with gen- 
eral considerations for treatment of fractures and 
dislocations. These basic fundamentals, which are 
applicable to both men and animals, are concisely 
covered in a step-by-step fashion. The three chap- 
ters (Open and Infected Fractures, Delayed Unions 
and Nonunions, Complications of Fractures) which 
deal with the real problems in bone and joint 
surgery cover much in the line of useful informa- 
tion. Volkmann’s paralysis, which has been re- 
corded in animals, is described as one of the re- 
sulting deformities. 

Although the book is designed for the medical 
profession, coverage of the basic fundamentals 
and treatment of the various types of fractures is 
such that most of the contents is equally applicable 
to the practice of veterinary medicine and could 
serve as additional information on this subject.— 
{Pictorial Handbook of Fracture Treatment. By 
E. L. Compere, S. W. Banks, and C. L. Compere, 
448 pages; 268 illustrations; 4th ed. Year Book 
Publishers, Chicago, lil., 1958. Price not given.J}— 
W. O. BRINKER. 














THE NEWS 





Dr. Hagan to Head New Disease Laboratory 


Dr. William A. Hagan (KSC °15) of Ithaca, 
N. Y., has been named director of the United 
States Department of Agriculture’s Animal Dis- 
ease Laboratory under construction at Ames, 
lowa. He will assume his new duties Jan. 1, 1960. 

The appointment was announced January 7 by 
Dr. Byron T. Shaw, administrator of the Agri- 
cultural Research Service, U.S.D.A. Dr. Hagan 
will retire as dean of the New York State Veteri- 
nary College at Cornell University next summer, 
after serving the college 27 years in that capacity. 
The laboratory at Ames is expected to be com 
pleted and in operation about November, 1960. 

Dr. Hagan’s eminent qualifications for this re- 
sponsible position are well recognized both in and 





Dr. William A. Hagan 


out of the profession. He has served with distinc- 
tion in many national and international profes- 
sional capacities. In 1945, he spent ten months 
making a nationwide survey of the former Bureau 
of Animal Industry’s activities. At present he is a 
member of the AVMA Council on Research and 
its Committee on Journal. 

Dr. Hagan was president of the AVMA in 
1946-1947 and is chairman of the United States 
Committee for the coming 16th International Vet- 
erinary Congress to be held in Madrid, May, 1959. 
He is the author of more than 100 scientific papers 
and of the outstanding textbook “The Infectious 
Diseases of Domestic Animals.” 


XVith International Veterinary Congress to 
Have Photographic Exhibit Competition 


The Organizing Committee of the XVIth I.V.C. 
has announced that an exhibit of photographs on 
veterinary subjects will be held in Madrid and has 
asked each national committee to bring it to the 
attention of persons who may be interested in 
submitting entries. Following are the rules: 

1—The exhibit-competition will be held May 

22-26 and only members of the Congress may 

participate. 
2—Those who intend to submit entries shall 

so notify the Secretary-General of the Organ- 

izing Committee not later than March 22, 1959. 
3—Photographs shall be sent postage-paid so 

as to be received by the Secretary-General not 

later than April 22. 
4—Photographs will be returned C.O.D. to 

owners about ten (10) days after the Congress 

ends or will be handed to those who attend the 

Congress, after the exhibit closes. 

The requirements for the photographs are: 

Size—18 x 24 cm. (7 x 91% in.) ; an original and 
copy must be supplied. 

Color—black and white or color. 

Mounting—Photographs must be fixed to card- 
board with a border (margin) not exceeding 
2 cm. (% in.) 

Identification—Photographs shall be identified 
with a “catchword” (subject field) and cap- 
tion, typewritten. The catchword shall also be 
typed on the outside of the envelope containing 
the photographs; the name of the author- 
owner shall be given in a letter enclosed with 
the pictures. 

Advance data and information about entries, 
and the photographs, shall be sent, as per the 
deadlines above, to: 

The Secretary-General 

XVIth International Veterinary Congress 

Calle Villanueva, 11 

Madrid, Spain 
[In order that the U.S. Committee may know 
about any entries from this country, it will be 
appreciated if copies of letters to the Secretary- 
General are sent to: U.S. Committee, XVIth 
I.V.C., c/o AVMA, 600 S. Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago 5, IIl.] 





Horseshoeing Taught at Three Schools 

Eleven students are currently enrolled in the 12- 
week horseshoeing course at Michigan State Uni- 
versity. The instructor frankly warns his classes 
that although there is surprising demand and pay 
for the work, there are some disadvantages. The 


(151) 








152 


field of racing, where the highest fees are paid, is 
hard to enter; traveling reduces profits; and the 
work is hard on even the strongest men. 

Good smiths reportedly make around $10,000 
(net) a year in racing but the average is nearer 
$6,000. To become a member of the Journeymen 
Horseshoers Union, which represents racing- 
smiths, the applicant must pass a test to the satis- 
faction of an examiner. In Illinois and in Califor- 
nia, there is also a state test for a license. 

Courses in horseshoeing are offered at Cornell 
University, California Institute of Technology, 
and Michigan State University—DWall Street J. 
(Nov. 26, 1958) :1. 

The antiquity and horseshoeing methods em- 
ployed in southern Syria were discussed in the 
JOURNAL, August, 1939, pp. 133-136, and “A New 
Departure in Horseshoeing; Tube Borium” was 
reported in the JouRNAL, May, 1941, pp. 389-391.— 
Ed. 





CDC Offers Courses in Veterinary Mycology 

A one-week course in laboratory diagnostic 
methods in Veterinary Mycology will be 
offered by the Communicable Disease Center, 
Public Health Service, Chamblee, Ga., March 
2-9, 1959. 

This course is designed to familiarize veterinar- 
ians and others with procedures for detecting, 
isolating, and identifying the fungi which cause 
mycotic infections in animals. The methods of 
diagnosis covering specimen collection, culture 
media, laboratory animal inoculations, and 
other procedures will be demonstrated. The 
epizootiology, public health importance, and cur- 
rent treatment of the individual diseases will also 
be stressed. 

Application forms as well as information on 
living accommodations in the Atlanta, Ga., area 
can be obtained by writing to: Laboratory 
Training Services, Communicable Disease Cen- 
ter, P.O. Box 185, Chamblee, Ga. 





AMONG THE STATES AND 
PROVINCES 





California 

Northern San Joaquin Association.—The 
newly elected roster of the Northern San Joa- 
quin V.M.A. for the year 1958-1959 is as fol- 
lows: Drs. Robert F. Larson, Tracy, Calif., 
president; A. J. Eisenhower, Merced, vice- 
president; and Thomas J. Carleton, Lodi, secre- 
tary-treasurer. 

Meetings of the Association are held on the 
fourth Wednesday of each month at the Hotel 
Covell in Modesto. 

s/THomas J. Carteton, Secretary-Treasurer. 


THE NEWS 


J.A.V.M.A. 
_._ BRUARY 1, 1959 


Colorado 


Veterinarians in State Legislature——Two 
members of the Colorado V.M.A. won state 
legislature seats during Colorado’s November 


elections, while two others lost by narrow 
margins in their respective counties. 
The two veterinarians who will take seats 


in the 42nd General Assembly are: Drs. S. W. 
Beggs of Lamar, Prowers County; and P. C. 
Lamb of Brush, Weld County. Those who 
lost their bid for seats are: Drs. R. S. Cooley, 
Wheat Ridge, Jefferson County, who was running 
for representative; and N. J. Miller, Eaton, who 
has long represented Weld County, and who 
was narrowly defeated by a democratic candi- 
date for state senator.—Rocky Mountain Vet., 6, 
Nov. 1958. 


Florida 


State Association—Dr. C.B. Plummer, Jr., 
president, presided at the twenty-ninth annual 
meeting of the Florida State V.M.A. at the 
Galt Ocean Mile Hotel in Fort Lauderdale on 
October 12-14. 

Guests speakers included: Drs. C.E. DeCamp, 
New York; L.C. Faulkner and H.J. Hill, both 
of Fort Collins, Colo.; William V. Lumb, East 
Lansing, Mich.; Mark L. Morris, Topeka, 
Kan.; F. H. Oberst, Manhattan, Kan.; G. F. 
Otto, Chicago; V. R. Saurino, Miami; and 
Charles Wallace, Augusta, Ga. A total of 30 
short clinical demonstrations were conducted 
by the guest speakers and various Florida vet- 
erinarians. Dr. Jack Knowles, Miami, was the 
master of ceremonies. 

Dr. Robert Knowles, Miami, was installed 
as president and Dr. William F. Jackson, Lake- 
land, became president-elect. Dr. M. W. Em- 
mel, Gainesville, was elected executive-secre- 
tary of the Association. 

s/M. W. Emmet, E-vrecutive-Secretary. 


Illinois 


Chicago Association to Give Short Course 
in Dermatology.—The Chicago V.M.A. will of- 
fer a postgraduate short course in veterinary 
dermatology, March 14-16, 1959. It will be 
conducted by Dr. Frank Kral, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and enrollment will be limited to the first 
25 local applicants. The tuition is $50. 

Those interested in applying for admittance 
to the course may write to Dr. Leon Schwartz, 
1808 W. Addison, Chicago 13, III. 

s/CHARLES ARMSTRONG, Secretary. 


Indiana 
Central Association—The Central Indiana 
V.M.A. elected the following roster for the 


year 1959, at the regular monthly meeting held 
December 10, at the Continental Hotel in Indi- 
anapolis: Drs. Peter Johnson, Jr., Indianapolis, 











J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 


THE NEWS 153 








president; C.H. Stengel, Indianapolis, presi- 
dent-elect; O.W. Cottongim, Indianapolis, vice- 
president; and P.T. Parker, Plainfield, secre- 
tary-treasurer. 

s/CHARLES H. SteNnGEL, Secretary (1958). 


Louisiana 


Women’s Auxiliary —The Women's Auxilia- 
ry to the Louisiana V.M.A. met during the 
seventh annual fall conference of the State As- 
sociation at the Monteleone Hotel in New 
Orleans last August. Thirty-six members at- 
tended the luncheon meeting held in the Gour- 
met Foreign Coffee Lounge. Mrs. Ray Cowart, 
Alexandria, president, presided. 

Following the reading of the minutes, a revi- 
sion of the constitution was made, and Mrs. J. 
Philip Amy, Eunice, presented a report on the 
public relations committee. Mrs. Amy urged all 
members to take part in the Auxiliary’s clip- 
ping service and appointed members of the 
auxiliary from various sections of the state to 
be responsible for clippings in their respective 
locals. The Auxiliary also made a donation to the 
National Memorial Fund in memory of Mrs. Kent 
W. Franks of Minden 

s/Mrs. |. Puicie Amy, Correspondent. 


Maine 
State Association—The last quarterly meet- 
ing of the Maine V.M.A. was held in Pittsfield 
November 5. Dr. George Bragdon, federal vet- 
erinarian, Augusta, discussed TB eradication. 
He emphasized the importance of “adequate 
restraint, a 3/8 inch needle and a full dose of 
tuberculin given intradermally, not subcu- 
taneously, followed by careful examination at 
72 hours, . . . to make eradication 100 percent.” 
Dr. Henry Bither’s committee on red meat 
inspection reported on a proposed change in 
state laws. A highlight of the meeting was Dr. 
Edward Sullivan’s summary of a fee survey and 
a subsequent discussion on the standardi- 
zation of fees for Maine veterinarians. The 
Sullivan committee, appointed by Dr. Philip 
Brown, president, will study the fee situation and 
present reports of their findings at later meetings 
Dr. D.D. Payne, University of Maine, Orono, 
was appointed to represent the Maine Associ- 
ation in the American Association of Veteri- 
nary Nutritionists. 
s/J. F. Wirrer, Secretary-Treasurer 


Minnesota 


Dr. Shope Addresses Phi Zeta at Minnesota. 
—Dr. Richard E. Shope, M.D., of the Rocke- 
feller Institute for Medical Research, dis- 
cussed some of the aspects of “The Natural 
History of Hog Cholera” at the annual lec- 
ture sponsored by the Kappa Chapter of Phi- 
Zeta on October 22. Dr. Harvey H. Hoyt, pres- 





Dr. Richard E. Shope (left) is shown with Dr. Howard 


C. H. Kerncamp. 


ident of the Kappa Chapter, introduced Dr. 
Shope. 

In his address, Dr. Shope gave particular em- 
phasis to the role of lungworms in the path- 
ogenesis of hog cholera. Approximately 300 
persons attended, including veterinarians from 
surrounding states and state legislature rep- 
resentatives of the Interim Commission of 
Agriculture. 


s/Don WILLIGAN, Secretary-Treasurer, 
Kappa Chapter, Society of Phi Zeta. 


Wisconsin 


Women’s Auxiliary—The Women’s Auxil- 
iary to the Milwaukee V.M.A. met in conjunc- 
tion with their husband's convention at the 
Half-Way House in Milwaukee, October 22. 

Before the meeting the women joined their 
husbands at a smorgasbord, and heard an ad- 
dress by a representative of the Social Se- 
curity Office. The auxiliary then held a busi- 
ness meeting. 

s/Mrs. GERALD Rosen, Correspondent. 





DEATHS 


Star indicates member of AVMA 





Lawrence Bailey (ONT ‘'98), 83, Ladner 
B.C., was struck by a car and died in Crow’s 
Nest pass Municipal Hospital, Oct. 11, 1958. 
Dr. Bailey, a general practitioner, had retired 
in 1952. 


Frank Hiller Caldwell (TEX °42), 47, East 
Peoria, Ill., died Nov. 1, 1958, after a three- 
month illness. 

Dr. Caldwell had served in the Veterinary 
Corps during World War II and was a mem- 
ber of the Illinois State V.M.A. 








154 


*Harold J. Classick (ISC’ 27), 59, a general 
practitioner from Belmond, Iowa, died Dec. 10, 
1958, at a hospital in Portland, Ore., where 
he had gone to be with a brother who is ill. 
Death was attributed to a heart attack. Dr. 
Classick had practiced in Belmond since 1942 
and had been active in may civic affairs. 


THE 





Benjamin E. Dappen (KCV ’11), 74, Graet- 
tinger, Iowa, died Nov. 7, 1958. He had par- 
tially retired, in November, 1957, after 31 years 
of practice but had continued to make emer- 
gency calls. He was on one of these calls when 
he suffered a fatal heart attack. 

Dr. Dappen engaged in many civic affairs and 
was also a member of the Iowa State V.M.A. Sur- 
vivors include a brother, Roy R. (KCV ’17), of 
Brooklyn, Iowa. 


*Water H. Hannemann (KCV ’18), 62, Kan- 
sas City, Kan., died Dec. 1, 1958. Dr. Hanne- 
affiliated with the ARS, U.S.D.A 


mann Wwas 


*Bryon O. Hutchens (OKL ’55), 27, Worth- 
ington, Minn., was killed instantly in a car- 
tractor collision, Nov. 23, 1958. He was on a 
routine call when the accident occurred. 


William L. Ingram (API 710), Marvyn, Ala., 
died Nov. 9, 1958. 


*Carlene Joseph (OSU ’'56), 25, Martin’s 
Ferry, Ohio, the first woman veterinarian in 
Belmont County, died unexpectedly at her 
home, Nov. 20, 1958. Dr. Joseph, who oper- 
ated an animal hospital near Lansing, had 
once been active in 4-H work, showing Here- 
fords for eight years at the Belmont County 
Fairs. She was secretary of the Ohio Valley 
Veterinary Association, a new association 
formed during the past year. 


*Frank W. Lupfer (CVC ’07), 77, Galva, III., 
died Oct. 30, 1958, after a year’s iflness. Dr. 
Lupfer had practiced in Galva until 1948. 


Floyd J. McClure (GWU ’12), 72, Win- 
chester, Va., a general and equine practitioner 
for over 40 years, died Nov. 19, 1958. He was 
a veteran of World War I. 


NEWS 


J.A.V.M.A. 
FEBRUARY 1, 1959 





Rudolph M. Olbeter (NYC ’94), 84, Clayton, 


N.M., died Nov. 4, 1958. He had been well 
known throughout New Mexico as a federal 
veterinarian. He was a member of the New 
Mexico V.M.A. 


Samuel E. Osborne (KCV ’14), 73, Green- 
wood, Miss., died Nov. 12, 1958, at Sanatorium, 
Miss., after a long illness. He had once served 
as Leflore County’s representative in the state 
legislature. 


*John B. Reidy (COR ’02), 81, Ithaca, N.Y., 
an honor roll member of the AVMA, died 
sometime during 1958. He had retired from 
the U.S. Bureau of Animal Industry in 1947, 
after 44 vears of service. 


Harry L. Shorten (KCV ’10) 72, Denver, 
Colo., died Nov. 7, 1958, following a heart at- 


tack. He had been engaged in government 
service for the past three years. 
eee 
Other Deaths Reported.—The following 
deaths have been reported. The usual infor- 


mation for an obituary was not supplied. 

Otis Burl Chronister, 57, Little Rock, Ark., 
died Nov. 17, 1958. 

*Morris Eralsey (SF '18), 71, 
died in June, 1958. 

*La Rua Garrett (API 737), 43, 
City, Fla., died July 21, 1958. 

Levi C. Henderson (KVC ’04), 86, Temple 
City, Calif., died Oct. 20, 1958. 

John B. Mayer, 76, Sun River, Mont., died 
Oct. 10, 1958. 

William J. McAllister (KSC '39), 49, Vista, 
Calif., died Nov. 2, 1958 

J. Herman Mueller, Missouri, died Oct. 10, 1958 
*James B. Pooley (KSC ’49), 34, St. Joseph, 
Mo., died sometime in 1958. 

W. A. Taylor, Portageville, Ark., died Nov. 
1, 1958. 

Robert W. Whitehead, Jr. (OSU 712), 65, 
Lake Milton, Ohio, died Oct. 18, 1958. 

N. M. Woofter, 82, Grantsville, W. Va., died 
Nov. 9, 1958. 

Thomas Walter Wyatt, 84, 
Car., died Nov. 13, 1958. 


Ukiah, Calif., 


Panama 


Greenville, S. 














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(thiamylal sodium, Parke-Davis) 
SMOOTH, RAPID INDUCTION 
FREE OF EXCITEMENT OR IRRITABILITY 
EARLY, UNCOMPLICATED RECOVERY 


HORSES: 

for castrations, 
firing, cryptorchids, 
umbilical hernias, 
dental work, and 
correction of 


Concentration of Surital solu- 
tion for LARGE ANIMAL USE 
from the standpoint of safety, 
effectiveness and convenience 


varies from 0.5 to 4 per cent laryngeal hemiplegia 
depending upon the breed of 
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29 





INTESTINAL INFECTION 


THE BIOSOL FAMILY, 

a group of exceptionally potent 
antidiarrheal agents containing 
the broad-spectrum antibiotic 
neomycin. Four convenient 
dosage forms permit easy 
treatment of herd, flock, kennel 
or individual. Biosol, added to 
the drinking water, milk or feed, 
administered as a drench, or 
given as tablets or boluses, is 
absorbed only sparingly .. . 
assures prompt, positive 
antidiarrheal action because it 
remains where it is needed 

most: at the infection site... 
the gut. Its nontoxic and 
demulcent properties make 
Biosol particularly effective 

in treating stubborn bacterial 
diarrheas in very young animals. 


* TRADEMARK, REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. 


BACTERIAL DIARRHEAS 
AND 

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IN 


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The PLAZA DEL ORIENTE, with its precise formal 

gardens, faces the ROYAL PALACE. In the center 

of the Plaza is a fine bronze equestrian statue of 
Philip IV (1621-65) designed by Velasquez. 


MADRID 


Scene of XVith International Veterinary Congress 
May 21-27, 1959 


e 

CUTLER'S ARCH (left), in one of Madrid's winding 

streets. The picturesque balconies at the windows are 
typical of early Spanish architecture. 


In contrast to the bustle of a busy city, the SABATINI 
GARDENS (below), adjoining the Royal Palace, is a 
place of quiet Old-World charm. 


— 


iv. 


















for 
large 


animals... 


renomone 








highly purified ACTH specifically designed and standardized for veterinary use 


Specific for ketosis 


* pronounced 
clinical improvement 
in uncomplicated 
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+ credited with 
potentiating anti- 
bacterial drug action 
for earlier favorable 
response in ketosis 
complicated by 
secondary infectious 
processes 


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Gn -P 44+ ee ee eo Oo Ew oe ee OO ae eet 


J, 


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* quick response in 
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dermatoses and 
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tions 


+ relieves fatigue... 
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Se + ee Om 0 ee 3 re ee = eee or ee 


~~ 


y- 


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LABORATORIES + KANKAKEE, iLL. 


32 


Effective for 


small animals 


* combats shock ... 
relieves stress 

¢ primary drug for 
ophthalmic disorders 
as conjunctivitis, 
uveitis, iritis, espe- 
cially of allergic origin 
* rapidly relieves 
itching and pain in 
allergic and 
nonspecific derma- 
toses resistant to 
other forms of ther- 
apy with improvement 
or recovery in a 
majority of cases 


ARMOUR ~~” 


= 
PO a 8 oe ee eB Oe ®t ee re 


/ 
, 


Safer for 
prolonged use 
Adrenomone, unlike 
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atrophy when ex- 
tended therapy is 
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Available in 

two strengths 

401.U. per cc. 

(200 International Units 
per vial) 

60 |.U. per cc. 

(600 International Units 
pe: vial) 

Restricted to sale by or 


on the order of licensed 
veterinarians, 

















Disease control is essential in modern Pig Parlors. 


Modern agriculture 


calls for mass medication 


With modern production of meat, milk and eggs, the con- 
centration of greater numbers of animals or birds in 
relatively small space makes disease prevention essential. 
Mass medication is the practical way to prevent disease 
or to arrest it if there is a break-through. 


There are two indispensable steps in mass medication: 


1. Correct diagnosis, which can come only from the vet- 
erinarian. We recommend that he be called before a 
feeder takes the risk and expense of mass medication. 


2. Correct dosage, which usually can be applied best in 
medicated feeds from a formula-feed manufacturer ca- 
pable of precise blending of ingredients. 


When medication is in Purina Chows, you can be sure of 
adequate dosage. Purina’s exclusive Micro-Mixing process 
can blend medicinals accurately in the ratio of five grains 
to a ton. Purina Micro-Mixing is tested by a method 
that can detect one part of test material in ten million. 
Why not visit your Purina Dealer and talk with him about 
medication available in Purina Chows? 


PURINA... YOUR PARTNER IN SERVING ANIMAL AGRICULTURE 





QUALITY 


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33 











Build a “Wall of Resistance” 
around small animal patients 





RABIES 


HEPATITIS 


DISTEMPER PANLEUCOPENIE 




























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TO PROTECT DOGS AND CATS from their four most serious virus diseases, 


you can choose no finer vaccines and serums than those distributed by Squibb. 


Are you familiar with the many unusual features which make them easier and 
more effective to use? For example: Tri-jex—the newest member of this famous 
family—permits you to immunize dogs against distemper, hepatitis and important 
secondary bacteria with one product. Sin-jex and Femulgen are “one-shot” vaccines 
and confer dependable protection with one handling of the patient. 


All biologicals distributed by Squibb are produced with meticulous care, tested and 
retested to safeguard purity and potency. Like all Squibb products sold to veter- 
inarians only, they are quickly available from your favorite veterinary wholesaler. 
For additional information, write: 
SQUIBB 
Veterinary Department 
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? SQUIBB ; 


SQUIBB —A NAME YOU CAN TRUST “x ccneo™ 














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Tri-jex, Sin-jex, Femulgen are trademarks. 











TRI-JEX 


. . contains killed vi- 
ruses of canine dis 
temper and infectious 
canine hepatitis, plus 
killed cultures of 
Brucella bronchisep 
tica, Streptococcus 
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monella typhimu- 
rium. Dogs are protected against 
two of their most serious virus 
diseases as well as the impor- 
tant secondary bacteria usu 
ally associated with these dis 
eases. Tri-jex confers immunity 
quickly. Supplied in 3 x 5 cc 
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SIN-JEX 


. « . good immunity against ca- 
nine distemper and infectious 
hepatitis at the same time with 
@ single injection. Sin-jex is 
the first successful combination 
of a vacuum dried, modified 
live virus distemper fraction 
(chick embryo origin) with oa 
killed virus hepatitis fraction 
as diluent. Sin-jex is instantly 
reconstituted into a fine homo 
geneous suspension which 
posses easily through a 22 
gauge needle, and produces 
immunity in less than 2 weeks 
Supplied in 6 x 3 cc.—1 dose 
vials. €s 


>" 
FEMULGEN , 


. Single-injection vaccine for 
immunization against feline dis- 
temper (feline infectious enter- 
itis, malignant panleucopenia, 
infectious feline agranulocyto- 
sis, etc.). Femulgen is a homol- 
ogous vaccine, prepared from 
the tissues of young susceptible 
cats inoculated with virulent 
feline distemper virus. This vi- 
rus is extracted, inactivated 
with formalin and suspended 
in an oil emulsion. Supplied in 
5 x 1 cc.—1 dose vials, with 
disposable syringe. 


# 
o 





RABIES VACCINE 


. . both phenolized 
and chick embryo ori- 
gin, for positive im- 
munization against 
rabies for a period of 
one year. Supplied in 
5 x 3 cc.—1- and 10 
dose vials for live vi- 
rus (chick embryo 
origin), 50 cc. vials 
for phenolized sus- 
pension. 





ANTI-CANINE 
DISTEMPER SERUM 
and 
ANTI-INFECTIOUS 
HEPATITIS SERUM 





immediate passive 
immunity against co- . 
nine distemper and eee og 


we ie 
infectious hepatitis raver et 
Supplied in 100 cc 

vials. 

CANINE 


DISTEMPER VACCINE 

. modified live virus, (chick 
embryo origin) for immuniza 
tion against distemper in dogs 
Supplied in 6 x 2 cc —single 
dose vials 

















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37 











ORGANIZATION SECTION 





New Council on Veterinary Services 
Meets in Chicago 


The first meeting of the new Council on Veteri- 
nary Services was held at AVMA headquarters 
Nov. 18-19, 1958. Council members are: Drs. V. 
D. Stauffer, Arvada, Colo. (chairman); A. G. 
Misener, Chicago (secretary); R. O. Anderson, 
Elkhorn, Wis.; C. A. Bjork, Portland, Ore.; F. R. 
Candlin, Denver, Colo.; A. H. Groth, Columbia, 
Mo.; J. C. Knowles, Miami, Fla.; J. L. McAuliff, 
Cortland, N. Y. 

The Council discussed the activities of the joint 
AVMA-American Dairy Science Association 
Committee and favored its continuation. Drs. Mc- 
Auliff and Anderson were appointed to the com- 
mittee. 

A discussion of mastitis problems by Council 
members indicated there is a need for gathering 
and evaluating information which could be used to 
revise and standardize the informative literature 
on dairy herd management practices published by 
most states. 

The need for the Council to provide advice to 
practitioners regarding employee training was 
acknowledged and discussed. Dr. Knowles de- 
scribed a system wherein high school students are 
given on-the-job training. Also, activities of the 
American Animal Hospital Association Committee 
on Employee Training were considered. A com- 
mittee composed of Drs. Whittington (chairman), 
Knowles, and Groth will study the problem. 

With respect to emergency services required by 
his clients during a practitioner’s absence, the 
Council moved to study, by means of survey, the 
plans used by various cities, with possible future 
publication in mind. Committeemen Candlin (chair- 
man) and Groth will conduct the survey. 

A committee composed of Drs. Bjork (chair- 
man), Candlin, and Misener was appointed to 
study the relationship of veterinarians to humane 
societies with the results to be presented to the 
American Humane Association for consideration 
in the revision of their policy established in 1928. 

The great differences in the manner in which 
veterinarians participate in dog and cat shows 
indicates the need for study by the Council. Drs. 
Stauffer (chairman) and McAuliff were appointed 
to a committee which will study the problem and 
prepare information for dissemination to the mem- 
bership. 

Practitioners’ participation in regulatory pro- 
grams was also designated for special study. The 
committee charged with the task is composed of 
Drs. McAuliff (chairman), Madsen, and Ander- 
son. 

To establish and maintain liaison with the Na- 
tional Association of Artificial Breeders, there 
was appointed a committee composed of Drs. 
McAuliff (chairman), Madsen, Groth, and Ander- 
son. 

The next meeting for the Council on Veterinary 
Services is scheduled for April 12-13, 1959, at 
AVMA headquarters. 





APPLICATIONS 





Applicants Not Members of Constituent 
Associations 


In accordance with paragraph (c) of Section 1, Article 1, 
of the Bylaws, the names of applicants who are not mem- 
bers of constituent associations shall be published in the 
JOURNAL. Written comments received by the Executive 
Secretary from any active member regarding the application 
as published, will be furnished to the Judicial Council for 
its consideration prior to acceptance of the application. 


DOSHI, MARENDRA K. 

1070 River Road Dorms, Columbus 10, Ohio. 

B.V.Sc., Madras Veterinary College, 1946. 

Vouchers: J. H. Helwig and C. F. Reed. 
MATHUR, PREM D. 

1059 River Road Dorm, Columbus 10, Ohio. 

B.Sc., Bombay Veterinary College, 1951. 

Vouchers: C. F. Reed and K. H. Helwig. 
RAGHAVAN, R. SRINIVAS 

1111 Bluemont Ave., Manhattan, Kan. 

B.V.Sc., Osmania University, 1952. 

Vouchers: E. S. Frick and F. H. Oberst. 
REDDY, BANDARU S. 

Department of Dairy Science, University of New Hamp- 

shire, Durham, N.H. 

B.V.Sc., Madras University, 1955. 

Vouchers: F. E. Allen and A. C. Corbett. 
REDDY, V. R. 

1111 Bluemont Ave., Manhattan, Kan. 

B.V.Sc., Madras Veterinary College, 1944. 

Vouchers: E. J. Frick and F. H. Oberst. 
WARD, GRAHAM W. 

102 E. Capitol Building, Charleston 8, W. Va. 

B.V.Sc., Sydney University, 1939. 

Vouchers: W. R. Strieber and A. S. Barnes. 





Record Milk Production 


In 1957, the average production of milk per 
cow in the United States was 6,162 lb., 3 per cent 
more than in 1956. To produce this all-time record 
total—if the rate of production per cow were the 
same as in 1925, it would have required 10 million 
(50%) more cows; at the 1940 production per 
cow, 7 million (33%) more cows; and at the 1950 
production per cow, 3 million (15%) more cows. 
The 19.8 million cow population, in 1957, was the 
lowest total in 30 years.—Hoard’s Dairyman (Sept. 
10, 1958): 868. 





Musk Ox Avoids Extinction 


The musk ox (00-mingmack in Eskimo lan- 
guage), which was nearly exterminated by hunters 
and did not thrive when attempts to establish 
herds were made in northern Europe and Iceland, 
is doing well in experimental herds in Alaska and 
Canada. 

Its wool compares favorably with vicuna except 
that it is mixed with coarse hairs which cannot be 
removed economically. Its meat is nutritious but it 
is too tough for most people.—Sci. News Letter 
(Nov. 15, 1958): 312. 








Additions to the AVMA Film Library 
Pulmonary Arteriotomy—Heartworm Surgery 








Color; Produced by 
16 mm. Running time Brook Army Medical Center Rental 
Sound. approx. 10 min. Fort Sam Houston, Texas $2.50 





This excellent color film, which has been added to the AVMA film library, illustrates a 
surgical procedure described in detail in the Dec. 15, 1958 issue of the JOURNAL (p. 581). 
The direct removal of a large number of heartworms from the pulmonary artery makes for 
striking photography. The film has been justifiably edited to show only the essential features 
of the surgery, dealing not at all with presurgical preparation, routine hemostasis, and laborious 
suturing. Its showing would be suitable for small animal practitioner groups as well as classes 


in surgery. 





COMING MEETINGS 


Notices of coming meetings must be received 30 days before date of publication. 


California Veterinary Medical Association. Midwinter con- 
ference. School of Veterinary Medicine, University of 
California, Davis, Feb. 2-4, 1959. John W. Kendrick, 
conference chairman. 


Ohio State Veterinary Medical Association. Annual con- 
vention. Neil House Hotel, Columbus, Feb. 4-6, 1959. 
Ohio V.M.A. Offices, 1411 W. Third Ave., Columbus, 
Ohio. 


Oregon Veterinary Medical Association. Winter meeting. 


Multnomah Hotel, Portland, Feb. 6-7, 1959. O. H. 
Muth, secretary-treasurer. 

West Virginia Veterinary Medical Association. Winter 
meeting. Greenbrier Hotel, White Sulphur Springs, Feb. 


8-9, 1959. Harry J. Fallon, 200 Fifth St., West Hunting- 
ton, W. Va., secretary-treasurer. 


Colorado State University. Twentieth annual 
for veterinarians. Glover Veterinary Hospital, College of 
Veterinary Medicine, Fort Collins, Feb. 16-18, 1959. A 
short course on bull evaluation will be held, February 
14-15. O.R. Adams, program chairman. 


conference 


Illinois State Veterinary Medical Association. Annual meet- 

LaSalle Hotel, Chicago, Feb. 16-18, 1959. C. B. 

Hostetler, 1385 Whitcomb Ave., Des Plaines, executive 
secretary. 


Indiana Veterinary Medical Association and Vita Vet Labo- 
ratories. Annual nutrition conference for veterinarians. 
Public Health Building, Indianapolis, Ind., Feb. 25, 
1959. J. M. Carter, chairman. 


Alabama Veterinary Medical Association. Fifty-second an- 
nual meeting. Houston Hotel, Dothan, Ala., March 15-17, 
1959. M. K. Heath, secretary. 


New Jersey, Veterinary Medical Association of. Diamond 
jubilee meeting. Princeton Inn, Princeton, N. J., April 
8-9, 1959. John R. McCoy, Rutgers University, New 
Brunswick, secretary. 


Oklahoma State University. Annual Oklahoma conference 
for veterinarians. College of Veterinary Medicine, Campus 
Veterinary Medical Center, Apri! 13-14, 1959. John H 
Venable, steering committee chairman. 


Pennsylvania, University of. Fifty-ninth annual conference 
of veterinarians. School of Veterinary Medicine, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, April 28-29, 1959. 
Mark W. Allam, dean. 


Third Pan American Congress of Veterinary Medicine and 
Ninety-Sixth Annual Meeting, American Veterinary Medi- 
cal Association. Joint meeting. Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 
23-27, 1959. H. E. Kingman, Jr., executive-secretary, 
AVMA, 600 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago 5, Ill. B. D. 
roy secretary-general, Directing Council, Pan Ameri- 

of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 99, Azul, 
FONGR. Argentina, S.A. 


39 


Missouri Veterinary Medical Association. Winter meeting. 
Hotel Statler, St. Louis, Feb. 26-28, 1959. Paul L. Spen- 
cer, P.O. Box 283, Jefferson City, Mo., secretary. 


Foreign Meetings 


ci . 





International Veterinary C session. Ma- 
drid, Spain, May 21-27, 1959. Prof. Pedro Carda A., 
general secretary, Calle Villanueva 11, Madrid. 


U.S. COMMITTEE: Dr. W. A. Hagan, chairman, 
New York State Veterinary College, Ithaca, N. Y.; 
Dr. J. G. Hardenbergh, secretary, 600 S. Michigan 
Ave., Chicage 5, Ill. 


Third World Congress on Fertility and Sterility Amster- 
dam, Holland, June 7-13, 1959. Dr. L. I. Swaab, Sim 
Agnietenstraat 4, Amsterdam, Holland, honorary secre- 


tary. 
Regularly Scheduled Meetings 


ALABAMA—Central Alabama Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, the first Thursday of each month. Capt. Joe T. 
Williams, Qtrs. 931-C, Maxwell A.F.B., Ala., secretary. 
Jefferson County Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Thursday of each month. Dan P. Griswold, Jr., 
714 S. 39th St., Birmingham, secretary. 

Mobile-Baldwin Counties Veterinary Medical Association, 
the third Tuesday of each month. W. David Gross, 771 
Holcombe Ave., Mobile, Ala., secretary. 

North Alabama Veterinary Medical Association, the sec- 
ond Thursday of November, January, March, May, July, 
and September, in Decatur, Ala. Ray A. Ashwander, 
P.O. Box 1767, Decatur, Ala., secretary. 

Northeast Alabama Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Tuesday of every other month. Leonard J. Hill, 
P.O. Box 761, Gadsden, Ala., secretary-treasurer. 


ARIZONA—Central Arizona Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, the second Tuesday of each month. J. W. Langley, 
Jrc., P.O. Box 5013, Phoenix, Ariz., secretary. 

Southern Arizona Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Wednesday of each month at 7:30 p.m. Gwyn 
Chapin, 2215 E. Calle Vista, Tuscon, Ariz., secretary. 


ARKANSAS—Pulaski County Veterinary Medical Society, 
the second Tuesday of each month. Harvie R. Ellis, 54 
Belmont Drive, Little Rock, Ark., secretary-treasurer. 


CALIFORNIA—Alameda-Contra Costa Veterinary Medical 
Association, the fourth Wednesday of Jan., March, May, 
June, Aug., Oct., and Nov. John S. Blackard, 420 
Appian Way, Richmond, Calif., secretary. 


Bay Counties Veterinary Medical Association, the second 











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Tuesday of February, April, July, September, and De- 
cember. Herb Warren, 3004 16 St., San Francisco, Cal:f., 
executive secretary. 


Central California Veterinary Medical Association, the 


fourth Tuesday of each month. Paul S. Chaffee, 2333 
McKinley Ave., Fresno, Calif., secretary. 
Kern County Veterinary Medical Association, the first 


Thursday evening of each month. Norman E. Cunning- 
ham, 2703 ‘“‘M’’ St., Bakersfield, Calif., secretary. 


Mid-Coast Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Thursday of every even month. W. H. Rockey, P. O. 
Box 121, San Luis Obispo, Calif., secretary. 


Monterey Bay Area Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Wednesday of each month. V. Todorovic, 47 
Mann Ave., Watsonville, Calif., secretary. 

North San Joaquin Valley Veterinary Medical Association, 
the fourth Wednesday of each month at the Hotel Co- 
vell, in Modesto, Calif. T. J. Carleton, 325 W. Locke- 


ford St., Lodi, Calif., secretary-treasurer. 
Orange Belt Veterinary Medical Association, the second 
Monday of each month. Robert Lapham, 1194 W. 


Highland Ave., San Bernardino, Calif., secretary. 


Orange County Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Thursday of each month. H. M. Stanton, 1122 S.E. U.S. 
Highway 101, Tustin, Calif., secretary. 


Peninsula Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Monday of each month. Robert Lawson, Los Altos, 
Calif., secretary. 


Redwood Empire Veterinary Medica! Association, the 
third Thursday of each month. Robert E. Clark, 2075 
Silverado Trail, Napa, Calif., secretary. 


Sacramento Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Wednesday of each month. R. A. Mueller, 6420 
Freeport Bivd., Sacramento, Calif., secretary. 


San Diego County Veterinary Medical Association, the 
fourth Tuesday of each month. E. P. Bogart, P.O. Box 
758, Vista, Calif., secretary. 


San Fernando Valley Chapter SCVMA, the second Tues- 
day of each month at 7:30 p.m., Hody’s Restaurant, 
North Hollywood, Calif. Dr. V. H. Austin, 14931 
Oxnard St., Van Nuys, secretary-treasurer. 


San Fernando Valiey Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Friday of each month at the Casa Escobar Restau- 
rant in Studio City. John Chudacoff, 7912 Sepulveda 
Bivd., Van Nuys, Calif., secretary. 


Santa Clara Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 
fourth Tuesday of each month. Kay Bewley, 1410 N. 
4th St., San Jose, Calif., secretary. 


Southern California Veterinary Medical Association, the 
last Wednesday of each month. Robert Schroeder, 9738 
Tecum Rd., Downey, Calif., secretary. 


the sec- 


Tulare County Veterinary Medical Association, 
Route 


ond Thursday of each month. Lionel H. Brazil, 
4, Box 53, Tulare, Calif., secretary. 


COLORADO—Denver Area Veterinary Medical Society, 
the fourth Tuesday of every month. Gene M. Bierhaus, 
2896 S. Federal Bivd., Englewood, Colo., secretary- 
treasurer. 


Northern Colorado Veterinary Medical Society, the first 
Wednesday of each month, in Fort Collins. Dr. James 
Voss, Veterinary Hospital, Colorado State University, 
Fort Collins, Colo., secretary. 


DELAWARE—New Castle County Veterinary Medical As- 
sociation, the first Tuesday of each month at 9:00 p.m. 
in the Hotel Rodney, Wilmington, Del. A. P. Mayer, 
Je., R.F.D. 2, Newark, Del., secretary-treasurer. 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA—District of Columbia Veter- 
inary Medical Association, the second Tuesday evenings 
of January, March, May, and October. William I. Gay, 
5200 Chandler St., Bethesda, Md., secretary-treasurer. 








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FLORIDA—Central Florida Veterinary Medical Association, 
the first Friday of each month at 8:00 p.m., place speci- 
fied monthly. L. R. Poe, 753 W. Fairbanks Ave., Winter 
Park, Fla., secretary-treasurer. 

Florida West Coast Veterinary Medical Association, 
the second Wednesday of each month at the Lighthouse 
Inn, St. Petersburg. Fred Jones, 3606 S. Dale Mabry, 
Tampa, Fla., secretary. 

Jacksonville Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Thursday of every month. Dodson’s Restaurant, Stephen 
C. Hite, 5807 105th St., Jacksonville 10, Fla., secretary. 
Northwest Florida Veterinary Medical Society, third 
Wednesday of each month, time and place specified 
montiily. John Webb, P.O. Box 183, Cantonment, Fia., 
secretary-treasurer. 


Palm Beach Veterinary Society, the last Thursday of each 
month in the county office building at 810 Datura St., 
West Palm Beach. B. W. Bigger, 2833 S. 4th St., 
Fort Pierce, Fla., secretary. 


Ridge Veterinary Medical Association, the fourth ‘Thurs- 
day of each month in Bartow, Fla. John S. Haromy, 
Route #1, Box 107-A, Lake Wales, Fla., secretary. 


South Florida Veterinary Society, the third Wednesday of 
each month. Time and place specified monthly. Joe B. 
O’Quinn, 1690 E. 4th, Hialeah, Fla., secretary. 


Suwannee Valley Veterinary Association, the fourth ‘Tues- 
day of each month, Hotel Thomas, Gainesville, G. L 
Burch, P.O. Box 405, Ocala, Fla., secretary-treasurer. 


Volusia County Veterinary Medical Association, the 


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42 





fourth Thursday of each month. Robert E. Cope, 127 
E. Mason, Daytona Beach, Fla., secretary. 


GEORGIA—Atlanta Veterinary Medical Society, the third 


Thursday of each month at the Elk’s Home, 726 Peach- 
tree St., Atlanta. W. V. Smith, 1039 Marietta Sc., N.W., 
Atlanta, Ga., secretary. 


Georgia-Carolina Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Monday of each month at 8:00 p.m., at the Town 
Tavern, Augusta, Ga. H. G. Blalock, Jr., 2190 Highland 
Ave., Augusta, secretary. 


ILLINOIS—Chicago Veterinary Medical Association, the 


second Tuesday of each month. Charles H. Armstrong, 
1021 Davis St., Evanston, secretary. 

Eastern Illinois Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Thursday of March, June, September, and December. 
A one-day clinic is held in May. E. I. Pilchard, Cham- 
paign, Ill., secretary-treasurer. 


INDIANA—Centra! Indiana Veterinary Medical Associa- 


tion, the second Wednesday of each month. P. T. Parker, 
224 N. Mill Sc., secretary-treasurer. 


Michiana Veterinary Medical Association, the second 
Thursday of every month except July and December. at 
the Hotel LaSalle, South Bend, Ind. Stanton Williamson, 
217 W. Chippewa St., South Bend, Ind., secretary. 


Tenth District Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Thursday of each month. J. S. Baker, P.O. Box 52, 
Pendleton, Ind., secretary. 


1OWA—Cedar Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 


second Monday of each month, except January, July, 
August, and October in Black’s Tea Room, Warerlon, 
Iowa. A. J. Cotten, P.O. Box 183, Grundy Center, sec- 
retary. 

Central Iowa Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Monday of each month, except June, July, and August, 
at 6:30 p.m., Breeze House, Ankeny, Iowa. John Herrick, 
202 S. Hazel Ave., Ames, secretary. 


Coon Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the second 
Wednesday of each month, September through May, at 
7:30 p.m., Cobblestone Inn, Storm Lake, Iowa. Robert 
McCutcheon, Holstein, secretary. 

East Central Iowa Veterinary Medical Society, the Second 
Thursday of each month at 6:30 p.m., usually in Cedar 
Rapids, lowa. T. F. Bartley, P.O. Box 454, Cedar 
Rapids, secretary. 

Fayette County Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Thursday of each month at 6:30 p.m. in West 
Union, Iowa. H. J. Morgan, West Union, secretary. 
Lakes Veterinary Association, the firsts Tuesday of each 
month, September through May, at 6:30 p.m., at the 
Gardson Hotel, Estherville, Iowa. Barry Barnes, P.O. 
Box 162, Milford, secretary. 

North Central lowa Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Thursday of April, at the Warden Hotel, Fort 
Dodge, Iowa. H. Engelbrecht, P. O. Box 797, Fort 
Dodge, secretary. 

Northeast Iowa-Southern Minnesota Veterinary Associa- 
tion, the first Tuesday of February, May, August, and 
November at the Wisneslick Hotel, Decorah, lowa, 
6:30 p.m. Donald E. Moore, Box 178, Decorah, lowa, 
secretary. 

Northwest lowa Veterinary Medical Association, the 
second Tuesday of February, May, September, and De- 
cember, at the Community Bidg., Sheldon. W. Ver Meer, 
Hull, secretary. 

Southeastern Iowa Veterinary Association, the first Tues- 
day of each month at Mr. Pleasant, Iowa. Warren Kil- 
patrick, Mediapolis, secretary. 

Southwestern Iowa Veterinary Medical Association, the 
first Tuesday of April and October, Hotel Chieftain, 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. J. P. Stream, 202 S. Stone St., 
Creston, secretary. 

Upper Iowa Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Tuesday of each month at 7:00 p.m., at All Vets Center, 
Clear Lake, Iowa. W. A. Danker, Dows, Iowa, secretary. 











KENTUCKY—Central Kentucky Veterinary Medical Asso- 

ciation, the firsts Wednesday of each month. R. H. Fol- 
som, P.O. Box 323, Danville, Ky., secretary. 
Jefferson County Veterinary Society of Kentucky, Inc., 
the firss Wednesday of each month in Louisville or 
within a radius of 50 miles, except January, May, and 
July. G. R. Comfort, 2102 Reynolds Lane, Louisville, 
Ky., secretary-treasurer. — 


MARYLAND—Baltimore City Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, the second Thursday of each month, Seprember 
through May (except December), at 9:00 p.m., at the 
Park Plaza Horel, Charles and Madison St., Baltimore. 
Md. Leonard D. Krinsky, 6111 Harford Rd., Baltimore, 
Md., secretary. 

MICHIGAN—Central Michigan Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation, the firsts Wednesday of every month at 7 p.m. 
Jerry Fries, 2070 E. Main St., Owosso, Mich., secretary. 


Mid-State Veterinary Medical Association, the fourth 
Thursday of each month with the exception of November 
and December. Robert W. Acton, 4110 Spring Rd., Jack- 
son, Mich. 

Saginaw Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 
last Wednesday of cach month. Alvin R. Conquest, 
P.O. Box 514, Grand Blanc, Mich., secretary. 
Southeastern Michigan Veterinary Medical Association, 
the fourth Wednesday of every month, September through 
May. Louis J. Rossoni, 24531 Princeton Ave., Dearborn 
8, Mich., secretary. 

MISSOURI—Greater St. Louis Veterinary Medical Asso- 

ciation, the first Friday of each month (except July and 
August), at the Coronado Hotel, Lindell Blvd. and 
Spring Ave., St. Louis, Mo., at 8 p.m. Edwin E. 
Epstein, 4877 Natural Bridge Ave., St. Louis 15, Mo., 
secretary. 
Kansas City Veterinary Medical Association and Kansas 
City Small Animal Hospital Association, the third 
Thursday of each month at the Hotel President, Kansas 
City, Mo. Robert E. Guilfoil, 18 N. 2nd St., Kansas 
City, 18, Kan., secretary. 


NEVADA—Western Nevada Veterinary Society, the first 
Tuesday of each month. Paul S. Silva, 1170 Airport 
Road, Reno, Nev., secretary. 

NEW JERSEY—Central New Jersey Veterinary Medical 
Association, the second Thursday of November, January. 
March, and May at Old Hights Inn, Hightstown, N. J. 
David C. Tudor, R.D. 1, Box 284A, Cranbury, N. J., 
secretary. 

Metropolitan New Jersey Veterinary Medical Association, 
the third Wednesday evening of each month from Octo- 
ber through April, except December, at the Irvington 
House, 925 Springfield Ave., Irving N.J. B d 
M. Weiner, 787 Clinton Ave., Newark, N.J., secretary. 


Northern New Jersey Veterinary Association, the fourth 
Tuesday of each month at the Elks Club. Hackensack. 
James R. Tanzola, Upper Saddle River, N.J., secretary. 


Northwest Jersey Veterinary Society, the third Wednes- 
day of every odd month. G. L. Smith, P.O. Box 938, 
Trenton, N.J., secretary. 

South New Jersey Veterinary Medical Association, the 
fourth Tuesday of each month at the Collingswood 
Veterinary Hospital. Collingswood. - M. Seuecr, 
Fittipaidi Animal Hospital, Collingswood, N.J., secretary. 


NEW MEXICO—Bernalillo County Veterinary Practitioners 
Association, third Wednesday of each month, Fez Club, 
Albuquerque, N.M. Jack Ambrose, 3018 N. Rio Grande 
Bivd., Albuquerque, secretary-treasurer. 


NEW YORK—New York City, Inc., Veterinary Medical 
Association of, the first Wednesday of each month at 
the New York Academy of Sciences, 2 East 63rd St., 
New York City. C. E. DeCamp, 43 West 61st St., New 
York 23, N. Y., secretary. 

Monroe County Veterinary Medical Association, the first 


Thursday of even-numbered months except August. Irwin 
Bircher, 50 University Ave., Rochester, N. Y., secretary. 





43 





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NORTH CAROLINA—Central Carolina Veterinary Medi- 
cal Association, the second Wednesday of each month 
at 7:00 p.m. in the O'Henry Hotel, Greensboro. C. G. 
Sims, 2450 Battleground Ave., Greensboro, N. Car., 
secretary. 

Eastern North Carolina Veterinary Medical Association, 
the first Friday of each month, time and place specified 
monthly, Byron H. Brow, Box 453, Goldsboro, N. Car., 
secretary. 

Piedmont Veterinary Medical Association, the li«t Friday 
of each month. J. G. Martin, Boone, N. Car., secretary. 
Twin Carolinas Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Friday of each month at Orange Bowl Restaurant, 
Rocki » N. Car., at 7:30 p.m. J. E. Currie, 690 
N. Leak St., Southern Pines, N. Car., secretary. 
Western North Carolina Veterinary Medical Association, 
the second Thursday of every month at 7:00 p.m. 
in the George Vanderbilt Hotel, Asheville, N. Car. Viiu 
Lind, 346 State St., Marion, N. Car., secretary. 


OHIO—Cincinnati Veterinary Medical Association, the 
third Tuesday of every month at Shuiier’s Wigwam, 
6210 Hamilton Ave.. a: North Bend Road, G. C. Lewis, 
451 E. Galbraith Rd., Cincinnati, Ohio, secretary-treas- 
urer. 

Columbus Academy of Veterinary Medicine, every month, 
September through May. E. M. Simonson, 3120 Valley 
View Dr., Columbus, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 








Hospital of J. S. Lewis, Jr., V.M.D., Bedford, N.H. 
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“ENTEFUR treatment appeared the 
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new “‘far superior” 
treatment for retained placenta 


Therapeutic failure, frequently encoun- 
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which combines the potent wide-range 
bactericidal and deodorizing action of 
Furacin® (brand of nitrofurazone) with 
the cleansing action of urea. FUREA 
Veterinary boluses disintegrate readily 
and are nonirritating and nontoxic. 


In retained placenta, treatment with 
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AVAILABLE THROUGH YOUR PROFESSIONAL VETERINARY DISTRIBUTOR 








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SUPPLIED: Each bolus contains 0.12 
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*jones, S. V.; Belloff, G. B., and Roberts, H. D. B.: Vet. Med 
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Cuyahoga County Veterinary Medical Association, the 
first Wednesday in September, October, December, 
February, March, April and May, at 9:00 p.m. at the 
Carter Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio. F. A. Coy, 8208 Carnegie 
Ave., Cleveland, Ohio, secretary. 

Dayton Veterinary Medical Association, the third Tues- 
day of every month. O. W. Fallang, 6941 Far Hills Ave., 
Dayton, secretary. 


Killbuck Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 
firss Wednesday of alternate months beginning with 
February. D. J. Kern, Killbuck, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 
Mahoning County Veterinary Medical Association, the 
fourth Tuesday of each month, at 9:00 p.m., Youngstown 
Maennerchor Club, Youngstown, Ohio. Sam _ Segall, 
2935 Glenwood Ave., Youngstown, secretary. 

Miami Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Wednesday of December, March, June, and September. 
J. M. Westfall, Greenville, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 
North Central Ohio Veterinary Medical Association, the 
last Wednesday of each month except during the sum- 
mer. R. W. McClung, Tiffin, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 


Northwestern Ohio Veterinary Medical Association, the 





last Wednesday of March and July. C. S. Alvanos, 
1683 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 
Stark County Veterinary Medical Association, the second 
Tuesday of every month, at McBrides Emerald Lounge, 
Canton, Ohio. M. L. Willen, 4423 Tuscarawas St., 
Canton, Ohio, secretary. 

Summit County Veterinary Medical Association, the last 
Tuesday of every month (except June, July, and August), 
at the Mayflower Hotel, Akron, Ohio. M. L. Scott, 
42 W. Market St., Akron, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 


Tri-County Veterinary Medical Association, the fourth 


Wednesday of January, May, and September. Mrs. R. 
Slusher, Mason, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. 


OKLAHOMA—Oklahoma County Veterinary Medical As- 


sociation, the second Wednesday of every month, 7:30 
p.m., Patrick’s Foods Cafe, 1016 N.W. 23rd St., Okla- 
homa City. Forest H. Stockton, 2716 S.W. 29th St. 
Oklahoma City, Okla., secretary. 

Tulsa Veterinary Medical Association, the third Thurs- 
day of each month in Directors’ Parlor of the Brook- 
side State Bank, Tulsa, Okla. Arlen D. Hill, 5302 E. 
lith St., Tulsa, Okla., secretary. 

Tulsa Association of Small Animal Veterinarians, first 
and third Mondays, City-County Health Dept. T. E. 
Messler, 3104 E. Sist St., Tulsa, Okla., secretary. 


OREGON—Portland Veterinary Medical Association, the 


second Tuesday of each month, at 7:30 p.m. Ireland's 
Restaurant, Lloyds’, 718 N.E. 12th Ave. Portland. 
Donald L. Moyer, 8415 S.E. McLoughlin Blvd., Portland 
2, Ore., secretary. 


Willamette Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Tuesday of each month, except July and August, at the 











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SCHROER MANUFACTURING CO., 2221 Campbell, Kansas City 8, Mo. 


Manufacturers of complete line of veterinary tables—Animal cages— 
instruments and equipment 


46 











Marion Hotel, Salem. Robert J. Mallorie, P.O. Box 


155, Silverton, Ore., secretary. 


PENNSYLVANIA—Keystone Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, the fourth Wednesday of each month at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. 
Raymond C. Snyder, N.E. Corner 47th St. and Hazel 
Ave., Philadelphia 43, Pa., secretary. 

Lehigh Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Thursday of each month. Stewart Rockwell, 10th and 
Chestnut Sts., Emmaus, Pa., secretary. 

Pennsylvania Northern Tier Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, the third Wednesday of each odd numbered month. 
R. L. Michel, Troy, Pa., secretary. 


SOUTH CAROLINA—Piedmont Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation, the third Wednesday of each month at the Fair- 
forest Hotel, Union, S. Car. Worth Lanier, York, S. 
Car., secretary. 


Georgia-Carolina Veterinary Medical Association—see 


GEORGIA. 


TEXAS—Coastal Bend Veterinary Association, the second 
Wednesday of each month. Jack E. Habluetzel, Route 
1, Box 65-N, Ingleside, Texas, secretary. 


VIRGINIA—Central Virginia Veterinarians’ Association, the 
third Thursday of each month at the William Byrd Hotel 
in Richmond at 8:00 p.m. M. R. Levy, 312 W. Cary Ct., 
Richmond 20, Va., secretary. 

Northern Virginia Veterinary Conference Association, 
the second Tuesday of each month. T. P. Koudelka, 
P.O. Box 694, Harrisonburg, Va., secretary. 

Northern Virginia Veterinary Society, the second Wednes- 
day of every third month. Meeting place announced by 
letter. H. C. Newman, Box 145, Merrifield, secretary. 
Southwestern Virginia Veterinary Medical Association, the 






PORTABLE DOG PENS 


Sectional om. Strong, 
. Long fife. Welded 
ized pipe frame and 
chain link fence. ay 
gates, many sizes. Pri 

at $39.00 and up. Freight 
paid. Also pens made to order. 
Write for circular and prices. 





BRINKMAN MFG. CO. 
5401 W. 2ist., Dept. 50, Topeka, Kan 





Pesticide Residues in Milk 


The Food and Drug Administration is charged 
with guarding the safety of all foods, drugs, and 
cosmetics; a food may not contain any added 
poisonous substance unless a safety level called a 
“tolerance” has been established. A recent amend- 
ment to the law establishes tolerances for pesticide 
chemicals added to raw agricultural products. 

Pharmacological studies with pesticide chemi- 
cals, made on recently weaned animals, show the 
level of poisonous residues which do no detect- 
able harm, but there is a question whether that 
level can be considered safe. It is felt that greater 
evidence of safety must be required in setting a 
tolerance level in milk than in other foods.—J. 
Milk & Food Tech. (Oct., 1958): 273. 








SPECIFICATIONS 

Twin 3” nozzles. Air output 2800 
linear ft. per min. at normal room 
temps. 115 Volt, 60 cycle single- 
phase self-cooling AC operation. 
Finished in satin black enamel with 
silver screen. 








PORTABLE, TWIN BLOWER 


HEATER & DRYER 


WILL NOT OVERHEAT! 


Super efficient, finest quality lightweight 
heater and dryer ever devised. Special indi- 
vidual heat control for warm or cool air. 
NEW heavy duty heating element provides 
hours of constant heat . . . cuts drying time in 
half. Motor and blowers guaranteed for | 
year. 


EASILY transferred 
from cage to cage, 
this lightweight unit 
hooks onto any type 
cage with special 
‘non-slip’ hooks. 








For additional details write: 


SQUARE SUN MACHINE CO. 


a division of ... 


2404 Fuller Street, New York 61, N. Y. 
M. Langhaus & 


Son Enterprises 








first Thursday of each month. D. F. Watson, Blacks- 
burg, secretary. 


WASHINGTON—Seattle Veterinary Medical Association, 

the third Monday of each month, Magnolia American 
Legion Hall, 2870 32nd W., Seattle. Roy C. Toole, 
10415 Main St., Bellevue, secretary. 
South Puget Sound Veterinary Association, the second 
Thursday of each month except July and August. B. D. 
Benedictson, 3712 Plummer St., Olympia, Wash., secre- 
tary. 


WEST VIRGINIA—Kyowva (Ky., Ohio, W. Va.) Veter- 
inary Medical Association, the third Thursday of each 
month in the Hotel Pritchard, Huntington, W. Va., at 
8:30 p.m. Harry J. Fallon, 200 Sth St., W. Huntington, 
W. Va., secretary. 


WISCONSIN—Central Wisconsin Veterinary Medical As- 
sociation, the second Tuesday of each quarter (March, 
June, Sept., Dec.) W. E. Gladitsch, 914 Riggs St., 
Bloomer, Wis., secretary. 

Dane County Veterinary Medical Association, the second 
Thursday of each month. Dr. E. P. Pope, 409 Farley 
Ave., Madison, Wis., secretary. 

Milwaukee Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Tuesday of each month, at the Half-Way House, Blue 
Mound Rd. Dr. R. H. Steinkraus, 7701 N. 59th St., 
Milwaukee, Wis., secretary. 

Northeastern Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Association, 
the third Wednesday in April. William Madson, 218 E. 
Washington St., Appleton, Wis., secretary. 

Rock Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the first 
Wednesday of each month. L. C. Allenstein, 209 S. 
Taft St., Whitewater, Wis., secretary. 


Southeastern Veterinary Medical Association, the third 
Thursday of each month. John R. Curtis, 419 Cook St., 
Portage, Wis., secretary. 

Wisconsin Valley Veterinary Medical Association, the 


second Tuesday of every other month. John B. Fleming, 
209 E. 4th St., Marshfield, Wis., secretary. 





CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 


PERSONAL WANT ADS—$4.00 for the first 25 
words and 10 cents for each additional word; 35 cents 
for use of box number. 


TOTAL WORD COUNT must include complete box 
mumber address (8 words) or personal address line. 


COMMERCIAL WANT ADS—$5.00 for the first 25 
words, 25 cents for each additional word; $1.00 for 
use of box number. (See paragraph above for coral 
word count.) 














Remittance must accompany ad. 








DEADLINES 
Ist of month issue — 8th of month preceding 
date of issue. 
15th of month issue — 22nd of month pre- 
ceding date of issue. 





penaes ol classified etventionss using key letters can not 

mye: ey A Gos & to the box number, c/o 
JOURMAL of the AV! Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago 5, Ill., and it Mai sent to the advertiser. 














Your Symbol of P, restige 





Each emblem is deep red, gold, and white 


@ AUTO EMBLEMS 


Solid metal and weather-resistant. At- 
taches to license plate or license-holder. 
34/2 inches in diameter. Price $2.50 each. 


@ DECALS 


Easy-to-apply on office doors or windows. 
34 inches in diameter. Price $.25 each. 


@ LAPEL PINS 


Satin-finish surface featuring AVMA em- 
blem. Screw-post design. Price $.60 each. 


48 


Wanted—Veterinarians 





Veterinarian wanted—practice 85 per cent large 
animal; large and small animal hospital. Could lead 
to partnership. Write F. D. Custer, Oakland, Md. 





Assistant wanted for small animal practice in 
Long Island, N.Y. Please state age, experience, col- 
lege and year graduated, salary desired, marital 
status, three references. Address “Box A 19," c/o 
JourRNAL of the AVMA. 


Relief veterinarian wanted to take over complete 
charge of small animal hospital during my vacation 
after February 15. Must have Maryland license; 
hospital located near Baltimore. Address “Box B 2,” 
c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


Wanted—assistant veterinarian in established small 
animal practice. Arizona license preferred. With 
separate 3-bedroom house nearby. Address “Box B 
4," c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 











Veterinarian to assist small animal practice; Vir- 
ginia license required. In letter, state pertinent facts 
such as age, ability, experience, availability. Bonus 
arrangement. Address ‘Box B 6," c/o JouRNAL of 
the AVMA. 





Veterinarian wanted for small animal practice in 
western Michigan. Hospital member of A.A.H.A. 
State full qualifications and references in first letter 
and when available for interview. Address “Box 
B 9,"" c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 





Desire assistant, small animals, southwest suburb 
of Chicago; 58 or '59 graduate desired. No living 
quarters; three-man practice. Address “Box B 10,” 
c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 























Seas 


Ft) 








Sis 





‘aA 


in a variety of eczematous and 
infectious skin disorders 


Vioform* 
Hydrocortisone cream 


Whether your animal patients are large or small: you'll 
want to treat skin disorders by reducing inflammatory 
reactions and controlling associated microbial infection. 
Note these points in favor of Vioform-Hydrocortisone 
Cream, combination therapy for comprehensive, comple- 
mentary action: 

Broader Control Betier Over-ali Results 





Hydrocortisone relieves discom- 
Anti-inflammatory fort due to inflammation; re- 
duces edema; controls scaling. 





Hydrocortisone also relieves 
Antipruritic painful, itching skin; wards off 
danger of self-mutilation. 





Vioform checks secondary patho- 
Antibacterial gens invading traumatized and 
eczematous skin tissues. 





Ringworm and other fungal in- 
Fungicidal fections are rapidly cleared by 
the fungicidal action of Vioform. 





Cats with ringworm infection 
Low Toxicity can be given frequent applica- 
tions of Vioform-Hydrocortisone. 














For effective treatment: (1) Clip area to be treated. 
(2) Apply Vioform-Hydrocortisone Cream sparingly 3 to 
4 times a day, working it well into the affected regions. 
Continue applications for 3 to 4 days to obtain desired 
anti-inflammatory effect of hydrocortisone. (3)Then con- 
tinue therapy with Vioform Cream alone. 

Indications: Eczematous dermatoses and associated bac- 
terial and fungal invaders. Ringworm and other primary 
fungal infections. Infected anal glands and interdigital 
dermatitis accompanied by surgical drainage of the cysts. 
Supplied: Vioform-Hydrocortisone Cream, containing 
iodochlorhydroxyquin 3% and hydrocortisone 1% in a 
water-washable base; tubes of 5 and 20 Gm. Vioform 
Cream, containing iodochlorhydroxyquin 3% in a water- 
washable base; tubes of 1 ounce and jars of 1 pound. 
VIOFORM® (iodochlorhydroxyquin CIBA) 


= I B A Summit, New Jersey 2/2ees va 


49 





DAILY LOG 


RECORD SUPPLIES FOR 
VETERINARY PHYSICIANS 










A complete line of Record Supplies and Pro- 
fessional Stationery — specifically for 
the medical profession. 
e@ Fi 

@ Appointment Book 
® Printed Stationery 


_ @ Patients’ Records 
MN W. 1959 | « File Guides 

EDITION! e Payment Records 

THE COLWELL gy gy Soran 

281 University Ave., Ch 





d Book 





ype 





Some packers will pay $1.00 per head extra for 
cattle which have been treated for grubs with sys- 
temic insecticides—Successful Farm. (Nov., 
1958): 8. 





AVMA Research Fellowships Available 


The Council on Research of the AVMA an- 

nounces the availability of a number of 

fellowships for postgraduate training for 
the academic year, 1959-1960. 


The recipient of a fellowship must be a 

veterinarian and a citizen of the United 

States or Canada. Veterinary students 

who expect to graduate at the end of the 

current school year and who wish to fol- 

low a career in research may apply for a 
fellowship. 


The latest date for filing the completed 
application is Feb. 15, 1959. Approximate- 
ly one month is required for processing 
completed applications after receipt by 
the secretary of the Council. Qualified 
persons should secure and submit appli- 
cations as early as possible to insure their 
file being complete for presentation to the 
Committee on Fellowships. 


The Committee on Fellowships of the Coun- 
cil on Research will meet in March to con- 
sider applications, and the awards will be 
announced soon afterward. The stipend 
will be determined in each case by the 
needs of the individual, the location of the 
school in which he proposes to work, and 
other factors. In general. the stipends 
range from $100 monthly and upward. 


Any qualified person interested in graduate 
training may obtain application blanks and 
other information by writing to Secretary, 
AVMA Council on Research, C. H. Cunning- 
ham, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan 
State University, East Lansing, Mich. 














Relief veterinarian to operate small animal prac- 
tice in Philadelphia, Pa., for month of August. 
Apartment available. Address “Box B 11,” C/o 
JouRNAL of the AVMA. 


Veterinarian wanted, New York State licensed, 
A.A.H.A. hospital, Long Island. In letter, state age, 
experience, availability, qualifications. Address “Box 
B 14,” c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


Sales opportunity—sales representative openings 
with established ethical veterinary manufacturer. Both 
established and new territories. Salary with bonus; 
car furnished and expenses. Give complete resume of 
education, work history, and earning requirements. 
Address “Box B 16,” c/o JouRNAL of the AVMA. 


Position available—veterinarian desired as an as- 
sociate in an expanding small and large animal prac- 
tice 20 miles south of Chicago. Associate will be in 
complete charge. A guaranteed minimum income of 
$5,000 yearly is provided for in the working agree- 
ment, plus a percentage clause whereby income poten- 
tialities are unlimited. All instruments, medicines, 
and car operating expenses, etc. are furnished by the 
business, so need only have own car. Position availa- 
ble after Feb. 1, 1959. Address “Box B 17,” c/o 
JourNAL of the AVMA. 














Wanted—New York-licensed veterinarian: surgical 
aptitude, references. Staff opportunity dependent on 
individual. Boynton Small Animal Hospital, 299 
Central Park Ave.. Yonkers, N.Y. 


Wanted—Positions 
Relief veterinarian available, New York and New 


Jersey licenses, small animals only. Address D.V.M., 
1007 80th St., North Bergen, N.J. 


Relief 1 work—available for relief work. Experi- 
enced; licensed in many states. Dr. J. Guthrie Blue, 
2121 East Second St., Tucson, Ariz. 














Veterinarian desires position or partnership with 
practitioner in dairy practice. Three years experience; 
married. Address “Box B 5,” c/o JOURNAL of the 
AVMA. 


Foreign graduate with experience in small animal 
work desires position as assistant veterinarian. Prefer 
Chicago area, but will consider other locations. Ad- 
dress “Box B 8,"" c/o JoURNAL of the AVMA. 


Graduate (TEX '48) desires position in small or 
mixed practice. Experienced; would consider pharma- 
ceutical sales. Texas license. Address “Box B 15,” 
c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


Graduate (TEX '55) interested in position leading 
to purchase or partnership in established small ani- 
mal practice. Reasonable amount of capital available. 
Address “Box B 18,” c/o JoURNAL of the AVMA 


Wanted—Practices 

















Experienced, reliable small animal practitioner de- 
sires to lease preferably with options, small animal 
hospital in Los Angeles or near vicinity. Address 
“Box A 20,” c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


Well-established general practice wanted in Mid- 
dlewest or West by experienced practitioner. Will 
consider association with practitioner as 
retirement. Replies confidential and will be answe 
c/o JouRNAL of the AVMA. 





Address “Box B 1. 























Will lease or buy—small animal practice in Illi- 
nois. Have $8,000; finance rest. Address “Box B 7,” 
c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 





Veterinarian wishes to lease with option or buy, 
small animal hospital in Illinois or Missouri. Would 
consider Ohio and Wisconsin. Address “Box B 12,” 
c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 





Desire to purchase established, active, one- or two- 
man small animal practice. Please state price, terms, 
gross, location, in original letter. Address “Box B 
19,” c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


For Sale or Lease—Practices 








Veterinary practice—home and animal hospital; 
drugs and equipment; in northwest Wisconsin. Past 
retirement age. Good, established business; priced 
right—terms. For particulars: Thorp Listing Service, 
Licensed Real Estate Brokers, R. J. Tolford, sales- 
man, Thorp, Wis. 





For sale or lease—small animal hospital and 
boarding facilities. Equipped with 80 indoor cages 
and 50 outdoor runs. Fine location in city of New 
Orieans; ideal year ‘round climate. Experienced, 
progressive man is a must. Address “Box B 3,” c/o 
JOURNAL of the AVMA. 


Fast growing general practice with residence in 
Ohio. Real estate value; lease considered; perfect for 
young couple. Address “Box B 13,” c/o JOURNAL 
of the AVMA. 








Miscellaneous 





Eyes from diabetic dogs wanted for study. Should 
be enucleated promptly after death and preserved in 
10% formalin. If possible, kidney, adrenal, and 
pancreas should accompany the eyes. Please ship 
with a brief history to Dr. S. R. Roberts, 4704 
MacDonald Ave., Richmond, Calif. 


Too Late to Classify 


M.S.U. student, married, graduating penniless in 
June, desires position with small animal practitioner 
leading to lease or partnership. References. Oncoming 
state boards require prompt answer to this ad. Ad- 
dress “Box B 20,” c/o JOURNAL of the AVMA. 














Remittance must accompany advertisement 








INDEX VETERINARIUS 
(First issued 1933) 
A Complete Bibliography of 
Veterinary Literature 
This unique index of current world litera- 
ture is issued quarterly and lists about 10,000 
references each year from publications in 22 
languages. Indispensable to all working in 
research, education or public health. 
Prepared by: Commonwealth Bureau of 
Animal Health, Weybridge 
Annual Subscription—$14.00 
ORDER through any bookseller or direct to: 
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 
Farnham Royal, Bucks, England 











51 








Index to Advertisers in This Issue 


Abbott Laboratories ..............- 25 
Affiliated Laboratories Corp. ........ 13 
All-Pets Books, Inc. ............- . 43 
Armour Veterinary Laboratories 32, 52 
ES ook ecncceseacereese 48 
Brinkman Mfg. Co. .....:..055+5-:- 47 
Campbell X-Ray Corp. .......... 43 
Carter-Luff Chemical Co. ....... . 42 
Se 40 
Ciba Pharmaceutical Products, 

EEE, ys gi ee 8, 9, 49 
Clinicage of Chicago ........... 36 
ee STE 4 

50 


Colwell Publishing Co. .............. 
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux .. 51 


Corn Belt Laboratories, Inc. ......... 46 
Corn States Laboratories, Inc. .. 2nd cover 
Diamond Laboratories .............. 14 
Eaton Laboratories ..... 7, 15, 23, 44, 45 
Fort Dodge Laboratories ............ 28 
Fromm Laboratories ........... 41 

Jensen-Salsbery Laboratories, Inc. ci 
Poer ri yy, Vir EEL CT 4th cover 
37 


Ken-L Products 
Massengill Company, $. E. .......... W 


Masti-Kure Products ............... 42 
Ghat: & Gay GO. 2c ccc cccsccess 17-22 
Nicholson Manufacturing, Inc. ........ 27 
Norden Laboratories ..............- 1 
Parke, Davis & Company ............ 29 
Pfizer Laboratories .............- 16 
Pitman-Moore Company .... 3, 3rd cover 
Puss 'n Boots Cat Food ............. 6 
Mateten-Parime Ga. <2. 2c cc cece ccccce 33 
ED NN. on o'c cc cee nceccveseés 5 
Schroer Manufacturing Co. .......... 46 
Silent Glow Oil Burner Corp. . 24 
ES Se ae cnet dicaké 34, 35 
Sun-Ray Hair Preparations .......... 47 
Upjohn and Company ........... . 
Vitamineral Products Co. ......... 10 

26 


Winthrop Laboratories, Inc. .......... 











greater 
specificity 
through 
higher purity 


P.O.P. is a sterile aqueous 
solution of highly purified 
oxytocic principle of the 
posterior pituitary gland 
causing powerful rhythmic 
contractions of uterine 
muscle. This hormone 
also exerts a profound 
contracting effect on 
smooth muscle elements 
of the mammary gland 

to stimulate letdown of 
milk, and in management 
of mastitis to produce a 
hormonal debridement of 
inflamed milk ducts. 


Superior potency—highest purity P.O. P. 
is double the potency of the official U.S.P. standards, 
offering 20 U.S.P. units of oxytocin per cc. And unlike 
standard posterior pituitary preparations, which are 
relatively unpurified mixtures of oxytocic and vaso- 
pressor principles, P.O.P. Armour is a highly purified 
oxytocic fraction with less than 0.4 units of pressor 
activity per cc. 

Used in obstetrical procedures for large and small ani- 
mals, P.O.P. is an aid in management of precipitation 
of labor, postpartum evacuation of uterine debris, 
dysotcia due to uterine inertia and in uterine hemor- 
rhage or prolapse. 

In the treatment of mastitis P.O.P. promotes more 
efficient penetration of sulfonamides, antibiotics, en- 
zymes or other agents for faster return of normal milk 
production . . . in many cases within 24 hours. 


Restricted to sale by or on the 


Supplied in 10 cc. and 30 ce. 
order of licensed veterinarians. 


multiple dose vials. 


A R M 0 U R Veterinary Laboratories, 


Kankakee, /ilinois 





The superior ; 
hog-cholera vaccine 4 


a 


for SOLID immunity... 


LIVE VIRUS « RABBIT ORIGIN « VACUUM DRIED 
: *REGISTERED TRADE MARK 


(Licensed under U.S, Patent 2518978) 


division of 
ALLIED LABORATORIES, Inc. 





VOU CAN STOP MAST 


without building 
drug resistance 
Or irritating 
mammary tissue! 


No other mastitis ointment like it! Here 
at last is a true veterinary exclusive, a 
formula that meets the challenge of 


Jensen-Salsbery Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri 


changing mastitis etiology and the most 
rigid demands of modern dairy scientists. 


Consistently bactericidal, STEREOCIN 
eliminates a major obstacle to mastitis 
control—bacterial drug resistance. The 
exclusive new antimicrobial, Sterosan®*, 
is highly effective against streptococci, 
staphylococci and E. coli. In combination 
with neomycin and bacitracin, Sterosan 
achieves greatly intensified activity 
against all common mastitis organisms. 
There’s no penicillin, no sulfa or strep- 
tomycin in STEREOCIN, and no irritants 
to cause udder damage. 


STEREOCIN is supplied in display cartons 
of 12 individually packaged 10 gram 
tubes. Acquaint yourself and your dairy- 
men clients with this remarkably ad- 
vanced mastitis therapy today. With 
STEREOCIN on hand, you’re both equipped 
for a better approach to mastitis control. 


| 


*brand of chlorquinaldol sold under license from Geigy Chemical Corporation