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Vol. XX VI. 


OCTOBER, 1895. 

No. 3 

A Monthly Journal Devoted to 


19 Tribune Building, Chicago, I11,. 

oe - -- ——- —_—__—— 

L. MULLER, Jr., Manager. 






TERMS: Regular number, $5 a year; Photogravure edition, $10 a year. 
Single copies, Regular number, soc.; Photogravure edition (including 7 photo- 
gravures), $1. Advance payment required. 

The columns and illustration pages of THE INLAND ARCHITECT are open 
to all alike, merit and availability only determining what shall be published. 
Contributions appropriate to its pages are always desired. 


DANIEL H. BURNHAM, Chicago, Il. 
ALFRED STONE, Providence, R. I. 

*GEORGE B. Post, New York, N. Y. 
*WILLIAM S. EAMES, St. Louis, Mo. 

For three years. 

*Louis H. Sullivan, Chicago, III. Charles I. Cummings, Boston, Mass. 
George C. Mason, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. E. I. Nickerson, Providence, R. I. 
Theodore Carl Link, St. Louis, Mo. W.L. B. Jenney, Chicago, Il. 
Samuel Hannaford, Cincinnati, Ohio. Wilson Eyre, Philadelphia, Pa. 

For two years. 
FE. H. Kendall, New York, N. Y. G. A. Frederick, Baltimore, Md. 
Cass Gilbert, St. Paul, Minn. Henry Van Brunt, Kansas City, Mo. 
C. F. Schweinfurth, Cleveland, Ohio. Jeremiah O'Rourke, Orange, N. J. 
*Thomas Hastings, New York, N. Y. Robert Stead, Washington, D. C. 
For one year. 
Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr., Phila., Pa. Joseph F. Baumann, Knoxville, Tenn. 
George W. Rapp, Cincinnati, Ohio. A. F. Rosenheim, St. Louis, Mo. 
William G. Preston, Boston, Mass. R. W. Gibson, New York, N. Y. 
W. W. Clay, Chicago, Ill. C. H. Johnson, St. Paul, Minn. 
* These with President, Secretary and Treasurer ex-officio, form Executive 

Committee on Foreign Correspondence.—Richard M. Hunt, chairman, New 
York, N. Y.; William Le Baron Jenney, Chicago, Ill.; R. S. Peabody, Boston, 
Mass.; C. F. McKim, New York, N. Y.; Henry Van Brunt, Kansas City, Mo. 

Committee on Education.—Henry Van Brunt, chairman, Kansas City, Mo.; 
Professor William R. Ware, New York, N. Y.; Professor N. Clifford Ricker, 
Champaign, Ill.; A. W. Longfellow, Boston, Mass.; Theophilus P. Chandler, 
Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Committee on Uniform Contract.—Samuel A. Treat, Chicago, Ill.; Alfred 
Stone, Providence, R. I.; George W. Rapp, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Committee upon Conservation of Public Buildings.—Richard Upjohn, chair- 
man, New York, N. Y.; Presidents of the several Chapters. 

Committee on Publication and Library.—W. 1. B. Jenney, Chicago, II1.; 
R. W. Gibson, New York, N. Y.; Theo. C. Link, St. Louis, Mo.; Henry Van 
Brunt, Kansas City, Mo.; Cass Gilbert, St. Paul, Minn. 

NoTE.— Officers elected enter upon their term of office January 1, and 
continue until December 31, unless reélected, except in the case of Directors 
for two and three years. 

The annual conventions of the two national 

Convention : 
Month for Organizations representative of the archi- 
Architects tectural and building interests of the country 

and Builders. wil] be held simultaneously on the 15th of 

the present month. But that of the American Institute 
of Architects will be at St. Louis, while that cf the 
National Association of Builders will be at Baltimore. 
The convention of the Institute will be the twenty-ninth, 
while that of the Builders will be 
is every prospect that the time of both conventions will 
be largely taken up with the consideration of amend- 

the ninth. There 

ments to their respective constitutions and by-laws, for 
notices have been sent out calling for radical changes 
in both. It is unfortunate that bodies which meet but 
once a year should have so much business of this nature to 
perform as to have little time for the reading and discussion 
of professional papers, or the consideration of business 
ethics which most concern the welfare of their members 
and the large constituencies which they represent. 

vensauas It is too late now to offer any suggestions 
Amendments it relation to the proposed amendments to 
the by-laws of the Institute. 
have already voted by letter ballot upon a 
sweeping amendment to the constitution which proposes 
to abolish the present large board of directors and substi- 
tute a small executive committee. 
failure of this amendment will depend the necessity of 
considering some of the proposed changes in the by-laws. 
Another amendment, which will, in any case, be acted 
upon, provides for the representation of Chapters on the 
committee appointed at each convention for nominating 
the ‘‘regular ticket’’ 
This appears to be a wise measure. 
also offered which provides that practicing architects may 
apply and become Fellows of the Institute without first 
becoming members of any Chapter. This is all very well 
where there are no Chapters, but it will allow a body of 
architects in any city where there is a Chapter to come into 

to Institute The members 


Upon the success or 

of officers for the ensuing year. 
An amendment is 

the Institute and form a local clique in opposition to the 
authorized local organization which is the representative 
body of the Institute. It would thereby be put in the 
power of the directors to destroy the local influence of 
any Chapter. 
which proposes to allow the directors to organize two 
Chapters in the same district, or a second one where one 

In line with this is another amendment 

is already established, with the condition that the existing 
Chapter shall be previously ‘‘consulted’’ by the Insti- 
tute. What this means it is not easy to see ; 
sulting them, what then ? 
prevent the directors from establishing an opposition or 
rival Chapter in the face of a protest. 

after con 
There would be nothing to 

The convention of the National Association 

National ; 5 ; 

Association Of Builders at hospitable Baltimore will have 
of on its first day an address by Robert D. 

Builders. = Andrews, F. A. I. A., of Boston, on ‘* The 

Union of Building Trades’ Schools with Schools of Archi- 
tectural Design.’’ ‘This is the only paper announced. 
The proposed amendments to the constitution includes 

every article except the first. 

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HE necessity for affording opportunity for seeing the conven- 
tion to as many spectators as possible, brings the convention 
proper into the center of the hall, surrounded by rising 

banks of seats for spectators, arranged as nearly as can be on 
the lines of the Scott Russell isacoustic curve. It would be most 
desirable, in the interest of good acoustic effect, to construct a 
ceiling, or sounding board, as low as is p@ssible, over the space 
occupied by the delegates, and to flare this upward in all direc- 
tions toward the spectators. But this is generally impracticable 
and may, even if attempted, defeat its own purpose. For an 
uncomfortable audience is an unruly audience, and an unruly 
audience cannot hear anything but the noises produced by itself. 
These conventions are held during hot weather. The temporary 
character of the hall prevents the installation of a comprehensive 
and effective system of mechanical ventilation. Hence there exists 
a necessity for lofty ceilings as a protection from the effects of 
the sun beating upon the roof, and as an aid to natural ventilation. 
The general conditions, then, being’ not at all conducive to good 
acoustic effects, the comfort of the audience must be depended 
upon as an important auxiliary to the acoustic success of the hall. 
As isacoustic lines are almost identical with good light lines an 
approximation to their attainment in banking the seats enables 
everyone in the audience to see everyone on the floor of the con- 
vention proper, and, by relieving the spectator from straining and 
fidgeting in the effort to see, permits concentration of the faculties 
upon the effort to hear. Again, people will come and go during 
sessions, and thus annoy each other. If disturbances from this 
cause are minimized by placing the aisles near each other — say, 
averaging not more than twelve seats apart —the noise and dis- 
turbance due to the coming and going of people will be greatly 
reduced and the audience kept in better temper, and hence in 
better condition to hear and understand the speeches. 

In fact, keeping the audience in good temper is all important. 
A good system of designating sections, numbering seats and mark- 
ing approaches is, therefore, of the utmost value, as it gets people 
to their seats promptly and without unnecessary effort or friction. 
With this end in view, I make every aisle a section designated by 
a letter, and that letter conspicuously marked on tickets, coupons 
and, above all things, upon the approaches which lead to the aisles 
or sections. It is well to begin the separation already at the 
entrances to the hall and to mark each of these with the letters of 
the aisles to be reached through it. Seat numbers of each section 
should go from each aisle midway to the next aisle. The seat 
numbers must be plainly marked on the seats in such manner that 
they can be read when the seats are occupied. It is well to write 
the first and last numbers of each row of seats upon the floor at its 
junction with aisle. The ushers should assist in marking the 
seats and floors. This will familiarize them with their seat num- 
bers and will enable them to show people to their seats promptly, 
and therefore unflurried and in contented frame of mind. To 
prevent noise, confusion, and possible accidents, the chairs 
should be securely fastened to each other and to the floor, but 
attention must be paid to the length of the nails used and to the 
manner in which they are driven, with a view to preventing 
injury to the clothes and persons of those who occupy the seats. 

There should be no standing room. The large corps of ushers, 
messengers, assistant sergeants-at-arms, etc., which is part of every 
convention, is in itself fully as large an unseated audience as any 
hall should be called upon to accommodate. If there is any part 
of the hall which is not occupied by seats or the necessary aisles, 
it must be cut off by partitions extending to the ceiling. All aisles 
should have a covering of matting, as also all stairs within hear- 
ing distance of the auditorium. 

Stairs must be wide. An allowance of 114 to 2 feet per every 
100 persons using each flight is reasonable. Stairs wider than five 
feet should have intermediate rails. All rails should be very strong, 
so as to form a support in case of panic. Stairs should not be too 
steep, and should have many broad landings and no winders. 
In building temporary stairs care must be exercised not to change 
heights of risers or widths of treads in any one flight, and _par- 
ticular attention must be paid to the nailing of treads and 
risers, so they may not get loose under the feet of the audience. 

While windows and skylights can be depended upon for day 
illumination, electric lights will be required for the night sessions. 
It is quite important that every possible effort be made to protect 

the eyes of the participants and spectators of the convention from 
excessive glare of electric lights and from the glare of sunlight 
passing through skylights and windows in south and west walls, 

The ventilation of a temporary convention hall must necessarily 
be crude and rudimentary and will have to depend chiefly on win- 
dows and skylights. It is well to leave openings in the risers for 
the passage of air, the space under the bankings being enclosed in 
such manner that no one can get in under the audience. ‘This is 
a precautionary measure, also, against the accumulation of rubbish, 
against incendiarism, etc., and against mischievous or criminal 
meddling with the supports of the raised seats. Of course, all 
building débris and rubbish must be carefully removed before the 
erection of the inclosing partitions is begun. 

The study and preparation of the drawings for structures of this 
kind must not be slighted. They require much more care and 
attention than do the drawings of ordinary buildings. On the 
general plans every seat, every table, every platform and every 
step must be drawn, and simultaneous with this process must be 
the development of the sight lines, which should be drawn to the 
number of at least three for every section, and the arrangement of 
seats and steppings must be made to correspond with the sight 
lines as nearly as possible. As before stated, the sight lines and 
the lines of the Scott Russell isacoustic curve are almost identical. 

Still greater care must be bestowed upon the construction 
drawings. An effort must be made to attain uniformity of struc- 
tural members, but circumstances will probably make necessary 
the adoption of quite a number of typical systems of framing and 
of many odd and exceptional bents and members. Each typical 
and every exceptional form and combination should be fully 
illustrated by drawings drawn to rather large scale —say one- 
fourth inch to the foot. The position and size of every stick of 
timber and the relations to each other of the various members of 
the structure, as well as all methods of fastening, bracing and 
tieing, should be so clearly indicated on the drawing that misun- 
derstanding by the contractor or by workingmen of the architect’s 
intentions may be entirely avoided—albeit sufficient care in 
working out diagrams of sections in every possible direction and 
on every possible line of variation of structure will clarify the 
architect’s ideas and will prevent many an error of judgment. In 
all cases joists and girders should be laid on top of supporting 
members, and nails, spikes and bolts should be used freely, but as 
little as possible as supports, and chiefly to keep the various struc- 
tural members in position. The positions and dimensions of nails, 
spikes and bolts should be shown on the drawings. 

The factor of safety used for work of this kind should be much 
larger than would be necessary for a permanent structure, and a 
framework built of a smaller number of heavy posts and girders 
is preferable in all cases to the use of many small studs and plates. 
In fact, the latter should only be used where the height between 
supports is less than about four feet. If posts or girders are built 
up of smaller pieces, these should be bolted to each other and the 
bolts should be used rather lavishly. 

The architect’s supervision of the construction of a temporary 
convention hall must be constant and thorough. Work of this 
kind is usually done with a rush, and the material generally 
remains the property of the contractor, and is intended to be 
removed and used again. This makes him reluctant to spoil the 
timber by excessive nailing, and calls for constant attention from 
the architect, who must also be ever alert to prevent the use of 
improper material, which in the general rush would not otherwise 
be sorted out and rejected by the contractor. 

Finally, the supervision of construction of a convention hall 
demands unusual attention from its architect because of the many 
emergencies which are apt to arise and call for immediate decision 
and action by someone in authority and one accustomed to shoul- 
dering responsibilities. ‘The work is for the public, and is being 
closely watched and criticised by the press, while members of 
local and national managing committees may modify their ideas 
and requirements many times during the progress of the work, 
and must be promptly met by the architect with a judicious and 
prudent firmness, and yet with a facility of invention and a fer- 
tility of resource in meeting irresistible demands and emergencies 
which is rarely possessed by an ordinary superintendent or 

In the last days, and especially during the last hours of prepa- 
ration, the architect will find that he ought to be almost omni- 
present, if his care of the hall and his solicitude for the comfort 
of its occupants are to be rewarded by success. And, after the 

OCTOBER, 1895] 


opening of the convention, I have found it necessary to inspect 
after each session the condition of the fastenings of seats, the 
stairways, and all other parts of the hall which were liable to 
suffer injury or derangement, and have never felt my responsibil- 
ity ended until after the close of the convention. 

“Tt is an honorable employment and worthy of glory for him 
who creates for future centuries the monuments which will be the 
admiration of posterity. It ts for you to direct the masons, the 
sculptors, the bronze founders, the plasterers and stucco workers, 
and the mosaic workers. You must teach them wherein they are 
ignorant and must solve for them the difficulties which they encoun- 
ter. In a word, it is to your enlightened intelligence that the army 
of men who labor under your direction must have recourse in order 
that nothing shall be confused or reprehensible in their toils. Con- 
sider what prodigious knowledge is required of you in order prop- 
erly to direct so many varied artisans.’—From the instructions 
given by King Theodoric to his architect. 

HE enormous extension of the field which a successful archi- 
tect is required to cover in his daily practice has seemed to 
give cause for a subdivision of professional work to an 

extent which, while a natural result of existing conditions, might 
easily lead to a serious misconception of what is the proper scope 
of the architect’s immediate acquaintance with, and control of, his 
work. Everyone is inclined to magnify his own calling, and 
quite rightly and naturally, but it is to be doubted if any profes- 
sion is as exacting and absorbing of soul and body as that of 
architecture. There is simply no limit to the amount of study, 
preparation, hard, grinding work and serious thought that an 
architect can put into his professional affairs; but with the multi- 
plication of the architect's functions there has come to be a very 
considerable difference of opinion as to the necessary attributes of 
our profession, and many consider the architect’s functions in a 
much more limited light than did Theodoric. With the introduc- 
tion of electricity, complicated plumbing, elaborate machinery, 
extensivesystems of heating and ventilation, intricate constructive 
details, expensive and scientifically accurate foundations, it has 
seemed at times as if the proper position for the architect is to be 
simply a leader among specialists, those who hold this view claim- 
ing that, if one is able to plan a building wisely, to design it suc- 
cessfully and to see that his instructions are carried out in execu- 
tion, he can then safely intrust all of the strictly scientific details 
to those who make a specialty of doing only one department of the 
work which enters into a large public building. In other words, 
the architect need not be the creator of the building in all its 
functions, but is to be simply the master mind which gives assent 
to things of which he is often profoundly ignorant. 

The architecture of today, while inteusely modern in many of 
its manifestations, and in nearly all of its practical details, is 
nevertheless very largely retrospective. We have borrowed our 
architecture from the past instead of creating it new, and the 
process of borrowing is so much easier than creating that it is not 
strange so many of us are willing to leave special evolution to the 
specialists and content ourselves with liberal borrowing, mean- 
while flattering ourselves with the belief that, after all, architecture 
is an art, and science, machinery and business details, though 
they may be bone and sinew, are not the real fabric. That this 
position is in opposition to all the teachings of past art must be 
evident to every student of the history of architecture. There 
has never been a time when architects might be so much and are 
so little as at present, and it may also be said that in no country 
are the architect’s real powers and functions so restricted as in 
America We are just fairly emerging from the dry barrenness of 
what someone has very aptly called the vernacular period of our 
national art, when there was nothing but dry bones, with no 
thought of real life and beauty to clothe them. The country has 
been profoundly awakened to an appreciation of the artistic pos- 
sibilities of architecture, and has manifested this, not only by the 
works of architects themselves, but by the spirit in which our pro- 
fessional efforts have been met by that extremely sensitive but 
often fickle censor which we designate collectively as public 
Opinion. We are trying to be artistic and are not making such a 

very bad success of it, even putting it at the worst; but in the 
process it is to be questiéned whether an architect is doing wisely 
to take the attitude that le can leave any part of his work to 

specialists. I would not be understood as saying that an archi- 
tect should do all of the work himself—should make every draw- 
ing, should calculate every beam, should determine every current 
of air, or the value of every pound of steam —for, while this would 
be the ideal condition and would undoubtedly lead to better build- 
ings by developing the isdividual, still no one can ignore the 
commercial element which obliges the architect, if he is to earn 
his living, to draw around him assistants who shall share his 
work, shall formulate his ideas and put them into proper shape 
for execution. But there is a great difference between designing 
a building through one’s assistants, retaining meanwhile a firm 
hand upon the whole, and the other course of designing only a 
small portion and abandoning the balance without reserve to 
those whom we are willing to acknowledge know more than we 
do about a detail, though they may be entirely out of key with 
the general idea. The true architect may be less scientifically 
exact than the specialist, while really knowing and appreciating 
far more, in an architectural sense, and I can hardly believe it 
will be possible to rise to the independent plane of artistic thought 
which has characterized the great creative epochs of the past 
without a thorough and practical knowledge of every detail of 
the building on the part of the one who undertakes to design it. 
It is not enough to make our buildings merely visibly artistic. 
That is the vitally essential condition without which there is no 
hope, for no matter how well constructed and thoroughly planned 
an edifice may be, it does not become architecture until it is 
adorned; but, on the other hand, we know by the experience of 
our sires that the adornment which is accompanied by coherency 
in vital functions gives rise to the art which is permanent, and 
which has a lasting effect upon the creator and upon those who 
study it. 

It may be almost impossible to draw the line as to how far the 
architect shall carry his scientific attainments. Surely he should 
never go to the extent of interfering with proper imaginative 
treatment of his designs. But the danger, especially with our 
younger men who do not appreciate vital necessities so keenly as 
those who have suffered by neglecting them, is that, when archi- 
tecture is looked upon simply as pure art, a feeling arises that 
science may be ignored, not merely in practice, but in principle, 
and that not only can an architect be pardoned for not figuring 
his own trusses, determining his own foundations, or properly 
devising heating surfaces, but also that he need not know any- 
thing about them at all and can safely abandon the whole thought 
of such things to specialists. I firmly believe that this is wrong. 
The excuse is sometimes made that in the ordinary scope of 
human life it is not possible for an architect to learn all of these 
things; that he cannot acquire all of this knowledge so as to put 
it in practical use; that it would be hopeless and absurd to under- 
take to do things himself when someone else could do them a 
great deal better. That may be with conditions as they are. But 
it should be recognized that not everyone is called to be an archi- 
tect; that not merely because one loves to draw, or admires 
beauty, can he become a true artist ; that he who wishes to rank 
first must undergo the preliminary pains; that a young man 
should not expect to leave college at twenty and start in busi- 
ness at twenty-one; that there are long years of patient, earnest 
toil required in order to master his profession. This does not 
imply that we must know more than the specialists, that We 
should never call in their help nor let them direct us; but it does 
follow that the architect who keeps a close watch upon every 
function of his work, who understands enough about all of its 
details to take hold and do them himself if necessary, who is not 
at a loss for procedure when his practical adviser is on a vacation 
or sick — in other words, who is the real head and center of a build- 
ing, stands more chance of producing good architecture, and is 
more truly entitled to rank as an architect, than one who is willing 
to content himself with planning and designing, turning over the 
other details without a thought or murmur toa specialist. Fur- 
thermore, there is no evidence that this knowledge cannot be 
acquired by a man of sufficient capacity in the course of the fifteen 
or twenty years’ training which ought to form a necessary part of 
The engineering problems involved 
Whether as applied 

every architect’s education. 
in a large building are, after all, simple ones. 
to constructive details or to steam or power engineering, they are 
much similar in all cases, and, after half a dozen or more practical 
experiences with actual building operations, these engineering 
requirements are determined more often by judgment and what we 
vaguely call common sense than by mathematics or book learning. 

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I was much interested a short time since in conversation with 
a young man who was desirous of entering my office as a student. 
He was a graduate of one of our largest universities and had taken 
special honors in mathematics, carrying his investigations through 
a post-graduate course up into the higher realms of computative 
fancy where, as he said himself, he felt the chief object of study 
was to hopelessly tangle up a problem for the sake of clearly 
elucidating it. He told me he had given up pure mathematics, 
and had undertaken to study architectural construction, but to his 
surprise found that, after he had accurately figured out some por- 
tion of a structure, there would arise reasons or conditions which 
would seem to ignore the results of his mathematics and substitute 
therefor larger timbers, heavier steel, or, in some cases, even a 
smaller section of column. In other words, that there was a factor 
entering into the business calculations which was not purely 
mathematical and which seemed to be possible of acquirement 
only through long experience. It is so with nearly all the 
so-called practical branches of architecture. The amount of real 
book learning, of actual instruction in schools and classes that is 
required to master the details of steam heating, plumbing, elec- 
tricity, structural steel work, or any other of the even extraordi- 
nary problems which arise, can be compressed into the compass of 
a very few years, so that there is ample opportunity, if the incipient 
architect will but take it, to master enough of the technical depart- 
ments of architecture to enable him to successfully plan and direct 
the execution of every portion of the work which an architect has 
to do. Of course, he who has the largest experience is best able to 
do this successfully. The man whose work has been limited to 
wooden houses knows little of a twenty-story office building, and 
the draftsman whom kind friends start in business before he knows 
how to calculate a girder has no one but himself to blame if he 
finds himself unable alone to handle complicated structures, and it 
is a poor excuse for his limitations to say that the requirements of 
modern architecture render the employment of specialists impera- 

Now, no one can lay down the law for anyone else without 
endangering the safety of his own glass houses. We all make 
mistakes, artistically as well as practically — mistakes of judgment 
and mistakes of science — and it behooves every architect who is 
confronted with the construction of a large building to surround 
himself with all the checks and safeguards possible ; to employ 
specialists to revise his work, to advise with him if necessary. In 
the multitude of counsels there is always safety, but there must be 
only one head cook if the broth is to be good, and that head must 
control everything, down to the minutest detail. Very- likely 
much will escape us. It is almost sure that we will make mistakes 
and blunders, but growth is measured quite as much by intent as 
by achievement. We ail want to be good architects, we all want 
to thoroughly understand our profession, and I believe that, while 
all architects are not equal to some architects, and that the capaci- 
ties with which we are endowed by nature impose very decided 
limitations, it is quite within the limits of architectural education 
and certainly within the bounds of professional requirements, to 
know thoroughly in detail everything that goes into a building, to 
be what is sometimes termed an all-around architect, and what- 
ever our success may be individually, the attempt to thoroughly 
understand our profession is sure to do more good to us and to the 
co@ntry at large than if we simply make up our minds to be a 
business head directing the many functions of a building by acqui- 
escence rather than by deliberate intent. 

There is another function of the architect which is scorned 
with contempt by the artist and is even looked at askance as 
savoring of unprofessionalism. Why should it not be a part of an 
architect's education to post himself upon real estate values and 
the financial operations usually a part of the creation of a public 
building? When a client comes to an architect for advice in 
regard to a building one of the first questions he is very apt to ask 
is, what will it cost, and it seems right for him to expect that the 
architect should be able to answer this with a very considerable 
degree of accuracy ; should be sufficiently posted in the values of 
materials and should keep sufficient track of the prices of labor 
and manufactured articles to be able to give tangible, reliable fig- 
ures, within certain limits, of what the building will cost and how 
quickly it can be built. The next question the client will ask is 
apt to be, what will it pay? And I see no reason why it should 
not be just as much a part of the architect’s equipment to know 
the reuting value of property, the price of land, the earning 
capacity of money, the rate at which mortgages can be placed, as 

it is for him to know the carrying capacity of a beam or the 
strength of a foundation. Neither has to do with art. The busi- 
ness questions have simply to do with business success, and it 
seems unreasonable to deny that he should be able to completely 
advise his client as to location, purchase and renting capacity of a 
good investment. Architects’ estimates are usually looked at with 
very slight favor by business men, and, in the rare cases where an 
architect’s opinion is asked on such subjects, it must be admitted 
that the results do not justify any great faith in his judgment. I 
aim speaking now, however, of conditions which might be, rather 
than of those which are, and, if the architect is to be thorough 
master of his art, by the same token should he be thorough master 
of his business and all its ramifications. 

Now this leads directly to a further amplification of the archi- 
tect’s functions. Theodoric practically told his architect to be 
the master builder. Such a thing as a master builder was unknown 
in those days, and has only come about now by reason of the 
ignorance of the architect in practical details and the distrust by 
the owner of his architect’s ability to control a varied set of me- 
chanics. I believe the time is coming when the master builder, 
as such, will disappear, and the architect, as far as relates to the 
direction of work, to the making of contracts for material and 
the completion of the building within specified times, will very 
largely take his place ; the builder, as such, being an employer of 
labor and a manufacturer rather than what he is now, a business 
agent. That such a result would be better for the building can 
hardly be doubted. The closer the architect is in touch with the 
mechanic, the better it is for both of them. ‘The more the archi- 
tect has to do with the execution of the work on the spot, the less 
likely he is to be misled in his judgment by mere office produc- 
tions, and I hope the time will come when a client will employ 
his architect not merely to plan but to actually build his build- 
ings, and will say to him just as Theodoric said to our worthy 
prototype, that he must do everything to be done about the build- 
ing, and must have his hands and his eyes upon every detail both 
of design and execution; directly employing the men, telling 
them what to do, and being in constant touch with the actual 
operations. The whole responsibility of a building should rest, not 
upon the builder, but upon the architect. If the builder is at lib- 
erty to do his work in one way, and the architect feels it ought to 
be done in another, there is bound to be a certain amount of 
wasted time or wasted endeavor; while, if the architect is the 
director of everything, and tells not only what shall be done but 
how it shall be done, we will approach a condition of artistic 
development which, while similar to that which marked the Ital- 
ian Renaissance, would be as much ahead of it in every respect as 
our modern implements and modern business methods are ahead 
of the limited scope afforded the builders of the middle ages. 
There are not lacking signs that something of the sort will come 
about. Some of the best architects in the country have been 
doing just this to a limited extent for some time. In the case of 
one very prominent building in the Southern States, the archi- 
tects, who unquestionably stand at the head of the profession, 
made the contracts in their own name and superintended the work 
first and last more as builders than as architects, without, how- 
ever, acting in any other capacity than as the adviser and active 
agent of the owner. In another building, involving a cost of sev- 
eral million dollars, in which a good deal of special construction 
was necessary, the architects found it advisable and obtained the 
sanction of their clients to what has practically amounted to edu- 
cating the workmen under their own eyes, employing the labor, 
buying the material, and acting in nearly every respect as the 
master builder, with the exception that they were the representa- 
tives and agents of the owners, and their interests were to make 
the building exactly as the owner wanted it rather than to merely 
carry out a specific contract. Now, according to the code of ethics, 
which has been adopted by some architectural bodies in this coun- 
try, such a procedure is unprofessional. But he is a brave man 
who will say that a course which is unprofessional today must 
necessarily be so for all time. And here again we come back to 
the vital question of the architect's capacity. To occupy the dual 
position of architectural adviser and master builder an architect 
must have a practical and thorough education to an extent for 
which very few of our young men are willing to give the time. 
He must not only be an all-around architect but an all-around con- 
structor. Not that he need take up his chisel and his plane, but 
he surely ought to know when the chiseling is right and the plan- 
ing complete. 

OCTOBER, 1895] 




If it be feared that such a condition of professional affairs 
would involve a derogation of artistic possibilities or a curtailment 
of the imaginative qualities which must enter into every great 
architectural work, the answer is: If we are to do our work at 
its best we architects must be content with less of it. It is 
rarely possible for one architect to handle many buildings at once 
and make them all successful. If the chief idea is to make money 
in the profession then the more specialists we have, the less 
the architect does himself; the more he delegates to others, the 
better man he is. But if we are sincerely trying to do the best 
that can be done, if we intend truly to be the creator of our works, 
then we must go slowly, we must take things by degrees, and we 
cannot expand ourselves over a great territory without becoming 
so shallow that the bare spots will appear where we least expect 
them. Under the existing commercial conditions no architect can 
financially afford to concentrate his thought and time upon a single 
building, for a commission of five per cent would in most cases 
fail to even pay expenses; but if an architect is to give his client 
such service as would be implied by doing the work of both archi- 
tect and master builder, while at the same time acting altogether 
in the owner’s interest, the latter can well afford to pay him fifteen 
per cent rather than five, and the result to both architect, owner 
and builder would be far more satisfactory. Indeed, this has been 
tried in a very few rare cases and has worked with perfect satisfac- 
tion, and the time may come when not only will architects feel 
that they must be all-around men, must know other things besides 
art, must be able to take hold and do the work as well as telling 
someone else how to do it, but besides this the public which hires 
architects will more fully appreciate than now that it pays to get a 
good man, that it pays to let him alone after he is employed, and 
that it pays to give him proper remuneration. 

Aside, however, from any ideals which the future may have in 
store for the profession, we must grapple with the intense, com- 
petitive conditions of actual practice, which are tending every 
year toward more rather than fewer complications. It may be all 
right for us to subdivide our work and share our responsibility, but 
surely no harm can come from a knowledge of all details, and a 
thorough mental equipment for all structural and scientific, as well 
as artistic, emergencies, and, although our urgent desires for wealth 
and fame may prompt us to accept every commission that comes 
to us, is it not best to at least attempt to master the whole, and 
never admit our limitations even to ourselves, so that we may look 
on our buildings as rightly and truly our own in every conceptive 
detail, even though we thereby merit for our epitaph : 

‘““He hath done more than he could "’? 



the progress of ornamental practice. New things in con- 

struction make opportunities for new things in decorative 
design. Strange to say, however, the more conversant designers 
become with the classics the less adaptable they become to mod- 
ern suggestions. It places the art between two limitations: The 
work of the vernacular artist who does not learn the beautiful 
system that is his heritage, and that of the scholastic artist who 
persistently refuses to ennoble it by adaption to modern contingen- 

One not indicating, by their handling of exteriors, features 
associated with outward life, may turn to the encyclopzedia, learn 
when such improvements were first incorporated in buildings, and 
calculate how many centuries their work is behind the times. 
Constructional contrariness (as it at first seems) is an invaluable 
basis for enrichment. 

Architect Richardson's improvement upon Romanesque orna- 
mental precedents is not the backbone of his work. It is the 
expression of new peculiarities in plan and service that impart the 
distinguished character to his designs. It is not the supremacy of 
the Roman architectural style that is celebrated in the Columbian 
Exposition buildings. It is the adaptability of Greek detail to 
wonderfully advanced methods of building. 

The architectural student has to accompany the developments 
of the hour with two endeavors: The assistance of the artisan in his 
efforts at improvement, and the artistic expression of that advance- 
ment. If this is not done, then the work is a failure. On the 
morrow it is a discovered failure, and, the next day after, a 
condemned failure. It is not classic because it is a veneered 

r NHE advance of mechanical methods in architecture insures 

expression of contemporary circumstances. Veneers are always 
short-lived. When ornamentation is confined to the expression of 
structural suggestion the result falls far short of what the wealth 
of ornamental motives indicate to be possible. This wealth so 
exceeds the capabilities of the average designer that the architec- 
tural embellishment is divided into many different styles. Their 
combination in one great order only depends upon proper archi- 
tectural erudition. The latest constructive methods are prelim- 
inary experiences that introduce the architectural system of the 
approaching time. First in order, metal construction is very likely 
destined to exposure at critical points. Riveted portions will be 
made convenient for examination. It will increase the demand 
for ornamental ironwork. In order that this wholesome step 
may be taken the furniture manufacturer of the future may supply 
the market with fireproof furnishings. 

The cheap and easily available materials are more valuable 
after they are fashioned under the direction of the designer than 
the more costly supplies niggardly decorated, the whole cost 
remaining the same in both cases. A city thereby becomes a bet- 
ter expression of its natural facilities, and the mass is not marred 
by the discordant obtrusion of unfamiliar substances. ‘The rare 
and costly are not for familiar use. 


HE following extract from the ‘‘ Transactions American Soci- 
i ety Heating and Ventilating Engineers’’ (page 69) will be 
interesting to architects and also tu heating engineers : 

“Mr. Barron: I would like to say a few words if I may be 
allowed a little latitude. I cannot bind myself to talk closely to 
the title of this paper. But I think that what I say will apply 
to it, and also to Mr. Smith’s and Mr. Jellett’s remarks. I wish to 
say that my experience agrees with nearly everything Mr. Smith 
said about the coefficient of common sense, judgment, and all that, 
being superior to all formul, to all data that have been discov- 
ered. I consider that my experience and judgment are 
far superior to formule, although I realize that the man of formule 
is the coming man I do not proportion radiating surface 
by any data or any formula, except the coefficient of common sense 
and judgment of experience. We know what radiators we have 
been putting in a certain class of buildings for years, and we lay 
out certain radiators for certain rooms. Of course, we know these 
radiators bear a certain proportion to the exposed walls and win- 
dows and all that sort of thing, but we lay the radiators and a good 
deal of work without any rules at all. Of course, we figure the 
cubic contents and we do not have many difficulties. . . . .” 

“Mr. Baldwin: The coefficient of common sense in the case 
of the new Pension Office brought forth some peculiar results. One 
contractor wanted to use 84,000 feet of surface. The Walworth 
Manufacturing Company used 24,000, got the contract and warmed 
the building. The quantity of surface proposed by the different 
contractors ranged from 24,000 to 84,000 square feet. I think 
that the Walworth people, in making their estimate, were helped 
by taking the outside of the building, and they had to look out for 
the skylights. But there a little data, founded on facts and con- 
densation and cooling surfaces, got them the job.”’ 

““Mr. Barron: I hope Mr. Baldwin will pardon me for saying 
that I think the Walworth Manufacturing Company’s coefficient 
of common sense was a very good one, and I think they used it 
there in connection with the data.” 

“Mr. Baldwin: But you realize that the cubic contents of the 
building had nothing to do with the amount of surface that went 
into it. The new Pension Building is a great barracks, as it is 
called, around which is a number of rooms, with a great open space 
in the center that goes to the roof. Now, taking the cubic con- 
tents and taking 1 to 100 it would call for 50,000 feet of heating sur- 
face. But, asa matter of fact, taking the outside surface of the 
building, taking the glass and the walls, 24,000 feet warmed it. 
That is the point I want to bring out. I remember in old times I 
worked for Blake & Higgins, thirty years ago, in New York, and I 
said to Mr. Blake at one time: ‘How do you figure radiating 
surface ?’ ‘Oh,’ he said, ‘ you are too young in the business yet.’ I 
thought at that time that Mr. Blake knew something that he did 
not want to tell me. One day, shortly afterward, I was going 
around with him and he said: ‘Baldwin, puta 4o in that room, 
and a 60 in this room, and an So in that room.’ And when we 
finished there were about 40,000 feet in the building. He said: 
‘We will use boilers 48 inches in diameter and 12 feet long.’ I 
said: How do you get at the size of the boiler?’ He rather smiled, 
and thought I had better wait a little while. Well, there is a great 
deal of that today.’”’ (Laughter. ) 

‘“Mr. Smith: Occasionally I get a new man who wants to 
know how to figure out the heating surface to be used. That isa 
question that staggers me every time, and I have always been 
obliged to plead to the fact that I was too busy just then. I have 
to lay out my work in just the same manner Mr. Blake did thirty 
years ago, by simply putting down so much here and so much 
there. The Walworth people had learned that cubic contents had 
nothing to do with the case mentioned by Mr. Baldwin, and that 
is a very valuable point for many young engineers to learn. For in- 

stance, you take a room that is 20 by 40 and you get your 800 square 

eo ors 

ee eT Ce 

5 SOT 

ee en I NNR RAN RNAS ee 

pees aaa dares sn 


[VoL. XXVI. No. 3 

feet of floor surface. Multiply 40 by 4o and you have got 1,600 
feet, and you have doubled the cubic contents and you have 
increased your wall surface only about twenty feet on each surface, 
so that the proportion of heating surface would not run up in any 
such manner, It is wall surface that has to do with it. But I 
would like the man of figures to point out to Walworth any set of 
formule by which, with that data alone, and without any element 
of common sense, they would have got down to that basis of 24,000 
feet. Iam quite willing to believe that the other man got his 
data from somebody’s rules.”’ 


The architects of the United States are not the only ones who 
have been recently interested in the adoption of a code of ethics. 
For the past year the French architects of the great Société Cen- 
trale have been struggling with the same subject, and at the re- 
cent annual convention a lengthy code of professional duties, as 
it is called, was unanimously adopted. This document is divided 
into three distinct heads, namely: I. Duties of architects toward 
themselves and their professional brethren. II. Duties of architects 
toward clients. III. Duties of architectstoward contractors. The 
first group is one of especial interest, as being more in line with 
the questions under consideration at the last convention of the 
American Institute, and is in detail as follows: 

1. Architect, as defined in the dictionary of the French acad- 
emy, is, ‘‘ The artist who designs buildings, determines their pro- 
portion, composition and decoration, and the person who also has 
them executed subject to his orders and certifies to the expenses.”’ 
Consequently, the architect is at one and the same time an artist 
and a practical man. His duty is to conceive and study the design 
of a building, to direct and superintend its construction, and to 
verify and certify to the amounts of money expended. 

2. He practices a liberal and not a commercial profession, and 
this profession is incompatible with that of contractor or mate- 
rial man, : 

He is paid solely by his commission, to the exclusion of all other 
sources of profit while working in his professional capacity. 

3. If an architect has patented an article employed in con- 
struction of buildings he shall not exploit it himself, but sell the 
same to regular dealers, together with all rights of such exploita- 

4. Anarchitect, being neither a merchant’s nora manufacturer’s 
agent, is forbidden to do anything which would give him either 
discounts or commissions. He must abstain from advertising in 
public journals, by posters, or by any of the other methods of 
publicity usual in the commercial professions. 

5. He is forbidden to canvass for work or clientage by means 
of discounts, commissions or deductions on regular fees which he 
shall make to any middleman. And, in general, all arrangements 
are forbidden which need be kept asecret from either an actual or 
prospective client. . 

6. Inhis relations with other architects plagiarism is forbidden, 
as well as the misuse of such rules as conscience prescribes for 
artists worthy of that name. 

He shall not seek the work or clientage acquired by another 
architect, or, if called to take such clientage, owing to death or 
retirement of an old practitioner, it shall be the special care of 
such architect to be the guardian of the honor or interests of the 

7. The position of professional ‘‘confrére’’ must be recognized 
and given to every architect honorably practicing the profession. 

He shall as much as possible give preference to any business 
engagements with brother architects, and, when there is any con- 
sultation or business between several, such meeting shall be held 
at the office of the oldest. 

8 When an architect employs in his office as draftsmen or 
clerks young men, who are thus receiving one part of their profes- 
sional education, he shall give them the aid of his experience and 
in all ways treat them with the regard essential to fostering fra- 
ternal feelings in the profession. 


The damages caused by the recent earthquake at Florence 
have been considerably exaggerated, and yet the effects have been 
such as to justly trouble all artists. The exaggerations of the 
newspapers have been almost exclusively relative to the buildings 
situated on the cathedral piazza. Here the damage has indeed 
been important, but not by any means so serious as for many 
buildings in the other parts of the city or its immediate suburbs. 

As a matter of fact, all the cracks and breaks which are now 
seen in the interior of the cathedral have everyone been in exist- 
ence for many years, although a few have been slightly increased 
by the late shock. 

Documents still preserved in the archives of the church show 
that the vaults of the first two bays of the cathedral were not yet 
completed when the vaulting of the side aisles began to show 
cracks, and that, at a conference of the ‘‘ Masters” held July 23, 
1366, the cause was decided to be the poor setting of some of the 
columns. A little later cracks showed in the vaulting of the nave, 
and they tried to remedy these by marble bondstone. The one 
at the south had been broken for a long time, and this shock broke 
that one at the north, in a line with an arch beneath, where a 
greatiron bar used as an anchor and tie was broken, so that the 

*Translated for THe INLAND ARCHITECT by W. A. Otis, architect. 

width of this crack in its widest place is seven millimeters. The 
bar, which was about fifty feet in length, broke near one end, and 
then, bending under its own weight (of nearly 1,000 pounds), 
struck against a stone pier and broke at two other points. Think- 
ing that, either on account of the quality of this iron or of some 
defective workmanship in forging the bar, the metal was not in 
its normal condition, the bar was submitted to the examination of 
a specialist, who has just made his report. According to this 
report there were some inequalities in the construction of the 
metal. All the surfaces of fracture were crystalline, but it does 
not necessarily follow that the bar had lost in its entire length the 
fibrous structure of iron, since the nature of a breakage is differ- 
ent according to the manner in which such fracture took place; 
although, if one considers that this iron has been doing work for 
nearly five centuries, it is very probable, if not altogether certain, 
that the primitive fibrous structure of the iron had become crys- 
talline, to the great loss of its strength. From this the expert 
concludes that the bar is no longer in condition to do maximum 
work —in short, the bar is one of the ‘‘victims’’ of the earth- 

People talk of the cracks in the base of the cupola, but they 
all have existed for a long time. Ina report of 1695 we learn that 
in January, 1691, an examination was made, because it was reported 
that the existing cracks might have fatal consequences. It was 
then decided to measure the movement of these cracks by means 
of bands of iron and bronze, and the project was to also surround 
the cupola with three metal chains. This idea, however, was never 
carried out, owing to popular objection, which was strengthened 
by the opinion of several architects. Some of these metal bands 
put on at that time were broken soon after by an earthquake in 
1701. Today, however, the cracks are more conspicuous, because 
of fallen plaster, than ever before, and also on the outside one can 
see witness of the terrible shock which the dome received by the 
fall and breakage of numerous tiles on the roof. 

The damages to the facade are most insignificant, being con- 
fined to the falling of some small cubes of marble and a movement 
in some of the mosaics. The campanile resisted all shocks suc- 
cessfully, and the baptistry only had some slight dislocations of 
one of the north arches. 

So much, then, for the buildings on the cathedral square ; but, 
unfortunately, the damage does not stop here. The veritable dis- 
aster was at the monumental Certosa, in the Val d’Ema, three 
miles from the city, where an entire side of the cloister, with its 
seventeen columns, fell. In this were sixteen medallions contain- 
ing busts of saints—very remarkable workmanship— by Della 
Robbia. Fortunately the fragments—all of which have been 
found, and even some of the medallions quite intact, under the 
mass of rubbish — will render a restoration possible, although the 
day after the disaster it was said that at least a portion was lost 
beyond any help. The Society of the Monuments of Tuscany has 
commenced work upon strengthening the least secure parts of the 
Certosa, but the actual studies for the restoration will require a 
very considerable expense. 

A similar accident happened to several of the terra cottas of 
the National Museum. At San Miniato some considerable minor 
damage was done. 

In the suburbs at least 120 churches have been more or less 
injured, and avery large number of country houses. It is unneces- 
sary to say that on every hand work of demolition and also of 
reconstruction or repairs is being actively pushed, and, while the 
great monuments of the cathedral square have been but little 
injured, still the total damage caused has been very great, and 
can only be effaced by large expenditure of money and time.— 
La Construction Moderne. 


The deodorizing:and rendering habitable of rooms freshly 
painted is not an operation easy torealize. ‘The natural and, in fact, 
traditional method is to energetically ventilate by opening all the 
doors and windows, but this has the objection of being very slow 
and scarcely practicable in very damp or extremely cold weather. 
The following, however, is a very practical and simple method of 
obtaining the desired result. Take for each room from 100 to 120 
grams of sulphuric acid. Divide into two equal parts and place 
at the two extremities of the room in bowls. The fumes from the 
acid destroy the odor from the paint. After a few hours, when 
this action of the acid has ceased, air the rooms, and they are then 
ready to live in.—La Semaine du Batiment. 


The Zemps has recently published some articles from its cor- 
respondent in Greece which give interesting information relative 
to the work which M. Magne is now engaged upon at Athens. 
His trip to Greece is in connection with the preservation of the 
Parthenon, and the Parthenon — be it said to the honor of the 
Greeks — has more followers than any political leader. The very 
day after his arrival he was invited to deliver a lecture upon the 
existing state of the Parthenon. Archzeologists of all nations and 
of classes, artists, savants, architects, etc., were present at this 
meeting, and every word of his was—one might say —empha- 
sized by applause. M. Magne pointed out with almost mathe- 
matical precision the technical results of the admirable work he 
had done upon this monument before general attention had been 
called by the last earthquake to the dilapidation, or, rather, disinte- 
gration of such marbles of the peristyle as the English had left. A 
shiver ran through the audience when he pointed out the danger 
which threatened the chef d’ceuvre of Ictinos—the irreparable 

OcTOBER, 1895] 


loss to art should this peristyle fall, bringing with it the greater 
art of the bas-reliefs. 

This lecture was extremely well timed, since the report of 
Herr Durm was not then known. This German architect had 
been invited by the Greek premier to give his opinion on account 
of the disagreement of the committee appointed to have charge of 
the work to be done on the Parthenon. Although this architect 
is highly spoken of, yet he has not been able to entirely efface an 
unfavorable impression from the minds of many, on account of 
his opinions upon the curved lines of the building, which have oc- 
cupied the attention of the savants and architects for so many 
years, his idea being that these deviations from the straight lines 
are due entirely to settlements. It is due to him, however, to say 
that this opinion was formulated before he had ever seen the 

In a visit to the building M. Magne showed the writer, from 
some scaffolds erected at the southwest, the ruinous condition of 
the architraves and capitals. At places the lintels have—so to 
speak — bent under the weight of the stone courses above, and 
great pieces are cracked out of the capitals, which only hang in 
place because of equilibrium established by some old settlement, 
and so delicately poised that a heavy thrust even with our canes 
would have started pieces of stone whose fall must inevitably 
have drawn down and destroyed the bas-reliefs of Phidias. The 
work of restoration and strengthening will now probably be at 
once undertaken, and undoubtedly soon be brought to a success- 
ful conclusion.— La Semaine du Batiment. 


On Monday, September 16, thirty-five draftsmen met at the 
Detroit Museum of Art and effected a temporary organization of 
the Detroit Architectural Sketch Club, Emil Lorch being elected 
chairman, Alexander Blumberg, secretary ; a committee, consist- 
ing of W. E. N. Hunter, R. Mildner and G. H. Ropes, being 
appointed on constitution and by-laws. 

The report of this committee was adopted at last evening’s 
meeting, and the following officers and directors elected : Presi- 
dent, Emil Lorch ; vice-president, G. H. Ropes; secretary, HE. A. 
Schilling ; treasurer R. Mildner. Directors—W. E. N. Hunter, 
F. G. Baxter, and Alexander Blumberg. 

The object of the club and its proposed methods of study are 
like those of similar organizations elsewhere. 


The annual dinner and meeting of the Chapter was held at its 
rooms in the Institute of Building Arts, 63 and 65 Washington street, 
Chicago, on September 16. Twenty-eight members were present, 
with President S. A. Treat in the chair. The annual report of the 
Chapter to the convention was read from the new blank recently 
prepared by the Institute, which makes it almost impossible to 
omit any of the necessary statistical statements. From this it ap- 
pears that there were 81 members on September 30, 1894 ; that two 
have been elected, two have resigned, two have lapsed, none have 
died, and that there are now 79 members. The time covered by 
the report was eleven months, the annual meeting having been 
changed to September at the request of the Institute. There had 
been eight regular meetings, at one of which, January 8, the Board 
of Directors of the American Institute of Architects had been en- 
tertained at dinner. Papers had been read by N. N. Waslekar, of 
Bombay, India, on the ‘‘ Architecture, Religion, and Politics of 
India,’ by R. E. Pierce on *‘ Distribution of Electricity in Build- 
ings,’ and W. E. Carr on ‘Passenger Elevators.’’ During the 
year the Chapter’s meeting room and library had been damaged 
by water from a fire in the upper part of the building and had 
been entirely refinished, the entire loss having been covered by 
insurance. The report of the treasurer was presented by Mr. 
Hallberg and referred to an auditing committee. This showed cash 
received from former treasurer, $575.48; receipts, $5,010.22; total, 
$8,585.70. Expenditures, $7,869.67. Cashon hand, $716.03. The 
report covered eleven months. The report of the executive com- 
mittee on the Institute of Building Arts was read by Mr. Beau- 
mont. The financial part was referred to the same auditing com- 
mittee. The report shows that the receipts for eleven months 
were $7,604.38, and the expenditures were $7,444.85. The ex- 
cess of receipts over expenditures was $159.53. The accounts 
and bills receivable over accounts payable are $1,744.56. The 
total excess of receipts over running expenses, including accounts 
and bills receivable from the commencement, has been $4,166.60. 

A committee of three was, on motion of F. W. Perkins, ap- 
pointed to prepare suitable resolutions on the death of the late 
Richard Morris Hunt. The committee consisted of P. B. Wight, 
N. S. Patton and W. W. Clay. 

The following were elected as officers for the ensuing year: Pres- 
ident, George Beaumont; vice-presidents, Normand S. Patton and 
Peter B. Wight; secretary, Dwight H. Perkins; treasurer, L. G. 
Hallberg. Mr. Patton read a report of the standing committee on 
buildings and grounds, reciting the transactions of the Chicago 
Municipal Improvement League, of which it is an integral part. 
The report showed that the committee from the Chapter had pre- 
pared during the year a complete plan for the improvement of the 
Lake Front Park, on land to be recovered from Lake Michigan by 
filling ; the plan had been referred to the several committees com- 
prising the league for consideration, and to Frederick Law Olm- 
sted for criticism. It was expected that, after these had been re- 

ported back, a revised plan would be prepared and tendered to 

the city of Chicago as a contribution of the Chapter for the public 
welfare. It was not expected that the plan would be adopted as 
a whole, but it would put on record a comprehensive scheme that 
may be the foundation of what may be done when the work is 
taken upin earnest. Since the preparation of the plan the mayor 
of Chicago has negotiated a contract with the Illinois Central 
Railroad Company, subject to the action of the common council 
of Chicago, which may make the whole scheme feasible. A large 
scale copy was exhibited. The report elicited much interested 
discussion, after which Mr. Charles R. Adams offered the follow- 
ing resolution, which was adopted: ‘ Resolved, that while thank- 
ing the committee who have taken a great deal of trouble to pre- 
pare and explain their plan for architecturally beautifying the 
lake front, and inasmuch as the committee have been corre- 
sponding with Mr. Olmsted, whose opinion is considered valuable 
in the premises, that the committee be requested to continue their 
work and report at the next meeting of the Chapter.”’ 

The jury of award for the Chapter gold medal for 1895 did not 
present its report, none of the members being present. It was an- 
nounced in the catalogue at the time of the exhibition of the Chi- 
cago Architectural Club that the award had been made to Elmer 
C. Jensen. It is expected that the Chapter will be well repre- 
sented at the annual convention of the American Institute of 
Architects to be held at St. Louis, October 15-17. An effort is 
being made by President Beaumont to secure reduced railroad 
rates from Chicago. Appreciation should be shown the St. Louis 
Chapter for its elaborate preparations for the entertainment of 
guests. The meeting adjourned at a late hour. 

GALVESTON, September 23, 1895. 

DEAR SIR,—I take the liberty of inclosing to you copies of 
clauses 19 and 20 of the will of the late Henry Rosenberg, who 
died in this city in May, 1893. As these follow in regular order 
the Y. M. C. A., for which the executors are now about entering 
into contract, we have thought that the publication of these two 
bequests might prove of interest to those of your readers who 
may contemplate entering into competition for these works. If 
such is your own view, you are at liberty to so use the data 
inclosed. Wesend you also for your own information a memo- 
randum of other public bequests to this city, noting the progress 
made in erecting the buildings provided for. 

I am very respectfully, A.J. WALKER. 

XIX.—I give fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) for the erection 
of an appropriate monument, in the city of Galveston, to the mem- 
ory of the heroes of the Texas revolution of 1836 The execution 
of this bequest is charged upon my executors, who will adopt 
plans and have the monument erected under their immediate 

NotTE.—This monument is intended to commemorate the events, incidents 
and the individuals participating therein in the war of independence between 
Texas and Mexico. The histories of Texas by Yoakam, Thrall, and by John 
Henry Brown (recently published) furnish all this data complete. It will be 
necessary for the sculptor to familiarize himself with some of these works. 

XX.—I give thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) for the erection 
of not less than ten «drinking fountains, for man and beast, in 
various portions of the city of Galveston, the localities to be 
selected by my executors. This bequest, however, is conditioned 
upon the proviso that the city of Galveston shall obtain an abun- 
dant supply of good drinking water within five years after my 
death ; failing in thus obtaining such supply of good drinking 
water, then I direct that, after the expiration of the time herein 
limited, one-half of said thirty thousand dollars shall be given to 
the Orphans’ Asylum, mentioned in the fourteenth clause of this 
will, and the other half thereof to the Woman’s Home, men- 
tioned in the seventeenth clause of this will. 

NotTEeE.— The completion of Galveston’s new water system in August, 1895 
affords an abundant supply of good water, and renders this bequest effective. 

(Died May, 1893.) 
XIV.— $30,000 for erection of Protestant Orphans’ Home. 

Three-story structure, gray brick, with towers and gables. Now 
near completion, and will be occupied October 1, 1895. Alfred 
Miiller, architect. 

XV.—$30,000 for erection of Grace Episcopal church. Hard 

Palo Pinto limestone, imposing tower. Complete and occupied 
October 10, 1895. N. J. Clayton & Co., architects. 

XVII.— $30,000 for erection of Letitia Rosenberg Woman's 
Home. ‘Three stories, towers, gables, etc.; red brick, white brick 
trimmed. Approaching completion and will be occupied Novem- 
ber 1, 1895 Alfred Muller, architect. 

X VIII.— $65,000 for Y. M.C. A. building. Plans adopted, and 
bids for its erection until September 30. C. W. Bulger, architect. 

XXI.— Public Library.— Residuary Will secures remainder 
of the estate in building equipment and endowment. 

A. J. WALKER, ye 
W. J. FREDRICH, } Executor, 
Galveston, Texas. 


[Vo.. XXVI. No.3 


New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

The author of this book aspires to be for mechanical engineers 
what “ Trautwine ”’ is to the civil engineers, and it is fair to say 
that he may be said to have succeeded. As a matter of course the 
greater part of the book will be of little or no use to architects ; 
nevertheless, there is a considerable quantity of information given 
at various points that sometimes it is very desirable that the archi- 
tect should be able to refer to, and the author has given the most 
recent information on several points of use to him. Ignoring the 
ordinary rules and tables, we will consider only those which are 
of interest to the architect. Under the heading of ‘‘ Strength of 
Materials”’ various rules are given, and the latest information and 
views —of course, in a compressed way. We see Merriman’s 
rules for suddenly applied forces and shocks are given, also the 
same writer's rules for combined stresses. Very often such note- 
books as this avoid such subjects. There is a quotation given 
from the building ordinance of Chicago; the symbol ‘'S”’ is used 
as the maximum permissible load, and the equation for finding the 
value is given, but it is not stated what denomination $ is to be 
in, whether to be in pounds, tons, etc.; this, however, is the fault of 
the law itself, for we think it is correctly quoted. Pounds pre- 
sumably are meant, but it should be definitely stated in the law. 
There are some thirty pages describing fans and blowers, also 
heating and ventilation, and there is also a variety of informa- 
tion regarding boilers which is interesting. Under the heading of 
‘Chimneys’ it is said: ‘Chimneys above 150 feet in height are 
very costly, and their increased cost is rarely justified by in- 
creased efficiency. In recent practice it has become somewhat 
common to build two or more smaller chimneys instead of one 
large one. A notable example is the Spreckels sugar refinery in 
Philadelphia, where five separate chimneys are used for one 
boiler plant of 7,500 H.-P. The five chimneysare said to have cost 
several thousand dollars less than a single chimney of their com- 
bined capacity would have cost. Very tall chimneys have been 
characterized by one writer as ‘monuments to the folly of their 
builders.’ This is very true, and it is well known to many engi- 
neers.’’ There is also a section regarding the pulleys and beltings, 
which is sometimes useful to architects having to erect factories ; 
and also some forty odd pages regarding electrical engineering, 
some of which are instructive. Theindex appears to be quite full, 
and yet it might be fuller; thus, if one was looking for the Chi- 
cago building law, he could find no trace of it in the index; at 
least, we could not find it, for it is not given under the head of 
‘*Chicago,’’ nor of ‘‘ Building,’’ nor of ‘* Law,” nor of ‘‘Stress.””, A 
good index is of great value to any book, and especially to a 
handbook like this; however, we do not mean to find fault with 
the book, for it is a most excellent work and a credit in every re- 
spect to its author. It is a monument of industry and intelli- 


Manufacturing Building for the Western Electric Company, 
Chicago. Treat & Foltz, architects. 

Residence of George H. Taylor, Chicago. Treat & Foltz, archi- 

Building for the Bell estate, Cincinnati, Ohio. James W. Mc- 
Laughlin, architect. 

James Street School, Auburn, New York. Julius A. Schwein- 
furth, architect, Boston. 

Examples of Louis XVI. Furniture. Sketched by Stephen M. 

Staircase, Hotel Lallemand, Bruges, France. Birch B. Long, 

Century Building, St. Louis, Missouri. Raeder, Coffin & Crocker, 
architects, Chicago. 

Apartment Building, Richmond, Virginia. M. J. Dimmock, 

House, Detroit, Michigan. 

Building for Johns Hopkins University, Philadelphia, Pennsy1- 
vania. ‘ 

Office Building for Thomas A. Davies, Chicago. Jenney & 
Mundie, architects. Building situated on Dearborn street, south 
of Van Buren street, to be a first-class fireproof office building, 
using steel columns, floor beams, etc., and steel beam foundation ; 
the building to be twelve stories in height, in accordance with 
present building ordinance, but is constructed with the intention 
of three additional stories to be added in future; entratuce of 
marble and mosaic floors; corridors also finished in marble and 
mosaic. Three electric passenger elevators will be put in for serv- 
ice in this building. The exterior will beof dressed Bedford stone 
for the first three stories, with yellow buff brick and white terra- 
cotta trimmings for the work above. The building will be ready 
for occupancy by May Ist next. 

Photogravure Plate: The Olney Art Gallery, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Coburn, Barnum & Benes, architects. 

Issued only with the Photogravure Edition. 

Residence of Alfred Hoyt Granger, Euclid Heights, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Alfred Hoyt Granger, architect. Two exterior views are 
given, and view in living room. 

Residence of F. E. Abbott, North Logan avenue, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Alfred Hoyt Granger, architect. 

Residence of George W. Morgan, Euclid and Lincoln avenues, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Coburn & Barnum, architects. 

Clubhouse of Chicago Athletic Association, Chicago. Henry 
Ives Cobb, architect. 

Residence of George W. Maher, Kenilworth, Illinois. George 
W. Maher, architect, Chicago. 



Where a contractor has under a single contract furnished labor 
and materials for the construction of several houses, on different 
lots, he may file a general lien for all the work and material 
against all the houses and lots. In such case, he having placed 
the labor and material, may prove the amount which entered into 
each building, and obtain separate liens.— Williams vs. Judd-Wells 
Company, Supreme Court of lowa, 59 N. W. Rep., 271. 


Where a wooden warehouse is framed against a brick wall, 
built one-half on each lot, though no joists or other timbers are let 
into the wall, yet, if the ends of the sides and the roof are 
attached thereto in a permanent manner, and the wall used as one 
side of the inclosure, there is a use in common which entitles the 
owner of the wall to recover from his neighbor for his use, and 
half the value of such party wall.— Deree, Wells & Co. ws. Weir 
Shugart Company, Supreme Court of Iowa, 59 N. W. Rep., 255. 


Where a contract to furnish labor and materials in the erection 
of a house for certain commissions on the value thereof does not 
stipulate any time for the payment of the commissions, they do 
not become due until the performance of the contract ; and there- 
fore a judgment in an action brought during the continuance of 
the contract, forthe value of the labor and materials furnished, 
will not bar a subsequent action for the commissions.— Van Keuren 
vs. Miller, Supreme Court, General Term, Second Department, 28 
N. Y. Supp., 971. 


A contract provided that the builder should forfeit $10 for each 
day that the building remained unfinished after the time fixed by 
the agreement for its completion. It also provided that any 
change in the plans, ‘‘either in quantity or quality of the work,”’ 
should be executed by the builder, ‘‘ without holding the contract 
as violated or void in any other respect.’’ During the progress of 
the work a change was made in the material for the front of the 
building from brick and granite to Indiana stone, with carved 
panels and frieze. The difficulty in procuring a prompt delivery 
of the stone caused delay in finishing the building, and the owners 
claimed to recoup the stipulated forfeit and set off the loss of 
rents. By the agreement the owners reserved the right at any 
time during the progress of the work to make any alterations in 
the plans and specifications, and it became the duty ot the builder 
to carry them into effect. The provision that the changed plans 
shouid be executed without holding the contract as violated, or 
void in any other respect, should be read in connection with this 
reserved right. The words, ‘‘in any other respect,’’ exclude the 
implication of any change in terms except such as would result 
from the alteration of the plans, but not such changes as would 
be the necessary consequence thereof. Alterations calling for 
more work and materials, might, of necessity, require more time 
for the completion of the building. They might be directed so 
near the end of the work as to make it impossible to complete the 
building within the time stipulated. In this case the building 
was where the material fixed for the front by the contract could be 
purchased in an open market and delivered ready for use in one 
day. The stone required by the alteration could be procured only 
at the quarries in Indiana, where an order had to await its turn; 
and, after delivery, it required weeks of skilled labor to fit it for 
use in the building. For such delay in the completion of the 
building as was the necessary consequence of the change of plans 
by the owners the builder was not answerable, and for it no for- 
feiture could be exacted. Lilly vs. Person (Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania), 32 At. Rep. 23. 


The right to a mechanic’s lien has no existence, except by vir- 
tue of the statute. While a liberal construction should be given 
to its provisions, to the end that the purposes of its enactment 
may not be defeated, still its scope cannot be enlarged by at- 
taching to the language employed a forced or unusual meaning. 
The rights and remedies of a sub-contractor are, to a certain ex- 
tent, measured by those of the original contractor. The founda- 
tion of the right of either to a lien is the original contract, and, if 
that is not such as the statute contemplates, and cannot, there- 
fore, be made the basis of a lien in favor of the original contractor, 
a contractor under him is entitled to none. The original con- 
tract must be made with the owner of the land upon which the 
building is erected, or with some person authorized to act for him, 
and the resultant lien is coextensive with his interest or claim in 
the property. An owner is one who has dominion over that 
which is the subject of the ownership. He has the right to make 
such use of it, consistent with the right of others, as he may see 
fit. The ownership may extend to the entire thing, or may be 

OCTOBER, 1895] 


limited to an interest in it; but, whatever is the subject of the 
ownership, it is held by the owner for his own individual benefit. 
For the purposes of the act, an assignable, transferable or con- 
veyable interest or claim in the thing constitutes ownership, but 
the right to assign, transfer or convey resides in the person hav- 
ing the interest or claim, to be exercised at his pleasure, so that 
his relation to the interest or claim is that of ‘‘owner”’ under 
the general definition of the term. By the terms of the statute 
all school property within the district is held by the school] board 
in trust for the school district, for the benefit of the school, and 
the school is a state institution. Wedo not think that either the 
school board or the school district is, within any definition of the 
term, the ‘‘owner’’ of the school property; and the provisions of 
the mechanic’s lien law cannot be applied to public school build- 
ings. But it does not follow that the lienor is without a remedy. 
He has recovered judgment against his immediate contractors. 
A school district is a quasi-corporation, and not subject to process 
in garnishment, but, if the board has money in its hands belong- 
ing to the contractors, and the lienor is unable to realize any- 
thing upon his judgment, the money can be reached by a pro- 
ceeding in equity. A court of chancery will subject property and 
funds to the satisfaction of a judgment, when they cannot be 
reached by legal process, and the judgment cannot otherwise be 
satisfied. Florman vs. School District No. 11, El] Paso County, 
Court of Appeals of Colorado. 40 Pac. Rep. 469. 


Architects are invited to furnish for publication in this depart- 
ment monthly or occasional reports of their new work before the 
letting of contracts. Reports of buildings costing less than $5,000 
are not published. 

Buffalo, N. Y.—State Architect Perry, at Albany, has about completed 
plans tor a two-story brick and stone addition, 320 by 34 feet, to be built on the 
Buftalo state Insane Asylum. It is to be used as a hospital; estimated cost 
$150,000 ; iron beams will be used in the framework ; interior will be equipped 
with first-class plumbing, steam heat, lavatories, closets, etc. Dr. Arthur H. 
Hurd is superintendent of the asylum. 

Architects Eckel & Ackerman: For George Weigel, a three-story brick 
business block ; to be built on the corner of Walden avenue and Bowen street ; 
dimensions 60 by go feet; cost $18,000. For Thomas Templeton, three-story 
brick building for stores and flats ; dimensions 50 by 8o feet ; cost $14,000 ; the 
building will be divided into two stores and four apartments ; to be fitted with 
electric bells, hot-water heating apparatus, sanitary plumbing. 

Architect W. H. Archer: For Dunkirk Free Academy, a three-story brick 
and stone addition ; dimensions 132 by 80 feet; cost $40,000. For St. Mark's 
church, Buffalo, a one-story frame and stone guildhouse ; dimensions 32 by 100 
feet ; estimated cost $8,000. 

Architect F. W. Caulkins: A sixteen-room school building, three stories 
high ; to be of stock brick with stone trimmings; to be built at the corner of 
Delavan avenue and Moselle street; estimated cost $45,000. Board of public 
works will soon ask for bids for construction. R.G. Parsons is secretary to 
the board. 

Architect August Esenwein : 
story brick and stone residence, 
near Allen street ; estimated cost $40,000 ; 
hardwood; to be equipped with all modern improvements. 
three-story, sixteen-roum school building, of large dimensions ; 
the Mineral Spring road. 

Architect F. H. Soverin : For Van Horn Ely, a three-story brick apartment 
house, 60 by 110 feet; to be built on the south side of Hudson street, opposite 
Plymouth avenue; will be equipped with electric bells, speaking tubes, gas 
and steam heat, gas fixtures, sanitary plumbing, etc. 

Architect William M. Luther has prepared plans and will build for him- 
self, at the southwest corner of East Balcom and Masten streets, a three-story 
brick i age age house, to cost $30,000. 

John W. Gibbs has had plans prepared for three two-story frame dwell- 
ings, 26 by 46 feet; to be built at Nos. 931, 933, and 937 Elmwood avenue ; they 
will cost about $6,000 each. 

Architect George J. Metzger 
business building, 60 by 117 feet ; 
between Eagle and Court streets ; 
Wilson, Olean, a two-story frame dwelling ; 
ing the Forwan library ; cost about $10,000. 

It is reported that a theater costing $150,000 is to be built on Lafayette 
square. No local architect is working on the plans. If they are being pre- 
pared at all the work is being done in ‘New York. 

Burlington, Wis.—Architect J. G. Chandler, Racine, Wisconsin: For 
school board, a two-story and basement pressed brick and stone school ; size, 
122 by 85 feet ; cost, $25,000. For school board, Sparta, Wisconsin, a two- story 
and basement pressed brick and stone school ; size, 90 by 108 feet ; cost, $20,000. 

Chicago, Ill.—- Architect Dwight H. Perkins: For Wm. E. Lawrence, a 
two-story basement and attic residence, 33 by 50 feet in size; to be erected at 
Riverside ; it will be of frame construction, with brick basement, have hard- 
wood interior finish, mantels, electric fixtures, heating, etc. 

Architect D. S. Pentecost: For Frederick L. Johnson, 
residence, 28 by 50 feet in size; to be erected at River Forest; it will be of 
frame, with stone basement, have mantels, electric fixtures, furnace, etc. Also, 
making plans for a two-story and basement flat building, 50 by 60 feet in size ; 
to be erected at Adams street, near Kedzie avenue; it will be of buff Bedford 
stone front, with copper bays and cornice, have hardwood finish, the modern 
sanitary plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures, electric bells, —- tubes, etc. 
Also, a building on West Polk street, to be of stone front and all improvements 
Also, on Harvard street, a two-story frame . at. 

Architect F. W. Kirkpatrick : For J. E. Patterson, a pretty two-story frame 
residence; to be erected at River Forest ; it will have a stone basement, the 
modern sanitary improvements, electric lights, furnace, etc. 

Architect J. M. Hoskins: For John J. Cresap, a three-story store and flat 
building, 25 by 85 feet in size ; to be built at 1609 Harrison street ; it will have a 
front of buff Bedford stone, the modern sanitary plumbing, gas fixtures, man- 
tels, furnaces, etc. 

Architect B. S$. Elmendorf: For Frank Murphy, a two-story flat building, 
26 by 64 feet in size ; to be built at the southwest corner of Van Buren street 
and Homan avenue ; it will have a stone front, ee finish, mantels, gas 
fixtures, sanitary plumbing, furnaces, etc. For G. Gilbert, a two-story and 
attic residence, 24 by 69 feet in size ; to be erected at Jackson boulevard ; the 
front will be of blue Bedford stone; will put in all the modern plumbing, gas 
fixtures, mantels, electric bells, speaking tubes, furnace, ete. For F. P. Finne- 
gan, athree-story stone flat, at West Harrison and Fortieth streets; stone front, 
sanitary plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures, etc. 

Architects Kelley & McMullen: For E. Abbott, a two-story basement and 
attic residence, 30 by 45 feet in size ; to be erected at Chicago Heights ; to beof 
frame construction with stone basement, have hardwood: interior finish, man- 
tels and sideboards, the modern plumbing, electric fixtures, furnace. 

Architect Niels Buck: For John W. Jensen, a three-story store and flat 
building, 25 by 70 feet in size ; to be erected at the corner of Congress street 
and California avenue ; to be of stone and pressed brick front, have interior 

For Alfred Schoellkopf, a two-and-a-half- 
40 by go feet; to be built on Delaware avenue, 
interior of house will be finished in 
Also plans for a 
to be built on 

For Philip Becker & Co., a six-story brick 
to be built on the west side of Pearl street, 
estimated cost about $50,000. For Mrs I,. C. 
to be built on Union street, adjoin- 

a two-story frame 

finished in oak, the modern sanitary improvements, gas fixtures, mantels, 
furnaces, etc. For George W. Walker, two seven-room frame houses on Pau- 
lina street, near Montrose boulevard; to have brick basements, the modern 
plumbing, gas fixtures, furnaces, etc. For Henry Henderson, a two-story dou- 
ble house, on Perry street, Ashland addition to Ravenswood ; to havea Bedford 
stone front, the modern plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures, electric bells, fur- 
naces. Also, two-story residence, 28 by 54 feet in size; to be built at Logan 
Square ; to have astone front, pressed brick sides, the best of sanitary improve- 
ments, mantels, gas fixtures, furnace, etc. 

Architects Tuthill & Atcheson: For T. C. H. Wegeforth, three three 
story residences, 60 by 60 feet in size: to be erected at Central Park avenue, 
near Monroe street. To have handsome buff Bedford stone fronts, hardwood 
interior finish, the best of modern open nickel-plated plumbing, mantels, 
consvles, gas and electric fixtures, furnaces, etc. 

Architect Robert S. Smith: For John S$. Rydell, a handsome buff Bedford 
stone front residence, to be erected at Michigan avenue between Fifty-first and 
Fifty-second streets. It will be three-story, 25 by 76 feet in size ; have hardwood 
interior finish, mantels, sideboards, consoles, the best of modern sanitary 
improvements, furnace, etc. 

Architects Hessenmueller & Meldahl: For J, W. Conover, a three-story 
and basement store and flat building, 50 by 120 feet in size ; to be erected at Forty- 
seventh street and St. Lawrence avenue. The frout will be of buff pressed brick 
with buff Bedford stone trimmings, the interior to be finished in oak and have 
the best of modern sanitary improvements, mantels, sideboards, consoles, 
electric and gas fixtures, electric light, electric bells, speaking tubes, steam 
heating. ForA. H. Sweet, made plans for a handsome frame cottage 40 by 50 
feetin size ;to be erected at Longwood. It will have a stone basement, hard- 
wood interior finish, the modern sanitary improvements, mantels, sideboards, 
consoles, furnace, etc. Also made drawings for a three-story and basement 
store and flat building, 25 by 65 feet in size; to be erected at Division street. It 
will have a buff Bedford stone front, interior to be finished in oak and 
Georgia pine, have the sanitary improvements, laundry fixtures, mantels, 
electric bells, speaking tubes, and steam heating. 

Architects H. T. Kley & Co.: For Julius Paetzel, a two-story and basement 
store and flat building, 25 by go feet in size ; to be erected at the corner of Grand 
avenue and Artesian avenue. -It will have a pressed brick and stone front, 
the sanitary improvements, mantels, gas fixtures. bells, speaking tubes, etc. 
For Julius Klein, a two-story frame flat, 22 by 48 feet in size; to be built at 
North Humboldt street near Franklin avenue; will putin the sanitary im- 
provements, gas fixtures, furnaces, etc. For Mr. T. H. Hoeft, a two-story- 
basement and attic flat building ; to be built at 622 North Hoyne avenue. It 
will havea buff Bedford stone front, the best of sanitary improvements, gas 
fixtures, hardwood finish and mantels, sideboards. hot water or steam 
heating. For M. Herbst, they planned a three-story store and flat building 
24 by 70 feet in size ; tobe erected at North avenue near Commercial street. 
To be of stone and pressed brick front, have the modern plumbing, mantels 

Architects Ostling Brothers 

For Mrs. Kate Christman, a four-story store 
and flat building, 76 by 100 feet in size; to be erected at Forty-sixth and State 
streets. It will be of pressed brick and stdne front, the ordinary sanitary 
improvements, mantels, gas fixtures and steam heating 

Architect S. V. Shipman: For William Blair, a seven-story building at 430 
Wabash avenue. It will be 78 by 173 feet in size ; to be of pressed brick and stone 
front.have the necessary plumbing, elevators, electric light, steam heating, ete. 

Architects Wilson & Hawes: For Benjamin Mason, a three-story and base 
ment residence, 25 by 75 feet in size ; to be erected at Grand boulevard just 
south of Forty-third street. It will have a handsome front of brownstone, 
the interior to be finished in hardwoods and have mantels of special design, 
sideboards, consoles, the very best of sanitary improvements, gas and e lectric 
fixtures, speaking tubes, electric bells, marble and tile work, and steam heating. 

Architect Cicero Hines : For Joseph Fish, a three-story residence, 30 by 
feet in size ; to be erected at Grand boulevard. It will have a handsome blue 
Bedford stone front, hardwood interior finish, mantels, sideboard and con- 
soles, the best of open, nickel-plated sanitary plumbing, gas and electric fix 
tures, gas ranges and fireplaces, steam heating, ete. For Mr. M. Williams, a 
two-story flat building, 4o feet front; to be erected at Thirty-sixth and Parnell 
streets. It will have a pressed brick and stone front, the modern plumbing 
gas fixtures, mantels, furnaces, etc. 

Architects Pridmore & Stanhope: Made plans for a four-story and base- 
ment apartment house, 100 by go feet in size ; to be erected at Forty-first street 
and Forest avenue for T. E. Wells. It will have a buff Bedford stone front, the 
modern sanitary improvements, electric light. hardwood interior finish, man- 
tels and sideboards, gas ranges and fireplaces, steam heating, etc. 

Architect W. K. Johnston : For Mr. James, a two-story residence 39 by 51 
feet in size; to be erected at Highland Park. it will be of frame, with brick 
basement, have hardwood interior, m: intels, gas fixtures, etc. 

Architects Swift & Hall: Made plans for a two-story residence, 32 by 75 feet 
in size; to be erected at Madison avenue, between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth 
streets. It will be of rock-faced Bedford stone basement and of frame above, 
have hardwood interior finish, mantels, sideboards and Consoles, the best of 
modern sanitary improvements, gas and electric fixtures, furnace, ete. Also 
made plans for a pretty two-story and basement residence, 33 by 65 feet in 
size ; to be erected at Rogers Park. It will be of frame construction with stone 
basement, have hardwood finish, electric wiring, the best of modern plumb- 
ing, furnace, etc. 

Architect George S. Kingsley : 
ment residence, 25 by 50 feet in size 

For C. M. White, a two-story and base- 
; to be built at Montrose boulevard, Buena 

Park. It will have a buff Bedford stone front, hardwood finish, the modern 
plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures, furnace. 
Architects Hyde & Castner: For A. A. Moore, a two-story and basement 

to be erected at Marshalltown, Iowa. It will 

residence, 37 by 57 feet in size ; 
mantels, gas and 

be of frame with stone basement, have hardwood interior, 
electric fixtures, furnace. 

Architects D. H. Burnham & Co.: Made plans for a handsome two-story 
basement and attic residence, 45 by 70 feet in size; to be erected at the south 
east corner of Michigan avenue and Thirty-third street for C. H. Schroeder. 
It will have two fronts of stone, hardwood interior finish, electric light, steam 
heating, etc. Cost, about $50,000. 

Architect L. G. Hallberg: For E. H 
be built at Perry street mear Roscoe 

Fishbowen, a two-story residence, to 
It will be of pressed brick and stone 

front, have the modern plumbing, furnace, etc. For Axel Peterson, a three 
story flat building, 25 by 57 feet in size; to be built at Briar Place near Halsted 
street. It will have a stone front copper bay and cornice, the sanitary plumb- 

ing, gas fixtures, mantels, laundry fixtures, steam heating, etc. 

Architects Dinwiddie & Newberry : For Maurice Von Platten, twelve two 
story houses, 240 feet frontage to be erected at the northwest corner of 
Homan avenue and Fulton street. They will have pressed brick and stone 
fronts, all the sanitary improvements, gas fixtures, etc. 

Architect W. J. Brookes: For George Koen, two three-story residences, 
50 by 70 feet in size; to be erected at Kimbark avenue and Fifty-second street 
they will have Bedford stone fronts, porches and steps, hardwood interior 
finish, the best of open plumbing, gas and electric fixtures, electric light 
steam heating. etc. 

Architect “Robe rt Ri 1e: For S. A. Barber, a four-story store and flat building, 
50 by 123 feet in size; to be erected at Thirty-sixth and State streets; it will 
have pressed brick with Bedford stone trimmings, hardwood finish, the sani 
tary improvements, gas and electric fixtures, laundry fixtures, mantels, electric 
light, steam heating. 

Architect George S. Bannister: For J. B. Bannister, a three-story flat 
building. 25 by 60 feet in size; to be built at Wharton avenue; it will havea 
buff Bedford stone front, the modern sanitary improvements, gas fixtures 

Architect W. A. Youmans: For W. J. Meskimen, a four-story apartment 
house, 44 by 75 feet in size; to be erected at Calumet avenue, near Thirtieth 
street ; it will have a buff Bedford stone front, hardwood finish, mantels and 
sideboards, gas and electric fixtures and steam heating 

Architect Morrison H. Vail: For Peter Batzen. a two-story and basement 
flat building, 25 by 60 feet in size; to be built at Lincoln avenue near Wilson, 
Ravenswood. It will be of pressed brick and stone front, have all the modern 



[VoL.. XXVI. No.3 

improvements, furnace, etc. Also made plans for two two-story residences 
to be built on Leland avenue and Wright street, Ravenswood. They will have 
pressed brick and stone fronts, copper cornice and bays, oak and pine interior 
finish, the modern plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures, furnaces, nan 

Architect H. H. Richards: For George Safford, a two-story flat building, 
25 by 60 feet in size ; to be built at Englewood ; the sanitary plumbing, mantels, 
gas fixtures, etc. Also, made plans for a three-story residence, 50 by 100 feet 
in size; to be erected at Drexel boulevard ; it will have a handsome brown- 
stone front, Spanish tile roof, hardwood interior, mantels, sideboards and 
consoles, hot-water heating, elecric light, etc. Also, a two-story brick barn, 

5 by 50 feet. Also, made plans for a three-story store and flat building, 
so by 100 feet in size; to be erected at Wallace and Thirty-niuth streets; to 
have astone front, Georgia pine finish, the modern sanitary plumbing, mantels, 
gas fixtures, steam heating, etc. 

Architects Handy & Cady: For C L. Hutchinson, a two-story store and 
flat build'ng ; to have two fronts, 79 and 76 feet respectively ; to be erected at 
Kighteenth street and Canalport avenue; to be of pressed brick and stone, 
have the modern plumbing, mantels, gas fixtures. 

Architect A. Strandel: For N. A. Nelson, a three-story apartment house, 
45 by 70 feet in size ; to be erected at Orchard street, near Wrightwood avenue ; 
it will have a handsome buff Bedford stone front, hardwood interior finish, 
sideboards and mantels, gas fixtures, laundry fixtures, electric bells, speaking 
tubes, steam heating, etc 

Architects Huehl & Schmid: For R. G. Schmidt, a three-story flat build- 
ing, 25 by 66 feet in size, to be erected at Barry avenue between Clark street 
and Evanston avenue; it will have a stone front, nickel-plated plumbing, 
marble entrance, oak interior finish, mantels and sideboards, gas fixtures, 
steam heating, etc. . : 

Architects Church & Jobson: For W. H. Colvin, seventeen two-story resi- 
dences ; to be erected at the corner of Sixty-fifth street and Woodlawn avenue. 
They will have handsome fronts in various designs in pressed brick with 
stone trimmings, hardwood finish, mantels, gas fixtures, etc. 

Architect Jules de Horvath: For A, Ginsberg, a three-story and basement 
apartment house, 25 by 75 feet in size, to be erected at Winchester avenue 
between Taylor and Polk streets ; stone front, hardwood finish, mantels, gas 
fixtures, etc 

Architect Robert S$. Smith: For John S. Rydell, a three-story residence, 25 
by 74 feet in size, to be erected at 5147 Michigan avenue. It will have a very 
handsome front in buff Bedford stone and red slate roof; the interior to be 
finished in mahogany, birch and oak, have tile and marble work, specially de- 
signed sideboards, mantels and consoles, the best of open plumbing, electric 
light, hot-water heating. etc.; cost $20,000. Also, two-story brick and stone barn 
to match, size 33 by 35 feet. 

Architect George Shonberg: For J. H. Carmody, a two-story and base- 
ment flat building, 25 by 75 feet in size, to be built at Carlisle place. It will 
be of stone front, have the modern plumbing, etc. Also made plans for a two- 
story post office ; to be of pressed brick and stone; to be built at Lockport, 

Architect C. KE. Brush made the plans for the Northern Illinois State Nor- 
mal School, to be erected at De Kalb, It will be a handsome building, two 
and three stories in height; to be of stone front, have hardwood finish, the 
modern sanitary improvements, electric light, steam heating, etc. 

Architect C. A. Strandel: For N. E. Nelson, a three-story and basement 
flat building, 45 by 70 feet in size, to be erected at Orchard street, near Dem- 
ing court. It will have a stone front, modern plumbing, etc. Also making 
plans for remodeling three-story building at 144 Oak street for M. Wetterberg ; 
pressed brick and stone, galvanized iron bay, modern plumbing, mantels, 
gas fixtures, etc. 

Architect George W. Mahr: For J. L. Cochran, three three-story resi- 
dences, to be erected at Edgewater, to be of frame, stone basement, have all 
the modern plumbing, heating, etc. For E. G. Barrett, a handsome two-story 
residence, 65 by 4o feet in size, to be erected at Kenilworth ; to be of frame 
with stone basement; have all the modern improvements, hot-water heating, 
electric light. 

Architect W. IT. Branitzky : For Robert Wettstein, a two-story residence, 
32 by 50 feet in size, to be built at Austin ; to be of frame with stone basement, 
have mantels, gas fixtures, furnace. 

Architects Dinwiddie & Newberry: For A. E. Hall, two three-story resi- 
dences at Sixty-fifth street and Greenwood avenue; stone fronts, hardwood 
finish, mantels, heating, etc. 

Architects Raeder, Coffin & Crocker have begun work on the foundation 
for the Century building at St. Louis. Itwill be a very handsome structure; 
ten stories high, 228 feet front and 128 feet deep, fronting on three streets 
with an alley in the rear; it will be of Georgia marble on three sides, have 
mosaic floors, marble wainscoting, electric light plant, engines, boilers, 
dynamos, steam heating, eight elevators, the modern plumbing, ete. It will 
be of steel construction and thoroughly fireproof; it will be a theater and 
office building. The theater will have accommodation for 2,700 people and will 
be of the most modern construction, and will be finished probably this year or 
for the winterseason. It will be the only fireproof theater in St. Louis. 

Cincinnati, Ohio.— Reported by Lawrence Mendenhall: There is an un- 
usual dearth of building items this month, even though it is October, and near 
the end of the season. It is possible, however, that if we have an open fall 
there may be buildings started and completed ere the snow falls. Prices have 
been unusually low the entire season, and it is rather a mystery to me why 
more large buildings have not been erected. Iam glad to say, nevertheless, 
that a very hopeful feeling. and not without cause, exists for next spring's 
work. There is a dearth of projects absolutely new in the building world. 
Many of the architects are yet out of the city and contractors are not looking 
forward toany rush of work for at least a month. 

Something tangible is known at last in the Music Hall matter. Ata 
special meeting of the trustees, called for Monday next at 3 o'clock, at the 
Queen City Club, the plans drawn by Architect Hannaford will be formally 
inspected, and arrangements made for the reception of bids. As is already 
known, the $100,000 necessary to finish the work has now been insured, and 
it is a part of the architect's contract that the work is to be completed in time 
for the May festival. 

Since the sale of the Smith building, on Walnut, by the sheriff. a week ago, 
all kinds of stories have been printed as to who was the purchaser, and what 
was to be done with it, but they have all been denied, at least in part. One 
authority says that the Atlas National Bank people were the parties, repre- 
sented by Theodore Mayer, when it was knocked down to him at $120,500. 
Absolute ignorance was professed when inquiry was made yesterday at the 
cashier's office. The Smith building was designed by Crapsey & Brown, of 
this city, built in 1884 or 1885, and cost $75,000. It is eight stories high, hasa 
frontage of 37 feet, and is 99 feet deep on Government alley. 

The drawings of the new Bell block at Sixth and Vine streets will be com 
pleted by Architect McLaughlin this week, and be ready for bids sometime 
the coming week. 

Architect A. O. Elzner will leave Sunday for Hot Springs, Virginia. Mr. 
Elzner is the architect for the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Company in the 
building of the new Homestead inn at that place, and other improvements 
thereabouts. Bids will be opened Monday for the work on the new Home- 
stead, which will cast $100,000, and it is to be ready for the spring opening. 

Mr. Harry Hurlbut will erect a four-story store and flat building on the 
northeast corner of Court and Elm streets. rach is at work on drawings, but 
bids will not be taken on the work before January, itis thought. The build- 
ing will take the place of some old ones to be dismantled soon, will have a 
frontage of 32 feet on Elm and 90 feet on Court, and will cost between $12,000 
and $15,000. 

_Richter & Wessling have completed plans for a handsome pressed brick 
residence for William Van_ Hart. to be built on June street, near May, Walnut 
Hills ; it will be Colonial in style, have eight rooms, two-and-a-half stories, 
and cost about $5,500. 

Mr W.R. Crapsey, of Crapsey & Brown, is in Lafayette, Ind., where he 
yesterday let the contract for the building of the new Ninth Street Methodist 
church in that city ; it will be of brick and stone. and will cost about $25,000. 

Arghitects Sweeny & Robinson report as follows: Norwood (Ohio) school- 
house ; materials: pressed brick, slate roof, Acme plaster, hot-air furnace, 

slate blackboards, closets, etc.; cost, $20.000. For Nicholas Feckter, two frame 
residences, with slate and shingle roofs, grates, mantels. gas. plumbing, etc. 
cost, $6,000. Flat for Mrs, Margaret Curry; materials: brick, tin roof, gas, 
grates, mantels, plumbing. etc ; size, 50 by 35 feet ; three stories ; $4,800. Three 
houses, brick, cement and weatherboard, for Messrs. Kofinger & Hopkins 
Cincinnati. to contain modern improvements ; cost not given R 

Mr. William Ewald (Price Hill), Cincinnati, will build a frame residence 
with modern improvements, to cost $4,000. 

Dayton, Ohio.— Architects Vincent & Gregg: For National Cash Register 
Company, a four-story and basement, steel and pressed brick business build- 
ing; size 50 by 50 feet ; cost $50,000. 

Detroit, Mich.— Architects Malcombson & Higginbotham: For board of 
education, Springwells, Mich., a twelve-room school building, buff brick with 
stone trimmings ; cost. $25,000. Have also plans for frame church to be built 
at Highland Park; cost, $7,500. ° ' 

Architect Gustave Mueller : For Robert Stock, a casino and dancing hall, to 
be erected on Jefferson avenue uear Field avenue ; cost, $12,000. 

Architects Mason & Rice : Have plans completed for a two-story brick res- 
idence to be built on Virginia avenue near Woodward avenue; cost, $5,500. 
Same firm also has plans to remodel and alter Essex County (Ont.) court- 
house ; cost, $20,000. 

Architect Gordon W. Lloyd: For David Whitney, a stable, 36 by 56 feet, 
two stories ; to be built of Ohio bluestone ; cost, $12,000. 

Architect Harry IL. Stevens: For Henry L. Jones, Jr., a two-story brick 
residence, stone trimmings and slate roof; cost, $6,000. Same architect has 
also plans for a block of seven stone residences, 50 by 147 feet, to be built at 
corner of Abbott and Second streets ; cost, $18,000. 

Architects John Scott & Co.: For H. C. Van Husan, remodeling a residence 
and an office building on Miami avenue; cost, $7,500. Also for Dr. M. Wilson, 
a two-story stone and frame residence ; cost, $5.500. 

The company’s engineer for the Detroit Citizen Street Railway Company : 
two street-car houses, 94 by 226 feet and 48 by 444 feet, one to be erected on 
Jefferson avenue and the other on Holden avenue ; cost, $20,000. 

Architect E French : A block of two-and-one-half-story brick residences, 
with stone trimmings, to be built on Commonwealth avenue; c st $9,000 

Architect Harry J. Rill: For John Teldon, a three-story brick hotel, to be 
built at Trenton, Mich.; cost, $7,500. Same architect also has plans completed 
for a block of brick store and residence flats to be built on Hastings street for 
Jacob Greenstone; cost, $5,500. 

Architect Edward C. Van Leyen: For F. B. Sibley, stone and frame resi- 
dence, to be erected at Trenton, Mich.; cost, $5,000. Same architect, for Lin- 
coln Abraham, a two-story frame residence and a barn, to be built on Seward 
avenue ; cost, $5,000. Also for John Van Loon, a three-story frame building 
with hall above, 58 by 70 feet, corner Myrtle and Fourteenth streets: cost, 
$7,500. Also for William R. Cole, a two-story brick residence, 35 by 60 feet to 
be erected near Mt. Clemens on the Clinton river; cost, $5,500. Also for Ful- 
ler & Van Huson, three brick and stone residences, three stories high, to be 
built on Virginia avenue; cost, $7,000 each. 

Dubuque, lowa.— Architect Thomas Carkeek: For John Ernsdorf Scns 
& Co., a five-story and basement brick business building, to be erected on 
Main and Jones streets, size 70 by 100 feet: cost $18,000. 

Independence, Mo.—Architect J. C. Williams, Kansas City, Mo.: For J. 
McCoy, a two-story and basement opera house and office building, to be 
erected on Maple avenue ; size, 83 by 71 feet ; cost, $20,000 

Indianapolis, Ind.—Architect W. N. Bowman: For Parry Manufacturing 
Company. Indianapolis, Indiana, a five-story and basement brick and stone 
factory ; size, 189 by 8g feet ; cost, $35,000. 

Joliet, Il.—Architect H. Boehme: For Howard Snap, a brick residence ; 
cost, $5,000. For Illinois state prison, a three-story brick hospital, to be 
erected in state prison walls; size, 48 by 114 feet ; cost, $25,000. 

Jackson, Minn.—Architect F. W. Kinney: For board of education, a 
school building ; cost $25,000. 

Knightstown, Ind.—Architects La Belle & Larmer: For the I. 0.0. F.,a 
three-story Bedford stone hall; size, 64 by 130 feet ; cost, $30,000. 

Lincoln, Neb.— Architects Fisher & Lowrie: For University of Nebraska, 
a library ; cost $70,000. 

Lockport, Ill.—Architect H. Boehme, Joliet, Illinois: For W. T. Meyers, 
four three-story brick store, office and flat buildings, to be erected on State 
street ; size, 80 by 78 feet ; cost, $15,000. For L. Schiebe, a three-story brick 
store and flat building, will also be used for post office ; size 48 by 60 feet ; cost, 
$7,000. For Spangler & Weier, a two-story brick store and flat building ; size 
40 by 70 feet ; cost, $9,000. 

Logansport, Ind.—Architect J. C. Crain: For Masonic order, a brick and 
stone Masonic temple, four-story and basement, to be erected on Fourth 
street ; size, 83 by 103 feet ; cost, $34,000. 

Lorain, Ohio.—Architects Kramer & Wurmser: For committee, F. P. Bins 
et al., Lorain, Ohio, acut stone church ; cost, $25,0co. 

Louisville, Ky.—Architects Maury & Dodd: For J. C. Hughes, a brick and 
stone residence, to be erected on St. James court ; cost, $5,000. For S. Jacobs, a 
brick and terra-cotta store and flats. to be erected on Market street between 
Seventh and Eighth streets; cost, $5,000. For Patrick F. Walsh, a brick and 
redstone residence, to be erected on Third street and Magnolia avenue ; cost, 
$12,000. For Joe T. Burt, a brick residence. to be erected on Third street near 
B street; cost $7.500. For Mrs. James Clarke, a brick and terra-cotta resi- 
dence, to be erected on Third and St. Catherine streets ; cost, $7.500. 

_Milwaukee, Wis —Architect W. D. Kimball: For William Becker, to be 
built in the spring at North Point, a residence; cost $40,000; also a stable; 
cost, $12,700. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Architect Warren H. Hayes: For Vandalia, Illinois, 
a pressed brick and stone church ; 300 seatings besides Sunday-school and 
class rooms, size 60 by 100 feet ; cost, $10,000. 

Oscaloosa, lowa.-- Architects Kramer & Simonson, New York: For M. E. 
church, a one-and-a-half-story and basement brick and stone church, size 
80 by 108 feet ; cost $30,000. 

Owosso, Mich.— Architect Siduey J. Osgood, Grand Rapids, Michigan: 
For Owosso, Michigan, Baptist church ; cost $30,000. 

South Bend, Ind.— Architects Parker & Austin: For South Bend Athletic 
club, a two-story brick and stone clubhouse ; cost $16,000, 

Springfield, Ohio.— Architect Charles A Cregar: St. John’s German 
Evangelical Lutheran church, a two-and-a-half-story basement pressed brick 
and brownstone church ; cost $25,000. 

St. Louis, Mo.— Architect J.L. Wees: For S. Bowman, a five-story and 
basement pressed brick and stone business college, to be erected on northwest 
corner Eleventhstreet and Franklin avenue ; cost, $40,000. 

Architects C. W. H. Brown & Co.: For Dr. Robert J. O'Reilly, a two-story 
and basement buff Roman brick residence, size 50 by 73 feet ; cost, $25.000. 

Architect J. Conardi: For Bishop Kain, D.D., a stone church, being 
erected on Arsenal and Lynch streets ; cost. $200,000. 

Architect A. M. Beinke: For Charles Braner, a three-story pressed and 
ornamental brick store and office building, size 26 by 76 feet; cost, $12,000. 

Architects C. W. H. Brenn & Son: For Dr. Robert J. O'Reilly, a brick and 
stucco residence and office, size 50 by 70 feet ; cost, $12,000. ; 

Architect Charles K. Ramsay: For Ellis Wainwright, a two-story brick 
store and office building, size 70 by 109 feet ; cost $30,000. 

Architects Greable & Webber: For W. R. Donaldson, a two-story and 
basement, pressed brick and stone residence, to be erected on Lindell, 
between Taylor and Euclid streets, size 64 by 64% feet ; cost, $30,000. 

Toledo, Ohio.—Architect A. B. Sturges: For W. H. Currier, a six-story and 

basement brick and terra-cotta hall and piano warehouse, size 35 by 120 feet ; 
cost $35,000. 

Warren, Ohio.— Architects La Belle & French, Marion, Indiana: For 
Trumbull county, a two-story and basement stone courthouse, size 93 by 187 
feet ; cost $200,000. 

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