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A Monthly Journal for the Nursing Profession in Canada 

VoL. XV. Vancouver, B.C., Juty, 1919 No. 7 

NuRSEs, 1919-1920 

The General Hospital, Toronto, Ont. 

Firsf Vice-President MISS E. MacP. DICKSON 

Second Vice-President 


Secretary MISS E. JOHNS 
Children’s Hospital, Winnipeg, Man. 

Councillors—British Columbia: Miss Jessie MacKenzie, R.N., Miss Helen Rangal, R.N.; 
Alberta: Miss Winslow, R.N., Mrs. Manson, R.N.; Saskatchewan: Miss Jean Browne, 
R.N., Miss Granger Campbell, R.N.; Manitoba: Miss Gilroy, R.N., Miss C. Macleod, R.N.; 
Ontario: Miss Potts, Miss Fairle; Quebec: Miss Strumm, Miss Hersey; New Brunswick: 

Miss Richards, R.N., Miss Dunlop, R.N.; Nova Scotia: Miss Pickels, Mrs. Bligh; Prince 
Edward Island: —— 

Surgical Technic in Orthopedic Surgery 
By Wa ter G.:Etmer, M.D., of Philadelphia 

Instructor in. Orthopedic Surgery in the University of Pennsylvania 
Read before the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery, 

Orthopedic surgery makes peculiar demands upon us in regard to 
surgical technic. The operations, if they are to be successful, must be 
carried out in an aseptic manner. Perfect asepsis cannot be attained, but 
we can very nearly reach it if we go about our work with intelligence 
and painstaking care in regard to the smallest detail. 

In performing the operations of orthopedic surgery it is frequently 
necessary to use a good deal of force in correcting the deformity, and, 
no matter how carefully the skin has been prepared, these forcible 
manipulations will force the staphylococcus epidermis albus from the 
deeper layers of the epithelium out to the surface where the organism 
.is capable of causing mild infection in the operation wound. An exam- 
ple of this is seen in the correction of a talipes equinovarus, where the 
foot is stretched and manipulated by the operator’s hands or molded 
over the Konig block or perhaps-the_Thomas wrench is used. And in 
order to secure the required amount- of Saerection, it may be necessary 
to divide the posterjor tibial» Se ae an ao incision and do a plastic 


operation on the Achilles tendon. An operation of this character ‘s 
usually performed at one sitting. In another class of cases the forcible 
stretching and correction is done at some time previous to the operation 
and the foot held in its corrected position in a plaster-of-Paris case 
until a later time, when the tendon transplantation or arthrodesis may 
| be done—as in the infantile paralysis cases. 

When silk is imbedded in the tissues and we wish it to remain per- 
: manently, the slightest infection of the silk will defeat the operation, as 
the silk will eventually cause suppuration and must be removed. If silk 
| is used as an artificial ligament or tendon, it acts as a foreign body in 
| the tissues. The tissues react to its presence and deposit granulation 
tissue along the strand. This in time becomes converted into fibrous 
tissue and we have then a new ligament or tendon of living tissue, the 
centre of which is the buried. silk. The process requires a long time. 
The limb must remain fixed in plaster-of-Paris about nine months. The 
silk will then remain permanently in place. But if the silk is infected 
with even so mild an organism as the staphylococcus of the skin, it will 
probably loosen and work its way out or must subsequently be removed. 

In opening joints great care must be taken to avoid introducing the 
skin coccus within the joint cavity. Therefore, two knives should be 

used—one for the skin incision and another to use in the deeper.struc- 

But my purpose in presenting this paper is to call attention to 
several important ways in which the wound may become contaminated 
by organisms far more potent than the skin coccus, types of infection 
which may defeat the operation and even be a serious menace to the 
life of the patient. The responsibility rests largely upon the nursing 
staff and the technic of the operating room is good or bad according to 
the intelligence and ability of the nurses in charge of it. 

The head nurse must directly and personally supervise the work of 
her assistants, and the directress of nurses is responsible for the head 
nurse. The most important feature of a large general hospital is the 
operating room—and this includes, of course, its personnel. 

, The visiting surgeon in performing a series of operations expects 
everything to proceed smoothly and without friction—doctors and nurses 
working in harmony—and all codperating to secure the best results. 
When one operation follows another in quick succession—perhaps not 
five minutes in the interval between them—it is not always possible to 
relegate the septic cases to the last, as it sometimes happens that infec- 
tious material is encountered when it is not expected. 

A gall-bladder may be septic or an appendix may be lying in a, 
small pocket of pus. A clearf pelvic operation may reveal a pyosalpinx. 
Therefore, in every series of operations one must take it for granted 
that they may not all be clean cases. 

The operating-room nurse and her assistants must have absolute 
confidence in their ability to so conduct the technic that there is no 


possibility of carrying infection from one patient to another. This re- 

quires constant vigilance and can only be entrusted to a highly trained 
head nurse. 

In most hospitals it is customary for the directress of nurses to 
make a daily tour of inspection of the hospitals under her charge. She 
visits the private patients and the ward patients, sees that the wards are 
clean, looks at the bed linen, walks into the kitchen and pantry, opens 
the doors of cupboards and closets, inspects the toilet-rooms, and in a 
hundred other ways assures herself that the hospital is being conducted 
in a clean and orderly manner. And yet more important than all these 
is the operating room, and I would suggest that the directress of nurses 
occasionally vary her routine and go unannounced into the operating 
room or the clinical amphitheatre when a series of operations is in pro- 
gress and remain throughout an entire forenoon or afternoon, watching 
with vigilant and critical eyes every detail of the work of her nurses. 

In my visits to hospitals in other cities I usually seek out the oper- 
ating-room nurse, and, if she can spare the time, ask her many ques- 
tions in regard to the surgical technic. 

From a seat in the clinical amphitheatre during a series of opera- 
tions one can also gain a very fair idea of the care and thoroughness 
with which the nurses have been taught. 

I will mention some of the weak links in the chain of surgical 
technic as they have come to my notice in different hospitals, and the 
fact to be kept in mind is that any one of these weak links is capable of 
causing a complete breakdown in our surgical asepsis and result in the 
failuré of our efforts to secure clean primary healing of our operation 
wounds. Of what use is it to insist on our surgical staff, both doctors 
and nurses, wearing mouth-guards, when it is possible to point out 
faults in the technic by which septic virus may be carried from an 
infected case to a clean one? 

First, then, we will consider the gutta-percha gloves. As the gloves 
can be sterilized absolutely, it is a good thing to use them. But the most 
important function of the rubber gloves is to prevent the skin of our 
hands from being infected with the highly tenacious “poison of a septic 
case, as the skin of our own hands when so contaminated cannot be 
rendered clean for a clean operation which is to follow. A doctor or a 
nurse may carry this infection on their hands for several days in spite 
of all efforts to disinfect them. And it is most important that the hands 
and forearms of the surgeon and his staff of assistants should at all 
times be protected from contact with septic material. | 

The preparation of the rubber gloves, therefore, is a matter of the 
most vital moment. “Beginning, then, with a pair of gloves which have 
been worn during a’ septic operation—which might have been a ruptured 
appendix and local peritonitis, an empyema of the gall-bladder or of the 
thorax, a pyosalpinx, or a dermoid cyst, drainage of an infected knee- 
joint or opening the thigh-bone for acute osteomyelitis, puerperal sepsis 



and many other conditions. Poison of this character may remain potent 
for many days upon rubber gloves, basins, table tops and the like. 

The infected gloves are washed with soap and water by a nurse 
who perhaps is handling them with her bare hands. Her hands, there- 
fore, become the carriers of infection, and, even though she may not be 
assisting at operations, she may have a good deal to do with making 
the necessary preparations for an operation. 

In some hospitals the nursing staff apparently has implicit faith in 
the autoclave. The nurses believe—and it is difficult to convince them 
to the contrary—that everything that comes out of an autoclave must be 
sterile because it has been exposed to live steam for twenty minutes or 
a half hour. But the autoclave is fallible. There is a serious and in- 
explicable inconsistency about the use of the autoclave. The gauze and 
cotton which come to the hospital from mills or factories, where it is 
most unlikely they could have become contaminated by any really 
virulent organisms—probably nothing more than the ordinary dust of a 
workroom, which is relatively harmless—are put into the autoclave for 
a half hour.on three successive days in order to destroy all germs and 
spores. The most harmless of all the materials used at the operation 
are subjected to the most rigid and thorough sterilization. 

The live steam under twenty pounds pressure penetrates every por- 
tion of the cotton, gauze, bandages, sheets, towels, gowns, etc. 

And now as to the rubber glove. It is probably capable of greater 
harm than any other article which is used at the operation. Operating- 
room nurses have sometimes told me that they depend upon the auto- 
¢lave to sterilize the gloves. If the gloves have been used in a septic 
case they. are sterilized for twenty minutes, and if they have been used 
in a clean case they are sterilized for ten minutes. How the nurse 
knows whether a case is a clean or a septic one I do not know, because 
it sometimes happens that the operator himself does not know, and only 
a laboratory report by the bacteriologist can decide the. point. When 
the nurse is asked why the gloves used in a clean case are sterilized 
only ten minutes instead of twenty, she replies that the longer exposure 
to the live steam is harmful to the rubber—that it shortens the life of 
the glove. She admits that the twenty-minute period is desirable for 
the septic gloves, but she does not and cannot know whether the gloves 
are septic or not in some cases. The gutta-percha is impervious to 
steam. The gloves are sometimes folded twice upon themselves and 
bound up in a small muslin package and a pile of these are packed into 
the autoclave. Now it is entirely probable that the live steam reaches 
all the parts of the outer surface of the glove, but I ‘believe there are 
air pockets inside the glove—probably in the fingers or thumbs—which 
the steam never reaches. These air pockets therefore permit only dry 
heat sterilization instead of moist heat sterilization for twenty minutes. 
And the nurse knows that she is dealing with a glove which has been 
used in a case which was frankly a septic one. She runs her autoclave 


at about twenty pounds’ pressure. This provides a temperature of 

approximately 260° in the sterilizing chamber. This is moist heat 

We know that boiling water (210° F.) will destroy all organisms 
and their spores in five minutes. The nurse therefore believes she has a 
wide margin of safety. But she overlooks the air pockets inside the 
gloves. These are receiving only dry heat. In order to destroy all 
germs and their spores by dry heat an exposure of about one hour at 
a temperature of 350° F. is required. The autoclave falls short of this 
by nearly 100° in temperature and forty minutes in time. 

The surgeon, on putting on his gloves, may find when he opens the 
package that he has two rights or two lefts through an oversight on 
the part of the nurse who prepared them, and proceeds to reverse one 
of them, thus bringing the surface of the glove which may not be sterile 
outside, in contact with the operation field. Or, during the operation 
the finger of the glove may be punctured or torn and the result may be 
the same. In order to avoid all possibility ef doubt as to the glove 
being sterile, we have the nurse wash the gloves with soap and water, 
turning them inside out while doing so. They are then filled with water 
‘ to remove the air and immersed under the surface of the boiling water 
and held down by a piece of wire screen so that they cannot float up to 
the top and be exposed to the air. 

They are boiled five minutes by the clock. When the water cools, 
the nurse, wearing sterile gloves, removes them, dries them with a 
sterile towel, powders them inside and out with sterile talcum powder 
and folds back the gauntlet. Into this she tucks loosely a small gauze 
pad covered with talcum powder which the surgeon uses for dusting his 
hands. The gloves are then placed without folding in a muslin cover 
and put into a large glass jar. The final preparation is just before they 
are needed for an operation. The muslin packets are placed full length | 
in the autoclave, lying loosely in rows, not packed together in compact 
bundles, and sterilized for twenty minutes. The steam easily reaches 
every part of the glove and the dusting powder also. The surgeon can 
have absolute confidence in these gloves—there is no possibility of their 
carrying septic material from a previous operation. 

There is another object which may be a carrier of a deadly virus 
and that is the sand pillow. It usually has a rubber or mackintosh cover. 
When it is used in a septic operation—as in an acute osteomyelitis or 
the drainage of an infected joint or necrosis of bone—the discharges 
from the wound soak through the sheets or towels and soil the sand 
pillow. The stains are wiped off with a wet cloth later before the nurse 
puts it away upon a shelf, but no attempt is made to sterilize it. Within 
a day or two the pillow may be called for again. This time the surgeon 
is going to remove a bone graft from the tibia to be inserted in the 
spine, or he finds it a convenient support in doing an arthrodesis on 
the foot. The most rigid asepsis is required. A nurse brings in the 


sand pillow, the surgical nurse wraps a sterile cloth about it and it is 
placed under the patient’s limb. So long as the sterile cloth remains 
dry no harm results. But it does not remain dry. Blood may run down 
upon it from the wound, or wet gauze sponges come in contact with it, 
instruments which have been rinsed in the-Basin of sterile water may be 
placed upon it, the surgeon washes his gloved hands in the sterile water 
and returns to the operation with his gloves dripping, and so the cover- 
ings of the sand pillow become wet. It is then only a matter of five 
or ten seconds before the operation field becomes contaminated with the 
poison of the septic case of the day before.. I usually demonstrate this 
to my class of students by making a red ink stain on the sand pillow 
and allowing it to dry. The pillow is then covered with a white cloth 
and a wet gauze sponge is dropped upon it. In from five to ten seconds 
the red stain is seen coming through and by the end of two minutes the 
surrounding areas aré red and the gauze sponge stained through and 
through, although it is fourteen layers of gauze in thickness. The 
demonstration is very simple and absolutely convincing. This same prin- 
ciple applies, of course, to the tops of the tables upon which the instru- 
ments are placed and also the top of the operating table. Very often 
this latter is covered with a rubber pad and this in turn with a clean 
sheet. If the operation happens to be upon a patient’s lower limb, the 
limb is painted with a 3 per cent. solution of iodine while an assistant 
holds it up with a sterile towel. Then the surgical nurse covers the 
operating table with a sterile cloth—probably folded to make it double 
thickness—and the limb is put down upon it. If the rubber pad has 
been soiled from the discharges of a septic case, our clean operation will 
almost certainly be infected as soon as the table coverings get wet. 
When one considers the character of the operative cases which come 
and go in the general routine of the operating room of a large general 
hospital, the great care which must be exercised by the nursing staff 
must be apparent. 

In a single week there may be a series of operations which includes 
an operation for gall-stone complicated by an acute septic cholecystitis, 
the removal of a pyosalpinx, removal of a papillomatous ovarian cyst or 
a dermoid cyst, a child with ruptured appendix and acute peritonitis, a 
child with mastoid abscess, another with empyema, and many other 
similar cases, and all along the clean cases are being operated upon. It 
is an advantage to have one operating room set apart for septic cases, 
but even this does not overcome the difficulty. However, the measures 
to avoid carrying infection from one case to another are simple. There 
should be a rubber cover provided for each table. They should be ster- 
ilized just as the gloves are. The rubber cover is in turn covered with 
a sterile cloth. The same is true for the sand pillow. The operating 
table may be covered with a sterile folded blanket, and on top of this 
the sterile sheet folded double. Of a sterile rubber cover may be placed 
over that part of the operating table which is in the neighborhood of 
the operation, and upon this the’ sterile folded sheet. 


The same procedure is followed for each operation. 

The instruments are sterilized for ten minutes by boiling them in 
water to which a tablespoonful of carbonate of soda has been added. 
Only the instruments which will be required for the operation should be 
prepared. It is a disadvantage to sterilize a large number of instru- 
ments which are not likely to be used. They unnecessarily complicate 
the use of the instrument table, and it is also hard on the instruments. 
The knives are not boiled. After being used they are carefully washed 
before being put away. They are sterilized for operation by immersion 
for twenty minutes in a 1/20 carbolic solution of 3 per cent. formalin. 
They are removed by a sterile forceps to a tray of 85 per cent. alcohol. 
This seems to be a safer plan than to depend upon the alcohol tray 

alone, and particularly if the knife has been used previously in a: septic 

Silk may be prepared by boiling it for ten minutes in a 1/1000 
bichloride solution and then for ten minutes in plain water. If the silk 
is boiled with the instruments to which the soda has been added, its 
tensile strength may be impaired. 

The catgut should preferably be obtained from the manufacturer in 
sealed glass tubes. These tubes when, handled become coated with a 
thin layer of grease from one’s fingers, and in this thin film living or- 
ganisms or spores may lie imbedded and perfectly protected from the 
action of antiseptic solutions. It is not enough, therefore, to place these 
tubes in a tray containing carbolic solution or formalin solution. The 
germs are not destroyed, and the nurse, when she takes up the tube in 
her gloved hands and breaks it protected in gauze, is very likely to 
contaminate her gloves and, as she removes the strand of catgut and 
draws it out through her fingers, she may in turn carry the organisms 
along the catgut. Infection from the suture may restlt. This is avoided 
by boiling the glass tubes of catgut with the instruments. They are 
then placed in a tray of 1/20 carbolic solution or 3 per cent. formalin. 

At the operation the nurse removes a tube of catgut from its tray 
by using a sterile forceps. She should never put her fingers into the 
tray. Silkworm gut is boiled with the instruments, also the rubber 
drainage tubes. 

The white enameled basins are sterilized in the utensil sterilizer 
and a fresh set is used for each operation. 

The large glass bowls which are seen in many operating rooms 
should not be used. There is no reliable way of cleaning them if they 
become contaminated during a septic operation. The few minutes 
intervening between one operation and the next do not give the oper- 
ating-room nurse sufficient opportunity to render them surgically clean. 

Mouth guards are worn by the surgeon and his assistants. The 
speaking voice is capable of projecting minute particles of saliva which 
carry organisms a distance of three feet, a cough or a sneeze two or 
three times that far. It seems unlikely that quiet breathing through the 

1848 THE eer eeis NURSE 

nostrils can infect a wound, and it hardly is necessary to wear a mask 
which covers both mouth and nostrils. As the surgical nurse assists at 
the operation and sometimes finds it necessary to speak to the surgeon 
or his assistant, she may speak directly: upon the suture which she is 

- holding at the moment only a few inches away from her mouth. It is 

quite important, therefore, that she also Should wear a mouth guard. 
The same applies to the anesthetist if the operation is upon the head or 
neck or shoulders. 

And, finally, it is worth while to mention the very mild infection 
which may be carried by sweat. It has never seemed to me that this is 
a serious menace, and yet it is possible that our catgut ligatures or 
sutures may become infected in this way and prevent the clean healing 
of the wound. 

The sweat may come from the patient’s skin as well as from the 
forearms of the operator or his assistants. No matter how carefully the 
surface of the patiént’s skin or the hands, forearms and arms of the 
operator and his assistants and nurses may be prepared, when the sweat 
glands begin pouring out their secretion until the sweat collects in drop- 
lets there is always a little risk of very mild wound infection. 

The climate in Philadelphia is very hot in July and August, and 
it is not unusual to find ourselves working in an operating room with 
the temperature near or even above 100° F. The air, furthermore, is 
saturated with moisture. A leaking skin is inevitable under these con- 
ditions. The sleeves of one’s gown may become saturated, or occa- 
sionally a drop of sweat may fall from the gauntlet of one’s glove upon 
the field of operation. Under such uncomfortable conditions, I have 
found it an advantage to wear a gown with short sleeves and work with 
gloves and with the arms bare to above the elbows. During the opera- 
tion I frequently rinse off my gloves and forearms to the elbow in the 
bichloride basin. The skin of the patient surrounding the immediate 
field of operation should be frequently mopped with a wet bichloride 

Talcum powder cannot be sterilized in bulk. In the laboratory of 
the University Hospital we have been able to obtain living spores from 
the central portion of a box or shaker of talcum powder even though it 
had been repeatedly “sterilized” in the autoclave. The moist heat can- 
not penetrate the powder sufficiently to kill the spores which may be 
lying deeply imbedded in it. 

Following is the surgical technic which I outlined for the assistance 
of our nursing staff in the Orthopedic Department of the University 
Hospital about two years ago. We have found it satisfactory in every 

The Patient—The day preceding: In the morning give drams two of 

castor oil, or dram one of aromatic fluid extract of cascara sagrada, and late in 
the day give a simple enema. In the afternoon prepare the region of opera- 


tion. This means the whole extremity. In préparing the foot, pay particular 
attention to the toes, between the toes, the toe-nails, etc. First scrub with 
tincture of green soap and sterile water—using gauze sponges—for ten min- 
utes. Follow this with sterile water, then scrub and thoroughly douche the 
part with a warm 1/2000 solution of bichloride of mercury; douche with sterile 
water and sponge with 85 per cent. alcohol. The limb is then covered with dry 

sterile gauze and bandaged. e 

The day of operation: A cup of broth or hot milk about 7.30 a.m. Water 
up to within two hours of operation. On the operating table, the sterile dress- 
ings are removed and the limb painted with a 3 per cent. tincture of iodine. 

The Operating Staff: The surgeon, the assistant surgeon, the resident 
surgeon. The head nurse, the surgical nurse, the clinic nurse. 

The resident surgeon acts as first assistant to the operator. 

The assistant surgeon handles the instruments and acts as_ second 

The head nurse is in the operating room throughout the operation and 
keeps a general supervision of the nurses and the operating room. 

The surgical nurse has charge of the nurses’ table and assists at the oper- 
ation as required. She handles the sterile sheets, sponges, sutures, ligatures, 
needles, needle-holder, scissors, etc. She never touches anything which is not 
sterile. She wears a fresh sterile gown for each operation. At the end of an 
operation she removes her gloves. She disinfects her hands and puts on fresh 
gloves just before the next operation is to begin. She wears a mouth guard. 

The clinic nurse does whatever is required in the operating room where 
sterile hands are not necessary. 

The Operating Room: The washbasin and stands are scoured with 
“Sapolio” or “Old Dutch Cleanser,” or some similar cleansing agent, and the 
metal parts kept bright with metal polish. 

Only white-enamel basins are used in the operating room and these are 
sterilized in the utensil sterilizer. 

On one table there are three basins: No. 1, a warm solution of bichloride 
of mercury, 1/1000; No. 2, alcohol, 85 per cent., about one-half inch deep and 
with several gauze pads; No. 3, sterile water. 

The bichloride solution should be stained a faint blue, or be marked by a 
float, “Bichloride of Mercury, 1/1000.” 

On another table is a basin of sterile water which is to be used during the 
operation. This must always be replaced by a fresh basin for each succeeding 

The Nurses’ Table: The table is covered with a sterile cloth, and on it 
are placed: 

1. A tray containing packages of rubber gloves of various sizes and the 
sterile dusting powder. 

2. A jar or tray of catgut in glass tubes of various sizes. These may be 
covered either with a 3 per cent. formalin solution or a 5 per cent. solution of 
carbolic acid. The tubes when wanted are removed from the jar or tray with 
sterile forceps. 

3. A jar containing silk of different sizes and kept the same as above. 

4. A jar of rubber drainage tubes, and kept the same as above. 

For each operation the surgical nurse spreads a fresh sterile sheet or cloth 
across the front half of this table, and upon.this she places the fresh sterile 
tray which contains the scissors, needle-holder, needles; and a glass tray which 
contains the scalpels and tenotomes covered with alcohol. The nurse touches 



nothing on this table except the two trays and their contents and the sterile 
sheet upon which they rest. She must be careful not to contaminate the con- 
tents of any of the glass jars or trays which contain the catgut tubes, etc., 
but must always remove what she requires with sterile forceps. These forceps 
are, of course, re-sterilized with the other instruments before the next opera- 

At.the close of thesoperation, then the two trays and the sterile sheet are 
removed, to be replaced by fresh ones for the next operation. 

Nothing which may have come in contact with one operation — either 
directly or indirectly — is to be permitted to come in contact with the follow- 
ing operation, either directly or indirectly. 

The Instrument Table: The instrument table should be covered with a 
sterile rubber cover and over this a sterile sheet, and upon this are arranged 
only the instruments which are required for the operation. At the end of each 
operation everything is removed from this table. . 

Sterilization—The gauze dressings, gauze sponges, towels, sheets, gowns, 
etc., are sterilized in the autoclave by live steam, followed by dry heat. Each 
operation is to have its own separate drum. One drum may be used solely for 
gowns of nurses and doctors, and this may remain in its position on its Stand 
throughout the series of operations. 

The instruments (which include everything except the knives) are steril- 
ized by boiling for ten minutes. 

The knives and tenotomes are covered with a 3 per cent. solution of 
formalin for 20 minutes. This is poured back into the stock bottle and the 

knives are covered with alcohol until used. The tray which is used is sterilized 
in the utensil sterilizer. . 

The Rubber Gloves.—These are washed with soap and water to remove 
all stains, turned inside out and washed again. They are then filled with water 
and put into a vessel of boiling water with a wire frame on top of them, so 
that they cannot float up on top of the water. They are boiled 5 minutes by 
the watch. ‘When the water has cooled, the nurse, wearing sterile rubber 
gloves, removes the gloves from the water and dries them with a sterile towel, 
of course turning them inside out in doing this. The glove is -dusted inside 
and out with sterile powder and folded in a piece of sterile muslin and made 
into a packet. These are then placed in a large glass jar having a glass cover, 
and put away until they are needed for operation. They are then put into the 
autoclave and sterilized with the surgical dressings during their final steriliza- 
tion. The gloves need not be left in the autoclave longer than 20 minutes. 

The glass tubes of catgut may be sterilized with the instruments and then 
placed in carbolic or formalin solution. 

Drainage tubes should be boiled 10 minutes and then placed in the formalin 
or carbolic solution. 

Silk, if it is to be left buried in the tissues, should be boiled for 10 minutes 
in a 1/1000 bichloride solution, and then for 10 minutes in water. ~ 

For every operation have ready the following: 

2 pairs of retractors 4 tenaculum forceps 
2 scalpels 4 Allis forceps 
2 tenotomes—1 sharp-pointed and 1 2 dissecting forceps 
blunt 2 rat-tooth 
12 haemostats 2 pairs scissors, blunt ends—1 pair 

4 curved haemostats curved and 1 pair straight 



1 Allis dry dissector 
1 grooved director 
1 small probe 

1 periosteal elevator 

1 needle-holder 
1 ligature carrier 

Additional instruments are required for certain operations as follows: 

Tendon transplantation: Osteotomy: 
1 long, very slender pair of 1 osteotome—large 
forceps 1 osteotome—small 
1 long probe with eye 1 osteotome—medium 
1 drill handle and 3 drills 1 hammer or mallet 
1 very narrow osteotome 1 Konig block 
Arthrodesis and transverse horizontal 1 sand pillow 
section: Arthroplasty: 
All the preceding instruments 2 saws 
and also 2 chisels 
1 medium gouge 2 gouges 
1 small gouge 1 curette 
1 medium chisel 1 bone-cutting forceps 
1 small chisel 1 hammer or mallet 
Bone grafting: 1 drill 
8 extra haemostats 
1 Hey’s saw 
1 osteotome—medium ' Erasion of a joint: 
1 osteotome—small Same as Arthroplasty and 
1 chisel 1 lion-jaw forceps 
1 mallet or hammer 1 sequestrum forceps 
1 bone-cutting forceps 

Talcum powder cannot be sterilized if it is in bulk; that is, in the dusting 
can. The talcum powder should be spread on a gauze sponge in a very thin 
layer and then placed on top of the rubber gloves just before they are enclosed 
in the muslin covering. 

—Annals of Surgery. 
Funeral of Edith Cavell 

Never has any Englishwoman, except Queen Victoria, had a more 
moving or’a grander progress to her last resting-place than had the 
remains of Edith Cavell. 

In Brussels the coffin was conveyed on a gun-carriage from the 
Tir National to the station, followed by Mrs. Wainwright (sister) and 
her husband and Miss Florence Cavell, the Belgian Minister of War, 
the British, American and Spanish Ministers, many civil dignitaries, and 
the nurses of the Cavell School. The street lamps were covered with 
crepe, and the station draped in black. 

The central hall had been transformed into a mortuary chapel, hav- 
ing in the centre a tall catafalque surrounded by candles and covered 
with a Union Jack draped with a cloth of silver and black, on which 
the initial “C” was embroidered in silver. Palms stood around the 

catafalque, and on.a black and white carpet were chairs for the family 



and the King’s representatives. Troops and members of the women’s 
army corps stood around, and at the service were present representa- 
tives of the diplomatic, political, and social life of the town. Part of 
the burial service was read by the Rev. H. Gahan, the British chaplain 
who saw her in the prison cell on her last night on earth. 

The coffin was then conveyed by train to Ostend and placed on the 
flagship H.M.S. Rowena. At Dover all the ships of war lowered their 
flags to half-mast as the coffin was placed in the lighter and brought to 
land. Major-General Sir Colin Mackenzie and Rear-Admiral Dampier 
were with the party to receive it. Through a huge silent crowd the bier 
was wheeled, accompanied by sixteen pallbearers, four officers each 
‘from the W.R.A.F., the W.R.N.S., and the Q.M,A.A.C,, and four Army 
sisters, and followed by private coachés, representatives of women’s 
organizations, Army and Navy staffs, and fifty-six seamen. Through 
the night the railway coach in which the coffin was placed was watched 
by a military guard, and in the morning it made the journey to London, 
and hundreds of children at Kentish stations and on meadows saluted 
and waved, and laborers lifted their hats. Crowds waited outside Vic- 
toria Station. There were only two women on the platform, Mrs. Len- 
nox Beattie, Commandant of the Edinburgh V.A.D., and Miss Mary 
Clark, of the London Hospital private staff, who nursed Mrs, Cavell in 
her last illness. Inside, the scene was very quiet and simple; as the 
train steamed in a detachment of Guards presented and then reversed 
arms; from the train stepped Miss Cavell’s two sisters, her brother-in- 
law, Dr. Wainwright, and behind the three relatives were two young 
Belgian nurses, Mdlle. Lacomblez and Mdlle. Mathuys, who wore the 
uniform of sisters of the institute founded in Brussels by Miss Cavell. 
_Also of the party were Dr. Heger, president of the University of Brus- 
sels, and M. Gaston de Leval, formerly of the American Legation in 
Brussels, who was a staunch friend; they were received by members of 
the funeral committee. To the strain of muffled drums and Chopin’s 
Funeral March the little procession left the station, proceeding very 
slowly along Victoria Street to Westminster Abbey, which was filled 
with nursing sisters, British and overseas, in varied uniforms. 

The procession was formed, and slowly came up the nave. The 
coffin, raised high on the shoulders of the soldiers, was covered with a 
Union Jack and a mass of white and red flowers. A Guards officer 
marched behind with his sword reversed; then followed a small group 
of relatives. 

The choristers walked in front, singing the opening sentences of 
the Burial Service. ‘The congregation, intensely moved, stood with 
bowed heads. 

The service was a beautiful one. After the opening sentences of 
the Burial Service, sung to Dr. Croft’s music, there followed the 23rd 
Psalm, “The Lord is my shepherd.” The lesson was from the 21st 
chapter of the Revelation, with its special message for the day: “And 
I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first 


earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.” Then the words 
of the anthem to Sullivan’s music: “Yea, though I walk through the 
valley of the shadow of death.” 

After the hymn, “Abide with me,” and blessing, the band played 
the “Dead March in Saul,” and then the “Last Post” was sounded and 
rolled through the church. Then the “Reveille,” and the procession 
formed up and moved slowly back to the great door, while Chopin’s 
Funeral March was played. 

The Earl of Athlone represented the King and Queen, and Queen 
Alexandra (who sent a wreath of red and white carnations, with an 
autograph card) and Princess Victoria were present. Many well-known 
matrons of the nursing world were in the Abbey also, in addition to 
representatives of the Navy, Army, the political and medical worlds, 
and the embassies. 

Through dense crowds on the Embankment and in the city the 
funeral procession went its way to Liverpool Street Station, and thence 
to Norwich, the final scene, where Army and hospital nurses and V. A. 
D. members followed to the Cathedral. There the choristers sang 
“Now the laborer’s task is o’er.” Six women were chosen from all the 
nursing services to stand round the bier, placed at the top of the choir 
steps and flanked by tall candles. 

Then came six sergeant-majors. bearing the coffin. One of these 
men was a sergeant-major who knew Nurse Cavell in Brussels, and 
whom she helped to escape from the Germans. The pallbearers were 
six ladies representing important nursing interests, and headed by the 
matron of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital. Miss Cavell’s sisters and 
Belgian and English friends followed the coffin. 

One of the prayers at the Burial Service was for the soul of “this 
our dear sister, who freely risked and in the end gave her life for the 
sake of those whom she helped and rescued.” Then came the last stage 
to the graveside. 

Round about “Life’s Green” there was a wall of nurses in blue, 
and the wreaths they carried gave the effect of a frieze. In the corner 
by the grave were crowded officers, sailors, and dignataries of Norfolk. 
Here the prayers of committal were said and the coffin lowered into a 
grave lined with fresh moss. 

The Bishop spoke a few words. “This plot of ground is called 
‘Life’s Green.’ We will think of her while her body rests in its keeping 
as herself alive with God.” “Abide with me, fast falls the eventide,” 
the hymn she repeated shortly before her heroic death, was sung. 
Buglers sounded “The Last Post,” and the body of Edith Cavell rested 

in the earth of the country for which she gave her life—The Nursing 



Hints for Travelling With A Patient 
By Dora Dean, R.N. 

Children.—A small infant can best be*cared for in the little willow 
baskets called Kiddie-Koops. They are shaped like a scoop, light, up- 
holstered with thin sateen, and hooded to keep out light draughts and 
dust. ’ 

A small enamel chamber for the well-trained child can be carried 
in a little grip or light club bag kept specially to carry it to and from 
the dressing-room. Herein consists the advantage of training babies to 
use the chamber. 

A Baby Bunting sleeping bag is necessary in cool weather, on 
account of avoiding train draughts around the neck and ears. 

Oranges cut up in dice in a small mason jar can be eaten cleanly 
in a train, with a fork, and the sticky discomfort and untidiness of the 
usual way avoided. 

Games, puzzles and pictures small in size can easily be obtained 
and furnish a cure for the restlessness springing from confinement. 

Rest hours are absolutely necessary—the enforced solitude at regu- 
lar periods which forms a part of a well-organized home schedule must 
be followed out on the train or boat. 

Babies’ feedings are now prepared by the big dairies in small ice- 
packs, shaped like a pail, so that they can easily be carried by a porter. 

A collapsible footstool, which can fold up and be carried like a 
lawyer’s brief bag, is very necessary for young children. Dangling legs 
cause great fatigue and eye strain. 

Adults——Many-~ of these hints apply to grown-ups also; for in- 
stance, the footstool for a short person, who is otherwise in agony all 
the time. 

A black silk kimono with a thin hood is valuable for night wear to 
keep the hair free from dust. The front patch pockets can hold all the 
toilet articles on the trip to the dressing-room. 

A pretty bag for corsets is a necessity also, and even in one’s bed- 
room at. home. After they are aired, corsets should not be seen lying 

For a woman patient who has to urinate very frequently, a most 
unique device is a funnel set in a hot-water bag, kept in a small grip, 
with some old thin cloths. The patient can, in a crouching attitude, 
urinate safely in the funnel; wipe it dry and screw the cap into the bag, 
putting all back into her grip. In the morning the accumulated urine 
is- unobtrusively emptied, like any hot-water bag, and cleaned thor- 
oughly with soda bicarbonate: 

A collapsible sport hat, cap, or very thin silk toque, is the best 
head-gear for the day. A woman:looks better hatted; but she should 

not feel the weight or compression of a regular street hat continuously, 
but rather imitate the methods of men in securing comfort. 

Cold cream only should be used to remove dirt from the skin. This 
avoids burning, and is perfectly satisfactory as far as appearance and 
comfort go.—The Trained Nurse. 

The Convention of the Canadian National 
‘Association of Trained Nurses 

This convention formally opened in joint meeting with the Canadian 
Association of Nurse Education at the Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, 
B.C., June 30th. Addresses of welcome were given—after the invoca- 
tion by the Right Rev. A. U. de Pencier, Bishop of New Westminster 
—by His Worship Mayor Gale, of Vancouver; Dr. Leonard Klinck, 
President of the University of British Columbia; Dr. E. V. Casselman, 
President Vancouver Medical Association, and Miss Helen Randal, 
Registrar, Graduate Nurses’ Association of British Columbia. It was 
much regretted that the Chancellor of the University, Dr. R. E. Mc- 
Kechnie, was unable to be present. The reply to these addresses was 
given by Miss Jean Browne, of Regina. A most interesting paper, 
giving the work done by the Canadian nurses and voluntary aids during 
the war, was read by Miss Gunn. 

The matter of university support for training schools and post- 
graduate work was taken up under the heading, “How Canadian Uni- 
versities Are Co-operating with the Education of Nurses”; while reports 
from McGill University, University of Toronto, University of Alberta 
and the University of British Columbia were given by representatives 
from these provinces, showing how widespread is the interest taken by 
these universities to supplement the present education given in the train- 
ing school. 

A most interesting paper was sent by Dr. A. T. Mathers, of Win- 
nipeg, on “Psychiatry and Mental Social Service,” which was read by 
Mrs. M. E. Johnstone. 

The: regular business meeting opened July 2nd in the Hotel Van- 
couver, where all meetings of the Association were held. The Presi- 
dent gave an extensive address covering the ground of the work for the 
ensuing year, as well as what had been accomplished during the past 
one. The Secretary, Miss Johns, was,unfortunately unable to be pre- 
sent; but Miss Gray, of Winnipeg, did admirably in her place. Her 
report was most interesting, and showed the need for assistance if the 
work of the National Secretary was to be done properly. It was 
promptly decided by the meeting that Miss Johns be given authority to 
have whatever help she requires at any time. The standing committees 
gave their report after the excellent showing made by the Treasurer’s 
‘statement. Reports of the affiliated organizations were then given, 

showing much enthusiasm by their efforts in various directions in local 
work. Public Health Nursing held the afternoon’s first place. Papers 
on “School Hygiene,” by Miss Jean Browne; report of Public Health 
Committee by its convener, Miss Delaney, Montreal; report of repre- 
sentative to Conference on Venereal Diseases, held recently in Ottawa, 
_ by Miss Ella Grant, Toronto, and a full-discussion on papers (five 

minutes) on “How May Child Welfare be Advanced jn Small Towns 
and Rural Communities,” which was led by representatives from all 
provinces present. : 

At the evening session, a joint one with the C.A.N.E., the report 
showed an immense amount of work done in the compilation of the 
report of the special joint committee from both organizations on the 
possible organization of the eight-hour day for pupil nurses. This was 
‘well discussed; and the feeling of the meeting was that this matter can 
be no longer delayed, and that it could be done in most hospitals by 
varying arrangements of time on duty suitable to each institution, which 
could work out the best arrangement for its individual needs. The 
event of the evening was the address of Miss Isabel M. Stewart, Pro- 
fessor, Department of Nursing and Health, Columbia University, New 
York, who gave a very full paper on the advantage of the shorter 
hours, and told her hearers that, by applying to the Teachers’ College, 
Columbia . University, in her care, those wishing to get practical plans 
for this arrangement might buy a small pamphlet on this point. Some 
discussion, all favorable to the plan, was held, and the meeting ad- 
journed at a late hour. 

The morning session started at 9.30 o'clock, with a summary of 
the minutes of the preceding day. The entire morning was giver up 
to the discussion of the reports of the Executive Committee re progress 
of a plan for a National Nursing Service, with the report of the special 
committee appointed with representatives from all provinces on the 
same matter. This, with Miss Gray’s paper, “Does Canada Need 
Nursing Service from Other Countries to Meet Her Needs?” brought 
the National point of view more directly to the attention of the nurses, 
and brought out much earnest discussion on various points. 

As the afternoon -session had to be cut short owing to the trip 
planned for the Capilano Canyon, reports of special committees were 
taken, up: Committee on Finance, Miss Rowan, Toronto, convener; 
Registration, Mrs. Paffard, Toronto; War Committee, Miss Locke, 
Toronto; Memorial to Edith Cavell and Canadian Nurses, Miss Mc- 
Elroy, Ottawa, and the Trained Attendant, Miss Gray, Winnipeg. 

On Friday morning the reports of some of the affiliated associations 
were read, with the minutes of the preceding day, followed by the 
report of the Editor of the Canadian Nurse Magazine, which for the 
first time showed a really encouraging balance in the bank, with all bills 
paid. It was stated by the Editor-that more regular assistance in the 
office was advisable, and the Association approved of the suggestion, 


and the Editor was authorized to get a competent stenographer for full 
time. It was also suggested that as there was need of a clearing house 
for people desiring applicants with exceptional abilities or experience, 
and a corresponding need for such nurses to find the right position, it 
was recommended that the columns of the magazine be used by these 
two parties as a means of getting into touch with each other. It was 
also decided to print the minutes of the meeting in a year book, that 
each association affiliated, as well as individual members, might have a 
record of the convention proceedings, including resolutions. It was 
decided to print a full list of principal officers of these associations in 
it as well. The roll-call of delegates was held, and the election of 
officers was the next item on the programme. Miss Gunn, being the 
only nominee for President, was declared unanimously elected. The 
other officers were as follows: 

President—Miss Jean Gunn, Toronto General Hospital. 

First Vice-President—Miss E. MacP. Dickson, Weston, Ont. 

Second Vice-President—Miss Mabel Gray, R.N., Winnipeg. 

Secretary—Miss E. I. Johns, R.N., Winnipeg, Man., care of Child- 
ren’s Hospital. 

Treasurer—Miss Katherine Davidson, 131 Crescent Street, Mont- 
real, Que. 

Councillors—British Columbia: Miss Jessie MacKenzie, R.N., 
Miss Helen Randal, R.N.; Alberta: Miss Winslow, R.N., Mrs. Man- 
son, R.N.; Saskatchewan: Miss Jean Browne, R.N., Miss Granger 
Campbell, R.N.; Manitoba: Miss Gilroy, R.N., Miss C. Macleod, R.N.; 
Ontario: Miss Potts, Miss Fairley ; Quebec: Miss Strumm, Miss Hersey ; 
New Brunswick: Miss Richards, R.N., Miss Dunlop, R.N.; Nova Sco- 
tia: Miss Pickels, Mrs. Bligh; Prince Edward Island, 

The meeting opened Friday afternoon with an address on “Train- 
ing Public Health Nurses in United States,’ followed by a short dis- 
cussion, when there was an adjournment for the trip to Wigwam Inn, 
up the North Arm of Burrard Inlet, given by the Vancouver Medical 

The morning session of July 5th opened with a summary of the 
proceedings of the previous day, and then discussion of business arising 
from the Secretary’s report. It was resolved that such assistance as 
Miss Johns requires should be given her at any time. A resolution 
from the Great War Veterans’ Association, then in convention, was 
presented, giving the work of the Canadian nurses overseas the appre- 
ciation in words of our returned men. The matter of the eight-hour 
day for graduate nurses on special duty in hospitals was then discussed, 
and the Association went on record as disapproving of that plan, but 
also that the Association felt strongly that no nurse should‘ be allowed 
on duty more than twelve hours on special duty in hospitals. Business 
in connection with the recommendation for discussion on Canadian 
Nurse Magazine policy was then taken up, and it was settled that the 


policy remain as heretofore, the whole executive acting to assist the 
Editor in every way and in the capacity of an editorial board. 

The place of meeting for the 1920 meeting was then voted on, the 
Thunder Bay Association, with headquarters in Fort William and Port 

Arthur, being the fortunate one, Hamilton and Edmonton having also 
invited the associations. ‘ 

The matter of proxies was then discussed and voted upon, when 
it was settled that proxies can vote for associations to which they do 
not belong as heretofore. The afternoon session closed the convention 
with the report of the Remaining Alumnz Associations which had not 
been read before, the report of the Resolutions Committee, and the 
round table of the Public Health Nurses. At the close of this round 
table it was decided, on application from Miss Dyke, that a section for 
Public Health Nurses be formed in the C.N.A.T.N., which was unani- 
mously adopted. The meeting then adjourned. 


Monday—Luncheon given by .Vancouver Graduate Nurses’ Asso- 
ciation, Vancouver Hotel. 

Wednesday—Luncheon given by Victoria and New Westminster 

Thursday—Luncheon given by Rotary Club, Vancouver Hotel, 

12.15, followed by trip to Rotary Chest Diseases Clinic. Trip to Capi- 

lano; dinner and dance, Capilano Hotel, given by the Vancouver General 
Hospital, 4.30 p.m. 

Friday—Luncheon given by City in Stanley Park, followed by 
drive around Park. Trip up North Arm, with dinner at Wigwam Inn, 
Vancouver Medical: Association. 

Saturday Evening—Reception to visitors and formal opening of 
Club House for Returned Army Sisters. 



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Annual Report of Manitoba Association of 
Graduate Nurses 

The officers of: the Manitoba Association of Graduate Nurses: 

President—Miss Elizabeth Carruthers. 

First Vice-President—Miss A. E. Gilroy. 

Second Vice-President— 

Third Vice-President— 

Corresponding Secretary—Miss Louise Spratt, Bureau of Child 
Hygiene, Winnipeg, Man. 

Recording Secretary—Miss M. F. Gray, suite 8, Eleanora Apart- 
ments, McDermott Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Treasurer—Miss Florence Robertson, 123 Langside Street, Winni- 
peg, Man. 


The year 1918 was peculiarly adverse for membership growth or 
new association work of any kind. The earlier months were filled with 
menacing war news. The influenza epidemic in the fall months again 
dampened the hope of lifting the membershtp strength to the goal of 
expectation. However, now that war is over and nurses returning from 
overseas, we hope for a distinct increase in membership; and I would 
- like to suggest that the Association recommend to the governing boards 
of the various hospitals in the province that it be made compulsory for 
every pupil nurse to write on the registration examination in her final 
year. The meetings of the Association were fairly well attended, but 
for the months of October and November the ban was on all meetings 
and materially interfered with the welfare of the Association. This 
year we have been affiliated with the Social Service Council, and, we 
trust, will derive mutual benefit. 

Your Association was represented at the last annual convention of 
the Canadian National Association of Trained Nurses which was held 
in Toronto, and, as has been noted in the conferences of previous years, 
the effect of these annual gatherings, with their stimulating personal 
contact and the threshing out of progressive ideas, is having a pro- 
nounced effect upon those seriously concerned in the nursing profession. 

We have had several very interesting speakers, address us at dif- 
ferent times during the year. Miss Coltart, who is on furlough from 
India after seven years’ absence, was made very welcome. She was one 
of the strong supporters of the Association in its younger struggling 
days before it became a registered body. 

The February meeting, which -was held in the Nurses’ Home of 
the Children’s Hospital, proved to be one of the most enjoyable even- 
ings. At this meeting Miss Cotter, who was one of the charter mem- 
bers of the Association and one of its most faithful and energetic work- 


ers, was tendered a presentation and reception. Miss Cotter left Win- 
nipeg to accept the position of lady superintendent of Dauphin Hospital. 
At the same meeting we had a very pleasant talk from Miss Campbell, 
who also read a letter of appreciation from our native nurse in India. 
It was agreed to contribute to her support for another year. 

A valued member of our Association removed to Montreal in the 
person of Sister Wagner, formerly superintendent of St. Boniface Hos- 
pital. Sister Wagner was ever ready to advise or assist in any capacity. 

We are naturally proud of the number of nurses who enlisted from 
our Association for overseas, and of their record in the Great War. 
Now that the actual fighting has ceased, we can think of their service 
as an almost completed task; but for some of them the discharge from 
service was by sacrifice even unto death. To such belong the high 
privilege of being on our country’s Honor Roll alongside the brave lads 
who gave their lives in Freedom’s cause. 

In conclusion, I would like to thank the Residence Committee for 
the use of the rooms so kindly arranged for the meetings; also the man- 
agement of the Industrial Bureau, where several board meetings were 
held. I am also very grateful to the members of the Association for 
their valuable assistance during my term of office. 

Trusting the Association will continue to prosper. 



Madame President and Members of the Manitoba Association of Trained 

I have the honor to submit herewith the Recording Secretary’s 
report for the year 1918-1919. 

The regular monthly meetings of the Association were held through- 
out the year, with the exception of the months of October and Novem- 
ber. Owing to the ban on public meetings the Association did not 
convene during those months. 

During the year thirteen board meetings were held. The average 
attendance at the meetings throughout the year has not been as large 
as one would expect—twenty-one being the largest number and eleven 
the. smallest, with an average attendance of eleven. 

During the year the names of forty-eight nurses have been recom- 
mended by the Registrar of the University for registration and accepted 
by the board of managers. Of this number only fourteen have as yet 
paid their registration fees and received their registration certificates. 
Thirty-one certificates in all have been issued during the year. Three 
nurses registered in other provinces: or states have applied for registra- 
tion without examination. These applications will be submitted to the 
University Board. Only six new members have joined the Association 
during the year, These numbers, Madame President, are not encour- 


aging. With six years of registration, I feel that we have not yet made 
the body of nurses and the general public feel the significance of the 
title, “Registered Nurse.” 

In September last a Committee on Legislation was appointed to 
draft needed amendments to the Nurses’ Registration Act; and it was 
decided that the nurses of the provinces should be asked to meet in 
convention in Winnipeg, at a suitable date to be arranged by the board. 
This convention was postponed on account of the influenza epidemic. 
The Committee on Legislation also delayed its meetings until the report 
of the Public Welfare Commission on hospitals and nursing should be 
made public. 

Surely, Madame President, during the summer or early fall, with 
the return of our delegates from the Canadian National Association of 
Trained Nurses meeting in Vancouver, while they are still fired with 
enthusiasm and enlightened by the views of the nurses from East to 
West, we shall then have such a convention as will lend encouragement 
to our members scattered here and there throughout the province, and 
give a great uplift to nursing standards in Manitoba. 

There are two problems which must be met by the nurses of this 
province and by the nurses of Canada—that is, the question of the eight- 
hour day for pupil nurses and also the regulation of the duty hours for 
graduate nurses; and the second, the problem of the provision for ade- 
quate nursing care for the people of moderate means. 

The first question is largely a measure for hospitals and training 
schools; but the introduction into the Provincial Legislature by the 
Labor member for Centre Winnipeg of an amendment to the Minimum 
Wage Act, framed to read that it should include the pupil nurses in 
training schools, made it necessary for the Manitoba Association of 
Graduate Nurses, with the other Graduate Nurses’ Associations of the 
province, to appear before the Law Amendments Committee, protesting 
against the proposed legislation. While the Graduate Nurses’ Associa- 
tions frankly and freely admitted that there are wrongs to be righted 
and many conditions to be improved, yet the principle is not one of 
dollars and cents for service rendered; it is purely an educational prob- 
lem; this amendment as applying to student nurses was withdrawn. The 
problem must, however, be met and dealt with, and without delay. 

Never more clearly than during the influenza epidemic was _ the 
shortage.of graduate nurses and the lack of co-operation and organiza- 
tion felt. While the work of the individual nurse cannot be too 
highly praised, the nurses did not solve the problem of caring for the 
multitude of the sick—they were not cared for. Shall we train more 
nurses, or shall be train and register attendants? These questions have 
been brought up at different meetings, but have not been thoroughly 

You have appointed a Committee of Legislation of eight members. 
At our monthly meetings not more than twenty-one members have met 



together. Surely, Madame President, with such important questions to 
be settled, we may count upon the active co-operation of at least our 
eighty odd members, and may hope for an increased membership of 
three or four hundred. 



March Ist, 1918, to February 28th, 1919 


25 Registration Fees @ $10.00......2..........-..ccceseceeeee $ 250.00 
54 Membership Fees @ $1.00...........--...-.----:0-00---+- 54.00 
mre EN TU nhac sce nde baceccccbnseentticcciane 13.75 
; ————. $_ 317.75 
Saas Anas OC REMRERER © MRE asc mpchecvniwniedoineaes ae ' 57.88 
$ 375.63 
Postage and General $ 14.61 
Printing Stationery and Engrossing Diplomas. 64.50 
2 eR ee EE eee 6 ee 15.00 
REIN NNER ce rset cldties Giierenectcscanianradacenecee Meese 3.02 
National Association Fee: 10.00 
By bn 5 COCR BOE 6 ci 3.00 
$ 110.13 
SR er I es lances 13.75 
National Association, for Magazines............ $ 100.25 
Flowers for Sick Membets...................-.-00---+--- 10.35 
Dretawe Reee: SUNG on es 50.00 
II ROR TURP 8 Ek 25.00 
RON et CORN end eS 85.00 
ERORREES Oi WY OE FN onan erences ctw 35.00 
—-—— 305.60 
Ie TaN IN ire since aks etched igsneronendeensescmparsctnesbontict $ 63.85 
March 1, 1918: 
. em INNS os oF ee $ 6.10 
Cash in Current Bank Account......................... 90.84 
Cash in Savings Bank Account...............-c::es-se000 1,250.93 
—————s’ $1,347.87 
February 28, 1919: 
Registration Fees received to date... $ 250.00 
Membership Fees received to date -2.0.2.........:--0---- 63.00 
Sale of Pins received to date —.....cceisaen.cescceccnaue 13.75 
RONNIE ONEINON) ness eo 8 85 
Sayings Account [nterestq.....-.....c-ccesececcccsss-s---- 57.88 



Reynolds, Limited, Printitiz ..... $' 58.75 

Local Council of Women—Fee, 1917-18................ 2.00 

Local Council of Women—Fee, 1918-19................ 3.00 

SS OT Cee 2 Re ne Be Sate te ee ee 15.00 

W. T. Copeland, Memorial Fund.............0000000....... 25.00 

Native Nurse in India (two years)..........-..-.-.------- 100.00 

a Bice es, TN Si ocsccasenctvtnipeyceots 85.00 

A. L..'Pelland- Prisoner-of War. 2.2.0. a. 35.00 

National Association, Fee «........0......i50..----20.-.5..- 10.00 

National Association, Copies of T. N................... 100.25 

F. Appleby, Embossing Diplomas.......................--- 5.75 

Postage and General Expense...........-------:---o-+00-000-+ 14.61 

PUR a ae gd a ead saci epe a 3.02 

Flowers for Sick Members......................-...c-ccscsees-ee 10.35 

———- $_ 467.73 

ROIS iN RN eer A a on ee $ 3.65 
Cash-m/Benk, Currents... 0... iccccnsce $ 146.12 

Less Outstanding Cheques........................ 66.61 

$ 79.51 
Cash in Bank, SavingS........2...--c:s.cssece- etR LEMME TY 1,182.46 

——— $1,733.35 

February 28th, 1919 

(Coah on Fiend and tn Baile... cc. scsseccscinccecscccenceescensesseepevece $1,265.62 
Investment, “Canadian Nurse?’ ...........--ccccecceccseccceccesencenovee 200.00 
ERB Rane ANN BIR sacs cece pec ssceE cee sSepentasceecsotenid diewtcecomome 6.60 
Subscription, Native Nurse in India (in advance)............ 50.00 
Nine Membership Fees paid in advance...........-.---.---:-:0+--- $ 9.00 
—_-—— 9.00 
, ¢ ———_____—- 
CRI a hoa aca ce ses eue le sa pepeacDeactexec teehee maa aiegreenescs $1,513.22 

Respectfully submitted, 


Nathan Littauer Hospital School of Nursing 1 

(Registered) offers a complete general course of three years, with 

last six months given for specializing in any branch of the work chosen 
by the student. 

Educational requirements, one year of High School or its equiva- 
lent. Classes from April and September. 

For particulars, address Superintendent, Gloversville, N.Y. 




The. Conventions of the C.A.N.E. and the C.N.A.T.N. for’ 1919 
have been very well attended. The matters taken up were of vital 
importance to the profession, and showed an earnest desire on the part 
of those present to show that they were alive to the problems of recon- 
struction ‘which apply to the nursing profession as to everything else in 
this first period of peace after the strain of our single effort—that of 
winning the’ war. 

It was thought best by the executive of the C.N.A.T.N. to publish 
the proceedings of the convention in book form, that all associations 
and private members might have the resolutions and discussions before 
them, to consult whenever necessary. The C.A.N.E. will have, as in 
the past years, its convention report taken from the minutes of the 
meetings and printed in this magazine. The papers from both organ- 
izations will be in the Canadian Nurse from time to time in the next 
few months. 

The weather was ideal, and Vancouver—city of roses—was at her 
loveliest, and the nurses were delightfully entertained by many friends 
of the profession. The luncheons were given by the G.N.A. of Van- 
couver, Victoria and New Westminster, the City (on the porch of the 
Pavilion in’ Stanley Park, followed by a drive around the park), and 
the Rotary Club, who listened with pleasure to addresses by Miss Isabel 
Stewart, of Columbia University, New York; Miss Gunn and Miss 
Flaws. Trips were given by the Vancouver General Hospital to Capilano 
Canyon, followed by a dinner at the Canyon View Hotel; and by the 
Vancouver Medical Association up the North Arm of Burrard Inlet to 
Wigwam Inn, where dinner was served. Many small teas and luncheons 
were given to groups of nurses by their friends in Vancouver, and it 
was the general opinion that a most profitable and enjoyable week had 
been spent. 

aS ] 

Letters to FI he Giitor 

Pithapuram, Godavari District, India, 
April 10th, 1919. 
Dear Friends: - 
While I was in Canada I enjoyed so much reading letters in the 
Canadian Nurse, from those in active service, that I decided to write 
some of my impressions of India. 



I was here for a year and a-half nearly before the war was de- 
clared, and then went home to Canada and took my training. So you 
see I wasn’t altogether a greenhorn when we arrived in Madras about 
three months ago, after a trip of almost three months. Three months’ 
travelling may sound good to some of you, but we were very thankful 
to set foot on dry land and feel that we were not having to start out on 
the water again. We were on three different steamers; and each one 
has its own peculiarities, which I need not take time to mention here. 

I am studying the language, and shall be for a year; and then, in 
my second year, I will be allowed part of the time to do hospital work. 

We have a nice hospital here for women and children which will 
accommodate at least fifty patients. If more than fifty should come and 
choose to stay and sleep on a mat on the floor of the verandah, we let 
them stay, for even that is near thé source of supplies. The hospital 
buildings are built of stone, and are very attractive-looking buildings. 
The floors are also stone, and the roof is flat. On Wednesday even- 
ings we have the prayer-meeting for the Christians on the roof, and 
any of the patients who may care to do so are welcome. 

There is also a separate building for a men’s hospital; but, as the 
need is more for women’s work in this country, the men have to take 
a second place. There is a Canadian doctor in charge, however; and 
he has plenty to do besides hospital work, if it is a little slack at times. 

Even though I am studying the language, I manage to get down 
to the hospital for operations or maternity cases quite frequently. Just 
a few days ago, about 10 p.m., the night nurse came to the house to 
say that a maternity case had come in and she was in labor. After 
about half an hour the doctor (who is my sister, by the way) and the 
head nurse went down. They didn’t hurry, for no one ever hurries in 
India, and a little later I followed. It was a dry labor and rather long, 
but was over in an hour or so. During the case I noticed an old 
woman, evidently the mother of the woman in labor, come in and put 
some bundle in a corner. Then she brought a child of about two years 
in her birthday suit, as they say here when they have no clothes on. 
Another little girl followed the old lady in, and I was waiting for the 
doctor or head nurse to see them. Then the old lady came in once 
more with a mat and some more bundles of dirty rags; and then I 
smiled to myself, which put the finish to that old lady, for the nurse 
saw me. She asked the old woman what she was bringing all her 
dirty clothes and bags in there for, and the old lady was quite surprised 
and said: “Why, isn’t my daughter in here, and didn’t I come to stay 
with her, and aren’t these her children, and why shouldn’t I stay in this 
room? It’s nice and big.” I thought that was rather good reasoning ; 
but the head nurse said, “Take your bags out of here.” So the old 
lady picked up her cargo and remained in the hallway. 

We had a Placenta Praevia not long ago and the doctor was away 
The patient was a Mohammedan, and her people would- not agree to 


our calling the man doctor. They said they would take her home to 
die first, but begged that the head nurse would deliver the child. She 
had been having hemorrhage for several days and was very weak, and 
her pulse was almost imperceptible. However, we delivered her. and 
she was still alive when we moved her back to her ward, but her 
chances were very slim. We gave her saline interstitially and a hypo. 
of Ergot, but she was having bad hemorrhage and the uterus was soft 
and didn’t contract at all. So, in spite of all we could do, she died. 
And before we left the room the relatives swarmed into that small room 
and wailed and moaned; and when I heard the uproar I couldn’t believe 
so few people (and yet there were a good many, too) could make such 
a noise. I had to put my hands over my ears and leave the room. How 
different it is to witness a death in this Eastern land, where they will 
not be comforted. How like the Bible times, where they tell us Rachel 
was weeping for her children and would not be comforted. 

We had a woman with a liver abscess, which was very interesting 
to me. The doctor explored with a needle and syringe first and» found 
black blood, with a horrible odor, so made an incision and drained. The 
woman did very well and is now much better. 

I could tell you of more cases which have been very interesting. to 
me, but I must not take room. 

I have been wondering why India shouldn’t receive some of the’ 

attention which has been given to France during the war. The Cana- 
dian Government is releasing many of her nurses, I believe. Are 
there not some who realize how valuable a thing a life of service is, 
and who will put aside the pleasures of the life in the homeland for the 
sake of a suffering people? If you could only know what a satisfaction 
there is to see a patient healed bodily, as well as helped along the way 
of life! “The harvest truly is great, and the laborers are too few.” 
We who are in India shall pray that the call shall be answered by some 
of our Canadian nurses. 
Yours very sincerely, | 
Laura C, ALLYN 

Victorian Order of a 


A Post Graduate Course of four months in District and Public 
Health Nursing for graduate nurses is given at the training centres of 
the Order, namely: Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Toronto and Vancouver. 

Salaries during the course and good openings after successful 

For full information, apply to the Chief Superintendent, Room 4, 
Holbrook Chambers, 104 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. 

w 3 



The Canadian Nurses’ Association and Register for Graduate 
Nurses, Montreal 

President—Miss Phillips, 750 St. Urbain Street. : 

First Vice-President—Miss Fairley, Alexandra Hospital, Montreal. 
Second Vice-President—Miss Dunlop, 209 Stanley Street. 
Secretary-Treasurer—Miss S. Wilson, 638-a Dorchester St., West. 
Registrar—Mrs. Burch, 175 Mansfield Street. 

Reading Room—The Club Room, 638a Dorchester Street West. 


The monthly meetings of the Association have been discontinued 
for the summer months. The executive committee meets as usual. 

A memorial service for the Canadian nurses who lost their lives 
during the years of the war was held on Sunday evening, June 8th, 
in the Church of St. James the Apostle. Major the Rev. Canon Shat- 
ford, who was associated with many of the nurses in their work over- 
seas, was the preacher. A large number of nurses were present. 

The sympathy of the Association is extended to Miss Georgie 
Wilson, on the death of her brother, and to Miss Belknap, on the death 
of her mother. 

Miss Agnes Bullock has gone to Lyn, Ont., for the summer 


“Now, the beauty of the thing when childher plays is 
The terrible wonderful length the days is. 
Up you jumps, and out in the sun, 
And you fancy the day will never be done; 
And you're chasin’ the bumbees hummin’ so cross 
In the hot, sweet air among the goss, 
Or gath’rin’ bluebells, or lookin’ for eggs, . 
Or peltin’ the ducks with their yalla legs, 
Or a-climbin’ and nearly breakin’ your skulls, 
Or a-shoutin’ for divilment after the gulls, 
Or a-thinkin’ of nothin’ but down at the tide, 
Singin’ out for the happy you feel inside. 
And when you look back it’s all like a puff, 
Happy and over and short enough.” 


News from The Medical “World 



HicuH CuHILp-BirtH MortTALity 

A writer in the Lancet is of the opinion that adequate hospital 
accommodation is indispensable in view of the high maternal mortality 
in child-birth. He says that labor is a surgical operation and should 
be conducted with the same safeguards. Large lying-in hospitals should 
be maintained out of public funds, and the present system of externes 
being sent to deliver women be abolished. It perpetuates all the worst 
features of midwifery: inadequate care, dirty surroundings, wretched 
light and untrained assistance. Besides safety to mother and child, 
these hospitals would be invaluable as training ground for obstetricians. 
Obstetrics is a branch of surgery too much neglected in the training of 
the ordinary medical student. 


A bill has been introduced into the United States Senate to pro- 
hiBit the sending through the postoffice of advertisements relating to the 
treatment, or cure, of venereal diseases. Scientific treatises and the 
publications of the Public Health Service are exempted from this pro- 
vision. Violation of the Act is to be punished by a fine of $5,000.00, or 
five years’ imprisonment, or both. 


The Family Endowment Committee in England proposes that the 
State provide a regular weekly income for families with children under 
fifteen years of age. This is meant to induce earlier marriages and 
remove the economic restrictions on: the birth-rate. It will cost the 
Government about a billion dollars a year. 

HeEtp ror Nursinc MorTHers 

The claims of mothers seem at last to be coming to the front, and 
motherhood will soon be a popular profession. The French have 
founded a society in aid of nursing mothers, under the presidency of 
Dr. Mourier, Under Secretary of State for the Military Health Service. 


We are not accustomed to think of South America as especially 
progressive, yet the chief of the Rockefeller Foundation is co-operating 
with the Secretary of the Interior for Brazil to see what steps can be 
taken to eradicate leprosy in that country. The foundation stone was 


laid. in April for a leprosarium, which will contain all the modern im- 
provements —a theatre, cinema, library, playground, etc. Its cost is 
estimated at about.$1,200,000. 


A publication of the United States Health Service says that, 
depending on the way it is treated, diphtheria is one of the least dan- 
gerous, or one of the most dangerous, diseases. When promptly treated 
with antitoxin, it is one of the least fatal; when antitoxin is delayed, or 
not given, it is one of the most dangerous to life. 

INsEct PEsts 

A pair of flies, or mosquitoes, hatched in April, may give origin to 
millions by August. Every fly should be slain as early as possible, and 
the breeding places of mosquitoes treated to prevent their hatching. 


The Journal of the American Medical Association states that the 
hands and feet are rarely involved in chickenpox, and usually are more 
or less extensively so in smallpox. The character of the eruption is 
distinctive. In smallpox it is hard, like shot, indurated, sharply circum- 
scribed, umbilicated; whereas, the opposite is true of the chickenpox 
lesion. It will help to remove any doubt as to the nature of the disease 
if there is an eruption on the palms of thé hands, or the soles of the 


In the Annals of Surgery some remarkable operations are described. 
In a case of ileocecal tuberculosis, causing partial obstruction of the 
small bowel, ten feet were removed of the small intestine, also the 
cecum and eight inches of the ascending colon, which was united to the 
transverse colon. The patient. recovered. 


A French medical journal says that a patient suffering from 
sciatica is unable to stand on tiptoe. The three groups of muscles in- 
volved are insufficient to enable him-to maintain this position. 


The word malaria is compounded from two Italian words, mal and 
aria, meaning bad air. The record of malaria reaches back to Hippo- 
crates, who lived 400 years before Christ. Hippocrates divided the 
disease into the “every-day chills” and “the-every-other-day chills.” 

Yesterday is dead—forget it. To-morrow has ‘not come—don't 
worry. To-day is here—use it—ANONYMOUS. 


op ublic Keath Nursing Department 

Conducted by the Committee on Public Health Nursing of the C. N. A. 
Under the Convener on Public Health Nursing 


“It is not the guns or armament 
or the money they can pay— 
It’s the close co-operation 
That makes them win the day; 
It is not the individual 
Or the army as a whole, 
But the everlastin’ team work 
Of every bloomin’ soul.” 


A very successful Baby Welfare Exhibit was held in Montreal 
during the week of May 12th. 

One of the most active agencies interested in the welfare of babies 
in Canada is the Baby Welfare Committee. Its purpose is to improve 
conditions surrounding child life in Canada. 

Starting its activities in Montreal, the work of the committee has 
rapidly grown and has become national in its character, with connec- 
tions extending throughout the Dominion. 

During the last three years the Baby Welfare Committee, with the 
help of over fifty of the most representative social, educational and 
charitable institutions in Canada, has organized a Baby Welfare Ex- 
hibit in Montreal, the attendance to which has easily reached. a total of 
100,000 during those three years. 

These exhibits have been a powerful factor in awakening public 
interest in the welfare of the infant population of Canada, and have 
been responsible in great measure for the progress accomplished in this 
direction during the last few months. It has been with the greatest 
satisfaction that the committee has seen the establishment at Ottawa 
of the Federal Health Department, a measure which it had advocated 
and towards the adoption of which it had been actively engaged for 
over two years. It is confidently expected that, under this authoritative 
leadership, a new impetus will be given to the work of Baby Welfare 
throughout Canada, and that in this way our war losses will be made 
up, at least in so far as it-lays within our power to do so. 

The committee hopes to see an ever-increasing number of Baby 
Welfare ‘exhibits held in all the large cities of Canada. Apart from 

their educational value; which is great, they serve to focus the attention 
of the people upon the vital necessity of conserving child life; and they 
help them to realize that the crop of babies is as well worth saving as 
the other crops, for which no government would think of begrudging 
money or attention. 

The Travelling Clinic has been started for the season, in charge of 
a doctor and two nurses, going into the poorer sections of the city 
where there are, at present, no Baby Health Centres. On the first trip 
fifty babies were examined. Ninety per cent. of those were bottle-fed ; 
and the majority were below par, both mentally and physically. 

Through the means of the Travelling Clinic, the Baby Welfare 

Committee expects to get in touch with babies of mothers who find it | 

impossible to go to the present Health Centres. 


Miss Gibbs, special representative of the Victorian Order of Nurses, 
addressed the graduates and pupil nurses at the General Public Hos- 
pital, recently, on “Public Health Nursing and Social Welfare.” 

Dr. Mabel Hannington’s first report on Medical School Inspection, 
in St. John, shows the need of free dental clinics. This matter is being 
taken up by the Sub-District Board of Health, with a view to having 
such clinics established. P 

Hon. Dr. Roberts, Minister of Health, addressed the St. John 
Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis at their monthly meet- 
ing, held at the St. John County: Hospital, May 13th. Dr. Roberts 
spoke of his plans for the “prevention” and “cure” of tuberculosis in 
New Brunswick, namely, by dividing the province into four districts, 
and having a tuberculosis hospital established in each district. 

By Mattsie D. BascocKk 

Be strong! 
We are not here to play, to dream, to drift; 
We have hard work to do, and loads to lift. 
Shun not the struggle, face it—’tis God’s gift. 

Be strong! 
Say not the days are evil—who’s to blame? 
And fold thy hands and acquiescé—Oh, shame! 
Stand up, speak out, and bravely, in God’s name! 

Be strong! 
It matters not how deep intrenched the wrong, 
How hard the battle goes, the day how long; 
Faint not, fight on! To-morrow comes the song. 


The Diet Jitchen 




There are some things which a nurse should remember when a 
patient complains that he cannot eat certain articles of food. She is 
apt to think that the invalid is fanciful, and could eat and digest what 
is prepared if he only thought that he could. 

An authority on dietetics says: “Some persons are unable to digest 
milk, and are immediately nauseated or made bilious by it; while others 
cannot eat eggs, and yet can drink milk, while some cannot take either.” 
Some can take the white of the egg, but not the yolk. Others, again, 
cannot eat fat in any form, or are unable to digest some one form, as 
hot mutton fat. Some persons have a headache if they eat too much 
meat. Shellfish of all kinds, especially lobster, disagree with many 
persons, and strawberries frequently cause disturbance: A physician 
was unable to eat chocolate in any form, because it always caused dim- 
ness of vision. : 

Food idosyncrasies are sometimes hereditary, and may affect several 
members of the same family. They are wholly independent of ordinary 
dyspeptic conditions, and may occur in those whose digestion is other- 
wise perfect. 

When these conditions are present the good nurse, conscious that 
her business is to nourish, devises some substitute for the food that 
cannot be eaten with impunity. 

Meat broths and cereal gruels are the substitutes for milk. Even 
a suspicion of grease on the surface of the former is sufficient to make 
them unappetizing. There is only one way to remove every particle of 
fat effectually. Let the broth get perfectly cold and take the hardened 
fat off the top. Sometimes it is desirable that the fat should be eaten; 
in this case, after it is removed from the broth, warm it in a cup and 
mix a small quantity of flour smoothly into it. Moisten it with a little 
of the hot broth, and, when every lump is stirred smooth, pour it into 
the broth again and let the whole boil for a few moments. All the 
cereal gruels can be made with water instead of milk, if necessary. 
They should be well cooked, seasoned with salt, and strained. 

Never imagine that a patient is too ill to notice whether his food 
is properly prepared and served; he may only be too ill to trouble to 
complain about it. Never take any liberties with a patient’s food which 
you would not take if he were fully conscious and watching you. 


When the patient’s tongue is thickly coated the appetite may be 
stimulated by scraping the surface of the tongue just before food is 
given. This uncovers the nerves of taste from the débris which coats 
them, and gives a certain zest to the process of eating. An old-fash- 
ioned scraper is made of a piece of whale-bone, about nine inches long, 
bent into a bow; and I once heard of a little hoe being made from a 
silver dollar. 

Rinsing the mouth before introducing food is sometimes as neces- 
sary as cleansing it after a meal, or the giving of milk. 

Every detail that has to do with feeding is important in the case 
of the sick. The most carefully prepared food is useless if it is left 
uneaten. Deglutition comes before digestion and absorption, and if 
food is not swallowed the system gets no good from it. 

All nurses know that a cup of hot milk, broth, cocoa, or whatever 
liquid is acceptable, will often put a restless patient to sleep after he has 
been twisting about for an hour or more. This is especially true if he 
wakes at three or four o’clock in the morning and cannot easily fall 
asleep again. A biscuit may be added, if a mouthful of solid food is 
desired, but nothing that requires exertion to eat it. 

If nurses remembered that cooking is a branch of applied chem- 
istry they might take more interest in it. They should not need any 
other incentive than the fact that the food given him is far more im- 
portant to her patient than the medicine prescribed for him. There are 
a few specifics, and, except in special emergencies, medicine does not 
play a large part in the cure of disease. On the other hand, without 
proper nourishment, nature has not a fair chance to rally her forces 
and cannot get the body into good working order again. 

It is worth while for a nurse to master the principles of cookery, 
and get rid of the idea that a patient’s food is the least important part 
of the nursing—to be left to anyone who will take off her hands the 
trouble -of preparing it. Diet kitchen work seems very dull and tire- 
some to many, but it is superlatively worth while if she learns to. cook 
well. Nothing will endear her more to her patient than presenting him 
with delicious dishes which no one can cook as well as herself. She 
will earn and retain the everlasting gratitude of the family if she can 
satisfy the fickle appetite that no one has been able to please well 

enough to induce the patient to take the necessary amount of nourish- 
ment. Learn to cook. 


I thought “E” to be the most unfortunate letter in the alphabet, 
because it’s always out of cash, forever in debt, and always in torment. 
But, after I became better acquainted with “E,” I found it’ was never in 
war and always in peace. It is the beginning of existance, the commence- 
ment of ease and the end of trouble; without it there would be no meat, 
no life, no heaven. It is the centre of honesty, makes love perfect, and 
without it there would be no hope.—McGill Daily. 


St he Wana a Pulse 



Sir Douglas Haig, than whom we can have no higher authority, 
has recently said that anyone who to-day thought that the armistice had 
been granted too soon, failed to appreciate either the conditions of war 
in these days of armies of millions, or the completeness of the surren- 
der Germany made when she took the armistice terms. The surrender 
of the German fleet was not more abject, more complete, or more 
irrevocable. They were now in sight of a peace which would, they 
hoped, last for many years. 


A strike which is without precedent is that of the priests of Loreto, 
in Italy. It is a celebrated resort of pilgrims, whither, according to 
the legend, the Casa Santa, or house of the Virgin at Nazareth, was 
miraculously transported by angels in 1294. Before the war half a 
million pilgrims visited the shrine annually. The priests asked for in- 
creased financial assistance on account of the high cost of living. When 
their claims were not granted, they stopped celebrating masses and 
performing other religious duties. 


British opinion seems to be that the Allies are well rid of the 
German men-of-war which were sunk by their crews at Scapa Flow. 
The men opened the stopcocks and the ships filled and sank, all ex- 
plosives having been removed. The ships were obsolete, very dirty and 
in bad repair. The British had always wanted the ships disposed of in 
this way; the Americans and some of the other Allies objected. A 
possible cause of heart-burning and dissension is thus removed. 


It is suggested, as a possible solution of the Irish difficulties, that 
two provincial governments, one for the North and: one for the South 
of Ireland, be established, with a joint inter-provincial executive com- 
mittee to handle the affairs of common concern, which would be re- 
ferred to it by both provincial assemblies. This cannot be consummated 
until the Sinn Fein defiance of established authority is suppressed. 


The British Air Minister, Major-General Seely, suggests that 
lighthouses should throw vertical beams of light for the guidance of 


aviators. Improved landing grounds are also needed. The average 
good field is 200 yards across; an airplane requires 400 yards to land 
safely. A slower flying speed and slower landing speed is recom- 
mended. It is proposed to appoint a committee of flying men, aircraft 
constructors and Government representatives to find how best money 
could be spent to minimize the risks of flying. 



A new type of ship is being constructed in England for the pur- 
pose of raising some of the vessels sunk in the war. They are built of 
concrete, with broad ship-shaped bases, rising tier on tier, like a wed- 
.ding cake, to the top, which is 100 feet from the bottom. The blocks 
- of which they are composed are hollow and, by means of water-tight 
doors, can be filled with water. Two are then sunk, one on each side 
of the ship to be raised, to which they are lashed by divers. The water 
is then pumped out and air substituted, when they will rise to the sur- 
face, bringing the sunken ship with them. 

A Victory MEDAL 

The Allies and associated Powers have agreed to institute an Inter- 
Allied War Medal, to be known as the Victory Medal. Officers and 
soldiers will in future not wear foreign commemorative war medals, or 
ribbons, for service in the war. 

Hoover’s WARNING 

Mr. Hoover, the American who is feeding Europe for the Allies, 
says “Europe must work or starve.” If it does not get down to work 
at once there will be a famine next year. To produce the largest 
quantity of wages, the largest number of people must work hard and 
produce the largest possible quantity of goods. Every man who works 
makes work for someone else. 


A lecturer on pathological psychology at King’s College, London, 
recently said that a patient may be preoccupied about his stomach. He 
has an attack of indigestion and thinks there must be something wrong. 
This concentration disturbs the digestive secretions, and there is a 
slowing down of the process. By mental analysis and suggestion. many 
neurasthenics can be cured, and sleep can be induced in this way almost 

LEssons By FILMs 

In the United States there are already 1,000 schools giving lessons 
by means of movie pictures. Every new school built has a film-project- 
ing box. Natural history and geography are the subjects taught in this 
way at present, but history: is soon to be included. It is found that 
children will concentrate their whole mind on a film for fifteen minutes 
and will be receptive for half an hour; a longer period tires them. The 
system is being introduced into Great Britain. 


Sl he Nurse's Library 

Practical Dietetics, with Reference to Diet in Health and Disease. 
Twelfth Edition. By Alida Frances Pattee. A. F. Pattee, Pub- 
lisher, Mount Vernon, N.Y. Price, $2.00. 

Miss Pattee’s book is well known to all schools for nursing, and 
to very many private nurses, who feel that they are not equipped for 
their cases without this valuable book, with the total energy value 
placed with each recipe. Each year a new edition is issued, bringing 
the book up to the-latest diet for the sick and convalescent. State 
Board requirements in diet and examination questions are given in a 
supplement which is sent free with each copy of the book. There is 
also a convenient handbag diet book with condensed material from the 
larger book. This may be had for 50 cents additional, and is only sold 
in connection with Practical Dietetics. 

% * % * 

Dietetics for Nurses. Fourth Edition Revised and Enlarged. By Julius 
Friedenwald, M.D., Professor of Gastro-enterology in the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore; and John Ruhrah, M.D., 
Professor of Diseases of Children in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Baltimore. 120. of 467 pages. Philadelphia and Lon- 
don: W. B. Saunders Company, 1917. Cloth, $1.50 net. 

This splendid text-book is in its third edition and has been brought 
quite’ up to date. The article on diabetes has been largely rewritten, 
and valuable diet lists added. The sections on infant feeding and 
nephritis have been augmented and information added on vitamins, the 
amino-acids and other valuable information given. The subject of diet 
is getting justly added attention in its relation to diet, and this part of 
a nurse’s education is most valuable. 

% + % % 

Social Reconstruction. A general review of the problems and survey 
of remedies. Issued by the Committee of Special War Activities, 
National Catholic War Council, Washfngton, D.C., 930—14th St., 

In these days, when reconstruction is the great demand on every- 
body, it is a help to people to have in a concrete form some of the most 
urgent problems and of their remedies. This pamphlet can be recom- 
mended as being full of real information, and gives the busy nurse a 
chance to review in her mind the difficulties that are round her on every 
side. There is no place now for the ignorant woman, nor for anyone 
who is not prepared to help solve, in her own sphere, the present-day 


Kospitals and Nisrses 



Miss Pemberton, night superintendent of the V.G.H., Halifax, and 
practically the founder of the N.S.G.N.A., has left for Vancouver on a 
visit to friends, and represents the assocfation as their official delegate 
at the C.N.A.T.N. convention there. 

The marriage took place recently in St. Mary’s Cathedral, Halifax, 
of Miss Margaret Macdougall, C.A.M.C., to Lieut. John Gannon, also 
of the C.A.M.C. Miss A. B. Macdonald, nursing sister, of Camp Hill 
Military Hospital, was bridesmaid. The bride is a graduate of St. 
Joseph’s Hospital, Glace Bay, C.B., and spent three years in France 
with the Laval Unit, and was decorated by the French Government. 

Another wedding of interest in nursing circles was that of Nursing 
Sister Boland, C.A.M.C., and Lieut. Waugh. Miss Boland was well 
known in Halifax, where she nursed for some years, both in the V. O. 
N. and in the Children’s Hospital. They will reside in Prince Edward 
Island, where the Major has an appointment. 

The following nursing sisters have returned from overseas and are 
on duty in Halifax: Misses J. B. Macdonald, Smith, Margaret Mac- 
Donald, Walters, Williams, Archard, Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Cook. 

At a meeting of the School Board, permission was given the V. O. 
N. to use, twice a week, a room in the Bloomfield School for a baby 

Nursing Sister Margaret McKenzie, formerly of the V. G. Hos- 
pital, who has spent four years in France, the Mediterranean and 
England, is spending a few days in Halifax. 

* % *% * 

RoyaL Victoria HospitaL, MONTREAL 

There has recently been hung in the Nurses’ Home a very beautiful 
portrait, done in oils, of the late Nursing Sister Alexina Dussault. This 
memorial is the gift of the governors of the hospital to the training 
school. On the lower side of the frame is attached a plate bearing the 
following inscription: “Nursing Sister Alexina Dussault, C.A.M.C., 
Royal Victoria Hospital, 1910. -On Active Service, 1914-1918. Drowned 
by enemy action when the Llandovery Castle was torpedoed, June 27th, 

Alumnze members will be very sorry to learn that Miss A. Simms, 
night superintendent of the. Ross Memorial, is at present a patient 
there, suffering from a severe attack of acute articular rheumatism. 


The sudden death occurred at’ Glen Springs, N.Y., of Mrs. Gard- 
ner, wife of Dr. William Gardner, after a short illness. The funeral 
was held from her late home, Sherbrooke Street, May 28th, 1919. 

Misses Prescott, Buck, Davidson and Mrs. Roberts, of Westmount, 
represented the Alumnz Association at the convention in Vancouver, 
a Ge " 

Deep sympathy is felt for Dr. H. B. Cushing in the loss of. his 
wife on June 23rd. Mrs. Cushing was Miss Jessie Barnard, a graduate 
of the H.S.C., Toronto. ® 

The presentation took place in the assembly room of the Nurses’ 
Home of a beautiful chest of silver from the governors of the R.V.H. 
and staff to Colonel B. A..C. Scrimger, V.C. Dr. George Armstrong, 
with a short speech, presented the silver. Among those present were 
Sir Vincent Meredith, Sir Herbert Holt, many of the visiting staff, and 
Mr. H. E. Webster, staff nurses and friends. 

Miss Mary MacDonald, 1918, is doing V.O.N. work in Sydney, 

Miss Mary Chisholm, 1918, is nursing in Winnipeg. 

The following is an official list of graduates of the Royal Victoria 
Hospital who have been awarded the Royal Red Cross: Misses Mary 
Bliss, Mary Clint, Lillian Lidgeon, Jessie H. Robertson, Ida B. Smith, 

Lucy G. Squire, Dorothy Winter, Flora H. Wylie, Nellie Enright, 
Maude Wright, Jane Glandenning, Mary F. Steele. 


Nursing Sisters E. M. Stewart and E. W. Ord, graduates of Sher- 
brooke Hospital, have recently returned home after three years ovet- 
seas duty in England and France. 

Miss Doris Stevens is spending a short holiday in Pembroke, Ont. 

A very enjoyable reception was recently given by the Graduate 
Nurses’ Association of the Eastern Townships, in the Y.W.C.A. Hall, 
toa recent bride, and to three other nurses who are soon to follow her 

A pleasing incident of the afternoon was the presentation by Mrs. 
Morkill, on behalf of the association, to Mrs. H. Galt Lomas, Miss 
Rainier, Miss Murray and Miss Hall of a cut-glass bon-bon dish to 
each, coupled with words of regret in the loss to the nursing service of 
these active workers, and with warm wishes for their future happiness. 
Among those present were Mrs. Gordon, superintendent of the Sher- 
brooke Hospital; Miss Kennedy, her assistant; Mrs. W. R. Hall, Miss 
Lomas, and other friends. 

Pa: era 


The sixteenth annual meeting of the Graduate Nurses’ Association 
of Ontario was held in Kingston on April 24th and 25th, 1919, where 


the association was the guest of the Alumnz Association of Kingston 
General Hospital. The convention was held in the New Medical Build- 
ing, Queen’s University, and was one of the most representative and 
interesting which has been held. In all the details of arrangement, both 
for the programme and entertainment, the committee, under the con- 

venership of Mrs. S._F. Campbell, Kingston, had left nothing to be 
desired. ; 

The secretary’s report stated that special activities during the year 
had, of necessity, been curtailed owing to the disorganizing effects .of 
the influenza epidemic. 

The most important items of business transacted were the consid- 
eration and adoption of regulations regarding the formation of chapters 
and the decision of the association to have the secretary-treasurer a paid 

At the round table conducted by Miss Catton, Ottawa, “The Prac- 
tical Nurse,” “Eight-Hour System for Graduate Nurses,’ and “The 
Form of a Suitable Memorial for Canadian Nurses” were the principal 
subjects discussed. 

The eight-hour system for special nurses did not meet with the 
approval of the convention. The concensus of opinion in reference to 
the memorial for Canadian nurses was that it should take some prac- 
tical form, such.,as a fund to assist nurses who became disabled or 
broken down in health in service. 

The evening session of April 24th was open to the public, and in- 
cluded on the programme a paper by Mrs. Robinson, of the Victorian 
Order, Kingston, on “Child Welfare Work.” Mrs. Robinson reviewed 
the development of this work, showing the comparative progress in 
European countries, United States and Canada. The child welfare 
work in Kingston is carried on under the local branch of the Victorian 
Order of Nurses, with a committee of twenty women, who finance the 

Colonel Biggar,*of the Board of Pension Commissioners, Ottawa, 
gave a most enlightening and instructive address on “Disability Pen- 
sions.” In his opening remarks Colonel Biggar paid a tribute to nurses 
and the part they had taken during the war. He continued to explain 
that pensions are not given for service, for wounds or disease. The 
returned soldier is not supposed to be discharged from a hospital until 
he is fit, and the means employed for rendering him fit were described ; 
that the making of a soldier into a pensioner does him a grave injury, 
but the aids to re-establishment make him an independent citizen. Can- 
ada’s pension law is the most scientific, most inclusive, and, until 
recently, the most expensive. 

Rev. Dr. R. J. Wilson, of Kingston, in speaking on the nursing 
profession, stated that a standard should be fixed for the training of 
nurses, so that their diplomas would have the value and authority of a 
college degree. In reference to the nursing situation, he said that 
municipalities should undertake to provide graduate nurses for patients 


requiring such attention; also that “the country had spared no expense 
in caring for the lives of the soldiers, and were not the lives of the 
young as important?” He added: “The days are coming when public 
men will be afraid of anything that does not administer to the public 
good. Have a community nurse everywhere, and give the child the 
right to live that is due him.” ; 

The following are the officers for 1919 and 1920: President, Miss 
Ella Jamieson, 5 Summerhill Gardens, Toronto; First Vice-President, 
Miss Kate Mathieson, Riverdale Hospital, Toronto; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, Miss Potts, Toronto; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss M. T. Foy, 163 
Concord Avenue, Toronto. Directors: Miss Eunice Dyke, Miss Cath- 
arine Fairley, Miss Mary Brennen, Mrs. A. C. Joseph, Miss Margaret 
Hall, Miss E. MacP. Dickson, Miss Hannah, Miss J. E. Bilger, Miss 
Mary A. Catton, Miss Whiting, Miss McIlroy, Miss Rowan, Miss Ellis, 
Miss Reynolds, Miss Cook, Miss Walker, Miss Londeau. 


The graduation exercises in connection with the Guelph General 
Hospital took place at the hospital May 23rd, and proved a very pleas- 
ant occasion. The following is the list of the-fifteen graduates of the 
1919 class: Misses Rachel Hall Speers, Ethel M. Eby, Frances B. 
Mann, Hazel M. Taylor, Anna L. Fennell, Mary E. Smith, Mary G. 

Sugden, Mabel A. Bowen, Margaret L. Wilhelm, Katherine Craig, 
Winnifred MacLean, Ethel J. McCullough, Ella M. Fraser, Alma W. 
Fleming, Miriam Lawson. 

During the evening an excellent musical programme was enjoyed 
by all. After singing the National Anthem, the members of the class 
were heartily congratulated by their friends, and informal dancing was 
indulged in at the Nurses’ Home. 


Following graduates of H.G.H. have returned from overseas: Miss 
Elizabeth Aitken, Miss Ann Cameron, Miss M. Wilkin, Miss Lillian 

Miss Catherine Irwin is sick in London, England. 

Miss Insole, Registrar of our Central Registry, is going-to repre- 
sent the Hamilton nurses at the National Convention in Vancouver. 

The annual graduation exercises of the training school for nurses 
in connection with Hamilton General Hospital were held June 19th in 
the assembly hall of the Collegiate Institute, and were followed by the 
annual graduation dance. The class comprised 32 graduates. T. H. 
Pratt, chairman of the board of hospital governors, occupied the chair. 
The invocation was delivered by Rev. Dr. Renison. The address to the 
graduating class was delivered by Sir John M. Gibson; and the Flor- 
ence Nightingale pledge was administered by Dr. W. A. Langrill, medi- 
cal superintendent. The diplomas and pins were presented by the 
Women’s Canadian Club, the Emma S. Pratt Scholarship was presented 
to Miss Ruby Smith by Mrs. E. F. Lazier, and the Mary McLaren 



House Scholarship to Miss Shutterworth by Mrs. A. F. Hatch. At the 
close of the graduation exercises an informal reception was held, Miss 
Fairley, lady superintendent, welcoming several hundred guests. 
Following. are the graduates: Florence A. Beaty, Ola M. Beaty, 
Ella A. Baird, Catharine C. Harley, Kathleen M. Peart, Emily S. Peach, 
Effie I. Aldred, Ella: C. French, Margaret E. Westcott, Mary Snell, 
Pearl G. Tinney, Mary E. Stewart, Eliza E. Stephens, Carrie E. 
Boyce, Leah P. Smelser, Mildred Shuttleworth, May G. Campbell, 
Gladys E. Taylor, Ethel Fitzgerald, Ethel M. Dryden, Mildred E. Cim- 
mins, Frances E. Moore, Anna C. N. Hager, Violet Cookson, Florence 
Filman, Okal G. Mather, Marjorie H. McPhail, Armeda M. Champ, 
Bessie Thorpe, Grace Dunn, Annie H. Moffatt, Ruby V. Smith. a 


The annual meeting of the Woodstock General Hospital A.A. was 
held June 9th, at the Nurses’. Residence. A most successful year was 
brought to a close, as the reports showed, and a vote of thanks was 
given the retiring officers for their work. The following were elected 
for 1919-1920: Hon. President, Miss Frances Shappe; President, Miss 
M. H. Mackay, R.N.; Vice-President, Miss Annie McLean; Treasurer, 
Miss Evelyn Piers; Assistant Treasurer, Miss Grace Woolley; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Miss Agnes Weston. 


Nursing Sister E. M. Beamish, C.A.M.C., has returned from ser- 
vice overseas and has resumed her duties as superintendent of Nicholls 
Hospital, Peterboro, where she received a warm welcome. Of the 
graduates from this school who went overseas, two—Misses Mabel K. 
Coudas and Gertrude Reid—have been awarded the Military Medal. 
The graduation exercises of Nicholls Hospital were held in the Col- 
legiate Hall, May 21st. Mr. Richards, chairman of the board, was able, 
for the first time since his illness three years ago, to preside. In his 
address he welcomed back, after service overseas, Miss Beamish as 
superintendent, and also expressed his appreciation of the work done by 
Miss Sanderson as acting .superintendent during Miss Beamish’s ab- 
sence. He then_presented the diplomas and medals to the following 
graduates: Misses Ruth E. Jones, Alma O. Coffin, Cora L. McCarthy, 
Letitia White, Lulu Brown and Mrs. E. J. Hanna (nee Parsons). 

Addresses were given by Mr. Joseph Wearing and Dr. F. C. Neal. 

The bandaging prizes were won by Misses Ruth E. Jones and 
Letitia White. Dr. E. E. Harvey presented to Miss Ruth E. Jones the 
“Harvey Medal” for general proficiency. After a musical programme, 
the exercises closed by singing the National Anthem. 

- On Easter Saturday the K.G.H.A.A. held a Violet Tea, which 
netted $970.00. This is being spent in linen and beds for the Nurses’ 



On April 22-23 the G.N.A.O. held their annual convention in 
Kingston, which proved a very great help to the association. 

At the last meeting of the Alumnz for the summer Mrs. George 
Nichol, after sixteen years of very faithful service, resigned her position - 
of president of the association, to the regret of all members. 

The Alumnz Association presented the hospital with a brass tablet, 
with names of nurses who served overseas and at home with the forces 

and who graduated from the Kingston General Hospital. This was 
placed in the hall of the hospital. 

The graduates and prize-winners at the Kingston General Hospital 

Training School for Nurses were announced on Tuesday evening, May 
6th, 1919, as follows: 

Graduates—Madge Glen, Kingston; Constance Nesbitt, Kingston; 
Amy Caldwell, Kingston; Mary C. Brouse, Iroquois; Marion Davis, 
London; Ethel Simmons, Kingston; Grace Lyons, Toronto; Christine 
Hume, Milton; Myrtle Watts, Kingston; Olive Anderson, Lindsay; 
Lillian Berney, Carraduff, Ireland; Blanche Heasler, Gananoque; Bessie 
Wilson, Kingston; Alma Frost, Kingston; Lillian Lord, Tichborne; 
Lorena Sheffield, Lyndhurst; Blanche Bauder, Verona; Blanche Avery, 
Mallorytown; Lily Rogers, Kingston; Leith Cochrane, Stella; Lilla 
Wilson, Wellington; Lucinda Michell, Elmwood. 

Graduating Class Prizes: Gold medal—Myrtle Watts, Kingston. 
Silver medal—Mary C. Brouse, Iroquois. Prize in medical nursing— 
Ethel Simmons, Kingston. Prize in pediatrics—Myrtle Watts, King- 
ston. Prize in materia medica—Ethel Simmons, Kingston. 

Intermediate Class Prizes: First prize—Isobel Atkins, Portsmouth. 
Prize in practical nursing—Olive Todd, Brewer’s Mills. Prize in 
dietetics—Edith Delahaye, Pembroke. Prize in minor surgery—Kath- 
leen Nicholls, Oxbridge. Prize in junior class—Kate Harold, Kingston. 


. |The graduation exercises of the Wellesley Hospital Training School 
took place June 10th, 1919, at the hospital. The chairman, the Hon. Sir 
William Mulock, K.C.M.G., president of the board, gave an address, 
touching on the growth of the hospital and congratulating it ‘on the 
splendid war record of its graduates.. The annual report of the school 
was given by Miss Elizabeth G. Flaws, superintendent of the hospital; 
an address was given by Colonel Herbert Bruce, who spoke of the 
splendid work done on all fronts during the Great War -by the 1,826 
nursing sisters Canada had sent. 

The pins and diplomas were distributed by Miss Mary A. Sniveley 
and the scholarships by the donors, as follows: 

Senior Year, for General Proficiency, given by Sir Edmond Osler 
—Miss Helen McMurtry, $50.00; Miss Florence Stewart, Junior Di- 
vision, $50.00. 

The Herbert A. Bruce Scholarship for Proficiency on Operating- 
room Technique, won by Miss Winnifred Gooding, $50.00. 


Intermediate Year—The Sir John Eaton Scholarship for General 
Proficiency: Miss Vera Malone, Senior Division, $25.00; Miss Reitta 
Book, Junior Division, $25.00. 

Junior Year—The Sir William Mulock Scholarship for General 
Proficiency, won by Miss Waple Greaves, Senior Division, $25.00; Miss 
Dorothy Powers, Junior Division, $25.00. 

The following were the graduates for 1919: Belle Marie Clancey, 
Guelph; Florence I. McGillivary, 504 Sherbourne Street; Margaret A. 
Tenderson, Toronto; Winnifred F. Gooding, Kenora; Elizabeth S. 
Caldwell, Lanark; Helena R. Hamilton, 504 Sherbourne Street; Flor- 
ence A. Stewart, Kingston; Effie E. Ingall, Ottawa; Gladys G. Nash, 
Morrisburg; Grace M. Davis, Tillsonburg; Jessie Campbell, Arnprior; 
Jessie P. McCormick, Watford; Victoria M. Marsh, Lindsay; Florence 
M. Patterson, Port Hope; Rosemond M. Laturney, Kingston; Marion 
‘I. Robson, Colborne; Pearl D. Fisher, St. Andrews, Jamaica; Sadie S. 
Brown, Kingston; Frances C. Clark, Hamilton; Emma S. Maylor, 
Forest; Daisy B. Lodge, Arnprior; Jessie H. McMurtry, Galt. 

% % % % 


The regular monthly meeting of the M.A.G.N. was held at the 
Nurses’ Residence, April 29th, 1919, the President, Miss Elizabeth Car- 
ruthers, in the chair. The standing committees for the ensuing year 
were appointed: 

Programme Committee—Miss Martin, convener. 

Social Committee—Miss Asher, convener. 

Sick Visiting Committee—Miss Wonnacott, convener. 

Press Committee—Miss Gilroy, convener. 

The “Trained Attendant” was the subject of a very interesting dis- 
cussion, after which the following resolution was adopted by the Asso- 
ciation: “Resolved, that the Association approves of the training and 
registration of attendants.” The Committee on Legislation was in- 
structed to draw up an outline of a plan for this training. 

The graduating exercises of the 1919 class of the Winnipeg Gen- 
eral Hospital took place at the Nurses’ Home, May 28th, 1919. The 
prize-winners were: Miss Florence Chapman, Royal Household Prize, 
presented by the Ogilvie Milling Company for highest general pro- 
ficiency, for Infectious Diseases, prize presented by Mr. W. F. Alloway; 
and prize for Surgery, presented by Mr. E. D. Martin. Miss Alma B. 
Walker, prize for Bandaging, presented by Mr. E. L. Drewry; Miss 
Annie M. Leitch, prize for Obstetrics, presented by Mr. J. S. Hough, 
and Miss Violet Wright, prize for Charting, presented by Mr. J. B. 
Pearse. Scholarship, Intermediate Class, Miss Florence Gruchy; pre- 
sented by Mr. A. E. Mott. Scholarship, Junior Class, Miss Jessie Wil- 
liamson ; presented by Mr. G. F. Galt. 



The following are the names of the graduates: Miss Christina M. 
Grant, Miss Mabel E. Naisbitt, Miss Irene Harris, Miss C. Jean Mc- 
Donald, Miss Laura B. Broatch, Miss Lloid Sanderson, Miss Mary I. 
Fraser, Miss Gladys M. McDougall, Miss Lillie M. McAulay, Miss 
Elsie C..Gemmel, Miss E. Pearl Bradley, Miss Frances M. Allingham, 
Miss Elizabeth H. Polson, Miss Clara -J. Gledhill, Miss Nellie A. Con- 
ner, Miss Alma B. Walker, Miss G. Edith Melville, Miss Mary E. Ban- 
nister, Miss Minnie Garrioch, Miss Eva M. Symons, Miss Marjorie H. 
Erickson, Miss Lillian Myra Scott, Miss Florence Chapman, Miss Violet 
Wright, Miss Mabel L. Stutter, Miss Margaret M. Straith, Miss Ethel 
M. Forke, Miss Margaret J. Ramage, Miss Mary E. Hogan, Miss 
Gudrun I. Thompson, Miss Edith I. Odell, Miss Annie C. Munro, Miss 
Edna Morgan, Miss Lillian E. Houston, Miss Jean A. Malcolm, Miss 
Bessie G,.- Jones, Miss Gertrude A. Johnson, Miss S. Emma Johannesson, 
Miss Gladys C. McDonald, Miss Ethel M.*Ironside, Miss Isabel M. 
Hamilton, Miss Luzetta A. McCall, Miss Ruby M. Simpson, Miss M. 
Annie Leitch, Miss Vera L. Graham, Miss Alma R. Wall, Miss Doro- 
thea G. Shields, Miss Marian Pickering, Miss Emma Jackson, Miss 
Marion G. Bell, Miss J. H. Burnett, Miss Anna S. Loptson, Miss Ella 
A. Kerr. 


*% % 



Miss E. B. Ridley, assistant chief matron of the C.A.M.C. in 
France for the past three or four years, has been appointed directress 
of nursing inthe Vancouver General Hospital. Miss Ridley is a Cana- 
dian, and trained at the New York Hospital, New York. She has held 
several positions in the United States, as well as in China, where ‘she 
did organizing work in connection with training schools. 

Miss Marie MacDonald, R.N., and Miss L. E. Davenport, R.N., 
graduates of St. Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, have accepted positions as 
superintendent and assistant at Ocean Falls General Hospital. 

A wedding of interest to many friends is that of Nursing Sister 
Gladys Carvolth, former sister-in-charge of the Shaughnessy Military 
Hospital, to Captain George Grant Stewart, C.A.M.C., ‘of Edmonton. 
The wedding was performed in the Pemberton Memorial Chapel, Jubilee 
Hospital, Victoria. After the honeymoon, Captain and Mrs. Stewart 
will reside in Edmonton, where Capt. Stewart is in charge of the S. C. 
R. Hospital. 

Arrangements have been made by the University of British Colum- 
kia whereby young women who have matriculated for university work 
can take a combined course of two years in Arts and three years in an 
accredited hospital training school, and, on completion, obtain a degree 
from the University. The exact title of the degree has not yet been 
decided upon. 

The Clubhouse for Returned Army Sisters, under the auspices of 
the G.N.A. of B. C., was formally opened July 5th, when the associa- 


i liincnbictemmnapnienilennnienatet 
tion held a reception for the nurses attending the conventions, and for 
the purpose of showing the house, of which they are so proud, to their 
numerous friends. The club is situated at 2847 Spruce Street, and is 
a roomy house which has a homelike atmosphere which will go straight 
to the heart of the nursing sister who is home once more after her 
years of strenuous work. The guests were received by Miss Jessie 
McKenzie, president of the G.N.A. of B.C.; Miss E, Breeze, secretary ; 
Mrs. M. E. Johnston, vice-president; Miss Helen Randal, registrar ; 
while Miss Ruth Judge, Mrs. J. W. Wilson, and Misses Mary and Janet 
Campbell assisted in entertaining. Mrs. Rose, Mrs. R. GC. Boyle, Mrs. 
S. D. Scott, Mrs. A. U. de Pencier, Mrs. G. T. Gilpin and Mrs. Cun- 
ningham presided at the tea-table in the dining-room, which was beau- 
tifully decorated with red roses. A programme of music was arranged 
by Mrs. Henry Boak, which added greatly to the enjoyment of the 
evening. Most of the nurses who were visitors in the city, ee 
the conventions, were the guests of the association. 

Miss R. Blyth, graduate of Leeds Infirmary, Leeds, England, who 
has been overseas for two years, has returned to Vancouver. 

Miss Bertha Marsden, of Chilliwack, graduate of the Woman's 
Hospital, San Francisco, has been appointed superintendent of the 
Babies’ Hospital, Haro Street, Vancouver, a department of the Van- 
couver General Hospital. 

Miss Isabel J. Smith has tendered her resignation as superinten 
dent of the King’s Daughters Hospital, Duncan, B.C., and plans to take 
a course at Macdonald College, Guelph, Ont. 

The Psycho-Therapy Department at the V.G.H. Military Annex 
has been completed and in charge of Miss McIntyre, who has taken the 
course at Hart House, Toronto, and has organized recently a similar 
department at ‘Winnipeg General Hospital. 

The B. C. Hospital Association held its convention in Victoria, July 
8-10, and had a good attendance. All papers were interesting; the 
nurses’ section being in charge of Miss-Helen Randal, R.N., registrar 
of the G.N.A. of B.C. Papers were read on the “Standardization of 
Training Schools,’ by Miss Randal, which was discussed by Miss Jessie 
MacKenzie, R.N.; “Post Graduate Work,” by Miss Kate Scott, R.N., 
discussed by Mrs. M. E. Johnstone, R.N.; “Public Health Nursing,” by 
Miss Jessie Farshaw, R.N., discussed by Mrs. Hannington, chief super- 
intendent of the V.O.N. At the close of the meeting resolutions were 
passed approving of the standard curriculum presented by the G.N.A 
of B. C. and the general scheme of standardization of training schools 
for the province. 

Splendid exhibits were shown by the Jubilee Hospital and St. 

Joseph’s Hospital, Victoria, and from the Military Department of the 
V.G.H. and S.C.R. 

The association had the privilege of having addresses by Miss 
Isabel Stewart, of Columbia University, New York; Miss Jean Gunn, 


C.N.A. of T. N.; Miss Elizabeth Flaws, president C.A.N.G,, who were 
in Victoria after attending the convention in Vancouver. 


ScriMGER—At the Montreal Maternity Hospital, June 28rd, 1919, 
the wife of Colonel F. A. C. Scrimger, M.D., V.C., of a daughter, 
Mrs. Scrimger was Miss Ellen Carlenter, R.V.H., 1914. 

Scott—May 25th, 1919, to Dr. and Mrs. R. R. Scott (Miss Violet 
Matthews, Royal Victoria Hospital, 1911), 972 St. Catherine Street, 
Montreal, Que., a daughter. 

Scott—At the Ottawa Maternity Hospital, on May 8th, 1919, to 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Barrett Scott, wife of the late Dr. J. Barrett Scott, 
of Moose Jaw, Sask., a daughter. Mrs. Scott was Miss Elizabeth 
Duclos, R.V.H., 1910. 


Hopcson-ANDERSON—On June 19th, 1919, by the Rev. C. S. Dee- 
prose, Nora St. Clair Anderson (R.V.H., 1918) to G. Wilfred Hodg- 
son, of Montreal. 

MorrisH-STRACHAN—In Ottawa, on June 21st, 1919, by the Rev. 
Dr. W. T. Herridge, Lillian Fraser Strachan (R.V.H., 1919) to Liéut. 

Walter Morrish, M.D., of Shrewsbury, Devon, England. 

MacIntosH-MacDonaLp—At Ennismore Gardens, Kensington, 
England, in April, 1919, the marriage took place of Nursing Sister 
Hilda MacDonald (R.V.H., 1914) to Major William MacIntosh, . of 

WIGGETT-RAINIER—On June 20th, 1919, at Lennoxville, Que., 
Barbara Rainier, graduate Sherbrooke Hospital, to Mr.. Roy Wiggett, 
of Sherbrooke, Que. 

Lomas-Mackay—At Scotstown, Que., on June 3rd, 1919, Miss 
Elsie Mackay, graduate Jeffery Hales’ Hospital, Quebec, to Mr. H. 
Galt Lomas, of Sherbrooke, Que. 

GILLAM-BgarD—In England, on June 10th, 1919, Nursing Sister 
Margaret Beard, of Scotstown, Que., to Major George J. Gillam, 
C.A.M:C., of Toronto. Mrs. Gillam is a graduate of the Sherbrooke 
(Quebec) Hospital. e 

PATTERSON-McMILLan—In June, 1919, in Collingwood, Ont., Miss 
Marjorie E. McMillan, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mirs. Alex. Mc- 
Millan, to Capt. Herbert C. Patterson. After the honeymoon, Capt. 
and Mrs. Patterson will reside in Montreal. 

STEVENSON-BRUNK—At Grace Methodist Church, St. Thomas, 
Ont., on June 4th, 1919, by Rev. G. Watts, Lavinia Brunk, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brunk, Stratford, Ont., to Mr. R. W. Stevenson, 
of St. Thomas, Ont. Mrs. Stevenson is a graduate of Amasa Wood 
Hospital, St. Thomas, Ont., class 1917. 


PENSE-NicHoL—At Chalmers Presbyterian Church, Kingston, Ont., 
June 18th, 1919, by the Rev. Dr. MacGilliveray, Dorothy, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. George Nichol, of Cataraqui, to Lieut.-Col. H. E. Pense, 
of 21st Battalion. Col. Pense served for four years in command of the 
21st Battalion. Mrs. Pense is a graduate of Kingston General Hos- 
pital, 1918. 

Mottoy-Guitp—At Sydenham Methodist Church, by Rev. W. T. 
G. Brown, Jennie Guild (K.G.H., 1913) to Charles Molloy, of Molloy- 
town, Ont. : 

Urrie-Lyons—In Toronto, June 20th, 1919, Grace Lyons (K. G. 
H., 1919) to Dr. P. L. Ufrie; graduate of Queen’s, 1919. 

MouLe-FrasER—On Wednesday, June 4th, 1919, at 622 Balmoral 
Street, Winnipeg, Lena A. Fraser to Herbert Moule, B.H.B.D., of 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. . ; 


Cusuinc—In Montreal, June 28rd, 1919, Jessie Barnard, beloved 
wife of Dr. H. B. Cushing, Montreal. Mrs. Cushing was a grawuate of 
the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont. 


Will every person who reads this notice, and knows a blind man 
or woman anywhere in Canada, kindly send the name ‘and address of 
that blind one to the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, 36 
King Street, East, Toronto. 

The Institute is conducting work for the blind along the most 
‘modern scientific lines, and desires that each blind resident of Canada 
should have the opportunity of availing himself or herself of the benefits 
represented by this work, 

The immense task of registering every case of blindness can only 
be accomplished successfully by the earnest co-operation of the public 
generally. That is why we ask you to send the names and addresses of 
blind people you may know. 

The following.departments of work are being actively prosecuted 
by the Institute: Industrial Department for Men; Industrial Depart- 
ment for Women; Department of Field Work; Department of Home 
Teaching; Department of Prevention of Blindness; Library Depart- 
ment; Department of After Care; Residence and Vocational Training 
Centre for Blinded Soldiers. 

To send information or obtain information, address: The General 

Secretary, Canadian National Institute for the Blind, 36 King Street, 
East, Toronto. 




Graduate Nurses wishing to do pri- 
vate duty will find at Miss Ryan’s 
Home for Graduate Nurses (connect- 
ed with one of the largest private 
sanatoriums in the city) a splendid 
opportunity to become acquainted and 
established in their profession. Ad- 
dress 106 West 6ist Street, New York 
City. Phone: Columbus 7780 7781. 



Superintendent in a_ hospital 
of 75 beds. Apply, stating school 
graduated from, experience since 
graduation, to the Superintendent, 
Wellesley Hospital, Toronto, Ont., 


Technical Books—If there is any 
book on nursing you want, write us 
and we will try to get it for you— 
The Canadian Nurse, 302 Fifteenth 

Avenue, East Burnaby, B. C. 


We can buy anything for any nurse any- 

No charge for service. 

No commission too large; none too small. 

A convenience for the out-of-town nurse. 

Shopping done by experts. 

Puts the New York market in your foun- 
tain pen. 

Nurses’ Shopping Bureau 

School of Massage 

The Toronto Orthopedic Hospital 
FounpDED 1899 

Only School in Canada. 

Weir-Mitchell System. 

Swedish Movements. 

Lectures in Anatomy and Physiology. Male and Female Pupils accepted. 

Terms on application to Superintendent, 

100 Bloor Street West 

Telephone, Queen 1057 

Oculists’ Be Our Specialty 

Factory on Premises 

Sutherland & Parkins 

Prescription Opticians 
All Work Guaranteed 

129 Sparks Street - - Ottawa, Ont. 

Toronto, Ont, 

Graduate Nurses 
Registry and Club 

Phone Seymour 5834 
Day and Night 

Registrar—Miss Archibald 
779 Bute St., Vancouver, B.C. 


When the Nurse 


Nujol to her patient, or takes 
Nujol herself, she can be sure that 
she is doing the right thing and 
using the proper means to over- 
come constipation and its danger- 
ous aftermath. 

Nujol softens and moistens hard- 
ened bowel contents, promotes 
peristalsis, absorbs and removes 
poisonous material, and _ brings 
about easy, regular, thorough 

Nujol is tasteless, non-absorbable, 
non-digestible, absolutely free from 

Nujol may be given at any age— 
under any condition—without af- 
fecting the action of any medicine. 
Special literature regarding Nujol, 
its uses in different conditions— 
and samples sent on request. 

Nujol Laboratories 

50 Broadway New York 

oe Jersey), 50 Broadway, New 

Please send me, postpaid, the booklet 

( )» “On a Case” 
( ) “As the Twig Is Bent” 
( ) “As the Shadows Lengthen” 


No. 400 

Uniform of 
Dixie Cloth 


Quality through and through— 
in fabric, in style and in work- 
manship! Every Dix-Make 
Uniform must reach the highest 
standard of excellence before it 
is allowed to leave our work- 
rooms. That is why nurses for 
years have absolutely relied upon 
our uniforms for serviceability 
and style. 

The War Department at Wash- 
ington has officially recognized 
and approved Dix-Make 
Uniforms — a tribute-proof 
positive of Dix quality. 

Let the Dix-Make label be your 
guide to quality. 

For sale at the leading depart- 
ment stores. 

Catalogue ‘‘B” sent upon request, 
together with list of dealers. 

Dix Building New York, U.S.A. 



Remove an Antiphlogistine dressing at the end of twelve hours and 
examine it. The center will be wet, provided there is an inflamed 
area beneath it; an outer zone merging into the center will be moist, and 
the part which has covered healthy tissue will be comparatively dry. 


a 0 

In the outer zone the blood is flowing freely and uninterruptedly 
through the underlying vessels, forming a current directed away from 
Antiphlogistine. Its liquid. contents therefore follow the direction of 
least resistance and enter the circulation through the physical process 
of endosmosis. In the centet zone there is stasis, no current tending to 
overcome Antiphlogistine’s hygroscopic property. The point of least 
resistance for the liquid exudate is therefore in the direction of Anti- 
phlogistine, exosmosis is going on in the zone, hence the excess of moisture 


stands alone as a non-toxic, non-irritating abstractor 
of fluid exudates in superficial affections, and is the 
: only remedy that through an inherent hygroscopic 
property will relieve deep-seated congestion by induc- 
ing superficial hyperemia and that without irritation. 


Sydney. Paris. Buenos Aires, New York. 

Branches: London. 


President, Miss Brown, St. John; First Vice-President, Miss M. Murdoch; Second 
Vice-President, Miss Branscombe; Third Vice-President, Miss E. C. Sanson; Fourth 
Vice-President, Mrs. Richards; Fifth Vice-President, Miss G. Williams; Recording 
Secretary, Miss M. Retallack; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Emma Bell, St. John; 

Registrar, Mrs, Richards, Newcastle; Council: Miss Lela Belding and Nursing Sister 
Gertrude Wilson. aoe ae Si 

Hon. President, Miss E. F. Trench, Superintendent of Nurses, Women’s Hospital; 
President, Mrs. A. Chisholm, 26 Lorne Avenue; Vice-President, Miss H, A. I. Wyman, 
305 MacKay Street; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss J. E. Smithers, Women’s Hospital. 
Conveners of Committees—Finance, Miss E, F. French; Social, Miss H. A. T. 
Wyman; Sick Visiting, Miss Seguin. 
Representative to the “Canadian Nurse’—Miss H. A. T. Wyman. 
Regular Monthly Meeting—Third Tuesday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss J. Giffen, Lady Supt., C. M. H.; President, Miss M. Wight, 
C. M. H.; Vice-President, Miss C. MacDonald; Treasurer, Mrs. Walcott, 47 Notre 
Dame St., Lachine; Secretary, Miss E. G. Alexander, C. M. A. 

Board of Directors—Miss Stafford, Miss M. Armour. 

“Canadian Nurse” Representative—Miss E. Morris. 

Regular meeting, 1st Friday of every second month, from May to June, 4 p. m. 


President, Miss: Goodhue; First Vice-President, Miss Amelia Campbell; Second 
Vice-President, Miss Prescott; Recording Secretary, Mrs. E. Roberts, 438 Mt. Stephen 
Avenue, Westmount; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Davidson, 131 Crescent Street, 
Montreal; Assistant Corresponding Secretaries, Misses Buck and Karn, R.V.H.; 
Srenret. Miss M. Etter, R.V.H.; “Canadian Nurse” Representative, Miss L. O’Reilly, 

Sick Visiting Committee—Mrs. M. J. Bremner (Convener), 39 Linton Apartments, 
Sherbrook Street’ West; Mrs. Paul Johnston, 17 Hope Avenue; Mrs. Walter Stewart, 
449 Sherbrooke Street West; Miss Whelan, 308 Drummond Street; Miss Gall, 100 
Fort Street; Miss Eaton, 464 Union Avenue. 

Regular monthly meeting second Wednesday, 8 p.m. 

Hon. President, Miss J. Craig; President, Miss Ada Wilkinson; First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mrs. H. F. McLean; Second Vice-President, Miss S. G. Maw; Treasurer,: Miss J. 

Craig, Western Hospital, Montreal, Que.; Secretary, Miss B. A. Dyer, Western Hos- 
pital, Montreal, Que. s 

Convener of Finance Committee—Mrs. Wm. Daw. 

Convener of Programme Committee—Miss’ Phillis Dean. 

Convener of Membership and Visiting Committee—Miss Edna Payne. 
Convener of General Nursing Committee—Miss B. A. Birch. 
Representative to “Canadian Nurse”—Miss E. Wright. 


Hon. President, Miss Livingston; President, Miss E. Brown; Vice-President, Miss 
Strumm; Second Vice-President, Miss Cowans; Recording Secretary, Miss Davies, 
M.G.H.; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Clayton, 23 St. Luke Street, Montreal, Que.; 
Treasurer, Miss Jamieson, 975 Tupper Street, Montreal, Que.; Sick Benefit Fund Treas- 
urer, Miss Dunlop. 

Sick Visiting and Flower Committee—Miss Stewart, Miss Dunlop, Miss Vipond 
and Miss Brock. Z 
- Committee—Miss Ketchen, Miss McNutt, Miss M. Gray, Miss Moffatt and Miss 


Refreshment Committee—Mrs. Dunwoody. : - 

Representatives to the Local Council of Women—Mrs. Lamb, Miss Howard, Miss 
Ketchen and Miss Briggs. . \ 

Representative to “Canadian Nurse”’—Miss A. Doré, 33 St. Famille Street, Mont- 
real, Que. + 

Regular Meeting—Second Friday. 



_ Hon. President, Mrs. H. Pollock, Superintendent of Nurses’ Homeopathic Hos- 
pital; President, Miss E. Routhier, 4 Oldfield Avenue; Vice-President, Miss J. Ryan, 
306 Prince Arthur Street, West; Secretary, Miss D. W. Miller Treasurer, Miss M. J. 
Boa, Homeopathic Hospital. 

Conveners of Committees—Finance, D. W. Miller; Sick Visiting, Misses Buchanan 
and Garrick. 
Representative to the “Canadian Nurse”’s-Miss M. Richards, Mansfield Street. 
Regular monthly meeting first Thursday at 8 p.m. 


President, Miss Kate Mathieson, Riverdale Hospital, Toronto; First Vice- Presi- 
dent, Miss Ella Jamieson, 23 Woodlawn Avenue, East, Toronto; Second Vice-Presi- 
dent, Miss Frances Rankin, 421 Oxford Street, London, Ont.; Secretary, Miss Beatrice 
Ellis, Western Hospital, Toronto; Treasurer, Miss Esther Cook, Hospital for Incur- 
ables, Toronto, Ont. 

Directors—Miss E. MacP, Dickson, Miss Hannah, Mrs. J. E. Bigler, Miss I. 
McElroy, Miss E. Forsythe,. Miss K. Madden, Miss J. I. Gunn, Miss Eunice Dyke, Mrs. 

Harris, Miss Milton, Miss Forham, Miss Londeau, Miss Potts, Miss Walper, Miss 
Reynolds, Miss Rowan. 

Chairman, Mrs. S. Crawford, 124 Division Street; Vice-Chairman, Miss Pearl 
Martin, 135 Nelson Street; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Gertrude Murdock, Kingston 
General Hospital; Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. F. Robinson, 302 Queen Street; 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss H. Lovick, 154 University Avenue. 
Regular Meeting—First Tuesday of every second month. 


Honorary President, Miss M. Forde, Superintendent Brantford City Hospital; 

President, Miss M. C. Hall; Vice-President, Miss M. McCulloch; Secretary, Miss C. 
P. Robinson; Treasurer, Miss D. Taylor. 

Representative “The Canadian Nurse’—Miss M. Dowdall. 
Regular meeting second Tuesday of each month, 4 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss C. Boskill; President, Miss Pearl Martin, 135 Nelson Street, 
Kingston, Ont.; First Vice-President, Mrs. George Nichol; Second Vice-President, 
Miss Baker; Secretary, Miss C. Milton, 404 Brock Street, Kingston; Assistant Secre- 
tary, Mrs. S. Smith; Treasurer, Miss Florence Hiscock, 122 

“Canadian Nurse” Representative—Miss Eva Dalgleish, 30 Garrett Street. 

Collingwood Street, 


President, Miss Hazel MacInnis; Vice-President, Miss Marjorie Batchelor; Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, Miss Helen McCord, 14 Victor Ave., Toronto, telephone, Gerrard, 

1210. Representatives to the Central Register, Misses Helen Carruthers and Mary 


President, Miss E. H. Purdy; First Vice-President, Miss W. O’Donnell; Second 
Vice-President, Miss Mary Stirrett; Recording Secretary, Miss Merle Mitchell; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Miss Florence Hill, 97 Durie St., Toronto; Treasurer, Mrs. 
Dewey, Social Service Department, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto. 

Directors—Misses Edith Dixon, Annie Dove, Elsie Hickey. ‘ 

Central Registry Representatives—Misses Eva Tupling and Edith Dynes. 

The Association meets in the Nurses’ Residence the first Wednesday in October; 
then the first Wednesday of each altrnate month for the season. 



Honoary President, Mrs. A. A. Jackson, 338 Symington Avenue, Toronto; Presi- 
dent, Miss Esther M. Cook, Toronto Hospital for Incurables; Vice-President, Miss Eva 

LeQueyer; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Alice Lendrum, Hamilton; Press Representative, 
Miss J. McLean, 281 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. 

Regular Meeting—Third Monday, at 3 p.m. 


_. President, Miss A. S. Kinder, Hospital for Sick Children; Vice-President, Miss 
Didsbury; Secretary, Miss Jean C. Wardell, 29014 Dundas Street; Treasurer, Mrs. J. W. 
Wigham, 1299 Bloor Street West. 

Representative to Central Registry—Misses Didsbury and Keith. 
Sick Visitor—Miss Nash. 

“Canadian Nurse” Representative—Miss J. L. Edgar, Hospital for Sick Children. 

Board of Directors—Misses Rennie, Nash, Lowther, Millan, Limcar, Wilson, 
Keith, and Edgar. 

Regular meetings, first Tuesday of every second month. 


Hon. President—Rev. Mother Alberta; President, Miss Mary Irene Foy, 163 
Concord Avenue; First Vice-President, Miss A. Dolan; Second Vice-President, Miss 
K. Kennedy; Third Vice-President, Miss Helen G. O’Connor; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Mrs. J. W. Chipperfield, 127 Spruce Hill Road; Recording Secretary, Miss C. 

McBride; Treasurer, Miss N. Gartlan. 

Board of Directors—Hon. Director, Sr. M. Mellany. 

Directors—Mrs. W. P. O’Brien, Miss Edith Atmore, Miss Mabel Power. 
Representatives on Central Registry Committee—Miss J. O’Connor. 
Secretary-Treasurer Sick Benefit—Miss A. Hurley. 

Press Representative—Miss J. Gibson. 

Regular Meeting—Second Monday of each month. 


Hon. President, Miss Ellis; President, Mrs. Gilroy, 404 Spadina Avenue, Toronto; 
First Vice-President, Miss Anderson; Second Vice-President, Miss Boggs; Treasurer, 
Miss Shortreed, Toronto Western Hospital; Recording Secretary, Miss Annan; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Miss Ewart, 22 Henderson Avenue, Toronto; Representative to 
Canadian Nurse (articles), Miss Jessie Cooper, 497-a Bloor Street, Toronto; Subscrip- 
tions, Miss Margaret Campbell, 91 Beatrice Street, Toronto. 

Representatives Central Registry—Miss Cooney, Miss Kneeshaw, Miss B Campbell. 

Visiting Committee—Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. MacConnell. 

Programme Committee—Miss S. Jackson, Convener. 

Knitting Committee—Miss Hornsby, Convener, 691 Spadina Avenue. 

Directors—Mrs. MacConnell, Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. Valentine, Mrs. Weehaufer. 

Treasurer Alumnae War Fund—Mrs. Valentine, 55 Lakeview Avenue, Toronto. 

The Association meets First Friday each alternate month. 


President, Miss E. Jamieson, 5 Summerhill Gardens, Toronto; First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mr. Hill; Second Vice-President, Miss McKay; Recording Secretary, Miss 
Burwash; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Dingwall; Treasurer, Miss E. Cameron,’ 
H.S.C.; Representatives Central Registry, Miss Sarah Barnhardt, Miss Jenny Hill; 
“Canadian Nurse” Representative, Miss Farquharson H.S.C.; Sick Visiting Commit- 
tee, Miss Gray, Miss Miller, Miss Morrin C. Stair. 



ce on. President, Miss Rowan, Superintendent of Nurses, Grace Hospital; President, 
iss. | Be 4 Henderson; First Vice-President, Miss C. E. DeVellin; Second Vice- 
President, Miss F. C. Whellans; Treasurer, Mrs. J. M. Aitken, 409 West Marion Street, 
Toronto, Ont.; Corresponding Secretary, Miss M. McKinnon, 310 Huron Street, 
Toronto, Ont.; Recording Secretary, Miss F. Emory, 26 Algonquin Avenue, Toronto. 
Representative to the “Canadian Nurse”—Miss M. Greer. 
; Conveners of Commitees—Social: Miss Etta McPherson; Press and Publication: 
Miss L. Smith; Sick: Miss C. Cunningham. ~ 

G Board of Directors—Misses Rowan, McKeon, Lindsay, Peraen, Lonsborough and 

Regular Meeting—Second Tuesday, 8 p.m. 


Honorary President, Miss E. McP. Dickson, Superintendent of Nurses, Toronto 
Free Hospital, Weston; President, Miss G. Gibson, 84 Harvard Avenue, Toronto; 
Vice-President, Miss S. Savage, Toronto Free Hospital; Recording Secretary, Miss 
J. Wilson, Toronto Free Hospital; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Selby, Toronto 
Free Hospital; Treasurer, Miss I. Ford, 166 Wright Avenue, Toronto; Press Repre- 
sentative, Miss E. Hawkins, Toronto Free Hospital. 

Programme Convener—Miss Miller, 6 St. Clair Gardens, Toronto. 

Regular Meeting—Second Friday every second month. 


Hon. President, Miss E. MacLean, Toronto Orthopedic Hospital; President, 
Mrs. A. W. McClennan, 436 Palmerston Boulevard; Vice-President, Mrs. W. E. 
Ogden, 9 Spadina Road; Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. W. J. Smither, 71 Grenville 
Street; Press Representative, Mrs. W. J. Smither. 
‘ seereqeereyens to Central ,.Registry—Mrs. A. W. McClennan and Mrs. W. J. 

Regular Meeting—Fourth Thursday of each alternate month at 3 p.m. 


Hon. President, Mother M. Thecla; Hon. Director, Sister M. Dosetheus; Presi- 
dent, Miss M. O’Sullivan; Vice-President, Miss R. Henry; Secretary, Miss U. O’Sul- 
livan; Treasurer, Miss A. Boyd. 

Officers for Sick Benefit Fund: President, Miss M. Burke; Vice-President, Mrs. 
Hanlon; Secretary, Miss B. Bracy; Treasurer, Miss I. Forwell; Directors, Misses 
McQuillan, Burns, Spitzig, Holmes. 

Reguiar Meeting—First Friday of each month. 


Hon. President, Mother M. St. Basil; Hon. Director, Sister M. Gerard; Presi- 
dent, Miss G. Boyes, 17 East Avenue, South; Vice-President, Miss M. Maloney; 
Recording Secretary, Miss E. Dermody, 157 Catharine Street; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Miss E. McClarty, 92 Hunter Street, West; Treasurer, Miss A. Brohman, 92 
Hunter Street, West. : oe 

“The Canadian Nurse” Representative—Miss M. Nally, 213 Cannon Street, East. 

Representative on Central Registry—Miss M. Grant. 

Entertainment Committee—Misses L. Furey, M. McClarty and M. La Hoff. 

Executive Committee—Misses H. Fagan, E. Cahill, H. Carroll, N. Finn and F. 

Sick Visiting Committee—Misses H. Carroll and F. Clarke. 

Regular Meeting—First Tuesday, 4 p.m. 


President, Miss Golay, 142 Ellsworth Avenue; Vice-President, Miss McNeill, 82 
Gloucester Street; Secretary, Miss Alice Kirk, Riverdale Hospital; Treasurer, Miss 
Frances Schoales, 3 Withrow Avenue. Executive Committee, Misses Jessie Naives 
and Elizabeth Miller; Conveners of Committees, Miss Love, Sick and Visiting; Miss 
Honey, Programme. 

Representatives on Central Registry—Misses Goloy and Maude Thompson. 

Representative on “Canadian Nurse”—Norine V. Schoales: 

Regular Meeting—First Thursday every second month, 8 p.m. 


. President, Miss Burnett, 131 Stinson Street; Vice-President, Miss Ida Ainslie, 
Dominion Apartments; Secretary, Mrs. G. H. Obrien, 170 Catharine Street, North; 

Treasurer, Miss Bridgeman, Hamilton City Hospital; Corresponding Secretary, Miss 
Barclay, 137 Catherine Street, N., Hamilton, Ont. 

Executive Committee—Miss Taylor, Mrs. Jarvis, Miss Peach, Miss Forman, Miss 

. Ng Committee—Miss A. P. Kerr, Miss Mabel Dunlop, Mrs. Reynolds and Miss 

Representative to the National Council of Women—Miss Taylor. 
“Canadian Nurse” Correspondent—Miss A. P. Kerr, 176 West Avenue, North. 


President, Mrs. Parnell; First Vice-President, Miss McCormack; Second Vice- 
President, Mrs. R. L. Dunn; Treasurer, Mrs. Durham; Secretary, Miss MacLeod. 

Correspondent “The Canadian Nurse’—Miss MacLeod. 

Programme Committee—Misses McCormack, Moyer, Cussman, Nesbitt, Mrs. 
Halut and Mrs. Aspinall. 

Meetings to be held at Nurses’ Residence the last Wednesday of each month. 


President, Miss Mary E. Stuart, Amasa Wood Hospital; Vice-President, Miss 
Mamie Palmer, 91 Scott Street; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Miss Susie 
Dickbout, Amasa Wood Hospital; Treasurer, Miss Mary Otis, 26 Hiawatha Street; 
Executive Committee, Misses Wardell, Malcolm, Anderson, Brunk and Ewing; Repre- 
sentative to the “Canadian Nurse,” Miss Hazel Hastings. 

Regular Meeting—Second Wednesday, 8 p.m. 


President, Mrs. Joseph; Vice-President, Miss Whiting; Secretary and Recording 
Secretary, Miss Barons; Treasurer, Mrs. Cummings. 

Programme Committee: Mrs. Douglas, Mrs. Thomas, Misses Mortimer, 
Hutchison and G. Wood. 

Advisory Committee: Mrs. Peterson, Misses McVicar, Gilchrist and Forsyth. 


Hon. President, Miss Frances Sharp; President, Miss M. G. Mackay, R.N., Wood- 
stock General Hospital; Vice-President, Mrs. Coleridge; Recording Secretary, Miss 
Gladys Mills; Assistant Secretary, Miss Annie McLean; Treasurer, Miss Evelyn Piers; 
Assistant Treasurer, Miss Grace Wooley; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Agnes Wes- 
ton, Hamerford, Ont. 


Hon. President, Rev. Sister Wagner, St. Boniface Hospital; President, Miss Maude 
Wannacott, 536 Greenwood Place; First Vice-President, Miss A. C. Starr, 753 Wolseley 
Avenue; Second Vice-President, Miss S. McLelland, 753 Wolseley Avenue; Secretary, 
Miss C. Maddin, 98 Lipton Street; Treasurer, Miss Carson, 74 Langside Street. 

Convenors of Committees— 

Executive—Miss Chisholm, 753 Wolseley Avenue. 

Social—Miss Starr, 753 Wolseley Avenue. 

Sick Visiting--Mrs. eomeeery. 196 Kennedy Street. 

Red Cross—Mrs. Hall, 237 Morley Avenue. 

Regular Monthly Meeting, second Wednesday at 3 p.m. 



President, Miss Elizabeth Carruthers; First Vice-President, Miss A. E. Gilroy; 
Second Vice-President, ——; Third Vice-President, ; Corresponding Secretary, 
Miss Louise Spratt, Bureau of Child Hygiene, Winnipeg; Recording Secretary, Miss 
M. F. Gray, suite 8, Eleanora Apartments, McDermott Street, Winnipeg; Treasurer, 
Miss Florence Robertson, 123 Langside Street, Winnipeg. 


Hon. President, Miss Birtles, Brandon General Hospital; President, Miss Mar- 
garet Gemmill, 346 Twelfth Street, Brandon; Vice-President, Miss C. McLeod; Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, Miss Ada Pike, 248 Fourteenth Street, Brandon, Man. 

“Canadian Nurse” Representative—Miss Hulbert. . 

Convener Registry and Eligibility Committee—Miss Christina McLeod. 

Convener Social Committee—Miss Kid, 442 Eighth Street. 


Incorporated March, 1917 

Council—President, Matron Jean Urquhart, Reg. N., Saskatchewan ‘Military Hos- 
pital, Moose Jaw, Sask.; Vice-President, Miss Granger Campbell, Reg. N., Superin- 
tendent City Hospital, Saskatoon, Sask. Councillors—Miss Jean Browne, Reg. N., 
Director of Public Hygiene, Regina, Sask.; Mrs. Feeney, Reg. N., School Nurse, 
Moosomin, Sask.; Dr. A. Charlton, Bacteriological Laboratory, Regina, Sask.; Dr. A. 
W. Argue, Grenfell, Sask.; Secretary-Treasurer and Registrar, Miss Jean Wilson, Reg. 
N., Superintendent, General Hospital, Moose Jaw, Sask.; Canadian Nurse Representa- 
tive, Miss Anna Jackson, Reg. N., General Hospital, Moose Jaw, Sask. 

Incorporated April 19, 1916 

Council—Miss Victoria I. Winslow, R. N., Superintendent of Nurses, General Hos- 
pital, Medicine Hat; President; Miss L. M. Edy, R. N., Superintendent of Nurses, 
General Hospital, Calgary, Convener »f Finance Committee; Miss Edith M. Rurher- 
ford, R.N., 934 Fifteenth Avenue, W., Calgary, Representative on the Canadian Na- 
tional Association Committee on Public Health Nursing; Mrs. Katharine Manson, R. 
N., Military Hospital, Edmonton; Miss C. M. Campbell, R. N., Superintendent of 
Nurses, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, “The Canadian Nurse” Representative; 
Miss Frances Macmillan, R. N., Assistant Superintendent of Nurses, Royal Alexandra 
Hospftal, Edmonton; Mrs. R. W. R. Armstrong, R. N., Drawer 276, Edmonton, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer and Registrar. 


President, Nursing Sister Manson; First Vice-President, Mrs. N. Edwards; 
Second Vice-President, Miss Bean; Recording Secretary, Miss Sproule; Correspond- 
ing Secretary, Miss Hunter, 8612—104th Street, Edmonton, Alberta; Treasurer, 
Nursing Sister Martin. 

Regular Monthly Meeting—Third Wednesday, 3.30 p.m. 

President, Miss Jessie MacKenzie; First Vice-President, Mrs. M. E. Johnston; 
Second Vice-President, Miss Ostrom; Secretary, Miss E. G. Breeze, 1063 Balfour 

Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Registrar, Miss Helen Randal, 125 Vancouver Block, Van- 
couver, B.C 

Councillors—Misses Tolmie, Boultbee, Sinclair, Stott, McAllister and Judge. 


Obstetric Nursing 

HE CHICAGO LYING-IN HOSPITAL offers a four-months’ post-graduate 
course in obstetric nursing to graduates of accredited training schools connected 
with general hospitals, giving not less than two years’ training. 
The course comprises practical and didactic work in the hospital and practical 
work in the Out Department connected with it. On the satisfactory completion of 
the service a certificate is given the nurse. 

Board, room and laundry are furnished and an allowance of $10.00 per month to 
cover incidental expense. 

Affiliations with accredited Training Schools are desired, as follows: 

A four-months’ course to be given to pupils of accredited training schools asso- 
ciated with general hospitals. # 

Only pupils who have completed their surgical training can be accepted. 

3 ~—— nurses receive board, room and laundry and an allowance of $5.00 per 


Chicago Lying-in Hospital ana Dispensary 
426 East 5list Street, CHICAGO 

Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Hospital and School 

of Mechano- Therapy (acorporated) 


The only form of “Drugless Therapy” used and recognized by the Gov- 

Thorough course, including Swedish System of Massage, Corrective and 
Medical Gymnastics, Electro, Thermo and Hydro-Therapy, with associated 

Eight months’ course. Graduates fully prepared to meet all State Board 
and Government requirements. 

Classes begin September 24, 1919, and February. 6, 
1920. Catalogue (EK) upon request. 

Medical Director. 


We can make 
exactly duplicating 

any hand. 

Can put name on 

Where For 

derame maee Quality 

any gloves so that it 
will not sterilize off. 

Insure to your own 

Jaeger Garment and it is 
on quality that the reputa- 
tion of Jaeger Pure Wool [ | 

use the gloves you 

pay for. 

has been built throughout 
the British Empire. One 
of the leading scientific 
authorities on textiles in 

Specialists in the manufacture of 
* of every description 

The only makers of 
in Canada 

A fully illustrated cata- 
fee he 

Sterling Rubber Company Limited 

Guelph, Ontario 

DR. JAEGER 5**#2", Worle". LIMITED 
Toronto Montreal Winnipeg 

British “founded 188 

“Ottawa Dairy” 


Visit our farm and see for yourself—Milk produced under 
simple, sanitary conditions, from tuberculine-tested cows; all 
employees medically examined. 


Under most approved methods, 143% for 30 minutes. Safe 
and sanitary, and at reasonable cost. 

Careful Physicians and Nurses recommend Ottawa Dairy. Milk 


No NURSE Neglects 

or should neglect to employ every wise means to strengthen and build 
up her patients. 

Nurses who know, use 


Because BOVININE is rich in hemoglobin, in proteih, in blood salts. 
BOVININE is easily assimilated, promptly utilized by’ even tired or 
exhausted cells.’ BOVININE is quick to act, prolonged in effect, 
satisfactory in results, at any age—#in the infant, the invalid, the 
convalescent or the aged. 

And no nurse neglects to take BOVININE herself when she is run 
down and needs strength. 

Literature and samples to nurses on request 

THE BOVININE COMPANY, 75 West Houston St., New York 

School of 
Physical Education 



(8th Session) 

Theory and Practice of Educa- 
tional Gymnastics (Swedish, includ- 
ing Dancing and Games), Massage, 
Medical and Orthopedic Gymnastics, 
Physiology, Anatomy, Hygiene, An- 
thropometry, etc.; Electro-Therapy, 

The course in Massage, which can 
be taken separately, covers a period 
of six months. Excellent clinical ex- 
perience at the Montreal General 
Hospital. Train now and be prepared 
to help in the treatment of returned 

Apply to the Secretary, School of 
Physical Education, Royal Victoria 
College, McGill University, Montreal, 


Caterer and Manufacturing Confectioner 

719 Yonge Street, Toronto 

The Neurological 
Institute of New York 

offers a six months’ Post Graduate Course 
to Nurses. Thorough practical and theo- 
retical instruction will be given in the con- 
duct of nervous diseases, especially in the 
application of water, heat, light, electricity, 
suggestion and re-education as curative 

$20.00 a month will be paid, together 
with board, lodging and laundry. Applica- 
tion to be made to Miss G. M. Dwyer, 
R.N., Supervisor of Nurses, 149 East 67th 
St., New York City. 


MM@@@@@@E@@@CH@@@@E@EEE@e_oMM@e@eq@EA @EE@H@@@qeq=m<u EEE@ECqMM|MMeMéllllla 

_ prudent ereettionss, being guided by the ne of & 

perience, r f from  hineelf ® 
certainty of aes by saf 
against imposition when pr 

The widespread employment of the 

preparation in the treatment of 

anomalies of the menstrual 

rests on the un 

of physicians whose s' noe 
of the oe v — = a 

ated oe virtue of its yar 
and its ‘Property 0 
ao t pr 
functional activity of the uterus and its 
pendages, Exgoageel (Smith) i + of tensed: 

rT aT are | 

fee ERGOAPIOL (Smith) is supplied only in packages containing [fem 
cam twenty capsules. DOSE: One to ton ae three or four 
timesaday. > °% » Samples and literature sent on request. — 

el MARTIN H. SMITH COMPANY, New York, N.Y., U.S. A. 


Like a Soldier 

the trained nurse must keep herself physically and mentally ‘‘fit’’. 

Physical and nervous strain impair the functional activity of body 
cells and bring about a depletion of those salts involved in the 
building of tissue and repair. 

Syrup Hypophosphites Comp. 

supplies the needed chemical salts together with the dynamic 
properties of quinine and strychnine. 

Syrup LHypophosphites Comp. (fellows) is a reconstructive tontc, 
pleasant to take, and efficient in results. Its steadily increasing use 
by the medical and nursing profession for many years ts the best 
evidence of its worth. 


Samples and literature to nurses on request 



HISTORY OF NURSING—From the earliest days to the present time. By Minnie 
Goodnow, R.N. A book of about 400 pages, with 88 illustrations. Cloth, $2.00. 

FOOD FOR THE SICK—A manual for the Physician, Nurse and Patient. By S. 
Strouse, M.D., and Maude A. Perry, A.B., Dietition at the Michael Reese Hospital, 
Chicago. A book of 270 pages. Cloth, $1.50. 

WAR NURSING—A text-book for the Auxiliary Nurse. By Minnie Goodnow, R.N., 
war nurse in France. 172 pages, 120 illustrations. Cloth, $1.50. 

THE BABY’S FOOD—Recipes for the preparation of food for infants and children. By 
Isaac A. Abt, M.D. 140 pages. Cloth, $1.25. 

WAR SURGERY—Addresses on War Surgery. By Sir Berkeley Moynihan, C.B., Tem- 
porary Colonel, A.M.S., Consulting Surgeon, Northern Command. 12 mo. book of 
143 pages. Cloth, $1.75. 

The J. F. Hartz Co. Limited 

Sickroom Supplies 
24-26 Hayter Street TORONTO 

Central Registry 

Graduate Nurses 

Supply Nurses any hour day or 

Phone 162 


in th State of New York 

West 110th Street, New York City 

offers to graduate nurses of a hospital giving 
at least a two-year course, and to training 
schools desiring an affiliation, a six months’ 
course in Gynecological and Obstetrical Nurs- 
ing, including Sterilizing Room and Operating 
Room technique, Out-Patient, X-Ray and 
Cystoscopic Clinics. An opportunity for So- 
cial Service work is awarded to those showing 
special fitness for it. A wéll-planned series of 
at least 25 lectures is given by members of the 
Attending Staff and the Pathologists. A Resi- 
dent Instructor holds regular classes in theory 
and in practical procedures. As classes are 
formed each month, a date for entrance can be 
arranged to suit the applicant. A diploma is 
awarded to those passing the required exam- 
inations, and the privilege of the registry is 
‘extended to the graduates of the School. 

An attractive Nurses’ Home, with reading 
and reception rooms, adjoins the Hospital, 
which is ideally situated on Cathedral Heights, 
and is cool and comfortable in summer. 

For a limited time it will be possible to 
receive nurses for a three months’ practical 
course in the following subjects: 

1. Gynecological Nursing with Sterilizing 

Room and Operating Room technique. 

2. Obstetrical Nursing with Delivery Room 


A Certificate will be given to nurses pass- 
ing the required examination at completion of 
these special] courses. 

An allowance of ten dollars per month, with 
maintenance, is made to each nurse. 

For further particulars, apply to 

Directress of Nurses. 



Evans & Hastings 

High-Class Art, Legal 
and Commercial 


578 Seymour Street 

Vancouver, B.C. 

We Specialize in Publications 

and Annual Reports 

The Central Registry 
of Graduate Nurses 

Begs to inform the physi- 
cians of Ontario that they 
‘are prepared to furnish 
private and visiting nurses 

at any hour—day or night. 


295 Sherbourne Street, TORONTO 



Graduate Sick Children’s Hospita) 




-‘PenioMangan (Gude) 

Especially useful in 

ANEMIA of All Varieties: 

Supplied in 1l-ounce bottles 
only—never in bulk. 
eet ere 
Samples and literature sent upon 

Prescribe original bottle to avoid 

DOSE: One tablespoonful after each meal. 

hildren in proportion. 


New York, U.S. A. 

Our Bacteriological Wall Chart or our Differential Diagnosis Chart will be sent to any Physician upon request. 
LEEMING-MILES CO., LTD... Montreal, Canad:an Agents. 



For Constipation: and 

ASCARA SAGRADA is acknowledged to 

be the best and most effective laxative 

know, producing painless and satisfactory 
movements, Combined with the nutritive, 
tonic and digestive properties of Maltine, it 
forms a preparation far excelling the various 
pills and potions which possess only purgative 
elements. The latter more or less violently 
FORCE the action of the bowels, and distress- 
ing reaction almost invariably follows, while 
Maltine with Cascara Sagrada ASSISTS NA- 
TURE, and instead of leaving the organs in 
an exhausted condition, so strengthens and in- 
vigorates them that their normal action is 
soon permanently restored. 


88 Wellington Street West, TORONTO 


z ” 
“Reg. U. S. Pat. Off.’’ 


The Graduate Nurses’ 
Residence a Registry 


753 Wolseley Ave., WINNIPEG 



is an antiseptic aid to the professional nurse; 
it is readily obtainable and contributes much 
to the comfort of the patient because of the 
satisfactory results attending its employment 
in the sick room. 


is very acceptable to the bed-ridden and con- 
valescent because of its agreeable odor. A 
refreshing sense of cleanliness follows its use, 
in suitable dilution, as a mouth-wash, lotion 
or sponge bath. 


may be utilized as a wash, spray or douche, 
and has a wide range of usefulness that is 
referred to specifically in the literature we 
shall gladly mail, with a 3-ounce sample bottle, 
to any registered nurse, on request. 


Twenty-first and Locust Streets, ST. LOUIS, Mo., U.S.A. 66 Gerrard Street, TORONTO 


for the Wurse 

Western Reserve University 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Lectures, case discussions, class 
demonstrations, clinic observation, 
field work and excursions. 

Course open to qualified yraduate 

Students may enter in September 

only for the theoretical work; but the- 

field and clinic work will be offered 
three times during the year, begin- 
ning October 1, February 1 and June 

Tuition for either half of the course 

Loan scholarships are available. 
For further information, apply to 

2739 Orange Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

OU will find in our store an 

especially fine assortment of 
guaranteed Wrist Watches suitable 
for nurses’ use. These timepieces 
all have, 10- or 15-jewel nickel 
movements, and range in price 
from $5.00 to $13.50. 

_We are particularly well equip- 
ped for the manufacture of class or 
other special pins, either in metal 
or enamel. Designs submitted with- 
out charge. 

In quality of workmanship our 
watch and jewelry repair depart- 
ments are unexcelled, and our 
prices are most reasonable. 

©. 6B. Allan 

Specialist in Diamonds 
Granville and Pender Streets 
Vancouver, B.C.