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PUBLISHED MONTHLY RICE J NTY CEN 


BULLETIN OF 
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 
OOF ART 


VoLuME XXXIV NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER, 1930 NUMBER © 





ALLEGORICAL RELIEF MADE BY 
FRANCOIS GIRARDON FOR THI 
MONUMENT OF ANNE MARIE MARTINOZZI1 
PRINCESSE DE CONTI 





BULLETIN OF THI 
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM Ot 


SEPTEMBER 


\R I 
1939 


VOLUME XXXIV, NUMBER Q 


COPYRIGHI 1939, BY 


[THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


Published monthly under the direction of the 
Metropolitan 
nu Fighty-second 
Y.; Winifred Ek. Howe, Editor 
ent to all Members of the Museum 


Museum of Art 
New 


Street 


without 


harge; to others upon receipt of the subscription 
price, two dollars vear, single copies twenty 
ents. Copi ire for sale and subscriptions art 


Mai orders shou 
Viuse um 


taken at the Information Desk 


De addressed to the Secretary of the 
entered Ss Second ( iss Matter June 12 
the Post Office, New York, N. ¥., under Act 
\ugust 24 
CONTENTS 
Cover Illustration \llegorical Relret 


by Francois Girardon 205 


\n Exhibition of Turkish Textiles 200 
Phe Lecture Program: Part 1, October 
January 208 
Department of Educational Work 
Study Hours on Color and Desi 
Lite in America 210 
\ French Crusader’s Sword Pommel 21 
Recent Acquisitions of French Sculp- 
ture 213 


Some Late Helladic Gilt’ Terracottas 210 
Notes 217 


\ Painting on Glass— Publication Note 
greenwich House Potters 
Lectures and Talks for Members 210 
Exhibitions 219 


AN EXHIBITION OF 
TURKISH TEXTILES 


\ representative group of brocaded silks 
and velvets and embroideries of the Otto- 
man period has been chosen out of the per- 
manent collection of the Museum to torm 
an exhibition of Turkish textiles, on view 
in Gallery E 15 from September 9 through 
October 22. The woven materials displaved 
date from the sixteenth 
centuries and the earl 
eenth, while the embroideries are somewhat 
the end of the 


and seventeenth 


part of the eight- 


later, dating trom seven- 


200 





nineteenth 


the century. Al] 
these textiles, whether woven or embroid- 
common, that their 
decoration is almost exclusively floral. Over 


teenth into 


ered, have this. in 
the main patterns, themselves composed ot 
conventionalized floral forms, are scattered 
so-called “‘ Turkish flowers” 


hvacinths 


the smaller 
TOSeS 


and 
found so gener- 


carnations tulips 
branches of fruit blossoms 
ally in Turkish art 

[he wealth and splendor and the love of 
display of the court of the Ottoman sultans 
are Well attested by the treasures 
the Museum. ot 


the former imperial palace in Con- 


of Turkey 
preserved in lopkapu 
Saray 
stantinople. Not the least of these treasures 


are the magnificent hangings and the many 


garments rich in gold and silver brocade 
worn by the sultans and their families 


Brusa, the capital of the empire in the early 
Was a center ol 


part of the period great 


Weaving, and the industry was also carried 
on in Scutar! and Hereke 


and stif 
former were 


Some of the velvets are heavy 
thers are soft and supple. The 
used chiefly as hangings, curtains, or divan 
but 
to have been made of them as well as of the 


cushion covers, coats and robes seem 


more pliable fabrics. Crimson was the pre- 
although now then 


j 


dominating color and 


green or soft brown was used, with the pat- 


tern in gold or silver brocade or in white 


satin. Details were woven in green, blue 
and vellow velvet or satin. Strong Italian 
and Persian influence is evident in_ the 


decoration of the 


schemes and motives ol 


early textiles, but by the end of the six- 


teenth century the designs had become un 
mistakably Turkish in character 
On most of the sixteenth-century velvets 


curved, 


great, sweeping ogival bands or 
pointed leaves enclose either some form ol 
the pomegranate-artichoke motive or a 
fan-shaped palmette based on the carna- 
tion, as in the illustration. Designs com- 


posed of the ancient devices of three balls 


and tiger stripes are also frequent. [hese 
last motives are believed to have been 
brought by the Turks from Central Asta 
and there is evidence that they may have 


been reserved for materials used for the 


garments of the sultans 


Repeating patterns of large rosettes, 








BULLETIN OF THI 


roundels, or carnation palmettes were the 
rule in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
although the sixteenth-century de- 
continued—their boldness gradually 
the seven- 


turies 
signs 
diminishing. An 
teenth century was the weaving of borders 


Innovation in 


as integral parts of materials intended for 
special purposes, such as covers for cushions 
or divans 

Ihe same colors were used in the beauti- 


METROPOLITAN Ml 


SEUM OF ARI 


of religious inscriptions form a particular 


They were used especiall\ 


class of textiles 
as coverings over the sarcophagi of sultans 
and other eminent personages in_ the 
mosques 

Unlike 


made in factories in ¢ 


the woven fabrics, which were 


i few localities, most ol 


the Turkish embroideries were made by the 


women of the harems, all over the country 


If we compare the rich velvets and brocade 





BROCADED VELVET 


fully woven brocaded silks as in the velvets 


with a few additions. But gold and silver 
threads cover so much of their surface that 
the red, blue 
background ts entirely secondary 
the 


velvets 


green, or purple satin of the 
The deco 
brocades are 


used In 
the 


schemes 
varied than in 
frames form pointed oval medallions, ser- 


rative 


more Ogival 


rated leaves and flowers enclose palmettes 


wavy stems bear large leaves or flowers 
which branch off alternately right and lett 
Variations of the three balls and tiger 


stripes also occur 


Satins with woven or embroidered bands 


ae 
20 


XVI CENTURY 


RKISH 


] 


to paintings In oi, turning to 


broideries is ike coming 


colors. Their beauty and exqu 


Watel 
workmanship were remarked on by traveler 


even in the sixteenth century. Bedspreads 


kerchiefs, and various kinds 


table cloths 


covers were made of loosely woven linen or 


linen mixtures or of tatfeta, satin, or cash 


mere. Towels were made of a more closel\ 


woven linen or of cotton. The embroidery 


silks, sometimes 


| 
was worked in polychrome 
brilliant 


in clear and colors, sometimes in 


pastel shades enriched with metal thread 


and for the most part in double running 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITA 


N MUSEUM OF ARI 


n tches ¢ final paragraph). On Mondavs at 2 p.m 
| ‘ n e embroidered piece ilso beginning November 6, Mr. Shaw will 
vert ( es for the ver ostl ve a series of talks on the architecture and 
elvel 1 br heir | C1 ir culpture of the Athenian Acropolis. In 

\ ten Januar at the same hour, Mr. Busselle 
nes found on the woven fabrics. Other will give tour talks on the Dutch in \merica 
ree and sn ove! ve all-over desigt On Fridays at 12 o'clock, beginning Novem- 
) il branche ly roses. Some « ver 3, Miss Bradish and Mr. Grier will 
the ove! in he } erable vels race the development of tapestry weaving 
isi ind kKercniel ( i t from. Coptic prototypes to the eighteenth- 
traveler in the Near East have embroiders century products of the Beauvais looms 
orders, gene ly ot rose branches or of the 
n le-and Dress | ern Or it PUBLIE 
H HE. McAui it Lectures and gallery talks are offered 
free to the public daily except Mondays and 
Fridays. Beginning the first week in Novem- 
LT | | ( 1 | IX | PIR KW ZRANM Der llustrated lectures by ny ted speakers 
PART I. OCTOBER—JTANUARY are given at 4 o'clock on each Saturday and 
: Sunda l hose who have not spoken before 
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL WORK in these series are Marshall B. Davidson 
Phe Lecture Program issued this montl Assistant Curator of The American Wing 
he gallery talks and lectures that will Ne'son Glueck, Director of the American 
be given from October through January School of Oriental Research in Jerusalen 
Phroughout the vear the instructors in the Meta Harrsen of The Pierpont Morgan 
lepartment alsomeetindly duals and groups Library: Richard Krauthermer ot Vassar 
A hing spe i} ecuidance. Durit rthe twelve College: Henri Marceau, Assistant Director 
months ending July 31, 1939, 0.029 visitors tt the Philadelphia Museum of Art; John 
vailed themsel ve this servic ind McAndrew, Curator of Architecture and 
33.302 attended the announced talks he Industrial Art, The Museum of Modern 
45 lectures given by invited speakers had Art: Benjamin D. Meritt of the School of 
an attendance of 7,450 Humanistic Studies, Institute for Advanced 
Fhe Program is in three sections: one Study; Stephen H. P. Pell, Director of the 
dealing with the special courses for Mem- — Fort Ticonderoga Museum; and Karl With 


bers, another with the talks for the general 


public, and the third with the series of lec and Inc 
tures and gallery talks for teachers and — tos, Dir 


of the \ 


pupils of the public schools of the city 


ICCEPTLEK 


For MEMBER Wednes 
Mr. Rorimer, Curator of the Department subject 


of Mediaeval Art and The Cloisters, will =omopvlac 
} 


former] 


vy Director of the Museum of Art 
dustry, Cologne. Spvridon Marina 
ector of the Archaeological Section 
linistry of Education of Greece, has 
1 an invitation to give a lecture on 
day October 25,al 4 oO’ clo. k, his 


being Recent Excavations at I her- 


give two illustrated talks at The Cloisters On Saturdays from tt a.m. to 12:40 p.m 


Ihe Provenance of Objects in The Clots beginnit 
ters, on November 6, and The Restoration give a 

of Mediaeval Sculpture, on November 13 ancient 
Five courses are offered at the main build- = backgro 


ing. On Mondays at 11:30 a.m., beginning 


1 


1 September 30, Mr. Taggart will 
series of fourteen lectures on the 
Eeyvptians, designed to furnish a 


4 ¢} j 


und for the study of the daily hfe 


of the people. Three short courses will be 


November 6, Miss Duncan will survey the = given on Saturdavs at 2 p.m., beginning 


art of the Near East, starting with ancient = October 
Assvria, Babylonia, and Persia and then 
taking up the Muhammadan and Coptic 
periods. This course will be followed by four =the Age 
talks on Spanish painting by Mrs. Colcord 


Q 


20 


Constab 


7, and repeated at the same hour 


m Sundays: Landscape from Van Evck to 


le, by Mrs. Fansler; Glass through 
‘ss by Miss Bradish; and Greek 


Sculpture, by Mr. Shaw. On Sundays at 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


2:30 p.m., beginning October 1, a survey of 12,992 pupils were given talks by the staff 
the collections will be offered in a series ol of the department 

gallery talks by various members of the 

staff. This survey, which continues through Edith R. Abbot, Senior Instructor, has 
May, 1940, will be repeated on Wednesdays — been granted a four months’ leave of ab 
at 11 a.m. On two Saturday afternoons sence. Mrs. Colcord, who as Miss Alice 


I 
Octok 


yer 21 and December 9, Jane B. Walker © Coseo was formerly on the staff of instruc- 
will give illustrated talks for the deafened — tors, will serve in her stead 

who read the lips HuGer ELLtiot 

\ number ol short courses are offered on 

Wednesdavs and Thursdavs. These are StubyY Hours ON COLOR AND DESIGN 
Oriental Pottery and Porcelain, and Illus- In its twenty-third annual series of Stud 
trated Books of the East, by Miss Duncan; Hours on Coor and Design the Museun 
Continental Furniture, by Miss Bradish; will offer for the seaso1i 1939 1940 seven 
and European Painting of the XVIII Cen- 9 courses of demonstration lectures and gal- 
turv, by Mrs. Fansler. The Survey of the — lery talks, some arranged as general lecture 


Collections, given on Wednesdavs, has al- sequences running through an entire term 
ready been mentioned and others as short courses or groups 
\s is customary, General Tours of vari- lectures on specific subjects 
ous sections of the Museum galleries art During the first term, September through 
esiven on lTuesdavs, Wednesdavs, and January, one course on Sundays and thre 
Thursdays to introduce the collections to © on weekdays will be given for the publi 
new visitors. A number of supplementar' two special weekday courses for Museun 
talks are listed for October both at the Members will be otfered, and one course 
main building and at [he Cloisters, con will be available for teachers in New York 
tinuing the series begun in Mav especially schools, this last being one of the approved 
for the benefit of out-of-town visitors to the courses for teachers desiring credit tow 
World’s Fan advancement under the regulations of the 
Board of Education 
For PREACHERS AND PUPILS OF THE PUBLI (he Sundav course for the public giver 
SCHOOL three o clock will deal, in several groups ot 
lhree lecture courses, for which credit ts talks, with the elements of design, histori 
otfered by the College of the Citv of New stvles in modern decoration, including the 
York, are given for the teachers of the pub- early American stvle, and contemporar 
lic schools of the citv. One of these. The lesion. A number of specialists not on the 
\ncient Egyptians, is mentioned in’ an statf of the Museum will speak in this seri 
earlier paragraph, since it Is Open to the — under the provisions of the Gillender Fun 
public also. The others are American His a beguest to the Museum financing | re 
tory and Art, by Mr. Busselle, and The — for the benefit of peopl ngaged inc! 
Study of Paintings, by Mrs. Fansler. In) demanding artistic stud) he Gillen 
these, as in the first, emphasis ts laid on the lectures are also open to the general pub 
value of Museum study as an ald in class- On Tuesday mornings t eleven. ther 
room worl will be giver ill-teri rse ( 
Lists of the talks offered for the pupils of | Study, and on Tuesd fternoot 
the high schools and the e!'ementaryv and full-term course on Design e Thur 
junior high schools of the city are printed afternoon course. also at three o’cl \ 
n the Program. In these talks the various be composed of groups of lecture 
collections of the Museum are graphicall the Desig In 
related to school subjects—histor lan Design of Textile n Dr 
euages, literatur ind so on. Sometime (Ceramics 
Ol ot the gallere ire prefaced by bri I he OUTS r M ( | 
ks illustrated by lantern slides or motion 3230 p.l \ I 
) ré In the idem eal ()3> Orzo thy , ; 





BULLETIN ‘OF THE METR( 


ati CINE | | mit v4 1 ree GIs 
on and | S pr ( \ CESSs 1 
Vien CTs re roll mine rder ol appl 
mon and are advised to write prompt 
pon receipt of their cop he | i? 
Py rai @ reserve p CS at roup Of 
roups the pret he roups will de 
\\ color { ( scheme nd in 
Periors I he by } UT SE I VMiembers 


In these Study 

to discover the principtes o 
the elements of color in objects from. the 
collections and supplementary material o 
rrent production arranged as spe 
plavs in the lecture 
followed by onducted gallery visits. to 
examine numerous other ex. mp/es in whic! 
the same 


reveal themselves 


Put BULLETIN takes pleasure in] 
the following comment by James Truslow 
\dams upon the Museum’s current loan 


Gal 


exhibition of paintings 


LIFE IN AMERICA 


Among the various exhibits held in New 
York during the period of the World’s Fai 
for the benefit of citizens and visitors, the 
collection of nearly 300 oil paintings gathered 
by the Metropolitan Museum to illustrate 
American life is the most 1m- 
parts ol the 


200 Vears ol 
portant. Drawn from many 
country and in many cases from ordinaril\ 
inaccessible private collections, it offers a 
unique opportunity to study our history 
through art, and | may say at once that | 
write as a historian and not as an art critk 
Most of us will never have a chance to see 
many of these pictures again, and the oc- 
casion should be made use of by as many as 
possible, not only adults interested in art 
and history but school children as well 


P¢ 


MUSEUM OF ARI 


ILITAN 


History is a nation’s memory and serves 


much the same purpose as memory does for 


the individual 


Without personal memory 


d start life afresh each morning ; 


we shoul iS 
helpless as babies: but memory, by recall- 
ng the episodes and experiences of the past 


2 \t 


personaity and character 
individual or a nation. For both, in 


uch a process, the arts play a great part 
lhe individual has, or used to have, the 
velvet-covered photograph album, the attic 


with old 
handed down, or the old barn with imple- 


Stories 


‘sand turniture, the 


ments of a bygone day 


Podav the nation 
has its museums with portraits and illustra- 
ons of scenes, its exhibits otf clothes, its 
volumes of history, and us collections of 
various sorts lilustrating the life of the past 
lhe ey 
important part in learning, and | think | 


for the Histor 


that to the old-fashioned 


eis coming to p.dv a more and more 


lo suggest 


fnierican Life 
bibhography, consisting of titles of books 


only, should be added the names of the 
many museums in which the things men- 
tioned in the books could actually be seen 


lhis particular temporary exhibition, all 


the more to be visited precisely because it 15 


temporary, consists only of oil paintings 


Which imposes certain limitations. In the 
early frontier stage of any country art Is 
generally considered an unnecessary if not 
a wholly impossible luxury. The story otf 
America is the storv of a thousand succes- 
sive frontiers In our march from the Atlantic 
across the three thousand miles of slowl, 
the Pacific. From 


alter 


conquered continent te 
the beginning, however, there were 
about 1630, certain families of wealth and 
culture who desired portraits, and these re- 
mained the chief form of pictorial art tor 
more than a centur\ 

Hemmed in by the Appalachian Moun- 
tain ranges and the French claims bevond, 
the colonies on the Atlantic seaboard de- 
veloped a distinct British provincial culture 
by the middle of the eighteenth century, 
and in 1757 the first exhibition of purely 
cotonial painting was held in New York 
City, in spite of the fact that old Jonathan 
Frumbull had warned his son, who wished 
to become an artist, to remember that 


Published in 12 volumes by Macmillan 











lor 


Ory 


ill- 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


“Connecticut is not Athens.” But a few 
vears later, after the French and Indian 
War and the crossing of the mountains, the 
endless western trek and the opening of new 
frontiers began. Matters other than art now 
seemed more compelling and important 
Even after the mid-nineteenth century we 
had a steady expatriation of artists, such as 
\bbev, Sargent, and Whistler. Expatriation 
of American artists and authors has ceased 
We have come of age aesthetically, and 
kuropeans now come to America to see our 
collections of both foreign and native art 

lf | speak of the historical limitations of a 
collection Wholly made up of oil paintings 11 
is only because, as a complete ple torial pres 
entation of the American scene, | miss the 
long series of prints by Currier & Ives, the 
early woodcuts in books on America, and 
the illustrations by various methods of our 
great period of the 1890's, among others 

It is, nevertheless, extraordinary to find, 
in spite of all the handicaps of early genera- 
tions, how much has here been gathered to 
depict in oils the continuous story of the 
growth of America. The long line of por- 
traits, from the beginning, of all types 
statesmen, clergymen, frontiersmen, In- 
dians, inventors, artists, authors, business- 
men, and others—would in itself constitute 
a history of the nation from the biographi- 
cal approach, and many of these the public 
may never see again. If school children, to 
say nothing of their elders, were taken 
through the exhibition and told who these 
people were and what they did, it would be 
as good and vivid an introduction to the 
range and variety of American life and ac 
complishment as could be imagined. In a 
short article it is impossible to note indi- 
vidual pictures, which may be studied in 
advance in the catalogue, but in addition to 
the portraits there are an amazing lot of 
pictures which light up other aspects of our 
past, lor example those showing costume 
early school life, wavs of life—such as a 
country fair, a country store, whaling 
scouting and frontier life, the methods ot 
going West by boat and prairie schooner 
mining, negro life, the Civil War, the Texas 
Rangers, architecture of various periods 
the first transcontinental railway, the age 
of the bison, and many others 


\lthough | have never taught, | have 
thought ot the collection to some extent 
from the standpoint of the school teacher 
and it seems to me that taking children to 
careful study of the 


catalogue, would give them a_ peculiarly 


see the pictures, after 


living relation to our past 

Some day | should like to see in the Mu 
seum a collection ot pictures ol all sorts, in 
cluding photographs and all other media 
which would make an Epic of America for 
the eve and would be permanent, like | he 
\merican Wing for rooms and furniture 
But meanwhile, for a short time, until Octo 
ber 29, we have this, which should not be 
JAMES TRUSLOW ADAMS. 


A FRENCH CRUSADER’S 
SWORD POMME!I 


{ 


Louis Joseph Cartier, of Paris, in token 
he French and 


of the trendship between t 
\merican peoples has presented to the Mu 
seum a French thirteenth-century sword 
pommel bearing in enamel the heraldic arms 
of Peter of Dreux (about 1190-1250), Duke 
of Brittany and Earl of Richmond and 
crusader with Louis IX (Saint Louts) ot 
France 

Any object associated with a crusader 
creates Immediate interest. Peter of Dreux 
great-grandson of Louis VI of France, held 
the county of Brittany as guardian for his 
minor son and also the great English barons 
of Richmond, of which the Breton dukes 
were lords by inheritance. [he geographical 
position of Brittany gave Peter an impor 
tant part to play in the struggle between 
the Plantagenet and Capetian monarchies 
In practice he alternated his allegiance 
from one side to the other as occasion suited 
his interests. [Though he was nicknamed 
Mauclerc because of the brutality with 
which he treated the Breton clergy and 
though he spent a large part of his life under 
excommunication, he and his family are 
immortalized in the stained-glass windows 
of the south transept of the cathedral of 
Chartres. He 1s also depicted in a neighbor 
ing bav. mounted in full armor with sword 


shield, and lance. In his tomb effigy in the 


Acc. no. 38.60. Shown this mor 


Room of Recent Accessions 








BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


r \ \ ed Br me I r SOs 
el Wear i sword th pomme 
‘ I I l rms perl Ss nme VeT 
! ( ( n this article 
Our pommel is enriched with champleve 
TT1¢ POOVES I ne Vitreous colors 
eImMnyg CNanne ed In the copper base. On the 
erst ppears the shield o rms ot Pete 
Yeux, Duke of Brittan alternate 
res of blue and gold (designating the 


se of Dreux) quartered with ermines 





nes, probably tyvpifving Christ. Colored 
enamels were, of course, ideal for showing 
heraldic arms. In the present instance, how- 
ever, the enamels no longer retain then 
brilhant hues or their original high luster 
Here and there are small flecks of gold 
which show that originally the surface was 
eilded. The enameling was first) accom 
plished and then the mercury gilding, which 
required less heat than the tusion of the 
flux. A soft enamel was used, and the atmos 
phere has caused the surface to decompose 
\ hard enamel would have been more sus 
ceptible to chipping during the cooling 


followed the gilding 


process Which 


Ss pommel ts an early example of the 


rv, for mediaeval coats of arms 
had their origin in the practical necessities 
of war. They date from the introduction 
about 1180, of the closed helm (like that 
worn by Peter of Dreux in the equestrian 


which rendered dis- 


tinguishing devices indispensable for the 
recognition of leaders on the battlefield 
Pommels were also engraved with war cries 
or with the Knight's seal, and sometimes 
contained a relic. Since our pommel ts o 
Breton origin, it is perhaps appropriate to 
mention three swords with armorial pom- 


lusée Dobrée at Nantes. One 





KI \, OBVERSE AND REVERSI 


bears the arms of the Sire du) Mourant;: 
another, the three leopards of England: and 
the third, the arms of the Dauphin ot 
France, later Charles \ 

\ small piece of the iron tang of the 
blade, which runs through our pommel, pro- 
jects through its lower edge. It is from the 
tang that the pommel itself originally de- 


{ 


veloped, for the end of this stem of metal 
was beaten out to prevent the material 
oti The 


pommel had three main purposes—to pre 


which tormed the grip from tallin 


IS 


vent the hand from s'ipping, to balance the 
blade, and to “‘pumme! or strike, an 
ypponent. Great ingenutt Was shown In 
the design and execution of sword pomme!s 
is may be seen on the arms in the Mu- 


eum’s collection. Not only iron, but silver, 


bronze, tvory, rock crystal, porphvry, and 
sardonyvx are included in the materials uti- 
ed, an ilpture, engraving, gilding nd 





ms 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


inlay are variously emploved in the decora- = background, probably a funerary monu 
tion ment. A search tor analogies immediatel 

[he present pommel was bought in Da brings to mind the famous tomb of Henri I] 
mascus about ten vears ago. One can readily and Catherine de Medicis in the basilica at 


surmise how it got there. Peter, a highly 
capable captain, was wounded at the battle 
of Mansourah as he fought side by side with 
Robert of Artois, the Master of the lem 
plars, and was taken prisoner by the Turks 
with King Louts and most of the crusading 
barons. The Sire de Joinville gives a vivid 
account of Peter’s activities in his famous 


chronicle STEPHEN V. GRANCSAY 


RECENT ACOUISITTIONS OF 
FRENCH SCULPTURI 


Iwo outstanding examples of French 
ture, both of them of tvpes difficult to 
come by today, have been purchased by tl 

Museum and are shown this month in the 
Room of Recent Accessions. [he earlier ot 
these two sculptures, a standing svmbol 

igure! of a semidraped woman holding a 


Valight brown 


palm frond,? is of bronze wit 
transparent patina | he feure has no earl 
| yor has the identity of the scu 


been definitery established. It dates presum 


stor 


ably between 1560 and 1570. The other 
sculpture, a high relief in white marble of a 
heavily draped seated woman, * is known to 


be by Frangois Girardon (1028-17 


15) and 
has a long and interesting history. It was 
made between 1072 and 1075. Aside from 
their individual importance, the two figures 
IN jUXtaposition present an illuminating 
illustration of the difference in treatment ot 
allegorical figures in two important periods 
of French sculpture approximate!y a cen 
tury apart 

Let us look first at the earlier of these tw 

Iptures (fig. 1). The figure is gracetull 
posed in the Italianate manner fostered in 
| rance by the so-called schoo! ol | ontaine 


bleau. It is unfinished at the back and 


open 





thereby suggesting that it was designed t FRENCH. ABOUT (yy) — 1 EO 


Stand against some sort of architectural 








BULLETIN QO} LHI METROPOLITAN MUSEUM O| ARI 
‘ ‘ ‘ he Del mm ¢ Phe marble relief (on the cover) acquired 
Pris i thet he r by the Museum has, as we have noted. a 
rdue metho senoit Bo ( lhere contrastingly complete history. It was exe- 
n | | ‘ ( bronze Is « cuted as part of funerary Monument to 
pprox tel ( ' id the same \nne Marie Martinozzi, princesse de Conti 
| | Whether S ont hor niece of Cardinal Mazarin and Sister 
t WOSCU a de detinits scrmbed 1 law () the ( rand Conde This oreal lad 
HOT nother n er. SUK n ascrip 11¢ n 1072, and sometime between that 
youl irse, be very desirable or m late and 1075 Ner sons entrusted to Gilrar- 
ne, with the possible exception of Je: don the execution ot monument to be 
e n, ranks higher in the anna tl renel erected to her memory in the church of 
renalssal culpture Saint-Andreé-des-Arts in) Paris. The com- 
lhe figure on the mit Saint-Den mission was carried out, and the monument 
Which presents the closest analogy to ours Is was placed against one of the pillars in the 
that symbolizing Justice. There are several choir, where it remained until the davs of 
triking points of similarity in pose. The the Revolution. While still in place it was 
lett leg, for instances Ss crossed in tront ¢ drawn by René Charpentier (16080 — 1723 
the right, which bears the weight of the me of Girardon’s pupils. An engraving (fig 
body, and the nght hip is thereby thrown which reproduces this drawing in reverse 
nto exaggerated prominence; the left arm shows certain differences between the alle- 
s raised, the hand, with its long tapering eorical figure as It was originally and as it 
fingers, being held against the tors the exists today 
head is turned to the left and the glance Is In 1793 the entire monument was re- 
rected downward. Furthermore, in both moved trom the church and _ transterred 
cases, the hair is braided and set off by an under the direction of Alexandre Lenoir, to 
elaborate tiara, and the features have a cet the Musée des monuments frangais for safe- 
tain period resemblance. But here the more — keeping. There it) remained until 1807, 


conspicuous similarities end. The figure o 


Justice has throughout much more move- 


ment than the Museum’s bronze 
carefully 


ind the 
Lhe 
frapery in particular is conceived in a full 


details are more modeled 
luxuriant Manner prophetic of the baroque 


whereas the draperv of our bronze echoes 
the simpler, more clinging lines of its classi 
al The other the 
tomb have less In common with ours, and it 
difficult 


Lo 


inspiration figures on 


alter 


con- 


1¢ 


becomes increasingl\ 


sidering Pilon’s other works justify tk 
anv thing 


Nor IS il 


yassoclate the 


attribution to him on a basis ot 
short documentary evidence 
possible at the present time t 
\Viuseum’s bronze definitely with anv other 
n France in the second hall 


| 
Ol 


sculptor active | 
[he distinction of 
however, and it 


f the sixteenth century 
the bronze is undeniable 


would be difficult to find a sculpture more 
completely in the spirit of the period 


1. Babelon, Germain Pilon (Paris 1927), p 
50 

Louis Réau Ln Chef d’quvre retrouvé de 
Germain Pilon MS. in the possession of the 


Metropolitan Museun 


When, at the request of the Empress Jose- 
phine, the allegorical figure was sent to 
Malmaison as a decoration for the park 
The alterations date from this time. The 


anchor, symbol of Hope, was partly cut 
AW AN 
laming heart, svmbol of Faith, was miracu- 


poppy \s a 


partly transformed into drapery ; the 


{ 
! 
lously transtormed into a re- 


sult of these changes, the figure, when sent 
to Malmaison, was described as “‘le petit 
monument de la Mélancolie.”’® After the 


fall of the First Empire in 1815 Malmaison 


passed to a succession of owners 


and portions of the park were parceled off 


private 


With one of these parcels went the figure of 
‘la Mélancolie,” and it appears to have 
remained in place until 1884, when it was 
lent to the museum of the Union centrale 
in’ Paris, better 
known as the Musée des arts décoratifs. It 
remained in this museum until 1890 and 


des arts décoratits now 


then removed by the Parent family, 


who owned it, to their villa at Varengeville- 


Was 


sur-Mer, near Dieppe. There in 1909 it was 


hives du Muse les monument rancals 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 


auctioned otf to Georges Bernard, who, in 
turn, lent it in 1937 to the Exposition des 
s-d’ceuvre de Vart frangais.? It) then 


che 
passed into the hands of the antiquar\y 
from whom it was acquired by this Mu- 
seum 

Girardon is, of course, one of the two 
great names in French sculpture of the 
period of Louis XTV, the other being Covse- 
vox. Such examples of Girardon’s work as 
still exist are almost without exception 
public or church property in France and are 
zealously guarded as part of the artistic 
heritage of the nation. Owing principally to 
the fact that he is virtually unrepresented 
in private collections it Was found imposst- 
ble to include any example of his work in 
the Exhibition of French Painting and 
Sculpture of the NVIITT Century held in 
this Museum in 1935 

Ihe reef may be regarded as a typical 
example of Girardon’s stvle. Female figures 
swathed from head to foot in ample drap- 
eries are to be found elsewhere in his work 
Phe oval medallion of the Virgin (Musée du 
Louvre),’ executed in 10657 as his “morceau 
de reception a [’Académie.”” 1s) similarly 
treated. The figures of Faith and Piety, 
especially the latter, on the Castellan tomb 
church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés)," exe- 
cuted in 16078, bear a close resemblance to 
ours. [he mourning figures on the tomb ot 
Cardinal Richelieu (Church of the Sor- 
bonne),!! executed between 16075 and 1094 
continue the analogy. And finally the figure 
of the Virgin'? on Girardon’s own tomb 
(church of Sainte- Marguerite), executed be- 
tween 1705 and 1709, Indicates that the 
sculptor favored this tvpe of draped figure 
to the very end of his career. We are fulls 
justified, therefore, in feeling that our relief 
offers the student a splendid opportunity t 


observe the rare finesse and decorative 
sense which trequently characterize Girar- 


don’s work If, one of these davs, the Vu- 


Cat. no 1O4¢ 
* More detailed accounts are to be found in 


articles by Louis Réauin La Revue del arta 


et moderne (vol. xt1 [1922], pp. 34-48) and the 
Bulletin de la Société de Ubistoire de Uart fray 
(1921, pp. 08-74 

P. Francastel, Grrardon (Paris, 1928), fig. 4 

lbid., fig. 71 

lbid figs. 37 3) lbid., fig 


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FIG. 2. DETAIL OF AN ENGRAVING SHOWING 


[HE CONTI MONUMENT N HE CHURCH OO} 


SAIN T-ANDRE-DES-ARI 


seum 1s fortunate enough to acquire 


example of his portraiture, we may thet 


regard the work of this great Frencl culp 
tor as being adequately represented in our 
collections Pri STON REMINGTON 








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I LT TERRACOTTA VA 
ATE HELI DI lil ER 1) 
ace Bre A \ee I he ecWwell n he 1 
f this period » general of an 
ve kind, made of gold pressed thin 
lass and bone covered with gold |e 
lass paste colored blue in imitation o 
iZ or even terracotta painted 
lhe recently acquired gilt-terracotta 
ice Consists, as now preserved, of th 
lentical rosettes and a pendant in 
f a conventionalized [il lhe rosettes ar 
pierced for two parallel strings; threaded on 
i sin | tring Ne would revolve ] hy 
unmanageabl \ necklace « hirt\v-six 
eold rosettes of th hape, made in two 
zes, Was toun ound the ne nd chest 
of a ng prince In a roval ton 
Dendra, with tl irger beads strung in thr 
\ Den. | D 


tt { 


naller at the ends. Rosettes of 


middle, the sma 
den | shape appear on many mainland 
tt ncluding Asine, the Argive Heraion 

Mycenae, and Menidi, and in the Kalvvia 
emetet t Phatstos in Crete.2. The lily 
vendant has two long petals turned back 
ito volutes and at the stem a boss with a 

wle perforation tor stringing. It Is of ex- 

i he same tabric as the rosette beads 
ind was covered with the same white earth: 
tvpe is the usual concomitant of the 


| 
Hell } perlo 
a | 
I | ninno 
ention Zed 
I nen | 
Yaces Them na 
Ne Me lace 
vs 
Well-estal 
thy ln I 
I lt ‘ } 
Dect Whicl 
Nest Irround 
acct 
uetleo ig 


them. [tis of si 
} | ; 

W I gold le i 

Was used @) 

; ae a i 

parently not 1 

necklace the b 


me Wishes to assume a black underpaint- 
ng), and warping has produced a coarse 
network of crackling in the gold leat lhe 
eilt rubs off easil owing its preservation 
\ ?erss ] ) ’ 
‘ ) a nee le 1,1 
j \ <} y ss D aC) ( fig 
252 < D » f 202 rt ‘ ( 
t }*) ( mbri r Q p 
,O4 2 f J ( sO J 
\ 15) 2 1 (y88 \1 e 
) { ) \/ ‘ babe! | 
Wee Ol \/ ) 
1 ) Ti { { S 
Nir \r r | < j \/ 1 
i (lLondor 2 p. 4h 
10); ( \ e ut f | 207 
: rOSt es Dp. 20 

\ y | 

1 »*) t t I it 

‘ re I 


omb groups. The beads and 


re belong together, though 


In the composition shown in 


Both tvpes are ubiquitous 


{1 burials of the third Late 
though neither type ts 
vation ot this time,* the con- 
stvle of these ornaments de- 
rom their prototypes and 
rally in Late Helladie ITI 
het nove! but has 
( ) xt In the tombs o 
se O we Mycenaean civill 
Weve OMpPANnte in 


ittach 1:2 

Nhe sani In the case of the 
| 1.) ] | 

inder has turned black (unless 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 





te apparently to the white earth in which it by the striped quadrupeds. It has, Ike 
ars was entolded The statuette has a finer them plain legs with preading tance; the 
crackle; the gilt presents a hard surface and — body, however, is not a simple shaft lik 
aes though exposed to the weather has nowhere theirs, but is modeled with considerable at 
ae loosed its hold. The binder here is not black- tention to nature, and the horns are 1 
bat ened, and is varnishlike.® The statuette has = mere curving spikes. The goat far more 
ore no trace of white earth, but has here and — individual creation than the striped quad 
vie there a hard, closely adhering, crystalline rupeds. It could be regarded as a belated 
a iIncrustation successor of the splendid realistic bull tron 
ae [he goat at present evades final classifi- = a Late Minoan I tomb at Pseira 
tee cation, for it has no close parallels either in There is external probabil that the 
stvle or in technique. An attempt to place it) necklace and statuette are from the same 
Sand 
ough 
Vn in 
1tous 
late 
Ye js 
con- 
Ge. 
and 
a 
| has 
Ss of 
vill- 
in 
r in 
Otta 
11 
vith 
red 
lich FIG. 2. GILT TERRACOTTA NECKLACLI 
dp- LATE HELLADIC III PERIOD 
the 
less among the terracotta or bronze animal Vicinity, 1f not [rom the same grave, al 
nt- statuettes of the classical period is fruitless is reasonable to assume that the re col 
Ir'st Jeing ostensibly a gold statuette, it has temporary. If so the goat statuette an 
Phe little to do with the terracotta animal stvle mportant new example of Mvycenaeat 
ion of Late Helladic II] burials as represented — sculpture in the round 
lra \rthur Smith, head of the Museum repatr CHRISTINE ALEXANDER 
¥ shop, suggests gelatine as the binder used on the R. B. Seager, / 
f. necklace, varnish tor the statuette Pserra (Philadelpt ( 
C See Blegen’s remarks o he Mvyee t Mr eve is Seen tf ‘ 
p terr imal stvle pp. 360 ff hen 1 
i 
ae 
ri NOTES 
al \ PAINTING ON GLass. Alter 1785 the exotic freight. By the earl ears of the 
China trade expanded rapidly and built up — nineteenth century there was  scarcel 
’ sizable fortunes for American owners of the house along the Atlantic seaboard furnished 
in square-rigged vessels that sailed to eastern in the current stvle that lacked a set 
ir ports with cargoes of raw stuffs and re-  Sino-Lowestoft porcelain, lacquered box 
i turned with equally valuable but mort carved ivory chessmen, or paintin n 








BULLETIN OF THE Ml 
lass and rice paper. These made up the 
booty, with tea and spices and silks, that 
the seataring traders brought home 
\mericans endowed with patience often 


sent specific orders to Canton for execution 
DY native workmen. Among other engrav- 
ngs dispatched to the East was one known 
s Libert n the Form ot the Goddess ot 


Youth Giving Support to the Bald Eagle 


from Edward Savage's copperplate, scraped 


in Philadelphia in 1796. Three Chinese 
renderings of the subject) on) glass) ar 
known, and probably more exist. The firs 
One ppeared several vears ago and wa 
ly published and illustrated in 1931'; the 
1) omplet nd pertect painting of the 
bye et seen is shown this month in the 
Room of Recent Accessions 
Likert Ss Interpreted as a statuesque 
oung female chaste!y clothed in billowing 
lraperit kind fashionable on bot 
S1C¢ Ol the Atlantic at the close of the 
ighteenth centur \gainst a rosy nimbu 
she offer toast to the national bird, as the 
mbo i) reedom a filteen-star flag 
topped | i liberty cap, breaks through the 
clouds. On the ground, trampled underfoot 
ire pictured a star and ribbon decoratior 
and the key to the Bastille which had beet 
presented to Washington in 1790; near by) 
is a broken scepter. In the distance at the 
right is the suggestion of a crowded cit\ 
acing a wide harbor—a fanciful versior 


perhaps of Philadelphia on the Delaware 





Not only has every detail of the engray 
ng been exactly reproduced, but the origi 
nal carved and gilded frame, also derived 
from an occidental model, and the back- 
boards of native willow wood remain intact 
Four characters in Chinese ink are = in- 
scribed on the backboards, but translated 
have no bearing cither on the artist or or 
the subject 

The artistic importance of the bulk ot 
(China-trade wares is certainly not great 


individually the objects are noteworthy as 
the ol 
epoch, and from that viewpoint our paint 
ts time 


1D 


the minutiae that formed taste an 


Ing on glass is a perfect example of 1 


IROPOLII 


AN MUSEUM OF ARI 


PUBLICATION Note. The Burial Chamber 


yt th, 


Treasurer Sobk-mose from er Rizetkat. 


the ninth monograph in the Museum’s 


series ol Papers Is an account of a decorated 
one of the principal ex- 
lhe 


found 


chamber 
sin the Twelfth Egyptian Room 


burial 
hibit 
tomb to which it belonged was 
Thebes in the 
al town 
the modern village of er Rizeikat. It 
erected in the latter part of the XVIII Dy- 
n: Vv Sobk-mosé, an official of the reign 
of Amen-hotpe III. In tgo08 the decorated 
tomb, built 
Museum 


Its date 


twenty kilometers south of 


cemetery of a small provinet now 


Was 
istyv b 
of sandstone 
by the 
material 


chamber ot this 


blocks, was sold to the 


kgyptian Government 


and decoration make this chamber of more 


than usual interest 
lhe scenes and texts carved on the walls 
and ceiling of the chamber are illustrated in 


plates and described in detail in the text of 


the monograph.! They deal principally with 
Sobk-mosé’s funeral, with the mortuary 
services performed daily at his tomb after 
his death, and with his adventures in the 
nether world. On the south wall of the 
chamber are preserved nearly intact a 
series of seven pravers, only two of which 
are paralleled elsewhere 

From Sobk-mosé’s tomb and from several 
other monuments which bear his name 1s 
drawn the material for a brief biography ol 


this typical middle-class Egyptian official ot 


the late NVITE Dynasty 

\ variety 

different 
the Museum’s 

\merican ceramics 


GREENWICH Houst POTTER? 


of tect 


niques and widel\ 
1 in 


person- 


alities are representes 
group of contemporary 
which is shown with other modern decora- 
arts in Gallery | 8. At one extreme Is 


the precise and exquisite porcelain made by 


live 


delaide Robineau, who achieved notable 
difficult field of high-fired 


\t the other extreme ts such a 


n the 


Success 1 
wares Iree 


broad treatment as that illustrated in three 


plates by Henry Varnum Poor. Being a 
painter Poor tends to use pottery some- 
T} Burta Chamber the lr wurer Sobk- 
mosé from er Rizetkat (The Metropolitan Museum 
{rt, Paper no. 9 by Wilham © H ives. New 
York, 1939. 4to. 44 pp., 6 pl. and frontis. Bound 
In paper. Price $2.00 


mbher 
TRat, 
um’s 
ated 
eX- 
lhe 
und 
the 
NOW 
Was 
Dy- 


BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ARI 


what as he does canvas, as a background for 
a design in pleasing color. A playful humor 
has prompted Carl Walters to model a 
series of pottery birds and animals, of which 
one example, a duck, is in the Museum's 
collection. Still other potters have tollowed 
their own particular bent. 

lo this display have now been added two 
examples of the work of the Greenwich 
House Pottery, purchased out of funds 
given by Edward C. Moore, Jr. One ts a 
plate made by the late Juanita Gonzales 
which derives its charm trom the warm 
reddish tone of the clay, the harmonious 


green, vellow, and black in the decoration 
and the free drawing of a magnolia blossom 
which forms the chief feature of the design 
lhe other piece is a plate made by Lucill 
Villalon, who has used a simple incised de 
sign and covered it with a combination ot 


lead and alkaline glazes which shade from 
a rich turquoise to a cool celadon. It ts in 
their experiments with alkaline glazes that 
the potters of the Greenwich House group 
inspired by the brillant colorings of Neat 
Eastern wares, have obtained their mo 


interesting results 


LECTURES AND TALKS FOR MEMBERS’ 


OCTOBER 





10, 19309 


) Hour \] / 
r 
2 ;oOp.m Coior Facts. Miss Corne ( 
20 n Decorative Stvles: It \| Cor ( I n 
Op } c rl i S Nliss ¢ rnme ( I mM | 
) ) nN Dec mative Stvie Fre Miss ¢ ( t 
D1 ( r Facts. Miss ¢ rne ( I I 
SEPTEMBER 12 TO OCTOBER ILO, 1939 
IN THE Museum 
ro () ober «) or Ye I es 
| hrough October 22 e G ry | 
Lhrough October \m 1S 
e Ay if 1) 
I} igh October I e Felix M ( 
Aaa ery 
| | uvh Oruc ber ron e M ums l’r ( (; r 
\ } 
NEIGHBORHOOD EXHIBITIONS 
[hrough November 21 \rms and Armor r r 
Hirgt 
Beginning September 14 lhe Near kas ( 
( ) 
Hi 
Be Septe nbher 20 \r yf Ch Dor 
1] 
* | hese lectures, though complete in thems« Ss, are p 


¢ j dy ) 
given in the Lecture Progran 











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