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BULLETIN OF 
THE METROPOLITAN 


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PUBLISHI 


MUSEUM 


OF ART 


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NEW YORK 


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1 | Metropolitan Museum « 
( red by purchase from Geor 
Barnard his well-known coll 
liaeval art and the building and 
nown as the Cloisters on | 
\vent New Yor whet 
s been ins d Mr. Bart 
purchase was made pi bl 
tt to the Museum for this pur 
lohn D. Ro Her, Jr., who al 
genero or the maintenang 
{iol This wil remain approx! 
t pres ind be operated ; 
of the Metropolitan Museum 


The Cloisters will be 
possible to the public, 
be fore the late li Hl, SINCE 
and other work whicl 
preliminary to the 


a delay of several months 


must 


opening 


| 


W 


lel Statement 


idea of the 


br will give some 
( interest of the 
through the munifi- 
has be- 


OF ARI artistic and archaeological 
which 
John D 


ome a ward of the 


collection now, 
Rockefeller, Jr., 

Metropolitan Museum 
ROBERT W. DI 


President 


cence ol 


FOR} | 


\ ) 

a s PTHE CLOISTERS 
OO Some twenty vears ago, during one of his 
i many long sojourns in France, the Amer- 
7> ican sculptor, George Grev Barnard, was 
Small led by his admiration for mediaeval art to 
ISO conceive the idea of acquiring a few exam- 
Bronzes 183 ples of Gothic sculpture which he could 
Photo bring back with him to New York for the 
150 struction and enjoyment of his pupils 
IOS At this time the opportunities in this coun- 
) try to see original Romanesque and Gothic 
sculpture were practically mil. [t was not 
until 1 QO7 when the late ] Pierpont Mor- 
gan lent to the Metropolitan Museum the 
mediaeval section of the Hoentschel Col- 
“og ection, that a change came about, and not 
'OT only the Metropolitan but other American 


opened 


but probably not 


aT] un 


Summary ac I Du 


nm of me 


ds 


museums began to assemble collections ot 
al sculpture. 

In the meantime, Mr 
more ambitious 


Barnard’s plans 
nothing less 
museum, a 


id Decom 


ian the creation of a Gothic 


collection which would be representative ol 
from the twelfth 


fifteenth century, 


ge (Cre 


sculpture 


fk uropean 


grounds through the unpreten- 


ort Washington — tiously but beautifully housed in a building 


lection and grounds of its own, where it would be 
rd I freely available to all 

princel Mr. Barnard was not a man of means 
ose from His own creative work, through which h 
) provides has won international reputation as a sculp- 


made heavy demands on his time and 
he . 
Ne;>re 


the col tor, 


ie 2 l. 
ecnerg\ 1 he project to establish 


a shrine of mediae- 


al art might, therefore, to one who did not 


branch through his own efforts 


soon as know the seem visionary 1n the ex- 


man, 


served to fan 


treme. But difficulties onl\ 
true col- 


ataloguing the flame which burns 1n every 
Wdertaken ector’s heart No sacrifice was too great; 
cessital » Obstacle unsurmountable. His purse 


lid not permit him, save on rare Occasions, 
second hand from the big dealers in 


Furopean capitals He became a dis- 








the 
al 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


operation the site of some ruined abbey or 
church, he would visit all the farms in the 
Observed that the 


having 
fallen stones were often removed by the 


neighborhood 


yveasants tO serve for ONe purpose oO 
on their tarms. 


slab ol 


\ pigsty might vield the 


forgotten statue that once graced an altar 


church portal. 
Many artists have been collectors, but 


r another 


a crusader’s tomb; an attic, some 


the collection at the Cloisters \ great 
Gothic arch, which once formed part of a 
yuntain near Avignon, and the unfinished 
cloister from St. Michel de Cuxa, adjoining 
the main building on the right, give a pice 
grounds. The 
building is lighted principally by a larg 


turesque character to the 


skvlight provided with a velarium of tawny 
anvas which modifies the light, giving to 
the interior the dim illumination character- 











none more persistent, courageous, public- 
spirited than George Grey Barnard. It 1s, 
consequently, not surprising that he has 


done what he set out to do—that he has 
realized his vision! He has brought to 
gether a collection of mediaeval art of ex- 
ceptional importance; he has installed it 
in the build 
Cloisters with svmpathy 


erounds known as the 
and understand- 
ing; he has made it available to the public 
and secured its preservation. Truly this 
is an achieve ment ot which anv man ma' 
well be proud. 

\ plain, red brick building, decorated on 


Ing and 


the exterior with a few sculptures flanking 
4 twelfth-century portal, contains most of 





i 
ptt 











S Oo ( t! nut ne 1 ms ot 
Th >) lding oo} 100 1 nN ] 1 | 
ne DULLGING again SULBLES in eccleslastical 

} \ a . 
prototype, aithough there S no actual 
simulation of a church plat The bricl 


walls, ranging in color trom deep rose to 


silvery grav, provide imirable | 
ground for the sculpture 
At the entrance or western half of the 


building are erected the beautiful twelfth- 


century capitals and columns from. the 
Cloister of St. Guilhem-le-Désert These 
support on three sides of the building a bal- 


omposed of 
fifteenth- 


cony upon which ts an arcade 
columns and apitals trom 
century cloister at Trie. The central fea- 


ture on the floor of this western half of 














CLOISTE 


THI 


INTERIOR 














H| 
‘ 
‘| | 
| 








4 


THE 


R 


TERI 


























BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


building is the sepulchral effigy of an ar- lends 1 e to tl harm of the in- 
mored knight from a fourteenth-centur terion 

tomb. Between the columns of the St The collection numbers around six to 
Guilhem Cloister and beneath the balcony seven hundred examples of sculpture, paint- 
Other sculptures are displayed, and tl ng, and other forms of art, mainly French 
balcony itself affords additional opportun In origin and of the Romanesque and Gothic 
ties for effective installation Particularly periods. Of outstanding importance are 
mpressive is the monumental fourteenth- — the sculptured capitals and columns from 
entury statue of the the Romanesque 





Virgin and Child, cloisters of St. Guil- 
hem-le-Désert and of 
St. Michel de Cuxa 
The first 1s composed 


of forty-eight exqui 


which stands on the 
yalcony over the en 
trance 

Phe conspicuous 
S 


feature of the north- itely carved capitals, 


ern half of the build- mainly with foliage 


ing is the little chapel decoration, and of 


( numerous shafts and 


Where a remarkab 


| 


early Gothic statue abaci, many of which 


of Our Lady, in poly- are sculptured Es 


hromed and gilded pecially fine is a large 


wood, is shown on a pilaster which may 
richl decorated al- justly be considered 


tar. lothe nght, be- from the beauty of its 
hind a partition wall designs and the crisp 
igainst which are Vitality of its carving 


hown various sculp- a masterpiece of R 





tures and an Italian manesque art. The 


be sculptur of this clois- 


sco painting of th 
Irecento represent ter is characteristic of 
ng Christ in the the school of Provence 
lomb, is a doorway at its best and prob- 


communicating with ably dates trom the 





second half of the 
twelfth century 
Earlier in character 


the Romanesqt 


( 


cloister from Cuxa 





of which as yet onl 


part has been erected VIRGIN AND CHILD ire the forty capitals 
in the grounds, and a FRENCH, XIV CENTURY from the Romanesqui 
Staircase leading to cloister of St. Michel 
an upper room. On the left it small de Cuxa in southern France. With these 
room, a sacristy it may be called, containing — capitals are many shafts, bases, and parts of 
small sculptures in wood and various enam- rches decorated and plain. The material 
els and works in metal. On this side ts thi marble mottled pink and = gray Th 
staircase leading to the balcony, which 1s arved decoration of the capitals is con- 
balanced on the opposite wall by a pulpit = ventional in character. Foliage motives 
with carved paneling of the late Gotl animals, grotesque or real, and human 
period. In front of the high altar is a heads and figures are skilfully adapted to 
fourteenth-century marble tomb slab set the shapes of the capitals, and rendered 
into the floor. with an economy of means, a directness and 

Phroughout, in his installation, Mr. Bar- certainty of touch that give to these Cuxa 
nard has been particularly happy in avoid- — sculptures high rank among the produc- 
Ing set, Obviously studied effects Ther tions of the twelfth century in southern 
IS a spontaneity, even a casualn that Franc \lso from Cuxa comes a monu- 























INTERI 


THI 
R, 


CLOISTERS 


HOWING I 








LLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


the same beautiful pin tic of the mediaeval monasteries. Series 
f this kind can never again, in all proba- 


Not less rept tative of architectur: bilitv, be exported from France. Th 


uly rts period I The 
[wel \ ) T pil rom I ri 
H ry wen re-erected 1 





CAPITAL FROM 
Sl MICHEL DE CUXA 


give to the Barnard collection an unique 
interest 

Sculpture of the Romanesque period ts 
further represented at the Cloisters by 
several fine examples. Especially notable 
is the monumental torso of the crucified 
Christ, carved in wood and still retaining 
its original painting and gilding. This ts a 
masterpiece comparable to the famous head 





public gardens ¢ larbes From tl CAPITAL FROM 
Cloister of St. Gaudens come forty-eight r. MICHEL DE CUXA 


marble capitals and columns of the four- 


teenth and fifteenth centuries of Christ in the Louvre given by Jacques 
These four series are of unusual impor Doucet in 1918 A seated Virgin and 

tance not only for the interest of the sepa- = Child, painted wood, of the Auvergne type, 

rate pieces but also because their numb ind an altar-frontal from the Pyrenees, a 

permits the visitor to form an adequat rare example of Spanish art, may also be 

idea of the beauty of the sculptured decora- noted among the Romanesque objects 

tion of the great cloister courts characteris In sculpture of the thirteenth and four 

174 


























tHE CLOISTER FROM ST. MICHEL DE CUXA 


UNDER CONSTRUCI: 

















BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


teenth centuries, the great age of Gothic 
art, the collection is particularly rich. The 
large statue on the high altar of the Virgin 
and Child, remarkable for the preservation 
of the original painting and gilding, has 
already been mentioned as one of the finest 
in the collection. Another masterpiece al- 
ready noted is the sepulchral effigy of a 
knight in armor. There are several re- 
markable statues of the Virgin and Child, 
an unusual group of St. Anne with the Vir- 
small statuettes of 
Iwo Italian sculptures of this pe- 
A fine stone statue of 
a saint presumably formed part of the series 
from the Chapel of the Collége de Rieux, 
Toulouse, founded by Jean 
Bishop of Kieux from 1324 to 1348. 
of the series are in the Musée des Augustins 
at Toulouse. Characteristic of the man- 
nered grace of fourteenth-century sculpture 
is a Seated statue in stone of the Virgin 

trend of late Goth 


gin, and angels and 
saints. 


riod deserve notice. 


lissandier, 
Eleven 


The realistic culp- 


DOUBLE ¢ 





APTTAT 


ture 1s exemplified in such notable works 
relief of St. Hubert and 
Piet&a group in alabaster. Thi 


as a ston a small 
schools of 
the Loire and of Troves are well represented 
in the collection. English alabaster reliefs 
Flemish wood-carvings, a few Spanish and 
Italian polychromed wood sculptures of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and 
large altarpieces of German origin add their 
interest to the collection. 
the Cloisters, but a series of 


two 


There are no 
tapestries at 
paintings from one or more Spanish altar- 
ie fifteenth century 
pane ls of stained glass of the early Goth 
and later periods bring their glowing color 
to the decoration of the walls. 


and several 


preces ot t 


These brief notes can give only a general 
idea of the scope of the Cloisters collection 
and of its importance artistic and archaeo- 

More detailed 
from 
cataloguing proceeds 


logical. accounts will be 


elven time to time as the work of 


JOSEPH BRECK 


i 


FROM 


ST-GUILHEM-LE-DESERIT 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


NOTES ON PAINTINGS IN) THI 
HUNTINGTON COLLECTION 
In the June BULLETIN brief comment was 

made on the paintings from the varied and 


Important collection recently — received 
through Archer M. Huntington as a be- 
he late Collis P. Huntington 


Random notes on a few outstanding pic- 


quest of th 


tures in this collection may be of interest 
In connection with the exhibition during 
luly and August in the Room of Recent 
Accessions of a selected group. ol the 
Huntington pictures. 

[he famous Lawrence painting of the 
two Calmady children, which was given 
the fanciful title of ‘“‘Nature’’ by 
graver Samuel Cousins, after enjoying 
ver\ popular Success for over filtV Vears 
was evidently lost sight of, for both Alger- 
non Graves and Sir Walter Armstrong in 
their splendid catalogues of the works of 
lawrence, dismiss it as ‘‘now in America,” 
after the sale at Christie’s in 1886. It was 
at the Royal Academy in 1824 


and the same year at the Louvre also, 


shown first 


where 1t won the ribbon of the Legion 
d’Honneur for the artist. The picture was 
so popular that five engravers copied 1t 
and sold a great many reproductions. It 
was exhibited again in England a number of 
times until 1872, as the pasters on the back 
of the stretcher and frame attest, the latet 
ones giving Vincent P. Calmady as the 
owner. 
\nother paster of interest dated 1844 and 
Emily Calmady, the eldest child 
in the portrait, reads: ““Emily and Laura 
\nne Calmady, daughters of Chas. P 


Calmady and Emily Greenwood, his wif 


Signe d by 


born 1818 and 1820, painted by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence 1824.” 
\lthough Mrs. Calmady 


not afford to pay for a portrait, on the 


felt they could 


advice of an artist the children were pre- 
sented to Lawrence, who was so captivated 
by them that he reduced his usual fee of 
two hundred and fifty 
hundred and fifty pounds, and wanted to 
start work at once. The first rapid chalk 
sketch, in which both children are seen 
full face, he gave to Mrs. Calmady. <A 


fPuineas to one 


second sketch, smaller than our canvas 


also exists, showing the children in the final 
position, Emily seen in profile looking at 
who playfully throws her arm 


sketch the heads are worked 


ner sister 
back. In this 
out in oil and the rest left unfinished in 
halk. When the final painting was done 
Lawrence Is said to have declared: ‘‘ This is 
my best picture [| have no hesitation in 
saying so—my best picture of the kind, 
quite—one of the few | should wish here- 
after to be known by.’ 

Concerning the portrait of Lady Smith 
nd her Children, Reynolds’ account book 
shows several entries during the year 1787 
of amounts totaling £310 paid by Sir 
Robert Smith for Lady Smith and Three 
Children and also a Fancy Child. The 
group portrait has come to the Museum by 
way of Sir Henry Smith, Bart., Thomas 
Henry George, Graham White, W. S. Stir- 
ling Crawford, the Duchess of Montrose, 
and Collis P. Huntington. It shows Lady 


Smith seated in a landscape, wearing a 


white dress and black lace scarf, a large 
black and white hat on her fair powdered 
hair. She looks pensive and seems oblivi- 
ous of her children playing beside her. The 
two little girls have lifted their brother and 
ire holding him rather precariously in their 
arms. The artist has caught particularly 
well the mischievous expression of the little 
black-haired girl on the right. 

Of the Andromache and Astyanax by 
Pierre P. Prudhon, Jean Guiffrey in his 
excellent catalogue of that artist’s works 
explains that its title appeared in the cata- 
logue of the Salon of 1817 followed by this 
explanation, “It is the moment when the 
widow of Hector wee ps ove! the fate of her 
son whose features recall to her those of her 
lhe painting was not exhibited 
Left unfinished at 


husband.” 
at that time, however. 
the artist’s death, it was shown in the Salon 
of 1824, and was bought afterward by the 
painter de Boisfremont, who later unfor- 
tunately undertook to finish the picture 
himself. The result can be seen—Andro- 
mache, the head of the nurse, and the figure 
to the left being the parts which show 
Prudhon’s workmanship. The picture was 
begun in 1815, conceived as an allusion to 
the separation of Marie-Louise from het 
son, the King of Rome. 


178 








PORTRAII 


OF 


BY 


JOSEPH 
GILBERT 


BONAPARTE, 


STUARI 











BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


1] pre ou | | Vil | i Vet 
I the 1 work | > rare artist 
enter the M ‘ n col With its 
O nd llow notes it Is perhaps 
nore character n the Girl Asleep 
he Altman coll On the other hand 
has less clarity and cool luminosity than 
Young Woman with a Water Jug \s 
hat picture the composition Is given 
eresting tang by the introduction ot 
map the roller of which, completed 
\ Nn | 
FIG. 1 FI 
IMPRI ( 
repetition of this compositional device, con- 


ides that the two pictures were painted 
at about the same time, but we know too 
little of Vermeer’s chronology to come to 
any conclusion. 

Phe Huntington Vermeer is reproduced 
and described in the catalogue of the 
Hudson-Fulton Exhibition and was seen 
at the Museum again on the occasion of the 
fiftieth anniversary. The Piping Shep- 
herds by Cuyp was also seen in the Hudson- 
Fulton Exhibition, when it was called an 


early work of the artist, about 1040-50 
[he vision is one of uncommon simplicity 
and objectivity for the seventeenth cen- 
tury, giving as it does almost the effect of a 


primitive work 


\ portrait of a man which had been 
thought to be by Sir Thomas Lawrence has 
now been definitely established as by Gil 


bert Stuart, and almost surely represents 


* Junior Another ver- 


sion, Which ts either a replica or a copy and 


Joseph Bonaparte 


which Is in a private collection in New 


York, formerly belonged to Bonaparte 
valet to whom his emplover had given it 





invas, and although apparently one of 
Stuart’s rather late works, 1s of fine quality 
Ihe Mountain Torrent by Jacob van 
Ruisdael is noted in the Hudson-Fulton 
Catalogue by Valentiner, who dates it in 


w decade 1060-70. A splendid painting 
in the Rembrandt manner ts Isaac Blessing 
lacob by Gerbrandt van den Eeckhout, in 
which ts seen something of the greater 
nuine and serious humanit\ 


H. B. WEHLI 





ENGRAVED GEMS 


JEWELRY AND MISCELLANE- 
OUS SMALL ANTIOUILTIES 


RECENT ACCESSIONS 


\ number of small objects of various 
periods have been added to the classical 
collection and are exhibited temporarily in 
\ necklace ol 


late Minoan date (about 1600-1200 B. ( 


the Sixth Classical Room 


consists of a series of dark blue glass orna- 
ments cast In a wavy pattern and perfo 
rated laterally for stringing. Each piece 
has four perforations at the bottom to 
which pendent gold disks could be attached 
Similar ones were recently discovered in 
Boeotia and are published by Evans in thi 
Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. XLV, p. 1, 
fig. 1 That these glass ornaments wert 


] 
gold lea 


1 iw now 


sometimes covered wit 


shown by the fragmentary glass plaques 


) 
I 


with portions of the gold leaf remain 
ing (fig 6); a third group consists ol 
fragmentary spiral ornaments of hollow 
gold leat, probably once filled with glass 
past 

Thirty archaic ornaments of heavy gold 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


worked in repoussé relief form a rich addi verv lke a pair acquired by the Museum 
tion to our collection of jewelry (fig. 7 last vear (BULLETIN, February, 1924, p. 34 
lwo pairs each of griffins and reindeer, — fig. 2 lhe figures of Eros are carefully 
heraldic in posture, are worked with scru- | modeled front and b nd | that feel 


pulous care, even to the tiny sharp claws ng of life which one comes to look tor in 
of the griffins. The antlers of the reindeer Greek figures, however small the al \ 
and the wings of the griffins are stvlized smaller Eros, which once tormed the p 
though careful observation 1s shown in th dant of an earring, ts gall triking the 
modeling of the bodies. Small conven Strings ot musical instrument with 
tlonalized ornaments ol similar Workman- pI tron \n tt rp ro rrings 

ship, also of heavy gold, complete th rosett nd lotos-bud designs sur 
series. Minute rings mounted b dis] 
are Welded to the backs I red witl 
so that they could be d filigr 


sewn to a belt or gar- 
ment Iwo lions, also 
in gold repoussé, are ot 


fliamsier fabric and have ment each petal « 





holes instead of rings ros s and lo 
for attachment. Th made i 
nearest parallels — to separate piece and 
these reliefs are among outlined with a tin 
the finds from South tee eee ter) renee sold wit \ third 
Russia where the ad- oe ene ae pair | | \ 
mixture of Greeks and pendent amphorae, 
Sevthians produced a somewhat heterog common motif at this period \ litt 
neous stvle.! In our ornaments a toreigi pendant, also in the shape of vase, | 
element is clearly apparent. tranular decoration and is set with a garnet 
The fourth to third centuries B. C., the \n earring of the ring type has a lion’s head 
period when the technique of the goldsmith — terminal let into a collar decorated with fil 
IS at its finest, are represented in our new gree spirals [he hoop ts formed of twisted 
accessions by a group of earrings and pen- wires and passes at the end into the lion 


dants. Typical Greek trinkets are a pair = mouth. A pair of silver earrings are formed 


of earrings with disks and pendent Erotes, | of pyramids of balls with wire hooks to pass 
! through the ears he endless variet 
Cf. E. H. Minns, Scvthians and Gr | througn t al | " Val 
206 ff.. fig. 106 Greek design in jewelr \ I 


1d] 








BULLETIN OI IHE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OI ARI | 
n this new group \ necklace of ame- burnt chalcedony (fig. 2) from the Evans 
hvs fig. 4) with gold links and bangles Collection has a man holding aloft the gar- 
exampl Rom t 1c ment of a woman who crouches in front of 





bik O FRAGMENTARY GLASS ORNAMENT 
WITH GOLD LEAI 


ABO | LOO00—-1200 B 





FIG. O IVORY PYXI 


ROMAN 


its effect from the colors of the materials him. The composition, which is skilfully 


rather than from quality of workmanship. adapted to the oblong face of the gem 


Five engraved gems are important a 


cces gives an extraordinary effect of space; th 


style is that of the middle of the fifth cen- 
of archaic Greek workmanship has a wild — tury : 


boar carried out with the lively observation 
and clear modeling of the period. <A large 


sions. A burnt carnelian scaraboid (fig. 


B. ¢ \ ringstone (fig. 3) of brown 


ish glass paste in its original gold setting 


has as device a monster half panther and 


12 


BULLETIN OF THE 
half winged Satyr, holding kantharos and 
bough. It is of fourth-century Greek 
workmanship, slightly archaistic in imita- 
tion of the severe style of the early fifth 
century. This piece was once in the collec- 
tion of the Marquis de Salines and is pub- 
lished by Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen, 
pl. X, §2 \ fragment of 
shows a woman with a 
goat and tray of offerings, another with cup 
\ tiny grotesque head of a negro 
Irom a garnet 


a glass cameo 


a sacrificial scene 


in hand. 
carved in the round is of 
Roman date 

\n interesting technique is shown in a 


The design, 


fragment of Roman gilt glass. 
of vine leaves and grapes, 1s laid in gold leaf 
and blue paint on a surface of clear glass, 
the whole being then dipped to form a 
second Javer of glass. The original bowl, 

; (13.3 cm.) in diameter, 
must have been a splendid one. A cylin- 
pyxis® (fig. 8) of the Roman 
period is carved in relief with Erotes, one 
running with a bird to another who holds 
a bunch of grapes, a third sitting at ease on 
a rock beside a basket of fruit. Two other 
Roman pieces are a bone hair-pin with 
head in the form of a crude bust of a 
woman, and a utensil of unknown use, 
perhaps a child’s rattle, also of bone, con- 
a shaft ending in a ring. Last 
we may mention two silver ingots weighing 


about 54 Inches 


drical ivor\ 


sisting of 
2,394 and 3,072 grains respectively. One ts 
shaped so as to be easily carried in the hand; 
the other 1s in the shape of a bar with mis- 
cellaneous Greek letters scratched on the 
face. CHRISTINE ALEXANDER 


THE RESTORATION OF 
ANCIENT BRONZES'! 


lhe mutability of all things is sometimes 
brought home to us in curious ways, and 
the familiar hymn, “‘Change and decay in 
all around I see,” strikes a profounder note 


burnt carnelian The 
occurred sinc Furt 


> There described as 
breaks have evidently 
Wangler’s time 

Compare the similar ones in A. deRidder, Col- 


lection de Clercq, IV, pl. XXXIX, Nos. 180 ff 


'The Restoration of Ancient Bronzes and 
Other Allovs, by Colin G. Fink, Ph. D. and 
Charles H. Eldridge, B. S., 53 pp., 40 ill. 8vo 


New York Price. $.so 


MCMXX\ 


METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


than many of us appreciate. All inanimate 
matter seems to be seeking constantly a 
maximum run- 
runs down hill and 
When wi 


qualifving 
for bronze 


condition of 
down-ness; as water 
metals revert to their 
speak of enduring bronze the 
relatively correct, 
lar Irom permanent 
of changing the 


entropy or 
Ores, 


word ts onls 
and other alloys are 
Some metals have a way 
nature of their substance from bright hard 


phases to crumbly amorphous powders 
This is particularly true of tin, which ts a 
constituent of bronze, and when one part 
of a body of the metal vets what 1s called 
“tin disease”? the change spreads to the 
surrounding tin until it is all converted into 
just such a brown powder ‘Bronze dis- 
ease’’ is slower, but in time bronze also will 
go on changing, sometimes from the interior 
outward until only 
this too will crumble in time to ; 
metallic dust. If the 
sealed In dry oraves or are 
by fumes or moisture In museum ¢ 
will last for thousands of vears unless the 
change has already started Then thev go 
the way of metals, which ts only slower than 
that of all flesh 
When such objec 
is made and kingdoms com: 


a thin shell is left, and 
i kind of 
objects art well 
uncontaminated 


ases thes 


ts lie buried in the earth 
while history 
and go, they 
There are usually 
moisture, 


are subject to severe attacks 
the corroding 
nitrates, chlorides 
lled humic acids 


present 
agencies ol 
carbon dioxide, the so-ca ( 
of the soil—to mention but a few of the 
chemical influences at work——so that it 
seems almost remarkable that they 
Particles of each metal 


endurt 
as well as they do 

drift out from their original places in the 
frozen mixtures (for metals freeze at high 
temperatures), and they 
waiting molecules in the surrounding eart! 


combine wit! 


until a coin or other object 1s often com 
pletely changed to a shapeless crust. 

In France, Germany, and more particu 
larly in England, work has been going on to 
investigate the nature and causes of the 
corrosion of ancient bronzes, and the con 
clusion has been reached that the principal 
chlorides and ni- 
Valu ible Col 
connection have b 
soatt. FF. Ks 3 


sources of infection are 
trates present in the soil 
tributions in this 


made by Dr. Alexander 


153 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


vorking under the sp Pe Brit 
Museum in resear laborator Ps 
lowing this example the Trustees of 11 
Metropolitan Museum of Art secured tl 
ervices of Dr. Colin G. Fin Professor « 


L-lectrochemistry at Columbia 


to attack a number of unsolved problem 
\mong them, verv emphatically unsolve¢ 
was the restorati of ancient bronz 
[he work began in January, 1923 and sti 


continues, but some results already achieve 


have lately been disclosed by Dr. Fink an 


published by the Museum in a= spe 


Iridge was associated 

with Professor Fis 
his sistal n ( 

lectrochemica! labor 


ALOT Ol Columbia 
University at New 
York 


B corrosion we 


hunks, sometimes 
, I I BRONZI 
completel minera 
: . RI BEI Rf 
ized throughout the 
REATMEN 


entire mass of eacn 
What was the chem 
ical force that caused this malformation an 


pitting with the attachment of an earth 


crust containing a large proportion of thi 


It has been due, said 


original metals 
Professor Fink, to electric currents set up 
from the metallic objects to surroundin 
materials under conditions that favored tl 
process. ‘‘So,” he continued, “‘let us re- 
verse the current Phen whether there ts 
a metallic core left or not, so long as but 
ghost of the original design is preserved 
even though it be invisible, the metals 
should) go back Ihey must go ba 
somehow \nd now let’s see how they 
will behave.’ 

He began with specimens of compara 


tively small value, made many analyses ot 


nd finally he resolved on 


a two per cent. solution of caustic soda as 


cores and crusts, 


the proper bath into which to immerse thi 


1 


ybject. Next he hangs anodes in the solu- 





tion on all sides of the object and passes 
rough a very gentle direct current of elec- 
tricity, using 110 volts and one tenth to 
ampere. Sometimes thi 
crust resists the current, but patience and 
time usually conquer. Procedure must 
ventle, never drastic. All sorts 


of strategems are employed and constant 


care is the watchword. There 1s no simpk 
recipe that will serve the tyro in this deli- 
cate process. But note, please, the reversal 
i the current: when corrosion took place 
hroughout the long ages the metal object 
was the anode: now it 1s the cathod 

\nd what happens 

Granted even that an 
‘ghost”’ of 
a design be present in 
what is left, the par- 


ticles of metal will go 


qui thy and gently 
back into place out of 


the surrounding hard- 
ened muc k andearthy 


crust, and the obj 





s at the anode ind! 
PREATMEN , 
cates the completion 
of the process Then 
the loose deposited copper may be brushed 


off with a stiff brush if the object is strong 
nough, or it may be dipped alternately in 
dilute nitric acid and warm water to achieve 


the same purpose. Inspection with a mag- 
nifving glass tells when the cleansing has 
eone far enough It is, as Professor Fink 
says, an exciting moment when we first 
see the brownish copper oxide surface of the 
restored object in its original form of an 
cient davs! It is then dipped in dilute 
ammonium acetate, whereupon it takes on 
a beautiful blue-green patina. 

We give pictures of two of these remark- 
e restorations. Bronze Strip. Figs. 1 
and 2 show a piece ol bronze completel\ 
mineralized when received, with a crust as 
hick as the strip itself. After restoration 
It was lacquered with a good mat lacquer 


Statuette of Isis (Figs. 3 and 4) [his 


1 


received a first treatment of 13 amper 


BULLETIN OF THE MI 


current for 7 days, and a second treatment 
Note details of dress and or- 
restored, 


for 14 days. 
nament 
toe-nails were brought back. 
The causes of bronze disease 
carefull recommended 
to clean the affected part thoroughly with 
solution of 


Even finger-nails and 


have been 
studied, and it 1s 


per cent caustic soda, 
carefully and apply a mat lac- 
[his should be 


two 
then to dr 
quer Ol cellulose acetate 


renewed at least once every four vears 


Another study of outstanding value 
has been the examination of bronzes to 
determine whether they are antique or 
modern. It 1s accomplished by a micro- 


PFROPOLITAN 


MUSEUM OF ARI 


scopic inspection of the 


patina 
metallographic examination of 
and chemical examination of the met 
il. The processes are highly technical 
lead to the detection of 

ELLW HENDRICK 


core 
but they man\ 


OOb 


frauds. 


Dr. Ellwood Hendric! on 
ributed to the BULLETIN this rf \ Dr 
Fink’s Restoration of Anctent Bro Ss, 1 m 
i distinguished chemist and author He is per 
haps best known to the layman as a frequ 
mtributor to such periodicals as tt Atlan 
Monthly and the North American Re A 
s; 2 pri to have this hemical repor 

el YT ed | tt Vl nus ft \ 

m i if I i 





FIG. 3 STATUI 
OF ISIS BEFORE 


IREATMENIT 








LLETIN OI! 1H METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OI AR] 
THE CHRONICLES OF AMERICA © others, giving book illustration a scholarly 
PHOTOPLAYS standard. The cinema has taken—but 
more concentrated| somewhat the same 

By t eneros of friends of the Yak course; with the Chronicles of America 
[ versity Press, through George Parml\ Photoplays it, too, has arrived at historical 
1) the Museum has en presented authenticity 
with a set of the Chronicles of Ameri It is a pleasure to know that the Museum 
Photoplays on a nin we Vear lease Is One of the first institutions to obtain thi 
Of the thirty-three plays of which the set Chronicles for educational use. They seem 
will eventually consist, fifteen have been nearly related to the Museum’s own fos- 

ompleted and released: Columbus; James- _ tering of things American in the new Wing 

wn; The Pilgrims; The Puritans; Peter anda timely meeting of the visible wave of 
Stuyvesant; The Gatew: he West; interest in everything that relates to th 
Wolfe and Montcalm; The Declaration of — history of our countrv. The Educational 
Independence; Yorktown; Vincennes; Dan Department looks forward with enthusiasm 
el Boone; Alexander Hamilton; Dixie; The to using them in connection with its work 
ve of Revolution; The Frontier Woman. in the public schools, as suggestive of thi 

In these dramatized visualizations ot significance of its collections of furniture 

\merican history the greatest care has been costumes, silver, ceramics, and glass in th 
taken not only to catch the spirit of the \merican Wing—actual, visible remainders 
times, but also to have every detail of and reminders) of the historical scene. It 
tion, costume, and accessories as authent is deeply appreciative of the kind action of 
as possibl What sort of fences did the friends of the Press who have mad 
George Washington jump over when he © possible this extension of its work 
went hunting in Virginia What kind of 
a hunting horn did he use? What books ee ee ee ae a eS 
might have been in Wolfe's cabin when hx ‘ ; 

um now has ready for use by art museums 

uled across to apture Quebec Was a ae ‘ | | zi rae be 

: : ; ‘ : art societies, art schools, and art clubs 
palere moonlight on the night of a particular series of motion picture films relating to 
battle of the Mexican War And how wer a ae Per eer oe 
the tails of the soldiers’ horses cut Count- MaOes peer eee pereus leg pi 
; trating the objects in its galleries. The 
less such tiny matters, as well as the aCCU- i tures ‘produced and now obtainable ar 
racy of the central action, have received the 
careful attention of the Chronicles’ own 1. A Visit to the Armor Galleries. Show- 
special research workers. For one great Ing armor and Its ust 
flanger of the visualized presentation ot 2. Firearms of Our Forefathers. From 
history, of course, is the possibility of in- bow and arrow to rifle 

ccuracy in the pictorial impression. Th Egyptian Monuments and Nativ 
thing seen is the thing that sticks, with Life. 
difficulty to be obliterated by pages of j. The epeate: \ legend of New Eng 
however correct and impressive text land in the year 1092 
[his is the responsibility that the Yale 5. The Gorgon’s Head \ story from 
University Press has all along the line thus Greek mythology as illustrated by 
onscientiously met. the design on a Greek vase. 

Che pictorial method of teaching history 6. The Making of a Bronze Statue 
began in this country, probably, with the Phe statue of Theodore Roosevelt 
quaint distortions of Barber and Howe and by A. Phimister Proctor. 

Peter Parley, but not until the end of the 7- Vasantasena \ tenth-century East 


nineteenth or the beginning of the twen- 


tieth century did anybody bother very 
much about the historical accuracy of his- 
torical illustrations. Then came Justin 
Winsor Avery, Woodrow Wilsor and 


Indian story. 


be charged five dollars 
rental per showing of each reel, all costs of 

and 
he 


| 


i 


Borrowers will 


ol loss Ol 


Muse u 


transportation, 


damage 


payment 
film leaves the 


{ 
dl 


ter t 


m 


ISO 








PETER STUYVESANT AND HIS COUNCILLO} 








THE INAUGURATION OTF GEORGI 
PRESIDENT OF THI NITED STA 


FROM ALEXANDER HAMILTO? 





ACCESSIONS AND NOTES 


SUNDAY CLOSING ¢ roe Liprary. calendar, have helped to make the neces- 
| Library will be closed on Sundays from © sary connections, and the Museum Is grate- 
28 to September 6 inclusis Due  tul to her for her interpretation and exten- 
reopen n the autumn will on of the welcome it eagerly offers to the 
who vet have ears to hear its held 

reverberations 


Board of Trustees, held June 11,1925, Coll \ Portrair BY Ropert FuLTON. Visi 
P. Huntington and Frederick W. Schall tors to the Museum have again the oppor 


were declared Benefactors, and Archer M tunity of seeing one of the two known por 


Huntington was elected to the same class traits Which Robert Fulton painted of Joel 
listu shed donors | followin Barlow It was shown at the time of the 
! ng qualit wel ed Hudson-Fulton Exhibition sixteen vear 
elr resp lasse ( Samuel L. M. Barlow, a descendat 
Susi ING MEMBEI M Mar sal ot the sitter, has now lent in, and it 
Jacl EI nolds, M H. | t hut the Clearw t ! llery in th 
rin \mer n win 
\ 1 M | Howevet tractive | little portra 
nN () m ar | I Cl t must lie in the 
mportance of tl painter in his) Detter 
\ CHANGI | mu known capacit of Wentor nd in his 
ESE PRINI In Gallery H it the exi sitter’s close association Ww enterprises 
Japanese prints | been changed ding to the inventions 


Instead of the Utamaros and Sharakus loel Barlow is hailed by Henry Adams 


there is now on the walls a selection from as a “universal genius,” and had indeed 
Hundred Views of Fuji by Hokus xtraordinary capacity and many-sidedness 

the cases, Poems Explained by the Nurs In practical, political, and diplomatic af- 
nd Views of Bridges by the same artist fairs, and was in his day noted especially 
[hese prints will remain on exhibition from) as a writer. But probably when all the 
July + to October 1 iccounts are cast up, Barlow’s most en- 
during activity will be found to he in his 


[LECTURES FOR THE DEAtI \ museum cordial and helpful friendship for Robert 


of held reverberations still more than of kept Fulton during the vears in France when 
pecimens Henry James. The keepingof the younger man was experimenting with 
pecimens—it has been constantly reiter- his steamboat and his submarine torpedo 
ted-——1s but part of the Museum’s function; boat. In 1802 Barlow wrote to him 
h specimen, so kept, has its peculiar at le Havre “‘your old idea that thes 


reverberations, its tones and its overtones; fellows are to be considered parts of the 


ducational work means making them machine and that you must have as much 


udible, for people need to be helped to” patience with them as with a piece ot 
hear. It is pleasant to think that these wood or brass, is an excellent maxim.” 
reverberations may sound with as true a Barlow, remaining behind in Paris, supplied 
resonance for the physically “deaf” as for the necessary patience in abundance and 


those of normal hearing; that where so other valuable qualities as well. Again and 


many sources of intense and extended living again he raised, or else supplied from his 
re cut off, this one remains open to happy own pockets, the funds necessary to the 
ppropriation Mi Jane B. Walker’s experiments lirelessly and repeatedly he 


lecture nconspicuously recurring on the went to the officials of the Directory to ob- 





tain permissions, passports, and appropria 
tions for the use of his beloved ‘‘ Toots,’ 
until the epoch-making improvements in 
navigation had become an assured fact 
H. B. W. 
Fint Printinc. The Museum also 
honored in the distinction that has come to 
election to honorary mem- 
Society of Calligraphers. 
even the 


its Secretary 

bership in_ the 
Such election 1s not dissimilar 
at this Com- 


mencement season in terms of hoods and 


faintly academic mind thinks 
golden tassels and long, slow-winding pro 
to the conferring of an honorar\ 
doubtless 


cessions ) 
doctorate of fine printing; it 1s 
non- 


certilicate 


the nearest equivalent to that still 
existent degree. Certainly the 
of membership surpasses in typographical 
stvle the usual sheepskin; framed and hung 
upon the wall it would have decorative in 
stead of merel 
Interesting to note the Society’s own state- 
“ The Society of Callig 


reputational valu It Is 


ment, of its purpose 


raphers exists to stimulate interest in the 


production of kine Printing; to foster the 
appreciation of the graphic arts allied witl 
printing; and particular to contribut 
toward maintaining the dignitv of tl 


Signifl 


Savss 


Perse J 


accomplishment 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MI 


cance 


Sh I 


{ 
Ol 


Is who 


f the 


membership 


M OF ARI 
ph bet 
honorar\ 


Ar 


them Honorary 


\n 


greal 
Lon 
th 


land 


hoe KS 


Irom 


It 1s proper lor 


An 


L\ 


distinguished 


Arts 


In 


the 


| 
I 


the 


it 


to choose 


lor 


- 


ari 


l 
‘ 
( I 


ner 
1 

ect 
itly 


tation ol 


li 
| 


oO 


rison 


rinting 


twen 


p 


t 
OS 


and i neg 


Members of the 
ther distinction which h 
come to Museum printing is the 
two of its publications in Stank 
work on Modern Fin 
lon, 1925), Which is devoted 
century and, for the mo 
war printing in the United State 
and on the continen 
both printed at the Mu 
Centaur tvpes designed 
$s, are Ibrecht) Durer 
ssion (19O19 ind Anato 
et Celtestin Lolo 
d by Bruce Roget a) 
its by Timothy ¢ 
Burrough Mr. Me 
larly no n rh n 
to tl pecim \met 
Phe Metrop M 
has designed be 
ng prec empl 
f Mr. Roger 


two 








LIST 


()} 


ACCESSIONS AND 


TUNE, I[925. 


) } ( 
T r 
| 
1) 
S \ 
xix 
} y . 
' 
) 
( 
} 
\ 
r \ \ 
\ | 
| \ { 
\ 
| XIX 
’ t Fy 


LOANS 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


CLASS OBJECT 





Floor II, Gallery 12 Still Life (fish), by William M. Chase, 
\merican, 1849-1910 ~» OP oO E.G ed\ 
memory of William M 
Chase 
SCULPTURE *Bronze bust of C. E. S. Wood, by Olin 
Levi Warner, American, 1844-1896 Gift of Mrs. J. Alden 
TEXTILE *Samples (22) of neckties for women, em- 
broidered silk, French, 1870-1880 Giftof Edward M.C. To 
“Bedspread, woven wool, American, 1837. Gift of Mrs. Laura Ti 
\ 7 
WOODWORK AND FURNI- 
NITURI Pieces (45) of furniture, American, XVIII 
American Wing cent Purchas 
*Cradle, American, XIX cer Giftof Mrs. Fk. M 
(LERAM *( nocoiate pot porcelain German 
Hochst), second half of XVIII cent Lent b Mr Char 
Hach 
METALWORI Pair of silver candlesticks, French, XVIII 
Wing A cent miniature silver tea set of ten 
Gallery 22 pieces, maker Johannes van Gaffe 
Dutch (Amsterdam), 1741-1782 \nor 
Silver tankard, by Bartholomew Schaats 
\merican (New York), about 1728 lent by Mrs. Frederic G 
Ciochatal 
PAINTINGS Saskia as Minerva, by in Rijn Rem 
Floor 11, Room 26 brandt, Dutch, signed and dated 1635 Len 
TEXTILES *Headboard for bed, panels (2), three-fold 
screens (2 valances (6), embroider 
silk and velvet, French or Italian, abot 
1700 l, ' Vi 


DONORS OF BOOKS, PRINTS, ETC. 


[HE LIBRARY DEPT. OF PR 


i i 
Iesteban Cladellas tdward D. Adan 
John C. Ferguson William E. Baill 
Stephen V. Grancsay Mitchell Kennerke 
Mrs. Samantha L. Huntley Nat Lowe 
|. A. Knowles Mrs. J. Alden 


| heodore \ ( sley Kor n 
Mrs. James |. Leavitt 


LENDING COLLECTIONS 
Gisela M. A. Richter 
Rev. William N. Guthri 


NOL Ve yaced on exhibition 





THE BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


> MON y N HI | ION F THI Ee I \RY OF THE MI YPOLITAN M t M I 
ETH AVEN ND , COND r, NI <, N.Y IPTION PRI Iwo D ARS 
| J NTs J ro 4EM S OF TI MUS M WITHOUT CH GI 


OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THI The BuLLeTIN and the Annual Report 
| I land hed tor general 





distribution, upon request at the Museum 


Contributing, Sustaining, Fellowship Members 























h Th 7, 1 t thle the nimbh { ‘ 
HenNrRY Wal ‘ 1 Vice-Pres t Have, gt eques , doul i tne penatit gl ticks S 
1 to the S } rded to Annual embers 
H Ww ) Vi \ ) Lreas 1 ( { t ‘ 
tt far S included in the invitation to any 
HEN \ KENT >ecret \ — . ‘ : atl a any 
. \ gener receptio ind whenever their subscrip 
lHe M NEW nN tions in the aggregate amount to $1,000 they sha 
lure Comt LI | iE CITY : be entitled to be elected Fellows for | lle, and 
| » j yf . r } 
PHe | 1Dt D ) me n of the ¢ orporation For fur- 
, RN A ryt uy ‘ 
PRESIDEN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF D . ther particulars, address the Secretary 
Ep »D. ADAM \ ( ] ; 
c ‘ 
GEORGE F. Bake! Francis C. Jon ADMISSION 
GrorGe BLUMENTHAL — Lewts ( l rhe Museum is o laily from 10 a.m. to § 
Al 
Vu. S NE COFFIN V. Evi i Sul from 1 | to 6 p.m Saturday 
DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH J. P. M N until 6 p.n 
(CHARLI W. GOULD Wa. CH CH O N () \\ | nd Friday imission fee of 
i | H INI H I Y (;EORGI 1) a 25 eT } I 110 l ¢ ept members j 
| VARD S.H NI Henry S. I ho rs of complime irv. tickets 
Payn WHITNEY Mi - ; 1 ro davs on pres 
( no ‘ } S |? ms | me 
THE STAFI S Ip \ ke re entitled to o1 
tt P , 
Director Ep N N 
Assistant Director | | | MUSEUM INSTRUCTORS 
Curator of ¢ ssical Art GIS! M hy | 
' \ 1 sp Irection o ssist ‘ 
( rat t 4 ntir S 3 4 
short \ ections of the Museu 
Curator of kgyptian Art \ M. | 
ai Ser nN ers ofl i nm 
( ArtHUR C. M . 
\ late Curators : ; p to >) etar \ py ment 
tH I ; ' , 
' : <} in vy he j nk 
( t ) T e Ar | ) 
; os ' | his ser sfree ton eT nd to teachers 
, ] i p schools of New y r} ( S 
s to pup r their ¢ ince lo } 
} ‘ S n } ris ft le w In ad- 
) ‘ f 25 cents r h pers in a 
J £ Ip ¢ l If 1 I eT 
i 
PRIVILEGES TO STUDENTS 
) , 
| pecial privi ¢ extended 1 ti hers 
p ) if 1 SI 1 ? 1 ) ust t . | 
»N 1 j 1 
' Drary, classrooms, study rooms, lending co 
Supt. of the Building Con »H — 
, tions, and ¢ clions in the .\iuseum, see sp 
leatl 
‘ At] ) 
MEMBERSHIP ests f per to copy and to ph 
: ran} } { y i h | ' 
RENE] s whocontribute or devis Sem OND og pn i 1 Vi use 1 sho ¢ rddressed 
FY IN Pi 1ry, Whocontribut 5.000 he Secret No permits are necessa for 
1 P for | y yhot \ } rand 
FELLO I La vho contrib 1,000 Ketching at oO king snapshots with hand 
‘ ) Pp y 1 ] \ 1 
CON IBUTIN Mim s, who } c eTas 1 ¢ Its 1SS ir ad s except 
pieaits ssq Saturday afternoons, Sundays, and legal holi 
- ae a -~ f1..¢ 
| H Mi { ho p I 100 gays irth l ) 1 ee speci ( 
» \ ‘ vr} 1 YT 
I NG | »>D I 25 Pl BI 1( \TIONS 
ANNUAL MEM ho pay annually 10 
( LOK ES published by m, 
- 1 , 
PRIVILEGES—AIIl members are entitled to the PHOTOGRAPHS of all objects bel the 
? 1] aval y 
following privileges Museum, CoLo Prints, ETCHINE ~ 
\ ticket admitting the member and his family, are on sale at the Fifth Avenue entrance Lists 
j n rien n \ , nd Friday , | 
and non-resident friends,on Mondays and Fridays will be sent on application. Orders by mail may 
Ten complimentary tickets a year, each of be addressed to the Secretary 
which admits the be irerT nce, on either Monday 
cp 
or Friday CAFETERIA 
An invitation to any general reception or pri- \ cafeteri located in the basemer in tt 
vate view given by the Trustees at the Museum northwest corner | I nain | ling is open 
for members. on week-days from 12 m 4.55 p.m