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Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 











TYPICAL SECTION THRU 
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With this design the rollers are engaged only when: 


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For severe service choose an S-A Feeder. If the stand- 
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Write Immediately for Specifications 
and Prices 










Vol. 113, No. 13 







Roller Track 
Type 


Stephens-Adamson Mfg. Co., Aurora, Illinois 














———— 





ENGINEERING & MINING 


T. A. RICKARD 


Contributing Editor 


G. J. YOUNG, Western Editor 

D. E. A. CHARLTON, Managing Editor 
A. H. HUBBELL, News Editor 

E. H. ROBIE, Metallurgical Editor 





JOURNALPRESS 


J. E. SPURR, Editor 


F. E. WORMSER 
W.N.P. REED 
A. W. ALLEN 
A.B. PARSONS 
Assistant Editors 

BENJAMIN MILLER 
ROBERT M. HAIG 

Special Consulting Editors 





Volume 113 


New York, April 1, 192 


Number 13 





Need for Organization Among Miners 


E HAVE before dwelt upon the apparent need 

for more complete co-operation and greater 

organization in the mining industries; and we 
have cited particularly the farmers as in similar plight 
to the miners, but more actively striving, more evi- 
dently combining, to remedy their disadvantages by 
joint action. 

What form of co-operation or combined effort 
should the mining industries take? Have we such 
organizations at hand, must we create new ones, or 
are there old ones we can patch up and build on to, 
so that they may be able to function more beneficially ? 

We have before enumerated many times the national 
organizations having to do with mining. Will they 
serve us for the purpose we have in mind? The 
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engi- 
neers? No: it is concerned with the technique of min- 
ing; the problems we must attack are industrial. 
These problems are concerned mainly with marketing 
and allied subjects. The American Mining Congress? 
No: it is concerned. with political problems, and 
therefore will be useful when it comes to legislation 
aimed to benefit the mining industries, or the im- 
minence of laws adverse to their prosperity. But 
the problems we have in mind, we repeat, are indus- 
trial. 

Industrial: and we have not a single mining indus- 
try, but many separate industries, each with its own 
individual needs, its own traditions and peculiar com- 
position; each forming a group more or less apart, and 
demanding quite separate consideration. 


The “Trade Association” 


There is a form of co-operative association which 
confines itself to individual industries. These indus- 
trial associations are commonly called trade associa- 
tions, “trades” being in this conne-tion used substan- 
tially as synonymous with “industries.” These trade 
associations have come into a great deal of prom- 
inence lately; some of them have misused their posi- 
tion for illegal and monopolistic heightening of prices, 
prevention of competition, and consequent extortion 
from the buying public, and they have therefore been 
made the objects of legal procedure, and of condemna- 
tion by the authorities of the Government. 

This, however, only proves that there are bad as 
well as good trade associations, just as there are bad 
and good men; but if a bad man is caught at extor- 
tion, or robbery, or swindling, it does not follow that 
all men should be outlawed. And so the cases men- 
tioned do not necessarily discredit the idea of 
trade associations. Indeed, such associations appear, 
on consideration, advisable, proper, and inevitable. 
Through them may become possible intelligent and 
co-operative action in an industry, which may pro- 


mote efficiency, effect economies, increase the grade 
and quality of the product, and reduce the price to 
the consumers, as well as protect the industry itself. 
It is, morever, good business for the public to have 
industries well managed and prosperous. Failures 
and shutdowns react on the whole people. 





What May a Trade Association 
Lawfully Do? 


Mr. Hoover, in his endeavor to assist industry 
through the Department of Commerce, found that to 
benefit industries he must get into close touch with 
them; he could not effect this unless they were organ- 
ized; he could not work with them unless they would 
work with him as units? Therefore, he came to the 
evidently correct conclusion that industrial associa- 
tions ‘were not only per se harmless but desirable. 
And about this time the Attorney General, influenced 
by the illegal activity of one trade association, ren- 
dered a decision which made it doubtful whether 
trade associations were not, per se, violations of the 
Sherman Act, considered to be combinations in 
restraint of trade, and hence unlawful. Therefore, 
Mr. Hoover, lest the Department of Commerce should 
come within the same category through its co-opera- 
tion with the trade associations, addressed a letter 
to Mr. Daugherty, inquiring specifically and sep- 
arately whether the main functions of trade associa- 
tions were illegal. In reply, Mr. Daugherty conceded 
the specific activities to be lawful. These activities 
comprise: (1) The preparation cf a uniform system 
of cost accounting; (2) the use of trade names; (3) 
co-operative standardization of product; (4) co-opera- 
tive credit service; (5) group insurance; (6) co-opera- 
tive advertising; (7) co-operative welfare work; (8) 
co-operative handling of legislative questions; (9) 
co-operative relation with the Government; (10) 
co-ope”ative compilation of statistics, including pro- 
duction, productive capacity, wages by districts, con- 
sumption by districts, distribution by districts, and 
stocks by districts; and such statistics may be issued 
publicly; (11) co-operative price statistics, provided 
that such statistics are made public. All these 
things, then, an industrial association may lawfully 
do, provided, as Mr. Hoover remarked and Mr. Dough- 
erty conceded, that in so doing it does not enter into 
an agreement whereby trade is actually restrained 
and the anti-trust laws are thereby violated. 


A Forthcoming Trade Association 
Conference 


In carrying out Mr. Hoover’s thought that the trade 
associations are to be encouraged rather than dis- 
couraged, and that industry in general may, in that 
way, best be aided by the Government, he has called 

513 





514 


for April 12 a conference in Washington with repre- 
sentatives of trade associations the activities of which 
are national or international in their scope, in order 
that (1) there may be secured a list of trade asso- 
ciations which will furnish to the Department of Com- 
merce statistical information concerning their respec- 
tive industries, along the lines indicated above; (2) 
to discover the ways and means for collecting such 
statistics and (3) to discuss the distribution of such 
data to the members of the associations and to the 
public. 

Mr. Hoover’s idea is plainly to make the Depart- 
ment of Commerce a big brother to the several trade 
associations; to encourage their organization and 
growth, to encourage them to co-operation in all law- 
ful ways, and warn them against unwittingly going 
further than the law permits and the common welfare 
warrants. 


The Department of Commerce, 
and Mining 

The mining industry comes within the Department 
of Commerce. The original act which created the 
department imposed upon the department the duty 
“to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and 
domestic commerce, the mining, manufacturing, and 
shipping industries, and the transportation facilities 
of the United States.” Note that it does not include 
the agricultural industries; a special department is 
allotted to them. Similarly, a separate department 
should be allotted to mining; and in such department 
a Bureau of Markets would cover the purely commer- 
cial phase of the mining industries. But for the 
moment the only Government department which, by 
law, covers the mining indus ries, and has the right 
to foster, promote, and develop them, appears to be 
the Department of Commerce. That covers the mar- 
keting field, the most neglected and little understood 
field in the mining industries, and the study of mar- 
keting involves many questions of standardization, 
price, and co-operative distribution. 


Trade Associations in Mining 


We have some slight acquaintance with the trade 
association in the several mining industries, but prob- 
ably not enough. The American Zinc Institute is 
perhaps the most conspicuous, although the American 
Iron and Steel Institute and the American Petroleum 
Institute are other examples. In copper, we have no 
active trade association or organized co-operation, ex- 
cept associations for specific purposes, like the Copper 
Export Association, under the Webb Act, which 
is another matter; and the Copper and Brass 
Research Association, which concerns itself only with 
advertising, as its name would not indicate. The lead 
industry has no association. The coal industry has, 
of course, in part been well organized. Other asso- 
ciations exist here and there. There is a Tale and 
Soapstone Producers’ Association, formed at the sug- 
gestions of Mr. R. B. Ladoo, of the Bureau of Mines, 
and Mr. Ladoo is secretary of that body. Here we 
see again the principle of Government guidance. 
There is a Graphite Producers’ Association, formed at 
the suggestion of J. E. Spurr, at that time executive 
of War Minerals investigations for the Bureau of 
Wines. No doubt there are others. There have been 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


a number of regional associations like the California 
Dredge Operators’ Association, but our chief interest 
at present is with those which are national in their 
scope. 


Let Us Investigate Further 


We would urge such mining industry associations 
to send representatives to Mr. Hoover’s conference 
on April 12 to ascertain whether they may not receive 
further inspiration which might strengthen their par- 
ticular industry. It might be that in this way through 
the medium of trade associations we shall achieve 
intelligent, scientific, and co-operative marketing of 
the products of our mines, which the fruit growers of 
California have perfectly achieved, and which the 
farmers in general have been advised to attempt by 
no less an authority than the President. Intelligent 
marketing is the chief need of the mining industries 
at the present time; and one industry can learn from 
the marketing methods of another which happens to 
have blazed the trail further and mapped the route. 

Many of the principles and methods of the scientific 
and efficient marketing of one group of commodities 
apply as well to others. 

The Mining Journal-Press will have a representative 
at the conference and will report. 

— — 


Mathewson in Japan 


ISITORS TO ANACONDA, including many thou- 

V sand persons from foreign countries, will not be 
surprised to learn that Mr. E. P. Mathewson re- 
ceived numerous tokens of hospitality and good will 
when passing through Japan recently on his return 
from Burma. He attended the meeting of the Mining 
Institute of Japan and delivered an address, which ap- 
pears to have been understood by most of those present. 
When visiting Nikko, he saw the electrolytic copper re- 
finery and wire-works, where the Elmore process for 
depositing copper in sheet form on rotating cathodes is 
in successful operation. He was entertained at dinner 
in a tea-house in the national style and was the recipient 
of many presents, including a bronze statue of a work- 
man firing cloisonné ware—this being a piece of statuary 
most nearly approaching a metallurgical subject. Our 
friend was hailed as the Buddha of Metallurgy! So 
when next we go to Japan we shall expect to see a com- 
fortable statue of him guarding the entrance of some 
big copper smelter. At the Imperial University at 
Tokyo he saw the seismological museum and heard a 
fascinating talk on earthquakes from Professor F. 
Omori. Many Japanese technicians came from long 
distances to greet him—one came 450-miles to acknowl- 
edge the kindness received at Anaconda. We are not 
surprised; on the contrary, it seems entirely proper 
that the mental and physical hospitality extended to 
visitors by the Anaconda company should have been 
reciprocated in the person of its most distinguished 


manager. 
$< __—_—. 


Anti-Thought Legislation 


Y ONE VOTE a bill was recently defeated in the 
Banses Legislature proposing to prohibit the 
teaching of the doctrine of evolution in the educa- 
tional institutions supported by the state. In these days 
of intensified prohibition the individual has become more 
or less calloused to legislative restriction upon his habits 











April 1, 1922 


and ordinary conduct, but attempts to control thinking 
processes may become the straw to break the camel’s 
back. 

Imagine the youth of Kentucky growing up without 
becoming aware of the great strides in scientific knowl- 
edge due to geological and paleontological research of 
the last fifty or seventy-five years. How can historical 
geology be taught without giving profound attention 
to former life on the globe as indicated by fossil re- 
mains? Possibly it can be taught by making the word 
“evolution” tabu, but surely that will not prevent some 
students from thinking about the subject. Perhaps 
fossil collections might have been ordered destroyed. 
Even that would be ineffectual unless the Kentucky coal 
miner is blindfolded to keep him from looking at fossil 
flora. 

But the saddest thought of all.is the joy future stu- 
dents would miss in failing to learn all about the 
flying cockroaches of the Paleozoic, mentioned in Wells’ 
“Outline of History,” and some cf the other interesting 
extinct creatures. We suppose that such a volume as 
Wells’ would be destroyed, not to mention the works of 
Huxley and Darwin; and hundreds of other books would 
have to be carefully censored. 

The most pernicious legislation is perhaps that which 
attempts to control men’s thoughts. Futile it is bound 
to be, as it has been in the past. Such “Dark Age” legis- 
lation would have no more effect on the doctrine of 
evolution than the raising of King Canute’s hand upon 
the tide. 


<a ——_—_—_—_. 


Remarks by the Editor 


JE HAVE BEEN IN RECEIPT of many letters 
W concerning the consolidation of the two mining 
weeklies into the Journal-Press. We are glad 
that the sentiment is almost entirely one of approval. 
Subscribers are glad that they will be able to economize 
in the time necessary to run over current mining litera- 
ture, and also to economize in the money required. For 
those who need both papers, a saving of $5 a year; for 
those who need only Engineering and Mining Journal, 
one of a dollar a year—enough to hire a mining engineer 
in Washington during the war; and for readers of 
Mining and Scientific Press .alone, no increase of ex- 
pense. All this is a real contribution to the mining 
industries in the way of lessened expenses. 


And our advertisers are glad that they have now one 
undisputed medium which will weekly carry the message 
of what they have to contribute in the way of equipment 
and supplies toward making mining more efficient and 
more economical. And we are not advancing our adver- 
tising rates. They remain the same, despite the com- 
bined circulation, as the previous Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal rates. 


Still, we are going to give more expensively instead 
of retrenching. The Journal-Press is larger than either 
of the papers which have been combined. The entire 
editorial staff of Mining and Scientific Press has been 
consolidated with that of Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal. We have ten regular full-time, hard-working 
trained editors—men who know the mining industry— 
on our staff. They form a faculty-like group, each with 
his own department and responsibilities. You will meet 
them in the field as well as in the town. They will all 


be very busy in the program we have mapped out, to 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





515 


expound to you the mining industries. We are not 
going to give you quantity so much as quality. 


Then we are going to install a new departure. In 
San Francisco we are going to edit, print, and dis- 
tribute a monthly supplement to Engineering and Min- 
ing Journal-Press; and we shall call the supplement the 
Pacific Mining News. The first number will come out 
about May 1. Mr. George J. Young will be editor and 
Mr. Arthur W. Allen associate editor. These gentlemen 
need no introduction to you. At least you know Mr. 
Young’s “Elements of Mining” and Mr. Allen’s “Hand- 
book of Ore Dressing.” Mr. Young, as Western editor 
of Engineering and Mining Journal, and Mr. Allen, as 
associate editor of Mining and Scientific Press, have 
their homes in San Francisco. Mr. Young was born 
there. This supplement will be a regional publication; 
it will confine its field to the Pacific Coast belt repre- 
sented by California, Nevada, Arizona, Oregon, Wash- 
ington, British Columbia, and Alaska; and will be sent 
only to the subscribers of the Mining Journal-Press in 
those states. It will be part of the Mining Journal-Press 
—a regional supplement. Do you get the idea? It seems 
to us a happy one. 


What some of our friends are saying to us is that we 
surely are doing ourselves proud, in the way of exten- 
sions and improvements, and all at a less cost all 
around; but how, they ask, are we going to be able to 
do it? How, they ask, if both mining journals found it 
close figuring to get along during the present period of 
depression in mining and in business in general, so that 
we had to consolidate for strength—how are we going to 
pay the bills now? Well, if we can do a larger business 
on a smaller margin of profit we shall make the riffle, 
as we used to say in Alaska. Certainly, it will not cost 
so much to run one paper as to run two papers; so these 
economies ought to result in a larger margin over neces- 
sary expense, which margin we have already shared in 
advance with our subscribers and advertisers. But if 
we should show a balance on the wrong side of the 
ledger, for a few months, we shall not worry unduly. 
We know that the plan is a good one, and will work out. 

Mr. Rickard has remarked that this is a wedding, 
not a wake; and we are going to find out whether the 
motto of young folks who are considering matrimony, 
to the effect that two can live more cheaply than one, is 
justifiable. Of course, there may be children; but our 
first, which we shall call, as we observed, the Pacific 
Mining News, we hope will very soon be able to walk 
and even earn his own board, selling papers. 

OO 


Our Contemporaries 


[x RECENT MEETING of East and West 
arouses mixed feeling in our contemporaries. The 
Salt Lake Mining Review, a long-established pub- 
lication with a good record of usefulness, is irritated and 
sarcastic. Evidently it does not like the move. On the 
other hand, the Canadian Mining Journal greets the an- 
nouncement with frank good will. This is especially 
pleasant to us, as the Canadian Mining Journal has al- 
ways maintained our respect, and we should be sorry if 
its editor felt otherwise. We have not yet heard from 
Mining and Metallurgy. We shall be disappointed if 
it does not register disapproval. We are opposed to 
it on principle, but not to the high-class men who edit it, 








Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


An Apologia 


By T. A. RICKARD 


number of leading members of the mining pro- 

fession, thereby eliciting the salient facts in 
careers rich in human interest and full of useful sug- 
gestion to the younger men. Each interview has been 
accompanied by an editorial appreciation written by 
myself, for the purpose of rounding the story told in 
the interview and of pointing the moral of it—also 
perhaps for the sake of saying something that was 
both true and kind concerning men whom I liked. 
Twenty-seven of these had been published when three 
of my “victims” came to me with the suggestion that 
I ought to submit myself to similar cross-examination. 
This seemed to me neither unfair nor inappropriate; 
besides, it would give me an opportunity for saying a 
few things that could not be said in any other context. 
The interview appears in this issue. It was to have 
been published in the Mining and Scientific Press, but 
it may seem not inappropriate to the first issue of the 
Journal-Press, as a greeting to a new circle of readers. 
In lieu of the editorial appreciation that accompanied 
the other interviews, I have prepared an apologia—which 
is not an apology—wherein I comment upon the inter- 
view and explain some of the motives that have actu- 
ated me in my work as an editor. 

I am proud of my Cornish ancestry and of my 
descent from the mine-captains of “the delectable 
Duchy.” Our people, like many of the Cornish, are of 
Breton origin, for Brittany is much closer to Cornwall 
than most people realize, and many family names are 
common to St. Malo and Penzance. This sentimental 
tie with France pleases me, for I love France. Chacun 
a deux patries, la sienne et la France. The interview 
shows that as the son of a mining engineer I began 
to travel early and learned two foreign languages before 
I became fluent in my own. All this has tended to check 
provincidlism or a narrow prejudice against the peoples 
of other countries. A cynic has said, “Patriotism is 
your conviction that your country is superior to all 
others because you were born in it.” The cynic was 
G. B. Shaw, whom I dislike intensely and with whom 
I am glad to disagree. I was not born in the United 
States, and therefore my belief in its superiority “to 
all others” is not based upon an accident; but it does 
coincide with my self-determination in the matter of 
citizenship. As a boy, in my visits to Cornwall, I used 
to look from the cliffs at Newquay across the Atlantic 
with the fixed intention of going to America, of which 
I had heard much from my father, who had been here 
many times on professional work. Besides, I met many 
Americans at our home, and I liked their cheery ways 
and expansive manner. As soon as I graduated I came 
across. Besides my father, four of my seniors—relatives 
—were in mining practice; fortunately I went to the 
youngest of my uncles, the one in Colorado, for, apart 
from his attractive personality, the State of Colorado 
in the mid-eighties was an intensely interesting mining 
region, especially in its geologic aspect. My first visit 
to Leadville in 1886 was a great event. So was my first 
acquaintance with 8S. F. Emmons, whose later friend- 
ship I treasure among my happiest memories. Another 
man to whom I am indebted mentally is Mr. Richard 
Pearce, a Cornishman of the best type, a keen miner- 


[DD = the last five years I have interviewed a 


alogist and geologist, as well as a highly successful metal- 
lurgist. He used to welcome me to his house in Denver 
when I was in my twenties and would talk on vein- 
structure and ore-deposition. He is now living in 
England, and I am glad to send him this expression 
of my gratitude. 

The interview tells the story of my travels. The two 
years in Australia and New Zealand—1889 to 1891— 
were rich in experience, especially of economic geology, 
which, in a measure, became my special study as a min- 
ing engineer. At that time the science of ore deposits 
was in an early stage of development, and one did not 
have to know much in order to know more than most 
people. Since then my friends Kemp, Spurr, and Lind- 
gren, as well as Messrs. C. K. Leith and H. V. Winchell, 
have applied geology to mining in a manner and with 
a success few of us could have anticipated thirty years 
ago. Of my work as a mining engineer I can say that 
the geologic aspect of it was intensely interesting—that 
is, the finding of ore; also the appraisal and manage- 
ment of mines. But the contact with promoters and 
their wily ways I did not like, and before long I became 
disgusted with them, partly because they involved me 
in a fiasco that was the direct consequence of disregard- 
ing my advice. Of that I need say no more here except 
that it was one of the reasons for my becoming an 
editor, a result for which I am grateful, for undoubtedly 
my life has been made happier, and possibly more use- 
ful, thereby. 

A man is fortunate if he can find scope for his abil- 
ities, however moderate. The square peg in a round 
hole is the symbol of discomfort; the round peg snugly 
filling the round hole is the type of fitness. I have 
enjoyed the work that I have done now for twenty 
years. All normal men like power; some get it by 
means of muscle, others by the aid of wealth, others 
by the exercise of various arts. Of these, the art of 
writing makes its strongest appeal to educated men 
because it gives them power over their own kind; they 
became leaders of thought and moulders of public opin- 
ion, and that in a civilized community, especially one 
based on democratic ideals, is a splendid function. 

As a mining engineer I wrote a great deal. My con- 
tributions to the Institute are equal in bulk to a volume 
of its Transactions. I used to write frequently for 
the Engineering and Mining Journal and occasionally 
for the Mining and Scientific Press. Raymond and 
Rothwell, both identified with the Journal, were my 
honored friends, and I kept in close touch with them. 
My first experience as an editor in New York was ren- 
dered uncomfortable by the changes of proprietorship 
that followed the tangle into which Johnston involved 
the business affairs of the Journal, but I found that I 
liked the work. I formed the idea that an editor ought 
to control his paper in order to be independent. As a 
matter of fact the successive controllers of the Journal 
while I was editor did not interfere with the editorial 
policy, nor have they interfered with it since in the 
slightest so far as I know; but I had just money enough 
to acquire control of the Mining and Scientific Press, 
and the lure of California was strong. If the earth- 
quake had visited San Francisco a year earlier, I might 
have turned to Canada as a field for my journalistic 











April 1, 1922 





activities; but I have no grudge against the earthquake. 
It was a stimulating experience, for it was great fun 
to carry the Press through the period of stress and to 
reorganize our business successfully. The Mining 
Magazine was an interesting adventure, for it gave me 
many new friends in the engineering profession and 
enlarged my knowledge of mining in its world-wide 
aspect. The Press suffered by my absence in London, 
and for three years earned no profit. It was losing 
money in 1915, when I returned to San Francisco and 
put my shoulder to the wheel in an effort to move it 
forward. For two years I worked so hard that I en- 
dangered my health and very nearly succumbed; but 
fortunately the stimulus given to the mining industry 
by the War came in the nick of time and carried the 
Press forward to renewed prosperity. Nevertheless, I 
have been compelled to recognize the fact that the 
personal kind of journalism for which I have stood has 
the serious defects of being measured by the energies 
of an individual. Men think all mines will peter out 
except their own. Even Methuselah died. These are 
phrases that I have used in discussing the persistence 
of ore; they apply to the persistence of an editor. 
Indeed, I fear that the days of editor-publishers are 
gone. The business of publishing is becoming so big 
and so costly that the kind of man likely to be fitted 
for editor is unlikely to be the kiza of man fitted to 
direct ccncurrently the workings of a big industrial 
ostablishme: * I+ seemed wise therefore to accept the 
opportunity .. -:nsolidate the Press with the Journal, 
©specialiy when the consolidation was effected on honor- 
able terms and under conditions that promise a wider 
field of activity not only for myself, but also for my 
two latest associates, whose skill and loyalty tempted 
me more than once to continue the Press despite urgings 
to the contrary. It is a pleasure now to be associated 
with Mr. Spurr and to be connected with a paper that 
perpetuates the traditions of two papers of which I 
have been the editor. 

The urge to write is the moving spirit of journalism 
and the impulse to criticize is the very life of editorial 
writing. Of patter and comment there is more than 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


517 





enough; the world needs criticism—the criticism of 
ideas, of methods, and of men. The true editor is 
driven by the demon of criticism, and I use the word 
“demon” to mean not an evil prompter but an indwelling 
spirit. Sometimes his criticism hurts the feelings of 
the editor’s friends, and he is sorry that it should, but 
that will not stay his hand, for if he once started to 
abstain from the performance of his self-imposed duty 
for fear of giving umbrage to one or two individuals, 
his usefulness would be at an end. Willingness to be 
unpopular and readiness to incur something much more 
unpleasant—the temporary estrangement from a friend 
—are the penalties of forceful journalism of the kind 
to which I am referring. An editor must learn to hold 
his friends “without capitulation” of his convictions. 
Indeed, if a man’s friends are engaged in the industrial 
and professional activities that are the subjects of his 
critical faculty as an editor he is sure to annoy almost 
all of them sooner or later. That is the penalty of his 
position, and it is one that prevents many kindly spirits 
from becoming effective editors. One must have the 
courage of one’s opinions to sit squarely in the editorial 
chair. I have tried to do so, and in doing it I have 
had to disagree with some of my friends, regretfully, 
but temporarily in most cases. I have accepted the 
penalty as part of the game—an honest and sportsman- 
like game when played properly. And it is one that 
must be played. The development of a wholesome 
public opinion is essential to the health of our demo- 
cratic institutions. My own interest is mainly in that 
part of the public that is engaged in mining and 
its allied operations. Friends have suggested that I 
ought to be on a daily newspaper, just because I write 
occasionally on current non-technical topics. The sug- 
gestion finds no response, because, by experience and 
by sympathy, I am an exponent of class journalism—of 
the journalism meant for a particular class, not the 
general public. In a mining paper I reach people with 
whom I have much in common, whom I understand, 
who are to me, as the Mexicans say, muy simpdtico. 
In short, although a journalist, I am still a mining 
engineer. 


DISCUSSION 





The Valuation of Gold 


T VARIOUS TIMES comments and letters have ap- 
peared in the technical press regarding the value of 
gold. The Mining and Scientific Press of Aug. 15, 1921, 
contains several. The question involves that of cur- 
rency and is one of world-wide importance. Though 
the issue concerns America in her over-seas trade and 
in her gold-mining industry, it is not in America that 
action regarding the relationship of gold to currency 
is needed. She has re-established gold as the standard 
of exchange, and her paper is again interchangeable 
with gold. I do not purpose, therefore, any attempt to 
cover the ground generally, but I think that certain 
features of the question are worth diagnosis. The sub- 
ject is one that appears to have received little serious 





consideration, to judge from many comments made 
thereon. 

In some quarters there appears a belief that in 
Britain the currencies are still on a gold basis. This 
is not so. Immediately gold is withdrawn from circula- 
tion, and paper currency cannot freely be exchanged for 
gold, the gold basis disappears. The only things in com- 
mon between the operating currency (notes) and the 
gold coins are the names. Presumably it is this fact 
that leads to misconception. The British pound and the 


French france of today (notes) have no practical rela- 
tionship to the gold pound and the gold franc. 

The paper pound and the paper franc are pieces of 
paper indorsed by the state as legal tender. Their value 
(purchasing power) depends absolutely upon the num- 
ber of them in circulation relatively to the circulation 





518 


of commodities in the country concerned. They have 
no connection with the paper notes which, during a pre- 
vious period, were freely redeemable in gold. Their 
value now is just what the authorities in each country 
choose to make it. Such was not the condition with 
their namesakes the earlier notes. Their number was 
decided almost entirely by economic laws and their value 
was the gold in the coins they represented and which 
they could command. 

A term that seems to be responsible for common mis- 
conception as to present currencies is “rate of ex- 
change.” This at one time was used to indicate the 
small charges made by financial institutions for services 
rendered, in making money available where needed. 
But it was the same money—gold. The term is now 
used to indicate the purchasing power of currency units 
relatively to those of other countries. The “rate of 
exchange” today includes no doubt allowance for the 
said services, but this is a small factor compared with 
the relative values of the currencies. Probably the 
present “rates of exchange” are not precise indexes of 
the domestic purchasing power of the various curren- 
cies. They probably are more the indexes of the pur- 
chasing power of the respective currencies in goods 
that are wanted in foreign markets. This, however, 
does not affect the fact that “rates of exchange” today 
indicate something quite different from what they did 
when the nations were on a gold basis. 

The “premium on gold” is another much misunder- 
stood term. The real situation is that certain countries 
have discontinued the use of gold as their basis of 
currency. For a time these countries commandeered all 
gold produced within their territories and paid for it in 
notes bearing the same name as the gold currency units. 
These notes, not being redeemable in the gold units, 
and having been made more numerous, had become less 
valuable. Thus, while other commodities rose in nomi- 
nal value (as expressed in terms of the said notes) gold 
was commandeered at a reduced real valuation—i.e., the 
old nominal value (price). 

As regards the real market value of gold, two factors 
came into existence. One was the removal of a large 
part of its previous market—the mints of the various 
nations, except at reduced valuations. This was a real 
and serious decrease in the market. Many mines 
(working and prospective) became unpayable, and the 
output fell. The other factor was that, in countries 
still using gold, the price, expressed in terms of cur- 
rency in the countries of production, rose. The value 
did not rise in the former countries. The value of the 
currency units (notes), in the countries of produc- 
tion fell. 

When export of gold from producing countries was 
permitted, the gold flowed to the countries using gold, 
and there secured its real market value. The excess 
of that value, translated into terms of the currency 
units of the producing (exporting) countries, over the 
price paid by the mints of the latter, was miscalled the 
“premium on gold.” For a time it seems that all gold 
produced in the paper-currency countries, except that 
used in the arts and industries, was exported to those 
using gold. 

Gold thus secured its real market value. That value, 
however, was not the pre-war value—value being the 
measure of a commodity relatively to other commodities. 
A large part of its pre-war market had disappeared, as 
explained previously. But, in so far as these purchasing 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


countries had been unable to secure gold for some time, 
it is probable that for a while the market value was 
not far from the pre-war value. 

Later the demand for gold from these countries 
abated, but America re-established the interchangeabil- 
ity of her paper with gold. This she was able to do for 
two reasons: she had not inflated her currency to the 
extent that other countries had done, and the fact that 
other countries had discontinued the use of gold as 
currency made gold cheaper for her to obtain, and to 
retain in circulation. 

The wealthiest country in the world having re-estab- 
lished the interchangeability of gold, its value naturally 
became based on her currency. There is no need for 
anyone to pay more than, or to accept less than, $20.67 
for gold, because all desiring to do so can buy or sell 
gold at that price in America. 

The assumption that America is paying too dearly 
for gold, and that she is maintaining foreign gold pro- 
duction by paying a premium on it, is absurd. She is 
buying gold at its present market value—neither more 
nor less. She is, however, buying it at under its pre- 
war value, and she is buying it at a value less than it 
would possess if the European nations re-established 
the interchangeability of their paper with gold. 

In that sense the British Empire is selling its gold 
to America at under its real value. If the Empire were 
to re-establish interchangeability, it would have to buy 
such gold as it needed, over its, present reserves, at a 
higher value than that at which it is now selling to 
America—higher pro-rata to the amount she needed 
relatively to the total available gold stocks. If other 
nations re-establish interchangeability, the value will 
again go higher. 

It is incorrect to say that those producing gold in 
foreign countries, such as South Africa, have an ad- 
vantage in the discount on the pound sterling. There 
is no such advantage. If the pound sterling appreciated 
so as to lose its “discount,” gold would have a less nomi- 
nal value in British currency but would have the same 
real value. The general price level would fall rela- 
tively to the appreciation of the pound and gold would 
have the same purchasing power as now. An ounce 
would still be worth 20.67 dollars, but the pound would 
be worth 4.86 dollars. 

There is no “premium on gold.” Gold has its market 
value. That value, measured in the existing European 
currencies, varies with their variations. As regards 
real value, it is the currencies that are varying, not gold. 

Another fallacy that apparently has some acceptance 
is that the value of gold is ordained by the cost of 
producing it. This no doubt applies in the ultimate 
sense. It does not apply to any particular time. The 
“value” of gold depends on the total amount of it in use 
relatively to the total volume of circulating commodi- 
ties. Its “price” depends on this factor and on the value 
of the currency units in which its price is expressed. 

It cannot be too often stated that one of the causes 
of the world’s present industrial upset is the lack of 
a common medium of exchange. This lack is hampering 
international trade. The only visible practicable world’s 
medium is gold. It is, therefore, to the benefit of all 
mankind that the nations should re-establish the gold 
basis. America has done it. Britain should now do it. 
If others will do it simultaneously, so much the better. 
To effect it these will apparently have to put a higher 
nominal value (in terms of their currencies) on gold. 





April 1, 1922 





There is nothing insuperable in that, but space forbids 
discussion here. 

As gold producers are concerned specially (the mar- 
ket value of their product being at stake) as well as 
generally (being world citizens), it is fitting that they 
should give this matter their earnest attention. Rever- 
sion to the gold basis is practicable, through govern- 
ment action. Recognition by the educated public of the 
principles involved might lead to, and should certainly 
help toward, that action being taken. 


Perth, Western Australia. H. R. SLEEMAN. 


a 


Kick vs. Rittinger 


Arthur O. Gates deserves the thanks of many ore 
dressers who have neither the time nor the opportunity 
to specialize successfully on the theory of crushing, for 
his informative article on “Crushing-Surface Diagrams 
and Rittinger’s Law,” which appeared in your issue of 
Feb. 25. It will serve to clarify a much-debated subject. 

I agree with Mr. Gates that writers of textbooks 
should strive to avoid what he calls a neutral attitude in 
matters of dispute, but I hasten to explain that the 
“Handbook of Ore Dressing” is, I believe, what it pur- 
ports to be; it certainly is not a textbook. Had I 
attempted to pass definite judgment on the superiority 
of each machine or theory mentioned, the task would 
have come to early grief, for I was limited to a certain 
number of words in each section. When considering 
the two principal theories of crushing I felt that the 
Van Reytt tests precluded an unhesitating acceptance 
of the Rittinger theory; but the opponents to Kick’s 
hypothesis had propounded their objections in so logical 
a manner and had done so much scientific research that 
I was equally unwilling to support the claims of the 
other group. Therefore I merely stated the two theories 
in a condensed form. 

Mr. Gates’ recent article clarifies much that was in 
doubt; he disposes of the Van Reytt results by the sug- 
gestion that they were based entirely on feed conditions, 
and he adduces new arguments to sustain the claims of 
Rittinger. In the face of these data it is doubtful if 
any future investigator will favor anything with a Kick 
in it. I am not sorry that I adopted a neutral attitude 
in the “Handbook of Ore Dressing”; but I promise Mr. 
Gates that the subject will be discussed more fully in the 
second edition, and in a manner appreciative of his more 
recent researches and helpful criticism. 

San Francisco. A. W. ALLEN. 


Yes, It Really Is Done 


As requested in your editorial of Feb. 25, relative to 
wireless receiving apparatus at remote mining camps, 
I wish to inform you that the Gold Hill & Iowa Mines 
Co., at Quartzburg, Idaho, maintains such a station. 

We are located well back in the mountains, away from 
railroad and dependent upon stage transportation; we 
have very heavy snowfalls, at times as much as ten 
feet. We are in a deep canyon, where it would seem as 


though even the so-called ether waves could not find 
us, but every day we are in touch with Denver, San 
Francisco, Oakland, Seattle, Portland, Alberta, Canada, 
and practically every large city in'this section of the 
country. Strange as it may seem, our nearest point from 
which we get information is practically eight hundred 
miles away. From these points we receive “broadcasts” 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


at regular schedules. We generally get the most impor- 





519 





tant news, the front-page stuff, even before it appears 
in print in the large cities. We also receive weather 
forecasts, stock quotations, Sunday sermons, interesting’ 
lectures on many subjects, and current prices on staple 
supplies. 

Since installing the outfit there has not been an even- 
ing that has failed to give us some information of inter- 
est. During this time the wire phones have been down 
several times. We have our outfit arranged with am- 
plifiers and loud speaking apparatus so that everyone 
may hear. Amplification may be made so that every- 
thing may be distinctly heard in a good-sized hall. We 
receive music from all of the new records and often 
we are privileged to hear some of the grand opera stars 
who have given concerts in San Francisco. We also get 
some clever vaudeville stunts. 

The weather reports, general news, and other items 
of interest are gathered and put into bulletin form and 
posted on the bulletin board at the works and also at 
the post office, so that all may enjoy the privilege, 
but interest has now reached the point that everyone 
wants to get it direct from the machine, as a little of the 
jazz music comes along with it, which helps to cheer 
things up. 

It is possible for $150 to get a receiving set that 
will give satisfactory results, and the operation and 
installation may be done by almost anyone. The cheap 
outfits selling for a few dollars of course will prove 
disappointments, but those made by the recognized elec- 
tric companies and using vacuum tubes will give entire 
satisfaction. E. E. CARTER, Manager. 

Quartzburg, Idaho. 





From Out of the West 


“From Out of the West,” down close to the “Border,” 
comes a hearty congratulation to both the Engineering 
and Mining Journal and the Mining and Scientific Press 
on their consolidation. A great deal of “lost motion” 
and needless repetition is thereby eliminated, and the 
mining fraternity, the world over, will be greatly 
benefited in many ways. 

“From Out of the West” a mighty effort is taking 
form—an effort with sufficient momentum to carry it on 
to a final success. This area produces copper in abun- 
dance, and large herds of cattle. Both are correctly 
classified as “basic industries,” and both are now in a 
chaotic condition. With its two basic industries 
seriously crippled, would you expect a country to be “up 
and going”? “They have lost their nerve,” you say.— 
Now don’t you ever believe a word of that. Their smiles 
are as broad; their handclasp is just as strong. “It’s 
hard, men, it’s tough, and some few are hungry, but 
that must not matter: team work, men, team work, and 
we will all pull out of this together.” That is their 
motto, and that is the “spirit” which has given this 
“effort” such a momentum. 

The West was called upon to produce copper—to pro- 
duce millions of pounds of it annually. And it answered 
the call. It had big men and lots of them, and the most 
efficient methods and organizations were developed to 
produce that copper. It was a stupendous undertaking: 
it was remarkably carried out: it was all done in typical 
Western fashion. And now what—the copper cannot 
be sold. “Somebody has gone to sleep at the switch.” 
Must the West produce that copper and market it too? 
Must the West go out to the Atlantic seaboard and 








520 


develop selling agencies? Must the West work both ends 
of the line? The West was given a “man’s job,” and it 
certainly qualified in no uncertain manner. 

No, the West is not going to pack up its little going- 
away bag and move to centers of population in an 
effort to develop markets for its mineral products. That 
is not its “mighty effort”; that is not “the kernel in the 
nut.” The West is going to stay “in its own back yard”: 
it is going to crack that nut right in “home territory.” 
The “kernel” is the millions of dollars of power that is 
going to waste in the rivers of the West. The nut that 
is to be cracked is to harness and control that power and 
put it to work manufacturing needed and salable articles 
from the West’s raw products. 

The three essentials for the success of such an enter- 
prise are raw products, cheap power, and efficient organ- 
ization and management. The first and last require- 
ments are already developed; the power is here—it is 
idle. It only remains to control and harness this power 
for the solution of the problem. The West does not 
ponder over “Can it be done?” Its only query is “How 
soon can we do it?” and why not? 

It will cost millions, you say—certainly it will, and the 
benefits and returns to posterity will amount to billions. 
But where will we get the money, comes the inquiry? 
Why not declare the “Soldiers’ Bonus,” a “Peace 
Bonus,” and with those funds which would go to the 
Soldiers’ Bonus build these power projects? Give every 
ex-service man who wanted help work. Pay good wages. 
Give the ex-service men an interest in the project— 
either power or irrigation. Let them build one, if not 
the greatest, monument to peace and civilization that 
has ever been built—that has ever been erected to man- 
kind. Call it the “World War Soldiers’ Monument.” 
Let it aid them materially now, but let the good that it 
will do mean even more than a material help—let it be 
a moral uplift to those great men as well as to our nation. 

Patagonia, Ariz. C. A. PIERCE. 

OO ——— 


Who Are Fit for Self-Government? 


Discussing the question “When are a people or group 
fit for self-government?” brought up in the editorial 
pages of your March 11 issue, it seems to me that the 
verdict of history has been that a people are ready for 
self-government whenever they have “guts” enough 
(excuse the English) and strength enough to no longer 
permit someone else to govern them; and that they are 
no longer fit for self-government the moment they will 
permit someone else to govern them. 

The American people won their independence by 
stating to the world the broad principles of right and 
justice under which they demanded it, and then going 
into a “Liberty or Death” fight for it, and by all hanging 
together won it, and saved themselves from being 
hanged separately. The clear statement of principle 
involved, however, was half the battle. It won the 
sympathy and moral support of the world, and the 
active assistance of France, and destroyed the morale of 
the enemy by creating sympathy in England itself. 
This is an early example of intelligent propaganda. 
However, these same men that enunciated these broad 
principles of liberty held slaves, simply because the 
negro was not yet advanced to the point where he could 
demand liberty and “get away with it.” 

Entering the World War, America stated to the world 
the broad principle under which she fought for the de- 
fense of her viclated rights, and joined her allies undi- 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


videdly and unselfishly until the war was won and her 
rights defended, and then went back home and started 
minding her own business again, disappointing a lot of 
people who thought we were to go on and defend every- 
one else’s rights under the principles enunciated as 
well as our own, and hand them out on a silver platter. 
The statement of principles involved was another ex- 
ample of successful propaganda. It won allies and 
friends, and brought about the destruction of the morale 
of the enemy. 

History decided that the Roman people were no longer 
fit for self-government when luxurious living made them 
reluctant to fight their own battles. After being suc- 
cessful in their first encounter with the Goths, the 
Romans said, “Why, these are a fine husky lot of men; 
let’s organize an army of them and let them do our 
fighting for us”; and the Roman Empire was wrecked 
by this Gothic army joining the enemy at a critical 
stage. 

Theodore Roosevelt said “Fear God and take your own 
part”; in other words, “be sure you are right and then 
go ahead,” and fight for your rights. Fear God, state 
the broad principles of right under which your demands 
are made, and then fight. A people have a right to self- 
government, as an individual has a right to success, but 
has to fight for it. 

“The ten thousand” members of the Institute are 
unfit for self-government just so long as they will per- 
mit “The Few” to govern them by “divine right.” A 
government of “The Few” is probably the most efficient 
form of government, as long as you have « “good” few, 
as the Institute has had; but proves fatal with a “bad” 
few that may show up at any moment. Mr. Spurr says 
he wants “self-government, even if it is poorer govern- 
ment’’; these are also the exact words used by the great 
Filipino patriot. 

We may hasten the day when a people will be fit for, 
and will have, self-government, by giving them educa- 
tion, and letting them “paddle their own canoe” just as 
fast as they learn how. Or a people’s capacity for self- 
government may be destroyed by someone else exercis- 
ing a function they should undertake to exercise them- 
selves. PAUL R. Cook. 

New York City. 


ee 


Economic Mineralogy 


Certain comment seems warranted by the editorial 
entitled “Economic Mineralogy,” in the Feb. 11 issue of 
Engineering and Mining Journal. If your attack in this 
editorial on the teaching of mineralogy is based upon 
the paper presented in the recent meeting of the geol- 
ogists and mineralogists at Amherst, Mass., as is sug- 
gested, the writer of this article should be better in- 
formed than your citation would indicate. The point is 
that Dana’s “System of Mineralogy” is neither a stand- 
ard textbook nor a textbook which is not standard. It 
is not a textbook, has never been a textbook, and has 
never claimed to be a textbook. I doubt if there is an 
institution of learning in the country where it is used 
as a textbook. 

On the contrary, Dana himself prepared a textbook 
years ago which is a standard work and does not furnish 
examples of the types you cite. In Dana’s textbook of 
mineralogy one full page is devoted to chalcocite and 
less than a quarter of a page is given to the discussion 
of sternbergite. A. N. WINCHELL. 

Madison, Wis. 












April 1, 1922 


Moving drill apparatus across creek 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Drill Hole No. 20 in Red Ledge area 


Diamond Drilling in the Seven Devils Mountains 


Problems in Exploration That Were Encountered in a Rugged District Where 
Transportation Is Difficult—A High Percentage of the Core Was Obtained 
In Drilling, and Careful Records Were Kept of the Formations Passed Through 


By FRANK A. KENNEDY 


ing outfit used on the Michigan and Minnesota 

iron ranges and in the Michigan copper district 
will be interested in methods of diamond drilling in a 
district where the topography is so rugged that the 
ordinary practice and drilling machines cannot be con- 
veniently used. 

The Idaho Copper Co. has been carrying on an exten- 
sive drilling campaign in what is known as the Red 
Ledge area in the Seven Devils mining district of 
Idaho. This region lies on the slopes of Snake River 
Canyon, a valley that outrivals the Grand Canyon of the 
the Colorado in depth and ruggedness. Mountains rise to 
a height of 9,000 ft. on the brink, with a drop of 7,000 
ft. to the river four miles away. 

Deep Creek cuts a narrow deep gorge in the side of 
the canyon on its way to Snake River and crosses the 
Red Ledge formation at an elevation of 1,400 ft. above 
the river. The Red Ledge extends upward to an eleva- 
tion of 7,000 ft. and the slopes are too steep to allow 
set-ups or moving of a drill machine to advantageous 
and promising drill locations. Because of these condi- 
tions, it was found necessary to restrict all drilling 
to the creek bottom. 

The proper locations along the creek were plotted 
on paper from a careful geological study of the area, 
but when these points were located on the ground more 


"Line accustomed to the standard diamond drill- 


often than not they were found te present conditions 


impossible for drilling. To get set-ups it was sometimes 
necessary to place the drill on a bridge over Deep Creek 
and drill in the outcropping faces. 





The Red Ledge formation is an intrusive quartz 
porphyry and is partly covered with the remains of 
limy tuffs. The rocks vary in hardness from a soft 
tuffaceous material and altered porphyry to an ex- 
tremely hard fragmental rock. The ore formation is 
2,500 ft. wide and the ore zones are from a few feet 
to 200 ft. in width. The ore varies in texture from an 
extremely soft silver-copper sulphide to hard dissemi- 
nated chalcopyrite. Discounting the topographic fea- 
tures, it was considered favorable ground in which to 
operate a diamond drill. 

The drilling was done by the Diamond Drill Contract- 
ing Co., of Spokane, Wash., which company manufac- 
tured its own machines. It was necessary to use a 
somewhat different type of drill underground in the 
tunnel than on surface. The tunnel machine was 
mounted on skids and had a drive shaft from the side 
as well as from the end. This drill was driven by a 
Ford gasoline engine stationed outside the tunnel 400 
ft. away. The drive shaft consisted of forty 10-ft. 
lengths of drill rods connected and suspended from 
posts in the tunnel. By using a universal joint at the 
drill, the operators were able to drill in any direction 
and at any angle. 

The surface drills were mounted in a light, well- 
braced steel frame made of angle iron. A Ford engine 
equipped with self-starters furnished all the power. 
The gears were so arranged that it was possible to 
obtain any desired speed, and the adjustments and all 
connections so designed as to secure the greatest speed 
in pulling rods, changing bits, and moving the drill 

























































Red Ledge formation in the Seven Devils 
Mountains, Idaho 


from place to place. These machines could be moved 
by their own power, and I have seen them pull them- 
selves up a 40-deg. slope with all equipment. They 
were equipped with two high-pressure pumps, and had a 
drilling capacity of 600 ft. of 28-in. hole and 1,000 ft. 
of 14-in. hole. 

The drills were trucked from Homestead, Ore., an 
elevation of 1,700 ft., through to Cuprum, Idaho, to 
the Peacock mine (elevation 7,200 ft.). A 36-in. trail 
‘was completed down Deep Creek Canyon to Red Ledge, 
a distance of five miles. This trail has an average drop 
of 815 ft. per mile, and the last two miles drop 2,400 ft. 

The machines were moved down the trail, a distance 
of three miles, by their own power, and considerable 
care was necessary to keep them right-side up. They 
rolled over several times, but, owing to their compact- 
ress, came through without breakage. The last two 
miles was not only steep but overhung the creek in 
many places, and here it was thought advisable to dis- 
mount the drills and use horses to pack the remaining 
distance. 

Over four thousand feet of rods and pipe, some air 
machinery and two years’ supplies were packed in over 
this trail. Gasoline was brought down in 10-gal. cans, 
and it required approximately one barrel per day to 
keep the drills running. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


The work was divided into three shifts, with two 
men per drill on each shift. One setter was required 
for each drill, and he acted as a foreman for that drill. 

All holes were drilled the first 10 ft. with a bit that 
cut a 23-in. core. This distance was cased to act as a 
guide and prevented shattered surface material from 
falling in the hole. The rest of the hole was drilled 
with a bit that cut a core of 113 in., approximately an 
N bit, unless it became necessary to case. Then, in- 
stead of reaming the hole for the casing for the same 
sized bit, a casing was put down and the bit reduced to 
cut a core lv in. If further trouble was experienced, 
the bit was reduced to an E size. 

The 1t3-in. bits were set with fourteen stones, six on 
the inside and eight on the outside, two of which were 
small stones set down in the outside of the bit to act 
as reamers, and called “jokers.” 

Considerable trouble was experienced in holes that 
crosscut underground watercourses and crevasses. In 
hole No. 18 at a depth of 460 ft. the rods suddenly 
dropped into a crevasse over twenty feet before they 
were caught, though we were able to complete all holes. 

Specially made core boxes were constructed with a 
cover that fastened on with screws to fit the size of core 
drilled, and which kept the core in place when it was 
moved. The core was separated off with markers, giv- 
ing the exact depth at every pull and was later classified 
and marked off according to structure. 

All sampling was done, wherever possible, by using a 
Longyear core-splitter, one-half being left for classifica- 
tion and future reference. Otherwise, the core was 
broken with a hammer and a part left as before. The 
part taken for the sample was reduced by a crusher. 

A careful record was kept of the drilling operation, 
and the data on the following page give part of the 
record of an average drill hole. From this data one is 
able to tell the number of pulls made with core per 
day, the distance drilled, character of material passed 
through, amount of core or sludge recovered, the 
length of sample taken and the analyses. No analyses 
was made on sludge where the hole was represented by 
a good percentage of core. 

The speed of diamond drilling depends largely on the 
number of pulls made necessary by the character of 
rock being drilled. The best record made on the Red 
Ledge was 41 ft. in one shift in hard porphyry, and the 
lowest were made in either broken formation or in 
heavy soft sulphides. Ninety-five per cent of core was 
recovered in last season’s drilling. 





Core from a diamond-drill hole in the Red 
Ledge area, Idaho 


























April 1, 1922 


RECORD OF DRILL HOLE NO. 20, RED LEDGE REGION, IDAHO 
Fifty Degrees With Dip; Ninety Degrees With Strike. Elevation, 2,960 ft. 


. Amount Ounces 

Depth, in Ft. in ft. » PerTon ., 

2 S 

: ; e £4 ® 
Date £ Classification p> BE oO - 

= << Sc 2 3 w &§ 
ee So @&32 2 & 
Oct. 13 0-10 Porphyry 4 No 146 .02 19.82. .25 
10 - 13 3 SY vost del soe te Dae eras 
13 - 19 6 3 150 .04 1.28 35 
19 - 24 ae Oe aks Seren ase koe 
24 — 27 Be EN ae ihe, oe oe Ook 
27 - 29 7 2 te? 4 5.6 CLS 
29 -— 35 5.6 3b. 9 <3 
Oct. 14 35 —- 41 Porphyry 6 6 48.6 3.9 .53 
41 -— 45 4 4 152 .04 -40 -40 
45 — 48 3 3 14.0 t.&% 3% 
48 — 52 & 4 3% .@ 32 .3 
52 -— 59 7 7 154 .04 .76 .60 
59 — 66 7 7 160 .04 .52~ .68 
66 - 71 5 5 6.4 7.8 .3% 
Oct. 15 71 —- 82 Porphyry and tuffs ttt lt. 3S «66 
$3 Pot "8 ie 2 

= orphyry $ 7} 162. . : 
984-104 5 5 2.0 2:4 .2% 
104 -111 7 7 163 .04 .80 58 
111 -114 3 3 158 .06 1.18 .40 
Oct. 16 114 -122 8 8 164 .04 .40 .98 
122 -126 4 4 159 .04 2.04 .60 
126 -134 8 8 165 .08 .60 .48 
134 -143 9 9 170 .20 1.56 7.91 
143 —153 10 10 166 .10 .08 7.22 
153 -161 8 8 338 .10 70 4.46 
Oct. 17. 161 -168 7 7 339 .06 77 4.56 
168 -177 9 9 172 .08 52 5.80 
Oct. 18 177 -—182 Schist and porphyry S$ 5 16 .18 54 10.83 
182 -—186 Schist and tuffs 4 4 ie aad: enee 
186 -196 Porphyry 10 10 173 .02 38 13 
196 —206 10 10 169 .04 24 10 
206 -217 11 Il 174 .04 28 05 
Oct. 19 217 -227 OP Ne ier nce icese. bees 
227 -237} By POMC Sa eke aes wees 
2374-241 Porphyry and schist a | Saree re 
Oct. 20 241 -—251 a | er re es 
251 -261 5 10 175 .02 04 08 
261 -271 10 10 180 .02 18 17 

71 -2773 63 6} ae 

Oct. 21 2773-2873 Porphyry 4 43 176 .02 66 1.78 
2874-2913 Ca Bee ee ee ee 
2914-2963 5 3 te .@ 38 53 
2963-306 6 8 177 .04 12 27 
306 -317 Porphyry and\granite tuff 11 J)... 2... 1... cee. 
317 -327 ar Gee a ota 
Oct. 22 327 -335 Be Sra che ate ape an 


It would have required four times the expenditure 
to have secured the same knowledge of the ore and 
orebodies by tunneling and would have taken four times 
as long. It seems best, therefore, no matter how rugged 
the country is, but, of course, depending on the nature 
of the rock and orebodies, to do all preliminary explora- 
tion by diamond drilling. It is possible with the in- 
formation thus gained to lay out all tunnel work, and 
the development may be so planned that the drifts will 
be driven where they will do the most good, not only in 
developing tonnage but later on as a part of the system 
or method to be used in mining. 





Rhodesian Mineral Production 


The British South Africa Co. announces the following 
mineral production from the mines of Southern 
Rhodesia during January: Gold, 53,541 oz.;_ silver, 
13,696 0z; coal, 49,830 tons, and small amounts of other 
minerals. The number of producers was 150, as com- 
pared with 158 in December. 

Comparative tables of the production during 1920 
and 1921 are as follows: 


1920 1921 
ea 25258 Oe SS koke cae a cek oes 552,498 585,525 
SN I cig GN boa wo digra Keg Sane Ke we ES Sia ae 
ERIE cael on ale rk vs baced cas one eens ‘ : 
eaceae NN die Ge S0 cdg org ak Ne a IB% Uh tha ake 60,269 50,188 
Coal from Wankie Colliery, tons............... 578,492 574,753 
PE I ois aie dix DNS 's/e Osi unto sit x0 F008 18,823 19,529 


From northern Rhodesia mineral valued at £30,965 
were produced, lead being the principal mineral won, and 
representing a value of £27,384. The total value of all 
minerals raised since the beginning of mining in the 
Northern Province is £2,279,825, to which lead ores con- 
tributed 67 per cent. 

According to the report of the executive committee of 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


523 





the Rhodesia Chamber of Mines, Bulawayo, the gold 
production in December last was 55,967.64 oz., valued at 
£267,005; the silver production 13,369.77 oz., valued at 
£1,433, and the production of base minerals and precious 
stones was valued at £53,756, making a total of £322,194. 
The grand total value of mineral production to date was 
put in the report dated Jan. 22 last at £60,884,694, 
which included gold to the value of £51,501,615, silver, 
£410,668, and base minerals and precious stones to the 
value of £8,972,411. 


Problems in Fan-Pipe Installations* 


The following summary indicates some of the prob- 
lems in connection with fan-pipe installations in metal 
mines on which further information is necessary: 

1. Best type of joints and range of leakage losses for 
the more commonly used galvanized-iron pipe joints of 
the following two classes: (a) joints made on surface 
in assembling 10- to 20-ft. lengths for transportation 
underground; (b) joints made underground in uniting 
sections assembled on surface. 

2. Best type of joints and range of leakage losses for 
canvas tubing. 

3. Methods of preventing decay of canvas tubing 
without excessively increasing its cost or its fire risk. 

4. Quick, inexpensive methods of repairing both gal- 
vanized-iron pipe and canvas tubing with minimum loss 
of fan operation. 

5. Amount of heat produced in small fans of various 
standard types under various conditions of speed and 
pressure, together with best methods of control. 

6. Amount of heat produced by friction due to 
velocity in pipe lines made of various materials, es- 
pecially the difference between galvanized-iron and can- 
vas pipe; also methods of control. 

7. Amount of heat transfer through material of pipe 
line due to difference of temperature within and without 
the pipe, and methods of control. 

8. Practicability of using water as spray or otherwise 
to reduce air temperatures in ventilation pipe and in 
other underground air currents. 

9. Determination, by Kata thermometer, of numeri- 
cal values for comfort at various distances from end of 
pipe in confined openings similar to drift ends (such 
data are needed to convince mine operators of advantage 
derived from keeping end of pipe close to face by use 
of removable sections). 

10. Check existing published values of friction in 
galvanized-iron pipe, and determine same for canvas 
tubing. 

11. Can exhaust methods be used to advantage on 
long pipe lines (over 1,000 ft.) assembled as for mine 
use, (a) in connection with pressure methods (arrange- 
ment for reversing air direction), under high-tempera- 
ture conditions, for removal of explosives fumes only; 
(b) as only method of ventilating under low-tempera- 
ture conditions, for removal of explosives fumes only. 

12. Determine, for typical mine installations, what 
results can be obtained by use of booster fans on lines 
over 1,000 ft. long. 

13. Determine what advantage (if any) in comfort 
conditions at various distances from end of pipe can 
be obtained by contracting the end section to produce 
higher velocity. 

*Abstract from Reports of Investigations, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 


serial No. 2,320, “Performance of Fan-Pipe Installations in Metal 
Mines,” by D. Harrington and G. E. McElroy. 














































aE PRETEND een a A ES ESE NE ERT OIE AE - a 


aR FS AMIEL ERD Na 


06 Lp ANAS LORAIN LE ERI SAORI FIM 


pea APOE! ARERR OSES IO RNR tt HEA NOONE ELEN POLAT 


Re AN LOS NBN AR AE EM NAIA LN A ES 





524 ' Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


A New Asbestos Discovery Near 
Barberton, Transvaal 


Deposits of Pure White Chrysotile Occurring in 
Regular Arrangement—Location Is 
Close to Tidewater 


OUTH AFRICA is affording sensational develop- 
ments in the manifold forms and varieties of its 
asbestos deposits. Asbestos workers had scarcely re- 
covered from their surprise after blue asbestos was 
thrown on the market, when the long-fibered amosite 
gave them another shock. The latest discovery repre- 
sents nothing new in variety, as it is a cross-fiber 
chrysotile of the well-known type, but in the manner 
of its occurrence it presents features of unusual interest. 
The deposit is twenty-eight miles northwest of Bar- 
berton, the nearest railroad station being Godwan River, 
fourteen miles distant, from which there is a short rail 
haul to Lourenco Marquez, Portuguese East Africa. 

The asbestos occurs in a sheet of soft green serpentine 
which lies in the form of a low hollow or syncline rising 
to form a somewhat abrupt anticline toward the south. 
This sheet is overlaid with a sheet of harder blue 
serpentine. The asbestos occurs in the upper 15 ft. 
of the green serpentine close to its contact with the 
blue rock. The outcropping edges of this syncline are 
800 to 1,200 yd. apart, and the fiber occurrence has 
been proved for at least 800 yd. east and west on the 
strike in the region where the most work has been 
done. No fiber appears in the blue serpentine, but 
it occurs so constantly at the contact of the two sheets 
as to suggest that its origin is due to the association of 
the two varieties of basic rocks. A secondary fiber zone 
occurs at the contact of green serpentine with quartzite. 

The fiber is a pure silky white chrysotile of superior 
quality. Unlike the Canadian asbestos veins, which 
occur in an irregular network, the Barberton veins are 
in regular parallel arrangement, conforming in direc- 
tion with the plane of contact of the two belts of serpen- 
tine. Another remarkable feature is the closely packed 
nature of the veins. Through a vertical thickness of 
7 ft. the upper part contains as many as fifteen veins 
to the foot, while lower down the number increases to 
thirty per linear foot. The alternate seams of serpen- 
tine and asbestos are as regular as lines on a sheet 
of ruled paper. As may be inferred, the fiber in these 
veins is short, the maximum length being about one- 
half inch. The proportion of fiber is, however, high; in 
the 7 ft. zone referred to it runs about 40 per cent 
fiber and 60 per cent massive rock. This is in favorable 
contrast to the Canadian deposits, in which the highest 
proportion of fiber is about 12 per cent of the mass. 

Below the 7 ft. zone noted the seams are farther apart 
and much wider, reaching a maximum of three inches 
or more. Crude fiber is obtainable from the latter 
veins. At one point a vein 8% in. thick has been found, 
but the fiber is not continuous across its entire thick- 
ness. At one of the drifts on the “New Strike” prop- 
erty the 7 x 7 ft. face is entirely made up of such 
ribboned rock, the total number of fiber veins being 
about 150. Approximately three tons of rock gave one 
ton of fiber, which graded as follows: 

10 per cent grade E (4 to ? in.) 

40 per cent grade F (4 to 4 in.) 

50 per cent grade G (2 to ? in.) 


The following table indicates the proportion of the 





Vol. 113, No. 138 


different grades of fiber obtained for a four-month 
period of operation. 


TABLE OF GRADES AND PERCENTAGES OF BARBERTON ASBESTOS 


Lengths, Percentage of 

Grade Inches Preparation Total Output 
A Over 23 Hand cobbed 3.87 
B 14 to 24 Hand cobbed 9.25 
C 1} to 13 Hand cobbed 14.99 
D Over $3 Screened 39.89 
E 4 to } Screened 32.98 
100.00 





According to this table 27.21 per cent of the total 
production was hand-cobbed fiber over one inch long. 
This is promising, in view of the fact that fiber over one 
inch long constitutes only about 1.4 per cent of the 
total Canadian output. 

As shown in the following table, the chemical com- 
position of the fiber closely approximates that of the 
Canadian asbestos: 


ANALYSIS OF BARBERTON AND CANADIAN FIBRE 


No. 1 No. 2 No. ! No. 2 
RIN be Vee hats 40.05 40.49 MeO.............. 38.35 41.41 
nis enact nnn 1.90 Rae oe Silo dee “Shack 
Fe203. . 1.60) 2.53 PRES cae Oe Skiers cack 2 
ee ee 40! Ignition. . 16.60 14.06 
BOD ane hice a ees Pe -_—_— = 
RN ess case teaaets ‘Trace. 2.45; 99.70 99.76 
Re Sioa. foie ase fo 


“New Strike” Joubertsdal, the analysis being by Dr. 
McCrea, Government Laboratories, Johannesburg. No. 
2 is the mean of eleven analyses of Canadian asbestos 
as given in Cirkel’s memoir. 

The most important developments at Joubertsdal and 
“New Strike” consist of several adits driven into the 
hillside in the direction of the dips, to a depth of 90 
ft. or more. Drifts have been projected to right and 
left, covering a length of several hundred feet. The 
Myburgh and Munnik workings are smaller, but their 
location two miles east of the larger workings, in 
essentially the same grade of fiber, gives fair promise 
of continuity and volume of ore reserve. No figures 
are available as to tonnage so far obtained. 

The ready availability of this deposit to tidewater as 
compared with many of the African deposits, together 
with the high percentage of fiber available, encourages 
the belief that this new territory may yet constitute 
an important supplementary source of asbestos supplies. 
The deposits have recently been described by A. L. Hall, 
of the Geological Survey of the Union of South Africa, 
in a paper presented before the Geological Society of 
South Africa. 


United States Coins Meet Tests 


The annual assay commission, in its report to the 
President, states that all United States coins of 1921 
have passed official examination. The examination was 
made at the Philadelphia mint, the commission testing 
a number of pieces of each quantity of metal melted 
for coinage. All coins were found to be fully within 
the law’s requirements. The commission passed resolu- 
tions commending the operation of the mint and the new 
silver peace dollar, noting with approval the coinage of 
a silver dollar commemorative of the peace following the 
Great War, thus completing the redesigning of the entire 
silver coinage of the Government. The commission re- 
ports that the designs of the new coinage have been 
brought to a state of artistic excellence compared with 
the best coinage of nations. 








April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


525 


Mexican Mining Law Under the New Constitution 
of 1917 


Extralateral Rights Not Recognized—Exploration Confined to the Areas 
Specified in Federal Permits—Strict Requirements as to Surveys for 
Title—Foreigners May Acquire Mineral Land Except in a Prohibited Zone 


By D. A. RICHARDSON 


Mexico, but also those of the United States, are 

largely the outgrowth of civil rather than com- 
mon law, notwithstanding the fact that the law of the 
United States has, in most instances, been an offspring 
of the common law of England. 

The civil law concerning mines, in force in Spain 
at the time of the settlement of Mexico by the 
Spaniards, was based upon the assumption that mines 
should not become property in the same sense as the 
soil, but should be held and worked for the public good. 
This law always regarded gold, silver, precious stones, 
and precious metals as belonging to the state absolutely, 
though some of the lower or baser metals belonged to 
the owner of the soil, subject to control by certain of the 
departments of the state. The resemblance to the com- 
mon law of England exists in the so-called “royal 
mines,” which, when proved to exist within private 


ground, are still considered the property of the govern- 
ment. 


N= ONLY the mining laws of the Republic of 


EXISTING LAW DATES FROM 1910 


The present mining law of Mexico became effective 
on July 10, 1910, and still governs except where it con- 
flicts with the new constitution of 1917. The old 
Spanish mining laws in force at the time of the Mexican 
independence were retained for many years, with such 
changes only as were necessitated by the change in the 
form of government; and until the adoption of the 
mining law of June 4, 1892, the Spanish ordinance of 
May 23, 1783, was largely determinative of all rights in 
mining properties. Among the provisions of the old 
ordinance will be found the following, which are at 
least of historical interest: 

Mines could be granted to certain persons who could, 
in turn, dispose of them to persons qualified to hold 
mines. This grant was of a right to work the mines 
rather than a right to the mine itself. The conditions 
of the grant were: First, the payment of a royalty 
into the royal treasury, this generally being a fixed 
proportion of the metal extracted, without reference 
to the expense of production; and, second, that mining 
eperations should be carried on as provided by the vari- 
ous ordinances, in default of which the rights of the 
holder were forfeited. 

Under the present law the title to all mines is in the 
Republic of Mexico, and as to the first condition is quite 
different, as mining property, when once acquired, may 
now be held as long as the federal tax is paid. This 
tax has really been substituted for the old royalty, which 
was a part of the metal extracted. As to the second con- 
dition, no work is now required of the possessor of 
mining rights, his title depending upon the payment of 
the tax imposed. 

The term “cl4im” as used in the mining laws of the 
United States has no exact equivalent in the Mexican 





law; the word pertenencia (meaning portion) is the 
unit of measurement of the surface of mining rights, 
and in the old Spanish law consisted of a piece of 
ground two hundred yards along the course of the vein, 
one hundred yards in width for a perpendicular vein, 
and not to exceed two hundred yards in width for a 
vein having a dip or pitch. 


THE PERTENENCIA IS THE CLAIM UNIT 


A pertenencia, under the present law, consists of a 
piece of ground the surface of which is one hundred 
meters square, which size can be departed from only if 
former locations have segregated the ground in such 
shape that the form and size must, of necessity, be 
varied. The fact that the vein has or has not a dip or 
pitch does not effect the size of the pertenencia. 

Under the old ordinance a discoverer of a new mineral 
district could acquire rights in not to exceed three per- 
tenencias on the principal vein discovered, and a dis- 
coverer of mineral in a known mineral district could 
acquire rights from the crown in not to exceed two 
pertenencias on the discovered vein, regardless of 
whether the pertenencias were contiguous or separated. 

Under the present law there is no distinction between 
discoveries in new districts or elsewhere, and any 
proper person may locate a piece of mineral ground con- 
taining as many pertenencias as he desires, although 
he may not locate less than one pertenencia, except 
where the size and shape of the free ground to be located 
is such that a full pertenencia cannot be located. 


SPANISH MINING LAW INFLUENCED 
AMERICAN LEGISLATION 


Originally, the manner of initiating a right to mineral 
ground bore considerable resemblance to the procedure 
of miners under the local rules and customs in many of 
the new districts of the United States during the great 
mining activity following the discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. Yale, the author of the pioneer work on American 
mining law, thus comments on the similarity: 

“Most of the rules and customs constituting the [mining] 
code are easily recognized by those familiar with the 
Mexican ordinances, the Continental mining codes [and] 
especially the Spanish. . In the earlier days of 
placer diggings in California, the large influx of miners 
from the Western coast of Mexico and South America neces- 
sarily dictated the system of work to Americans who were 
almost entirely inexperienced in this branch of industry. 

‘ The Spanish-American system which has grown 
up under the workings of the mining ordinance of New 
Spain was the culmination of the rules and customs 
adopted.” 

The old Spanish law exerted an evident influence 
on the mining law of the United States, for as late as 
Feb. 12, 1848, Colonel Mason, as Military Governor 
of California, considered it necessary to issue a procla- 



























a ELEN ND CELERANT IIA ENED EAE LLL PAELLA IAN LEDL LOLA ALES ALL 














526 Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


mation declaring that “from and after this date, the 
Mexican laws and customs now prevailing in California, 
relative to the denouncement of mines, are hereby abol- 
ished.” 

A reference to the present Mexican laws relative to 
denouncement or location shows that the old Spanish 
ordinances resemble the present laws of the United 
States relative to location fully as closely as does the 
present Mexican law. It will be seen that the miners 
of California found, as being well suited to their pecu- 
liar wants, the main principles of the mining laws of 
Spain still in force at the time of the discovery of gold 
in California; and, among these, discovery, being the 
source of title, and development, which was necessary 
to the continuation thereof, were the two main prin- 
ciples out of which the present United States mining 
laws have grown, although the present Mexican law 
has almost entirely ignored both of these principles. 

The location of abandoned mines, according to the 
Mexican law, was made in practically the same manner 
as an original location, but, in addition thereto, the 
locator was compelled to set forth the names of the 
former holder and the adjoining neighbors, they being 
then summoned to give evidence as to the facts of aban- 
donment. Under the present laws, generally, no refer- 
ence need be made to the former locator for the purpose 
of establishing the fact of the abandonment. 

After the boundaries of the claims had been ascer- 
tained, the locator was obliged to mark them by either 
permanent stakes or land marks, easily distinguishable, 
and to further engage to keep and observe them forever 
without the right to change them except where no other 
rights had intervened. The present law relative to the 
change of boundaries is practically the same, but the 
provision as to the character of the markings now 
requires solid monuments, so closely set that one may 
stand at one monument and see the preceding as well 
as the following one. It is further provided that the 
color and shape shall differ from those of adjacent 
claims. 

Although a vein discovered was in ground belonging 
to private owners, the discoverer could denounce it, 
but the surface rights had to be acquired from the 
owner. At present, private ground can be explored only 
by other than the owner after permission is obtained 
through either the owner or the administrative authori- 
ties. 


SUPERIORITY OF MEXICAN LAW RECOGNIZED 


Under the early ordinances, as well as under the 
present law, there was an absolute right to work all 
veins or portions of veins within the located claim, re- 
gardless of the apex and without regard to the dip or 
pitch. There was and is absolutely no right to follow 
a vein either on the strike or dip outside of the lines 
of the claim, unless the vein passes into vacant ground, 
in which the locator must acquire rights prior to other 
locators, to protect himself in the possession of the 
extended vein. The contrast between this feature and 
the extralateral right accorded the locator under the 
laws of the United States is probably the most impor- 
tant of the entire mining system, and the superiority 
of the Mexican law, particularly where there are many 
adjacent locations, in districts containing numerous 
cross lodes, broken veins and covered apexes, is recog- 
nized in the United States in many such districts by 
the execution of agreements between the principal mine 
owners restricting the rights of locators and mine work- 








Vol. 113, No. 13 


ers to the ore found within the space formed by extend- 
ing their surface lines vertically downward. 

Originally, foreigners were not allowed to work mines 
in Mexico, but later their right to furnish capital to 
those entitled to hold them, and to retain an interest in 
the property worked, was recognized. Still later, resident 
foreigners were allowed to work mines in their own 
names. All religious orders, whether foreign or not, 
were prohibited from acquiring any mining rights. At 
present, foreigners, whether resident or non-resident, 
may acquire title to mines and work them when not 
within the prohibited zone. 


PROHIBITED ZONE FOR FOREIGNERS 


Foreigners may not under any conditions acquire 
direct ownership of lands and waters which are not 
distant at least one hundred kilometers (sixty-two and 
one-half miles) from a national boundary line, or fifty 
kilometers (thirty-one and one-fourth miles) from the 
coast line. Only Mexicans by birth or by naturalization, 
or Mexican corporations, have a right to acquire do- 
minion over lands, waters, and their dependents, or to 
obtain concessions for the exploitation of mines, water 
power, or combustible mineral in the prohibited zone. 

The state may concede the same right to foreigners 
providing they agree, by arrangement with the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs, to consider themselves as Mexi- 
cans in all that has to do with said properties, and that 
they will not invoke the protection of their respective 
governments in matters relating to these properties, 
with the understanding that if they fail to comply 
strictly with this agreement, they will loose their rights 
over the properties they may have acquired by virtue 
of said agreement, the same passing again to the domin- 
ion of the nation. 

Mexican corporations organized by foreigners with 
a statement in their articles of incorporation that. the 
stockholders of the corporation consider themselves as 
Mexicans in all that has to do with properties owned 
by the corporation, and that they will not invoke the 
protection of their respective governments in matters 
relating to the property owned by the corporation, with 
the understanding that if they fail to comply strictly 
with conditions the corporation will loose its rights over 
the properties owned by it or that it may have acquired, 
the same passing again to the dominion of the nation, 
may own mining properties within the limits of the 
prohibited zone. 

In Mexico, the disposition of the national lands, in- 
cluding mines, whether situate on national lands or 
in respect to precious metals and minerals, even when 
situate on private land, are within the control of the 
federal government, and are not subject to the control, 
except in minor matters, of the individual states or 
territories. The federal mining law is operative in all 
of the states and territories in the same manner as the 
national mining law of the United States, but it is not 
supplemented by state laws, regulations, and customs, 
as is frequently the condition in the United States. 

Under the present law and regulations, the various 
steps to be followed in obtaining a mining title are 
clearly explained, but the order in which they are pre- 
sented is not that in which they are performed in actual 
practice. It has seemed advisable to present a general 
outline of the acts to be performed in the order in which 
the locator encounters them. 

Exploring permits to explore national ground may be 
obtained from the proper mining agent on application. 





April 1, 1922 


The permit covers a piece of ground surrounding a 
fixed point, and the diameter cannot exceed one thou- 
sand meters. The permit cannot cover ground thereto- 
fore worked as mineral, nor can it be allowed within 200 
meters of a mining property. The permit is valid for 
sixty days, during which time only the one holding the 
permit can denounce ground within the zone. If a 
prospector desires to explore private ground and the 
owner will not give his consent, the mining agent, after 
hearing both parties, will exact from the explorer a 
bond to cover any loss or damage that may accrue to the 
land owner, and the permission to explore the ground 
will be granted. The petition for the exploration permit 
is presented to the mining agent in duplicate with a 
certificate from a licensed expert (mining surveyor) to 
the effect that the ground has no mines upon it and is 
distant at least 200 meters from the nearest mining 
property. 

Denouncement certificates, with the proper fees, must 
be filed in the mining agency within the jurisdiction in 
which the property denounced’ is. located. 

The denouncement certificate represents both the loca- 
tion notice and application for patent as they are under- 
stood in the United States. It must be formulated in 
writing and in duplicate, and in it shall be stated the 
name, age, occupation, nationality, legal residence and 
temporary address of the party denouncing, the sub- 
stances which are particularly intended to be exploited, 
the number of pertenencias, their location on the ground, 
together with such data as may serve to identify them, 
the designation of the adjoining mineral properties when 
there are any, and the district in which the pertenencias 
are situated. 


DENOUNCEMENTS EXECUTED ACCORDING TO 
REGULATIONS 


In addition, the location with reference to some per- 
manent object must be given, so that the claim may be 
easily identified, and the names of the denouncers must 
be specified and individually set forth. The denounce- 
ment must be made and signed in person by the party 
denouncing or by his lawful representative or by an 
attorney in fact, who must show his authority by a 
public document (power of attorney). 

The mining agent must receive the denouncement and 
indorse upon his register, and also upon the document, 
the day and hour of its receipt. The publication of the 
extract of the denouncement is in actual practice at- 
tended to by the agent, but is paid for by the denouncer. 
If the denouncement is made in the name of a foreigner 
(American), application for permission to hold title in 
his name should be made and filed with the denounce- 
ment certificate. 

The locator shall name the surveyor or expert in the 
certificate, although it is not absolutely necessary, as 
the mineral agent will appoint a surveyor within three 
days if the locator does not name one. In practice, the 
locator generally procures the surveyor to survey the 
claim before the certificate is presented, and the field 
notes are used in describing the claim. After the cer- 
tificate is filed and the surveyor appointed, he makes 
return of the survey without again going upon the 
ground. The surveyor must notify the agent of his 
acceptance or refusal within eight days, and if he 
accepts the work he must complete the survey and file 





1This term is peculiar to the mining law of Mexico and means 
to offer for record a legal notice of a claim for a mintng conces- 
sion covering a described area of land the mining rights to which 
reside in the federal government.—EDITOR. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





527 


his return within seventy-eight days after the denounce- 
ment is filed and within sixty days after his appoint- 
ment. 

The survey and return, including the map or plan, 
is made in strict accordance with the regulations and 
instructions and is not a matter in which the denouncer 
can render any great assistance. In addition to the 
survey and return, the surveyor or the owner shall cause 
to be erected the monuments needed, which shall be 
solid foundations of rubble stone masonry, not less than 
fifty centimeters in height, level on top and square in 
shape, each side being not less than fifty centimeters. 

The following rules shall be observed in the placing 
of monuments: 

1. The position of monuments shall not be changed 
so long as the mining properties for which they serve 
as monuments are not changed. They shall be solidly 
constructed and shall always be kept in good condition. 

2. They shall be placed in convenient locations in 
whatever numbers may be necessary, in order that from 
each of said monuments the monument on each side 
thereof may be seen, and they shall be distinguished 
from the monuments erected on adjoining mining prop- 
erties by their dimensions, form, color, or some other 
characteristic. 


PROCURING TITLE REQUIRES PATIENCE 


When the final report of the expert or surveyor has 
been filed with the agent, notice of this fact is posted 
on the bulletin board of the agency for fifteen days. 
At the expiration of one hundred and twenty days from 
the date of the acceptance of the expert, the agent shall, 
if the whole matter is not delayed pending adverse or 
opposition proceedings, make a copy of the record and 
transmit it to the Department of Commerce, Industry, 
and Labor. 

The department shall disapprove of the proceedings 
if there has been an infraction of the laws or regula- 
tions by the denouncer, or it may order an amendment 
in accordance with the justice of the case as it appears 
from the record. 

Upon the approval of the proceedings, the mining 
title, corresponding to the patent in the United States, 
is executed by the secretary. It is then either delivered 
to the owner or his duly authorized attorney in fact, 
or transmitted to the local mining agent. Notice is also 
given the Department of Hacienda that its agent may be 
prepared to collect the taxes. 

The local agent notifies the owner of the receipt of 
the title by posting a notice on the agency bulletin board 
for thirty days, and the title is retained, if not called 
for, until the owner receives notice of the announcement 
of the forfeiture of the property. 

Upon the delivery of the title, the owner should im- 
mediately have it recorded in the register of the munici- 
pality where the property is situated. The record date 
of the title is counted from the date of issue, if it is 
thus recorded within thirty days from the date of issue, 
but otherwise it dates only from the day of actual 
record. 

The title should then be presented to the stamp agent, 
and the taxes, if any are due, must be paid to the end 
of the tercio in which the title issued. The owner is 
then not only entitled to absolute possession of the mine, 
but has the right to ship ore as though he were the 
absolute owner, as under a patent from the government 
in the United States, and his rights continue as long 
as the mining tax is paid. 








528 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


T. A. Rickard, Engineer-Editor 


An Interview, by Charles Butters and W. J. Loring 


B. You are of English origin? 

Cornish on my father’s side, Scottish-Irish on my 
mother’s. 

B. You were born in Cornwall? 

No, I was born at Pertusola, in Italy, in 1864. My 
father was in charge of a smelter operated by a British 
company at that place. Only last week we received a 
subscription to the M. & S. P. from the Societa di Per- 
tusola; in the accompanying letter the writer stated that 
he recalled my father’s connection with the management 
and that since then the plant had grown so much that it 
was now the largest lead-smelting establishment in Italy. 
B. So it seems that you happened, at your birth, to be 

connected with a successful enterprise. 

Yes, I shall be glad to accept the coincidence as a mas- 
cot. I might add that thirty years ago, when in charge 
of mines in France, I had the pleasure of selling ore to 
the smelter at Pertusola. 

L. Has that smelter been in operation continuously 
since that date? 

Yes, it has. The control of it was acquired by Sir 
Thomas Brassey, later Lord Brassey, and it remained in 
the family until recently. 

L. Your own family was connected with mining, then? 

Yes, my father, Thomas Rickard, was the eldest of five 
brothers, all of whom were mining engineers and metal- 
lurgists. My grandfather was James Rickard, known as 
“Captain” because he was a Cornish mine captain. He 
was one of the first accredited mining engineers to come 
to California, in the summer of 1850, in behalf of John 
Taylor & Sons, a firm still honorably active in London, 
for whom he examined the Mariposa grant, then under 
option from General John C. Fremont, “the Pathfinder” 
and the rival of Lincoln for the Presidency in 1856. My 
grandfather brought a sectional stamp-mill to California, 
to test the ore of the Mother Lode, and this was the first 
stamp-mill erected in California—at Coulterville, in 
Mariposa County. Hennen Jennings and Edward Ben- 
jamin told me that they had seen records to this effect, 
but unfortunately they were destroyed in the San 
Francisco fire. 

B. The firm of John Taylor & Sons is the oldest min- 
ing engineering firm in existence? 

Yes, I believe it is; and I am glad to say that, as the 
grandson of James Rickard, I am on friendly terms with 
the grandsons of the founders, John and Richard Taylor. 
I may add that my great-grandfather was Richard 
Rickard, also a Cornish mine captain, who was a man of 
distinction in his own little world in the “‘old county,” as 
the Cornish call it. 

L. Were you educated in Italy? 

No. Two years after my birth, my father went to 
Andeer, in Switzerland, for John Taylor & Sons, and 
after two years more he went to Russia as manager for 
the Russia Copper Co., operating two smelters and sev- 
eral groups of mines close to the Russo-Asiatic border. 
Some of the mines were across the border in western 
Siberia. My first recollection of mining operations is of 
an aérial rope-tramiway in Switzerland, but my first 
memory of a mine is that of the copper mines at Kargal- 
insky, in the Ural region. In these, the copper occurred 


native and as carbonate—that is, in a form attractive to 
the eye, so that I remembered it. Moreover, the copper 
appeared as a replacement of plant remains in the 
Permian sandstone, and the peculiar character of these 
deposits naturally arrested my boyish observation. 

L. What was your early education? 

The first language that I learned to speak was Ger- 
man, because our nurse came with us from the German- 
speaking part of Switzerland, near Ziirich. In Russia, 
my first teaching was received from a Russian tutor, and 
the first history I learned was the history of Russia. 
Until I was fourteen, I thought in German, and spoke 
Russian better than English. While in the Ural, I used 
to accompany my father on some of his inspections, and 
I recall the fact more particularly that I acted as inter- 
preter for him and for George W. Maynard, of New 
York. Maynard came there, I believe, to introduce some 
American concentrating machinery. Twenty-two years 
later, W. H. Emanuel, who represented Fraser & 
Chalmers in Denver, brought Maynard to my office, 
whereupon the following colloquy ensued. I asked him: 
“Are you Professor Maynard?” He admitted it. Then 
I said, “George W. Maynard?” He said “Yes.” Where- 
upon I said, “I knew you long ago’; and he replied, 
“Are you that boy?” “Iam.” Our renewed acquaintance 
started a friendship that lasted as long as he lived. 

B. To what school did you go? 

While in Russia, my brother Forbes and I had a Rus- 
sian tutor. Later, when I was eleven, the three oldest 
children, including my eldest sister, now Mrs. F. W. 
Baker, of London, traveled from the Siberian border to 
England, to go to boarding schools. I remember that 
we went up the Volga, from Ufa to Nijni Novgorod, and 
then by train to St. Petersburg. The journey to Eng- 
land from the Ural took three weeks and three days. My 
brother and I went to school at Taunton, in Somerset- 
shire. In England it would be described—pathetically 
—as a lower middle-class school, but it was a good 
school. It is known now as Queen’s College. We had a 
field club and a debating society. In the debating 
society we learned to speak while on our feet; in our 
field-club rambles we obtained glimpses of natural his- 
tory. I remained there for six years and then matricu- 
lated at London University. 

B. Was the teaching at this school helpful to you in 
your profession? 

It was useful for mining engineering in so far as we 
received a smattering of science, but my taste at that 
time was all for English and the classics. 

L. Had you already decided to follow in the footsteps 
of your father? 

No; on the contrary, I had won a scholarship at Cam- 
bridge and was about to go there, with a view to adopt- 
ing one of the so-called liberal professions, possibly the 
law, when I was diverted by the advice of my uncle, 
Reuben Rickard, who arrived in England on a visit from 
Berkeley, California. He was, as those that knew him 
will recall, a kindly and eminently sensible man. He 
urged me to follow the family calling, and I had so much 
respect for his sagacity that I did as he had suggested 
to me. 








April 1, 1922 


B. Don’t you think you were particularly fortunate to 
have had the good sense at that age to be willing to 
accept the advice of an older man? 

I cannot analyze my reasons for accepting the advice, 
but I feel sure that one of them was the fact that I liked 
the adviser; so I went to the Royal School of Mines, in 
which at that time Huxley was dean of the faculty. 
B. You emphasize the fact that Huxley was the dean. 

Yes, indeed, because, although I was only a boy, I 
learned quickly to appreciate the fact that I was in 
touch with one of the great men of the world. He was 
an extremely attractive character in many ways. He 
would preside at some of our student meetings and 
always spoke so as to hold the attention and deep respect 
of the students. While at South Kensington, I had the 
honor of serving on a committee with him. 

B. How old were you then? 

I was eighteen or nineteen. The reason why I was 
chosen as a representative of the students on this com- 
mittee was that, although I entered as a private student, 
I won a free studentship, so that I received monetary 
assistance from the Government, and that ranged me 
with the men who were being trained to be science 
teachers. Among them was H. G. Wells. After gradu- 
ating, I bought a set of nine volumes of Huxley’s essays 
for $10, and I have them still. What is more, I have 
lent them to several young men at different times dur- 
ing the last forty years. 


L. When did you graduate? 

I graduated with the class of 1885, in June of that 
year, and sailed by the “‘Aurania” for the United States 
at once, before I had received my diploma, arriving at 
Denver on July 25. 


B. To what extent has your college training helped 
you? 

Greatly, of course. The teaching at the School of 
Mines was not as good, in some respects, as can be 
obtained now in many mining colleges in this country. It 
dealt more with principles and less with the application 
of those principles; it was more a college of science than 
a school of mines. Indeed, being the son of a mining 
engineer and having heard mining discussed at home so 
much, I skipped the mining course and took the one in 
metallurgy, because I had already made up my mind, 
from hearing my seniors talk, that practical mining was 
not a thing that could be taught in lectures. Having a 
scholarship and having a certain measure of choice in 
my curriculum, instead of going to the lectures that Sir 
Warington Smyth gave on mining in the afternoon, I 
went to Westminster and listened to the debates in the 
House of Commons, followed by afternoon tea where 
there was attractive company. The great benefit that I 
received at the Royal School of Mines was the stimulus 
imparted by mental contact with Huxley. He did not 
lecture to those of us who were graduating in mining or 
metallurgy, his subjects being paleontology and biology, 
but as I took a special course in dissection and biology 
in preparation for my B.Sc. degree in London Uni- 
versity, I came under his spell. His lectures were 
windows to the infinite. 

B. You said just now that the teaching was not so good 
in your time as in some of our modern schools, but 
is it not true that the purpose of the teaching in a 
college should be to impart a thorough knowledge of 
principles ? 

You are perfectly right, and I think some of our 
schools overlook this fact, giving too much time te 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





529 


details that are soon forgotten and soon obsolete, 

whereas the principles endure,. 

B. You also had more of your teachers’ time than the 
average student obtains today in our crowded col- 
leges. 

That is true. There were twenty-four of us in our 
class, and only five or six graduated. 

L. Who were your fellow students? 

I have mentioned Wells. Sir Thomas Rose, the author 
of “The Metallurgy of Gold,” was in the class that fol- 
lowed mine; also Henry F. Collins, who was a brilliant 
student and won distinction. My own particular pals 
were Ernest R. Woakes, who is now with John Taylor 
& Sons, and Percy E. O. Carr, who was manager for 
the Mazapil Copper Co. and was killed at Saltillo during 
the Mexican revolution in 1918. My brother Forbes was 
in the class after me. He is now living at Denver. My 
cousin James was my contemporary part of the time. 
Both of them graduated. Besides these kinsmen, my 
wife’s brother, Harold Rickard, was also a student there, 
but several years later. 

L. Were your college associations of any use to You in 
after life? 

No, they were not useful, although many of them 
were, and are still, delightful. The reason that they 
were not useful was that I left England and plunged 
into a new environment in the United States. 

L. What did you first do after arriving at Denver? 

I joined my uncle, Alfred Rickard, the youngest of 
my father’s brothers, at Idaho Springs, in Colorado, as 
assayer to the Kohinoor & Donaldson Co. My uncle was 
manager for several British companies operating near 
Idaho Springs and Central City. I received my first 
pay, $100, on my twenty-first birthday. I had not taken 
the surveying course at the School of Mines, so late in 
the fall of ’86 I went to Leadville as the guest of 
William Hanson, then the manager for the La Plata 
company, to which the firm of Rickard Bros. was con- 
sulting engineer. I stayed at the company’s house and 
took advantage of the opportunity to learn surveying 
by working gratuitously with Charles Dunham, the 
company’s surveyor. On going back to Central City, 
where my uncle was then living, I was appointed sur- 
veyor as well as assayer to a group of mines, and my 
pay was doubled, to $200 per month. I was glad to 
do the surveying, because, among other things, it 
enabled me to begin the study of structural geology. 
B. Did you like surveying? 

Not much. Our mine workings were small, extremely 
dirty, and cold. The surveying had to be done under 
conditions of great physical discomfort; and although, 
of course, I was willing to face anything, I cannot say 
that I liked it. 

B. Your pay was pretty good for that time. 

Yes, but then you must remember that the manager 
was my uncle. What is the use of an uncle anyhow 
unless you can get good pay through him? Here I may 
add that Alfred Rickard was more like an elder brother 
than an uncle to me; he was a kind and considerate 
man, and a first-rate manager of mines, with a keen eye 
for exploratory work underground. 

L. What did you do next? 

After I had been with my uncle a couple of years, his 
wife died and he had to go to England with the children, 
leaving me in charge of several small mines. One of 


them was the California, which was the deepest gold 
mine in Colorado; the shaft was 2,260 ft. on the dip of 








530 


the vein, or 2,040 ft. vertically. The hoisting was done 

with a hemp rope, and many is the time that I remember 

being startled when it would slip on the drum, giving 
the bucket a drop that made me fear it was going to 
the bottom. 

During my uncle’s absence, I received a visit from 
Philip Argall, who had succeeded Hanson as manager 
for the La Plata company, at Leadville. He had just 
returned from California, where he had been examining 
a gold mine. He seemed to like my work as temporary 
manager, and asked me whether I would like to be the 
manager of the mine in California. As I had been to 
California on a visit to my Uncle Reuben, at Berkeley, 
during the previous winter and had returned with a de- 
lightful impression of California, I told him promptly 
that I would be glad to go thither. The result was 
that I was appointed manager of a mine called the 
Union, previously owned by the Rathgeb brothers, four 
miles south of San Andreas, close to the road from 
San Andreas to Angels Camp, in Calaveras County. 
L. You were rather a young mine manager, were you 

not? 

Yes, I took charge soon after my twenty-third birth- 
day. I had a house, hot and cold water, a Chinaman, a 
horse and buggy, and $300 per month. 

B. I have noticed in your various writings a friendly 
feeling for Philip Argall, and now I can understand 
it. 

~ Yes, sir; you are right. A fellow that cannot remem- 

ber with gratitude the friend to whom he owed his first 

management of a mine would be a poor thing indeed. I 

had met Philip Argall when I was a boy of fourteen, 

when he was manager of the Duchy Peru mine, not far 
from Newquay, in Cornwall, as is recorded in my inter- 
view with him. 


L. What was the result of your operations in Calaveras 
County ? 

The mine was a pocket mine. It was about 250 ft. 
deep when I took charge, but the quartz below the water- 
level, at 120 ft., looked hungry. At the time I became 
manager, about $275,000 had been spent on the purchase 
and equipment of the property, and only $7,000 worth 
of gold had been won. In other words, it was a fizzle, 
for it had been sold on the report of the promoter him- 
self, a man named Hamilton, who used to paint cus- 
pidors and coal-scuttles for the Southern Pacific 
railway, and who got into mining in consequence of 
photographing mines and mining plants. The English 
company did the silly old thing of giving the manage- 
ment of the mine to the promoter, who thereby was able 
to cover up his chicanery, in the meantime receiving 
a handsome salary from his victims. Mr. Argall exposed 
the whole affair and advised a change of management, 
so I succeeded Hamilton. I did not know enough to 
hurt me, but I did see at once that the past production 
of the mine had come entirely from pockets above the 
water-level, so I put one or two trustworthy men to 
work in search of more pockets. This was successful. 
I took out $3,000 in two hours with an iron candlestick 
myself, and a working miner took out $25,000 at a cost 
of $200, which was his pay, in one month. I paid him 
extra wages, because the work required a man of special 
integrity. I advised the company to do a little prospect- 
ing before they abandoned the enterprise. I remember 
that at that time I made the acquaintance of Charles D. 
Lane, who was running the Utica, and he told me that 
the show was no good because we were not in the 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


“black slate,” or Mariposa schist. We were in the gray 
schist, and our quartz was not of the ribbony kind char- 
acterizing the real Mother Lode mines. We were on the 
western edge of it. 

L. Did you find much specimen ore? 

No, only in spots. When I made a profit, thanks to 
these pockets, the directors wrote most complimentary 
letters, but when the returns dwindled, I received a let- 
ter upbraiding me for my failure; whereupon I wrote to 
them that, whereas I recognized that it was my duty to 
search diligently for ore and to extract it at the mini- 
mum cost, I declined to be held responsible for the dis- 
tribution of the gold in the crust of the earth, because I 
had not been consulted by the Almighty when these 
interesting ore deposits were being created. The chair- 
man of the company showed this letter to my father, a 
most punctilious gentieman, from whom I received a 
letter suggesting that I ought to be more respectful. 
B. So at your first mine you received a fairly handsome 

salary and the poor shareholders received nothing ? 
Were you ever in the happy position of being able 
to benefit both yourself and the shareholders? 

Yes, I am glad to say that I have returned in dividends 
many hundred times more than I have received, for I 
have been manager or consulting engineer of mines that 
have yielded over $50,000,000 in gold and silver. 

B. Do you think that you have received your fair pro- 
portion of the profits? 

Yes, I think I have, for I did not risk my capital; as 
an engineer I did not receive much as compared with the 
promoters, but that is another story. 

L. How long did you remain in Calaveras County? 

Two years, from 1887 to 1889. Early in 1889 the 
directors sent a mining engineer to investigate condi- 
tions generally, and incidentally to criticize my manage- 
ment. They took pains to select a man unacquainted 
with my family, an Australian named Charles Cowland. 
He proved to be a most agreeable man, for, among other 
things, he expressed a favorable opinion of my youthful 
attempts as a manager and asked me to go with him to 
Australia. So, in October, 1889, I went with him to 
London and from there to Australia. 

B. What did you do? 

I examined several mines that he was promoting, and 
I regret to say that I had to report unfavorably on most 
of them, but we continued to be friends. I had saved 
enough money from my salary in California to be able 
to travel, and this I did energetically. In the course of 
two years I examined eighty-five mines in Australia, all 
the way from Broken Hill to Mount Morgan. 

B. Did you get fees for the examination of these prop- 
erties ? 

No, sir. I received mighty few fees, and even those I 
found hard to collect, for in those days the people who 
paid for reports expected to see them first. However, 
I obtained a good working knowledge of the principal 
ore deposits of Australia and of the prevailing mining 
and metallurgical practices. 

B. So you bought your experience? 

Yes, in a measure. Here I may say that I began to 
write. I wrote several articles for the Melbourne Even- 
ing Standard. My first contribution to the Transac- 
tions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
was my paper on Mount Morgan, which I wrote at this 
time and which was published in Volume 20 (1891). 

L. Was this your first writing? 
No, the first technical article that I wrote was on the 











April 1, 1922 


Globe mill, a kind of ball-mill. This was when I was 

eighteen years old, and I remember being paid £6 for 

the job. My next article to appear in print was a 

description of the ore deposits at Redcliff, near Lead- 

ville; this I contributed to the London Mining Journal 

in May, 1886. 

L. What led you to write? 

The love of writing. While at school, I was editor of 
a manuscript magazine and contributed frequently to 
the printed magazine that was published quarterly. I 
may add that, as a schoolboy, I looked upon poetry as 
rather “sissy” stuff, but one of our masters read us 
Tennyson’s “Lady Clara Vere de Vere” and the “Ode to 
the Duke of Wellington,” and I was so much impressed 
by both of them that I started to read Tennyson, and 
after that read four or five other poets right through. 
Shortly afterward I entered for the prize poem and was 
second, and the next term I wrote the prize poem, the 
subject of which was the discovery of America by 
Columbus. 

B. So in your life’s work you have followed your early 
bent? 

Yes, that is true. 

B. And thus obtained a double profit? 

To that I agree also, for if a man can do what he 
likes, if a man’s hobby becomes his occupation, he is 
most fortunate. 

B. Turning back to your Australian experience, I re- 
member your paper on the Bendigo saddle-reefs. 

Yes, that was one of my earliest contributions to 
economic geology. No doubt, for many years, if I was 
known at all, I was known as the author of that paper; 
and I would say for the benefit of the younger men that 
this was pleasant, because when I called on a mine man- 
ager or visited the office of a mining company and gave 
my name they would at once ask me if I was the man 
that had written about the Bendigo saddle-reefs. In 
other words, I made many mental acquaintances in con- 
sequence of that piece of writing. 

B. Which shows, Mr. Rickard, that the young man who 
early commences to write carefully about his work 
gets a benefit more far-reaching than he supposes. 

You are right. Apart from the enlargement of one’s 
mental acquaintance, there is the benefit that comes to a 
man from having a reason for making notes and pre- 
serving his impressions of the things he sees. Any one 
of us who visited a mining district ten years ago and is 
asked now to describe it will find extreme difficulty in 
giving anything but the vaguest description, whereas if 
we made notes at the time, and particularly if we took 
pains to prepare them for publication, we could now re- 
fresh our memories so as to give an intelligent account. 
The writing of a paper compels a man to crystallize his 
information on a subject; before that it is amorphous. 
B. It seems to me that our profession was fortunate in 

finding one among its number who was willing to 
retire from active work and write about what his 
fellow-engineers are doing, and I sincerely hope you 
may continue to fill that useful position. A friend 
of mine, Adolph Goertz, the head of the firm of 

Adolph Goertz & Co., who represented the Deutsche 

Bank in South Africa, said to me, “Butters, while it 

is important first to do a thing, it is equally as im- 

portant, after doing it, to write about it, so that the 

world may know what you have done, because then 
the useful thing that you have done becomes com- 
mon property.” I think the average engineer is 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





531 


loath to write on what he is doing, and it is a, pity. 
My first South African engagement was brought 
about by an article I wrote in 1889 to the “Mining 
and Scientific Press” about a process for the treat- 
ment of low-grade tailings that I had developed at 
Kennett, in Shasta County. 

L. What did you do after leaving Australia? 

I was examining a mine in Otago, New Zealand, when 
I received a cablegram from my father, asking me to 
come to France to take charge of a mine of which he was 
managing director. This was in 1891. In November of 
that year I went to Grenoble, in the Department of the 
Isére, and went from there to Allemont, where the 
French Mines, Ltd., was operating two groups of mines 
—a silver-lead group and a nickel-cobalt-silver group. 
The latter deposits, named Les Challanches, were a pro- 
totype of those at Cobalt, as was recognized and stated 
by Dr. Willet Miller in his official report as Provincial 
Geologist of Ontario in 1904, in which he quoted my de- 
scription of the Challanches veins as given in Trans. 
A. I. M. E. of 1894. This old mining district in France 
is in a beautiful region, the Dauphiné; I lived in a house 
that belonged to the Dauphin, or son of the King, more 
than two centuries ago. 

L. Were the mines any good? 

No, of course not. The Lord rarely puts mines amid 
such lovely surroundings. My father was doing a lot of 
interesting engineering work, equipping the mines with 
single-bucket rope-ways that ran up the cliffs, and erect- 
ing a concentrator at Grand Clos. When the mill was 
about ready to start, we were checked by a severe frost. 
I did not regard this as a calamity, because I could see 
no future for the mines. The workings consisted of a 
series of galleries or adit-levels driven into a steep hill- 
side. There was ore in the face of the top level and in 
the face of the bottom level, about 500 ft. apart verti- 
cally, and ore had been found in a vertical range ex- 
ceeding this, but I could see no warrant for assuming 
that the ore in the lowest workings had persisted from 
an upper horizon on a level with the uppermost work- 
ings. On the contrary, I believed in measuring the per- 
sistence of the ore, not from the imaginary horizontal 
surface of a former geologic day but from a surface 
more nearly parallel to the inclined surface of the exist- 
ing hillside. In the sequel this proved true, for the 
drifts ran out of ore at approximately the same distance 
from the surface. 

L. So you did not stay there long? 

No, I had lost confidence in the enterprise and was 
anxious to leave before the funeral. 

B. In the words of Henry C. Perkins to Cecil Rhodes, 
in reference to Rhodesia, you did not want “to stay 
up with the corpse” ? 

Just about that time my Australian friend Cowland 
appeared on the scene again and made an appointment 
with me in Paris, where he asked me to join him as his 
assistant, he having been appointed consulting engineer 
to H. H. Warner, of Safe Cure fame. Warner was en- 
gaged in mining operations in the Western States, and 
Cowland recognized that he himself knew more about 
placer mining than he did about vein mining, so he 
wanted me to join him, and I was glad to do it, because 
the appointment took me back to Colorado and to my old 
haunts in the West. 

B. What age were you then? 

I was twenty-eight. I went to Denver and examined 
the old Caribou mine, in Boulder County, as well as other 





532 


mines in other parts of the state. Later, on my advice, 
Warner bought the Hillside mine, near Prescott, Ari- 
zona, and then, to my horror, he started a share cam- 
paign characterized by practices of a questionable kind. 
The mine itself was a good one, but he capitalized it at 
several times its value and then proceeded to gut it. 
I resigned, and opened an office on my own account at 
Denver. This was in 1893. 

L. You were successful as a consulting engineer? 

Yes, in a measure. In those days the opportunities 

. for an independent engineer were better than they are 
now. In ’94 I became manager of the Enterprise mine, 
at Rico, and in ’96 I was appointed State Geologist by 
Governor McIntyre. I was reappointed by the two suc- 
ceeding governors, Alva Adams and Charles S. Thomas, 
so that I was State Geologist for three terms, or six 
years, until 1902. 
L. When did you go to Australia the second time? 

In 1897, while State Geologist of Colorado, I was en- 
gaged by the Venture Corporation to examine mines in 
Western Australia, which was then enjoying a boom. 
L. Do you consider that the boom was justified? 

Yes, it was, because some extraordinarily rich ore de- 
posits had been found at Kalgoorlie, not to mention those 
previously found near Coolgardie, but a great many 
wildcats had been foisted upon the public, particularly 
in London, on the strength of the real mines, and the 
people for whom I acted had acquired a good deal of 
property that was no good. 

L. Whom did you meet in Australia? 

Among others, Herbert Hoover. He had just come 
out for the firm of Bewick, Moreing & Co. As there 
were a number of pseudo-experts on the goldfields at 
that time, and mining engineering was rather in disre- 
pute, it was a pleasure to meet a young man so keen and 
capable. He was then twenty-three years old and I was 
thirty-three. As he came from California and I from 
Colorado, we naturally became pleasantly acquainted, 
and we agreed to exchange reports on wildcats; that is 
to say, we let each other know of prospects that we 
turned down, so as to avoid useless examinations. 

L. How long did you remain in Australia that time? 

I was there a year. Before returning, I examined 
some mines at Bendigo for my clients and then returned 
by way of London, reaching Denver in April, 1898, just 
when the United States declared war against Spain. 

B. Is there anything else that fixed that date in your 
memory ? 

You have made a good guess. It happens to be the 
date also when I declared peace with the lady who is now 
my wife—my cousin Marguerite, the daughter of Alfred 
Rickard, with whom I was first associated. I knew her 
as a child. My marriage is the cleverest thing I ever 
did. 

B. I can corroborate that. 
L. Did you resume practice at Denver? 

Yes, and I established myself in nearly the same 
offices as before, in the McPhee building. I was still 
under a retainer from the Venture Corporation, and ex- 
amined one or two mines before I was able to recommend 
the Independence. This property was floated jn London 
for a large amount of money and under circumstances 
that led to a fiasco, although the mine fully justified the 
report that I made on it in March, 1899. In the same 
year I examined the Camp Bird mine and reported 


favorably upon it in terms that the history of the mine 
has confirmed. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


L. Referring to the Independence fiasco, as you call it. 
I am aware of most of the facts and that the mine 
was placed in London at a price more than twice as 
great as your estimate of its value. You found 
yourself in a difficult position? 

Yes. The dilemma was one that may present itself to 
a mining engineer at any time. It suggests the old ques- 
tion as to whether loyalty has any limitations. In other 
words, when is an engineer justified in turning on his 
clients? As to that, I will say that a man must play the 
game even after the other fellow has quit. 

B. It was at about this time, I believe, that you became 
an editor. What were the circumstances leading to 
this? 

My work as consulting engineer compelled me to 
travel a great deal. For twelve years I averaged 35,000 
miles per annum. During the first year after I was 
married, I was at home only once for a whole week, 
although I was at home several times for a few days. 
I found the call to travel unpleasant because, naturally, 
I wanted to be more at home; and at that time I had 
begun to discover that, as I was called upon to examine 
big mines and continually bigger mines, I was compelled 
to take part in various ways in the negotiations inci- 
dental to the purchase of mines and to be associated 
with the promoters of mines, much of which work was 
entirely distasteful. It is a common experience in our 
profession that when an engineer achieves a certain 
position he is consulted by his clients not only as to the 
mines but also as to the negotiations, and he may have 
to take part in these negotiations and become cognizant 
of doings with which he is not in sympathy. These two 
considerations influenced me at the time when I received 
an opportunity to become an editor. After R. P. Roth- 
well died, the Engineering and Mining Journal passed 
for a short time into the hands of W. J. Johnston, who 
had been running a paper called Mining and Metallurgy. 
He had asked me to become editor of that paper and 
I had declined, telling him that he had better obtain 
control of the E. & M. J., and if he did I would 
consider an offer of the editorship. He did get hold of 
the E. & M. J. in 1902 and promptly telegraphed to 
me, offering me the editorship. This part of the story 
has been told by me in the reminiscences that I pub- 
lished in the anniversary number of the M. & S. P. on 
May 22, 1920. Toward the end of 1902, I went to New 
York to be ready to assume the editorship of the 
E. & M. J. on Jan. 1, 1903. 

L. How long did you remain editor of the “Journal”? 

Until the first of July, 1905. 

L. Why did you leave? 

The paper changed hands over my head three times in 
the two and a half years. I had been able to work with 
the previous controlling owners, but found it uncon- 
genial to work with John A. Hill, who was honest and 
capable, but rough and domineering. 

L. Did you have a large interest in the “E. & M. J.”’? 

The property was capitalized for $500,000; of this, 
$200,000 was in preferred stock held by eighty mining 
engineers. I myself held $50,000. During the Johnston 
regime I could have obtained control of the paper with- 
out difficulty, but I made up my mind that I did not want 
to have anything to do with the publishing end of the 
business. All I wanted to be was an independent editor, 
and therefore I did not second the idea of obtaining con- 
trol of the paper for the profession, as would have been 
entirely feasible at the end of 1903. 








April 1, 1922 


L. Why were you adverse to this idea? 

At the time of our troubles with Johnston, who was an 
erratic person, we had a finance committee consisting of 
three or four mining engineers of the first rank, includ- 
ing John Stanton and Ben B. Lawrence. I found out 
very soon that if the paper was to be controlled by a 
directorate of mining engineers it would be by a coterie 
in New York—a coterie that, either individually or col- 
lectively, would expect to direct the policy of the paper, 
not for any wrong purpose, but still in a measure for 
their own interest or for that of their friends, entirely 
in what you might call a polite way. It seemed to me 
that this would endanger the status of the paper, and 
I felt sure that I would be uncomfortable under such an 
arrangement; so I used my command of the position 
with the idea of arranging that an experienced publisher 
should hold the common stock and exercise the business 
control, while I, as editor, would be left free to run the 
reading-pages. 

L. What do you think of the Institute magazine? 
B. Look out! 

The Institute magazine is.a feeble effort to do the very 
thing that I opposed—namely, the running of a period- 
ical by a small group in New York without the discipline 
that comes from explicit responsibility. As both of you 
know, I feel very strongly on this matter. The Institute 
magazine seems to me to be merely a subsidized form of 
journalism, and of “kept” papers we have too many 
already. 

B. I noticed on my last subscription card to the Insti- 
tute that $5 was set aside for the magazine, and 
I wondered if this $5 was spent on the magazine. 
If so, I felt that possibly a large number of the 
members of the Institute would like to spend their 
$5 elsewhere. I object to being obliged to pay $5 
for something that I never read. 

As I understand it, the $5 is allocated as a matter of 
form to comply with the postal regulations and is not 
supposed to measure the cost of the magazine. On the 
other hand, it does seem to me that a subscription price 
ought to be set on the magazine and that those who do 
not want it should not receive it. If a subscription price 
of $2 were put on the magazine it would be fair to those 
who do not want it; they would be relieved of paying for 
it. Meanwhile, the Institute would save a good deal of 
money in paper and postage—money that it needs very 
much at this time. Referring to the matter in a broader 
way, I venture to say that the profession owes just as 
much to the technical press as it does to the Institute; 
the time may come when it will be called upon to choose 
between a periodical published by the Institute perform- 
ing a function for which it was not intended, and a tech- 
nical press that is established for the purpose of per- 
forming that function. It seems to me that the Institute 
is no more justified in engaging in these publishing 
activities than in running an ore-testing works or an 
assay-office at headquarters—in other words, the publi- 
cation of a magazine is foreign to the purposes of the 
Institute, and it happens to be something that can be 
done better by those outside who have devoted them- 
selves to that particular kind of work. 

L. And who are independent? 

Yes. If you want to see to what depth of depravity 

journalism can fall when it is subventioned and sub- 
sidized, you have only to go to London and see how such 
practices there have degraded the financial and mining 
journalism of that great center. 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





533 


B. How about “The Mining Magazine’ ? 

The Mining Magazine was started by me as an inde- 
pendent paper, and, I believe, did good work in its time, 
but today it is going the way of London financial and 
mining journalism in that it is becoming dependent 
more upon the so-called company-meeting advertise- 
ments than upon straight advertising from manufactur- 
ers of mining machinery. In other words, it is being 
supported largely by the mining companies—the pro- 
moters and directors—so that it is departing from the 
policy of frank and free criticism that made it worth- 
while seven or eight years ago. 


P. You might explain why the companies are willing to 
pay for the publishing of the reports of their meet- 
ings. 

The primary purpose is publicity; the printing of the 
proceedings helps to keep the company in the public eye 
and so assists the market for its shares; the secondary 
purpose is as a sop to Cerberus, to disarm the financial 
press. The purchase of space by the company for the 
report of its meeting, as for its prospectus when it is 
incubated, has the effect of silencing criticism and of 
eliciting compliment. The practice gives the promoter 
and company-monger a control of the papers that are 
venal, or even complaisant. 

B. What about “The Mining Congress Journal’? 

There is some excuse for The Mining Congress Jour- 
nal because the Mining Congress is, in essence, a polit- 
ical lobby at Washington in behalf of the mining indus- 
try, and it performs that duty admirably. Incidentally, 
it collects a good deal of information concerning the 
progress of legislation and it sends that information to 
many of its members, but not to all. If this information 
were sent in the same inexpensive form to all the mem- 
bers, the Congress would have done all the publishing 
that it is called upon to do, outside the annual volume 
containing the papers and addresses read and discussed 
at its conventions; but by publishing an elaborate 
monthly periodical on costly paper and by including a 
good deal of editorial comment, it also is competing un- 
fairly with the technical press. It is wrong to regard 
the members who have no choice in the matter of receiv- 
ing the Congress Journal as subscribers. Here again, if 
the Congress were to place a subscription price on its 
periodical it would find that the larger portion of its 
membership would not subscribe to the Journal. The 
technical press is willing to compete with any paper that 
is issued on a legitimate basis, but it protests against 
having to compete with papers that are subventioned by 
organizations specifically created for other purposes. 

L. Could the technical press give the publicity that the 
Congress requires? 

Yes, I think it could, and I believe that the two leading 
mining papers would be glad to co-operate for that 
purpose. 

B. You came to my laboratory in 1915 when I was con- 
ducting some preliminary experiments in flotation. 
At that time flotation was entirely a new subject to 
you. Since then I note that you have published 
three books on the subject. How did you happen to 
take such a keen interest in flotation? 

In the first place, because I knew nothing about it and 
was curious to learn. My conversations with you showed 
me how interesting the process was and suggested to me 
that it was bound to prove of great importance to the 

mining industry. As at that time very few people knew 

anything about the process and as the few who knew 








534 al 


something about it preserved a sphinx-like attitude, I de- 
cided that it would be useful and profitable to collect 
information and possibly even to make experiments with 
a view to giving the profession, through the Mining and 
Scientific Press, the information that was then of grow- 
ing importance. 

B. I remarked to you jokingly at the time that you 

would be writing a book on the subject. 

Yes, I remember that you did, and I demurred smil- 
ingly, hardly believing at that time that I would have 
the temerity to write a book on the subject. 

L. When did you acquire control of the “Mining and 
Scientific Press” ? 

In 1905, but I did not assume the editorship until 
Jan. 1, 1906. I bought two-thirds of the stock of the 
Dewey Publishing Co., which is the holding company for 
the M. & S. P., from J. F. Halloran and the remaining 
third from W. B. Ewer. My only reason for becoming 
a publisher was to be an independent editor. 

L. Did the “M. & S. P.” prove a profitable venture? 

It has given an average return equivalent to that of 
the preferred stock of the average railroad or public 
utility corporation. During my absence in London the 
business dwindled sadly, and for three years we had no 
dividends. 

L. You went to London to start “The Mining Maga- 
zine’? 

Yes, and I did this in response to the invitation of a 
number of British and American engineers in London. 
They felt the need of a good technical paper, so Edgar 
Rickard, who was business manager of the Press, and 
I went to London in June, 1909, and started the Maga- 
zine in the following September. 

B. The “Magazine” was a success, was it not? - 

Yes, it was a succés d’éstime and an interesting jour- 
nalistic adventure, but the business it did was relatively 
small, because British manufacturers do not appreciate 
the value of advertising as much as ours do. However, 
the Magazine became the most influential mining peri- 
odical under the British flag. 

B. You have no financial interest in it now? 

I sold my stock four years ago. Early in 1915, when 
the Press was in a bad way, and actually losing money, 
I wanted my cousin, Edgar Rickard, to come here and 
look after it, while I continued to run the Magazine, 
but he had become associated with Hoover on the Bel- 
gian Relief Commission, so I left him with the Magazine 
and came to San Francisco, in March, 1915. I worked 
very hard to save the Press and nearly lost my health in 
the effort, but within two years I had the satisfaction 
of seeing our subscription list more than doubled and 
our business on a profitable basis once more. 

*A4. You have done some non-technical writing ? 

My book, “Through the Yukon and Alaska” is. non- 
technical and the larger part of my “Journeys of Obser- 
vation” is also non-technical, but some of the chapters 
in the latter are severely technical and rather spoil the 
symmetry of the book. I have written many magazine 
articles that have not been technical, but most of them 
have dealt with some phase of mining. My field is dis- 
tinetly that of class journalism; that is to say, I appeal 
to a distinct class—those engaged in the mining indus- 
try. As an editor, I write editorials dealing with non- 
technical subjects—the chief topics of the day—because 





*The questions marked “A” and “P” were interpolated by A. W. 
Allen and Arthur B. Parsons, the Associate Editors of the 
M. € 8. P. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


I believe that they are interesting to my readers. The 
first purpose of journalism is to be interesting, the next 
is to be profitable. Journalism is neither interesting nor 
profitable unless it be truthful, Hearst and Brisbane 
notwithstanding. 

A. Did you make notes at the time with the idea of 
writing a book later, or was it compiled from 
memory ? 

My books are based on detailed notes carefully col- 
lected. Usually I take pains to set down the exact words 
of some of those from whom I obtain my information, so 
as to preserve the local coloring.. Before publication I 
submit each chapter to the person or persons from whom 
I have obtained my information, so as to benefit from 
their criticism. I read the proofs in galley or page form 
at least ten times before the text is finally released. Too 
much care cannot be taken in the revision of manuscript 
and of proofs, and it is always well to obtain the assist- 
ance of friends that are willing to read them. 

A. Do you consider that the acquisition of skill in writ- 
ing on technical matters is a help or a hindrance to 
expressing oneself on everyday matters? 

Certainly, skill in writing on technical matters con- 
notes skill in writing on any matter. The ability to 
write lucidly indicates, among other things, the ability 
to foresee what one is going to say or write, and there- 
fore helps one when writing on subjects other than the 
technical. Effective writing is the reflex of clear 
thinking. 

A. What is your opinion on the differences between the 
technical literature of England and the British pos- 
sessions and the technical literature of the United 
States? 

The technical press of the United States is the more 
highly developed, partly because it is supported by the 
larger public and also because it receives the larger 
measure of support from advertisers. I believe that 
the technical press in the United States is more nearly. 
independent than that of any country. The style of 
writing is not as good as in other English-speaking 
countries, mainly because our people care less about 
being careful in this matter; but I can see signs of 
improvement. 

A. In what way do you think that the maintenance of a 
high standard in technical journalism is helpful to 
the profession as a whole? 

The technical press reflects the ideas and ideals of the 
profession. It has done a good deal to stimulate the 
development of character in the profession and to render 
the profession articulate in public. As literature is the 
criticism of life, so technical journalism is a criticism of 
the life of the technician. Obviously, I cannot speak in 
terms of the present because I have been connected with 
the three leading mining papers of the world, but I can 
point to the good influence exerted by Rossiter W. Ray- 
mond and Richard P. Rothwell in their time. We who 
have succeeded them aim to carry on the work that they 
started. 

A. You receive manuscripts from all parts of the Eng- 
lish-speaking world. Do you notice the local in- 
fluence of well-written technical journals? 

Yes, only last week I received manuscripts from Yoko- 
hama, London, and Sydney. Your question is a sequel 
to the one that preceded it. The influence of a technical 
paper is a good deal more than local. Among other 
things, it brings together in thought men living at dis- 
tances far apart, because they can use its pages for the 





April 1, 1922 


discussion of interests common to all of them. It pro- 

motes peace and international good will among technical 

men by establishing a mutual understanding of their 
work and purpose. 

A. What is your opinion as to present-day activities in 
technical book publishing ? 

I marvel at the extent of the activities, and I wonder 
who buys some of the books that are published. As I 
review a good many technical books during the course of 
a year, I venture to note the urgent need for the services 
of a capable editor on the staff of each publisher. In 
most technical books will be found errors that should not 
escape the detection of a conscientious editor or even a 
capable proofreader. The publishing of books is con- 
ducted too much on a manufacturing basis, and too little 
as an art. 

A. Do you think that some agreement might be made in 
regard to a uniform system of spelling in the Eng- 
lish-speaking countries, as exemplified by the style 
adopted in the better-class publications ? 

Yes, I do. Indeed, there is a growing tendency toward 
uniformity. After all, the English language is the com- 
mon heritage of all the English-speaking peoples, and a 
Britishism or an Americanism is equally objectionable, 
whether in spelling or locution. Moreover, as a book 
printed in English may be read in all the English-speak- 
ing countries, it becomes desirable from the publisher’s 
point of view, in order to be pleasing, to adopt a spelling 
as nearly uniform as possible. For instance, in the 
M. & S. P. we adopt the American way of spelling 
“color,” “honor,” “labor,” “endeavor,” and _ similar 
words; we also write “traveling” with one “1,” and use 
the “z”’ in words signifying agency, such as “stand- 
ardize” and “organize,” but we use “centre” instead of 
“center,” and we prefer to retain the French spelling of 
the metric units, believing that there is no gain in 
Anglicizing them, particularly as we use the word 
“meter” in a sense different from “metre.” For the 
so-called spelling reform, or simplifyde spellin, I have 
no use whatever. 

A. You have interviewed a number of well-known men. 
What would you give as a definition of success, as 
applied to a mining engineer? 

Success, of course, is measured at first in terms of 
dollars. The mining engineer that is paid a big salary 
and accumulates a large fortune is rated as a successful 
man. On the other hand, if in acquiring this fortune he 
has lost his health and, worse, has lost his friends, we 
come to recognize him as a failure. On the whole, I 
would say the mining engineer is successful that has 
done work of which he can be proud as a professional 
man, that has done work he knows to be useful, and 
that is able to retire not only with a handsome bank 
account, but in good health and in the possession of 
many friends. 


A. Do you think that foreign travel and observation 
are essential to a. proper appreciation of the tech- 
nical and professional outlook of a mining engineer? 

The mining engineer makes the whole world his field. 

Undoubtedly foreign travel and observation broaden a 
man’s vision and widen his experience. Without travel 
a man js likely to be provincial. On the other hand, 
some people are parochial when they start on a journey 
around the world, and they end the journey without any 
enlargement of their mental horizon. Most of our lead- 
ing mining engineers have been men that have traveled 
widely. 








Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





535 


A. What pointers would you give to a would-be writer 
who wished to gain the sympathetic consideration 
of the editor of a technical publication? 

In the first place, he should have his article type- 
written, because one of the first rules of writing is econ- 
omy of attention on the part of the reader—that is, to 
save him as much trouble as possible. The typewritten 
text should be double-spaced, with an ample margin, so 
as to leave room for the editor’s corrections. In the 
next place, he should take care to spell correctly the 
name of the person to whom his article is addressed, be- 
cause an error in this particular is irritating to the 
recipient; when a man spells my name “Richard” or 
“Rickards” I resent it, because the blunder is a dis- 
courtesy, whether due to stupidity or carelessness. 
Next, he should accompany his article with a personal 
letter stating the circumstances that have prompted him 
to write it and describing the opportunities that he has 
had to obtain the information used in the article. If he 
is tactful, he will apologize for the possible errors in his 
writing and ask the editor’s kind assistance in improv- 
ing the text. I take pleasure jin revising. the manuscript 
sent to me by young fellows, although this work of 
revision is the most tiresome that I do. In many cases 
I send a clean copy of the edited text to the author, 
together with the original on which the corrections 
appear, and ask him to note the corrections, so that he 
may inform me if any of them have failed to convey his 
meaning. Usually I tell my correspondent that his 
manuscript has given me less trouble than most of those 
that come to me, and thereby save him from embarrass- 
ment. After one or two of his articles have been revised 
and amended in this way, sympathetically and helpfully, 
it is surprising how quickly an intelligent young man 
will improve in his writing. He learns to be careful 
instead of careless; he begins to appreciate the effect of 
using words properly. 

P. What are your hobbies? 

The technique of writing—on which I have published 
two books, as you know. If I am remembered when I am 
gone, it will be, I hope, as one who helped to improve the 
writing of those in the engineering profession. Another 
serious purpose in my life is to promote good will be- 
tween the English-speaking peoples, for I believe that in 
their friendly co-operation lies the one hope for the 
peace of the world. 

P. Youare an enthusiastic golfer? 

Yes, I must accept the soft impeachment. My friends 
know that I play regularly. A few days ago a lady asked 
me if I played golf on Sunday, and I replied: “Yes, 
madam, I take my golf religiously.” I may add that I 
divide my week into two parts by playing on Wednesday 
also, sometimes morning and afternoon, usually after- 
noon only, working at home in the morning. After a 
round, or even two, of golf I am in the right trim to do 
my writing. I believe in outdoor exercise as a means of 
clearing the brain and stimulating healthy thought. Be- 
fore I became old enough for golf I played tennis with 
similar regularity. 

P. What principal benefit do you think accrues to one 
who contributes an article to the technical press? 

Apart from the gain in knowledge to the writer, 
caused by the need for compiling, correcting, and cor- 
relating his information on the subject of his article, the 
publication of it serves to give him publicity in an 
honorable way—in one of the few ways open to him 
honorably. The making of mental acquaintances by 





536 


means of the printed word—an article in the technical 
press—is beneficial to all concerned. Most people are 
more ready to claim than to disclaim acquaintance with 
a member of their own profession; they feel that they 
have had contact with a man if they read something he 
has written, particularly if it be marked by sincerity; 
so they are prepared to claim favorable knowledge of 
him whenever his name is mentioned. That is how 
reputations are made. 

P. Many young engineers would like to write for publi- 
cation but are timid. Could you offer a word of 
advice to such men? 

I advise them not to write for publication too soon; 
they had better make notes on the technical operations 
in which they are engaged and put these notes together 
in the form of a lucid description, for their own use; 
thus they will acquire facility in writing; meanwhile 
they had better read Huxley and Stevenson, or Agnes 
Repplier and W. H. Hudson, and acquire a taste for good 
English; thus they will prepare themselves. Before long 
they will see something or do something on which they 
can write their first article, which they had better send 
to a sympathetic editor, willing to help as well as to 
criticize. 

P. What do you find to be the most prevalent fault in 
the manuscripts of inexperienced writers; in other 
words, what would you advise them to avoid? 

Carelessness and insincerity; the first is shown by 
blunders in grammar and composition, the other in at- 
tempts at so-called fine writing—purple patches—that 
are foreign to their style of expression. The two chief 
requisites in writing are to be careful in the use of 
words and sincere jn the expression of thought.. 

P. Do you find that many engineers take offence at 
criticism appearing in your editorial pages? 

No. Perhaps more are irritated than I suppose, for 
they are inarticulate. An editur worth his salt does not 
strive for popularity; he takes the risk of unpopularity. 
In any event, I am as willing to be judged by the 
enemies I have made as by the friends I have won. 
I have very few enemies—they may be inimical to me, 
but not I to them—I forget them. I regret if any of 
my criticisms give offense; the purpose of them is not 
to be offensive but to be useful, to be constructive, to 
create a healthy public opinion. That is the function 
of journalism. 


Sillimanite, an Aluminum Silicate, 
Is a Promising New Refractory 


A considerable amount of research work has been 
done during the last seventeen years in an effort to pro- 
duce a refractory that would have a fusion point con- 
siderably above that of those made of the best grade of 
flint fireclay. The result of this work has been the 
recent development of at least one new refractory of 
this type—sillimanite, a stable silicate of alumina hav- 
ing the formula Al,0,,SiO,, according to A. F. Graves- 
Walker in a paper published in a recent issue of the 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 

About twenty years ago a serious need began to be 
felt for a refractory that would not only withstand ex- 
tremely high temperatures, but would carry heavy loads 
practically up to its fusion point, would resist the de- 
teriorating effect of the blast from oil burners, and 
would withstand rapid and extreme fluctuations in tem- 
perature. It was about this time that work was begun 
on the problem. 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


The raw materials or minerals which would withstand 
high temperatures were well known and limited in num- 
ber, and knowing the various conditions to be met, it 
did not take long to decide that the ores of aluminum 
offered the only promise. The three best known are 
bauxite, Al,0,,2H,O; diaspore, Al,0,,H,O, and gibbsite 
Al,0,,3H,O. The deposits of these ores are large and 
widely distributed over the earth’s surface, but are now 
practically all in the hands of the large aluminum and 
chemical companies. 

Pure sillimanite has the composition SiO, 37 per cent, 
and Al,O, 63 per cent, and its fusion point is 1,816 deg 
C. The test bricks were much higher in alumina and 
lower in silica than sillimanite, but on the other hand 
they contained a total of 7.57 per cent of fluxing im- 
purities. Of these the ferric oxide is the least active. 
However, it is the intention to bring the composition 
as near to that of sillimanite as possible, except that 
the alumina content will be increased to overcome the 
fluxes present. For special purposes the alumina may 
be increased to 90 per cent; in fact, by following the 
melting point diagram a product can be made which 
will fuse at any point between 1,816 deg. (the fusion 
point of sillimanite) and a higher temperature of 2,025 
deg. C. 

So far as we know, bricks of the nature described 
have not yet been offered commercially in the United 
States for experimentation and use by the metallurgical 
industry. 


The Proposed Flow Sheet of the 
Empire Consolidated 


The new 100-ton concentrator of the Empire Consoli- 
dated Mines, Inc., at Empire, Col., will employ a rod mill 
for grinding table and flotation feed. Excavation work 
for the new plant has already been started. The 
pyritic gold ore from the mine will first be discharged 
into a bin, from which it will be fed over a 3 x 2-ft. Ross 
drop-bar grizzly, the oversize (14 in.) passing to a 3M 
Universal crusher (20 hp.), and thence to a 225-ton 
crushed-ore bin. From that bin it will be taken by an 
18-in. x 18-ft. Stephens-Adamson apron feeder to a 
4 x 9-ft. Denver Engineering Works Co. rod mill, crush- 
ing being done in open circuit without classifier to 
reduce to 40 mesh. ' 

The mill discharge will pass direct to Plat-O roughing 
tables. The middlings and tailings will go direct to an 
eight-cell Ruth flotation machine, the concentrate froth 
going to another Plat-O table for cleaning. The 
middling and tailing from this cleaning table will go 
back to the head of the flotation machine, forming a 
closed circuit to retain the finest material until the 
mineral is recovered. The tailing from the flotation 
machine will be split between three Plat-O tables, the 
tailings from which will go to waste. The middlings 
will go to a 2-in. Wilfley sand pump for return to the rod 
mill after dewatering has been accomplished by means 
of a No. 40 Allen cone. 

The concentrates, together with the concentrates from 
the roughing tables and the flotation cleaner table, will 
be dewatered in another No. 40 Allen cone, the de- 
watered concentrate then passing by gravity to a con- 
centrate bin. 

Joseph McAuliffe is the mill superintendent, and we 
are indebted to him for the preceding information. The 
property is in Clear Creek County about forty miles 
west of Denver. 





April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


53't 


USEFUL OPERATING IDEAS 





Electric Furnace for Drill Steel 


Refrax Carborundum Brick Used as Heating Unit 
on Either Alternating or Direct Current 
Circuit—Rotating Hearth for 
Larger Capacity 
By THOMAS M. BAINS, JR. 


HE problem of heat-treating drill steel is again be- 

fore mining men and metallurgists. The Bureau of 
Mines has assigned investigations of the subject to one 
of its stations, to be worked out in co-operation with the 
Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy. Prof. C. Y. 
Clayton is conducting a series of tests at Rolla, Mo., in 
which the heat-treatment is done in an electric furnace 
which I have designed. A description of this furnace is 
as follows: 

The basic principle employed in the construction of 
this furnace is the use of Refrax carborundum brick, 
heated by either alternating or direct-current circuit. 
This material is not affected by oxidation, and a tempera- 





LEFT—ELECTRIC FURNACE FOR DRILL STEEL. INSULA- 
TOR BRICK ON TOP (WITH HOLES); ALSO 
EXTRA HEATING UNIT. RIGHT—HALF 
OF INSULATOR BRICK IN PLACE 


ture of 800 deg. or 900 deg. C. can be maintained without 
replacement of the heating element. In the furnace now 
in use at Rolla, a standard Refrax brick, 9 x 43 x 23 in., 
is heated by passing alternating current through it. 
The voltage required at first when the brick is cold is 
about 120. At 800 deg. C., 20 volts will give 5 kw. input. 
Two electrodes of Acheson graphite are pressed against 
the end plates of iron, which are cemented to the Refrax 
brick by carborundum cement. This is shown in the left- 
hand cut. The electrodes are water-jacketed and sur- 
rounded by a little crushed carbon to prevent oxidation 
taking place. 

Three steels of 13-in. gage and of any length can be 
stood upright on the brick and the bit ends heated to the 


desired temperature. A brick of non-pareil or Sil-o-cel 
insulating material, with holes properly shaped for the 
bits to pass through, covers the Refrax brick, as shown 
in the right-hand cut. This insulating brick gives the 
proper depth of heating to the bits. The shank ends of the 
drill steel are also similarly treated, but are quenched in 
oil instead of water. Full description of the steel thus 
treated was furnished by Professor Clayton at the Feb- 
ruary meeting of the American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers at New York. 

By heating the bits, so that the temperature only 
slightly exceeds the critical temperature of the steel, a 
fine porcelainic structure is secured on quenching in 
water. A shell of martensite is formed, backed by a 
mixture of martensite and troostite. Under these con- 
ditions, carbon steel will give the best results in drilling. 

The advantages of such a furnace for a mine black- 
smith or sharpener shop are: There is no chance for 
overheating the bit or shank and thus causing coarse 
structure. No oil or molten bath is used for hardening 
the bits. The work can be done by any ordinary black- 
smith or drill sharpener. Low voltage only is used on 
the furnace. Temperature control, either by hand or 
automatic, is simple. 

I have worked out, also, another design, with a rotating 
hearth. . This furnace will be large enough to handle the 
steel sharpened by a single drill sharpener. The heating 
element is composed of a series of Refrax brick. The 
“feather edge” 9 x 43 x 23 x 3-in. standard brick will be 
used in this design. Eight of these brick placed end 
to end in octagonal form will give a heating surface of 
72 x 24 in. This area will allow thirty-two bits, of 13-in. 
gage, to be heated at once. A description of the two 
methods for heating the Refrax bricks is, in brief, as fol- 
lows: 

The first method is a multiple-series combination of 
the bricks, so that when starting the furnace cold, on a 
constant potential circuit, either alternating or direct 
current, the bricks are connected in multiple across the 
circuit. As the resistance decreases on heating, and the 
current thereby increases, a point will soon be reached 
when the maximum amperage allowable will be attained. 
At this point, by the contactor system, the bricks will 
automatically be thrown into a multiple-series connec- 
tion, two bricks in series and four such sets in multiple. 
On further heating, a series-multiple connection of four 
bricks in series and two sets in multiple will be made; 
and finally a connection of eight bricks in series will 
allow 220 v. to be impressed. If only 110 v. is the 
standard line voltage, the last step is omitted. 

The electrical connections are made by using Calite 
connectors between the Refrax bricks, cemented with 
carborundum cement. Pressure must be applied until 
the cement vitrifies. Calite, which is a special steel, will 
stand 900 deg. C. without oxidation. The two terminals 
used for operation at the desired temperature will be 
water-jacketed. 

The second method of electrical control is by means 
of a current transformer. This apparatus will auto- 





538 


matically decrease the voltage on the terminals of the 
furnace, as the current tries to increase, thereby keeping 
a constant current flowing through the bricks, no matter 
what their resistance. The secondary coil of the cur- 
rent transformer will be in series with the eight Refrax 
bricks. The primary coil of the transformer is connected 
across the supply circuit. This type of transformer can 
be used on alternating-current circuits. On direct- 
current circuits the method first described must be used. 

The use. of the wedge-shaped bricks causes most of 
the heat energy to be generated at the upper surface of 
the bricks, where it can most readily be conveyed to the 
steel. Also, the resistance of the bricks will be greater 
than that of the standard rectangular bricks. This is 
advantageous at the operating temperature around 800 
deg. C. 

By placing the straight leg of the wedge on the outer 
periphery of the octagon, a 43-in. vertical wall of heating 
surface can be utilized for the heating of the shank ends 
of the steel. An annular space of about 14-in. between 
the outer vertical surfaces of the Refrax brick and the 
wall of Sil-o-cel or non-pareil brick will allow ample room 
for heating of the shanks. Thus the heat-treatment of 
both the bits and shanks may be conducted in the same 
furnace. 

The diameter of such a rotating furnace will be less 
than 4 ft. and the furnace will have a capacity of sixty- 
four steels per hour, if a heat-treatment of thirty 
minutes is given each steel. By decreasing this time to 
fifteen minutes, twice the number of steels may be 
treated. The furnace could also be used for heating the 
steel preparatory to sharpening it, but the temperature 
would have to be higher than for heat-treatment and the 
annular space outside the Refrax brick would have to be 
increased to the diameter of the bits heated. 

The cycle of operation for bits would be as follows: 
(1) Heating of bits for sharpening; (2) sharpening; 
(3) cooling just below the critical point of the steel; (4) 
placing steel on furnace; (5) removing steel after a 
complete rotation of the hearth; (6) quenching same in 
water; and (7) placing of another sharpened steel in 
place of the steel removed from furnace. 

In the treatment of shanks, the shanks should be 
quenched in oil, instead of water. 

A tougher steel would be secured, if, during the rota- 
tion of the hearth, the steel was cooled below its critical 
point several times and brought back slightly above each 
time. This could be accomplished by having jets of 
compressed air at several points, cooling the steel at 
these points to about 700 deg. C. If an especially ac- 
curate control of the steel temperature were necessary, 
just before quenching an extra unit of one Refrax brick, 
similar to the furnace at Rolla, could be used for the 
final temperature. In this furnace, a thermocouple is 
brought up through the brick and extends about 1-in. up 
into the steel, when hollow steel is being treated. 

The power required for a rotating furnace of this 
type would be about 30 kw. The one unit type at Rolla 
takes about 4 kw. at 18 v., when at its working tempera- 
ture. The new electrothermic installation at Rolla has a 
voltage control from zero to about 600 v., at 60 cycles, al- 
ternating current, and therefore there is no trouble 
about securing the voltages desired on the terminals of 
the furnace. For a commercial furnace, however, such 
an electrical equipment would be too expensive, and the 
second design with rotating hearth would be used. In 


this design, any standard mine circuit, either alternating 
or direct current, could be used for the furnace. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


Strength, Wear, and Life of 
Wire Hoisting Ropes 

Practically all manufacturers list the tensile strength 
of the different sizes and types of wire hoisting ropes 
which they manufacture, and the figures are generally 
accepted as accurate. The strength of the rope usually 
ranges from 80 to 90 per cent of the aggregate strength 
of the wires. Rope strength is generally given in tons 
of weight constituting the breaking load. 

The modulus of elasticity for a wire rope is a some- 
what uncertain figure and depends largely upon the 
method of construction. For new rope of ordinary con- 
struction one authority gives 11,180,000 lb. per sq.in. 
of rope section; another 12,540,000 lb. As the rope is 
used the modulus gradually increases, and an old rope 
may show a modulus of 19,000,000 lb. per sq.in. 

Wire ropes stretch from 1.3 to 2.3 per cent of their 
original length, and decrease in strength with use. The 
decrease is due to the reduction of the cross-section of 
the rope by wear and also to internal strain. The only 
practicable method for determining the reduction in 
strength is by actual test of a portion of the used cable 
and by testing the individual wires of this part. 

Ropes wear not only on the surface but also internally. 
The internal wear is difficult to determine, but the sur- 
face wear can be measured. The wires on the crown of 
the strands show the most wear. Wear is caused by 
contact with the drum and sheaves and by the individual 
coils which are wound upon the drum under tension, 
slipping one against the other as they adjust themselves. 
Where two or more layers are coiled on the drum there 
is greater wear than with one layer. Both internal and 
external wear as well as corrosion can be reduced by 
the use of a proper rope dressing. The rope dressing 
should be a lubricant as well as a protection against the 
introduction of moisture. 

Service rather than time determines the life of a 
hoisting rope. Williams has pointed out the influence 
of the initial factor of safety, the material, the care taken 
in placing the rope on the drum, the way in which the 
hoisting engine is handled, chemical deterioration, 
shocks, stability of the rope in the shaft, wear, and 
the hoisting arrangements. (Journal of the South 
African Institute of Engineers. “Notes on Use of 
Winding Ropes,” by A. Williams, February, 1911). 
Williams gives examples of hoisting ropes which have 
been in operation from 1,552 hours to 5,472 hours, and 
which have hoisted 315,663 and 701,727 loads, from 
depths of 2,520 ft. and 1,840 ft., respectively. Both 
ropes were of crucible steel and one had a factor of 
safety of 7 and the other 5.2 with loads of 10,000 lb. 


Vertical and Inclined Hoisting 


Incline differs from vertical hoisting in the increased 
friction and the decreased proportion of the weight to 
be hoisted. In inclined hoisting the hoisting ropes are 
subjected to greater wear, and larger ropes are required 
to compensate for this wear than are necessary for the 
direct forces to be overcome. In addition to guides, 
rollers are required at intervals of 50 ft. to support 
the rope and reduce the wear. Hoisting speeds are less 
and may be estimated to be one-half the speed used in 
vertical shafts. 

Slope hoisting differs from incline in the fact that, 
in place of cages or skips, trains of mine cars are 
handled. Slope angles of inclination range from 10 to 
20 deg. from the horizontal. 











April 1, 1922 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 





Oil Resources of Northern Fergus County, Montana 


part of Fergus County, in north-central Montana, 

were studied in a reconnaissance examination 
made in 1921 by the U. S. Geological Survey, and a full 
report on the work is in preparation. The following 
is an abstract of the preliminary report. The area 
covered by the geologic field party, consisting of Frank 
Reeves in charge, J. B. Eby, L. C. Fenstermacher, M. N. 
Bramlette, and James Gilluly, is about eighty miles long 
and from fifteen to thirty-five miles wide. It lies south 
of Missouri River, between Musselshell and Judith 
rivers. Its southern limit is the boundary between the 
Bearpaw shale and the Judith River formation, which 
boundary begins at a point on Musselshell River one 
mile north of the Cat Creek oil field and extends north- 
westward to Winifred and thence westward to Judith 
River. 

The entire area examined lies in a broad, shallow, 
eastward-pitching syncline, which is one of the major 
structural features of the plains region of the eastern 
half of Montana. According to W. T. Thom, Jr., this 
syncline extends eastward across Garfield and McCone 
counties to the Little Sheep Mountain syncline, near 
Glendive. In the area examined this syncline is nar- 
rowed and slightly accentuated by the pronounced fold- 
ing of the strata in the Little Rocky Mountain uplift, 
about forty miles north of its axis, and by the Judith 
Mountains and Black Butte-Cat Creek anticlinal uplifts, 
about twelve miles south of its axis. The movements 
that produced these anticlinal folds tilted the rocks 
at steep angles in a narrow belt on their flanks, but in 
the syncline they caused only slight tilting, at few 
places exceeding 1 deg. However, in the northwestern 
part of the syncline other forces have brought about 
pronounced faulting and folding of these otherwise 
flat-lying strata. 


To GEOLOGY and oil resources of the northern 


RESULTS OF DRILLING FOR OIL 


Three wells have been drilled for oil in the area 
mapped—the E. G. Lewis Development Co.’s well, in 
Sec. 15—16—28; the Home Oil Co.’s well, in Sec. 22— 
21—20; and the Kansas Montana Oil Co.’s well in Sec. 
18—21—19. The first well was drilled on the flank of a 
syncline and stopped in the Bearpaw shale at a depth 
of 1,280 ft.; the second well was on the downthrown 
side of a fault and probably stopped in the Eagle sand- 
stone, where a showing of gas was encountered at 840 
to 860 ft.; so neither can be considered a thorough test. 
The third well, which is on an anticlinal fold near 
Winifred, has started near the top of the Judith River 
formation and has penetrated nearly to the base of the 
Colorado shale. Showings of oil and gas were encoun- 


tered in the top of the Claggett shale, in the Eagle 
sandstone, and near the base of the Colorado shale in 
a sandstone that extends from a depth of 2,855 ft. to 
the bottom of the hole. 


Other sands, from 5 to 20 





ft. thick, were encountered in the last 600 ft. of strata 
penetrated by the drill. The last sandstone penetrated 
may be basal sandstone of the Colorado shale, in which 
most of the oil of the Cat Creek field is found. This 
well should be drilled through the Cat Creek sand and, 
if no oil is encountered, carried down 300 to 400 ft. 
deeper, to the Kootenai sands. As, however, the well is 
within about 600 ft. of what is probably a thrust fault, 
the possibility of the drill hole cutting across the fault 
plane at a depth of 2,500 to 3,500 ft. must be considered. 
At any rate, the axis of the fold at these depths prob- 
ably lies a few hundred feet south of its position at 
the surface, and consequently the well should have been 
drilled south rather than north of the axis of the 
anticline. 


CONDITIONS GOVERNING FINDING OF OIL 


As no adequate test has been made for oil in the area, 
the possibility of its occurrence here depends on the 
presence of geologic conditions favorable to its accumu- 
lation. Most of the conditions are certainly favorable. 
In the black shales of the Claggett and Colorado forma- 
tions and in the Madison limestone there is an 
abundance of the proper kind of organic material that 
might form oil, and in the Eagle sandstone, Colorado 
shale, Kootenai, Ellis, Quadrant, and Madison forma- 
tions there are porous sandstones and limestones inter- 
bedded with impervious beds in relations that may 
afford good oil sands. There has also been sufficient 
and not too much regional alteration of the sediments 
to convert the organic material into oil, as shown by the 
alteration of the Judith River and Eagle coals, which 
contain 55 to 58 per cent of fixed carbon. Apparently, 
all that is needed is the proper structural condition to 
insure the accumulation of oil in commercial pools. 
Many regions in the world, however, lack only this 
condition. Domes and anticlines are the most favorable 
type of structure, but regionally inclined strata modified 
by structural terraces or cut by faults and dikes may 
also be effective in forming oil pools. 

Only in the Winifred faulted area do the conditions 
appear to approach those that are generally regarded 
as favorable to the accumulation of oil. In the Blood 
Creek syncline there are no anticlinal folds and appar- 
ently no barriers, such as terraces, dikes, or faults, 
which might form commercial oil pools. So that part of 
the area may be considered as unlikely to contain oil. 
In the Winifred faulted area the structural conditions 
are peculiar and are unlike those of any known produc- 
tive oil field, except possibly the fields of northern Peru. 
In the Winifred area flat-lying beds have been highly 
faulted, and the strata are folded and tilted only along 
narrow belts, generally on the upthrown side of the 
faults. In most regions such faulting is associated with 
highly folded strata. The questions are whether the 
belts of tilted or folded strata are broad enough to 








540 


furnish a_ sufficient gathering ground for oil and 
whether the faulting has permitted the escape of such 
oil and gas as may have accumulated. The gathering 
ground is probably large enough, for in this area there 
is apparently so much organic material that a large 
gathering ground would not be necessary to fill the 
reservoir rocks. 

In considering the possibility that the oil has escaped 
along the great faults in the region it may be pointed 
out that the strata in many oil fields are highly faulted 
and that large gas wells have been obtained from the 
Eagle sandstone in similar faulted areas near Havre, 
on the north flank of the Bearpaw Mountains. The 
presence of gas under normal rock pressures indicates 
that the hydrocarbons have not escaped to any extent 
along the fault planes, and it is reasonable to believe 
that a proper test of the Colorado and Kootenai sand- 
stones near Havre will yield oil. The absence of gas or 
oil seeps along the fault planes may be due to the fact 
that the soft Cretaceous shales have completely sealed 
the faults. The structure of the region, which is that 
of a syncline, is particularly favorable to the accumula- 
tion of oil, for water has perhaps not been active enough 
to flush the oil out of the sands, as it apparently has in 
the anticlinal area adjoining the Big Snowy Mountains, 
where the proximity of the outcrop and greater regional 
folding have resulted in a more rapid circulation. This 
probability is strengthened by the discovery of salt 
water in the Eagle sandstone and the lower sandstone 
of the Colorado shale in the Kansas Montana well. 


TEST WELLS ESSENTIAL TO PROVE AREA 


It should be emphasized, however, that as the fold- 
ing of the strata is of an unusual type, the presence of oil 
in the area can be definitely determined only by the drill. 
It is fairly certain that all the areas of flat-lying rocks 
between areas of tilted strata in faults and anticlines 
will be unproductive. Drilling should be confined at 
first to the crest of the anticlinal folds, the wells being 
drilled on the unfaulted flanks or on those with the lower 
dip. If oil is obtained the fault blocks should be tested 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


by wells sunk on their upthrown side but far enough 
away from the outcrop of the fault to avoid drilling 
through the plane of the thrust faults. The area is so 
complex in structure that a number of test wells may 
be required to prove whether or not it contains com- 
mercial pools of oil. 


February Daily Petroleum Production 
Exceeds Daily Consumption 


During February domestic production of petroleum, 
according to the U. S. Geological Survey, attained a new 
high record; the daily average of 1,470,107 bbl. being an 
increase of 78,462 bbl. over the previous high record of 
January, and only once before in the last two years has 
the daily rate of production exceeded the daily rate of 
consumption. Although the daily rate of consumption 
and of imports increased slightly, stocks of crude oil 
(not including consumers’ stocks) increased almost 
twelve million barrels. On the last day of February 
total net pipe-line and tank-farm stocks of petroleum 
east of California, gross pipe-line and tank-farm and 
producers’ stocks in California, and stocks of Mexican 
petroleum held in the United States by importers 
amounted to 208 million barrels, equivalent to 143 days’ 
supply at the present rate of consumption. Although 
this is the largest amount of petroleum ever held in 
storage in the United States, it is of interest that the 
163 million barrels of petroleum held in storage in 1915, 
at the time of the Cushing overproduction, was sufficient 
to meet the requirements of consumption for 218 days. 

The accompanying figures for the states east of 
California, compiled from company reports made to the 
Survey, show the quantity of petroleum (pipe-line oil) 
transported from producing properties. Oil consumed 
on the leases is not included. This item and net changes 
in producers’ stocks at the beginning and end of the 
year are obtained by annual canvass and are included in 
the final statistics of production. Figures for Cali- 
fornia are the average of those reported by the Standard 
Oil Co. and the Independent Oil Producers’ Agency and 
show gross production, in part estimated. 


PETROLEUM PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES IN JANUARY, 1922, FEBRUARY, 1922, AND FEBRUARY, 1921 
Barrels of 42 U. S. Gallons 














———January, 1922(a)———. 1 ———February, 1922——— —-—February, 1 92|-——~ 
Daily Daily Daily 
State Total Average Total Average Total Average 
Central and Northern Texas............... 8,528,000 275,097 8,102,000 289,357 5,774,006 206,214 
Gn fe a ee 2,998,000 96,709 2,672,000 95,428 2,566,000 91,043 
Pen fee oo 8 OS AS Sek see oe 9,991,000 322,290 10,072,000 359,714 7,937,000 283,464 
NR 353 er 50S. oi a 3 Sated Sihieie cts Giles gal tA Oe OE 9,753,000 314,613 9,077,000 324,179 9,184,000 328,000 
Northern Louisiana.............. 200s cee cece eee eee eee eee tees 2,778,000 89,613 2,848,000 101,714 2,172,000 77,572 
Coeett TMBIR. 6 oc an. 5 55 ow i osc cece ueen 128,000 4,129 117,000 4,179 156,000 5,571 
RE it RN Bo EI, SI Me lg baie ole wees SSR 2,683,000 86,548 2,423,000 86,536 2,478,000 88,500 
Wyoming: 
A i Ro i on hs Wincmlace eidt S AP occa Ae MeO a's tae 1,187,000 38,290 1,061,000 37,893 868,000 31,000 
PON MINNIS. Sn dices ocd-0in s 6 <3ywre su sie, 6:9~ 0s 452,500 14,597 419,400 14,978 629,000 22,464 
ie MINN OS. 05 i hk an SOUS ce ; 1,639,500 52,887 1,480,400 52,871 1,497,060 53,464 
NN Na tacos A al ota tik cen 5 Ue pigs Eine an si leenrasd ee 1,100,000 35,484 1,030,000 a Cee EE er ee 
RNS Ss el ie ge eid erk ate Be Siegelae aie 924,000 29,807 715,000 25,536 785,000 28,036 
EN = occnek sO oh Sp wks AO Rees f 700,000 22,586 700,500 25,018 695,000 24,821 
ene. 230 SS bat Sines ce eae waes a ‘ 549,000 17,704 565,000 20,178 634,000 22,643 
ION fo c5 seas 6S os Ke Soy peop eoxtes ; 541,000 17,452 559,000 19,964 603,000 21,536 
Central and Eastern Ohio....................-. : 365,000 11,774 365,000 13,036 427,000 15,250 
URIRIIETNOND. ooo Soo nc ek oo 8 eae bo os vie’ 146,000 4,710 154,000 5,500 175,000 6,250 
NR 28 Sel os cba sheer thaws Saad 144,000 4,645 121,000 4,321 115,000 4,107 
eT ss SSS scl pies hse dl b satay) oualio ec guano 70,000 2,258 63,000 2,250 70,000 2,500 
Northeastern Indiana...................... 18,000 581 18,000 643 22,000 786 
ee a Pe etre, Saat eS tte ys 77,000 2,484 73,000 2,607 66,000 Z958 
RNIN rates Jctas a cae tees tebe 6 AGG oe wS Sex 7,500 242 7,600 272 9,000 321 
NIN pe ee a Dita. 6 ire dh 1,000 32 500 18 1,000 36 
AS REN ee et ce ee a Ste ees oor . 43,141,000 1,391,645 41,163,000 1,470,107 35,366,000 1,263,071 


(a) Revised. 





April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 








Cyanide Leaching of Copper Ores 
Impracticable 


“We are copper-ore miners, and we are developing a 


process for leaching these ores with cyanide. Our ores are 
a mixture of chalcocite, native copper, and oxidized min- 
erals (carbonates, oxides, silicates). We have seen that 
these ores can be leached with cyanide, in which all the cop- 
per minerals are readily dissolved. The difficulty is that 
cyanide is excessively costly for this purpose, and the only 
thing that would make the process profitable would be the 
regeneration of the cyanide, and a lower cost of this chem- 
ical. Would it be possible to sell the cyanide at a lower 
price than it is now sold for, 26c. per lb., if used in large 
quantities? Can you tell me if cyanamid would also dis- 
solve the copper ores the same as cyanide? Do you know 
if it is possible to regenerate the cyanide or cyanamid from 
copper solutions, by electrolysis or other methods?” 

We are indebted to W. S. Landis, of the American 
Cyanamid Co., 511 Fifth Ave., New York, for a most 
complete and satisfactory answer to our correspond- 
ent’s query. Based upon many years’ study of the 
use of cyanide in chemical and metallurgical processes, 
some of which, in 1913, was directed particularly to 
the copper industry, he is inclined to believe that it is 
not possible to use cyanide on copper ores at any prices 
for this reagent which are likely to prevail in the 
near future. The cost of production of the 96@98 per 
cent sodium cyanide, he believes, has never been less 
than 15 or 16c. per lb. and today is considerably higher. 
Even Aero Brand cyanide, though sold somewhat 
cheaper than 96@98 per cent sodium cyanide, per lb. of 
contained cyanide, still does not reach the point where 
it would be profitable to use it at the present price of 
copper. 

The use of cyanide for extracting copper from ores 
requires large quantities of the reagent because of the 
peculiar chemical behavior of the copper cyanides. The 
cupric compounds are reduced at the expense of cyan- 
ide to cuprous compounds, and a considerable quantity 
of the reagent is lost. Native copper is not dissolved 
to any extent, and the sulphides only slowly and also 
with loss of cyanide. There are other cyanicides pres- 
ent in most ores, which also consume much copper. It 
theoretically requires something over 14 lb. of sodium 
cyanide to put into solution 1 lb. of copper if the 
latter is in the cuprous state, and considerably more 
if the copper is in the cupric state. Clennell has pub- 
lished an equation showing a consumption of three and 
a half parts of cyanide to one of copper, with copper in 
the form of carbonate. 

One can readily understand from these figures that 
cyanide would have to sell at only a few cents per pound 
to make it possible to use this reagent in copper metal- 
lurgy. It is plainly evident, therefore, that the problem 
is hopeless in consideration of the principles above set 
forth. 

It is probable that copper might be precipitated from 
a cyanide solution as a sulphide by the use of sodium 
sulphide and the cyanide thereby regenerated. This 
precipitation would be incomplete, would involve cer- 





tain losses in cyanide, and would be further handicapped 
by the fact that the precipitated copper sulphide would 
be less valuable than metallic copper and the sodium 
sulphide is a reagent really too expensive for consid- 
eration. 

Electrolysis is impossible, because of decomposition 
of the cyanide solution by the electric current, with 
loss in cyanide. It will not solve the problem. 

Cyanamid does not dissolve copper compounds, but, 
on the other hand, soluble salts of copper are precipi- 
tated as copper cyanamids in alkaline solution. 


Commercial Ore as Applied to 
Mining Leases 


“Would it be imposing upon your good nature to ask you 
to tell me what in your opinion would be “commercial ore” 
as applied to the following sentence: 


“ ‘Lessee agrees and guarantees, during the life of this 
lease, to mine and remove from the leased premises all 
of the commercial manganese and manganiferous ore 
that is in, on, or under said leased premises; that is, 
all the manganese or manganiferous ore that will 
analyze as much as 10 per cent metallic manganese.’ 


“It is my opinion that commercial ore will depend upon 
tonnage and availability, and I would appreciate some ex- 
pression from you as to your opinion of this term with these 
qualifications.” 

Unquestionably the latter part of the sentence in 
the above contract implies the limitation so far as the 
analysis of the ore is concerned. As to the actual mean- 
ing of the term “commercial ore” in the sentence, we 
would assume it to be that which can be commercially 
mined. Unless this is understood, the lessee certainly 
places himself in a position where he is totally at the 
mercy of the lessor, a situation which would not be 
tolerated willingly by any operator. Commercially 
available ore or commercial ore available would perhaps 
be the better expressions and would provide a more 
reasonable basis for both parties for common agreement. 

Assuming that the parties are in agreement as to 
tonnage and availability, it is also necessary to consider 
the salability of the ore. By this is meant the amen- 
ability of the ore to treatment, for it is well known that 
for certain refractory ores a high and ordinarily 
marketable per cent of one particular element, such 
as copper or zinc, does not necessarily determine the 
utility or commercial possibilities of that ore. A com- 
mercial ore can be regarded as one which can be 
supplied in sufficient quantity and produced and mar- 
keted at a figure that will allow a margin of profit to 
the producer. 

It should be noted that some authorities consider the 
term “commercial ore” incorrect diction, the word com- 
mercial being superfluous, inasmuch as the definition of 
ore itself implies mineral matter which can be mined 
and treated at a profit. However, the term is commonly 
used in the profession, and it is well that all interested 
be familiar with a correct understanding of its limita- 
tions and significance. 





542 


Book Reviews 


Seeceeeeececescase, 


Modern Tunneling. By David W. Brun- 
ton and John A. Davis, with new 
chapters on Railroad Tunneling 
by J. Vipond Davies. Second edi- 
tion. Cloth; 64 x 94; pp. 612; illus- 
trated. John Wiley & Sons., Inc., 
New York. Price, $6.50. 


The first edition of this book, which 
dealt with mine and water supply tun- 
nels, has been enlarged, and the scope 
of the work widened to include the 
study of enlarged tunnel construction, 
such as would be required in carrying 
water for power, irrigation, or domestic 
use. A mass of well-selected and well- 
arranged data is given on costs and 
bibliography, in addition to complete 
chapters covering the history of tun- 
neling and materials, apparatus, and 
methods used. 


Petroleum Resources of California. 
By Lawrence Vander Leck. Cloth; 
6 x 9; pp. 188; illustrated. Bulle- 
tin 89, California State Mining Bu- 
reau, July, 1921. Price, $1.25. 


California’s petroleum resources and 
the possibility of obtaining crude oil in 
portions of the state now unproductive 
are discussed in detail in a new report 
just issued by the California State Min- 
ing Bureau. Information relative to 
northern and central California on the 
subject of petroleum and gas possibili- 
ties is available nowhere else, either in 
Government or private documents. 

In California, wildcat wells are being 
drilled from the Oregon line to the 
Mexican boundary, some of them in 
places where even a cursory inspection 
of the geology would indicate the fu- 
tility of looking for oil. Therefore, the 
report aims to point out the unfavor- 
able as well as the favorable areas for 
the development of additional petrol- 
eum resources in California. The bul- 
letin should prove of particular interest 
to those who are thinking of prospecting 
for oil in the state. 


A Textbook on Mineralogy, With an 
Extended Treatise on Crystallog- 
raphy and Physical Mineralogy. 
By Edward Salisbury Dana. Third 
edition, revised and enlarged by 
William E, Ford. Cloth; 6 x 9; pp. 
720; illustrated. John Wiley & 
Sons, New York; 1922. Price, $5. 


This book is not to be confused with 
the author’s more complete “System of 
Mineralogy,” of which the descriptive 
part of this volume is essentially an 
abridgment. The longer work has not 
been revised since 1909, however, so 
that the present book is more up to 
date in several respects. The last edi- 
tion of the “Textbook” appeared in 
1898. Since then several other books 
covering the subject in a more or less 
efficient manner have appeared, but none 
are so complete. This volume covers 
the subjects of crystallography and 
physical mineralogy with particular 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


emphasis; additional matter appearing 
in the new edition describes. the meth- 
ods employed in the use of the stereo- 
graphic and gnomonic projections, and 
much of the section on the optical char- 
acters of minerals has been rewritten in 
the interest of greater clearness to the 
student. 

The scope of the work may be indi- 
cated by the following divisions: Part 
1, Crystallography, 177 pages; Part 2, 
Physical Mineralogy, 126 pages; Part 3, 
Chemical Mineralogy, 32 pages; and 
Part 4, Descriptive Mineralogy, 306 
pages. Much of this is in fine print so 
a comparatively large amount of infor- 
mation is contained in the space allotted. 


Lexique Technique Anglais-Francais. 
Par G. Malgorn. Board Cover; 
5 x 73; pp. 216. Gauthier-Villars 
& Cie., 55 Quai des Grands-Augus- 
tins, Paris (6°). Price, 10 francs. 
This is a valuable little book for 
those who have to do English-French 
translation of a technical nature. Most 
language dictionaries are weak in tech- 
nical words, and it is often difficult to 
translate accurately without a close 
familiarity with the industry concerned. 
This book contains words relating to 
machine’ tools, internal-combustion 
motors, electricity, naval construction, 
metallurgy, and similar subjects. It is 
of no use for translating from French 
into English, for only the English 
terms are defined. 


The Design of Steel Mill Buildings and 


the Calculation of Stresses in 
Framed Structures. By Milo S. 
Ketchum. Fourth edition. Flexi- 


ble; 6 x 9; pp. 632; illustrated. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York; 
1921. Price, $6. 


Professor Ketchum’s book now ap- 
pears in its fourth edition, and it is 
almost completely rewritten, with sev- 
eral new chapters added. The latest re- 
vision is a totally different book from the 
first edition, which appeared in 1903, 
and also is a much more valuable book 
to present-day engineers than the re- 
visions of 1906 and 1912. We would 
therefore advise those who have the 
older editions and find them useful to 
inspect the present volume. Part 1, 
covering the calculation of the stresses 
in simple beams, trusses, portals, the 
transverse bent, and the three-hinged 
arch, and Part 2, covering the calcula- 
tion of the deflections of structures and 
of the stresses in statically indetermin- 
ate girders, trusses and frames, and 
secondary stresses in trusses, are essen- 
tially for the student. Part 3 covers 
the design and construction of steel 
frame buildings for mines, mills, smelt- 
ers, and other industrial plants. The 
information given is largely practical 
and includes much data on accessories 
such as windows, floors, roofs, and 
paint. All who direct and supervise 
construction work will find Professor 
Ketchum’s book a necessary acquisi- 
tion to their library, but they in gen- 
eral know this already, and it only re- 
mains to suggest that the latest edi- 
tion contains much new material. 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


Technical Papers 





Carbon-Monoxide Poisoning—The U. 
S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washing- 
ton, D. C., has issued a forty-seven page 
bulletin, No. 291, on carbon-monoxide 
poisoning. The first part of the bulle- 
tin is devoted to a description of acute 
and chronic poisoning from this cause, 
and the last part to sources of the gas. 
The paper may be obtained from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Wash- 
ington, D. C., for 10c. 

Indian Bauxite— “The Bauxite Re- 
sources of India” are described in a fif- 
teen page paper in The Mining Maga- 
zine for February (Salisbury House, 
London Wall, London, E. C. 2; price, 
1s. 6d.). The article compares the In- 
dian deposits with those in other parts 
of the world; discusses the possibility 
of producing alumina and aluminum at 
a low cost; and briefly mentions possible 
outlets of the product. 


Painting With the Air Brush—Paint- 
ing by hand with a brush is, for many 
purposes, uneconomical, according to a 
short article in the February issue of 
Compressed Air Magazine (11 Broad- 
way, New York; price 35c.), which de- 
scribes some of the latest developments 
and uses of the air brush. Compressed 
air at from fifteen 'to twenty-five pounds 
pressure is required. 

Mine Fans—In The Mining Magazine 
for February (Salisbury House, London 
Wall, London, E. C. 2; price, 1s. 6d., 
is the first part of a paper on “Modern 
Mine Fans,” nine pages. The second 
part will appear in a following issue. 
Theoretical principles are first men- 
tioned and then practical types of fans 
are described. 


Ontario Silver—The Bulletin of the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 
for February, 1922, contains a seven- 
teen-page paper describing the geology 
of the silver ores in South Lorrain, On- 
tario. Separates of the paper may be 
obtained for 1s. from the offices of the 
Institution, Cleveland House, 225, City 
Road, London, E. C. 1, England. 

Removal of Clay From Rock—In the 
Feb. 11 issue of Rock Products (Chi- 
cago; price, 25c.) is the first of a series 
of articles by Edmund Shaw describing 
the various ways of removing clay from 
sand and rock. 


Clay—The U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
Washington, D. C., has recently issued 
Technical Paper 281, entitled “The Use 
of Electrolytes in the Purification and 
Preparation of Clays” (47 pages; ob- 
tainable from the Bureau on request). 
The bulletin will be of considerable in- 
terest to those who own commercial 
clay deposits. 

Metallurgical Accidents — Technical 
Paper 297 of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
twenty-eight pages, contains statistical 
data on accidents at metallurgical works 
in the United States during 1920. Ob- 
tainable on request from the Bureau at 
Washington, D. C. 











April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





Standardization of Sampling, 
Assaying, and Settlements 
Reached by Committee 


The report of a joint committee of 
buyers and sellers on standardization of 


sampling, assaying, and settling of 
lead and zinc ores in the Missouri, Kan- 
sas, and Oklahoma district has just 
been completed. Committees were ap- 
pointed by the American Zinc Institute, 
the ore buyers, and the American 
Mining Congress. 

The following recommendations were 
made with regard to sampling: 


That both buyer and seller take more 
interest in the sampling of ores, and 
see to it that proper samples are taken. 

That sheet zinc cans having a ca- 
pacity of not less than 1,000 gm. of zinc 
ore be used, and that no zine sample be 
put into a can that contained lead, 
and vice versa. 

That after taking samples with 
sample horn in the usual manner, ex- 
treme care be used in rubbing out all 
sludge balls, and thoroughly mixing 
sample before placing in sample cans. 

That three, and only three, samples 
be taken; one for buyer, one for seller, 
and one for umpire or control, the buy- 
er to be custodian of the umpire or 
control sample, which is to be sealed by 
the seller at his option. 

That all samples sent to chemists 
shall be marked by lot or code numbers. 
The buyer and seller shall each keep, 
for mutual inspection. a record of all 
lot or code numbers and corresponding 
car numbers. 

That the samples must be delivered to 
chemists promptly. 


The following recommendations were 
made regarding assaying: 


That twelve working hours be allowed 
the chemists for making their assays 
and determinations. 

That entire contents of the can be 
used and indirect heat applied in de- 
termining the amount of moisture. 

That the entire sample be ground and 
all passed through a 20-mesh screen, 
then thoroughly mixed and quartered 
down to not less than 250 gm., which 
amount is to be used for final pulp 
sample. This final sample is to be 
ground and all passed through an 80- 
mesh screen, though a 100-mesh screen 
is preferred. 

That pulp sample must be thoroughly 
rolled and mixed before sample is taken 
for assaying. 

That c. p. sheet zine be used in 
standardizing the zine solution, and 
that litharge be used in standardizing 
the lead solution. These solutions are 
to be standardized daily by three deter- 
minations. 

That chemists reporting assays are to 
make one, and only one, original signed 
certificate, and copies made must be of 
different colored paper and marked “du- 
plicate” or “copy.” 





That if the chemist finds sludge balls 
in the sample he must so state on his 
original certificate. 


Recommendations settle- 


ments are as follows: 


regarding 


That all settlements be made by the 
exchange of certificates, or where settle- 
ment is made over phone or otherwise 
this settlement must be promptly con- 
firmed by the exchange of certificates to 
be identified by having the proper car 
number placed thereon by buyer or 
seller. 

That the settlement on zinc ore shall 
be made on a split if the difference in 
assay of zine and iron combined is not 
greater than six-tenths of 1 per cent. 
This difference is to be computed by de- 
ducting from zine assays all iron in 
each over 1 per cent and then taking 
the difference of these results. 

That the settlement on lead ore shall 
be made on a split if the difference is 
greater than six-tenths of 1 per cent. 

That the settlements on moistures 
shall be made on a split if the differ- 
ence in determination is not greater 
than six-tenths of 1 per cent. 

That if the difference should be 
greater than six-tenths of 1 per cent in 
either of the three above-noted cases, 
then an umpire assay or determination 
must be made, and settlement made on 
the middle of the three assays or deter- 
minations. The loser shall pay the cost 
of the umpire assay or determination, 
but if neither side loses the umpire ex- 
pense is to be borne equally by the buy- 
er and seller. 

Unless otherwise specified at time of 
sale it shall be understood that approxi- 
mately 10 per cent over-weight is in- 
ferred. 

That all weight certificates shall be 
signed by the weigher. 

The suggestions of a committee repre- 
senting the chemists of the district have 
also been included in the report. 

With reference to the prices the 
chemists ask for complying with these 
requirements the committee finds the 
matter is outside of its province beyond 
that the prices are to be consistent with 
the kind of work expected. 

Charges for assaying as _ recom- 
mended by the chemists are: Zinc, $1 
per determination; zine and iron, $1.25; 
zine, iron and moisture, $1.50; lead, 
$1.25; lead and moisture, $1.50; 
moisture, 50c. 

The committee recommends that no 
discounts be allowed unless bill amounts 
to $100; that 15 per cent be allowed on 
bill from $100 to $150, and that 20 per 
cent be allowed on bill from $150 up. 

The joint committee is as follows: 
Ore buyers, George F. Braun, T. 0. 
Vest, H. E. Kingsbury, Edward P. 
Dwyer. Operators, W. T. Landrum, F. 
N. Bendelari, M. F. Owen, and D. R. 
Muir. 


Northwest Mining Association 
Discusses “Blue-Sky” Law 
Dr. H. M. PAYNE GUEST 


At the regular weekly meeting of the 
Northwest Mining Association at Spo- 
kane, on March 16, Dr. Henry M. 
Payne, of New York, was the guest of 
honor. He discussed the metal and 
general business situation in the East, 
and expressed the opinion that Mexico 
offered an excellent opportunity for 
substantial mining investments. He 
concluded with a strong plea for more 
Americanism on the part of the mine 
eperators and the general public, point- 
ing to the fact that the present situa- 
tion in the coal-mining industry held 
grave possibilities. 

At the same meeting the Denison 
Federal “blue-sky” bill was discussed. 
The chairman pointed out that enact- 
ment of the measure would kill mining 
promotion and lead to utter stagnation 
in an industry that is only now begin- 
ning to recover. 

In preparation for a national promo- 
tion, no matter how honest the project 
might be, it would be necessary to pass 
the “blue-sky” commissions of forty-two 
states, at a cash outlay of at least $42,- 
000 and loss of possibly a year’s time. 

Furthermore, it was pointed out that 
the exemption of securities listed on 
steck exchanges in cities of population 
of 500,000 and over would drive all in- 
vestment and speculative capital to a 
few large communities and bring dis- 
aster to such mining centers as Denver, 
Salt Lake, Spokane, and Butte. 

It was decided to begin an energetic 
campaign of education. and with that in 
view a public meeting of mining men 
will be called soon to take action. 
Meanwhile, communications are being 
sent to every mining organization in 
the West, calling attention to the bill. 


Practical Mining Men Meet 
at Picher 

The first of what it is hoped 
will be a series of get-together meet- 
ings for practical mining men in the 
Miami-Joplin field was held at Picher, 
Okla., on March 16. Will H. Coghill, 
of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, was the 
principal speaker, explaining the results 
of experiments he and others from the 
Bureau have been making in the dis- 
trict for several months. He freely 
criticized the present milling practice 
in the field, and suggested the pos- 
sibilities of a new jig, designed for the 
handling of material between minus 
% in. and plus @ in., that might be 
taken out of the mill feed. A sample 
jig has been constructed and a large- 








544 


size model has been installed in the 
new West Side mill of the Commerce 
Mining & Royalty Co., where it will 
be tried out. 

A number of the practical jig men 
of the district expressed doubt as to 
the successful introduction of innova- 
tions, saying that they believed the 
old time Cooley jig the best concen- 
trating machinery for the ores found 
in this field. 

Another meeting of jig men will be 
held in four weeks, and in the interim 
a meeting for drill men, blacksmiths, 
and ground foremen will be held on 
March 30. The meetings are held in 
the hall of the Tri-State branch of 
the American Zine Institute. 


Coal Situation Reviewed by 
M. and M. Society 


The New York Section of the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society of America 
held its monthly meeting at the Har- 
vard Club on Wednesday, March 22. H. 
W. Wiley, president of the Boone Coun- 
ty Coal Corporation and also vice-presi- 
dent of the Kanawah Coal Operators’ 
Association, told of labor conditions in 
the West Virginia bituminous union 
field, and C. E. Bockus, president of 
the Clinchfield Coal Corporation, 
summed up the same problem in his sec- 
tion, the southwestern Virginia non- 
union field. C. E. Lesher, editor of 
Coal Age, also spoke, contributing some 
valuable data and comments. 


Mine Valuation Exclusively 
Engineers’ Work 


According to L. P. Barrett, mine 
appraiser for the State of Michigan, 
the Michigan system of mine valuation 
is simply the application for purposes 
of taxation of approved scientific 
methods of valuation in use by the 
best geologists and engineers in actual 
¢ccmmercial practice. Prior to 1911, 
mining property in Michigan was ap- 
praised by local assessing officials. In 
that year the Legislature authorized 
the board of state tax commissioners 
to make a special investigation and 
valuation of all property in the state. 
As a result of the investigation, made 
by J. R. Finlay, the assessed valuation 
of iron mining property was increased 
from $26,978,477 to $85,697,110. 


The appraisal proved conclusively. 


that local assessing officials are not 
ordinarily competent to value mine 
property equitably, and that such work 
can be executed satisfactorily only by 
engineers or geologists, especially fitted 
by training and experience. It further- 
more demonstrated, in the opinion of 
Mr. Barrett, the necessity of an annual 
valuation of the iron mines, as mining 
property fluctuates in value to a greater 
degree than any other class of property, 
especially individual mines. 

The object is to assess the mine for 
100 per cent, cash sale value. The in- 
crease in taxes of recent years has 
been due not to increase in valuation, 
but to increase in the amount of money 
that has been raised on the same valua- 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


tions. The 1921 valuation of the 
Michigan iron mines was $117,691,208. 
The system of valuation worked out 
in Michigan has been pronounced the 
best that could be devised and has been 
adopted by several other states. It has 
been indorsed by economists and is con- 
sidered fair and equitable in principle 
and application. 


CESSS ASSSSSSSSSASK SASS SSSSERESERESEEESE eee eeeeeeeeeeeeEs 


MEN YOU SHOULD 





KNOW ABOUT 


Frank M. Manson, of Reno, Nev., is 
visting San Francisco. 


Eugene Dawson has just returned 
from Panama to New York. 

Willet G. Miller sailed from New 
York for England on March 23. 


Basil Prescott is examining mining 
properties in Chihuahua, Mexico. 

C. D. Kaeding, consulting engineer, 
was in Reno on March 15, en route to 
Candelaria. 


N. G. Evered has been appointed man- 
ager of the Vipond property in Por- 
cupine, Ontario. 

Harold Stotesbury, of the Tonopah 
Mining Co., is making examinations in 
Butte County, Cal. 

John G. Kirchen, general manager of 
the Tonopah Extension Mining Co., is 
ill in San Francisco. 


Henry C. Carlisle will make his head- 
quarters for six weeks at Gadsden 
Hotel, Douglas, Ariz. 

Alford Roos has returned to Bayard, 
N. M., from an examination of fluorspar 
properties near Hatch, N. M. 

Sidney J. Kidder, manager of the 
Mogollon Mines Co., is in Los Angeles, 
Cal., recuperating from a recent illness. 

Joseph McAuliffe has acceptea the 
position of mill superintendent for the 
Empire Consolidated Mines, Inc., Em- 
pire, Col. 

J. R. Finlay, having completed his 
work in New Mexico for the State Tax 
Commission, is at his home in Red- 
lands, Cal. 


A. W. Koch, of Boston, who has been 
making examinations in Arizona, is in 
Los Angeles, Cal., en route to the 
Northwest. 


D. C. Jackling recently visited the 
new plant of the Shasta Zinc & Copper 
Co., at Winthrop, Cal., on his way from 
San Francisco to New York. 


C. K. Leith has returned from South 
America and has left New York for 
Madison, Wis., to resume his duties at 
the University of Wisconsin. 


H. I. Smith, chief supervisor of min- 
eral leases for the Bureau of Mines at 
Denver, is in Washington conferring 
with Interior Department officials. 

A. H. Jones, formerly superintendent 
of mills for the Tonopah Belmont De- 
velopment Co., at present with head- 
quarters in Salt Lake City, is in Tono- 
pah. 


E. A. Krisher has been appointed 


< 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


superintendent of the Lucky Twenty 
Mining Co., Ouray, Col., to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the death of J. A. 
Lannon. 

Clyde Heller and Frederick Bradshaw, 
president and general manager re- 
spectively of the Tonopah Be’mont De- 
velopment Co., were in Tonopah during 
the second week of March. 

George Huntington Clark has re- 
turned to Birmingham, Ala., from a trip 
to Georgia and Florida, where he had 
been studying the fuller’s earth mining 
operations of the Standard Oil and other 
companies. 

R. L. Chase, of Denver, has been re- 
tained as consulting engineer by the 
Golconda Consolidated Mines Co., which 
has a large gold-silver property in de- 
velopment in the San Juan Mountains 
of Colorado. 

Bert W. Dyer, who has been serving 
as Federal mine inspector in Alaska, 
has been recalled to fill the vacancy 
created by the death of George Salmon, 
the late assistant supervisor of coal 
mine leases in the West. 

Frederick Marston, former mill 
superintendent for the Arizona Copper 
Co., at Morenci, Ariz., and for the 
Caucasus Copper Co., Batoum, Russia, 
is now mill superintendent and chief 
metallurgist for the Alvarado Mining & 
Milling Co., at Parral, Chihuahua, 
Mexico. 

A, A. Beville has been promoted to 
the position of chief engineer on the 
Mesabi Range for the Cleveland Cliffs 
Iron Co. to fill the vacancy created by 
the resignation of W. A. Sterling, who 
has accepted the position of assistant 
superintendent with the E. W. Coons 
Contracting Co. 

M. Van Siclen, assistant chief mining 
engineer of the Bureau of Mines, has 
been detached from the Washington 
office to act as technical adviser to the 
Indian service in making new leases 
for lead and zinc deposits on Indian 
lands. E, H. Denny has been called to 
Washington to take up the duties of 
assistant chief mining engineer. 

Mining and metallurgical engineers 
visting New York City last week in- 
cluded: H. W. Edmondson, Hyde Park, 
Vt.; Allan G. Waite, Buffalo, N. Y.; 
D. A. Lyon, Washington, D. C.; and 
F. T. Agthe, York, Pa. 


TTT TLL LLL LLL 1 Ll llaledadedalessasssdtehshstsbeehehehehsehsehehsheehsieeheiedeeiet 


OBITUARY 


s 
 p RRSCCRSSSEESESSERESASESSERSSTR ESSER SESS EER Ce RES eee eeeReEeeceseeseEy 


Harai R. Layng, metallurgist, died at 
Gilroy, Cal., on March 4, of influenza. 

Kent Archibald, a pioneer of the 
Nova Scotia gold mining industry, died 
at Truro, N. S., on March 20 at the 
age of seventy-nine. 

B. T. Link, president and manager 
of the Grant County Copper Co., died 
recently at his residence in Santa Rita, 
N. M. Mr. Link had been a mine 
operator in the Silver City district for 
forty years. 


Pa 








April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining. Journal-Press 





"THE MINING NEWS 





The Mining News of ENGINEERING AND MINING JOURNAL-PRESS is 
obtained exclusively from its own staff and correspondents, both in the United 
States and in foreign fields. If, under exceptional conditions, material emanating 
from other sources is published, due acknowledgment and credit will be accorded. 


ALUMET & HECLA and its subsidiaries, Ahmeek 
and Isle Royale, in northern Michigan, resumed 
Isle Royale will start milling soon. 

The lease on the Hoskins Mound sulphur deposit near 
Freeport, Tex., now held by the Texas Company, will 
be sold to the Freeport Sulphur Co., if the stockholders 
of the Freeport Texas Co. ratify a contract to this 
effect between its subsidiary and the Texas Company. 
The matter will be voted on at a meeting to be held on 


operations on April 1. 


April 10. 


Charles §. Herzig has made an unfavorable report on 
the property of the Boston & Montana Development Co. 


at Elkhorn, Mont. 


The Minnesota tonnage tax hearing will take place at 


St. Paul on April 10. 


Hoskins Mound Sulphur Deposit 
Sought by Freeport Company 


Proposed to Transfer Lease Now Held by 
Texas Co.—Thomas Nevins Claims 
Agreement Subject to 
Cancellation 


The Freeport Sulphur Co. has entered 
into a contract with the Texas Com- 
pany providing for the transfer of the 
latter’s mineral lease on the Hoskins 
Mound sulphur deposit, fifteen miles 
northeast of Freeport, Tex., and near 
the coast. The Freeport Sulphur Co. is 
a subsidiary of the Freeport Texas Co. 
Stockholders of the latter will meet at 
Wilmington, Del., on April 10 to ratify 
the action of the company in guarantee- 
ing and entering the contract between 
its subsidiary and the Texas Company, 
which is dated March 14, 1922. A pro- 
posal to issue $4,000,000 in 7 per cent 
convertible bonds will be considered at 
this meeting; also one to issue addi- 
tional stock, not to exceed 250,000 
shares, to meet the conversion privilege 
to be contained in the bonds. It will be 
necessary for the Freeport Texas Co. 
to advance money to the Freeport Sul- 
phur Co. for development and working 
capital. 

Three thousand acres of sulphur lands 
on Hoskins Mound, which the Freeport 
company is to add to its holdings, are 
owned by the Mound Company, a Texas 
corporation, which leased the acreage to 
the Texas Company. It is this lease 
which the Texas Company is to transfer 
to the Freeport Sulphur Co. 

A rumor of possible complications is 
heard, to the effect that Thomas Nevins, 





Leading Events 


erty in Arizona. 


Stockholders of the Magma Copper Co. voted on 
March 28 to ratify the directors’ proposal to issue 
$4,000,000 in bonds to finance the construction of a 
smelter and other improvements at the company’s prop- 


E. P. Mathewson has made an interesting report on 
the Burma Corporation, the gist of which is given in 
this week’s London news. 

A bill to remove the “discovery clause” from the 


Ontario Mining Act is being sponsored by the present 


criticism. 


Provincial Minister of Mines in the face of adverse 


The “blue-sky” legislation, recently under discussion, 


Toronto. 


who controls the Mound Company, 
claims that the lease given by his com- 
pany to the Texas Company is subject 
to cancellation because of numerous 
breaches of obligation. 


Utah Apex Resumes 


The Utah Apex Mining Co., of Bing- 
ham Canyon, Utah, resumed operations 
on March 27.. A contract has been en- 
tered into with the American Smelting 
& Refining Co. for the treatment of its 
ore and concentrates at Midvale. 


Butte & Superior Hearing 
Again Postponed 


The hearing in the accounting pro- 
ceedings between the Butte & Superior 
Mining Co. and the Minerals Separation, 
Ltd., has again been postponed, this 
time until April 11. It was to have 
been held on March 28 in New York. 


Coal Miners Strike in Colorado 
To Have Little Effect 


Those in charge of smelters, power 
plants, mills, and mines in Colorado 
are unanimously of the opinion that 
the threatened strike of coal miners 
will not appreciably affect operations 
in that state. Large quantities of coal 
are in storage, and with the non-union 
mines in operation there is not likely 
to be any shortage for several months 
at least. The production of coal for 
the first two months of the year as 
shown by the State Coal Inspector’s 
report shows.a falling off of 215,709 
tons as compared with last year. — 


has been eliminated from further consideration at 


Calumet & Hecla Resumes 
Mining Operations 


Ahmeek Expected To Mill 1,500 Tons 
Daily—Isle Royale To Start 
Stamps April 10 


By M. W. YounGs 


The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co., in 
the Michigan copper country, starts 
operations April 1 by sending about 
2,000 tons of rock daily to the mill 
from the conglomerate department. 
Several of the conglomerate shafts will 
be put in operation. <A force of 500 
men is employed in restoring shafts, 
removing fallen rock, and repairing ‘the 
skipways and timbering. The several 
shafts are already opened to the deeper 
levels, making possible the removal of 
pillars and backs of stopes or the min- 
ing of virgin ground. Tracks have been 
laid in the crosscuts to the Tamarack 
Junior tracts, and’ tramming may be 
resumed in this part of the property: 
Some of the crosscuts to the vein from 
the Red Jacket shaft have also been 
cleared, making possible the resump- 
tion of mining there. 

Ahmeek will probably start sending 
1,500 tons of rock daily to the’ mill, 
this tonnage increasing as metal ‘and 
labor conditions warrant. This * prop- 
erty is in splendid condition and ‘in 
position to get back to normal speedily. 
When Ahmeek shut down in 1921 it was 
producing in excess of 2,000,000 lb. of 
copper per month, and the rock was 
averaging close to 30 lb. tothe ton: 
The fissure vein of almost pure mass 
copper will contribute materially to 





546 


keeping costs down and is largely re- 
sponsible for the fact that the cost 
per pound during the three months the 
mine was operated last year was under 
8c., this being the actual mining cost. 
Other charges brought the cost up to 
14.56c. For depletion and depreciation 
4.27c. was charged. No. 1 shaft was 
drained during 1921 and it will again 
be possible to conduct mining opera- 
tions here. Drifts were extended from 
this shaft early last year, and medium 
good ground was_ opened. at. as 
Ahmeek’s plan to explore the Kearsarge 
conglomerate this year, and for this 
purpose the crosscut from one of the 
drifts on the fissure vein in No. 2 shaft 
will be extended about 200 ft. to cut 
the lode. 

Isle Royale will begin stamping rock 
April 10. Water has been turned into 
the boilers at the mill, and repair work 
is under way. Some of the tables are 
warped, but water has been turned over 
them and it is believed most of them 
can be placed in their former condition. 

When Isle Royale was shut down on 
April 1 last year it was producing at 
the rate of approximately 65 per cent 
of normal. For the next few months 
at least, it probably will not produce 
more than 50 per cent, or between 
500,000 and 600,000 lb. per month. 
Isle Royale will probably send no more 
than 1,000 tons of rock daily to the 
mill at the start, sufficient to keep two 
heads busy. Previous to the shutdown 
last spring, Isle Royale was in par- 
ticularly good ground. 





El Paso Smelter Overhauling 
All Lead Furnaces 


The Erupcion Mining Co. and the 
Ahumada Lead Co., whose properties 
are situated in Chihuahua about forty- 
five miles west of Ahumada station on 
the Mexican Central, about sixty miles 
south of El Paso, are at present con- 
structing a broad-gage railroad from 
the Mexican Central to their property, 
for the purpose of shipping a consider- 
able deposit of lead carbonate ore, 
which has been developed in recent 
years. The El Paso Smelting Works 
has a contract for smelting this ore, 
and at the present time is rehabilitating 
to the necessary extent its lead-smelting 
department. This, it is said, is not 
especially of great importance, and as 
a matter of fact is involving no actual 
new construction, but rather the re- 
habilitation of a  six-furnace lead- 
smelting plant which has been at El 
Paso for many years, but which during 
the last ten years has been only partly 
used. 

The mining companies above men- 
tioned expect to complete the railroad 
and begin deliveries some time during 
the coming summer, the exact date not 
having been determined. Press reports 
to the effect that the El Paso smelter 
will employ 1,000 additional men on 
account of this movement are greatly 
exaggerated, the company states. It 
expects to operate five or six furnaces 
at that time in place of three which 
are being operated at present. 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Boston & Montana Mine Examined 
by C. S. Herzig 


Asserts Tonnage in Sight Is Insufficient 
To Run Mill at Capacity— 
Assay Values Low 


Charles S. Herzig has reported un- 
favorably on the Boston & Montana De- 
velopment Co.’s property in Montana for 
Harris & Co., brokers of 25 Broad St., 
New York, who have made the report 
public. Mr. Herzig was asked to exam- 
ine the mine, the brokers stated, for the 
reason that the new mill has been han- 
dling only 200 tons a day or less, al- 
though the promoters had announced 
that sufficient ore was blocked out and 
broken to keep the mill going at its 
rated 750-ton capacity from the start. 

In the past the management of the 
Boston & Montana company has claimed 
that four veins have been developed. 
From one of these, the Idanha, accord- 
ing to Mr. Herzig, practically all the 
ore going to the mill is coming. After 
describing the scant amount of ore vis- 
ible, Mr. Herzig says that it is “evident 
that the mine is dependent on the limited 
amount of ore opened up in the Idanha 
vein to supply what tonnage may be 
extracted, and it does not seem phys- 
ically possible to take out over 200 to 
possibly 250 tons a day.” 

As to the assay value, Mr. Herzig 
says that it seems “that an average of 
the ore being treated in the mill is 
around 5 oz. to perhaps 6 oz. of silver, 
with possibly 1 per cent copper and a 
small amount of lead... Ore of this 
grade is of doubtful value. It does not 
seem possible to handle it at a profit.” 

In concluding, Mr. Herzig says, “The 
mine is not now on a self-supporting 
basis, and in my opinion there is no 
reasonable chance of it being so in the 
near future.” Mine conditions, he says, 
do not warrant new financing. 





Receiver and Accounting Asked 
for Calumet & Jerome 


J. B. Brown and other stockholders 
have entered suit in Prescott, Ariz., 
asking appointment of a receiver for 
the Calumet & Jerome Copper Co. and 
for a general accounting. The action 
is directed against the corporation and 
George W. Avery, George H. Avery, 
and Joseph Larsen, directors. It is 
alleged that the Averys have been ab- 
sent in California for two years, have 
neglected their duties, have sold stock 
for which no return has been made, 
have voted themselves stock to which 
they had no right and have mortgaged 
the company for $400,000 by trust deed. 

President George W. Avery recently 
returned from New York, where, he 
stated, he had closed a stock deal with 
James O’Brien & Co. through which 
ample funds would be secured for de- 
velopment. Development work is to be 
undertaken, consisting of upraising 
from the upper tunnel to find ore lo- 
cated by drilling two years ago, and it 
is expected that extension of the upper 
tunnel, through United Verde ground, 
at 500 ft. depth, will cut a promising 
surface showing on the 101 Claim. 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


Brazilian Consulate Reports 
Discovery of Platinum 


Deposit Found in Parahyba do Norte 
Within Reach of Transportation— 
Operator’s Capital Limited 


United States Consul Cameron has 
reported to the Department of Com- 
merce that platinum has recently been 
discovered in Parahyba do Norte, 
Brazil. The deposit is on a mountain 
ridge three miles from the main auto- 
mobile road leading from Campina 
Grande to Patos. Regular truck lines 
now operate over this line, and it is 
understood that a branch road from the 
main line to the deposit could be easily 
constructed. For the present the owner 
plans to establish an extracting plant 
at the deposit and bring the ore out 
by truck. His funds are limited, how- 
ever, and he may require outside 
capital. 





Platinum Reported in Albania 


Discovery of deposits of platinum in 
Albania was announced on March 16 
by Constantine A. Chekrezi, Commis- 
sioner from Albania to the United 
States. In a letter to H. Foster Bain, 
Director of the Bureau of Mines, he 
says the platinum was discovered several 
weeks ago by Professor Saderholm, of 
the University of Helsingfors, in Al- 
bania on a mission for the League of 
Nations. A deposit of coal has also 
been found. 





Bureau of Mines Officials To Meet 
at Pittsburgh 


Matters having arisen which made 
it advisable to call together all super- 
intendents and chief clerks of the min- 
ing experiment stations of the Bureau 
of Mines, the original plan of having 
Western superintendents gather at 
Rolla, Mo., has been changed. The 
meeting will be held, instead, at Pitts- 
burgh and at Washington. The first 
session will be in Pittsburgh on 
April 17. 





Minnesota Tonnage Tax Hearing 
Up April 10 

Attorney General Hilton of Minne- 
sota has announced that the hearing on 
the granting of a permanent injunction 
to the iron-mining companies of Minne- 
sota against the collection of the occu- 
pational or so-called tonnage tax will 
be held in Federal Court at St. Paul 
on April 10. The hearing will be before 
one judge, Tillman D. Johnson, of Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 


Idaho Gold Corporation Refused 
Listing on Exchange 

The Idaho Gold Corporation, incor- 

porated under the Nevada laws, is the 


latest attempt of George Graham Rice 
to interest stock speculators. An un- 


official request to list the stock in this 
new company upon the San Francisco 
Stock Exchange has been denied by the 
California State Corporation Depart- 
ment. 








April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





News from Washington 


War Minerals Relief Personnel 
To Be Kept Down 


Appeal of Rowen Claim Results 
Disallowance of Most of Amount 
Formerly Allowed 


It is the desire of the Secretary of 
the Interior to hold to a minimum the 
personnel engaged in War Minerals 
Relief work. For that reason, he has 
suggested that the Bureau of Mines 
arrange to extend to the commission 
such engineering assistance as may 
be necessary. W. R. Crane, the super- 
intendent of the Bureau of Mines’ 
Southern experiment station, is now in 
Washington passing on some of the 
engineering matters which have arisen 
in connection with war minerals claims. 
As Mr. Crane’s duties at Birmingham 
are such as to preclude any extended 
stay in Washington, C. E. Julihn, the 
superintendent of the’ Lake Superior 
experiment station, has been called to 
Washington for temporary duty with 
the War Minerals organization. 

An appeal in the Rowen chrome 
claim has resulted in the elimination 
of a $17,500 item. Had the appeal 
not been made it is probable that the 
item never would have been questioned. 
In the investigation which followed the 
appeal, a questionnaire was sent out, 
which, by chance, revealed that the 
applicant could secure relief from that 
portion of his loss through a contract 
which was found still to be in force. 
The final recommendation in the claim 
was $3,988.41. The original amount 
claimed was $59,000. The commis- 
sioner disallowed a number of other 
items in addition to the one for $17,500. 

Further recommendations for awards 
have been made by the commission in 
the following cases: W. A. Watson, 
Charlottesville, Va., pyrites, $1,198.92; 
Lewelling & Williams, Little Rock, 
Ark., manganese, $603.07; I. Lanski & 
Sons, Chicago, manganese, $8,085.36; 
Reeves Davis, Happy Camp, Cal., 
chrome, $334; Joseph Nigliore & Ever- 
ton Mining & Development Co., Ander- 
son, Ark., manganese, $6,802.79; Tom 
E. Plumridge, St. Louis (trustee for 
John E. -Hannori), manganese, $1,- 
157.52; American Refractories Co., 
chrome, $14,174.02. 

Frequent mention of the passage by 
Congress of legislation reimbursing 
war minerals producers was made in 
the House debate on the soldier bonus 
bill by various members in justification 
for the bill and the fact that it con- 
tained no provisions for producing 
revenues to pay the bonus. These 
members pointed out that no com- 
plaint had been made when Congress 
passed legislation relieving war min- 
erals contractors, which bills carried 
no provision for producing the revenue. 

Representative Crisp, of Georgia, said 
Congress had passed a law authorizing 
an appropriation of several million 


in 





By PAUL WOOTON 
Special Correspondent 


dollars to pay “mineral and mining 
speculators for profits they would have 
made had the war gone on” and that 


no protest was made that the expendi-: 


ture would injure the country. 

Representative Schall, of Minnesota, 
stated that the Government had paid 
war minerals claims, thereby fulfilling 
its obligations under mining projects 
where the close of the war had caused 
their owners to suffer losses. 

Congress had provided for the settle- 
ment of war minerals claims on the 
ground that the Government had en- 
couraged and induced miners to engage 
in mining certain minerals needed in 
the prosecution of the war, according 
to Representative Osborn, of Cali- 
fornia. The close of the war found 
many of these mines just beginning to 
produce or not fully developed, as it 
takes time to develop the mines. When 
the war closed shipments of these min- 
erals coming from foreign countries 
caused the American producers to lose 


practically their entire investment. 
Many were ruined financially, he 
asserted. 


The charge was made by Representa- 
tive Kelly, of Pennsylvania, that many 
of the war mineral claimants for whose 
relief Congress had provided “never 
produced a pound of mineral and their 
only claim lay in producing a newspaper 
article which set forth the needs of 
the Government,” and yet they were 
compensated. 


Heat Treatment of Drill Steel 
Will Be Studied 


A mining engineer and a metallurgist 
are to be selected by the Bureau of 
Mines and by the Bureau of Standards 
in the near future to make an in- 
tensive study as to present practice 
in the heat treatment of drill steels 
and the extent to which breakage oc- 
curs. These engineers are to make a 
much more exhaustive survey than has 
ever been attempted before. They will 
submit a report to the advisory board 
which is co-operating with the bureaus 
in the study of rock drill steels and 
other steels which must withstand im- 
pact stresses. The advisory committee 
is composed of B. F. Tillson, T. R. 
Lawson, George T. Cousins, H. S. 
Brainard, J. A. Mathews, George H. 
Clark, H. M. Boylston, Van. H. Man- 
ning, F. W. Deonton, Walcott Reming- 
ton, and Bradley Stoughton. 

The survey about to be undertaken 
is under the immediate supervision of 
D. A. Lyon and G. K. Burgess. 


Government’s Silver Purchases 


Purchases of silver by the Bureau of 
the Mint during the week ended March 
25 amounted to 1,215,000 fine ounces. 
This brings the total purchases under 
the Pittman Act to 101,292,608. 


Mexican Decree Remits Penalty 
for Mine Tax Delinquency 


Action Results From Efforts of State 
Department — Affects Properties 
Not Re-denounced 


As a result of persistent work on the 
part of the State Department, a decree 
has been issued by the Mexican govern- 
ment relieving owners of mining prop- 
erty in Mexico from the payment of 
penalties arising from failure to pay 
taxes on their claims during the revolu- 
tionary period. The issuance of the de- 
cree was made known by the Depart- 
ment of State in the following announce- 
ment: 

“For some time past the Department 
of State has been informally endeavor- 
ing to bring about the issuance by the 
Mexican authorities of a decree reliev- 
ing owners of mining property in Mex- 
ico from the payment of penalties aris- 
ing out of failure to pay taxes on such 
properties during recently disturbed 
conditions in Mexico. A decree pub- 
lished March 10, 1922, by the Mexican 
government is intended to grant such 
relief. 

“The decree provides that penalties 
in question shall be remitted if the 
property owners shall pay before July 
1, 1922, the taxes assessed for the year 
1921, and the first eight months of 1922, 
and further provides that such payments 
may be made in installments corre- 
sponding to the amount due for a four- 
month period, and on dates selected by 
the owner. 

“The decree also provides that this 
relief shall be extended to the owners of 
property whose title thereto has lapsed 
under Mexican law because of non-pay- 
ment of taxes, provided the properties 
shall not have been re-denounced either 
in whole or in part. 

“It is further provided that owners 
of mines who have failed to pay taxes 
due previously to 1921 may, provided 
they make the payments for 1921 and 
the first eight months of 1922, pay 
arrearages prior to 1921 in as many in- 
stallments as there are four-month 
periods in arrears. 

“Provision is made for the receipt 
of the payments referred to by the 
principal Stamp Administrators, and it 
is provided that mine owners who have 
availed themselves of exemptions from 
surtaxes granted by previous laws and 
decrees shall continue paying their in- 
debtedness in accordance with the terms 
of such laws and decrees.” 





O. S. L. May Establish Freight 
Rates Dependent on Value 

The Oregon Short Line Railroad has 
been authorized by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission to establish rates on 
ore, concentrates, and slag dependent 
upon value declared in writing by the 
shipper. 








548 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


News by Mining Districts 


London Letter 


E. P. Mathewson Reports on Burma Cor- 
poration—Shortcomings of Treat- 
ment Plant Pointed Out 


By W. A. DOMAN 


London, March 14—There is presum- 
ably no mining engineer who has not 
some sort of acquaintance with the 
Burma Corporation and the wonderful 
ore deposits in the properties which it 
owns. When the share markets were 
good, some few years ago, even the 
highest class of journals here published 
estimates of the value of Burma Cor- 
poration shares, and the figure of £100 
was thought to be quite within the 
bounds of possibility. It is, however, 
one thing to have orebodies in situ and 
value them there, and quite another to 
recover the metals. The Burma Cor- 
‘poration is experiencing the recovery 
difficulty. Things have not gone well 
for some time, but the values are there. 

The directors appointed E. P. Mathew- 
son in a consulting capacity to visit 
the property. Mr. Mathewson has writ- 
ten a most illuminating report, in which 
he points out not only the possibilities 
of the undertaking, but what is equally 
important, the shortcomings of the 
treatment plant. The report is marked 
with candor throughout, and makes a 
greater appeal on that account. The 
writer does not commit himself in re- 
gard to the immediate future; there are 
various “ifs” and “whens” in the docu- 
ment. He does, however, approve the 
policy of the board, and says: “A daily 
average production of 700 tons of ore 
from the Bawdwin mine can be main- 
tained when the necessary labor force 
is secured, when transportation facili- 
ties are adjusted to handle increased 
tonnage, and when improvements are 
made in the smelter.” As regards the 
mill, he is equally outspoken: “The mill 
was built with a view to the production 
of zine concentrate suitable for retort- 
ing and lead and silver concentrate suit- 
able for smelting. Results have never 
equaled the expectations of the builders 
so far as the zine concentrate is con- 
cerned, In fact, the taking out of a 
zine concentrate has been discontinued.” 
Further, he writes: “It is fallacious 
to consider the zinc in your ore as an 
asset under existing. conditions.” 

Bawdwin ore is exceedingly complex, 
and no flotation reagent has been dis- 
covered that will solve the problem. 
Originally, considerable store had been 
set upon the zinc contents of the ore. 
Even the lead smelter, however, is not 
operated economically, for there has 
been “a great loss of lead and silver in 
the dust and fumes from the furnaces.” 
With a baghouse, silver recovered will 
be increased to 98 per cent or over, and 
lead will be raised from 83 per cent to 
about 92 per cent. The construction of 
another blast furnace is recommended. 
Direct smelting is advised for about 40 
“per cent of the mine run. Though the 
process now in use for treating the ore 


is susceptible of considerable improve- 
ment, the cost of recovery when im- 
provements are effected will, in Mr. 
Mathewson’s opinion, compare favor- 
ably with any process with which he is 
acquainted. He is rather severe upon 
chemical processes, and perhaps he is 
wise. His actual words are “Namtu 
is not the place to experiment with new 
processes, particularly chemical proc- 
esses which require skilled European 
operators.” The suggestion of chemical 
processes for the corporation came 
under criticism generally among tech- 
nical men at the time, and the criticisms 
have proved correct. 


BURMA 


Namtu—In February, 13,709 tons of 
ore was milled at the Burma Corpora- 
tion’s treatment plant, producing 9,402 
tons of lead concentrate; 9,747 tons of 
lead-bearing material was smelted in 
the blast furnaces, producing 3,260 tons 
of hard lead for treatment in the re- 
finery. Refinery products were 3,016 
tons refined lead and 299,223 oz. of re- 
fined silver. 


SCANDINAVIA 


Edgar N. Rhodes Discusses Nickel and 
British America Corporation 


Special Correspondence 


Christiania—Interviewed during his 
recent visit to Christiania, by Tidens 
Tegn, Edgar N. Rhodes stated that 
there was no doubt that there is a 
future for nickel, given normal condi- 
tions of production and - distribution. 
The metal, apart from its. basic value, 
was possessed of many prominent quali- 
ties that could with advantage be 
applied in several fields hitherto un- 
thought of. During the recent arma- 
ment production practically the entire 
nickel output was absorbed, and there 
was little if anything done to obtain 
new spheres of use for the metal. At 
present the subject is having the most 
zealous consideration, and for the last 
ten months the British America Nickel 
Corporation has, in this direction, car- 
ried out a series of exhaustive ex- 
periments. The company’s physical 
condition is first class, according to Mr. 
Rhodes. 

Referring to the large Norwegian 
stake in the British America corpora- 
tion, Mr. Rhodes said that interest on 
the capital invested would be realized 
and that the earnings would be good— 
as soon as operations could be started 
and the general depression gives place 
to life and activity. From that view- 
point he considered that the recent 
refinancing of the company was right, 
even at the cost of great efforts. 
Otherwise the works could not have 
been completed, and the most of the 
earlier capital invested would have been 
lost. The recent trouble in Norway 
over the company Mr. Rhodes seemed 
to consider an internal matter. 


Johannesburg Letter 


Events Preceding Recent Disorder— 
Strikers Had Been Slowly 
Returning to Work 


By JOHN WATSON 


The situation prior to the recent 
revolutionary disorder on the Rand is 
discussed by John Watson, the corre- 
spondent of the Engineering and 
Mining Journal-Press at Johannesburg, 
under date of Feb. 21. The strike has 
since been settled, as already an- 
nounced. Mr. Watson’s letter reads: 


Johannesburg, Feb. 21—During the 
last week some little progress has been 
made toward restarting the gold mines 
ef the Rand. The number of white 
men returning to work is said to be 
steadily though slow increasing. There 
are at present something like 4,500 
white men at work. Out of this number 
3,500 are officials on the staff of the 
various mines, about 500 men have 
been kept working on essential services, 
though not classed as officials, and the 
strikers returned to work number 
about 400. , 

When an attempt was made to resume 
work on the gold mines, the strikers 
still out adopted their usual picketing 
tactics. These pickets, however, were 
dispersed and some arrested by the 
police, mounted and foot. The pickets, 
sometimes marching as commandoes, 
or in mobs, including women in many 
camps, then adopted the plan of visit- 
ing the houses of those men who had 
returned to work. 

The workers are escorted to and 
from their work by police; but there 
have been several instances where 
workers have been waylaid, overpow- 
ered, and maltreated. 

The Union Parliament assembled at 
Cape Town on Feb. 17 when the Gov- 
ernor-General (H.R.H. Prince Arthur 
of Connaught) made the opening speech, 
ir. the course of which he said the 
diamond-mining industry had almost en- 
tirely ceased. The continual fall in 
the price of gold threatens with extinc- 
tion a number of mines which for 
years have afforded employment to 
thousands of European and native 
workers. The strike on the gold mines 
had caused a stoppage of work in the 
Transvaal which produced a situation 
of great gravity. On the advice of 
ministers, a board would be appointed 
to deal with the issues raised by the 
strike. 

A subcommittee of the joint execu- 
tives of the South African Industrial 
Federation has issued a report giving 
proposals for a settlement of the strike. 
They recommend that assistance be 
given to the low-grade mines by means 
of a fund which would be contributed 
to by the state, the employers, and by 
all employees (whether on wage or 
salary). They also issue a suggested 
scale by which the underground con- 
tractors earnings should be reduced to 
some extent. 











April 1, 1922 


CALIFORNIA 


J. T. Plunkett and Associates Get Sur- 
cease Property Near Las Plumas 
—La Grange Dredge Running 


(San Francisco Correspondence ) 


San Francisco—Four stamp mills are 
operating in French Gulch, Shasta 
County. At the Gladstone, ten stamps 
are in operation; the Milkmaid is oper- 
ating ten stamps and the Sybil and 
Washington are each operating five 
stamps. The zinc refinery of the 
Shasta Zine & Copper Co. is well along, 
and operations are expected to be 
started in May. 

The Surcease property, situated three 
miles from Las Plumas on the Western 
Pacific, Butte County, has been acquired 
by J. T. Plunkett and associates, of San 
Francisco. Preparations are being 
made to sink the present shaft deeper 
and develop further. Plans are in 
course of preparation for a 100-ton ball 
mill and flotation plant. Lloyd White 
is preparing the mill plans and J. G. 
Collier will be manager of the property. 

On the Mother Lode, the 9-ft. gold 
dredge constructed by the Yuba Manu- 
facturing Co. for the LaGrange Gold 
Dredging Co. was started March 18. 


NEVADA 


Betty O’Neal Mine Contracting for 
100-Ton Mill—Tonopah Mining Co. 
in Good Condition 


From Our Special Correspondent 


Virginia City—The Con. Virginia is 
mining on the 1,600, 2,050, and 2,250 
levels. Production is 100 tons per day, 
and average value about $14 per ton. 
In the Ophir mine, work is being done 
on the 1,800 and 1,900 levels, and about 
twenty-five tons of $20 ore is being 
shipped daily. 

Battle Mountain—Contracts are being 
let for the construction of a 100-ton 
flotation plant for the Betty O’Neal 
mine, twelve miles southeast of Battle 
Mountain. Actual construction will not 
be started until weather conditions are 
more favorable than at present. Mine 
development continues on the 150 level 
and through two tunnels. Slow progress 
is being made in the main haulage and 
drainage tunnel on account of difficult 
ground. 


Rochester—Gross production of the 
Rochester Silver Corporation for Feb- 
ruary was $50,696.25, and net operat- 
ing profit $20,188.24. Tonnage treated 
was 4,271 tons, with average mill heads 
$11.87, as compared with $10.89 for 
January. The increase was due to the 
better grade of ore now being mined 
from the recent developments on the 
Windlass vein. 


Tonopah—Underground conditions in 
the property of the Tonopah Mining Co. 
are said to be excellent. Production 
is at the rate of 1,500 tons per week, 
and ore reserves are increasing. De- 
velopment for the week ended Feb. 13 
totaled 326 ft. In the North Star mine, 
on the 1,000 level, a drift following the 
McDonald vein is in ore of shipping 
grade. This vein has been a large pro- 








Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 





ducer of high-grade ore in the Montana 
mine and on the upper levels of the 
North Star. The West End reports 
favorable developments in the vicinity 
of the 500 and 800 levels. 


Royston—The Hudson shaft has been 
sunk 80 ft. below the 300 level. The 
shaft has passed into the foot wall of 
the vein. A level is to be established 
at the 400-ft. point and lateral work 
done. Some high-grade ore has re- 
cently been cut in the old workings 
above the 150 level, and a raise on the 
vein shows 16 in. of ore said to run 
over $500 per ton. 


Goldfield—In the Silver Pick lease 
on the Red Top what may prove to be 
a valuable ore shoot has been cut in 
the hanging wall of the main vein. 
The ore is about 200 ft. northwest of 
the Red Top shaft and between the 
265 and 333 levels. Eight carloads of 
ore were shipped last month and at 
present the face of the stope shows 
14 ft. of $56 ore for a length of 20 ft. 


Ely—Definite news as to when the 
Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. will 
resume active operations is still lack- 
ing, though it is felt that with im- 
proved markets and other properties 
resuming gradually the date will not 
be long delayed. The large body of 
higher grade copper ore developed in 
the Ruth mine of the company is an 
asset which should be an important 
factor in the plans of the company and 
may mean an earlier resumption than 
originally planned. 

Properties under development in the 
district at present are the Ely North- 
ern mine of the Boston-Ely company, 
the Ely-Calumet, and the Nevada 
United. Outside districts are prac- 
tically idle on account of the severe 
weather. 

Pioche—The Stella Mines Co. will 
increase shipments of silver ore, 
sampling of the fissure vein having 
demonstrated that a portion of the 
fissure on the Ronnow claim, when 
screened, will average 50 oz. in silver 
to the ton, with a small lead content. 
Shipments are being made from the 
Stella and Lyndon mines, the hauling 
of this ore to the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Switch at Comet having been com- 
pleted. 

The new shaft at the Bristol Silver 
mine is nearing completion. It is being 
raised from the 100, 200, and 500 ft. 
levels. This property is shipping about 
fifty tons of ore daily, recent settle- 
ments assaying 40c. in gold, 23.2 oz. 
silver, 24.8 per cent lead, 2.2 per cent 
copper, 6.3 per cent lime, 9.18 per cent 
insoluble, and 13.2 per cent iron. Ore 
is derived principally from the 900 
level stope. 

Leasers working above water level 
at the Prince Consolidated mine have 
200 tons of ore in bin awaiting ship- 
ment. The ore is now being hauled 
by trucks to Pioche, as the railroad is 
not being operated. Eastern Interests 
have purchased for a substantial cash 
consideration the Silver Dale and Silver 
Peer mines, situated in the Silverhorn 
district. 


Spokane Letter 


Backward Spring Retards Operations— 
Trail To Take Silver-Zinc Ores 
on Custom Basis 


By H. W. Power 


Spokane—Cold weather has continued 
well past the middle of March in the 
Pacific Northwest, and early prophecies 
of a late spring are being confirmed. 
This backwardness has had little effect 
upon the scale of operations of such 
large producers as maintained output 
during 1921. It has, however, delayed 
resumption of operations at many of 
the remote and smaller properties, 
where development is the chief aim. It 
has hampered some of the smaller en- 
terprises using mills, but not to such 
an extent as to make any material 
difference in the amount of ore received 
at Tacoma, Trail, and Bunker Hill 
smelters. 

Hopes of resumption of mining and 
milling operations of the Day family 
properties in the Cceur d’Alenes, the 
Tamarack & Custer, and the Hercules, 
and a possible resumption of smelting 
operations at the Northport smelter, 
as a result, have been abandoned on 
account of the death on Feb. 11, of 
Eugene R. Day. No provision is made 
in the will of the deceased for his 
widow, and, as a result, litigation is 
considered possible. It is believed that 
no attempt will be made on the part 
of the surviving members of the part- 
nership to conduct mining operations 
until a settlement is reached. 

The outstanding feature of the situa- 
tion in southeastern British Columbia 
is announcement on part of the Con- 
solidated Mining & Smelting Co., of 
Canada, that the company is not only 
in a position to treat custom silver- 
lead ores again on what is practically 
a cash basis, but that plans perfected 
provide for handling of the silver-zinc 
ores at the Trail plant on a custom 
basis. It is understood that the neces- 
sary work and alterations at Tadanac, 
as the smelter site is known, are now 
in progress, and that by midsummer 
the company will be able to accept and 
pay for ores containing an excess of 
zinc, at least on such terms as to make 
available a class of ore that is fre- 
quently thrown over the dump in the 
Slocan and Ainsworth mining divisions. 
These sections have many properties 
carrying fairly high values in silver 
more or less intimately associated with 
zinc, which accumulate heavy penalties 
under latter-day smelter tariffs. 

Washington has had little that can 
be called startling, with the possible 
exception of encouraging developments 
at the Chloride Queen property, near 
Colville, and interest in the Keller dis- 
trict as a result of suecess reported 
from small-scale operations at what is 
known as the Iron Creek mine. In 


Spokane, where so many mining men 
or prospectors go to raise capital or 
buy supplies, from within a radius of 
300 to 500 miles, optimism is apparent, 
in contrast to the down-in-the-mouth 
attitude of a few months ago. 











550 


Opposition to the Denison “Blue-Sky” 
bill, now before Congress, against which 
mining men of the Northwest are 
united, holding it to interfere with 
legitimate mine promotion, finds vigor- 
ous expression in Spokane. 

In new developments, the Independ- 
ence strike on the third level, and Rex 
consolidation with Red Monarch prop- 
erty, are regarded as important in the 
Cceur d’Alenes. 

Deep snow continues to retard opera- 
tions in central and southern Idaho, with 
the indications of a late spring, post- 
poning prospecting and small develop- 
ment operations. Aside from that the 
immediate outlook for this long- 
neglected territory is good. Important 
transactions affecting mining property 
continue. One of these was closed 
early in March, when the Gold Dredg- 
ing & Power Corporation took over 
5,860 acres of rich placer lands in the 
Boise basin, together with all the 
equipment of the Boston & Idaho Gold 
Dredging Co., including a power plant 
on the Payette River, the Centerville 
Mining & Milling Co.’s holdings and 
equipment, and the patented gold- 
dredging grounds on Grimes Creek 
owned by W. H. Eastbrook. The trans- 


fer involves property aggregating 
$750,000 in value. 
WASHINGTON 


Newly Organized Company May Build 
Zinc-Oxide Plant 


Metaline—The Metaline Minerals Co. 
has been incorporated under Washing- 
ton laws. by New York capital for 
operation and development of the 
property of the Metaline Oriole Co., 
upon which considerable money was 
expended some years ago. It is pro- 
posed to expend about $100,000, accord- 
ing to official information. Among 
other things, it is planned to supersede 
steam with electric power, increase the 
mill capacity to 200 tons daily, and 
install a zinc-oxide plant. 

Chewelah—Much disappointment has 
been manifested by local magnesite 
producers at word from Washington to 
the effect that the magnestite tariff is 
likely to be fixed at $7.50 on crude and 
$10 on dead burned. An effort is to 
be made to have the rate raised to $15 
in the Senate. 

It is said that work at the Blue 
Star mine, near here, is to be re- 
sumed at an early date. Owners of the 
property have options on a considerable 
acreage of adjoining ground. 

Valley—Admiral Mining Co. expects 
to resume development on its property 
near this point this spring. 


I. C. C. Permits Rates Based 
on Declared Value 


Railroads have been authorized by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to 
establish rates on ore dependent upon 
declared value by the shipper from El 
Paso, Tex., to Blende, Minnequa, and 
Pueblo, Col., and on zine ore from 
Brownsville, Eagle Pass, and Laredo, 
Tex., to the same points. 








Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


MONTANA 


Anaconda Starts Neversweat — 8,500 
Men Employed at Butte—Tuolumne 
Copper Elects Board 


By A. B. KEITH 


Butte—The Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co. has put the Neversweat mine, one of 
its larger copper producers, in opera- 
tion, affording employment for 400 men. 
As soon as the company can secure ex- 
perienced men work will be resumed at 
ali of its large mines at Butte. 

The company is turning out market- 
able metal at its Great Falls refinery, 
which, however, is going to the rod and 
wire plant in large part. 

The labor _ situation generally 
throughout the Northwest is improving 
rapidly, and a resumption of independ- 
ent mining operations is noted, the 
effect of which is already beginning to 
be apparent in waning numbers of the 
army of unemployed that headed to- 
ward Butte upon word going forth that 
the mines would resume. The Coeur 
d’Alene district has no surplus of 
miners, whether experienced or other- 
wise, and in the spring months the 
usual quota of miners go into the 
“hills,” prospecting for themselves. 
However, the old-time miner is coming 
back, and though a general resumption 
is yet some distance in the future, oper- 
ations are progressing steadily in that 
direction. 

Survey of the mining properties in 
the Butte district shows an employment 
roli of 8,585 men, Anaconda leading 
with 6,000, Butte & Superior second 
with 900, and the W. A. Clark proper- 
ties third with 600. The East Butte is 
employing 400. Owing to the fact that 
custom smelting has not yet been re- 
sumed by the Anaconda company, a 
number of the mines of this district 
have not resumed production, and either 
are closed entirely or are doing develop- 
ment work only. In this group are 
found the Davis-Daly, the North Butte, 
and the Tuolumne, besides a consider- 
able number of leasers. The Davis- 
Daly is employing 150 men on develop- 
ment work, principally at the Hibernia 
property. These labor statistics give 
the Butte district a rating of about 60 
per cent of normal. 

The Tuolumne Copper Mining Co. at 
its annual meeting of stockholders at 
Phoenix, Ariz., elected the following di- 
rectors: William P. Jahn, of Milwaukee; 
T. E. Murray, of St. Paul; and Paul A. 
Gow, Frank K. Wilson, Daniel Coleman, 
John J. Harrington and Arthur Perham, 
all of Butte. 


Great Falls—Announcement has been 
made of the purchase by the American 
Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co. of a control- 
ling interest in the Silver Dike mine, 
in the Neihart district, for $145,000. 
American Zinc has had an option on this 
property for about a year and has had 
thirty men developing the mine for the 
greater part of the time. The Silver 
Dike is a low-grade property, with the 
development work thus far indicating 
about 500,000 tons of silver-lead-zinc 
values running from $10 to $13 in value. 





Vol. 113, No. 13 


UTAH 


Ophir Hill Mine Resumes Work—Tintic 
Standard Shipping to International 
Smelter 


From Our Special Correspondent 


Park City—Shipments for the week 
ended March 18 amounted to 2,697 tons. 
Shippers were: Judge companies, 1,564; 
Silver King Coalition, 606; Ontario, 527. 

Ophir—The Ophir Hill mine resumed 
work about the middle of March, ship- 
ping to the International smelter at 
Tooele. During the time of the shut- 
down the mill was overhauled and new 
machinery installed. 


Alta—The Columbus-Rexall has just 
declared a dividend of 3c. a share, 
amounting to $17,587. The Alta Tun- 
nel & Transportation Co. has made 
twenty shipments from the new ore- 
body. At the Michigan-Utah construc- 
tion of a new aerial tram is under way. 


Eureka—Ore shipments from the Tin- 
tic district for the week ended March 
18 amounted to 144 cars, as compared 
with 141 the week preceding. Shippers 
were: Tintic Standard, 43 cars; Chief 
Consolidated, 39; Colorado, 17; Eagle & 
Blue Bell, 18; Victoria, 7; Iron Blossom, 
5; Swansea, 6; Grand Central, 5; Gem- 
ini, 3; Centennial-Eureka, 3; Bullion- 
Beck, 1; Sunbeam, 1; Mammoth, 1. 
Tintic Standard shipments are being 
made to the International at Tooele. 


COLORADO 


Operations in Ouray District—Mountain 
Top Mill Enlarged 


Ouray—The Mountain Top Mining 
Co. has completed the enlarging of its 
mill at its underground plant and is 
now treating about 50 tons daily, with 
a corresponding increase in returns 
frem ore sales. 

The Atlas M. & M. Co. has purchased 
a new Hardinge ball mill of large 
diameter. This is the first step taken 
by the company to improve its mill, 
the Hardinge being designed to replace 
the stamps. The company is handling 
a good tonnage of much better ore 
than formerly, mine development hav- 
ing opened some reserves of good ore. 

A long crosscut is being driven on 
contract by the Lucky Twenty Mining 
Co. to cut the Guadaloupe vein. This 
is expected to develop into a good mine 
by next year. lLessees Jackson and 
Stone continue mining good ore in the 
old workings of the upper levels, but 
are unable to ship because of snow. 

The Ouray Leasing Co. and the Imo- 
gene Leasing Co. have been steadily 
drifting ahead on both tunnel levels 
of the Barstow and have both passed 
through some good ground. Recent 
assays by the former indicate that it 
is probably on the edge of another 
of the well-known Barstow ore shoots, 
the quartz streak giving assays as high 
as $32 per ton. Both leases have opened 
up a considerable stretch of good quartz 
and sulphide, which is expected to de- 
velop an orebody later, when raising 
and further exploration work has been 
completed. 





April 1, 1922 


The Chipeta M. M. & R. Co. has been 
drifting with air drills on the H. A. C. 
in the Amphitheatre without developing 
and orebody. The vein has been large 
and strong, with much quartz, but only 
occasional mineralization. The objec- 
tive being still some distance ahead, 
it is not expected that much ore will 
be developed for several months. 

Wilfley and Ingersoll have begun 
work on the Pony Express, with several 
partners. A raise is being driven from 
the lower tunnel to connect with the 
upper workings, and shipping ore is 
being mined from the old stopes. This 
operation, and leasing by Nick Hutter 
& Co. on the Newsboy and by Martin 
Borlatti on the Bachelor, constitute the 
only work in the silver mines of the 
north end of the country. All find it 
difficult to keep going under present 
high rates, but slightly lower smelting 
rates, with an already lower freight 
rate to Durango, have been promised 
and these have stimulated prospecting 
and leasing to a small degree. 

Georgetown—J. P. Ruth & Co., of 
Denver, has begun the construction of 
a fifty-ton flotation mill on Democrat 
Mountain, to treat the dump material 
from the Sunburst mine and to do cus- 
tom work for adjacent mines. In cross- 
cutting from the bottom of a shaft re- 
cently sunk by the Gilpin Development 
Co., a promising body of ore was dis- 
covered. A drift is being run to ascer- 
tuin the extent of the deposit. Leasers 
on the Sunburst are getting out a good 
grade of smelting ore. It is stated that 
the Georgetown Tunnel Co. will soon re- 
sume operations. 

Rico—As fast as the condition of the 
roads will permit, machinery for the 
new cyanide mill for the Emma mine, 
at Dunton, is being taken in. During 
the winter a large tonnage of mill ore 
has been blocked out or broken, and it 
is expected that the new mill will start 
operations in about sixty days. The 
Mount Pleasant Mining Co., operating 
the Smuggler at Dunton, encouraged by 
the showing on the second level, is in- 
creasing its force at the mine. 


NEW MEXICO 


Mine Taxation Discussed at Silver 
City and Santa Fe 


Lordsburg—J. R. Finlay, who has 
been making a valuation of the mines 
of New Mexico for the State Tax Com- 
mission, has completed his work. His 
report has been published and is ready 
for distribution. A meeting of mining 
interests was held on March 20, at 
Silver City, N. M., in an effort to get 
together on some plan of taxation as 
between the present net output tax 
on mines and the Finlay report on 
mine valuations. This was followed by 
a meeting in Santa Fe on March 22, 
when the matter was discussed before 
the State Tax Commission. 


Santa Rita—No effort is being made 
to resume mining operations at the 
Chino Copper Co.’s property. Machine 
repairs and necessary upkeep work only 
is being done. 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


ARIZONA 


Magma Stockholders Ratify Proposal 
To Issue Bonds—Lucky Tiger 
Directors Re-elected 


By JAMES H. McCLINTOcCK 


Phoenix—The most interesting fea- 
ture of the week’s news is the announce- 
ment that Magma stockholders have 
ratified the proposal of the directors 
to issue $4,000,000 in bonds, the pro- 
ceeds to be used in providing a new 
smelter and in increasing its milling 
capacity and broadening the gage of 
its thirty-mile railroad. The mine, at 
Superior, is at its best at 1,400 ft. 
depth, and is said to have been pros- 
pected to 3,500 ft. by drilling. 

At Globe a stack of the Old Dominion 
smelter is to be started soon. Ray 
has been visited by a party headed by 
C. S. Cates, but no announcement has 
been made concerning early operation. 

In the south, the Copper Queen, 
Calumet & Arizona, and New Cornelia 
are producing on a limited scale, as 
are the two principle properties at 
Miami. At Jerome, United Verde is 
making important improvements and 
the United Verde Extension is produc- 
ing to a moderate extent. A number 
of gold and silver mines are opening 
in the Bradshaw Mountain districts, 
south of Prescott, in the hope of the 
early opening of the Humboldt smelter. 
Real activity is general in the gold- 
mining districts of Mohave County, with 
much diamond drilling planned at Oat- 
man and Katherine. 

Renewal of production in the copper 
mines of Arizona is to be on an eco- 
nomical scale, to overcome the handicap 
ot high freights and increased mate- 
rial and labol costs. 

In Tucson a meeting of mine pur- 
chasing agents was held recently, and 
a new policy of using Arizona products 
wherever possible was announced. 
Heretofore little save lumber has been 
bought by the mines within the state. 

No change was made in the directors 
of the Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold 
Mining Co. at the annual meeting, held 
in Douglas. A number of stockholders 
from Kansas City were present and 
later inspected the company’s property, 
south of Douglas. 


Kelvin—The entire surface equip- 
ment of the Kelvin Sultana Copper Co., 
at Kelvin, has been sold to George U. 
Young, of Phoenix. The property is 
being dismantled, and the equipment is 
to be moved to the mines operated by 
Mr. Young at Goldfield, nineteen miles 
from Mesa, Ariz. The equipment in- 
cludes a complete steam-electric plant 
for operating the mine and mill equip- 
ment. 


Hayden—The Continental Commis- 
sion Co., operating the old 79 mine, 
near Hayden Junction, has resumed 
shipments to El Paso smelter. A small 
pilot mill is to be built. The company 
has developed a large tonnage of mill- 
ing ore during the last three years, 
in addition to the higher grade ores 
that have been shipped. 





JOPLIN-MIAMI DISTRICT 


Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma 


Value of Ottawa County Indian Lands 
To Be Determined Before Leasing 


By P. R. CoLDREN 


Joplin—It has developed that an at- 
tempt will be made by the Department 
of the Interior to estimate the value 
of Indian lands in Ottawa County, 
Okla., before they are leased for zinc- 
and lead-mining purposes this year. 
The Department has sent J. E. Dawson, 
Indian supervisor, T. B. Roberts, an 
inspector, and Mr. Van Siclen, mining 
engineer with the Bureau of Mines, 
who have arrived at Miami, and through 
O. K. Chandler, local Indian agent, are 
preparing to get data on the different 
properties. 

A questionnaire has been sent to the 
mining companies by Mr. Chandler, in 
which he asks that the operators submit 
maps outlining the concentrate ton- 
nage remaining in the property, logs 
of drill holes, average assay records, 
an estimate of the ore reserve on Jan. 
1, the average selling prices in 1920 
and 1921, the average selling price 
for ten years prior to the war, the cost 
of the plant, lease and development up 
to Jan. 1, 1922, and numerous other 
questions. 

The questionnaire was sent out under 
date of March 20, and since then an- 
other letter has been sent out by Mr. 
Chandler, asking that the answers be 
made as rapidly as possible, and a 
thirty-day period has been suggested 
as the probable limit for the filing of 
the questionnaire. 

There is a general impression among 
operators that the Interior Depart- 
ment is going to treat them fairly, 
but there is also a feeling just now 
that in all probability a higher royalty 
will be asked for the richer mines, and 
it was not previously believed that this 
would be done. However, there is no 
objection to this on the part of the 
operators, provided too high a royalty 
is not asked. 

The Eldorado Development Co. has 
been organized at Eldorado Springs, 
Mo., to develop a zinc and lead tract 
in the Waco, Mo., camp. A number 
of test holes already have been put 
down on the tract, and it is planned to 
erect a concentrator at once. The lease 
consists of forty acres and adjoins that 
of the Tulsa-Pittsburgh Co., situated on 
the west. 


ILLINOIS 


Strikers at Fluorspar Mines Wound 
Workman 


Elizabethtown — The strike at the 
fluorspar mines in the Elizabethtown 
district, Illinois, is still in progress. 
On March 22, following a meeting held 
by a small number of union men at 
Rosiclare, an employee of the Hillside 
Fiuorspar Mines was shot by one of the 
strikers and wounded. The offender 
was arrested. The continuance of the 
strike is said to be arousing public feel- 
ing against it. 


MICHIGAN 
’ Gogebic Range 


Orders To Increase Output in April 
Hoped For 


Ironwood—Mining operations are con- 
tinuing on the same scale as during 
the last few months, but it is hoped 
that when the shipping season opens, 
in April, the mines will receive orders 
to increase production. This range did 
not experience as drastic curtailment 
as some of the others, but it has not 
enjoyed ‘as great a revival this spring. 
A small amount of ore is being shipped 
by'rail to the furnaces at Mayville, Wis. 


' Marquette and Menominee Ranges 


Oliver Iron Mining Co.’s Plans Un- 
changed—Chapin Mine Being Put 
BHr 4 ‘in Good Condition 


By W. H. NEWETT 


Ishpeming—John H. McLean and 
Pentacost Mitchell, officers of the Oliver 
Iron Mining Co., the iron mining sub- 
sidiary of the U. S. Steel Corporation, 
have just concluded a visit to the com- 
pany’s mines in Michigan. No changes in 
the mining forces have been ordered, nor 
have: any instructions been issued for 
‘an increase in the number of days of 
operation. The needs of any furnaces 
that may start soon can be supplied 
from ore stocks now at lower Lake 
ports. 

" Negaunee—The Mary Charlotte mine 
has received orders for a cargo of ore 
which will be taken from ore now in 
stock. It will be shipped by rail, and 
as the ore is frozen, the shipment will 
be attended with some difficulty and 
extra expense. The need of the ore is 
said to be due to calls by the bankers 
for interest charges. 


Iron Mountain—About two weeks 
more will be required to place the 
Chapin mine, where work was recently 
resumed, in condition for active produc- 
tion. Work thus far has been devoted 
largely to repairs. The timbering is in 
bad condition. Practically every man 
formerly employed has been given a 
place, and there are now 550 on the 
payroll, these working two shifts. 

The McKinney Steel Co. has installed 
a complete set of rotary car dumpers 
operated by compressed air at its 
Odgers mine, the work being done by 
the Chicago Car Dumping Equipment 
Co. Two of the dumpers are located on 
surface to handle rock from the mine, 
and a third is placed underground to 
handle the ore. Automatic loading 
equipment is installed. 

Iron River—Work is to be resumed 
at once, it is announced, at the Hia- 
watha and Rogers mine, by the Munro 
Iron Mining Co. About 200 men will be 
employed, working one shift. The 
Rogers is in Bates Township, and the 
Hiawatha in Stambaugh Township. 


The Chicagoan, the remaining mine of 
the company on this range, will remain 
idle until further notice. 

The Tobin mine, of the McKinney 
Steel Co., will likewise resume soon on 
one shift. ; 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


MINNESOTA 
Mesabi Range 


Stripping Work To Be Resumed at 
Boeing Mine 


Hibbing—The pumps of the Philbin 
mine, operated by the Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Co., are being pulled, and indica- 
tions are that the mine will continue 
down for some time. The mine shut 
down last fall, and since then it has 
been unwatered. 

Stripping at the Boeing mine, a 
property of the Mesaba Cliffs Iron Min- 
ing Co., is to be resumed by the Win- 
ston-Dear Co. in the near future. The 
work was suspended during the winter 
months, but it is expected that the two 
shovels will operate to capacity this 
season, which will practically complete 
the: work. 


Cuyuna Range 


Armour Mine, Last Producer, Shuts 
Down — Stockpiles Involved in 
Proposed Merger Estimated 


Crosby—The Inland Steel Co. has 
closed down its Armour No. 2 mine for 
an indefinite period, letting out about 
200 men. The Armour mine has been 
the only property operating to capacity 
on the Cuyuna Range for some months, 
and. its shutdown leaves the range 
without ore production. Approxi- 
mately 140,000 tons of iron and man- 
ganiferous ore is stockpiled at the mine, 
which material the operators expect to 
start moving to the docks early next 
month. It is anticipated that with the 
opening of navigation, mining will be 
resumed at the Armour No. 2. 

The stockpile committee of those in- 
terested in the independent steel and 
iron ore merger, comprised of engineers 
representing the Pickands Mather Co., 
the Inland Steel Co., the Youngstown 
Sheet & Tube Co., and Rogers-Brown 
Ore Co., have recently completed ésti- 
mates of the Kennedy, Meacham and 
Armour mines stockpiles, which will 
be involved in the proposed merger. It 
is understood that the final report of 
engineers upon the iron-ore properties 
and steel plants of the negotiating 
companies has been placed in the hands 
of the directing officials, and that final 
decision upon the combine of the 
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. with 
the Inland Steel Co. and Rogers-Brown 
Ore Co. may be expected soon. 


Trommald—The Marquette Ore Co. 
is sinking a new drainage shaft to 
facilitate open-pit operation at its 
Maroco mine. A crosscut will be driven 
from the bottom of this shaft at depth 
of 100 ft. under the pit area. ; 

Cuyuna—Diamond drilling is being 
carried on by the Biwanago Mining Co. 
at the Kennedy mine, for the purpose of 
outlining the limits of the new ore 
reserve discovered at the property last 
year by the Rogers-Brown Ore Co. 


Ironton—Though ore production re- 
mains at a standstill in the district, 
several of the operators of open-pit 
mines have begun active plans for 
stripping campaigns in anticipation of 











Vol. 113, No. 13 


a livelier market after the opening of 
navigation. The Mahnomen mine will 
start a pit crew early in April, as will 
also the Hillcrest Mining Co., the latter 
on stripping work with steam shovel. 
At the Sagamore mine (John A. Savage 
& Co.) at Riverton, hydraulic stripping 
has been resumed and plans are being 
made for adding a drag-line unit to 
the stripping at an early date. The 
Maroco mine, at Trommald, operated 
by the Marquette Ore Co., has taken 
on a crew of forty men after two 
months of idleness, and stripping with 
steam shovels has been resumed. 

The Clement K. Quinn Co. is in- 
stalling a new 1,200-gal. Layne & 
Bowler deep-well pump in its drainage 
shaft. 


ALABAMA 


Tennessee Company Starts New Stack 
at Bessemer—Muscoda and Raimund 
Mine Add Men—Graphite Situ- 
ation Better 


By GEORGE HUNTINGTON CLARK 


Birmingham—tThe latest increase to 
Alabama iron making is due to the 
blowing in during the past week of No. 
2 stack of the Tennessee company at 
Bessemer, now running on increased 
basic iron production required for the 
Ensley steel plant. In all, this makes 
seven blast furnaces which that com- 
pany now has in operation, three hav- 
ing been blown in during the last four 
weeks. As a result of the resumption 
at No. 2, the Muscoda iron mine is re- 
ported to be getting ready to put on a 
night shift giving employment for 200 
more men. It is also stated that an- 
other slope of the Raimund ore mine 
will start operation before the close of 
the month. 

The Tennessee company will also be 
in position to bring in Ensley No. 1 
furnace within thirty days, if desirable 
or required. This furnace, recently re- 
built and greatly enlarged, has now a 
larger capacity than any other stack 
in the district. 

It is understood that No. 2 Bessemer 
may soon be put back on making ferro- 
manganese from Brazilian ore. 

If occasion should demand it by rea- 
son of the threatened coal strike next 
month, Alabama coal will probably be 
available to an extent in excess of 300,- 
000 tons a week, as the amount of union 
labor now employed is practically neg- 
ligible, and production is approaching 
normal. 

Conditions in the graphite field ap- 
pear much more encouraging. Two of 
the plants of the Dixie Consolidated 
Graphite Co. have already resumed op- 
eration, and if market conditions war- 
rant other plants may also be again 
started. 

Active quarrying is in progress at 
the three plants of the Alabama, 
Madras, and Moretti-Harrah marble 
companies near Sylacauga. Statuary 
marble, said to compare well with the 
finest Carrara in texture, color, and in 
tooling quality, has long been to some 
extent recovered in these quarries and 
used for interior finish. 








April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


THE MARKET REPORT 











Daily Prices of Metals 








Copper, N. Y., Tin Lead Zine 
net refinery* 
Mar. Electrolytic 99 Per Cent Straits N. ¥. St. L. St. L. 
23 12.50@12.625 28.75 29.375 |4.70@4.75 |4.425@4.45|4. 65@4.70 
24 112.50@ 12.625 28.625 29.375 14.70@4.75 |4.425@4.45 4.65 
25 12.50@12.625 28.75 29.375 |4.70@4.75 |4.425@4.45 4.65 
27 12.50 28.375 29.00 4.75 |4.425@4.45 4.65 
28 12.50 28.50 29.125 4.75 |4.425@4.45|4.625@4.65 
29 12.40@12.50 28.50 29.125 4.75 |4.425@4.50}4.625@4.65 





*These prices correspond to.the following quotations for copper delivered: March 
23d, 24th, and 25th, 12.75 @ 12.875c.; 27th, and 28th, 12.75c.; 29th, 12.65 @ 12.75c. 

The above quotations are our appraisal of the average of the major markets based 
generally on sales as made and reported by producers and agencies, and represent to 
the best of our judgment the prevailing values of the metals for deliveries constituting 
the major markets, reduced to the basis of New York cash, except where St. Louis 


is the normal basing point, or as otherwise noted. 


All prices are in cents per pound. 


Copper is commonly sold “delivered,” which means that the seller pays the freight from 


the refinery to the buyer’s destination. 


Quotations for copper are for ordinary forms of wire bars, ingot’ bars and cakes. 
For ingots an extra of 0.05c. per lb. is charged and there are other extras for other 


shapes. 


Cathodes are sold at a discount of 0.125c. per Ib. 
Quotations for zinc are for ordinary Prime Western brands. 
basis of spot American tin, 99 per cent grade, and spot Straits tin. 


Tin is. quoted on the 
Quotations for lead 


reflect prices obtained for common lead, and do not include grades on which a premium 














is asked. 
London 
Copper Tin Lead Zino 
Mar Standard Electro- 
Spot) 3M | .Wlytic Spot 3M Spot 3M Spot 3M 
z3 582 592 65 1444 1453 21} 203 252 25% 
24 573 583 644 1443 145% 213 21 252 25% 
25 es eos ie Han es a oe, ae: Cs 
27 58% 59 644 1433 1453 213 212 254 253 
28 58 58% 644 1423 144} 21% 214 25 252 
29 578 583 | 64 1433 1454 218 | 213 253 253 
The above table gives the closing quotations on the London Metal Exchange. All 
prices in pounds sterling per ton of 2, lb 
Silver and Sterling Exchange 
Sterling Silver Sterling Silver 
Exchange |New York | New York Mar.| Exchange | New York | New York 
Mar.| “Checks” | Domestic | Foreign | London “Checks” | Domestic | Foreign London 
igin Origin Origin gin 
23 4373 993 64% 333 27 | 4363 998 643 333 
24 4382 993 65 333 28 4353 993 65 332 
25 438 992 643 334 29 437 993 654 332 


New York quotations are as reported by Handy & Harman and are in cents per 


troy ounce of bar silver, 999 fine. 


London quotations are in 
sterling silver, 925 fine. Sterling quotations represent the deman 


—— per troy ounce of 
market in the forenoon. 


Cables command three-eighths of a cent premium, 














Metal Markets 


The Jead and tin markets have been 
more active than usual during the last 
week, and prices for the more common 
metal are somewhat stronger. Copper 
and zine have been in small demand, and 
prices have sagged off somewhat, 
though zinc is, in general, strongly held. 
The coal strike which has been called 
for April 1 does not seem to be worry- 
ing any one perceptibly. Most manu- 
facturers are well supplied and feel that 
should the strike be prolonged there 
will be no difficulty in securing fuel 
from non-union mines or from foreign 
sources. 

Transatlantic freight rates are sub- 
stantially unchanged from the figures 





published in the Feb. 11 issue, but trans- 
pacific rates are reported higher, at $8 
per long ton to Hongkong and Kobe. 


Copper 


Little business was done on Thurs- 
day, Friday and Saturday. On inquiries 
of any size 123@13c., delivered, was the 
general quotation, though some small 
orders for prompt delivery were placed 
at as low as 12.75c. On Monday, how- 
ever, a marked tendency to establish 
the 12.75c. level was noted, and today 
practically all producers were willing to 
sell at the price quoted. In some in- 
stances it would no doubt be possible 
to place orders for delivery as late as 
June on this basis. Domestic business 


improved somewhat with the lower 
prices, but outside of one order for 750 
tons and another for 1,000 tons, the 
buying is of small individual volume, 
largely confined to the outside market. 

With the expected early resumption 
of the porphyries and the weakness in 
London, conditions in. the market are 
not strong, but producers are hopeful. 

The demand from brass makers shows 
signs of improving, though the wire 
business continues to be the chief reli- 
ance of the producers. Export business 
has been of satisfactory volume, both 
through the Copper Export Association 
and independent channels. The copper 
sold by the association has netted pro- 
ducers about 12.75c., or slightly more, 
but some of the other sales for export 
have had to be made on a lower basis. 


Lead 


The official contract price of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co. con- 
tinues at 4.70c. New York, and for de- 
silverized, 4.50c. St. Louis. Federal 
lead has commanded 4.45c. in the St. 
Louis market all week. 

Lead continues strong. Little is now 
obtainable at 4.70c., the price which has 
ruled in New York for several months, 
and some producers, are so indifferent 
about selling that they are quoting 
4.80c. today, though we have no reports 
of actual sales higher than 4.775c. 
Mexican lead continues to go abroad, 
for the comparative markets here and 
in Europe do not indicate any profit 
in paying the duty and selling it to 
United States consumers. 

Demand has been good in the Middle 
West, and inquiries have been well dis- 
tributed. The rubber business seems to 
be quiet, but most other consumers of 
lead seem to be doing well. One pro- 
ducer who accumulated fairly large 
stocks some time ago has sold for 4.425c. 
all week, but most interests are asking 
4.45c. and slightly above. Today a good 
order was placed at 4.50c. Practically 
all business has been for April delivery, 
producers in general not caring to go 
beyond this. 

Zinc 

The market has become slightly 
weaker. Prices have dropped, but with- 
out inducing purchases, business being 
lighter than last week. Several pro- 
ducers are out of the market at the 
present level of 4.625c., and one has 
bought a fair-sized tonnage at.that at- 
tractive price. A small-sized sale was 
made on Monday for shipment to 
Europe to net about the same as domes- 
tic quotations. High-grade metal con- 
tinues to be in satisfactory demand at 
unchanged prices on the basis of 6c. 
with freight allowed. No interest is 
manifested in forward deliveries. 





Tin 
The tin market has been active all 
week, and exceptionally so yesterday. 


Consumer demand was _ especially 
marked, and some orders were placed 
for delivery over the remainder of the 
year at slightly advanced prices. Man- 
ufacturers of tin plate did not share 
in much of the business, but most of 
the other regular consumers of tin took 
a dip in the market. Among them, foil 
and mixed-metal manufacturers were 
particularly noted. Not a great deal of 
electrolytic tin is available, but it is 
in general selling on an equivalent basis 
to the best grades of Straits tin. Tin 
for delivery three months in the future 
was quoted all week at the same prices 
as were asked for spot. 

Arrivals of tin, in long tons: March 
18th, Liverpool, 15; 23d, Rotterdam, 75; 
London, 250; 24th, Liverpool, 25; 25th, 
Batavia, 75; Straits, 700; 27th, London, 
50; 28th, Straits, 525; London, 310. 


Gold 
Gold in London: March 23d, 94s. 8d.; 
24th, 94s. 10d.; 27th, 95s. 3d.; 28th, 
96s.; 29th, 95s. 3d. 


Foreign Exchange 


The foreign exchanges have fluctu- 
ated in comparatively narrow limits 
during the week. On Tuesday, March 
28, francs were 9.0375c.; lire, 5.0775c.; 
marks, 0.30375c.; and Canadian dollars, 
97.25e. German marks touched a new 
low owing to reparation difficulties. 


Silver 

Silver prices have improved in both 
London and New York, and the under- 
tone is firmer. The feature of the 
market recently has been the demand 
for San Francisco delivery for China 
account, business having been done in 
the early part of the week at levels well 
above New York and the London parity. 
The market closes steady, with the 
future dependent upon China rates and 
sterling exchange. 

Mexican Dollars—March 23d, 498; 
24th, 493; 25th, 498; 27th, 498; 28th, 
A9%; 29th, 503. 


Other Metals 


Quotations cover large wholesale lots unless 
otherwise specified. 

Aluminum—20c. per lb. for 99 per 
cent grade; 19c. for 98@99 per cent; 
18c. for 94@98 per cent. Outside mar- 
ket nominal at 17@18c. for 98@99 per 
cent virgin grades. 

Antimony — Chinese and Japanese 
brands, 42@4ic.; market dull. W.C.C. 
brand, 5@54c. per lb. Cookson’s “C” 
grade, spot, 9c. Chinese needle anti- 
mony, lump, nominal at 4c. per. lb. 
Standard powdered needle antimony 
(200 mesh), nominal at 5.25c. per Ib. 

White antimony oxide, Uhinese, 
guaranteed 99 per cent Sb.0:, whole- 
sale lots, 64@7c. 

Arsenic—7c. per Ib. 

Bismuth—$2@$2.10 per lb. 

Cadmium—$1@$1.10 per Ib., in 1,000- 
lb. lots. Smaller quantities, $1.10@ 
$1.25 per Ib. 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Iridium—Nominal, $160@$170 per oz. 

Nickel—Standard market, ingot and 
shot, 41c.; electrolytic, 44c. Small ton- 
nages, spot, nominal at 32c. 

Palladium—Nominal, $55@$60. 

Platinum—$85@$90 per oz. 

Quicksilver—$50 per 75-lb. flask. San 
Francisco wires $49.30. 

The prices of Cobalt, Molybdenum, 
Monel Metal, Osmium, Rhodium, Sele- 
nium, Thallium and Tungsten are un- 
changed from the prices in the issue 
of March 4. 


Metallic Ores 


The prices of Bauxite, Chrome, Man- 
ganese, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tan- 
talum, Uranium, Vanadium, and Iron 
Ore, Zircon and Zirkite are unchanged 
from the prices in the issue of March 4. 


Zinc and Lead Ore Markets 


Joplin, Mo., March 25—Zinc blende, 
per ton, high, $31.10; basis 60 per cent 
zinc, premium, $28; Prime Western, $27 
@$26; fines and slimes, $26@$25. Cal- 
amine, basis 40 per cent zinc, $14. 
Average settling price, all grades of 
blende, $25.84. 

Lead, high, $65; basis 80 per cent lead, 
$62. Average settling price, all grades 
of lead, $63.40 per ton. One carload of 
picked chunk lead ore sold for radio 
purposes at a premium of $3 per ton. 

Shipments for the week: Blende, 
8,406; calamine, 57; lead, 2,344 tons. 
Value, all ores the week, $365,330. 

The advance of $2 per ton on lead 
brought over a thousand tons of reserve 
ore onto the market, a part of which 
is included in this week’s shipment. 
Sellers of zinc ore are holding firm for 
the prices quoted, and some of the buy- 
ers are holding off on bidding, and the 
purchases this week decreased about 
1,500 tons. Shipments continue to move 
the weekly production, with slight in- 
roads on reserve stocks of zinc. 

Platteville, Wis.. March 25—Blende, 
basis 60 per cent zinc, $28 per ton. 
Lead ore, basis 80 per cent lead, $61 
per ton. Shipments for the week: 
Blende, 639 tons; lead, 41 tons. Shipped 
during the week to separating plants, 
767 tons blende. Shipments for the 
year: Blende, 266; lead, 601 tons. 


Non-Metallic Minerals 


Barytes—Crude, $6@$8 per ton, f.o.b. 
mines. Ground, white, $17@$23; off- 
color grades, $13@$21 per ton, f.o.b. 
mills. Foreign importations of crude 
are being laid down at Atlantic ports 
for $7.80@$8.25, c.i-f. 


Fluorspar—Fluxing lump, $20; flux- 
ing gravel, $17.50; No. 1 ground, $50@ 
$55, No. 2 ground $40 per ton, f.o.b. 
Illinois mines. 

There are no price changes from 
those indicated in the market report of 
the issue of March 4 covering Asbestos, 


Borax, Chalk, China Clay, Emery, 
Feldspar, Fuller’s Earth, Graphite, 


Gypsum, Limestone, Magnesite, Mica, 
Monazite, Phosphate, Pumice, Pyrites, 
Silica, Sulphur, and Talc. 








Vol. 113, No. 13 








Mineral Products 
Copper Sulphate—Large crystals, 
5.50c. per lb.; small crystals, 5.40c. per 
lb., f.0.b. New York. Export demand 
has been excellent all winter, and with 
the South American demand coming on 
prices are expected to advance soon. 


Sodium Nitrate—$2.85 per hundred- 
weight, ex vessel, Atlantic ports. 


The prices of Potassium Sulphate and 
Sodium Sulphate are unchanged from 
the issue of March 4. 


Ferro-Alloys 


Ferromanganese—Domestic, 78 to 82 
per cent, $62@$64, f.o.b. furnace. 


Ferrovanadium—$3.55 per lb. of V 
contained, according to analyses and 
quantity. 

The prices of Ferrotitanium, Ferro- 
cerium, Ferrochrome, Ferromolybdenum, 
Ferrosilicon, Ferrotungsten and Ferro- 
uranium are unchanged from issue of 
March 4. 

Metal Products 

Zine Sheets—$7.50 per 100 lb. less 8 
per cent on carload lots, f.o.b. works. 

The prices of Copper Sheets, Lead 
Sheets, Nickel Silver, and Yellow Metal 
are unchanged from issue of March 4. 


Refractories 
The prices of Bauxite Brick, Chrome 
Brick, Chrome Cement, Firebrick, Mag- 
nesite Brick, and Silica Brick are un- 
changed from the issue of March 4. 


The Iron Trade 
Pittsburgh, March 28, 1922 


In several branches of the steel trade 
mills are engaged in an effort to lift 
prices a trifle, not by agreement but by 
the natural process of first accumulating 
a backlog. In bars, shapes, and plates 
prices below 1.40c. practically disap- 
peared two weeks or so ago, and lately 
some business, of the less desirable 
sert, has gone at 1.45¢c. and 1.50c. 
Seven sheet mills have announced that 
on April 1 or thereabouts their prices 
will advance $3 a ton, orders being 
taken meanwhile at current prices, per- 
haps for the whole second quarter. 
Nails are quite firm at $2.40. 

The Carnegie Steel Co. named $31 as 
its second-quarter price on quarterly 
adjustment sheet-bar contracts, against 
$30 for first quarter, and independent 
mills are advancing from $29 to $31, 
customers being already covered to an 
extent at $29. 

Steel ingot production has increased 
only a trifle in the last thirty days, be- 
ing almost stationary at between 
29,000,000 and 30,000,000 tons a year. 
Steel market prospects appear to have 
brightened farther. There is no pros- 
pect of the steel mills running short of 
coal. 


Pig Iron.—The market is a trifle less 
inactive, and former prices are firmly 
maintained: Bessemer, $19.50; basic, 
$18; foundry, $19, f.o.b. Valley furnaces, 
freight to Pittsburgh being $1.96. 


Coke 
Connellsville—Furnace, $3.50; found- 
ry, $4.25@$4.75. 








April 1, 1922 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Aluminum Industry Has Greatly Expanded 


Production Has Increased Rapidly During Last Ten Years—World’s Output 
Is Controlled by a Few Large Companies— United States Most Important 
Producer and Consumer— Metal Now Selling for Unusually Low Prices 


BY FELIX EDGAR WORMSER 
Assistant Editor Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


by leaps and bounds, but demand has lagged behind 
production, so that the price of the metal for the last 
twenty-five years has irregularly declined. Back in 1895 
aluminum sold for 59c. per lb.; in 1900 for 32.7c.; in 1910 
for 22.25c., and today it is selling for between 17 and 18c. 
Compared with the drop in the prices of other non-ferrous 
metals, aluminum has been unusually severely deflated: 
Lead, 


Te WORLD’S PRODUCTION of aluminum has risen 


Zine, 


Aluminum Copper Ie 2 St. L. 
Five year pre-war average (1909-1913). 22.00c. 13.94e. 4.40c. 5.73¢. 
What PRs ob dive oes oidctene end 17.50c. 12.75e. 4.70c. 4.70c. 


The low price for which aluminum is now selling is due 
to intense European competition and the great stimulus 
given to aluminum production during the Great War. Al- 
though American production of the metal declined after 
the Armistice, the output of Europe shows little change; 
in fact, a tendency exists abroad to enter more extensively 
than ever into the manufacture and sale of aluminum and 
its manufactures. The production of Europe, however, is 
still far behind that of the United States and Canada. 
America has always taken a lead in the development of the 
metallurgical recovery of aluminum from its ores, and 
stands pre-eminent in both production and consumption. 

Aluminum is the commonest metal in the earth’s crust, 
although the only source of the metal used in its com- 
mercial production is bauxite, an oxide of aluminum which 
contains from 26.5 to 32 per cent of aluminum. Experiments 
are continually being made in an effort to recover aluminum 
from clays, labradorite, and other minerals rich in alumina. 
‘The economical production of aluminum is a matter of cheap 
hydro-electric power, as its recovery is strictly an electro- 
metallurgical process. Great initial expense is involved. 

Unlike the production of other metals, aluminum plants 
are confined to a few large companies scattered about in 
Europe and America where cheap water power is available. 
‘The names of the companies follow: 

Aluminum Company of America, United States. 

Northern Aluminum Co.’, Canada. 

British Aluminium Co., Great Britain. 

L’Aluminium Frangaise, France. 

Aluminium Corporation, Ltd., Great Britain. 

Aluminium Industrie Aktien Gesellschaft, 
‘Switzerland. 

German Government Works (Horrem, Bitterfeld, Erft- 
werk, Lauta), Germany. 

L’Aluminia Italiano, Italy. 

Hoyang Falden Norsk Aluminium, Norway. 

This list is in striking contrast to the large numbers of 
companies engaged in the production of other important 
non-ferrous metals. The accompanying table of world’s pro- 
duction shows the strong position of the American industry. 

The production of aluminum in the United States is a 
monopoly and is confined to one producer, the Aluminum 
Company of America, whose position, however, has been 


Germany- 





1Subsidiary of Aluminum Company of America. 


attained through the expansion of its own business. 


The 
company issues no financial reports which are available to 
the public and is exceptionally conservative in its manage- 


ment. Besides producing the virgin metal it is engaged in 
the production of various manufactured products. It owns 
extensive bauxite deposits in Saline County, Ark., producing 
most of its aluminum ore, which is reduced at Niagara 
Falls and Massena, N. Y.; Alcoa, Tenn., and Badin, N. C. 
The latter plant was originally planned by French capital, 
but was taken over by the present American operator in 
1915. Subsidiary companies conduct the different processes 
from mining to the manufacture of aluminum products. 

Germany will probably be the keenest competitor in the 
world market. Cut off from the rest of the world during 
the war, the aluminum industry was developed intensively 
and sponsored by the Government. 

Expansion of aluminum plants during the war was car- 
ried to excess. The world’s production before the war 
was about 140,000,000 lb. annually. It jumped to over 
375,000,000 Ib. in 1918, and its capacity at the present time 
is easily 450,000,000 Ib. This rapid growth has been much 
faster than has been beneficial for the industry and has 
created strong competition for whatever market exists for 
the metal. The depressed state of business for the last two 
years has accentuated competition. The American industry 
is handicapped by having to use a domestic ore of lower 
grade than that of Frarice, India, or Guiana. However, 
great efforts were made early in the history of the alumi- 
num industry to introduce the metal, and no doubt just as 
intelligent direction will widen the market for aluminum 
today, so that the world’s capacity can be efficiently used. 

Aluminum has a great variety of uses, in which advan- 
tage is taken mainly of its remarkable lightness and im- 
munity from tarnish. The automobile and airplane 
industries consume large amounts each year, not only for 
engine manufacture but also in body construction. Alumi- 
num vessels are common in chemical manufacture. Few 
kitchens are unsupplied with aluminum cooking utensils. 
Powdered aluminum is used in the cyanide process, and the 
foil is finding favor as a wrapping. Aluminum wire is a 
strong and at present an active competitor of copper in the 
high-tension transmission-line field. 

Much foreign aluminum has come into the United States 
in ingot and manufactured form from various European 
producers, which has not been without its effect upon prices. 
It has been difficult for some to understand why, with the 
low cost of aluminum wire to European consumers in 
Germany, larger amounts are not used there. The differ- 
ence between the price of copper and aluminum in Europe 
is much less than in the United States. Aluminum is 
probably being used wherever possible, but as aluminum 
cannot be substituted for copper in the manufacture of 
motors and other electrical machinery, large amounts of the 
red metal must be imported, to be subsequently exported 
in some finished electrical manufacture. Consequently cop- 
per importations are but little affected. 


WORLD PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM (a) 
In Metric Tons 


1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 
Pi ii gums I3amn ing nore etpe tage te le ape 
‘Swi é Ss cctnns metres 8, ’ ’ ’ . y ’ ’ ® 
os pee og — re - Laveen cones 5,000 7,500 7,600 7,500 7,100 7,700 7,100 8,300 8,100 8,000 
RE OR AMEE De ee rite cores reer 900 1,500 1,500 2,500 2,300 4,300 7,600 6,900 3,100 5,600 
Mi ad wa Ba A oh aia ce nren eae ta ge oe 800 800 800 900 900 1,100 1,700 1,700 1,700 1,700 
WE ei Gta Fis oS ae Does DAR AIR CCR 24,700 34,800 39,900 35,900 28,300 43,500 53,500 62,900 59,400 61,500 
IIIT io nce esse ns wer anon bs aereea eee 18,000 19,500 22,500 40,800 44,900 63,100 90,700 102,000 81,600 87,300 
ere ern Pe eee ee cee ee 2,300 8,300 5,900 6, 8,500 8,500 11,800 15,000 15,000 12,000 
WO II 6.65 wick asin casa gadg cap aie eee 20,300 27,800 28,400 47,600 53,400 71,600 102,500 117,000 96,600 99,300 
"WEN cso Gul gicn.ss ores bcs se see Oe xe es 45,000 62,600 68,300 83,500 81,700 115,100 156,000 179,900 156,000 160,800 
. Average price, cents perlb..............-.-.05+- 20.07 22.01 23.63 18.63 33.98 60.71 51.59 33.53 32.14 32.70 


(2) Taken fromcompilation of Metallgesellschaft, Frankfort-am-Main. 





556 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Vol. 118, No. 13 


COMPANY REPORTS 





American Smelting & Refining Co. 


A report of operations of the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. for 1921 states that $4,168,043.75 was paid in 
dividends. Consolidated income account follows: 


AMERICAN SMELTING & REFINING CO. AND AMERICAN SMELTERS 
SECURITIES CO.—SUMMARY OF CONSOLIDATED INCOME 


ACCOUNT 
Year Ended Year Ended 
Dec. 31, 1921 Dec. 31, 1920 
Net earnings of smelting and refining plants.. $8,652,332.72  $11,933,493.96 
Net earnings from mining properties........ 426,054.15 2,242,199. 48 


Total net earnings of operating properties. $9,078,386.87 $14,175,693.44 





Other income—net 
Interest, rents, dividends and com- 
PID cr oSk oh x wine ba ck gh tew nate 403,084.76 1,572,021. 83 
Net earnings, before deducting general and 
administrative expenses and corporate 
ENR as OES ON ss Sdous Seth tanh saeeea li $9,481,471.63 $15,747,715.27 
Deduct 
General and administrative expenses... . . $962,094. 84 $1,166,340. 87 
Research and examination expenses....... 94,437.42 312,295.87 
POMS SOME. 5S o8 ida oc chat das ee 243,969.24 979,458.96 
REO oo is 0bsbnes os 2n0we:00 $1,300,501.50 $2,458,095.70 


Net income from current operations before 
providing for bond interest, depreciation, 
obsolescence and depletion and after pro- 


UE COT EE GREED 6. o's 650 55 5.s,5 se pv eee $8,180,970.13 $13,289,619.57 
Less: 
Interest on A. S. & R. Co. 5 per cent first 
mortage bonds outstanding............ $1,618,029. 64 $1,592,834.94 
Interest on Rosita Coal & Coke Co. 6 - 
cent Collateral Trust bonds outstanding 54,402.78 71,135.00 
Miscellaneous adjustments............. 119,032.19 485,642.60 
Depreciation and obsolescence .......... 3,713,836. 37 3,500,244.69 
OE ae rer Pare ee 1,083,760. 23 64,983.64 
risk dee neh Ges Then thee e $6,589,061.21 $6,614,840. 87 
Balance of income for year..............+. $1,591,908. 92 $6,674,778.70 


SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED PROFIT-AND-LOSS SURPLUS ACCOUNT 
SOD FE I FORE. sco ccccccwescctsessccweecss $25,987,292.65 


TRE TOF UNE Sen bc ick is of Aeb a» ER 6 ei hres his » Mita éih's 1,591,908.92 
Transferredyfrom enlargement and extension reserve......... 3,000,000. 00 
Appreciated value of mining properties. ..................04- 577,020.85 

$31,156,222.42 


oe 3: idends on: 
ea ee RIOR MEI... sis «onc wens ce eee ees $3,500,000. 00 
a ‘Sm. Sec. Co., DEORE A MUNN iss Shs ce ek dickwe 540,600.00 


Am. Sm. Sec. Co. ” preferred ‘ Oy I 5 056.0918 dps sBis'0'9ioin'9 127,443.75 
Ore depletion on appreciated value on mining properties. . 577,020.85 
Appropriation for metal reserve account to provide for realized 

or contingent losses on surplus metal stocks accumulated in 

— years, based on Dec. 31, 1921, inventory at cost or mar- 

EL VET OIE odes kbs ook linea ccebacadcenewd 5,000,000. 00 
Amortization of war facilities, 1918. .........0.cceecceceecee 1,089,080.58 


$10,834,145. 18 
$20,322,077. 24 
The following table shows production for the year. 


Pee I EE CA atone ss el ccee eee nee uses es 


METAL PRODUCTS PRODUCED 








1921 1920 1914 

SN kok ins 6b alee sesamin 1,780,205 1,849,048 2,540,911 
Lo Se aa ee 75,354,443 77,732,911 77,604,483 
Platinum and palladium, oz........ 863 936 1,664 
SB Sosa sckcs pho dsc mcg anh 207,612 205,249 316,591 
Copper, lb... .. 348,888,000 590,850,000 529,686,000 
Spelter, - ; 14,628,614 44,106,253 15,748,000 
Nickel, lb.. 120,080 375,16 356,187 

Ss See 11,915,954 SE DEESOP: > cancun 
Sulphuric acid, lb 9,952,000 51,688,000 24,296,000 
nic, lb 5,155,522 17,695,266 6,184,000 
Copper sulphate, Ib.......... 2,237,471 3,618,172 6,798,000 
Byproduct metals, lb.............. 3,232,488 1,549,426 1,678,228 
Sulphur dioxide, ies cekdlncysia ican 154,794 BADEROS nk cd0sccse 

La Salle Copper Co. 


A report of operations of the La Salle Copper Co. for 
1921 states that no copper was produced during the year. 
Operations show a gain for the year of $2,602.49. Balance 
of current assets on Dec. 31, 1920, was $327,806.19, and Dec. 
31, 1921, $331,885.71. 


Chile Copper Co. 


A report of the operations of the Chile Exploration Co. 
for the fourth quarter of 1921 states that 375,004 tons 
of ore was treated in the period covered by the report, 
averaging 1.76 per cent copper; and in the preceding quarter 
379,417 tons, averaging 1.67 per cent copper, yielding 12,023,- 
177 lb. and 11,976,241 lb. of copper respectively. 

The cost of copper produced during the quarter was 9.111c. 
per lb., including selling and delivery expense, but exclud- 
ing depreciation and Federal taxes and with no credit for 
miscellaneous income, compared with 11.405c. per lb. for 
the previous quarter. 

The financial outcome of the Chile Copper Co. and the 
Chile Exploration Co. combined (earnings based on copper 
actually delivered), compares as follows: 


Fourth Quarter Third Quarter 
1921 1921 
Pounds copper delivered.............. 21,575,340 17,300,005 
Net profit on copper delivered......... $333,536.68 $429,652.07 
Miscellaneous income................ 89,987.78 44,594.24 
Interest on call loans and bank balances 80,679.24 86,055.87 
ORANG 5 oooh dome ciceawon $504,203.70 $560,302.18 
DOREOONEION 3 5.54 5k Sods 80S 5 sa ce $801,403.88 $789,402.19 
Amortized discount on fifteen year 6 
per cent convertible bonds.......... 35,000.00 35,000.00 
— bond interest of Chile Copper 
Baie a ie oe cin rahe a alesse 787,500.00 787,500.00 
Shipinnies of Chile Copper Co.......... 12,161.80 8,280.00 
TE re rem $1,636,065.68 $1,620,182. 19 


Balance undivided profits for quarter, 
SICUE III 55.5.5 5-5 6-000000/ 50 8 cis 


(a) Loss 


$1,131,861.98 (a) $1,059,880.01 (a) 


The Exploration Company, Ltd. 


A report of operations of The Exploration Company, Ltd., 
for 1921 shows a net realized profit of £9,969 15s. 4d., which, 
added to the balance of £87,046 12s. 9d. brought forward 
from the preceding year, makes a total of £97,016 8s. 1d. 
to the credit of profit-and-loss account. The general depres- 
sion which prevailed in all markets during the year and 
the adverse exchange between London and the United 
States and Mexico did not encourage the directors to under- 
take new business. 

The shares and interests of the company stand in the 
balance sheet at book cost for £309,335 7s. 9d. At market 
prices on Dec. 31 and on the directors’ valuation for un- 
quoted securities, they would, with the exception of the 
company’s holding in the Buena Tierra Mining Co., which 
amounts to £112,463 11s. 7d., show an appreciation. Owing 
to the inability of that mine to earn profits with present 
high operating costs and low prices of silver and lead, and 
to disappointment in the development of the mine, opera- 
tions were suspended on June 30 last. The directors find 
great difficulty at this juncture in making a reliable valuatior 
of this company’s investment therein, and therefore will, 
for the time being, retain the balance to credit of profit 
and loss account as provision for any contingency that may 
arise. They express regret that this decision prevents their 
recommending a dividend distribution on the shares of this 
company for the last year. 

The El Oro Mining & Railway Co. had a successful year, 
earning the largest profit in its history, but the sum avail- 
able for dividends was again seriously reduced by taxation 
at home and abroad. 

The Suchi Timber Co. made satisfactory profits. The 
Santa Rosa Mine has remained closed down. The Tomboy 
Mine has had many difficulties, both physical and economic,. 
to contend with during the year. 











April 1, 1922 


Isle Royale Copper Co. 


A report of operations of Isle Royale Copper Co. for 1921 
states that a loss of $383,369.45 was recorded, as the fol- 


lowing account shows: 


PRODUCTION COSTS 


We Sak fakin cas 
Smelting and refining. . 


Depreciation and depletion Btiecsas 


10,663,284 Ib. 


SOE Me GORE, a6 his oes Sr Sew eek 


Boston office, mine, and corporation CG asad danatads 


2,491,000 lb. 
8,172,284 lb. 


at 
at 





at 


6,607, 163 Ib. at 


~~ 4,056,121 Ib. at 


Less to reduce to market value 


On hand Dec. 31, 1921 


EARNINGS STATEMENT 


Received for copper sold.......... 
Cost of copper sold: 

Production cost at 13¢........... 

Selling and delivery cost at 0.58c.. 

Loss on copper sold 


6,607,163 Ib. at 


$858,931.19 
38,536.71 


Loss by reduction to market value................ 


Maintenance costs (April I-Dec. 31) 
Mine... 
Boston office and taxes.............. 
Depreciation 


Interest, silver and other numerous metals... .. . 


Losses by sale of Liberty Loan bonds, Govern- 


ment copper, and other metals.............. 


Loss for year 
Capital assets: 


Increased—Plant new construction............ 


Obsolescence 


Increase in reserves for 
MPU oe cD gM a ce tth ceils 


depreciation 


and 


Less decrease in reserve for depreciation by 


obsolete construction.............. 


4,056,121 Ib. at 


$68,873.01 
30,644.65 


$7,442.68 
2,459.95 


$101,426.78 


1,509. 23 


Decrease in balance of current assets...........5-...000e0eees 


Balance of current assets Dec. 31, 1920 


Balance of current assets Dec. 31, 1921 


Total 
Cost 


$279,595. 
115,893. 
30,697. 
86,199. 


$1,574,782. 
$715,851. 


$567,856. 


$512,385. 
1,062,396. 


58,931. 


147,994. 


$849,593.94 


897,467.90 





$47,873.96 
147,994. 37 


$195,868. 33 


$421,597. 


$383,369. 


$388,352. 


$288,434. 


225,729.48 


81 


38,228. 36 


4,982.73 


18 


55 
63 


99,917. 


1,624,992. 45 


$1,336,557. 82 


Copper production for the year amounted to 2,491,000 Ib. 
produced from Jan. 1 to March 31, 1921, at.a cost of 20.57c. 
per lb., including depletion and depreciation. 
hand Jan. 1, 1921, was 8,172,284 lb. and on Dec. 31, 1921, 
4,056,121 lb. Sold during year, 6,607,163 lb. 


Bingham Mines Co. 


A report of operations of the Bingham Mines Co. for 1921 
shows a balance to surplus of $52,703.15. No dividends were 
paid. Operating statement follows: 


GROSS INCOME 


CROMER, CSE se 5d ecinrtben etc deenauvias Rowe 
SURGE CO TR ch os ooo wale dai marae 
PROMS x x Ba viewea tl os ites khanna Lae in ce TO Oeere 
EXPENSES 
Smelting, freight, sampling and assaying............ 


Minte operatiorie sis). 3.6 0S. os ok 


Management, office, legal expenses and Federal taxes 
Insurance and miscellaneous taxes................-- 


Net earnings and revenues. ........ 


$764,112. 
11,443. 
1,866. 


$370,457. 

152,316. 

25,156. 
30,283. 


Prospecting and development of mines.............. 


Net operating gain 


PROFIT-AND-LOSS ACCOUNT 


Credits ‘ : 
Net operating gain. 
Dividends from mining stocks. ..... 


TOG WOME. < ih kde cdo cess 
Debits 


Construction and equipment depreciation......... 


PRU CUES cs eae ai Son oe aces 
Bi Seen rere rt ae Te 


Balance to earned surplus 
Earned surplus balance, Dee. 31, 


pe <cenyias 
Earned surplus balance, Dec. 31, 1921 





$121,376. 


’ 


Copper on 


$5,057.53 


106,564. 


58 


$777,421.63 


578,213.46 


$199,208. 


17 
77,832.01 


$121,376.16 


$164,325.26 


111,622.11 
15 


$52,703. 
520,758.60 


$573,461.75 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


557 


Balance sheet as of Dec. 31, 1921 is given as follows: 








ASSETS 
Real estate and mines. ee ere $1,312,346. 37 
Construction and equipment. ae 43,448.15 
Mining stocks. ; $971,924.30 
Less—“‘ Return of Capital” dividends. . 338,100.55 633,823.75 
Prepaid insurance and other expenses. .............. 414.60 
RRO Ma iw ie oo ck cigs cece ccc enue 7,733.50 
Accounts receivable (subsidiary companies)......... 63,696.94 
Accounts receivable (miscellaneous)................ 4,840.58 
Notes receivable (subsidiary companies)............ 59,050.28 
Ce ee eee On Ie era 48,005.81 
$2, 173,359.98 
LIABILITIES 
Capital stock (150,000 shares).................... $1,500,000. 00 
.ess—stock in treasury (54,847 shares) . 548,470.00 
Outstanding stock (95,153 shares at par $19)....... 951,530.00 
Accounts payable (including Federal taxes).......... 3,489.62 
Reserve for depreciation. . 32,941.07 
Reserve for — (March 1, 1913, to Dec. 31, “1921) 611,937.54 
WEE I 8 i sad cs fine ch dk dnc as onc bewe 573,461.75 
$2, 173,359.98 
Production from the various properties of the company is 
given in the following table: 
Smelter 
Dry Tons Returns 
WRENN GON es oat > a vind on Sain are wv ise oare ala ae 26,845 $313,140.00 
DT RINT a oh 5c aaa s oe Se wiocdax aces 26,554 303,135.43 
Dalton & Lark and Commercial (a)................. 27,666 120,864.40 
WON en 505 02% at wed ina da dines Sean 281 1,763.60 
ORM a ists eG a ala FON ew bu ede a Nace eaten 81,346 738,903.43 
(a) Includes lease ore. 
Lead, Gold, Silver, Copper, 
Pounds Ounces Ounces Pounds 
Victoria. . iat alae dae Gis 5,464,571 789.20 oe oa sn 
Eagle & Se 1,986 3,653.7 518,533 2,235 
Dalton & Lark and Commercial.. 157,136 1,655.3 69,488 245,417 
be ee a an aerate 76,068 11.1 2,014 949 


The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. 


The fifteenth annual report of the Goldfield Consolidated 
Mines Co. for 1921 states that no dividends were paid. 

The receipts to the company on account of royalties and 
sales amounted to $82,369.52, and disbursements (exclusive 
of special Income Tax payment) totaled $53,340.77, leaving 


net receipts of $29,028.75. 


not resumed. 


Earnings 
Rentals 


PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT 


Miscellaneous receipts...........-.....-. 


Refund 


industrial insurance............... 


TIN 5 oo oo est ngcecsiuducace de 
Expenses and losses 


oldfield operating expense 


ClOMNON CMON. So si cence cc ccd ib ccccts 


Leasing 


Ns ore 5520 concede ca caens 


Maintenance of property................. 
Taxes— 
State, county and federal............... 


Exploration 


Commissions on sale of equipment.......... 
Uncollectible accounts. 


Loss on 
Depreci 


sale of office building and furniture. : 
ation of buildings and equipment. . 


Depletion of ores: 2,543 tons extracted at 
overnment allowance of $3.43 per ton. 


Total 


expenses and losses............... 


Redhistions Gf aera << ins 6 65 eb ice cece 


Surpl 


us: Dee. 31, 1920... 


Less settlement of income taxes of 
PECVIOUS FORMS. 6. cds wsqeane cere swe 
Redaction 88 SDOWO. oi. ceccccecsteccees 


Surplus: Dec. 31, 1921 


Assets 


$728. 

14,749. 

10,738. 
17 


508. 


1. 
11,820. 
209,777. 


8,722. 


$627,795. 
64,716. 


95 
94 





$563,079. 
241,433. 


BALANCE SHEET 


Dec. 31, 1921 


DTG PROMOREOI ooo 55's ss genes ere ccededs 
Buildings and equipment................. 


Depletion reserve.......... 
ee RO ee 
Accounts receivable. . 





IN oo ee SoS cee ees nae’ 
ION ON IR oes 5. ki hoe 0 a4 ca eucales 


Total 
Liabilities 
Capital 


Authorized 


Uniss 


stock 


NG i axasla ss: cetiace 


$50,000,000 
14,408,520 





$28,550,400. 
8,799. 
6,014,525. 


$35,591,480. 
321,645. 


01 
44 


00 
57 


The treatment of tailing was 


$26,742.61 


$268,176.05 


$241,433.44 


$321,645.57 


$35,913,125.57 


$35,913,125.'57 


558 Engineering and Mining Journal-Press Vol. 118, No. 13 





Week Ended March 25, 1922 











Stock Exch. High Low Last Last Div. Stock Exch High Low Last Last Div. 
COPPER GOLD 
Dine tito 64 62 62 Sept. ’20, 0.50 Alaska Gold......... New York 2 3 Risctsrkne Sa. edicts oar 
Alaska-Br. Col. new. N. Y. Curb a peoeigeet ae: oo gk. hgh tere spor ve 
Allouez....... Boston 283 26 27. Mar. *i9 ie | 2 ee. oe Su ‘at eee 7 
Anaconda.......... New York $2} 50 «6 $0} Nov. '20,Q 1.00 | [remem Cones ED te 2t ai Jan. *22, Q,X $0.10 
Arcadian Consol..... Boston 2% 23 Be Rca Maes ae pce >> ae k 28s "26 785 aot saat aces "55 
Ariz. Com’l......... Boston 9] 94 9k Oct.*18,Q 0.50 | Pome Gold iii New York, (268 264 27% Jan.°22,Q °° 0.25 
Big Ledge.......... eae 268 OU MRS 8 nic: og | eee Clo. Sorings *75 *75 *75 June oO 0 03 
Bingham Mines..... Boston a 8 Drie. io ¢s | ee. Ser a 23 —ae Se 
Calumet & Arizona.. Boston 60; 58 58 Mar.’22,Q 0.50 Holli . oa 2 ie urb 10 o 9 - 6 Dee. 12, 0.05 
Calumet & Heels...’ Boston 00 275 26 Jee’ «(5.00 | Dee See... coe, ee Se ee eee ee 
Connie Copper... N. Y. Curb = aC vss — : ne ; oe or! 4f2i 462 oe Mar 22, M 0.25 
Centennial.......... Boston Mite Bien skh te | i. § 6S eee ae as 
Cerro de Pasco... New York % 634) 344 Mar.'21,Q 0.50 | (oon... TO ee he ne Ce 
Chile Copper... New York OS &e arses "2, | Melntyre-Porcupine. ‘Toronto n'a a a )6= Clk 
Chino. New York 28 26% 268 Sept. ‘26,Q 0.374 | Porcupine Crown.... Toronto anata _— 
Columbus Rexall. . Salt Lake <i a: | rr, eee Portis a ae ee Cole eet * ik one Boss giana Ms 
Con. Arizona....... N. Y. Curb *4 *4 *4 Dec. 18, Q 0.05 Behe ae ee ae To o. Springs — 40 1336 428 Oct. °20, Q 0.01 
Con. Copper Mines.. N.Y. Curb 1 ea ae an — eo neice oe » ; a = = Sapsecue wate & betel 
Copper eet oc Dante 4 42} 42% Mar. *22, Q i 00 r i Sareea 7 ‘ur as 044 043 Baa Daeesdahs Sms 
Crystal ee Sea Boston Curb 1 *53 91. ............ ms Ton se gg Beats y tayo 1 *70 * ; cn. se ee a ns 
Davis-Daly......... Boston nn hie a6) 38: | Pere: Ce “ae ae . 
Fast Butte... |... Boston 11d 108 10f Decti9, 0:30. | United Bastern...... N.Y. Curb 2 1 “18 Jan me (oUF 
First Nationa]l...... Boston Curb *70 *65 *70 Feb.’19,SA 0.15 White Cap Mini N Y < — *5 *4 - Q 0.08 
Franklin. ....... 2. Boston Be ce SM Sens attra —— i aeons 2 | +m 0°03 
Gadsden Copper.. Boston Curb *80 *70 *70 ............ pai ne Ne TT lt ' i sac tii Oe 
— Gonsol.... - a ig 27 27 May’19,Q 1.25 SILVER 
reene-Uananea.. w ® ° aoe 
eS ee eee "Boston ” 7 in at at — ; - i aoe eee oa a =a e364 * 3 * f em 07, I 0. 12g 
Howe Sound. . N. Y. Curb . ». Bin tio ¢6 | to. tte ‘eta th eee OU 
Inspiration Consol... New York 42 39% 40} Oct. ’20, 1.00 Coot t ie aoe #23 a a =, a Q : it 
Iron Cap........... Boston Curb 7} 7} 7} Sept. ’20, cs | aoe —aceeey TY Curb 3 . “+ oe es 
Isle Royale... -.- Besta . BE BE BF Sept.19, 8a 0.50 | La Rose. Toreate” 954" 93g e38' Ape. 1 > OL0R 
enneco ew Yor ec. °20, *) ; “499' } 
oe eth + iit if oem Q : 2 ' Mining Corp Cat ; Toronto "19 "17 a Oct. 20,9 0.03 
Lake Copper Boston 3 3 Bie pie tani ee, sabee Nipiee, teas esos nyo b | IE a ; opt... io cu 
La Salle. "225 Boston RM PS ce eta in, | ie ooo meee . 2 ame 38 
Magma Copper..... N. Y. Curb 293 28% 29% Jan.’19,Q 0.50 GukicSiee N.Y Cu b z *12 og 12° 0.10 
Oe eee Boston Curb *5 *5 Par nse caste 55. Te, ite Toront ‘ai 439 #35 #338 yoo 20 K 0.04 
Mason Valley. Boston 23 t Beir ace aeate er T os oe eee Sonal e *4 *4 *4 i 19, ; 
Mass. Consolidated.. Boston 3 2 2. Mov. “tz, 1.00 arte or i — ; _— 
Miami Copper... New York 283 274 «27 Feb.’22Q° 0.50 GOLD AND SILVER 
Michigan........... Boston 72: ti Me dag ae ia ieee Boston & Montana... N.Y.Curb Wee | OSS Og sc nk Seeasde an 
Meena... 2.05.5 Boston 593 57 57 Feb. ’22,Q 1.00 Cash Boy... .. N.Y. Curb a ee ee ne er 
Mother Lode Coa... N.Y. Curb 8i 7} BA cre eA Res itt Dolores Esperanza. . . N.Y. Curb 13 *95 se cktow Wess eens 
Nevada Consol...... New York 154 14% 143% Sept. ’20, Q 0.25 El Salvador......... N. Y. Curb *5 *3 TOR ok cats ae 
New Cornelia....... Boston 18 17 I1§ Feb. 22, K 0.25 dim Butler. .:....... NE Sage. “ats *5 Aug.’18,SA 0.07 
North Butte........ Boston 134 12 12 Oct. ’18,Q 0.25 Jumbo Extension.... N.Y.Curb......... *3 June '16, 0.05 
North Lake......... Boston *25 Pe 55 ee MacNamara M.&M. N. Y. Curb 5. +12 *13° May ‘10, 0.024 
Ohio Copper........ N. Y. Curb *10 *9 RO, Scent ea eae iis Tonopah Belmont... N. Y. Curb 1% \j 1§ Jan. ’22,Q 0.05 
Old Dominion....... Boston 25 25 25 Dec. ’18,Q 1.00 Tonopab Divide..... N.Y. Curb es Bn ho on te Peas 
penne a. os fo. 28 Boston 353 34 34 June’20,Q 0.50 | Tonopah Extension.. N. Y. Curb 13 1% = | ean. '22, 0.05 
Phelps Dodge....... Open Mar. {170 ¢160 ... Jan.’22,Q 1.00 | Tonopah Mining.... N.Y. Curb 148 1g = =—1G Oct.’21,8A 0.05 
eI ccs: Boston 472 44 444 Mar. ’20,Q 1.00 West End Consol....  N. Y. Curb 13; *99 1 ¥sDec.'19,SA 0.05 
— ———— os _— = sft id Dec. ’20, Q 0.25 SILVER-LEAD 
y. Hercules Scone: I oo enc at Sieg . 
St. Marv’s Min. Ld... Boston 47 45 47 3 ; Caledonia.......... N. Y. Curb *7 *5 *6 Jan.’21,M 0.01 
aeaeieeeer sc a task tag Oe 2K 1.00 | Condi M. & 1... Salt Lake $1.00 +*95 1.00 Dec. '26, 0.15 
BRAMMON:....5.0556-5 Boston *97 *90 *90 Nov. ’17,Q 0.25 Chief Consol........ Boston Curb 4 3 4 Aug. ’ 21,Q 0.05 
Shattuck Arizona.. New York 9 83 83 Jan. 20, Q 0.25 Consol. M. &S..... Montreal 20 19 20 Oct. '20, Q 0. 624 
South Radke .. Boston ¢1.00 7*5 *80....... ere Daly Mining........ Salt Lake 13.00 +1.50 .... duly 20, 0.10 
Superior & Boston... Boston if *9| ie PR inte Sic Daly-West.. Boston 3 24 24 Dec. 20, 0.25 
Tenn. C. & C. ofs... New York Nf 10% 11 May’18,1°- i/00 | Eagle & Blue Bell... Boston Curb 2 oft ott SPE 2G os 
Tuolumne.......... Boston *70 *56 *56 May ’13, 0.10 Electric Point. -..... kane 7 3 7 , 20,SA 0.03 
United Verde Ex.... Boston Curb 29 27.28 Feb.'22Q 0.25 ee te ee as a eS a ae 
a hen. | rs 2M ap Bent. I 0°25 Federal M. é& 8. pfd. New York 40 38,38 Mar. '23,Q 1.00 
Utah Copper... New York 65 62; 634 Dec. '21,Q 0.50 orence Silver...... Spokane a4 4234 +24 Apr. ’ 19, 0.01% 
Utah Metal é T Boston 4 13 13 Dec. ’17, 0.30 Grand Central pana Sas Salt Lake 52 52 52 Jan. 21, K 0.01 
Victoria. . ..... Boston 32 12 Hi Se ae ies Hecla Mining. ...... - ¥. Curb * 6 * 3% 5% Dec. ai, Q 0.17 
Winona.< 2020.0. | Banton ss 5 MS Coos... a a. 3. 
COONMND, 66550586 ‘ ~ oo ggg . 7 
° — eK... teases Marsh Mines... .. N.Y.Curb *6 *5 5 June'2I,I 0.02 
NICKEL-COPPER See Se et = Lake wt a *9 Nov. '17, 0.02% 
Ynternat. Nickel..... New York 16} 14% 163 Mar. ’19 0.50 oy it gemma ctge ty > oo Feb. '19, 0.04 
Sestarnt: Ni pf gy : Mex Tronedl.. «<<... Y. Curb *8 *7 MD bhatt shh Be he 
a oe: ow Tee 74 -t 4 Feb.'22,Q 1.50 | South Heela... | Salt. Lake +60 1*35 ... Sept.*i9,K 0.15 
LEAD ae eae s ae pt "S = Oct. We .2 
National Lead....... NewYork | 90} _ 884 88} Dee.’2I, ep | Meee oes” oo EE ar :-¢ 
National Lead, pid... New York 1 ts t110' 112" Mar. 23,0 1:75. | Zamarack-Custer.... Spokane = 2.25 2.20 2.23 Jan. ‘21, 7 
a a > ore «= Se | ntis Standard... . : 4 ‘ ees ; 
P ae ¢ 134 134 Mar.'22,Q 0.25 | Utah Apex......... Boston 4 "34 BE Nov. (20, K 0.25 
QUICKSILVER Wilbert Mining..... Y. Curb es -. 82 Mew. *t7, 0.01 
New Idria.......... Boston et ce oe ee VANADIUM 
ZINC Vanadium Corp..... New York 394 372 38 Jan. ’21,Q 1.00 
ASBESTOS 
ave: ZB S.2...2 New York 163 14 144 May ’20 1.00 
Am. Z. L. & 8. pid New York 39 37 a : Asbestos Corp... ... Montreal 554 544 554 Jan. ’22,Q 1.50 
SetteC.&5........ Mow York cf ee uae ts? giag. | Asbestos Corp. pid... Montreal 787478 Jan.'22,Q 1.75 
Butte & Superior.. oa New York 264 254 26 Sept. 20, 1.25 SULPHUR 
allahan Zn-Ld..... ew Yor! 6 6§ Dec. ’20, 0.50 ae . 
New Jersey Zn...... NY. Curb 145 144° 144" Feb, 22, § 200 eee... mew Sak me) a A Ox 100 
Yellow Pine........ Los Angeles sos palate *43 Sept. ’20, 0.03 Pe MINING SMELTING AND REFINING , ; 
*Cents per share. {Bid or asked. Q, Quarterly. SA, Semi-annually. M, | 4. Sm. & Ref N an k 53 50 5 ’ 00 
Monthly. K, Irregular. I, Initial. X, Includes extra. a tS. a oe cee. Ts 
Toronto quotations courtesy Hamilton B. Wills; Spokane, Pohlman Karnariguent An. Sm. =. f.A.. New York T91 = $88 90 Jan. ’22, 1.50 
See | eee Reis ae eee ak 
Oil; m. .p ew Yor! 454 45 45 Jan. ’22,Q 0.8 











April 1, 1922 


NEW MACHINERY 
AND INVENTIONS 


The Nevill-Soanes Process for 
Extracting Copper From 
Oxidized Ores 


Pulp Is Heated With Acid, Salt, and 
Metallic Iron, and Cement Copper Re- 
covered by Elutriation or Flotation— 
Process Was Developed in Australia. 


The Australian Minerals Recovery 
Co., Box 453, Perth, Western Australia, 
has been formed to take over the rights 
to a new process for the hydrometal- 
lurgical recovery of copper from oxi- 
dized ores invented by P. W. Nevill and 
H. Soanes. The ore pulp, after fine 
crushing, is heated to 70 deg. C. in 
pachucas with metallic iron and a little 
free acid or a salt. The cement copper 
thus precipitated is then separated from 
the gangue by elutriation or flotation. 
The process is a regenerative one, re- 
quiring only the addition of metallic 
iron with each cycle. It is claimed that 
the process consumes less than one- 
hundredth of the acid required by older 
hydrometallurgical methods; that there 
is relative economy in iron, ranging up 
to almost 100 per cent in some in- 
stances; that wear and tear on plant is 
light owing to the non-corrosive nature 
of the dilute solutions used; and that 
the reaction is much faster than with 
older methods, thus resulting in an in- 
crease in plant capacity. 

In a laboratory test on a small scale, 
a 20-g. sample, heated by steam in a 
large test tube with a little 0.5 per 
cent sulphuric acid or a ferrous sul- 
phate solution, in the presence of metal- 
lic iron, yielded its copper in three or 
four minutes, with rapid effervescence 
of carbon dioxide. On filtering, the fer- 
rous sulphate in the filtrate was found 
to bring about equally quick decom- 
position of a fresh batch of ore in the 
presence of added iron. Gold or silver, 
if present, is carried down with the cop- 
per. No metallic salt appears to inter- 
fere with, the reaction, thus reducing 
the necessity of discarding foul solu- 
tions to a minimum. The largest tests 
so far made have been on 200-Ib. 
samples. 

In commercial work several questions 
would arise: What would it cost to 
heat large quantities of pulp to 70 deg. 
C.? What would be the cost of the iron 
required? What are the mechanical 
difficulties of separating the cement 
copper from the gangue? What will be 
the losses in copper? 

In working the process with ferrous 
sulphate and iron, it is found that when 
the iron solution becomes too strong 
there is an excessive precipitation of 
ferrous oxide, which impedes the re- 
covery of the copper precipitate. This, 
however, may be easily averted by the 
addition of a little free acid or soluble 
chloride, such as sodium chloride. 
Anyone wishing to make a rough test 





Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


on an oxidized ore can take a 10 x 2-in. 
boiling flask, and into this place 50 g. 
of minus-150-mesh ore, and finely 
ground metallic iron—the finer the bet- 
ter. About one unit of the iron should 
be added to each unit of copper con- 
tained in the ore being treated. Add 2 
per cent of sodium chloride, 5 per cent 
of ferrous sulphate (FeSO.7H:0O), and 
50 c.c. of water. Blow steam into and 
through the pulp for fifteen minutes, 
and then pan off. 

The process has been patented in the 
United States and about thirty other 
countries. So far, it is understood, only 
Australian rights have been alotted. 


A Machine for Cleaning Oil Wells 


Wells that are apparently non-pro- 
ductive or exhausted can be cleaned out 
and made productive by a new ma- 
chine recently developed by a Kansas 
City man. A double bit with bias cut- 
ters is screwed to the tubing which is 





THE ROTARY 
DOUBLE BIT USED IN 
CLEANING OIL WELLS 


DEVICE AND THE 


used for pumping the oil and then low- 
ered to the bottom of the sand. On top 
of the tubing is screwed a ball-bearing 
swivel after it has been passed through 
a rotary device. Attaching the cable to 
the swivel, the rotary is operated at 
a speed of about ninety revolutions to 
the minute by the belt from the drilling 
rig. This action causes the bit to flare 
out by centrifugal force, and the well 
walls receive the force of the cutting 
arms. The sand being cut away under 
this continued action causes any packed 
or obstructed condition to give way, and 
if oil is present a free flow is secured. 
The device is a product of the Oil Re- 
storing Reamer Co., Chambers Build- 
ing, Kansas City, Mo. 


New Types of Small 
Electric Shovels 
Since the successful operation of 
electric shovels up to twelve-ton capac- 
ity has established the practicability of 
electric drive for this class of ma- 





559 


chines, the Marion Steam Shovel 
Co. has developed three new types of 
small revolving electric shovels, with 
capacities of 37, 1, and 14 cu.yd. These 
machines have been designed to 
meet the demand for a small electric 
shovel that could be used for work in 
quarries, open-pit mines, and on street 
or road construction, lumber reclama- 
tion work, and other places where the 
steam shovel is either impracticable or 
undesirable. The electric generators, 
motors, and control equipment are of 
the General Electric Co. type. Ordi- 
narily, the shovels are equipped with 
the Marion “crawling traction,” but 
they may be supplied with wide trac- 
tion or standard railway wheels if 
desired. 

The new shovels carry their own 
generating plant, of which there are 
two varieties, gasolene engine-driven 
electric or straight electric. The two 
smaller types may be equipped with 
either class of power plant, but the 14- 





SHOWING THE DOUBLE BIT WITH ITS 
PARTS FLARED OUT AS WHEN 
IN OPERATION IN THE WELL 


cu.yd. type always has the straight 
electric. The gasolene-electric plant 
for the smallest shovel consists of a 
53-hp., four-cylinder, four-cycle, heavy- 
duty Matthews gas engine, directly 
connected to a, 250-v., compound-wound 
d.c. generator. 

The electric power plants also vary 
in horsepower for the different capac- 
ities of shovels, although the general 
layout is the same in all types. They 
consist of an induction motor of 40, 50, 
or 75 hp., driving a 250-v. shunt-wound 
generator. The primary current is: 
usually 440 v., 60 cycle, and is brought 
to the shovel by means of a specially 
wound and insulated cable. A slip- 
ring arrangement is used to transmit 
the current to the main part of the 
shovel. 

The motor-generator set for straight 
electric power is interchangeable with 
the gas-engine generator set on the 
two smaller types. 

The salient feature in the design of 
these shovels is the use of separate 


560 


motors for each motion, which con- 
stitutes a great improvement over 
former types. Hitherto, the small elec- 
tric or gasolene shovel has been. of the 
friction type, using a single motor or 
engine, and transmitting the power to 
the various points of application by 
means of a series of friction clutches. 
This caused considerable loss of power 
through friction in gearing, clutches, 
and brakes, and wastage due to turning 
the machinery over while running idle. 
In addition, the complication of gears 
caused endless maintenance charges and 
annoyance. 

The motors used on the various 
motions, swing, hoist, and crowd are 
all series wound, mill type, 230 v. d.c., 
varying in horsepower according to the 
size of the shovel. The hoist and swing 
motors are mounted on rigid bases. in 
the body of the shovel, and the crowd 
motor is mounted on the boom. They 
are all placed so as not to interfere 
with the use of standard drums, bear- 
ings, and shafts, so much so, in fact, 
that the motors and generating set 
can be dispensed with, and the machine 
converted into a standard steam out- 
fit, if necessary. Being series motors, 
they have high speed at light loads and 
slow speed with high torque at heavy 
ones, characteristics that are also 
found in steam shovels, and which have 
much to do with their success. 

A motor-driven air:compressor which 
furnishes air for the hoisting clutch 
and crowding brake is placed at the 
front of the upper frame on the side 
opposite the control levers. 


INDUSTRIAL NOTES 


ce a ee a nt eR 
ZESSSSSSSHSSCRSSSSSSSLESSSSSSESSASSSSRSESRSCERSCSRRE SEER eeeeseeeES 


Byron C. Riblet, of the Riblet Tram- 
way Co., has returned to Spokane, after 
a trip of inspection to the recently com- 
pleted 113-mile aérial tramway lately 
installed at the Premier mine, Portland 
Canal district, British Columbia. 


Announcement has been made by the 
Air Reduction Co., Inc., that it has 
purchased all of the assets, trademarks, 
including patents and trade names, of 
the Davis-Bournonville Co. The latter 
company has been the pioneer in the 
development of oxyacetylene apparatus. 

W. C. Allen, former manager of the 
Black & Decker, Philadelphia branch, 
and subsequently special representative, 
has been made branch manager of the 
Black & Decker Chicago territory, 
which takes in the states of Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota and 
North Dakota. 


Noel Cunningham, formerly connected 
with the Coal Washing Equipment Co., 
has now become associated with the 
Hardinge Co., Inc., 120 Broadway, New 
York. This change is due to the acquire- 
ment by the Hardinge Co. of all manu- 
facturing and sales rights of the James 
Coal Washing Equipment, formerly 
handled by the Coal Washing Equip- 
ment Co. © it 4t ost 


"a 


Engineering and Mining Journal-Press 


Technical representatives of E. I. 
DuPont de Nemours & Co. whose work 
takes them into every important mining 
section of the United States held their 
annual convention at Wilmington, Del., 
March 2, 3 and 4. Exhaustive discus- 
sions were carried on regarding the 
problems that confront the miner in 
the best use of explosives. An especially 
interesting paper was read by F. W. 
Hukill, on “Mining in Mexico.” A talk 
on the best use of explosives in salt 
mines was given by C. S. Hurter, of 
Wilmington. Arthur LaMotte, manager 
of the Technical Bureau, presided at 
the meeting and directed the discus- 
sions. At the end of the session, a 
visit was made to the Du Pont dynamite 
plant at Gibbstown, N. J. 


The Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., recently announced the 
retirement of its president, George H. 
Clapp, his reappointment as a member 
of the board of directors of the com- 
pany, and the election of Colonel James 
Hilliken to the presidency of the com- 
pany. This corporation conducts a large 
business of civil, mechanical, electrical 
engineering, metallurgical, mining and 
chemical investigations, and also makes 
a specialty of inspection, testing and 
analysis in other kindred fields, special 
attention being devoted to the inspec- 
tion of railroad locomotives, cars, steel 


rails, track appliances, bridges, and 
buildings. 


Hollinger Buys Oliver Filters 


According to infofmation published 
in the press, the Hollinger Consolidated 
Gold Mines has purchased six more 
14 x 16 ft. oscillating type Oliver filters, 
together with complete vacuum and 
solution-pump equipment and all acces- 
sories. 

One Oliver filter of the same size and 
type was installed at) the end of the 
Dorr counter-current section of the mill 
some months ago. This filter has been 
operating continuously with highly 
satisfactory results, having decreased 
the soluble loss in both gold and cyanide 
practically to zero. The one machine, 
together with the additional filters just 
ordered, all seven of which will be 
placed at the lower end of the present 
cyanide plant and take the underflow 
from the Dorr tanks (what has nor- 
mally been the final tailing), will have a 
capacity of at least 4,000 tons of dry 
slime per day. The total filtering area 
will. be about 5,000 sq.ft. 

The exact price of the entire filtering 
equipment is not stated, but is under- 
stood to-amount to about $70,000. This 
sum may at first appear to be a large 
capital expenditure. However, when 
it is realized that it takes an additional 
recovery of even less than 5c. per ton 
for one year on 4,000 tons per day to 
save $70,000 in a single year it resolves 
itself into a profitable investment. 

The residue from the filters will con- 
tain about 20 per cent moisture, and it 
is planned to discharge this compara- 
tively dry cake to conveyor belts which 
will deliver to the final tailing disposal 
system. - 


Vol. 113, No. 13 


. 


TRADE CATALOGS 


Cement Gun Construction—The Ce- 
ment Gun Construction Co., of Chicago, 
Ill., has issued Gunite Book No. 7, which 
contains illustrations showing various 
types of construction done by this com- 
pany in a number of industrial plants. 


Wood Preservation — “Storing and 
Seasoning Cross Ties” is the title of 
Bulletin No. 20, issued by the Century 
Wood Preserving Co., of Pittsburgh, 
Pa. The bulletin outlines the methods 
of seasoning, causes of deterioration, 
and the handling and storage of ties, 
together with a description of the serv- 
ice rendered by the company. 


Cableways—The Deschanel Engineer- 
ing Corporation, 90 West St., New York 
City, has issued the Deschanel Cable- 
way Bulletin, which describes this 
company’s single-line cableway. It is 
claimed that by means of this cableway 
material, such as coal, can be unloaded 
direct from railroad cars into storage 
and reclaimed again for further trans- 
portation. 


Laboratory Rheostats— The Allen- 
Bradley Co., Milwaukee, Wis., has is- 
sued Bulletin E-2910, which describes 
the Allen-Bradley rheostat, designed to 
meet a need in the laboratory where 
fine current control is necessary for 
electric muffle and combustion furnaces 
and where a portable, flexible instru- 
ment finds daily application in general 
laboratory work. , 


Material Handling Equipment—The 
Wellman-Seaver Morgan Co., of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, has issued Bulletin No. 71, 
“Material Handling Equipment as Ap- 
plied to the Copper Industry.” This 
pamphlet is well illustrated with photo- 
graphs and wash drawings, which show 
many installations that have been made 
by this company at the larger copper 
properties, including car-dumper in- 
stallations at the Utah Copper Co., 
Arthur, Utah, and the Chile Copper Co. 
at Chuquicamata, Chile; the excavating 
bridge of the Chile Copper Co., and 
the excavator at the leaching plant of 
the New Cornelia Copper Co., Ajo, 
Ariz. Suitable explanatory text ac- 
companies each illustration. 


Hydraulic Giants—The Joshua Hendy 
Iron Works, of San Francisco, Cal., 
has’ recently issued, for limited circula- 
tion, Bulletin 128, which features the 
applications of the Hendy hydraulic 
giants. Outside of its mining field the 
hydraulic giant has been extensively 
used for excavation and the transporta- 
tion of the excavated material in flumes. 
A number of important dams have been 
constructed in this way. An interest- 
ing application of the hydraulic giant 
for prospecting was made by the Nipis- 
sing Mining Co., Ltd., at Cobalt. Here 
the giant was used to wash off the 
superficial soil and debris covering the 
formations containing the silver veins. 
The bulletin is splendidly illustrated.