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The Ganaitiay entomologist 

VoL. XXXIII. LONDON, OCTOBER, 1rgot. No. 10 

Papilio Cochabamba, sp. nov. 

Habitat: Bolivia. Expanse, 4.00 inches. 

Front of head dark, greenish black, Between the eyes, two dots 
of greenish white, and another dot at “collar,” followed by two more 
similar dots on front of thorax. Antenne, greenish black, extreme 
point slightly brownish. Thorax, above, dark greenish black ; beneath, 
black with a large yellowish spot at base of costal nervule, another 
also at base of costal nervule of hind wing, both with a small white dot 
above them. Legs, black above ; beneath, whitish, the white extending 
on to thorax as a dash. 

Abdomen above, greenish cream colour (very prominent), black tip. 
Below, black with a white spot at base of each segment on both sides. 
Between these spots and the cream colour of upper part, are a series of 
yellowish dashes. 

Fore wings above, greenish black, but with a decided greenish lustie 
covering outer half. The interspaces at hind margin edged with white. 

Hind wings of same ground colour, the greenish lustre being 
somewhat brighter and more prominent. Covering nearly the whole of 
the subcostal space is a large dash of greenish white, followed by a row 
of similar, although smaller, spots or dashes extending in @ straight Jine, 
from apex to anal angle, each about one-eighth inch wide and one-eighth 
inch long, diminishing in size towards anal angle. These are about 
one-third inch from hind margin, not touching, however, the discoidal 
space, and form the only prominent marking of the insect. The hind 
margin is strongly dentated with interspaces bordered by a white line. 

Under side of fore wings: black, shading into gray black at a line 
drawn from inner angle across the wing towards outer part of discoidal 
cell. In the three lower interspaces, one-fourth inch from hind margin is 
a patch of whitish scales, suggestive of spots. 



Under side of hind wings is entirely of bronze colour, somewhat 
lustrous, excepting at the top portion of each interspace, where there is a 
whitish spot, and inside of that, one-sixteenth inch from margin, a 
semicircle of brick colour, very prominent. The dentations of the wing 
bear the white linear border appearing on upper side. 

The specimens in my possession were taken some two hundred miles 
north from Cochabamba. In general appearance, it resembles closely 
Papilio Numitor, Cram., and that group, and may be a climatic variation 
of it, but in Vumitor the greenish-white dashes on hind wing follow more 
closely the contour of the hind margin, while in this these dashes are 
more in line with a line drawn from apex to anal angle. My specimens 
are invariable, showing no difference in the suffusion or size of dashes. 
Dynamine albidula, sp. nov. 

Habitat: Bolivia, near Sicasica. Expanse, 1.25 inches. 

Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen above, blackish with gray hairs ; 
beneath, nearly white. Antenne, black with white annulations at the 
base of each joint. Club, tipped with tawny. Legs, white. 

The lower portion of the fore wing is white, from a line drawn from a 
point close to the base on inner margin, and extending upwards to and 
along the median nervure to end of discoidal space, then curving down- 
wards to lower angle, meeting inner margin one-sixteenth inch from 
angle. ‘The rest of the wing is black with white spots. The discoidal 
space is heavily dusted with lustrous greenish-blue scales. In the centre 
of the space is a small white spot. Midway between apex and base is a 
large white spot, extending from costa towards hind margin, and directly 
over the summit of the lower white area. Just within hind margin, one- 
third distance from apex to lower angle, is a smaller white spot, and 
there is another below it, one-third distance from lower angle to apex. 
The latter of these merges into the white area of the lower portion of the 

Upper side of lower wing is entirely white, excepting a small area 
of black at the very base, and a narrow border of black along hind 
margin. ‘This border is black at the upper angle, and turns to grayish at 
the lower half, disappearing entirely just before it reaches anal angle. 
Outside of this, on the edge of the margin, is a white thread. 

The white area of upper side of fore wing is duplicated on under side. 
The black of the upper side gives way to a great extent to tawny. The 
discoidal space is jet black at its upper portion, tawny at basal portion, 


the black extending down along the median nervure towards base. In 
the centre of the black area is a white spot. Separating the black from 
the tawny is a thread of very lustrous greenish-blue, nearly silver. This 
tawny colour extends to costa, the costa being tawny up to apex. A 
greenish-blue lustrous line extends from base along costa for one-quarter 
inch. ‘The large white spot of upper surface is repeated. ‘The first white 
spot at hind margin of upper surface is repeated, but suffuses strongly 
upwards to the costa, forming an apical band of white. At inner edge of 
this band is a heavy tawny line, the costal and lower portion of it tipped 
with lustrous greenish-blue scales. The lower white spot is the same as 
on upper surface. The hind margin has a black thread at its edge, and 
within this a line of tawny, edged on its inner side by a thread of the 
lustrous scales. 

The lower side cf lower wings is the same as upper surface, except 
the black is replaced by tawny, and the marginal border is edged on its 
inner side by a thread of lustrous greenish-blue, with a suggestion of a 
black thread within it. 

Type, one specimen ; taken October ist, 1899. 

Amarynthis muscolor, sp. nov. 

Habitat: Bolivia, five days travel north from Cochabamba. Ex- 
panse, 1.25 inches. 

Head, thorax and abdomen, nearly black, with approach to dark 
mouse colour on top. Antenne, black, with slight white annulations at 
base of each joint. Legs, black. 

General ground colour of upper surface, a dark mouse colour, with 
black markings. Costa of fore wings of ground colour. Hind margin, 
without border, except a slight linear black line and a fringe of hairs. 
One-eighth inch within margin is a semi-distinct black line, extending 
from tip down to inner margin, and another the sante distance within this. 
The discoidal space contains four distinct black transverse lines, the 
outer two joining at top and bottom, forming an egg-shaped figure. 
From the lower junction of these, a black line extends downwards at 
right angles to the costa to the submedian nervule. The inner two of 
these discoidal lines do not join, but each extends downwards to sub- 
median nervule. There is a suggestion of still another line, nearer the 
base, extending also to the submedian nervule. 

Upper surface of hind wings nearly duplicates that of fore wings. 
The hind margin with its two inner lines and hairy fringe is the same. 


The inner line forms a continuation of the line of fore wings which 
extends downwards from the egg-shaped figure, noted above. The outer 
line of the inner two lines mentioned as crossing the discoidal space of 
fore wings extends across the wing from costa to anal angle, where it 
joins the two broader lines. Within this, in discoidal space, are three 
lines, and a suggestion of a fourth near the joint. Inner margin, of 
ground colour, fringed with hairs. 

The under surface is brilliant, the outer half of both wings being sky 
blue with a mother-of-pearl lustre. The costa of fore wing is mouse 
colour, with a linear dash of sky blue extending upwards from base. 
Hind margin is same as on upper surface, except that the slight hairy 
fringe shows whitish. The inner half of wing is blue-black. The 
dividing line between the inner and outer half is broken at the first 
median nervule, forming a jut. The discoidal space contains four sky 
blue spots, the second and fourth from the base being very prominent. 
Below the second one, above the submedian nervure, is another spot of 
the same colour. The space above inner margin is mouse colour, some- 
what suffusing the blue-black of inner half of wing. 

Under surface of hind wings much the same. The border of hind 
margin is same as on fore wings, but the first border line of the upper 
surface is duplicated. The line separating the blue-black and sky blue is 
continuous, extending from midway between apex and base to anal angle. 
The discoidal space contains but two sky blue marks, which are dupli- 
cated in a less degree in the space next below. The inner one is also 
duplicated similarly in the space above the discoidal space. The sky 
blue of outer half of wing extends upwards somewhat, along inner 
margin, and also suffuses the lower portion of the blue-black ground. 

Described from three specimens in my collection from Cochabamba 
district, 1899. ' 

Eurybia hari, sp. nov. 

Habitat: Bolivia, north of Cochabamba. Expanse, 2.15 inches. 

Head and eyes, dark fulvous brown, with a “collar” of reddish- 
brown yellow. Antenne, nearly black, with yellowish points. ‘Thorax 

and abdomen, dark mouse colour, somewhat lighter underneath. Legs, 
the same. 

General ground colour of wings, dark mouse colour, with a border 
(interspacing) of reddish-brown yellow, covering nearly one-third of both 
fore and hind wings. 


Costa of fore wings, dark mouse colour. Inner two-thirds of wing 
the same, excepting a prominent black spot in discoidal space, sur- 
rounded by a reddish-brown yellow ring, and outside of this a semicircle 
of same colour. Hind margin has a linear border of ground colour. 
The interspaces of hind margin contain a dash of reddish-brown yellow 
extending as far as discoidal space in upper three interspaces and paral- 
lelling downwards. These dashes form practically a broad band cover- 
ing outer third of wing, the nervures of ground colour only showing 
between them. The outer end of these dashes contains a black arrow- 
head, small at top interspace, and increasing in size in lower interspaces. 
The inner end of these dashes contains a black dash, increasing in size in 
lower interspaces. 

The hind wings duplicate these markings, with the following excep- 
tions: The discoidal spot is much less prominent. The semicircle out- 
side of it is missing. The linear border is also missing, the reddish- 
brown yellow extending clearly to margin. 

The under side of both wings is the same as upper side, excepting 
that the ground colour is much lighter, and the yellowish portions 
suffused somewhat with ground colour. The discoidal spots are more 
prominent owing to the lighter shade of the background, rather than to 
any chavige of their own. ‘ 

The general appearance is close to Hurybia Jemina, Hew. 

Described from two specimens in my collection, secured by my 
collector, Mr. William J. Gerhard, at a point five days north from 
Cochabamba, Bolivia. In all the collections examined, including the 
largest collections in this country and in England, only one of this 
species was found, that being in Mr. Hewitson’s collection, unnamed. 


Although the announcement that the Colorado beetle had been 
discovered at Tilbury Docks (near London) must have given rise to 
some apprehension on the part of agriculturists in general, and potato- 
growers in particular, we are able to state, as the result of inquiries, that 
there now exists no cause for alarm, the prompt action of the Board of 
Agriculture having succeeded in exterminating, so far as is possible to 
judge, the dangerous insect. Little, if any, damage was done by this 
visitation, which seems to be the first for fifteen or twenty years. The 
land around Tilbury Docks is not agricultural, and if potatoes are 


cultivated it is by the labourers who obtain allotments for the purpose of 
growing vegetables for their own consumption. 

The story of the discovery of the Colorado beetle at Tilbury is 
briefly this: Situated at the north-east corner of the docks belonging to 
the London and India Dock Company, are some allotment gardens, 
occupied by employés of the company for the consideration of a 
“peppercorn” rent. Whilst gardening in one of these plots, a man 
came across what to him was a strange insect, unlike anything he had 
seen before. In his perplexity he made inquiries, the result being that 
the Board of Agriculture were communicated with. That body submitted 
the insect to their experts at the Natural History Museum, at South 
Kensington, who pronounced it to be the Colorado beetle. Representa- 
tives of the Board of Agriculture were despatched to Tilbury immediately, 
and they made a most careful examination, not only of the land affected, 
but of the surrounding area, in which work they were accorded every 
assistance by the officials of the dock company. ‘The plots upon which 
the beetle had been found were first dealt with, all the vegetation being 
cut down, made into small heaps, and burnt with the help of hundreds of 
gallons of oil. The ground was afterwards ploughed vigorously, and 
minute care was taken in destroying the insects. Tne land adjoining 
received similar treatment. So complete and thorough were the means 
adopted that when the inspectors of the Board of Agriculture left the 
scene they expressed in no equivocal terms the conviction that the 
dangerous pest had been wholly annihilated. 

How the beetle came into this country is, of course, a matter for 
conjecture. It may, however, be reasonably assumed that it was 
imported in one or more of the American boats whieh call at Tilbury, 
but, although the transatlantic steamers were searched, no trace of the 
pest could be found. ' 

All persons occupying land in the vicinity of Tilbury have been 
warned to look out for the beetle, and.if there should be another 
outbreak to give immediate notice to the Board of Agriculture through 
the police. The penalty for disobedience involves a penalty not 
exceeding £ 10, and it should also be remembered that keeping or selling 

any living specimens constitutes an offence under the Act, and is 
punishable by a fine not exceeding a similar amount. The insect is 
known to most people as being somewhat like a large ‘“lady-bird,” having 
longitudinal black lines down the wing-cases, the underneath being of a 
yellowish tint.—Dai/y Telegraph, Sept. 5. 


MIoMANTIS, Saussure. Bull. Ent. Suisse, III., p. 64, 1870. 

Preoccupied by Miomantis, Blanchard. D’Orbigny, Voy. Amer. 
Merid., VI., Ins., p. 209, 1842 (Coleoptera). ‘To fill the deficiency, | 
propose the name Ca/idomantis. 

Harpax, Serville. Ann. Sci. Nat., XXII., p. 45, 49, 1831. 

Preoccupied by Harpax, Parkinson. Organic Rem.,1811 (Mollusca). 
I have not been able to examine the first edition of Parkinson, but in the 
second the name H/arpax occurs on page 221 of volume III. To replace 
Serville’s genus, I propose the name Australomantis. 

PHANTASIS, Saussure. Miss. Scient. Mex. Orth., p. 188, 1872. 

Preoccupied by Phantasis, Thoms. Essai Classif. Cerambyc., p 25, 
1860 (Coleoptera). The name Hesperophasma is proposed to fill the 

Akentetus, McNeill. Proc. Davenp. Acad., VI., p. 225, 1897. 

This generic name has been emended to Acentetus (Scudder, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. Arts Sci, XXXV., p. 45, 1899), in which case it is 
preoccupied by Acentetus, Cabanis (Mus. Hein., LV., pt. 1, p. 102, 1862), 
in Ornithology. This instance should help to deter the lovers of emenda- 
tion and purity, the inviolability of the name being the easiest and most 
satisfactory method in this as well as all cases where a typographical error 
is not evident. 

ALPHA, Brunner. Ann. Mus. Cio. Stor. Nat., Genova, XXXIIL., p. 121, 
1893. < 

Preoccupied by A/pha, Saussure. Smith. Misc. Coll., XIV., p. 121, 
1875 (Hymenoptera). In allusion to the habitat of some of the species, 
I propose the name Cordid/acris. 

The genus Beta of Brunner (p. 121) is also antedated in the same 
way (Misc, Coll., XLV., p. 88), but as his name has no type or included 
species designated, it cannot be regarded as thoroughly established. 
IcHrHYDION, Saussure. Revue et Mag. de Zool., p. 390, 1859. 

Preoccupied by Jchthydion, Dejean. Catal. Coleopt., IL, 1833 
(Coleoptera). In the third edition of Dejean, the name is found on page 
223. ‘Toreplace the preoccupied name, I propose the term /chthyotettix. 



Eremopia, Serville. Orthopteres, p. 704, 1839. 

Preoccupied by Zremodia, Stephens. Catal. Brit. Ins., Lepidoptera, 
p. 104, 1829 (Lepidoptera). The next available name is Zmethis, Fieber, 
Lotos, III., p. 128, 1853. 

XIPHOCERA auct ( Xiphicera). 

The use of this name by Latreille (Fam. Nat. Regn. Anim., p. 415) is 
merely in the French form Xyphictre, and as far as I can ascertain, he 
never used it Latinized in any of his later works. Lamarck is the first 
author I have found who Latinized the name, Xiphicera dating from him 
(Anim. Saus. Vert., II. ed., IV., p. 444, 1835). The form generally 
quoted Xiphocera (Burmeister, Handb. d. Entom., II., p. 612, 1838) is 
preoccupied by Xiphocera, Macquart. Dipteres, L, p. 279, 1834 

TROPINOTUS, Serville. Orthoptéres, p. 617, 1839. 

This name is generally quoted as. Zropidonotus (Stol, Syst. Acrid., 
p. 14, 1877), but the emended form is preoccupied by Z7opidonotus, 
Kuhl. Wagler’s Nat. Syst. Amph., p. 179, 1830 (Reptiles). 

ScH@NOBATES, Saussure. Revue et Mag. de Zool., p. 209, 1859. 

Preoccupied by Schanobates, Blackwall. Ann. and Mag., Nat. Hist., 
VI., p. 343, 1850 (Arachnida). In place of the preoccupied name, I 
propose Anabropsis. 

PSEUDANCISTRUS, Bolivar. Artr. Viaje Pac., Neur. y Ort., p. 82, 1884. 

Preoccupied by Pseudancistrus, Bleeker. Ned. Tijds. Dierk, I., p. 
78, 1863 (Fishes). I suggest Po/yancistroides to replace the preoccupied 

AMAURA, Brunner. Monogr. der Phaneropt, p. 247, 1878. 

Preoccupied by Amaura, Moller, Ind. Moll. Greeul., p. 7, 1842 

(Mollusca). The name Zigocatinus is proposed to fill the vacancy. 
APHONUS, Saussure. Miss, Scient. Mex., Orth., p. 466, 509, 1874. 

Preoccupied by Aphonus, Leconte. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

VIII., p. 21, 1857 (Coleoptera). To replace the preoccupied name, I 
propose Aphonogryllus. 

Dyscopnus, Saussure. Miss. Scient. Mex., p. 438, 1874. 

Preoccupied by Dyscophus, Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat., V. ser., 

XV., art. 20, p. 10, 1872 (Reptiles). In place of Saussure’s name, I 
propose Dyscophogry/lus. 



In the CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST for December, 1894 (Vol. XXVL., 
page 329), I presented the species of Psychoda then known to me from 
Long Island, N. Y. In the following year, in the November number 
(Vol. XXVII., page 324), I added some notes and described one more 
species. Since then nothing has been published on our Eastern species. 
Prof. Kincaid, however, has been active in studying the Western species. 

During the past few years I have collected them at Washington and 
vicinity, and obtained three new species as well as many of those 
previously described. I now give a table of all the Eastern species, 
twelve in number, with descriptions of the three new forms : 


es as ETS Sa TA TH 2. 

Gray-winged species. . bp Piet soak Se CAC SC UOENEUE RS Vote ae 

2. Wings with iridescent siites, hind t tarsi eat antl white Peet nitida. 

Wings without iridescent scales. Re ke eS OR bd? been Se Saw ecke OEM 

3. Hind-tarsi wholly pale sethaialahin or - whitieh a rer ere Tete) 

Hind tarsi black or only partly pale.. ee > Panis ine 

4. Two black patches on the wings eine the alin. Ape sree 

No black patches. . ae 2 Se . .albitarsis. 

5. Hind tarsi wholly bind, wings ah pare all black. re. 

Hind tarsi with some white marks, wings and fringe ‘marked with 

DER Gua S Eee oe tobe es Sw Rawt Mrawed bes vcdaeeen sel ae 

8: —§ AR ore ree cr etme 

Thorax black. . Reece bs a REL os Sb, a0 basco bbe ORS 
7. Fringe on salaidiag margin 5 Caches mis with white hair ; 

wings banded with pale, legs pale. . aku . - Slossone. 

Fringe on posterior margin more whitish : ated siete with distinct 
black dots, wings not Sing banded, though with scattered white 

hair; legs black. . REA uk SOIR el ace 
8. Wines silted our. signs Si tcal BF rs kame Reigunbicas ocarsnins eas Sg a 
Wings marked with black. hike os wasdiies ho ke Oe 

g. Larger; at least two sallideagters long; Mnes< on hed ts margin fly as 
long as usual.. papi tebe + GHG Rao WRENS Mowe denLee 9d ont . cinerea. 


Smaller; less than two millimeters ‘nn teas on hind margin rather 
short. : .minuta. 
10. Hind tarsi i wiah nok at bane ond ia wings s handed, wits distines dots 
at ends of veins, but not two spots on margins ate mid- 
Wa ary ie ksh dae Xia dene OORT ao: Vanes Bad . .Signata. 
Hind tarsi i unmarked (patiiniieliis ere at eres of veins; wings scarcely 
banded, no ‘basal black band, nor two spots on margins beyond 
middle. . : ; .alternata. 
Hind tarsi ‘hes donk eneme: wings : wih a bebe black band, 
beyond the middle a black spot on each margin, and one or two 
Na hx a sddnn du yee habeas ah ie sc pbseee deueme opposita. 
Psychoda cinerea, Banks.—This species is known by its uniform pale 
appearance and average size. It is common at Washington, D. C., and 
Falls Church, Va., in June, and occurs at Ithaca, N. Y. 
Psychoda minuta, Banks.—This is our smallest species ; I have seen 
a specimen from Mesilla, N. Mex. (Cockerell). 
Psychoda alternata, Say.—This species is common at Falls Church, 
Va., near houses, in June. It also occurs at Ithaca, N. Y. Eaton has 
decided that one of the common Eiropean species (P. sexpunctata, 
Halid.) is identical with P. a/ternata. The latter name has the priority. 
Psychoda signata, n. sp.—Head and thorax clothed with white hair, 
some tufts of gray at bases of wings; antenne white, about as long 
as width of wing ; legs white, last few tarsal joints biack, and a black ring 
on base of the first tarsal joint of hind legs; abdomen clothed with white 
hair. Wings marmorate with pale gray and blackish, rather thinly clothed 
with hair; a blackish patch near base, another rather before the middle 
from costa to centre of wing, one on posterior part about behind this one, 
a long one along the apical costal third of wing, often interrupted by three 
pale spots, and a few small patches ori the apical third of hind margin ; 
all these spots are blackish, irregular, and of indistinct outline. The 
fringe .on costal margin is largely gray, but with two white patches, and 
the apex white; on middle of hind margin is a long white portion, the rest 
of the fringe is blackish; the fringe on the hind margin is about one-third 
the width of the wing. Length of wing, 2 mm. 
A few specimens taken near Washington, D. C., in May. 
Psychoda opposita, n. sp.— Head and thorax clothed with pale gray 
hair; antenne thick, gray, longer than width of wing; abdomen clothed 
with rather short gray hair ; legs brown, none of the tarsi marked with 


white. Wings thickly clothed with pale gray hair; near base is a band of 
black hair, heaviest behind; slightly beyond the middle of the wing there 
is a black spot on the costal margin and another opposite on the posterior 
edge, the latter rather the larger; the extreme margin around the tip 
appears more or less black. The fringe is mostly pale gray, or almost 
white, on the hind margin; on the base of costal margin it is dark gray; 
that on posterior margin is almost one-half the width of the wing. Wings 
rather narrow and acute at tip. Length of wing, 1.7 mm. 

Taken at Washington, D. C., on the bark of trees, in the early part 
of August. Easily known by the two black spots on each wing. 

Psychoda albitarsis, Banks.—I have seen specimens only from the 
type locality, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Psychoda marginalis, Banks.—I have only the types of this species, 
from Sea Cliff, N. Y. It is very distinct by the two patches of black hair 
on wings. 

Psychoda Slossone, Williston.—My specimens are all from New 

Psychoda superba, Banks.—This handsome species is very common 
at Washington, 1D. C., from June to August, on the bark of large trees. 
Psychoda bicolor, Banks.—I have seen only the types from Sea Cliff, 
N. Y. . 

Psychoda nigra, Banks.—I have taken several specimens of this 
species at Falls Church, Va., close to a stream, in June. The fringe on 
the hind margin of wings is very long. 

Psychoda nitida, 1. sp.—Thorax in front densely clothed with toda 
gray hair, behind at the bases of wings it is darker, often black. Abdo- 
men black, with jet black hair. Legs black, with black hair; on the basal 
joints of all tarsi are some white scale-like hairs. Wings clothed with 
black, and some iridescent scales showing a bluish, greenish or coppery 
hue, according to the light and position. Fringe black, white at tip 
of wing. Tips of veins usually show heavier patches of black hair 
or scales. Antenne slender, moniliform, slightly longer than the width of 
wing. Wings moderately broad, scarcely acute at tip, the fringe on 
posterior margin being about one-fourth the width of the wing. 

Length of wing, 2.6 mm. 

This species is found at Washington, D. C., on the bark of large 
trees, in July. The iridescence of the scales on the wings at once sepa- 
rates it from all our other forms. 



There never yet was anything new or revolutionary advanced or 
suggested that was not met with a “ protest” from some quarter. When 
machinery was introduced the hand-workers protested; when railroads 
supplanted stage coaches the coachmen protested ; and so on. So we 
never had a new list in any order of insects, where changes in nomen- 
clature were made, which was not denounced by someone who found 
himself or herself compelled thereby to take new views or learn new 

Of course, protests have their uses, and are always interesting ; so, 
that by Mr. Heath, in the September number of the CANADIAN 
ENTOMOLOGIST, was carefully read by me. Of course, it should really 
be answered by Dr. George D. Hulst ; but he is, unfortunately, dead, and 
as he was a very good friend of mine, I will do the best I can in his 
behalf as well as my own, for I must plead guilty to being an American, 
and am uneasily suspicious that, since I happen to know about Zzphro- 
clystis, 1 must be included among the pseudo-savants. 

Let me say first of all that Mr. Heath has been for some time a very 
good correspondent of mine, that I have found him always open-handed 
and open-minded, ready to do all in his power to further entomological 
science, anxious to aid, and willing to be aided; therefore, whatever I 
may say here is not meant as a reflection upon him—only an appeal to 
his natural love of justice, and a plea that he do not scold too hastily. 

A protest always carries weight in proportion to the authority or 
knowledge of him that makes it, or the force of fact or argument with 
which it is backed up. Now, what does Mr. Heath really protest 
against? Specifically, only the use of Zephroclystis is mentioned, but 
inferentially other “ new” and unfamiliar names are included in the ban. 
Tephroclystis is not so well known perhaps as Zufithecia, though it may 
rival “ pugs” in familiarity; but would it not have been fair for Mr. 
Heath to show, first, that it is really a new name, and second, that there 
was no sound reason for the change other than that it did not mean 
“ pugs.” Before making his protest and scolding “ American pseudo- 
savants ” he should have made sure of his ground, and become genuinely 
“savant” himself. Had he done so he would have found that Zephro- 
clystis is a Hubnerian term far antedating Zupithecia, Curtis, and that, 
following the law of priority, Hubner’s name simply had to be used. If 


it be objected that nomenclature ought not to be disturbed, and things 
ought not to be upset, it might be in order to suggest that Lord Walsing- 
ham and Mr. C. Hartley Durrant, both good Englishmen, have been the 
greatest disturbing factors of the decade so far as reinstating Hubner’s 
names is concerned. A great part of Mr. Heath’s scolding in the second 
paragraph, therefore, applies to them more perfectly than to any Ameri- 
can entomologist. Finally, it may be noted that in Staudinger and 
Rebel’s catalogue, just issued, Zupithecia is replaced by TZephroc/ystis, 
Hbp., and Ch/oroclystis, Hbn. Dr. Hulst was, therefore, neither 
arbitrary nor singular in using the term. 

I am greatly afraid that, unless he wishes to remain solitary, Mr. 
Heath must give up Zupithecia, though there is no canon of nomencla- 
ture that opposes his hold on “ pugs.” 

American entomologists and American naturalists generally are 
accused of being narrow, and confining their ideas ‘“ to their own little 
collections,” etc., and this charge is just about as well based as the 
other. The truth is there are no broader students, literally and other- 
wise, to be found anywhere than in America ; which is not saying that 
we do not have the other kind as well. But specialists are needed as yet 
where so much material remains undescribed, and the would-be mono- 
grapher of a world-wide fauna finds himself very frequently compelled to 
limit his ambition by the wealth of new local material comiag in to him. 

There are many of the newer entomological recruits who do not 
realize the difficulties with which the earlier students had to contend. 
Before 1860, almost all American Lepidoptera were described in foreign 
publications, from Linné to Guenée and Walker. So, of necessity, the 
American student became familiar with the general world classification to 
that date. For years afterward everything was compared with European 
species, and, so far as possible, American forms were identified with 
those of other countries. Students like Zeller, Speyer, Moeschler and 
Staudinger co-operated, and the charge that American work was done 
without regard to what has been done elsewhere is simply absurd. 

Of course, as in all countries, the work of special students was more 
or less confined to the local fauna. The fact that in so many countries 
work was simultaneously done has resulted in duplicating descriptions of 
similiar structural combinations under different generic names. It is the 
work of the student now, to collate and systematize, as Sir George F. 
Hampson is doing with the British Museum material at command. This 


will, of necessity, cause some change and shifting of names. I am led 
to say further, that no students have travelled so much to make com- 
parisons as have the Americans. Grote, Fernald, Hulst and others, as 
well as myself, have visited all the European collections — some of us 
more than once — and have spent dollars, pounds, francs and marks in 
painful number to gain that broad knowledge for which we are now 
dubbed “ pseudo-savants.” 

Now, I doubt whether I would have imposed all this upon the 
readers of the CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIST except as a sort of introduction 
to another point, which the following quotation from a correspondent’s 
letter will make clear: ‘In sending specimens to be determined in the 
customary way (the namer to have the privilege of retaining any speci- 
mens he may desire), if I send a species new to our fauna, does custom 
require its return to the sender, or is the recipient to keep, name and 
describe it—i. e., stea/ it bodily?” The italics are as in the original. 

Now, how many persons who have asked that same question, and 
who have found fault with the answer, ever really understand what they 
are asking when they send in a box of insects numbering anywhere from 
25 to 250 specimens for determination to one who is under no sort of 
obligation to do it ? 

First, they draw upon a store of knowledge that has been acquired 
by over twenty years of study ; they demand the time necessary to make 
comparisens, to unpack, repack, often the replacement of a defective 
outer box or a new cover; very often the payment of return postage, 
almost always the payment of correspondence postage. Second, they 
often expect comments or information concerning the species, its rarity, 
value, larva or its life-history, and other matters too numerous to mention. 

And in return for all this, what do they offer? In many cases noth- 
ing at all; but rather claim it as a right; in other cases, permission to 
retain such as they have in duplicate ! 

I have frequently spent a solid half day naming a box of specimens 
in which there was not a single example that was of use to me! I need 
hardly say that I could have found more profitable employment for my 
time. In Noctuids, the collection under my charge at New Brunswick is, 
perhaps excepting that of the U.S. National Museum, the most com- 
plete in the country. Of the Eastern and Central U. S. species, not a 
dozen are lacking ; but that dozen I need badly. Once or twice each 
year, out of hundreds of species that pass through my hands, I find one 


or two of the desiderata. It is the only pay I ask,— permission to retain 
such as are needed for the collection, and I do not consider it excessive. 
When I say that during the winter months I frequently get half a dozen 
sendings in one week, and often spend an entire day of ten hours in 
making determinations, the extent of the labour imposed on me may be 

I wish it to be distinctly understood that I do not object to making 
determinations ; it is a real pleasure to me to look over a lot of material, 
especially if in good condition and from a new locality; but I do feel 
sometimes that my work is not appreciated, and that an insect or two 
retained for the collection is rated exceedingly high when grumblingly 
yielded in return. It has occurred to me that where I have spent an 
hour or two in determining a species as new, and have given its genus, 
the collector to whom I returned it described it without even crediting 
me with the generic reference. Nowadays I give no such references. 

Of course there are exceptions to all rules, and so many of my 
correspondents are liberality itself, giving me absolute disposal of the 
material sent for study, they will not apply what I have said to themselves, 
and will, I think, testify that I do not often abuse their confidence. I 
will repeat, however, that Mr. Heath comes in with the exceptions, and is 
a persona grata on my list. I cannot promise to be influenced by his 
protest, but I can recommend him as a very amiable and satisfactory 


In his paper on “ The Food-plants of the Butterflies of the Kanara 
District of the Bombay Presidency,” Mr. L. de Nicéville, of Calcutta, 
states (page 190) that the choice of the food-plant by the butterfly, in 
the case of many of the ZLycenida, is largely dependent upon the 
presence of the particular species of ant with which it lives in harmony in 
its larval condition. “ If the right plant has no ants, or the ants on that 
plant are not the right species, the butterfly will lay no eggs there. Some 
larve will certainly not live without the ants, and many larve are 
extremely uncomfortable when brought away from their hosts or masters. 
In many cases it is just as important for breeding purposes to know the 
right species of ants as to know the right food-plant. In Kanara this is 
particularly noticeable in the cases of Castalius ananda, Zesius 
chrysomallus, Aphneus lohita and Catapecilima elegans. C. ananda 


is ‘protected’ by aunts of the genus Cremastogaster. On one occasion 
Mr. Bell was collecting larve at Katgal, and the ants were principally on 
Zizyphus rugosa (Nat. Order Rhamnea), but were also swarming all over 
six or seven different species of trees all around, and on all of these trees 
there were larve of C. ananda covered with ants and eating the leaves of 
the trees in every case. Since then he has noticed the larve of this 
butterfly eating the leaves of many different plants and always in 
company with the same species of ants. With regard to the other 
butterflies mentioned above, the females first look for the right species 
of ant, while the species of food-plant seems to be quite a secondary 
consideration, at any rate to a considerable extent. The larve of Zesius 
may be found on very nearly any plant that harbours the large red ant, 
Ecophylla smaragdina, so much so that Mr. Bell has often had a 
suspicion that the butterfly larvae will occasionally eat the ant larve, 
though he has not actually seem them do so. The larve of the other 
two butterflies are only found on plants affected by ants of the genus 
Cremastogaster. The larve of all the four species are often found in the 
ants’ nests, and their pupz occasionally.” Mr. de Nicéville then gives a 
list of twenty-seven species of Lycenide, twenty-four of which are 
attended more or less frequently by ants. 

As long ago as 1878, Mr. W. H. Edwards gave in this magazine 
(Can. Ent., Vol. X., pp. 131-136) a most interesting detailed account of 
his observations on the larvee of Lycena pseudargio/us and the attentions 
bestowed upon them by four different species of ants. The object of the 
ants was to obtain the sweet fluid extruded by the larve, and in return 
they warded off enemies threatening the caterpillars in their charge. 


Mr. S. H. Scudder also gives an interesting \‘‘ Excursus” on this 
subject in his great work, ‘‘ The Butterflies of the Eastern United States 
and Canada,” page 962, Excursus XxXv. 


In the paper already referred to (page 247), Mr. de Nicéville gives a 
list of eight genera of Lycenide which have the pupa suspended by the 
cremaster alone with no median girth; on this account he considers that 
they seem to form a very natural group, as it is an extremely rare 
character in this family of butterflies. This fact rather upsets the familiar 
division of the Rhopalocera into Succincti, Suspensi and Involuti, in 
accordance with the mode of attachment of the pupe. 



Southern California has its dry season in the summer, and 
comparatively few flowers are to be seen. Among those that remain, 
and are attractive to insects, the bushy species of Zriogonum are 
especially noteworthy, and I was fortunate in obtaining from them 
several bees. 

Eriogonum fasciculatum was determined for me by Mrs. K. 
Brandegee. The Mt. Lowe species, which look very distinct from 
Sasciculatum, is kindly identified by Miss Susan G. Stokes as Z. 
SJasciculatum polifolium, “one of the intermediate forms.” This is the Z. 
polifolium of Bentham. 

Prosopis polifolii, n. sp.— dg. Agrees with the description of P. 
Nevadensis (Psyche Suppt., June, 1896, p. 32) except in the following 
particulars: Clypeus and lateral marks very pale primrose yellow ; the 
lateral marks rather narrow, triangular, not or hardly notched by the 
antennai sockets, terminating above at a very acute angle with the orbital 
margin, though the apical point is rounded, the inferior inner side of the 
triangle at least not longer than the superior, sometimes visibly shorter ; 
flagellum ferruginous beneath ; wings clear, strongly iridescent. There is 
no vestige of a supraclypeal mark; clypeus much longer than broad, 
punctured and minutely roughened. 

Hab.—Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe, Calif., about 5,000 ft., Aug. 12, 
1901, on flowers of Zriogonum polifolium,; La Jolla, Calif., about 150 
ft., August, 1901, on flowers of Eriogonum fasciculatum. The first- 
mentioned locality is to be regarded as typical. The species, having no 
supraclypeal mark, can only be confused with P. Mevadensis. 

Ceratina Arisonensis, Ckll., 1898— 9. Similar to the ¢, but the 
face is black, with a broad longitudinal white stripe on the clypeus. 

Hab.— Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe, Calif, about 5,000 ft., Aug. 12, on 
flowers of Eriogonum polifolium. New to California. 

Perdita Claypolei, n. sp.—Q. Length, 5 mm.; head and thorax 
dark brassy green, with moderately abundant white hair; abdomen 
piceous, with broad straight transverse chrome-yellow bands at bases of 


segments two to four, none of them reaching the lateral margins of the 
segments ; ventral surface dark. Head rather large, transversely oblong, 
broader than thorax ; face wholly dark; tront microscopically tessellate, 
with sparse distinct punctures; occiput with abundant white hair ; 
antenne short, dark, flagellum ferruginous beneath towards tip; anterior 
margin of prothorax above, and tubercles, cream-colour ; mesothorax and 
scutellum shining but microscopically lineolate, with very sparse punc- 
tures; base of metathorax minutely roughened; tegule tinged with 
brown ; wings short, reaching about to middle of fourth abdominal 
segment, the apical veinless field large; nervures dark brown; stigma 
centrally pale ; marginal cell obliquely truncate, its post-stigmatal portion 
largest; second submarginal cell large, narrowed about one-half to 
marginal ; third discoidal cell distinct ; legs piceous ; anterior knees and 
anterior tibize in front, cream-colour; apex of abdomen ferruginous, 
acutely pointed. 

Hab.—Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe, Calif., about 5,000 ft., Aug. 12, 
three on flowers of Zriogonum polifolium. The hind femora carry great 
masses of yellow pollen. In my tables this runs to P. spheralcee, but 
P. Claypolei is a smaller insect, with darker nervures and a much more 
shiny mesothorax. 

A few hundred yards from the ‘spot where this species was taken, 
one comes to a point which commands a splendid view of the lowlands, 
with the City of Pasadena, the scene of the last labours of Prof. Z. W. 
Claypole, in the distance. The bee is accordingly named after the 
inspiring teacher and able naturalist who has so recently been taken 
from us. 

Colletes Americana, Cresson, 1868.— Four ‘males at flowers of 
Eriogonum fasciculatum, La Jolla, Calif., Aug., 1901. 

_ I take this opportunity to describe another new Californian Perdita, 
not found on Zriogonum : — 

FPerdita rhois, n. sp.—?. Length, 5 mm.; head and thorax dark 
bluish-green, base of metathorax decidedly blue ; pubescence short and 
scanty ; abdomen piceous, with broad straight transverse yellow bands 
on bases of segments 2 to 5 (rarely absent on 5), all but the first 
produced to the lateral margins of the segments, though narrowed a 
short distance before the margin; ventral surface of abdomen yellow. 
Head ordinary, nearly circular seen from in front ; clypeus not in the 
least concealed by hair ; clypeus (except two minute dots) and lateral 


marks chrome-yellow ; lateral marks small, nearly equilateral triangles, 
not reaching up to antenne ; no supraclypeal or dog-ear marks ; mandi- 
bles yellow at base, ferruginous in middle, dark at tips ; labrum dark, 
with a central depression ; labial palpi with the first joint a trifle longer 
than the other three united ; antenne dark brown above, chrome-yellow 
beneath, including scape; front microscopically tessellate and with sparse 
minute punctures ; mesothorax shining, but microscopically tessellate 
and sparsely punctured; tubercles yellow, but no other part of 
prothorax ; tegulz transparent, with a yellow spot; wings milky-hyaline, 
iridescent ; nervures white ; stigma very large, colourless, with a light 
brown margin ; marginal cell rather obliquely truncate, the post-stigmatal 
portion the shortest ; third discoidal cell distinct ; legs dark, anterior 
knees, anterior tibize except a stripe behind, and middle tibie beneath, 
yellow ; anterior tarsi yellowish. 

Mut. reducta.—@. Clypeus with two very broad black median 
bars, between which is left only a small yellow streak or triangle ; lateral 
marks wanting or represented by two or three small spots ; tubercles 
wholly dark ; scape without the yellow stripe ; abdominal bands narrow, 
not reaching lateral margins, sometimes only the first two bands well 
developed ; venter of abdomen dark. 

Hab.—San Diego, Calif., Aug. 4, 1901, at flowers of Rhus /aurina, 
Nuttall, in the immediate vicinity of the Brandegee Herbarium. The 
plant was kindly identified by Mrs. K. Brandegee. There were taken 
four of the type, and three of mut. reducta, all from the same shrub. 
The dichroism of the species is quite remarkable. 7 

In my tables, P. rhois runs to P. digelovia, and is especially to be 
compared with P. Craw/fordi, from which it differs by its large stigma 
and other characters. 

While on the subject of Perdita the following may be placed on 
record : — 

Perdita callicerata, Ckll.; Mesilla Park, N. M., June 9, 1898, one ¢ 
at flowers of Atamosco longifolia (Zephyranthes longifolia, Hemsley). 

Mr. E. S. G. Tirus wishes mention to be made that his recent 
articles on Bees in this magazine, Vol. XXXII., page 303, and Vol. 
XXXIII., pages 133 and 257, are to a large extent portions of a thesis 
for the Degree of M. Sc. placed on file with the Secretary of the State 
Agricultural College of Colorado, May rst, 1901. 


Zodion palpalis, n. sp. 

? .--Black, gray pollinose ; face yellow, cheeks yellow, one-half the 
eye height; front reddish yellow, a narrow black line on each side above ; 
antenne reddish, second joint shorter than third; palpi black, quite long, 
clavate; mesonotum without stripes; scutellum with about twelve 
slender bristles ; legs black, knees testaceous ; wings subhyaline ; first 
four segments of abdomen with large, subtriangular opaque black spots, 
last segment black, shining. Length, 5 mm. 

g¢.—Cheeks more than one-half the eye height; second and third 
segments of abdomen yellow, fourth with a subtriangular patch destitute 
of pollen. Length, 5 mm. 

Carlinville, Illinois; one 9, nine ¢ specimens. All except one 
specimen have the first posterior cell closed and petiolate. 

This species is quite distinct from Z. fu/vifrons and Z. nanellum. 
Sphegina campanulata, 0. sp. 

¢.—Front black, grayish pollinose, with a median, narrow shining 
stripe; occiput black, lightly dusted; thorax and abdomen entirely 
reddish, the latter more shining, fourth segment in one specimen a little 
infuscated with blackish ; face, cheeks, antennz, proboscis and halteres 
more yellow ; front and middle legs whitish, last two joints of their tarsi 
blackish ; hind legs reddish, base of femora, tibie, except tips, and joints 
two and three of their tarsi whitish, last two joints of tarsi blackish ; 
wings subhyaline anterior outer angle of first posterior cell rectangular ; 
second joint of abdomen longer than remaining joints together, fourth 
segment shorter and wider than third, the two regularly widening from 
base of three to apex of four, hypopygiam very large. Length, 6-7 mm. 

Carlinville, Illinois ; two specimens. 

Mallota Illinoensis, n. sp. 

?.—Eyes bare ; face deeply concave below antenne, tubercle as 
usual, the cheeks and median stripe shining black ; front broader than in 
M. posticata and cimbiciformis, yellow pollinose, except a patch above 
antenne, yellow pilose, on the vertex the pile long and reddish, antenne 
blackish, second joint and arista reddish ; mesonotum reddish posteriorly, 
with obscure pollinose streaks anteriorly, Scutellum yellow and with the 
mesonotum clothed with long reddish pile ; legs reddish, the femora more 


or less blackish, the knees yellow, pile yellow ; wings with a brown cloud ; 
abdomen brown, shining, with thin fuscous pile, the pile on the sides, 
middle and apical margins longer, yellowish, less erect. Length, 14 mm. 

¢.—Eyes separated, pile and pollen of face more whitish, anterior 
and middle femora darker, abdomen inclining to ferruginous, hind femur 
beneath presenting a dentiform angle bearing a tuft of black pile, sides of 
second segment presenting a depression which shows a purplish reflection. 
Length, 12-13 mm. 

Carlinville, Illinois ; one 9, two ¢ specimens. 
Temnostoma trifasciata, n. sp. | 

This species closely resembles 7: bomdby/ans, but the wings are brown 
before, that colour not extending behind the fourth longitudinal vein; the 
abdomen of female has only three fasciz. 

Carlinville, Illinois ; three ¢, two @ specimens. 

Phorantha purpurascens, Twns. 

Hyalomyia purpurascens, Townshend. Proc. Ent. Soc., Wash. 2: 
137, 1891. This species was described from four males and four females 
from my collection. It is more common in my neighbourhood than all of 
the othef species of Phorantha and Alophora together. I know the 
species very well. I still have eighteen specimens from the set from 
which the types were described. Altogether I have forty males of this 
species and they all have the calypteres brown. On the other hand, 
twenty-one females have the calypteres whitish. 

From the material afforded in my neighbourhood, I think that 
Coquillett’s P. occidentis contains the females of at least three distinct 
species. Assuming that Walker’s type was a female and that it was the 
commonest species, P. purpurascens may be a synonym. I do not believe 
that, without comparing the type, it can be shown that Walker’s species 
was the same as ?. purpurascens, or even that it was a Phorantha. 

Hyalomyia Robertsonii, Twns., was also founded on specimens from 
my collection. I do not know what it is, but the specimens were larger 
than those of P. purpurascens, and all of the specimens I have that were 
referred by’ me to this species belong to A/oshora. “I think they are 
females of 4. eneoventris. 

Phorantha pruinosa, n. sp. 
3 .—Closely resembles the male of P. purpurascens, but the abdomen 


is black, without any metallic reflection, the first segment shining, the 
second, third and fourth densely whitish pollinose. Length, 3 mm. 
Carlinville, Illinois ; three male specimens. 

Phorantha humeratiis, n. sp. 

$.—Closely resembles the male of P. purpurascens, but is larger, 
the wings more whitish, the base and costal margin as far as first vein 
more or less brown. Length, 4-5 mm. , 

9 .—Differs from females of P. purpurascens only in its larger size. 
Length, 4-5 mm. 

Carlinv.lle, Illinois; ten ¢, three 9 specimens. 

Epigrimyia Iilinoensis, n. sp. 

¢.—Closely resembles Z. fo/ita, front shorter and narrower, more 
narrow than face; the latter longer, wider, cinereous pollinose ; cheeks 
wider ; antenne and proboscis longer; front tibie reddish ; claws and 
pulvilli longer. Length, 5 mm. 

Carlinville, Illinois ; one ¢ specimen. 

Winthemia Illinoensis, n. sp. 

This species closely resembles W. guadripustulata. It differs in its 
smaller size, the bristles on the abdomen, especially in the male, more 
sparse, more erect, longer ; the second segment in male with a marginal 
pair of macrochetz ; hind tibiz, outwardly, in both sexes, less regularly 
ciliate and presenting a long bristle near the middle. Length, 6-9 mm. 

Carlinville, Illinois ; five ¢, three 2 specimens. The sexes were 
taken in copula. 

The name may not stand: the presence of this species seems to 
throw some doubt on Coquillett’s synonymy of W. guadripustulata. J 



Diadasia rinconis, subsp. opuntia, nov.—?. About 15 millim. 
long, varying to 13 millim.; tegulz light reddish-brown, varying to darker ; 
wing-nervures piceous, second submarginal cell variable, but always small 
and usually very narrow, and narrowed above; third submarginal cell 
long, very strongly elbowed at end; labrum with only a few scattered 
hairs, or sometimes more hairy ; mesothorax strongly and quite densely 
punctured, much more so than in rinconis ; scutellum closely punctured ; 


abdominal bands as in rinconis, with curved anterior margins ; hair at 
apex of abdomen yellowish-fuscous. 

Hab.—San Pedro, California, July 27, 1921, at flowers of Opuntia, 
gathering pollen. 17 9. First found by my wife. This will probably 
be regarded as a distinct species, but it is certainly very near to D. 
rinconis, which visits flowers of Opuntia in New Mexico (Entom., Sept., 
1900, p. 245). The chief difference between rinconis and opuntiea is 
in the much more strongly and densely punctured thorax of the latter ; 
opuntia is also on the average a considerably bulkier insect. From the 
Californian D. friesei, opuntia differs in the larger size, closer punctua- 
tion of thorax, and the character of the abdominal bands. 

(To be continued.) 


Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

We have received from the author the first thirty-one pages of this 
work, which he is publishing for private distribution at his own expense. 
This portion contains the description of seven species of butterflies, all 
but one of which have been already published elsewhere, but are now 
illustrated by most beautifully-executed coloured lithographs from draw- 
ings by Mr. J. Henry Blake. The species are all from tropical or 
sub-tropical regions and the types are in the author’s collection, The 
exquisite plates compare very favourably with those in Mr. W. H. 
Edwards’s “Butterflies of North America,” which have set a high standard 
of artistic merit and truth to nature. 

An interesting account is given of a collecting trip in Bolivia, made 
by Mr. Gerhard, of Philadelphia, who was sent by the author to that 
out-of-the-way and fittle-known region in order to secure as complete a 
collection as possible of the butterflies of the country. Though the 
region explored was in the high altitudes of the Andes, where vegetation 
was mainly confined to the mountain ravines and river gorges, the 
collector succeeded in obtaining, during an absence of a little over a year, 
thirteen thousand butterflies, over a thousand dragon-flies, a thousand 
beetles, twelve hundred moths, and a large number of other insects. 
Among these there will no doubt be found many species hitherto 


unknown to science, and much valuable information will be afforded by a 
study of the collection regarding the distribution of species. Mr. Weeks 
gives in the work before us lists of the butterflies which he has thus far 
been able to identify. A number of interesting photographic reproduc- 
tions give some idea of the country traversed by the collector. We look 
forward to the issue of further instalments of this work, which will, when 
completed, form a valuable contribution to Lepidopterological Science. 
C. J. 8.8: 


Sir,—That a Po/yphemus cocoon would produce its imago the same 
season it was made, is what I little expected to see ; and yet it has taken 
place ; and that in a brief period of time. 

The janitor of the Y. M. C. A., London, Ont., was taking his 
holidays in the latter part of July, and on the 22nd was in the country on 
a fishing excursion, and found on the ground, under some trees, a Ze/ea 
Polyphemus cocoon. On his return, he informed me of his find. Think- 
ing it was rather early for one of this year’s make, I remarked it must 
be an old one. He said no, that the creature was alive inside. . When 
he presented it to me, I realized at once that it was a freshly-made one, 
as it was white and free from the slightest indication of weathering. The 
pupa was very lively, and kicked vigorously. I placed the cocoon on a 
cabinet close at hand and in full view, and it was much handled by 
visitors, who expressed surprise at such an inanimate-looking object 
being so much alive. On the roth of August I tried to stir it into action 
for a visitor’s benefit, but failed. I left the room about half-past five, and 
returned about half-past seven, when I noticed that the cocoon was where 
I had not placed it ; and, on examination, I saw the moth hanging to the 
projecting top of the cabinet. It is a female, perfectly developed, 
medium sized and light in colouring. The question naturally arises, is it 
double-brooded somewhere ? J. Atston Morrat. 

Mailed October 3rd, 1901.