Skip to main content

Full text of "Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 1915-05: Vol 10 Iss 5"

See other formats







PUBLISHED MONTHLY PRICE TEN CENTS 


BULLETIN OF 
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 
OF ART 


Votume X NEW YORK, MAY, 19015 NUMBER 5 





PORTRAIT OF GEORGIANA AUGUSTA FREDERICA ELLIOTT 


BY SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS 











BULLETIN OF THE 
EUROPEAN PAINTINGS IN’ THE 
JESUP COLLECTION 

HE American pictures in the 


Jesup Bequest were noted in the 

last number of the BULLETIN. 

The other paintings of the collec- 
tion which are now on view in Gallery E11 
will be enumerated tn this article. 

The Dutch pictures, five in number (all 
of which with the exception of the Van 
Ceulen were shown at the Hudson-Fulton 
Exhibition, held at the Museum in 1909), 
will be found on the north wall of the gal- 
lery. In the center is an important land- 
scape by Salomon van Ruysdael, signed and 
dated 1640. It shows in an admirable 
manner the skill and ease with which this 
master built up his productions. 

On either side of the Salomon van Ruys- 
dael two portraits of the school of 
Rembrandt. Both have been accepted as 
the work of Rembrandt himself by such 
well-known authorities Waagen and 
Bode and have been so catalogued in the 
various exhibitions at which they have 
figured, including the Hudson-Fulton Ex- 
hibition. Bode goes so far as to date them 


are 


as 


approximately about the year 1633. The 
consensus of opinion today, however, is 
contrary to this ascription. The work- 


manship is not such that it can readily be 
fastened upon any of Rembrandt’s usually 
named pupils, but it may safely be regarded 
as the work of a member of his school. 

The Portrait of a Man, which has been 
ascribed to Halls, is in a similar category of 
uncertainty as to authorship. Moes and 
De Groot have both pronounced it to be by 
Frans Hals, whose monogram indeed ap- 
pears on the picture with the inscription 
AETA SUAE 66 and the date ANO 1633. The 
style is that of Hals and the picture is un- 
doubtedly of his time, but the drawing and 
painting are not strong enough to corrob- 
orate the attribution to Hals himself. 

Ihe Van Ceulen is a portrait of Lady 
Townshend, according to the tradition. 
She was the wife of Sir Horatio Townshend, 
who was one of the deputation sent to The 
Hague in 1660 to invite Charles II to re- 
turn to his country. 


There are eight landscapes by British 


SS 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


artists in the collection and among them 
pictures of distinct merit. The Norwich 
School is shown in several examples, one 
by its founder John Crome—a small pic- 
ture of a roadway. By his pupil James 
Stark is an excellent picture called The 
Mill, placed near the Salomon van Ruys- 
dael, with which in handling and intention 
it bears comparison. George Vincent, 
another of the Norwich painters, is repre- 
sented by a picture of sterling quality 
The Farm by the Brook. Tottenham 
Church, a rather early painting by John 
Constable, is remarkable for the freshness 
and limpidity of its color, and for its gener- 
ally modern point of view. Near this work 
hangs a small picture by Bonington, an 
effect of sunset with the towers of Mantes 
cathedral showing against the sky in the 
distance. The influence of these two art- 
ists on late nineteenth-century painting in 
France is at once manifest on the examina- 
tion of these two examples. An able 
though somewhat uninspired picture by P. 
Nasmyth, At Penhurst, Kent, and two 
works by Richard Wilson complete the 
number of British landscapists. The larger 
of the Wilsons, a poetic View on the Arno, 
is particularly characteristic of this delight- 
ful artist. 

The portraits of the British School also 
include excellent examples. There is an 
attractive Reynolds, a Portrait of Georgiana 
Augusta Frederica Elliott, or Seymour, as 
she was called later. She was born in 1782, 
and according to the Diary sat to Reynolds 
in 1784. The picture was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in She was the 
daughter of George, Prince of Wales, and 
Grace Dalrymple Elliott, and married 
Lord Charles Bentinck in 1808. The por- 
trait was engraved by J]. Brown, and is re- 
produced in Graves and Cronin’s catalogue. 

By George Romney are two pictures, a 
charming portrait of a lady, the Honorable 
Mrs. Tickell, and a spirited likeness of him- 
self at the age of sixty-one years. In the 
Memoirs of Romney by Rev. John Romney 
this portrait is noted as follows: “In the 
winter of 1795 he painted a head of himself 
which, though slight and not entirely 
finished, being painted at once, shows un- 
common power of execution; the likeness 


1785. 











PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST 
BY GEORGE ROMNEY 











THE 


MILI 


BY 





JAMES STARK 


HAARLEM, HOLLAND, BY SALOMON VAN 





RUYSDAEL 








VIEW ON THE ARNO BY RICHARD WILSON 








TOTTENHAM CHURCH BY JOHN CONSTABLE 








BULLETIN OF THE MI 
also strong, but there is a certain ex- 
pression of languor that indicates the ap- 
proach of disease which had in fact already 
yegun to assail his constitution. It is re- 


markable that it 1s painted without spec- 


though he had been in the habit of 


tacles 


ising glasses for many vears 


I he 


borough 


portrait of his daughter by Gains- 


is a Valuable item in the collection 





DAUGHTER 


ARTIST'S 


PORTRAIT OF THI 


BY THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH 
It is similar to the head of the same child 
in the famous picture of the artist's daugh- 
ters in the South Kensington Museum, for 
which picture it served in all likelihood as a 
preliminary study. Hoppner ts represented 
by a group of a mother and two children, 
which is called in Mrs. Jesup’s list Mrs 
Gardiner and her Two Children; Lawrence's 
example is a portrait of a lady, Lady Eliza- 
beth Wyndham, fondling a collie dog. 
\mong the other of the British 
School are two attractive little paintings by 
George Morland called Town and Country, 
which appear to have been done for pur- 
poses of reproduction, and pictures by 
Francis Wheatley, Wilkie, and Webster. 
The earliest of the French pictures is a 
Portrait of the Vicomtesse Polignac 
bears the name of The 


works 


de 


which Nattier. 


TROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


94 


OF ART 

other French works are of comparatively 
recent date. By Corot is a little picture 
called Evening on the River. There 
good landscapes of small size by Rousseau, 


are 


Daubigny, and Diaz. By the last-named 
is a figure picture as well—some gaudily 


dressed children playing with a lizard. The 
Millet is a diminutive work showing two 
peasants against a charming background of 
farm buildings and landscape. A Former 
Royal Highway by Cazin is of the high 
standard of skilful handling and pleasing 
gray colors that is usual in the work of this 
accomplished painter. 

B. 


\ BEQUEST FROM MRS. MARY ANNA 
PALMER DRAPER 


HROUGH the bequest of Mrs 
Mary Anna Palmer Draper the 
Museum has acquired a number 
of objects which are shown in the 

Room of Recent Accessions for the month 

These include, among other things, Egyp- 

tian and classical antiquities, twenty-two 

miniatures, and four tapestries 

The objects from Egypt are all of small 
size, including amulets, seals, rings, beads, 
bronze and a few 


Of the miscellaneous objects 


pendants, statuettes, 
other things. 
a Roman earring of gold and pearls may be 
given special mention. The amulets 
quite varied in form, material, and date 
Among the two carnelian 
shaped like a human leg, and among the 


are 


earliest are ol 
latest is a tiny bronze ibis. The seals, too, 
are of forms. Many 
shaped and others are in the 
plaque bearing on the back a hedgehog, a 
frog, a fish, a cat, or other creature carved 


scarab- 


ol a 


are 
form 


various 


in the round, or a Bes-figure or Horus-eye 
In Among the bronzes two 
standing figures of Bast of Bubastis, a god- 
and feasting. She the 
head of a cat, wears a patterned dress of 
unusual cut, and carried a number of at- 
tributes, now in part missing; these were a 
basket, a sistrum, and a lion’s head with 
collar, symbol of the warlike 
Sekhmet, with whom Bast was sometimes 
identified. 

Admirers of ancient glass will welcome 


relief, are 


dess of yOoV has 


2 xddess 





THE 


BULLI 


TIN OF 


the addition to collection of the one 
hundred and twenty-four pieces included in 
Mrs. Draper’s bequest. These examples are 
all in exceptionally good preservation, and 
the majority beauty of irides- 
[he glasses have assumed the most 


Our 


show great 


cence 

varied hues of red, vellow, blue, green, 
purple, gray, and silver, so that together 
they make a wonderful display of color. 


rhe pieces all belong to the Roman period, 
dating from the first centurv B.C. to the 
fifth century A.D., and they are said to 
have been found mostly in Syria. The 
large majority are plain blown glasses, but 
some of the other fabrics are also repre- 
sented There are several moulded vases; 
for instance, two Sidonian jugs, a charming 
cup of green opaque glass decorated with a 
wreath, a small bottle in the shape of a 
vase with 


\ number of jugs and bottles 


head, and a a design of circles 
and dots 
are ornamented with threads of glass, 
among which are some multiple vases with 
elaborate handles, such as occur frequently 
n Syrian tombs of the fourth century A.D. 
\ few these con- 


sist in most cases of simple, horizontal bands, 


have incised decorations; 
but on a cup with a fine silver and purple 
inscription xte Qnons 
drink and long may you live’), a common 
the Special mention 
also be a little cup with a 
fern pattern painted in enamel colors, a 


iridescence 1s— the 
toast ol period 


must made of 


pointed cup decorated with blue glass 
patches——-probably in imitation of precious 
stones—and a bottle ornamented with a 


series of spikes 
invention of blow 
made until the 
second or first century B.C., brought many 
the glass industry From 
being a material used only sparingly, glass 
suddenly became one of the most common. 
When glass had to be modeled by hand, by 


\s is well known, the 


which was not 


ng glass, 


changes into 


a long and tedious process, the bulk of vases 
were of made of other materials; 
but when glass vessels could be produced in 
any size or shape by the comparatively 
simple means of blowing, they became very 
popular. It was natural that the Roman 


course 


glass-worker, with a material of so many 
new possibilities at his disposal, should 
make a number of experiments. This ts 


9O5 


METROPOLITAN Ml 


SEUM OF ARI 

shown not only in the many new shapes and 
methods of decoration devised by him, but 
also in the variety of objects that he made 
in glass for which the material is not par- 
ticularly fitted. The Draper Collection, 
for instance, includes a spoon, a strigil, 
several pins and needles, a number of 
bracelets of various sizes and colors, and 
two pendants, all of glass. Some of these, 
especially the bracelets and pendants, may 
have been made especially to serve as tomb 
offerings by people who could not afford 
the more precious materials. A very at- 
tractive piece is a child’s rattle in the form 
of a bird; a larger piece, shaped like a fish, 
may also have served as a toy. 

With the ancient glass has been placed a 
millefiori bowl of Venetian fabric. 
It is a useful illustration both of the simi- 
larity and the difference between Venetian 
and Roman millefiori The Vene- 
tians closely copied the Roman technique, 
but the results they obtained were quite 
different This difference chiefly in 
the they used, which are much 
cruder and less harmonious than those of 


small 


work. 


lies 


colors 


the Roman specimens. 

tesides these glass pieces, the Draper 
Bequest contains fifteen bronze and bone 
implements of the classical period. They 
include a variety of objects, such as pins, 
needles, surgical instruments, an arrow- 
head, a key, andastrigil. The strigil anda 
large safety-pin of the Roman period show 
extensive traces of gilding 

Among the miniatures in this bequest are 
four examples of seventeenth-century work 
painted in oil on copper, of a sort which, 
though not at all unusual, has been 
hitherto unrepresented in the permanent 
collection of the Museum. These are by 
Dutch or Flemish artists. A curious Eng- 
lish or German painting of the middle of 
the eighteenth century ts the portrait of a 
musician which, according to an old in- 
scription on the backing, represents the 
By Pierre Pasquier, who 
was prominent at the French court from 
about until the Revolution, is the 
head of a gentleman in the costume of the 
time of Louis XIV. Vincent, the French 
miniaturist who worked largely in Russia, 
by a portrait 


composer Gluck. 
1770 


‘f/f 


is represented handsome 





BULLETIN OF THE MI 


the lady, Madame 
\ skilful example of about the 
the Portrait of a Man by 
Reinhale. One of the American works in 
this group of miniatures is the Portrait of a 
Man by Anson Dickinson, a little-known 
but excellent painter. He born in 
1780 and “in 1811 was the best miniature 
painter in New York,” says Dunlap, and 
adds, “He has led 
life credit 
fession.”’ 
engraved card on which appears a Cupid 
holding a scroll with the artist’s name and 
158 Broad- 


showing profile of a 
Ingouf 


same date 1s 


was 


a wandering, irregular 
without to himself or his pro- 


This miniature is backed by an 


the address of his studio, No. 
wav, New York 
Ihe four 
interest, as they fill a gap in the general col- 
lection, the Museum owning no examples 
They 
probably 


tapestries are of particular 


are all ol 
coming 


of these particular types 
Flemish workmanship, 
from some one of the Brussels workshops, 
but as they bear no maker’s mark or mono- 
gram it is impossible to determine thet 
date they may be 
They are 
showing 


exact provenance. In 
definitely placed about 1750. 

typical of the eighteenth century, 
borders woven in imitation of carved wood 
cut off entirely in one of the ex 


and technically 


frames 
amples, partly in another 
showing the general decline in skill which 
preceded the practical extinction of the 
weaver’s art in Flanders in the late eigh 
teenth century 

[he most interesting are the pair from a 
series depicting the Romance of Alexander, 
cartoons made by LeBrun for the 
Gobelin factory. In \lexander and 
Parmenion visit the tent of the mother of 
Darius III after the victory of Issus in 333 
B.¢ 
history but an apocryphal legend calculated 


alter 


one, 


a story not perhaps recognized by 


to appeal to the ancient and mediaeval 
its mixture of magnanimity and 

Ihe second shows the Bartle of 
Alexander finally 
Here on 


mind by 
chivalry. 
Arbela, where in 331 B.C 
overthrew the Persian Empire. 
the right, the figure of Alexander advances, 
preceded by the imperial eagle which flies 
above his head, while on the left the de- 


TROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


gO 


ARI 


Ot 


chariot, 
gesture of 


Darius, seated 


his hands with a 


feated upon a 
stretches out 
despair and helplessness. 

The other pair. Spring \utumn, 
pastoral scenes showing the sheep-shearing 
and the vintage, doubtless from a 
series of the Seasons with designs after the 


and 
are 


stvle of Teniers. 

lhe other objects include a Rakka vase, 
twelfth to thirteenth century, a Mesopo- 
tamian murror, an Augsburg sanctuary 
lamp, and two hangings and a lambrequin 
of embroidered velvet, Venetian, seven- 
teenth century. 

The mirror, which dates from the thir- 
teenth century, is interesting in comparison 
Mesopotamian mirror ac- 

1905. 


with the other 

quired by gift in 
ration of two sphinxes, 
back, is the same in both examples. but 


The central deco- 
placed back to 


this new accession has a particular interest 
lettering, a 
pottery 


border of Cufic dec- 


olten 


in the 


oration so used upon the 
and in the borders of the later rugs com- 


ing from this district 


The sanctuary lamp, dated 1072, bears 
the Augsburg mark and the mark of the 
maker, | M, whose name ts unknown. _ Its 
history is recorded in the following inscrip- 
ticn 


“Albert Ernest, by the Grace of God and 
of the \postolic See, Provost of the pecu- 
liar and illustrious Metropolitan church of 
Florence 


of the church ol 


St. Cassius and St archdeacon- 


natus of Cologne, canon 


Ratisbon, senior imperial chaplain, 1072: 
the relics of the Glorious Virgin Mary (who 
was) assumed up into Heaven, having been 
at her pious intercession miraculously re- 
that of all 


ther 


stored to this altar: confident 
who here pray in their 
supplications will be the more acceptable, 


Necessilies, 


hath with this poor gift dedicated himself.” 
a coat of arms, in the 
first quarter the Bavarian arms, in the 
second those of the minster church ol 
Bonn, a fact showing us that Albert Ernest, 
the donor, was a member of the Bavarian 
roval family and from that fact Archdeacon 


It further bears 


of Cologne. 








ROMAN GLASS 


FIRST CENTURY B. C. TO FIFTH CENTURY 








5 eRe 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 





FIG. I. KYLIX, END 


DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL ARI 
ACCESSIONS OF 1914 


ATHENIAN VASES 


HE special fascination of Athen- 
ian vases for the student of Greek 
art lies in their many-sidedness 
They can satisfy the artistic in- 
stinct by their shapes and decorations; in 
the absence of larger pictures they can 
teach us much regarding the art of paint- 
ing in Greece; they present the best illus- 
trations for the numerous legends which 
the Greeks have left us; and they form a 
rich treasure-house tor our knowledge of the 
daily life of the Greeks. The ten Athenian 
vases recently purchased are all important 
acquisitions and present many points of 
interest regarding these several aspects 
\ kylix (drinking-cup) signed by the 
maker Nikosthenes is our first specimen by 
that famous artist. Nikosthenes, wholived 
toward the end of the sixth century B. ¢ 
was the most productive of all known Greek 
potters, judging at least by the number of 
vases bearing his signature which have sur- 
vived Altogether there are about eighty 
known. All of these bear his name with 
the word éxofmce “made it,” not Eyeave 
painted it’’; so that we can be sure only 
that he was the potter, not necessarily the 
painter. As a matter of fact, many of the 
designs on the Nikosthenes vases are not 
executed with any great care or finish. But 
what makes Nikosthenes an_ especially 


Iwo of the vases here described were bought 
early this year 


OF VI CENTURY B. C. 


interesting figure is that he had a progres- 
sive spirit and liked to try new things. At 
a time when Greek ceramic art was still in 
the making he contributed conspicuously 
to its development. He invented a new 
type of amphora and is accredited with the 
introduction into Athens of the “‘white- 
slip’’ method. He was also one of the 
first to try the red-figured technique, which 
was then being started by Athenian pot- 
ters. 

Our newly acquired cup ts a character- 
istic example of Nikosthenes’ work (height, 
6} in. [15.9 cm.]; diameter, 15 in. [38.1 cm.}). 
It is a magnificent piece of pottery, the 
shape, the baking, the color of the clay, 
and the quality of the black glaze being all 
of unusual excellence. The scenes which 
decorate it are full of life, but they show no 
great finish of detail. On the exterior are 
a) a four-horse chariot in front view be- 
tween large decorative eves (fig. 3), and (b) 
Dionysos with dancing Satyrs and Maenads 
also between two eves. lhese are executed 
in the black-figured style. On the interior 
is a large mask of Medusa in which the old 
black-figured and the new red-figured 
technique are effectively combined. The 
inscription which is painted above the 
chariot scene reads Ntxéaveves uw’ éxoincey, 
‘“Nikosthenes made me.” It should be 
noted that a kylix by Nikosthenes with 
almost identical representations, but with- 
out the decorative eyes is published in the 
Archdologische Zeitung, 1885, pl. 16, 1, and 
is included in the list of Nikosthenes vases 
given by W. Klein, Die griechischen Vasen 
mit Meistersignaturen, p. 67, No. 61. 


ire 
ye- 
b) 
ds 
ed 
ior 


id 


he 


the 
ind 
ses 
sen 


FIG. 


2. SCENE 


SCENE 


FROM 


FROM 


A KYLIX 


A KYLIX, ABOUT 


SIGNED BY 





500 B. C. 





NIKOSTHENES 





BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


In another kylix of the transitional period 
fig height, 4} in. |10.8cm.]; diameter, 
122 in. 131.5 cm the scheme is reversed; 
the exterior is treated in the red-figured 
technique, while on the inside is a somewhat 
fragmentary painting in black glaze of two 
large birds. On the outside are the custom- 
ary decorative eves, between which, on one 


side, is a charming picture of the winged 
horse Pegasos; on the other ts a convention- 





FIG. 4 
PANATHENAIC AMPHORA 
FOOT-RACI 


alized nose, which gives to the whole the 
semblance of a face, and reminds us of the 
tendency of the more primitive potters to 
imitate the human form in the shapes of 
their vases. Above this is painted the 
inscription “’tz:. This vase should be 
compared with a kylix in Munich (pub- 
lished by Joseph C. Hoppin in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Archaeology, 1895, p. 485) 
which is so similar in dimensions, shape, 
and manner of decoration that it is prob- 
able that the two were made as companion 
pieces. The Munich kylix also has the 
inscription Wiz. This name occurs as 
that of a vase-painter (with fEypavey, 

painted it’’) on two red-figured ary balloi, 
one in Karlsruhe, one in Odessa. The 


stvle of the paintings on the arvballoi is 
rather different from that on the two 
kvlikes, showing, for instance, much 
greater wealth of detail lines.' If they 
are the work of the same artist, they 
must belong to different periods of his 
career 

One of the finest vases as yet acquired by 
the Museum is a kylix of the early red- 
figured style of about 500 B.C. (fig. 2) 
The scenes with which it is decorated are 
taken from the familiar stock of the vase- 
painters of that time. On one side is a 
representation, now unfortunately frag- 
mentary, of a warrior starting for battle. 
He is mounting his chariot, while his wife 
or mother is holding his armor. On the 
other side is the scene of battle; two groups 
of warriors are depicted in fierce combat 
while a musician blows a trumpet, presum- 
ably toencourage their martial spirit. Inthe 
interior of the vase is an archer, probably an 
\mazon,leadingahorse. Sheis wearing the 
Scvthian costume with pointed cap of fox- 
skin. There is much life and movement inall 
these figures, but as vet not complete free- 
dom. The artist was still experimenting. 
He liked to try new attitudes, some of which 
required more knowledge of foreshortening 
than he possessed; the prostrate warrior 
on the right of the battle-scene, for instance, 
is quite out of drawing. But it is just this 
interest in the human figure, this deter- 
mination to study it in all possible postures, 
however difficult, which finally enabled the 
Greek artist to reach the high standard he 
did. The attractiveness of the paintings 
on our vase is due partly to this quality of 
earnest endeavor, and partly to the extreme 
care with which all the figures are drawn. 
The muscles of the bodies, the pleats and 
decorations of the garments, the details of 
the armor, are painted with a delicacy and 
sureness of touch which cannot fail to 
arouse our admiration. This vase ts, in 
fact, an excellent example of the wonderful 
skill attained by Greek vase-painters in 
line drawing. 


‘It should be noted, however, that the pre- 
liminary sketch for the Pegasos, executed with 
the blunt-pointed stick, gives many more lines 
for the indication of hairs and muscles than were 
executed in the black glaze 


100 











Its 








— 


ae 





BULLETIN OF THE METROP 
In the many problems presented by 
Greek vases it is comparatively rare 


that we are helped by direct literary evi- 
rhe Panathenaik 
exception. They are frequently 
ancient writers and their 
purpose stated by Pindar, who 
tells us that painted amphorae containing 
olive oil were given to the victors at the 
Panathenak Athens. A 

of amphorae decorated on one side with the 
figure of Athena, on the other with an ath- 
letic contest, and inscribed, t@v *AOyv7qOev 
x0 ,wy “from the games at Athens,” have ac- 
cordingly been identified as prizes awarded 


dence so-called vases 
form an 
mentioned by 


is clearly 


games in series 


atthese games. [There are two distinct series 
of these one, which dates 
from the sixth century B.C.; and 
one, which must be assigned to the fourth 
century B. ¢ Why they were not made 
during the fifth century remains an open 
he fine example acquired by us 
t vear belongs to the earlier series and 


Vases: an early 


a later 


question 


is 


1 be dated to about 525-515 B.C. (height, 
245 In. [62.2 cm.] \thena 1s represented 
as usual fully armed, with raised spear, 
standing between two columns. The col- 


umns are surmounted by cocks, this bird 
being evidently considered an appropriate 
athletic contests. On the back 
is a splendid representation of five men 
They have 

the other 


emblem for 


running at full speed (fig. 4 
both arms extended, one forward 
backward, and their legs are raised to a 
height We know therefore 
that this was a short-distance run. Inthe 
long-distance races the runners held their 
hands close to their sides and moved in long 
strides; but sprinters then, as 
often now, moved their arms freely forward 
and back, 


and their 


considerable 


sweeping 


to assist in the quick motion, 
high and rapid. 
[his vase was not found recently, but has 


been 


strides were 
known for some time. It was men- 
as long ago as 1830 1n the Annali 
dell’ Instituto for that year, p. 218, 3, and 
s figured in the Monumenti dell’ Instituto 
|, pl. 22, 6. It is listed in G. von Brauch- 
Die Panathendischen 
Preisamphoren, p. 20, No. 15. Its 
venance ts stated to be Etruria. 


G. M 


Bulletin 


tioned 


be OK 


itsch’s recent 
pre )- 


A. R 
June 


( niinued in de 


10! 


OLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


THE LAST COMMUNION OI 


ST. JEROME 


BY SANDRO BOTTICELLI 


CONCLUDED 


O come to Francesco Del Pugliese: 

he was twice elected to the office 

of Prior, in 1491 and again in 1497. 

He died toward the close of the 
year 1519; and his wife, Monna Alessandra, 
survived him. The most memorable trait 
in the character of Francesco, apart from 
his love of art and his patronage of artists, 
was his stanch adherence to the 
of Savonarola, and his devotion to the 
“religion”’’ of the friar after his death. 
Simone Filipepi, the brother of Botticelli, 
records in his ““Cronaca”’ that Francesco 
was one of the signatories to the petition 
addressed by the citizens of Florence, who 
were partizans of Savonarola, to the Pope, 
to annul the sentence of excommunication, 
which had been pronounced against Fra 
Girolamo. Francesco was in the convent 
of San Marco on the turbulent night of 8th 
April, 1499, when Savonarola was taken. 
One witness deposed that he saw Francesco 
there, among the persons unarmed, “in 
mantelloe chapuccio;” and another declared 
that he went about “breathing like a bull.”’ 
He was among the more notorious partizans 
of Fra Girolamo, who were detained and ex- 
amined after the arrest of Savonarola and 
the two friars. Among the “Examinations” 
of these suspected persons, printed in the 
appendix to Villari’s Life of Savonarola, 
are the “‘Interrogatori di Francesco del 
Pugliese They are without date, but 
they are probably of the roth April, 1498. 
Che deposition of Francesco is wanting. 

The will, which Francesco executed on 
the 20th March, 1503-4, affords evidence 
not only of his benefactions to that convent, 
but also of his devotion to the “‘religion”’ 
of Savonarola. Under the terms of that 
will, the Convents of San Marco, Santa 
Lucia, in the Via San Gallo, and San Do- 
Prato, were, in a certain con- 
tingency, severally entitled to a bequest 
of fiorini 200 larghi. Santa Lucia in the 
Via San Gallo, originally a house of “ Pin- 
zocheri’’ of the Third Order of St. Domenic, 


cause 


menico, al 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


was, through the zeal of Savonarola, erected 
into a convent of Dominican nuns, in 1484, 
at the charge of certain noble Florentine 
ladies, who caused the entire fabric to be 
rebuilt and enlarged The nuns of the 
new convent made their profession to Fra 
Girolamo on the 3d February, 1495-6. 
The ancient friary of San Domenico, in 
Prato, was another religious house which 
came under the especial care and guidance 
of Savonarola. As prior of San Marco, 
he made many visitations to San Domenico; 
and in 1495, reformed the convent. After 
his death, in 1503, the foundation of San 
Vincenzio, a house of Dominican nuns, was 
begun in connection with San Domenico, 
on an adjoining site. Here the cult of 
Savonarola was especially fostered, and 
here he came to be venerated as a saint. 
Certain relics of Fra Girolamo were in the 
possession of the nuns of San Vincenzio, 
who testified to their supernatural powers; 
and the legend of Santa Caterina de’ Ricci, 
who in 1535 took the habit in this convent, 
where she passed her life, especially attests 
the miracles of Savonarola. 

Francesco’s devotion to the “religion” of 
Fra Girolamo did not grow less with time: 
on the contrary, his zeal in the cause of the 
popular party of the “Piagnoni” appears 
to have assumed an aggressive character 
after the return of the Medici in 1512. 
Giovanni Cambi relates in his Florentine 
Histories that “‘one day, as Francesco di 
Filippo Del Pugliese, a man of the popu- 
lar party and a merchant, was talking 
with some others, it happened that in 
their discourse, one of them chanced to 
name Lorenzo de’ Medici | Duke of Urbino], 
who was then the first citizen of the city, a 
young man of twenty-three years; and he 
said, ‘Il Magnifico Lorenzo,’ and Francesco 
Del Pugliese said, ‘Il Magnifico meess, 
which a soldier who was by, heard 
and reported to the Otto, for which Fran- 
cesco was confined without the city of Flor- 
ence for eight years, within a limit of from 
two to fifteen miles from the city.”” Before 
his death, however, the penalty appears to 
have been relaxed. 

Francesco, as might be expected from 
his love of art and his long intercourse 
with the Convent of San Marco, was a 


patron of Fra Bartolommeo. Vasari, in 
his Life of the Frate, in a passage where he 
again confuses Piero with Francesco, re- 
cords that “in the house of Pier Del Pu- 
gliese, now the property of Matteo Botti, 
citizen and merchant of Florence, [that 
master] executed at the top of a stair, ina 
recess, a St. George armed, on horseback, 
who, riding atilt, is killing the dragon, which 
is done to the life: and he executed it in 
oil, in chiaroscuro, since he much delighted 
in all his paintings, first to proceed thus 
with the work, after the fashion of a c2rtoon 
shaded with ink or asphaltum, before he 
colored them; as still may be seen in many 
things in the way of paintings and panels 
which he left imperfect at his death.’’ Now, 
as we have seen, the portion of the Casa 
Del Pugliese which came into the possession 
of Matteo Botti, was that which had be- 
longed, not to Piero, but to Francesco. 
Moreover, an entry in a “Libro di Ricord- 
anze,”’ preserved among the archives of 
San Marco, records that, among the paint- 
ings executed by Fra Bartolommeo, was 
“‘a St. George drawn in oil, in the house of 
Francesco del Pugliese: it is not finished, 
therefore it has produced nothing.” This 
wall painting, which is mentioned by more 
than one writer of subsequent date, was 
doubtless destroyed when the Casa Del 
Pugliese was modernized and enlarged by 
the Ferroni, at the end of the eighteenth 
century. 

I suspect that Vasari has again confused 
Piero with Francesco Del Pugliese, in a 
passage where, speaking of the earliest 
works by Fra Bartolommeo, he states, that 
“Pier Del Pugliese was possessed of a little 
Madonna in marble, in very low relief, by 
the hand of Donatello, a thing of rare 
beauty: for which, in order to hold it in 
greater account, he caused to be made a 
tabernacle of wood, to enclose it with shut- 
ters. This tabernacle having been given 
to Baccio della Porta, he painted there, on 
the inside, two small stories, one of which 
was the Nativity of Christ, the other his 
Circumcision: and these Baccio executed 
in little figures, after the fashion of a minia- 
ture, in such sort that it is not possible in 
oil to do better. And then on the outside 
of the shutters when closed, he painted 


102 

















as 


el 


th 


en 





THE 


LAST 


COMMUNION OF 


BY 


SANDRO 


SAINT JEROME 
BOTTICELLI 





(DETAIL) 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


also in oil, inchiaroscuro, The Annunciation 
of our Lady by the Angel. This work 1s 
now in the writing-closet of the Duke 
Cosimo, where he keeps all the antiquities 
of bronze, both small figures and medals, 
and other rare paintings in miniature; being 
held by his most illustrious Excellency for a 
rare thing, as indeed tt ts 2 It would seem 
from an inventory of the ““Guadaroba,”’ that 
in 1553 the little tabernacle was already in 
the possession of Cosimo de’ Medici. When 
sorghini published the Riposo in 1584, it 
was still preserved intact by the grand 
Duke Francesco, ‘fra l’eccellenti cose sue 
piu pregiat In the course of time, how- 
ever, the tabernacle was dismembered: the 
marble relief by Donatello became lost, but 
the little shutters are now preserved in the 
Gallery of the Uffizi lhev are among the 
earliest works by Fra Bartolommeo which 
have come down to us, having, in all prob- 
ability, been painted previous to the fa- 
mous fresco of The Last Judgment, begun 
In 1499. 

Francesco possessed vet another work by 
Fra Bartolommeo: but | must pass on to 
speak of the paintings which were executed 
for him by one of the most delightful of the 
Florentine masters contemporary with Fra 
Bartolommeo, a painter closely allied to 
the Frate in art, but very different from 
him in spirit, Piero di Cosimo. Vasari, in 
the first edition of the Lives, published in 
1550, relates that Piero “executed in the 
house of Francesco Del Pugliese, around a 
chamber, divers stories of little figures: nor 
is one able to describe the diversity of fan- 
tastic things which he, in all those stories, 
so delighted to paint, both of buildings and 
animals and habits and divers instruments 
and other fantasies which occurred to him 
on account of their being stories of fable; 
as for example, a panel of Mars and Venus, 
with their Loves and Vulcan, done with 
great art and with incredible patience.” 
In the second edition of 1568, Vasari added 
that “‘these histories, after the death of 
Francesco Del Pugliese and his sons [st 
in error for ‘cousins’|, were removed, nor 
do | know where they have ended.”” This 
passage is interpolated in such a way as 
to make the panel of “ Mars, Venus, and 
Vulcan” appear a work independent of the 


decorations of the “‘camera;’’ whereas from 
the first edition, it 1s clear that it formed 
part of that series. 

Vasari is certainly in error in speaking of 
the sons of Francesco. Francesco died 
leaving nochildren. Before 24th February, 
1519-20, he was already dead. By his will 
dated 27th June, 1519, he appointed his 
cousin, Niccold di Piero Del Pugliese, and 
his male issue, his heirs: and in the con- 
tingency of Niccoldé dving without sons, he 
made certain bequests of a nature that 
necessitated the dispersal of his property 
Niccold, like his brother, Filippo, left no 
male issue: and after his death, the property 
which he had inherited from Francesco 
and the works of art which the latter had 
collected, were sold and scattered. | have 
been unable to ascertain the precise date of 
this dispersal, but the little tabernacle 
painted by Fra Bartolommeo passed into 
the Grand Ducal Collection before 1553 
and the portion of the Casa Del Pugliese 
which had belonged to Francesco, was al- 
ready the property ol Matteo Botti, in 
1561. In that dispersal, the little panel of 
“The Last Communion of St. Jerome” 
began its vovage of adventure in the world; 
and from that time until the beginning of 
the last century, when it turned up in the 
collection of Gino Capponi, nothing 1s 
known of its history. 

Of the other works on record—two being 
of principal importance—which were com- 
missioned by Piero and Francesco Del 
Pugliese, | must speak in another place 
Enough has been said here to illustrate their 
character as collectors of the finest works 
of art, and as patrons of the foremost artists 
of their time. They possessed works by 
Donatello, Fra Angelico, and a Flemish 
master: and they gave commissions to 
Antonio Pollaiuolo, Botticelli, Filippino 
Lippi, Piero di Cosimo, and Fra Bartolom- 
meo. They appear to have had impecca- 
ble taste. They acquired only the choicest 
objects, and patronized only the best mas- 
ters of their time. The least considerable 
painter whom they are recorded to have 
employed, was Raffaellino del Garbo, prob- 
ably at a time when great things were 
still expected of him. Again, we must re- 
member that the scattered and occasional 


104 











BULLETIN OF THE 
notices Which have come down to us regard- 
ing the works of art brought together by 
Piero and Francesco Del Pugliese, in all 
probability record only a small part of their 
collection—especially of the paintings and 
sculpture which they possessed in their 
family house and “‘ville.”’ Vasari, our 
chief informant, wrote at a time when the 
possessions of Francesco had already been 
dispersed; and Vasari, as | havesaid, is, ina 
general way, concerned only with the works 
of art accessible to all in the churches and 
public buildings of Florence, to the exclu- 
sion of those in private houses. 
Herpert P. Horne. 


USE OF THE MUSEUM 
BY STUDENTS 


THE 


Readers of Ruskin, all too few nowadays, 
will remember his lecture on Modern Man- 
ufacture and Design, in which he distin- 
guished for students the orders and dig- 
nities of decorative art, prefacing his re- 
marks with the statement, as true now as 
when he made it, that “‘No person is able 
to give useful and definite help towards such 
special applications unless he is entirely 
familiar with the conditions of labor and 
natures of material involved in the work; 
and zndefinite help is little better than no 
help at all.” 

Museums of art like the Metropolitan, 
which do not exhibit modern works in their 
Decorative Arts Departments, are under 
no obligation to theorize on these subjects, 
but they are able to present the objects in 
their collections in such a manner that the 
curious-minded in these matters may 
cern the facts regarding labor and materials 


dis- 


in earlier days, if he be desirous of doing 
so, through intelligent observation. 

It is with satisfaction that those who be- 
lieve in the supreme importance of the dec- 
orative arts in connection with the nation’s 
manufactures, see in the following report 
signs of growing activity in the Museum 
by the student and the professional worker 
indesign. There is no doubt that excellent 
work is done in New York schools where 
the subject is taught, but it is the results 
of study done after the close of the school 
term that really count in the determination 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF 


105 


ART 


of the standing in the community of these 
matters. Study that results in doing the 
best things in the market is, after all, the 
gauge of the efficiency of the designer. 
That the students of the Museum collec- 
tions have perceived in them opportunities 
for the understanding of conditions of 
labor and material is a proof that the Mu- 
seum has lived up to its privilege of giving 
useful and definite help. 


HE year 1914 has been a most 
important one in the use of the 
Museum by students, and it 
may be said that not one part 
of the collections has been overlooked in 
their search for the good to be derived 
therefrom. The continued interest in 
study-work under guidance, in color and 
otherwise, is, perhaps, the really im- 
portant feature of the year’s showing. 
he instructors with their classes, work- 
ing in various parts of the Museum; in- 
struction given with material at hand 
so replete with all that relates to the 
course of study then followed; the actual 
work produced under teacher-guidance, all 
these are features more far-reaching than 
single-handed study or individual work, no 
matter how earnest its intention. 

\s instances of this, it mav be mentioned 
that the various schools have made most 
liberal the Museum collections: 
classes from the several departments of 
Columbia University, such as the School 
of Architecture under Mr. Richard F. Bach, 
its Curator; the Design Class of Teachers’ 
College under Professor Grace A. Cornell; 
the students of the Department of Clay 
Modeling and Sculpture, under Mr. George 
]. Cox, have made their studies at the Mu- 
seum an important part of their course. 
The Women’s Art School of Cooper Union 
has done its share of color-work and the 
special privilege to them of working from 
objects in the Morgan Collection has been 
fully appreciated by these classes, the re- 
sults showing a high degree of excellence. 
Mr. C. Howard Walker and Miss Kathe- 
rine B. Child followed their successes of 
1913 with an all too brief course of prac- 
tical instruction-work, a manner of instruc- 
tion-giving most profitable to the student, 


use ol 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


consisting of a continuous criticism-lecture 
upon the work done at the time, given 
before so many examples of all manner 
of objects. The place, the length of time 
of each séance, the running comments and 
explanations to the students while at work, 
without doubt made this course a most 1m- 
portant one. The classes from the New 
York School of Fine and Applied Art 
studied hard and often. Mr. Otto Walter 
Beck, of the Art Department of Pratt In- 
stitute, was most enthusiastic in his work 
with his class, and so were Mr. Raymond 
P. Ensign and Miss Anna Fisher with their 
classes from the same school. Hunter Col- 
lege, Department of Art, with Miss Elva 
S. Christianson; Miss Ethel Williams with 
her class from the Young Women’s Chris- 
tian Association; Miss Jessie H. Bingham 
of the DeWitt Clinton High School; Miss 
Irene Weir, with her Ethical Culture School 
class in art; Miss Christine M. Reid and her 
class, have all been enthusiasts and hard 
workers in the cause of art study. Profes- 
sor :dward Cornell Zabriskie, with his class 
of the New York Evening School of Indus- 
trial Art, is one who never fails fully to im- 
press upon the students under his charge 
the importance of earnest study of the Mu- 
seum objects. The Newark Society of 
Keramic Arts, with Miss Mary E. Harrison, 
its Chairman of Education, continued its 
work of making color-studies for keramic 
uses; Mrs. E. G. Treganza, of the New 
York School of Applied Design for Women 
lectured to her classes as they worked in the 
galleries, worked with them there before 
the objects studied, and also made use of 
the class-room for mere intimate study. 

The copying of the paintings, naturally, 
continues to form the more labored part of 
students’ and artists’ work. Two hundred 
and forty-five artists and students made use 
of this privilege. 

As to the commercial, or practical, use 
of the collections made by manufacturers, 
architects, and artisans generally, the fol- 
lowing will serve to give an idea: 

Among furniture makers. An artist with 
Hess and Co. made studies of furniture, etc., 
for their business use; a representative of 
the Kensington Manufacturing Co. secured 
ideas of decorative bits for application to 


their manufactures; adesigner, sketchesand 
studies of furniture in Wing F, measure- 
ments, etc., for reproduction in furniture; 
a manufacturer of furniture, sketches and 
measurements of tables in the Bolles Col- 
lection and elsewhere, for reproduction; an- 
other furniture manufacturer, studies, mea- 
surements, etc., of furniture in the Hoent- 
schel Collection, for reproduction; a de- 
signer for Bossong, studies of Louis XVI 
furniture and that of other periods in the 
Hoentschel Collection, for reproduction in 
furniture; a designer with W. and J. Sloane 
and Co., measurements and drawings of a 
bergére for reproduction; another furni- 
ture manufacturer, designs, etc., from the 
Hoentschel Collection, for use in mak- 
ing parts in furniture; a representative 
of Sterling and Welch, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
who were interested inthe Bolles Collection, 
thorough studies of furniture for reproduc- 
tion by them; a designer for the John D. 
Raab Chair Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
sketches and measurements of chairs and 
tables, to be used by their furniture workers 
in making reproductions; another furniture 
manufacturer, studies, etc., of a chair for 
reproduction in a set for an order; another, 
full drawingsof aSpanish chair of the seven- 
teenth century to use in making a set of 
chairs; a designer with Hiebele and Hum- 
rich, a pilaster, wood, painted and gilded, 
Louis XVI, for reproduction in an interior. 

Among interior decorators. One archi- 
tect and decorator made sketches and draw- 
ings of furniture in the Hoentschel Collec- 
tion for use in interior decoration; an artist 
with Pillon, very thorough studies in color 
for reproduction in interior decoration; an 
interior decorator, Louis X VI room, Hoent- 
schel Collection; a designer of interior dec- 
orations, drawings of furniture, measure- 
ments, etc., for reproduction of furniture; 
a maker of hand-made reproductions in dec- 
orative arts objects, interior decorations, 
to be applied to interiors; another interior 
decorater, sketches of ornament, etc., both 
in the Hoentschel Collection and other sec- 
tions; another, sketches and measurements 
of an English chair, Queen Anne period, for 
reproduction in furniture; an artist with 
H. F. Huber, sketches from two water-color 
reproductions of stained-glass windows, for 


106 











BULLETIN OF THEI 


reproduction in a private residence; a rep- 
resentative of William Baumgarten and 
Co., Lely’s Nell Gwynne for decorative 


panel in an interior decoration; a designer of 


furniture and interior decorations, studies 
for application to interior decoration; a rep- 
resentative of P. W. French and Co., dec- 
orators, Ornamentation from parts of a 
spinet and a harpsichord, for reproduction 
in a piano to be made to order; one decora- 
tor, sketches for ideas in ornamental work; 
another, ideas from the Boscoreale frescoes, 
for use in decorating a Pompetian room, also 
finished studies in color of floral ornament 
for use in two panels for a private house; 
another, studies of porcelains, tapestries, 
etc., as well as interior decoration for appli- 
cation to designs; an artist, a Fragonard- 
manner panel from the Hoentschel Collec- 
tion, for a decoration. 

Among architects. A cabinet and archi- 
tectural woodworker made studies of an 
over-mantel, carved and painted, for re- 
production in a house; another architect, 
studies of ornament for application in his 
work; Charles R. Strong and Kruckemeyer, 
architects from Cincinnati, Ohio, studies of 
objects for use in their work; an artist for 
Jennev and Tyler, architects, over-door 
panel in the Hoentschel Collection, for use 
in a decoration; another architect, studies, 
of tapestries principally, for decorative pur- 
poses 

Among firms interested in weaving rugs 
and tapestries. A representative of the 
Herter Looms made studies of ornament, 
to be applied to their work, and a second 
person, sketches of furniture and ornament 
fortheir use; an artist with W. and J.Sloane, 
a thoroughly finished sketch in color of 
a Persian compartment carpet to be used 
as a guide for the weaver, for reproduc- 
tion; a gentleman from Persia visiting here 
and studying construction of rugs made 
sketches; artists of the Beloochistan Rug 
Weaving Co., color studies of rugs selected 
in the Altman Collection, for reproduction 
in rugs for B. Altman and Co. 

Among those interested in porcelains. 
\ maker of pottery colors who has gained a 
reputation for the best class of products, 
made comparisons and studies of colors in 
pottery glazes, for use in the manufacture 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


of pottery; Cooper Union students working 
in the school association, ““Au Panier 
Fleuri,”’ color studies of porcelains in the 
Morgan Collection, by special permission 
of Mr. Morgan. 

Among teachers. A member of the staff 
of Teachers’ College studied costumes, for 
use in designs and illustrations; a teacher in 
settlement work, examples of work in color 
to show to other teachers who do settle- 
ment work after her manner; a teacher in 
the School of Architecture, Columbia Uni- 
versity, measured drawings of a pair of se- 
dilia, and other objects, for class use. 

Among sculptors. One worked with Tan- 
agra figurines; another made sketches of 
bits from statues, casts, etc., for school use; 
a third, bits interesting to her in the decor- 
ative parts of her sculptures, plaques, etc.; 
a marble and mosaic worker, plasterline 
studies of chimney-piece, Louis XVI, for 
reproduction in marble in a house; a repre- 
sentative of the Whitman Studios, plaster- 
line study of the figure in the Amiens Cath- 
edral, from ‘ecast, for Watson and Huckel, 
architects, to reproduce in a church in Phil- 
adelphia; a sculptor, plasterline studies 
of Egyptian figurines and sculptors’ models; 
a sculptor and decorator, models for stone, 
marble, etc., over-mantel, from the Hoent- 
schel Collection, for reproduction in marble 
for a chimney-piece. 

\mong mural decorators. An artist for 
\. Lincoln Cooper, mural decorator, 
sketched a panel of flowers in the Hoent- 
schel Collection, for decorative use; a 
mural decorator, color studies of decora- 
tions, in the Hoentschel Collection; an- 
other, sketches from the Hoentschel Col- 
lection for ideas to be worked into his dec- 
orations. 

\mong other artists. An Assyrian teacher 
of painting in the American technique 
made sketches in color of tiles for use in 
his work; and an engraver, studies and 
notes on Hawthorne’s Trousseau, for an 
engraving of this picture. 

Among illustrators. One secured ideas 
and made sketches from various classes of 
subjects for use in illustrations; another, 
pencil drawings of four galleries of Wing 
H, Morgan Loan Collection, for use in re- 
productions, by permission of Mr. Morgan; 


107 











BULLETIN OF THE 


an author, illustrations of sconces for her 
book on the History of Sconces and the 
like; another illustrator, studies of casts 
for use in illustrations in stories; a gentle- 
man, from Amsterdam, Holland, water- 
color of Hadra vase for book illustration; 
another well-known illustrator, sketches 
for use in illustrations; a scenic artist 
of the Century Opera House, sketches 
in color of objects for use in scenic work; 
another artist, colored pencil studies of 
Egyptian objects for scenic work 

Among workers in various fields. M 
Grieve, maker of especially studied frames 
for paintings, etc., made studies and meas- 
urements of frames for ideas for adapta- 
tion. A lady from Cairo, Egypt, who was 
visiting in New York, made a study of a 
picture from the locality where she resides, 
near Cairo; another lady, a reproduction of 
an embroidered table-cover, in silks, etc.; 
another, sketchesof organaction, for an organ 
manufacturer's use; still another, sketches 
of old lamps for use by the Edison Co.; a 
professional leather worker made some 
leather tooled and embossed covers and 
bindings; an artist for The John J]. Mitchell 
Company’s Smart Styles, samplers, for re- 
production; a designer, drawings from casts 
of monument subjects for reproduction in 
automobile hearses; and The Presby- 
Coykendall Co., mortuary memorials, 
studies of the Cross of Muredach, for re- 
production exactly 

The permits issued to photographers, 
amateurs for the most part, to the number 
of forty-four, include the photographing of 
various objects. Sev eral of the cathedrals 
and monuments of Europe, from the library 
photograph collection, were used during the 
latter part of 1914; photographs of the Ant- 
werp Cathedral were made use of by the 
Thanhauser Film Corporation for moving 
pictures; several pictures from the Vander- 
bilt Collection were photographed by the 
limes by permission of the owner; objects 
such as the sculptor’s model of the hawk’s 
head, Egyptian, were photographed for an 
architectural detail; an interior decorator 
used many of the ornaments from the 
Hoentschel Collection, photographing these 
for her work. 


A. B. D’H. 


108 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


THE COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION 
HE fourth annual meeting of the 
College Art Association was held 
in Buffalo on April 2nd and 3rd. 

The hospitality of the Albright 

Gallery was extended to the members of 
the convention. The meetings were held 
in the hemicycle and the intermissions 
spent in the galleries. In add‘tion to the 
fine permanent collections, an exhibition 
of the work of American and European 
artists selected from Carnegie Institute 
was on view. The work was characterized 
by vigor of color and design and repre- 
sented well the tendencies of the best 
modern painting. 

In his address of welcome, President 
Pickard (Missouri) made it clear that it is 
not the aim of the Association to produce 
uniformity of procedure in the teaching of 
art but to bring to it a knowledge, under- 
standing, and appreciation in harmony with 
university standards asa whole. He made 
the significant suggestion that every uni- 
versity might well be accessible only through 
a kind of propylaea of art so that the rank 
and file of the collegiate body should be 
unable to escape the permeating influence 
of daily contact with the greatest things. 

Mr. Zantzinger (A.I.A.), the architect 
of the beautiful Albright Gallery, in which 
the sessions were held, spoke of the educa- 
tion of the architect and the danger that 
the pressure along lines of “the concrete 
and evident may 
ary place the artistic and imaginative.” 
Some change in the architectural schools ts 
necessary to produce better rounded and 
more mature men. Mr. Zantzinger empha- 
sized the importance to the technical student 
of courses in the history of civilization. 

The report of the committee appointed 
to investigate the condition of art teaching 
in the universities and colleges was read 
by Professor Holmes Smith (Washington). 
lhe workso far undertaken has been largely 
preparatory. It seemed wise to limit the 
inquiry to a small number of the leading in- 
stitutions. Material for the final report is 
to be based upon the answers to a question- 
naire to be sent to the various universities 
should receive the 


relegate to a _ second- 


and colleges. This 





> » 


i 


1g 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


serious attention of everyone interested in 
art education, as coéperation alone can 
make the investigation of permanent value. 
It was pointed out that in the educational 
system now in operation in this country the 
student receives instruction in inverse ratio 
to his maturity. 

lhe session closed with a scholarly paper 
on The Beginnings of the Art of Mosaic 
in Italy, by Mr. John Shapley of Princeton. 

lhe meeting was reopened in the after- 
noon by Professor Ellsworth Woodward, for 
thirty years associated with Sophie New- 
comb College, New Orleans. Professor 
Woodward spoke of the essential relation 
between art and local conditions. The 
teaching of the history of art 1s apt to make 
it seem a thing of “then and there’, not of 
“here and now.” “Art is a means by 
which the race has recorded its idealities.” 
lt is very close to patriotism Professor 
Woodward made poignant the isolation of 
the South in matters of art. The need ts 
urgent that those trained under more for- 
tunate conditions should foster the art 
instinct of the race as one of the most pre- 
cious indications of fitness for the future. 

The paper of the afternoon was read by 
Mr. Edwin Blashfield, who spoke of the 
necessity of disciplined thought in monu- 
mental art. As an example of the best 
training, Mr. Blashfield described the op- 
portunities offered the student at the 
American Academy in Rome—freedom 
from financial pressure, experience, and op- 
portunity to work out problems codéper- 
atively, which give it its unique value. 

A lively discussion was provoked by the 
report of the committee considering the ad- 
visability of a required course in art for 
the A.B. degree (Professor Tonks of Vassar, 
chairman). Much diversity of opinion 
was expressed as to the desirability of such 
a requirement and as to the character of 
such a course if offered 

In the evening the question proposed for 
discussion was the important one, “When 
we teach Art, what are we trying to teach?”’ 
Professor Mather of Princeton said that 
“taste” should be the “crop” of art teach- 
ing. But the big question in education ts 
whether taste can be communicated. “It 
cannot be directly communicated, but some 


happy accident may set it free in the class 
room and your students may pick it up.” 
Professor Tarbell (Chicago) said that he 
tended more and more to concentrate the 
attention of his students on the great things 
and tocultivate an intelligent and if possible 
a passionate interest in works of art. Pro- 
fessor Johnson of Bow doin showed how the 
gifts of originals received by that college 
have resulted in a course in art to explain 
the objects in the collection, a fortunate 
reversal of the usual condition in a college 
museum. A ietter was read from Dr. Ross 
of Harvard, who was unable to be present. 
He distinguished between science (what we 
know) and art (what we can do). “The 
ultimate question of education is what can 
we do with our knowledge?” 

lhe programme of the second day opened 
with a paper by Professor Hekking (James 
Millikén) discussing the relation of the uni- 
versity to the public school teacher. “Since 
the art school is too technical and the normal 
school too pedagogical, the college should 
train the public school teachers of art.” 

In the discussion on the use of textbooks 
which followed, Mr. Keyes (Dartmouth) 
said that the purpose of a beginning course 
in art is to open the eyes of the blind. Text- 
books are of secondary importance since 
the student is concerned with the inter- 
pretation rather than the discovery of ma- 
terial. The college curriculum is made up 
of (1) disciplinary courses which “tighten 
the mind” while the material fades, (2) 
courses which furnish the basis for later 
vocational work, and (3) cultural courses 
which if they are well taught mean a new 
birth. “Taste matures in spite of itself as 
a result of observation,” If the course 
does not mean a new birth, it is a dismal 
failure. 

[he programme was varied at this point 
by anillustrated talk on The College Art Gal- 
lery, by Professor Churchill of Smith. Mr. 
Churchill described the recent rearrange- 
ment of the Hillyer Gallery and showed 
slides of fine examples of American painting 
which give the collection distinction. 

\ round-table discussion on the use of 
photographs in art teaching followed lun- 
cheon. Professor Chase of Harvard made 
valuable suggestions regarding the purchase 


1OYg 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


of material. Miss Abbot of The Metro- 
politan Museum spoke of methods of study- 
ing photographs. In the absence of orig- 
inals, photographs constitute the material 
of the course, and should be accessible at 
all times. The students should be required 
to make constant and independent use of 
them. Lists of questions to be answered 
from the photographs without the use of 
books give vitality to the werk and an inti- 
mate familiarity is gained by laboratory 
drawing in connection with courses in his- 
tory or criticism. 

After the business meeting, the conven- 
tion closed with a paper by Professor Zug 


(Dartmouth) on Typical College and Uni- 
versity Art Courses. In illustration of the 
relation of drawing to historical study a 
series of interesting exercises by students of 
Mount Holyoke was explained by Miss 
Foss. Considerations of great interest 
were brought forward in Professor Zug’s 
carefully prepared report. The questions 
involved called for careful consideration 
and the Association is not prepared at pre- 
sent to take any definite action. It is will- 
ing to devote several years if necessary to 
this subject which affects in so large a mea- 
sure the higher education of the country. 


SB. R.A 


NOTES 


EMBERSHIP.—At the meeting 

of the Board of Trustees held 

April 19th, John W. Alexander 

was elected an Honorary Fellow 

for Life, in consideration of his devoted and 

valuable services as a member of the Board 

during his presidency of the National 
Academy of Design. 

Che Fellowship in Perpetuity of the late 
Daniel S. Ford was transferred to Charles 
Miner Thompson, Editor-in-Chief of the 
Youth’s Companion. 

The following persons, having qualified 
for membership in their respective classes, 
were elected: 


FELLOWS FOR LIFE 
Freperick E. Lewis 
Joun W. Simpson 
[Through the sum of their contributions as 
Fellowship Members 


ANNUAL MEMBERS 


E. A. S. CLARKE 

Mrs. JAMES Porter Fiskt 
SARAH BELCHER Harpy 
GeorRGE LELAND HUNTER 
Mrs. Leo LoreENz 

Fevix MEYER 

FREDERICK S. MiNoT1 
CHARLES D. Norton 
Davip RUMSEY 

Mrs. CuHarces H. SHERRILI 
Mrs. ANNA W. SIMPSON 
Epwin H. STERN 

L. M. STuBNER 
STEVENSON TAYLOR 
CLARENCE WHYBROW 


\ New GaALrery oF TArestRiEs AND 
Pextites.—The withdrawal from the Mu- 
seum of the Chinese porcelains lent by Mr. 
Morgan has made available for general ex- 
hibition purposes the large gallery known 
as D. 10 in which the collection was first 
installed twelve years ago and which, until 
the present, has never been used for any 
other purpose. The dimensions of this 
gallery—it is nearly a hundred feet long, 
and with the exception of the main halls, 
the largest single room in the Museum 
fit it for the display of large tapestries and 
those pieces of furniture which from their 
size appear crowded in the smaller spaces of 
the Wing of Decorative Arts; and with this 
fact in view it has been made, for the pres- 
ent at least, into a gallery of tapestries and 
European textiles, interspersed with a few 
specimens of Gothic and Renaissance 
furniture, some of which have not before 
been shown to the public. The sixteen 
tapestries which fill the walls include two 
early Gothic pieces of great interest lent 
by George Blumenthal, the fine Cupid and 
Psyche set formerly in the collection of the 
Duchesse de Dino, and now owned by 
Joseph Sampson Stevens, and the three 
well-known Mortlake hangings, two of 
them lent by the estate of A. W. Hoyt and 
the third by Mrs. A. von Zedlitz. 

All of these tapestries have previously 
been exhibited here and were described in 
the BULLETIN at the time of their first re- 


11u 








Ca! 
of 
alt 





at 

bal 
cer 
tin 
nee 
Sup 
OW! 
len 


vO 








BULLETIN OF THE 
ception, either for the Flemish Exhibition 
at the beginning of this year, or earlier. A 
notable addition, however, to the tapestries 
shown in the Museum is the set of six Ren- 
aissance pieces which fill the south wall of 
the new gallery, recently lent by Mrs. 
Charles T. Barney, and now for the first 
time available to the public. These were 
secured a number of years ago through the 
late Stanford White, who built to house 
them a room which was one of his most 
characteristic and most successful achieve- 
ments, but which has recently been de- 
stroyed by a fire, which, fortunately, spared 
the tapestries. The set is typical of the 
finest Renaissance weaving and is further- 
more interesting as being Dutch, not Flem- 
ish, and the work of Francois Spierinx, one 
of the most expert master-weavers of his 
time, who, originally from Antwerp, es- 
tablished himself in Delft toward the end 
of the sixteenth century. Here he executed 
for the English Government a great series, 
The History of the Armada, which when 
imported into England helped to bring 
about the establishment of the Mortlake 
looms. Each piece of Mrs. Barney’s is 
signed ‘Franciscus Spiringius fecit,”’ three 
bear the Delft mark, and one is dated 1610. 
On one is a double “B” similar to the 
Brussels mark, unexplained in view of 
Spierinx’s name above and the conclusive 
evidence of Dutch manufacture of the other 
pieces of the set. The designs, which are 
apparently French and somewhat earlier 
than the weaving, illustrate the history of 
Diana; the borders are arabesques and 
figures of the most characteristic kind; 
while the execution of the whole is of the 
finest description. 

Ecclesiastical vestments are exhibited in 
cases in the center of the room. Some 
of these were described two months ago, 
although not at that time on exhibition. 
\ cope and chasuble, Spanish work of the 
late Baroque period, lent by Mrs. Archi- 
bald G. Thomson of Philadelphia, are ex- 
ceptional examples of the embroidery of the 
time, while a number of earlier pieces of 
needlework, also lent by Mrs. Thomson, 
supplement the various similar specimens 
owned by the Museum. From the same 
lender other interesting textiles have been 


METROPOLITAN 


MUSEUM OF ART 


recently received, which are now placed 
throughout the building. D. F. 


TEXTILES SUPPLEMENT. — With this 
number of the BULLETIN is issued a sup- 
plement devoted to a statement of the 
Museum resources in textiles, with partic- 
ular reference to the needs of students, de- 
signers, and manufacturers. This state- 
ment has been made as brief as possible, 
aiming to inform the reader regarding his 
own interests in this direction. The 
number is illustraced with typical ex- 
amples of the textile art. 


Criass-Room Exuisits.—The exhibition 
of Fundamental Principles of Form and 
Color Harmony, prepared for the American 
Federation of Arts and presented to it by 
the Art in Trades Club of New York 
City, which was on view in the Class 
Room of the Museum from April 12th to 
24th, attracted a large number of interested 
visitors. 

The exhibit was planned to show the 
principles of form—consistent structural 
unity, balance, movement, emphasis, and 
relative space division and sequence; the 
principles of color harmony—psychological 
significance, hues, value, and intensity; 
kinds of color harmony—analogous, com- 
plementary, and balanced; and the decora- 
tive idea—backgrounds and _ personality 
in the room. It consisted of charts, draw- 
ings, and samples of materials. 

Such an exhibition as this is of value not 
only because of the lessons it teaches, but, 
from the Museum point of view, because 
it gives emphasis to the results of the study 
of collections like those owned by the Mu- 
seum—furniture, textiles, etc.—and be- 
cause it draws attention to the opportu- 
nity given by the Museum, through its 


Class Rooms, for work along just such 
lines. 
The exhibit followed one of last year, 


when the work of children from the Settle- 
ment Guild, under the direction of Miss 
Kallen, was shown, and preceded one of 
work in creative designing done by chil- 
dren from the Greenwich House Settlement 
and the Little Italy Neighborhood Asso- 
ciation, held from May ist to May toth. 





BULLETIN OF THE MI 
LECTURES FOR CHILDREN OF MEMBERS. 
| he first season of story-telling hours for 

children of members, now completed, may 

counted successful and a second 


lo the stories already re- 


safely be 
season assured 
ported in these columns should be added 
the last two, The Sculptor and His Clay, a 
sympathetic and delightfully intimate talk 
by Mrs. Herbert Adams given on March 
13th; and Men of Iron, the story of Edward 
the Black Prince in its setting of life in the 
mediaeval castle or in knightly exploits, told 


TROPOLITAN 


MUSEUM OF ART 

\N ADVERTISEMENT In a recent period- 
ical states that “by special privilege” a 
certain manufacturer permitted to 
make a copy of an object in our collection 
with the original in view. In justice tothe 
Museum, and in fairness to other manu- 
facturers, artists, and designers, it should 
be stated that there are no such special 
privileges for any individual. All oppor- 
tunities for study or copying which the 
Museum can offer are extended equally 
and impartially to everyone who conforms 


was 





on March 27th by Mrs. Agnes L. Vaughan to its regulations on the subject. 


LIST OF ACCESSIONS AND LOANS 


APRIL, IQIT5 


OBITECI SOURCI 
Isis and Horus, fig 

ure of bird, box with figure of 

crowned uraeus on top, of 

bronze; four alabaster 
eight blue-glaze amulets, blue- 
glaze ushabti, green-glaze figure 
of laurt, one carnelian, one 
paste, and two gold plaques, 
seven strings of beads of gold, 
glass, and various kinds of stone; 
eight steatite, one blue-glaze, 
and two carnelian scarabs, five 
other seals, and a gold ring with 
green jasper plaque inscribed with 
the names of King Thothmes 
I1f and Queen Hatshepsut; 
green jasper heart scarab of a 
Queen Amenardis and four other 
stone heart  scarabs; and 
mummy of a cat with braided 
linen wrappings 


*Statuette of 


vases, 


Gift of Mrs. Frederick 
[ hompson. 
*Painted wooden figure of a horse 
and rider, XVII-XVIII dy- 
nasty, and painted sandstone 
slab from a door-jamb of a The- 


ban tomb, XVIII dynasty Purchase 


ANTIQUITIES—CLASSICAI Four modern reproductions of 
Floor |, Room 8 Greek terracottas Anonymous Gilt 
ARMS AND ARMOR Colletin, Italian (Venetian), 1650. Purchase 
Wing H, Room 9 
CERAMICS. tCeladon vase, Korean, Koryu 
dynasty Gift of Samuel |. Peters 
Biscuit statuette, Lord Lynd- 
hurst, English (Derby), about 
i8io Purchase 
tGroup, English (Staffordshire), 


early nineteenth century Purchase 


*Not yet placed on Exhibition 
fRecent Accessions Room (Floor |, Room 6 


112 











lu- 
ild 
ial 
DT- 


lly 
ms 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


CLASS OBJECT 


Jewer) . Necklace, pair of earrings, and 
pendant, diamonds and paste 
set in silver, French eighteenth 
century; gold necklace, Ger- 
man, seventeenth century.... 


REPRODUCTIONS . .. “Water-color copy of fresco from 
Thebes, Late Minoan II period, 
about 1500-1350 B.C. 


SCULPTURE .... Marble statue, Night, by Olin L. 
WR Ns as de casawawkwn 


TEXTILES . tPiece of brocade, Spanish, six- 
teenth century; fragment of a 
rug, Italian, sixteenth century. 

tPanel of velvet brocade, Italian 
(Venetian), late fifteenth century 

TBrocatel, seventeenth century; 
three panels of brocade, eigh- 
teenth century; brocatel, seven- 
teenth century—lItalian 

tPiece of bobbin lace, Flemish or 
Italian, seventeenth century .. 


CostTuMEs . TJacket and skirt, Italian, seven- 
eer 


tEmbroidered alb, Italian, late 
seventeenth century 

tSwaddling band in  cutwork, 
Italian, lateseventeenth century. 


Woopwork AND Furniture.. fBox, Dutch, seventeenth century 
*Paneled room, by Abraham Swan, 
English, eighteenth century 
tT wo mirrors, American, early 
nineteenth century ... ; 


MiscELLANEOUS . tJester’s bauble, Flemish, seven- 
teenth century; two _ jester’s 
baubles and two whips, seven- 
teenth century; jester’s bauble 
and bailiff's truncheon, eigh- 
teenth century—French; sher- 
iff’s truncheon, Danish (°), eigh- 
teenth century.. kien 


CERAMICS ... *Vase, Chinese, K’ang Hsi period.. 

JEWELRY Gold fibula, Merovingian, seventh 

Floor Il, Room 32) or eighth century (?)........ 

METALWORK . Five pieces of silver, American, late 

(Floor Il, Room 22) eighteenth or early nineteenth 
eee 

TEXTILES . . . Six tapestries, illustrating the 


History of Diane de Poitiers, 
Dutch, early seventeenth cen- 
ES sik c came ae ee es Saalken 


(Floor Il, Room 6 


*Not yet placed on Exhibition 
tRecent Accessions Room (Floor |, Room 6). 


113 


SOURCE 


Gift of Mrs. Anna Antonia 
Draper Dixon and Mrs. 
Annie Dixon McClure. 


Purchase. 


Purchase. 


Purchase 


Purchase. 


Purchase. 


Gift of Mrs. William H. Bliss. 


Gift of Messrs. P. W. French 
& Co. 


Purchase. 
Purchase. 
Purchase. 
Purchase 


Gift of Miss Susan Mount. 


Gift of Mrs. Frederick F. 
Thompson 
Lent by G. S. Yoshino 


Lent by R. Martine Reay. 


Lent by Hon. A. T. Clearwater 


Lent by Mrs Charles T. 
Barney. 








THE BULLETIN OF THE 
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 
FIFTH AVENUE AND 82D STREET 

Published monthly under the direction of the Secre- 
tary of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth 
Avenue and Eighty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 23, 1907, at 
the post office at New York, N. Y., under Act of 
Congress of July 16, 1894. 

Subscription price, one dollar a year, single copies 
ten cents. Copies for sale may be had at the 
Fifth Avenue ertrance to the Museum. 

All communications should be addressed to the Edi- 
tor, Henry W. Kent, Secretary, at the Museum. 

OFFICERS 
Rosert W. pe Forest 
Joseru H. Cuoate 
Henry WALTERS 
Henry W. Kent 
Howarp MaANsFIELD 
Wiciiam Lorinc ANDREws 


President, 

First Vice-President, 
Second Vice-President, 
Secretary, 

lreasurer, 

Honorary Librarian, 


Director, Epwarp RosBiInson 
Assistant Treasurer, Eviat T. Foore 
Curator of Paintings, Bryson Burroucus 


Curator of Egyptian Art Apert M. Lytucoe 

Acting Curator of Deco- ; 
rative Arts, ) 

Curator of Armor, 

Librarian, 

Registrar, 

Superintendent of the | 
Building, ) 


Durr Friep_ey 


Basurorp Dean 
WituraM CLirrorp 
Henry F. Davipson 


Conrav Hewitt 


MEMBERSHIP 


BENEFACTORS, who contribute or devise $50,000 
FELLOWS IN PERPETUITY, who con- 

tribute. . . a 5,000 
FELLOWS FOR LIFE, who contribute. .. 1,000 
FELLOWSHIP MEMBERS, who pay an 

annual contribution of. . : er 100 
SUSTAINING MEMBERS who pay an 

annual contribution of. Se 25 
ANNUAL MEMBERS, who pay an annual 

contribution of. . 10 


Priviteces.— All classes of members are entitled 
to the following privileges: 

A ticket admitting the member and his family, and 
his non-resident friends, on Mondays and Fridays. 

Ten complimentary tickets a year for distribution, 
each of which admits the bearer once, on either Mon- 
day or Friday. These tickets must bear the signa- 
ture of the member. 

An invitation to any general reception given by the 
Trustees at the Museum to which all classes of mem- 
bers are invited. 

The Butvetin and a copy of the Annual Report. 

A set of all handbooks published by the Museum for 
general distribution, upon request at the Museum. 

In addition to the privileges to which all classes of 
members are entitled, Sustaining and Fellowship mem- 
bers have, upon request, double the number of tickets 
to the Museum accorded to Annual Members; their 
families are included in the invitation to any general 
reception, and whenever their subscriptions in the 
aggregate amount to $1,000 they shall be entitled 
to be elected Fellows for Life, and to become mem- 
bers of the Corporation. For further particulars, 
see special leaflet. 


ADMISSION 


Hours or Openinc.—The Museum is open daily 
from 10 a.M. to 6 p.m. (Sunday from 1 p.m. to 
6 p.m.) and on Saturday until 10 p.m. 

Pay Days.—On Monday and Friday an admission 
fee of 25 cents is charged to all except members and 
copyists. 

Cuitpren.—Children under seven years of age are 
not admitted unless accompanied by an adult. 

Priviteces.—Members are admitted on pay days 
on presentation of their membership tickets. Per- 
sons holding members’ complimentary tickets are 
entitled to one free admittance on a pay day. 

Teachers of the public schools, indorsed by their 
Principals, receive from the Secretary, on application, 
tickets admitting them, with six pupils apiece, on pay 
days. ‘Teachers in Art and other schools receive simi- 
lar tickets on application to the Sec retary. 

Coryinc.—Requests for permits to copy and to 
photograph in the Museum should be addressed to 
the Secretary. No permits are necessary for sketch- 
ing and for the use of hand cameras. Permits are 
issued for all days except Saturday (10 a.m.-6 P.m.), 
Sunday, and holidays. For further infor- 
mation, see special leaflet. 

THE COLLECTIONS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Circular of Information gives an Index to the 
collections which will be found useful by those desir- 
ing to find a special class of objects. It can be se- 
cured at the entrances. 

EXPERT GUIDANCE 

Members, visitors, and teachers desiring to see the 
collections of the Museum under expert guidance, 
may secure the services of the member of the staff 
detailed for this purpose on application to the Secre- 
tary. An appointment should preferably be made. 

This service will be free to members and to teachers 
in the public schools of New York City, as well as 
to pupils under their guidance. To all others a 
charge of twenty-five cents per person will be made 
with a minimum charge of one dollar an hour. 


THE LIBRARY 
The Library, entered from Gallery 14, First Floor, 
containing upward of 25,000 volumes, and 36,000 
photographs, is open daily except Sundays, and is 
accessible to the public. 


PUBLICATIONS 

The publications of the Museum now in print 
number fifty-four. These are for sale at the en- 
trances to the Museum, and at the head of the main 
staircase. For a list of them and their supply to 
Members, see special leaflet. 

PHOTOGRAPHS ON SALE 

Photographic copies of all objects belonging to the 
Museum, made by the Museum photographer, are on 
sale at the Fifth Avenue entrance. Orders by mail, 
including application for photographs of objects not 
keptin stock may be addressed to the Secretary. 
Photographs by Pach Bros., The Detroit Publishing 
Co., The Elson Company, and Braun, Clément & Co., 
of Paris, are also on sale. See special leaflet. 

RESTAURANT 

A restaurant is located in the basement on the 
North side of the main building. Meals are served 
& la carte from 10 A.M. to 5 p.m. and table d’hote from 
I2 M. to 4 P.M. 


legal 




















lesir- 


ecre- 




















THE METROPOLITAN 
MUSEUM OF ART 


THE 
TEXTILE COLLECTION 
AND ITS USE 


SUPPLEMENT TO THE BULLETIN OF 
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 
MAY, MCMXV 





























THIS PAMPHLET IS ISSUED WITH THE DESIRE 
TO INFORM ALL PERSONS INTERESTED IN 
THE STUDY, MANUFACTURE, OR SALE OF 
TEXTILES OF THE HELP GIVEN TO THEM 
BY 
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


THE STUDY ROOM OF TEXTILES 


EALIZING the value of its col- 
lections to manufacturers and ar- 
tisans, the Museum several years 
ago established, in addition to 
the general Class Room, a special Study 





STUDY ROOM 


Room of Textiles where duplicate speci- 
mens and small pieces were made available 
to those interested in the study of textile 
fabrics 


EQUIPMENT 


[his is a large room with western ex- 
posure, located in the basement of the Wing 
of Decorative Arts, adjoining the offices of 
that department and reached by a stairway 
leading from the Hall of Casts at the left of 
the entrance to W ing F. All textiles not 
on exhibition are kept in this room; the 


THE TEXTILE COLLECTION AND ITS USE 


smaller pieces mounted on heavy linen 
stretched in walnut frames, the larger ex- 
amples placed on sliding shelves. The 
mounts are of the standard size (30 inches 
by 214 inches) which forms the unit of the 
gallery cases. By this means exhibits may 
be changed readily with little outlay of 





OF TEXTILES 


labor. These frames are arranged in wall 
cases which occupy two sides of the room 
and have a total capacity of two thousand 
frames, each section holding one hundred. 


FACILITIES FOR THE STUDENT 


lhe room, which is accessible to any per- 
sons desiring to avail themselves of its 
privileges, is planned for the convenience 
of the individual worker and is used as an 
adjunct to the larger study rooms (Class 
Rooms A and B) in Wing H. Long tables 
fill the center of the room, where ink or 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


water colors may be used by students de- 
siring to supplement library work with re- 
search among the original fabrics. For the 
accommodation of larger groups of students 





PERUVIAN TAPESTRY WEAVI 


using Class Rooms A and B, materiai from 
the Textile Room ts available upon notifica- 
tion given prior to the date of the class 
mecting 


ARRANGEMENT OF THE COLLECTION 


The scope ol the collection as regards 
countries represented may be seen from 
the following table: 





“copTic’’ v-VI CENTURY 


1. Near East 
1. Egyptian 
1-A Coptic 
1-B. Egypto-Persian 
2. Persian 
2-A. Sassanian 





1. Near East—Continued 

3. Byzantine 

4. Saracenic 

5. Turkish 
5-A. Asia Minor 
5-B. Armenian 
5-C. Syrian 

6. Greek Islands 


2. Europt 
1. Spanish 
1-A. Hispano-Moresque 





ASIA MINOR, XVI CENTURY | 


2. Sicilian 


3. Italian 
1-A. Italo-Arabic 
4. French 
5. German 
6. Swiss 
7. Netherlandish 
8. Scandinavian | 


8-A. Norwegian 
8-B. Swedish 
8-C. Danish 

g. English 

10. Bulgarian 

11. Russian 

12. Polish 


3. AMERICA 
1. Peruvian 
2. North American 





BULLETIN OF THE 
East 

1. Chinese 

2. Japanese 

3. Indian 

4. Javanese 


4. FAR 


PRIMITIVE TEXTILES 


rhe fund of material available to the 
student, including the specimens on ex- 
hibition, represents many different types, 
the earliest among them being prehistoric 


t- a7 





PERSIAN, XVI CENTURY 
weaves of the Lake Dwellers and Peruvian 


tapestry fabrics of the Aztecs. 


THE NEAR EAST 


Important among the fabrics from the 
Near East, with which the study room is 
well supplied, are the linen weaves from 
the Coptic tombs of Egypt! dating fromthe 
fourth toseventh centuries A. D. Supple- 
menting these are a few rare examples of 

‘Although representative pieces of “‘Coptic”’ 
textiles may be seen in the Study Room, the 
greater part of the collection is kept with the 
other Late Pagan and Coptic material from 
Egypt, many of the best specimens being on ex- 
hibition in the Ninth Egyptian Room. 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


OF ART 

Egyptian silks attributed to Alexandria 
and Akhmim; the former showing mounted 
horsemen and recumbent animal forms 
framed in circles, the the char- 


latter, 





ITALIAN, XIII~XIV CENTURY 

acteristic lozenge type of pattern enclosing 
conventionalized leaf forms alternating 
with animals placed facing each other or 


~ 
- 

. 
> 
+ 


"FP. Pee . 
BS Te 


i> 
es! 





PORTION OF ORPHREY 


COLOGNE, XV CENTURY 


back to back. In silks of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries similar bird forms 
are placed in ogival framing. 








BULLETIN OF THI 

Of Persian brocades and velvets the col 
lection has some especially fine examples 
in the gold and velvet brocades with con- 
forms the type 
with figures and animals. There are also 
Ottoman Asia Minor with de- 
signs in which the pomegranate, the taper- 
ing leaf with serrated edges, the tulip, and 
thecarnation are distinctive characteristics 


ventionalized floral and 


weaves of 


EUROPEAN, XV-XVIII CENTURIES 


The Italian velvets with their embossed 
patterns of reversed curves enclosing the 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM Ol 


ART 


work of the Stuart period, of which there 
are many interesting pieces 

Of French and Italian brocades of the 
eighteenth century the collection is replete 
in material—brocades, and _ bro- 
catelles—showing the varying phases in 
the patterns of the century; here one may 
follow the transition from the symmetrical 
charm of the Louis XIV type through the 
Chinese motives of the Regency and the 
delicacy of the Louis XV and XVI periods 
to the classic lines of the Empire. 

Che collection is rich in 


velvets, 


also blue and 





ITALIAN, LATE XV CENTURY 


pine-cone motive, the Spanish gold and 
velvet fabrics, in which the serpentine trunk 
pattern is combined with the pomegranate, 
the Florentine bands and Cologne orphreys, 
are all rich in suggestion to the student. 
In addition to the weaves of this period, 
the sixteenth century is also represented 
by the silk and gold embroideries of Italian 
noblewomen and the linens of their house- 
hold effects. With the material of this class 
should mentioned the English 
ecclesiastical embroideries of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries' and the stump- 


alse ) be 


‘Bulletin, vol. VIII, No. 9, September, 1913, p 
I } 
igo 


( 


CENTURY 


*ERMAN, EARLY XVII 


white weaves of the eighteenth century and 
in printed cottons, of French, Lnglish, and 


American subjects. 


FAR EAS! 


Cotton prints from Persia, China, and 


the East Indies are also represented 
in the group of Oriental fabrics, among 
which should be mentioned a large col- 


lection of sample pieces of Japanese silks 
presented in 1896 by Mr. and Mrs. H. 0. 
Havemeyer, a group most helpful to stu- 
dents of Oriental designs. 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


COSTUME 


Beautiful fabrics are also available to 
the student in the collection of costumes. 
which includes dresses of brocades and 
men’s suits of velvets richly embroidered. 
illustrating court costumes of the eigh- 
teenth century. The James Collection, 
bequeathed in 1911, includes many French 
and American dresses of the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century, also a number of 


hats, bonnets, and shoes of the same period. 
Russian fabrics are represented by a num- 
ber of costumes, a court dress of heavy 
brocade, and several peasant costumes 
presented by Miss Isabel Hapgood. Here, 
also, might be mentioned an interesting 
collection of Polish sashes which are woven 
in silk, and show a strong Persian influence. 

[he study collection also includes a 
large assortment of passementeries, gimps, 
braids, fringes, and tassels. 


PART OF RUG, INDIAN 
I 


A BOL 





1550 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


BOOKS ON TEXTILES IN THE 
MUSEUM LIBRARY 


val HE following works, selected from 
among those in the Library of the 
Museum, are, on account of their 
excellence, recommended to teach- 

ers, students, and designers. All are il- 

lustrated and most of them contain colored 

plates. 

ALGOUD, H Le Velours Paris. n d Les arts 


de la sole). 


Depirre, EpGarp. La Toile peinte en France 
au XVII© et au XVIII® siécles; industrie 
commerce, prohibitions. Paris, 1912 

DrespeEN—Kunstgewerbe Museum. Muster 
orientalischer Gewerbe und Druckstoffe 

hrsg. von E. Kumsch. Dresden, 
1893 

DuMONTHIER, I Le Mobilier national; étoffes 
d’ameublement de l’époque Napoléonienne; 
lettre préface de Fréderic Masson. Paris, 1909 

Dupont-AUBERVILLE L’Ornament des tissus, 
recueil historique et pratique . « Pa 
1877 

FALKE, Otro von. Kunstgeschichte der Seiden- 


weberei. Berlin, 1913. 2 vols 





CLASS 


ARDENNE DE I[izac, J. H.d Les Etoffes de la 
Chine; tissus et broderies. Paris, n. d. 
BeRLIN-MuseEN—Kunstgewerbe Museum. Die 
Gewebesammlung . . . hrsg. von Ju- 
lius Lessing. Berlin, 1900 

BRANTING, A. Das goldene Gewand der Konigin 
Margareta in der Domkirche zu Uppsala 
Stockholm (1911 

Brautik, A. Altagyptische Gewebe 
Stuttgart, 1900 

Brussecs—Musées royaux du cinquantenaire 
Industries d’art. Catalogue d’étoffes an- 
ciennes et modernes » « Bee 
Isabelle Errera, Bruxelles, 1907 

Core, A.S. Ornament in European silks. Lon- 
don, 1899. 

Cox, R. L’Art de décorer les tissus d’aprés les 
collections du Musée historique de la Cham- 
bre de commerce de Lyon. Paris, 1 goo. 


ROOM A 


FiscHBACH, F. Ornament of Textile Fabrics 
London, n. d 
-Die wichtigsten Webeornament bis zum 
19. Jahrhundert. Wiesbaden, n.d. 3 vols 
Forrer, R. Die Graeber- und Textilfunde von 
Achmim-Panopolis. Strassburg, 1891 
Die Kunst des Zeugdrucks vom Mittel- 
alter bis zur Empirezeit . . . Strass- 
burge. Els. 1898 
Rémische und byzantinische Seidentex- 
tililen aus dem Griaberfelde von Achmim- 
Panopolis Strassburg i. E. 1891. 
-Die Zeugdrucke der byzantinischen, rom- 
anischen, gothischen, und spatern Kunst- 
epochen. Strassburg, 1894. 
HatiFax (Eng.)—Bankfield Museum. Coptic 
Cloths, by L. E. Start. Halifax, 1914 
Hemwen, M. Handwérterbuch der Textilkunde 
aller Zeiten und Vélker. Stuttgart, 1904. 


BULLETIN OF THE 


Heiwen, M. Die Textilkunst des Alterthums 
bis zum Neuzeit; eine Ubersicht ihrer 
technischen und _ stilgeschichtlichen Ent- 


wickelung. Berlin, 1909 


JouRDAIN, M The Morant Collection of Old 

; Velvets, Damasks, Brocades, etc —— 
with a Description of English Upholstery 
during the 17th and 18th Centuries. Lon- 
don, n.d 

KELEKIAN, D. K. La Collection Kelekian, 


étoffes et taps d’Crient et de Venise; notice 
de Jules Guiffrey planches 


décrites et classées par G. Migeon. Paris, 
n.d 
Lonpon—South Kensington Museum. _Illus- 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF 


ART 


Martin, F. R. Stickereien ausdem Orient. Stock- 
holm, 1899. (Sammlung F. R. Martin.) 

Miceon, G. Les Arts du tissu. Paris, 1900. 

Miguet y Bapia, D. F. Catalogue de la Col- 
lection de tissus anciens de D. F. Miquel y 
Badia, classifiés par D. José Pascé. Barce- 
lona, 1900, 

Nisspet, H. Grammar of Textile Design, by 
Harry Nisbet. New York, 1906. 

NUREMBERG—Germanisches National Museum. 
Katalog der Gewebe und Sticke- 
reien, Nadelarbeiten und Spitzen aus Alterer 
Zeit (von A. O. Essenwein). Niirnberg, 1869. 

-Katalog der Gewebesammlung. 

Nirnberg, 1896-1901 





CLASS 


Textile Manufactures of 


ISS! 


trations of the 
India. London, 
lextile Fabrics; a Descriptive Cat- 
alogue of the Collection of Church Vest- 
ments, Dresses, Silk Stuffs. . . by 
Daniel Rock. London, 1870 
Lamoimier, P. La Décoration des tissus prin- 
cipalement des tissus d’habillement par le 
tissage, l’impression, la broderie. Paris, 
1905 
Martin, F. R. Figurale persische Stoffe aus 
dem Zeitraum 1550-1650. Stockholm, 1899 
Morgenlandische _ Stoffe Stockholm, 
1897 Sammlung F. R. Martin 
Die persischen Prachtstoffe im Schlosse 
Rosenborg in Kopenhagen. Stockholm, 1901 


ROOM B 


Paris, A. | Toiles peintes et tapisseries de la 
Ville de Reims; ou, la Mise en scéne du 
théAatre des Confréres de la Passion 
Paris, 1880. 2 vols 

Paris—Louvre—Musée des arts décoratifs 
Broderies, tissus, soieries, dessins de tissus 


collections de la_ Bibliothéque). Paris, 
n. d 
Paris—Louvre—Musée des arts décoratifs. 


Collections vol. 8), Etoffes, tissus, 
etc 

Les Nouvelles Collections 
Paris, n. d. Ser. 7.12 

lapis, tissus et faiences orient- 
ales. Paris, n. d. (Nouvelles collections, 
vol 19.) 








BULLETIN OF THE MI 
Paris-—-Louvre—Tissus, tapisseries, etc. Paris 
n. d. (Nouvelles collections, vol. 4 


Persoz, J. | Traité théorique et pratique de 
l'impression des tissus. Paris, 1846. 4 vol 
Reiss, W The Necropolis of Ancon in Peru 
Culture and Industries of the Em 


pire of the Incas the Results of 
Excavations made by W. Reiss 
and A. Stibel, tr. by A. H. Keane. Berlin 
1880-87 

Rock, D. Textile Fabrics. London, 1877. (South 
Kensington Museum Art Handbook 

Rourraer, G. P. De Batik-kunst in Neder- 
landsch—lIndie en haar Geschiedenis 
bewerkt door G. P. Rouffaer en H. H. Juyn- 


boll. Utrecht, 1914 
Sartor, M. Les Tapisseries 
broderies de Reims 


toiles, peintes et 


Reims, 1912 


Semper, G. Die textile Kunst fiir sich be 
trachtet und in Beziehung zur Baukunst 
2teanfl. Miinchen, 1878 

SPENGEL, J] Katalog (seiner) Textilsammlung 

bearb. von W. M. Schmid; jauktion 
in Miinchen 1907 Miinchen, 
1QO7 

STASSOFF, \ L’Ornament national Russe; 


FTROPOLITAN MUSEUM Ol 


ART 


broderies, tissus, avec texte ex- 
plicatif St. Petersburg, 1872 
lextite Fasrics oF INpiA; Sample Book 
Verneuit, M.P. Japanese Textiles Woven and 
Embroidered with an_ Introduc- 
tion by G. Migeon. London, 1910 
VIENNA. Museum fiir Kunst und Industrie 
Die agyptischen Textilfunde Ka- 
talog von Alois Riegl Wien, i8So 
ALTON, P The Story of Textiles; a Bird's-eye 
View of the History of the Beginning and 
the Growth of the Industry by which Man- 
kind is Clothed, comp. and written for 
John S. Lawrence. Boston (1912) 
‘VARING, ]. B. Examples of Weaving and Em- 
broidery, selected from the Royal and Other 
London, n. d 
Collection of 


\ 


> 


Collections 


Watson, ]. | Specimens and 


Illustrations of the Textile Manufactures 
of India; 2nd _ series London, 
vols 


1573 SO 17 
The Textile Manufactures and the Cos- 
tumes of the People of India. London, 1866 
Watson, W Textile Design and Colour, Ele- 
mentary Weaves and Figured Fabrics 
London, 1912. 





FRENCH, MIDDLI 


OF XVIII 


CENTURY 











‘copTic,” 


V-Vil 





CENTURY