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LL FAR 
PRICE TWENTY Cl ‘4 


nual Re. PUBLISHED MONTHLY 


— BULLETIN OF 


vhich all 


“i THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


accorded 


included 

me ART 

Seregate 

d to he 

nes | VoLumE XV NEW YORK, OCTOBER, 1920 NUMBER 10 


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BY REMBRANDI 


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BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


VAN DYCK AND REMBRAND] 


IN THE PRINT ROOM 

A MONG the prints recently given by 
an anonymous donor were three van Dycks, 
twenty-two Rembrandts, and five Durers, 
a complete list of which appeared in the 
BULLETIN for July. In view of several 
articles that have recently appeared in 
these pages little need be said of the Durers 
other than that they are fine representative 
impressions, and will be most useful for 
comparison with the impressions already 
in the Museum collection. The van Dycks 
and Rembrandts, however, in view of the 
comparative poverty of the Print Room 
in the work of these masters, need special 
mention, since in each case the number ot 
good impressions of prints by them in the 
collection has almost been doubled by the 
gilt 

The Museum now possesses good im- 
pressions of the following portrait etchings 
by van Dyck: in the first state—Snellinx, 
Vorsterman, Paul de Vos, and Jan de Wael; 
and in the second state—Iranken, Pontius, 
and Jean Breughel; that 1s, a little less than 
half the total number of portraits which 
the master etched himself. Of these, the 
portraits of Vorsterman, de Vos, and 
Snellinx make part of the generous gift just 
mentioned, those of Pontius and Breughel 
were ac quired at the sale of the collection 
formed by Earl opencer, W hose great library 
now forms the John Rylands Memorial 
Library at Manchester, while the Franken 
and de Wael, the latter of which belonged 
to both Dreux and Seymour Haden, were 
purchased at the recent sale of Paul David- 
sohn’s prints at Leipzig. 

It is doubtful whether any artist other 
than van Dyck has ever made such a 
reputation as an etcher with such a small 
number of prints, for the total number of 
plates surely by him is only eighteen, 
fifteen of which are portraits closely re- 
semb 





ing each other in size, manner, and 
compositional scheme. With few excep- 
tions they were finished or “‘ pointed up” 
by professional engravers in order that they 
might conform more closely to the fash- 
ionable portrait engraving of the time, so 
that in several instances there are but one 


or possibly two impressions known which 
were pulled from the plates before van 
Dyck’s own work was tampered with by 
other duller hands, while in every case 
such impressions, when not actually very 
It is to this 
fact that the unusual importance of “state” 
in the van Dyck etchings is to be traced, 
because here it is an index not merely of 
comparative rarity or probable fineness of 
impression but of whether or not the im- 


rare, are exceedingly scaree, 


pression in question is really a van Dyck 
etching or only a Flemish engraving of 
the Rubens school. Moreover, as the 
plates with few exceptions are. still in 
existence, and have been printed up every 
little while since they were first made, they 
have needed frequent reworking as they 
wore away, and in consequence the average 
number of states in which the. several 
plates occur is unusually large. All this 
merely increases the wonder of the reputa- 
tion which ts founded on them, as it means 
that however common they are in Bowd- 
lerized versions the original van Dycks 
themselves have never been easy to come 
by. But this perhaps may be explained in 
part by two facts which otherwise have 
rarely or never occurred together. 

\s reworked these etchings formed part 
of a collection of approximately one hun- 
dred engraved portraits which from. its 
first publication took high rank in the 
affections of the collector. Today when 
the collection of prints has so largely be- 
come a matter of eclectic choice of master- 
pieces, great and little, portraits merely as 
likenesses are comparatively little thought 
of, but for several hundred years at least 
the portrait was the most popular kind of 
print, and collectors sought to get not 
only the best portraits but portraits of as 
many different men as they could find, 
frequently taking greater pride in their 
number and variety than in their choice- 
ness from artistic points of view. To 
supply this constant demand, so many 
different sets were issued that finally no 
great house or library was complete with- 
out its shelf loads of bound collections of 
engraved and etched portraits. Among 
them were usually to be found the Perrault 
set entitled “‘Les Hommes Illustres qui 


,99 





~ — 





Which 
© Van 
ith by 

case 
very 
O this 
state” 
raced, 
ely of 
ess of 
e Im- 
Dyck 
1g of 

the 
Il in 
ver) 
they 
they 
vrage 
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this 
uta- 
leans 
owd- 
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ome 
‘din 
lave 


part 
1un- 
its 
the 
hen 
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> 


BULLETIN OF THE 
ont paru en France pendant ce siécle,” 
the several series engraved by Houbraken, 
many by various Dutch and English hands, 
the Bartolozzi Holbeins, and many more 
too numerous to mention, but always, as 
the most highly prized of all, was van 
Dyck’s Iconography. These prints were 
thus sought for by three different groups of 
persons: those who collected prints as 
works of art, those who collected portraits 
simply as likenesses, and finally the book 
collectors who bought them bound in sets, 
each of which classes by itself was able to 
make both price and reputation for any- 
thing it sought. 

The other fact is that, as it happens, 
they are among the most accomplished 
and beautiful portraits which have ever 
been made in etching, and stand by them- 
selves in their simplicity of handling and 
impersonal dignity of presentation. In- 
tended to be issued as a set, and therefore 
necessarily the same in size and general 
scheme of composition, they do not show 
the variety of mood and temper or the 


high pictorial development which are 
characteristic of Rembrandt’s work in 
portraiture. But this restriction being 


granted as forming part of the problem 
presented to the artist, his success was as 
nearly complete as possible, because within 
his limitations of form and intention he 
produced a more distinguished series of 
courtly portraits than any other etcher 
has ever done. 

hanks to the same anonymous donor 
who gave the three van Dycks above men- 
tioned, the total number of good impres- 
sions from Rembrandt’s plates now in the 
Museum collection has been increased 
from almost thirty to nearly fifty. How 
many of Rembrandt’s prints Rembrandt 
actually made is matter of dispute, the 
usually accepted pieces numbering about 
three hundred, of which naturally a large 
part are of minor artistic importance, 
however interesting and desirable for vari- 
ous reasons they may be. Of those in the 
collection few if any belong to this minor 
class, and they are spread over the 
master’s entire career, beginning with the 
portrait of his mother of 1628 which is 
regarded as his earliest plate, and ending 


as 


>? 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 
with three of the five nudes with which 
it closes, the student may now see in the 


permanent collection typical examples of 
most of the more important phases of his 
work. While many of the noteworthy 
plates as vet are not represented, there are 
now available such among 
others, as the Three Crosses, the Hundred 


masterpieces, 


Guilder print, the Three Trees, the Vista, 





¥ 


PORTRAIT OF LUCAS VORSTERMAN 


BY VAN DYCK 
and the portraits of Jan Lutma, Jan Cor- 
nelis Sylvius, and Rembrandt at the Win- 
dow, which make part of the recent gift 

Although from the point of view of 
old established European print rooms fifty 


Khyyt 
DUL a 


the 


good prints by Rembrandt may be 
work, that 


| 


small part of the 
small part is nevertheless so extraordinarily 


master’s 


varied and interesting and so rich in values 
that it would be difficult 1f not impossible 
to mention any complete etched work of 
any other man that would compare to it 
in importance. Every other great etcher 
that one can recall had some special pre- 
dilection and produced his best work in 


2 
7 





BULLETIN OF THE Mi 
some one field, but save for the fact that 
Rembrandt made no architectural prints 


there seems to have been no type of etching 


it make distinguished con 


to which he did ne 


tributions 

In a short notice such as this it would b« 
Obviously impossible except in mere sta- 
tistical form of title, catalogue number 
tate, and provenance to give any account 
of the Rembrandts recently given to th 


M im, let alone all those in its collection 
Ni is this true on account of th 
unusual actual content of his etchings, but 
because of the peculiar way, otherwise 
Im inknown in the medium, in which 

the prints bear witness to the growth of 
n, the thinking reflective being, as 

well as to the growth of the technician. In 
yobabilitv. Rembrandt took a longer 

time in developing than any other etcher 
who has achieved reputation. In the case 
of s modern masters Whistler and 


Mervon but a scant four or five vears 
| | the beginnings and 
plates which to the very 
among thi 
\s compared 
the talents of 
pro- 
eression can only be described as slow and 
Of the various 


the 


apsed D¢ 


r careers remained 


ol etiorts. 


then 
rapid fruition of 
these, 


uch men as Rembrandt's 


even possibly as halting 
for this, however, two stand out, 


reasons 


either of which by itself is amply sufficient 


as explanation. Rembrandt was the first 
great technical explorer of the etcher’s 


medium, and he had little or no benefit from 
the researches and discoveries of his prede- 
All the 
themselves at the very inceptions of their 


careers upon certain technical things which 


modern men have based 


Cessors 


by their time had become commonplaces 
he craft, but which he cir- 
cumstance was compelled to work out from 
the most rudimentary beginnings. And ot 
time and an amount 


ol t by force of 


course this took ol 
patient thought and research such as none of 
his successors has beencalled upon toexpend. 
Even to the very end of his career we see 
him turning aside from creation to the care- 
ful investigation of new technical problems, 
as for example in the play of light over 
the body in the series of nude figures with 


which his etched work terminates 


FROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


to 


OF ARI 

There have been other men who doubt- 
less have had a greater knowledge of the 
practice of etching than he had, and a 
number of men who 


considerable ave 


carried technical adroitness on one side or 


another quite beyond anything that he 
ever accomplished; but taking his  ac- 
complishment as a whole, and having 
regard to the actual advances that he 


brought about in pure technique, the 
world is agreed that no one other man has 


ever made such a contribution to etching 
craftsmanship. This by itself would suf- 
fice to warrant his position in popular 


But, 


ac- 


the etchers. 
meritorious his technical 


complishment, it would not by itself permit 


Opinion as ereatest ol 


howevet 


to his enthronement, because 


one to agrer 

one must have more than command over 
medium to take such high rank as his, 
one must have made pictures in which 
the non-technical world finds something 


very much to its purpose. And this Rem- 
brandt did too, although it took him even 
longer 
than his command over copper. 
had to own 
had to learn to think, and that having been 
done to master the indescribably rare and 
difficult art of the pictorial dramatist. Had 
he been willing to confine his attention to 
representation things seen and their 
pleasing arrangement he too might have 
been called precocious, for his very earliest 
plate, a little portrait of his mother, would 
take high rank among the productions of 
his realist su Sut happily for 
the world he not. content to make 
mere images of things he saw in the round 
of his daily life, and even more happily 
trips in search of the picturesque to exotic 
places, the Venices and Benares of modern 
times, were either impracticable or did not 
appeal to him. Instead he did what no 
other great etcher has ever done, although 
it Was common enough among the men who 
engraved and who designed woodcuts, he 


mistakes 
Here he 
mind, 


and cost him even more 


gain control over his 


ol 


Cessor;rs. 


Was 


took to illustrating, that is, to the pictorial 
representation incidents which habit- 
ually related in words. With few 
exceptions he found the things which ap- 
pealed to his imagination in the Bible, the 
most the 


ol 


were 


widely known story book in 


24 


; 





mer 
Ren 
Lion 
upo 





doubt- 
of the 
and a 
O nave 
side or 
hat he 
his ac- 
having 
hat he 
le, the 
van has 
etching 
Id suf- 
opular 
But, 

al ac- 
permit 
CAUSE 
d over 
as his, 
which 
vething 
; Rem- 
n even 
istakes 
lere he 
mind, 
g been 
re and 
Had 
Hon to 
their 
have 
‘arliest 
would 
ons of 
ly for 
make 
round 
appl) 
exotic 
yodern 
id not 
lat no 
hough 
n who 
ts, he 
-torial 
habit- 
h few 
sh ap- 
e, the 


n the 


- 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 

world, and as a result his work has an ap- — ber of his earhler compositions, moving as 
peal not only to the esthete and the con- they are, are theatrical rather than finely 
noisseur of craftsmanship but to the man — dramatk But as time went on with its 
who has never consciously thought either ceaseless and keenest self-criticism, he 
of beauty or of the finesses of etching lo bettered these things, and eventually not 
do this effectively he had to import into only reached a degree of insight which 
his work many qualities which the ordinary enabled him to dispense with elaborat« 
etcher never considers even tor a moment; Stage settings, but even on occasion so to 

utilize and control them that although 


had to acquire such a knowledge of the 





THE THREE 


and figure as made it possible 
men in 


human face 
for him not only 


au 


to represent 


tion, but in action which in turn represented 


better 
only 


and Of the 
nineteenth-century  etchers 
Gova and Millet succeeded in representing 
the human being in movement, and only 


Goya in thought, for real as is the motion 


thought 
Known 


emotion. 


of Millet’s men they are perilously close in 
mentality to the ox. At the beginning of 
Rembrandt’s endeavors toward 
tional expressiveness he patterned himselt 


emo- 


upon Rubens, and in consequence a num- 


> 


CROSSES 


— 


BY REMBRAND1 
more magnificent than ever the beholder 
should not specificall) be aware of them 
From the great Three Crosses, in which 
with an unparalleled orchestration of all 
the resources of black and white he dared 
to depict the moment of the rending of th 
veil, he could turn to that Return from 
the Temple, a plate so insignificant in siz 


and apparently in composition that it is 
doubtful whether any one who has not seen 
turned to him 
exquisit 


his own child’s tired tac« in 
trust can fully comprehend thi 


moment that it represents 





BULLETIN OF THE MI 


Now it is not contended that the drama- 


th matter art any finer or neces- 
sarily more subtle a thing than landscapes 
city 


that 
personal 


is as Ol 
streets or even mere seated models 
matter of definition and 
predilection—but this 
seem there can be no discussion 
about, that the dramatic has a quicker and 


Or 


is all 2 


much it 
would 


1 more general appeal to mankind than any 
other form of art. To balance this, and 
as its safeguard, there is no other form of 


art in which error is so abundantly eas) 
or in which greatness and asininity lie so 
disastrously close together. We accept 
aberrations in sight most leniently and 


put them down to artistic intention, and 
are not in the bothered by the fact 
that what purports to be a stone building 
In a picture is really drawn as though it 


least 


were a heavy curtain none too securels 
hung from the top. But let a man start 


out to represent a human situation and the 
slip in dramatic construction pro- 
duces bathos and the world to a man laughs 


least 
and turns away. Had we as quick a sense 
of the incongruous in mere representation 
of inanimate things as we have in affairs 
of the emotions, many of the most famous 
modern etchings could never have attained 
or held their reputation. Shadows run- 
ning in such ways as to indicate that the 
sun must have been in two different parts 
of the heaven at the same moment, and 
boats so drawn that their keels are bent 
at angles of thirty degrees, are not regarded 
as humorous in the least, but an error of 
the fiftieth part of an inch in the notation 
face turns the exalted into the 
farcical that the man who emo- 
tional gesture gives hostages to jeering 
fortune with every movement of his point. 
In passing it is worth while to notice 
one minor item in Rembrandt’s artistic 
equipment, and that is his ability to draw 
hands without evasion. Without referring 
to other men’s achievement or lack of it, 
there is no doubt that he knew how to 
represent these things so that they became 
in black and white what they are in life, 
after the face the most expressive parts 
of the body. No matter how summarily 
they may be indicated in his prints, they 
function human, animal, anatomical 


ol a SO 


essays 


as 


FROPOLITAN MUSEIl 


M 


OF ARI 

things, and never merely as spots of ligi 
or dark prolonging the lines of 
Usually they play a decisive part in ¢ 
emotional expressiveness of the pictur 
and at no time can they be disregarde 
It is only a little thing perhaps, but ; 


arm 


those who remember seeing Duse knoy 
Is one of the essential parts of dramat 
mastery. 

This critical use of skill in draughtsma 
ship and technique of process in the 
vice of imagination what more 
anything else gives Rembrandt his gre; 
in the esteem of men 
artistic sensibility and compr 
hension. Whether or not they are able 
willing to examine into his methods 
and the technical adroitness w 
which his results were produced is imm 
terial, they are all able to recognize dramf 
and are only t 


IS 


Or ever 


position 


degree Ol 


WOT k 


when it comes their way, 
delighted to surrender themselves to 
Magic without pausing to inquire into 
articulation. And this contains the secr 
of much Rembrandt’s greatness, 
translated into words it mean 
that he requires of those who would g 
pleasure from his work neither particul 
training nor knowledge either of art or 
etching, but merely a_ healthy hum 
appetite for a great story adequately tol 
Perhaps after all, though, the ability tot 
a really good story and to tell it really W 
is the most wonderful of all things that a! 
man, even, one may surmise, ans 
can ever aspire to. 

Just 


able 


ol 


other 


Rembrandt wi 
portrail 


because of this 
to make memorable 
landscapes. His sitters, with te 
exceptions, served him much mor 
than models. Van Dyck made of whom 
a courtier, and whateve 
his actual character and bearing he serve 
the artist merely as a peculiarly fine 
organized manikin or clothes-horse to } 
forced into the shape and form of a dis 
tinguished predilection. With Rembrané 
it was different. His sitters after his m 
turity became problems in dramatic pe 
sonification, and he sought patiently 

keenly and with the greatest learning an 
skill to disentangle from each of them t! 
things which most differentiated him fro! 


also 
and 


as 


soever he drew 


220 


artis, 





not 

wit 
\si 
wh 


pe rr 


pal 
110) 
cor 


for 


lan 
am 
the 





pots « if ligh 


es Of arm 


Part in th 


the pictur 


disregarde’ 


laps, but ; 


use know 
of dramat 


raughtsmay 
in the s 
more the 
It his gre; 
‘n ot 
nd compr 
are able 
methods 
itness Wit 


dis imm 


nize dram 
re only t 
Ives to 
ire into 
; the secr 
atness, 
it mean 
would g 
particule 
f art or 
ry hum 
ately tol 
lity to te 
really W 
'S that an 
ins 
‘andt wa 
portrait 
with fev 
ich = mor 
ot whom 


whatever, 


he serve 
rly fined) 
rse to b 
of a dis 
»mbrand 
r his mi 
atic pe 
ntly at 
ning ao 
hem th? 
lim. fron 


evers 


artis, 


BULLETIN OF THE MI 


other men. Each in his turn was a new 
problem of sympathy and comprehension, 
and to each Rembrandt went out in open 
and receptive mood seeking character and 
not intent, as was van Dyck, on endowing 
with predetermined group characteristics. 
Aside from several models 


whose heads are to be recognized, the only 


professional 


person whom he steadil\ used for study was 
1imself, but even here, on several occasions 
at least, he was able to do that most difficult 


of difficult things, make a portrait of him- 


self not as a strutting, smiling, or grimacing 
model, but simply as a man. One of 
these portraits, the Rembrandt at the 


Window, shows us the master as even he 
but seldom can have seen himself, for it 1s 
the most penetrating of all self-portraits in 
etching, and to one the 
precious since it shows us the master 


us of today ol 


most 


soberly as he was when at the height of his 
powt rs 

\s tor first 
when his skill as realistic draughtsman had 
already been highly developed, and, as we 
know from documentary evidence, at a 
time when he had recently been through 
the most trying emotional experiences of 
his Here his performance 
most frequently been approached by his 
cessors, and even perhaps in some in- 
but it is here also that, 


his landscapes they came 


career. has 


SUC 


stances surpassed 


more definitely than anywhere else, his 
immediate influence upon later work ts 
visible. In his great compositions and 


portraits the vision was too personal and 
the draughtsmanship idiosyncratic 
to lead to anything but certain failure on 
the part of those who have sought to imi- 
tate, but in landscape, where in com- 
parison there was little scope for imagina- 
tion or emotional insight, he evolved a 


too 


convention which still serves as the basis 
lor the greater part of contemporary work. 
For two hundred years after his death his 
landscape prints stood out preéminentl) 
among all those that were made, and when 
the “revival” of etching came shortly 
after the middle of the last century it was 


to 


FROPOLITAN MUSEUM 


OF ARI 


to them that the prominent members of 
the new school of landscape etchers most 
1aturally turned for their inspiration and 
technical guidance. At least one of them 
and probably the best known of the group 
n ardent and student 
before in middle life he took 


was collector ol 
Rembrandt 
to making etchings himself, and the traces 
of his admiration and close study are clearl\ 
to be seen in many of his most successful 
plates, while among 
there many on whose work the tradi- 


tion of Rembrandt’s style of workmanship 


the younger generation 


are 


is indelibly stamped. 

In all the history 
varied and involved as it 1s, 
man has ever served for so long or so con- 


t 
t 


arts 
other 


r 
le grapnic 


no one 


ol 


a model for succeeding gen- 


tinuously as 

erations. Schongauer, Mantegna, Direr 
Holbein, have always been admired and 
their work has always been ardently col- 


lected, but as the processes in which they 
worked have for one reason or another been 
discarded the study of their prints as mat- 
ter for emulation has ceased. Of the old 
masters of the printed picture Rembrandt 
a vital and a living force 


think of etching 


alone 1s today 
for no one can seriously) 
a more or less intimate acquaint- 


Me yreover, 


without 
ance with his work and method. 
his work being in a medium which ts still 
widely utilized and familiar, it 1s under- 
stood by the public without any of the 
rather archaeological learning which un- 
fortunately seems to be a prerequisite to 
the full enjoyment of 
Whether or not with the introduction of 
new technical processes he will in turn 
cease to be copied and patterned alter, it Is 


impossible to say, but one thing Is certain, 


Renaissance work 


that so long as men relish a good story 
well told Rembrandt will retain his popu- 
larity with the lovers of pictures, lor he 


was the greatest story teller who as yet has 


worked in black and white, and if, as we 
are sometimes assured, “‘story telling 
lies without the province of ‘‘art”’ then so 
much the worse for ‘‘art.” 

W.M.L., Jr. 














FIG l GOLD JEWELRY FROM MOCHLOS 
CRETAN REPRODUCTIONS what they teach us of Cretan costumes 
fig. 3) [he wide skirts, the open jackets, 
A NUMBER of Cretan reproductions the Medici collars, the “plate hats,”’ all 


recently purchased have been included in 
I 


the ifttieth Anniversary Exhibition as 
special features. They are shown in Case 
H 2 in the First Classical Room and 1il- 
lustrate in a striking way the manvy-sided- 
ness of Cretan art They are the work of 


M. E. Gilhéron of Athens, with whose help 
able to build now 
important collection of such copies. 

The most 
undoubtedly the copy of the famous ivory 


we have been up our 


interesting of this new lot 1s 


figure from Knossos (about 1600-1500 B.C., 
fig. 2), conceived apparently as a leaper ina 
bull-fighting scene such as that represented 
in the fresco No. 40. In its fresh sense ot 
lite and movement and in its fine apprecia- 
tion of the litheness and delicacy of the 
human form it is almost and 
shows perhaps better than any other pro- 
duct of the time the essential kinship be- 
tween Crete and Greece. Several of these 
figures were found together, in a very pre- 
carious state of preservation, and were only 
from complete decomposition by 
timely soaking in melted wax and paraffin. 
[he one here shown is the best preserved. 
From another example we know that the 
holes in the head served for the attach- 
ment of long locks of hair in gold plated 
bronze; the streaming hair must have 
added greatly to the lifelike effect of the 
whole. 

The little painted terracotta figures from 
Petsofa, placed on the middle shelf, are 
more roughly worked but valuable for 


Greek, 


saved 


that 
so olten 


strike us with modernit\ 
the element that confronts us in 
the study of this far-awav civilization. The 
statuettes were found in what was probably 
a shrine and were evidently votive offer- 
he separate arms found with th 
explained as such. The 
with the 


curious 


ings. 
figures can only be 
about contemporary 


goddess, that is, it belongs 


group Is 
Knossos snake 
to the end of the Middle Minoan period 
about 1800 B. 


1000 


\mong the most interesting discoveries + 


in Crete were the three steatite cups decor- 


ated with reliefs found at Hagia Triada 
lhe Harvester vase and the Boxer vase W 


have long had represented in our collec- 
tion. Now we are able to show a copy ol 
the third, “Chieftain cup 
lhe decoration is less elaborate than on th 


the so-called 


two other examples, there being only five 
figures—a chieftain into whose august 
presence an officer, with his train of three 
men, has just been admitted. The soldiers 
are almost hidden behind their large shields 
of hide; the officer stands at attention 
the chieftain’s proud bearing marks him 
out as the ruler of the clan. The individ- 
ualization is remarkable and gives to th 
figures an uncommon interest. The Cre- 
tan artist indeed shows himself here in a 
fresh light—not with the exuberant love tor 
movement and life so evident in the Har- 
vester and Boxer vases, but in a quieter 
mood, in which he produced scenes full 
of charm and subtle characterization. 


\ 
sugs 
You 
ches 
ey id 
whi 
orig 

\ 
one 
1Our 
bow 
the 
wor 
200K 
is fi 
han 
mus 
once 
wert 
and 


mag 
rulr 
Pal. 
the 
peo 
as 

and 
tror 
Inte 
plac 
pro 
ot t 
Kn 
inla 
are 
win 
den 
wit! 
WISt 


con 


; all 
Trnity 
US In 


The Y 


bably 
offer- 
h the 

The 
1 the 
longs 
veriod 


veries 
lecor- 
‘jada 
se We 
llec- 
DV Ol 
up.” 
n the 
five 
gust 
hree 
diers 
ields 
10N; 
him 
vid- 
the 
Cre- 
in a 
» for 
ar- 
eter 
full 


BULLETIN OF THE 


A small fragment of another steatite vase 


nature. 
with 


similar 
walking 


suggests a work ol a 


Youths are 
chests thrown back in a solemn procession, 


represented 


evidently bearing offerings to a shrine, of 
which remains are seen above. The 
original was found at Knossos. 

\ bronze basin, also from Knossos, 1s 
one of the finest products in that material 
found in Crete. The form—a large flat 
bowl with arched handle—is elegant, and 
the lily border on the rim 1s both carefulls 
worked and effective. The whole has a 
\ basin of this shape 


with a 


good deal ot stvle. 
is figured on an inscribed tablet 
handsome ewer standing in it, so that we 
must imagine this example also as having 
once formed part of such a set. With it 
were indeed found a ewer and other basins, 
and the ewer, it is interesting to note, Is 
of the same shape as one of those carried 
by the Keftians, the Minoan ambassadors, 
bearing offerings in the 

We can appreciate that 


represented as 
Egyptian tombs. 
such fine metal vases must have been wel- 
come gifts to discriminating Pharaohs. 

Phe palace of Knossos has taught us the 
magnificence of Cretan court life. The 
ruins of the little towns of Gournia and 
Palaikastro tell a very different story of 
the conditions in which lived the humbler 
people. Their as simple 
as those of their masters were splendid 
and spacious. Our derived 
from such ruins is supplemented by an 
interesting terracotta 
plaques, showing facades of houses. Re- 
productions of these are shown on the deck 
The originals were found at 
probably 
inlay of a casket. The houses depicted 
are generally two stories high with several 
windows and flat roofs. They are evi- 
dently of wood and plaster construction 
with beams placed lengthwise and cross- 
wise. 


quarters Were 


knowledge 


series of glazed 


of the case. 


Knossos, and once served as 


he use of color gives them a pleas- 
ing appearance; but the design is very 
simple and unpretentious, not unlike, in 
fact, the provincial modern 
Greece. 


houses of 


In our persistent belief that the people 
of ancient times led primitive lives, we are 


continually having surprises. After we 


>20 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


had got used to the fact that in 1500 B. ¢ 
there was an advanced civilization in 
Crete, with luxuries, comforts, and a k 

appreciation of art, we thought that at 
least during the periods life 
must have been rude and primitive Mi 
Mochlos have 
for he tound 


een 
preceding 
Seager’s discoveries at 
made us revise our estimate; 
in that little island a profusion of gold 
jewelry and of finely worked stone vases 
belonging to the Early Minoan [I period 


about 2500 B. C.), which point to a state 





IVORY LEAPER 


FIG. 2 


FROM KNOS 


of prosperity and to the possession « tfi- 
cient tools \ selection of the Mochlos 
jewelry is here shown in finely worked 
copies (fig. 1 [hey consist of hairpins 
in the shape of daisies and crocuses and 
spravs of leaves, of plain bands, delicate 


chains, and pendants, not as a rule of ver 


fine workmanship, it Is true, but displaying 
the same charming naturalism which char- 
acterizes later Cretan work And if the 


people of this small settlement could boast 
of such an abundance of precious orna- 
ments, what must the dwellers in the larger 
cities have owned: 

On the same site and belonging to the 
same period was found a steatite lid with 


t 


handle in the form of a dog. Of this, too, 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


we have been able to acquire a reproduc- 
letailed, 


modeling is not « 
its comparative crudeness 


It Snow e00d observation of esse ntials and 
marked decorative feeling It 1s interest- 
ing to note that the breed of dog here repre- 
sented—long-legged and crop-eared—can 
S n n Cretan villages today 





TERRACOTTA FIGURE 


FROM PETSOFA 


having persisted apparently through more 
than four thousand vears 

These finds—the jewelry and the stone 
lid—give us glimpses into an entirely new 
world—Crete not of the second but of the 
third millennium B.C. We can only hope 
that future discoveries will help us to know 
this period better; for it too was, it would 
seem, an epoch in which there was an ap- 
preciation and sense for beauty, and which 
must have made a contribution to our 
artistic stock which we cannot afford to 
lose. G. M.A. R. 


CHANGES IN THE JAPANESE 
ARMOR HALL 


Hi hall of Japanese armor aims to 
illustrate the development of arms and 
armor from the earliest times to the period 
Meiji (1808). But as space is limited, we 
can now exhibit only our choicest objects; 
in fact, when new material is secured, we 
must make far-reaching changes in order 
to exhibit it. 
collected in Japan by the curator, thanks 
to a fund donated anonymously by 


[hus the accessions of 1917, 


largely 

trustee of the Museum, have caused the 
rearrangement of many of our cases, since 
we have now filled gaps in our series, 
especially in representing the art of the 
armorer during the ancient period of 
Japan, let us say up to the seventh century 
ae WR 

\s one now enters the Japanese armor 
hall from the main, or Riggs gallery, he 
a case containing early 
These were collected from 


finds on his left 
Japanese swords 
tumuli, mainly in the central provinces: 
they represent forms which, with rarest 
exceptions, have hitherto been seen only 
in the national collections of Japan. And 
for this there has been an excellent reason, 
since all materials of this kind were from 
burial mounds and belonged to the revered 
ancestors of the Japanese, especially to 
their divine imperial family, whose tumuli 
are known by the score. Hence they 
were not to be disturbed inadvisedly or 
lightly; and, if explored at all, they were 
inspected only by governmental experts, 
who are bound to reserve all materials tor 
the imperial museums, and, tending to 
make them contraband and 
The presence, therefore, in 


this end, 
inexportable. 
a foreign museum of even half a dozen 
more or less complete swords of the peculiar 
bulbous-pommeled type, with ovate wheel- 
like guards, is at once worthy of mention. 
Moreover, our specimens are good ones, 
and in three of them the scabbard mount- 
ings are preserved. With these is shown 
a carefully prepared restoration of one 
of these swords, made by the well-known 
artist Sarakatsu Gassan after a specimen, 


'Cf. Bull. Met. Mus. Art, vol. XII (1917), P- 


now 

taken 
count 
wall « 
SWOT’ 


its 

scab 
of n 
heac 
line 
ee 
at t 


we 
Jer 
17; 
1ks 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OI 


by the heavenly 


ARI 


ancestor of the emperors. 


the 


other 


BULLETIN OF THE 
now in the Imperial Museum in Tokyo, 
a mound at Ichikawa, Shinji 


taken trom 


In the same 


The bulbous-headed sword, on 
hand, is probably indigenous, developing 


county, province of Hitachi. 


Ainu sword, 


for 


the re 


from the 


aboriginal 


wall c 


ase is a phoenix-hilted (ho-0) straight 


exists a series of t 


ransitional forms between 


sword in remarkable preservation, having 


B,ORIGINAL JAPANESE LINE 

















| A. COREAN 
(CHINESE ?) | 
LINE (Pare 
‘ 
" 7] ‘ Pas mt — 
V 














uk 


si 

























rite 


wi 





Wie i 


SSD 










JAPANESE SWORD HILTS: 
DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS 


MODELS BETWEEN 


its ferrules, original grip (in part), and 
scabbard mountings, while near it is a series 
of no less than five pommels of the phoenix- 
headed type. These represent a special 
line of swords, Corean, or possibly Chinese 
(T’ang), which found its way into Japan 


at the time of the winning of the kingdom 


A.D. | AND A.D. 700 


the heavy-pommeled (stone) knives of the 
Ainu and the beautiful bulbous-pommeled 
probably from 


D., when 


swords which appeared, 
the third to the sixth century A. 
the blade attained magnificent proportions 
(we have one 40 inches long), straight (not 


as vet curved as in the typical Japanese 


231 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


sword), its steel already damascus-like in 
tructure, its cutting edge welded to a core 
of sotter metal as in Japanese swords of 
the Koto (ancient) period. In fact, one 


of our specimens has here been especially 


ground so as to show the damascus pattern 
and its indented border line, or vaktha. In 


} 


these early swords, by 


the way, the guard 
blade than with 
for when the hiit was dismounted, 


belongs rather with the 
the hilt, 
the disk-like guard was passed down the 
whole length of the blade 
while in the 
eighth century 


over the point, 
from the 


guard slips off 


Japanese words 


onward, the 


) yh} A B 
AY] 


a sword guard or pommel of this tvpe turn 


up in commerce in Japan, the chances are 


possibly nine out of ten that it is not 
genuine. The curator, therefore, took the 


opportunity of studying the forgeries of 
these objects and of making the acquaint- 
ance olf 


copyists, from one of whom he 


ordered a specially prepared pommel of 
phoenix-head design to be forged in the 
maker's best manner, which could be used 
for comparison with our authentic guards 
the copied specimen being of course signed 
and dated, to add to its value as a museum 
document 


i 
N | 
y/ \ 
Aad, ) 
¥ * 
yt ( 
f > 
r\) 
4 < 
7) as 
JAPANESE STIRRUPS 
4. EARLIER THAN OOO A.D. B. 7FOO-9QOO A.D. Cc. 1000-1800 A.D. 


with the grip and pommel over the handle- 
the blade. In the present collec- 
tion of primitive swords we have a remark- 
able example (Case O. 2) of a form which is 
directly in the ancestral line of the modern 
Japanese sword 
very much 


It is straight, but mounted 
as in the later sword of high 
degree known as the “tachi.”” The pres- 
ent example dates earlier than 7oo A. D. 
and retains its original mountings. This 
kind of sword is known in actual specimens, 
which date probably from the seventh or 
eighth century, in the 
Imperial 


contents of the 
(Shosoin) at Nara. 
In a word, in our present collection we have 
practically all forms of 
swords represented. 


storehouse 


early Japanese 
So rare and so keenly 
sought for are these objects that they have 


long been copied adroitly: should, indeed, 


Success in these 


obtaining primitives 
was due largely to the cooperation which 
the museums in Japan afforded us, and 
we note gratefully the courtesies received 
from Messrs. Seki, Takahashi, Takeda, 
Wada, Nakamura, and Yatsu, and espe- 
cially from Tsuda Noritaké, of the Ueno 
Museum, who accompanied the curator on 
numerous trips, and who put him in touch 
with a Buddhist lay-reader, Mr. Kameda, 
a remarkable collector of prehistoric ob- 
It was through Mr. Kameda that 
we secured from the head man ot 


jects. 
small 
village in the prefecture of Gumma a series 
ol objects which were gathered before edicts 
forbade the exploration of early sepul- 
chres: this “‘find’’ includes three of our 
best swords, several extraordinary pommels 
and guards, a fine iron breastplate of the 


232 


earlic 
in ex 
well- 
an e 
exhil 
then 
to t 
thes 
or e 
sold 
whi 
mad 
ol ¢ 
sam 
WOO 
as | 
the! 
tack 
gest 
abb 
plat 
Jap 
are 
this 
con 
dat 
wh 
ten 
Th 
hel 
up 
het 
ol 

fin 


lk " 


e turn 


-CS are 


IS not 
k the 
les of 
uaint- 
m he 
lel of 
nN the 
used 
rds 

igned 


seum 


Ves 
Ich 
nd 
ed 


la, 


no 
on 
ch 


BULLETIN OF THE 


earliest period, a pair of cup-shaped stirrups 
in extraordinary preservation (the second 
well-preserved pair extant), together with 
an early pear-shaped helmet. These are 
exhibited in cases O. 2 and O. 3, and with 
them three objects of noteworthy interest 
to the student of early Japan. One of 
these is a saddle dating from the seventh 
or eighth century, which we believe was 
sold from the temple Todaiji at Nara, in 
which the seat of the saddle appears to be 
made up on each side of two plates, instead 
of one. With this saddle and from the 
same source were obtained the stirrups with 
wooden foot-cups complete which, so far 
as known, form the third pair extant ot 
their early type. The stirrups were at- 
tached to the saddle by a mounting sug- 
gesting the chain of the tumulus period, 
abbreviated in form, yet not reduced to the 
plate-like stirrup support of fairly recent 
Japanese stirrups, wherein useless 
are reminiscent of the ancient chain. In 
this case the third object worthy of especial 
comment is the wooden figure of a warrior 
dating from the tenth century or earlier, 
which appears to have belonged to the 
temple Kutano Temmongu_ of 
his little figure wears the Mogul type of 
helmet and is armored with a jazeran made 
up of long scales bound together by cord; 
hence it yields us a document for the history 
of armor, especially illuminating since one 
finds similar scales of jazerans in various 
localities in Japan, but always detached. 
On the opposite side of the armor hall, 
and O. &, we now exhibit 
examples of sepulchral images (haniwa) 
of the tumulus period, that is, 
than the seventh century. These images 
in numbers about on the summits 
of burial mounds, their bases buried like 
flower-pots in the ground, and portrayed 
the buried chieftain, his family, servants, 
horses, houses, and personal belongings, 
such as quiver, armor, clothes, and toilet 
objects—rarely even his birds or pet 
monkeys. The figures, prepared crudel\ 
in clay and often badly baked, have usually 
crumbled to pieces during the last millen- 
nium. So rare are they that we are for- 
tunate in exhibiting even fragments of 
them. In a general way they are precious 


slots 


Kyoto. 


In cases 3. 


earlier 


stood 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM Ol 


> 


ARI 


since they show accurately how the various 
trappings of ancient days were worn. Thus, 
one may find in tumuli curious bronze ob- 
jects, like sleigh-bells (Case O. 46), which 
haniwa thereupon show us appeared on de- 
finite points of the harness of the horse. 
Or, in a similar way, we may show that 
the curious discoidal or asymmetrical orna- 
ments in bronze-gilt from certain tumult 
belonged to the horse’s bit. Or we may 
understand thus how the ancient 


was mounted, and what manner of bridle 


saddle 





COPPER-GI 


TRAPPING IN 


JAPANESI 
EARLIER 
MULUS IN 


THAN 600 A.D 


FROM Tl PREFECTURE GUMMA 
and trappings accompanied the horseman 
and what was his own especial gear. These 
clay figures, by the way, although crude to 
grotesqueness, are sometimes spirited, sug- 
gesting the hand of a mute inglorious 
Jingoro 

Passing to the historical period of Japan 
one notes a number of new exhibits. A 
large wall case shows a series of the shoulder 
defenses (sodé) of Japanese armor trom the 
fourteenth down to about 1860 
These, it remarked, had 
special significance to the Japanese: the) 
‘recognition marks” 


century 
may be ever a 
served as decorative 
(as the zodlogist would call them) and de- 
noted the quality of the wearer; they thus 
became the honorable part of his armor 


somewhat as was the gauntlet among 


33 








BULLETIN OF THE MI 


Europeans. 
attains 


In Japan, t 


larger 


de of the 


rule, the 
pieces the higher the gra 


Ta 
and, as a 


the earler the period. But the latter 


indication 1s by 


TROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF 


he shoulder pieces 
d great size in armor of high quality; 
the shoulder 
armor and 


no means intallible, for in 


conservative Japan the sodé in ceremonial 


armor were apt to be large, even well int 


} 


the nineteenth centur In no. better 





FIG. 1 


MADAME DI 
BY JOSEPH 


STAEI 
CHINARD 


way, In fact, can one contrast the develop- 
mental methods of West and East than in 
the use of these shoulder pieces. For in 
Europe a similar plate occurs in the 
knightly panoply of about 1300: in 
Japan, on the other hand, it appeared not 
only at that time and earlier, but through- 
out the intervening centuries to 1868, 
running, however, a gamut of minor changes 
by which one may determine the date of a 
given piece. In the present collection one 
sees early shoulder pieces, large and square, 
made up of interlacing platelets alternately 


) 


234 


ARI 


held 
leather and silken braid, colored often in 
especial ways to distinguish the wearer in 
battle. indeed, strictly her- 
aldic, as in the beautiful pair of white and 
green sodé with mountings decorated by a 
member of the family of the armorers 
Goto, which bears in red the badge of the 


steel, together by 


of leather and 


some, were 


Arima family with its mutsutomot. From 
these large sodé one may trace in our series 
a line of decadent forms until, in the nine- 
teenth century, one finds sodé fashioned 
merely of cloth, relieved only with beauti- 


ful braiding, or such defenses merely of 
leather, embossed and enriched curiously, 
value, which 
doubtless mirth of 
many a We may 
note that some of the forms of the later 
are curious because 
they deviations of doubtful merit; 
some represent the shell of the trionyx 
turtle; some are made up of chain mail. 
We should also mention the remounting 
contain a number of our 


highly prized early corselets (fourteenth, 


having of course no military 

excited the derisive 
trouble-seeking ronin! 
period (Sav 1050 750 


show 


of cases which 


fifteenth, and early sixteenth centuries), 
mainly from the Chitora Kawasaki Col- 
lection. Jeyond these, near the southeast 


corner of the gallery, the visitor should 
finally inspect two series of sword mount- 
ings the Goda Collection! now 
remounted and relabeled, and of Howard 
Mansfield. The include a 
forty memorable sword dating 
from the sixteenth to the nineteenth cen- 
tury, representing the work of the best- 


B. D. 


those of 
last series of 


guards 


known masters of their art. 
RECENT ACCESSIONS OF DEC- 
ORATIVE ARTS 


Part Il. EUROPEAN CERAMICS, SCULPTURE, 
AND FURNITURE 


| HIS second article on some of the ac- 
cessions of decorative arts during the first 
six months of the year may well commence 
with a note on the gift from Mrs. Robert 
W. de Forest of twenty-eight 
stoneware—jugs, steins, mugs, and drug 
principally German, of the seven- 


Met. Mus. Art, vol. XII, 


pieces of 


pots 


1Cf. Bull 


p 2090 


IOI7; 


'r by 
en in 
rer In 
her- 
e and 
by a 
lorers 
f the 
From 
SCTIes 
nine- 
ioned 
‘auti- 
ly of 
usly, 
Vhich 
h of 
may 
later 
‘ause 
lerit: 
NVX 
nail. 
ting 
our 
nth, 
ies), 
Col- 
east 
ould 
unt- 
now 
yard 
: GF 
ting 
-en- 
est- 


L 


“C- 


ug 
en- 


17; 


BULLETIN OF 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. The col- 
lection is a representative one, carefully 
chosen to illustrate a wide variety of orna- 
ment and glazes. Although unpretentious 
as works of art, this humble folk-pottery 
is often surprisingly beautiful in form and 
decoration. 

Italian majolica with pictorial decora- 


tion has long been highly esteemed—per- 
haps too highly esteemed. In any case, 


there is now a growing tendency to regard 
the majolica decorators at their best when 
working in the field of pure ornament. A 
good example of this class of work 1s in- 
cluded among the recent purchases. It 
is a large albarello-shaped vase or drug pot 
decorated with an imbricated strap-pat- 
tern in blue, the intervening spaces colored 
vellow, a deep manganese purple, orange, 
and green. It is probable that the piece 
was made in Siena in the late fifteenth or 
early sixteenth century. A majolica tazza, 
filled with separately modeled fruit and 
flowers, is a gift from R. Langton Douglas. 
The place of origin of this piece is pre- 
sumably Faenza; the date, sixteenth cen- 
tury. 

sculpture 
Directory 


Three periods of French 
Gothic, Renaissance, and 
are represented among the new acquisi- 
tions. Four alabaster fragments trom a 
mediaeval altarpiece or sepulchral monu- 
from G. J. Demotte. 
architectural 
colon- 


ment are a gilt 
The fragments include two 
one, a group of clustered 
nettes, 144 inches in height; and the other, 
inches in 


pleces: 


a portion of a similar piece, 
height. The third piece, 6g inches high, 
also part of the architectural decoration, 
Shows the figure of a bearded man (a 
Prophet?) holding a scroll; he stands on a 
foliated console between two 
colonnettes. The most important of the 
fragments is the head and body of a cruci- 
fied Christ; the arms are missing, and the 
lower part of the legs. The height of this 
piece Is 102 inches. The style of the figure 
sculptures is a happy blending of naturalism 
and idealism. The heavy folds of the 
Prophet’s gown are relieved by the sinuous 
lines of his mantle, which echo the graceful 
spirals of the scroll held in his hands. The 
head of Christ is characterized by sadness; 


engaged 


THE METROPOLITAN 


i) 


MUSEUM OF ART 
the brows are slightly drawn up as if in 
pain, but there is nothing of the anguish 
and tortured expression which we find in 
the type as it developed in the course of 


the fifteenth century hese sculptures 





MARK 


SAINT 


FRENCH, EARLY XVI CENTURY 


may be dated about 1400. Toa 
toa partic ular school without further stuc 


ssign them 
1\ 

is hazardous; it is perhaps to Dijon or 
Bourges that we should turn. 
Gothic art was graduall 
at the close of the fifteenth century and 
in the earls the influence of 
the Italian This was ac- 
complished in various ways; notably by the 


transformed 


sixteenth by 
Renaissance. 


Italian expeditions of Charles VIII and 


at 








IN OF THE MI 


{ 


importation of Italian 


works of art, and the presence in 
itself of Italian artists \mong these were 


two brothers trom Florence, Antonio di 
Giusto Betti (b.1479) and Giovanni (b 
1484), who were known in France, where 
they became naturalized, as Antoine and 
lean Juste lhe brothers went to France 





ARTEL-CLOCK 


FIG. 3. 


FRENCH, XVIII CENTURY 


probably sometime between 1504 and 1507 
In the latter year, Antoine entered the ser- 
vice of the celebrated Cardinal 
d’Amboise, and between 1507 and 1509 had 
the embellishment 


Cer rees 


an important share in 


of the Cardinal’s chateau of Gaillon. Little 
of his work has survived the destruction 
of the chateau. There exist a few frag- 
ments and two life-size statues, in terra- 


cotta, of Christ and an Apostle, now 1n the 
church at Gaillon, which are thought to 
have come from the chapel of the chateau, 
know, Antoine made a 


for which, as we 


+ 


2 
) 


PFROPOLITAN 


8) 


MUSEUM OF ART 


The 
\ntoine of these sculptures still at Gaillon 


series of statues attribution — to 


s justified by comparison with the known 
brothers Juste the 


work of the on tomb 
of Louis X11 

\mong the new purchases Is a statue in 
with remains of painting and 
gilding, Saint Mark (fig. 2). 


he statue measures 49; Inches 1n height. 


terracotta, 


representing 


| Is said tO have come, some Vears ago, 
from the chapel of a small, eighteenth- 


century chateau in the neighborhood of 
Comparison with the terracotta 
remaining at Gaillon 
ive attribution to Antoine 

The statue displays the same ner- 
and mannered elegance. Asa 


historically, as an 


Gallon. 
Statues suggests a 
tentat Juste or his 
atelier 
vous energ 
art it is banal; 
Italian 


vears of the sixteenth century, 


WOrk oO] 
influence in | rance 


illustration of 
in the early 
interest 


l 
it has an undoubted 


oO the portrait bust, bought by the 
Museum in 1919, of the notorious Pere 
Duchesne by Joseph Chinard, the great 
sculptor of the school of Lyons in the late 


eighteenth and early nineteenth century 


has now been added a second example of 
this master’s work. The new purchase ts 


an original plaster bust (fig. 1), painted a 
light color, and m« 


inches in 


asuring 
buxom 
with full 


terracotta 20 
height. It 


woman of some thirty vears of age, 


represents a 
sensual lips, large prominent eyes, and a 
luxuriant head of hair elaborately arranged 
in the artful disorder which was ftashion- 
able at the close of the eighteenth century. 
Phe coiffure and the pseudo-classical ar- 

the drapery indicate the 
period of the Directory (1795 Who 
Quite probably Napoleon's 


rangement ol 
179QQ). 
Was the sitter 
béte noire, the irrepressible and palpitating 
Madame de Staél, to judge from the re- 
semblance between the bust and the por- 
traits of the lady by Vigée Le Brun and 
Gérard. As far as known, this plaster 
unique. The work is thoroughly 
characteristic of Chinard, combining the 
with an 


bust 1s 


elegance of his mannered style 
astonishing power to seize and reproduce 
character. 

he close relation which existed in the 
Gothic period between furniture design and 
clearly carved 


architecture 1s seen in a 





Nn to 
aillon 
nown 
tomb 


ue In 
and 


y >) 


wht, 
APO, 
nth- 
d ol 
otta 
ts a 
r his 
ner- 
\sa 

an 
ince 
Iry, 


7m 


ull 


ed 


n- 


if= 
he 





BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


oak lectern recently purchased (fig. 4). 
[his reading desk ts said to have come from 
a church in the south of France. It may 
be dated late in the fifteenth century; possi- 
bly in the early vears of the sixteenth 
Three other pieces of French furniture are 
among the new purchases. One is an 
arm-chair of the first part of the eigh- 
teenth century, transitional in style from 
the Regency to Louis XV. The fine lines 
of the frame are emphasized by delicate 
carvings of flowers and foliage. The chai 
is further enriched by polychrome painting 


now much darkened, but still fresh enough 


to give an idea of the gay appearance which 
the chair must originally have had. Un- 
fortunately, the fabric covering the back 
and the seat has been destroyed; it has 
been replaced with old green velvet Ihe 
chair at one time was in the well-known 
Doucet Collection. The remaining pieces 
of furniture among the accessions are a 


and a psyche, or cheval-glass, 
characteristic examples of the Empire 
style in the first years of the nineteenth 
mahogany, ela- 
gilt-bronze 


centur' Both are of 


borately ornamented with 
mounts 

\ silver pomander, probably of the late 
eighteenth century, is a welcome addition 
to our still inadequate collection of French 
silver The piece is a gift’ from Mrs. 
\rthur Curtiss French metal- 
work of the eighteenth century 1s repre- 


James 


sented among the purchases by two pieces 
ol first-rate importance. One is a large 
cartel-clock (fig. 3), of gilt-bronze, typical 
In its asymmetrical design ot flowers, leaves, 
and scrolls of the full-blown. style of 
Louis XV. The clock works are by Barat 
of Paris. The graceful little figures of the 
shepherd piping to his shepherdess, which 
surmount the clock, give evidence of the 
lashion for pastoral subjects which titil- 
lated the taste of the eighteenth century, 
when it wearied of its own artificiality, by 
offering to the imagination the bucolic 
delights of Arcadia. 

rhe other piece of metalwork is a lustre, 
or chandelier, in gilt-bronze, of the Direc- 
tory period. Eight branches for candles pro- 
ceed from four satyr masks attached to a 
vase of oxidized metal upon which stand 


to carry a candle. 
by chains from a canopy with lion-heads 


four cupids, each blowing a horn designed 


Phe lustre is supports 





LECTERN 


FIG. 4. GOTHIC 


The workmanship is of high order, es 
pecially in the satvr masks, which are 


skill worthy 


modeled and finished with 
of a great sculptor. 
craftsmanship in metal was still 


The tradition of good 
i living 
force in the last vears of the eighteenth 


centur\ The transitional 





BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


the piece is more evident in the design. | est Chinese stone carvings known and repre 

Although the motives recall the style of | sent curious pictures of the daily life of th 

Louis XVI, there is in the design asa whole — deceased, stories of filial piety, of famoy 
a tendency toward over-emphasis in con- women, or historical events. 

trasts of scale, a desire to be impressive 

at any cost, which indicates a change in THE Trustees of the Museum hay 

taste soon to crystallize in the Empire style eranted the Director a six months’ leave 

[. 6B. of absence, to enable him to visit Egypt 

Greece, and Italy during the coming winter! 

NOTES and spring. Accompanied by Mrs. Robin. 


son he will sail on the “Cretic’” November 

RUBBINGSOF HAN TOMBSTONES. © 9 for Naples, proceeding thence as directly 
In Room H-11, where Japanese prints as possible to Alexandria. After a short 
were shown, a number of rubbings of Han _ stay in Cairo he will go to the headquarters 
tomb stones are exhibited. These rubbings of the Museum’s Egyptian expedition, near 


of the funeral chapels of Hiao Tang Chan, Thebes, where he will spend some time in 
from before 129 A. D., and of Wu Liang, familiarizing himself with the expedition 
about 150 A. D., are taken from the earli- work, visiting Greece and Italy later. 


Octob 


Nove! 


b 

. cae 
adults 
+ oe - - wos _ . P Schoo 
montt 

CLUMP OF TREES WITH A VISTA al 3:3 


altern 
BY REMBRANDT 

morni 
'cloc 
nell; : 
Carey 
will b 





See page 222 


235 





nd repre. 
fe of the 


lame US 


im have 


iS 


leave 


Egypt 


2 winter! 


. Robin. 
vember 
directl 
a short 
yuarters 
On, Near 
time in 
dition’s 


) 


DONORS OF BOOKS 


JULY-SEPTEMBER 


LIBRARY 


Edward D. Adams 

Dr N. Beets 

Lansing B. Bloom 

Dr. Christian Brinton 

Dr. Frederic Brush 

Dr. Rodolphe F. Burckhardt 


AND PRINTS 


, 1920 

Paul Mallon 

Marquis A. Revilliod de Muralt 
Mrs. H. W. Powers 

Mrs. Irving S. Sammis 

John Shapley 

James Speyer 

Miss E. M. Spiller 

Miss Anna Murray Vail 


Miss Anna C. Chandler Newland ]. Van Riper 
Sidney J]. A. Churchill Alexander J. Wall 
Harris D. Colt W. C. Ward 
Solomon Davis J. Zeile 
Mrs. A. H. Frye 
Miss Margaret A. Gilman DEP’T. OF PRINTS 
Russell H. Kettell 
Earl S. Lewis William E. Baillie 
~ 727 . <r [Cc 
CALENDAR OF LECTURES 
OCTOBER 23-NOVEMBER 14, 1920 
October 23 Early Flemish Painting Edith R. Abbot 2:30 P. M 
26 Story-Hour (For Crippled Children) Anna C. Chandler 2:30 P. M 
30 The End of the Gothic Tradition Edith R. Abbot 2:30 P. M 
30 Tanagra Figurines (For the Deaf) Jane B. Walker 3:00 P. M 
November 6 Painters and Weavers of Brabant Edith R. Abbot 2:30 P. M 
6 Egyptian Weaving Bernice M. Cartland 4:00 P. M 
7 Planning our Towns (Arthur Gillender Lex 
ture) George B. Ford ,00 P. M 
7 The Egyptian Lotus in Greek Ornament William H. Goodyear, 
The Brooklyn Mu- 
seum 4:00 P. M 
13 German Painting and Carving Edith R. Abbot 2:30 P. M 
13 Egyptian Furniture Bernice M. Cartland 4:00 P. M 
14 Stage Scenery Robert Edmund Jones 4:00 Mi 
Each Sunday afternoon, beginning October 3, a Story-Hour for Children will be given by Anna 
C. Chandler at 3 o’clock; at the same hour each Sunday, beginning October 17, a Gallery Talk for 


adults will be given by Elise P. Carey; every Monday afternoon, beginning October 4, a Talk for High 
School classes will be given by Alice T. Coseo, at 4 o’clock; the Tuesday afternoon of each 
month, beginning October 12, a Talk for Elementary School teachers will be given by Miss Chandler, 
at 3:30 o'clock; Talks for instructors in the Vocational School for Boys will be given each Wednesday 
afternoon at 4:15 o’clock, beginning October 6, by the Museum Instructors and others; each Friday 
morning from 10 to 12 o'clock, beginning October 15, and each Sunday afternoon from 3 to 4:30 
o'clock, beginning October 17, a Study-Hour for practical workers will be conducted by Grace Core 
nell; Saturday afternoons, beginning November 6, Gallery Talks for adults will be given by Mrs 
Carey at 2 o'clock; Saturday mornings, beginning November 6, Story-Hours for Children of members 
will be given by Miss Chandler at 10:30 o'clock 


second 


239 








THE BULLI 
METROPOLITAN 
FIFTH AVENUE 


rIN OF THE 
MUSEUM Ol] 


AND &2D STREET 


ARI 


Published monthly under the 


Secretary of The Metropolitan Museum of 


Fifth Avenue and kLighty-second Street, New 
York N y 

Subscription pri two dollars a year, single 
copies twenty cents. Copies for sale may be had 
at the Filth Avenue entrance to the Museum 


OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
MUSEUM 
President 


First Vice 


Ropertr W 


kisinu Root 


DEFORES1 


President 


HENRY WALTERS 

Howard MANSFIELD l reasurer 

Henry W. KENT Secretary 

fue Mayor or tHE Crry of New York 
{ COM ( a Hi ( I 3 
Pai PTROLLER OF THI ITY £5 
lHe PRESIDENT OF THE Dep't. oF PARKS as he 


PRESIDENT, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN 


-pwarp D. ADAMS Francis C. Jones 


GEORGE F. BAKER 


GEORGE BLUMENTHAL V. Evertr Macy 
DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH ]. P. MORGAN 
Cuarres W. GouLp Wittram C. OssBorn 
R. 1. Haines HALsey SAMUEL I. PETERS 


PRITCHETT 


NorRTON 


CDWARD OS 


HENRY S 
CHARLES D 


HARKNI Ss 
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES 


THE STAFE 


Director EpWaArD ROBINSON 
Assistant Director JosSEPH BRECK 
Curator of Classical Art, Epwarp RosBinson 
( rator of Paintings, BRYSON BURROUGHS 
Curator of Egyptian Art, Atperr M. Lytucot 
Curator of Decorative Arts, JosepH Breck 
Curator of Armor, BASHFORD DEAN 


urator of Far Eastern Art, S.C. Boscu Reitz 

Curator of Prints, WittraAM M. Ivins, JR 

| reasurer, Evia f. i 
WILLIAM CLIFFORD 


Assistant OOTE 


rarian 
Registrar Henry F. Davipson 
Supt. of the Building, ConraAp Hewitt 
Associate in Industrial 

Arts RicHARD F. BAcH 


MEMBERSHIP 


AcTORS, Who contribute or devise $50,000 


FELLOWS IN PerPETuITy, who contribute 5,000 
FELLOWS FoR LiFe, who contribute 1,000 
FeELLoOwsHip MEMBERS, who pay an- 

nually 100 
SUSTAINING MEMBERS, Who pay annually 25 
ANNUAL MEMBERS, who pay annually.. 10 


PRIVILEGES All members are entitled to the 
following privileges 

\ ticket admitting the member and his family, 
iysand Fridays 
tickets a year, each of 
on either Monday 


and non-resident friends, on Mond 
fen complimentary 
which admits the bearer once 
or Friday 
\n invitation to any general reception given 


by the Trustees at the Museum 


direction of the 


Art, 


Second Vice-President 


Lewis Cass LeEpyYARD 


The BuLLeTIN and a copy of the Annual Re 
port 

\ set of all handbooks published for gener 
distribution, upon request at the Museum 

In addition to the privileges to which aif 
classes of members are entitled, Sustaining ap 
Fellowship Members have, upon request, doub 
the number of tickets to the Museum accorde 
to Annual Members; their families are includ 
in the invitation to any general reception, ap 
whenever their subscriptions in the aggrega 
amount to $1,000 they entitled to } 
elected Fellows for Life, and to become member | 
of the Corporation. For further particulars 
address the Secretary 


ADMISSION 


he Museum is open daily from to A. M. to; 
Pp. M. (Sunday from 1 Pp. M. to © Pp. M.); Saturda 
untilOp.M. 
On Monday Friday an admission fee 
5 cents is charged to all except members an 
olders of complimentary tickets 
Children under seven vears of age are no 
admitted unless accompanied by an adult 

Members are admitted on pay days on pres 
entation of their tickets holding | 
members’ complimentary tickets are entitled t 
one admittance on a pay day 

EXPERT GUIDANCI 

Visitors desiring special direction or assistanc 
in studying the collections of the Museum may 
secure the services of members of the staff on 
application to the Secretary \n appointment 
should preferably he made in advance 


members and to teachers 


shall be 


} 
and 


2 
h 


Persons 


| his service is tree to 


in the pub ic schools of New York ( itv. aS wel 
ils under their guidance lo al 


others a 


as to pup! a 

charge of one dollar an hour is made 

with an additional fee of twenty-five cents for 

each person in a group exceeding four in number 
PRIVILEGES TO STUDENTS 

For special privileges extended to teachers 


pupils, and art students; and for use of the Li 


brary, ¢ lassrooms, study rooms, collection of lan- 
tern slides, and Museum collections, see speci 
leaflet 


Requests for permits to copy and to phote- 
graph in the Museum should be addressed t 
the Secretary. No permits are necessary for 
sketching and for taking snapshots with hand 
cameras. Permits are issued for al! days except 
Saturday afternoons, Sundays, and legal hol- 
For further information, see special leaflet 


PUBLICATIONS 

CATALOGUES published by the Museum and 
PHOTOGRAPHS of all objects belonging to the 
Museum, made by the Museum photographer 
and by other photographers, are on sale at tht 
Fifth Avenue entrance and at the head of th 
main staircase. Lists will be sent on application 
Orders by mail may be addressed to the Secretar) 


RESTAURAN] 
A restaurant located in the basement on the 


north side of the main building is open from 
12 M. to a half hour before closing time 


days 


PUBLI 


TI 


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lo 


\ 


TIN V 

tion 

langt 
mt 
st 
Ar 
in 
th 


bor 
torn 
havi 
it Vv 
Veal 
hr 
Veal 
shot 
anx 

I 
adn 
com 
the 
be | 
d d 
COr¢ 
Inc! 
fect 
CXC 
this 


Coy \ 


ENTE 
ACCE